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Full text of "Greek votive offerings ; an essay in the history of Greek religion"

GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS 



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EonDon: C. J. CLAY AND SONS, 
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, 

AVE MARIA LANE, 
Claagotn: 50, WELLINGTON STREET. 




: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 
$fto gorfe: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 
Bombag anU Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD. 



[All Rights reserved.} 



GREEK 
VOTIVE OFFERINGS 

AN ESSAY IN THE HISTORY OF 
GREEK RELIGION. 



BY 



WILLIAM HENRY DENHAM ROUSE, M.A., 

FORMERLY FELLOW OF CHRIST'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE; 
HEADMASTER OF THE PERSE SCHOOL. 



CAMBRIDGE: 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 

1902 



Catnfarftgr : 

PRINTED BY J. AND C. F. CLAY, 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



PREFACE. 



IN ancient times Polemon wrote an account of the votive 
offerings on the Acropolis of Athens in four books 1 , 
and another of those in Lacedaemon 2 ; Menetor wrote also 
a book on votive offerings 3 . Since their day the subject has 
met with scant attention ; there is no general work dealing 
with it, and I know only of Tomasino's book 4 on Roman 
votive offerings, the pamphlets of Reisch and Zieinann 9 , and 
the articles in the Dictionaries of Smith, of Darernberg and 
Saglio, and in Pauly's Realencyclopadie (Donarium, Donaria). 
A number of essays have, however, appeared on special parts 
of the subject, particularly in the archaeological journals, which 
will be found cited in the notes to this book. Most of them 
have their value, but it consists chiefly in their collection and 
presentation of facts. I have not wittingly used the work of 
others without acknowledgment ; but inasmuch as most of 
my collections were made before I met with the books and 
articles alluded to, I have not thought it necessary to refer 
to these for quotations which we have found independently. 
I must particularly mention, however, Mr J. G. Frazer's 
Pausanias, which has been of great help in revising my 
book. 

1 Strabo, ix. 396 ; Athenaeus, xi. 4 Jacobi Philippi Tomasini, Epis- 
472 B, xiii. 587 c Ho\e/j.uv fv rots irept copi Aemoniensis, De Donariis ac ta- 
d(cpoir6\ews. bellis votivis, liber singularis, Patavii, 

2 Athenaeus, xiii. 574 c. Ho\efj.wv fv 1654. Ziemann mentions another : 
T(f wepl TUV v Aa.KeSai/j.oi'i dva6r)fj^dT(i}v. P. Kunz, Sacra et Profana 

3 Athenaeus, xiii. 574 c. Mev^rw/j ev Hixtoria, 1729. 

T> Trfpl ava8ij/jLar<a. 5 See list of abbreviations. 



VI PREFACE. 

In the present essay I have attempted first to set forth 
the facts in some convenient order, then to deduce principles 
from them : the only possible plan in dealing with a subject 
which has never been fully investigated, and where explana- 
tions are commonly assumed as axioms without an attempt 
at proof. I began my work with a few of these ready-made 
theories, which so impressively enunciated seemed to be no 
more open to suspicion than Caesar's wife ; to rny surprise, 
as the evidence displayed itself, I saw them drop away one 
by one, and since the conclusions I have been led to are very 
different from what I expected, I may fairly claim that they are 
due to no prejudice. If those who prefer the old assumptions can 
give reasons for their faith, I am willing to learn ; the true test 
of my own suggestions will be, whether future discoveries will 
fall readily into their proper place. It has interested me greatly 
to see that this subject, in itself apparently of small account, 
yet throws light on more than one great principle ; and after 
the ten years' work which has gone to make this book, I seem 
to see far more clearly than I did the sincerity and simplicity 
of Greek religion in the great age, and the elements of cor- 
ruption which finally brought it to nought. In this history 
there are not wanting apt illustrations of modern tendencies, 
which have more than antiquarian interest. 

I tried to make my collection of facts complete ; but so 
large was the mass of them that they could not all be 
presented. Certain classes of dedications, such as those of 
honorific statues, could without loss be dealt with summarily ; 
and, in general, there is little to interest in dedications which 
are later than the fourth century. Before that date I have 
not wittingly omitted anything of note or significance. The 
most arduous part of the task has been to sift the archaeological 
finds. If in the hundreds of journals and periodicals much has 
been overlooked, the only excuse I can offer is that the book 
was written at Tomi, where there are no libraries, and therefore 
the time available for the search has been a week stolen here 
and there from leisure. It should also be remembered, that 
with a few exceptions (such as the Asclepius and hero reliefs) 
even the pioneer work of collection and comparison had not 



PREFACE. Vll 

been done. When we have a Corpus of Reliefs, and more exact 
descriptions of the figures of all sorts which have been dis- 
covered in sanctuaries, it is quite possible that many obscurities 
may be cleared up, and mistakes corrected. This being so, 
it may seem rash to have published this book so soon ; but 
after all, one might have waited until the Greek Kalends. 
It is something to have the available facts collected, which 
I have tried to do : if the future should bring more light for 
them, I shall be the first to welcome it. The only criticism 
which I shall not welcome is a vain repetition of old shibboleths, 
some at least of which I think this volume ought to destroy. 

Although it was no part of my purpose to record foreign 
parallels, I have done so wherever I happened to know of 
anything to the point. It was, however, all along my intention 
to include modern survivals ; and therefore I have described at 
some length the practices which now hold in the Levant. 
I speak chiefly from my own knowledge of these; but where 
other travellers have recorded similar scenes, I have generally 
added a reference to their works. 

In the inscriptions which are cited below, restored letters 
are printed in thick type ; and the iota adscript is printed in 
line, not beneath, where it is found on the stone. Where it is 
printed subscript I have copied my authority; in such cases 
there was no exact transcription available. 

Proper names have been spelt in the traditional way; but 
Greek epithets, and some names not familiar in Latin form, 
keep the Greek spelling. In this matter it seems better to be 
inconsistent than pedantic, and nothing is gained by dubbing an 
old acquaintance Aischulos or Thoukudides. 

