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Preface ^jj 

Chapter I. The Stone and Bronze Ages ] 

,, II. The Geometric Style 18 

,, III. The Seventh Century 29 

IV. The Black-Figured Style 63 

V. The Red-Figured Style in the 

Archaic Period HI 

VI. The Style of Polygnotos and Pheidias 133 

VII. Late Offshoots I55 

Index of Illustrations I5I 

Index of Names I74 


A HISTORY of Greek vase-painting has been for a long 
time a desideratum of students of Greek art and 
antiquity. Many years ago I planned such a work, but the 
difficulty of the necessary illustration caused the plan to 
break down. In the meantime an extensive literature has 
grown up on the subject, mainly in German, but with con- 
tributions from other countries. In his first chapter Dr. 
Buschor has shewn how the result of excavation in Greece 
and Italy has been to throw our starting-point further and 
further back, until it lies in the Neolithic age. But it is not 
only in regard to the earlier phases of Greek vase-painting 
that research has brought light : the red-iigured vase-paint- 
ing which is one of the most perfect fruits of Greek art in 
the fifth century has been far more minutely and intensively 
studied. The result has been to fix the outlines, and more 
than the outlines, of the history of a fourth great branch of 
Greek artistic activity ; the history of architecture, of sculp- 
ture and of coinage having been already thoroughly 
investigated. And this fourth branch is not merely vase- 
painting ; but since the fresco and other paintings of the 
great age of Greece have almost entirely perished, we mav 
fairly say that it includes almost all that we can ever know of 
the history of early Greek painting. Vase-paintings can but 
feebly image the colouring of the great painters of Greece ; 
but they can give us invaluable information as to the 
principles of grouping and perspective adopted by them ; 
they can reflect the extreme beauty of their figure-drawing ; 
and they can shew us how they treated subjects from the 
vast repertory of Greek mythology and poetry 


Most of those who take up the study of Greek art are 
strongly attracted by vases, the subjects of which are more 
varied, and the treatment freer than is the case with sculp- 
ture For mythology, religion, athletics, daily life, they 
are first-hand authorities. Yet one may fairly say that, 
until a few years ago, satisfactory study of them was 
impossible. Vase-paintings, in consequence of the shape 
of the vessels themselves, can very seldom be adequately 
reproduced by photography. And the published drawmgs 
of them, until about 1880, were quite untrustworthy ; partly 
because the draughtsmen had insufficient sense of style, 
partly because most of the vases in the great museums were 
more or less restored, often in a most misleading way. 

Thus merely to reproduce published engravings of the 
vases was quite misleading. The truth about them could 
only be known from a technical examination of the origmals 
scattered through Europe. Yet one must say that in nearly 
all our English classical books and dictionaries, old engrav- 
ings are uncritically reproduced. It is a fouling of the 
springs ; and however practically inevitable such a course 
may often have been, the result is that the reader never 
knows whether he is treading on firm ice or on a mere crust. 
Anything more reckless and misleading than the procedure 
of the publishers and editors of illustrated classical books 
can scarcely be imagined. The errors resulting can only 
be weeded out by slow degrees. , , ^ru 

Since about 1880 things have slowly mended. Ihe 
German Arch^ological Institute, and the French and 
English Societies for the promotion of Hellenic Studies 
have published really careful drawings of a multitude of 
vases Mr. F. Anderson in England being one of the most 
accurate and careful of the artists employed. In the last 
few years the catalogues of vases in Berlin, Pans, Munich. 
London and other places have given authoritative informa- 



tion as to restorations. A fresh era in the knowledge of 
technique and subject was begun by the magnificent 
publication of Furtwangler and Reichhold, with its splendid 
plates. At present the most authoritative works on early 
red-figured vases are those of an Oxford man, Mr. J. D. 
Beazley, and an American, Mr. J. C. Hoppin. Mr. 
Beazley has been good enough carefully to revise the 
present translation. 

We have reached a stage at which, for all but specialists, 
what was most needed was a general history of Greek vases 
in all their periods, compiled by a trustworthy authority, 
and so fully illustrated (no easy matter) as to enable a reader 
to follow the text throughout. Thus would the whole sub- 
ject be mapped out, and the approach to any particular 
province be made easy. Such a book is that of Dr. Buschor. 
His examples are carefully chosen ; his text shews full 
mastery of the subject ; and it is very unlikely that his treat- 
ment will be superseded for a long time to come. It is, 
however, a book not adapted for a mere cursory reading, 
but for careful consideration and study. 

I may add a few words by way of introduction to the sub- 
ject. We may divide the whole history of Greek pottery 
into two sections, which are separated one from the other 
by the line which divides primitive from mature Greece, 
about the middle of the sixth century. 

Before that time, before the age of Croesus and the rise of 
the Persian Empire, the history of Greece is very 
imperfectly known to us, through the traditions of the 
temples and the old families, which are seldom wholly to 
be trusted. Where history is uncertain it is of untold value 
to have monuments and works of human manufacture to 
supplement it. These provide a skeleton of fact with which 
to compare legend and tradition. It is now generally 
recognized that before writings in the form of inscriptions 



and coins come into general use, pottery furnishes the most 
continuous and most trustworthy material for the dating of 
sites, indications of commercial intercourse, the movements 
of peoples. In recent years the study of prehistoric Greece 
has made immense strides, primarily owing to the excava- 
tions of Schliemann, Evans and other investigators. The 
subject seems to fascinate the younger generation of 
archaeologists ; and the pottery found in the graves of the 
early inhabitants of Greece and Asia Minor has been 
worked at with great minuteness and to much result. It 
has revealed to us the outlines of the early history of Crete, 
the Troad, Laconia, Thessaly, and a number of other dis- 
tricts. Constant comparison with the results of finds in 
Egypt which can be dated from inscriptions has revealed in 
a measure the state of the civilization of the ^gean in 
century beyond century, back to Neolithic times. 

When Greek civilization became fully established, in the 
sixth century, when inscriptions and coins begin to give us 
far more exact information than that which can be derived 
from pottery, the interest attaching to the latter does not 
cease, but it changes in character. We no longer go to it 
to determine the outlines of the history of civilization. But 
it has now become a thing precious in itself because of its 
beauty, its close relation to the poetry, the religion and the 
life of Greece. The elegant forms of Greek vases and the 
charm of the designs painted on them have caused them to 
be sought after by great museums and wealthy collectors. 
The graves of Italy, Sicily, Hellas, have poured out a 
constant supply of these works of art, some of them beyond 
value. Classical archseologists have naturally given much 
attention to them ; and of late years the assignment of 
examples to noted masters, and the study of their technique 
have been zealously prosecuted. They belong too wholly 
to a civilization which has passed away to be readily under- 


stood by ordinary visitors of museums ; but those who have 
once been bitten with their charm find in them an occupa- 
tion, a delight and a solace which are great helps in life. 
Greece is the classical land of art in all its forms, and the 
principles of art which were established by the successive 
schools of art there can never be wholly neglected. If we 
set aside the pottery of China and Japan, which is, in another 
sphere, of unsurpassed beauty, the pottery of Greece is the 
only perfectly developed and thoroughly consistent pottery 
in the world ; and the noted productions of modern Europe 
seem in comparison poor and half-civilized. 

Dr. Buschor's general plan has compelled him to write 
but in a summary way of the works of red-figured style, 
which are incomparably the most beautiful. In fact, in such 
small and rough illustrations as are possible in a handbook, 
their quality could not be reproduced. For them the 
reader must go on to other works, or visit the vase-rooms 
of museums. A conspectus of successive styles and periods 
was all that was possible. And I think that enough is here 
accomplished to arouse the interest of those who love art 
and have some sympathy with the Greek spirit. 

The old supremacy of the Classics in education has 
passed away, and in future they will have to hold their own 
not by prescriptive right but in virtue of their intrinsic value, 
on which more and more stress is being laid by those who 
feel what their neglect in the modern world would mean. 
It is time to strengthen their hold by shewing how they lie 
at the very root of philosophy, literature and art. Our 
successors will not be satisfied with drilling boys in Greek 
and Latin grammar, but will have to insist on the place held 
by ancient peoples, the Jews, the Greeks and the Romans, 
in the evolution of all that is valuable and delightful in the 
modern world. We have to widen the field of Classics, and 
illustrate the literature from every point of view. And if 


it be felt that the object of education is not merely to enable 
boys and girls to earn a living, but to help them to lead a 
worthy and happy life, then I have no fear that the Classics 
will be permanently eclipsed. 

Mr. Richards' work as a translator was very difficult. In 
spite of kindred origin, the German mind in literary produc- 
tion moves on different lines from the English. Not only 
is the order of words in a sentence different, but the 
sentences themselves are much more involved, and German 
scientific writers aim at an exactness in the use of terms 
which we seldom attempt. Mr. Richards' version is very 
accurate ; but it must be allowed to be not always easy 
reading. He preferred to retain as much as possible of the 
meaning, even if it involved some stiffness in the text. 
Students will thank him for this ; and if the general reader 
finds that he has to give the text a closer attention than he is 
used to give to books, he will in fact have his reward. 

Dr. Buschor's work is a solid stone for the temple of 
knowledge, and the main lines of the subject are now so 
firmly fixed by induction, that they are not likely to suffer 
very much change in the future. 

P. Gardner. 



STUDENTS of the history of Greek vases have been 
gradually led backwards from a late period to earlier 
and earlier stages of civilization by the course of circum- 
stances. First of all graves were opened in Lower Italy ; 
the first great collection of vases, formed by Sir William 
Hamilton, British ambassador in Naples, and published in 
1791-1803, contained chiefly the output of later Italian 
manufactories. Next, from 1828 onwards, the doors of 
Etruscan graves were unlocked, and their contents proved to 
be the rich treasures of Greek red and black-figured vases, 
procured in such numbers by the Etruscans of the 6th and 
5th centuries. About twenty years later a bright light was 
thrown on eastern Greek pottery of the 7th century by the 
discovery of a cemetery in Rhodes. About 1870 the 
* Geometric ' style became known and the Dipylon vases 
at Athens were revealed. In the seventies and eighties 
Schliemann's spade unearthed the Mycenean civilization, 
and in the beginning of the present century we were intro- 
duced to the culmination of this period in Crete. Finally 
in quite recent times finds of vases of the Stone Age in Crete 
and in North Greece have given us a view of vase-produc- 
tion in the third millennium B.C. If therefore we wish to 
retrace this long road, we must begin at a period, of 
which the investigation has only just begun and which 
presents most difficult problems. 

The excavations in Northern Greece, i.e., in North 



Boeotia, Phocis and above all Thessaly, have introduced 
us to a purely Neolithic civilization. Here alongside of the 
two simpler prehistoric techniques, unornamented (mono- 
chrome) and incised ware, was discovered, even in the 
oldest strata, a richly developed painted style, with linear 
ornaments painted either in red on vases with a white slip 
or in white on vases made red by firing. The monochrome, 
red or black vases are often brilliantly polished and of 
excellent workmanship. In the later layers of the Stone 
Age finds this civilization differs considerably according to 
locality. One class of painted (and incised) vases is very 
prominent : it was found chiefly at Dimini and Sesklo, and 
shows quite a new principle of decoration (Fig. 1). It 
combines curvilinear patterns, especially the spiral motive, 
with rectilinear decoration (zig-zag, step pattern, chequers, 
primitive maeander, etc.) ; the colouring varies, white on 
red, black on white, brown on yellow. Side by side with 
this style we find in other places the greatest variety of 
painted and unpainted vases : even polychrome decoration 
appears. In the early Bronze Age all this splendour 
vanishes and gives place to the production of coarse 
unpainted ware. 

It appears that this Stone-Age Ceramic of North 
Greece has no connection with the finds of South Greece, 
and is rather to be traced to the North and the civilization 
of the Danube valley. 

The South presents us with a much more primitive 
picture. The large layer of Stone Age finds, which came to 
light in Crete, produced vases with incised geometrical 
ornament, alongside of coarse undecorated pottery, but 
curvilinear patterns of Thessalian type are completely 
absent and painted vases are rare. The reason for a less 
elaborate development of Neolithic civilization in Crete 
seems to be that it gave place to the Bronze Age compara- 


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Fiy. 2. KACK-l R\ FROM I R( )^" ll-W 

ri.Aii-; II. 


tively early : in Thessaly it seems to go down far into the 
second millennium. 

According to these early vase finds one has thus to 
picture to oneself the beginnings of ceramic art. First, the 
most essential household vessels are fashioned by hand out 
of imperfectly cleansed clay, and burnt black in the open 
fire, and before long the outer surface is also polished, prob- 
ably with smooth stones. Rectilinear ornaments are 
pressed or incised into the soft clay, and by degrees the 
method of filling and indicating the incised lines by a white 
substance is learned ; the clay is also treated plastically, for 
instance channelled. Gradually the clay is made less 
impure, is more cleanly polished and more evenly baked in 
the oven, and by the actual firing has various colours, red, 
black, grey, yellow and brown, imparted to it. Thus a ground 
is also obtained for painting, on which the rectilinear 
ornaments are imposed with colour. Greater solidity and 
brighter colouring are obtained by covering the vase with a 
slip, which moreover sets off the painting excellently. The 
invention of the wrongly styled ' varnish,' a black colour 
glaze which, though technically undeveloped, appears even 
in North Greece of the Stone Age, is of the highest import- 
ance for the whole history of Greek vase-painting. The 
forms are primitive, little articulated, but already very 
various : the decoration covers uniformly almost the 
whole vase. 

But the different techniques do not regularly succeed each 
other ; inventions are not immediately communicated from 
one locality to another ; primitive methods subsist along- 
side of more advanced, nay even sometimes drive them out 
again. This much is clear, that a section taken through 
these contemporaneous prehistoric civilizations would pre- 
sent a highly variegated aspect. 

The Stone Age is succeeded by the Bronze Age, here 



earlier and there later ; here more quickly, there more 
slowly; i.e., metals are gradually introduced, and with 
them new techniques and a new civilization. It is evident 
that to the earlier Bronze Age belong a series of innovations 
which are of decisive importance for the history of vases, 
the invention of the potter's wheel, the perfection of the 
so-called * varnish,' and the imitation of metal forms in 
clay. In most places the potter's oven and the painting of 
vases appear only in the early Bronze Age. 

Into the early Bronze Age fall the finds from the earliest 
layers at Troy. In the unalterable faith that he was dis- 
covering the world of Homer, with the strong and weak 
points of a dilettante, Heinrich Schliemann began. to dig at 
Hissarlik, and in the excavations of 1871, 1878, 1890 and 
1893 Dorpfeld and he investigated the rubbish hill, which 
has become so famous, the nine superimposed settlements 
of which represent as many successive civilizations down to 
Roman times. The numerous ceramic finds of the five 
lowest layers show the transition from rude hand-made and 
ill-baked ware with impressed linear patterns to ever more 
developed stages. The potter's wheel and oven finally 
succeed in producing brilliant red, black, grey, brown vases 
of the finest technique. The variety of shapes is very great, 
some are already quite developed ; the imitation of metal 
forms is to be traced here and there. A notable speciality 
is found in the so-called Face-urns (Fig. 2), rude imitations 
of the human form, produced by adding eyes, nose, mouth, 
ears, nipples and navel ; and there are also other vase-types, 
which are not repeated in Western Greece. Painting is 
rare, the vases are either monochrome or adorned with 
incised linear ornaments, which are often applied in the 
manner of necklaces, or divide the vase vertically. 

The Bronze Age civilization of the second city up to the 
fifth, which, judging by the rich finds of metal utensils and 


Fig. 3. ]{'(] FROA[ SVROS. 

Fig. 4. jrr; i'ro^[ m^'cen.f: 



gold ornaments, was by no means primitive, recurs in the 
whole of N.W. Asia Minor and in Cyprus. Its last phase 
cannot be separated in time from the western civilization 
of the shaft graves (p. 7). 

Parallel with Troy II-V and the mainland civilization of 
Marina (below), on the islands of the Aegean is the so-called 
Cycladic civilization. Its pottery, however, presents a 
much more variegated picture : beside the primitive vases 
there are vases incised and painted with rich, not exclusively 
rectilinear, ornamentation : glazed (' varnished ') vases 
also occur. The forms are very varied : bronze and stone 
vessels often serve as models ; the structure of the vases and 
the distribution of the ornamentation show unmistakeably 
definite artistic intention. There is great difference between 
various islands and a comprehensive view of the develop- 
ment is not yet possible. Specimens like the beaked jug 
from Syros (Fig. 3) are probably contemporary with the 
early Minoan style of Crete (p. 7), but the pans with 
engraved spirals, circles, ships and fish are later. On 
Melos, which has quite a separate position of its own, the 
influence of the Cretan ' Kamares ' civilization (p. 8) in 
technique and decoration is obvious. 

We return to the mainland and Central Greece. Hagia 
Marina in Phocis is the chief place in which a pottery, 
following on the Neolithic, has been found, hand-made with 
a black or red glaze, with or without rectilinear ornaments 
in white. This was called * Primitive varnish ware,' before 
the Neolithic preceding stages had become known. 
'Marina' ware superseded the Neolithic in Boeotia (Orcho- 
menos) and Thessaly also ; similar vases have been found 
in the western islands (Leukas) and in the Argolid (Tiryns). 
It is also related to the Cycladic civilization, as is indicated 
by the jug imitated from metal models, which is common 
to both styles. 



The ' Marina ' layer is succeeded at Orchomenos by a 
ware of a totally different kind, which probably spread from 
this locality and is therefore called ' Minyan,' dark-grey 
and grey or yellow vases, especially (a) drinking-cups, with 
tall channelled foot, and (b) profiled two-handled cups 
(Fig. 6), turned on the wheel, and in shape more plainly 
even than the Marina ware dependent on metal models. 
The wide extension of this already finely developed ware 
combines a series of bronze-age sites into a chronological 
unit, the so-called * Shaft grave ' stage (p. 7). In Northern 
and Central Greece as well as in Leucas it follows on the 
' Marina ' ware, in Attica and Aegina it takes the place of 
the monochrome and incised ware, in the islands it super- 
sedes the Cycladic pottery, in Troy it is parallel with the 
ware of Asia Minor and Cyprus, in the Argolid the Marina 
finds of Tiryns are followed by the shaft graves of Mycenae 
with Minyan vases. 

Almost everywhere along with the Minyan ware we find 
vases not so finely constructed, generally hand-made, which 
are neither burnt dark nor glazed, but show a decoration 
applied in dull colour. This lustreless painting {Mattma- 
lerei) in Central and Northern Greece, and also ir Attica 
(white-ground ware of Aphidna, Eleusis), uses only geo- 
metrical ornaments ; in the Argolid on red or light clay 
vases linear patterns, wavy lines, running spirals or even 
figured decorations {e.g. birds. Fig. 4) are painted in brown 
colour. The decoration generally emphasises the shoulder ; 
the lower part of the vase is unadorned and separated by 
stripes from the upper. 

The next stage is that Minyan ware and lustreless paint- 
ing are almost everywhere driven out by Creto-Mycenean 
* Varnish ' pottery. In many places this process did not 
take place till the end of the Bronze Age, as in Thessaly, 
Central Greece and Attica (Eleusis). It was apparently 





the lords of the Argolid who first and most freely opened 
their gates to Cretan importation and influence ; in the 
shaft graves of Mycenae, famous for their rich treasure of 
gold, discovered by Schliemann in 1874 behind the Lion 
Gate, the oldest Cretan import in the shape of vases of the 
first late Minoan style (p. 10), appears beside Minyan and 
lustreless ware (Figs. 4 and 6). 

By the side of these local products, the ' Varnish ' vases 
in the shaft graves appear like children of a strange and 
sunnier world, representative of a quite different and 
superior style of art. The idea that they came from Crete 
has been confirmed by the excavations carried on since 
1900, which in different parts of the island disclosed a com- 
pact civilization of markedly un-Greek character, develop- 
ing without a break from the third millennium to the end of 
the second, which is in striking contrast to that of the 
mainland. This civilization has been named Minoan after 
the fabulous king Minos, the builder of the labyrinth, and it 
has been divided into three epochs, of which the first two 
precede the period of the shaft graves. 

In the early Minoan period, following on the miserable 
Stone Age (p. 2) the Cretans must have laid the foundation 
of their riches, if an inference may be drawn from the stone 
vases and goldsmith's work of Mochlos. The ceramic art 
enters on two paths, which have a future before them. The 
vases were hitherto unpainted and only incised. Now 
either they are covered with brilliant black paint (Varnish*) 
on which the old patterns are painted in tenacious white 
colour, a technique which celebrated its triumph in the 
subsequent period, or the vases are left in the colour of the 
clay and painted with bands of * varnish * ; to this so-called 
' Mycenean ' technique belongs the whole late period 
(p. 10). There is a special group of flamed ware, the 
patterns of which, like much that is Minoan, are far nearer 



to modern applied art than to Greek. Even in the first half 
of this period the kiln seems already to be known ; the 
potter's wheel appears in the second, which is characterized 
by the first appearance of curvilinear patterns, especially 
the wave series and running spiral. 

The Middle Minoan period, a pure and richly- 
developed bronze civilization, is the height of polychromy : 
the clay is finely cleansed, the black glaze is at its very best, 
red in different shades occurs besides white. A transition 
leads to the brilliant period of the Kamares style, named 
after the first discoveries in the Kamares cave on Mt. Ida. 
The * Mycenean technique ' occurs not infrequently along- 
side of the polychrome ; but as it often edges the ornaments 
with incised lines or puts white spots on them, it does not 
reject the tendency to richer effect, which is a feature of the 
age and is also expressed in the relief-like ornamentation of 
many vases (Barbotine). The ornamentation is still very 
fond of linear patterns, and also develops the spiral still 
further, and lays the foundation of the numerous decorative 
motives which characterize the later periods; living 
creatures also (birds, fishes, quadrupeds) are repre- 
sented in painting. The motive of drops falling from 
the brush, which would be inconceivable in Greek 
vase-painting proper, occurs already. There is a simul- 
taneous use of decoration in bands, and without division ; 
the emphasizing of the shoulder by ornamentation is found 
in contrast with the lower part decorated, if at all, with 
stripes (Figs. 3 and 4). The stock of forms increases, and 
the imitation of metal-work is often unmistakeable. 

In the Kamares style proper (Figs. 5 and 9) poly- 
chromy (white, red, and dark yellow on black) 
reaches its highest development, the greatest variety 
of plastic decoration appears, the Mycenean tech- 
nique (dark on light) is relegated to the background. 



Fig. y. K\M \Ri:s IMIllOS V\i()\\ IMIAIS I'OS. 

n.Ari' \'. 


The shapes become continually more delicate, metal 
vases are often directly copied ; cups, beaked jugs, 
beaked saucers, and amphorae with handles at the 
mouth are specially common. The list of ornaments is 
much increased and can scarcely be described in few words. 
By the side or in the place of geometrical motives, crosses, 
zig-zags, groups of strokes, and richly developed circle, bow 
and spiral motives, appear vegetable, leaves, branches, 
rosettes, and most important of all, the continuous wavy 
tendril. Even living beings appear occasionally. 

The plant ornamentation of the Kamares vases is in a 
peculiar relation to nature. Though nature is here for the 
first time consistently imitated, the reproduction is not at all 
'naturalisHc' but thoroughly and from the first severely 
stylized. Not only does the colouring bear no relation to 
the object represented, not only is the combination of vege- 
table and geometric motives of purely decorative character, 
but the natural object imitated is often barely recognizable. 
The Kamares potter only aims at a pretty combination of 
colour and line, not at representations. Nor is he con- 
cerned with structural arrangement : division by bands 
and emphasizing the lower part of the vase by leaves 
pointing upward are uncommon. Usually the decoration 
spreads freely over the field and is not subordinated to the 
structure of the vessel. This undisputed predominance of 
the ornamentation is in the sharpest contrast to the 
procedure of Greek art proper. 

The Kamares civilization, starting from Crete, exercised 
influence over the islands of the Aegean : the importation 
and imitation of its ware can be proved for Thera and 
Melos. Isolated finds in Egypt are of importance, first 
because they prove the relation of Crete to the Nile valley, 
and secondly because they give a fixed date (XII Dynasty). 
The technique did not disappear with the Middle Minoan 



Age, but was long maintained alongside of the new style. 

The Kamares finds come mostly from the older palaces 
of Phaistos and Knossos. The investigation of their ruins 
has shown that these buildings were destroyed by fire and 
soon afterwards replaced by still finer new edifices. The 
vase finds in these later palaces show a complete break with 
the old style. Polychromy is no longer the principal 
attraction ; it is given only a secondary place : the new 
style (Middle Minoan III and Late Minoan I, Figs. 7, 8, 
10 and 11), which is no longer satisfied with gay ornamenta- 
tion, but with fresh vigour essays the conquest of Nature and 
her excellences, throws off the bands of the old technique, 
and with bold freedom depicts the newly discovered world 
in dark colour on light clay. In contrast to the Kamares 
style, it did not arise on the vases themselves by the enrich- 
ment of an ornamental style, but it is to be understood as the 
reflection of higher techniques. Vase-painting gives only 
a small extract from the rich array of subjects, which the 
other lesser arts and the wall-painting of the period conjure 
before our eyes. Of the wonderfully vivid representations 
of men and animals, in which the Cretans wxre masters, 
nothing is to be found on the vases. This is certainly not 
an accident, but a sign of the purely decorative feeling of 
these artists. They did not want to stylize the human or 
animal body till it became decorative, to distort it for the 
eye by placing it on a curved surface, and by combining 
figures to upset the ease and flow of the decorative scheme. 
Thus they entirely gave up all reproduction of them, and 
are thus in marked contrast with Greek vase-painting, the 
history of which may be regarded as a constant struggle to 
represent mankind and animal creation. The Cretans 
took to other objects instead, which could be represented 
in the vigorous way they aimed at, and yet also filled the 
field decoratively, without any loss to the picture from the 



Fio. 11. AMIMIORA OF I..\'1F MIXOW I .STYI.K |.-R().\| 1NK1R.\. 



curve of the vessel. The vegetable world had entered the 
decoration of vases in the Kamares period : now it does so 
afresh, but in a totally different spirit. Grasses, branches, 
ivy, crocuses, lilies as they grow and wave in nature, 
surround the vases. But these people were specially 
concerned with the sea, marine plants and live creatures. 
Lotus flowers, sea-weeds and reeds wave in the water, the 
cuttle-fish stretches out his feelers, the nautilus swims about, 
starfish and snails, corals and sea-anemones surround the 
living objects, and dolphins gambol around. 

What impelled the Cretan vase-painters thus un- 
weariedly to represent the marine world exclusively on 
vases ? The explanation can only be sought in that supreme 
law of the development of artistic style, the talent for inven- 
tion in a few pioneer brains and the slowness in invention 
of the many. The excellent idea of having the cool liquid 
in the vases surrounded by this decorative play of marine 
life, which filled the field and was so life-like, perhaps came 
from a single gifted brain. The idea became popular, and 
the common run of vase-painters created countless varia- 
tions of the theme. 

The excellent naturalism directly inspired by nature, 
which it transfers with a bold brush to the vases, is limited 
to a short creative period : immediately the schematic and 
conventional assert themselves ; life disappears, but fixed 
decorative formulae remain, and to them the future belongs. 
Moreover, the stylized ornamentation never ceased to exist 
alongside of the natural ; nay, often appears on the same vase 
in conjunction with it, in the shape of wavy lines, spirals in 
different combinations, continuous tendrils (which are also 
treated naturally) or stylized plants. Thus two methods of 
decoration are in contrast, one ' tectonic ' with arrange- 
ment in bands, another, which freely scatters naturalistic 
representations over the vase, a kind of ornament which 



has made almost everyone who has spoken of it adduce the 
parallel of Japanese art. The freely adorned vases are 
also most characteristic of the art of the Cretans, and show 
most plainly their gay and heedless manner, their free 
decorative work, their direct relation to nature, foreign to 
abstraction and idea : they set this art in contrast with the 
contemporary old civilizations of the Nile and Euphrates as 
well as with the Greek. 

The naturalism of the first Late Minoan period has 
narrower limits than has been usually estimated. Not only 
is the stock of themes scanty (Fig. 11 is an exception) ; but 
also the reproduction of nature is purely superficial, knows 
nothing of perspective or shading, and stylizes the forms 
into the style of decorative drawing : thus, for instance, 
the marine world is represented without any indication of 
water. Of course, this does not mean that such abstraction 
from reality is not an advantage from the point of view of 
decorative art. Often the vase-shapes show a cultivated 
feeling for form in the way the body swells and contracts, 
but appear simple and constrained when compared with the 
fine lines of contour in the next period. Among new types 
that emerge may be mentioned the ' stirrup vase ' (Fig. 10) 
and the ' funnel vase ' (Figs. 7 and 8). 

The superiority of these Cretan vases to all contem- 
porary ceramic output showed itself in a vigorous export. 
The Egyptian finds of this ware give as a date the XVIII 
dynasty, approximately 1500 B.C., a date confirmed by 
some Egyptian objects found in Crete. Cretan vases were 
also exported in quantities to Melos and Thera : there the 
native industry loses itself in imperfect imitations of this 
imported ware. The Cretan civilization also enters the 
Greek mainland, especially the Argolid. The shaft graves 
of Mycenae (p. 7), from which the Late Minoan civiliza- 
tion transplanted to the mainland has been named ' Myce- 



I'LATl': \II. 


nean,' are the oldest instance of this fact. The imported 
vases of the six graves are distributed over the whole of the 
first Late Minoan (early Mycenean) period, containing 
late specimens of Kamares style and early specimens of the 
Palace style : but the bulk of the * varnish ' vases found on 
the mainland belong to the succeeding period. 

The second Late Minoan period of vase production in 
Crete, the so-called Palace style (Figs. 12 and 13) is not so 
sharply divided from the first, as the latter is from the 
Kamares style. Both phases are connected by several 
transitional forms and run parallel for a time. An import- 
ant difference is that the last traces of the Kamares 
technique (the imposition of white, red and orange on a 
black ground) disappear : there is simply painting in black 
on light clay (Mycenean technique). The decoration 
neglects the neck and foot of the vessel and emphasizes the 
shoulder, particularly with the characteristic half-branches. 
The animated reproductions of nature in the preceding 
style are treated in a fanciful way ; they become fixed and 
are changed into ornaments and patterns for filling ; the 
significant unity of the design is interrupted by foreign 
elements ; the marine and plant ornamentation now never 
covers the whole vase but retires into a single band. In 
short, the naturalistic style gives place to a tectonic style, 
the representations are not the chief thing aimed at, which 
is the filling of the space. Beside the ornaments produced 
by the schematizing of living natural forms come new ones, 
which often look like a borrowing of architectural forms ; 
moreover, the juxtaposition and combination of the orna- 
ments show the same spirit, and also the emphasis now laid 
on the shape of the vase, in which the structure and the 
swinging contour reach their highest form of elegance, as 
can be seen most plainly in the amphorae. 

This art had a wide influence outside Crete. To the 



beginning of the period, the transition from the first to the 
second Late Minoan style, belong many mainland finds, 
especially from domed tombs, in Peloponnese (Vaphio, 
Argos, Mycenae, Old Pylos), in Attica (Athens, Thorikos, 
Spata), in Boeotia (Thebes, Orchomenos) and in Thessaly 
(Volo). The finds continue during the period of the 
developed Palace style. The majority of these 'varnish' 
vases seem not to have been imported from Crete but made 
by Cretan artizans in the country. The Mycenean local 
princes, who from their lofty citadels controlled the sur- 
rounding country, surrounded themselves more and more 
with the splendour of this southern civilization, ordered 
weapons, ornaments, precious vases from Crete, used them 
in life, gave them to the dead in graves ; they also took into 
their service foreign artists, and gave employment to Cretan 
masons, painters and potters. 

The islands too acquire Cretan vases : they were ex- 
ported as far as Aegina, Melos, distant Cyprus, and the 
sixth city of Troy. 

About the end of the second Late Minoan period the 
Cretan palaces of Phaistos, Knossos, and Hagia Triada are 
destroyed, and with the destruction of these and other sites 
the Palace style decays. 

The pottery of the Late Mycenean (or third Late 
Minoan) period (Figs. 14-17) is very inferior to that of the 
Palace style. The technique is at first neat but afterwards 
falls off : the smooth yellowish clay takes a green tinge, the 
brilliant glaze colour, often burnt red, becomes a lustreless 
black. The ornamentation consists of the last remains of 
the naturalistic decoration, now become quite lifeless and 
poor, with which are associated purely geometrical patterns 
of the simplest kind, wavy lines, spirals, concentric circles. 
Rectilinear patterns (groups of strokes, hatched triangles) 
become ever more prominent. The decoration is gener- 



Fli^. 15. I.A'I'K M^CKNK.W S 11 RRf I'-VASK FR()^r RHODES 
rE.XTE \lll. 


ally very loose, emphasizes the shoulder band, and usually 
puts on the lower half of the vase only a few stripes : vertical 
division of the field into ' metopes ' is common. 

But, on the other hand, figured representations are not 
unusual on late Mycenean vases. Two classes can be 
distinguished off-hand : — (a) animal representations, in 
traditional ornamental style and very ' geometrical ' in 
treatment, particularly birds with cross-hatched bodies, 
certainly continuations of the old lustreless painting (cp. 
Fig. 4 with Fig. 15) ; and {b) larger compositions taken over 
from wall-painting, often provided with ornaments to fill 
the field, like the chariot-race on the krater from Rhodes 
(Fig. 17). The best-known example is the Warrior vase 
from Mycenae representing the departure for the battle- 

Apart from these figured representations, one may say 
that Cretan vase-painting, after its brilliant achievements in 
the Kamares, shaft grave, and Palace styles, sinks down to 
that primitive level from which it started : it becomes once 
more a geometrical style. 

The area over which we find this pottery is enormous, 
being practically the whole Mediterranean basin, Crete, 
Egypt, the Cyclades, the coast of Asia Minor (sixth city of 
Troy) and its adjacent islands {e.g. Rhodes), Cyprus (where 
the Mycenean supersedes an old and plentiful pottery akin 
to that of Troy), Phoenicia, Italy, Sicily, and especially all 
important sites of the Greek mainland. In many places, 
where the * varnish ' painting did not enter earlier, it now 
comes into contact with the old indigenous technique, with 
the monochrome, incised and lustreless vases : many back- 
ward settlements, like Olympia, seem to have had practi- 
cally no acquaintance with the Mycenean style. 

Here again the Egyptian finds give us a date : they last 
from about the end of the 15th down into the 12th century. 



But since it is not conceivable that we should date the 
Geometrical period, which followed the Mycenean, back 
into the second millennium, the late Mycenean style must 
have lasted at least four centuries ; the rate of develop- 
ment, which in the time of great achievements had been 
very rapid, must have become considerably slower. 

To arrange the huge mass of late Mycenean vases in this 
long development is impossible, until the material has been 
sifted and worked through. But one thing already can be 
said with certainty, that it was not merely exported from 
Crete ; indeed it is more than questionable, whether Crete 
played the leading part. In this period the native seat of 
the brilliant Minoan civilization is no longer in the fore- 
ground ; the centre of gravity has shifted to the mainland, in 
particular the Argolid. Even in the period of the shaft 
graves we see the Peloponnesians eagerly adopting Cretan 
civilization ; in the following period the mainland vies with 
Crete in the production of Mycenean vases, and finally must 
have wrested the lead from the southern outpost. This 
applies not merely to civilization but to political conditions. 
A hypothesis, in favour of which there is much to be said, 
connects the destruction of the Cretan palaces with the 
invasion of conquering * Achaeans,' the name Homer 
applies to the lords of the mainland. Just as the wall- 
painting originally borrowed from Crete was still flourishing 
on the mainland, when it had died out at home, so the late 
Mycenean pottery must have been produced mainly in con- 
tinental Greece, and the new style must have been formed 
by the Peloponnesians. Thus we can explain the non- 
Minoan elements, the strong geometrical influence on the 
decoration, and the taking over of figured scenes from wall- 
painting, which was rejected by the old Cretans. 

So it was probably the * Achaeans * who spread the late 
Mycenean pottery all over the Mediterranean. They had 


i-iys. 1(5 \' 17. i.A'iK mv(:I':nk.\x \\si:s from riiodes. 



become a seafaring nation on a great scale. Of their entry 
into Crete we have just spoken, of their united campaigns 
of conquest in Asia Minor, in which the Cretan king has the 
Argive Agamemnon as his overlord, the Homeric poems 
tell us, and of their colonizing expansion in the Mediter- 
ranean the vase finds among other things give evidence, as 
they justify conclusions about new localities of manufacture 
(Troy, Rhodes, Cyprus, etc.). 

In the beginning of the first millennium the scene is 
totally altered. On the coast of Asia Minor and the islands 
are settled Hellenic races, among which the Aeolians and 
lonians are probably descendants of the emigrated 
Achaeans, while the Dorians represent a new tribe come in 
from the north, which subdued the Peloponnese and Crete 
and extended to the south of the Aegean Sea. 

These shiftings of population, the so-called Dorian 
invasion, with which Greek historians begin the history of 
their country, mark the end of the Bronze Age and of the 
Mycenean civilization. Iron weapons, only sporadically 
to be found in the late Mycenean age, take the place of 
bronze ; the Mycenean vase style vanishes all along the 
line, and gives way to a new style, the Geometric. 



NOW for the first time the history of Greek vases proper 
begins. In the pottery of the geometric style are 
latent the forces, which we see afterwards expanding in con- 
tact with the East, as well as the oldest beginnings that we 
can trace of that brilliant continuous development, which 
led to the proud heights of Klitias, Euphronios, Meidias. 
Its producers may be unreservedly described as Greeks : 
Hellas has come into being. However primitive the 
civilization of this early Greece may have been, however 
patriarchal is the picture which Homer, the great genius of 
this period, gives us of this world, however much the works 
of art described by him point to Mycenean reminiscences 
and Phoenician importation, yet in the department of 
ceramics the art of this time was thoroughly original and 
highly developed, and it is from the vases that this early 
phase gets its name. 

We should like to have a glimpse of the origin of the 
Geometric style, but its beginnings are shrouded in dark- 
ness. It cannot be regarded as simply a descendant of the 
pre-Mycenean Geometric pottery, which in outlying parts 
continued throughout the Bronze Age ; for in its ' varnish * 
technique, its forms and decoration, it is totally different 
from those primitive vessels. As little is it a direct con- 
tinuation of the Mycenean style, from which it took over 
the technique of painting. However much towards the 
end of its development the latter inclined to decoration in 



bands and the geometrizing of ornament, it was an outworn 
poor style that arose out of schematizing of living forms, in 
complete contrast with the clear concise Geometric style, 
which consistently unfolds and exhausts its individuality. 

Naturally the Mycenean style did not disappear 
abruptly from the face of the earth, and there are transi- 
tional forms, which cannot be nicely divided. They must 
not be too highly estimated ; they are, it is true, at the 
beginning of the new development, but do not influence it. 
Thus the * Salamis ' vases, and their parallels from Athens, 
Nauplia, and Assarlik in Southern Asia Minor, show this 
transition, retaining in part Mycenean forms like the stirrup 
vase, and Mycenean ornaments like the spiral, but being in 
fact an insignificant ware, of bad workmanship and meagre 
decoration. More interesting is the survival of Mycenean 
traditions in Crete, the home of the Minoan style, and in the 
Argolid, the chief seat of late Mycenean civilization : 
certain vase-shapes, hatched triangles, concentric circles 
and semi-circles on the shoulder are retained from the old 

From these and other Mycenean reminiscences the 
unfolding of the new style cannot be explained any more 
than by a revival of pre-Mycenean Geometric styles. We 
must rather bring in, to explain the phenomenon, those 
movements of peoples, the driving out of southern 
Mycenean civilization by races advancing from the North, 
and the new mixture of blood, which strengthened and 
made dominant the northern European element. Though 
the Dorians did not develop the style as conspicuously as 
other tribes, there arose out of the ferment caused by their 
appearance on the scene the new creative vigour, the 
Greek element proper, which, out of the frozen traditions 
of the mainland and the lifeless relics of Mycenean art 
created a new style and a firm basis for a fine development. 



