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Full text of "Greek lyric poetry; a complete collection of the surviving passages from the Greek songwriters, arr. with prefatory articles, introductory matter and commentary"

HANDBOUND 
AT THE 



UNIVERSITY OF 
TORONTO PRESS 



9 3 / 1 



2 



GREEK LYRIC POETRY 



PLATE I. 




[See Alcacus xi., Sappho x., and Additional Nole A.] 



;reek lyric poetry 

A COMPLETE COLLECTION OF THE 

SURVIVING PASSAGES FROM THE 

GREEK SONG-WRITERS 



ARRANGED WITH PREFATORY ARTICLES, INTRODUCTORY 
MATTER, AND COMMENTARY 



BY 



GEORGE S. FARNELL, M.A. 

ASSISTANT MASTER AT ST. PAUL'S SCHOOL 
LATE SCHOLAR OF WADHAM COLLEGE, OXFORD 



LONDON 

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 

AND NEW YORK: 15 EAST i6th STREET 

1891 

{All rights reseri'ed. \ 



PR 



<l*~ 




\ 



PREFACE 

AMPLE as are the remains of Greek poetic literature that 
have been preserved, there is one important branch of it 
which has all but perished. The student usually forms 
a close and valuable acquaintance with Greek Drama and 
Greek Epic, but of the Lyric poetry proper he reads 
little or nothing. It is true that the more fortunate, 
though I fear their number is small, read Pindar, the 
greatest perhaps of the Greek Lyric poets ; and, further- 
more, all of us become acquainted with choral lyric 
poetry in the Drama. Pindar, however, in his only sur- 
viving complete poems, the Epinician odes, represents one 
branch alone of the subject ; and similarly in the Plays 
we have practically choral Lyric only, and that, too, under 
such conditions as are best adapted to the preponderating 

^ interest of the Drama. Of Greek Lyric Poetry then, with 
these important exceptions, we are profoundly ignorant ; 
and our knowledge of Greek poetry in general is accord- 
ingly almost as limited, as if in our own language we 
/read Milton and the Elizabethan Dramatists, but knew 
^nothing, or almost nothing, of the great song-writers con- 
temporary with them, or of the lyrics of Shelley, Keats, 
and Tennyson in our own century. 

, The loss of these Greek song-writers is irreparable ; but 
if we could imagine the connected works of any great 
modern poet, or series of poets, entirely lost, many valu- 
able fragments might yet be recovered by a patient search 
for quotations from them in surviving literature. This is 

I 



viii PREFACE 

precisely the task so successfully accomplished in connec- 
tion with the lost Greek lyrics by scholars during the last 
three centuries, who, by a laborious and discerning investi- 
gation of all ancient writers or critics on style, metre, and 
grammar, have been able to recover for us fragments 
scanty and mutilated indeed, but yet of a nature to repay 
fully the study of all those who are interested alike in 
Greek literature and in Greek life. 

My object in this volume has been to present to readers 
of Greek a collection in an accessible form of all the 
fragments of the ' Melic ' poetry, omitting from the text 
instances of single words or half lines cited in illustration 
of some special point in grammar or metre, and also 
passages which are hopelessly corrupt. My task then has 
been not to select the best only, for the fragments are 
too scanty to admit of any such selection, but to include 
everything that can fairly be regarded as readable, adding 
in the Introduction and elsewhere such information as I 
have deemed necessary for a fuller comprehension of the 
poems, and of Greek Lyric Poetry in general. To make 
the collection complete for purposes of reference, etc., I 
have added in an Appendix all the passages excluded 
from the text proper. These latter I have taken from ) 
the last edition of Bergk's Poetae Lyrici, without com- 
mentary or alteration of the text. 

I deal only with ' Melic ' poetry, or the poetry adapt\\ 
for music, to the exclusion of Elegiac poems, which, though 
in early times at least not without musical accompaniment, 
were recited or intoned rather than sung. The distinction] 
is far from being one of form alone ; for, since the Greeks 
excelled in the perfect adaptation, in poetry as in alP 
else, of form to matter, it follows that poetry which was 
distinct in metre, mode of delivery, and also in traditional 
dialect (see page 75 seg.), was widely distinct also in sub- 
ject, in treatment of subject, and in its whole spirit. 



PREFACE ix 

I must add that the Epinician odes of Pindar, though 
essentially ' Melic ' poetry, or Song-poetry proper, are not 
included in this edition, because so much has by great 
good fortune survived as to necessitate entirely separate 
treatment. I have however inserted some of the chief 
fragments from Pindar, for reasons explained elsewhere 
(p. 281). 

I have to thank several of my friends for their assistance 
in different portions of my work ; and I am particularly 
indebted to Dr. Abbott, my former Headmaster, for his 
kindness in revising a considerable part of my commen- 
tary, to which he has added some valuable suggestions. 
Mr. MURRAY, Keeper of the Classical Antiquities at the 
British Museum, and other gentlemen connected with 
that Department, have also given me much useful infor- 
mation. 

G. S. F. 



St. Paul's School, 
February 1891. 



I 



CONTENTS 



Prefatory Articles — 

I. Revival of Melic or Song-poetry, . 
II. Some Distinctive Features of Greek Lyric Poetry 

III. Choral and Single or Personal Melic Poetry — 

Dorian and Lesbian Schools, . 

IV. Dance as an accompaniment of Greek Song, 
V. Musical accompaniment of Greek Song, . 

VI. Metre in Lyric Poetry, 
VII. Dialect in the Lyric Poets — 

Sec. I. General Characteristics, . 
Sec. 2. Lesbian Dialect, . 
Sec. 3. Dorian Dialect, . 
Addendum, 
VIII. General view of the history of Greek Melic Poetry 



PAGE 

I-I4 
I5-20 

20-24 
25-33 
34-44 

45-74 

75-80 
80-91 
91-96 

97 
98-108 



Text, with Biographical and Introductory Matter — 

Archilochus, . . . . . . m-121 

Melic Poetry at Sparta — 

1 22 



Tyrtaeus, 








123 


Spartan Dance-Songs, 








123 


Alcman, . 








124-134 


Alcaeus, . 








135-147 


Sappho, . 








148-167 


Stesichorus, 








168-175 


Ibycus, 








176-181 


Anacreon, 








182-196 


Simonides, 








197-218 


Timocreon, 








219-221 


Bacchylides, 








222-231 



Xll 



CONTENTS 



Banquet Songs — The Scolia, 
Popular Songs, . 
Miscellaneous and Anonymous, 
Dithyrambic Poets, 
Some Fragments from Pindar, 

Commentary, 

Additional Notes — 

A. Sappho and Alcaeus, 

B. Eros in the Lyric poets, 

Appendix — Fragments not included in the Text, 
I. Subject Index, .... 
II. Greek Index, .... 



PACE 

232 t 246 
247-250 
251-262 
263-280 
281-295 

299-424 



424 
426 

429-469 
471-481 
482-490 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate I. Alcaeus and Sappho, .... F7-ontispiece 
,, II. Sappho and her Pupils, .... xiii 

„ III. Eros as described in the Lyric Poets, . . xiv 

„ IV. Blind Man's Buff, ..... xv 
„ V. Boeotian Cup, . . . . . xv 



-! 




8 
8 

o 



\ 

w 

I— I 

a* 

w 
X 

o 

< 
o 

X 
en 

Ph 

< 



w 

Ph 




2 

O 

U 
OS 

(J 
< 
Z 

< 



Si 



a 

"« 



I 
en 

H 
W 
O 
CM 

u 

2 
> 

w 
a 

H 



Q 
H 

« 

i— 

o 

W 

o 

en 

O 

w 



PLATE IV 




BLIND MAN'S BUFF— See Popular Songs vi. and Note. 



• PLATE V. 




BOEOTIAN CUP. See Bacchylides xiu. 2, and Note. 



CORRIGENDA 



PAGE 



1 20, Arch. xiv. 1, for rXauy' read rXaux' 
124, line 5,/cr Harting rar^ Hartung 

127, Ale. i. 10, for oatvrjv and E^atvr^v read y<xb»zv and iraxivev 

128, „ 1 3, for ais read aL 

„ ,, 31, for apj'vou read a.[L\lva.i 
131, ,, xii. 3,y2?r aaaa'p.w r^a^Z aaaa[a.w te 
142, Alcaeus v. 2,y#r xao' read *oZ 
158, Sap. iii. 3, for 0-r.a.Tot. read omzoxa 
x 59> )i vii. 2,_/2?r 'vrjxoio ;v«fl? av^Toio 
163, ,, xxi. j , for Ku&ipri read Kud-ipri' 
225, Bacchyl. ii. 2, delete comma after -9-ujj.ov 

„ „ 1. 3, for Ku^ptoo? read Kuxpiooc, 

230, „ xvi. (Metrical scheme, line 1) in 5th Cretic 
for — ^ ^ read — u ^ 

262, Miscel. xxx. I, for xoipav7J'ov read xoipavf[ov 

., „ 10, for xokiixe, read r.oliSz 

274, line 2,ybr excpo9-rj<j£iaav rm^f Ex^oprj-S-staav 
279, Dith. Poet. xiv. 2, for Nixa read Nv/.a 
286, Pind. i. 4, for izoXkoic, read ^oXXoi; 
327, Note on Sappho I., par. 2, line i,for -zr^kvi read mrjXuc 
333, Note on Sappho X. 1. 3, rtfe/^te For o[j.fj.axa 



ARTICLE I 

REVIVAL OF MELIC OR SONG-POETRY ANCIENT FORMS 

OF LYRIC AGAIN CULTIVATED 

ALTHOUGH in the history of surviving Greek literature 
Epic poetry precedes Lyric, of course, as a matter of fact, 
poetical emotions found their utterance in song long before 
professional poets produced lengthy and elaborate Epic Lyric properly 
compositions : Orpheus, according to the myth, preceded ^^fbut over- 
Homer. Epic, however, owing to certain obvious causes shadowed by it 

r ' ' ° . during the 

to be looked for in the social conditions of the day, 'Feudal' 
attained a popularity among the influential classes which peno " 
attracted to its service all men of ambition in the 
sphere of poetry, and Melic composition was for the time 
cast into the shade. Songs were doubtless written and 
sung all through the Epic period, and indeed we find 
frequent reference thereto in Homer, but evidently no 
special cultivation was given to poems which did not 
celebrate '/Xiy. avSptov or similar subjects, and the songs 
remained in the position of Volkslieder, or else of 
monotonous and stereotyped religious chants. When, 
however, the 'feudal' state of society in the Greek world with the decay 
(if such an expression may be used) sank gradually to powe'nEptcif 1 
decay, and with it its favourite and appropriate form of supplanted by 
poetry, the Epic, poetical genius was forced to adapt itself 
to its surroundings. The glories of the past had now, in 
a period of revolution, become discredited, while the life 
of the present, which for long had been unvarying and 
monotonous, underwent such a change as intensified its 
feelings and heightened the interest of its actions. It 
was to actual life that the poets now directed their 
attention, and Epic narrative was thus supplanted by 
Lyric poetry of a subjective and personal character. 

A 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



First came 
Elegiac and 
Iambic verse, 



then Lyric 
poetry proper, 
or Melic. 



Rapid develop- 
ment of Melic. 
Causes. 



The wide gulf, however, between Epic and Melic, or the 
poetry of song, was bridged over by Elegiac and Iambic 
poetry, both of which, like Epic, were recited or intoned 
rather than sung. 

Elegy broke the dignified flow of the hexameter, so 
well suited for an elevated narrative style, by alternating 
with it the so-called Pentameter, which, as metricians 
point out, is merely a varied form of the hexameter. In 
subject, on the other hand, Elegiac poetry broke boldly 
away from the traditions of Epic, and we find it employed 
by a Tyrtaeus, a Callinus, or a Solon as a powerful factor 
in the warfare or the politics of the day. 

The Iambic trimeter, again, the invention of which is 
ascribed to Archilochus, introduced still greater innova- 
tions both in form and in subject. The whole nature of 
the metre is altered from the ysvo? I'cov, where, as in the 
hexameter, the arsis and thesis of each foot are equal, to 
the ysvo? St7rlao-iov, where, as in the Iamb and the Trochee, 
they are as I to 2, or 2 to 1 ; while the subject we find to 
be personal in the most pronounced degree, being chiefly 
invective or satire of the bitterest kind, not against prin- 
ciples or public enemies, but against private foes. 

But neither Elegy nor Iambic verse w r as suited by metre 
or by subject to satisfy the craving for a more noble and 
elevated poetry which was strong among the Greeks ; and 
the poets betook themselves to what must always be the 
truest source of fresh poetic inspiration — to the songs which, 
hitherto uncultivated and little heeded, yet touched the 
deepest sympathies of the people in. their religious or 
secular life. We find accordingly that with rapidly pro- 
gressive innovations, which will be duly noticed, in metre, 
in music, and in the choral dance, Melic poetry soon 
attained to its maturity. The swiftness of this advance is 
indeed astonishing, and is only intelligible when we reflect 
how many were the occasions for song in the life of a 
Greek city, and that in this period of social and literary 
revolution, the powerful poetical genius of the Greeks was 
concentrated almost entirely upon such occasions ; nor 
must we forget that it was not one country alone that was 



REVIVAL OF MELIC POETRY 3 

developing its poetical powers, but a number of States, 
more or less parallel and independent, each of which, 
owing to easy and constant communication, readily in- 
fluenced all the rest. 

What then were the most important and inspiring occa- Early forms oi 
sions for song in early Greek life, and what was the nature n^" c a g^ lch 
of the early song-poetry so long overshadowed by its attracted 

.  t% • i-t • • 1 • 1 a. poetical genius. 

younger sister Epic ? tor it is to this source that we must 

trace the characteristics of later and cultivated Melic. On Distinct 

this subject one cannot do better than quote a well-known classlf allon - 

passage from Colonel Mure's History of Greek Literature : 

' From Olympus down to the wandering mendicant every 

rank and degree of the Greek community, divine or human, 

had its own proper allotment of poetical celebration. The 

gods had their hymns, nomes, paeans, dithyrambs ; great 

men their encomia and epinicia ; the votaries of pleasure 

their erotica and symposiaca ; the mourner his threnodia 

and elegies ; the vine-dresser his epilenici ; the herdsmen 

their bucolica ; even the beggar his eiresione and cheli- 

donisma.' The number of titles amounts to upwards of 

fifty ; and Colonel Mure justly remarks that 'the number, 

variety, and methodical distinction of these modes of lyric 

performance supply one of the most striking illustrations 

of the fertile genius and discriminating taste of the Greek 

nation '.* It is to be noticed that these distinct classes of 

song were not the creation of cultivated lyric, but were 

handed down from primitive times. We may follow 

Proclus in grouping them in two main divisions — the 

Religious and the Secular. 

Of religions or sacred lyric the chief forms are the Hymn, ^ Religious 
the Paean, the Hyporchem, the Nomos, the Dithyramb, the L y nc - 
Comus, and the Prosodion ; and these I will proceed to 
discuss briefly in their order. 

The Hymn (up.vo?) dates far back into remote ante- Hymn. 
Hellenic ages, and may be regarded as the original stock 



1 Hist, of Language and Liter, of Anc. Greece, Bk. III. c. ii. 
Mure's remarks are based upon a long passage from Proclus' Xprj- 
aronadta, quoted in Photius' Biblioth. pp. 521 seq. 



4 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

of all the religious songs, the others being specialised and 
in many cases later forms of the Hymn (w? e'wfoj wpo? 
ysvo?, Proclus). But the Hymn also constitutes a special 
type of religious poetry, though its only peculiar features 
mentioned by our chief authority, Proclus, are that it was 
suing standing, and accompanied by the cithara — 6 Si jtupio? 
u[j.vo? Trpo? juO-aoav vj'Ssto ectwtwv. 

Burnouf l suggests that the word ujj.vo? is identical with 
the Sanscrit ' sumna ', good thought, and he adds that the 
custom of accompanying a sacrifice at the altar with a 
song to the gods, or hymn, was common to all the Aryan 
races. It is in fact in this u[/.vo? in its more general sense 
that we may, perhaps, with Hartung, look for the earliest 
Close connec- development of poetry and song among the Greeks ; since 

tion of poetry , ,. 1,1,., 

and religion in solemn prayer naturally tends to become rhythmical, and 
ancient times, harmonious musical sounds have a special value on such 
occasions, both in elevating the mind of the worshipper 
and in drowning all discordant and inauspicious noises. 
Tha.t the earliest mythical poets, at any rate, were con- 
nected with religion is illustrated by the examples of 
Orpjheus and Eumolpas, both of whom belong to the 
primitive age, when, as in their cases, the characters of 
heacll of the family, priest, and poet-singer were combined 
in the same person. 

Tfjie majority of the hymns, until the re-awakening of 
lyric 1 inspiration, were probably traditional and mono- 
tonous dirges chanted rather than sung, as seems to follow 
from the very limited range of the music of these early 
times (see page 35). They admitted, however, of variety, 
according to the deity that was invoked, according to 
the periods of the day or the changing seasons of the 



.3 



year 

Among the early poets of the Lyric age we find Alcman 
and Stesichorus cultivating this branch of Melic. 

Passing on to more special forms of the up.vo?, we find 



1 Hist, de la Litt. G?'ecque, p. 40. 

2 See Burnouf, p. 51. 

3 See Burnouf's remarks on the Vedic Hymns, pp. 48, 56. 



REVIVAL OF MELIC POETRY 5 

that the Paean, the Hyporchem, and the Nomos were all 
consecrated, in early times at least, to the worship of 
Apollo (v. Proclus, loc. at.). 

The Paean is twice mentioned in Homer. In //. i. 473 Paean. 
it is sung by the Greeks to Apollo, in order that he may 
take away from them the plague that he has sent — 

KaXov a£iSovT£; xaivjova, /.oupoi 'A^atcov, 

M sXtcovts; ' Exaspyov, 6 Ss <ppsva fsp-ST obcoucov. 

Similarly we are told that it was sung at an expiatory 
festival in the first month of spring, called Bucio;, at Delphi. 1 
The second occasion in the Iliad is xxii. 391, where 
Achilles calls upon his comrades to sing the Paean as they 
carry off the slain Hector : NCv o" ay' aeiSovrs; TOxi-yjova, etc. 

It took then the double form of earnest prayer for the 
removal of plague, or for the bestowal of victory, and also 
of thanksgiving for favour granted, especially for military 
success. 

Further reference will be made to the Paean in connec- 
tion with the Dance (pp. 27 and 29) ; and we shall there 
find that one of the early masters in lyric poetry, Thaletas, 
devoted his efforts to the improvement of this species of , 
religious song. 

In the Hyporchem the leading feature was that the song Hyporchem. 
to Apollo was accompanied by a dance of a distinctly 
imitative character. It is said by Muller 2 to have been 
of Cretan origin, and to have passed from Crete to Delos. 
The subject dealt with, he adds, was originally the history 
of Latona, and was then extended to a wider range, as we 
find in Horn. Hymn to Apollo, 162. There is a passage in 
//. xviii. 590 which is said to refer to the Hyporchem. A 
bard is playing on the harp (cpopi/i^wv), and a band of 
youths and maidens .-dancing, 'sometimes in rows, some- 
times in quick circles, easily as a potter might turn his 
wheel, trying how readily it will run ' ; the maidens carry 
garlands, the youths golden swords (sE apyup£<ov TsXa^ovtov) ; 

1 Miiller's Dorians, vol. i. c. viii. 2 Ibid. vol. i. p. 371. 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Thaletas. 



and the passage, as also a similar description in Odyss. 
iv. 1 8, concludes by adding that two tumblers rolled about 
in the midst : Soito Ss jcupii7T7jT*Jjps xar auTOu? . . . s&vsuov 
/.ara [/.scrcrou?. 

If this be an account of a Hyporchem, it would appear 
that the chorus intended their dance to represent some 
action in a general way, while the tumblers exhibited more 
definite and vehement pantomimic gestures. Such at any 
rate was the nature of the Hyporchem in later times, as we 
see from Lucian's account of one at Delos — ol j/iv s^opsuov, 
utcwp^ouvto Ss ol aptcToi, 7rpox.pi&svTe; s£ auTtov. 1 That the 
performance of oi apwrot was expressly mimetic we learn 
from A then. xiv. 628 — s^pcovTO to% ayr^ai (the figures of 
the dance) an^Lzioiq (v.dvov rtov aSoyiviov — oQsv y.y.i u7ropy/j|./.aTa 
TOiauTa ■qydpsuov. 

It was Thaletas, again, who in connection partly with 
the Hyporchem, developed the complete union of dance 
and song which we find in later Greek choral lyric 
(see p. 28, seq.). I must add that often no very close 
distinction appears to have been drawn between the 
Hyporchem and the Paean. See Boeckh, De Metris 
Pindariy p. 201. 



Nome. 



Terpander. 



The Nome. — The term vd[/.o? is applied in early religious 
Melic chiefly to chants or tunes of a fixed type, sung (Tsray- 
(xevto; >tal [/.syaXo7rps7K3s, Proclus), not by a chorus, but by the 
priest, to the accompaniment of the lyre, at the altar of 
Apollo. In its earnest supplicatory tone it is regarded by 
Proclus as very similar to the Paean. The Nome was on 
the one hand of great antiquity, and on the other survived 
beyond almost all other forms of lyric. We hear of it in 
very ancient poetical contests at Delphi, 2 but it comes 
chiefly into prominence as the branch of lyric cultivated 
by Terpander, who is generally regarded as the earliest 
Melic poet. Further remarks on the Nome will be neces- 
sary elsewhere (see p. 36) ; it is sufficient for the present 
to say that the use of the term was considerably extended 



1 De Salt at. c. 16. 



2 Paus. x. 7. 2. 



REVIVAL OF MELIC POETRY 7 

subsequently, and that though usually connected with the 
worship of Apollo, accompanied by the lyre, in hexametric 
metre and monodic, yet it occasionally, especially in later 
times, dispensed with any one or all of these characteristics. 

The Dithyramb. — We come now to a species of hymn The Dithyramb. 
connected with the worship, not of Apollo, but of Bacchus. 
Its invention is ascribed to Arion, but, as it existed long 
before his day, this is only one of the many instances 
where tradition has described as the inventor one who in Arion not the 
reality was but the first to cultivate and elaborate an 
ancient style of composition or the like. That we find no 
mention of the Dithyramb in the earliest Greek literature 
is perhaps owing to the fact that it was consecrated to the 
service of Bacchus, whose rites were introduced to the 
Greeks comparatively late, and amid much opposition 
(cf. especially Eurip. Bacchae). The hymn, however, to 
the god of wine probably dates back to the earliest Aryan 
times, and traces of it are to be found in the Veda. 1 A 
very ancient invocation to Bacchus, of an unpolished 
character, is preserved in Plutarch, Quaest. Graec. 36 (see 
Popular Songs, XII.) ; but the first mention of the Dithy- 
ramb in Greek literature proper meets us in Archilochus, 
a generation or two before the time of Arion : 

1 £lc, Aigwjgoi avay.To; xa^ov e^ap^at \xzkoc, 
oiSa Sixhj pap.fi ov, oivw cuyxepauvwO^eii; <ppsva. 

The word s£ap?;o« is said by Miiller {Greek Lit. c. xiv.) 

to indicate that the early Dithyramb was not choral, 

as we find it to be ever since the time of Arion, but 

monodic. This does not strike one as a necessary infer- Dithyramb per- 

ence from the words of Archilochus, but it is likely chorals 'j n wa),s 

enough that in the time of that poet the Dithyramb still later times - 

retained what was perhaps the primitive form of all early 

hymns, that of being sung by one man only, originally 

the priest at the altar. The improvements made by 

Arion will be touched upon subsequently (see p. 102), and 



1 Burnouf, p. 227. 



8 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Some charac- 
teristics. 



for its subsequent history see Introduction to the last 
Lyric period, page 263. I will now only add that this 
species of religious song, when once it had gained its 
ground, enjoyed the greatest popularity, and, as I need 
hardly mention, gave birth to that noblest of offsprings, 
the Greek Drama. It continued, however, to survive side 
by side with its more famous progeny — matre pulcra filia 
pukrior— and to attract to its services some of the finest 
literary, and especially musical, talent. Being connected 
with the worship of Bacchus, it assumed an enthusiastic 
character, 1 with rich and often inflated language, and a 
musical accompaniment, the elaborations of which called 
forth bitter remonstrances from the admirers of the simpler 
style of the antique. One of the most magnificent frag- 
ments from Pindar (Pind. Frag. No. vi.) affords the best 
example of the rich and glowing character of Dithyrambic 
poetry at its prime. 



Counts. 



Akin to the Dithyramb is the Cowus-song, also con- 
nected originally with the worship of Bacchus, and partak- 
ing in its general character. The* Comus is associated 
by Hesychius and Suidas with dancing and drunkenness, 
and the term is especially applied to the boisterous song 
of the revellers as they issued forth from the banquet, and 
escorted one of their party home, or serenaded a lady with 
music, dance, and song. 2 We hear of the practice in Hesiod, 
Scut. 281 : >cw|7.aCov u7r' auXw . . . hiz opp^to xai aotSyj , and 
later in Alcaeus : &s£ai jjls y.wfj.o^ovxa, etc. (Text No. 12), 
where the Comus takes the form of the serenade. Cf. 
Aristoph. Platus 1039 seq. The term became extended 
to any songs for festal occasions, and hence it is to this 
branch of lyric that many of Pindar's Odes belong ('Eyxtopa). 

Lastly, I will mention Prosodia, or Processional hymns, 
Processional sun g to the flute by the band of worshippers when 
Sgfeature'in" a PP roachi ng the altar or temple of a deity. 3 Many of the 

Greek religion. *" 

1 xexiv»][i.e'vos xoti tcoXO to EvSouauoos? [jletcc x°P Et ' a ? £|J-9aivwv, Proclus. 

2 The Comus is a favourite subject on Greek vases, etc. See 
Panofka, Manners and Customs of the Ancient Greeks, Plate xvn. 1. 

3 rcpoatovn; vaot? rj (3wij.ot; 7Tpo; auXov fjSov, Proclus. 



REVIVAL OF ME LIC POETRY 9 

other classes of song might come under the heading of the 
Prosodion in a more general sense ; for the Paean, the 
Comus, the Wedding-song, etc., are all more or less con- 
nected with processional singing. Indeed it is worth while 
dwelling upon the popularity of the custom in Greek reli- 
gious ritual, and to consider what a spirit of grace and 
cheerfulness must have been imparted to worship by these 
processions of picked dancers and vocalists. 

Not the least interesting of these Prosodia are the Par- Partheiia. 
thenia or processional choruses of maidens in honour of 
some deity. We hear of this custom, apparently, in II. xvi. 
180, ev j£opu 'ApTE^tSo?, etc., and at the beautiful festival of 
the Daphnephoria at Thebes, 1 the scene at which has been 
made familiar to us in Sir F. Leighton's well-known picture. 
But it was at Sparta that Parthenia attained to the greatest 
popularity, for it was at Sparta that the maidens by their 
generous culture were best qualified to adorn the service 
of religion. 

In this city one of the earliest Melic poets, Alcman, 
found his genius powerfully attracted by these Parthenia ; 
and a very quaint and interesting specimen of his talent in 
in this kind of composition has been recently recovered 
(Alcman No. I.). In later times the best of the lyric poets, 
such as Simonides, Bacchylides, and Pindar followed the 
example of Alcman. 

Having described the chief forms of religious lyric _>. Secular 
existing both before and during what we may call the Lync - 
Melic period in Greece, I will pass on to certain species 
of secular lyric. I propose to touch only upon the follow- 
ing — the Dirge (ftp'/jvex;) or funeral song, the Wedding-song 
(upivato;, or sTaO-a^apov), the important class falling under 
the heading of Convivial songs (cu|X7ioctaxa), and lastly 
certain popular songs or Volkslieder which do not come 
under any precise category. 

The Dirge and the Wedding-song are probably secular- Dirge and wed- 
ised forms of a lyric once sacred. It is true that such as ding-song pro- 

J bably once of a 
sacred nature. 

1 Paus. ix. 10. 4. 



io 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Dirge — 
Threnos. 



Professional 
mourners. 



survive are entirely secular, but Burnouf reasonably main- 
tains that occasions of such import as the wedding and 
the funeral must have been accompanied by a sacerdotal 
hymn such as we actually find in the Veda in connection 
with the Dirge. 1 He surmises that this sacerdotal chant 
was followed up by another of a more secular nature out 
of which was developed the Wedding-song, or the Dirge 
as we know them ; and in the case of the Wedding-song 
the refrain u t u.rjv upivats, unintelligible even to the Greeks 
themselves, was probably a relic of the priestly chant or 
formula dating back to remote ages. Be this as it may, 
what is certain and sufficient for our present purpose is 
that before the beginning of the Melic period, and indeed 
as far back as the time of Homer, we find dirges and 
wedding-songs recognised as definite branches of lyric. 

The Dirge. — The example of a &p-?jvo? in Homer occurs 
at the burial of Hector, //. xxiv. 720 seq., and deserves 
special attention. The bearers bring the hero's body to 
the palace and place it on a couch : 

TOxpa o° sierav aoiSou? 
©pTjvcov e^apyou;, 01 ts CTOvoeccav aoiSyjv 
Oi [/iv ap' eQ-p^veov, em Ss crrevayovTO yuvaTx.s;. 

From this we learn that at this period there existed a 
class of professional dirge-singers, whose strains of mourn- 
ing were accompanied by the lamentations of the women 
around. When these men had finished their songs, which 
were probably of a formal and set description (perhaps 
connected with the old sacerdotal hymns of Burnoufs 
conjecture), they were succeeded in Homer by the spon- 
taneous and exquisitely touching lamentations of Andro- 
mache the wife, Hecuba the mother, and Helen the grateful 
kinswoman of the chivalrous warrior. At the commence- 
ment and at the conclusion of the lamentations of each of 



1 For the very solemn and important ritual connected with the 
Greek marriage, see De Coulanges, La Cite Antique, Bk. n. ch. i. 
ad fin., and ch. ii. 



REVIVAL OF MELIC POETRY u 

these three the poet employs similar expressions — ttjgiv 
S' 'AvSpof/.a/vj XeuxwXsvo? vjp^s ydoto (cf. 747, and 761) — and 
at the conclusion : 

(Cf. 1. 760 and 1. 775.) 

In addition then to the female relatives, it would appear 
that not only the aoioVt. #-pvjvo)v s£apjroi but also these 
yuvofas; played a definite part in the formal ceremony. 
They were, so to speak, the chorus whose lamentations 
were led first by the professional dirge-singers, and more 
especially by the female members of the afflicted family. 1 
Notice finally that, with the exception of the aoioVi, none 
but women appear to take part in the lamentations, and 
also that Andromache, Hecuba, and Helen give utterance 
to their -frpTjvoi in the order of the closeness of their rela- 
tionship to the dead. 

It is most interesting to read, in Fauriel's Preface to his comparison of 
Chants Popnlaires de la Grece Moderne, that nearly all the S^M^iF 
distinctive features of the funeral dirge in the time of lo g ues ' of 

...«,-.., modern Greece. 

Homer are preserved to the present day in the Mynologues 
or funeral-songs of Modern Greece. Shortly before the 
body is taken from the house for burial, and after a certain 
time has been spent in indiscriminate lamentation, the chief 
women rise, generally in order of their relationship, and 
give utterance to improvised dirges, called Myriologues. 
These are continued until the body is removed, and are 
renewed when the burial is effected. Just as in Homer, 
the men take no active part in these laments ; they are 
present, but express their adieux in brief words. The pro- 
fessional aotSoi have disappeared, but their place is occa- 
sionally taken by professional female myriologue-singers. 

Among the great lyric poets Simonides was the most 
famous for his Dirges, a touching example of which remains 
for us in the famous Danae poem (Simonides, No. II.). 
But we must remember that such compositions, being 



1 This may perhaps partly account for the choral form subse- 
quently taken by some 0-prJvoi : see note, Simonides, No. II., and cf. 
Art. ill. p. 24. 



12 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



8-pyjvot and not OTOojSsTa, were not necessarily delivered on 
the occasion of the funeral, but at any time subsequently. 1 



Weddhig-song. 



The reference to the Wedding-song in Homer is briefer. 
It occurs in the description of the Shield {II. xviii. 490 seq.), 
and tells us how the bride is led through the streets to the 
bridegroom's house amid loud hymenaeal strains — -xokuc, 
S' uf/ivato? opcopsi ; while young men dance to the music of 
flutes and harps, and the women stand at their doors admir- 
ing the scene. Here we see that the Hymenaeus was 
sung during the procession, and thus before the completion 
of all the religious ceremonies. It appears, however, to 
have been of a more or less secular character ; and still 
more was this the case with the Epithalamion, the song 
sung before the door or window of the bride-chamber. To 
this latter class are usually referred the wedding-songs of 
Sappho, who devoted much of her talent to this form of 
lyric. 
Comparison I must again make reference to Fauriel's interesting 

with modern preface, where we read that the ceremony of marriage in 

ureek wedding- tr > jo 

songs. Modern Greece extends over two or three days, and that 

each part of the ceremony has its regular and appropriate 
song, the ancient uf/ivaio? being paralleled closely enough 
by the special song sung during the procession which con- 
ducts the bride from her house to the church. 

•Convivial' I come now to the ' Convivial ' songs, au^ocuc/toc, among 

songs. which the Scolia are the most prominent. Whether or not 

these Scolia existed before the Melic period, it is certain 
that the custom of singing at banquets, constantly referred 
Also perhaps of to in Homer, was of great antiquity. This species of lyric 
sacred origin. a j so a pp ears to have been once of a religious nature. 

Compare //. i. 472 : 

N(j)(/.7](7av V apa xaaiv (brap?;a|/.svoi SeTraeaaiv, 
Oi Hk TOXV7)[/.spioi [/.o7w7"?j iSiov IXaffjiovTO. 

De Coulanges, La Citi Ant. Bk. III. c. vii., forcibly points 



1 Spfjvas ou 7tEpiyp«cpsTai ypovw. Proclus. 



REVIVAL OF MELIC POETRY 13 

out the religious character of the common banquet among 
the Greeks, and remarks that it was accompanied by 
hymns of a set form. These hymns, which formed, as 
Colonel Mure puts it, a kind of grace to the entertainment, 
were often called Paeans, as we learn, among other sources, 
from a Fragment of Alcman's (Alcman, No. xi.). 

<l>oivat; 5s >cai sv {kaaoiaiv 

avSpsiwv ( = gugg mtov in Sparta) Trapi oxituu.ovzggl 
TzozTzzi Traiava x.y.Tap/siv. 

From these sacred songs may naturally have arisen the 
custom of singing others of a more secular description, and 
we shall see that a large portion of Greek ' single ' or non- 
choral melic may be classed under the heading of ' con- 
vivial ' poetry. Further remarks on the Scolia in the 
Melic period will be found in the Introduction to the sur- 
viving Scolia. 

It remains for me to notice certain songs, fragments of 
which still remain, of the nature of Volkslieder, but refer- Voiksiieder. 
able to no distinct class of lyric. 

The Linos-song is said to be of Phoenician origin, and Linos-sono. 
to have derived its name from the words at le nn, ' woe is 
us,' which probably formed part of the refrain of the song. 
The Greeks, misunderstanding this, came to regard Linus 
as the name of a youth whose untimely fate at the hands 
of Apollo is bewailed, 1 or sometimes as the inventor of the 
mournful dirge bearing what was supposed to be his name. 2 
Be the origin of the term however what it may, the Linus- 
song was evidently of a plaintive and mournful character, 
and it appears to have been popular with agricultural 
people, especially at vintage -time, being, as some say, 
employed as a lament for the decay of summer. It is 
referred to in the Shield passage (//. xviii. 570 seq.). Men, 
youths, and maidens are gathering in the harvest : 

Toitiv 0° SV \j.zggqigi izorlc (Dopu.iyyt. XlVSfol 
Ip.sposv -/aD-api^s, Aivov o U7C0 x.y.Aov astoev. 

Hesiod also mentions the Linos-song as habitually sung 



1 V. Miiller's Dorians, vol. i. p. 346. 2 Plut. de Musica, c. iii. 



14 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

at feasts and banquets {Frag. I.) ; and neither in Homer 
nor Hesiod are the occasions, regarded as suitable for the 
Linus-song, of a melancholy nature ; but Bergk's remark 
is perhaps pertinent, that the people are always fond of 
sweet, plaintive airs. A fragment from a Linus-song will 
be found in the text, Popular Songs, I. 

Similar 'nature Just as the Linos was applied, or is supposed to be 
applied, to the decay of summer, so the song of Adonis, 
also perhaps of Semitic origin, 1 and of Hyacinthus were 
connected with the disappearance of spring. Besides these 
we find the Lityerses song in Phrygia at reaping-time, the 
Scephros at Tegea in the full heat of the summer, and 
others of a similar description, all having this in common, 
that they direct the imagination to the world of nature, 
and render it susceptible to its influence. 

Cheiidonisma. Similar in this respect is the famous Chelidonisma or 
Swallow-song {Popular Songs, II.), sung by minstrels beg- 
ging for alms at the doors of the well-to-do, and celebrating 
the return of the swallow and the spring-time, the ceremony 
in fact corresponding in some degree to the old English 
observance of the return of May-day. The actual song 
preserved to us by Athenaeus is not apparently of very 
ancient date (see note ad loc), but the custom of singing 
such a song from house to house at this season may well 
have been of the greatest antiquity, and appears to have 
taken such a hold upon the popular taste, that, if Fauriel 
be right, it has endured in Greece down to the present day. 

Modem Greek At any rate, whether or not there be a gap in the descent, 

'Swallow-song . fa e f ac t remains that children still go round singing a 
modern Greek Swallow-song, which, with its accompanying 
circumstances, closely resembles the ancient Chelidonisma. 2 

Flower-song. I will conclude this article by calling attention to the 

Flower-song {Carm. Pop. V.), displaying that love of 
flowers which, conspicuous in nearly all the Lyric poets, 
rises almost to a passion in the greatest of them, Sappho. 

1 See Renan, Marc-Awrle, pp. 131, 575, 576,011 the Semitic aspect 
of Adonis-worship, and Midler's Dorians, vol. i. c. ix. 

2 V. Fauriel's Preface ; and see Pop. Songs, II. note, for the modern 
Swallow-song. 



ARTICLE II 

SOME DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF GREEK LYRIC POETRY 

In the previous Article I have endeavoured to point out 
what were the chief materials for the exercise of poetic 
genius, which the Greek muse found worthy of her closer 
attention on deserting the now exhausted region of Epic. 
We have seen that the service of the gods had given rise 
to various types of religious song, such as the Paean or 
song of triumph, the joyous Hyporchem, the enthusiastic 
Dithyramb, and the Processional Ode, characteristic of a 
cheerful religion ; and that the more important events of 
human life, such as the funeral and the wedding, with their 
imposing ceremonial, afforded powerful inspiration to the 
singer. Furthermore, we have observed how universally 
song pervaded alike the social life of the convivial citizen, 
and the outdoor life of the simple country folk, the one 
regarding song as the natural accompaniment of his 
festivity, the other of his toil. Carrying ourselves back 
to this starting-point, and bearing in mind certain further 
influences shortly to be mentioned, we have now to con- -n 

sider what are likely to be some of the main features 
assumed by Greek lyric poetry. 

The most prominent external characteristic is its classifi- ( a ) Distinct I 
cation into clearly marked species. As Mr. Jevons says, in Q ass f L U r °" in 
his History of Greek Literature, a Greek poet 'did not sit 
down to compose an Ode to a Skylark, or to a Cloud'. He 
wrote, if he was to serve the Gods, a Hymn, a Dithyramb, 
a Hyporchem, or the like ; or if for men, an Epinicion, a 
Threnos, or a Wedding-song ; or again, he gave utterance 
to his emotions on love, on politics, or on wine in a Scolion; 

15 



16 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

and in each case he knew that a certain conformity to 
customary treatment was expected of him. It is plain 
that under such circumstances there might therein have 
been a danger of lyric poetry losing its freedom by becom- 
ing tied down to certain stereotyped forms, had not the 
Greek genius at this period been far too vigorous and 
Results. creative to admit of any such calamity. On the contrary, 

these forms served, like the reins in the hands of a skilful 
horseman, to exercise a salutary guidance and control 
over the poetic imagination, but not to impede its energy. 
H. N. Coleridge 1 points out that, whereas Hebrew lyric 
is satisfied with an intensity of enthusiastic emotion, too 
often at the sacrifice of intelligibility, Greek lyric on the 
other hjmxLc ompens at.es for a co mparati ve deficiency in 
depth of feeling by~~ffie atlnurable tact with which it 
assigns to form and to thought each its proper province, 
and never neglects to provide for the artistic symmetry of 
the whole composition. In a later period, however, when 
originality of thought declined, the balance was destroyed, 
and the excessive importance which became attached to 
the mere form was probably one of the causes leading to 
the extinction of Greek lyrical production. 
(6) Greek Lyric Again, if we consider the distinctive element in the 
' occasional '• various types of lyric poetry, we find it to consist in the 
special nature of the occasion for which the poem was 
designed. Hence Greek lyric is rightly called 'occa- 
sional '. It is true that one class of these ' occasions ', con- 
vivial meetings, to which were appropriated the species of 
lyric called Paroenia or Scolia (see p. 12), admitted of 
a very wide range in the choice of subject, and the songs 
of this description are those that most resemble the lyric 
poetry of modern times. 2 But from causes shortly to be 
examined, this branch of lyric, with some very brilliant 
exceptions, did not assume nearly so important a place in 
cultivated Greek poetry as was taken by choral Melic, 
whose range was somewhat more confined to subjects 



1 In an Article in the Quarterly Review, xlix. 349. 

2 See Introduction to Scolia, page 232. 



DISTINCTIVE FEATURES 17 

appropriate to the special ceremony or festival for which 
the services of the poet were required. Thus the skill of 
the poet was exercised, and in the bloom of Greek lyric 
successfully exercised, in avoiding, on the one hand, too 
great limitation and monotony, and, on the other, in re- 
straining his imagination within the bounds necessary for 
the unity strictly required by a lyrical composition. We Variety of sub- 
must here remember that a polytheistic religion, rich in so^^fo^reii- 
mythology, afforded to the poetry devoted to its service s ious or similar 

r - . occasions by 

opportunity lor very great variety of treatment in recount- mythology. 
ing the qualities or adventures of the Deity addressed ; 
while the intimate and simple nature of the relations 
supposed to exist in early times between gods and men 
admitted of an introduction of secular subjects, which 
would be excluded from religious song by a people hold- 
ing a more exalted and reverential notion of the Deity. 
While, then, the fact of lyric poetry being ' occasional ' 
did not necessarily restrict the genius of the poet, a more 
rapid development was attained by the opportunity thus 
given for a modified form of division of labour among Division of 
poets. It is true that we find no example of a lyric poet L yr °ic poets." S 
confining himself to one or even a few branches of his 
subject, but many of them seem to have devoted their 
chief energies to perfecting that species to which their 
particular genius impelled them. Thus Alcaeus, though 
a writer also of hymns, excelled in Scolia and similar 
compositions ; Simonides was unsurpassed alike in epi- 
grammatic poems and in the beauty of his Threnoi ; while 
Pindar brought the art of the Epinician ode to the summit 
of its perfection. 

On the other hand, the dangers that beset ' occasional ' Natural tend- 
poetry are obvious, and the avoidance of them is merely SrpSy. 
a matter of time. Poetry, written not at the prompting 
of the poet's own heart, but because a certain occasion 
requires a song for its adornment, cannot for long keep 
itself from frigidity and inanition. At first, indeed, this 
may not be the case, while the poet is still writing only 
on subjects closely connected with his own life, and 
capable of inspiring him with enthusiasm ; and in Greece 

B 



iS GREEK LYRIC POETS 

so powerful was the re-awakening to poetic life in the 
eighth and seventh centuries B.C., and so stirring was 
the aesthetic, intellectual, and political history of the Greek 
world onwards till the fourth century, that lyric poetry 
maintained its excellence long after the poets had ceased 
to confine their talents to subjects in which they felt a 
personal interest, and even after they were ready to let 
themselves out for hire to the highest bidder. 

The corrupting influence, however, could not be resisted, 
and it was aided, as Bergk points out, by the multiplica- 
tion of prize-contests for lyrical compositions, until in the 
end the poet was sapped of all his freshness and vitality, 
and became a mere tool in the hands of the musician 
(see p. 40 seg.). 
(c) Didactic tone A further characteristic alike of Greek Lyric, and its 
in Greek Lync. ff S p r i n g the Drama, is the religious, or moralising, or 
didactic tone which widely prevails. This again is mainly 
due to the elements from which lyric in great part arose ; 
for the poet, once perhaps identical with the priest, re- 
tained his function as the teacher of his hearers. This 
tendency shows itself chiefly in the Gnomic poetry, which 
is directly didactic in character ; but we find it pre- 
dominating also in such subjects as the Epinician Odes of 
Simonides and Pindar, both of whom gave poetical utter- 
ance to precepts in a manner which at times was hardly 
gratifying to their employer. Doubtless these writers 
were influenced by the importance now attaching to ethical 
discussion ; but their ready adoption of such subjects 
shows that they felt that the poet and philosopher were 
here at least on common ground. 

Even more marked is the strongly didactic or moralising 
tone throughout the Scolia (see p. 232), showing that even 
here, where lighter themes might have been looked for, 
the singer was expected to remember that he was also a 
teacher. 
(</) Greek Lyric As being ' occasional ', and connected mainly with pub- 
 objective". jj c festivals, religious or semi-religious, we naturally find 
Greek lyric to be of a more objective character than is 
usually to be expected in this branch of poetry. Poets, like 



DISTINCTIVE FEATURES 19 

the majority of the Greek song- writers, whose compositions 

were not merely in honour of some event or ceremonies of 

public interest, but destined also to be sung in public by a 

chorus of perhaps fifty singers, would naturally refrain 

from giving vent to such purely personal emotions as are 

so often portrayed to us in modern lyric poetry. Another 

cause tended to impress this character of objectivity yet 

more strongly upon Greek lyric. I refer to the still active 

influence of Epic upon all poetic composition, not only Prevalence of 

with regard to the dialect (see p. j6) and the form of Gi-eeic Lyric Hi 

expression, but also to the treatment of subject. It is to P a I tlv t0 e p ic 

r J influence. 

this influence of Epic that we must in great part attribute 
the remarkable prevalence of objective narrative in Greek 
lyric. In religious lyric singing the praises of a god or 
demigod readily enough took the form of a narrative of 
their adventures or achievements, and we find Stesichorus, 
to take a striking instance, whose poems were perhaps in 
the form of hymns (see p. 169), devoting himself almost 
entirely to mythical or epic subjects treated in lyric 
manner. ' Stesichorus sustained the weight of Epic poetry 
with the lyre ' (Quintilian). 

Again, as is well known, the mythical element plays a 
most important part in the Epinician Odes of Pindar, whose 
treatment of incidents, always in some manner connected 
with his main subject, stands, as Professor Jebb points out, 
midway between Epic and the Drama. But even in such 
a subject as a Threnos, Epic influence made itself felt, as 
is seen in the famous passage of Simonides (No. II.), where 
the woes of Danae and her hopes of aid are probably 
introduced for consolation to those for whom he wrote. 

Epic, indeed, with its stores of mythology, afforded to the 
Greeks of later times a boundless supply of ideal incidents 
whereby to illustrate and adorn the present ; and this 
applies not to poetry alone but to works of art ; for the 
combats between Gods and Giants, Hero and Centaur, 
Greek and Amazon, are said to be sculptural allegories 
which typify recent victories of Greeks over Asiatic bar- 
barians. 

Even in the less prominent branch of Lyric, that of 



'1 



20 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

Litiie scif-reflec- monodic and personal song, we find, with a few brilliant 
■monodta" exceptions, 1 far less reflection of the poet's own life and 
songs. emotions than might be expected. Such poems of which 

Scolia form the chief part were usually composed for the 
benefit of the author's own circle of acquaintances and 
partisans, and his object would naturally be to give utter- 
ance to sentiments, personal indeed, but appealing hardly 
less strongly to his hearers than to himself. This may be 
seen in the political odes of Alcaeus, in the so-called Attic 
Scolia (i.-ix.), or in the drinking-songs of Alcaeus and 
Anacreon. And indeed, when we consider the great pre- 
dominance of social or club life in Greek cities, and the 
conspicuous absence of anything like solitary, or even 
home interests, we are not surprised to find that both in 
choral and single Melic the poet's individual feelings gave 
precedence to subjects appealing either to the whole body 
of his fellow-citizens, or to his own friends or boon-com- 
panions. 

Such are, I consider, some of the distinguishing features 
of Greek Lyric, in contrast especially with that of modern 
times. It is obvious also that the fact of all songs being 
composed for music, and the greater part for an elaborate 
dance-accompaniment as well, must have had great in- 
fluence on the character of the poetry itself; and this 
subject will be touched upon in the articles appropriated 
to the dance and the music of Greek Lyric. 



1 I am referring- especially to Sappho's immortal description of her 
passion, in Od. ii. 



ARTICLE III 

CHORAL, AND SINGLE OR PERSONAL MELIC POETRY — 
DORIAN AND LESBIAN SCHOOLS 

I HAVE had occasion, mainly in the preceding article, to 
refer several times to the predominance of choral over 
monodic or personal Melic poetry — with the former of 
which is associated the Dorian school of lyric poetry, with 
the latter the Lesbian. I propose in this article to con- 
sider briefly the causes leading to this. 

First of all, we must bear in mind that the chief occa- Causes leading 
sions which called for the exercise of lyric poetry were n an ^ SSSJi 
connected with religion, and that religion tends to foster over monodic 
choral rather than solo singing, this being certainly the case 
in Greece, where, in the absence of a distinct sacerdotal 
class, the worshippers would naturally take each an active 
part in the ceremony. Again, we must remember the all- 
important part that public life as a citizen played in the 
existence of a Greek, so that far greater attention was 
likely to be bestowed on choral poetry, intended as it was 
for public delivery, than upon monodic song, which was 
composed rather for the poet's own circle. 

Furthermore, in a world ignorant of publishers or readers, 
a poet who courted notoriety must needs have written for 
occasions which secured for his works the largest audiences 
— and these with the Greeks were occasions for choral 
song. 

Finally, recollecting that the term ' choral ' as applied to 
Greek song, denotes not merely, or primarily, song de- 
livered by a choir or body of singers, but song accompanied 
by dance, we naturally expect to find this agreeable 

21 



22 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

custom attain to the greatest popularity among a people 
so devoted to graceful movements and gymnastic training 
as were the Greeks. 

Such considerations by themselves would lead us to 

expect that choral song would play a very important part 

in Greek lyric poetry ; but when, in addition, we find that 

it was among the Dorians, and especially under Spartan 

patronage, that lyric developed in its early bloom, we are 

not surprised that the reign, brilliant as it was, of personal 

or single Melic was, comparatively speaking, of brief 

duration, and that before long nearly all great lyric poems 

influence of the were composed for choral delivery. For all the features 

andpartkuiariy m Greek life that I have been mentioning were emphasised 

of the Spartans, £<-, a marked degree among the Dorians. Religion, I have 

in encouraging ° ° . 

choral poetry, said, naturally encouraged choral poetry. Especially was 
this the case with the Dorians, the main supporters, as 
they are said to have been, 1 of the great Hellenic worship 
of Apollo, with whose name choral singing, or the union 
of song and dance, was connected from the earliest times. 2 
Again, it was remarked that public life as a citizen fostered 
choral or public displays of poetic talent ; and at Sparta, 
the bulwark of Dorian influence, we know that private life 
among the citizens was of the smallest importance. Lastly, 
we saw that the predominance of choral poetry was in a 
great measure attributable to the love and practice of 
gymnastics among the Greeks. Now with the Spartans, of 
all the Greeks, gymnastics, including rhythmical military 
evolutions, were nothing less than a solemn if also agree- 
able duty, the omission of which would have endangered 
her commanding position in Greece. Hence it is naturally 
under Spartan auspices that we find developed that perfect, 
and to us hardly realisable union of music, dance, and song, 
which was soon adopted by the entire Hellenic world. 3 



1 See Muller's Dorians, Bk. II. cc. i. ii. iii. 2 See p. 5. 

3 Socrates, ap. Athen. 628, referring to the Spartans, declares that 
the 'bravest of the Greeks make the finest chorus'; and Pratinas 
I.e. 633, speaks of the 'Spartan Cicada ready for the chorus'. See 
also the account of the numerous Spartan dances in Muller's Dorians, 
vol. ii. p. 351 seq. 



DORIAN AND LESBIAN SCHOOLS 23 

On the other hand, the comparatively insignificant his- 
torical importance of Lesbos, the home of Aeolic song, 
and the fact that Lesbian life and Lesbian thought were 
not such as were destined to appeal most strongly to the 
sympathies of the main body of the Greek race, caused 
the outburst of the Aeolic style of lyric poetry, i.e. the 
monodic and strongly subjective style, to be as brief as it 
was dazzling. It would appear that the Lesbians, Terp- 
ander and Arion, who were the first to teach their art to A sc h 00 i of 
Greece proper, belonged to a school of lyric poetry, if we 1 >' ri , c P° et '7 , 

r r *> . , ,. 1 early established 

may use such an expression, early established at Lesbos, at Lesbos. 
which reached its perfection in the time of Alcaeus and 
Sappho ; and from the proud words of Sappho herself — 

Ilsppoyo; to? 6Y aoiSo? 6 Ascjito; aXXooV.Trowi 

— we gather that the ascendency of the school was un- 
challenged. Soon after this period, however, as the States i m p 0rtance f 
of Greece proper came more and more to the front, while Asiatic Greeks 

recedes before 

the importance of the Asiatic-Greek cities began rapidly that of Greece 
to wane, the scene of lyric activity was transferred to propen 
Dorian ground. Yet though the Lesbian school ceased to .. 

° > ° Nevertheless 

exist, it is hard to over-estimate the influence which it an enduring 

, • , , • 11 i_ , r* 1 1 influence was 

continued to exercise on all subsequent Greek lyric poetry, exercised upon 
Naturally, this influence most directly affected the Greeks f- 11 Sllbse q ue " t 

J ' J lyric poetry by 

of Asia Minor or of the adjacent islands ; and it is a Asiatic Greece. 
noticeable fact that besides the Lesbians, Terpander and 
Arion, no less than six of the nine chief lyric poets — 
Alcman, Alcaeus, Sappho, Anacreon, Stesichorus, Ibycus, 
Simonides, Bacchylides, and Pindar — are of Asiatic-Greek 
descent. Of the rest, Ibycus, a Dorian who attached him- 
self to the court of Polycrates at Samos, identifies himself 
with the Lesbian poets in the passionate glow of his 
language and thought ; Pindar, who alone belongs to 
Greece proper, is of Aeolic race ; while StesicJioms of 
Himera, a colony half Ionic, half Dorian, is supposed to be 
connected in origin with a line of Locrian Epic poets who 
followed in the footsteps of the Boeotian Hesiod. 1 Finally, 

1 See Mailer's Hist, of Gr. Lit. p. 198. We must nevertheless 
remember that however freely we may admit the existence of innate 



24 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

it is to be noticed that nearly all the lyric poets from 
Alcman to Pindar acknowledged their debt of gratitude to 
Lesbos by the partial employment of its dialect 1 
Dorian stamp Nevertheless, although its inspiration was mainly drawn 

cho P raTsong POn from the Lesbians or Asiatic Greeks, lyric poetry accom- 
modated itself in form, under which I include subject, 
metre, dialect to a considerable extent, and style of 
delivery, mainly to the predominant Dorian taste, and 
it is in Dorian guise that it meets us in the choruses of 

Extension of the Attic drama. So powerful, indeed, did the attraction 

the choral form. r , i -n t 1 • . , ,- 

of choral Mehc poetry become, that we find eventually 
classes of song that were properly only monodic adapted 
to choral delivery. This appears to be the case in the 
famous Threnos of Simonides (No. II.), and it is so even 
with Scolia in Pindar, 2 and with the Nomos in later times. 3 
It must not, however, be forgotten that the Lesbian or 
monodic style lived on in the lighter, though hardly less 
important, form of lyric — the convivial songs which played 
so intimate a part in the social life of the Greeks. 4 



poetical ability in the Lesbian branch of the Aeolic race, it is by no 
means safe to extend our conclusions to any other branch such as the 
Boeotian. Witness the proverbial expression, ' The Boeotian pig ', 
quoted by Pindar himself. 

1 See, however, p. 97. 2 s ee on Pind. Frag. IX. 

3 See Bergk's Gr. Lit. vol. ii. p. 530. 

4 See Introd. to Scolia, p. 232. 



ARTICLE IV 

DANCE AS AN ACCOMPANIMENT OF GREEK SONG 

IN the previous Article I have endeavoured to point out 
the reason of the predominance in Greek poetry of choral 
song, in which the dance formed one of the chief accom- 
paniments. I now wish to dwell more in detail upon this 
connection of dance and song at the different periods, and 
to consider, so far as circumstances allow, what was the 
function and the nature of the dance in Lyric poetry. 
Epic, the earliest form of Greek poetry with which we are 
acquainted, was of course unaccompanied by the dance. Early union of 
We are, however, supplied by Epic with passages pointing fhou^f 1 S °i ng ' 
to a very early, not to say primitive, union of dance and intimate nature 
song, which was but revived and developed at the period of times!" 
the great Renaissance of Lyric. In the passages I am about 
to quote, we shall see that whereas in classical Lyric the 
singers were identical with the dancers, their steps follow- 
ing with precision the rhythm alike of the poetry and of 
the melody, on the other hand in these early times the 
connection was of a far less intimate character. We have 
indeed few, if any, cases in Homer of dance unaccom- 
panied by song, 1 and not many of song without some form 
of measured movement to enhance its effect ; but usually 
the dancers move in silence, while the minstrel both plays 
(on the lute) and sings ; or again, if the chorus is also 
represented as singing, we find their movement to be not 
that of a set dance, but of a procession, and it would 



1 In Od. viii. 370 two men dance in the palace of Alcinous without 
any mention being made of vocal or even of musical accompaniment. 
Yet in 11. 379, 380 we find the words x.oupoi 8' ir.zkrf.sov aXXoi, and r.olus 
o 07:0 y.6[i.Tzoi opwpsi. 

25 



26 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



appear in some cases that they join not so much in the 

actual song as in the refrain. 
Passages in In //. xviii. 590 seq., a passage already referred to in 

(a) where the connection with the Hyporchem, p. 5, we have a detailed 
but ule nopai t anc * beautiful description of youths and maidens dancing 
in the song. while a minstrel sings to them and plays his lute : 

Ms-ra <)£ cr^iv i^£kiz&vo &slo<; aotSo? <S>op|/.i£a>v, 

and this passage is all the more suited to our present 
purpose if it is rightly regarded as a description of a 
Hyporchem, since in this branch of lyric poetry at a later 
period the union of choral dance and choral song was 
most intimate. 

Again, in Od. viii. 261 seq., a famous minstrel, Demodocus, 
plays his clear-toned lute (<p6ppyya >.iyeiav), and sings the 
story of Ares and Aphrodite, while he is surrounded by a 
band of young men in the flower of their youth, 'well skilled 
in their art, who strike with their feet the dance divine ' 
(7r£77>7]yov Ss x°P° v && ov ^oofo), while Odysseus gazes in 
wonderment on the flashing movements of their feet — 
[/.ap^apuya; <9i}Sito uoStov, -O-aup.a'Cs o*s S-UfAto. 1 

Lastly, in Od. xxiii. 143 the following expressions 
occur : 

'O o" siXsto Q-zXoc, aoiSo; 
clPoptv.iyya ylacpupvjv, sv Se ccptcriv ij/.spov topcrev 
Mok^? ts y>.i>/tep7js jcoi a[/.u(JM>vo? dp/yj^oio. 
Toiaiv o*s p.sya Scotxa xsptcrrsva^STO Tiorjcriv 
'AvSpwv xai^ovTtov jto&X&ovwv ts yuvaix.cov. 

In this passage we find men and women dancing, while 
the bard plays the lute ; but we may also reasonably con- 
clude from the very fact that he was an aoiSo? that he also 
sang. Moreover, although the word p>.7r/j<; may indeed refer 
only to the dance, and not necessarily imply singing, 2 the 



1 In this passage Hartung regards the dance as a prelude to the 
lay of Ares and Aphrodite. Even if this be the case, we may still 
conclude that the dance was an accompaniment to song, namely, to 
the song which served as a prelude to an Epic recital. See Midler's 
Hist. ofGr. Lit. p. 72. 2 M tiller, loc. cit. p. 20. 



DANCE ACCOMPANIMENT 27 

epithet yXuxspTJs, and the immediate mention of opy;/]9|>.d ? , 
almost compel us to regard the word in this passage as 
signifying 'song'. We must not, however, conclude that the 
chorus take part in the singing — rather they feel ' a desire 
to hear sweet song, and to take part in the noble dance.' 

In the passages that I will now mention we find a slight (6) Where 

- , . , . 1 ,1 , 1 chorus while 

distinction from those just quoted, in that the chorus do dancing takes a 
take some part, though a small one, in the singing. JFJjJgJ 1 * in the 
According to a description in //. xviii. 569, a boy, standing 
in the middle of the band, plays a sweet melody on the 
lute, and sings the lovely song of Linus with sweet voice : 

Aivov S' utto x.aXov asiSev 

AsTCTa^ST] CptOVT) TO! &£ p7]CC0VT£? a[7,apT7} 

MoXtt/J t iuyi-uo ts 7TOg! cxaipovxe; stvovto. 

The words [v.oX~?j t iuy;xco ts x.tX evidently imply not that 
the song was choral, but that the dancers joined in a 
refrain such as the mournful cry of odlivov. 

The case is somewhat similar apparently with the pass- 
age in II. xviii. 492 seq., already cited (see p. 12). We 
are not told who sang the hymeneal song ; but we may 
surmise that while some duly appointed singer, or possibly 
singers, sang the chant, the whole revelling band joined in 
the refrain of ' Hymen Hymenaee,' or the like. Compare 
on the Threnos, p. 1 1. 

A still more active part in the singing is taken by the (c) Where 
chorus in chanting the Paean, for example in //. xxii. 391 JheenUre^ong, 
sea., where Achilles calls upon his men to carry off to his but is less 

1 ' x 1 1 • 1 r occupied with 

ships the slain Hector, and to sing with him the song of the dance, 
victory as they go — Nov ft' ay' astSovTS? xaivjova, k.t.1 That 
their song was not unaccompanied by rhythmic move- 
ments, if not by actual dance, we may infer from the 
analogy of a passage in the Homeric hymn to Apollo, 
1. 514 seq., where the god celebrates his victory over the 
Python, playing on the lyre, while the Cretans follow him 
with measured steps singing the Paean. 

Similarly, in Hesiod, Proem. Thcog., the Muses are 
represented as first dancing, and then singing as they 
move along in procession, a passage closely imitated in 



28 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



the well-known song of Callicles in M. Arnold's Empedocles 
on Aetna, ad fin. 
(d) Where the Lastly, I will notice a case of choral singing without 

chorus sings but r t 11 ; j  j 1 

does not dance an y reference at all to dancing or movement, and where 
at a11 - it seems implied that the banqueters join in the Paean as 

they 'lie beside their nectar '. This occurs //. i. 471 : 

Ntofr/jTav <T cL^y. 7c£aiv s~apEa|j.svot oS7ras<j<Jtv, 
Oi Ss TCavy^/ipioi [jsj)\77r t -9-eov i^ocgjcovto, 
KaXov asi&ovrs; 7ra«nova, xoOpoi 'Ayatojv 

Ms>;7rovT£? ' Exaspvov. 



Identity of 
singers and 
dancers not 
found in early 
period — 



First noticeable 
in the time of 
Thaletas. 



Development of 
' orchestic ' 
singing by 
Thaletas, 

in connection 
with the Paean, 



The conclusion, then, that we may draw from these 
passages is that in these early times there was but little 
' orchestic singing ', implying by that term song delivered 
by a band of singers, who at the same time dance to their 
own melody. We either find that the dancers are prac- 
tically silent while a poet sings and plays, or that if the 
singing is ' choral ' in the modern sense of the word, it is 
at the expense of the dance, which either disappears, or 
more usually takes the form of mere rhythmical proces- 
sional movement. Of the stages by which pure ' orchestic ' 
singing, such as we find in classical Lyric, or in the 
choruses of the Drama, was brought to perfection, we have 
but little knowledge. The chief development is ascribed 
to Thaletas, under whose influence we appear to find the 
union of dance and song suddenly accomplished, the facts 
probably being that he systematised and brought to artistic 
completion a process already at work. Thaletas belongs, in 
common with Alcman, to what Plutarch calls the second- 
epoch (SsuTspa xaTaaraaic) in the progress of lyrical poetry 
at Sparta. The first epoch takes its character from the 
innovations of Terpander, which were mainly in connection 
with monodic song unaccompanied by the dance (see p. 
36) ; and as it had been Terpander's task to enrich poetry 
by musical accompaniment, so it was left for Thaletas to 
bring into intimate connection with choral lyric the further 
accompaniment of elaborate dance movements. We have 
seen that in Homer mention of choral 



singing occurs 



DANCE ACCOMPANIMENT 29 

mainly in connection with the Paean. Consistently with 
this we find Thaletas directing his attention chiefly to the 
cultivation of this form of religious song. Again, in 
Homer we find that the Cretans enjoyed a great reputa- 
tion in the art of dancing, and it was from Crete that 
Thaletas came to Sparta. 

Lastly, we notice that one of the occasions for choral and the Gymno- 
song, to which he particularly devoted himself, was that G f paedia- 
the Gymnopaedia, at which he glorified mere gymnastic 
evolutions by bringing them into harmony with the rhythm 
of lyric poetry and its proper melody. In Athen. xv. 678 
we read that choruses of boys and of men at the Gymno- 
paedia sang and danced simultaneously, the song being one 
cither of Alcman or of Thaletas : dp/ouf/ivcav seal aSo'vTwv 
OaXvjTOu seal 'AV/.^avo? XGU.axx. 

In this passage we have first direct testimony to the 
union of song and dance in the time of Thaletas, and 
secondly indirect ; for from existing fragments we know 
Alcman to have written in the antistrophic style, which 
from its nature implies ' orchestic ' singing proper ; and 
from the close connection in this passage of his name with 
that of Thaletas, we may conclude that the latter also 
employed a similar form of composition. 

Orchestic lyric, however, in the time of Alcman, taking Further de- 
him as the first poet, after the innovations"^ THafetas, of oSeSing- 
whom we can form any judgment from surviving; frag- j ng— Stesi- 

c r 1 • . , . . „ .. chorus and the 

ments, was tar from having attained its full completion. Epode. 
In the first place, it yet remained for Stesichorus, accord- Its object " 
ing to the common account, 1 to relieve the continuous 
strain which must have taxed alike the endurance of the 
performers and the attention of the spectators, by intro- 
ducing after each antistrophe the Epode during which 
the song continued, though with change of metre, and 
necessarily of melody, while the dance was temporarily 
stopped. We must bear in mind that the Epode intro- 
duced a greater innovation into choral lyric at this period 
than it would have done into choral delivery as found in 



1 See, however, p. 170. 



30 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

Greater variety the Drama. For in the latter, as I have mentioned in 
StiSDramafas Article v., each strophe and its antistrophe usually differs 
compared with from the preceding pair in metre, and therefore in melody 

those of Lyric. , , r ,.,.-,. , . , 

and dance measure, while in lyric proper, not only in the 
early time of Alcman, but of its latest great representative, 
Pindar, we find the same succession of strophe and anti- 
strophe continued throughout the poem. It was the desire 
to break the monotony of this system, which would be 
keenly felt in the long choral poems of Stesichorus that 
naturally led to the invention of the Epode. 

Lastly, not merely in form but also in the treatment of 
the personality of the chorus and of the poet respectively, 
the lyric of an Alcman is markedly distinct from that of a 
Simonides or a Pindar. In the latter we find that the 
chorus serves merely as the mouthpiece of the poet, who 
as it were lends his own personality entirely to this col- 
lective body, the constituent members of which are in 
Early choral complete unison in voice and in movements. I n Alcma n, 
singing exhibits on the other hand, this is far from being the case. The 

less united or .... . , , , . 

collective action poet, himself taking part in the chorus, 1 retains his own 
thVcomponent personality and allows the chorus to retain theirs also, 
members. Often the poet addresses the chorus collectively or indi- 

vidually, as in the beautiful line where he laments the 
advance of old age : 

Ou [/,' stl 7tap9-svucai [/.sXiyapus; Lv.spocpG)voi 
yuia cpspetv Suvaxai, x.-'X. 

(No. II.) or in the newly discovered Parthenion. Often 
in turn do the choruses address or speak of their leader 
the poet as in No. IV., ou/. si; <xv7jp aypouco;, etc. (cf. Alcman, 
No. v., oca i Se Trat'Ss;, etc.). Nor must it be thought 
that this last characteristic of early chorus as exemplified 
by Alcman is not to be connected with our present sub- 
ject — the dance ; for I imagine that where the personality 
of the choral performers was so far from being brought to 
a collective unity in idea, in the dance also there must 
have been far less united action. It is therefore not un- 
important to bear such considerations as these in mind in 

1 See Alcm. i. ii. iv. v. 



DANCE ACCOMPANIMENT 31 

endeavouring to realise the full nature of a Greek Lyrical 
performance. 

If Greek music be an art which, whatever its merit may Thecharacter 
have been, has left but little appreciable record of itself, still of the dance 
more is this the case with the Greek dance. Nevertheless be partially 
of that branch at any rate which was so closely connected fromthe b char- 
with Lvric we are able to form some conjectures not un- acterofthe 

. , . dance-songs. 

worthy of our attention ; lor little as we may be in a posi- 
tion to realise the actual steps and figures accompanying 
the song, yet one most important detail of the dance, its First, in metre, 
time and the different succession of its movements, is not 
beyond our knowledge, being preserved to us in such 
portions of the Greek Lyric poetry as still survives. For 
as the dance must follow the time of the melody, and the 
melody in Greek that of the words (see pp. 34, 41), the 
phases in the rhythm and metre of the poetry represent 
exactly corresponding phases in the dance. If then we 
wish to consider what was the predominating style of 
Lyric dance, we must consider what was the predominat- 
ing metrical style of Lyric poetry. Let it not be thought 
that by predominating style I mean some set form of an d although 
dance which was most in fashion ; for the Greek public e ^; n T s °"? 

■*■ I GQUirCQ 3. new 

demanded in every choral poem originality as much in the metrical system 

, . . r , 1  1 and dance- 

metre as in the language itselt, each strophical system measure, 

being (with minute exceptions) without parallel in the 

surviving literature ; so that it follows necessarily that a 

new dance-figure also had to be designed for every fresh 

occasion. In spite, however, of the constant variety, there 

are naturally found classes of metrical systems which 

display a certain unity in general character. We have 

already noticed the great influence of the Dorian race yet we find pre- 

on the development of Greek choral Lyric ; and it was e°™and°teteiy 

therefore natural that the Dorian metrical system should movementofthe 

rr^i -1 • r r -i Dorian style. 

predominate. 1 The most striking feature of this, a bril- 
liant example of which may be seen in the famous Ode of 

1 Plato, Laches 188 D, speaks of the Dorian musical style (apuWa) 
as the only genuine Hellenic one. Considering the essential con- 
nection between the metre and the music, he would doubtless have 
extended the remark to Dorian metre also. 



32 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

Pindar, PytJi. IV., is majestic, and regular movement 
effected by an even flow of trochees and dactyls, with but 
little resolution of the syllables. Corresponding to this 
metrical style must have been the character of the dance 
in the greater part of Greek Lyric, displaying a stateliness 
of movement in which, just as in Greek sculpture, the 
expression even of keen emotion was chastened and 
subdued. 

Secondly, in Again, the Greek dance was dependent on the language, 

not only for the direction of its movements and rhythm 
but also for its whole meaning. For the dance in Lyric 

for the Greek poetry was a display of graceful action not for its own 

dance was x ■* • i -T 

mimetic. sake alone, but aided language in the expression of 

thought, and it bore to poetry the same relation, though 
in a more intimate degree, as gesticulation to the art of 
oratory. That man therefore would be best qualified to 
reconstruct for us the Greek dance, in accompaniment to 
any given specimen of Greek choral song, who, being of 
course a master of the art of rhythmical movement, could 
also identify himself most nearly with the emotions 
expressed by the words of the poet. 

Bearing in mind this mimetic character of Greek dance, 

whereby it served as a fitting and welcome accompaniment 

to the expression even of the most elevated thought and 

emotions, we shall not allow our modern prejudices to 

Dance an im- cause us surprise at the fact that dancing was with the 

portan't factor in Q ree k s an important and constant form of religious ritual. 

Greek religious * » 

ritual, We are apt to connect the dance either with frivolity in 

a civilised state of society, or with serious occasions only 
among barbarians ; but when we study Greek Lyric with 
all its accessories we observe that frivolity or childish- 
ness are but accidental and by no means essential char- 
acteristics of the orchestic art, and that in a period of 
highly advanced civilisation it has shown itself capable of 
fulfilling a lofty function in connection alike with religion 
and even in that and with elevated poetry. Many illustrations, indeed, of the 
Christian 13 ' religious dance may be gathered from the Old Testament 
church. or from Mohammedan practices, and furthermore those 

who care to consult an article in Folk-Lore (Oct. to Dec. 



DANCE ACCOMPANIMENT 33 

1887) may be surprised and interested to find how con- 
siderable a part dancing once played, and in a few places 
even at this day still plays in the ritual of the Christian 
religion. 1 It is not unnatural to conjecture that in this as 
in many other matters the early Christians impressed 
ancient pagan customs with the service of the new Faith. 

I must touch upon one more subject before concluding influence of the 
this Article, and point out the influence which the dance meJrfcaUtruc- 6 
must have exercised not only upon Lyrical melodies, but, ture of Greek 

. _ . , . . poems. 

as we can better appreciate, upon Lyrical metrical struc- 
ture. 

The music which accompanied Lyric and which was 
also the predominating form of music among the Greeks 
(cf. Plato, Laws, 669 e) must have belonged to the class of 
dance-music ; and similarly the metrical structure of choral 
poetry may be classified, as indeed its name implies, as 
dance-metre. No subtle complications of melody would 
have suggested to the poet the elaborate, at times almost 
labyrinthine paths taken by strophe, antistrophe, and epode. 
It is plain then that for this feature of Greek Lyric which 
often renders mere reading so tantalising, the refinements 
of the orchestic art are in no small degree responsible. 2 



1 Thus Scaliger says that many early churches were constructed 
suitably for dances ; and that bishops were called Praesules, because 
they led the dance ! — as if the word were to be derived from salio. 
A religious dance is still said to be performed by the choristers 
before the high altar in the cathedral of Seville. Lastly the jumping- 
saints {Springende Heiligen) at Luxemburg deserve notice. 

1 I have been unable to hear of any representations on vases of the 
Greek choral dance in connection with any of the branches of lyric 
poetry. Of dancing itself, however, there are many. See, for 
example, in the British Museum, Vase E. 783, where girls are appa- 
rently imitating the flight of birds, and E. 200. There is also a fine 
illustration of the op[xog, or circular dance of men and women, in 
Panofka's Manners and Customs of the Ancient Greeks, Plate ix. 5. 



ARTICLE V 

MUSICAL ACCOMPANIMENT OF GREEK SONG 

It is far from being my object in this Article to endeavour 
to deal with the unsatisfactory question of the real nature 
of Greek music. Those who wish for information herein 
should consult e.g. Chappell's History of Music, vol. i., or 
Boeckh De Metris Pindari. 

It is necessary for me to refer to the subject only so far 
as to enable us to realise more clearly the whole effect of 
a Greek song, and to detect the cause of certain charac- 
teristics of its structure. 
Advance in Since music and lyric poetry, so long as the latter 

Greek music retained its vigour, proceeded hand in hand, the develop- 
closely con- & » r - ' r 

nected with ment of the one follows closely upon that of the other. 
poefry, SS and yl ' C But be it remembered that the two arts were not of 
m die rrTtre of 6 P ara -U e l importance, poetry from primitive times till the 
surviving pas- end of the classical period employing music as an accom- 
paniment, subordinate, though essential. 1 

Since, again, the musical notes exactly matched the 
syllables of the poetry, no trills or runs being admitted, we 
are able to trace, in the increasing elaboration of metrical 
structure, a corresponding advance in the musical accom- 
paniment, and even to re-construct at least the rhythm of 
the melody. 

I will begin by giving an outline of the development 
of Greek vocal music, clouded though the facts be in 
uncertainty. 



1 to [jiXo? xat 6 pu^j-o; warcep o'iov E7U xw Xdyw. — Plut. Symp. vii. 8. 
4 ; cf. Plat. Rep. 398 B. 

34 



MUSICAL ACCOMPANIMENT 35 
In the early times, into which Homer gives us some Primitive nature 

the music in 
omeric times, 



insight, the melodies must have been of a simplicity which £[ ll 



for us it is difficult to realise. An instrument of four 
strings, each capable of producing one note only, appears 
to have sufficed ; and though the wind-instrument was 
probably of a more extensive compass, we may conclude, 
from the far less frequent mention of it, that its use was 
very limited ; and critics point out that it is never men- 
tioned in Homer as employed by Greeks, but only by 
Trojans. The simplicity of the music was a natural result in agreement 

c ]. .',... . ., i-i with the simple 

of a corresponding simplicity in the songs which were metrical stmc- 
accompanied, and which were as yet wholly neglected as a ture of the early 

r ' ' J o songs. 

cultivated branch of poetry. So far as we can surmise, 
these songs often consisted of a monotonous repetition of 
metrically similar lines, which seem to be taken together 
in pairs. 1 Or again, the four-line stanza must have existed 
long before it became, in the hands of the Lesbian poets, 
so perfect a vehicle for the expression of passionate feel- 
ings ; and it would appear that in olden times the four 
lines of the stanza differed scarcely if at all from each 
other in their metre. It is obvious that this simple 
recurrence of metrically similar lines, whether grouped 
in couplets or in four-line stanzas, required very short 
and simple tunes, which would be repeated with each 
fresh couplet or stanza. Furthermore, Epic, at that Little process 
time the only cultivated branch of poetry, was unsuited m ade in music 

' ~ . J ' until Epic 

for melody. Evidence, indeed, shows that it was chanted poetry was 
or intoned ; but for this purpose a lyre of four strings Lyric, 
would be amply sufficient to give the proper modula- 
tions to the voice. It is not, then, till the decay of Epic 
and the dawn of Lyric that we hear of advance in Greek 
music. 

The first innovation is connected with the name of Terp- Terpander and 
ander, and it is sometimes described as consisting in the chord. ep ' a 
extension of the old tetrachord to a heptachord, by the 
addition of a second tetrachord to the first. Seven strings 
only were employed, as the two tetrachords had one string 



See notes on Pop. Songs, 1. n. 



36 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Musical import- 
ance of the 
Nome. 



Clonas and 
Olympus— Im- 
provements in 
Flute-music. 



in common. A more probable account, however, as given 
by Boeckh De Metris Pindari, is that Terpander added 
one more string to the hexachord which was already in 
use among the Dorians, amidst whom his work lay, and that 
his highest string stood in the same relation to the lowest 
as the highest to the lowest note of an octave, while 
one of the intermediate notes was for some reason omitted. 
Chappell, on the contrary, maintains that Terpander's 
heptachord was merely a discordant minor seventh, and 
that, since it thus fell too far short of the octave system to 
admit of real melody, it can only have been suited for an 
improved form of the recitative of the Epic rhapsodists. 
Such a view is certainly not in accordance with the tes- 
timony of the ancients as to the entirely new character 
assumed by musical accompaniment in the time of Terp- 
ander. The expression, for instance, in Plutarch, de Musica, 
c. iii. \j£kt\ ztzzgi xepiSTi&STO, could hardly be applied merely 
to a more elaborate style of rhapsodising. 

This improved musical system, whatever its exact 
nature may have been, was applied by Terpander mainly 
to that branch of religious lyric called the Nome. 1 The 
Nome previously consisted of four parts, ap/vj, 3caTaTpo7r/j, 
o^cpaXo?, (T<ppayi;. These were extended by Terpander to 
seven — apjpj, [/.sxappj, scaxaxpo— tj, fv.sxax.axaxpo7r*j, 6|x<pal6?, 
<7<ppayi<;, £7uXoyo?. 2 So that Miiller {Hist. Greek Lit. p. 155) 
is justified in remarking that ' The nomes of Terpander 
were finished compositions, in which a certain musical idea 
was systematically worked out.' 

Terpander confined his improvements to the lyre, asso- 
ciated as it was with the Nome. Another important 
branch of his work lay, as we have seen, in the passage 
above quoted from Plutarch, in setting Epical subjects to 
melody ; for this purpose, too, the subdued music of the 
lyre was fitting rather than the shrill and exciting notes 
of the flute. In Terpander's footsteps, however, followed 
Olympus and Clonas of Tegea, who in their 'Aulodic' 
Nomes, applied to the wind instrument improvements 



1 See Art. I. p. 6. 



2 Pollux, iv. 9, 66. 



MUSICAL ACCOMPANIMENT 37 

similar in kind to those confined by Terpander to the lyre. 
It was Olympus who is said to have given the chief 
development to Auletic or flute music among the Greeks. 
He was of Phrygian origin, and seems to have flourished 
in Greece a little later than Terpander (Plut. de Musica, 
c. 7). So great was the importance attached to his work 
that Plutarch calls him rather than Terpander ap^yjyo? r/j; 
' EXTajvuc/js xai xaTaj; |/.ou<jwmjs ; and even in Plutarch's own 
day ((sti xal vuv)) some of his Nomes were employed at 
sacred festivals. As being a flute-player, there is no 
poetry attributed to him ; but he is said to have been the 
inventor of an entirely new class of rhythm, which had 
great influence on Greek poetry. This was the -r^iokiov to 
which class belongs the Cretic foot -«-.- and the paeons 
-ww^, www- etc. (see Art. vi. pp. 70, 7 1 ). 

Just as the lyre was appropriated mainly to the service Apollo and the 
of Apollo, so in turn was the flute to that of Bacchus ; mudc"Stendcd 
and it was not without much reluctance on the part of the to P oe try de- 

, . signed for the 

iormer deity that his patronage was extended to wind worship of that 
instruments. It was fortunate for the progress of choral go ' 
lyric that Apollo, for whose service so much of Greek 
poetry was destined, at length appears to have been par- 
tially reconciled to the flute ; since it is hard to conceive 
that the intricate accompaniment implied in the intricate 
metrical structure of the later choral odes, could have been 
adequately rendered, amid the beat of the dancers' rapid 
footsteps, merely by stringed instruments unaided by 
the bow, the pedal, or even wire strings. It would 
appear that Olympus was among the first to bring the 
flute into connection with the cult of Apollo ; for we 
find him playing a dirge over the slaughtered Python, 
probably at the Pythian games at Delphi. 1 We find 
also that a flute contest was established early in the 6th 
century B.C., under the direct patronage of Apollo at 
Delphi. 2 

Furthermore, we have poets, e.g. Alcaeus, attributing the 
very invention of the flute to Apollo. Herein, however, 



1 Plut. de Mus. c 15. 2 Paus. vi. 14. 10 ; x. 7. 4. 



38 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Thaletas and 
flute-music. 



Improvements 
in music indi- 
cated by the 
poetry of this 
age. 



Sappho as a 
musician. 



the bard's desire to praise a favourite instrument probably 
led him to transgress orthodox tradition. For the recog- 
nition by Apollo of Auletic as a high art was after all 
of a half-hearted character. The contest at Delphi was 
ere long abolished (Pausan. x. 7. 5), and the lyre, or rather 
the Cithara, retained its position as the genuine Hellenic 
instrument. Thus the abuse heaped upon the 'spittle- 
wasting ' flute by Pratinas l in the fifth century, is but a 
revival of the sentiment which many centuries before gave 
rise to the stories of the fate of Marsyas and other atovjTHcoi 
at the hands of Apollo. 

Returning to the age of Olympus and Clonas, we come 
next to Thaletas, the most prominent figure in the second 
literary epoch at Sparta. 2 This epoch was marked by the 
rapid advance of choral lyric ; and Thaletas, whose special 
work has been noticed in the Article on the Dance, p. 28, 
availed himself of the musical improvements, not of Terp- 
ander, but of Olympus and Clonas. It is the flute that 
we now find as the chief accompaniment at the Gymno- 
paedia, even though that festival was in honour of Apollo ; 
and it was to the sound of the flute that the Spartans 
practised their ' orchestic ' military evolutions, and advanced 
to the charge — not, as one account would have it, that 
their too impetuous courage might be duly restrained, but 
simply because the piercing notes of the flute made them- 
selves heard above the trampling of the warriors' feet and 
the clashing of their weapons. 

Profiting by this steady advance of the musical art, the 
movements of lyric poetry gain in freedom and scope, as 
we can discern for ourselves in the metrical structure of 
the choruses of Alcman and Stesichorus, or of the monodic 
songs of the Lesbian school. Sappho, indeed, is directly 
connected with the progress of music ; for not only is the 
invention of the Mixo-Lydian style ascribed to her, but 



1 See the passage from Pratinas, p.' 272, and compare the rather 
severe epigram : 'Av3p v i (j.ev au^rjxfjpt Q-sol vdov oux evs'ouaav, 'AkX a.[>.ct t(o 
epucrijv yu> voo; Ez-i'taxat, Athen. viii. 337 E. 

See Art. iv. p. 28. 



MUSICAL ACCOMPANIMENT 39 

she is also said to have attracted round herself a number 
of disciples of her own sex. Now, to teach the art of 
poetry itself, would baffle the skill of the most cunning 
pedagogue, so that we may fairly assume with Bergk that 
the instruction given by Sappho was in the arts of music 
and rhythm as employed by poetry. 

In spite, however, of the advance in music effected by Great simplicity 
the reformers I have mentioned, the choral strophes of the choral systems as 
succeeding period are far from exhibiting the elaborate =°™p^ Jjj* 
construction found in the Pindaric ode or in the Lyrical and the Dra- 

. „ . / A j a . • matists, which 

passages of Tragedy (compare Art. iv. p. 30, and Art. vi. were subsequent 
p. 56). For before this later period comes another epoch ^"^Kf 
in the history of Greek music, associated with the najhc practice and 

_ n , theory of music 

Of Pythagoras. about the time 

According to Chappell indeed, who, as I have stated, of Pythagoras. 
considers that Terpander's heptachord was not on the 
octave-system, the octave was introduced 'to the Greeks 
from Egypt by Pythagoras. Now as the earliest date for 
his birth is fixed at 608 B.C., and more usually at 570 B.C., 
it follows, if Chappell be right in his surmise, that the 
Greeks were satisfied with the inferior system until the 
middle or latter part of the sixth century. Thus not only 
the finest monodic poetry produced by the Greeks, the odes 
of Sappho, herself renowned as a musician, but also the 
choral odes of Alcman, Stesichorus, and even of Ibycus must 
have been accompanied by melody which Chappell him- 
self (p. 37) describes as hardly worthy of the name. Such 
a reductio ad absurdum militates, I think, overpoweringly 
against his assumption that Pythagoras introduced the 
octave. Nevertheless it is certain that much was done by 
Pythagoras for the development of music ; he first appears 
to have studied it as a theoretical science, urging that to 
discern the real nature of music we must employ the 
intellect rather than the ear. 1 

Music now assumed a more important place among the 
arts, and presented more difficulties to the ambitious lyric 



1 See Arist. Quint, iii. p. 116 ; Plut. de Mus. c. 37 ; and compare 
especially Plato's Republic, p. 531. 



40 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Repetition of 
the same 
strophical 
system as found 
in the lyric poets 
avoided by the 
Dramatists. 



Nature of the 
change. 



Growing im- 
portance of 
music at the 
expense of 
poetry. 



poet. Thus Pindar, before he embarked on his poetical 
career, went to Athens to study the principles of music 
under Lasus of Hermione, the leading musician of the day, 
who was also the first to write a treatise on the subject. 
Furthermore, great as was the advance exhibited in the 
choral systems of a Pindar, as compared with those of a 
Stesichorus or an Alcman, still further progress in an im- 
portant respect is indicated in the lyrical passages of the 
Dramatists. No longer is each group of Strophe, Anti- 
strophe, and Epode succeeded by another of a precisely 
similar metrical arrangement — thus A A B, A A B, A A B, 
etc., to the end of the song ; on the contrary, with each 
new strophe a new metrical and musical system was 
usually introduced thus A A B, C C D, E E F, etc. It has 
been remarked by critics as a characteristic excellence of 
Schubert's song- music that he realised that an exact re- 
currence of the melody to match the recurring strophes of 
the poetry was not always desirable — that a change in the 
spirit of the poetry, although its metrical form remained 
unaltered, required a change also in the nature of the 
melody, care being however taken that the lyric unity of 
the poem should be preserved, in spite of variety, in the 
whole effect of the music. 1 It would seem that a similar 
reform was effected in the system of the Greek Dramatic 
choruses, though, of course, not only the music was varied, 
but also the metre of the poetry. 

From this period onwards music assumes a position less 
and less dependent on poetry, until with the decay of lyric 
inspiration, poetry, much to the disgust of the admirers of 
the old school, became as entirely subordinate as it is in 
the Italian opera. Thus we find Plato condemning the 
predominance of mere ^tXyj xifrapiGi? or instrumental music, 
and at an earlier period Pratinas, Miscell. and Anon. Frag, i., 
bitterly complains of the inverted relation of music and 
poetry. Similarly whereas formerly the poet composed 
his own melody, was entire master of his chorus, and was 
the recipient of all the glory won by the performance, it is 



1 A good instance is ' Der Leiermann '. 



MUSICAL ACCOMPANIMENT 41 

now the AuXtjttJ;, the bandmaster who is all-important, 1 
while the poet is a mere verse-writer who receives his 
orders from the musician as from a superior. 

Such is a brief sketch of the progress of Greek vocal 
music throughout the course of the Lyric period. If we 
try to realise the musical effect of a Greek melody we find 
ourselves on very hazardous ground. I will content ' my- 
self with pointing out two main features of a Greek song — 
First, that at any rate in the Classical period the members chorus sang in 
of the chorus sang in unison only, and part-songs were "hesameremlrk 
practically unknown. 2 The musical accompaniment how- does not a PP J y 

... ., • 1 1 • t0 tne accom- 

ever did not necessarily go with the voice note by note, paniment in ail 

Thus Archilochus is said to have invented the jcpoOdi; utto cases ' 

rqv wtfyv, which however probably indicates merely that 

the accompaniment, though in unison with the voice, was 

in a lower octave, and Plato, Lazvs vii. p. 812, while urging 

that the notes of the lyre should be at one with those of 

the voice (7tpoG%opSa tx <p9iyp.aT<x to?; <p9iy(/.a(ji), implies 

that the contrary was a common practice — t^v eT£po<pcoviav 

xocl TTOixiXCav T/js ^.upa?, aXkcc piv [7,sX>j tcSv ^opotov isurcSv, aXXa 

&£ TOO TVjV [/.sXtoOtOCV QjVtr£VT05 7TOWJT0U, JC.T.X. 

Secondly, as already mentioned, the rule was — one 
syllable one note. Words were to be treated not as the  One syllable 
servants but as the masters of the melody, and therefore one note " 
trills and runs on one syllable were out of the question, at 
any rate so long as poetry maintained its dignified position. 
To have extended the first syllable of the word Alleluia 
over some six or seven notes, as is done in a well-known 
modern hymn, or to have made each syllable of the names 
' Robin Adair ' do duty for two, would have been treated 
with the ridicule which the practice from the Greek stand- 
point would have deserved. At the present day lyric poems 
are written primarily for reading or recitation, and when 
set to music they are often invested with quite a different 
rhythmical character in the hands of the musical com- 



1 See Bergk, Griech. Lit. ii. p. 504, note 20. 

2 It is perhaps worth observing that at the present day hymns in 
the Greek churches are, I believe, sung in unison only. 



42 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



poser. With the Greeks the words were written expressly 
for song, and the poet in most cases simultaneously created 
Hence the metre the accompanying melody. Thus the rhythm of the words 
the rhythm and indicates exactly that of the music, and according as the 
acteTofthe^" metre is simple or involved, regular and stately or abrupt 
music. and impetuous, such must have been the character of the 

Advantage of melody. In an instructive article on Song in Grove's 
hiTovm^usTc! 8 Dictionary, it is pointed out that the power of such com- 
and training his posers of song-music as Schubert and Schumann is shown 

own chorus. * ° 

above all in their careful attention to every detail of the 
poetry — their music not only interpreting the true spirit of 
the words but closely following the metrical accent or other 
emphasis. Schumann was in fact the poet's ' counterpart 
or reflector.' In Greece the lyric poets enjoyed an advan- 
tage yet greater than that of finding an exact musical 
exponent of their words, for they united in their own per- 
sons the functions of poet and composer. Nay more, in 
most cases they themselves trained the chorus that was to 
deliver their composition, and thus was assured a perfect 
sympathy between the poetry, the music, and the delivery 
hardly to be paralleled in modern times. The important 
reactionary influence exercised on the metre by its close 
connection with melody is obvious, and will be further 
dwelt upon in the next article. 

There is one constantly recurring question in connec- 
tion with Greek music which must not be passed over here 
without allusion. Granting, as we seem forced to do, the 

music, in spite . . ° . 1/-1 

of its elementary great inferiority of the musical art among the Greeks 
c aracter, ^. Q ^ at Q f moc [ erri times — how are we to account for the 

vast importance attached to its influence by the ancients, 
an importance greater and more widely extended than in 
these days would be claimed for music even by its most 
ardent admirers ? Professor Mahaffy furnishes us per- 
haps with a partial clue to the difficulty by arguing that 
in an elementary stage, before melody becomes, to un- 
trained ears at least, lost in the elaboration of harmony, 
music exercises upon the average susceptibility an influence 
bearing a more distinctly marked ethical character. This 
is perhaps reasonable, but I believe we must go further 



Importance at- 
tached by 
Greeks to the 
influence of 



MUSICAL ACCOMPANIMENT 43 

than this, and further also than an eulogy on the delicate 
susceptibilities of the Greeks, for an explanation of such 
words as the well-known passage of Plato — ouSajAou juvouv- 

TOCL [/.OUGlKol TpOTTOt (ZVEU TZOklTl'/MV VOJXtOV TG)V [XSyiGTCOV, Rep. 

424 c. 

We must look for it rather in the very close connection due mainly to 
which at any rate down to Plato's time music bore to poetry association with 
and to thought ; for Plato and others like him were not P° etr y- 
thinking of ^tXvj xi&apicri? or auXijcn;, mere instrumental 
effects, which he almost declines to recognise as a legiti- 
mate form of [/.ouctjo], but rather of ' melic ' music ; and such 
was the Greek sense of fitness that any change in the 
character of the music was necessarily associated with a 
similar change in the whole tone of the poetry. It is not 
then mere sound of which Plato is speaking, but of sound 
which, partly from the more distinct meaning attaching to 
pure melody, and chiefly from its being united with definite 
thought expressed in language, belongs directly to the 
world of ethical ideas. Thus Plato's words are as intelli- 
gible as if one should say that the character of a nation 
may be clearly read in the monuments of its literature or 
of its art, and that corruption in these is always associated 
with corruption in national morals. 

It may be objected that Plato in his discourse on the The Modes- 
character of the different Modes of Greek music, the JJjJjfa JJM 
Dorian, Lydian, and Phrygian, etc., appears to be dealing musical char- 
with music proper entirely apart from that which it accom- style of the com- 
panies. A consideration, however, of the real nature of ^yappropri^" 
the distinctions between these modes that were borne in ated to them - 
mind by Plato will furnish us also with an answer to the 
objection, particularly if we accept the view taken by 
Chappell in his Hist, of Mus. vol. i. ch. v. In opposition 
to Bockh and others, who assert that the modes assumed 
their several characters from differences in the arrange- 
ment of their intervals, Chappell maintains that the only 
essential musical difference in the modes, was that of 
pitch, all their further distinctive traits being due to asso- 
ciations more or less accidental — hence the frequently con- 
flicting views taken of the character of any particular mode 



44 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

(see Chappell, I.e. p. 99). In the main however, although 
of course there is room under the same pitch for an infinite 
variety of musical styles, the wise discrimination of the 
Greeks led them in course of time to associate with the 
several modes compositions which in music, metre, sub- 
ject, and language exhibited a clearly marked character ; 
and naturally the modes lying at either extremity with 
regard to pitch, were most readily invested with a certain 
uniformity of character ; for example the Dorian mode, 
which was in the lowest pitch, was always associated with 
that calm stateliness and self-control which was the 
leading trait in the whole of Dorian art. 

Such, briefly, is the position taken up by Chappell on 
this subject, and whether or not we accept his view with 
regard to the question of intervals, it must, I think, be 
admitted that in distinguishing and criticising the char- 
acter of the various musical styles, Plato has before his 
mind, not the mere music, standing abstracted from all 
else, but rather the tout ensemble of a lyrical performance 
with one harmonious character overspreading thought, 
language, music, and dance. Neither need our deprecia- 
tion of the musical art of the Greeks cause us any longer 
to wonder at the importance attached by them to a 
'musical' training, implying, as it did, a liberal education in 
poetry and the secrets of poetical style, as much, or even 
Subordinate more, than in music proper. Indeed, the subordinate 
signed^music character of the latter is clearly expressed in the words of 
proper. Plutarch, to the effect that of music the poet is the proper 

judge, and of poetry the philosopher — words which, apart 
from all else that we may know of Greek music, indicate 
sufficiently its incomplete character. 



ARTICLE VI 

METRE IN LYRIC POETRY 

In this Article I propose to give a short sketch of the 
development of the lyrical metres, and to add some 
remarks on the general principles on which they are regu- 
lated in accordance with the views of certain metricians 
whom I have followed. I shall then conclude with a 
description of the chief types of metrical style with which 
we are concerned. 

In the rapid transition from Epic to Lyric poetry, Revival of 
we notice a revolution effected in metre as in all other J^" 1 metrical 
respects. The stately flow of the dactylic hexameter 
rolling on without break or pause for some 500 lines, 
was admirably suited for recitative, but very poorly for 
song. Consequently, we find the ' invention ' of many 
new metrical forms attributed to various poets at the 
period of the Lyric Renaissance, though it would be 
nearer the truth to say that they betook themselves, as in 
subject and style, so also in metre, not to the creation, but 
to the revival and development of forms already in use 
among the uncultivated. Unfortunately, the traces that 
are left of these old metrical forms, which must have 
existed before the hexameter, are very scanty, and we 
must rely rather upon conjecture than upon fact. 

It is commonly believed that in the Linus song {Pop. 
Songs, I.), we have a specimen of the old ballad or song- 
metre, which was afterwards developed into that of Epic ; Traces of 
and Usener 1 ingeniously conjectures that distinct traces c f anc ' ei " ballad 

& J J metre to be seen 

it are still to be seen in the hexameter itself. Thus a large in Epic. 



1 See Classical Rev., vol. i. p. 162. 



46 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

number of the stock phrases, the naive repetition of which 
is so marked a feature in Homer, exhibit the metrical form 
of the verses in the Linus song : — • 



-, or — : — ^ w 



for example : 

avac; avSpiov ' Ayaj/i'-ivtov, 

ps/ftiv S£ jts v/}— to? syvio, 

and it seems reasonable to conclude that they had already- 
acquired the force of set formulae in the old ballads which 
were subsequently merged in Epic. The Epic hexameter, 
on this theory, was formed by uniting two of these short 
rhythmic sentences into one period or verse, and the union 
was all the more easy and natural since in the early poems 
these short lines appear to have been taken not separately, 
but in distiches or couplets. 1 
Four-line stanza We may also assume that the four-line stanza was a 
probably of favourite vehicle of expression in Greek prehistoric lyric 

great antiquity. . - 1 ' 

poetry. This is the form taken subsequently by most of 
the Lesbian poetry, and indeed it is exceptionally suitable 
for monodic song. 2 Finding it also, as we do, almost univer- 
sally employed in the ballad poetry of medieval times, 
we may not unreasonably surmise that it was equally 
popular in the Greek Volkslieder before it was brought 
to perfection by the skilled hands of an Alcaeus or a 
Sappho. 
Short lo^aoedic Be this as it may, the primitive metre of the Greeks 
or trochaic lines appears to have consisted mainly of short logacedic or 
earliest form of trochaic lines, such as are employed also in the primitive 
poetry of many other Aryan races. 3 This simple metre, 



1 See notes on Pop. Songs, I. n. 

2 ' By such grouping, symmetry could be attained along with 
variety ; and thus the whole made a satisfactory impression, while 
the melody still possessed in itself enough variety not to be tire- 
some by continued repetition.' — Schmidt, Rhythmic and Metric of 
the Classical Languages, p. 96. 

3 See Class. Rev. vol. i. p. 92, and 162. 



METRE IN LYRIC POETRY 47 

though overshadowed by the hexameter, survived through- 
out the Epic period as the metre in which the lyrics of the 
time were sung, until in its turn it became, in more fully 
developed and beautiful forms, the vehicle for the highest 
poetic utterance. 

Mention is elsewhere made (pp. 41, 115, 116) of the im- Archiiochus the 
portance to be attached to the services rendered to lyric ^ s d l ^f^ 6 
poetry, near the commencement of its revival, by Archi- trochaic and 
lochus. Among these services, Plutarch, de Mus. c/'xxviii. rhythm! 



reckons the ' invention ' of a new metrical type, the ysvo; 
avwov, or ysvo; St.— Xaoriov. In this the relation of arsis to y=' v0; avtaov. 
thesis 1 is no longer one of equality, as it is in the dactyl or 
spondee, but is in the ratio of 2 to 1, as in the trochee 
or iamb, the two kinds of feet mainly employed by Archi- 
iochus. Archiiochus is also described by Plutarch as the 
inventor of ' Logacedic ' verse. That the term ' inventor ' 
is in neither case directly applied is indicated by the 
remarks already made on the primitive metre ; but it is 
from the time of Archiiochus that we may date the birth 
of that perfect command attained by the Greeks over 
trochaic and logacedic rhythm, whereby they produced in 
many of their songs such wonderful effects that merely a 
glance at the bare metrical scheme fills us with a sense of 
exquisite melody. 

The subject of logacedic metre calls for our closer atten- Logacedic 
tion, since it forms the most characteristic and beautiful in ^ tre ? on " 

' sidered. 

feature in the construction of the Melic poems. Logacedic 
lines are those in which trochees and dactyls stand side by 
side in close connection. The name is usually described 
as arising from a feeling of inequality in the measure which Origin of name, 
caused it to resemble prose (Xoyo?). W. Christ, however 
(Metrik, p. 221), offers an opposite and perhaps more 
reasonable explanation, to the effect that the term im- 
plies ' singing language,' the arrangement of the syllables 



1 I have thought it more convenient to retain the customary sig- 
nification of these terms, and not to invert their application as is 
done, no doubt correctly, by Schmidt, Verses Rhythmic and Metric, 
etc., p. 22. 



48 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

being suggestive of song rather than of mere speech or 
recitative. 
Essential nature The essential nature of logacedics consists not in the 
is me re. inequality of their movement — for the dactyl being ' cyclic ' l 
-v^ison musical principles of exactly the same rhythmical 
value as the choree -^, but rather in the variety which it 
affords in the midst of rhythmic uniformity, and which 
imparts to this metre not only a wonderful aesthetic charm, 
but also a power of expressing the ebb and flow of pas- 
sionate emotions, which is of infinite value in lyric poetry. 
For example, in an ordinary Sapphic line, e.g., 

TrotJttXd&pov i a&ocvaT i' Acppdo^/ra 

the dactyl in the third foot, succeeding to the slower 
movement of the first two trochees, is strongly suggestive 
of highly-wrought feeling, of which this metre is so perfect 
a vehicle. Perhaps nowhere can be found more forcible 
examples of the inimitable power of logacedics than in the 
poems of Shelley, himself almost as mighty an innovator 
in English rhythm as Archilochus of old in the Greek. 
One of the finest instances that occurs to me is the poem 
to Night, which begins as follows : — 

Swiftly walk over the western wave, 

Spirit of night ! 
Out of the misty eastern cave, 
Where all the long and lone daylight, 
Thou wovest dreams of joy and fear, 
Which make thee terrible and dear, — 

Swift be thy flight ! 

Wrap thy form in a mantle grey, 

Star-inwrought ! 
Blind with thine hair the eyes of day, 
Kiss her until she be wearied out, 
Then wander o'er city, and sea, and land, 
Touching all with thine opiate wand — 

Come, long-sought. 

Returning to our subject, we find, in addition to the ysvo; 



1 See below, p. 53. 



METRE IN LYRIC POETRY 49 

&Kt>4<Tiov, or aviffov, to which both the trochaic and the 
logacedic metre belong, a third class, called the ysvoc Third type 
•yiv-ioliov, or quinquepartite measure, in which the relation of of , met V e— „ 
arsis to thesis is as 2 : 3. To this belongs the cretic foot developed by 
-^-, and the various Paeons --^^^, etc. The introduction Thaletas - 
of this rhythm is attributed to Thaletas, 1 who, as we know, 
is connected not with the music of the lyre or monodic 
song, but with the flute and choral poetry. We now find 
ourselves in a metrical region which is foreign to us ; 
but I will reserve further comment on this subject until 
we have glanced at the remaining changes or improve- 
ments effected in the metrical system of Greek lyric 
poetry. 

After Thaletas the next name to be mentioned is that choral strophe 
of Alcman with whom is associated the development of the ^ema^ by 
the choral strophe. Until recently his reputation in this 
respect was hardly supported by any extant passages from 
his poems ; but in the fragment discovered in 1870, part 
of which is inserted in the text, No. I., we find well- 
organised strophes, each of fourteen lines, continued 
throughout the piece. It is true that, as a glance at the 
fragment will show, the lines are individually of great 
metrical simplicity, and present but little variety as we 
pass from verse to verse, thereby contrasting strongly with 
the intricate structure of a Pindaric ode ; but the fact 
remains that by the time of Alcman choral poetry had far 
transcended the bounds of the short stanza, and had 
adopted in its completeness, though as yet without ela- 
boration, the antistrophical system with which finished 
melody and artistic dance were inseparably connected. 

One more step only in the development of Lyrical The Epode 
metrical style remains to be here noticed — namely, the chorals" stem 
introduction of the Epode, commonly attributed to Stesi- 
chorus, for which see p. 170. Lyric poetry had now laid 
in the entire stock of her metrical materials, and progress 
henceforth took the direction no longer of innovation, but 
of a more skilful manipulation of existing resources. 

1 See p. 38. 

D 



50 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

Some types of I have mentioned that with the introduction of the 
Greek metre ; y-.j, t o>_tov ysvo;, to which Cretics and Paeons belong, we find 

e.g. the yevo? »~ . • . ' . °' 

rj[jitoXtov are ourselves introduced to a rhythm which is strange to us. 
lwdiy inteiii- Trochaic metre is thoroughly familiar to modern ears; 

gible to modern ° J ' 

ears, Logacedics, though not so common, are readily appreci- 

ated ; while, although English hexameters cannot be 
called successful, such poetry as, for example, the stanzas 
in Swinburne's Atalanta beginning 

Meleager. — Let your hands meet 

Round the weight of my head, etc. 

shows us what wonderful effects can be produced in 
skilled hands by the dactyl or the anapaest, which is but a 
dactyl with anacrusis. But Cretics, the simplest example 
of the yevo? -qpoXtov, sound to us strange and unnatural, 
although indeed the rhythm is still intelligible to us ; and 
when we come to Paeons, and still more to Paeons or Cre- 
tics with the long syllable resolved into two short syllables, 
we seem to be outside the domain of rhythm entirely, and 
are tempted to imagine that the mechanism of the Greek 
ear must have been on a different system from that of our 
own. When, for example, we read such lines as those of 
Pratinas, p. 272, beginning 

we take it on trust indeed that it is a line of poetry, but if 
we had come across it printed as a prose sentence we 
should hardly have detected the error. 
and are to be F° r the explanation of this kind of rhythm we must 

th^facTthat' constantly bear in mind that while monodic poems, such 
they were in- as those of the Lesbian school, however suitable for recita- 
oniy— not for tion or reading, were adapted and intended for melody, 
choral compositions in connection with which the ysvo; 
TjfxioTaov, or Quinquepartite measure was developed, were 
adapted for nothing else. In early times when song was 
delivered to a simple lyre-accompaniment which subordin- 
ated itself to the rhythm of the words, the obvious nature 
of the metre rendered it perfectly suitable even for mere 
recitation. But when poetry was written to match, not 



recitation. 



METRE IN LYRIC POETRY 51 

only the complications of a more elaborated musical system, Hence it is on 
such as was introduced by the flute, but also the move- ^p^tha" 11 
ments of an intricate dance, the word-rhythm passes out of ^ r ^'j]g tre 
the sphere of mere language into that of music ; and it is studied. 
from the standpoint of music that the chief authorities on 
the subject, of recent date, have dealt with Greek metre. 
We have seen in the previous article how Greek music was 
affected by its close connection with poetry. We have 
now to observe how music in its turn, together with the 
dance, reacted upon the metre or rhythm of the words, 
and invested it with a new character. 

Remembering that the Greek principle was one syllable Since each 

, .... , , -ii -I s ) "able repre- 

to each note, it is obvious that to keep pace with the rapid sents a note of 
advance of melody, and also of the movements of the choral p^stoie'to' 1 ' S 
dance, the metre was forced to become increasingly compli- recognise cer- 

, . . i-i • r -i 1 1 • 1 • 1 ta ' n details of 

cated ; and that thus in the specimens ol choral lyric which the melody, and 
are left to us, the metrical arrangement of the syllables jJ£Sj£^ the 
represents up to a certain point exactly the rhythm and lhe notes, 
phrasing of an elaborate melody. Now if we take the cannot be done 
notes of any modern song where, as is usually the case, the cupiefof'scan-' 1 " 
air does not closely follow the rhythm of the words, and sion - 
write down so far as can be done a scheme of the vocal 
sounds which the notes represent, substituting for a 
crotchet the sign - and for a quaver the sign ^, perhaps 
employing certain other signs for minims, semi-quavers, 
etc., we shall often get results which are startling enough, 
and as remote as possible from the poetical metre. Yet in 
Greek lyric poetry, we are led by many considerations to 
conclude that from the metrical value of the syllables we 
can replace the time-value of the notes in the forgotten 
melody ; and as we are usually brought up to believe that 
every syllable in Greek had one or other of only two pos- 
sible values, namely - or ^, the natural inference would 
seem to be that the music consisted of nothing but a 
monotonous succession of crotchets and quavers. Thus in 
a Sapphic line we should obtain the following scheme of 
notes : — 

I M 1 n I I M J is 

► • 



52 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

and to represent a pentameter, if ever it was sung, we should 
have — 

i n I i n i j I i n I i n i i 

0001000101000 \000\0 

so that in the first instance a bar in f-time stands side by 
side with others in f-time, while in the second case bars in 
f-time correspond to others in f, — combinations which 
the most elementary knowledge of music declares to be 
impossible. 

Accordingly, writers on Greek Metric such as Schmidt, 
W. Christ, and others, following in the wake of Apel and 
Boeckh in his De Metris Pindari, endeavour to base the 
rhythm of lyric poetry on sounder principles, and oppose 
the old doctrine that all long syllables and all short sylla- 
bles have an invariable value, represented respectively by 
the sign - and the sign ^. Indeed, the practice of ordin- 
ary recitation would have made the point for which they 
contend plain enough, were we not so carefully drilled in 
the opposite unnatural view, the deficiencies of which only 
become grossly patent when we leave the regular dactylic 
or iambic metre and come to lyric poetry. 
Equality of So, then, the new metricians, intent on exhibiting in the 

essential in- metrical systems that equality of times which is essential 
cipieofmetreas in music, maintain that a long syllable, usually equal in 

of music. , , , ill* 

time-value to a crotchet, and represented by the sign -, 

may often be equivalent to a dotted crotchet or § note, 

Varieties of in which case it is represented by-( = -^ ), or even to a 

long andshSrt minim, when its metrical sign is L-J (=-o^, or — ) ; lastly, 

syllables respec- its value may be depreciated, as in the ' cyclic ' dactyl to be 

shortly mentioned, to that of a dotted quaver, while not 

unfrequently, especially in the last syllable of trochaic 

dipodies, the ong syllable answers to the quaver only. 1 

Similarly, a short syllable, usually equivalent to a quaver 



lively. 



1 See below, p. 66. In such cases, the metrical sign adopted by 
Schmidt is >. To avoid a multiplication of new metrical symbols, I 
have not employed this in my metrical schemes, but have simply 
used the familiar - or -, indicating that while the lower sign should 
strictly be expected, the other does or may occur. 



METRE IN LYRIC POETRY 53 

or |th note, can also have a less value, and be equal to a 
semi-quaver or j^th note, as in ' cyclic ' and ' choreic ' dac- 
tyls, which are equivalent in time- value to trochees. I Examples: 
will illustrate by a few examples. The long syllable is Ordinary time- 
increased to twice its usual value, and corresponds to a synabie f '° ng 
minim in the pentameter, which may be represented thus doubled, sign .- 
in musical notes : 

1 n I 1 n I j I 1 n i inu 

99o\amm\ a \0am\m**\ c ' 
and metrically 



The long syllable is increased by one half, and is equi- incr eased by 

, ... one-half, sign 

valent to a dotted crotchet in e.g. the Epitrit, which is 
described below (p. 64). Thus the metrical scheme of the 
line in Pind. 01. iii. 5 : 

Atopiio cpiovav svap[/.6^ai tcsSiXco 

which occurs in a dactylic Ode, is as follows : 



i.e. 



«• 9 



>\ III I M M I ! IN 



For an example of the diminished value of the long diminished in 
syllable, we may take the Sapphic line : T'!? dactyls ' 

Iloi/a'Xo'&pov' a&avaT 'A<pp6fWa. 

This is an instance of f-time, and the line with its dactyl, 
in this case termed 'cyclic,' 1 must be represented musically 
thus : 

• • N ! J.N J^JN J.N J# N 

the metrical equivalent being 



• W — v_> 



This last example also illustrates in the third foot the short syllable 
possibility of a short syllable being reduced to half its 5SSn MUal 

' choreic ' dactyls 



1 See below, pp. 63, 64. 



54 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

value. A better example is afforded by 'choreic n dactyls, 
such as occur in the line of Praxilla ; 

the metrical scheme being : 

*«JJ3I J/31 J J=3 1 J.N J/ 

On a similar principle, an apparent Paeon -wv,^ may 

stand side by side with dactyls, as is the case in Soph. 

Oed. Col. 216 seq.y for which see W. Christ, Metrik, p. 225 seq. 

The • rest 'in Again, why may a short vowel stand at the end of a verse 

masic (yp^vo, wnere ^ fo e m strict accordance with the metrical scheme, 

?.3VQO explains ' 

the possibility of a long vowel would be required? Simply because the 

a short syllable , , . , . , , . . , , . , , . . / 

at the end of a additional time is made up by the rest in music, XP 0V0 ? 
line m place of xsvc $ ? being the corresponding metrical expression. Hence 
the fact that a also the hexameter cannot close with a dactyl, because 

ripxi meter 

1 annot conclude the time occupied by the last syllable, corresponding to 
with a dactyl, ^ e final quaver, is already supplied by the unavoidable 
rest at the end of the long rhythmic sentence ; and the 
last foot of a pentameter is equivalent to a bar of music 
in f-time, even though there be but one short syllable in 
itself = I, because the deficiency is made up by a corre- 
spondingly long rest of the value of |. 2 
The free treat- Musical considerations then explain away the apparent 
LTg reek metre'^" inequalities in many specimens of Greek metre, and aid us 
due to its inti- in discerning harmony in some cases where, at first sight, 

mate connection , ... _ ,. , . , „ 

with music, is the impression is rather one 01 discordant variety. Bear- 
-ti-al'ned within * n § m m ind tnen tne influence of the musical accompani- 
comparativeiy ment on the metrical structure in giving a varying value to 
long and to short syllables, in supplying deficiencies in the 
syllables by ' empty times ' or musical rests, and above all 
in the licence it affords of resolving any ordinary long 



narrow limits. 



1 Below, loc. cit. 

2 It may be noticed that in Latin hexameters and pentameters 
(which were in most cases aided by no sort of musical accompani- 
ment) the trochaic ending in the hexameter, and the final short vowel 
in the pentameter, are much rarer than is the case with Homer and 
the Greek elegiac poets. 



METRE IN LYRIC POETRY 55 

syllable, equivalent to a crotchet, into two short syllables = 

two quavers, the only matter for surprise is that the metre 

of the surviving lyric passages is not more complex and 

unintelligible than we actually find it to be. That it is not 

so is due to the proper appreciation among the Greeks of 

the relative importance in song of the language to the 

music. For all the licences described were exercised, 

during the period at least of Classical lyric poetry, with a 

laudable moderation. A long syllable was given more circumstances 

than its usual value, commonly only at the end of a word, addfuJnaWalue 

which is invariably the case with the imitations of Greek is given to long 

. svllables. 

metre by Horace, e.g. in his Choriambic Odes. In cases 
where in Greek the emphatic long syllable falls within a 
word, it is usually upon the first syllable, naturally the 
most accentuated, and W. Christ suggests that, as the 
poet was also his own musical composer, he would choose 
for this purpose such syllables only as from their vowel- 
sound, or other causes, were exceptionally long in quantity. 1 
Similarly, short syllables were given less than their usual 
value very sparingly — usually in fixed places, and with 
set purpose. Again, musical rests, or yjtovoi >tsvoi, were ypdvot xevof 
confined to the end of a line or the corresponding musical ofamie heend 
phrase, and were not, as in modern music, permissible else- 
where also. 

Lastly, the power of resolving a long into a correspond- Resolution of 

1 r t a 1 r . 1 > 1 long syllables 

ing number of short notes, is, in the first place, consider- sparingly em- 
ably restricted when applied to song by the very nature of fates^meHc the 
language, since it is impossible to pronounce a succession period. 
of syllables, each having the time-value of T Vth, with any 
pretence to intelligibility ; and in Greek vocal music still 
further limits were by custom imposed upon the practice 
of resolution. The syllable ' in arsi ' scarcely ever is 



1 For instance, in Pindar's line Awpuo owvav ivapp-dijai tseoiXw, where 
the scansion is 



there is good reason for dwelling on each of the three underlined 
syllables : the word Awptw is emphatic, and the stress is naturally 
laid on its first syllable, in tpwvocv the a^-sound is easily prolonged, 
and the same remark applies to the final diphthong in Evap|7.di;ai. 



56 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

resolved in early Lyric poetry, and only sparingly even in 
the time of Pindar. 1 Such a line is that of Pratinas : 

Ti; u(3pi? £t { j.okzv £77i AiovucwcoV. TraXuTOXTaya -«k)[/iXav ; 

which consists of resolved anapaests, with scarcely any long 
syllables, is a mark of the decay of Lyric poetry, now 
becoming subordinated to the musical accompaniment ; 
and is probably employed by Pratinas in his protest against 
this growing evil, to show by an example its disastrous 
results ; 2 and perhaps to an Alcman the line would have 
presented almost as strange a rhythmical appearance as it 
does to ourselves. 

There is one other respect to which I must allude, 

Great inequal- r ' 

ities in length of wherein Greek choral poetry does not fall in with our own 
strophe, signify- rhythmical notions. Hitherto I have been dealing with 
chanjresTn the ^ ie r hy tnm °f lines taken singly ; I now refer to the in- 
dance and the equalities often found between lines in the same strophe. 

music 

This inequality is confined within very reasonable limits in 
most of the passages in the text, and in the i Dorian ' odes 
of Pindar, while, however, it is a marked feature in the 
' Aeolic,' and in the specimens of later lyric which we 
possess. It testifies to a variety in the movements of the 
dance and in the phrasing of the music which must have 
been very effective, and inclines us the more to agree with 
the view expressed by Professor Mahaffy, that whatever 
may have been the deficiencies of the Greeks in the know- 
ledge of harmony, their melody was cultivated to a degree 
considerably beyond that usually attained in modern 
music. Our impression of their power of metrical and 
musical composition will be still further enhanced if we 
direct our attention to the skilful grouping of the metrical 
periods within each strophe ; and on this subject, which 
exceeds the limits of this article, I cannot do better than 
to refer the reader to Dr. Schmidt's Rhythmic and Metric 
etc., Bk. V. ' Eurhythmy.' 



1 It is indeed common enough in the 'Aeolic' odes, but exceedingly 
rare in the ' Doric' 

2 We may compare Aeschylus' parody of Euripides' lyrics in 
Ar. Frogs, 1353, etc. 



METRE IN LYRIC POETRY 57 

When Greek lyrical metres were imitated by Roman Latin imitations 
poets they naturally chose for their models the metres of meSto'be^ 1 
monodic song, as being not unadapted for mere recitation ; elsewhere ex- 
but even here, now that metre was divorced from music, 
certain changes, unconscious or otherwise, were effected ; 
and since most of us obtain our knowledge of Alcaics, 
Sapphics, and the like at second hand from Horace and 
Catullus, it is important to note the main distinctions be- 
tween the imitations and the original. This will be done 
in the introductions to Sappho, Alcaeus, and Anacreon. 

I will now proceed to give a short account of the chief 
metrical types which meet us in the text, noticing first 
four terms which concern the manner in which the verse 
is introduced or concluded. 

Anacrusis 

Anacrusis (avocxpouci?) denotes the syllable or syllables Anacrusis. 
which in many lines precede the ictus or commencement 
of the first full rhythmical foot, and which may be com- 
pared with the latter portion of a bar that frequently 
precedes the first complete bar in a melody. The rule is Rule, 
that this Anacrusis should not exceed in length the ' thesis ' 
of the regular feet ; thus a dactyl may be preceded by an 
anacrusis not exceeding ^ ^ or — , and a trochee, strictly 
speaking, only by one short syllable. The Anacrusis, how- 
ever, may consist of an ' irrational ' syllable, viz., a long 
syllable, with the apparent time-value of a short. Hence the 
varying quantity of the first syllable in Greek Alcaic lines, 
whereas Horace, forgetting its merely introductory character, 
seldom employs any but a long quantity. 1 It is obvious 
that the neglect of Anacrusis in scansion leads to metrical 
schemes which are on entirely wrong principles, and which 
flagrantly violate the rule of equality of measures. 

The literal meaning of the term is ' backing-water,' and 
the metrical usage is thus compared with a ship retiring 
slightly to enable herself to dash to the charge with the 



1 See on Alcaeus, p. 139. 



58 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

General effect, greater impetus. Anacrusis is accordingly regarded as 
giving a character of energy to, for instance, Alcaics, which 
is less suited to the lines of the poetess Sappho, whose pre- 
vailing metre commences with the full measure. Compare 
on Alcaeus, xi., where it is to be remarked that Alcaeus, in 
the line 'IoirXox ayva X.T.X., addressed by him to Sappho 
herself, while paying her the graceful compliment of 
abandoning his favourite metre for her own, considers that 
it requires, in his masculine hands, the slight addition of 
Anacrusis. 

Basis 

Basis. Basis refers to a portion of the line which, like Anacrusis, 

is to a certain extent preliminary, though far less separable 
from what follows. To the term ' Basis ' the epithet ' Her- 
mannic ' is often added, since Hermann first remarked 
upon its metrical nature, defining it as ' praeludium quod- 
dam, et tentamentum numeri deinceps secuturi \ Dr. 
Schmidt {RJiyth. and Metr., p. 90) appears to explain it as 
due to the fact that in certain rhythmical sentences the 
chief ictus falls not on the first but on the second foot. 
Thus, in a Sapphic line such as 

IIoi>uX6irpov' a-9-avaT 'AcppoSrra, 

the strong rhythmical emphasis on the second foot imparts 
an introductory character to the first, and this is all the 
more the case in certain choriambic lines, where the 
choriambics do not begin until the second foot. Hence 
Forms of the the Basis may assume any one of at least four distinct 
forms, viz., - ^, — , ^ - or even ^ ^, in which latter case it 
is not always distinguishable from Anacrusis. It occurs 
most frequently, and is most unmistakable in choriambic 
metre, as in the passage from Sappho (No. VI.) beginning 

Kaxxravofaa Ss y.sicsai ouS' sti Tt? [/.vau-ocuva a£9-sv, 

or in Alcaeus, No. xxiv., beginning 

HX9-SS ex. TCsparcov ya£ eXe<pavTivav, 

in which poem each of the four varieties may be seen. 
Similarly in other metres the presence of the basis may be 



METRE IN LYRIC POETRY 59 

detected by the variable nature of the first foot. Thus in 
Ale., No. x., taking the first line alone, 

Ke^oj7.ai Tiva tov ^apievToc Msvtova xaXecrooa, 

it would be quite possible to regard the two first syllables 
as anacrusis ; but when we go on to read 

it is obvious that in both lines we have an example of 
basis. Compare also the second line in Sappho, VIII. a 

Y"Xux,u7U*pov aij.ayavov opTCTOv 

with the first 

"Epo? &' auTS {/.' 6 Xucif/iXvjs &ovsi. 

It is to be noticed that when lyric poetry was no longer The basis was 
written for song, the basis was not employed, since it is due to * e c ' ose 

o' r j * connection be- 

obvious that metre without the aid of melody must display tween poetry 

... . , . ,., - .. 11 1 1 , • and music, and 

greater strictness in the quantity of its syllables to main- was abandoned 
tain the requisite equality of movements in the same line. w ^ e e t " ly ^ s 
The basis, therefore, in Greek poetry must be regarded as written for 

... , . , ... recitation onlv. 

one of those features due to the close union ol the metre 

and the melody. It is a doubtful point how far it formed connection of 

part of the rhythmic construction of the line. If it invari- b j} s j s w . ith rest 

r j _ of the line 

ably did so, then to such a form as the Pyrrhic ^^ the music doubtful, 
must have given a fictitious value, if I may use the expres- 
sion, to equalise it with the ensuing trochee or cyclic 
dactyl, thus : — 









• w or 

• a- 

W. Christ, however, is of opinion that in Aeolic lyrics, 
which alone admitted of such varieties, the true rhythm 
did not begin till after the basis ; while in the lyric poetry 
of the drama, which always exhibits the basis in its fuller 
and more regular form, it is to be reckoned as an integral 
portion of the rhythmic period. Finally, in Horace'" 
imitations of Greek metres, especially in his choriambics, 
the basis in its proper character disappears, and is invari- 
ably represented by a spondee. 



60 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

In the metrical schemes, the basis is denoted by the 
sign x placed over the first syllable, thus : 



for the line 

KaarO-vac/isi Ku&Epyj' appo; "Ao\ovi?, t'i y.s flstp.ev; 

Catalectic and Acatalectic Lines 

Cataiexis and These terms apply to the conclusion of a line. A line 

Acataiexis. ending incompletely, i.e. having the arsis of the last foot 

without the thesis, is called Catalectic — one which ends 

with the full measure is Acatalectic. Thus in the couplet 

of Anacreon (No. V.) : 

"Isih toi JcaX<3? f/xv av toi tov yoikwbv £{/.{3aXoi[/.i, 

vp/iy.c, 5' sytov <TTps<poi[7.i a' ap.©l Tep[/.aTa Spoixou, 

the first line ending with the trochee is acatalectic, while the 
second, ending with the single long syllable, is catalectic. 

The practice of cataiexis at the end of a line is of course 
due to the pause which fills up the place of the missing 
syllable ; and it is especially common in all languages, as 
in the above illustration from Anacreon, to mark the close 
of a couplet or stanza. Thus in English : 

Pale and breathless came the hunters, 

On the turf lies dead the boar. 
God ! the Duke lies stretched before him 

Senseless, weltering in his gore. 1 

Succession of A succession of acatalectic lines is rare in lyric poetry, 
acatalectic lines j-, u t often very effective, expressing a fervour of sentiment 

rare but effec- ..... ...... , ,. 

tive. which instinctively avoids the incisive character of catalec- 

tic lines. The Sapphic stanza, in which all the lines are 
acatalectic, affords us a good example of this ; whereas, in 
the favourite metre of Alcaeus, the cataiexis in the first 
two lines of the stanza is far more appropriate to the 
general tone of the poem. Similarly in the lines of Burns : 

Had we never loved sae kindly, 
Had we never loved sae blindly, 
Never met or never parted, 
We had ne'er been broken-hearted, 



1 M. Arnold, 'The Church of Brou.' 



METRE IN LYRIC POETRY 61 

the absence of catalexis in the second and fourth lines as 
well as in the first and third greatly enhances the intense 
pathos of the words. 

Two other terms are employed by the old metricians — 
Brachycatalectic and Hypercatalectic. Both expressions 
relate to the conclusions of lines which are supposed to be 
scanned in dipodies. By Hypercatalectic is meant a line Hypercatalectic 
in which the last complete dipody is followed by a single cataiecU^imes 
long syllable. Such cases are of rare occurrence, and need 
no special remark. 1 Brachycatalectic lines are far more 
frequent, and impart a very distinct character to the 
rhythm. They are described as cases where the last com- 
plete dipody is followed by what is apparently a single 
foot, but the proper explanation of them is that they have 
an ordinary catalectic conclusion, and that the penultimate 
syllable is syncopated. Thus the line in Sappho XIV. : 

"Ecu [/.oi y.'xkcf. izoCic, j^pudCotatv av9i;v.ou7tv, 

should be scanned 

— v^» — ^ — \J — — — W — W ' ' x 

Such a type of rhythm has its origin in the connection Brachycataiexis 
of Greek lyric poetry with music, and can hardly be fluenceofmusic 
paralleled in modern lyrics. A fine example of this is 
quoted by Dr. Schmidt in his Rhythmic and Metric, p. 37, 
from the Agamemnon, 192-197, and illustrates, as he 
says, the melancholy character imparted by a succession 
of verses in the ' falling ' rhythm, as he calls it. 

It is obvious that the pause implied by catalexis, in- The different 
eluding its varieties of hypercatalexis and brachycataiexis, cauicTtlc 6 ° f 
must vary in time- value, according to the circumstances of pauses, with 

their si°Tis. 

the case, and certain appropriate signs are employed to 
mark the distinctions. Thus in ordinary trochaic metre 
the pause is equivalent to an eighth note, and is repre- 
sented thus A ; while in a dactylic or epitritic line the 
pause is of the value of a fourth note, and is represented 
by the sign a- Instances of longer pauses than these 
hardly occur in the text. In a hypercatalectic line, the 



1 Sappho vi. may be taken as an instance, if at least such lines are 
to be scanned in dipodies. 



62 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



pause would be one of four eighths or a half, and the 
sign ^». 

Such being the chief features of the beginning and of 
the end of the line, we may now briefly consider the most 
important metrical feet as employed in lyric poetry. 



The Dactyl in T IIE DACTYL 

lyric poetry. 

The hexameter. The most celebrated dactylic metre, the hexameter, is 
from its regular and stately nature scarcely suited for 
song. It is not, however, entirely excluded from lyric 
poetry, at least in early times. Witness the beautiful lines 
in Alcman, (No. II.) : 

ou [/.' £ti 7ra.p9evix.al jxeXtya'pus? iixepocpwvoi, x.t.1 

and in Sappho, (No. xxxiii.) : 

Olov to Y'Xux.'Jij.a'Xov epsufreTat, obepw eV uaow, x-.t.'X. 

It should be noticed, however, that in the first example 
the spondee is not used at all, and in the verses of 
Sappho very sparingly. 1 

Shorter dactylic lines are very common, a familiar 
species being the Prosodiac, 2 so called from its being 
employed specially in Prosodia or processional hymns, for 
which it was indeed eminently suited. Its form is gener- 
ally either : 



Rarity of 
soondees. 



The Prosodiac. 



 \j \J — \J v./  



The verses in the Linus-song, p. 247, which have anacrusis, 
may be taken as an example of the latter, and Miscell. Frag. 

xix. : 

tov 'EXXaSo; aya9ia?, K.r.~k. 

as an instance of the former. Usually two prosodiac Cola 
are combined into one complete line, eg. Ibycus No. vin. : 

Oux. semv axocpihiASvoK; Co>aJ; eti <pap[/.ax,ov sup$tv. 

It is also common in proverbial sayings : 

"Ecpuyov x.ax.ov, eupov aj/.eivov. 

1 Compare also Sap. xxxiv, and Alcman, xxvi. 

2 See W. Christ, pp. 214-216. 



METRE IN LYRIC POETRY 63 

A third form is seen in the Swallow-song, p. 247: 

— , — ks kj — — , (_)I w ^. — y\; — — 

'HX8', -qh&z yzkiSoiv 
'Acckoi^ topa<; ayouaa, 
~/.<xko\)Q £vtauTOu<;, •/..x.'k. 

The shortest dactylic sentence is the Adonius, - ^ w - — , The Adonius. 
commonly employed as a clausula to a stanza, the most 
familiar example being in the case of Sapphics. It is 
also, like the Prosodiac, common in proverbs or yvcup.oa, e.g. 
Bod? i~\ cpaTVT], Fvto-Jh csauTOv. 

I need not say more on other combinations of dactyls, Dactyls not em- 
except to call attention to the rule that an independent verse, S^SSkS 
namely a verse not forming part of a larger system, must not 
conclude with a true dactyl. We are familiar with this in 
the case of the hexameter, and it applies equally to all 
other dactylic verses. 

Thus the three lines of Alcman, No. VIII. 

Mc3g' ays KaTAidxa, •O-uyaxsp Awe, x.t,1 

must probably be scanned not as a dactylic tetrapody 
-w^-^w-^^/-^^, but as a catalectic pentapody in which 
dactyls are ' choreic ', thus : 

on the model of Soph. Phil. 827 : 

"Txv' oSova? aoV^?, uttve S' aXyscov. 

If, however, in the complete poem of Alcman the three except when the 
verses were finished off by a line with some change of a" e s s y s t r e e m p . art of 
metre at its conclusion, the final dactyls might stand, the 
verses then being members of a ' system ', l and incomplete 
in themselves. 

It is in union with feet of another class that dactyls most Dactyls in union 
frequently occur in lyric poetry. This we already noticed ^jf^Jf 6 ^- 
in logaoedic metre where the dactyl is side by side with or/ Cyclic'. 
the trochee, and assumes a different value which gives it tween'these two 
its name of the Cyclic Dactyl. The ' Choreic • Dactyl kinds - 
has a similar time -value, f, and is not always easily 

1 See below, p. 73. 



64 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

distinguished from the cyclic or logaoedic dactyl. The 
real difference is one of ictus, there being in the case of the 
latter a secondary ictus on the third syllable, at the expense 
of the first, which is to be hastily pronounced. 1 Dactyls 
in a passage of |- time are to be treated as choreic rather 
than cylic when they are not in close juxtaposition with 
trochees. Thus any succession of f dactyls implies that 
they are choreic, and the nature of the ictus as distinct 
from that of the logaoedic dactyls in e.g. Sapphics or Alcaics 
will be at once felt on reading such a line as Praxilla's 

'II Sta tc3v -9-upiStov xa^ov e[/.f&S7i;oiaa. 

The dactyl in There is, however, another kind of union of dactyls and 

Epitrmc lines. troc h eeS) in which the dactyl retains its full value of a 
| measure, and does not become cyclic or choreic. I 
refer to cases where it comes side by side with the 
Epitrit, or slow -moving trochaic dipody ("-^ — ), which 
will be referred to below. In this case the time- value of 
the trochee is increased from § to f-, thus ■-<-» or J. J\ 
thereby securing that equality of time which in logaoedics 
was obtained by reducing the value of the dactyl. The 
following lines from Pindar, 01. xi. I will serve as an 
example : 

"Egtiv av9-pw— ot; avstAtov ots ttXsicttoc 
ypvjcri;, EGTtv S' oupavitov uSoctwv. 



^j \j \y \J s~*  



The Anapaest. Akin to the dactylic rhythm is the anapaestic, which 
originally was simply a dactylic measure with anacrusis — 
the earliest form of it being the Prosodiac, described above. 
Anapaestic rhythm was specially appropriate for spirited 
movement, and hence is the march-measure par excellence, 
This is exhibited for us in the two fragments from Tyrtaeus ; 
and similarly it was employed for the entrance song of the 
dramatic chorus as they marched on to the stage. In later 
times the anapaest often assumed a new character by the 
resolution of the long syllable, resulting in the what is 



1 See Dr. Schmidt, Rhyth. and Metr. pp. 49-50. 



METRE IN LYRIC POETRY 65 

called the Proceleusmatic foot w^^^, of which we have an 
example in the passage from Pratinas already alluded to : 

Ti? 6 -Oopupo? ooSj y-.T.X 

We need not dwell further on anapaestic rhythm, since 
the subject has more importance for the lyrical passages 
of the drama than for the melic fragments, among which 
its occurs but seldom. 

The Trochee 
Trochaic may be regarded as the predominating metre importance of 
throughout Greek lyric poetry, and indeed Greek poetry ^^[^efres" 
in general, for it not only prevails in trochaic lines proper, 
but gives the character to logaoedics, and even to iambic 
senarii, or trimeters, which are nothing but trochaic feet 
with anacrusis. For song the trochee is specially adapted, 
owing to the rapid recurrence of the arsis, imparting to a 
succession of trochees a stirring and emotional character. 
In trochaics proper, the metre is usually reckoned by Dipodies. 
dipodies. Thus the tetrameter so common in Archilochus 
and in spirited passages in the chorus of the Drama, con- 
sists of eight trochaic feet taken in four pairs ; and trimeters, 
the iambic senarii, consist of six trochees, the last catalectic, 
taken in three pairs, with anacrusis. The reason for this 
practice is that in this species of the ysvo; aWov, the return 
of the arsis is too rapid to readily allow each foot a distinct 
or equal beat or ictus. The stress then is laid on the arsis 
of the first foot, and recurs on that of the third, fifth, 
seventh, etc. Thus the rhythm of the line 

®uf/i, -frup..' ay//] /avoid /ojoeaiv y.u/.to|/.svs 
should be represented 

It / I n r \ ft / 1 n O /\ 

— \j — ^/\ — \j — v/ — w — wi — \*/ — ' x 

the sign ' denoting the ictus of arsis as compared with 

thesis, and " the main ictus of the dipody. 

This arrangement has important results on the further irrational 

metrical structure ; for in the second or unemphatic foot of ^ lab J £S in 
' r Dipodies. 

each dipody, a long syllable is admissible which is described 

E 



66 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Their expiana- as ' irrational ' because it apparently has the value only of 
llon - a short. The reason for this slight change in the rhythm, 

which however at once commends itself to the ear as 
perfectly harmonious, is not far to seek ; for, since the 
main stress of the dipody is imposed upon the first arsis, 
the value of the second is so far weakened that room is 
left for a succeeding syllable of a value greater than would 
otherwise be admissible. Thus we may, perhaps, represent 
the second foot musically by the dotted quavers * £ , which 
have the total value of J J^, the notes appropriate to the 
first foot. The employment of irrational syllables has a 
very important bearing upon the variety and emphasis of 
any rhythm ; and while in many cases they are introduced 
with the design of slackening the movement as in Pope's 
well-known line, 

That like a wounded snake drags its slow length along, 

Often explicable they are often also to be explained as above by compensa- 
po^ry by h com- ilon - This may be distinctly seen in the following 
pensation. examples from Shelley's Adonais: — 

And the wild winds flew round, sobbing in their dismay. 

It flashed through his pale limbs, and past to its eclipse. 

In both cases the spondee, as it may be called, is preceded 
by a foot composed of very unemphatic syllables ; and in 
the trochaic line 

The pale purple even, 

the compensation is found in the actual foot, which 
approximates to an iamb. 1 The effect is proportionally 
bold, and could be produced without discord only by a 
master-hand. 

There is another class of trochaic dipody in which the 
thesis of the second foot not only may be, but regularly is 
long. The syllable in this case is not irrational, but has 
its full value, = the crotchet I < This kind of dipody is 



Nature of the 
' Epitrit '. 



1 In reality the first syllable is almost ignored, and the second pro- 
longed almost to the value of a trochee, thus i— . 



METRE IN LYRIC POETRY 67 

called the Epitrit, 1 and I have already made some reference 
to it. It is its constant connexion in the same line with 
dactylic feet, and its frequent occurrence in poetry such as 
the Doric odes of Pindar, which have much of the metrical 
character of Epic, that leads to the conclusion that instead 
of the dactyls being reduced to f-time, the trochees are 
raised to the f -time of the ordinary dactyl. 

We have then three main classes of trochaic rhythm, Three classes 
which I mention in order of the rapidity of their move- ^podies?' 
ment. 

I. — A succession of pure trochees, or as they are often 
called chorees, taken in dipodies. This is obviously 
adapted admirably for easy lively movement in songs not 
expressing any great depth of feeling. The most brilliant 
example is the delightful song of Anacreon, No. v., begin- 
ning 

IltoXs ©pvj/uvj, t( Svj [J.t Xo£ov 6[j.[j.y.fj\.v [&S7COU<7a, 

which exhibits only two irrational syllables throughout 
the poem. 

II. — Trochaic dipodies with frequent irrational syllables, 
but without admixture of dactyls. These have the same 
time-value as choreic dipodies, but apparently express a 
slower tempo — Andante as compared with Allegro. 

III. — The Epitritic dipody which has not so much a 
slower tempo as a different time, £ instead of f . 

I pass on now to two other well-known classes of 
dipodies, the Choriambic -w-, and the Ionic — w^. The 
Choriambic, so called because ancient metricians imagined choriambic 
it to consist of two such impossible yoke-fellows as a choree ipo K 
-w and an iamb ^-, is much employed in Greek songs, but 
appears very unsuited for modern poetry. 2 The immediate unsuited for any 

but song-poetry. 

1 For the mistaken principles which have given rise to the mis- 
nomer, see W. Christ, pp. 67, 577, or Schmidt, p. 41. 

2 Comic operas have almost a monopoly of this metre. One 
instance only occurs to me in ordinary English poetry — 

Rattle his bones over the stones, etc. 

and it can hardly be said to invite imitation. 



68 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

juxtaposition of emphatic long syllables, which a succes- 
sion of choriambs involves, would have a strange effect in 
recited verses, especially if the long syllables occurred in 
the same word as is frequently the case in Sappho, e.g. — 

Asuts vuv a(3pai Xapixs?, x.tX 

Consequently we find this carefully avoided in the chori- 
ambic odes of Horace, in which each choriamb closes with 
a final syllable. Compare 

Nullam | Vare sacra | vite prius | sevens arborem, 

with the line of Alcaeus which Horace appears to have 
copied — 

MvjOiv | a>JXo <puT£u|<r/); upoTSpov [ SsvSpeov xpisekv). 

Choriambic metre, then, though in this way it can be 
sometimes successfully employed in merely recited poetry, 
at any rate in a language where the metre is regulated 
not by accent but by quantity, is above all intended for 

Considerable song. But even in true melic poetry its peculiar character. 

limitations upon w hich expresses an unrestful and excited feeling too 

the employment r ° 

of choriambs intense to be long sustained, 1 is such that we find it only 

poetry. used with a considerable limitation ; for there are few if 

any cases of a line consisting from start to finish of 

Usually intro- nothing but choriambs. In the first place the choriambic 

duced by basis 

or anacrusis. movement is very commonly introduced by the ' basis ', as 
in the examples just quoted from Horace and Alcaeus. 
With Horace, indeed, his odes being for recitation only, 
the basis is the invariable rule. In Lesbian poetry, on the 
other hand, we have not a few examples of an initial 
choriamb, e.g. — 

Ae'jte vuv afipou Xaptrs?, Y..T.7.. 

or with anacrusis — 

6 ttXouto? avEu (toc?) apsTa;, x..tX, Sap. No. XXVII. (3. 
Kpyjccat vu 7tot' toS' £[/.[/sXeb>; 7c6fW<7tv, Sap. No. XIX. 