I am well aware of the faults of this essay ; but those who 
have not attempted to deal with the subject will not readily 
believe, how difficult it has been to present the material in 
anything like a clear arrangement. For one thing, there is its 
bulk ; for another, its incompleteness. It was necessary to 
choose between two alternatives : either to adopt one uniform 
classification, and in each section to fill in such heads as were 
there represented ; or to classify the matter in each chapter in 
the way most convenient, and to leave the general scheme to 



Vlll PREFACE. 

develop itself in the final survey. The former plan would have 
left in several chapters ugly gaps, and would have made it 
difficult to find a place for a great deal of my material ; 
I therefore chose the latter. It is a drawback, no doubt, that 
the arrangement thus differs in the different chapters, some of 
which deal with specified groups of divinities and others with 
specified occasions : but iu my opinion the gain is great, in 
that the theories of explanation are not assumed, but evolve 
themselves. 

I have to thank the administrators of the Worts Fund for 
a grant of 50, which in the year 1896 enabled me to visit the 
museums of Sparta, Smyrna, Samos, Odessa, and Petersburg. 
Dr Waldstein and Dr de Cou, with the true scholar's generosity, 
have allowed me to quote from their unpublished discoveries in 
the Heraeum ; and M. Haussoullier also was so good as to send 
me a copy of some inscriptions found by him at Branchidae. 
My thanks are due also to Prof. E. Gardner and Prof. Rhys 
Roberts, who did me the service of reading and criticising the 
proofs; to the Council of the Anthropological Institute, who 
kindly allowed me to use two plates from Major Temple's article 
referred to below (p. 391 '); and to Prof. Ridgeway for the loan 
of several blocks from his Early Age of Greece. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

PREFACE v 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xiii 

INTRODUCTION 1 

CHAPTER 

I. The Dead, the Heroes, and the Chthouian Deities . . 3 

Note on the Modern Representatives of Ancient Shrines . 37 

II. Tithes, Firstfruits, and Kindred Offerings .... 39 

III. War 95 

IV. Games and Contests . . . . . . . .149 

V. Disease and Calamity 187 

VI. Domestic Life 240 

VII. Memorials of Honour and Office 259 

VIII. Memorials of Feasts and Ceremonials 274 

IX. Propitiation 310 

X. Rarities and Valuables 318 

XI. Formulae 322 

XII. Later Uses of the Votive Formula 3S5 

XIII. Disposal of the Offerings 342 

XIV. General Sketch . . . 348 

INDICES : 

I. Athens : Treasure of Athena and the other Gods . . 394 

II. Athens : Catalogue of Bronze Statues 396 

III. Athens : Artemis Brauronia 396 



X CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

IV. Athens : Asclepieum 397 

V. Eleusis 399 

VI, VII. Treasure at Delos 399, 402 

VIII. Amphiaraum, Cabirium, and other Theban shrines . . 403 

IX. Plataea 403 

X. Temple of Hera at Samos 404 

XI. Treasure of Apollo at Branchidae 404 

XII. Fragment of list from Aegina 405 

XIII. Dedications in the Anthology 405 

GENERAL INDEX: 

Greek 409 

English 424 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

FlG. PAGE 

1. Archaic Spartan relief: deified ancestors with votaries ... 6 

2. Hero Relief, from Patrae 20 

3. Death-Feast Relief, from Peiraeus .21 

4. Hero Feast, from Peiraeus 23 

5. Hero Relief 24 

6. Tablet with Oeo^via of the Dioscuri (Tarentum) .... 31 
6 A. Dedication to Zeus Philios 36 

7. Votive pyramid of terra-cotta, from South Italy .... 62 

8. Bronzes from the Cave of Mount Ida, Crete 65 

9. Votive hare, from Priene 68 

10. Hare, from Olympia 69 

11. Stag on stand, from Olympia 69 

12. Mare and Foal, from Olympia 76 

13. Stag attackt by hounds, from Olympia 76 

14. Boar, from Olympia 77 

15. Stallion, from Olympia 77 

16. Artist at work, painting on terra-cotta, from Corinth ... 81 

17. Corinthian votive tablet, boxers and vintage scene .... 81 

18. Votive tablet from Corinth, man-at-arms and dog .... 82 

19. Ship with freight of pottery, from Corinth (painted tablet) . . 83 

20. Miners digging for potter's clay (Corinthian tablet). ... 83 

21. Dedication to Zeus Meilichios, from Athens 84 

22. Pan, Hermes, and Nymphs in grotto with worshippers ... 86 

23. Warrior, from Olympia 140 

24. Discus with representation of two events of the pentathlon . . 161 

25. Charioteer, from Olympia ......... 165 

26. Rider, from Olympia 166 

27. Nude male figure, from Olympia 172 

28. The Tubingen bronze 172 



Xll ILLUSTRATIONS. 

FlO. PAGE 

29. Victorious athletes with votive tablet and prize (vase-painting) . 173 

80. Asclepius by the sick-bed 217 

31. Tending the sick in the sanctuary of Asclepius .... 218 

32. Sacrifice to Asclepius 220 

33. Offering in a healing shrine (Boeotian vase) 221 

34. Man holding a votive leg (Athens) 222 

35. Votive Frog 233 

36. Votive Hair, relief from Thessaly 244 

87. Zeus and Hera, from Samos 247 

38. Artemis with fawn aud dancing votary (Corcyra) .... 286 

39. King-dancers, from Olympia 287 

40. Maiden holding pig (Sicily) 288 

41. Cybele relief 293 

42. Ox, from Olympia 299 

43. Cock, from Olympia 299 

44. Animal in thin foil, from Olympia . 299 

45. Mysterious creature, from Olympia 299 

46. Artemis, with bow and fawn 304 

47. Zeus with thunderbolt, from Olympia 309 

48. Figure from Olympia (Zeus?) 309 

49. Miniature tripod and kettle, from Olympia 387 

50. Miniature axe, from Dodona 388 

51. Miniature axes, from Olympia 388 

52. Miniature shield, from Olympia 388 

5362. Plates I., II Between 388, 389 

63. Miniature axe, from Mexico 389 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



AA. Archaeologischer Anzeiger : Beiblatt zum Jahrbuch, q.v. 

