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Page 48, line 7, for " Ad, 'OAi-yaTrio) " read " Ad 'OAu/xttiV" 
8, „ "aTr6" read^uTTh." 

eTTOL-qa-e read (Troirjo-e. 
„ 22, „ " Nicaea" read " Nicias." 

" SeorTrotva " r^a^ " StcTTrotva." 

" Dionysus " read " Dionysia." 

" Lysicrates statue " read " Lysicrates 

" xwpa " r^a^ " x^P^-" 
" Delhi " read " Delphi." 
„ line 2, for " healthy realism and ideal con- 
ception " read " healthy realism to the 
ideal conception." 
134, line 6, for " eight " read " six." 

214, note 4, lines 4-5, for " in the style of the 5th century 
B.C." read " in the style of about 400 B.C." 
217, note I, for " (f>^][jii" read " <^T//i,i." 

" fi oioTarov " read " ofioidraTov." 
'' 8i]Tiov &[j,<f>ia-- " read " S^ttoi' dfji<f)i<s-." 
)Au " read " ttoAv." 

64, „ i5j » 
73, note I, „ 




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" fiei^ov 7) " read " fitt^ov r)." 
" 8td " read " Sta." 

^ fiakaKcirepov (Tov" read '' fiaXuKwrepov a-ov." 
„ 218, line 30, „ " iiSei " read " ei'Sct." 

For " Imperial Museum, Berlin," read " Royal Museum, Berlin," 
throughout the volume. 







I, Ancient Art ..... 
II. Statues of Gods in the Fifth Century 

III. Other Sculptures of the Fifth Century 

IV. Fourth-Century Sculpture 
V. Greek Statues of Athletes 

VI. Tombs .... 
VII. Groups .... 
VIII. Hellenistic Art 

IX. Historical Art of the Romans 

X. Greek and Roman Portraits . 








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Ancient Statue of a Youth from Tenea. 

Glyptothek, Munich ..... 
Ancient Statue of a Girl. Acropolis Museum, 

Athens ....... 

r- Eastern Pediment of the Temple of Aphaea -j 

[restored) ....... 

Western Pediment of the Temple of Aphaea 

{restored) . . . . . ■ ■ • 

Fallen Warrior from Western Pediment 
Fallen Warrior from Eastern Pediment. 

Glyptothek, Munich . 
The Athena Lemnia of Phidias. Albertinura, 

Dresden ....... 

Athena Parthenos. National Museum, Athens 
Athena of Velletri. Louvre, Paris 
Apollo with a Cithara. Glyptothek, Munich . 
Statue of Hera. Vatican, Rome 
Statue of Asclepius. Museo Nazionale, Naples 
Dioscurus from Monte Cavallo. Rome 
Nike of Paionios. Oljanpia. [From the restora- 
tion by Richard Griittner, Berlin) . 
The Eleusinian Deities. Marble relief. National 

Museum, Athens ..... 

Orpheus and Eurydice. Marble relief. Museo 

Nazionale, Naples ..... 

Medusa. Marble mask. Glyptothek, ISIunich . 

Reliefs from the frieze of the Parthenon. Acropolis 

Museum, Athens, and British Museum, London . 

Relief from the frieze of the Parthenon. Still on 

the Temple ...... 

Group of Female Figures from the eastern 

pediment of the Parthenon. British Museum, 

London ....... 

Reclining Male Figure from the eastern pediment 

of the Parthenon. British Museum 
Statue of a Maiden from the Erechtheum, 

Athens. British Museum .... 
Irene with the Infant Plutus. Glyptothek, 

Munich ....... 

Demeter of Cnidus. British Museum, London . 
Ares Ludovisi. National Museum, Rome 
Head of the Hermes of Praxiteles. Olympia 


facing page 3 












XXV. Head of the Cnidian Aphrodite. Kaufmann 
Collection, Berlin ..... 

XXVI. Marble Bust from Eleusis. National Museum, 
Athens ...... 

XXVII. Zeus of Otricoli. Vatican Museum, Rome 
XXVIII. Apollo Belvedere. Vatican Museum, Rome . 
XXIX. Artemis of Versailles. Louvre, Paris . 

XXX. Melpomene. Vatican Museum, Rome 
XXXI. Hypnos. Bronze head. {Reproduced from a cast 
British Museum, London 
XXXII. Hunter and Dog. Marble statue. Glyptothek 
Ny-Carlsberg, Copenhagen . 

XXXIII. Discobolus {restored). After the bronz. 

Myron. National Museum, Rome 

XXXIV. Apoxyomenos. Marble statue after Lysippus 

Vatican Museum, Rome 
XXXV. Relief. From an Attic Tomb. National Museum 
Athens ..... 

XXXVI. Stela of Hegeso. Dipylon, Athens 

XXXVII. So-called Alexander Sarcophagus of Sidon. 

Reliefs from the front. Ottoman Museum, 

Constantinople ...... 

XXXVIII. So-called Alexander Sarcophagus. Back view. 
Constantinople ...... 

XXXIX. So-called Alexander Sarcophagus. Lion hunt, 
group from the back. Constantinople 
XL. NiOBE. Uffizi, Florence ..... 

XLI. Rescue of the Body of Patroclus by Menelaus. 
Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence .... 

XLII. Laocoon. Vatican, Rome .... 

XLIII. Head of a Statue of Odysseus. The Doges' 
Palace, Venice ...... 

XLIV. Orestes and Electra. National Museum, Rome 

XLV. The Nile. Vatican Museum, Rome . 

XLVI. The Dying Gaul. Capitoline Museum, Rome 

XLVII. Statue of a Mourning Barbarian Woman 

Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence 

XLVIII. Reliefs. From the column of Marcus Aurelius 

Piazza Colonna, Rome 

XLIX. Reliefs. From the column of Marcus Aurelius. 

Piazza Colonna, Rome 

L. Pericles. British Museum, London . 

LI. Sophocles. Lateran Museum, Rome . 

LII. Euripides. Museo Nazionale, Naples 

LIU. Socrates. Villa Albani, Rome . 

LIV. Head of a Statue of Alexander the Great 

Glyptothek, Munich . 

LV. Demosthenes. Vatican Museum, Rome. {From 

a restored cast in the Gipsmuseum, Munich) 

LVI. Homer. Grand Ducal Library, Schwerin . 

facing page 91 

























I Bust of Agrippa. Louvre, Paris . . . \ 

LVII. -; Bronze Head of an Unknown Roman. Psdace \ facing page 228 

' of the Conservatoire, Rome . . . ' 

LVIII. Augustus. Vatican Museum, Rome ... ,, 231 

LIX. Marble Statue of a Woman from Herculaneum. 

Albertinum, Dresden ..... ,, 237 

LX. Roman Citizen wearing the Toga. British 

Museum, London ..... ,, 240 



From the right-hand side of the Eastern 

Maiden from the Acropolis 

2. Head of Fig. i. 

3. Complete Restoration of the Eastern Pediment of the Temple 

of Aphaea at Aegina 

4. Head and Shoulders of a Squire. From the right-hand side of 

the Eastern Pediment 

5. Heracles with the Bow 


6. The so-called Athena Lemnia. From the restoration in the Gips 

museum, Munich ........ 

7. Head of the Athena Lemnia. Municipal Museum, Bologna 

8. Head of the Athena Lemnia. Profile .... 

9. Gem of Aspasia. Imperial Antique Collection, Vienna . 

10 and ii. Head of Athena of Velletri .... 

12. The Asclepius of Melos. British Museum, London . 

13. DioscuRUS. From Monte Cavallo ..... 

DioscuRUS. From Monte Cavallo ..... 

Head of one of the Dioscuri. From Monte Cavallo 
Head of " Apollo " ....... 

Head of a Youth. From the Western Frieze of the Parthenon 
Upper Part of Horseman with Prancing Horse. From a con 

temporary cast .... 

19. Head of Demeter of Cnidus, restored 

20. Head of the Ares Ludovisi 

21. Statue of Hermes. Olympia . 

22. Head of a Girl. Marble of the time of Praxiteles. From a restored 

cast. Glyptothek, Munich .... 
Head of Zeus. Marble. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 
Zeus. Boston. From a restoration 
Zeus. Boston. From a restoration 

26. Head of the Apollo Belvedere 

27. Hypnos. Marble statue. Museo del Prado, Madrid 

28. Hypnos. Restored cast. Strassburg . 

29. Head of a Hunter. Marble. Villa Medici, Rome 

30. Bronze Head. Side view. Glyptothek, Munich . 

31. Bronze Head. Front view. Glyptothek, Munich 

32. Head of Myron's Discobolus .... 















90 . 





















DiADUMENUS AFTER PoLYCLETUs. Marble statue from Delos. 

National Museum, Athens ..... 

Bronze Statue of a Pugilist. National Museum, Rome 
Head of Apoxyomenos ...... 

Mourning Maidservant. Imperial Museum, Berlin 
Head of a Persian ...... 

Head of Alexander ...... 

Head of Alexander ...... 

Head of a Persian ...... 

Battle Group. From the front of the Alexander Sarcophagus 
Head of a Persian ....... 

Head of a Macedonian ...... 

Head of Niobe ....... 

The Laocoon. Restoration. Albertinum, Dresden 
Head of the Laocoon ...... 

Marble Statue of Odysseus ..... 

Nike of Samothrace. Louvre, Paris 

Marble Head of a Barbarian. Musee Royal, Brussels 
Marble Relief with Country Scene. Glyptothek, Munich 
Bronze Head of a Young Satyr. Glyptothek, Munich 
Head of the Dying Gaul ..... 

Head of Galatian. From the group " The Galatian and his Wife" 
Marble Relief. From the Arch of Trajan, Benevento. The 

emperor offering up a sacrifice ....... 

Marble Relief. From the Trajan Column, Rome. A Dacian 

regiment attacking a Roman fortress ..... 

Sacrifice of a Sow to the Penates. Relief from the Ara Pacis. 

National Museum, Rome ........ 

Old Roman. Marble Head. Glyptothek, Munich .... 

Plato. Bust from a herm. Vatican, Rome ..... 

Hellenistic General or Prince. Head of a bronze statue. National 

Museum, Rome ......... 

Hellenistic Prince, known as Antiochus IH. of Syria. Marble 

Head. Louvre, Paris ........ 

Bust of Green Basalt, known as Caesar. Imperial Museum, Berlin 
Terracotta Head of an old Roman. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 
Marble Head of a Roman Matron. Glyptothek Ny-Carlsberg, 

Copenhagen .......... 

Antoninus Pius. Marble Bust. Museo Nazionale, Naples 
Marble Bust of Caracalla. Imperial Museum, Berlin . 
Bronze Head of the Emperor Maximinus Thrax. Antiquarium, 

Munich ........... 

Marble Head of a Roman Lady. Glyptothek Ny-Carlsberg, Copenhagen 
Head of Sophocles ......... 

Marble Bust of Socrates. Museo Nazionale, Naples 

Marble Statue of Alexander the Great ..... 

Demosthenes. Marble Head. Glyptothek Ny-Carlsberg, Copenhagen 
Head of Homer. Marble. Vatican, Rome ..... 

Reliefs. From the breastplate of the Augustus .... 

























This convenient small edition of the Monuments of Greek and 
Roman Sculpture just published in folio form appears in 
accordance with the wishes of a large number of professors 
and teachers of higher education in Germany, Austria and 
Switzerland. It should enable both teacher and student 
to form an idea of the contents of the large work. 

The explanations and descriptions have been revised and 
improved by the authors, and translations of all the quota- 
tions in foreign languages have been added. The text is 
divided into ten groups arranged from an historical point 
of view and in regard to subject. Each of these groups is 
preceded by a new collective sketch which aims at a com- 
prehensive view of the various examples from a broad and 
generalised standpoint. But at the same time the work 
still preserves its character as a collection of monuments and 
does not pretend to take the place of a complete history of 
the subject. These short articles are merely intended to 
give to each example its proper position in relation to the 
development of antique art. As all the principal periods are 
here presented the text of the groups constitutes a survey of 
the whole development of Greek and Roman sculpture. 

Quotations from modern authors have been almost entirely 
avoided; only ancient writers are introduced in relevant 
passages. The special demands of schools and wider circles 
of cultured people have been kept in mind. 

The pictorial part of the work has also been increased in 
this edition by one or two examples. 

The two authors have worked on a mutually arranged 
plan in equal parts. 

A. FuRTWANGLER and H. L. Urlichs. 

Munich, June 1898. 



The aim of this book in its enlarged edition, with revised 
text and additional illustrations, remains the same as before; 
by means of a careful and just selection of examples to give 
a general understanding of the antique in its historic develop- 
ment and aesthetic importance. 

The original text of Furtwangler, whose premature death 
we all deeply deplore, has been carefully and reverently 
revised; it has been altered as little as possible, though in 
many cases considerably amplified. Prominence is given to 
the disagreement of some of his colleagues with certain sub- 
jective opinions of the intrepid and enthusiastic investigator. 
In the completion of that part for which I alone am respon- 
sible Furtwangler's other works have been frequently referred 
to; in the case of the Aeginetan sculptures his publications 
have been the principal source. The latter remain for all 
time a permanent monument of energy and discrimination, 
of happy chance and inductive reasoning worthy of the great 


Heinrich Ludwig Urlichs. 

Munich, April 191 1. 




Art in Greece blossomed richly as early as the twentieth 
century B.C. It was the period of the so-called Mycenaean 
civilisation with its shining palaces, its gay coloured gar- 
ments rich with golden ornaments, its beautiful weapons and 
vessels decorated with paintings and reliefs. The memory 
of this period lived on in the epic poems of the Greeks. 

But although they were surrounded with art and beauty 
in that heroic age, monumental sculpture was still in its 
infancy. And even its beginnings were stunted as the 

orian migration was followed by a general retrogression of 

Plastic art only began to develop slowly and by degrees in 
the course of the seventh century b.c. It was not entirely 
a spontaneous growth, but stimulated from without by 
foreign examples, of which the connection of the lonians with 
the Asiatic hinterland and more particularly the knowledge 
of Egypt were fruitful sources of inspiration. For the single 
standing figure the formula of Egyptian art was adopted, and 
this had in the beginning a great influence on the fashioning 
of detail. But the Greek spirit rapidly made its own way, 
throwing over the dead abstract formula and giving expres- 
sion to individual life. 

An excellent work in which the main features of the 


Egyptian prototype and the properties of the vivacious 
Greek spirit are recognisable is the statue on Plate I. 

It is executed in the beautiful marble from the isle of Paros, 
which only began to be used for monumental sculpture 
towards the end of the seventh century. Earlier Greek 
sculptures were as a rule executed in wood or the inferior 
sorts of limestone, which the ancients termed " Poros." 
It was in the islands of Naxos and Paros, so rich in marble, 
that sculpture in marble was first developed. It began in 
Naxos, but its somewhat coarser material was in time super- 
seded by the infinitely more beautiful Parian marble. This 
came to be widely exported, and in Attica nearly all the 
ancient sculpture which is not executed in the local lime- 
stone is wrought in this same Parian marble. It was only 
in the fifth century that sculpture profited by the beautiful 
marble of Pentelicus near Athens. 

Together with stone sculpture developed the casting of 
larger statues in bronze. Samian artists seem to have 
learnt the art of casting in moulds in Egypt and introduced 
it into Greece. But it was towards the end of the sixth 
century that casting in bronze reached its full development 
and became from then the principal medium for single 

In ancient plastic art human beings were executed as 
monuments for tombs as well as offerings for shrines; gods 
and heroes were also represented either as temple statues or 
as votive gifts in the shrines. For the same purpose animal 
figures were also executed. Plate I. is a statue from a tomb, 
Plate II. and fig. i are votive offerings from a shrine. 

In the temples that from the end of the seventh century 
were customarily erected out of massive stone-blocks in the 
place of the wood and clay that had satisfied the ancients, 
decorative sculpture had its most grateful opportunity. The 
pediment and metopes and sometimes the frieze were now 








covered with sculpture. Of Parian marble are the figures in 
the pediment of the temple of Aphaea at Aegina (Plates III. 
and IV. and figs. 4 and 5), a precious treasure of Archaic art 
at its best, excellent in its careful reproduction of natural 
forms and rhythmic action of the single figures and groups 
as in the vitality of the whole composition. 


Ancient Statue of a youth from Tenea 

In the Glyptothek^ Munich 

This statue, about five feet in height, was discovered in 1846 
in the neighbourhood of Corinth on the site of ancient Tenea, 
and was acquired by the Munich Glyptothek in 1853. 

It is made of coarse-grained Parian marble. At the time 
of its discovery the arms and legs were broken in several 
pieces; the middle of the right arm was missing and has been 
restored. The rest of the figure is in excellent preservation; 
particularly the head, which was found protected by an over- 
turned earthenware vessel, and is fortunately quite uninjured. 

The statue represents a youth of stiff upright carriage. 
The weight of the body rests on both feet, the left being 
slightly advanced; both touch the ground with the whole 
sole. The arms hang perfectly symmetrically straight down 
on either side, and both hands are clasped with the thumbs 
outwards. The hair is long and falls in a broad mass down 
the back. It is cut up in arbitrary waves, and like the lips 
and eyes was without doubt at one time painted. A band 
surrounding the head was also originally coloured. 

The statue is commonly designated the " Apollo of Tenea." 
It is certainly true that the type of youthful male figure 
before us is used in ancient Greek art for the god Apollo. 


But it is equally used for the representation of men and 
heroes. In this case the circumstances of its discovery point 
decidedly to its being the statue of some departed mortal, 
for it was found in the Necropolis of Tenea on a tomb. The 
deceased is not, however, represented clothed as in life, but 
as an ideal nude figure, a higher being, a hero. 

All the essentials of the scheme — ^with the exception of the 
complete nudity — are borrowed from Egyptian art; the 
first attempts of the Greeks in monumental statuary were 
based on Egyptian models. The execution in detail is pure 
Greek and markedly different from the habitual manner of 
the Egyptians. The youth is not merely put there as in 
similar Egyptian figures, but stands firmly, with knees 
pressed in, full of his own innate energy; and from the head 
there shines, instead of the insensible expression of the 
Egyptians, a ray of that free vital humanity that was to 
develop so gloriously in Greek art. 

In the execution of the figure the legs are the most success- 
ful part. The small knees and ankles, the elegant feet, the 
strong fleshy muscles and their differentiation from the bony 
parts are surprisingly well rendered. The torso is far less 
perfect in execution ; but even this, in contrast to its Egyptian 
prototype, shows an independent effort and individual 
observation of nature. Thus the thorax is essentially more 
accurately rendered than in the Egyptian type and in some 
older Greek works which follow this more closely. 

The ideal before the artist is that of a young athletically- 
built youth with a powerful chest and slim supple-jointed 
limbs, with nothing soft and flabby about him. 

The work belongs to the end of the seventh or beginning of 
the sixth century b.c, and is in all probability an excellent 
example of the artists Dipoinus and Scyllis or their school 
working at that time in the neighbourhood of Tenea (Cleonae, 
Argos, Corinth, and Sicyonia). It is by far the finest example 








extant of the now no longer rare type of ancient sculpture 
which stands at the beginning of the development of plastic 
art in Greece. 


Ancient Statue of a Girl 
In the Acropolis Museum at Athens 

In the Acropolis at Athens in the eighties of the last century 
a number of antique female statues were discovered, executed 
in fine Parian marble and to a certain extent preserving 
their original painted colouring. They were found in the so- 
called Persian ash-heap, that is the ashes left through the 
destruction of the citadel by fire by the Persians about 480 b.c. 

One of the best of these pieces is reproduced on Plate 11. 
The statue was found in 1886 in three separate fragments in 
the north-west of the Erectheum. It is a little under life-size. 

The girl stands quite in the ancient manner with legs 
together. The right arm with closed fist hangs in imitation 
of the Egyptian model as in the figure of the youth shown on 
Plate I. The left forearm was horizontally extended and 
separately affixed; it has not been found. The clothing 
consists of an Ionic linen chiton which is only visible below 
in wavy lines, over it is drawn a woollen Doric peplum 
fastened on both shoulders. This is bound with a girdle 
both ends of which hang down in front; both before and 
behind the peplum overlaps almost to the waist. Only on 
the upper arm and on either side of the girdle are there small 
flat folds in the peplum, the greater part of the drapery is 
represented quite flat. 

This flatness of the drapery and the pose with the legs 
together are typical of early archaic art. The head on the 


Fig. I. Maiden from the 


Other hand is surprisingly refined 
in execution and life-like in ex- 
pression. The statue is essentially 
later than the youth in Plate I.; 
the face and the treatment of 
the hair are in a considerably 
more advanced style. The artist 
had he wished could, like others 
of his contemporaries, have used 
a freer pose and folds in the 
drapery ; he has followed pur- 
posely in pose and drapery a 
decidedly earlier tradition. The 
effect he has achieved is indeed 
striking; the contrast of the stiff 
carriage and flat surfaces of the 
figure with the head sparkling 
with life is exceedingly captiva- 
ting and makes this figure one 
of the most attractive among 
her comrades on the Acropolis. 

Her hair hangs quite freely and 
loosely on her shoulders and far 
down her back ; it dispenses 
with all artificial arrangement. 
A simple straight band lies in it. 
The red colouring of the hair is 
well-preserved ; the iris of the 
eye is also red. On the drapery 
is some ornamentation finely 
painted with red and green; 
three broad stripes run downward 
from the girdle; and the hem 
below as well as that of the 


overlap exhibits a very dainty ornamentation. But the 
greater part of the drapery is like the flesh left simply white. 
As an example of a figure of the same period, but in a 
totally different convention, we give a second statue (fig. i) 
from the same excavation on the Acropolis. Until lately only 
the upper part of this figure was perfect, and the figure has 


Head of Fig. i. 

only quite recently been completed through a happy adjust- 
ment of further fragments. The figure now with the left 
foot advanced and the drapery in rich folds held up by the 
left hand looks quite different in pose and dress from our 
Plate I. Slim and elegant she stands there tapering 
like a column. The position of the feet is still awkward 
— it is a weak attempt to express the action of walking. 
The strong and varied folds of the close-fitting drapery are 


engraved and show the form of the legs distinctly. The some- 
what empty surfaces were originally enlivened with painting. 
The extended right hand probably held some fruit. This 
richly-clad maiden wears over the Ionic chiton an overdress 
across the breast, fastened on the right shoulder and hanging 
in elaborate folds. The head (fig. 2) with its dainty curls is 
adorned with a diadem.^ The expression of the face with 
its full sensuous lips is particularly pleasing. The borders of 
the draperies are, as in the statue in Plate II., embellished 
with coloured ornaments. 

The true home of the artistic tendency displayed in this 
figure is undoubtedly Ionia, Asia Minor, and particularly the 
Island of Chios, while the style of the other statue (Plate II.) 
more probably grew up in detached islands like Naxos, and 
in the Peloponnesus. 

The date of neither statue can be placed earlier than before 
the last quarter of the sixth century. We cannot give them 
any name but that of Kopai, " maidens " ; they are not 
goddesses but merely statues of maidens, dedicated to 
Athena. They are among the most precious things that 
archaic art has bequeathed to us. 

' On the top of the head a long, sharp-pointed metal nail is inserted to protect 
the figure from birds. Cf. Horace, Satire!;, i, 8, 3-7. 


^ ^^ii«S^B**5^5^ 








Fig. 3. Complete Restoration of the Eastern Pediment of the 
Temple of Aphaea at Aegina. 


The Pediments of the Temple of Aphaea at Aegina 

On the island of Aegina opposite Athens, away from any- 
large settlements, there rises in silent solitude a temple on a 
wooded height. There a fortunate fate preserved in a com- 
paratively good condition the now world-famous Aeginetan 
sculptures. Rather more than a hundred years ago two 
architects, Cockerel! an Englishman and Haller von Haller- 
stein of Nuremberg, inspired by a noble enthusiasm for the 
antique and full of the romantic feelings of youth, recovered 
from the undisturbed ruins of the temple the statues of fine 
Parian marble, under the gracious protection of Athena 


Ergane. The acquisition in the teeth of their numerous 
competitors, the journey from Malta with storms at sea and 
dangers from pirates, the landing at Naples and the journey 
by land to Rome, all read like a modern Odyssey. The 
rescue was the work of the sculptor Martin von Wagner, 
the active and persistent agent of the Crown Prince Louis 
of Bavaria.^ The two discoverers, who were devoted 
friends and equally inspired by noble aims, remain to posterity 
a shining example and incentive to imitation. Honour is 
above all due to the art-loving prince, who immediately after 
their discovery realised the worth of the Aeginetan marbles 
•and brought about their purchase. For since 1828 they 
have served in the Glyptothek at Munich as a very important 
example of the best archaic art, and have given two genera- 
tions some acquaintance, however superficial, with this style. 
The " Aeginetan smile," which is the amiable expression 
of emotion, obtained among those ignorant of its intention 
an often almost comic interpretation. Ninety years after 
the first exploration the temple precincts were thoroughly 
examined under Furtwangler's energetic and careful guidance; 
by means of new discoveries and renewed investigation of 
the old material, the reconstruction has been accomplished 
on which our exposition is based. The models ^ in the 
Glyptothek, one-fifth the natural size, arouse a lively interest 
in all beholders, partly on account of the restoration of the 

1 After the successful purchase of the precious treasure in 1813, he expressed 
his joyful thanks in a letter in the characteristic words: " Like Odysseus you have 
suffered much, Wagner, on my account, And I will not forget it as long as I live." 
The accompanying present, a gold watch, has on the back an " L " surrounded 
by the following inscription, slightly altered from Vergil {Aeneid, i. 204), " Post 
varios casus, post tot discrimina rerum " (" After manifold vicissitudes, after so 
many perils "). 

* Fig. 2 represents the east front in restoration. Six columns, in the centre the 
graceful Palmette with two female figures, at each corner a gryphon. The 
metopes, of which not a trace has been found, perhaps consisted of painted wooden 
panels. The whole is an admirable example of the strictly regular Doric Order 
in severe, compact style. 


rich painting. Beside the harmonious completeness and 
rhythmic variety of the two pediments the scattered and 
defective parts of the original appear dull and tedious. Their 
restoration was carried out in Rome under Thorwaldsen's 
guidance in marble, in the manner of the time without much 
reverence for the pieces preserved. The name of the temple 
itself was also established during the Bavarian excavations; 
the shrine, at first falsely attributed to Zeus Panhellenius, 
later with more apparent justification to Athena, is now 
through the discovery of an inscription proved to be the 
temple of Aphaea. The cult of this local goddess so highly 
esteemed on the island was introduced there by Cretan 
settlers in the early days of Greece, in the twentieth century 
B.C. For the then indigenous Aphaea a new house was 
built between 490 and 480 b.c. The style of architecture 
and sculpture point to this period; a more certain date is 
so far not possible. 

We now turn to the consideration of the sculpture itself 
and begin with the composition. The very first glance 
informs us that the statues s tand admirably in the space^ 
which slopes steeply from the centre, adapting themselves 
architecturally to the pediment without appearing stiff, but 
rather suggesting the notion of vigorous life. Thus the 
difficult task of filling the narrow frame is solved. Within 
the pediment also the artists have striven for a great variety 
of subject and grouping, of arms and costume. Particularly 
the contrast in the general treatment of the two scenes 
obviates an all too easily possible monotony. In both the 
warrior-goddess stands among her heroes, in the first in a 
restful pose in which only the foot suggests a gentle walking 
action, the second time wildly advancing with the Aegis 
widely spread. She forms a fixed point in the centre and 
ensures the strict symmetry of the whole. In the western 
pediment there follows on either side an admirable group of 


three warriors; after an ancient formula two heroes fight 
over one lying on the ground. Then follow two assailants 
advancing towards one already wounded. In this reclining 
figure, and in the shield and helmet at the end, the gradual 
abatement of the din of battle seems to be symbolically sug- 
gested, and at the same time the architectural difficulties of 
filling this portion successfully overcome.'- 

Though equally regular, the east front presents a more 
varied and spirited appearance; detachment instead of 
combination, more motley variety of movement, an almost 
elastic rising and falling of limbs like the waves of the sea. 
The groups on either side of the goddess are composed of 
four figures. A hero is sinking back in the act of receiving 
his death-blow from a victorious assailant, a squire hurries 
to his aid whilst an archer aims an arrow at the confident 
victor — a picture of heroism and fidelity in a simple form. 
And once more the heated battle softly dies away; far from 
the tumult two mortally wounded heroes breathe their last; 
weapons complete the whole. 

The principal achievement of the artist lies in the space- 
filling, as simple as it is ingenious, the happy result of mature 
consideration. The chief groups taken by themselves are 
quite successful compositions, and every part is worthy of 
examination in detail. The contrast of rest and action, of 
nudity and clothing, the variety of arms and weapons, every- 
thing awakens interest and attention. Sinking backwards, 
hurrying forwards, reclining, kneeling, and springing aside, 
every figure gives new delight; each in its way is in pose and 
action a worthy achievement, the most ambitious of all being 
the splendidly successful rendering of the dying hero in the 
round. Looking at the whole composition, the beholder is 

' On account of certain discoveries and internal evidence a rearrangement of 
some of the figures has recently been made. The unarmed and defenceless corner 
figures have replaced the still armed and vigorous warriors between the fighters, 
and these fallen figures have been relegated to the corners. 


carried away to the death-dealing wars of Troy and in his 
imagination many a verse or episode of the Iliad is there 
plastically embodied; more vividly in the presence of the 
brightly painted models.^ But the illustration of definite 
episodes is scarcely intended, the two pediments rather aim at 
a certain typical representation of the long and changeful 
struggle round the sturdy citadel. And this comprehensive 
picture is attained by small means, with twelve or thirteen 
figures. That the inc dents refer to Troy might be con- 
jectured from the warlike nature of the subject, but it is 
definitely suggested by the last figure but one on the 
right of the eastern pediment (also reproduced in fig. 5). 
Heracles is recognisable by the lion's head in front of his 
helmet, of which it forms a part; he joined the Aeginetans 
with Telamon, son of Aeacus, against the Trojan prince 
Laomedon. The back pediment, therefore, can only refer to 
the later and more famous expedition, wherein the heroes of 
the island, above all Ajax, son of Telamon, played a prominent 
part. The praise of this double deed of fame is loudly sung 
by Pindar,^ so that the sculptures as well as contemporary 
literature are evidence of the popularity of the legend. Its 
representation is well suited to keep alive the memory of 
their ancestors among this sturdy and energetic sea-folk. 
A more definite indication either of individual figures or exact 
illustrations of the epos lay neither in his commission nor in 
the mind of the sculptor. Every beholder, every inhabitant 
of the island was involuntarily reminded of the battles of 
Ilion and of the glorious deeds of his ancestors. More than 
this the art of that time did not aim at expressing, did not 

A closer examination of single figures enables us to 

' Remains of the original painting are still to be found on the marble; they 
were abundantly noticeable soon after the discovery of the sculptures. 

* Kemean Songs of Victory, iii. 36, iv. 24 et seq.; Isthmian, v. 35 et seq. and vi. 
2y et seq. 



Fig. 4. Head and Shoulders of a Squire. 
From the right-hand side of the Eastern Pediment. 

appreciate the style. The figures are under life-size, the 
body short, the legs long; on the western pediment the out- 
lines clean and precise, almost hard in comparison with the 
fuller, rounder forms of the eastern pediment; in the latter, 
too, there is more expression in the spirited faces : a transi- 
tional style, a mingling of the ancient and the more advanced, 
an earnest struggle for perfection. The marble technique 
is boldly practised, competing with that of bronze; even 
extended limbs are executed without supports. There is 
scarcely a trace of a relief style of handling. The figures fully 
modelled in the round are placed free from the wall, mostly in 
profile, sometimes with a slight turn approaching full face, 
one or two in awkward positions: the western Athena sets 
her feet sideways, her body turned to the front. Keen 
observation of nature, loving execution, and faithful render- 



Fig. 5. Heracles with the Bow. 
From the right-hand side of the Eastern Pediment. 

ing of the nude distinguish these works of ripe archaic art. 
One never tires of studying the exuberant, often naively 
effective freshness of the faces; they are the buds which 
expanded and blossomed into the highest art. The bright 
joy of creation which inspired the master communicates 
itself to the spectator, particularly before the marbles in the 
Glyptothek. Every one who feels the charm of the antique 
will turn to these away from reproductions, and here a 


comparison with other sculpture in the Museum brings home 
to one the enormous difference between the original and the 
copy. It is impossible, in the absence of written evidence, 
to allocate the Aeginetan marbles to any school or particular 
artists; in any case that sureness of technique and wonderful 
naturalism were only attainable by long practice, under the 
influencecertainly of the eastern islands, of Ionia, of neighbour- 
ing Athens, and perhaps of a local tradition. Certain figures 
have been particularly famous in the past. The bearded 
warrior who, mortally wounded in the breast, still bears him- 
self like a hero, arouses a strong sympathy in the beholder, 
above all when one looks at the suffering face. The treat- 
ment of form is admirable; for example, the accurate render- 
ing of the veins and muscles of the left leg. In the wounded 
youth, whose attitude with the right leg drawn across the 
left suggests convulsive pain, it is the face that in the first 
place attracts attention; though the tight-drawn open mouth 
betokens extreme pain, only repressed suffering is visible in 
the serious thoughtful glance. This head with its protrud- 
ing almond-shaped eyes remains a notable example of the 
ancient style. Very characteristic is the abundant hair, 
which forms two rows of curls in front and hangs down behind 
in a long broad mass; a few stray locks of metal lay at one 
time on the breast. All the freshness of archaic art looks 
out of the face of the ycKing squire (fig. 4) who hurries up 
and, bending forward, holds out to his staggering lord his 
fallen helmet. On the well rounded skull the hair is arranged 
as in the left-hand lower figure in Plates III. and IV., in the 
fashion of the period but treated in an artistic convention; 
it falls forward from the crown and is gathered in front in 
three rows of little curls, which are remarkable for their 
careful execution. The back of the head was painted, and 
from ear to ear runs a double plait. The figure is modelled 
fully in the round. In the lively expression of the face the 


eager zeal of the faithful servant is naively expressed. The 
kneeling archer (fig. 5) next to the dying warrior in the right- 
hand corner of the eastern pediment has always been counted 
a pearl of Aeginetan sculpture. Sure of aim, certain of 
victory, the young Heracles is here represented in the act of 
loosing his arrow. The pose itself is very striking. Only 
the ball of the right foot and the heel of the left touch the 
ground, even the right knee is clear. This gives such truth 
of movement, such elastic action to this athletically built 
hero, that one almost wonders if this is cold marble or warm 
pulsating life. " What expression of tension and energy, of 
pride and courage, of self-conscious confidence in the full 
mastery of muscle and limb that only gymnastic training can 
give! There is no part of the body that does not show this 
tension. And so are all the Aeginetans. They know no 
giving way, no letting themselves go; only death can release 
the tension — a race never tired or weary, always gay and 
glad, always rejoicing in labour, always ready to put the whole 
sinewy body, steeled in muscular exercise, into the thing to 
be done." 

Thus the study of the individual figures provides as much 
delight as the pediments as a whole in their reconstruction 
in the models. We are grateful for these fruits of investiga- 
tion, and will now appreciate much better than our fathers 
and grandfathers the style and composition of the famous 
Aeginetan sculpture. And nowhere more than in Munich, 
where Ludwig I. of Bavaria has provided a distinguished 
and classical home by Klenze for this treasure of the antique. 
And yet these sculptures in all their glory of form and colour 
could only have had their full effect in the place for which 
they were made, in relation to the architecture for which 
they were designed. On the solitary heights of Aegina, in the 
clear light of the southern sun, they adorned the pediment 
of that Doric temple whose pale gleaming ruins to-day 
smile from afar a greeting to travellers by sea. 




After Greek art had freed itself from the fetters of the 
ancient convention the statues of gods gained extraordinarily 
in vitality and depth of character. Whereas formerly 
sculptors had been content to give to a generalised human 
statue the outward attributes of a god, Zeus being distinguish- 
able from any dignified bearded man, Apollo from any youth, 
only by means of accessories, they now sought and found 
means of expressing the inward character, and those indi- 
vidual qualities of each god long familiar to them in their 
poetry and religion. The great art of the fifth century well 
understood how to do this and at the same time to preserve 
the exalted and divine element as a keynote, whilst a later 

period emphasisedthe human side. ^ 

' The fifth century is the truly classic period of statues of 
the gods. In it the finest and most important creations and 
those which had the most enduring influence were executed. 
By far the greatest number of these are the work of Attic 
artists, among them first of all Myron, then Phidias and his 
pupils, particularly Agoracritos and Alcamenes, 

Of Athena, nearly all the most characteristic statues date 
from the fifth century. Compared to these, later statues 
have a feeble and insipid appearance. Only the earlier art 
gave full expression to the earnestness and stern lofty purity 
of the goddess. 

Our plates (V. and VI.) give two Athena statues of 



Phidias, in antique copies, the Lemnian Athena and the 
Athena Parthenos. In spite of their relationship they are 
utterly dissimilar. On the one hand we have the shining, 
ever-victorious goddess in pomp and splendour, with the 
Victory in her hand, in full armour and glittering with orna- 
ments, her ears and neck, helmet and shield, and even the 
soles of her sandals festively adorned, her face in joyous 
pride directed calmly towards the pious worshippers in the 
temple; on the other hand the Lemnian, simple and un- 
adorned, in homely work-a-day dress, her helmet in her 
hand, her whole appearance merely that of a strong, pure 
virgin, with her head turned a little to one side, as boyish- 
innocent as she is wonderfully beautiful. 

The Lemnian Athena is preserved to us in very much 
better copies than the Parthenos, this colossal work in ivory 
and gold having only come down to us in quotations, the 
bronze figure, to follow the simile, in accurate transcriptions. 
Only these last give us an idea of the highest and best that 
Phidias was capable of. 

A third statue of Athena (Plate VIL), also one of the 
finest statues of the fifth century, shows us another artist's 
conception of the goddess; in place of the benign beauty 
pictured by Phidias we have something more thoughtful and 
severe, her wise and thoughtful qualities seeming to the 
artist the most important. 

These three different versions of the same Athena are a 
clear indication that the sculptors of the creative, the 
really classical period of antique art, had no fixed type for 
their gods. Each artist worked for himself and sought to 
discover new sides of the deity, so that even the Athena 
statues of Phidias himself are quite distinct from each other. 
The widespread notion that among the ancients there was a 
so-called ideal canon for each deity is a mistake and is only 
partly true of later times, when nothing new was invented 


and when out of all the varied wealth of earlier creations 
only a few were preserved by constant repetition, and thus 
formed the canon. 

Another fine statue is the Apollo from the school of Phidias 
shown on Plate VIII. He is here represented as the god of 
high, serious music, advancing with a solemn step in the 
flowing robes of a citharodes in the act of striking up a 
sacred hymn. 

Also of the school of Phidias is the Hera on Plate IX. 

The Olympian Zeus of Phidias is unfortunately only 
known to us in faint outlines on small coins of the time of 
Hadrian; the excavations at Olympia have only brought to 
light fragments of the stone plinth of this wonderful colossal 
statue of gold and ivory. 

Of Asclepius, on the other hand, many statues are pre- 
served to us. These go back to the creations of the Phidian 
circle and one of the finest is that shown on Plate X. 

The Dioscuri from Monte Cavallo (Plate XI.) are strong 
and vigorous in action, and their unclothed heroic figures, in 
contrast to still draped deities, form a necessary complement 
to them in our conception of what Phidian art achieved in 
the representation of mythological figures.^ 

The soaring Nike of Paionios (Plate XII.), of which the 
original is fortunately preserved, is related to the above in 
its spirited movement. 

» See text to Plate XI. 








The Athena Lemnia of Phidias ^ 

Marble Statue in the Royal Albertinum, Dresden 

This plate reproduces a marble statue, rather over life-size, 
in the Albertina Museum at Dresden. The head, of which 
two views are given (figs. 7 and 8), is a plaster cast from a 
marble original in the municipal museum at Bologna. The 
right breast and the stump of the left arm are also of plaster; 
they are from a second statue in Dresden, an exact repro- 
duction of the first, in which these parts are in better 
preservation. In the second statue the head is also preserved, 
but in a mutilated condition. This head, though broken 
off, fitted perfectly the broken surface on the torso and 
therefore undoubtedly belongs to it. It is an exact replica 
of the beautifully preserved head in Bologna which has 
therefore been used for the restoration of the first Dresden 
statue here reproduced. The proof of the connection of this 
helmetless head of unique beauty, formerly regarded as a 
masculine type, with the Athena statue has only quite 
recently been obtained, together with the evidence that we 
have in this marble work of Roman times, in all probability, 
a faithful copy of a lost bronze of Phidias, that very statue 
from the Acropolis of Athens which was called by the 
ancients Athena Lemnia and considered one of the finest 
works of the master. 