The Geometric style makes a virtue of the necessities of 
rude beginnings ; out of the simple decorative material at 
its disposal, it creates a rich system. Angular patterns, 
rows of dots, strokes, ' fish-bones,' zig-zags, crosses, stars, 
hooked crosses, triangles, rhombi, hook maeanders, 
maeanders broken up in different ways, maeander systems, 
chequers, net patterns are most common ; alongside of them 
are circles and rosettes neatly made with the compass. 
The wavy line, which like the snake edged with dots 
perhaps comes from Mycenean polyps, takes a second 
place ; all other free ornamentation is eschewed ; the place 
of continuous spirals is taken by circles connected by 
tangents. Thus the ornamentation appears to be steeped 
in mathematics, and the same is the case with the representa- 
tion of living beings. Man and animal alike appear in 
stylized silhouettes, which bring the various parts of the 
body into the simplest possible scheme, and set them off 
sharply against one another. Thus the human breast 
appears as an inverted triangle and is shown frontally, but 
the legs and head are in profile. The head, which is only 
emancipated from the silhouette style in the succeeding 
period, already often has a space reserved in it to indicate 
the eye. As a rule the human body is represented naked, 
while towards the end of the period, the instances of cloth- 
ing, especially of women, become more numerous. There 
has been division of opinion as to whether this nudity 
reproduces actual life. That is certainly not the case. 
" This is the nudity of the primitive artist, of the abstract 
linear style. It is not man as he actually is, but the concept 
* man * which is to be rendered, and clothes are no part of 
this concept." (Furtwangler). These oldest Greek repre- 
sentations of man are not, properly speaking, reproductions 
of nature, but a kind of mathematical formulae, which 
gradually in the course of centuries of fresh observation of 



Fig. 19. 



nature become richer, corporeal, living, spiritual. Animal 
representation begins also in the same formulistic manner. 
The choice is in contrast with the Minoan animal world : 
there is complete absence of the Oriental animal world of 
fancy ; we only see the Northern fauna ; horses, roes, goats, 
storks, geese. The animals stand upright, graze, or rest 
with neck turned round. The technique is always that of 
the pure silhouette ; only the birds often, as in the pre- 
Mycenean and late Mycenean styles (Figs. 4 and 15), show 
hatched or cross-hatched inner drawing of the body. 

These geometric ornaments and abstract silhouettes of 
men and animals form the complete stock out of which the 
artist of the period provides for the decoration of his vases. 
With them he fills the bands into which he loves to divide 
the vase (Fgi. 18) ; or at all events the shoulder or handle 
band, constructively the most important, in which case he 
covers the lower part of the vase with black (Fig. 19) or 
with parallel rings (Fig. 23). The bands, the breadth of 
which is varied, are filled in two ways. Either we have 
continuous ornaments, and processions of animals, chorus 
dancers, warriors, chariots and horses, which in this style 
are essentially nothing but ornament ; or he divides the 
bands, and particularly the handle bands (Fig. 19) 
vertically into rectangular fields, metopes as they are called. 
The metope naturally takes a different scheme of filling the 
space from the band ; if the latter prefers a continuous 
series, the former requires ornaments complete in them- 
selves, like circles and rosettes, or in the case of figures, the 
antithetical group, the heraldic opposition of two different 
fields of figures, or of two figures in the same field. The 
figures connected by compulsion of space are then more 
closely united by a central motive, and there arise orna- 
mental compositions not at all drawn from actual life, e.g. 
two birds both holding in their beaks a fish or a snake, two 



horses with crossed fore-legs, rearing towards each other, 
tied to a tripod, or held by a man with a bridle, two roes 
with raised fore-legs leaning against a tree. Band and 
metope with their compulsory schematism no longer suffice 
for the growing need of representation : in the large vases 
the chief band is often made very high, or in the upper part 
of the vase a rectangle adorned with ornament or figures is 
left out from the surrounding black : thus arises the vase 
with special field for subjects. 

Legend, which in this period found its brilliant expres- 
sion in the Epics of Homer and Hesiod, is still very much in 
the background in these vase-paintings. Centaurs only 
begin to be represented on late Geometric vases. Scenes 
such as the embarkation on the bowl from Thebes (Fig. 21) 
cannot be interpreted otherwise than mythically, as the 
rape of Helen by Paris or of Ariadne by Theseus, since on 
Geometric bronze fibula from Boeotia it is certain that 
legendary scenes are intended. The battle scenes too, with 
their duellists surrounded by spectators and their fights on 
a large scale by land and sea, must be inspired by the Heroic 
Saga. But far more numerous are the scenes of daily life, 
which are connected with the sepulchral purpose of the 
vases. We see the dead man lying on the bed of state, 
covered with a big cloth ; men, women, and children, with 
arms raised to their heads in token of grief, are standing, sit- 
ting and kneeling around him ; we see the bier placed on the 
hearse, and amid loud lamentation of the populace driven 
to the cemetery, while, in honour of the deceased, chariot- 
races and mimic battles are represented and dances are 
performed to the sound of flutes and lyres. 

As the human form is rendered without any feeling for 
bodily shape, so all the representations are without any 
spatial sense. Chariot floors and table surfaces are not 
fore-shortened, the breast of the dead man lying on the bier 






is represented in front view, the covering of the corpse is 
visible in its complete extent, as if it hung down upon it ; in 
the case of pairs of horses the off horse is simply moved 
forward and represented smaller; masses of men are 
rendered by files of similar figures ; figures to be thought of 
as in the background, e.g. the hinder rows in the Helen 
bowl (Fig. 21) are placed high up. The space, which con- 
tains the figures, is an ideal tectonic space, the surface of the 
vase to be adorned. Where the figures do not sufifice to fill 
this space, the Geometric artist regards it as a gap in the 
decoration of the vase and fills the void with dots, rows of 
zig-zags, hooked crosses, rosettes with a central point, and 
actually paints birds or fishes between the legs of horses or 
between the chariot and the bier which rests upon it 
(Fig. 20). 

This even covering of the surface gives the vases of this 
period a carpet-like appearance, and this textile impression 
is strengthened by the geometry of the ornamentation, by 
the angular stylization of the living beings, by the decora- 
tive schemes and the division into bands. But on this 
account to derive the whole style from the imitation of 
works of the loom would be a mistake ; the stylistic limita- 
tions of the style cannot be identified straight off with the 
technical limitation of weaving. As in all primitive civiliza- 
tions so in the formation of the Geometric vase style, simple 
linear patterns may have been taken over from weaving 
and plaiting : but this is not the case with circles and 
rosettes, and anyhow such a consistent and systematic per- 
fection as that of the Geometric vase style is inconceivable 
as an imitation of a foreign technique. 

Greek ceramic art never completely lost this * textile ' 
character, and never quite renounced the Geometric 
school through which it passed, though by centuries of 
labour it freed itself from the defects and crudities of that 



school. Vase-figures long exhibit their origin out of the 
ornamental silhouette ; the decorative schemes of arrange- 
ment in rows and of antithetic groups are always breaking 
out afresh ; the principle of using up the space is applied 
superficially for some time and only gradually refined ; the 
decoration in bands subsists for a long time beside the vases 
with a pictorial field, and remains of it exist till late ; the 
disinclination for deepening the field, based on a correct 
structural feeling, goes through the whole history of Greek 
vases and keeps the ornamental figure world of the vases 
always at a distance from the much less constrained world 
of free painting. 

The Geometric vases have not merely a historical mean- 
ing, but a value of their own. They are not a preliminary 
stage, but something complete. In them Greek art in true 
Greek fashion worked out a thought ; expressed itself for 
the first time in a classical way, if the phrase may be used ; 
out of a clumsy rustic style with poor ornamentation 
developed vases of technical perfection, compact and clear 
in form, consistently thought out in the decoration now 
lavishly, now sparingly spread over them, in their austere 
beauty true children of the Greek genius. 

But this style did not put out everywhere equally fine 
flowers. It was not, like the late Mycenean, an ' imperial ' 
style, but, from the first— and this is significant for Greek 
art — differentiated and conditioned by locality ; each 
region had its own manufacture of vases, and its own 
Geometric style. Already the lead is taken by that place, 
which later was to drive out of the field all competitors, viz., 
Athens. The Dipylon vases — the name usually given to 
Attic Geometric vases from the fact that most of them were 
found in the cemetery before the Dipylon Gate,— rise in 
form, technique and decoration to the greatest perfection 
and highest richness. In the magnificent amphora, as 



much as two metres in height, which are worthy of their 
monumental use as tomb decoration, the Geometric style 
perhaps reaches its culmination ; in the so-called black 
Dipylon vases, often only sparingly decorated on the 
shoulder or neck and otherwise covered black, we get 
already an effect of colour which became popular much 
later ; the stock of forms is ampler, the maeander more 
developed, the delight in telling a story and in representing 
a scene greater than in other Geometric styles. Beside the 
Dipylon there is a second site in Attica, Eleusis, though not 
80 important ; Boeotia too must be mentioned, the pottery 
of which makes a provincial impression, and is dependent 
in forms, patterns and subjects on Attica and the Aegean 
islands, as also that of the neighbouring Eretria in Euboea. 

The prototypes of the big Boeotian and Eretrian 
amphorae with high stem and broad neck have been found 
particularly in Delos and Rheneia, richly ornamented vases 
* de luxe,' in which the painting is laid on a white slip. In 
the same place, where the cult of Apollo had a great attrac- 
tion, several other Geometric classes were also found, 
among them the precursors of the art which flourished in 
the 7th century and which is usually ascribed to the island 
of Melos. On the Delian vases horses and human repre- 
sentations occur, but generally in this class there is a 
disinclination to represent figures. The same disinclination 
and the frequent use of a light slip characterize the pottery 
of the Dorian island of Thera, which developed a very 
definite though sober and monotonous Geometric style that 
seems to have obstinately persisted till well into the 7th 
century. The rich finds of other classes bear witness to an 
active trade with the mainland, other Cyclades, and the 
Ionic East, the pottery of which has many points of contact 
with the Cycladic. We know it from Miletus and other 
places on the Asiatic coast, but above all from the island of 



Rhodes. The Rhodian Geometric vases are distinguished 
from the Cycladic by the absence of the light slip, and seem 
in spite of many points of contact never to have reached the 
same level. An isolated vegetable ornament, the so-called 
palm-tree, points to relations with Cyprus. Cross- 
hatched rhombi and birds are very much in vogue ; they 
appear also in loose arrangement on the ' Bird kylikes,' 
which in post-Geometric times extended from Rhodes over 
the Ionian region and so made their way to the Greek main- 
land, Italy and Sicily. 

The most important Peloponnesian manufactures are : 
(1) that of Sparta, which now to some extent adopts the 
white slip later predominant ; (2) that of Argos, which soon 
discards its Mycenean reminiscences and develops on 
parallel lines with the Attic ware without attaining to the 
heights and richness of the Dipylon vases ; (3) above all, the 
so-called Protocorinthian. 

This Geometric style, which next to the Attic had the 
greatest future before it, seems to be at home in the 
Northern Argolid (p. 34). Its early Geometric beginnings 
we do not know. It is akin to its Argive neighbour in many 
points, in the scantiness of its stock of forms, in shapes like 
the metallic krater with a stirrup-handle. Unfortunately 
little has been left to us of the large-sized vases, kraters, 
cauldrons, amphorte and jugs. The two-handled cup 
(Fig. 23), the round box, the globular oil-flask, the deep 
drinking-cup, the jug with flat bottom (Fig. 33) are the 
favourite smaller shapes. The limitation of the decoration 
to the upper margin, and the decoration of the rest with 
parallel stripes is characteristic. This ware was more 
exported than any other Geometric class ; it entered the 
southern Argolid, went by way of Corinth and Eleusis to 
Boeotia and Delphi, and was exported to Aegina and 
Thera, Italy and Sicily. On Italian soil, in the Euboean 





colony of Kyme, it certainly founded a branch factory, 
which quickly took on a local character and exported in its 
turn ; but in various other places also the style evoked local 

The Protocorinthian style owed its brilliant future both 
to the Geometric foundation, and, as will appear, to the 
strong influence of Cretan Art. In Crete, after the settle- 
ment of the Dorians in the island, no definite Geometric 
style was formed : the Mycenean traditions were too strong 
and the relations with the East too close. After the purely 
Geometric vases, among which wide-bellied amphorse 
without a neck are common, there soon appear vases show- 
ing Cyprian influence, particularly small jugs with concen- 
tric circles on the body (precursors of Fig. 27) ; thus a 
pitcher from Kavusi, which by an exception has figures on 
it (a charioteer and mourning women in a metope-like 
arrangement) is apparently, in shape as well as in the orna- 
ment which consists of a row of * S's ' on their backs and the 
un-Geometric drawing of its silhouettes, dependent on simi- 
lar Cyprian models. 

Crete with its loosely-rooted Geometric style took up 
the new elements more freely than other localities, where at 
first they are placed side by side with the native ones, like 
the palm-tree on Rhodian vases, the Cyprian circles on 
Attic and Protocorinthian jugs, the precursors of the 
tongue pattern on Attic and Theran vases, the unsystematic 
rays on Attic and Protocorinthian ware, the running spiral 
probably borrowed from metal work on Protocorinthian 
and Theran vases. Moreover, figured representations from 
an alien world of ideas creep into the fixed Geometric 
systems, as for instance the two lions devouring a man on a 
Dipylon vase, the goddess flanked by two animals on a 
Boeotian amphora, the fabulous creatures on Rhodian vases. 

These foreign elements, which have their root in 



Oriental art, are the harbingers of a complete revolution, 
and in them is heralded the end of the Geometric style. It 
is obvious that a decorative style like the Geometric could 
have no future : its possibilities were quickly exhausted, 
even where the style was most richly developed. Its dis- 
solution would have come, even if superior civilization with 
richer methods of decoration had not been in close contact 
of trade and intercourse with this early Greek world, and 
exercised on it a persistent influence. The Cretans and 
Eastern Greeks lived in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Egypt and Asia, the islands and the mainland were united 
to the East by active trade relations. In particular 
Phoenician merchants, while the Geometric style was 
flourishing, handed on to the Greeks the products of 
Oriental art, as both the Epic and the finds testify. Nor 
did the Greeks remain at home either, but had long 
become a seafaring people ; Attic, Boeotian and Proto- 
corinthian painters proudly place representations of ships 
on Geometric vases ; the statistics of the finds of the various 
Geometric wares show a constantly growing trade inter- 
course. Colonisation too has already begun, and is ever 
expanding ; according to the earliest vase finds Syracuse, 
Kyme, and perhaps also Massilia and the Black Sea coast 
received settlers, while their mother-cities still had 
Geometric pottery. Since Syracuse was founded in the 
second half of the 8th century and its oldest graves contain 
late Geometric vases, we obtain an approximate date for 
the end of the Geometric style. 

The objects of Oriental Art, which were brought before 
the eyes of the Greeks by this active intercourse, powerfully 
stimulated their fancy. The crowd of decorative motives 
from vegetation, the world of fantastic animals, and the 
superiority of Oriental Art in the rendering of life, drew 
Greek vase-painting out of Geometric uniformity and 
pointed it to new paths. 






AS the Oriental motives pour into the Greek world, a 
new development begins, which in the details of its 
course is still hard to grasp, the collision of the native 
Geometric style with Oriental influence, the fusion of both 
elements into a new unity, and the growth of the archaic 
style. In contrast with the quiet and consistent unfolding 
of Geometric style, the process to anyone who goes deep 
into its details takes on the character of a restless fermenta- 
tion, and an almost dramatic tension. It occupies, roughly 
speaking, the 7th century. Without forgetting how arbi- 
trary divisions in the history of Art must always be, let us 
here treat as one the period from the end of the Geometric 
style to the abandonment of filling ornament, the change in 
technique of clay and colouring, and the formation of the 
established body of black-figured types. 

The smelting process took on a different character in 
the different regions, according to the tenacity with which 
the old style was retained, and the intensity of the contact 
with the East. In most places there follows first a period of 
hesitation and experimentalism, out of which finally the 
new style is formed. Nowhere does the Oriental element 
simply take the place of the Greek Geometric ; the acquisi- 
tions of the old style, the fixed vase shapes, the principles of 
decoration, and the technique, remain and are further 
developed. Greek pottery was much too highly and richly 
developed, too firmly rooted, to find it necessary to 



imitate Oriental clay vases. The stimuli were of much 
more general nature ; they are chiefly visible in the orna- 
mentation and pictorial types, they are taken from metal 
vases and richly embroidered materials, from costly 
carpets, articles of jewellery, engraved gems, and other fine 
things, which the foreign trader or the seafaring Greek 
brought from the Near or Far East or saw with his own eyes 
abroad. It became apparent to him, that the Geometric 
style was really poverty-stricken and mathematical. The 
feeling for finely-drawn line and vivid reproduction of life 
awoke in view of the freer Art of the East ; the Greek made 
the Oriental models his own and created out of them and 
the mathematical element a new Art. Not all stimuli come 
direct from the East ; perhaps only comparatively few, which 
were then passed on, were constantly altered and took on 
varied local colour. It looks as if the stream of Oriental 
influence took two different routes, one by way of the Greek 
East (Rhodes, Samos, Miletus) and another by way of 
Crete, which evidently had a strong influence on the 
Cyclades and Peloponnesus. 

In Crete Phoenician metal objects have been found, 
which were imported during the Geometric period, and the 
Cretan Geometric pottery soon takes up motives of decora- 
tion borrowed from the Oriental or Orientalizing metal 
industry. The row of 'S's,' which plays a part in Geo- 
metric bronzes, appears as we have seen on the Kavusi jug 
(p. 27). Its climax is the cable pattern (guilloche), which is 
obviously borrowed from Phoenician metal vessels (Fig. 26). 
The tongue pattern (Figs. 25-27) which surrounds the lower 
part and the shoulder of the vases, like the rays similarly 
used (Figs. 31-35), goes back ultimately to Egyptian plant 
calyces. The connection with bronze patterns is fully 
proved by the dots often placed on the ornaments, by the 
technique of adding white on black painted vases (Fig. 29) 






which aims at a metallic effect, and by the change of the 
vase shapes. These often get a quite non-ceramic appear- 
ance (Fig. 25), and in their rounding and contouring, 
especially by the emphasis on the foot (Figs. 25 and 27), 
they are in contrast with the Geometric forms. The 
Praisos jug (Fig. 26) is obviously under Cypriot influence, 
as is the delicate Berlin jug (Fig. 27), in which a previously 
described class (p. 27) reaches its high water mark. The 
Praisos pitcher (Fig. 25) to the Orientalizing patterns 
enumerated already adds the hook spirals, which are 
characteristic of the 7th century, and the Berlin jug adds 
also the volute and the palmette. The plastic head which 
crowns this little bottle, and is entirely inspired by the 
Egypto-Phoenician ideas of form, inaugurates a new era in 
the representation of man. We are now in the time when 
Greek sculpture was born, in that notable period when 
Greek art under the influence of Oriental art took to the 
chisel, to enter on a century of development which ended 
in giving shape to the loftiest and most delicate creations 
that can move the spirit of man. It is noteworthy that 
Greek tradition embodied the beginnings of this develop- 
ment in a Cretan, Daedalus, and to a kinsman of this 
ancestor of all Greek sculptors it traced back the invention 
of the great art of painting, without the influence of which 
we cannot conceive of vase-paintings henceforward. 

The first period of the transitional style betrays little of 
this influence. The reproduction of living beings is 
dominated by the decorative figures of the East, especially 
monsters and fabulous beings, which now make their entry 
into Greek art, and exercise a powerful attraction not only 
on plastic art, but on poetic and mythopoeic fancy. Thus 
the Geometric silhouette is superseded. If even the pre- 
ceding age had felt the need of leaving void a hole to 
indicate the eye, now the head is completely rendered by 



an outline and made lifelike by interior drawing (Fig. 30). 
The next stage is that the whole body also is rendered in 
contour. To make the transition plain, we show here a 
vase-fragment, the Cretan origin of which is not established, 
but which must be in close connection with Cretan art, the 
Ram jug from Aegina (Fig. 28). The animal frieze, with 
its hook spirals, dot rosettes, rhombi and triangles to fill 
the space, is characteristic of older Oriental art ; the 
drawing of the rams is far beyond Geometric technique ; in 
the body too the silhouette is given up, and indication of the 
hide is attempted. This animal frieze is no longer an end 
in itself : by the men clinging to them the ornamental rams 
become mythical rams, the rams of the Odyssey. The 
fugitives are not very closely connected with their saviours, 
and the giant must have been more than blind not to notice 
them. But on the other hand the artist has drawn them 
very clearly, has put both arms and both legs in view of the 
spectator, and even, where a small detail would not other- 
wise have shown well, made a small nick in the belly of the 
ram. This shows how the artist of the period could with 
difficulty do without a clear outline. 

These attempts are perfected in the outlined figure of a 
plate from Praisos, which is certainly Cretan (Fig. 29). 
The childishly disproportioned structure has now become a 
clear organism of genuine Greek stamp, full of excellent 
observation of nature; the ornamentally constrained 
picture becomes now a free version of a legend, which 
however cannot be interpreted with certainty, till the white 
object under the sea-monster has been explained. It is 
most likely that we may see in it the foot of a female figure 
filling the left half of the plate, perhaps Thetis, who escapes 
from the attacks of Peleus by changing into a fish. The 
interior incised lines in the body of the sea-monster are a 
novelty, which the ceramic art has developed indepen- 







dently (p. 37). But on the other hand the advance in 
drawing and the technical rendering of form, the outline of 
Peleus, the light colour of the woman, the reddish brown 
tint of the rider on the reverse, cannot be explained apart 
from the influence of free painting, whose oldest stages are 
stated to have been outlining with progressive drawing of 
interior details, monochromy {i.e. outline drawing with a 
filling of colour) and distinction of sex by colour. After an 
interval of several centuries wall-painting must have sprung 
up again and flourished in Crete, different to be sure in 
essentials from the Minoan, rather influenced by the East 
like the decorative art of the time. In spite of the tendency 
to represent painting as ' invented ' in Greece, Greek 
tradition reluctantly admits that this art was indigenous and 
highly developed in Egypt long before. 

The bloom of Cretan art seems not to have outlasted the 
7th century. Finds give out, and tradition expressly testi- 
fies to the migration of Cretan sculptors to the Argolid, a 
district which also took over the inheritance of Cretan vase 

Of the two chief centres of Argive Geometric vase 
fabrication, one which is to be sought in the region 
of Argos and Tiryns cannot be followed out very clearly. 
The oldest Greek vase signed by an artist, the krater of the 
potter Aristonothos with the blinding of Polyphemus (Fig. 
30), seems from the shape of the vase to belong to this class. 
The complicated shape of the circle of rays, the breaking 
up of the head silhouette, the juxtaposition of the traditional 
sea-fight with the legendary scene, are typical of the early 
Orientalizing period ; certain parallels with the late 
Mycenean Warrior vase (p. 15) perhaps justify the conclu- 
sion, that remains of the old wall-painting had an influence 
on the style. Like the Aristonothos vase, some stirrup- 
handled kraters with metope decorations continue Argive 



Geometric traditions. These vases, however, are exclu- 
sively found in the West (Syracuse) and were probably 
made there ; they do not give faithful reflection of their 
Argive prototypes. A krater with tall foot and ornamenta- 
tion in bands, found at the Argive Heraion, representing 
the rescue of Deianeira, with plentiful use of 'monochromy,' 
is too isolated to make a picture of this Orientalizing pottery 

It cannot have played a leading part, but must soon 
have been put in the shade by its near neighbour and rival. 
For that the so-called Protocorinthian fabrication is also at 
home in the Argolid is proved by the fact that the chief 
places, where the ware is found, are Argos and Aegina, and 
that quantities of small and hardly exportable ware are 
found at various places in the district. The alphabet of 
the inscriptions agrees with this locality, and so does the 
style, which leads up to the Corinthian, whence the name 
has been given, as well as the fact that the great 
trading-centre of Corinth looked after the sale of 
the wares ; for the area in which they were sold 
is identical with that of the Corinthian vases. On 
account of these close relations with Corinth, the home of 
the Protocorinthian vases has been sought with great proba- 
bility in the neighbouring town of Sicyon, of which we are 
told that it was the place to which Cretan artists migrated, 
that it was the birthplace of Greek painting and seat of a 
flourishing metal industry, so that we are able to 
account for three ingredients of the new style. For the 
Protocorinthian style of the 7th century gave the most deli- 
cate development of Cretan ' Daedalic ' types, particularly 
near its end ; fixed a clear style of figure representation and 
an ample store of types, and developed its vase-shapes, 
system of decoration and technique, under the influence of 
metal patterns, more severely, precisely and richly than any 


Fig. 31. 

Fia- 32. 


Fig. 33. 




other contemporary centre of fabrication. In it the vase 
history of the post-Geometric century culminates. 

Even in the Geometric period which preceded it (p. 26) 
(the sparing ornamentation of which is in contrast 
with the Dipylon pottery and its greater delight in 
using the brush) metallic influence can be traced ; 
the simple running spiral certainly comes from in- 
cised bronzes. The delicate two-handled cups closely 
connected with the Geometric style (Fig. 23), with 
their well-cleansed clay, improved glaze colour baked black 
to red, and the reduction of the walls almost to the thinness 
of paper, can only have been produced in competition with 
the metal industry ; and as a matter of fact delicate silver 
vases of the same shape have been found along with the clay 
copies of them in Etruscan graves. The lower part of the 
cups is at first painted black, but soon it is surrounded 
with the circle of rays, which according to the ideas of the 
new period emphasizes and makes clear the tectonic 
character of that part of the vase. This motive also 
appears in the Geometric decoration of the flat-bottomed 
jugs (Fig. 33), the unguent pots which show Cyprian 
influence in their oldest globular shape, the kylikes, round 
boxes and other shapes, though not always in the typical 
place, and often also combined with other ornaments (Figs. 
30 and 32). In spite of its Geometrical treatment and its 
truly Greek close combination with the system of decora- 
tion, it does not disown the impulse it owes to Oriental 
patterns (p. 30). The Protocorinthian style also introduced 
its doubling (Fig. 32), which still survives in the 6th century 
(Fig. 98). The cable pattern, borrowed as has been shown 
from Oriental metal-work, drives out the * S's ' and the 
running spiral. As a handle ornament it gets a rich enlarge- 
ment (Fig. 32), the fine stylization of which, no doubt, was 
first produced in metal industry. Of the greatest import- 



ance is the adoption of loops, volutes, running tendrils and 
friezes of arcs, which in combination with the palmette 
appear on the wall of the vase or as an upper stripe, and 
from simple, often loosely stylized beginnings, expand with 
the help of the lotus-flower into a fine loop and flower 
ornament (' Rankengeschling '), as in Figs. 31, 32, 35. 
That this ornamentation, in spite of its rigid stylization, was 
felt by the Greeks to belong to the living vegetable world, is 
shown e.g. by the volute-complex, behind which the hunter 
(on the lowest stripe of Fig. 31) waits to catch the hare, as 
well as behind the naturally drawn bush (on Fig. 36) ; this 
shows that the ' volute tree ' (Fig. 34) flanked by two 
sphinxes, is thought of as a real tree. On the other hand 
the ornaments in the field are quite as meaningless as in the 
older style : to those used by Geometric artists are now 
added the hook spiral, and the rosette treated as a dotted 
star, two ornaments we have seen already on the Ram jug 
(Fig. 28) ; at first they are independent and can be used to 
form friezes, later they become less and less prominent 
(Figs. 32 and 34, cp. also Fig. 28). Two further decorative 
motives lead us back into the region of metal-work, the 
scale-pattern extending over the whole body of the vase 
(Fig. 38), which so often occurs in incised metal-work, and 
the tongue ornament, the typical decoration of bronze 
vessels, which on clay vases as well often rises over the foot 
in place of the kindred rays, but most commonly finishes 
the shoulder where it meets the neck. Both motives have 
already been met with in Crete, as applied on a black 
ground. The black ground technique of the Praisos jug 
(Fig. 26) is very popular with Protocorinthian artists, goes 
alongside of the clay-ground vases for the whole period, and 
supplies richly coloured examples decorated with figures 
and ornaments of fine effect, particularly in combination 
with a new technique, which appears in the advanced style, 





being specially typical of scale and tongue ornamentation 
that of mcsion. It is perhaps idle to inquire into its inven- 
tion : ,t IS more important to establish the fact, that it was 
first consistently and systematically applied to the black- 
ground vessels of the Protocorinthian artists, who were also 
famed for metal-work, and gave a new stamp to the style at 
a time when the East used simple brush technique almost 
exclusively. The incised line is always combined with the 
addition of coloured and particularly red details 

The technical advance, which in some measure 
replaced the influence of the rising art of painting by that 
of metal-working, is shown more plainly in the figured 
representations, particularly the friezes of animals, which 
the vase-painters, inspired by Oriental metal ware and 
embroideries, with ever greater zest employ on their vases the birds stags and roes, beside the dogs pursuing 
liares, with which a lower stripe could be easily filled come 
new animals, for which they are chiefly indebted to Oriemal 
art bull, goat, bear, ram, wild-goat, lion and panther 
sphinx, siren, griffin, and other hybrids. These creatures 
appear m quite definite types, which admit of little variety • 
It IS characteristic that the panther's head is drawn in front 
view perhaps through an abbreviation of a heraldic double 
panther; and this rule is devoutly observed through the 
whole period of decoration with animal friezes. An indica 
tion of this IS that the decorative animals never become pure 
outlines like the human figures, but after a period of partial 
silhouette (p. 31), return to the complete silhouette, as 
satisfying better the requirements of decoration This 
return became possible through the use of the incised line 
by the help of which interior drawing could be added on a 
black ground, and the effect of the figures was further 
enhanced by the addition of details in red This is an 
important innovation in the history of Greek vase-painting 
* 37 


The general effect of the vase is completely altered by the 
decorative play of colour, which extends also to the orna- 
mentation, and takes on that gay many-coloured aspect 
which is so characteristic of the older archaic period, and 
which is only dropped late in the 6th century. The new 
colour system does not aim at realism ; it makes prominent 
for decorative purposes single parts of the animal body, 
especially the neck and belly. 

The drawing of the human figure proceeds on other lines 
than that of animals. In consequence of the new develop- 
ment of the art of painting (p. 33), it makes a fresh start. 
First we have the vase of Aristonothos (Fig. 30) ; the next 
stage is represented by the Ram vase (Fig. 28) ; the desire 
of distinguishing the lighter skin of women from that of men 
leads to the tinting in brown of the male body. But in the 
formation of the figure types certainly it was not only 
painting that stood godmother, the metal worker's art must 
also have asserted its influence ; the kinship with Cretan 
and Argive flat bronze reliefs and metal engraved work is 
too great, the sharp clear-cut types too much in the spirit of 
bronze technique, for it to be possible to postulate an mde- 
pendent development. To this corresponds the fact that 
the outlines of the figures are accompanied by incised lines 
on polychrome vases with black ground, on the finest of the 
later lekythoi (oil-flasks) and on the Chigi ]ug (Fig. 35)^ 
This technique is repeated on the big two-handled cups with 
finely stylised figured representations, which finally accom- 
plish an important advance already foreshadowed by small 
and hasty specimens : the dark silhouette with incised inte- 
rior detail, prevalent in the style of the animal friezes, and 
along with it certain details like the circular rendering of the 
eye are taken over for the representation of male figures. 

This adoption, which only takes place at the end of the 
development, and makes the Protocorinthian style the 






starting point of black-figured vase painting, does not unite 
heterogeneous elements. For man and decorative animal 
are equivalent in their juxtaposition, and beside the free 
mythological scenes there is a series of representations, 
which seems to have grown straight out of the animal frieze. 
The Centaur, the old Greek forest monster, joins the 
animals ; winged demons in the remarkable scheme of 
running with bent knee (pointing to the metope 
treatment) are also placed amongst them ; kneeling 
archers shoot arrows at them, hunters and combat- 
ants pursue them, Bellerophon rides on Pegasus 
against the Chimaera, Herakles fights against the 
Centaurs. Purely human scenes, like the favourite Duel 
(Fig. 43), are simply flanked by animals. The addition of 
figures in rows and overlapping makes this simple combat 
into a battle ; wounded fall, corpses are hotly fought over, 
auxiliaries hurry up. The artist always in these cases gives 
prominence to the finely decorated shields, the pride of 
Argive metal industry. Like the rows of fighting men, the 
other frieze-like compositions, the processions of riders and 
chariot-races, the hunting scenes and chase of the hare, 
thanks to charming observation of detail, make a direct 
appeal which is strange for such early art. The bushes in 
the hare-hunt of the Chigi jug (Fig. 36) show the awakening 
of the landscape element, which to be sure is always a rarity 
on vases and must have played a larger part in free painting. 
Moreover, the varying colouring of the animals on the stripe 
in question, which appears also on a frieze of riders (Fig. 31) 
and continues in Corinthian painting, must come from the 
same source, whereas the bold front view of the Sphinx head 
(Fig. 37) like that of the panther head and the Corinthian 
quadriga, was attempted for the first time in an ornamental 
band. Hand in hand with the enlivening of the friezes 
goes the suppression of field ornamentation : it is only 



sparingly applied, limited to the animal friezes or entirely- 
absent. At times a lizard (Fig. 34), a swan or a monkey- 
comes into the figured scenes. 

Of course this is all devoid of meaning ; for in spite of 
all progress and freer treatment the style is merely con- 
cerned with the decoration of a surface ; ' exigencies of 
space ' are its supreme law. These control the type of the 
human figure, for even where it is not essentially an orna- 
mental scheme, like the runner with bent knee, it fills from 
top to bottom the stripe assigned to it, extends its breast 
frontally, and reaches out its arms, as if it were yearning for 
a frame. And as the body avoids all perspective, so the 
head in profile shows its most expressive part, the eye 
surmounted by the brow, in full extent, and renders the long 
hair falling down over the neck as smooth surface, and the 
curly forehead hair as spiral. There is no rendering of folds 
to show depth in the drapery, which now the artist in true 
Greek fashion treats in an abstract way, unlike reality. The 
human figure remains a type, a homogeneous constituent 
part of the stripes, which are entirely designed for filling 
space. It matters little, if between chariot-race and lion- 
hunt on the Chigi jug (Fig. 37) a double Sphinx is inserted 
as central motive, or Bellerophon lays the Chimaera low in 
presence of two Sphinxes (Fig. 34) ; if close to the lion- 
hunt in the same stripe, Hermes leads the three goddesses 
before the fair Trojan shepherd, and if the names of the 
personages are entered in the field with big letters as a kind 
of ornamentation by way of filling : the incipient delight 
in telling a story is taken at once into the service of filling 
the field. 

As the human figure still appears almost completely on 
a par with the ornamental animal figure, so there is little 
trace of any superior weight being attached to the scenic 
representations in the decorative system. Where the 



Fig. 39. Fig. 40. 




painter employs them, it is true he puts at their disposal the 
chief frieze and often one at the base in addition, but he 
frames them with prominent stripes of ornament or animals, 
and side by side with the narrative vases purely decorative 
ones are still produced. The presence of several animal 
friezes on a single vase (e.g. on jugs of the shape of Fig. 35) 
is not uncommon ; like band ornamentation in general, it is 
in contrast with the practice of the Geometric period (p. 25) 
and is probably to be traced to a strong influence of Oriental 
textile art. For the most severely shaped black vases, 
which are nearest to the bronze models that we possess 
(Fig. 38), do not always adopt this fundamentally non- 
tectonic breaking up of the body of the vase. 

The close connection of the shapes with metal-work has 
been already proved in the case of the cups of early 
Orientalizing style (Fig. 23), and goes through the whole 
history of the fabric, and even where the models were not 
immediately copied, gave the vase-shapes a clearness and 
precision, with which the products of no other manufactory 
can compete ; the Sicyonian-Corinthian school of repousse 
work perhaps originated many metal vase-shapes, which 
were afterwards used in various manufactories. Though 
the Protocorinthian list of shapes is only known to a small 
extent, an important change can be established. Beside 
the jugs of primitive construction (cp. Fig. 33 with Fig. 54) 
appear later more rounded vessels, the jug with * rotelle ' 
(Fig. 38) and the wineskin-shaped, the chief example of 
which (Fig. 35) with its excellently decorated bands, some- 
times black, sometimes in the ground of the clay, shows us 
the style in a richer and more developed form than any 
other vase of this fabric. In the same way the little ' leky- 
thoi ' which are technically often quite exquisite, change 
their appearance, exchange their old globular shape (Fig. 
27) for a slimmer one with pronounced shoulder, which the 



caprice of the potter often furnishes with plastic additions, 
Argive transformations of Cretan * Daedalic ' types (Figs. 
27 and 31). And as beside the * rotelle" jug, we have the 
wineskin-shaped jug, so beside this sort of 'lekythos' there 
is a wineskin-shaped variety with a rough tongue-pattern 
on the neck (Fig. 39). 

The ' lekythoi ' were the chief exported article, or at 
least the most favoured grave-offering of the customers 
abroad. But one cannot call it the favourite shape of 
Protocorinthian workmanship : it must not be forgotten 
that we have only an accidental selection of this ware, due 
to the discovery of two native sanctuaries (the Argive 
Heraion and the Temple of Aphrodite in Aegina), and 
many graves in the Argolid, Attica, and Boeotia, in the 
East (Thera, Rhodes, Asia Minor) and in the West (Sicily, 
Italy, Carthage). Wherever this ware came it exercised 
a stimulating influence, and in many places evoked local 
copies (p. 52) ; more than other districts the West was 
dominated by this Art. As the oldest Etruscan wall-paint- 
ings, those of the Grotta Campana at Veii and the Tomba 
del Leoni at Caere, are quite under the influence of 
Sicyonian-Corinthian painting, so the class called into 
existence a multitude of imitations in Sicily and Italy, 
particularly at Kyme. 

The extraordinarily wide currency of the ware denotes 
not merely its superiority, but also that of the trade-centre 
which exported it. This need not necessarily have been 
identical with the place of manufacture. Many signs, 
especially the occurrence of the vases in quantity in the 
Corinthian colony of Syracuse, point to the fact that the 
great trading city of Corinth took over the sale of the ware 
and gradually replaced it by its own products. The vases 
localized with certainty in Corinth by their alphabet give an 
immediate continuation of the Protocorinthian, and one 





can only ask whether this manufacture simply transferred 
its chief workshops to Corinth or whether Corinth in the 
closest imitation of late Protocorinthian ware developed a 
new style, which thanks to the commercial capacity of the 
Corinthians could drive the older competitor out of the 
field : its sphere of influence, as we saw, replaces the Proto- 
corinthian, nay, encroaches still further on the Ionian region 
(Samos, Naukratis, Pontus). 

The Corinthian style did not long retain the metallic 
clearness and precision of its predecessor, neither in its 
shapes, which for the most part it takes over (Figs. 35, 38, 
39, 43), nor in its decoration, which exhibits the final 
triumph of the ornamental style. The dark ground tech- 
nique becomes rarer ; the scaly fields continue for a time, 
white rosettes painted on the black neck and edge are in 
favour to the end ; the indispensable tongue ornament on 
the shoulder gradually comes to be rendered by the brush. 
The animal-frieze vases, which are quite in the forefront of 
the interest, link on to the later Protocorinthian in decora- 
tion and in the style of the figures, but soon alter the types 
in the sense of a broader rendering of form, and the rosettes 
in the field also show this change. On the common ware, 
which was turned out along with the good, one gets as a 
result coarse animals and filling patterns like mere blots ; 
but even technically perfect vases show a strong inclination 
to overfill the field, Which one might bring into causal 
connexion with the Corinthian textile art famed in antiquity, 
if the vase picture repudiated the brush technique more 
than it does. 