AJA. American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine 

Arts. Princeton University Press, 18861896, New Series, 1897 
AM. Mittheilungen des deutschen archaeologischen Institute : Athenische 

Abtheilung, 1876 

Ann. Annali dell' Institute archaeologico di Roma. 
Ant. Denk. Antike Denkiualer, herausgegeben vom kaiserlich deutschen 

archaologischen Institut. Berlin, Reimer, 1887 1891. 
AZ. Archaeologische Zeitung, 1843 - 

Baumeister. Denkmaler des klassischen Altertums. Miinchen und Leip- 
zig, 1885. 

BCH. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique. Paris, 1877 
Bronzen = Ergebnisse. 

Bull. Bulletino dell' Institute archaeologico di Roma. 
Carapanos. Dodone et ses mines. 
Cat. Ath. Mus. Sc. FXvTrra roC 'EdviKov Mov&fiov Kard\oyos TTtpiypafpiKos 

VTTO II. Ka/3/3a8i'a. 'Ev 'Adrjvais- (K TOV TOiroypa<p(iov 2. K. BAutrrov. 

I. 189092. 
Cat. Acr. Mus. KaraXoyoy TOV Moucrei'ou rrjs 'A.KpoTr6\(a>s VTTO II. KaoTpKarov. 

1895. 
Cat. Acr. Mus. Br. Catalogue des Bronzes trouvees sur 1'acropole 

d'Athenes. 
Cat. Berl. Sc. Beschreibung der Antiken Skulpturen mit Anschluss der 

Pergamenischen Fundstiicke. Berlin, Spemann, 1891. 
Cat. Br. Mus. Catalogue of the Bronzes in the British Museum : Greek, 

Roman and Etruscan, by H. B. Walters. 1899. 
Cat. Br. Mus. Sc. A Catalogue of Sculpture in the department of Greek 

and Roman Antiquities, British Museum. By A. H. Smith, M.A. 

London. Printed by order of the Trustees. Vol. I. 1892, Vol. n. 

1900. 
Cat. Cypr. Mus. A Catalogue of the Cyprus Museum. By John L. Myres 

and Max Ohnefalsch-Richter. Clarendon Press, 1899. 



xiv ABBREVIATIONS. 

CIA. Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum, consilio et auctoritate Academiae 
litterarum Regiae Borussicae editiun. Berlin, Rciiner, i. iv. 1873 

CIG. Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. Bockh, i. iv. 

Coll. Sab. Furtwiingler : Collection Sabouroft'. Vols. I. and II. 

Collitz. Saramlung der griechischen Dialektinschriften. 

Dar. and Sagl. Dictionnaire des Antiquites Grecques et Romaines. Paris, 
Hachette, 1877 

'E(f>. 'Apx- 'E.<f)T)p.tpas ' \px<uo\oyiKT). Athens, 1837 

Ergebnisse. Olympia: Die Ergebnisse der von dem deutechen Reich 
veranstalteten Ausgrabungen. Vol. m. Bronzen, Vol. iv. In- 
schriften. Berlin, v.d. 

Farnell. Cults of the Greek States. Vols. I. and n. Clarendon Press, 
1896. 

Furtwangler - Coll. Sab. 

F-W. Die Gipsabglisse Antiker Bildwerke: von Carl Friedrichs, neu 
bearbeitet von Paul Wolters. Berlin, Spemann, 1885. 

Gaz. Arch. Gazette Archaeologique, 1875 1889. 

Girard. Paul Girard, L'Asclepieion d'Athenes. Paris, Thorin, 1881. 

IGA. Inscriptiones Graecae Antiquissimae praeter Atticas in Attica 
repertas, edidit Hermannus Roehl. Berlin, Reimer, 1882. 

IGI. Inscriptiones Graecae Insularuni Maris Aegei. Berlin, Reimer. 
I. Rhodi, Chalces, Carpathi cum Saro, Casi. F. Hiller de Ga'r- 
tringen, 1895. u. Lesbi, Nesi, Tenedi. Gulielmus R. Paton, 1899. 
in. Symes, Teutlaseae, Teli, Nisyri, Astypaleae, Anaphes, Therae 
et Therasiae, Pholegandri, Meli, Cimoli. F. Hiller de Gartringen, 
1898. 

IGS. Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum Graeciae Septentrionalis. Berlin, 
Reimer. I. Inscriptiones Graecae Megaridis, Oropiae, Boeotiae, 
edidit Gulielmus Dittenberger, 1892. in. 1. Inscriptiones Graecae 
Phocidis, Locridis, Aetoliae, Acarnaniae, Insularum Maris lonii, 
edidit Gulielmus Dittenberger, 1897. 

IGSL Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum Siciliae et Italiae, edidit Georgius 
Kaibel. Berlin, Reimer, 1890. 

IPI. Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum Peloponnesi et Insularum Vici- 
narum. I. Inscriptiones Graecae Aeginae, Pityonesi, Cecryphaliae, 
Argolidis, edidit Maxirnilianus Fraenkel. Berlin, Reimer, 1902. 

Inschr. von 01. = Ergebnisse. 

Jahrb. Jahrbuch des kaiserlich deutschen archaeologischen Institute. 
Berlin, Reimer, 1886 

Jahreshefte. Jahreshefte des osterreichischen archaeologischen Institute 
in Wien. Wien, 1888 

Kar. KarnXoyor rov iv 'A^ijvatr 'E,iriypa(J)iKov Movcrdov fK8i8op.(vijs viro rr)s 
' ApX<iio\oyiKT)s (raipfias. Td/xor I. 'Eiriypafpai (K TTJS ' AxpOTT 6Xf<as 
TfC^oj I. 'Ap^at<al 'A.vaOrjp.aTiicai 'EmypfXpai VTTO H. G. Lolling. 'E,v 
'Atfiji/atv tK rov i~viroypa(pfiov ra>v d8(\(pS)v Htpprj, 1899. 