1 W. Christ points out that it is specially appropriate for songs of 
a Bacchic nature, e.g. Alcaeus, II, V. 



METRE IN LYRIC POETRY 69 

Secondly, the conclusion of a choriambic line is always, No final chori 
at least in the melic fragments, 1 in a different rhythm — ^j £ a g he 
the vehemence of the choriamb subsiding into the quieter ments. 
movement of trochaic or logaoedic measures. A favourite 
conclusion is -w^-*>- as in the lines from Horace and 
Alcaeus, and in Horace's Asclepiads, e.g. — 

Maecenas atavis edite regibus 

Another is -^w-«^-- as in more than one of the examples 
above from Sappho. 

The time-value of the choriamb, which is thus matched Time-value. 
by trochaic or logaoedic dipodies, is f, and it should be 
regarded as composed of a cyclic dactyl and a syncopated 
long syllable thus -^^<—. 

Ionics are supposed to be so called from the metre being Ionic Dipodies. 
regarded as owning an effeminate and voluptuous character 
such as was attributed to the Ionian race. There are two 
kinds : 

Ionics a major e (arco [/.si^ovos) — ^^ 
Ionics a minore (dtaro dXaacovo?) ^^ — 

A succession of the latter being simply a succession of 
Ionics a majore with two short syllables as anacrusis. 

Ionics a majore are often hardly distinguishable from ionics a majore 
choriambics with one long (irrational) syllable as anacrusis, distinguish from 
Thus we should not be certain that the Ionic lines : choriambic 



metre. 



Kpyjcrcat vu tcot' coS' ep.jviXeio; xo'cWcjiv 
top^suvr' aTO&oi? a[x<p' epoevxa pto;/.ov, 

were not choriambic, were they not succeeded by a line 
with a short syllable for anacrusis : 

770 a? Tspev avOo; p.aXaxov [xaTSiffat. 



1 Instances to the contrary may, however, be seen in W. Christ, 

S§ 53o,S3i- 



70 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

Like the choriamb an Ionic dipody is of the same time- 
value as the trochaic, which often answers to it, e.g. 

rEX^flV)? [>.kv iyy.ivs.T a ssXavva, 
at o" to; Tcepi pw;xov IffTa^cav. 1 

Similarly in Anacreon No. XVI. after a series of brachy- 
catalectic trochaic dimeters with anacrusis : 

"Ays Seure [j.r^z^ outco, /..t.'X. 

we find a dimeter composed of two Ionics a minors : 

Ionics a majors are unadapted for recited poetry, probably 

because after two consecutive long syllables a rest is re- 

ionics a minore. quired which is only afforded by Ionics a minore. The 

latter metre is effectively employed by Horace, Od. iii. 12 : 

Miserarum est neque amori, etc. 
in imitation perhaps of Alcaeus, No. xiv. 

"Eas SsiXav, £«/.£ xaaav y.ax.OTaTav 77£o£/owav. 

Horace, however, appears to have found it somewhat too 
remarkable in its effect for anything more than an experi- 
ment in metre, since this is the only instance of it in his 
Odes. 

Paeons and Cretics 

Tevo? ^toXiov. On the third y£vo; — the ylvo; ^aio>.iov or Quinquepar- 
tite measure, I will dwell as briefly as possible since it 
occurs but rarely in the text. In the rhythm to which 
I have already referred we have a f time, which is very 
rare in modern music but not unknown to it. It was 
designed specially as a dance-measure, and it was from 
Crete that it was introduced into Greek poetry, an island 
famous as we have seen for its dancing from the most 
ancient times. From Crete too comes the name of the 
best known form of the Paeon, namely the Cretic -^-, of 
which we have a good example in Alcman, No. XVII. 



1 Sap. xx. See however note ad loc. pointing out that perhaps the 
metre is of a different kind. 



METRE IN LYRIC POETRY 71 

For much the same reasons as in the case of the Chori- The Cretic 
amb, the Cretic is unsuited for any but melic poetry, and song-poetry. ' 
it is also apparently always in connection with the dance. 

The Paeon proper consists of a long and three short 
syllables, and is named according to their relative positions, 
thus : 



— w s >»/ 



First Paeon. 
w-^v^ Second Paeon. 

uw-u Third Paeon. 

w^- Fourth Paeon. 

Lastly in the same class we have the Bacchius — ^, e.g. 
in Aesch. Prom. 115, with anacrusis : 

Tt? a^ca ti; 6&[/.<x xpocsTUTa [/.' a<psyy>]<; ; 

v^; \j\ — — • ^/ — — ^ yy. 

All these rhythms, and especially the Bacchius, are said to 
denote excited feelings, or extreme uncertainty or surprise. 1 

Finally comes the difficult measure of the Dochmius The Dock 
(£o/jv.io?, the oblique rhythm) which is said to take no less 
than thirty-two forms, the most common being -. — w-, or 
-ww-w-. The real nature of this rhythm is difficult to 
comprehend and variously explained, but I need not 
touch upon the subject since the Dochmius, so common 
in the lyric poetry of the Drama, is not found among the 
lyric poets with whom we are concerned, probably because 
its complicated and apparently irregular nature belongs to 
a later period when the early simplicity of movement was 
becoming corrupted. 2 

Colon, Verse, System 

I will conclude by explaining a few terms, which will be 
employed in the notes, concerning the rhythmical divisions 
of a poem and the grouping of the lines. 

The smallest of these divisions is the Colon, or short The Colon. 
rhythmical sentence, which may by itself form an entire 



mi us 



1 Schmidt, Rhyth. and Metr. pp. 33-4. 2 See lb. p. II. 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Separate cola 
in the same line 
marked by 
caesura and 

diaeresis. 



Distinguishing 
marks of the 
complete verse. 



line, or, as is more often the case, be one of two or more 
members welded together into a single verse. Thus in 
the Linus-song each verse is composed of a single colon 
only ; whereas in the hexameter the line is composed of 
two of these cola, dove-tailed together by means of the 
caesura. Similarly in English Alexandrines, such as those 
which conclude each stanza of Shelley's Skylark, e.g., 
Our sweetest songs are those which tell of saddest thought. 

the line is composed of two short iambic cola, three feet in 
length, which stand as entire lines in the previous part of 
the stanza, e.g., 

We pine for what is not. 

Cola then may be compared to short grammatical sentences 
or clauses, which may stand alone or may be compounded 
together to form one long sentence ; and just as in the 
latter case a pause or stop of some kind must come between 
the separate clauses, so in a compound verse a pause in 
the shape of the caesura or diaeresis must separate the cola 
and allow each to exhibit its main ictus or accent. 

It is by mistaking the Sapphic pentapody, which is a 
single rhythmic sentence or colon, for a compound verse, 
that Horace is led, in his earlier Sapphics at least, to intro- 
duce an invariable caesura. On the other hand, in the 
line, 

In profuse strains of unpremeditated art. 

it is the absence of the diaeresis which produces some 
sense of strangeness in the rhythm. 

Next comes the Complete Line or Verse (cti^o?), which as 
as we have just seen may be composed of a single colon or 
of more than one. It is important to bear in mind the 
distinguishing marks of the complete verse as compared 
with a mere colon, since upon this depends the arrange- 
ment of the lines, which in some cases admits of doubt. 
The following then are the chief signs which indicate the 
end of a verse ; — the syllaba anceps, or syllable of neutral 
quantity, admission of hiatus before the next word, 
absence of elision or of the shortening of a long vowel 



METRE IN LYRIC POETRY 73 

or diphthong before a succeeding vowel, and lastly and 
chiefly the ' Wortschluss ' as the Germans call it, i.e. the 
conclusion of the line by a final syllable only. The rule 
that a line must conclude with a complete word is practi- 
cally without any exception, and Bockh uses it as a sure 
guide so far as it goes in the separation of the verses of 
Pindar. We see then that the Adonius -v,^-- which con- 
cludes the Sapphic stanza is often if not always treated 
not as a separate line but as a clausula to the third ; for 
we by no means unfrequently find one word common to 
both portions, e.g. Sappho II. 

aSu cp(.ov£i|croc<; u77axo'JSi 
eTrippoy-IPstcrt &' axouai, 

and in several other instances. Similarly such a division 
of the lines of Anacreon No. XX. as is made by Hartung : 

s|xs yap Xoywv cocpcov si- 

is misleading, and the words should be written in one line 
as is done by Bergk. 

The other requirements at the end of a line are 
observed with little less regularity when each line is 
entirely independent metrically of the others, as is the 
case with hexameters or with the trimeters of the Drama, 
etc. ; but in lyric poetry the verses are sometimes related 
in such a manner that, though they cannot be regarded as 
mere Cola, they are yet not complete when taken sepa- 
rately but form parts of one harmonious rhythmical group, 
described as a ' System'. 

The System is composed of a number of Cola, for they Verses only 
can hardly be called lines, which taken together would cnUnthe Pend * 
form far too long a period for a single verse. They admit System, 
of elision, and the shortening of a final long vowel or 
diphthong before a succeeding vowel, e.g. Soph. El. 148 : 

a "Ituv aiiv "Ituv 6Xo<p'JpsTat 
opvi? aTu£o;/iva Ato; ayveXo?. 

They avoid hiatus and the Syllaba Anceps, but vindicate 



74 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



the semi-independence of the lines by nearly always re- 
taining the ' Wortschluss.' Among melic fragments the 
best illustrations of the 'system' may be seen in the 
poems of Anacreon, e.g. No. III. 

I can now bring this article to a close, and I am aware 
that it occupies an almost undue space in the Intro- 
duction ; but the subject of metre is so important for 
Greek lyric poetry, and yet so commonly neglected, that 
I have thought it worth while to dwell upon it at some 



length. 



I subjoin a list of certain metrical signs employed which 
to many readers may be unfamiliar : — 

•- where one long syllable is equivalent to -w or a dotted 
crotchet I. See p. 52-3. 

>— j where one syllable is equivalent to -^ or J Ibid. 

-w the Cyclic Dactyl, equal to the trochee, thus j v . J^J^ 

-^ the Choreic Dactyl, J ^- See p. 53 and pp. 63-4. 

x placed over a foot in the metrical scheme denotes the 
Basis, pp. 58-9. 

' denotes the occurrence of the ictus, e.g. on the first foot 
of each trochaic dipody. 

The following mark the time-value of the verse-pause 
(p. 61.) :- 

A the eighth-pause, equivalent to 1 or one short syllable. 
•^ the quarter-pause, equivalent to P or one long syllable. 
a" the four-eighth pause, equivalent to — . 



ARTICLE VII 

DIALECT IN THE LYRIC POETS 1 

SECTION I 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 

In the transition from Epic to Lyric poetry we naturally Native dialect 
find great changes in dialect as in metre. When poetry manyofthe 7 
became personal and subjective, it tended to assume a early lyric poets 
style of diction familiar to the singer and his hearers. 
Hence a characteristic feature of the poetry of several of 
the earlier Melic writers is the abandonment of the time- 
honoured epic forms, and the employment of the peculi- 
arities of their own dialect. Sappho and Alcaeus wrote in 
their native Lesbian, Archilochus and Anacreon in Ionic, 
and Corinna in Boeotian. We may compare the instance 
of Burns, who in the revival of British lyric poetry plays a 
part somewhat parallel to that taken by a Sappho or an 
Alcaeus among the Greeks. In his case as in theirs the 
charm of the songs is inseparably connected with the 
native dialect ; and when he abandons it for the con- 
ventional English diction the result is anything but 
satisfactory. 

But the employment of the local dialect was far from but not by the 
being so universal as might be expected from the nature of p e ts c 
the case ; for, with the single exception of Corinna, it is found 
in monodic poetry only. In choral poetry, which, as we 
have seen, came to predominate greatly over monodic, an 
admixture of dialectic forms was adopted, presenting to us 
an artificial dialect which can only be called lyric, since it 
certainly cannot be attached to any particular locality or 
any branch of the Greek race. Nor is this unnatural. An Reasons for 

this : 

1 See Addendum at the conclusion of this article, p. 97. 



;6 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

Alcaeus or a Sappho, in the words of Pindar, 1 ' lightly shot 
i. choral poetry forth their honey-voiced songs of love.' Though fragments 
not persona. ^ t j ie j r son g S have won an immortality, they wrote for 
their own circle or boon companions, and the subjects 
of their poems were drawn from the deeds or the 
pleasures or the passions of their own life. In such 
poetry no language could win favour so readily as one 
which, though indeed exalted above the region of common- 
place by the genius of the poets, was yet familiar to the 
hearers and free from poetic conventionalities. But in 
choral poetry the circumstances were far different. The 
personal element, always incomparably less than in monodic 
song, tended to disappear entirely in later choral poems, 
consequently the subject did not call for the language of 

2. Choral poetry ordinary life. Again choral poetry at first was mainly 
nected with religious, and religious diction is notoriously conservative 
religi S n L -.. , of ancient style. Furthermore the mythical or narrative 

3. and admitted J J 

mythical narra- element entered largely into this branch of lyric poetry, and 
for this the Epic dialect was best fitted by the influence of 
association. Lastly, choral poetry tended to detach itself 
from local ties, and rather to assume a Hellenic character. 

4 . Hellenic After Alcman none of the great choral poets worked for 

rather than , . , , . 

local character their native city alone ; on the contrary they exercised tneir 
of choral poetry. ta j ents f or the most part j n ot i ier Greek states, wherever 

they were likely to enjoy the most encouraging patronage. 
Under such circumstances, it was absolutely necessary for 
them to adopt some uniform style of diction, which, while 
confining itself to no dialect in the proper sense, would be 
Artificial understood by all educated Greeks. The result was the 

adopted adoption of a composite artificial dialectic style, which was 

handed down with comparatively few changes from gene- 
ration to generation of choral poets, 
composed Naturally the Epic dialect was taken as the foundation 

mainly of Epic Qr ma j n e i ement f the whole ; and therefore, just as in the 
most important choral metres, such as those of Stesichorus 
and of the ' Dorian ' odes of Pindar, the old dactylic 
rhythm of Epic poetry still made manifest its influence, 

1 Isth. ii. -\. 



DIALECT 77 

so also in the language the forms of Epic were widely- 
retained. But besides this a considerable admixture of with a consider 

., . . . . , T-1 able admixture 

(a) Lesbian and (o) Doric forms was introduced. Little as of Lesbian and 
the Lesbian poets were directly connected with the develop- Don; - 
ment of choral song, I have already commented on the wide- 
spread influence they exercised on all subsequent Greek 
lyric poetry, and not a few of the most striking Lesbian 
forms found their way into the choral ' dialect.' Again it 
was amid the Dorian race, however unproductive of original 
talent, that choral poetry was fostered and developed, and 
hence it exhibits conspicuously many of the Doric dialectic 
peculiarities. These, however, are not so prominent as 
might have been expected, since the Doric from which 
lyric poetry borrowed was of the kind described by 
Alcaeus as ' mitior ', which, as will be mentioned below, 
exhibited far fewer distinctive features than strict Doric 
('severior'), and probably was intelligible in all Hellenic states. 

The proportion in which Lesbian or Doric enters into 
the language naturally varies with the different poets, or 
(as in Pindar's odes) with the different portions of the 
same poet's writings. But speaking summarily, Hermann's 
remark upon the language of Pindar applies equally to 
that of the choral poets in general : ' Est enim Pindari Hermann on 
dialectus epica, sed colorem habens Doricae, interdum Pindar - 
etiam Aeolicae {i.e., Lesbiae) linguae. Aliis verbis funda- 
mentum hujus dialecti est lingua epica, sed e Dorica 
dialecto tantum adscivit Pindarus, quantum et ad dictionis 
splendorem et ad universorum commoditatem idoneum 
videretur, repudians ilia quae aut interioris essent, aut 
vulgaris aut certis in locis usitati Dorismi. Nee primus 
hoc fuit Pindarus, sed secutus alios,' etc. 

As I have described in some detail the forms in the 
Lesbian and Doric dialects which appear in lyric poetry, 
readers can estimate for themselves how far these elements 
enter into the surviving fragments. I would also refer 
them to E. Mucke's Dissertation on the dialects of the 
chief choral poets compared with Pindar, 1 where a careful 



De Dialectis Stesichori, Ibyci, Simonidis, Bacchylidis. 



yS) GREEK LYRIC POETS 

analysis is given of the Doric, Lesbian, and Epic forms 
which are to be found in Pindar and the other choral 
poets. 
Dialectic forms Most of the melic fragments being quoted in Greek authors 
Meik fragments who employ a very different dialect, it is obvious that the 
uncertain. forms used by the poet must in many instances have 

become corrupted. Once lost their restoration is a process 
attended with considerable uncertainty ; and considering 
the free eclecticism exercised by the choral writers in their 
diction, the only principle upon which in most cases we 
can proceed is that of analogy. Accordingly, the enumera- 
tion that I am about to give of the instances of Doric and 
Lesbian forms, which are of most frequent occurrence in 
the poets, will serve a further purpose in aiding us to 
understand the reasons for the commonest emendations 
effected by editors. 
Chief Dorian I. — Firstly, the choral parts seem nearly always to have 

forms in Melic followed the Doric and Lesbian dialects in employing a in 
poetry : place of ri, when the latter has originated from an a-sound. 

I. a retained r '' ° 

where weakened Consequently editors are in most cases justified in restor- 

in Ionic to r). ing 9 j n p]ace of an Ionk Qr Att . c ^ 

Exceptions. Mucke, however, maintains that there is not sufficient 

reason for altering 75 in certain cases, for instance in certain 
poetical forms or words borrowed apparently from Homer, 
vyj££, vvjugiv, Ztjvi, ©p7)i.'iuo$, etc. Again in certain passages 
of Bacchylides, viz. XIII. and XXI., we find an Ionic or 
Attic 7] freely used, and Neue and Bergk regard it as 
natural, since these passages are not in choral but in 
simple trochaic rhythm, not necessarily intended for song. 
Finally in the 'Attic' scolia, 73 as well as other Attic 
forms are frequently employed and should not be emended. 
Similarly in Bacchylides No. II., which appears to be a 
scolion, it seems best not to follow Bergk, in altering 
aiyTivjevTa and v?je£ ; these are in harmony with the Attic 
forms ayou<jt, p.ap[/.aipou(7i, the first of which is left unchanged 
by Bergk. 

11. -avfor-wv II. — Secondly, the Doric and Lesbian contraction in 
piurirstdcdcn- lne genitive plural of a-wv into av is constantly adhered to 

sion. 



DIALECT 79 

in Melic poetry ; and it occurs so frequently that in the 
few cases where the MSS. give c3v, editors are fully 
justified in restoring av. 

Doubtless the suitability of the a-sound for song weighed 
with the poets as much as, or more than, a mere desire to 
imitate Doric or Lesbian forms, since in verbs in a-stems, 
where strict Doric contracts as into tj, the choral poets 
employ a, e.g. Gujarat, vcop.arat. 

III. — The Epic and Attic terminations -ouera, and -ouert(v), m. Lesb. 
in the feminine participle, and the 3d plural present indica- " 0llja or Don 

1 -ii-titi- x- 1 -waa in parti- 

tive respectively, are avoided in Melic poetry, tor the cipie for ion. 

first we usually have the Lesbian -owa ; and in the case _0UCTa - 

of the word Mouca (Attic), in reality a participle (*Movua), 

the Doric form Mtoca is often employed, though the Les- Exceptions. 

bian Mdfcra is common enough. MoOcra occurs in the 

trochaics of Bacchylides, No. XIII. ; and jtXeiouua and 

Exouca in Stesichorus, who employs no Lesbian forms 

in his poetry. In the weak aorist participle active the 

Lesbian form -at? is common in Pindar, but is not found 

in the other choral poets, except, perhaps, in Simonides, 

No. IX. I. 12, Tupa^ai; (see Note ad loc). 

In the 3d plural in -oust (Epic and Attic) it is again the Lesb. third piur. 
Lesbian form in -own which is preferred ; but the Dorian in -otat > or Dor 
termination in -vn, whether in thematic or non-thematic _ ou ^ 
verbs, is not uncommon, e.g. •9-pooiovTt, Simonides, No. XX., 
cpcovsov-u Hybrias, svxt Timocreon, and many instances in 
Pindar's odes. The termination -ouct occurs twice, as I Exceptions. 
have already mentioned, in a scolion of Bacchylides, No. 
II., and in the ode attributed to Arion, where the form is 
one indication of the late origin of that poem. In other 
cases the commentators reasonably emend to -owit. 

It is to be noticed that the Lesbian accusative plural in 
-ot? -at; (Att. -o'j; -a?) is never employed, except, perhaps, 
in one doubtful instance j 1 and the same is true of the 
Lesbian dative plural of the 3d declension in -otct. 



1 Ibycus, vi. /. 1, see Note. 



80 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

iv. Contraction IV. — Melic poetry follows Doric or Epic (the latter in 
often avoided. M uc k e » s opinion) in very frequently avoiding contraction, 

especially where the first vowel is s — e.g. oceo, <popsovTa 

(Stesich.), cpi^eco, |aij/.eo (Simonid.) ; also SivaevToc (Simonid.). 

<ptovasvTa, sy^ea, £i<psa (Bacchyl.), etc. 
Synizesis ^ n these non-contracted forms synizesis for metri- 

common. ca ] purposes is very common, e.g. Stvocevra, Tt[/mpTovTa, 

cptXeto, etc. 

v. Lesb. forms V. — In the pronouns r^.zXq, up.stc, etc. (Attic), the choral 
pTrs^pron. 2d po ets appear to have always employed the Lesbian forms 
P lur - a[/.|/.ss, cr.{j.[j.w, \j[j.[j.iv, etc. In Simonides IX., 1. 18, the MSS. give 

fy.iv, which is unmetrical, and emended to u(A[/.tv. 

The above are all the Lesbian and Dorian forms which 
are regularly or commonly employed by the choral poets. 
They appear scanty enough in a bare enumeration, but 
nevertheless owing to the frequency with which they occur 
they are amply sufficient to establish a very distinct poetic 
diction, which would be intelligible to all Greek hearers, 
but commonplace to none. Other instances of Lesbian 
or Doric forms less frequently occurring will be referred to 
in the course of the notes. I will now proceed to give a 
more detailed account of the Lesbian and Doric Dialects, 
so far as is sufficient to illustrate the forms occurring in 
Alcaeus and Sappho on the one hand, and on the other in 
Alcman, and certain poems where the Doric dialect is 
freely employed. 



SECTION II 

THE LESBIAN DIALECT IN THE LYRIC POETS 

I propose here to summarise the chief dialectic forms 

found in the Lesbian poets with whom we are concerned. 

vCkom;. Two of the most prominent characteristics of the dialect 

that first deserve notice are the^iXtoct; and the BapuTOvyjct?. 

WiXoiciq, the avoidance of the Spiritus Asper, appears, 



DIALECT 81 

according to the testimony of the grammarians, to have 
been the universal practice of the Lesbians. Ahrens, it is 
true, formulates a rule that the aspirate, rejected in all 
other cases, was employed when taking the place of an 
original s or j. Thus he retains the aspirate in the 
Article 6, a, etc. (Sanskrit sa, sa), and in ayvo. and £<pa(3o?, 
which he connects, though probably erroneously, with 
janctus and /uvenis. Meister {die Griechischen Dialekte) 
follows Bergk {note on Sap. I. 9) in condemning these 
forms, and admits of no exception to ^iXoxri?. He adds 
that Ahrens himself was inclined subsequently to give up 
his view. I have therefore throughout the text adopted 
universal ipCXoaffi?, reading 6, a, avva, etc. 

By ' Barytonesis ' is meant the practice of casting back Barytonesis. 
the (acute) accent from the last syllable when a word is 
not monosyllabic, so that, with few exceptions, no oxytones 
remained in the dialect. For us, who ignore the accent in 
our pronunciation of Greek, this has but little significance, 
but we ought to bear in mind how great a distinction 
between Lesbian and other Greek dialects must have been 
effected by such a diversity of intonation. 

Here, as in many other respects, the Lesbian happens to 
have been at one with Latin ; cf. Athenaeus, x. 425. Ol 
'PtOLtatoii TOXvra to'j? Ai.oTvS?? Lup.ou[/.evot Jtai xaia tguc tovouc 
T/j; <pcovv]c. (Quoted by Ahrens.) Illustrations of this 
Barytonesis are aoyoc, Suvoctoc, y.aloc, auTOc, etc. Exceptions 
are dissyllabic prepositions and conjunctions, e.g. ava, &a, 
auTap, aXXa, etc. (see however Bergk on Sap. I. 25). In the 
case of monosyllables Aeolic is said to have changed an 
oxytone to a perispomenon, e.g. ZsOc, yvjv, for Zs'ic, yvjv ; 
and, since the circumflex consists of an acute + a grave 
accent, the word is thus rendered barytone. A gram- 
marian, Choeroboscus, however, quoted by Professor 
Chandler {Greek Accentuation, p. 570), declares that mono- 
syllables keep the acute accent — ;/.ei; being apparently a 
bond fide example. 

The Digamma, as the metre often clearly shows, was Digamma. 
frequently employed in Lesbian, it being, of course, retained 
from ancient usage, and not, as some grammarians state, 

F 



82 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

added in certain cases. We find it in the pronoun fs&ev 
Foi, Fi, etc., in Fsfanjv (DiXto rt /-efonjv, Alcaeus), in fspyov 
(u-6 f spyov), and in the reduplication FzFy.yz (yX<3<j<ia FzFy.yz, 
Sappho) etc. 

Before p, A" becomes (3, ^. ppaStvo?, (SpdSov (Sappho), 
though not in Fpr t hc, as Alcaeus is said to have written. 
Between two vowels F appears as u, e.g. autoc = •qtoc, Att. 
ktoc, Doric a~to?. 

Double liquids Another distinctive feature of Lesbian is the employ- 
ment of double liquids or nasals, where in other dialects we 
usually find a single liquid preceded by a lengthened 
vowel or a diphthong. The reason of this is that in Les- 
bian ' every spirant is assimilated to a contiguous X, p, ;x, v ' 
(Curtius, Greek Et. 665), whereas in most dialects the 
spirant is rejected and the preceding vowel lengthened by 
' compensation.' Thus — Lesb. 1\k\h. (for ec-jxi), Att. z\\)X ; 
Lesb. y.u.u.zz, Dor. aij.sc, Att. r^-sic ; Lesb. \j[j.u.zc, Att. ''J'J.zl;, 
Sanskrit showing in all three cases that assimilation has 
taken place between a and ;x ; Lesb. <p8ippto, jctsvvio from 
*cp9-sp!,w, *3tTSvto) (Att. <p8sipco, jctsivw) ; Lesb. yd woe from 
*yovfa, Ionic youva. 

It should be noticed that the double liquid or nasal is 
never employed after a in Lesbian, the diphthong at being- 
found as in other dialects, e.g. yviooi (yapito) jjiXaiva 
(*{/.s'Xavta), jj.ax.aipa (*|xax.apta), etc. 

It should also be noticed that in not a few cases the 
single liquid or nasal only is employed, without compen- 
satory lengthening of the vowel, e.g. [idvo? (Ionic [/.ouvoc, 
Doric [xtovos), y.aXoc (Ionic jtaXd?), and in the fern. gen. sing. 
Tspeva? ( = Tspstv/jc), which is probably influenced by the 
analogy of the masculine repevoc. 

Double mutes are found in the pronominal forms otti 
(oti), oTTiva? (ou's Tivac) o-~qtol (q7tots), for which see below 
on ' Pronouns.' 
a<7< Again, we find an retained where in other dialects it is 
usually weakened to a, e.g. y.d'kzaay.i, TsXsatyai, where the 
stem is xaXsff-, tsXsg-, Ic-gstou for Ion. s<7£Tat, Att. scxai. 
Here again, as with the Digamma and the double liquids 



DIALECT 83 

and nasals, Lesbian poets, in man)- cases, reserved for them- 
selves freedom of choice between gt and rr. We have 
a[/.77£Ta<jOv, vsXaffsia?, etc., TzkzG<iy.i and tsXscttj, y.tcaoz and 
u.s<jo?, crT'^&icrrrt and G-nj-9-sfft. 

In no case was gt employed in Lesbian, unless tt 
existed in the early form, or n with another consonant 
subsequently assimilated to it ; e.g. i-/r/.y.*?oy. is from *s-ux.y.'V 
Ta, 't/7<7o; (teo?) from *'iijFoz. 

One of the most noticeable peculiarities of Lesbian is its _ otSi -ais= 
treatment of an original vr> after a short vowel. Whereas Attic -ous, :;. 
other Greek dialects (except Cretan and Argive, which diphthongises 
retain vs) reject v, and give compensatory lengthening to lem^enfne 1 ^ y 
the vowel, Lesbian by substituting t, for v produces an 
t-diphthong ; e.g. Cretic tovc, Att. xo'j;, Doric tojc, Lesb. 
toic ; similarly, Lesb. -uy.i;, Attic and Doric tv.c. 1 The fol- 
lowing are the chief cases to which the rule applies : — 
(a.) The ace. plur. of the 1st decl. ends in tx.it; for y.c, of 

the 2d in 01; for -o'jc (Attic), e.g. /jjkiyyy.ic, -zoic. 
(b.) Aor. partic. in -y.ic (Attic y.c), e.g. •wrpy.ic; also the 

adject. [/iXaig (*[xsXav-?). 
(c.) 3rd pers. plural in -vu, in which the r perhaps first 
passed into cr, thus exposing v to the usual Lesbian 
change. Thus, /tp'j-TO-vri, preserved in Doric, 
becomes in Lesbian /.puTCTOKTi, in Att. x.p'j— tgugi ; 
St(|;a-vTt, s7appd|/.|3e-VTi (see below, on ' Contracted ' 
Verbs), become Si<J/awii, S7iripp6f/.(3eK»i. 
I will refer to a few other consonantal peculiarities, and 
then pass on to the vowels. 

We find - in certain cases where most dialects use t — _ foi . _ 
e.g. 7ce{jwrs, TOcroups? for — £vts, xiaaocoe^ ~fi.m for tvjX'j'. 
( = t-zjXots) — the fact being that the 'Velar' k (Lat. qu) be- 
fore s or v) becomes r, where in other dialects it becomes - 
We also find 9 for #• in cpvjp ( = -8-qp), <poivat£ ( = 9oumc), ._ to 

1 The fact that xov? became either tou; or roi? certainly supports 
the view that the Greek v was often sounded like the French n after 
vowels, e.g. on. For the /-sound, which in Lesbian crept in before 
the v, and finally ousted it, we may compare the vulgar British pro- 
nunciation of Boulogne. 



84 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

but this change is sporadic, and not parallel to that in 
t.vj.-z, etc. 
co for r. In Lesbian gS is not uncommonly found for the 'C 1 of 
other dialects, e.g. ©povTiattajv ( = <ppovu£siv, from ©povriS-), 
Tpa-scSa ( = Tponce£a from Tpa7reS-ia) ; on the other hand, we 
have [/.et^wv ((/.eyiov), :rXa(to (TrXayito) as usual. In short Si, 
when medial, becomes in Lesbian gS, while yt becomes '£ 
When initial, Si in some instances became Z, where Si 
is found in other dialects, e.g. ^afJocTOV, (aSTjAov = SiafiaTov, 
oiy.oihkov. 

We come now to the vowels. 
a for r t . Of the long vowels, a is retained, for the Ionic 73, in all 
cases where the a-sound is original ; 73 however is, of 
course, used in Lesbian, as in Ionic, whenever derived from 
an s-sound. 

We have then a kept throughout the ist Declension, e.g. 
-y.c, £[/.a$, ptiXaCvag, etc. ; in the Imperfect ayov ; in verbs 
from a-stems, gtxiH, uTToSsSpoixaxsv ; in. the termination 
-a.av, £.£-. ^pap,av. But 73 remains in yjpeo, ^pajAav, and in the 
forms -/.aAr.y.i, ©Ooniu, etc., because in all these cases it is 
lengthened from e. We even find 73 in opvjai, and xpjp.a, 
where we. might have expected a ; instances of this kind, 
however, will be commented on as they occur in the text. 

afroma-o.a-co. The strength of the a-sound in Lesbian, as also in Doric, 
is further shown by its predominance over or to in cases 
of contraction, ao and ato both resulting in a ; thus KpovtSa 
in the genitive singular, yyj.z-y.v, f/.spif/.vav, etc., in the geni- 
tive plural. 

7). w for a. ou. I n certain cases of contraction we find 73 and to, where 
we are accustomed to the diphthongs si and ou respec- 
tively. Thus ££ contracts into 73 in 73/s? ( = ziyzc), in 
the infinitives ayTjv, cpspvjv, etc., from *ays-ev, *<psps-sv. 12 
stands for 00 notably in the genitive sing, of the second 
declension avftpto-to, etc., and for o£ in t<om.ov. 

Diphthongs. Passing on to the diphthongs — the employment of at, 

1 The variance, however, may be one of orthography rather than 
of actual sound. See Meister Gr. Dial. p. 130, and Meyer, Gr. Gr. 

I 284. 



DIALECT 85 

01 from original av, ov followed by r> has been dealt with 
above. Eu occasionally stands for the contracted forms of eu from E - . 
£-0, e.g. ^zksoq (for [iilzoc) and the participles oivoyosGffa, 
(;.o/i>s'jvts;, etc. 

The use of si, ou in Lesbian, when these are not genuine 
or original diphthongs, is considerably restricted, owing 
(among other reasons) to the preference for r t> w in cases 
of contraction, and to the doubling of liquids. In many short syllables 
other instances also Lesbian either does not employ a f01 ' dl P hthon g^ 
diphthong, or does not give an apparent diphthong its 
usual value. This is due to the fact that the semi-vowel 1 
frequently failed to coalesce with a preceding short vowel, 
and was treated rather as a consonant ; its consonantal 
value, however, was so slight that the letter often disap- 
peared altogether, at any rate in writing, for in speech the 
sound was probably retained involuntarily to avoid hiatus. 

We have izoxq (Doric 7701a = grass), layovjv, STravjGav, 
toocutoc, etc., as Ahrens and in some instances Bergk read 
for XayotTjv, e—ov/jTav, etc. ; s for zi in ala-9-ea = ri&TJ&eta, a 
for at in 'TfV/jvaov. 

Among short vowels, we have a for z, in temporal and short vowels. 
local adverbs especially, such as aXXora, svspfta, ~6~y., etc. ; a fo1 " h 
a for in u'-a (wro) the explanation in these instances 
being that they employ different case-endings ; and far 
more commonly occurs for a. This last change takes for S. 
place usually either before a liquid or nasal, e.g. y6ly.ini 
(= yoXfoci), ovioaci (= y.viy.iai), ov = av for ava, 1 or where 
po = a ' sonant' r, e.g. ppoyito; ( = ppa/stoc). 

I (i) is employed by Lesbian instead of s in the termina- X for 3. 
tion (originally -sio?) of adjectives expressive of material ; 
£.£■. TTopcpuptav, /a'Xx.'-at, j^puciov, for Attic 7rop<pupsav, etc. 
Meister, however, is of opinion that the old termination 
-sioe; (metrically -stoc) should be retained, >. being treated 
not as a vowel, but as a spirant {Die Griech. Dial. p. 91). 

Examples of u for 0, and t for >j will be remarked upon 



' Cf. our pronunciation of a in all, altar, warp, etc., and the French 
a in an, etc. 



I., IT. 



86 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

as they occur in the text. I pass on now to further 
dialectic peculiarities in the Declensions and in the Pro- 
nouns, Adverbs, Prepositions, and the Verbs. 
Declensions Declensions I. and II 

First be it noticed that throughout the declensions no 
dual is found in Lesbian, which herein does not exhibit 
its usually somewhat conservative character. 

I have already referred to the predominance of a through- 
out Declension I., and to the accusative plural in -cat, and 
-ot£ in Declensions I. and II. respectively. The two 
declensions agree further in the employment of -aw7t(v), 
-ow7t(v) in the Dative Plural, in preference to the shorter 
form in -at; -oic. 

The latter, according to Ahrens, are only found— 

(a) Before a vowel, e.g. Jtopucpai£ sv airraid 

(b) At the end of a verse, e.g. tocSs vuv STaipaic | raic 
z'j.xiai, etc. 

(c) In the case of an adjective, whose noun shows the 
fuller form, e.g. ocu.epiotc Sdotoici, spaTocic ©oSawrt. 

(d) In the Article, which never has the longer form. 

The prevalence in most cases of -aici(v) -oiai(y) was per- 
haps due to the endeavour, conscious or unconscious, to 
avoid confusion with the Lesbian accusatives in -an; and oic. 1 

In the first declension a in the vocative is said by the 
grammarians to be short (cf. the Homeric vuf/.qpa.) We 
find this in £1 Sbta, a dactyl, in to | 'pavva /sTaSov ( = spavva) ; 
and Ahrens corrects 'AcppoSira, and similar instances of 
the vocative to 'AcppoSnra, etc. In the second declension, 
the genitive singular in to has been already noticed. 

The following is a scheme of the declension of yctkzKoc. 





Masculine. 


Feminine. 


Neuter. 


Singular- 


-N. yykz~oc 


yyjz~y. 


y&k&Kw 




A. yoXs~ov 


yyXi~y.v 


/y.XsTrov 




G. ya/i—to 


yy'Az—y.q 


yyXz~ to 




D. yy'Az-oi 


yy'ki~y. 


/aXsTTtO 




V. yy'kz~z 


yaike.'Ka. 


yv'kZTJjv 



1 E. Mucke, p. 54, points out that the choral poets also, except in a 
few instances (e.g. Simon. I. 1. i, Ibyc. VIII. 1. i) observe the same 
practice as the Lesbians. 



DIALECT 87 

No Dual. 

Masculine. Feminine. Neuter. 

Plural — N. and V. yyXzr.oi yalz-y.i yyXzr.y. 

G. ya"X£~tov yykz~ av 1 y<xXs7FG>v 

D. yxk£'KOini(y) yaXs7raw7i(v) yykz7:oiai(y) 

A. yyXi~0'4 yyXzT.yx^ yyXz-y. 

Declension III. Declension III. 

In this declension ancient forms are, in many cases 
more faithfully preserved by Lesbian than, for example, 
by Attic. Thus vowel stems and others seldom contract, 
e.g. c&cess, ot^-8-s-o? (from *<mj-9-sff-os), suav&sa, etc., an excep- 
tion being (SsXsu? for fizkzoq in Alcaeus ; the vocative usually 
retains the short vowel of the stem, e.g. yzkitiov ; and nouns 
in -t; (Attic gen. -zo^) retain 1, e.g. tzoIioq. But in the 
frequent employment of v in the accusative sing. Lesbian 
is less careful of the ancient form, and is probably in- 
fluenced by the analogy of the second declension ; thus 
we find ajISajajv, s^spvjv (cf. in Attic Stoxpar/jv as an alter- 
native form of Sto/.py.TTj), and in &- stems, j^ocj/.uv, atppayiv, 
— a'iv ( = -aiSa), though we also have, e.g. jcaxoTrocTpitJa. 

Words in -su? form their genitive in -730?, which is of 
course more ancient than the Attic -zuq, where a transposi- 
tion of the respective quantities of the vowels has taken 
place. 

Words in -lc, -i&o; (Attic) have I, e.g. JtvapSe?. 

Feminine nouns in -to; or -to have their genitive in -to?, 
Topyto?, 2a-cpto$, and their accus. sing, in -tov, e.g. "Hotov, 
Avjrtov {cf. iy.ozpr^, etc., above). 

Pronouns. — The following appears to be the declension Pronouns, 
of the Personal Pronouns :— 







1st Person. 


2d Person. 


3d Person. 


Singular- 


-N. 


sytov, syto 


CU, TU 






G. 


S'JLSirSV 


<7£>>£V 


(F )e&sv 




D. 


lltOl, U.01 


GOl, TO I 


(Oot 




A. 


&»/£, [J.Z 


<7£, T£ ? 


(/> 



1 Bergk prefers yaXs'-av. Note ad Sap. 1. 1. 25. 



No Dual. 








ist Person. 


2d Person. 


Plural— R. 


<%{/.£; 


u(xusc 


G. 


dcimstov 1 


uttLtscav 1 


D. 


ocfApu, aay.iv 


<J{/.[/.l, UfAfJUV 


A. 


aims 


UI/.|/.S 



88 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



3d Person. 

accpt 
accps 

For the Relative, besides the proper form 6c, etc., we 
more usually find the form with initial t, strictly speak- 
ing- demonstrative; e.g. Jtaorav (Alcaeus) = x.a-i)'' tov. From 
Saris, or rather ogtic, we have (besides oitivs;) otti, dVuvac, 
etc. The neuter otti originally is due to assimilation from 
oS-ti ; and in OTTiva?, etc., Lesbian was probably misled by 
the analogy of otti, and of 6-ttots (Lesb. 0— — OTa), o-wo)^, ottou, 
where 6 (or 65) is employed merely as an adverbial prefix, 
to forget that in o:-ti; the first syllable should be declined 
throughout. 

Tic has unusual forms in the datives only— tim, rfoun, as 
if the word belonged to the second declension. Correspond- 
ing to these we have in Homer tIw, tsoigi, e being Ionic, as 
in As'Jvugo; (Anacreon) for Aiovucroc, and in -d^scoc, ypucsoc, 
etc., as compared with Lesbian 770X10:, ypjaioc. 

Adverbs. Adverbs. — The forms otoc, a/\/\0Ta, svsp&a, etc., have 
already been mentioned. 

Local adverbs in -01 are not uncommon, expressing place 
where in [/.scot, cf. o'ijcoi, or place whither, as in u'^01 (or l^ioi), 
Sap. XXVIII., cf. 7701. 

There are other local adverbs in -ui, e.g. -utSs = hither ;. 
~r^ji (ttj/Xogs) = afar. 

For av Lesbian appear always to have used 3cs(v) ; Ahrens 
therefore corrects o'-rroTav -/V/jDoiaa, in Sappho III., to o-ttotoc 

Prepositions. Prepositions. — Syncope of prepositions was very freely 
used, and seems to have been the invariable rule with ava, 
Trapa, y.y.Ta ; e.g. */A[j. ;viv yXtSffcra says — xaS Si ysooTco — x'aTrav 
( = x.a9' tov) — rrap 5' i'ewji toc Tcrlpa — aa~£Ta<70v. 

We find, however, jcaTa<7TSi(3oMTi (Sap. No. XXXII.) where 

1 Bergk, a(i.[Aswv ufifAEwv. J-7V& Bergk ad Sap. 1. 1. 25. 



DIALECT 89 

the authenticity of the lines is not quite certain ; and jcaxappsi, 
which Ahrens corrects to stappssi (cf. Note on Sappho IV.). 

Syncope also occurs frequently with Trspt, as in xsp&sa&s 
( = 77£pi{>scr.}s), — 7:sp [j.iv yap avrXo: l<7toto&xv z/zi (Alcaeus, 
No. XVII.). In the last instance, as also in -sppo/o? (Sap. 
No. xxvill. note), and in —pi ya; (/.sXaiva? (Sap. No. I.), rcspl 
is said to be used in the sense of u-ip. 1 For [j.zto. Lesbian 
used TTsSa, which, as Ahrens points out, is not a dialec- 
tical variety for (/.era, but connected with -06c, in the 
sense of ' following after,' hence ' accompanying.' 

Verbs. — The following peculiarities are common to all Verbs. 
verbs in Lesbian : — 

The augment, as in Homer, is generally omitted. 

The termination -tOx, which is really a double inflexion, 
is in several instances employed in the second person 
singular, cf. ow8a, v^ftx, and in Homer Trivj-cfra, {iyJkoi-vdv.. 
(See Bergk's note on Sap. XXII. and Meyer, 450.) 

The infinitive active generally ends in -r { v, not only in infin. in -rjv. 
the present or second aorist, where -tjv is contracted from 
£-sv, e.g. avsv, zirsrp, but also in the perfect, Tsftva/.'/jv. We 
must probably with Curtius attribute this latter form to the 
influence of the present tense, cf. ysyajcsiv in Pindar O. vi. 
83, for ysyaxsvai. Similarly even in the aorist passive we 
find [j.SikiGibjV for [/.s&uG-iHjvai. 

The third person plural in -oigi, and -aieri (Si^awi), the s d piur. -oi«, 
feminine participle in -oiacc, the use of a in the termination " a '' CIt " 
-{/.av, have already been referred to. 

In the to- conjugation further peculiarities are — the 
double form for the optative in Thematic verbs, e.g. oV.uoi;, 
but Xayobjv ; the double ctt in the aorist of certain verbs 
above noticed ; the reduplicated aorist £'/S),zly.dzc>&y.i, as in 
Homer ; and non-contraction in the second person singular 
middle, vjpso, <paiv2o, puoxo. 2 Bergk is of opinion that for ?-tj S) -^ for eis, 
-si?, -si in the indicative active Lesbian employed, though ~ a - 
perhaps not invariably, the forms -vj; and -vj. The question, 
however, is involved in much uncertainty, and inscriptions 
afford little assistance. (See Bergk on Alcaeus, No. v.) 



1 Vide note ad Alcaeus, loc. (it. - (?) jSuwxo. 



go GREEK LYRIC POETS 

'Contracted' It is in the 'contracted ' verbs, usually in sto, ato, oto, that 

Lesbian stands furthest apart from other dialects. In 
most cases, these verbs employ not the conjugation in -co, 
but forms resembling those of the verbs in -u.i ; thus we 
have cptA7)u,i, jcaXmt, fW.iu.tou.i, ys"Aau.i (or vsAaiu,i), the parti- 
ciples <p£Xsi?, o'ktsic, etc. In the infinitive active, however, 
the termination of the to-conjugation is used — sroxCvrv (from 
-s-sv, according to the usual Lesbian contraction), while 
in certain forms, e.g. the first plural <p£Xiju,sv, <pop-qu,s9-a, etc., 
and in the participle affiu.evoi;, etc., a long vowel is em- 
ployed where a short vowel is found in the -u.i conjugation. 
The following is a (probable) scheme of the chief 
Lesbian forms in the three classes of verbs : — 

Attic <I>U£-(v>. 

Pres. Indie. Active — <pi>.7]u.i, (pD.sic (or q>iXsMj&oc), cpDvEi. 

No dual. 

Plural. <pDoij[/.sv, cpiAvjrs, ©iasici(v). 

In the Pres. Indie. Passive, in this as in the a- and o- 

verbs, the long vowel is employed throughout, e.g. 

^opvju.s&a, sparai. 
Imperative Active, cpCXvj. Infin. cptXvjv. Partic. Act. (piXst;, 

-smtoc, -sv. Partic. Pass. ^piXmevo;. 

Attic §7]Ao-co. 
Present Indie. Act. &fjXti>u,t, &7jXot£, SrAoi,. 
Plural (^vJAwtxEv, S-nXtOTS, SvjXot<7i(v). 
Imperat. SyjXto. Infinit. Stjacov. 
Partic. OTjXot? -otca, -ov. Part. Pass. &vjAtou.svo£. 

Attic. Ttaa-o>. 
Pres. Indie. Tiu.au.t (? Tiu.aiu.0, Ttu.aic, tvj.xi. 

Plur. TlU.aU.SV, TIU.OTS, TlU,ai(Jl(v). 

Imperat. Tijxa. Infin. rty.av. Partic. Tiu,aL£, Tiu,aiGa, 
Ti[/.av. Part. Pass. Ttu.au.svo;. 

For the form in -<i>u,i we have an instance in Sappho 
of -oi[/.i, oo3ciu,otu,i ; moreover a scholiast gives SirJotut, as an 
Aeolic (Lesbian) form. Ahrcns regards this as an error, 



DIALECT 91 

arising from a false analogy with the second and third 
persons in -ot?, -ot. He accordingly corrects to &oz.iau;/.i, 
though Bergk defends $oxiu.oum. 

Again grammarians give -aiat, not -y.[u-, as the present 
of verbs with a-stem, following the terminations of the 
-[u conjugation. The only instance, however, that occurs 
in the poets is ©ocjai (not cpafjju), and Ahrens, while admitting 
the possibility of -aw.t, or even of -oip, due to the influence 
of the ancient j or y (Sanskrit aydmi), is yet disposed to 
reject -v.vja from the analogy of both -vj[/.t and -cojju in the 
ordinary -p conjugation. 

Besides these forms in the ' contracted ' verbs, borrowed 
from the -y.i conjugation, we find others belonging to verbs 
in -co. Thus we have the Imperfect cop^euvTO, and several 
participles such as &tvsuvTe;, ;/.o/j) o'jvts?, [/.apTupsuvTS^, etc., 
contracted from so (cf. (3£Xsu£ from (iSsXsoc). All of these 
Ahrens discredits, and wishes to correct to Sivsvts?, top/vjvTO, 
etc. They are however retained by Bergk and by Meister. 

More noticeable are the forms in -vjto, e.g. 770-9^0, a&r/.vjco, 
the correctness of which cannot be impugned. The origin 
of the yj Meister looks for in the desire to obtain unifor- 
mity in this respect between the present tense and the 
others, fut. acW/;<7io, perf. 7^fot7jxa, etc., or it may be due to 
the analogy of the alternative form -vjjai. 

SECTION III 
DORIAN DIALECT 
A glance at passages from any of the Melic poets will paucity of Done 

° . . forms in lyric 

show that far fewer peculiarities will require dealing with poetry. 
in the Doric than in the Lesbian dialect. This is not 
because the more pronounced form of Doric differed much 
less than Lesbian from Attic, but because it is very little 
employed in lyric poetry, and in no instance, not even in 
that of Alcman, is Doric made use of exclusively, as is 
practically the case with the Lesbian dialect in Alcacus 
and Sappho. 

The dialect of the Dorian race is usually divided into Do !' ic '- ) .^ t ' /v l '"' 

' and ' mi tier. 

two main branches, called by Ahrens ' severicr ' and 



92 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Predominance 
of the latter. 



Vowels. 



' mitior ' respectively. The former or stricter Doric, spoken 
by the Laconians, Tarentines, Heracleans, and other 
Italiots, and by the Cretans and the Cyreneans, is supposed 
to have been employed where Dorian blood or at any rate 
Dorian predominance was more pronounced; 1 while the 
latter is thought to be due to the large intermixture of 
other branches of the Greek race in states usually called 
Dorian. Owing to the comparatively small numbers of 
the Dorians, 2 who usually formed not the bulk of the 
nation but rather a powerful aristocracy, we naturally find 
' mitior' Doric more widely spread than the ' severior* or 
stricter form (if such it be), and as its divergencies from the 
latter are mainly in the direction of Attic *)r Ionic, we meet 
with comparatively few forms with which we are not well 
acquainted. It is this species of Doric which is mainly 
employed in the choral poets, with the exception of 
Alcman, many of whose Dorisms belong to the Laconian 
branch of*' severior ' Doric. 

It will then be sufficient if I mention summarily the 
chief dialectic peculiarities of Doric which are likely to 
occur in the text. With not a few of them students of 
Greek are already acquainted in the choruses of the drama. 

In its general features Doric of all kinds seems to adhere 
in several respects closer to antiquity than Ionic or Attic — 
e.g. in retaining F in many cases, and a (so often weakened 
to 7] by Ionic), and in the preservation of the old termination 
-vti in the third person plural. Ahrens, however, warns 
us that forms preserved in a majority of the branches of 
Doric would naturally be those which are most ancient. 
He cautions us further against connecting any such ten- 
dency with the conservative character often attributed to 
the Dorian race ; for at Sparta, usually considered the most 
conservative of all Hellenic States, the dialect became quite 
as far removed from its ancient character as was Attic. 

The most conspicuous characteristics that 
are in connection with the vowels. 



concern us 



1 Ahrens, however (p. 427), suspects a non-Dorian origin for the 
distinctive features of '■severior'' Doric, rather than for those of 
'■mitior 1 Doric. - See Miiller's Dorians, vol. i. p. 84. 



DIALECT 93 

In the employment of a Doric (' initio)',' as well as Original a never 
' severior ') agrees closely with Lesbian ; for it not only chan § ed 
retains a, where modified by Ionic to 73, but also employs a + o, a + w = a 
it in cases of contraction from ao, aw, e.g. in the genitive g S e SesinV h ° 
plural feminine -xv for -tov, and the genitive singular x ™d plural. 
(Att. ou), such as xo;j.av, ' Arpsi^a ; similarly 'AXxy.Sv from 
' Xkvjj.y.ww, 'Al/jjJ.on, x; (Pindar, etc., for stoc) from * xoc. 
We find, however, no examples in the Melic fragments of 
such forms as 6-txvts; (Epichar. 82), cW.7vstva17.se (Arist. 
AcJiar. 751), ttsivxvti (Theocr. xv. 148). 

On the other hand, x. + s becomes in Dorian not a but vj 1 a + s=rj. 
and although, as I have mentioned above, the choral poets 
in general employ a in such cases, vj is found in Alcman, 
eg. uoTTjTat, and also xrv = >ta(l) sv. 

Doric {'severior,' not 'mitior') resembles Lesbian further £ + a = r,. 
in contracting s + £ into yj (Ion. si), + and -j- s into to° + °j =w- 
(Ion. ou). Thus we have the Laconian infinitive jaS-apw&rjv 
(from xi&apfoS-e-sv), -/j/ov for d%ov, and the gen. sing. 2d decl. 
in co, e.g. vjxi'ootopto. 

Still more commonly the Doric 73 and to, where Ionic ^ and to for 
has si and ou, are due to compensatory lengthening (Les- ^™f h e " n s j„°| T 
bian si and 01, if v has been lost, double liquids in other 
cases). Examples of vj are X a pfy? from * /apisvT-; (Ion. and 
Att. /aptsi:), r t [ji, vjui? from * sg-{/.i, * sV;7.sc (Att. si[/i, sw.sv, 
Lesb. sjj.iu, su.jj.sv). Examples of to are the accus. plur. 2d 
decl. in -toe, e.g. tco; (Att. touc, Lesb. toic), and the femin. 
participle in -to<ra, e.g. aytoca, cf. Mcorra, (Att. Moucra, Lesb. 
Moftra) from * Mo'vaa. Just as Dorian does not suffer a to instance of 
become vj, so among the short vowels there are certain a for £ - 
instances of a where Attic, etc., have s — e.g. "xrspos, Ta;/.vio, 
TpaTcco, cppxci. In most of these and similar cases Doric 
appears to be employing a collateral stem in a, seen 
also in the Attic "xrspo; {in crasi from 6 xrspo?), s-rajx-ov, 
s-ToaTT-ov, eucppatvto. We also find a final (Att. -s) in sytovyx, 
oxa (Att. ots), etc., as in Lesbian. 2 

1 Though not in aXio; from aeXios. 

2 See above, p. 85 ; and see G. Meyer Gr. Gram. 20 on cppaai, 22 

on xa[j.vw, 24 on -ya -/.a, 32 and 397 on axspo;. 



94 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Shortening of 
final syllables. 



t for ex. 



i for Q- in 
Laconian. 



Declensions 
I. and II. 



In many final syllables ending in v or c, preceded by a 
long vowel or diphthong in other dialects, Doric employs 
a short vowel, thus — 

-zpx. Traya? axeipova? (Stesich. I. fi'). 

zaAa; topa; ayoutra [Pop. Songs, II.). 

s<tXo? aivetv (Pind. Nem. iii. 28, for st9'Xo'j;). 

These are all cases where the usual compensation for the 
loss of a consonant is not given, as in topa? from * 10'pav; 
zakoc, from * sc9>.ov?. The same fondness for a short final 
syllable is shown in the Dorian Infinitive in -sv (Att. -siv, 
Lesb. and Lacon. -vjv), e.g. 9<xivsv, stojcivsv (Alcman). 

Among the consonants I need only refer to a few dia- 
lectic usages. Doric preserves t in many cases where it is 
weakened in other dialects to a. This peculiarity is com- 
mon to all kinds of Doric, and is said to be one of the dis- 
tinguishing features of that dialect. It occurs especially 
before the semivowel 1 in the 3d pers. sing, of verbs in -[u 
— <P<xti, SiSctm, etc., in the 3d plural active -ovu (Att. -o\>ai, 
Lesb. -oici), e.g. ti-9svti, svtl (Att. sici) in Alcman ; also in 
IIoTiSav (otherwise TloTZ'J)y.v) and before the semivowel u in 
to (hence in ts, tso, toQ. 

The substitution of a for i) seems to be peculiar to 
Laconian, e.g. Trapasvotc, gioz, in Alcman for 7:ap9ivoic, 9soc. 
As the change is not found in the Laconian colonies 
Tarentum, Heraclea, it must have been of late introduction, 
and we find in Alcman the ordinary forms as well, e.g. 
7rap9-£vix-ai, flsofoiv (see Ahrens, sect. 7). 1 

The employment of \ for a in certain futures and aorists 
will be noticed when we come to the verbs. 

I pass on now to further changes requiring attention in 
the Declensions and in the different parts of speech. 

In Declensions I. and II. I have already had occasion to 
mention the essential peculiarities, viz. the employment of 
a throughout all forms of the 1st declension, that of to and 
co? for ou and ou; in the 2nd, and the occasional shortening 

1 See G. Meyer 211, who is of opinion that the usage is of much 
later date than Ahrens supposes, and that it has been wrongly intro- 
duced into the fragments of Alcman. 



DIALECT 95 

of the accusative plural in both to a; and o; respectively. 
In the last instance the accent does not appear to have 
been affected — -y.^xc, copy.: rather than -y.aac, copy.; (see 
Ahrens, sect. 3 (5)). 

Dec/ensiou III. — The nomin. sing, sometimes retains Declension in, 
; where lost in other dialects, e.g. y.x/.ap-;, [j.zic, or pj; (Att. 
piv) ; the final syllable is sometimes short where usually 
long, e.g. •KpoLCJxc, ; the dat. plur. has -znai or -ai ; the accus. 
plur. is never long as in Att. (SacTiXsa; (see Ahrens, sect. 
30.) As in Lesbian, stems in t, retain the vowel unchanged, 
-okic, nokioq, etc., ij.zyyXo-o'kizc, Pind. P. vii. I, and nouns 
in -0;, -v]c, --j; (genit. -so;) do not contract in the nomin. 
and accus. plural. 

Feminine nouns in -co; and -co form their genitive in -co; 
(Att. -oO;), e.g. 'AyrJko;, Alcman. 

Pronouns.— In the 1st Personal Pronoun, the old form Pronouns, 
sycov is very common ; the nomin. plur. is ' a;xs;, where the 
a is due to compensation for a lost a (Lesb. y.[j.[j.zz), gen. 
plur. ajvicov (Alcman), dative ajuv and a;/Iv (both being 
found in Alcman). 

In the 2d personal pronoun Dorian preserves t in tu, xi 
gen. sing, tso, dat. sing, rot and tiv (t£v or tiv), accus. plur. 
\j\i.i (Alcman). "E and viv are used for the accusative of 
the 3d personal pronoun. 

For the Relative, Dorian, like Lesbian, often uses the 
form with initial t. 

Prepositions. — Dorian again resembles Lesbian in reject- Prepositions, 
ing, though by no means invariably, the final syllable of 
deva, >caTa, TOxpa, and also of ttoti (Att. 7rpd$), e.g. jtafrav, 
TroT-av (in inscriptions) ; and a still further ' apocope ' takes 
place in /.afiaivcov (Alcman), and kootstov (Pindar), which 
may indicate that yjx.-id. is a compound. 

Verbs. — In the 1st pers. plur. active Dorian ('initior' as chief dialectic 
well as ' severior') employs the form -;xe; (Att. -(/.sv) through- 
out, e.g., ms?, y~ioi>j.z<i (cf. Lat. -mus, Sanskrit -masi or -mas). 
In the 3d plural of the primary tenses Dorian again em- 
ploys the ancient form in -vti (Latin -nf), e.g., 8-pocuovTi 



96 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

(Simonides), svti (Alcman). This termination never ad- 
mits of v £a>eXxu<mxdv. 

The 3d singular termination in -rpi, called the ' Schema 
Ibyceum,' and attributed by some to the Rhegine branch 
of Dorian, will be discussed where it occurs in the text. 1 
The infinitives in -sv and in -vjv, and the feminine par- 
ticiple in -torra, have been noticed above. 

In the future and weak aorist a noticeable feature in 
Dorian is the employment of E for the a of other dialects 
in the case of verbs in -'(co, whatever the stem, e.g., x-to- 
[/.aEorre. It is likely that this is due to the analogy of 
verbs in -*(« whose stem is guttural (see G. Meyer 531.) 

Contracted Verbs. — I. In a-w. I have mentioned above 
that a + o non-final, or x + co usually contract into a. This 
is, however, by no means always the case in the verbs, and 
indeed scarcely any example of it occurs in lyric poetry. 2 
A + s, and a + yj contract into 75. 

The following, then, is the scheme of the present tense: — 
vty.to, VIX.YJC, vv/s?i ! vi/.TJrov, vix.-/}tqv | vf/.coy.s? (or -xjxsc) 
vi/OjTS, vt/.wvTi (or -avri). 

II. In t-oi. E-fs, and z + r l , = r l . E + o, s-f to are often 
uncontracted ; but lyric poetry not unfrequently follows 
' mitior' Doric in contracting s + o into ou or eu. Doric 
sometimes changes so into to (cf. gi6c = 8zoc), but no examples 
of this in the verbs are found in poetry. Thus we have 
for the present tense : — 



<piX£-<o, or cptXco 

(pikzi: 
cpiXsT 



otAsoy.sc, -o'j^.s^, or -zuyzc 

<plA'/JT£ 

ot7iovTt, -oO'vTt, or suvti. 



(pLA^TOV 

•plAYjTOV 

III. In the verbs in o-co, all that need be noticed is that 
o + £, and + contract into to, as mentioned above. 

Ety.t, to be. 
Present tense — Sing. vjf/.i, sect, in-z'i (svti in the Chelido- 

nisma is doubtful, v. ad foe.) 
Plur. r^j.zc or zvj.zc (mitior), scts, svti. 

1 See on Ibycus v. 

- An instance occurs in Alcman, XIX. A. yjyXwasajjivov. 



DIALECT 97 

Imperfect — Sing. t;v, vjaS-a (r t q in Alcman), etc. 

Plur. vjixs;, etc. 
Subjunctive — 3d plur. bgjvti. 
Infinitive — vjy.sv (severior), si;7,sv {initior) ; participle, sa>v. 

Addendum 

Since my work has been in the press I have had an 
opportunity of reading an article by Dr. A. Fiihrer 
{JahresbericJit iiber das KoniglicJie Paulinisdie Gym- 
nasium zu Miinster, 1885) on the dialect employed in 
Greek Lyric Poetry, in which he argues with no little force 
against the time-honoured theory, which I have here 
followed, of the composite nature of the dialect. It is too 
late for me to do more than to recommend my readers to 
consult the article, the essential conclusion of which is that, 
while the Epic dialect, as is on all hands admitted, was 
the foundation of the language of the (choral) lyric poets, 
they borrowed from no other sources, but employed with 
this exception their own local dialect. I do not regard as 
very cogent Dr. Fiihrer's a priori arguments against the 
( composite dialect,' to the effect that a race of such exquisite 
taste as the Greeks could never have employed so artificial 
a style in their song-poetry ; for he himself admits the 
non-local element in the shape of Epic forms, and he also 
hardly lays sufficient stress on the fact that scarcely any 
of the great choral poets could be called local poets at all. 
Pindar, for instance, found favour at cities so diverse as 
Cyrene, Syracuse, and Athens, and it is hard to imagine 
this to have been the case had he employed such forms as 
we find in the Theban poetess Corinna. On the other 
hand, Dr. Fiihrer's remarks on the insufficiency of the 
evidence on which the ordinary theory is based deserve 
considerable attention ; and he certainly makes it appear 
probable that such forms as -ou<n, -ou^a, which are Epic 
as well as Attic, are too freely rejected in favour of Lesbian 
or Doric forms by Schneidewin, Bergk, etc., whose example, 
however, I have for the most part already followed. 






ARTICLE VIII 

GENERAL VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF GREEK MELIC 

POETRY 

In the previous articles I have had occasion to mention 
nearly all the names of those who were most active in 
furthering the early development of Melic poetry and its ac- 
companiments, while of the chief poets, any part of whose 
works have survived, an account will be found in connec- 
Object. tion with the text. I purpose in this article to give a brief 

connected sketch of the course followed by Melic poetry, 
noticing especially the influence exerted upon its progress 
by the historical circumstances of the chief parts of Greece 
in which it was fostered. 
Four periods of Melic poetry at its different stages flourished under the 
be^onsldered 10 Peonage, first, of Lesbos, Sparta, and Sicily ; secondly, 
of the Tyrants in various Hellenic states ; thirdly, as a 
costly commodity demanded by rich men, Tyrants or other- 
wise, or by entire states ; and lastly, under the unhealthy 
stimulus of prize competition. I will therefore deal with 
our subject in the order of these several stages. 

I begin with Lesbos, because, although it is at Sparta 
that we first hear distinctly of rapid progress in this branch 
of poetry, the original inspiration appears, as I have said 
in Article III., to have come from Lesbos. It is not easy 
to give reasons why any particular nation or age happens 
to be gifted with poetical genius ; but certainly among the 
Circumstances Lesbians in the 7th century many circumstances tended to 
favourable to quicken the love of song. The Aeolic race are generally 

Melic poetry at - 1 ° a 

Lesbos. described as especially devoted to poetry, and they are by 



GENERAL VIEW OF MELIC POETRY 



99 



many regarded as having played a very important part in Race-character- 
Greek Epic poetry. 1 Now Lesbos was the centre of the istics> 
Aeolic race in or adjacent to Asia Minor, and thus na- 
turally took the lead in that vigorous renaissance of poetic 
life which took place in the 8th and 7U1 centuries B.C., 
chiefly among the Asiatic Greeks. The delightful climate Geographical 
and scenery of the island 2 tended to inspire the inhabitants feat .f es and 

. ' r position. 

with a sense of beauty and a sympathy with nature 
strongly reflected in the poems of Sappho and Alcaeus ; 
while the favourable position of Lesbos, with its magni- 
ficent harbourage and its ready communication alike with 
the Hellespont and Black Sea, with the southern coasts 
and islands of Asia Minor, and with Greece itself, imparted 
to the inhabitants just that energy of mind which the age 
required for the creations of new forms of poetry. Com- Active maritime 
merce, with its accompaniments of maritime adventure, lifc - 
was fast becoming the important feature in Lesbian life. 
Thus Sappho's brother was a wine-merchant, and Pittacus 
was essentially a leader of the middle classes, and had a 
keen eye to business. 

But this commercial life was far from fostering material 
or prosaic sentiments in the nation, for the imagination 
was fired by the stories of the sea, and of the new lands 
and peoples that were met with, and by contact with the 
great kingdoms of Asia Minor with their ancient traditions 
and civilisation. Lastly, a certain romance and refine- influence of old 
ment was imparted by the influence still exercised upon no:>1 lty ' 
society by the aristocratic families, among whom some- 
thing of the old feudal hospitality and love of song still 
survived. 3 In a word, although such comparisons arc 
often misleading, we cannot help being reminded of our 
own Elizabethan age, when on the one hand the influence comparison 
of the middle classes was becoming more and more marked, J"* the Ehza " 

& bethan age. 

and the intellect quickened by the development of com- 
merce which led men to the wonders of a new world, while 



1 E.g. by Fick in his Introd. to the Odyssey. 

2 Cf. Tacit. An. vi. 3. Insula nobilis et amcena. 

3 Ath. xiv. 624. 



IOO 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Interesting part 
played by- 
Sparta in the 
history of Melic 
poetry. 



Her liberal 
patronage of 
men of genius 
from other 
Greek states. 



Position of 
Sparta at this 
time. 



on the other hand the still active influence of the age of 
chivalry cast a poetic glamour over the whole scene. 
Finally, in Lesbian poetry as in the Elizabethan drama, it 
was from the life of the times that poetry now sought its 
inspiration. 

It was among such circumstances then, and such sur- 
roundings that the school of Lesbian poetry was developed, 
which must have already secured its reputation by the 
time when Sparta applied to Lesbos for a poet Terpander 
about the beginning of the seventh century. Within a 
century, which brings us to the age of Sappho and Alcaeus, 
Lesbian monodic song not only by the energy and 
intensity of its thought, but also by the perfect finish of its 
style in all respects, had attained to an excellence hardly 
to be surpassed. Of the influence of Lesbian poetry upon 
all Greek lyric poetry I have already spoken, 1 and will 
pass on to Melic poetry at Sparta. 

The part played by Sparta in the history of lyric poetry- 
is a remarkable one, and tends to correct our notions, 
gathered from a later age, and mainly from Attic writers, 
with regard to the entire absence of culture among the 
Spartan warriors. It was at Sparta that Melic music and 
Melic dance received their development, and Sparta was 
the scene of the labours of the distinguished poets Tyrtaeus, 
Terpander, Alcman, Polymnastus, Sakadas, and others. 
The noticeable feature, however, in this progress of Melic 
poetry and its accompaniments at Sparta, is that it was 
due not to Spartans themselves, but to foreigners, who were 
in most cases invited to Sparta and treated with conspicu- 
ous honour. Sparta, then, instead of being the stranger- 
banishing, culture-despising state of later times, appears 
at this early period to be a centre to which was attracted 
much of the best poetical talent of the day. Sparta in 
fact at the end of the eighth or the beginning of the seventh 
century was fast advancing to the position, which after- 
wards she long held unchallenged, of the leading or repre- 
sentative state of the Greek world. The effects of the 



1 See pp. 22, 29, 38, etc. 



GENERAL VIEW OF MELIC POETRY 101 

Lycurgean system had now had time to make themselves 
fully felt. Internal order was secured, and her rivals in the 
Peloponnese were rapidly yielding to the prowess of her 
arms ; for the Messenians had been for the time crushed 
in the first war (743-724 B.C.), and as far back as 748 B.C. 
Sparta had successfully contended with Pheidon the great 
king of Argos. Among her warrior-citizens a demand 
naturally arose for music and song, both as an inspiriting 
and useful accompaniment to their constant drill and 
gymnastics, and as a relaxation in the intervals of their 
hard discipline. In their own ranks, where individuality- 
was constantly suppressed, conspicuous talent could hardly 
be looked for ; and moreover, as inhabitants of an inland 
state without commercial or maritime experiences, less 
sources of inspiration were open to them than to the Greeks 
of Asia Minor or elsewhere. Consequently men of genius 1 
from other parts of the world found at this time a ready 
welcome at Sparta ; and they were naturally eager to avail 
themselves of such a compliment from so powerful and so 
well-ordered a state. In addition to this, the survival of Monarchical 
royal power, as Professor Mahaffy points out, was favour- active. ° 
able to a liberal culture, for the strictly conservative 
dominion of the Ephoralty was not yet fully established, 
and the kings, like the tyrants in other states, would be 
glad to enhance their somewhat scanty glory by the 
patronage of genius. Therefore the praise was well-merited 
that was bestowed upon Sparta by Terpander and Alcman 
in such words as : — 

sv&' cdyjj.y. ts vscov fiyXkzi x.al Mwcx Xiyeia 
x.al Afota sijpuayuta, /..t.'X. — Terp. Frag. I. 

or Alcman's 

spreei yap avra -rto cioapw to xacXcog Ki&aptcoev. 

Nor was her reputation for song and dance short-lived, Sparta's reputa- 
for Pindar sings how at Sparta the counsels of the old and poetry and'its 
the spears of the youn^ excel — >tai yopoi xal Mofcra xai accessories sur- 

, . , t '- i vived until late 

AyXafoc {Frag. XV.) ; Socrates speaks of the Spartans as times. 



102 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

forming the finest chorus, 1 and Aristotle attributes to them 
a true appreciation of music, in spite of their deficiency in 
creative power. 

With this development of Melic poetry at Sparta are 

connected the names of Tyrtaeus, who was not solely an 

</ Elegiac poet, Terpander, Thaletas, and Alcman. As I 

have spoken of these elsewhere at some length, I need not 

Arion and the dwell further on this part of my subject. Before leaving 

Dithyramb. l J J t> 

the Peloponnese, however, mention must be made of Arion, 
the scene of whose labours lay chiefly at Corinth, during 
the rule of Periander (B.C. 625-585). Like Terpander he 
came from Lesbos ; and he is not unaptly called a disciple 
of Alcman since he devoted himself to extending still 
further the choral branch of Melic poetry. It is with the 
Dithyramb that his name is associated in the history of 
Greek literature, and he applied to it a systematic choral 
delivery which had hitherto not been extended to the 
worship of Bacchus. From a wild ecstatic song sung by 
wine-flushed revellers, the Dithyramb, with its cyclic 
choruses (yjr/Skioi >'opot), so called because a chorus of 
worshippers danced in a circle round the sacrificial altar, 
became an important branch of Melic poetry, and with the 
Nome survived when all the rest had fallen into neglect. 
Its well-known connection with dramatic literature need 
not be dealt with here ; and its subsequent history as a 
form of Lyric poetry will be referred to later on. 2 
Lyric poetry in Almost contemporaneously with the development of 
Sicily and Italy. Ty[ e ij c p 0e try in the Peloponnese, we find a corresponding 
advance made among the Sicilian and Italian Greeks. It 
was now above a century since Greek colonisation had 
begun to take root in these regions, and it had met with 
rapid and conspicuous success. The progress of the arts 
was a natural result, and while the splendid ruins at 
Paestum in Italy and Selinus in Sicily, whose probable 
date falls about 600 B.C., testify to the progress of archi- 
tecture, that of Lyric poetry is associated chiefly with the 



1 Athen. xiv. 628 ; cf. p. 22, n. 3. 

2 See Introduction to ' Dithyrambic Poets. 



GENERAL VIEW OF MELIC POETRY 103 

name of Stesichorus, whose lifetime falls approximately stesichorus. 
between 632 and 556 B.C. The fable of Arion returning 
from Italy and Sicily laden with wealth bears witness to 
the liberal appreciation of his art by the western Greeks ; 
but in Stesichorus, and later in Ibycus, they showed that 
they could themselves produce original poets, one of 
whom, Xenocritus, had already been received at Sparta. 
Stesichorus, like the other poets who wrote for Dorian 
states, devoted himself to choral song, and the great 
addition of the Epode to the choral system, usually 
attributed to him, 1 is spoken of elsewhere. A further 
account of him will be found on p. 168 seq. ; at present I 
will only add that while he chiefly devoted himself to sub- 
jects of an Epical character, the influence of Sicilian life 
and legends is clearly seen in his Bucolic poems, the first 
of the kind, and in his love-stories or poetical novelettes. 

Ibycus, at any rate in the early part of his career, appears 
to have followed closely in the footsteps of Stesichorus, 2 
so closely, indeed, that we are told that authorities were 
often in doubt whether to refer certain poems to one or to 
the other. He belongs, however, more properly to the 
next period of Lyric poetry, when it was under the patron- 
age of the Tyrants. 

The encouragement given to poetry and the other arts Lyric poetry 
by the much-abused Tyrants is too well known to require peonage of 
further comment. From the time of Ibycus onward, every the Tyrants. 
one of the great lyric poets came into connection more or 
less close with one or other of the despots. 

Ibycus and Anacreon can perhaps alone be called court- ibycus and 

A mrrpon 

poets by profession, for from the time of Simonides begins 
the period when Lyric poetry became a marketable com- 
modity at the command not only of Tyrants but of all who 
had the means to pay for it. But Simonides and Bacchy- 
lides certainly found their chief employment in the courts 
of princes ; and though Pindar refused, it is said, to give 
up his freedom by becoming a courtier, he was at one 



1 See p. 170. 

2 See, however, Welcker Kl. Schrift, vol. i. on Ibycus. 



104 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



No distinct 

characteristics 

traceable. 



The adulatory 
tone not yet 
exhibited. 



time a rival of Simonides and Bacchylides for the favour 
of Hiero ; and a large number of his Epinician Odes are 
in honour of that Tyrant or of others. 

Confining ourselves, however, for the present to Ibycus 
and Anacreon as the only representatives of court poetry 
whose works survive, it is not easy to form any accurate 
estimate of the influence exercised upon Greek Lyric poetry 
by princely patronage. The change from the boisterously 
independent life of an Alcaeus to the luxurious surround- 
ings of the poets at the would-be oriental court of Poly- 
crates is striking enough, and it is easy to theorise as to 
its probable results upon the genius of the poet. Such 
inferences, however, as we draw meet with no very satis- 
factory support in the actual poems that survive. It is all 
very well to say that the absence of any depth of feeling 
in Anacreon or of the glowing imagery so conspicuous in 
the Lesbian poets is due to the fact of his writing for those 
who required to be amused with graceful verses on love 
and wine, but not to be troubled with any intensity of 
emotion ; the same is not true of Ibycus, also Polycrates' 
courtier, who in ardour of sentiment and expression vividly 
recalls the verses of Sappho. Nor should we necessarily 
conclude from the poems of Anacreon that they reflected 
the life of a despot's court rather than of any Ionic state 
of the time. What I think we may notice more con- 
spicuously in the songs written by any of the great Lyric 
poets in praise of despots, is the absence of anything like 
the gross sycophancy and adulation that might have been 
expected, but which the freedom of thought and good 
taste of the Greeks would not admit of. Thus Simonides. 
in singing the praises of a Scopad of infamous character 
did it in so half-hearted a manner that he is said to have 
received but half his stipulated payment ; x and Pindar's 
admonitions to Hiero and Arcesilaus were, no doubt, 
more deserved than agreeable. Nothing like the nauseous 
flattery in the ode to Demetrius (Miscell. No. XX.) is to be 
found till long after the Lyric age proper. 



1 See post, Biographical Notice of Simonides. 



GENERAL VIEW OF MELIC POETRY 105 

In the period to which we next approach, the period in third 
which poems were written to order and for a fixed price, Poems bitten 
the influence exercised on the character of the songs by i0 order for a 

• nxed price. 

the circumstances under which they were composed is 
more distinctly marked. Lyric poetry now approached g^ s °™* e s s so ^ d 
nearer to the position of a mere trade ; nor did the poet, 
as in modern times, first compose his volume of poems on 
whatever subjects his genius suggested, and then endea- 
vour to find a satisfactory purchaser ; for every occasion 
and for every poem he had to strike a bargain with his 
employer. To this period, as I have said, belong Simon- 
ides and his successors. 

That the men of genius felt the restraint of their posi- 
tion very grievously is made clear in many ways, but no- 
where so plainly as in the well-known words of Pindar, 
Isthm. ii.,- — ' The men of old who entered the chariot of 
the golden- filleted muses — lightly shot forth their honey- 
voiced hymns of love. For the muse was then not 
yet greedy of gain nor an hireling ; nor were sweet 
soft- voiced songs, with silvered faces, sold from Terpsi- Restraint felt by 
chore of honeyed utterance.' We see too how the poets avoidedby 5 " 
endeavoured to cast off the bonds imposed upon them by digressions from 

r . . . proper subiect. 

systematic digressions from the proper subject, in which they 

often felt little or no personal interest. Thus Simonides 

skilfully avoids bestowing an ill - deserved eulogy on 

his patron by giving vent to philosophical reflections on 

' ApstTj, Frag. IX. ; and Pindar, as indeed to a less degree his 

contemporaries, almost invariably passes rapidly over his 

proper topic, the particular athletic victory, to mythological 

subjects which possessed special attraction for his genius. 

Under such artificial circumstances it is remarkable that Unfavourable 

01 1*011 in st*-! ncps 

Lyric poetry should have displayed such high merit as we un der which the 
discern in the remaining poems of Simonides, Bacchylides, p ^ t n h °^ wrote 
and above all of Pindar. That it did so is in great part counterbalanced 

1 1 r 1-11 by the stirring 

due to the fact we are now concerned with the most stir- history of the 
ring and inspiring period of all Greek history, the first half penod * 
of the fifth century. But when the mighty impetus given 
to Greek thought and Greek art by the removal of the 
4 Tantalus-stone ' of barbarian invasion was checked by 



io6 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Rapid decay of 
lyric poetry. 



Final period — 
Poems written 
for public com- 
petition. 



Early origin of 
the custom. 



All classes of 
Lyric poetry 
tended now to 
fall into disuse, 
with the excep- 
tion of the 
Dithyramb and 
the Nome. 



the narrow and internecine warfare, and when too the 
chief patrons and employers of lyric poets, wealthy aristo- 
crats and tyrants, gave place before the advance of demo- 
cracy, the course of Melic poetry came to an abrupt 
conclusion, and it ceased to attract men of poetical genius. 

The Nome and the Dithyramb alone retained their pre- 
stige, and with the mention of these we come to what I 
noticed as the final period of Lyric poetry, when composi- 
tions were not written spontaneously or for any definite 
employer but for public competition. Contests in music 
and poetry date back indeed to the earliest times in 
Greece ; for many of the great innovators in lyric poetry, 
e.g. Terpander and Clonas, are mentioned as prize-winners ; 
and the legends about Apollo and Marsyas and others 
point to the same custom. In Athens, by the time when 
that city had become the centre of Hellenic culture, nearly 
all great literary or musical productions, of which the 
Drama is a conspicuous instance, were destined for occa- 
sions of public competition, mainly at the great religious 
festivals in honour of Bacchus or Apollo, such as the 
Dionysia, the Thargelia and the like ; and thus the poet 
found his patronage no longer in wealthy and powerful 
individuals but in a democratic public. 

Epinicia, Encomia, and even Threnoi were no longer in 
demand ; Parthenia were inconsistent with the oriental 
seclusion of the Athenian women ; Prosodia or proces- 
sional songs were unsuited for prize-competition ; while 
Hymns and Paeans to the gods could hardly evoke a 
high poetic strain at an age when the popular religion 
had completely lost its hold upon all but the ignorant or 
the superstitious. So one by one the time-honoured 
classes of Lyric poetry fell into disuse x until only the 
Dithyramb and the Nome, from their connection with 
the great public festivals, retained a position of any im- 
portance. Hence Aristotle, Poet, i., uses the expression 
yj ts T(3v otS-upa{/,[3oiv 7roi7)ffi£ )tal yj tcov vo'^cov, or even v\ 

1 Cf. Plat. Laws, 700-701, where it is complained that all the old 
distinctions are now ignored. The whole passage should certainly 
be consulted as a striking criticism on this period of Melic poetry. 



GENERAL VIEW OF MELIC POETRY 107 

&&upaf/,(3o7ronjTu«r as an equivalent of Lyric poetry in general. 
The natural results of this system of public competition are Results of the 
obvious enough. The composer was forced to consult the petition, 
predominant taste of the period, and to aim rather at 
producing striking effects than at genuine merit ; thus 
we find in Plut. de Mus. c. 12, the complaint made that 
writers seek tov <pi^av8-pco-ov Tpo7rov alone, i.e. the manner 
pleasing to the multitude. Poetry becomes more and 
more subordinate to the music, 1 it being perhaps easier 
to form an immediate and superficial judgment on the 
latter than on the comparative merits of a series of poems. 
Lastly, the composer sought to attract the attention and 
enlist the sympathy of the audience who sat in judgment 
upon him by introducing into Lyric poetry practices really 
foreign to it. Thus dialogue between some individual 
and the chorus was often employed ; while members of 
the chorus, dressed in appropriate costumes, represented 
dramatically characters which formed the chief subject of 
the poem ; 2 lastly the Myth, instead of forming an orna- 
ment artistically subordinated to the main subjective 
interest of the lyric poem, now became again, as it had 
been apparently in the hands of Stesichorus, the main 
topic, as is shown by the titles of poems of Melanippides or 
Philoxenus — the Danaids, Marsyas, PersepJione, Artemis, 
etc. 

As I am speaking elsewhere of this final period of Lyric poetry 
Melic poetry, 3 I need not now dwell further on the sub- Toth^olS^ 1 
ject. From this time forward, in spite of isolated Paeans j* ^ ad occupied 

,,,,.. . .,,. before the eighth 

and other Melic passages that survive, we may with safety century b.c. 
say that Lyric poetry was no longer cultivated by the 
literary. To affirm that songs were no longer written 
and sung would be absurd, especially in connection with 



1 Cf. p. 40. 

- Arist. Prob. xix. 15. speaks of Dithyrambic performers as [-upj- 
-v/.'A. See also Bergk's Gricch. Lit. vol. ii. p. 534, note 30, where 
he refers especially to Aristoph. Pint. 298, and to Athen. ix. 374 A, 
and points out that we have practically a return to the Tpayixo; yopd? 
of Anon. 

See Introduction to ' Dithyrambic Poets.' 



3 



108 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

such a race as the Greeks. But song-poetry tended more 
and more to return to the humble position it had held 
before the 8th century B.C., when lyric poems were written 
for and by simple people, and in honour of the particular 
occasion rather than to win a literary immortality. Never- 
theless it is likely enough that among the uncultivated 
song-poetry played as intimate and important a part as 
ever in their lives. In spite of the fact that literary artists, 
according to Plato's testimony above mentioned, no longer 
maintained the proper distinctions between the various 
types of Melic poetry, we can hardly doubt that the 
Greek race in general did not abandon the peculiar and 
agreeable practice of employing special kinds of song for 
all the interesting occasions of life ; and indeed, as I have 
intimated on pages n and 12, it is not improbable that 
at least two of these types, the Wedding-Song and the 
Dirge, have survived to the present day. 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



ARCHILOCHUS 

Fl. 687 B.C. 

SOME explanation is perhaps required for including in a 
collection of Greek Melic poetry proper any of the frag- 
ments of Archilochus. In the first place it is quite certain 
that Archilochus was a composer not only of Iambic 
and Elegiac but also of Melic poetry proper. He himself 
speaks of his Dithyrambs and Paeans, Frag. XXI. a' and 
(i\ and the ancients undoubtedly regarded him as a lyric 
poet in the ordinary sense. Thus Horace places him side 
by side with Sappho and Alcaeus in the lines 

Temperat Archilochi Musam pede mascula Sappho, 
Temperat Alcaeus, etc. 

and in several passages such expressions as ^upixo? tto^t^c 
and 77po?7ojpav aet&siv are used of him. 1 Secondly, although 
no passages from Archilochus survive which we can regard 
in quite the same light as the Odes of Sappho, Alcaeus, 
or Anacreon, yet we cannot altogether deny the title of 
' Melic ' at any rate to his Tetrameters and his Epodes. 
These poems alike in form and in spirit stand as it were 
midway between poetry suited for recitation on the one 
hand, such as Archilochus' Iambics, and poetry accom- 
panied by melody on the other. Some passages, such as 
the tetrameters describing the ideal general, and to a less 
degree the fable-epodes, are in the plainest and most un- 
impassioned style; in others, as in the tetrameters in which 
he boldly faces his troubles, No. IX., and still more in the 
erotic fragments, an ardent passion breathes in the lines 



1 See Niccphor. in Schol. ad Sy?ies. de hisom. p. 427, and an Epi- 
gram of Theocritus on Archilochus. 



ii2 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

which is essentially characteristic of Melic poetry. For 
these reasons I have had little hesitation in including the 
fragments of the Tetrameters and Epodes in this collection. 

Archilochus was a native of the Ionian island of Paros, 
and was apparently of noble descent on the side of his 
father Telesicles, 1 though his mother Enipo was a slave, 
His father led a colony to Thasos, in which Archilochus 
took part, with a view to improving his fortunes. 2 The 
date at which this took place was probably 708 B.C., which 
is in agreement with the statement that the poet flourished 
687 B.C., and was contemporary with the reign of Gyges 3 
(716-679 B.C.), whom he mentions in an Iambic line. He 
was thus contemporary also with Terpander and ranks 
among the earliest lyric poets. Dissatisfied with his 
expectations of gold at Thasos, which he abuses roundly 
in his Iambics, he appears from his fragments to have 
joined with the inhabitants in their attempts upon the 
neighbouring coast of Thrace, whither the gold-mines again 
attracted him. He obtained little beyond hard fighting, 
in the course of which he incurred the disgrace, if such 
it was, of casting away his shield, the loss of which he 
recounts with but little regret, and with characteristic 
frankness : 

'Ac— lot p.sv Sal'cov ti; ayaX'XeToa, vjv TOxpa Sa^vcp 
svto? a|/.(0{/.vjTOv kocXXwtov 00/. eSiXwv 

aura; S' s£s<puyov Savarou xzknc; acrcls sx.e£vyj 

SppSTW S^aUTl? JCT7JffO{/.ai OU KOOCUi). 

It is conjectured that he returned from Thasos to his 
native island Paros, since he fell in a war between the 
Parians and Naxians. His life was an active one, and 



1 Bergk, on the strength of Pausanias x. 28. 3, thinks that Telesicles 
belonged to one of the priestly families of Paros. Archilochus indi- 
cates that he was of wealthy parentage in the line — Ou yap jjloi tovwj 
zaTGioVo? x.x.X. 

2 See Bergk 149 and Aelian V. H. x. 13. 

3 Hdt. i. 12. 



ARCHILOCHUS 115 

which place, be it remembered, was at this period not alone 
a centre of literary influence, but a strong fortress of 
Hellenic morality. We can trace his nobler nature in not 
a few of the surviving fragments. The passage beginning 

©up.!, &u[/ ayz/jyavowTi x^ocatv x.ux.ci){/.ev£ 

(No. IX.) is admirable in its firm and dignified resolution ; 
in Frag. XVI. the words are those of a warrior who is calm 
and unflinching, though keenly alive to the danger of the 
coming struggle ; and in the line 

ou yap iaifXof. JtaT&avoQffi jcspTOf/ietv £77' av&paaiv, 

he shows that for all his bitter animosity he is too 
chivalrous to continue it after the death of his adversary. 
But, whatever may be the nature of his sentiments, what 
calls most for our admiration is their entire sincerity and 
the earnestness with which they are enforced. In every 
clear incisive word he lays bare the eager thoughts in his 
heart, whether his mood be one of love or of hatred. 

His reputation as a poet was extraordinarily high. He 
is constantly placed on a level with Homer, not on account 
of any particular similarity in their poetry, as was the 
case with Stesichorus, but simply from their common 
quality of great and original poetic power l ; and as Homer 
was the father of Epic poetry, so also was Archilochus of 
Iambic and even of Lyric, for he was the first to abandon 
the traditions of ideal heroic poetry, and to find in the 
realities of his own life a fitting subject for his great 
genius. Dio Chrysostom, 35. 11, says: o\»o yap ttoitjtcov 
ysyovortov s£ a~avTo; too aitovoc;, ot£ ouftsva tcov aXT^cov cuu.(3a^.s'tv 
oc£iov, ' Opjpou ts y.al ' Apyiko/ou ; and Velleius, I. 5 : ' Neque 
quemquam alium, cujus operis primus fuerit auctor in eo 
perfectissimum praeter Homerum et Archilochum reperie- 
mus.' Cicero, Orat. i., ranks Archilochus with Homer, 



1 Archilochus, however, imitated Homer in dialect, and more 
directly in not a few passages ; and indeed it was on this score that 
Longinus, c. 13. 3, gave him the title of ' Oij.rjpix.wTaxoc. Yet, of course, 
on the whole the points of contrast between the two poets far out- 
weigh any similarities in detail. 



n6 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

Pindar, and Sophocles ; and Quintilian, who speaks of his 
' powerful and terse throbbing phrases, full of blood and 
nerves,' declares that he was inferior to none, apparently 
not even to Homer, except only in his choice of subject. 1 

Not only in the spirit of his poetry did Archilochus 
exhibit the originality of his genius, but also in many 
innovations connected with the mechanical side of his art. 
I need not dwell upon these now, as I have mentioned 
them elsewhere 2 in connection with Greek music and 
Greek metre. I will only point out that the fact of the 
' invention,' not only of Iambic metre and of dimeters and 
tetrameters being attributed to him, but also that of 
Trochaics, Choriambics, and even of the ' Alcaic ' stanza, 
points to the important influence that he must have exer- 
cised on the development of Greek Melic poetry proper. 



1 x. i. 60 : Validae turn breves vibrantesque sententiae, plurimum 
sanguinis atque nervorum, adeo ut videatur quibusdam, quod quoquam 
minor est, materiae esse non ingenii vitium. Cf. Plut. T. vi. p. 163 : 
[A£(Jn|»aito o' av xis [Jisv xr^v ' ApyiXoyou U7Co9effiv. 

2 See pp. 41, 47. 



ARCHILOCHUS 

EPODES 
I 

IBergk, S 4 i] 

X^/ \ v> ^y v^ 

s^W — \*»w — ^ w — v->v^ — — 

\J '. ^ W N-* 

7TCTCap[/ivo£ Si' OGTStoV. 

II 

[103] 

^ V^J WS^ «^w» ^ W t "~~ 

^ ; — w — v^ — ^ — v> ' ' * 

- 3 — O ""■ V-A^ — ^\-* . . 

Toioc yap cptXoTVjTO? £pto? utt6 jcapSivjv eTvucO-si? 
noKkrv 'acct ayluv o;x[j.aTtov s^eusv, 
x^e^a? ex. cr/jDiiov obtocAag cppsva?. 

Ill 

[85] 

V^/V^ t^A-* — ^ — W >^ "~ W — ' ^ 

'AT^aoc p.' 6 XufftfAeXi]? to 'xaips, SafAvarai tto&oc 

IV 

TO LYCAMBES 

[94) 

(a) ITaTsp Au'/caiy.pa, ttoiov dcppacto too^s ; 
tC? ca? 7tapr ( £ip£ cppsva? ; 
•/]<; to Trpiv yjp^pSMJ&a ; vuv Ss ft-/] ttoatj; 
acTOiii oatvsat vlXw§. 



1 The references throughout the text are to Bergk's Poet. Lyr. 
Graea, Ed. iv. 1882. 



n8 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



[Bergk, 96] 



aAa; ts xal Tpa7cs^av. 



(to neobule) 

.A 



^_y — \^/ \^^t — ^v_/ v^ ^* 

-. — ^ — ^ — ^ — \j i ' ^ 



Oti/4£&' 6[7xoc 9-aAASi?, dbrocAov j^poa' y.apcpsxat, yap vj^vj' 
"Oyu.o; Jtoutwv Ss yvjpao; Jca-S-atpeT. 

VI 

THE FOX AND THE EAGLE 

[36] 

(a) Aivo; tic, av9-pto77tov ofts 

w? ap' aXwxif]^ jmustoc £uvg>vwjv 

£[7.t£av. 

[87, no] 

([i) Op^s iv IW sksTvos u^tjao? rcayo; 
Tpvj/u; ts >cal TraXiyxoTo;" 

SV TW KOC'&TJp.ai STjV £Xa<ppi'CtOV [7.0C/7JV. 
* * * * 

Mr t£'j [/.SAajjwniiyou t'J/oi;. 

[38] 

(y) 'fi ZsO, TfotTep ZsGj crov [j.ev oupavou jcpa-ro;, 
cru f>' spy dV av8-poi7T<j)v opa? 
AEWpya Jta&SfMGTa, go! Se {Vyjpiwv 
u(3pi; T£ seal Siy.yj [/iXsi. 

VII 

[89] 

— J. —J- — ' A 

\j, — v ~ w ~- w — \j — \j — ' x 

— s-/ s-^ — ^/ W — /\ 

' \io£(u rtv' U[vlv aivov co KvjpU/tiSvj 

ayvuj/ivY] cratuTOAT}' 
IlUhj/CO; Y)£c Dvjpicov aroJcpi-S-ei; 

[7.0'JVO? av' £<7yXTl*/jV 



ARCHILOCHUS 119 

Tto S' ap' aiktamrfe x.£pSa7iv] guvtjvxsxo 

TCUJCVOV Z/OUGV. VOOV. 

VIII 

[Bergk, 119] 

HYMN TO HERCULES 

TvjvsXXa x.aXXivix.s" 
(oi) X.0OOJ.VIKS /atp' ava£ f Hpax.Xssc' 

x^vsXla 3caXX(vuts' 
auxo; xs x.' 'IoXtjo?, ai/y//jTai ouo* 

xrvsXXa x.allivix.s. 5 

(to) koXTuvixs /atp' kv«q 'HpajtXss?. 

TETRAMETERS 

IX 

[66] 

®u[/,s, $-u|/.' aivz/jyavowt. jcroecriv xjjx.oj|/.oV£, 

avsys, ou<jp.svt3v S' o&i^su 7cpoG(3aXo)v svavxiov 

trrepvov, £v oo/totatv s/Dptov tcXyjciov JtaxaGxa-S-si? 

ac<palsto;* x.al |/.7vxs vtxwv a|/,q>ao7]V avaXXso, 

jjwqxs vdmq&si; sv ol'/Cto )taT«7TSfftov oqupso" 5 

alii yaproictv xs ppctps, x.al x.ax.olmv aayala 

[/.-/) X171V yiYvtdocs &' oio? puc;xo? a.v&pto— ou? s/2',. 

X 

[56] 
Tot? -8-eot? Tifrei (xa) 7ravxa" xoXXaxa? ;xsv sx. x.ax.tov 
avSpa? Gp#-o>j<7iv {/.sXaivr jceiuivou; exl y9ovi 
7;o'XXax.i; 5' avaxps7T0Uffi x.al {/.aV su [jsfiTjx.oxa; 
u7rxiou? x-Iivout'" 67rstxa TroXXa vtyvsxai x.ax.a', 
x.al pioo ypW-'ft 7rXavaxat xal voou Trapv-opo;. 5 

XI 

[74] 
Xpvjfzaxtov asXrcxov ouosv £<ttiv ouS' a— touoxov, 
ouSs &at>[/.a<7iov, sttsi^v] Zsu; — axr ( p 'OX'j[v.~itov 

£X. [JE.S(77]p.(3pi7]£ sO'/JX.S VUX.t' OOTOJCpU^a? (pao? 

'/jltou la[7.7:ovTo;' uypov rV 7^8' £~' av8pto7iO<j; oso;. 

ex. Se to'j x.al wtffxa wavxa x-a—isl—Ta vivveTai 5 



120 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

avSpasiv' jxvjfJslc £&' Uf/.c3v £U7op<3v &au|/.a'(£T<o, 
;xtjS' oxav Ss^cpTut &7]p£? avTa|7.si^covTai vo;xov 
svaXtov /.at cpiv fl-aXaffCTi? ^/sevxa jcufwtTa 
<pD/r£p' vpsipou yivvjTat, toigi S' f^ou r,v opo;. 

XII 

[Bergk, 70] 

Toto; avO-pioTrourt frujAOC, T^auxs, As7ruvso) 7:a'i, 
yiyvfirai -O-v/jtoi? oxoitjv Zeus sV vj^ipyjv ayfii, 
>cai cppovsuci toi' 0/.0101C EyxupsciXJiv Epyfxacriv. 

XIII 

[58] 
Ou ©iXso) Ltsyav GTpaT"/}ydv ouos oia7tE7cXiy[j.Evov, 

0'J($£ jSciGTpu^OKjt yaOpoV OuS' U7i£^'jp7]|X£V0V, 

vXkv. [j.oi <j[xix.po? ti§ s'itj Jtal 7rspi jtv^^a? iosiv 
oo'./dc, a<7<paX£co; (3Ef3vpcco<; ttoggi, x,apStv); ifkioc. 

XIV 

[54: 55] 

rXauy', opa, pct&ix; yap Vj'S7j 3c,uf/.aatv TapacaETa: 
ttovto?, aj/.<pl S' axpa Tuplcov opfrov IVraTat, vscpoc, 
C7j[/.a /£ia(ovo;" jayavEt S' £C keX7FT17js <pd(3o?. 
***** 

scat vsouc S-apcuvs" vijoj? S' ev ftsoYTt 7i£ipa.Ta. 

XV 

[63] 

Ou Tt? aiSoioc [XEt' acrxtov x.at~£p 'i<p{)mo; -9-avwv 
yiyvsTaf j(apiv ^ £ f-aXXov too £oou (W/COfASv. 

XVI 

[641 
Ou yap £Ti>Xa xaT-8-avouffi /tEproy-EEtv etc' av<W.ffiv. 

XVII 
t6 5 ] 
sv o £~ [aTv.[j.y.i p.£ya, 
tov xaxcoc ((/.s) SpwvTa Setvot? avTa{Ae£{3s<7'9-ai /.a*oi?. 



ARCHILOCHUS 121 

XVIII 

[Bergk, 75] 

KX0&' avxc; 'Hcpatars /.at f/.ot G'Jaixa^o? youvouuivco 
t'Xsto? ysvsu, /api'Ceu &' oia-ep yapt^eai. 

XIX 

[69] 
NGv Ss Astocpdo? jviv ap^si, Asio<piAoc &' imxpaTSi, 
AecocpDxo &£ reavTa Jtsvrai, Aew«pt>.oi» S' ax.ou£TX'.. 

XX 

[7'] 
Ei yap to; iij.ol ysvonro ppz Nsojiou^vjs •Jhysfv. 

XXI 

[77] 

(a) 'H<; AiwvuffOi' avattro? xaAov sEapEoa c/.eaoc 
010a rkfhjpai^Sov, olvw cuyjcspauvw&sts <po£vac 

[76] 
(ft) Auto? eEapy<ov 7rp6c aulov Asapiov 7ratr<ova. 

XXII 

[59] 
'Ettto: yap vsxptov 7t£covTtov, ouc Ip^ap^Lattsv ~o<7iv, 

5£tXlOl <pOV7j£C EG[A£V. 



122 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



MELIC POETRY AT SPARTA 

TERPANDER 

I 

ON LACEDAEMON 

[Bergk, 6] 

"Ev8-' amta t£ vstov S-ocaasi jcai lmSgcx. Aiysi* 
x.al m/.a stjpuayma, JcaAtov STCirappoft-o? spyiov. 

II 

[51 

2ol S' vjfy.et; TSTpayyjpuv a7uo<7TSp^avTSi; aoi&r'v 
ETTTaTovw qpdpfjuyyt veou? jtsXaor.ao^sv u'[j.vo'j; 

III 

LIBATION HYMNS 
[1] 

(a) Zsu 7vavrtov apya, 
~avT<ov ayr'jTcop, 

ZSU, (701 7t£fX7TW 

TaoTav uiAVcov apyav. 

[3] 
(fJ) Sxsv&to^ev toi? Mva^a; 
wawlv Mc-jiai? 
xai tw Mtofiap/w 

AaroCic uiei. 

IV 

PROCEMION TO APOLLO 

'Aacpi [j.ot aGri; avals' exarafioAov 
asto^Ttd cpprv. 



SPARTAN SONGS 123 

TYRTAEUS 
'Ef/.paTvjpta ij.il'q 

I 
[15] 



V-"^ • _-. W^ ™ '^'Vw' . 



"Aysr' to S^apTa? suavSptd 
y.topot. 7:aT£pcov TroTaafav, 
Xau*! jviv I'tuv 7rpof3aXs<jfrs, 

(7//j <pstoo{/.evoi xa; Cwa;* 

ou yap roxrpiov Tac 2~ apra?. 



II 

[16] 



\^/ v^ — \^ ^1 — —  



"Aysr' to S—apra; svott^oi x.copoi ttotI rav "Apsoc vlvrpiv. 

SPARTAN DANCE SONGS 

I 

Lp. 1303] 

TEPONTE2. ' A[j1c, -ox.' r^j.zc, aXxi^ot vsavtai. 
ANAPES. ' Api; Se y' r^xs; - ai Ss X-^, auyaaSso. 
ITAIAES. r A[/i; cte y' e<7<7o';y.e<7«)a r.oXkCi >caooovsc. 



II 

[/to/.] 



IToppto yap, to 7ratds?, xd^a 
[ASTajiaTS y.al xtoy.a^aTS 

(3sXtiov. 



ALCMAN 

Fl. 670 B.C. 

OUR information concerning the events of Alcman's 1 life is 
scanty enough, as might be expected from his early date. 
He came from Sardis, as we learn from Frag. IV., in which 
he playfully boasts of his connection with the centre of 
Lydian civilisation. Harting, it is true, declines to accept 
the poet's plain testimony, believing him to have spoken 
in jest ; but this strange view and Bergk's assumption, 
from the name of Alcman's father, Damas or Titarus, 2 
that he was at any rate the son of a Greek residing in 
Sardis, seem to be due to a jealous reluctance to admit 
that the celebrated poet was not of genuine Hellenic 
origin. Suidas describes him, according to one authority, 
as AuSo$ kx. SapSscov, according to others as Aa*(ov arco 
MeGffda? ; but the statements are reconcileable by suppos- 
ing that when he became an adopted Lacedaemonian, 
Messoa was the district with which he was connected. 
He had attained to poetical notoriety, Suidas tells us, by 
the 27th Olympiad, or 671 B.C., a date which Muller regards 
as inherently improbable, its remoteness being, he thinks, 
hardly consistent with the comparative maturity displayed 
by his muse. 

Midler's argument is not, I think, a strong one ; for 
Melic poetry must have received considerable attention, 
especially at Lesbos, long before the close of the seventh 
century, when it displays itself to perfection in the poems 
of Alcaeus and Sappho. Alcman lived, Suidas adds, 
during the reign of Ardys, king of Lydia (652-615 B.C.) 



1 'AX/.[j.av or 'A)./.;jia<ov, the former being a Doric contraction of the 
latter. 2 Suidas. 



ALCMAN 125 

and Eusebius assigns the 42c! Olympiad, or 612 B.C., as one- 
period in his long poetical career. He somehow became a 
slave of the Spartan Agesidas, but his talents won him his 
freedom, and quite contrary to the later practice at Sparta 
he was received as an adopted citizen. 1 He seems to have 
flung himself vigorously into the life and language of his 
new country ; and the position he took as leader of the 
choral performances, which played so important a part in 
Spartan life, must have made him a prominent member of 
the state. Besides the passage in Eusebius, Frag. 11. indi- 
cates that he lived to an advanced age. He died, according 
to Plutarch, 2 from the same offensive disease as Sulla, and 
he was buried at Sparta. 3 

I have already dwelt upon Alcman's relation to the 
&suTSpa xaaracTarri? at Sparta, and on the part he played in 
the development of Choral Melic. and of the dance that 
accompanied it. 4 It has also been remarked that life at 
Sparta as reflected in his scanty fragments by no means 
accords with our preconceived notions on the subject. 5 
Instead of being a species of barracks both for males and 
females, the town seems to be alive with bands of dancing 
maidens, engaged now in earnest supplication to the gods, 
now in mirthful poetic intercourse with each other or with 
their leader the poet ; instead of the traditional black broth 
the tables are heavy with ' cakes and ale ' in abundance and 
variety ; while around the town and its pleasant life there 
extends the beautiful scenery of the mountains which for 
so many centuries secured to Sparta that peace which to 
the poet's eyes they typified in their outward form. 

I mentioned that Alcman adopted the language, or rather 
the dialect, of his new city. This statement requires limi- 
tation. He employs Doric forms freely, 7 and not a few 
Laconisms (£.£•. cruov = &eiov, -apcrsvoic, caXXst), 8 but his dialect 
can in no way be called a popular or local one in the 

1 Hercul. Pont. Polit. ii., and see p. 100. 2 Sulla, c. 36. 

3 Pausan. iii. 15. 4 See pp. 29, 38. 5 Pp. 100, 101. 

Frag. III. euoouatv 8' ops'wv xopuooa xs xai cpapayyeg x.t.X. 
T xs'/p/jxat Atopioi oiaXc'/.-o>, y.aOx-sp Aay.soai|J.ovio;. 
R See, however, p. 94, note 1. 



126 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

same way as we speak of the Lesbian of Sappho and 
Alcaeus. As with the majority of the Lyric poets, the funda- 
mental part of Alcman's dialect was Epic ; and, besides 
the Dorisms, he introduces several Lesbian forms, e.g. 
stXsvva, and the diphthong oi for the Ionic 60. Pausanias, III. 
xv. 2, is nearer the mark than Suidas : ( Alyjj.y.vi) izovrpc/.vxi 
y.G[J.XTX ou&sv sc vjSovvjv auTtov sX'jp.yjva.TO xtov Aa/xovcov ^ yXtoccx 
jnuara xape^opivvj to eu<po>vov. That is to say, Alcman, 
while appealing to his auditors by a flavour of Laconisms, 
avoided all the harsher forms of that dialect. 

Suidas tells us that Alcman was the ' inventor' of love 
songs, as if people had not fallen in love and committed 
their sentiments to poetry before the 7th century B.C. He 
may, however, have been among the earliest Melic poets 
proper who cultivated this time-honoured branch of the 
art. How much he was indebted herein to the influence of 
a possible Lesbian school, subsequently the headquarters of 
erotic poetry, we are not in a position to determine ; though 
his employment of Lesbian dialectical forms is to a certain 
extent significant. We have a fine erotic couplet in Frag. 
XVI. "Epo; [j.z ()' ocuts y..tX, and another graceful passage in 
Frag. XVII., 'AcppoSira yiv oux. £<m /..t."X. In his Parthenia 
also a. sentiment of romantic admiration for his beautiful 
maiden-choristers is prominent ; and Aristides calls him 
' the praiser of women \ l 

The extant fragments are scanty enough, and many of 
them are merely quotations in illustration of some kind of 
food or wine ; but in addition to the interesting, newly- 
found Parthenion, there are two short passages of the 
highest poetical merit : I refer to Frag. III. suSougw S' opstov 
xopu<pai ts xal 97.py.yys; x.tX, which for its loving sympathy 
with nature is almost unique in Greek poetry ; and to the 
beautiful melic hexameters in Frag. II., ou [/.' eti xap&svtxal 
[j.sTayapus; iaepocptovoi -/./evX., charming in their rhythm and in 
the plaintive tenderness of the language. Such gems as 
these assure us that in losing the works of Alcman we 
have lost those of a great poet. 



1 (ov EptoTizo? :;avu cuprcr? ys'yovE tcov epwcixwv ja.eX(ov. 



ALCMAN 



11. 1-4. 



[Bergk, 23] 

parthenion (discovered in Egypt 1855) 

\^ \^J \^/ — ' ^ 

oi-ww-w^-A 

— ^ — \*> — ^ — 
\5'. — ^ >^ — v^» ' ' ^ 



11. 5-8, repeat the metrical system of 11. 1-4. 
11. 0,-14. — w — ^ — ^ — ^ — w — ^ 



— ww — ww — ww — WW 



(also 



ww — ww — WW — J. 



WW — WW ' 



-w yJkv.fJTV. ()Z 

spya 7:<x.gov /.x/A [/.7]<>a{/.evoi. 

("E)<JTl TIC GllOV TLGi;" 

6 &' (6'^)jS(t)oc, o<>Tt? su<ppo)v 

(a)f/ipav (oi)a7cXe)tet, 

(a)*eXy.u)<7To; syuv o' xeioco 

'Avio<3? to cpco;* 6pc5- 

-p' cot' aXto;, ovTOp ay.tv 

'Ayiow [^apTupsTat 

(paivvjv. Jlij/.e o out stocivyv 

outs u.tot/.wi&ai viv a xiXsvva yopa(y)o; 

ouos Awt st, do/cset vy.o hulsv aura 



<7T0. y 
TTp. O 

5 



10 



128 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

ix.-ps-Tj? Tok, (o7rsp a! ti; 

(s)v BOTOIC oraffeisv (i)7C7TOv 

Trayov (a)&&-'Xoq>opov jtavajjaxooa, 1 5 

(t(3v) u(—)07T£TpiSlt0V QVSiptOV. 

' H oux opvj; ; 6 f/iv jcsXij? <7Tp. 

'EvsTtx.6?, a Ss /atTa 

rote, l(/.a? ave^ta? 

'Ay/jTi/opa; £— av&si 20 

(y)puco; (to)? ax^pxTO?, 

to t' apyupiov Trpocrtoxov 

St,a<paSav — ti TOt Txyto ; — 

'Ayyjci/opa, f/iv' auTa. — 

a Si §£'jT£pa x£^' 'AyiStov to £u)o; 25 

17C7TO? si^vw JcdXal; ale? opa[/.svraf 

Tal 7irsXetaoss yap ajuv 

'OpQix <papo; (pspoujat? 

vuxTa St' ajzppocriav octs (j(si)ptov 

acTpov austpofAsvai \)Ayovzv.i. 30 



0'j't£ yap ti 770p<pupa; 

toct(7o; xopoc, worr' ay.uvai, 

out£ 7cotxiXo? SpaV.tov 

Tayyp'jato?, ou^£ [j.iTpx 

AuSia veaviocw ... 35 

. . . wv ayaXjv.a 
O'l/Si Tal Navvto; y.6[J.y.i 
aXV O'jS' 'EpaTa aiziS-ffi 
ouSe SuXa>ci? t£ seal K7.sin<Ti<7iqpa. 



II 

[Bergk, 26.] 

Ou [/.' £ti, — api)£vcx.al [/.sXiyapusg iy.epo<pwvoi 
yjia <p£p£tv ouvaTaf fiaXs Syj (3oXe y.yjpuXo; slijv, 
0? t' £—1 /.u^.aTO? avik>; <*[/.' aXx.uo'v£crGi 7TOT7JTai 
v^eys? r^Top iytov, a.Xt-o'pcpupoi; siapoc opvt?. 



TTO- 



) 



ALCMAN 
in 

[Bergk, 60] 



129 



V-/ — \^/ — \S 



\-/l ^/ '— v^ ^/ \^/ <y >^/ ' * 

— ^7 V-/ V_/ — \5 

Euoo'jgiv <r opsov /.opucpai re xal <papayye; 

xpcoovs; ts jtai yapar^oai, 

cpuXa ts FipKsfr' oca Tps<psi pi^aiva yaia, 

tH;ps? t' dpsoaoot, jcal ysvo? f^sTaccav 

xa& /Cvw&aV sv (3sv&s<Jt Tropcpupsa? aXo? - 

siioouciv o 6'iojvcov 

cpuXa Tavu7TTepuyo>v. 

IV 

[24] 

\yl v^/ v^ v_y <^< 

— w — ^ — \^» — v_/ 

— v^ w ^ — / \ 

<»_/ * \-* w ^> — v_/ — w — w 

— \^ — \«/ — w — ^ 

Oux. eis a.v/jp aypoi/co;, o>j&s 
c/.aidc, ouos Trap cocpowrtv, 
ou&e ©scffaXo? ysvo;, 
o'jo' 'Epuciyalo; ouSe Trotjr^v, 
aXXa Sapoitov a~' axpav. 

V 

[66] 

"Ocai ok 7ratos? txuitov 
evti, tov xid-apuxrav aivsovTi. 



VI 

[29] 



Zs'j — area, ai yap hp.bc, xo'ci; sir. 



130 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



VII 

[Bergk, i] 

— ^ v^ — ^1 ^ — ^ W — ^W 

W V^ V-» V^ /\ 

^. — w — w — ^ — O ' — 



MiZa' aye, M(3ca Tayeia woXuji.fx.eXe? 

ai.evy.oiSs [J.eXo? 
veoyu.ov apye irapcsvoi? aeioev. 

VIII 

[45] 

Muc' aye, KaXXiorca 8-uyaxep A16?, 
ap^' £paxtov STrewv, eVi S' i'[xepov 
u|j.vto jcai yapievra Ti&et, /opov. 

IX 
[7] 
'A Mcocra jtsxXay a Xiysta Ssiprv. 

X 

[16] 

TO HERE 

Kal tIv suyottat (pepoiera 
tovS' eXiypucto 7TuXetova 
x.TjpaTto xuTratpo). 

B. BANQUET SONGS. 
XI 

[22] 

— . — \^ "^ —• \J <J 

— — — i^> ^ — ^ \^ — — 
W . 

avSpeicov 7rapa oatTD[/.ovs<y<nv 
rasTCt 7ratava xaTapjjetv. 



ALCMAN 

XII 

[Bergk, 74 B] 

\s . — «^» — ^ — ^ — ^,1 /\ 

KXivai j/iv sVra >cai togou TpaTCcSai 
[/.axcovukov aprtov s7:i<rrs<poi<7<xi, 
Aivo) re cracra[/.to >t^v izzkiyvv.ic, 

TZZOZGGl Xpi>GOX.67Jkx.. 
[75] 

"Hotj 7rapsc;st, Truavto'v ts tto'Xtov 
yjopov ts ^su/cov jcqpivav t' OTtto'pav. 

XIII 

[33] 



131 



" WW — WW ~~ WW ~~ WW 



Kai 7T03ca rot. &tocrto rpi— o^o; xoto;, 
to x. svi — w ^ — ^ aystpvK' 
aXV £Tt vuv y' a7rupo?, Taya M 7rXso? 
etvso?, otov 6 :raf/.cpa'yo; 'AlxuAv 
r^pacB-Tj x^ispov Trs&a t<x; tootcoV 
outi yap iqu T£Tuyuivov saO-si, 
G&Xa xa xcHva yap, tocTvsp 6 Sap.o?, 
CaTsuet. 

XIV 

[76] 

w ^""W^W" - w — ' ^ 

"Upas fV sotjjcs Tpsi?, -9ioo? 
x.v.1 yjX[J-<y. xtoTrtopav Tpirav, 
x.al TSTpa-rov to Fr t p, o/.a 
sxXXst |7.ev scrOtsv S' arVv 

OU5C SGTtV. 

XV 

[34] 
noXXaxi ft' ev >topu<paT? opscov, oxa 
Oeoictiv aSvj 7i:o^i;<pav.o? eopra. 



132 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

^pucriov ayyo; lyoiay. f/iyav C/Ojcpov, 

oia' ts Troii/ivs; avSps? syousiv, 

J^spffi Xsovtsiov yaXa Svjcao, 5 

Tupov STupvjcra? [j.syav arpijcpov apyu<psov ts. 

C. MISCELLANEOUS 
XVI 

[Bergk, 36] 
\j '. — ^ — C7 — ^ — w — w 

v Epo? |7.s S' aurs Ku7rpiSo? F£y.tx.n 
ykuwjq x.aTsi(3cov xapSiav laivst. 

XVII 

[38] 

'AcppoSiTa jasv oux scTt, p.apyo; S' "Epto; oia rcai? xaicSsi 
axp' sV av9-7] xapaivtov, a {/.yj [/.ot $tyvjs, tco >ci>7Wcip(<JXC0, 

XVIII 

[21] 

Kuxpov i^eprav "kiTzoXatx. xal IIa<pov TtspippuTav. 

XIX 

[37) 

"~V-/ V^ ~~ v.' — \-/ — ^/ 

A 



• ^/ — v^/ — ^>  



ToGa)-' aSsav Mtocrav soei^ev 
Scopov {/.ajtatpa 7rap9ivcov 
a. £av-8a MevaXooTpaTa. 

XX 

GNOMIC PASSAGES 

[62] 

FORTUNE 

(a') Euvo(/ia; (ts) x.ai IIs^ou? aSsXcpa 
x.al IIpo[j.a&sia<; -9-uyaTTjp. 



A L C M A N 



133 



[Bergk, 42 

(^') Tic, (S') av, ti? uoxa pa aAAto vo'ov avSpo? £vigtok; 

[63 
(y') IleTpa toi [/.a&^crio; ap^a. 

[50] 
(§') Msya ystTOvi ysirtov. 



(a) 



XXI 

[25] 



^ ^ v^ — '^ 

V^W WW \^»W ' ' 



"Eur] §s ts y.al [/.sao? 'AX/^aav 
sups, yEyAcoccajvivov 
/.ooocapiScov CTO[xa Guv-9-£f/.£vo<;. 

te 7 ] 
((3) Oioa $' opvfytov vop.to? 

7TaVT(0V. 

XXII 

[48] 

DEW 

Ota Aioc, ■fruyarTjp 
£p<ra Tp£(pEi xa\ SEAava^ Sia<;. 

XXIII 

[6] 

A CALM SEA 

XspGOvSe X,(0<pOV £V <pu>C£<j(7l 7TITVEI. 

XXIV 

[35] 

SPARTA 
— • ' ' ' lL A. 

'EpTCi yap avra too criSapto to xaAai; ju&apicSev. 



i 3 4 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

XXV 

[Bergk, 28] 
— \ — w w — w w — ww — /\ 

Aucrav 5' a7rpa/.T<x vsavwfe; (Zgt 
opvet? ispaxo? U7csp7cra[/iv<i>. 

XXVI 

[40] 
Auorcapi?, aivowapis, kooiov 'EXXaSt, pomavsipa. 

XXVII 

[87] 

w . — w — *-• — ^ 

w ; — w — w w ^ w — w 

w . — w ' ^-> ^-> — w 

'Av/]p S' sv ap[/ivo«yiv 

oDuTpo? tjgt' sm ftaxto xara rarpa? 

opewv [jiv ouSev So/icov o£. 

XXVIII 

[58] 



'Pircav opo? av&sov uXa 

Nu/tTo; [/.sXalva? crepvov. 



ALCAE US. 

Fl. 600 B.C. 

Our scanty knowledge of the life of Alcaeus is connected 
almost entirely with the restless political history of Lesbos 
at the time, which enters so largely into his poems. Of 
his birth we know nothing, except that he belonged to 
some branch of the old Lesbian nobility, whose decadence 
was now in rapid process. The earliest contemporary 
reference in his poems is to the tyranny of Melanchrus, 
who was overthrown in 612 B.C. by Pittacus. Since his 
two brothers Cicis and Antimenidas are mentioned as 
Pittacus' chief supporters, and nothing is said of Alcaeus, 
who was usually well to the front on such occasions, we 
may perhaps assume that he was then of immature age. 
Six years later, however, according to Eusebius, we hear 
of his playing a prominent part in the war between the 
Mityleneans, led by Pittacus, and the Athenians, with 
regard to the possession of Sigeum in the Troad. 1 It was 
in an engagement during this war that Alcaeus, after the 
fashion of Archilochus, Anacreon, and Horace, saved his 
life at the expense of his shield, an event to which he 
frankly alludes in Append. No. XIV. Some critics regard 
this as an indelible blot on his military character ; others, 
on the contrary, argue that if his reputation as a gallant 
warrior had not been firmly established, he would never 
have alluded to the event with such composure. We need 
not attach too much importance to the incident ; for the 
obligation on a brave man not to take part in a general 
rout is by no means universally recognised. However 



1 Sec Grote, vol. iii. p. 155, and 199 seq., and Hdt. v. 95. 



136 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

this may be, the Athenians regarded the captured shield 
as a worthy offering to Athene in her temple at Sigeum 1 ; 
and this fact indicates that the poet had by this time 
acquired notoriety. Shortly after this Alcaeus appears 
among the champions of the Mitylenean constitution 
against the encroachments of Myrsilus and other short- 
lived demagogues and tyrants ; and in Frag. XIX. he cele- 
brates the death of Myrsilus with heartfelt joy. With this 
period the credit of his political career ceases, and the 
patriotic defender of the republic in his turn is engaged in 
intrigues for winning tyrannical power — in the words of 
Strabo xiii. 617, ouo" auTO? xaB-apsuiiiv tcov toioutojv veots- 
piG(Ao>v. The upshot of the struggle was that the poet and 
his brother Antimenidas were driven into exile, Alcaeus 
himself, according to his own testimony, 2 wandering as far 
as Egypt, while Antimenidas served with great distinction 
in the armies of the king of Babylon. 3 It was during this 
period that many of the so-called Stasiotica were written. 
Compare Horace Od. ii. 13, speaking of the subjects of 
Alcaeus' odes : ' Dura navis | dura fugae mala, dura belli'. 
Eventually Alcaeus and his brother, with other exiled 
nobles, endeavoured to re-establish their position by force 
of arms. 4 The people of Mitylene elected Pittacus as 
Aicru^vTJTyj; or Dictator ; the nobles were defeated and 
Alcaeus taken prisoner. His generous opponent, in spite 
of the insolent abuse heaped upon him by the poet (see 
Frag. XXI.), paid a tribute to his genius by restoring him 
to liberty, with the remark that ' mercy is better than 
vengeance ' — Guyyvcoij.yj Ti[/xapia£ y.peicGtov. 5 Under this wise 
and moderate ruler Mitylene once more enjoyed repose, 
and it is probable that Alcaeus lived to enjoy a peaceful 
old age (see Append. No. xvi.). 



1 Hdt. loc. at., and see Grote iii. p. 155 for the probable mistake 
in the Greek historian's chronology. 

2 Strabo i. 37. 3 See on Frag. xxv. 

4 Arist. Pol. iii. 14 ; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. v. 73 ; see on Frag. XXI. 
and xvi. 

5 Diog. i. 74. 3. 



ALCAEUS 137 

Such is a sketch of what we know or can conjecture of 
the circumstances of the poet's career. The story of his 
supposed romantic admiration for Sappho I have consi- 
dered in the additional note on Frag. XL Of his inward 
life and character we have a clear enough picture in the 
fragments. Whether the subject be love, wine, politics, or 
warfare, in every word there breathes a fiery and restless 
energy, which is in keeping with what is known of his 
history. His emotions were always strong and genuine, 
and therefore always possess poetical interest. He was 
keenly alive to the influences of nature, a vigorous drinker 
and boon-companion, a fiery warrior, and above all, an 
uncompromising hater of all his political opponents. If we 
hope to find exalted sentiments in a poet of such celebrity, 
we shall be disappointed. His opposition to the tyrants 
Melanchrus and Myrsilus was to his credit ; but his own 
subsequent intrigues and his disparagement of the noble 
Pittacus mark him as anything but the lofty patriot. Yet 
we need not, with Col. Mure, put on modern spectacles 
and condemn him as a more or less despicable profligate 
and debauchee. His morality, private and political, was 
that of the Greek of his age, not too scrupulous, but yet 
healthy-minded. Devotee as he may have been of Bacchus 
and Aphrodite, his surviving poems exhibit no trace of 
sottishness or sensuality. In spite of his factious intrigues, 
it is hardly likely that the shrewd Pittacus would have 
extended pardon to him so readily, had he not seen in 
him the making of a good citizen for the future ; and even 
in his excesses of love, or wine, or party-feeling, there is a 
freshness and impetuosity as of the early Homeric Greek, 
or of Voltaire's Ulngenu. 

As a poet he enjoyed the highest reputation among 
ancient critics. He was placed among the nine great 
lyric poets, and his works were deemed worthy of elabo- 
rate commentary by the Alexandrines Aristophanes and 
Aristarchus. He was notoriously a favourite model of 
Horace, who testifies to his renown in Od. ii. 13, where he 
remarks that Alcaeus, partly owing to the nature of his 
subjects, enjoyed even greater popularity than Sappho. 



138 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

Quintilian, Bk. x., has the following criticism on him : 
' In parte operis aureo plectro merito donatur (alluding to 
Horace I.e.), qua tyrannos insectatur multum etiam moribus 
confert ; in eloquendo quoque brevis et magnificus et 
diligens et plerumque oratori (v. 1. Homero) similis : sed 
in lusus et amores descendit, majoribus tamen aptior. 
Dionys. Hal. 1 bestows still greater eulogy upon him : 
'AXx.aiou Se ay.OTzzt. to (j.sya'Xocpus? Jtal fipy-jy xal vjSu [/.stoc 
oVvottqto;, srt, os ical Too? c^'/]|i.aTicr[xoug |j.£ia cracp7]vsia;, 6'cov 
auTJj? y.'q T"/j SiaAsx.Tto xi x.£y»ax.tOToa, Jtai too a-jravTiov to tc3v 
7ro7itTtxo5v xpay^aTcov tj&o£. He adds that in many passages 
the style, but for the metre, is that of a rhetorician. 
Modern readers, will, I think, fail to find in his fragments 
poetry of the highest order. His faultless style and the 
unflagging energy of his sentiments are worthy of the 
greatest admiration ; but there is something we look for 
in great poetry which is wanting in Alcaeus. The poet's 
eye should ' move from heaven to earth, from earth to 
heaven,' but the gaze of Alcaeus remains fixed upon the 
earth, and he never transports us with him into an ideal 
region. His descriptive passages, for all their vivid realism, 
are not lit up by any radiance of the imagination ; they 
have none of the glamour of Alcman's famous EuSouaiv 
<)' dpstov xopucpat ts xal <pacpayys; jc.tX or the rapture of the 
dithyramb in which Pindar celebrates the approach of 
spring. Even the line which has in it the truest ring of high 
poetry — Hpo; av&Sf/.osvros £~ aiov spyoyivoto — is but the pre- 
lude to an invitation to the wine-cup. In fact, Alcaeus 
makes manifest to us that poetry was the ornament or 
plaything of his existence rather than its vital essence. 
Most of his poems may be ascribed to the class of Par- 
oenia or Scolia, 2 and this alone would lead us to expect 
that the writer would aim rather at appealing to the sym- 
pathies of his boon-companions than to an exalted poetic 
standard. Nevertheless, his poetry is admirable of its 
kind, and in variety and rhythmical power surpasses that 
of his else more gifted contemporary Sappho. It is only 

1 De Vet. Scr. cens. ii. 8. 2 See i ntro d. to Scolia. 



ALCAEUS 139 

when we look to find in Alcaeus a master-spirit among 
poets that we need be disappointed. 

The Alcaic stanza in Alcaeus and Horace. 

As most classical readers owe their acquaintance with 
the Alcaic stanza to the Odes of Horace, it is important 
for me to point out in what particulars the Roman poet 
deviated from his Greek model. The proper metrical 
scheme of the stanza in Alcaeus is, strictly speaking, as 
follows : 

 v-» — \J — ^J \J — v-> — ' ^ 

 \^f — \^ — v <^/ — ^ — ' ^ 



' v-* — ^ — v^ 



This is varied by admitting an ( irrational ' long syllabic 
in certain places, so that the scheme becomes in practice : 

 ^/ — C/ — ^ ^ — ^f — ' ^ 



It will be noticed that whereas in the neutral places 
Alcaeus employs a long or short syllable more or less 
indifferently, Horace with rare exceptions employs a long 
syllable only ; so that his regular scheme becomes 



In the anacrusis of the first three lines, Horace does indeed 
not infrequently employ a short syllable, there being some 
twenty instances in the Odes ; but in the case of the fifth 
syllable, we find one single example alone of a short 
quantity, viz. Od. iii. 5. 17 : 

' Si non perirct immiserabilis.' 

It is not likely that these changes in the Alcaic stanza 
were made by Horace unconsciously. His Odes were 



140 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

written not for melody, as those of Alcaeus, but for recita- 
tion ; and the slower movement effected by the extensive 
use of the ' irrational ' long syllables imparted a gravity 
and dignity to the rhythm admirably adapted in most 
cases to the nature of the subject. 

There is another novel and important feature in Horace's 
Alcaics,' namely the employment in 11. 1-2 of diaeresis 
after the fifth syllable or the second trochee, thus : 

Caelo tonantem || credidimus Jovem. 

In Alcaeus cases of such diaeresis are entirely accidental, 
but Horace admits of only four exceptions to the practice: 

(1) Od. i. 16. 21. Hostile aratrum exercitus insolens. 

(2) Od. i. 3J. 5. Antehac nefas depromere Caecubum. 

(3) Od. i. 27- J 4- Mentemque lymphatam Mareotico. 

(4) Od. iv. 14. 17. Spectandus in certamine Martio. 

Of elision between the fifth and sixth syllables I find 
no more than eighteen instances throughout the Odes of 
Horace. 

Having slackened the natural movement of the rhythm 
by avoiding short quantities whenever it was possible to 
do so, he evidently found the line too long for a single 
colon. Indeed when we read the four examples above, 
where there is no diaeresis, we feel that, in declamation, if 
not in melody, the pause after the second trochee falls 
best on a final syllable. 



ALCAEUS 

A. Si>[/.7TOTDca and 'Epomxa. 

DRINKING AND LOVE-SONGS 
I 

[Bergk, 45] 
SPRING 

'Hpo? av9'Sty.o'svTo; iizyliov sp^of/ivoto' 
* * # * 

sv os /cipvaxe toj fjte^ia&eo? otti TayicTa 

xpaTTjpa. 

II 

[39] 

SUMMER 
X 

v>»J I 1 w /\ 

Tsyys 7rv£uf/.ova Foivto" to yap airrpov TCspiTsXXeTaf 
a o o"pa yaCkitzy., tojcvtoc Ss St^aiff' u— o xaupiaTO?, 

a^£^ S' £* TT£TaXd)V farW. T£TTc£, 7TT£puyO)V S' U7TO 

jcazyjeei Tayupav (tcujcvov) aouW,*uw oTnuora. 

cp^oytov jta&erav -v/w ' ^ ^ — ^ ^ * 

avfrei xal cxo'Tai^oi; - vuv ^£ yuvatjcs? (JLiaptoraTai, 
>.£7TT0t o avop£?, srcel jtal xsipaXav x.at yovu 5)eipios 
aC,ei. 

Ill 

[34] 

WINTER 
_— ^ A 

— ^ A 



1 et [-/xv Zeus, ex. o opavto [/.eya; 

yeiy.tov, TweTOzyamv S' uoaTWV poat 
* * * * 



142 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

K.v.ffixk'ks. tov /eijj.tov' &Vi [/iv tC9si? 

—op, £v Se jupvai? oivov acpstosto? 
[7.sXt,ypov, auxap aacpl xopca 
p-aXS ax.ov ap/pi ^ - yvdcpxXXov. 



IV 

[Bergk, 35] 

Oij ^pv] xaxoict, •9-u[/.ov eTTiTpETrvjv 

Trpo/.d^ofj-sv yap ouSsv aaaj/xvot, 

co Buxyt, cpapfy.ax.ov S' aptaxov 
oivov svewcaj/ivoi? f/.s&0'(Tib]v. 

V 

nCvtottsv* ti Ta "hvyy' 6[/.[aevo(J!.sv ; Sax/TuXo; a.t/ipa. 
x.aS' S' aeppe xuXiyvai; [/.syaXai;,* aiTa, TCOixiXai? - * 
oivov yap SsjAsXa? xal Aio? uio; Xa&ocaosa 
avS-ptoTTOicriv eScox.'" syyse xipvai? sva x.ai Suo 
7rXsai? xax, xscpaAac, a S' STSpa -rav STSpav jcuXi?; 

VI 

[36] 

'AXV av^Tco j/iv Trepl raT; Sspaiaiv 
xsp Sifto T&ixToci? uTCO&up&a? ti?, 

jcaS Se ^suaTco [/.upov aSu xar tco 

gtt^so; a(/.(/.t. 

VII 

[49] 

— O — w v^ — \j ' — — \^ — ^^ ^ — o» — \5 — «^ — ' ^ 

*fl? yap 07]7T0t' 'AptCToSajxdv cpaic' oux a.xa'Xay.vov 

ev S7rapTa Xoyov 
eur/jv ygr^cci-' avyjp, Ttsviypo; 5' ouoei? tcsXst' 



ALCAEUS i 43 

VIII 

[Bergk, 92] 

'ApyoXsov Ilevia x.axov ac/£Tov, a ttsya Sattvai? 
Xaov 'Atiayavtcjc gov a&sXcosa. 

IX 

[53] 

, / / 

v-/. — w — w — w — v^ 

Oivo? yap av&pto-oi? SiOTrrpov. 

[57] 
vy 



Oivo;, co cpiXs 7rai, >tai aXa-9-sa. 



X 

[46] 



"~ ^^~" u ^ — v_/>^ — >*-/ \«/ — V„/ 



KsXoy.ai Ttva tov yapUvra Msviova xaXsccrai, 
oci yp'/] cj|7.~o(jiK? e—ovacriv £|xot ysysvvjafrat. 



XI 

[55] 



v-/. — «»-/ — w — <-/ ^ — w — ^/ 



'IoxXox' ayva [/.sXXe^cp.sida SaTrcpot, 

-9iXtO Tl FtVK'tp, OtXkdi [/.£ >CCt)Xu£t al'&tO?. 

XII 

[56] 
— . ' — / / / A 

v^ . - ~ w — v_y — *«^ ^ w — ^ ^ v.; — W ^ ' x 

Ascat, [as xtoaaCovra, $s£ou, Xi<J<70[/.a£ ce, Xiccof/.ai. 

XIII 

[62] 
KcXxto c' eos^avr' ayvat XapiTS?, Kpivoi. 



[44 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

XIV 

[Bergk, 59] 

w ^ ^>v^ ^/ ^/ w ^y /\ 

"E;x£ SsiXav £;x£ Tuataav jca3C0TaT<«)v TrsSs/otcrav. 

XV 

[63] 

. / 

'w'. — <^> ~ V-/ —S-/ W ~~ \^ 

"Aeicjov a[*|/.t Tav iov,ok~ ov. 



B. STASIOTICA. 

XVI 

[15] 

ALCAEUS' ARMOURY 

X x 

— !_ ! ^— — /\ 

— v_/ — ^ ^» — \j — — \_/ — <y \y — v^» — \s — v^» — ' N 

Map|/.aipsi &£ yiya? §of/.Q£ yak/.oy ■Kctiaa. ft "Ap7] )tsxa<7|/.>]Tat 

TTsya 
Xau.7rpawitv xuvCaun, jcocttocv Xeuxoi jcaTU7rep9-£v ?7C7ukh Ao'cpoi 
vsuotatv, jtsflpocAaifftv avoptov ayaXfxaTa" ytzkx.iy.i §£ xaccaAot? 

/.puTTTOKTiv 7r£pr/.£i[7.£vat A<xf/.7rpai xva|ups;, ap/.o? tc^upto 

PSASU?, 

■fra'paxi? t£ v£oi aivco >tdiA<xi Se x.a.T affTTt^s? P^SATjvivai" 5 

Trap Se XaA/Uoixou (jxa&at, Trap Se £to[7,aTa ttoaaoc x,al 

x,u~accio£?. 

TtOV O'JX. SGTl Aa&-£C9-' £77 SU)7] TCptOTlffT' U7TO /"SOyOV SffTattSV 
T0&E. 

XVII 

[18] 

'Aguv£tv]|xi Ttov av£jxcov oraffiv" 
to piv yap ev&ev xO'xa JtuXiv^srai, 

to o' sv-9sv a|j.jj.£; S' ov to [jxctgov 

vai <pop7j(/.s9a guv (/.SAaivce, 



ALCAEUS 

/etjxtovt [j.oyQzuvzz; [/.syaAw {/.aAa* 

~sp f/iv yap avrAo; icto— s^av syet 3 
Aa?<po; os xav £a^7]Aov vj^vj 
?cai XaxtSe? f/iyaXai x.ar auro* 

yoXy.iai S' ayjoupat. 

XVIII 

[Bergk, 19J 

To 0>]UTS /CUf/.(X TCOV 7TpOTS0OiV OVto 
GTSfysi, TOXpS^Sl O 0Cf/.LU 7TOVOV 7TOAUV 

ocvtXtjv, exei *s vao; sy.pa 



145 



XIX 

[20] 

MYRSILUS 



Nuv ypv] [X£9-uc9'7jv >cai nva Trpo; fiiav 

7TOiV7]V, £7TSIC^ JC<XT&(XVS MupCTtAO;. 



XX 

[25] 

_ A 



' WW — WW — WW 



' flv/jp outo; 6 {/.aidfASvo; to f/iya jcosto? 
6vxp£']/£i Ta^a T<xv TToliv* a ^' iyzTy.i 66-xv.q. 

XXI 

[37 A] 

PITTACUS 
x 

w w w ^ — w w ' w w — w — /\ 

Tov jcaxoTwcTptSa 
IIiTTa*ov 7roXio? ra? v//o~kix> xca papucViy.ovo? 
EGTaaavro Tupavvov [j.sy' Stoxivsovts? v.oXkzzc. 

XXII 

[21] 

MsAay/po? al'Sco; a£to; si? ~oaiv. 

K 



146 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



C. HYMNS AND MISCELLANEOUS 

XXIII 

[Bergk, 5] 
TO HERMES 

XaTps KuAAava? [as^si;' cs yap u.01 
-9-ufj.o? u[7-v/jv, tov xopucpat? sv aitpat? 
Mata ysvvaTO KpovtSoc [/iysica. 

XXIV 

[13 B] 
TO EROS 

w-^ — a Asivorarov -frsoSv 

eye wax' sutc&aao; 'Ipi? 

ypu<7o>co[/.« Zs^upw (i-tystca. 

XXV 

[33] 

TO HIS BROTHER ANTIMENIDAS 
X 

— C/ — ^ ^ ' ^-» ^ — v-» — /\ 

'Ha$£; ix 7i£paTO)v ya?, £X£<pav-rivav 
>.a(3av Tto £i<p£o? ypuco^£Tav £X tov > 
— ^ — f/iyav a$Aov BapuAcovioi; 
*cu[j.;j.ay£i? TEAsaa?, pucrao t' sx. ttoviov,* 
jctevvoci? avSpa [/.ayatrav, pacn.'Xyjuov 
TcaXaicrrav a7roAsi7rovTa |j.ovov [j.iav 

7ta/£C0V (XXU 7tE[7.7TCOV. 

XXVI 

[27] 

"ExTaCov wst' opvifts? (03OJV 
atSTOv SQa7c(va? <pav£vra. 



ALCAEUS 147 



XXVII 

[Bergk, 16] 

BXvjypwv avsy.cov ays^.avTOi Tvvo'ai. 
XXVIII 

[84] 

"Opvifrs; Ttvs; ouV (oxsava) ya; t' aTOJ Trsooartov 
v^Xfrov TtravsXoTis; Ttoi/oXo'Ssppot, TavuGiTrrepoi ; 

XXIX 

[23] 
"Avopsi; izok'/joc, — upyo; apsu'ioi. 

XXX 

[40] 

Ilivcofxev, to yap acrpov TCpiT&XsTat. 



SAPPHO 

Fl. c. 590 B.C. 

The immense reputation attaching to the poetry of Sappho 
both in ancient and modern times has caused whole volumes 
to be written in the endeavour to arrive at a more intimate- 
knowledge of her life and character. The results are not 
very satisfactory ; for while we can glean only the scantiest 
details with regard to the events of her life, her personal 
character has been the subject of an acrimonious discussion 
which is both profitless, and, as readers of Col. Mure's 
History of Greek Literature will testify, decidedly dis- 
agreeable. Nevertheless, although we are likely to re- 
main for ever ignorant as to whether the poetess leapt 
off the Leucadian rock, or as to the exact nature of her 
moral principles, we can perhaps gather from her own 
fragments, from our knowledge of the history of her age, 
and from a certain amount of authentic testimony, all, or 
nearly all, that it is important for us to know in connection 
with any great writer of antiquity. For we know closely 
enough the period at which she lived, the nature of her 
surroundings and position at Lesbos, and the general 
tenour of her life ; above all, sufficiently typical fragments 
of her poetry remain to give us a clear impression of the 
particular direction and character of her surpassing genius. 
Sappho was born either at Eresos or Mytilene towards 
the end of the seventh century B.C., and was thus contem- 
porary with Alcaeus and Pittacus. Her father's name, 
according to Herod, ii. 135, was Scamandronymus, and her 
mother's Clei's (Suidas). We know that her family was of 
noble rank, since her brother Larichos was cup-bearer in 
the Mytilenean Prytaneum, and only youths of the highest 
birth were eligible to this office. 1 Not later than 592 B.C. 



1 Athen. x. 424. 



SAPPHO 149 

according to the Parian marble, where the exact date is 
lost, 1 Sappho was forced by political troubles to retire in 
exile to Sicily. We need not think this improbable ; for 
though it is in the highest degree unlikely that the poetess 
herself took part in politics, it is quite possible that her 
artistocratic male relations were concerned in the factions 
and seditions rife at this period, and that she may have 
accompanied members of her own family into banishment. 
Her return to her native land is implied in Anth. Pal. vii. 14 
and 17, and we may perhaps conjecture that Pittacus, when 
he had defeated and become reconciled in B.C. 590 with 
the aristocrats who were headed by Alcaeus, 2 extended his 
clemency to the exiles in Sicily also. If Suidas be rightly 
informed in saying that she married a wealthy stranger 
from Andros, Cercylas by name, the event is likely to 
have taken place after her return to Lesbos, since other- 
wise she would hardly have fled so far as Sicily. To this 
Cercylas she bore a daughter Clei's; mentioned in Frag. XIV. 
The next landmark in Sappho's biography is the men- 
tion made by Herodotus, Strabo, Athenaeus and others 
of her quarrel with her brother Charaxus for his frenzied 
devotion to the celebrated courtesan Rhodopis or Doricha. 3 
Charaxus came across this lady at Naucratis, to which he 
had sailed for the purpose of trading in Lesbian wine. 
Now this must have been not earlier than 569 B.C., for not 
only does Herodotus tell us that Rhodopis was at the 
height of her fame in the reign of King Amasis, who 
became king of Egypt in 569, but we also learn from 
the same authority, that it was Amasis who established 
Naucratis as a Greek commercial settlement. 4 

Sappho then at the time of this last episode must have 
been upwards of forty or fifty years of age ; and this 
among other circumstances would militate against the 
authenticity of the well-known story of her leap from the 
Leucadian rock through despair at the loss of Phaon's 
love. The account is given by Strabo x. 452 ; it was 

• ] See Clinton's Fast. Hell. an. 559. 2 See p. 136. 