The composition shows the same intrusion of a strongly 
decorative element. The heraldic scheme is more pro- 
minent than ever. We owe to it the invention of a new 
ornament, a combination of lotus-flower and palmettes 
(Fig. 39), which like the old volute-tree (Fig. 34) is flanked 



by two animals. In particular the wineskin-shaped and 
globular unguent-pots (Figs. 39 and 40) (Alabastron and 
Aryballos), the successors of the Protocorinthian unguent- 
pots, are decorated with it ; but even in the stripes, which 
have not got the ' palmette and lotus cross,' there are 
groups of three animals at a time inspired by the heraldic 
scheme (Fig. 41). The list of types grows : beside the 
quadrupeds appear many birds (e.g. geese, swans, eagles, 
cocks and owls,) fishes and serpents ; a motley series of 
hybrids, bearded sphinxes, winged lions, winged panthers, 
tritons and other fabulous creatures are side by side with 
the favourite winged demons, sphinxes, sirens and griffins. 
The place of the central ornament is often taken by purely 
human beings, especially the runner with bent knee, and 
the goddess of beasts (TroVwa e/)poou) which in the 
Oriental patterns are flanked by animals; but also 
non-ornamental figures, women, riders, grotesque dancers 
(Figs. 40 and 43) are found in this place. Thus arises a co- 
ordination of man and decorative animal similar to that of 
Protocorinthian art ; anyone who has followed on the vases 
this process, which is characteristic of the 7th century, is 
not surprised, when in the archaic Corinthian pediment at 
Corfu mythological scenes appear side by side with the 
Gorgon flanked by panthers, and when in the representa- 
tion of the central animal the myth begins to be active. 

The non-ornamental human figures in the animal com- 
positions are of course not invented for this purpose, but 
borrowed from other contexts, scenes of human life, which 
existed beside the decorative representations and followed 
the lead of the Protocorinthian precursors. They are 
certainly more intimately connected with the animal 
figures. The male figure (p. 38) has finally discarded the 
old outline drawing with brown filling for the animal-frieze 
technique, black silhouette with incised interior details. 






But at the same time the memory of monochromy is not yet 
quite extinct; the head silhouette is still by preference 
painted red. When often instead of it the breast and thigh 
are picked out in red, when in sphinx and siren contour 
drawing is abandoned, the connection with the animal- 
frieze style is complete, and the new intrusion of a strong 
decorative element in this pottery is obvious. 

^ Even the compositions of the figured scenes are under 
this decorative spell, which, as in the Protocorinthian style, 
is only broken through by a few gifted masters. The duel 
flanked by sirens on the Boston cup (Fig. 43) is typical of 
the older Corinthian style. The warriors and riders are 
often arranged in processions, collected in big battle- 
scenes ; the grotesque revellers and dancers with extended 
posterior, prototypes of the satyrs, fill whole friezes with 
their reckless antics; the girls take hands for the dance. 
Special legendary scenes are, however, very rare, and when 
vase-painters like Chares supply names to an ordinary series 
of riders, this makes clear rather than removes the defect. 

This defect to be sure is due to a great extent to the 
accidental preservation of a series of vases, which are for 
the most part careless decorative work intended for the 
export trade, so that we may form erroneous ideas. . The 
neighbourhood of Corinth itself has supplied some fine 
specimens with a marked character of their own, which 
bridge the gap between the Chigi vase and later Corinthian 
vase-painting (Figs. 64-67), e.g. kylikes where, in the 
interior field framed by tongue pattern ornament, are fine 
Gorgon masks and human busts, and especially two works 
signed by the painter Timonidas. The flask with the story 
of Troilos (Fig. 44) shares with the Chigi vase the contrast 
of colour important for Corinthian painting. The flesh of 
the women is light as a set-ofT to that of the men, the chiton 
of the man sets off his nude parts, the shield its bearer, the 



front horse the hinder of the pair. The delight in the land- 
scape element, the fine steeds, and big inscriptions, points 
back to Protocorinthian style. But nothing is left of the 
ornaments scattered about the field but a small palmette, 
the composition has become looser, there is much less 
tendency to cover the surface in the drawing of the figures : 
the old scheme of the kneeling runner has its echo in the 
Achilles lurking in ambush, but it is ingeniously adapted to 
new use. Thus there is a much freer relation to space, 
which gives the necessary foundation for the descriptive 
style. The hunter too, whose outline Timonidas has put on 
a clay votive tablet unconstrained by the silhouette tech- 
nique or by the desire for contrast of colour (Fig. 45), is not 
crowded by any filling ornaments ; the finely drawn youth in 
the balance of his proportions and the rendering of detail 
surpasses the wrestler of the Praisos plate (Fig. 29), and in 
his broad massive appearance introduces a new rendering 
of the body. And similarly the dog, coloured bright yellow 
with appropriate detail, goes far beyond the animal frieze 
style. One fancies that in this animal eagerly looking up 
to his master one sees expressed something like feeling. 

Like the pinax of Timonidas many other votive tablets 
of the same find take one out of the stock vase scenes, 
especially in the delight in landscape, the trees conceived 
of in their special natures, the cross-section like genre 
scenes from the workshop of the potter and metal-worker, 
from mining and sea voyages. The vases, however, show 
little of those progresses in colouring and spacing, which we 
must assume in greater measure for the great art of painting. 
The decisive step in the history of vase painting, which is 
especially embodied for us by the painter Timonidas, con- 
sists in the liberation of the field, in the transition from the 
ornamental to the pictorial style, in the abandonment of 
filling ornamentation, which only survives in vegetable 





motives suitable to the occasion and scattered birds, 
serpents, lizards(Figs. 34 and 66), and in the triumph of 
figure-subjects over friezes of ornament or animals, which 
can best be followed in the kraters (Fig. 65). With this step, 
which is completed in the beginning of the 6th century, we 
are brought close to the black-figured style proper, which is 
differentiated by some technical innovations. 

But before we pass to that, we have still to follow the 
transition here described through the other fabrics of the 
7th century. We can rapidly pass over Sparta, which as 
yet produces no ware fit for exportation. The course here 
is similar to what went on in the Argolid. Beside many 
specialities one seems to notice kinship with Ionian pottery 
in the small bands of squares accompanied by dots and the 
branches on the edge of the kylix, in the placing of similar 
animals in rows. In what close relation earlier Spartan 
civilization stood to Ionia, we learn from the history of 
lyric poetry. 

To the three stages, earlier Protocorinthian, later Proto- 
corinthian, older Corinthian, answer the three groups in 
Attica named respectively after Phaleron, the Nessos vase 
and Vurva. The break-up of the most definite of all 
Geometric styles seems to have taken place in spite of 
vehement opposition. Details of the Oriental flora and 
fauna are first assimilated to the old style, and taken unob- 
trusively into the Geometric system of decoration. In the 
group named after the finds at Phaleron the new style with 
marked Phoenician imitations gets the upper hand. To the 
unsystematic reproduction and application of the new orna- 
ments, now arbitrarily scattered, now ranged in special 
rows, and so added to the others, succeeds a severer choice, 
stylization and arrangement ; the luxuriant vegetable 
character of the decoration (Fig. 46), with which birds and 
insects are often combined, only lasts for a time. The same 



experimental hesitation prevails in the figure drawing, 
which does not go straight from the Geometric silhouette to 
contour drawing and monochromy, but very soon experi- 
ments from time to time in the incised line and added white 
paint, and in the later Phaleron stage is not sparing of details 
in red, e.g., for the hair and dress. The progress in the 
rendering of nature happily can still be followed to some 
extent in big vases. It leads to a fixed type with a loose 
outline with ankles, knee-pan, and elbow rendered like 
ornaments : in the head the big eye in front view dominates 
at the expense of the forehead, the skull is flat, the aquiline 
nose is very prominent, the ear is like a volute. Similarly 
in early Greek sculpture an ornamental conception of the 
outline and the details of the body is expressed, and casts a 
light on the conception of ornament as something living and 
not yet felt to be an abstraction from reality. 

The big Phaleron vases also give evidence ^s to the 
grouping of the figures, which we have not been able to get 
from the Protocorinthian vases that have been preserved. 
Older specimens like the Berlin amphora from Hymettos 
already fill the greater part of the vase surface with the 
descriptive frieze, only surrounded by narrow lines of orna- 
ments and animals, and in addition the neck of the amphora 
is adorned with figured scenes. Even in Geometric times 
Attic pottery had already given greater scope to the narra- 
tive style than other manufactures : in the Phaleron vases it 
creates an important system of decoration, which is con- 
tinued in the group of which the Nessos vase is the chief 
representative, and prevails to the exclusion of everything 
else in the 6th century. 

When the later Phaleron vases re-adopt the full silhouette 
in animal drawing and extend the technique of incised detail 
and additions in red to human outline figures, which they 
often emphasize only to make them stand out from the 






background, they prepare a step, which is completed in the 
Nessos group, i.e., the taking over of the animal-frieze 
technique into figure-painting, with which vase-painting 
parts company again from the great art and returns to 
decorative silhouette effect. In Attica, too, the circular 
rendering of the eye is taken over for the male figure, the 
flesh-tone of the face is retained for decorative effect, 
women are distinguished by the old outline-drawing, 
decorative female creatures and monsters do not escape 
from the silhouette treatment (Fig. 48). 

On vases of this technique the Orientalizing luxuriance 
developed out of Geometric richness is entered by a new 
spirit of severity and discipline, which one would be most 
inclined to explain by strong influence of Protocorinthian 
art. The field ornaments are similarly limited, and the 
rosette with points has the chief place ; the lotus and 
palmette pattern of the Nessos vase (Fig. 48), the cable and 
the double rays of the Piraeus amphora (Fig. 49) are simple 
borrowings, the lion-type on the vase just named is closely 
connected with the Protocorinthian. One may ask whether 
the types in spite of their Attic stamp do not partly come 
from the Sicyonian-Corinthian school. The procession of 
chariots in the Piraeus amphora is only in the line of old 
tradition, but on the neck of the Nessos vase the Phaleron 
type is replaced by another, which is certainly only an 
extract from a larger composition, and the same artist makes 
the sisters of Medusa furiously pursue a Perseus not repre- 
sented at all, whom the Aegina bowl of kindred style and 
the rather later cauldron in the Louvre show along with his 
protectors Athena and Hermes. At any rate the vase- 
painters had no hesitation in taking over the compositions 
once created and cutting them up, enlarging or abbreviating 
them according to their requirements, intensifying or 
weakening them according to their talents. The same 



lucky ' laziness of invention ' is shown in the rendering of 
the individual figure. Old types of Oriental art are behind 
the battle motive of Herakles, the flight of the Gorgons, and 
the race of the Harpies on the Aegina bowl ; the unusual 
front view points to the origin of the Gorgon type as an 
ornament. But the Greek showed originality in animating 
and enhancing these types. In spite of the harsh perspec- 
tive it is arrestingly expressive when the Medusa collapses 
in death, the sisters rush with the speed of lightning through 
the air, Herakles kicks the back of the rough monster, and 
the victim supplicates his tormentor by touching his beard : 
we have an art with the joy of youth full of vigour and possi- 
bilities of development displaying itself, the same early Attic 
art, which next found plastic expression in the early sculp- 
tures of the Acropolis. On the Nessos amphora the decora- 
tive figures are of secondary importance . The mouth bears 
the old goose frieze, the broad handles are adorned with 
owls and swans : under the principal field a row of dolphins 
gambol, but they are hardly to be conceived of as a 
meaningless animal frieze, but are to be understood in a 
* landscape ' sense ; the wild chase is by sea. On the other 
vases of this group the animal frieze element is much 
stronger, on some it entirely prevails, e.g., on big-bellied 
amphorae with no angle dividing body from neck, and a 
bason from Vurva, which both reduce the filling ornaments 
very considerably. These vases lead over to a noticeably 
miscellaneous class, the so-called Vurva style, which just 
like the older Corinthian denotes a strengthening of the 
decorative and is also to be regarded as a rival of Corinth. 
The ornamentation is very limited, for filling there is 
nothing but rosettes, which may also form independent 
friezes : the decoration assumes quite similar forms to those 
of the Corinthian fabric. But the Corinthian elements do 
not entirely give its character to the Vurva style. Apart 





from the traditions of the brilliant Geometric period, which 
remained longer operative in the very ceramic and non- 
metallic Attic school than in the Argive-Corinthian, one 
suspects also influences from Eastern Greece. According 
to the evidence of vase finds, Athens was then in connection 
with Naukratis. Thus one may refer the painting of white 
on the figures, which is only occasionally employed at 
Corinth, but on the Vurva vases often takes the place of 
the red, to the influence of the East, which had long known 
it, and explain in the same way many a similarity with the 
East in the motley array of animals. 

Beside the common ware, purely decorative, technically 
trivial and poor, naturally the subject-vases went on, as at 
Corinth. It is not only the * runners with bent knee 
mingled with the animals, the draped men and riders, who 
maintain the connection with the older figure-painting ; the 
traditions of the Nessos vase and its parallels continued on 
big and carefully executed vases. These vases are to Attic 
pottery, what the works of Timonidas were to Corinthian ; 
they give up filling ornament, individualize the world of 
figures out of its ornamental constraint, give the subject-style 
the spatial freedom, which it needs for its evolution. Just 
as we could follow this transitional style in Corinth on a vase 
and pinax of Timonidas, so it meets us in Attica at the same 
time in vases with decoration in bands, necked amphorae, 
kraters, and cauldrons, and in big-bellied amphorae with 
special field for the subject, which take the place, in some 
measure, of sepulchral votive 'pinakes,' and are 
decorated with a female bust or a horse's head, placed on a 
panel reserved in the black ground. This vase with special 
field, which arose from the needs of representation, only 
transitorily enters the service of animal decoration, and 
then becomes the chief vehicle of the new style, whose 
beginning we have reached with the last-named vases. 



Attic pottery of the 7th century exercised great influence 
upon its Boeotian and Eretrian neighbours, where an inde- 
pendent artistic spirit never existed. One might describe 
these dependent manufactories as provincial branches of 
the Attic, had they not been influenced by other models as 
well. The big Boeotian amphorae with tall broad neck, the 
decoration of which consists chiefly of a pictorial frieze at 
the level of the handles, divided vertically, are imitated 
from vases of the islands (p. 25). The best known instance, 
from Thebes, shows on one side the Oriental goddess 
flanked by lions, on the other a flying bird and spiral 
ornamentation. This metope decoration with flying birds 
and Orientalizing volutes and palmettes called forth a 
special Boeotian class, which some conservative workshops 
went on producing with great tenacity to the end of the 6th 
century. It excels in tall-stemmed kylikes with 
white slip and colour accessories in red and yellow. Other 
workshops, like those of Pyros and Mnasalkes, imitated the 
Protocorinthian and Corinthian wares, quantities of which 
were imported ; in the 6th century one enters an Attic 
sphere of influence. Similarly Attic and island influences 
are found side by side at the neighbouring Eretria in 

The Cycladic manufactory, to which the Boeotian 
and Eretrian imitations point, cannot yet be followed 
beyond the early Orientalizing stage. On the amphorae 
with white slip already described, to which class belongs the 
Stockholm vase with the roebuck (Fig. 50), and on the 
closely allied grifiin jug from Aegina (Fig. 51), severely 
stylized flowers and tendrils enter the not very rich 
Geometric ornament, the new cable meets the old meander 
in the same frieze, rows of triangles are enclosed by spirals ; 
in the metopes of the shoulder stripe appear, surrounded 
by scanty filling ornaments, simple animal representations, 





generally birds, also feeding animals, heraldic or fighting 
lions, pairs of panthers in heraldic scheme, in the charac- 
teristic partial silhouette, which renders the head and parts 
of the body in outline, but the skins with black or white 
spots according to the technique. The Ram jug from 
Aegina (Fig. 28), the exact attribution of which is uncertain, 
is at any rate closely allied. 

This charming class has been called Euboic, but no 
Euboic find substantiates the name. It has hitherto come 
to light only on the islands of the Aegean , especially Delos- 
Rheneia, Thera and Melos. Delos also supplied the earlier 
Geometric stages, but as the central meeting place of the 
islanders, it received so many different elements that it 
appears venturesome to rename the * Euboic ' * Delian ' 
ware, since a closely-allied pottery, which would have the 
same right to this name, can be probably distinguished from 
it. This class, which has a predilection for decoratively 
applied horse-heads, and like the Protocorinthian, has the 
habit of putting red and white stripes on parts of the vase 
which are covered with black, at an early date supplied 
figured representations without field ornaments ; it seems to 
have been occasionally imitated in the Euboic colony of 
Kyme, which otherwise is completely under Proto- 
corinthian influ ice. The similarity of the animal repre- 
sentations to Cretan metal work and of the fine griffin head 
(Fig. 51) to those of bronze cauldrons from Olympia, 
strengthens the above-mentioned relations of the Euboic- 
Delian style to the Cretan and Argive. 

Thera is not in question as the home of these vases. This 
island had its own very important fabrication in Geometric 
times, which like the Attic sticks obstinately for a long time 
to the old style, and as long as it exists, never allows the new 
elements, which often are strongly suggestive of metal 
patterns, to get the upper hand. In Melos it has been 



perhaps correct to localize an important manufactory of 
which the products have been chiefly found in this island 
and in the neutral sphere of Delos-Rheneia. The heavy 
double spirals with gusset-like filling, which this style 
prefers to the other Orientalizing ornaments, and which it 
puts in to fill space, arranges in stripes, puts one on the top 
of another as ' the volute-tree,' or quadruples as ' the 
volute-cross,' give this pottery a peculiar stamp. The 
style is most finely represented by the big weighty amphorae 
which in shape and technique of the light ground for 
painting on are akin to the above-mentioned Cycladic vases, 
but are finely decorated on neck and body with representa- 
tions, and also show the same feeling for rich decoration in 
the luxuriant filling ornamentation. The Melian delight in 
representation, like the Attic, gives us an insight into the 
growth of the figured style. The rows of geese (Fig. 52), 
the big sphinxes and panthers, the horses ranged heraldic- 
ally on either side of a volute-cross, the favourite framed 
horse-busts show the well-known partial silhouette ; and 
the female busts, the confronted riders, the duellists flanked 
by women, the gods facing each other or driving in chariots, 
the ' Persian Artemis ' carrying a lion, the free legendary 
scenes reflect in technique and drawing the same develop- 
ment which we followed at Athens. We can assign to 
about the date of later Phaleron vases a specimen like the 
Apollo vase (Fig. 52), which colours light brown the male 
body, and in the drawing of animals leads from the old 
partial silhouette to the later technique. The fine 
* Marriage of Herakles ' (Fig. 53) marks a great step in 
advance, not only by the complete taking over of the black- 
figured animal style, and the superposition of many details 
in white on horses and patterns of garments, but above all 
by the lively rendering of the paratactic composition and 
the removal of all Geometric traces in the rendering of 



Fig. 53. HERAKLES AND lOLE ( ?) : FROM A " MELIAN " .\.\IPHORA. 



bodies. The heraldic motives have given place to more 
riatural ones ; the male type is not merely distinguished by 
brown painting from the female. The shape of the vase is 
more compact, the decoration more tectonic, the goose 
frieze on the shoulder edge is replaced by the tongue 
pattern, which also as garment edging drives out the old 
zig-zag. But the filling ornaments are as copious as ever, 
and the step, which the Nessos vase took in the technique of 
the figures, has not yet been taken. Thus the * Melian ' 
vases take us lower down in the 7th century than the other 
Cycladic products, but not yet to its close. 

Perhaps new finds will bring the continuation of these 
manufactories and build a bridge to the style of the 6th 
century. If we get them, we may hope for a completion of 
the picture here given, a clearing up of the relations of the 
manufactories to one another and to the East and West, and 
evidence as to their localization. For even the Melian 
origin of the ' Melian ' vases is not certain : this manufac- 
tory too, to judge by the chief locality of the finds, would 
have to be moved to Delos, the little inconspicuous island, 
where Leto bore her twins Apollo and Artemis, on which 
the whole Ionic world gathered to celebrate its divine 
fellow-citizens. We can trace something of this festal spirit 
and devotional pride of the insular lonians in the Apollo 
and Artemis of the Melian vase, of course in a humbler way 
than in the magnificent hymn of the Ionian bard. 

The technique of the white ground for painting and much 
in the filling ornament and the animal-drawing unites these 
insular vases with the artistic circle of S. W. Asia Minor and 
the adjacent islands, through which obviously, as well as 
through Crete, Oriental decorative motives principally 
found their way into Greece. The impulses which guided 
the weak Geometric style of this district into new paths can 
with certainty be traced to metal work, especially 



Phoenician bowls, and to textile products. Miletus, the 
head of East Ionic civilization, had a flourishing textile 
industry in the 7th century, the decoration of which was 
quite under the spell of the East. An attempt has been 
made to fix at Miletus a manufactory, the extension of which 
coincides exactly with the commercial sphere of this great 
maritime town ; the coast of Asia Minor and the adjacent 
islands, the colonies on the Black Sea and in the Delta are 
the most important, a secondary part is played by the 
Cyclades and the Italo-Sicilian area, but the Greek main- 
land is unaffected. But since Miletus need not have done 
more than distribute, just as Corinth did for the Proto- 
corinthian ware, since closely allied and almost inseparable 
wares were made in several places, and the bulk of these 
vases were found in Rhodes, we may retain the traditional 
name * Rhodian.' 

The transition from the Geometric phase (p. 26) to the 
developed style of animal decoration can be to some extent 
followed. We see, for instance, the old shape of the 
jug (Fig. 22) become metallically rounded, the cable 
on the neck drive out the old zig-zags, and on the 
shoulder two animals antithetically flank the central 
metope (Fig. 54). The stiff division into metopes of 
the shoulder stripe is next dropped, the animals and 
fabulous beings of the East are placed heraldically one 
on either side of a central vegetable motive, and under 
this heraldic band, in obvious rivalry with textile work 
adorned in bands, continuous friezes of animals in rows, 
of dogs pursuing hares, of grazing wild goats and deer, of 
running goats, which in spite of their decorative character 
often testify to a very fresh observation of nature. Bands 
of different ornament, cables, and continuous loops. 
Geometric motives in metope-like arrangement, especially 
the upright garland of lotus buds and flowers, are added to 


Fig. 55. RHODI.W JIG 

Fig. 56. I..\JE RHOUl.AN JUG. 




the animal friezes : the last-named ornament generally 
takes the place of the rays round the bottom of the vase. 
With these decorative stripes the Rhodian style at the 
height of its production likes to cover the whole surface of 
its favourite jugs with * rotelle ' on the handles (Figs. 55 
and 56), its necked amphorae, bowls and other vessels, and 
in this way arrives at a delicate and rich carpet-like effect : 
the equipoise between the animal silhouettes neatly placed 
on the white ground, coloured red and white, and the 
vigorous clear ornamentation, the showing of the ground 
through in delicate details where colour is purposely 
omitted, the well-distributed filling ornaments, into which 
sometimes small birds with an absence of pedantry are 
introduced, are all very satisfactory to the decorative 
sense : the distinction of the shoulder stripe by the heraldic 
element prevents the impression that the surface of the vase 
is too uniformly cut up. The accumulation of animal 
friezes, and the heraldic arrangement of Orientalizing 
animals round a vegetable combination of ornaments, are 
features which we have already found in Western art ; but 
while these elements became prominent there at a time 
when the incised full silhouette was in exclusive possession 
of the field, when plant decoration took more abstract 
shapes, and filling patterns were reduced to the rosette, the 
culmination of the Rhodian animal-frieze vases falls in the 
pictorial period, when the plant decoration is naturalistic 
and filling ornamentation is abundant. 

A uniform band decoration did not exclusively pre- 
vail. A group of jugs, which by its more tense and profiled 
shape and by a transition to the later floral ornamentation 
shows itself to be progressive, and which gradually replaces 
the cable of the neck by the broken so-called ' metope ' 
maeander (Fig. 56), leaves out of the black body of the vase 
only a narrow stripe with the maeander reduced to pot- 



hooks, and surrounds the bottom of the vase with long rays. 
But beside this method the other certainly persists. Its 
tenacious life is proved by vases like the Paris cauldron 
(Fig. 58) and its parallels from Naukratis, which show the 
archaic Rhodian band style alongside of the developed 
incised animal style on the same vase. In these hybrids 
which are essentially akin to the vases of Andokides (p. 115) 
the old stylizing of the figures is giving way, the rich store of 
filling motives is yielding to the prevalence of the rosette, 
the vegetable ornamentation is exchanging its vigorous 
plant-like appearance for thinner and more abstract shapes, 
which however take on a freer swing and submit to richer 
variations, the most important of which is the continuous 
tendril. At the same time the old technique of painting 
and leaving void spaces continues to be cultivated at a time, 
when elsewhere and probably also in the East the black- 
figured animal style has become the regular thing, and the 
filling ornamentation combined with it has assumed the 
blot-like shapes of the Corinthian and Vurva stage. Finally 
the Rhodian style also adopts the new fashion. 

Thus this style from an early date shows itself extremely 
decorative and little inclined to actual representations. 
We should know nothing of them, if the plates, a favourite 
item in Rhodian fabrication, like their Phoenician metal 
prototypes, did not exchange the old concentric decoration 
of stripes for the division into two segments, the larger of 
which is occasionally adorned with the human figure instead 
of the usual animal or fabulous creature. The drawing of 
the figures adopts the method already familiar. The place 
of outline drawing of the men is taken by brown tinting, 
e.g., in the heroes fighting in the well-known scheme on the 
Euphorbos plate (Fig. 57), while the women retain the old 
technique, e.g. the Gorgon on a plate in London, which is an 
adaptation of the Oriental animal goddess, and quite 




exceptionally fills the whole circular space (Fig. 59). Both 
plates show early beginnings of incised work, the Gorgon 
in the inner marking of the drapery. Hector's shield in the 
drawing of the flying bird. The view that the incised 
technique in figures is borrowed from Protocorinthian work 
receives support in this shield with its Argive suggestion, 
and in the Argive lettering, with which the excellent artist, 
roughly contemporaneous with the Chigi jug (Figs. 35 and 
36), has transformed a conventional composition into a 
scene described in the 17th Book of the Iliad. The full 
silhouette with inner detail incised appears only in speci- 
mens, which from their degenerate filling ornaments are 
plainly late products of the 7th century, e.g. a plate with a 
running Perseus. That when this happens the eye retains 
its oval shape, is characteristic of the Eastern Ionic school. 
This transition to the black-figured style can be better 
followed in a closely allied pottery, fixed by the contem- 
porary inscriptions of dedicators to the Milesian colony of 
Naukratis in the Delta. While the old filling motives are 
coming to an end, and the vegetable stripe ornamentation 
is being increased by the addition of continuous tendrils and 
confronted lotus and palmette, and rows of circumscribed 
palmettes, of bands of buds and rows of pomegranates, the 
animal frieze adopts the incised full silhouette. The 
human representations, often of a high order of excellence, 
gradually asserting themselves beside the animal decora- 
tion, show a reluctance in taking this step. The old brush 
technique is still maintained in the specimens, which reserve 
thin lines in the silhouette instead of incising them (Fig. 60) ; 
and also the brown tinting of the male body (Fig. 61) seems 
to continue in this area longer than elsewhere. These 
conservative features are balanced by an innovation in 
colouring, which like the change in plant ornamentation 
denotes an important step to the style of the 6th century ; 



even before the actual decay of filling ornamentation, 
Naukratite painting (as in the Praisos plate, Fig. 29) begins 
to paint in white the light flesh of women, e.g. the face of the 
sphinx ; and the same colour is used in the Herakles sherd 
(Fig. 61), on which the lion's skin still appears in the ground 
of the clay, in order to contrast with the linen jerkin. 

The delight in polychrome effect is very strongly 
expressed on the interiors of the tall drinking cups 
and other vases, which the Naukratite painter likes 
to cover with a wash of black, and then to paint 
over it plant decoration in red and white. Incision 
enters also into their polychrome lotus decoration and 
thus gives it an effect similar to that of an older class 
of kylikes, big-bellied and necked amphorae, found 
in Rhodes, which is decorated in the old style with 
incised ornaments of red colour, and at a time when the 
Rhodian style was still practising pure brush technique, was 
already preparing for the later phase, a conclusion which 
must also be drawn from the Paris cauldron for animal 
representation. This black-ground polychromy, which 
occurs only occasionally on Rhodian jugs in white and red 
stripes, white rosettes and eyes (Fig. 55) , becomes so popular 
and elaborate at Naukratis, that one is almost tempted to 
think of a continuation of Protocorinthian influence, since 
Naukratis was in close connection with Protocorinthian 

Beside Naukratis itself Aegina was also the chief place 
of export for this gaily coloured pottery, which unfortun- 
ately has only reached us in precious fragments, and of 
whose scenes of merry life drawn from legend, the revel and 
the dance we should gladly know more. With the Rhodian 
ware it also reaches Italy and Sicily ; the Acropolis of 
Athens gives us, e.g. the fine Herakles sherd (Fig. 61), and 
Boeotia in a grave of the early 6th century a late cup with 






heraldic cocks. 

Beside the Rhodian ware Miletus seems also to have 
been the export-centre of another allied fabric, that of the 
vases called 'Fikellura,' from the name of the site in 
Rhodes, where they were first found. Their home is now 
generally sought in Samos because of the common ware 
found in that island. The greater number of the vases 
preserved, the prevalent form being the necked amphorae 
with metope-maeander (Fig. 56), are contemporaneous 
with the later phase of the Rhodian. This is proved by the 
advanced ornamentation with the thinner simplified lotus 
wreath, the rows of circumscribed palmettes, leaves (Fig. 
63), pomegranates (Fig. 62), and crescents (Fig. 63) ; also 
by the almost complete disappearance of the 'horror vacui' 
so that the painter may reduce filling ornament to its lowest 
dimensions, paint big surfaces with loose net and scale 
patterns, and decorate the body of the vase with big con- 
tinuous handle tendrils and an animal placed between them 
or only with a human figure boldly inserted in the void 
(Fig. 62). In the animals and fabulous beings, which add 
to the Rhodian types the heron and the water-hen or the 
fantastic man with the head of a hare, the partial silhouette 
is now rare ; narrow lines left without colour, as at 
Naukratis, take the place of incised lines, and in the same 
technique are the purely human forms, which with their 
receding foreheads, projecting noses and almond-shaped 
eyes, with their coarse postures, are, like the Naukratis 
vases, true offspring of the Ionic spirit. 

The Altenburg amphora (Fig. 63) must be a late example. 
The loin-cloths are painted red and framed with incised 
lines, which this style so long resisted. A few dot rosettes, 
reduced to their lowest dimensions, are all that is left of the 
old filling ornamentation, a long-stemmed bud, such as the 
early 6th century favours, projects into the field. Just as 



the runner of the London vase in his vigorous but stiff 
posture gives quite a new meaning to an old ornamental 
scheme, so the movements of the Altenburg revellers, which 
entirely fill the field, convince us of their intoxication. The 
ornamental style has now in the East, as well as in the West, 
become narrative and descriptive. 

With these bibulous lonians, who to the sound of flutes 
dance round their big mixing-bowl with cups and jugs, we 
pass finally from the wide ramifications of 7th century vase 
history to the developed archaic style. 



Fios. 62 &• 63. FIKELLLRA AMI'HOR.l-: 


ARCHAIC art, the wonderful offspring of the contact 
of Greek civilization with the East, exercises its charm 
to-day more than ever. We have ceased to ascribe a 
unique saving grace to the classic period, the period of full 
bloom, and to allow no independent value to the preceding 
century except as an inevitable transitional phase. We 
love these archaic works of sculpture and painting for their 
own sake, not in spite of their crudities but just because of 
their unpolished hidden vigour, because of the precious 
combination of their essential features. The fetters of 
space, and the strong tradition of an ornamental early 
period give them a monumental effect, which has nothing 
of mummified stiffness but is kept ever fresh and youthful by 
an eminently progressive spirit and an energetic endeavour 
to attain freedom. The archaic style ' with fresh boldness 
goes beyond its Oriental patterns, is ever making fresh 
experiments, and thus exhibits constant change and pro- 
gress. It is always full of serious painstaking zeal, it is 
always careful, takes honest trouble, is exactly methodical : 
the language which it speaks always tells of inward cheerful- 
ness and joy at the result of effort, the effect produced by 
independent exertion. There is something touching in the 
sight of archaic art with its child-like freshness, its pains- 
taking zeal, its reverence for tradition, and yet its bold 
progressiveness. What a contrast to Oriental and Egyptian 
art, which are fast bound in tradition : in the one the 



sweltering air of dull coercion, in the other the fresh atmos- 
phere of freedom ' (Furtwangler). 

The history leading up to the origin of this style has 
become clear to us by quarrying in different localities. We 
saw the vases lose their peculiarly carpet-like appearance, 
the filling motives disappear, the bands of animals and 
ornaments forfeit their independence and become a sub- 
ordinate member in the tectonic construction, we saw the 
world of figures win its way out of ornamental compulsion 
to greater freedom and extend over the vase. The 6th 
century, to the beginnings of which we pursued the history 
of vases, knows only occasionally inserted rosettes, or 
a lonely hud projecting into the field. Plant ornamenta- 
tion becomes true Greek ornament, abstract, tectonic, and 
when occasion demands, full of life with its swing. Animal 
friezes retire to the foot or the shoulder, are often incident- 
ally treated as mere decorative accessories or seized by 
quite unheraldic liveliness. The principal interest is 
devoted to depicting man, his doings and goings on. The 
vase painter is now more anxious than ever to narrate and 
depict ; he finds ever less satisfaction in ornamental com- 
position. He is never tired of describing hunting and 
warfare, wrestling and chariot-racing, the festal dance and 
procession, but with greatest preference, remembering the 
purpose of his vases, drinking and wild dancing. But also 
the heroes of past ages, their bold exploits and strange 
adventures, are his constant theme. The Homeric Epic, 
the tales of Herakles the mighty, the bold Perseus and 
Bellerophon, had evoked pictorial representations even in 
the 7th century ; but now the full stream of the legendary 
treasury pours into painting and gives an infinitely rich 
material to the joy of narration. 

What the vase-painter makes of this material is never 
conceived in the historical or archaeological spirit, but 



breathes entirely the air of his own time ; often only the 
added names (which according to the new feeling for space 
assume smaller dimensions) raise a genre scene into one 
from myth. Moreover the Saga is only seldom re-shaped 
by inventive brains. Types once invented pass on, go from 
workshop to workshop, from one district to another, are 
abbreviated (p. 49), expanded, conventionally repeated or 
filled with new life. Types may also cross ; there arise 
purely through art, contaminations of legend, which are 
foreign to poetry. When a Corinthian painter unites the 
Embassy to Achilles (Iliad IX) with the visit of Thetis, this 
has as little to do with poetry, as when on Attic vases the 
birth of Athena is coupled with the apotheosis of Herakles, 
or the slaying of Troilos is transferred to Astyanax, or the 
entombment of the dead Sarpedon to Memnon. But every- 
thing strange need not be misunderstanding on the artist's 
part. The vases supply us with a multitude of legendary 
motives and variations, which we cannot find in literature, 
and are the faithful reflex of the fluidity of Greek mythology, 
which, devoid of canon and dogmatism, was in constant 

Olympos too, is subject to these vicissitudes. Its gods 
live a human life among men, the only difference being that 
some representative scenes give them a stiffer and more 
elaborate appearance than that of ordinary mortals. In 
early times the divinity is chiefly betokened by inscriptions 
and attributes. On the painting of the Corinthian Kleanthes 
stood Poseidon with a fish in his hand beside Zeus in labour. 
Late observers of this picture failed to understand this 
external characterization of the sea-god, and saw an act of 
brotherly sympathy with the god's pains in this holding up 
of the tunny ; and thus a great deal beside must have 
appeared strange to them, e.g. Apollo with the great lyre 
still bearded in the 7th century (Fig. 52), Herakles without 



lion-skin (Fig. 64), the unarmed Athena, who only at the 
beginning of the 6th century, in contrast with the Chigi vase 
(Fig. 37), the Aegina bowl and the Gorgon lebes (p. 49), 
begins to express her bellicose nature by attributes, and 
much besides. 

The favourite god of the drinking vessels is the wine-god 
with cup and vine. He makes Hephaistos drunk and leads 
him back to Olympos to liberate Hera from the magic chair. 
The big-bellied dancers and purely human creatures, who 
form his escort on Corinthian vases, in the first third of the 
century are superseded by the Ionic horse-men, the Satyrs, 
who become ever more closely associated with Dionysos, 
celebrate feasts with the Maenads, never despise the gifts of 
their master, and make fair nymphs pay for it. The half- 
bestial creature in whom ancient Greek fancy vigorously 
incorporates man's pleasure in wine and women with all its 
comic effects, is quite the patron of archaic vase-painting. 

That all these representations were developed by vase- 
painting alone is more than improbable. That the Bacchic 
scenes of toping and dancing were created on the actual 
vase, is most likely ; but one is often enough compelled to 
assume other sources. The fight of Herakles with the lion, 
for instance, in its oldest form is the borrowing of an 
Oriental type, which is composed for a tall rectangle, and 
is expanded by the vase-painters for their purposes by 
filling figures^ * spectators.' The gifted artist, who gave 
this heraldic type the more natural impress which was 
regular in the older black-figured style, was perhaps a vase- 
painter ; the creator of the later black-figured type was 
certainly not, for his horizontal group is certainly a fine 
invention but always has to be adapted artificially to the 
vase surface. As with the wrestling of Herakles, so it is 
with Theseus' struggle with the Minotaur. The same sort 
of extension occurs on a favourite subject of older black- 



figured style, the quadriga in front view, whose horses 
heraldically turn their heads sideways, whose helmeted 
warrior is in front view while the unhelmeted driver is in 
profile. This type, certainly invented for a square, is also 
known in bronze and stone relief, and the question, in what 
technique it first appeared, will scarcely be answered in 
favour of vase-painting. For a square, too, the finely com- 
pact group of Herakles wrestling with Triton was first com- 
posed, a theme common on Attic vases from the hydria of 
Timagoras onwards ; the older wrestling scheme, super- 
seded by this type, in its Herakles spread out before the 
eyes of the observer and kneeling as he wrestles, still shows 
strong affinity with the Orientalizing frieze compositions 
(p. 46), and is for vase decoration much more typical than 
the later invention, which on vses always has a 'borrowed ' 
effect. The dependence of vase-painting on other tech- 
niques is finally evidenced by the so-called * couplings ' : 
the best-known instance is the combination of the departure 
of Amphiaraos with the Funeral-games of Pelias on a 
Corinthian (Fig. 66), an Attic and an Ionic vase, a combina- 
tion which is borrowed from an inlaid wooden chest of 
Corinthian workmanship at Olympia ('the chest of Kyp- 
selos') or a prototype from which both were derived. 

After all this one will not hesitate to look for a strong 
reflex of the great art of painting on the vases, alongside of 
the special property of the vase-painter and typical orna- 
mental figures equally common to all art, or to picture to 
oneself wall-paintings or easel pictures, like the birth of 
Athena by Kleanthes, after the fashion of the best vase- 
paintings, which are least constrained by ornamental con- 
siderations, or to reconstruct from the copies of vase- 
painters compositions like the Destruction of Troy (Iliu- 
persis), the Return of Hephaistos, the Reception of 
Herakles into Olympos. One is particularly impelled this 



way, when the vases give now shorter, now longer, extracts 
from the same large composition ; thus we have a reflection 
on some dozen vases of Exekias and his successors of the 
fine representation of the heroes Aias and Achilles surprised 
by the Trojans while deeply absorbed in a game of draughts, 
and warned by Athena just in time (Fig. 96). One cannot 
conceive of any difference of principle in perspective, in 
the rendering of the body and the drapery, in the spiritual 
content, between vase-painting and free painting ; they both 
are children of one time. Nor did the vase-painter feel any 
necessity to alter the composition of his patterns. Only as 
he had to decorate framed bands, the law of isocephalism 
was more binding for him than for the great art. Hence his 
strong disinclination for "landscape," which we often meet 
with in Corinthian and Ionian pinakes and wall-painting, 
but on the vases never, or only in palpable caricature ; the 
painter who on a hydria from Caere copied a seascape with 
the Rape of Europa, was obliged to place beside the figure 
what looks like a mole-hill but is intended for a moun- 

This limitation of the possibilities of composition by 
decorative considerations was of hardly any importance. 
The wide gulf between free painting and vase picture was 
conditioned in the first instance by technique. It was that 
which gave its special effect to the black-figured style and 
set its stamp upon it. We saw previously that vase-paint- 
ing, when it took over the silhouette style from the decora- 
tive animal frieze, increased its distance from free painting, 
under whose spell it had been for a good part of the 7th 
century, that with the incised technique it took over, e.g. 
the circular drawing of the eye, and with the new colouring 
entered decorative paths (pp 38, 44, 49). Free painting 
drew with the brush on light ground, used black and white 
very sparingly, more frequently red, blue, green, yellow 



and brown ; placed these colours side by side in simple 
harmonies, with very little gradation and shading, but also 
sometimes, e.g. to represent fire, used the smooth brush; 
rendered the men in reddish brown, women, children, 
animals and objects in light colouring. With this free- 
coloured effect the black-figured style was neither able nor 
anxious to compete. Just like the Geometric, it is in its 
own fashion again an ornamental style, which does not dis- 
own its predominantly decorative character. The figure 
silhouettes serve it as ornaments to fill a given space, which 
are in a certain equipoise of colour in relation to the rest of 
the decoration and the black painted parts of the vase ; the 
incision stipulates a sharp delineation of types, the imposed 
colour gives a parti-coloured effect. The coloured effect of 
the vases is essentially defined by the clay, which now, in 
the developed black-figured style, takes on a brilliant warm 
red upper surface, and by the black glaze, which assumes 
a metallic lustre. The darker colouring of the clay 
deprives the lighter parts of their effects by contrast, and 
compels the painters to replace the contour-drawing of 
women, linen garments, etc., gradually by laying on white 
colour, with which at first the contour is simply filled ; but 
afterwards more commonly black underpainting is overlaid. 
With the transition to white, clear silhouettes are also 
obtained, which set off against the background more effec- 
tively than the old contour figures. 