' This wonderful work, which revives for us one of the finest statues of the fifth 
century, is now considered the work not of Phidias, but of an Attic or Pelopon- 
nesian contemporary, or one who united the elements of both schools. A final 
solution of the problem is only possible if copies of the " Lemnia " came to light 
on other monuments that made clear the destination of the original; records 
such as dedicatory reliefs or coins of a certain settlement or place of religious 



Fig. 6. The so-called Athena Lemnia. 
From the Restoration in the Gipsmuseum, Munich. 

Attic vase pictures, an Attic relief, and copies of the upper 
part of the statue, which are frequently found on old stone 
carvings, make it highly probable that the outstretched right 
hand of the goddess at one time held a helmet. The raised 
left hand undoubtedly rested on the spear (fig. 6). The 
Aegis, still in the ancient manner quite big, is hung slanting 


Fig. 7. Head of the Athena Lemnia. 
Municipal Museum, Bo'ogna. 

and girt above the hips with snakes. It leaves the left 
breast exposed, and probably this manner of adjusting the 
Aegis is meant to suggest the peaceful character of the 
goddess, also indicated by the uncovex&dHTead. The hair 
is rather short and coiled up at the back. A broad band, 
fastened at the back, cuts deep into the soft thick curly hair. 
The Bolognese head gives very faithfully the fine chiselling 
of the hair of the original. The eye-sockets in this head are 
empty, because the eyes were inserted in some coloured 
material in imitation of the manner of the bronze original. 

The goddess stands firmly with the weight on the right 
leg, the left set a little to one side; though both feet rest with 


the whole sole on the ground the figure has more action than 
the Athena Parthenos. The modelling of the figure is strong 
and slender, rather masculine. The hips are narrow, the 
breasts flat, but the chest strong and broad. The head, too, 
has a mingling of feminine and boyish-masculine qualities. 
The goddess is an ideal of purity, innocence, and strength. 

The head is turned very much to one side, while the body 
takes no part in this movement but looks perfectly straight 
in front. There is in this a certain hardness which is peculiar 
to works as late as the middle of the fifth century. The turn 
of the head proves that the statue is not from a temple, for 
the head of a temple statue must turn more towards the 
worshippers approaching in front. 

The goddess wears the same garment as the Athena 
Parthenos — the Doric peplum of thick woollen material. It 
has a broad overlap and is therefore bound at the waist. On 
the right side it is open. It is the characteristic garment of 
the vigorous maiden.^ The drapery is very like that of the 
Parthenos, but it is marked by a more spontaneous and less 
obviously intentional arrangement. There are, however, 
several signs in the conventional treatment, both of the 
drapery and the head, that the original must have been a 
little earlier than the Parthenos. 

This original must have been a very famous statue. 
Besides several copies in marble, there are, as remarked 
above, many reproductions of the upper part of the statue 
on gems and cameos. That the original was in bronze and not 
a temple statue is already proved. The marked correspond- 
ence with the Athena Parthenos leads us to think it the work 
of the same artist, Phidias. Monuments bear witness to the 
existence of a once famous unhelmeted Athena in the 
Phidian style. On the other hand, we know from literary 

' Concfrning this costume compare the text to the relief " The Eleusinian 
Deities" (Plate XIII.). 


Fig. 8. Head of Athena Lemnia. 

sources ^ that on the Acropolis at Athens there stood, not in 
a temple but as a votive offering in the open, a bronze statue 
of Athena by Phidias, which was famous for its extraordinary 
beauty and was called after those who dedicated it the 
" Lemnian." Lucian - particularly praises the face of the 
goddess, the whole outline of which, evidently unprejudiced 
by an Attic helmet, he takes as the finest example of the 
most famous statues. Further we learn from Himerius ^ of 
an Athena of Phidias characterised by beauty of face and 
absence of helmet, but not more definitely indicated. But 

^ Pausanias' Itinerary of Greece, i. 28, 2. 

^Dialogues, 21,4. 

Dialogues, 6 ; cf . also 4. 


it was the Lemnian, as we gather from Lucian, that was con- 
sidered among the later rhetorical writers as the Athena of 
Phidias that excelled in beauty, so the identification of the 
helmetless Athena with the Lemnian may be regarded as 
almost certain. The literary description of this helmetless 
Athena, famous for the unique beauty of her face, agrees so 
exactly with this Phidian Athena as preserved in marble 
copies and disclosed in gems, that there can be no doubt as 
to its identity. 

In the marble copies of the Lemnian Athena we have for 
the first time a statue of a deity by Phidias in an exact form 
and in size approaching that of the original; for the copies 
of the Parthenos are all very inaccurate, being free reductions 
of a colossal figure. 

The date of the Athena Lemnia is about the middle of the 
fifth century. More accurately perhaps 447, as it probably 
has some connection with the reduction by half of the 
Lemnian annual tribute which took place at this time. The 
reason of this was in all probability that Attic citizens 
received new land on Lemnos, on which account the tribute 
would naturally be reduced. The statue executed by 
Phidias is most likely an expression of the gratitude of the 
Athenians on Lemnos for their strengthening through rein- 
forcements of Attic citizens and a sign of nearer relations 
with their homeland and her goddess. The statue was called 
the Lemnian, after the Athenians on Lemnos who dedicated it. 



Athena Parthenos 
Statuette in Pentelican marble in the National Museum^ Athens 

Towards the end of the year 1880 this well-preserved 
statuette, with a base a little over a metre in height, came 
to light at Athens in the neighbourhood of a gymnasium 
called after its founder the Varvakion; named after the place 
of its discovery, it soon became one of the best known relics of 
the antique. It is a copy of the time of Hadrian, There is 
no doubt, from a comparison with the exact description which 
Pausanias ^ gives of the original and with already identified 
copies of the masterpiece, that this is a reproduction of the 
statue executed by Phidias for the 14 metre high cella of the 
Parthenon at Athens in 438 B.C. It was mainly composed 
of wood, the draped parts covered with a thin removable 
layer of gold, while plates of ivory covered the nude parts of 
the figure. The entire height was probably about 12 metres,^ 
the weight of the gold alone about 44 talents — 1152.62 kg. 
The Varvakion statuette gives for the first time a complete 
representation of the colossal chryselephantine statue. 
Although executed in the days of the Roman Empire without 
much artistic understanding, it presents the statue faithfully 
without arbitrary alterations, only partially stripped of its 
rich accessories, such as the reliefs. 

The goddess stands upright, a strong youthful form, on an 
architecturally moulded pedestal. The peplum, which is 
arranged in rigid folds, reaches to the feet and is open on the 

* Itinerary of Greece, i. 24, 5-7. 

* The height of the gold and ivory statue was reckoned between eleven and 
twelve metres without the base. Schwanthaler's colossal bronze statue of 
Bavaria, which towers mightily above the hill by the Theresicnwiese at Munich, 
is without the stately stone pedestal about 20.5 metres — about twice as high. 



Fig. 9. Gem of Aspasia. 
Imperial Antique Collection, Vienna. 

right side; the upper fold falls below the waist and is 
fastened with a girdle and artistically disposed in regular 
folds. In the middle of the scaly, snake-bordered Aegis, 
which lies like a collar over the breast, a Medusa head in the 
old grotesque style is introduced. The helmet has a broad 
band in front and extends protectively over the neck behind. 
It fits close to the head but permits little ringlets to curl out 
over the ears, while two long strands of hair from the back 
lie on the Aegis. The helmet towers up in rich ornaments. 
In the centre the curved plume which flows down the back 
springs from a sphinx, on either side partially damaged 
winged horses form the foundation of further plumes. The 
cheek pieces project upwards in a sloping direction. 

Of the thick-soled feet the right stands firmly on the 
ground, and thus takes the weight, the left is slightly raised 
and set a little to one side, showing the form of the leg 








through the drapery, to which it gives a slight movement 
without disturbing the regularity of the whole. Both arms 
are adorned at the wrist with snake bracelets. On her open 
right hand hovers with lowered wings the Nike in a flowing 
robe, the constant companion of victorious Athena. The 
head of this figure is not preserved. She is half turned 
towards the spectator, to whom probably she held a wreath. 
As the free arm of Athena would not have been able to 
sustain the weight of the Nike, a support in the form of a 
pillar has been introduced, which at the same time fills the 
somewhat empty space on the right-hand side. For the left 
hand of the goddess lightly holds the large round shield, 
which, decorated with a Gorgon mask in the centre, rests on 
a slight elevation. In the hollow winds a mighty bearded 
serpent, the guardian of the hill, the sacred animal of Erich- 
thonius. Athena's weapon, the spear, leant in the original 
against her left shoulder. 

Although in a very diminished degree,^ the spiritual 
qualities that informed the original are still imprinted in the 
face of this poor copy. In flawless preservation it shows full 
rounded forms, as is the case with the powerfully built neck. 
The half opened mouth imparts an expression of spirited life, 
which must have been enhanced in the original by the gleaming 
eyes of precious stones. In the wise thoughtful features, 
lofty and mild, we recognise the daughter of Zeus, the wise 
counsellor, from whose forehead she sprang and whom she 
reveals. In the sublimity of the whole figure lies its great- 
ness. For in spite of the smallness of the copy we seem to 
see the statue before us in all its grand proportions, and form 
an idea of the sacred figure that, even detached from the 
severe Doric architecture of the pillared cella, fills the beholder 

* The admirable gem of Aspasia from the time of Augustus (fig. g) supplies a 


with religious awe, while the appearance of the frieze ^ with 
its variety of spirited life exalts his mood. In this gold and 
ivory statue Phidias gave expression to much of that from 
which the blossoms of the time of Pericles sprang: strength 
that commands respect, armed peace after victorious 
battles, soul and intellect, and, lastly, wealth in abundance. 
" The goddess on the hill was the personification of the 
mighty town, whose mastery extended over land and sea. 
She was the sovereign and shield of her people and their 
allies, and led them to victory by land and sea." This con- 
ception of Athena the majestic, peaceful, but strong and 
well-armed goddess, as distinguished from the Pallas of the 
brandished spear, the battle-thirsty Promachos of an older 
time, remained from this time forward the standard type in 
art, and is now familiar to us. 


Athena of Velletri 
Colossal Statue in the Louvre , Paris 

This well-preserved marble statue reproduces a famous 
bronze original. We possess other marble copies, particu- 
larly of the head, for example that in the Munich Glyptothek 
from the Villa Albani at Rome; but the Parisian statue, 
found in a Roman villa at Velletri, is the best of the copies. 

The goddess stands in a majestic attitude. She rests 
firmly on the left leg, drawing the right after her; the point 
of the right foot is turned outwards, giving a broad monu- 
mental character to the lower part of the figure. The right 
arm is raised, holding the shaft of the spear towards the point. 
The spear slopes inwards to the ground on which it rests. 

1 Examples are given on Plates XVI. -XVII. 







Figs, io and ii. Head of Athena of Velletri. 

The right hand and fore-arm are restored, as the arm was 
broken at the elbow; it was probably rather more bent. 
The left arm lies close to the body, the fore-arm outstretched. 
The hand is restored; according to an old Athenian copper 
coin, which reproduces the original statue, it bore a Nike, 
the figure so indissolubly associated with the goddess in 
Athens, and borne by the Athena Parthenos of Phidias. On 
another coin from Amastris in Paphlagonia, which also gives 
the original, the left hand holds the Owl. 

The drapery consists of the Doric peplum of coarse woollen 
material, girt as in the Parthenos with a snake; at the side, 
however, it is not open but sewn up. Over this she wears a 
cloak, also of heavy woollen stuff, that rests on the left 
shoulder and, wound round the hips, is held in its place 


by the left arm. A large three-cornered piece hangs down 
in front. This cloak adds greatly to the majestic appear- 
ance of the goddess. 

The Aegis, which here also has snakes on the upper border, 
rests on the breast like a collar, and is purposely quite small, 
as Athena is not conceived as the fighting goddess. On her 
head rests a Corinthian helmet; this, when lowered, covered 
the whole face having cuts for the eyes. It was usually 
worn pushed back as in the portrait of Pericles. The goddess 
wears her hair brushed back in a simple style. 

The features and expression of the head (figs. lo and ii) 
are in complete contrast to the full broad face and joyful, 
victorious character of the Parthenos. Here the expression 
is serious and severe; it is a presentment of the meditative 
thoughtful maiden, wise and pure. 

The head is admirably preserved. It seems narrow and 
delicate above the broad massive breast. Very character- 
istic is the treatment of the drapery, nothing but simple 
heavy precise folds, without a touch of prettiness, but which 
play a great part in the majesty and power of the whole 

Pecularities in the style of the head and drapery give a 
clue to the period and even the artists to whom we owe the 
original. It must belong to the time of Pericles, but towards 
the end of that period, shortly before the outbreak of the 
Peloponnesian war. As the Athenian coin shows, it was in 
the province of Athens. The artist must have worked in- 
dependently and in opposition to the circle of Phidias. A 
detailed comparison with other works — for example, the 
Pericles bust and the Medusa Rondanini — tends to show 
that it was probably Cresilas, the sculptor of the Pericles. 

But the statue is perhaps identical with an Athena Soteira, 
a statue in the shrine of Zeus Soter at Piraeus much admired 
in antique times. The goddess is conceived as the saviour, 
the wise and mighty guardian of victorious Athens. 









Apollo with the Cithara 
Colossal Marble Statue in the Munich Glyptothek 

A lofty noble figure approaches us with a slow solemn step. 
He pauses in his stride, resting on the right leg and drawing 
the left after him. A large cithara is pressed close against 
the body with the left arm, but it must have been secured 
by a band slung across the breast. The right hand was 
quietly extended and held the cup ready for the libation. 
The right arm is entirely modern. Music and singing are not 
portrayed, but the moment of the solemn entry and the 
oflfering before the beginning of the festive music. 

The figure was formerly held to be that of a woman. 
Winckelmann, who admired it in the Barberini Palace at 
Rome, took it for one of the Muses. He recognised in the 
statue the lofty style of an earlier period and conjectured 
that it might be the muse of Ageladas, the teacher of Poly- 
cletus and Phidias. He saw in her the " lofty grace " in 
•contrast to the "amiable grace" of the other citharodes, 
which as a matter of fact also belongs to an earlier period. 

But it is Apollo in the long festival robes that were worn 
by all who competed for the prize by playing the cithara or 
by singing in the festival of the god. Until the later Greek 
period Apollo the musician was regularly represented in 
these long robes to distinguish him from the nude warrior 
god with the bow. He wears the Doric peplum with a broad 
overlap, belted below the breast with a wide band. On the 
shoulders one end of this is fastened and hangs down behind 
like a short cloak. The sandals with their high soles also 
belong to the festival costume. The head shows inset eyes, 


that are here, as very rarely happens, in fairly good preserva- 
tion. The whites of the eyes are made of white stone. The 
dark pupil has fallen out; the lashes were made of thin 
bronze; remains of them are distinctly visible. The head 
and neck have been joined to the statue, but by the artist 
himself. It is by no means even a late antique restoration. 
The full curly hair is parted and falls in double curls on the 
breast; bound up over the forehead it increases the majesty 
of the head. 

The execution of the statue, which was found in 1678 in 
a villa at Tusculum, dates, so far as can be deduced from the 
style of the work, approximately from the Augustan epoch. 
But there can be no doubt that it reproduces an old Greek 
original. It is even possible to name with certainty the 
school to which the original statue belonged; a comparison 
with the authenticated works of Phidias, with the Lemnian 
Athena and the Parthenos, proves that this Apollo was 
executed in contact with Phidias and represents a direct 
development of the style of the master. The arrangement 
of the Doric peplum, too, is such as the master and his circle 
employed for feminine deities. The original of the statue 
is reproduced on the coins of Augustus that are connected 
with the victory at Actium, 31 B.C., and with the Palatine 
temple then consecrated. As it seems impossible, for reasons 
of style, to identify our statue with that of Scopas (of the 
fourth century B.C.) erected in the temple itself, it is probably 
the second marble statue referred to by Propertius (iii. 29, 5) 
as standing near the altar, as its pose agrees with that 
indicated by the poet. 

Among all the statues of gods preserved there is scarcely 
another in such good preservation that gives us so grand a 
conception as this Apollo, which imparts so completely 
and unimpaired the impression of a majestic temple figure 
in the Phidian manner. 






Statue of Hera 

In the Vatican, Rome 

This over life-size marble statue was found at Rome on the 
Viminal during excavations instituted by Cardinal Francesco 
Barberini, and is now in the great rotunda of the Vatican 
Museum. It is usually called after its first owner the 
" Barberini Hera." The statue is well preserved; only the 
arms, which were made and affixed separately, are lost and 
now restored. But the restorer could scarcely go wrong. 
The head is admirably preserved and unbroken, except for 
the nose which is new; the head and part of the bare breast 
are executed in a separate piece of marble and inserted. 
The feet also were separately affixed; the left foot is restored. 
The putting together of large marble figures in several pieces 
was quite common in ancient times, and a thing in which 
sculptors were very expert. In this way material was saved 
and large marble statues could be comparatively cheaply 

The statue is a copy, made in Rome in the second century 
B.C. probably for the palace of a Roman noble, but possibly 
for a shrine, of a lost Greek original of the period immediately 
before or during the Peloponnesian war. The work must 
have become very famous, for it was frequently copied. A 
particularly good copy, which was found in the ruins of a 
Roman villa on the Sabine hill, is now in Copenhagen. It 
is a work of the Augustan period; the diadem that adorns 
our statue is missing, as it was the custom in early marble 
work to affix such details separately in metal. 

The style of the work, as preserved in the copies, is so 


decidedly related to an equally famous Aphrodite, which is 
preserved in numerous copies, wherein the goddess is repre- 
sented in a thin ungirded garment, that both works are 
regarded as the creations of one and the same artist. The 
Aphrodite probably goes back to Alcamenes, the famous 
pupil of Phidias, and the Hera is probably the work of this 
same great artist. 

The identification of the goddess as Hera cannot be 
regarded as certain, as the type is not established in any 
monument of Hera or Juno ; it is nevertheless highly probable, 
and the name of Hera best explains the general conception 
as well as the details of the statue. 

A sublime figure stands before us, a great and noble 
goddess, a true queen and ruler. She does not hold her 
head up in pride, but, gently nodding, promises fulfilment 
of their wishes to those who approach her piously in prayer. 

Like Aphrodite, the goddess of Love, she wears a thin 
loose under-garment, through which the form of the massive 
body is visible, and as in her case it slips off one shoulder. 
But the lower part of the figure is wrapped in a thick heavy 
cloak, suggestive of stern dignity. 

The cloak lies with one end on the left shoulder and is 
drawn across the back to the right hip and then over to the 
left, where it is pressed close and held in its place by the left 
elbow. It hangs in front in a large triangular piece, exactly 
like that in the Athena of Velletri (Plate VH.). Here, 
as there, the arrangement imparts something peculiarly 
majestic to the appearance of the goddess. 

The statue also agrees with the Athena in position and 
carriage. The goddess rests on her left foot, whilst the 
right is drawn back in the action of walking. In both 
statues the bare feet are shod with the thick heavy sandals, 
usual with the gods of the Phidian period, and which the 
Athena Parthenos also wears (Plate VI.). The statues agree, 


too, in the pose of the arms and the turn of the head. The 
raised right hand rests there on the spear, here on the sceptre; 
the outstretched left bears an attribute, that we cannot fix 
with any certainty, possibly the vessel for offerings as the 
restorer has assumed. 

The wavy hair, adorned with its diadem, is brushed back, 
but gathered behind in a scarf exactly as in the Aphrodite 
referred to above. But the expression of the face is quite 
different from the yielding, sweetly smiling grace of the god- 
dess of Love; though not without a certain regal gentleness 
it is earnest and severe. 

Thus the statue of the goddess corresponds admirably to 
the picture of Hera as she appears in myth and poetry, the 
exalted consort of Zeus, the queen of heaven and guardian of 
the marriage bond among mortals. 


Statue of Asclepius 

Marble. National Museum, Naples 

This well-preserved and accurately restored statue,^ very 
little above the natural height of a fully grown man, was from 
the middle of the sixteenth century in the collection of the 
Roman family Farnese, arid when this family died out, at the 
end of the eighteenth century, it went, together with other 
famous antiques, to Naples. Its place of discovery is with- 
out any certainty assigned to the temple of Aesculapius on 
the Tiber island in Rome. It is a moderately good copy of 
a Greek original, most probably the work of an unknown 

* Apart from lesser restorations, the whole of the right arm together with the 
snake and staff are new. 


artist under the influence of Phidian art,^ not long after the 
Parthenon sculptures, and in any case was consecrated in a 
shrine of the god. 

Asclepius, called by Homer - simply a doctor, was revered 
among the Greeks as an oracle and health-giving earth-spirit, 
and therefore has the serpent as an inseparable attribute. 
His cult spread to many places with increasing emphasis on 
his vocation of god of healing, and found a famous centre at 
Epidaurus in Argolis, later also at Pergamon in Asia Minor. 
Thither sufferers from far and near made pilgrimage in 
search of health, and made many and marvellous cures. 
Introduced from Epidaurus into Rome, Asclepius set out 
on his course over the whole world. 

The standard artistic representation of Asclepius until the 
late Roman period was embodied in the last decades of the 
fifth century b.c. by an Attic master in the circle of Phidias, 
and can be appreciated in the example here reproduced, 
which is a worthy representative of the innumerable monu- 
ments preserved. The divinity of the statue, whose definite 
outlines are built up in almost architectural regularity, is 
indicated by its venerable dignity suggestive of a holy statue, 
by the sacred serpent, and the Omphalos with its net-like 
covering.^ For the rest the figure is not exalted above the 

1 The type bears the spiritual imprint of Attic art of this period; it is attributed 
to Alcamenes, who executed a temple statue of the god at Mantinea about 420 
(Pausanias' Itinerary of Greece, viii. 9, i). But at the same time a statue also 
of Asclepius, whose cult came to Athens in 420 from Epidaurus, was erected at 
Athens for the sacred district at the southern foot of the Acropolis ; the influence 
of the representations of the god here exhibited is to be observed in the numerous 
votive reliefs, and possibly would be equally so in statues in the round, although 
not as yet traceable in the available material. 

^ Iliad, iv. 194. 

^ The connection of Asclepius with this attribute usually associated with the 
Delphic Apollo is not handed down in literature; it would seem, like the serpent, 
to be a relic of the subterranean deity he was originally held to be. It is also 
suggested that the Omphalos, as a symbol of the chthonic cult, passed from 
Apollo to Asclepius. 








Fig. 12, The Asclepius of Melos. 
Marble Head in the British Museum, London. 

human, but advances as a man in the prime of hfe, whose 
broad build is particularly noticeable in the bare breast, the 
picture of robust health. His clothing is that of a Greek 
citizen. The Himation is draped in simple folds and broad 
flat surfaces, and only at the two ends which hang over the 
left arm more elaborately arranged. The feet stand firmly 
in thick-soled sandals. The left arm which is hidden in the 
Himation rests on the hip, the right lies on the heavy staff ; 
this rests in the armpit at the top, while round its lower end 
the serpent is entwined. Asclepius is conceived as the ever- 
ready doctor, hurrying from one patient to another, who, 
though pausing for a moment in an attitude of rest, is 
still active in thought. For his head, with its rich beard 


and abundance of curly hair, which add greatly to the 
dignity of his appearance, is lightly turned to one side; 
the broad prominent forehead, the thoughtful far-seeing 
glance, the gentle fatherly features (" to fieiXixiov, tt/dcioi'," 
mildness, gentleness), show us the character of the ripe 
experienced doctor in its noblest aspect. This expression 
of the head and the collective dignity of the whole, even 
without emphasising external attributes, raise the repre- 
sentation above the human. The combination of homely 
simplicity and god-like sublimity, which to-day still has the 
effect of inspiring confidence, must in ancient times have 
consoled the suffering and awakened hope in the hearts of 
the faithful worshippers at the shrine. In the aspect of this 
noble figure one recalls and understands the manifold names 
by which Asclepius was known among the ancients; names 
expressive not so much of religious awe as the touching 
child-like trust of humanity in the god of healing. The 
eminently poetical description, " x'^PH'"' F-h' uvOpwiroiai, KaKcZv 
OeXKTrjp oSvvdiov " ( " great bliss for mankind, the subduer 

of sore pams ^) and rkKrova vdySwlas afxepov yviapKeos • • •, •)//owa 

TravToSaTrav dXKTijpa vovcriov " (" the gentle restorer of painless 
strength of limb, the hero, who overcomes manifold ills " 2), 
and many other descriptions have found expression in the 
artistic representations of Asclepius, as again the words, " the 
gentlest of the gods and the kindest to men," ^ " 6ewv oTrpa^Taros 

re Kttt (fjtXavdpioTroTaros." 

It is interesting to watch the changes in the conception 
and representation of the gods as illustrated by Asclepius. 
Through the influence of moderns like Scopas the figures from 
the middle of the fourth century B.C. became more lively, 
the pathetically animated face expressed inward excitement; 

1 Hymn to Asclepius, Homeric Hymns, xvi. 4. 
^ Pindar, Pythian Odes, iii. 6 ff. 

^ Aelius Aristides, 18: its rbcppiap toD 'Ao-kX^ttioO ("At the fountain 
of Asclepius "). ( Dindorf, i. 409.) 


the influence of Praxiteles often had a similar effect.^ This 
altered art is very noticeable in the case of Asclepius in his 
ideal character of healer. What in the restrained solemn 
seriousness of the lifth-century Olympians we feel rather than 
see is here given full expression. The doctor formerly so 
still is now in lively action, the head turned to one side with 
an upward glance. The large head from the island of Melos 
(fig. 12), the identification of which is confirmed by its dis- 
covery in a district where the Asclepian cult was practised, 
should be restored in a similar position after the statuette 
discovered at Epidaurus and completed to a great statue; 
it is a Greek original of the last decades of the fourth century, 
a sublime head, with its abundant curly hair and beard, its 
eyes full of yearning and thoughts of healing, gazing dreamily 
into space. All that is gentle and hopeful, all the sympathy 
and kindness of the physician, which is also suggested in the 
half-opened mouth and slightly drooping underlip, could 
scarcely find stronger or nobler expression. A peculiar 
magic shines in the face, involuntarily radiating consolation to 
the sick and weak. " The eye full of chaste purity and gentle 
benevolence, in which there beams an unspeakable depth of 
nobility and moral worth, bespeaks the character of the god." 

" Ilavayvoi' Kal t'Aewi' uraKtvaii' ofifxa, fiddo'i acfipacrrov vTraa-TpdiTTeL (refxi'ori^ro^ 

a'tSot [xiyd(rr]s" (CalHstratus, Descriptions of Statues, 10). 
This characteristic finds full expression in the Asclepius of 

1 See text to the Demeter of Cnidus (Plate XXII.). 




This plate shows one of the two most forcible and best 
preserved figures that antiquity has bequeathed to us. Side 
views are shown in figs. 13 and 14. The companion figure is 
in similar action but reversed. They are the Dioscuri lead- 
ing their plunging steeds by the bridle, after whom the place 
on the Quirinal at Rome, where they stand, has been called 
the "Monte Cavallo " since the middle ages. They are men- 
tioned in the tenth century as " cavalli marmorei." They 
are among the few antiques that have never been covered 
up. Until 1589 they stood on a huge antique pediment 
and it was generally assumed that they formed part of the 
decoration of the halls and gardens of the great Thermae of 
Constantine, the remains of which were preserved in this 
vicinity until the sixteenth century. On the marble blocks 
of the pediment stood in monumental letters the inscription, 
obviously contemporary with the pediment and therefore 
belonging to the Constantine epoch : " Opus Fidiae " under 
the statue reproduced on Plate XL, " Opus Praxitelis " 
under the other. As in later Roman times frequently 
happened, fragments of older architecture were built into 
the pediment. The statues themselves were much older 
than these inscriptions which from their position are probably 
of the time of Constantine and at any rate, from the use of F 
instead of Ph, not much earlier. From their execution the 
statues could scarcely be later than the early days of the 

In 1589 Sixtus V. replaced this antique erection by a new 
one that in essentials still remains. The colossal figures were set 








up side by side on two new separate bases and the damaged 
parts restored. The inscriptions were replaced by new 
copies. Lastly, in 1786, the obelisk from the mausoleum of 
Augustus was put up between the somewhat widely separated 
statues, and in 181 8 a large fountain was introduced. A 
long time before, perhaps before Sixtus V., there was a 
fountain in front of them. 

Apart from the fact that centuries of exposure have cor- 
roded the surface of the marble, the statues are admirably 
preserved and only unessential parts are restored. The 
largest modern piece is the chest with the fore-legs of the 
horse reproduced on Plate XL 

The inscriptions belong to a class with several other 
descriptions of famous works or their copies found on Roman 
pediments, as opus Polycliti, opus Praxitelis, opus Bryaxidis, 
and others, which mostly date from the second century a.d. 
and present an authentic document concerning the originators 
of the statues that once stood on the bases. Our inscriptions, 
even if only put up at the later erection, probably replaced 
similar and older ones; for the re-erection of the statues, 
after the destruction of the building to which they belonged, 
only followed because they bore the names of great artists. 
At any rate we have no reasonable ground for discrediting 
these inscriptions. We would only be justified in so doing 
if it were impossible for reasons of style to accept the statues 
as what the inscriptions call them — as works, that is copies 
of works, of a Praxiteles or a Phidias. This is not only not 
the case, but, on the contrary, apart from the inscriptions, 
we must ascribe the statues from their style as necessarily 
belonging to the circle of Phidias. 

Now there was an older Praxiteles — probably the grand- 
father of the famous later bearer of the name — ^who was a 
younger contemporary of Phidias. The names of the inscrip- 
tions are therefore not in disagreement with the style of the 



Fig. 13. DioscuRus from Monte Cavallo. 

Statues. Of course there remains the possibility that the 
names were arbitrarily affixed in later times, as simply the 
names of the two most famous sculptors. The circumstance 
that they are two such ancient and celebrated names will 
always give probability to this assumption. 

But, whatever may be decided about the names, the 
analysis of the style remains unaffected. The characteristics 
of style speak their own clear decided language. Here is no 
trace of " Eclecticism," here the style is pure Phidian. 

What the critical eye of the sculptor Canova has already 
recognised, that there were no works in Rome that 
approached the particular greatness of the Parthenon 


Fig. 14. DioscuRUs from Monte Cavallo. 

sculptures so nearly as these colossal figures, is supported by 
an exact comparison. It is true we have not the originals 
before us, only Roman copies; the lost originals were doubt- 
less of bronze and without the clumsy supports which are 
necessary in the marble, and are to be seen here under the 
horse, and beside the advanced leg of the youth in the form 
of a coat of mail. The style corresponds, in the whole and 
in detail, to that of the frieze and the pediments of the 
Parthenon. Particularlv characteristic is the formation of 
the horse and the whole action of the youth who holds it, 
which correspond exactly to figures in the relief on the 
base of the Athena Parthenos and in the Parthenon frieze; 



Fig. 15. Head of one of the Dioscuri. 
From Monte Cavallo. 

no less characteristic is the conventional treatment of the 
torso and the heads to which the Attic riders of the same 
frieze are nearly related.^ 

The inspired, fiery swing, that permeates the whole group, 
obtains its highest expression in the splendid heads (fig. 15). 
The hair floats back in the wind and surrounds the head like 
rays, while the wide-open eyes sparkle with divine fire. 
They are the fair sons of Zeus, the Atoa-KopoL who wrestle 

1 This bold and brilliant assumption has been doubted, and the original has 
been dated in a period after Alexander the Great, though the striking resemblance 
in the treatment of the youths and the horses to the Parthenon and Phidias is 
conceded; in this respect a comparison with Plate XVII. and with figs. 17 
and 18 is instructive. 


with their shining white steeds, the TrwXon' S/Aarv/pts (Alcman), 
the Aei'KOTTcoAot (Pindar), the linroLa-t /xapiJiaipovTe (Euripides). 

The raised hand held the bridle, the lowered hand a spear. 
Presumably, as a hole in either head indicates, gilt stars were 
there affixed; for stars are the most frequent symbols of the 
Dioscuri. The absence of the egg-shaped caps, the pilot, is 
due to the fact that this attribute of the Dioscuri was un- 
known at the time of the originals; it was not general until 
after the time of Alexander. 

In their original position the four figures, the horses and 
their masters, were not arranged as now in two separate right 
angles, but in a row before a flat wall. The space between the 
two groups was perhaps occupied by a fountain. For " as 
after heavy labour they refresh themselves and their steeds 
at the spring, so they share this balm graciously with others. 
As water-bringers they were worshipped and pictorially 
represented by the Hellenes in early times." 


Nike of Paionios 


Before the east front of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, 
in the midst of a crowd of other statues, but towering above 
them all, stood on a triangular base the statue of the descend- 
ing Nike which was found in a battered condition during the 
German excavations. It is here reproduced from the 
restoration by Griittner. The statue is of Parian marble 
and was obtained in December 1875 in its most important 
parts, to which several widely scattered fragments were 
added later. Unfortunately the face has not been found; but 


a substitute has been found in a Roman copy of the head 
discovered at Rome, which bespeaks the ancient fame of the 
original. The statue measured about 2.90 metres to the 
tips of the wings, but with the triangular tapering base the 
whole must have reached the height of nearly 12 metres. 

One of the blocks of the base bears the following in- 
scription : " Meo"(rartot Kal ^avTroLKTiot dvWev Att, 'OAv/xTrtco Senarav 
diro T(i)v TToXefJuiov. TLauovwi CTrotr^tre Mei'Sato? kul TaKpioTi'ipLa ttohov eirt 

rov vaov evtKa." " The Messenians and the Naupacti dedicated 
(this statue) to Olympian Zeus as a tithe of the (spoils 
from) the enemy. Paionios of Mende made it, who also 
triumphed when he made the acroteria of the temple." 
According to Pausanias (v. 26, i) the Messenians connected 
the monument with their success at Sphacteria, 425 B.C., in 
which Messenian auxiliaries took an active part. Pausanias 
himself was thinking of the events related by him, iv. 25, 
about 455 B.C., when the Naupacti captured the Acarnanian 
town of Oeniadae, which they soon had to give up again. 
Both are mere conjectures, not reliable records; neither is 
defensible. The only time that fits the form of the inscrip- 
tion and the historical circumstances is that directly after 
the Peace of Nicaea (421 B.C.), and the statue refers to the 
several victorious battles which the Messenians and the 
Naupacti went through during the Archidamian war. The 
erection of the towering statue directly in front of the temple 
of Zeus was at the same time a strong demonstration against 
the domination of Sparta in Olympia, which is only explicable 
at a time when Sparta had fallen out with Elis, as in 420, 
when Elis was in league with Argos and Athens ; even at that 
time attempts were made to induce the Messenian emigrants 
of Naupactus to return to their homeland. 

Only with this date is the style of the statue to be recon- 
ciled. It points, indeed, almost with certainty to that period. 
The nearest analogies in style are certain acroterial groups 




Fioni the rcstoratioii bv RichanI Gni/luer. Berlin 





on a temple at Delus erected at this time, and the sculptures 
of the Nereids monument at Xanthus. About or before the 
middle of the fifth century, as our knowledge of the history 
of art enables us to say with certainty, such characteristic 
treatment of the drapery, which clings to the body and reveals 
the form clearly through it as it flutters freely in the wind, 
was quite impossible. For this a longer development was 
necessary, which we can trace in the datable monuments 

The acroteros on the temple of Zeus, with which Paionios 
boasts in the inscription that he triumphed — clearly in a 
competition — ^were not, as has been assumed, the statues of 
the eastern pediment wrongly attributed by Pausanias to 
Paionios, but the gilt Nikes on the coping of the temple, that 
resembled in motive the marble statue dedicated by the 
Messenians. These Nikes (Pausanias mentions, v. 10, 4, only 
one over the east side, but we may presume a similar one in 
the west) seem to have been erected at the same time as that 
of the Messenians. 

Paionios came from the town of Mende on the Thracian 
coast. But in the manner of his art he also belongs to the 
Ionic group. He has extraordinary facility in the technique 
of marble sculpture. It enables him to give full expression 
to the boldness of his fancy. 

Coming down from heaven, hovering in the air — so he has 
conceived the Nike, and he has actually succeeded in render- 
ing this. Indeed it might almost be said that in the plastic 
art of all times and all peoples there is no human figure that 
gives such an illusion of floating and flying, that seems as if 
it had been done from nature. Leaning lightly forward, 
the left leg slightly advanced, the arms outspread, the wings 
raised, she floats down. Her head is bent and, like the whole 
body, turned a little to her right, so that the left wing is 
raised a little. She comes through the air, and under her 


feet flies the eagle with outspread pinions, like her, the goddess 
of Victory, also a messenger of Olympian Zeus. 

The marble mass under her feet and drapery, out of which 
the eagle appears, is intended for sky and would be appro- 
priately painted. The heavy mantle and the wings give the 
necessarv balance to the forward-leaning attitude of the 
figure. The sculptor has with great dexterity avoided 
almost any supports and made use of the fluttering drapery. 
The goddess is dressed in the Doric peplum, bound with a 
girdle ; it is in an unusual manner open on both sides and 
consists of two separate halves. The left leg, owing to the 
disarrangement of the drapery, is quite bare. The modelling 
is effectively relieved by the fluttering and distended gar- 
ments. The hair is done up and for the most part hidden 
in broad bands. Under the breast a bronze girdle is to be 
understood. In the view from below for which the statue 
was designed it appears much more slender and more natural 
in action than in the view from the same level here reproduced. 

This wonderful creation was reproduced in antique times 
in numerous free copies, but we know none among them that 
equals the beauty of this work. 







While the most important masterpieces of ancient plastic art, 
the principal temple and votive statues, are if not altogether 
at any rate for the most part only preserved in copies, we 
possess many and valuable originals of sculpture that served 
decorative ends, particularly reliefs from graves and shrines. 

The finest of all the dedicatory reliefs from shrines pre- 
served is that shown on Plate XIIL, a relief that, although 
flat in treatment, can in its size and the care shown in its 
execution almost replace lost statues. The style belongs to 
the circle of Phidias. In the older manner of these reliefs, 
only the gods to whom it is dedicated are represented. 
Later it was the custom to introduce the donor and sometimes 
his whole family in small figures at the side. 

Also of the school of Phidias, though rather later than the 
above, is the Orpheus relief (Plate XIV.), which was perhaps 
originally also in a shrine, although it represents not gods 
but an incident from epic poetry. 

These two reliefs, which are limited to three figures, give 
an excellent idea of the quiet lofty style that distinguished 
the religious compositions of Phidian art. 

Though not a relief, something similar is the mask of Medusa 
(Plate XV.) of which the original was dedicated in a temple 
and hung up on the wall. 

Among decorative sculptures the remains of the marble 
decorations of the Parthenon take the first place. A large 


number of metopes have been preserved which present in 
high relief principally combats with centaurs. The rhythmic 
action and varied motives of these manifold scenes are power- 
fully arresting, notable too is the passionate expression of 
the faces. Quieter in effect and of higher artistic import- 
ance are the reliefs of the frieze representing the procession 
of the Panathenaea, of which Plates XVI. and XVII. 
and figs. 16-18 are examples. But the finest of all were 
the statues of the two pediments, of which only a few have 
come down to us and these in a mutilated condition. Plates 
XVIII. and XIX. give four of the best of these statues. 
The eastern pediment to which they belonged represented 
the birth or the first appearance of Athena among the 
Olympian gods; the western pediment showed the strife of 
Athena and Poseidon over the Attic country. These figures 
were executed immediately before the Peloponnesian war 
and exhibit in comparison with the copies of the Athena 
Parthenos and Lemnia an already marked development of 
the Phidian style. A comparison of the older Athena figures 
with the statue of a maiden from the Erectheum (Plate XX.) 
shows how the drapery became thinner and lighter in treat- 
ment, till it clings, as if damp, to the figure. This statue also 
belongs to the domain of decorative sculpture, as it was used 
as a support. 


The Eleusinian Deities 

Relief of Pentelican marble^ National Museum, Athens 

Of all the monuments of the strictly religious art of the 
Greeks the greatest, finest, and the best preserved is that 
discovered in 1859 ^^ ^^^ building of a school in the old shrine 






of the great goddesses at Eleusis. It is now at Athens 
and has become famous as the " Eleusinian relief." 

Three slightly over life-size figures are modelled in some- 
what low relief on one massive block. The panel is complete; 
it has above and below a projecting rim; the lower serves as a 
ledge for the figures to stand on, the upper as a decorative 
finish. There is no frame to the sides. This simplicity is 
peculiar to the older period. The form of the panel is pre- 
cisely similar to that which was the rule in the fifth century 
for the customary small dedicatory reliefs. Only in later 
times was it the custom to add column-like frames at the 

The panel must have been put up in a shrine like other 
votive tablets. The small light dedicatory tablets of the 
ancient simple cult were usually hung up. The heavier 
marble panels were either affixed to a detached pillar, or 
simply leant against the wall, more frequently that of a niche. 
The Eleusinian relief, which is only an enlarged votive tablet, 
must be thought of as displayed in the latter manner. 