3 See Hdt. ii. 135 ; Athen. xiii. 596. 

4 Hdt. ii. 134, 178 ; see Grote iii. pp. 327-8 for a contrary view. 



150 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

current in the time of Menander, and recurs in many 
ancient authorities. Readers will find the question 
threshed out in Col. Mure's History of Greek Literature, 
where I think that too much importance is attached by 
that writer to such late authorities as Strabo and Ovid, or 
even Menander, and too little weight to the absence of real 
historical evidence in support of a story so romantic, so 
likely to attach itself to an amatory poetess, and yet prima 
facie so highly improbable in the case of a lady of her age, 
and no novice in the tender passion. It will I think be 
safer to accept the testimony of the epigram in Anthol. I.e. 
to the effect that Sappho died in her native land, and 
Frag. XVII.. if it be genuine, points irresistibly to the same 
conclusion. 

I must recur to other more important and less dubious 
facts connected with Sappho's life at Mytilene. She 
appears to have formed the centre of some sort of literary 
circle among the ladies of her city ; she stood to the others 
partly in the relation of an intimate friend, partly in that 
of a teacher. Suidas mentions the name of three of her 
pupils ([/.aibJTpiai) who came from distant cities, Angora 
from Miletus, Gongyla from Colophon, and Euneika from 
Salamis. Her instruction was probably not so much in 
the hardly communicable art of poetry itself, as in music 
and all the difficult technique so closely connected with 
Greek lyric poetry. 1 

These circumstances bring us into connection with a 
state of society at Lesbos which, so far as our knowledge 
extends, may be described as unique in the Greek world. 
We find a number of ladies, seemingly of high birth, band- 
ing themselves together to assert their right to a life in 
which they could gratify to the full their craving for the 
keenest sensuous and intellectual enjoyment — a life re- 
moved both from the degradation of Ionic seclusion, and 
from the rigour of Spartan discipline. In fact the inde- 



1 Consistently with her character as a teacher in such subjects, we 
find ascribed to Sappho by Suidas the invention of the plectrum and 
of the Mixo-Lydian mode. 

2 See Plate n., and note, in connection with this subject. 



SAPPHO 151 

pendence they enjoyed was just such as, with the rarest 
exceptions, has in all ages been reserved for the male sex 
alone. Yet withal the life they lived was essentially that of 
a Greek woman, with none of that eager clamouring for 
masculine rights and activities which would so surely 
characterise any similar society of women in modern 
times. The cultivation of music and- lyric poetry was, it 
would seem, the essential object of their union, and from 
such pursuits female talent has never been excluded. The 
poetry of their leader Sappho is full of delight in all the 
objects of nature, and the glorious similes and expres- 
sions which flash upon her imagination from this source 
own a grace which is exquisitely feminine. The promi- 
nence of the women at Lesbos is regarded by Miiller 1( asa 
survival of ancient Greek manners, such as we find them 
depicted in their epic poetry and mythology, where the 
women are represented as taking an active part not only 
in social domestic life, but in public amusements ' ; and he 
compares the association at Lesbos, over which Sappho 
presided, to a somewhat similar system among the Dorians.' 2 
Col. Mure, on the other hand, regards this trait in Lesbian 
customs, not as a survival but as a piece of notorious 
depravity ; and, without indorsing his extreme views on 
this subject, we may reasonably assume that the freedom of 
an earlier age had, with the increase of luxury and refine- 
ment, lost much of its simplicity and was apt to border 
upon licence. 

There is a curious circumstance, resulting apparently 
from Sappho's position as the leading member of a female 
coterie, which cannot be passed over without remark. I 
refer to the fact that in her most ardent love-poetry her 
passion is aroused by one of her own sex. Maxim. 
Tyrannus, xxiv. 9, compares her relation towards Atthis 
and others with that of Socrates to his disciples Alcibiades, 
Charmides, and Phaedrus. Of course such a circumstance 
offered a splendid handle to Athenian comedy, and has 



1 Hist. Lit. of Anc. Greece, p. 173. 

2 Miiller's Dorians, vol. ii. pp. 316-17. 



152 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

given rise to a protracted discussion in modern times 
— Welcker especially, with some excess of chivalry, 
defending Sappho from all attacks made upon the purity 
of her character, while Colonel Mure takes the opportunity 
to enter into a detailed examination of the question, with 
which we could have well dispensed. We need not prose- 
cute the subject further. Biographies, even of a contem- 
porary, are notoriously inaccurate ; in the case of a poetess 
in the seventh or sixth century B.C., concerning whom our 
direct information is almost nil, inquiries of this kind 
become little short of absurd. What rather concerns us in 
this and similar instances is not so much the morality of 
the writer's sentiments as their poetic depth and value. 
On this score there can be but one opinion of Sappho's 
merits ; for when we read her portrayal of the passion of 
love, we feel that we can look for nothing nearer to per- 
fection, or more intensely real. 

There is one more circumstance in Sappho's life with 
which we gain acquaintance, not, I believe, from any 
external testimony, but from her own poems. All was 
not harmony in the Lesbian coterie. From several of 
Sappho's fragments we glean the fact that at one time she 
was engaged in painful hostilities with certain other Les- 
bian ladies, some of them being her own pupils. Max. 
Tyrann. Diss. XXIV. speaks of Andromeda and Gorgo as 
being rivals to Sappho, so perhaps the dispute owed its 
origin to professional jealousy. She scoffs at Andromeda 
with truly feminine raillery, and complains that the once 
beloved Atthis has deserted her and sided with her rival, 
an example which seems to have been followed by others 
of her pupils. 1 A different kind of quarrel is indicated in 
No. VI. (xaxDocvoiGa Se jcstusat jt. t. >..), which is written 
against a rich but vulgar woman (v. note ad loc), whom 
she attacks with a stinging but beautiful upbraidal, which 
contrasts graphically with the often hardly poetical bitter- 
ness displayed in the invectives of her masculine contem- 
porary Alcaeus. It should be noticed that in none of these 



1 See xv. and notes. 



SAPPHO 153 

passages have we any evidence of charges being brought 
against Sappho in her lifetime similar to those made at a 
later date. 

In person we are told by Max. Tyr. xxiv. 7 that Sappho 
was ' small and dark.' Alcaeus pays her what is, perhaps, 
one of the highest of compliments, in addressing her as 
[j.zXkiy6[j.zi^y n 'sweetly-smiling.' Sappho herself indicates 
that she was of a gentle temper {Frag. XV. e.), and a lover 
of elegance and refinement {Frag. XXV. and XV. d). 

As a poetess her fame was unparalleled, according to 
the testimony of many passages in ancient literature. 
First comes the well-known story of her contemporary 
Solon, who, when his nephew had sung one of Sappho's 
odes, bade him teach it him before he died, iva [/.a&Giv outo 
a7ro9avto (Aelian, Ap. Stob. Serni. xxix. 28). Plato (P/iaedr. 
235, C) instances the names of Sappho and Anacreon as 
examples of the most eminent writers of olden times, and 
he uses of Sappho the epithet 340X75, referring apparently to 
the quality of her poetry. He also declares that she is 
the Tenth Muse (AntJi. Pal. ix. 506). Aristotle places net- 
on a level with Homer and Archilochus {Rhet. ii. 23), and 
Strabo (xiii. 617) speaks of her as ■frau^acrTo'v ti x?^l J - v 'i anc ^ 
adds ou yap ?<j(/.sv sv r<Z tocoutco ypovto tco [Av7jrj.ovsuof7.ivto 
(pavstcrav two yuvaTx.0 £vx;j.t.XXov, ou^s jcoto [/.txpov, eVwEiv/j 
■JTOiTjcrsto!; yapiv. 

Plutarch {Erot. c. 18) declares that her utterances are 
' truly mingled with fire,' and that her songs are penetrated 
with the ardour of her heart. Au't7j Se aXvj&w? [/.sixtyf/iva 
xupl cpQiyysTai, Jtal ma twv [asXiov ava<pspei tt^v otto T7j? 3capSta? 
-9-£p[/.oT7]To. The same writer adds that the enchanting 
grace of her poems causes him to set aside the wine-cup in 
very shame. 

Besides these and many more encomia upon the poetess 
we have valuable criticisms by Longinus, by Dionysius 
of Halicarnassus, and by Demetrius. The telling remarks 
of the first writer I have quoted in the notes on Frag. II., 
that being the poem which he uses in illustration of Sap- 
pho's sublimity. Dionysius of Halicarnassus (De Coiup. 
Verb., c. 23) takes Sappho as the most conspicuous example 



154 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

among Melic poets of what he designates the ykcupupoq 
y.ad avibjpos /apoorr/jp. He quotes the famous Ode to 
Aphrodite (No. I.) as an instance of her power, and remarks 
— Tcorrnc, ttj? 7ics<o; r t susxeta x.al -/j /apt; sv v?j Guvs7rewf x.al 
XstOTTjTt ysyovs Ttov apixovitov, x.tX 

Demetrius (De Eloc. 166) says — y\ Soc-ropco xspl f/iv jto&Xou; 
xSouda jcaXXierofe stti jtai ^osta . . . jcai axav JtaXov ovop.a 
svucpavrat ocut/jc t - ^ 7roi7]ffSi. 

Little as it is, enough of Sappho's poetry still remains to 
enable us to feel that the ancients were amply justified in 
their enthusiastic admiration ; and their laudations are 
echoed by modern critics from Addison (see Spectator, 
No. 223) to Swinburne {Notes on Poems and Reviews). 
Indeed the fragments display a perfection at all points 
which is little less than startling — a perfection too which is 
peculiarly typical of the Greek genius at its best. Intense 
poetical feeling, and an imaginative power exuberantly 
rich, are matched by an exquisite readiness and self- 
command in expression ; while, to complete the effect, 
every line is pervaded with a charming and varied cadence, 
which is almost music in itself. 



'Sapphics' — Greek and Horatian 

Familiarised as we are with the Sapphic stanza, as with 
the Alcaic, mainly by the Odes of Horace, it is important 
to bear in mind the details in which Horace has not fol- 
lowed the metrical system of Sappho's own odes. Whereas 
in Alcaics, as I have pointed out, his deviations are not 
detrimental, and under the altered conditions perhaps 
desirable, in the case of his Sapphics it is hardly presump- 
tuous to say that the clever Roman poet blundered, and 
seems in his latter days to have become conscious of his 
blunder. I refer especially to his rule of introducing a 
needless and objectionable caesura after the fifth syllable. 
A glance at the metrical scheme of a Sapphic line 
(-w-w^w-w-o) shows that the voice should not dwell 
upon this syllable, as being the first of the cyclic dactyl, 



SAPPHO 155 

but should pass on rapidly to the sixth syllable. It is 
therefore desirable for ease in recitation that the fifth 
should not be a final syllable. Again the effect is still 
more awkward if the fifth be not only final, but preceded 
by a long vowel ; for then, being forced to pause against 
our will, it is also difficult to give the fifth syllable the 
emphasis due to it from its position ' in arsi.' Consequently 

such lines as ta; w.a; au&to? at'otcra ronXui (--> | ^ v^ — ^ - ^) 

are rare in Sappho, there being about twelve genuine 
instances out of some sixty possible cases in the fragments. 
Now in all these lines I think we experience a difficulty in 
reading them, so as to give the true rhythmic effect — an 
apparent fault however which is not due to defective 
workmanship on the part of the great poetess, since her 
lines were written not for recitation but for song, which 
is by no means bound to observe so closely as recitation 
the slight pauses at final syllables and the like. Horace, 
on the other hand, wrote, as modern poets do, to suit the 
requirements of recitation ; and for some unfortunate rea- 
son he conforms nearly all his ' Sapphic ' lines in the first 
three books of the Odes to the type which is exceptional 

in Sappho (- ^ | ^ ^ - ^ - d). There are but four 

instances in Books I.-III. (Bk. I. x. 1, xii. 1, xxv. 11; 
Bk. II. v. 11), out of some 450 possible cases where the 
fifth syllable is not final ; and the second foot is invariably 
in the form of a spondee. As in the case of the Alcaic 
hendecasyllabic line (which is indeed only the Sapphic line 
with anacrusis and a catalectic instead of a full conclusion), 
Horace lost sight of the fact that the verse consisted 
naturally of a single colon only, and he chose the most 
unsuitable place for his artificial division to occur, thereby 
losing all the effect of passionate speed which is so con- 
spicuous in the lines of Sappho. 

In the Fourth Book of the Odes, and in the Carmen 
Saeculare, written in Horace's later years, we find a con- 
siderable change for the better, there being no less than 
twenty-nine lines among 163 Sapphics where the caesura 
at the fifth syllable does not occur. 

Catullus in his Sapphic Odes XI. and LI. is truer to the 



156 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

genius of the Greek model. He makes no rule about the 
caesura at the fifth syllable ; he admits a pure trochee 
freely in the second foot, and has no objection to the fourth 
syllable being final, or to the last word of the line being a 
monosyllable- — in all of which characteristics he is at 
variance with Horace. 



SAPPHO 

i 

[Bergk, i] 



IIot/aAoSpov' aSavar' 'AfpoooYra 
toxI Ato;, ooAox'Aox.s, XfaaouLat crs, 
[XT] [7-' v.gv.igi {/.tJo' dviaifft oV-piva, 

'AAAdc Ti»to' sT.0-', afooTa JcareptiiTa 5 

tk? Sp.a? auoo)? otfoura tt>]>.ui 
SxiXueg, TCarpo? Ss Sofj.ov At77ot<ja 

ypuctov ^X9-sg, 
apj/. uTCO(,su<;aKya jcaAot os er ayov 
coxes? CTpoO&oi wspl yac (./.eAatva? 10 

770>cva oivsuvts? Trxsp' v.x topavw a't'&s- 

-po? ota tukaata' 
ai^a S' sEixovto* tu §' to ptaxatpa 
[xetotacratcr' a&ava'rtp xpoawxto, 

vjps', OTTt O^VJUTS TCSXOV^-a, JCtOTTt 1 5 

oTjuTS JcaAvjitt, 
jttoTT 1 siy.to i^aXicTa ■9-lXd) ysvsa&at 
p.atvoAa 8-ujjtcy rtva o*>]uts Ilei&to 
(/.at? ayvjv e? cav cptAoTara, ti? cr' to 

^Pa7t<p' aouojst; 20 

xai yap at <peuyet ry.yioic, Stto^et, 
at o*s o\opa p.r Ss/.et' aA}.a Lest, 
at oe p.7] <ptA£t, Tays<oc <ptA^<7st 

jctoux eO-sAotca. 



158 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

"EX9e [J.oi xal vuv, ycCkZTzy.v oi XCcov 25 

£/. U.£piU.VaV, OCTffa OS [AOt TsX.S<7<7ai 

•9-up-o? i|/ippst, t£Xs<70V cu §' aura 
II 

[Bergk, 2] 

<S>aiv£Tai |xoi jajvo? igo; -Sioicriv 
sul[/.sv wvvjp, ogti; svavxio? TOl 
i^avsi, x,ai xXaaiov ao\> cptovsu- 

-Ga? UTOCJCOUSl, 

seal ysXaurai; t^sposv, to p.oi [7.av 5 

-/.apSiav sv GrrftzGiv £7rroa<TSV' 
co? yap *<>' tSto* ppo'/£tog [j.s cpoova? 
0UO£V £T sixsi. 
aXXa xa[/. piv yXcocraa fsFays, Xcttov S' 
oamxa ^pto Trup u7taosopd[/.axev, 10 

07r7iaT£Gci S' oo&£v opm', £~ tppdf/.— 

-Petct o axouai. 
'A §£ [/.' 'iSpco? xax^ssrai, Tpd^.o; §£ 
xaicrav aypsi, $.a>porspa o*s 7701a? 
£[/.{ju, TE-9-vaxvjv S' oTayco ^raoeuvjv* 1 5 

<paivo|j.ai — ^ 
a'X'Xa 7uav ToXjxaTOv 

III 

[3] 
"A<TTSp£? (aev aiy.cpl xaXav asXavvav 

ai*J/ aTTOJcpuTTTOiGt cpasvvov eiooc, 
07T7raTa TrXirjSot.ca (/.aXtcTa Xa|j.7r/] 
(apyupia) yav. 

IV 

[4] 
'A[/.<pl 5s ^O/pov xeXaSsi St' uco\ov 
p.aXivtov, ai&ucaofJt.svtov as qauXXcov 

xo3i/.a xairappst. 



SAPPHO 159 

v 

[Bergk, 5] 

— <j - ^ — w ^ "EXSs KuT^pt 
^pucioacrw ev x.ultx.s<j<jiv apptoc 
<7u;./.[/.£y.iy[X£vov <9-aXiai<7i v£/.Tap 
otvoyosuca. 

VI 

[68] 
x 

_ / / / 1 — 1 

— \^f — ^ \j ' ^ <*> ' \^ \j — v> — /\ 

KaTfravot/ry. Si xsicrsat, ouS' (sti) tic p.va»jLOcruva geOsv 
zggzx' ouSettot' (sic) ucTepov ou yap ttsSs^slc (ipdStov 
tcov ejt Ilispiac, a^V a<pav7]c >d)v 'A't'Sa Sdp-Otc 

CpOlT(Z(j£tC 77SO aiy.a.'jpfOV VSX.UCOV S/»7TS~OTa'X£Va. 

VII 

[78] 

— . / r . 1 r 

w . — v_/ w ' \s kj ' v> w — •w' — >-< /\ 

Su 5s GT£<pavoic, (6 Afoca, ^spSsc-fr' epaTaic <pd|3aictv, 
opTiaxac Wtoio cruvsppaicr' <x7zaky.tai yspcriv. 
suav&satv ex. yap 7rs^£Tat, Jtal yaptroc f/.ax.aipav 
(y.aTCXov TvpoTspyjv acxs^avtOTOiGL S' a— uaTpscpovrai. 

VIII 

(«) 

[40] 

x 

v^ — _ _ A 

"Epoc SaoT£ [/,' 6 XufftfjtiXvjs Sdvsi, 

y'Xux.'j— ixpov ap.ayavov oWstov. 

[42] 
"Epoc (p-01) <ppsva; (aor') srivaEsv to; 

aV£|7.0C X-a.T OpOC OOUdlV SJXTTSTMV. 



160 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

IX 

[Bergk, 52] 
Cy I — <J w — \y — O 

Asou/cs u.ev a <7£Aavva 
seal n^TjtaSsc, [/icai Se 
vux.tsc, Trapa S' £p/£T 'copa 
£yco ok [j.ova jcocteuog). 

X 

( alcaics). 

[28] 

Ai S' ^/£; sgawv 't|/.spov v] xaAtov, 
xal [/.vj ti Fz'nz'qv yXcocrc' £xux.a x.ax.ov, 
al'Sto? xs cr' ou jcoctsi^sv ou.u.aT > , 

oXa' EAeys? Ttspi Tto ttacaiwc. 



XI 

[75] 



x 



'AaV £(0v cpiAo? a[7.;xtv Xsyoi; apvixro vswTSpov, 
ou yap TAaffoj/.' syco cuv(/ r )oi,V»^v staffa yspairspa. 

XII 

[29] 

2toc&l x,avxa cpiAo? . . . 

jcal xav sV octroi; 6f/.-£Tacrov /aptv. 

XIII 

[90] 
• ' lL A 



^_A^ 



' Li A 

— ^ — ^ <— — ' x 



rAux.eta p-aT£p outoi 
&uvaj/.at xpsxinv t6v I'ctov 
xoSo) Sa[j-£iaa ttoiSo; 
ppaSivav St' AcppoSirav. 



SAPPHO 161 



XIV 

[Bergk, 85] 



"E<m [/.ot. y.OLka. toxi?, yjpuGioiaw av8-£p,oi<7iv 

S(/.<psp7]V ZyoiGX. (Aop<pav KXvj'i? aya-aTa" 

avrl tx? Eyio oiioe Au^iav — aiaav ou$' Epavvav . . 

XV 

SAPPHO AND HER ENEMIES 
[12] 

(rt) — ^/ — w — <-» >.. OTTiva? yap 

eu i>soi, xyjvoi ;7.2 (/.aXwrra divvov- 
-rai ^ w — w. 

[14] 
Tat? xaXai; u(/.[/.tv (to) vo7][/.a TWfxov 

OU Oiai/.S17TTOV. 

//'), (<r), and (d) sappho, atthis, and andromeda 



T33] 

'Hpa[/.av [7.£v syco c£i>£v, "At&i, tojcaoci xo'tx. 



(c? ) vy ^ .-> — ^ w — <*j 



[34] 

Spi/cpa [/.oi ~ai; £f/.p,£v sqpaivso >ca/api;. 



— A 



[41] 

y 
(?) 

"At9i, col a £|/.e<9-£v yiv aTcvj/^ETO 
cppovTiij^vjv, iii\ <V 'Avopo|/,soav ttott]. 

[70] 

X 

( r}\ \J— f , , lI. A 

I CI J — v^ —yy v^ ' v^ v^ ' — —\j ^> — \y — 

*Tt? S' aypouoTi? xot -OiAyEi vdov,* 
oux £7:icrTa[j-£va toc ppaxs' eXjojv £?:l tcov <7<puptov ; 

"E/£i jx£v 'AvopojJtioa /taXav ap.oi(3xv. 

L 



162 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

[Bergk, 72] 



- w aXkv. tic, oux i'f/.f/.i xaAiyxortov 
opyav, aXV a(3axvjv tocv <ppsV syto ^ -. 

[27) 

Sxiovapiva^ ev (m^SGiv opya? 
fjuwJ/uAaxav yXwaaav 7tS9UAac;o. 

XVI 

[37. 32] 
x 

^ — A 

■(a) ^PauTjv ()' ou Sox.ip.wf/.' opavto Suet izoiyzGiv. 

***** 

Mvacscftai Tiva ^ajJLi seal ugtsoov apu/itov. 

[10] 

THE MUSES 

<((}') Ai (/.e Ttp.tav eTcoTjaav spya 
Ta <7<pa Soicat. 

XVII 

[136] 

SAPPHO ON HER DEATH-BED TO HER DAUGHTER 

x 

^— i_ _ _ A 

ou yap -9if/.i? £v p.oiGOXOAto obda 
-8-prvov s[/.[/.evai' oux. a[/.[/.t Tcpexsi tocos. 

XVIII 

Metre, cf. No. VI. 

[69] 
ouS' tav Soxipno[7.i rpociSotGav <pao? aAito 
scrcecrS-oa cocptav xap&Evov sic ouSeva xco ^povov 

TOiauTav . . . 



SAPPHO 163 



XIX 

[Bergk, 54] 



ks . — vy w ' <y ^/ — ^ — \y 



t/'p/Euvr' aizakoiq ap.cp' epoevra (3o"j/,ov, 
xoa; Tspev avO-o? [/.o&ajcov fxaTSwat. 



XX 

[53] 



vy. — ^ — \J — w  



nXy-pyj? j/iv £<paiv£T' a <7£Xavva 
ai 8' co? 7rspl f3to[/.ov £ , <jT<xih]<7av. 



XXI 

[62] 



1 «_i >— — (^i (^i • 



Kar&vaaKEt, KuSipyj, a(3po? "A&tovt;, ti xe <9-£t|/,ev ; 
x,octtu7ttsc7$-e >c6pai jcal x,aT£psfoc£<jfrs j(yrciva<;. 

XXII 
TO HER LYRE 

[45] 

"Ays Syj /eXo §ia p.oi 
cptovascreja y£voto. 

XXIII 

[60] 

Aeote vuv a{3pai XapiTE;, x.aTJXfotou.oi ts Motaai 

[65] 
(b) x 

V / v-» — ' I / 1 / L'^V 

— w — w vy L — — vy w *— • — vy vy — v> L — /\ 

Bpo^07ra^££; ayvai XapiTE;, $s<jts Afo? xopat. 



1 64 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



XXIV 

[Bergk, 16] 
DOVES 



Tofoi (<)z) tf/u^poc y.ev sysvTO #woc, 
xap S' I'ewit xa 7rrspa - ^ - ^. 



XXV 

[79] 



, >_, _ ^, I / \ 



"Eyto Ss <p£X7jf/. J afipocruvav, ;cal [7.ot ^- to Xoc|/.toov 
£po; asXwo -^ ^ ■— y.al to y.aXov ~kzkoyyzv. 

XXVI 

[39] 
Hpo; ayysXo? lj/.£pd<pwvo; avjScov. 

XXVII 

GNOMAE 

[101] 
x 

'O [7xv yap -/.xkoc, ockiov I'ovjv raXfiTai (jcaXo;) 
6 Se y.ayafto? auxwca x.al xtzkoq zgg&txi. 

[So] 

'O ttXouto; avsu (txc) apera? oux, adtvvj? Trapoi^o?. 

XXVIII 

[9] 



Al'$-' syto, /^puGOCTECpav' 'A<ppdrWa, 
tov^£ Tov xaXov ~ky.yorp. 



SAPPHO 165 



XXIX 

[Bergk, 19] 

Ildoa? $£ 

-ov xdikov spyov. 

XXX 

[36] 
Oux oio' otti <9ito # &uo |xoi t<x voraaTa. 

XXXI 

[38] 
'fi; OS 777.'-;; TCSoa (jtarspa TTSTrrsp'jywj/.ai. 

XXXII 

[II] 

tzSs vuv STaipai? 
t«ic saziTi xsp7cva y.aAto; asico). 

BRIDAL SONGS 

XXXIII 
[91] 
(«) Metre, see Pop. Songs, I., note. 

"IJ/ot S?j to f/iXa&pov 



1 jj//jvaov 

KSppSTS TS/.TOVS? (xv^pe? 1 

I [/.'/jvaov 
ya^po? ecrspysTai ujo? "Apsut 

('TiMwaov) 
y.vbzoc [/.eyaXw — oXu iv.si^tov. 

('T[7//)vaov). 

[92] 
(£) ITsppoyo:, wc 6V aoi^o? 6 AsViio? aAAoSaxoiciv. 



1 66 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



XXXIV 

[Bergk, 104] 



 \^ ^S*^/ — w\_/ — ^-A_^ ^ 



Tito 5', to (pile yaf/.|3ps, xoCkCic, eixacoco ; 

6'p7rax,i 4 Bpao"ivto ce /.aTacr' sijea^Sw. 

XXXV 

[105] 

yaips, vufxcpa, 



XXXVI 

[99 

-^ ^ — ^ — \_/ 



"OA[it,s ya^ps (70i [jiv 
$7) yajxo?, w; apao, 
£5£T£T£X£(7t', £/;/]; OS 
TCaoO-svov av apao. 

XXXVII 

[93-4] 

Maidens. Oiov to y'Xu3C'j|v,x'Xov spsu&STat ax,pto B7r' ucSg) 

ascpov stc' ax.poTaTW" 'Xs'XaO-ovTO o*£ [j.a'Xoo*po~Yj£c, 
ou y.av s>&sXa9-ovT', aXV oujt £o\jvavr' STCbcsa&ai. 

Youths. Ol'av -rav ua>av9-ov ev oupsai 7uoi(/.sve? avSp£; 

tocji xaTacTeipotffi, '/y.\j.y.i hi t£ xopcpupov avfto; . 



XXXVIII 

[109] 

' I ' i» A 



Bride. IlapS-svia, 7iap-9-svia, %oX ^£ XCtcoot' (a7c)oi/y) ; 

PartJienia. OuxsV r^co TrpoTi a' oujcsV tj£<o. 



SAPPHO 167 

XXXIX 

[Bergk, 95] 

Fiaizzpz toxvtoc <ps'ptov 6W cpaivoXi? ecxioac' Aug)?, 
<ps'pst? o'iv, ©s'psi? aiya, <ps'psi? [/.arspi 7roct&a. 

XL 

[98] 
x 

\~* ^/ — «w/^-/ — ^j \j 

©UpCiipCO 1Z0()ZQ £-T0p6yUL0t, 

ra 5s era^pala Trsy.TtS^oyja, 
TCicuyyot o£ osjc sc,S7rova(yav. 

XLI 

[51] 

— — ^ ^j 1 —' — ^w /\ 

1 1 

^ w ' — i — \j <s — — /\ 

/ / til 

WV_/' — 1 — — — w s^ — — /\ 

/ / / / / / 

S^^ W^> W «w* 

Kyj <)' ajxppocria; piv jtpairyjp sV.sV.paTO, 
'Ep[/.a? S' sXsv oXxtv frsot? oivo/d-^aaf 
xyjvoi o apa 7ravxs; jcapyv^ia (t) t^/ov, 
>caXsi(3ov apacavTO Ss Tia^Trav saXa 

t£ yaiy.Ppto . . . 



STESICHORUS. 

C. 640-555 B.C. 

TlSIAS, or Stesichorus as he was subsequently called from 
the progress he effected in Choral Melic, was an inhabitant 
of Himera, which was founded about 650 B.C., 1 and he 
and his family may have come from the Locrian town 
Mataurus. 2 He was born about the year 640 B.C., 3 and 
became a prominent citizen at Himera, if we may form an 
opinion from the rather doubtful story of his allegorical 
warning given to his fellow-citizens against the tyrant 
Phalaris. 4 Suidas tells us that he was forced to go into 
exile perhaps as a result of this action of his, or, as Kleine 
suggests, owing to civil factions promoted by the intrigues of 
Phalaris ; and he spent the rest of his days at Catana. Cicero 
mentions a statue of him at Himera, as an old man, and he 
died at the age of eighty-five, being buried at Catana. 5 

Stesichorus, so far as we know, was the first to develop 
lyric poetry among the western Greeks in Sicily and Italy. 
Chronologically he succeeds Alcman, but, although he must 
have profited by the advance made by that poet and by 
Thaletas in the choral strophe, he turned his genius in a 
very different direction. His own taste seems to have 
inclined him towards Epic, and, according to Muller's 
explanation of the myth which described him as the 
son of Hesiod, he was brought up in the traditions of the 
Hesiodic school. But as he could not resist the fashion of 



1 Thucyd. vi. 5. 2 Suidas. 

3 Comparing Lucian de Macrob. c. 26. with the testimony of Suidas 
and Eusebius to the time of his death. 

4 Arist. Rhet. ii. 20. 

6 Cic. Verr. ii. 35, 87 ; Lucian I.e. ; Anth. Pal. vii. 75. 



STESICHORUS 169 

his age, he endeavoured to effect some sort of compromise 
between Epic and Lyric. That is to say, while the form of \ 
his poetry was undoubtedly that of Choral Melic, the sub- 
jects were those of Epical mythology. In the well-known 
words of Ouintilian, he sustained the weight of Epic poetry 
on the lyre — ' epici carminis onera lyra sustinens '". Nor 
was the mythical narrative merely an important adjunct 
to his poems, as is the case in the Odes of Pindar ; it was 
the essential part, as we discern from the titles of his 
poems — ' The Destruction of Troy ', ' The Oresteia ', The 
Helena', etc. I have mentioned that the objective element 
enters largely into Greek Lyric ; in Stesichorus' poems the 
subjective, so far as we can judge, was excluded altogether. 
They may perhaps, in their union of the lyric and narra- 
tive style, be compared with our longer ballads, which 
were also in early times accompanied by the dance. Some 
critics, taking a different view, infer from a passage in 
Clem. Alex. Strom, p. 133, u;/.vov sttsvovjits ST'/pl/opoc, that 
his poems were in the form of hymns, and that the narrative 
element, like the myth in Pindar's Odes, was in some way 
connected with the occasion. There can indeed be little 
doubt that Pindar was much influenced by the example 
of Stesichorus, and the long poem, Pyth. iv., which might 
be entitled ' the Argonauts ', will perhaps give us some 
idea of the nature of one of Stesichorus' compositions. Yet 
it must be admitted that we are at a loss to comprehend 
how any strictly lyrical composition could reach such pro- 
portions as to be divided into two books, as is said to have 
been the case with Stesichorus' Oresteia} 

Stesichorus did not confine himself to mythology. 
Athen. xiii. 601 A. tells us that he was one of the 'inventors' 
of love-songs. These again were not of the proper subjec- 
tive kind, but narrative, anticipating in poetry the novelette 
of later times. To this class belonged the poems ' Calyce ' 
and ' Rhadina ' (see Frag. VI. note). 2 Athen. vi. 250 B. also 



1 Bekk. A need. Gr. p. 783. 

2 For the prevalence among the early Greeks of romantic and 
sorrowful love-stories, see Welcker, on Stesichorus, in his Klcinr 
Schriften. 



170 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

mentions a Paean by Stesichorus, popular as an after- 
dinner song in the time of Dionysius the younger ; and some 
species of monodic composition appears to be indicated 
in the story that Socrates, after his condemnation, heard a 
man singing a poem by Stesichorus, and begged to be 
taught it before he died. 1 

The important addition of the Epode to the choral 
system is usually ascribed to Stesichorus, mainly on the 
strength of the proverbial expression ou&s to. Tpia Siryjst^opou 
ytvtootst?, employed against any person at a wine -party 
who could not take his part in the singing. 2 Hartung, how- 
ever, points out that the song required on such an occasion 
would not be choral but a scolion or a paean ; and O. 
Crusius, 3 who refers the Epode to Alcman, explains the 
proverb as 'you don't even know three verses of Stesi- 
chorus.' If this be correct, I suppose that the force of the 
article before Tpia is to be explained thus : ' You don't even 
know the proverbial three verses,' etc. 

The extant pieces from Stesichorus are so scanty that 
•we must take it on trust from ancient critics that he was 
a great poet. By them he is spoken of in terms of the 
highest praise. Quintilian, in the passage I have already 
referred to, observes : ' Stesichorum quam sit ingenio validus 
materiae quoque ostendunt, maxima bella et clarissimos 
canentem duces, et epici carminis onera lyra sustinentem 
Reddit enim personis in agendo simul loquendoque debi- 
tam dignitatem: ac si tenuisset modum videtur aemulari 
proximus Homerum potuisse ; sed redundat atque effun- 
ditur, quod ut est reprehendum, ita copiae vitium est.' 
The comparison of Stesichorus to Homer is found also in 
the Greek critics Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Longinus. 
The former 4 declares that among Melic poets Stesichorus 
and Alcman come nearest to Homer in the ' Common or 
Middle style ' (jtoivyj? sits [/.sotjs cuvd-zczcoc, ^apax.T-/jp), which 
stands between the austere (audTKjpa apixovia) and the 
ornate (y>.a©upoc x.ocl avDvjpa guv&sgi$). In Longinus, ITspi 



1 See Marcell. xxxviii. 4. 2 See Hesych. and Suidas. 

3 Co7nmentationes Ribbeddanae. 4 De Comp. Verb. § 24. 



STESICHORUS 171 

"T<|>o'jc, we read: ou yap (/.ovo; 'HpoSoxo; '0(v,7)p&/.coTaTo; 
sys'vsTO, 2/nj<7iyopo; srt, rcpoTspov, ts ' Ap^&oyo?' ttocvtcov os 
to'jtcov [/.altera 6 TIXaTcov z..tX Similarly, Dio Chrysostom 1 
says that Stesichorus was a devoted disciple of Homer, 
and that there was great resemblance between their works ; 
and an epigram 2 declares that the soul of Homer dwells 
again in Stesichorus — f A 7uplv 'Op.rpou | ^u/a svl <7Ts'pvoi; 
SsuTepov co/iaa.TO. Finally, the fable of a nightingale sitting 
upon the lips of the infant Stesichorus singing is a beautiful 
tribute to his poetical reputation.  

I can hardly agree with Colonel Mure that ' the com- 
ments are all more or less borne out by the remains of the 
Himeraean poet '. Some of the lines are, it is true, stately 
and sonorous, and we have one or two poetical expressions, 
e.g. the graceful reference in Frag. I. ft. to the silver mines 
at the source of the river Tartessus — (Traya; aTreipovac 
apyupopi^ou;), and to the approach of spring {Frag. VII.) appcoc 
vjpo; l7csp^o(As'vou. There is no small beauty in Frag. IX. p., 
fravovTo; av&po; x.t1, and the beginning of the Rhadina 
(Frag. VI.) is promising in its delicacy of touch and attrac- 
tive metre. But most of the lines remaining are so exceed- 
ingly plain, not to say dull, that their preservation is not 
a very great boon. We must remember that Stesichorus 
was hardly a lyric poet in the ordinary sense ; and that 
therefore his business was not so much to work up each 
detail and line to perfection, as to provide for the poetic 
development of his narrative, and the artistic delineation 
of his characters. 3 Consequently we cannot form a proper 
estimate of his poetry from isolated lines and fragments. 
His metres show a considerable advance on those of 
Alcman, being very similar to those of many of Pindar's 
' Dorian ' Odes. Compare especially 01. III., which is de- 
scribed by one MS. as STVjciyopsia. 



1 Vol. ii. p. 284 (Reiske). 

' l Anth. Pal. vii. 75. 

3 Cf. Dion. Hal. de Vett. Scrip, who calls attention in the case of 
Stesichorus to r\ [leyaXoTtpe'raia -nov /.axa xa? u-oih'asi; -pay[j.ax(ov, ev 
<A; xa TjOtj xa\ xa a£io.>;j.axa X('">v jcpoa<07Cb>V TET7]p7]xev. 



STESICHORUS 

i 

From the rvjpuovyjfc. 
(«) 

[Bergk, 8] 

— *^ ^ — ^ W — s*/ W — «w» ^ — ^-* ^ 

— \^> \_/ — \*/ \^ — - <S <S — KJ \J 

^ v^ ; — 'w/w — ^ ^ — v-^v^ — y\ 

— ; — w w — ^ ^ — ^ **-> ww 1 — v^ — /\ 

'AlXtog o c T7:sp&ovu)a; Ss^a? £C/taTs(3atvsv 
ypucrsov, ocppa ot' 'I2/C£avoTo Tuspaca; 
acpUoiS-' Ispa? xotI psvO-sa vu/.to; eps^va? 
ttotI [xa^rspa x.ouptSiav t ctkoyov 

geryon's herdsman. 
ts] 
(y£W7]9-£i;) 'AvTi7T£pav fcXswa? 'Epu9-£ia? 

TapTVjaorou ~OTa[j.oO roxpa Traya? a7T£ipovac apyupopi£ouc, 

SV /C£U$|/,(OVl 77£Tpa?. 

(Y) 

HERCULES. 

[7] 

Sx.'J7Tcp£tov Ss Xaptov $£7ra<; £|xy.£Tpov w; TpiXayuvov 
~i'v£v £7Tt<7/ov.£vOi;, to ov. ol xapiibjy.E <1>oao; -/.Epacrac. 



STESICHORUS 173 

11 
(«) 

ODE AND PALINODE. 
[Bergk, 26] 

I W 

— w w — w w — w — /y 

— WW WW — w w 

I— \^ t — w — " w W — — — w W ~ W W ~y\" 

v_, w ; 1 — \^ — w w ' — w w w ' — w — /\ 

— c «_ t — u . n- 

. . . Ouv£x.a Tiv&xpeo; psCwv ttots 

7ra<rt &eb% txouva? Xa&ST VjTOOooJpo) 

Ku.7rptSo5* x-stva Ss TuvSapsou xoupaict yoXcoaqcaGva 

^tyafZou; ts xai Tptya^ou? rUfajaiv jcat Xncsaavopag. 

(P) 

[32] 

. w 

— . —UU-uyj 

— * — WW — WW 

Oux. sgt' STop.o? Xdyo; goto:" 

QUO* Spa? SV VYJUGIV SUffSAULOlC, 

O'jS' utso Tus'pyay.a Tpoiac. 

Ill 

BRIDAL OF HELEN AND MENELAUS (?) 
[29] 

*~— w ■— w ~" w W ~ WW™ — — WW—- WW — — 

w 

— w w — w w — — 

— ww — w w ^— w — ww — ww 

IIoAAa piv KuSoivta [xaXa 7F0Tspp«CT0v tcotI <$typov ava>CTt 

tzoXXx tii jAiipptva q>uXXa 

jcal pooivou; aref avoug tcov re KOpov&a£ ooXa?. 



174 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

IV 

DREAM OF CLYTEMNESTRA. 

[Bergk, 42] 

1 w 

— WW — w w — w w ' — w — WW — WW 

— w w —  W W 1— ' — WW — w w — /\ 

Tk Ss Spaxxov eSoxvjcre jj.oasiv xapa psppoTcoj/ivo? axpov 
sx. &' apa tou fitxaikzix; IlASUT&svi&as eqjavyj. 

V 

EPEUS. 

[18] 
"XlwcTSips yap ocutgv u'Scop a'isi cpops'ovTa Aioc xoupa (3aciAsC<7iv. 

VI 

From the'Pa&va. 

[44] 

"Ays MoOcra Aiyst' ap^ov aocoa? spaTcovu|xou 
Sap.itov Tcspl tojciSwv epara cp&eyyoas'va Aupa. 

VII 
From the 'Opscrsia. 

[37] 

— WW — ww — — - — ww — ww — /\ 

— !— w w — w w — — ^- w —  — — ww — WW — /\ 

Totals j^pr; XapiTiov Sap.top.aTa xaAAtxop.iov 

ujavsTv <!>puytov [/.s'ao? e^eupcvra? a^pco? 7}po<; STCpyof/ivou. 

[36] 
.... OTav ^po? wpa '/.saocSt] ysXi&tov. 



STESICHORUS 175 

VIII 

[Bergk, 50] 

serosa Ss arovayac t' 'Ai'Sa? slaysv. 

IX 

(*) 

[51] 
'ArsXe'cTaTa yap xai ap^ava tou? ftavovrac; 
xXaCsiv. 

Havovroc avSpo; 7ra<7' y.r:6Xk\>X7.i tcot' av9-po)77(ov X^-P'-?- 



I BYCUS 

Fl. c. 530 B.C. 

IBYCUS was an inhabitant of Rhegium, a city whose popu- 
lation consisted of Ionians from Chalcis and Dorians 
from Messene. The latter for a long time retained the 
supreme power in the state ; 1 and Ibycus apparently 
belonged to one of the chief Dorian families, if we can 
trust the statement that he had the chance of becoming 
Tyrant of the city. 2 Instead of doing so, he betook him- 
self to the court of Polycrates, who was a distinguished 
patron of literature ; and this to a certain extent deter- 
mines the date of Ibycus' poetical career, since Polycrates 
became Tyrant about the year 532 B.C. 3 At his court 
Ibycus met Anacreon (see p. 104), but there is not the 
slightest apparent affinity in the style of their poetry. 

The well-known story of Ibycus and the cranes who 
revealed his murderers is unfortunately consigned by 
modern scepticism to the list of those romantic folk-lore 
legends, where a blank, as it were, is left for the insertion 
of the name of the hero, as from time to time found suitable. 
It is supposed to have attached itself to Ibycus perhaps 
because of the resemblance of his name to the word 'i(3u£, 
or tpuc, defined by Hesychius as opvs'ou siSoc. 

In one branch of his poetry Ibycus followed closely in 
the footsteps of Stesichorus. This we assume partly from 
the fact that a very large number of the references in 
eminent authors to his writings are in connection with 



1 Strab. vi. i. p. 257. 

2 Diogen. ii. 71, in explanation of the proverb ap/atoxepoi; 'ipuxou. 

3 See Clinton's Fast. Hell. vol. ii. note B. 



IBYCUS 177 

mythology, and more directly because in many cases the 
ancients themselves were in doubt whether to assign a 
poem or passage to Stesichorus or to Ibycus. 1 So far as 
chronology goes it is not impossible that, as a young man, 
he was a pupil of Stesichorus. It is not, however, as a 
composer of Epico-Lyric, if indeed he was such, 2 but as an 
erotic poet that Stesichorus is known to us from his frag- 
ments. Suidas speaks of him as spcoTO|xavs<jTaTo;, and the 
epithet is well borne out in his poems. 3 Herein he departs 
entirely from the traditions of the Himeraean poet, 
whose love-poems were merely narrative and in no way 
connected with his own sober feelings. It is with the 
Lesbian school that, in this respect, Ibycus has the closest 
affinity, and it is possible that, on coming to Samos, he fell 
more directly under its influence. The fiery intensity of 
his feelings and language and the perfect beauty of his ex- 
pressions vividly recall the spirit of Sappho's poems. He 
resembles her too in his keen appreciation of the beauties 
of nature ; see Frag. I.; vii. a', ft. y'. On the other hand 
he is strongly distinguished from the Lesbian and indeed 
all other lyric poets by the somewhat remarkable fact that 
his love-songs are not monodic but choral. This is mani- 
fest from the nature of the metre ; and it is not easily 
intelligible how such purely personal feelings as his poems 
appear to express could be the subject of an ordinary 
choral representation. Welcker has an ingenious conjec- 
ture — it is little else — that the odes were sung at beauty- 
contests by choruses of boys. If so, we could to some 
extent compare them with the choral songs of Alcman, in 
which, as we have seen, the poet often breaks off from his 
proper subject to pay compliments to his girl-choristers. 
Apparently, however, the love-songs of Ibycus were not 
mere digressions of this kind, but the main theme, as we 
gather from the mention of an Ode to Gorgias, and from 
the address to Euryalus in Frag. III. A far closer com- 

1 See Bergk 16, 52, 53, 55, 62. 

2 See Welcker, Kleine Schriften, p. 241. 

3 Cf. Cic. Titsc. iv. 33, 71 : Maxime vero omnium flagrasse amore 
Rheginum Ibycum apparet ex scriptis. 

M 






178 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

parison is afforded by Pindar's choral scolion to Theoxenus 
(Pind. Frog. IX.). 

Unsuited as choral poetry may be for love-songs, the 
irregular movements of its rhythm are most skilfully 
employed by Ibycus to give expression to the tremor and 
frenzy of his restless passion. Aristoph. Thesmopk. 162 
speaks of Ibycus as ' softening melody' (yu\).(C,zw <xp(/.ov£av), 
and assuredly the accompaniment which followed such 
metre as that of Frag. II., spo; ocuts [j.z xuaveown x.tX, must 
have been of a peculiarly sweet and appealing nature, 
which sterner critics might condemn as enervating. The 
extant fragments are only' too scanty ; but as the most 
important, Frag. I., II., III., are quoted not to illustrate 
some curious point of grammar or mythology or the like, 
but apparently with approval of their poetical merit, they 
are perhaps specimens of his best work, and we have only 
to regret that no more has been preserved. It is strange 
that the poems of Ibycus, though he was ranked as one of 
the nine great lyric poets, seem to have attracted so little 
attention among ancient critics. Probably he was out- 
stripped by Stesichorus in the sphere of Epico-lyric, and 
perhaps his experiments in choral love-poetry were on the 
whole unsatisfactory. At the court of his patron Poly- 
crates it is easy to understand that the lighter and more 
playful verses of Anacreon won greater popularity. 



IBYCUS 



[Bergk, i] 



— ww — ww — w — 

— ww — ww — w — 

— ww — ww — w — 

— ww — ww — w — WW 

— ww — ww — ww — ww K 

— ww — ww — ww — ww 

A 

— ww — ww — w ^ ww — ww — w — 

' A 

— ww — ww — w ' ww — ww — ww — 

ww* — ww — ww — w 

— ww ' w — w — w IO 

— ww — WW 



'Hpt, [J.SV ai T£ KuStovty.!. 

[/.a'XWe? apSo|7.£va-. poav 

ex. TTOTa^cov, I'va xapDivcov 

xtjtto-; ay.7jp-y.Toc, ai t' oivav9u^£: 

au^o'ixEvy.t. gy-izzoXciv u<p' £pVE*7t.V 5 

oivapsotc Ba^E^oiciv ejxoI S' Epoc 

o'jOEyiav x.aTa/Cor.TO? topav, a-8-' 0770 «7T£po— a? <p>iy<ov 

©pyjlliuoc Bopsac, alWov rcapa K'jTrpiftoc a'CaTiar,; 

(/.aviawjiv Ipeavot; aftaiy^Tj'; 

£yX.py.T£CO; 7TatOO'8'SV Cp'Aa*7-7£!. IO 

ay.£T£pa? op£vac. 



180 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

ii 

[Bergk, 2] 

w w* -uu-u^ — w w — w w — w w — w w — w w "— "7\ 
— '. — w w —- w w — uu ' — w — w w '—  w — w 

— ; — w w — w w — w w — /\ 

WW WW WW WW W W 

W Wl WW WW WW WW /\ ^ 

"Epo; auT£ {/.e x,uav£oi<ri uxo ^Xscpapoi; Taxip' o[/.[/.act &spx.6(X£vo<; 
xTj'X^acri 7ravToSa7rot; £; KTOipa Six.Tua KuTrpiSo? |/.e paXXfiu 

T t p.av TQOfJticD VIV eTC£p^O(^£VOV, 

cogts cp£ps'£uyo; i7T7ro? asO-Xocpopo? tcoti y^poc 

asjccov guv o^£G<pi -9-ooT; £? apXXav sfia. 5 

III 

[5] 

— WW— w w — WW — WW 

— WW - WW*~WW"~WW 

— WW — WW WW — WW — WW 



EupuaXs •fkv/.zly.v XapiTcov -B-aXo?, 



# 



x.a>JXix.O[/.G>v ^£^£'Sv](7.a, ge jj.£v Kuxpt; 

a t' ayavo(3XE(papo; IIeiSg) po§EoiGtv £v ocvSegi ftps'i^av. 



IV 



HERCULES 


[16] 




\^/ \5 \^> — 


A 


W v-> \-> w — S-/ 


_A 


^-A-/ V^^* — 


WW - 



VJV — *^>^> — 1^^ — \^J \^/ — ' ^ 



Tou? t£ 'XEu/.unroug x.opou? 
T£x.va Mo'Xiova? -/.ravov, 
aXix.a? iGO>££<paXoo<;, sviyuiou?, 
ap/^OT£poui; yfiyaolTa? ev toso) apyupsw. 



IBYCUS 181 

v 

[Bergk, 9] 
— . — uu — — — w w — w w -— — — w w 

WW WW 7\ 

D.au>c.o}7uSa KacraavSpav dpaaw&OKauov x.oupav IIpia[x.oio 

VI 

[24] 
w ; — w — w w w w — w — w — ' * 
w C — w — w — w — w 

Tif/.av 7rpo; av^ptoTccov ajj.si^oi. 
VII 

[6] 

— ^\j — ^^^ — 1^ — i^f — ^ 

Mupra ts jtal I'a seal zkiyguaoc, 
p.o£kd. ts >cai po&x x.al Tepsiva Sacpva. 

<P') 

[7] 

— s^y \y I— — ^ V-» — ky ^* ' v^ ^ — s-» — ' ^ 

Ta[/.o; au*rcvo? jcXuto; op9-po? eyeipTjatv avjSova? . . . 

(Y) 
[3] 

• w 
w w . — WW — w w ' ' — w w — WW 

^XsyeOxov, axep <W. vux.xa [/.ascpav crsipta — afACpavotovra. 

VIII 

[27] 

Oux. £<mv a-o'pihjj.svot:; £coa? Sfi (pap^a^ov supsfv. 



ANACREON 

Fl. c. 530. 

In the fragments from Anacreon we have poetry very 
distinct in character from that of any of his predecessors. 
As a monodic poet, who writes chiefly of love and wine, he 
is the successor of Alcaeus and Sappho, and the three 
together are almost the only Greek representatives of 
Lyric poetry, as we understand it, namely of the subjective 
and personal order. But beyond this Anacreon has little 
in common with the Lesbians. He alone of all the Melic 
poets proper employed the Ionic dialect, though we must 
remember that in avoiding the Epico-Doric of ordinary 
choral Lyric, and in keeping to his own dialect for the 
inartificial expression of his own feelings, he is still at 
one with Alcaeus and Sappho. In metre, although his 
individual lines are of a similar character to those of the 
Lesbian poets, he usually abandons the four-line stanza 
which they employed with such effect, and leaves himself 
more liberty for the expression of his less concentrated 
thoughts. 

But it is not in these external characteristics alone that 
he differs from the other Melic writers. He is the only 
genuine court poet ; that is to say, while plenty of Greek 
authors found patrons among the Tyrants, none of them 
exhibit in their writings the influence of their environment 
to anything like the same extent as is done by Anacreon. 
His poems transport us far from the life of a Hellenic 
citizen, with its eager activity in peace and in war. The 
favourite of a Tyrant has no burdensome rights or duties ; 
he has simply to drink, love, be merry, and to write grace- 
ful poetry. 

Finally, Anacreon is the only Melic poet whose writings 



ANACREON 183 

reflect vividly the temperament of the Ionic Greeks, who 
dwelt upon or close by the coasts of Asia Minor, and who 
were thus subject to the relaxing influence of the East. He 
would never have vexed his mind and body, like Alcaeus, 
in struggling for political mastery ; still less would he have 
dreamt of abandoning daily comfort and life itself at the 
call of duty, like the typical Spartan. His was just the 
calibre of those Ionians who flung away the prospect of 
victory before Lade, because a few days' discipline and 
hard work were quite intolerable to them. 

An inhabitant of Teos, we hear of Anacreon as among 
those who, when the reduction of their city by Harpagus 
was imminent, escaped slavery by fleeing to a new home 
at Abdera, about the year 540 B.C. It was probably at 
this time that he made his acquaintance with the evils 
of warfare, an acquaintance which brought him little 
credit, if we may judge from an apparent confession in 
Frag. xxix. d. (v. note ad loc). Neither was his love of 
freedom so great as to hinder him from accepting the 
invitation of the Tyrant Polycrates to Samos, and he lived 
in close friendship with his patron l until the murder of 
the latter in 522 B.C. Anacreon had long since estab- 
lished a Hellenic reputation; and Hipparchus 2 invited 
him to add lustre to his princely household, sending a 
fifty-oared vessel to escort him to Athens. Here he 
must have been in intimate acquaintance with Simonides, 
and also on terms of friendship with many of the great 
Athenian families, 3 and the citizens in general showed 
their appreciation of the poet by raising a statue in his 
honour. 4 

His movements after the death of Hipparchus (514) or 
the expulsion of Hippias (510) are uncertain. It is not 
likely that he remained in or revisited Athens, like Simon- 
ides, for his poetical style and general temperament were 
little suited to the taste of a democracy. 5 An epigram 

1 Hdt. iii. [21, and Strabo, xiv. 63S. 2 Plat. Hipp. 228 C. 

3 Plat. Charmid. 157 e. 4 Pausan. i. 25. 1. 

6 Compare Append. Anac. 8, where he speaks of himself as ou8' 



i8 4 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

ascribed to the poet himself (Bergk, No. 103) speaks of a 
votive offering of a Thessalian prince, Echecratidas, from 
which the rather unsafe but not improbable conjecture is 
drawn, that Anacreon on leaving Athens, like Simonides, 
enjoyed the hospitality of the Aleuadae. 1 

Lucian, de Macrob., c. 26, tells us that he reached the 
age of eighty-five, and he himself speaks of his grey hairs 
which yet have not abated the ardour of his passions, and 
similarly we find him represented on Tean coins as an 
aged voluptuary. 

The character of Anacreon is readily discernible in his 
extant verses. He presents us with an excellent and 
agreeable type of the refined man of pleasure. He , 
studiously avoids all things earnest or serious, and all 
things painful even in word (v. El. 94, Bergk). He is 
not a hedonistic philosopher, who, dissatisfied with the 
brevity and the trouble of existence, betakes himself on 
principle to the studied pursuit of enjoyment ; rather it 
was a matter of pure inclination and good fortune with 
Anacreon not to be touched by the sorrows of life, and to 
take a fresh and joyous delight in its pleasures. He dreads 
death, which will bring an end to his gay, ephemeral 
existence ; but his feeling is not one of heartfelt terror, 
and he can speak of the subject in the same careless, 
graceful tone (No. xxil.) with which he might describe an 
unsuccessful flirtation. Even in his favourite pursuits of 
wine and love there is no trace, I will not say of the ter- 
rible earnestness of Sappho, but even of strong emotion. 

'Ep(3 T£ Svj'JTS /CO'JX £0(5 

Kal f/.aLVO(/.ou x.o'j [v.aivoaat, 

is the key-note to his happy temperament. Eros to him is 
not the dreaded deity portrayed by Ibycus, but a sportive 
god who playfully vexes the poet with his golden ball 
(No. VI.) ; and when his attacks become too annoying, 
Anacreon proposes, with wine and merriment as his seconds, 
to box with the god whom Sophocles calls ' unconquered in 



1 Cf. infra, Biog. of Simonides, p. 199. 



ANACREON 185 

battle ' (No. XIV.). Similarly his Bacchic songs are written, 
we are told, in sobriety, 1 and Aelian deprecates the notion of 
his being a debauchee, Myj yap ti; . . . tov 7coi7]tt;v tov T^'iov 
. . . axoXacrrov eivai XsysTto. If we feel disposed to quarrel 
with Anacreon as a poet without poetic fire, and to draw 
invidious comparisons between him and the more ardent 
song-writers of Greece, we are withheld by the charm of 
his marvellous ease and grace. 2 It is not so much that 
he falls behind other Melic poets ; he stands apart from 
them in an entirely different sphere of poetry, and in that 
sphere it is hardly too much to say that he attained as 
near as may be to perfection. 

Anacreon was a hater of all things unrefined or excessive. 
He detests persons of a jarring and difficult disposition, 
and loves the easy-tempered (No. XIX.) ; he admits that, 
probably for this reason, he is not friendly to the common 
citizens (Append. Anac. 8). He dislikes a man, who over 
his wine-cups neglects the Muses and talks of quarrels and 
' tearful war ' {Eleg. 94). He despises sottishness as bar- 
baric, and looks for wine to quicken and not to stultify his 
wits. Ath. XI. 463 A speaks of Anacreon as 6 yapisi;, and 
the epithet is well-deserved. This quality, the poet himself 
says (No. XX.), is the foundation of his popularity, and he 
reserves his love only for those who exhibit a similar char- 
acter (No. XXI.). As with the man so also in his poetry it 
is the yapi?, its grace and refinement, which chiefly delights 
us ; and all the more because these good qualities come with 
the most complete spontaneity. There is no trace of his 
employing laborious care and workmanship 3 to produce his 
effects ; whatever Anacreon wrote was sure to be pleasing 
and faultless of its kind. Plato speaks of Anacreon as the 
Wise. 4 He can hardly have applied the epithet to him in 
the same sense as he does to Simonides (v. p. 202) or 
as it is applicable to any of the poets who dealt with the 



1 Athen. x. 429 B, and cf. note on XVI. 

2 ' Sa grace infinie et sa legerete charmante.' — Burnouf. 

3 'Non elaboratum ad pedem,' Hor. Epod. xiv. 12, of Anacreon. 

4 'Avoc/tpEovTo; tou cto'^ou, Phaed. 235 C. 



1 86 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

great subjects of life. Anacreon, so far as we can infer 
and judge, carefully abstained from anything of the kind ; 
and in his instance the epithet probably signifies that he 
was a man of consummate poetic taste and skill. 

His genius was not one-sided, as might appear from the 
Melic fragments ; he also wrote elegies and epigrams, some 
of those which remain displaying no small merit {e.g. Bergk, 
Nos. 101, 113). We have besides in No. XXIII. an example 
of powerful stinging satire, which shows that the pleasure- 
loving poet could prove himself on occasion no mean 
antagonist. His skill is nowhere more apparent than in 
his command of metre. His favourite Glyconics and 
Fherecrateans might easily tend to monotony, were it not 
for the slight but effective varieties which he introduces. 
In the lines 'Ava-sTo^ai Svj Trpo; "O'kotj.r: ov TTTspuyecyGt 
y.ou<pat;, /..T.A., the impression of an angry flutter of dis- 
appointment is admirably conveyed by the metre ; while 
in Frag. XIX. syio Ss peso), x..t.'X., where the poet is in a 
comparatively reflective mood, the metrical effect is cor- 
respondingly calm, the dactyls being followed by the 
slower trochees. But it is in the song beginning ITiS^s 
©pvjfciyj ti Sr (/.£, x.t.'X. (No. V.) that the poet surpasses him- 
self. Here the rhythmical movement, simple and easy as 
it appears, is a brilliant work of art in itself ; and we are 
readily able to appreciate the force of the expression 
applied by Aristophanes, Thesm. 162, to Anacreon as to 
Ibycus, that he softened melody ' yy[jJL,ziv apf/.ov£a<;.' 

There are certain peculiarities in Anacreon's treatment 
of this branch of his art which deserve attention. As I 
have mentioned above, although he makes use of a variety 
of the usual lyric metres, such as the logaoedic, choriambic, 
and Ionic, he seldom employs the four-line stanza so 
common in Sappho and Alcaeus. The distinguishing 
feature in his poetry is the ' system ', or series of short and 
not wholly independent lines, generally wound up by a 
clausula ; and one of the most important of these systems 
consists of Glyconics (-w-^w-^-), with a Pherecratean 
(-c-w.^ — ) as a clausula, the latter recurring, not at 
regular intervals, but as best adapted to the nature of the 



ANACREON 187 

subject or the demand for rhythmical variety. Each of 
the lines before the clausula is so far independent, in that 
the ' wortschluss ' is in all cases observed, 1 and all but very 
slight elisions avoided ; on the other hand no certain cases 
of hiatus occur, nor is the final syllable treated as ' anceps'; 
for in the three instances where it appears to be short (viz., 
Frag. II. 1. 1 sXa^7j(3oXe, Append. 1 jcsx.op7](xev6, Append. 3 
jcotXarepa), it is really prolonged by being succeeded in 
the next line by the double consonants '£, g[j., gt respec- 
tively. In the Glyconics the first foot was probably 
originally treated as the ' basis ; ' 2 and hence assumes no 
less than three forms, -^, — , and <*—. Of these the Iamb 
occurs very rarely, 3 the trochee is equally uncommon, 4 
wherein we may contrast the Glyconics in Catullus LXI. 
in which the pure trochee is almost universal ; so that in 
Anacreon, as in the choriambics of Horace, the basis 
nearly always assumes the form of the spondee, or, to 
speak more precisely, of the irrational trochee. The Phere- 
cratean in Anacreon ends in a long vowel without excep- 
tion, and there is little doubt that it is not an acata- 
lectic tripody, -c;-^^-w, but a brachycatalectic tetrapody, 
-^-^^| — a I n Catullus I.e., on the other hand, the final 
syllable is frequently short, e.g. ' Hymen, O Hymenaee,' 
' Prodeas nova nupta.' 

Another favourite system with Anacreon, in which also 
hiatus, elision, and the ' syllaba anceps ' at the end of the 
line are avoided, consists in a series of what are called 
' broken dimeters ' (&[/.SToa avax>.G){/.sva) thus : w—v—^ — A ^ 
each line being a ' broken ' or resolved form of an Ionic 
dimeter, ««--«« — 7s;. (See Frag. XIV, XV, XVI., etc.) 
The Ionic dimeter itself frequently occurs either as a 
clausula {e.g. Frag. XVI. I. II, o-q-ivovts; sv ujxvois), or as a 
mere variety (e.g. Id. 1. 5). The 'broken dimeters' should 
probably be regarded as brachycatalectic, while in the Ionic 
there is a pause after the last syllable equivalent to two 
short syllables, as indicated in the scheme. 



1 Contrast Catull. lxi. 86. 2 See W. Christ's Metrik. p. 517. 

3 Frag. XII. 1. 1 ; Append. Anac. 4 and 8. 4 Append. 1, 6. 



AN ACREON 



i 

[Bergk, 89 1 

,-A 



w — w  



'Epo~ ts Stjuts /.O'jx. epto 
x,al (/.aivoaat x,o'j u.aCvo[/.ai. 

II 

TO ARTEMIS 

[1] 

Eav^yj toci Aioc, aypicov 

SsGTuOtv' "ApT£[Al ihjpOiV 

7] >cou vuv S7fi AvjS-aiou 
^ivqai S-pacujcapSitov 
avSpcuv dc/Caxopa? xoXiv 
^aipoucr'" ou yap avvjf/ipous 

7TOt[AaiV£li; TZOklYfUXQ. 

Ill 

TO BACCHUS 
[2] 

'OvaQ, to Sa|7,aA7]? "Epco; 
x.al Nuiiffiat jcuavtoiuoss 

TTOp^UpST] t' 'AcppoStTVj 

<ju(X7rai^oi)<jw IxtcTpsmsat S' 
uvf/Tjlcov jtopixpa? 6p£(-)V, 






ANACREON 189 

youvouj-tai crs" «ru S' su[asvy<; 
s);fr' ^[/.Tv, /.syapiap-ivv]? S' 

BUYtd^r? S77a3CO'JSlV. 

KXeopou^co S' ay a fro; ysvsu 

GUf/.(3ou7.0?" TOV £[7.0 V S' £pCOT*, IO 

tO AsOV'JCS MyZG&Cf.l. 

IV 
[Bergk, 65] 

(Tov) "EptoTa yap tov dcj3pdv 

[/.&o|/.ai Ppuovxa [/.iTpai? 

7ro7vi)av^£i7.ot; aswsiv" 

60s yap $£tov duva<JT7^? 

6' os xal j3poTOo? o*af/.a£et. 5 



[75] 



— ' — ' — ' A 

vy — ^ — v-/ — ^ — w — *-* — ' x 



IIw/vS ®p7]X.t7], Tl 0*7] [J.£ Xo^OV 6'[/.[/.aCtV fikilZOUGCL 

vvjlsw; qjsuyst?, Sozist? o*s {/.' ouSsv eio'svai cocpov ; 

v I(rih to 1 JcaXoS? [jIv av toi tov yoCkaov i^akoi^i, 
■yjvta? S' sytov <7Tps(poi(/.i (<>') ajxcpl Tspp*.aTa Spo^ou. 

Nov o*s Xei(Jt.<3vas te ^Offjcsat scoO^a te <73«pT<3<ja rocket;* 
o*s£iov yap wnc ocsipvjv oux. s/stg S7irsf/. l SaT7]v. 

[76] 
IQO-iK [7-su yspovTo; susSsipa /jjugo'tcsttAs xoupa. 

VI 

[Ml 

2<paip7] 0*V)'JTS [/.£ TiOpCpupSV] 

(ia'X'Xtov ^puaox.O[7.7j? "Epw? 
vr ( vi 7row.iAo<7au,|3a7.<p 

cup.7ra(^siv rcpo>ta^£?Tai' 



V 

190 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

r t §', sgtiv yap ax' boxtitou 
Ascj3ou, T/jv [xev ep.rv j&ou.inv, 
^.sujcy] yap, JtaTauiu.<psTaL, 

xpd? o aXXvjv -nva y6.av,z\. 

VII 

[Bergk, 47] 

/ / / / 

w v*/ *— — \J \j — **j — \J — \J — \j 

* 

MEyo&to otjOts [/.' "Epw; sjco^sv were yaXy.suc, 
xsXsjcei, ^£i[j.spi'/] S' eXougsv sv ^apa^p7j. 

VIII 

[46] 



'AcTpaya^ai ft' "Eptoro? siciv [/.avtai ts jcal xuftoi^oi, 

IX 

[24-5] 

'-*-* 1 ' 1 i_L A 

^ v^ ^j w '— — \J ^ ' ^y \y — ^s '— — ' x 

(<?) 'Ava7i£To;xat ^vj xpo; "OXu[/.7tov izxepuy&GGi xoucpai? 
Sia tov "Eptor'' ou yap i[j.o\ xaTc eOeXsi cuvTjpav. 

($) ("Epw;) p.' scuta) v ysveiov 

uxoxoTaov ypuaocpasvvtov TTTEpuyoiv aerate 
7rapa7T£T£Tai. 

X 

[4] 

'fl xai xapftsviov (&sx(t)v 
oi/o^.ai a cru o ou/. aisi?* 

OU/» ei^tO? OTt, TVJ? S£/,7jS 

tyv/rfi yjvioxe'jstc. 
XI 

[3] 

Kveo,3o''Xou piv syooy' spa), 
K7so JjO'j^w ()' sxu/.aivop.at, 

KXsdfJouXov &£ S1OCX.SO). 



ANACREON 191 



XII 

[Bergk, Sj 

'Eyoo S' out' av 'A[/.aXfri>j5 

PoiAotj/.7]v xspac, out' Irea 

7T£VT7]JtOVTa T£ /.at £/Ca.TOV 

TapTvjffaou PactXsGffat. 
XIII 

[191 



'Ap9-sl? otjOt goto AeuxaSo; 

7rsTp7]s 65 roXtov y»uj/.a xoXu;x(jto {/.sftutov spom. 

XIV 

[62] 

<I>£p' uoop, <psp' oivov, to 7rat, 
<psps S' av9s»7-ouvTa5 7)j/.tv 
GT£(pavou;, evswcov, ok &r 

~p0? "EptOTa TTUX.Ta'Xl^to. 

xv 

[6.1 

Ilapa ovjuts IluO'Ou.avSpov 

y.aTE&jv "EptOTa cpEuytov. 

XVI 

[63 1 

ww; — v^ — \j ' ' ^ cinCl *-^ vj w J\ 

Ay£ o7j <p£p vj|7.iv, to ~at, 
jc£Xs(3tjv, oxci>5 ap.uffTiv 
7rpo7uio, Ta [jiv osV iy/iy.z 

rr<S \ <S, ,1 

uoaTo;, Ta tovts o owou 



192 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

■/cua^-ou;, to? avuppicras 5 

ava Stjute paccrapr^co. 

"Ays StjOte [/■■qxifr' ouTto 

TiaTayo) te xoXoXtjtw 

Sxu-8ix,7jv TCOCiv Trap' ol'vtp 

u.e>.STt3{ji.sv, aA^a /.ixXoi; IO 

U7tOTCtVOVT£; £V U'J.VOl?. 



XVII 

[Bergk, 90] 



,-A 



Mr&' wars x.u(xa xovtiov 

T^aXa^E, TV] 7ro^ux.poT7] 

guv racTpoficop - /) x.aTa^uoy]v 

luvouca ttjv S7u<raov. 



XVIII 

[17] 



, W _ W _A 



A 



(«) 'HpiCT'/jTa piv ITpiOU 

'Xetctou jv-tapov a7to/.Aa?, 

ol'vou S' s^emov jtaSov, 
vuv S' appto? sposacrav 

i^aXXto 7njx.TtSa ttj <pt>.7j 
x.to[j.a*Ctov Tra'iS(t) appvj. 



[18] 

(£) ^atoto S' ebon (AuSov) 
^oprV/jciv [j.ayaXvjv £^<dv 
to Asu/tacTft, cu 5' r$5L<;. 



ANACREON 193 



XIX 

[Bergk, 74] 



_ w Li_A 



raxvTa;, 6'crot. yO-oviou? lyouai pu-9-j/.oui; 
jcal ya/\£— o'j?* [X£[xa&7]x.a cr', to Meyt(7T7], 
tcTv apax.^oixovtov. 



XX 

[4Sl 

— ^> \_/ ^ !„/ — /"y 



' Epi yap ^ - 'Xoytov eivsjca 7catS£? av <pt,/\ot£v 
yv.pizvTX [7iv yap aSw yapiEvxa S' oiSa 7\££at. 

XXI 

[44] 
"Epa|/.ai (o£) rot ouvvj^av, 
yaprroCv £/£t? yap yj$o;. 

XXII 

[43] 

IToltol [7.EV 7]f/.lv 7]Syj 

xpoTacpcn, xapyj t£ /\£uxdv, 
yapiEcraa S' ouxi$-' r^yj 
xapa, y/]pa/v£oi (V cx^ovtec. 

ri'JX£pO'J S' 0'JX.ETt, 7i;o7\/\0<; 

^ioto'j ypovo? 7\s^E&~Tat' 
Sia Taur' avaGTa/^u'Co) 
9-a(/.a Taprapov (Ss^otxoi?. 

'A$£<o yap sgtl Seivo? 
{vr/6c„ apya"X£V] 8' e; auTOv 
;ta&o$o?" scat yap etoi^ov 
xaTafiJavTi fit.7] avapvjvai. 

N 



194 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



XXIII 

[Bergk, 21] 

' A /->i- ' 1 ' — ' — ' A 

**/ — \y — w — ' % ur — <s *-• — ""v-* w — \^/ — w — \s — w — 

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196 



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S I M O N I D E S 

B.C. 556-467- 

The life of Simonides is of great interest, if for no other 
reason than that with his eighty-nine years of vigorous man- 
hood he is linked on the one hand with the older and simpler 
Greece, to which all our Melic poets have so far belonged, 
and on the other with that new world of thought which, for 
good and for evil, developed so rapidly after the Persian 
wars. We are now no longer in the region of conjecture 
or of pure ignorance, but have the opportunity of attain- 
ing to something like historical accuracy with regard to 
the most important details of the poet's life and work. 
We are approaching the period when really authentic 
Greek history begins ; for the first Greek historian, Hero- 
dotus, was born in 484 B.C., seventeen years before the 
death of Simonides. The poet's career was intimately 
associated with such tangible characters as the Pisistratids, 
Themistocles, Pausanias, and Hiero ; and some of the best 
of his surviving poems, especially those of a non-Melic 
order, relate to the great events of the Persian wars. 
Finally we have ample testimony from various sources 
with regard to facts bearing upon his life. 

It is fortunate that we are able to form this compara- 
tively close acquaintance with the poet's career ; for his 
name marks an epoch in the history of Greek Lyric poetry. 
The Elegy, the Threnos, the Dithyramb, the Epinician Ode, 
and in particular the Epigram, take a new departure in the 
hands of Simonides. Above all, the vocation of a lyric 
poet now assumes a very different character ; for he first 
made of his art a paid profession, and discarding local ties 
and sympathies placed his genius at the command of all 



198 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

who could afford to pay for it. For the time he raised the 
art of choral poetry to the highest pedestal ; but he had 
fatally sapped its foundations, and although it was upheld 
in all its splendour by the magnificent genius of Pindar, 
it was soon to degenerate and collapse. 

Simonides was born at Ioulis in Ceos in the year 556, 1 
a date which he himself verifies in an Epigram stating that 
he was eighty years old in the Archonship of Adimantus. 2 
Ceos was inhabited by Ionians, and those who believe 
in marked distinctions of character between the various 
branches of the Hellenic race, may trace in Simonides 
much of the readiness and shrewdness, and not a little of 
the want of depth and lofty principle often ascribed to the 
Ionic temperament. His vocation as a choral poet found 
an opportunity of developing itself in his own island in con- 
nection with religion, for he appears 3 to have taken some 
official part in the cult of Bacchus, and Athenaeus I.e. speaks 
of him as ' teacher of the chorus ' (o\oV.cr*stv to-j; yopou;) at a 
neighbouring city Carthaea, which was devoted to the 
worship of Apollo. His ambition, however, impelled him to 
seek a wider sphere for his talents, and we must assume that 
he had already won something like an Hellenic reputation 
when we hear of him at the court of the Pisistratids, where 
Hipparchus, consistently with his active patronage of litera- 
ture and the arts, showed special favour to Simonides. 4 
He now became associated with Anacreon and Lasus of 
Hermione ; and with the latter he was on terms of un- 
friendly rivalry, 5 as he was subsequently with Pindar at 
the court of Hiero. 

Lasus' special province was the Dithyramb, and enmity 
may well have arisen between the two poets as rivals in 
this branch of lyric poetry, for since the Dithyramb was 
particularly connected with the chief public festivals of the 
Athenian citizens, and since it was the aim of the tyrants 



1 Schol. Ar. Wasps, 1402. 2 Epigram 147, Bergk. 

3 Athen. x. 456. 

4 otei nsp\ auxov ec/s, [xEyaXot? [jitaO-ot? xa\ Swpoi? rcetO-wv, Plat. Hipparch. 
228 C 5 Schol. Wasps, I.e. 



SIMON IDES 199 

to educate their subjects as much as possible (Plat. Lc.) 
it is likely that Simonides, who subsequently attained 
great distinction in Dithyrambic poetry, first gave his 
attention to it under the patronage of the Pisistratids. 

The next patrons of Simonides were the Scopadae and 
Aleuadae, the great Thessalian families to whom he betook 
himself probably on the fall of the Pisistratids in 510 B.C., 
or perhaps on the assassination of Hipparchus in 514. He 
celebrates a member of the house of Scopadae in a well- 
known ode (No. IX.), in which with admirable adroitness 
he avoids censuring a notorious villain, and yet does no 
violence to his own moral principles ; and a familiar 
anecdote concerning Simonides and the Scopadae is told 
by Cicero l and other authorities in connection possibly with 
this or at any rate with a similar poem in honour of that 
family. They complained that Simonides dwelt too much 
on the praise of the Dioscuri and not enough on the glory 
of his patrons ; and they accordingly paid him only half 
the stipulated reward, recommending him to apply to the 
Dioscuri for the rest. Presently, while they were still 
sitting at the banquet in honour of the occasion for which 
the song was composed, a message came in that two 
strangers wished to speak with the poet outside. No 
sooner had he left the banquet-hall than the building 
collapsed with a crash and buried the impious revellers, 
while to Simonides the Dioscuri had paid their debt. 
The kernel of truth in the story seems to be that some 
sudden disaster certainly did overwhelm the Scopadae, 2 
perhaps, as Schneidewin suggests, the result of a suc- 
cessful conspiracy on the part of the oppressed Thessalians. 
Simonides, however, bore no grudge against them, as the 
story would imply, since he lamented their fate in a 
Threnos, of which a fine specimen still remains {Frag. III.). 
From Thessaly he returned to Athens, probably because 
he prudently foresaw the amplest employment for his great 
talents in a state which was rapidly coming to the front. 
The fact that he had been a favourite of the now much- 
abused Pisistratids in no way impaired his popularity with 

1 Oral. ii. 86. J See on Frag. III. and Athen. x. 438. 



200 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

the new democracy ; and with a truly laudable impartiality 
he sang the praises of the assassins of his former patrons. 
{Epig. 156, Bergk.) 

H ;viy' 'A&7]vaiowi cpoto; ysvsfl', vjvi/.' 'Ap'.CTO- 
-yetToJv "iTnrap^ov jctsivs seal ' Apy.oSio;. 

He threw himself, whether or not with a genuine 
enthusiasm, into the patriotic spirit of the anti-Medising 
Greeks, and it is in connection with the victories over the 
Persians that the poet won his greatest renown. The 
style of composition that he selected was not, with some 
exceptions, Melic, but the Elegy or the Epigram, for which 
the particular bent of his genius admirably fitted him. 
His elegy upon the victory at Marathon won him the prize, 
although he had no less formidable a competitor than 
Aeschylus ; and the two extant lines (Bk. 133) in which he 
tells how the Athenians ' fighting in the vanguard of the 
Greeks laid low the might of the gold-bedizened Medes ', 
show that the prize was not ill-bestowed. The long roll 
of successes at Artemisium, Salamis, Mycale, Plataea, etc., 
all earned their meed of praise from the skilful poet ; but 
it is when he speaks of those who fell in the conflicts at 
Thermopylae that he reaches his highest strain. On this 
subject, besides a Melic passage of great power {Frag. I.), 
we have the well-known and immortal epigram : 

'XI £stv' ayysXXstv Aa3csoai(/.ovtot? 6'ti tyjSe 
KsifAsOa toi? x,eivtov pv^xaai TtsiS'Of/.svoi, 

and many others of conspicuous merit. Thus we read 
(Bergk 99 and 100) how the comrades of Leonidas to 'win 
glory unquenchable for their country clad themselves in a 
dark cloud of death, and yet though dead have not died 
(ouSs Te&vaci ftavovTe;), but ' lie in the enjoyment of glory 
ever young (jcsi[/.£&' ayqpavTio ^po^evoi euTir^ia).' 

As the poet-laureate of the Persian wars, Simonides was 
intimate with the great generals who led the Greeks to 
victory. His friendship with Themistocles is mentioned 
by Plutarch {Them. V.) in connection with an anecdote of 
the statesman refusing him an unreasonable request ; and 
we read in Plat. Ep. II. of his intimacy with Pausanias, to 



SIMON IDES 201 

whom he gave the pithy and appropriate advice [/ip.v/jco 
av9pw7ro? wv, Aelian adding that Pausanias during his last 
hours in the temple of Chalkioikos lamented that he had 
not heeded the poet's words. 

In Melic poetry proper he appears to have devoted him- 
self during this period chiefly to the Dithyramb, for he 
records (Bergk 145) that he won no less than fifty-six oxen 
and tripods, the prizes for the Dithyramb ; and he is able 
to boast that he was successful even when he had reached 
the age of eighty (Bergk 147), in the archonship of 
Adimantus, B.C. 476. He introduced, or adopted, a con- 
siderable innovation in this class of poetry by extending 
it to subjects other than those connected with Dionysus, 
as is shown by one of his titles, ' Memnon '. 1 

Very shortly after the above date he retired to the court 
of Hiero at Syracuse, for we hear of him in 475 B.C. success- 
fully intervening between Hiero and Theron of Agrigentum, 
who were on the point of war. 2 Hiero in his old age had 
followed the example of so many prominent Greek tyrants 
in attracting men of genius to his court, and Simonides 
with his nephew Bacchylides was in the company of 
Aeschylus and Pindar. At this time, apparently, began 
that enmity between Pindar and the two kinsmen, which 
is supposed to exhibit itself so frequently in the writings 
of the Theban poet. They were not only rivals contending 
in the same branch of poetry for the favour of their patron, 
but as men also they were in strong contrast, and it is 
likely that Pindar's temperament could not brook the easy 
self-complacence, the shallow principle, and adroit versatility 
of Simonides, which enabled him to adapt himself so 
readily to the caprice of the hour in poetry, in politics, and 
in morals. Simonides appears to have enjoyed the special 
favour of Hiero, and to have often stood to him in the 
relation of an influential counsellor, as in the affair with 
Theron ; and similarly Xenophon represents the poet and 
the monarch as discussing together the nature of tyranny. 
Hieronymus tells us that he maintained his poetic activity 



1 Strab. xv. 728 li. 2 Schol. Pind. 01. ii. 29. 



202 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

to the last, and several of his epigrams belong to the latest 
period of his life. At the age of eighty-nine (467 B.C.) he 
died at Syracuse, as we gather from Callimachus 7 1, where the 
ghost of Simonides inveighs against the Agrigentine general 
who during a war with Syracuse had violated his grave. 

There must have been something singularly attractive 
about the man who could win the favour of such diverse 
patrons as the Pisistratids, the rude Scopadae, the arrogant 
Pausanias, and the Athenian democracy withal. To secure 
such success qualities more genuine were needed than mere 
clever insincerity, artfully adapting itself to all changes of 
persons and circumstances. Doubtless Simonides was not 
without the latter useful quality, but the universal popularity 
and esteem which he enjoyed were probably much more due 
to an amiable and tolerant disposition which naturally won 
for him the affection of his associates and friends, and led 
him to regard their shortcomings with laxity. He himself 
says, or Plato says for him, ou yap eif« cpi^ofxco^ot; {Frog. IX., 
1. 5 note) ; and that ctocppocuvT], or moderation, for which 
he became proverbial, 1 was exhibited not only in his own 
life but in his judgments of men. The worst charge 
brought against his personal character is that of avarice, 
to which there is an abundance of testimony. Thus we 
have it recorded by Suidas that he was the first poet who 
wrote each composition for a fixed charge (cf. above), and 
Athen., xiv. 650, brings forward as an example of his greed 
the story of his selling the greater part of the allowances 
supplied to him by Hiero, a shrewd transaction for which 
the poet made a clever apology to his detractors {v. p. 204). 

The reputation of Simonides did not rest entirely upon 
his poetry, he was also regarded by the ancients as a sage. 
For this statement we have ample authority inter alia in 
the works of Plato. Thus in Rep. i. 335 E, he speaks of 
Simonides, or Bias, or Pittacus ' r t tiv' al^ov twv cro<p<3v te 
xal [/.a/capiwv avSpiov,' and a little before (331 E) on Simon- 
ides' definition of justice being given, Socrates remarks, 
' vXkx pivToi 2i[J.(ovi^y] ys ou paSiov dOTKyrsTv C096; yap x,al 



Aristid., rapt 7:apa<p8\, iii. p. 645. 



S I M O N I D E S 203 

frsto; avvjp.' In Plat. Ep. ii. 311, the intimacy of Simonides 
with Hiero and Pausanias is given as one of several 
illustrations of the natural tendency of great wisdom and 
great power to come together (TCscpuxs £uvtsvat ei; tkoto 
<ppovvj<7i; re seal Suvap; f/.sya>.Y]). Again in Protag. 316 D, 
Homer, Hesiod and Simonides are spoken of as ancient 
professors of tj cotpwrrutY] Tsppm, who imposed their art upon 
mankind under the attractive disguise of poetry ; and still 
more emphatic is the passage in Protag. 343 seq., where 
Simonides, in his ambition to win a reputation for wisdom, 
is described as trying to prove himself a better man than 
Pittacus by attacking a dictum of that sage (see Notes on 
Frag. IX.). Indeed by the time of his birth Simonides 
almost belongs to the period in which the sages flourished, 
and though he made poetry his chief vocation, he often 
imitated in his poems and elsewhere the short pithy utter- 
ances characteristic of those early Sophists, if we may 
call them such. 

The actual principles of his philosophy were not of a 
very elaborate nature. He accepts without question the 
simple religious and moral views of the early age in which 
he was born. The gods are omnipotent and ever-active 
rulers of the universe (aTOXVTa yap e<m flecov fpco), XX., 1. 5) ; 
mankind alike in virtue and in happiness is frail and 
entirely dependent on the will of the gods (x.(k-'nz\ziaTov 
KpioTOt tou? (V.s) &soi cpiXecotftv, Frag. IX. 1. 14). Yet in a fine 
passage elsewhere (No. X.), in writing which presumably 
the poet had not to consider the dubious character of his 
patron to the same extent, he tells us that aps*nq is to be 
attained only by the most strenuous efforts of mortals — 
his standard herein being far higher than that mediocrity 
which in Frag. IX. he pronounces to be satisfactory. 
In the Threnoi he gives expression to particularly gloomy 
views of man's lot on earth, such as are not uncommon in 
Ionic writers ; nor does he, like Pindar in similar composi- 
tions, hold out hopes of a brilliant after-life. 

The wisdom and shrewdness of Simonides were not 
entirely the gift of nature. He gained much from his 
travels and extensive experience of widely different men 



204 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

and governments, and much too from careful study. This 
is apparent from Pindar's invective {01. ii. 86), aimed, it is 
supposed, at Simonides, against poets who rely not upon 
natural genius, but on acquired knowledge and training. 
Indeed the greater part of Simonides' fragments bear the 
character of self-conscious finish rather than of spontaneity. 

He was famous too for his ready wit, of which several 
examples are handed down to us. For example he 
declared that he sold Hiero's allowances in order to exhibit 
his patron's generosity ([/.syaXoTrpsTCia) and his own modera- 
tion (x.GGf/.ioTT};). He assured Hiero's wife that it was better 
to be rich than wise, for you see the wise at the rich men's 
doors ; l he remarked to a stranger who sat silent at a 
wine-party, ' Friend, if you are a fool you are acting like a 
wise man, but if you are wise, like a fool' 2 

In his poetry he probably excelled above all in that 
part which does not here concern us — his Elegiac and 
Epigrammatic poems. For this difficult work his admirable 
tact, the terseness of his expression, and his self-restraint 
peculiarly fitted him, and it is greatly to the credit of 
Greece to have produced a poet who could celebrate her 
victories over the barbarian without one word of super- 
fluous vain-glory. The most salient characteristics com- 
mented on in his Melic and other poetry are its exactitude 
and delicacy of expression, its sweetness, and its pathos. 
Thus in Dion. Hal. Vett. Scrip. Jud. we read 2i;/.wvi§y)c 
7capaT7]psTT7)v sxXoy/jv TtSv dvo[/.aTo>v,Tr? cuv&icrsto^Tirjv ax,pi(3stav. 
Similarly Quintil. x. 64, says, ' Simonides sermo?ie propria 
et jucunditate quadam commendari potest,' and Dion. Hal. 
de Comp. Verb. c. 23, selects Simonides and Anacreon as 
the most conspicuous examples, next to Sappho, of the 
' finished and decorative style (6 vffi yXa.cpupa; xai avJbjpa? 
<7>jv9iasto;).' As an illustration of these criticisms we may 
take the Ode in honour of the heroes of Thermopylae 
(No. I.), which is a masterpiece of appropriate expression. 

Simonides himself speaks of his songs as TspTrvdraTa, 



1 Ar. Rhet. ii. 16. 

2 '£2 avOpcoTO, e? [xev irjXithos Et aocpov npay[j.a tmv.c; ei ok aocpo; ijXt'xhov. 



S I M O N I D E S 205 

and the critics are in agreement with him. He is said to 
have been called Mzkv/.iprr^ Sta to r^u, 1 and in Anth. Pal. 
ix. 571, he is thus contrasted with Pindar : 

"EjcXavsv sx. ©vjfkov [/iya ITivSapo;" etcves Tsp~va 
' Houf/.sXt^-9-oyYOu Moucra £u/.g)v6osg}. 

As a further criticism upon Simonides' composition we 
may apply his own remark that ' painting is silent poetry 
and poetry is speaking painting', 2 for he excels in close 
realistic description. He brings before our eyes the swelling 
waters high above the head of the mother and child as they 
lie in the trough of the waves (Frag. II. 1. 9, uTrspSs tekv /.otj.av, 
/..t1) ; and a mere casual comparison of his hyporchem to 
the movement of a hunted stag is full of life in the picture 
he summons up of the averted neck of the prey in his last 
struggle for escape. Similarly Longinus de Sub/, c. 15. 7, 
in speaking of the treatment of visions in the poets, gives 
the palm to Simonides for realism (svapyscrTspo;). 

But the quality for which his poems received the most 
enthusiastic praise was their ' pathos.' ' Cea Naenia ' (Hor. 
Od. II. i. 2>7), and ' lacrimae Simonideae' (Cat. 38. 8) were 
proverbial expressions. A grammarian in a life of 
Aeschylus says that Simonides surpassed the tragedian 
TYJ — so! to gu|/.toX'9-ss ~kz~ totvjti. Dion. Hal. Vett. Scrip. Jud. 
II. vi. 420, places him above Pindar in the the same respect 
— jca-9-' 6 (isT/ricov E'jpiGy.STat, x.a! Iltvoapo'j to oixri^STfrai \j:i\ 
[./.syaXoTrps— co; co? sV.elvo; aTJXa 7raflinTBtc3?. And Quintilian, 
x. 64, says that he excelled all others ' in commovenda 
miseratione.' Fortunately we have one immortal specimen 
of his pathetic style remaining. I refer to the Datiae 
passage, No. II., which is always regarded as a fragment 
from a Threnos. When we read this exquisitely touching 
poem we do not wonder that mourners sought the con- 
solation of Simonides' simple pathos rather than of the 
majestic and exalted thoughts of Pindar. 

Another branch of Melic composition in which he is said 



1 Schol. Arist. Wasps, 1402. 

2 Tr,v [i.£v ^(oyoacptav Tzotrjatv ai(jj7rujaav . . . ttjv ok rrotrjatv JJcoypaspiav 
XaXouaav. Plut. de G/or. At/ien., c. 3 ; c'f. Lessing's Laocoon, passim. 



206 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

to have excelled was the Hyporchem. 1 We have only two 
or three scanty fragments of this description remaining 
(No. XXIV. A, i and 2), in which he speaks of his skill 
at mingling dance and song, and of the intricacy of the 
movements he invented. 

He was a very popular writer of Epinician Odes, 2 
although his glory in this respect paled before that of 
Pindar. Probably in his hands the Epinician Ode first 
took the elaborated form which it exhibits in the Odes of 
his younger and greater rival. It was Simonides who 
raised it beyond the narrow limits of the particular occa- 
sion by introducing digressions, mainly into the region of 
mythology, a practice which he himself justifies in the 
words a Moicra yap ou/. aTvopco; yeusi to 7rapov [v.ovov, x-.tX 
(No. xxiv. b), and which is referred to by Schol. Pind. 
New. iv. 60, 2ip.tov$-/]? TrapsscpacSGL yprp&ai sicofrsv. In illus- 
tration there is the story already mentioned of the Epinician 
Ode on one of the Scopadae, in which he devoted so large 
a portion to the praise of the Dioscuri ; and the long 
ethical discussion still extant (No. IX.), is generally, if in- 
correctly, supposed to be from an Epinicion (see note ad 
loc). In this species of composition he appears to have 
been far from always maintaining the dignified tone which 
characterises Pindar's Odes. Thus we have in No. XVIII. 
a rather ungenerous punning allusion to a defeated 
antagonist, and Suidas remarks, outo? 7vpcoTo; cW.si 
|Atjtpo7.oytav siceveyxsiv si? to acrjxa. 

It is difficult to estimate the loss that we have suffered 
in Simonides' poems. His genius was lacking perhaps in 
grandeur and in depth, but its perfection at all other 
points, and its universality, mark him as foremost among 
the Greek Lyric poets. Contemporary as he was with the 
period of the Drama, a further knowledge of his writings 
would have been of the highest value and interest in the 
study of the literature and the thought of his age. 



1 Plut. Qu'iest. Symp. IX. xv. 2. 

3 See Ar. Clouds, 1356 ; Knig/its, 407. 



SIMON I DES 



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1 s^» \J ' v^ V^ W 

, — v*/ \y "~ v.* v-* ^~ w -— w ^ - • w v-< — — 

— v> ^ — uu 1 — VJ /\ 

!— *^ — v-» w ' — *w< w — /\ 

; — v^ v_/ — ^ ^ ' — w ' — v-* ' — ^ — /\ 

W V-* W *-» W V-* W *s-* /\ 

v^ \_/ — ^< s^ ^— v^ — \^» 

1 \*/ V^S^ <*-* \J /\ 



SUJcXstk ;j-£v a T'j/a, y.aXo; S' 6 tcot[j.o?, 

(3a>u.os S' 6 Ta©05, ~po yo'wv &£ [/.vaa-u?, 6 S' oixto; STCatvoc. 

£VT7(plOV r>£ T010"T0V Out' S'jpOO? 

o'"i)' 6 7tavoau.aTwp aaaupwasi ^povo?. 5 

'Avftoiov ayafttov ofte aax.6? ot/.STav euoo^tav 

'EJXXo$os siXsto' [/.apfupei Ss AstovirW.? 

6 Siwapra? (3xgiXs<js, opera? [/iyav "kzkonzoiq 

)coci/.ov ixsvaov ts y.^so?. 



208 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

THRENOI 
II 

DANAE AND PERSEUS 



[Bergk, 37] 



^ w . — ^ w 1 1 — ^/ ^ — y\ 

... .1 1 ..  



'UVJ ^ \J \-» \J ' \J \J — /\ 



' — w v^ ' — *~> — /\ 

' ^ — ^/ l^f ' — ^ I— ^/ 

- V^ W 's-' W /\ IO 

. I 1 \s ^> — ~/\ 



 W W v^ ^ ' 






is 



— v-/ — v./ w *— ^ — A 

w v^ I — v./ — ^ ' — \s ^j \*r *— \j •— ~f 

— ^J **J — W W — K^ w \J — ^A 

I ^ I yj l_ ,_, ^^ 

"Ots Xzpva/a (S') sv Sat&aXsa 

aV£(i.6? TS [J.tV 7CVSC0V X.tV7]S'£l(7a TS Aittva 

o£i[j,aTi 7]pt,7rsv, oox, aSiavTOtat, —aosiat?, 

ap-Cpt T£ Il£pC£i; [3aAA£ CplAOCV y£p, SITCSV t', ? fi TSXO£, 

oiov £yoi xovov cu <)' auTco; 5 

yaAa9v]V{o (roj&ei x.vcoggsi? ev aTSpTrsT 

^oupart ya'Xx.Eoyop.cpco, vux.-riXa[j,TC£i 

x.uav£co T£ Svd<pcp Ta9-£i; - 

aAitav &' uTspfle T£av x.O[xav pa&etav 

7T£ptovTo; x,'j[xaTO? oust aXsysi;, 10 

ou S' av£[j.ou (pfloyyov 7rop<pupsa 

x£tp.£vo? sv yXavt^t 7rpocto7rov x.ocaov (y - — ) 

El OS TOl SsiVOV TO y£ SsiVGV VjV 



S I M O N I D E S 209 

x.ai jcev i[j.<Zv p>j[/.aTtov 'Xstctov \j~zTyzq oua?" 

xiAO[/.at* S'jSs (3ps<po$, £<jSetg> &£ ttovto;, 15 

suostw o a^erpov ;cax.ov 

p.£Ta ( 8o'A(a Se tl; <pavsh], ZsO — axsp ex, ge&ev 

otti 8s ^apcra'Xsov etco; euyoy.au. 

T£xv6<pw o(%av cJyyvcoO-i u.01. 

Ill 

ON THE SCOPADAE 

[Bergk, 32] 



^ ^ — /\ 



"Av0-pto7ro; ecov [7//J7TOTS 9'/a7]; oti yivsrai auptov, 
f/.7)S' avSpa iScov oa,Siov ocaov ypovov scrcrsTai' 
(dxeia yap ouSs TavuxTSpuyoio [7.uia? 



IV 

[62] 

A 



\^ ^y ^/ — W — vy — \«/ V.. 



,-A 



Ouz. sgtlv jca/.ov 
avsm&djaiTOV dcvO-pooTroic, oAiyio &£ /j^ovco 

TravTa ;x£Tappi~T£i -9-eo'<;. 



[39] 

^/ O* ~~ ~~ ^ ^ ^ v^ /\ 

— ', — ^ V-/ I— 1 \^/ \^/ — \^ \_J — ^\^ 

i^_A^ * "^ W ^— W v_/*^ ^/ >^ /\" 

* <^/ V^ ' — V./ — ^_/ W — ^ \J — /\ 

— * — «*-> <J — k 

'Av9pco~ cov oAiyov y.zv xapTo;, aTrpvj/.TOi 8e fASATjoovs?, 
akovt, ^£ Traupto — ovo; a^<pl xovco* 
6 8' a<pu)cros 6[xw; £— tjtpsj/.aTai ^avaro?' 
x.£ivo'j yap igov \y.yov f/ipo? 01 t' aya&oi 
octi; T£ x.ax.G<;. 5 

O 



2io GREEK LYRIC POETS 



VI 
[Bergk, 36] 

\^> ^— ^/ \J ^ — s^/ 

^ \J *— \J — V^l y^l — '\ 

_^_A 



v./ v^* W ^— W ^ >^ — v^ — w 



' \-» — \S •— ^ \j v^ — \J 



Ouos yap 01 TrpoTSpov xot' £7T£l0VT0, 
#-s<3v S' s£ avaxTcov sysvovB-' uts? Yjjvi&eoi, 
a— ovov ouS' acpS-iTOv ouS' ax.ivSuvov (3tov 
£? yrpa? &£ijcovto TsXeaavTS?. 



VII 

[38] 



' \J — \*/ <J ^/ \J —  



' ^ \^ — u^ — ^ ^ 



Ilavra yap [/.(av ijcvevrat Sacr— Xttoc Xapu^Stv, 
al jy.eyaXac t' apexal xai 6 xXouto?. 

VIII 

[577] 
— ; — \s — c* — s-^ — ^f — o- — ^ — w — o 

IIo>.Xo? yap aplv dq (to) ts&vkvoci ^po'vo?, £<T[./.ev S' apt&u.o~ 
xaupa xa>co)<; srsa. 

ETHICAL SUBJECTS 
IX 



' — — *-» A 

— ^ ^ ^> ^ \y \_/ — v^ ' x 

1 t '-'A. 

»3 *. — w ' w — ^ v^ — ' ^ C 

w . ' ^ — w 

— 1^/ — \^/ W *""* ^ ~ V-> — W — v^« 

"AvSp' ocyaS-ov (/.sv dcXaS-ewi; yevsa&at, cnrp. a' 

yoCkZKOv ^spciv te x.al 7TO<j! >cal vow TSrpy- 

-ycovov, av£u ^oyou TSfuyj/ivov 



SIMONIDES 211 

o? av y x.ax.6? (/.vjS' ayav a7ra/\a{7.vo?, siSco<; y' ova.ai'Kokiv 

Si>tav 
uyfoj? avv*p" ou&s [/.yj [7.cv syto 

f/.G)|7.a<70p.ar/ tcov yap aXi&Uov 5 

a7T£ipwv ysvs&'Xa. 
xaVra toc jca'Xa, toicti t' airr^pa |7.y] pxf7.tx.Tai. 

OuSs p.ot dau.sXsto? to IltTTaxeiov <TTp. (3' 

vsp.ETat, xaiTOt cocpou xapa cpcoTO? sipyjf/ivov 

joCkzizov <paV ecr&'Xov £[7.[7.svat. 
-frso? av [J.OVO? tout' lyoi yspa?* avopa o' oux. tan (xr ou IO 

X.aX.OV £[7.[7.£Vai, 

ov a[7.ay^avo; aup.cpopa x.a#i/\7)* 
xpa^at? yap si' 7ra? avy^p ayaO-o?, 
x.ax.o<; §' si x.a/.(5; (ti)" 
*xaTCi7r7v£tCTOv apt(TT0t tou? >cs fteol cpiXscoctv.* 

Touvexsv ouxot' eyw to [7//j ysvscrfrai <JTp. y' 1 5 

SuvaTOv Si^r;7.£voi;, xsvsav e? axpaxTOv eXTCioa 

(v.otpav aitovo? (3a/\sw, 
7rava[7.oi[7.ov av{)-pto7rov, supusSou<; 6'<70t xapTCOv 

ai,vu|7.£#-a y&ovoV 
£tz\ §' ujm&v e'jpcov axayys'Xsw. 
7ravTa? S' £7raiv7](7.!, x,al cpt/\eco, 

ex.cov offTi? sp^vj 20 

fj/flSsv awypo'v, avayxa 8' ouSs &so! [jAypvxax. 

X 

[Bergk, 58] 



_^_ W _A 



vl/ — ^ — *~* 

A 



"Ecm ti? 'Xo'yo; 
Tav 'ApeTav vaistv ou<ra[/.(3aT<HS £7rl xsrpaic, 
vuv &s [7.iv -9sc3v yolpov ayvov ap.cpsTCiV 



212 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

ouSs xavTtov ^£<papot; Qva-rcov egottto?, 
to [XT] ^a/ifrufAO? iSpio? svSo9-ev [aoatj, 
ix7] t' £? axpov avopsia;. 

XI 

[Bergk, 61] 

•s^^/ I V^ W ^ s_^ ^ ' ^ 

^_/ S^ W *— ^/ V^ W ^-/ 



' ^ — ^ — V-* 



OuTl? O.VEU &ECOV 

apETav "Xapsv, ou ttoTvl?, ou BpoToV 
-9-eo; 6 7WC[Jt.|/.7]Tis" a7t7][/.avTOv os 



XII 

[71] 



 ^ — ^ — (^ — ' \ 



 ^/ — w — \y — ^ — v^» — w 



• S-* V-/ V^ V»/ 



Ti? yap aSova? aT£p 
-ftvaTiov Sio; ttoO-sivo? "^ 7:01a Tupavvt; ; 
to; S' axsp ouSs $sojv (^a^coTO? aitov. 

XIII 

[70] 

— ^j ^/ — ^J \J ' — v_/ — /\ 



 ^/ ^  



OuSs /.aXa? cro<pia? egtIv X^p l ?> 
si p.7] ft? Sjjei GEjAvav uyisiav. 



XIV 

GNOMAE 

[65] 

(a) . 
' O S' au SavaTO? xiyz xal tov <puyo[/a)(ov 



' U>J ~ " V-A^ W^/\^^ ' *■ 



SIMONIDES 213 

[Bergk, 69] 

To yap yeyewjf/ivov oujcst apejcrov 2<rrai. 

[66] 

(^J ' — v-/ ' — W I — w— /\ 

E<7Tt xal Giya; ax.ivSuvov ysoa?. 
[42] 

^W ^ — w ^ I — ^ I — w — /V 

Peia -9-sol /c'Xstttouciv av^ocoxtov voov. 
[76] 

T6 Soksiv jtai Tav ala&siav jStarat. 

[67] 
(/) IloXt? avSpa oioaax&i. 

EPINICIAN SUBJECTS 

XV 

TO GLAUCUS THE BOXER 
[8] 
— w 1— v- a 



'WW — WW ' W — 



A 



Ouf)£ rioX'j&suxeoG (3ia 

svavTia; Ta? yeipa; <xvt 

ouSi GiSapeov AX>c(/.avo? ts/.o? 



fevavTia? ra? yeipa? avTSivanr' av ocut(3 



214 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



XVI 

TO ASTYLUS 
[Bergk, 10] 



 \^f \^ — ^ v^ — ^ w — WW" 



V *~> . — KJ ^ W ^ 



Ti? S^ Tt3v vuv TOtfaaSs 
TCTaXoiai [/.upTcov yj <>T£<pavoi<7i p'oStov aveSvjcaTO vtx,a; 
Iv ayoSvi 7rspix.Ti6vcov ; 



XVII 

MELEAGER 
[53] 
- J >-w 

 \^f \j WW /\ 

■ww — ww — ww — w 

 w w ^~ w ~~ — ^— w fc^ **■ 



"O? Sou pi xavra? 
vfocacs veou; SivasvTa paXcov 

"AvaupOV U7T£p 7T0AUp0Tpu0? c£ 'ItOAXOU" 

outo) yap "Ofx^po? ^Ss 5/ra<7fyopo<; aWe Aaoic. 



XVIII 

fi3l 

w . — \j \j — >-> — w — <-> — ' x 

v_/ \ — \j ' ^j \j <*_/ ' * 



'Fj-iii^y.^-' 6 Kpto? oux. aeixiw? 
saOxov s? (eu)S£vSpov ayAaov Ato; 

T£p.£VOC. 

XIX 

A MULE-VICTORY 

[7] 

"" <•/ W ^ V^ — W — <w»— C/ 

Xaiper' asAAOTtOocov -8-uyaTps? l'x7Uov. 



SIMONIDES 2is 

MISCELLANEOUS 

XX 

CLEOBULUS CRITICISED 

[Bergk 57] 

- ^ — — — \u *s — ^ ^ v-> v^ — «w»W — -~ 

• t^» V^/ — V^f ^ ' -w< W W ^ ^ — /\ 



t ^ U— ^ I ^ ^, ^ y^ 

»^ ; — \j ^1 — ^ ^ ' — ^ ' — v^ 

— v^ ^ — w ^ • — «w» ' — ^' — W~"~* 



5 



Ti; xev^atv^crsiE vow 7u<7uvo<; AivSou vasxav KXeo^ouXov, 

aevaoi;|xoTa{y.oi(jtv av&sai t' eiapivoii;, 

asTaou re <p^oyl ^pucsa? ts csXava;, 

xal S-a^atfcraiaicti Sivai? avriSivTa [xivot; GToXa; ; 

"Axavxa yap ecu -frstov yjaGco - 'Xi-9-ov Ss 5 

xal^poTSot Tztxky.[j.v.i ftpauovu" p.wpou cpcoTo; aSs (3ouXa. 



XXI 

ORPHEUS 

[40, 41, 12] 

^ Vw> ^ ^ /\ 

 (^ w — *»■» ^ — ^ w — ^ ^ 

 v> v^» I I — ^ t^/ I I — ^y \y — ^ w ~~ """ 

■^ w — 7\ 

5 

^ >^ * — \^> ^/ — ^ \_/ — y\" 

— <^> v-/ I ' - • w <^ — \~/ \*s — <j ^ — — 

— ^ w — v^< ^ — ^ ^ ' ' — ^ ^ — -^ ^ — <J <J — /\ 

1 — w^— /\ 



' "^ ^ «s^ <^ ^ W ' 



■W^"" _ \-'^ — -^W^-WW ^/ s^/ • 



• «^l -^/ — ^< ^ 



Tou xa\ aTCtpectoi 
7Ki>t<3vt' opvi&es 07T£p KS^paXas, ava &' i^9u£; opO-oi 



216 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

ouSs yap evvocricpuXXoi; avjTa tot' wpT avs|Acov 

a Tt? /caT£/-to^'j£ /.tSvaiyivav {/.sXiaSsa yapuv 

apapeiv dbcoaftri (SpoTiov, 

to? oxoTav yeiu.epiov xaw. [rrva 7Civu<7X,7] 

Zeu? rp.aTa T£ci7apax.aiSex,a, Xa-9-avsj/.ov 5s [xiv wpav 

ipav xa^OTpo<pov 7roucft.a? a'Xx.uovo?. 



XXII 

[Bergk, 25] 

TO THE BREEZE 



(a) 



A 



— s <-> A 

iu — v^ — ^ — ^> — ' x 



'AtcoXo? §' C'xep /.uv.y.Tcov ^sd(xevo? 
Tuopcpupa <r/i£s xspl xpcopav Ta jcu|/.aT<x. 

[51] 

"layzi <)£ [J.z xop<pup£a<; aXo? 
ap-^iTapaccoyivy.; 6p<j|y.aySo'c. 

XXIII 

[74] 

( (Zj — ^> — w v-'v^v^^' — v-> — w 

— ^y <^ — ^ — ^ 

"AyyeXe /.Xutoc sapo$ aSuoSjj.ou, 
jtuavsa yzkiboT. 



[73] 



w — k»> — V-l v-> — v-* — 



,^^,^-A 



Asut' avj^ove; TroXuxoiTi'XcH 
^topa'j/evsi; slapivai. 



SIMONIDES 217 



XXIV 
ON HIS OWN POETRY 

A. SONG AND DANCE 
[Bergk, 31] 

^ - A 

W ^ ^ — \~/ — ' v 
— <J ' w u 1 — — ^ — ^ — ' > 



* 'Ora Si yapOffai 
gov t eXacppov opjpjf/,a ttoScSv otoa [Atyvuu.sv* 

KpvJTa pv xaTiouct tgo-tuov, to 5' opyavov Mo^ogtov. 

[29, 30] 
ww» ; — ^ — ^ — ^ — /\ 

y_/ I — • W — 1^ — ^ — / \ 

v-*-> • "" " ^- A -' — u»J "■ (^a./ — w — v^ — >^/ — w 



' W ~" <J ~~ «^> u ~ _ «^/ >^/ <^ — s^/ "■ 



A 



'AneXaciTOv wnrov yj *ova 

'A[/.u;tAaiav aycovtw 

dXsAtCo|/.svoi; ~oSi p.ijjxo jcapruAov [/iXo? <Wy.cov, 

oio; ava Aomov avi>£[7.o£v toSiov xsraTai ftavarov 



SUpep.SV [XOCTEUtOV £Aa<pto* 

*t<xv 0' sa' cvjyivi ffTp^oieyav srsptoffs xaoa 
tcocvt' (ZTOAJAOV*. . . . 

B. VARIETY OF SUBJECT 

[46, 47] 

— '. — w w — w w w w — w w l — w ^ w — "TT 

w w — v_<w w w — ww 1 — w 1 — w — ~7\ 

~~ w w — ww 1 — w — WW — ww 1 — w — — 



JC£pOS<J<70C 



w 



' w w — W W ' 



'A Mowa yap oox. auopo); ysusi to rcapov [v,ovov, aXV 

STrspysTm 



2 i8 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

■rcavTa •ftspi^oj/iva" [/."q [xoi JcaTaTOXoW sWusp ap^aro 
TSpirvoTocTtov (j,s7io)v 6 jcaXXt^oa? nokuyofioq auXo?. 
****** 

£av#ov ^ili pjSojjiva. 



XXV 

[Bergk, 52] 

v^i ; — ^1 ^ — ^ — ^ v^ — o — ' x 
^ ; — v^» — «w* — <s -^ \j *5 — ^ 

(EupuStaoci;) 
io<7T£<pavou y7i.ux.etav eSax-pucrav 
d/uyav aTTOTrvsovTa ya'Xaibjvov tsx.o;. 



XXVI 

EROS 

[43] 

— ^ W — ^ \J — \*> — \*> — v^ 

v^w< ; — -~> ^y — >~> — w — /x 

^yirkiz 7wci So^o^Se; 'AcppooiTa;, 
tov "Apst. So7.o;x7jyj3cvto tskbv. 

XXVII 

[60] 

— ;' — ^ — — — ^ ^ — ^> | >-' L— w — — 

"flvS-pwTcs, xsfoai £tov STi [.taXAov twv uxo ya; eV.etvtov. 



TIMOCREON 

Fl. 471. 

TlMOCREON was a lyric poet of Rhodes, of whom we know 
little more than is made apparent from his fragments. He 
was banished from his island on the charge of Medism, and 
as Athen. x. 416 speaks of him as a friend and guest of the 
king of Persia, no doubt his punishment was deserved, and 
in fact he confesses his guilt in Frag. n. [i. He had formed 
a friendship with Themistocles, whom he attacks so fiercely, 
probably in Athens ; and it was presumably in Athens 
that he came across Simonides. From whatever cause, 
the two poets were bitter rivals, as appears from Suidas 
and from their surviving poems. Thus Timocreon parodies 
a rather inane couplet of Simonides (see on IV.) ; and 
Simonides wrote a bitter epitaph for him, probably during 
his lifetime, in which he satirised his huge appetite and 
his slanderous tongue : 

TIoKkv. cpc.ywv jtai izoXkx. 7ugW xal TzoKkx x,ax,' s'otiov 

We learn from Athen. x. 415 that he was distinguished as 
an athlete in the Pentathlon, and he imparts much of his 
physical vigour to his verses. It will be noticed that his 
poetry is distinct from that of his contemporaries in being 
almost entirely personal, and that too although he appears 
to use the choral and not monodic style. Now Timocreon 
was known as a writer of Scolia, of which No. III. is an 
example, and I would suggest that the other passages also, 
particularly No. I., are also Scolia, written like those of 
Pindar in the choral form. 



TIMOCREON 
i 

ON THEMISTOCLES 
[Bergk, i] 

— ^i^i — ^y<^ ' — ^ w 

— \y \y — y^l ^ ' — \J ' — ^ ^ 

— ^ \J — Ov^ 



— . — ^s \*> — \~l ^f 



ILpode 



— ^l^l — v^w L— U — v^ 1 — W ' 

^ij ^ *^ /\ 



'AXV si Tuys Ilauaaviav 7] y.ocl iuy£ 5av&t7:7i;ov aivst? 

•^ tuvs AsuTu^iSav, syw &' 'ApiGTEi&xv £-aiveto 

avSp' ispav <xtc' 'A&avav 

eX-8-Eiv sva "Xcogtov, srat, ©s^t.aTOX.1^' rj^aps Aaro), 

avu<rrp. 

^£u<rrav, aSucov, TrpoSorav, 6? Ti[J.oxp£OVTa ^£tvov dovra 5 

apyupioiTi -/.opxXix.ol'crt, raisO-d? ou y.aTay£v 

6? TCaTpuV 'IxXucrov 

la(3cov &s Tpi' apyupiou toIxvt £,8a tc^ewv si? o^Eftpov, 

£700(5. 

tou? u.£v -/.araytov aShco)?, tou; &' sx.Sitoz.tov, too? o£ /.aivtov, 

apyupitov u7r6xl£cog* Iatty.oi S' £7ravSox.£u£ yXoit3; IO 

^uj(pa x.p£a TC7.p£^0)V 

oi 5' y-cihov /.tju^ovto (atj topav ©£;j.l<jTOx.'X£o; y£V£crfrat. 



TIMOCREON 221 

ii 

THEMISTOCLES DISGRACED 
[Bergk, 2] 

(«) 

MoGaa touos tou \)£~kzoc, 
ySkioc, av' "E'X'Aava; tiO-£i, 
to? iov/.oQ seal oixatov. 

[3] 

(P) 



' <-* >s-/ —  \J KJ • 



A 



— v^» ^ — v^» w ' — s,/ — /\ 

Oux, apa Tip.ox,p£o)v y.ouvo; M^ooictv cop/aaTO[AEt, 
aAA' svt& sca^Aoi &y) 7rov7]poi' 
oux. £yo) [/.ova /.oAoupt? - 
svtI x,al aAAoa aAco7vex.se. 

Ill 

SCOLION 

[3] 



1^ — -^/ — V^/ • 



— <*_/ — «^ — ^ — v-/* - ^—^ '»-/ — ^ — W — s«/ — V^» — /\ 

"fi(p£>,£v c' CO TIKpAS II^OUTS, [JL^TS yTJ [J/^T ev ftaJAaccry) 



11 

(ATJt SV rjTTStpCO (paV/jJAEV, 



a.AAa. Tapxapov t£ vaisiv xa^spovxa - &a as yap ttocvt' 

(£ctt') ev av9-pto7rot? x.a/.a. 



IV 

[10] 



Kvjia p.£ 7rpo<J7jX8'S (p'Xuapia oux. sD-sXovra. 
ooy. eSiAovra p.s Trpocv^&s Kvji'a cpAuapia. 



BACCH YLIDES 



C. 50O-43O B.C. 



We have but few details of the life and career of Bacchy- 
iides, nor does it appear to have possessed much indepen- 
dent interest for us. He was born at Iulis in Ceos, 1 and 
was the nephew on his mother's side of Simonides. We 
do not know the date of his birth, but he had evidently 
reached manhood before the year 476 B.C. when he went 
with his uncle to the court of Hiero ; and since he is men- 
tioned by Eusebius under the date 431 B.C., I have 
adopted as the approximate period of his lifetime 500-430 
B.C. This agrees with the fact that he was younger than 
Pindar, who was born in 518 B.C., and with the statement 
of Eusebius that Bacchylides flourished in 450 B.C. His 
patron Hiero is said to have preferred the poems of 
Bacchylides to those of Pindar, 2 and it is supposed that 
considerable enmity existed between the two poets. After 
the death of Hiero he appears from a passage in Plutarch 3 
to have gone to live in the Peloponnesus, and we know 
nothing further of his life. 

He was no doubt greatly influenced by the example 
and instruction of his celebrated uncle, and in the technique 
of his art he was probably content to follow his footsteps 
without attempting independent innovations of his own. 
Nevertheless, as Hartung remarks, the fact that he enjoyed 
a considerable reputation side by side with such giants as 
Pindar and Simonides, implies that his talents were of no 
mean order. An epigram (Anth. Pal. ix. 184) testifies to 
the fascination of his style, in designating him \vXoq Sstpvjv, 

1 Strabo x. 486, Suidas. 2 Schol. Pyth ii. 167. 

3 De Exilio c. 14, p. 605. 



BACCHYLIDES 223 

and similar praise is bestowed upon him in Jacobs' delect. 
Epig. iv. 19. 

Aapa S' arco CToy.aTcov cp9iy£aT0 BoocjpAioT]?. 

Longinus (p. 101) has an interesting criticism upon him, 
in which, while denying entirely to him any claims to real 
greatness as a poet, he testifies to certain other high 
qualities which are conspicuous in his extant fragments. 
Comparing poets such as Bacchylides and Ion with Pindar 
and Sophocles, the former, he says, are a&aTrrtoTOt seal sv 
T(3 y>.a<pupto TravTT] x£>caX'Xr i 'pa(p7][7ivot, whereas Pindar and 
Sophocles, in their mighty efforts, do not always keep up 
the high standard they set before themselves, y.od ttcttougiv 
ixTuyiaxxTy.. The surviving fragments exhibit considerable 
merit, and are perhaps, many of them, specimens of his 
best style, a large proportion being obtained from Stobaeus' 
Florilegium. Those that deal directly with the ' criticism 
of life ' do not betray any distinct originality of thought, but 
repeat the sentiments found in Simonides and in Ionic 
elegy generally. Yet, though the matter may be slight, 
the manner is excellent, the expression and the rhythm 
being usually full of charm ; while in the lines cdaX tsjco? 
y[X£Tspov, x.t.1, Frag. XVIIL, there is a pathos worthy of 
Simonides himself. But it is in passages where the note 
is one of pleasure that he is at his best. His Paean on the 
delights of Peace, when ' the din of the brazen trumpet 
resounds no more and sweet-thoughted sleep is not 
ravished from our eyelids ', rings with joyous enthusiasm ; 
and there is a beauty and a humour in his song on ' the 
sweet compulsion of wine ' (No. II.) which, combined with 
the fascinating metre, are, I think, far more pleasing on 
such a subject than Pindar's sublimer flight. 1 



1 See note ad loc. 



BACCHYLIDES 

i 

[Bergk, 13] 



X 

I yj I yj I yj ^ 

— ^ ^ — ^y ^1 — ^ — v_y — /\ 

— ^ ^ — ^ v^/ l — «^* '— - ^/ 



^/ ^ — ^*> <s • 



yy — ^ ^  



A 5 



w ^ , ' 



-■-^- A 
A 
>*-> — 7\ 10 



• v^ ^>  



' W ^-/ — UV 



Tixtsi &s ts -8-vaTOidiv eipava p.syaAa 
tcXoutov jcai [/.sXivXojffcrwv aot&xv av&sa, 
SsaSaXscov t' sm pwtj.iov &so?(7tv atSsc^ai (3oc3v 
Eavfra <pXoyi |^pa Tavurpi/cov ts [/.t^Xiov, 
vut/.vacitov ts vsoi? auXtov ts x.al x.co[/.c>v [j.sXsiv. 5 

'Ev Ss Gioapo&STOi? 7rdp7wc£iv aifrav 
apa/vav IctoI 7isXovTar 

sy^ea ts 7^oy/o)Ta ^iipsa t' a[/.<pobts' supw? Sau.vaTO«, 
jjaXxeav &' oux, sgtl craX— iyytov /.tutto;' 
ouSs cruXaTai |xsX(^ppwv U7cvo? axo f&S'paptov, 10 

ap-dv o? -ftaXTiSi jceap' 

cj|X7:o<7toiv S' spy.TcSv ppiftovT ayuiai, TvauW.ot -8-' uuvot 
©XsvovTat. 



BACCHYLIDES 225 



11 

PAROENION 
[Bergk, 27] 



*-/ . — ^ \*> — w w 



' w — v_/ — ^ — w 
w — \-/ — w — w 

— y*i — KJ — ^/ — ' ^ 



rXuxsi' avayx,7i 

GSU0[/.SV7] Xull/UOV fta^TTTjCL &UfAOV, 

Ku77piooi;' *' sAtcic fWtxki<7crsi <posvac 

a^aiyvuyivy] AiovuGioiGt, ckocotc, 

avopast S' u^otoctw 77S[-/.7rs!, y.soiavac - 5 

xuti/^' 6 piv TroXstov xpr&ejj.va >.ust, 

Tract, o av&pw— otc (/.ovapyr^stv &oxst. 

Xpucto &' elscpavTt ts ;j.ap|j.aipouGtv 01x01 
Trupocpopot ok 'kq/.t aiyV/svTa (ttovtov) 
vyjss ayouatv obr' AtyuTjTou tjiytGTOv 10 

->,outov* to; ttivovto? opy.atvst xiap. 



ETHICAL SUBJECTS 
Til 



[36] 






ks — \D • 


— w — 


.A 


\s — v^ - 


~^ s-/ 


_ A 


w —  


— s«/ — 


.A 


w O 







©vaTotct S' oux. auOatpsTot 
out oApoi; out a/.ay-TjTo; Apvjc, 
outs 7:af/.cpt) spate CTaat?, 
y.^V STCi^pip.-TSi vs<po; oXKot' £x' aft>.a\ 
yatav a TOzvSwpo? aicra. 
P 



226 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



IV 

EPINICIAN ODE 
[Bergk, 1-2] 

— WW — WW WW — WW — /\ 

— w ' — w WW — WW — /\ 

— w w — ^ ^ I— I ' — ^> ^ W — /\ 

* * * 

I ^ 1 ^ 

', WW WW ~/\ 

I ^ — I ^ ' ^ /\ 



"O\8ioc co-uvt, #so; (xotpocv te z.a)>wv srcopsv 
cuv t' STC^alw Tu/a a<pvsiov (IkoTav SiayetV 
o'j yap ti; S7uyj>ovio)v Travra y' £>j6ai;v.wv s<pu. 



* * * 



©vaTOW!. u.y cpuvat (pspisrov 

ir/]§' asTiou TrpoTiSsiv cpeyyo; 

olfko? ft' ouSsl; fipoTtov toxvtoc ypovov. 



V 
[3] 



w w — w w 



 w w w — WW — /\ 

w I — ^1 ' — \^ — /\ 



Haopowt, Ss ^varwv rov arcavTa ypovov Saip.wv socoxsv 

7rpacr<70VTa? sv jcaipco 7Toliox.poTa<pov 
y/jpa? Lx,v£u7&ai, rcplv eyx,up<7oa &ua. 



VI 

PROSODION 

[21] 

\^/ 1 1 — ^ \^ — WW ^" W " 



IlavTSTfft D-vaTolat Safyuov £TOTaqs tcovou? aXXowtv aXXou?. 



BACCHYLIDES 227 



VII 

PROSODION 

[Bergk, 19, 20] 
t \^ — \^ ' ^ — ^ ^ — ^ — ' ^ 

» *w< W KS **J ^J •**/  ^» \^/ \J 

- 1 J l J v 1 — ' x 



\^t v_/ \j ' ^ 



\J \^/ \*J — \J \J 

: _ w w _ ^ _ A 

W ^J *w* ~^/ v-^ — ^ — ^ — \J <j — \y — 



EL? 6'po?, fua (Ss) ppoTOi? scrriv suTu^ia; oSd?, 
&u[7.dv si' Tt? sycov aTtev&yj (W.tsX£iv Suvaroa piov 
*o ( Ss uipi[/.v* a|/.<pwwoXsi cppsvt, 
to §s Trap' a[/.ap ts (xal) vuxtoc [/.sTCXovtov J^apiv 

sdv id.— tetou jcsap, 

aX,ap7TOV £^£t TiOVOV. 

■^ ■Jp' "He yfc ^(S" 

Ti yap dXa<pp6v st' sW a7rpvj>cT' oSopdy.svov oovsiv 
y.ap&iav ; 

VIII 

[29] 



^ V^ S-/^ T~ W W «^» W ' <w< L 


-w- A 


^/ — \^ \^/ «w»V^ '~~ <J 


^-A 


S^ ^ ^/ — WW — /\ 




^/ ^_, — w W WW — W W  


-A 


.j L— \j ^— wj — — 





'H Tpcoe; apvj'ftpiXot, Zso? u^ipis^uv, 6? aTravTa rJspxsxai, 

oujc aiTio? frva-roi? {/.svaXcav v.yiow yXk' ev f/iffcp jceirat xt^siv 

7ra<7iv av&pio-owt, Autav oaiav, 

ayvav Euvojjia? axoXooftov xal tcivutk; ©s[/.t$o?' 

6\6itov TOctfts? vw supovrs? auvotxov. 5 



228 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



IX 

HYPORCHEM 
[Bergk, 22] 



W W W 



,i_ 1 A 



W . — WW — WW — W — w — w — ww — w 



^ A 



AuSia [J.h yap "ki&o<; p.avusi ^pu^ov, 

avSpwv S' apsrav GO<piav ts iza.yx.pa.Trfi zkiy/ti akabzla. 



X 



[30] 



■w- /\ 



WW — w w  



ILrJTOV Cpa<70[/.SV 

xoSoc Eysiv apsTav u'Xo'jto? Se xal SsiXofoiv av&pcoTOflv oiaiXs?. 



XI 

[4] 

— w WW - WW — /\ 



' Qq §' aizaE, sitcTv, <ppsva xaX rcuxtvav 
xspSo; av&po'Tttov piarai. 



XII 

[44] 

— ;i— w ww~- ww — ~/\ 



'Opyal j^sv av-S-ptoTTtov cWxExpipivat 



BACCHYLIDES 229 

MISCELLANEOUS PASSAGES 

XIII 

TO THE DIOSCURI 
[Bergk, 28] 

— ^ — W — W — W — W — ' W — W — W — W — W ~ W — W W — 

/ / / / / 

— v^ — w — w — w — w — w — w — w — w — ' W 

Ou [3otov 7wcps<ra Gcoixar', outs ^puco?, outs rcopcpupsoi Tax/jTS?, 

aAAa d-u^.oc, su^svt]? 
Moucra ts vXujesTa jcal BottOTioiciv sv Gxucpotaiv oivo; vjouc. 



XIV 

[9] 

W 

. . . WW • • . 

!— W '-">-> WW — WW u -w — '7\ 

— w w — ww ww — /\ 

Nfcta yXuxu^topoc . . . 
sv 7roAuj(pu<7io S' 'Oau[A7T(j> Z7]vl xapie>Ta[/iva xpivsi tsao; 
5Ct>avaT0icri ts xal .9-vaT0i<; apsTa?. 



XV 
PAEAN 

[14 



WWW — WW — W W W W — WW — 

' |_ ' — ' A 

— ^f 1 v^ — v>< — WW — w — 



"ETSpO? l£ STSpOU <J0<p6? TO TS TOXAat. TO TS VUV. 
ou&s y^-P pa^TOv appvJTtov STCWV 7UUAa? 
e^supslv. 



230 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



XVI 

HYPORCHEM 

[Bergk, 23] 

A 



 ^ ^A^ ^ ' 



Ouy s&pa? £pyov ouS' a|/.|3oAa<;, dcAAa ^puaouyiSo? 'I-riovia<; 
^pv] Trap' EurWSaAov vaov eaO-ovtoc? a(3pov ti &£i£ai. 

XVII 

HERCULES AT THE HOUSE OF CEUX 

[33] 



— . — ^w — wv_/ *— ^/ ^ w — \u ^ — /\ 

— \J \J — KJ w t 1 ' — \J ' — ^ ' — v_/ 

— ^  . . 

v Ec»Ta o £t:\ Aaivov ouSov, toI &s ■9-oiva; svtuov, ioSs t' ecpa" 
AuTO^-aTOt S' aya#xov Ssarac suo'^&ou; STCEpyovTai ftfaaioi 

XVIII 

HYMN 
[11] 

— '. — w ^f — s^w— /\ 
L— v^ \J u — w v_>  — \J w — /\ 

Atai texo; ap-iirspov, 

y-ei^ov >] Trev-S-eiv £<pav7] y.axov, acpOiyx.TOi<jiv I'cov. 

XIX 

CORINTH 

[7] 

— w w — ww — — *— w -— — ^~w — ~7\ 



BACCHYLIDES 231 

xx 

[Bergk, 40] 

w \*> '. — Uv;wy — v-* 

^ ^/ w '— — ^ w — ' 

'EjcotTa ScfSocpops Nuxtoc 
t./.syaXox.oX7tOu ftoyorrep. 

XXI 

124J 
Euts t/|V ax' ayxuAvj? iTjdi toi? veaviouc 
asukov avreivacra tcvj/uv. 

XXII 
THE EAGLE 

[47] 

Nioy.aTat, i^' sv aTpuysro) )(ast.. 



BANQUET-SONGS-THE SCOLIA. 

Among the remains of Greek Melic poetry not the least 
interesting are these Banquet-songs. They reveal to us 
how intimate a part was played by poetry in the life of 
the ordinary Greek citizen, and remind us that monodic 
song, which seems to us the most natural form for lyric 
poetry to adopt, little cultivated as it was by the great 
Melic poets, received its full share of attention in the daily 
social life. 

I have mentioned, on p. 12, that convivial poetry in its 
earliest stage was probably of a sacred character. Whether 
the later secular songs were simply a departure from the 
hymnal style, or of independent origin, is uncertain and of 
little importance ; but we may perhaps trace the moralis- 
ing vein which predominated in the Scolia to an early- 
connection with religion. Not a few also of the surviving 
Scolia are in the form of prayers to some deity. 

According to Athenaeus, xv. 694 seq., and Dicaearchus 
ap. Suidas, convivial songs were of three kinds. First came 
the Paean, sung in unison by the whole company — xpwTOv 
itsv tqoov ci'^Tjv too -&S0O x.oivio; aTOXVTSi; [ua cpwv/j ranavi^ovTEg. 
It was sung after the banquet and as an introduction to 
the wine, as we gather from Plat. Symp. 176 a. It was 
addressed to some appropriate deity, and was distin- 
guished, Athenaeus says, by the refrain 'Lq Iloaav. We 
may assume that the Paean usually took the character of 
thanksgiving to the god ; and for this and other reasons 
that he mentions, Athenaeus is right in protesting against 
the application of the term Paean to such a poem as 
Aristotle's Ode to Virtue {Miscell. VI.). An early reference 
to the banquet-paean occurs in Alcman, Frag. XI. ; and 
see on Miscell '. Frag. V. 



BANQUET-SONGS— THE SCO LI A 233 

Secondly come the Paroenia, or ' songs sung over the 
wine-cup.' These were monodic and sung by each member 
of the company in turn. They might either deliver a 
composition of their own, whether improvised or not, or 
apparently sing or recite some passage from any famous 
poet. Thus we read in Ar. Clouds 1355 seq. of quotations 
from Simonides, Aeschylus or Euripides as suitable for 
such occasions, and Alcaeus and Stesichorus were popular 
for the same purpose. Ilgen 1 decides that most of the 
songs of Alcaeus and Anacreon belonged to this class of 
Paroenia, and it is obvious that the practice gave the poet 
an excellent opportunity for securing an audience. 

The proceedings were conducted with due ceremony. 
We are told that a lyre, a myrtle-bough and a cup were 
handed round to the right, not to the left as we pass 
our decanters. 2 The lyre was probably intended only for 
those who were skilful enough to accompany their own 
songs ; the myrtle-bough for others, or for any who were 
reciting non-melic passages. Thus in Ar. Clouds \ loc. cit. 
Strepsiades gives his son the lyre when he wishes him to 
sing a song from Simonides (acrai £i{/.cdvlo*ou (/iXo?), but 
substitutes the myrtle-bough when he asks him to recite 
a passage from Aeschylus (rtov AicryuXou Xs^at ti [xot x..t.1). 
The cup was passed round the company like our loving- 
cup, and probably retained by each man in his turn while 
he was singing. 

The Scolia, according to the account which I am at 
present following, form the third and most important class 
of Banquet-song. In these, which like the Paroenia were 
monodic, only the most accomplished took part, 3 and 
indeed no small strain was imposed on the poetical inven- 

1 De Scoliorum Poesi, the introduction of which is usually accepted 
as the standard authority on the subject of Scolia. 

2 Pollux, vi. 108 and cf. Ath. xi. 503. The myrtle-bough, or piuppivr), is 
called by Plutarch aTEuaxog, which Hesychius defines as 6 ttjs Sdcpvrj; 
xXdoo; ov xaTc'/ovTs; u[j.vouv tou? ■Oeou? (as if he were speaking of the 
Paean) ; so that it would appear that the laurel sometimes took the 
place of the myrtle. 

3 Athen. xv. 694, ou jier^typv ouxs'tc 7idvxs?, dXX' <A auv;xoi ooxouvte? 
civai U.0V01. 



234 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

tion or memory and the ready wit of the performers. The 
leader started by singing a short verse on a subject and in 
a metre of his own choice. He then passed on the lyre or 
myrtle-branch, not necessarily to his neighbour, but to any 
person who was ready to accept it, or, if Plutarch's 1 account 
be right, the first man of one couch was succeeded by the 
first of the next, and so on until the game began afresh 
with the second of each. The main feature and difficulty 
of the Scolion, as thus described, was that each singer was 
bound to follow his predecessor not only in subject but in 
metre also, and was thus precluded from preparation 
beforehand. Original improvisation was, however, not 
always enforced, and quotations from famous poets or 
slight variations upon well-known passages were often 
substituted ; but while in the Paroenion the nature of the 
quotation was left to the choice of each member of the 
company, who might thus come ready primed with his 
recitation or song, in the Scolion presumably it had to 
continue or cap the verses of the preceding singer. We 
have an illustration of the Scolion-singing, as thus described, 
in the song on Harmodius and Aristogeiton, if at least we 
follow Ilgen and others in regarding each verse as a 
separate Scolion in itself. The simple yet effective repeti- 
tions, relieved by a sudden change of expression, are 
supposed to reveal to us the manner in which the game 
was carried on. The same is said to be true of No. XVI. a' 
as compared with No. XVI. (3', and of No. XVII. a.' as com- 
pared with No. XVII. [i\ also perhaps of the second strophe 
or verse of Hybrias' Scolion (No. X.) as compared with 
the first. A still better example of the game, or rather an 
imitation of it, occurs in Ar. Wasps, 1220 seq. Here the 
leader makes several quotations which the next man caps 
in each instance with some appropriate passage altered if 
necessary to suit his own purposes, the composition being 
in no case wholly original. It would appear also from this 
passage that two performers were enough for the game. 
Such is the description usually given of the nature of the 



1 Quaes t. Sy7np. i. 1. 



BANQUET-SONGS— THE SCO LI A 235 

Scolia, in accordance with Ilgen's interpretation of the 
ancient authorities. On the other hand, in certain impor- 
tant respects Engclbrecht x forcibly urges that Ilgen's views 
are misleading. Engelbrecht's main contention is, that 
whatever may have been the case in the time of Dicaearchus 
who wrote towards the end of the fourth century B.C., the 
distinction between Paroenia and Scolia, the second class 
and the third, did not exist in the Melic period proper 
(c. 700-450 B.C.), and that the term Scolion had a much 
wider application than is given to it in the above account. 
In Hesychius and Suidas ay.okiov 2 is explained simply as 
Twcpoivio? cu&j, while in Schol. Wasps 1231, what Ilgen would 
entitle Paroenia are spoken of as ' Scolia ', so that the two 
terms seem more or less convertible, or rather axokiov 
appears to be the proper name for a certain species of 
Melic poetry, namely all Banquet-songs other than the 
Paean, while xapoivio? is simply an adjective used in con- 
junction with [j.tkoc, or ioStj to describe the Scolion. There 
is no mention in any authorities contemporary with the 
Melic period of the peculiar kind of Scolion-game described 
above ; and Engelbrecht very reasonably maintains that 
to attribute the repetitions in ' Harmodius and Aristogeiton' 
or in the song of Hybrias to the ' capping ' system is merely 
an unwarrantable conjecture on Ilgen's part ; 3 and indeed 
similar iterations are common enough in our own ballad 
poetry. Certainly the large majority of the surviving 
Scolia exhibit no trace of the game ; and in Pindar's 
choral Scolia such a notion is absolutely out of the 
question. 

What then was the exact meaning in earlier times of the 
term Scolion ? and what were the characteristics of this 
species of Melic poetry? In answering these questions, the 
less closely we attempt to define the less likely we are to 
fall into error. Greek. lyric poetry, as I have often men- 



1 De Scoliorum Poest, 1883, being one of the most recent works on 
the subject. 

2 For the accentuation see Engelbrecht, ad init. 

:! Particularly unjustifiable is Ilgen's statement that the single four- 
line stanza was the form regularly assumed by the Scolia. 



236 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

tioned, was classified according to the occasion for which 
it was intended ; and apparently Scolia were the poems 
composed for convivial meetings. But in addition many 
well-known poems, or passages from well-known poems, 
originally designed for some other purpose, earned the 
name of ' Scolia ' because they were often sung or recited 
at convivial meetings. Of this kind would be the passages 
from Simonides or even from Aeschylus mentioned in 
Ar. Clouds I.e.; while such poems as those of Alcaeus, classi- 
fied by the grammarians as GTOMJMOTOta, spamx-a, cujJwroTuca, 
etc., were probably all written as Scolia, or Trapoivtot cooV.t, and 
the same is true of the odes of Anacreon. Even Sappho 
appears to have written Scolia, judging from the fact that 
No. XI. was ascribed to her by some authorities. Her odes 
in general, though intended no doubt rather for meetings 
of friends of her own sex, were also made use of as Scolia 
at the wine-feasts of men. 1 

With regard to the second question — as to the char- 
acteristics of the Scolion — we can again give no very 
definite answer. In form the Scolia were, with rare ex- 
ceptions, monodic, and written frequently in four-line 
stanzas. Eleven of the surviving Scolia are uniform in 
their metre, but they are quoted as the ' Attic Scolia ', and 
we cannot infer that the type was anything like general. 
The rest of them exhibit considerable metrical variety, 
many of them being in couplets, and one even in Elegiac 
metre. In subject, such topics as love or wine were likely 
to predominate, as is the case in Pindar's Scolia, but the 
range was very wide. Among Alcaeus' Scolia, if we are 
right in so calling them, the 'Stasiotica' play the chief 
part, and many of those passages specially quoted by 
Athenaeus as Scolia are on political subjects. Again, the 
gnomic or moralising tone predominated widely (see Nos. 
VIII., XII., XIII., etc.), often not unmixed with humour, e.g. 
Scol. XIX. ; and Athenaeus I.e. calls special attention to the 
good moral influence supposed to be exercised by the 
Scolia. It is a note-worthy fact that wine-songs should 

1 Cf. Aelian ap. Stob. Flor. xxix. 58, speaking of Solon — roxpa ttotov too 
aocXcpioou . . . [j.iko$ xt 2a-cpou? aaavxoc, and Plut. Ouaest. Symp. vii. 8. 2. 



BANQUET-SONGS— THE S C O L I A 237 

bear this character, and we are supplied with one more 
proof of the sobriety of Greek gentlemen. 1 Eustathius, 
Od. p. 1574, speaking of the different kinds of Scolion, 
says — ra ;viv axaom/.a, ra ()i 7:06; spcivra, —oXXi Ss jcal 
CTCOuSaia. To the last class, which Eustathius indicates to 
be the largest, would belong these political and moral 
Scolia. The expression ratiMmxa signifies, I think, 
'jeering' or 'scoffing,' and not simply 'jesting' or 'comic,' 
for it seems to recal the phrase TOxpocipoT.oc jcspTOf/iouai in the 
Homeric hymn to Mercury, 2 and to imply good-humoured 
personalities on the part of the boon-companions. The 
singers often endeavoured to deliver a clever home-thrust 
at each other; thus in Ar. Wasps 1226, Cleon is supposed 
to begin quoting a line from a popular Scolion — ou$slg 
-toTTOT avqp sysvu - ' 'A&rvoa? — and Philocleon immediately 
supplies — ouy outg) ys xavoupyo? ou&s 3tXs7CT>]<; — doubtless 
pointing significantly at his butt. We have but little illus- 
tration of this in the surviving Scolia, for I think that 
Colonel Mure exercises some over-ingenuity in detecting 
personal hits and inferior puns in passages which rather 
belong to the class of cTrou&xia. 3 

Briefly, then, we can with safety say little more of the 
Scolia than that, so far as we can judge, the term was 
applied primarily to all poetry designed for no more 
special occasion than the convivial meeting ; and that 
accordingly there was room for a practically unlimited 
range of subject and style, although we find, as is natural, 
that certain characteristics, such as I have described, pre- 
dominated. If the works of certain grammarians who 
wrote on the Scolia had survived, our knowledge of the 
subject might have been materially increased. 

After the Melic period, according to Engelbrecht's view, 
the term ' Scolion ' acquired its more limited signification 
of a kind of poetry-game, as above described, while other 



1 See Anacr. xvi. note. 

2 'Eij auToa/soiTj; 7:sip<o'[jiEvov, tjuts Koupot 
rj^rjiat #-aXir,ai rapaipoXa XEOTOuiouai. 
3 Cf. note on Scol. II. 



2 3 8 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



convivial songs retained their generic title of Paroenia 
(7ca'poCvta f/ifo]), and no doubt there are traces of the game 
as early as Aristophanes, in the passage from the Wasps to 
which I have already referred. 

About the origin of the expression %y.oki6v, ' crooked ', as 
applied to a certain class of songs, there is.no little dispute. 
The commonest explanation is, that it arose from the 
irregular order in which one singer followed another. 1 
Others ascribe the term to the irregularities in metre per- 
mitted in the case of improvisations ; or again the songs 
may have been ' crooked ' or ' oblique ' from the donble- 
entendres not uncommonly made use of. Of course none 
of these explanations are consistent with the view taken 
by Engelbrecht of the nature of the Scolia in the Melic 
period. His own conjecture is ingenious, that axokiv. y£k-q 
were originally opposed to op&ia yiXvj, that the latter term 
was applied to hexametric composition, and that thus 
cr^oTua [ji^yj at first included all Melic poetry. 2 It became, 
however, limited to convivial songs, because these were 
probably the first to adopt the Melic style and metre — 
religious lyric retaining the hexametric form to a later 
period. 



1 xaxa totov Ttva el tu/oiev ovts?, Athen. xv. 694. 