The advance in the preparation of the clay and glaze 
colour came about on the Greek mainland. Tradition 
makes the Sicyonian Butades invent the red colouring of the 
clay at Corinth, and thus gives the correct indication. The 
Chalcidian and Attic workshops helped the new technique 
to prevail ; in the East it gradually gets the upper hand and 
forces the Ionian manufactories to give up their favourite 
white ground and adapt their technical freedom to the 



growing strictness of the western system. Attica, which in 
the 6th century opens a dangerous rivalry in Eastern and 
Western markets and finally wins the day, brings the 
process to perfection. With the refinement of incised 
technique it puts an end to the parti-coloured method still 
much affected by Corinthians and Chalkidians, it clears 
away the big surfaces coloured red and white and all colour 
in ornament and animal frieze, and helps the harmony of 
clay and black to its purest and fullest effect. 

With the disappearance of the old parti-coloured system 
the vases are completely removed from the effect of free 
painting. For that we may be grateful to fortune. For 
this refinement of the black-figured style permitted the 
sensitive feeling of Greek artists for decoration to satisfy the 
delight of narrating and describing along with the orna- 
mental traditions of the old style. They had no need, as 
had the old Minoan vase-painters (p. 10), to shrink from 
borrowing figured scenes. The recasting of types into the 
decorative silhouette style made it possible for them to con- 
jure on to the vases whatever touched their hearts and 
delighted their eyes, and thus to transmit to us an infinite 
variety of scenes, without which our knowledge of Greek 
legend, Greek life and Greek art would have remained 
terribly scanty. 

Corinth must lead off the history of this new style. The 
chief centre of commerce and industry in the Peloponnese, 
the celebrated seat of a flourishing ceramic industry and of 
an important school of painting, it not only took the decisive 
step to the new technique, but even in its red-clay phase had 
helped the designs to drive out animal decoration, and 
composed, or at least introduced into vase-painting, 
numerous types, which supply material to other workshops 
for a long time. The quadriga in front view, which Chal- 
cidian and Attic painters repeated so often and which kept 



l"i<:^. do. CORIN I III AN KRATER. 

n..\ri-; nnnii. 


its decorative effect for almost a century, appears here for 
the first time ; the triangular scheme of two wrestlers seizing 
each other by the arms and pressing head against head, 
which survived to the time of Nikosthenes, was taken by the 
Amphiaraos krater (Fig. 66) from the above-mentioned 
chest of Kypselos (p. 67) ; the nuptial procession of Peleus 
and Thetis which we shall meet on the lebes of Sophilos 
and the Francois-vase is prepared for in Corinthian vase- 
painting ; and the battle-scenes, rider-friezes and chariot- 
races, of which there was a beginning in the Protocorinthian 
style, were most richly developed by the Corinthians, and 
adopted by Chalkis and Athens often without any essential 
improvement. Thus one may be sure, that a number of 
other types, which are not represented in the selection that 
accident has given us, started their victorious career from 
Corinth, and that the lost great art of Corinth, the bronze 
industry of which we have specimens and the richly- 
adorned chest of Kypselos described by Pausanias supplied 
to the vase-painters a number of mythological compositions, 
which influenced other manufactories. Unfortunately the 
greater part of this rich treasure is lost to us. 
The loss is the more to be lamented, as what we have 
shows us a fine inventive talent on the part of the Corinthian 
artists and a magnificently free and easy conception of life 
and legend. The Homeric poetry and the Epic inspired 
by it, the lays of Peleus and Herakles, the ballad poetry now 
becoming very fashionable, from which come e.g. the birth 
of Athena and probably also the Return of Hephaistos to 
Olympos, are reflected on these Corinthian vases in 
inimitably vivid and drastic fashion ; and the vase-painter 
also gives scenes from daily life, carouses, drunken men 
who dance wildly with naked women, kitchen and wine- 
press, riding and driving, marching out to battle, and the 
wild mellay itself. It is particularly on the kraters (Figs. 



64-66) that we can trace how the accumulating material 
gets space on the vases ; animal decoration, in which 
heraldic cocks are very popular, retires ever more to the 
reverse, under the handles, into the base stripe, and also 
by preference is replaced by lines of galloping riders, who 
form a lively decorative foil to the mythological principal 
picture (Fig. 64). Meanwhile filling ornament disappears. 
The flying bird over the rider (Fig. 65) renders the same 
service as the rosette, nay a better ; it transplants the scene 
out of a decorative space into an actual one, the open 
country ; and the space-filling animals of the Amphiaraos 
vase, which are traditional (p. 40), are not intended merely 
any longer to enliven the vase surface but the wall of the 
house, the floor and the air. Thus the liberation of the 
field, for which Timonidas and his fellows paved the way, is 
attained. With this goes hand in hand the liberation of 
figure-drawing from ornamental constraint. The outspread- 
ing of the figure in the surface, which is still strong in the 
7th century, is toned down or ingeniously given a motive, 
as with the kneeling warrior who fights backwards, and does 
not disguise his connection with the old runner with bent 
knee. The individualizing of men and animals carried 
forward by Timonidas now once more makes big advances 
in human figures, horses and dogs. 

We will select two of the kraters to give us an idea of the 
development of the style. One, a Paris vase (Fig. 64), 
gives a special application to a fine banqueting scene, by 
added names and the insertion of lole, as the visit paid by 
Herakles to Eurytios, king of Oichalia. The fair daughter 
of the house stands with some indifference between the guest 
and her brother ; it is supposed to represent a legend, but is 
really little more than a genre scene, as which it is hard to 
beat. The lively conversation of the guests, the dogs tied 
to the sofa-legs waiting and speculating on the chance of 







bits falling from the table are masterly, and even the horses 
in the supporting frieze, if out of proportion and inelegant, 
are the more characteristic and living. The technique 
follows old tradition ; the flesh of lole, tables and sofas, one 
dog, shields on the reverse, appear in outline drawing. Such 
contours, also found sometimes where men's bodies left 
white set off those painted dark, unite to some extent, as 
does the red colouring of the male countenance, the vase 
in its effect with the great art. 

On the other hand the Amphiaraos krater (Fig. 66), 
which gives up red for male faces, and makes a point of 
covering the outline figures with a layer of white, has 
become more decorative and black-figured. Its pictures 
are not equal in execution to the invention, but come from 
excellent models (p. 67). Between the colonnade and fagade 
of the house, which are in line like the tables in the Eurytios 
vase, the hero, because of his oath, mounts his chariot to go 
with open eyes to the death he forebodes ; his angry look is 
directed to Eriphyle and the fatal necklace in her hand. 
With raised hands the family takes leave, a maid-servant 
gives the stirrup-cup to the charioteer. Foreboding evil, 
the faithful Halimedes sits on the ground : his heart has 
evidently bidden him to train up the boy Alkmaion to take 
vengeance on his mother. The whole delight in narration, 
which in the exaggerated rendering of the necklace strongly 
emphasizes the previous history, is as genuinely archaic, as 
the mythological individualizing of an old type 'The 
warrior's departure.' 

The Amphiaraos krater is more developed than the 
Eurytios vase, not merely in technique. The painter of the 
later vase, though not so gifted as his colleague, draws more 
cleverly, and works with a set of types before him, as the 
frieze of riders shows. The advance becomes plain in the 
shape of the vase. The Eurytios krater encloses an almost 
) 73 


uniformly swelling cauldron between a lip ring which is very 
low and a foot which spreads out in ample dimensions. 
From this round-bellied archaic shape we pass to a later more 
defined and elegant one in the Amphiaraos krater, which 
has a higher neck, a steeper and much less swelling body, 
with its lower part running to a point, till finally the outline 
almost resembles an inverted triangle and from the handles 
a rectangular or curved bridge has to be built leading to the 
high rim (krater a colonnette). The tendency to develop- 
ment, which we can read out of the vase shapes, may be 
taken as a symbol of the history of style. For a Greek vase 
was always something organic, as much so as a tree or 

Unfortunately, besides the large kraters with their 
numerous figures, which were favourite articles of export, 
few vases are preserved. In the scene on the Eurytios 
krater we get the lebes with stand, also the jug and drinking 
cup (kylix), which exist in various extant specimens. The 
kylix has an offset lip (as in Fig. 24), and often knobs on the 
handles, the interior picture is framed by tongue pattern. 
Beside the necked amphorae, which like the kraters seldom 
have any other ornament than rays, shoulder tongues and 
neck rosettes, the similarly decorated big-bellied amphorae 
continue, which like their Attic parallels (p. 51) put human 
busts or animal representations of old and new style into the 
figure panel. The three-handled water pitcher (hydria) has 
the type with vaulted shoulder common in the older black- 
figured style, and adorns it with spirals and maeanders. 
All these ornaments, to which may be added the double 
lotus and palmette of the Eurytios krater and occasional net 
and step patterns, partake of the solidity and variety of the 

Strangely enough, the phase of the Corinthian style here 
described is for us the end of the fabric ; not one of these 





vases can be dated below the first third of the 6th century. 
Corinthian pottery has no share in the Eastern Herakles 
with the lion-skin, the Amazons as Scythian w^omen, the 
entry of the Satyrs, the rendering of folds, the painted 
ground for white additions. One asks whether this brilliant 
development could break off so abruptly, or if it is only 
accident which has concealed from us its continuation. 
Both are improbable. It looks rather as if, just as the Proto- 
corinthian manufactory had its continuation in the Corin- 
thian, so the Corinthian was carried on by the Chalkidian. 
For the vases denoted by their inscriptions as Chalkidian 
form, at all events according to the present state of our 
knowledge, a group covering a few decades, which is in 
succession of time to the later Corinthian vases, and is most 
closely connected with them by a series of detailed agree- 
ments. Not only do the vase shapes consistently carry on 
Corinthian tendencies, but details of decoration like the 
white neck rosettes filled with red, and the step pattern 
(Figs. 68 and 69) continue ; the Corinthian animal friezes 
with rosettes, the heraldic cocks, with the serpents, the 
winged demon, the riders with the space-filling birds (Fig. 
69), the wrestlers scheme, the grotesque dancers, the quad- 
riga in front view are taken over ; nay, details of drawing, 
like the warrior's head in front view, the round outline of 
the edge of the short small chiton (Figs. 70 and 71), the 
red spots on black clothes (Fig. 70), the sword sheath with 
the St. Andrew crosses (Fig. 71), the devices on the shields 
are not conceivable without their Corinthian predecessors ; 
even the names of Corinthian grotesque dancers pass over 
to the Chalkidian Satyrs. 

Not a single Chalkidian vase has been found in Chalkis 
itself, nor even in any part of the mother-country : all 
specimens preserved come from the West. One might 
therefore assume that the fabric had its seat, not in Chalkis 



itself, but in one of its colonies, and thus the powerful Corin- 
thian traditions in this pottery would be easily explained. 
The West was dominated, as we saw, throughout the 7th 
century by Corinthian exportation ; and the colonies of 
Chalkis had always been provided by friendly Corinth with 
clay vases. But the strong influence of the Chalkidian 
manufactory on the Attic is in favour of Chalkis itself having 
put an end to Corinthian production, or at any rate to Corin- 
thian exportation. Why and how, cannot be stated : per- 
haps the publication of the many unpublished specimens 
will solve the riddle and clear up the close relation of the 
Chalkidian ware to the group of the Phineus kylix (Fig. 74). 
From every point of view the Chalkidian vases give us 
a heightening of the Corinthian, a great advance in the 
direction of a later period. Clay and black now attain their 
highest perfection, the distribution of colour is most deli- 
cately calculated ; no longer is there so much use made of 
white surfaces (under which there is regularly a wash of 
black) ; especially we see no more of the arbitrary colour- 
contrast which did not shrink from white colouring of the 
male. If the Corinthian style had already aimed at metallic 
effect in the angular formation of the handles and the curv- 
ing of the handle-bridges of the krater, the Chalkidian 
heightens these tendencies almost to faithful copying of 
metal vases, and consistently develops the vase shapes to 
the highest, almost over-refined elegance ; the narrowing 
of the lower part of the body leads to the insertion of a roll, 
which the painter picks out in red from the black foot. Thus 
arise novel vase-shapes ; the necked amphora (Fig. 69) is 
elongated, its shoulder flattened, so that the body almost 
assumes the shape of an egg ; the krater gets steep sides, 
high neck, and outward-bent handle bridges ; out of the 
older hydria with arched shoulder comes a later shape, 
which, in a specimen at Munich (Fig. 68) exactly copies 



the addition of cast handles to a metal body ; and similarly 
the other shapes develop, the kylix with knobs on the 
handles, the two-handled cup, the jug. 

The same endeavour after elasticity and elegance pre- 
vails in the distribution of the ornament over the vase, which 
was managed in a more masterly way at Chalkis than else- 
where. Certainly the ornamentation is based almost 
entirely on Corinthian foundations. The white dot-rosettes 
filled with red on the black neck, the lotus and palmette on 
the ground of the clay, tongues on the shoulder, and rays at 
the foot, the step pattern under the chief frieze are of old 
tradition but pass through a growing elaboration. As a 
new motive of decoration comes in the chain of buds, which 
we know from the East : as a rule it occurs beneath the 
chief band (Fig. 69), or hangs over the figure-field in place 
of the lotus and palmette. The Ionic pattern is not exactly 
imitated in the process ; the swellings under the Chalkidian 
buds suggest roses rather than lotus. Out of these buds, 
palmettes, and the tendrils uniting them, is formed the fixed 
ornament, which generally serves as central motive to 
heraldic animals and often develops into a wonderfully rich 
'complex of lively lines (Fig. 69). The proper place for this 
ornament is the centre of the upper band, which recovers 
its importance, now that the shoulder is set off more sharply 
in hydriae and necked amphorae, and as secondary field 
for decoration is, like the reverse of vases, usually deco- 
rated in the first instance with animals. On the shoulder- 
stripe the riders with the space-filling birds tend to drive out 
the archaic scheme of decoration ; they flank the lotus and 
palmette cross and in later specimens, where the horizontal 
shoulder is no longer dominant in the general view, they 
pass from heraldic constraint to parade order, and are also 
occasionally replaced by cleverly disposed dancers. The 
reverse of the vase also more and more shakes off animal 



decoration and replaces it by ornamental compositions, as 
by the heraldic quadriga or the heraldic riders. Friezes of 
animals beneath the main scene (Fig. 68) become very 
rare. However markedly the decoration of the vase 
departs from the old style, yet in spite of that there is in 
contrast with the Corinthian style a marked decorative 
invasion to be traced. The vases that have nothing but 
animal decoration are numerous, and the rosette often 
asserts itself again. 

This decorative invasion, which is connected with the 
perfection of technique and marked talent of the Chalkidian 
artizan, does not detract in any way from the figure scenes. 
The latter preserve their old vigour and power of observa- 
tion, some masters even raise it to a most intense elasticity, 
and breathe into the old types a new and vivid life, which 
in union with the fine technique and arrangement in space 
makes these vases superior to most of the other black- 
figured pottery. How Herakles on the London amphora 
(Fig. 70) unmercifully deals the death-blow to the 
three-bodied Geryon, or on the similar Munich vase (Fig. 
71) to Kyknos, is brought before our eyes with unambiguous 
matter-of-fact and verve. 

The chest of Kypselos had already thus represented 
Herakles' fight with Geryon, and the Chalkidian painter 
rests here, as often and especially in his battle scenes, on 
Corinthian types. But his rendering is anything but a 
borrowing, and bears witness to fresh and vigorous concep- 
tion. The ' Herakles and Kyknos ' is based on the old 
fighting scheme, which represents a warrior with raised 
right arm assailing an opponent who almost kneeling moves 
to the right but looks round ; and so in effect only combines 
the * duellist ' (p. 39) and the runner with bent knee. On 
the Chalkidian picture the old * exigency of space ' type 
is hardly any longer to be traced ; everything has become 


Fig. 70. 




expressive and characteristic. To be sure the contrast 
between the body in front view and the legs in profile and 
the spreading over the surface are still hardly toned down, 
but the thrust dealt with the right arm, the clutch of the left, 
the foot pressed against the back of the opponent's knee 
are full of vigour, and the collapse of the bleeding son of 
Ares, his prayer for mercy while he plucks the victor's 
beard, the dimmed eye with its pathos, the composition and 
the filling of the space are very artistic. 

This heightening of characteristic touches does not 
merely appear in battle scenes, but also the intimate touches 
in many Corinthian subjects are carried on. Even the 
Eurytios krater had succeeded in expressing the horror 
which seizes Odysseus and Diomede at the sight of the 
suicide of Aias. The feeling in this group is perhaps sur- 
passed by an episode in a Chalkidian battle-scene ; where 
the intent care, with which Sthenelos binds up the finger of 
the wounded Diomede, reminds one of the later kylix of 
Sosias (Fig. 114) ; and when a Paris amphora enlarges the 
march out to battle by a domestic scene of arming, early 
red-figured painting is again anticipated. 

The combination of this fresh and direct observation of 
nature with a marked decorative talent unites Chalkidian 
with the Ionic art of the islands. On Chalkidian soil, where 
a language with a strong Ionic element was spoken, a close 
contact with eastern neighbours must be assumed. It is not 
only the chain of buds on the vases that witnesses to this 
contact. The Satyr, a hairy fat fellow, with marked horse- 
ears and horse-tail, often with horse-hoofs, enters from the 
East in a form, which meets us on the Phineus vase (Fig. 74). 
And when the Chalkidian painter occasionally indicates the 
outline of the female back, where previously the drapery 
falling straight down entirely concealed it, when he 
furnishes his Geryon with wings and often equips Herakles 



with the lion's skin, in this, as in much besides, one cannot 
fail to see Eastern influence. Whether the rendering of 
folds, the beginnings of which appear on Chalkidian vases as 
elsewhere, has the same origin, is doubtful. 

The fabric in the Ionic islands which was in close reci- 
procal relation with the Chalkidian, may be called the 
* Phineus ' fabric after its chief product, till accident 
betrays to us its home. From the remains of lettering on 
the Phineus kylix, it can only be said, that it was produced 
in a place where Ionic was spoken, which cannot have 
been near to Asia Minor. The style, more Eastern than 
Chalkidian, but different from East Ionic in much, e.g. the 
circular drawing of the male eye, and closely akin to 
Chalkidian, is probably of Cycladic origin. But a connec- 
tion of this pottery with one of the old Cycladic manufac- 
tories (p. 52) is impossible. As little as the Chalkidian has 
it any previous history ; the few amphorae and kylikes that 
remain belong exactly to the same short period of time, in 
which the Chalkidian vases were produced. 

The amphorae are rather earlier than the Phineus vase, 
and often very like the decorative earlier Chalkidian speci- 
mens. Chalkis seems to have supplied to them the w^estern 
technique, the vase-shape, the foot-ring, and also to have 
supplied the patterns in many specimens for animal and 
rider decoration. But the less severe construction of the 
vases, the irregular division of the fields for figures, the 
preference for a dark covering of the ground above the 
rays, the liberties in decoration, lead us to more Eastern 
soil. The very chain of buds, luxuriant and hardly stylized, 
which often covers the neck, shows the unpedantic and 
concrete Ionic style, and the same playful carelessness 
appears, when the painter is lavish with filling rosettes and 
buds, when he inserts into a heraldic frieze of animals a 
complex of creatures furiously biting each other, or puts 



Fig. 73. 



between his favourite squatting sphinxes a fighting warrior, 
a couple of dancers, or two running girls, when he composes 
heraldically the heads of two processions of riders, 
and makes a combatant the central motive of 
heraldic riders, when he invents animal combina- 
tions with a common head. So it is no wonder 
if he makes into an effective motive of decoration 
the apotropaic eyes popular in this phase of art, which 
we know from Delian, Melian, and Rhodian vases of the 
7th century (Fig. 57), if he often adds ears and nose, and 
fills the centre with an arbitrarily chosen motive, a leaf or 
a human figure. The eyes are found on the necks of 
amphorae, but very often as outside decoration of the kylix, 
which in perfected specimens shows alike the height and 
the end of this manufacture. 

The wonderfully living and swelling outline of these 
delicate kylikes (Fig. 72) may be taken as a symbol of the 
style of the figures, which is absolutely remote from abstract 
dryness. It often enough adopts Corinthian-Chalkidian 
types as models. The * Phineus ' painter did not invent of 
himself the warrior with head in front view ; the slaying of 
Troilos goes back to an old Corinthian type ; the pursuit of 
the mounted Penthesileia introduces, it is true, a new 
Eastern Amazon' type in place of the old one (which is also 
used in this group), but is based on the composition of a 
Corinthian battle picture. What the ' Phineus * painter 
does with his models is always distinguished by individual 
and genuinely Ionic life. On the group of amphorae a fine 
vigorous figure style prevails, which on the kylikes has a 
finer and at the same time more delicate development. The 
charming Athena (Fig. 73), who now appears in armour, 
and whose shield-edge the painter for decorative reasons 
has doubled, the Scythian who like the mounted Amazon is 
at home in East Greece, the skipping Silenus, the dog in 



front view would not tell us much of this kylix-style. But 
fortunately the painter of the Phineus kylix surrounded the 
fine Silenus mask in the interior with a continuous frieze, 
the lack of which a hundred contemporary vases could not 
outweigh. The wall with the vine and the lion's head 
plainly divides the frieze into two scenes : evidently a 
magic well, which pours wine into the cup of the delighted 
Satyr. A lion, a panther and two stags draw the chariot of 
the Wine-god and his consort. On the legendary team a 
Satyr is making mischief ; two of his colleagues are quite 
diverted from their duty by the sight of three nymphs, who 
are bathing at a spring in a wood. A lion's head as spout 
pours into a basin the water with which they are laving 
themselves ; their clothes they have already hung up. The 
other picture shows the blind king Phineus, from whom the 
Harpies have taken the food off the table, for which he is 
vainly feeling ; the valiant sons of Boreas pursue the impu- 
dent thieves through the air over the sea. 

All is living, original and drastic in its concep- 
tion, as perhaps was only possible for an Ionian. 
The movements of the Satyrs and the nude maidens, 
the animals and plant-life are caught from nature, 
and this study betrays itself in various details. 
The face of Phineus, still painted red like that of the Satyrs, 
is drawn in front view, which we have hitherto only found 
in the helmeted warrior's head, the collar-bone and chest 
muscles are rendered, the eyes of the Boreads are already 
much reduced in scale. Especially important is the treat- 
ment of the drapery, not to mention the linen chiton of 
Dionysos with its parallel lines indicating the material, or 
the long red chitons of the women and the curved outline 
of the shirts of the Boreads, or the garments of the Harpies 
adorned with Ionic crosses and borders ; important innova- 
tions appear in the himatia, that of Phineus is divided into 


Fig. 74. 



From Furtivdngler-Reichhold, Griechische Vasenmalerei. 



red and black stripes, those of Dionysos and the women 
show rendering of folds. That the himation rather empha- 
sizes than conceals the outline of the back, is a true Ionic 

Beyond this stage, the ' Phineus ' fabric cannot be 
traced. Generally the Cycladic pottery of this period is 
hard to get hold of. We do not know whether there were 
more factories on the islands, and some isolated but allied 
specimens with more fully Ionic alphabet cannot yet be 
localized. On the other hand, the ceramic history of the 
Greek East offers at least some fixed points, though the 
transition from the old style has not yet been cleared up. 
We were able to accompany the Rhodian-Naukratite and 
the ' Fikellura ' styles to the very threshold of the black- 
figured, but here the thread seems to snap. Shallow bowls 
found in Egypt and South Russia with bud decoration and 
black-figured interior designs, which were imitated by the 
Attic Vurva style, and amphorae with remains of the old 
ornamentation and big isolated animal-silhouettes in the 
field, perhaps represent the latest products of the Rhodian 
style. The * Fikellura ' style finds its continuation in a 
ware, which was certainly produced in Klazomenai, 
perhaps also in several places at the same time, and has 
come to light not only in the Ionian region and the colonies 
in Egypt and the Black Sea, but also in Italy. The Klazo- 
menian style has in common with its predecessor not only a 
series of ornaments (tongues, rays, late Rhodian garlands, 
continuous tendrils, rows of crescents, friezes of leaves, 
* metope ' maeanders, buds in the field, scales over a sur- 
face), but continues the old shape of amphora and has the 
same preference for loose decoration : beside the vases 
adorned in bands, on which the animal friezes are driven 
out of the chief band, it is very fond of a field consisting of a 
reserved panel or running all round, and of the decoration 



of the neck by means of an ornament, an animal head or a 
human head. In the field it likes to put instead of the 
heraldic pair a single animal, a sphinx before a standing 
man or upright branch, an isolated palmette and lotus cross, 
which are in a measure constituent parts of heraldic 
compositions, and shows the same freedom, going even 
beyond that of the Phineus painter, when it makes isolated 
figures, dancers, running girls, or men wearing mantles, the 
central motive of its heraldic sphinxes or cocks, and when 
it puts a runner with bent knee between two lions that turn 
away from him (Fig. 75). The palmette and lotus-cross 
and the animal types differ from Western types ; the selec- 
tion, too, is characteristic of the East. There is a special 
preference for the Siren : this bird-woman is used surpris- 
ingly often heraldically, and in rows to make a frieze. The 
female panther occurs as well as the male ; the grazing deer 
is a Rhodian legacy. The ostriches show knowledge of 
Africa, the winged horses and boars connection with Asiatic 
art. The Klazomenian style is particularly strong in the 
new formation of fantastic beings, to which the near 
neighbourhood of the East gave the impulse. The sea- 
horse and the Triton were invented somewhere in this area : 
to the * Fikellura ' man with the head of a hare Klazo- 
menai adds a being with a tail and a lion's head among 
human revellers, among dancing men and women appears 
suddenly the bearded monster with the horse's tail, the 
Satyr (Fig. 75). 

The stock of types varies considerably from that of the 
West ; this is particularly clear in the scenes with human 
figures. Beside the pictures of riders and battles, beside 
the few preserved legendary scenes, among which the most 
important are the battles of Amazons, who here in the East 
have become mounted Scythian women, the prominent 
place is taken by scenes of drinking and dancing in the 





manner of the Altenburg amphora (Fig. 63). The file 
principle, so potent in the East Ionic animal frieze, strongly 
asserts itself in the dancing maidens and the abandoned 
revellers : the oblique inclination forward, which the 
Klazomenian painter often gives the intoxicated, and which 
is very successfully preserved on an early Milesian relief in 
London, emphasizes at the same time the decorative 
arrangement, and increases the expressiveness, just as the 
eccentric movements of the dancers equally well fill the 
space and mark the tone. For life, sensual and everyday 
though often grotesque and brutal, is what these Ionian 
masters give, even if they are only decorative artists or 
artizans, whatever it may cost. So they succeed in nothing 
so well as women, satyrs and animals. The maidens with 
their receding foreheads, almond-shaped and often 
obliquely set eyes, and the little mouth somewhat drawn in 
below, and the well-marked back contour, have an attrac- 
tiveness even on the most careless representations ; the 
shaggy satyrs betray their equine nature not merely in ear, 
tail and hoof ; the robust strong-maned horses, the female 
panthers with swelling breasts, the fighting cocks forgetting 
their heraldic duties, all show nature very close at hand. 

The history of this style, which must approximately 
extend over the first half of the 6th century, can be to some 
extent followed. In the beginning comes the conflict of the 
old Ionic and Western techniques, the transition from the 
light slip to the reddish-yellow surface, and the tendencies 
in ornamentation which still strongly remind one of 
' Fikellura.* The silhouette style makes liberal use of 
white. Not only with inherited aversion does it often 
replace incision by delicate lines of paint, provide garments 
with white crosses, animals with white spots and white belly- 
stripe, and ornaments with white details : in its earlier 
period it also extends the white surfaces, which it still places 



on the ground of the clay at times, from women and linen 
chitons to men, horses and dogs, and becomes as parallel 
to the Corinthian style with this contrast of colouring as with 
its wide-necked broad-bellied form of amphora. 

The latest wares of the colony of Daphne (abandoned in 
560 B.C.) show the transition to the rendering of folds of 
drapery, which takes the place of the old parti-coloured 
surfaces in the group of vases which took its rise about the 
middle of the century. In this later group, to which a series 
of * lebetes ' with topers, satyrs, centaurs, and battle scenes 
is an obvious introductory link, and which culminates in two 
amphorae at Munich (Figs. 76 and 78) and one in Castle 
Ashby, there enters into the old style varied, free and easy, 
broadly even laxly rendered, a peculiar severity and discip- 
line. The three chief specimens, necked amphorae with 
the continuous scene preferred by the East, are more 
defined and elastic in shape, more finished in shape and 
colour, more ornamental and elaborate in the rendering of 
the figures, than was the case with the earlier style. The 
conclusion which naturally suggests itself, that this new spirit 
came from the West and the Chalkidian-Attic region, is 
confirmed by the ornaments. Beside the Ionic looped and 
plaited bands, leaf and bud friezes, and the continuous 
tendrils (Fig. 76), come the double rays, the Western 
palmette and lotus system ; and when the painter scatters 
animals among the ornaments (Fig. 76), he follows old 
Ionic tradition, but the hare and the hedgehog with the 
ostrich riders of the Castle Ashby amphora are of Corin- 
thian origin (Fig. 66). In the treatment of the figure, the 
meeting of Eastern vigour and Western severity 
makes as charming an effect as the genuinely Ionic 
and very decorative composition ; the scene of a 
Munich amphora arranged round a centre (Fig. 77) 
with the cunning Hermes, who creeping up on 


^ o 

r-' < 

? O 

u: pi 





tip-toe steals away the fair cow lo from the sleeping giant 
Argos, and the picture of the Centaurs hunting on the 
reverse (Fig. 78) are full of ornamental vigour and at the 
same time full of fresh observation. The left hand of the 
giant shows a new study of nature compared with the old- 
fashioned right of Hermes and left of the front Centaur ; in 
the giant the artist is struggling to represent the anatomy, 
and the mantle of Hermes plainly falls in layers, in contrast 
with the absence of folds in the chiton. 

The new impetus, which even expressed itself in expor- 
tation to Italy, could not save the Klazomenian manufac- 
tory from the preponderance of its Attic rival ; it is at the 
same time its end. Not that the East Ionic decorative 
tendencies formed a blind alley ; the combination with 
western technique ensured its continued life. But Asia 
Minor, which at this time fell into the hands of the Persians, 
was not a suitable soil for continued production. Athens 
seized not only the exportation but the entire production. 
The arrival at Athens of East Ionic artists is reflected not 
merely in the names of the vase-painters. When on the 
jug of Kolchos and the Attic vases, typical Eastern prin- 
ciples of composition crop up, when Nikosthenes introduces 
an East Ionic shape of amphora (Fig. 104), when the red- 
figured technique coming into existence on Klazomenian 
sarcophagi conquers the Attic workshops, when on early 
red-figure kylikes the same decorative tendencies which 
prevailed in the East assert themselves, there can be no 
question of an extinction of East Ionic art, but only of a 
re-birth in Athens, and a baptism with Attic spirit. 

About on a level with the Castle Ashby group is another 
East Ionic class, also only known through export to Italy, 
the * Caeretan hydriae,' so-called from the place where 
they were mostly found (amphorae and kraters being also 
represented), which are usually attributed to South East 



Ionia. The developed vase-shapes, the completed black 
figure technique, which has a wash under the white and uses 
incision freely even for outlines, and the decoration, which 
has got beyond the animal style, make their late origin 
certain, and the agreement with Ephesian sculpture of 
about 550 B.C., expressed in treatment of hair, converging 
mantle folds and the graded edges of the drapery, clinches 
the matter. When in spite of that these vases stick fast to 
the system of contrast in colour, that agrees with an 
expressed preference for gay decoration such as from the 
days of the Naukratis vases South East Ionia loved. The 
'Caeretan* painter actually enhances this'colour preference, 
in that he varies the colour of the male body from black to 
dark red, bright yellow and white and similarly alternates 
the colour of hair and clothes. He gives the same motley 
eflfect to the ornamentation, which shows plainly its descent 
from the old Rhodian in its broad lotus and palmette system, 
its rosettes, hook-crosses, and spiral-crosses ornamenting 
the neck, and also reveals East Ionic freedom in natural 
myrtle branches and ivy-tendrils, in bucrania with festoons 
and in interspersed animals. The animal world too, with its 
fallow deer, lions, griffins, winged horses, and winged bulls, 
is characteristic of the East and the neighbourhood of Asia. 
These animals have long ceased to play their heraldic part, 
though on the reverse of the vase two may face each other 
in symmetrical correspondence ; they are rather by choice 
included in hunting scenes. The traditional tendency finds 
a refuge, if anywhere, in the figure scenes. In heraldic 
scenes of battle, in the horse-taming ' runner with bent 
knee,' in Satyr and Nymph running to meet each other, 
it asserts itself : but the living interest makes one forget the 
ornamental scheme. Lively drastic description is the 
strong point of the 'Caeretan' painter. His broadly treated 
scenes of hunting, fighting, and wrestling, the fine delinea- 



From Furtwd)igler-Rcich]wld, Griechische VascnwaJerei. 

Fig. 80. SPARTAN KVl-lX. 




tions of Satyr life, of the Heraklean legend, of Hermes and 
his theft of the kine, of the drunk and lame Hephaistos, of 
Europa carried by the bull over the sea, leave nothing to be 
desired in the way of original invention, healthy vigour, and 
naive vividness, and in their aversion to the typical and 
abstract they are diametrically opposed to Attic painting. 
The stocky, strong man Herakles with the curly hair who 
dispatches the inhospitable Pharaoh, Busiris, and his 
cowardly throng (Fig. 79), or who with the hound of hell 
frightens the Argive king into a wine jar (Fig. 81), are 
cabinet pictures of vigorous humour. The local colouring 
is also unmistakeable. The altar with volute profiles is an 
East Ionic architectural shape, the knowledge of the 
Egyptian and black races, of Egyptian priestly dress, of 
monkeys, can only have been obtained in Africa ; the 
origin of the Busiris legend is only conceivable in the 
neighbourhood of the kingdom of the Pharaohs. Thus 
though the Caeretan vases found a local continuation in 
Etruria, because of this local colouring one cannot imagine 
them made by Ionian colonists in Caere. 

On the other hand one may assume origin on Etruscan 
soil for another class of East Ionic style, only known from 
Etruria, called * Pontic,' as having been wrongly localized 
on the Black Sea. The Asiatic-Ionian origin of the style is 
based on the vase shapes as on the choice, technique, types 
and application of the ornamental and animal decoration ; 
and also the figures, the lines of Tritons and Nereids, riders 
and Scythians, heralds and Centaurs, and the legendary 
scenes, which are often under ornamental influence (Figs. 
82 and 83) in execution and application, point to the same 
source. The 'Pontic' painters actually enrich our know- 
ledge of East Ionic decorative motives by a series of com- 
bined lotus, palmettes, volutes, maeanders, by net patterns, 
leaf -friezes, etc., by a plentiful selection of animals, which 



includes the marine Centaur, with the Asiatic man-bull, and 
is fond of lines of guinea-fowls. But on the whole the class 
is very provincial and cannot be regarded as a clear source 
of evidence. It is questionable, whether obstinate persist- 
ence in stripe decoration, only reluctantly giving way to the 
picture field, would have been possible in the mother- 
country well on in the 6th century. The style is visibly 
departing further from its Greek starting point. Vases 
which represent Lanuvian Juno (B.M. Cat. II. p. 66) or 
Etruscan winged demons, show in subject what the style of 
itself betrays. 

Two classes with scanty decoration, fixed as East Greek 
by many finds, can only be named for completeness sake ; 
one, the 'Bucchero' ware long known in Etruria, which 
perhaps originated in Aeolis and which owes its black lustre 
not to glaze colour but to impregnation with charcoal and to 
polishing ; the other, the ware with a great extension in 
South Asia Minor and Italy, either unadorned, or only 
decorated with stripes, which give important conclusions as 
to the development of vase-shapes. 

The East Greek manner took the place of the Corinthian 
in Italy at the beginning of the 7th century. This revolu- 
tion is less connected with importation than with the immi- 
gration of Ionic artists. But even the new current is more 
and more open to the influence of the ever-spreading Attic 
importation, which in the East and West not merely 
captures the market but also forces production under its 

Before we pass to this victorious fabric, we must once 
more return to Peloponnesus, to a fabric standing in isola- 
tion and of marked peculiarity, the Spartan. Excavations 
at Sparta show the transition to the black-figured style, such 
as took place elsewhere about the end of the 7th century. 
Corinth seems to have set the example for this transition ; 



From Furtwdngler-ReichhoU, Griechische Vasenmalerei. 



at all events Corinthian elements, e.g. riders with birds for 
space-filling in the black-figured style give this indication, 
though the conservative retention of the white slip and the 
inconsistent rendering of the male eye clearly distinguish it 
from Corinthian. It becomes really tangible to us at the 
period, when exportation properly begins, at a time which 
already puts a black wash under imposed white and with 
the shapes takes us further along into the 6th century. The 
ware for exportation, which spread far over the mainland 
to Naukratis and Samos as well as to Etruria, has given us 
only a few big vases, finely decorative works, which are 
very conservative in their adornment. The earliest of 
them is a Paris * lebes ' with heraldically arranged animal- 
frieze and a frieze of figures above it, in which pot-bellied 
topers are placed between the Troilos story and a Centaur 
battle ; two volute kraters and two hydriae, by their shapes, 
cannot be much later. Broad tongues adorn shoulder and 
foot, the rays are doubled, to Geometric zig-zag and 
hooked bands are added upright arched friezes of lotus and 
pomegranate, continuous branches, and the lotus and 
palmette pattern ; the animal friezes have types of their 
own and do not avoid the processional order not ordinarily 
favoured in the West. Even the larger vases found in 
actual Spartan sanctuaries are almost entirely decorative 
and show little of the figure painting coming in so vigorously 
in other manufactories. 

A compensation for this is offered by the number of 
kylikes preserved, which in the 6th century, as in East 
Ionia, Corinth and Athens, so also in Sparta, gradually pass 
into the high-stemmed shape with offset rim (Fig. 80). The 
outsides of these kylikes are adorned only in a few earlier 
specimens with antithetic or processional animal friezes, 
otherwise only with the simple or net-like pomegranate 
pattern, with lotus leaves and rays ; from the handles pro- 



ceed palmettes on their sides. The figures are entirely 
confined to the interior, which much more commonly than 
in other manufactories, rises out of pure ornamentation or 
animal decoration to free scenic representations. To be 
sure this is often at the expense of the decorative effect. 
Most scenes are anything but composed with a view to a 
round space, and the segments under the line which marks 
the level of the ground, often ver>^ clumsily filled with plant 
and animal ornamentation, the rosettes, filling flowers, and 
birds dispersed without meaning about the scene, are 
always clumsy old-fashioned compromises between repre- 
sentation and space-filling. The stock of figures, with 
which the painter decorates his interiors, usually more or 
less at random, is even in its rendering helpless and anti- 
quated ; to make up it preserves its independence and ease, 
its primitive solidity ; the strong warriors, riders and 
hunters, the men carousing with women, the musicians and 
drinkers, the girls bathing in the river, are in subject and 
execution truly Spartan. Beside the pictures from daily 
life comes mythology with pot-bellied dancers, who have 
not yet, so far as we know, been superseded by Ionic Satyrs, 
with Erotes crowning riders and drinkers, and various 
legendary scenes. 