According to the most probable interpretation we have 
here the boy Triptolemus as he is sent out by the two great 
goddesses of Eleusis, Demeter and Core, with the harvest of 
the earth, the ear of corn, and the task of spreading the 
knowledge of agriculture in the world. But it differs 
essentially from the traditional representations of this sub- 
ject. This is to be explained on purely artistic grounds, as 
the chariot in which Triptolemus usually drives would have 
disturbed the severely simple composition, which is limited 
to three quietly standing figures. 

The boy is in the act of receiving something from the 
goddess on the left, who supports herself on a sceptre. 
Probably it was a sheaf of corn, emphasised in the original 
by means of painting. The other goddess, against whose 
left shoulder leans a long torch, lays her right hand on the 


boy's head. There is a hole in the boy's forehead for fasten- 
ing some metallic object, perhaps a wreath which the goddess 
is placing on his head. 

There is no doubt that the two women are Demeter and 
Core; but which is the mother and which the daughter is not 
certain. It is probable that in ancient times, according to 
the then prevailing custom, a painted inscription over the 
figures definitely indicated their significance. As there is no 
fixed type to refer to among the monuments of the fifth 
century to mark the difference between Demeter and Core 
we cannot name them with any certainty. The fact that one 
bears a sceptre, the other a torch, that one is giving him corn, 
the other apparently a wreath, is not sufficient to distinguish 
them. These attributes are common to both goddesses, as 
they are also equally concerned in the sending forth of 
Triptolemus. It would seem from the sceptre and the 
attitude of Triptolemus towards her that the figure on the 
left is of higher rank, and has therefore been thought to be 
Demeter. But these features also fit Persephone, the holy 
one, the queen (ayi'*/, dyavrj, Seo-woiva, avaa-a-a). On the Other 
hand, the artist has made obvious differences in the arrange- 
ment of the draperies and of the hair of the two figures, 
as also in their carriage though not in the treatment 
of the form. The goddess on the right wears the soft thin 
Ionic linen chiton with sleeves and a cloak. This was, at 
the time of the execution of the relief, an older fashion in 
Athens, which at that very time began to be supplanted by 
the sleeveless woollen Doric peplum. This latter is worn by 
the other goddess, girt at the waist and with a long overlap 
whose ends are brought over the shoulder from the back. 
This fashion was at that time particularly favoured by the 
young girls of Athens. Among the goddesses it is the 
Parthenos, Athena the Maiden, who is the first to Avear it. 
The young maidens who support the hall of the Erectheum, 



the Kopat, are represented in the same costume. This seems 
to point to the figure on the left of our Eleusinian relief as 
that of Core. It is true that Demeter was also represented in 
this attire in the second half of the fifth century; but here, 
where a difference is obviously intended, the costume will 
be used to indicate Core. 

The hair of this goddess on the left falls loosely and without 
ornament on her neck; the hair of the other is gathered up. 
If a difference between mother and daughter is to be indi- 
cated, there can scarcely be any doubt that the loosely hang- 
ing hair belongs to the daughter, and that done up on the 
head to the mother. For it is explicitly recorded, at any 
rate in later times, that unmarried maidens wore their hair 
loose, while wives wore it done up.^ Monuments show us 
that this was not always the case; but where as here a 
difference of age is to be indicated by the manner of wearing 
the hair it can only be interpreted in this sense. 

The difference in the bearing of the two goddesses accords 
well with the assumption that it is Core on the left and 
Demeter on the right. The stern austere bearing is appro- 
priate to the august maiden, the ruler of the Underworld, as 
the milder, gentler nature to the motherly Demeter.^ 

The boy Triptolemus stands between the two, quite 
resigned to what the goddesses propose to do with him. 
He is wearing a long cloak which lies on his right shoulder, 
of which he holds one end in his left hand. His hair is 
combed forward and knotted over his forehead. This fashion 
for boys' hair was very popular in the first half of the fifth 
century B.C. 

The relief is in the Attic style of the Phidian period. By 

* Callimachus, hymn in Cer. v. 5. 

* Recently it has been generally assumed that the goddess on the left is the 
mother, she on the right the sister of Triptolemus. The circumstance that the 
former holds the corn is most appropriate for Demeter Carpophorus, and the 
type of figure and drapery is also used for her. 


means of a careful comparison with datable sculpture it is 
possible to fix the date between 450 and 440; it is probably 
a little older than the frieze of the Parthenon. Spirit and 
execution correspond entirely with what we know of Phidian 
art, to which we may unhesitatingly attribute this admirable 

The religious art of Phidias showed all this concentra- 
tion on a big effect, which was attained by avoiding any 
unessential disturbing details and by the quiet peace, the 
solemn pious earnestness of the figures and their restrained 


Orpheus and Eurydiqe 
Marble relief in the Museo Nazionale, Naples 

This relief of unknown origin in the National Museum at 
Naples is executed in Pentelican marble and is a good copy 
in the Augustan period of a lost Attic relief, which was the 
work of a master of the Phidian school in the last decades of 
the fifth century. There are other copies of this relief extant, 
but the example from Naples here reproduced is the best. It 
has the advantage of antique name inscriptions, which 
stand in intentionally old-fashioned style above the heads 
of the figures. In the case of Orpheus, the letters are to be 
read from right to left, as this figure faces in the reverse 
direction to the other two. But without the inscriptions 
there would be no doubt as to the identity of the figures. 

Orpheus has succeeded by the power of his singing and 
playing in touching the hearts of the usually inexorable gods 
of the underworld ; his beloved bride Eurydice has been 
given back to him. But he forgets the commandment that he 






shall not look at her on the way. Thus the relief shows 
them to us; Orpheus has turned towards his beloved; he 
sees her and they gaze in one another's eyes: they have met 
again. She lays her hand on her husband's shoulder to make 
sure that she has him again. But at the same time Hermes, 
the Death-bringer, seizes the right hand of Eurydice, to lead 
her again into the shades: those who one moment are united 
in love, the next are parted by a quiet but inexorable force. 

Orpheus is characterised as singer by the lyre which he 
holds in his left hand, as Thracian by the high boots that 
reach to the knee and by the fox-skin cap, aAtoTreK-v), on his 
head. He wears besides a chiton of Greek fashion and a 
chlamys which is knotted on the right shoulder and enwraps 
the left arm and hand. The face of Orpheus is a modern 
restoration, also his right hand. The latter, as other replicas 
show, was in a similar position; the gesture accompanies the 
words he is about to speak. According to another theory 
he is about to clasp the hand of his wife, or has removed her 
veil in order to gaze on the face of his long-sought love. 
This psychologically and artistically appropriate action is 
shown in the replica in the Louvre, where his left hand has 
hold of her scarf. 

y Eurydice wears the Doric peplum in the manner that was 
customary in Athens at the time of Phidias. This garment' 
is girt and forms a fullness below the waist; the overlap of 
the dress reaches to this same fullness. She has thrown a 
veil over her head, which falls on her shoulders. The com- 
plete profile view of the left foot indicates that she was in 
the act of walking towards the right and now pauses; the 
different position of the feet in Orpheus shows that he has 
turned round. 

Hermes as a god is distinguished by a slightly taller figure. 
He also pauses in his stride towards the right. He wears, as 
is usual in older art, a chiton and over it a chlamys knotted 


on the right shoulder. The chiton is bound with a broad 
strap under which it forms a slight fullness. On the neck 
of Hermes hangs his broad-brimmed travelling hat, the 
Petasus, suspended on a band round his neck (which is not 
shown). The projecting rim of the Petasus is a modern 
restoration. His curly hair is cut short as was the case with 
all athletic youths. On his feet he wears sandals; another 
replica (in the Louvre) gives him boots. In an amiable, 
almost a bashful manner, his right hand clasps the chiton. 
The whole appearance of the god is quiet and modest. He 
is acting on a high command, and carries it out as gently as 

The still, large features of the heads, the fine folds of the 
drapery, and the convention of the whole are in the manner of 
the frieze of the Parthenon and related works of the period 
about 430 B.C. 

But the most admirable thing about this narrow panel is 
the expression of so much depth of emotion and such fullness 
of action with so little movement in the figures and total 
absence of detailed facial expression. Such a creation was 
only possible in the time of Phidias. The composition is 
perfect; the smallest detail could not be altered without 
destroying the effect of the whole. 

The destination of the original at Athens is not certain. 
But at least it was not a mere decoration as has been thought; 
for such were not in existence at that time. It is quite 
possible that the relief had a religious significance; it corre- 
sponds in form and size with the old votive reliefs; it was 
an independent panel finished off with a moulding at the 
top and hung on a pillar or set up in a niche. A recent 
conjecture is that it was dedicated by a victorious choregos 
as a thank-offering, and represents the subject of the 
tragedy with which the singer won the competition. There 
were once two similar panels, one of them perhaps the 





^ u 


I — ■ 



Peliades relief, which were united with this in a trilogy to 
celebrate some victory on the great Dionysus at Athens; the 
three were built into a temple-like building near the theatre 
in the street of the Tripod, where to-day, though robbed of 
its tripod, the graceful Lysicrates statue stands. At any 
rate, in the telling " ethos " that runs through the whole 
treatment is embodied the clear nobility of Attic tragedy, 
particularly that of Sophocles. 

The beauty of the composition tempted artistic Romans 
to have many copies of this relief made, and this of Naples 
is one of them. 



Marble mask in the Glyptothek, Munich 

This famous mask was at one time in the Rondanini 
Palace at Rome, where Goethe admired it. It is usually 
called the Medusa Rondanini. It is a faithful Roman copy 
of the Augustan period of a lost Greek original, most probably 
of bronze. There are many replicas, that is other copies 
of the same original, preserved, which are of importance in 
fixing the style of the prototype. These replicas were 
perhaps hung up as tlTrorpoTrcua (images to ward off evil) 
at the entrances of Roman buildings. In the well executed 
example from Munich here reproduced only unimportant 
parts of the snakes and the hair and the extreme tip of the 
nose are restored. The mask is executed by itself; it was 
doubtless intended to be hung up on a wall. But it never stood, 
as has been falsely conjectured, in a definite connection with 
an architectural scheme; it was not an architectural feature, 
but an individual work, a votive gift in a shrine. 


Medusa appears in beautiful human form, not in the antique 
manner grotesquely distorted. Nevertheless the artist has 
used the characteristic wings and the two snakes that twist 
round the head and form a knot under the chin. He has also 
given her wide open eyes and ruffled hair. But most of the 
expression is in the mouth, which is unusually large and 
slightly open, the upper teeth being visible. 

It was formerly believed that the Medusa was here dying; 
Goethe thought he saw in this mask " the agonised stare of 
Death." It was a mistake. It was foreign to the whole 
range of works to which the Medusa Rondanini historically 
belongs to attempt or wish to represent Death or dying. 
They only aimed at expressing in fine human form, as the 
older types expressed by crude distortion, the force and 
power of the demonic creature, at whose aspect the blood of 
mortals congealed in their veins, who turned them to stone. 
This the artist has admirably succeeded in conveying by the 
appearance of shuddering coldness which he has given the 
face, by the large, open mouth, the heavy chin, and the eyes 
set wide apart and staring fixedly. 

The strictly symmetrical design also increases the 
demoniacal effect. The evenly balanced outspread wings 
form a horizontal mass which has a gloomy oppressive effect 
on the whole. The lines converge in the manner of an 
isosceles triangle and meet where the terrible expression of 
the whole is concentrated in the half-opened mouth. 

The mask was formerly placed in the late Greek period, 
but wrongly; for the style points with certainty to an 
original towards the end of the fifth century. He must have 
been a great artist who made it. Certain features in the 
treatment of the forms suggest that the mask is the work of 
Cresilas, to whom we owe the Pericles (Plate L.) and probably 
also the Athena Velletri (Plate VII.). 








Fig. i6. Head of "Apollo." 


Reliefs from the frieze of the Parthenon 

Pentelican Marble 

Group of Gods from the eastern frieze from the Acropolis 
Museum at Athens. Horseman with prancing horse 
from the western frieze, still on the Temple. Group of 
horsemen from the northern frieze in the British Museum, 

Around the outer wall of the cella of the Parthenon there 
ran a frieze nearly i6o metres long and one metre high, of 
which the greater part has been preserved since 1816 in the 
British Museum. It represents the solemn presentation in 
the great Panathenaea of the festival garment, the so-called 
peplum, to Athena — which according to the artist's conception 
took place in the presence of the Olympian gods — and the 


procession of the inhabitants of the town on this occasion. 
The examples here given of the group of gods and the pro- 
cession, together with the figures on Plates XVIII. and XIX. 
from the eastern pediment of the Parthenon, are clear 
evidence of the perfection to which Attic art attained in the 
time of Phidias. Ever since they have become known the 
Parthenon sculptures have been extolled by the greatest 
artists as a revelation of the highest point reached by Greek 
art, or indeed human art at any time. In their artistic con- 
ception, their technical perfection and triumphal union of 
realism and idealism they will rank as a standard for all times 
of the aims and limitations of plastic art. And they will 
contribute to the refinement of artistic taste and thereby 
exercise a beneficent influence on our modern art movements. 
Of the gods here reproduced Poseidon is certain. The 
central figure is probably Apollo and the female figure is 
supposed to be either Artemis or, on account of her 
proximity to Aphrodite, Peitho; finally Dione, the mother 
of the Goddess of Love, has been suggested, as also in Plate 
XVIII. from the eastern pediment. Even separated from the 
rest of the assembly of the gods this group is in the highest 
degree artistically interesting. What is so attractive about 
these figures, though there is nothing above the human in 
their external forms, is a certain sublimity and celestial 
beauty, the embodiment of the unconstrained intercourse of 
the Homeric gods, the perfection of form, especially in the 
nude parts, and above all the wonderful variety and play of 
folds in the drapery that in its rhythmic and harmonious 
effect makes an impression of nature itself. In detail the 
eye is drawn to the beautiful figure of the youthful Apollo, 
who in graceful ease turns towards Poseidon: he is the 
picture of strong robust health, and in his noble and graceful 
pose and the voluptuous beauty of feature (fig. i6) and curly 
hair he is admired as the fairset ornament of this assembly 


Fig. 17. Head of a Youth. 
From the Western Frieze of the Parthenon. Marble. British Museum, London. 

of the gods.^ The bearded Poseidon ^ sits there stern and 
serious, almost a little stiff, turning, like Artemis, towards 
the approaching procession. The latter is a strong youthful 
figure, richly dressed : over the chiton she wears on the lower 
part of her figure a cloak and her hair is almost entirely 

^ The left hand probably held a sprig of laurel ; the hair, as is evident from the 
holes visible in fig. i6, was adorned with a metal wreath, 

^ His left hand held in all probability the trident and his hair was decorated 
with a band. 


hidden in a coif. The goddess probably held a flower in the 
daintily raih'ed right hand. By means of contrast in the 
pose and action of the three figures the artist has happily 
avoided any disturbing uniformity in the whole and lent a 
new charm to the harmony of the picture. 

The gods sit awaiting the procession of the Attic people, 
which in the variety and arrangement of its contents and its 
excellence in the smallest details is considered by all artists 
and connoisseurs a masterpiece of frieze decoration in relief. 
Above all, the inexhaustible abundance of motive and action 
in the troops of horsemen,^ which can be appreciated in the 
examples here given, has always excited admiration. They 
form a picture of Athenian ^ youth in all its pride and joy of 
horsemanship, and a tribute to the horse breeding of the 
cviTTTTos x^'P" (^^G land famous for the breed of its horses), 
as Attica was called by Sophocles,^ and to the skill of their 
masters. The slim active figures of these variously attired 
horsemen sit with a firm grip of the thigh and easy action of the 
body on fiery steeds which are only kept in check by the 
exercise of great skill. The horses are remarkably small 
with thick necks and short manes.^ Horse and rider even 
now awaken the interest and unlimited praise of the expert 
in matters equine. The pose and attitudes of the three in 
our Plate XVI., a fairly well preserved group, for the most 
part explain themselves; the youth on the left is busied with 
the reins, his head bent forward in a certain solemn earnest- 
ness as with both hands he puts matters straight. Both 
this and the middle figure have an air of modesty and good 
breeding. But the pearl of the group is the horseman who 
accompanies the capers of his unruly horse with a bold move- 

1 Xenophon's writings " On the art of riding " and on " The duties of a colonel 
of horse " are interesting in this connection. 

* Cf. Aristophanes, Clouds, 15; Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, 
vi. 12, 15, 16, etc. 

=> Oedipus on Colonos, 668. Cf. also 708. * See Plate XVII. 











I— ( 




I— * 












Fig. 18. Upper Part of Horseman with Prancing Horse. 
From a contemporary cast. 

ment of his right arm and at the same time checks him by 
tugging at the reins with his left. The successful treatment 
of the three-quarter back view of the body is a remarkable 
achievement of relief sculpture. This is surpassed, however, 
by the relief on Plate XVH. where a single horseman with his 
steed occupies the whole panel; this is one of the finest 
panels in the whole frieze and attracts immediate attention 
on account of its striking qualities, particularly as it enlarges 
and modifies the general conception of Phidian art. For in 
the place of noble idealism we have here vigorous realism and 
drama (cf. also fig. 17). Behind is the troop in readiness. 


though not yet drawn up in order. The man is in the act of 
mounting from the right, his left foot on a stone beside the 
road while his right hand holds the bridle fast; at this the 
thoroughbred plunges and springs high in the air, trying to 
avoid the unwelcome burden. Only one of the horse's hoofs 
touches the ground. At this moment the master draws back 
involuntarily and seizes the loosely hanging left rein and 
giving it a sharp upward pull ^ obtains for the moment the 
best possible control over his horse. The excellent artist must 
have observed this actual situation either on the racecourse 
or perhaps in his studio with the model and reproduced it 
here as a proof of his skill. In the horse, in which every 
crease and vein is expressed, it is the noble and life-like head 
that first seizes our attention; the body is, for artistic 
reasons, small in proportion to nature in order to bring the 
two figures into closer pictorial relationship. We can form 
an idea of the head of this bearded horseman, which is un- 
fortunately destroyed in the original, in a plaster cast pre- 
served from early times (fig. i8). He wears the Thracian 
fox-skin cap {see Plate XIV.) which became fashionable in 
Athens about this time. The chiton, fastened only on the 
left shoulder, has slipped down in the violence of the action, 
and the cloak with its pleated border is fluttering in the wind 
and increases the appearance of stress and struggle; together 
with the tail of the horse it happily fills the remaining space. 
The aspect of the angry excited face brings the scene vividly 
home to us; with a loud shout, the horseman strives to hold 
back this unruly animal. Excellent as is this part of the 
frieze the eye involuntarily turns to the contemplation of the 
whole, to appreciate the magnificent effect of the entire 
picture. The two plates, XVI. and XVII., in the contrast 
of their conception are well calculated to preserve the memory 
of this long and varied procession of horsemen. Of course 

* Left arm only faintly visible. 


the full effect could only be obtained with the gay colouring 
and all the metal accessories, of which we can only have a 
faint idea. But even without these things, the reliefs are a 
source of the highest artistic delight. One never tires of 
studying the changeful motives, the figures of the riders and 
their horses, the expression of the faces of the bright spirited 
Athenian youths, and the fiery animated heads of the animals 
and the spectacle of the whole. The freshness and natural- 
ness, the glamour of reality, transport the beholder into the 
midst of the Panathenaic festival, where the solemn proces- 
sion makes its pilgrimage to the Temple of Athena Parthenos. 


Group of Female Statues from the Eastern Pediment 

OF THE Parthenon 

British Museum^ London 

This group in Pentelican marble is from the right-hand 
corner of the eastern pediment of the Parthenon on the 
Acropolis at Athens. Since 1816 it has been in the possession 
of the British Museum in London. The figures have been 
called Hestia, Demeter, Persephone; Amphitrite, Thalassa 
Rhode, Perse, Circe; Clotho, Lachesis, Atropos; Aglauros, 
Herse, Pandrosos; Thallo, Carpo; the Graces; Peitho and 
Aphrodite, and finally personifications of clouds. They are 
generally known as the Three Fates. 

Their heads are missing and their arms are mutilated; yet 
of all the relics of the Parthenon these figures are the most 
admired on account of the masterly technique, the extreme 
beauty of the modelling, almost surpassing Nature herself, 
and the wonderful execution of the well preserved drapery. 


They form a compact group of three figures. The figure on 
the right is a particularly masterful presentation of ripe 
womanly beauty. The figure on the left was quite close to 
the two others with the body facing the spectator (thus 
turned a little more towards the right than in the illustration) ; 
the head on the other hand was turned towards the left, 
towards the centre of the pediment; it was still preserved in 
1674. -^^ ^ drawing of that date shows, the middle figure 
rested her elbow on the left knee of the left-hand figure. This 
middle figure drew her cloak over her back with her raised 
right hand; her left arm is round her companion who rests 
on her lap. Both looked in the direction of the corner of the 
pediment; the head of the reclining figure was in position in 
1674. '^^^ ^^^^ hand of this figure was raised and held 
loosely a bronze attribute in the form of a staff, as is shown 
by a hole in the drapery on the left hip. 

The three women recline on rocky ground; they all wear 
the thin Ionic linen chiton with wide knotted sleeves, falling 
in fine folds. Round the lower part of their bodies they 
have wound cloaks of heavy woollen material. Beneath the 
reclining figure and her companion a piece of rough cloth is 
spread over the rock. 

On their right in the pediment was Selene or Nyx, the 
goddess of Night, about to vanish with her team of four horses 
to Oceanus. 

This group undoubtedly presents a trinity of goddesses. 
The commonly accepted interpretation that they are the three 
daughters of Cecrops fulfills this condition; it is, however, 
untenable, because the scene of the eastern pediment, the 
birth of Athena, does not take place on the hill of Athena, 
the seat of these daughters of Cecrops, but on Olympus, 
encircled by the sun and moon and surrounded by Oceanus. 
They are the three Moirae, the daughters of the Night,^ and 

' Hesiod, Theogony, 217. 

























here in the pediment turned towards the descending goddess 
of Night. The Fates were always supposed to be present at 
a birth; ^ they decide the future of the new-born child and 
must not fail even at the birth of the heavenly Athena. 
Their cult was connected with the Athena Polias on the 
Acropolis. 2 

The Fates were always conceived as spinning; they were 
called K\w6es (spinsters) in the Homeric poems.^ The miss- 
ing bronze attribute of the reclining figure was without 
doubt the distaff, and her right hand, which one sees from the 
position of the arm was not idle, drew the thread. 

The Moirae were not conceived as old or ugly; indeed in 
Athens Aphrodite, goddess of 'Beauty, was accounted the 
eldest of the Moirae; in poetry they were called eroUevot 
Kovpai NuKTos ("the fair-armed daughters of Night").* The 
artist of the eastern pediment has made them winsomely 

These figures are the most perfect examples of draped 
statues that Phidian art has bequeathed to us. 

(The figure on the left has recently been separated from 
the others, and on the assumption that the Olympian gods 
must all be present at the birth of Athena, preference has 
been given to the interpretation of the other two figures as 
Aphrodite resting in the lap of Peitho or of her mother Dione; 
the constant and zealous helper of the goddess of Love, the 
goddess of Persuasion, was honoured with her in a common 
cult. The explanation of the third figure remains in this 
case as uncertain as ever; she has been called Hestia, the 
personification of the Hearth.) 

' Cf. for example, Pindar, Olymp. vi. 42; x. 52; Isthm. vi. 17. 

" Corpus inscriptionum Atticarum, i. 93. 

^ Odyssey, 197. 

* Bergk, poetae lyrici Graeci III., fragmenta adespota, 140. 



Reclining Male Figure from the Eastern Pediment 

OF THE Parthenon 

British Museum, London 

This statue of Pentelican marble was originally near the 
left-hand corner of the eastern pediment of the Parthenon. 
Since 1816 it has been in the British Museum in London. 
It has been called Heracles, Theseus, lacchus, Dionysos, Pan, 
Cephalus, Cecrops, and Olympus; but it is best known under 
the name of " Theseus." 

Although hands and feet are missing and the head badly 
damaged this figure is the best preserved of all the statues of 
the pediments. It represents a naked youth reclining on 
rocky ground, on which he has spread the skin of some 
wild animal and over this his own garment. A hole in the 
left ankle indicates that some sort of bronze footgear was 
there affixed. The left arm rests on the rock and supports the 
the upper part of the body. The left hand held a bronze 
attribute as is shown by the patina that washed by the rain 
has left its mark on the floor of the pediment. The head is 
covered with short smooth hair; on the right-hand side of 
the head (not visible in our illustration) the hair is still fairly 
well preserved. There is a deep hole in the crown and from 
there to the back of the head a roughly carved mark. This 
proceeds from the fastening and fixing of the statue in the 
frame. Those who think they see signs of plaits on the neck 
of the youth are mistaken ; the hair is short and smooth 
like that of the athletes; according to some the impress of 
the " taenia " (band) is visible. 

The fluent outlines of this statue in the round are admirable, 
the body is powerful, steeled in athletic exercise, and the 

t-u . 














I — . 



I— • 













head with its forehead projecting below is typical of the 
athletes and vigorous youthful heroes. Strength at rest is 
here represented; if the figure were upright we should have 
a perfect picture of manly strength and beauty. 

The position of the figure in the pediment was slightly 
more round than in our reproduction, so that the roughly 
faced surface of stone below the left arm was at right angles 
to the wall of the pediment. The waters of Oceanus reached 
right up to the feet of this figure; out of the marble waves, 
Helios the sun god and his four horses rose up. This group 
filled the left-hand corner of the pediment. The youth 
seems to greet the rising Helios with his raised right hand. 

The subject of the pediment was the birth of Athena, a 
subject particularly dear to the Athenians; the goddess 
stood fully grown opposite her father Zeus on his throne. 
The gods are gathered round in astonishment. On either side 
flow the quiet waters of Oceanus, which surround the world 
into which Athena is born; out of these waters rise and in 
them sink the heavenly bodies Helios and Selene at either 
end of the pediment. 

The interpretation of this figure that is most in accordance 
with the facts and the circumstances of his appearance is 
that he is Cephalus, the handsome hunter who was carried 
off by Eos to Oceanus. The lost attribute in^his left hand 
was a spear which leant against his shoulder. 

The pediments of the Parthenon were completed shortly 
before the Peloponnesian war. The youth in this illustra- 
tion is the best evidence we have of the mastery attained by 
Attic art under the influence of Phidias in the treatment of 
the undraped male figure. 

(As in the case of the so-called Fates (Plate XVHI.) the 
youth on the panther skin is also identified as an Olympian 
god, as Dionysos, for whom the graceful easy pose is most 



Statue of a Maiden from the Erectheum at Athens 
Pentelican marble. British Museum, London 

This rather badly damaged statue, about 2.30 metres high, 
has become famous under the false name of Caryatid,^ a name 
already in use in antique times for similar figures, although 
merely and indefinitely inscribed ^ as Kopi^ (" maiden "). 
It was brought to London by Lord Elgin at the beginning of 
the nineteenth century from the Acropolis at Athens, where 
with five others it stood on a high wall and supported the 
architrave of the south-west hall of the shrine of Athena 
Polias, usually called the Erectheum ^ after a room in the 
same; it was replaced by a terra-cotta copy. This part of 
the temple, generally known as the Portico of the Maidens, 
was, according to information relating to the date of the 
Erectheum itself, already for the most part complete in 
413 B.C. The architectural purpose of the figure is indicated 
by the round pad on the head, the simple capital with its 
decoration of tgg and dart and bead and reel, and finally by 
the abacus. The architrave with its triple moulding finishes 
without a frieze, the cornice with dentils. 

A beautiful and strongly built Attic maiden stands before 
us, employed in the service of her goddess, like the Attic 
maidens in the procession of the Panathenaea in the frieze of 
the Parthenon, who carry all kinds of vessels on their heads 
for the festival offerings. She appears clothed to the feet in 
the peplum, which, leaving the neck and arms bare, and 

> Cf. Vitruvius, de Architectura, I. i. 5; the explanation thei'e given has not an 
atom of probabiUty. 

* Corpus inscriptionum Atticarum, i. 3: 

* Pausanias' Itinerary of Greece, i. 26, 5. 



gathered at the girdle hangs down in a wide curve on either 
side. She is adorned with an abundance of close-curled hair. 
This is arranged in several only partly visible plaits, and 
comes forward over the shoulders in two long strands in 
front, while behind it ends in a long switch that hangs free 
down the back. The figure is straight and upright in 
harmony with its architectural purpose, though the advance 
of the left leg gives a slight action without disturbing the 
feeling of rest and the regularity of the whole. The arms 
were pressed close against the body, the left hand lightly 
held the overlap of the peplum. The drapery, which is 
arranged in long straight folds and in the part drawn 
over the girdle in rich variety, though it almost completely 
shrouds the figure, yet permits the form to show clearly 
through it. The full broad face shows the true Attic features, 
bright and vivacious, though sternly serious in expression 
as befits its relation to the architecture. The figure has been 
taken from the building for which it was intended as an 
excellent example of Attic art of the fifth century, an invalu- 
able work from the hand of an unknown artist not greatly 
removed from the style and time of Phidias. But the figure 
could only be properly appreciated in its place under the 
bright sky of Athens, where the nobility and simplicity of the 
Erectheum was admired even beside the magnificent Par- 
thenon itself. For we have here the combination of sculpture 
and architecture, the pillar represented by a human figure ^ 
without contravening the laws of architecture and without 
interfering with the representation of a human being. The 
maidens fulfill their appointed task without losing their 
personality; they bear the weight lightly and yet firmly, 
they stand in their decided outlines and full forms as quiet 

' A similar form has been traced in archaic art; for in the successful French 
excavations at Delhi female figures in this form have come to light that are 
thought to be supports from the Treasury of the Cnidians, and thus belong to 
the sixth century B.C. 


and steady as if they were pillars, but breathe with youthful 
life, and this is carried on in the vivacious decorations of the 
Ionic capital and is not in any degree disturbed by the lightly 
resting abacus. On this account they have been admired and 
praised, ever since they became widely known, as repre- 
sentative of the pure Greek antique; and from antique times 
till now have been introduced in buildings, have been copied 
and imitated, but never approached. A comparison with 
these examples of later art and craft only serves to set the 
originals in a better light. 







^ ^„,,_;^AL ARTS 


In the fourth century it, is again the Attic artists to whom 
we owe the further development of the types of the gods. 
In this period they lose in unapproachable majesty but gain 
in human and intimate qualities. The artists no longer seek 
to represent divine and sublime qualities from the point of 
view of the pious worshipper, but rather by entering into 
the spirit of the deity to bring out the human side. The gods 
are'how occupied with themselves and have their own 
emotions, whereas formerly they merely showed themselves 
gravely to the worshippers. 

An admirable example is the Ares (Plate XXIIL), 
attributed by many to Scopas, the great contemporary of 
Praxiteles, but without any certain foundation. It is with 
more justification regarded as a work containing charac- 
teristics of Scopas and Lysippus. The god is conceived as 
sunk in himself, oblivious of his pious worshippers; passion 
and unrest stir within him and are expressed in his agitated 
far-away look and in the restless clasping of his knee. 
Similarly Demeter (Plate XXII.), who is so unlike the older 
representations of the enthroned and dignified goddess. She, 
too, is not concerned with the world outside, but is entirely 
given up to her own thoughts and feelings. There is ground 
for considering this statue to have been executed in direct 
relation to the school of Scopas. 

Less depth of emotion, little spiritual animation, but a 
bright fresh grace is the feature of the work of Praxiteles, 



the second great master of this period. His Hermes 
(Plate XXIV.), of which we are so fortunate as to possess the 
original, is an excellent example of this; the whole group and 
particularly the head of Hermes is full of delightful grace. 
This work is at the same time technically very characteristic; 
I it gives extraordinary effects of the marble which were quite 
unknown to an earlier time. The wonderful delicacy of the 
chiselling in the face, particularly round the eye, the repro- 
duction of the texture of the skin, and then the bold execution 
of the curly hair in sharp contrast to the smooth skin — these 
are effects that Praxiteles could wrest from the marble. Of 
his Cnidian Aphrodite unfortunately we have only copies 
(Plate XXV.) that at the most give only an approximate 
idea of the charm of the original. Here is a triumph in the 
human treatment of the deity. The idea of the goddess 
preparing for the bath — so opposed to the conceptions of the 
gods of the former period — became very popular in the period 
following that of Praxiteles and constantly varied. A precious 
original that for a long time was almost generally considered 
the work of Praxiteles is the so-called Eubuleus from 
Eleusis (Plate XXVL), that unites the gentle grace with 
the melancholy gravity of the god of the Underworld; 
certainly the interpretation as Triptolemus is open to ques- 
tion. In this also we can admire ancient marble technique 
at its best. 

The Irene of Cephisodotus (Plate XXL), an elder rela- 
tive of Praxiteles, is characteristic of the beginning of the 
fourth century; it shows in pose and drapery a strong 
tendency to revert to the Phidian manner, and yet is quite 
different from the older works. After the collapse of the 
brilliant Attic kingdom at the end of the Peloponnesian war 
the new movement in art began somewhat modestly, turn- 
ing from the extravagances of the preceding epoch to older, 
simpler, and more truthful forms on which to ground a new 






style. The perfection of the new style of drapery is shown 
in the Demeter (Plate XXII.). 

Beside Praxiteles and Scopas worked many another artist 
of distinction. The type of the Zeus shown in the head 
from Otricoli (Plate XXVII.) originated probably in the 
school of Lysippus and Attic masters. It is possible that 
the sublime Apollo (Plate XXVIII.) is the work of Leochares. 
It is, in contrast to the long-robed Citharodes (Plate VIII.), a 
fine example of the other conception of the god, the un- 
clothed youth with bow and arrow. The hastening 
Artemis (Plate XXIX.) might be of the school of Praxiteles 
or his successor or some other Attic school. The muse 
Melpomene (Plate XXX.) also shows evidences of a Praxi- 
telean origin. The far-reaching tradition shows itself in the 
Hellenistic period, where the treatment of the body is softer, 
the features of the face delicately blended, but the action 
often bolder. A product of this tendency and development 
of the Praxitelean spirit is the Hypnos (Plate XXXI.) 
which is not uninfluenced by other congenial masters in the 
style of Scopas. The hunter and dog (Plate XXXII.) is a 
brilliant example of the ideal of manly beauty of the latter. 


Irene with the Infant Plutus 
Glyptothek, Munich 

This statue of Pentelican marble was formerly in the 
Villa Albani at Rome, and was probably discovered in the 
neighbourhood of Rome. Carried off by Napoleon, after a 
short stay in Paris, it arrived in the Glyptothek at Munich. 
It was formerly interpreted as Ino Leucothea with the infant 


Dionysos. Later on it was recognised as the copy of a 
statue at Athens by the artist Cephisodotus, which repre- 
sented the goddess of Peace, Irene, with the infant Plutus, 
the demon of the kingdom, on her arm.^ This group was 
probably dedicated in . Athens in 374 after the brilliant 
victories over the Peloponnesians and the strengthening of 
the hegemony over the sea states, and erected about 371 or 
370 on the occasion of a peace congress; the important 
offerings to the goddess of Peace on behalf of the state were 
annually laid before this statue.^ 

The goddess stands majestically on the left leg, the right 
set a little to one side. Her raised right hand rested on a 
long sceptre (the right arm of the statue is a modern restora- 
tion). On her left arm she carries the little boy who stretches 
his right hand towards her (restored, but correctly), holding 
in his left hand a cornucopia, a symbol of the prosperity of 
the kingdom. The restorer has wrongly put a vase in his 
left hand. The introduction of the cornucopia is supported 
by copies of the group preserved on Athenian coins and also 
by a better preserved reproduction of the boy in Athens. 
Nor is the head of the boy correct; it is antique, but belongs 
to another figure, probably an Eros. In the above-men- 
tioned copy in Athens and one in Dresden the original head 
is preserved. 

The goddess of Peace is thoughtfully represented as the 
nurse of Riches. Like a mother she bends over the boy on 
her arm, and he turns tenderly to her. The soft full hair of 
the goddess is brushed away from the forehead over a 
diadem. This is only visible in front in the middle. At the 
back the hair falls in rich curls. She is dressed in the Doric 
peplum of woollen material arranged as it was worn in 
Athens in the fifth century. She wears a girdle, but the 

* Pausanias' Itinerary of Greece, ix. i6, 2. 

^ Isocrates, xv. 109. Cornelius Nepos, Timotheits, ii. 



'■•-'tRAL ARTS 





drapery falls over it, so that a fullness runs across the lower 
part of the body. The ends of the robe are fastened on the 
shoulder and the material overlaps both before and behind. 
The style of the treatment of the drapery follows in its prin- 
cipal features the models of Phidias, but differs in one or two 
small features which indicate renewed study of nature. 
This style of drapery is characteristic of the beginning of the 
fourth century, in which the style of the time of the Pelopon- 
nesian war was deserted for an older, less mannered style, for 
models that were nearer nature. The treatment of the head 
of Irene with its mild, gentle, almost dreamy air, distinctly 
indicates the period to which the original statue belonged, 
the period in which Praxiteles began his activity. 

For it appears that Cephisodotus was an older contem- 
porary of the famous Praxiteles, to whom he was probably 
nearly related. That he was the latter's father, as is nowa- 
days generally accepted, is possible, but not at all certain. 

The original of the group was probably in bronze. The 
copy preserved to us (in marble) was executed approximately 
in the Augustan period. 


Demeter of Cnidus 

British Museum, London 

One of the most beautiful statues that have been pre- 
served, a Greek original not only of the time but actually of 
the artistic circle of the great masters of the fourth century, 
Scopas and Praxiteles, is the seated Demeter of Cnidus, that 
was discovered in 1858 and brought to the British Museum. 

The statue was not in a temple, but in an open " Temenos," 
that is a consecrated enclosed space, at Cnidus. This temenos 


was a platform before a precipitous wall of rock. On the 
three remaining sides it was surrounded by a wall. A niche 
in the rocky wall at the back seems to have been the place 
in which the statue was originally placed. Inscriptions that 
have been found show that the temenos was dedicated to 
the gods of the lower world and to Demeter and Persephone 
in particular. Unfortunately no inscription belonging to 
the statue itself has been found. 

But there can be no doubt that this goddess of gentle, 
motherly mien represents, not Persephone, but the mother 
Demeter herself. 

In Greek art maternal deities were generally represented 
seated, suggesting their quiet nature. The full drapery and 
the veil at the back of the head that we observe in this statue 
are features that characterise the mother-goddess from 
ancient times. Demeter wears a fine Ionic linen chiton, 
that is only visible below over the feet and on the upper part 
of the right arm; over this a cloak of fine woollen material is 
wrapped. The cloak covers the back of the head and 
enwraps the entire body in close folds. According to custom 
it is drawn through under the right arm so that this has free 
play of movement. The end of the cloak is thrown over the 
left shoulder. 

Unfortunately both fore-arms are missing. Without 
doubt the hands held something, but there is no trace or clue 
as to what it was. The knee and the whole of the right leg 
are also badly damaged. On the other hand the head (fig. 19) 
is, except for the nose, admirably preserved. As can be dis- 
tinctly seen in the illustration, it is together with the neck 
inserted in the torso. It is made of fine white Parian marble, 
the grain of which is visible even in the photograph. The 
body is executed in a coarser blue-greyish marble. This 
practice was often employed in the best time of Greek 
sculpture. If it was not possible to make the entire statue 



Fig. 19. Head of Demeter of Cnidus, restored. 

of fine expensive marble, they used it for the head and 
executed the rest in inferior material. This was of course 
only successful in the case of draped figures, where the 
drapery helped to hide the join. 

The drapery is broken up into innumerable small folds, 
which cross each other in all directions. This style of 
drapery is quite characteristic of the fourth century B.C. 
The artist does not aim at a big simple effect, but tries to 
emulate the rich wealth of nature by the observation of small 
accidental details of form. 


The hair of the goddess is, as beseems a mother, plainly 
and simply arranged. It is parted in the middle and combed 
towards either side. Natural curls fall down the neck on 
to the breast. 

The sculptor has — and this is the important feature of the 
statue — identified himself with the goddess, has entered into 
her inmost self. He has not pictured a distant, unapproach- 
able being, removed from human passions. He has given 
her a soul. And this again is characteristic of the statues 
of gods of the fourth century. Although enthroned, the 
attitude of the goddess is no longer solemn and unmoved. 
The left foot is drawn sharply back and the eyes look upward 
and a Httle to one side; this goddess does not look down in 
majesty on the approaching worshippers, she is occupied 
with her own thoughts. In the treatment of the eyes and 
the mouth the sculptor has been able to give to the face an 
expression of a certain yearning melancholy. It is Demeter 
the mother, whose daughter Persephone was stolen away. 

About the middle of the fourth century several of the 
first artists in Athens were fetched to the coast of Asia 
Minor, particularly for the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and 
the new Temple at Ephesus. These also worked at that time 
in Cnidus. The artistic character of the Demeter corre- 
sponds very closely to the movement that, as far as we know, 
was introduced by Scopas; the statue is probably the work 
of an artist very near to Scopas, who at the same time shows 
the influence of Praxiteles. 