2 This explanation would render intelligible the expression in 
Schol. Ar. Wasps, 1231, azoXia xa\ rcv9rjp7] yioovro [j-iX-q, applied to the 
songs which induced Proserpine to give back Alcestis. 



SCOLIA, etc. 

I.-V. ATHENIAN SCOLIA 

I 

[Bergk, 9] 

X 

^-/ — — 

— \u — s^ v^ — vy — ^/ — W 
X 

KS — 

— \J — W \J — ^ — w — w 

v^w * — y ^ w — ' * 

— ^ v^ — \j ' w v»> — w — ' ^ 

(a') 'Ev [y.upTOu >cXaSl to £190; ^op^Tto, 
CuGTOp 'Ap[/.doio£ /.' 'ApicrroysiToiv, 

OTS TOV TUpaVVOV XTaVSTTjV 
ICTOVO^OUC t' 'AJ>7Jva? £770l7)<7aTV]V. 

[10] 

((3') ^i/VTaS-' 'Apjv.drV ou t£ ttou TS&VTjJta?, 
VT^ffOi? o sv fy.ax.apwv crs ^actv eivat, 
iva xsp xoStojo]? 'Ayt.'Xsu;, 
ToSe^yjv ts cpamv AiO[/.vj$sa. 

En] 

(y') 'Ev [xupTOu /."XaSl to £190; 90p'/]CW 
corrxsp ' App.d^io? X.' 'ApiCTOySlTCOV, 
6't' 'A-Jbjvaivjs sv -8-ucrian; 
avSpa Tupavvov "Ixxapyov sxaivsT^v. 

fl2] 

(0 ) Aiet c^cov x,Xso; sccSTat xoct' aiav, 
9ft.T<xfr' 'Apfv.dStoi; *' 'ApiGToysiTtov, 
otc tov Tupavvov JCTOCVSTOV 
iGovdp.o'j? t' 'Aft^va? ETtoi^craTOv. 



> 4 o GREEK LYRIC POETS 

11 

[Bergk, 14] 

Ala? Asupu^piov 7cpoStocȣTat,pov, 
ol'ou? avSpa? aTrcoXeca?, [/.ajf£<78at, 
aya&ou? ts Jtai £'j7raTpiSa? 
0? tot' £$£i£av oitov 7raT£po)v icav. 



Ill 

[6] 
' Evi/tYGaji.SV tO? £pOU^6[7.£Cx)'a, 

jtai vbtvjv iSoaav &£ol <p£povT£? 
-apa IlavSpoGOu to? cpiV/jv 'Acbjvav. 



IV 

[2] 

TLaXkikc, TptToysvei' avaca' 'Atb]va, 
op-D-ou tt'vSe 7ro^iv t£ jtai xoTara?' 
arep aXyltov Jtai GTacretov, 
jtai fravartov ato'ptov cu t£ jtai TvaT'/jp. 

V 

[3] 

JTAoutou p.7jT£p', 'O'Xu^.TCiav aaSto 
Avjfr/jTpa <7T£<pav7j<popoi? sv topai?, 

<7£ T£ 7Tai AtO? <E>£pCT£CpOV7J - 

^aipETOV, £U &£ TavS' a[7.<p£7T£TOV 7To7.IV. 

VI 

[5] 

'Ito Ilav, 'ApxaSia? [/.sSetov JtXssvva?, 
opvj/jGTa, Bpopioa? 07raS£ Nuj/.<pai?, 
ysXacsia?, to Ilav, £tt' lf/.ai? 
£ucppo(7Uvai?, aoi^ai? y.£^apvjix£vo?. 



BANQUET-SONGS— THE SCO LI A 241 

VII 

[Bergk, 4 1 

'Ev At^aco — ot' etixts TsV.va Aaxo', 
4>ot(3ov /puaoxo'p.av avaxr' 'AxoAAco, 

eAacpvjpoAov t' aypoTepav 

"Aprst/iv, a yuvatxcov f/iy' syst xparo;. 

VIII 

[7] 
i& siV/jv 0x010? tic T ( v sxacTo;, 

TO <7T7j-9-0£ OlEAo'vT*, EXEtTa TOV VO'JV 

sct^ovTa, /.XetTavTa xaAtv, 
avopa ©iXov vot/,t£etv aftoAto cposvt. 

IX 

[8] 

'Tytaivstv [/iv aptrrrov avSpt #vaT<3, 
ftsuTspov Ss cpuav xaAov ysvs<j$at, 
to TpiTOv Se xaoutsiv aSoAtoc, 
jcai to TSTapTOv rfiv.v ;/.STa tojv cptAtov. 









X 










SONG OF HYBRIAS THE CRETAN 








[28] 












— "^ — 


v-* — v_y — 


\~/ ^ - 


- w — 


_ A 






— »*-» w 


— c? — ^ 


— w - 


~ w - 


- W 




V-* * 


— \J v^ • 


— \^ !^< - 


— \!^ 








v> " 


-W^- 


— ^ — ^, - 


-v^ V^/ 


— w 


_ A 


\-/ 


— w — \3 


— ^/ — 


a or - 


"s-/ - >». 


/ w ~ 


^ — V. 



' E<m [/.ot xaoCto; [/iya; Sopu /.at £190$, 
/.at to KaAov Aatcvjtov xpo(3A7)[/.a ^ptoToV 
tout(i) yap a.pco toutw #sot£co, 
tootw xaTSto t6v a&jv oivov a.x' aax eXto, 
TOUTW OEOTTOTa? [/.votag x&cXmat. 





242 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

Tol Se [j:)\ toIixcovt' iyzw f^o'pu v.vX Eicpoc 
xal to *xXdv 'Xat<r/]'£ov 7^po'fiV/]|a.y. ypwTOC, 
TTavTEi; yovu 7TS7rnj<i3T£? a|/,dv 

c: : - v^ ^ — ^ - X.'JVS'JVTl (</.e) 5£<77TOTav 

/cat j/ivav fSafftXvja (ptovsovu. 



w i A 

«w/ ^/ W ' \J \J ' ^ W O 



XI 



PRAXILLA 

[Bergk, 21] 



■AfyoJTOu Xdyov, to' Taips, j/.a9cov tou? ayaO-oui; cpilsi, 
tcov SsiXtov S' aTis^ou, yvou? oti Ssi^oT? oliya yapi?. 



XII 

[23] 
'Trcd Trav-rl XO-o) axop—icx;, w' roup', u7roSuSTai - 
'ppa'Ceu [/.T] cs paly]* toj 5' a<pav£i 7ra? B7tSTai $6\o<;. 

XIII 

[26] 
"Octl; avSpoc <p&ov jxtj TTpoSi^toatv, [v.£yo&7jv sya 

Tljr^V £V T£ ppOTOt? £V T£ #£01<TIV X,aT £</.dv VOOV. 

XIV 

[22] 

Suv jxot tuve, cuv/^a, suvspa, cruGT£<pav/](p6p£i, 
cuv [/.ot [/.aivoj/ivw [xaivso, cruv coocppovi Giocppdvs',. 



XV 

[24] 
' A u? Tav (iio&avov Tav [Asv sysi, xav o £parat XajSsTv" 
*ay<o xatfta xaV/jv ttjv yiv s/o, t^v §' spau.ai, AafisI'v. 



BANQUET-SONGS— THE SCOLIA 243 

_ A 



' W KJ \J ' «w» \~t 

_ A 



-v_, v^ — ^ w  



XVI 

[Bergk, 19] 

(a') Ei&e Xopoc /.aAv; ysvoifxvjv sXs^avTtvTj, 

xai p.e xocaoI Trails? (pspoisv Atovuciov £c yopo'v. 

1 20] 
($') Elfr' arcupov xocaov ysvoi[/.7iv [/iya ypuciov, 

xai (7-e >taX^ yuv/j cpopoivj fca&apov O-sijiv/j vdov. 

XVII 

[17] 

ALCAICS 

(a') Ilai TsAajxtovo? Aiav aiyix'/jra, Xsyouat cs 

I? Tpot'av apiGTOv sa&siv Aavatov olst' 'A'/OCkicc. 

(fit') Tov TsXajxtova TrpcoTOv Ai'avTa Ss SsuTepov 

I? Tpoiiav >iyouciv saO-siv Aava<3v [/.st' AyiAAea. 

XVIII 

[15] 

ALCAICS 

w : -o sx y/j? /pyj xaTtSeiv ttaoov, 
s'i ti? 6uvaiTo x.al —aAap//jv syor 

£77£L r>£ X.' SV 770VTCO ySVTjTOCl, 

to" TCapsovn cpsyeiv avayiCTj. 
XIX 

[16] 

w ; — w w — w — 
w ; — v> w — ^ — ' ^ 
— ^ — \^z \j — ^ — 3 

/caoxivo? <6fV ecpa 
yaAy. tov 6'cptv >.a[itov 
£u&uv ypv; tov sraipov E(/.|/.ev 
seal [/.•/) cxoXia eppovetv. 



244 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

xx 

[Bergk, 30] 

X 

— C* — ^ w ! ^ — *~> — 

— ^ — v^ — ^y \^/ — w — v-y 

O'j yor, icoXX' £/£tv {fvvjTOv avfrporrcov, aXV £pav, 

XXI 

PYTHERMUS 

[1] 

OuSsv t^v apa raXXa. izkrp 6 yp'jco;. 
SCOLIA ATTRIBUTED TO THE SAGES 

XXII 

BIAS 

[Bergk, p. 969] 

— ; — ^ ^ — \j — ^ — >„/ \j — ^ ^» — 
- A 



— v^ — V-> 



'Agtoigiv apsT/.s 7raciv ev tzoXzi awes f-svyj; 
rcXsiGTav yap sysi /apiv aufraSv]; Ss Tpoxoi 
TroXXaua fSXa^spav £^£Xa^4 £v af av. 



XXIII 

PITTACUS 

[p. 968] 



v^ , — \_/ — »^ — ^ — W ^ — W — 
O * <^/ \^ — W ^/ — w — *w* — W 

— ^ y-/ — ^ ^ — W — 

V^A^ I \J V_^ W W W *— ' 



"E/ovTa &si to^ov /.a! toSoxov (papsxpav 
cttsi/siv ram cpwra jtaJtov 7WOt6v yap ouSsv 

Siydu.uB-ov syo'JTa Jtapoia vovj^.a. 



BANQUET-SONGS— THE SCOLIA 245 



XXIV 

SOLON 



— \s \y — \J ^/ — v^ ^> — 
^ — «*_/ v-/ — \y <*> — 



\_/ — w • — -^ 



1^/ '— — \J — \^/ — \^/ 



Hs<^\JkxY[tdvOQ avSpa £X7.<7tov opa 
[/.•/) xpuxrov £yx?? &X WV ttpa&ivj 

(paiSpco TCpO? <j' £VV£7T/] —pOGCOTTtO 

sx, f/.£Aaiva; <ppsvo? yeytovij. 



XXV 

CHILO 

[Bergk, 969I 



P'VJ — w — w — w — w — ' ^ 

A 



»U ^ \J \J *N-* 



'Ev Ai&ivai; dtacovat? 6 ^p'jco; e^STa^STat 

^iSou? pacavov cpavspaV 

ev Si ypu«3 vou? aya&wv t£ xa^(3v t' av^piov Sowx 1 sXey/ov, 



XXVI 

THALES 

tp. 97°] 

WW WW WW W W WW 

WW — WW /\ 

"u — w • 

-w ' — w  — WW — w w — /\ 



Ou ti ra 7C0AAa eV/] cppovij/.7jv axeipi^vaTO So|av" 

ev Tt aa.T£U£ acpov" 

EV Tl *S&VOV OC'ipOU. 

Aui£t; yap dcvopwv xamAcov yAtoffaa? a?:£pavTGAoyou?. 



246 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



XXVII 
CLEOBULUS 

\J " — \J — ^ w — <J ^f — v^ — ^ 
v^ * — w — \J — *-/ — s-' — ^ — 



'A|j.o<j<7ix to 7r>.£ov [/ipo; £V (3pOTOl<5tV 
Xoytov ts xXf&o?' aXV 6 scaipo? apxscst. 
(rpoovst ti xsSvov* [7-7) [xaTato; a^apt? ytvsc&to.) 

XXVIII 

[Bergk, 27] 

"Eyyst Jtal Kr,$covt, fWx.ovs, jj-vjS' STrtXyj&ou, 

st ^pv) Tot? aya&ot; av&paatv otvo/ostv. 



POPULAR SONGS 



247 



POPULAR SONGS 



LINUS SONG 



[Cergk, 2I 

ww - — , or — ; — w w — ww — w, or ( — ■) — w w L_ w — 
'H Aivs Tract. ■9-eotffw 

T£Tl[7.£V£, C701 yap gOtt&XV 
TTptOTtO [ASXO£ avOptOTTOlTl 

<pd)vaf? Tayupai? asicai" 

<J>otSoc Ss x.oto) g' avaipsi 5 

MoOffOtt f^S as 8-dtjvsouciv. 



II 

SWALLOW-SONG 
[41] 

(Metre, see Notes.) 

xaXa^ topa? ayowa, 
xa'Xo'j; evtauTO'j;, 
stuI yaarspa Xeuxa, 
stu vuia [/.sXaiva. 
Ila'XaS-av cu TrpoJCUJcXst 
ex. t:iovo£ obtou, 
o'ivou Ss SsxaTTpov 

TUptOV T£ X.aV'JCTpOV. 

x.al TTupva ysXiotov 

x.al Xe/Ci&iTav 

oux aTcioO'STrai. IIoT£p' owriwfjie?, vj Aa[ico[/.£&a ; 

si uiv ti $g>g£i;' si ^s [7//^, oux, £asop,sv. 

*H tocv ftupav <pspto[/.e; 7] tou— sp&upov ; 

•^ arav yuvai>ca Tav Iffo) xai)'/j|Z£vav ; 

[xotpa [X£v dcTi, paXico; |«v oftropesv 

av &£ cpspvj? Tl 

[/.sya &yj ti cp£poio. 

"Avoty' avoiys Tav 9-upav jjsXtoovf 

ou yap yepovrs; £T(^£v, aXXa 7caioioc. 



10 



15 



20 



2 4 S GREEK LYRIC POETS 



ill 

IBergk, 42] 



Ae£oa Tav dcyaO-av TU^av, Ss^at Tav uyieiav, 
av cps'poy.sv — apa t5? 8-sou, av sxaXscffaTO T^va. 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 

IV 
TORTOISE SONG 
[21] 
XopO?. XsXl /SA<0V7] Tl Ttofel? SV TCO [J.Sffto ; 

Xs^wvvj. Mapuo;j-' spia y.vX xpoxav MiAvjaiav. 
Xop. 'O &' sjtyovo? sou ti Ttoi'tov a/TrooXsTO ; 

Xe>,. Aswcav acp' fouwcov sic fraXaacav a^a.TO. 

V 

FLOWER SONG 
[19] 

A. ITou f/.oi xa porV, -00 p.01 xa I'a, tjou p.ot Ta x.aXa csXiva ; 

B. Ta&t, xa poSa, TaSl Ta I'a, TaSl Ta xaXa czkivy.. 



VI 

BLIND MAN'S BUFF 

[wo] 

1 I I -A 

'' O nepi<JTSflp6{/.svo?. XaXxvjv jy.uiav ab]pac>to. 

Xopoe. (Hbjpacei?, a>JX' ou "kr^zi. 



VII 

I22 a] 

IIAIAE2. "Elzy] Co ? £X' "ffiii: 



POPULAR SONGS 249 

VIII 

MILL-SONG AT MYTILENE 
[Bergk, 43J 

"Aaei [/.'jaoc, aAsi 

x,ai yap IIiTTajcoi; aAet, 

fAsyaAa; MiTUAava? (SactAsdtov. 

IX 

TO DEMETER 
[1] 
ITaSIGTOV OUAOV ISl, IOUAOV 161. 

X 

124J 
Moc/.pal Spue;, to Ms'vaAJta. 

THE GAMES 
XI 

(a) THE SUMMONS 
[Bergk, 14] 

— : — w a 

— ; — wv/ ^v^ — /\ 

— v^ ^ 

"Ap/£t (asv dcyiov TOOV X,aAAl<7TtOV 
a'frAwv Tay.ta?, x.aipo; Ss xaASt 

p.7]/.£Tt (ASAASIV. 

(/3') THE START 
[IS] 

BaA^i 7rd^a<; 9-s'ts Trap rcd&a Tcdoa. 



250 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

(/) THE FINISH 
[Bergk, 16] 

ArpfSi [j.iv ayiov t<5v jcaAXiGTiov 
a&Atov Tapia?, jcaipo? fte xaXei 
[7//]x.£Tt [/.eXXeiv. 



RELIGIOUS 
XII 

ELEAN WOMEN TO BACCHUS 
[6] 

'Ea&civ, vjpto Aiovucrs, 

"AXtov £; vaov, 

ayvov cuv XapiTecrctv, e? vaov 

TCO (3o£G) TToSl ftuWV. 

Ac,is raupe, ac,is Taupe. 

XIII 

PHALLOPHORI TO BACCHUS 

[8] 

Sol, Bax.^e, TavSe [/.oucrav ayXai£o[/.ev. 
a7tXouv pufrp-ov ^eovTe? aloAco [/.IXsi, 
jcaivav, axapS-eveuTOv, outi Tai? 7rapo? 
xe^pvj^evav ooSaiciv, aXX' axvjpaTOv 
x.aTapj(Of/.£v tov u[/.vov. 

XIV 

[5] 

Aa&ouyoi; KaAs?T£ -Oedv 

Xopd? SsjJLeAvji' "Iax,ye TrXouTO^OTa, 



POPULAR SONGS 251 

xv 

AT THE LIBATION 

[Bergk, ill 

Ti? TYJ&e ; TzdXXoi /.y.yyA) oi. 

'ExxsjpjTaf JtaXsi ftso'v. 

XVI 

[4] 

'AvafiaV avco to y/jpa?, 
to xaXa 'A^ppoSira. 

XVII 

[26] 

STptyy' a7ro7ro l a7rstv 
vi»CTt.(iioav— 
aTpiyy' arco lawv, 



> / 



opvtv avojvu.v.ov 



r 



toxuxopou? S7U vyja?. 



252 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



MISCELLANEOUS AND ANONYMOUS 



I 



(arion) 



- : _^_A 



 vx; "" ^*s ~~ Wo 1  



«w» *U 


W W V 


> — w 


_ w i__ 


- »^W ~ 


.A 


— s-A*/ ' 


— ^ - 


_ A 


— ^AJ ■*• 


^A-» ! 


i A 


— vjw — 


^A-/ — 


V_A-/ \-^ 


_ ^ 




-A 



\^ \^ \J \J  



VA^ 1__ — "J>J — *— ^ — W "™ 



V»A_> . ^-A-^ WU K-A-' \~*~> ' 



. \J t — \»A^ **> 

^/ ^» ^ — V^W» — W — 

^ O — v-/ — W — w — ^- A -' — 

A 



\*\J — V> 



. — VA^ — v»y  



15 



uovTie ^puioTpiaiva Ilocetoov, 
yaivjoy', Iy^ujaov' av' aX|/.aV 

fjpay^ioi rapl Se cs 7vXcj>toi 

&-/jps? ^opeuouct x.ux.'Xw, 5 

x,ou<poict — ootov pip.[7.acriv 

£Xa<pp' ava7raXXo{Jt.svoi, ffifJioi, 

(ppiEau/svs;, to/cOopojAOi ocuXaxs?, cpiXojxo'jcroi 

Se'Xcpivsc, svaT^a •9-ps[/.f/.aTa 

scoupav NTjpsiStov &sav, IO 

a? syeivaT' 'A|/.<piTpiTa' 

01 [/.' si; II£Xo7:os yav S7ci Taivapiav ajcrav 

licopsuaaTS 7rXa^d[/£vov Si/.s^(3 evl ttovto), 

XUpTOtCt VC0T01C 6y£0VT£C, 



MISCELLANEOUS AND ANONYMOUS 253 
aAoxa Nvjps'i'a? 7fka.-A.6c 1 5 

TS(/.VOVTS?, a<JTlp7] TTOpOV, CpfOTS? O0A10!. 

to? (/■' acp' ocaittaoou yAacpupa? veto? 
si? oi&f/ aAmrdpcpupov Ai[/.va? epi^av. 



II 

CORINNA 
[Bergk, Corinna, 21] 

(a) 

/ / / 

W V^ ^ W <•* *w< W 

A 



• \s \^ \*S • 



MsiA<po[Aat, Ss xai Aiyoupav MoupriS' Uovya, 

art (3ava (pouc' e(3a ILv&apoto tttot' spiv. 

Nbcaa' 6 [xsyaAocr&svvj; 
'Hapiiov, yiopxv T ' ^ TC ' 2°'-' 1 ? 
tzoLgxv tovou[/.oavsv. 

[9] 

' H §iavsx.w? suSetc ; ou j/.av TCxpo? ^crO-a Kdpivva ; 

III 

PRAX1LLA 

ADONIS 

[2] 

Kxaakjtov [7xv syto asitco) cpao; TjsXtoto, 
ftsuxspov aerrpa ipaeiva csATjvy.i - /]; ts 7rpd<7to7rov 
rfiz y,xl o>paiou<; <7ixuo<j? xal fxyjAa y.al oy/va;, 



254 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



IV 



PR AXILLA 



r:aoOiv£ Tav >cs<pa7.av, ra &' £v£p&s vu[/.<pa. 



V 



ARIPHRON (?) 



PAEAN TO HYGIEIA 



w \y ! ' — ^ ^ ^ — w>j ^w — \^» **> — /\ 

^^ ; — ^ ^ ' — ^ ' — ^ 

— 1 ' — w ^ ^ — **-» w — /\ 

— '. — *«* w — \y \~/ v^ v>» — ^r \J ' — ^ — /\ 

— ^ w — v> v^ ' — ^ ' — w — /\ 

v^v^ . — \y W — V> W 

— ; I v^ 1 ^i V^W 1 \J ~/\ 

\5 l< \y ' w 1 s~/ ' ^ — /\ 



'Tyiaa 77p£G^iCTa ixaxaptov, [xetoc cr£o vaioi|/.i to >.£t7i6[/.£vov 

(iiOTac, <ju Ss |/.0i :rp6<ppcov cuvoixoc eitjc' 

£i yap tic -^ ttXoutou /ap tc ^ tsx£<j>v, 

vj tocc. i<7orW;v..ovoc avO-ptoTroi? (3afftA7]toos apyjzc, vj xorkov 

OUC, X.pO(pl<HC 'AcppoSlTa? £'px.£<7tv iS'7]p£UO[7.£V, 5 

f, £1 TIC a'X'Xa &EOa)£V aVi>p(0770t(7t TSpJ/lC 7) — ovtov a|J.7TVOa 

7T£<pavTai, 
ijxtoc csio, (/.axaip' ' TyiEta, 
T£'9aA£ mxvra /.al Xoc^ttei XapiToiv sap, 

T£f)£V Ss /topic O'JTtC £'J^ai[7.tOV (£«pu). 



MISCELLANEOUS AND ANONYMOUS 255 



VI 

ARISTOTLE TO ARETE 
[Bergk, vol. ii. Aristot. 7] 



WW . — \J \J — w \J — w 

- :>— w v — 7\ 

— WW — w w 

— ^ WW — WW 

I— ^j WW — WW 

- ^ w — WW — — 

_ wtw , 1 — w 

— ww — ww ^■"w 



— ^ \^/ — ww — ww w 

-ww 1 — w IO 

I — w ww — /\ 

— ww — ww ww — ww — ~/\ 

— ww — WW /\ 

WW I — ww — ww — ww ' — w 

\J \j — ww— — — ww — ww - — — w — — I C 

— w w — w w w — ww — ww ww — ww — w 

'Apera TroAu^.o^&e, yevei ppoTSiio 
ib^pap.a xocaawtov (3(co, 
aa; — spt, Tvapflive, f/.op<pa? 
xal frav£tv ^vjawto? sv 'Eaaocoi tcotjao? 

x.al ttovou? TA'/jvai [/.aAspou? ajtajxavTa?' 5 

toiov £7Ti (ppsva paAAet.; 
xapxov r' aO-avaTOv jfpuTou t£ xpsiaato 
/.al yovetov [/.aXoacauy^TOtd fr' utti/ou* 
rreu S' £v£y' ou 'x Aio? ' HpaxAsyj? Ar^a? ts jcoGooi 
— oaa' avsTAaaav spyoi? 10 

aav aypsuoVTS? ouvafuv' 

5015 &£ ttoS-oi? 'AjjtAsu? Al'a? t' 'Ai'ftao od[/.ou? ^X&ov 
era? S' £vex.£v cpiAio'j (7.opcpai; 
/.al 'Axapv£o; svTpo^o; a.£Atou jpnpcaasv auya?. 
TOiyap aoioi(/.ov spyoi? aSavairov t£ |uv a'jcr,c>0'jGi MoGffat 1 5 
Mvattoauvas fruyarps?, Aw? Eeviqu c£ ( 6a;* au^oucat* cpiAiz:: ts 
yspa? (3s(3aioo. 



256 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

VII 

[Bergk, Frag. Odes, p. 139] 

TTXH 

*-» N-> V-/ 

* L— s^» 1 1 — <^ u — ^w /\ 

<w* w — \j ^ ' — v^ 

^W \_y>s> W »*> — \J \J ^J \~/ J\ 

'. — »^ W — n^^ — W \~> — /V C 

— «w» ^ — — — ^> \_^ — -^ v.; — ^ ^ — WW — /\ 
w w ! — w w — w w — w w k — w — ~sT 

^ w w — \_/ w ' — \j — W \*s '— \J <— x^i — /v 

Tuya, (J.£p07TO>V 

apya (te) xal Tspf/.a, to xal (7091a? <9-axsl> E&pa? 

xal Tip.av (3poT£oi? eTOxbjxa; Epyot? - 

xal to xaAov xaeov ^ xaxdv ex crsftev, a ts yapt? 

Aa|//7rei rap! oav XTspuya ^puasav 5 

xal to te« TtAacTiyyi So8iv [xaxapiGTOTaTOv t£A£&£»/ 

tu o' a[/.a^avia? Tropov £i§£? sv aAysaiv, 

xal AajATrpov cpaoc ayay£; sv cxotco, 7rpo<pspe<JTaTa fteov. 

VIII 

PRAYER TO THE FATES 
lib. i 4 o.] 

— : — ww — ' — w — 7\ 

1 w 

w — w w — WW — w — w w — w w 

-ww /\ 

W I 1 «JU 

— w w — w w *~— w l —~ w ' — w l -- w — /T' C 

— WW — ^/ W — — — A 

W . 1 . 

— . I "~ W — VJU b ~ — W — A 



' W — WW" 



A 



KAtofrw AdyzGit; t' suo)A£voi 

xoCipat Nuxto?, suyoj/ivcov srraxo'jeraT', oupaviat yfrovtai t£ 

oai^ov£? to 7ravSei[jLavT0t* 



7CSM.7CST' aittuv GO^OXOATTOV 



MISCELLANEOUS AND ANONYMOUS 257 

Euvoiuav liTcapoQpovou; t' aosA<psa?, AUav 5 

/iod CT£(pav7]Oopov Eipavav 
Tiroltv ts tocv&s (3apu<ppovtov 

ASAa'&OtTS CUVTU/17.V. 

IX 

t 

FRIENDSHIP 

[Bergk, Frag. Adcsp. 138] 

— ; 1 — s^ 1 — \y — \*> ^f — w <j ' — V-*- v^v^» — wv-/ — /\ 

— ;l — ^ *— w \^f ^ — W w ' — ^  

!— ^ s^v^ — v-/ v^ ' — >^ ' — w — /\ 



Ou ^puGO? ayXaoc, G7ravit0TaT0c ev -9vartov Sucrs^— ictw 

(3ig), ouS' aoatta?, 
oijS' apyupou jcXTvai, 7rpoc dcv-8-pwxov So)«[/.a£d[/.ev' 

aCTTpaTiTEt too? o^st;, 

outis yaia? eupuxs^ou ydvi[/.oi fiptSovTSc auTapxsi? yuat, 
to; ayaOtov avSpcov 6[/.o<ppaS(/.o)v vdvjcri?. 

X 

EURIPIDES. EPINICION TO ALCIBIADES 

[Bergk, vol. ii. Enrip. 3] 

•^j w ' — ^_/ ^ ' — > — w 

^/ \y ;  — — >^ ^ ' — ^ ' — w — /\ 

— wv-^ — ^y w v_/ v^< ' — w — 

— ^ — ^ ^ — ^ w w 



<s ^1 — ^j ^  



Si S' asiaou-at to IQ.smou ~at' 

y.aAov a vix.a, koXXkjtov, o [atjosI? aX'Aos ' EAAavtov (Aaysv), 

aptiom TrptoTz. op<xf/,efv x.7.1 osuTspa x.al Tpixa, 

pvjvai t axov>]Ti, Sic GTe^&sVra t' sAaia 

jcapuja poav xapaooCvat. 5 



XI 

[Frag. Adcsp. 96] 



' v„/ — w — w • — w — v^ 



V-/W . W ' 



"E— eitoc JteicsTai Pa&udsvSpw 

SV /J)0VI G'JfX770<7ltOV T£ Y,v\ XupaV aLtOlOO^, 

iayac t£ Tiavrep-so: auAtov. 

R 



258 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



XII 

[Bergk, Frag. Adesp. 97] 
— w i — — W v./ — W w — ' ^ 
— \j w w w — w — w 



w . w w w 



"fig ap' ewrovTa [/.iv a^pomov 
T'/jlauys? e'XaaiTtTTOu TCpocrcoTrov 

v.Tzzknzzv a|7.s'pa?. 

XIII 

[/£. 8 7 l 
— ; *— v^ i—i — \jkj — v^w l — \j 

1 — v> w w — v^w /\ 



Nod Tav "OXu|j-7rov x.aTa.Ssp/,o[xsvav ocaTCTOu^ov "Hpav, 

SGTt, [/.Ol 7TLGT0V Tai7^SlOV £7U ykttiGGy.q. 



XIV 

[/£. 86] 



•W — W — W — w — W — w — w — w 



 \_A^ WW • 



Ou yap ev [j.zgoigi x.£?tou Scopa Sucjv.a^Ta Motcav 

Tfe! '71Tt,TUJ(_0VTl <p£p£lV. 

XV 

[/£. 89] 

'fl yXuJtsi' stpava 

Tcl0UT0f)QT£tpa ppOTOt?' 

XVI 

NIOBE 

[lb. 98] 

Oux. aisl S-aAiQovTt, (3£w 
(W-gtou? ts tsxvwv (SptO-of/iva yTuxspr'v 
<pao; opcococ. 



MISCELLANEOUS AND ANONYMOUS 259 

XVII 

DEATH OF ADONIS 

Ub. 79 a] 
x 
^w_^_ w _A 

Ka-rrpo; r^iy' 6 (xaivoAvj? 

OOOVTt CrXJJAa/iOX.TOVW 

KuupL^o? &aAo; coascev. 
XVIII 

[//'. 101] 

HECUBA 

w w — w w ^- w ' — W — /\ 

— w w I I — w w — w w — WW— — 

WW . — w w ^— w — /\ 

— w w — w (w L — ) u — w ' — w 

^aporcav xuva' yoCky.zov Ss oi 
yvafrjAiov £*. xoAiav 98£yyo;jivai; u7raV.ous piv "I&a, 
TeveSoi; ts TCpippuTa 
©pvji'jttoi ts (7tayoi) <piAavsf/.oi ts 7tSTpac. 

XIX 

[90] 

w 

w w *— w — — — w w — 

— WW ww — — 

^— w — ww' — w — " — — WW 1 — W — /\ 
ww 1 — w 1 — w ' — w — ~/\ 

— — — WW — WW 1 1 — ww — — C 

ITpo^artov yap sV. toxvtcov jtSAapu^sv, 
co? X7i6 /.pavav (peprarov u&top, 
•9aAsov yaAa - toi S' STuprAcov IffffULtevoi 7rt9-ou?' 
acx.o? S' oufts' ti? a;j.cpopsos saivu' sv Sojy.ot?, 
xsAAat, yap Aitkvoi ts xi-froi xAacr&sv axavTS?. 5 

XX 

[62] 
'Ex, 2a7r<pto<; TOfV aixeAyo|xevo; uiXt toi (pspto. 



2 6o GREEK LYRIC POETS 

XXI 

[53] 
'Eyco (py.y.i lo7cXo)ta(/.o)v Mowiav su Aay£iv. 

XXII 

[99] 
"Aaaov Tpd-ov aAAov sysipst 

>P 



ffioovTi; avO-ptoTtcov. 



XXIII 

[104 A] 

IToix-i^STai [J.iv facial TCOAUGTE<pavo:. 
XXIV 

[104 B] 

— ; — **; w — w w — v^w — w w — — — /\ 

Ou [ayv 7T0TS tixv apSTcicv aAAa^op.ai ocvt' a&joou Jcsposo?. 

XXV 

[116] 

TV ax.T7.v, tiv' uaocv Spaj/xo ; koX TiopsuSxo ; 
XXVI 

[141] 
Micsto [j.vat^.ova <jup.7TOTav. 

XXVII 

PAEAN TO LYSANDER 
[Carm. PoJ>. 45] 

OO — w v^ — /\ 

Tov'EAAaSo; aya^ea? 

GTpXTayov a?:' supuyopou 
S^apTa; u[/.vr<JO[/.sv, co 
'Iyj Tlatav. 



MISCELLANEOUS AND ANONYMOUS 261 

XXVIII 

ITHYPHALLIC HYMN TO DEMETRIUS POLIORCETES 

[Tb. 46] 

f O; oi. [jiyiGTOi Ttov <&£oov y,y\ ^iXtktoi 

tt5 — oX£i 7uapsi(7tv" 
evTaufra (yap Ar^TjTpa x.al) Av]{/.7]Tpiov 

a ( aa Trapry' 6 JtaipoY 
/7] f/iv ra ce^Ava tyj? Kopvj; [/.ucmjpia 5 

spj£S&' iv a 7roir]cr7j, 
6 S' iXapoc, to<77T£p tov -8-sov &si, xal >caXo<; 

xal yeXtov rcapsoTtv, 
<iS(/.v6? 6-8-t <paiv£9-', oi cpiAoi 7ravT£; jcujcXw 

£v [/.saoict 5' auxo?, 10 

6{/.oiov, to'crap oi 91X01 [J.£v aors'ps?, 

TJXlO; 5' SX.SIVO?. 

'fl tou x.paTiTTOu xat IIoaELotovo; -9-soO 

yaips xacppoSiTV^' 
aXXoi [xiv V] [Aa/.pav yap a.TOyouGtv &£oi, I 5 

•q oujc iyouGiv coTa, 
7} ou/C sitxiv, -q ou 7upooB3(ou(Wv y}(/.iv oubs sv, 

ge Si TrapovO-' 6pc3[/,sv, 
ou £uXivov, ouSs Xt-9-ivov, aXX' aXvjxkvoV 

£ijyo[j.£a{>a St] cot' 20 

TTptOTOV f/iv slprVTJV 7tt)fo](J0V, (piXTa.T£, 

x.'jpio; yap si gu' 
f"/)v fV o'jya ©vjptov aXX' 6'Xtj: tyj? 'EXXaSo? 

Soiyya 7cspu,paToG<iav — 
AitcoXov, ocTt? £7:1 TOTpa? jca&7](A£vos, 25 

co57rep v] xaXata, 
Ta cro)[/.a-9-' r,(/.<av reavr' a.vapxaVa; ipspst, 

JtOUJC SYtO U.<XYS<7-9 , ai, 

(AitgjXwcov yap aprcaffat Ta Ttov 7T£Xa;, 

vuv Ss jtal Ta 7Toppo)') — 30 

p.aXwTa |/iv &q jcdXaaov a'jTo;* si &s (/.ij, 

OtSlTCOUV Tiv' SUO£, 

T7jv 2/piyya Toumjv ooti? 73 )caTaicp7](/.visi 

7j G771VOV 7?0tfn(?Sl. 



262 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

XXIX 
PAEAN OF THE CHALCIDIANS TO T. FLAMININUS 
— ;^— ^ \^/ w — /\ 

— w w — ^> w ' — v^ 

— \J V 

— i_< \_; — --UU — v^w 

— \J \J — w *-> — — 

— v^ v^ 



5 



IltCTIV Se ' PtOU.0atOV GEpOJJ.EV 

Tav [xeya'XsiOTaTav 6'pxou? cpuAacaEiv. 

Meattsts x.oupai 

Zvjva fv.iyav 'Po>C-av ts TiTov -9-' ap.a 'Pw^aicov ts 

x£ctiV toj'is Ilatav 5 

o' TlTS CWTSO. 

XXX 

SAPPHIC ODE TO ROME BY MELINNO OF LOCRI (?) 

Xaips \jsa 'Pcojjmx -9-tjyaTVjp "Ap7]0?, 
^puTEO|/iTpa, oaiftppoav avaaera, 
crsp.vov a vaisig £7:1 yag "Oauj^ttov 

aisv a9-pau(7TOV 
Sol [/.ova xpscpEipa Ss§io*£ Moipa 5 

•/.uoo; appTjKTG) paaiAfiov ocpypt^, 
o<ppa xoipavrjov zyoiay. xapro; 

ay£|AOV£uy]? - 
era S' utto crSsuyAa JtpaTSptSv ASTtaSvwv 
crrspva yaia; y»al xoAia; &aAa<7<j7); 10 

ccpiyyeTocf cru S' ac<paAsco? jtu(3spvqc? 

aGT£a Aatov. 
IlavTa 8e ccpaAAcov 6 [/.symtto? al'cov 
x.al |X£Ta7i:Aa(7crtov (3iov aAAOT' yXktag 
col [/.ova TiATjtfiGTiov oupov apyxc; 1 5 

o'j (/.eraPaAAei. 
'H yap ex. toxvtcjv cu [/.ova JtoaTiTTOo? 
avopa? vJiynj.r^y.q (/.eyaXou? ao/£uei;, 
sucnra^uv AajAaxpo? o'-co? avsiaa 

x.ap— ov arc' avftptov. 20 



DITHYRAMBIC POETS 

I HAVE already described on p. 106 seq. the general 
characteristics of the last or Dithyrambic period in Greek 
Melic poetry, and I have also on p. 40 and p. 107 dwelt upon 
the tendency at the time of the musical accompaniment to 
become more and more important at the expense of the 
poetry. It remains for me to sketch briefly the develop- 
ment of Dithyrambic poetry, and to give some account of 
the poets from whom passages appear in this collection. 

From the latter part of the seventh century B.C., when it 
was first raised to the position of a branch of cultivated 
Melic poetry by Arion (see p. 102), to the end of the sixth 
century, when it took a new departure in the hands of 
Lasus of Hermione, the Dithyramb proper appears to have 
received but little attention. It was not, so far as we can 
judge from the silence of authorities, patronised during 
this period by the great Lyric poets, and we have more 
positive evidence in the words of Pindar {Frag. 47, Bockh) 
IIplv f/iv sip— £ c/owoTSvsia t' aoioV. o\tk)pa;j.(3cov 
xai to cav ya 4 8SaXov av8-pw7roiTiv £776 <jTO t aaTO)v. 
So great were the alterations effected by Lasus that he is 
described as the ' inventor ' of the Dithyramb. 1 He was 
probably more a musician than a poet, and his innovations 
appear to have mainly consisted in bringing the musical 
accompaniment, hitherto plain and monotonous, into better 
agreement with the excited "tone supposed to characterise 
a Dithyrambic song. For this purpose he made a free use 
of the flute, 2 and from this time we may date the commence- 



1 Clem. Strom, i. 365 : oiOupap.^ov ok ir.viur^i Aaao; 'Epfuoveu?. Cf. 
a Scholiast on Pindar, e<TO]cje 02 aoxov (SiSu'pa^pov) rcptlruos 'Aptav . . . 
e!xa Aaao;. 

2 Schmidt, Diatribe in Dithyr. p. 12S seq., points out that the flute 
had not always been the appropriate instrument of the Dithyramb. 
Thus Arion was a xt&apcoSo?. 



264 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

ment of the quarrel between the advocates respectively of 
the flute and the lyre, of which we have such a lively illus- 
tration in Frag. I. It must not, however, be thought that 
the new or more typical dithyrambic style, as ridiculed by 
the comedians, belonged to this date. Lasus falls rather 
within the last period of the great Lyric poets, and 
Simonides probably and Pindar almost certainly adopted 
his improvements. From the latter poet we have a long 
fragment, No. VI., which we may regard as a type, though 
a favourable one, of the ' Lasian ' dithyramb. ' The rhyth- 
mical structure of the fragment is bold and rich, and a 
lively and almost violent motion prevails in it, but this 
motion is subject to the constraint of fixed laws, and all 
the separate parts are carefully incorporated in the artfully 
constructed whole '. 1 However great may have been the 
improvements introduced in the music, they certainly 
had not yet detracted from the excellence of the poetry. 
Nevertheless the corrupting influence was already begin- 
ning to make itself felt, as we gather from the lines of 
Pratinas {Frag. I.), written about the beginning of the fifth 
century B.C. ; and during the course of the next hundred 
years the new style came rapidly to the front. Its progress 
is described in a lively passage from the comic writer 
Pherecrates, quoted in Plutarch's de Musica, where IIoiyjtic 
is complaining of her wrongs : 

'Eixol yap v^p^s tcov xoucoav Ms^.aviz7rtS7js 

£V T0l<7t 7Vp0)T0l?, 0? ^a t 6tOV OCVTJJCS [J.Z 

yaXaptofspav t' sttoitjgs yoposac owosjca. 
'A~Kk' ouv 6'p.to; outo? |/iv ^v a-o/ptov avvjp 

£f/.0lYS TCpO? Ta VUV vCaZ.SC* 

Kivyjaia? &£, 6 jtarapaTO? 'Attix.6?, 

e^apjxoviou? y.v.ij.tzxc, ttouov iv toi? CTpocpaT? 

cr.7;oki}ikZY.i i/.' outco; x.tX 

***** 

<I>puvi$S' '^-.ov CTpo^iXov £{jLJ3a^.oiv Tiva 
xa[7.7iTtov [j.z x.al (7Tps<po>v, oXtjv Sli<pi>0p£V 
ev tovte yoprW? oojosjc' apy.ovia? Ijftov 



1 Miiller, Hist, of Greek Lit. a xxx. ad fin. 



DITHYRAMBIC POETS 265 

y.Xk' oOv E(/,oiys goto? tjv a~oypcov avTip. 

O oe Tt^o'Oso; [7-', o3 <pt^TaT'/], x.ocToptopuys 
;cai otaxsjcvat^' y.layiarv. . . . 

, . . a~ avTa? ou; Xsyto 
r:y.pzkr{ku&' aywv (6'S') sx.Tpa77sXou? f/.upf/.7]>ct<x<;. 

We thus see that the first step in the direction of the new 
style is attributed to Melanippides, and Suidas is in agree- 
ment, who says of him — sv tyj &9-upa[/.j3G>v ^eXoTzotof. exaivo- 
z6[j:rfz 7rXsiOTa. One of the chief innovations assigned to 
him is the substitution of the ava|3o>.7j for the antistrophical 
system. 1 The avafioV/j originally signified a mere prelude 
before the full commencement of the song, and the term 
was now applied to the whole musical composition, 
apparently because it partook of the nature of what was 
once only the prelude, in observing no fixed laws and 
regular periods. Aristophanes speaks of these ava(3o>.ai as 
being collected among the clouds {Peace 830) or floating 
about the void air {Birds 1385) ; and Aristotle I.e. appears 
to condemn them as exhibiting no distinct xzkoq. The 
effect upon the poetry was certainly disastrous, as we 
gather partly from the passage quoted by Aristotle from 
Democritus in condemnation of Melanippides : 

Oi t' ocutco YJXY.cn. TSuysL avr.p aXXco x.axa tso/cov 
•/j <)z [/.axpa avapoToq tw 7TO17j<t<xvti Y.y.Y.iazr r 

Melanippides flourished in the latter part of the fifth 
century,' 2 and his pupil Philoxenus (435-380), of whom 
Pherecrates makes no mention, followed in his wake, many 
innovations being attributed to him by Plutarch. Yet his 
music and poetry were regarded as severe when compared 
with the still more elaborated and ornate style of the next 
generation. 3 There is a long passage surviving from his 
Asi-vov, but the nature of the composition, whatever may 



1 Arist. Rhet. iii. 9. 

2 Suidas describes him as younger than Diagoras, who, as he says, 
flourished 468 B.C. 

3 Sec Antiphanes ap. Athen. xiv. 643. 



266 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

have been the class of Lyric poetry to which it was 
assigned, is so essentially un-melic, that I have not in- 
cluded it in this collection. 

Little is known of Cinesias ' the accursed Attic ' and of 
Phrynis, who appear next on the charge sheet of Phere- 
crates. Aristophanes ridicules the empty, unsubstantial 
style of the former, in the Birds 1352 ; and Phrynis is still 
more strongly condemned by Pherecrates. The latter is 
said by Plutarch {de Mus. c. VI.), to have altered the an- 
cient form of Terpander's nomes. Next to these comes 
Timotheus, who attained to very great renown as a 
Dithyrambic poet. Plutarch calls him cpiXoxaivoc, and 
accuses him of being addicted to tov cpiXavfrpi0770v TpoTrov, 
and Suidas speaks of his enervating the ancient musical 
style — v/jv apyaiav (/.oucr/.^v iiz\ to [/.aXaxioTspov [/.ST^yaysv. 
He made important alterations in the Nome, giving up for 
the most part the use of the hexameter, long regarded as 
essential in this branch of Melic poetry, and effecting a 
still more radical change in what had once been regarded 
as a calm and sedate style of composition by giving it 
the opposite characteristics of the Dithyramb. He speaks 
with pride of his own innovations in Frag. I. e', Oux. a'Sco 
Ta Tta'Xaia x.t.'X. 

Contemporary with Timotheus in the first half of the 
fourth century was Polyeidus, who is spoken of by Plutarch 
de Mils. c. XXL, as surpassing even Timotheus in the 
intricacy of his musical style. 

From the silence of authorities with regard to later 
Dithyrambic poets we may conclude that the flourishing 
period of this last product of the lyric muse came to a 
close about the middle of the fourth century. 

Of the real character of the later Dithyramb we have 
but little means of judging except from the criticisms 
of the comedians and others, since the surviving frag- 
ments are insignificant. After making due allowance 
for exaggeration there can be no doubt that the poetry 
at any rate was of an inferior order. , All those who won 
distinction were renowned not for their poetic genius 
but for their musical skill ; and the very fact that such 



DITHYRAMBIC POETS 267 

meagre fragments survive from so many poets living at so 
late a period, indicates that their writings owned but small 
literary merit. Nor indeed was the Dithyramb intended 
for a literary composition ; it was a lively mimetic repre- 
sentation of more or less dramatic scenes, in which imita- 
tive gestures and clever instrumental effects were of far 
more importance than the diction. 1 Dithyrambs were 
intended for prize competitions, and written to win the 
immediate favour of a public of a somewhat vitiated taste, 
and by no means to endure as monuments of literature. 
They probably consisted, according to a good description in 
Miiller's Hist, of Greek Literature, in a ' loose and wanton 
play of lyrical sentiments, which were set in motion by the 
accidental impulses of some mythical story, and took now 
one direction, now another, preferring however to seize on 
such points as gave room for an immediate imitation in 
tones, and admitting a mode of description which luxuriated 
in sensual charms.' 



I append in their chronological order a short account of 
the poets from whom fragments appear in the text. 



PRATIN AS 

Fl. 500 B.C. 

Pratinas is known to us in connection with the rise of 
the drama, and it would of course be misleading to speak 
of him as a Dithyrambic poet. Nevertheless at this early 
period it is by no means easy to separate dramatic from 
dithyrambic poetry, and the satiric drama itself, the ' in- 
vention ' of which is ascribed to Pratinas, was probably in 
particularly close connection with the Dithyramb. More- 
over the fragment in the text, quoted by Athcnaeus as a 

1 See Plat. Rep. iii. 396, where Socrates speaks with contempt of 
the imitation of the neighing of horses, the lowing of bulls, the roaring 
of the sea, and the crash of thunder. 



268 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

hyporchem, appears to partake rather of the dithyrambic 
nature, and it will be noticed that it is addressed not to 
Apollo, as we should expect in the case of a hyporchem, 
but to Bacchus the patron of the Dithyramb. In any 
case, the connection of the subject of the fragment with 
the history of the later period of Greek Melic poetry com- 
pletely justifies its insertion in this place. 

Suidas, from whom our scanty information about 
Pratinas is obtained, tells us that he came forward with 
Aeschylus and Chaerilus about the year 500 B.C., and that 
he was the first composer of satiric dramas, thirty-two of 
his fifty plays being of this nature. Pausanias (ii. 135) 
speaks of his fame as a satiric poet, and Athenaeus (i. 22) 
testifies to his reputation as a master of the dance. 



LAMPROCLES 

Lamprocles is mentioned as a dithyrambic poet by 
Athenaeus (xi. 491), and probably belongs to the earlier 
part of the fifth century, being described as the pupil of 
Agathocles and the teacher of Damon, the latter of whom 
maintained that simplicity was the highest law of music, 
and numbered Pericles and Socrates among his pupils. 
Thus Lamprocles belongs to an early period of dithy- 
rambic poetry, and was not open to the charges brought 
against its later cultivators. 



MELANIPPIDES 

Fl. c. 440 B.C. 

I have spoken above of Melanippides and his innovations, 
and, if Suidas be right in distinguishing between an elder 
Melanippides, born 520 B.C., and his grandson, what has 
been said applies to the younger poet. Many critics think 
that Suidas was mistaken, but G. M. Schmidt in his 
Diatribe in Dithyrambum not only accepts his testimony 
but attributes Frag. 1. £' in the text to the elder. If, on 
the contrary, we are to regard the later Melanippides 



DITHYRAMBIC POETS 269 

as the author of the attack on the flute, it is difficult 
to accept Plutarch's statement with regard to that poet 
(de Musica, c. 30) that from his time onwards the flute- 
player in importance took precedence of the poet himself. 
Melanippides the younger, according to Suidas, was later 
than Diagoras, who flourished, according to that authority, 
468 B.C., and must have died before 414 B.C., since his death 
took place at the court of Perdiccas II. of Macedon, whose 
reign extended from 454-414 B.C.; with this monarch he is 
said to have spent a great part of his life. Melanippides is 
given the first place among dithyrambic poets by Xenophon 
{Mem. I. iv. 13), and Plutarch classes him with Simonides 
and Euripides as one of the greatest masters of music. 



fc>* 



DIAGORAS 

Diagoras of Melos is described by Sextus Empiricus 
(ix. 204) as Si9upa;j.[3o-oioc, but he is better known as a 
philosopher of atheistical tendencies who earned the title 
of "Afrsoc. His date is uncertain, for Suidas can hardly be 
right in saying that he flourished in 468 B.C., if at least it 
is true that he was taken prisoner at the fall of Melos in 
411, and ransomed by the philosopher Democritus. He is 
said by Sextus Empiricus to have been originally a man 
of great piety, as the fragments of his poetry indicate, but, 
according to the story, he was impelled to atheism by the 
injustice of the gods in not punishing a fellow-poet, who 
fraudulently published as his own a Paean written by 
Diagoras. His atheism took the aggressive form of 
attacking the popular religion in its most hallowed quarter, 
the Mysteries ; and he is said to have diverted from their 
purpose many who were about to be initiated. The 
Athenians retaliated by outlawing the poet, and put a 
price upon his head. 1 He escaped to Corinth, where he 
took up his abode ; and we also hear of him at Mantincia. 
His position as a poet seems to have been one of but little 
prominence, and he probably abandoned his art for 
philosophical speculation. 

1 Schol. Arist. Frogs 323, Birds 1073. 



2;o GREEK LYRIC POETS 

TIMOTHEUS 

FI. 398 B.C. 

Timotheus of Miletus was born in 454 B.C., since Suidas 
says that he lived to ninety-seven years of age, and he died, 
according to the Parian marble, in 357 B.C. The flourishing 
period of his career is placed at 398 B.C. by Diodorus (xiv. 
46,) but, as Clinton points out, 1 he must have attained to 
eminence and effected the innovations already referred to 
before that date. He was a voluminous writer and became 
one of the most celebrated of the dithyrambic poets, his 
reputation surviving long after his death. Thus Athenaeus 
(xiv. 626 C) speaks of the Nomes of Timotheus and 
Philoxenus being studied as the last stage in the education 
of the Arcadian youth ; and a Cnossian decree in the 
second century B.C. speaks of him in terms of the highest 
praise. On the other hand, the most wholesale condem- 
nation of his style is to be found in the pseudo-Lacedae- 
monian decree, which summarises in its charges against 
Timotheus all the sins of all the dithyrambic poets. He 
doubtless flung himself boldly into the spirit of the age, 
which delighted in luxuriant expression and realistic 
pantomime ; and in a surviving fragment (No. I. s') he bids 
defiance to the admirers of the older style. 

TELESTES 

Fl. 398 B.C. 

Very little is known of this poet. He came from Selinus 
in Sicily, and flourished, according to Diodorus I.e., in 398 
B.C., the Parian marble mentioning him as victorious in a 
dithyrambic contest in the year 401. His poems are said 
to have been particularly admired by Alexander ; and 
Aristratus, Tyrant of Sicyon, raised a monument in his 
honour. 2 The fragments that remain are insignificant 
enough, and are excellent illustrations of the vapidity of 
dithyrambic poetry. 

1 Fast. Hell. an. 357. 

2 Plut. Alex. c. 6. Plut. H. N. xxxv. 36. 22. 



DITHYRAMBIC POETS 271 

LICYMNIUS 

Licymnius was a dithyrambic poet of Chios whose date 
is uncertain. He is spoken of by Arist. {Rliet. iii. 2.) as 
avayvoxTTix.os, ' fit for reading,' and the few surviving lines 
attributed to him are not without literary merit. A 
rhetorician of the same name is mentioned by Aristotle 
{Rhet. iii. 2), and is identified by some critics with the poet. 

Of Lycophronides, from whom two passages are quoted 
by Athenaeus, we have no information. 



DITHYRAMBIC POETS 



Passages referring to Flute-playing and the New 
Musical Style. 

(«) 

PRATINAS. HYPORCHEM 
[Bergk, 457] 



w ^ ^> \*/ \y ^ — /\ 

_A 



KJ \-/ ^/ v-' V_/ W 



• '"^ ''~ N ^ A. 

W . w< W "0 ^ ^ "O — /\ 

• ' ' A I- 

X -' 

• '^ A 

V-A_> \-A> — \_/ W V^ — v^— /\ 

1 1 I A 

W — W W W ~~ W — W ~~ 

W I W W W W WW WW W W *""— ' ^ IO 

' A 

— w — s _ / — ^, — / \ 

* * * 

WWWWWWWv^WWWW 



ww . w w ww ^_, v„/ va; 



WW —  W A 



r / / ^r - H 

— w — w — w — w — /\ K 

A 

7 ' lL ^ A 

' lA A 

— w — w ~ W ~ w — w L — — W — W 1 — — ' x 

Ttva Ta^s ia ^opsuLtaTa ; 

Ti? u(3pi? sp.o'Xsv E7U Aiovu<7ia6y. Tzokv-xTxyz O-uf/iXav ; 

sy.oc sao? 6 Bpoj.no;' 

£[7.£ Ssi jcsXaSsiv ef/i Set TOXTavetv 5 



DITHYRAMBIC POETS 273 

av' oosa -Swivov u.zra. Na'ia^tov 

ota ts jcujcvov ayovra TTOty.iXoTrrspov ;./.sAb;. 

Tav ioiXav xaTSTTacrs Tltsplc pacriXsiav 6 <)' auXoc 

udrspov yopsusTto, Jtai yap sg&' u7r/]psTa; - 

/.o)LWO [xovov JH>pa[/.ayoi; ts miypoLylxiGi vs<ov 9-lXst — apotvwv 10 

su.[/.svai CTpocT'/jlarac. 

*riai£ t6v <J>puvaiou ttooc&ou ~ poavsyovTa* 

•oXsys tov 6lecL(7iaXox.aXa| J ;.ov, 

XaXofJaouoTOX 7rapa;./.sXopux)|/.ofiaTav &' u~ ai 

Tp'j~avco 6s[/.a? tte— "Xactxevov. 1 5- 

y.v ioo'j aos aoi osi;ta? 

x,al 7toS6? ^tapp'/pa, 9pia{/.(3oov9-upafA(Js. 

KunroyjJUT' aval axous Tav dp.av Aiopiov yopsixv. 

(P') 

MELANIPPIDES. ATHENE REJECTS THE FLUTE 

[Bergk, p. 590] 



\*S W W ' 



 \^J — ^ w ' 



'A [/iv 'AD-ava 
opyav' &ppu{/sv 9' Ispa? a— ystpo:, 
3i— s t' - "EppsV al'cysa, <TG)f/.aTi XiItAa" 
o'j y.£ toco sr<o jcajtora-n oiowai. 

(Y) 

TELESTES. DEFENCE OF THE FLUTE 

[p. 627] 

' ' ' 'A 



X 

^ (^ W — W ' ' 

' ' A 

/ / A 

— v^ ^ — \j — w *— — w — W — v./ — 

^ i / / / 

^/ . — w L — — w — w — ww "■" ww — <*_/ — *_/ 

/ / r __ 

v,/ I — ww — ww — ww ~ ww — w — \^f 

> lL a 

— ww — WW ' x 



5 



— ww —  



w . — w ~~ w — ww — ww  



A 10 



ov <70<pov erocpav XafioCcav oux, s— sX— oaou vow 

s 



274 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

&oui/.oT? dpeioic opyavov r>iav 'A&avav, 
<$uc6cp8a'Xaov y.iayoc, &«pO'8:>)ffsT<yav, 
auS-i? s/. yepiov (3aXeiv, 

vut/.©avsvsi yopotT'j-c.) cpyjpl Mapcja /Skioc. 5 

Ti yap viv suTjpaTOto jtaXXso? o&j; spto? BTStpsv, 
7 -aoDeviav ayau.ov *al a-rcata a— sveiy.s ICXwOxo ; 
dftXa y.axav ayopsuroc 
aos [7.aT7.toAoywv 

ijaaa 7700<iS7rra-9-' 'EXXa<$a v.o'jco7ro'Xtov lO 

vpac sttioBovou fipoTO'ic TSjrya? ovsioo? . . . 






(8') 

TELESTES, FROM THE ' ASCLEPIUS ' 

I p. 628] 

\J \^/ <^/ W ~~" *"~ 'w' ^/ ~~ ' 'w ' 'J ~" 

— V^ \^< — ^ W ~"~ — * 

— \^> <^/ —- VJ "^ ~ ' — S-/**'"— *s-> ^ ~ 

W \^ ^ V-^ — V^ V^ — W W T\ 

„ . . ri 4>puva >ca7JXt7irvocov aoltov ispcov |3a<jtX7Ja, 

AuSov 6? apao<js 7i:p(0T0? 

Ao>Gi$oc wTiizoCkov [xouaa; vo[/.ov aioXov 6[/.cpa 







(O 






IIMOTHEUS. 


PRAISE or 


THE NEW 


STYLE 






[p. 624] 








v~> '. 


WW /\ 








WW WW 


t 

A 






WW 


/ / 

^ V^r 


-A 






■WW 


/ / 
 v^/ w — 


~A 






ww 


/ / 
WW — 


"A 





Oux, f^ci) T7. TfaXaia, 
x.aiva yap aaixaxa jcpsiffffW 
vso? 6 Ze'jc (3a<JiXeusi 
to TiaXai ')' TjV Kpovo? apywv 
K7ctaro) Mouaa mxXata. 



DITHYRAMBIC POETS 275 



11 

MELANIPPIDES 
00 

iP- 591 I 

 w — w 1 — ^ — *7\ 

V-'v-' — *-* -^/ ~ >^ ^ — 

* — \*J \^t — \^ v^ — 



Havre; fS' dtTrecTuyeov oSwp 

to Trpiv sovtsc awpts? ol'voo, 

Tajflx oy) raya toi j/iv vouv a~6).ovTO, 

toi oe — y.py~ V/jxtov ysov 6it©av. 






xac ocst(,coou (Luyac us&scav. 
Ill 

DIAGORUS 

GO 

[p. 562] 

! — «*./ ^ ' — w — /^ 

*-^v»/ — ^/>^ — ^ v ^— \»/ 

060?, ttso; Ttpo ttocvto; spyou (ipoTSiou 

vw[j.k cppsV u77SpTarav, 

auTOOa^? ft' apsTa fipa/'jv oi{/.ov spxst. 

w w I — ^v [ — ^ — /\ 

. V> ^ L ~ - W — \^/ — — 

Kara oaif/.ova )cal Tuyav 

xa 7ravTa (SpoToTstv dxTsXeiTai. 



2/6 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

IV 

(«') 

LAMPROCLES 
(P- 5541 

IlaXXaSa TrepaexoXiv etelvav 8-sov sype/.-^oty.ov 
7i;otw!Xtj£o) TroXsuacW.ov, ayvav 
7caiSa A16; [ASvaXou Sa{/.a<yi7T7cov. 

<P') 

THE PLEIADS 

[p- 556) 

. . . aire Tcoravai; 
LICYMNIUS 



TO HYGIEIA 

[Bergk, p. 599] 

^ ^ — ^ ^ ' — ^ ' — ^ 7^\ 

— • I — ^ — ^ v./ — ^y ^ — 

— w ^ — • **s *~> 

* * * 

— ;— — — w^ — \->v^ — /\ 

— ^ — ^/ ^ ^ w *«* — — ~ s** <«* "~ v./ w 

* * * * 

— ; L — <_> • — ^ — ^ ^> — /\ 

AiTcapo;7.|AaT£ [xaTSp, u^i^Ttov ftpovwv 
cst/.vcov 'AtcoXXcovoc (IJaffiXeia -oflsiva, 
Troa.'JysXtoc ' Tyisia* 

* * * 

Ti; yap xXoutou y&^Q r t tekswv, 

y xa; iaoSai;j.ovoc avfrpuixoi; pxaO^'tfto: apya; ; 

* * * 

gsDsv Si ytopl; outl; z'Av.vjmv s<pv. 



DITHYRAMBIC POETS 277 

VI 

SLEEP AND ENDYMION 

T598] 

— J ' \J ' W ^W W V^ 1 — ~/\ 

"Tttvoc Ss, yaipttv oy.f/.artov auyoi'c, ava7C67tTa{/ivoi? 

foffOKJlV S/&01U.MTS /.OUpOV. 

VII 
00 

I ^ I w _^ y^ 

V> W 1 — ^ ^ — ^»/ W — ~/\ 

Mupiat? Trayaiffti oeotpuov 
'Ayfotov a/swv te j3pusi. 

<P') ; 
'A/spcov aysx 

[ipOTOlGt TTOpD-fASUSt. 

VIII 
PHILOXENUS 

[p. 611] 
O ! — ^ s-> — w 

— w — w v^ ^ ^ — W 

^/ -^/ v_/ — v^ — ^ w — W 

'H x.aA>,i~pocto— e 
ypiKio^ocTpuyE raXotTSta 
yaot-rdcpcovs x.aHoc ipcoTcov. 

IX 

TIMOTHEUS 

[p. 624] 

— . — ^ ^ — w ^ — ^» »^/ — /\ 

* I ^ »^ ^ 

— ,_/^ — ^ <-* ' — <~> — /\ 

^ w w ^ 

Su t' <o tov ael — o^ov oupaviov 
obcrfci Xa[/.7Ppat^ "Alis paXXtov, 
-£y.'i/ov E)tapd>,ov eyiVpofoiv (isXo; 
ca; a— vsupae, to is Ilaiav. 



278 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

x 

FROM THE ' CYCLOPS ' 

[p. 621 ] 

• ' ^_ ' L_ ' L_ A 
w . — w ^— — w ' w — w ' ' x 

"^ L_. A 

www — W — w — V ^~ "" ' 

-1 _ ' __. _i! A 

' ' _ ' Li. A 

— w — w — w — w — v^ w — w ^~ — N 

"Eyeus <)' ev |7.£v ostcocs >acrcrivov jxsXaiva; 
(jrayovo; ap.ppoTa? a<ppto Ppuat,ov" 
sfotoaiv &e ji.eTp' avsysusv Sfnavs S' 
ai[/.a Bax.yiou vsoppuroic oaxpuoicri Nup.cpav 

XI 

FROM THE PERSAE 

[p. 6">2] 

X 

w I — w — w — w w w ' — www — 

5s[i£<7$' airko cuvspyov aps-ra<; oop«/.ayou. 



XII 



W . *>J ~~ \-S N^ * — W ^^ <w< 

"Apr ( ; Tupavvoc' ypucov 'EXXa: ou Ssooocsv- 

XIII 

[p. 621] 

Outoi tov y' u7t£pa[7.:r£/ovTa 
oupavov eiaavaJ3r<rst. 



DITH YRAMBIC POETS 279 



XIV 

Tp. 623] 

*-/ '. ^y ^/ w — ^s — «^* w \s \y — ^ — w 

X 

— ' _— ' A 

— \^/ — \j \^/ — \^ — \j — 

' _ ' lL A 

Maxapio^ vjffO-a, Tiji.d&ee, )tapu£ or' ewrev' 

Nix.a T^adflco; McV/jcio? 

tov Kay-wvoc tov Itovoxai/wuTav. 



XV 

TELESTES 

[p. 630] 



.A 



- : ; a 

v^ w ^ '■ — •*_/ \s '— ' ' — \J </ y~/ ' 

— : — ^^ t\ 

— ^/ — ^/ \j — yy ' — v_/ — /\ 

"AXXo; <y aXXav y.~ky.yyy.v izic 

x.spaTOCptovov eps-Ot'Cs [/.ayaSiv, 

sv rsvTapapco ^opSav puityxo 

ysfpy. Kapj/ioCauXov avacTpcocpcov xa/o:. 

XVI 

[630] 



 *^ ^y S-> ^ ' 



A 



w ■— ^ 



- A 



^ — w - /\ 



IIpfOTOi xapa xporr/jpac ' EXlavtov £v aulol; 
<j\>vo7wc&ol IIsXoTiro? [/,aTp6? opsia; 
4>puytov asiaav vd[/.ov 
toI 8' 6^'jotovoi? 7T7jx.ti^(-)v ij;aX{/.ot<; JCpexov 
A'joiov uu.vov 



28o GREEK LYRIC POETS 



XVII 

LVCOPHRONIDES 
[P- 633] 



W . <S "^ \J 



-i^-A 

' ' A 

~~ <S \^ — <^J V^ft^/ — ' N 



*-■* . W W W ' 
X 

— / i ' 1 / , / A 

— \^/ — v_/ V^ ^- \^ t^/ l — ^/ v_* l — y u — ' \ 



•w"^ , ™~ \> W 1^ V^ ■"" s^ v_/ \J 



^„-A 



T08' avaTUhjpi aoi poSov 

*a>.ov avai)7]|j!.a xal TrsSiAa x.al jcuvsav 

xal Tav Jhjpo<povov \oyyi<)\ iizzi rxot, vo'o? ocXak Jts^wrai 

S7a xav Xapwi ©D*av TOx'iSa xal jtaXav. 



XVIII 

— ^» — \^ — ^ \_/ \y \J ' x 

/ , / / 

— ^ w w ^J L — — \_> ^/ — vy 

/ / / 

w *w* ~ w — \s — \^ — <J — s_/ 

' — ' ^> ' A 

vJ — . . . J . . — _ / \ 



Outs toxioos appsvo; outs xapftsvciov 
Ttov y_pu<jo<popG)v outs vuvawcwv ( 8ark»c.oA7rtov 
/taXov to TTpocrot)— ov, av p.7j noajuov — scpuxT] 
r yap ai&to? av&o; £7n<77csipst. 



PINDAR 

B.C. 522-442. 

This book professes, as I have explained in the Introduc- 
tion, to be a collection of the readable fragments of the 
Greek Melic poets other than Pindar. I have nevertheless 
admitted by way of supplement the more important of the 
fragments of that poet also, and the addition hardly 
requires justification. No collection of Greek songs would 
be complete without the splendid specimens of the Threne, 
the Dithyramb, the Hyporchem, and the Scolion to be 
found among Pindar's surviving poems, for apart from their 
great poetical merit, such ample illustrations of the different 
branches of Melic poetry add considerably to our know- 
ledge of their several characters. On the other hand, I 
have not thought it necessary to include all the readable 
passages from Pindar's fragments, but have selected only 
the most important. Of the works of the other Melic 
poets so little remains that nothing of value can be spared ; 
with Pindar this is fortunately not the case, and in addition 
whatever I have omitted in this collection is readily 
accessible to English readers in the various editions of 
Pindar. I must leave to these latter any detailed remarks 
on Pindar's life and works, contenting myself with a brief 
biographical sketch and a few general remarks chiefly in 
connection with the fragments. Beyond this I would refer 
all readers to excellent articles on Pindar in the Hellenic 
Journal, vol. iii., by Professor Jebb, and in the Quarterly 
Review, January 1886, to Professor Gildersleeve's and Mr. 
Fennell's introductions to their editions of Pindar's Odes, 
and to M. Alfred Croiset's La Poesie de Pindare, in which 



282 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

the chapter entitled ' La Destinee Humaine dans Pindare,' 
p. 20 1 seq. y should especially be read, containing as it does 
good criticisms on the fragments of Threnes, which are 
included in this text. 

Pindar was born in the year 522 B.C., and lived, it is said, till 
the age of eighty (442 B.C.). He was thus contemporary 
with the old age of Simonides (556-468 B.C.), with Lasus,. 
who instructed him in the technique of lyric poetry, and 
with Bacchylides, and he may also have profited by the 
advice or example of the Theban poetesses Corinna and 
Myrtis. He belonged to the great family of the Aegidae, 
branches of which existed not only in Thebes, but among 
the Dorians of Sparta, Cyrene, and Aegina. The Aegidae 
also held high office among the cultivated and devout 
priesthood of Delphi, a fact probably not without influence 
on Pindar's career and poetry. At an early age Pindar left 
Thebes for Athens, where he received instruction from 
Lasus, Apollodorus, and Agathocles. His first great 
Epinician Ode, the tenth Pythian, was composed by him 
at the age of twenty, and, considering the importance 
attached to such occasions as victory in any of the great 
games, we must infer that he had established his reputation 
in Greece even at this early age. We have two other odes, 
Pyth. vi. and xii., composed in 494 for citizens of Agrigen- 
tum, marking the commencement of Pindar's connection 
with the Sicilian magnates ; and many odes follow closely 
upon this in date for victors from various Hellenic cities. 
The period of the Persian wars now succeeds, and Pindar 
had a difficult part to play. His profession, and, if we may 
judge from his later utterances, his own sympathies were 
entirely Hellenic ; while, on the other hand, as a member 
of the Theban aristocracy he was expected to adhere to 
the Persian cause. The course he adopted in his poetry 
was to abstain from reference to the delicate topic at any 
rate till later times ; and soon after the battle of Salamis 
he was able to withdraw himself from the troubles in 
Greece by accepting Hiero's invitation to his court at 
Syracuse. He was apparently held in great esteem in all 



PINDAR 283 

the Sicilian cities, 1 and his fame spread as far as Cyrene, 2 
which he is even supposed to have visited in person. 
Judging from Frag. VI. he had returned to Thebes by the 
year 463 B.C., but of the later period of his life scarcely 
anything is recorded. He speaks of himself in Frag. CXXVI. 
(Bockh) as in the contented possession of a modest estate, 
and the lines may refer to a time when he had quietly 
settled down in his native city after his travels, and after 
the Thebans had freed themselves from the difficulties in 
which they were involved subsequently upon the expulsion 
of the Persians. He composed an Epinician Ode, 01. iv., 
as late as 452 B.C., when he was seventy years of age, and 
died, it is said, at the age of eighty, his death being sent 
to him by the gods in response to his prayer for their 
greatest boon. He received after his death almost divine 
honours at Delphi, and when the Lacedaemonians, and 
subsequently Alexander, sacked Thebes, Pindar's house 
was regarded by them as sacred. 

Pindar could hardly have lived through a period more 
favourable to the production of great poetry. Melic poety 
as an art had been brought to its full development by Simon- 
ides and his predecessors, and the musical accompaniment 
had attained to what was considered by many Hellenic 
judges as its prime ; finally lyric poetry in general was never 
in greater demand or esteem than at this period, when it 
enjoyed practically a monopoly in literature. It was not 
indeed long before there came rapidly to the front that 
new and perhaps greatest offspring of Greek poetic genius 
the Drama, which was soon to cast lyric poetry proper 
entirely into the shade. We are struck with the rapid 
advance of Dramatic poetry, and attribute it in great part 
to various contemporary circumstances ; but we must also 
remember that it was no sudden revival of poetic inspira- 
tion that took place at this period, such as was to a certain 
extent the case in our own Elizabethan age ; rather the 
twisting poetical talent, owing to certain causes, was 
directed to a new channel, and thus lyric poetry at the 
period which practically marks its close, so far from 

J See 01 2, 3, 4, 5, 12, etc. 2 See Pyth. 4. 



284 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

being in a state of decay, was in full vigour. It is to 
this final period that Pindar belongs, and his writings 
exhibit all its characteristic features. Stamped as his 
poems are with his own individuality, the directly personal 
or subjective element has all but disappeared. His com- 
positions were intended for public representation, and 
his existing poems without exception are in the choral 
form which he extended even to his Scolia. 1 He writes 
throughout as the professional poet, whose duty it is to 
devote his talents to the occasion for which his services are 
required ; but his estimate of his profession is a high one, 
and he places before himself a lofty standard in language 
and in thought which he seldom deserts, and he notoriously 
avoids allowing the narrow limitations of his special subject 
to curtail the range of his genius. The Epinician Odes are 
full of narrative, but besides this they are pervaded with an 
earnest religious and moral tone, upon which I lay stress 
here, since it is very noticeable in many of the fragments 
before us. His sentiments on religious matters are 
particularly elevated. Attached as he was to mythology, 
he exercises a purifying eclecticism in his acceptance of 
its legends ; and his test of truth in such matters is the 
consistency of the story with godlike character. Instances 
of this might be multiplied from the Epinician Odes ; in 
the fragments those which I have grouped together under 
No. XII. exhibit Pindar's reverent appreciation of the 
mystery and of the ever-active omnipotence of the gods. 
Similarly on ethical subjects, bound as he was by his pro- 
fession to speak words not unpleasing to his patrons, there 
is yet no trace in the Odes of the sophistical compromising 
found in Simonides ; his tone is throughout earnest and 
lofty and almost austere. The moral atmosphere is that 
of the tragedies of Aeschylus and Sophocles, 2 and in 



1 See on Frag. ix. 

2 See M. Jules Girard {Le Sentiment Rcligieux en Grece, p. 348) on 
the epoch of Pindar and Aeschylus, which he regards as the highest 
in Greek religion :— ' C'est le moment oil Ieur religion sous l'influence 
orphique est le plus pres de s'epurer sans se detruire, oil elle allie le 
mieux le sentiment de la dignite humaine avec le respect de la divinite? 



PINDAR 285 

reading Pindar's Odes we at once perceive that the ethical 
and didactic character of so many choral passages in the 
tragedians is but an inheritance from their predecessors 
the lyric poets. It is only in the Fragments that Pindar 
appears to unbend, and not only condescends to utter 
shrewd precepts on social tact and manners, but to sing 
of love and wine. 

His appreciation of nature is great, and a fine example 
occurs in Frag. VI. descriptive of the approach of spring. 
Here again he relaxes the grand magnificence which in 
the Epinician Odes characterises, for example, the splendid 
description of Aetna, and assumes an exquisitely light and 
graceful tone both in rhythm and language. 

On the whole the surviving fragments indicate that, if 
we knew more of Pindar's writings, our estimate of his 
poetical qualities, gathered as it is almost entirely from the 
Epinician Odes, might undergo not a few modifications. 



PINDAR'S FRAGMENTS 

THRENOI 

I 

I Hiickh, 97 1 

— w — w '— w — w w — ( w w -~ — — ) W I 

— '. ' — w WW — WW 1 — W ' — w — /\ 

'. W VJ W W ' I t ~- W — W W WW /\ 

— w — L-_ ^ _ _ WW WW ' W ™~ '— W ~ " 

'. *~" W ' ' l ~~ W WW W W /\ S 

OX ( 6iy. S' a~y.vT£; aica ^o<7i7uovov (ij-STavtadOvrai) teXsutocv" 
>cal <jto[7,a [j.sv Travxtov S7USTat 8-avy.TW 77£piG#£V£i, 
Uoov S' Its >v£tx£Tai aitovoi; si&g>Xgv to yap egti [7.ovov 
sV. flecov c'josi Se TrpaTTOVxtov ;j.£>i(ov, a-rap £uSovT£<7<7t,v 

sv — oTCkoic dvsipoic 
^eix.vjGi T£p:rv(-liv e^spTroiTav yaA£-<3v ts x.piatv. 5 

II 

I95J 

— v-/ <w* «w» — - \-< ^ <^» \_^ — -^ v^ y\ 

1 V»/ \_/ ^ <J V-* W V->\-» 

«w-\^ — VV — ~~ ' — \J '— W 

^ L — *_/ — — — \^/ \^l ' W *— VJ — 

l 1 w r 

— ; — w *-/ — w^ — — ^— \^ — ~tc 

— * — W \_/ — <w» W "" V^ \^* "~~ W W "~ K*> \*J — 

Stroph. y. . 

Toici la[j.7i£t [X£v j/ivo; keXighj -rav £v$a<$s vu/Cto. x.aTto, 

'X>OtVt.XOpO^OlC t' SVl l£l|X(OV£GGl TTpOOCCTlOV aUTOJV 

Jtai Xi(3av<o cxtapcxi jtat y_pu<7£0ic x.ap— oi; (3sj3pi-9-ev' 



PINDAR 287 

x.al toI [xsv i7i7roic YU{/.vacioi? (ts), toI os —sgcoi;, 

TOl 0*£ <pop[/.iyy£<7<Tl TEOTTOVTat, TOXpa OS GCplGlV EUaV&VJ? 

aTra? ts&oXsv oX|3o(;' 5 
oo^a o*' spcrrov jcaxa YjtSpov xio*vaTai 

aiel ft-ua [/.lyvuvTtov Trupl T7jXs<pavei Travroia •frsoiv s-l 

8(j)jL/.oi'c. 

Stroph. p'. 

EvSsv tov a— Eipov spsuvovifai c/.o'tov 
fiXvj^pol oVypspac vojcto? Tcorai/.oi. . . . 

Ill 

[97] 

WW — w — ww — '/\ 

— * ww 1 — w — w w — /\ 

w I ' — w i ' L ~~ -w — /\ 

~~ww L " — w — ww — 

ww ., w w , . 1 r 

^uyjxi o aaspstov u~ oOpavioi 

yaia — omovTat, sv a^ysffiv cpovtoic 

U7T0 LsuyXai; acpuxxoi? /.a/xov* 

E'jcsfiEtov o" ETro'jpaviot vaiourai 

ao^Trai? jxaxapa u.syav ocsioovt' ev up.vo'.c. c; 

IV 

I98I 

— ww — ww ' — w ^*w — /\ 

W . 

— w w — w w u — w — w — — — ww — "ww — y\ 
— i — \«/ v*» — ^ ^y ^— w — w w — w^ — — 



 ^ ^ — w \^/ I 



Oir>i 6e ^spffe^pova — oivav jraXaioG 7rivO-Eoc 

SlqSTat, ZC, TOV UTTEp&SV aXlOV /CSlVtOV EVaTW STSt 

avo*io*oi v|/u/ac 7?aXiV 

ex. Tav [iaTi'XTJE? ayauoi *at cftsvsi scpawuvol co<pi(Z ts 

uiviffTOi 
avops? ku^ovt'" e? oe tov \ovx ov ypo'vov yjptos; ayvol 

Trpoc avf>p<o7r<ov KaXsOvrat. 



288 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



v 

THE ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES 

[98] 

"OX^io; octtl; i^tov £x,£iva %oiXav 

tia ut:o ^-9'ov' oihz k u,£v piou tsXsutocv 

oiosv r)s otOGciOTOv dcpyav. 



VI 

DITHYRAMB 

U5] 

^2: a 



• A 



" W b "~ — <w* \^/ \J ^ w • 



vJV>J' 



■>-' \J l 



A 
,-.,- A 



,_A 



.A 



v_ «^< ^-* "~ N-** v^> -~ \J ' 

~%^ v-/ — y^ \j \j \j^ 



A 



' w *— W w v«/ 

,-A 



_ A 



_-_^_A 

, w i ^1 w — A 



_A 



^-A^ . — s^ ' 



^/ ^y ~ v^ — vl/ ^ W W ~~ 



~A 

A 



IO 



15 



A 



"lS£T' £V J(OpOV, 'OXu|7.7ttOl, 

£7W T£ JCXUTOIV TCSJJOTSTS /apiV, #£01, 

-oXupaxov oiV affrso? 6[/.<paX6v {)uo£vxa 

£v Tat? i£pai? 'Afravai; 

oi./v£iT£ TiavSaiSaXov t' sujcXs' avopav 



PINDAR 



289 



ioSeTtov \a.yzxz ffxeipavcov, t<xv t' dapi&pdxtov 
7\oi(3av, Atd&£v T£ |7.£ eruv ayXafiy 
lotre xopEuOivT' eg aoi&av &£ut£oov 

tov Bpo'f/.tov tov 'Ept(3dav te ppoTOi >ta/\io[/.ev. 10 

Tovov utoxtwv piv 7raTepwv [/.s/V7csu.sv 

yuvaixtov T£ KaS;v.£&av £u.oXov. 

'Ev 'Apyeia Neyiz [/.ocvtiv ou lavS-avet 

(pomxoeavwv otcoV oi^SivTo; 'Opav -8-a/va^ou 

euoo[/.ov Ixafotxyiv sap <puxa vexrapea. I c 

Tots paXXerat, tot' eV a[/.(3poTav ^e'pcov eoaTai 

icov <pdpou, p'doa t£ KOfAaim piyvuTai, 

a^etrai t' 0{/.<pal {/.sXlwv <ruv auloT? 

a^eirai Ssy.e/vav eXHcaf//7ri»ca £opo£. 





VII 




HYPORCHEM 




[84] 




X 




— w -V <S ~\J W —W W~~»«/~C' — ^-"W™- ' ^ 




— w ^ l — ^ ^ ^ — ^ ' — — v^ w — ' ^ 


>w* 


; — \^ ^ — -v./ ^ — ^; — ^ — ^, — /\ 




— W W '— ^ w W ~~W *-* — ^ ^ *-\^ ^ — /\ 


^ 


I ' S-* W — W ^ — w — ^ ^ 




— \^ v.; — y^ v^ I— — \j ^ — ^/ w — ~ 


s-/ 


* ™"W \*> ^— — \-/ — W — W ~~ ^ 


w 


'. — W W — O — v^< — ' ^ 


o\^ ! 


; — O — v^v^ — ON^ — *~^ — *«<W — ' ^ 




— C? ~~W ^ ~"\-/ W W V^ W — <^/ — ' ^ 




— C/ — Vy W W V-* V> *w» *~ * 




— v^fl^f — "^^^ — s^A^* <^A^ 


V-A,^ ! 


! — K*M — «*a-> — ' ^ 




— ^ — O— x^/ — ^ — ^ ^— -%,; ^ — ^ — ^ — /\ 



v->w I — W *w" ' — ^^ w 1 — - w ^y — s*s — ' ^ 



10 



15 

'A/rig 'AeXiou, ti, t^ug/COtc' ep.ag &Eag to p.aTep dimccTtov, 
aGTpov uxepTorrov ev af/.e'pa x.XexTOp.£vov, 
eOrjxa? ap,a^avov icyuv tctocvov avSpaciv 
xal aocpia? 6&ov, e7riix.oTov aTpa^ov eTcupiva 

T 



290 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

eXauveiv ti veoorepov 7] Trapo? ; 5 

'AXka. ce Trpo? Aio? i7nrowrt froou? I^etsuw 

a7r/]p-ov' s? oi[7.6v Ttva Tpoaroio ©vjpatc, 

to 7roTvia, roxyjcoivov xspa?. 

naXsp.ou S' el (?a[/.a <pepet? tlvo?, 73 gtocciv ouXoyivav, 

73 xapTtoO cpQtctv, 7} vicpSTou <j#ivo? u7rep<paT0v, 10 

vj 7:6vtou xeveoociv ava ttsSov, 

r y 77ay£TOv ^frovd?, 7] votiov &s'poc 

u^aTt ^ajcoTco &epdv, 

v^ yatav xaTax.'Xuaaicoc -9-vjcret? avSptov veov e£ apyjx<; Y^ v0 ?» 

oXo<p(opop(.ai ou)ftev o -a 7ravT0iv pixa TCi<70;/.ai. 1 5 



VIII 

PROSODION 

(a) DELOS 

[58] 

' W W — W W — /\ 



1 W W WW* 



 «^ W WW — — ^— v-^— — — w*^"— W^ — /\ 

 WW WW W \^ /\ 

'WW — WW WW — WW 

- w WW— /\ 

- ^ ' ^/ WW"~WW— — 

■WW — WW """WW - 'WW 



Stroph. 
Xalp' u> fteofy/.aTa, ^iTwapo-^oy.y.f./.ou 
TraiSeccri Aaxou? l|/.epoe<JTaTov spvo?, 
7c6vtou ftuyocTep, yftovo? eupeia? axivTjTOV Tepag, 

OCVT£ [3pOT0l 

Aalov xucXrraor.Gr.v, p.axape? S' ev 'OXu;jl— w T7JXe<paT0v 
x'javea; j(frov6; aVrpov ... 5 

Antistroph. 

* # * * 

YjV yap TOTrapoiO-e cpopvjTa >tuj/.aTe<7<Jiv TravTO&XTiiov t' 

avsuiov 



PINDAR 291 

iiKcaaw oCkV a Kotoyevr? gt^ot' coStvecci -8-oat? 

tt.yyiT6x.ou; eTrs^a viv, S^ tots Teacaps; opfrai 5 

77p£ t avwv axtopoucrav y&ovioav, 

av S' e^ix-pavoi; cry£$ov Trsrpav aoa[/.avT07i£SiXoi 

*iove<; - sv#a tsxoTc' EuftaifAOv' e— o^a.TO ysvvav. 

(/?) AT DELPHI 
[60] 



' *w* ~\^ V-* O" W — W — W — V*/ 

'W vj "™ t j ~- r^ — \^j v^y — v j — * ^ 



ITpo? 'OXu|/.7:to'j Ato? ce, 

'Xitjco^.ai XaptT£<j<7t ts ;cal cruv 'A<ppoSiT<x 

sv ^a&Eto [7.£ Si^ai ytopw aoiStfzov 

IltepuWv ^pocparav. 5 

XI 

SCOLION 
TO THEOXENUS OF TENEDOS 

— '. — w w — w w ' — ' ' — w w w — w w — /\ 

— ww — ww ' — w ; — w ' — w — ~7\ 

. I w 

— , •— w — ~— — ww — WW 

L — w ■— ' l— w ' — w ' — w — ~/\ 

Epod. 

— ! ^ w — — — ww — ww w w — ww 

— ww — ww ' — w 

"" w w — w w L— w — . . . 

Stroph. 
Xpv;v piv tta-ra y.aipov gpeortov §p&?s<T$ai, -8-upi, 

cuv ttXv/lv: 
xa; rte ©eo^evou axiTva? (ti;) offffcav u.a()|/.api£o£<ja$ Spooled; 



292 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

6? p) 7708-0) Jtu(Jt.aCvSTai, d£ aSap.avTo; 

Antistroph. 
ipuypa <pAoyi, 7rpo<; S' 'A<ppoSiTa; aTi|/.a<j&sl? sDa/.of&scpapou 5 
r rcspi xpr^act [/.ox&i'Cst fiiaiox, yj yuvaixeio) ftpaaei 
J/uyav oopeiTat Tcaaav oSov O-epaTCuoiv. 

'AXX' Syo TOCffS' BJWCTl X.7]p0? CO? fW^Sl? £X? 

Epod. 
ioav ixeXwyaav rajtofAai, sut' av i&o) xaiStov vsoyuiov £<; vjfiav. 
sv &' aoa nai TevsSto Hsifto) te vatet, IO 

y,vX Xapi?* uiov 'Ay/jG&a* . . . 

x 

SC0L10N (?) 
[239] 



1 — ^ — — "~s^W — W <J ^ ~ 

1 — ^ — — — o ^ 1— ' L— w ~- — U " V 

L— W"~ — — ^ W ~~ O*^"™ — — ^ "" 
* * * 



'Avfa' av&pioTCtov yca^aTcoSes; ofyovTat, pipiixvoa 
CTV)8itov s£w, xe^ayet. 8' ev TroTa^puaoio tcaoutou 
TcavTS? fcix veojy.ev ^suStj ~pG? axTav 
6? i/iv aypr,[/,o)v a<pvso? tots, toi S' aC 7cXoutsovts? 

* * * * 

ae^ovTai. eppeva? a[/.7reAivoi? to'^oi? SajiivTec. 

XI 

SOCIAL PRECEPTS 

(a) AMPHIARAUS TO HIS SON AMPHILOCHUS 

[173] 

1_ w _ 1— w — UU-^U _ /\ 

I— ^ ^ v^ — w ^ ^ w — v-> W ' — W — 7\ 

^Q TS*VOV, 

7covTiou frvjpo; 7i£Tpaiou /pom ^aXwTa voov 



PINDAR 293 

7rpo<5<psptov Trasoa; ~oAi£crcrt.v 6[/,iasi' tcIj xapeovn. 

aXkoT aAAoia cppovst. 

GO 

[172] 

— v^v^^^w"" — L ~ ^ — — *— ^ — /\ 

— yy — v^v^ ' — V^ — — — 1-/W— /\ 

\J w ' ~ — ' — s^ w 

My) xpo? axavra? avapprj^at. tov a^pstov Aoyov 
safr' ots 7u<7TOTaTa (nya<; 6S0;' xevrpov Si [-'•ax, a ? 
6 xpaTWTSucov Aoyo;. 

(T) 

— >_/ w •— w ' — 1^ — — — v^ w — 7\ 

'— (^1 — — — v^^ — 1»>^ — ~/\ 

yj 'I y_, I yj I yj I ^/ 

— yy \y — O''-' — — — ^l\J ~- \J <J — — — ^J ^ — /\ 



'A'X'XoTpiotct p.V) 7rpo<paiveiv tic ©spETai 
[/.o^8-05 ap.^iv' to'jto ye toi dpsco* 

xaAtov j/iv wv p.oipav te Tspxvcov £? piaov ^py) Travrl Aa<£ 
$sucvuvai* ei M ti? avfrpwrcotci fteoaSofos arXara y-ascOTa? 

TTpOdT'J^, TaUTaV GrtOTEl X,pU7TT£tV E01X.EV. 5 

XII 

THE GODS 

(a) PAEAN 
1 33] 



 yy \y — yj 1^/ • 



yy . —r- 

— . — ^J w "~ ^ "~ — "■ /\ 

I — v^ ' — w — ^ w v^v^ W >-» l— <-( — /\ 

Ti 5' £A7reat, aocptav sp.fj.svai, a oAiyov toi 
a.vrp U7csp avSpo? iayjjsi ; 



294 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

ou yap Za&' oizon; toc &eo3v (3ouXsu[/.aT* epeuvacsi J3poT£« 
^■vaxai; §' axo [/.aTpo? s<pu. 

(y6') HYPORCHEM 
[7Sl 

\j , — w *— — w — v^ 

. l* A 

0eo~ §s Sei^avTO? apj^av 

sxauTov ev Trpayo; su^-eTa Sy] jcsXsuS-o? apsxav sXsiv, 

TsXeurai ts jcaXTiove?. 

(T) 
[106] 

.,_A 



\-/ . \~/ <J ^ ~~ "O 



w . ' — w*- , w — w~~w ^ ^ — 



_ W _ W _A 



■8-eto Ss Suvoctov ex. [/.eXaiva? 
vujcto? ap-iavTOV op<rat cpao?, 
jceXaive<psi Se mcoTei xaXu^ai xafrapov 
aj/ipa? aeXa?. 

(8') 

[105] 



.v-'WW — W ta ~'~V-' — W •w' ^ W b 



©so; 6 Ta 7tavxa tsu^cov ppoTOt? xal /aptv aoi$£ <puTSuei. 



CO 




[107] 




X 




— C^ — \^ !„) -v u — w 


_A 


• ' — ^^ A 




^/ * — w — WWS_/k^— "^ 





Kefvoi yap t' avocoi x.al ayyjpaoi 
u6vci)v t' araipoi papu^oav 
TCOpity.OV 7T£<p£UyOT£? 'AyepovTo;. 



PINDAR 295 

XIII 

THEBES 

[206] 

— s^ — — — u~~-i;u-uu-- 
1 — ^ u 1 — ^ _ -^ 

— w — — — w w — /\ 

— ; 1— ^ w w — w w — — — w w — w w — — ' — w— /^ 

— w — — ' — w — — 

KeJcpov/jTai /puaea xpTjm; lepalcriv aot&ai?* 

Eia T£l}(l£c!>[/.£V Y]5"/] TTOlXlAOV 

xo<7|/.ov au^aevTa Aoytov 

0; xal zoAuxAErrav rap eoToav 6'{/.co; ©r^av £Tt |j.aAAOv 

6Xa<7X7]<7£l &Sc3v 

xal xax' avfrptoTrcov ayiua?. 5 



XIV 

ATHENS. DITHYRAMB 
[46, 196] 

— ;— WW— WW — WW — WW^W — 

— ; |W w i — w — w w — _ _ wv-/ _ ww~* — 
ww — ww — — — ww — ww — — 

— i 1 — w — ww — 

'X2 tocI Awwcpal xal locTEcpavot. xal aot&[/.oi, 

'EaaocSo? £pet<j(/.a, xAEival 'A&avai, Saip.oviov TCTOAfeQ-pov. 

■^v "^r *^r ip* "^ 

o&i uaifk? 'Aftavaiwv £ ( 6ocaovto <pa£vvov 
xpvpiS' dA£u9-£pia?. 

XV 

SPARTA 

[213] 

I— ,j — — L— w — — *— w— — L— w — •■ ^" W — — 
l — w ww— ww — /\ 

"Evfra (xal) pouAal yEpovxwv xal v£wv avSpoTv apwjTSuowjiv 

ai/jy.ai, 
xal '/ppol **■ Moiaa xal 'AyAal'a. 



NOTES 



ARCHILOCHUS 
EPODES 

FOR Epodic metre, see Schmidt, Rhythmic and Metric, p. 93 seq. It 
is peculiar in frequently changing the nature of the rhythm in the 
second line of the couplet as compared with the first. Thus in 
Frag. I. the first line is in dactylic or f time, and the second in trochaic 
or \ time, while in Frag. vn. we find the reverse. 

I. Stob. Flor. lxiv. 12. 'Woe-begone I am enwrapped half-lifeless 
in desire, by the will of the gods pierced to the very marrow with 
sharp pangs.' 

■9-eojv, apparently Aphrodite and Eros. For the use of extjti cf. 
KuTrptoo? Fsxaxt, Alcman XV I. 

II. Tolo; yap x.T.X.. 

Stob. Flor. lxiv. 11. The metre of this Epode is imitated by 
Horace, 1 Od. iv., Solvitur acris hiemps, etc. For the 3 -time 
dactyls - <s~>, see Metre, p. 63, and for an entirely different metrical 
arrangement of the Epode, see Schmidt, p. 96. 

Notice the languishing effect, appropriate to the words, produced 
by the ' falling ' or brachycatalectic close. 

Compare closely with the passage Sap. II. : 'O—a'xsaai 8' ouokv op7)[j.' 
£7cippo[jL I (Jewi 5' otzouat, and Apoll. Rhod. iii. 962, of Medea in the 
presence of Jason : 

'Ex o' apa 01 /.paSirj axrj^i'wv nsaev, op.ij.ata o' auxoj; 
"H/Xuaav. 

III. 'AXXa [j.' 6 Xus. Hephaest. 90. 

AuctpsXr;? is applied to Eros, Sap. VIII., and Hesiod, Theog. 911. 
Aapvatai, cf. Sap. xill., -oOto oapstsa, and Anacr. iv. of Eros, o$e 
xoA (jporoui; oaij.a^ct. 

IV. (a) naxEp Auxa{jipa /..x.X. Schol. Hermog. in Walz. Rhett. vii. 
820, and Hephaest. 129 (11. 1-2). 

1. 1. We should probably restore the Ionic xdtov. 

1. 2. 7tapr'eipE cf. X. 5, vo'ou 7:aprjopo;. 

1. 3. f,; Schneidew., for MSS. r ( ;, Bergk a; (Walz). 



300 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

(6) Orig. adi>. Cels. ii. 74 : O nctpto? ?ajj.[3oj;oios tov Auxapi[37)v (ovetot- 
?wv), cf. Dio Chrys. ii. 746. Huschke thinks that this passage belongs 
to the same poem as the Fable of The Fox and the Eagle, No. vi. If 
so, this is the application of the story to the case of Archilochus and 
Lycambes, the words a'Xa; ts xat Tpa7re£av matching ^uvwvirjv £|j.t?av 
(vi. a.). 

V. Ouxe'9-' oijwo; Y..T.1. Hephaest. 35 and 30. The two lines are not 
unsuitably placed together by Elmsley, and the passage may perhaps 
be sneeringly addressed to Neobule. 

For the position of Ss cf. on No. XI. 9. 

VI. The Fox and the Eagle. Huschke (Miscell. Philol. ed. 
Matthiae t. I. p. i.) concludes that this and the next Fable (No. vn.) 
are directed against Lycambes. Philos., Imag. 766, says : iy.ikt\<3i 
pjfrou xai 'Ap/iXdyw -po? Auxa ( a[3r)v, and Julian, vii. 227A, speaks of 
Archilochus employing fables for purposes of this sort. The story, 
which is found in Aesop I., was that the eagle, after contracting an 
alliance with the fox, devoured its cubs. Vengeance however over- 
took her, for her nest was burnt by a spark from an altar from which 
she had stolen some meat ; her young ones fell to the ground and 
were eaten before her eyes by the fox. 

Between (a') and ((5') there is a considerable gap, in which the 
crime of the eagle is related. In (P') the eagle is jeering at the fox 
from her own inaccessible crag, concluding, if my arrangement be 
accepted, with a sarcastic expression of hope that the fox will not 
come across any more eagles. The last passage (y') is either the 
fox's prayer to Zeus to punish the offender whom she cannot reach, 
or her song of grateful triumph after the punishment has been in- 
flicted. 

(a') Quoted by Ammon. 6, ed. Valck., and many other authorities. 

For the use of apa equivalent to apa cf. Pind. Pyth. iv. 78, and 
see Hartung on the Particles, i. 456. 

(£') 1. 1-3. Atticus ap. Euseb. Praep. Ev. xv. 795 A, with reference 
to this same fable. Obviously, as Meineke pointed out, the passage 
is from Archilochus, though his name is not given. 

1. 3. iXaeppi£iov. Hesych. -apaaxEua£o|jiEvos paoiwe, 'preparing for', or 
' awaiting untroubled ', since the eagle has taken up an unassailable 
position. Schneidewin conjectures [j.avr;v = ;j.aviav (cf. Aristoph. Frag. 

647)- 

1. 4. Schol. //. xxiv. 315, euoO-e xat 6 'Apyp.oyot; [j-EXaptuyov touttov (the 
eagle) xaXelv. Hesychius also gives the line, with xuyot? for tu'/t)?) 
and he explains [j.sXa[a.7i. without reference to the eagle. Schneidewin 
conjectured that the line belongs to the fable, and I have accordingly 
placed it in the taunting speech of the eagle. 

(y') Stobaeus, Eel. Phys. i. 122, attributes this passage to Aeschy- 
lus ; but Clem. Alex., Strom, v. 725, and Eusebius to Archilochus. 



ARCH I LOCH US 301 

1. 2. etc' av9pw-tov Schneidewin. Stobaeus has etc' oupaviwv y.a\ 
av9pwTCtov, Clem. Alex, etc' oupavouc, Euseb. etc' av9pwTC0u;. 

1. 3. -/.a{k'[ju<rra has better authority than Liebel's reading /.at &z[jx<tvx 
adopted by Bergk, and is I think more suited to the context, as the 
fox is only speaking of sin and its punishment, u[3pi; te y.<x\ Si'xtj. 

VII. The Ape and the Fox. Amnion. 6, and elsewhere. 

In this fable Archilochus is supposed by Huschke to be attacking 
the pride of Lycambes, Aesop narrating (14 Schneider) how an ape 
boasted about his ancestry to a fox. Or the story may be that of 
Aesop 69, where an ape who had attained to royal power was en- 
trapped by a fox. 

1. 1.2. 'I, an angry messenger, will tell a tale to you, O Cerycides.' 
If Huschke be right, Ktjouz. must be applied to Lycambes, and as 
it was a gentile name in the Ionic cities Athens (Photius) and 
Miletus (Hesych. s.v. x^pou/toai), it may perhaps also have been that 
of the Parian family to which Lycambes belonged ; in this case, 
Archil, is jeering at his boasted descent, and is therefore probably 
employing the former of the two fables mentioned. 

The metaphor in ax-uxaXr] is of course suggested by Krjpuxior], 
' Herald's son '. Somewhat similarly Pindar, 01. vi. 91, speaks of the 
man to whom he has consigned (probably verbally only) his choral 
song and its musical and dance-accompaniment as ayycXo; 6p9-d?, 
7}uxofj.wv a/.uxaXa Motaav. See especially Fennell's remarks, Introd. to 
Pindar, p. xxviii. 

It is hard to see how ayv. azux. can mean ' a messenger of evil 
tidings ', as Liebel takes it. 

1. 3. aTCozpiD-E'!?, i.e. he was too proud to associate with his 
fellows. 

1. 4. apa, cf. on No. VI. a'. 

xEpBaXcV] (trisyll.) cf. Plat. Rep. 365, referring to this passage. 

VIII. TrjvsXXa xaXXtvixs x.T.X. 

Schol. Ar. Birds 1764, and Schol. Acharn. 1230. Cf. Schol. Pind. 
Nem. iii. 1 ; 01. ix. 1. 

I have adopted the arrangement suggested by Bergk in his note, 
though not employed in his text. It not only imparts a very lively 
effect, but brings the song into accordance with the description in the 
Scholia — to uiXog r,v tptaxpo^ov . . . xp\? etcex.eXocoouv to KaXXtvr/.s. The 
song was a hymn to Hercules in honour of his victory over Augeas 
(Schol. Birds, I.e.), after which occasion he founded the Olympic 
games (see Pind. 01. x.). Hence the lines were appropriately em- 
ployed as an informal Epinician ode by victors. Compare 01. ix. 1. : 
To |j.ev 'ApytXoyou (ae'Xo; | ^wvasv 'OXuu.TCia, KaXXivtxo; 6 xpiTCXdo; -/.s-/Xa8w; 
ap/.sas x.t.X. Cf. also Aristoph. Knights, 1254. 

Archilochus himself, we are told, was the first to use it for purposes 
of this kind— w/.v. ok TCpwxo; 'ApyfXo/o; vixr]ia? ev Ila'po) xov Arj;j.r)Tpo; 



302 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

u[j.vov {i.e. 'having been victorious with his hymn lo Demeter', v. 
Bergk 120), iau-(o xouxov ijti7;s©a)V7]XE'vai. 

TjivsXXa was a cry employed when there was no music at hand, in 
imitation of the notes of the lyre (cf. SpsxxavEXo, Ar. Plutus, 290). It 
was uttered by the leader, 6 scjapyo;, while the band of revellers, 6 xuv 
xwp.a(jTcov XPP°?> followed it up with the words xaXXfvixs x.x.X. (Schol. 
CV. ix. etc.). '{2 has little authority, but is supplied by Dindorf in the 
Schol. Arisf., and seems desirable for the completion of the metre, 
though not essential. 

1. 4. Bergk leaves afypjxa ; but Fick points out that if the dual 
were employed at all it would assuredly be afyp]T>]> 



TETRAMETERS 

IX. 0u[jl£, -9-ijfJi' d[ju]-/avotat x.x.X. Stob. Flor. xx. 28. 

1. 1. xuxo>[j.eve. Cf. Solon. II, 61, xaxoct? voiiaotai xuxtd[j.£vov. 

1. 2. avsys. So Grotius for MSS. dvaoso, or IvaSsu, confusion having 
apparently arisen with the succeeding syllable in ov^evmv. 

1. 3. sv ooxotaiv x.x.X. If the word means 'spears ', we must translate : 
' Firmly taking thy stand close up amidst the spears of the enemy.' 
In that case, however, the words -X^aiov and b> are hardly reconcile- 
able. It has been suggested to me that odxoi is possibly used for 
' expectation ' {i.e. of the enemy). In the singular, at any rate, the 
word has a meaning similar to this ; see Liddell and Scott. The 
interpretation 'ambush' for ooxolaiv is not so well suited to the context. 

1. 7. pua;j.6; or puQ-jxo? in this passage is regarded by all the com- 
mentators as signifying 'disposition, character, nature,' and they 
compare Anacr. xviii. oaot yO-oviou? e/oucti puS-jj-ouj, and Theogn. 964, 
opyrv xai poffy.ov x.x.X. With this interpretation I fail to see the force 
of the words in a passage relating to the alternations of human 
fortune, and I would suggest that the meaning is rather : ' Consider 
what an even ebb and flow of destiny governs the affairs of men, 
tempering good with evil fortune and evil with good.' Cf. No. x. 

X. Tot? 0-£oi; xtO'Si (xa) Travxa x.x.X. Stob. Flor. cv. 24. 

These lines express the same sentiment as No. ix. : ' Remember 
that our fate is in the hands of the gods, who can reverse it at any 
moment.' 

1. 1. Grotius supplies xa. For x;9ct, Bergk compares Aesch. Pers. 
424, xauxa . . . -avxa \rrpo\j.zv 9-cdtai. For the sentiment cf. Hor. 3 Od. 
vi. 5 : ' Dis te minorem quod geris imperas | Hinc omne principium 
hue refer exitum.' 

1. 3. [j.aX' su psjjrjxdxas : ' those who have taken a firm stand.' Cf. 
Hdt. vii. 164, x^v xupavviSa eu pEpVjxutav, and for the phrase in its literal 
sense No. xm. 1. 4. 



A R C H I L O C H U S 303 

1. 5. -/piiAr,, ' want ', ' poverty ' (/paa — a^avt;, Suidas), not as in Lid. 
and Scott's earlier edition, 'request', 'prayer'. 

vo'ou Jtaprjopos, ' with mind distraught '. Cf. No. IV. (a), 1. 2. 

Ilgen keeps the MSS. reading XFlPb anc ^ proceeds xai vdo; -apropos, 
comparing with the application of nXavaxai to evils wandering abroad, 
Hes. Wks. ioo : aXXa oe p.ucia Xuypa xax' av9p<o-ou; aXaXjjxai. 

XI. XprjijiaTiov oceX-tov ouoe'v x.t.X. Stob. Flor. ex. 10, 1. I being 
also quoted by Ar. Rhet. iii. 17 : ('Ap//Xo-/og) rotel tov naxepa Xs'yovTa 
7csp\ TTjs ■9-uyaxpo; x.t.X., from which Schneidewin conjectures that 
Lycambes is commenting on the change in Archilochus from ardent 
love for Neobule to violent hatred. 

Stobaeus quotes the passage as if it were written on the occurrence 
of an eclipse ; but from Aristotle's words we should rather gather that 
Archilochus is merely taking the power of Zeus to change day into 
night as a crowning instance of his omnipotence, eStjxs in that case 
being the gnomic aorist. 

1. I. a~to[j.oTov : explained by Etym. Mag. av xi? cwtofiooeis ysyovc'vai 
r t [>.ri YEVEcrS-ai" evtoi dl (xveXtcicttov. It can hardly express the notion here, 
as, in Soph. Antig. 388, 394, of ' swearing not to do a thing ' ; although 
that passage seems to allude to Archilochus' line. Possibly the 
watchman there is playing upon the signification of the word. In 
the famous speech of Ajax (Soph. Aj. 646), "A7cav9-' 6 p.axpo; x.t.X. 
Sophocles again seems to have had the lines of Archilochus in his 
mind. 

1. 4. uypov, Valckenaer for MSS. Xuypov, which is unmetrical. Bentley 
«r/pov. Ilgen explains uypov with reference to the misty feeling in the 
eyes caused by extreme fear ; rather perhaps 'faint', ' languid', as in 
Soph. Antig. 1235, "YP° V «Y*wva, and Eur. Phoen. 1437, uypav yspa. 
As applied to the eyes the word signifies usually the ' languishing 
look of love '. 

I.5. £x xou, 'ex hoc tempore', 'after this', that is to say, unless 
we refer the passage to an actual eclipse, '(Since Archilochus has 
proved fickle) from this time forth (all nature may prove fickle), and 
everything become credible and to be expected.' Or we may take 
ix tou to mean simply 'therefore', just as ex tivo?; = ' wherefore?' 
Kai 7uara -avTa Liebel, for oux a-iaxa ^avxa. Ilgen reads ex 8e toOS' 
a7:iaTa rcavxa x.t.X., referring touSe to Se'os, so that the passage would 
mean 'Fear will make a man believe the most incredible things'. 
But surely this is out of harmony with the context. 

1. 7. lav, Valckenaer for Tva, Bergk oxav. 

1. 9. For the corrupt xtftai 8' tjou 7]v Gaisford reads xoisiv rjotov 3' 
cipo;. For the position of Be cf. No. V. 2, oypio? xaxwv Se, in which case, 
however, it is justified by the close connection between the two nouns. 
For other instances see Hartung's Particles i. 190- 1, in all of which 
there is more justification for the transposition than there would be 
in Gaisford's version. With 11. 7-9 cf. Hor. 1 Od. ii. 7. 



304 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

XII. Toto; avfrpw7:otai x.x.X. Theo. Progymnasm. i. 153 (Walz) 
quotes 11. 1-2 with the remark that Archilochus is paraphrasing Homer, 
Od. xviii. 136 — 

Tdto; yap voo<; eaxtv sraySovuov avfrptoTuov, 
otov £-' rjijiap ayr ( ai r.airft avoptov xs 0cwv xe. 

1. i. Glaucus appears again in No. xiv. as Archilochus' companion in 
arms. He is also spoken of slightingly in Bergk 57 asxov x£po7tXaax7jv, 
explained by Plut. as ipiXoxoa^ov wep\ /.o[j.r]v. 

1. 2. oxofyv : z.£. men's feelings vary with the fortune (^[XEprjv) Zeus 
brings to them. With the reading oxolov, which has less authority, 
ItcI must of course be taken not, as in the former case, with aysi in 
tmesi, but with rj[jipr ( v, 'men's feelings are such as Zeus brings them 
daily '. For aysi Stob., who quotes the passage, Eel. Phys. i. 38. has 
ayr], which might perhaps be expected in imitation of the Homeric 
construction above. 

1. 3. Supplied from the Platonic Eryxias 397 E. 

hi ^[i.Ep>]v : we should perhaps read hi rjfjiprjv, as an example of Ionic 
Psilosis '. Cf. Anacr. ii. 6, saxaxopa; note, and see Fick in Bezzen- 
berger's Beitrdge, vol. xi. p. 246 seq. 

XIII. Ou otXc'to (jiyav x.x.X. 11. 1-2 Dio Chrys. ii. 456; 11. 3-4, 
Galen in Hippocr. de Artie. III. T. xviii. 1. 537. 

1. I. SiararcXiyp-ivov Hemsterhuys, for Sta7:s7Ujy|jivov or ota-s-Xr^yfi-e'vov. 

1. 2. Porrpuy. yaupov, cf. Eur. Or. 1532, [joaxpuyoi; yaupou[j.svos, 
sarcastically of Menelaus. 

1. 4. potx.6? has somewhat more authority than paipo;. Both have 
the same signification, ' with the knees bent inwards ', ' knock-kneed ', 
a physical peculiarity favourable, according to Galen, to firmness of 
stand. 

Kapou]? Tzkuoq : so Galen ; while Dio has a totally different version, 
/at E7uvor'[j.aai oaau's, according to the common reading. Schneidewin 
follows Bergk's older version, xa^tvw'[j.aatv oaau'?, and interprets ' eon- 
silio abwidantem, oppositum u-E?uprj;j.evw ', ' bristling with plans '. 
Emperius reads xoltzi xv7]'[j.at<nv Saau? (mss. Dio xa\ h& xv7j[/.aiai), hair 
about the limbs and body being often, if erroneously, regarded as a 
sign of strength. 

XIV. rXaux' opa x.x.X. Heracl. Pont. Allegor. Horn. c. 5, 'ApyiXoyoc 
ev xot; Gpaxixol; aj:EtXr](j.;j.s'vo; Seivoi; xov t:oXs[j.ov Eixa£si ■O'aXaxxt'to xXuSwvi. 
Cf. Alcaeus passim for the frequent application of the same metaphor. 

1. 1. rXaux' opa, perhaps opa ; cf. on No. XII. 1. 3. 

1. 2. TupEwv. Rocks of this name are mentioned in the Odyssey iv. 
500, but as they were near Naxos (Scholl. ad loc.) they can hardly be 
those referred to by Archilochus. Schneidewin conjectures that the 
latter were ' raxpa? quasdam axpoyyuXa; non procul Thaso '. Liebel, 
yupEov (with vs'cpo;) i.q. yupov or xupxov, ' nubes convexa ', a cloud 



ARCHILOCHUS 305 

pregnant with rain. But he has possibly overlooked the fact that 
TupEcov is the Ionic form of the gen. plur. fern, from yupo?, not y u peos. 
Compare Anacr. xxm. 1. 12, aaxive'wv, etc. 

1. 3. i% <xzk~v.r]<; = acXnxw; (Hesych.). 

1. 4. Clem. Alex. S/rom. vi. 739. I have conjecturally placed this 
line with 11. 1-3. Archilochus is apparently imitating Homer //. vii. 
102. 

Ntxrj; 7i£tpax' ryovxai Iv aO-avaxoiai -O-eofaiv. 

XV. Ou xi? atSofo? x.x.X. Stob. Flor. cxxvi. 4. 

xai-ep 'icpfrtpLo? Porson, for xa\ xrspicpr^j.o?. Salmasius xaforep sucprjjxo;. 
Bergk xavapi9|uo?. 

1. 2. £ooo Porson, for £uou. Compare with this line Stesich. IX. (3 — 
■9-avovxo; avopo? raV a~oXXuxai rcox' dv9pu>7:wv yapi?. 

I have omitted a third line, bracketed by Bergk, and quoted in a 
corrupt state by Stob. : £tooi" xdxiaxa 3e xu> #avovxi yiyvsxai. 

XVI. Ou yap hd-Xx x.x.X. Stob. Flor. cxxv. 5, and Schol. Od. xxii. 

412 (ouy oairj xxa[j.c'voicjtv £-' dvopaaiv suyexaaafrai). 

XVII. "Ev 8' ETCtuxajxat [jiya x.x.X. Theoph. ad Autolyc. ii. 37, p. 
377. Cf. Frag. 143 (Bergk), xs'xxtya 0' e'tX^cpa; 7xxspou, Archilochus 
speaking of himself. 

1. 2. [j.s Hecker and Bergk, some mss. xi. 

XVIII. KXu9-' dva? x.x.X. Plut. de and. poet. c. 6, with the remark 
auxov xov {hov IrixaXoup-evo? 8^X0? saxiv, not the element fire as in Eleg. 
12 (Bergk). 

1. 1. Cf. Aesch. Choeph. 2, awxr ( p yevou [xoi s'u'jj.jj.ayoc; x' aixoupivw. 
ysvcu : Fick I.e. points out the inconsistency of retaining ysvoufside by 
side with yapi^su. 

1. 2. yapt^su x.x.X., 'show me thy wonted favour'. 

XIX. Nov 8e AewcpiXo; x.x.X. Herodian, jrepl <r/7]j/.. 57. 2. 

1. 1. dpysi. Liebel, supposing that the speaker is enamoured of 
Leophilus, has a note : ' apyeiv et xpaxetv de formosis, ut Anacreon de 
Bathyllo, xov apxi xtov ardvxwv | xpaxouvxa xai xu'pavvov.' 

1. 2. Ksixai : ' all things lie at the disposal of L.', ' all power'js' in his 
hands ', like 3-scov Iv you'vaat xeixai. 

AetoipiXou 8' axou'sxai Porson, for Aew'oiXo? 31 axous. 

XX. Ei yap w; i\j.o\ x.x.X. Plut. de EI ap. Delph. c. 5. 

Ei yap w; is pleonastic, and Liebel supports the reading tS§ ' vel sic ', 
i.e. perhaps ' in spite of my anger at my rejection '. 

XXI. (a) 'Q? Aiwvu'301' avaxxo?. Quoted by Athen. xiv. 628A, to 
show that the proper accompaniment of the Dithyramb was oivo? xai 

U 



306 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

[Li&i]. We see from this and the following passage that Archil, was 
a composer of Melic poetry proper (cf. Biog. Archil, p. 1 1 1). 

£?ap?at, see p. 7, and cf. Ar. Poet, i. 30, where it is stated that 
Tragedy arose from tuv E^apydvTwv tov oi!)"jpa|jipov. 

(P) auTo? i?ap/wv, Athen. v. 180 E. 

Ac'a|3iov. The epithet points to the early existence of a Lesbian 
school of Lyric poetry, see p. 100. 

XXII. "E7;Ta yap vE/.pwv x.t.X. Plut. Galba, c. 27. "ftarap hi cprjaiv 
' ApyiXo'/ot;' E^xa yap jc.T.X., gutw tote t:oXXo\ tgu ^dvou [jl^ auvEcpa^a- 
[xevot, X £ "'p a ? ^ £ xai ^"jp 7 ! xa9'at[j.aaaovTEs etzeoeixvuvto. 



MELIC AT SPARTA 

TERPANDER 

I. v Ev9-' ai/[i.a x.t.X. Plut. Lye. c. 21. (Tsp-avopo;) outws ::sjtcH7)XE 
7cepi Ttov Aaz£oai^.ovt(ov. See Art. vin. p. 101, and compare the passage 
from Pindar there quoted (No. xv. in this text), also Alcman xxiv. 

<Ay\xk ve'mv, cf. Pind. Nem. x. 23 : 9-pE'J/E o' afypuxv 'Aix^tTpuwvo?, where, 
as in this passage, Dissen explains ai/fj.a as 'warlike spirit'. Mtoaa, 
Dor. Dial. p. 79. 

Aiysia. If Chappell {Hist, of Music, p. 107) is right in saying that 
Greek music was pitched extremely high, we can more readily under- 
stand why Xtyu;, properly ' shrill ', is so often used for ' sweet-toned ', 
' musical'. Cf. Alcman VII. and IX. etc. 

Eupuayula, Schneidew. conjectures eu apapota, Bergk thinks that 
Eupuay. may be explained by Aratus 105 : Aix.rj . . . ay£tpo[XEV7] Se 
yEpovTa? I 'He' 7:ou eiv ayopr| t\ Eupoyopto ev ayuiyf. I should take it to 
signify, like EupudoEta, ' easily accessible ', ' open to all '. 

II. 2di o f^uEi? x.t.X. Quoted by Strabo xiii. 618, to show that 
Terpander was the inventor of the heptachord, discarding the older 
tetrachord. See, however, Music, pp. 35, 36, and Ath. xiv. 635, where 
the use of many-stringed instruments is spoken of by Euphorion as 
-apiaXatov. Some (e.g. Bergk, Hist. Gk. Lit. p. 211) understand by 
TETpay7]puv aoiS. the old Nome, of 4-parts (see p. 36). 

axoaTEp^avTE?, so Eucl. Introd. Harm. 19; Strabo, aTtoarTpE'iavTE?. 
The dialect is given as it appears in these authors. 

III. (a) Zeu -avTwv ap/a x.t.X. Clem. Alex., Strom, vi. 784, quotes 
this for the solemnity of the rhythm. 

1. 3. ra'pzw perhaps implies that the passage is from a processional 
hymn. Bergk alters to ara'vSw. 

(P') Keil, Anal. Gramm. 6. 6. Conjecturally attributed to Terp- 
ander by Bergk, who has restored the Doric forms Mtdaai?, Mwadpyw. 



SPARTAN SONGS 307 

It is, however, hardly safe to tamper with a word so familiar in Epic 
poetry as Mouaa. 

IV. 'A[i.tp{ [j.oi x.x.X. Schol. Ar. Clouds 595, 'Ajxcpi [Aot auxs 4>otp 
ava£, x.x.X. 

TYRTAEUS 

These, if we may include No. II. (#. below), are the only extant 
passages from Tyrtaeus of a Melic description. 

I. "Aysx' w 2racpxa; suavopw x.x.X. Quoted by Dio Chrys. i. 34 
(Emp.) as an instance of an spL(Bax7Jptov or march-song, and by Tzetz. 
Chil. i. 692. 

1. 1. £uav5pto. I have restored the Doric genit. in w, v. Dor. Dial. 

P- 94- 

I. 4. odpu o\ i.e. Ss^ta Se odpu, x.x.X., Se?. being implied in Sdpu. ;:aX- 
Xgvxe*;, so Thiersch for (jocXXexs, paXXovxs;. 

II. "Aysx' oj Srcapxa; evo7xXoi x.x.X. Quoted by Hephaest. 46, without 
the name of the author, and conjecturally assigned to Tyrtaeus. It 
is a brilliant example of spirited metre, xivtjcnv : Hephaest. has 
xtvasiv, but this is with little doubt a hyper-Dorism of later times. 



SPARTAN DANCE SONGS 

I. Plut. Lye. 21 and elsewhere. Bergk thinks that it may be 
attributed to Tyrtaeus on the strength of Pollux iv. 107. Tpiyoptav 6s 
Tupxato; ectt7](js, xpfis Aaxw'vwv ydpou?, . . . JialSas, avopa;, ys'povxa;. It is 
worth noticing that the Spartans did not regard dancing as incon- 
sistent with the dignity of old age. 

I. 1. ifjiss, Bergk {Dor. Dial. p. 95). Plut. gives the Lesbian ap.[j.£? 
(api£? in one passage), but the pure Doric is more probable in a song 
of this character. 

^jjL£; = ^[i.£v, but 7]{ji.es in 1. 2 = Eafiiv, Dor. Dial. p. 96. r^dc, is restored 
by Ahrens for the 'milder' Doric Eipi?. Xff? from Xa-ei?, pp. 92, 93. 
auyaaSso = auya^Eo, Lesb. Dial. pp. 83, 84. auyaaoso is read in two out 
of the three passages in Plutarch where these lines occur, relpav Xapi' 
in the third. 

at is an old form of el, found in early Doric and Lesbian inscrip- 
tion, and in Homer when accompanied by x£ or yap; v. G. Meyer, 
Gr. Gram. 1 13. 

xappov£? ( = xpeixrovE?) from *xdpTitov, *xapaawv. For the assimilation 
of p? cf. 0-appstv as compared with Oapastv, etc. {v. Meyer, 271). 

II. -dppco yap x.x.X. Quoted by Luc. de Saltat. 10, who explains 
xtofxai-axE (3eXx. as ajj.£tvov dp/^aaafh. Bergk compares Hesych. x(j[j.a8o£iv 
dpystaflai. For x(op.a?ax£ v. Dor. Dial. pp. 95, 96. 



3o8 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



ALCM AN 

A. PARTHENION 

THE discovery of this fragment, from which I have taken nearly all 
that is intelligible, is an incident of considerable interest, not only 
from the literary value of the rescued poem alone, but because of the 
possibilities thus opened out of the further recovery of lost Greek 
literature. 1 

The parchment containing this Parthenion (see p. 9), was found 
among the Egyptian tombs by Mariette in 1855, and handed over 
by him to Egger, who published it in Memoires dhistoire ancienne et 
de philologie ; Paris, 1863. Since then it has been edited by Ten 
Brink, Bergk, Ahrens, Blass, who revised the papyrus with a magnifier 
1869, and Canini, who adds a full commentary and French transla- 
tion (Paris, 1870). 

The poem is universally acknowledged as Alcman's, not only from 
the nature of the composition and from the Laconian dialect, but 
because no less than four passages in it are quoted elsewhere as his. 
To Ahrens belongs the credit of detecting the strophical arrangement 
of the poem, this being the earliest known example of the kind in 
Greek literature (see Prefat. Art. v. p. 38, and VI. p. 49). 

Unfortunately, of the three pages of which the parchment consists 
the second only can be said to be in a state of decent preservation. 
As regards the rest it is almost hopeless to try to disentangle the 
meaning, and even in page 2 the task is often far from easy ; nor is 
this to be wondered at, since this page is occupied mostly with very 
personal jests and compliments, addressed to one or other of the choral 
band of virgins. Notwithstanding, the fragment is of great value and 
interest. In the history of Greek poetry the song ranks as the earliest 
choral ode worthy of the name ; many of the passages, even when 
imperfectly intelligible, are not without poetic beauty ; and above all 
we have a delightfully fresh and quaint picture from Spartan life in 
the seventh century B.C. Particularly striking also is the rapid trans- 
ition from a religious subject (for the poem is a hymn) to matters 
exceedingly secular (v. text ad inif.), clearly illustrating for us how 
far were the Greeks from isolating religious ceremonies and senti- 
ments from the everyday life and thoughts of the worshippers. 

It is usually considered that the poem is a hymn to tbe Dioscuri ; 
for the fragment in the original begins with the word ilwAuScuxr^, and 



1 Compare the recent discovery of a fragment, probably from a Greek Corned}', in a tomb 
in Egypt, announced by Professor Sayce in the Academy, October nth, 1S90. 



ALCMAN 309 

seems at the commencement to be celebrating the slaughter by these 
deities of Hippocoon and his sons : and Canini further urges that 
among the Spartans 2toi ( = 9eoi, v. text 1. 3) would stand par excellefice 
for Castor and Polydeuces (cf. Xen. 'Hell. iv. iv. 10, va xu aiai). 
Another suggestion is that it is in honour of Diana Orthia (v. on 1. 28 
and Bergk, p. 25), in which case the Dioscuri might be mentioned 
incidentally as tutelary deities of Sparta. 

For further information I recommend readers to consult Bergk's 
remarks, and especially his copy of the MS., and Canini's separate 
edition of the Parthenion. The text closely follows the MS. as given 
by Bergk, the letters in brackets being conjecturally inserted by the 
commentators. 

I. 1. 1 etc. A recountal has preceded of the well-earned punishment 
of the family of Hippocoon at the hands of the Dioscuri. The connec- 
tion with what follows seems to be : The gods ' hold vengeance in 
their hands'. Happy is he who escapes it and leads a peaceful life, 
as I do who sing, etc. Ilasov = [IJ-aOov, Dor. Dial. p. 94. 

I. 3. For atcov = 0-swv see Doric Dialect, p. 94. 

II. 6-30. General Sense. — Alcman begins by complimenting Agido, 
when suddenly Agesichora (a xXsvva yopayo?) engages his attention 
(11. 10-24). In 11. 25-30 he makes amends to Agido, and declares that 
the two maidens run level in the race for beauty. 

1. 7. 'Ayiow; (genitive for ou;). See Dor. Dial., p. 95. 

1. 8. oXioc, Bergk for aXiov. The ceremony is taking place in the 
night (cf. 1. 29, vu/txa 01' ajj.[Bpoaiav), but 'Agido,' the poet says, 'makes 
us believe that the sun has risen.' Cf. Romeo and Jtiliet, 'It is the 
morn, and Juliet is the sun.' 

1. 10. cpaivsv, £7;ouvev (Ahrens, ir.on^). See Doric Dialect, p. 93. 

1. 11. x.Xsvva Canini on the authority of Hesychius takes in the 
sense of ' beautiful '. For the form see Lesb. Dial. p. 82. Perhaps 
we ought to adopt the Lesbian accentuation xXsvva. See Athen. xiv. 
633 A, for yopayo; in the sense of 'leader of the band'. 

Seq. : ouok Xwa' Iff is Bergk's ingenious conjecture. He declares 
that the original has OYAEAiiC, and the change from A to A is very 
slight. Blass thinks he can trace OYAAMS2C , which would avoid the 
harshness of ouoe. 

Awaa is given by Hesych. = iHXouaa (cf. Spartan Dance Song No. 1. 
si oe Ife). For Iff from ea-si see Dor. Dial. p. 92-3. 

The meaning of the passage, whether we follow Bergk or Blass, 
appears to be : ' The beauty of our leader (Agesichora, 1. 20) withholds 
me from dwelling further upon the qualities of Agido' (vtv 1. 11). 
Canini refers yopayd; to Agido, and explains : ' She is above all praise 
or blame.' But surely 11. 10-16 must refer to the same lady as 11. 17-22, 
namely Agesichora. 

1. 12. 7)[j.£v = Eivai. See Dor. Dial. p. 96. 

1. 14. BOTOIC Bergk gives up as insoluble, since a man of Alcman's 



310 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

gallantry would never have been guilty of so invidious a comparison 
with the other ladies as would be implied by the reading (Sotoi?. 

1. 15. The word jzayov ( = r.r^6\>) in the comparison seems to imply 
that Agido was of fine stature, doubtless a claim to beauty among the 
Spartans ; or it may be simply a stock epithet borrowed from Epic. 

1. 16. Blass professes to trace tuv in the original. 'Y7ro^sTpt8t'wv 
( = u7U07rrepi8iwv) is a syncopated form of *uTO7rerepi8iiov. It is referred 
to in Et. Mag. 783. 10. The meaning is apparently ' a horse such as 
the fancy sees in winged dreams '. This seems hardly a Greek thought, 
but the Scholiast appears to have understood the passage in that 
way : — oxi xa 9-aujj.acrxa xal xspaxtoor] 01 jxoujxat eiwfraai xoi? oveipot? ~poa- 
oamiv. Bergk supplies Nw[ji(a)'= vo't](j.oc, Ahrens 2aupi(a) = *9-au;j.a. 
I suggest olov u7T07ux£pi8i<ov, if at least it is permissible to combine the 
last two syllables for metrical purposes. 

1. 17. opffc. See Dor. Dial. p. 92-3. 

1. 18. 'Evsxtxos, i.e. 'the horse of my comparison is of the highest 
breed'. Venetian mules were famous as early as Homer ; see //. ii. 
852. Compare Append., Misc. and Anon., No. 12, 'Evs'xioa; rccJXco; 
axEfflavaoopio;, and Strabo v. 4. 

1. 23. Siaoaoav, etc. The adverb accompanies some verb never 
uttered by the poet. If Bergk's somewhat fanciful reading |j.e'v(e) for 
[jlev be right, the poet is saying 'to what shall I liken her countenance ?' 
(xi xot Xsyto ;) when Agesichora, who is becoming embarrassed, begins 
to retire. Alcman reassures her (jaeV auxa, ' remain '), and though 
continuing his compliments (1. 25 seq.) couples her name with that of 
Agido. Auxa in this case must be taken in the sense of the Latin 
' Heus tu ! ' Cf. Oed. Col. 1627. 

1. 25. 7iEoa for [i.Exa. See Lesbian Dial. p. 88. 

I. 26. The reading in the text is that of Blass (excepting oYe;,. 
Blass as;, although 1 appears in the original), ' will keep pace ever like 
horse attending upon hound', alluding apparently to the dogs called 
r:apt7:7cot, trained to run exactly with the horse (Pollux, v. 38), though 
here the emphasis is rather upon the horse not suffering itself to be 
outstripped. KoXai; is explained by Ahrens and Blass as 9-spa7iwv. 
Eip/jvo) seems to be the same as sp^vo?, which Hesych. interprets as 
aXwrExt;, a Laconian hound, half-fox half-dog (Poll. v. 39). 

Bergk reads xoXafctos, ' a horse belonging to Kolaxis ', king of 
Scythia (Hdt. iv. 5 and 7), as if his horses had become proverbial for 
swiftness. 

II. 27-30. ' For these doves (Agesichora and Agido), rising before us 
like Sirius as we bear the garment to Artemis through the ambrosial 
night, contend (in beauty).' This has occurred to me as the least im- 
probable rendering of this very doubtful passage, adopting the above 
text. For a variety of other versions consult Bergk and Canini, as 
they transcend the limits of these notes. That which I have offered 
has the merit of connecting the passage closely with what precedes. 

'OpfKa, a Laconian epithet of Artemis, is Bergk's conjecture for 



ALCMAN 311 

opQ-ptai which the original gives. (Compare above, p. 309.) See 
Pausan. iii. 16. 6. 

IlsXsiaSs; is taken as ' Pleiads ' by some (see Canini), as if the chorus 
of girls were compared to that constellation. 

ipapo? or oapo; is explained by the Schol. ad loc. as apotpov, ' a 
plough ', and this meaning is mentioned by Herodian as occurring in 
Alcman. Nothing, however, is known of any such offering in connec- 
tion with Artemis, whereas oapo?, ' a robe ', was a common offering to 
goddesses. Cf. //. vi. 90, where Hecuba presents her best garment 
to Athene. 

Seiptov aaxpov is constantly used for ' the sun ', compare passages 
quoted in Liddell and Scott. But no more than Sirius, the Dog-star, 
the brightest of all the stars, need be meant here, a rendering which 
avoids the repetition of the simile in 11. 7-8. 

Austpojjivai from 'Afapo^Evai ('Asfpw = a^Eptto, see King and Cook- 
son's Sounds and Inflexions, p. 408). The change from F to u is 
probably Lesbian ; see Lesb. Dial. p. 82. Possibly we should read 
afsipopivai, retaining the digamma ; otherwise we must treat the 
diphthong au as short. 

1. 31 seq. The argument seems to be, either, ' We have but few fine 
garments or ornaments, but yield to none in beauty'; or else, 'just 
as one is never weary of such good things as purple robes and golden 
ornaments, so the beauty of these maidens never palls '. 

'A[j.uvau Schol. to //. v. 206 quotes this passage (with a[j.uva?9-ai) to 
show that apjvsaEhu = a^EiiaaSai, and Bergk compares yXaiva a^ot^a;, 
Od. xiv. 521, 'a cloak for a change'. The difficulty lies in the 
necessity of reading the active ap.0vai here on account of the metre. 
There is, however, a somewhat similar usage in Oed. Col. 11 28, 
djxuvw xotaoE Tots Xoyot; TaoE. 

The meaning apparently is, either, ' We have not sufficient purple 
garments for a change ' (cf. Bergk ' non tanta est copia purpurearum 
vestium ut mutare liceat '), or, ' There is never such satiety of purple 
garments that we wish to change them.' 

1. 33. Spdxcov, of a serpent-shaped bracelet or armlet ; see Lexicon. 
'Oei; is said by Hesychius to be similarly used. 

1. 34. AuSia [xiTpa, the Lydian snood, evidently famous. Cf. Pind. 
Netn. viii. 15, where Pindar, epe'pwv | Auoiav puxpav xava/r,oa rarcoi- 
xiXfAEvav, metaphorically applies the expression to his own Ode in 
Lydian measure. Lydia was famous in all matters relating to cos- 
tume. Cf. Sappho xxix. note, of Lydian dyes. 

I. 38. ctieiotJ; = ■9-eoeiotJ;, v. on 1. 13. Similarly in 1. 39 ¥Xvt\wi$v. is 
the Laconian form, according to Bergk, of KXEtat0/]'pa. 

The rest of the fragment is hardly intelligible enough for insertion 
here. See Append. Alcman, No. 12. 

II. Ou (j.' e-i rocpttevocoft x.x.X. Antig. Caryst. Nisi. Mir. 27, who ex- 
plains that Alcman, now too old to join in the maidens' choruses, wishes 



312 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

that he were a xrjpuXo?, or male halcyon, which when enfeebled by 
old age is borne on the wings of the females. The poet, who is said 
by Suidas, though incorrectly, to have first introduced to p) l5a[xeTpots 
fj-eXipSslv, here retains the hexametric style. Notice, however, the 
lyrical movement imparted to the lines by the employment of dactyls 
exclusively. (Cf. p. 62). The whole rhythmic effect of this beautiful 
passage is singularly melodious. 

1. 1. ip.spdcpwvoi, accepted by most commentators for MSS. tEpocpwvoi. 

1. 2. The word (BocXe = utinam, is of uncertain origin, for it is hard 
to see how it can be the imperative of fiaXXw as Liddell and Scott 
say. It is more likely to be connected with (3ouXo[j.ca, and to signify 
'(Heaven) grant that . . .' 

1. 3. o S xe. For the use of the particle te in a general instance, see 
on Anacr. xxiv., Sappho xxxvn. 5. 

im xu'[j.a-ro; avfro;. Buchholz very aptly compares the French phrase 
' a fleur d'eau', ' between wind and water'. 

7rciT7JTac for ^oxaxat, Dor. Dial. p. 92. 

1. 4. vTjXsyEs Bergk, for vrjXels. Boissonade vtjSse?. 

III. EuSouatv x.t.X. Apollon. Lex. Horn. 101. 18. 

I have placed this well-known passage conjecturally among the 
fragments of Parthenia. It is evidently choral, and its solemnity is 
well suited to religious lyric. It is not unpleasing to think that it 
was sung in a midnight Parthenion (cf. No. I. 1. 29). The graphic 
personification of natural objects in these lines is strongly suggestive 
of the spirit of modern poetry. 

1. i.^u'5ouc7tv. Bergk suggests that Alcman employed the Lesbian 
form eu'Schslv. See, however, p. 97, ad Jin. 

1. 3. I have adopted Schneidewin's reading for MSS. 90X0" te ipjcerd 
■9-' oaa x.t.X. Bergk reads ou'XXa & epjrcra %■' oaaa x.t.X. ; but such an 
abrupt introduction of ou'XXa would be very bald, and the quick 
succession of &, #, as would have been far too great a strain upon 
Laconian vocal organs (see Dor. Dial. p. 94). 

1. 5. xvwoaXa is said by Apoll. /. c. to be the appropriate term for the 
monsters of the deep, ia. S-aXaaaia xrj-n), such as whales, etc. 

1. 6. o't'wviov Bergk, for otwvwv. 

IV. Oux sT; av^o x.t.X. Steph. Byz. {v. 'Epuatyrj) reap' 'AXxjj.avt ev 
aoyf { xou SEim'pou xwv Ilap&EVEtwv aafiaxtov. These words, like those of 
the next passage, are evidently addressed to Alcman by the maidens 
of the chorus (v. Art. iv. p. 30). 

1. 2. nap aocpotaiv. This is usually regarded as unintelligible, and the 
commentators propose various emendations — Jacobs ^apaao^o;, 
Welcker roxp' aaoootcn. It is not, I think, impossible to retain the 
words as they stand ; for the maidens are perhaps rallying Alcman on 
a fit of poetic modesty, and reminding him that he is not 'amidst a 
critical audience '. A different and highly probable translation of the 



ALCMAN 313 

line has been suggested to me : ' You are no fool, no, not even in the 
eyes of clever critics.' 

2090?, aooia, constantly relate to poetic skill. Cf. Pind. 01. i. 9 ; 
hi. 44 ; Pyth. i. 42, etc. 

1. 4. 'Epucriyalo;. 'Epuai/jj was a city in the middle of Acarnania 
(Steph. Byz., and Strab. x. 460), taken as a typically rustic district. 

The ancient authorities are doubtful whether in this passage we 
should not read ipuai^aioe, ' trailing a shepherd's crook '. 

1. 5. SapStwv, v. Biog. Alcman, p. 124. 

V. "Ocrai 81 raitSe? jct.X. Apoll. de Pronom. 381 B. Cf. No. I v. ad init. 
oaoa 8s . . . sW, 'all maidens who belong to our band', 
xi&apicruav, in early times more or less synonymous with xt&apwSo's 

(Aristox. ap. Ammon. p. 81). 

txpicav, Dor. Dial. p. 95 ; ivtf, a'vs'ovn, Ibid. 

VI. ZsG -axcp x.x.X. Schol. Od. vi. 244 (Nausicaa log. oil yap e;j.o{ 
Toioaos 7:051? x.t.X.). 

'AXxpiav rap9-£vou$ Xsyou'aa; siaaywv — so that this line is in all pro- 
bability from a Parthenion. 

VII. Mwo' ays, Muaa Xfysia. Maxim. Plan. Rhett. v. p. 510. v. 3, 
Priscian rtfe ;«<?/r. Terent. ii. 425 (Keil), with the name of Alcman. 

1. 1. Xtyeia, cf. on Terpander I. 

I. 2. a'svaoios, Bergk's conjecture for del 8s, or atsv, astos, etc., Hartung 
aioXaotos. 

jtapo-e'vots, Z><9r. Z>m/. p. 94 ; asiSsv, p. 93. 

VIII. Mtoa' ays K«XXio7:a. An instance of Alcman's strophical 
system (cf. p. 49) ; for Hephaest. 40, where the passage is quoted, 
tells us that he composed whole strophes in this metre. 

II. 2-3. ir\ . . . 70'pov, a good instance of zeugma, being equivalent, 
as Welcker points out, to smTtO-st Tjj.spov ufxvw -/.at xithi yopov yapisvia. 

IX. 'A Mwaa vAvXrtf. Aristid. ii. 508 : tou Aa/.wvo? Xs'yovTO? si? auTov 
T£ xai tov yopov. He further implies that the words belong to the 
same song as No. vn., as if the line showed that the prayer in No. 
vii. had been answered, the chorus being poetically regarded as the 
muse. 

For y.i/ly]Y Bergk reads xs'xXay', but xs'xXTjy' may be retained, as due 
to Epic influence ; v. p. 78. 

X. Kot t\v su-/o;j.ai x.t.X. Athen. xv. 681 A. 

Tiv=aoi, Dor. Dial. p. 95, genitives in -to, p. 92, cps'poica, Lesb. Dial. 
p. 83. We may conclude from the fem. partic. that this is from a 
Parthenion, and that the leader of the chorus is speaking ; and we 
gather that the hymn is addressed to Here from Athen. xv. 678 A, 
IluXeujv ... orre'«pavo$ civ -zf t 'Hpa jtspixi'&e'acriv 61 Aaxwvs;. 

1. 2. reuXeaJva, trisyll. 



3 i 4 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

1. 3. xurcatpto Welcker, on the strength of Eustath. Od. 1648. 7, xal 
xurcsipov xuractpov reap' 'AXxpavi. MSS. xura'pw. 
x^paxto = xat spaxou, v. p. 9 2 ~3- 

B. BANQUET SONGS 

XI. *o{vat$ x.x.X. Strabo x. 482. 

1. 1. $o(vai« = eotvaic, Lesb. Dial. p. 83. This is the only certain 
instance in Alcman's fragments of the shorter form of the dative ; 
see Lesb. Dial. p. 86. 

1. 2. avopsuov, Cretan and anc. Laconian term = aucj3(xia (Strabo I.e.). 
Cf. Muller's Dor. ii. p. 294. 

I. 3. jzcaava. For the Paean at banquets, v. Art. 1. pp. 12-13, and 
Introd. to Seolia, p. 232. 

XII. KXIvai p.Ev Exrxa, Athen. iii. no F. 

This and the following passages, as written by a Spartan citizen 
for a Spartan audience, by no means accord with our notions of the 
black broth regimen. Similarly in Bergk 117 we find a fragmentary 
passage dilating on the varieties of Laconian wine. It would appear 
that in this as in other respects the rigid Spartan discipline was not 
yet fully established (7'. p. 100). See Lesb. Dial, for imiziooivai, p. 83, 
xparcaSai, pp. 83-84, xfjv = xat sv, p. 92. 

II. 3-4. Various conjectures are made for this corrupt passage ; it 
is simplest, I think, to adopt Schneidewin's Xivw xs aaacqxw xe (genit. 
after smaxs'cpoiaai), and Bergk's tceoectxi ( = [iixsaxi, p. 88), such an usage 
of [XExsaxt as impersonal not being without parallel ; see Liddell and 
Scott. Welcker prefers Schweighauser's muoEcrcri, suggesting that the 
word applies, as in No. v., to the maidens of the chorus. The form 
txeXi/vt] (i.e. TzekU-q) occurs in Athen. 495 b, where the cup is described. 
ypuaoxoXXa is explained by Athen. as a mixture of honey and linseed. 