ABBREVIATIONS. XV 

Mon. Ant. Monument! Antichi, publicati per cura della reale Accademia 

dei Lincei. Hopli, Milano, 1889 
Mon. et M4m. Monuments et Memoires, publics par 1'Academie des 

Inscriptions et Belles-lettres. Paris, Leroux, 1894 
Mon. Grec. Monuments Grecs, publics par 1'association pour 1'encourage- 

ment des etudes grecques en France. Paris, Maisonneuve, 1872 

1897. 
Mus. It. Museo Italiano di Antichita Classica, diretto da Domenico 

Comparetti. Firenze, 18851890. 
Notizie. Notizie degli Scavi. 
Preller, Or. M. Griechische Mythologie. 
Reisch. Griechische Weihgeschenke : Abhandlungen des Archaeologisch - 

Epigraphischen Seminars der Universitat Wien, viu. Wien, 

1890. 
Rev. Arch. Revue Archaeologique, publiee sous le direction de MM. Alex. 

Bertrand et G. Perrot. Paris, Leroux, 1845 
Ridder, Cat. Acr. Mus. Br. Catalogue des Bronzes trouves sur I'Acropole 

d'Athenes, par A. de Ridder. Paris, Thorin, 1896. 
Ridgeway, Currency. Origin of Currency and Weight Standards, by 

W. Ridgeway. Cambridge University Press, 1892. 

Ridgeway, Early Age. The Early Age of Greece, by W. Ridgeway. Cam- 
bridge University Press, I. 1901. 
RM. Mittheilungen des deutschen archaeologischen Instituts : Romische 

Abtheilung. 

Roberts. An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy, by E. S. Roberts. Cam- 
bridge University Press, I. 1887. 
Roscher. Lexikon der Mythologie. 
Schone. Griechische Reliefs aus Athenischen Sammlungen, von Richard 

Schone. Leipzig, Breitkopf und Ha'rtel, 1872. 
Sybel. Katalog der Sculpturen zu Athen, von Ludwig von SybeL 

Marburg, 1881. 
Ziemann. Franciscus Ziemann, De Anathematicis Graecis. Dissertatio- 

Inauguralis. Regimonti Borussorum, 1885. 



ERRATUM, 
p. 231, line 2. Dele reference to illustration. 

ADDENDA. 

p. 257. Figures of nursing mothers are in the Museum at Eleusis. 

p. 294. A r. f. vase found at Eleusis represents scenes from the Mysteries, and 
is inscribed in golden letters A^/xijrpfa AT^IJT/H dv0T?/ce' (Mon. et 
Mem. vii. pL iv.). 

p. 298. infra: Croesus sent golden cows to Ephesus (Herod, i. 92). 

p. 384. I omitted to notice that there is a late dedication of the thyrsus to 
Aphrodite (Anth. Pal. xiii. 24). 



ERRATA. 



Page xiv, line 8, for E(/>7j/tepas read 

9, line 2, for heroes read warriors. 
Pages 12 3 , and 418, read t^wK\-^<ria, epr)/j,oic\-/iffi.a. 
Page 63, line 3, omit and were. 

92, line 12, for a similar origin read courtezans. 

,, 113, line 1, for Polyperchron read Polyperchon. 

116 7 , read BCH vi 32 31 , below p. 230 8 . 

200 2 , after tlai.TTrr-t]pi.ov add CIA ii 1. Add. 453 6 c. 

,, 201, line 4 from foot of text, for dorter read dortor. 

203, last line of text, after Cos add Plin. NH xxix 2. 

250 13 , add See p. 214 above. 

,, 278, last line of text, for Carthage read Calchedon. 

285 1 , add Differently explained as the offering of a citharoedus, by M 
Maas, quoting Arist. Acharn. 13 (Philologus Iviii 155). 

306 7 , omit all after 342. 

,, 324 13 , for ...ov read ...on. 

,, 330 16 , substitute for note as yiven Collitz i 368. 

,, 357, line 5, for sow read pig. 

364, line 3, for rams read sheep. 

374, line 16, after worshipt insert in their place. 

391, line 10, for may read need. 

INDICES : 

Page 403, vm add Sots 2420, irepippavr-fipiov 2422, iropjnj 2420. , 
419, read KaXXtTriryos 249 1 . 

,, 435, s.v. Demeter, line 16, for home read honour. 
,, 447, s.v. Muses add writer dedicates writing materials, 72. 



GEEEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

PLAN OF THE BOOK. 

WHATEVER is given of freewill to a being conceived as 
superhuman is to speak strictly a votive offering. The motive 
is simple, but not always the same : the occasion is accidental, 
or, if it be determined, the gift is not compulsory. This defini- 
tion excludes all taxes, whether paid to a god or a government, 
and includes the sacrifice of animals at the altar. But some 
taxes or customary contributions are so closely associated with 
votive offerings, or so clearly grow out of them, that no strict 
line can be drawn ; and to discuss the principle of the sacrifice 
would lead us far afield into questions of comparative custom, 
whilst the details of sacrifice are not instructive for our present 
purpose. Sacrifice will therefore be only touched on by the 
way, and a few pages will be given to the consideration of 
ritual fines. . On the other hand, tithes and firstfruits paid 
in kind are important to us, both in themselves and for their 
developments, and something must be said of them. The main 
purpose of the book, however, is to collect and classify those 
offerings which are not immediately perishable : and by ex- 
amining the occasion of their dedication, and the statements 
made about it, to trace if possible the motives of the dedicator 
and the meaning which the act had for him. 

R. 1 



2 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

We shall begin with the Worship of the Dead, which is 
demonstrably one of the oldest found on Greek soil, and the 
customs connected with it. The second chapter will deal with 
Tithes and Firstfruits. Next will be considered several im- 
portant occasions for the dedication of votive offerings : Victory 
in War and the Games ; deliverance from Disease, Danger, or 
Calamity; the crises of Domestic Life; memorials of Honour 
and Office ; memorials of Ritual ; and Propitiation of an 
offended deity. A brief survey will be taken of things 
dedicated for their rarity, and of some curious developments 
of the main custom. We shall then collect the formulae of 
dedication, and indicate how the objects were disposed of. 
Lastly, a general review will gather up all the threads together, 
and draw the necessary conclusions. 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND THE CHTHONIAN 
DEITIES 1 . 

mc'EAAAAoc rrpoceAOoycHC rep 'ArrdAAcaNi KA! epcorcoCHC orrcoc 
AeT TIMAN TON 'Hp&KAe* M6TA THN <\TTo6e6ociN, elneN 6 Geoc- NYN 

M8N (bC HpCOA, AyplON Ae WC 96ON. 