None of these kylix-pictures breathes the Spartan spirit, 
the spirit of the lyric poetry of Sparta, so well as the Berlin 
vase with the carrying home of fallen warriors, which is 
perhaps taken over from a continuous frieze without any 
attempt to fit it into the circular field ; but even in this shape 
has the effect upon us of a funeral march of Kallinos or 
Tyrtaios (Fig. 84). But in humorous descriptiveness the 
Arkesilas vase (Fig. 85) takes the palm. It is a genre scene, 
but not this time from the life of a Spartan citizen, but a 
travel reminiscence of a painter, who once in African 
Gyrene looked on, while the silphion was weighed under 




PFATE XL\'. -JIpAIj ''''• jJ^'- 




the stern eye of Arkesilas, and stowed in the hold of a sailing 
ship to be exported. The monkey too, which the painter 
puts on the yard, he became acquainted with in Africa ; the 
birds are not meaningless but fly round the ship ; only the 
lizard is an external addition, and we already know it to be 
Corinthian. The life-like picture, which before the deci- 
sive excavations in Sparta was regarded as chief proof of 
Cyrenaic origin for this pottery, confirms the result of 
digging in the shape of the chair legs, which agree with 
Spartan reliefs, and in the inscription, only possible in 
Sparta. There is an approximate date given too ; for the 
king, whose portrait we have, reigned about the middle of 
the 6th century. With this it agrees that his mantle is 
divided into black and red stripes, which, as we saw in the 
Phineus kylix, comes before the rendering of folds. 

This conservative style does not show the same keenness 
as its contemporaries in rendering folds and developing the 
knowledge of anatomy ; nor is the need felt for a long time 
of freeing the field from filling ornaments or the base seg- 
ment from animal decoration. The group of vases which 
belongs to the second half of the century is especially 
marked by the return of the white slip and of polychromy in 
the ornamentation. It is only late that the Spartan painters 
turn to the rendering of folds and richer body details, really 
only in a time of decadence, which diminishes the foot, no 
longer colours the ornament, and often avoids the base- 
segment. The occasional use of pale red figures painted on 
a black ground with incised details can only be explained as 
a provincial imitation of Attic red-figured technique, with 
the superiority of which Sparta cannot even remotely com- 
pete. Similar vases without any figures show the last output 
of the fabric. 

The only fabric in which the black-figured style com- 
pleted its life and exhausted its possibilities, the only one 



which shows its living force through the archaic and classic 
periods, is the Attic. Even at the end of the 7th century it 
begins to vie with others. We already saw that Vurva 
vases were exported to East Ionia ; the Gorgon lebes of the 
Louvre comes from Italy. Etruria now becomes the chief 
place where Attic and indeed all black-figured vases are 
found. The fact that ware made to be exported to Etruria 
first gave us the knowledge of Greek vase-painting, led 
enquiries on false tracks for a long time in localizing the 
fabrics, and even to-day the word 'vases' reminds us of the 
decisive finds on Italian soil. 

The Attic manufactory is, as we saw, proved not only 
by the alphabet of their inscriptions but also by continuous 
finds in Attica itself. To be sure, the inequality of produc- 
tion in technique and style obtrudes itself on us here more 
than elsewhere, and makes us take fabric in a wider sense, 
as a complex of workshops, which turn out at the same time 
good and rubbishy ware, traditional and progressive 
painting, vases with light or dark-red clay. The Boeotian 
workshops, without doing them injustice, we may class with 
Attic workshops of the second class ; in the 6th century, in 
so far as they do not go on turning out their old bird kylikes 
(p. 52), they are only provincial offshoots of Attic industrial 
art. The same is the case with Eretria. 

The inequality of Attic ware has yet other reasonSi 
More than other fabrics the Attic adopted foreign influ- 
ences. Athens' central position between Corinth, Chalkis 
and the Cyclades, its relations to East Ionia, led to a 
penetration of old Attic art traditions with other elements 
and to the formation of a new style : the rise of trade and 
industry enticed alien painters to settle at Athens, since 
foreign fabrics had more and more to give in to Athenian 
superiority. Thus it is that Corinthian, Chalkidian, 
' Phineus,* East Ionic, occasionally even Spartan fabrics 






are reflected in the Attic pottery. These reflections give a 
very varied air to Attic pottery, but on the other hand help 
to a dating of its separate phases. After a period of Corin- 
thian influence follows one with a strong Chalkidian element, 
in the eye-kylikes the pattern of Thineus' ware is at work, 
while relations to East Ionic art run along side by side. 

The group, which one is inclined to make parallel with the 
red-clay Corinthian, may be named the 'Sophilos' group 
from the fragments of a 'lebes' found on the Acropolis (Fig. 
86). In contrast with its immediate predecessor the 
Sophilos vase vies in motley effect with Corinthian ware. 
Ornament is richly painted ; himatia and borders are picked 
out in colour, women and linen chitons have a white filling ; 
in the red of the male face and the varied colouring of the 
horses the system of contrasted colours is as plainly 
exhibited as in the red colouring of the male breast or of the 
whole male body on other contemporary vases. The 
marriage of Peleus and Thetis is the subject, in a type 
repeated on the Francois vase (Fig. 90), which we see 
developed on Corinthian kraters, probably under the 
influence of the chest of Kypselos. Who introduced into 
the scene the Muse in front view playing on the syrinx, can- 
not be stated ; the lower part of the body in profile is in 
marked contrast with this bold front view ; that it is of orna- 
mental origin, perhaps from a double Siren, might be 
suggested without its being too venturesome. 

The frieze is framed between a broad lotus and palmette 
pattern and a stripe with large animals. Whether the filling 
ornament has been omitted from the animal as well as from 
the figured frieze, in which nothing but the big lettering 
reminds us of the old requirement of filling the space, cannot 
be ascertained from this specimen ; a second vase of the 
same painter shows between the animals, which still suggest 
the Vurva style, isolated large rosettes, and other vases of 



this group make a palmette flower or bud with stalk project 
into the field. These isolated echoes of the old filling 
ornamentation, influenced by the East like the gradually 
appearing friezes of buds and leaves (p. 83) disappear about 
the middle of the century ; but the animal friezes them- 
selves live on longer. 

This survival of old decorative tendencies in a new shape 
appears still more plainly in other vases of the "Sophilos" 
period. The amphorae, which leave a " metope " 
unpainted to carry their figures or make the figure field con- 
tinuous, when they do not cover the whole body with 
stripes, have like the Klazomenian on the neck a head, a 
lotus and palmette cross, or a circle between zig-zags (the 
amphora which Dionysos is dragging on the Francois vase 
is of this type), and prefer still to decorate their stripes and 
fields with heraldically arranged animals. The Ionic 
liberties too, the meaningless compositions, are not infre- 
quent, just as beside many Corinthian echoes in the friezes 
of animals and riders, Ionic patterns often assert themselves 
in the drawing and colouring of the animals, and in the shape 
and decoration of the vases. The kraters and hydriae 
which are parallel with the Corinthian, give the same 
impression. Of the smaller vases we may select two hasty 
compositions, which cannot compare with the fine work of 
Sophilos, but in their way help to enlarge our Idea of the 
period. The Munich tripod-vase (Fig. 87) in the stripe on 
the rim shows alongside of the old animal composition two 
wrestlers of the Corinthian scheme and a horse race from 
the same source, the succession of which is interrupted by a 
fallen horse just as the animal friezes of contemporary 
vases contain fighting animal groups ; and a kantharos of 
Boeotian manufacture and shape (Fig. 88) over the animal 
frieze introduces the wild dancers, who as at Corinth, 
Chalkis and in East Ionia prepare the way for the Satyrs. 





From FiirtwdiigJer-RcichhoJd, GriechiscJic Vasennialerei. 


Just as we followed the process in late Corinthian and 
Chalkidian workmanship, so in Athens the broad, massive 
archaic black-figured style in the shape of the vase and the 
rendering of the figures passes into more and more elegant 
compression and precision ; Sophilos is followed by Klitias. 
The Florence vase ' made ' by the potter Ergotimos, 
* painted ' by Klitias and named after its finder Francois 
(Figs. 89 and 90), even in the boldly rising outline of the 
body shows the spirit of a new age, and goes beyond the 
round-bellied shape of the Gorgon ' lebes ' as much as the 
late Corinthian kraters surpass the Eurytios vase (Fig. 64). 
Ergotimos holds the mean between the old round-bellied 
vase shapes and the more elegant ones of the Chalkidian 
best period (p. 77), just as Klitias does between the figured 
style of Sophilos and that of Amasis (p. 105) ; and as 
Ergotimos does his best in delicately moulding the shape 
and gives the vase a showy appearance with his elongated 
handle volutes, so in the figured decoration covering the 
whole surface and in the incredibly delicate execution of all 
details Klitias presents a refinement of the black-figured 
style which in its way cannot be surpassed. Potter and 
painter here take a step, which secures for Attic pottery the 
paramount position for all time. 

The treatment of the procession of the Olym- 
pians in honour of the newly-wedded sea-goddess 
on the principal frieze is particularly rich. We 
have seen that Klitias here utilized an old type. The repre- 
sentative solemnity required by the subject gives an archaic 
stamp to this frieze ; in particular the richly adorned festal 
clothes with patterns that it almost requires a microscope to 
see, which bear witness to uncanny patience and accuracy 
on the part of the painter, heighten the stiffly venerable 
impression. But when compared with Sophilos, Klitias 
shows a considerable advance in the rendering of nature. 



For that we must not lay stress on the head of Dionysos in 
front view, for the god's mask-like appearance passed from 
cult into vase-painting ; but we may point to the 
diminished heaviness of the figures, the smaller size of the 
eye, the division of the himatia into stripes, which here and 
there converge like folds, and the reduction in size of the 
inscriptions. The other friezes exhibit Klitias as a master 
of the delineation of life and movement : the arrival of the 
ship of Theseus at Delos (Fig. 89), the hunt of Meleager, 
the battle with the Centaurs, the chariot-race, the return of 
Hephaistos, the adventure of Troilos, and the delightful 
frieze on the foot with the battle of dwarfs and cranes ; even 
the heraldic animal frieze is seized by the same liveliness, for 
between the heraldic sphinxes and griffins the animals, now 
treated in quite an elegant and concise way, are attacking 
each other. How much of these scenes is due to the inven- 
tiveness of Klitias and his direct observation of nature 
cannot be made out. He has not got the rough freshness 
and naturalism of the Ionic painters, but instead a marked 
feeling for clear and speaking types ; and generally speak- 
ing, discipline and the gift of abstraction seem to have been 
more characteristic of the Athenians than of the lonians, 
who set more carelessly to work. Perhaps Klitias got from 
eastern masters the interruption of the heraldry in the 
animal frieze by fighting groups ; and at any rate the Satyrs 
who accompany the drunken Hephaistos come from the 
East into Attic pottery. 

In the technique of the figures, the old style is worthily 
putting forth its last efiforts ; the white is still put direct on 
the clay, the man's face is coloured red, black horse alter- 
nates with white. But with the perfection of the clay and 
the black used in painting, and the minute detail of incised 
lines, a new feeling for colour is brought in, which leads 
away from the old motley effect ; the masters of the 


Fii;. 00. 

From Fiirtiudiiglcr-RciclihoJd, (i riccliisclie Wiseiniialcrci. 



Frangois vase themselves in their later works go over to the 
new system, which paints a ground for the white and gives 
up red in the male body, a system which, perhaps, other less 
thorough artists had already set going. 

The chariot-race for a prize on the neck of the Francois 
vase introduces us to an old and popular contest, which 
according to tradition Pisistratus replaced by other games, 
when in 566 B.C. he reformed the Panathenaea. At the 
same time he must have erected a new image of Athena on 
the Acropolis, which, in opposition to the old conception, 
(p. 66) still followed by the Francois vase, represented the 
goddess in full armour. For on the prize vases, which were 
given to the victors full of precious oil and labelled * one of 
the prizes from the city of Athens ' (twv 'AOrtPTjOev 
ciexcov), Athena always appears as a fighting warrior, 
just as the poet Stesichoros and paintings of the time of 
Sophilos had made her leap from the head of Zeus. The 
oldest of these Panathenaic amphorae (an idea of their 
shape is given by Fig. 101, a later specimen of about 520 
B.C.) shows on the obverse the new type of Athena in the 
making, and on the reverse the chariot-race which was now 
becoming infrequent. Since this vase adheres closely to 
the Sophilos group in style and especially in the animal 
decoration of the neck, but on the other hand already has a 
painted ground for white, it will not be possible to move the 
Francois vase and the transition to the later technique away 
from the sixties of the 6th century. 

The group of kraters, lebetes, hydriae, amphorae and 
other vases, which immediately adheres to the Francois 
vase, usually, in so far as it is not interrupted by marked 
individualities, is described by the antiquated name Tyrrh- 
enian,' derived from the finds in Etruria. The conserva- 
tive and often mechanical character of these vases does not 
conceal the progressive elements. The vases assume the 



more slender egg-shaped form known to us from Chalkis, 
the old neck ornament of the amphorae (p. 96) is replaced 
by lotus and palmette. White colour is regularly placed on 
black ground ; Herakles is often equipped with the lion's 
skin ; Athena with at any rate helmet and spear ; in place 
of the old-fashioned burlesque dancers and naked women 
come Satyrs and Maenads. But of improvements in 
observation of nature this second-class group has hardly any 
to show. It lives on the achievements of great masters, on 
Corinthian traditions, and eastern influences. The frieze 
amphorae, which continue alongside of the amphorae with 
picture field, vie with the Frangois vase in the accumulation 
of figured friezes ; only in the lower stripe they economize 
in figure scenes by using lines of lotus and palmettes and 
animals. Thus their general appearance is still very like 
the Vurva vases, the Gorgon lebes and many vases of the 
Sophilos period. The traditions of the 7th century end in 
this mechanical group ; the great masters of the second 
third of the century bring, perhaps from Chalkis, new vase 
types and new kinds of decoration. 

The transition may first be followed in the Kylix, which 
happily can be traced in its development by many signed 
specimens. The firm of Ergotimos produces a cup with 
knobbed handles and no set-off for the rim, the interior 
picture of which is framed by tongue pattern , thus a kylix 
of the type known to us from Corinth and Chalkis ; on the 
outside the Satyr is still loosely connected with drinkers of 
the old type, and has thus not yet been associated with 
Dionysos and the Maenads. This type of kylix shews 
marked Chalkidian influence, especially in later specimens 
like that of Boston (Fig. 92), on which Circe (painted white 
over black) hands to the companions of Odysseus the fatal 
potion and so brings about her own abrupt end. Series of 
branches and buds, probably also the dog in front view (p 81) 





and much in the style of the figures come from the neigh- 
bouring fabric. This Chalkidian influence is to be traced 
on a second type of kyUx belonging to this period, that with 
off-set rim, (not the one in Circe's hand), which for a time 
carelessly draws its figures over the junction, but finally 
makes a clean cut between handle frieze and rim ornament : 
the rim is e.g. decorated with a branch or painted black, the 
handle frieze bears figures or the artist's signature in neat 
letters between the palmettes proceeding from the handles. 
The masters of the Frangois vase themselves took this step 
forward ; in Naukratis and the interior of Asia Minor signed 
specimens have been found, speaking documents of the 
popularity of the fine Attic ware in the East, which help to 
explain the alteration of the Ionic style (p. 86). 

The workshop of Ergotimos passed to his son Eucheiros 
(B.M. Cat. ii., p. 221), who, like the sons of Nearchos, 
Ergoteles and Tleson (B.M. Cat. ii., p. 222) is found among 
the so-called * little masters,' the makers of dedicated 
high-stemmed cups, who, with special pride, and probably 
also for decorative reasons, put their names on their pro- 
ducts. More than twenty makers' names, among them 
those of Exekias, Pamphaios, Charitaios, Hischylos, and 
Nikosthenes, have been handed down to us on these vases, 
an important piece of evidence for the vigour of Attic 
production in the generation after Klitias and Ergotimos. 
These masters preserve the division between handle and rim 
stripes, even when the rim is not marked off from the body. 
As with Klitias, the handle stripe bears the master's inscrip- 
tion or a drinking motto ; in this case the representation, 
consisting of neat miniature figures or a female head drawn 
in fine outline, moves into the upper stripe (Fig. 91). Side 
by side with that, the painting of the rim black and decora- 
tion of the handle stripe with figures are very common. In 
the figures decorative tendencies, betokening intention 



rather than convention, assert themselves. The interior 
picture often consists of the Gorgon's mask, or a figure to fill 
the space to fit the circle ; the outside often bears meaning- 
less compositions (heraldic animals, winged creatures, 
runners, riders, men wrapped in cloaks), out of which 
develop scenes of hunting and pursuit, chariot-races, and 
cock-fights ; but also mythological scenes and vigorous 
battle pictures with many figures occur. When such scenes 
are still flanked by heraldic animals, in this case primitive 
traditions are consciously retained. 

On the Munich kylix (Fig. 91) the painter in the inscrip- 
tion praises the beauty of Kalistanthe. More commonly 
fair boys are praised, a practice which continues on vases 
for a century, the explanation being supplied by the erotic 
scenes represented from the later time of Klitias. Those 
celebrated are seldom to be regarded as the favourites of 
the vase-painters themselves, but generally sons of the best 
society, for whom there was a furore. This worship of 
beauty is of use to the historian, for many of the Kaloi are 
great persons with established dates, and anyhow the com- 
mon love-name puts all vases which bear it into a short 
period of time ; for the bloom of beauty lasts not more than 
a decade. 

If the kylikes of the * little masters ' last to the 
beginning of the red-figured style (p. 109), the eye-cups go 
a good bit beyond this limit. The type must have been 
brought to Athens from the * Phineus ' manufactory (p. 80) 
in the later period of the * little masters ' ; and perhaps 
the Ionian Amasis, who has left a fine specimen 
with a figure holding a branch between the eyes, 
had much to do with this naturalization. Certainly 
the Attic artists never rival the swelling shapes and 
vigorous life of their prototypes. With this type 
the outside begins again to be treated as a decorative unit 





without division, an arrangement of which the red-figured 
style makes almost exclusive use. The interior is generally 
not more richly decorated than by the ' little masters.' 
When Exekias on one vase adorns the whole interior surface 
with a wonderful idyll, the giver of the vine in a sailing boat 
with dolphins leaping round him, this is quite an exception 
(Fig. 93) : that the ground is painted brick-red, is quite 


The names Ergotimos and Klitias, Exekias and Amasis, 
Charitaios, Pamphaios and Nikosthenes show that the 
manufacture of kylikes was by no means a separate 
speciality, and that it may be simply due to accident if 
certain firms producing larger vases do not recur among 
the * little masters.' 

The larger masterpieces naturally show the progress of 
the style much more plainly than the conservative Tyr- 
rhenian ware and the kylikes. We noticed above, that 
single specimens, which stand out markedly from the ordi- 
nary ware of the period, attach themselves to the Frangois 
vase. The master of a fine lebes from the Acropolis show- 
ing Ionic influence, who occasionally still colours the male 
face red, probably emigrated from the East like his contem- 
poraries Kolchos and Lydos. Like Klitias, the masters 
prefer to cover garments with rich patterns rather than to 
render folds : they relieve the monotony of white chitons 
by vertical strokes, and divide the surfaces of cloaks into 
stripes. This division does not yet attain any effect of 
depth. But when Nearchos, the father of two " little 
masters ' (pp. 101 and 112), divides the short male chiton 
also by wavy lines into black and red stripes, he has already 
in his mind the rendering of folds, and Kolchos grades the 
ends of cloaks with clear folds. This emancipation from 
the old superficiality, which in the period of the * little 
masters ' leads to the emergence of the * fold ' style in the 



works of Amasis and Exekias, must now be exhibited in a 
selection of amphorae and hydriae in connection with the 
change of vase-shapes and decoration. 

We begin with the big-bellied amphora, which at the 
end of the 7th century we saw reserve a square field and 
decorate it with horses' or women's heads, and which in the 
period of Sophilos begins to put an upper border of orna- 
ment on its figure-field, which is often adorned with animals. 
Fine specimens of the Klitias period, which banish the 
animal ornament into a lower frieze or give it up altogether, 
show an obvious change in shape, in that the handles, 
instead of standing off like ears, are drawn up perpendicu- 
larly, while the body of the vase is to some degree tightened. 
Vases like that of Taleides with the slaying of the Minotaur, 
or like the unsigned Iliupersis vase in Berlin (Fig. 94) with 
the gay alternate palmette pattern and the old heavy foot of 
the Francois vase, belong to this class. On both vases 
standing figures form an extension of an animated central 
group, but the Iliupersis master makes a better whole of his 
triptych than Taleides, who merely juxtaposes the heroes' 
conflict and the spectators : alongside of the furious Neop- 
tolemos, who has already laid one Trojan low and is on the 
point of despatching the aged king and his grandson with 
one blow, Menelaos threatens his faithless wife, whom he 
has won back, while on the other side Priam's entreaties are 
supported by wife and daughter : a picture rich in content, 
of true archaic vividness and talkativeness, excellently 
drawn and composed. It is not only the way in which 
white is used that takes one beyond the Frangois vase ; the 
rosette ornamentation of the garments is quite typical of the 
following period (Fig. 92) ; the wavy striping of the short 
chiton and the simple grading of the cloak reminds us of 
Nearchos and Kolchos, and whether Klitias could have 
characterized a dying man as well as our master is at least 



PLATE LI 1 1. 



The current of Chalkidian influence, which sets in 
vigorously about this time, seizes also the body amphora. 
The arched foot becomes more plate-like, a clay-ring unites 
it with the end of the body, which is more taper ; the 
Chalkidian wreath of buds (Fig. 71) for a time commonly 
takes the place of the palmette and lotus band, which 
becomes scantier and more monotonous, and as at Chalkis, 
a figure frieze (Fig. 95) may occupy this space. The type 
belongs to the earlier * little master ' period. From 
Exekias, who was himself in his off-hours a * little master,' 
comes a specimen in the Louvre with the praise of the fair 
Stesias, a youthful work of this worthy successor of Klitias, 
on which Chalkidian patterns are very finely worked out, 
without the slightest attempt at the rendering of folds. 

The unsigned Wiirzburg amphora of Amasis (Fig. 95), 
like all the vases of this master peculiar in shape and of 
perfect technique, is more progressive and probably some- 
what later than the Stesias amphora of Exekias : the cloak 
of Dionysos on the obverse is laid in three folds ; on the 
reverse the shaggy satyrs, stylized in a quite un-Attic way, 
who to the sound of the flute are gathering, pressing, and 
distributing into jars the beloved gift of the god, show the 
same connection with the * Phineus ' factory as the 
eye kylix (p. 102). The technical perfection and the fine 
decorative effect of Amasis' vases are only surpassed by a 
wonderful contemporary group, which is usually called the 
* affected ' class, because it consciously sacrifices the living 
representation of the figure world to the ornamental general 

The over-elegant works of Exekias, the ' affected 
vases, the minute 'little master' kylikes represent the last 
refinement of the silhouette style, its last trump-card. The 
future belonged not to the masters of the adorned surface, 



but to the delineators of the surface in movement. In the 
last phase of the body amphora prior to the red-figured 
style, in which the band-like handles and the narrower neck 
are drawn higher and the stiff palmette pattern becomes 
canonical, Exekias in his riper development passes over to 
rich rendering of folds ; on the harmonious amphora in 
Rome, which no longer praises Stesias but Onetorides (Fig. 
96) he exhibits in the cloaks of the players the last possibili- 
ties of his subtle technique with an almost incredible devo- 
tion to detail, but even these fine clothes have their edges 
overlapping, and on the reverse of the vase, besides foldless 
patterned clothes, appear cloaks richly animated with folds. 
The amphora must be of the same period as the eye kylix 
(Fig. 93) ; not only the feeling as a whole but the dark-red 
chitons in layers on the outside point to the late activity of 
the master. 

The necked amphorae complete our idea of the 
two great masters. The old heavy shapes with the 
arched foot take up Chalkidian influences and go through 
the same processes of change, which we know from Chalkis. 
The old-fashioned decoration with animal stripes is retained 
by the Tyrrhenian vases, that with continuous pictorial field 
by the 'affected' group for a time, till the later Chalkidian 
type conquers the whole field (Fig. 69). Amasis seems not 
merely to have introduced it into Athens but also to have 
created the pretty variation with the flat shoulder with a 
rectangular turn and the wide handles running out below 
into tendrils : for these continuous tendrils are old property 
of his eastern home. The handle ornament separates off 
the pictures on the two sides and liberates the figures from 
the constraints of a frieze. The Paris amphora with Diony- 
sos and the interesting group of embracing Maenads (Fig. 
98) is closely connected with the Wiirzburg amphora 
(Fig. 95) not only by the double rays, which Amasis loves, 




Fio. 98. 




by the grouping, which in the other vase is transferred 
without change to satyrs, by the beginning of himation folds, 
but also by many details of the very individual style. The 
aversion to white colour is interesting. On both vases the 
linen chiton of the god is left black ; the Paris 
maenads are rendered in outline only : it is but 
seldom that the reaction against the old parti-coloured 
scheme goes so far. Parallels are provided by the Athena 
of Kolchos' jug and the girl-busts of the ' little masters 
(Fig. 91). Both the other amphorae of Amasis are more 
advanced. The shape of the vase is slimmer, the decora- 
tion simpler, the relation of figures to space freer. The 
bodies are no longer the thick-set broad-thighed type of 
the older style : the eye plays no longer so prominent a 
part. The short chiton is not merely laid in black and 
red layers but even provided with a quite naturally waving 
border : the artist thus far surpasses the standard of Exekias 
and even of early red-figured masters. He need not on 
that account be put very late, for the simple Ionic masters 
of the Caeretan hydriae, perhaps his countrymen, 
made this border before him. This lonism is in 
favour of Amasis, who signs only as potter, having him- 
self painted all his vases, and having played the pioneer not 
only in vase shapes and decoration but also in figure style. 
Exekias (in whose works the unity of the whole is often 
expressly emphasized by the inscription * made and 
painted me ') does not attack the problem of folds so boldly. 
Even on the two fine necked amphorae, which praise the 
favourite of his later period, as a good Athenian he lays the 
drapery in neatly-ironed layers. 

The slender Munich necked amphora (Fig. 97) goes still 
further beyond the Chalkidian models (Fig. 69). The neck 
ornament connects it with the late works of Exekias, the eye 
decoration with the kylix type of the same time, and even 



the space-filling vine-tendrils, which perhaps Amasis intro- 
duced from the ' Phineus ' factory into Attic painting, are 
a favourite motive in later times. The satyr mask, like the 
Dionysos mask, probably passed from cult into decorative 
painting ; if Klitias represents Dionysos, and Amasis the 
satyr, with head in front view, the influence of these masks 
is not to be mistaken. 

We have not yet named the most productive amphora 
painter. Nikosthenes supplied some fine examples of the 
method of Amasis, some of which like the Exekias lebes 
(Fig. 99) on the body of the vase help the fine black colour to 
exclusive possession ; besides a quantity of notably metallic 
amphorae with band handles, the production of 
which in quantities seems to be his speciality, though other 
masters adopted and modified the shape (Fig. 104). The 
often very hasty and conservative decoration of these vases 
cannot come from one painter. Nikosthenes, of whom 
almost a hundred signed vases are extant (kraters, 
' Amasis ' and * Nikosthenes ' amphorae, * little master ' 
kylikes, eye kylikes, neatly painted jugs with white ground, 
and red-figured vases) must have employed a series of 
painters. The only one who gives his name, Epiktetos, we 
shall hear of later. 

The hydria too, which often shows its use in pretty foun- 
tain scenes (Fig. 106), alters its form. As in Chalkis (p. 76) 
the egg-shaped type of the Klitias period, shown e.g. on the 
Troilos frieze of the Frangois vase, gradually gives way to 
the later type with picture field and horizontal, separately 
adorned shoulder. Timagoras, a contemporary of Exekias, 
still prefers a broad-bellied shape and does not form handle 
and foot as elegantly as Pamphaios. His Paris vase with 
the later type of the contest with Triton (p. 67), on which 
he still paints the monster's face red for colour contrast, is 
very important for chronology by a declaration of love for 





Andokides, a young colleague and later chief master of the 
early red-figured style. If Timagoras is the predecessor of 
Andokides, Pamphaios is his rival. His slim London 
hydria with the slightly bent up handles, on which the vine 
of Dionysos overgrows the whole picture, and the dark-red 
striping of the cloak assumes pure fold-character, falls into 
the red-figured period, which after the second third of the 
century begins to compete with the old technique, and to 
which Pamphaios himself opens his workshop. The new 
style did not abruptly drive out the old : from the time of 
its predominance perhaps more black-figured vases are pre- 
served than from the preceding period. In the leading 
studios for a time both techniques were practised side by 
side, often by the same painters. The balance inclined 
quickly to the side of the style which painted the back- 
ground and not the figure, and after the transitional time of 
Andokides and Pamphaios only inferior talents experiment 
in the old silhouette style. But though driven out of the 
leading position, this old style was still busy and productive 
at least to the beginning of the 5th century : especially 
necked amphorae and hydriae, which the new style did not 
zealously affect, keep the tradition. 

At this later date the shapes become elongated, the lotus 
and palmette ornament loses colour, sweep and consistency. 
The hydriae bend their handles more steeply upwards : the 
row of palmettes enclosed by tendrils is preferred as fram- 
ing ornament. The figures move more freely in the space, 
and are also more hastily drawn ; in particular the rendering 
of folds becomes regular. The red stripes, which 
are painted quite meaninglessly between the folds, no 
longer remind us that they once indicated sewed parts of 
garments ; white rosettes and red spots serve as surface 
patterns, a red stroke as border. On the fine hydria in 
Berlin (Fig. 100) probably of Euphronios' time, which, it is 



true, is quite unlike its class, the old round formation of the 
eye actually approximates to the natural oval. 

The links with the red-figured style, especially 
common love names like Hipparchos, Pedieus, and Lea- 
gros, help us to date this style. Thus the circum- 
scribed row of palmettes seems to appear in the early 
Leagros period (p. 114) ; the Berlin vase is thus moved to 
the end of the century, like a group of pelikai with charming 
genre scenes and a series of other vases of red-figured 
shape (p. 119). 

In the new century the black-figured production gradu- 
ally dies away. Apart from the Panathenaic amphorae 
(p. 99) and other vases, which for ritual reasons remain 
conservative, only trifling small ware keeps up the old style. 
The prize vases can be followed as votive offerings on the 
Acropolis, and in exported specimens down into the 4th 
century, where they are dated to the year by archons' 
names (one of 313 B.C. has been found) ; even in late times 
they do not give up the old type of Athena, but elongate it 
to agree with the slender proportions of the vase, and com- 
bine other later features with the old picture. 

In Boeotia black-figured painting, alongside of primitive 
attempts to imitate Attic red-figured vases, continued as 
long in the burlesque parodies of myth of the so-called 
Kabirion ' vases ; black painting on a light ground is 
found in the early Hellenistic ' Hadra vases ' made at 
Alexandria, and similar late phenomena occur in various 
localities. These late black-figured vases show real pro- 
gress in nothing but the development of a loose freely 
moving vegetable ornamentation : but this progress de- 
pended on pure brush-technique, not on the old incised 







HOW the sudden change of technique took place,how the 
idea suggested itself, that instead of painting silhouettes 
on the ground of the clay, figures drawn in outline should 
be left free to contrast with the black background, is not 
yet explained. The inversion of the colour system is not 
new. From Ionic, Corinthian, Attic, and Boeotian work- 
shops we know of light painting on a dark ground, and a 
plate from Thera has light figures in added paint and a 
black background. But this is entirely different from the 
red-figured style, which uses the ground of the clay for its 
figures. Only late Klazomenian sarcophagi can be re- 
garded as its earlier stages, and it is quite possible that the 
new technique was naturalized in Athens by East Ionic 

At any rate the idea fell on fruitful soil. The archaic 
mixture of colour was long worn out, the simplification of 
colour-effect, by increasing limitation to the two values, 
clay and glaze, was in full swing, and the effect of big glazed 
surfaces had been tried in the body-amphorae and in 
vessels completely covered with black colour (p. 108). But 
more than all else the revolution in figure-drawing which 
was now setting in strong in the great art was striving for 
expression in vase painting. A successor of the Athenian 
Eumares, Kimon of Kleonai, according to Pliny, invented 
oblique views and foreshortening, rescued the body from 
archaic stiffness, furnished limbs with joints, for the first 



time rendered veins, and represented folds and swellings 
of drapery ; he must belong to the last third of the century ; 
for his predecessor is father of the sculptor Antenor, who 
worked, it is true, for the old potter Nearchos (p. 103) but 
also for the young Athenian Republic (510 B.C.) Though 
Pliny, after the fashion of ancient historians, is too fond of 
asserting ' inventions,' this much is clear, that after 
Eumares there was a breach with tradition in Athenian 
painting, and that here, for the first time in the history of 
the world, bonds were once for all burst, which hitherto had 
hardly been touched. Naturally the vase-painters could 
not be left behind ; but since the old silhouette incised style 
was quite unsuited for the new liberties of drawing, but on 
the other hand outline drawing on light ground ran counter 
to the decorative purposes of the vases which used sil- 
houettes, the idea of inverting the colour-scheme must have 
been received with enthusiasm among the vase-painters. 

The new invention unites the enhanced freedom of 
movement of the draughtsman with a decorative effect 
which is not inferior to that of the old style. The warm red 
inner surface of the figures, which the painter can animate 
by the brilliant sweeping * relief lines,' splendidly contrasts 
with the wonderful black lustre of the ground. The new style 
too is a silhouette style, and uses the ornamental effect of 
the figures. But it contains quite different possibilities, and 
of itself moves away from the types of the old style and 
towards an individual treatment of the figures. The con- 
trast between the black silhouette of the man and the white- 
filled figure of the woman falls away, also the circular shape 
of the man's eye connected with the incised style, the gay 
dresses, and much besides. The red-figured style enters 
into the characteristic working out of the human body and 
its parts, the study of drapery folds and the rendering of 
movement in a living way. But growing naturalism is in 



true Greek fashion contemporaneous with adherence to 
types ; formula once invented are retained and repeated 
by different masters, until new discoveries by bolder spirits 
outdo them and put them in the shade. In the archaic red- 
figured style this vigorous struggle between formula and 
bold observation of nature offers an exciting spectacle. 
Step by step the ground is won from the archaic style, till 
after a struggle of about fifty years, about the time of the 
Persian wars, a free rendering of nature is attained, which 
then lays the foundation for the formation of a new and 
higher series of types, for the style of Polygnotos and 

This period may be regarded as the culminating point 
of vase-painting altogether, if emphasis is laid on the 
intensity of the line, and on the intimate relation between 
artist and technique. In it artistic craft had its greatest 
triumphs and created the most perfect synthesis between 
ornamental types and delightful naturalism. Potters and 
painters were never again so conscious of their perform- 
ances as in this period, never again felt themselves so much 
as rival individualities. Certainly the old black-figured 
masters, Timonidas, Klitias, Exekias and Amasis, cannot be 
denied personal expression. But the red-figured conquerors 
of nature, each of whom in his own way breaks through the 
old system of type, produce a far more differentiated effect. 
It is also a result of the fresh current, which now enters vase- 
painting, that we can more than ever follow the develop- 
ment of these individualities. The signatures, which are 
preserved in such number from no other period, give an 
insight, not merely into the manifold production, but also 
into the growth of personalities and their struggle for ever 
new possibilities. 

Among the signatures we must distinguish between 
potters and painters. We must never assume that the 




* maker * is responsible for the adornment of his vases ; it 
looks rather as if the painters had lived pretty independently 
and been employed first by one and then by another pro- 
prietor of a workshop. What it means, that now the potter 
signs, now the painter, sometimes both together, and that 
many strong personalities do not sign at all, cannot be made 
out in the present state of our knowledge. 

The love-names help to fix the chronology of the vases 
still more than in the black-figured style. We saw that 
Andokides was kalos, when Timagoras' workshop was in 
full swing. When he is a full-blown painter, the ' Epik- 
tetan ' kylikes and an Oxford plate celebrate the youths 
Stesagoras, Hipparchos and Miltiades. If Miltiades is the 
victor of Marathon, Stesagoras his brother, and Hipparchos 
the archon of 496 B.C., their ephebic years and these vases 
must be fixed about 520 B.C. Memnon's youth must fall 
about the same time ; for one of the many kylikes with his 
name, like a lekythos signed by Gales, shows the bard 
Anakreon, who was entertained by the Pisistratidae, 522- 
514 B.C. The painters Phintias and Euthymides praise the 
youth Megakles ; now on a votive pinax from the Acropolis 
this name was replaced later by another, and it is a plausible 
guess to connect this erasure with the banishment of a 
Megakles in 486 B.C., who about twenty-five years before 
might have deserved these praises. The youthful beauty of 
Leagros is in the time of the vase-painter Euphronios, and 
anyhow earlier than the destruction of Miletos, in which a 
Leagros vase was shattered : the Leagros who fell in battle 
as Strategos 465 B.C., must have been an ephebus in 
the last decade of the 6th century. His son Glaukon, who 
was Strategos in 440 B.C., dates the vases which celebrate 
him with his father's name a generation later, so about 
470 B.C. The only established fact from finds does not 
contradict the * Leagros ' chronology ; in the tumulus of 


'/^. '-z. 

C . 

Z Qi 

O :5 

u = 



Marathon (490 B.C.) the latest offering was a sherd of the 
kylix type with simple maeander (c.p. Fig. 115) which 
appears in the later ' Leagros ' period. The Acropolis 
finds, which are prior to the Persian conflagration (480 
B.C.), have not yet been sorted and sifted. 

According to this chronology the red-figured style must 
have made its entry into Athens about fifty years before the 
Persian War, with which it is customary to close the archaic 
period of Greek art, i.e., about 530 B.C. 

We saw above, that the workshops of Pamphaios and 
Nikosthenes open their doors to it : neither master breaks 
abruptly with the old style, which often asserts itself together 
with the new on the same vase. This contrast of the two 
styles is made clear by no one more obviously than the 
potter Andokides on his fine amphorae, which are directly 
in line of succession with Exekias ; never is the essence of 
both styles so plain as when on such a vase the same subject 
is treated by the same painter's hand in the old and in the 
new technique. The unsigned, but certainly Andokidean 
Munich amphora (Fig. 103) is not one of these instances in 
spite of the similarity of the subject ; its black-figured 
Herakles scene is certainly by a different hand from its red- 
figured, in which the same delicate and original artist as on 
most of the signed works (the * Andokides ' painter) 
expresses himself. If this painter is identical with the 
potter, Andokides was not merely in shape and decoration 
of his vases but also as draughtsman a pupil and successor of 
Exekias. He has inherited the feeling for elegant detailed 
drawing and for richly ornamented garments. In the 
Herakles scene we see the same joy in a harmonious picture 
as in the sea-voyage of Exekias (Fig. 93) and the game of 
draughts (Fig. 96), which he actually copied ; and the same 
intense absorption in the subject makes all other works of 
Andokides charming. In much the drawing reminds us of 



the teacher, particularly the flat layers of drapery, which 
already resolve the chitons into rich folds and end in the 
border more naturally, but do not attain the life-like waving 
of the late works of Amasis. The filling of the space with 
vine branches also is more in accord with the old technique 
than the new. But the more advanced pupil is shown not 
merely by the renewed study of the body, which appears in 
the drawing of hand and foot, in pointed elbow and knee, 
and in Herakles' leg shown through the drapery, but also 
by the more compact composition and the individual treat- 
ment of the heads. 