The Ares Ludovisi 
Marble. Museo Nazionale^ Rome 

This well-preserved and correctly restored ^ statue was 
discovered on the site of the ancient Campus Martius between 
the present palazzi of Santa Croce and Campitelli, where the 
Theatre dedicated in 13 B.C. and the contemporary Crypt 
of Balbus were situated. It was in the possession of the 
Ludovisi family as far back as the seventeenth century, and 
it is from the Villa Ludovisi that it takes its name. Next 
to the so-called Ares Borghese in the Louvre it is the most 
famous representation of the war god; it is a good Roman 
copy of a Greek original of which the fragments of several 
copies are preserved. Its relation to the seated Ares of 
Scopas,^ whose art is recalled to many by the pathos of the 
head, is in the absence of definite information about this 
work not demonstrable. It is probably the work of some 
sculptor still under the influence of Scopas, but with a leaning 
towards Lysippus. Nor can it be decided with certainty 
whether the attributes, sometimes not quite happily intro- 
duced, shield, helmet, and greaves, and also the Eros, 
which indicates the relation, emphasised in Hellenistic and 
Augustan times, of Ares to Aphrodite, were additions of the 

* Apart from smaller restorations almost entirely new are, in the Ares — the 
right hand, the sword hilt, and the right foot; in the Eros — the head, the left arm 
with the quiver, the right fore-arm and the bow, and the right foot. The marks 
of some attachment on and below the left shoulder of Ares have not been 
satisfactorily explained; a second Eros has been suggested and a group with 
Aphrodite standing beside the god. The height of the sitting figure is i . 56 metres. 

^ This colossal marble statue was in the temple of Mars at Rome buUt 
by Brutus Callaecus, the conqueror of the Lusitanians and the Gallaeci (Consul 
138 B.C.), near the Circus Flaminius (Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 36, 26). 



Fig. 20. Head ui-' ihe Ake;5 Luuuvisi. 

Roman copyist. At any rate the effect of the figure with its 
flow of line and rhythmic action of the limbs is better and 
more uniform without these accessories. The physical and 
spiritual character of the god of War is quite clearly expressed 
without the sword that was presumably held in the left 
hand of the original, and the rest of the warlike attributes. 
With his body leaning forward in an easy attitude, Ares 
sits on a rock, his hands clasped round his raised left leg. 
The chlamys has fallen away and shows a well-covered but 
nevertheless active body trained in athletic exercise, the 
broad chest and massive arms ^ show the mighty strength 
of the god, the long and slender limbs tell of his unequalled 

- " . . . vtt' " Xp-qos ira\a/j,di))v " (" the arms of Ares"), Homer, Iliad, iii. 128. 


speed of foot.^ So that in spite of its quiet pose the statue 
gives the impression of restless activity, and you feel that the 
war god may spring up at any moment to join in the turmoil 
of battle as " (3poTo\oiyos, Bovpo<; "Ap)/9 " (" man destroying, 
impetuous Ares "). 

This impression of the whole figure is strengthened and 
supported by the expression of the lowered head, that looked 
at apart from the statue (fig. 20) still stirs the imagination of 
the beholder. Whereas the aspect of many of the seated or 
enthroned gods fills us with a sort of pious awe, here, if 
we study the psychology of this youthful head with its 
luxuriously curling hair, our eyes and thoughts are seized with 
a personal interest in the war god. Parted from the joyous 
circle of the Olympian gods, Ares gazes dreamily into space, 
not without a touch of melancholy and discontent, stirred 
with passion and tormented with unrest, a stormy, unruly, 
warlike character: 

" Ai€i yap Tot e/)ts re (ftikij 7r6Ae/xot re fjux.'^at re 
pLyjTpos roL [x^i'o^ icrTU' (iao-^^erov, ovk kiruiKTov 
"Hpr;9." 2 

The figure of Ares as he is clearly pictured in the Homeric 
poetry is embodied in this glorious statue. 

* " . . . "ApTja 
UKVTaT6v irep e6vTa Oeuv, ofOXv/J-irov ^x'"'*''"'-" 

(" . . . Ares, 
Who in speed outvies the immortals on Olympus.") 

Homer, Odyssey, viii. 330. 

* Homer, Iliad, v. 891. 

(" Always hast thou loved only brawls and battles and making of wax! 
Like thy mother in insolence and unbearable stiibbornness, 




Head of Hermes from the group of Hermes and the 

Infant Dionysos 

By Praxiteles. Over life-size. Parian marble. Olympia 

The knowledge of the existence of many works of Praxi- 
teles in Roman copies has made us aware of the importance 
of this Attic sculptor in marble so highly praised by early 
writers, and of our great loss in the originals. So that it 
Is easy to understand the loud-voiced joy of connoisseurs, 
which was soon shared by the whole of the civilised world, 
in the discovery of the group here reproduced (fig. 21). It 
came to light on the 8th of May 1877 during the excavations 
undertaken at the expense of the German government at 
Olympia, and is on the whole well preserved.^ It was dis- 
covered in the cella of the Temple of Hera on Olympia with- 
out any inscription either of the artist or in dedication, but 
it can be identified on account of peculiarities of style and of 
the description of Pausanias ^ as the group by Praxiteles 
there situated. It was probably removed from another part 
of Olympia or some other spot at some later uncertain date 
and placed in this shrine, as the base found with the group 
belongs to a later period and is therefore not the original. 
The original situation of this masterpiece cannot be de- 
termined in the absence of literary evidence. The inter- 
pretation of the subject on the other hand offers no difficulty. 
The messenger of the gods, Hermes, has been charged by 

^ The left hand held once a caduceus in gilt bronze, the raised right probably a 
bunch of grapes. The lower legs and left foot of Hermes are restored, also the 
arm of the child. 

^ Itinerary of Greece, v. 17, 3. 










Fig. 21. Statue of Hermes, Olympia. 

Zeus to take his little brother Dionysos to Nysa in Boeotia to 
be nursed and brought up by the nymphs; he is resting on 
his way thither, and has drawn off his chlamys,^ which almost 
entirely covers the stump of a tree on which he rests his 
elbow. Th,e little boy he holds in his arms clasps the 
shoulder of his protector with his right hand, and stretches 

^ This piece of drapery is a source of never-ending delight to connoisseurs, 
particularly among sculptors themselves. It^ should be examined apart from 


out his left towards some object held by Hermes; it has 
been suggested with great probability that this was, appro- 
priately to the future god of Wine, a bunch of grapes. This 
statue gives a plastic embodiment of Hermes, as he is cele- 
brated by the Greek poets, the ever-ready, active, and 
zealous messenger of the gods,^ the representative of youth- 
ful beauty 2 and strength. • He appears here a noble, 
strongly built youth of a serene and friendly disposition. 
But even more admired than the whole group with its 
rhythmic action and harmonious lines is the head ^ of Hermes, 
that has been separately cast and widely circulated in repro- 
ductions. Whether it is the technical mastery in the treat- 
ment of the marble and the care and finish in the execution, 
or the simplicity and sublimity of the conception that most 
strikes us, we must equally regard this achievement of 
Praxiteles as of the highest level of artistic creation. The 
head is slightly lowered, the eye is not directed immediately 
towards the child, but gazes dreamily and thoughtfully into 
space. If we examine the formation of the head we notice 
the rounding of the skull with its clear and definite contour 
and the marked narrowing of the face towards the chin, 
distinguishing features of the style of Praxiteles. If we 
turn to details, the artist's fine feeling for form is exhibited 

the statue and in comparison with the Parthenon sculptures Plates XVI. -XIX., 
particularly Plate XVIII. It is a triumph of art and naturalism. Praxiteles 
must have tried every fold and crease in the actual material. As a result of this 
study he has evolved a masterful example of rhythmically varied yet harmonious 
drapery, executed with an air of consummate ease. It is an instructive model 
of drapery, and plaster casts of it should be in every academy and studio. The 
support between the figure and the tree-trunk is necessary for constructive 
purposes. It also helps to unite the two parts of the group. 

' " Ofwv Taxvs ayyeXos " (" the swift messenger of the gods "). (Hesiod, Works 
and Days, 85.) Homer's epithet, 5td/cTopos (the conductor), gives a clearer indica- 
tion of his abilities in this respect. 

• 'Evaytbvios (literally " belonging to a contest ") is his name as god of the 
games and the palaestra. 

. • The dark stains visible in the reproduction are from chalk deposits which 
have formed on the marble underground. 


in the freely handled hair ^ which with its marked divisions 
effectively relieves the smoothness of the face, the forehead 
projecting strongly below, the slightly curved line of the 
nose, the modelling of the cheeks, the serious yet friendly 
character of the small half-opened mouth, and finally the 
rounding of the chin with its dimple. But in the head as a 
whole it is the inspired spiritual expression of the face that 
irresistibly captivates the beholder. Of course the impres- 
sion will vary according to the artistic taste and suscepti- 
bility of the individual, and we should not lay too much 
stress on our own personal feelings here. But undoubtedly 
the aspect of this perfect work fills every beholder, not so 
much with loud enthusiasm as with a joyous exalted feeling, 
which is the highest and noblest aim of creative art. And 
he who has been priviliged to gaze on the original in the 
quiet museum at Olympia will not be likely to forget that 
sacred moment of human happiness. Yet we can only have 
a faint notion of the original with all its gay colouring and 
metal ornaments and the varnished tone of the marble. 


Marble Head of Aphrodite 

After Praxiteles. Somewhat over life-size. Berlin, Kaufmann 


In antique times what was considered the most beautiful 
statue on earth and the most famous work of the Attic 
sculptor Praxiteles was a nude Aphrodite entering the bath, 
which was executed in shining Parian marble and erected in 

* This was most probably adorned at one time with a wreath of metal, as the 
furrow in the marble, visible in the reproduction, would seem to show. 



Fig. 22. Head of a Girl of the school of Praxiteles. 
From a restoration in plaster. Greek original (marble) in Glyptothek, Munich. 

a small temple by the sea at Cnidus.^ The estimation of 
this work, which had long been evinced by its representation 
on Cnidian coins of the Roman Empire, and to which the 
older writers ^ bear witness, has been borne out by the pre- 
servation of numerous copies. The head, which already in 
antique times was regarded as the most artistically perfect 

1 Thus Horace invokes (Carmtna, i. 30, i) Venus as " regina Cnidi " (" Queen of 
Cnidus "). 

Pliny the Elder bears witness to the wealth of this seaport town in marble works 
of Attic masters of the fourth century b.c. [Naturalis Historia, 36, 22), and the 
statue of Demeter reproduced on Plate XXII. of this edition gives an example. 

•Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 36, 20 (cf. also 34, 69). Pausanias' 
Itinerary of Greece, i. i, 3. Lucian, Imagines, iv. Psendolufcian, Amores, xiii. 





part of the statue and particularly admired by the refined 
connoisseur Lucian,^ can be appreciated in the well- 
preserved copy here reproduced, a capable work by a Greek 
artist. This head enables us to understand the extravagant 
praise accorded in antique times to the original, and even in 
this reflection of the masterwork to appreciate the peculiar 
delicacy of the Praxitelean treatment of hard and brittle 

The goddess of Love, whose appearance and qualities have 
been characterised ever since the Homeric poetry by the 
epithets " KaX,), (/)tAo/x/xetS-,;9 " ("fair, sweetly smiling"), is 
represented by a figure of a young and blooming woman. 
Her head rests on a full rounded neck, turned a little to one 
side, her small narrow eyes gaze dreamily into space. Her 
hair, arranged in even strands and divided in three by a 
double band, partially covers her ears and temples, and is 
gathered in a knot behind. ( The details of the oval face have 
been rendered with a fine appreciation of form. J The trian- 
gular forehead, the delicate line of the brows, tne rounding 
of the chin, the fine modelling of the cheeks and the nose, 
but above all the delicately formed mouth, round which a 
slight smile is playing, are features of the art of Praxiteles 
that appear in other heads attributed to him or to his 
school, but in none in such a harmonious combination of 
grace and dignity (cf. also fig. 22). Whereas in the older 
Aphrodites more stress was laid on the representation of 
ripe womanhood, we have here the virginal charm of a young 
maiden, which in spite of the occasional expression of sen- 
suousness of later times, has remained the standard until the 
present day. Its sublime simplicity and the strong and 
shining figure of Hermes will always exercise a powerful charm 
on every sensitive eye, so that the only doubt that troubles 
the beholder is which of the two deserves the highest prize. 

^Imagines, vi.; cf. also Pseudohician, Op. cit., 13. 



Marble Bust from Eleusis 

National Museum, Athens 

This splendid head of a youth was discovered in 1885 
at Eleusis in a small shrine of Pluto, situated in front of 
a dark gloomy grotto near the Propylaea of the great 
Eleusinian shrine. At the same time dedicatory inscriptions 
to an old couple merely called " god " and " goddess " 
and to Eubuleus were found. This Eubuleus was an in- 
dependent figure in the Eleusinian belief and not in any way 
identical with any other god. His name, meaning the 
" good counsellor " or " well-wisher," is one of those names 
given to the powers of the underworld in awe and fear, and 
expresses the wish that the earth demon will only show him- 
self as a bringer of blessings. In the cult of Eubuleus a 
young pig was buried in the earth. Thence legend made 
him a swineherd, whose herds vanished into the earth when 
Core was carried off. And in order to connect him more 
closely with the great Eleusinian deities, the local legend 
made him a brother to Triptolemus or son of Demeter; he was 
therefore conceived as a youth. The youthful curly-headed 
Eubuleus, sometimes with the pig and the bundle of twigs 
of his mystic cult, is to be found on many monuments 
connected with the Eleusinian cult. 

The conditions of its discovery make it possible to recog- 
nise the head here reproduced as this same Eubuleus. The 
hair falling symmetrically on the forehead is characteristic 
of the gods of the underworld. 

The head must have been famous. In the Eleusinian 
shrine itself were found two replicas, both inferior later 




go?.' 'N U'Ji'-''ci.RSlTY 









of the different treatment of the modelling due to its period, 
we seem to see traces of the majesty of the Olympian Zeus 
of Phidias, as it is seen on Elian coins. This enhances the 
value of the work, that is counted among the most beautiful 
heads of gods that have come down to us, among the finest 


The Apollo Belvedere 

Marble statue. Vatican, Rome 

This famous statue was found at the end of the fifteenth 
century, perhaps in the neighbourhood of Rome; all the 
reliable sources are silent on the subject of the place of its 
discovery. Pope Julius II., into whose possession it came, 
used it to decorate the Belvedere built by him in the palace 
of the Vatican. It made a tremendous impression on artists 
and scholars as well as on the public. It called forth a 
multitude of explanations, some ingenious, some absurd, and 
not infrequently both. 

The slender young god Apollo is striding past with a swing- 
ing elastic gait. The head is not turned in the direction of 
his steps but to one side. His shining glance is fixed on the 
far distance. An artist would say: this Apollo has no fixed 
aim in his eye; he looks to right and left, in all directions, 
for he is the rescuer, the helper, the god who protects from 
harm; he is the Shining One who conquers darkness, who 
atones for evil, and heals all ills. His names are ^ol(io^ and 

Ilatai', (iorj^po ixios, uAe^6Ka/cos, airoTpoiraios, larrjp, larpo's and otKe'crTw/) 

(the helper, the defender from harm, the healer). 

But the weapon with which he strikes from afar and never 
misses is the bow; he is the apyvporo^o^ and kXvtvto^o<;, the 
iKaepyos and ^Kr^/3d\os (he of the silver bow, famous with the 



Fig. 26. Head of the Apollo Belvedere. 

bow, the longshot). The left hand of the statue that was 
lost and is restored undoubtedly bore the bow, perhaps an 
arrow too, which the archers were accustomed to hold with 
the middle finger of the bow hand. Across the breast lies 
the strap of the quiver which hangs on his back; this attribute 
alone demands the presence of the bow. 

The right hand held a branch of laurel with the ribbon 
fastened to it. The end of this attribute is still preserved on 
the trunk of the tree just above the head of the snake, and 
is visible in the reproduction. That part of the tree-trunk 
that now forms the upper end together with the whole of the 


right fore-arm and hand is a modern restoration. The 
original fore-arm was slightly more raised and more forward. 
The connection with the tree was made by means of the 
laurel branch that was in marble. This attribute is 
associated with the purifying and healing power of the god 
and frequently occurs. The combination of the bow in the 
left and the laurel in the right hand is supported by numerous 
representations of Apollo. 

In recent times the view was widely circulated that the 
god held in his left hand the Aegis, with which he opposed 
the Gauls' adva:nce on Delphi. This hypothesis was based 
on the explanation of the remains of an attribute in the left 
hand of a bronze replica of the statue in the possession of 
Count Stroganoff at St. Petersburg. But this bronze 
statuette is nothing but a modern forgery; the highly im- 
probable hypothesis built on it therefore falls to the ground. 
But all the explanations which would supply the god and 
his bow with a definite purpose have failed. 

Noteworthy are the extremely elegant sandals, that are 
characteristic of the god who wanders throughout the country 
bringing aid to all. A chlamys that is fastened on his 
right shoulder falls over the left arm. It has been re- 
marked that the folds of this drapery are modelled quietly 
and evenly without any relation to the rapid action of the 
figure. This chlamys may be an addition of the copyist in 
marble. The supporting tree stump with the snake is 
certainly such an addition, for the original was in all proba- 
bility a bronze statue that would have no need for such a 
support. The drapery, too, plays a part in the support of 
the arm in this marble copy. The copy was executed about 
the second century a.d. 

But the original was a splendid example of the best period 
of Greek sculpture. It belonged to the second half of the 
fourth century b.c. There are reasons for thinking that it 


was the work of Leochares, a younger contemporary of 
Praxiteles and Scopas. 

The slim body and the swing of the action are splendid, but 
the finest and most remarkable thing about this work is the 
head (fig. 26). In it all the nobility and purity of the 
ApoUonic nature, all the passionate energy of the shining 
god, obtain complete expression. The proud nobility of the 
all-conquering spirit and contempt for all that is low and mean 
are clearly imprinted in his features. The moral force of the 
Hellenic religion speaks to-day in this statue of the god. That 
this masculine being is not wanting in feminine qualities is 
shown by the arrangement of his abundant hair, that is 
gathered in a knot like that of a girl. In poetry, too, the god 
is called dKe/3o-£Kop;s- and afSpoxah-q's (with uncut, soft hair). 


Artemis from Versailles 
Marble statue. Louvre, Paris 

This world-famous statue, 2 metres high, of which the 
place of discovery is not known,^ was brought to France 
from Rome in the sixteenth century by King Francis L, and 
receives from the castle at Versailles, where it was set up and 
remained for so long, the name that is always associated 
with its own. Its preservation was not very fortunate, as, 
apart from other less important restorations, almost the 
whole of the left arm with the fragment of the bow is new; 
yet the restorations seem correct and the bow could hardly 
have been left out. 

The goddess is out hunting, accompanied by the hind 

^ The suggestion that it is from the Villa of Hadrian not far from the Thermae 
is not verified. It is based on a reference by the well known archaeologist, Pirro 
Ligorio (sixteenth century), who mentions an " Atalanta " as having been found 
there, the description of which certainly fits the Artemis of Versailles. 






that is sacred to her and frequently associated with her, 
which, as literary and sculptural evidence proves, was often 
represented with antlers. Her attire is appropriate to her 
occupation. Dainty sandals protect her feet from hurt on 
the rough uneven ground of the mountain forest, the chiton 
that reaches only to the knee leaves her arms and neck bare, 
and allows perfect freedom of movement; so also does the 
chlamys of some rougher material which is wound round the 
hips and over the left shoulder like a shawl with both ends 
tucked in in front, a protection in case of a storm. 

This tall, strong, active figure, which by the smallness of 
the body and head in proportion to the limbs appears still 
taller, hastens by with a swing, the left foot well advanced 
and drawing the right after. She hears a distant rustling, 
turns her head quickly, peers in the distance, and snatches 
from the quiver an arrow with which to bring down the 
quarry. Her eyes are not fixed on one solitary aim, her 
eye and ear are at all times on the alert, she hastens all over 
the country: 

" HdvTi] kir L(TTpi<^ir ai, drjpoiv oAcKOUcra yeviOXi^v " ■•• 
(" She turns in all directions, slaying the race of beasts.") 

It is the contrast of the forward action of the body and the 
sudden turn of the head that gives such wonderful rhythm 
of action, which is carried out in the fine flow of folds in the 
drapery and on which the artistic worth of the statue rests. 

The swift forcible character of the goddess, like a nymph 
devoted to the joys of the chase, as she appears to the reader 
of Homer, is here plastically embodied. For the verses: 

"'Apre/xt? ei'crt Kar' ovpea lo^kaipa 
Tj Kara Tr^vyiTov TrepiyLtr^KCTOV 7} 'YipvpLavOov 
TepiroiJiivy] KdirpoLCTL kol loKelyjs' ekdcjyoLO-Lv." 

( Artemis passes by, glorying in her archery 
Over the heights of Taygetus and Erymanthus, 

And delights in the chase of wild boars and fleet-footed stags. ^) 
^ Hymn to Artemis, Homeric Hymns, xxvii. 10. ^ Odyssey, vi. 102. 


complete our understanding of the statue, and such designa- 
tions as " kyporiprj, io)(i(upa, KeXaSeun'j, irorvia Oi]pon' " (" wild, shoOtCF 

of arrows, raging, Mistress of Wild Beasts ") find expression 
here. This conception of Artemis, that predominated among 
the Greeks, was also current among the Romans. Horace 
sings of Diana : 

(Dicite virgines) . . . 

" Vos laetam fluviis et nemorum coma, 
quaecumque aut gelido prominet Algido, 
nigris aut Erymanthi 
silvis aut viridis Cragi." ^ 

(" Praise her all you who love to linger by stream and grove. 
Her who raises her head on the frozen summit of Algidus 
And there where Erymanthus 
Looms dark and Cragus is green.") 

The hair, waved by the wind, crowned with a diadem in 
front and gathered in a knot behind, and the animated ex- 
pression of the face with its half-opened mouth and pursed 
up underlip, are in full accord with the lively action of the 
figure. At the same time the fine oval form of the face, the 
delicate modelling of the cheeks and the rounded chin, 
clearly indicate the youthful sister of shining Apollo. Its 
close resemblance to the equally famous statue of the god 
in the Belvedere of the Vatican is, of course, purely accidental 
and rests chiefly on similarity of style and treatment, and 
also of action. The original of the Artemis of Versailles, 
which is a moderately good copy of the time of the Roman 
Empire, must also have been a masterpiece of Greek art in its 
prime, and if it was cast in bronze was without the somewhat 
disturbing support between the hind and the left leg of the 
goddess.2 On art-historical grounds it could scarcely have 
been earlier than the middle of the fourth century, and on 

^ Carmina, i., 21, i et seq, 

* Perhaps the animal was also introduced by the copyist. 


account of the excellence of its style and invention not 
much later. Like the statue of the goddess preserved on 
Roman coins that Praxiteles executed ^ for the shrine on a 
rocky height at Anticyra in Phocis, equipped with quiver 
and perhaps with bow, hurrying with a torch in her hand and 
a dog beside her, so the original of this Artemis, of which the 
artist is unknown, was at one time consecrated in a temple 
or precinct sacred to the goddess. It may have been by an 
Attic master from the circle of Praxiteles or one of those who 
worked on the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus. 


Marble statue. Vatican Museum, Rome 

This over life-size figure, well preserved and correctly 
restored,^ was discovered together with six other Muses and 
an Apollo with a lyre in 1774 in the ruins of an antique villa 
to the south-east of Tivoli. It was purchased by Pope 
Pius VI. for the Vatican Museum and exhibited in the hall 
named after the statues of the Muses. The presence of the 
rocks seems to indicate that the Muses in this cycle are con- 
ceived in the open air and probably on the secluded Mount 
Helicon with its forests and ravines, where all Nine danced 
like nymphs in a ring; but the sisters are no longer united 
in dance; each is occupied with her own mood. Mel- 
pomene, once the Muse of Singing, represented Tragedy 

* Pausanias, Itinerary of Greece, x. ij, i. 

' Apart from unimportant details, the right hand with the upper part of the 
mask, the left foot, and the left fore-arm with the sword are new ; the latter is veri- 
fied by a reproduction of the statue in Stockholm. 


perhaps already at the time of the prime of Attic drama, 
and has maintained this role in spite of one or two vacilla- 
tions until the present day.^ Her representation in this 
statue is one of those antiques that on account of their 
nobility produce an immediate impression, while they may 
hide many beauties which the eye only discovers by degrees. 
A tall figure, with a suggestion of almost masculine strength 
in its bold lines, stands in an easy pose facing the spectator, 
but turned a little to the left. She has set her left foot on a 
high rock, an attitude which is carried off by the tranquiUity 
of the whole pose and which increases the grandeur of the 
general appearance; the contrast in the positions of the 
feet and the arms gives a slight action to the figure. She is 
fully dressed in the garments of a tragic actor, and wears 
a long trailing chiton with long sleeves and overlap, that 
with its high waist and broad girdle increases the appearance 
of height and hangs according to the action of the figure, 
partly in straight lines and partly in curves. The cloak is 
wound in almost intentional irregularity round the right 
arm, drawn across the back and the ends hanging over 
the left shoulder. She wears thick shoes with somewhat 
heavy soles. As Muse of Tragedy she holds in her right 
hand the mask of Heracles, also from the tragic stage. He 
is conceived as the representative of heroes of Tragedy, as 
the stories connected with him were frequently treated in 
drama particularly in later times; the lion skin drawn over 
the head clearly distinguished him. The Muse of Tragedy is 
also indicated by the sword grasped in her left hand, in which 
the complications of the plot found a terrible solution, by 
the decoration of her hair with the fruit and vine leaves of 
Dionysos, in whose honour the Attic festival performances 

1 On a wall painting from Pompeii, now in the Louvre, Paris, is the inscription, 
MeXvo/xivT) ■ Tpayudlav (supply ^x^O ("Melpomene; her province is Tragedy"). 
But in Horace, Odes, i. 24, Melpomene is the muse of plaintive song. 








were instituted, and in her attire.^ The impression of 
masculine strength and solemn nobility, of stern and exalted 
beauty, is increased by the heavy mass of hair that falls 
loosely on the neck and partly covers the forehead. The 
slightly open mouth with the curious bitter expression of the 
lips, the firm downward glance of the heavy-lidded eyes, lend 
to the face an expression of serious thought, a restrained and 
collected air, no loud complaints nor uncontrolled grief. At 
the same time the somewhat pointed face is in its fine and 
delicate modelling not without youthful womanly charm, 
that does not disturb the earnest character of the whole. 
Thus the artist has been able by the majesty of the general 
effect and the expression of the face to set the beholder in 
the mood that is still roused by the reading of the tragedies 
to-day, and must in a greater degree have been felt by 
the visitor to the antique theatre. He has given clear and 
individual expression both in its outward form and inner 
essence to the powerful, earnest, and impressive qualities of 
the ancient tragedies, without too much reliance on external 
attributes, and succeeded in the most difficult of tasks — a 
personification of Tragedy. 

Concerning the authorship of the originals of this cycle of 
the Nine Muses, of which seven have survived in good Roman 
copies, a suggestion has been brought forward. A careful 
comparison of the artistic character of the statues, par- 
ticularly in respect of the style and expression of the heads, 
recalls the art of Praxiteles. The latter executed a bronze 
group of the Muses for the town of Thespiae at the foot of the 
Helicon in Boeotia where the goddesses were particularly 
honoured. This group, named after the place " The 

1 Cf. Ovid, Amores, iii. i, 1 1. 

" Venit et ingenti violenta Tragoedia passu 

Fronte comae torva, palla iacebat humi." 
(" Tragedy also came, mighty with great strides, 
Her hair wild on her forehead, traihng her gown.") 


Thespiades," was dedicated by Consul L. Licinius Lucullus 
at Rome, after his victorious battles in Spain, in the Temple 
of Felicitas built by him at Velabrum out of the spoils of 
war.^ But the immediate connection with Praxiteles, in 
spite of many echoes of his manner, has not been established, 
and the view that the statues in the Vatican reproduce a later 
cycle of the Muses, perhaps of the Hellenistic period, is 
worthy of consideration. In any case, there is so much of 
the peculiarity of Praxiteles in the heads that we must seek 
the author either in the circle of Praxiteles, his followers, or 
his imitators. 


Bronze head. British Museum, London 

By a fortunate piecing together it is not difficult to restore 
the admirable bronze head discovered in 1855 near Perugia 
(Perusia). A marble statue in Madrid of the same size,^ 
of which the arms are missing, is with ease and certainty 
completed from other copies of the original, as, for example, 
a gem in Berlin (figs. 27 and 28). And its interpretation is 
also above all doubt. The slender youth with horn and 
poppy-branch in his hand is Hypnos, the god of Sleep. The 
suggestion that it is his twin brother Oneiros, the god of 
Dreams, is opposed by the fact that the latter, in contrast to 

1 Cicero, in Verrem 4, 2, 4. Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 34, 69 (cf. also 
36, 39). Strabo, Geography, 8, p. 381. Cassius Die, Roman History, fragm. 75 

=■ Without restoration it measures 1.50 metres in its stooping position, upright 
it would be about 1.62 metres high. In the plaster cast (fig. 28) the tree trunk 
that serves as a support to the marble (fig. 27), and which rather disturbs the 
picture, has been left out; it was also absent in the original bronze. 


the former, seldom appears in religion, literature, or art. 
The type of the statue, that remained the standard until late 
Roman times, arose not earlier than the second half of the 
fourth century e.g., as it seems to unite many elements of 
the style of Praxiteles and Scopas, but it may well have been 
executed some decades later; for this art movement lasted so 
long that in the absence of historical information an exact 
date is not to be arrived at. There are many possibilities 
with regard to its dedication. It may have been some 
grateful mortal, who after long sorrow at last found sleep and 
erected this votive statue. But there was another aspect of 
the cult of the god; the will of the gods was often announced 
to the naive believer through the agency of Hermes in 
dreams, or by divine consent the fulfilment of wishes took 
place during sleep. Particularly in the holy precints of 
Asclepius, sufferers in body and mind were recommended 
cures in which recovery was promised in a long sleep {lyKoL 
lJL7](ris, incubatio). We read of such miracles in the inscrip- 
tions at Epidaurus, and this explains the worship of Hypnos 
in the Asclepieion at Sicyon (Pausanias, Itinerary oj Greece, 
ii. 10, 2). Consecrated in some place of worship, and set up 
near the altar or in a small shrine effectively lit from different 
sides, the bronze original, richly gilt, must have exercised a 
magical charm, especially if regarded in a devout mood and 
from a moderate distance. Even the aspect of the copy 
soothes and invigorates the care-laden beholder. 

A delicately formed boyish figure of ripening beauty floats 
over the earth in the stillness of the night, apparently 
aiming at one fixed point, but in thought turning his help on 
every side where those in sorrow and trouble lie awake or 
whose sleep is broken and restless.^ With his body leaning 

» This activity frequently represented in art is also referred to in numerous 
places by Roman poets ; particularly clearly expressed is the description of Silius 
Italicus, Pimica, x. 352. 


co^^'^'^' usRAR^ 



Fig. 28. Hypnos, restored cast, Strassburg. 

nor fearful, merely embodying human thoughts and feelings, 
doing its good work as much by its youthful beauty as by 
its healing balm. This conception of an imaginative artist, 
which is so genuinely antique and corresponds so accurately 
to the relations of gods and mortals, yet speaks to us with a 
modern voice; both conception and execution accord with 
our ways of thinking and feeling. And as with other figures 
of the gods of the fourth century the head in itself is full of 
psychological interest. Its beauty is not disclosed by a 
searching analysis of form, but a quiet examination of the 


head strengthens and deepens our first impression. The 
hair is parted according to the fashion of the time and 
divided by a band; thick curls hang behind the ears, in front 
it is gathered into a knot on either side, at the back into a 
thick mass. The two wings ^ fit easily beneath the sym- 
metrically arranged hair, completing the design. The 
explanation of these is that Hypnos is conceived as vanish- 
ing silently in the darkness like a night-bird. In conformity 
with the inclination of the body the head is also bent. The 
features of the fine oval face are mild and gentle, a faint 
smile and a dreamy thoughtfulness characterise the expres- 
sion, the glance of the eyes is indistinct, the lids are about 
to cover them; the gracious spirit who at this moment as 
Hypnodotes is pouring life-giving sleep (v/^Svixov vttvoi) on the 
eyelids of tired mortals is himself about to fall asleep. A 
feeling of peace comes over us. The lines of Homer echo 
softly within us : 

"... "TtTI'OI' 

r;5i>«' eTri p\€(papoL(n ^dXe yXavKuiwis 'Ad-qv-q." 
(" Grey-eyed Athena cast sweet sleep on his eyes.") 

Odyssey, i. 363 et seq. 

Kai T(^ vrjdvfxos VTrvos iwi ^\i(pa,poLcnv tTrnrrev, 
vrjypeTOS, TySicrros . . . 

(" And upon him (Odysseus) fell pleasant sleep. 

Deep sleep upon his eyelids.") 

Odyssey, xiii. 79 et seq. 

Indeed this creation of a master of the second prime of 
Greek art has had its effect with undiminished strength 
from Hellenic times to the Roman Empire and even to the 
present day. Such a work is not to be described in words, it 
must be studied by itself and looked at again and again; 
then it will irresistibly charm every receptive eye. This 
bronze of Perugia has become dear to many a congenial 
student of the antique and soothed his mind from care. 

» The left wing is not preserved in the original; in the completed cast (fig. 28) 
it is restored. 







Hunter and Dog 

Marble statue. Glyptothek Ny-Carlsberg^ Copenhagen 

The explanation of the somewhat over life-size statue 
from Italy, and ostensibly from Monte Cassino, is an in- 
teresting problem. An original of the fourth century b.c. 
has been preserved in numerous copies, differing widely from 
each other. That in the Belvedere of the Vatican, well- 
known as the " Meleager," has a large boar's head on the left- 
hand side; the interpretation derived from this has been 
handed on to all other copies. A reproduction in Berlin is 
without the drapery, another in the Fogg Museum of Art 
near Boston, also without the chlamys, has in place of the 
long spear a short stick ^ under the arm. Probably the 
original was without the drapery and bore the stick in place 
of the spear. If the original was of bronze the supporting 
tree trunk would not be needed. The composition would 
thus gain in simplicity and effect. The variety in the repre- 
sentations shows that the copyists seem to have done very 
much as they liked, making arbitrary alterations to suit the 
taste of the time. This particular statue was a favourite 
with the Romans, always passionate followers of the chase, 
and frequently ornamented their parks and villas, the intro- 
duction of the boar's head being most appropriate to Italy, 
noted for this game. So that the old explanation even of the 
well-known replica in the Vatican is not at all certain. We 
would call the original " hunter and dog " and conjecture 
that this ideal figure (not a portrait) was at one time dedicated 

' Such a stick was carried in hunting and served to startle up and drive the 
game (Xenophon, Kynegetikos, 6; ii, and 17). 




Fig. 29. Head of a Hunter (marble). 
Villa Medici, Rome. 

to Artemis at some centre of Hellenic culture by a mortal in 
gratitude for success in the chase, or it preserved the memory 
of some departed huntsman over his grave. Such repre- 
sentations of daily life are shown in Attic grave reliefs, and 
Pliny the Elder mentions {Naturalis Historia, 34, 91) ninety- 
one bronze statues of " venatores " by various Greek sculptors. 
This sport, which hardens the body and sharpens the senses, 
was, like athletics, held in high esteem among the Greeks and 
passionately pursued. 

The Copenhagen copy is a very good example and could 
be correctly restored from other replicas. The right arm, 
parts of the spear and the head are new, the latter from an 
excellent copy in the Villa Medici at Rome (unrestored, fig. 29). 
This wonderful piece of sculpture makes a striking and pro- 
found impression at the first glance. Quite masterful is the 


modelling of the nude body in its round, firm contours, true 
to and almost surpassing nature. Strong and shapely, the 
young huntsman stands in elastic action, his weight on the 
right leg, the left foot drawn back and a little to one side. 
The strong wooden spear is easily completed by an iron 
point with a double hook (KnoSoi'Te^) to the usual form. 
The right arm behind the back indicates rest after the chase, 
but the rhythmic line of the body, the expression of the 
turned head with its eyes on the distance, and the arrange- 
ment of the chlamys, which is wound round the shoulders 
and fore-arm, all suggest a nervous restlessness, and give the 
impression that in the next instant man and dog will be 
rushing in a wild chase over the fields and through the woods. 
The qualities of the chase are thus admirably suggested in 
this single huntsman; the spectator is carried away by the 
exuberant strength and enthusiasm of the youth. The style 
followed by the unknown master is most appropriate to the 
subject. The style of Scopas of Paros is brilliantly illustrated. 
He strove for and attained intensity of expression, passionate 
action, both in the heat of struggle and in quiet poses, in 
many respects not unlike the somewhat younger Lysippus, 
but in strong contrast to his contemporary Praxiteles. And 
this " pathos " glows and sparkles to the full in this fine 
head (fig. 29). The rather shallow skull and broad contour 
of the face are quite different from the high rounded skull 
and delicate oval face of the Praxitelean Hermes ; the deep-set 
upward glancing eyes have a peculiarly fiery quality, the lips 
seem to breathe. The discussion of the antithesis of Ethos 
and Pathos in antique literature and psychological studies 
generally brought about a change in the conception and in- 
terpretation of the life of the mind; presumably this had its 
influence on the masters of sculpture. The importance and 
value of this splendid and forcible statue are greatly increased 
by the psychologically interesting treatment of the head. 



Fig. 30. Bronze Head of a Boy. 
Glyptothek, Munich. 



In Greece there existed an ancient custom of dedicating a 
statue of the victor in the athletic games to the god in whose 
honour the games were held. In many places, as at Olympia, 
statuettes of clay or bronze, sometimes quite primitive in 
workmanship, representing athletes as horsemen, warriors, 
charioteers, etc., have been discovered. With the rapid 



Fig. 31. Bronze Head of a Boy, Glyptothek, Munich. 
(The bust with the gilt baldrick is modern.) 

development of sculpture it became the custom, according to 
documents and inscriptions, from the sixth century B.C., to 
erect a life-size statue (almost exclusively of bronze) in honour 
of the victorious athlete and as a permanent record of his 
achievements on the place where the games were held, or 
sometimes in the palaestra or on some open place in the home 
of the victor; he himself, his fellow townsmen or relations, or 
private individuals, paying the cost. Thus by degrees on the 
more famous places a number of portrait statues were collected 
which must have made an overwhelming impression on the 
visitors to the games. That this was the case at Delphi we 
have long known from literary sources, and the excavations 


undertaken by the French government have borne it out. 
The discovery of the bronze charioteer which belonged to 
the quadriga celebrating a victory of Polyzalos of Syracuse is 
one of the most valuable antiques of archaistic times. Con- 
cerning Olympia we had information from the Periegesis of 
Pausanias before the investigation of the Altis by the German 
government; the numerous bases of bronzes which came to 
light on this occasion, inscribed with the names of the victor 
and his home, the manner of his victory, and frequently his 
former athletic successes in prose and verse, are monumental 
evidence of the correctness of the historian. The statues were 
indeed nearly all carried off or destroyed in ancient times, 
and only quite unimportant remains were rediscovered at 
Olympia; elsewhere, too, original Greek athletic statues have 
only been preserved in isolated instances (figs. 30 and 31). 
Some compensation for the loss of the originals is offered 
by the copies, almost exclusively of marble, which were 
executed for Roman patrons of art for the decoration of their 
palaces and villas, for open places and buildings and the 
Thermae. Many archaic masters, and in the prime of Greek 
art the most important workers in bronze, particularly of 
the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., have executed statues of 
victorious athletes. The identification of these among the 
crowd of Roman copies preserved is in some cases already 
achieved by archaeological investigations, and still form sone 
of the archaeologists' most important tasks. Thus we are 
enabled to give due honour to the principal masters and their 
school. The highest aim of Polycletus was the formation of 
quiet standing figures in an accurate mathematical system 
1 of proportion; also the wonderful charm of ethical grace, 
of aiSws, of decor^ is displayed in many a youthful and 
boyish figure from the workshop of Polycletus or his school, 
in their sedate and unassuming character and the pure 

* Cf. Quintilian, Institutio Oraioria, xii. lo, 7, e( seq. 








Fig. 32. Head of Myron's Discobolus. 

youthful modesty that looks out from the features (figs. 30, 
31, and 33). The somewhat earlier Myron is considered the 
master in the representation of figures in rhythmic action 
and full of fire and animation (Plate XXXIII. and fig. 32). 
The Sicyonian Lysippus introduced in opposition to that of 
the Polycletan school a new system of proportions of the 
human body of a more slender type, and as founder of the 
naturalistic tendency had a great influence on the art that 
followed (Apoxyomenos, Plate XXXIV.). 