11. 5-6. Athen. xiv. 648 B. I have taken them with 11. 1-4, on account 
of similarity in subject and metre. Some subject must be supplied 
for mxps'ijsi. 

x?]p. oraop. i.e. xo [xe'Xi, Athen. I.e. v. Liddell and Scott, orcwpa. 

XIII. Kat r.oy.oL xot owaco x.x.X. Athen. x. 416 C. 'AXxjjiav . . . eocuxov 
aorj^ayov Eivat napaoloioaiv. 

1. I. xpirc. xux., cf. Eur. Supp. 1202, xpu:ooos ev xo(Xw xu'xsi. Welcker 
explains the phrase not as 'a three-footed caldron ', but as 'a cal- 
dron on a tripod ', the two being separable, and compares yaaxprjv 
. . . xptaooos, //. xviii. 348. 

1. 2. It is hardly possible to supply the gap. Welcker reads to x' eV 
Xsla xpirjprj? aXX' eV'Evxi yz vuv x.x.X. He thinks that xptripr];, a kind 
of cup (see Athen. xi. 500), was used as a ladle for the caldron. 

1. 4. 7ia[j.cpayos. Welcker objects to the interpretation of this 
word given by Athen. aorjepayov, and by Aelian ^oXu[jopwxaxov, urging 
that it means rather 'an eater of all kinds of diet' (warap 6 8a^.o?), 
no doubt a praiseworthy quality at Sparta. Welcker compares 



ALCMAN 315 

Ar. Pol. I. iii. 3, xa \xkv (£u>a) i^wo^aya, xa ok xaprcoipaya, xa ok raxpicpaya ; 
but we need hardly take the word in its strict scientific sense, and it 
seems safer to follow the ancient critics, and translate ' omnivorous ', 
which is loosely equivalent to ' greedy '. 

1. 5. yXiepov 7:e8a, Casaubon's conj. for yalepov ractSa. Ilsoa = [xexa 
Lesb. Dial. p. 88. For the shortened ace. plur. xpor:a; see Dor. Dial. 

P- 93- 

iipaaih} ' has ever loved,' Gnomic Aorist. ' After the (winter) sol- 
stice,' i.e. when winter has fairly set in ; unless we can read mp\ xa; 
xpo^a?, ' about the time of the (winter) solstice ', i.e. in the depth of 
winter. 

1. 6. tju, a correction by an unnamed commentator for MSS. ou. 

1. 7. xoiva Casaub., for x.atva. aXXa . . . yap ' meets what has pre- 
ceded not by a simple opposition, but by going back to a reason 
for the opposite' (Monro's Horn. Cram. p. 254. q.v.). 

XIV. "flpa; o' ear;y.3 xpst; x.x.X. Athen. I.e., as a further example of 
Alcman's gluttony. 

eot]xe sc. Zzuc,. See Dor. Dial, for /%>, p. 92, aaXXst = 3-aXXst, p. 94, 

EJ&IEV, p. 93. 

SaXXst must be used impersonally like uei, etc. 

XV. IloXXaxi o' ev -/copucpai; x.x.X. 

Bergk and other commentators explain this passage by referring it 
to a Maenad or Bacchante ; and the words iv xopuepai; ope'eov, and still 
more those in line 5, if the reading be correct (see below), point 
forcibly to the same conclusion. Welcker, however, finds a difficulty 
in ypuatov ayyo; as the natural utensil of a Maenad ; and, altering line 5 
as below, he applies the passage to some Spartan woman who is carry- 
ing a cheese-offering to the gods in a golden vase. Compare for the 
golden vase on such an occasion Scol. xvi. (3', and for a cheese-offer- 
ing Athen. xiv. 658. His objections, however, to the first explanation 
are not strong, for the epithet ypusiov is merely ornamental, and 
appropriate enough, as Hartung says, in connection with a being 
more than human, such as a Maenad ; and it is very difficult to dis- 
sociate the words of Aristides, given below, from this passage. 

1. 2. O-Eotcjiv ao"7] Hermann, for {\zoic, aorj. rcoXu'cpap.o; Fiorillo, for 
-oXuoavo;, which according to Welcker is a Dorian form of rcoXuoiovo; 
— a view discountenanced by Ahrens. It has been suggested to me 
that -oXu©avo; may possibly be a compound from <pavo; a torch, 
signifying ' lit with many torches ', which would be very appropriate 
of a midnight Bacchic festival. 

1. 4. eyouai. Possibly r/oiat or the Doric eyovxt should be restored ; 
but there can be no certainty about such cases (see p. 97), and per- 
haps r/ousi is more in keeping with the Epic tone of tco^evs; avops;. 

1. 5. In this line the MSS. read yep<A Xeovxe'ov in<xkot.iht?tx. The re- 
storation is due to Fiorillo, who most aptly compares Aristides i. 49 : 



316 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

Kai Suvar^ av x.a v i ovoug jrrepouv (o Atdvuao;) ou-/_"-x:ous p.dvov' w<J7C£p x.a\ 
Xeovxwv yaXa aptiXyEiv avc'9-r;x.s' ti$ auxw Aax.wvix.6s 7:ot7]xirjs. There is no 
difficulty in supposing that Arist. incorrectly speaks of Dionysus when 
he should have said a follower or companion of the god. 

Grjaao ('thou didst milk' from the obsolete 9-aw) is Bergk's reading, 
and although too far removed from the MSS. 9-etsa, and involving 
asyndeton with exuprjjas, I have admitted it into the text in default of 
anything more satisfactory. Fiorillo cuts out <9s!<ja and axpucpov as 
glosses. 

1. 6. axpuoos. Hesych. has v Axpooo; (axpuoos Welcker) - xupos 6 -iqano- 
[J.EVO; utzo Aax.wvwv. 

apyucpedv xe. So two MSS., the rest 'ApyEiocpdvxai or the like. Welcker 
and Bergk, on the strength of a grammarian's testimony, read apyi- 
cpdvxav, thinking that Alcman humorously applied the epithet to xupdv 
— an explanation which, I think, will hardly commend itself to readers. 

C. MISCELLANEOUS 

XVI. "Epos [jie oauxs x..x.X. Athen. xiii. 6oo F, where Alcman is 
spoken of as ^ysp-dva xwv Ipwxix.wv [jleXwv. Cf. p. 126. 

XVII. 'AcppoSixa [j.kv oux. eoti x..x.X. Hephaest. 76. 

As Meineke remarks, 'sensus non plane liquet'. The curiously 
sharp contrast drawn between Aphrodite and Eros can hardly 
be explained without further knowledge of the context ; nor do I 
understand the force of the words a pj p;ot {Kyr t s, ' prithee touch them 
not'. The passage would certainly be improved if we were bold 
enough to accept Canini's wholesale revision of the text in 1. 2 : axp' 
eV avJhva (3atvwv xe x.wuxoi aiyst xw xu7:atpiax.w, ' il ne touche pas meme 
aux corolles' ; cf. Hes. Frag. 156 : ax.pov hi dvO-spt/.wv x.ap^ov &hv ouSe 
x.axEx.Xa, and Aen. vii. 808. See Lesb. Dial, for raicrSst, p. 83, Ka|Batvwv, 
P- 95- 

XVIII. Ku-pov x..x.X. Strab. viii. 340, and Menander (Walz, Rhett. 
ix. 135), with reference to the custom of invoking deities from their 
favourite haunts. Compare Anacr. II. 1. 4, note. 

XIX. TouO-' aoEav Mwaav x.x.X. Athen. xiii. 600 F, where it is 
mentioned that Megalostrate was a poetess of whom Alcman was 
enamoured. 

11 1-2. aoEav Bergk (earlier ed.) for aosiav. Touxo . . . Swpov, appa- 
rently a song or hymn by Megal. poetically described as a gift of the 
Muses, being composed under their inspiration. 

[xaxaipa raxp&Evwv 'blessed among virgins'; cf. the familiar Sta O-Ea'wv, 
31a yuvatx.wv. The genit. in these cases is perhaps due to the fact 
that the epithet used is so strong as to be equivalent to a superlative. 
Max.at'pa rcapQ-evw has also good authority : ' to the blessed virgin- 
goddess', i.e. Diana or Athena. 



ALCMAN 317 

XX. I have placed these four passages together on account of their 
sententious character, which may possibly indicate that they are 
fragments from Scolia (cf. p. 236). 

(a') A clever poetical genealogy of Tu'yj] (Plut. de fort. Rom. 4), 
without, of course, any foundation in mythology. Cf. No. XXII. and 
on Alcaeus xxm. 

ne-.ftoij;, probably as the spirit opposed to blind obstinacy, which 
prevents men from listening to the dictates of reason. Perhaps we 
should correct to the Doric nsifho?. 

(£') Apollon. de Adv. in Bergk An. II. 566. 11. IIsp\ xou 'PA. 

8' inserted by Schneidewin. pa Bergk, for pa, explaining it as the 
neut. of an old form ' PAIS, whence paruo;. 

ivi<J7TOt Bergk for ejxiotoi. 

(7*) Schol. Pind. Isth. i. 35 : 6 r.ovrpv.^ ok vow xa\ ::pofj.a9-£iav cpe'pei. 

(o) Schol. II. xxii. 305, to illustrate the use of fxrfa = \xijot. ct7a9-o'v. 

XXI. The next four passages are illustrative of Alcman's familiarity 
with nature. That he learnt his power of song from birds seems to 
indicate that he went further than his lyric predecessors in casting 
off the stiffness of semi-epical lyric and in cultivating freer rhythm 
and melody. 

(a') Athen. ix. 390 A etctj Se xs Hartung for £~f)7£ Se ; Bergk hctj xa'Ss 
particularises too closely. For 8s is cf. on Sappho xxxvu. 1. 4. 

1. 2-3 restored by Meineke from sups' xs ylwai. . . . ovofxa auv9-. 

Tulwars., which is nowhere else found, is apparently a participle 
from a verb yktaaaia, whence -('kw<:vr i ij.a. 

(P') Ath. ix. 374 D, as an example of the Dorian opvti; for opvts 
(v. King and Cookson's Sounds and Inflexions in Greek and Latin, 
p. 143). vo[j.w? = vo[jtoug, v. Dor. Dial. p. 94. 

XXII. Ota Ato? 9-u7a'x7)p x.x.X. Quoted by Plut. Symp. III. x. 3, to 
illustrate the remark that dew is most abundant at the full moon. 
Ato? he explains as ae'po;. 

XXIII. /spsovos x-.x.X. Quoted for the long quantity of the seventh 
syll. by Priscian de Metr. Terent. 251, immediately after a line from 
Alcman (Append. Alcman 3.) ; hence this also is attributed to that 
poet; 'Upon the beach (the wave) falls hushed amid the sea-weed.' 

XXIV. "Eprsi 7<ip avxa x.x.X. Quoted by Plut. Lye. 21, as the 
words of 6 Aaxwv.x.o? -otrjxr,?, possibly Alcman. Cf. Terpander I. 
(note). 

Tw aioapw and /.iQ-aotsocv (Bergk -tjv) Welcker for -co and siv. 

XXV. Auaav o' a-pa/.xa /..x.X. Athen. ix. y]^ E. 

Au^av Bergk (in earlier ed.) for Ausav, which Welcker retains, sc. 
/opei'av, as if the lines referred to a panic amidst maidens performing 
a choral dance. Bergk supposes that the reference is to the alarm 



318 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

caused by Ulysses among the maidens of Nausicaa ; he reads Auaav 
in ed. 4, which, as Welcker says, would be a very inappropriate 
expression of frightened maidens. Compare Alcaeus xxvi. 

XXVI. Aua^api? x.x.X. Schol. on 6ua7:apt in //. iii. 39, presumably 
imitated by Alcman in these appellatives. 

XXVII. : Avrjp S'iv apjAsvoiaiv x.x.X. Schol. Pind. (9/. i. 60, in illustra- 
tion of the story of a stone hanging above the head of Tantalus. 

11. 1-2. appiEvotaiv, Bergk and others for dapivotaiv (see below) ; the 
words may be either neuter, ' in bonds ', or masculine, ' among those 
bound'; S-dxw (Dor. genit.) Hermann and Bergk, for 9-dxas. 

1. 3. Welcker explains this line as signifying that it was no real 
stone that hung above his head, but a mere phantom of his dis- 
ordered mind, comparing Eur. Bacchae 918, Verg. Aeti. iv. 468 seg., 
etc. With our text, however, the meaning is rather that Tantalus 
is so chained that the danger, though not unknown to him, is unseen 
and thus all the more terrible. Welcker's version of the whole 
passage is entirely different : "Otmc, (from Schol. Pind.) dv^p 8' sv 
aapivot; dXixpo; r^ax' lizi Saxo? xaxa, jtETpa? ops'wv piv ouSe'v, Soxe'wv 8e. 
He regards the incident as taking place not in the Inferno but in 
heaven when Tantalus was admitted to the presence of the gods (see 
Athen. vii. 281 b). The rendering would be, 'Like a sinful man he 
sat down upon his seat among the blissful gods, seeing naught of the 
stone, but deeming that he saw it.' This is certainly strained, and 
we should expect rather a word for reclining. 

XXVIII. 'Pt7:av opo? x.x.X. Schol. Soph. Oed. Col. 1248. Nu/idv 
O.HQ Purav . . . Xc'ya 81 auxa svvu'^ta Sid to r:po? Tr\ Susst xstafrai. 

The lines are conjecturally emended by Lobeck from ' Ptrcd? opo; 
s'v9-eov uXai v. p.. aic'pvwv. 



ALCAEUS 

I. 'Hpo; dv^£|j.o£VTo? x.x.X. This and several of the succeeding pas- 
sages are quoted by Athenaeus x. 430, to illustrate the remark : v.a.~k 
raaav wpav xai 7t£piaxaatv mvtov 6 7roi7]X^<; (Alcaeus) EuptaxExat. 

The dactyls in these lines, following upon an initial trochee, should 
be regarded as ' choreic ' (see p. 63) ; and thus, though only one 
short syllable is wanting to give us the form of a complete hexameter, 
an entirely different movement is effected, admirably adapted to the 
spirit of the passage. 

Tw, Lesb. Dial. p. 84, oxxi, p. 88. 

Ep-/opivoio, for Lesbian genitive in -w, is probably due to the influence 
of Epic tradition. 



ALCAEUS 319 

For ijraiov, the beauty of which 'nonnemo' (see Gaisford's note) 
endeavours to spoil by correction, compare Pind. Frag. xi/v. 14 
(No. VI. in this edition) : — 

gi/9e'vxos 'flpav 9-aXap.ou, 
euoo[jlov E^aiwaiv sap cpuxa vs/.xapsa. 

II. Ts'yy £ nvEu'fiova x.x.A. Lines 1-3 (part) in Proclus on Hesiod, 
Works 584, and Athen. x. 430 B, and i. 22 E ; lines 6, 7, 8 in Proclus 
only ; the end of 1. 3, and 11. 4 and 5 are quoted anonymously by 
Demetrius de Eloc. 142, and a comparison with the passage in Hesiod 
shows clearly enough that the lines belong to this poem of Alcaeus : 

'Hjj.o? os a/.oXu;j.o; x' avOa v.ca 7jyExa TeVaij 
AsvSpEM Icps^duEvo? Xtyuprjv xaxa/susx' doior]v 
IIuxvov utco ^XEpuywv, O-s'pso; xa[j.axwoEo; toprj. 

For the metre see Metre pp. 67, 68. 

Foivio, Faosa, Zw^. ZVtf/. p. 81 ; StJ/atui, p. 90 ; xa/./s'a, p. 88 ; oracoxa 
p. 88. ' 

1. 1. xe'yye 7cvEU[xova Fot'vto is the simple correction of the com- 
mentators for the unmetrical oivw rcvEiijjiova xe'yy^ (Procl. I.e., and Athen. 
i. 22). Bergk prefers xvsu'[xova? from Athen. x. 430 x. jiXsu[j.ovas o"vw : 
but ? may well have crept in through inattention to the Z 7 , by which 
hiatus is avoided. 

aoxpov, i.e. Sstpio? (1. 7). cf. also Theognis 1040 : — 

'AtepovE? av9'poJ7:oi xai v<r]juoi oTxivs; otvov 
Mrj 7uvoua', aaxpou xai xuvo; apyopiEvou. 

Cf. Hor. 3 (9^. xxix. 18. 

1. 2. Si'iatai, Alcaeus follows the example of Homer in employing 
the plural verb with rcavxa, there being clearly in this passage a 
'notion of distinct units'. See Monro's Horn. Gram. 172. 

I. 3, etc. For the appreciation of the grasshopper by the Greeks, 
see Liddell and Scott under xe'xxi?. Plat. Phaedr. 262 D calls it 
'O Mouuwv Tzpo<f>r\ir]<;. 

II. 4 and 5. xax/s£i if correct does not follow the usual Lesbian con- 
jugation of the contracted verbs (v. pp. 90-91); 7;uxvov is suitably 
supplied by Bergk from the passage in Hesiod. The succeeding 
words are very corrupt ; o7T7coxa is Ahrens' reasonable conjecture for 
OTIIIOTAN, but no conjectures can satisfactorily restore 1. 5, where 
we have after xafoxav— EIHIITAMENONKATAYAEIH. The words, 
whatever they once were, appear to have been an amplification of 
Hesiod's O-eoeo.; xcq-iaxiooEOi; topTj. 

1. 7. y^ vu j so Seidler for Yovaxa, Bergk yova, but Schneidcwin quotes 
Steph. Byz. : yowix 01 Alokiit; xa yovaxa. 

III. "Yei [jlev Zeu; x.x.X. Athen I.e. This ode is imitated by 
Horace, chiefly in 1 Od. i. 9. 



320 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

For xa|jJ3aXXe, xipvai;, see Lesbian Dialect, pp. 88, 83 ; for opavo? 
where we should expect oppavo; (Doric wpavd?), cf. Lesb. jj-ovo?, xdXo?, 
p. 82, and see on Sappho I. 1. 1 1. 

1. 5. xdp(3aXXe : 'Dissolve frigus', Hor. I.e. 

1. 8. d|j.cpt : commentators suggest -tiO-t] (-xl9'ei) -jiaXwv, etc. 

yvocpaXXov, for yvacpaXXov, or xvdoaXXov (cf. xva7txw), see Lesbian 
Dialect on o for a, p. 85. 

IV. Ou ypri xdxoiai x.x.X. Athen. I.e. For l-ixps'-r^v and [i-sQ-uaO-riv, 
see Z^. Dialect, p. 89 ; dadpievoi, p. 90. 

1. 1. S-ujjlov, an emendation by Stephanus for p.uO-ov. 

1. 3. Buxyi?, Lesbian form of Baxyo?. A grammarian compares 
"i^rt? and Olxt; (the capitals are Bergk's) for "r.noq and oTxo; ; and for 
the use of u, (3uth; = pd-9-os. 

V. ntvwjjisv x.x.X. Athen. I.e. For metrical scheme see No. II. 
This poem should be compared with the more sober lines of 

Anacreon xvi. From that passage, and from the remarks of Athe- 
naeus we gather that the potations of Alcaeus and his friends were 
in excess of those sanctioned at ordinary Greek wine-parties (cf. note 
on Anacr. I.e.). 

See Lesb. Dial, for xd8, xdx, p. 88 ; accusatives in -xi?, partic. 
xipvai;, to9rjTci) (= tofraxw), p. 90. 

1. 1. Athen. x. 481 A gives x( xov Xuyvov <£[±[jievgjj.£v. Porson emends 
to xd Xuyv(a), Ahrens 6[j.;j.£vo[j.£v (see Lesb. Dial. p. 85), Welcker, 
whom Bergk follows — x( xo Xuyvov |j.e'vo[j.sv ; but the neuter form of 
Xuyvos, if authentic, is at any rate far less common in the singular than 
in the plural. AdxxuXo; djxs'pa : these words in connection with the 
preceding have been variously explained ; AdxxuXo; seems to express 
a minimum of time as in odxxuXo; dw? [Anth. Pal. xii. 50), and 
Matthiae interprets thus : 'Why wait for evening (the usual time for 
revelry) ? Let us enjoy the little left of the day '. The words may, 
however, I think, be regarded in the light of an apology for an early 
commencement of the drinking-bout. ' The day has only a finger's 
breadth to run. We shall not be much too soon.' Or we may accept 
Schweighauser's rendering, ' punctum est quod vivimus ', i.e. ' let us 
eat, drink, and be merry, for to-morrow we die '. 

1. 2. dspps : so Ahrens for dape; cf. Sappho xxxiii. 1. 2. Possibly, 
however, daps should be retained as another instance of Epic influ- 
ence on the literary dialect. 

'alxa is the reading boldly adopted by Schneidewin as a Lesbian 
variation on 'dixa ; it has at least the merit of keeping closely enough 
to the original atxa 7:oixiXXt;, or rcoixiXa. 

1. 4. i'va (sc. xua9-ov), xdt ouo, i.e. one of water to two of wine ; for 
Athen. x. 430 speaks of this as a drunkard's mixture, whereas in 
Anacreon I.e. we find the proportion of two parts of water to one of 
wine regarded as suitable for a sober reveller — xd jjlev Sex' lyy/a; | 



ALCAEUS 321 

uoaxo;, la. tze'vts o' o"vou | x.ua-9-ou? w? avuppiTTt | ava orfizs paasaprjSio. 
Judging from these and other passages {e.g. Ar. Knights 11 84), it 
appears to have been customary to mention the water first. 

1. 5. z». x&pdXa?, adopting Porson's punctuation {v. Bergk, note 
ad loc), implies that the cups were to be brimming over ; for -/.scpaXirj 
in this sense cf. Theocr. viii. 87, urap xecpaXag, of a milk-pail. It is 
hardly so likely that -/.aTa xs<paXas can be used in the sense of Irl 
jcecpaXrJv, ' headlong,' praecipita7tter (Bergk). For /.ax Bergk suggests 
ic, (= ?o>g). 

VI. 'AXX' avjj'xco x-.x.X. Lines 1-2 in Athen. xv. 674 c ; 11. 3-4, A then, 
xv. 687 C, the two fragments being united by Bergk into a single 
stanza. For metrical scheme see Sappho I. 

See Lesbian Dialect for genitives avrj-cw, to, p. 84 ; accus. jcXe'srrats, 
p. 83 ; resp^ETco (= jTepiS-ETio), p. 88 ; the dat. a;j.[j.t, p. 87 ; and the form 
ysud-rw, where u represents an original F, p. 82. 

These luxurious banquet-customs of wearing garlands round the 
neck, and anointing both head and breast with perfumes, are described 
by Plutarch Sympos. iii. 1, with a reference to some similar passage in 
Alcaeus — xeXeuwv x.axa.yia.1 to [j.upov /.axa xx; -oXXa xaQ-oiia? /.scpaXas /.at 
tw j^oXiw arr)'9-£o; (Append. Alcaeus, No. 12), cf. Anacr. xxxvill. [s'. 

'Avrjxw : Galen says that this was employed at banquets, as it was 
supposed to assist the digestion. 

VII. 'i2? yap oyj'xox' x.x.X. Schol. Pind. Isth. ii. 11. For metre cf. 
No. xvi. and note. 

See Lesb. Dialect for Ewnjv, p. 84, and cpaiat ( = cpa<ri) p. 90. In this 
fragment and in the next Alcaeus appears to be lamenting alike his 
own poverty, a natural result of his combative spirit, and also the 
increasing importance of the commercial classes among the Asiatic 
Greeks at the expense of the old aristocracy (see Art. viii. p. 99). 
With this passage compare Pindar I.e., where the proverb is attri- 
buted to a ' man of Argos ', without any name being given. A 
Scholiast informs us that a Spartan Aristodemus was by one 
authority reckoned among the Seven Sages. 

"EctXo; is found in Lesbian, and eaXo's in Doric, or other dialects 
for i?0XoV cf. [J.aaXrj(; = [jLaa9Xrj;, Sap. XXIX. 

VIII. 'ApydXsov Ilcvia /..t.X. Stob. Flor. xcvi. 17. 

Metre. — If the second line be complete it should probably be 
scanned : 

— o <s — <s ^ — \*/ w ' — w — 

but very likely it is a fragment of a hexameter, the last syllable of 
aosXcpi'a being shortened before a succeeding vowel. For hexameters 
in lyric poetry see Metre, p. 62. 

Ad[xvai? (see Lesb. Dial. p. 90), or the middle od;j.vat, is Bergk's 
emendation for Sdpjat. 

X 



322 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

'AoeXcpaa (cf. Epic) should perhaps be written aosXcpta, since it is an 
adjective (aosXtts-ioc) of the same kind as ypuaso;, Lesbian ypuaio?. 
See Lesb. Dial., p. 85. 

IX. otvo; yap /..x.X. Tzetz Lycophr. v. 212; Schol. Plat. p. 377. 

(Bek.). 

For aXafka (= aXi)&&a) see Lesb. Dial. p. 85. 

These two lines recall the apophthegmatic or sententious character 
common in convivial songs (see Introduction to Scolia). 

X. KsXopvai xiva /..x.X. KaXsaaai, Lesb. Dial. p. 82. 

The passage is quoted by Hephaestion 41 as AtoXr/.ov, and is 
attributed by Bergk to Alcaeus. 

For ai=£i see note on Spartan Dance-song 1. 

XI. 'IoitXox' ayva x.x.X. 1. 1. Hephaest. p. 80 ; 1. 2. Arist. Rhet. i. 9. 
Metre. — Apparently Alcaeus out of compliment to Sappho has 

chosen her own favourite metre, but has imparted to it a little 
masculine energy by the addition of the Anacrusis. For Sappho's 
retort in Alcaics see Sappho Frag, x., and refer especially to 
Additional Note A. In the second line xwXuet aiSio? is usually treated 

as a case of 'synizesis', and scanned xwXuet a"ou; — ^ . Bergk, 

however, reasonably urges that -/.wXust should be treated as a dactyl, 
ei being shortened before the succeeding diphthong. The same 
applies to Sappho i. 11, wpavw ai9-e | po; Sia jjieWo. We have no other 
cases in Greek Sapphics of a dactyl in this position, but as similar 
licences are found in Seneca and other Latin poets, Bergk thinks 
that they must have been imitating Greek models. 

See Lesb. Dial. p. 82 for the double liquid [j.sX\i-/o[j.stoa, and for 
Fetmjv p. 82, and p. 89. 

I have adopted Blomfield's reading [ieXXt)(0[i.siSa for [j.eXXi-/o[j.£to£, for 
Hesychius gives the nominative in -rjs, and not in -og, and we have 
the analogous <piXo[i.|j.£tor,;. A Lesbian vocative in -a (for -eg) on the 
model of the first declension in -i\c, is quite conceivable. 

XII. As'?ai [j.£ -/.io[j.«£ovxa x..x.X. Hephaest. 30. 

The tetrameter with Anacrusis is well suited to a tone of earnest 
entreaty. The line is evidently from a serenade, see Art. I. p. 8, 
on Kw[jlo?. Compare Hermesianax : 

As's^to; 'AXxato; ol ?:oaou; av£0£i?axo xw[jlou; 
2a::oou; oop[j.(£wv J[A£po£vxa yaji.ov. 

XIII. KoXtoo 8' Eos'^avx' z.x.X. Quoted by Hephaes. 59, where there 
is some doubt whether this beautiful line is ascribed to Alcaeus or to 
Alcman. 

Kpivoi (voc. of the fern, name Kpivio) is Bergk's excellent emenda- 
dation for Kp&vw. He aptly compares Theocr. xvii. 36. 



<, 



ALCAEUS 323 

XIV. "E[j.e SsiXav x.x.X. A solitary instance of the striking metre 
Ionicus a minore, in which Alcaeus composed many poems 
(Hephaestion 66). Compare 3 Hor. Od. xii., possibly in imitation of 
the poem of Alcaeus to which this line belongs. 

See Lesb. Dial. 88 for the prep, rcoa ( = |ji£xa) in raSsyoiaav, and for 
-atsav ( = -aswv), p. 83, and p. 84. 

XV. "Asiaov a;j.[j.t x.x.X. Apollon. de Pron. 384 B. 

Liddell and Scott give JoxoXtov = ?o£wvov, ' purple-girdled ' ; why not 
' dark-bosomed ', of some Southern beauty ? 

XVI. Map;j.a(psi 8e [jiya? oop.o? x.x.X 

Metre. Each of these lines consists of two (if not three) Cola, both 
of which are introduced by the Basis (see Art. vr. p. 58), which we 
therefore find employed not only at the beginning of a line, but also 
of a new Colon (see Boeckh's de Metris Pindari p. 188, and p. 138). 

This passage is quoted by Athen. xiv. 627 A, to show that Alcaeus 
was [xSXkov tou os'ovto? -oXejj.ixoc, and esteemed his military higher 
than his poetic career. Mr. Jevons, in his History of Greek Litera- 
ture, thinks that the passage betrays more military foppery than 
befits the stern warrior, and we cannot perhaps help being reminded 
of Paris, TtspixaXXsa xeu/e' grovra, //. vi. 321. The Duke of Wellington 
however, I believe, remarked that the greatest dandies were often his 
finest officers. 

That the description is intended not for itself alone but mainly as 
an incentive to war is shown by the last line. 

See Lesb. Dial, for xuvCatai, yaXxiai (p. 85), xaxxav ( = xa{F wv), p. 84, 
p. 88, vsuoio-iv, -aaaaXot; (ace. plur.), xpu-xoiaiv, p. 83, the genitives 
h/upw, Xtvw (p. 84), (3cXsus = |3eXeo; (p. 84), 7:ap=7:apa, etc. 

1. I. "Aprj (for"Apsi) 'in Martis honorem ' (Jahn). 

1. 3. yaXxiai, etc., 'brazen greaves bright-gleaming hide the pegs 
on which they hang.' 

xvafilSes. Lesbian for xv^-uos?. 

1. 5. xo'iXou, I have adopted Seidler's emendation for xolXat (from 
xfj(f)-iXai), the two short syllables being permissible in the ' Basis ' 
(see p. 58). Possibly the F should be retained, see Lesb. Dial. p. 81. 

No apostrophe is necessary after kolt, which is the usual Lesbian 
form, see p. 88. 

PepXrjjie'vat, Casaub. reads fefifaftUvtav (two MSS. pspXyjfiivov) ' =occi- 
sorum ', as if these were trophies from slain adversaries. 

XaXxioixat. According to Stephanus the name XaXxiSfi? was given 
to the people ota xo /aXxoupysia zptoxov ^ap' auxcit; ocpOTjvai. 

XVII. 'Aauv;'xTi[.u xtov avEp.uv x.x.X. That the apparent description 
of a storm is rightly placed among the Stasiotica, is shown by the 
fact that it is quoted as an allegory by Heracleides, Alleg. Homer. 
c. 5, who explains thus : MupaiXo? S7]Xou'{jievos etui xod xupavvtx^ xaxa 
MuTtX}]va((ov iyeipofiivT] auaxacrt?. 



6 



324 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

Cf. Hor. I Od. xiv. Soph. Oed. Tyr. 23. Antig. 163, etc. 

See Lesb. Dial, for a^ies (r,[J.eii), p. 87 ; ov ( = ava), p. 85 ; 'izlp (jtepi), 
p. 88 ; [J.:'orcrov, p. 82 ; dauvETtjfu, ooprjiJ-sO-a, [j.o/9'€i>vte;, yoXaiii (yaXtoai), 
pp. 89-90. 

1. 1. aauvc'xrjjjLi is Ahrens' conjecture for aauvETTjv xai. The lengthen- 
ing of the v in arsi is for metrical purposes and not dialectical. 
Cf. on Sap. XI. 

With avs'p-tov axaatv comp. Aesch. Prom. 1087. ataaiv avxi^vouv, 
' strife of opposing winds.' Alcaeus plays upon the word araaic. 

1. 6. Tcep is said by Ahrens to have the force in this passage as in 
others (see Lesb. Dial. p. 88) of ura'p ; but surely the usual meaning 
gives excellent sense here : ' the water encompasses the mast-box '. 

1. 7. ^aSyjXov ( = 3iao7)Xov, Lesb. Dial. p. 84) is usually interpreted 
' something you can see through ' ; the next line then is merely an 
amplification of this epithet. 

1. 9. Bergk objects to the mention of anchors, when the ship is 
being driven by the tempest in mid-ocean (1. 3), and he accordingly 
emends. Such a confusion, however, is excusable enough in 
allegorical or figurative language. 

XVIII. To or]uxs xupioc sc.t.X. 

A similar allegorical attack upon a tyrant (Heracleides I.e.). Bergk 
suggests that reference is made to this passage by the Schol. Pind. 
Isth. i. 32 : 'AXxocto; t^v ouaruyiav ystp-tova v.ou Tpixufxiav Xeysi, If this 
be so, Alcaeus is possibly referring to Pittacus as the third tyrant, 
worse than his predecessors Myrsilus and Melanchrus. It must, 
however, be admitted that according to Heracleides the words of 
the text apply to Myrsilus. 

See Lesb. Dial, for ovw ( = avw) p. 85 ; and the infin. avtXrjv p. 89. 
The text is very corrupt in Heracl. and has been emended mainly 
by Bergk and Seidler. 

1. 3. vao; £(J.pa, MSS. vao? I[i.[3aivsi. Nao; is probably dependent on 
some noun coming after £(J.(3a. 'Ep.patvw however takes the genitive 
in Oed. Col. 400, yf[s ok [j.^ 'rj.paivr,? opwv. 

XIX. Nuv ypyj |j.e»K!>79-7jv -/.t.X. Quoted by Athenaeus x. 430 as. a 
further illustration of the readiness of Alcaeus to seize upon every 
occasion for wine-bibbing. See on No. 1. 

See Lesb. Dial, for [j.E9-ua9-r]v ([j.E9uai>7]vai), and r.^vrp ( = -(vEtv) p. 89. 

This passage is imitated by Horace (1 Od. xxxvii.): 'Nunc est 
bibendum,' etc. Hartung attacks the reading xtva ^po? (3tav ^to'vrjv 
(Ahrens for t^oveIv) as being mere tautology after [j.sO-uaO-r.v. He 
therefore adopts a suggestion founded on Horace's 'pede libero 
Pulsanda tellus,' yO-o'va ^po; [i'.a\i xpour)v (or t.olUiv). Matthiae defends 
the reading in the text, explaining too; (3tav not as ' violentius ' but 
in its usual sense of ' invitum,' i.e. ' We must drink whether we wish 
it or not.' 



ALCAEUS 325 

XX. "Qvrjp ouxo? x.x.X. This passage is applied by Aristoph. 
IVasfis, 1234 (v. Schol. ad loc.) against Cleon. 

KpEto?, Lesb. for xpaxog. 'Ovrpe'^et, Lesb. Dial. p. 85. 
pdrca; (pdras?) is of course Lesb. for the gen. poiz^, for the accusative 
would be porcac;. "Eysxai porax;,' Keeps ever on the brink of ruin.' 

XXI. Tov jcaxorcaTpi&a /..x.X. Quoted by Aristot. Pol. ill. ix. 5, to 
show that the Mytilenaeans chose Pittacus as their champion against 
the exiles headed by Alcaeus and Antimenidas (v. Introd. to Alcaeus). 

For metre cf. Frag. II. 

Lesb. Dial, for -0X10$, p. 87 ; aydXm, p. 84. 

For aydXu Bergk reads oryoXw, i.e. 'discordis,' but surely a/dXw 
'chicken-hearted' is most appropriate, when Alcaeus is rebuking his 
fellow-citizens for voluntarily putting their necks beneath the yoke of 
the tyrant. 

For E7:aiv£ovTc;, which is here quadrisyllable, we should expect 
l^atvsuvxss, Ahrens £7ra£vEvxs;. Lesb. Dial. p. 91. 

XXII. MeXayypo; /..x.X. Hephaest. 79. It is generally supposed 
that Alcaeus is ironically praising his old enemy Melanchrus in 
comparison with some other tyrant such as Pittacus, whom the poet 
regards as casting all Melanchrus' vices into the shade. 

The construction of zlq after a£ios, though hard to parallel, is 
intelligible enough in this instance. ' M. showed himself towards the 
city as worthy of respect,' i.e. he acted towards the city in a manner 
worthy of respect. 

XXIII. Xatps KuXXava? /..x.X. Hephaest. 79. Lesb. Dial, for upiv7)v, 
p. 89 ; yc'vvaxo, p. 82. 

1. 1. Bergk is in favour of retaining the accent on 3 (= 0;) and 
treating ptiosu; as second pers. sing. (v. Bergk on Alcaeus, 5). Others 
read o picst? (partic.) = 6 (jis'owv, as if from [ji37][j.t, Lesb. for p-soa'-w 
(a form implied by the participle [xeSs'wv) ; see Lesb. Dial. p. 90. 

u[xvr)v, Bergk in this and one or two other instances, apparently by 
an oversight, does not carry out his plan of universal Psilosis. 

I. 2. Meineke's correction for xopuoaaiv auycu?. 

1. 3. Bergk's correction from yfwa xw xpovtor] p.ai'sia. 

XXIV. Asivdxaxov ftsiov x.x.X. See Lesb. Dial, for eu^e'oiXXo;, 
EyEvvaxo, p. 82. 

The well-known line ' In the spring (which should be the season of 
the west wind and the rainbow) a young man's fancy lightly turns to 
thoughts of love ', gives us the explanation of the graceful allegory of 
the Greek poet (as is implied in Etym. Cud. 278. 17, quoted by 
Bergk). The genealogy of course has no foundation in mythology. 
Cf. Alcman XXII. 



326 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

XXV. 'HXfte? ex rcpaxwv x.x.X. Lines 1-2 are given by Hephaestion. 
The rest has been reconstructed from a paraphrase in Strabo xiii. 
617 ; 11. 3, 4 by Bergk, 11. 5-7 by O. Miiller. 

The passage is usually placed among the Stasiotica, since it was 
civil strife at Lesbos which caused Antimenidas to enter the service 
of the king of Babylon. (Introd. to Alcaeus p. 136.) Hartung points 
out that he may have aided Nebuchadnezzar in the siege of Tyre, or 
the conquest of Judsea, or Cyaxares in the conquest of Nineveh. 

See Lesb. Dial, for tw, p. 84, xxe'vvais ( = x-reivas) pp. 82-3, the partic. 
au[A[J.a/ct?, p. 90. 

ami = ooto, as osupu for Ssupo {v. on Sap. VII. 4) : 7C£[incov = to'vxs, for 
in Lesbian the declension of the numerals is extended beyond the 
first three ; cf. oooxatos'xtov, Append. Alcaeus No. 35. 

1. 1. IXscpavxivav Xa[3av . . . ypuaoos'xav : Mr. Murray has pointed out to 
me a sword in the Bronze Room of the British Museum belonging 
approximately to this period, which affords a beautiful commentary 
on this passage. The handle is composed, not, as is often the case, 
of one solid piece of ivory hollowed out to receive the metal, but 
of two pieces divided lengthwise and bound together by a golden 
thread running round the whole length of the hilt. 

1. 4. xsXssa;, aor. indie, (the participle would be in -at?). We should 
rather expect xcXssaa?, but we find e.g. xaXsaai, as well as xaXssaai. 
See Lesb. Dial. p. 82. 

1. 5. The form [Jiayaixav for [j.a/rjxrjv, is curious. We find, however, 
a Dorian form [xayaxas, pointing to a stem [J-a/a-, side by side with 
[j.ays-. From [J.a/a- Lesbian, retaining the Spirant 1 of the termina- 
tion 10), may have formed a verb piayaiw, or possibly [j.a/ai;j.t (see p. 90), 
from either of which the derivative [j.ayaixa<; could be obtained. 

j3aaiXir]!wv, etc., ' But one span short of 5 royal cubits ', i.e. the man's 
height was about eight feet four inches. Miiller reads pai'.X7JVov with 
[jtayatTav ; Bergk paatXrjiwv with ::ays'«v, quoting Herod, i. 178 to the 
effect that the royal cubit exceeds the Greek xptai oaxxu'Xoi?. The 
epithet, otherwise prosy, thus enhances the glory of the achievement. 

PaaiX7]-io; preserves the ancient diaeresis, while in Attic we have 
the diphthong PaaiXsco?. 

XXVI. v E;:xa£ov wax' x.x.X. Herod. xsp\ [j.ov. Xs£. xxiii. 9. 

Lesb. Dial. J7ca£w = jET7J<jaw. One or two other instances are given 
in Liddell and Scott of the accusative following this verb in the sense 
of ' cower for fear of.' 

Assigned by Bergk to the Stasiotica as if describing a sudden panic 
among the enemy. 

XXVII. BX7]'yptov ava'[j.wv x.x.X. Schol. //. viii. 178. 

This also is placed by Bergk among the Stasiotica, as if it were an 
allegorical picture of peace. Cf. Nos. xvil. and XVIII. 



ALCAEUS 327 

XXVIII. "Opwd-es tivss oTS 5 -/..x.X. Schol. An Birds 1410. For metre, 
cf. No. 11. 

noixtXdosppot, Schneidewin for -sipot, Lesb. Dial. p. 82. 

XXIX. "Avops; TrdXrjo; x.x.X. Schol. Aesch. Pers. 347. 7/. 1. avops? 
yap r.olzMi (restore Lesbian 7:0X10;) ru'pyo; ap. 

XXX. riivw[j.£v x.x.X. Ath. i. 22 F. It is not unlikely that Athenaeus 
may have manufactured this line by confusing together 1. 1 in No. II. 
and No. v. respectively. For aixpov see on No. 11. 1. 1. 



SAPPHO 

I. noi/.iXoO-pov' /..t.X. Quoted by Dionys. de Comp. Verb. c. 23, as 
an example of the ' finished style ' (yXacpupd; yapa/xrjp), in which, he 
says, Sappho excels all other Melic composers. He adds — xauxrjc 
zffi X:£cio; 7] Euiizeiot. xotl 7] '/??<■$ ^ ttj auvsTX^a xai Xstdx7jxt y^yovs xtov 
ap;j.ovttov. 

See Lesb. Dial, for oVaist ( = aviaurt), p. 85 ; the adverbs xulos, xrjXui 
(= xrjXoac), p. 88 ; a't-oxa, (= ei 7:0x2, note on Spartan Dance-song I. and 
p. 85) ; /puatov (= /pucjcov), p. 85 ; -oiaa, -aiaa in the participles, p. 83 ; 
w in the genitives wpavto, [jiaaw, aoo<o;, p. 84 ; the forms of the 'con- 
tracted' verbs oivsuvxs;, /.aXr][j.t, aSt/oja, pp. go, 91 ; the forms xsXs<ro-a'., 
Irj-sppst, pp. 82, 83, etc. 

I. 1. riotxiXoGpov', 7'. 1. -or/.'.Xd<j>pov' : this, however has less authority, 
and is tautological as compared with ooXg^Xo/.s in the next line, unless 
we follow Ahrens in regarding roi/.-.Xoopov' as Lesbian for 7:01x1X0 $-pov ; 
(cf. Lesb. Dial. p. 83). The word is a'-acj Xcyo;j.Evov, and, in the sense 
of 'goddess of richly -carved throne', is a little unsuited to the 
context. Welcker conjectures that it refers to some contemporary 
work of art at Lesbos (cf. Jebb, Hell. Journ, ill. i. 117, on sui>povot 
c i2pai in Pind. Pyth. ix. 62). But Aphrodite, although I must admit 
that she is called suOpovo? by Pindar {Pyth. i. 28), is nearly always, 
especially in early art, represented as erect. Consequently another 
conjecture of some commentators (e.g. Wustmann Rhein. A fits. No. 
23, p. 238) is worthy of attention, who connect the word with the 
Homeric frpdva (//. xxii. 441, where Helen embroiders ■Opova -otxiXa 
on her robe). Aphrodite may thus be described as ' goddess of the 
spangled flowers ', just as at Cnosus she was called 'Avikta (v. Hesych. 
s.v. avQ-eia). The epithet in this sense would be particularly appro- 
priate from the lips of Sappho, whose love of flowers is conspicuous. 
Cf. Frag. vi. VII. xxxn., etc. 

II. 3-4. [j.£ . . . •Oujj.ov, Schema xaO-' 6'Xov seal [lepog. 
1. 5. Ixe'pioxa = i-ip«)d-i. See p. 85. 

1. 6. auSw? (Lesbian for auSou?), apparently from a form (auoo> = 



328 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

auo7]). 'Aioiaa— exXue? ; the former, as usual, applies to physical hearing, 
while xXu'w, especially in the imperative xXuO-t, xe'xXuts, etc., constantly 
signifies ' attend to ', ' give heed to '. 

1. 9-10. xaXot . . . oJxss; : the two adjectives, unconnected by a 
conjunction, must not both be taken as mere epithets. Transl. : 
' With speed did thy beauteous sparrows, etc' 

dipouO'ot, sacred to Aphrodite, v. Athen. ix. 391 E ; Aristoph. Lysistr. 
724. The Latin poets have familiarised us rather with swans as the 
charioteers of Venus {v. Hor. 3 Odes xxviii. 14; 4. i. 10, etc.). The 
Romans seem not to have been satisfied with the simplicity of the 
Lesbian picture. 

Kepi = U7rep, v. Lesb. Dial. p. 88. 

[isXaivas : Moebius directs attention to the Homeric character of 
this epithet. 

1. 11. For the scansion cf. note on Alcaeus XI. Gaisford reads 
wpavw Qi- 1 -psu? 81a jjiaato, from an MS. reading d-wpavw9-epoc 3ta pieato ; 
he compares Vergil's 'nare per aestatem liquidam '. With $c'pcu?( = 
ih'oou;) cf. (SsXeus, Lesb. Dial. p. 87. 

wpavto = oupav&u. We should expect in Lesbian oppavo? from 
"^FopFavo?, and G. Meyer is inclined to discredit upavo;, which is 
rather Dorian. Cf. on No. xvi. 

1. 14. [Jisioiaaata' /..r.X. recalls Homer's <ptXo[j.[j.sto/ 1 ? 'Aopoot'xa. 

1. 15. xioTTi = /at &Tci ( = xat oti), v. Lesb. Dial. p. 88. Meister 
suggests x' oxTt, since we should expect a and not to in such a con- 
traction. Compare, however, •9-uptopw in Sap. XL. 

I. 17. xwxx' e;j.w, Bergk substitutes xcotti jjloi, without, however, any 
MSS. authority. 

II. 18-19. Ttva x.x.X. Notice the effective transition to the goddess' 
own words. 

The reading here is very doubtful, for the MSS. have something like 
ttva 3sut£ TOtS-iopiaisaYrjvsaaav. The text is Bergk's, being a slight varia- 
tion upon Seidler's. Transl. ' Whom dost thou wish Peitho to bring 
to thy love ?' 

Mat; (=pta?, Lesb. Dial. p. 90) is objectionable, since the pres. 
active is not elsewhere found, |i.ao[j.at on the contrary being employed 
in Sappho, App. No. 10; Seidler's Xal? (cf. Spartan Dance-song No. I) 
has no MS. authority. Among many other readings that of Blass is 
worthy of attention. — stO w-|-;j.at o-' ayrjv x.x.X., i.e. aot ayr ( v ; but we 
have no other instance in Sappho of the first or second line in the 
stanza to which she has given her name, ending in a non-final 
syllable. 

For Peitho as the attendant of Aphrodite cf. Ibycus ill., and 
Sappho 135 (Bergk), where she is called the daughter of the great 
goddess. Unknown to Homer, Peitho appears first in Hesiod in the 
legend of Pandora. Her prominence in later literature and worship 
is perhaps due to Sappho, Ibycus, and other lyric poets. From the 
seventh centuiy onwards she is usually the familiar of Aphrodite, and 



SAPPHO 329 

sometimes a mere attribute, as it were, of her ; although at Sicyon 
and at Athens Peitho appears to have had a separate worship. 

1. 20. tara'. Hermann regards this as an endearing diminutive for 
the vocat. ^a-ooi (xwv u-oxopiaxixa>v) ; it is, however, not unlikely that 
in this case, as in some others (v. p. 87), Lesbian is influenced by 
the analogy of a different declension. Tupivva is given in Max. Tyr. 
from Tupivvw, which is found in Et. Mag. 243. 51. 

1. 25. Vide Bergk's note on the accent of yaXsmxv, etc., in which he 
is inclined to think that here too, and in the adverbs auxap, axap, etc., 
Lesbian kept to its practice of casting back the accent. 

I. 28. ziio—'h 9i, Ahrens conj. safrt. 

II. <£aivcTat, etc. Quoted by Longinus de Sublim. c. 10, and his 
criticisms deserve notice. After commenting on the realistic char- 
acter of Sappho's description (ex -ri;? txlrftdxc, aox7jc) he points out that 
she exhibits her power mainly in combining in a single picture all the 
most violent symptoms of the love-complaint (xa axpa auituv xat 
uxspxsxajAs'va oeivtj xai ixXejfat xai si? aXXrjXa auvofjaai). He continues — 
a[i.a 'iu/cxat, xaterai, aXoyicrret, cppovsi . . . 'iva [J.7J £v xt -;p\ aux/jv 7:a0-o; 
cpaiv^xai, iraGwv 8e irvvoSos. 

Plutarch refers to the poem, Morall. ii. 762 F., etc., remarking that 
Sappho aXr ( 9-to; [i.£ji.iypiva Jtupl cp&s'yyexai. 

Catullus' rendering of this Ode is well known, ' Ille mi par esse deo 
videtur.' Cat. LI. 

See Lesb. Dial, for the double liquid in s;j.[j.ev ( = civou), k\j.\u ( = si[j.(), 
p. 82; xoi ( = aoi), p. 87; (pwvsusa;, ycXabac, erappojj-jBciai, pp. 90, 91 ; 
xd for the relat., p. 87 ; Ppo/aog, u7:aoEopd[j.a/.sv, p. 85 ; xa[A, xax- for 
/.axa, p. 88 ; xsO-va/.^v, p. 89 ; dXtyw for the genit. p. 84 ; etc. 

1. 1. Mot, Apoll. de Pron. 336 A quotes from Sappho the words 
tpatvsxai Foi /.^vo;, a version which is adopted by some commentators ; 
but since all authorities have [.101 in this passage, and Catullus renders 
the line ' Ille mi,' etc., and since Apollonius himself quotes [j.01 in this 
line a little before, 335 A, we are almost forced to accept Bergk's ex- 
planation that in 356 A the grammarian was referring to some other 
poem. 

That the reference in ktjvos is quite general is shown by ooxt; in 
1. 2 ( = si quis). 

1. 1. xrjvo;, Lesbian and Dorian for (£)x.£tvo?. Cf. -/.?] = (s)xe?, Sap. XLI. 

1. 2. 'Qvrjp = 6 i'v/jp. 

1. 4. v7:a/.ouci, ' Attente et cum silentio audit,' Weiske. 

1. 5. ysXaiaac, so Buttmann and Neue (MSS. ysXai; or ys)>a; or,), and 
the reading is supported by Catullus, ' dulce ridentem,' and by 
Horace's apparent imitation in 1 Od. xxii. 23, ' Dulce ridentem La- 
lagen amabo | Dulce loquentem.' The reading in the text supplies 
us with a good example of zeugma, aiiOavsxai being implied in 
JjraxouEi, as Schneidewin points out. For [iav (= pjv) Hartung reads 
'|j.av (= e[J-Y«). 



330 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

1. 6. IjrcoaffEv, gnomic aorist. 

From tctoud we should of course expect i7rro7]<jev in Lesbian as in other 
dialects ; ijrro'aaev is from the collateral form ;rcoato ; cf. on oprjp 1. II. 

1. 7. I have given in the text the MSS. reading. (One MS. PpoyEws, 
the rest (3poysto;.) Endless conjectures have been made to restore 
the line, the nearest to the original being Neue's mote yap a 5 iow x.t.X. 
Ahrens suggests a>? as yap fiow x.t.X. ; Bergk, with undue disregard 
of the MSS., w? yap siuSov (= *£Aoov, sioov) [Bpoysio? o-£. I suggest as 
possible w; xe yap c ; low. 

1. 8. Etxei, if it be right, must be i.q. the Doric s'txei with Lesbian 
psilosis = T/csi, ' no utterance comes to me.' Toup reads cxei. 

1. 9. FiFajz (p. 82), similarly we speak of 'broken accents,' etc. 
Compare Lucretius' imitation of this passage, iii. 155 : 

Sudores itaque et pallorem existere toto 
Corpore, et infringi lingiiam vocemque aboriri, 
Caligare oculos, sonere aures, succidere artus. 

1. 10. ypw, ace. for ypo'a. Bergk ypw dative. 

1. 11. oiriraTEcycTi is the reading given almost unanimously for 
0[j.;.iaTsa3i, and, if it be correct, the change of r.[j. to rat, and not to \i\i is 
probably without parallel, "o^axa, on the contrary, is given by the 
MSS. in Sap. x. 

For opr\[xi we should expect opap {Lesb. Dial. p. 84), but the form 
is due to the collateral opsw, frequent in Herodotus. 

1. 3. Bergk a o\ (juopto;, quoting juaXsupov in Alcaeus as another 
instance of [-». from F, Schneidewin I/, oi Ft'opio;, with some authority 
for ex, but scarcely any for the omission of p'. If a os jj.' 'iopw? be 
right, [J.' must stand for [j.01. Cf. //. vi. 165, xiii. 481, etc. 'iopw? is 
given as feminine in 'Aeolic' Cram. An. Ox. i. 208. 

1. 14. aypsi = aipsl, cf. Hesch. xataypEt, xaQ-aips'i, xaxaXajj-pavst, and the 
Homeric ^aXtvaypExo?, auTaypExo?, v. Buttmann Lex. i. 130. 

I. 15. 'mosuy]v (Lesb. Infin. = etjioeu'eiv) so Ahrens from kioe6<ti]v, 
utosuEtv, etc. ' I seem to lack but little of dying,' cf. the paraphrase in 
Longinus I.e. -ap' oXtyov te'O-vtjxev. It is true that this use of the active 
instead of the middle i^ioEuofAat is without any certain parallel, but 
Hermann's reading 'raoEurjs (the adjective) is against the MSS., all of 
which have the letter v. 

II. 16-17. To fill up the gap Bergk conjectures aXXa = r^srj, demens ; 
Hermann 'AxO-t, etc. 

1. 17. The unmetrical words £net xa\ TOvrj-ca follow in the MSS., and 
Bergk supposes that they belong to Longinus' remarks with regard 
to the passage. In any case they probably indicate the sense of what 
followed in the original poem. 

III. "AoTEps; x.tX Eust. II. 729. 20. 

See Lesb. Dial, for asXavvav. p. 82 ; CMroxpujcxoKn, ^XrjO-oiaa, p. 83 : 
oTzrcoxa ( = 6toxe), p. 85 and p. 88 ; a'pyupta, p. 85. 



SAPPHO 331 

1. 4. dpyupia is mentioned as occurring somewhere in this or a very 
similar passage by Julian Efip. xix. ; and is conjecturally placed as 
in the text by Blomfield. Neue, remarking that Xdp.mri requires a 
preposition, rather boldly reads yav €irl iraa-av, from a comparison 
with the phrase -aaav eV aiav in //. viii. 1. 1 and xxiv. 695. 

Possibly Xajji^T] yav is used transitively for ' causes the earth to 
gleam', ' lights up the earth' ; but in all other instances of the transitive 
use the object is something whose very nature it is to shine, e.g. d-rajp, 
<reXas, cps'yyos, and not something which is illumined by a foreign light. 

With the whole passage cf. Hor. 1 Od. xii. 46 : ' Micat inter 
omnes | Julium sidus velut inter ignes | Luna minores ; and Pindar 
Isth. iii. 42, 'Awacpo'po? ■fraTjxos to? aurpots iv aXXoig. 

IV. 'A[j.o\ oe x.x.X. Quoted by Hermog. Walz. Rhet. iii. 315 as an 
example of a beautiful description of nature. Bergk suggests that 
the passage refers to the gardens of the Nymphs (cf. Ibycus I.), which, 
as we learn from Demetrius Eloc. cxxxn., were often introduced 
into Sappho's poems, cf. Od. xvii. 209, Theocr. vii. 135, and Hor. 
Efiod. ii. 27: ' Frondesque (Markland for 'fontesque') lymphis 
obstrepunt manantibus | Somnos quod invitet leves '. 

1. 1. uowp is interpolated, according to Neue, for the sake of ex- 
planation. He adds that ^u/pov xsXdoci = W/po? sari xsXaod;. 

ucjStov Lesbian for o^uv, v. Lesb. Dial. p. 83, and note on vii. 1. 4. 

1. 3. the word xatappei is against Lesbian usage in two respects : 
in the employment (1) of the contracted form instead of xaxdpp7)ii, 
(2) of the full form xaxa- (see Lesb. Dial. pp. 88, 90) ; consequently 
Ahrens reads xappe'ei, treating this line as the third and not the fourth 
in the ' Sapphic ' stanza. 

V. 'eXO-j KuTcpt. Athen. xi. 463, kotoc xr,v xaX^v Sarcpw, and the 
quotation certainly justifies the epithet he uses. Bergk's suggestion 
that these words occur in the song in which Sappho spoke of her 
brother as cup-bearer (cf. Introd. p. 140) is far-fetched and apt to mis- 
lead ; for Sappho is speaking figuratively of the nectar of love, just as 
Pindar describes his poetry as ve'jcxap yuxov, 01. vii. 7. 

Lesb. Dial, for ypuat'atcji, p. 85 ; oivoyosuaa (Bergk for -oucia, Neue 
-eiaa), p. 91. 

au[j.[j.. O-aX. ' mixtum voluptate ', Neue. 

VI. KaxO-avcuaa x.x.X. An attack upon a rich but uncultivated 
woman who had probably provoked Sappho (v. Introd. p. 152). 
Stob. Flor. iv. 12, Sa^cpou? r.rjic, a^atosuxov yuvaix.a ; Plut. Pracc. 
Conjug. c. 48, Ttpoq xtva rcXouTiav ; and Plut. Syinp. ill. i. 2, to show 
that rose-garlands were sacred (i«i7te<p7j|i.i<Ttai) to the Muses. 

See Lesb. Dial, for xaxO-avoisa, p. 83 ; 7:oxa, p. 85 ; reoa for |j.Exa, 
p. 88 ; ppo'owv for po'owv, p. 82. 

1. 1-2. uutepov. The reading here is very doubtful. Stob. I.e. has 
/.ax. 5k xefaeat ouos^:ox.a [j.v. oi&ev ea. ouof-o/.' uorepov. Plut, however, 



332 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

gives xeictsok ouSs xi? ;j.v. se'D-cv Easrai' ou yap x.x.X. In 1. I I have given 
Spengel's simple but ingenious addition to Plutarch's text, eti imply- 
ing ' you will no longer enjoy the reputation your wealth now gives 
you'. In 1. 2 Grotius conjecturally adds a? ; ouSs'^ox' has been 
replaced by the commentators for ouos'-ox', which is not Lesbian. 

1. 3. For y.f t v (= /.a\ iv), which is a Dorian contraction (v. 93), we 
should certainly have expected xdv. Meister suggests that xtjv was 
employed to avoid confusion with xav = xa\ av (ava). I believe that 
we should either read xa\ 'v, or else /.' siv, the latter of which would 
account for the reading in one MSS — xav. The Epic form siv might 
suitably be borrowed in this Epic expression, and we find xa{ elided 
elsewhere, e.g. Scol. i. 2. 

VII. 2u ol axapavoc?. Quoted, Athen. xiv. 674 E, as Sappho's simple 
reason for the custom of wearing garlands at sacrifices. 

See Lesb. Dial, for axscpavoi? (ace. plur.), p. 83 ; rcp!Ha9-' (= rap iS-safP), 
p. 88 ; auvs-'ppatsa (= auvsipasa), pp. 82, 83 ; the infin. ^poTEprjv, p. 89. 

1. I. w Aixa, Welcker's conjecture for tootxa. (For a in the voc. 
sing. v. Lesb. Dial. p. 86.) 

rapak'a^ (Seidler for ^ap{h'cj9-') after <ju must stand for zsptSHcO-at, the 
infinitive for imperative, such an elision being not unfrequent in Epic. 

1. 2. avj]-uoio : so Ahrens and Bergk (inetri causa) for the usual 
Lesbian gen. avr|xw. Cf. Alcaeus 1. note. 

a7:aXaiat, Casaubon for a-aXXayciar,. 

1. 3. Athen. has suavika yap 7ceX. v.. /aptx£? [Jiaxatpa. Bergk's text, 
which I have followed, is sufficiently far from the original, but does 
not perhaps present more difficulties than the various conjectures of 
other commentators, and at least gives us the sense required. Trans. 
' It is the lot (cf. ixxikzi in Antig. 478) of the flower-bedecked to be 
further in the favour of the goddesses ', there being perhaps special 
reference to Aphrodite. Cf. on No. I. 1. 

1. 4. aTUjarpapovxai = a^oaxp. Cf. Appendix, Sap. No. 18, arcu. 
osupu is also said to occur in Lesbian, though Sappho has osupo 
(Appendix, No. 84). In the cases found the syllable is usually a 
very unemphatic one, except in the instance of liaoo; = ciaoo; (o£o?) in 
Sap. IV. 1. See G. Meyer's Gr. Gram. 62. 

The dative after aruaxpap. in the sense of 'are averse to\ is 
intelligible enough, but not easy to parallel. In both the Greek and 
the English phrase the verb seems to have lost the thought of motion 
and acquired that of hostility. 

VIII. (a) Hephaest. 42, where XV. (c) is also quoted, Schneidewin 
and others joining that passage with this. 

The epithet Xuatjjielri; seems to be borrowed from Epic. It is 
applied to Sleep in Homer, e.g. Od. xx. 57, and to Love in Hesiod, 
Theog. 911. Cf. Xuai[j.sX7)s . . . roOo; in Archil. III. rXuxuraxpov, cf. 
Catull. lxviii. 18, 'dulce amarus'. 



SAPPHO S33 

(b) I have adopted Hartung's conjecture in I. i. The passage is 
quoted or paraphrased in Maxim. Tyr. xxiv. 9 thus, if t ok 2oww>o1 6 
Epwj sxtva^c xa; cpp. X.T.X. 

For the treatment of Eros in these passages see Additional Note B. 

IX. Aiou/.z /..-.l. Hephaest. 65. The lines are attributed to Sappho 
by Stephanus. Schneidewin remarks 'aura cantilenae popularis 
afflat'. Lcsb. Dial. p. 82, for asXavva. Bergk restores Psilosis in 
xaxsuow for /.aO-suoto. 

Me'aai vuxte? for ' midnight,' v. Blomfield Gloss. Aescli. Choeph. 282. 
He quotes Hdt. viii. 76, Thuc. viii. 101, Xen. Anab. 1. vii. 1, for the 
same phrase. Klausen remarks that the plural in such cases implies 
some notion of universality, and Peile explains \>.iiai vu'x.ts; as ' the 
period at which all nights, whether long or short, are half gone.' We 
are hardly justified in saying that vuV.te; = 'the watches of the night' 
(v. Liddell and Scott), unless some instance can be found of Nu? in 
the singular being used for 'a watch of the night.' The nearest 
parallel to this case is rdfa, ' the parts of a bow,' i.e. a bow, though 
xd?ov never = a single part of it. Whatever be the explanation, it 
would seem that the plural came to be used exactly in the same sense 
as the singular in such phrases as ix vux.tiov, xoppio tuv vu/.twv, etc. 

X. Et 8' r\yzc, v..i.X Quoted by Aristot. Rhct. i. 9, as Sappho's re- 
sponse to Alcaeus' addresses. See Alcaeus XI. note, and Additional 
Note A. 

See Lcsb. Dial. 7Jys; (= si/sg), p. 84; Fzlr.r^ (= stralv), pp. 82 and 
89 ; iiXoc, for ia9-Xd; is found in Lesbian, and laXd? in Dorian and 
other Dialects ; cf. [JiaaXr]? = [j.aa9-Xrj?, Sap. XXIX. 

1. 1. at ( = si),'see note on Spartan Dance-song, I. 

1. 2. [j.t] tt FeiTC7]v, Blomfield from [j.7)TtTst^v ; the words of course 
scornfully repeat Alcaeus' xi Fdr.r^. 

1. 3. I have adopted Mehlhorn's conjecture for piv az oux stysv, or 
xsv (^ ou xav /sv. We should expect xocttj/sv in Lesbian. Bergk pro- 
poses /.i a' ou xfyavsv. For d(j.;.iaTa Blomfield reads or.r.ot.xoL for MSS. 
o;j.ij.a-a {v. on II. 1. 11). Notice Schema -/.a9'' oXov xai [jipo?. 

1. 4. Tw oixaiw?, ' thou wouldst speak of it straightforwardly '. So 
Bergk and Ahrens for tw Sixai'w, which would be ridiculously tame. 

XI. 'AW ewv, Stob. Flor. lxxx. 4. Another refusal from Sappho 
to a suitor. 

See Lesb. Dial, for atj.[juv, p. 87 ; <tjv Foizrp ( = auvotxitv), pp. 82, 89. 

1. 2. auvFo;-/.7)v, Schneidewin ; or we may read auvofx7)v, and regard 
u as lengthened in arsi. Cf. on Alcaeus XVII. Bergk, in a different 
metre, reads ^uvot/Ojv veto y' hvx from two MSS. vs' ousa. 

XII. 2xa0t x.t.X. Athen. xiii. 564 D. 

The metre is uncertain. According to Bergk's arrangement, as in 
the text, the second line is an ordinary Alcaic hendecasyllable. 



334 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

Tav eV oaaoi? x.t.X, ' unveil, or reveal, the beauty in thine eyes.' 
Liddell and Scott, in spite of the article, give a strange rendering, 
' shed grace over the eyes '. 

XIII. rXuxsia {licTEp x.t.X. Hephaest. 60. The lines are probably 
to be regarded as ' brachycatalectic ' dimeters (with anacrusis) rather 
than as tripodies, as is indicated partly by the fact that the final 
syllable is long in each case and not neutral. See W. Christ, Me/rik, 
p. 284. 

See Lesb. Dial, for -/.pv/.r^ (= xps'xstv), p. 89; and ppaSivav, p. 82. 
1. 2. ot' 'A^poStx. cf. Hes. Theog. 962, uizooy.rfisiax Sta ypuac'rjv 
'A<ppooixav. 

Horace's 'tibi qualum Cythereae puer ales tibi telas', etc. (3 Od. 
xii. 4) is probably in imitation of these lines. Compare too the 
English song, 

' O mother, put the wheel away, 
I cannot spin to-night,' etc. 

XIV. "Ecm [j.01 7..X.X These lines, quoted by Hephaest. 95, are 
assigned to Sappho by Ursinus, since Sappho is said by Suidas to 
have had a daughter named Cleis. Sappho's mother bore the same 
name. 

Metre. — Brachycatalectic trochaic tetrameters (v. Metre, p. 61 ;) 
ypuatotaiv being trisyllabic, and AuSiav disyllabic by synizesis. Others 
arrange the lines on a simpler metrical system, 



by reading Kkir t i$ (W. Christ) and aTrataav (Ahrens) for rcaaav or roxiaav. 
See Lesb. Dial, for ypuatoiaiv, p. 85; E/oiaa, p. 83; i'p^Eprjv, p. 87. 
aya-axa, as the length of the first syllable shows, is for d aya^axa. 

XV. These passages, or most of them, refer to certain quarrels that 
Sappho was engaged in (v. p. 152), excited perhaps by jealousy on 
the part of her Lesbian rivals. In XV. (a) she complains of the in- 
gratitude of those whom she has befriended, perhaps some of her 
own pupils, but she adds that she is not speaking of the nobler sort ; 
in (b), (c), and (d) she speaks of the estrangement even of her favourite 
Atthis ; in (e) she implies that some punishment has befallen her 
rival Andromeda ; but in (/) she disclaims resentment on her part, 
and I have conjecturally regarded the gnomic sentence in (g) as 
suggested by the circumstances to which the other passages seem 
to refer. 

Neither would it, I think, be excessively fanciful to suppose that in 
the lines of No. xvi. Sappho is concluding the subject by proudly 
vindicating her poetic reputation against the spiteful criticisms of her 
rivals. 

(a) Et. M. 449. 34. su Qita is explained as TOtstv eu e/elv. cf. Xen. 
Ages. xi. 12. ti9e\s xa xwv oiXtov aaoaXwc, v. Elsmley Eur. Med. 896. 



SAPPHO 335 

/.Tjvoi (= xslvoi), cf. on No. II. 1. i ; aiwovxai Ahrens for aivovxai from 
Choerob. 259. 

•cats xaXai? x.x.X. Quoted by Apollon. de Pron. 34S c. to illustrate 
u'fAfxiv {Lesb. Dial. p. 87). It is, I think, extremely probable that 
this fragment belongs to the same Ode as the lines oxxiva; x.x.X. 

{b) 1. I. Hephaest. 42. Mr. Swinburne makes much of this line in 
his Anastasia, and certainly its rhythmical flow is singularly attrac- 
tive, cf. No. XVI. (a'). 

rcoxa Blomfield for 7ioxa, v. Lesb. Dial. p. 85. 

1. 2. Plut. Erot. c. 5, in illustration of a usage of yapu, the meaning 
of x.a/apt? here being given as xrp ou^w yap.wv Eyouaav wpav. That the 
line refers to Atthis, and is closely connected with the previous line 
in the text, is demonstrated, as Bergk points out, by Terentian Mater. 
2154: 'Cordi quando fuisse sibl canit Atthida parvam | Florea 
virginitas sua cum foret.' 

e'[x[j.£v IcpaivEo, Bergk from Max. Tyr. xxiv. 9, exi aaivco. Plutarch has 
£[j.[j.£vai tpaivsat. 

(c) Hephaest 42. 

1. 2. (ppovxiaorjv (= cppovxi^iv), Bentley for cppovclg o Vjv, v. Lesb. Dial. 
pp. 84 and 89. Andromeda is mentioned by Maxim. Tyr. xxiv. 8, as 
one of Sappho's rivals (avxfxsyvo?). She is attacked by Sappho in 
the next passage, and in Bergk 58. 

(d) Athen. i. 21 c. Saucpw r.spi 'Avopopioa? axwrnrsi, Various 
attempts are made to restore 1. I, and many commentators make use 
of what seems to be a paraphrase of this passage in Maxim. Tyr. 
xxiv. 9 : t(? 3' ocypoiwxiv £jxe[j.[JL£va axoXrjv. 

See Lesb. Dial, for (Jpaxsa, p. 82 ; sXxrjv (= IXxstv), p. 89. 

Ppaxea may very well bear its common meaning of 'rags', or 
' shabby clothes ', here ; but Liddell and Scott on the authority of 
Hesychius (ppaxo; - t[j.axtov noXuxeXe's) translate the words as ' a rich 
woman's garment '. If so, the force of the satire is that the fine 
clothes cannot conceal the innate clumsiness of the wearer. Similarly 
the Scotch girl in Burns, commenting on a rival, points out 

' How her new shoon fit her auld shachl't feet.' 

(e) Hephaest. 82. 

(/) Et. M. 2. 43. See Lesb. Dial. Z[i.\u, p. 82 ; «(3dx7]v, p. Sy. 
e[i.[u and opyav, Ursinus for £[j.[j.£v and opyavwv. 

' I am not one of the resentful in temper, but have a gentle 
spirit.' 'Apaxrj? is explained Et. M. as avxi xou rjauyiov xat -paov. Cf. 
Anacreon XIX, apa-/.t^o[j.Evwv in contrast to yaXs-ou;. Liddell and 
Scott's translation of ajBax.r^ in this passage, ' childlike,' ' innocent,' is 
surely incorrect. Its literal meaning seems to be 'not answering 
again,' rather than 'without the power of speech,' like an infant. 

(g) Plut. de Coh. Ira c. 7, i\ 2a::cpio 7rapaiv£t ax. ev ax. opyrj? 7:£<puXay0ai 
yXtoaaav [j.a'luXaxxav. The text has been restored by Hermann and 
Seidler. I have adopted Ahrens' ^souXa^o, since -j-iuXayOai is 



336 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

evidently dependent in Plutarch on Jtapaivst. Ma^uXaxa? occurs Pind. 
Nem. vii. 105. 

XVI. (a) ¥aur,v x.x.X. Herod, r.soi (j.ov. Xs'£. vii. 28. Mva<TE<r9-at x.x.X., 
Dio Chrysos. Or. xxxvii. T. II. 535. The two passages not improbably 
belong to the same song. (See also on xv. ad init.) They are 
recalled respectively by Horace's ' Sublimi feriam sidera vertice ', and 
' Usque ego postera | Crescam laude recens'. 

See Lesb. Dial, for J/au<r]v, p. 89; SoxtjAWfu, p. 89 ; ap-pitov, p. 87. 

In the first line Herod, has Aadstv 81 ou oo/.sl piot tdpavw Suarrayja, 
Su'ot rca/saiv being Bergk's conjecture. ' I deem that I touch not the 
heavens by two cubits,' i.e. ' Two cubits more and I touch the heavens.' 

opavw = oupavou. For the single liquid, where we should have 
expected oppavw (from *FopFavd;) v. p. 82, and cf. on No. I. 1. 11. 

In the second line uoxspov is given by Volger for sxspov. Casaubon 
pivaaEafrat for p.vaaaa9-at. 

(b) At p-s xtpiav x.t X. Apoll. de Prott. 404 A. Sappho is evidently 
speaking of the Muses, and Bergk reasonably connects with this 
passage Aristid. ii. 508, Sarctpou; Xsyoua7]; to; aux7jv at Mouaat xto dvxt 
dXptav xs xa\ £7jXtoxr,v snotrjaav, xa\ toe ou<5' d-oO-avouarj; earai XrjO-7]. The 
fragment would thus appear to be connected either with the pre- 
ceding one or with No. VI. 

At p.s Seidler for ep.s. 

XVII. Ou yap -9-s'p.i? x.x.X. Restored by Neue from Maxim. Tyr. 
xxiv. 9, who compares with Socrates' exhortation to Xanthippe the 
dying words of Sappho to her daughter, ou yap Q-. £v (Aouao^dXwv 
o'/tta I •SpfjjVov. 

sTvat x.x.X. I have adopted Schneidewin's reading, p.oi(707:dXw gen., 
' in domo vatis,' referring to Sappho ; Neue p.otao7:dXio, ' a house 
serving the Muses '. 

Bergk (Sappho 137) conjectures that these lines are from the song 
which Solon is said to have taken pains to learn before he died. 

XVIII. OuS' tav x.t.X. Chrysipp., izspi a-ooaxtxtov, 13. See Lesb. 
Dial, for oox.ip.wp.1, p. 89 ; aXtto = tjXiou. 

' I deerp that no maiden that beholds the light of the sun will at 
any time be (thine) equal in wisdom.' Sappho is perhaps speaking 
of one of her pupils, unless of her own fame as in No. xvi. 

Socpia, 'poetic skill,' as in Pind. 01. i. 116, Pyth. i. 12, etc. 

Notice epical phraseology in rcpoaio. tpdo? aXtw. 

XIX. Kp7]aaai x.x.X. Lines 1-2 are quoted by Hephaest. 63 as 

Ionics a majore ( u J) ; but if, as seems probable, 1. 3 quoted ibid. 

65, is rightly attached by Santen to 11. 1-2, the metre must be choriambic 
with anacrusis, v. Metre, p. 69. 



SAPPHO 337 

See Lesb. Dial, for wpysuviro, |j.axaaat, p. go; [j.<m'w (= toxte'w), 
z/. Hesych. 

ra>a; t. a. seems copied from Odyss. ix. 449, «'pev' avfoa jtowjs. For 
Cretan dancers v. p. 29. 

XX. nX7]pr]s x.t.X. Hephaest. 63 as an example of Ionics a majore, 
as indicated above in the text. For a trochaic dipody answering to 
an Ionic, v. Metre, p. 70. It is, however, possible to scan the lines 

as logaoedic with anacrusis : 

/ _ _ 

v> . — ^y v^ — w — v-» — w 

Schneidewin remarks, ' videtur de artibus magicis sermo esse.' 
ecpaiveTo, ' de ortu,' Neue. Cf. //. viii. 5 56, etc. 

XXI. Kax9-vaaxei x.-u.X. Quoted by Hephaest. p. 59, and attributed to 
Sappho on the strength of Pausan. IX. xxix. 8, where it is said that 
Sappho sang about Adonis and Oetolinus, and of Anth. Pal. vii. 407. 
V H Ktvopsw ve'ov epvo; oSupojiivrj, 'AcppoSttr] | Suvfrprjvo;, in reference to 
Sappho. * 

In this, as in many other cases, e.g. the Bridal Songs, the poetess is 
drawing upon the Volkslieder for her material. See pp. 12, 14. 

XXII. "Ays or] x.t.X. Reconstructed by Bergk from Hermog. iii. 
317 (Walz), and Eust. 77. ix. 41, the latter of whom says that Sappho 
speaks '0[j.rjptxw;. Pindar, like Sappho, addresses his lyre in a 
famous passage, Pyth. i. 1. 

XXIII. {a) Hephaest. 52 as a choriambic tetrameter. The Graces 
are invoked to give beauty to the song. They are constantly invoked, 
or mentioned by Pindar, in a similar manner, e.g. 01. xiv. 

Gaisford reads vuv (given in several MSS.), comparing for metre ' Te 
deos oro Sybarin cur properas amando,' Hor. 1 Od. viii. But the 
Latin poets were always more anxious to avoid a long succession 
of choriambics than the Greek {v. Metre, p. 68) ; and Gaisford dis- 
regards the testimony of Hephaestion. 

(b) Argument Theocr. xxviii. Philostr. Epist. 71, commenting on 
Sappho's love of the rose, seems to refer to the beautiful epithet in 
this passage {v. Bergk, ad loc). 

Bpoooxaysss, restored by Schneidewin for 00S. v. Lesb. Dial. p. 82. 

XXIV. Taiat (Se) Au/po?. Schol. Pind. Pyth. i. 10, where Pindar 
describes the soothing influence of music even on the eagle of Zeus, 
causing him to relax his swift wings (toxstav ^xspuy' aj-icpo-cepwO-ev 
/aXa?ai; 1. 6) : H oe 2a7rcpw hit too evavxiou (iii xwv rapiaTspwv. 

The words liA iou iv. imply that, while in Pindar the eagle relaxes 
his wings from delight, in Sappho the same effect is caused by the 
reverse feeling of pain or fear. Thus Neue, ^uypoc,, ' ob timorem,' 
cf. Protn. Vine. 693. If we could accept Volger's '^u/po;, languidus 
prae somno ', the meaning of the Scholiast would be that, while Pindar 

Y 



338 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

takes as his illustration of the influence of music one of the fiercest 
of birds, Sappho for the same purpose speaks of the gentlest. But 
such a rendering of AG/po; is, I think, out of the question, as it always 
signifies 'lifeless', or 'spiritless.' 

oe added by Neue ; I'yEVTo, Bockh for lyEVETo. 

XXV. "Eyw 8e cp(X7][i.' x.t.X. Ath. xv. 687, arguing that luxury is not 
necessarily inconsistent with virtue, quotes this passage with the 
remark Sarccpw 7]Sja9-r] to xaXov tJJs aPpoTr]Tos aa>eXE"tv. 

Metre. — Choriambic with anacrusis, and a brachycatalectic con- 
clusion. See Lesb. Dial. oiXrj[j.t, p. 90. 

The words xai [xoi x.t.X. are paraphrased by Athenaeus thus : r xou 
£tjv i7ci'9'u[i.(a to Xajajcpov /.ai to xaXov stysv auTr; ; so that asXtto seems to be 
used for ' life,' like the Homeric cpao; i^eXioio. If so, the meaning of 
the passage as it stands is as follows : ' My desire for the light of life, 
the joy I take in life, includes all that is splendid and all that is fair.' 
The context in Athenaeus clearly shows that xaXov has here an 
ethical and not merely an aesthetic signification. 

XXVI. 'Hpo? ayyeXo? x.t.X. Schol. Soph. El. 149. 

The dactyls are probably choreic, as is shown by the initial trochee ; 
cf. on Alcaeus Frag. I. Comp. Odyss. xix. 5 1 8. 

XXVII. (a) 'O [jl£v yap x.t.X. Galen Protr. c. 8. See Lesb. Dial. 
or oo-orov, p. 82 : 'iBrjv = lostv), p. 89. 

Bergk and Schneidewin place this among the Epithalamia as if 
it were an apology for the ill looks of the bridegroom. 

xaXog is plausibly added by Hermann. Notice the redundant xai 
in K&yaO-o? . . . Kal xaXoc, arising out of a natural confusion, as if the 
sentence ran ' he is both good and fair.' Cf. Plat. Phaedo 64 C. 
2xE<Lat lav apa Kal aoi auvooxfj a^so Kap.01, and //. vi. 476, Sots or\ koI 
tovSe ysvEafrai | IlalS' e[j.ov to? Kal Eyw'rcEp. 

(b) 6 tcXouto? x.t.X. Schol. Pind. 01. ii. 53 and Pyth. v. 1. Tac 
supplied by Neue. 

XXVIII. AW i'yw x.t.X. Apoll. de Synt. 247. Conjecturally 
assigned to Sappho on account of metre and dialect. 

XXIX. ndSa? Se x.t.X. Quoted by Schol. Ar. Peace 1 174, in illus- 
tration of the excellence of Lydian dyes, to which therefore the words 
Auo. x. I', refer. Compare Horn. //. iv. 142, where Myiovi; stands for 
Lydian. MaaXyj? for [jLaaS-Xr]?. Cf. eoXo?, and v. on Sap. x. 1. 

XXX. Oux otS' x.t.X. Chrysipp. iz, arcocpaT, 1. 23. 

XXXI. '12? oe Teat's x.t.X. Et. M. 662, 32. Ot yap 'AioXst? E?wS-aat 
7ipoaTtO-£vai au[i.cowvov, tocrap to lzT£puyw[j.at TTETiTEpuytojjLat, also Schol. 
Theocr. i. 55. 

7ce6a so Schol. Theocr. but Et. M. x:ai3a. The alliteration both of 



SAPPHO 339 

the labials and dentals in the line is particularly noticeable. Cf. for 
the dentals, Dith. Poets I. «', 11. 1-2. 

XXXII. TaSs vuv Ixaipat? x.x.X. Athen. xiii. 751 D. xaXouai youv 
xa"t at eXsuS-spai yuvatxe; eti xai vuv xa\ at 7cap9-Evoi xa; <juvr)'0-st5 xai cpfXa; 
Ixatpa?. 

BRIDAL SONGS 

For the early Greek Bridal Song, see p. 12. 

These short fragments bring before us very dramatically the nature 
of the occasion for which they were intended. It is plain that 
Sappho's Bridal Songs took their character from the appropriate 
Volkslieder, a fact which is conspicuous alike in the metre of several 
of the passages and in the naivete of the language. 

XXXIII. v I\|/oi x.x.X. This passage is quoted by Hephaest. 129, to 
illustrate the use of the ptEaopiviov, or refrain after each line ; and by 
Demetr. de Eloc. clxviii. for the beauty of the [j.exa.fio'kri, or change 
from an exaggerated expression t<jo;"Apeui to a more sober statement 
in 1. 4 (eaxt 8s' xt; totw? yotpt? Sawpixrj ex [xexaPoXrJ?, oxav xt zlrzouacc (Jtsxa- 
paXXrjxat xa"t loairep [ierav07]O7)). 

Metre. — Various attempts have been made, often with considerable 
violence to the text, to bring these lines to the form of hexameters. 
As they stand, 11. 1, 2, 4 are paroemiacs, with or without anacrusis, a 
metre of great antiquity and common in Volkslieder. Cf. infra on 
Linus song, Popular Songs 1. For 1. 3 v. below. The refrain was pro- 
bably sung, or shouted, by the whole bridal company ; the rest of 
the song perhaps by a chorus of maidens, cf. on No. xxxvil. 

See Lesb. Dial, for aeppexe (aefpexe), p. 82; u^vaov, p. 85; p.syaXio 
(genit), p. 84. 

1. 1-2. *l#oi x.x.?,. At first sight these words look as if they refer to 
the erection of a triumphal arch ; but doubtless they are a mere com- 
plimentary jest at the stature of the bridegroom as he approaches the 
house. 

Although the MS. authority is against it, this form is usually 
adopted, since the grammarians state that this was the Lesbian for 
u'lot. Meister (p. 46), however, discredits their testimony. 

Notice the Epic expression textoves avSps?, cf. 7roip.svEs avSps? in 
No. xxxvn. 1. 3. 

1. 3. Bergk brings this line metrically into harmony with the rest 
by reading epysxai, and regarding yaptppo; (or yaj3po?) as ^/^, compar- 
ing avopoxTjxa xa\ rjpVjv in Homer {v. Bergk) ; but in a song of this 
kind, interrupted as each verse is by the refrain, it is hardly necessary 
for them all to have been of equal length. 

ya|j.ppov" xov vujjupfov AtoXst?, Bekk. Anecd. Gr. p. 228. Cf. Pind. 
01. vii. 4. 

(b) Those who arrange the previous lines as hexameters, add to 



340 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

them this verse, which is quoted by Demetr. de Eloc. cxlvi. from 
Sappho in reference to a man of great stature. The proverbial 
' Lesbian singer' is usually taken to be Terpander (cf. Eust. //. 741, 
16), but refers rather to the Lesbian poets in general. 
For the hexametric metre, cf. No. xxxvn. and see Metre, p. 62. 

XXXIV. Tlw x.t.X. Quoted by Hephaest. 41 as Aeolic Pentameters 
though without the name of Sappho. 

See Lesb. Dial, for t£w (=t£vi), p. 88; itxaaBco, p. 84. The diaeresis 
of an original diphthong in eVxaaow is remarkable, and is perhaps em- 
ployed for metrical reasons on the analogy of the diaeresis common 
in Lesbian where the diphthong is not original. See pp. 84-5. 

xotXtdr' answering to xaXto;, so Bergk for [AaXiar'. Similarly a 
grammarian tells us that Alcaeus employed xaXtov for xaXXiov. 

XXXV. Xalpe x.t.X. Serv. Verg. Georg. i. 31. See Lesb. Dial. p. 
86, for vuij^a. 

XXXVI. "oXpts x.-c.X. Hephaest. 102. See Lesb. Dial, for vg\c, 
(Reisk for eyeis), p. 89. Schneidewin points out that ciX[3ts yap-Ppe is 
the conventional greeting in Epithalamia, cf. Theocr. xviii. 16; Eurip. 
Hel. 640 (u>Xjji<7av = addressed as 6X|3ia), Hes. Fr. xlix. 

apao, unaugmented Imperf. in the -\u conjugation = rjpaao. See 
Lesb. Dial. p. 90. 

XXXVII. OCov x.t.X. 11. 1-3 Schol. Hermog. (Walz) vii. 983. 11. 
4-5, Demetr. de Eloc. cvi. That the first of these passages refers to 
the bride is obvious from Himerius i. 4 and 16, where a sort of para- 
phrase is given of Sappho's Bridal Song {v. quotation in Bergk). 
The second passage is quoted without Sappho's name, but is very 
reasonably assigned to her by Bergk. A comparison with the 
Wedding-song, Catullus (No. 62), renders this practically certain. 
In the Latin poem a band of youths sings in answer to a band of 
girls, and in 1. 39 the latter compare the maiden who has been care- 
fully reared to a flower that has grown up unharmed in a garden — 

Ut flos in septis secretus nascitur hortis, 
Ignotus pecori, etc. 
In 1. 49 the youths declare that a maiden who shuns marriage is 
like a vine in a bare field, with no husband-elm on which to rest for 
support. 

Ut vidua in nudo vitis quae nascitur arvo, 
Nunquam se extollit, nunquam mitem evocat uvam, 
Sed tenerum /?wz0 deflectens pendere corpus, 
Jam jam contingit summum radice flagellum,— 
Hanc nulli agricolae, nulli accoluere juvenci, etc. 

It is only natural to conclude that herein Catullus was imitating the 
Greek passages before us, both being from Sappho, and that just 



SAPPHO 341 

as the lines o!ov to yXuy.ujj.aXov x.x.X. refer, we are told, like Catullus' 
'ut fios, etc.,' to the tenderly-reared virgin-bride (Himer. I.e.), simi- 
larly the passage otav xocv uaxivSov x.x.X. describes the obscure and 
neglected lot of the unmarried girl, iv oupeut being paralleled by ' in 
nudo . . . arvo,' xajJ-ai by ' prono deflectens, etc.,' and the neglect of 
the shepherds by the line ' hanc nulli agricolae, etc' A further 
probable assumption from the comparison with Catullus is that 11. 1-3 
are sung by a chorus of maidens, and 11. 4-5 by youths, as I have 
indicated in the text. 

See Lesb. Dial, for uaoio (=o£w), p. 84, and note on vii. 4 ; >j.aXo- 
op6-i]Eq, p. 87 ; xaxaax£t[3oiaL, p. 83, and p. 88. 

I. 3. ' Forgot it not, nay ! but got it not, for they could not get it 
till now.' Rossetti. 

II. 4-5. Demetrius I.e. remarks, xfjs Xe'Sjswi; ^ [j.kv uTnjpsxsl 7j ok iTz<.y.oa[x£i 
. . . UTtrjpsxsl [J.EV 1^ xoiaos - oTav . . . xaxaaxEt'Pouai. E-ix.oa[j.£t §k x6 
EJUtpEpo'piEvov yap-ai Se xe x.x.X. 

With the Epic 7:oi;j.svei; avSps? cf. No. XXXIII. 2, xexxovs; v.vbpzi;. 

8« re. ' Te in the combinations [oiv xe, 8s xe, xai xe, yap xe, aXXa xe, 
and the like, is not a conjunction, and does not affect the meaning of 
the conjunction which it follows.' Monr. Hodi. Gr. p. 243. ' It serves 
to mark an assertion as general or indefinite,' Id. p. 242. 

XXXVIII. Ilapihvia x.x.X. Demetr. de Eloc. cxl. as an example 
of the beauty of dvaoi'^Xwat; : — vu;j.cp7] ;ip6<; x^v 7^ap8sviav yr^i ... ^ ok 
arcoxptvExcu x.x.X. 

1. 1. Blomfield conjectures a7roi/7] for oiyr\\ otherwise the metre 
would be 

a most improbable arrangement in monodic poetry. 

1. 2. Various endeavours have been made to restore this line to the 
metre of 1. 1. In itself it becomes perfectly metrical merely by elision 
and the substitution of 7:pox\ or rcox't for 7wpo;, as in the text. 

XXXIX. fEarapE x.x.X. El. M. 384, 4. Demetr. de Eloc. cxli., etc. 
These lines perhaps belong to the same song as No. xxxvn, and 

probably suggested the address to Hesperus in Catullus 62. Com- 
pare Byron's 

' O Hesperus, thou bringest all good things,' etc. 

1. 2. otv, Casaubon's admirable emendation for oTvov. 
Many attempts have been made to restore this line to greater 
metrical regularity. If it be right as it stands the scansion is : 

Bergk reads <p. djiu [j.ax£pt n. from a^oiov in one of the authorities. 
If we accept the introduction of the preposition, I would suggest a 
further alteration to d~u |j.dx£poi; rcai'v, thus bringing the passage into 
agreement with Catullus' ' Hespere . . . qui natam possis complexu 



342 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

avellere matris.' Bergk's reading, however, may possibly bear the 
same meaning, since it is conceivable that araxpe'petv, like a<paipeiv, 
should take a dative in the sense of ' from the mother'. 

XL. Gupw'pw -/..tX Hephaest. 41, and described by Demetr. de Eloc. 
clxvii. as a satirical passage where Sappho intentionally adopted 
prosaic language. 

Schneidewin quotes Pollux iii. 42, xaXftxai -a; xwv tou vupupiou tptXwv 
xai Qupwpo?, 6 -rais 9-upai? i<pe(m]J«i>s xat apywv fa? yuvaixag (3o7]d-£iv ttj 
vu V?n Powctt). These verses then exhibit to us a phase in the mimic 
bridal combat, when the maidens console themselves for their baffled 
attempt at rescue by aiming feminine sarcasms against their opponent. 

For ■9-upwpw, where we should expect in Lesbian 9-upocpw v. p. 84. 
Compare, however, xwtci in Sap. I. 1 5 (note). 

rapte- Schneidewin for raVce-, Lesb. Dial. p. 83. 

XLI. Krj 3' «|j.(3poatas x.t.X. 11. 1-2 are cited by Athen. x. 425 C. to 
exhibit Hermes as wine-bearer to the gods ; 11. 3-5 Athen. xi. 475 A. 
Bergk and Ahrens reasonably join the two passages together. 

SeeLeso, Dial, vjyov, p. 84. For xfjvoi=xEivot, see on No. II. 1. Ktj, 
Lesb. for iy.et. 

If, as seems to be the case, the lines are from an epithalamium, 
perhaps the bridal of Peleus and Thetis is referred to ; and we have 
a good example of the Greek love of drawing upon mythology for a 
parallel to the present occasion. Cf. p. 19. 

For the gen. a[j.|3poa(as Neue compares Odyss. iii. 390, 393. 

I- 3- xa PX?3 ota j an illustration of these may be seen in Panofka's 
Manners and Customs of the Ancients, PL viii. 9. 

1. 4 is in a different metre from the rest, perhaps as the closing line 
in a stanza. It is either Ionic as indicated in the scheme, concluding 
with a trochaic dipody {v. Metre, p. 70), orchoriambic with anacrusis : 

— . — v-/ <J ' v./ KJ — w — \J 

Hermes assumes the office of cup-bearer to the gods as being the 
*»ipu§, whose duty it appears to have been to pour out the wine at 
sacrifices or great banquets, cf. II. iii. 245 seq., and elsewhere, and 
see Roscher's Lexicon, ' Hermes.' 



STESICHORUS 



These three passages are all from the rr]puovrj(?, or the story of the 
exploits of Hercules against Geryon. 

I. (a) Athen. xi. 469 E. The story of Hercules borrowing the cup 
of Helios to sail over the ocean (v. Athen. xi. 470 c) probably arises 
from a confusion in mythological tradition. The cup seems to have 



STESICHORUS 343 

been the attribute originally, not of Helios, but of Hercules, in his 
character as a sun-god, corresponding to Melcart. As this aspect of 
Hercules was lost sight of, the myth was transferred to Helios, the 
sun-god proper, and Hercules in the present story was represented as 
merely borrowing the cup. He sailed in it to Erytheia, where the 
cattle of Geryon were to be found (cf. Athen. xi. 781 A, and 469 r) ; 
and in the passage before us has apparently just restored it to Helios, 
who goes on his westward voyage, while the hero makes his way 
inland. 

I. 3. atpixoitP Blomfield, for a^txr) 8'. Notice the Epic phraseology 
in (3e'v0-£a vu/toc, as in xouptSiav aXoyov, etc. (1. 4). 

II. 5-6. For the trochees in f-time, v. Metre, p. 67. 

I. 6. juoaafl, explained by some as ' with firm tread,' Buchholz com- 
paring Theocr. viii. 47, MiXwv (Batvei jknji. But it is, I think, much 
better to translate the word ' on foot' in contrast to the journey in the 
ocean-cup which is just completed. Cf. above. 

rcaY? Schneidewin, for tzaXc,. 

(P) Strabo iii. 148, r.ep\ tou rvjpuovo? (3ouxoXou. 

Erytheia is explained by Strabo as Gades and the adjoining islands, 
Tartessus as the Baetis, while apyupopi^ou; refers to the silver mines 
near that river. There remains no little difficulty in the words, since 
the poet seems to say that Eurythion (the herdsman) was born 
opposite Gades and yet near the source of the Baetis. Bergk, to meet 
this, entirely inverts the order, thus : Tapx. 7:01:. ct/eSov (a word in 
Strabo which I have not included in the text) avx. xX. 'EpuS-sfa; | ev 
xsuS-. jtsTp. 7iapa rcay. araip. apyupopt£ou;, the meaning then being that 
he was born hard by (the mouth of) the Baetis, opposite Gades and 
near the silver mines, ^aya; referring not to the river, but to the mines 
(cf. Aesch. Pers. 234, apyupou xrjyr] xi? x.x.X.). Even then the poet 
will be in error, since Strabo speaks of the silver mines as being in a 
mountain out of which the Baetis rises ; nor does the expression in 
Aeschylus justify us in regarding the phrase ' silver-rooted sources ' 
as equivalent to ' silver-mines '. As the words stand in the text they 
become quite intelligible if we regard raya? not as ' fountains ' or 
' source ', but as ' streams ', ' waters '. 

For the short final syllable in the accus. plur. raya; (Schneidewin 
-aya;) v. Dor. Dial. p. 93. 

(y) Ath. xi. 499 a. These lines relate to the occasion when the 
other Centaurs were attracted by the smell of Pholus' wine, and were 
disastrously defeated by Hercules. This took place on the hero's 
return from Spain. 

crzu^cpsiov Casaubon, for -rxixyiov. 

xfivsv Bergk, for rftsv. 

II. (a) Ouvsxa TuvSapso? x.t.X. Schol. Eur. Or. 249. 

With II. (5' and probably with II. a' is connected the well-known 
story of Stesichorus's blindness and subsequent recovery, thus 



344 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

briefly related by Suidas — <J>aoi ok autov ypot'}avTa i]/dyov 'EXe'v?)? xutpXw- 
xHJvoa, T:aXiv ok ypociavxa EXev7j? Iyy.wp.10v s? dvsipou, xf,v 7:aXivw3iav, 
avapXs'iai. The poem in which he offended Helen was probably 
either the 'EXe'va or the 'iXiou ILipaiq, and Bergk, whose remarks ad 
loc. should be consulted, considers that the lines in II. a' are part of 
it. It is impossible to say how the story arose, but not improbably 
it was devised to account for the heterodox version of the Flight to 
Troy adopted or invented by Stesichorus, to the effect that it was 
only a delusive image of Helen that accompanied Paris (cf. Plat. 
Rep. ix. 586 c). 

1. 1. Cf. Eurip. I.e. rcoxe is supplied by Bergk, three MSS. giving 
ouvsxa jiots. Schneidewin thinks that ouvsxa does not belong to the 
words of Stesichorus. 

1. 2. [j-oilvas Bk. for |J.ovac, or |j.ia;. 'H^toowpw (v. Dor. Dial. p. 93, 
for the genii.), cf. the expression Stop' 'Aa>po3ix7]s, and see note on 
Bacchyl. II. 1. 4. 

■/oXwaa|jivT]. Kleine /oXioaapiEva, but the change is unsafe in the 
case of a word so frequent in Epic ; cf. p. 78. 

1. 3. Schneidewin prefers xou'pa;, since the goddess was not angry 
with the daughters of Tyndareus. But we may perhaps take /oXw- 
aocpiv7) to mean ' venting her wrath upon '. 

1. 4. Tptyapou?, referring to Helen's union with Theseus, Menelaus, 
and Paris respectively. 

(P) oux etc' IxufJLOs x.t.X, From the famous ' Palinode ' to which 
reference is made by a host of ancient authorities. The passage is 
quoted by Plato Phaedr. 243 A, with the remark — xat roirjaa? or* -aaav 
t^v xaXouuivTjv TzaXivojofav -apaypri'jj.a avc'pXs'lev. 

III. IloXXa [jlev Kuow'vta x.x.X. Quoted by Athen. iii. 81 D, from 
Stesichorus' ' Helena,' in which poem there apparently occurred an 
Epithalamium celebrating the nuptials of Helen and Menelaus 
(Schol. Argum. Theocr. xvii. v. Bergk, Stesich. 31). It is, therefore, 
likely that the passage refers to the flowers cast before the bridal 
procession on that occasion. 

I have followed Meineke in retaining jxupptva (Schneidewin and 
Bergk [jiupatva), v. Ahrens Dor. Dial. 102 and cf. on xappove?, Spartan 
Dance-song, I. 

IV. Ta SI Spaxwv x.t.X. Quoted by Plut. de Sera Numin. Vind. c. 10, 
as the vision of Clytemnestra. Apaxwv is referred generally not to 
Agamemnon but to Orestes : cf. Aeschyl. (who appears to be borrow- 
ing the idea of Stesichorus) Choeph. 527, tsjcsIv Spaxovx' e'Soifsv, and 
Schneidewin quotes Eur. Or. 469, [i.7)TpooovT7j; Spaxwv of Orestes. 
The word psPpoTiofxe'vos will then imply 'smeared with the blood of his 
mother.' 

The Pentameter (1. 2) if correct is most unusual in Melic. By the 
omission of jj-oXav in 1. 1 we should obtain a hexameter, and thus have 



STESICHORUS 345 

a complete elegiac couplet. There is not, however, any record of 
Stesichorus employing this non-Melic metre. 

V. "Qix-reips x.x.X. Athen. x. 456 F, with reference to Epeus who 
was forced to carry water for the Atridae. 

A16; xou'pa, either Athene or Helen. 

We are reminded of Miranda and Ferdinand in the Tempest : 

' My sweet mistress 
Weeps when she sees me work.' 

VI. Ays Mouaa Xiyst' x.x.X. Quoted by Strabo viii. 347, who re- 
counts the story of the 'Rhadina' which appears to have been a 
kind of love-novelette in verse (v. p. 169). Rhadina was a Samian 
woman, married to a Tyrant of Corinth. Her own nephew Leon- 
tychus, being enamoured of her, followed her to that city. There the 
tyrant slew them both, and at first cast forth their bodies unburied. 
He afterwards relented, and had them duly interred. Pausanias 
however (vii. 5, 13) speaks of their tomb in Samos, at which anxious 
lovers prayed. 

'Epaxtovup-ou Bergk, for Ipaxwv ujivou?, Ahrens aoi^a? £paxwvu';jiou$. 

VII. Totaoe yprj x.x.X. Quoted from the 'Orestea' by Schol. Ar. 
Peace 797, where we have xotaSe yp7J . . . xaXXixo(juov | xov aocpov 
^oi7]xrjv I u[xvs1v oxav r,ptva filv tptovfj yEXiStov | £^o[jl£vt] (Bergk ^Soj-iEvrj) 
y.zk<xOT\. 

Sa[Ato[j.axa explained by Schol. xd 8r)[j.oai'a aSd[j.eva, Hesych. ^aiyvia. 
e?£upovxa;, Kleine for ISJEupovxa. 

VIII. MaXa xoi (f/dXiaxa) x.x.X. Plut. de EI ap. Delph. c. 21. 
Bergk refers the lines to the flute-contests at Delphi, which were 

abolished shortly after their introduction ; see p. y]2>. Regarding 
Apollo as representative to a great extent of the Greek poetical 
genius, we may compare with this passage Sap. xvn. 

'AXX' ou yap 9-e'p.ig lv (jloito-oXio o!x(a 
-9-prjjVGv Ejj.jj.evai x.x.X. 

For [j.aXiaxa Bergk reads [j-eXiaxav. 

Krfizoc, Schneidewin and Bergk xdo£a, but see Dialect, p. 78. 

IX. (a) Stob. Flor. cxxiv. 15. 'Apfyava (Schneidewin and Bergk 
d[j.ayava), Dialect, I.e. 

(P) Id. exxvi. 5, a-oXXuxat x.x.X. Kleine for ciXux' dvfh ydpt«, from a 
marginal reading r.ana. r.okia. -ox' dvO-p. y. Compare Archil. XV. ydpiv 
o£ [JidXXov xou £oou Stwxofiev. 



346 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



IBYCUS 

I. ~Hpt fjiv x.t.X. Quoted among other erotic passages by Athen. 
xiii. 601 B, who comments on the fervour of the poet's outcry, fioS. xa\ 
xexpayev. 

In the metrical scheme I have treated the dactyls as ' choreic ', i.e. 
in | time, equal to the ordinary trochees. It is of course possible to 
regard the dactyls as pure, i.e. in f time, and the trochee as prolonged 
thus >— ^ , but I think that the more rapid movement is best adapted 
for this poem. On the other hand in No. II., owing to the rarity of 
the trochees and the entire absence of the single syncopated syllable, 
I have treated the dactyls as pure and the trochees as in % time. 

' With the spring the flowers and trees are released from their 
winter bondage ; me the storms of love never leave.' Such a con- 
trast between the joy of nature and the sorrow of the poet, familiar 
as it is to us in modern lyrics, is rare enough in surviving Greek 
poetry. 

1. i. KuSwvicu, cf. Stesich. ill. i. 

1. 2-3. apoo[j.svai poav lx xox. ' watered by streams from rivers ' ; the 
expression seems to point to some process of orchard-irrigation. 
The genit. poav may be described as one of 'agency', or possibly of 
'material'. The Homeric Xousafrai 7rota[j.oto is not quite parallel, since 
it involves also a notion of place (v. Monro's Ho7)i. Grain, p. 107). 
Buchholz gives a nearer illustration from Eur. PJweti. 674, a't;j.axo? 
eosuts yatav. It is, however, not unlikely that the construction is 
simply apS. ex poav uoxapuov, ' watered from streams of rivers.' 

IlapO-Evwv x^7to; : this is generally supposed to refer to the Nufxcpatoi 
■/.r t -oi, which Demetrius tells, de Eloc. c. xxxii., Sappho was fond of 
introducing into her poetry. If this be so, the phrase probably re- 
fers not to any particular garden of the Nymphs, e.g. that of the 
Hesperides, but signifies rather ' a garden such as Nymphs might 
haunt', cf. 'Nympharum domus ' Verg. Aen. i. 168 and Odyss. xii. 
317-318. Hartung suggests an entirely different explanation, quoting 
Pausan. viii. 24. 4, who speaks of cypress-trees round the grave of 
Alcmaeon which were never cut down, and which were called 
riapSHvot. 

1. 4. In xf]7i:os, as in epr]fx.io? (1. 8), i\ should be retained as due to 
Epic influence : ' The first buds that sprout beneath the shadowing 
vine-shoots.' Stephanus reads uV Epvsatv, but the form Ipvo; is men- 
tioned in Cramer. Ann. i. 173, 27. 

1. 6. ■SaXs'O-oiaiv, Lesb. Dial. p. 83, e[j.oi, Ethic dat. 

1. 7. a9-' . . . Pope'a?, ' like the north wind of Thrace, that rages amid 

the lightning-flashes.' u^o expresses accompaniment, as in Sa'tSwv 

vr.o Xa;j.7:o[i.Evawv, //. xviii. 492. Buchholz compares (aikli)) uto 

Ppov-rijfc, //. xiii. 796, and he thinks that there is reference to the 



I B Y C U S 347 

ancient notion of the wind bringing the lightning from the clouds. 
v. Lucret. vi. 246 seq., and 96. For (pXs'ytov, cf. on Bacchyl. I. 12. 

1. 8. atuawv . . . Ioejavos, 'speeding on his dark course from the side of 
Aphrodite, with parching frenzy ' ; a£aXs'ais, ' active ', v. Lid. and Scott. 

I. 9 seq. aO-ajj-Pr]'? x.x.X. ' unflinching holds fast from earliest man- 
hood the fortress of my heart.' natSofrsv is generally taken to be the 
objective genitive ( = ' love for a boy '). I have followed Schneidewin's 
explanation ' a puero ', i.e. ' from the time when my boyhood left me.' 
'AO-ajxPrj? Eyxpaxc'w?, Herman from a-9-a(j.p7]<js(v) xpaxaiw?. 

For the description of Eros in this and the next passage, v. Addi- 
tional Note B on Eros in the Lyric Poets. 

II. "Epos auxs x.x.X. Plat. Parmen. 137 A, Schol. For the metre, 
cf. on No. 1. 

1. 1 seq. ' Eros, with melting glance beneath his shadowy eyelids, 
thrusts me with spells manifold into the infinite toils of Aphrodite.' 
Me supplied by Bergk. 

III. Eupu'aXs x.x.X. Quoted by Athen. xiii. 564 F, among a series of 
passages, illustrating the fact that love is ' engendered in the eyes '. 
The lines of Ibycus are contrasted with those of Philoxenus, to 
-/.aX)u-po3to7:s x.x.X. {v. p. 277), with the remark xucpXo? 6 eracivos xat 
/oct' ouoev o[j.<ho? tu ipuxsuo sV.sivox 

A verse appears to be missing after 1. 1, beginning with a vowel, so 
that the final syllable of fraXo? may be short in the ' System ' (v. 
Metre, p. 73), and containing a noun with which xaXXi/opov agrees. 

1. 1. yXuxsiav, so Mucke (Jacobs yXuxs'wv) for yXau/Ewv, Hecker 
yXuxspov with ■fraXo;. The words yap. S-aXo?, ' nurseling of the Graces ', 
express the same idea as Alcaeus' r.o'kr.w a' Eo^avx' ayvat Xa'pnrsc, 
No. xiii. 

1. 3. IlEiiko, see on Sap. I. 18, and v. Bockh on Pind. Pyth. ix. 39. 

IV. tou's te Xeuxitckou? x.t.X. Ath. ii. 57. 

Hercules is speaking of his slaughter of the Molionidae, for whom 
see Pind. 01. xi. 26 seq. Bockh. This fragment and the next, not of 
any particular value in themselves, show us that Ibycus did not con- 
fine himself to subjective lyric after the fashion of the Aeolic School, 
but dealt also with mythological subjects, cf. Biog. Ibyc. p. 137. 

laoxscpaXou?, Meineke proposes taorazXou?. 

V. rXauxiomoa Kaaaavopav. Herodian, 7:sp\ <r/ji[J-. 60. 3 1, in discuss- 
ing the so-called <J'/.%a 'Ipuxsiov. He remarks that it consists of the 
addition of -at to the 3d sing, subjunctive. Ahrens and others are of 
opinion that -rpi in this passage and others from the Lyric Poets {cf. 
No. VII. p' and SaX^ai in Bacchyl. 11. 2), stands for the indicative and 
not the subjunctive, and that it arose from a mistaken imitation of 
certain passages in Homer, where it represents the true subjunctive. 



348 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

Bergk suggests that the termination was first applied to verbs in -e'w, 
as if they followed the -j-ii conjugation, e.g. oiXtjcti, vo7jai (cf. cpiXn]{Ju in 
Lesbian) and then extended to other verbs also ; but he inclines to 
the opinion that, with the exception of verbs from e stems (among 
which he includes 9-aX7i7]ai in Bacchyl. v. note ad loc), the cases that 
occur, in Homer and elsewhere, are subjunctives and not indicatives. 
Compare E. Mucke de Dialectis, etc. pp. 62-8. However this may be, 
Ahrens reasonably objects to the form being regarded as Rhegine 
(in which we should expect -rjTi, Dor. Dial. p. 94) — rather it has become 
associated with Rhegium from its employment by Ibycus. He adds 
that the name 'schema' or 'construction' is a misapplication of terms 
on the part of the grammarians, who thought the poets were using 
the subjunctive, where the indicative would be expected. 

VI. Aioov/.a. x.x.X. Plut. Quaest. Symp. ix. 15, 2, and Plat. Phaed): 
242 c. 

' I fear that I am buying honour from men at the price of sinning 
before the face of the gods.' 

Bergk suggests Jtepi fl-sols (Lesbian ace. for &Eoug), which version 
seems to have been followed in Professor Jowett's translation, ' sin- 
ning against the gods.' 

VII. I have placed together three very fragmentary pieces, which 
are yet not without poetical merit. 

(a.) Athen. xv. 681 A. The hiatus in xai \'a may be ascribed to the 
influence of the ancient F in (F) "a. 

(p'.) Herod, rapi ayr^L. 60. 24, cf. on No. v. Compare the well-known 
words of Soph. El. 17, Xajjotpov ^Xiou asXa; | Iwa xtvsi cpO-Eyi-iax' opviahov 
aacpY). 

(y'O Theon. Smyrn. p. 146, to show that Ibycus and others use 
Setptoc, or Setpiov of any star, cf. Hesych. and Suidas. 

VIII. oux s'cmv x.t.X. Chrysipp. t.z$\ a^oyax. c. 1 4. 
Schneidewin compares the German saying, ' Fur den Tod ist kein 

Kraut gewachsen.' 



ANACREON 

I. 'Epw xs 07]ux£. Hephaest. 29. I have placed this fragment first 
as it forms a fitting motto for the poet and his songs. He lives, he 
implies, for love and wine, but is never carried away by either passion. 

II. rouvoufxou x.t.X. Hephaest. 125. 

1. 5. rj xou, Bergk from rjxou which is given by four MSS. The usual 
reading is "xou (with syxaftopoe in 1. 6, v. below), which involves 



ANACREON 349 

asyndeton and a dubious construction in iiA Sivrjat. Besides, A^O-ato; 
was a river in Magnesia (v. Athen. 683 c), with which region, so far 
as we know, the poet had no connection. On the other hand, 
Leucophris, a city of Magnesia, on the river Lethaeus, was celebrated 
for its worship of Diana (v. Athen. I.e. and Strabo xiv. 647, who 
speaks of an immense temple there to Artemis), so that apparently 
the poet, in order to attract the attention of the goddess, begins by 
singing the praises of her favourite abode from which she hears his 
prayer. Schneidewin (without, I think, much reason) is of opinion 
that so long a digression would be out of place, and that 11. 4-9 must 
refer to the city for which Diana's aid is invoked. He therefore 
retains "xou, regarding 'U. Im. Sivyjcri as a pregnant construction : ' Come 
and stay by the streams.' 

1. 6. saxaxopa; Bergk, for lyxaSopa, on the strength of a MS. reading, 
Eaxaropsi; or -ai?, and a passage from Apollon. de Syntaxi p. 55, where 
saxaxopa? rcdXiv is given among instances of psilosis in Ionic. 

1. 7. yatpoua', 'propitia', Moebius. 

III. 'I2va? x.x.X. Dk> Chrys. Or. II. t. i. 35. 

1. I. SajxaXr]?, Hesych. xov §a[j.a£ovxa, 7} ays'pto/ov. Cf. No. IV. 1. 5. 

1. 2. Nu'[/.<pat. Owing partly to the custom of celebrating the rites 
of Bacchus among the woods and mountains, and partly perhaps as 
the mythical representatives of the Maenads, the Nymphs are con- 
stantly associated with that deity. Cf. Hor. 2 Od. xix. 1, ' Bacchum 
. . . vidi, Nymphasque discentes.' 

1. 3. Notice that in jropepups'?], s:u<jxpE<p£ai (1. 4), Siocr/.s'to (No. XI. 1. 3), 
and many other instances in Anacreon, s combines with the following 
long vowel or diphthong so as to form, for metrical purposes, one 
syllable. 

1. 7. -/.Eyapia[x£V7);, proleptic, ' Give heed to our prayer, and may it be 
well-pleasing to thee.' 

1. 8. ercaxou'eiv. Monro, Horn. Gram. 241, points out that the em- 
ployment of the infinitive for the imperative is chiefly found (as in 
this instance) after another imperative, 'so that the infinitive serves 
to carry on the command already given.' 

I. 10. Bergk reads w Aeuvuss from w 3' euvute, too' su vu as, etc. I 
have followed Fick in writing Asovuse, with which he compares the 
form Asovu;, on an inscription from Erythrae I.G.A. 494. 

IV. Tov"Epwxa. Clem. Alex. Strom, vi. 745. 

II. 2-3. |ae7.o|j.ou . , . asiostv Hermann for jj.eXrojj.at . . . aEiStov [juxpoa?. 

V. ILiokz Gprf/.u]. Heraclid. Pont. Alleg. Horn. c. 4. 

These couplets of acatalectic and catalectic trochaic tetrameters 
furnish us with one of the most charming specimens of metre in 
Anacreon. Notice the light and rapid movement imparted by the 

very sparing use of the irrational trochee ( ), while a welcome 

pause is given by diaeresis after the second dipody ; this, however, is 



3SO GREEK LYRIC POETS 

not found in 1. 7, xXu{K p.su x.x.X., nor does it justify us in dividing each 
of these lines into two, as is done in Hartung's edition. 

1. 1. IIgjXe, cf. Hor. 3 Od. xi. 7, ' Quae velut latis equa trima 
campis.' 6p7]xi7] ; cf. Eur. Hec. 1090, where the Thracians are spoken 
of as euittcov ye'vo.;. For the form Buchholz quotes C. B. Stark : ' In 
primae declinationis formis fere ubique t\ pro a positum est, prae- 
cedentibus vocali I aut littera p in nominative' Fick prefers epswirj, 
from a form eps'txto? which he says should be used in Hippon. 42. 1. 1, 
where the metre would otherwise be imperfect. 

Xojfov, implying scorn, as in Theocr. x. 13, yst'Xeai (j.u/aK£oi<ja xat 
op-piaai Xoija |3Xs7rotaa. 

1. 4. a' is supplied by Bergk, being required both by the metre and 
the sense. 

1. 5. Xapova; ; Buchholz remarks that this is the local accusative, 
comparing mrjSwvxa raoia, Soph. Aj. 30, and contrasting poaxofisvo? 
Xsi[j.wvi, Odyss. xxi. 49. The expression in Sophocles is only parallel 
if we can regard (3oaxEa9-ai as implying motion. If so, XsijjitDva;, like 
ra'Sia, may be regarded as a quasi-cognate accusative after a verb of 
motion, or perhaps an accusative of extension. Compare our ' rove 
the sea ', and similar phrases. 

1. 6. i7T7Toa£iprjv Bergk, for t-^ojist'prjv. 

KXGaK fj.su. Hephaest. 76. Liddell and Scott give Eusfrstpos as of 
only two terminations, and Bergk formerly read Eus'9-aps ; but 
Tocvusfrstpa occurs Find. 01. ii. 26. It is possible that this line belongs 
to the song from which 11. 1-6 are taken. 

Bergk suggests xoupa, comparing Theocr. xxvii. 55. 

VI. 2a>a(pr) x.x.X. Quoted by Athen. xiii. 599 c, mentioning a report 
that the poem was addressed to Sappho. See however Addl. Note A. 

1. 1. Scpaipr) -, cf. Meleager Ep. 97, CT^aipiarav Tov"Epwxa xps'tpw. Plate 
HI., in which Eros is represented as a youth playing at ball, graphi- 
cally recalls this passage ; and it is not unlikely that the artist, in 
painting the vase, was consciously influenced by Anacreon's words. 
It is with a ball that Aphrodite tempts Eros in Apol. Rhod. Argonaut. 
hi. 135. 

The metaphor is very happily employed by the poet to express the 
light and playful nature of the attacks that Love made upon him. 
He uses, with less truth, a contrary metaphor in the next passage. 

1. 3. v7Jvi, contracted from vr]vu, dative of v^vi? contracted from the 
Ionic form ve^vi; (= vsavt;). Bergk compares the Samian v^ (= ve'a). 

7roixiXoaap.pa>.(o, Seidler's ingenious conjecture for tohx&o; Xap-Pavto, 
or TcoixiXou; a;j.paXto. Cf. aa;j.|BaXa Sappho XI,. 

1. 8. aXXr]v sc. x&[j.7}v ; some commentators unnecessarily alter to aXXov. 

VII. MsyaXw x.x.X. Hephaest. 68. For trochaic dipodies answer- 
ing to Ionics, see Metre, p. 70. -/ei^z^ . . . yapaopr], 'a bath of 
despair '. ' It would seem as if blades were tempered in naturally 
cold mountain-springs.' Gold. Treas. Greek Lyrics. 



ANACREON 351 

VIII. 'AorpayaXai, Schol. //. xxiii. 88, illustrating the Ionic ctorpa- 
yaXat for -01. Compare Apoll. Rhod. iii. 115, where Eros and 
Ganymede are playing together with golden astragali. 

In Miiller's Gr. Lit. p. 183, the passage is curiously translated 
' Dice are the vehement passion and conflict of Eros,' the sense of 
which I fail to understand. Surely "Epwxo? must be taken with 
aaTpayaXai, so that the lines mean that Eros sports with the frenzies 
and conflicts of his victims as if with dice. 

IX. (a) 'Ava7i£xo[xai, Hephaest. 52 and Schol. Arist. Birds 1372. 
The resolution of the first long syllable of a choriamb is very rare 

in monodic Melic, but is excellently adapted to the spirit of this 
passage. 

Bergk compares Himer. Or. xiv. 4, wherein Anacreon, finding him- 
self spurned by the object of his affections, threatens the Loves (toIs 
"Epwcuv) that he will never celebrate them in song unless they aid 
him. The meaning of these lines is ' I flutter up to Olympus on 
account of Eros ' {i.e. to accuse or threaten Eros). 

auvrjPav, cf. Scol. XIV. and r§t\ in Pind. Pyth. iv. 295, •9-ujj.ov exoosQ-cu 
r.poc, ^av, and oaixo? fjpr), Eur. Cycl. 504, and Hesych. r^av suuyaaD-ai, 
(j.s9-uaxea9ai x.t.X. ; but in the present passage as in No. XX. the word 
seems to have an erotic signification which does not belong to it in 
the other instances. 

{b) Cleverly restored by Bergk from Lucian Here. Gall. c. 8, 6 epw? 
6 ao?, w Ttjis 7:oi7]-ca, asiouiv (or latowv) fie u7uotc. ye'v. ypuacxp. TCtsp. f) aExotc 
7rapa7:£T£a8-w. I see no reason for inserting w? (Bergk) or o'c 
(Schneidewin) before [x' e<ji§wv. 

zTspuywv, see Additional Note B. 

X. 'a not. Athen. xiii. 564 D. 

1. 1. TOxpS-e'viov PXotwv, cf. No. v. 1, Xo?ov . . . pXEKouaa, and Ibyc. 
II. I, xayip' 0[j.[j.aTi 0£pxo[j.Evo;. 

oux afets, Bergk conjectures ou xost?, Schneider oux ast?. 

XI. KX£o[3ouXou x.x.X. Herod, rapt ayrjji.. 57. 5. 

SI otoaxE'w (dissyll.), Bergk from 3to? xvewv, 5e Sioaxvao, etc. Hesych. 
oios/eV oiapX£7i:£tv auv£/w; xrjv opaaiv [j.£Ta[5aXXovTa. Thus the meaning- 
is ' to keep on casting glances at,' rather than ' to look earnestly at,' 
as Lid. and Scott render it. 

XII. Strabo iii. 151. 'Eyw o' out' av x.t.X. 
For the Iambic basis, v. p. 187. 

'A.[j.aX0-L7]? x£pa;, the Cornucopia, see Diet, of Biography. . 

Tap-crjcaou (5aatX£uaat, referring to Arganthonius, for whom see 
Hdt. i. 163, where a more moderate span of years is assigned to his 
reign. 

The general sense appears to be that the poet would rather win 
the object of his affections than the greatest treasures. 



352 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

XIII. 'Ap9-c\; ot)ut' x.t.X. Quoted by Hephaestion 130 as an 
example of the Proode, or a distich where a short line precedes a 
long one, being the reverse of the Epode. 

For 1. 2, see Metre, p. 68. It has no exact parallel in the Melic 
fragments. Sappho VII. closely resembles it, but the choriambs are 
there introduced by anacrusis instead of basis. Again, Alcaeus v. 
would be identical in metre, but for its catalectic conclusion. 

Aeux. tot. Hartung quotes Eur. Cycl. 165, mxxav 8' lq aXpjv 
Aeuxa8o? mxpa? ano, remarking that the expression had become pro- 
verbial. The poet is speaking metaphorically of plunging into the 
waves of love. 

XIV. <£s'p' uowp x.x.X. Athen. xi. 782 A. For the metre in this and 
the two following passages, v. p. 87. 

1. 2. I have adopted Fick's correction of av9-Ep.ouvTa? for av-frsp^uvTa?. 
Cf. on No. xxi. 1. 2. 

1. 3. Referred to by Eustath. II. 1322. 53, Orion p. 62. 31, and Et. 
M. 345. 39. We are left doubtful whether to read 8^ as in the text, 
or pj. With jj.73, the sense is ' bring wine as a refuge from Eros', or 
perhaps, ' bring wine and garlands that I may give up the contest 
with Eros, and greet him as conqueror' ; with 8ij, ' bring wine that I 
may fight unhesitatingly'. Bergk comp. Trachin. 441/EpwTi piv vuv 
ooTis avravtataxat | tiuxtt]? 07110? e? y/tpa? x.t.X. Arj not infrequently 
accompanies to? ( = ut) or "va to emphasise the purpose. Cf. //. v. 24 
and Plat. Rep. 420 E. 

XV. napa 07]uts x.t.X. Hephaest. 70. 
xocteouv i'pwTa, Bergk for xoctsoW sptoTa. 

XVI. "Ays 3v) x.t.X. Athen. x. 437 A. 

We have here an illustration of the sober habits of the better sort 
among the Greeks. Wine was to be an incentive not to uproar or 
stupefaction but to song (xaXot? up.voi?). Compare Introd. to Scolia, 
pp. 236-7, and Athen. x. 431. 

tout' laS-', opa?, 'EXXrjvixo? 

7I0T0?, piETptOiai yj5lO[J.£VOU? 7COT7)p{ot? 

XaXstv te xai X/joeIv ?cpo? auTou? ^Ss'to?" 

TO UEV yap ETEpOV XoUTpOV EtTTtV OU 7T0TO? X.T.X. 

For the proportion of wine and water, cf. on Alcaeus v. and see 
Athen. x. 426 seq. Anacreon's mixture of two parts water to one of 
wine is unusually moderate, three to two being the common ratio 
(Schol. Ar. Knights 11 84). Elsewhere (Append. Anac. 23) he calls 
for a slightly stronger potation, xa&apf 8' £v xeXe'Ptj 7:evts xai tpeI? 
avaystaikov. 

1. 5. avuPptoTio?, Bergk follows Baiter in reading avu[Epiari, but this 
would give us a solitary instance of hiatus between Anacreon's rapidly 
moving lines. For the Ionics, v. p. 187. 



ANACREON 353 

1. 7 seq. Compare Hor. I Od. xxvii. 2, 'Tollite barbarum | Morem, 
verecundumque Bacchum | Sanguineis prohibete rixis ' ; and Ben 
Jonson's 

' So may there never quarrel 
Have issue from the barrel 
But Venus and the Graces 
Pursue thee (Bacchus) in all places.' 

1. 9. 2xu{hx7jv 7:oaiv. explained by Athen. x. 427 as axpaxoTroaiav. 

The Scythians were notorious drunkards, see Athen. I.e. who refers 
to the story in Hdt. vi. 84, that Cleomenes learnt drunkenness from 
the Scythians. Horace I.e. takes a similar view of the Thracians, 
and Plato {Laws i. 637 E) speaks of the Scythians and Thracians with 
their wives drenching themselves with wine, and thinking it a very 
fine and pleasing custom. 

1. 1 1. u7to7uvovTss. Not ' soaking ', as in Ar. Birds 494, but ' drinking 
quietly ', as in Plat. Rep. 372 D, [xs-rpiw? ujcomvovxE?. 

XVII. MrjS' wars xujia x.t.X. Athen. x. 446 F. This passage ex- 
presses the same sentiments as we find in No. xvi. 

1. 2. if jroXuxpdtyi, ' the noisy, chattering Gastrodore ', not as Lid. 
and Scott strangely translate the expression in the passage ' the 
many-oared', i.e. the ship(!) The term is mentioned in Lobeck's 
Parall. 466 as implying contempt. 

1. 4. emaxiov, explained by Athenaeus as a kind of cup, usually 
called ctviawv. 

XVIII. (a) 'Hpi<rt7]aa x.t.X. Hephaest. 59. Athen. xi. 472 E. 

I have followed Hartung in the arrangement of the lines, so as to 
give a succession of alternate Glyconics and Pherecrateans (v. p. 187). 

1. 3. £?s7:tov xaoov, ' drained a bumper '. The word xaoo; generally 
denotes a large earthenware vessel, so that we feel disposed to ex- 
claim, as Prince Henry at Falstaff, ' But one halfpenny-worth of 
bread to this intolerable deal of sack !' 

1. 6. xw[jia£(ov ; if the regular xcofio? or serenade (v. p. 8) is implied, 
it seems to have taken place in the day-time (cf. rtpiaxrfitx) as well as 
in the evening. 

7iaYo(\) appfj, Hermann for 7:atot appf,, or ^oo\v appto;. Bergk, in 
justification of the elision, quotes Pind. 01. ix. 112, where, however, 
the reading is doubtful ; and an Attic inscription, xrjpuxi aOavaxwv 
'EpjjuJ aT7jaav \x ayopaito. 

{b) 'iaXXw x.-.X. Athen. xiv. 634 C. 

1. 1. Bergk supplies AuSov on the strength of Athen. I.e. r\ yap 
[/.ayaot; opyavov laxt 'J/ocXtixov, oj? 'Avaxpswv cprjai, Auowv t£ £upr)[j.a. 

1. 2. yopof[aiv . . . jj.ayao7]v, Bk. for /opoataiv |j.ayaotv, cf. Pollux iv. 61, 
where [j.ayaor) is said to be the form used by Anacrcon. 

1. 3. 7j[3as, cf. No. IX. (a) 1. 2, note, and No. xxi. 

Z 



354 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

XIX. 'Eyw Se pae'w x.x.X. £7. M. i. 45. 

I have placed this and the next three passages together, since they 
display to some extent the poet's personal character {v. Biog. p. 85). 

I. 2. 6'aoi, Bk. for o". XGoviovs seems to be explained by Hesychius ; 
/9-ovia - -/.sxp u;j.[jiva, (3ape'a, spo{3epa. Bergk translates it here, ' callide 
celans iram '. Jacobs axoXiou;. 'PuO-jj.ou';, 'temper,' cf. Theogn. 964 : 

izpiv av ei8rs avopa aacpr]V(o; 
opyrjv xai pu9p.dv xat xpo7:ov oaxt? av Vj. 

II. 3-4. ' I have found thee, O Megistes, to be one of the gentle in 
disposition.' a[3axi£. Rt. M. jjou^wy xat \i.r\ •9-opu[5w5wv, cf. on Sap. 
XV. f. The word is inadequately explained in Lid. and Scott. 
Mq-LaS-rjxa a to M. Bergk, for [j.£[xa9-r]xa-Jtv to; [asyigttj. For Megistes, 
cf. No. xxvi. 

XX. "E[j.£ yap x.x.X. Quoted with the next passage by Maxim. 
Tyr. xxiv. 9, to exhibit Anacreon's at.^poauvrj, even in his love-songs. 

aow, Valckenaer for oiSw. 

XXI. "Epafiai x.x.X. v. above. 

Bergk /apixsuv e yap, for /apuv yap I. Herodian attributing the word 
/apixdct; to Anacreon. I have adopted Fick's correction to yaptxouv. 
For auv7](3av, cf. on No. IX. (a) 1. 2. 

XXII. 7:oXto\ [j.lv x.x.X. Stob. /^/^r. cxviii. 13. 

For the metrical arrangement, see Introduction. Notice that 
yr]paXsoi, 'aISew, apyaXE7] are trisyllabic ; cf. on No. III. 1. 3. 

I. 4. The Ionic measure takes the place of the Trochaic dipody. 
See p. 70. 

XXIII. SavSf x.x.X. Athen. xii. 533 E. 

An interesting specimen of Anacreon's satiric powers. He appears 
to have been fired by jealousy ; for Eurypyle, the admirer of 
Artemon, was the object of his own affection ; v. Anth. Pal. vii. 27. 

II. 1-2. Bergk adds y' to improve the metre, which even then does 
not exactly correspond with that of the other lines. 

rapi<pdp7]xo; explained by Chamaeleon, ap. Athen. I.e. Sia xd xputpepw? 
[Btouvxa TOpKBEpEuS-at I7A xXivrjg, though a different meaning is given to the 
word by Schol. Arist. Achar. 815. Bergk renders 'famosus', object- 
ing to any mention of a litter, since he is said (1. 10) to ride in a 
chariot. 

I. 3. psp(3spiov, the meaning of the word is quite uncertain. Schd- 
mann thinks it signifies some barbarian head-covering, and that the 
words xaXu[i.(j.ax' Eaorjxtojjiva (the usual reading), in apposition to 
(kpPs'piov, imply that it narrowed off to a point. KaXu[j.fj.a is generally 
used of a woman's veil or hood, but is obviously not inappropriate 
of a man's head-dress of this description. KaXup.[j.a x' etotjxw[jievov 
(Meineke), signifies the meagre tightened garment in contrast to the 



ANACREON 355 

' bis trium ulnarum toga,' in Hor. Epod. iv. where the spirit of this 
passage is closely imitated. For xocXu^jLa, not in the sense of a head- 
dress at all, but merely of a covering, cf. Soph. Track. 1078. But a 
possible objection is that Anacreon goes on to describe the man's 
garment in 1. 4 seq., and the plural xaXu[j.[j.axa receives some support 
from Hesychius' xaXu7:xpa - xe^aXyj? xaXu|j.[j.axa. 

1. 4. 'Wooden earrings', contrast ypuasa xa9-c'pij.axa in 1. io. Scho- 
mann refers to Plin. A". H. xi. 37, 50, for the use of earrings by 
Asiatic men. 

That Artemon followed the customs of the barbarian or Asiatic (cf. 
1. 3 and 1. 5) is probably meant as a jeer at his low, and perhaps 
non-Hellenic birth. 

1. 5. Ssppiov (Bk.), or a similar word is required. Schneidewin refers 
to Hdt. i. 71, for the use of leather clothing among the primitive Per- 
sians. 

1. 6. v7j-Xuxov, 'unwashed,' so Schdmann for vso^Xouxov, vsd^Xuxov, 
etc. 

dpxoTrwXtatv ; these persons did not enjoy a high reputation; cf. 
Dionysus' rebuke to Aeschylus, Frogs, 858, XoioopsiaQm 0' ou S-e'^i; | 
avopa; £ou]xa; io<T7isp apxojxwXioai;. 

1. 8. ' — earning a fraudulent living', for which he receives the pun- 
ishment described in the next line, v. note. 

1. 9. ev Soup\, explained by Schdmann as ev ?uXw, i.e. the xu'owv 
or pillory described by Pollux x. 177, axeuo; ijuXivov w xov auye'va evfre'vxa 
oft. [jLaaxtyoGiail'ai tov irepl ri\v a-yopav KaKovp-yovvra. 

1. 10. Hesychius has aaxtvar ai ap.a£at. In this passage, however, 
as in the others in which it occurs, viz. Eur. Hel. 131 1, and Hymn to 
Venus, 1. 13, the penultimate is short. The word is said to be of 
oriental origin. For the genit. plur. in -e'wv, cf. Archil, xiv. 2. It 
comes from -awv through -7]wv. 

1. 12. xaO-£p[j.axa, 'earrings,' cf. 1'pjj.axa in Homer. See on 1. 4. 

1. 13. axiaotaxrjv, a representation of the Greek sun-shade may be 
seen in Panofka's Manners and Customs of the Greeks, PI. xix. 9. It 
appears on the Parthenon Friese and the Nereid Monuments. 

1. 12. au'xw?, 'instar', Casaubon ; v. Buttm. Lexil. i. 30, where, 
however, there is no other example of the word in this sense with 
the dative. 

XXIV. "Ayavw? ola x.x.X. Athen. ix. 396 D. Aelian Hist. An. vii. 
39 ; Schol. Pind. 01. iii. 52. (29.) 

It will be noticed that, though each line differs from the rest in its 
metrical arrangement, they are all of the same rhythmical value ; 
since trochaic dipodies are equal to Ionics (v. Metre, p. 70). Horace 
appears to be imitating the passage in Odyss. i. 23, ' Vitas hinnuleo 
me similis Chloe | Quaerenti pavidam montibus aviis | Matrem'; so 
that we may conclude that Anacreon also is addressing a coquettish 
lady-friend. 



356 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

orf or eg t^ cf. Alcm. II. 3, and note on Sappho xxxvn. In oars, 
xs has the force of an undeclined xi?. Monro's Horn. Gr. p. 67. 

xsposW)?, the epithet as applied to a hind is more picturesque than 
correct ; but cf. Pind. I.e. ypuaoxspwv sXacpov ^Xstav, and the remark 
of the Scholiast, 0! 7roi7]xa\ xavxs; xe'paxa syouaa; ^otouatv. 

XXV. Met? [j.sv or) x.x.X. Schol. II. xv. 1 92 ; and Eustath. //. 1012, 1. 
1. I. IloatS. Eust. I.e. xov izspi yap-spiou? xpeuza; p]va. 

1. 2 seq. vscpsXa; x.x.X. I have given Bergk's conjectural reading. 
The Schol. //. I.e. gives veojeXv) 8' uowp (3apu 8' aypioi j. xax. ; Eust. /.£ 
vscpsXai 8' ooaxi (3apuvovxai, ayp. 8s yst[jL. ^axayoucyiv. Bergk introduces 
Aia from a comparison with Hor. Epod. xiii. 2, ' Nivesque deducunt 
Jovem.' 

XXVI. 6 MEyiaxrj? x.x.X. Athen. xv. 671 E. 

Ionic (a minore) tetrameters ; cf. Alcaeus XIV. ; and Hor. 3 Od. 
xii. 

1. 1. MsytTcr);, cf. No. XIX. and iizd t cf. on Sappho xxxvn. 
Xuyw ; Athen. xv. 673, mentions that the custom of wearing willow- 
chaplets was popular among the Carians, and copied by the Samians. 

XXVII. Ti? IpaafjLirjv x.x.X. Restored from Athen. iv. 177 A, Tie ip. 

xp. ahi[J.. sas'{3r)V xs'psv' to; r^[j.(o^ov x.x.X.; Bergk s; rjPr)v, Casaubon xspsvtov 
r^[j.to7:wv from Athen. iv. 182 C. 

7][3r), 'merriment,' 'revelry,' cf. on No. IX. 1. 2. 

XXVIII. 'Erfi 8' ocppuaiv x.x.X. These passages are quoted by Athen. 
xv. 674 in illustration of the custom of wearing garlands on the brows, 
and hanging from the neck over the breast. (Cf. Alcaeus VI.) 

1. 3. 6pxr,v . . . Aiovuaw. Perhaps merely a figurative expression 
for his wine-party, although Bergk quotes passages from Hesych. and 
Steph. Byzant. indicating an extensive cult of Bacchus in Samos. 

- 

XXIX. These passages refer apparently to the wars which drove 
Anacreon from Teos, or else to troubles at Samos. Cf. Biog. p. 183. 
In the first the attack is imminent ; in the second the blow has fallen 
upon his city ; in the third and fourth, which are retrospective, he is 
lamenting the fate of his friends, and frankly confessing the 
insignificant part he himself took in the contest. 

(a) 'Opaolor.os. Hephaest. 90. 

[ff) Nuv aTO [jlsv x.x.X. Schol. Pind. 01. viii. 42, illustrating oxsoavo? 
in the sense of the wall of a city. Bergk conjectures 7:oXsus as the 
Ionic contraction from raiXso;. Fick, however, declares that this 
belongs to a later period. 

(e) 'aXxijjlwv x.x.X. Anth. Pal. xiii. 4. 

(d) I 1. Ei. Gud. 333. 22. 

1. 2. Attil. Fortunat. 359. Adopting Schneidewin's suggestions of 



ANACREON 357 

ai>x% and <puyov for aux7j; and ©suyo), which restore the choriambic 
metre, I have joined these two lines together. 

I. 2. Bergk piia; . . .' 7rap' oy9a; for ovl' £$ . . . r.po-/_6a.i. It must 
be confessed that both the text of the lines and the circumstances to 
which they refer are quite uncertain. 

XXX. 'Ara'xEipa? x.x.X. Phavor. ap. Stob. Flor. lxvi. 6, ysXolo; av 
oavEtT] 6 'Avaxpe'tov xa\ [.uxpoXoyo;, xw xaiot [i.s[j.od[j.£vo; x.x.X. Cf. Max. 
Tyr. xxiv. 9, [j.s<rxa 3s auxou (Anacreon) xa aajxaxa xij; SfJiepSio? xo'jat]; 
x.x.X. Aelian F. H. ix. 4 says that Polycrates, in jealousy of Anacreon, 
cut off Smerdis' hair ; but from this passage and from the words with 
which it is introduced it would appear that Smerdis did it himself. 

XXXI. Sxscpavou; 8' av^p x.x.X. Athen. xv. 671 E. An explanation 
of the term Nauxpaxixrjv, which is declared to signify 'myrtle,' is 
attempted in Athen. 675 F, seq. 

XXXII. 'Gtvo/osi x.x.X. Athen. xi. 475 F. 



SI MON IDES 



I. Tiovev Gcpjj.07:uXat? x.x.X. Diod. Sic. xi. II. 2t[j.wviorj; . . . aijiov 
xr;? ap£x% auxiov ~ot7jaa? syxto^iov. 

It is doubtful to what description of Melic poetry this song belongs, 
for Diodorus' expression lyxw[i.iov is obviously not to be understood 
in a technical sense. It may have been intended for some public 
funeral ceremony, as it were, in honour of the heroes of Thermopylae. 

1. 2. ' Glorious their fortune, and splendid their fate.' Tu'ya = fors, 
7:0x^0? = sors (Schneidewin), the former being the chance or oppor- 
tunity given to them for distinguishing themselves. 

I. 3. [3w[xo?, implying that they would be worshipped at their tomb 
as if they were heroes or demigods. 

xrpo yowv, Ilgen for rpoyovwv. He is, however, inclined to regard 
the words ?:poyovwv ok jj.v. as an interpolation by singers of Scolia 
in later times. Mehlhorn retains -poyovwv, and explains thus : 
' majorum virtutem posteris in mentem revocat.' Oixxo? Jacobs, for 
oTxo?. 'O 8' cTixxo? Muaivo?, i.e. ' Instead of pitying their untimely end, 
we congratulate them on their glorious lot.' 

II. 5-6. ypovo?. 'Av8pcov ay. Bergk, for ypdvo;, dvSpwv ayaO-tov. The 
latter would give an awkward redundancy, avSp. ay. being merely 
explanatory of toioutov. 

11. 6-7. oixExav x.x.X., i.e. the glory of Greece has taken up its head- 
quarters, so to speak, in the tomb of her brave defenders. 

11. 7-8. jjLapxupEt . . . xXe'o;. These words form a tame conclusion 
to the poem, and it is hard to see what [j.apxupst refers to. Ilgen is of 



353 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

opinion that the passage is an addition by a singer some century or 
so after the time of Simonides. 

II. "Oxs Xapvaxi x.t.X. Dion. Hal. dc Verborum Compos, c. 26, eoti 
oe q 3ia 7i£Xayou; cpspo^Evr] Aavarj, toc; eau-rij? a^ooupo[j.EV7] -cu/a;. 

The metrical arrangement of the passage is uncertain, since 
Dionysius expressly avoids writing the poem in lines, remarking that 
if it is written according to the divisions not of poetry, but of prose, 
the poetical rhythm escapes us — XrjaExai as 6 ou9[j.o; ttJ; wStJ? xat ouy 
e'^siS cuji-PaXstv guts aTpd<prjv outs avxiaxpocpov oute exwoov. From the last 
words we gather that the song was choral with the usual strophical 
system. As there is no correspondence distinctly traceable between 
any two parts of the fragment, Bergk and Schneidewin and others 
conclude that it consists of an antistrophe and epode, though where 
the latter begins is uncertain. Line 13 seems the most natural point, 
and is consequently chosen for the purpose by Schneidewin and by 
Bergk in his earlier edition, though in his last he places the epode 
back to 1. 10. 

The song is generally regarded as part of a Threnos, though, as is 
pointed out on p. 12, it does not follow that it was sung on the actual 
occasion of the burial. For the choral form taken by a Threnos, v. 
p. 24; and for the introduction of a mythological episode, v. p. 19. 
Schneidewin conjectures that the reference to Perseus is to be ex- 
plained by assuming that the song was written either for the Scopadae 
or Aleuadae with whom Perseus was a domestic hero. (Cf. Bdckh 
on Pind. Pyth. x.) 

1. 1, etc., ' What time in the fair-wrought chest the blast of the wind 
and the heaving ocean dismayed her with terror, her cheeks bathed 
in tears she cast her loving hand around Perseus ', etc. 

In this doubtful passage I have followed Schneidewin who in 1. 2 
has altered jx^v to jxtv, and in 1. 3 out' to oux. In 1. 3, rjptrav is 
Brunck's conjecture for EpEirav. It is true that £ps(ic<i> in the 2d Aor. 
is usually intransitive, but Schneidewin quotes Hdt. ix. 70 for a 
transitive use, hzi^r^m tou tei/eo? xai 7jpi7tov. 