SCHOL. PINDAR Nem. u. 38. 

EVERY student of primitive culture knows how common 
a practice it is to immolate men, women, and animals at the 
funeral, and to send with the dead into his new home food and 
drink, and the articles which by analogy with this world he 
might be expected to want. In case of burial, food is placed 
upon the mound and drink poured into the earth, whilst the 
tools or utensils are laid with the body in the tomb ; in case of 
burning, the offerings may be destroyed by fire. In the Odyssey 
we see the underlying principles in all their bare savagery, when 
Ulysses cuts the throats of his victims over a ditch, and the 
insubstantial shades by drinking of the blood gain a momentary 
strength to answer his questions. On the other hand, at the 
funeral games of Patroclus there is immolation of victims, but 
its meaning is not so much as hinted at. To argue that the 
practice described in the Odyssey grew up after the date of the 
Iliad, is impossible ; because in the former we have a complete 
parallel to the practices of savages, while the civilisation of the 
Iliad is too advanced to admit of such practices beginning there. 
The Iliad is in fact earlier in date, but later in culture, than the 
ninth book of the Odyssey ; it is silent of many things, such as 
the mutilation of Cronus, which crop up first at a later date. 

1 See Furtwangler, Collection Sabouroff, Introduction ; Boscher, Lex. der 
Mythol., s.v. Heros. 

12 



4 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

And the worship of the dead is attested not only by literature 
but by archaeology : moreover, there is evidence of continuity. 
The excavation of the beehive tomb at Menidhi in Attica 
brought to light a series of sacrificial vases, which proved 
that the cult had been practised there without a break 
from the Mycenean to the classical age. We are justified 
then in assuming that the yepas Qavovrutv included more 
than a barrow and a stone slab ; and in regarding the 
burial of toys and vases in the tombs of a later day as the 
survival of an outgrown belief. 

The rites done for the dead seem to have included a funeral 
feast, periodically or yearly renewed, which was celebrated at 
the tomb 1 . Royal and noble houses would naturally have a 
family tomb 8 ; and the tendency in Greece as elsewhere was to 
deify the founder of the race. So the Scythian kings were 
honoured by the immolation of wives and slaves, by the offering 
of firstfruits and golden cups 8 . Those who died after the great 
founder of the family would naturally join him, and become as 
he was. Partly for fear of what harm the ghosts could do, and 
partly from hope of their help, the survivors were scrupulous 
in doing what might please them. The tomb was filled with 
weapons and utensils which belonged to them in this life, or 
which they might be likely to want in the other. All these 
are strictly votive offerings 4 ; they are dedicated on a special 
occasion, and for the purpose of propitiation, to a being conceived 

1 rpira, tvara (Isaeus, ii. 37), rpio/cd- In the Greek and Russian churches, 

5es in Lexicographers, ycvfoia. (Herod. those who are named after a saint 

iv. 26). Lucian describes how garlands keep his day holiday ; but it is perhaps 

and myrrh were offered, wine poured fanciful to see a connexion between 

into a trench, and the offerings burned this tribute to a spiritual father and 

(Charon 22). Compare the inscr. of ancestor worship. 

Ceos, IGA 395, where mention is 2 Roscher, Lex. i. 2459, 2474. 

made of wine and oil, of sacrificial 3 Herod, iv. 71, 72. Battus and 

vessels, of the month's mind and the the old kings of Gyrene seem to have 

year's mind. Customary sacrifice to had divine honours, Herod, iv. 161. 

the dead in Olynthus: Athenaeus, 4 Euripides speaks of dvaff^/Mra 

viii. 334 F. So in Modern Greece : at veKpou : Suppl. 983. Votive offerings 

Patmos, for example, the memorial in Argive tombs : Frazer, Pausanias 

feasts and services after a death are ii. p. 173. In tombs of slain warriors : 

rpi.-fifi.tpa., dvvia^fiepa, <ra.p6.vra., Tpi(j.T)va, op. cit. v. p. 141. 
ea.(j.jjva., xp6aa, dlxpova, and 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 5 

as superhuman. Since, however, a distinction soon grew 
up between burial rites and divine ritual, I do not propose 
to follow out the former through all its history. Nor is it 
important to consider here whether or no divine ritual was 
always derived from the ritual of the dead. As Furtwangler 
acutely remarks, the pouring of a libation is meaningless 
unless it be connected with beings who dwell in the under- 
world; and this at least was extended to non-chthonian deities. 
But at the outset the two kinds of ritual approximate. It 
would appear that the recurrent feast was carved on a slab 
of stone and set up over the grave, perhaps as a perpetual 
memorial of the willingness of the living to serve the dead ; 
and the burial rites gave rise to a type of relief which was of 
importance in the history of art. 

This is the so-called Hero Feast or Death Feast : the 
earliest form is best seen in a series of ancient Spartan reliefs, 
of which the following may be considered typical 1 . Two 
figures, a male and a female, are seated upon a throne. The 
male figure holds in his right hand a goblet, and extends 
his left in a posture which is hard to interpret : it is neither a 
blessing nor an accepting, the hand being held vertical 2 . The 
female holds a pomegranate in her right hand, and the left 
holds her veil. A large snake curls under the throne, the head 
appearing over its back. Before the pair is seen a couple of 
tiny figures, a man and a woman, he holding a cock and an 
egg or some little object, perhaps fruit or cake, she a flower 
and a pomegranate. In this relief the enthroned figures turn 
towards the right of the spectator, but in some of later date 
they turn to his left. Other attributes, such as the dog, also 
appear 3 , and sometimes there is no female. The heroized pair 
are always distinguished by being larger in size than the human 
adorers; a natural convention, seen often in the sculptures of 
Egypt and Assyria 4 . From the rough working of the lower part 
of these slabs they appear to have been fixed in the earth. 