The gymnastically trained bodies of these slim boys and 
youths and vigorous men are evidence of the ennobling effect 
of athletics. Presented in complete nudity they are not 
faithful portraits from life, but motives and models from the 
palaestra transformed and exalted to the highest ideal of 
physical beauty and strength. They are the most splendid 
human beings that the art of any period has created. The 
variety of types preserved are divisible into two groups : the 



Fig. 23- Diadumenus, 
after polycletus. 

Marble statue from Delos. 
National Museum, Athens. 

The action of the statue 
is quite clear even without 
the hands. The youth is 
pulling at the ends of the 
fillet in order to, tighten the 
knot at the back of the 
head. In the marble copy, 
executed probably before 
the Christian era, there are 
a chlamj^s and a bow intro- 
duced in the support against 
the right leg. These (not 
shown in the reproduction) 
were until recently regarded 
as arbitrary introductions 
of the copyist, but it is 
now suggested that they 
belonged to the statue 
which is thought to have 
been a representation of 
Apollo. In any case the 
statue is a harmonious 
picture of the combined 
result of gymnastic and 
ethical training. It is stated 
in Pausanias' Itinerary of 
Greece, i, 8, 4, that a repre- 
sentation of Apollo binding 
a fillet round his head was 
to be found near the Temple 
of Ares at Athens. 

athlete in action and the athlete at rest. For the first it is 
sufficient to refer to the rhythmic Discobolus ^ of Myron with 
its vivacious animated face, to the two bronze wrestlers in 

1 The reproduction on Plate XXXIII. is from the bronzed cast, that is princi- 
pally put together from two very good copies: the greater part of the body is from 
the marble in the National' Museum in .Rome, which came to light in 1906 on the 
crown lands of Castel Porziano on the site of the ancient Laurentum under the 
remains of an antique villa; the head is restored from the famous copy in the 
Palazzo Lancelotti at Rome. 



Naples, that in a 
stooping attitude 
watch with out- 
stretched hands 
for a favourable 
opportunity to 
come to grips 
in Lysippan 
style), and to the 
cleverly inter- 
laced group of 
wrestlers in 
Florence, a copy 
of an original 
from the first 
half of the third 
century b.c, to 
be able to appre- 
ciate the varied 
motives of pose, 
the happy choice 
of the significant 
moment, the 
masterly rhythm of action and truth to life. The second 
group is more numerously represented: the victor pours oil 
on his body and limbs to make them supple for wrestling 
(the " athlete anointing himself " in Munich from an Attic 
bronze about 400 b.c); after a successful encounter another 
is binding the fillet of the victor round his head (Diadu- 
menus, after Polycletus, fig. 33), or scrapes the oil and 
dirt from his arms (Apoxyomenos, after Lysippus, plate 
XXXIV.). In these statues it is the quiet pose and often 
the reserved appearance of the figures which appeal to the 

Fig. 34. Statue of a Pugilist (biuuzc). 
Museo Nazionale, Rome. 


spectator. In this manner daily athletic incidents which, 
though trivial to us, were closely bound up with Hellenic 
culture are ennobled and exalted by means of art. Only 
towards the end of the fourth century B.C., partly through 
the influence of the Lysippan school, was the personality of 
the victor emphasised in face and figure and a more exact 
rendering of nature striven for. A bronze head discovered 
in Olympia is an excellent example from the beginnings of 
this new realistic movement. The most noteworthy ex- 
pression of this movement is the statue of a pugilist found 
in Rome and now in the National Museum (fig. 34), an 
original from some land of Greek culture perhaps of the 
third century b.c. ^ A powerfully-built bearded pugilist rests 
on a rock after a victorious struggle, his fore-arms and hands 
enveloped in leather strapping, and looks round with a 
proud scornful air. His bruised face and flattened nose and 
ears show unmistakable signs of the encounter; he breathes 
heavily with open mouth and panting lungs. The excellence 
of the execution and the striking effect of the representation 
only partially atone for the revolting impression made by 
this brutal professional athlete. The eye turns gratefully to 
the copies of the masterpieces of the fifth and fourth cen- 
turies B.C., the Diadumenus and the Apoxyomenos and 
others in which the spirit of Greek athletic sculpture is 
embodied in its noblest form. 

1 An earlier date is now suggested — about 400 b.c. In this case it would be an 
example of the contrast of healthy realism and ideal conception which appears 
in the portrait art of the fifth century. 







Marble statue after Lysippus in the Braccio Nuovo of the 

Vatican Museum, Rome 

Seldom indeed has the discovery of a Roman copy of a 
Greek masterpiece been of such importance as that of the work 
after the Sicyonian bronze worker Lysippus, mentioned by 
Pliny the Elder under the Greek name of Apoxyomenos ^ and 
well known under this name, which came to light ^ in 1849 at 
Trastevere in Rome. Well preserved,^ this admirable copy 
could be identified almost immediately after its discovery as 
most probably after Lysippus, by means of information con- 
cerning the system of proportions for the figure employed by 
him; and it forms a sure starting point for the identification 
of other works of the Lysippan school. The lost bronze 
original, of which the destination is not mentioned in con- 
temporary literature, was probably the statue of a victorious 
competitor in wrestling or other festival games, in whose 
honour it was erected either on the place of the festival itself, 
perhaps in a gymnasium, or in some open space in his home. 
Introduced into Rome by Agrippa and appropriately to its 
subject set up in the Thermae adjacent to the Pantheon 
built by the latter, it became there generally known and 
appreciated; so that when Tiberius carried it off to the 
apartments of his palace, it was in true southern manner 
stormily demanded back on the occasion of a theatrical 

^ Naturalis Historia, 34, 62; the Latin name " destringens se," is also 
mentioned by Pliny the Elder. 

" In the ruins of an extensive building of the later empire, probably a bath, to 
the decoration of which the statue seems appropriate. 

^ Apart from uniniportant restorations only the lingers of the right hand with 
the wrongly introduced dice are modern. 


performance, and the emperor had it restored to its original 
position. 1 

Somewhat over life-size, a young athlete stands before us in 
complete nudity, removing after the contest the oil and 
dirt 2 from his right arm with a firmly held flesh-scraper.^ 
This every-day motive from the palaestra, which other 
masters, as, for example, Polycletus,* also treated, is here ren- 
dered by Lysippus with unequalled artistry. This tall elastic 
figure with long lower limbs, broad chest, and noticeably 
small head ^ set on a long neck, stands with feet rather wide 
apart in apparent rest, but with a suggestion of lively action 
in the pose of the legs and arms, a swaying to and fro of the 
whole figure. In looking at the statue it is difficult to say 
what is most deserving of admiration, the suppleness of the 
limbs, the modelling of the nude, the play of muscles, or the 
fine proportions, the firm contour,^ or the rhythmic action. 
These qualities, that can only be appreciated in the marble 
itself or in casts, from various points of view, have obtained 
constant recognition from connoisseurs from the time of its 
discovery, and remain for artists an inexhaustible source of 

In our admiration of the rhythmic and harmonious com- 
pleteness of the whole we are liable to neglect the examina- 

1 Cf. Pliny, 34, 62. 

" Concerning the custom of the Greeks of smearing themselves with oil and 
dust in the palaestra before wrestling, it is sufficient to refer to Lucian, Anacharsis 
sive de exercitationibus, 28. 

^ This is not clearly recognisable in the reproduction; it is a sickle-shaped 
vessel with a handle, hollowed inside to take up the oil and perspiration. The 
Greek name is cyrXeyyii, but also ^vcTTpis and ^uarpa. Froni the same root is 
diro^veiv (scrape off), and the participle form introduced into Latin, " airo^vS/ievos," 
instead of " destringens se." 

< Pliny, 34, 55. 

^Cf. PHny, 34, 65. 

* As the supports, still partly preserved, introduced in the Roman copy to 
relieve the strain of the out-stretched arm and at the back of the left leg, were 
absent in the bronze original, the effect in the round must have been much more 



Fig. 35. Head of Apoxyomenos. 

tion of the head (fig. 35), in which the master has given a new 
proof of his abiUty and his individual realistic qualities. 
The head covered with a tangled mass of hair is slightly 
inclined, suggesting relaxation after the conflict and, unlike 
the older athletic statues, contains indications of portraiture 
in the features. The face is broadly oval, the lower part 
of the forehead very prominent. In the thoughtful, almost 
melancholy, countenance and open mouth there is indication 
of inner excitement, as it appears in other heads of Lysippan 
school and period ^ and as one might expect in an athlete 

' The contrast with the head of Hermes from Olympia (Plate XXIV.) iUus- 
trates the profound difference between Praxitelean and Lysippan art in form and 
expression; a comparison, too, with the head of the Ares Ludovisi (fig. 20), which 


after a strenuous contest. Thus the interest of the spectator is 
renewed in the physiognomy of the head which increases the 
estimation of the work. But apart from its artistic per- 
fection the statue is invaluable as a pattern of physical 
development of a body trained in athletic exercises from 
early youth, 

is related in character to the art of Lysippus, but also suggests Scopas, is instruc- 
tive. In the fiery expression of the face and the elastic swing of the figure (fig. 29 
and Plate XXXII.) the Hunter combines the elements of both masters. Thus 
the artists who have had the greatest influence on the style of Greek plastic art 
stand in their distinctive features clearly before us. 



Next to the shrines of the gods it was those of the dead, that 
is, tombs, with which plastic art of classic times was prin- 
cipally occupied. We possess plastically decorated tombs of ■ 
almost all periods of antique culture from the earliest to the 

They are divisible into three classes, which are closely 
allied and often overlap. The first class represents the 
exaltation of the deceased through death, who appears as a 
higher being from another world. The second and most 
important division only aims at preserving the memory of 
the deceased, who is represented in a more or less character- 
istic manner. Classic art was content in this with general 
outlines and emphasised the human rather than the individual. 
Here people are represented in situations characteristic of 
their general qualities, never in an isolated accidental moment 
of their life. Even individual portraits only became cus- 
tomary in later times about the time of Alexander. The third 
group consists of those which contain no picture of the 
deceased, but all manner of sculpture as decoration; but 
this class may be combined with either of the former. The 
decorations were chiefly drawn from heroic legends; the 
connections with the deceased, if they occur, are always 
general; they refer to his favourite occupations, such as 
hunting and war, or to death in general, as mourners, 
funeral processions, and so on. Individual incidents from 
the life of the deceased were never chosen for the decoration 

of tombs. 



The forms of these decorated tombs are of great variety. 
The tombs which rise up above the grave must be distin- 
guished from the tomb as grave containing the deceased. 
Our plates give examples of both. 

We know of richly decorated coffins in the sixth century, 
from the Ionic town Clazomenae; they are decorated with 
animals and battle subjects. From the best period of the 
free style we possess only unimportant remains of wooden 
sarcophagi, which were covered either with purely decorative 
ornament or subjects from the legends of the heroes, like the 
*' Death of the Niobids." Marble coffins are extremely rare 
in this period; but there is an excellent example of the fourth 
century, with battles of the Amazons, at Vienna, and above 
all the splendid sarcophagi of Sidon have been preserved, 
of which the finest is reproduced on Plates XXXVII. 
to XXXIX. Marble coffins decorated with reliefs were 
customary in the time of the Roman Empire and a large 
number of them have been preserved. They mostly present 
mythological subjects, those from human life being always 
general in character. Besides the coffins, the urns for the 
ashes were also sometimes decorated with sculpture. This 
happened only in isolated cases in Greece, but quite 
frequently in Etruria and Rome. 

The simplest type of tomb over the grave is the Stele, a 
stone slab driven into the earth, which it was the custom to 
decorate with reliefs as early as the Mycenaean epoch. In 
the sixth century the narrow high stele which only showed 
the upright figure of the deceased life-size was the most 
usual; women were often represented seated. An example 
of this type, only with the addition of a maidservant, is the 
beautiful stele of Hegeso from the fifth century (Plate 
XXXVI.). A good example of the family groups popular 
at Athens in the fourth century is Plate XXXV. The 
triangular pediment of these tombs takes them out of the 








TOMBS 129 

class of the true stele and connects them with another type 
in which an aedicula or tcmplc-like monument was erected 
over the grave. Rich showy tombs, such as arose in Asia 
Minor, chose the temple form, of which the Mausoleum of 
Halicarnassus is the classical example. Another type of 
tomb is derived from the idea of an altar over the grave; 
yet another is content with an artistic form of the mound 
itself, the tumulus of the grave; but these various styles by 
no means existed in all parts or at all times. 


Two Reliefs from Tombstones at Athens 

On a block of Pentelican marble 1.45 metre high and 0.85 
metre wide, a group of three figures is carved in relief (Plate 
XXXV.). The right-hand top corner of the panel is restored. 
It was enclosed on both sides with narrow columns. On these 
rested a triangular pediment which was executed in a separate 
piece of stone and is lost. On the cornice of this was an 
inscription which told whose tomb the monument decorated. 

This relief, now in the National Museum at Athens, was dis- 
covered in 1870 during the excavations near the little church 
Agia Triada. At that time a wonderfully well-preserved 
part of the old Necropolis was discovered, before the great 
double gate, the Dipylon, at Athens out of which led the holy 
road to Eleusis and the main road to Piraeus. It was the 
custom of the ancients to place the tombs along the road 
immediately outside the gates. It would seem that the 
Athenians themselves, for some unknown cause, afterwards 
filled up this part of the burial ground. It is suggested that 
this took place soon after the taking of Athens by Sulla, and 
that the Athenians re-acqulred the use of the part before the 



gates, but wishing to preserve the graves of their fathers had 
the whole place filled in. Thus a number of the finest tombs 
of the prime of Attic art are preserved upright and un- 

The beautiful stele of Hegeso, the daughter of Proxenos 
(Plate XXXVL), belongs to the earliest of the sculptured 
tombs from this place. It still stands upright in its original 
position by the road. This relief is also framed with pillars 
whose capitals are more carefully executed than in the other 
stele. Over these is the pediment with the inscription 
'Hy7/o-oj Upo^evo(v); the form of writing o for ov belongs 
to an early period. Hegeso sits in an easy chair of simple 
though unusual form. She wears an Tonic chiton with 
half sleeves and a cloak. Her hair is ornamented with 
ribbons in the daintiest manner and over the back of the 
head hangs a thin soft veil. She is in the act of taking some 
object from a casket that the maidservant is holding before 
her. This object, probably from the position of the hand a 
necklace, was only indicated by colour. She is examining 
the trinket. The maid is dressed quite differently from her 
mistress; her face, too, is of a less noble type of beauty. Her 
hair is completely hidden in a cap and she wears the loose 
chiton with tight sleeves which characterises the slave, the 
foreigner. Her feet, too, are hidden in shoes, while those of 
her mistress, which rest on a dainty footstool, are in sandals. 

Its style refers this relief to the time of the school and 
followers of Phidias in the period of the Peloponnesian war. 
The heads bear a strong resemblance to those on the frieze 
of the Parthenon; the thin clinging drapery points to a more 
recent time. In any case the stele belongs to the fifth century. 
Like the sculptures on the Parthenon frieze, the full effect of 
this relief could only be appreciated while the rich colouring 
still survived. 

The relief only aims at preserving the memory of the noble 

COLLEGl ui,r_r(AL ART9 






Fig. $6. Mourning Maidservant from Menidhi (the ancient Acharnae). 
Attic tomb-statue about the middle of fourth century b.c, Imp. Museum, Berlin. 

and beautiful lady Hegeso, and the means chosen is the 
representation of her as she lived busied with her jewel 
casket, waited on by her maid. No trace of a reference to 
death or departure from life is there, or hint of a life beyond 
the tomb. 

The larger stele (Plate XXXV.) represents not a single 
figure, but a family group. It belongs to a type very 
frequent in the fourth century for the decoration of family 
graves. These reliefs, too, were merely designed to perpetuate 


the memory of the deceased; in them, too, there is no indica- 
tion of a departure from life. 

These sculptures have been greatly misunderstood. The 
principal reason for this is the favourite motive of the hand- 
clasp which has been taken in its modern meaning as a sign 
of farewell. Although the next question who is departing 
and who remains behind, which is the dead and which the 
living, introduces the greatest difficulties, yet this false inter- 
pretation became widely circulated. It rests on a complete 
misunderstanding of what the antique tombs are and 

This hand-clasp does not mean parting, but is, on the other 
hand, a sign of the indissoluble bond that unites the members 
of the family. The shadow of death that falls on the group 
is only hinted at in isolated melancholy gestures which are 
mostly confined to figures in the background. 

In our plate we see a seated woman clasping the hand of 
one approaching from the right. Both wear the Ionic 
chiton and cloak, and sandals on their feet. They look each 
other in the face. The whole feeling is one of coming together, 
holding together, not at all of parting. 

In the background stands a bearded man who leans on a 
staff. He wears a cloak in the ordinary manner over his 
left shoulder and round the lower part of his body. In a 
thoughtful mood he strokes his beard with his left hand. His 
head is of a generalised type and not a portrait, as is nearly 
always the case in the older stelae; it is a strong handsome 
head, just as those of the women are beautiful in a typical 

The style of this relief shows great differences from that of 
Hegeso; this is most noticeable in the heads and the treat- 
ment of the hair. The grand manner, the purity and nobility 
have vanished with the convention; instead the face and hair 
and the drapery are much more truthfully and naturally 














1— ( 

















I— I 







TOMBS 135 

treated. The relief belongs to the first half of the fourth 
century B.C. 

In the same way as maidservants were introduced into 
Attic reliefs as accessory figures, head on hand in an attitude 
of grief, so similar figures in the round were set up on burial ♦ 
places. One of the best examples preserved is that of the 
young slave (fig. 36) from about the middle of the fourth 
century B.C. According to an ingenious if not certain ex- 
planation, this figure sat as a watcher on a rock in the grounds 
of a grave at Menidhi in Attica. The chiton, of coarse material 
with long narrow sleeves, characterises the menial, the close- 
shorn hair and the expression of the features indicate her 
sympathy. The maidservants who served their mistresses 
so faithfully during life guarded their place of rest after 
death, simple pictures of pathetic devotion. 


The so-called Alexander Sarcophagus of Sidon 
Imperial Ottoman Museum, Constantinople 

In the spring of 1887, in searching for building stone on the 
Necropolis of ancient Sidon (Saida), an extensive subter- 
ranean burial ground was discovered by accident. It was 
carefully excavated by the Turkish government, and was 
found to contain seventeen sarcophagi, that were brought to 
the Imperial Museum at Constantinople. The largest and 
most richly decorated is that called the Alexander Sar- 
cophagus from the figure of Alexander the Great which 
appears in its reliefs. 

Plate XXXVII. shows the reliefs on the front in two parts 
and Plate XXXVIII. gives the whole sarcophagus from the 



Fig. n. Head of a Persian. 

back; the last stood in the burial chamber near the west 
wall. The narrow north side is here visible very much fore- 
shortened. The principal side was turned to the east 
towards the open part of the chamber; it differs from the 
back in the greater richness of the relief, which contains 
eighteen human figures and eight horses, while the other 
shows only eight men and five animals. But the care and 
delicacy of the execution is the same on both sides. 

This sarcophagus, on account of its size (the figures of the 
principal relief are 58 centimetres high) and the richness of 
its ornament and figure work, is one of the finest and most 
important antiques in existence. It is in such excellent 
preservation that even the rich colour of the painting is 
in many cases still evident. The relief panels of the longer 
sides measure 2.80 metres each. 

The purely decorative ornament of the sarcophagus belongs 



^ - 






' 1 


^L. ^\ 








Fig. 38. Head of Alexander. 

to the Ionic style. The actual body of the bier is in the 
form of a wooden box richly ornamented with beadings and 
fillings. The latter consist of the high reliefs. The lid of 
the box is in the form of a temple pediment with an Ionic 
entablature. Below the dentils runs a frieze of naturalistic 
vine leaves. At the time of the execution of this sarcophagus 
this naturalistic ornament was something new; later on we 
find it frequently on various vessels. The sima is decorated 
with triple horned lions' heads that are of the type of the 
Persion gryphon. This gryphon was considered by the 
Greeks as specifically Persian; the lion-gryphons appear 
complete on either side of the palmettes of both acroteria, 
and also painted on the saddle cover of the Persian on the 
northern narrow side of the tomb. Two lions act as corner 
acroteria. The roof is decorated with female heads crowned 
with rushes, which seems to be connected with the dancers 
in certain cults. The same heads occur along the top, but 


Fig. 39. Head of Alkxanuer. 

here they alternate with eagles that are broken off and lost, 
except for some insignificant remains. 

The whole is constructed of two massive blocks of Pen- 
telican marble. 

The relief on the back, Plate XXXVIII. (the principal 
group larger on Plate XXXIX.), shows a lion hunt in which 
Persians and Greeks take part. In the centre a man, by his 
clothes as in type of head (fig. 37) characterised as a Persian, 
is attacked by a lion. The lion, not very naturalistically 
treated, has sprung on the horse and is lacerating the latter's 
chest. The Persian points his spear at the beast. This 
spear was of metal and separately affixed; it is together with 
all other metal objects (weapons, clasps, etc.) lost. Five men 
come to the help of the Persian in distress, another Persian 
on foot who aims a blow at the lion with an axe being the 
first. As in the case of the rider the Persian costume is here 
quite distinct; it consists of tight coloured trousers and coat 
with narrow sleeves and a mantle, also provided with sleeves, 
which, however, is not put on; it is the " Candys " that 

TOMBS 137 

flutters in the wind and is only worn properly, with the arms 
in the sleeves, on parade before the king. (Cf. Xenophon, 
Cyropaedia, 8, 3, 10). The head is wrapped in a soft 
" tiara " which covers the lower part of the face almost to 
the nose. Two horsemen in Greek dress hasten to the aid of 
the Persian with spears (now missing). They wear chiton 
and chlamys, the left-hand one has tight sleeves to his chiton. 
This rider wears a band in his hair which distinguishes him 
from the other; his face is full of energy and strength, but 
without any really individual portrait features (see fig. 38). 
In fact his features are those of the typical Heracles of Attic 
art. There certainly can be no question of a resemblance 
to the individual features of reliable portraits of Alexander 
the Great. The growth of the hair is utterly different and 
is typical for athletes and Heracles. 

Yet it is highly probable that the rider on the left of the 
Persian is intended for Alexander the Great, for this reason. 
On the other side of the sarcophagus (Plate XXXVH.) is a 
figure that, though it bears no more resemblance to Alexander 
than the first, is yet recognisable by the lion's head and on 
account of the subject. A great battle between the Mace- 
donians and the Persians is there represented, and Alexander 
is obvious by the lionskin (head, fig. 39). But this also gives 
the clue to the source whence the artist has obtained his 
notion of the appearance of the great king. Not from actual 
portraits — or he had never produced such a poor likeness — 
but from the coins of Alexander with the youthful head of 
Heracles. We know that this was considered a portrait of 
Alexander in Hellenistic times; but this sarcophagus shows 
that the popular error goes back to the time of Alexander 
himself. The Heracles head on the coins was not in the 
least intended for a portrait of Alexander, but merely repre- 
sented the normal type of Heracles in the Alexandrine 
period; only through misunderstanding did it come to be 



Fig. 40. Head of a Persian. 

regarded as a portrait of the king, of whom it was known 
that he liked to identify himself with Heracles and sometimes 
appeared with the lionskin and club (Ephippos in Athenaeus, 
Deipnosophistai, xii. p. 537 et seq.). 

The fact that the artists at work on the sarcophagus were 
not acquainted with actual portraits of Alexander and 
presumably used that on the coins is also of great importance 
in that it shows that those who looked for the artists in the 
circle of Lysippus were on a false track. This mistake was 
formerly quite general and the only doubt was between the 
two chief pupils of Lysippus, Euthycrates and Eutychides. 
But artists in the Lysippan circle would be perfectly familiar 



mu < | i»i i ( 

..^> «A* -■-. .. - , 

Fig. 41. Battle Group from the front of the Alexander Sarcophagus. 

with actual portraits of Alexander, for which Lysippus was 
famous. In addition to this it would not be customary to 
commission a decorative work like our sarcophagus from 
Lysippus and his school who practised the higher art of cast- 
ing in bronze. On the other hand, some Attic studios were 
purposely adapted for this kind of work. So that as the 
material of the sarcophagus is Attic marble we can no longer 
doubt that the artists also belonged to the Attic school. 
The style of the sculpture supports this assumption most 
decidedly. The invention of motives and the execution of 
detail, particularly in the heads and the drapery, shows that 
the artists were the immediate followers of the Attic masters 
who adorned the tomb of King Mausolus at Halicarnassus 
with their marble work. At the same time we must refrain 
from thinking of one of the great names; to Leochares, for 
example, who had portrayed Alexander himself, the repre- 
sentations on this sarcophagus are not to be attributed. 

There is a sarcophagus in the museum at Vienna which in 
execution is related to the Sidonian, and must have originated 
in the same Attic circle. It represents battles with Amazons. 



Fig. 42. Head of a Persian. 

While it was falsely believed that the marble of this Viennese 
sarcophagus was Peloponnesian there was some support for 
the theory that the Alexandrine sarcophagus was of the same 
origin. But this Vienna coflin came, as has been recently 
proved, from Soloi in Cyprus, and its marble is not Pelopon- 
nesian but Pentelican like that of the Sidonian. Both works 
sprang from the same group of Attic artists who were at work 
on commissions for the East. 

But let us return to the consideration of the hunting scene 
on this Sidonian sarcophagus. The other horseman who 
gallops up from the right must be a companion of Alexander; 
to designate him with certainly as Hephaestion or Craterus 
is going too far, for the artist has not in any way individualised 
him; he has given him a head of a general athletic type, the 
same as he has used for the youth following him on the right. 

The figures at the left extremity of the relief are still con- 
nected with the central scene. Behind Alexander a nude 
figure hurries to help with a piece of drapery over his arm. 

h- < 


















cot^^^^" U«i^^^^ 



Fig. 43. Head of a Macedonian. 

The action of running is admirably seized. No less excellent 
in action is the next figure, the Persian with the bow. With 
his left hand he holds the bow, with his right he pulls the 
string; the sleeves of the candys flutter behind him. At 
the right-hand end are another Greek and Persian, but not 
connected with the main incident. Here is a separate 
incident, the slaying of a stag. The latter is seized by the 
Greek youth in the chlamys and threatened with the (lost) 
spear; the movement is more graceful than convincing. The 
Persian swings his axe in an action similar to that of him 
behind the lion. His pose exactly corresponds to that of the 
archer at the other end, and gives to the whole picture a 


symmetrical balance. Three hounds, one of which has the 
lion by the hind-leg, complete the picture of a lion hunt in 
which Alexander the Great appears as the companion of a 
Persian noble. 

Both human and animal figures are executed with the 
same delicacy and completeness; the heads are full of 
animation and excitement. The effect is greatly increased 
by the painting which is almost completely preserved. It 
extends to the whole of the draperies, the hair, the eyes with 
eyebrows and lashes, and the lips. The flesh, on the other 
hand, is not painted, only tinted. Six colours have been used 
— violet, purple, red, red-brown, yellow, and blue. Par- 
ticularly effective is the painting of the eyes in which the 
artist has attained an extraordinary force and intensity 
(fig. 40). We realise in this example what we have lost in 
that the painting of the antique marbles has as a rule 

The principal side of the sarcophagus (Plate XXXVII.) 
represents a great battle between Persians and Macedonians 
(the central group is also shown on fig. 41), in which Alex- 
ander and two companions on horseback occupy the two 
extremities and the centre. The crowd of figures who are 
sometimes three deep gives an admirable impression of the 
tumult of the fray. The relief achieves in this respect a pic- 
torial perspective in the background which was at that time 
quite new. While the relief at the back is treated in the 
traditional manner of the frieze, here something new is 

The figure of Alexander with the lionskin has been already 
described. He is directing his spear (missing) at a distin- 
guished Persian, whose horse is down on its knees, who 
is defending himself with the weapon in his right hand (the 
head of this Persian is shown on fig. 42). A similar group 
appears on the famous Neapolitan mosaic from Pompeii, 

TOMBS 143 

which is copied from a painting of the Alexandrine period. 
A comparison shows, however, that the artist of the sarco- 
phagus has divested the scene, which must have been known 
to him, of its individual character. The sarcophagus is 
altogether generalised and idealised in comparison with the 
historical and detailed accuracy of the picture copied in 

On the right follows a fight between a Persian and a 
Macedonian. Behind the latter a Persian archer aims in the 
direction of Alexander. In the foreground a Persian begs 
for quarter from a mounted Macedonian, in whose generalised 
youthful head the portraits of Philotas, Hephaestion, or 
Craterus have been mistakenly perceived. An almost naked 
young Greek seizes the bridle of a galloping Persian (his 
nudity is another sign of the general heroic character of the 
scene), while in the foreground a Persian shoots his bow 
towards the right, whence a Macedonian with a determined 
mien and in full armour rides up (fig. 43). Here again a 
portrait has been supposed and the elderly man has been 
called Parmenion, the most noted general of Alexander. 
Between is the fine group in which a Persian on foot snatches 
a wounded companion from his horse. Besides the above- 
mentioned figures there are four fallen Persians and a dead 
naked Greek on the ground. 

The narrow sides of the sarcophagus are composed in the 
simpler style of the back. They repeat the same theme, but 
without Alexander and more prominence to the Persians. 
The northern side shows another struggle between Persians 
and Macedonians. A Persian chief on horseback forms the 
central incident. Both Macedonians and Greeks are here, 
contrary to reality, but in accordance with the heroic style, 
represented nude. 

The southern narrow side shows another hunting party, but 
composed of Persians alone; this time the hunted animal 


is a panther. Both pediments contain reliefs, on one side a 
battle between Persians and Greeks (Alexander has been 
identified here but obviously wrongly), on the other side an 
encounter between men in Greek costume, presumably 
Macedonians and Greeks. 

The last-mentioned scene has been thought to illustrate 
all the murderous deeds of the time of Alexander and the 
Diadochi; but in our opinion the explanation of all the 
reliefs has gone astray by starting from the false premise, 
that the pictures represent definite incidents from the life of 
the person for whom the sarcophagus was destined. Starting 
from this assumption every commentator has busied himself 
with finding an historical name for as many of the figures in 
the reliefs as possible. 

Thus one interpretation recognises with great certainty the 
Greek Laomedon of Mitylene as the " lord of the tomb," who 
would then be shown by the artist at one time in Persian 
costume and provided with a moustache and at another in 
Macedonian dress with a clean-shaven face ! Indeed the sarco- 
phagus has been thought to contain such an accurate illustra- 
tion of the life of this Laomedon that it has been called a 
" new historical source " for details of the history of the 
Diadochi ! Another interpretation gives Cophen, the son of 
Artabazus, a distinguished Persian, as the " lord of the tomb," 
and considers the reliefs as accurate illustrations of the life 
of this man. These are all worthless fancies, and arise from 
a complete misunderstanding of the artistic character of the 

We have already noticed that Alexander is represented on 
the two long panels. This identification, which took place 
immediately after the discovery, is in our opinion the only 
one that is justified. All the other figures are not only 
nameless for us, but probably were so for the artist himself. 

The presence of Alexander certainly gives an historical 




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TOMBS 145 

character to the reliefs; but they are historical in a very- 
narrow but typically Greek sense, a general, broad, idealised 
history. Alexander is the only actual individual that appears 
here, and he seemed even to his contemporaries as a sort of 
demi-god; beside him are only representatives of classes, 
no persons. It is useless to try to give a name to the 
battle as that of Issus or Arbela, to distinguish individual 
Macedonians and Persians, or to recognise in one of them the 
*' lord of the tomb; " the artist has merely aimed at a repre- 
sentation of a battle between Alexander and the Persians 
in a truly Hellenic generalised manner. The hunting scene 
shows Alexander after the conquest of the Persians: he 
consorts in a friendly manner with Persian nobles and joins 
in their hunting expeditions; this picture, too, is of a typical 
and general character. Persian nobles hunting, battles 
between Persians and Macedonians and Greeks, together 
with those between Greeks and Macedonians (these are shown 
in the small reliefs), all combine to give a picture of the life of 
the time, but with typical and not individual figures, with 
general incidents and the introduction of unhistorical heroic 
treatment of dress. 

Did the sarcophagus really illustrate events accurately in 
time and place as has been suggested, in complete defiance of 
the principles of Greek art, it would be in opposition to every- 
thing that we know of the style of Greek tombs; only if the 
historical is translated into typically general terms does this 
sarcophagus take its place in the history of art. 

The pictures show unequivocally that the aim of the 
artist was not the representation of Greeks and Macedonians, 
but of Persian nobles of the time of Alexander, hunting and 
fighting. The decorative ornament of the coffin corresponds 
with this in its constant use of the Persian gryphon. And 
this fits particularly the designation of the sarcophagus as 
deduced from the place of its discovery. 


This last has been the subject of a lively controversy. At 
first it was even assumed that the sarcophagus was destined 
for Alexander the Great himself; then a Macedonian general 
was suggested, as Parmenion or Perdiccas, or a Syrian gover- 
nor, or, lastly, a distinguished Persian like Artabazus or 
Mazaios, as it was assumed that the sarcophagus was in- 
tended for Egypt or Babylonia, and only by some accident, 
such as sale or robbery, arrived in the place of its discovery 
at Sidon. This assumption is quite arbitrary and indefen- 
sible. Everything points to the fact that the sarcophagus 
was executed for the place in which it was discovered. 

It stood in a spacious burial chamber together with 
three others, apparently the work of the same hand as 
the large one; they are decorated with pure ornament, 
the delightful frieze of vine leaves appears on all. On two 
of them there are Phoenician letters to mark the position of 
the cover; this shows that the execution of the sarcophagi 
took place on the spot, where the Attic masters employed 
Phoenician stone masons for the mechanical part of the work. 
This explains their wonderful preservation, which would be 
difficult to account for unless they came direct from the 
workshop to the sepulchre. The latter is the most recent of 
seven chambers which lead out from the same shaft; the 
consecutive arrangement of these chambers can be distinctly 
traced, it is in full accord with the order of the seventeen 
sarcophagi according to their style. The whole plan is 
arranged with careful regard to an older grave in close 
proximity, on the cofiin of which is an inscription with the 
name of a Sidonian king, Tabnit, who lived about the end 
of the sixth century b.c. The tombs lie all together on an 
hereditary burial ground; according to the inscription of the 
oldest it is the vault of the kings of Sidon. The absence of 
inscriptions on the other coffins cannot be adduced as 
evidence to the contrary, as they are more recent, and the 

TOMBS 147 

custom of putting inscriptions on underground tombs will 
have fallen into disuse. Still less important is the absence 
of the golden diadem; the gold band on the tomb of Tabnit 
is not a symbol of royalty, but an ornament usual in that 
period which occurs on many other (not royal) tombs. The 
so-called Alexander sarcophagus is therefore to be regarded 
as that of a Sidonian king. It is, together with three smaller 
contemporary coffins, the last and most recent in the collec- 
tion; it must be that of Abdalonymus, the last king of the 
Sidonian dynasty. This well-defended proposition of a Ger- 
man scholar, Franz Studniczka, is most probably correct. 
The recent decision of the date of the sarcophagus (which is 
then attributed to a rich Sidonian merchant who had bought 
it second hand) by means of a didrachma of Ptolemaeus Soter 
of about 230-217 discovered on the floor of the burial chamber 
is a mistake. For this coin can only give a " terminus ante 
quem." As the burial chamber must certainly have been 
visited at least by grave-robbers there is nothing surprising 
in this discovery. Abdalonymus was set upon the throne of 
his fathers by Hephaestion at the bidding of Alexander 
about 333 B.C.; rich treasures and an extension of territory 
were given him at the same time.^ 

Besides this we only know of him that he once sent some 
exquisite perfume ([Mvpov) to Alexander. Great deeds he 
certainly did not achieve. It were a mistake, on the lines 
of the false premises referred to above, to recognise scenes 
from his life on the sarcophagus. He himself does not appear 
in the reliefs, the aim of which is more general. We have 
also already remarked that the orientals there represented 
are purely Persian in type and costume and not Semitic. But 
the nobility, so to speak, to which class the Sidonian king was 
reckoned, were the distinguished Persians who surrounded 
the king, the class in which his predecessors were honoured 

^ Curtius Rufus, History of Alexander the Great, iv. i, 16-26. 


with a high place. To depict this class in the condition 
brought about by the conquest of Alexander was the task 
of the Greek artist. The Sidonian prince thus receives a 
distinguished decoration on his tomb, which bears little 
relation to him personally, but which characterises the class 
to which he was proud to belong. But as at that time this 
class received its light from Alexander, as from the sun, so his 
figure could not be left out of the reliefs.^ 

In giving the commission for his tomb to a Greek, the 
Sidonian king only followed the tradition of his house. 
Discoveries have demonstrated that his forefathers and all 
the distinguished Phoenicians from the fifth century always 
employed Greeks for their tombs, who for a long time had 
to follow the Egyptian form, but later were allowed to use 
their own Greek style quite freely. 

The artist has approached his task in a thoroughly Greek 
spirit. Ignoring all that is small and personal, with only a 
broad generalisation in his mind, he has given us an idea of 
the history of his time from the point of view of one of the 
great men of the east, conquered by Alexander and willingly 
recognising him as his lord. 

We do not know when Abdalonymus died. The extremely 
unsettled condition of Syria, the style of the sculpture and 
the portrait of Alexander being executed without acquaint- 
ance with a genuine likeness, and finally the contents of the 
reliefs all speak for a relatively early date for the sarcophagus, 
perhaps even in the lifetime of Alexander. It is also not 
impossible that the Sidonian ruler, like Mausolus of 
Halicarnassus, chose his tomb during his reign and had it 
completed under his own personal supervision. 

^ This also accounts for the introduction of the fights between Greeks and 
Macedonians, which might well seem to the artist appropriate to the completion 
of a general picture of the time (cf. p. 145). 



Greek sculpture in the round developed in the fourth 
century B.C., and in a greater degree in Hellenistic times, a 
marked extension of subject matter. Whilst the subjects of 
earlier times were with few exceptions immediately connected 
with religion, with daily life, or the cult of the tombs, there 
now grew up in the flourishing commercial towns of Asia 
Minor and the islands, in the decoration of the palaces of 
Hellenistic princes, in their extensive parks and gardens, new 
tasks or a new treatment of old tasks. So there arose 
innumerable decorative works in the round that were either 
set up independently in the open or in relation to buildings. 
The subjects were taken partly from mythology and partly 
from the old heroic legends already familiar in paintings and 
reliefs, which had been kept alive by the old epic poetry and 
the drama, and were still treated in contemporary literature. 
As statues of this kind appealed to the artistic taste of the 
Romans, and were suitable for the decoration of private villas 
and gardens, or for public places like the Thermae and the 
theatres, many Greek originals found their way to Rome or 
were copied there, so that a large number of works of this 
kind have been preserved. The legends represented lent 
themselves to treatment in animated groups, in which a 
powerful sense of the dramatic is revealed. It is true that 
two or more figures were sometimes combined in archaic 
sculpture, but only placed side by side or facing one another, 
or loosely connected. The representation of complete 
groups in the round either separately or as parts of a cycle, 



formerly only found on the pediments and acroteria of 
temples and rightly regarded as the most difhcult problem 
of sculpture, is the great achievement of Greek sculpture of 
the fourth century B.C. The groups of Irene and Plutus 
(Plate XXI.) and Hermes and Dionysus (fig. 21) give an 
agreeable picture of the relations of children to adults, but 
do not exhibit a closely united composition. On the other 
hand, viewed from a purely artistic standpoint, the group 
of wrestlers at Florence belongs to this class though separated 
by its subject and destination (cf. p. 121). The earliest and 
at the same time the most artistically important of the 
examples here given is the meeting of Niobe and her youngest 
daughter (Plate XL.). This formed the centre of a group 
with the children hurrying up on both sides, which may have 
been set up in a temple of Apollo or Artemis or in a temple-like 
sepulchre in Asia Minor; as a plastic representation of the 
transitory nature of earthly happiness it would be most 
appropriate to a grave. The terrible story of the fall of this 
flourishing family is told by Homer in verse, dramatised by 
Aeschylus and Sophocles, and was already treated in the art 
of the fifth century B.C., so that it was kept alive in the 
memory of the people. The rescue of the body of Patroclus 
by Menelaus (Plate XLI.), a picture of true heroism, the 
Odysseus (Plate XLIII. and fig. 47) setting out on some 
adventure, together with the Laocoon (Plate XLIL), bring 
before us the battles of Ilion. The originals were probably 
fragments of an extensive Homeric cycle that were set up in 
a row or in associated groups. The Laocoon group, that only 
dates from about 50 e.g., bears throughout the impress of 
Hellenistic art. It probably occupied at one time a niche 
outside some building of a religious or secular character. And 
if the interpretation proposed by Winckelmann of the group 
by the artist Menelaus (Plate XLIV.) is right, we may assume 
that the scene of the meeting of Orestes and Electra at the 





grave of their father, so simple and moving and in close 
relation to the tragedies of Aeschylus and Sophocles, at one 
time adorned a Roman theatre. In its quiet and reverent 
character it forms a marked contrast to the animation and 
movement of the other groups; it is also separated from 
them in point of time, as the work is from an eclectic school 
working at Rome in the first century b.c. and a.d., which 
copied older Greek figures or arranged new groups from them. 
" The divine treasure of Hellas, the ancient heroic legends," 
the epos and drama have supplied the material for these 
groups of statuary. In reading Greek and Roman poetry 
they receive a new importance, sculpture and song illustrate 
each other. On artistic grounds these groups excite our 
admiration in their complete mastery over the technical 
difficulties of massing and architectural grouping of the 
figures, the choice of the impressive moment, and the re- 
strained pathos in the expression of emotion, which remain 
an example for all times. 