Certainly in the reading given aS. 7:apsiai? is an unusually bold 
example of the 'comitative' dative. In none of the other cases 
quoted, e.g. in Monro's Horn. Gr. p. 99, is this dative so isolated from 
the rest of the sentence. 

1. 5. auxio;, Mehlhorn for auTat;, or oouts elg (Athen. ix. 396 E) ; 
Casaubon awTst; ' thou sleepest ', which would be awkward before 
xvto'aasis in the next line ; Schneidewin awpel? 'thou heedest not'. 

1. 6. aT7jO-EY Schneidewin : in Dion. Hal. we have the unintelligible 
oeiO-ei, in Athen. I.e. yaX. o' ^Topi, which is objectionable since the 
dative of ^xop is not elsewhere found in classical Greek. Bergk 
XaO-sV. 

1. 7-8. vu/.TtXa|i.ra1 . . . xaaki; ' as thou liest outstretched in the dark 
gloom that illumines the night '. vux. ov. ' tenebrae quales noctu 



SIMON IDES 359 

lucent (h. e. oxoxos) ', Schneidewin, as if the gloom at night plays the 
part of the light by day. Compare Oed. Tyr. 419, pXeirovTa vuv p.ev 
optP, ETOtxa 8e «tkotov, and Eur. Hel. 518, pXa^ass Ip^o?. Bergk 
accepts Ilgen's vuxtI dXa;j.7:Ef, remarking that hiatus is frequent in 
Simonides (cf. 1. 3). 

xaakt? Schneidewin, for xaoe si?. 

1. 9. Bergk's reading aX[j.av followed by xsav xojj.av (Ahrens for 
•rsav xo'fj.av) is too attractive to be resisted. ' Thou heedest not the 
deep briny-waters above thine hair as the wave rolls by.' The usual 
reading is auaXeav . . . teccv xd[j.av x.t.X. 'Thou heedest not the wave 
as it rolls past thine uncombed, thick hair, high above.' The employ- 
ment of the two epithets auaXs'av and paOftav without a conjunction 
would be hardly justifiable in this instance ; auaXe'av would stand in 
an undeservedly emphatic position, and [BocO-siav would be a curious 
epithet to apply to the hair of the new-born Perseus. 

1. II. cpfroyyov Bergk, on the authority of 3 MSS., for cpO-dyyiov. 

1. 12. r.poator.ov xaXov, if correct, must mean 'beautiful child that 
thou art '. As some MSS. give r.poa. xaXdv Tipocpaiviov, various con- 
jectures have been made, e.g. rcpda. xaX. ^poceafvwv Ahrens, 7rpda. xXiS-sv 
T.povwTzw Bergk. 

1. 13. p7)[juxTwv, genit. as if urar/s; oua?= u-yjxous;. 

I. 14. xsXop\ar euSe, the pause accounts for the hiatus. Cf. Pratinas 
Dithyr. Poets i. 16. 

II. 15-16. £u8s x.t.X. Doubtless the poet, as the commentators point 
out, is pathetically imitating the style of the (3auxaX7][j.a or Cradle- 
song. Compare the beautiful lullaby in Theocr. xxiv. 7-9 : 

Euost' E[J.a [3ps<psa yXuxepov xai eyc'pat[j.ov ut:voV 
euost' £;j.a J/uya Su' aSeXosio euaoa Texva" 
oXpiot suva£ota9s xai dXj3tot aw "xotafrc. 

1. 17. M£Ta[3ouXta 'change of purpose' on the part of Zeus. Bergk's 

[XExaiPoXta would rather signify 'change of circumstances', the prayer 

for which could hardly be called SapsaXsov e'tos. With [xaxatopouXta, 

the usual reading, the sense would be ' may the counsels of my foes 

fail '. 

Schneidewin remarks that the ray of hope displayed in this line 

is intended as a consolation to those for whom Simonides was 

writing. 

1. 18. In lengthening the last syllable of •9-apaaXEov before etco?, we 
need not assume that Simon, was conscious of the influence of the 
old Digamma. He is more probably simply imitating a constant 
Epic usage (e.g.//. vii. 35, xii. 737, xxiv. 744, etc.) due, of course, to 
the influence of the old F\n et:o?, but it does not follow that Simonides 
was aware of the fact. 

1. 19. TExvdcpiv o(xav, so Mehlhorn, with the exception of the v 
£<p£XxuaT. which I have added for the improvement, as I think, of 
the metre. Schneidewin takes 01/av to mean 'for the sake of my 



360 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

child, comparing Aeschyl. Prom. 614, xou oi'xqv j^a'aya? xa3s; where, 
however, Sixtjv may clearly be ' (as) the penalty.' Possibly oixav here 
is accusative in apposition to the sentence : ' Grant me thy pardon, as 
compensation to my child', i.e. for its abandonment by its father, Zeus. 
The MSS. have xexvdcpt 8!xa? and xvoowixac. Bergk reads voaiyi o>V.a?. 

III. "Av9pw7:o? ehjv x.x.X. Stob. Flor. cv. 62 and 9. 6 TOtrjxrjs 
Scs^Epysxai xrjv twv Szo^aooj'v aO-poav aTcw'Xsiav, see Biog. p. 199. 

I. 2. avSpa tocov, the hiatus, due originally to the influence of the 
ancient F } is employed by Simonides probably merely in imitation of 
the Epic practice ; cf. on II. 18. 

II. 3-4. The order of translation is ou3e yap a [jiExaax. xav. |j.ui. ouxw; 
toxsta (saxtv). Bergk reads wzaa yap, ouoe . . . ou xdaa [jLsxaaxaat? ' For 
swift is the change, and not so great is that of, etc. This reading 
improves the metre, but otherwise is objectionable ; loxsta yap stand- 
ing alone is very tame ; and xdaa is out place, since the comparison 
is not with the greatness of the change in the physical nature of the 
fly, but with its suddenness. 

IV. Oux d'axiv xaxov x.x.X. Theophil. ad Autol. ii. 37. Conjec- 
turally from a Threnos. 

V. 'Av8-pw7cwv dXiyov x.x.X. Plut. Consolat. ad. AftolL c. 11. 
2t[.uovt07]; av9pwmov <prjatv dXiyov [j.ev . . . 

The metre of 1. 1 would be improved if we could assume [jlsv to 
have been added by Plutarch, and treat the first syllable of a-pjjxxoi 
as short ; we should then have 

x 

\j w — -w w ^ — w \j — w — ' ^ 

a form of choriambic verse with basis very common in Sappho and 
Alcaeus. 

1. 1. Schneidewin a^pijxxoi for arcpaxxot. on the strength of Bockh's 
Not. Crit. Pind. Isthm. vii. 7, ' a^piixxov, itiutile, quo nihil proficias, 
a^paxxov, quod perfici non potest '. 

1. 3. I have not adopted Schneidewin's suggestion of 6'jj.w? for h\xQ>% 
('equally') since, although it certainly adds to the pathos of the 
lament ' For all our labours nothing but death awaits us', it is not so 
consistent with the words in 11. 4-5. 

VI. Ouos yap oc rcpdxspov x.x.X. Stob. Flor. xcviii. 1 5. 

Notice the frequent resolution of the long syllable in arsi, as a sign 
of later metrical style. 

With the nature of the consolation Schneidewin aptly compares 
Pyth. iii. 86 — atiov 6" aaoaXrj? | oux s'ysvx' ouV Aiaxioa 7uapa II7]Xe"i | ouxs 
tzixq' avxttk'io Ka3[j.w. 

VII. navxa yap (j.iav x.x.X. Stob. Flor. cxviii. 5. 



SIMONIDES 361 

VIII. noXXo? yap. Stob. Flor. cxxi. 1. 

A good example of the force of the perfect Tsfrvavou, ' Long is the 
time for us to lie dead ', ' Long is the time after death '. 

ETHICAL SUBJECTS 

IX. The arrangement of this poem must always be a matter of 
uncertainty. I have with some hesitation followed Bergk, who with 
no very considerable violence to the text of Plato, wherein amplifica- 
tion and paraphrase are entangled with quotation, has reproduced a 
monostrophic song, which, even if not entire, is yet sufficiently com- 
plete in itself, exhibiting a regular and simple metrical system, and 
an intelligible succession of ideas. 

The poem is pieced together from scattered quotations in Plato's 
Protag. 339-346, where it is discussed and criticised in detail. The 
quotations occur as follows : — Protagoras first cites 11. 1-2, avopa . . . 
T£Tv-y|i€'vov ' (339 b), in apparent contradiction to which he quotes a 
passage further on in the poem (xpo'to'vxo? tou aap.aTo;) ' otiSe |aoi 
ep.|i€\«os . . . &r9\ov ^|i|x€vai ', 11. 7-9. The object of the discussion in 
Plato is to reconcile, if possible, these two passages with each other. 
Socrates, who eventually undertakes the task, remarks that Simonides' 
comment on the dictum of Pittacus is that he misapplies the term 
ya.'ksr.ov to what is really aouvaxo'v, namely, the task of always main- 
taining one's virtue (f[j.[j.£vai as distinct from ysvsa-9-ai) ; God alone can 
attain to this, '8ebs &v |j.dvos . . . Ka.9eX.Ti ', 11. 10-11 (344 c), to which 
is added (344 E), 'irpdlcus . . . kcikws', 11. 12-13, an d in 345 C, a 
paraphrase from which commentators obtain 1. 14 (v. note ad loc). 

All these remarks of Simonides, Socrates proceeds, are directed 
against Pittacus, /.at ira Imo'vxa ys tou a?[i.aTT; i'xt fxaXXov oi\koV cprjat yap* 
•Toweicev . . . |idxovTcu\ 11. 15-21 (345 C, d). 

Lastly are quoted (346 c), though without their position in the song 
being indicated, the lines ' ?(xot-y' ^apKtt 8s &v n^ ko-kos "n • • • ■w'H.iKTai,' 
11. 2-7 (the first two words and [j.rj are omitted by Bergk, v. note ad 
loc). Now Socrates regards, or at any rate applies, these words as 
a personal explanation from Simonides to Pittacus, thus : ' I don't 
blame you, Pittacus, out of a cavilling spirit (cm sq-u cpiXo'loyo;), since 
I am quite satisfied with mediocrity and am not cptAdpuo^o?. But your 
mistake is too serious (r.eo\ tmv [xeyiaxtov isuSci'[Jievo;) even for me to 
condone.' 

At first sight then it would appear that, wherever these words are 
to be placed, they must come somewhere after the mention of Pittacus 
(1. 8, etc.). Bergk, however, is with little doubt right in urging that 
vSocrates for his own purposes is applying the words of Simonides 
in a manner not warranted by the poet. This point once granted, 
the position assigned to the lines by Bergk is far the most suitable, 
and they thus fill up what would otherwise be a gap in Strophe a'. 
Hermann, followed by Schneidewin, treats the lines as forming 



362 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

an epode, occurring after cpiXeWt (1. 14 above) ; Hartung, preserving 
the monostrophic arrangement, places them in a final and addi- 
tional strophe o'. 

The poem, Plato tells us, 339 A, is addressed to Scopas of Thessaly 
{v. Biog. Simon, p. 199), and it is generally considered, though with 
little reason, to form part of an Epinician ode. Bergk, not accepting 
this view, regards the poem as complete, with the exception of the 
exordium, or first strophe, dedicating the song to Scopas. Socrates 
insists that throughout the whole song Simonides' object is to confute 
Pittacus (a^>oopa xal St' oXou tou aapta-co; lr.i\ipyvca.i toj tou IIiTxaxou 
pr)(j.axt, 345 B, cf. 344 B) l ; since he hoped (octe cpiXoxip-o; wv eVi ao<j>ta) 
by successfully opposing and improving upon the dictum, or yvwpj, 
of one of the Seven Sages, to establish his own reputation for pithy 
wisdom of the Laconian order ([3pay_uXoyt'a xt? AaxioviJO], v. Protag. 343 
A, B, C). His mode of attack hardly wins him respect, since he 
wilfully distorts an obvious truism of Pittacus, so as to render it liable 
to hostile criticism. We may perhaps find some excuse for the poet 
if we regard him as writing for a patron, the extenuation of whose 
vices required no small ingenuity. The song was evidently well 
known and much admired (see Protag. 339 B, and 344 b). 

Strophe a'. — ' Ever to reach perfection is indeed hard. We must 
be satisfied with mediocrity in a man ; plenty fall short even of that.' 

11. 1-2. The emphasis in the sentence, if Socrates be right, is on 
yevEdQ-ai, ' to become,' i.e. ever once to reach the level of virtue, in 
contrast with Ep.jj.svou, 1. 9, signifying 'to keep oneself up to the 
standard.' 'AXaQ-sw? is explained by Socrates (343 e) as u;:sp(Baxov, or 
transposed, belonging, he says, not to dya9dv, but to ycclenov — 'the 
real difficulty is, etc.,' in contrast to the 'difficulty' of Pittacus, which 
is not a difficulty at all, but a sheer impossibility. Socrates will not 
of course allow that virtue could be anything but genuine or real, 
and thus the epithet as attached to dyafrov would be meaningless. 
Simonides, however, was probably not so particular in his 
phraseology. 

Tsxpaywvo; is explained, Schneidewin says, by yepaiv . . . vdo> 
' sound all round, alike in mind and in body '. Compare Hor. 2 Serm. 
vii. 86, 

' Fortis et in se ipso totus teres atque rotundus.' 

1. 3. Most editors, employing a different metrical arrangement, 
insert the words given by Plato, ' sp-oiy' i£apxsi,' but as the quotation 
occurs in the midst of an imaginary address from Simonides to 
Pittacus (346 c), Bergk may well be right in rejecting the words from 
the text. He deals similarly with ' ou yap eIjjli cptXdp.io[j.o;,' which occur 



1 The words Si' oAou tov ao>iaTos seem to show that we have before us nearly the entire 
song, or at any rate leave little room for the subjects proper to an Epinician Ode, as some 
suppose this to be. 



S I M O N I D E S 363 

in Plato after p.«pjao[j.at. He also, metri causa, omits [j.rj before stccxog, 
urging that it is easily supplied from p]3' dyav d-dXa[j.vo;. 

eiSw; . . . oiV.av, ' with justice in his heart,' like the Homeric /.sovd, 
dfrspuarta, siSto?, etc. 

1. 4. uy 1 ' 7 )? sc - ^ aTt - ou ^' £ \yh \ xv * Bergk, for ou pjv. 

1. 5. I have followed Mucke in retaining [j.to[j.7]'ao(j.ai (Schneidewin 
and Bergk -d<xo[j.ou). He compares fitoj/iiv, Hesiod Op. 754, and 
(j.iop.suvxai, Theogn. 369, from a stem [j.MfAs-. 

1. 7. 7tdvTa, etc., i.e. ' We may call those virtuous who display no 
flagrant vices.' See Protag. 346 D, t<x pica d^oSs'yexat w'ctte \p\ tyiyitv. 

For the Homeric -roiai xe, v. Monro's Horn. Gr. p. 243, 'ts is used 
when the relative clause serves to describe a class,' and pp. 184, 186. 
Cf. note on Sappho xxxvn. 1. 4, and Anac. XXIV. 

Strophe [3'. — ' Pittacus should not have said it is "hard" for a man 
to maintain his virtue; it is not "hard," but impossible, for man's 
virtue varies with his fortune, and is therefore dependent entirely 
on the favour of the gods.' 

1. 8. ejj.jj.eXew; sc. E?p7)[iivov from 1. 9. 

1. 9. ^ata, a Doric form of owia. This word is of uncertain origin, 
so it is hardly safe to compare Dor. Tipaxo; = 7ipwxo;, from rpoaxo?. 

s"ij.[jt£vat . . . Simonides, according to Socrates, understands this to 
mean y£vo[j.£vov (dyafrov) oiaf/ivciv ev xaux^ ttj l^et, xai Eivai dvopa dyaSdv 
(344 c), as if Pittacus was speaking of never exhibiting any trace 
of vice or imperfection — an ideal which, Simonides remarks, is 
superhuman. 

1. 11. ov, Bergk for ov dv (metri causa). See Monro's Horn. Gram. 
p. 204. '(In conditional Relative clauses) the pure Subjunctive (i.e. 
without dv or xs'v) is used when the speaker wishes to avoid reference 
to particular cases, especially to any future occasion or state of things. 
Hence the governing verb is generally a Present or Perfect Indica- 
tive.' All this is true of the present instance. 

1. 12. 7:pd?at$, Lesb. Dial. p. 83. 

1. 13. xt is added by Bergk to complete the line. He remarks that 
it may easily have fallen out in the text of Plato, as it is succeeded 
by the word xt? (345 a). 

1 14. Plato's paraphrase runs — etu ^Xaaxov ok xa\ dptarof eisiv ou? dv 
ot 9-eo v i cptXwaiv. In the above text xdxfcXEtaTov is Blass' suggestion, the 
rest Hermann's. Bergk diverges too far from the paraphrase. Geo\ 
must be scanned as monosyllabic. OiXewchv (trisyllabic) is more cor- 
rect than qnXwaiv, since the choral poets do not contract s-w, cf. p. 80. 

Strophe y'. — ' I therefore will never seek idly for that impossibility, a 
blameless man. All meet with my esteem who do not plunge wilfully 
into vice — for when circumstances drive men to it, they cannot help 
themselves.' 

1. 15-17. ' I will never fling away upon an idle hope my span of 
life to render it void, seeking what can never be a blameless man 
(among) all of us who,' etc. 



364 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

1. 16. /.svs'av Buchholz takes not with IX-ioa but with [-latpav, as a 
proleptic epithet. Balko is dissyllabic. 

supus'Sous, etc., on the model of the Homeric ' 01 apouprj? xaprcov eoouat.' 

1. 18. ' Festive haec addita', Schneid. 'Y[j.[jliv, the Scopadae or an 
imaginary audience (See Lesb. Dial, for ufifuv and E7catvr)[xt, 1. 19.), 
Socrates remarking that Simonides is purposely imitating Pittacus' 
own dialect (346 E); cf. xpaSjai? in 1. 12. 

1. 20. Ixoiv Socrates (345 D and e) professes to take not with epSr, 
but with ijcaiv. x. ©cXe'co ; for, he urges, a wise man like Simonides 
would never speak of a man voluntarily pursuing vice. Doubtless 
the philosopher is ironical in putting into the head of the poet his 
own favourite doctrine of the involuntariness of vice. 

X. "Etci xi? Xdyo? x.x.X. Clem. Alex. Strom, iv. 585, in illustration 
of the text, ' Every one who believeth on him shall not be ashamed '. 

1. 3. -8'ewv Bergk, for S-uav, Schneid. frsav. 

I. 4 seq. ' Neither is she visible to the eyes of all mortals, save to 
him in whom the soul-consuming sweat issueth from the inmost pores, 
and who cometh to the topmost height of manhood.' Surely this is 
a more natural interpretation than that of Schneidewin (whose text 
I have followed), ' Neque conspicuus est inter homines, nisi cui, etc.', 
' nor is any one conspicuous among men save him in whom, etc' 
Bergk in this passage departs too far from the original. 

For the myth, see Hesiod, Works and Days, 287 seq. 

XI. Ouxi? <zv£u 9'eiov. Theoph. ad Autol. ii. 8. 

I have adopted Bergk's conjecture of iort ■9-vaxot? for saxiv ev auxot?. 
With 11. 1-2 compare Diagoras, Dithyr. Poets ill. a, 1. 3. 

XII. Tt's yap aoova; axsp x.x.X. Athen. xii. 512 c. xa\ 01 <ppovi[j.wxaxoi 
xa\ [j.Eyt<3X7]v oo?av \tz!l aocpta syovxs? fisytaxov ayaftov xrjv tjSovtjv Eivat 
vojjit^ouatv" SipLtoviSr]? jjlev ouxw; Xc'ywv z.x.X. 

With this passage, cf. Pind. Frag. 92. (Bockh), ' MrjS' a[j.aupcu 
xipJuv ev (Biw tcoXu xoi I cpE'oxidxov avop\ Xcpxvo; altov.' Schneidewin, with 
some reason, supposes that the words of Simonides, like those of 
Pindar, were addressed to his patron Hiero. If so, 7iota xupavvt; is an. 
especially appropriate illustration. 

In this passage, as in the next, we recognise the signs of the 
approaching contest of the Philosophers over the Summum Bonum. 

XIII. ou'oe xaXa; aocsia? x.x.X. Sextus Emp. Adv. Matth. xi. 556 
Bekk., Schneidewin restoring the Oratio Recta. 

Compare the address to'YyiEia, p. 253, and Scol. IX. 

XIV. Gnomic passages. 

(a.) Stob. Flor. cxviii. 6. Compare, of course, Horace's ' Mors et 
fugacem prosequitur virum ', 3 Od. ii. 14. 



SIMONIDES 365 

For the choreic dactyl -yj in this and the following passage 
instead of the cyclic, -^u see Metre, pp. 63-4. 

{b.) Schol. Soph. Aj. 375. Cf. Hon 3 Od. xxix. 47 ; Agathon ap. 
Arist. Ethics, vi. 2 : 

Movou yap auxou xa\ S'Eo? oTspidxsxat 
aysvrjTa 7COtetv aa^ av fj Ke7tpay{Ji£va. 

(&) Aristid. II. 192. Translated by Horace in 3 Od. ii. 25, 'Est 
et fideli tuta silentio | Merces'. Comp. Pind. Frag. XI. $', saO-" ore 
maxo-raxa aiya? 63d?. 

For the Epitrits in this and the following fragments, v. Metre, 
pp. 66-7. 

(d.) Stob. Eclog. ii. 10. Cf. //. vi. 234, 'rXau'xoj. . . <ppeva? e?sXeto 
Zed's.' Schneidewin takes the words to be a Simonidean excuse for a 
patron's misconduct. 

(e.) Schol. Eur. Or. 236 (xpeiaaov oe to ooztiv, -/.av aXrjikia; owuf). 

(/) Plut. An seni resp. sit ger. c. 1. Thus tcoXi; appears to signify 
not mere ' civic life', but ' political life', ' the holding of political office'. 

EPINICIAN SUBJECTS 

Many of the fragments from Simonides are quoted from Epinician 
Odes, e.g. No. XXI. seq. ; but I have placed under the above heading 
only such as relate to the special subject of such songs. Others I 
have classified in the manner that appeared to me most suitable. 

XV. OuSe IIoXuoeuxeo; (3fa /..x.X. Quoted by Lucian pro /mag. c. 19, 
in Oratio Obliqua, ouos IIoX. |3{av cpr^aa? avaTsivaafrai av aoxw Evavt. xa; 
-/slpa? x.t.X. I have retained the article, which Bergk and Schneidewin 
omit, with different metrical arrangements. Simonides, as appears 
from Lucian, is addressing Glaucus, who won a boxing victory at 
Olympia with the ' ploughshare blow ', v. Pausan. VI. x. 1. Simonides' 
somewhat irreverent estimate of his powers savours perhaps rather 
of a later period in the art of encomium among the Greeks (cf. 
Miscell. XIV, XV.), and Lucian is surprised that such language brought 
no discredit either upon the poet or the athlete. 

In 1. 1. the metre would be decidedly simplified by reading 
nioXuoEUKEo;, a Doric form which occurs in Append. Alcman, No. 23, 
1. 1. The resolution of the arsis of a spondee is most unusual until 
a later period. Cf. on No. xvil. I. 4. 

XVI. Tt? or] x.t.X. Quoted by Photius 413, 20 under TcspiaYeipof/.evoi, 
to illustrate the custom of showering down flowers and garlands 
upon a victorious athlete ; a custom, he adds, supposed to have 
originated at the time of Theseus' triumphant return after slaying 
the Minotaur. The lines are addressed to Astylus, a runner of Cro- 
tona, who at three successive meetings won the prize at the Olympic 
games. On one occasion, to please Hiero, he allowed himself to 



366 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

be proclaimed a Syracusan, a disloyalty for which he was disgraced 
at Crotona. Pausan. VI. xiii. i. 

xii; ori . . . dvso7jaaTo, ' which of the men of this day ever garlanded 
so many victories with leaves of myrtle or chaplets of the rose ? ' A 
fine metaphor, Pindaric in its boldness. 

1. 3. iv aywvi raptxx., the local contests in which a young athlete 
first won his laurels. 

XVII. "O; ooupl 7tavTa; x.t.X. Athen. iv. 172 E, 2ip.<ovior]s . . . jrep\ 
tou MsXsaypoo x.-^.X. The passage probably belongs to an Epinician 
Ode in honour of a victory at casting the javelin. 

1. 4. "Opjpos ; as no reference to the subject in Homer is known, 
Schneidewin supposes that Simonides is thinking of some cyclic 
poet. 

Sxaaiyopo?, v. Append. Stesich. No. 3. Gpwaxwv [xkv yap 'Apupiapaos, 
axovti ok vr/aaav MeXs'aypos, quoted by Athen. I.e. The tribrach in the 
fifth foot in place of a dactyl or trochee in f -time is very unusual and 
not easy to account for. See Schmidt {Rhythmic and Metric of the 
Class. Languages, p. 42) who decides that the final short syllable is 
rhythmically equivalent to a long syllable, though if it were actually 
long, as in XEyo^ai, an undue emphasis would be given to the thesis 
(arsis in Schmidt's terminology). He gives the musical notation thus 
-y-, I It is perhaps simpler to assign to the third syllable its usual 
e • • value, and to regard the first two syllables as a resolved form 
of the syncopated syllable 1— . The musical notation corresponding 

to this foot would then be J_ J 

XVIII. 'Em?«y o Kpio;x.T.X. Quoted Schol. Nudes 1356, where 
Strepsiades bids his son sing this evidently well-known passage from 
Simonides as a parcenion (cf. Introd. to Convivial Songs, p. 233). 

Crius, upon whose name Simonides puns (cf. Biog. Simon, p. 206), 
was an Aeginetan wrestler (Schol. i.e. and Hdt. vi. j$, who appears 
to have been badly punished by the hero of Simonides' Epinician 
Ode. As Crius is called a 7iaXai<rojs, I fail to see why Schneidewin 
speaks of a boxing-contest. 

1. 1. bz3-<x&, ' got himself well-shorn '. Hartung compares ' pectere 
pugnis ' or ' fusti ' in Piautus Rud. iii. 47, etc. 

1. 2. Euosvopov Dobree, for Se'vSpov. 

Aid? ; the victory may then have been either at the Olympic or the 
Nemean games. 

XIX. Xaipsx x.t.X. Quoted by Arist. Rhet. iii. 2 (and Heracl. Pont. 
Polit. c. 25) in connection with a well-known story, illustrative alike 
of Simonides' cupidity and of his skill in overcoming difficulties in 
his subject. Anaxilas of Rhegium (or rather his son Leophron, or 
Cleophron, Athen. i. 3) had won the mule-chariot race at Olympia, 
and invited Simonides to write him an ode in honour of the occasion. 



S I M O N I D E S" 367 

The poet, not being satisfied with the payment offered, refused on 
the ground that mules were unworthy of his muse. On the offer 
being increased he waived his objection and skilfully ignored the 
asinine descent of the victorious animals. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

XX. T(?x£v aiv7]<jcis x.x.X. Diog. Laert. i. 89. Simonides is carping 
at a beautiful epigram by Cleobulus on Midas : 

XaXxc'7) r:api)-£vo; e?ji.\, Mtosto 6' iiii a/jijiaxi xeijjloci, 
ear' av uotop ts pir\ xai Se'vSpea [j.axpa XEihjXr), 
'HeXicx; t' avuov ~kd[j.r.r\, Xa|j.xpa xe CcXrjvr], 
xai 7ioxa(i.o( ys (k'waiv, avaxXui^) os 0-aXaaaa" 
auxou xrfos [j.3vouaa rcoXuxXauTto eVi xu^Poj 
ayysXs'io 7i:apiou3t, Mioa; oxi xt|os xs'9-arcxai. 

Bergk thinks that Diogenes is wrong in referring the words of 
Simonides to this epigram, since in the above the monument is of 
brass, while Simonides speaks of stone (1. 5). But may he not be 
using Xf9-o; generally, for a monument ? 

Simonides' criticisms are trivial enough (cf. No. IX. passim, and 
Biog. p. 203), even though he professes to be deprecating a certain 
irreverence in the exaggerated expressions of Cleobulus. 

1. 1. Atvoou vas'xav. Schneidewin regards these words as used con- 
temptuously, implying a possible Carian origin. But Lindus at this 
time was the chief city in the island of Rhodes, and it was not 
Simonides' object to decry his adversary ; rather to show that, wise 
though the latter might be, he himself was wiser still, and able to find 
out the weak points in the wisdom of the sage. 

1. 2. roxa[j.cHcuv, Bergk for x:oxa[jLots, to avoid the pentameter, which 
would be ill-suited for a Melic passage. 

1. 3. Bergk, objecting to the epithet ' golden ' being applied to the 
moon rather than to the sun, re-writes the line in a somewhat 
unwarrantable fashion. 

I. 6. •9-pau'ovxt, v. Dor. Dial. p. 95. 

XXI. I have placed xxi.-xxin. together, as they are all descriptive 
of nature. 

Tou xai a7r£tpc'aioi x.x.X. 

II. 1-3. Tzetz : Chil. i. 316, rcep\ 'Opcpe'ws. 11. 4-6. Plut. Quaest. Symp. 
viii. 3, 4, vr]VE[Aia yap rf/woc? x.x.X. 11. 7- 10. Arist. Hist. Anim. v. 9, 
explaining the expression ' halcyon days'. The three passages are 
very plausibly united by Schneidewin into one. 

1. 2. ava o' r/O-us? x.x.X. There is something of bathos in the 
transition from the countless birds fluttering above the poet's head to 
the leaping fish. The idea recurs in Ap. Rhod. i. 569, where the fish 
are said to leap up and follow Orpheus. For the use of auv Bergk 
compares Find. Dith. Frag. VI. 18 (p. 289), cr/axoa ^ d[j.oa( [/.eXsoIv auv 



368 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

auXol?, but auv in the passage before us hardly has such a distinct 
meaning of ' in accompaniment to,' as it has in Pindar's Fragment. 
We should rather expect xaXag u^ aoioa;, as Hervverdt proposes, 
unless indeed auv here implies ' keeping up with ', the fish following 
the course of the vessel in which Orpheus is singing. 

1. 4. IvvoaitpuXXo;, the doubling of the nasal v is Lesbian (v. p. 82), 
but the poet was probably influenced in his choice of this form by 
the familiar Homeric Evvoaiyatog. 

1. 5. xiovajjivav Schneidewin, for axiovapisva. 

1. 7. Bekk, Aft. i. 377, 27, refers to this passage as occurring ev 
IlsvxaOXot;, so that probably we have before us part of an Epinician 
Ode. (See, however, note preceding No. XV.) 

yafjisptov . . . pjva, Arist. I.e. tells us that these halcyon days occur 
seven before and seven after the winter solstice. 

mvuay.T), for the metaphor implied by this word of calming the angry 
passions of the tempest, cf. Verg. Aen. i. 57, 'mollitque animos et 
temperat iras ' (referring to Aeolus and the winds), and similar expres- 
sions in that part of the Aeneid. 

TJfxaxa, the rj is Epic, see Dial. p. 78. Schneidewin and Bergk 
ajj.axa. 

XXII. (a) ' Ar.aXoi o' urap x.x.X. 

Heiner. Orat. iii. 14, speaks of xr,v Ksiav wo7Jv sung by Simonides to 
the breeze, and elsewhere Eclog. xiii. 32, ix t^c, Ksi'a? Mouar)? zpoasi^Eiv 
Z&ikio xov ocvs[aov . . . a^aXo? . . . xupiaTa. 

I have followed Schneidewin in omitting X7jv before ^ptopav, but not 
in his other alterations. 

(b) "ia/ei x.x.X. Quoted by Plut. de Exil. c. 8 (speaking of a man 
going into banishment) as xtx xwv rapa 2t[j.wvt3y] yuvatxwv, whence 
Schneidewin not unreasonably conjectures that this is the cry of the 
Athenian women when deported to Salamis, and that the words be- 
long to a poem by Simonides entitled 'H ev 2aXa[j.1vi vaujj.ayja. 

XXIII. (a) "AyyeXs x.x.X. Schol. Birds 1410. 
A-yyeXe, cf. the Swallow-song (p. 246) and Notes. 

kXvtcL, 'shrill-voiced', cf. Pind. 01. xiv. 21. xXuxav . . . ayysXiav. 
Pyth. x. 6, xXuxav oxa. 

a8uoo[j.ou, cf. Pind. Frag. Dithyr. VI. 1. 15, suoofxov . . . jap. 
(b) Etym. M. 813. 8. Asux' Schneidewin, for sux'. 
yXtopauyevEc, cf. Odysi. xix. 518, yXwprfi; arjSto'v, and M. Arnold's 
Hark to the nightingale, the tawny-throated '. 

XXIV. A. SONG AND DANCE. 

For Simonides' skill in the orchestic art, see p. 206. 

(1) Plut. Sympos. ix. 15. 2. Auto; youv lauxov oux cuayu'vsxcu rapi x^v 
opyj]aiv ouy r,TTov r t x<qv TtoiVjatv lyxiofjua^iov Oxav oe yr;ptoaat vuv iX op/. 
ofSa x.x.X. 



S I M O N I D E S 369 

11. 1-2. I have followed Schneidewin's text in o'-x -/..x.X., with the 
exception that I have transposed oioa and xroSwv, to simplify the 
metre. Obviously the passage requires some mention of the voice 
or song'. Bergk in 1. 2 reads eXxooov oo-/7][j.' aoiox rcootov [xiyvupv, and 
certainly the Cretic metre is well adapted to the passage. 

Kp^xx, cf. Athen. iv. 181 B : Kp7)X'./x xxXou?'. xx u7:opyrj(j.axa, and p. 29. 

to 8' opyxvov MoXoaaov. It is uncertain what musical instrument is 
implied. Athen. vi. 629 E speaks of MoXotsixtj e^piXeia. 

(2) Plut. I.e. 11. 2>~1 ar e quoted separately, but as they exactly fit 
on to 11. 1-3, I have treated the whole passage as continuous, and 
placed only a comma after ouoztov. 

1. 2. 'A[i.uzXa{av. The penultimate is probably shortened as in Ar r 
ftatou, Anacr. II. The fame of Laconian hounds is well known, 
cf. Pind. Frag. 73 (Bockh) : 'A~o TxuyExou (J-ev AaV.xivxv | irl Ebjpafc 
xu'va xpE/siv tcuxivioxxxov sp-Exo'v ; and Midsummer Nighfs Dream, 
' My hounds are bred out of the Spartan kind.' 

'A[J.uxXaiav, I suppose, simply stands for Laconian, the poetical 
imagination dwelling upon the ancient times when Amyclae was the 
representative city of that district. 

1. 3. xa[i.-uXov . . . 010J/.WV, the dancer is of course addressed 'Keep- 
ing step with the mazy song'. Cf. JU Allegro : 

' The melting voice through mazes running.' 

Notice in this line the imitative nature of the metre, proper to a 
hyporchem. 

1. 4. Awuov . . . toSi'ov, an extensive plain in Thessaly near Lake 
Boebeis, apparently a famous hunting country. Compare again 
Midsummer Nighfs Dream : 

' A cry more tuneable 
Was never holla'd to, nor cheered with horn 
In Crete, in Sparta, nor in Thessaly.' 

•/.cposW Wyttenbach, for xspaaacra. For hinds with horns, cf. 
Anacr. xxiv. and note. 

I. 5. [jLaxsutov Schneidewin, for {jucvsu'idv. 

II. 6-7. The text here is doubtful, the original being xav o' eV auysV 
Tcpscpotav s'xEpov y.apa ^avxa exoi|aov. Schneidewin s'X' and Hartung 
EXEpwas and -avx' axoX;j.ov. A verb such as eXe (Gnomic Aorist) is 
required by the construction, and EXEpwcjs supplies us with a very 
graphic picture of the averted head of the overtaken quarry. On the 
other hand, Schneidewin's Jtavx' eV oI[jlov is appropriate if Simonides 
is comparing the intricate movement of his lines and his dance to 
the rapid doublings of the hunted animal and her pursuer. 

B. VARIETY OF SUBJECT (see p. 206). 

11. 1-3. Bergk has united two passages quoted by Aristid. ii. 513, 

2 A 



370 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

with the remark that the poet is praising himself, wc. yovip.ov xat 

7T0ptp.0V El? Ta [J.e'Xt]. 

' For the Muse with bounteous hand grants us a taste not alone of 
that which is set before us, but onward goes, gathering all things to 
her harvest. Prithee stay (her) not, since the tuneful flute of many 
notes has begun sweet melodies.' 

tcoXvx°P^ os au^°S ; the epithet is curious and interesting as indicat- 
ing the predominance in Greek music of string- over wind- instru- 
ments, musical terms being devised primarily for the former and 
then applied or misapplied to the latter. Schneidewin quotes Plut. 
Synip. ii. 4 : xai xov auXov 7|p[j.oa9-oa Xs'youat scat xpoujiaxa auXr;'[j.aTa 
xaXouaiv, a.r.6 ttj? Xupac XapJBavovxs; xa; xrpoarjyopias. 

11. 4-5. Plut. de Prof, in Virt. c. 8 and Cram. An. Ox. iii. 173, 12, 
xaXto as . . . [jiXixxav Mouarj;, oux <xt;o xivtov 9-ujj.wv xai 8pt[j.uxax(ov avSiiov 
£av9-ov jasXi [X7jSo[jle'v7iv w; opqaiv 6 SipnoviSrjs x.x.X. We may then 
assume that Simonides is comparing his Muse to a bee culling 
honey from every flower (cf. r:avxa frsp. 1. 2), and that the passage is 
from the same poem as 11. 1-3. Pindar speaks in an exactly similar 
manner, Pyth. x. 51 seg., in checking the diffuseness of his muse : 
Kwxav ayaaov . . . iyxtopiiwv yap awxo? upiviov j ir.' aXXox' aXXov wte [j-sXtaaa 
■O-uvEi Xoyov. 

XXV. (EupuSixa?) JoorxEoavou. Athen. ix. 396 E, in reference to the 
fate of the infant Archemorus. The passage is probably from a 
Threnos over the death of a child whose fate is paralleled in 
mythology by that of Archemorus (cf. on No. n.). 

Bergk supplies Eupuot/.a?, the name of the mother ; Schneidewin 
<rxd[j.axo; after toax. 

XXVI. 2/e'xXis TOc! x.x.X. Quoted by Schol. Apol. Rhod. iii. 26 as 
one of several genealogies of Eros. 

1. 1. Bergk, with some MS. authority, reads 2. jxal, ooXop.7]xi? 'A<ppo- 
otxa x.x.X. 

ooXopj/avto (Bergk arbitrarily xaxo[j.7]/avo)), is not inapplicable to 
Ares here, with reference to his intrigue with the wife of Hephaestus. 

XXVII. "Ovftptora, xstaai x.x.X. Aristid. ii. 13. 

Schneidewin explains this as the remark of a pugilist, elate with 
the slaughter of his former victims, to a new antagonist. But this is 
surely out of the question, since fatal results in a boxing-match were 
rare exceptions to the rule, and a repetition of the occurrence on the 
same occasion would have been abhorrent to Greek taste. The 
words seem rather to be contemptuously addressed to some one whose 
existence is a mere death in life. Cf. Efjul/u/ov . . . vexpdv Soph. Antig. 
1 167. It should be noticed that xstaScu constantly has the technical 
meaning of ' lying in the grave ', e.g. Antig. 73 and 76. 



TIMOCREON 371 



TIMOCREON 

I. 'AXX' e? xuye Ilauaaviav x.t.X. Plut. Them. c. 21. 

Grote, v. p. 135, remarks on this passage : ' The assertions of 
Timocreon, personally incensed against Themistocles, are doubtless 
to be considered as passionate and exaggerated. Nevertheless they 
are a valuable memorial of the feeling of the time, and are far too 
much in harmony with the general character of this eminent man to 
allow of our disbelieving them entirely.' 

About the arrangement of these lines there is a great diversity of 
opinion. I have followed Ahrens and Bergk, the latter observing 
that these short strophes were particularly suited to songs of the 
'convivial' character, such as this and the other passages from 
Timocreon. 

II. 1-2. xuyc, Dor. Dial. p. 94. 

Notice os in the apodosis implying distinct opposition. 

The poet emphasises his admiration for Aristides, as being the 
rival and antitype of the avaricious and corrupt Themistocles. Thus 
the connecting s-si is not inappropriate. 

AtuTir/ioav, Ahrens, Dor. Dial. p. 214, says that this contraction 
appears only in comparatively late Doric, and chiefly among the 
Dorians of Asia Minor or the islands, who were near neighbours to 
the Ionians. 

1. 4. eqj.17. rj/Oaoc Aaxto ; Schneidewin suggests that the reference 
is to Lato in her capacity as xoupoxpooos, the meaning being that 
Themist. was a rascal from his very cradle. 

1. 6. /.opaXi/otat ; Bergk's suggestion for MSS. axupaXixotai, PaXtxolat, 
zuij.jjaX'./.ot'Ti. 

1. 7. 'laXuaov ( ^) ; the poets allowed themselves freedom in 

the quantities of this word. In Horn. II. ii. 656, it is scanned <-> — , 

in Pind. 01. vii. 74, ^ - ^ C7, while in Anth. Pal. vii. 716. 1 we find 
'IaXuaoto as the conclusion of a hexameter — ^w — ^. 

1. 8. apyupiov, ' fortasse non sine contemtu ', Bergk. 

£'j3a 7;Xswv £1? oXsO-pov, ' went on his accursed voyage'. 

1. 10. 1-jD'jj.ot x.t.X. There is an unknown reference in these lines 
apparently to some stingy behaviour on the part of Themistocles on his 
return to Greece after the expedition referred to in the previous line. 
Perhaps a division of the spoil captured from Medising cities or indi- 
viduals took place, at which Themistocles kept the lion's share for 
himself, and left 'cold comfort' ('iuypa xps'a) for his coadjutors. 

yXoiw; Bergk (for yzXoiwc,), ' stingily ', as an adverb from yXoioc, 
expl. by Hesych. as purapo'?. 

1. 12. [j.rj wpav x.t.X. 'that the day of Themistocles might be no 
more', i.e. that his ascendancy might come to an end. 



372 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

For the hiatus Schneidewin compares Arist. Lysistr. 1037. Per- 
haps, however, pi should coalesce with the first syllable of w'pav, and 
the line scanned thus : 



— . — ^ 



II. (a.) Mousa x.x.X. Plut. I.e. r.oku o\ txaskyz'Tzipz . . . [iXaacpripa 
xe'yp7]Tai pxd x^v yuyr^ auxou (Themistocles) . . . <xi[).cc TZO'.rpxi ou 1^ 

(p.) oox apa Ttjxoxpe'wv. Plut. /.f. with reference to the same circum- 
stances. The meaning seems to be as follows : ' I am not the only one 
who has suffered for his villany (lit. lost his tail). Others, too, 
have turned out foxes {i.e. rascals).' 

There is a frank avowal of his own rascality in the fragment, which 
is in keeping with the bitter and cynical character of Timocreon. 

III. "QcdeXe'v g to, x.x.X. Schol. Achar. 532, ' axoXiov xaxa xou IIXouxqu.' 
One would think that Timocr. is inveighing against the bribery 

and corruption which, as he says in No. 1., keeps him in banishment. 
There is however a passage in Isidor. Pelus. Ep. ii. 146, which seems 
to point to there being no such special reference in the lines : "E-9-o; 
i^v rcaXaiov pxa xtjv auvcTuaaiv aTTTsafrai Xupa; xai aosiv' 'AnoXoto, u> 
IlXouTc, xai \).r\it £v yf^ <pavsfr)?, pjx' lv O-aXasari. 

1. I. "QtpsXsv a w Ilgen, for wtpeXs; w ; he considers that the MSS. 
'i2<I>EAESQ = (093X3 a to. For the impersonal construction, cf. Pind. 
Nem. ii. 6 ; oasiXei . . . vtxav Tijjlovoou rcatSa, and Luc. Dea Syr. 25 T. 
ix. p. no ; ota pjxE as ^aO-ftv, |0Jt £p\ 'to£a9-ai (jo<peXe. 

rjTOi'ow. Schneidewin, objecting to the pleonasm after yf, proposes 
oupavw. As a conjecture I suggest n^ 'irl -yfj, p|i sv &aX. pjx' ev r^Eipw 
x.x.X., z>. ' Would that thou mightest not be seen upon the earth (as 
opp. to Tdpxapov, 1. 2), whether on sea or land.' 

IV. Krjta |j.s ^poarJXO-e x.x.X. Anth. Pal. xiii. 31. 

The lines are a parody on an epigram by Simonides, Bergk 170. 
Mouaa pioi 'AXxpjV7]s xaXXtacpupou ulov ast§s. 
Ytov *AXxu.7)V7is aao£ Mousd jj.o'. xaXXtsoupou. 



BACCHYLIDES 

I. Tt'xxsi 0£ xe •D-vaxotaiv x.x.X. Stob. Flor. lv. 3 : BaxyuXioou xaidvcov. 

Commentators expend considerable ingenuity in endeavouring to 
restore the lost division of strophe, antistrophe, and epode. The 
predominance of dactyls and of the epitrit (v. p. 67) makes it clear 
that the song is in f or § time, and not in -j) or f ; so that the 
trochees must be scanned not — ^ but L - ^. Altogether there is a 



BACCHYLIDES 373 

ring of calm but deep-felt triumph about the rhythm which is admir- 
ably suited to the subject. 

The description in these lines, idealised it may be, is not with- 
out value in helping us to realise the bright and cheerful existence of 
the Greek citizen in time of peace. The passage was evidently 
a famous one among the ancients. Plutarch refers to it in his Life of 
JVuma, c. 20, where he says that the blessings of peace bestowed by 
that king outdid even the exaggerated descriptions of the poets, and 
he quotes 11. 6-10 as an example. Plutarch appears to be borrowing 
from Bacchylides in his description of the ' feasts, plays, sacrifices, 
and bankets' (North) celebrated over all Italy. 

1. 1. 8e ts, see note on Sap. xxxvu. 1. 5. 

1. 2. aoioav avO-ea, a favourite figure of speech in Pindar, e.g. aviha 
ufivwv, 01. ix. 48. MeXtyXwaawv, cf. Pind. Is. ii. 3, [j.sXiyapua; o[avous, and 
id. 1. 8, jJLaXO-ax.dcflwv&i doiSai. 

1. 3 seq. The next three lines probably refer to the sacrifices and 
rejoicings in honour of the return of peace ; or, perhaps, simply to 
the customary ceremonies and festivities of Greek life, kept perforce 
in abeyance during time of war. Similarly Elpr^t] is addressed as 
Siar.oiva yopwv, Ar. Peace, 976. A'iO-safrai is the ingenious and probable 
reading of Dindorf and Schneidewin for eO-eafre. Neue and others 
atO-^tat, and f/iXsi (1. 5). A'tihaOai and fjiXstv are dependent on tixtei, 
as if they were substantives co-ordinate with 7cXoutov and av9sa. 

1. 4. pipa Buttmann, xavuTpfywv Schneidewin, from a MS. reading 
(jnrjpixav suTpr/wv. Buttmann and Neue pjpa Saauxpiywv. 

1. 5. auX<ov Tc xai xwp.wv, perhaps a kind of hendiadys, the flute 
being the almost inseparable accompaniment of Comus- songs. 
Cf. p. 8 and Dithyr. Poets I. a, 1. 10. 

1. 6. atO-av, ' fiery-red ', which appears to be the meaning also of 
aifrtov aX(o-7)5, Pind. 01. x. ad fin. 

1. 7. icrco v i, so Stob. ; spya, Plut. I.e., in which case the second 
syllable of apa/vav would be long, and the line scanned thus : 



With this passage Schneidewin aptly compares Theocr. xvi. 96 : 

apayvta 8' si; orcV apayvai 
Xs'-Ta oiaTcr^aaivTo, [3oas 3' i'xi |j./)3' ovojj.' s\'r]. 

and Tib. i. 10, 50. 

I. 8. Eupw;, not given in Stob., is supplied by Plutarch. Bergk need- 
lessly inverts eupw? and oajj-vaxat. Notice the scansion of iyysa., 

and £icpea, ^ — . 

II. 12-13. PpMtovrt, p. 95. 

ayuiai, ' the streets,' because of the processional choruses etc. 
associated with these au[j.r.6iiot. \ thus too are suggested the 7rai3iy.ot 
u'fj.voi, songs of love or serenades, which often formed the sequel to 
the banquet (see p. 8). 



374 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

(pXs'Yovxai (or as Bergk suggests cpXeyovxi), 'burst forth'. Cf. Oed. 
Tyr. 1 86, ::aiav Xdpiet. The metaphor as applied to song is 
particularly common in Pindar, e.g. Pyth. v. 42, as 8' jjuxopoi cdXe'yovti 
XapiTS? ; Nem. vi. 37, Xapnrwv . . . op-.aow oXs'ysv ; /y/^i. vi. 23, and iii. 61, 

TCUpdOV U|JLV(OV. 

This poem is perhaps imitated by Eurip. Frag. 462 : 

Eiorjva PaO-u'xXouxs . . . 
oioov/.tx [j.rj j;p v iv t:ovoi; 
urepPaXy) I* 8 Y^P a ?, 
jcp\v aav )(apis<i(jav topav jtpoaiSslv, 
xal xaXXiyopou; aot5a; 
cpiXoiTE^avou; te xcoudu;. 

II. rXuxel' avaY^-a x.t.X. Athen. ii. 39 E. 

Neue is of opinion that this poem is a Scolion. He regards it as 
choral (cf. Pind. Frag. XI. note, and p. 24), and endeavours to 
distinguish strophe and antistrophe. But surely the lines with their 
easy and regular metre fall beautifully into the form of the 4-line 
stanza of monodic song. 

The poem should be closely compared with Pindar ix., and we can 
hardly help assuming that one of the two poets borrowed from the 
other. Yet their treatment of a similar subject is markedly dis- 
tinct, Dissen characterising Pindar's song as ' nervosior, ingeniosior, 
sublimior'. Admitting this, I should be inclined, on the other hand, 
to say that the passage from Bacchylides is ' elegantior, pulcrior, 
suavior', etc., and that Pindar's sublimity is in this instance a little 
out of place. Horace has closely imitated this fragment in 3 Od. xxi. 
12 seq. : ' Tu lene tormentum ingenio admoves . . . Tu spem reducis 
-. . . addis cornua pauperi ', etc. But the spirit of Bacchylides' poem is, 
I think, best displayed in the lines of Burns' Tarn o' Shanter : 

' Kings may be rich, but Tarn was glorious, 
O'er all the ills of life victorious.' 

11. 1-3. 'Sweet compulsion speeding from the cups fires my soul 
with love.' The word avaY^a (cf. Pind. Nem. ix. 51, (3iaxav a^Xou 
rattSa) simply implies that wine takes away from men freedom of 
thought and action. Schweighauser's explanation is unsuitable, 'vis 
ilia, qua . . . calices hominem . . . attrahunt ad se'. Casaubon, objecting 
to the omission of the preposition iv. or a-o before xuXixwv, reads 
Y£uop.£va, Bergk ifferujxsvav, which mars the beauty of the passage. 
Jacobs connects avotYxa xoXixuv together. ' Blanda ilia potandi 
necessitas,' or ' lene tormentum quod admovent calices' (Ilgen). 

O-aX^cyt, Schem. Ibyc, = Q-a.Xr.ei, cf. on Ibyc. v. This case Bergk 
regards as parallel to the Lesbian cpiXrjaL, and the like, on the strength 
of a form OaX-aw mentioned by the grammarians. Ktkptoo?, cf. the 
' material genitives ' ' 7ip^cat 7tupos,' ' rcupos S^oto 9c'p7]Tai' (v. Monro's 
Horn. Gr. p. 107). In 1. 3 the MSS. give KikpiSo? 1 ilrX; o' aiO-uacrsi cpp. 



BACCHYLIDES 375 

Erfurdt corrects to KunptSos S'lXrcls oiaifruW-. (pp., but Ilgen reasonably 
urges that Ku'rcpioo? IXms is out of place, as we require rather ' spes in 
universum', cf. Hor. I.e. and 4 Od. xii. 19. Neue's Ku7tpt8os" sXx:ioi 8' 
aiO-uWt (pp. is not in accordance with what appears to be the metrical 
scheme ; Bergk's Ku'jxpt? w?" IXm? yap atd\ cpp. is very flat. I have con- 
jecturally written in the text Ku'rptoo;* x' Uric, 8iai9-u'a?Ei x.x.X., for if 3' 
a!9-uaa£t became substituted for oiatOuWi, x(ai) would naturally be 
dropped as unnecessary. For the elision of xat, cf. Scol. I. 1. 2. 

1. 4. ap.p.iyvu[j.s'va, Neue -a; (with cppi'va;) to avoid the repetition in 
sense of aEuopiva xuXixwv. 

Atov. Swpoi?, cf. Hes. Theog. 975, ' Aiuvu'cjou Stop' eaastpap-evo? ' and 
//. iii. 54, ' owp' 'Acppooixrj?.' The expression appropriately attaches 
itself to deities associated with pleasure. 

1. 5. u'l/oxa-irw rJ[i. [jLsp., i.e. raises men's thoughts to a higher level, 
as is explained by what follows. For this sense of jj.spip.va? Mehlhorn 
compares Pind. Pyth. viii. 92. 

1. 6. auxi/' 6 [jlcv, so Bergk for the unmetrical auxo? p.kv 6 piv refers 
to the drinker rather than to otvo; or Atovuaos, as Bergk explains it. 

Xuei as in //. xxiii. 513, Odyss. vii. 74. 

1. 8. Cf. Hor. 2 CW. xviii., ' Non ebur neque aureum | mea renidet 
in domo lacunar,' and Odyss. iv. 71, opa£so . . . XaXxou xe axspo^v 
xa3 8wjj.axa ^yjjsvxa | Xpuaou x' r^Exxpou xe xa\ apyu'pou rfi' iXe'epavTO?. 

1. 9. ko'vxov is conjecturally supplied by Erfurdt, Bergk xap^ov. 



III.-XII. ETHICAL PASSAGES 

I have grouped together under this heading fragments, belonging 
to various classes of Melic poetry, which contain reflections upon 
human life or destiny (v. p. 223). 

III. Stob. Eel. Phys. 1. v. 3. 

1. 4. ve'cpo; in this metaphorical sense is used specially of evils (cf. 
VE90? t:oXe[j.oio, vEtpo; axsvaypuov, etc.), and therefore refers in this passage 
only to "Aprj; and axasu, not also to oXJjo?. Thus, although the 
poet : s theme is that men's lot is entirely in the hands of fate, he 
implies also, as he does more directly in the succeeding passages, 
that this lot is a hard one. 

1. 5. yatav Bockh, for yav. 

IV. "oXpto? omvi x.x.X. Stob. Flor. ciii. 2 and xcviii. 27, both 
passages being from the same Epinician Ode. 

For the trochees in f-time in this and many of the subsequent 
passages cf. on No. I. 

1. 1. uxivt, altered by Neue to wxe, but Oeo? may be scanned as a 
monosyllable. KaXwv, Neue suggests xaxtov, the sense then being 
' happy the man in whose life the inevitable evil is tempered also 
with good'. 



376 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

I. 2. The last syllable of xu/a coalesces with the first of d<pv£tdv. 

II. 3-6. Bergk refers to Cic. Tusc. Quaest. i. 48, where the same 
sentiment is ascribed to Silenus. 

V. naupoiat 31 ftvaxwv x.x.X. Clem. Alex. Strom, vi. 745. 
1. 1. oaijjiwv eowxe, so Neue for tw 3ai(j.ovi Swxev. 

1. 2. 7:paac;ovTas ev xaipw, apparently ' faring prosperously ', but such 
a signification of ev xatow is doubtful. Perhaps we should read 
E'jzat'po);. 

VI. IlavTsaai frvaxolai x.x.X. Stob. Flor. xcviii. 25, from a 
Prosodion. 

VII. Et? opo; x.x.X. Stob. Flor. cviii. 26, from a Prosodion. 
1. 2. oiax. ouvax. Dindorf, for Suvax. otax. 

I. 3. The MSS. have 01; Se jj.upia jj.sv a[x«p. (pp. Stephanus w §e 
Neue |JiEpi[j.va. 

II. 4-5. The MSS. have xoSs (or xo Se) rcapd[Jiapxs vuxxa (aeX. yap. advt 
a7iXExai xE'ap. The reading in the text is that of Grotius ; Bockh ocJev 
ia^xExai. The subject in this clause is changed from fjipi[j.va to oc, 
implied in w (1. 3). 

11. 7-8. Quoted by Stob. I.e. 26, also from a Prosodion, and the 
commentators agree that it belongs to the same poem as 11. 1-6. The 
line is nearly in metrical accordance with 1. 1, and may have been 
the commencement of the antistrophe. 

a^prjxxa Bockh, for a^paxxa, v. on Simonides V. 1. 

VIII. 'O Tpws? x.x.X. Quoted by Clem. Alex. Strom, v. 731, from 
' Aupixo?.' They are ascribed by Sylburg to Bacchylides on the 
strength of the words of Porphyrio ad Hor. 1 Od. xv., ' Hac ode 
Bacchylidem imitatur ; nam ut ille Cassandram fecit vaticinari 
futura belli Trojani, ita hie Proteum.' 

On the other hand it may be noticed that the sentiments here are 
contrary to the tone elsewhere adopted by Bacchylides with regard 
to the inevitable woes which the deity brings upon mankind. 

1. 2. aXX' ev [iiato x.x.X. Cf. Ar. Ethic, i. 9 on Euoai[i.ovta, ' e'itj S' ' av 
xal tcoXu/.oivov '. 

1. 4. ayvav coming after oatav is rejected by Neue. Bergk reads 
ayva?. 

1. 5. dXpiwv 7:at8s? x.x.X. Cf. //. vi. 127, ' Auuxr-jvwv oi xs JuatSsg ijxw 
{jle'vsi avxtdwaiv.' But in Homer the emphasis is on the misery of the 
bereaved parents ; (' Unhappy are the parents whose sons oppose my 
might ') ; while in this passage the notion is perhaps that the happy 
lot is inherited by children from their parents — 'Sons of blessed 
parents are they who find justice as the partner of their home.' 

With the Epic usage of EupdvxE?(= 0! sup.) Neue compares Pind. 
OL ii. 86, aood; 6 toXX' stow; oua* [j.a9-dvx£; 5s x.x.X. 



BACCHYLIDES 377 

IX. AuSt'a yap Xtfro; x.t.X. Stob. Flor. xi. 7, from a Hyporchem, 
and on a gem (Caylus Rec. d. Ant. T. v. tab. 50. 4) thus : 

AYAIA 

AI0O2MA 

. . . EIXPY . . . 

ANAPQNAAP . . . 

. . . IATEIIA . . . 

-HSTEAEr . . . 

AAHGEIA. 

1. i. Auofa XiO-o;, 'the Lydian touchstone'. It should be borne in 
mind that gold was one of the earliest sources of wealth in Lydia. 
The metaphor is a favourite one, cf. Scol. XXV., Iv XiO-tvai? 
axovous x.t.X., and Simonides 175 (Bergk), 'oux eotiv [jlei^wv p<xaavo; 
■/povou ouSevo? s'pyou '. 

1. 2. aocpiav is -ay/.pax^; eX. So Salmasius for aotpta te -ayxpaTr,; 
x' eX., the reading on the gem, and in the MSS., though there is 
some authority for aocsiav. 

Neue retains aocpia ts 7iay. te, interpreting aocpia as 'poetic skill' 
(cf. on Sapph. xviii.), so that the whole expression = 'a poet who 
speaks the truth '. That men's achievements require song to display 
their full glory is a favourite theme of Pindar's {e.g. 01. x. 91). But 
in this passage, with Neue's reading, aocpta need be no more than 
' wisdom ', ' power of discrimination ', and aXa9-sta perhaps ' the force 
of truth ', as in the expression, ' magna est Veritas '. With the whole 
passage cf. Eur. Med. 561 : 

'O Zsu, Tt or\ 7pu30u [j.ev 5$ -/.((3or]Xos f x.t.X. 

X. nioxov oaao[jLEv x.t.X. Plut. de Audie?id. Poet. c. 14. 
-irr. <paao[A. Bockh, for <faaw[i.Ev -kjto'v. 

XI. 'Q? 8' a-a?£i-Elv x.t.X. Stob. Flor. x. 14, from an Epinician Ode. 
Cf. Pind. Pyth. iii. 54, x;'posi xal aocpta Ss'SETai. 

XII. 'Opyai [jlev x.t.X. Zenob. Prov. iii. 25, and Hesych. s.v. o{/oXou 
A similar passage is attributed to Alcman, v. Bergk, vol. iii. p. 193. 



MISCELLANEOUS PASSAGES 

XIII. Ou pVov jtapean x.t.X. Athen. xi. 500 B, with the words 
-otoujAEvo? (Bax7uX.) tov Xoyov t.^qc, tou? Aioaxou'pou?, -/.ixXmv auTOu; E7:\ 
?Evia (or ?Evia). The lines would therefore form part of a banquet 
Paean (v. pp. 13 and 232). Notice that the invitation to the gods is 
in no way different from an invitation to an honoured mortal friend. 
Horace appears to be imitating this song in 2 Od. xviii., ' Non 
ebur neque aureum ... At fides et ingeni | Benigna vena est ', etc. 

Notice that none but pure trochees, or chorees, are employed ; 
thus a lively movement is given to a metre, which otherwise, like the 



378 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 




ordinary trochaic tetrameter, would perhaps have been more adapted 
for recitation than for song. 

(3oiwTioi<3iv ev oxucpoujiv. Athen. I.e. mentions that Boeotian cups 
were famous, their distin- 
guishing feature being the 
'HpaxXeios Seo[jios. This is 
doubtless identical with 
the 'Nodus Herculeus', 
or Herculean Knot, em- 
ployed on cups for deco- 
rative effect, or perhaps 
for its supposed medi- 
cinal value (Plin. N. H. 
xxviii. 63). A series of 
a/.u'cpoi may be seen in 
the British Museum with 
their handles interlaced 
in the Herculean or reef- 
knot, thus : — 

It is possible that Bacchylides mentions Boeotian cups in his invi- 
tation, because the Dioscuri had special connection with Thebes. 

XIV. Nixa yXuxuSwpo? x.x.X. Ursinus, p. 206, from Stob. Flor. iii. 
in Orat. Obliqua. It has been restored by Neue, who substitutes 31 
in 1. 2, for /.at ev t.o\. OX. 

xsT-o;, 'prize', as in Pind. 01. xi. (x.), 70, ^uy;j.a? xeXo;. 

XV. "Exspo? 15 sxs'pou x.x.X. Clem. Al. Strom, v. 687, from a Paean. 
Such a passage as this could not fail to be regarded as a hit at 

Pindar. Should this be so, it would be apparently in answer to 01. 
ii. 86. 1000c, 6 no\X stow? cpua" [j.a9dvxE? os . . . xdpaxs? to; axpavxa 
yaposxov x.x.X. 

xd xe rcaXai xd xe vuv, a customary formula applicable to universal 
truths, cf. Antig. 181: xa'xiaxo; stvai vuv xe xai 7;aXat SoxeI. 

1. 2. paaxov, the superl. being somewhat out of place, Bergk 
ingeniously suggests pa 'ar£v. 'Pa would be more consistent with 
his own views ; see on Alcman xx. [i'. 

appifjxwv, either ' unspoken ' (as Odyss. xiv. 466) i.e. original poetry, 
or ' unutterable by common mortals ', i.e. mysteriously inspired. 

1. 3. Ira'wv jtuXa?, cf. Pind. 01. vi. 27 (in celebrating a mule-victory) 
yprj xot'vuv 7toXa? up.vcov dvara7:xa(./.sv auxat;. 

XVI. Ou/ Bpa; spyov x.x.X. Quoted by Dion. Hal. de Comp. Verb. 
c. 25, and by a grammarian to illustrate the employment of the Cretic 
metre in Hyporchems [v. p. 5). The resolution of the last syllable 
of the fifth Cretic in 1. 1 is exceptional. 

'ixwvia;. An epithet of Athene, from a town I ton in Phthiotis, 
where she had a sanctuary. Cf. Catul. Epithal. Pel. and Thet. 228. 



BACCHYLIDES 379 

XVII. "Eora 8' in\ Xaivov ouSov x.t.X. Athen. v. 188 B, BaxyuXiSrjs 
jcsp\ 'HpaxXe'ou? Xs'ycov w; v]X0cV et:\ tov tou Ktjuxo? oixov. 

1. 1. Neue, evtuov for e'vtOvov, and e'cpa for ecpaa', the elision being 
hardly possible. 

1. 2. The explanation of oe (which Brunck omits) is to be looked 
for in the fact that Hercules is adapting a proverb isolated from its 
context, which is referred to in Athen. I.e. auxoixaxot o' aya»)-o\ ayaQwv 
£tA Satxa; 'taat, in Zenob. ii. 19, and in. Plat. Symp. 174 B. From 
Zenobius we learn that Hesiod first put the proverb into the mouth of 
Hercules on entering the house of Ceux. 

XVIII. Aloe! -ce'xog x.t.X. Stob. Flor. exxii. 1. 

By whom we are to suppose this beautiful lament to be uttered is 
uncertain. 

XIX. '12 mXo^o; x.t.X. Schol. Pind. 01. xiii. ad init. where Corinth 
is described as 'I<j!>;j.iou -oo9upov. 

XX. 'Exaxa Saoocpops x.t.X. Schol. Ap. Rhod. iii. 467. 

I have indicated in the metrical scheme that in this instance the 
Cretics are to be regarded as dipodies in §- and not in f-time (see p. 
70). This is evident from the fact that in 1. 2 an ordinary trochaic 
dipody corresponds to the previous Cretics. 

A poetical and not mythological genealogy of Hecate (cf. Alcman 
XX. and XXII. and Alcaeus xxiv.). It is appropriate to the concep- 
tion of Hecate partly as a divinity of the nether world, partly as a 
moon-goddess. It is hardly necessary, with Ursinus, to alter [j.syaXo- 
xoXtou, 'ample-bosomed', 'all-embracing', to [jieXavoxoXTrou. 

XXI. Euxs xr]v arJ ayxuXv]; x.t.X. Athen. xi. 782 E and xv. 667 C. 
BaxyuX. ev'EptoTiKois. 

' When she throws the cast (ttqv, sc. -posaiv, Neue), for the young 
men, outstretching her white arm.' The reference is to throwing the 
cottabus, for Hesych. defines ayxuXv): 'ysip aT^yxuXtopivr; xat auvs<r:pa[j.- 
[j.c'vr] sic, a^oxox-ca l Jtcj;j.dv ' ; Athen. giving a somewhat different account, 
' ::oT7]piov -po; Tr ( v tuv xoxxaptov -aioiav ypr^ijj.ov '. 

XXII. Nw[j.axat x.t.X. Schol. Hes. Theog. 116 (illustrating the use 
of yao? for drjp), BaxyuX. jtepk toO &€tov. Cf. I bye. (Append. No. 14) 
-otaxat o' lv aXXoTpio) yast. 

Bacchyl. is perhaps imitating the Epic Si' ai9s'po? axpuysTolo, II. xvii. 
425. 



SCOLIA, Etc. 

Scolia 1. -XIX. are quoted by Athen. xv. 694-5, as examples of the 
most popular banquet-songs. In 693 E, he uses the expression tiov 
'Attixwv Ixei'vwv sxoXioTv, and it appears to be applied to most of 



3 8o GREEK LYRIC POETS 

these that he quotes, with the exception of the verses by Praxilla, 
Hybrias, etc. I have placed first those which refer, directly or pre- 
sumably, to Athenian history. In these and in others there will be 
noticed amidst the ordinary dialectical peculiarities of Lyric many 
Attic forms {e.g. xr,v, ©fXrjv, x.t.X.) which the commentators rightly 
refrain from altering. 

Metre of Scolia, i.-ix. LI. 1-2 begin with the Basis, which assumes 

a variety of forms ; - ^ or are the commonest, in which case the 

line is equivalent to a Sapphic pentapody with the cyclic dactyl in 
the 2d instead of the 3d foot ; we also find ^ - e.g. svix7)aa|j.Ev x.t.X. 
(No. in.), and^-^. uyiaivsiv x.t.X. (No. IX.). Line 3 displays no 
variations in its metrical scheme throughout the Scolia. It consists 
of a basis always of the form ^ ^ and two catalectic dipodies. Diaeresis 
predominates after the first dipody, though with many exceptions, e.g. 
ote tov -rupavvov xTavsTrjv, cf. I P', VIII., IX. In 1. 4, on the contrary, 
diaeresis never occurs after the 6th syll. 1-, with one exception, 
yatpsxov eu Se xavo' x.t.X., where however we have elision. Had Horace, 
or any other poet writing for recitation and not for song, imitated 
this metre, he would no doubt have made diaeresis after the synco- 
pated syllable in 11. 3 and 4 the universal rule. 

I. HARMODIUS and ARISTOGEITON. It is disputed whether 
these famous stanzas are to be taken separately or regarded 
as forming one complete song. Hesychius, in explaining 'Ap[xoS(ou 
[aeXo;, mentions only the first, which he assigns to Callistratus, 
while in Schol. Acharn. 980, the second is taken as the beginning^ 
the poem, if not as the entire song— [J.EX05 'Ap|j.ooiou xaXou[j.evov 06 r, 
apyr;, *[Xxa8-' "Ap^dSis. The most probable view seems to be that, 
although the stanzas were not necessarily all composed at the same 
time, they were intended to be taken together as a single poem, even 
if the order of their delivery was not always the same. In any case, 
as Engelbrecht maintains, there is no reason for us to conclude that 
the stanzas were sung in succession by different singers in a game of 
verse-capping. 

For the historical blunders in popular tradition said to be exhibited 
in these, verses and in the writings of the philosophers, see especially 
Thuc. vi. 54-55, Hdt. v. 55, and Grote pt. ii. c. xxx. pp. 38-42. From 
these authorities we gather (a) that Hipparchus who was slain was 
not xupavvo; at all, (&) that Harmodius and Aristogeiton could not be 
rightly said to have liberated Athens, for in the first place they were 
merely endeavouring to satisfy a desire for personal vengeance, and 
secondly, in spite of their partial success, the tyranny endured in an 
aggravated form for four years longer. I think, however, that, at 
any rate as far as these Scolia are concerned, the charges of inaccu- 
racy are overstated. As to Hipparchus being designated -cupavvo?, it 
may with some reason be urged that, although no doubt the actual 
xupawo; was the elder brother Hippias, we can hardly help conclud- 



SCO LI A, ETC. 381 

ing even from Thucydides that Hipparchus was invested with a con- 
siderable share of the despotic power. He has a bodyguard of his 
own (Thuc. vi. 57. 4), his influence is sufficient to exclude Harmodius' 
sister from the procession, and to banish Onomacritus (Hdt. vii. 6) ; 
and finally Thucydides himself includes Hipparchus under the title 
of xu'pavvo;, for he uses the expression oc Tu'pavvot goto', in a passage 
(c. 54. 7) where we cannot urge that he is speaking of Pisistratus the 
father and his son Hippias (see Arnold's note I.e. on eJxcxtt^v, etc., 
ad inii., and compare the expressions in Thuc. vi. c. 54. 5). Secondly, 
though the attempt of the friends to overthrow the tyranny proved 
abortive, yet they initiated that spirit of resistance to the despotism, 
which four years later drove Hippias from the throne and caused the 
establishment of the democracy ; and it is evident from the narrative 
of Thucydides that Hippias fully realised how terribly insecure the 
position of the tyranny was rendered by the partially successful 
conspiracy. Consequently I think that Grote lays too much stress 
on the literal inaccuracy of the line iaovd[jLou? t' 'AOrJva; lnoir\<j<xxi)v, 
particularly as Thucydides in his strictures on the erroneous nature 
of the traditions makes no reference to any such unpardonable 
blunder as Grote assumes to be made in this line. At any rate we 
cannot charge the composer or composers of this Scolion with 
sharing in the mistaken view held by some that Hipparchus was the 
elder brother and was succeeded in the tyranny by Hippias as the 
younger Pisistratid. 

The fame of the Scolion is amply testified to by the reference in 
Aristophanes, see Achar. 980 (Schol.), Wasps 1226, Lysis. 632. Cf. 
Hesych.'Apaooio'j ;ac7,q;' to im'ApfJioSio) nooifrsv trxoXiov y-o KaXXurrpaTou 
outcd; sXeyov. 

(a') 1. 1. [iupxou xXaS-'. There is a double reference, after the usual 
manner of the Scolia, on the one hand to the myrtle-bough held by 
the singer (see p. 233) and on the other to the myrtle-bough in which 
the conspirators appear to have concealed their daggers (cf. Thuc. 
I.e. 58 ad fin.). For the practice of carrying myrtle-boughs at sacred 
festivals Ilgen refers to Arist. Birds 43 : 

xavouv o' i'/ovxc xai yuxpav xai [J.upp'iva;' 

cf. Thesm. 37, Wasps 861. On the other hand Hesychius speaks of 
olive-branches, s.v. 9aXXocpopoV '0 jtopceutov 'A'JhJvrjai xai IXaia? xXaSov 
tpeptov.' 

([5') Harmodius is addressed separately because he won the 
additional credit of perishing in the very act of the tyrannicide. 

v7)<jois . . . ftaxaptov, as loci classici on this subject, see Hesych. 
Works 164, Pind. 01. ii. 71 sea., Frag. Threnos No. II. (in this 
edition). 

1. 4. Tuostorjv. He was still more fortunate according to another 
tradition, v. Pind. Nem. x. 7, AiopjSea . . . rXauxwm? £'0t,/.s I'so'v. 



382 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

The MSS. gives the unmetrical T. te caai tov lo-OXbv A. Bergk, 
unlike the other commentators, retains saO-Xov, thereby producing a 
metrical effect which is unparalleled in the other stanzas of this kind, 
and out of harmony with the rhythmic effect of 11. 1-3. 

(y') 'AthjVairjc, penult, short, cf. Anacr. II. 4, Ar ( 0ato-j. 

(0') /.TavsTov . . . e-oiv-jiaTov, so Ilgen for -r ( v -r,v, a reading which is 
due, he thinks, to a mistaken imitation of (a') 11. 3-4. 

II. Aloti Ast'I/uopiov. This Scolion was composed, as we are told in 
Etym. M. 361. 31, in lamentation over the defeat of the anti-Pisis- 
tratid party headed by the Alcmaeonids, who had fortified Leipsydrion 
and were disastrously defeated by Hippias. Leipsydrion was a spot 
on the southern slopes of Mount Parnes, not far from Deceleia, and 
commanding the descent into the Athenian plain. 

Col. Mure {Hist, of Gk. Lit. vol. iii. p. 106) fancies that he detects 
puns in the words AenJ*uSpiov and 7cpoSwa£Tatpov, which would have been 
in the worst possible taste, for the passage is obviously a pathetic 
one, and belongs to the class of Scolia described by Eustathius as 
cjcouoaioc (p. 237). 

1. 3. xal Eu^axpfoac. Various conjectures are made to avoid the 
hiatus, but they are, I think, needless, since it is softened by the 
metrical pause on the syncopated syllable xai •— • 

III. *Evi-/.7]cja[j.sv x-.x.X. I have placed this Scolion next, since it may 
possibly refer to the final triumph over the Pisistratids. If so, it 
would appear best to accept Bergk's conjecture for 1. 3, roxpa navopoaov 
ws (piXrjv 'Aahjvci;, Pandrosus being the daughter of Cecrops who had 
won Athene's favour by refusing to follow her sister's example in 
spying into the chest where Erichthonius was confined (cf. Pausan. 
i. 27. 3). ' Bringing the victory to Pandrosus' will then mean that the 
Athenian people who worshipped her were successful against their 
tyrants ; or we might venture to conjecture that one of the Eupatrid 
families now successfully opposing Pisistratus was associated with 
the cult of Pandrosus. 

The explanation suggested by Brunck, with the reading in the text, 
is that the Scolion celebrates a poet's victory at the Panathenaea. 
The prize was a wreath of olive plucked from the sacred [xoptai which 
grew in the temple of Pandrosus, and was presented to the victorious 
poet in the temple of Athene (see Midler, de Miiterv. Poliad. 22, 
Apollod. iii. 14. 1). Hence the gods were said to bring the victory, 
or emblem of victory, from (the temple of) Pandrosus, to (the temple 
of) beloved Athene. 

IV. IlaXXa? TptToyc'vst'. The mention of cnraaetov suggests that this 
Scolion was written after freedom had been restored, but while they 



SCOLIA, ETC. 383 

were still smarting from the effects of the civil wars ; or it may well 
have served, as Hartung suggests, for a general litany or grace 
appropriate before any convivial meeting (see p. 232). 

Tpixoys'vEta. The ancient explanation of this word is ' water-born ', 
and accordingly the birth of Athene was localised by the fabulous 
river Triton in Libya, or by the Tritonian lake. That there was an 
ancient word of this kind denoting ' water', is indicated by ' Triton', 
' Amphitrite', etc. ; the usual modern explanation of TptxoyEvsia accepts 
this meaning, but supposes the word to designate the 'goddess born 
from the watery cloud'. Athene has from this point of view been 
regarded as the goddess of the cloud, and of the blue sky. 

'AStjvoc. Bergk is of opinion that this contracted form of 'Alhjvata, 
or 'Afl-rjvaa, is of too recent origin to have been employed in this 
Scolion, not being found in Attic inscriptions till after the Pelopon- 
nesian war. He would therefore prefer the Doric 'AOava used in the 
Lyric poets, and borrowed by them from the Tragedians. 

V. nXou~ou |xr,Tc'pa. 

1. 1. '0Xujj.7:'!av, she was called yfroviot at Sparta, as goddess of the 
earth, hence Casaubon suggests '0[j.-viav, ' goddess of the corn ' ; this, 
however, would not only substitute a trochee for a cyclic dactyl in 
the second foot, but is rendered impossible, as Bergk points out, by 
the fact that the last syllable of "Oprviav (for so it should be accented) 
is short and not long. 'OXup:iav is applied to Demeter simply as a 
divinity. 

1. 2. (jTEcpavrjcpopoi; ev wpais. This is variously explained as the season 
of the year at which garlands are worn, or the season which brings 
the flowers for garlands, or, best of all, as ' the hour of wreathing', i.e. 
the banquet-time, when Scolia were sung by the garlanded boon- 
companions ('a cette heure du repas oil Ton est couronne', De la 
Nauze). Jacobs conjectures or. auv "fipai;, comparing Orph. Hymn 
XL1I. 7, where Proserpine is in company with the hours. Similarly in 
Orph. Hymn xxvil. 9, she is called 'i2p<ov aufj-aty.xsipa. In this case 
the epithet axscpav^cp. would probably have merely the same force as 
Pindar's 'S2pat ;:oXuavQ-c|j.cH (Ot. xiii. 17); 

VI. 'Iu Ilav. Bockh (Frag. Pind. p. 592) conjectures, without 
much foundation, that this Scolion was in celebration of the assistance 
given by Pan at Marathon. It closely resembles a fragment from 
Pindar : No. 63 (Bockh) — 

D. Ilav, Apx.aota? luSe'cov, xai seavcov aouxwv <puXa£, 
Maxoo; (j.cyaAa; or.ixoi, as[j.vav Xapi'xwv [j.s'Xr][j.a xsp-vov. 

In 1. 1. 'Iu is altered by Hermann to to, but is defended by Ilgen, 
who treats it as monosyllabic, comparing Eur. Bacch. 531, where to> 
Zeu answers to aiat in 1. 316. 

I. 2. opyrjaxa. Cf. Aesch. Pers. 448, 6 cpiXo/ppo? Ilav, and Orph. 



3S4 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

Hymn x., where he is called <mp-njT7]s. Pan of course figures among 
the Bacchic nymphs and revellers in endless vase-representations. 

Bpo[jJ.y.ii . . . vu[jLcpau, cf. on Anacreon ill. 2. Some commentators 
prefer Ppo^iaig, 'the noiseful Nymphs'. 

1. 3. ysXaaeia; Valckenaer, for ysXaai'ai?. 

1. 4. The text is Hermann's ; MSS. eucppoauvat; xatao' aoioal; aeiot xsy. 
Bergk reads Euopoau'vatsi, Tobo"' ao-.oat; /.£/., regarding the line as a 
variety on the ordinary metrical scheme. Cf. on No. I. [3', 1. 4. 

VII. 'Ev Ar-Xio. 'Aypotc'pa was a common title of Artemis. Cf. 
Paus. i. 19, vao? 'AypoTs'pa; iaftv 'ApTEi-uSo;, and Arist. Knights 660, 
Thesm. 115. 

VIII. E'tS' sJfrjv. Ilgen gives the order for translation thus : sift' e?^v, 
xo (re. 5tsX. s'-stTa tov vouv s^ioovtk, o~oto? xt; i^v ex.. x.t.X. Hermann 
more suitably regards tov vouv as a mere pleonastic repetition of 
ojtoIos Tt? r ( v Ix. The past tense ^v is either due to the attraction of 
i^v, or we may compare the famous to t( ^v sTvat of Aristotle, where 
the past tense carries us back to the primal or original nature of the 
everlasting essence. Similarly in the case of the Gnomic Aorist, 
employed of something that always did happen in the past and 
always does happen in the present, the attention is directed to the 
former time instead of to the latter. 

Eustath. ad Odyss. vii. p. 277 1. 8, compares with this Scolion the 
fable of Momus blaming Prometheus for not constructing a gate in 
man's breast. 

IX. 'Yytatvsiv x.t.X. Ascribed by some to Simonides {e.g. Clem. 
Alex. Strom, iv. 575), and by some to Epicharmus on the strength of 
Schol. Plat. Gorg. 151 e. 

It is, however, probably an ordinary popular song by no known 
poet, as appears from Athen. xv. 694, ' 6 to axoXiov supwv ixetvo? o<m; 
^v', and Plat. Gorg. I.e. ' 6 tco^t^; tou axoXtou ', and again ' 6 to axoXtov 
7:ot7jaa; ' : and similarly in Laws u. 661 he criticises the sentiment of 
the lines without naming the author. 

1. 1. Cf. the Ode 'Yyisia ^pEc^iaTa [xaxa'ptov x.t.X., p. 253, and with the 
sentiment contrast Plat. Laws I.e. ' TauTa (all sorts of external advan- 
tages) au;j.-avTa otxaioi; [xev xai oaioig avopaaiv aptara /.T7j'[jLaTa, dSt/.oi? 8k 
xdxierra aup-roxvTa, ap£ap.sva iizo TrJ; uyisia;.' Notice the anapaestic basis, 
unless indeed uyiaivstv can be treated as a trisyllable, cf. the (un- 
classical) form uysia for uyisia (Ilgen). 

1. 2. A conspicuously Greek sentiment. Similarly even Aristotle 
excludes the hideous man (6 Tr,v tSsav xavata/Tj;) from the possibility 
of attaining £uoai(j.ovia. Eth. I. viii. 16; ?JPav, cf. on Anacr. IX. 

X. Song of Hybrias the Cretan. That this, if a Scolion at al! T 
was not regarded as one of the ordinary type, is implied by the words 
of Athen. 695 F, in quoting the passage, axoXtov 8s <paut tive; to 



SCOLIA, ETC. 385 

u-6 'yppi'ou too Kpr)to; rM7]&iv. We should certainly have expected 
a Scolion of the early date, to which this seems to belong, to exhibit 
a simpler metrical form such as the 4-line stanza, so prevalent in 
Scolia and all early monodic song. Considering the popularity of the 
dance in Crete (v. pp. 5, 27, 29, 70) I imagine this to have been a short 
and simple choral song, such as might have been sung by the Dorian 
nobles of Crete at their syssitia, for which see Midler's Dorians ii. 
293. The style of the Scolion is supposed to be exhibited in the 
partial repetition of the first stanza by the second. Notice also the 
employment of ' severe ' Doric forms. 

We are carried back socially to the heroic age, when the dominant 
warrior-class was full of contempt for the subject agricultural 
population. 

1. 1. For [jiyac, (jisya is given by Eustath., who quotes this passage, 
1574, 7, and taken by Byron in his translation of this song, 'My 
wealth's a burly spear and sword.' Mfya, however, is obviously un- 
metrical. 

1. 2. Aat37]Yov, cf. Hdt. vii. 91, AaiarJYa Eiyov avu aa^iStov w[j.o$oir\z 
TzeKoi7][j.ivtx. The word occurs twice in Homer, each time with the 
epithet TrrepoEVTa, which seems to imply that it was lighter than the 
arci;. Hdt. is speaking of the Cilicians, and perhaps the large pro- 
portion of the Asiatic element in the population of Crete may account 
for the use of the XatcnjYov. Liddell and Scott, and others, refer to 
Miiller Arch. d. Kunst. 342, 6. He there states that it was such a 
shield as is represented and described by Tischbein 4, 51, and Mil- 
lingen Cogh. 10, i.e. a large round shield differing from the aaxis only 
by having a long rectangular cloth hanging from it. This theory, 
however, has been demolished by Michaelis, Annali delP Inst., 1875, 
p. 76. Cf. Helbig, Homer. Epos. p. 234. 

1. 3. Cf. Archil. Bergk 2 : 

ev 3op\ [iiv [jloi [xa£a [j.£[j.ay[j.£V7j, ev 3op\ 3' oivo; 
'Iapaptxo;, Tz'.vio 3' ev 3op\ x.czXi[i.Evo;. 

1. 4. afjuTsXeo, v. Dor. Dial. p. 93. 

1. 5. Mvota, [jivofa, or p.vwa is defined by Athen. vi. 263 F, as the 
-/.oiv^ SouXsta of Crete, as distinct from the 'Atpaj-umxai or loia. SouXsta. 
' We may infer that every state in Crete was possessed of public lands, 
which the Mnotae cultivated in the same relative situation to the 
community in which the Aphamiotae stood to the several proprietors.' 
Midler's Dor. iii. 4. sec. 1. In the present passage, as Midler pro- 
ceeds to remark, the term [Avofa is probably used for the serf 
population in general. 

I. 6. toX[juovt(i) (= ToX[j.torjt, v. Dor. Dial. p. 95) Hermann, for 
ToX[i.wvxEi;, so that the metre corresponds with that of 1. 1. 

II. 8-10. a(/.ov Hermann, for q-iov. Bergk supplies ap.91 (placing 
£[i.6v in 1. 9) since yovu seems to require a preposition to govern it. 
Possibly, however, yo'vu may be the object of -s-xr^oxe;, ' crouching 

2 I! 



386 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

before my knee ', since we get a similar, though not quite parallel, 
case in Aesch. Prom. 181 (174), araiXa? r.zrfca.q. Or perhaps yovu is 
the object of xuvsovxt with (piovsovxE? in 1. 10 for owve'ovxi. Eustath., 
however, (1574-7), paraphrases thus : npooxuvouu! p.s co? Secr^dxrjv xoii 
-pocrcpwvoucji x.x.X., whence Bergk inserts |^s as indicated in the text. 
If we follow Eustath. on this point it is reasonable to accept also the 
third pers. plur. in 1. 10, although the MSS. authority is in favour of 
cpwvc'ovTs; rather than -ovxt. 

For xuvsuvxt, fflwvsov-ui, see Dor. Dial. p. 95 and p. 96. 

XI. Praxilla of Sicyon, who flouiished about 450 B.C., is said by 
Athenaeus I.e. to have been distinguished as a writer of Scolia, 
£$-au(j.a£sTo IjA if xtov axoXiwv r.oirfisi. If these were genuine Scolia 
(i.e. songs written specially for the banquet), it is remarkable that the 
writer was a woman. Praxilla is also mentioned by Hephaest. 22 as 
a composer of dithyrambs. She gave her name to an attractive metre 
(see Miscellaneous and Anonymous, No. IV.) and she is classed in 
Anth. Pal. ix. 26, among the nine Greek poetesses designated as the 
Nine Muses. 

*A3pJTou Xdyov x.x.X. Athen. I.e. does not give the name of the com- 
poser of this Scolion, but Eustath. II. 326, 36 says that some attribute 
it to Alcaeus, some to Sappho (probably on account of the metre, cf. 
Sap. vi. and XVin.), and some to Praxilla ; while Schol. Aristoph. 
Wasps 1240, states positively Iv xot; IIpa?iXX»)s cpc'pexat 7:apotviot?. 
Hartung assigns the next four Scolia also to Praxilla on the strength 
of their metre, and of their position in close proximity in Athen. to 
Scol. XI. He certainly appears to be right with regard at least to 
No. XII. -vide seq. 

The passage is thus explained in Eust. I.e., £W.e ok owe fxsv xwv aya- 
9-tov ttjv ysvvatav xa\ <ptXavopov u^oorjXouv AXx7]axiv, Sta ok xuv ostXtov 
xdv 'A8pt.7]Too 7:aTs'pa, "? tox-vrjae •9-avstv uxrep xou jcaiSd?. 

XII. 'Yr.o Tiavft Xi'9-w x.x.X. A very similar line is attributed to 
Praxilla, Schol. Arist. Thestn. 529, 'Y^d jiavxi Xi#-w axdpmov, w 'xalps, 
<soXaaaEO. 

The proverb was a familiar one, cf. Zenob. vi. 20, Diogen. viii. 59, 
etc. and is wittily applied by Aristoph. I.e., vr.o Xi'9-io yap | -avxt tiou 
■/jpi] I [j.rj oaxrj p^xwp a-9-pstv. 

©pa£su Dor. Dial. p. 96. 

XIV. 2uv p.01 7ftv£ x.x.X. A very clever expression of the require- 
ments of an ideal camaraderie, auvrjpa, ' make merry with me ', see 
on Anacr. IX. 2. 

auoT£cpavr)tpdpsi refers, Ilgen says, to the garlanding at convivial 
meetings. Cf. Demos, de Pal. Peg. 380, 27, aovsoxEcsavoCxo xat 
auv£7:attovt£s tw $iXimtto. 

It is perhaps possible that the poet was not unconscious of the 
rhyme in this couplet. Cf. on No. XVI. 



SCO LI A, ETC. 387 

XV. 'A us x.x.X. The close juxtaposition of the Dor. xav and the 
Attic tt]v is curious, but perhaps hardly to be corrected in a Scolion 
(v. p. 78). 

XVI. (a') E'tO-s Xupa x.x.X. (P') sTO^ arcupov x.x.X. In many editions 
(*.£•. Schneidewin's) these four lines are printed together as if forming 
a single Scolion. Others separate them, and regard the second as 
intended to cap the first in what is often considered the usual Scolion 
style (see Introd. pp. 234-5). There is a very Elizabethan ring in 
the sentiment of the lines, perhaps unique in Greek poetry. We 
are reminded of Shakespeare's ' O that I were a glove upon that 
hand', and it is likely that Dio Chrysostom's sober criticism on the 
text (i. 36), eu/ag ou paatXsuai 7cpCTOuaag, aXXa Srjjxoxais xa\ cppaxopaiv 
ayaO-oig xat aooopa avsijisvoig, would have been extended to many of 
the beautiful extravagances in Elizabethan love-poetry. 

A curious feature in these lines is the assonance or rhyme 
which occurs in each couplet on the syncopated syllables, in a manner 
which can hardly be accidental. Cf. Append. Alcaeus, No. 52, if 
Bergk's version there given be correct. A very lively movement is 
imparted by the initial cyclic dactyls. 

(a) Xupa IXstpavxivrj, cf. Ov. Metam. xi. 168, ' Distinctamque lyram 
gemmis et dentibus Indis.' A specimen of a lyre inlaid with a thin 
veneer of ivory may be seen in the British Museum. 

This passage, among others, is quoted by Schmidt to show that in 
the dithyramb and other Dionysiac choral performances the lyre was 
certainly used, and not the flute exclusively. Cf. p. 263. 

(P) omupov, not so much ' unrefined ' gold, as gold so pure as not to 
need refining. Thus Zeus is said to have changed himself into 
a-upo; youaos, in a passage referring to Danae, wrongly attributed to 
Euripides {Frag. 11 17). 

xa9\ -9cf/.. vdov, cf. Aesch. Prom. 163, dtftsvog ayvarj.-xov vdov, and 
Pind. Nem. x. 89 ou yvwjxa 3i7:Xo'av {h'xo pouXav. 

XVII. These two couplets are also united into one passage by 
Brunck and others. The effect would be decidedly tame : and it is 
better to regard the two couplets as variations upon a similar theme. 
Compare II. ii. 768 : 

'AvSptov ecu [jls'y' apioxog e'tjv TcXa[j.w'vto; A'tag, 
o«pp' 'A/iXsu; pajviev* 6 yap rcoXu os'pxaxo; ^ev. 

and Pind. Nem. vii. 27, xpaTiorov (Ajax) 'A/iXe'o? axsp. 

These lines are attributed to Pindar, Schol. Lysistr. 1237, probably 
because Ajax was a favourite hero with that poet. 

XVIII. 'Ex y^; ypr] xaxiSslv tcXoov. Ilgen's interpretation of 11. 1-2 is 
as follows : ' E terra oportet nautam de navigatione videre, an possit 
per temporis opportunitatem (ei ouvaixo) et scientiam rei nauticae 
habeat (raXa^v e/oi),' i.e. before embarking on any enterprise one 



388 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

should consider whether it be achievable, and whether one has the 
requisite ability. For this use of e? with the optative as an ' object- 
clause' see Monro's Homeric Gram. pp. 228-9, where we find that 
after a primary tense el is generally accompanied in Homer by xs(v). 
In this passage, as in Od. xii. 112, eV'<T7ces | el r.ux; x^v oXorJv jjAv ut:sx- 
Tupofpuyoijxi XdpupStv, the pure optative should probably be regarded as 
equivalent to the optative in an apodosis with dv in ordinary Attic to 
express indistinct futurity. For similar cases of the omission of dv 
see Goodwin's Moods and Tenses 240-2. The objection to Ilgen's 
interpretation is that his rendering of xaxiSstv as 'videre de' is hardly 
justifiable. It is true we have in Hdt. ii. 38 xaxopa . . . xd? xpi/a; X7j; 
oup%, el xaxd ou'aiv eyei 7ue<puxuias, but there xaxopa implies actual physical 
scrutiny, whereas xocxiSelv zloov must, according to Ilgen's version, be 
used of mental calculation, for a man can hardly be said to view his 
whole voyage from the cliff. Casaubon and others regard the passage 
as meaning ' It is best, if possible, to survey the voyage from the land, 
and not to go to sea at all,' i.e. to keep yourself, if you can, out of all 
risks. Cf. ' Suave mari magno,' etc. Line 2 will then be an ordinary 
protasis with a slight tautology, ' should a man have the chance, 
and find any device (to escape the voyage).' 

1. 2-3. ' When once in the open sea you must needs run before the 
wind that blows,' i.e. when once started it is too late for deliberation ; 
or perhaps, as Casaubon seems to take it, ' when once started you must 
make the best of your circumstances,' in which case, however, we 
should expect ypr\ rather than dvdyx.7]. 

XIX. 'O xapxivo; x.x.X. This Scolion gives a lively expression to 
the sentiment which is more soberly stated in Scol. XIII, The play 
upon the words sufruv and ax.oXid as applied to the snake is especially 
characteristic of this species of Lyric poetry, and there is a humour 
in the incident and its application suggestive of Samuel Weller. 
We find a closely parallel passage in Aesop, Fable 70, where a crab, 
after finding his admonitions lost upon the snake, throttles him 
in his sleep and remarks as he looks upon the outstretched corpse, 
ouxw? e8si xat x:poaO-£v euQ-uv xdi d-Xouv stvat. Ilgen refers also to Aelian 
Hist. An. xvi. 35, where we read of certain serpents in a cave near 
Ephesus, which lead a precarious existence on account of the crabs 
which wait for them outside and choke any they catch. 

1. 2. Casaubon very strangely reads ydXa x.x.X. ' when you pick up a 
snake let him drop again.' Eustath., who quotes this Scol. 1574. 14, 
makes it clear that we should read yalx = (yr{kf l ). 

1. 3. £[j.[xev Casaubon, from £v ;j.ev, i\xev. Ilgen 't[j.£v ; so that, bearing 
in mind the sidelong gait of the crab, an additional point is given to 
the passage by the pot calling the kettle black. 

XX. Ou yprj -6XV eys.iv x.x.X. 

The words of Amipsias ap. Athen. xi. 783 E, regarded by Bergk as 
a quotation of an old Scolion. 



SCO LI A, ETC. 389 

XXI. Ouokv r^v apa x.x.X. 

A line from a certain Pythermus of Teos, referred to by Athen. 
xiv. 625 C, as a writer of Scolia. 

' So then all else is nought save only gold.' Cf. Goodwin's Moods 
and Tenses, p. 13. ' The imperfect (generally with apa) may express a 
fact . . . just recognised as a fact by the speaker or writer, having 
previously been denied, overlooked, or not understood.' Compare 
xuitpfs oux ap' r ; v •vho?. Eur. Hipp. 359. 

For the sentiment cf. Alcaeus VII. /pi^ax' avrjp x.x.X. 

XXII.-XXVII. 

SCOLIA ATTRIBUTED TO THE SAGES. 

All these passages are quoted by Diog. Laert. Bk. i., in his accounts 
of the various Sages. They are prefaced in each case by the words 
twv 8' aoo[i.c'vwv auxou [xaXiaxa £uooxt;xrj<j£ xaSs, or some similar expres- 
sion, and are very reasonably added by Brunck to the list of Scolia. 
Whether or not tradition rightly ascribed the lines to the Sages can 
hardly be decided. Betraying, as they do, a considerable uniformity 
in style, metre, and dialect, Casaubon's view seems most tenable, 
that the passages were all written by one man who put into a poetical 
form prose utterances attributed to the several Sages. 

Cf. note on No. xxvi. ad Jin. 

XXII. 'Aaxoiaiv apsaxs x.x.X. 

Compare Pind. XI. a (in this edition) and Eur. Med. 222 sea. 
Xpr 5e £e'vov [j.ev xa'pxa 7:poay<opE"tv tcoXei, 
ouo' aaxov t'vet' oaxt; auOaorj; ysyw? 
Tuxpo? tzoV.tolk; lax\v a[j.aO-ia? u'-o. 

1. 1. a'ixs [i-Evrj?. Ilgen 'si vivis in communione cum aliis civibus.' 
This is most unnatural. The condition is rather one of immediate 
futurity. ' If you are for abiding, propose to abide, in any city. 
Casaubon reads a*s. 

1. 3. ' Xaijjrw, saepe active, sed non nisi in re quae natura sua 
Xap.x:si, ut <?e'yyoc, r.up. Itaque h.l. axav absolute positum arbitror ; 
emicuit periculo malo, i.e. insignem cladem tulit,' Mehlhorn. Cf. on 
Sap. III. But, though Mehlhorn's objection may hold good against 
treating yav in Sappho's line as the object of Xaj^st, it hardly applies 
to the present passage, where the expression is purely metaphorical. 

XXIII. "E/ovxa est x.x.X. 

I. 4. oiyo[j.u{k>v hardly ' double-speaking ' as Liddell and Scott, but 
'different-speaking,' i.e. a thought which would be expressed by 
different words than those that come from his lips. Cf. yXwaaa St/o- 
(j.uO-0? in No. XXIV. Cobet changes to otyoS-upLov e/ouaa ; Bergk, object- 
ing apparently to the boldness of the metaphor, alters to E/ouat. 



390 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

XXIV. Il£(puXay|Jisvo? z.x.X. 

1. 2. The metaphor is curious, and we can hardly take xpaott] to 
mean simply 'bosom'. Ilgen ingeniously conjectures f/So; 'enmity', 
for e'y/o;. 

1. 3. as zpoa£vv£7tT) Bergk, for Ttpo<3Evim\. Ilgen <pai3po7 r.poz a' ivemj. 

1. 4. or/o'piu&os ?/. on No. XXIII. 1. 4. 

XXV. 'Ev XiO-tvai? x.x.X. 

Cf. Bacchyl. IX., AoSia [j.kv yap XtO-o? fxavua ypuaov, and Note. Here 
we have a more than usually apt application of a favourite simile. 

"ESwxa, notice the natural predominance of the gnomic aorist in 
these sententious passages. Cf. Nos. xxn. 3, xxvi. 1. 

XXVI. Oiixi xa j^oXXa e^tj. 

1. 2. The meaning seems to be ' seek out one path of wisdom, and 
choose one sure guiding-principle for your life ; by keeping consistently 
to these you will defy captious criticism,' or perhaps, 'you will show 
yourself superior to the man who is full of professions of what he can 
do (xa 7:oXXa em]).' 

Auasi?. Schneidewin objects to Xueiv yXtJaaa? in the sense of 
'gagging the tongues,' urging that the expression would have just 
the contrary meaning. (Compare the opposite metaphor KXfi? lid. 
yXwwjt], quoted in note on Miscel. XIII.) He therefore suggests 
xXeissi?, Bergk rcau'trei?. But Xuw is so frequently used in the sense 
of ' undo,' ' frustrate,' ' bring to nought,' that it may quite conceivably 
be applied in this way to yXwaaas. Compare Pind. 01. x. 9, Xuaai . . . 
Eju[j.o[j.9av. It is worth noticing that there is a strangeness in the 
metaphorical expressions of several of these passages attributed to 
the Seven Sages, which may favour Casaubon's view of the single 
authorship of the various stanzas. Cf. Nos. xxn. 3, xxni. 4. xxiv. 2. 

XXVII. 'Ap.ouaia x.x.X. 

The last line is doubtless corrupt, being hardly translateable, and, 
even with considerable alteration, quite unconnected with the rest of 
the passage. 

6 xatpo?, apparently opposed to Xoywv 7zXfj9-o?, ' seasonable words ', 
' words no more than are enough '. 

XXVIII. "Ey/Et y.ix\ Ktjouvi x.x.X. Athen. xv. 695 E. 
A curious instance of a Scolion in elegiac metre. 

An Athenian Kedon fell at Naxos 376 when Chabrias defeated the 
Spartans (Diod. Sic. xv. 34). Bergk suggests Kuowvi, cf. Diog. viii. 42. 
Ti$ ev KuSwvo;, lizi xwv ©tXocppovw; osyo[jivwv xou? ?e'vou?. Ei yprj xoi? 
Porson, for el orj ypyj xot?. 



NOTES 391 



POPULAR SONGS 

Although it is impossible to draw the line between popular songs 
and other specimens of anonymous lyric poetry, I have included under 
this rather unsatisfactory heading all those surviving passages which 
are said to have been customarily employed by the people on fixed 
occasions for the most part. The Scolia come under this descrip- 
tion, but they are more conveniently taken alone. On the other 
hand such poems as Paeans to definite persons are, I think, wrongly 
classed by Bergk among the Carmina Popularia, and I have there- 
fore included them among the Miscellaneous and Anonymous pas- 
sages {e.g. Miscel. xxvn., xxvm.). 

I. LINUS-SONG. 

See Introd. Art. II. p. 13 : Art. IV., Dance, etc., p. 27 ; Art. VI., 
Metre, pp. 45, 62, and Midler's Hist, of Greek Lit. p. 17. 

Cited by Schol. //. xviii. 576, as a ^orjvrjxtxov [jlsXo? sung in a shrill 
tone ([ast' iT/vocpwvta;), cf. //. I.e. Xs7iTaXsY, (pcovfj. We learn from the 
Iliad that the song was accompanied by a choral dance, and I have 
mentioned, p. 45, that we probably have here an example of the short 
lines taken in couplets from the union of which arose the hexameter. 

The words in the Schol. run thus 'G A. ■9-eoIs tst. go\ yap jupwxto [jiX. 
sS. aftava-coi avfrp. x.x.X. Some hexameters are also given, Schol. Horn. 
I.e. and Eustath. 1163 closely imitating the original song, and begin- 
ning thus : 

'{2 Atve, T:aat ahotai TSTt[xe've acA yap e'owxav 
dxJ-avatoi jupcoTW [ajXo; dvOpwjxoiaiv aetaac z.t.X. 

1. 4. <pwvats Xi-yvpais, perhaps simply a stock epithet in connection 
with singing, but it is specially appropriate in reference to the high, 
shrill notes of the Linus-song {v. above). Cf. on Terpander I. Xiysta. 

1. 6. Mouaai ; similarly the Muses sing the dirge of Achilles {Odyss. 
xxiv. 60). As dirge-singing was confined to females {v. p. 11), they 
appear, in these cases, to be taken simply as the most distinguished 
poetical representatives of their sex. Otherwise we might be sur- 
prised to find the Muses siding with Linus against their leader Apollo. 

II. THE SWALLOW-SONG. 

Quoted by Athen. viii. 360 D (and in part by Eustath. 1914. 45) 
as an example of a song for mendicant purposes among the Rhodians ; 
see p. 14. I cannot understand how Athenaeus and after him 
Eustathius, can say that it was sung in the month Boedromion, since 
it manifestly greets the first approach of spring. It is true that 
among the Rhodians this name (in the form Baopop.10?) was not applied 
to September but to June {v. Darembert and Saglio's Diet. Cheli- 



392 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

donisma), but even this is, of course, much too late. I can only 
suggest that Athenaeus was thinking of another mendicant-song, the 
Eiresione, which was sung at the Thargelia in May or June. 

Like the modern Greek Swallow-song, referred to p. 14, and our 
Christmas Carols, etc., the Chelidonisma was sung not by the 
ordinary professional mendicant, but by children (raxtota, 1. 20). The 
practice is said to have been instituted by Cleobulus, tyrant of 
Lindus, in a time of great scarcity (Athen. I.e.) ; but we cannot accept 
so special an explanation of a custom so wide-spread. 1 The actual 
song before us can hardly belong to a very ancient period, since 
with the Dorian forms there is a large admixture of ordinary Attic, 
characteristic of the later modified (mitior) Doric (see Dor. Dial., 
p. 92). That the latter cannot be ascribed to later alterations is shown 
by the fact that in certain cases they are required by the metre, e.g. 
saao[ji£v, o7<jo[j.sv, for the 'severe' Doric iaaoujj.se, oiaou[j.E?. 

There is a charmingly naive illustration on an ancient vase, not 
indeed of the Chelidonisma, but of the greetings which the swallow- 
received as the harbinger of spring. A man of mature age, a youth, 
and a boy are together, the two former being seated. Above them 
the swallow has suddenly appeared, and all three exhibit an attitude 
of delighted surprise. Their exclamations are inscribed on the vase 
as they issue from the mouths of the speakers, thus : 

(Youth) "loou -/sXioojv. 

(Man) N^ xov 'Hpax.Xs'a. 

(Boy) Auxrji 

(Man) "Eap rfir\. 

v. Monum. delP Institut. di Corr. Archaeol. 1 1. Plate xxiv. and 
Annali, do. vii. p. 238. 

The Modern Chelidonisma is as follows : — 

XeXtSova ip/exa'. 

'At:' ttjv aarprjv Q-aXaaaav 

xaOrjas seal XaXrjas* 

MapT7], Mapt7] [jlou xaXe 

xai $Xe[Bapr] oXtpsps 

-/.' av -/lovtaTji;, x' av xovuar,; 

tm\z avoi£iv [j.upi£st;. 

Metre. In 11. 1-11 the form ^^ : - ww-— , an Adonius with ana- 
crusis, prevails. In 1. 1 1 the anacrusis is not used, and in the original 
certain irregularities occur, which will be noticed below. Ahrens 
maintains that they are justifiable in a song of this description ; but 
I think that even in nursery-rhymes or the songs of village-children, 

1 We may compare the practice still existing, I believe, in the Isle of Man, of children 
going round in the winter from house to house, saying : 

' The night is cold, our shoon are thin, 
Gie 's a cake, and let us rin.' 



POPULAR SONGS 393 

the character of the rhythm, however crude, displays a tendency to 
monotonous uniformity rather than to licence. I have therefore fol- 
lowed the commentators who have endeavoured to remove the irregu- 
larities. As in the Linus-song, the verses here seem to run in 
couplets (cf. pp. 35, 46), beginning at 1. 2, 1. 1 standing alone as 
specially emphatic. The transition to Iambic trimeters in the latter 
part of the poem gives a good dramatic effect, the children pausing 
in their song to remonstrate in metrical dialogue with the tardiness 
of the householder. 

1. 2, for a in the ace. plur. xaXa; wpac, v. Dor. Dial. p. 94. 

1. 3. Hermann omits xa\ before xaXous, metri causa. 

svtauTou's, in the sense of ' seasons ', is not easy to parallel ; but the 
meaning is closely enough akin to ' period ' or ' cycle ', of which several 
instances may be seen in Liddell and Scott, s.v. It is, perhaps, here 
used as longer or more emphatic than wpa;. 

1. 6. -aXa9av, expl. by Eustath. as ouxwv IrctauvS-sais. 

au ^poxuxXsi, Hermann for the unmetrical ou jipoxuxXe??. Yet 
Eustath. paraphrases ou 7:aXa9-av £rjToupiEv o"vou te Sc'^aarpov, a ysk. 
xai Xsxi{h oux autoQ-etxai, i.e. ' we don't want luxuries like fig-preserve 
or wine, wheaten cakes content the swallow ' ; and I fail to see how 
he arrived at this unless he read ou rcpoxuxXfi;, ' you are not putting 
forth,' i.e. ' you have not got to put forth,' ' we don't require you to 
put forth.' With <ru the meaning appears to be, ' Do you from a 
rich house (emphatic) bring forth luxuries, (but if you won't go so 
far as that), even from rcu'pva and Xsx. the swallow turns not away 
in contempt.' Ilgen regards 7upoxuxXst as equivalent to IxxuxXet, 
referring to the ixxuxX7][jux on the stage. Such a reference is hardly 
suitable in a children's song, and the word implies nothing more than 
lavish profusion. 

1. 10. xai 7:u'pva yzk. Bergk for xa\ nuptova y., or xat zupwv a ysX. 
xai 7:upwv ysXiowv. 

1. 12. If the text be correct, we have a trochaic tetrameter, forming 
a natural transition between the lively metre of 11. 1-11 and the con- 
versational tone of what follows. 

ooticojass v. Dor. Dial. p. 95, cf. 1. 14, cpEpcojis?. 

1. 13. Cf. Horn. Carm. Min. xv. 1. 14 (The Eiresione) : 

Et piv ti cSwasi; - si ok p.r;, ou/ Eaxr^oixeV 
ou yap auvoiX7]<javres EvOao' fjXO-ojxsv. 

eI otoast; is an example not of future condition (usually e«v with the 
subjunc), but of a present condition expressing intention, v. Good- 
win, Moods and Tenses, p. 146, and Monro's Horn. Gram. p. 239. 

1. 17. I have adopted Bergk's text for av orj spe'pfl? ti p.. orj i\ xa\ tpspoi? 
(two MSS. omitting xat) ; orj may have arisen from the succeeding Srj ; 
«pepoio, 'mayst thou win or obtain,' is more suitable than (pEpot?, 'mayst 
thou bring us something large,' and the sudden change back to the 



394 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

short metre is effective. Dindorf restores the trimeter by reading 

lav tpe'prjs OE Tl X.T.X. 

III. As'?at x.t.X. Argument. Theoa\ iii., where we are told that 
shepherds in Sicily sometimes meet together with supplies of food, 
etc., to be given to the best singer. After the contest, the unsuccess- 
ful competitors go round the neighbourhood to collect food for them- 
selves, and address this song among others to those from whom they 
beg. 

1. 2. Ta; Scou, probably Artemis as patroness of the flocks. For 
av E/caXscraaTo, which is apparently meaningless, Bergk suggests dv 
IxXa^sxo ' quam dea claustris suis retinebat ', Hermann xdyapiaaaTo. 

IV. Tortoise -Game. Described by Pollux ix. 125, and Eustath. 
1914, 56, as a game played by girls 8P d;j.oifjaiwv id[j.(3wv, in which one 
sits in the middle, who is called the Tortoise, while the others run 
round her, asking the two somewhat disconnected questions. Com- 
pare the game of the X^P^j (Pollux ix. 113). Becq de Fouquiere 
(Les Jeux des Anciens) quotes a traveller who tells us that in Scio 
there may still be seen bands of girls dancing in a ring round one in 
the centre, and refusing to let her go till she has given them distich 
for distich ; but de Fouquiere trespasses a little too far into the 
region of conjecture, when he declares that in this song we have the 
wail of the bereaved mothers dwelling on the coasts of Asia Minor, 
whose sons perished in the defeat at Salamis. 

1. 1. yeXi or 7sXe\ is expl. by Eustath. as 7ipoaxaxxixov orJO-sv napriy- 
ou(j.svov tt] ysXwvT] ; cf. probably, xo'prj or xopl xopw'vr), Append. Carm. 
Pop. 9 ; and 7iovw7:ov7]pos, Arist. Wasps, 466 ; Lys. 350. 

I. 3. riotst? and juoitwv Meineke, for t.oieu;, tcouov ; v. Ahrens Dor. Dial. 
p. 208, where totE'cov, jra'tavxt are quoted from Heraclean inscriptions. 

xpoxav MtXrjatav, cf. Verg. Georg. iii. 306 ; ' quamvis Milesia magno | 
vellera mutentur '. 

I. 4. Xsuxwv do' "r.iztav, explained by many commentators as the 
' white horses ' or ' breakers '. This I think objectionable, simply 
because it offers a more or less rational explanation of what bears the 
appearance rather of nonsense doggrel ; furthermore, the preposition 
ano would be entirely inappropriate. 

V. Flower-song. Athen. xiv. 629 E says that this was called the 
Anthema, or Flower-song, and that it was accompanied by a dance 
and mimetic gestures. It is tempting to regard po8a and 'ta as 
instances where the metrical beat falls not on a long syllable but on 
an accented one, cf. on No. vm. We could then regard each line in 
the text as a short period of three lines, thus 

Iloij [J.01 id poSa ; 5 

IIou [jloi xd "a ; ; 

IIou [j.01 Ta xaXa asXtva ; ; 

Otherwise, I do not see what explanation can be given of the metre. 



POPULAR SONGS 395 

VI. Blind Marts Buff. It is interesting to read in Pollux ix. 123, 
thatthis game is of remote antiquity. One boy, he says, ties a band 
tightly round his eyes, remarking yaXxrjv x.x.X., the rest responding 
(hjpaaeis x.x.X. They then beat him with strips of leather, until he 
catches one of them. (See Illustrations, PL iv.) Becq de Fouquiere, 
p. 88, explains /aXxTjv puitav as ' l'insecte aux reflets metalliques que 
l'enfant poursuit de buisson en buisson, . . . et qui lui £chappe au 
moment meme ou il croit le saisir '. 

VII. Pollux I.e. says that when a cloud passes over the sun 
children clap their hands and cry, e?eyj x.t.X. Cf. Arist. Frag. 346. 

VIII. "aXji, [j.uXa, aXst x.x.X. 

Thales (Plut. Sept. Sap. Conv. xiv.) says he heard the song sung by 
a Lesbian woman at the mill-stone. The Mill-stone Song was a 
recognised species of popular lyric (r, l-irxuXtoc, Athen. xiv. 618 D). 

The hit at Pittacus is directed, it is supposed, not so much at any 
actual oppression on his part, as against his shrewd business pro- 
clivities. 

1. 1. Bergk has followed Koester in changing the accentuation of 
aXct to aXsi, the word thus being imperative : in 1. 2, akzi is for rjXsi, 
the imperf. indie. It is only reasonable to restore the Lesbian accent 
Iltxxaxo; (Bergk ITixxaxds). 

The metrical scheme is doubtful. See Ritschl Oftusc. i. 298, who 
regards the scansion as regulated by the accent rather than quantity. 

IX. nXslaxov ouXov x.x.X. 

Athen. xiv. 618 D ; an invocation to Demeter, who was called 'IouXto, 
the Sheaf-Goddess, from ouXo? or 'touXoc, ' a sheaf '. Koester thinks 
there is also a reference to the cry lou, the cult of Demeter usually 
being of a mournful character. Athen. I.e. adds that others regard 
the words as belonging to a wool-worker's song. 

X. Maxpat Spile; x.x.X. 

This mournful plaint occurs, so Athenaeus (xiv. 619) tells us, in a 
pastoral poem (xo zaXou'[j.£vov vo'[j.iov) by a lyric poetess Eriphanis, 
with whom a romantic love-story is connected. She was enamoured 
of a hunter Menalcas, whom she sought throughout all the woods and 
hills, until she moved with pity the hearts of the sternest men and 
even of the fiercest beasts. The issue of the story is not told us, but 
from the analogy of the similar romances of Calyce and Harpalycc 
(Athen. I.e.) we may conclude that the maiden's efforts were fruitless. 

XL The Games. 

These are the opfl-ia xripuypiaxa of Sophocles Elect. 683, or poetical 
formulae chanted by the heralds at the games. 

(a) Julian. Caes. 289. This corresponds to the ringing of the bell 
at our athletic meetings which summons the competitors to the 
start. 



396 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

(P) Moeris, p. 193. 4. The herald calls upon them to toe the line 
at the start, (3aXpto£? being explained by Moeris as at sVt xwv atfE'aswv 
paasi? syxs-/apay[jivat at; £-£[5aivov ot SpofiEi? x.x.X. The line in Moeris is 
corrupt, BaXjBloa 7:006? (v. I. 7:00a?) #-e'xe 7:00a 7t. 7:08a. Bergk conjec- 
tures BaXplot 7joSo~v •9-e'vxe? 7:00a 7:ap 7:o5a #-s1xe ( = run) ; but who can 
conceive runners being actually started, as the word S-stxs would 
imply, by a line of poetry ? I have inserted my own conjecture in 
the text. ' Place your feet on the line foot to foot. 5 

(y) Lucian in Demonactis Vita 65. 

XII. 'EXQ-Elv 7]pw AlOVUSE, X.X.X. 

This is probably a specimen in the disguise of a later dialect, of a 
very ancient invocation to Bacchus, in use long before the later 
development of the hymns appropriated to him. See p. 7. 

Atov. The passage is quoted by Plut. Quaes/. Gr. 36. 7. Ata xt tov 
Atdvuaov at twv 'HXsicov yuvalxs? up.vooaat TrapaxaXouat poe'w iroSI x.x.X. 
Erta oi? ^aoouatv' "Ajji€ Tavpe, d. t. Plutarch's own explanations of 
these expressions are fittingly described by Koester as ' merae 
nugae'. Dionysus was sometimes conceived as bearing the form of 
a bull (more frequently merely with the head or horns of a bull 
(xaupou.EirojTio?, xaupoxspw?, etc.), probably because that animal was the 
symbol of generation and fertility, and this was the province of 
Dionysus (cf. the Phallic processions) as being the god of vegeta- 
tion and growth, the limitation of his power to the vine being 
probably later. 

Compare odvrfii xaupo?, Eur. Bacch. 108, and many similar expres- 
sions. 

The union of the Graces with Dionysus is very common, arising, 
we may presume, from his intimate connection with music and poetry ; 
cf. Pind. 01. xiii. 18, xa\ Atwvuaou rcd-ihv Efc'oavav auv [jorjXaxa Xapixeg 
8i9-upa'p.[3w, and Ben Jonson's address to Bacchus (elsewhere quoted, 
P- 353); 'But Venus and the Graces Pursue thee in all places'. 
There is a very apt illustration of the text in ancient art to be seen in 
Miiller-Wieseler II. Plate xxxiii, 383, where the three Graces are 
sitting between the horns of the Ox-Dionysus. 

"AXtov, i.e. Elean (Welcker for a'Xtov), cf. Paus. vi. 26. 1. Gewv oe ev 
xolc [jtaXtoxa Atovuaov ajpouaiv 'HXstot, xa\ x6v •S-eov aotatv E7:t(potxav £? xtov 
Gui'tov x^v Eopxr ( v Xsyouatv. 

XIII. 2cA, BaxyE x.x.X. 

In strong contrast to the foregoing primitive invocation we have 
the specimen of a polished Phallic song preserved by Athen. xiv. 
622 E. The Phallophori, crowned with chaplets of roses, violets and 
ivy, enter upon the stage from the side- and centre-entrances singing 
this song, and accompanying it with measured movements (patvovxE? 
ev pu9(j.w). The words of the performers themselves show that the 
Iambics were sung and not recited, and that therefore the passage 
may rightly be regarded as Melic. 



POPULAR SONGS 397 

I suppose that the novelty claimed for the song (1. 3 seq.) consists 
in the adaptation of Iambics (ax:Xouv pufyov) to complicated melody 
(atdXto f/iXa) : or perhaps in discarding the ruder invocations of 
ancient times, of which No. xn. is an example. 

a-apih'vsuTov, not in its usual sense of ' unmaidenly ', but 'virgin- 
pure' (a copulative), so Hesych. d-impO. a/Epato;, xafrapa, cf. Soph. 
Frag. 287. 

XIV. Schol. Arist. Frogs 479, 'Ev xot; A7]va'iV.ot? aywcn ... 6 oaoouyo? 
. . . Xs'ysi xaX. •S-edv" xa\ 01 ejiaxouovxe? potoai' 2'E(ieX7]Te x.x.X. 

TtXouxoodxa, as the god of fertility, etc. (cf. on No. XII.) 

XV. The Libation. 

1. I. Schol. Ar. /Wtf 968, ara'voovxs; yap eXsyoV xt; xfos ; . . . eixa 
01 rcapovxE; £u<pt][j.^o'[j.£voi IXEyoV IIoX. xay. 

1. 2, Schol. Frogs 479, £-£toav axovoo7:oir^wvxai x.x.X. 

XVI. 'Ava^aV avw x.x.X. 

Plut. Quaest. Symp. iii. 6. 4, £v xot; $-£wv u't-ivot? x.x.X. 

XVII. Sxptyy' <xr.oizo\LT.£ ! .v x.x.X. 

Quoted by Festus, p. 314, the term crxpiy? being applied, he says, to 
witches (' maleficis mulieribus '). The reference in these lines, which 
we may regard as a kind of nursery-song or prayer, is rather to the 
strix as a bird supposed to be dangerous to infants, {v. Pliny 
H. N. xi. 232, who adds ' quae sit avium constare non arbitror '.) 

1. 1. <x7:o7iofj.x£tv Bergk, from MIOMIIEIEN ; Hesych. diroTrofJLir€iv 
co:o7:£[j.'i/aa9'ai xai d-oxaJbjpaaO-ou. 

1. 2. vuxxipdav. Turneb. on the authority of Hesych. ; MSS. Nuxxt- 

XOIAOCV. 

1. 4. avwvu[j.ov Bergk, for avi»vd[.uov, in the sense of ouawvu[Jiov. 

Bergk, with no authority, adds iy&puv, since otherwise he fails to 
see the force of 1. 5. The objection, however, of unintelligibility 
applies to many passages in nursery literature, and I suppose that 
the swift-sailing ships may simply be representative of the sea, to 
which the hated bird is consigned. 



MISCELLANEOUS AND ANONYMOUS 

I. Y'it1X£ 9-£WV X.X.X. 

This passage is ascribed to Arion by Aelian, Hist. An. xii. 45, in 
illustration of the musical taste of dolphins. Modern critics are 
almost unanimous in discrediting Aelian's testimony that the hymn 
was composed by Arion. The language and metre are entirely 
unsuited to a pupil of Alcman, as Suidas describes Arion (see p. 102), 
and the shallow verbosity is eminently suggestive of the later dithy- 



398 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

rambic period, to which Bergk assigns the passage. The poem need 
not have been intended as a forgery, for, as Bergk suggests, the 
writer was perhaps introducing Arion as the speaker, and thus 
Aelian may have been misled. For the well-known legend of the 
poet's escape, and his offering at Taenarum consult Herod, i. 24, and 
Pausan. iii. 25. 5. Schmidt is of opinion that the story was invented 
either by Arion himself or by his friends to typify his introduction of 
the dithyramb from Magna Graecia to the Peloponnese. 

1. 2. Perhaps imitated by Ar. Knights 559, w ypuaoTptatv', to SeXtpfvtov 
[jleSe'ojv. 

1. 3. So Hermann for yatr^o/J syxutA.ovaX[j.av. 

1. 4. Cf. //. xiii. 27. Bpay/tot is supposed to be an adjective in- 
vented by the poet from Ppayytov. Hermann reads (3payyjoi?. 

1. 6. noSiov, an unwarrantable poetic licence as applied to dolphins. 

1. 7. atfj.cn two MSS., the rest aEta[j.oi. 

1. 14. o/eovte? Brunck, MSS. yopEu'ovTE?. 

I. 18. aXtnopcpupov, Reiske aXt7ropcpupou, Bergk cno[j.a rcopcpupouv. 

II. (a) ME[j.cpo[j.oa ok x.t.X. 

Apoll. De Pro/i. 324 c, to illustrate the use among the Boeotians of 
tuivya for lywvya (s'ywys). 

The Boeotian Mi\j.yo\>.t] . . . xrj . . . Moupito. are restored by Bockh 
for jjiiJ.cpofj.ou . . . xai . . . MupxiS. I have retained jjifj.90fj.a1 and xal, 
following Fiihrer (De Dial. Boeot.) who maintains that, although the 
Boeotians pronounced at as rj, it was not so written in the time of 
Corinna. Bergk maintains that in 'twvya ( = eyioy£) the spiritus asper, 
which Fiihrer discredits, is natural enough, being due to transposition 
from ?iovya, where it has arisen from the loss of the guttural seen in 
iyw. Bockh, C. I. 720, gives many other instances from Boeotian 
inscriptions of t for s. The form twvya occurs in Ar. Acharn. 906. 

Bava is explained by Hesychius and Herod. lisp. |j.ov. Xe'?. 18-25 as 
the Boeotian form of yuvrj. For a in the first syllable cf. the Sicilian yava. 

(b) Nt/.aa' x.x.X. 

Quoted by Apoll. De Pron. 358 B, from Corinna's xa-ca7uXous. 

'Oaptwv, Orion, famed as a Boeotian hero, see Midler's Orchom. 
p. 100 ; cf. Bockh or Dissen on Pind. Nem. ii. 12. 

ywpav. Schneidewin ingeniously suggests that the district was 
Hyria, the Oupta mentioned Append. Corinna 4. 

cot' sou; Ahrens (sec. 34) ; compare Dor. Inscr. in' a[jipas, eV tepew?. 
There is no Boeotian analogy, v. Fiihrer I.e. sec. 3, who discredits 
this instance. 

wvouptatvEv. Bockh and others wvou'^vev ; see on (a'). 

(e) 'H StavE/.w? x.x.X. 

Quoted by Hephaest. 22, as an example of Synizesis in otavenw?. 
The shortening of the a is remarkable. Bergk {q. v.) compares the 
option that poets gave themselves between eucxve[j.os and £utjvejj.o;, 
ouaEpt? and Suarjpt;, avoXsQ-po; and avtoXE9-poi;. 



MISCELLANEOUS AND ANONYMOUS 399 

III. KaXXtaxov [asv eyto x.x.X. 

Quoted by Zenob. iv. 21, in explanation of the proverbial phrase 
r]Xi{hw'xspo; xou Ilpa^tXXr]? 'Aotovioo?. Adonis, he says, gives this 
answer on being asked by the shades after his death what was the 
finest thing he left behind him in the world above. With the senti- 
ments we may perhaps compare Charles Lamb, Essays of Elia, 
' New Year's Eve ' — " Sun and sky, and breeze and solitary walks, 
and summer holidays, and the greenness of fields, and the delicious 
juices of meats and fishes — do these things go out with life ? " 

SsXrjvatrig, properly adjectival, cf. yaXrjvaia (= yaXrvrj), TuapS-svtxr, 
( = rcapO-s'vo?). 

IV. 'X2 ota xa>v -iHipiotov x.x.X. 

Quoted by Hephaest. 43, as an example of to npacjiXXeiov. The 
metre is particularly effective. 
For Praxilla see on Scol. XI. 
'EpLJjXs'^oicja, Lesb. Dial. p. 83. 

V. 'Yyisia, 7:psa(jiaxa x.x.X. 

Quoted by Athen. xv. 702 A, as a Paean to Health, and ascribed, if 
the reading be correct, to a certain Ariphron of Sicyon, of whom 
nothing further is known. On referring to Dithyrambic Poets No. v. 
it will be noticed that three lines in the poem of Licymnius are 
nearly identical with 11. 3, 4, 9, in this. It is a vexed question 
whether both passages are from one and the same poem, composed 
by Ariphron or by Licymnius, whether one poet is copying from the 
other, or whether, as Bergk suggests, both are borrowing from some 
familiar hymn to 'Yyt'sta (v. Bergk ad loc). The poem in the text 
enjoyed a great reputation (x6 yvwpijxtoxaxov exslvo xal xaai Sta 
axo[j.axo?, Lucian De Lapsu Liter Sal. c. 6). It is found engraved very 
faultily on a monument, Bockh C. I.. Athen. iii. p. 66. It was prob- 
ably intended as a Paean suitable for convivial meetings (v. p. 232), 
and we may compare Scol. ix. 1. 1. Notice in this later Melic poetry 
the custom of addressing hymns to deified abstractions such as 
Health, Fortune, Virtue, rather than to the old divinities of 
mythology. 

1. 1. npeafJiarra 'most revered', as 'Yytsta could hardly be called 
' eldest of the gods '. 

1. 2. au'voixo?, cf. Bacchyl. VIII., 6Xp£wv jcalSe'g viv (Aixav) supovxe? 
auvoixov. 

1. 4. Cf. on Licymnius I.e. 

1. 5. 2pxE<nv Bergk, for apxuatv (Athen.) on the strength of eXxsai on 
the monument. 

1. 6. x:ovtov a(j.i:v, cf. [.lo/xhov ct[j.Tcvoa, Pind. 01. viii. J. 

1. 8. ?:avxa is omitted on the monument and bracketed by Bergk. 
Schneidewin interprets the rest of the line . . . ' instar veris, quod 
Gratiae reddunt pulcrum, affulgent ', ' are bright as a spring of the 
Graces ' (i.e. blessed by the Graces). Bergk reads eapt. 



4 oo GREEK LYRIC POETS 

1. 9. ecpu, wanting in Athen., is supplied from the monument and 
from Licymnius. 

VI. 'Apsxa r.o\6[xoyQ-B x.x.X. Athen. xv. 695 A, to ux:6 xou 7ToXufj.a9-£<7- 
xaxou ypacplv 'ApiaxoxsXou; x.x.X. Athen. goes on to describe the Ode 
as a ' kind of Scolion ', denying that it is a Paean, as a certain 
Demophilus urged, who wished to convict Aristotle of the impiety of 
addressing a Paean to a mortal, Hermias of Atarna (v. on 1. 13) ; 
see on No. xxvu. It is not easy to understand why Athen. classifies 
the song as a Scolion, except that Aristotle was said to have sung it 
daily ev xot? auaaixiot;. One is the more inclined to believe that the 
term Scolion came to be extended to any song which, whatever its 
original intention, was popularly employed at convivial meetings 
(see Introduction to Scolia, p. 237). 

Bergk describes this poem as 'jejunum, frigidum', etc., and therefore 
declares that it is falsely attributed to Aristotle. We have yet to 
learn, however, that the philosopher had any talent for lyric poetry, 
neither do I think that the song is so deficient in merit as Bergk 
asserts. 

1. 1. 7ToXu'(j.oy9-c, we need hardly treat this as used in a passive 
signification, ' won by much toil ' (Liddell and Scott) ; rather ' full of 
labour', the epithet being transferred to Arete from those who follow 
her (yevsi Ppoxstw), just as we talk of ' pale death ', ' gaunt famine ', 
etc. 

1. 2. |3iw (= f3iou) Bentley, for (3ut>. 

1. 5. ax.a[i.avxa?, explained by Schweighauser as agreeing with the 
implied subject of xX^'vai. He is, however, of opinion that the word 
has been substituted for axap-axou?, for which there is more authority, 
and that the latter was merely a gloss explaining ^aXepou?, a close con- 
nection being established between the two epithets from the constant 
application of either one or other of them to rcup in Homer. 

1. 6 seq. ' Such a reward dost thou bestow upon the mind, a reward 
immortal, and more precious than gold ', etc. For xap7i:o'v x' a9\ ( = 
xaprcov ad-, xs), compare //. v. 878, and other instances of the misplace- 
ment of xs quoted in Monro's Horn. Gram. p. 242. Ilgen takes the 
meaning of the passage to be ' you exert on the mind an influence 
more powerful than the temptations of gold, than the admonitions of 
parents ', etc. 

(j.aXax.auyrjxoio, ' languid-eyed', but Ilgen quotes Hesych. auyslv ( = 
aXysw), and suggests that the epithet = ' lessening pain '. This would 
require a derivative rather from the verb fj.aXa/.t£w than from the 
adjective [j.aXaxo?. 

I. 9. Cf. Hor. 3 Od. iii. 9, ' Hac arte Pollux, et- vagus Hercules', etc. 

II. 9-1 1, epyot? . . . Suvapuv, Aristotle is perhaps thinking of his own 
doctrine in the Ethics ii. 1. 4, xa; apsxa? (which are Suvapi;) Xa[i.|3avo- 
[xev Evepy^aavxe? rcpoxEpov. 

1. 14. 'Axapv. Evxpocp., the reference, as we learn from Athen. I.e. is to 



MISCELLANEOUS AND ANONYMOUS 401 

Hermias, a slave of Eubulus, Tyrant of Atarna. At one time he was 
a disciple of Plato and Aristotle at Athens, enjoying" particularly the 
friendship of the latter (Diog. Laert. v. 9). He advised Eubulus to 
revolt from Persia, and on his master's death, whom, according to 
Diog. Laert., he murdered, he himself obtained rule. He entertained 
Aristotle as his guest while in possession of royal power. At last 
Mintor, a Persian satrap, entrapped him and had him slain, B.C. 345 
(Diod. Sic. xvi. 33, Strabo xiii. 420). An interesting account of the 
friendship of Aristotle with Hermias may be read in Blakesley's Life 
of Aristot. vol. ill. 

dsX. /Tjpwasv auya;. Liddell and Scott translate y*]pw in this passage 
'deprive oneself of, forsake', but why not in the usual sense, 'he left 
desolate the light of day '? The expression is florid, it is true, but we 
are not dealing with first-class poetry. Schweighauser prefers the 
reading auya?, and regards yjjpwcjsv as intransitive, comparing Pint. ii. 
749 D, to which Liddell and Scott add Theognis 956, but in these 
instances eyrjpwas, yyjpw'asi, etc., may easily be a mistake of a copyist 
for £-//jp;u<7c, etc. 

1. 15. aoi3t(j.ov (v. 1. aoiot[j.o?), proleptic after au^Toutji. 

1. 16. Ato; ijsvio'j -/..T.X., 'who extol reverence for hospitality, and the 
honour of steadfast friendship.' Auijouaai is awkward after au^aoucrc 
in 1. 15 ; Bergk reads acrxouaou, Ilgen omits altogether, taking aspa? as 
in apposition to juv, Hermias, = tov <j£(ja£ovxa ; but, as Schweighauser 
points out, the abstract when employed in such cases for the concrete 
has a passive, not an active, signification ; cf. Soph. El. 685, ~acu toi? 
i/.sl ae'Pas of Orestes. 

Aio? ijsviou, a good instance of the employment of the name of a god 
with a special epithet in place of a mere abstract noun, such as 
'hospitality'. Cf. the well-known tov ejjiov ike'ciov Aia (Eur. Hec. 345) 
= ' my supplication '. Zsus ?e'vw5 occurs in Aesch. Ag. 61, 353. 

VII. Tu/a [jjEpo^wv. Stob. Eel. Phys. I. vi. 13. 

The lines are attributed by some to Aeschylus, but Bergk thinks 
this to be a manifest error, and regards them as the composition of 
some poet-philosopher. 

1. 2. T£ inserted by Meineke. T£p[j.a tu Grotius from a reading 
Tepfj-a-n. •fraxets e'opa?, Jacobs' conjecture for axo; opaj. 

1. 5. 7:T:puya. The representation of Toy/] as winged is a mere 
poetic idea, rarely if ever exemplified in art. Cf. Hor. 3 Od. xxix. 53. 

1. 8. ev ay.oxw, perhaps we should read ev ax.o'xov, regarding ev as the 
' Aeolic' form of si;, often found in Pindar. See on Pind. Frag. VI. 
1. 1. 

VIII. KXwfho Aaysai; x' x.t.X. Quoted anonymously by Stob. EcL 
I. v. 12, between two passages from Sophocles. 

1. 1. Bergk thinks that the name of the third Fate may have 
dropped out (Awa xa\ KXco&co /..t.X.). He points out, however, that 
Pausan. x. xxiv. 4, speaks of two Fates being worshipped at Delphi. 

2 C 



402 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

1. 4. Jtepre-t;', Bergk reads ra'fjareTe 8\ "A[j.[aiv, v. Lesb. Dial. p. 87. 
1. 5. a§sX»sai; Dindorf, for aoeXcpa;. 

I. 8. XeXocS-chxe, 'make to forget', v. Monro's Horn. Gram. p. 28, 
' These (reduplicated) aorists are exclusively Homeric except 7]Y a Y ov 
and £si7irov (Attic ei^ov). They are mostly Transitive or Causative in 
meaning ; compare E-Xayo-v, ' I got for my share ', with XeXoc/o-v, ' I 
made to share ', ap^ps, ' isfitting\ with rjpaps, ' made to fit\ 

IX. Ou ypuao? ayXao? -/..x.X. Plat. £"/. a', quoted on rejecting an 
offer of gold from a friend. 

II. 1-2. - Gold, bright gold, is not the rarest thing in the hope-baffling 
life of mortals, neither does adamant nor do couches of silver, when 
tested in comparison with man, flash upon the gaze, etc' SuasXTciaxio, 
lit. ' hard to be hoped about ', hence either ' that about which one 
cannot form any secure hopes', 'hope-baffling', as above, or simply 
'cheerless', 'hopeless'. The apparent 'Schema Pindaricum' in 
octfxpaTwtEi is accounted for by the neuter oo-/.qxa£o[i.Eva, referring to 
aoa;j.a? and xXtvat. 'A<rcpa7rrei belongs to 11. 3-4 also by a kind of 
zeugma, unless in 1. 3 we are to think of the gleam of the yellow 
corn. 

X. 2e o' aEi-jo|xat /..x.X. Quoted by Plut. Vit. Alcib. c. 11, from an 
Epinicion by Euripides in honour of the successes of Alcibiades in 
the chariot-race at Olympia. Cf. Athen. i. 3 E. Plutarch mentions 
that he surpassed all records in entering no less than seven chariots 
for the race, with which he obtained the first, second, and either 
third or fourth places ; for, curiously enough, while Euripides speaks 
of the third place, Thucydides in a speech of Alcibiades (vi. 16) 
describes it as the fourth. It is difficult to conceive how either 
authority could have made a mistake on such a point. Athen. I.e. 
adds that to celebrate his success Alcibiades gave a general public 
entertainment (r^v roxvrjyuptv r:aaav EcsxiaaE). See Grote vol. vi. p. 323 
sea. for the importance of the whole occasion, the date of which he 
fixes at 420 B.C. (01. 90). 

1. 2. Bergk reads xaXov a vi/.a" (to) xaXXiaxov (0') [l. /..x.X. 

1. 4. The asyndeton is very awkward ; Bergk suggests axEcp-S-Ei? x\ 
Some commentators alter oic, to xp\?, but, as Grote points out, there, is 
no reason to suppose that crowns were given for any but the first and 
second places. Indeed, but for this passage, we have no reason to 
suppose that there was a prize even for the second place. The words 
in Thucydides (and after him Plutarch) lead to this conclusion. 
'EvixTjaa oe, xai Ssu'xEpo? /.at XExapxo; Eysvo^v, ' I won the prize and took 
the second and fourth places'. Athen. i. 3 E speaks of the 'victories' 
(vr/.a?) of Alcibiades on this occasion, but even if his words imply that 
Alcibiades won three prizes, he may easily have been misled. Con- 
sequently in this passage Hermann for 81$ reads Ato?, and Bergk 
follows him. Either word is connected closely enough with axsipate'vxa 
to account for the position of xe. 



MISCELLANEOUS AND ANONYMOUS 403 

XI. "Eraixa xeiasrat Plut. Non Posse Suav. Viv., Sec. Epic. 26. 

XII. ' Q,c, ap' sircdvxa fAiv x.x.X. Plut. /.<:. 27. 7:pdaw7tov Wyttenbach, 

for TTpO? T07:OV. 

XIII. Nai xav"oXu;j.-ov. Quoted by Clem. Alex. Strom, v. 661, who 
compares a line from Aeschylus, 'AXX' etui xajjiot xXjjs e-\ yXtoaar) <pu'Xac:. 
Cf. also Soph. C. C. 1052. Bergk thinks that the lines are from 
Pindar, and, judging by the sonorous style, his conjecture is a prob- 
able one. 

XIV. Ou yap ev [xiioiai. Clem. Alex. Strom, v. 654. 

oua;jur/7]Ta, 'hard-won '. Pindar, on the other hand, in a well-known 
passage {01. ii. 80, [j.a!>dvxss x.x.X.) scorns the idea of the gift of poetry 
being acquired by any labour. It must, however, be remembered 
that to be a master of the art of Greek Melic Poetry with its elaborate 
accompaniments, natural inspiration had to be seconded by very 
careful training. 

XV. 'fl yXuxE? sipava x.x.X. Theodor. Metoch. p. 515. 
z:Xouxoodxapa. Cf. Bacchylides I. xtxxa x.x.X. 

XVI. Oux alii x.x.X. Plut. De Conso/. c. 28, si youv ^ Nt^ /.x.X. 
The words may very likely be from a Threnos, wherein consolation 

was frequently sought from mythology. Cf. Simon. 11. and p. 19. 

XVII. Kar.poe, f ; vt/' x.x.X. Hephaest. p. 56, as an example of 
Glyconics. See Introd. to Anacreon ad Jin. Bergk is of opinion that 
these lines are by Glycon himself, whom he considers to have been a 
poet of the Alexandrine period. 

XVIII. Xaporav xuva x.x.X. Dio Chrysos. Or. xxxiii. T. II. 470, 
referring to the legend of Hecuba being converted into a dog. 
Welcker attributes this fragment to Alcman, but, so far as we can 
conclude, it is entirely out of keeping with his metrical style (see p. 49). 

11. 1-2. xuva, the accus. belongs to the construction in Dio Chrys. . 

In yvaOp.u>v -oXiav, if the reading be correct, we have a singular 
instance of yva#-[j.o; being used like yvaOo? in the feminine, ot . . . 
tpihyyoijiva;, for the change in construction Bergk compares //. xvi. 
531 ; xiv. 25 ; Od. xxii. 17, etc., in all of which cases we may regard 
the participle as in the genit. absolute with the pronoun understood. 

1. 4. ^ayot, conjecturally inserted by Bergk. 

XIX. npopaxwv yap x.x.X. Plut. de Pyth. Orac. c. 29, in explanation 
of the name Galaxion in Boeotia. 

7:EXXat yap Bergk, for ^cX-Xai ok. 

XX. 'Ex Santos x.x.X. Choerobosc. in Aldi Cornu Cop. 268. 
Ahrens has restored the Lesb. accent to the Lesb. genitive Sarow;. 



404 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

XXI. 'Eyoj cpajxt, x.-.y. Plut. De Garrul. c. 5. Bergk thinks that 
the line, in an altered form, may be Sappho's. Cf. Sap. xvi. b, and 
XVII. ev [jmvgt.oXio o'xta. 

XXII. "AXXov tp'otov, jct.X. Plut. De Antic. Mult. c. 5. Bergk 

xpozov for xpo^og. 

XXIII. not/.iXXsxat [jlsv, /..x.X. Demetr. De Eloc. 164. One is reminded 
of Pindar's Dithyramb {Frag. VI. 1. 16), tots PccXXetou, tot' It:' a;j.[BpoTav 
•/s'paov spaxai | "cov ©o^at, x.t.X. 

XXIV. ou [j.r]v -ot£ Clem. Al. Strom, vi. 796. Bergk t.qxz for t:ox' 
av, and xc'poso? for xc'poou;, the former being more consistent with the 
lyric ' dialect ' (see p. 80). 