The entirely red-figured vases by Andokides are not 
necessarily older than the black-figured : the latest vase 
signed by him (in Madrid) still combines both techniques. 
It must have been decorated by a third artist less archaic in 
feeling, who also worked for the potter firm of Menon. The 
Menon painter adds to the Andokidean framing patterns 
the row of circumscribed palmettes, though not yet in their 
final shape, and approximates in style to the young Euph- 
ronios and his rival Euthymides. The ornament of the 
Madrid vase does not seem to have been devised as border 
pattern. It must be derived from the tendril-composition, 
which on red-figured vases takes the place of the 
Amasis ornament (Fig. 98) and is in great favour as 
handle-ornament for kylikes. On the fine amphora in 
Paris, which the transitional master Pamphaios made after 
the patterns of Nikosthenes, and Oltos probably painted 
with scenes of hetairai and satyrs (Fig. 104), it appears as 
handle decoration together with an equally novel calyx and 
leaf ornament, which adorns the shoulder. The free 
decorative method of composition, which can be traced 
back through Amasis (p. 105) and Klazomenai to the Fikel- 
lura style (p. 61) is exactly in the manner of the red-figured 
style, which not only shakes off the frieze constraint but 





Fiy. 105. 

From Fiirtzudngler-Rciclilwld, Griecliische Vaseninalerei. 



s I 

pi !^ 




Of the other painters of this period, we must content 
ourselves with naming three, the Berlin master, Makron, 
and the Bronze-Foundry master. The ' master of the 
Berlin amphora ' even surpasses Duris in elegance, and is 
fond of introducing his slim elastic figures in ' Nolan ' style, 
i.e. isolated on a dark background. 

Makron, who painted almost all the vases on which 
Hieron's signature as potter is found, studied by choice in 
the Palaestra, where boys performed gymnastics and were 
addressed by older men. A Berlin kylix (Fig. 123), like 
several works of his hand, introduces us to Bacchic revelry, 
an excited chorus of drunken and vigorously gesticulating 
maenads, whose bodies are not concealed by the rustling 
pomp of folds : the ' kolpos ' or fold of the chiton drawn 
up through the belt, which Brygos also is fond of, is more 
transparent than the upper and lower parts of the compli- 
cated garment. These figures in which all is life, movement 
and expression, should be compared with those of the 
Andokides painter or even those of Euphronios, in order to 
realize, how in these few decades the liberation from archaic 
stiffness and adherence to type was almost tempestuously 

We take leave of the archaic styles with the charming 
picture of an anonymous painter, the * master of 
the bronze foundry,' who on a Berlin kylix (Fig. 125) trans- 
plants us into the interior of the workshop of a sculptor in 
bronze. A workman is poking the oven, another is 
handling the bellows, the assistant looks on, the master is 
working at a statue, not yet fully put together : so intimate 
is the contact with life in this scene. Everything interested 
the vase-painters of this time equally ; they have spread out 
before us human life, got their material from every quarter, 
and wherever they laid hold of it, it was interesting. How 
closely they came to grips with their subject, how they tried 



to be clear, and to give a lively picture of what they saw, 
and how under their hands the object at once changed into 
the artistic type, the human body into the clearly defined 
study of the nude, the garment into a thing of decorative 
life, and an assemblage of human beings into an ornamental 
figure composition ! 









even the pictorial field : on the amphora, which the same 
painter executed for the potter Euxitheos, he discards the 
old frame, which now only separates black from black, and 
his example is followed sooner or later by other artists. 

It is true that the painter Euthymides, the contemporary 
of the young Euphronios and gifted continuer of Andokides' 
body amphorae, keeps the frame on his vases, which are 
now purely red-figured. But he not only helps the later 
palmette ornament to triumph over the old bands of zig-zags 
and buds (Fig. 105) but enhances the unity of effect by 
beginning to leave the ornament in the colour of the clay 
and to shape it in red-figured manner, as was the case 
straight away with the handle decoration (Fig. 104). Almost 
as a rule he puts in his field three standing figures of large 
dimensions, in which he demonstrates to the eye his progress 
in observation of nature. Under the garments bodies begin 
to move, and their anatomy male and female is studied by 
the artists of this period with tireless zeal. 

The fruits of this study appear on the Munich Priam vase 
(Fig. 105), in the drawing of hands, in the differentiated 
pose of the legs, in the bold front view of the foot, still more 
on the reverse in the bendings and turnings of three naked 
drunken men with full indication of muscles. Certainly the 
limitations of his eye for perspective appear, when the 
further from sight of the two chest muscles comes under the 
nearer one, when the woman's breast is turned outwards, 
when the transition of the breast seen in front view to the 
legs in profile is not made clear, and the head of the man 
walking to the right and looking round in archaic fashion 
is still turned in profile to the left ; the artist, it is true, 
breaks through the old scheme of the figure in one place, 
but his avoidance of lines shewing depth is so strong that he 
prefers to put those parts of the body, of whose front and 
back he is conscious, simply one beside the other. But it is 



just the contrast between the bold attempt at progress on 
the painter's part and the perspective constraint, the feeling 
of conflict, if you like, that gives their charm to the vase- 
paintings of this period. 

Though the bodies are no longer as previously packed 
into the garments, and drapery is rather subordinate to the 
treatment of the body, studies in drapery also have been 
very fruitful. The contrast between the heavy woollen 
himation, and the more delicate crinkles of the linen chiton 
is plainly marked. The depths of the folds in the cloak, 
according as they are close together or more freely distri- 
buted, are given in gradation by thicker or thinner lines 
of colour ; the chiton folds join in separate masses and run 
out in the expressive so-called swallow-tail borders, which 
divide the outline of the drapery much more rhythmically 
than the layered borders of the ' Andokides ' painter. 

Chalkidian painters had already rendered scenes of 
arming. But those of Euthymides mark a great psycho- 
logical advance. The paternal anxiety of the bald-pated 
old man and the nervousness of the mother's pet making his 
first debut are finely expressed. The feeling for everyday 
life, in an age which suddenly recognized in common things 
a world of artistic problems, was keener than ever. What 
cared Euthymides about his subject "Hector's departure" ? 
He drew a scene from his neighbour's door and added 
heroic names. 

His best work the master left unsigned, the Munich 
amphora, on which Theseus under protest from Helen (note 
the thumb) with gay impudence carries off Korone (Fig. 
107). The head of the ravisher, which gets its increased 
liveliness not merely from the shifting of the pupil from the 
centre inwards, may serve as example of the newly- 
conquered possibilities of expression, and the extract from 
the picture may give an idea of the charm of archaic art. 









The Bonn hydria of Euthymides with the praise of 
Megakles shows a quite new type of vase ; in contrast to the 
offset black-figured shape, it unites neck and body in an 
elegant curve, so that the old-fashioned division of the 
decoration into two or three parts disappears. The same 
fair youth is praised by his gifted colleague Phintias, whom 
we see from his beginnings in the workshop of Deiniades 
expanding more and more brilliantly, on a London hydria 
of the old shape ; but the gracefully moving boys, who in 
the picture while drawing water are addressed by an older 
man, already carry water-pots of both types in their hands, 
and Phintias himself occasionally adopted the later shape ; 
as does the painter Hypsis with the pretty well-house scene 
(Fig. 106), on which again both vase-shapes are repre- 
sented ; for the girl, who is just putting the cushion on her 
head, has placed a pitcher of the old type under the lion's 
head spout from which the water is pouring, while her com- 
panion is lifting a hydria of the new shape already well-filled 
from the satyr's mouth. The intensive study of the female 
form is seen in Oltos' picture of a hetaira (Fig. 104) and 
in many other vase-paintings of the period, and even when 
they represent girls clothed, the painters are unwilling to 
sacrifice their newly-won knowledge to external probability, 
and even under the drapery help the charm of the body out- 
line to assert itself, as Hypsis does on his well-scene 
(Fig. 106). 

Like the Bonn hydria, the works of Euthymides witness 
to the emergence of new vase-types, the Turin psykter and 
the unsigned Vienna pelike. An idea may be obtained of 
the psykter (which is regarded as a cooling vessel) by the 
later example in Rome (Fig. 104) in which the narrower 
cylindrical lower part is however missing. The pelike is a 
kind of small wineskin-shaped amphora. Even the tran- 
sitional artist Pamphaios gave Oltos a stamnos (cp. Fig. 146) 



to paint, and the early red-figured artist Smikros painted 
one. The calyx-krater, a kind of enlarged cup with low-set 
handles, seems to appear in the Leagros period (Fig. 113). 
The remarkable vases in the shape of a head (Figs. 101, 109) 
in a smaller form served for the reception of unguents and 
oil even in Protocorinthian and early Ionic styles, but seem 
only at this time to become popular as bumpers in the ser- 
vice of the drinker, and the pretty heads of negroes and girls 
with the love-names Epilykos and Leagros form the begin- 
ning of the development, which culminates in Sotades 
(p. 142). 

The other drinking vessels, the kantharos, which is 
brandished by Duris' satyrs (Fig. 122), the skyphos, from 
which Euphronios' hetairai are drinking (Fig, 112) are only 
continuations and refinements of old shapes (Figs. 88, 43). 
The favourite drinking utensil is naturally the kylix, which 
even for the " little master " period in fabrication and 
exportation is at the head of the vases, and now not only 
receives its finest finish, but also through the abundance of 
specimens preserved and the richness of inscriptions 
renders the most valuable service to the historian. 

On the Andokides amphora (Fig. 103), the psykters of 
Euphronios (Fig. 112), and Duris (Fig. 122), the shape with 
offset rim appears. This late specimen of the old type must 
have been more popular than the extant painted examples 
lead one to suppose, but was certainly far less usual than the 
shape with a single curve, which the red-figured style took 
over with the eye kylikes and in the most delicate way 
simplified and animated. 

The history of these kylikes, like that of the big-bellied 
amphorae, begins with examples of mixed technique. 
Andokides actually extended his principle of the black- 
figured and red-figured halves of the vase to kylikes : but 
happily this procedure was extremely rare. In the early 






From Furfivdiiglei'-RciclilioJd, Griechisdie ]'aseiiina}crei. 


kylikes the mixture of technique is rather to be found in the 
fact, that in the interior the black-figured picture, which 
with its circle in the colour of the clay contrasted so decora- 
tively with the black-covered edge, was still retained, while 
outside between the eyes, and gradually also in their place, 
figures were inserted in the colour of the ground. This 
procedure is e.g. connected with the names of the potters 
Nikosthenes, Pamphaios, Hischylos and Chelis, and with 
the painters' names Epiktetos and Psiax, and with the 
love-name Memnon. When Skythes paints the outside 
in black-figured technique and the inside in red-figured of 
a kylix (unsigned) dedicated to Epilykos, this is, like the 
procedure of Andokides, an exception, and a conscious 
divergence from the traditional relation. The transition to 
purely red-figured technique compels the artists to separate 
the interior from the black surroundings. Up to the 
Leagros period this separation is effected by a narrow ring 
in the ground of the clay, which they leave uncovered by 
black paint : on the kylikes the eye -decoration is gradually 
dropped. If one takes the signatures of the masters of this 
group together with those of the transitional kylikes and the 
contemporary big vases, the number of the painters' names 
comes to about a dozen, while the potters are far more 
numerous ; and thus in view of the mere accident of 
preservation and the anonymity of other palpable artistic 
personalities one can form an idea of the vigorous life, which 
then reigned in the Kerameikos, the quarter of Athens 
where the potters lived. 

It is interesting to follow the process by which the early 
red-figured kylikes from very decorative beginnings rise tc 
even greater freedom and objectivity. Even the insertion 
of the figure between the eyes, which comes from the Ionic 
'Phineus' fabric, is meaningless and a mere decorative 
scheme ; and also, when he gives up the decoration with 



eyes, the painter likes to put one or three figures as central 
motive between the broad ornaments of the handles. Even 
the exterior pictures with numerous figures, which occur in 
the late period of the potter Pamphaios and in the full 
activity of the painter Oltos, are by no means free from 
decorative schematism ; arrangement in a row and heraldry 
still play a part, and occasionally, as in the ' little master ' 
style, winged horses or sirens take the centre of the repre- 
sentation. Even the old Ionic scheme of the horse-holding 
runner revives on a kylix of this group. 

The interior too at first is still under strong decorative 

Quite in contrast to the early Attic kylikes of the Klitias 
period and to the Spartan, which often take no regard to the 
space in the representation, the figure always adapts itself to 
the circular form, extends its masses to fit the space, often 
presses head and feet against the edge, and gives the interior 
a decorative and very animated appearance, to some extent 
comparable to a rotating wheel. One imagines the painters 
had studied and sketched the bending, crouching, running, 
twisting, and turning of handsome youths often only to get 
motives for their interior scenes. Skythes, the master of 
fine black-figured votive tablets on the Acropolis, who liked 
to dedicate his kylikes to his young colleague the painter 
Epilykos, in the interior of the kylix at Rome (Fig. 110) 
goes beyond this stage, and fills the space more loosely with 
the lyre held at right angles and the freely arranged knotted 
stick of his singing boy ; and Epiktetos, who painted his 
wonderfully subtle figures in a long working life for various 
potters, Nikosthenes, Hischylos, Pamphaios, Python and 
Pistoxenos, in the late Python kylix in London (Fig. Ill), 
under the influence of later masters, goes over to the two 
figure picture. One can see from their bodies that they are 
prior to the time of Euphronios and Euthymides. In his 






vigorous lyre-player, whom we may identify with his 
favourite Epilykos, Skythes does almost too much in the 
rendering of the chest-muscles and makes the abdominal 
muscles seen in front view, and rendered in thinned varnish, 
press against them in an impossible way ; Epiktetos, who is 
for a while disinclined for interior drawing, turns the breasts 
of his dancing women outwards, and in their space-filling 
movement reminds of old types. But the master of a 
Munich eye kylix has side-views of shields, and draws a 
kneeling leg in back view, so that the sole is visible and the 
calf almost disappears. Back views of the human body are 
given also in kylikes from the workshop of Kachrylion, 
which takes us over into the Leagros period just like the 
works of Phintias and Oltos, whom we already know. For 
Phintias soon outdoes the theft of the tripod of his early 
Deiniades kylix on a fine amphora at Corneto, and Oltos, 
the painter of the Pamphaios amphora and most of the 
Memnon kylikes, passes from the praise of Memnon to that 
of Leagros on the fine kylikes from Euxitheos' workshop. 

The Leagros period might be described as the culminat- 
ing point of the dramatic tension prevailing in the older 
red-figured style. In it Phintias breaks the archaic fetters 
of his youth, Euthymides creates his decisive works, and we 
see the development of the great master Euphronios, whom 
Euthymides boasts to have beaten on the Priam amphora 
(Fig. 105). All the three vases, which bear the signature of 
Euphronios as painter, praise the fair Leagros, i.e. the 
Munich Geryon kylix, which appeared in Kachrylion's 
workshop, which, like the Leagros kylikes of Oltos, has 
under the exterior scenes a band of circumscribed palmettes 
in the colour of the ground, the Petrograd psykter with the 
hetairai (Fig. 112) and the Paris calyx-krater with Herakles 
and Antaios (Fig. 113). 

The harmonious indoors scene of the psykter in its quite 



neat and sure drawing of the nude sets the finishing touch 
to the studies of Epiktetos (Fig. Ill), Oltos (Fig. 104), and 
their contemporaries, and does the subject more justice than 
many pictures more advanced in perspective. The leg of 
the thirsty Palaisto disappearing in the background recurs 
m the Antaios scene, where the painter fully exhibits his 
anatomical knowledge, and shows as little regard for the 
concealing skin as other painters do for female drapery • 
the mner drawing is not even as usual put on in thinner 
colour. The composition of the scene is not very flexible. 
The struggle of the muscular but quite civilized Herakles 
with the rugged giant (whose right hand is a masterpiece of 
drawing) is the true theme, while the horrified women, who 
are almost old-fashioned in their drawing, serve like club 
quiver and lion's skin, only as filling for the triangular 
wrestling scheme, which was probably borrowed. A band 
of palmettes, and another of palmette and lotus in the red- 
figured style, vigorously frame the bold picture. The 
reverse of the Antaios krater shows the artist well on the 
way to represent correctly the course of the abdominal 
muscles from the chest to the pudenda, and thus to give a 
convincing expression to the old distortion of the body. 
Unfortunately we cannot further follow Euphronios on this 
path in the light of signed vases, for the ten kylikes with his 
name, which fill the gap between the youth of Leagros and 
that of his son Glaukon, were only signed by him as potter 
and some of them were demonstrably handed over to others 
to paint. That a progressive artist like Euphronios in this 
whole period never again took brush in hand, is more 
than improbable, and among the unsigned vases of the 
succeeding period his more mature works must be repre- 

The kylix made in the workshop of Sosias (Fig. 114) has 
been variously ascribed to Euphronios and to the painter 






Peithinos : the remarkable work of art must rather belong to 
an unknown third person (the * Sosias ' painter). The com- 
position filling the space suggests the old style, especially 
the pressing of the foot against the rim : but the boldly fore- 
shortened right leg of Patroklos with the foot viewed from 
above, known also to Euthymides and to Phintias in his 
maturity, the full development of the bunches of drapery 
and the swallow-tail edges, and above all the extremely bold 
attempt to open the corner of the eye, lead us into the 
critical phase of the archaic red-figured painting, the 
Leagros period. Only an intense study of the model could 
lead this master so far from the beaten track ; that with the 
added names of Achilles and Patroklos he came into con- 
flict with the Iliad, mattered little to him. Furthermore on 
the Sosias vase a technical innovation comes seriously into 
play, which is gradually adopted by Euphronios (Fig. 112), 
Euthymides (Fig. 107), Phintias and Hypsis (Fig. 106) ; the 
outline of the hair is no longer separated from the black 
ground by the old hard incised line, but by a narrow line of 
the colour of the ground. Within the kylikes, which praise 
the fair Leagros, a change takes place in the framing of the 
interior picture ; in place of the ring in the colour of the 
clay, of which occasionally they attempt to increase the 
effect by doubling, comes the maeander in different varie- 
ties, first simple and continuous (Frontispiece and Figs. 108, 
115, 126), then ever more frequently in broken up shape 
(Fig. 116). The new frame comes e.g. on the London 
kylix, which by the hare-hunt gives such a natural motive 
for the space-filling movements of the running Leagros 
(Fig. 115). The Leagros of the kylix agrees so exactly 
with that of the Antaios krater, that one may ascribe this 
advance to Euphronios ; for theiine of the ground giving 
the hair outline and the organic connection of chest and 
belly are beyond the stage of the krater in question. 



A further step forward on the part of the same master 
may probably be seen in the Boston kylix, which praises 
both Leagros and Athenodotos (Fig. 108). Never perhaps 
was the inmost nature of the satyr so fully caught as in this 
fine example : he is squatting on the emptied pointed 
amphora and positively breathing out an aroma of wine and 
wantonness. His lifelike picture goes far beyond the 
Antaios krater, and a closely connected Athenodotos kylix 
in Athens actually carries this vivacity into the same sub- 
ject, the wrestle of Herakles and Antaios. 

If Euphronios thus surpassed himself one may believe 
him also responsible for the next step, the ' Panaitios 
stage, to which it is a very short distance from the Atheno- 
dotos kylikes. To the transition, that is about the end of 
the 6th century, belongs the Paris Theseus kylix, signed by 
Euphronios as potter but without love-name. The boldly 
drawn exterior seems to form the bridge to the style of the 
* Panaitios ' master, that vigorous painter, perhaps identi- 
cal with the later Euphronios, from whose hand comes the 
London Panaitios kylix with the signature of Euphronios as 
potter. The rich and ornamental interior (Frontispiece) is 
in a certain contrast with the exterior scenes, and is so 
closely connected with the early works of Duris, that we 
may enquire, whether Euphronios did not entrust the 
decoration of the interior to a talented pupil with a great 
tendency to elaboration. But perhaps this contrast is due 
only to the representative seriousness of the subject. Young 
Theseus, in order to receive his rightful position as son of 
Poseidon, has gone down to the bottom of the sea, and in 
the presence of Athena is greeted by Amphitrite. 

The time of Panaitios and that of Chairestratos, which 
partly coincides with it, remove many hard features of the 
Leagros stage. The turnings of bodies lose all violence : 
in the frontal stand of both feet, and in the oblique view of 







the head, new possibilities are indicated. The pupil is now 
always in the inner corner of the eye, though the bold 
experiment of the ' Sosias ' painter is not generally 
adopted. Above all a new current enters the drapery. 
The divisions of the chiton with patterns of folds gives way 
to a more natural and uniform distribution : the play of 
folds at the edges of the cloaks is generally emphasized by 
a thick pair of lines. These tendencies become complete 
in the later Chairestratos and the Hippodamas period, with 
which we get down to about 480 B.C. 

The masters of this later date deal now quite freely and 
easily with the achievements of their predecessors : the old 
rude vigour gives way to ornamental elegance or swinging 
liveliness. The relation of figures to space also alters : the 
forms move more freely, are less confined by space, and are 
surrounded with air. Thus the free decoration of the Oltos 
amphora (Fig. 104) asserts itself once more. The small 
so-called ' Nolan ' necked amphorae, and the popular 
amphorae of Panathenaic shape, only reserve one figure or 
group in the black surface. The fine and elegant effect of 
this 'Nolan' decoration often attacks other types of vases, 
to which is now added the bell-krater (cp. Fig. 123 centre). 

Of these later masters, the one who keeps most the 
massiveness and dignity of the older style is the ' Kleo- 
phrades ' painter, who grew up in the Leagros period and 
has furnished one of his works with the potter's signature of 
Kleophrades, son of Amasis. As an example of his style 
let us take the Munich pointed amphora belonging about to 
the Panaitios period : the passionate frenzy of frantic 
Maenads has never been more perfectly caught than in the 
back-tossed head of the rushing waver of the thyrsos (Fig. 
117). The 'Kleophrades' painter was a pupil of Euthy- 
mides : but for a number of his contemporaries it can be 
shown that they won their spurs in the celebrated studio of 



Euphronios. It is true that we only have evidence in an 
inscription of activity in the service of Euphronios for one 
painter denoted by name, and malicious accident has 
deprived us of all but the last four letters of his name. 
Onesimos, as his name is usually restored, combines in 
simple composition on his kylix riders and boys leading 
horses, and thus is the predecessor of the 'Horse' master. 
On the other hand the master of the Troilos kylix in 
Perugia, which Euphronios also signed as potter (the 
' Perugia ' master) inherited more of the fire and dramatic 
vigour of the 'Panaitios' master. His Munich Centaur 
kylix is worthy of the great teacher, and the interior (Fig. 
126) is equally perfect as filling the space and as rendering 
animated life. The shield in profile view, which shows 
indication of shading, the Centaur's head, and especially 
the grandiose foreshortening of the horse-body, point 
beyond the Panaitios period. 

To this group must have belonged the ' Brygos' painter, 
who in earlier works, e.g., in the clearly and vigorously 
composed Iliupersis in Paris (Figs 118 and 119), is still 
strongly inspired by the achievements of the Perugia 
master, and later develops the fiery vigour of his youthful 
period in ever more delicate and elegant shapes. He is 
fond of shaded shields, hairy bodies and cloaks adorned 
with spots. Perhaps the finest work of his maturity is the 
interior of the Wurzburg kylix (Fig. 116), on which a young 
Athenian, supported by the hands of a girl, relieves himself 
of the wine he has imbibed too freely. The picture not only 
in its free adaptation to space and in the sure hand with 
which the movement of body and drapery is rendered, but 
especially in the fine animation of the expression, is a 
worthy last note of archaic art. The unsigned Vienna 
skyphos of the Brygos painter (Fig. 120) must be placed 
between the Paris and Wurzburg kylikes. It also gives a 



From Furtwdngler-Keichhold, Griechische Vasenmalerei. 







fine picture full of life : Achilles has placed under the table 
the dead body of Hector, which he daily drags round the 
walls of Troy, is reclining at his meal, and talking to his 
charming cup-bearer, as if he did not hear the appeal of the 
old Priam for his son's corpse and did not see the presents 
brought in by the attendants. The clear dramatic disposi- 
tion is as much in the manner of the master as the free pose 
of the cup-bearer with weight on one leg, and the delicate 
psychological animation of the countenances. The kylix 
in Corneto (F'ig. 121), the outside of which has been inter- 
preted as the secret departure of Theseus from the sleeping 
Ariadne, is at least closely related to the works of the 
Brygos ' painter. In the workshop of Euphronios the 
youthful Duris must also have been a pupil. For his earliest 
work, the Vienna kylix, with an arming scene, painted for 
the potter Python, is quite under the influence of the 
Panaitios master, and can only be recognized as the work of 
a painter of another tendency by the greater elegance and 
slimness of the figures, and the more schematic composition. 
In the kylikes with the names of Panaitios and Chaires- 
tratos, it can still be traced to some extent, how out of the 
docile imitator of the Panaitios master comes the real Duris, 
the routine draughtsman, who puts down his elegant figures 
with almost academic objectivity and who cares more for the 
uniform decorative effect of his neat silhouettes than for 
complicated compositions of life. The pair of Berlin 
kylikes, perhaps made by Kleophrades, and the kantharos, 
on which Duris signs as potter and painter, show as plainly 
as possible this gradual realization of independence, and 
also pass more and more, though not finally, from the 
artificial fold packets of the chiton to a uniform system of 
wavy lines. How entirely Duris altered his style even 
during the Chairestratos period, is shown e.g. by the Vienna 
kylix, painted for Python with the contest for the Arms of 



Achilles, which not merely in its more elegant shape, but 
also in drawing and the relation of the figures to the space, 
is widely distant from the arming scene on a kylix of the 
same workshop. The fine Eos kylix in the Louvre, which 
Duris painted for the potter Kalliades and dedicated to 
Hermogenes, the London Theseus kylix, and probably also 
the fine London psykter with the love-name Aristagoras 
(Fig. 122) belong to this period. The satyrs of this psykter, 
who instead of joining in procession play all kinds of un- 
profitable tricks behind the back of the leader of the chorus, 
need only be compared with their fellows on the Boston 
kylix, and one can recognize at once the routine hand and 
slighter artistic endowment of the master, but also the more 
elegant and easy draughtsmanship of the later time. 

In the later period of the artist (about 480 B.C.) we must 
put along with their congeners the kylikes with the love- 
name Hippodamas, the finest of which is the Berlin 
school vase (Fig. 124). In the drapery of the teachers and 
pupils, who are here assembled in the class-room, nothing 
of archaic stiffness remains. If even the Leagros period 
had made the cloak folds come to a natural end, they now 
bend round their ends and pave the way for the " drapery 
eyes," which in the next period so naturally characterize 
the packings in the material. 

The great development, which is evidenced for Duris 
by his many signatures, suggests considerations. We ask 
whether other masters too did not fundamentally change, 
and whether e.g. Euphronios did not develop out of the 
' Leagros ' stage to that of the ' Panaitios ' master and the 
Perugia painter, and on his later works include the 
painter's signature in that of the potter's firm, i.e. whether 
works like the Munich Centauromachy (Fig. 126) do not 
represent a late phase of this gifted painter, who can be 
proved to have lived into the ' Glaukon ' period. 



IN the studio of Euphronios the so-called ' Horse 
master ' painted a kylix now in Berlin with the praise of 
the fair Glaukon. The outside is decorated in the usual 
red-figured technique with lively scenes of riders and 
stables, the inside (a youth and a girl) is rendered in outline, 
with coloured interior lines and surfaces, on the ground 
covered with a white slip. The progress in the rendering 
of bodies and drapery is unmistakeable ; the oblique view 
of the female breast is almost correctly caught, the material 
of the cloaks is packed in lost folds with bent-round end. 
But even the whole conception of the figures goes far beyond 
the archaic art of the pre-Persian time : the proportions 
and faces have a touch of greatness, beside which all preced- 
ing art seems narrow and embarrassed. The simplification 
of the profile and the severe long lower part of the face 
essentially determine one's impression of the heads. A new 
period is announcing itself : a time of progressive 
naturalism and at the same time a period of noble greatness 
of style and exalted types. The statements of the ancients 
as to the great painting of this age, of Polygnotos and his 
company, lay stress on these qualities ; not only the pro- 
gress, which relieves the rendering of body and garment of 
the old stiffness, but the great Ethos of these paintings is 
praised. So with good reason we call the vase painting of 
the post-Persian generation Polygnotan, even if at the 
beginning of this epoch the influence of the great art is not 
felt so much as at its culmination. 



The name of Glaukon, which we have met with on the 
Euphronios kylix of Berlin, recurs on a series of vases, 
almost always in the two-line arrangement, which comes 
now into vogue, and often in combination with his father 
Leagros' name. Lekythoi, or slender oil-flasks, which now 
become the regular offering for graves, and when so em- 
ployed invariably use the white-ground technique of the 
Berlin kylix, afford several examples of this favourite's 
name, which has become the hinge of vase-chronology. 
On a Bonn fragment (Fig. 128), which in the older style 
has a domestic scene, not one taken from the cemetery, and 
paints the flesh in white, a woman is sitting in an arm-chair 
and putting on a golden necklace, which the handmaid in 
front of her has offered in a box. The face of this woman 
signifies a new world : the archaic types are discarded, the 
old traditions replaced by a quite individual almost portrait- 
like conception. The eye, which has hardly any traces of 
the old full-view and puts the pupil entirely into the open 
inner corner, gives the face a very natural and living effect, 
it is really looking : and the hair hanging out from the cap 
in confusion, the profile not dominated by any canon of 
beauty, and the drawing of the hands, show the painter 
penetrated by the same effort after truth. It is perhaps an 
idle question, what period inaugurates the history of Greek 
portraiture, since each innovation taken from the model 
individualizes the traditional type ; but it is just the vase- 
paintings of the post-Persian, Kimonian age, which went 
further than the later ones in thus individualizing. The 
woman of the Glaukon lekythos, the old woman on a sky- 
phos in Schwerin from the workshop of Pistoxenos (Fig. 127) 
and on a loutrophoros in Athens, the head of a warrior from 
a krater in New York (Fig. 130) may be taken as symptoms 
of a very personal portraiture in the age of Kimon. The effort 
to get rid of the traditional ideal types led a series of these 








masters to recast even the divine figures with a strikingly in- 
dividual, coarse and almost common effect. The master of 
the Boston 'Eos' kylix, a successor of Makron in Hieron's 
studio, makes his undistinguished goddess of the morning 
be carried off by a spindly street-lad ; the Demeter, who on 
a Munich hydria attends the departure of Triptolemos, 
betrays little of the sacred beauty of the motherly goddess ; 
and other vase-paintings have almost the effect of conscious 
caricatures of ideal types. 

The new possibilities of 'Physiognomy' in differentiat- 
ing character by the facial type, however, brought the 
expression of divine nature to its fullest expansion, and 
helped not merely to make men more human but also gods 
more divine. A London white-ground kylix from Rhodes 
(Fig. 129) is connected with the Bonn lekythos and the 
Berlin kylix of Euphronios by the common name of 
Glaukon. The goddess of love, riding through the air on 
her sacred bird, the goose, is of more than earthly beauty : 
her hands, not only the one with the flower but the un- 
occupied left hand, speak the same expressive language as 
her face and whole form. The effect of this picture is com- 
parable to that of a song. Now for the first time the inner 
kinship of the art of words with that of pictures presses itself 
on the observer of works of art. No one will think of com- 
paring the Geometric style with the Homeric Epic in value 
of expression, or the ornamental style of the 7th century 
with contemporary Lyric poetry, though one may see a 
reflection of Anacreontic and ballad feeling in the art of the 
later 6th century. But the weight of the Aeschylean pathos 
is as little to be mistaken in works of graphic and plastic art 
as the Sophoclean glow and pure beauty of line. 

The more delicate animation, which this period could 
bestow on its forms, of itself pointed away from archaic 
loquacity and pleasure in narration. The genre scene is 



certainly as old as the historical, and we have seen that 
there was no difference of principle. The nearer the red- 
figured style came, the more representations of feeling were 
combined with representations of action, and towards the 
end of the archaic style they are no longer rarities. With the 
new liberation of the style, especially with the enlivening 
of the eye, a different sort of inward feeling asserts itself. 
Figures devoid of action, occupied with themselves or con- 
templating another figure, are themes which the painters of 
lekythoi in particular were never tired of inventing ; and in 
later times, when the cemetery scenes replaced the domestic 
ones on these vases, and the privacy of the indoor scenes 
was transferred to the visit to the grave, the harmony of soul 
between the visitor and the dead, whose living likeness fancy 
could not separate from the grave, often found an unspeak- 
ably intimate expression (p. 145). 

The quantity of pictures of * pure existence ' does much 
to determine the altered aspect presented by post-Persian 
vase-painting. On the slim * Nolan ' amphorae and those 
with twisted handles, on the calyx-kraters and the bell- 
kraters often decorated on the mouth with a branch, on the 
* stamnoi ' and other vases, which are decorated like the 
'Nolan,' the slender restful figures heighten the impres- 
sion of quiet elegance. Thus the grandeur of the new style 
at the same time gets a marked decorative value, a value 
not without danger for the living rendering of reality. 
Greatness is not every man's affair, and the painters, who 
only took over externally the big forms and the lofty simpli- 
city, and could not fill them with a life of their own, can only 
rank as decorative artists and should by the same right be 
called 'affected' as the refined masters of the Amasis period 
(p. 106) . Even talented painters consciously gave up to deco- 
rative effect the reverses of their vases, which they adorn 
with quickly drawn motionless figures wrapped in cloaks. 



From Fiirtivciiii^h'r-Reiclihohl , Gricchisclu' ]'asciti>iah'i-ci. 



The three Glaukon representations we have met with 
till now are pure pictures of * existence.' The * horse ' 
master dedicated to the same boy Glaukon a second kylix, 
the fragments of which, found on the Acropolis, represent 
the death of Orpheus at the hands of the Thracian women. 
The scheme, if one may speak of such, is in so far old, as the 
victor moving to the right attacks an opponent in kneeling 
position also moving to the right and looking round ; but an 
infinite nobility is poured over the old type, and the fight 
is carried through with dramatic weight, though in the faces 
of the fighters the inward excitement is not reflected, as on 
later works of the same hand. Yet, as on the Aphrodite 
kylix (Fig. 129) the living expression of the eye is already 
strengthened by the line of the upper lid. 

In place of the very fragmentary Orpheus kylix, 
the fight in a contemporary picture may show the 
progress, which scenes of dramatic movement attain 
in Polygnotan times. The slaying of Aktaion by 
the divine huntress Artemis was brought to great 
eflect by the Pan master, so called from the reverse 
of the same Boston bell-krater (Fig, 131). In the stiff 
folds of the cloak of Artemis this vigorous and original 
painter betrays his descent from the archaic style, which 
can be plainly followed in his works, always full as they are 
of dramatic life. Otherwise there is little archaic in this 
picture. The long lower part of the face, which lends the 
heads their severity, the folds running themselves out, which 
assert themselves even in the chiton, the surely drawn fore- 
shortened foot of Artemis, the lower legs of Aktaion dis- 
appearing in the background, show the progressive master ; 
the suggestive effect of the composition, and the urgent 
language of the gestures are quite in the spirit of the noble 
new style. 

With the Centaur psykter in Rome (Fig. 132) we get 



perhaps beyond the bloom of Glaukon's beauty, and what 
reminds us of old times in the grotesque movement of the 
battle scene is probably only individual failings of the 
master, which he outweighs by many innovations. The 
three-quarters view of the face, the fore-shortening of the 
shield, the motive of the falling man seen from behind, are 
significant of the struggle with perspective ; the bestial lust 
for battle speaks out of the eyes of the attackers as does the 
penetrating pain of the wounded ; and the pathos of the 
gestures is at least post-archaic. The impression of this vase 
is remarkably determined by the experiments in colouring, 
which the master undertakes with help of thinned colour : 
the helmets, greaves, and hides he has made dark in con- 
trast with the human skin, he has given an effect of light to 
the material of the hair of head and beard, and rounded the 
horses' bodies by shading. 

These novelties of the somewhat crude and quaint 
master are only intelligible as reflection of a great painting, 
which struggled with problems of expression and light, as is 
expressly testified for the art of the great Polygnotos and his 
contemporaries. Naturally at no time were vase-painters 
entirely uninfluenced by the achievements of the great art. 
But just now in the sixties of the 5th century, this borrowing 
made itself felt more than ever, and enticed the vase- 
painters often beyond the limits of their branch of art. This 
comes not only from the overpowering impression of the 
great personalities among the painters of this period, but 
especially from the fact, that wall-painting now struck out 
new bold paths, on which vase-painting could follow it less 
than ever. 

Among the vase-pictures, which very strongly echo 
these new strains, are the later works of the 'horse' master. 
The interior of the Penthesileia kylix (Fig. 134) only 
enclosed by a delicate branch, the master did not paint as in 




Fig. 133. 





From Furtwdiigler-Rcichliold, Grivchischc Vaseniualerei. 


the kylikes of Berlin and Athens on white ground, but he 
heightens the red-figured technique by the application of 
thinned black glaze, by dull red and light grey surfaces, 
with brown and white additions, and by applications of 
gold. The four figures which are forced into this circle 
almost burst the frame, not merely by the disproportion of 
their tall forms, but still more by their inner greatness and 
passion. In the midst of the battle-field, where the sword 
rages, and the ground lies full of corpses, Achilles has over- 
taken the Amazon queen, and furious with rage, plunges his 
sword in her heart : however much her hands and eyes 
plead for mercy, it is too late. 

The features of Penthesileia betray more of inner life 
than those of Orpheus : and on a second Munich kylix, on 
which Apollo in presence of Ge slays her son Tityos, the 
master has gone a step further in physiognomy. The three 
faces are as convincingly graduated in expression as for 
example those on the beautiful * Lament for the dead,' by 
a contemporary master, in Athens. 

On the big interior of his kylikes (Fig. 134) the * horse ' 
master could give freer play to his genius than on the 
exteriors, which, as in the kylikes of Berlin and Athens, he 
adorned with pretty scenes from the stable. The contrast 
between the great round pictures with their fine technique, 
and the lightly sketched exteriors, is so great, that some 
have thought of two artists working in the same studio, who 
divided the work, so that the * horse ' master would be 
different from the Penthesileia master ; but the white-ground 
exterior of the Orpheus kylix seems to build the bridge. It 
is certainly characteristic that the exteriors of kylikes 
in this period no longer tempted talented painters 
to such lively compositions, as in the days of the 
Brygos and Perugia painters, and that even in the 
lifetime of the great Euphronios the paratactic decorative 



style most consistently prepared by Duris laid hold of these 
exteriors. The new style required big surfaces, and the 
most faithful reflexions of wall-painting are to be found on 
large vases. 

The most famous of these great Polygnotan vases is the 
Paris calyx-krater from Orvieto (Fig. 135), the figures of 
which, apart from Athena and Herakles, have not yet been 
certainly identified. From the expectant attitude of the 
figures it has been suggested that the picture 
represents the start of the Argonauts, or the 
preparation of the Attic heroes for the battle 
of Marathon. The great mythological scene is at 
any rate in the manner of the new period, which no longer 
has the preference of the ancients for the crisis of action 
but rather depicts preparation and after-effect, reflection 
on the deed accomplished and rest from action. That a 
Polygnotan wall-painting preceded the vase-painting in this 
psychologically refined conception, may be regarded as 
proved. For the figures not only appear in all sorts of bold 
foreshortenings, front and side views, not only surprise us 
by an abundance of motives, which are quite beyond pre- 
vious vase-painting, but also show a series of peculiarities, 
which are expressly described as innovations of the great 
fresco-painter. When the figures of the krater open their 
mouths and show their teeth, when the stationary interior 
folds, the so-called drapery eyes have shadows painted in 
them, this can only be explained as imitation of the great 
painters, and similarly the gnashing of teeth and the shading 
of the horses' bellies on the Centaur psykter. The Argo- 
nautic krater shows this dependence very strongly in its 
composition. Great painting had not only graduated the 
parts of the body in deep spatial layers, but transferred this 
novel deepening to the arrangement of its groups, distri- 
buting the actors over hilly country, which either elevated 




the figures of the background or often partly concealed 
them. It is clear that an art, which characterized the 
rounding of shields and bodies and the recesses of drapery 
by the distribution of light and shade, also gave actuality and 
effect of depth to the landscape by shading, though in 
primitive fashion, and a series of ' Polygnotan ' vases 
proves the fact, by making flowers, bushes and plants spring 
out of the ground. It is true the painter of the Argonaut 
krater does not go so far, but he shows more strikingly than 
any other vase-painter the landscape of Polygnotan paint- 
ings, which, not forgetting the surface effect of vase-decora- 
tion, he does not shade but only indicates in outline by the 
incising tool. That in other ways, too, he altered his 
pattern to suit the technique of vase-painting, is proved by 
the freedom in the use of colour and perspective, which on 
other specimens of this period burst the barriers of vase- 

Both encouraged and warned by such examples, one 
must look through the vase-painting of this period for other 
traces of Polygnotan painting, especially on vases which 
agree in subject with the wall-paintings of which we have 
accounts, and not only in the freedom named, but also in 
the inferiority of the execution to the conception, show of 
what spirit they are the offspring. One can never expect 
copies. The very fact that exact replicas never occur 
among the Polygnotan types, shows that the vase-painters 
dealt with the borrowed property according to their own 
individuality and for their definite purpose. So the two 
cases we have selected must be judged individually. The 
* Penthesileia ' master was probably stimulated to his 
treatment of the theme by a big Amazon painting ; but the 
clever painter not merely translated this impulse into his 
own brilliant technique and adapted it to his circular field, 
but also extended over it his personal great feeling, and 



translated the picture into his personal style, so that it has 
the effect of a natural continuation of his earlier works. 
The ' Argonaut ' master had no concern with this great 
'Ethos' or the delicate polychrome technique. He bor- 
rowed more superficially, took an extract from the big scene 
of his model in his strong relief-lines, and emphasized the 
individual characteristics rather than the dash of the 
original. In realism, his bearded hero holding a spear 
is not inferior to the contemporary warrior of the New York 
krater (Fig. 130). Great painting went on tempestuously 
developing, and in the next age burst its fetters of colour 
and space in a manner which could not but deter even the 
boldest vase-painter from imitation, if he were not to shake 
off every sane regard for the preservation of his surface- 
effect. So reflexions of wall-painting on vases become 
rarer, and the ' Polygnotan ' vases remain an episode. 