Marble Statue. Uffizi Gallery, Florence 

Niobe is with her youngest daughter; they have run to 
meet each other. The frightened daughter has sunk with 
arms outstretched at her mother's feet. The mother stoops 
and clasps her daughter to her with her right hand; with her 
left she raises her mantle to protect her child from the 
arrows that whiz through the air from above. For on high 
and invisible are Apollo and Artemis, slaying the children 
of Niobe to avenge their insulted mother. 


Niobe, the daughter of Tantalus, honoured like him by 
intercourse with the gods, like him presumed, and insolently- 
deemed herself superior to Leto, the mother of Apollo and 
Artemis, because she was blessed with a larger family. She 
must pay for her presumption with the loss of all her 
children. In speechless agony she turns her eyes to the sky 
whence the evil comes. The noble form that held itself 
erect among the gods is now bent low. She stoops before a 
superhuman power that beats over her like a storm. All the 
sorrows of this mortal world are united in her agonised upward 

The scene of the tragedy is a rocky mountain. The 
groimd is uneven and slopes upward to the right. As the 
mother is hastening in this direction her youngest child 
throws herself in her way and holds her back. The child's 
body is half turned and her head fully turned towards the 
spectator. The figure is treated in the manner of a relief 
and is only meant to be seen broadly from the front. It 
forms the centre of a large group; from right and left the 
frightened children hasten to their mother, further off follow 
wounded and dying. The mother towers above them all. 
In proportion to her the children are all modelled too small, 
in order that she shall dominate the composition. The group 
never decorated a pediment nor was it set up quite free in the 
open, but was probably placed between the columns of some 
building, perhaps a tomb in Asia Minor, in the intercolumnia- 
tion of a narrow peristyle near the wall of the cella. 

Copies of a great part, but not of the whole group, have been 
preserved. The statue of Niobe and other parts of the group 
were found in 1583 at Rome, in the neighbourhood of the 
church of the Lateran on the Esquiline, where at the time of 
the empire the parks and villas of the nobles were situated. 
They are not very well executed, but may be regarded as fairly 
faithful copies. They are now in the Uffizi at Florence. 



Fig. 44. Head of Niobe. 

Pliny {Naturalis Historia, 36, 28) mentions the original as 
situated by the Temple of Apollo next to the Theatre of 
Marcellus on the Campus Martins at Rome. He reports that 
it was disputed whether it was by Scopas or Praxiteles. 
Thus in Rome the artist was no longer known. We may 
agree with the connoisseurs of that time in so far as the work 
certainly belongs to the schools of Scopas and Praxiteles and 
to the prime of Attic art in the fourth century b.c. The 
pathos expressed in the faces is peculiarly related to Scopas. 
But it is not likely that the group was really by either Scopas 


or Praxiteles. It combines the styles of both artists and 
is therefore probably the work of a third unknown master, 
one of the many Attic artists then working in Asia Minor.^ 
Thence the originals were brought to Rome by Sosius, 
probably consul in 32 b.c, who acted as legate under 
Antonius in Syria and Cilicia in 38; they were then dedicated 
in the Temple of Apollo restored after glorious victories 
in 35 B.C. It is possible that Ovid, who designed the 
Metamorphoses before his banishment in a.d. 8, was 
acquainted with these sculptures when he described the 
killing of the Niobids and the punishment of Niobe. And 
indeed not only does the description of the children struck 
down by an unseen hand (vi. 218, et seq.) remind us of the 
statues, particularly the lines (vi. 298, et seq.)'. 

" (Filia) ultima restabat; quam toto corpore mater, 
Tota veste tegens, ' Unam minimamque relinque! 
De multis minimam posco,' clamavit, ' et unam! ' " ^ 

bring to mind the mother with the youngest daughter. But 
at the most it is merely unconscious imitation. For apart 
from actual differences between poem and statue, Ovid shows 
elsewhere so much graphic power that he might quite well 
have composed that Metamorphosis direct from the traditional 
legend. Nevertheless the comparison between art and poetry 
is in this case particularly interesting, and each helps to the 
understanding and appreciation of the other. 

1 The most recent hypothesis places the origin of this statue somewhat later, 
about 300 B.C. The whole arrangement of the drapery of the Niobid in the 
Museo Chiaramonti of the Vatican, which is regarded as a Greek original, has 
its nearest analogies in early Hellenistic work. 

^ " Only the last remained, whom her mother with her whole body 

Quite in her garments enwrapped, ' O leave me this one, the smallest! 
Of so many the least, I beg,' she cried, ' one only.' " 



LOGt;iA l)i;i l.AXZI, I-I.OREN'CE 


oow^"*- v*^' 




Patroclus and Menelaus 
Marble group in the Loggia dei Lanzi at Florence 

This over life-size group was discovered in the sixteenth 
century at Rome on the other side of the Tiber before the 
Porta Portese, the ancient Portuensis, out of which led the 
road to the harbour Portus established by the Emperor 
Claudius. Only the lower part of the group was preserved, 
but it has been restored ^ after a reproduction also in 
Florence in the Pitti Palace. It was bought by Cosimo I. de 
Medici in 1 5 70. At first set up at the foot of the Ponte Vecchio 
not far from the Pitti Palace, it found later a place of honour 
in the centre of the Loggia dei Lanzi on the Piazza Signoria 
among ancient and modern works, some of them very famous. 

An uncommonly strongly built, bearded warrior strides 
forward; his helmet is decorated with reliefs of centaurs and 
lapithae and with two eagles with outspread wings; he 
wears a chiton open at the side to give freedom of action and 
a sword belt over his shoulder. He holds his right arm 
across the body of a slender youth, whom, mortally wounded 
under the left breast and despoiled of armour and clothing, 
he endeavours to carry away from the tumult of the battle 
and the power of the enemy. The youth has fallen on his 
knees, his left arm hangs limp, his right lies on the left arm 
of his friend, who on his part supports the dead man with 
this arm also. The head of the rescuer turned to the side 
and back in the direction of the pursuing enemy is full of 
passsionate excitement, his mouth open and crying for help, 

^ The reproduction is from the completed cast in Dresden which, according 
to other repUcas, shows the correct pose of the head and arm ; in the original the 
former is lowered after the copy in the Pitti Palace, 


his eye full of sorrow and anxious care for the fate of his 
fallen comrade. The curly head of the youth hangs down 
helpless, his features still preserve the appearance of life. 
The rendering of the dead body is in itself a masterful piece 
of sculpture, the result of careful study from an actual corpse 
or from a model. Both figures arouse in the highest degree 
the sympathy of the spectator. 

The interpretation has been much disputed and even to-day 
is not generally agreed upon, though it has never been 
doubted that it is to be sought in the story of Troy. For a 
long time, on account of a passage in the little Iliad (Epicorum 
graecorum fragmenta coll. Kinkel i. p. 39, fragm. 2), the dead 
man was held to be Achilles and the rescuer Ajax. But it 
has been observed that in a fragment of a copy preserved in 
the Vatican the youth shows two wounds — one as in our 
group and another in the back between the shoulders — and 
this is considered a more faithful copy of the original. Thus 
the rescue of Patroclus by Menelaus has been recognised, as 
the former {Iliad, xvi., 806 et seq. and xvi. 821 et seq.) was 
mortally wounded in these very places. The high artistic 
worth of the statue can only be fully appreciated by a perusal 
of the sixteenth and particularly the seventeenth cantos of the 
Iliad. The limitations of sculpture have confined the artist 
to the representation of one incident from the varied scenes 
from the beginning of the fight to the burial of the corpse, but 
he has in a free treatment of the rescue of Patroclus by 
Menelaus summarised the contents of the seventeenth canto.^ 

The original work, whose fame and popularity is borne out 
by several sometimes excellent copies, mostly Roman,^ in 

* The incident suggests Iliad, xvii., 580, and xvii., 588 et seq.; but it is very im- 
probable that the artist Jiad these particular moments in his mind and illustrated 
them. The rape of the armour of Patroclus by Hector, which explains the com- 
plete nudity of the former in the statue, is related separately in Iliad, xvii., 122. 

* The Pasquino group, after which the Pasquillo poem is named, set up in the 
open near the Palazzo Braschi in Rome, is well known. This admirable work 
is a Greek copy. 


its naturalism and its strongly marked muscularity, has been 
compared with the Laocoon and connected with Pergamean 
art. It is also referred, on account of its general artistic 
excellence, its restraint in the expression of emotion, and the 
marked but not exaggerated development of the muscles, and 
finally on account of the beauty of the youthful figure which 
reminds us of the prime of Attic sculpture, to the last decades 
of the fourth century b.c. . With regard to the treatment of 
the body of Menelaus, a resemblance to certain works of 
Lysippan style may be noted; while in the expression of the 
face of the hero a connection with the art of Scopas may be 
traced. A similar group is certainly not to be found in that 
period; also the emphasis on anatomy and the prominence 
given to the pathos of the situation point to a later period, so 
that the original was probably Hellenistic about the third 
century b.c. This date is most appropriate to the treatment 
of form and the psychological conception as expressed in the 
heads. To give a more accurate date from the style is not 
possible. Nor in the absence of written evidence and re- 
lated monuments can the name of the artist be given or the 
occasion and place of its erection either as a separate work 
or in connection with other subjects from the Iliad. The 
worth of the work is contained in itself. The completeness of 
the composition, its compactness in spite of the contrast in 
action, and its pyramidal construction satisfy the eye, while 
the mind is seized and gripped by the dramatic subject, the 
sharp contrast in the situation and fate of both warriors, the 
act of heroic self-sacrifice, and the expression of psychological 
life. But this noble and powerful sculpture is also valuable 
because it brings before us the wars of Troy and awakens in 
our minds the memory of that glorious song, the Patrocleia. 


The Laocoon 

Marble. Over life-size. Vatican Museum {Cortile del 

Belvedere), Rome 

The most famous work of antique sculpture came to light 
in 1506 on the Esquiline, in the vicinity of the domus aurea 
of Nero. It is the fortunately well-preserved ^ group identified 
forthwith as that representing the famous narrative of Vergil ^ 
and praised by Pliny the Elder,^ the work of the Rhodian 
artists Hagesandrus, Polydorus, and Athenodorus. It was 
acquired by Pope Julius 11, immediately after its discovery, 
and from the beginning aroused the enthusiasm of famous 
artists. Michael Angelo praised it as a miracle of art and 
it had, together with the work of this artist, a powerful if not 
always favourable influence on the art that followed ; par- 
ticularly on Baroque sculpture in the rendering of the nude. 
Since the group has been widely appreciated and honoured 
in learned essays by Goethe and Winckelmann, and by 
Lessing in a treatise concerning the limitations of art and 
poetry, the true standpoint for judging the work has been 
to a certain extent displaced, so that the subjective view 

1 Apart from unimportant restorations, the right arm of the Laocoon, the right 
hand and wrist of the elder, and the right arm of the younger son are incorrectly- 
restored. The problem of the correct restoration has busied artists and archaeo- 
logists for some time. A version executed in the Albertinum at Dresden is shown 
in fig. 45. Professor Treu, to whom we are indebted for permission to reproduce 
this, does not consider the problem as definitely settled. The solution is now made 
easier by the discovery of the right arm of Laocoon from a somewhat reduced copy. 
A comparison of Plate XLII. with fig. 45 is interesting and, in view of the increased 
artistic understanding shown, instructive. They are typical examples of the 
old and the new restoration of antique sculpture. 

^ Aeneid ii. 199, et seq. 

* Naturalis Historia, 36, 37. As the house of Titus in which, according to Pliny, 
the work was set up was on the Palatine, it must have been removed. 












Fig. 45. The Laocoon. Restoration. 
Executed in the Albertinum, Dresden. 

is given more prominence than in the case of almost any 
work of art of the first rank. But the task of the archae- 
ologist is to settle the position of the work in its relation to 
other works of the same style, to judge its worth with a 
sober and unprejudiced eye. 

The original place from which the work was brought to 
Rome cannot be ascertained. The date of the group has been 


recently placed at about 50 B.C. in consideration of certain 
Rhodian inscriptions connected with the family of the 
artist, of which the date is fixed. The story here repre- 
sented was treated in a similar manner in the foufth cen- 
tury, and later in an epos of the poet Euphorion ^ from 
Chalcis in Euboea, librarian at Antiochia in Syria at the 
time of King Antiochus the Great (224-187). The action 
takes place on consecrated ground not far from the sea. 
Laocoon, the Trojan priest of Apollo Thymbraeus, who 
during the apparent retreat of the Greeks from Troy is 
sacrificing to Poseidon in place of the slain priest of that god, 
is together with his sons strangled by two snakes sent from 
the sea, in punishment of a former desecration of the shrine 
of Apollo. The solution of the difficult problem of com- 
bining five living creatures in one group is facilitated by the 
manifold windings of the serpents. The altar on the edge 
of which Laocoon ^ has sunk and is held fast forms a founda- 
tion for the construction of the group and at the same time 
indicates the place where the action takes place. In the act 
of presenting the offering father and sons are suddenly 
attacked by the serpents. The choice of the significant 
moment and the transient nature of the action constitute a 
high artistic achievement. The complete unity of the work 
and the way it is built up in a triangular form is particu- 
larly admirable in the restored group. Admirable, too, 
is the extreme simplicity of the composition and freedom 
from excess of detail which, in spite of the apparent 
regularity of the whole, shows lively contrast of action 
and expression. In the almost entire absence of drapery 
the artist has given full play to his skill in the hand- 
ling of the nude and thorough knowledge of anatomy. 

* Cf. Servjus to Vergil, Aeneid, ii. 201. 

* From a ridge round his head and remains of leaves behind the ears it has been 
concluded that he wore the laurel-wreath as priest of Apollo. 



Fig. 46. Head of the Laocoon'. 

Medical science flourished greatly in Alexandria and de- 
veloped particularly after the time of Ptolemy. The sculp- 
tors seem, to the advantage of their technique, to have 
borrowed its accurate observation of anatomy and physio- 
logy. In comparison with these great qualities isolated in- 
accuracies of proportion, such as the extreme length of the 
left leg of the father and the shortening of the left leg of the 
elder son, may be regarded as the excesses of genius rather 
than as actual faults. The smallness of the boys is probably 


intentional, in order to give the mighty figure of Laocoon 
greater prominence in the group. The almost obtrusive 
manner in which the sculptor exhibits his powers by emphasis- 
ing to an almost exaggerated degree the muscles of the body 
and the anguish of the soul cannot escape the observer. Our 
admiration is increased by a contemplation of the figures in- 
dividually. The whole attitude of the father, a powerful 
man in the prime of life, is occasioned by the sudden bite of 
the snake. Laocoon, who with all the strength of his arms 
is struggling with the coil of the snake, involuntarily con- 
tracts his abdomen and presses his ribs up, throws back his 
head, and gives vent to a groan which we almost seem to 
hear from this life-like piece of marble. Pain is imprinted 
in every furrow of his face, even in the disordered hair and 
beard, but most of all in the upturned eyes. In this up- 
ward glance there is, in spite of the grief of a weak and 
helpless soul, a certain feeling of resignation, the expression 
of a great and steadfast spirit. This masterly mingling of 
bodily and spiritual suffering has always been commented 
on and admired. The elder son looks up in horror at the 
fate of his father. This rhythmic figure is to a certain ex- 
tent free of the narrow bond which holds the group on 
account of a faint hope in the possibility of his release. The 
aspect of his face, quivering with pain, and the action of the 
hand seem to show that his thoughts are all of his father, 
scarcely at all of himself. We almost seem to hear the cry of 
pain and horror from out his open mouth (fig. 45). His head, 
like that of his father, is a characteristic example of powerful 
realism so typical of the art movement of that time. The 
younger brother, held firmly by the arm and leg, is incap- 
able of further resistance, and shows in the head thrown back 
helpless misery and the approach of death. The bold lines 
of this figure make it a considerable achievement of sculpture 
in the round. It reflects, perhaps more than the other 













H w 

C/) g 









members of the group, the characteristics of the Hellenistic 
Baroque style. 

The observant and critical eye running over different parts 
of the group constantly finds new qualities, new points of 
view. The beholder turns from details to the whole and 
then again to details. Thus he will find the truth of Winckel- 
mann's assertion that the wise man will always find here 
something to examine, the artist something to learn; and he 
will appreciate the words with which Goethe introduces his 
famous essay on the Laocoon: " A true work of art, like a 
work of nature, remains for ever beyond our understanding. 
We look at it and we are sensitive to it. It makes its im- 
pression, but it is never really known." But we must not 
seek too much of the group, nor attribute motives to the 
artist which are undemonstrable or improbable. Then we are 
enabled to appreciate the work to the full and, undisturbed 
by outside considerations, realise its worth. 


Marble Statue. The Doges'' Palace, Venice 

The head reproduced in the plate rests unbroken on the 
statue of Odysseus (iig. 47) in the archaeological museum of 
the Doges' Palace in Venice. It came there in 1584 from the 
Grimani collection. This excellent marble statue, half life-size 
(height- 0.98 centimetres), is a carefully executed copy of the 
second century a.d. after a lost original of the third to the 
second century B.C., a Hellenistic work probably of bronze. 
The supporting tree trunk against the right leg is an intro- 
duction of the copyist. He has hung a coat of mail over the 


tree, which has a very pleasing effect. This elegance and 
care in accessories is characteristic of the copies of the time 
of Hadrian and Antoninus. The round base, too, which 
although much patched is for the most part antique, is 
among the peculiarities of those copies. The legs, though 
broken, are essentially antique. The only important restora- 
tion is the right arm that together with the sword is quite 
new. Only the attachment of the upper arm is antique. The 
fore-arm must have been bent more in a forward direction, as 
the remains of a support on the right side of the body show. 
This must have at one time united the body with the fore-arm 
or the sword, that like the empty scabbard was also executed 
in marble. Of the sheath only the end is restored. The 
execution of weapons in marble, which were formerly 
separately affixed, is another characteristic of the period to 
which our copy belongs. In the left arm, only the hand 
and the end of the chlamys are modern. The head is, as 
already observed, unbroken and is admirably preserved, even 
to the nose which is only slightly damaged at the tip. 

This work shared with others of the finest and best pre- 
served of the antiques (like the Bolognese head of the Lemnia, 
figs. 7 and 8) the fate of being erroneously considered to be 
modern or at least entirelv worked over. As a matter of 
fact it is quite excellently preserved, and not even the head 
is in the least degree worked over. 

The hero is wearing the pilos, that was given him in later 
art as a sign of the wanderer and seaman; such a cap of felt 
was in reality worn by seamen. The pilos in this instance 
is not stiff and upright, but soft and close fitting. The 
chlamys is fastened on the right shoulder of the hero, the ends 
twisted round his left arm. The large round clasp on the 
right shoulder is adorned with a bust of Athena, the goddess 
who guided Odysseus through all his perilous adventures and 
whose favourite he was. (Cf. Homer, Odyssey, 13, 300, and 



Fig. 47. Marble Statue of Odysseus. 

3,218, et seq.) The goddess is represented with the Corinthian 
helmet and with the aegis on her breast. This detail is also 
of untouched antique workmanship, and it and the whole 
chlamys so correspond to the taste of the period in which 
the copy was executed, that we may consider the drapery 
and button as additions of the copyist in marble and the 
original bronze to have been quite nude. The empty sheath 
shows that Odysseus held the sword in the lost right hand. 
Pausing a moment in his hasty stride he turns his head and 
raises his left arm; the cautious hero stays his steps, scent- 


ing danger. He gazes piercingly into space. Breathless 
suspense holds him to the spot. The body is drawn in and 
the mouth opened as he holds his breath; the upper row of 
teeth is visible. The glance of the wide-open eyes is full 
of anxiety, the muscles of the forehead are contracted. He 
is not only looking, he is listening. Odysseus is not con- 
ceived in battle, but on an adventure which demands fore- 
sight and boldness, presence of mind and quickness of 
action; in fact, in just such a situation as fits the hero who 
united these qualities to an extraordinary degree. 

What adventure the artist had in mind it is not possible 
to state with certainty. Perhaps there was another figure. 
It might be a group of Odysseus and Diomedes, as these 
two heroes were frequently represented together in antique 
art, notably in the adventure of the carrying off of the 
Palladium. Odysseus was then characterised by his prudence 
and foresight, and Diomed by his courage. There are indeed 
representations of this kind in which Odysseus appears very 
like this statue. He might be then on his way to steal the 
Palladium. But it seems more probable that he is on his 
way to the camp of Rhesus, on the adventure described in 
the Doloneia of the Iliad. Certainly the idea is: he is 
striding through the night, starts, listens, and looks about 
him with his sword drawn and ready. 

The sculptor probably took his inspiration from painting. 
Subjects like this were treated in pictures long before they 
went over to sculpture. Hellenistic art itself, to which the 
original of our statue belongs, enlarged the subject matter of 
sculpture in the round by taking whole scenes from the 
heroic legends, which until then had only been represented in 
paintings. A group of the same type and tendency of 
Hellenistic art is the group of Menelaus rescuing the body 
of Patroclus (Plate XLL), in which the bearded head of the 
hero is allied in style to our Odysseus. In the same way 


there were probably fore-sha do wings of the Laocoon (Plate 
XLII.) in painting. 

Odysseus wears a short vigorous curly beard, and the crisp 
curls of his hair rise firmly from his forehead and cover the 
upper part of his ears. At the back the hair is rather short; 
this active hero has no flowing mane. The parting of the 
curls over the forehead is not in the centre, so that it gives 
an appearance of careless and not symmetrical dignity. 
With his curly black hair this Odysseus is a typical Southerner, 
as he is in character, while others of the Greek heroes seem to 
approach more to our Northern conceptions of a hero. 

The artist has known how to indicate the crafty, experi- 
enced, clever side of Odysseus, and combined with it strength 
and quickness of action. This is shown by the well-modelled 
but not high forehead, the piercing glance, the strong, rather 
curved nose, the small eloquent mouth. Everything be- 
speaks not the inexperienced dreamer, not the thinker, but 
the active man tried in the most varied experiences of life ; 
a psychological masterpiece, reflecting the power of the 
Homeric poetry, and the example of painting as well as the 
creative power of Hellenistic plastic art. For as the char- 
acter of Odysseus is clearly drawn by the poet, so he lived 
in the minds of the people and so he appears here in art. 



Orestes and Electra 
Marble Group by the artist Menelaus. Museo Nazionale, Rome 

This group was from the beginning of the seventeenth 
century in the Villa Ludovisi at Rome and only recently on 
the demolition of that villa taken to a new palace, the 
Museo Boncompagni. It is now in the Museo Nazionale. 
Nothing certain is known concerning its origin; that it was 
found on the site of the villa itself is only a surmise. 

A tall female figure clasps that of a youth who is a head 
shorter than herself. The woman lays her right hand on 
the shoulder of the boy whose left is round her waist. Their 
outstretched arms are both restored, but they could not 
have been very different. The woman stands firmly with her 
weight on her right leg; her body is turned towards the youth, 
on whom she looks down with sympathy and affection. The 
youth pauses in his stride; he rests on the left leg, the right 
is drawn back in the action of walking; he is looking up at 
the woman. The intention of the artist was obviously to 
indicate that the youth is approaching the woman who was 
already on the spot. The embrace and tender glance 
suggests that it is a meeting after a long separation. In 
order to give as nearly as possible a front view of the figures 
they are not turned so directly towards one another as two 
persons meeting each other naturally would be. A parting, 
a farewell is not intended, and the interpretations of the 
group that start from this assumption are therefore false. 

Two characteristic circumstances help towards a positive 
explanation. In the first place the difference of age 




COLLEGt ut io--i<AL ARTS 


between the two individuals, the woman must be older than 
the youth; secondly, the short hair of the woman, she must 
be in mourning — ^women cut off their hair as a sign of mourn- 
ing — and this circumstance must be very essential to the 
person in question, for the artist has made it her principal 

The most suitable and the only correct interpretation that 
arises from these circumstances is that of Winckelmann : 
it is the meeting of Orestes and Electra at the grave of 
their father. Electra is the elder. She, herself grown up, 
rescued the child Orestes from Clytemnaestra on the death of 
Agamemnon. Still a youth, Orestes has returned to his home 
to avenge his father. It is very probable that they appeared 
on the stage in the same relative proportions as they have 
in this group; indeed the artist has presumably adopted 
this exaggerated difference in height from the stage, to the 
conventional style of which it is most appropriate. Electra 
is in mourning; she appears on the stage with the mask 
KovpLfxoi 7!-ap9a'o<;, that is, she has a mask with short hair; 
since her father's death she has not ceased to mourn, and 
this is the most important feature in her character and is 
insisted on by all the poets. 

" After the first violent emotion of recognition follows a 
quieter joy, in which one tastes happiness and asks, ' Is it 
thou indeed ? ' This rare moment, when brother and sister- 
long for confirmation of their happiness, to which circum- 
stances give the greatest probability, although they parted 
from each other in such different forms, the group 
expresses in no uncertain way. . . . The youth looks 
anxiously up at his sister, she rests her eye more quietly on 
him, whereby her superior age is visible. . . . By her short 
hair she is recognisable as the unfortunate and, under pressure 
of her hard mother, independent and decided Electra." 
These are the words in which Welcker has established the 


interpretation of Winckelmann which he rightly calls the 
only correct one. To this may be added that, as Emil Braun 
has remarked, the marble support behind Orestes is not 
unintentionally given the unusual form of a stele; it indicates 
the grave of Agamemnon on which the tragic meeting takes 

Otto Jahn proposed what he considered a better inter- 
pretation, that of Merope with her son. Although this 
interpretation has met with much approval, it must be 
rejected. Merope recognised her son just after she had raised 
the axe to slay him as the supposed murderer of this son. 
It is difficult to reconcile this violent situation with the firm 
and quiet demeanour of the female figure in this group. The 
close cut hair too does not fit the character of Merope. For 
though inwardly sorrowing for husband and children she is 
a princess and married to the reigning king; she would not 
appear on the stage as Koi'pt^os, " with short hair," ^ but 
must outwardly appear as queen. Finally, the story of 
Merope was never nearly as famous as that of Electra : the 
spectator in ancient times could only have thought of 
Electra. For the rest the other groups that belong to the 
same school as this were chiefly concerned with Orestes, 
Electra, and Pylades. On the other hand, there are no 
sculptures extant that can with certainty be said to refer to 

The other interpetations of the group, Andromache and 
Astyanax, Penelope and Telemachus, Aethra and Demo- 
phoon, Aethra and Theseus, Deianira and Hyllus, Iphigenia 
and Orestes, and the rest are scarcely worth mentioning. 

The sculptor of the group has put his name on the support 

1 Although she is called " tristis " in Quintilian, ii, 3, T},, this proves nothing; 
in the passage referred to by Jahn " Merope " is only conjecture ; it reads " Aerope 
in tragoedia tristis." It is sufficient to refer to the epigram of Nicomedes on a 
painting of Ophelion {Anth. Pal. 6, 316) to realise that this " tristis Aerope" 
(sad Aerope) was a recognised type. 


against the leg of Orestes. There stands : MeveAaos, 
2Te(/)di'ou fxaOrjTip IttoUl. Stephanus, the teacher of the artist 
Menelaus, is known to us as a pupil of Pasiteles, who lived 
in the time of Pompey. So that Menelaus belongs to the 
beginning of the empire. He worked without doubt in 
Rome. The school to which he belonged usually copied 
older works or combined older single figures into groups. 
Probably our group arose in this way. There is in the Museo 
Torlonia in Rome a repetition of the female figure, but with 
an entirely different head. It is possible that Menelaus used 
for the female figure a model from the fourth century, and 
invented the composition, the type of head and the figure 
of Orestes. The drapery of Orestes agrees with this, as it is 
not Greek in form but is a favourite fashion of the time of 
the first Caesar. The widely approved suggestion that the 
whole is a copy of a Greek grave monument, where mother 
and son are united on their last resting-place, is ingenious but 
cannot be proved. 



The origin and development of Hellenistic art was to a 
great extent closely connected with the course of affairs of 
state after the death of Alexander the Great. The towns 
that in earlier times figured as the centres of artistic life, 
particularly Athens, passed into the background on account 
of their political weakness. The new residences of the 
realms of the Diadochi, Antiochia, Seleucia, and particu- 
larly Pergamus and Alexandria, and flourishing ports like 
Rhodes, became the centres of a new art movement very 
different in style and execution from the art of the past. 
For the increase of good living, the love of display, and 
altered taste gave many new opportunities to architecture, 
sculpture, and painting, and all the allied arts and crafts, in the 
erection and decoration of public buildings and gardens as well 
as the gorgeous establishments of wealthy private individuals. 
In the most important sculpture of this period, the colossal 
size, the boldness of the composition, and at the same time 
the masterly technique and the modelling of the nude based 
on an accurate knowledge of anatomy, call for the highest 
admiration. The effective realism and dramatic depth of 

simple and noble sculptures of the Parthenon, the charming 
creations of Praxiteles, soothe his mood and charm his eye. 
The distinguishing qualities of the style are united in what 
is artistically the most important work of this period, the 
Nike of Samothrace (fig. 48). It is generally regarded as a 











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Fig. 48. Nike of Samui iikalI', ^nuirblej. L^mivie, I'ans. 

votive offering of Demetrius Poliorcetes on the occasion of 
the victory in a sea-fight over Ptolemy,^ 306 B.C., set up in the 
shrine of the Cabiri, famous in the time of the Diadochi. On 
the prow of a ship the tall slender goddess shares the tumult 
of the sea-battle and announces the victory with a blast of 

^ This date, which is based on a similar iigure of the goddess on coins of 
Demetrius Poliorcetes, is by no means certain. The style of the draper^' points 
rather to a late Hellenistic period. 


Fig. 49. Head of a Barbarian (marble). 
Musee Royal du Cinquantenaire, Brussels. 

the trumpet, which only stirs the fighters to a more passionate 
and battle-thirsty mood. According to an attempted 
restoration the left hand holds as sign of victory a standard 
of the enemy. The inspired conception, rhythmic action, the 
exquisite rendering of the drapery fluttering in the sea breeze, 
perfect modelling of the female form, and complete mastery of 
marble technique all combine to make this marvellous torso 
one of the greatest masterpieces of Greek sculpture, or indeed 
of all art. 

The characteristic qualities of Hellenistic art appear dis- 
tinctly in one of the most brilliant monuments, the reliefs of 
the Battles of the Giants from the Pergamean altar and also 
in the more recent though related group of the Laocoon 
(Plate XLII.). They are also recognisable to a certain 








■ ^ 

r p f 

Fig. 50. Marble Kelief representing a Farmer driving his Cow to Market. 
Good Roman copy of Hellenistic original. Glyptothek, Munich. 

extent in the Menelaus with the body of Patroclus (Place 
XLI.) and in the head of Odysseus (Plate XLIIL). This 
highly dramatic artistic tendency reflects to a certain extent 
the powerful and forceful character of Hellenism and the 
personality of her princes, prominent in history, whose 
strong and energetic qualities are shown in their portraits 
(cf. fig. 59). It was the aim of these rulers to enhance their 
own fame and the glory of their rule by the erection of 
splendid and striking works of art. In this sense the 
extensive Pergamean monuments in memory of the conquest 
of the wild and warlike Galatians are to be understood. A 
copy of one of these is presumably preserved in the " Dying 
Gaul" (Plate XLVL, cf. also figs. 52 and 53). This is 






Fig. 51. Bronze Head of a 
Young Satyr. 

A fine original of early Hellenistic 
times. Glyptothek, Munich. 

an admirable example of the 
naturalistic art of the time and 
is particularly valuable as an 
intelligent conception and render- 
ing of a foreign type. On this 
account, too, the small head of a 
Barbarian (fig. 49) is of interest. 
Unlike many characterless copies 
this head still retains the charm 
of the original. In style it is 
related to the older Pergamean 
school, and therefore belongs to 
the third century B.C.; but it 
is possible that this movement 
lasted on into the second and 
even the first century b.c. 
" The head is from a battle group and belongs to a 
warrior, a fallen barbarian, who with a last effort of his 
failing strength strives to advance. His expression is 
full of energy, combined with the painful consciousness 
of defeat. The expression of the eyes is wonderfully 
telling, his wide-open mouth shows the upper teeth, his 
forehead is contracted over the eyes." There are signs of 
hair on his cheeks and upper lip. " His hair is short on 
the neck, but long on the crown. The long limp hair of the 
crown is combed from the left and back over to the right- 
hand side, and gathered over the right temple in a knot the 
point of which is unfortunately broken." Evidence shows 
that this fashion was Germanic ^ in quite early times, about 
the beginning of our way of reckoning, and later particularly 
characteristic of the Bastarnae. This statue has therefore 
been thought to represent a member of this tribe, and it is 
accepted that this nomadic people, who came from the upper 

* Cf. Tacitus, Gcvmania, 38. 


Vistula, arrived about the end of the third and beginning of 
the fourth century b.c. in the Pontus district. At any rate 
they were firmly established in 184 b.c. at the mouth of the 
Danube, joined themselves to the Galatians, and with the 
latter fought against the Diadochi; perhaps they them- 
selves fought with the Galatians. A powerful Hellenistic 
prince may have erected the monument in memory of some 
victory. It has been suggested that the monument cele- 
brates the Roman victory over the great Mithradates in 
whose army the brave Bastarnae served. But these are 
all merely hypotheses. The work is characteristically 
Hellenistic and a good example of the dramatic power of 
this style. 

Contemporary poetry had in many ways a strong 
influence on the subject matter of Hellenistic art. Besides 
the ancient legends that still lived in the minds of the people 
and were the subjects for poetry and sculpture (cf. Plates 
XLI. to XLIIL), many more remote myths, such as the 
lives and loves of the lesser gods of the Erotic, Bacchic, and 
Neptunic circles obtained great popularity through Alex- 
andrian poetry and contemporary works of art (cf. also 
fig. 51). The Idyll, the original achievement of Hellenistic 
poetry, in which the varying phenomena of natural lif^, the 
doings gay and serious of the country people are lovingly 
observed and faithfully rendered, had its counterpart in the 
genre-like productions of Alexandrine art. Many subjects 
from the life of the people, the fisherman with his catch, 
the farmer driving his cow to market (fig. 50), and others were 
faithfully portrayed. The colossal statue of Father Nile 
(Plate XL v.), surrounded by playful children, owes its 
inspiration to a similar attitude, giving plastic form to a gay 
and pleasant idyll. 



The Nile 
Colossal marble statue. Vatican Museum, Rome 

This statue was probably discovered in Rome under Leo X. 
not far from the S. Maria sopra Minerva in 15 13, together 
with a companion statue of the Tiber that is now in the 
Louvre. The two figures at one time adorned the shrine of 
Isis and Serapis in that district. I The Nile is the finest 
representation of a river in antique times, a model of 
innumerable imitations up to quite recent times. 

lie is not c-enceived as an mdependent god, but as a 
symbol of his element : the whole is an allegory of the river. 
The powerful figure is reclining at full length^, symbolising 
the quiet steady flow of the mighty stream. '^-Tne sixteen 
children who play round him represent the sixteen ells that 
the river rises when it reaches its highest level and brings the 
greatest fertility. The horn of plenty in his left hand with its 
fruits and corn indicates this fertility of the valleys watered 
by his floods, the wreath on his head, the sheaf of corn in his 
right hand have the same significance. The home of the 
river is indicated by the sphinx, which serves as a supporfv 
under the left arm;/ this figure represents Egypt in the same 
way as the she-wolf with Romulus and Remus signifies in 
the companion figure the home of the Tiber. The Egyptian 
stream is further indicated tiy: tte crocodile, with which 
some of the children on the left are playing. In the fore- 
ground by the left knee of the figure is an ichneumon that is 
about to attack the crocodile; the children are playing with 
this too. 

The watery element is not only symbolised, it is itself 



I— I 






represented. It streams from the left-hand side of the 
statue and pours itself over the whole of the base. On the 
front side, which is the only side visible in o«i^ illustration, 
there is only water with a few water plants. On the other 
sides of the base there are in the water battles of Nile horses 
and crocodiles, pigmies on boats that are threatened by such 
beasts, ichneumon, crocodile, and waterfowl, and on the bank 
cattle grazing. 

The climbing of the children shows the rise of the Nile.^ 
They are much restored; in nearly all of them the upper 
^art jof the bod^Js .i)£\y ajii.j^ some of them still more. 
/ - Tncir arrangement around the figure is not only symbolically 
appropriate, but also artistically effective. The contour of 
the principal figure is not in any way injured by the children, 
in fact the broad surfaces gain by the contrast, and empty 
spaces such as those by the feet and between the arm and the 
body are successfully filled. The group is excellent in its 
composition, vitality of motive, poetic imagery, and healthy 
playful humour. 

The well-preserved head of the river god wears an ex- 
pression of quiet gentleness, as beseems the mighty bringer 
of blessings. The flowing beard is modelled in wavy lines. 

Our statue, that was modelled in Rome at the same time 
as its com^nion the Tiber, is a copy of^nrofiginal executed 
in Alexandn^NCQOst probably iij^-^r^time of Ptolemy. This 
is shown quite aprai:tJn5ni the conception itself, in the 
familiarity withjJie'^lant~>ii4animal life of Egypt and the 
primitive freshness of the wholer~~~~The amiable character of 
the little children is also typical of the Alexandrine epoch. 

The allegorical conception of a river deity here carried out 
is foreign to Greek art before Alexander. This knew no 
reclining river gods resembling their element. These deities 
in older Greek art are not allegories of rivers, they do not 

1 Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 36, 58, etc. 

i8d greek and ROMAN SCULPTURE 

represent a natural element, but are living persons in their 
faith, like the other gods, whom they also resemble in their 
statues. The statue of the Nile is not only the finest, but 
■probably also the oldest example of the reclining allegorical 
type of river god. 


The Dying Gaul 
Marble statue. Capitoline Museum, Rome 

This statue has been for a long time well known and highly 
praised under the name of the Dying Gladiator. Of un- 
certain origin, it has been traced to have belonged as far 
back as the first half of the seventeenth century to the 
collection of the Villa Ludovisi, whence it came into the 
Capitoline Museum under Pope Clement XIL^ It is not very 
well preserved. Apart from lesser restorations the sword 
sheath and belt, with the part of the base belonging to them, 
are all new; undoubtedly the end of the horn is wrongly 
introduced in this place as it can only finish in a mouthpiece. 
The right arm is genuine but broken. 
/ A warrior mortally wounded below the right breast lies 
stretched out on a sloping base, a-SHtf-Jte-were-inodelled-for 
th£--dtght-liaAd.,,,side^-C)f -a^pediment. He has fallen on his 
large oval shield, beside him lies his curved horn broken in 

* The assumption that this figure and the " Gaul and his Wife" were found 
in the garden of Sallust, on the site of which the villa and park of Ludovisi stood, 
is not authenticated. The Galatian has killed his wife, who in the manner of 
barbarians has followed him to the fight, in order to save her from the pursuing 
enemy; he then thrusts his sword into his own throat to save himself from 
ignominy, turning his head full of fear and anger towards the foe. The expressive 
head (fig. 53) is a striking picture of tragic heroism and an artistic masterpiece 
of the Hellenistic epoch. 



^ •; 


I — 









I— ( 












cout^^*' ^^^^^^^ 



Fig. 52. Head of the Dying Gaul. 

two; the pose of his whole body, the supporting right arm 
with its out-turned hand, the contracted right leg firmly- 
grasped by his left hand all express his struggle with the in- 
creasing pain of the wound. Helpless and broken in spirit 
he hangs his head, his face full of pain and sorrow, but still 
preserving its savage mien and bitter rage (fig. 52). The 
nationality of the wounded warrior is in spite of the idealising 
influence of Greek art unmistakably expressed. For the 
slim, ^Spple^ youthful figure, of unusual height, his strong 
hard flesh covered with a thick skin, his body quite nude, 
wearing only the metal neck chain (torquis), his irregular 
features and coarse hair Glott€4-"mth gre^a^, all combine to 
give a clear picture or the appearance of a V i»aiatian according 
to,,.th:e----d<5se«ptions_iil_tlie_old writers.^ Presumably the 

* Polybius, History, ii. 29; Caesar, De Bella Gallico, ii. 30; Livy, Roman History, 
vi. 7; Diodorus, Library, v. 27, et seq.; Pausanias, Itinerary of Greece, x. 19, et seq. 