1 Coll. Sab. i. pL 1 ; see for the whole 2 Perhaps the ambiguity is due to 

series, AM ii. 301 ff., 459, iv. 163, 193, the artist's limitations, 

vii. 163. They date from the seventh 3 AM ii. pi. 22. 

or sixth century. See fig. 1. 4 Philostr. Her. 296 (685) rb eos 



G 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



The earlier examples have no inscriptions to guide us in the 
interpretation, but the later ones are inscribed with names. 
They may therefore be confidently regarded as sepulchral. 
This view is supported by several other facts. Along with 
the first slab an inscription was found recording that the 
place was sacred to Hermes 1 . The snake is carved on an 




Fio. 1. Archaic Spartan relief: deified ancestors with votaries. 
Collection Sabouroff, i. pi. 1. 

early Spartan tombstone*, and it is well known to be asso- 
ciated with the chthonian powers. Its habit of lurking in 

Great Mogul within towered high over 
the walls of his citadel. 

1 'Eppavos, IGA 60. 

2 Annali xxxiii. pi. C. Snake identi- 
fied with the hero Cychreus : Pans. i. 
36. 1. 



^yav rt KO.I 
dvdpeiov oOiru rptdKovra try yyov6ra. 
In India I once saw a marionette 
show, representing the siege of Delhi ; 
in which the English general was 
twice the size of his men, and the 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 7 

holes of the earth, its mysterious movement and uncanny eye, 
its silence and deadly power, have caused this creature to be 
regarded with superstitious awe in many parts of the world. 
The Greeks of a later age believed that snakes issued from the 
dead man's marrow 1 ; and that is not the kind of idea which is 
likely to have originated in a later age. Not by Greeks alone 
is the serpent regarded as the incarnation of wisdom 2 ; and 
amongst them it continued to be associated with oracular caves 
and shrines. Flowers, eggs, and cock were no doubt sacrifices ; 
and we know how the cock became the traditional poor man's 
offering to Asclepius 3 . The whole scene, then, represents one 
scene in the ritual of the dead, the sacrifice to wit ; and as 
living and dead are supposed to meet in the ritual banquet 4 , so 
the deified ancestors, or heroes, are represented as present at 
the feast or as preparing to partake in it. 

Out of this early cult of ancestors appears to have grown 
the whole system of Hero- Worship in Greece ; and this is no 
mere inference, for a similar principle produces the same results 
until long after the Christian era. To heroes are applied those 
terms which express ideas relating to the dead : they are " the 
Stronger," "the Averter," "the Protector 5 ." Mortal men in 
time become heroes and even gods, as in the case of Asclepius 
and the Dioscuri 6 . Even oracles, and the practice of sleeping in 



1 Philostr. Her. 288 (670) ; Roscher x a ^ e7ro " s Ka -l ir\i}/craj rovs 
i. 2467. fowi, Ka.1 fj.S.\\ov vtixrup 

2 Genesis iii. 1. 4 Compare Robertson Smith, Re- 

3 I am not prepared to say that the ligion of the Semites, 255 ff. Cf. Paus. 
cock had also a symbolic meaning : ii. 10. 1. The hero certainly partakes 
it was a very common sacrifice. His in Daulis : Paus. x. 4. 10, " the blood 
crow is now believed to frighten away they pour through a hole into the grave, 
the ghostly powers of the night ; the flesh they consume on the spot." 
the Kalikazari in Cyprus and Cos, O l KpelrTovet (see Hesych.s.v.), &iro- 
the witches or goblins of northern rpfaaios, dXeftKa/coj. Arist. ap. Pint. 
Europe. But I see no proof that the Cons, ad Apoll. 27. Furtwangler p. 21, 
early Greeks held any such view, or Roscher i. 2474. The old woman in 
that they conceived of their dead as Aristophanes calls out for help w 
having no power in the daytime. 'H/od/cXetj, w Haves, w Kopt^aj/Tej, <3 
Sacrifice was however done to the Auxncipw. Eccl. 1069. 

heroes at sunset (Paus. vi. 23. 3, Schol. 6 For Asclepius see ch. v. The Dio- 

Pind. Isth. iv. 110) or at night (viii. 14. scuri are men in II. iii. 236, heroes or 

11) ; and Athenaeus says (xi. 461 B) gods in Od. xi. 300. 



8 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the precinct for the purpose of consulting them, are attested for 
the dead among the Nasamones 1 , and alluded to elsewhere*. 
Sometimes the descriptive titles become abstracted and per- 
sonified as heroes, a point which has significance when we re- 
member that the Pelasgians did not name their gods 8 . Thus we 
find Amynos at Athens, the Defender 4 ; Eumenes, the Kindly, at 
Chios 5 ; Sosias, the Saviour, at Olbia 8 . Soter, the Saviour, was 
added to the name of Brasidas heroized 7 , and to Demetrius and 
Antigonus at Athens ; and in later days inscriptions are common 
which dedicate statues to the Roman Emperors under the title of 
Founder and Saviour 8 . Such titles imply protection in general, 
but others are more particular. There are heroes who specialize 
in war, as Phylacos the Guardian at Delphi 9 , Teichophylax at 
Myrina 10 , and Promachos at Psophis 11 ; Eunostos of Tanagra 12 and 
Deloptes 13 of Samos have other functions which the names make 
clear. Or again, the healing of disease was the special function, 
and this especially where the worship centred round a medicinal 
spring 14 . Such are the Hero Physician at Athens 15 , and Asclepius 
at Tricca, of whom more anon. If there is a cave of mysterious 
vapours, oracle and prophecy come to the front, as in the case 
of Amphiaraus and Trophonius. But the idea of power in 
general is never lost sight of, and it is ascribed to the mighty 
dead throughout Greek history. Brasidas and Sophocles have 
already been mentioned as heroized; similar honours are as- 
cribed to Philippus of Croton 16 , Onesilos at Amathus 17 , even to 

1 Herod, iv. 172. ical icTtery rrjs olKovfj.tvrjs. See Furt- 

2 Plut. Consol. ad Apoll. 14, Herod. wangler 22, Roscher i. 2516. 

v. 92. Herod, viii. 39. Aristomenes was 

3 Herod, ii. 52. also useful: Paus. iv. 32. 4. 
* AM xxi. 330. 10 Hesych. s.v. 

5 Athenaeus, vi. 266 D ; compare the u Paus. viii. 24. 6. 
title Eumenides, and the Good People * a Plut. Quaest. Or. 40. 
in English folk-lore. 1S AM xxv. 172. 