Naturally there were many vase-painters who did not 
enter this dangerous ground : nay, the majority did not do 
so. With many the avoidance of a big surface went so far 
that they divided the outside of a calyx-krater or big ' ary- 
ballos ' into two friezes and filled them with small figures 
in defiance of constructive considerations. Out of the 
series of these ' little masters,' who beside the big-figure 
painters continued the traditions of the elegant style, let us 
mention e.g. the painter who decorated the box signed by 
the potter Megakles (Figs. 136-7) with charming scenes from 
women's apartments, and the lid with five comic hares ; or 
the author of the girl plying the top on a white-ground kylix 
of the potter Hegesibulos (Fig. 133), a potter who was active 
as early as the'Leagros period ; and especially Sotades, from 
whose workshop came not only plastic vases in the shapes of 
horses, sphinxes, knuckle-bones, crocodiles devouring 
negroes, etc., but also white-ground kylikes of most elegant 
shape, whose exquisite interiors, like the friezes of those 


Figs. 136 & 137. 






From Fiirtu'diii^lci-Rcicliliold, Griechische I'uscunmlcrei. 

Fig. 140. 



drinking vessels, lead us to the beginning of the age of 

This transition is also accompanied by some painters' 
signatures, which become rarer, the more the individual 
performances of vase-painters are cast in the shade by the 
great art. The signatures do not present us with the first 
artists of the time. Hermonax is somewhat smooth and 
tedious, and Polygnotos, the namesake of the great painter, 
to judge from the mixed nature of his unoriginal style, must 
have lived by borrowing. His pelike from Gela is a Polyg- 
notan vase with an Amazon scene ; on the London stamnos, 
to be dated about the middle of the century, advanced and 
old-fashioned types are combined in an unpleasing fashion. 

Anonymous masters better represent the transition from 
Polygnotos to Pheidias. The master of a krater with a 
dancing scene in Rome (the 'Villa Giulia' master), is not dis- 
tinguished for temperament and progressiveness,but is rather 
a correct and academic individual ; but the neatly drawn 
scenes of his krater and stamnoi, in the noble bearing of the 
figures and the manner in which they gaze at each other, 
betray the approach of a new ideal of man. Much more 
talented is the master, who on a pointed amphora at Paris 
combined the wonderful group of two Maenads (Fig. 138) 
with a scene of Bacchic revelry, as Amasis did almost a 
century before (Fig. 98). The two girls are of truly royal 
dignity, like each other in this, but subtly distinguished in 
expression. The three-quarter view of the head is almost 
devoid of harshness, and only the ladle-shaped under lip 
connects her with the Polygnotan female heads. 

How even the drapery becomes a vehicle of expression 
and every fold breathes the greatness of the whole picture, 
may become clearer if we look at the 'Eriphyle' of a pelike 
at Lecce (Fig. 139), with which we also pass the middle of 
the century. This picture must be compared to the 



Corinthian Amphiaraos krater (Fig. 66) to see, how in the 
interval of 120-130 years the soul of art has changed. The 
later master represents not the dramatic culmination of the 
story but the psychological climax, when Polyneikes offers 
to the wife of Amphiaraos the seductive necklace, for which 
she will send her husband to death. As often on vases of 
this period, two figures stand calmly facing one another, but 
they are here united by most delicate psychology ; Eriphyle, 
simply attired in plain peplos, is full of an inner life which 
circulates through her body to the finger-tips. This har- 
monious union of a monumental type with intimate feeling 
is at the beginning of the most Greek period of Greek art- 
history , the most human period of the history of mankind, 
the age of Pheidias. 

If we name the following decades of the history of vase- 
painting after Pheidias, we do not mean that he was in very 
close relations with the art of the vase-painters. But the 
artist, who in the Parthenon frieze introduced that incon- 
ceivable nobility of form, who in the West side of the frieze 
developed the play of lines to new greatness, to heighten it 
in the pediment to a great outburst of passion, impressed 
this age so much with his nature that one cannot imagine the 
vase-paintings as unaffected by this powerful influence. 

Never was Greek art so much an art of expression as at 
this period. As if in response to the search for a word to 
describe this new expression, the beautiful musical pictures 
of the time present themselves. Since the Geometric style 
art had continually represented musical performers, but it 
was reserved for the age of Pheidias to give pictorial expres- 
sion to the effect of musical sounds on men. The krater from 
Gela (Fig. 140) belongs to the early Periclean age ; the sure 
touch in the rendering of a twist of the body and its rounded 
form is now a matter of course even in the hasty execution 
of a second-rate draughtsman ; the head type gets the 






square outline, the shortened jaw, the long drawn nose, 
which are characteristic of the age of Pheidias ; the repeti- 
tion of the epithet katos shows that the custom of inscribing 
a love-name is dying out. About contemporary is the 
London amphora with twisted handles (Fig. 141) with the 
Muses Melusa and Terpsichore and the bard Musaios. 
Orpheus among the Thracians and Terpsichore in a reverie 
with the harp are purely pictures of lyric feeling. 

As if music had tamed them, the vase-pictures of the 
Periclean age change their nature. All crudities have 
gone : the too bold foreshortenings and the realistic details 
taken from great paintings are less obvious : nothing any 
longer disturbs the free play of the lines. The conception 
of men rises to its highest possible point. The figures on 
the Munich stamnos (Fig. 146) are not merely masterpieces 
of fully developed drawing but also ideal types of pure free 
humanity. Movements are often merely motives of beauty : 
the fold style combines a new naturalism with the most 
monumental effect. 

This new spirit also animates the finest of the white- 
ground lekythoi, whose proper history begins in the 
Glaukon period (p. 134) and cannot be traced far beyond 
the 5th century. In their first period they had preferred 
to render domestic scenes, representations from the female 
apartments. But the purpose of these grave vases continu- 
ally asserts itself more and more. The ferryman of the 
dead appears, to take goodly men into his bark ; the brothers 
Sleep and Death dispose of the corpse (Fig. 142) ; Hermes, 
the conductor of souls, waits to be followed ; the dead man 
laments for his life. But the domestic scenes have given 
place to the walk to the grave ; and the visit to the tomb- 
stone, beside which the dead man stands or sits as if alive, 
becomes the typical subject of the lekythoi. The special 
technique of these vases produces an effect often very 



different from the red-figured style, esnecially since the white 
filling of the outlines (p. 134) is dropped. The employment 
of glaze-colour in the rendering of outlines, and the transi- 
tion to brush-painting, with which from the first surfaces 
had been covered in different varieties of colour, lead after- 
wards to an unusual individualization of the line. One 
cannot say that this technique approximates the lekythoi to 
the effect of wall-painting as much as it severs it from 
red-figured vase-painting. Only a few exceptional late 
specimens in their pictures operating freely with light and 
shade burst the bounds of vase-decoration, and show 
clearly with what good sense the vase-painters renounced 
competition with the great art, which now victoriously 
solves the problems of full perspective, of giving the effect 
of depth in space, with the gradation of dimensions, and the 
contrasts of light and dark. 

In a Boston lekythos (Figs. 143 and 144) we have an 
* existence' picture in the manner of the new period (p. 
136). The dead warrior stands in Polygnotan attitude, with 
bent arm resting on his hip (cp Fig. 135, last to left), beside 
his altar-shaped tomb, and looks over it to the girl, who 
without perceiving him approaches with funeral offerings. 
One notices in the treatment of the nude, that he is the pro- 
duct of an age which already had the perspective sense : so 
vividly do the few lines of his contour, his muscles, and his 
knee-pan, give the suggestion of a rounded body ; and also 
the drawing of the female nude, which accident has freed 
from the drapery added in perishable dull paint, in its very 
realistic outline goes beyond anything previous. Since the 
Circe and Phineus kylikes, and the numerous black-figured 
and red-figured pictures of bathing, dancing, and drinking 
hetairai, art had busied itself with the naked bodies of 
women as much as of men : and where nudity could not be 
represented, it indicated the outlines of the body through 






the cover of the drapery (p. 119). For Polygnotos we have 
the express tradition of women with transparent garments, 
and on the Argonaut krater even Athena's grand forms are 
indicated ; the great liberator of wall-painting must also 
have been a pioneer in the drawing of the female body. The 
new style here too brings perfection and fills the form of 
women with its noble greatness and simplicity. That it too, 
in contrast with the 4th century, eschews all that is typically 
feminine, soft and unformed, is a proof how strong was the 
ideal of male beauty. 

A London lekythos (Fig. 142) also represents a dead 
soldier at the grave . The winged brothers Sleep and Death 
with tender hand dispose of his corpse, as they do with the 
dead Sarpedon in the Iliad : and the lekythos-painter took 
his type also from the Sarpedon pictures ; the young 
warrior who had fallen far from his country, should on the 
vase have the same boon of burial in his native soil, as was 
granted by Zeus to the Lycian king. The fine type was 
then divested of its proper meaning and received a more 
general signification. The London vase, which uses lustre- 
less colours for the outlines of its figures also, must be 
somewhat later than the Boston vase, although the new 
technique, that is pure brush technique, went on for a 
time beside the old. Though stylistic estimates now become 
difficult, one fancies in the wonderful vigour of the drawing, 
and in the stronger individuality of the hair, that one is 
nearer to the period of the Parthenon pediments than in the 
somewhat more austere Boston group. Where the way led 
may be shown by the woman sitting on the steps of a tomb 
on a lekythos in Athens (Fig. 145), which not only by 
the strongly plastic suggestion of the outline goes beyond 
the Pheidian period proper, but also in the grandiose 
heightening of the simple motive shows itself as one of the 
works, which take up and cast in new moulds the pathos of 



the Parthenon pediments. Every line in the very indi- 
vidual drawing of the woman, who is supporting her left 
hand and lifting her garment with her right, while her feet 
are unruly in submitting to the sitting posture, is animated 
by passionate unrest. 

Though the age of Pheidias liked pictures of feeling with 
quiet figures like the music-scenes, the Munich stamnos and 
the lekythoi, it did not exhaust itself in them. Beside the 
vases with large figures, there are others, which continue to 
cultivate the elegant style and prepare the way for a class 
which flourishes in the last decades of the century. Little 
jugs with nursery scenes, pomade boxes with pictures of 
female life, globular unguent pots with lekythos-like mouth 
are the principal vehicles of this style, and the "Eretria " 
master is a typical representative. On great and small 
vases we find scenes of animated motion, passionate scenes 
of conflict, which on their side too, share in the nobility of 
the style of the age. The brutal vigour and hardness of old 
motives seems broken, softened, often almost takes a turn 
to elegance. The order of the large compositions with its 
arrangement of the figures over one another and indication 
of the broken ground by lines closely follows the Polygnotan 
system. But while the Polygnotan depth in space was pro- 
duced by a naturalistic tendency, which soon led to com- 
plete freedom in the great art, it is continued by the vase- 
painters as a mere principle of distribution and space-filling, 
i.e., it receives a decorative character. 

One of the finest pictures of movement from this period 
decorates a stamnos at Naples (Fig. 147) : women who are 
sacrificing before a tree-trunk dressed out as Dionysos and 
dancing to the tambourine. The exact dating of this pic- 
ture, like the whole chronology of the late and post-Pheidian 
vases, is a matter of dispute : but this much is certain, that 
it cannot be understood except as a near echo of the art of 


■'f <' (^- frvW f W V u-rrmyi m \j ^i ^.Ni:«. 






the Parthenon pediments. Into the noble line-drawing of 
the middle style of Pheidias has come a new passionate 
movement, which draws the contour in more violent curves, 
dissolves the hair in strong waves, throws the drapery into 
great folds, and enlivens the clinging parts with restlessly 
curving inner folds. The upper garment of Dionysos is 
given rich effect by long border zig-zags, interspersed stars 
and an embroidered wreath, the expression of his eyes is 
strengthened by emphasis on the upper lid. Details added 
in white and liberal use of thinned black heighten the 
coloured effect. This new style with its marked enhance- 
ment of the lines is the later style of Pheidias, a reflection of 
the last and highest development of the Parthenon master, 
which pointed Attic art into new paths, and lived its life 
out and died in the school of Pheidias. 

The amphora with twisted handles at Arezzo (Fig. 148) 
must be in close connection with the last phase of the 
Pheidian style and cannot be far removed from the Naples 
stamnos. Its shape enriches the type of the Terpischore 
vase in London (Fig. 141) by sharper profiling of the mouth 
and foot, but does not yet draw the lower part into the dull 
curve, which robs the amphorae and bell-kraters of the end 
of the century of strong and taut effect. Similarly the 
scene, the wild career of Pelops and Hippodameia over the 
sea, heightens the tendencies of Pheidian art without 
succumbing to the palsy which can be felt in the style of 
Meidias. The divine horses, the gift of Poseidon, emit 
sparks of the fire of the steeds on the pediments ; the 
majestically animated attitude of Hippodameia reminds 
cne of the Athenian lekythos (Fig. 145) ; in Pelops every 
line is full of passion and bold movement. Here too the 
draperies are rich and elaborate, the restless billowing of 
the folds is more marked than on the Naples stamnos, and 
the flowing chiton folds, which cling close to the body, pre- 



pare for the exaggeration dear to post-Pheidian sculpture 
and painting. Not only does the drawing of individual 
forms show a plastic conception of space, but the whole 
scene is inconceivable without a contemporary big painting 
with considerable landscape capacities : from the tree-clad 
hilly coast the chariot rushes out upon the deep sea. 

In fiery impetus only one of the vase-paintings of this 
period can compare with the Pelops vase, the somewhat 
later Naples fragment of a Gigantomachia (Figs. 149-151). 
An invention of truly Titanic force, which is also echoed on 
other later vases, must be the basis of this picture, and even 
the unusual division (unsuited to vases) by an arch points to 
a model from another branch of art. In a rocky landscape 
the fight for existence of the gods and the sons of the earth- 
goddess takes place in the early morning, when Helios is 
rising on the vault of heaven and Selene is sinking down into 
ocean, as on the east pediment of the Parthenon. The bold 
movements, the twistings and bendings of the combatants, 
the 'lost* profile, the swellings and packings of the skin and 
muscles are rendered with sure touch. The plastic effect 
of the middle line of chest and abdomen is increased by 
doubling, and horizontal folds bring out the lower part of 
the forehead, the locks of hair and tips of hide flutter as if 
they were alive ; the breasts of the earth-goddess are 
modelled out of the drapery as if bare, the eyes are deep- 
set, the underlips project. 

That the rendering of the female body was now not less 
accomplished than that of the male, beside the lekythos in 
Athens, a picture of a different order may show. On an 
Oxford jug appears in the spaciousness favoured by these 
vases an old theme. Satyr and Nymph (Fig. 154). One can 
scarcely realize the nobility of Pheidian conception more 
fully than by comparing this scene with the Phineus kylix 
(Fig. 74) and its congeners. What early ages had repre- 




sented with drastic humour, is here refined and given a 
soul : even the Satyrs and Centaurs, the rugged monsters of 
the woods and mountains, are tamed by the new spirit which 
will not any longer endure brutality and obscenity. 

The sleeping nymph Tragodia is not only correctly 
observed in her foreshortening, in movement and distribu- 
tion of the weight of the body, she is also the vehicle of a 
wonderful feeling. The picture, which immediately pre- 
pares for the works of the Meidias painter and the 
' Pronomos ' master, and beside tlhe great ptyle of the 
Pelops and Giant vases shows us the continuance of the 
refined and elegant style, cannot have been produced long 
after Pheidias' death. 

The time of the School of Pheidias, of whose best works 
we have been introduced to a selection, gives us again a few 
artists' names. The painter Aison gives us a Madrid kylix 
with the exploits of Theseus, which must be about contem- 
porary with the Giant vase. On the Theseus of the interior 
the hair is dissolved into lively curls, which stand out dark 
on a lighter ground, and the plastic swelling of the belly goes 
to the utmost limit of what is possible ; in his protectress 
Athena we see already the contrast between the leg that 
bears the weight and is covered by hanging folds, and the 
free leg, which is closely covered by the drapery ; which is 
exaggerated by Aristophanes, whom the potter Erginos 
employed, just as is the hair with light under-painting, and 
the chiton clinging as if moist and blowing back. Aison, 
who began his activity even in Pheidian days, draws more 
elegantly than his younger colleague, but neither master 
initiated a new development of kylix painting. The great- 
ness of both lay in exploiting as artizans accessible types. 

With the works of Aristophanes we probably go further 
from the time of Pheidias than with the Naples fragment : 
the works of the * Meidias ' painter take us to the time of ^ 



the Nike balustrade, i.e., the two last decades of the 5th 
century. They too are an echo of the art of the Parthenon 
pediments, but in travelling along the road this echo has lost 
its vogour. On the unsigned Adonis hydria in Florence 
(Fig. 152) all the figures exuberate in lazy grace and fine 
motives of beauty. Particularly the groups, Adonis in the lap 
of Aphrodite, and Hygieia with Paidia, remind us of the 
Parthenon, the wonderful melting forms of the 'Fates' and 
other pediment figures. But what there was born of passion, 
is here become fashion, and is playfully treated. The 
excitement of the faces with wide nostrils, the bowing and 
bending of bodies conscious of their beauty, the supporting 
of arms and play of fingers, the whole extent of the care- 
lessly united society on the wavy hill-lines (p. 141) in spite 
of all its grace has something of the formula about it. The 
style of the drapery is certainly an indication of the weaken- 
ing of earlier vigour. The many and over elegant broken- 
up foids, which cling unnaturally close to breast and free 
leg, the curling of the cloak folds, and the independent 
movement of the tips, is a long way off the Parthenon pedi- 
ments, which inaugurate this enhancement of style, but 
without loss of vigour and by a kind of natural evolution. 
The effort for fine effect, which is expressed in 
the rich patterning, is in noticeable contrast to the 
restlessness of the drapery. A certain inclination to 
pomp is characteristic of the post-Pheidian stvle. The 
raised gilt details of the clay, which we know already on the 
white ground lekythoi (Fig. 134), the box of Megakles (Fig. 
137) and the works of the Eretria master (p. 148), are now 
in hiijh honour, and are plentifully employed on the Adonis 

The Meidias painter also produced a series of similar 
pure pictures of * existence ' on hydriae, e.g., the fair 
Phaon, the singer * Thamyris,* Paris with the goddesses, 




the Eleusinian deities, and decorated other vases also in this 
manner. These scenes, on which the figures move less 
vigorously than the lines, are more successfully rendered 
than the pathos of the scene of abduction on the London 
hydria signed by the potter Meidias. He was no bold pro- 
gressive artist ; his technically exquisite and very delicately 
drawn pictures recast in new shapes the new phenomena of 
art : in him the series of masters of the type of the 
' Sotades ' painter and the Eretria master comes to an end. 

His contemporary, who may after the chief figure of the 
Satyric play vase at Naples be called the 'Pronomos' master, 
likes figures of ' existence ' in pretty poses, but he draws 
them with more spirit and does more justice to the vehement 
style of his time. On the Naples vase, a showy volute- 
krater with rich profiling, he puts on the obverse the 
cast of an Attic theatrical performance in two almost 
equal rows one above the other, and thus starts a principle 
of composition which was taken up by the vase-painting of 
Lower Italy (Fig. 158). Liberal use is made of thinned 
colour, the centre of the scene is denoted by a white figure, 
the luxuriantly ornamented dresses contuse the general 
impression. In respect of shape and decoration one may 
speak of a decay of the finer tectonic sense, which reminds 
us surprisingly of the vases of Lower Italy. The per- 
spective side-view of the footstool and of the tripod column 
are liberties taken by the great art, which generally Attic 
vase-painters consciously avoid so as to keep to the surface 

The tripod-column, which transplants us into the 
Theatre of Athens, as the Athena of the Panathenaic vases 
to the Acropolis, recurs after Polygnotan times often in the 
midst of mythological scenes, and brings the vases, which 
show it, anyhow in relation to dramatic exhibitions. 

It has been proposed to recognise the effect of the stage 



on vase-painting, e.g. in the increased pomp of the dresses. 
This effect might at the most have taken place indirectly ; 
for that the vase-painters often took as their patterns votive 
paintings of victorious Choregi, is more than probable. 
And in general one may draw conclusions as to the great art 
from many a fine invention, which is seen on vase-paintings 
at second-hand, e.g. from the Bacchic scenes on the reverse 
of the * Pronomos ' vase. This conclusion is certainly also 
justified in view of the Talos vase (Fig. 153) which trans- 
forms the mighty echoes of the late Pheidian art into the 
pompous, as the Meidias vases into the ornamental-elegant. 
The vase-shape is closely allied to that of the * Pronomos ' : 
the central figure in white, so popular in this period, recurs, 
and in its spatial effect is enhanced by shaded modelling far 
above the proportions of the other figures, which show 
plainly the conscious restraint of the vase-painters. Though 
the 'Talos' master altered the composition of his pattern 
to suit his vase, he must have preserved with tolerable faith- 
fulness the grandiose invention of the centre group ; the 
passionate impetus, which fills the whole scene and catches 
even the cloaked figures of the reverse, is here most con- 

With this fine masterpiece, which almost exaggerates the 
element of show, not separated by more than two decades 
from the Parthenon pediment, we close the history of the 
vases that show the style of Pheidias. Nay, one may regard 
the proper history of Greek vase-painting as closed with 
these post-Pheidian vases. Not merely does the potter 
make his vases untectonic by excessive profiling and 
elaborate extension, but the painter too, interrupts the unity 
of the vase-surface with the white-painted and plastically 
modelled central figure ; thus in a sense the silhouette style 
is declared bankrupt. 


MfflMP lg)pi^B8Jfp/pfgfBf g/gJHMSlgl51 



From Fiirtu'diiglcr-Hi'ichliolil , (iiiecliisclie \'ascninalc'rci. 



WE should unnaturally shift the centre of gravity in our 
narrative if we treated the late period of Greek vase- 
painting with anything like the same fulness as its develop- 
ment from the Geometric to Meidias. The fully developed 
and often almost playfully treated vase-shapes give no 
longer any really tectonic ground for the silhouette style, 
which had exhausted the qualities compatible with its 
inward nature : the elegance of the vases feels the pictorial 
decoration to be a burden, as does the style of the figures 
feel the tectonic compulsion. Even in the last third of the 
5th century examples are multiplied of the transition to free 
brush technique. The Pelops amphora (Fig. 148) adorns 
its black neck with a sphinx added in white, the Talos vase 
(Fig. 153) and with it a multitude of other vases seek to fix 
the impression by a white central figure, to which the others 
rendered in ordinary technique are only a pale foil. In 
the course of the 4th century this foil too, was dropped, and 
black glazed vases of elegant shape were decorated only 
with figures or ornaments loosely added in white. The 
brush technique, both the black of Boeotian vases (p. 110) 
and the white of Attic and Lower Italian, made a new 
development in ornamentation, which culminates in spiral 
tendrils and branches with depth of space, in combination 
of figures and foliage of plastic effect. Besides these freely 
decorated vases the red-figured long continue. But the 
centre of gravity of the manufacture lies no longer in 
Athens. Even in the time of Pheidias the Attic school sent 
n branch to Lower Italy, which took root in the Periclean 



colonies of Lucania, extended to various places in Lucania 
Campania, Apulia, and Southern Etruria, and soon grew up 
as a strong plant. In this production, which in the 4th 
century completely supplanted Attic importation, few really 
origmal artists took part, who all seem to belong to the early 
period, and perhaps were emigrated Athenians ; the master 
of the Pans 'Tiresias' krater is one of them. From the 
early group, in which good Attic tradition is strongly felt 
we select two bell-kraters. The full, and rather empty 
heads, the very general conception of the divine types leave 
us no doubt as to the Italian origin of the Paris ' Orestes ' 
vase found in Lucania (Fig. 156), while the wonderful group 
of the sleeping Erinyes, Klytemnestra urging them to 
vengeance, and the purified Orestes, show us not only a fine 
model but a clever hand. From the drawing and shape of 
the vase it may very well belong to the end of the 5th 
century, like the closely analogous London krater (Fig 
157) This vase with much humour introduces to us one of 
the favourite Italian farces (the Phlyakes) and begins a long 
^ries of similar representations from different workshops 
Thus e.^. the painter Assteas painted two Phlyax vases, one 
of which in comic parody gives the violation by Aias of 
Kassandra, while the other is a serious theatrical scene 
which with its detailed rendering of the stage clearly 
denionstrates the influence of the drama on vase-painting 

The activity of this painter, who from the stiflf variety of 
the style and the localities of the finds must be localized in 
South Campania, belongs to a later phase, which does not 
concern us. For the more these Italo-Greek vases in shape 
decoration and representation develop local peculiarities 
and depart from their purely Attic starting point, the less do 
they belong to our survey, which excludes provincial 
varieties. Out of the mass of Lower Italian vases of the 4th 
century, which in shape partly run parallel with the Attic 







partly develop noticeably baroque and locally limited 
peculiarities, which in their chiefly sepulchral representa- 
tions, influenced by Orphic-Dionysiac cults, often fall into 
coarseness, stiffness, or efteminate insipidity, let us take only 
one example. The Boston volute krater, IJ metres high 
(Fig. 158) belongs to a group of Apulian grand vases, which 
elongate the shape of the Talos vase (Fig. 153) and add rich 
ornament in white colour. On the reverse bearers of 
offerings above one another in the favourite borrowed 
motives (sitting, standing, running, leaning on a pillar, 
drawing up one foot) surround a white-painted Heroon with 
the dead man : the obverse combines a similar building 
with a mythological scene, the slaying of Thersites by 
Achilles, and thus gives a mythical prototype to the dead 
man, for whose grave the vase is designed. The liberal use 
of white paint, the * black ground ' ornamentation of the 
neck and foot with branches and tendrils are progressive 
elements, which lead the way for Hellenistic products like 
the Apulian Gnathia vases ; in the increased pathos of the 
faces is traced, though provincially coarsened, the stronger 
weight given to sentiment in the 4th century ; and the per- 
spective rendering of the building operating with light and 
shade, which often extends to the ornament, points to a 
period, which had won complete freedom in space, and 
certainly could distribute figures over the landscape more 
naturally than the vase-painter, who filled the tall space 
with them only in a superficially decorative way. 

Sentiment and light, the great achievements of 4th 
century art, were the ruin of the decorative silhouette style, 
whose figure world can admit of pathos, as little as the 
bursting of its vase sides by perspective views corresponds 
to its surface decoration. Even in Athens, where out of the 
successors of the Meidias, Pronomos and Talos styles an 
after-bloom developed (Figs. 155 and 159), which from the 



rich exports in the Black Sea is usually called the Kerch 
style, the new tendencies of art were fatal to the red-figured 
style. To be sure this was in a different direction to Lower 
Italy. The figure world of the elegant Attic vases, which in 
the new naturalness of motives and drapery, in the strong 
emphasis on female forms, is far removed from the types of 
Pheidias, betrays little of the enhanced pathos of the great 
painting, which one would have to deduce from the sculp- 
ture of Skopas and Praxiteles, even if it were not expressly 
witnessed to by literary tradition. From the same finer 
decorative sense the Attic masters made no use of the full 
perspective of their time, and interrupted the vase-surface 
neither by buildings or ornaments drawn in perspective nor 
by composition in several planes, but following the old 
manner simply arranged above and beside each other on 
the surface their generally large and restful figures. As in 
the post-Pheidian style they like to pick out single figures by 
white colour, and do not despise gilded additions, nay, they 
even often heighten the decorative effect of colour by the 
application of light blue, green and rose, occasionally also 
by figures in relief and painted (as Xenophantos did m his 
aryballos with hunting Persians, meant for Eastern 
customers, in signing which he emphasizes his Athenian 
citizenship). The varying shades of the colour scale give 
one an inkling of the new problems of light, which were 
certainly struggling for expression not only in sculpture ; in 
the drawing of the figures, rendered in strong relief strokes, 
nothing of this is observed. Thus the ' Kerch ' masters 
ensure to their vases a finer general aspect than the Southern 
Italians, just as their commonest figures are distinguished 
from the Italian by a certain nobility ; but they are far 
behind the huge advances of the great art, which now in its 
methods of expression attained the heights perhaps of 
Titian and Tintoretto, and have an arriere effect, listless and 





dull. Just as the new style could express itself better by 
the applied than by the reserved ornamentation, which in 
spite of new formations has a stiff and lifeless effect, so too 
the red-figured style, which as is proved by finds at Alex- 
andria, continued to exist down into the early Hellenistic 
age, was no longer the congenial vehicle of the expression 
of its age ; and it was only seldom that notable personalities 
attempted to practise it. 

Rightly recognising that the days of the draughtsman 
and his decorative figure style were past and gone, the 
ceramic workshops of the late 4th century, and the 
Hellenistic, which appeared in several spots of the now 
decentralized Greek world, more and more gave up the 
red-figured technique. The great increase of the means of 
colouring, which is to be assumed for the late painting, the 
complete suppression of formal tendencies in favour of 
impressionism did not permit the silhouette style even a 
subsidiary place. The future belonged to free brush tech- 
nique, that which painted in black, and that which had a 
black ground (pp. 110 and 157). 

The figured world, the representations, no longer play 
any part ; the Hellenistic painters prefer to put on their 
elegant, often playfully treated vases tendrils, festoons, 
hanging branches and fillets, wreathes and masks in loose 
arrangement. With these products of the mere craftsman, 
which are often of fascinating effect (cp. Fig. 160), but often 
in shape and decoration cause one to miss the delicate taste 
of earlier times, ends the history of Greek vase-painting ; 
by pottery with relief ornament (already heralded by the 
completely black channelled vases of the 4th century and 
works like the aryballos of Xenophantos), which 
now gains ground more and more, painted pottery is com- 
pletely driven off the field. 



Thanks are due to Messrs. F. Bruckmann, of Munich, for permission to 
reproduce several drawing's from Furtwang-ler-Reichhold, Griechische 




Plate I. Interior of a kylix signed by Euphronios as potter : from 
Caere- Paris, Louvre, G 104. Diameter 0,39. From Furtwdngler- 
Reichhold 5. Frontispiece 


PI. H. Fig. 1. Bowl from Sesklo : Athens. Height 
0,20. Dark painting on lemon-col- 
oured ground. From Tsountas, 
Dimini and Sesklo (Greek), pi. 22 
Fig. 2. Face-urn from Troy H.-V. : Berlin. 
Height 0,30. From British School 
yellowish clay. From H. Schlie- 
mann's Sammlung Trofanischer 
Altertumer, Hubert Schmidt, No. 
1,080 and 1.084 ^'^^ f^*^^ P^S^ ^ 

PL HI. Fig. 3. Beaked jug from Syros : Athens, 
Nicole 123. Height 0,i6. Light- 
brown painting on yellow ground. 
From Ephemeris Arch. 1899, pi. 10. 
No'. 8 
Fig. 4. Beaked jug from the sixth shaft- 
grave at Mycenae : Athens, Nicole 
i8q. Height 0,30. Turned on the 
wheel, polished, lustreless brown 
(and red) painting. From Furtwan- 
gler and Loschcke, Mykenische 
Tongefdsse, pi. IX. No. 44. ^ 

PI. IV. Fig. 5. Vase of Kamares style from the 
palace of Knossos : Candia. Height, 
0,22. Painting white, orange and 
carmine-red on black glaze. From 
British School Annual IX, p. 120. 
Fig. 6. Unpainted kylix with yellow 
smoothed surface, from the fourth 
shaft-grave at Mycenae : Athens, 
Nicole 164. Diameter 0,i2. From 
Furtwangler and Loschcke, Myken- 
ische Tongefdsse, pi. V. No. 22 
PI. V. Fig. 7. Funnel-vase of late Minoan I. from 
a house at Palaikastro : Candia. 
Height 0,10. Turned on the wheel, 
Annual IX, p. 311, fig. 10 
Fig. 8. Funnel-vase of late Minoan I. from 
house on the island of Pseira : 
Candia. From Seager, Excavations 
on the island of Pseira, p. 25, tig. 8 



Fig^. 9. Vase (Pithos) of Kamares style from 
Phaistos : Candia. Height 0,50 
Red and white painting- on black 
g-laze. From Monumenti Antichi 
XIV, pi. XXXV b To face page 8 

PI. VI. Fig. 10. Stirrup-vase of late Minoan I., from 
a house at Goumia : Candia. Height 
0,20. From H. Boyd Hawes, 
Goumia, pi. H 

Fig. II. Amphora of late Minoan I., from a 
house on Pseira. With many de- 
tails overpainted in white. From 
Seager op. cit., pi, VII. lo 

PI. VII. Fig. 12. Amphora of Palace style from a 
grave of Knossos. From Archceo- 
logia, 1905, pi. CI 

Fig. 13. Amphora of Palace style from a 
grave of Knossos. From Archceo- 
logia, 1905, pi. C. 12 

PI. VIII. Fig. 14. Late Mycenean Cup from lalysos 
(Rhodes) : London. Height 0,20. 
Dark-brown glaze-colour on yellow 
ground, details in white. Frocn 
Furtwangler-Loschcke, M y k e n i s- 
che Vasen, pi. VIII, 49 

Fig. 15. Late Mycenean stirrup-vase from 
lalysos (Rhodes) : London. Height 
0,23. Yellowish-red glaze-colour on 
yellow ground. The tentacles of 
the cuttle-fish from a peculiar orna- 
ment on the reverse, a bird by the 
side of it. From Furtwangler- 
Loschcke, Mykenische Vasen, pi. 
IV., 24 14 

PI. IX. Fig. 16. Late Mycenean vase with ribbed 
handles from lalysos (Rhodes) : 
London. Height 0,34. Dark- 
brown glaze-colour (in parts burnt 
red) on yellow ground. From Furt- 
wangler-Loschcke, Mykenische 
Vasen, pi. VI., 32 

Fig. 17. Late Mycenean vase with ribbed 
handles from Rhodes : Munich 47. 
Height 0,45. Brown, partly red, 



g-Iaze-colour on yellow g^round. Biga 
with driver and companion. Mun- 
chener Vasensammlung I., p. 6, 
fig-. 7 To face page i6 


PI. X. Fig. i8. Attic Geometric Amphora (Dipylon 
class) : Munich 1,250. Height 0,50. 
From photo. 

Fig. 19. Geometric Amphora, said to come 
from Melos, probably Attic (Black 
Dipylon) : Munich. Height 0,73. 
Miinchener Jahrbuch, 1909, II., p. 
202, fig. I 20 

PI. XI. Fig. 20. Upper half of a Dipylon grave-vase : 
Athens, Collignon-Couve 2 1 4. 
Height 1,23. From Monumenti dell' 
Istituto IX., pi. 40, I 

Fig. 21. Frieze from the upper half of a bowl 
^ from Thebes, of which the rest is 

only decorated with stripes : London. 
From Journal of Hellenic Studies, 
1899, pi. 8 22 

PL XII. Fig. 22. Rhodian Geometric jug, said to 
come from Crete : Munich 455. 
Height 0,22. Miinchener Vasen- 
sammlung I., p. 44, fig. 57 

Fig. 23. Protocorinthinian Geometric cup 
(skyphos) from Greece : Munich. 
Height 0,i2. Miinchener Jahrbuch, 
1913, I., p. 78 26 

PL XIII. Fig. 24. Attic Geometric kylix from Athens : 
Munich. Diameter 0,i8. Miinchener 
Jahrbuch, 191 3, I., p. 78. 


Fig. 25. Cretan hydria from Praisos : Candia. 

Height 0,30. From British School 

Annual, IX., pi. 9c 
Fig. 26. Cretan jug from Praisos : Candia. 

Height 0,33. White on glaze. From 

B.S.A. IX., pL 9d 28 

PL XIV. Fig. 27. Cretan miniature jug with female 

head: Berlin 307. Height 0,io. 

From Athenische Mitteilungen, 

T897, pi. 6 



Fig. 28. 

PI. XV. Fig. 29. 

Fig. 30. 

PI. XVI. Fig. 31. 

Fig. 32. 

Fig-- 33- 

PI. XVII. Fig. 34. 

PI. XVIII. Figs. 357. 

PI. XIX. Fig. 38. 

F'e- 39- 

Fig. 40. 

PI. XX. Fig. 41. 

Fragment of a jug from Aegina : 
Athens. Nicole 848. Diameter 
ca. 0,25. Athenische Mitteilungen, 
1897, pi. VIII. To face page 30 

Fragment of a plate from a grave 
at Praisos : Candia. Original dia- 
meter ca. 0,35. Wrestle with a sea 
monster. From B.S.A. X., pi. III. 

Krater of Aristonothos : Rome, 
Palazzo dei Conservatori. Height 
0,36. From Melanges d' Archeolo- 
gie et d' histoire, 191 1, pi. I. 32 

Protocorinthian lekythos : London, 
B.M. Height 0,07. From Journal 
of Hellenic Studies, XL, pi. I., 2 

Protocorinthian lekythos, said to 
come from Corinth : Berlin 336. 
Height 0,06. From Archdologische 
Zeitung, 1883, I. 

Protocorinthian jug of post-Geome- 
tric style from Aegina : Munich 
225a. Height 0'i8. Miinchener 
Vasensammlung I., p. 11, fig. 17 34 

Protocorinthian lekythos, said to 
come from Thebes : Boston. Height 
0,07. From American Journal of 
Archceology, 1900, pi. IV. 36 

Protocorinthian jug, from the neigh- 
bourhood of Rome : Rome, Villa di 
Papa Giulio. Height 0,26. From 
Antike Denkmdler II., pis. 44 and 45 38 
Protocorinthian or Corinthian jug : 
Munich 234. Height 0,44. From 

Corinthian alabastron, from Greece : 
Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum 30. 
Height 0,20. From Catalogue, 
pi. IV. 

Corinthian aryballos, from Greece : 
Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum 36. 
Height 0,20. From Catalogue, 
pi. IV. 40 

Animal frieze from an early Corin- 
thian jug: Munich 228. Miinch. 
Vasens. I., p. 12, fig. 18 



Fig. 42. 

PI. XXI. Fig. 43. 

Fig-. 44. 

PI. XXII. Fig. 45. 

Fig. 46. 

PI. XXIII. Figs. 47-8 

PI. XXIV. Fig. 49. 

Fig. 50- 

PI. XXV. Fig. 51. 

PI. XXVI. Fig. 52. 

PI. XXVII. Fig. 53. 