Fig. 53. Head of Galatian. 
From marble group " The Galatian and his Wife." Museo Nazionale, Rome. 

artist worked direct from a model of barbarian race or used 
a faithful copy from life. In any case it is a brilliantproof 
of the ability of Hellenistic art to create new types. We: feels 
sympathy for the fainting hero, who in this last struggle 
still shows the iiiflexrbie bravery of his tribe. Mortally 
wounded in the battle, he has stolen a little way from the 
tumult, and there on his shield he breathes his last, gazing 
at the horn with which he roused his comrades to the fight, 
now broken in two. This picture is developed by the 
observation of this single figure by itself. A relation- 
ship between the famous group in the National Museum at 


Rome, " The Gaul and his Wife," and the statue of the " Dying 
Gaul " has been inferred on account of the similarity of the 
subject and style; this inference is supported by the fact 
that they were both preserved in the Villa Ludovisi. Both 
works have been thought to be parts of an extensive battle 
monument that was erected in memory of victories over 
these warlike tribes; it is not decided if the originals them- 
selves were preserved, or good contemporary or later copies 
in bronze. From the style of the marble the place of origin 
has been thought to be Asia Minor, and more recently 
Ephesus or Tralles. In this kind of marble the kings of 
Pergamus ^ celebrated their military successes against the 
Galatians. An immediate connection between these two 
monuments is not absolutely authenticated, but on account 
of the similarity of the representation and the style it is 
almost beyond doubt. That they were executed during the 
period of the war that lasted from the beginning of the reign 
of Attalus I. until 165 B.C. is quite possible. A more accurate 
date could only be reached by a knowledge of the occasion of 
their foundation, by definitely fixing the historical events to 
the immortalisation of which these sculptures were meant 
to contribute.^ 

1 Attalus I. (241-197), Eumenes II. (197-159) (Pliny the Elder, Naturalis 
Historia, 34, 84. Inscriptions of Pergamus No. 20, et seq.). Neither remains of 
statues nor inscriptions from the bronze battle monuments mentioned by Pliny 
were discovered on the occasion of the Prussian excavations. Nevertheless their 
existence in Pergamus at some time or other may be regarded as certain. The 
monuments were either put up by Attalus and Eumenes at different times or all 
put up together by the latter ruler alone. A decision could be arrived at by 
more accurate chronological information about the bronze workers mentioned 
by Pliny — Isigonus, Pyromachus, Stratonicus, and Antigonus; this, however, 
is only possible in the case of Phyromacus and then only partly; he certainly 
worked under Eumenes, but he may also have worked under Attalus. The 
suggestion of " Epigonus " for the "Isigonus" of Pliny, 34, 84, is not verified, 
and so that it would seem that both artists worked on the monuments. 

^ Bases of monuments of this kind from the reign of Attalus have been dis- 
covered at Pergamus, which by reason of their inscriptions are datable; but their 
connection with the two works in Rome is not proved, even as their attribution to 
the old Pergamean school is not absolutely certain on grounds of style. 



According to ancient writers the beginnings of historical 
art among the Romans go back to the early days of the 
republic, about the end of the fourth or at any rate to the 
third century b.c. We are informed that in the second 
century particularly, victorious generals had their achieve- 
ments in war immortalised by wall paintings in the temples, 
or in panels, which, dedicated in shrines or openly set up 
and explained to the people, were borne in triumphal pro- 
cessions. From short accounts of certain of these pictures 
we perceive that the foundation for the later development of 
Roman relief sculpture lay in these. Two frescoes recently 
discovered in tombs at Rome, one (about the end of the 
republic) of a continuous row of scenes from the early 
history of Rome, the other (probably from the second 
century b.c.) with pictures arranged one above the other 
of some warlike event not yet identified, remind us in form 
and the latter also in contents of this later relief sculpture, 
and give evidence in support of the literary accounts of the 
old Roman paintings. At the same time, in their plain and 
faithful rendering of facts, they are of great importance as 
comparatively early evidence of the strong historical sense 
of the Romans. But these slight relics of painting appear 
of small account beside the innumerable monuments from 
the beginning of the time of the Caesars until that of Con- 
stantine, which were erected in lasting memory of military 
successes in various parts of the world. 




Fig. 54. Marble relief from the Arch of Trajan, Benevento. 
The emperor offering up a sacrifice. 

In Rome itself, apart from less important erections, there 
are three triumphal arches ^ and two columns ^ that to-day 
tower up as visible tokens of the Eternal City, Both styles 
of monument are to be regarded as high pedestals for the 
representation of the emperor to be set up on the summit, 
either as a single figure on the columns, or as the driver of a 
four-horse chariot on the arches. Both have the same origin, 
the glorification of the person of the ruler in war and peace. 
They both exhibit in their form and their sculptural 
decoration the mark of a thoroughly national character,^ 
The architectural simplicity and noble symmetry of the 
triumphal arches, which on account of their decided outlines 
tell out boldly from their surroundings, make a highly 
pleasing and satisfying impression. In the case of the 
towering columns on the other hand, the unusual form and 

1 That of Titus (single), that of Septimius Severus and Constantine (triple). 

* Those of Trajan and Marcus. Aurelius. 

' Phases of its development may be traced in Egyptian'ahd 'Gfeek art. 


Fig. 55. Marble relief from the Trajan Column, Rome. 
A Dacian regiment attacking a Roman fortress. 

immense height astonish at first, but do not achieve any 
permanent satisfaction. While in the first a division of the 
reliefs is made possible and overcrowding of the same difficult 
by the limitation and subdivision of the space, and a com- 
plete view of the whole is facilitated by the moderate height 
of the building, in the later the reliefs run in narrow stripes 
placed spirally from the bottom to a great height, and are 
only to a very small extent accessible to the eye.^ The real 
worth of the sculptures, both of the arches and the columns, is 
in the contents of the reliefs, which illustrate and complete 
the history of the Caesars from literary sources. They are 
an invaluable source of information concerning the life and 
culture of the state, particularly military matters, manner of 
armament, encampment, fortification, etc., and finally about 

'^ ' According to recent explanations, a papyrus, a painted picture-book without 
text, is here represented in marble. This is a probable conjecture that cannot 
be proved. 


Fig. 56. Sacrifice of a Sow to the Penates. 
Relief from the Ara Pacis. National Museum, Rome. 

the conquered races (figs. 54-56). Their artistic importance 
varies according to the time of origin of the individual 
monuments. The reliefs of the Ara Pacis Augustae ^ (fig. 56) 
and the Arch of Titus are characterised by moderation in the 
treatment of the scenes, quiet and dignified appearance of the 
persons, and the excellence of the portraits. In the reliefs 

1 The Altar of Peace, which the Senate erected on the Campus Martius to 
celebrate the return of the " restitutor orbis Romani " from Spain and Gaul 
Monumentuni Ancyranum, ii. 37); the date of its dedication falls between the 
years 13-9 B.C. The scene (fig. 56) relates to Aeneas, the ancestor of Augustus. 
He is about to sacrifice a pregnant sow to the Penates brought from Troy, after his 
arrival in Latium. To indicate the gods for whom the sacrifice is intended the 
Temple of the Penates restored by the emperor, in which the former are repre- 
sented as youths with spears in their hands, is with inoffensive anachronism 
introduced. The rite itself corresponds to the Roman type of such sacrifices. 
This cult of the Trojan Penates and the glorification of Aeneas was observed by 
Augustus and his time as a pledge of their mastery of the world. 


of the Trajan column the eye is disturbed by the confused 
swarm of scenes and figures and, in spite of the invention 
displayed, the complete absence of a general view of the whole, 
and finally by the arrangement, borrowed from painting, of 
two or more rows one above the other.^ Also the intentional 
prominence given to the deeds of the victor, the repression of 
the enemy, and brutality of subject become rather offensive. 
Great historical interest is attached to the life-like and 
characteristic representation of the barbarians on the reliefs 
of the Trajan and Marcus columns, in which there are in- 
dividual figures of men and women who even in defeat 
preserve a certain heroic appearance. One of the finest 
works in the round of this kind (if the interpretation is 
correct) is the statue of a " Mourning Barbarian Woman " 
(Plate XLVII.), that perhaps figured as the personification 
of a conquered people in a triumphal monument erected in 
Rome at the beginning of the time of the Caesars. From the 
point of view of artistic conception and admirable render- 
ing of a foreign nationality, it is a masterpiece. 

Mourning Barbarian Woman 

Marble. Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence 

This well-preserved- statue, over life-size, has become 
well-known under the false name of " Thusnelda." 
Traceable in the first half of the sixteenth century to the 
collection of the Delia Valle family, it came in the same 
century into the possession of the Medici and arrived later 

' Cf. Plates XLVIII. and XLIX. examples of the reliefs of the Marcus column. 
* impart from lesser restorations, the whole of the right fore-arm is new. 

^O^^^^O^u.. HAL ARTS 





in Florence, where in the Loggia dei Lanzi it has become 
deservedly famous. It is of the highest interest both from 
an artistic point of view and on account of its subject. The 
figure with its type of face that is neither Greek nor Roman 
has been rightly recognised as a mourning barbarian; but 
the generally accepted assumption that the statue as the 
personification of a conquered people adorned a triumphal 
monument at Rome cannot be proved in the absence of any 
account of its discovery or original destination. The 
possibility of an earlier origin, or of its being a copy of an 
ancient model of the Hellenistic period, still remains. The 
interpretation is favoured by the fact that similar figures 
appear beside a captured prince on the triumphal arch ^ at 
Arausio, to-day Orange, in Gallia Narbonensis, erected 
probably in the time of Tiberius. The Germanic women 
on the Marcus column have many points of similarity ^ in 
the matter of costume with the so-called Thusnelda, also 
the account of their characteristic dress in the well-known 
passage in the Germania^ of Tacitus, so that the name 
" Gallia devicta " or " Germania devicta " is the nearest we 
can arrive at in the light of the evidence to hand,* though 

^ Also on a Roman sarcophagus with battles between Romans and Gauls, 
preserved at Palermo, and on the base of the arch of Constantine at Rome. 

^ On a relief at Trieste from Cula near Philadelphia in Lydia, which according 
to an inscription is in honour of Germanicus or Gaius, a similar figure is designated 
as Tepfiavia (" Germania "). 

* Chap. 17. "... feminae . . . lineis amictibus velantur . . . partemque vestitus 
superioris in manicas non extendunt, nudae brachia ac lacertos " (" . . . the 
women . . . wrap themselves in linen . . . they do not extend the upper 
part of the garment to sleeves, arm and fore-arm are bare; " the addition: " sed 
at proxima pars pectoris patet " (" but the adjacent part of the breast is free ") 
does not mean, as in the " Thusnelda " and many other monuments, the baring 
of one side of the breast, but the exposure of the whole chest; this fashion is also 
shown in the costume of a German woman on the Marcus column. The covering 
of one breast may be a sign of mourning. 

* The suggestion of some heroine of tragedy, not Greek, as Medea, and that it 
was part of the architectural decoration of a Roman theatre, cannot be verified in 
our ignorance of the original destination of the statue. 


we must grant the possibility of some other conquered people 
being intended. 

A tall powerfully-built woman stands before us in an easy 
pose; in her decided outlines she is like a slender column or 
a well-grown tree, and in simple symmetry of form most 
appropriate to some architectural purpose. A rhythmic 
action is given to the quiet pose by the crossed leg and 
varied pose of the arms and the contrast of the vertical and 
slanting lines of the drapery. Her clothing consists of thick- 
soled shoes, a long garment girdled at the waist which leaves 
the arms and the left breast free; a chlamys-like cloak, which 
falls over the right wrist, is drawn round at the back over the 
left shoulder and, tucked under the left arm, hangs down. 
The pose and expression of the head have been rightly much 
admired. The parted hair hangs in long strands down her 
back; in front one or two stray locks hanging over the fore- 
head suggest the neglect due to sorrow. Her head is in- 
clined towards her right hand raised to her chin, a frequent 
gesture of sorrow. The fine oval face expresses deep sadness, 
silent submission to the inevitable fate of the conquered, but 
still preserves a certain noble dignity, a spirit unbroken by 
conquest, that must have earned the esteem of the victor, 
and still stirs the observer whose eye rests for long on this 
picture of noble sorrow. 

If the statue really represented a Roman original it would 
be a notable demonstration of the powers of Roman 
triumphal sculpture. But the figure shows the influence of 
a traditional type, the model for which goes back to the 
middle of the fourth century b.c. or even earlier. For the 
figure of the sorrowing woman appears on Attic tombs and 
again on the celebrated sarcophagus of the " Mourning 
Women " from Sidon in Constantinople in an almost precisely 
similar form. The original will have been used in Hellenistic 
times, perhaps at Pergamus, as the personification of con- 





^ S 

^ o 

3 o 

c " 



quered nations other than Greeks, and became the standard 
barbarian type in the time of the Romans for Greek artists 
or native artists under Greek influence in the sculptural 
decoration of their triumphal monuments. 


Reliefs from the column of Marcus Aurelius at Rome 

Piazza Colonna 

Two mighty columns still stand upright in Rome, covered 
with spiral bands of reliefs. Both relate to battles of Roman 
emperors with the sturdy tribes who threatened the empire 
from the north, from the Danube. Of more artistic im- 
portance is the column of Trajan, which celebrates victories 
over the Dacians; but on account of the subject that of 
Marcus Aurelius is of greater interest. It relates to battles 
with the Germanic people from the middle Danube during the 
so-called Marcomannic war. 

Out of the long series of reliefs of the Marcus column, four 
examples are here given on two plates. 

I. The Miracle of the Rain. — ^This relief is at the beginning 
of the long row. It is a famous one and the scene represented 
is fully recorded in our otherwise rather sparse accounts of 
the Marcomannic wars. The actual date of the occurrence is 
A.D. 174, though this has been wrongly doubted. It is with 
the events of the year 174 that the reliefs begin. They finish, 
however, as various circumstances go to prove, with the close 
of the war in 175. The erection of the column was in all 
probability decided on, and the decorations designed, on 
the occasion of the triumph over the Germani and the 
Sarmatae celebrated by Marcus in 176. 


The account of the miracle in 174 a.d. (Dio Cassius, 71, 
8 et seq.) is given as follows. The Romans were advancing 
in the land of the Quadi when they were surrounded by the 
enemy and cut off from water. They suffered in the pre- 
vailing heat the horrors of thirst. Suddenly a thunderstorm 
bursts out, bringing help to the Romans and harm to the 
enemy. Saved from annihilation by thirst they achieve a 
brilliant victory. The emperor wrote to the Senate that as 
this unhoped-for help came from divine sources — he does not 
define it more exactly — he had no hesitation in accepting his 
acclamation by the host as seventh emperor without the 
preliminary approval of the Senate. In the relief only the 
natural phenomenon is personified, no actual god, but a 
figure typifying the rainstorm. In this the winged god of 
rain-bearing winds, Notus,^ has been used as a foundation 
for the type. The rain itself is cleverly represented, stream- 
ing from beard and hair and arms in wavy lines. Notus is so 
enveloped in water that the whole figure seems about to dis- 
solve. Below are seen staggering horses and dead Quadi, on 
the left some of the rescued Romans. " In narrow rocky 
valleys horses struggle with the rush of water, and the enemy 
are already disheartened by the storm. The whole is a 
stirring picture of the power of the elements." 

2. Execution of Germanic nobles. — Six men are being 
executed with the sword. Their hands are tied behind their 
backs. The heads of two lie already on the ground. Even 
those who carry out the sentence seem to be of Germanic 
type. In the background are Roman cavalry, who surround 
the place of execution. Probably the punishment of 
Germanic insurgents is intended. Those of the same race 
who have remained true to the Romans must perform the 
execution. The Germanic type is here clearly indicated by 
the long narrow faces and the long beards. The costume of 

* Ovid, Metamorphoses, i. 264, et seq. 






<: ... 

^-^ 2 

R -J 

1-1 o 

o ^ 




the Germani consists, as always on the column, of narrow 
trousers, which are frequently their only garment, and some- 
times a short coat and a sagum fastened on the shoulder. 

3. Romaji Cavalry pursuing mounted Sarmatae. — The 
principal opponents of the Romans in this war were, next 
to the Germani, the Sarmatae from the valley of the Tibiscus 
(Theiss). They were quite different from the Germani in 
appearance. They were a race of horsemen of excitable and 
passionate nature, but of humble and servile manners. Their 
heads are of an ignoble type with flattened noses; they wore 
their beards long on the chin, but shaved the cheeks. They 
wore, besides the trousers, always a tunic and frequently the 
sagum over it. Their weapon is the javelin. In this picture 
they are represented in full flight. One has fallen from his 
horse, which gallops on alone; he is despatched by a Roman. 
This figure has wrongly been held to represent a slave. 

4. A Germanic Prince taken prisoner. — On the left is a high 
rocky hill. Two fettered Germani are conducted down the 
hillside by two Roman soldiers. The foremost figure has 
been particularly carefully executed by the artist. It is the 
finest and noblest Germanic type on the whole column. He 
might be King Ariogaesus, on whose capture Marcus Aurelius 
had set a high price (Dio Casslus, 71, 14). A third Roman 
soldier is driving the two sons of the captured prince before 
him. The fragments on the right and left are not im- 
mediately connected with this scene. 

The types of the Germani and the Sarmatae are always 
clearly differentiated throughout the column. Incidentally 
other types appear, such as the Celtic Cotini. 

The Roman legionaries wear the newly introduced lorica 
of steel bands, the auxiliary cohorts and the cavalry the shirt 
of mail. 

The figures are, as on the Trajan column, so arranged that 
consecutive events are placed one above the other. 


Fig. 57. An old Roman (marble head). 
About the end of the Republic. Glyptothek, Munich. 



In consequence of the constant demand for sculptural 
decorations on tombs, of the quite early custom of 
dedicating portraits of mortals to the gods, and, after the 
fourth century B.C., of erecting statues in honour of dis- 
tinguished persons, the art of portraiture from early archaic 
until late Roman times attained such varied excellence 
that it must be placed on a level with the other branches 
of antique art. It is now by degrees beginning to be 
generally appreciated at its full worth. The reproductions 
here collected do not give a complete representation of its 
historic development, but they enable us to appreciate the 
art in some of its most brilliant examples. Only an ex- 
haustive study can give an idea of their high artistic con- 
ception and the technical mastery of their execution. It is 
a particularly engrossing occupation to derive the mind and 




Fig. 58. Plato from a herm. Vatican, Rome. 

character of the person represented from his portrait, and in 
the case of persons prominent in history and literature to 
compare their appearance with their actions and achieve- 
ments. The exercise if carried out with the necessary 
caution opens out a rich source of knowledge. 

The treatment of the beginnings of Greek portraiture lies 
outside the domain of this sketch. In order to recall the 
earliest attempts at the reproduction of human features, it 
is sufficient to refer to the masks of beaten gold discovered in 
Mycenaean tombs, which have been placed in the second 
half of the twentieth century before Christ. To a later 
time, between the seventh and sixth centuries B.C., belong a 



Fig. 59. Hellenistic General or Prince. 
Head of a bronze statue. National Museum, Rome. 

number of nude figures of youths of stiff upright carriage; 
though resembHng Egyptian models in their general scheme, 
they differ from these rigid achievements of non-Greek art 
in the vitality of their facial expression and in the modelling 
of the figure, which shows signs of direct study from nature. 
It is true that an actual likeness in the features had not yet 
been attempted, the repetition of a traditional type being all 
that was aimed at. The classical example of this is the so- 
called Apollo of Tenea (Plate L), a work from the school of 
Dipoinos and Scyllis, that was once set up over a tomb. In 
the sixth and fifth centuries ancient Attic art produced in its 
swift progress many creations full of vitality though still 
without individual character. Such are the female figures 



Fig. 60. Hellenistic Prince, known as Antiochus III. of Syria. 
Marble head. Louvre, Paris. 

dedicated to the goddess Athena that came to light not very- 
long ago on the Acropolis at Athens (Plate II., figs, i and 2); 
also the famous stele of Aristion by the artist Aristocles, 
a faithful picture of Attic manhood of the end of the sixth 
century b.c. 

When Greek art reached its highest point in the fifth 
century, portraiture was still content with this idealism and 
busied itself with the reproduction of artistically excellent 
but quite generalised types. This is recognisable in the 
reliefs from Attic tombs. 

One of the most active and celebrated of the workers in 
bronze was Cresilas (second half of the fifth century b.c). 
The copy of the head of his statue of Pericles (Plate L.) is a 
brilliant proof of the importance of this artist. In this 



Fig. 5i. Bust of Green Basalt, known as Caesar. 
Once the property of Frederic the Great. Imp. Museum, Berlin. 

head, stripped of all inessential details, we have the KaXhs 
Kaya^os dv//p, the refined man of the world in perfection. 
Cresilas has not attempted a representation of an individual, 
but has created a strongly idealised portrait. In contrast 
to him stood the somewhat later Attic bronze worker 
Demetrius. According to literary records this artist aimed 
at absolute realism and earned the epithet " ui'^/acoTroTroids," 
" modeller of men."' Unfortunately it has not yet been 
possible to get a clear idea of his style from statues. The 
venerable Homer (fig. 72) is in the quiet distinguished style 
of Attic art of the last decades of the fifth century. The 
bust of the philosopher Plato, preserved in copies, gives us a 
clear idea of the qualities of the Athenian Silanion who 



Fig. 62. Terracotta Head of an old Roman. 
From the second half of the last century b.c. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 

worked in the middle of the fourth century B.C. (fig. 58). 
A simple, almost insipid conception, an honourable truth to 
nature without any intentional expression of spiritual im- 
portance, characterise the portraits of distinguished persons 
of this master and others of the same school (cf. Socrates in 
the older type, fig. 69). This movement is particularly 
valuable, because it gives the literal truth. Thus the un- 
inspired portrait of Plato presents a strong contrast to the 
impression that one forms from the writings of the deeply 
spiritual poet-philosopher and charming stylist. A further 
phase of development that followed was influenced by 
philosophical study and aimed at the interpretation of inward 



Fig. 63. Marble Head of a Roman Matron. 

Sometimes called Agrippina the younger, but usually Agrippina the elder. 

Glyptothek Ny-Carlsberg, Copenhagen. 

qualities. " The sculptor should give expression to the 
activity of the soul," as Socrates once insisted to an artist. 
This demand was satisfied in the portraiture of the fourth 
century b.c. and the following period. It was the custom 
then to represent poets and philosophers in such a way as to 
suggest their permanent spiritual importance; true to nature 
or to accurate copies, but without insisting on accidental 
details of external appearance. The imaginative statue of 
Sophocles (Plate LI.) and the herms of the philosophical 
thinker Euripides (Plate LII.) and Socrates, full of humour 
(Plate LIIL), are to be looked at in this light. The poetically 
inspired head of the blind singer Homer (Plate LVL), a fine 


20 1 

Fig. 64. Antoninus Pius. 
Marble bust showing the paludamentum. Museo Nazionale, Naples. 

work of Hellenistic times, is conceived in this sense, but from 
records of his personality it is evidently a very free and 
imaginative rendering. A new movement was started by 
the school and period of Lysippus; a striving after truth to 
nature, a realistic conception, and the pronounced expression 
of emotion are the peculiarities of this style. They are 
combined in the statue of Demosthenes (Plate LV.), which 
with its worn and furrowed features forms a powerful con- 
trast to the idealised statue of Sophocles. In the time of 
Alexander the Great and the Diadochi the personalities of the 
princes come to the fore. In the rendering of these, the 
portraitists have attacked new problems and solved them 
brilliantly. It is no longer the expression of intellect in the 
face, as in the case of the poets and philosophers, that attracts 



Fig. 65. Marble Bust of Caracalla. 
Imp. Museum, Berlin. 

the eye of the spectator. In the aspect of these portraits an 
historic interest is aroused in the individual physiognomies 
of the powerful princes, who seem born to command (lig. 59). 
A preliminary step in this development is the head of Alex- 
ander (Plate LIV.) full of youthful fire. A greater contrast 
than that between the quiet nobility of the Pericles and 
the aspiring determination of Alexander can scarcely be 
imagined. This difference is also illustrated by the heads 
from the Sidonian sarcophagus (cf. figs. 38 and 43), in so far 
as they are not entirely idealised. Restrained energy, 
temperate thinking, and quiet presence of mind are expressed 
in the noble dignified head of a king (fig. 60), a man of age 
and experience. It is thought to be the powerful enemy of 
Rome, Antiochus III. of Syria. 



Fig. 66. Bronze Head of the Emperor Maximinus Thrax. 
Antiquarium, Munich. 

Certain portraits of foreigners of various periods deserve 
special notice. In them the strange un-Greek form of head, 
the manner of wearing the hair and beard, and the peculiar 
expression of the face are noticeable at the first glance, and 
stimulate to an ethnographical study of these types. These 
unaccustomed features must have attracted much attention 
then as now, especially as the nations or individuals in ques- 
tion were often in the fore-front of political or military in- 
terest. The two examples here given (figs. 59 and 60) and the 
Barbarians (Plate XL VI. and figs. 49, 52, and 53) indicate the 



Fig. (17. Marble Head of a Roman Ladv. 
Between the second and third century a.d. Glyptothek Ny-Carlsberg, 


ability of the Hellenes in the characterisation of such types. 
Though somewhat ennobled by art, the nationality suffers 
nothing thereby. 

Hellenistic art did not experience an immediate develop- 
ment on Roman soil. On crossing to Rome, Greek art was 
met by a comparatively advanced, specifically Italian portrait 
art. This art is represented in the numerous Etruscan 
portraits preserved, of which the uncompromising fidelity to 
nature places them in the front rank of realistic work. But 
the majority of Roman portraits present the result of a 
combination of an already advanced national style and the 
influence of Greek art in conception and technique. One of 
the oldest examples of this type, although the date is not yet 


fixed with any certainty, is the bearded bronze head from 
the conservatoire at Rome (Plate LVIL), in which the type 
of the old republican is given in a comparatively accurate 
manner. Quite different from this so -far isolated work is 
the long line of portrait busts of beardless Romans from the 
first century B.C. until the beginning ot the time of the 
Caesars. The harsh realism of these appears softened by 
the artistic excellence of their execution, but the national 
type of the civis Ro?nanus of the good old stamp, his sim- 
plicity and capability, his common sense and his tremendous 
energy, are all expressed in unqualified terms (cf. Plate LX., 
" Roman citizen wearing the Toga," and fig. 57). A small 
group of portraits from about the same period stand out 
from these masterly studies of genuine Roman character. 
These are the intelligent and spiritual faces, often not without 
a certain sarcastic trait, that seem to be refined by the study 
of Greek philosophy. Excellent examples of this type are 
the Caesar (fig. 61), Cicero, Mark Antony, and many others. 
In the bust of Agrippa (Plate LVIL) this intellectual char- 
acter is only recognisable in a lesser degree, as the old Roman 
type preponderates in his face, and his features too are given 
an animated emotional expression. Perfect harmony of 
bodily strength and inner enlightenment, of mind and char- 
acter, characterise the wonderful terra-cotta head (fig. 62). 
In material and technique it belongs to the local tradition, 
recalling the wax and clay busts of an older period; in artistic 
conception it is influenced by Hellenism. At first sight it 
awakens interest by its vitality and naturalness. The por- 
trait of this ancient but unbroken man seems to be modelled 
freely from life, but is by no means small in treatment. It 
obtains a likeness by clear decided forms, helped by the 
pliable nature of the clay, and achieves the highest aim of 
portraiture, the illustration of the type by the individual. For 
in this unknown Roman with the noble proudly raised head. 


his iron will and determination, the plastic embodiment of 
" virtus " and " nobilitas " in the best sense of the words 
is achieved. 

In the time of the Caesars it was principally the repre- 
sentation of the emperors and members of their families with 
which Roman plastic art was occupied. In the figure of the 
emperor it was necess"ary above everything to bring out the 
majesty of the Imperator. A truly princely figure is the 
statue of Augustus from Prima Porta (Plate LVIIL). He is 
conceived as in the act of addressing the army. Few statues 
can compare in truth and grandeur of conception with the 
seated Nerva in the rotunda of the Vatican Museum, which 
is modelled on the statues of Zeus enthroned. The Marcus 
Aurelius on the Capitol riding over conquered foes is rightly 
considered one of the finest equestrian statues of all time. 
There are a few statues of Roman ladies of the Augustan 
period which belong to the class of idealised portraits and 
reproduce the forms of Greek masterpieces of the fifth and 
fourth centuries b.c. The seated women (in the Uffizi at 
Florence and in several of the Roman museums), which in 
their easy attitudes unite grace and dignity, are probably 
imitated from Attic grave reliefs. The Herculanean woman 
(Plate LIX.) from Dresden, which is perhaps a statue erected 
in her home, goes back to the style of Praxiteles and his school. 
Roman art even in the latest period exhibited a marvellous 
command of technique and power of characterisation in the 
rendering of the Caesars, princes, and ladies of the imperial 
family (fig. 63). In the Julian-Claudian period the faces 
express chiefly quiet determination, and noble courtly 
dignity (Plate LVIIL) as far as Claudius. After him various 
good and bad qualities stand out in the physiognomies 
corresponding to the origin and character of the different 
rulers, and give them intense psychological interest. Trajan, 
Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius are well known and noble 


examples. The excellent bust of Antoninus Pius (fig. 64) 
is an admirable example of the academically careful but 
uninspired sculpture of the time, with its slight turn of the 
head. Mild, passionless, and almost insipid seem the features 
of this worthy prince (cf. Julius Capitolinus, chap. ii.). This 
period, however, produced some fine work full of vitality 
and brilliant in execution. The strongly characterised head 
of Caracalla (fig. 65) shows that Roman art preserved its 
creative power in the third century a.d. It presents the 
worst side of " Caesardom." An equally masterful creation 
is the head of Maximinus Thrax (fig. 66). The laurel wreath 
points him out as ruler. He came from the district north of 
Thrace, from the lower Danube, and was the son of a Goth 
and a woman of the Alani. He was the first Germanian to 
occupy the throne of the Caesars, and was conspicuous for 
his gigantic height and strength. The rigorous naturalism 
of this bust is extraordinarily telling and effective. Maxi- 
minus Thrax, already advanced in years, looks at us as if 
he lived. " The straightforward look of the large wide- 
open eyes, serious, stern, and care-laden, eminently corre- 
sponds to his character, as does the evil sidelong glance of 
Caracalla." Some charming female portraits were also 
executed in this period, among them the heads called Plau- 
tilla, Julia Domna, etc. From the style and the fashion of 
hair-dressing the head of a distinguished Roman lady 
(fig. 6y) belongs to this period, about the end of the second 
or beginning of the third century a.d. Its refined and 
delicate modelling and the irresistible charm of youthful 
womanhood captivate every observer. 




Marble bust from a her?n. British Museum, London 

This only slightly damaged herm, a good copy of a Greek 
original of the fifth century B.C., was discovered in 1781 
under the ruins of an antique villa south-east of Tivoli, and 
afterwards came to the British Museum, That Pericles is 
represented is shown by the antique Greek inscription on 
the shaft. ^ It is recorded by Pliny the Elder {Naturalis 
Historia, 34, 74) that a contemporary of the statesman, the 
bronze worker Cresilas, who came from Cydonia in Crete but 
worked in Athens, executed his portrait in bronze. The 
assumption that this is identical with the head mentioned 
by Pausanias {Periegesis, i. 25 and 28) without designation 
of the artist in the description of the Acropolis, not far from 
the Promachos of Phidias, has recently received new support. 
Among the inexhaustible ruins of the citadel a fragment has 
come to light that bears in two lines the incomplete inscrip- 
tion . . . ikAc'os . . . tAas €7rot€. This is now restored without, 
of course, any certainty to \U.epi]KX^o<; [KpesJiAas eVote.^ A copy of 
this work of Cresilas is preserved in the marble bust here repro- 
duced. The style with its almost archaic suggestion points to 
the time of this artist, the tight firm modelling to a bronze 

^ According to epigraphists the character of the letters belongs probably to 
the first century b.c. At any rate the writing and style of the herm point to a 
decidedly early period for copies. 

^ " Pericles. Cresilas made it." " YlepLKKios " stands for " IIepi/c\^oi/s " and 
"e-rrole" for " iirolei" in the old Attic way of writing. According to'the sense, 
" el/xl " is to be understood after " Ilepi/cX^oKs " and translated literally, " I 
belong to Pericles." But the short form of the composition is unusual and 
the restoration therefore doubtful. 


■'/>' '■'-A f 



l-;i:irTSII Ml'SElTM, LONDON' 


original, and finally the existence of several reproductions of 
the same head to a famous original. Thus a portrait executed 
during the lifetime of the man (between 440-430) has been pre- 
served. But it is not a portrait as we understand it, an exact 
rendering of a physiognomy. It shows the style of the master 
to a marked degree, and in accordance with the practice of 
the time presents an idealised portrait of the refined and dis- 
tinguished Athenian stripped of all accidental features. Yet 
there is in the features and in the general appearance sufHcient 
individuality to give us an imaginative but nevertheless 
broadly characteristic impression of the great statesman. 

The long oval of the noble regularly-formed face is framed 
in a short well-trimmed beard. The hair curls luxuriantly 
from under the helmet on both sides of the face. Pericles is 
not, as suggested in the Vita of Plutarch, 3, wearing the helmet 
to hide the pointed shape of his skull which was mocked at by 
contemporary comedians, but, as other portraits of generals 
show, only in accordance with the custom as a sign of the 
office that he held permanently. The slight inclination of 
the head to one side was perhaps observed by Cresilas from 
life as a peculiarity of Pericles himself.^ It greatly increases 
the life-like impression of the great statesman that the bust 
gives even in the present day. We see a handsome man in 
the prime of life, in full possession of his powers, who also 
has an eye for externals. The slightly rounded forehead, 
the furrow above the well-formed nose, the arch of the brows, 
and most of all the deep-set eyes — all express the thoughtful, 
deliberate character of the great statesman. But it is the 
mouth that gives life to the marble. The wide full lips are 
parted, so that we seem to hear the flow of words that streams 
from his mouth. We are involuntarily reminded of the 

' Of course it is possible that the inclination of the head is due to the pose of the 
statue of which there is no record, and is retained by the copyist who executed 
the herm. 



praise expended on Pericles by the older writers,^ of the 
famous funeral oration he made over those who fell in the 
first year of the Peloponnesian war.^ But the general im- 
pression is that of the statesman who controlled the 
passionate and effervescent populace, who remained firm and 
decided on all national subjects, who met the attacks of his 
enemies with cold tranquillity.^ Nobility and strength, 
quiet and clear understanding, are all combined in his features. 
The epithet " the Olympian," which was applied to the 
bronze statue as to the person represented, fits also this 
marble copy. The eye never tires of this noble and dignified 



Marble statue. Museum of the Lateran^ Rome 

The gem of the Lateran Collection is this somewhat over 
life-size figure, that came to light at the ancient town of 
Anxur (now Terracina ^) and was presented to Pope Gregory 
XVL by the local family of Antonelli. Though very much 
broken it was fortunately preserved in essentials, and this 
admirable work has now been restored^ from antique models 
by the sculptor Tenerani. The interpretation is given on a 
small marble bust in the Vatican, on which the name of the 
poet is partly legible in Greek characters. As lophon, the 
son of Sophocles, had a statue of his father erected after the 

1 Eupolis and from him Cicero, Brutus, ix. 38. Cf. Comicorum Atticorum 
fragmenta (ed. Kock), i. 281, 94, and iii. 718, 94. 

* Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, ii. 35 et seq. 
' Cf . Thucydides ii. 65, 8; Plutarch, Pericles, 5. 

* It was also called Tarracina in quite early times. 

^ Among the most important restorations are the base, the feet, and the support. 

60-. -!-ilVERSITY 








Fig. 68. Head of the Marble Statue of Sophocles. 
In the Lateran, Rome. 

latter's death,^ an accurate portrait of the great poet was 
handed down to posterity. It does not seem probable on 
grounds of style that the Lateran statue is a reproduction of 
this work. Its relation to the bronze that was subscribed 
for by the Athenians ^ at the suggestion of the orator Lycurgus ^ 
cannot be traced in the absence of a description of the same. 
According to the style and composition the Lateran statue 
is from an original about the middle of the fourth century, 
and the work of an Attic master whose work was related to 

^ Vita Sophocles, ii. reprinted in Electra, ed. Otto Jahn-Michaelis, 
^ Lives of the Ten Orators, 841 F, with which compare Pausanias, Itinerary of 
Greece, i. 21, i. According to this the work originally stood in the Dionysos 
theatre at Athens, which was completed about 319 B.C. The date of the installa- 
tion of the statue may be obtained from this, as the honouring of the three great 
dramatists, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, would be most appropriate 
to the decoration of the building of Lycurgus. 

^ After 340 B.C., probably towards the end or even somewhat after the public 
activity of this treasurer (327). 


the Praxitelean school. As this second work stood where 
all could see it and was very popular, it would probably be 
the first to be copied and the connection is quite plausible. 
The statue is an ideal portrait of the type customary from 
the fourth century. In the full enjoyment of manly vigour 
and strength the poet stands before us, the left foot ad- 
vanced in the action of walking, the easy pose of the arms 
contrasting with the action of the legs and bringing the 
necessary feeling of repose to the statue. This towering 
figure, full of nobility and self-conscious dignity, yet devoid 
of pride and all affectation, is the model of K-aAo? K-aya^o? avi]p, 
the refined man of the world of the fifth century e.g. The 
hand of a great artist is recognisable in this excellent copy, 
particularly in the treatment of the ample cloak that covers 
the greater part of the body. One hesitates which to admire 
the more, the smooth spaces in which the forms of the body 
are more revealed than hidden, or the rich variety of the 
folds, that in all their manifold lines still present a uniform 
whole. The effect of the statue is enhanced by an examina- 
tion of the noble regularly formed head. It is slightly 
raised (fig. 68). " The expression of the face, which, 
wreathed in abundant hair and beard, suggests sublime 
wisdom in the high forehead, and eloquence in the fine 
formation of the mouth, is as bright and clear as it is serious 
and spiritual. The look of the seer in the upward glance is 
combined with the thorough development of an opulent and 
active mind. In the aspect of this portrait it is possible to 
imagine oneself in the presence of the poet himself, to forget 
oneself in the contemplation of his mind and character." — 
Welcker. The head combines the impression of spiritual 
and physical existence in the highest manner and increases 
the worth of the statue. It is regarded as the finest antique 
portrait preserved, a monument precious to the whole' of the 
civilised world. 

^^^''" -~^AL ARTS 







Marble bust. National Museum, Naples 

Of all the numerous portraits of Euripides preserved, 
chiefly of the time of the Caesars, which bear witness to his 
popularity in later times, the finest and most important is 
that here reproduced. Except for the nose, which is 
partially restored, it is in almost perfect preservation. Its 
value is increased by the antique Greek inscription, that in 
irregular but quite legible letters gives the name of the 
person represented and has made the interpretation of other 
portraits possible.^ It is mentioned at the end of the 
sixteenth century as in the possession of the Farnese family, 
and when this family died out at the end of the eighteenth 
century it came with many world-famous antiques into the 
possession of the King of Naples of that time and from him 
to the museum there. 

Euripides is represented advanced in years, almost on the 
threshold of old age, but with no sign of its weakness. The 
head rests in slight inclination on a herm, the fragment of 
drapery on the left shoulder assisting the suggestion of a 
complete statue. On both sides of the head hang sym- 
metrical masses of curly hair, which reach to the neck and 
cover the temples and ears completely. Only thin strands 
reach the forehead. The somewhat long and not too care- 
fully trimmed beard grows right up to the hair on either side. 
The fundamental character of the features of this broad 
bony face is high seriousness and thoughtfulness. The 

1 The copy belongs to a comparatively early time, perhaps the first century B.C. 
The character of the letters of the inscription would agree with this date. 


lowered glance of the deep-set eyes with their overshadowing 
brows, the mighty arch of the forehead, and the furrows 
above the nose all suggest heavy thought, which is emphasised 
by the sunken cheeks and prominent cheek-bones. At the 
same time the peace and gentleness of age is spread over the 
whole face and, with the long hair and the inclination of the 
head, give an impression of sympathy and inspire confidence. 
Thus the bust only partly bears out the accounts of 
writers concerning the appearance and character of the poet. 
For " he appeared with a morose expression, stern and 
thoughtful . . ." ^ and " even at his wine he had not learnt 
to be gay." ^ But we may assume that these qualities and 
peculiarities from contemporary comedies, if not entirely 
invented are greatly exaggerated. A connection between 
this bust and the bronze statue erected at the instigation of 
the orator Lycurgus ^ cannot be established, any more than in 
the case of the Lateran Sophocles, in the absence of any 
description of the statue. But as numbers of the busts 
preserved are from the same original it is probable that they 
are copied from this famous statue.* In any case the original 
of the bust, which without emphasising personal details so as to 
become a character study is yet full of individuality, is no 

^ Vita, ed. Nauck, i. (Teubner Texts), line 64, et seq. 

^ Alexander Aetolus in Gellius, Nodes Aiticae, xv. 20. 