6 Dittenberger, Sylloge, 248 101 . 14 Athenaeus xi. 512 F rti Oepna. Xowpi 

7 Thuc. v. 11. Sophocles was hero- ri <t>au>bfjiti>a.4KTTjsyr)t wdvTfs'Ilpa.K\tovt 
ized after his death as Dexion, because (fmalv elccu itpd. 

he had welcomed Asclepius to Athens : 10 CIA ii. 403. Frazer, Pausaniai 

diri> T7?s rov ' AoTtXTjirtoO 8e iwaewi, Et . ii. 149. Theagenes in many places : 

Mag. Paus. vi. 31. 9. 

8 olKiar^t, Krlffrrit, ffur^p : e.g. CIA 18 Herod, v. 47. 
iii. 493 ff., AM xviii. 10 Trajan wrnpi 17 Herod, v. 114. 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 9 

such unlikely persons as Theagenes the athlete in Phocis and 
many other places 1 . The Homeric heroes one and all seem to 
have had this honour paid to them. Ulysses was a hero in 
Laconia*, Agenor in Argos 8 , Protesilaus in the Chersonese 4 , 
even Hector in Boeotia 5 . The warriors who fell at Plataea 
were worshipt as heroes with offerings of garments, firstfruits, 
and all that was customary year by year 6 ; t'he Spartans built 
a shrine to Maron and Alpheus who fell at Thermopylae 7 ; and 
until late days a public vote might make heroes of the gallant 
dead 8 . Epicteta of Thera, in her well-known will, took upon 
herself this state function. She left her property to endow 
a shrine to the Muses and the Heroes, the last being herself 
and Phoenix her husband, with their two sons. In their 
honour recurrent feasts were to be kept up, with sacrifice and 
libation, when the statues of the heroes were to be adorned 
with garlands 9 . In course of time the idea lost all its meaning, 
and hero, like the German selig, came to be a synonym for the 
dead 10 . 

The heroes do more than protect mankind; they also 
punish them for wrongdoing, or at least for an offence against 
themselves 11 . In early times, of course, the line is not 
drawn distinctly between a ritual and a moral offence ; but 

1 Paus. vi. 24. 3. The unsuccessful TCKptvras h T-TJ ^terepp drt/xw/xei' Kara. 
suitors of Hippodamia were worshipt TOS ZKCLIJTOV Srjuoffiq. effOrifj-aoriv re /coi 
as heroes : Paus. vi. 21. 11. rots dXXots fOfj.ifj.ois, 5<ra re rj yij yftuiv 

2 Plut. Quaest. Gr. 48. dveSldov updid, WOLVTWV dirapx&* tiruft- 

3 Plut. Quaest. Gr. 50. poi/rej. 

4 Herod, ix. 116; Philostr. Her. 7 Pans. iii. 12. 9, vi. 11. 9. 
passim, who mentions also Nestor 303 8 Collitz iii. 3196 ws ypu Ttfj.rp> 
(696), Diomede and Sthenelus 304 (Corcyra) ; BCH xvii. 98 17 ir6\u 
(699), Philoctetes 305 (702), Agamem- apery* freKfv dtyripuiffev. A statue of 
non and Menelaus, Idomeneus and Aristeas was dedicated to Apollo at 
Ajax 307 (706), Chiron and Palamedes Delphi for similar reasons, Herod. 
308 (708), Odysseus 312 (716), Teucer iv. 15. 

315 (721), Aeneas, Sarpedon, Alex- 9 IGI iii. 330. So the great Nichol- 

ander 316 (723), Helenus, Deiphobus, son's spirit is still propitiated with 

Polydamas, Euphorbus 317 (725). worship and offerings : Lyall, Asiatic 

8 Lucian, Deor. Cone. 12 ; Lyco- Studies, ii. 301. 

phron 1205 ; Eoscher i. 2482. lu IGS i. 1715 and Index. 

6 Thuc. iii. 58 irar^puv rGiv vpcTtpuv u Schol. Arist. Birds, 1490 ol ijpues 

0J1KO.S, oOj diroOavorras viro MijSaw /cai dvffopyjjroi Kal xaXrol rotj tfj.ire\dfov<ri. 



10 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Philostratus tells us that in his day they were the guardians 
of morals to some extent 1 . It is perhaps not rash to identify 
them with the mysterious daemons of Homer, who visit the 
habitations of men, marking their uprightness or evildoing 3 . 
Traces are found of human sacrifice offered to heroes, not 
only in such celebrations as the funeral games of Patroclus, 
but in the story of Sperthias and Bulis 3 , and in the victims 
sacrificed to Scedasus and his daughters before the battle of 
Leuctra 4 . But in the times we have to do with, the usual sacri- 
fices were firstfruits in kind, and various animals: cattle, sheep, 
pigs, and goats, even horses, and sometimes fish 5 . In their 
honour the Arcadians celebrated regular feasts with their slaves 
in archaic fashion down to historical times 8 . The heroes were 
brought into connexion with every meal by the libations which 
were poured to them in general and in particular 7 , and by the 
custom, that any food which fell from the table was sacred to 
them 8 : this assumes an earlier offering of the firstfruits of 
the meal. Besides, eatables and drinkables were offered at the 
shrine, the offerer inviting the shades to join in his banquet 9 ; 
this became later the Oeogevia of the Dioscuri, Heracles and 
others 10 . The shrines generally included the hero's grave in a 

1 Philostr. Her. 294 (680). SotiXuv ' ol Si iraidts...tt.(Ta ruv irartpuv 

2 Od. xvii. 485 nal re Otol S-flvoi<ri iirl \i6vv KaO-tinevoi. yvnvoi Seiirvovfftv. 
fefoi*c6res d\\odavoiffi Travroioi re\i- 7 Schol. Aesch. Ag. 245. 

ffovres iiriffTpo<f>dovffi TrbXrjas, dvdpuiruv 8 Roscher i. 2507. Compare Heca- 

Ofipiv re leal ebvofjurjv iQopuvTfs. taeus ap. Ath. iv. 149 c. The Arcadians 

3 Herod, vii. 134 7. /j.erk rb Seiirvov ffirovSfa iiroiourro, of>K 
* Plut. Pelop. 20 ; see also Herod. diroviipdpevoi rdj x e 'P aJ <^' dirofj.a.TT&- 

iv. 71. nevoi rots \fsufwis, ical rr\v dwofj-aySaXidv 

5 Time. iii. 58; Roscher i. 2506, with eVca<rTos dirtyepe, rovro iroiovvm ce*ca 
authorities. For the horse, see Philostr. TUV iv rats d/u^>65ois yivofdvuv vvKTtpi- 
Her. 294 (681). A white horse was vuv (pbfiuv. 

sacrificed in Athena at the tomb of 9 Philostr. Her. 291 (675), 326 (742). 