Fi&- 54- 

Animal frieze from a Corinthian jug 
of wine-skin shape : Munich 246. 
Miinch. Vasens. I., p. 16, fig. 24 

To face page 42 

Corinthian skyphos, from Samos : 
Boston. Height 0,o8. From photo. 
Scene from the late Corinthian flask 
of Timonidas, from Kleonai (Pelo- 
ponnese) : Athens, CoUignon-Couve 
620. Height of vase 0,14. From 
Athenische Mitteilungen, 1905, pi. 
VIII. 44 

Pinax (votive-tablet), from Corinth, 
signed by Timonidas : Berlin 846. 
Height 0,22. From Antike Denk- 
mdler I., pi. 8, 13 

Frieze of an early Phaleron jug, from 
Analatos (Attica) : Athens, Collig- 
non-Couve 468. From Jahrbuch, 
1887, pi. 3 46 

Neck and body designs of an early 
Attic Amphora, from Athens : 
Athens, CoUignon-Couve 657. 
Height 1,22. From Antike Denk- 
mdler I., pi. 57 4^ 

Early Attic Amphora, from Piraeus : 
Athens, CoUignon-Couve 65 1 . Height 
1,10. From Ephemeris, 1897, pi. 5 
Cycladic (Euboic) Amphora : Stock- 
holm. Height 0,59. From Jahr- 
buch, 1897, pi. 7 50 
Jug with griffin's head, from Aegina : 
London, B.M., A 547. From photo. 52 
Chief design on a " Melian " am- 
phora, from Melos : Athens, Collig- 
non-Couve 475. Height of amphora 
0,95. From Conze, Melische Tonge- 
fdsse, pi. IV. 54 
Herakles and lole (?) on a "Melian" 
amphora, said to come from Crete : 
Athens, CoUignon-Couve 477. From 
Ephemeris, 1894, pi. 13 
Early Rhodian jug, from Rhodes : 
Hague, Scheurleer Collection. 
Height 0,22. From photo. 55 



PL XXVIII. Fig. 55. 

Fig:- 56- 

Fig:- 57- 

PI. XXIX. Fig. 58. 

PI. XXX. Fig. 59. 

Fig. 60. 

Fig. 61. 

PI. XXXI. Fig. 62. 

Fig. 63. 

Rhodian jug : Munich 449. Height 
0,33. Miinch Vasens. I, p. 42, 

fig- 54 

Late Rhodian jug, from Rhodes : 
Munich 450. Height 0,33. Miinch 
Jahrb, 191 1, II, p. 200 
Euphorbos plate, from Rhodes : 
London, B.M. Diameter 0,38. From 
Photo To face page 56 

Late Rhodian cauldron (lebes), 
from Italy : Paris, Louvre. Height 
0,35. From photo. 58 

Gorgon plate, from Rhodes : Lon- 
don, B.M. From J.H.S., 1885, 

Pl- 59- 

Sherd from Naukratis : Oxford. 
(Busiris' head painted red on white 
slip, details by leaving the parts un- 
painted). From J.H.S., 1905, pi. 
VL, I. 

Naukratite sherd found on the 
Acropolis of Athens : Athens, Acro- 
polis 450a. Yellow, red and white 
painting on bright ground. From 
Akropolisvasen I., pi. 24 60 

Amphora, from Rhodes (Fikellura) : 
London, B.M., A 131 1. Height 0,34. 
From Miinchener Archdol : Studien, 
p. 300, fig. 24. 

Amphora (Fikellura) : Altenburg. 
Height 0,31. From Bohlau, Nek- 
ropolen, p. 56 62 

PI. XXXII. Fig. 64. 

Fig. 65. 

PI. XXXIII. Fig. 66. 

PI. XXXIV. Fig. 67. 

Two friezes of a Corinthian krater, 
from Caere : Paris, Louvre E. 635. 
Height 0,46. After photo. 
Corinthian krater, from Corinth : 
Munich 344. Height 0,31. Miinch 
Jahrb, 191 1, II., p. 290, fig. i. 
Frieze of a Corinthian krater, from 
Caere : Berlin 1655. Height 0,46. 
From Monumenti X, pi. 4, 5 
Corinthian plate : Munich 346a. 
Diameter 0,28. Miinch Vasens. 
I-, P- 31. %• 46 





Fig. 68. 

PI. XXXV. F\g. 69. 

PI. XXXVI. Fig. 70. 

Fig. 71. 

PI. XXXVII. Fig. 72. 

Fig. 73- 

PI. XXXVIII. Fig. 74. 

PL XXXIX. Fig. 75. 

Fig. 76. 

Pis. XL.-I, Figs. 77-8 

PI. XLII. Fig. 79. 

Fig. 80. 

PI. XLIII. Fig. 81. 

XLIV. Figs. 82-3 

Chalkidian hydria, from Italy : 
Munich 596. Height 0,46. From 
photo. To face page 74 

Chalkidian amphora,, from Vulci : 
Wiirzburg. Height 0,41. From 
photo. To face page 74 

Chalkidian amphora, from Caere : 
London, B.M., B 155. Height 0,45. 
From photo. 

Scene from Chalkidian amphora of 
Italian provenance : Munich 592. 
Milnch. Vasens. I., p. 65, fig. 75 78 

Ionic eye kylix, from Italy : Munich 
589. Height 0,10. From photo. 
Head of Athena, from Ionic eye 
kylix : Munich 590. Milnch. Vasens. 
I., p. 64, fig. 74. 80 

Phineus kylix, from Vulci : Wiirz- 
burg. Diameter 0,39. From 
Furtwdngler-Reichhold 41 82 

Ionic b.f. fragments, from Kyme 
(Asia Minor) : London, B.M. From 

Neck design of an Ionic b.f. Am- 
phora, from Italy : Munich 586. 
Milnch. Vasens. I., p. 62, fig. 73 84 

Obverse and reverse of an Ionic b.-f. 
Amphora, from Italy : Munich 585. 
From Milnch. Vasens. I., p. 59, 
figs. 69 and 70. 86 & 87 

Chief design on a Caeretan hydria : 
Vienna, Museum fiir Kunst und In- 
dustrie 217. From Furtwdngler- 
Reichhold 51 

Spartan kylix, from Italy : Munich 
382. Height 0,15. From Milnch. 
Vasens. I., p. 34, fig& 48 88 

Caeretan hydria, from Caere : Paris, 
Louvre E 701. Height 0,43. From 
photo. 89 

Obverse and reverse of a Pontic am- 
phora, from Italy : Munich 837. 
Height of vase 0,33. From Furt- 
wdngler-Reichhold 21 9c 



PL XLV. Fig-. 84. 

PI. XLVI. Fig. 85. 

PI. XLVII. Fig. 86. 

Fig. 87. 

PI. XLVIII. Fig. 88. 

Fig. 89. 

PI. XLIX. Fig. 90. 

PI. L. Fig. 91. 

Fig. 92. 

PI. LI. Fig. 93. 

PL LII. Fig. 94. 

PL LIII. Fig. 95. 

PL LIV. Fig. 96. 

Spartan kylix, from Cometo : Berlin. 
From Jahrbuch d. D. Instatus 1901, 
pi. III. To face page 92 

Spartan kylix (Arkesilas), from 
Vulci : Paris, Cabinet des M6dailles 
189. Diameter 0,29. From Monu- 
menti I., pi. 47 A 93 

Fragments of a cauldron (lebes) by 
Sophilos : Athens, Acropolis. Graf 
587. Height of the frieze 0,09. 
From Graf, Akropolisvasen, pi. 26 
Attic tripod vase, from Athens : 
Munich. Height 0,i2. From 
Milnch. Jahrb, 191 1, H., p. 291, 

fig-- 5- 94 

Boeotian b.-f. kantharos : Munich 
419. Height 0,19= From Miinch. 
Vasens. I., p. 40, fig. 52 
Detail of the Frangois vase. From 
Furtwdngler-Reichhold, 13 96 

Francois vase, from Chiusi : Flor- 
ence, Museo archeologico. Height 


kylix, from Vulci : 
36. Height 0,15. 

0,66. From 
hold, pi. 3, 10 
' Little Master 
Munich, Jahn 
From photo. 

Attic b.-f. kylix with knob handles : 
Boston. From photo. 

Interior of an eye kylix of Exekias, 
from Vulci : Munich, Jahn 339. Dia- 
meter 0,30. From Gerhard, Auser- 
lesene Vasenbilder I., pi. 49 
Scene from an Attic b.-f. Amphora, 
from Vulci : Berlin 1685. Height 
of vase 0*49. From Gerhard, Etrns- 
kische und Kampanische Vasen- 
bilder, pi. 21 

Scene from an Attic b.-f. Amphora, 
probably from Vulci : Wiirzburg, 
Urlichs 331. From photo. 
Amphora of Exekias, from 
Rome, Museo Gregoriano, 
1220. Height of vase 0,8o. 


Vulci : 







Fig. 97. Attic b.-f. necked Amphora, from 
Italy : Munich. Height 0,40. From 
photo. To face page 106 

PI. LV. Fig. 98. Necked Amphora of Amasis : Paris 
Cabinet des Medailles 222. Height 
0,33. From photo. 
Fig. 99. Detail from interior of a cauldron of 
Exekias, from Caere : formerly Cas- 
tellani Collection, Rome. From 
Wiener Vorlegehldtter, 1888, pi. 5, 
3 b 107 

Pi. LVI. Fig. 100. Chief scene on a late b.-f. hydria, 
from Vulci : Berlin, 1897. Height 
of vase 0,44. From Gerhard, Aiiser- 
lesene Vasenbilder IV., pi. 249-50 108 

PI. LVII. Fig. loi. Attic vase in shape of negro's head 
with late b.-f. decoration of neck : 
Boston. From photo. 
Fig. 102. Panathenaic Amphora, from Vulci : 
Munich, Jahn 655. Height 0,62. 
From photo. i ^o 

PI. LVIII. Fig. 103. Scene on an Amphora in the style of 
the Andokides painter, from Vulci : 
Munich, Jahn 388. Height 0,535. 
From Furtwdngler-Reichhold 4 114 

PI. LIX. Fig. 104. Amphora of the potter Pamphaios 
(Nikosthenes' shape), from Etruria : 
Paris, Louvre G 2. Height 0,38. 
From photo. ^^^ 

PI. LX. Fig. 105. Scene on an Amphora of Euthy- 
mides, from Vulci : Munich, Jahn 
378. Height 0,60. From Furt- 
wdngler-Reichhold 14. 
Fig. 106. Shoulder scene on a hydria of Hyp- 
sis, from Vulci : Rome, Torlonia 
Collection. From Antike Denk- 
mdler II., pi. 8 _ "7 

PI. LXI. Fig. 107. Detail of Amphora of Euthymides, 
from Vulci : Munich, Jahn 410. 
From photo. 
Fig. 108. Detail from interior of an archaic 
r.-f. kylix, from Orvieto : Boston. 
.From photo. ^^" 



PI. LXII. Fig. 109. 

PL LXIII. Fig. no. 

PI. LXIV. Fig. III. 

PI. LXV. Fig. 112. 

PI. LXVI. Fig. 113. 

PI. LXVII. Fig. 114. 

PI. LXVIII. Fig. 115. 

PI. LXIX. Fig. 116. 

PI. LXX. Fig. 117. 

PL LXXI. Figs. 1 18-9 

PL LXXIL Fig. 120. 

Fig. 121. 

PL LXXin. Fig. 122. 

PL LXXIV. Fig. 123. 



Rhyton (in shape of a horse's head) 
with r.-f, decoration of neck : 
Boston. From photo. To face page 119 
Interior of a kylix by Skythes, from 
Caere : Rome, Villa di Papa Giulio. 
Diameter of interior 0,io. From 
Monuments Plot XX., pi. 7 
Interior of a kylix by Epiktetos, 
from Vulci. London, B.M., E. 38. 
From Furtwdngler-Reichhold 73, i 
Part of the design on the psykter of 
Euphronios, from Caere. Petrograd, 
Hermitage, 1670. From Furt- 
wdngler-Reichhold 63 
Obverse of a kalyx-krater of Eu- 
phronios, from Caere. Paris, Louvre 
G 103. Height of krater 0,46. 
From Furtwdngler-Reichhold 92 
Kylix signed by the potter Sosias, 
from Vulci : Berlin 2278. Diameter 
0*32. From photo. 
Interior of a r.-f. kylix, from Caere : 
formerly Branteghem Collection, 
now London, B.M., E 46. From 
Hartwig, Griechische Meisterscha- 
len, pi. VIII. 

Interior of a kylix of Brygos, from 
Vulci : W^iirzburg, Urlichs (1872) 
346. From photo. 
Detail of an archaic r.-f. pointed am- 
phora, from Vulci : Munich, Jahn 
408. From Photo. 
Exteriors of a kylix of Brygos : 
Paris, Louvre. From Furtwdngler- 
Reichhold 25 

R.-f. skyphos, from Italy : Vienna, 
Museum fiir Kunst und Industrie 
328. From photo. 
Exterior of a kylix, from Corneto : 
Corneto. From Monumenti XL, 
pi. 20 

Scene on a psykter of Duris, from 
Caere: London, B.M., E. 768. 
Height of vase 0,29. From Furt- 
wdngler-Reichhold 48 
Kylix of Hieron, from Vulci : Berlin 
2290. Diameter 0,33. From photo. 
















PI. LXXVI. F\g. 126. 

Kylix of Duris, from Caere : Berlin 
2285. Diameter 0,28. From photo. 
R.-f. kylix, from Vulci : Berlin 2294. 
Diameter 6,30. From photo. 

To face page 132 

Interior of a r.-f. kylix, from Vulci : 
Munich, Jahn 368. Diameter 0,305. 
From Furtwdngler-Reichhold 86. 133 




PL LXXVIII. Fig. 129 


127. Figure on a skyphos of Pistoxenos, 

PI. LXXIX. Fig. 

PI. LXXX. Fig. 


PI. LXXXI. Fig. 



from Caere : Schwerin. From 
Jahrbuch des D. Instituts 1912, pi. 6 
Detail of a fragmentary white- 
ground lekythos, from Attica : Bonn. 
From J.H.S. 1896, pi. 4 
Kylix with white-ground interior, 
from Rhodes: London, B.M. D 2. 
Diameter 0,24. From photo. 
Detail of a r.-f. krater : New York. 
From photo. 

Obverse of a r.-f. krater, from 
Sicily (?) : Boston. Height of vase 
0,36. From Furtwdngler-Reichhold 

Fragmentary r.-f. psykter, from 
Falerii : Rome, Villa di Papa Giulio. 
From photo. 

Interior of a kylix, of the potter 
Hegesibulos : Brussels : Munch. 
Jahrb. 1913, II., p. 89 
Interior of a r.-f. kylix, from Etru- 
ria : Munich, Jahn 370. Diameter 
0,425. From Furtwdngler-Reich- 
hold 5 

Obverse of a r.-f. kylix-krater, from 
Orvieto : Paris, Louvre G 341. 
Height of vase 0,55. From Furt- 
wdngler-Reichhold 108 
136-7. Design on lid and sides of a pyxis 
of Megakles : Bibliothfeque Royale, 
Brussels. Height 0,063. Diameter 
0,085. From Frohner, Coll. Barre, 
pi. VII. 



















PI. LXXXV. Fig-. 141 

PI. LXXXVI. Fig. 142 

PI. LXXXVII. Figs. 143-4 

Fig- 145- 

PI. LXXXVIII. Fig. 146 


PI. XC. Figs, 
PI. XCI. Fig. 




PI. XCII. Fig. 153 




Fig. 138. Detail of a r.-f. pointed amphora : 
Paris, Cabinet des Medailles 357. 
From Furtwdngler-Reichhold, pi. 
77,1 To face page 142 

Scene on a r.-f. pelike, from Rugge 
(Apulia) : Lecce. From Furtwdngler- 
Reichhold 66 

Scene on a r.-f. krater, from Gela : 
Berlin. Height of vase 0,50. From 
^o Berliner Winckelmannspro- 
gramm (i8go) 

R.-f. Amphora, from Vulci : Lon- 
don, B.M., E 271. Height 0,57. 
From photo. 

White-ground lekythos, from Attica : 
London, D 58. Height ca. 0,48. 
From photo. 

Youth and maiden on a white-ground 
lekythos, from Attica : Boston 8440. 
Height of vase, 0,40. From photo. 
Detail of a white-ground lekythos : 
Athens, Collignon-Couve 1822. From 
Furtwiingler-Riezler, W eiss griindige 
Lekythen, pi. 93 

R.-f. stamnos, from Vulci : Munich, 
Jahn 382. Height 0,445. From 

Scene on a r.-f. stamnos, from Cam- 
pania : Naples, Heydemann 2419. 
From photo. 

Scene on a r.-f. Amphora, from 
neighbourhood of Arezzo : Arezzo. 
Height of vase 0,54. From Furt- 
wdngler-Reichhold, pi. 67 
149-51. Three details of a fragmentary r.-f. 
vase : Naples. From three photos, 
in the Munich Vase Collection 
Scene on a r.-f. hydria, from Popu- 
lonia : Florence. Height of vase 
0,46. From Milani, Monumenti 
scelti, pi. 4 

R.-f. volute amphora, from Ruvo : 
Ruvo, Jatta Collection 1501. Height 
of frieze 0,35. From Furtwdngler- 
Reichhold 38. 









PI. XCIII. Fig-. 154. Scene on a r.-f. jugf : Oxford. Heig-ht 
of vase 0,21. From J.H.S. 1905, 
pi. I. 


Fig. 155- 

PI. XCIV. Fig. 156. 
Fig. 157- 

PI. XCV. Fig. 158. 
PI. XCVI. Fig. 159. 

Fig. 160. 

Scene on a late Attic pelike, from 
Kerch (Crimea) : Petrograd, Herm- 
itage 1795. Height 0,38. From 
Furtwdngler-Reichhold 87,2. 

To face page 154 
Lucanian bell-krater, from the 
Basilicata : Paris, Louvre. Height 
0,53. From photo. 
Lower Italian bell-krater vi^ith 
comedy scene (Phlyax vase), from 
Apulia. London, B.M., F. 151. 
Height of vase 0,39. From photo. 156 
Apulian volute amphora, from Bari : 
Boston. Height 1,25. From photo. 157 
Late Attic kalyx-krater, from 
Greece : Munich. Height 0,41. From 
Munch. Jahrh, 191 3, I., p. 79 
Hellenistic cup with designs painted 
in white : Munich. Height 0,09. 
From Miinch. Jahrh, 1909, II. p. 
204, fig. 8 158 



The names of painters and potters are printed in italics. All are 
Athenian, unless it is otherwise stated. 

Achilles, 46, 65, 68, 125, 128, 

129, i39> 157- 
Acropolis (of Athens), 99, 103, 

no, 114, 115, 122, 137, 153. 
Acropolis sculptures, 50. 
Adonis, 152. 
^g-ean Sea, 17. 
^g-ina, 6, 14, 26, 32, 42, 49, 50, 

52, 53, 60. 
^olians, 17. 
^olis, 90. 
Africa, 89, 92. 
Aias, 68, 79, 156. 
Aison, 151. 
Aktaion, 137. 
Alabastron, 44. 
Alexandria, no, 159. 
Alkmaion, y;^. 

Altenburg-, amphora at, 61, 84. 
Amasis, 97, 102, 103, 105, 106, 

107, 108, 113, 116, 127, 136, 

Amazons, 75, 81, 84, 139, 141. 
Amphiaraos, 67, 71, 72, '^s, 143, 

Amphitrite, 126. 
Amphora, 24, 49, 52, 54, etc. ; 

(big-bellied), 50, 74, 104; 

(necked), 51, 74; (pointed), 

126, 127; (Nolan), 127, 136; 

(with twisted handles), 149; 

(Panathenaic), 99, no, 127, 

Anakreon, 114, 135. 
Andokides, 58, 108, 109, 114, 115, 

117, 1 18, 120, 121. 
* Andokides ' painter, 115, 131. 
Antaios, 123, 124, 125, 126. 
Antenor (sculptor), 112, 131. 
Aphidna (Attica), 6. 
Aphrodite, Temple of, 42. 
Aphrodite, 135, 137, 152. 
Apollo, 25, 54, 55, 65, 139. 
Apulia, 156. 

Apulian vases, 157. 

Arezzo, amphora at, 149. 

Arg-ive alphabet, 59. 

Argolid, The, 5, 6, 7, 12, 19, 26, 

33, 42- 

Argonaut Master, The, 140-2. 

Arg-onauts, The, 140, 147. 

Argos (giant), 86. 

Argos (town), 14, 26, 33. 

Ariadne, 22, 129. 

Aristagoras (kalos), 130. 

Aristonothos (? Aristonoos, per- 
haps Argive), 33, 38. 

Aristophanes, 151. 

Arkesilas, king, 92. 

Artemis, 55, 137.^ 

Artemis the Persian, 54. 

Aryballos, 44, 142, 158. 

Asia Minor, 5, 6, 15, 17, 19, 42, 
55, 80, 87, 191. 

Assarlik, 19. 

Assteas (Campanian painter), 

Astyanax, 65. 

Athena, 49, 65, 66, 67, 68, 71, 81, 
99, 100, 106, no, 126, 147, 

Athenodotos (kalos), 126. 
Athens, 19, 51, 96, 99, 106, in, 

121, 157. 
Athens, Vases in, 139, 147, 149, 
Attica, 6, 25, 42, 51. 


Beaked jug, 5. 
Bellerophon, 39, 40, 64. 
Berlin amphora, Master of the, 

Berlin, Vases in, 92, 104, 109, 

130, 131, i33> 134, 135, 139- 
Black Sea, 28, 56, 89, 158. 
Boeotia (Boeotians), 2, 22, 26, 42, 

52, 60, 94, 96, no, 155. 
Bonn, Vases in, 119, 134, 135. 
Boreas, 82. 



Boreas, Sons of, 82. 

Boston, Vases in, 45, 100, 126, 

130. 135. 137, 146- 147. 157- 
Bowl (Schiissel), 22, 66. 
Bronze Age, 2, 3, 4. 
Bronze-foundry Master, 131. 
Brygos painter, 128, 129, 131, 

Bucchero ware, 90. 
Busiris (Pharaoh), 89. 
Butades (Sicyonian), 6g. 

loche), 30, 35. 
Caere, 42, 68. 

Caeretan hydriae, 87-9, 107. 
Campania, 156. 
Carthag-e, 42. 

Castle Ashby, Amphora at, 86, 87. 
Centaurs, 22, 39, 86, 89, 98, 128, 

140, 150. 
Centauromachy, 91, 130. 
Chairestratos (kalos), 126, 127, 

Chalkidian style, 69, 70, 75-80, 

94, 96, 97, 100, 104, 105, 106, 

107, 118. 
Chalkis, 71. 75. 7^, 77, 80, 94, 96, 

99, 100, 105, 106, 108. 
Chares (Corinthian painter), 45. 
Charitaios, loi, 103. 
Chelis, 121. 

Chigri jug-, 38, 40, 45, 59, 66. 
Chimaera, The, 39, 40. 
Circe, 100, 146. 
Corfu, 44. 
Corinth, 26, 34, 42, 50, 56, 69, 70, 

90, 94, 100. 
Corinthian style, 43, 50, 70-75, 

90, 94, 96. 
Corneto, Vases in, 123, 129. 
Cretans, 10, 12, 34. 
Crete, i, 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 

27, 33, 55- 
Cyclades, 15, 25, 94. 
Cycladic (pottery, etc. ), 5, 6, 25, 

52, 54, 80. 

Cyprus, 5, 6, 14, 15, 17, 26. 
Cyrene, 92. 

<"pv AEDALIC ' TYPES, 34. 
_l_y Daedalus, 31. 
Daphne, 86. 
Deianeira, 34. 
Deiniades, 119, 123. 
Delian (or Euboic) ware, 53, 81. 
Delos, 25, 54, 55, 98. 
Delphi, 26. 
Delta, The, 56, 59. 
Demeter, 135. 
Dimini, 2. 
Diomede, 79. 
Dionysos, 66, 82, 96, 97, 100, 106, 

108, 148, 149. 
Dipylon (Athens), i, 24, 27, 35. 
Dorpfeld (Wilhelm), 4. 
Dorians, The, 17, 19. 
Duris, 120, 126, 129, 130, 131, 


EGYPT, 9, 15,83. 
Egyptian, 89. 
Eleusis, 6, 25, 26. 
Eos, 130, 135. 
Ephesian sculpture, 88. 
Epiktetos, 108, 114, 121, 122, 

123, 124. 
Epilykos (kalos), 120-3. 
Eretria, 25, 52, 94. 
Eretria master, The, 148, 152, 

Erginos, 151. 

Ergoteles, loi. 

Ergotimos, 97, 100, loi, 103. 

Eriphyle, 73, 143, 144. 

Ethos, 133, 142. 

Etruria, 90, 91, 94, 99, 156. 

Etruscan, i, 35, 90. 

Euboea, 25, 52. 

Euboic (or Delian) ware, 53. 

Eiicheiros, loi. 

Eumares, iii, 112. 

Euphorbos plate, 58. 

Euphrates, The, 12. 



Euphronios, i8, 109, 114, 116, 

117, 120, 122-9, 131, 133. 

134. 135, 139- 
Europa, 68, 88. 
Eurytios, 72, 79, 97. 
Euthymides, 114, 11 6-9, 122, 123, 

125, 127. 
Euxitheos, 117, 123. 
Exekias, 68, loi, 102, 103, 105, 

107, 108, 113, 115. 

' Fates,' The, 152. 
Fibulae, 22. 
Fikellura (Samian) ware, 60-2, 83, 

Flamed ware, 7. 
Florence, Vase in, 97. 
Francois vase, 71, 95, 96, 97-9, 

100, loi, 103, 104, 108. 
Funnel vase, 12. 
Furtwang-ler, Adolf, 20, 64. 

GALES, 114. 
Ge, 139. 
Gela, 143, 144. 

Geometric style, 16, 17, 18, 19, 
20, 22-8, 29, 31, 41, 54, 56, 

69. 135, 144- 
Geryon, y8, 79. 

Gig-antomachia, 150. 
Glaukon, son of Leag-ros (kalos), 
114, 124, 130, 133, 134, 135, 

^37, 138, 145- 
Gnathia vases, 157. 
Gorgon, 44, 50, 58, loi. 
Gorg-on lebes, 49, 66, 97, 100. 
Griffin head jug, 53. 

Halimedes, 73. 
Hamilton, Sir William, i. 
Harpies, 50, 82. 
Head, Vases in shape of, 120, 142 

(Figs. loi, 109). 
Hector, 59, 118, 129. 
Hegesibulos, 142. 
Helen, 22, 23, 118. 

Helios, 150. 

Hellenistic painting, 159. 

Hephaistos, 66, 67, 71, 88, 98. 

Herakles, 39, 50, 54, 60, 64, 65, 
66, 67, 71, 72, 75, 79, 89, 99, 
115, 116, 123, 124, 126. 

Hermes, 40, 49, 86, 88, 145. 

Hermogenes (kalos), 130. 

Hermonax, 143. 

Heroon, 157. 

Hesiod, 22. 

Hetairai, 116, 119, 120, 123, 146. 

Hieron, 131, 135. 

Hipparchos (kalos), 109, 114. 

Hippodamas (kalos), 127, 130. 

Hippodameia, 149. 

Hischylos, loi, 121, 122. 

Hissarlik (Troy), 4. 

Homer, 16, 22. 

Homeric poems, 17, 71, 135 (see 
Iliad and Odyssey). 

Horse master, 128, 133, 137, 138, 

Hydria, 67, 74, 108, 109, 119. 
Hygieia, 152. 
Hymettos, 48. 
Hymn (Homeric), 55. 
Hypsis, 119, 125. 

T DA, Mt., 8. 

1 Iliad, The, 59, 65, 125, 147. 

Iliupersis, 67, 104, 128. 

lo, 86. 

lole, 72, 73. 

Ionia, 47, 94. 

lonians, 17, 62. 

Ionic art, 25, 55-62, 79-89, 120. 

Isocephalism, Law of, 68. 

Italy, 15, 26, 42, 60, 90. 



Jug with rotelle, 41-3, 57; 
wine- skin-shaped, 41. 

Kachrylion, 123. 
Kalistanthe (kale), 102. 



Kalliades, 130. 

Kallinos, 92. 

Kaloi, 102, 114. 

Kamares style, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13. 

Kantharos, 96, 120, 129. 

Kassandra, 156. 

Kavusi, 27, 30. 

Kerameikos, 121. 

Kerch style, 158. 

Kimon (statesman), 134. 

Kimon of Kleonai, iii. 

Klazomenai, 83, 84, 87, 116. 

Klazomenian sarcophag-i, 87, 11 1. 

Klazomenian style, 83, 84. 

Kleanthes (Corinthian painter), 

65, 67. 
' Kleophrades ' painter, 127. 
Kleophrades, son of Amasis, 127. 

Klitias, 18, 97, 98, loi, 103, 104, 

108, 113. 
Klytemnestra, 156. 
Knossos, 10, 14. 
Kolchos, 87, 103, 104, 107. 
Korone, 118. 
Krater, 15, 33, 34, 71, 72, 73, (a 

colonnette) 74, , (calyx) 123, 

136, 140, 142, (bell) 127, 136, 

149. 156, (volute) 157. 
Kyknos, 78. 
Kylix (bird), 26, 52, 94, (eye) 81, 

(with offset rim) 91. 
Kyme (Italy), 27, 28, 42, 53. 
Kypselos, Chest of, 67, 71, 78, 95. 

Leagfros, father of Glaukon 
(kalos) ,109, 114, 115, 120, 
121, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 

130, 134, 142- 
Lebes (cauldron) 49, (bronze) 53, 

57, 66, 71, (with stand) 74, 

86, 91, 95, 108. 
Lecce, Pelike at, 143. 
Leto, 55. 
Leukas, 5, 6. 
Lion Gate, The, 7. 

Little Masters, loi, 102, 105. 
London, Vases in, 58, 61, 78, 108, 
119, 122, 125, 126, 130, 135, 

143. 145. 147. 149, 156. 
Lotus, 1 1. 

Loutrophoros in Athens, 134. 
Louvre (see Paris). 
Lower Italy, Vases of, 153, 155, 

Lucania, 156. 
Lydos (the Lydian), 103. 

TV yr ADRID, VASES IN, 116, 

Maenads, 66, 100, 106, 127, 131, 

Makron, 131, 135. 
Marathon, 114, 115, 140. 
Marina (Hagia), 5, 6. 
Massilia, 28. 
Mattmalerei (lustreless painting), 

Medusa, 49, 50. 

Megakles (Alkmaeonid), 114, 119. 
Megakles (potter), 142, 152, 
Meidias, 18, 149, 151, 157. 
Meleag-er, 98. 
' Melian ' vases, 53-5, 81. 
Melos, 5, 9, 12, 14, 25, 53. 
Melusa, 145. 

Memnon (epic hero), 65. 
Memnon (kalos), 114, 121, 123. 
Menelaos, 104. 
Menon, painter, 116. 
Metallic effect in vase shapes, 76, 
Metope maeander, 57, 61. 
Metopes, 21. 

Miletus, 25, 30, 55, 56, 114. 
Minoan style (i). Early, 5, 7,; 

(2), Middle, 8, 9; (3), Late, 

10, 12, 13, 14. 
Minos, 7. 

Minotaur, 66, 104. 
Minyan ware, 6. 
Mnasalkes (Theban), 52. 
Mochlos (Crete), 7. 
Monochromy, 33, 44, 48. 



Munich, Vases in, 76, 78, 86, 96, 
102, 107, 115, 117, 118, 123, 
127, 128, 130, 13s, 138, 139, 
- 145, 148. 
Musaios, 145. 
Muse, 95, 145. 
Mycenae, 6, 7, 12, 14. 
Mycenean, i, 7, 8, 13, 14 — 19 

Naples, Vases in, 148, 150, 


Naturalistic style, 11, 13. 
Naukratis, 43, 51, 58, 59, 60, 61, 

83, 88, 91, loi. 
Nauplia, 19. 

Nearchos, loi, 103, 104, 112. 
Neolithic, 2, 5, 
Neoptolemos, 104. 
Nereids, 89. 

Nessos vase, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51. 
New York, Vase in, 134, 142. 
Nike balustrade, 151. 
Nikosthenes, 8y, loi, 103, 108, 

1 15, 1 16, 121, 122. 
Nile, The, 9, 12. 
Nolan style, 131. 
Nudity, 20, 
Nymph, 82, 150. 

ODYSSEUS, 79, 100. 
Odyssey, 32. 
Oichalia, ^2. 
Oltos, 116, 119, 122, 123, 124, 

Olympia, 15, 53, 67. 
Olympos, 65, 66, 67, 71. 
Onesimos {?), 128. 
Onetorides (kalos), 106. 
Orchomenos (Boeotia), 5, 6, 14. 
Orestes, 156. 

Oriental art, 29-32, 35, 27- 
Orpheus, 137, 139. 
Orvieto., Calyx-Krater from, 140. 
Oxford, Vases in, 114, 150. 


PAIDIA, 152. 
Palace style (second late 
Minoan), 13, 14. 
Palaisto, 124. 
Pamphaios, loi, 103, 108, 109, 

115, 116, 121, 122, 123. 
' Pan ' Master, The, 137. 
Panaitios (kalos), 126, 127. 

' Panaitios ' Master, The, Fron- 
tispiece, 126, 128, 129, 130. 

Panathenaea, The, 99. 

Panathenaic amphorae (see 

Paris (of Troy), 22, 40, 152. 

Paris , Vases in : (i) Louvre, 49, 
58, 72, 79, 91, 94, 105, 108, 

116, 123, 126, 128, 130, 140, 
156; (2) Cabinet des M6- 
dailles, 92, 106, 143. 

Parthenon, 144, 147, 148, 150, 

Patroklos, 125. 
Pausanias (Descriptio Graeciae), 

Pedieus (kalos), 109. 

Pegasus, 39. 

Peithinos, 124. 

Peleus, 32, 33, 71, 95. 

Pelias, 67. 

Pelike, no, 119, 143. 

Peloponnese, 17, 90. 

Pelops, 149, 150, 155. 

Penthesileia, 81, 138. 

Penthesileia Master, The, 139, 

Periclean ag-e, 144. 
Perseus, 49, 59, 64. 
Perugia Master, The, 128, 130, 

Petrograd, Psykter in, 123. 
Phaistos, 10, 14. 
Phaleron style, 47, 48, 49, 54. 
Phaon, 152. 
Pheidias, 113, 142, 143, 144, 148, 

151, 154- 
' Phineus ' style, 80-3, 102, 105, 
107, 121. 


Phineus kylix, 76, 79, 80, 81, 93, 

146, 150. 
Phintias, 114, 119, 123, 125. 
Phlyakes, 156. 
Phocis, 2, 5. 
Phoenicia, 15. 
Phoenician metal work, 30, 47, 

55. 58. 
Physiognomy, 135, 139. 
Pinax (votive tablet), 46, 51, 114. 
Piraeus amphora, 49. 
Pisistratidae, 114. 
Pisistratus, 99. 
Pistoxenos, 122, 134. 
Plate (Teller), 32, 58. 
Pliny, III, 112. 
Polychromy, 8, 10, 60, 93 (see 

Kamares, Naukratis.) 
Polygnotan vases, 140, 141. 
Polygnotos, 123, 133, 138, 143, 

Polygnotos (vase painter), 143. 
Polyneikes, 144. 
Polyphemus, 33. 
' Pontic ' vases, 89, 90. 
Pontus, 43. 
Poseidon, 65, 126. 
Praisos, 31, 32, 36, 46, 59. 
Praxiteles, 158. 
Priam, 104, 117, 123. 
' Pronomos ' Master, The, 151, 

153.. 154; 
Protocorinthian, 26, 27, 34, 36, 

37, 38, 41. 42, 43. 44. 47. 49, 
53, 56, 59, 71, 75, 120. 

Psiax, 121. 

Psykter, 119, 120, 123, 130, 137, 

Pylos, 14. 

Pyros (Theban), 52. 

Python, 122, 129. 

RAM JUG, 32, 53. 
Rankeng-eschlingf, 36. 
Rays, Circle of, 35. 
Red-fig;"ured style, 87, 102, 109, 
1 1 1-3. 


Rheneia, 25, 54. 

Rhodes, i, 15, 17, 26, 30, 42, 61, 

Rhodian ware, 56-9, 81. 
Rome, Vases in, 105, 122. 
Rotelle, 41, 57. 
Russia, South, 83, 158. 

SAMOS (see Fikellura), 30, 43, 
61, 91. 
Sarcophagi (see Klazomenai). 
Sarpedon, 65, 147. 
Satyrs, 45, 66, 75, 79, 82, 84, 88, 

92, 96, 98, 100, 107, 116, 119, 

120, 126, 130, 150. 
Schliemann, Heinrich, 4, 7. 
Schwerin, Vase in, 134. 
Scythians, 75, 81, 84, 89. 
Selene, 150. 
Sesklo, 2. 

Shaft graves (Mycenae), 6, 7, 12. 
Sicily, 15, 26, 42, 60. 
Sicyon, 34 (see Butades). 
Sicyonian-Corinthian metal work, 

Silenus, 81. 
Silhouette, 31, 32, 37. 
Silphion, 92. 
Sirens, 45, 95. 
Skopas, 158. 
Skyphos (two-handled cup), 35, 

38, 45, 120, 128, 134. 
Skythes (the Scythian), 121, 122, 

Sleep and Death, 145, 147. 
Smikros, 120. 

Sophilos, 71, 95, 96, 97, 99, 104. 
Sosias kylix, 79, 124, 125. 
* Sosias ' painter^ 125, 127. 
Sotades, 120, 142, 153. 
Sparta, 26, 47, 90. 
Spartan ware, 90-3, 122. 
Spata, 14. 
Sphinx, 39, 40, 45. 
Stamno'S, 119, 136, 143, 145, 148. 
Stesagoras (kalos), 114. 


Stasias (kalos), 105. 
Stesichoros, 99. 
Sthenelos, 79. 
Stirrup-vase, 12, 19. 
Stockholm, Vase in, 52. 
Stone Age, i, 2, 3, 7. 
Stylized ornament, 11. 
Syracuse, 28, 34, 42. 

Talos vase, 154, 155, 157. 
Tectonic style, 11, 13 . 
Terpsichore, 145, 149. 
Textile influence, 23. 
Thamyris, 152. 
Thera, 9, 12, 25, 26, 2^, 42, 53, 

Thebes, 14, 22. 
Thersites, 157. 
Theseus, 22, 66, 98, 118, 126, 129, 

130, 151- 
Thessaly, 2, 3, 5, 6. 
Thetis, 32, 65, 71, 95, 97. 
Thorikos (Attica), 14. 
Thracian women, 137. 
Timagoras, 67, 108. 
Timonidas (Corinthian), 45, 46, 

51. 72, 113- 
Tintoretto, 158. 
Tiresias, 156. 
Tiryns, 5, 33. 
Titian, 158. 
Tityos, 139. 
Tleson, loi. 
Tragodia, 151. 
Triada Hagia (Crete), 14. 
Tripod vase, 96. 
Triptolemos, 135. 
Triton, 67, 89, 108. 

Troilos, 45, 65, 81, 91, 98, 108. 

Troy, 4, 5, 6, 17, 129. 

Turin, Psykter in, 1 19. 

' Tyrrhenian' vases, 99, 100, 103, 

Tyrtaios, 92. 

VAPHIO, 14. 
Vase shapes (see Alabastron, 
Amphora, Aryballos, Beaked 
jug-, Bowl, Face urn. Funnel- 
vase, Head, Hydria, Jug, 
Kantharos, Krater, Kylix, 
Lebes, Loutrophoros, 
Pelike, Plate, Psykter, Sky- 
phos, Stamnos, Stirrup vase, 
Tripod vase). 

Veii, 42. 

Vienna, Vases in, 119, 128, 129. 

Villa Giulia Master, The, 143. 

Volo, 14. 

Vurvd vases, 47, 50, 51, 83, 93, 
95, 100. 

Butades, Eumares, Kimon 
of Kleonai, Kleanthes, Poly- 
gnotos), 16, 31, 33, 67, 68, 
138, 158. 
Warrior vase (from Mycenae), 

15, 33- 
Wiirzburg, Vases in (82), 105, 
106, 128. 



EUS, 65, 147. 

Printed by Herbert Reiach, Ltd., 24 Floral St., CoventGarden, London, W.C.2. 



3 5002 00247 1253 

Buschor, Ernst 
Greek vase-painting. 

Art NK 4645 . B8713 1921 
Buschor, Ernst, 1886-1961. 
Greek vase-painting