XXV. Tiv' axtav, x(v' u'Xav, x.-.X. Dion. Hal. De Comp. Verb. c. 17. 
For the Bacchic metre, cf. Aesch. Prom. 115. 

Ti? a/w', t'-Z oojj.a ^poas'^Ta [J.' doayyvj; ; 

XXVI. Mtas'to x.x. 1. Plut. Quaest. Symp. I. Proem, and Lucian, 
Sympos. c. 3. 

XXVII. Tov 'EXXaoo? ayaO-s'a?, x.x.X. This, we are told by Douris 
ap. Plut. Vit. Lysand. 18, was the first instance among the Greeks 
of an adulator)' apotheosis of a living man ; Trpwxov jjIv yap ' EXXr]vwv 
ixsivto pupu; at tzoXzic, avsTcrjiav 10; O'cto xa\ 9-uaia; E^uaav, v.q 7iptoT0V ol 
Trcu&ves (cf. on Miscel. VI.), fod-r^a.v, of one of which Paeans this 
passage is the commencement. The degrading practice became a 
popular one, as we see from the two succeeding passages, and from 
Athen. xv. 697. It spread especially among the cities of Asia Minor, 
in honour of Roman generals, governors, or emperors, sapping the 
pagan religion of whatever soundness it still possessed, and marking 
the decay not only of freedom, but of the very desire for freedom. 
Consult on the subject Hermann, Gr. Antiq. ii. p. 59 (ed. Stark, 
Heidelberg, 1858). supoydpou Naeke, for supu/wpou. 

XXVIII. 'Q$ ot fiiytoroi x.t.X. Quoted by Athen. vi. 253 c with. a 
full account from Demochares of the adulation heaped upon Demetrius 
at Athens. For the circumstances leading to his triumphal reception 
on this occasion, see Grote, vol. xii. p. 205 seq. (cf. p. 197). The date 
of this occurrence, as indicated partly by the references to the 
Aetolians, and to the Eleusinian Mysteries, was 302 B.C. in the month 
Boedromion (part of September and October). Grote's criticisms on 
the sentiments of the song are worthy of attention : ' Effusions such 
as these, while displaying unmeasured idolatry and subservience 
towards Demetrius, are yet more remarkable as betraying a loss of 
force, a senility, and a consciousness of defencelessness and degraded 
position, such as we are astonished to find publicly proclaimed at 



MISCELLANEOUS AND ANONYMOUS 405 

Athens. It is not only against foreign potentates that the Athenians 
avow themselves incapable of self-defence, but even against the incur- 
sions of the Aetolians,' etc. It is at least satisfactory to read that the 
brilliant young warrior himself was disgusted with the unwholesome 
compliments lavished upon him (see Athen. vi. 253 a). The song is 
described by Athen. as an Ithyphallus, a species of religious lyric 
now, like the Paean, no longer confined to the service of the gods. 
The mode of delivering the Ithyphallus is described by Athen. xiv. 
622, and it was of a nature to enhance the servility and idolatry of 
the performers in this instance. They wore masks representing the 
countenances of drunken men — wreaths on their heads and arms — 
long white garments reaching to the ankles, etc. 

1. 1. '{2?. Either we have not the beginning of the song, which is 
not likely from the manner in which it is cited by Athen., or u$ does 
not belong to the poem, but to the words of Athen., some other 
monosyllable beginning the line ; or, thirdly, we must, with Hulle- 
mann, read "Q?. 

1. 3. yap A7][j.. xa\, conjecturally inserted by Toupe, something of 
the kind being obviously required. 

1. 7. tXapd; . . . xat xaXd; ; in this description flattery was in 
accordance with fact, judging from the testimony of Plut. Vit. Demetr. 
c. 24. Indeed his lively disposition led him to excesses which it 
required a stretch even of Athenian reverence to condone. Cf. Grote, 
vol. xii. p. 207. 

1 9. asj-Lvo? 08-1, x.t.X. The text as it stands is only just translatable, 
' where he shines forth in majesty, his friends all around him, and 
himself in their midst, like as if his friends were the stars and he the 
sun '. 

A majority of MSS. give aqj.vdv, and Bergk adopts the reading of 
Meineke and Mehlhorn as|j.vdv xi oatvsO-'. He has also changed 6'jj.chos 
to S[j.oiov. Oi cptXoi probably refers to Demetrius' personal retinue of 
flatterers, Athen. 253, mentioning that the Athenians, oc twv xoXaxwv 
xdXa/.Ec, paid divine honours to these also. 

1. 13. 7:a1 noasiotovo?, alluding probably to his maritime power; 
xa<ppo8iT7]s, a compliment to his beauty. 

1. 15 seq. This passage, with its curious mixture of outspoken 
blasphemy and fulsome idolatry, reveals to us how entirely the old 
religion had by this time lost its hold on the Athenians. We may 
•compare Philos. Apollon. i. 15 (on Emperor cult) : tot? pacjiXetot; 
avooaaiv, oi xai Aid; xou ev 'OXu[j.ria cpo[jSpwxspoi tote /.at aauXtoTEpoi -qrsixv, 
and Ovid's Trist. III. i. 35, and 11. 77-8. 

1. 18. Cf. Hor. 3 Od.v. 2 : 'Praesens divus habebitur | Augustus.' 

1. 25. AhwXov (v. 1. AhwXd?) ; see Grote, vol. xii. pp. 164, 191, 204; 
eVi xrETpa;, in allusion to the mountainous country of the Aetolians. 

29-30. In the general weakness of Greece, the Aetolians were able 
.to extend their cateran warfare as far as Attica itself. 

1. 31. x.dXajov Toupe, for s/dXaaov. 



4 o6 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

1. 34. smvov, Schweighauser for a-s(vov, -£tvr[v, etc., as if there were 
some legend of the Sphinx being transformed to a finch. Meineke 
a-'!Xov, a rock. 

XXIX. Ilumv ok 'Pto[j.aiojv, x.x.X. The end of a Paean sung by the 
Chalcidians in honour of Titus Flamininus, Plut. Vit. Flam. c. 16. 

1. 2. I have conjectured [j.sya),3toxaxav 'most glorious at keeping 
oaths ', for the corrupt [j-cyodsuxxoxaxav. Bergk reads |j.syaAauyoxaxav, 
but a depreciatory sense attaches itself to this word. 

XXX. Ode to Rome. 

Stob. Flor. vii. 13. MsXivvou? Acadia? si; Pio;j.r i v. It is presumed by 
some that Melinno, a poetess of Epizephyrian Locri, is meant, who 
is referred to Anth. Pal. vi. 353 ; and the epithet ' Lesbian ' may be 
due to the employment of Lesbian metre and style in the poem, 
Schneidewin conjectures that the occasion of the Ode was either the 
seizure of Locri by the Romans after the defeat of the soldiers of 
Pyrrhus who had occupied the city {v. Li v. ix. 16) : or else the 
period of the first Punic war, indicated by the allusion to maritime 
supremacy in 1. 10, r.o\ici<; Q-aldvvac, — an expression, however, which 
Mehlhorn would explain as a mere laudatory exaggeration. 

But on the whole the language made use of throughout the Ode 
implies a period in the history of Rome when her empire was wider 
and more firmly established than at the time of Pyrrhus or even of 
the first Punic war ; and there is a ring of enthusiasm in the poem 
too genuine for mere flattery. It is, therefore, I think, far better to 
follow Welcker and others in attributing the Ode to the flourishing 
period of Roman dominion, and to be content to remain in ignorance 
as to the identity of Melinno. 

The view that the song was composed by Erinna of Lesbos, and 
that'Pwpj is simply the personification of strength is disposed of in 
Welcker's Kleine Schriften vol. ii. p. 160, and needs little refutation. 

The dialect is intended for Lesbian, but the strict Lesbian forms 
are not always adhered to (cf. on 11. 1 and 3). 

The remarks made on the metre of Lesbian Sapphics as compared 
with Latin apply equally to this Ode : see p. 154 sea. 

1. 1. •9-uyaxTjp "Aprjo;, particularly applicable to ' Mavortia Roma'. 
"ApTjos, Epic, the Lesbian form would be rather "Apsuo;, v. Meister. 
p. 156. 

1. 2. ypucjEO[j.ixpa, the third syllable should be long, and Welcker 
compares oiXo[j.;j.sior^ : but in the latter case the [ip is no doubt 
due to the lost consonant seen in our ' ^mile ', while ypu?sop.[.uxpa 
would have no such justification. See Monro's Horn. Gram. sees. 37 1, 
372, for the frequent lengthening of syllables composed of a short 
vowel and a liquid. Many of these cases are accountable for by the 
influence of a second consonant subsequently lost ; others are due to 
analogy ; but in not a few, notably in the instances of [xs'ya; and 



MISCELLANEOUS AND ANONYMOUS 407 

[xe'yapov, we can allege no certain reason, etymological or otherwise. 
Doubtless then in ypuaEopuxpa the author is endeavouring to copy a 
not uncommon Epic practice. 

I. 3 vaiet?. Lesbian would be vau'ei? {v. Meister, p. ill, and cf. 
Alcaeus Append. 2). 

The Roman land is said to be a heaven upon earth. Schneidewin 
compares Odyss. vi. 42. Sswv SSo? aa^aXs; atsi. 

II. 6-7. appifjxTw, v. Lesb. Dial. p. 84, syoiaa, p. 83. 
1. 9. aSeuyXa, Lesbian Dial. p. 83. 

1. 10. OTEpva yaicc?, cf. Soph. O. T, 691, axEpvou'you yOovo's, with 
Jebb's note ad loc. and Pind. Nem. vii. 33. 7:apa [jiyav 6[j.cpaXov 
EupuxoXTrou I jaoXov y-ftovo;. 



DITHYRAMBIC POETS 

I. (a') Pratitias. 

Athen. xiv. 617 tells us that this poem was written as a violent 
protest against the dominion in the orchestra of the flute-players, 
whose boisterous notes cast the poetry into the shade {v. Art. v. 
p. 40) ; auXrjTtov v.dx yopsuxwv [.usOo^opiov /axsyovxwv xa? opyrjaxpa?, 
ayava/tXEtv xiva? eVi xw xou; auXrjxa; \xr\ auvauXstv xot§ yopot;, xat>a^sp r^v 
rcaxotov, aXXa xou? yopou? auvaosiv xot? auXrjxat? ... npaxiva; l[a.cpavt^£i 
Sta xouoe xou ux:opy^[jLaxo?. Pratinas emphasises his invective by 
scornfully employing the new metrical style, in which, by repeated 
resolutions of the long syllable ' in arsi ', poetical rhythm proper is 
almost unrecognisable, though the loss was not felt when the words 
had become subordinated to the music. The song is called a 
hyporchem ; but the distinctions of the various classes of Melic 
poetry were now becoming uncertain {v. p. 106) and the dithyrambic 
form was beginning to pervade Melic in general ; thus, for instance, 
this hyporchem is addressed not to Apollo {v. p. 5), but to Dionysus ; 
on the other hand, the Cretics in 11. 8, 9, and 16 are characteristic of 
the hyporchem. 

II. 1, 2. For the alliteration of the dentals, cf. on Sap. xxxi. 

I. 2. xtva, Stephanus for v.. 

II. 4-5. £>o? . . . £>£, i.e. ' I the poet, and not the flute-player, 
should take the lead in the worship of Bacchus.' 

1. 6. -8-u|jl£vov, Bergk quotes Hesych. exSu[j.evos" xa/u;. 

1. 7. ayovxa, Hesych. ayw- (aeXjiw, aow, but no doubt it implies not 
merely ' singing ', but ' taking the lead in the song'. 

It is perhaps a mistake to attribute the song of swans to the poetic 
imagination. Swans of a certain breed, not known in this country, 
are said to have a very fine power of song. 

1, 8. /ax. II. PaaiXEiav Bergk, from y.ax£axaa£^i£p£t? (jaaftsia. 



4o8 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

1. 10. /.w[j.t;> x.x.X. v. p. 8. and cf. Anacr. xxvn. and note on 
Bacchyl. I. 5. 

1. 12. I have given the MSS. reading, which defies any but purely 
conjectural emendation. Bergk defends ttoie (for which rcaue is 
usually substituted) in the sense of 'abigere'; comparing Ar. Wasps 
456 (where, however, <xr.o follows) and Pausan. i. 24. 1, where the 
meaning is uncertain. 

In <£puvatou it is probable that some such word as $puya is con- 
cealed, flute-playing being constantly associated with the Phrygians 
(contrast Awpiov, 1. 17). Bergk reads r.otiz xov 3>puya xov aotSou | r.ov/.Hov 
rpoa/Eovxa, Hartung kolob xov <J>puy' aoXou -oixiXou zvoav r/ovxa. 

1. 13. oXscncriaX. ' spittle- wasting ' Emperius and Bergk, foroXoataXov 
xaXajjiov, or oXoaiaXoxaXa[Jiov. 

I. 14. 3-' u-at Emperius, for d-ur.ix, 'its body fashioned beneath the 
borer '. 

II. 16-17. Ss^ta? Bamberger, for 8s?(a ; the meaning appears to be 
' See ! this is the way your hand and foot dash about', alluding to 
the fingers rushing up and down the TCoXu/opoo; auXd? (Simon. 
xxiv. B. 1. 3), while the feet of the dancers endeavour to keep pace 
with the excited notes. "Acs no doubt implies some imitative gestures 
on the part of the performers. 

1. 18. Awpiov, in the calm Dorian style. Cf. p. 31. 

((3') 'A [xev 'A&ava x.x.X. 

Athen. xiv. 616 E. o jxe'v xi? scpr) tov MsXavi7;7no7]v xaXto; ev tw Mapsua 
oiasupovxa X7jv aoXrjxtx^v EtprjXEvat rap't T7js 'Aib)va; x.x.X. 

'A-9-ava, cf. on Scol. IV. 1. 1. 

1. 4. oii [j.s Bergk, for e[j.s. 

(y) "Ov aoipdv x.x.X. 

Athen. xiv. 616 F. TEXs'axrjs xw MEXavt-rfor; avxLxopu<Tad[j.svo; ev 'Apyot. 

1. i. seq. 'Which cunning thing (sc. auXo'v), I believe not that the 
cunning goddess, bright Athene, amid the mountain thickets took and 
cast the instrument again from her hands, fearing to deform her 
countenance.' "Opyavov, if the text be correct, resumes the object 
already expressed in ov. Schweighauser plausibly suggests ?v oo^ov, 
i.e. unum omnium, etc. Bergk reads opyavwv dep. on a'ia/o? ; but the 
flute is not described as a disgrace to musical instruments, but as 
causing deformity or contortions in the face of the player. 

I. 3. In the metrical scheme I have regarded the first two syllables 
as the 'basis ', v. p. 38. 

1. 5. yopoiTur.oi, suggested in Liddell and Scott, cf. Pind. Frag. 57 
(Bdckh). Bergk yopoxxurw, MSS. /Etpoxxuro). 

oTjpt, this form of 8-jjp (?'. Lesb. Dial. p. 83), seems to be specially 
employed of human creatures partly akin to animals, such as the 
Centaurs and the Satyrs. 

1. 7. a Dobree and Bergk, for at yap. 

1. 8. a/opEuxo?, 'cheerless', 'kill-joy' (cf. Liddell and Scott), unless 
there is a more special meaning of ' unchoral ', i.e. averse to choral 



DITHYRAMBIC POETS 409 

singing, for which the flute was particularly adapted. Two more 
verses after 1. 1 1 are added by Athenaeus, but they are in a hope- 
lessly corrupt condition. 

(<$') fj <£pu'ya x.x.X. 

Athen. xiv. 617 B. 6 TsXe'<ro]s ev xoj 'ActxXtjziw. 

The Phrygian sovereign over the 'sweet-breathing flutes', who is 
here said to have been the first to adapt the flute to the human 
voice, Bergk supposes to be Olympus, from the mention of Auoov . . . 
voji.ov : cf. Plut. de Mas. c. xv. "oXuprov . . . £r.v/.rfizi<jv auX^aat AuSiari. 
The text however is too uncertain for any definite conclusions. 
Auoov o? Huschke, for auoovo; ; apjxoas Schmidt, for 7j'poas ; vdjx. aioXov 
o[j.cpa Dobree and Schweighauser, for vo[j.oatoXov dpovai. 

(s') OoV. aoio x.x.X. Athen. iii. 122 D. 

1. 1. I have put aoio for asiow, in order to restore the Ionic metre 
as we find it in 11. 3-5. In 1. 2 a dipody of two choreic dactyls takes 
the place of the Ionic, being of equal rhythmical value. 

1. 2. acrjj.aTa Schneidewin, for a[i.a, Bergk [j.aXa. 

I. 4. xd -aXai Meineke, for to 7:aXaidv. 

II. (a) IlavTE? o' aTCEaxu'yEov x.x.X. 

Quoted by Athen. x. 429 B to illustrate the power of wine. 

1. 3. Hartung's reading for ouv araXau'ovxo. There is not much sense 
in Bergk's xo v t [jlev olt:' wv oXovto. 

(b) KXu9i [xot x.t.X. Clem. Al. Strom, v. 716. 

The language of these lines is a little remarkable, and is the out- 
come of those higher religious sentiments which were beginning to 
gain ground at the time among the cultivated. Cf. Introductory 
remarks on Pindar's Threni, p. 413. 

III. (a') ■9'eo?, &zos x.x.X. 

Quoted by Philodemus rcep\ suaEpstac, p. 85, ed. Gomperz, Vol. Here, 
nova Coll. ii. 11, with the remark that whatever may have been 
Diagoras' religious principles, he exhibits no trace of impiety in his 
poetry. The lines are addressed to a certain Arianthes of Argos, 
possibly in an Encomium, or an Epinician Ode. They are certainly 
Pindaric in sentiment, cf. Pind. Frag. XII. (V. 

1. 2. V(i)[xa <?ps'va, cf. Od. xiii. 225. Aikv ev\ axrjO-Eaat vo'ov ^oXuxspoEa 
vto[j.(ov. 

1. 3. Added by Didymus Alexan. de Trinit. iii. 2, p. 320. Com- 
pare Simon. XI. 

(jj') Kaxa oaijjiova x.x.X. 

Philodemus I.e. Addressed to Nicodorus of Mantineia, a famous 
boxer and subsequently a legislator. 

ExxEXelxat, Philod. exxeXeItOoci, but Se.xt. Empir. ix. 402 quotes from 
Diagoras xaxa Saffi. x. xu'/_. -avxa XEXstxai. 

IV. (a') IlaXXaoa TZEpai'-oX'.v x.x.X. 

Quoted by the Scholia on Arist. Clouds 967, "H IlaXXaoa -spaE-oXiv 



410 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

Savav rj TrjXETOpov xt pdapia. The passage is given in one of the 
Scholia almost exactly as it appears in the text. Other Scholia give 
a somewhat different version, and it is mentioned that some con- 
sidered the lines to be from Phrynichus. Thirdly, in Schol. Aristid. 
T. iii. 537, similar words are attributed to Stesichorus ; so that we 
may accept Bergk's explanation that the three poets adopted some 
ancient formula commonly addressed to Pallas. This is the more 
likely, since in all the versions the first line exhibits the hexametric 
form proper to the early hymnal style. 

1. 3. oa[j.acji^^ov. Bergk quotes from Et. M. 474. 30. 'ijntia* 
ExX7]xh r j outtos 7) 'AS^va, lr.i\. £x ir[c, y.E^aX^c, xou Aid? [xzQ-' 'imzwv avvjXaro, 105 
6 etc' aux% u[j.vo$ o7]Xot . . . and he thinks that the hymn there men- 
tioned is perhaps the ancient one imitated by Stesichorus, Phrynichus, 
and Lamprocles. 

(P') a'lTE TCOTavaT? x.x.X. Athen. xi. 491 C. 

Ks1<j9-e, Bergk and Meineke veI^Oe. 

V. At7:apo'[j.[j.aTE pia-sp x.x.X. Sext. Emp. xi. 49, 556 (Bekker). 

See Miscellaneous Passages, No. v. and notes. Compare also 
Scol. IX. 

1. 2. 'AtioXXwvos as the god of healing. 

1. 3. Bergk has improved the metre by reading 'YytEta in place of 
the later form 'Yysfa. 

1. 6. Unless, as Bergk assumes, something is omitted between 1. 5 
and 1. 6, the expression is somewhat confused, since, strictly speaking, 
the sense requires asS-Ev /m? 1 '? to be included in the same sentence 
with the words T(? yap . . . ap/as. 

iaooa'![j.ovo; . . . apya;, cf. Eur. Troad. 1169, x% taoxk'ou xupavv(8o;, 
and Eur. Hec. 356, where Polyxena describes herself, when a princess 
of Troy, as \?r\ S-Eotat, Ttkrp to xaxfravElv [jlovov. 

VI. "Yt:vo; x.x.X. Athen. xiii. 564 C, in discussing the power of the 
eye in love, says that, according to Licymnius, Sleep was enamoured 
of Endymion and kept open his eyelids in slumber. I have adopted 
Meineke's oauotaiv ixotpioE for oaaoi? sxoi;j.i£s, which gives a harsh 
metre. Schmidt reads oasoiai xoifu£et xo'pag, as the pupils may be said 
to sleep even though the eyelids are open. 

For the personified "Yjcvo? see on Miscel. v. He is represented as 
a child on the chest of Kypselos, Pausan. v. 18. 1. 

VII. (a') Mup(ai; x.x.X. Stob. Eel. Phys. i. 41. 50, with reference 
to the supposed derivation of 'A/e'pwv from ayo?. 

I have followed Grotius in inserting 'Ay/ptov, for which there is the 
authority of one MS., and I have endeavoured to improve the metre 
by reading 7raya1ai for ;:aya1; (Grotius for raaai?). 

((3') Stob. I.e. The passage is of course in imitation of Aesch. 
Ag. 1558, wxu^opov I TzdpOp.sujji' a/Etov. 



DITH YRAMBIC POETS 411 

VIII. '& y.aXkir.poabyjts. Quoted by Athen. xiii. 564 E, with the 
remark that the Cyclops, as if with a presentiment of his blindness 
(-po[j.avTEuo;j.svo? t^v xucpXwrtv), praises everything in Galatea except her 
eyes. Athen. contrasts this 'blind praise' with the lines in Ibycus 
in. Cf. above on VI. Ka'XXo; Fiorillo, 0-aXXo? Schweighauser, and 
others S-aXo; ; cf. lb. I.e. Xapixtov OaXoi;. 

IX. 2u x' to xov as\ /..x.X. Macrob. Sat. i. 17. 19. 

The Paean was addressed to Apollo, who, however, is here identified 
with the sun-god Helios. This became common from the time of 
Euripides onwards, and illustrates the tendency of the later Greeks to 
convert mythical religious figures into physical ideas. 

1. 2. axxlai Xap, Bergk for Xajj.. a/.x. 

1. 3. For the sake of the metre I have altered syO-poi? to i/d-potoiv. 

X. v E/sue 0' x.x.X. Athen. xi. 465 C, Tqj.o'9-so? sv KuxXomu. 

1. 1. xiaatvov . . . oir.ac, alluding perhaps to the xtffaufiiov, the term 
applied to the Cyclops' cup, Od. ix. 346. 

1. 4. The florid language is characteristic of the later Dithyrambic 
poets. Ba/./iou for Ba/.yoo, as in Soph. Atitig. 154. 

XI. (a') KXsivov /..x.X. Quoted by Plut. Vit. Pkilopoetn. c. II. The 
line chanced to be sung just as Philopoemon was entering the theatre. 
The ' Persae ' was apparently a Nome, since in Plutarch's account it 
was being sung by a single lyre-player ; and the hexametric form of 
a' is a further indication ; cf. pp. 7, 266. 

(P') Plut. de And. Poet. c. 1 1, Ti[J.otho? 6p(xr ( 9-£i; ou xaxcu; evxol; nfpaat; 
xou? EXXvjva? jtapexaXsi. 

XII. Plut. Vit. Agesil. c. 14. 

1. 2. Plutarch has the unmetrical ypuaov ok "eXXccs -/..x.X. Bergk 
places SI after "EXXa?, a construction for which there would be in- 
sufficient justification (see on Archil, xi. 9). I have, therefore, omitted 
81 altogether. 

XIII. Ouxoi z.x.X. Chrys. k. a^oipax. c. 10, Cyclops loqidtur. 

XIV. Ma/.apto; ^aOa x.x.X. Plut. de Sc Ips. Laud. c. 1, condemning 
the bad taste of Timotheus' self-laudation. 

Ka[j.tovo; Bergk, for Kap[3wvos, explaining this passage by Pollux iv. 
66, /.at 'i'pvviv ok tov Kdfiwvos [J-eXeti noXuxa^Eai . . . xr/p7j<?0ai Xiyouaiv. 

XV. "aXXo; o' aXXav /..x.X. Athen. xiv. 637 A, TsXEaxr); ev 'Y(X€Vaia> 
8i9upd(j.pa) (see p. 106 note, on the confusion at this later period be- 
tween the different classes of Melic poetry). 

1. 1. "'aXXo;. Schweighauser remarks that we must suppose that there 
are several musicians all playing the magadis, and that we should 
rather expect the plural in Eps'th^s, etc. He suggests aXXw;. 

'EpEvh^s, ' digitorum pulsu velut titillare ' (Dalecamp). 



412 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

XVI. IIpw-coi racpa x.x.X. Athen. xiv. 625 F, to prove that the Greeks 
learnt the Lydian and Phrygian harmonies from the Lydians and 
Phrygians who, as he says, accompanied Pelops to the Peloponnese. 

XVII. ToS' dvaTi9-T][jLt x.x.X. Athen. xv. 670 E., the speaker being a 
goatherd in love. Schweighauser supposes that he is presenting the 
gifts to a boy whom he now neglects for a maiden. I think it preferable 
to consider that, according to a common custom, the goatherd is 
offering up to some deity (aoi) the emblems of his calling, which love 
now forces him to abandon. To these he adds the simple rustic 
offering of a rose. 

1. 3. aXXa Schweighauser, for aXXea. According to my explanation 
of the passage aXXa must be taken adverbially, 
xs'yuxai, cf. Pind. Isth. i. 3, AaXog, lv a xr/upiai. 
1. 4. Xapisi cpiXav, a favourite compliment. Cf. Alcaeus XIII. 

XVIII. Outs ratoo; appsvo? x.x.X. Athen. xiii. 564 A, from Lyco- 
phronides. 

Xpuao'fopwv, probably = ypuaora'rXtov, cf. ypuaoTOTiXe xoupa, Anac. V. 
1. 7., and Pind. Isth. v. 75 ; or perhaps 'wearing golden ornaments', 
cf. Scol. xvi. b. 1. 2. 

1. 2. oiixs Porson, for ouos. 

1. 3. Corrected by Meineke from aXXa xdatjiiov jrscpuxsi. 



PINDAR'S FRAGMENTS 

THRENOI 

The well-known criticism of Dionys. Rhet. p. 69, that Pindar's 
Dirges were written [j.syaXo7:ps7:w; and those of Simonides ^afhjxtxws 
will be fully appreciated by any who compare the following passages 
with e.g. the 'Danae' of Simonides (No. I.). The latter, by exalting 
the incident into the region of mythic ideality (cf. p. 19) affords an 
indirect consolation by lending a poetic beauty to the sorrow of the 
mourners. Pindar endeavours to transcend the sadness of the occa- 
sion and to carry their thoughts beyond the gulf which separates this 
world from the next. 

It is not unnatural that his Threnoi should have won less popularity 
than those of Simonides, especially when we consider how little in 
harmony with ordinary Greek views were the doctrines exhibited in 
the passages before us. His main theme, that the upright receive 
everlasting rewards in the next life, may have been derived by him 
from the Orphic poets, or perhaps from the mysteries of Demeter or 
of Bacchus, wherein the doctrine was prominent. Others refer us 
rather to Pythagoreanism ; and indeed the Orphic, Bacchic, and 



PINDAR'S FRAGMENTS 413 

philosophical mystics seem to have had much in common ; cf. Hdt. 
ii. 81. Total 'Optptxolai xaXeojAEVOiai xa\ Baxyr/.olai, eouat Be AiyuftTtoiai xa\ 
nuO-ayopstotai. Miiller in his Hist, of Greek Lit. ch. xvi., which should 
be read on this subject, points out that, whereas in Homer only the 
specially favoured, such as Menelaus, the son-in-law of Zeus, are 
admitted to Elysium, while of the rest even the best lead but a joy- 
less existence (cf. the well-known lament of Achilles in Od. xi. 489), 
Pindar, on the contrary, holds out some form of Paradise to all who 
can win it by their virtue. He is at one rather with Hesiod, accord- 
ing to whom all the heroes (oX(3ioi 7Jp w£ s) assemble in the Islands of 
the Blest (Whs. 169). See 01. ii. 1. 61 seq. Zeller, in his Pre-Socratic 
Philosophy, Introd. sec. ii., asserts that Pindar is speaking of the 
future rewards not of the pious in general, but only of those initiated 
in the mysteries. I see, however, nothing in the text to support the 
limitation, with the exception of Frag. v. ; and Plutarch's words in 
citing No. II. are expressly against it (jrepl xwv eu'seJjojv ev aoou, and 
sucyspwv ywpov). He is rather, I think, in accord with the sentiments in 
the fragment of Euripides Chrysippus (Dindorf 836), and of the 
Aphrodisias of Antiphanes, Stob. Flor. 124. 27, in which passages 
the doctrine of immortality has an universal application. Neverthe- 
less Pindar was probably speaking, as usual, for aristocrats only, 
and had no notion, to use M. Girard's expression, of 'une vaste cite 
divine, facilement accessible a tous.' 

I. 'OXpt'a 0' OOTOCVTSS X.T.X. 

Plut. Cons, ad Apoll. 1. 35. ev . . . -9-pTjvw r.sp\ Auyjj's Xe'ywv x.t.X. 
The doctrine that the immortal part of us awakes to life only when 
our mortal members are asleep is said to be derived by Pindar from 
Heraclitus, from whom Bockh cites the following passages : 9-avaTo? 
icrciv ozosa iyeptHvTE^ opeojiiev, ox.osa oe euoovte? utxvo; . . . Ka\ to £r)v 
xat to aTToO-avstv xcft lv tw £tjv f,(J.a; irsxi xai ev to TsS-vavoa . . . Z(o[j.ev 
t6v exeivwv (twv frswv) -9-avaTov, T£9vrjxap.£v ok tov ixefvwv (3tov. The 
well-known lines of Sophocles will also suggest themselves, Ti; o' olosv 
zl to ^v \£v eoti xaT8-avstv x.T.X.,and Shelley's Adonais, Stanza xxxix. seq. 

1 1. oXpia o' awavxe? aiffa, i.e. aracvces 0! euuspelg, since for others there 
is in store the yaXercwv xpiat? (1. 5). 

(xETavticjovTai, conjecturally supplied by Bockh. 

1. 2. Insxat, ' obeys the call of. 

1. 3. aiojvo; eiSojXov ; judging from the context (eu8si os jxpaaaovxcuv 
aeXewv x.t.X.) the word eKSwXov does not appear to indicate, as it usually 
does, any diminution in reality, but to be used of the vital spirit in its 
purity as divested of its bodily form. Translate perhaps ' the image 
of (true) life ', but the force of sitStoXov must not be pressed too closely ; 
unless indeed the meaning is that what was a mere semblance of life 
before the death of the body survives it and is transformed into a 
reality. 

1. 4. 7;pa<T<To'vTwv [/eX, when the limbs are in action. For this neuter 



4H GREEK LYRIC POETS 

use of r.paavtii, Bockh compares Nem. i. 26, irpdaasi yap epyo) ;j.sv aJh'vog 
I JjouXalai §k cppr,v. 
suSovxeaat, .sr. jxeXsatv, or else av9pwjuois. 

I. 5. Tjp^viov /aX. ts xptatv ' award be it of gladness or of sorrow '. 

II. Tolai Xaprst, x.t.X. Quoted by Plut. Consol. ad Apoll. c. 35, and 
reconstructed by Hermann and Bockh, with but little violence to 
the original. 

1. 1. ' For them the might of the sun shineth below in our night- 
season.' Mkv probably contrasts the lot of the righteous with the doom 
of the unrighteous, subsequently described (v. on 1. 8). Notice that 
Pindar is not speaking of the Isles of the Blest, as in 01. II. 70 seq., 
but of an Elysium in Hades (xdxw). In that passage the sun is 
described as shining both by night and by day, while the meaning of 
this line is probably, though not certainly, that our night is day in 
Elysium, and our day their night. Vergil, who partly imitates this 
fragment, Aen. vi. 637 seq., speaks of a distinct sun and stars for 
Elysium, ' solemque suum, sua sidera norunt '. 

1. 2. xpoacrciov (Hermann, for rcpodoreiov), as if there were a 7:0X15 in 
Elysium of which this is the playing-ground. Vergil, on the other 
hand, I.e., speaks only of groves and glades, a garden of Eden, as it 
were, in which the spirits wander at random. ' Nulli certa domus ; 
lucis habitamus opacis,' 1. 673, cf. 638, 679, etc. His description was 
more in accordance with the growing fondness of the Romans of his 
day for country-life and surroundings. For xpoaaxiov, cf. Arnold's note 
on Thuc. iv. 69 : ' The 7:poacrcaov of a Greek city was not what we 
call a suburb, but rather an open space, like the parks in London. 
... It was used as a ground for the reviews of the army, and for 
public games. At Rome the Campus Martius was exactly what the 
Greeks call 7rpoaaxsiov.' 

I. 3. <mapa Hermann, for axupav, cr/.iapov. Xpuasot; -/.apTcol? Bockh, 
for ypuaoxaprcotai. 

II. 4-5. Cf. Vergil I.e. 11. 642-4, ' Pars in gramineis exercent membra 
palaestris,' etc. Euav9^; arc. zi&. oX(jo?, cf. Is. IV. (v.) 12, suavO-fi auv 
oX]3a>. Metaphors of this kind from flowers are very common in 
Pindar, e.g. £n>a? darrov, ■9-aXXota dpexa, Is. I.e. ; tepov Eu£wa? atotov, 
Pyth. IV. 131 ; auiJExat 8' dpsxa, jrXwpats EEpaai? w; ote Ss'vSpsov aaast, 
•/..t.X., Nem. VIII. 40. 

I. 7. •JHi'a Hermann, for •O-u^axa. 

II. 8-9. These lines, which, as far as they go, correspond metrically 
to 11. 6 and 7, the last of the strophe, evidently belong to a descrip- 
tion of the place of the wicked. ' Where sluggish streams of murky 
night belch forth their impenetrable gloom,' as if the darkness rose 
up from the black, misty rivers of Hades. With (3Xr)ypo\ . . . x:oTafj.o£, 
cf. Hor. 2 Od. xiv. 17, 'visendus ater flumine languido Cocytus'; 
Aeneid vi. 323, 'Cocyti stagna alta vides, Stygiamque paludem. 
BXrj/po; is applied to calm winds in Alcaeus XXVII. 



PINDAR'S FRAGMENTS 415 

III. '"Joi/ai o' dcjEJJs'wv, x.x.X. Quoted by Clem. Alex. Strom, iv. 640, 
22, and attributed to Pindar by Theodoretus. There can however be 
little doubt that Dissen is right in rejecting the testimony of the 
latter. Pindar would hardly have spoken of the souls of righteous 
going to heaven, and not to the Elysium in Hades, or to the Max.dpwv 
N^aoi ; nor is he likely to have used such an expression as [xdxapa 
[jiyav. The passages mentioned in Fennell's note (from Prof. Sey- 
mour) do not materially affect Dissen's argument ; and it is probable 
that the poet was of the Jewish or Christian religion. 

1. 2. rcwxtovxai, Dissen compares Eumen. 98, where Clytemnestra, 
speaking of her existence in Orcus, says a.hyptZ<; dXw[j.ai. 
1. 4. vafotaat, Lesb. Dial. p. 83. 
1. 5. aEioovx(t), Bockh for dsiooua(i), v. Dor. Dial. p. 95. 

IV. Olsi SI 4>cp7s»ova, x.x.X. Quoted by Plat. Metio, 81 B, in con- 
nection with his doctrine of avd^vrjat?. Pindar is supposed to derive 
his notions of transmigration from the Pythagoreans or from the 
Orphic poets. Compare with this passage, Plat. Rep. x. 615 A, and 
Aeneidv'x. 713, 738, etc. Dissen, judging from the expression 7:otvdv 
. . . ravO-so;, and from the period of nine years {v. Midler's Dorians, I. 
pp. 353 and 445), thinks that Pindar is speaking of a case of involun- 
tary homicide. But ravS-so? simply as an euphemism for sin is not 
inappropriate to the context, where emphasis is laid on the penance ; 
and the number nine may very likely have some connection with Pytha- 
gorean mysticism (cf. the employment of its factor xp£s in a similar 
passage, 01. II. 68) ; finally, why should Pindar say that the souls of 
kings and heroes issue from the souls of those who have atoned for 
involuntary homicide ? 

1. 1. oiat, 'at whose hands ', cf. Pyth. IV. 22, Shoj . . . ?avta . . . oE?axo. 

mxXaiou r.bt. cf. Aen. vi. 739, ' veterumque malorum | supplicia 
expendunt'. 

1. 2. evccxm £-£[', Plato and Vergil make the period a thousand years. 
The expression here may possibly account for Horace's ' nonumque 
prematur in annum ', Ars Poet. 388. 

1. 3. J/uyas Bockh, for Auyav. 

1. 5. 7jptoEs has its penultimate short as in ^'pwa? dvxi9-Eou?. P. I. 53. 

V. "oXp\o? oaxi?, x.x.X. Clem. Alex. Strom, iii. 518. Ilivoapo; rapt xwv 
£v 'eXeuto/i [xuaxrjpiojv. A dirge 'On an Athenian who had been initi- 
ated at Eleusis.' So Fennell ; he might have added that this is a 
pure assumption on the part of Bockh (not Bergk, as Fennell says), 
and that there is no direct evidence that the lines belong to a dirge 
at all. 

I. 1. KotXav, for /.oiva, Heins and Bockh. 

II. 2-3. oToe ... p. xsXsuxdv. This expression supports the view that 
those initiated in the Eleusinian mysteries were introduced to certain 
esoteric doctrines with regard to a future life (cf. above, Introd. to 
Threnoi). 



416 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

VI. "Ioete ev yopov, x.x.X. Quoted by Dionys. Hal. de Comp. Verb. 
c. 22, as exhibiting the quality of to dpya'tV.ov . . . xai auatrjpov, and 
not to Ssatpixov -/.at yXacpupov xdXXo;, Pindar being the representa- 
tive that he selects in poetry of the auat^pa dp[v.ovi'a, and Thucydides 
in prose. 

The song was apparently composed for the Great Dionysia at 
Athens, celebrated in the month Elaphebolion (part of March and 
April) ; and in date is subsequent to the Persian wars (v. on 1. 5). 
The excited nature of the rhythm throughout, and the rapturous 
enthusiasm with which the approach of spring is described, are 
eminently characteristic of the dithyramb at its best ; and it is easy 
to understand how such a style, in the hands of inferior poets, degene- 
rated into the florid inanity which characterises the later dithyrambic 
poets (cf. p. 264, and p. 267). 

1. 1. There is a preponderance of authority for 'iSsxs rather than osote. 

'Ev is here used in the sense of s';, as in several passages of Pindar. 
Originally Greek employed only one preposition, ev, to do duty, like 
the Latin :'/!, for the similar notions of ' in ' and ' into '. * 'Ev-?, whence 
ei;, e?, was a later form adopted by most dialects ; but Boeotian, 
Thessalian, etc., retained the double signification of ev. See G. 
Meyer 58. 

1. 2. Dissen, remarking that the word yapi? is constantly associated 
with Bacchus (cf. on Popular Songs ill.), translates it ' festivitas ', 
'laetitia'. I should interpret it rather in its ordinary sense, 'Send, 
or impart, charm to our choral dance and song' (1. 1). Compare 
XII. 3', ' It is God who imparts charm to the song '. Xdpi? in 
such cases does not greatly differ from xdXXo;, only it is beauty as 
winning favour. Fennell renders xXutocv y.dpiv, ' loud song ', but the 
passages he quotes for this use of /apt? (Isth. iii. 8, vii. 16) hardly 
justify so bold a translation. Bergk interprets the line rather strangely, 
' non i7twrc'[MreTe yapiv Pindar dixit, sed tojatcete jj.e ir\ yapw '• Xapi; and 
the XdptxE? play an important part in Pindar's vocabulary, see 
Donaldson's Index and Professor Jebb's article on Pindar, Hell. 
Journ. vol. iii. 

1. 3. o^oaXov. Dissen, with much plausibility, urges that by this is 
meant the Altar of the Twelve Gods in the Athenian dyopd (I. 5), which, 
according to Miiller, was the centre from which distances round Athens 
were measured, and which might properly be called 7uoXu'[3a-rov, 
'multum frequentata a diis ' (Dissen). 

I. 5. raxvoaioaXov . . . dyopdv, the ancient forum between the Pnyx, 
Acropolis, and Areopagus. Ilavoaio. refers to its splendid restoration 
after the havoc of the Persian occupation (Bockh). 

II. 6-7. The reading here is uncertain ; eaptopoxwv Bergk, Bockh 
Xot(3av, for Xoipdv. Tav t' sap. Xoipldv, ' drink-offerings of spring- 
gathered herbs ' (Myers). Bergk reads ais^dvwv xwv Eapioporctov 
ct[j.oi[5dv Aiofl-Ev /..T.X., explaining djxoiPav as ya'piv, ' in return for the 
garlands offered to you.' 



PINDAR'S FRAGMENTS 417 

For AioO-ev, which Bergk explains as oupavod-sv, ' look down on me 
from heaven', see below on I. 13. 

I. 8. 7;opsu9'EVT' £5 aotoav Hermann, for TTOpeuSwres dotoav, it. aotoat?, 
jc. aotoai. Bockh reads auv dyXda lo. Tcopsu^evx' aotoa. 

Ssu'xepov. Fennell suggests that the first occasion may have been 
that with which Frag. xiv. is connected. 

II. 11-12. [j.eX7T£[j.ev . . EfxoXov, 'I came to sing', so Bockh for 
[).ikT;o\t.Ev, x.x.X. naxsptov . . . yuvatxwv, plural for singular referring 
to Zeus and Semele respectively. Cf. Isth. vn. (vill.) 36, Aios 7:ap' 
aosXcpsotat, i.e. Poseidon, as the Schol. say. 

p.£v contrasts the divine father with the mortal mother, but any 
unnecessary emphasis on the contrast is avoided by xs taking the 
place of SI. 

11. 13-14. Taking the reading in the text, the meaning of this much 
disputed passage apparently is as follows: — 'Although I, the bard 
(flavins), was at Nemea, I failed not to remember the approach of the 
Dionysia with the spring-time.' Thus is explained the words Aiofrsv 
. . . 7Top£u8c'vT' . . . ItzX xiaa. 0-eov, i.e. 'journeying from Nemea (where 
Zeus was the presiding deity) to the Dionysia at Athens.' The 
mention of Nemea, or some place where the poet has last been stay- 
ing, is natural enough after ejjloXov in 1. 12, although Bergk renders it 
probable that Bockh and others are wrong in placing the Nemean 
games in the winter [v. Poetae Lyr. Gr. vol. i. p. 14 seq.). Either the 
present tense Xavfrdvsi is used for the past, or we may consider that 
the poet did not leave Nemea in person, but in the words nopsu^evTa 
and ejjloXov is simply identifying himself with his song. 

<E>otvtxosavwv, 'bright-robed', H. A. Koch from <poiW.os savwv 
©oivwoaawv. The usual reading is <poivixo$ spvos, which Bockh explains 
by the fact that the victor at the Nemean games received a branch of 
palm, the [Jiavxtj, according to his interpretation, being the priest who 
looked after the sacred tree. Even if Bockh were right with regard 
to these games being in the winter, such an allusion as this would 
surely be unnatural and misplaced. With cpcuvixosaviov the subject of 
Xavfravsi is implied in or.oxz x.t.X. ' In Argive Nemea the bard over- 
looked not the season when the nectarous plants feel the fragrant 
spring-time as the chamber of the bright-robed hours is flung open.' 
Cf. Alcaeus I., 'Hpo? dvO-spLOEvxo; grott'ov Epyof/ivoio, and with oiyjkVro? 
cf. Lucr. i. 10- 1 1 : 

' Simul ac species patefacta est verna diei 
Et reserata viget genitabilis aura Favoni.' 

J ebb, in his article on Pindar already referred to, suggests that 
many of Pindar's epithets may refer to well-known contemporary 
pictures or other works of art, e.g. cpoivr/.oxrE^av . . . Aajj.orcpa {01. vi. 
94). The same might well be conjectured of the epithet {poivwoeavtov 
as applied to 'flpav. 

2 D 



418 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

ETcattoatv, the plural verb with a neuter plural subject is not uncom- 
mon in Pindar, cf. Pyth. i. 13, 01. ii. 91, 01. ix. 89. 

Bergk's version of 11. 13-15 is as follows: svapys' avs'fjiwv [ucvttJ'i? ou 
XavS-avsi, I cpotvtxosaviov or:. 0?/. 'flp. &<xk. | suoo. E7:aywaiv sap" ouxa vsxxapsa 
I xoxe x.x.X. 

1. 16. (JaXXexai, a good instance of the ' Schema Pindaricum ,' cf. 
aysixai below. Matthiae, Gr. Gr. sec. 303, remarks that in most 
instances there is a singular noun or a neuter plural forming part of 
the subject, as in //. xvii. 387, xxiii. 380, and Pind. 01. x. 5-6. In this 
passage, however, as in Pyth. x. 71, xstrai . . . xu[3spvacriss, such an ex- 
planation does not hold good. In both, as in most other instances, 
the verb precedes its subject, and, in the words of Professor Gilder- 
sleeve {Introduction to Pindar, p. lxxxviii.), we have ' not so much a 
want of concord, as an afterthought '. 

1. 17. 'iwv <po|3ai, referring to the violet garlands worn at the Dionysia, 
cf. toTrs'oavoi in Frag. XIV. 

1. 18. aystxai, for the middle = vj/st, cf. Oed. Col. 1500, where, how- 
ever, Jebb takes the verb to be in the passive. Bergk ays! x' ojj.cpca 
x.x.X. AuXots, the usual Bacchic instrument, cf. p. 37. 

VII. 'Axx\; 'AeXiou x.x.X. Dionys. Hal. De adm. vi die. Demosth. 

c. 7. 

The eclipse which was the cause of this supplication is said by 
Ideler to have been that which occurred on April 30th, 463 B.C. at 2 
P.M., just falling short of a total eclipse. The fragment is assumed 
by Bockh to be from a hyporchem, both on account of its metrical 
nature and from the words of Dionys., who is speaking of ' Dithy- 
rambs and Hyporchems,' to the former of which, from the nature of 
the subject, this cannot belong. The hyporchem belongs to the cult 
of Apollo {v. p. 5) ; but Dissen properly warns us not to think that 
Apollo is in this fragment identified with the sun. See on Dithy- 
rambic Poets, No. ix. More special reference may have been made 
in the course of the poem to Apollo as aX^ixaxog, or the like. 

1. 1. 'Axxl; 'AsX., cf. Antig. 1. 100, so that conceivably this phrase 
was a common form of addressing the sun. £[«?$ #xa? . . . 6p.jj.axwv, 
' O mother of mine eye-sight.' Dionys. has Ipjs ■freto pi' axep 6[j.[xaxwv ; 
Boissonade jxaxsp, the rest is my own conjecture. In Philostrat. Eftist. 
53 we find the words paraphrased thus — xr,v axxtva . . . sivat xwv ejjlojv 
098-aXpwv [oixpa ; hence Bockh reads e^at? ah'at? jj-sxp' 6;j.[j.axwv, which 
he interprets ' visui meo mensura rerum adspectabilium,' regarding 
o|i.(j.axa as = 9sa[j.axa, for which he compares Soph. El. 903, and Plat. 
PJiaedr. 253 E. But Qi<xi in the plural for ' eyesight ' is objectionable, 
and Bergk remarks that the MSS. of Philostrat. give not pixpa but 
pjxs'pa. See Bergk for many other conjectures ; his own reading is 
xt 7:oXuaxo7T:' epLrJaao, Sotov p.ax£p 6[ji[j.axtov ; 

1. 2. aaxpov, of the sun, cf. 01. I. 6 ; and Aesch., Sept. contr. Th. 390, 
calls the full moon 7:p:'aPiaxov aaxpwv. 



PINDAR'S FRAGMENTS 419 

I. 3. 'Made useless unto men the wings of their strength' (Myers). 
Similarly Lid. and Scott, ' soaring, aspiring strength.' But why not 
'transient, fleeting', as in Eur. Frag. 273, -xrjva? — sX^ioa; ? This 
quality is constantly associated with the attribute of wings, as in the 
instances of Victory, Fortune, and Love. 

1. 4. uocpta;, ' especially augury and foreknowledge ' (Fennell). 
Corrected by Hermann and Schneider from stcicjxotxxev dx. Eaaafjiva. 

1. 5. eXau'vstv, cf. Nem. III. 74 ; s'Xa os xai XEaaapa? dpsxa; | d [j.axpo; 
atwv. Ti vsu-cspov 'some strange thing' (Myers) ; a familiar euphem- 
ism, cf. Pyth. iv. 155 ; and Soph. Phil. 1229, etc. 

I. 6. I have slightly altered Hermann's '0:71:01; fl-oats, MSS. '(r.r.o<; Q-oa;. 

II. 7-8. xpdraiio, MSS. xpoTroio. The use of the middle xpsxropiat in an 
active sense is doubtful, and some editors therefore read xpdrroc;. 

1. 9. 0' el aaj-ia Hermann, for Si? d;j.a. I have partly followed Bergk's 
inversion of the order of the words in this sentence, axdsiv ou. occur- 
ring in the MSS. most inappropriately between vicssxou ad-. u~. and r t 

"GVXOU XEV. x.x.X. 

1. 13. oispov Scaliger, for tspov. 

1. 14. xaxaxXuaaiia, Lcsb. Dial. p. 83. 

I. 15. Hermann's reading from one MS. 0X09 . . . 3ev oxt, x.x.X. the 
rest giving oXoou . . . ravxtov, x.x.X. 

Fennell compares Eur. PJweniss. 894 : z\ yap wv tjoXXwv pxa xd 
[jleXXov si /pyj jreiaofJiai - xt yap xravho ; 

VIII. (a') Xatp u •9'£oo[j.axa, x.x.X. 

II. 1-5. Philo De Corrupt. Mundi, p. 961 (ed. Francof.) ; the rest by 
Strabo x. p. 742 B, 743 A. It is a Prosodion, or rather ' Processional 
Paean ' (r:aidv jrpoaoStaxds), sung by worshippers approaching Delos, 
of the kind mentioned by the Schol. Isth. 1. ad init. 

1. 2. epvo?, further explained by t:ovxou Q-u'yaxsp (1. 3). 

I. 3. dxivijirov. In Hdt. vi. 98, we are told that Delos was first dis- 
turbed by an earthquake in 490 B.C. in accordance with an oracle 
xivrjaw xa\ ArJXov axtvTjxdv rsp souaav. Thucyd. ii. 8, speaking of the 
Peloponnesian War, says, A7JX0? Ixivij&T] dXtyov 7xpo xou'xwv, rcpoxspov 
ou7tto oeiO'9-siCTa, da>' ou eXX7]ve; [jiu.vr]vxai. Klein endeavours to recon- 
cile the discrepancy by supposing that Hdt. ante-dates, and Thucyd. 
post-dates, the same occurrence. We may either assume that Pindar 
wrote before the earthquake, whatever its date, or take dxtv^xov simply 
as opposed to xo-dpoi#-£ cpopr,xd below. 

II. 4-5. AdXov 'Far-seen'; dsxpov, the ancient name being Asteria. 
Dissen remarks that primitive names are constantly ascribed, especi- 
ally in Epic poetry, to the gods (cf. Odyss. x. 305 ; MwXu o; [juv 
xaXsouai 0-eoi, and //. xiv. 291 ; //. i. 403). 

Antistr. 1. 4, Koioysvris, Porson's correction from xdl 6 ys'vo?, 
xatvoyEvr];. Cf. Apoll. Rhod. Argon, ii. 710; Arjxw Koioyi'vsia, and 
Hes. Theog. 404. Goat; Bockh, for 9-u'ot?, -Ociat? ; Bergk duoiJ 
( = {h!ouaa), with a different metrical arrangement. 



420 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

1. 5. impa vtv Porson, for imfiaivav. 

3^ ™ TS ) x.t.X ' Then verily from foundations deep in the earth 
there shot up four straight pillars, shod in adamant, and held up the 
rocky isle on their capitals.' npfp-viov Hermann, for xpujj.vwv. 

1. 8. ir.6'ba.xo yevvav, a fine example of Pindar's terse descriptive 
power, a picture of the mother's fond gaze on her 'goodly offspring' 
being called up by a single stroke. 

(P') Tlpoi 'OXupciou, x.t.X. Aristid. T. II. p. 379. Bockh concludes 
that the passage is from a Prosodion on approaching Delphi, and 
apparently the poet himself took part in it. 

ywpio. Donaldson thinks that this refers to the dancing-place at 
Delphi, where the choral odes were performed. 

IIt£pJ3wv jipocpaxav, cf. Fr. Il8 (Bockh), Mavxsu'so Motaa, ^pooaxsuaw 3' 
syw, and Plat. Laws, iv. 719, r.oifiir^ 6~oxav sv x<o xpiraSi X7js Mouarj? 
y.avK£7]xai. In Plat. Phaedr. 262, Mouawv jcpocpifxai is used of grasshop- 
pers ; cf. on Alcaeus, II. 1. 3. 

SCOLIA. 

For Pindar's Scolia, see Bockh, vol. iii. p. 607 ; Bergk, Poet. Lyr. 
Gr. vol. i. 371 ; and Engelbrecht De Scol. Poesi, ad fin. It is doubt- 
ful whether they were comprised in an independent book, but that he 
wrote songs falling under this division of Melic poetry, we know 
from his own testimony in Fr. 87 (Bockh), xoibcvoe [ieXicppovos ap/av 
supojjLsvov axoXiou. Their peculiarity was that they were choral, thereby 
illustrating the tendency in Greek Lyric poetry to extend the province 
of choral song {v. p. 24). Bockh conjectures that they were delivered 
by only one singer at a time, while the rest of the band accompanied 
him in silence with the dance. The strophes, so far as we can judge, 
were short, and the metrical system was in the simple Dorian style. 
There are several fragments which seem to be referable to the class 
of choral Scolia, their common characteristic being that they relate 
to the appropriate convivial subjects, love and the banquet. 

IX. Xprjjv [jlev xaxa xatodv, z.x.X. Quoted among various specimens of 
love-poetry by Ath. xiii. 601 c, who speaks of Pindar as ou (j.exptw; wv 
spwxwd;. It is only in these fragments that this feature in his char- 
acter exhibits itself, since, with rare exceptions {e.g. in the beautiful 
passage concerning the love of Apollo and Cyrene, Pyth. IX.), it is 
conspicuously absent in the Epinician Odes. The lines are in praise 
of Theoxenus of Tenedos, a youth in whose arms Pindar is said to 
have died (Suidas). 

I. 1. Notice yprjv, not /p^, ' it were right ' under other circumstances ; 
i.e. ' the beauty of Th. makes me forget what becomes old age '. Mev 
Heyne, for p.s. 

II. 2, 3,4. Quoted elsewhere also by Athen. 564, with the expression 
o pieyaXocpwvdxaxo; nlvoapo;. In this passage Ath. gives oaawv instead 



PINDAR'S FRAGMENTS 421 

of jupoffwjrou, which occurs in Ath. 601 c, and which is less poetical. 
Hermann restores the metre by the insertion of xi;. 

Map[jtapi£oi<ia; (Lesb. Dial. p. 83). Dissen compares the op.p.axa 
[i.ap;i.atpovxa of Venus, //. iii. 397. 

1. 4. [xil. xapS. Dissen, who compares Soph. Aj. 955, xeXaivwroxv 
ih)[j.6v of Ulysses, regards the epithet as implying not dulness of heart, 
but villany or brutality. If so, Pindar is regarding vice as the natural 
associate of insensibility, just as Shakespeare does in the passage : 
'The man that has not music in his soul,' etc. But I think that 
the force of pisXouvav is explained rather by 'iu/oa 0X071, i.e. 'The 
dark metal of his heart has never been heated to a red glow '. Or 
possibly 'black' in this connection signifies 'turbid', 'brooding', 
compare 7iop<pupw, xaXyaivw, perhaps from the notion of the black 
and turbid surface of a pool. 

I. 6. Btaiw;, 'strenuously', 'with all his force', not in the sense of 
Aristot. Ethics I. v. 8, 6 8s yp7];jiaxiaxr;; ((Bloc) ptaios xi$ laxi, i.e. a life 
one would only take to of necessity. 

yuv. 9-p. x.x.X. Fennell suggests that frpaasi is a ' Pindaric ' dative 
after frspa-cuwv, ' an attendant on shameless women ', the meaning 
being that such a man is incapable of true love. Dissen, adopting 
Schneider's -iuyav forAoypav interprets 'muliebri nequitia vagatur hue 
illuc animo, omnem viam sequens'. 

II. 8-9. ' But I by her power (Aphrodite's) melt away like the wax 
of sacred bees, when caught by the heat.' Taao' IV.axt Hermann, for 
o' r/.axi xac. EXx tpav Bergk,'for IXsTjpav, sXsxpav. Bockh reads aXX' 
eyw (wpa;) sx.axt xa; (-oikiva;) -/.r]po; w; | Aayd-iiz eXairjpdv p.sXiaaav (the 
honeyed bees). With xaso' i'xaxt cf. Alcman xvi., Ku-pwo; Fxaxi. The 
epithet Upo? is applied by Pindar to bees in Frag. 129 (Bockh), xat; 
ispofidi [xsXiacjai; x;'p-orj.ai., and Bockh explains it from the fact that 
bees were closely connected with the worship of Ceres and Proser- 
pine. Demeter and Artemis were both called MsXtacra, and the 
priestesses at Delphi MjXickjou (v. Liddell and Scott) ; and there seems 
to have been a special connection between bees or honey and pro- 
phecy. See Pind. Of. vi. 47, and Horn. Hymn to Mercury 556 seq. 
Krjpo; ozydziz Tax is, however, a doubtful expression, though oayfhl; in 
the sense of ' love-smitten ' is not uncommon : cf. Eur. P/ioe?i. 303, 
Hipp. 1303. With the whole passage Cookesley compares Ov. Met. 
iii. 487 seq. : 

. . . ' ut intabescere flavae 
Igne levi cerae . . . 

... sic attenuatus amore 
Liquitur, et caeco paulatim carpitur igni '. 

1. 10. Hartung is in favour of omitting the words uiov 'Ayrja., and 
indeed it is perhaps somewhat unnatural to say ' In Tenedos Per- 
suasion and charm dwell in the son of Ages', as if Persuasion, like 
yapt?, were a personal quality of his. It is not unlikely that utov is 



422 GREEK LYRIC POETS 



overned by a verb not preserved, so that 1. 10 would be simply ' In 
Tenedos Persuasion dwells'. For Peitho, see on Sappho I. 18. 



& 



X. Avix' dv9-pionwv x.t.X. 

Quoted by Athen. xi. 782, in illustration of the inspiring influence 
of wine. Compare the veiy similar passage from Bacchylides II. 
and note. From the nature of the subject I have placed this frag- 
ment under the heading of ' Scolia'. 

I. 3. "era Hermann, for Taa. Bergk, who objects to "sa as an adverb 
in Pindar, reads "c'aa. 

II. 4-5. Dissen thinks that the gap indicated after ^Xoute'ovte? by 
Athen. (six 5 E7:dy£i) is a small one. Transl. 'And the rich grow 
(wealthier still), their senses mastered by the vine-shaft '. 

XI. Bockh thinks that these three passages, only the first of 
which is quoted as Amphiaraus' admonition to his son, form part of 
a single poem, probably a Scolion (see however on y'), which was 
very likely, as Dissen suggests, addressed by Pindar to some youth 
about to assume the ' toga virilis '. 

(a) 'Q te'x.vov -/..t.X. 

Athen. xii. 513 c. Amphiaraus to his son Amphilochus. ' In Rome 
do as Rome does.' Cf. Scolia XXII. 

Pindar is apparently borrowing from a Cyclic poet quoted by 
Athen. vii. 317 A: 

7iOuXut:o3o? |xoi teV.vov e/wv voov, 'AjJwptXoy' rjpw;, 
To'aiv !oap[J.o£ou, iwv xsv xat o^-iov I'ktjch. 

ETraivTjaai? {Lesb. Dial. p. 83), 'assenting to', cf. 77. xviii. 312 : 
"E/.xopi [J.£v yap ir.r^r^av x.ax.a [j.7]tioojvti. 

(p'). Mr; r:pos a-avra? x.x.X. 

Clem. Al. Strom. I. 345. 11. 

1. 1. avapp^ai, like upocpatvEtv, must be taken in an imperative sense, 
and, as these fragments occur amidst a series of precepts, Monro's 
remark that this kind of infinitive usually follows an imperative may 
very well apply to the present instances {Horn. Gram. p. 162). 

For the expression cf. Ar. Knights 626, IXaatPpovx' avappr]?a; en*}, 
and 'rumpitque hanc pectore vocem', Acn. iii. 246. 'Aypslov Bockh, 
for dpyatov, the correction being supported by the words St' ouSsv 
yp7iat[a.ov quoted by Clem. Al. in illustration of this passage. 'AypElov 
appears to be an example of [xstwai?, ' useless ', i.e. ' harmful ', ' irritat- 
ing', unless «./. Xoyov signifies rather 'unseasonable exhortation or 
admonition '. 

1. 2. raat. tiiy. 600? 'Silence is the safest course'. Sylburg for cm 
-iGzoid.xa.ic, aiya? 65o1?. Cf. Simon, xiv. C and Nem. v. 15— oifcoi 
a'^aoa xspSuov | maivoicra 7:poato-ov dXd frsi' axpex.r\<; | xai to aiyav rcoXXaxi? 
i<rc\ ao'-pcoTaiov dv!)-pu>~o} vorjaai. 

6 /.pa-rtaxEuwv Xoy. ' overbearing language '. 



P I N D A R'S FRAGMENTS 423 

(y') 'AXXoxpiotai x.x.X. 

Stob. Flor cix.i. IIivoocpou "Y(i.vwv according to one MS. 

Bockh attaches these lines to Frag, [i' so as to form one con- 
tinuous passage. The transition, however, would be abrupt both in 
language and sentiment. 

11. 1-2. Cf. Pyth. iii. 84, xa xaXa tpeJ/avxes s£w. 

1. 4. axX. xax. Bockh, for axXrjXTjxcxa;, axXrjxrjxdxa. Bergk axa, from 
a MS. ax7]. 

XII. (a) Tt o' eXtceoi x.x.X. 

Stob. Eel. Phys. ii. 18. Iltvoapou IlaiaVov. and Clem. Al. Strom. 
v. 726. 

Bockh I'[j.[j.£vat, ipeuvdaei, for sivat, s'psuvaaat. For the signification 
of eX^sou, cf. Nem. vii. 20. 

To the poem in which the passage occurs may perhaps belong the 
expression which Pindar uses of xou? tpuatoXoyouvxa; (Stob. Flor. 
lxxx. 4) ocxeXt] aocpta? xaprcov opsreiv, quoted by Plat. Rep. v, 457 B." 

Pindar's words suggest to us the long-standing quarrel between 
poets and philosophers, mentioned by Plato, Rep. x. 607. 

(P') Geou ok ostijavxo; apyav x.x.X. 

Eftist. Soer. I., from a hyporchem, of which the Cretic rhythm in 
the lines is characteristic. 

ev = e;, see on Pind. VI. 1. 1. 

(y') 6ew oe Suvaxov x.x.X. 

Clem. Al. Strom, v. 708, 6 [j.skor.oi6c, and assigned to Pindar by 
Theodoret. Gr. Aff. Cur. vi. 89. 27. 

Perhaps suggested by the eclipse at Thebes (see on Frag. VII.). 
Compare Archiloch. XI., note. 

(o') 0eo<; 6 xa -avxa xsuywv x.x.X. 

Didymus Alex. De Trin. iii. 1, p. 320, and Clem. Al. Strom, v. 726. 

For yapiv, see on vi. 2. 

(e') Kitvoi yap x.x.X. Plat, de Sitperst. c. 6. 6 Ilivoapo? -9-eou? <f>7]rsi. 

Bockh supposes, with reason, that the lines are from a Threnos. 

XIII. Ksxpox7]xai x.x.X. Aristid. ii. 509. 

1. 1. Xpuasa, an epithet often used by Pindar for 'splendid', 
'glorious', cf. ypuasa iXaia 01. X. 13, ypuaij 3a<pv7) 01. X. 40, uyfsiav 
ypuasav Pyth. III. 73, ypuaEaiatv fmrai? {Frag. VI. Bockh). Kpr^l?, a 
favourite architectural epithet in Pindar {v. Jebb, I.e.), cf. xprjriioa 
aocpwv exewv Pyth. IV. 138, xprjri; dotoav Pyth. VII. 3, cpasvvdv xpTjrftS' 
EXsuO-spia; /^r^. 196 (Bockh). Bockh points out that the word stands 
not for the foundations below the ground, but for the whole basement 
(cf. Pausan. vi. 19. 1). Thus 7:otxi'X. xo<x[j.ov = the 'beautifully-wrought 
superstructure '. Bergk's alteration to rcotxiXwv is unnecessary. 

I. 2. eta x£tyt£«[j.£v, which has the authority of one MS., is far more 
spirited than 01a xEiyt^ojxsv. 

II. 4-5. 8-ewv xai xax' avft-pwrtov ayuia? may be regarded as a case of 



424 GREEK LYRIC POETS 

zeugma. The poet is speaking of ' Thebe ' as a goddess, and not 
merely as representing the city. The goddess Thebe is painted on a 
vase, seated, and with name attached ; see Millingen Uned. Momim. 
pi. xxvii. 

XIV.. 'Q xa\ Xwcapoi. 

11. 1-2. Schol. Arist. Achat'. 673, rcapa xa ex xwv Ilivoapou Sifru- 
pa[j.[3tov, Schol. Nub. 299, Schol. Aristid. i. 319. Cf. Ar. Knights 1329, 
where the line is parodied. From these and a score of other 
references to the passage (v. Bergk ad loc.) it is evident that the 
eulogy had become a household word in the mouths of the Athenians. 
It is in connection with these lines that we have the well-known story 
(Aeschin. Epist. iv. 474) that the Thebans fined Pindar for his compli- 
ments to the Athenians, but that the latter repaid him and erected a 
statue in his honour (Pausan. i. 8), Isocr. de Antid. 166 adding that 
they made him Proxenus, and gave him 10,000 drachmae. 

1. 1. toaxsWvoi, cf. vi. 1. 6 and note. 

i. 2. W. Christ scans without anacrusis - uw = I ^ H equivalent 

to a dactyl (j J^). 

1. 4. Plut. De Glor. Athen. c. 7, implying that the lines belong to the 
same poem as 11. 1-2. They refer to the battle at Artemisium. 

XV. "Evfra (xa\) [EouXai. Plut. Vit Lycurg. c. 21. Compare the very 
similar passage from Terpander No. I. and note. See pp. 10 1, 22. 

1. 1. Plut. Ev3a pouXat yep., but the metre seems to require another 
long syllable, and I have inserted xal. Bockh reads evO-a (3ouXai |j.sv. 

Motaa, ap'.Tusu'oiatv (Bockh for Mouaa, . . . -ouaiv) Lesb. Dial. p. 83. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES 

A. 
SAPPHO AND ALCAEUS 

See Alcaeus XI., Sappho x., and Plate 1. (Frontispiece). 

The story of romantic relations between Alcaeus and Sappho rests 
on no less authority than that of Aristotle. In Rhet. i. 9. 20 he states 
that Alcaeus addressed the line •9-sXw xt s't-rjv x.x.X. to Sappho, and 
that the poetess made answer in the stanza Et o' rf/s; s'crXwv /..x.X. The 
line 'IoTcXoy.' ayva x.x.X. is quoted separately by Hephaestion from 
Alcaeus, but is plausibly enough connected with 1. 2 by Bergk, and 
his example is generally followed. 

There would have been little hesitation in accepting Aristotle's 
statement but for the fact that Anna Comnena, who, however, is 
evidently quoting loosely from memory, ascribes the words aXkd. jj.e 



ADDITIONAL NOTES 425 

xwXusi atStj; to Sappho (w? t:ou cprja-.v r\ y.oCki] Sarcoto) ; and Stephanus 
ap. Cram. Ann. Par. i. 266, 25, expressly casts doubt on Aristotle's 
version and speaks of the whole passage from {hXw onwards as a 
dialogue composed by Sappho alone. His words are as follows : — 
Erre 6 'AXxaio; rjpa xdp7]s nvd?, i] aXXo; xi? 7jpa, -apaysi ouv o(J.w? r\ Sorrow 
otaXoyov, xa\ Xs'ysi 6 Iptov xpo; xrjv ip(0[ie'v»)v x.x.X. One of three courses 
may be thought satisfactory. Either let us regard Stephanus as 
unduly sceptical, and accept Aristotle's testimony, together with 
Bergk's addition of the first line 'IotcXox' ayva scx.X. ; or we may urge 
that Aristotle, who is not here speaking as a commentator or critic, 
adopted a common, though perhaps erroneous tradition ; or, finally, 
we may accept, not without boldness, a suggestion that Aristotle 
merely wrote sJ-dvxo? xivog, and that xou 'AXxaiou was substituted for 
xtvo? by a glossator imbued with the popular tradition. Consult 
Museo Italico Antichita Classica, vol. ii. (1886). It is of course pos- 
sible to urge that biographical gossip was a priori certain to bring 
the great Lesbian poet into connection with the still greater Lesbian 
poetess ; and we are put on our guard by the story of Anacreon 
making love to Sappho, who was some two generations his senior. 
On the other hand, there is not the slightest inherent improbability in 
Alcaeus becoming enamoured with Sappho ; contrariwise, in the 
limited society of a Greek city they can hardly have failed to come 
into contact, nor is the susceptible poet unlikely to have succumbed 
to the charm which the writer of the surviving Sapphic fragments 
must have possessed. Some weight too may be attached to the argu- 
ment in support of the tradition from the fact that each writer adopted 
the other's favourite metrical style. 

The incident implied in the verses became a popular subject in art. 
The most famous instance is that of a vase at Munich belonging to 
the fifth century, in which Alcaeus and Sappho with their names 
inscribed are standing together lyre in hand apparently singing the 
one to the other. See Plate I. (Frontispiece), and Millingen Uned. 
Momim. i. 33, 34. There is also a terra-cotta in the British Museum, 
without names, but conjecturally described as a representation of the 
same subject. In neither case is there any direct proof that Alcaeus 
is making love to Sappho, though from his expression on the Munich 
vase it is certainly probable. All that we can safely affirm is that 
Alcaeus and Sappho were brought into connection in works of art 
some time before Aristotle. 

In the article in the Italian periodical above referred to there will 
be found a full description with illustrations of the chief representa- 
tions of Sappho. In one case, see Plate n., Sappho is seated reading 
a scroll, with three maidens around her. It is likely that these are 
intended for some of her pupils ([j.aO-r]-p'.at), to whom I have referred 
in the introduction to her poems, p. 150. Upon the scroll certain 
words are inscribed, which are not improbably to be interpreted : 
0sc/i, rjepitov ItAmv ocpyopiai aXXtov, or a'5siv. 



426 ADDITIONAL NOTES 

It is supposed that these are from one of the poetess' own songs ; 
and the assumption is strengthened by the occurrence of the word 
2Ar(ri22), referring apparently to the scroll and its contents. 

Dumont, I must add, considers that the painting is merely a scene 
from an Athenian 'gynaeceum', idealised by the employment of the 
name of Sappho ; and he points out that the other names, Nicopolis 
and Kall(i)s are not those of any known pupils of Sappho. He thinks 
that we have an illustration of the important part played by music 
and lyric poetry in the life not alone of the Lesbian women, but of 
the secluded Athenian ladies. 

B. 
EROS IN THE LYRIC POETS 

The character of Eros in the early lyric poets is worthy of 
attention from the fact of its being quite distinct from that of later 
times. From the scattered passages in Alcman XV. xvi. Sappho VIII. 
Ibycus I. II. and Anacreon VI. VII, vm. IX. etc., we can construct the 
conception of a youthful divinity in the first bloom of manhood, with 
golden wings, and with that profound expression in the eyes (Ibyc. II.) 
which appears so effectively in the sculpture of Praxiteles. Though 
at times sportive, no childish attributes are as yet imputed to him ; he 
is conceived rather as a relentless deity, whose approach is full of 
terror to his victims ; compare Alcaeus XXIII. Seivotoctov frscov. Thus 
the lyric age regarded him more seriously than the Alexandrine, and 
also invested him with more dignity as a cosmic power, the idea of 
the god being not yet entirely distinct from the idea revealed in the 
early worship at Thespiae, where Eros was revered almost as the 
manifestation of a physical force ; and traces of this older conception 
appear to survive in Sappho 132 (Bergk), where he is called a son of 
Ge and Uranus. 

The wings usually attributed to him both by poets and artists pro- 
bably did not belong to the original religious conception, but were an 
addition of the poetic imagination. 

Plate in. (see Millingen Utied. Mon. xii.) very closely illustrates the 
conception of Eros in the lyric poets. He is playing with a ball, as in 
Anacreon vi. (see note). 

The representation of Eros as a young child or infant, and of his 
actions as the mischievous pranks of a child, becomes common in 
literature and art from the end of the fourth century onwards, and it 
is a distinguishing mark of the Anacreontea as distinguished from 
the genuine fragments of Anacreon. 



APPENDIX 



ALCMAN 

Bergk 

1. Vit. Arati ed. Buhle ii. 437. 2 

'Eyiovya 5' asicrojxai 
£/, Aio? ap/0|xsva. 

2. Apol. de Pron. 399 B. 3 

'T[J.£ T£ Jtai (TCpSTSptO? 

3. Priscian rtfe Afc/r. Terent. 251. 4 

Kal vao; ayvc<; £U7tupyo) SspaTtva?. 

*4. Schol. Apol. Rhod. i. 146. 8 

Tw? t£/.£ ol -8-uyaTyjp 
rXauxoj [xa>catpa. 

5. HEROD, -apt ayrjjj.. 61. 9 

KacTtop ts 7tojawv co^ecov &[/.aT?;p£;, It:— OTai COCpOl, 

*6. Hephaest. 3. 10 

Kal sajvo? ev GvJkzrjai tcoaaoi? yjp.svo? [v.axap; avvjp. 

*7. Apol. d? /V*w. 334 A. 

Max.ap; S/tetvo?. 

8. lb. 356 B. 17 

'E|X£, Aaroi'Sa, teo Sau/vocpopov. 

9. Schol. Hom. //. <p. 485. 18 

' E^a^iva TOpi S£p[7.a.Ta {bjpoov. 

*10. Schol. Hephaest. p. 77. 19 

Ou<$£ toj KvajcaAW ouc>£ to! Nup<7u7>a. 



430 



APPENDIX 



Bergk 

11. ATHEN. iii. 114^. 20 

SoJ)y.y.{a/.o!.c, ts y.al jcptjUava; vcovto;. 

12. 23 
See Text, Alcman I. 

ffTp.a. 



Page 1. ... IIco'XuSsux.T]? 

oiov ou Aujcawrov sv jcafxoufftv aXsyco, 
. . . 'Evapacpdpov ts xal 2s(3pov -oSo'y.vj, 
Btoxd^ov ts tov (SiaTav, 

5 .... T£ TOV JCOpUGTOCV. 

Eutei^v] te, /-avastTa t' apr^ov 
. . . s<;oyov r,[/.M7i«v 
. . . tov aypsTav 
. . . {Asyav, EupuTOv te 
IO "Apso? av xcopti) xXovov. 
'A'Xx.wva te too; apicTco; 
. . . xaor.Toasc 



34 atkxcxtx. §s 

(For lines 35-68, .sw Text.) 

Page 3 ... tov ayaty.a, 

70 ouSs Tal Navvto? <co[/.ai, 
a.XV ou&' spara cieioti?, 
ouSs SuXa/.ic te jcal KXs7]c>icr7jpa, 

oucV s? Alvyjcrtp.PpoTa? sv&oicra, cpsccEi? - 
'AcTacpi; te \j.o\ ysvotTO 
75 xal 7TOT7]vs7rot <£>ikuKka., 

Aajxaydpa t' spaTa te 'Iavfrsaic, 
a^l' 'Ayvjci/opa ij.s TVjpsT. 

Ou yap a y.xXTaacpupo; crrp. C' 

'Ayvjciyopa 7rap' auTSt, 
80 'AyiSoi Ss TcapixsvEt, 

•B-wrrr/jpta -8-' ay.' STroavst, 
aXXa tscv . . . utoi, 



ALCMAN 



43i 



Bergk 



Sziy.ad . . . 

x.al tsXoc . . . 
85 d-KOipi v: owrccv jviv aura 

TOxpaevo? [/.octoiv . . . 

yXau£" eytov o . . . [/.aAiffTa 

avSxvvjv eptlj' ttg'vcov yap 

a(/.iv iarcop sysvTO" 
90 zE, 'Ayvjaiyopa; Ss veavtoe? 

. . . spaxa; srspav. . . , 

13. Arist. ii. 40. 

IIolXa>iycov ovu[/.' av^pi, yjvai/.l Si Hotoi^sdpYJa. 

14. Apol. rtfe /*;-£»«. 399 B. 

2)9ea Ss xpoxl youvaxa ~t~ tco. 

15. CYRILLUS a^. Cram. y4;/. Am iv. 1S1. 27. 

Tco Ss yuva rayia cr<pea<; ssi^s X.<opac. 

16. EUSTATH. //. I IO, 25. 

("Apx.Tov 5') sit' apwiTspa X 7 ]?^ ^ tov - 

17. Athen. XV. 682 A. 

Xpuctov op;/.ov sytov paStvav TCTa/^o&; I'cra xaXyav. 

18. SCHOL. HOM. //. -. 236. 

Kai 7tot' 'OSuacrvjO? TaXxGi<ppovO(; tuT-afr' sxaiptov 
Kip/ca STOxXe£(j;o«7a. 

19. AMMON. z/. Ira;. 

jcai 7roi>'.i'Xov i>ta, tgv a.p.TtsAwv 
6<p&aAf/xov oAST/jpa. 

20. Herodian. jtspi [j.ov. Xe'£. 44, 10. 

Too 5s s/.o^uvSea /.ax' av Jtappav (/.afito; £~ta(,sv. 

21. Schol. Hom. Odyss. y. 171. 

Ilap #•' ispov cx-OTislov 7capa ts ^Fupa. 

22. Aristid. ii. 509. 

EiuaTE (7.01 Ta^e, <pu/\a ppoTy-ca. 

23. Hephaest. 40. 

TaijTa [j.iv to? av 6 5a[j.o; axa?. 



27 



30 



32 



39 



4i 



43 



44 



46 



47 



49 



432 APPENDIX 

Bergk 

24. Apol. de Pron. 324 B. 51 

Ou yap sytovya, fixvacua, Aio; -ftuyaxsp. 

25. Apol. de Pron. 366 c. 52 

ITpo; fts ts Ttov <piAiov. 

*26. /A 53 

Ts! yap 'AXs^av&po? oaf/.acsv. 

*27. /A 54 

s yap u.Lo[j.y.i. 

28. £"/. M. 622. 44. 55 

"Ejqsi [/.' a^oc, to 'as Saty.ov. 

29. Apol. de Pron. 403. 56 A 

290!'; aSeXfpiosoi? 
xapa stal <povov. 

30. £7. /%/-. Miller Af/jr. 213. 56 B 

Eitto [/.' S' auTS <pai<Wo? Al'a?. 

*31. £$wi. Fa. «^. Gaisf. Et. M. p. 327. 57 

Mvj^s [/.' aeiSvjv awspuxe. 

32. Schol. Hom. //. v. 588. 59 

Miocra, Ato? •fruyarsp, 
wpaviacpt Aiy' asi<?0(/.ai. 

33. Apol. dfe C<?;{/'. Bekk. ^4/^. ii. 490. 61 

. . . 'Hpa tov <I>ol ( 8ov ovstpov siSov ; 

34. Eustath. CW. 1787,43. 64. 

"Ettl TrapsvTiov p/acmv s— i$s<7&ai. 

35. Apol. de Pron. 378 a 65 

r £lq y.[jM T xaAov [/.saiocov. 

36. CHOEROBOSC. Efiimer. i. 94. 68 

Aoup! Ss Euctco ;ji|X7]vsv Aia? ai^ara? ts Msp.vwv. 

37. Schol. Hom. 77. a. 222. 69 

"O? FsOsv toxaoi? t~ ocasv oaif/.ova<; t' doaaaafo. 



ALCMAN 



433 



38. Athen. iv. 140 c. 

K^m xa [/.uaoc SpucpyJToa y.rpi\ txX$ <7uvatx.Aiat;. 

39. lb. 

Aix,Aov 'A^jcjaocwv apjxoEaTO. 

40. Herod. Cram. Aft. Ox. i. 159. 30. 

'Hcr/ȣ rig GxacpEu; avacawv. 

41. Apol. <jfe /Sfrfy. Bekk. Ann. ii. 563. 

IIpdG&' 'Atcgaacovo? Aua-qto. 

42. £/ /7<?r. Miller Misc. 55. 

Naotatv avS-ptoTroiciv at^oisaTatrov. 

43. Apol. de Pron. 383 b. 

At, yap ap.tv 

TO'JTOOV [/.SAOt . . . 

'Ap.lv V vTza.u'krpzi f/iXoc. 

44. Priscian i. 21. 

Kal yetj/.a 7r0p te Sa^iov. 

45. Herod. Cram. y?«. (9r. i. 287. 4. 

Oijtx? yap ^p a ^w aivco. 

46. 7£. 60. 24. 

Ae7TTa. &' aTap7roc, vyjAEYji; S' avay>ta. 

47. STRABO xii. 580. 

<J>puyiov auAvjcsv [xs'ao? Keppr^ctov. 

48. Hephaest. 81. 

ITepictfov ai, yap 'Atcoaacov 6 Au/.yjoc 
'Ivto <7aAaG<70[AsSoic', av octto [/.ac&tov. 

49. Hephaest. 66. 

"Ex,aTOv usv Ai6<; uiov TaSe Mtoaai >tpoxo7ve7rAOi. 

50. £"/. .F/cr. Miller yJ/»<r. p. 206. 

Aiyux.opTOv xaAiv ayet. 

51. Apol. </<? ^ww. 365 a. 

6 yopo? ap-o? seal toI, FavaE. 
2 E 



Bkrgk 
70 



71 



72 



73 



74 A 



77-8 



79 



80 



81 



82 



82-3 



85 A 
85 R 

86 



4 34 APPENDIX 

52. Herod. Cram. An. Ox. i. 418. 8. 

' Ottots utco tou ' l-KTzoloyw, xlio$ $' £(iaAAov 

OU VUV UTCGTiXVTlOV. 

53. Apol. Z?jw. «fc Synt. 212. 

Nixo S' 6 /capptov. 

54. Athen. iii. 81 f. 9° 

Mvjov vj xo&jjxaAov. 



55. lb. xiv. 636 F. 

MayaStv V a7tofr£<70at. 



Bergk 
88 



89 



9i 



56. Et. M. 171. 7- 92 

TauGia 7raAAa/UU>. 

57. lb. 506. 20. 93 

Kal Ke'px.upo? ayeiTai. 

59. lb. 620. 35. 94 

"Ox/.a §7) yuva s'fy v 

60. Eustath. //. 1547. 50. 95 

Tav Mtocav xaTaOcsi?. 

61. Schol. Hom. //. [x. 66. 96 

Tiov £v ©£<raaAia yJXetTSt.. 

62. Eustath. 77. 1147. 1. 97 

AaSo? si[/.s'va *aAov. 

63. £/. Af. p. 486. 39- 98 

KaAAa [j.EAicSo^ivai. 

64. Apol. de Pron. 396 c. 99 

Ta Fa. xa^ea. 

65. Athen. ii. 39 a. 10 ° 

To v£x.xap sSp.svai. 

66. Eustath. <9</. 1618. 23. 10 1 a 

'ApTs'pTO? &£pa7rovTa. 

67. £/. Flor. Miller iT/w. 291. IDI B 

MfiAlGJtOVa TOV a.[7.6p7). 



APPENDIX 435 



ALCAEUS 

Bergk 

1. Hephaest. 79. I 

'ft 'va£ "Attoaaov, 7rat p.EyaXo) Ato;. 

2. Strabo ix. 411. 9 

^ftvacrd' 'A&avaa 7roA£y..ao*6'>to;. 

a 7rot Kopwvr ; a; i%i 7d<j£o)v 
vauw TOxpot&£v ajjwpt (paivetc) 
KtopxXico TCOTap.w xap' cfy&ai;, 1 

3. APOL. Dysc. de Pron. 358 B. n 

"ftcTe #io)v [/.TjosV 'Oaujj-tticov AOaat. aTsp Fe8-£v. 

4. Apol. </(? /V^/z. 387 b. 13 A 

To yap Oiwv LoTar' uf/.f/.s AayovTtov yspai acpO-irov 
av&r^Et. 

■"■5. Apol. dV ./V0#. 395 a. 14 

To a £pyov ay^aatTO rsa xdpa. 

*6. APOL. de Adv. in Bekk. An. ii. 613, 36. 17 

. . . Taia? x.al vtcpoEvro? topavw p.£<7ot. 

T. Strab. xiv. 661. 22 

Aocpov te G£icov Kapi/.ov. 

8. Herod. 7rEp\ jaov. lit 10, 25. 26 

£/ Flor. Miller ^/*w. 264 (1. 3). 

Ou§£ 7TC0 IToCTElSaV 

aA[XUp0V £CTTU(pEAlC,£ 7T0VT0V 

oiov (toSov) ya? yap 7fiAST«i cr£o>v. 

*9. Herod. Cram. An. Ox. iii. 237. 1. 

"Ap£o 0V190P0; $a6cn]p. 

*10. ChoerobOSC. Epim. i. 210. 29 

"Ap£UO? CTp7.Tl0iT£p0t;. 



1 The passage as it stands above is mainly conjectural, otherwise 
I should have inserted it in the text. In Strabo we have only^Aaar' 
'A^ava ajioXe . . . a~o Koipwvta? E7tt5so.iv auw TtapoiO-ev ajxcpi . . . KcopaX'lw 
x.x.X. 



436 APPENDIX 



To yap 
"Apeu'i x,aT&av/jv xaXov, 



Bergk 

30 



31 



Mi£av S' sv aAAaXoi; v Ap£ua. 

*11. Hephaest. 63. 38 

Tpi{3o)A£Tsp* 00 yap 'Apx.ao*EGGi At/pa. 

12. Plut. Sympos. iii. 1, 3. 42 

Koct xa? 7roAAa Tra-SmcTa; x.£<paAa<; xax^Ea-rto p.upov 

3Cal 3C0CT T(J3 7T0AIO) CiTTJ&EO;. 1 

13. Athen. xi. 481 a. 43 

Aaraye? TTOTSOvrai 
xuA!.y(vav a7rd Tyjiav. 

14. Athen. ii. 39 b. 47 

"Aaaotoc p.iv {asakxSeo?, aAAoxa S' 

d^UTEpCD Tpt^OAdiV apUTT^fAEVOl. 

15. Hephaest. 61. 48 a 

KpovioV. (3aaiA7]0? y£vo? Al'av, tov apirrrov 

7teo" 'AyjXkzcx.. 

16. Eustath. a</. Dionys. Per. 306. 48 B 

. . . 'A^iaaeu, 6 ya; Sjcu&taai; pio*£t;. 

*17. Demetr. TOpl 7iot7][xaTwv, Vol. Hercul. Ox. i. 122. 50 

. . . Ao/Uf/.ot S' apwrros E[/.p.Svai 
7rcovcov ai Se 5c' ovyjci ^ao\x; tcoI <pp£va; otvo?, au 

Si; a-9-Aio;. 
Ka.7ro; yap xEcpaXav x.a.Ti<r££i" tov ^dv &af/.a -&u{/,ov 

aiTta{/.£vo; 
7r£Sa[/.£udp.£vd? t' acra^st" tox' oujceti FavSavEf 

7TG) TaV§£, 7T<5. 

17. Athen. iii. 85 f. 51 
IlETpa; x.al xoAia; &aAa<7(7a; tsjcvov . . . 

. . . ix. Se xaiScov ^auvoi; ©psvas, a •9-aAaaaia A£7ra<;. 



1 Conjecturally restored from Plutarch's (xeXeuwv) xaxa^eat to jiupov 
auTou xata toe? 7toXXa ^afrofaa; xecpaXa? xat xto 7ioXtcJ arr^Eos. 



A L C A E U S 437 

Bergk 
18. Athen. xi. 460 D. 52 

'Ex. &£ 7TOT7]piG)V 7U{OV7j$ AtVV0[-/.EV7] 7rapiffSwv. 

*19. EtM.($9,$i. 54 a b 

Xaips xal xio tocvSe 

AsOpO <7U[J.77<i)iH. 

20. SCHOL. PlND. 01. x. 15. 58 

OuxsV Eyw Auxov 
ev Moicoa; aAsyto. 

21. Herod. Cram. An. Ox. i. 144-6. 60 

"Etctov KuTcpoyev^a; 7ra/\a(/.ai<7tv. 

22. /£. 413, 23. 61 

Tepsvae avO-o; oirtopa?. 

23. 112 

'Ex TO'J ^SCpO'X . . . TO^SUOVTE?. 

24. -fiVyw. Gad. 162, 31. 64 

Kal 7rXeiGT0t? eavactfe Aaoi?. 

25. Strabo xiv. 606. 65 

IIpcoTa [jiv "AvxavSpo? Asaeywv 7^6X1?. 

26. HESYCH. 'Eni7:v3uwv. 66 

"H 7TOU GuvayavSptovSa<7^.£vov 

CTpaTOV VOW.IGI7.EVOC 7TV£OtC7a. 

27. Cram. ^4«. /"ar. iv. 61. 13. 66 

Tov yaTavov apxo; say). 

28. Harpocr. 175. 15. 68 

Tla{y.7rav fV Itu^ciXt', ex. ft' s/\stg cppsva?. 

*29. Hephaest. 43. 69 

Kai ti? eV EG^axiaiTcv obtst?. 

30. Photius 244. 11. 70 

Miy&a p.aXeupov. 

31. Comment in Arat. a/. Iriart. p. 239. 71 

'fls /^oyo; ex 7ry.T£'po)v opwpev. 



438 APPENDIX 

Bergk 
*32. Apol. de Pron. 363 a. 72 

'Epiauftp 7raXa^a«7o;j.ai. 

33. lb. 388 B. 73 

"Ot' accp' a7TOAAU[7.evoi; catoc. 

34. lb. 395 a. 74 

0'ix.to ts Trip ceo x,al rap' afifAias. 

35. £7. vJ/. 290. 47. 75 

Elc tcov Suo/'.aiSsx.tov. 

36. /& 639- 3 J- 76 

Kai y.' ouSev ex, Ssvo; ysvoiTO. 

37. Apol. di? /Vtf«. 384 b. 77 

Ai Si y£ ap.iAi Zeu? tsXsot] vo7jjxa. 

*38. /£. 363 a. 78 

. . . Noov S' eauTto 
Tiap.Tirav asppsi. 

39. Herod. Cram. An. Ox. i. 298. 17. 79 

KaTUTCAsW/) vasortv. 

40. Apol. ^ Pre;?. 384 B. 80 

vfaav. 

41. £"/. M. 188. 44. 8l 

'Awar7&)i)|JU /.v./mi;' outi yap oi (ptAOt.. 

42. Eustath. //. 633. 61. 82 

NuV S' (abT') OUTO? £7WX.pETSt 

xivraaig tov a^' ipa; 7UJ[/.aTOv >iO-ov. 

43. Procl. Hesiod. Op. 719. 83 

A't /»' £t—/]? xa •ftEASi?, (auTO?) a/.ouaat; x.£ 
toc x' ou S-eaoi;. 

44. Hephaest. 60. 85 

Nuftcpat?, Tfflc, Aio; s£ odyio/jto 9atcrt TETuypivat;. 

45. HERODIAN. jcepi [-1.0V. Xe?. 27. 7. 86 

Ai yap xocaao&sv ea&t) toSe, 901 x7]vo&£v sjAfxevat. 



ALCAEUS 439 

Bergk 

46. Apol. de Pron. 263 B. 87 

... 2'' Se crauTti) TO[jia<; ect/]. 

47. /*. 381 c. 88 

MtjS' oviat; toi? TC£Aa<; ap.u.eo)v xapey^v. 

48. Schol. HOM. Odyss. <p. 71. 89 

OuSs Tt |Auva|A£voc ocaaui to v6v]f/.a. 

49. Cram. An. Par. Hi. 121. 5. 90 

'EppacpetoTOu yap avaE. 

50. Artemidor. 6>«<?zV. ii. 25. 91 

"ApxaSe; Escav paAavvjcpayoi. 

51. Schol. Pind. 01. i. 97. 93 

(TavraAw) 
-/teicS-ai x£p x,£<paAa? [/.sya?, to AicijAiSa, aC9o;. 

52. Hephaest. 90. 94 

'Hp' £ti, Aivvoj/ivv], to) TuppaSvja) 
Tap[A£va Aap-Trpa xiavT* £v MupciA'^cp ; 

53. lb. 15. 95 

"E'/t [/.' tkOLGCLC, (XAyEtOV. 

54. Apol. dfe Pron. 382 B. 96 

OlTIVS? ECTAOt 
U[A[/itOV T£ x.al afX(A£ti)V. 

55. Schol. Soph. Oed. Reg. 156. 97 

'EXa<pw Se ppo'pLO? £v onnd-sat <pusi cpd,6epoc. 

56. Herodian nepl fxov. Xs5. 35, 32. 98 

'Ex! yap ilapo; ovtapov istvyjTai. 

57. Paroemiog. t. ii. 765, ed. Goth. 99 

IlaAiv a Cc xapopivei. 

58. Apol. de Pron. 383 a 100 

"A[/.[A£<jIV 77£f>aOpOV. 

59. /A 363 B. 1 01 

'Alia cauTto ;ASTsya)v a(Ua; xpo? 7Co'giv. 



44Q APPENDIX 

Bergk. 

60. Et. M. 264. 17. 1 02 

"Eyw p.Ev ou Sew TaOxa [/.apTupsOvTa?. 

61. Harpocrat. 168. 103 

Kal 2/tu&focoa? U7roo*Yj(7a(/.svo?. 

62. HERODLAN. juep\ [j.ov. Xe?. 36. 1 5. 104 

'Arc xaTspwv p.a&o?. 

*63. Apol. Dysc. de Pron. 381 c. 105 A b. 

ITaTeptov a[/.[/.wv 
' Af/.(/.£T£pO)V v.jioiv. 



SAPPHO 

1. Strabo i. 40. 6 

"H as Kuxpo? xal rio^O!; ^ IIavop(/.o?. 

2. Apol. dfe /Vtf«. 364 c. 7, 8 



3Ca7TlA£l^O) TOt. 

3. Apol. de Syn. 291. 13 



"Eyto 0* 



£ K7,V OT- 



-Tto rt? Epaxai. 

4. Apol. de Pron. 324 B. 15 

"Eywv §' E^aura 
touto cruvotSa. 

5. 2s£ ^/. 576. 22. lb. 335. 38. 17 

. . . Kar' £jaov GraXayp-ov 
t6v S' £7ri7rAa^ovT£? ajzoi <pspoisv 
xal f/.eAe<Wvai?. 

6. Ammon. 23. 18 

'Apxtw? {/.' a ^puG07T£^iAXo? Auo);. 

7. SCHOL. Apol. Rhod. i. 727. 20 

va /jJoi'atGtv. 



SAPPHO 441 

Bergk 
*8. Apol. de Pron. 343 B. 2 1 

. . . "Ef/.s&ev S' E^sic&a Xa&av. 

*9. lb. 22 

"H Ttv' aXXov 
((/.aXXov) av&pc)7rtov £[/.e&ev <piX>]<>&a. 

*10. £7. M. 485. 45. 23 

Kal TTOibjco xal {Aaop.ai. 

*11. Apol. de Pron. 379 B. 24 

Ou Tt j/.ot ujy.p.E?. 

12. /*. 25 

"A? QiXsT up.fASc. 

13. ATHEN. ii. 54 F. 30 

XpUGEWl O SOEplvfrot, £77' ato'viOV £<pU0VT0. 

14. lb. xiii. 571 D. 31 

Aarco x.al Ntopa p.aXa piv cptXai r<j av sraipai. 

*15. Herod. Ksp\ (j.ov. Xs£ 26. 20. 35 

"AXXa, p//j p.syaXuvso SaxruXito 7rspi. 

16. Julian Epist. xviii. 126 

to p.£'X7]p.a TCOp.OV. 

17. Apol. dfe Pron. 386 b. 43 

"Oia 7ravvu^o? a<7<pi xaTaypsi. 

18. Athan. ix. 410 D. 44 

XEipop.ax.Tpa Vz /.ayyovwv 

xopcpupa . . , 

Kal TauTa piv dmp,a(7Sts, 
E7T£p.tj/ axu <3?(oy.aa; 
o<3pa Tip.ta y.ayyovoiv. 

19. /£. xv. 674 D. 46 

KaTOzXan; <j7ro&up.io*a; x 
■nrXsV.Tai; ap/rc' a7raXa &Epa. 



1 Bergk has U7:o0-o[.u8a;, I presume, by an oversight, since he adopts 
Psilosis throughout the Lesbian poets. 



442 



APPENDIX 



20. Zenob. iii. 3. 



TsXXw; 7raiSo<piAtoT£pa. 



21. Ald. Cornu. Cop. 268 B. 

MaXa Svj xȣ/top7jL/.eva? 
ropyco?. 

22. Athen. xv. 690 e. 

23. Herod. mp\ jjlov. Xe'?. 39. 27. 

"Eyto ^' £~l [./.aA&ax.av 
TuXav (tttoaeco [/.EAea. 

*24. lb. 26. 21. 

"Afipa Stjuts xapjcjt a-6lx aAAc'p.av. 

25. £/. i^/. 822. 39. 

Oafct. Svj xoxa A-/]Sav ua>avihvov 

7T£7VUX.aS|7.£V0V to'lOV 
SUOVJV. 

26. 72. 117. 14- 

'OcpB-aAfAOt; o£ [j.sAoa; vjx.to; acopo;. 

27. Philodem. 7isp\ EUCTcPsta?, p. 42, ed. Gomperz. 

XpuacKpavj freparaivav 'AcppoStTa?. 

28. Hephaest. 82. 

^aTicpoi, ti xav 770Auoa[2ov 'A^poStTav. 

29. Attil. Fortun. 359. 

IIap»>£vov aS'Jcptovov. 

*30. Mar. Plot. p. 266. 

H TOV "AotOVlV. 

31. Pollux, x. 124. 

"EaO-ovt' ic, opavto xop^upiav (s^ovto) 

7T£p9£|7.£VOV ^AOCfAUV. 

32. Priscian. vi. 92. 

'O S' "Apsu? <paic»t x,£v 'Acpaurrov ay/jv fiia. 



Bkrgk 

47 



48 



49 



5° 



55 



56 



57 
57 a 

59 
61 

63 
64 

66 



SAPFHO 443 

Bergk 
33. Athen. xi. 460 d. 67 

. . . IIoAAa S' avaptaty.a 7TOT7]pia 

*34. Ald. CV#« Cop. 268 B. 71 

"Hptov ££eSioa£' ex, Tuaptov Tav Tavu<7i§poj/.ov. 

35. Schol. Ar. T/iesm. 401. 73 

. . . Aurap opaiai GTSCpavy]— Id/isuv. 

36. Max. Tyr. xxiv. 9. 74 

. . . Su ts x.ap.0; 0-epaTrtov "Epo?. 

37. Hephaest. 64. 76 

Euij.opooTepa MvacrtStx.a ra? araAa? Fupivvto?. 

38. lb. 77 

'Acaporlpa? ouoaj/.' err', to pavva, ge&ev Tujfotaa. 

39. Herod, rapl piov. Xe'£. 39. 27. 81 

Kap. asv te TUAav xaG7iroA£to. 

40. Hephaest. 85. 82 

Aura Ss cu KaAAiOTCa. 

41. £V. jf/. 250. 10. 83 

Aauot; aTraAa? drapa?. 

£V GT7-<9£<71V. . . . 

42. Hephaest. 102. 84 

AeiJpo Stjute Moicat, ypuctov li-KWiox. . . . 

43. Max. Tyr. xxiv. 9. 86 

. . . IToAAa [j.oi rav 
IltoAuavaV.TiSa xai^a jfaipvjv. 

44. Hephaest. 69. 87 

Za S' £A£c;yp.£v ovap KuTrpoyEvvja. 

45. Hephaest. 66. 88 

Ti [J.z IlavSiovi; to pavva jfsXiotov. 

46. Pollux, vii. 73. 89 

. . . *Au.<pl &' ajiipot.; Aacioi; eo /•£ —ux.acrGSv. 



444 APPENDIX 

Bergk 
47. Demetr. de Eloc. 162. 122,123 



^pucrto ^pucroTepa. 

48. Herod. Cram. An. Ox. i. 71. 19. 96 

'Airazp-ftevcx; ecraop.ou. 

49. 7#. i. 190. 19. 97 

Ato(jo[/.ev, ^<ri 7caT7)p. 

50. Hephaest. 102. 100 

MEAAtjao? S' iiz' ipipTW /.e^utou 7:po<no7«i>. 

51. ApOL. de Conj. in Bekk. An. ii. 490. 102 

'Hp' Sti TCap&svia? S7ri(3aAAO[/.ai. 

*52. Hephaest. 25. 103 

Xaipotaa vu[/.<pa, ^atpsTto %' 6 yaf/.(3po;. 

53. DlONYS. de. Comp. Verb. a xxv. 106 

Oo yap ^v aTspa rcai?, to ya^-Pps, TOtauT*. 

*54. Plotius 266. 107-8 

v E(77T£t' 'Tp.^vaov. 

fl TOV 'A^OJVtOV. 

*55. Herod, rcepi jaov. Xejf. 26. 21. no 

"AXAav [y.7j xa^-eGTspav cppeva. 

56. Apol. de Pron. 366 A. 1 1 1 

c&atvSTod /-bi y.yjvo?. 1 

57. Athen. ii. 57 D. 112 

'fltoi uoXu Asoxoxepov. 

58. Moschopul. Opusc. 86 (ed. Titz). 113 

MtJt' StXOt [A£Al p.^TS piAiacra. 

59. Schol. Apol. Rhod. i. 1123. 114 

Mv; xivvj ^spaSa;. 

60. Apol. «fc /Vv?«. 387 a. 115 

"07UTai; ap.p.e. 



1 See on Sappho II. 1. 1. 



SAPPHO 445 

Bergk 

61. Schol. Arist. Plut. 729. 116 

' H[/.itu|3iov CTocXacaov. 

62. Apol. de Pron. 396 B. 117 

Tov fov xaiSa xaAsi. 



STESICHORUS 



1. EL M. 544- 54- ' 

' EpfASia$ (pAoysov [aev sSooxs xal "Apuayov coxsV. 

xsxva IIooapya<;. 
"Hpa 5e Ha'v&ov xal KuAAapov . . 

2. ATHEN. iv. 172 D. 2 

Sacay.iSa? ^ov&pov ts xai Eyxpioa;, 
aAAa ts 7CS[/.[AaTa xal {/.sai ^Acopov. 

3. Athen. iv. 172 E. 3 

©ptocxcov [/iv yap t 'A[//piapao:, axovxt, oi vixaasv 

MsAsaypo?. 

4. Athen. iii. 95 d. 14 

axpov ya? uTCVEp&sv. 

*5. EUSTATH. 316. 16. 17 

narpti)' £[xov avTi9-sov MsXa^TroSa. 

*6. Schol. Ar. Pac. 775. 35 

Mouca au [/iv . . . [/.st' £;aou 
xAeiouca atetov ts yajy-ou; av&ptov te SaiTa? 
xal ftaAiai; [/.axapiov. 

*7. /£. v. 780. 36 

"Otocv TJpos topa xsAa&Jj ysAtScov. 

8. Eustath. //. 10. 1. 45 

Aeup' aye KaAALOTCta Atysta. 

9. Aristid. ii. 572. 46 

MeTeijj.t S' dcp' STEpov 7rpootatov. 

1 Conjecturally restored by Bergk. 



446 APPENDIX 

Bergk 

10. Zonar. 1338. 47 

Maxa? et7tO)v. 

11. Athen. iv. 154 F. 48 

Autov cs ITuXap.aye 7up«3TOv. 

12. Schol. Hom. //. C 507. 49 

KoiAcovuywv IVrxcov xpuTavi?, IIoaEiSav. 

13. Schol. Ap. Rhod. iii. 106. 53 

' Pa-9-ivo'j? S' £7ue7T£j/.TCOv ax,ovTac. 



IBYCUS 

1. Athen. ix. 388 e. 4 

Afa][/.', oi cpiXs d-uj/i, TavuxTEpo; 0'? 6'x.a 7rop(p'jpt;. 

2. Priscian vi. 92. IO A 

'OvofAaicAUTOs 'Op9r]v. 

3. .£"/. Af. 703. 28. 10 b 

Uo'.y.ika. 6£yyL<x.T<x. y.ca /caAUTCTpa? 
TCpova? t' avaAucaf7-Eva. 

4. £■/. -Af. 171. 7. 12 

u yap a'jciov 7rat; luoeax;. 

*5 DlOMED. i. 323 (Keil). 13-14 

'EXsva MsvsAal';, 
'AA&aia M£A£aypt; 

6. HEROD. Cram. An. Ox. i. 255. 7. 15 

IIapEA£<;aTO KaSpiSi jcoupr. 

7. Galen, xvii. P. i. 881. 17 

IIux,iva; TOu/piYa? 7:t6[/.evot 

8. Herod, jc. [jlov. Ag. p. 32, 20. 18 

Outi xara cr<p£T£pav EsXcWp. 

9. /£. p. 32, 25. 19 

"Ect9-aov 7cpo^eSey{/ivov £A$cop. 



I B Y C U S 447 

Bergk 

10. Et. M. 542, 51. 20 

OuSe Kuapa? 6 M'/j^eiov (jTpa.Tayo's. 

11. Herod, k. [xov. Xe'5. 36. 2. • 21 

Aapov o aveoi xpovov 7: i ,7T0 fa<psi 7V£7rayto;. 

12. SCHOL. PlND. /V«?/«. LI. 22 

Ilapa ydpcov 
Xiikvov ox.Xsx.tov xaXa^.atTt, {JpoTtov 
7rpocT>e Se viv 7ieS' avapt/rav 
fy&us? top.c^ayoi ve^.ovto. 1 

13. PORPHYR. in Ptolem. Harmon, in Vallis. Opp. T. iii. p. 255. 26 
(Tayjx xiv ti; avyjp) "EpiSo; toti p.apyov e/ojv <rro[/.a 

avTta o*-/;piv S(/.ol x.opucrcoi. 

14. Schol. Ar. Av. 192. 28 

IIoTaTai 0*' £v a.XXoTpioo ya£i. 

15. Schol. Pind. Ztf/fc. viii. 43. 29 

KXaSov 'EvjaXiou. 



ANACREON 

1. Eusth. Oct i. 542, 47. 5 

'AXV to Tpi? X.£X.Op'/]{/.evE 
£(JLSpOlY]. 

2. Schol. Hom. II. y. 219. 7 

2u yap rfi Euoiy' 

aGTEj/Zp'/j?. 

3. Athen. xv. 687 e. 9 

. . . Ti Xtajv TOTeat 
aupiyywv x.oiXwTspa 
TT/j-8-Ea ypwaixsvo; f/.'Jpo> ; 

4. £7. Af. 601. 20. 10 

'O &' u^yjXa vEvtoyxvo;. 



1 Conjecturally restored from — Ilapa 7. XiOtvov tov naXapiai$ (3po-c<ov 
rcpdafre viv 7:a15a vr^pttov •/.- X. It relates to Ortygia. 



448 APPENDIX 

Bergk 

5. Et M. 259. 28. 11 

IIoAAa S' epiPpofxov 
Aslvucov. 

6. Schol. Eur. Hec. 361. 12 a 

Out' Sjrnv axa7.7jv x.actv. 

7. £/. Flor. Miller iT/wc. 208. 12 B 

A£UX,l7r7T(i)V £7Tt $iveai. 

8. lb. 266. 13 B 

Outo; d7]UTS ©aAUGtOt? 

tiAaei tou? x.uava<JTTiSa<;. 

9. CHRYSIPP. n a7rocpaT. c. 22. 15 

OuS' aCTOlGt. 7TpO<J7jV7^. 

10. Schol. Hom. Odyss. ?. 71. 16 

Mu&itou §' ava vvjaov 
MeyCcynj, 5i£7roucriv 
ipov a(JTU (Nuj7.<pscov). 

11. Hephaest. ioi. 22 

Sip-aAov eiSov e*v x ? 1 ? wtjxtw zyovnx xaA^v. 

12. 7£. 52. 23 

'Ex 7TOTapt.ou 'Travsp^o^ai rcavTa <pspou<ra AajjOTpa. 

13. Athen. vi. 229 B. 26 

Xsipa t' dv ^yavio |3aA£iv. 

14. Priscian. vii. 7. 27 

"HAlE X.aAAtAap.7T£T7J. 

15. Hephaest. 96. 30 

Tov [AUpOXOtOV ^p6|J.7jV STpa.TTIV £1 xop-T^aEi. 

16. Schol. Pind. Isth. ii. 9. 33 

OuS' apyup£7] x.to tot' £Xa.f/.7r£ u£i&co. 

17. Attil. Fortun. 359 (ed. Gaisfd.). 34 

ElfJM Aapwv £? "Hp7]<;. 



A N A C R E O N 449 

Bergk 

18. SCHOL. HOM. //. to. 278. 35 

supetv, fxi£iv oyoiv 7vpd; arTcou?. 

19. Schol. Hom. Odyss. jj.. 313. 36 

20. Pollux, vii. 172. 37 

. . . XrjXivov ayyo; . . . 
s^ov xu0-(7.£va<; aypiiov aeAivtov. 

21. HESYCH. v. "Epfxa. 38 

'Ac7J(/.tov uTOp spp.a.Ttov <popsut/.ai. 

22. Apol. afe 5y«/. 238. 40 

2s yap <py] 
TapyTJXto? i[>.\j.£kiii>c, 
oiaxstv. 
23 Athen. x. 430 d. 42 

Ka&apY) §' ev ksaeP - /] tcsvte xal rp£i£ avaysurO-tov. 

24. £7. J/. 713. 26. 52 

Sivap.copoi 7roXs{/.iQou<Ti 8upwp(3. 

25. Hephaest. 69. 55 

Aiovucou ca.OXoa Ba<7<7apiSs:;. 

*26. Schol. Aeschyl. Prom. 128. 56 

OuS' ai' [j! saerei? [as&uovt ot>ca^' axsAfrslv. 

27. Athen. x. 433 f. 57 

<f>&7] yap ei ^£vot?, saaov ^£ p.s SupwvTa tciciv. 

28. Apol. Sophist. 87. 21. 58 

'Arco S' £^£iXeto 8-s<j[/.dv piyav . . . 

29. Schol. Eur. Hec. 934. 59 

'E/cSuc7a yrrtova &wpia£siv. 

30. Ammon. 42, Valck. 60 

Kai [/.' £7ufkoTOv icaxa yEirova? 7roiy«T6i?. 

31. Schol. Hesiod. Theog. 767. 64 

XO-dvtov S' £;y.auT0v vjpEv. 
2 F 



450 APPENDIX 

Bergk 

32. Schol. Pind. 01. vii. 5. 66 

. . . 'AAAa 7rpo7rtv£ 
paSivoO?, to cpile, [AVjpOiVg. 

33. Hephaest. 39. 67 

'ASujaeaec, ^apiEGaa yzkuSoi. 

34. /A 68 

Mvaxat Stjuts (paAaxpo? "Aae?^?. 

35. is/. M. 429. 50. 71 

Outs yap "m&Tspsiov outs JcaXoy. 

*36. Schol. Hephaest. p. 163 (ed. 2 Gaisf.). 72 b 

'AcTSpi?, OUTS <X Syw Cp'.AEtO oCV 'AtcSAASTIJi;. 

37. £/. i»/. 433- 44- 73 

BouAsxat araoouos (ft;) iqp.lv etvai. 

38. Julian. Misopog. 366 b. 77 

Euts p,ot Asu/.al p.eAatvai; ava[/.E[/.i£ovTai Tpi^e;. 

39. Schol. Soph. Antig. 138. 78 
('Ev) fj.£Aa|x<p'jAAw Sa<pv<x }(Aiopc2 t sXaia TavxaAi^ei. 

40. Herod, rtfe Barbar. 193 _^<?j/ Ammon. Valcken. 78 

Kofyucrov S', to ZeO, goaoixov cpOoyyov. 

41. Schol. Hom. //. p. 542. 79 

AtOC SspVjV §}CO^S (J.SGTG7JV, xaS &£ Atoxo; SG^lG-8-7]. 

42. HEROD. Cram. An. Ox. i. 288. 3. 81 

Ai Ss p.£u <ppsvs; 
siocs/CGxpsaTai. 

43. Athen. vi. p. 498 c. 82 

'Eyto S' s^tov <Jxu7i:(pov 'EpSutovi 

TtO AEUKOAOCpOU [7.ECT0V sEeTUVOV. 

44. Ammon. p. 37, ed. Valck. 86 

Kal -8aAa[7.o?, Iv ia xstvo; oux £y>][.'-£v, <xaa' syrpaTO. 

45. £V. M. 523. 4. 87 

Kvt^T) ti? >;Sy] xal 7T£7i£ipa yivoy-ai 
ct/jv Sta [/.apyocuvyjv. 



ANACREON 451 

Bergk 

46. Zonar. 1 5 12. 88 

Kou p.ox.Xov sv S-upyjai o\£/j(7lV pa/vCOV 
tcd'/oc, xa9suo*£i. 

47. Strabo xiv. 661. 91 

Aia Ss'jts Kapi/iS'jpyso?, 
ojy.voio jpfpa Tiftsy.evai. 

*48. Hephaest. 30. 92 

'O piv #i"X(ov {/.ayea-9-ai, 

TrapscTi yap, fy.ajscrfroo. 

49. PRISC. flfe Metr. Terent. 249, Lind. 93 

'XI 'paws 0*/) Xtvjv, 
tcoXXoigi yap [j^iXziq. 1 



S IMON I DES 



1. PRISCIAN. de Metr. Com. 250 Lindem. 1-2 

'Epo;^p*/jT£v B-aXacaa; 

2. PLUT. de Discr. Amic. et Adul. c. 2. 15 

' IxTCOTpocpia. yap ou ZaK.'jv9w 
aXX' apo'jpatiri 7T'jpocpopoi; cratosT. 

3. Schol. Ar. /W. 117. 16 

. . . Kovia So xapa xpo^ov (/.,£Tatitovto? apO-vj. 

4. Plut. de Virtut. Mor. c. 6. 17 

My) paXy) <poivi5ca; ex. /£'p<3v i[/.avTa?. 

5. Athen. xi. 490 f. 18 

AiSi«m §' so tiv 'Epp.a; Ivaywvioc, 

Maia^o; oupsia? sXix.o l 3Xs<papoo Tat;' 

£Tt>cT£ S' "AxXa? rav y' s£oyov sio*o$ 

ETCTa io7rXo/ta[/.wv qptXav O-uyarpcov, Tal xaXlovxat 

IIs>.eiaSs; oupavisu. 2 



1 Conjecturally restored by Bergk from opav asl [jirv k.t.X. 

2 The first part of this passage especially is in a very rough state, 
and is restored partly with the assistance of Schol. Pind. Nem. ii. 16. 



452 APPENDIX 

Bergk 
*6. Plut. Praec. Rei pub. Ger. c. 2. 23 

Aeuxa? x.a&u7t£p&£ yaXava? 

£u7i:p6Go)7rot acpa? rcapai^av spears; vai'a; 
xXawfo? /apa^ovTOu 5ai|/.oviav e? uppiv. 1 

*7. ARISTOT. /?/**/. iii. 8. 20 B 

AaXoy£v£;, site Auxiav . . . 
j^puffsoxo^a? "Exaxe, toxi Aioc. 

8. Plut. de Pyth. Orac.c. 17. 44 

"Ev-9-a ^£pvLp£CTGi.v apusTai 
Moiaav xaXXix6|j.tov uTC£V£p&£v ayvov uotop. 

9. /*. 45 

'Ayva S7ucrxo7r£ KXeioT, ^spvi^cov tsoXuXuttov 
(ax') apuovTEdct, va[j.a ^puc»07r£7rXou (Mva^oauva?) 
(ei' coo*£<;) iz'.c, ap^pocicov ex [J.uytov spavvov uScop. 2 

10. SCHOL. EURIP. Af^. 20. 48 

'O 5*' ocst' ic, KoptvS-ov, o\ Mayvvjtfiav 
vat£v, aXoyou 5s KoX)*to*o<; 
ffuv&povo; aaxso? Asyaiou t* avaTcrEv. 

11. Schol. Hom. //. x. 252. 49 

Kal a\ p.£v, sl'xoci 7taio*o)v (xaxsp, iXa&i. 

12. Schol. Pind. 01. xiii. 78. 50 

Kopiv&toi? 0" ou [/.avisi, ouoe Axvaoi. 

13. Plut. F/V. 7%«nw. c. 17. 54 

TCcpupf/ivov TTpivo? av&£t, . . . spifraXXou. 

14. Schol. Soph. Aj. 740. 55 

Biotou xs crs p.aXXov wvaaoc 7cpoT£po? sXfraiv. 



1 I have considered the passage too doubtful for insertion in the 
text. Schneidewin in 1. 2 seq. has surcpoawTOS a<pa; roxpaxv^a? y £ Xw<; 
vatat? xXaosaa' dpaijEt 7iovxou x.t.X. 

2 The words in brackets are inserted by Bergk, who has re- 
modelled the whole passage, which is hopelessly corrupt in Plutarch. 



SIMON IDES 453 

Bergk 

15. Herod, re. jaov. Xe'ij, 12, 18. 59 

Touto yap fAaAicrra <pvjp scrroye rcutp. 

16. Plut. ^4«. Sen. resp. sit ger. c. 1. 63 

"Ea^arov Sustou jcaxa yac. 

17. Plut. Discrim. Amic. el Adul. c. 24. 64 

Ilapa ^pucdv axrpavrov scpfrdv 
ouAO|/.oXuf3o*o? £cov. 

18. Plut. de Util. Ex host. Cap. c. 10. 68 

'Era£ 
■7racaic xopuSaAAtat, jfp-q Aocpov dyysvsa&at. 

19. Athen. xiii. 604 b. 72 

Iloptpupsou 
oltzo (JTop.aTO? istaa <pa)vav 7rap&evo;. 

20. Schol. Pind. 6>/. ix. 74. 75 

Kouptov o" iE,tk£-yyzi vso<; 
oivo? ou to TTspucri o*<3pov 
ap-TreXou" 6 Ss p.09oc xsvsdfppoov. 

21. Theodor. Metoch. 90. 77 

Mo'vo; aXio? sv oupavto. 

22. Schol. Hom. //. <p. 127. 78 

Eur' aAa GTi^oiaa -nrvoia. 

23. Schol. Hom. //. |3. 2. 79 

OuTO? OS TOl Tjo'ufAOV U71V0V s/wv. 

24. Cram. ^4». /"ar. iv. 186. 33. 80 a 

"Eva o otov svsi*s #sa (/iyav si? Suppov. 

25. Athen. ix. 374 d. 80 b 

' Ay.spd<po)v' aAex.T(op. 



454 APPENDIX 

TIMOCREON 

Bergk 
Hephaest. 71. 6 

7totI xav [7.aT£p' £<pa. 



CORINNA 

1. Herod, rc. (j.ov. Xe?. 11. 8. * 
Tou Se, [/.axap KpoviSa, too IIoT£Lo*awvo;, ava£ Boiwte. 

2. Apol. <& /Vtf#. 365 B. 4 

Ou yap tIv 6 (p^ovspo? Sai[AWV. 

3. /£. 379 b. 6 

Oupi? Si xoM.i.cr9ivT£;. 

*4. Priscian. i. 36. 8 

KaAAiyopw ^ovo; 
Oupia; SouyaTep. 

5. Apol. dfc /V<?«. 325 a. 10 

'Ioivsi r>' slpwwV apsTa? 
^EipwiaSwv (alow). 

6. /*. 355C. ^ f H 

ITspl tsou; 'Epaa; xot' "Ap£ua tcoujctsui. 

7. THEODOS. «/>. Dindorf rt^Aristoph. Schol. T. iii. p. 418. 12 

AocSovto? o*ovax.OTpo<pw. 

8. Hephaest. 108. 13 

Kyj tcvt^xovt' ou^i(3ia?. 

9. /& 106. 14-18 

Awpaxo; wctt' £<p' iittcw. 
Kapra p.sv [3pip.af/.evoi. 
IToAtv o* £7tpa9op.£v, 7vpo<pav£i?. 
rAooxou Sei ti; ai'Swv 

IlEAE/CEGGt, SoVSItT]. 

10. Apol. <& Pron. 396 b. 19 

(EUWVU[A17]C) 

Tr/jSa fov SsAwoa cptXvj? 
ay^aAT)!; eaeg&t]. 



CORINNA 455 

Bergk 

11. Hephaest. 106. 20 

KXia yspovT* atcofjiva 
Tavaypu^ecrcrt. ~kzwz.0T:£Tzk\><;' 
jt«.sya S' S[/.r? ysyace tcoai? 
AtyoupoxoiTiA*/]? SV07UVJ;. 1 

12. APOL. de Pron. 382 B. 22 

To So Tt? otlu.iwv a/tou(?aTO). 

13. SCHOL. HOM. //. p. 498. • 23 

©soma x.aAAiy£vE8-AS, <pt,Ad£svs, fAOucKxpDajTe. 

*14. Apol. de Pron. 356 A. 24 

Teu? yap 6 xAapo?. 

*15. lb. 381 c. 25 

'Af/.OOV Sdp.wv. 

*16. Herod. Cram. An. Ox. i. 172. 14. 26 

'EcrTap^i 7rroA£[AO). 



BACCH YLIDES 

1. SCHOL. Pind. 01. i. Argum. 6 

Hav-9dxpi^a p.iv ^epsvtJtov 

'AA<peov 7vap' eupuolvav tcgjaov aEAAoSpofxov 
eiSe vtx.a<javTa. 

2. Apol. <fe /V^w. 368 a. 8 

IIpocnpcoveiTS viv em vUat;. 

3. Hephaest. 130. 25 

'H xaAo? ©edxpiTO?" ou p.dvo? avfrpo)7ra)v epa?" 

4. /£. 26 

2C O £V j(_itc5vi [/.ouvio 

7tapa tvjv tpiATjv yuvafcta cpeuyet;. 

5. lb. 76. 31 

*fl ITeptxAeiTe, tocaV ayvo^<rsiv piv ou <r' eA7rou.at. 



1 Conjecturally restored by the commentators. 



456 APPENDIX 

Bergk 

6. Plut. vit. Num. c. 4. 37 

Ei §s "Kiyzi ti; aX><oc, 7wXaT£Ta xileu&o;. 

7. £7. ^/. 296. 1. 38 

MeXayxsuOi? el'Sco^ov avSpo? ' I&a>a]<Jiou. 

8. Athen. i. 20 d. 39 

Tav a^sip-av-rdv tj Me;/.<piv x.al SovaxcoSsa NeiXov. 

9. Schol. Pind. 01. xi. 83. \i 

TTocstSaviov to? Mavuvsi; Tpicoovxa 
^aXxoSaiSo&oiGiv ev dumai (popeuvTS?. 

10. IOANN. SlCEL. Walz. vi. 241. 42 

' A(3pcTVjTi ^uvsaciv 'Icoviov paGiXvje?. 

11. PRISC. Afc/r. Terenl. p. 251 (Lind.). 43 

Xpucov PpoTtSv yvto|j.at<7i (j.avuet x.a-9-apdv. 

12. Et. M. 676. 25. 45 

rD/r^.'/.uptv 7T0VT0U <puya>v. 

13. Herod. Cram. An. Ox. i. 65. 22. 46 

Auerfv-sveoov 8' ai^r?. 

14. Clem. Al. Strom, v. 715. 34 

Oi [/iv aS|/.aT££ aetxe>.iav eicrl voggjv xal ava.roi, 
ouSev av8po)xoi!; ticsXot. 1 

15. Clem. Al. Praedag. iii. 310. 35 

Ou yap u7rdx.)t07rov (pops? 
PpoTOici (ptovasvTa 'Xdyov cotpia. 1 



POPULAR SONGS 
L Athen. xiv. 636 d. 

W ApT£|J.l <70l p.E Tl CppT^V £<piJXSpOV 

u{v.vov usvai T£ 0&£V 



Ai Ss ciov-i)-' a[/.a ^pucocpaevva 
x,p£ij.pala ^."XxoTtapaa ^spaiv. 



1 Conjecturally restored from a corrupt text. 



POPULAR SONGS 457 

Bergk 

2. ATHEN. xiv. 622 B. 7 

('AvaySTE xocvte;) avaysT' eupujrwpiav 

TW #£C0 7T01EITS' 

s&sAEt, yap 6 -9-soi; 6p9-6? £c<purWj.Evo? 
o\a u.iaoi) paS^eiv. 

3. PROCLUS z'« Hes. Op. 389. 9 

IIapi9-i, >cop>], ys'cpupav 

6<70V 0U7TG) Tpl? 7C0AS0U(JIV. 

4. ORlGENES~(Hippolyt.) adv. Haeret. p. 115. 10 

'Ispov etexe xofvia xoupov 
Bpi'xto (3pt.|xov. 

5. Heraclit. Alleg. Horn. c. 6. 12 

"HTao? 'AtttoAAwv, 6 8s y' 'AttoAAwv vJAtoc. 

6. Athen. iii. 109 f. 13 

'A^ai.'V7]v CT£aTO? sy/TrAsoov Tpayov. 

7. HESYCH. V. ^ayw /. x. 22 B 

'E^ayto ^toAov xpaytaxov. 

8. Plut. Quaest. Graec. c. 35. 23 

"Ia)[j,sv zlc, 'A&rpctq. 

9. H or apollo Hierogl. i. 8. 25 

'E>«cdpsi, xop7j 3copw'vr ( . 

10. Athen. xv. 697 b. 27 

'XI ti tzolg'/zv;, u.y\ 7zoo()(Zc, ay.tj.', IxetsuW 
7rplv x,al f/.oAsv xsTvov, avicTio" 
[/.•^ x.ax.ov c£ f/iya 7roi^cryj? »ty^[/i tyjv o*£lAa;tpav• 
afxspa jcotl oVj" to cpw? £a tk? t)upi&o? oux, 6pjjs ; 

11. Pausan. iv. 16. 6. 28 

"E? T£ (XEGOV TTsStOV STSVUXA^piOV, £? t' OpO? aXpOV 
£17T£t' 'ApiGTOyivTJ? T01? AaXESaiiJ-OVlOli;. 1 



1 Although in Elegiac metre, 1 have inserted this couplet, since 
Pausanias distinctly describes as a song aa[j.a to xa\ I? ^[xa? hi 
a8o[ji£vov. There follow in Bergk's edition a series of riddles or the 
like (29-40), chiefly in Iambic metre, which hardly come under the 
heading of ' Melic poetry '. 



458 APPENDIX 

Bergk 
12. PLUT. Amator. c. 17. 44 

^n rcai^s? 6'ffoi XapiTWv te *al xaxspov AaYET' sgO-acov, 
[/.in <p9ov£l9-' wpa? aya&oiciv 6[/.iXiav" 
guv yap avripsia scai 6 Au<Jt[/.SArj? spw? em 
XaAjaSetov ftaAAEt, xoAEffiv. 



ANONYMOUS AND MISCELLANEOUS 

1. On a Vase. • 3° A. 

Molcra p.01, a[/.<pl 2*af/.av&pov eoppwv ap;j(0[/.' 

aeiSev. 

2. £V. jJ/. 48. 39. 3° B 

Xstpcov TjSs 7roSa>v ax.ivayp.aTa. 

3. Priscian i. 20. 32 

'O^Op.EVO? /"EAEVaV SAlXCOTU&X. 

4. /£. 21. 32 

NeGTOpa §s Fco 7raiSd<;. 

5. /£. 22. 33 a 

' A[/i? S' eipavav, te Ss, TappoSs Mcuaa Aiysia. 

6. Apol. de Pron. 356 B. 33 B 

AivoSpixpy^ ()k raAatva teou x.aTa TU^^OY^ovjca. 

7. Id. de Synt. p. 335. 35, 35, 36, 37 a, b 

Koi TO^OTa? ' Hpa/.A£7]£. 

KaAAiCT 1 uraxuAsv. 

Ka p.EyacSEVTj? 'Acavaia. 

MEAay.TToSa T* 'Ap~ OAU/tOV T£ 

"Ap^oif/.sv yap xxo&paciwv. 

8. £/. M. 579. 19. 38 

MevaAa? te >caya[/.S[/.vo)v. 

9. Athen. xi. 781 d. 40 

'A S' uTroSs^af/iva &ar<7aTO. 

ypucrsov ai^a 7TOT7jpiov. . . . 



ANONYMOUS AND MISCELLANEOUS 459 

Bergk 

10. Apoi.. de Pron. 318. 41 

M^t' StACO aura? 

11. lb. 328 B. 42-3 A 

Kal tu Aio$ ■9-uyaTsp [xeyaXocQevs?. 



Kai TU <plAl7l7tOV £$'/]>C£V. 

12. HESYCH. 'Eve-cfSa?. 43 b 

'EveTtoa; rtoikoic, <JTS<pav7j<popa)?. 



13. Schol. Hom. //. 7T. 52. 44 

'AXa' a tcoauvei/CtJi; 
Si* ' EAsva. 

14. Hephaest. p. 25. 45 

"Ay* «0t' £? OIXOV TOV KAE7JG17C7CO). 

15. /£. 46 A 

Ei^a' <ot' a7r' ueraajcoa AuSEfoa. 

16. Et. Flor. Miller Afw. 263. 46 b 

"Apxap, puTEtpa TO^tOV. 

17. Et. M. 420. 40. 47 b 

'Aoov (piXov, 0? Jtev a&yjcriv. 

18. /£. 417. 12. 48-9 

'Aj(_i At^a piya gv^.ol' 
'Ayi. 6 x.'Xeivgi; 
'A[/.<ptTpuo)viSa<;. 

19. Et. Gud. 308. 26. 50 

Kauxwv &' sXucog poa?. 

20. Hephaest. 81. 51 

Toioutoj sis ©y^a? wat? ap|AaTS<je>' oyr^svos. 

21. /£. 54 

MaAi? (/iv evvvj aetctov ejokj' eV aTpaxTto aivov. 



4 6o APPENDIX 

Bergk 

22. Apol. de Adv. Bekk. An. ii. 573. 57 

"Oij;i yap apEa/ro. 

23. /rf. <fc /V<?«. p. 383 b. 58 

'Aaaoc tk; ap.p Sai'AWV. 

24. Herod. Cram. An. Ox. iii. 239. 28. 59 

IIai> 6 X^P ?* 

25. Herod. Cram. ^#. Ox i. 63. 29. 60 

Kocl xaT* ttj/rltov 6p£wv. 

26. ZJ. 327. 3. 61 

'AAA' Oi TOXVf' £7T0p£lC "AXtE. 

27. /£. 208. 13. 63 

'iSpoI? af/.<poT£pa. 

28. HESYCH. Ilaaaupiov. 64 

To 7ra<jGuptov rp.aSv arcavTWv y£voc. 

29. £/. J/. 574. 65. 65 

KXatTjv Sa/.puctv. 

30. Et. M. 587. 12. 66 

Atriao TO. [7.£T£ppa. 

31. APOL. de Adv. Bekk. ^4^. ii. 563. 67 

'O V ££'J7ucr8a )ca<7Ta^£tc. 

32. £/. Af. 702. 41. 68 

ITapa &e crept x.6pai A£ux.a<77tto£c. 

33. Hephaest. p. 50. 69, 70, 71 

' Ictoxovoi p.£tpa^£;. 

OuSe A£ovt(ov gQsvoc, ouSe xpocpai. 

Ai Ku&Ep^a? sm7we?T opyia asuxmaevou. 

34. £7. Af. 635. 22. 72 

'fl; 7r6; £^£i [/.aivof/ivoicuv. 

35. £/. .F/tfr. Miller Misc. 249. 73 

ITavT£? (paupoTspoi? 7rox,TOi<; <p£pov. 

36. HESYCH. Tu8e. 74 

TutS' av xoAo'vav TuvSapiSav. 



ANONYMOUS AND MISCELLANEOUS 461 

Bergk 

37. Et. M. 199. 52. 75 

IIo&sv 8' 

Oikv.bc, £U7T£TE<; t$"kt\c, ; 

38. Herod. Cram. An. Ox. i. 413. 12. 76 

Napjucrcou TSpSVCuTSpOU. 

39. /2V. M. 225. 8. 77 

40. Herod. Cram. An. Ox. iii. 237. 23. 78 

'EtcI 5' tayjE 

Zyjvo? u^specpvj*; $o[/.o? 
£aj£psts$. 

41. Hesych. op., xaatv. 79 B 

' O[A07tc«Sa xaaiv Ka<JavSpa<;. 

42. Hesych. Eu«(X. 79 c 

EuGSAOCVOV StOV OWCOV. 

43. Athen. xiv. 633 a. 80- 1 

rXuxuTaTWV TCpuTaviv u{/.vtov. 



MsAsa (7.£>.t7rT£poiTa Mwcrav. 

44. HEROD. Cram. An. Ox. iii. 237. 26. 82 A B 

KXu-iK [7.01 Zavo? x£ x.oupy] 

Zavi t' eXeufrepiCt). 

45. £7 /%r. Miller Misc. 142. 83 A 

Bata) S' ev aicovt, ppoTtov. 

46. /27. Af. 230. 58. 83 b 

47. Origenes adv. Haeret. v. p. 96, ed. Miller. 84 

"Av^pt07rov (co?) avScoxe youa -nrpoiTa £vsyx.a(/iva KaAov 
yepa? 

... TO §' £^£Up£tV ya^EXOV, 

sits BoiwTotcrtv 'AAaX/Co;y.£V£u? A^va; U7T£p Ka(pi<riXo? 
xp(3T05 av9po)7rwv av£<7y£v, 
5 £iT£ Koup^TE? £<rav y£vo; 'iSaiot 9-£tuv, 



462 APPENDIX 

Bergk 
•q <J>puytoi KopujUavTS?, 

ouV'Aaio; 7upwT0u? stoiSev Ssvo*po<pu£i? ava^acTGVTa?, 
sit' 'ApxaSia 7rpoffeXavaiov nsXacyov, 
r 'Papia? AiauXov oLjugtJjp' "Eae'jgi;, 
IO Y) JcaXXiTcaiSa AajAvo; appvJTtov st£/.vcog£ Kapsipov opyitov, 
sits nsXXacva ^sypxiov'AX/.uovvja TiyavToiv xpecrpoTaTov 

, . • • • 

. . . cpavTi <)i 7upcoTo'yovov Tapa^avxa 
Ai^us; au^v/qptov tcSicov avaouVTa yXuxela? 

Ai6? aTrap^aG&ai |3aAavou' 
Neiao; Sk . . . 
I S. capjtouasv' uvpa frspw.OTaTi £toa Gcoaar' avo\o*oT. 

48. From a chart found in Egypt. See Egger ^4<r/. Acad. 

Paris, 1877, and Blass Rhein. Mus. xxxii. 450. 85 

XXXII 450 l 

"Tjavov OJV 
JtAUSTS" TZZV.TZOi M VIV 

co? gs, KX(ei)&S{MO£ 7uaT, 
'ATroXXtovt [x£v -Ostuv, 
5 arap av&ptov ' E/£x.paT£t 
•rcaio"! IJu&ayysXti) 
CT£«pav(0|j.a oV.mx.AUTdv 
7ro)av he, 'OpyojAE-vio oitoc;- 

-I7r770v"' £Vi)a ~GT£ 

IO a? o*T ' Evpuvd[/.a Xapfora? 
■9-aXaGcrta? stijctsv, 

£rpa<pov TO $£ Traorlivo? 
<x£ig' ayXaov jaeao:; 
rcapSsv/jta.; ottoc S'jTjpaTto 



gto(a<xti 7t£pavav. 



49. Athen. v. 217 c. 86 a 

(Mtj^s) xav gtti /.' eV axaipif/.av 
yXtoGGav £tto? Duly] itsXaosiv. 



1 The fragment in the original is in a most mutilated condition, and 
Bergk's text, as above, rests for the most part on conjectural restora- 
tions. 



ANONYMOUS AND MISCELLANEOUS 463 

Bergk 

50. Schol. Aristot. iv. p. 26 b, 35. 88 

'AcppoSixa? aAo/.a Tsp.vcov /ton, Xapi-rcov avapxaTo;. 

51. YlMT. an. Seni sit get: Resp. 12. 91 

"Ore TuvSapiSav aSsA©<3v aXiov vaurav 7rd#o<; 
paAAsi. 

52. /tf. «fe Cto. Fz'z/. c. 6. 92 

Nuxto? a'iova? aepyiqAoTo $•' mrvou xoipavov. 

53. Id. Non. pos. suav. viv. c. 13. 93 
Eupuo— a jesXaSov a>cpoGO<po)v ayvup.svov (W gto^octcov. 

54. Id. adv. Stoic. 19. 94 

Ou ^a;zu.o; ^ Jtdvi? r^ TCTspa Tuoi'/UAoO-pdcov oio>vo"v 
TOdcrov av ^suaif' apt9-[/.dv. 



55. Schol. Pind. Nem. vi. 85. 95 

AiTCTuyoi yap oSuvat vtv y-psi/cov 'A^iaasIou Soparo?. 

56. Plut. <& &»'«£ Praec. c. 13. 100 

ITpo ^si[7,axo; cost' dva 7rovTiav axpav 
Bopsa xvsovto;;. 

57. Ar. jV#0. 966. 102 

TvjAsxopdv Tt pda.[xoc Aupa?. 

58. Bacchius Introd. Mus. p. 25. 103 

'O tov tutuo; CTSCpaVOV. 

59. Herod. Cram. ^4». <9.r. i. 171. 33. 105 

IIoAU|xvia 7WCVTSpiriqs xdpa. 

60. CHRYSIP. Jt xrcocpaT. c. 24. 106 

Oux. ei&ov avep.wx.sa x.dpav. 

61. Hephaest. p. 75. 107 

®u[i.eXtttav tOt p.axap cptAocppdvto; si? spiv 

62. Dion. Hal. ^ G?/«/. F<?r£. c. 17. 108 
Bpd(/.ie, Sopaxcxpop', evua.Aie, 7roAep.0)csAaoe, TraTEp "Apvj. 

63. lb. 109 

"Iax^s -O-piajxpE, <7U toovSs yopccyz. 



464 APPENDIX 

Bekgk 

64. Dion. Hal. de Comp. Verb. c. 17. "o 

65. /J. m 

Kspxat TCOAt? u^itcuAo; xaxa yav, 

66. lb. II2 

Asys o*£ go xxto TCo'Sa vso^uxa p.£A£a. 

67. Schol. Hephaest. p. 157. n 3 

"I*h p-OAS Taxuxof^o; cti Ssp.a; £Aacpou. 

68. Marius Plot. 264. n 4 

Befvs, tov 'Ap^uopoo ra<pov. 

69. /tf.294. IX 5 A 

"I&i (JMXTSp {y.eyaAa, 

70. Plotius 293. 115 b 

' EAixoTOTaAs, xa&ix&a&e, cpiAo^opEUTa (Ba^e). 

71. Dion. Hal. de Comp. c. 17. ll 7 

Ol o" sWyovro TCAuTsa; ownqvawn ^aAJcs^oAoi;. 

72. lb., c. 25. Il8 

Kpr^iot? ev pu-Jty.oi; 7raioa piAycoj/Ev. 

73. Mar. Plot. p. 259. "9 

"Iaiov a[7.<p' 'Easvyj 7rem>pfa>[/ivov c-jasto. 

74. A* p. 273. 120 

' O Ili'-fho; p.ecro(A(paAot? &e6? Tvap' sa/apai;. 

75. Hephaest. 68. I21 

TaAAal [J.TjTpo? opsivj? cpiAoftupcoi SpofxaSe?, 
al; svTea TwtTayelToci Jtai jpcAJtsa jtpoTaAa. 

76. Herod, tc. 3i-/p. in Cram. ^4«. iii. p. 283. 5. 122 

KXaSa yp'jcreoV.apTtOv. 

77. Cod. v. ap. Gaisfd. ad Hesiod. Op. v. 664. 123 

Kal Tav ajcopsffTOV auaxav. 

78. Aristot. Rhet. iii. 14. 124 

Aia c£ x.al TSa otop' eI'te cxuAa. 

79. Plut. de Prim. Frig. c. 17. 251 

Eu&u<; avsuATjcev aepopaxav piyav oixov av£(/.b>v. 



ANONYMOUS AND MISCELLANEOUS 465 

Bergk 

80. Plut. Non poss. suav, viv. c. 23. 133 

' E~spyoy.svov te [/.aXa^ovTE? ptaxav 
tcovtov to/.sia; t' av£;v,tov ptTCa?. 

81. Apollon. Tyan. Ep. 83, p. 55 (Kayser). 142 

'Oosiei fy.oipa xpo; teao? avSpwiv, 
oite Tav xpwTav AEAoy/jxat ti|akv. 

82. Plut. «/. Stob. Ed. Phys. i. 5, 19. 143 

XtO— Ep [AOVOV OCppUGt VEUG7], 

scapTSpa toutw ksx.ao:>gt' avayxa. 



DITHYRAMBIC POETS 

1. Plat. Charmid. 155 D. p. 564 

CYDIAS 

EuAapsu Se (/.?} jcarsvavTa asovto? 
vePpo? ea8-wv [/.oipav aipsiij-9-ai jcpsoov. 

2. ATHEN. xiv. 651 F. p. 589 

MELANIPPIDES — DANAIDS 

Ou yap avOptoTCoiv cpo'psuv f/.op<pav dvsiSo?, 

ou Siarrav Tav yuvaixeiav s^ov, 

a/\/V' ev ap[/.aT£ff(H o\<ppouyjoi? EyujAva^ovT av si, 

oY aAcrsa 7TOAAa;a ^patTtv <pp£va TSpTro'p.svai, 4 

-/■$■' ispoSaxpuv Aipavov eutoosi? te <poivi)ca<; Karriav TEjAaTsGsai, 



Tspsva Supta crTOp.aaTa. 1 



_ r ,- r — — rr 

3. Stob. Eclog. Phys. i. 41. 50. p. 590 

Id. PERSEPHONE 

KaAstroa §' eivsx.' ev /toA7rot<n yaia? 

ays' EWtV 7UpOyjf<OV 

'A ' .2 

Ayspttv. 

4. Athen. ii. 35 A. p. 591 

'E-Trcovup.ov, Segtcot' oivov Oivsoi;. 

5. Plut. Erot. c. 1 5. 

("Epo);) Tauxu yap Sipoc, avSpo? u7roe>7rsipo)v 7rpa7ri^£<7(Ji 

7T0-8OV. 



1 This passage has undergone very considerable alterations at the 
hands of Bergk and other commentators. 

2 Restored conjecturally from a corrupt text. 

2 G 



466 APPENDIX 

Bergk 
6. p. 600 

PHILOXENUS 

Aei7rvov. 