* Life of the Ten Orators, 841 F, with which Pansanias' Itinerary of Greece, i. 21, i, 
is rightly connected ; according to this the work stood in the Dionysos theatre at 

*A Roman relief discovered in Asia Minor and preserved in Constantinople 
shows the same type of head. The relief represents the poet seated between 
the personification of the Tragic Theatre {^K-qv-f)) and the God of Wine, and is 
connected with the Festival of Dionysos. The whole is in the style of the 
fifth century b.c. From this it is concluded that it is from the original of the 
Neapolitan bust, which could then have had no place beside the standing 
Sophocles in the Dionysos theatre at Athens. If indeed these two widely 
differing portraits could not have appeared on the same spot, the popular head 
of Euripides might very well have been used for a standing figure seventy years 
after. And the relief at Constantinople does not definitely prove the previous 
existence of a seated figure of Euripides in the round. The relief, which perhaps 
reproduces a votive gift, may quite possibly be original in conception. 







imaginative ideal portrait made after the death of the poet. 
It could only have been executed from life or from some 
other, portrait from life. The bust is particularly valuable 
because it illustrates the qualities of the serious thoughtful 
poetry which earned for Euripides the name of Philosopher 
of the Stage ; ^ in the same way the statue of Sophocles appears 
as the embodiment of his spiritual character as it is expressed 
in his tragedies. Beside the latter sublime statue which 
immediately claims our attention and admiration by its per- 
fection, the eye rests on the simpler but nevertheless noble 
and venerable features of the bust of Euripides with increas- 
ing interest and satisfaction. It, too, is one of the most 
important examples of antique portraiture. 


Marble bust. Villa Albani, Rome 

This rather over life-size herm, a good but somewhat hard 
copy of the time of the first Roman Empire, was found in 
1735 in the ruins of an antique country house of ancient 
Tusculum, that is to-day, without any foundation, pointed 
out as the fomer villa of Cicero; it immediately came into the 
possession of the great collector Cardinal Alessandro Albani. 
Admirably preserved except for the restored shaft, it is 
counted the most original of the numerous busts of Socrates 
preserved, and on this account has attracted more than any 
other portrait of the brilliant personalities of Athens the 
interest of the whole cultured world. 

The head resting slightly inclined upon the shaft represents 

^ Athenaeus, Table-talk, 158 E and 561 a; Vitruvius, Dc Architectura, viii. 
praefatio, etc. 







■&^aB^m B.iL/' ^^^^^^^^1 

/ J 


Fig. 69. Marble Bust of Socrates. 
Museo Nazionale, Naples. 

the great philosopher at a ripe age. The massive skull, 
which rises steeply from the furrowed forehead, curves in a 
long shallow arch, and is for the most part devoid of hair; 
only at the back is it covered, none too thickly, with lightly 
curling locks. The beard starts directly from the ear and 
falls in long single strands downwards, the unusually long 
moustache hanging over it in two rolls. What at once attracts 
the notice of the spectator is the curved snub nose with its 


wide nostrils and thick nob at the end. In harmony with 
this is the thick underlip of the half-opened mouth and the 
mass of fat and skin on the forehead which, only interrupted 
by the triangular wrinkle over the nose, extends over the 
lower part of the forehead and is continued in the lumps over 
the small eyes. It is more effective by contrast with the 
somewhat sunken cheeks and prominent bones. There is 
no need of an inscription from a bust in Naples to enable us 
to identify the person represented. For the picture of 
Socrates as he is described in contemporary literature,^ and 
particularly in the Platonic Dialogues, is made to live for us 
in this bust. It is a tribute to the worth of this bust that 
we are not repelled by the Silenus type of the face, but in 
the recognition of its spiritual qualities we forget the ugliness, 
or if we remember it we are able to reconcile it with the cKar- 

^ Plato. Symposium, 215: <p-qixi (Alcibiades) /jl oidrarov aurbv elvai toIs (TiXrjvois 
. . . 6'rt jxev ovv to ye eldos Sfioios e? tovtois, w Sw/cpares, ovd' avrbs dv drjTiov a.fJL<pic- 
^r)T7}ffais. (" I consider he is extremely like the Sileni . . . that you are Hke them 
in appearance, Socrates, you can't deny even to yourself.") 

The bald head is confirmed by Aristophanes, Clouds, 146. aifjLO'i {" snub-nosed ") 
is applied by Socrates to himself, Theaetet, 209; cf. Xenophon, Symposium, v. 6. 
i^6(f>9a.\fio's (" with prominent eyes "), the same Theaetet. 'OcpOaXfiol eVtTrAatoi 
(" lying on the surface "), and small, Xenophon, v. 5. These epithets refer to 
the eyes well forward in the skull and fiat in the face as they occur in the 
Naples bust (fig. 69). Also the joking comparison with the Ta.y in Menon, 80A, 
refers to the eyes of this fish which are small and close together; though the 
faces of both might suggest a comic resemblance to an imaginative observer. 
In Phaedon, 117: ibairep eiuOei ravpridbv inro[3\^^as {" after he had stared at them 
bull-like from below, in accordance with his habit"), the demonic power of 
his glance is referred to. 

Xenophon, Op. cit., v. 7: toD ye fiijv ffrdfiaros, i(f)-q K.piT6^ov\oi, v(plefj,a.i. el ykp 
Tov cnroBaKveiv eveKa weTroiT]Tai, ttoXv &v <tv fxei^ov ij eyu) aTroddKoii. 8id 8^ rd irax^a- 
^Xf" TO- X^^^V o'^i^ oi'et Kal fiaXaKihrepov aov ^xf"* ''o (piXrifxa; 'ioiKa, t(pr] (Socrates), 
^w Kara tov abv Xoyov Kal tQv 6vuv alVx'oi' to uTSfxa e'xfti'. (" ' As far as the mouth 
is concerned,' put in Critobulos, ' I am content. If it was made for biting, then 
you can bite off a far larger piece than I. But dost thou believe that because 
thy lips are thick, thy kiss is therefore the more tender? ' ' According to you,' 
answered Socrates, ' I seem to have an uglier mouth than that of the ass.' ") A 
comparison of the whole passage, v. yy, with the Albani bust is interesting. It 
almost seems as if this passage was in the mind of the artist of the original, the 
aspect of the bust involuntarily recalling the literary portrait. 


acter of the subject. For what exalts this head above the 
type of Silenus is the expression, the quiet thoughtful glance, 
the clear understanding, and the gentle fatherly features, 
the simple noble qualities of the man which made him in 
contemporary circles superior to friend and foe. He is 
indeed the golden kernel in its hard shell or, as Alcibiades 
finely expresses it in Plato,^ a divine form hidden in the out- 
ward appearance of a Silenus herm. 

The original of the bust, that might appear to many a 
beholder as a fully individual realistic portrait, was not 
executed in the lifetime of Socrates. For although already 
in the fifth century B.C. a realistic movement of portrait art is 
recorded in literature, yet a comparison with other more 
faithful portraits (as, for example, that from the museum in 
Naples, fig. 69) shows that the herm in the Villa Albani rather 
emphasises the characteristic features, and rather tends to 
exaggerate the expression too much in the direction of a 
Hellenistic Silenus. A connection with the bronze statue by 
Lysippus erected by the Athenians in the Pompeion, a 
building put up for the preparation of festival processions, is 
impossible on grounds of style. The original of the type of 
the Villa Albani is Hellenistic, like the Homer, and designed 
for one of the great libraries of the time of the Diadochi in the 
third or second century b.c. But if the features of the great 
philosopher do not appear in absolute truth in this bust it is 
none the less a valuable work. The character and soul of the 
sitter are expressed in a clear and pure form. Thus is the 
problem that Socrates himself set before an artist solved as it 
were by accident in later years and in his own portrait. 

Aei Tov avSpiai'TOTTOiov to. tt^s '/'•'X'*/* epyu tw e'lSet TrpocniKa^uv^ the 

sculptor should in a portrait give expression to the activity 
of the soul." It is a masterpiece of portraiture and its 
power is as great to-day as when it was executed. 

* Symposium, 21 5A, et seq. Cf. also 216, et seq. 
^ Xenophon, Memorabilia, 3, 10, 8. 






























Head of the Statue of Alexander the Great ^ 

Marble. Glyptothek, Munich 

This somewhat over life-size statue, of which the place of 
discovery is not recorded, is a good copy of Roman times. It 
is mentioned by Winckelmann as situated in the Palazzo 
Rondanini at Rome. In spite of the restoration of the right 
leg and the elevation on which it rests, and the false restora- 
tion of the greater part of the arms,^ it has been fortunate in 
its preservation in that the head has remained unscathed and 
never been separated from the body. The coat of mail that 
serves as a support behind, together with the indication of a 
shield on the plinth, suggest the military character of the 
person represented, if they are not both additions of the 
copyist. The accepted interpretation as Alexander the 
Great represented in the heroic manner quite nude is, in 
spite of opposition, still valid. It is founded on literary 
accounts of the appearance of the king, and is supported by 
its resemblance to the heads of Alexander on coins of King 
Lysimachus of Thrace. But it is so far not strengthened by 
any sculptural evidence. 

The youthful prince, about twenty years of age, has his 
right foot on a slight elevation, but stands in a fairly upright 
position. The modelling of the body is remarkable for its 
strong muscular development. The whole appearance of the 
statue is, with its youthful strength and easy pose, princely 
and exalted, unaffectedly noble. But it is in the head that 

^ The whole statue is reproduced in fig. 70. 

- In some restorations a sword has been placed across the right thigh, so that 
the right hand of the figure clasps the hilt and the left the scabbard. Others 
have supposed both hands to be clasped on the right leg in a gesture of restrained 



Fig. 70. Marule Statue ue Alexander hie Great. 
Glyptothek, Munich. 

the portrait of an extraordinary personality is most clearly 
recognisable. The beautiful head, turned in harmony with, 
the body a little to the right and slightly raised, rests on a 
strongly modelled neck. Its strong and at the same time 
tender youthfulness captivates the beholder. The abundant 
curly hair, that in the middle of the forehead rises in separate 


curls,^ and falls in a rich mass down the back of the neck, 
covering the temples and ears in front, is well calculated to 
enhance the beauty of the face. The broad beardless oval, 
ending with a round chin, is modelled with extraordinary 
regularity, but strengthened by the curved nose and the 
prominence of the lower part of the forehead. The delicate 
half-opened mouth shows an almost bitter trait, that is in- 
creased by the dreamy look of the wide-open eyes - with 
their somewhat swollen underlids almost to a tinge of melan- 
choly. The head makes from the front an impression of a 
gifted and thoughtful character and of a certain restrained 
energy, in profile it is rather the proud strength, the forward- 
pressing fiery qualities of the sitter, his almost superhuman 
beauty ^ that in spite of the moderation of the artist and the 
quiet pose receive full expression. Thus the description of 
the personality of the young prince, particularly that of the 
first chapter of the Vita of Plutarch, find in the whole statue 
and particularly in the head ocular demonstration. At 
the same time the statue involuntarily recalls that model 
of youthful strength and beauty and example of proud 
ambition, the hero Achilles, from whom he was descended 
on his mother's side,'* and for whom he had in earlier youth 
a glowing admiration and enthusiasm, nourished by the 
reading of Homer.^ 

The artist of the original, that was executed before 
Alexander marched into Greece, has in this rendering of 
young Alexander shown himself to be an admirable 
portraitist. His name cannot, however, be discovered 

1 Plutarch, Pompeius, 2; Aelianus, Varia Historia, xii. 14. 

" Concerning the expression of the eyes, cf. Plutarch, Vita, cap. 4, and De 
Alexandri Magni fortima aiit virtnte, ii. 2. 

^ Aelianus, Vavia Historia, xii. 14. 

^ Curtius Rufus, Historiae Alexandri Magni, iv. 28; Plutarch, Vita, cap. 2; 
and De Alexandi-i Magni fortitna et virtiite, ii. 2. 

^ Cicero. Oratio pro Arcfiia poeta, 24: Plutarch, Vita, cap. <^, 8, 15. 


either from literary sources or from art-historical researches. 
He probably belonged to the so-called Attic circle, but in any 
case not to the school of Lysippus.^ 



Marble statue, Vatican, Rome. From the restored cast in the 

Cast Museum, Munich 

Among the numerous portraits of Demosthenes preserved 
from Roman times this statue, about two metres high, takes 
a foremost place; except for a similar statue in an English 
private collection, it is the only one that presents the great 
orator and statesman full length. Although its place of 
discovery is not recorded we know for certain that the work 
was in the Villa Aldobrandini at Frascati in 1709, and was 
purchased in 1823 by Pope Pius VIL for the collection of the 
Vatican. Although broken into several pieces, it has been 
possible to reconstruct the essential parts of the statue with 
certainty. That Demosthenes is represented is proved by 
a small bronze bust from Herculaneum in the Museum at 
Naples, on which the name is inscribed in Greek letters. The 
much-debated question whether the Vatican statue is a copy of 
the bronze by Polyeuctos,^ which the Athenians erected to 
their great fellow-citizen in the market place at Athens on 
the instigation of his nephew Demochares, 280-279, entered 
ten years ago on a new phase. For at that time a right foot and 

' Among other artists, a younger contemporary of Praxiteles and Scopas, 
Leochares, has been suggested, to whom the original of the Apollo Belvedere has 
been attributed. There is certainly a resemblance to this statue in the treatment 
of the hair. 

* Lives of the Ten Orators, 847 a and d; Plutarch, Demosthenes, 30; Pausanias, 
Itinerary of Greece, i. 8, 2, etc. 




From a restored cast in the Gips)iiiisciiiii, JMuiiich 




Cjo^^^' O^' 




Fig. 71. DhiiobiHtNES. JMarble head (bust restored). 
Glyptothek Ny-Carlsberg, Copenhagen. 

two clasped hands came to light among a number of marble 
fragments near the Palazzo Barberini. As the hands in the 
statue of Polyeuctos were clasped in this manner these are 
considered parts of a third replica.^ Thus the fore-arms of 
the two nearly complete statues can now be reconstructed, 
and the statues themselves attributed with certainty to 
Polyeuctos, as the original could from its style quite well 
belong to the third century and would most probably be 
copied from a statue erected on such a famous spot. The 

'Plutarch, op. cit. 31, earrjKe tovs SaKrvXavi avvex'^v dC aWrfKwv (that is 
to say, Demosthenes). It is thought that the position of the hands and the whole 
attitude were typical of Demosthenes the orator, and became traditional after 
his death. In this case his outward appearance is here plastically embodied for 
all time. At the same time the clasping of the hands, so effective in this statue, 
is demonstrably typical. 


modelling of the bronze is clearly shown in the replica of the 
head (fig. 71). 

Demosthenes stands before us in a simple pose, his weight 
on the left leg, the right slightly advanced and a little to one 
side. He is wearing a long mantle which hangs in simple 
folds and leaves the narrow chest and slender arms bare, 
exposing the weakness of the body.^ The formation of the 
head, with its short beard and rather short curly hair, 
harmonises completely with the rest of the figure. Demos- 
thenes appears as a man past the prime of life. and in fact 
not far from its end. His serious, morose, and embittered face, 
with its high furrowed forehead, its deep-set eyes beneath 
shadowing brows, shows in its deep lines the traces of a hard- 
working and combative life. It almost seems to suggest a 
gloomy fear for the future of his country, but shows at the 
same time unshakable faith in his convictions and a strength 
of will that has been tried in many conflicts. The contracted 
hands, as they are rendered in the restoration in the place of 
the roll of parchment, strengthen the impression of resigna- 
tion and inward sorrow, and at the same time help the effect 
of the decided outline of the whole figure. The famous 
lines : 

EiTrep iarjv yvwuLJi pib/nrjv, Arj/xScrBeves, fixes, 
oi'TTOT dv 'EWrivuv i]p^€v 'Apris MaK-eSuic,^ 

(" If thy power, Demosthenes, had been as great as thy spirit, 
Never had Hellas bowed before the Macedonian sword,") 

which the Athenians placed below the statue of Demosthenes 
on the market place as an admirable summary of his life and 
strife, are clearly illustrated in this copy. The original of 
such a characteristic portrait must, even though it was not 
erected until forty-two years after the death of the orator, 

1 How elegant on the other hand is the arrangement of the himation in the 
Lateran statue of Sophocles (Plate LI.). 
* Plutarch, Demosthenes, 30, etc. 

11^— -••.!• -ivERSITY 





have been executed from a model from life. We feel in the 
aspect of this statue how Demosthenes must have had to 
struggle with his physical weakness. In the mouth with its 
compressed underlip an indication of the impediment in his 
speech has been suggested. But the whole statue bears out 
and strengthens the impression made by the reading of the 
orations of the great statesman, and for this reason alone the 
worth of this impressive portrait is very great. 


Marble herm. Gra?id Ducal Library, Schwerin 

In numerous Roman copies we have come to know an 
important work of Hellenistic times which may be regarded 
as a representation of Homer. It is true there is no con- 
firmatory inscription, but the indication of blindness, the 
aged appearance, the noble character of the head, but, above 
all, the expression of poetic vision, all point to Homer as the. 
only appropriate explanation of the subject of the head. 

Of the various copies the one here reproduced is little 
known, but on account of its almost complete preservation 
and workmanship it is a very good example and gives the best 
idea of the whole. Isolated details may be better copied in 
this or the other example, but none of them give such a good 
general impression. 

The herm was discovered in 1868 at Terracina and is now 
in the Grand Ducal Library at Schwerin. The head rests 
unbroken on the original herm so that its position is correct, 
which is not the case in the well-known examples in Sanssouci 
and Naples, which are also not so well preserved and of 


Fig. 72. Head of Homer. Marble (bust restored). 
Vatican, Rome. 

inferior workmanship. In the Schwerin bust the lower part 
of the nose is the only restoration worth mentioning. 

A blind old man is represented with a realism that Greek 
art only attained after Alexander. Both age and blindness 
are expressed in a masterly manner. Age is indicated by the 
shrivelled skin all lined and wrinkled, and in the way the 
hair is combed forward from the back without disguising the 
baldness above the forehead; his blindness is shown in the 
peculiar modelling of the eyes. The eyeball is noticeably 
small and sunk deep in the shrunken sockets. This has the 
effect of suggesting the extinguished, vacant look of a blind 
eye. Added to this is the position of the eyebrows, of which 


the part near the nose is on both sides drawn down to shade 
the eye. The vertical wrinkles over the „ nose are partly 
caused by this. It has been demonstrated by oculists that 
the reduction of the eyeball and this position of the brows are 
peculiar to that form of blindness which is due to an injury 
to the fore part of the eyeball, so long as a trace of sensibility 
to light remains. On the other hand, the raised position of 
the head and upward look, which is indicated by the outer 
half of the eyebrow, in contradiction of the inner half, and 
causes the arched wrinkles in the forehead, is by no means 
the manner of the blind, who are more accustomed to hold the 
head down. This pose of the head and the lightly opened 
mouth are introduced as a characteristic means of expressing 
poetical inspiration. Thus the inner vision of the poet is 
contrasted with his physical infirmity. For the latter the 
artist probably used as model a sufferer from the so-called 
Egyptian blindness so frequent in the south. But the pose 
and the spiritual expression he has created from his own 
conception of the inspired poet. 

The nearest analogy to the style of the Homer is offered 
by the characteristic works of the time of the Diadochi, as, 
for example, the Laocoon, which is in the spirit of this epoch 
though a little later in execution, the Marsyas, the bearded 
Centaur with the Eros on his back, and the portrait of 
Socrates in the Villa Albani at Rome. The Homer shows 
the tendency of Hellenistic art to go to extremes and the 
tendency to encroach on the pathological. The artist has 
given us such a truthful and penetrating picture of the decay 
of old age and bHndness, that had he not known how to lend 
a spark of divine fire to the head we should have had before us 
nothing but a sad story of querulous senility. Far different 
from this are the portraits of Homer which belong to older 
Greek art before the time of the Diadochi. In these the 
venerability of the old poet prince is the keynote. The type 

p 2 


of the venerable old man (fig. 72) represented in many 
examples with long flowing beard and slightly wavy hair 
arranged in a round band is characteristic of these. His 
blindness is characterised by the peaceful lowering of the lids 
over the sightless eyes. " The refined modelling, the tranquil 
face with its broad simple planes, and the treatment of the 
hair and beard point to the last decades of the fifth century 
B.C. The bust imparts a peaceful solemn- feeling, and gives 
us the impression of the father of poetry, the wise singer and 
seer as he was conceived in the prime of Hellenic culture." 

But the type of the Schwerin bust was much more famous 
in later antique times. It was probably executed for one of 
the great libraries of the time of the Diadochi, either that of 
Alexandria or that at Pergamus, from the third to the second 
century B.C., the time of the great Homeric studies. The 
original was possibly a herm, not a statue. 


Two Roman Portraits 

Bust of Agrippa. Marble. Louvre, Paris. Bronze of an 
unknown man, Palace of the Conservatoire, Rome 

The two portraits here given on one plate, differing widely 
both in the character of their subjects and in their artistic 
treatment, are well qualified to represent the achievement 
and capabilitv of Roman portraiture. The first is proved by 
the portraits on inscribed coins to be Agrippa and thus in all 
probability belongs to the last decades of the century before 
Christ;^ the date and name of the other are both uncertain. 
The widely accepted designation of L. Junius Brutus, which 

' Agrippa was born in 63 b.c. and died 12 B.C., at the age of 51. 






























































OON-^^^ \J^' 



was supported by a faint resemblance to this founder of the 
republic and first consul as he appears on coins of a later time, 
is without any proof. The period of the style cannot be 
fixed owing to the insufficiency of portraits related in style of 
which the date is known. But the masterly finish of the 
execution in bronze, either by a Greek master or a Roman 
under Greek influence, the general conception and the ex- 
pression of the face, which is a characteristic rendering of 
an old Roman, point to an early date, perhaps even to the 
second century b.c.^ 

The bust of Agrippa w^as discovered in 1792 on the site of 
the ancient town of Gabii, east of Rome, on the occasion of the 
excavations instituted by Prince Borghese, together with 
other antiques which were brought with it to Paris in 1 808. 
It is admirably modelled and, except for the end of the nose 
which has been restored, in excellent preservation. It may 
have been at one time erected in Gabii in gratitude for some 
acquired advantage. M. Vipsanius Agrippa, the victor of 
Actium and influential adviser of Augustus, the great bene- 
factor of the people, whose memory endures in many buildings 
and gardens on the Campus Martins, is represented in ripe 
manhood in a faithful and individual portrait, though with 
the elimination of all accidental details. The absence of 
beard in the fashion of the time and the shortness of the hair 
are in accordance with many portraits of members of the 
imperial house.- But what distinguishes this head from 
those tranquil, reserved portraits, and gives to it a stamp of 
vitality, is the firm penetrating glance of the deep-set eyes, 
that is more effective through the contraction of the brows 
and the side turn of the head. Iron strength of will and 

' Points of resemblance to late Hellenistic portraits have been recently dis- 
covered in the bronze, and its Roman origin is for the moment doubted. 

2 The head of Augustus in the statue from Prima Porta (Plate LVIII.) is 
an example. 


inexorable energy, only restrained by practical common sense 
and inflexible determination are the characteristic features 
of this man. These characteristics, which must have 
exercised a powerful influence on all around him, are so 
emphasised in the portrait as to repel rather than attract, at 
any rate on the first impression.^ 

On the other hand, the face of the unknown man which 
is so excellently rendered in this well-preserved bronze head 
is strongly attractive. Though its place of discovery is 
unknown, the head has been traced to the collection of 
Cardinal Rodolfo Pio di Carpi in the sixteenth century. It 
was bequeathed by him to the town of Rome, and on his 
death in 1564 became the property of the magistrates of 
Rome. Since then it has become famous as one of the 
finest pieces in the collection of the Conservatoire. The 
personality of the sitter interests the observer at the first 
glance. It is a faithful portrait from life with all the 
accidental features of external appearance. The large ears, 
the thick eyebrows, the short beard, the high forehead 
prominent at the base, the curious bitterness of the large 
mouth, and the long nose are all the result of accurate 
observation of nature, and the thin and sunken character of 
the face and gloomy mournful look in the eyes ^ show under- 
standing and power of expression. But the general im- 
pression is of a character study raised to a certain extent 
above the accidental. The person represented, who is 
advanced in years, does not exhibit any very high spiritual 
qualities, but a cold and clear understanding, unshakable 
earnestness, caution, and foresight. Thus this bronze may 

'The character of Agrippa was "homely rather than polished" (" vir 
rusticitati propior quam deliciis," Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 35, 
26). His character is indicated by Pliny in the strong and typically national 
expression torvitas (wildness). In Agrippa the " old Roman " is still dominant, 
though he was by no means without hitmanitas in its widest and noblest sense. 
He represents the combination of an older and a newer period. 

"^ The eyes are inlaid; the pupils are of some brown material, the cornea white. 

coLut ' --.olkal arts 






be reckoned an iconographic masterpiece. In contrast to 
the passionate and animated features of the Agrippa it has a 
telling effect in its stern dignity and restraint. In one the 
type of the republican of the good old stamp is plastically 
embodied; in the other, although his Roman origin still 
shines through, the newer type and the influence of Hellenic 
culture is already recognisable. 



Marble statue {painted). In the Braccio Nuovo of the Vatican 

Museum, Rome 

This most famous of all the statues of the emperor, and one 
of the finest Roman portraits, is ratJier over life-size. It was 
discovered in 1863, nine leagues from Rome, on the ancient 
Via Flaminia under the ruins of that once splendid country 
house built by Livia, the wife of Augustus, and called Villa 
Caesarum or Villa ad Gallinas.^ It was once set up there in a 
niche. It was well preseived, and it was possible for the 
sculptor Tenerani to restore it fairly accurately. The 
execution of the statue is well qualified to give an excellent 
idea of the art of the Augustan period. It is the work of an 
unknown master. From traces of colouring that remain it 
is clear that the hair and drapery and even the armour were 
at one time painted, while on the nude parts of the body 
there are no signs of colouring except on the eyes. The 
remains are too slight to give any idea of the general effect of 
the splendour of the original colouring. 

A majestic, truly princely figure ^ stands before us, a 

1 Pliny the 'Elder, -Naturalis Historia, 15, 137; Suetonius, Galba I. 
^ Cf. Suetonius, Augustus, 79. 


strongly-built man in the prime of life. He stands with his 
weight on his right leg, the left drawn back in the action of 
walking. He is in the armour of the Imperator. In the 
bare feet a suggestion of heroic treatment has been proposed, 
but it seems rather that the academic artist has only followed 
the old tradition of Greek art. The pose is also modelled on 
a Greek type, the Doryphorus of Polycletus. These are in- 
stances of the Greek-Roman eclecticism exercised in the art 
of the time which has its analogy in contemporary literature. 
Over the tunica, that reaches almost to the knee, he wears a 
leather jerkin and coat of mail. The Paludamentum was 
worn over this, but has slipped down and lies in a sweeping 
line across the middle of the body, is held bv the left hand, 
and then falls straight down. The drapery also shows the 
spirit of the academic sculptor of the period, and occurs also 
in the Orestes of the group on Plate XLIV. The left hand, 
in accordance with the warlike character of the armour, 
probably held a spear and not the sceptre, which is a 
restoration. From the commanding gesture of the right 
hand Augustus is evidently silencing the assembled host 
preparatory to making a solemn speech.^ Below on the 
right-hand side an Amor riding on a dolphin refers to 
the derivation of the house of Julian from Venus.^ In 
the somewhat realistic and individual features of the two- 
year-old boy a resemblance has been found to Caius, the son 
of Julia and Agrippa, born in the year of the Parthian 
successes. This, of course, is only a supposition. 

The admirable head rests on a strong neck and shows the 
same short hair as the other portraits of the emperor. In 

' other emperors are represented in a similar manner on historic monuments 
like the Trajan column and on coins. In the latter the address is indicated by 
the inscription " adlocutio." 

* " Clarus Anchisae Venerisque sanguis " (" famous offspring of Venus and 
Anchises "), sings Horace in the Carmen Saecitlare, 50 (cf. Odes, iv. 15, 32, " Almae 
progeniem Veneris canemus," " we will sing the descendant of blessed Venus "). 



Fig. -ji. Reliefs from the Breastplate of the Augustus. 

the round smooth, face with its prominent cheek-bones 
appear the features of the famous bust of the youthful 
Octavian in the Vatican. The delicate health which is 
noticeable in the latter bust is not hinted at in this strong 
head and powerful body. The expression of the face is 
chiefly noticeable for the sharp steady look ^ of the deep-set 
eyes, of which the pupils are lightly outlined with the chisel 
and still more relieved by painting; it bespeaks a character 
as decided and energetic as cautious and passionless. The 

^ Cf. Tacitus, Annals, i. 42. Suetonius, Augustus^ Ixxix. 


cold calculating features have an unsympathetic, almost 
repellent, effect. 

What makes this statue invaluable, and attracts the 
attention of the eye more than anything else, is the lorica 
with its ornamentation. It faithfully reproduces a cuirass 
of beaten metal and gives in the reliefs a characteristic example 
of the embossed metal-work revived at that time (fig. 73). 
The leather straps that hang from this over the shoulder and 
hips belong to the jerkin. Fastened at the top with two 
shoulder pieces, each adorned with a sphinx, the whole of the 
front of the armour is decorated with symmetrically arranged 
reliefs. The central group, of which the figures are in 
stronger relief, represents the voluntary yielding up in 
20 B.C. of the Roman standard that had been in the posses- 
sion of the Parthians from the time of the defeat of Antony 
and Crassus. A warrior in the arms and uniform of a Roman 
general, formerly quite improbably interpreted as Mars 
Ultor, accompanied by the hound sacred to this god, 
stretches out his right hand to receive a legionary eagle from 
a somewhat smaller bearded barbarian. Quite recently the 
youthful warrior has been recognised as an idealised portrait 
of the twenty-two year old Prince Tiberius, who as the 
messenger of his step-father fetches the signa ^ and is accom- 
panied by the war dog as guardian of the frontier. The 
Parthian is thought, on account of the diadem, to be King 
Phraates IV.- But it is more probable that the humbling of 
the Parthian kingdom in general before Roman military 
power is all that is intended. On either side are seated 
female figures, of which she on the left holds a sword with a 
hilt in the form of a bird's head, the other a large war trumpet 
ending in a dragon's head and an empty sheath, while before 
her lies a standard in the form of a boar. They represent the 
provinces of Hispania and Gallia, against which Agrippa 

^ Suetonius, Tiberius, g. " Cf. Horace, Epistles, i. 12, 27. 



battled successfully in 21 B.C., and the Gauls, who were 
beaten by Messala in 27 B.C. and in 19 b.c, kept that great 
general of the emperor busy.^ Below are the guardian deities 
of the Julian house, Apollo with the lyre on a gryphon 
and Diana with the torch on a stag. Lower still is the all- 
nourishing goddess of the Earth against whom two children 
nestle. With her right hand she clasps a horn of plenty 
supported in her lap, .beside her are two indistinct objects 
supposed by some to be a tympanum and a poppy-head. 
She corresponds to the figure of Coelus above who spreads a 
garment over his head like the vault of heaven. Beneath him, 
in the stooping attitude and long garment of a charioteer, 
the youthful Sol drives the prancing steeds of the sun, led by 
the flying goddesses of the Dew and the Dawn, a graceful 
group of a draped winged maiden with the pitcher of dew 
on her shoulders and a woman with a veil and a lighted 
torch. The meaning of the whole is defined by the subject 
in the centre of the cuirass. The important victories over 
the Parthians are referred to in the first place, but together 
with this is the final tranquillity of east and west after long 
and wearisome wars, and the consequent blessings for the 
inhabitants. The historical events suggest a date soon after 
the return of the prince from the east, about 18 b.c. The 
age of Augustus, who was at that time in the middle of the 
forties, corresponds to the face and figure of the statue. 
Thus the erection of this polychromatic marble statue is 
almost contemporary with the origin of the Carmen saeculare 
of Horace, which was sung by a chorus of boys and girls in 
17 B.C. on the occasion of the celebration of the founding of 
Rome. It is quite possible that in the introduction of 
Hispania and Gallia there is a reference to the emperor's 
rearrangement of these lands, from which he returned after 
long absence in 13 b.c. Several incidents on this lorica 

1 Cassius Dio, 54, 11; 19-25. 


remind one directly of the festival song, and altogether the 
reliefs give expression to the joyous feelings of the Roman 
people over the tranquillity of the universe and the blessings 
of peace which sound all through this and other famous 
odes of the poet,^ Statue and song are mutually illustrated 
by a comparison. 


Marble Statue of a Woman from Herculaneum 

Alhertinum^ Dresden 


This admirably preserved and well executed statue of the 
Augustan period was discovered, together with two other 
similar but smaller statues, at Herculaneum in the beginning 
of the eighteenth century, on the occasion of the excavation 
instituted by General Prince von Elbouf. With these it was 
sent to his uncle Prince Eugen von Savoyen and set up in the 
latter's palace at Vienna. On his death in 1736 it was 
acquired by King August IIL of Saxony, and under the name 
of the " large Dresden Herculanian woman " formed one of 
the most famous works of the " Augusteum " collection. It 
is now in the Royal Sculpture Gallery, the Albertinum. 
The three statues have been recognised as true representa- 
tives of the Greek antique, particularly among the supporters 
of Winckelmann. They contributed in no small degree to the 
improvement of artistic taste in opposition to the then 
prevalent baroque style. 

A youthful female figure is presented in a life-like manner 

^ IV. 2, 4, 5, 14, 15. — Also the dedication of the Ara Pads (cf. p. 187) is 
another expression of the same feehng. 

60- " ■ •' u'v'^PSITY 

COLLt^:.- o, L.ibtRAL ARTS 






before us. She is in a quiet dignified pose, to which a feeling 
of gentle action is given by the advanced left leg, the contrast 
in the positions of the arms, and the inclination of the head. 
The richly draped chiton that reaches to the feet and leaves 
only the neck bare is for the most part covered by the ample 
cloak. This is drawn over the back of the head like a veil 
and arranged in varying folds " with noble freedom and 
gentle harmony of the whole." Of the two ends of the 
himation that meet on the left-hand side, one is thrown in a 
triangular piece over the left shoulder and hangs down over 
the left arm. 

The contemplation of the head which stands out effectively 
from the background formed by the veil is a source of great 
delight. The hair, arranged in accordance with a delightful 
fashion in parallel curls, was originally heightened with 
golden colouring, traces of red painting as a foundation for 
the gold being still visible. The delicate modelling of the 
cheeks, the small half-opened mouth, the regular nose, and 
deep-set narrow eyes give to the oval face with its rounded 
chin an expression of graceful womanliness. Quiet earnest- 
ness, gentle sadness, and thoughtfulness are suggested by the 
inclination of the head and the dainty pose of the right hand 
clasping the cloak. These features show the period and 
probably the artist under whose influence the original was 
executed. The spirit of the art of Praxiteles lives in this 
work (cf. also fig. 22). 

It is significant of the effectiveness of the statue that the 
spectator notices first of all the beauty of the work and only 
afterwards inquires after the subject. Yet this has, of course, 
been frequently discussed since its discovery, though without 
any certain conclusion being arrived at. At first considered 
to be a Roman Vestal Virgin, it was soon, on account of its 
style and type, recognised as Greek, and thought to be either 
a goddess (Demeter or Core), or a strongly idealised portrait. 


or a statue from a tomb. It cannot be denied that the gentle 
sadness of the face is appropriate to both Demeter and Core, 
and it is a fact that types similar to that of our statue occur 
in the representations of these goddesses. But in the absence 
of a determinative attribute this remains a mere conjecture. 
And whether the three originals were originally grouped 
together or were single Greek figures only joined in a group 
in Roman times, their original destination as votive gifts or 
decorations of a grave is still possible. Such sculpture can 
be traced in similar positions. The gesture and draperies of 
the Herculanean were already customary for statues of 
mortals from about the middle of the fourth century B.C. 
The designation of these three statues cannot be finally 
settled until the place and conditions of discovery are 
accurately known. The suggestion that they were erected 
in memory of three Herculanean women seems plausible. 
In this case the statues, as was frequently the case with 
Roman portraits, must have been reproduced in an idealised 
style after Greek models from the best period. But it is 
also possible that the three figures were set up in Hercula- 
neum in the decoration of some house or square as copies of 
Greek representations of goddesses or mortal women. 

We must content ourselves with these hypotheses. But 
with or without an explanation the beauty of the modelling, 
the decided outlines, the rhythm of the drapery, the 
unaffected nobility and gracious charm of this figure will be 
felt by every observer. Particularly noticeable is the 
earnestness of the whole statue, the " noble simplicity, quiet 
greatness," which justify the epithet '* divine " which 
Winckelmann applied to " this masterpiece of Greek art." 



Roman Citizen wearing the Toga 

Marble statue. British Museum, Lofidon 

This over life-size statue, of which neither the place of 
origin nor of its discovery is certain, may be reckoned on 
account of its execution and the type of the head as belonging 
to the time of the republic or the beginning of the empire. 
The manner in which the toga is worn is not inconsistent with 
this period. Apart from lesser restorations, the nose and 
ears, the greater part of the neck with a piece of the tunic, 
and the left hand with the roll of parchment are new. 
According to an examination of the original the head, which 
is inserted in the statue, is regarded as genuine. 

The statue represents an unknown Roman of a ripe age y 
in the costume of a simple citizen. He wears, in addition to 
the tunica and the calcei, a plain toga. The statue was-^ 
probably erected in honour of the deceased either in an open 
space in his home or on his tomb. He stands in a quiet but '■^ 
proud attitude with his head slightly raised, a plastic embodi- 
ment of the " gravitas " of the " civis Romanus." The 
broad wrinkled face with its quite short beard is faithfully^ 
rendered with all its accidental details. It is among those 
fairly numerous Roman heads that arouse the interest of the 
beholder and imprint themselves firmly on his memory on 
account of their strong characterisation and life-like repre- 
sentation. The contracted, deeply lined forehead, in which 
the hair grows in the form of a triangle, the deep wrinkle over 
the nose, the slanting lines of the cheek, the down-drawn 
line of the firmly closed mouth, and the sharp steady glance 
of the eyes, all contribute to the expression of this portrait. 


Alt shows strength of will and purpose, clear practical under- 
/ standing, and marked self-reliance, but at the same time a 
\ certain primitiveness and want of refinement. These are 
^^ualities which this head has in common with the majority 
of those of the unknown's fellow-citizens, and are in fact the 
fundamental features of the Roman character. But the 
general impression is distinguished owing to the imposing 
»/ effect of the toga, which enwraps the body in full richly 
draped folds and gives a stately appearance to the figure. 
Concerning the form and arrangement of this garment, and 
particularly the origin of the overlap on the right side of the 
^' body, the so-called sinus, absolutely authentic information 
has not yet been obtained. What may be regarded as 
permanent or probable is as follows. The toga, a woollen 
garment of heavy material and white in colour, was cut in 
the form of an oval and about three times the height of a man 
at the shoulder. Doubled, it was first thrown over the left 
shoulder with a third of its length hanging down in front, 
so that it reached the ground; the remaining two-thirds 
was then taken across the back and under the right arm, 
drawn across the chest and again thrown over the left 
shoulder. This form of the toga is here recognisable in an 
excellent example, apart from slight deviations from the 
usual in detail; thus the right shoulder together with the 
arm and hand are wrapped in the cloth. Certain precepts 
of Quintilian ^ concerning the wearing of the garment are 
illustrated in the statue. The round form is seen at the hem 
of the cloth,- the sinus reaches to the right knee,^ the 
balteus, the part that lies across the chest, appears neither 

1 Institiitio Oratoria, xi. 3, 137, et seq. 

^ " Ipsam togam rotundam esse et apte caesam velim " (" I would have the 
toga itself cut round and neatly "). 

3 " Sinus decentissimus, si aliquo supra imam togam fuerit, nunquam certe sit 
inferior " (" the ' sinus ' is most seemly, if it is a little above the lowest part of the 
toga, it should never be below this "). (For the MS. " togam " in most editions 
" tunicam " is inserted.) 






^ ut.HAH>^ 


too tight nor too loose,^ the left arm is bent almost to a right 
angle.- Thus our statue is also instructive in detail. But 
the value of the statue lies in the fact that we have here a 
Roman of the good old stamp in the national dress of the >" 
" gens togata." It gains in importance by a comparison 
with Greejc and particularly with Attic portraits of the best 
period. /For not only the contrast of the loose stately toga 
with the clinging himation, but the difference between the 
whole appearance of the proud dignified Roman and the gay 
mobile Greek, above all the expression of the Roman head, 
with its practical common sense in place of the refined 
spiritual features of the Hellenic type, are well qualified to 
illustrate the distinctive individualities of the two great 
nations of antiquity.) 

^ " Ille (sinus), qui sub umero dextro ad sinistram oblique ducitur velut balteus, 
nee strangulet nee fluat " (" this (the sinus), which is drawn like a belt under the 
right shoulder to the left in a slanting line, should neither stretch nor hang limp "). 

^ " Sinistrum bracchium eo usque adlevandum est, ut quasi normalem ilium 
angulum faciat " ("the left arm should be raised so that it forms in a manner 
a right angle "). 



^31 J 



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