(a) Athen. xv. 685 D. 

Kara ysipo; S' 
Tj'Xufr' uSwp" aizoCkoc xatSicrxo; £v apyupsa rcpoyoo) (pspoov etcs- 

/EUEV 

SIT' £<pSpS <7TS<jpaV0V l£77Ta; aTCO (AUpTtSo? £'jyv7"jTO)V X.XaSs(OV 

^icruvaxTOv. 

(b) Athen. iv. 146 f. 

El? §' £<pspov cWXoot 7uat§£? Xarapd)7ra Tpa7i;s£av 

a|x;x', £T£poi S' £T£pav, aXXot, o srspav p.E/pt ou xXTJpwrav 

oix.ov. 
Tal Se 7rpo? u^iXu^vou; ETTtXpov auya? 
EucrrE^pavoi Xsjiavai? 7rapo<|/i<7t t' 6£<jPa<poiv 7rX"/jpsi; erov t£ 

^Xiotocou 
5 TvavToSaTTOtdt TzyyoiC, sup^p-acrt, 7rpo? ^torav, ^uya? SeXsoc- 

(j(/.aTtotcrt. 
. . . TCzpcpspov £v Kavsoi? p,a£a? j^ovoypoa?, a'XXot. 5' . . . 
(toi; &') £7U 7rpwiTa TrapvjXx)'' ou x.a>ocaf3o;, to <ptXoTa$, aXX' 

aXXoxXaTEl; to piytc>TOv 
tcocvt' £7ra8-£v XiTtapo'v t' £? sy^sXsa tivs; apiGTOv, 
yoyypoiTOtcovTjTEp.wv TtXrjpe? #-£OT£p7usV eV auxw S' 
10 aXXo xap^XSs to'cov, (3aTi? S' evetj; lao'xuxXo;. 
p.ixpa Ss jcaxjcapt' 7^, E^ovxa to (aev yaXsou ti 
vapxiov aXXo, . . . 

■KCLprfi ETEpOV 7UCOV OCTTO TEUtka&G)V x,al <77j7rt07TOuXuXoSEtOiV 

(tcov) dbraXo7tXo-/.a(/.<i>v - <9-sp[/.6? p.ETa TauTa 7rap'/jX&sv 

1 5 i<JOTpa7TE^O? 0X0? V7](TTl? (JUVoStiW . . . 

m>po? ETCEiTa (3a#'p.ou<; aTpi^wv" £7rl tw §' £7U7TaGTat 
teu&uJe?, o) <piXs, /ta^av&tff(/.£vat >capt^£? ai xutpal xapYjX&ov, 
0-put/.[/.aTtSs(; &' £~l Ta'JTai; sutotocXoi yXcopai &' ao\>- 

<papuyy£; . . . 
xupvov ts OTEyaval (pucTai p.EyaSo? x.a>ca x,ax.>caf3oo yXuttuou 

o£w; . . . 
20 6{/.<paXo? &oiva<; xaXEirat rcapa y' £p.lv x.al tiv, <ia<p' oiSa. 
ucTOCTa val {/.a &sou; »j7V£p[7.£y£^£? ti §i[J.<x.c, ftuvvou (aoXsv 

OTCTOV eV.£1&SV, 



DITHYRAMBIC POETS 467 

■9-epf/.o0, o-8-i yXutpavot? TSTp.vjf/ivov eu-8-ui; efiatpO-v)' 
too §' u7uoya<7TpiStot; Siavexeio? etoxjauveiv 
eiusp £[aiv T£ (jt&oi xal tiv, [/.aXa xsv x£^apoi[AS&'. 
25 d&V 6&ev eXXt7iro[7-£v, 0-otva 7caps7]<;, 6V ItzcCKKv^oli Suvar 

e7«xpaTSco(; £y<oy' srt, xoo xs Isyoi ti?. 
uavra irapvjs £tu[jlo)(; af/jav* 7capS7rai<7£ Se 9-Epp.ov 
cnrXay^vov, £7i£tTa §s vyjcmc 
S&cpaxo? oixSTnca? xal vwto? egtjX&e xal 6<r<pu? xal 

f/.ivupiy[xaTa &£pf7.a" 
xal xs<paXaiov 6'Xov (W.tctu^e; £<pB-6v aTC£p7T£u&7]v6? 

aXEXTOTpOtpOU XVlXTa? £pi<pOU 7Uap£-8-7]/CEV. 

30 Etxa &£<p$-' axpoxo&ia, ayeXtXas ts [/.st' auTcov 

X£ux.o<popivo^poou<;, p'uy/7], x£<paXaia, rco&as ts, ^vaufxaTto'v te 

<J£Ct>.(p«jJ[J.EVOV. 

£<pO-a t ETCEtxa xps' 07rnx t' aXV Epicpcov t£ xal apvwv 

a&uTOptop.a xapo? ^op&a yXuxicrnx, 

[/.t^Ept(papvoy£V7]C,av §-^ (pi^sovxt &£o(' toutcov( au f/iv), to <pi>.o- 

Ta<; scfroi? xs' Xayaa S' stcit' alEXTpuovwv te veogcoi, 
35 TCEp&xtov (pa.GEO)v te j^u^av tj&t] 7cap£(3aX}.STO &£pf/.a uoXXa . . . 
xal [/.alaxoTCTU^Etov apxcov 6[/.o<7u£uya &£ ^av-0-ov t' sxeict- 

tJX&ev [j.zki xal yaAa au[/.7i;axTOv to xs Tupov axac ti? 
r,f-£v £<paa^' aTraXov, x^yoiv £<pap.av" ote §' TjSyj 

PpaiTUO? I^Se XOTOTO; ic, XOpOV 7][7.EV ETaTpot, 

T>jva f/iv d^axaEipov o*f/.o3£q, ETCEtTa Se 7ral§s<; vi7rrp' s<)o<Jav 
xaTa yziptiv, 
40 Gfr/]f/.aatv Ipwof/ixTOi? ^XtEpo^aXxE? u&wp EXEy^EOvTS? 

TOtfCOV 0<70V (Tl?) EypTjC,', EXTpi[/.f/.aTa TE . . . Xaf/xpa 

<jivo*ovu<pr, ol&ocav (oi) Y_pif/.aTa t'" afA[3po<7toof/.a xal 
CTEfpavou? ioQ-alEa?. 

(c) ATHEN. xiv. 642 F. 

Ta? Se &q 7rp6c&£v f/.o'Xoucrac; . . . Xttcapauysf?, 
uop9|/iSa<; izoXkiZv aya&oSv Tualtv Eicrcpspov y£f/.o>j<7a?, 
to; £<p7]f/.£pot xa>iovTi TpaTCE^a; (SsoTEpa?,) 
a&avaTOi Se t* 'Af/.aX9£ia<; xs'pa?. 
5 Taici S' £v (/.Esau; xa&iSputb] f/iya X.°W- a PpoTOi? Xeuxo<; 
{/.ueX6<; yXuxEpo;, Xextoi? apaj<va? Evaliyxioici XEx'Xot?. 
cuyxa"Xu7TTOiv o^tv aldj^uva? utco, \).y\ xaTt^rj ti? 
fAa>.oy£V£? 7rwu >.i7TOvt' avayxai; 



468 APPENDIX 

Bergk 

^Tjpov sv £v)paT; 'Apicxaiou 7raXippuT<Hci 7rayai;' 

to" ft ovojj.' if ap.uXo?' yspclv S' eto^-evto <jto(xiov 
[/.acXspati; 
10 . . . tocv Se^apivav o ti jcoc o\5g5 tic' a Zavo; 

X.a^£UVTt 



>. V > J / 



TptoyfxaT • S7T£iT stcsvsi^ev £yxaTax.vaxopy£; XEcppoyp.Evov 

7rupPpo[/.o'X£ux.£p£piv8o^avi>(i)[/-' Exxprrov aSu 

Pptop-a to TOxyxaTapxTOV a(/.7rupix.Y)poi&y)<rrtya; 7rap£yiv£T0 

TOUTOl? 

(TTaiTivoxoy^o^ayyji; ~/y> ^ai<7T£>,aio£av#'£7aTCay}caTa7n'pcOTo; 

yoipiva<;. 
15 aSla Si . . . x.uxXo>&' oXocpoiXT avapiO-f/.a, 

xal [A£Xi7ry]XTa TETi>y|j.iv' acpfrovoc craaatxocpoiXTa. 
Tupaxtva? &£ yo&axTi xai [/iXt cuyxaTacpupTo; */]<; ajj.uXo? 

TrXa^-aviTa?' , 

caaa^OTupoTraTay^ §£ xai ^£c?£Xat07rayyj 7i:>.aTuv£T0 golgol- 

p.07ra<JTa 
7r£|X[i.aTa xkt' £p£(3iv9-oi. xvocxo<7U[/.j.uy£i? aTcaXaT; 0-aAXovT£? 



copai?, 



20 wa t a|/.oySaXio*£s T£ tcov |/.aXaxo(pXoi.'So)v . . . ts TpioxTa 

7raiaiv 
aoV$7i xapu', r/Xkoi. t' 6'aca TtrpsTcst Tvapa. #oivav 

oX(3t07ir},OUTOV (£[7.£v)' 7T0<Jl? T* £TCpatV£TO XOTTaj^Ol T£ >>6yOl 



t' £tu xoivac - 



svO-a ti xoavov £7iyrb] xo^.^ov a-9-up^aTtov, xal -9-aup.adav 

v > » \ » >/ 
a>JT £Xl T TjVTjCfaV . . . 

(rf) Athen. xi. 487 A. 

, , . 2u &£ tocvSe Baxyiou 

EuSpocov 7rXr,py] f/.£Tavi7rrpi5(X os'gxf 

xpau ti Tot Bpopo? yavo; to&£ Sous £7u TEp^iv 

zavTa; ayet. 

(e) Athen. xi. 476 e. 

IIiveto v£)CTa.p£ov 7ro5(j.' dv ypu<7£<xi<; 7rpOTop,aTc xoiAcov 

XEpOCTtOV. 

£[ip£yovTO §£ xocto. fAixpov. 

*7. Athen. xv. 692 d. p. 610 

Su(/.(3aXou[xai ti [j.£koc, upJtv ei; Iptdra.. 



DITHYRAMBIC POETS 469 







Bergk 


8. 


Zenob. v. 45. 

Ol'w (/.' 6 &aip.tov rspaTi <7uyKafreip£ev. 


p. 611 


9. 


SUIDAS "E9-uaa?. 


p. 612 


10. 


Athen. i. 6 A. 


p. 614 


11. 


Ttf. ii. 35. D. 


p. 615 



TIMOTHEUS 

TO ARTEMIS 

12. Plut. de And. Poet. c. 4. p. 629 

MatvaSa, SuiaSa, cpoifia^a, Xuaca^a. 

*13. Id. Qu. Symp. iii. 10. 3. lb. 

Aia xuaveov xoXov a<7Tpa>v, 
Sia t' coxutoxoio aeAavac. 

*14. Porphyr. a/. Stob. £"<;/. /V&yj. i. 41, 61. /& 

"Or' as^STai oXioij abyaic. 

*15. DiOG. Laert. vi. 28, de Zenone. p. 621 

"Ep^o[j.ai' ti \l auei? ; 

16. £V. M. 630. 41. p. 622 

Tsraf/ivov opiyava &ta (Aue^OTpe<pvj. 

*17. Plut. defort. Alex. ii. c. 1. p. 624 

2u 8s tov Y'/jyevETav apyupov aivet?. 



SUBJECT INDEX 

( The references are to pages, jvhen not otherwise stated) 



Acatalectic, see Metre (60). 

Addison on Sappho, 154. 

Adjective, double, Ibyc. i. 5. 

Admetus, Scol. xi. 

Adonis, Miscel. xvii. 

Adonius, see Metre (63). 

Aegidae, Pindar a member of the 

family, 282. 
Aeolic race, some characteristics of, 

98-9. 

Aeschylus, passages from, as banquet 
songs, 233. 

 defeated at Athens by Simonides, 

200. 

— — at court of Hiero, 201. 

Aesop's fables, ref. to in Archil, vi. 
vii ; Scol. xix. notes. 

Agesidas, Alcman's master at Sparta, 
125. 

Alcaeus, Biography, etc. — rank ; date; 
loses shield in fighting with Athe- 
nians ; opposes tyrants ; exiled ; 
defeated and captured by Pittacus, 
but restored to liberty ; personal 
qualities ; criticisms of ancients on 
his poetry ; how far sustained by 
surviving fragments, 135-140. 

his 'Alcaics' compared with those 

of Horace, 139. 

Alcaeus and Sappho, Additional 

Note A. 

his vituperations compared with 

Sappho's, 152. 

— — songs as Parcenia, 233-238. 

Alcaics, 139 seq. ; effect of anacrusis 
in, note on Ale. xi. 

Alcibiades, his Olympic victories, 
Misc. x. 

Alcman, Biography — birthplace ; life 
at Sparta ; dialect ; love - songs ; 
some fragments of exceptional merit, 
124-6. 

some characteristics of his choral 

songs, 30 seq. 



Alcman, progress of music shown in his 
choral systems, 39. 

development of choral strophe, 

49. 

Praise of Sparta for lyric poetry, 

101. 

Parthenion recently found, Alcm. 

i. note ; love of nature, xxi. note. 

Alexander spares Pindar's house at 
Thebes, 283. 

Alliteration, Sappho xxxi. note. 

Amasis and the Greeks in Egypt, 149. 

Amyclaean hounds, Simon, xxiv. 

Anabole in the Dithyrambic Poets, 
265. 

Anacreon, Biography — his position 
among melic poets ; a court - poet 
(cf. 103) ; a typical Ionian ; flight 
from Teos ; warfare ; life with Poly- 
crates ; with Hipparchus ; subse- 
quent career ; character as man and 
writer ; metrical power ; character- 
istics of his metres, 182-187. 

his refined tastes, xv. ; desertion 

of shield, xxix. (d) note. 

at court of Pisistratus, 198. 

his songs as banquet-songs, 233. 

Anacrusis, see Metre (57). 

Andromeda, rival to Sappho, 152, 
Sap. xv. 

Antimenidas, brother to Alcaeus, 
serves under king of Babylon, 136. 

Antistrophic style, employed by Alc- 
man and probably by Thaletas, 29, 

49- 

addition of Epode, ibid ; con- 
trast between lyric and dramatic 
systems, 40. 

Aorist, reduplicated forms, Misc. viii. 
8 note. 

gnomic, in sententious passages, 

Scol. xxv. note. 

Apollo and flute-music, 37. 

and Marsyas, 106. 



472 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Apollo identified with sun-god, Dith. 
Poets ix., cf. on Pind. vii. 

Apotheosis of living men, Carm. Pop. 
xxvii. note. 

Archilochus, Biography— How far a 
' melic ' poet (cf. note on xii. 
a) ; parentage ; travels ; return to 
Paros ; military life ; Neobule and 
Lycambes ; character; honoured at 
Delphi; comparison with Homer; 
originator of iambic, and even of 
lyric poetry, m-116. 

metrical inventions, 47. 

inventor of xpouot; uuo Tr,v o')3rjv, 

41. 

Arganthonius, Anac. xii. note. 

Arion, ode assigned to him, Miscel. i. ; 
came from Lesbos ; composed mainly 
at Corinth ; disciple of Alcman ; 
cultivated choral dithyramb, 102. 

Aristophanes on Ibycus, 178. 

on Anacreon, 186. 

references to Scolia in, 233 seq. 

on avajBoXai, 265. 

Aristotle, Ode on Virtue, Misc. vi. ; 
friendship with Hermias, ibid. 

on music at Sparta, 102. 

on Sappho, 153. 

on avapoXat, 265. 

Arnold, Matthew, quoted as an example 
of metre, 60. 

Arsis and Thesis, signification in which 
employed, 47 note. 

Artemis worshipped at Magnesia, 
Anacr. ii. 4 note. 

Article omitted before participle, 
Bacchyl. iii. 

Astragali, Anac. viii. 

Astylus, a Crotoniate runner, dis- 
graced, Simon, xvi. 

Athene and flute, Dith. Poets, i. |3',y'. 

Athens, praise of, in Pindar, xiv. 

Atthis, 152 ; Sap. xv. b. c. d. 

Attic Scolia, see Scolia. 

Aphrodite and Eros contrasted, Alc- 
man xvii. 

Bacchic song, primitive, Pop. Songs 
xii. 

Bacchius, Metre, 71. 

Bacchylides, Biography — scanty de- 
tails ; nephew of Simonides accom- 
panied him to court of Hiero ; 
reputation ; characteristics of his 
poetry, 222-3. 

ethical principles in, note on 

Bacchyl. iii. 

Attic dialectic forms in, 78. 

see also p. 105. 

Baetis, called Tartessus, Stes. i. /3' n. 



Ballads, long narrative ballads in Eng- 
lish, with dance accompaniment, 
compared with the epico-lyric poems 
of Stesichorus, 169. 

Banquet songs ; chief occasion for 
monodic poetry ; early connection 
with religion ; description of banquet 
songs in Athenaeus, etc., as Paeans, 
Paroenia, and Scolia proper, the 
latter as a game of capping verses ; 
Engelbrecht's view on the subject ; 
meaning and application of term 
Scolion ; characteristics ; Eustathius 
on subject-matter ; Scolion game in 
later times ; origin of term, 232- 
238. 

antiquity of, 12. 

choral, 24, and Pindar ix. note. 

Barytonesis in Lesbian, 81. 

Basis, Metre, 58. 

Beauty-contests supposed by Welcker 
to account for choral form of Ibycus' 
love-songs, 177. 

Bias, Scolion attributed to, Scol. xxii. 

Bockh on Heptachord, 36. 

on musical modes, 43. 

on metre, 52. 

Boeotian cups, Bacchyl. xiii. 1. 2, 
Plate v. 

Brachycatalexis, Metre (61). 

Bread-sellers, bad reputation of, Anac. 
xxiii. 6. 

Burns, illustration from his employ- 
ment of local dialect, 75. 

effect of acatalexis in, 60. 

line in Tarn 0' Skanter, cp. with 

Bacchyl. ii. 

see also on Sappho, xv. d. 

Caesura, origin of, 72. 

in Horatian Sapphics, ibid. , and 

154. 
Catalexis, see Metre (60). 
Catana, Stesichorus at, 168. 
Catullus, Sapphics in, 156. 
his glyconics as compared with 

Anacreon's, 187. 

his translation of Sap. ii. note. 

imitation of Sap. xxxvii. note. 



Cea Naenia, 205. 

Cercylas, Sappho's husband. 

Chalcidian swords, Alcaeus, xvi. 6- 

note. 
Chappell on the Heptachord, 36. 
on Pythagoras and the octave, 

39- 

on the musical modes, 43. 

on high pitch of Greek vocal 

music, note on Terp. i. 
Charaxus, a brother of Sappho, 149. 



SUBJECT INDEX 



473 



Cheese-offerings to gods, Alcman xv. 

note. 
Chelidonisma, Pop. Songs ii. 

modern Greek, ibid. note. 

See also 46, note 1. 
Chilo, Scolion attributed to, Scol. 

XXV. 

Choral song, causes of its predomi- 
nance over monody, Art. iii. 
passim. 

extension of choral form to songs 

properly monodic, 24. 

choral love-songs in Ibycus, 177. 



cf. on Pind. ix. 
Choreic dactyls, 63. 
Choriambic verse, 67 seq. 
Christ, Wilhelni, 52. 

on basis, 59. 

on epitrits, 67, note I. 

on choriambics, 68, note 1. 

Christian religious dances, 33. 
Cicero on Archilochus, 113. 

on Stesichorus, 168, note 5. 

story of Scopadae in, 199. 

Cinesias, Dith. Poet, 266. 

Cleis, the mother of Sappho, 148. 

Sappho's daughter, 149. 

Cleobulus, epigram of, attacked by 

Simonides, Simon, xx. note. 
and the Chelidonisma, Pop. 

Songs ii. note. 

modern Swallow-Song, ibid. 



Clonas, composer of Aulodic nomes, 

36. . 

mentioned in connection with 

early poetical contests, 106. 
Cnossian decree on Timotheus, 270. 
Colon, see Metre, ad Jin. 
Commerce, its importance among 

Lesbians, 99. 
Comus-song, Bacchic character, sub- 

seauent extension of term, 8. 

see also Anacr. xviii. (a) note. 

Contests in lyric poetry of ancient 

origin, 106. 
results in final period of melic 

poetry, 107. 
Convivial songs, see Banquet-songs. 
Corinna, apparent exception to rule of 

choral poets avoiding local dialect. 

75- 

Court-poetry, absence of sycophancy 

in, 103-104. 
Cradle-song, traces of $oix>v.txkr\[}.a. in 

Danae-passage, Simon, ii. note on 

1. 16. 
Cretan dances, 27, 29, 70, Sappho, 

xix. 
Cretics, time-value of, 70. 
cf. Bacchyl. xvi. note. 



Croiset, A., on Pindar, 281. 

Crusius on Stesichorus and the EpocW-, 

170. 
Cyclic dactyls, see Metre (63). 
Cyclops and Galatea, Dith. Poets 

viii. note. 
Cydonian apples, Stesich. iii. 1. 

Ibyc. i. 1. 

Dance in its connection with melic 
poetry, Art. iv. passim ; passages in 
epic relating to early union of dance 
and song; closer union in later times; 
how far realisable through the surviv- 
ing metrical systems ; continual 
novelty; Dorian style predominant ; 
Greek dance mimetic ; iis connection 
with religion not only in Greek, but 
even in Christian times ; its influence 
on metrical structure, 25-33. 

popularity of, contributed to pre- 
valence of choral song amongGreeks, 
21, 22. 

of Spartan old men, Spartan 

Dance-song i. note. 

Danae and Perseus, Simon, ii. 

Daphnephoria, 9. 

Dative, ' comitative,' Simon, ii. 4 

note. 
Delos, earthquake at, Pindar viii. a' 

note. 

ancient name of, ibid. 

Demetrius, on Sappho, 154. 

Poliorcetes, adulation to, 



Pop. 
to Greek 



Songs xxviii. and note. 

Democracy, unfavourable 
lyric poetry, 106. 

OEuxspa xaxaaxacrt;, at Sparta, 28, 38. 

Diaeresis, in Horace's Alcaics, 140. 

Diagoras as a writer of Dithyrambs, 
269. 

Dialect in lyric poets (Pref. Art. VII.), 
Sec. I — general remarks, abandon- 
ment of Epic for local dialect by 
monodic poets ; causes leading to 
formation of artificial dialect of choral 
poetry ; Epic the main element with 
Doric and also Lesbian admixture ; 
difficulties in restoring properdialecti- 
cal forms to the text ; forms common 
to choral poets ; appropriate poetic 
diction thus created, intelligible to 
the whole Hellenic race, 75-80. 
Sec. 2 — Lesbian Dialect ; Psilosis ; 
Barytonesis, its important effect ; 
digamma ; doubling of liquids, nasals, 
and a ; 01;, ai; for Attic, ou?, a? ; 
further characteristics, 80-91. 
Sec. 3 — Doric 'severior' and 'mitior,' 
chiefly the latter employed by lyric 



474 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



poets ; summary of Doric forms in 

lyric poetry, 91-96. 
Dialect, Fiihrer opposed to the theory 

a composite lyric ' dialect,' 97- 

of Alcman, 126. 

Didactic element in melic poetry, 18. 
Digamma, in Lesbian, 82 ; in Doric, 

see also Simon, ii. 18 note. 

Digressions, from proper subject, in- 
troduced by Simonides, 206. 

cf. Simon, xxiv B, note. 

Dionysia, poetical contests at, 106. 

Dio Chrysostom on Archilochus, 1 14, 
115 ; on Stesichorus, 171. 

Dionysius of Halicarnassus on Sappho, 
153 ; on Stesichorus, 170 ; on 
Simonides, 205. 

Dionysus with ox-attributes, Pop. 
Songs xii. and note. 

Dioscuri at Sparta, Alcman i., intro- 
ductory note. 

Dipodies in metre, 65 seq. 

Dirge, as a branch of lyric poetry, 
once sacerdotal ; description in 
Homer ; modern Greek dirge and 
funeral ceremonies compared with 
ancient ; Gp^vot as distinct from 
'ETCiy.rjoeta, 10-12. 

Dithyramb, invention attributed to 

• Arion ; comparatively late as a culti- 
vated branch of melic poetry; men- 
tioned by Aichilochus, 7-8. 

cultivated by Arion, 102. 

by Simonides, 201. 

in final melic period, 106-107. 

Dithyrambic Poels, introduction to — 
innovations of Lasus, gradual cor- 
ruption of lyric poetry ; complaints 
of Pherecrates against various com- 
posers ; general character of later 
dithyramb (cf. 106- 107) ; lives of 
certain poets, 263-271. 

Division of labour among lyric poets, 

Dochmius, Metre, 7 1. 

Dorian influence on melic poetry ; Art. 

iii. passim. 
Dialect, 91-96. 

Ear-rings, use of among Asiatics, 

Anacr. xxiii. 4 and note. 
Egypt, corn from, Bacchyl. ii. IO. 
Elean hymn to Bacchus, Pop. Songs, 

xii. and note. 
Elegiac poetry, a step between epic and 

melic ; nature of its subjects, 2. 
Eiresione, a mendicant song, Pop. 

Songs ii. note. 
Eleusinian mysteries, Pind. v. 



Elizabethan age, comparison with 
Lesbian period, 99. 

Endymion, beloved by Sleep, Dithyr. 
Poets, vi. and note. 

Engelbrecht on Scolia, 235. 

Epic poetry, preceded by melic, but 
first to assume a cultivated form, I ; 
its influence on lyric poetry in treat- 
ment of subject, 19, in dialect, 
76, 78 ; traces of early "lyric metres 
in epic, 45 ; passages in epic descrip- 
tive of branches of melic, 5 seq., re- 
lating to union of dance and song, 
25 seq. 

Epico-lyric style of Stesichorus, 169 : 
of Ibycus, 176. 

Epinician ode, in primitive form, 
Archil, viii. note ; cultivated by 
Simonides, 206 ; special province of 
Pindar, 19. 

Epinician ode on Alcibiades, Mis 
eel. x. 

Epithalamia, 12. 

Epitrit, Metre, 64, 66 seq. 

Epode, attributed to Stesichorus, 49. 

objections to this view, 170. 

Epodic metre, Archil, i. note. 

Eriphanis, love story of, Pop. Songs x. 

Eritheia, a name of Gades, Stesich. i. 
(b). 

Eros, in lyric poets, Add. Note B. 

cult at Thespiae, ibid. 

and Ball, Anac. vi. note. 

and Astragali, Anac. viii. 

with golden wings, ibid. ix. 

Erysiche, in Acarnania, Alcm. iv. 4, 
note. 

Euripides, passages from, as banquet 
songs, 233. 

Eustathius on Scolia, 237. 



Falling rhythm 61, Archil, ii. note. 
Fauriel on mod. Greek songs, II, 12. 
Fennell's Introduction to Pindar, 281. 
Flamininus, Pecan to, Miscel. xxix. 
Flowers, metaphors from, in Pindar ii. 

4, note. 
Flower-song, 14 ; Pop. Songs v. 
Flute music, developed by Olympus 

and Clonas, 36 ; by Thaletas, 38 ; 

its connection with choral song, 37 ; 

flute-contests at Delphi, ibid.; terms 

connected with flute borrowed from 

those appropriate to lyre, Simon. 

xxiv. B. 3 note. 

and Comus songs, Bacchyl. i. 



5 note. 

— and lyre, Dith. Poets i. 

— see also under Apollo. 



SUBJECT INDEX 



475 



Four-line stanza in early times, 46. 
Fox and Eagle, fable of, Archil, vi. 

note. 
Fox and Ape, ibid. vii. note. 
Fuhrer, on the dialect of Greek lyric 

poetry, 97. 

Genealogies, often allegorical in 
poets, Alcm. xxii. ; Alcaeus xxiv. ; 
Bacchyl. xx. 

Genitive, usage of, in Ibycus i. 2 ; in 
Bacchyl. ii. 3. 

Gildersleeve's introduction to Pindar, 
281 ; on Schema Pindaricum, Pind. 
vi. 16. 

Girard, J., on the epoch of Pindar and 
Aeschylus, 284, n. 1. 

Glaucus, the boxer, Simon, xv. 

Glyconics in Anacreon, 186-7. 

Gorgo, rival to Sappho, 152. 

Grasshopper, regarded as musical, 
Alcaeus ii. 3 note. 

Grote, on Timocreon's attack upon 
Themistocles, Timoc. i. note; on a 
popular mistake with regard to Har- 
modius and Aristogeiton, Scol. i. 
note ; on Alcibiades' Olympic vic- 
tories, Misc. x. note ; on Paean to 
Demetrius, Misc. xxviii. note. 

Gyges, Archilochus contemporary with, 
112. 

Gymnastics, influence on melic poetry, 
22. 

Gymnopsedia, choral poetry developed 
by Thaletas in connection with, 
29. 

Gyrete, rocks of, Archil, xiv. 2 note. 

Halcyon, Alcm. ii. note. 

days, Simon, xxi. 

Harmodius and Aristogeiton, see on 
Scol. i. note. 

Hebrew lyric poetry, as cp. by Cole- 
ridge with Greek, 16. 

Hecuba, changed into a hound, Miscel. 
xviii. 

Heptachord, see Music, 35; Terp. ii. 
note. 

Heracles and Helios' cup, Stesich. i. 
note. 

Heraclitus, a doctrine of, Pind. i. 
note. 

Hermann on Pindar's dialect, 77. 

Hermes, as cup-bearer to the gods, 
Sappho xli. note. 

Hermias, friend of Aristotle, Miscel. 
vi. note. 

Herodotus, on Alcaeus, 136; on Sap- 
pho, 149 ; contemp. with Simon- 
ides, 197 ; on Harmodius and 



Aristogeiton, Scol. i. note ; on 

earthquake at Delos, Pindar viii. 

note. 
Hexameter, its origin, 45-6 ; in lyric 

poetry, 62. 
Hiero, patron of Simonides, Pindar, 

etc., 104, 201, 282. 
Hinds with horns in poets, Anacr. 

xxiv. and Simon, xxiv. A (2), 4, 

with notes. 
Hipparchus, entertains Anacreon, 183, 

and Simonides, 198 ; regarded as 

Tupavvo?, Scol. i. note. 
Horace, on Archilochus, in. 

on Alcaeus, 137. 

on Anacreon, 185. 

his choriambics, 59, 68. 

 his Alcaics, as cp. with the 

Greek, 139. 
— — his Sapphics, 154 seq. 
Ionics in, 70. 



Hybrias, song of, Scol. x. note. 
Hygieia, ode to, Miscel. v. ; Dithyr. 

Poets v. and notes. 
Hymenaeus, 12. 

distinct from Epithalamion, ibid. 

Hymn, as a branch of melic poetry, 3. 
Hypercatalectic metre, 61. 
Hyporchem, nature of, 5. 

Cretan origin, ibid. 

 cultivated by Thaletas, 6. 

description in Homer, ibid. 

Iambic poetry, cultivated in the period 
between epic and lyric, its subjec- 
tive character, 2. 

Iambics in melic poetry, Pop. Songs, 
xiii. note. 

Ibycus, Biography — birthplace ; 
rank ; at court of Polycrates ; story 
of cranes ; resemblance to Stesi- 
chorus; chiefly a love-poet; affinity 
with Lesbians ; love-poems in choral 
form, how far explicable ; merit of 
surviving fragments, 176-8. 

a court poet, 103-104. 

Ilgen on Scolia, 233. 

Improvisation in banquet-songs, 233, 

234- 
Infinitive in imperative sense, Anac. 

iii. 8, note. 
Ionic verse, Metre, 69. 
dialect, employed by Anacreon, 

182. 
Irrational Syllables, Metre, 65, 66. 
illustrated from English 

Poetry, ibid. 
Islands of the Blest, Scol. i. p' note. 
Italy, Melic Poetry in, 102-3. 
Ithyphallus Song, Miscel. xxviii. note. 



476 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Itonia, epithet of Athene, Bacchyl. 

xvi. 
Ivory, decorates houses, Bacchyl. ii. ; 

sword-hilts, Alcaeus xxv. ; lyre, Scol. 

xvi. a. 



J ebb, Prof., reference to article on 
Pindar. 



Lacrimae Simonideae, 205. 

Laconian (Pseudo-) decree against 
Timotheus, 270. 

Laconian hounds, Simon, xxiv. A. 

Lamprocles, an early Dithyrambic 
poet, 268. 

Larichus, a brother of Sappho, 149. 

Lasus, earliest Greek writer on music, 
40 ; rival of Simonides at court of 
Pisistratus, 198 ; innovator in Dithy- 
ramb, 263-4. 

Leighton, Sir F., his picture of the 
Daphnephoria, 9. 

Leipsydrion, defeat of Eupatrids at, 
Scol. ii. note. 

Lesbian Dialect. See Dialect, Sec. 2. 

school of lyric poetry, its pro- 
bable antiquity, and enduring influ- 
ence, 23. Cf. on Archil, xxi. j3'. 

circumstances favourable to 



its excellence, 98-9. 

comparison with Elizabethan 



age, 99. 
Lesbos, tyrants at, 135-6. 

position of women at, 1 50-5 1. 

Lethaeus, a river in Magnesia, Anac. 

Leto xoupoxpocpo?, Timoc. i. 4 vote. 
Leucadian leap, 149, Anacr. xiii. 
Leucophris, worship of Diana at, 

Anac. ii. 5 note. 
Licymnius, a Dithyrambic poet, 271. 
Lindus, chief Rhodian city, Simon. 

xx. 1. 
Linus-song, 13-14 ; Pop. Songs i. and 

note. 
metre of, in connection with 

origin of Epic hexameter, 45-6. 
Lions milked by Bacchantes, Alcman 

xv. 5 note. 
Lityerses-song, 14. 
Logaoedics, Metre, 47 seq. 
Longinus on Sappho, Sap. ii. note. 

on Bacchylides, 223. 

Love-songs in choral form in Ibycus, 

177. 
Love stories — subjects of Stesichorus' 

poems, 169. 
Lucretius on the notion of the wind 



bringing lightning from the clouds, 
Ibyc. i. 7. 
Lycambes attacked by Archilochus, 

113- 

Lydian fillet, Alcm. i. 35. 

dye, Sap. xxix. m>te. 

— — touchstone, Bacchyl. ix. 

Lyre — the genuine Hellenicinstrument, 

3 8 - 
additions of Terpander, 35. 

— — - ivory-horned, Scol. xvi. a'. 

Lyric poetry, see Melic Poetry. 

first written for fixed pay by 

Simonides, 105. 

Lysander, Paean to, Miscel. xxvii. 

Magadis, Dith. Poets xv. 2. 

Mahaffy on Greek melody, 42, 57- 

— : — on literary influence of Spartan 

monarchy, IOI. 
Marsyas and Apollo, 38, 106. 
Meister, on Lesbian dialects, 81, 85, 

9i- 

Melanippides, 265. 

confusion between an older and 

younger, 268 ; prominence of the 
latter among later poets and musi- 
cians, 269 ; a corrupter of old 
musical style, 265. 

mythical subjects in, 107. 

Melic poetry, our deficient acquaint- 
ance with, Pref. p. vii. 

 overshadowed in early times by 

Epic ; its revival and rapid develop- 
ment ; variety of branches ; de- 
scription of these, I-14. 

distinct classification in poetry ; 

' occasional ' — results of this ; re- 
ligious or didactic tone predominate 
ing ; objective character ; mythologi- 
cal ; otrjYTjTL/.rj, 15-20. 

penultimate period, when poems 

were written for fixed charges, 
105. Consequences averted for a 
while by the inspiring circumstances 
cf the times, ibid. 

final period that of public com- 
petition ; disappearance of all 
classes of song except the Nome and 
the Dithyramb ; low standard of 
poetry, subordinated to musical ac- 
companiment ; foreign elements, 
such as dialogue, introduced into 
lyric passages ; importance of 
myth, 106-107. 

attained its highest excellence 

just before its place was taken by 
dramatic literature, 283. 

Messoa, a district in Laconia, 124. 
Metre (Pref. Art. VI. ). Primitive song- 



SUBJECT INDEX 



477 



metres, how far traceable in hexa- 
meter ; the four-line stanza ; primi- 
tive forms developed by lyric poets ; 
ye'vo? dnzktxaiov ; logacedics, nature 
of; ysvo; i^jjuoXigv, Paeons, etc. ; 
Thaletas ; choral strophe ; Alcman ; 
causes of the difficulties in choral 
rhythms ; Greek metre to be ex- 
plained on musical principles ; con- 
trast with modern metres ; long and 
short syllables vary in quantitative 
value ; ' equality of times ' the 
essential principle in Greek metre ; 
cyclic dactyls ; short syllable in place 
of long, at the end of a verse ; limi- 
tations imposed upon the licences 
allowed to metre by its connection 
with music ; resolution of the syl- 
lable in arsi rarely employed until 
the decadence of Greek poetry. 
Variety of length of lines in the 
same strophe, signifying effective 
changes in dance and melody. 
Roman imitations of Greek lyric 
metres. Anacrusis, its musical 
equivalent, rule. 'Irrational' syl- 
lables, meaning of the term, general 
effect. Basis explained and illus- 
trated, disappears in recited lyrics ; 
how far connected with rhythm of the 
line. Catalexis, etc. explained and il- 
lustrated. ttypercata/exisa.nd Brachy- 
catalexis, peculiar to song-poetry ; 
nature of verse-pauses and signs to 
denote them. Dactylic Metres — 
the hexameter in lyric poetry ; Pros- 
odiac ; Adonius ; final dactyls not 
permitted except in systems ; Choreic 
dactyls ; dactyls in the Epitrit. Ana- 
pastic metre, dactylic with Anacrusis, 
appropriate for march - songs. 
Trochaic, the predominant Greek 
metre. Dipodies, explanation of 
irrational syllable in trochaic di- 
podies ; Epitritic measure ; three 
kinds of trochaic dipodies ; brachy- 
catalexis in trochaicdipodies. Chori- 
ambics, origin of term; suited only for 
song ; complete choriambic lines 
hardly found ; time-value of chori- 
amb. Ionics a tnajore and a minore, 
not alwaysdistinguishablefrom chori- 
ambics with anacrusis ; time-value ; 
Ionics a majore only suited for 
song ; Picons and Cretics only in 
connection with dance songs ; 
Bact hius ; Dochmius. Colon, single 
and compounded ; origin of caesura 
and diaeresis ; complete verse or 
UTiyo?, distinguishing marks of con- 



clusion of a line ; the System, semi- 
independence of lines, 4574. 
Metre, contributions of Archilochus to, 
2, 116. 

of existing fragments as a partial 

clue to the Greek Dance, 31. 

Milesian wool, Pop. Songs iv. 
Mill Song, Pop. Snngs viii. 
Mvofa at Crete, Scol. x. 5 note. 
Modern Greek funeral song and cere- 
monies, n. 

wedding-song and ceremonies, 

12. 

- swallow song, cp. with ancient, 

hymns sung in unison, 14, n. 2. 
Molossian flute, Simon, xxiv. A. 
Mucke on dialect in Greek lyric poets, 

77, 78, 86 note. 
Muller (K. O. ) on Alcman's date, 124. 
on position of women at Lesbos, 



14. 



151- 



on Stesichorus as son of Hesiod, 
168. 

— on Pindar's dithyrambic frag- 
ment, 264. 

on the later dithyrambic poets, 267. 



Mure, on the branches of Greek lyric 
poetry, 3. 

on Alcaeus, 137. 

on Sappho, 157. 

on Stesichorus, 171. 

on the Scolia, 237. 

Muses, dancing and singing in Hesiod, 

singing dirge of Linus, Pop. 

Songs i. A, and note. 

Music, in accompaniment to lyric 
poetry, (Pref. Art. v.). Their close 
connection ; music subordinate in 
earlier times ; simplicity of early 
style, traceable in metre of early 
songs ; the heptachord and Terpan- 
der ; Clonas and Olympus develop 
flute-music; opposition to flute-music 
gradually overcome, important results 
on choral poetry ; Thaletas and 
flute-music ; progress of music shown 
in the metres of Alcman and Stesi- 
chorus ; further development in the 
time of Pythagoras ; music in dram- 
atic, as compared with lyric chorus ; 
tendency of later music to predomi- 
nate over poetry ; songs all in unison; 
one syllable one note ; exact agree- 
ment between words and musical 
accompaniment ; ethical importance 
attached to Greek music, how far 
reconcilable with its deficiencies ; 
the musical ' modes,' 34-44. 



478 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Music, inventions attributed to Sappho, 

150. 
Musical rests, influence on Greek metre, 

confined mostly to the end of the 

line, 55. 
Myrsilus, 136. 

Myrtis, 282, and Miscel. ii. a. 
Myrtle-bough and banquet-songs, 233. 
at sacred ceremonies, Scol. i. a', 

1 note. 
Myth, its importance in the Dithy- 

rambic period, 107. 

its treatment in Pindar, 19. 

employment in dirges, ibid, and 

Simon, ii. 
Mythology in lyric poets, due greatly 

to epic influence, 19. 
fondness of Greeks for illustration 

from, 19, and Sap. xli. note. 

Naucratis, 149. 

Nature, love of, displayed in Sappho, 

151. 

in Alcman, 126. 

Ibyc. i. note. 

Neobule and Archilochus, 113. 
Neuter plural nouns with plural verb, 

Alcaeus ii. 2 ; Pind. vi. 15. 
Nine chief lyric poets, the greater 

number of Asiatic-Greek descent, 

23. 

Niobe, Miscel. xvi. 

Nome, a branch of religious lyric, 6. 

Aulodic, ibid. 

improvements by Terpander, 36. 

in final period of epic poetry, 106. 

Nymphs, Gardens of, Sap. iv. note ; 

Ibyc. i. 3. 
and Bacchus, Anacr. in. 2 note. 

Objective character of Greek lyric 

poetry, 19-20. 
Octave-system, Music, 39. 
Olympus and flute-music, 36. Dith. 

Poets i. d. note. 
' Orchestic ' singing, its development, 

25 seq. 
Orpheus, Simon, xxi. 
Orthia, a name of Diana, Alcm. i. 28, 

note. 

Paean, in Homer, 5. 

cultivated by Thaletas, 28. 

both accompanied and unaccom- 
panied by dance in Homer, 27, 28. 
and Banquet-songs, 232. 



Painting ' silent poetry,' 205. 
Palinode, Stesich. ii. /3' note. 
Pan — 'Opyrjim]?, Scol. vi. 
Pandrosus, Scol. iii. note. 



Parcemiacs, Sap. xxxiii. note. 

Parcenia, see Banquet-songs. 

Parthenia, cultivated by Alcman at 
Sparta, 9. 

Pausanias (the Spartan general), 
friendship with Simonides, 203. 

Pausanias (Geographus) on dialect of 
Alcman, 126. 

Peitho in lyric poets, Sap. i. 18 note ; 
Ibyc. iii. 3 ; Pindar ix. 10. 

Personifications of abstract ideas, 
Miscel. v. note. 

Phalaris and Stesichorus, 168. 

Pherecrateans in Anacreon, 186-7. 

Pherecrates on the later poetical style, 
264. 

Philoxenus, the Dithyrambic poet, 265. 

mythological subjects in, 107. 

Phrynis, a Dithyrambic poet, 266. 

Pillory, Anacr. xxiii. 9 note. 

Pindar, Biography — reasons for inser 
tion of his fragments, which afford 
typical specimens of various classes of 
melic poetry ; life ; period of melic 
poetry with which he was contem- 
porary ; general nature of his odes ; 
poetry not degraded in his hands by 
being a profession ; earnest religious 
and moral tone ; seen also in his 
treatment of mythology ; indications 
of a lighter tone in his fragments, 
281-285. 

praises Sparta for music and 

song, 101. 

complains of the shackles laid 

upon poetry, 105. 

on Archilochus, 1 14. 

influenced by Stesichorus, 169. 

— resemblance of their metres, 17 1. 

rival of Simonides at court of 

Hiero, 201. 

Threnoi of Simonides and Pindar, 



205. 



Longinus on Pindar and Bacchy- 



lides, 223. 

— nature of his threnoi, Pind. i-v. 
introductory note, 412. 

— on future life, Pind. ii. note. 

— representative of ' austere' style, 
Pind. vi. note ad init. 

and the dithyramb, 264. 



Pisistratids, Anacreon and Simonides 

at court of, 183, 198. 

see also Scol. i. note. 

Pittacus, 138, 139, 148. 

criticised by Simonides, ix. 8 (cf. 

203). 
and 



mill-stone song, Popular 
Songs viii. 
— Scolion attributed to, Scol. xxiii. 



SUBJECT INDEX 



479 



Plato on the theory of music, 39, note I. 

on its ethical value, 43. 

on the musical modes, ibid. 

on Sappho, 153. 

remarks on a passage from 

Simonides, Simon, ix. notes. 
Pleiads, Dith. Poets, iv. /3\ 
Plutarch on Sappho, 153. 
Polycrates, patron of Ibycus, 176; of 

Anacreon, 183. 
Popular songs, signification of the 

title, 391. _ 
Pratinas, Biography — his connection 

with lyric poetry ; date, etc., 267-8. 
quoted by Athenaeus for invec- 
tive against flute - players, Dith. 

Poets, i. a'. 
Praxilla, Scol. xi. note. 
Preludes to epic narration, 26 note. 
Primitive names of places ascribed to 

the gods, Pind. viii. a' 4 note. 
Processional songs, many kinds of 

Greek lyric poetry of this nature ; 

a distinct feature in Greek religious 

ritual, 9. 

Paean, Pind. viii. a! note. 

Pro-ode, Anacr. xiii. note. 
Prosodia, see Processional Songs. 
Prosodinc Metre, 62. 
^tXr) xifrapiai;, hardly recognised as 

legitimate music, 43. 
Psilosis in Lesbian, 80- 1. 
in Ionic, Archil, xiv. 1 note ; 

Anac. ii. 6. 
Publicity of Greek civil life, influence 

upon lyric poetiy, 20, 21. 
Punning allusions in Scolia, 237, and 

Scol. xix. 
Pythagoras and musical improvements, 

39- 

Pythagoreanism in Pindar, iv. note. 

Quintilian on Archilochus, 116. 

on Alcaeus, 138. 

on Stesichorus, 170, 19. 

Reduplicated Aorists, Misc. viii. 

8 note. 
Refrain, 27, and Sap. xxxiii. 
Rhadina, story of, in Stesichorus, 169, 

and Stesich. vi. note. 
Rhodopis and Sappho's brother, 149. 
Rhyme, instances of, Scol. xiv. xvi. 

notes. 
Roses, sacred to Muses, Sap. vi. note. 
Royal power at Sparta favourable to 

lyric poetry, 101. 

Sages, Scolia attributed to, Scol. 
xxii. note. 



Sapphics in Sappho and in Horace, 
I54- 

effect of acatalexis in, 60. 

Sappho, Biography— birth and rank ; 
flight to Sicily ; return to Lesbos ; 
marriage ; story of Leucadian leap ; 
position at Lesbos as head of female 
poetic society ; quarrels at Lesbos ; 
personal qualities ; immense reputa- 
tion, borne out by fragments, 148- 
154. 

as a musician, 38, 150. 

comparison with Ibycus, 177. 

and Alcaeus, Add. Note A. 

her odes as Scolia, 236. 

Sardis, birthplace of Alcman, 124. 

Satyric drama, probably connected 
with dithyramb, 267. 

Scephros, a summer-song, 14. 

Schema Ibyceum, Ibyc. v. note. 

Schema Pindaricum, Pind. vi. 16 
note. 

Schmidt (M.), on the four-line stanza, 
46, n. 2. 

new principles applied to Greek 

metre, 52. 

reference to, on eurhythmy, 56. 

on basis, 58. 

on 'falling rhythm,' 61. 

on the Bacchius, and Dochmius, 



7i- 

Schubert, illustrations from his song- 
accompaniment, 40, 42. 

Schumann, illustrations from his song- 
accompaniment, 42. 

Scolia, see Banquet - songs, ' Attic ' 
Scolia, their metre, Scol. i. note : 
choral scolia in Pindar, Fiag. xi. 
note ; and perhaps in Timocreon, 
219. 

Scopadae, story of their fate, 199. 

Scythians, notorious drunkards, Pind. 
xvi. 9 note. 

Seasons of years, certain songs appro- 
priate to them, 14. 

Serenade, 8 : Alcaeus xii. note. 

Shelley, logacedics in, 48. 

' irrational ' syllables in, 66. 

Sicily, melic poetry in, 102-103. 

Sicilian influence on the compositions 
of Stesichorus, 103. 

Simonides, Biography — tangible- 
data for his career ; his import- 
ance in the history of Greek 
melic poetry ; birthplace and early 
lifeinCeos; at court of Pisistratus 
in Thessaly ; story of Dioscuri and 
Scopad* ; returns to Athens ; patri- 
otic poems ; victory over Aeschylus ; 
successes in dithyramb ; at court of 



480 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



Hiero ; rivalry with Pindar ; poetic 
activity maintained to the last ; his 
character ; reputation for wisdom ; 
philosophical views ; careful training 
and finished style ; wit ; his poetry; 
excelled in elegy and epigram ; 
exactitude of language ; pathos; 
his dirges ; realistic power ; his 
hyporchems, epinicia, etc., 197-206. 
Simonides: his position in Greek melic 
poetry, 105 ; Simonides and Lasus 
 as Dithyrambic poets, 206 ; story of 
his cupidity, Simon, xix. note ; 
enmity with Timocreon, 219 ; 
popular for banquet songs, 233. 
Sirius, used of the sun, note on Alcm. 
i. 29. 

of any star, Ibyc. vii. 7' note. 

Sobriety of Greeks, Anac. xvi. note, 

and 237. 
Social precepts in Pind. xi. 
Socrates, and a song of Stesichorus, 
170. 

relations of, and his disciples, 

cp. with those of Sappho and her 
pupils, 151. 
Solon and Sappho, Sap. xvii. note ; 

Scolion xxiv. attributed to him. 
Sophocles, a remark on his poetry by 

Longinus, 223. 
Sparrows, sacred to Aphrodite, Sapph. 

i. 10 note. 
Sparta, progress of melic poetry at ; 
a centre to which lyric poets were 
attracted from all parts of Greece ; 
causes of her pre-eminence, and of 
the absence of native talent ; her 
long-enduring fame in poetry and 
music, 100-102. 

Parthenia at Sparta, 9 ; Terpander 

at Sparta, 36 ; Thaletas at Sparta, 
28 ; life at Sparta in time of Alcman, 
125 ; praise of Sparta in Terpander 
i. ; in Pindar xv. 
Spartan dishes and wines in Alcman 

xii. xiii. 
Sphinx, Aetolians cp. with, Miscel. 

xxviii. 33. 
Springende Heiligen at Luxemburg, 

33. 

Stesichorus, Biography— birthplace, 
date, etc. ; Stesichorus and Phalaris 
exiled to Catana ; first great lyric 
poet of western Greeks ; epico-lyric 
style ; influence on Pindar ; love- 
stories ; Paeans ; epode attributed 
to him ; compared by ancients with 
Homer ; his fragments hardly repre- 
sentative of his powers, 168-171. 

Progress of music traceable in his 



choral metres, 38; his position in 
the history of Greek lyric poets, 
103 ; his blindness and recovery, 
Stes. ii. note; imitated by Ibycus, 
176. 

Strabo, on Sappho, 153; story _ in 
Strabo of her leap from Leucadian 
rock, 149. 

Strophe, in Alcman's Parthenia, 49. 

Suidas on Archilochus, 114. 

on Alcman, 124. 

on Sappho, 148. 

on Stesichorus, 168. 

on Simonides, 202. 

on Pratinas, 268. 

on Melanippides, 265, 26S. 

Sun-shades, among Greeks, Anacr. 

xxiii. 13 note. 
Swallow, as messenger of spring, 

Simon, xxiii. 
Swallow-song, see Chelidonisma. 
Swan singing, Dith. Poets i. a' 7 

note. 
Swinburne, quoted for metre, 53. 

on Sappho, 154. 

System, Metre, 93. 

— — in Anacreon, 186, 187. 

Tantalus-stone, Alcman xxvii. 
note. 

Tartessus, a name of the Baetis, 
Stesich. i. /3' note. 

Telesicles, father of Archilochus, 1 12. 

Telestes, a Sicilian Dithyrambic poet, 
270. 

Terpander, musical innovations, 35-6 ; 
praise of Sparta, 101 ; takes part 
in poetical contests, 106 ; his nomes 
altered by Phrynis, 266. 

Tetrameters, why so called, 65. 

how far melic, III. 

in Anacreon v. note. 

Thales, Scolion xxvi. attributed to 
him. 

Thaletas, cultivated Paean and 
Hyporchem, 5, 6 ; part played by 
him in development of ' orchestic ' 
singing, 28-9 ; Thaletas and flute 
music, 38. 

Thargelia, poetical contests at, 106. 

Thasos, abused by Archilochus, 1 1 2. 

Thebe, as a goddess, Pind. xiii. 4. 

Themistocles, friendship with Simon- 
ides, 200. 

attacked by Timocreon, Frag. i. 

see note. 

Thermopylae, favourite subject with 
Simonides, 200. 

Threnos, see Dirge. 

Thucydides, on victories of Alcibiades 



SUBJECT INDEX 



481 



at Olympia, Miscel. x. note ; on 

earthquake at Delos, Pind. viii. a. 

3 note ; on Harmodius and Aristo- 

geiton, Scol. i. note. 
Timocreon, Rhodian lyric poet ; 

charged with Medism ; enmity with 

Themistocles and Simonides ; 

athlete ; personal or subjective 

character of his poems although 

choral, 219. 
Timotheus, date and importance in 

later lyric poetry, 270 ; innovations, 

266. 
Tortoise-song, Pop. Songs iv. note. 
Touch-stone, metaphors from, Bacchyl. 

ix. note. 
Tragedians, ethical character of their 

choruses, inherited from lyric poetry 

proper, 285. 
Transmigration, doctrine of, Pind. iv. 

note. 
Tribrach, in f time, Simon, xvii. note. 
Trimeters, nature of, 65. 
Trochaic metres, 65 seq. 



Tyche, ode to, Miscel. vii. ; genealogy 

of, Alcm. xx. 
Tyrants, their influence on melic 

poetry, 103. 

Usener, on early metres, 45. 

Velleius, on Archilochus, 115. 
Violet-garlands at Dionysia, Pind. vi. 

17 ; xiv. 1. 
Virtue, Aristotle's ode to, Miscel. vi. ; 

among inaccessible crags, Simon, x. 

Wedding-songs, 12. 

Welcker on Sappho, 152 ; on Ibycus, 

177. 
Wine, proportions of wine and water 

among Greeks, Alcaeus v. ; Anac. 

xvi. notes. 
Wool-workers' song, Pop. Songs ix. 

Xenelasy, not practised in early 

Sparta, 100. 
Xenophon, discourse between Hiero 

and Simonides, 201. 



2 H 



II 



GREEK INDEX 



The word note after a reference signifies that the Greek expression 
occurs in the commentary only, and not in the text also. 



'Afldxjjs, sense of, Sap. xv.f. 
dfJaxiSofiat, sense of, Anac. xix. 4. 
dyavojEXscpapo? IlaO-w, Ibyc. iii. 3. 
dyxuXr], in connection with cotta- 

bus, Bacchyl. xxi. 1. 
dypsl = alpet, Sap. ii. 14. 
'Ayooxc'pa, epithet of Artemis, Scol. 

vii. 3. 
dyw, of singing, Dithyr. Poet. i. a' 

,7- 

doap.avxora'8tXoi xiovs;, of the pillars 

of Delos, Pind. viii. a' 7. 
dStd^Twroi, of second-rate poets, 

, P\ 22 3- . 
aStxrjei, Sap. 1. 20. 

deXXorcoSiov 9-uyatpe? Imvav, of mules, 

Simon, xix. 
dsX^xia, i% <xz\-t{i}$ = aik-KTU)^ Archil. 

xiv. 3. 
de'ppw, Sap. xxxiii. 3, Alcae. v. 2. 
d^aXe'o;, in active sense, Ibyc. i. 18. 
'Afrdva and 'a8-7jv«, Scol. iv. 1. 
ai = ei, Spartan Dance-song, i. 2. 
aisvdoiSs Mura, Alcm. vii. 2. 
aiO-os, of spiders, Bacchyl. i. 6. 
aiXtvos, as a refrain, p. 27. 
otT[j.a Bax/tou, of wine, Dith. Poets 

x. 4. 
Atvojwcpis, Alcm. xxvi. 
d'i'xa, quantities, Alcm. v. 2. 
«?7jj.d, sense of, Terp. i. 1. 
dtoj dist. from xXuw, Sap. i. 6. 
dxajA7:To?"Ap7]<;, Bacchyl. iii. 3. 
dxivrjTo?, as applied to Delos, Pind. 

viii. «' 3, 
'Axxt? deXtou, form of address to 

sun, Pind. vii. 1. 
dXdO-sa = dXr^sia, Alcae. ix. 2. 



dXd B-sia, with penult, short, Bacch. 

vii. 
'AXxjxdv for 'AXx[a.a!wv, p. 92. 
dXka. . . . yap, Alcm. xiii. 7. 
dXXoxa, p. 85. 

'AjxaXxK?]; xe'pas, Anac. xii. 1. 
d[j.£XyopiEvo? fieXi, Misc. xx. 
dpijj.es = ri[xiii, Alcae. xvii. 3, etc. 
d[A|i.i, Alcae. vi. 4, etc. 
d[xoi[3dv, as prepn = ydpiv, Pind. 

vi. 6 note. 
d[j.ov = spiov, Bacch. i. 11. 
I 'Ap.uxXaiav . . . xuva, Simon, xxiv. A. 
dp.u'vsiv = d[i.uvsaO-ai in sense of 

dpLEijBsaO-ai, Alcm. i. 32. 
dv, omitted with optative in apo- 

dosis, Scol. xviii. 1-2, note ; 

omitted in ' relative conditional,' 

Sim. ix. 11. 
dvapoXr], p. 265. 
dvdyxa, of the influence of wine, 

Bacch. ii. 1. 
dvayvwTuxo;, of Licymnius, p. 271. 
dvaxXwjjLEva Sip.sxpa, p. 187. 
dvapp^at . . . Xoyov, Pind. xi. [3' I. 
dvaaxaXu^w, Anac. xxiii. 7. 
dvSpaia = auaatxia, Alcm. \i. 2. 
dvSps;, Epic usage of xe'xxove; dvSpe;, 

Sap. xxxiii. 3 : ^chjaeve; dv., Id. 

xxxvii 3. 
dvEorjaaxo vixa?, Simon, xvi. 2. 
dvrjxov at banquets, Alcae. vi. 1. 
dv9-o; xu|j.axo; Alcm. ii. 3, dvO-sa 

noa;, Sap. xix. 3 ; dv. doiodv, 

Bacchyl. i. 2 ; dv. xopj?, Anac. 

xix. 
drcdXotpivo;, Alcae. vii. 1 ; Simon. 

ix. x 



GREEK INDEX 



483 



ajuapS-sveuTos, sense, Pop. Songs 

xiii. 2. 
aTOpavToXoyou? . . . yXtoacra?, Scol. 

xxvi. 4. 
«jco«pEpetv, perhaps with dat., Sap. 

xxxix. 2. 
a^paxTo; as dist. from obtprjxTos, 

Simon, v. 1. 
a^u = goto, Alcae. xxv. 7. 
obcupos, of gold too pure for refining, 

Scol. xvi. p'; 
eacuo-cpE'tpeafrai, with dative, Sap. vii. 

, 4; 

ajctojxoros, sense in Archil, xi. 1. 
apa = apa, Archil, vi. a' ; vii. 4. 
apa in the phrase Vjv apa, Scol. 

xxi. 
apao = 7jpa<jo, Sap. xxxvi. 2. 
apyupi'a, Sap. iii. 4. 
apyupopi£ous . . . Jcaya;, Stes. i. 2. 
apoeaO-at, with genitive, lb. i. 2. 
jxpsxxo?, Simon, xiv. (b). 
"Apeuos, Lesb. genitive, Misc. xxx. 

1 note. 
apprjxo?, sense in Bacchyl. xv. 2. 
ap/siv, of love, Archil, xix. 1. 
a? — !'w;, p. 92. 
aoaxo?, the bough at banquet songs. 

p. 233, note 2. 
auajj-evot, Alcae. iv. 2. 
aatpayaXou? ijuXivou?, of ear-rings, 

Anac. xxiii. 4. 
aaxpov, of the Dog-star, Alcae. ii. 1 ; 

of the sun, Pind. vii. 2 ; of the 

moon, ibid, note ; of Delos, with 

reference to its ancient name, 

Pind. viii. a' 5. 
aauvE~7][.u, Alcae. xvii. 1. 
aacps, acstp;, p. 87, Append. Sap. xvii. 
atepo?, p. 93. 
'Axpeioa, genitive, p. 92. 
auyaaoso, Spartan Dance-song i. 2. 
auyslv = aXyav, Miscel. vi. 6 note. 
auoto;, Sap. i. 6. 
au£tpo{ie'vat, Alcm. i. 30. 
auaxrjpa ap[j.ovia, Pind. vi. //tfte. 
auioSa^; apsia, Dith. Poets iii. a' 3. 
auTw? with dative = instar, Anac. 

xxiii. 12. 
a/api?, sense in Sap. xv. b. 
ayEixat = r t yfi, Pind. vi. 18. 
a/opsuxo; . . . <pa;j.a, sense, Dith. 

Poets i. y' 8. 
a/psto; . . . Xdyo?, sense, Pind. xi. 

P'l. 



BaSpdpuo?, Rhodian for Bo»]8po[jLiwv, 

Pop. Songs ii. note. 
j paivEiv, _eu |3E|37]xoTa?, metaphorical, 

Archil, x. 3 ; cf. Id. xiii. 4. 
Bax/io? for Baxyo;, Dith. P. x. 4. 
paXjhoc?, Pop. Songs xi. (3'. 
PaXe = utinam, Alcm. ii. 2. 
[3aXoia%)-a, p. 89. 

(3ava, Boeot. for yuvrj, Misc. ii. a'. 
Paaaaprjaw, Anac. xvi. 6. 
,3au/.aX7)[j.a, the Cradle-song, Simon. 

ii. 15-16 note. 
(3sXeus, genitive, Alcae. xvi. 4. 
(Bs'vtha vu'xxo?, Stes. i. 3. 
PspPEpiov, sense, Anac. xxiii. 3. 
[Biaiw?, sense in Pind. ix. 6. 
[BXacrcat te'xvwv, Miscel. xvi. 2. 
PXe'toiv, with cogn. accus. Anac. x. 

1. 
[iXriypd?, |3. nc>Ta[i.o£, Pind. ii. 9 ; (3. 

avE'fxwv, Alcae. xxvii. 
pdaxEsO-at, with accus., Anac. v. 5. 
|3payyto;, Misc. i. 4. 
Ppa3tvo; = 5a3ivo;, Sap. xiii. 4 ; xxxiv. 

2. 
[ipaxEa = pax£a, signification, Sap. 

xv. d. 2. 
j3pdScov = pdSwv, Sap. vi. 2. 
PpoSojwcxses, Sap. xxiii. |B'. 
Ppdysws, Sap. ii. 7. 
Buxyt?, Lesb. for Baxyo<;, Alcae. iv. 

,3-" 
Buaio;, first month of spring at 
Delphi, p. 5. 

raXafr^vw raj'S-Ei, Simon, ii. 6. 
yEyXwac;a(j.£vo?, Alcm. xxi. a' 2. 
yevva-ro, Alcae. xxiii. 3. 
ys'vo? wov, y. StJiXaaiov, in metre, pp. 
2, 47 5 T- %dXiov, pp. 37, 49, 70. 
yXoiw?, ' stingily,' Timoc. i. 10. 
yXuxujjiaXov, Sap. xxxviii. 1. 
yXuxurcixpov, Sap. viii. a' 2. 
yvaO-[j.d?, feminine, Misc. xviii. 2. 
yvo9aXXov = xvacsaXXov, Alcae. iii. 8. 
ydvva plur. of ydvu, p. 82. 
Tupsat, Archil, xiv. 2. 

Aaxe'0-u[j.o? t3pw'?, Simon, x. 5. 
oaxvEsfrai, SayD-st; gXa, Pind. ix. 8 ; 

of love, ibid. note. 
oaxpua Nui-i^av, of water, Dith. 

Poets x. 4. 
SaxxuXos, as a moment of time, 

Alcae. v. 1. 



4»4 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



AaXo?, origin of name, Pind. viii. 

a 4. 
oap:a£stv, of Eros, Anac. iv. 4. 
Saji.aXr]?"Epw?, Anac. iii. I. 
oapcairaios, of Athene, Dith. Poets 

iv. a' 3. 
oa[j.vat;, Alcae. viii. 1. 
oafxvatai rcdQ-o?, Arch. iii. I. 
oaj-ieiTa 7td9"w, Sap. xiii. 3. 
Sajj.ioji.axa, public-songs, Stes. vii. 1. 
8s', position of, Archil, xi. 9 ; Dith. 

Poets xii. 2 note. 
o£upu = o£upo, Sap. vii. 4 note. 
07], with w? emphasising purpose, 

Anac. xiv. 3. 
8ia7tsiva[j.£?, p. 92. 
otaraxXiypiEvo; OTpaTrjyds, Archil. 

xiii. 1. 
SiajcXs'xei cqjipav, Alcm. i. 5. 
8tappi<pa, Se^ta? xa\ 71000;., Misc. i. a' 

16-17. 
Sioaxsw, Anac. xi. 3. 
3'xav, sense of, Simon, ii. 19. 
3tv£uvT£?, Sap. i. II. 
oiydji.uO'Ov . . . vdrjji.a, Scol. xxiii. 4. 
ooxot, sense of, Archil, ix. 3. 
ooXotcXoxe, of Aphrodite, Sap. i. 2. 
8dpu, of the pillory, Anac. xxiii. 9. 
opaV.wv, bracelet, Alcm. i. ^ 
ouoxaiSExiov, Alcae. xxv. note ; 

Append. Alcae. 35. 
SuuElmaro?, sense, Miscel. ix. 1. 
Suapiayrjia . . . owpa, Miscel. xiv. 1. 
ou'aroxpis, Alcm. xxvi. 
Stopa, of Bacchus and Aphrodite, 

Bacchyl. ii. 4 and note. 
AwTtov . . . raStov, Simon, xxiv. A 

(2)4- 

'Eapiopdrctov . . . Xoi(3av, Pind. vi. 6. 

lyEtprjat, Ibyc. vii. (3'. 

lyxcdfj.tov, why applied to many of 

Pindar's Odes, p. 8. 
Eyxsijxai 7ud9-()), Archil, i. 1. 
E'ypE/.uSotjj.oi;, of Pallas, Dith. Poets, 

iv. a'. 
£t, introducing 'object-clause,* Scol. 

xviii. 2 note ; with fut. indie. ; 

Pop. Songs ii. 13. 
Eiapivo';, Simon, xx. 2. 
c\'apo?, gen., Alcm. ii. 4. 
EijBrJ vo? = s'pfj vo?, Alcm. i. 26. 
e'SwXov, signification in, Pind. i. 3. 
e'iSw? . . . Sixav, Simon, ix. 3. 
EtxdaSto, Sap. xxxiv. 1. 



ecxei = Txsi, Sap. ii. 7. 

'iv.axi . . . Ku7rpt8o?, Alcae. xiv., cf. 

Pind. ix. 8. 
ExxuxXriiJLa, Pop. Songs ii. 6 note. 
ExroXsxai, ' it is the lot of,' Sap. vii. 

ex tou, sense in Archil, xi. 5. 
ExXafATtsiv, with accusative, Scol. 

xxii. 3. 
sXaippi^wv . . . [J.ayjjv, sense, Archil. 

v'i ; p' 3. 
eXixoc^u";, of Semele, Pind. vi. 19. 
EXtypuao? Alcm. x. 2 ; Ibyc. vii. a' 1. 
E|j.[Ba'vEtv, with genitive, Alcae. xviii. 

„ 3- 

E[ji|j.Ev = stvai, Sap. ii. 2, etc. 

E[j.jj.t = Etjj. 1, Sap. ii. 15, etc. 

EjjupEprjv (accus. sing.), Sap. xiv. 2. 

iv=e?s, Pind. vi. 1 ; xii. (3 2. 

'EvEiixd?, . . . xeT.vjs, Alcm. i. 18. 

Evtauxo?, ' season,' Pop. Songs ii. 3. 

Evvoa'tpuXXo;, Simon, xxi. 4. 

siiapijai, of leading off a song, p. 7, 

Archil, xxi. 1. 
£7iatvrj[xt, Simon, ix. 19. 
£7raVov . . . Hpo?, Alcae. i. I. 
smji-dXio?, as a species of lyric, Pop. 

Songs viii. note. 
Ikot^oiv, Sap. xvi. (3\ 
?7iExai . . . awp ■S-avatw, Pind. i. 2. 
IttlSeutjV, Sap. ii. 15. 
|jtix7iSe1ov, dist. from 9-prjvo;, p. 12. 
Itc'tho?, a cup, Anac. xvii. 4. 
ipEO-t^Etv, Dith. Poets xv. 2. 
IpEiTcw, usage of strong aorist in 

Simon, ii. 2. 
EpEtajxa 'EXXaSo;, of Athens, Pind. 

xiv. 2. 
'Epaa, as daughter of Zeus and 

Selene, Alcm. xxii. 2. 
'Epuotyoctos, Alcm. iv. 4. 
Ipyojiivoto, in Lesbian, Alcae. vii. 4. 
IpwTOfiavEOTaTos, of Ibycus, p. 1 77. 
ectXos, Alcae. vii. 4 ; Sap. x. 1. 
e5<jo, Sap. i. 28. 
Euav07]5 dXpo?, Pind. ii. 5. 
eue'9-eipo;, Anac. v. 7. 
suoyfroi oatTE?, Bacchyl. xvii. 2. 
euxe'SiXXo?, Alcae. xxiv. 2. 
supuayuta A'xrj, Terp. i. 2. 
euS-u?, punning usage of, Scol. xix. 

, 3; 

EupuTteSo? yala, Misc. ix. 3. 

Euarayu? xaprto?, Misc. xxx. 19. 
Eyrjai, Ibyc. v. 2. 



GREEK INDEX 



485 



£a(Jaiov, p. 84. 

£a8r]Xov, form and sense, Alcae. 

xvii. 7. 
Zsu? ?e'vios, Misc. vi. 16. Zeu'?, of 

the sky, Anac. xxv. 3. 

'HjiSav, fjpr], significations of, Anac. 

ix. a' 2. 
»j8ovij, Simon, on, xii. 
W^i — W y, ( gp art Dance-song i. 

>i[jLto7:oi; auXo?, Anac. xxvii. 2. 

7]v, in present signification, Scol. 

viii. and Scol. xxi. (i^v apa). 
rj^toSwpo?, of Aphrodite, Stes. ii. 2 

a', 
rjxop, dative of, doubtful, Simon, ii. 

6 note. 
'HpaxXeto; Seo[jlos, Bacchyl. xiii. 2 

»)'pwes, as dactyl, Pind. iv. 5. 
"Hpwv, as accus. in Lesbian, p. 87. 
/]/£? = et/e?, Sap. x. 1. 

GaXXooopdc, Scol. i. a' «0/tf. 

9-aXo? Xapixwv, Ibyc. iii. 1 ; &. Kut;- 

piSos, Miscel. xvii. 3 ; cf. Dith. 

Poets viii. 3 note. 
S-aXm^a^fraXrot, Bacchyl. ii. 2. 
thparcsuwv, perhaps with a dative, 

Pind. ix. 6. 
0peix.ir], Anac. v. 1 #<?&?. 
9-pr)vo;, dist. from etclxtjoeiov, p. 

12. 
3-pdva -oix.iXa, Sap. i. 1 «#/£. 
ftupwpo;, an uncommon Lesbian 

contraction, Sap. xl. 1. 
S-uyaxrjp 'Apijo?, of Rome, Misc. xxx. 
Gula, a Bacchic festival at Elis, 

Pop. Song xii. note adfi.71. 
9-ujji.Evo;, 'in haste,' Dith. P. i. a' 6. 
9-upajj.ayoi; . . . 7coy[j.aytaiT. ve'wv, 

Dith. Poets i. a' 10. 
9-o)jj.tyS-£i?, Anac. xxiii. 10. 

'IaXuaos, quantities, Timocr. i. 7. 
'i|3u5 or i|3us, in connection with 

name of Ibycus, p. 176. 
'iopw; (=t8p(os), fern., Sap. ii. 13. 
lepd?, of bees, Pind. ix. 9; of fishes, 

ibid. note. 
I(j.£pp£t, Sap. i. 27. 
t(j.£po9wvo? arjotov, Sap. xxvi. 
10x0X7:0?, Alcae. xv. 
lo<rce«pavot . . . 'A^vai, Pind. xiv. 1. 



'IouXw, Epithet of Demeter, Pop. 

Songs ix. note. 
"aa, adverb, Pind. x. 3. 
idoSaifxovos ap/a?, Dith. Poets v. 5. 
'Itwvta, of Athene, Bacchyl. xvi. 1. 
ii|»oi=uAoi, Sap. xxxiii. 1. 
?w, monosyllabic, Scol. vi. 1. 
2tovosca[«ro]s, Dith. Poets xiv. 3. 
twvya, Boeot. for eywye, Misc. ii. 9. 

Ka(3a{vwv, Alcm. xvii. 2. 
xaJipaXXc = xaxa(3aXXE, Alcae. iii. 5. 
xao ok = x.axa 61, Alcae. v. 1. 
xa^epjiaxa, 'ear-rings,' Anac. xxiii. 

12. 
•/.aO-opav, followed by si, in what 

sense, Scol. xviii. 1-2 note. 
xa(, elided, Bacchyl. ii. 3 ; cf. Scol. 

i. («') 2. 
jcaipog, sense of £v statpw, Bacch. v. 2. 
xax xscpaXa;, sense, Alcae. v. 5. 
xax.-/££t, Alcae. ii. 4. 
xaXr][i.i, Sap. i. 16. 
xaXu[j.ij.a, 'a garment,' Anac. xxiii. 

3- 
xaXyaivto, origin of its meaning, 

Pind. xi. 4 «<?/£\ 

x.a|j.7:uXov [ieXo;, Simon, xxiv. A (2), 

3- 

x.ajJL'i/'.otauXov . . . /eipa, Dith. Poets 
xv. 4. 

xappovss=xpetTTovs5, Spart. Dance- 
song i. 3. 

xaxa, in Lesbian, p. 88 ; see xao, 
scax, xaxxav. 

x.axappei, apparently non- Lesbian, 
Sap. iv. 3 note. 

x.axaaxaai; Ssuxspa, of the second 
epoch in lyric poetry at Sparta, 

xaxxav = xa9-' ojv, Alcae. xvi. 2. 

x.axxuTcxsaQ-e, Sap. xxi. 2. 

xeidfl-ai, usually of lying dead, 

Simon, xxvii. ; xeiaS-ai with dative, 

' to be in the power of,' Archil. 

xix. 2. 
xsXaSst, impersonal, Sap. iv. 1. 
xr] = £xa, Sap. xii. 1. 
xrjvo?, Sap. ii. i. ; xii. 3. 
X7}v = xa\ iv, Sap. vi. 3. 
x.rjpivav 07cwpav, 'honey,' Alcm. xii. 

2. 
K^pux.tor^, Archil, vi i. 1. 
x.i9-apiaxrjs, = x.t9-apioo"ds, Alcm. iv. 2. 
x.ipvai?, participle, Alcae. iii. 6. 



486 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



xiaau^iov, of the Cyclops' cup, Dith. 

Poets x. note. 
xXewcc, form and sense, Alcm. i. II. 
xXuxdg, ' shrill-voiced,' Simon, xxiii. 

xXu'w, as dist. from afw, Sap. i. 7. 
xvwSaXa, of the monsters of the 

deep, Alcm. iii. 5. 
xo|3aXixds, Timoc. i. 6. 
xd'tXai, Alcae. xvi. 5. 
Koioysv/';, of Leto, Pind. viii. a' 7. 
xotpavTjOv xapxo;. Misc. xxx. 7. 
xdXaxs? zo).a/.wv, of the Athenians, 

Misc. xxxviii. 9 note. 
xdXa?, sense in Alcm. i. 26. 
xdXoupt?, Timocreon, of himself, 

Frag. ii. (5' 3. 
xdcjxo;, as opp. to xp7)7u?, Pind. xiii. 

2 

xpainvoi aO-Evsi, Pind. i. 4. 
xpaxtaxEuwv Xdyo?, sense, Pind. xi. 

P'3- , 
xp£To?=xpaxo?, Alcae. xx. 1. 

xprjxi?, favourite metaphor in Pin- 
dar, xiii. I ; xiv. 4. 

xpouat; urcd xrjv worjv, p. 41. 

xxs'vvat?, Alcae. xxv. 5. 

Kuowvuxt . . . p-aXtSs;, Ibyc. i. I ; 
K. jxaXa, Stesich. iii. 1. 

xuviaiai, Alcae. xvi. 2. 

xw[j.a^£tv = dpy£laS-ai, Spart. Dance- 
song ii. 2. 

Asc-tt), see "kffi and Xwaa. 
XaSavEjjLov . . . topav, halcyon-days. 
Xatayj'tov, nature of, Scol. x. 2. 
XaXo? 2sipr]v, of Bacchyl. p. 222. 
Xaprw, usage in active signification, 

Scol. xxii. 3, cf. Sap. iii. 3. 
XeXaQ-ours, Misc. viii. 8. 
Xeovxeiov yaXa, Alcm. xv. 5. 
Xf^, Spart. Dance-song i. 2. 
AvjTtov, Lesb. accus., p. 87. 
Xiyupo?, of the Linus-song, Pop. 

Songs i. 4. 
Xiyu?, as applied to song and music, 

Terp. i. 1. 
Xt7iapd|j.p.at£ (j.ax£p, of 'YyiEta, Dith. 

Poets v. 1. 
AuSia Xtfro;, Bacchyl. ix. 1 ; A. [juxpa, 

Alcm. i. 34. 
Xuai[iiX7]s, of love, desire, etc.. Sap. 

viii. 1 ; Archil, iii. 
Xu'yvov, singular neuter doubtful, 

Alcae. v. 1 note. 



Xdw, with penult, long, Bacchyl. 

ii. 6 ; X. yXwaaa?, Scol. xxvi. 2. 
Xwara, Alcm. i. 12. 

MouvdXa thlfiw, Sap. i. 18. 

jjuxls, Sap. i. 19. 

[j.aXaxauy7)'xoto . . . utcvou, Misc. vi. 

8. 
[xaaXrji; = (AaafrXr)?, Sap. xxix. 2. 
[j.axep . . . tha; dp.ji.axwv, Pind. vii. 

I. 
[xayaixav = [j-a/^x^v, Alcae. xxv. 5. 
[i.aiuXaxav, Sap. xv. (g) 2. 
(j.£yaXau/oxaxav, Miscel. xxix. 2 

note. 
[j.£yaXEtoxaxav, Miscel. xxix. 2. 
[A£yaXo7soXt£;, p. 94. 
[j.EyaXoxdX7rou Nuxxd;, Bacchyl. xx. 
[j-s'Set.?, as participle, Alcae. xxiii. t. 
p.£9-ua0-r)v, aor. infin., Alcae. iv. 4 ; 

xix. 1. 
[xet?, accent in Lesbian, p. 81. 
[jiXaivav . . . xapBiav, Pind. ix. 4 ; 

[i. cppEvd?, Scol. xxiv. 5. 
fj.cXa[jj:uyo;, of the eagle. Arch. vi. 

[j.£Xtao£a . . . yapuv, Simon, xxi. 4. 
[jLsXiyapues . . . 7i:apQ-Evixat, Alcm. ii. 

I. 
[j.£XtyXwaawv . . . aot^av, Bacchyl. 

i. 2. 
fjLsXtaaa, of Demeter, Artemis, and 

of the priestesses at Delphi, Pind. 

ix. 9 note. 
[jiXtxxa, Simon., of his muse, xxiv. 

B 4. 
|j.eX{<cpojv urcvos, Bacchyl. i. 10. 
|jL£XXtyd|j.EtSa, as vocative, Alcae. xi. 

1. 
;j.£v . , . xe, Pind. vi. 11- 12. 
[jiptjjiva, ' thought,' ' aspiration,' 

Bacchyl. ii. 5. 
(jiao; or [jiaao?, in Lesbian, p. 83, 

cf. Alcae. xvii. 3 with Sap. ix. 2. 
[juSpw? = JSpw?, Sap. ii. 3 note. 
Mvoia, at Crete, Scol. x. 5. 
Motaa,j)p. 79, 93. 
potaorcdXto, Sap. xvii. I. 
fioXro;, not always of song, p. 26. 
*[j.dvxta, pp. 79, 93. 
[j-o/O-euvxes, Alcae. xvii. 5. 
[xdpptva, Stes. iii. 3. 
[js.wfi.Etv, Simon, ix. 5 note. 
|j.wvos, p. 82. 
Mwaa, pp. 79, 93 ; Alcm. vii. i, etc. 



GREEK INDEX 



487 



NauxpaiiT7]s crre'<pavos, Anac. xxxi. 2. 
vauw, Lesbian, Miscel. xxx. 3 note; 

Append. Alcae. ii. 3. 
vs'cpos, as a metaphor of evils. 

Bacchyl. iii. 4. 
vswTEpdv Tt, as a euphemism, Pind. 

vii. 5. 
v7]X$yks i^xop, Alcm. ii. 4. 
vrjvi, Ionic dat. of veavt;, Anac. vi. 3. 
vrjaot [jiaxaptov, Scol. i. |3' 2. 
vo'[j.iov, of a pastoral poem, Pop. 

Songs x. note. 
vuxxe;, plural for sing., Sap. ix. 2. 
vuxxijBdav axpiyya, Pop. Songsxvii.2. 
vuxxtXapi7:»5; • • • 8vo<6os, Simon, ii. 7. 
vu[i.coa, comp. with Lesbian vocative, 

p. 86. 
vw[jia . . . opEva, Dith. iii. a' r. 

"Oy[j.o; xaxwv yjj'paos, Archil, v. 2. 

600? oiyas, Pind. xi. [3' 2. 

oivaviKoE?, I bye. i. 4. 

olvoyosuaa, Sap. v. 4. 

'OXuij^ia, of Demeter, Scol. v. 1 . 

oXsaiaiaXoxaXajjios, of the flute-player, 

Dith. Poets i. a' 13. 
Opjptxwxaxo?, of Archilochus, p. 

115 note. 
d[i.[i.aTa = S-sap.axa, Pind. vii. 1 note. 
d[xpivojj.Ev = ava[j(.£v., Alcae. v. r. 
6[A09pa§[i.tov vocals, Misc. ix. 4. 
6[j.7r£iaaov = ava^:sT., Sap. xii. 2. 
'Opzvic^ of Demeter,' Scol. v. 1 note. 
dv = ava, Alcae. xvii. 3, etc. 
dv(cuai = aviouat, Sap. i. 3. 
dvw = avw. Alcae. xviii. 1. 
drazoxa = oTuoxav, Alcae. ii. 4; Sap. 

iii ; 3- 
07t7:aTSTai = dfjiij.a'7c, Sap. ii. II. 
otcxccvxe?, p. 92. 
opavo;, Lesbian for cupavd?, Alcae. 

iii. I ; Sap. xvi. a' ; cf. sub 

wpavo;. 
ops'-w, Sap. ii. 1 1 note. 
dpvi[j.i, Lesb. for opw, Sap. ii. 11. 
opfjs, Dorian contraction, Alcm. i. 

17- 

'OpO-ta, of Diana, Alcm. i. 28. 
opfria [i.eXrj, p. 233. 
opxta-roij.Etv, Timoc. ii. [i' 2. 
dpvi'/wv, Alcm. xxi. [}'. 
dpsdXo-og "Apr;;, Anac. xxix. a'. 
op/rjTTr];, of Pan, Scol. vi. 2. 
oa<jo§ = 6'ao$, Sap. i. 26 ; xxvii. 1. 
qS te, Alcm. ii. 3. 



OTTi, dxxtva?, p. 88 ; Alcae. i. 2 ; Sap. 

xv. (a), etc. 
d<petXet, impersonal, Timoc. iii. 1 

note. 

naya; = ^r)yot;, Stes. i. jB' 2. 
natSixoi C'pLvoi, Bacchyl. i. 12. 
rcaiSd'tkv, sense in Ibyc. i. 10. 
r.adrsa. = 7;aaa, Alcae. xvi. 1 ; Sap. ii. 

14. 
7cata8et= racist, Alcm. xvii. 1. 
-auo, transl. by Bergk as ' abigere,' 

Dith. Poets i. a' 12. 
7:aXa9-av, Pop. Songs ii. 6. 
^aXiyxoxo;, n. dpyav, Sap. xv. f; r.. 

rcayo;, Archil, vj. |3' 2. 
Tzajjupayo;, sense, Alcm. xiii. 4. 
?:ava'[j.to[j.o;, Simon, ix. 17. 
r:avoaioaXov . . . dyopav, of Athenian 

forum, Pind. vi. 5. 
7:av3wpo? ataa, Bacchyl. iii. 5. 
7iav£Xoxs;, Alcae. xxviii. 2. 
-(XVTEpr.rfa ?a/a; ~avxsp7i£o; auXcov, 

Misc. xi. 3. 
;;ap = 7rapa', p. 88 ; Sap. xxiv. 2, etc. 
7:apapL£Xopu9-p.o[3axav, of the flute, 

Dith. i. a' 14. 
"aparXrjxTov d(/.oav, Dith. ii. a' 4. 
-ap£y.paa£t;, digressions in lyric 

poems, p. 206. 
Tiaprjaps cpp£va;, Archil, iv. a' 2. 
jrapirjopos vdou, Archil, x. 5. 
-ap3-£vixat = 7:ap9£voi, Alcm. ii. 1. 
7:ap9-£vwv xarco?, Ibyc. i. 3. 
7:apa£vot?, Alcm. vii. 3, p. 94. 
7raaov = £7ia9'ov, Alcm. i. 2. 
7:aT£ptov . . . yuvcaxwv, singular for 

plur., Pind. vi. 11. 
-£Sa = [i.£xa, p. 88: Alcm. i. 25; 

Sap. vi. 4, etc. 
reeSe'/ei;, Sap. vi. 2. 
jTEivavxt, p. 92. 

7C£tpaxa, vix^? n. Archil, xiv. 5. 
-e'xoj, punning usage ofEra'ifaxo in 

Simon, xviii. 1. 
r.eki/yri, Alcm. xii. 3. 
-e'(j.7:e = 7:£vxe, p. 83 ; declined (r.i\x- 

7cwv) in Alcae. xxv. 7. 
TX£jjL7X£(3dr]a, Sap. xl. 2. 
ra'vS-o?, of sin, Pind. iv. 1 note. 
7tsvxapa(3o) . . . pu9|«o, Dith. Poets 

xv. 3. 
-£7:xEpuyto[j.at, Sap. xxxi. 
Txsp, Lesb. for reepf, p. 88 ; Alcae, 

xvii. 6, 



488 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



rcepi in sense of unep, p. 88 ; Alcae. 

xvii. 6 ; Sap. i. io. 
7tepicpdpT]Tos, sense, Anac. xxiii. 2. 
Ilspoe'rtoXis, of Pallas, Dith. Poets 

iv. a' I. 
ra'aaupe? = te'cjaapss, p. 83. 
Tajyin, of mines, Stes. i. p 2, «0te. 
mjXui = X7JXoa£, pp. 83, 88; Sap.i. 6. 
7iiT)<y9-a, p. 89. 
niviiaxetv, of calming the storm, 

Simon, xxi. 7. 
rciauyyoi, ' shoemakers ', Sap. xl. 3. 
7iXavaa!>ai, of evils, Archil, x. 5. 
Tclia.ii;, participle, Alcae. v. 5. 
7iXouToodx£tpa, of Eiprjvr), Misc. xv. 2. 
7tdac Tc'psv dv9-oc, Sap. xix. 3. 
tcoIeic, 7to!a>v, Pop. Songs iv. 
tcoixiXXexoci . . . yaioc, Miscel. xxiii. 
jiot/.tXdoeppot, Alcae. xxviii. 2. 
7roi/.tXdO-povo?, of Aphrodite, sense, 

i. 1. 
7ioixiXo7rTspov piXoc, Dith. Poets i. a' 

7- 
rtoXuxpdx»]s, ' chattering', Anac. 

xvii. 2. 
tcoXu/wxiXoi gojSoves, Simon, xxiii. p' 

1. 
7roXu|j.o/j8'£ . . . 'Apsia, Misc. vi. 1. 
TcoXurcdxaya -9'urj.sXav, Dith. Poets i. 

a ', 3- 

7ioXu<pavoc, perhaps from tpavoe, a 

torch, Alcae. xv. 2 »<?/?. 

r:oXu-/op§o<; auXdc, Simon, xxiv. B 3. 

7tova>7tdvr)poc, Pop. Song iv. 1 note. 

zopcpupsV] 'A^pooixrj, Anac. iii. 3. 

rcopcpupw, "brood,' origin of signifi- 
cation, Pind. ix. 4 note. 

r.oTx, p. 85 ; Sap. xv. b. 

IIoxEiSdv, IloxtSav, p. 94, 

roxxav = rcpoc xwv, p. 95. 

Trpaaaeiv, intrans. 'to be in a state 
of action', Pind. i. 4. 

Ttpoaaxiov, nature of, Pind. ii. 2. 

jcpoxuxXeiv, Pop. Songs iv. 6. 

lipoid tkioc, as mother of Tu/rj, Alcm. 
xx. a'. 

Ttpo? pfav sense in Alcae. xix. 1. 

7cpdcrto7:ov, usage in Simon, ii. 12 
note. 

7cpocpdxav IIisp(o<ov, of the poet, Pind. 
viii. |3' 5. 

7rravov layu'v, sense, Pind. vii. 3. 

r:xd£to = 7:T7jaa(o, Alcae. xxvi. 1. 

7rnjcraw, with accus., Scol. x. 8. 

j:xod-w, whence 27trd««v, Sap. ii. 6. 



^uxxaXt^to, Anac. xxiv. 4. 

7:iiXa; . . . erawv, Bacchyl. xv. 3. 

tzuXewv, a sacrificial wreath, Alcm. 

x. 2. 
nwXuSsuxrjs, Simon. xv. »<?/£ ; 

Append. Alcm. i. 23. 
7iwv7)v — jtt'veiv, Alcae. xix. 2. 

'Pa = paoiw?, Alcm. xx. p'; Bacch. 

xv. 2 «0/te. 
601x0s, Archil, xiii. 4. 
5u9-p.dc, ' disposition ', Anac. xix. 2 ; 

Arch. ix. 7 Twte. 
cuap.dc = pu9p.dc, Archil, ix. 7. 

SaXXsi = -9-aXXst, Alcm. xiv. 4. 
aosuyXa = ^suyXrj, Misc. xxx. 9. 
aap.[BaXa, Sap. xl. 2. 
ae'lBac applied to a person, Misc. vi. 

16 note. 
2sip7)v, Alcman, of his muse, ix. 
2e(ptov, of the sun, Alcm. i. 29 ; of 

any star, Ibyc. vii. y'. 
osXavva, Sap. iii., ix., xx., 1. 1. 
asXrjvairj, = (jeXrjvrj, Misc. iii. 2. 
uiEtS^s = -9"so£tSyjc, Alcm. i. 38. 
dvvovxai, Sap. xv. (a). 
aid? = S-eoc, p, 94 ; Alcm. i. I. 
axoXidv, origin of term, p. 238, 

accent, p. 235, pun on the word, 

Scol. xix. 4. 

S/cuSr/o^ ;idcn;, Anac. xvi. 9. 

azuXaxoxxdvw . . . dSdvTt, of a boar, 
. .* 
Misc. xvii. 

ijxuxaXr), Archil, vii. 2. 

axto7UTixd, as applied to Scolia, p. 

2 37- 
cjocpia, of poetic skill, Sap. xviii. 2 ; 

Bacchyl. ix. 2 #0te ; of augury, 

Pind. vii. 4. 
soodc, 'skilled in poetry,' Alcm. iv. 2. 
■771:1X0;, a rock, Misc. xxviii. 34 

note. 
(rue'pva yatac, Misc. xxx. 10. 
aTEcpav7)cpdpotc Iv topatc, sense, Scol. 

V. 2. 

axoty?, of witches, Pop. Songs xvii. 

1. 
auyx£pauvwO-£\c cpps'vac, Archil, xxi. 2. 
■3up.[xa/£tc, Lesb. participle, Alcae. 

xxv. 4. 
aupp.Ep.iyp.svov 9-aXi'atai vs'xxap, Sap. 

, v -> „ 
auv dotoa, perhaps ' in accompani- 
ment to', Simon, xxi. 2. 



GREEK INDEX 



489 



cruvEppaiaa = auvEtpaaa, Sap. vii. 
2. 

auvrjpav, see r(3av. 

cjuvFor/.rjv, Sap. xi. 2. 

(juvotxos, of Aixt], Bacch. viii. 5 ; of 
'Yyista, Misc. v. 2. 

TUTrs«pav7)cpopetv, Scol. xiv. I. 

■jcdeicov, p. 87. 

ayoivoxa'vsia aoiSa, of the old Dithy- 
ramb, p. 263. 

Tapustov hzt yXwaaas, Misc. xiii. 2. 

xa[j.vw, p. 93. 

taupoxepws, xaupopixa)7ro$, Pop. 
Songs xii. «0/£. 

Taupog, of Dionysus, Pop. Songs 
xii. note. 

re, combined with Se, /.at, yap, etc., 
Sap. xxxvii. 5 tiote ; with o?, 
Anac. xxiv. 2 »0te ; Alcm. ii. 3 
note); fjtkv . . . xs, Pind. vi. 12 : 
as third word, Misc. vi. 6. 

T£#va-/.7]v, Sap. ii. 15, and p. 89. 

xekiaaaif Sap. i. 26, but xeXsaov, lb. 

teXo?, ' prize ', Bacch. xiv. 2. 

xs'o = <jou, p. 95. 

xsxpayr]pu; . . . aotoa, Terp. ii. I. 

xsxpaywvo;, Simon, ix. 2. 

xirjva, Pop. Songs ii. 2. 

T^veXXa, Archil, viii. 1. 

x(9t)[ju, usages of, xot; •xhot? xiQ-ei xa 

jcavxa, Archil, x. 1 ; eu &ito (expl. 

as TOtstv eu e'/eiv), Sap. xv. (a) 2 ; 

xaO-apov #-sp.s'vr] vdov, Scol. xvi. (3'. 
xiv = sot, Alcm. xi. 1, and p. 95. 
xtw = xtvt, p. 88, Sap. xxxiv. 1. 
rd, etc., relatival in Lesb. p. 88, 

Sap. ii. 5, etc. 
xot = <jot, Sap. ii. 2. 
xov?, Cretic, p. 83. 
xd£a, plural for sing., Sap. ix. 2, 

note. 
xpayt/.d; /opo;, used by Arion, p. 

107. 
xparaaSat, Alcm. xii. 1. 
xpt/opi'a, at Sparta, Spart. Dance- 
song i. note. 
xporox?, accus. plur. Alcm. xiii. 5. 
xutoE, p. 88, Sap. i. 5. 
xw = xou, Alcae. i. 2, etc. 
tw?, Doric, p. 83. 

'YyEia, late form of uyiEta, Scol. ix. 
1 note. 



uytaivEiv, perhaps trisyllabic, Scol. 

ix. 1. 
uypov Se'os, sense, Archil, xi. 4. 
u[j.rjvaov, Sap. xxxiii. (a), 
upiv uptEvats, a formula of remote 

antiquity, p. 10. 
up-P-tv, p. 87, Simon, ix. 18, etc. 
u7caxousi, force of preposition in, 

Sap. ii. 4. 
u^o^Exptoiwv, Alcm. i. 16. 
urco7uvEtv, ' drink quietly,' Anac. 

xvi. 1 1. 
uTC07:dXto?, Anac. ix. b 2. 
uaoo; (=o£os), Sap. iv. 1. 

<J>atai = 9a<j£, Alcae. vii. 1. 

cpapo?, <papo?, Alcm. i. 28. 

cpaxa, Dorian, = cpwxa, Simon, ix. 9. 

<Dr i p = $r i p, Dith. Poets i. y' 6. 

<p{kppio, p. 82. 

^pXe'yeiv, of poetry, Bacchyl. i. 12 : 

of the wind, Ibyc. i. 7. 
tpoivatg = 9-otvou$, Alcm. xi. 1. 
(potvtxoEtxvtov, Pind. vi. 14. 
<potvtxopd8ots ev\ XEtp-wvEaat, Pind. ii. 2. 
^op^'ptsO-a, Alcae. xvii. 4. 
cpouaa, Boeot. = <puaa, Misc. ii. 2. 
<ppaai, p. 93. 

<ppovxi'ao7]v, Sap. xv. (c), 2. 
cpuydpiayo;, Simon, xxvi. a'. 
(ptovsuaa;, Sap. ii. 3. 

XaX/.^v punav, Pop. Songs vi. 
XaXxiowat arcaO-at, Alcae. xvi. 6. 
yaos = drjp, Bacchyl. xxii. 
yaptsi;, of Anacreon, p. 185. 
/apt?, sense, Pind. vi. 2 ; frequency 

in Pindar, ibid, note ; usage in 

Sap. xv. b note. 
Xapu[3oi$, metaphorical, Simon, vii. 1. 
ysXi, or /eXel, before ysXtdv7], Pop. 

Songs iv. 1. 
/Euaxw, Alcae. vi. 3. 
ys'w, vdo? xr/uxat, Dith. P. xvii. 3. 
yrjpto, sense, Miscel. vi. 14. 
y9-dvio;, sense, Anac. xix. 
yXtopauysvE; . . . a7]3dvs;, Simon. 

xxiii. b. 
XpXai<jt=yaXwai, Alcae. xvii. 9. 
yopayd?, 'leader of the chorus,' 

Alcm. L II. 
yopoixu;:o;, of Pan, Dith. P. i. y' 5. 
ypr)'[j.7), sense, Archil, x. 5. 
ypdvo? xevds, in metre corr. to a 

musical rest, pp. 54, 55. 



2 I 



490 



GREEK LYRIC POETS 



-/puscdjJUTpa, third syll. lengthened, 
Miscel. xxx. 2. 

Xpuutos, p. 85 ; Sap. i. 8 ; v. 2. 

yposou?, a favourite epithet in Pin- 
dar, Pind. xiii. I ; y. aeXava;, 
Simon, xx. 3. 

/puaocpopwv . . . TiapxhVov, Dith. P. 
xviii. 2. 

yu[ju£etv apjioviav, used of Ibycus, 
p. 178; of Anacreon, p. 186. 

/uxpa, game of, Pop. Song iv. note. 

yv.r.®\ vocative before vowel, Sap. 

i. 20. 
iil-q xiO-apilTlS, pp. 40, 43. 

•iCypos, signification, Sap. xxiv. 1. 



'Qaptwv, Orion, Miscel. ii. <£. 
c i2pat, associated with Proserpine, 

Scol. v. 2 note. 
wpavo;, Sap. i. 11. 
wpysuvxo, Sap. xix. 2. 
w; or], of purpose, Anac. xiv. 3. 
wipeXs, impers., Timocr. iii. 1 note. 

Faosa, Alcae. ii. 3. 
Fs'Fays, Sap. ii. 8, p. 82. 
F £#-ev, foi, etc. p. 82. 
fs'pyov, Alcae. xvi. 7. 
Fc'j-spe, Sap. xxxix. 1. 
Fffp, Alcm. xiv. 3. 
Foivto, Alcae. ii. 1. 



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HOW ITT.— Visits to Remarkable 
Places, Old Halls, Battle-Fields, 

Scenes, illustrative of Striking Passages 
in English History and Poetry. By 
William HowiTT. With 80 Illustra- 
tions. Crown 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

HULL AH {John).— Works by. 

Course of Lectures on the His- 
tory of Modern Music. 8vo. 

8s. 6rf. 

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tory. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

HUME. -The Philosophical Works 
of David Hume. Edited by T. 

H. Green and T. H. Grose. 4 vols. 
8vo. 56s. Or Separately, Essays, 2 vols. 
28s. Treatise of Human Nature. 2 vols. 
28s. 



{Horace). — WORKS 



HUTCHINSON 
BY. 

Creatures of Circumstance: A 

Novel. 3 vols. Crown 8vo. 25s. bd. 

Famous Golf Links. By Horace 
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C. Everard, T. Rutherford Clark, 
&c. With numerous Illustrations by F. 
P. Hopkins, T. Hodges, H. S. King, 
and from Photographs. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

HUTH— The Marriage of Near 
Kin, considered with respect to 
the Law of Nations, the Result of Ex- 
perience, and the Teachings of Biology. 
By Alfred H. Huth. Royal 8vo. 21s. 

INGELOW {Jean).— WORKS BY. 
Poetical Works. Vols. I. and II. 

Fcp. 8vo. 12s. Vol. III. Fcp. 8vo. 5s. 

Lyrical and other Poems. Se- 
lected from the Writings of Jean 
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3s. cloth gilt. 

Very Young and Quite Another 
Story : Two Stories. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

JAMESON {Mrs.).— WORKS BY. 
Sacred and Legendary Art. With 

19 Etchings and 187 Woodcuts. 2 vols. 
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Legends of the Madonna. The 

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[Continued on next page. 



A CATALOGUE OF BOOKS IN GENERAL LITERATURE 



JAMESON (Mrs.).— WORKS BY.— 
continued. 
Legendsof the Monastic Orders. 

With n Etchings and 88 Woodcuts. I 
vol. 8vo. ios. net. 

History of Our Lord. His Types 

and Precursors. Completed by Lady 
Eastlake. With 31 Etchings and 281 
Woodcuts. 2 vols. 8vo. 20s. net. 

JEFFERIES (Richard).— WORKS BY. 
Field and Hedgerow : last Essays. 

With Portrait. Crown 8vo. 35. 6d. 

The Story of My Heart: my 

Autobiography. With Portrait and new- 
Preface by C. J. Longman. Crown 
8vo. 3s. 6d. 

JENNINGS.— Ecclesia Anglicana. 

A History of the Church of Christ in 
England, from the Earliest to the Present 
Times. By the Rev. Arthur Charles 
Jennings, M.A. Crown 8vo. 75. 6d. 

JOHNSON.— The Patentee's Man- 
ual ; a Treatise on the Law and 
Practice of Letters Patent. By J. John- 
son and J. H. Johnson. 8vo. 105. 6d. 

JORDAN (William Leighton).— The 
Standard of Value. By William 
Leighton Jordan. Svo. 6s. 

JUSTINIAN— The Institutes of 
Justinian ; Latin Text, chiefly 

that of Huschke, with English Introduc- 
tion. Translation, Notes, and Summary. 
By Thomas C. Sandars, M.A. Svo. 18s. 

KALISCH (M. M.).— WORKS BY. 
Bible Studies. Part I. The Pro- 
phecies of Balaam. 8vo. ios. 6d. Part 
II. The Book of Jonah. Svo. 105. 6d. 

Commentary on the Old Testa- 
ment; with a New Translation. 

Vol. I. Genesis, 8vo. 18s. or adapted for 
the General Reader, 12s. Vol.11. Exodus, 
15s. or adapted for the General Reader, 
12s. Vol. III. Leviticus, Part I. 155. or 
adapted for the General Reader, 8s. 
Vol. IV. Leviticus, Part II. 15s. or 
adapted for the General Reader, 8s. 

KANT (Immanuel).— WORKS BY. 
Critique of Practical Reason, and 
other Works on the Theory of 
Ethics. Translated by T. K. Ab- 
bott, B.D. With Memoir. 8vo. 12s. 6d. 

Introduction to Logic, and his 
Essay on the Mistaken Sub- 
tilty of the Four Figures. 

Translated by T. K. Abbott. Notes by 
S. T. Coleridge. 8vo. 6s. 



KENNEDY.— Pictures in Rhyme. 

By Arthur Clark Kennedy. With 
4 Illustrations by Maurice Greiffen- 
hagen. Crown Svo. 6s. 

KILLICK.— Handbook to Mill's 
System of Logic. By the Rev. 

A. H. Killick, M.A. Crown Svo. 3s. 6d. 

KNIGHT (E. F.).— WORKS BY. 
The Cruise of the ' Alerte ' ; the 

Narrative of a Search for Treasure on the 
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Save Me from my Friends : a 

Novel. Crown Svo. 6s. 

LADD (George T.).— WORKS BY. 

Elements of Physiological Psy- 
chology. 8vo. 21s. 

Outlines of Physiological Psy- 
chology. A Text-book of Mental 
Science for Academies and Colleges. 
8vo. 12s. 

LANG (Andrew).— WORKS BY. 

Custom and Myth: Studies of 

Early Usage and Belief. With 15 Illus- 
trations. Crown 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

Books and Bookmen. With 2 . 

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8vo. 6s. 6d. 

Grass of Parnassus. A Volume 

of Selected Verses. Fcp. Svo. 6s. 

Angling Sketches. With Illus- 
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Ballads of Books. Edited by 

Andrew Lang. Fcp. 8vo. 6s. 

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Andrew Lang. With 8 Plates and 130 
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by Andrew Lang. With 12 Plates and 
88 Illustrations in the Text by H. J. Ford 
and Lancelot Speed. Crown Svo. 6.r. 

LA VISSE.— General View of the 
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LA YARD.— Poems. By Nina F. 
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History of England in the 
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LEES and CLUTTERBUCK.—B. C. 
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LEGER.—A History of Austro- 
Hungary. From the Earliest 
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With a Preface by E. A. Freeman, 
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LEWES.— The History of Philo- 
sophy, from Thales to Comte. 
By George Henry Lewes. 2 vols. 
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LIDDELL.— The Memoirs of the 
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Social. Collected and Arranged by 
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LLOYD.— The Science of Agricul- 
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LONGMAN (Frederick W.).— WORKS 
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25. 6(/. 

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Longmans' New Atlas. Political 

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LOUDON (J. C.).— Works by. 
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LUBBOCK.— The Origin of Civil- 
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LYALL. — The Autobiography of a 
Slander. ByEDNALYALL, Author 

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LYDE.— An Introduction to An- 
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I MAO A ULA Y (Lord).— WORKS OF. 

Complete Works of Lord Ma- 
cau lay : 

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History of England from the 
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Student's Edition, 2 vols. Crown 8vo. 125. 
People's Edition, 4 vols. Crown 8vo. 16s. 
Cabinet Edition, 8 vols. Post 8vo. 48s. 
Library Edition, 5 vols. Svo. £4. 

Critical and Historical Essays, 
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3s. bd. gilt edges. 



14 



A CATALOGUE OF BOOKS IN GENERAL LITERATURE. 



MA CA ULA Y (Lord).— WORKS OF.— 
continued. 
Critical and Historical Essays : 

Student's Edition, i vol. Crown 8vo. 65. 
People's Edition, 2 vols. Crown 8vo. 8s. 
Trevelyan Edition, 2 vols. Crown 8vo. Qs. 
Cabinet Edition, 4 vols. Post 8vo. 245. 
Library Edition, 3 vols. 8vo. 36s. 

Essays which may be had separately 
price 6tf. each sewed, is. each cloth : 

Addison and Walpole. 

Frederick the Great. 

Croker's Boswell's Johnson. 

Hallam's Constitutional History. 

Warren Hastings. (3d. sewed, 6d cloth.) 

The Earl of Chatham (Two Essays). 

Ranke and Gladstone. 

Milton and Machiavelli. 

Lord Bacon. 

Lord Clive. 

Lord Byron, and The Comic Dramatists of 
the Restoration. 



The Essay on Warren Hastings annotated 

by S. Hales, 15. 6d. 
The Essay on Lord Clive annotated by H. 

COURTHOPE BOWEN, M.A., 25. 6d. 

Speeches : 

People's Edition, Crown 8vo. 35. 6d. 

Lays of Ancient Rome, &c. : 

Illustrated by G. Scharf, Fcp. 4to. 10s. 6d. 

Bijou Edition, i8mo. 

2s. 6d. gilt top. 

Popular Edition, 

Fcp. 4to. 6d. sewed, is. cloth. 

Illustrated by J. R. Weguelin, Crown 8vo. 
3s. 6<f. cloth extra, gilt edges. 

Cabinet Edition, Post 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

Annotated Edition, Fcp. 8vo. is. sewed, 
is. 6d. cloth. 

Miscellaneous Writings : 

People's Edition, 1 vol. Crown 8vo. 4s. 6d. 
Library Edition, 2 vols. 8vo. 21s. 

Miscellaneous Writings and 
Speeches : 

Popular Edition, 1 vol. Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Student's Edition, in 1 vol. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Cabinet Edition, including Indian Penal 
Code, Lays of Ancient Rome, and Mis- 
cellaneous Poems, 4 vols. Post 8vo. 24s. 

Selections from the Writings 
of Lord Macaulay. Edited, 

. with Occasional Notes, by the Right Hon. 
Sir G. O. Trevelyan, Bart. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 



MACAULAY (Lord).— WORKS OF.— 
continued. 

The Life and Letters of Lord 
Macaulay. By the Right Hon. 
Sir G. O. Trevelyan, Bart. : 

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Student's Edition, 1 vol. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
Cabinet Edition, 2 vols. Post Svo. 12s. 
Library Edition, 2 vols. 8vo. 36s. 

MACDONALD (Geo.).— WORKS BY. 
Unspoken Sermons. Three 

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The Miracles of Our Lord. 

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A Book of Strife, in the Form 
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Poems. i2mo. 6s. 

MAGFARREN (Sir G. A.).— WORKS 
BY. 

Lectures on Harmony. Svo. 1 2s. 

Addresses and Lectures. Crown 

Svo. 6s. 6d. 

MA CKAIL. — SelectEpigrams from 
the Greek Anthology. Edited, 

with a Revised Text, Introduction, Trans- 
lation, and Notes, by J. W. Mackail, 
M.A. Svo. 16s. 

MACLEOD (Henri/ D.).— WORKS B Y. 
The Elements of Banking. 

Crown 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

The Theory and Practice of 
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Vol. II. 14s. 

The Theory of Credit. Svo. 

Vol. I. js. 6d. ; Vol. II. Part I. 4s. 6d. ; 
Vol. II. Part II. 10s. 6d. 

M C CUL LOCH.— The Dictionary of 
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gation of the late J. R. McCulloch. 
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MA C VINE. — Sixty-Three Years' 

Angling, from^tthe Mountain 

Streamlet to the Mighty Tay. By John 
Macvine. Crown Svo. 10s. 6d. 

MALMESBURY.— Memoirs of an 
Ex-Minister. By the Earl of 

Malmesbury. Crown Svo. 7s. 6d. 

MANNERING.— With Axe and 
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Alps. By George Edward Man- 

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Psychology. By Michael Maher, 

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MA TTBEWS(Brander) — WORKS B Y. 

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Treasury of Geography, Physical, 

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[Continued. 



I. 



II. Ecclesiastical 
Historical. 



MAUNDERS TREASURIES. 

—continued. 

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Historical Treasury : Outlines of 

Universal History, Separate Histories of 
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Treasury of Knowledge and 
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The Treasury of Bible Know- 
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The Treasury of Botany. 

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MAX MULLER (F.).— WORKS BY. 

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The Science of Thought. 8vo. 
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2S. 6d. 

[Continued on next p<ii;i\ 



i6 



A CATALOGUE OF BOOKS IN GENERAL LITERATURE 



MAX MULLER {F.).— WORKS BY.— 
continued. 

Biographies of Words, and the 
Home of the Aryas. Crown 

8vo. Js. 6d. 

A Sanskrit Grammar for Be- 
ginners. New and Abridged 

Edition. By A. A. MacDonell. Cr. 
8vo. 65. 

MAY. — The Constitutional His- 
tory of England since the 

Accession of George III. 1 760-1870. 
By the Right Hon. Sir Thomas 
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8vo. 18s. 

MEADE (L. T.).— WORKS BY. 
The O'Donnells of Inchfawn. 

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Daddy's Boy. With Illustrations. 

Crown 8vo. 5s. 

Deb and the Duchess. With 

Illustrations by M. E. Edwards. Crown 
8vo. 5s. 

House Of Surprises. With Illus- 
trations by Edith M. Scaxxell. Cr. 
8vo. 3s. 6d. 

The Beresford Prize. With Illus- 
trations by M. E. Edwards. Crown 
8vo. 5s. 

MEATH {The Earl of).— WORKS BY. 
Social Arrows : Reprinted Articles 

on various Social Subjects. Crown 8vo. 

Prosperity or Pauperism ? 

Physical, Industrial, and Technical 
Training. (Edited by the Earl of 



Meath. 



8vo. 55. 



MELVILLE (G. J. Whyte).— NOVELS 

BY. Crown 8vo. is. each, boards; is. 
6d. each, cloth. 

The Gladiators. Holmby House. 

The Interpreter. Kate Coventry. 

Good for Nothing'. Digby Grand. 

The Queen's Maries. General Bounce. 

MENDELSSOHN.— The Letters of 
Felix Mendelssohn. Translated 
by Lady Wallace. 2 vols. Crown 8vo. 
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MERIVALE {The Very Rev. Chas.).— 

Works by. 

History of the Romans under 
the Empire. Cabinet Edition, 

8 vols. Crown 8vo. 48s. 
Popular Edition, 8 vols. Cr. 8vo. 3s. 6d. each. 

The Fall of the Roman Republic : 

a Short History of the Last Century of 
the Commonwealth. i2mo. 7s. 6d. 

General History of Rome from 

b.c. 753 to a.d. 476. Cr. 8vo. js. 6d. 

The Roman Triumvirates. With 

Maps. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

MILES. — The Correspondence of 
William Augustus Miles on 
the French Revolution, 1789- 
1817. Edited by the Rev. Charles 
Popha.m Miles, M.A. 2 vols. 8vo. 32s. 

MILL.— Analysis of the Pheno- 
mena of the Human Mind. 

By James Mill. 2 vols. 8vo. 28s. 
MILL {John Stuart). — WORKS BY. 

Principles of Political Economy. 

Library Edition, 2 vols. 8vo. 30s. 
People's Edition, 1 vols. Crown 8vo. 5s. 

A System of Logic. Cr. 8vo. 55. 
On Liberty. Crown 8vo. is. 4^. 
On Representative Government. 

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Utilitarianism. 8vo. $s. 
Examination of Sir William 
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16s. 

Nature, the Utility of Religion, 
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Silverthorns. Illustrated. Crown 

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MOORE.— Dante and his Early 
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MULE ALL.— History of Prices 
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Michael G. Mulhall. Cr. Svo. 65. 

MURRAY.— A Dangerous Cats- 
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MURRAY and HERMAN.— Wild 
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NANSEN.— -The First Crossing of 
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Nansen. With 5 Maps, 12 Plates, and 
150 Illustrations in the Text. 2 vols. 
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NAPIER.— The Life of Sir Joseph 
Napier, Bart., Ex-Lord Chan- 
cellor of Ireland. By Alex. 

Charles Ewald, F.S.A. With Por- 
trait. Svo. 1 <is. 

•* 1 

NAPIER. — The Lectures, Essays, 
and Letters of the Right Hon. 
Sir Joseph Napier, Bart, late 

Lord Chancellor of Ireland. Svo. 12s. 6d. 

NESBIT.— Leaves of Life : Verses. 

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NEWMAN.— The Letters and Cor- 
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Sermons to Mixed Congrega- 
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The Idea of a University denned 
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Crown 8vo. 7s. Cheap Edition, Crown 
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NEWMAN {Cardinal).— WORKS BY. 

— continued. 



Historical Sketches. 



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Select Treatises of St. Athan- 
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Discussions and Arguments on 
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An Essay on the Development 
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Certain Difficulties felt by An- 
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Vol. I., Crown 8vo. 7s. 6d. ; Vol. II., Cr. 
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The Via Media of the Anglican 
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Essays on Biblical and on Ec- 
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8s. 

An Essay in Aid of a Grammar 
of Assent. Cabinet Edition, 

Crown 8vo. 7s. 6d. Cheap Edition, 
Crown 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

Present Position of Catholics in 
England. Crown 8vo. -js. Gd. 

Callista : a Tale of the Third Cen- 
tury. Cabinet Edition, Crown 8vo. 6s. 
Cheap Edition, Crown 8vo. 3s. 6r/. 

[Continued on next page. 



i8 



A CATALOGUE OF BOOKS IN GENERAL LITERATURE 



NEWMAN (Cardinal).— WORKS OF.—. 
continued. 
Loss and Gain : a Tale. Cabinet 

Edition, Crown 8vo. 65. Cheap Edition, 
down 8vo. 35. bd. 

The Dream of Gerontius. i6mo. 

bd. sewed, is. cloth. 

Verses on Various Occasions. 

Cabinet Edition, Crown 8vo. 65. Cheap 
Edition, Crown 8vo. 35. bd. 

*. * For Cardinal Newman's other Works 
see Messrs. Longmans & Co.'s Catalogue 
of Theological Works. 

NORRIS.— Mrs. Fenton: a Sketch. 

By W. E. Norris. Crown Svo. 6s. 

NORTON (Charles L.).— WORKS BY. 

Political Americanisms : a Glos- 
sary of Terms and Phrases Current at 
Different Periods in American Politics. 
Fcp. 8vo. 25. bd. 

A Handbook of Florida. With 

49 Maps and Plans. Fcp. Svo. 55. 

O'BRIEN— When we were Boys : 

a Novel. By William O'Brien, M.P. 
Crown 8vo. 25. 6d. 

OLIPHANT (Mrs.).— Novels by. 
Madam. Cr. 8vo. ii-.bds. ; is. 6d. cl. 
In Trust. Cr. Svo. is. bds.; is. 6d. cl. 
Lady Car: the Sequel of a Life. 

Crown 8vo. 25. bd. 

OMAN. — A History of Greece from 
the Earliest Times to the 
Macedonian Conquest. By C. 

W. C. Oman, M.A., F.S.A. With 
Maps and Plans. Crown Svo. 45. 6d. 

O'REILLY.— Hurstleigh Dene: a 

Tale. By Mrs. O'Reilly. Illustrated 
by M. Ellen Edwards. Cr. 8vo. 55. 

PAUL. — Principles of the History 
of Language. By Hermann 

Paul. Translated by H. A. Strong 
8vo. 105. 6d. 

PAYN (James). — NOVELS BY. 
The Luck of the Darrells. Cr. 

8vo. 15. boards ; 15. bd. cloth. 

Thicker than Water. Crown 8vo. 

15. boards; 15. 6d. cloth. 



PERRING (Sir Philip).— WORKS BY. 

Hard Knots in Shakespeare. 

8vo. 75. bd. 

The 'Works and Days 'of Moses. 

Crown 8vo. 35. bd. 



PHILLIPPS-WOLLEY.— Snap: a 

Legend of the Lone Mountain. By C. 
Phillipps-Wolley. With 13 Illustra- 
tions by H. G. WiLLlNK. Cr. Svo. 65. 

POLE.— The Theory of the Mo- 
dern Scientific Game of Whist. 

By W. Pole, F.R.S. Fcp. Svo. 25. 6d. 

POLLOCK.— The Seal of Fate: 

a Novel. By Lady Pollock and W. 
H. Pollock. Crown 8vo. 65. 

POOLE.— Cookery for the Diabetic. 

By W. H. and Mrs. Poole. With Pre- 
face by Dr. Pavy. Fcp. Svo. 25. bd. 

PRENDERGAST. — Ireland, from 
the Restoration to the Revolu- 
tion, 1660-1690. By John P. Pren- 
dergast. Svo. 55. 

PRINSEP.—Virg'mie : a Tale of One 

Hundred Years Ago. By Val Prinsep, 
A.R.A. 3 vols. Crown Svo. 255. bd. 

PROCTOR (R. A.).— Works by. 
Old and New Astronomy. 12 

Parts, 2s. bd. each. Supplementary Sec- 
tion, 15. Complete in i vol. 4to. 365. 
[In course of publication. 

The Orbs Around Us ; a Series of 

Essays on the Moon and Planets, Meteors 
and Comets. With Chart and Diagrams. 
Crown 8vo. 55. - 

Other Worlds than Ours; The 

Plurality of Worlds Studied under the 
Light of Recent Scientific Researches. 
With 14 Illustrations. Crown Svo. 55. 

The Moon ; her Motions, Aspects 

Scenery, and Physical Condition. With 
Plates, Charts, Woodcuts, &c. Cr. 8vo. 55. 

Universe of Stars; Presenting 

Researches into and New Views respect- 
ing the Constitution of the Heavens. 
With 22 Charts and 22 Diagrams. Svo. 
105. bd. 

Larger Star Atlas for the Library, 

in 12 Circular Maps, with Introduction 
and 2 Index Pages. Folio, 155. or Maps 
only, 125. bd. 



PUBLISHED BY MESSRS. LONGMANS, GREEN, £ CO. 



19 



PROOTOR (R. 

— continued. 



A.).— WORKS BY. 



The Student's Atlas. In Twelve 

Circular Maps on a Uniform Projection 
and one Scale. 8vo. 55. 

New Star Atlas for the Library, 

the School, and the Observatory, in 12 
Circular Maps. Crown 8vo. 55. 

Light Science for LeisureHours. 

Familiar Essavs on Scientific Subjects. 
3 vols. Crown 8vo. 5s. each. 

Chance and Luck ; a Discussion of 

the Laws of Luck, Coincidences, Wagers, 
Lotteries, and the Fallacies of Gambling, 
&c. Crown 8vo. 2s. boards ; 2s. 6d. cloth. 

Studies of Venus-Transits. With 

7 Diagrams and 10 Plates. 8vo. 5s. 

How to Play Whist: with the 
Laws and Etiquette of Whist. 

Crown Svo. 35. 6d. 

Home Whist: an Easy Guide to 

Correct Play. i6mo. is. 

The Stars in their Seasons. 

An Easy Guide to a Knowledge of the 
Star Groups, in 12 Maps. Roy. Svo. 55. 

Star Primer. Showing the Starry 

Sky Week by Week, in 24 Hourly Maps. 
Crown 4to. 2s. 6d. 

The Seasons pictured in 48 Sun- 
Views of the Earth, and 24 

Zodiacal Maps, &c. Demy 4to. 55. 

Strength and Happiness. With 

9 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. $s. 

Strength : How to get Strong and 

keep Strong, with Chapters on Rowing 
and Swimming, Fat, Age, and the Waist. 
With 9 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 2s. 

Rough Ways Made Smooth. 

Familiar Essays on Scientific Subjects. 
Crown 8vo. 5s. 

Our Place Among Infinities. A 

Scries of Essays contrasting our Little 
Abode in Space .and Time with the Infi- 
nities around us. Crown Svo. 55. 

The Expanse of Heaven. Essays 

on the Wonders of the Firmament. Cr. 
8vo. 55. 



PROCTOR (R. A.).— WORKS BY.— 
continued. 

The Great Pyramid, Observa- 
tory, Tomb, and Temple. 

With Illustrations. Crown Svo. 55. 

Pleasant Ways in Science. Cr. 

Svo. 55. 

Myths and Marvels of Astro- 
nomy. Crown Svo. $s. 

Nature Studies. ByGRANT Allen, 
A. Wilson, T. Foster, E. Clodd, and 
R. A. Proctor. Crown 8vo. 5s. 

Leisure Readings. By E. Clodd, 

A. Wilson, T. Foster, A. C. Ranyard, 
and R. A. Proctor. Crown 8vo. 5s. 

PRYCE. — The Ancient British 
Church : an Historical Essay. 

By JOHN Pryce, M.A. Crown Svo. 6s. 

RANSOME.— The Rise of Consti- 
tutional Government in Eng- 
land : being a Series of Twenty 

Lectures on the History of the English 
Constitution delivered to a Popular 
Audience. By Cyril Ransome, M.A. 
Crown 8vo. 65. 

RA IVLINSON.— The History of 
Phoenicia. By George Rawlin- 

son, M.A., Canon of Canterbury, &c. 
With numerous Illustrations. Svo. 245. 

READ ER.~ Echoes of Thought: 

a Medley of Verse. By Emily E. 
Reader. Fcp. Svo. 55. cloth, gilt top. 

RENDLEandNORMAN.— The Inns 
of Old Southwark, and their 
Associations. By William Rendle, 
F.R.C.S., and Philii' Norman, F.S.A. 
Witli numerous Illustrations. Roy. Svo. 28s. 

RIBOT.— The Psychology of At- 
tention. ByTH.RiP.OT. Crown 

8vo. 35. 

RICH. — A Dictionary of Roman 
and Greek Antiquities. With 

2000 Woodcuts. By A. Rich. Crown 
8vo. 7s. 6<f. 

RICHARDSON.- National Health. 

Abridged from 'The Health of Nations '. 
A Review of the Works of Sir Edwin 
Chadwick, K.C.B. By Dr. B. W. 
Richardson. Crown, 4s. 6d. 



A CATALOGUE OF BOOKS IN GENERAL LITERATURE 



RILEY.— Athos ; or, the Mountain 
of the Monks. By Athelstan Rii.ey, 
M.A., F.R.G.S. With Map and 29 
Illustrations. 8vo. 21s. 

RILE V.— Old-Fashioned Roses : 

Poems. By James Whitcomb 
Riley. 121110. 5s. 

ROCKHILL.— The Land of the 
Lamas : Notes of a Journey 

through China, Mangolia and Tibet. 
With 2 Maps and 6 Illustrations. By 
William Woodvjlle Rockhill. 8vo. 
155. 

ROGET— A History of the 'Old 
Water-Colour' Society (now 

the Royal Society of Painters in Water- 
Colours). With Biographical Notices of 
its Older and all its Deceased Members 
and Associates. By John Lewis Roget, 
M.A. 2 vols. Royal 8vo. 42s. 

ROGET.— Thesaurus of English 
Words and Phrases. Classified 

and Arranged so as to facilitate the Ex- 
pression of Ideas. By Peter M. Roget. 
Crown 8vo. 105. 6d. 



RONALDS. — The 
Entomology. 



Fly - Fisher's 

By Alfred 



Ronalds. With 20 Coloured Plates. 
8vo. 145. 

ROSSETTI.—A Shadow of Dante : 

being an Essay towards studying Himself, 
his World, and his Pilgrimage. By Maria 
Francesca Rossetti. With Illustra- 
tions. Crown 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

RUSSELL.— A Life of Lord John 
Russell (Earl Russell, K.G.). 

By Spencer Walpole. With 2 Por- 
traits. 2 vol's. 8vo. 365. Cabinet Edition, 
2 vols. Crown 8vo. 12s. 

SEEBOHM (Frederic).— IVOR AS BY. 

The Oxford Reformers — John 
Colet, Erasmus, and Thomas 
More ; a History of their Fellow- 
Work. 8vo. 14s. 

The English Village Commu- 
nity Examined in its Relations to 

the Manorial and Tribal Systems, &c. 13 
Maps and Plates. Svo. 165. 

The Era of the Protestant 
Revolution. With Map. Fcp. 

8vo. 2s. 6</. 



SEW ELL.— Stories and Tales. By 

Elizabeih M. Sewell. Crown 8vo. 
is. 6d. each, cloth plain ; 2s. 6d. each, 
cloth extra, gilt edges : — 

Amy Herbert. Laneton Parsonage. 

The Earl's Daughter. Ursula. 
The Experience of Life. ; Gertrude. 
AGlimpse of the World, j Ivors. 
Cleve Hall. Home Life. 

Katharine Ashton. After Life. 

Margaret Percival. 

SHAKESPEARE. — Bowdler's 
Family Shakespeare, i Vol. 

8vo. With 36 Woodcuts, 14s. or in 6 
vols. Fcp. 8vo. 2 is. 

Outline of the Life of Shake- 
speare. By J. O. Halliwell- 

Phillipps. 2 vols. Royal Svo. £1 is. 

A Calendar of the Halliwell- 
Phillipps' Collection of Shake- 
spearean Rarities Formerly 

Preserved at Hollingbury Copse, Brighton. 
Enlarged by Ernest E. Baker, F.S.A. 
8vo. 10s. 6d. 

Shakespeare's True Life. By 

James Walter. With 500 Illustrations. 
Imp. 8vo. 21s. 

The Shakespeare Birthday 
Book. By Mary F. Dunbar. 

321110. is. 6d. cloth. With Photographs, 
321110. 5s. Drawing-Room Edition, with 
Photographs, Fcp. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

SHORT.- Sketch of the History 
of the Church of England 

to the Revolution of 1688. By T. V. 
Short, D.D. Crown 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

SILVER LIBRARY (The).— Cr. 

Svo. 3J. 6d. each volume. 

Baker's (Sir S. W.) Eight Years in 
Ceylon. With 6 Illustrations. 3J. 6d. 

Baker's (Sir S. W.) Rifle and Hound in 
Ceylon. With 6 Illustrations. 3s. 6d. 

Brassey's (Lady) A Voyage in the 'Sun- 
beam '. With 66 Illustrations. 3^. 6d. 

Clodd's (E.) Story of Creation: a Plain 
Account of Evolution. With 77 Illustra- 
tions. 3.C 6d. 

Doyle's (A. Conan) Micah Clarke. A 
Tale of Monmouth's Rebellion. 3-r. 6d. 

Frcude's (J. A.) Short Studies on Great 
Subjects. 4 vols. y. 6d. each. 

Froude's (J. A.) Caesar : a Sketch. y. 6d. 



PUBLISHED BY MESSRS. LONGMANS, GREEN, d- CO. 



21 



SILVER LIBRARY (The).— 

continued. 

Froude's (J. A.) Thomas Carlyle : a 
History of his Life. 1795-1835. 2 vols. 
1834-1881. 2 vols. "]s. each. 

Froude's (J. A.) The Two Chiefs of 
Dunboy : an Irish Romance of the Last 
Century, y. bd. 

Gleig's (Rev. G. R.) Life of the Duke 
of Wellington. With Portrait. 3^. bd. 

Haggard's (H. R.) She: A History of 
Adventure. 32 Illustrations. y. bd. 

Haggard's (H. R.) Allan Quatermain. 



With 20 Illustrations. 



bd. 



Haggard's (H. R.) Colonel Quaritch, 
V. C. : a Tale of Country Life. y. bd. 

Haggard's (H. R.) Cleopatra. With 29 



Full-page Illustrations. 



bd. 



Howitt's (W.) Visits to Remarkable 



Places. 80 Illustrations. 



bd. 



Memoirs of Sir 

-is. bd. 



Jefferies' (R.) The Story of My Heart : 

My Autobiography. With Portrait. 3^. bd. 

Jefferies' IR.) Field and Hedgerow. Last 
Essays of. With Portrait. 3^. 6d. 

Macleod's (H. D.) The Elements of 
Banking, y. 6d. 

Marshman's (J. C. 
Henry Havelock. 

Merivale's (Dean) 

Romans under the Empire. 

3^. 6d. each. 

Mill's (J. S.) Principles of Political 
Economy. 3J. 6d. 

Mill's (J. S.) System of Logic 3-r. 6d. 

Newman's (Cardinal) Historical 

Sketches. 3 vols. 3^. 6d. each. 

Newman's (Cardinal) Apologia Pro 



History 



of the 

8 vols. 



Vita Sua. 



bd. 



Newman's (Cardinal) Callista : a Tale 
of the Third Century, y. bd. 

Newman's (Cardinal) Loss and Gain : 
a Tale. 3s. bd. 

Newman's (Cardinal) Essays, Critical 

and Historical. 2 vols. Js. 

Newman's (Cardinal) An Essay on the 
Development of Christian Doctrine. 
3j. bd. 

Newman's (Cardinal) The Arians of 
the Fourth Century. y. bd. 

Newman's (Cardinal) Verses on Various 
Occasions. y. bd. 

Newman's (Cardinal) Parochial and 
Plain Sermons. 8 vols. y. bd. each. 



SILVER LIBRARY (The).— 

continued. 

Newman's (Cardinal) Selection, adapted 
to the Seasons of the Ecclesiastical Year, 
from the ' Parochial and Plain Sermons'. 
3j. bd. 

Newman's (Cardinal) Sermons bearing 
upon Subjects of the Day. Edited 
by the Rev. W. J. Copeland, B.D., late 
Rector of Farnham, Essex. $s. bd, 

Newman's (Cardinal) Difficulties felt by 
Anglicans in Catholic Teaching Con- 
sidered. 2 vols. 3-r. bd. each. 

Newman's (Cardinal) The Idea of a 
University Defined and Illustrated. 
3j. bd. 

Newman's (Cardinal) Biblical and 
Ecclesiastical Miracles, y. bd. 

Newman's (Cardinal) Discussions and 
Arguments on Various Subjects. 
y. bd. 

Newman's (Cardinal) Grammar of 
Assent, y. bd. 

Newman's (Cardinal) The Via Media 
of the Anglican Church, illustrated in 
Lectures, &c. 2 vols. y. bd. each. 

Stanley's (Bishop) Familiar History of 



Birds. 160 Illustrations. 



;j. bd. 



Wood's (Rev. J. G.) Petland Revisited. 

With 33 Illustrations, y. bd. 

Wood's (Rev. J. G.) Strange Dwellings : 

With 60 Illustrations. 3^. bd. 

Wood's (Rev. J. G.) Out of Doors. 



11 Illustrations. 



3-r. td. 



SMITH (Gregory).— Fra Angelico, 

and other Short Poems. By Gregory 
Smith. Crown 8vo. 45. bd. 

SMITH (R. Bosworth).— Carthage 
and the Carthagenians. By 

R. Bosworth Smith, M.A. Maps, 
Plans, &c. Crown 8vo. bs. 

Sophocles. Translated into English 
Verse. By Robert Whitelaw, M.A. 

Assistant-Master in Rugby School ; late 
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Crown 8vo. 8s. bd. 

STANLEY.— A Familiar History 
of Birds. By E. Stanley, D.D. 

With 160 Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 35. bd. 

steel (J. H.).— Works by. 

A Treatise on the Diseases of 

the Dog ; being a Manual of 
Canine Pathology. Especially adapted 
for the Use of Veterinary Practitioners 
and Students. 88 Illustrations. 8vo. 
1 OS. bd. 



A CATALOGUE OF BOOKS IN GENERAL LITERATURE 



STEEL (J. H.).— WORKS BY.—cont. 

A Treatise on the Diseases of 

the Ox ; being a Manual of 

Bovine Pathol gy. Especially adapted for 
the use of Veterinary Practitioners and 
Students. 2 Plates and 117 Woodcuts. 
8vo. 155. 

A Treatise on the Diseases of 
the Sheep ; being a Manual of 

Ovine Pathology. Especially adapted 
for the use of Veterinary Practitioners 
and Students. With Coloured Plate and 
99 Woodcuts. 8vo. 12s. 

STEPHEN.— Essays in Ecclesi- 
astical Biography. By the 
Right Hon. Sir j. Stephen. Crown 
8vo. 75. bd. 

STEPHENS.— A History of the 
French Revolution. By H. 

Morse Stephens, Balliol College, 

- Oxford. 3 vols. 8vo. Vol. I. and II. 18s. 

each. [Ready. 

STE VENSON (Robt. Louis).— WORKS 
BY. 

A Child's Garden of Verses. 

Small Fcp. 8vo. 5s. 

The Dynamiter. Fcp. 8vo. is. 

sewed ; is. bd. cloth. 

Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and 
Mr. Hyde. Fcp. 8vo. is. swd. ; 

is. 6d. cloth. 

STEVENSON and OSBOURNE.— 
The Wrong Box. By Robert 
Louis Stevenson and Lloyd Os- 
bourne. Crown 8vo. 5s. 

STOCK.— Deductive Logic. By 

St. George Stock. Fcp. 8vo. 3s. bd. 

' STONEHENGE'.— The Dog in 
Health and Disease. By 

' Stonehenge '. With 84 Wood En- 
gravings. Square Crown 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

STRONG, LOG EM A N, and 
WHEELER.— Introduction to 
the Study of the History of 
Language. By Herbert A. 
Strong, iM.A., LL.D. ; Wili.em S. 
Logeman ; and Benjamin Ide 
Wheeler. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

STUTELELD.— The Brethren of 
Mount Atlas: being the First Part 
of an African Theosophical Story. By 
Hugh E. M. Stutfield, F.R.O.S. 
Author of 'El Maghreb: 1200 Miles' 
Ride through Marocco'. Crown 8vo. 



Supernatural Religion ; an In- 
quiry into the Reality of Divine Reve- 
lation. 3 vols. 8vo. 36s. 

Reply (A) to Dr. Lightfoot's 

Essays. By the Author of ' Super- 
natural Religion '. 8vo. 6s. 

SWINBURNE.— Picture Logic ; an 

Attempt to Popularise the Science of 
Reasoning. By A. J. Swinburne, B. A, 
Post 8vo. 5s. 

SYMES (James).— JFORKS BY. 
Prelude to Modern History: 

being a Brief Sketch of the World's 
History from the Third to the Ninth 
Century. With 5 Maps. Crown 8vo. 
2s. 6d. 

A Companion to School His- 
tories of England ; being a 

Series of Short Essays on the most Im- 
portant Movements, Social, Literary, and 
Political, in English History. Crown 
8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Political Economy : a Short Text- 
Book of Political Economy. With Prob- 
lems for Solution, and Hints for Sup- 
plementary Reading. Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

TA YLOR.—A Student's Manual of 
the History of India, from the 

Earliest Period to the Present Time. By 
Colonel Meadows Taylor. C.S.I. , &c. 
Crown 8vo. 7s. bd. 

THOMPSON (D. Greenleut).— WORKS 
BY. 

The Problem of Evil : an Intro- 
duction to the Practical Sciences. 8vo. 
10s. 6d. 

A System of Psychology. 2 vols. 

8vo. 36s. 

The Religious Sentiments of 
the Human Mind. 8vo. 7^. 6d. 

Social Progress: an Essay. 8vo. 

7s. bd. 

The Philosophy of Fiction in 
Literature: an Essay. Cr. 8vo.6i\ 

Three in Norway. By Two of 

Them. With a Map and 59 Illustrations. 
Cr. 8vo. 2s. boards ; 2s. bd. cloth. 

TIREBUCK.—Dorrie: a Novel. By 
William Tirebuck. Author of ' Saint 
Margaret,' &c. Crown 8vo. bs. 



PUBLISHED BY MESSRS. LONGMANS, GREEN, £ CO. 



2 3 



TO YNBEE.— Lectures on the In- 
dustrial Revolution of the 
18th Century in England. 

By the late Arnold Toynbee, Tutor 
of Balliol College, Oxford. Together 
with a Short Memoir by B. JoWETT, 
Master of Balliol College, Oxford. 
8vo. 105. bd. 

TREVELYAN (Sir G. 0., Bart.).— 
Works by. 

The Life and Letters of Lord 
Macaulay. 

Popular Edition, Crown 8vo. 25. bd. 
Student's Edition, Crown 8vo. 65. 
Cabinet Edition, 2 vols. Cr. 8vo. 12s. 
Library Edition, 2 vols. Svo. 365. 

The Early History of Charles 
James Fox. Library Edition, 

8vo. 18s. Cabinet Edition, Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
TROLLOPE(Anthony).— NOVELS BY. 
The Warden. Crown 8vo. is. 

boards; is. bd. cloth. 

Barchester Towers. Crown 8vo. 

is. boards ; is. bd. cloth. 

VILLE.— The Perplexed Farmer: 

How is he to meet Alien Competition ? 
By George Ville. Translated from the 
French by William Crookes, F.R.S., 
V.P.C.S., &c. Crown Svo. 5-r. 

VIRGIL.— Publi Vergili Maronis 
Bucolica, Georgica, iEneis ; 

The Works of Virgil, Latin Text, with 
English Commentary and Index. By 
B. H. Kennedy, D.D. Cr. Svo. los.bd. 

The i*Eneid of Virgil. Translated 

into English Verse. By John Coning- 
TON, M.A. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

The Poems of Virgil. Translated 

into English Prose. By John Coning- 
Ton, M.A. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

The Eclogues and Georgics of 
Virgil. Translated from the 

Latin by J. W. Mackail, M.A., Fellow 
of Balliol College, Oxford. Printed on 
Dutch Hand-made Paper. Royal i6mo. 
5*- 

WAKEMAN and HASSALL.— 
Essays Introductory to the 
Study of English Constitu- 
tional History. By Resident 

Members of the University of Oxford. 
Edited by Henry Offi.ey Wakeman, 
M.A., and Arthur Hassai.l, M.A. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 



WALFORD. — The Mischief of 
Monica: a Novel. By L. B. 
Walford. Author of 'Mr. Smith,' &c, 
&c. 3 vols. Crown 8vo. 25.;. 6d. 

WALKER.— The Correct Card ; or 

How to Play at Whist ; a Whist Cate- 
chism. By Major A. CAMPBELL- 
Walker, F.R.G.S. Fcp. Svo. 2s. bd. 

WALPOLE.— History of England 
from the Conclusion of the 
Great War in 1815 to 1858. 

By Spencer Walpole. Library Edition. 

5 vols. Svo. £\ ios. Cabinet Edition. 

6 vols. Crown Svo. 6s. each. 

WELLINGTON.— Life of the Duke 
of Wellington. By the Rev. G. 
R. Gleig, M.A. Crown 8vo. 3s. bd. 

WELLS. — Recent Economic 
Changes and their Effect on the 

Production and Distribution of Wealth 
and the Well-being of Society. By 
David A. Wells. Crown Svo. 10s. bd. 

WENDT.— Papers on Maritime 
Legislation, with a Translation 

of the German Mercantile Laws relating 

to Maritime Commerce. By Ernest 

' Emil Wendt. Royal 8vo. £1 ns.bd. 

WEYAIAN.— The House of the 
Wolf: a Romance. By Stanley 

J. Weyman. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

WHAT ELY (E. Jane).— WORKS BY. 
English Synonyms. Edited hy 

R. Whately, D.D. Fcp. 8vo. 3s. 

Life and Correspondence of 
Richard Whately, D.D., late 

Archbishop of Dublin. With Portrait. 
Crown Svo. 10s. bd. 

WHATELY (Archbishop). — WORKS 
BY. 
Elements of Logic. Crown Svo. 

4s. bd. 

Elements of Rhetoric. Crown 

8vo. 4s. bd. 

Lessons on Reasoning. Fcp. 

8vo. is. bd. 

Bacon's Essays, with Annotations. 

8vo. Ios. bd. 

Whist in Diagrams : a Supplement 

to American Whist, Illustrated ; being a 
Series of Hands played through, Illus- 
trating the American leads, the new play, 
the forms of Finesse, and celebrated coups 
of Masters. With Explanation and 
Analysis. By G. W. P. Fcp. Svo. 6s. bd. 



24 



A CATALOGUE OF BOOKS IN GENERAL LITERATURE. 



WILCOCKS.— The Sea Fisherman, 

Comprising the Chief Methods of Hook 
and Line Fishing in the British and other 
Seas, and Remarks on Nets, Boats, and 
Boating. By J. C. Wilcocks. Pro- 
fusely Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 65. 

WILLICH. — Popular Tables for 

giving Information for ascertaining the 
value of Lifehold, Leasehold, and Church 
Property, the Public Funds, &c. By 
Charles M. Willich. Edited by 
H. Bence Jones. Crown 8vo. ios. bd. 

WILLOUGHBY.— Bast Africa and 
its Big Game. By Capt. Sir 

John C. Willoughby, Bart. Illus- 
trated by G. D. Giles and Mrs. Gordon 
Hake. Royal 8vo. 21s. 

WITT (Prof.).— WO R AS BY. Trans- 
lated by Frances Younghusband. 

The Trojan War. Crown 8vo. 2s. 

Myths of Hellas ; or, Greek Tales. 

Crown 8vo. 3s. bd. 

The Wanderings of Ulysses. 

Crown 8vo. 3s. bd. 

The Retreat of the Ten Thou- 
sand ; being the story of Xeno- 

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