Toxaris, the Stranger Physician: see 10 &vifffj.6s or tieo&vta, CIA i. 4, 

Frazer, Pausanias ii. 148. A late Paton, Inscr. of Cos, 36 ft 2 *, c 38 ; 

Greek romance speaks of a horse as Roscher i. 1169 (vase painting) ;Heuzey, 

sacrificed at a girl's tomb: 'Epwriicd Miss. arch, de Mac. 419 pi. 25. 1 (relief). 

Atriy/ifMra iii. 20. Schol. Pind. Nem. vi. 68, ylverai tv 

6 Hecataeus, ap. Ath. iv. 149 D : OTCW AeX^ofs ^fpaxrt eVta, iv oh Soicti o Otbs 
di roa ijpwffi duuffi, povtlvffla. /teyaXij iirl &via. Ka\fiv TOI>S ijpuas. 

ical iffTiuvrai xavTej firrd ruv 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 11 

walled precinct, with a sacred grove, a place for sacrifice, and a 
heroum with table, couch, and the necessary implements. One 
of these shrines is prettily described by Philostratus 1 . "Protesi- 
laus," he says, "lies not in Troy, but here in the Chersonese, 
and the barrow there yonder on the left marks his tomb. 
Those elms were planted around the barrow by the nymphs, 
and on the trees they would seem to have written this law: 
that the branches which are turned towards Ilium flower early, 
and cast their leaves soon and die before the time, as was 
the lot of Protesilaus, while on the other side the trees live 
and do well... .And the shrine, wherein, as our fathers have told 
us, the Medes wreaked their insolence, on which even smoked 
fish came to life they say, there it is, and you see how little is 
left of it. But then it was fine methinks, and by no means 
small, as may be guessed from the foundations. And this 
statue stood upon a ship, for the base is shaped like a prow, 
and an admiral dedicated it. But time has defaced it, and to 
be sure the people, by anointing it and fastening upon it their 
prayers." 

The importance and the antiquity of hero-worship have 
been very much underrated. The heroes meet us everywhere, 
and in many instances one stands in the precinct of a more 
famous god. There was an ancient shrine of the Hero in the 
Olympian Altis 2 ; Apollo Ptoan stood side by side w'ith a Hero 
Ptoan 3 ; Butes had an altar in the Erechtheum 4 ; Athena, and 
later Asclepius, threw the neighbouring healer Amynus and the 
Hero Physician into the shade 5 ; we have already met with 
heroes at Delphi. It is inconceivable that these heroes should 
have grown up in such places after the greater gods had been 
introduced ; they were therefore on the spot before them. Take 
these facts in conjunction with the Homeric allusions to the 
daemons, and the Arcadian custom already mentioned, and the 
conclusion is forced upon us that we have here a system of 
worship which was older than the great gods. The Pelasgians 

1 Philostr. Her. 289 (672). xxii. 244; Pans. ix. 23. 6. 

2 The Pelopeum, cp. Paus. v. 13. 1; 4 Pans. i. 26. 5. 
cf. also Inschr. von Ol. 662. 5 Below, ch. v. 

3 IGA 162 rjpwt nrarfoH, and BCH 



12 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

inhabited Greece before those races which worshipped Zeus, 
Athena, and Apollo ; and the Pelasgians spoke of their gods 
without names 1 , doubtless by some such collective title as 
Heroes or Daemons. The worship of the heroes continues 
throughout Greek history, but is on the wane and is not 
official, although recognised in public oaths where it is not 
safe to neglect any being who might have power*. 

These conditions answer to what would be expected, if the 
heroes belonged to the worship of a subject population, over- 
mastered or conquered, but not crushed. Side by side with the 
great gods such worship would go on, as the hero-worship does, 
lingering longest in rural places or country villages, and in cities 
supported rather by the poor than by the rich and great. It 
lingered, too, in the country because so little was needed in 
the way of apparatus. No gorgeous temple was necessary, no 
organised priesthood ; the family tomb was enough, or a modest 
shrine, not larger or more elaborate than the wayside chapels 
which at this day meet the traveller in Greece at every step. 
Indeed, there seems to be more than a chance resemblance 
between the ancient and the modern practice. The 'deserted 
chapels' or 'outside chapels' 3 are for the most part simple cells, 
standing alone in the midst of a field or a patch of woodland. 
Scores and hundreds are ruined, and often nothing remains now 
but the foundations; many of them were built in Byzantine 



1 Cp. Herod, ii. 52, Diog. Laert. i. <ras *cai updvas Kal iroranovs 

10. 3 fn Kal vvv fynv evptlv (card TOUJ vdvras icai irdtras. So in a treaty 

dT?i/jiovs rwi> 'AOrjvalwv /3wyitoi>j dvuvupovs, between Rhodes and Hierapytna, Rev. 

vir6fjivi)fjia TT;S rbre yevofdvrjs ^eXctarews Arch. xxxv. 235, Cauer 181 dyaOf 

(Epimenides and the plague). ^X a e0a<r0eu p.lv TOI>$ iepeis Kal rovs 

2 Museo Italico iii. 657, Crete: IfpoOvras T< 'A\ty Kal r$ 'P6d<f}...Kal 
6/j.vvu rav 'Etrrlav rav tft. irpvraveiwi rots dpxaytrais Kal rots ypwffi. A law 
Kal rbv &iji>a rbv dyopaTov Kal rbv of Draco ordained sacrifice to the gods 

rbv TaXAcuoi' Kal 'Airt\\uva rbv and heroes together, firstfruits being 

v Kal rav 'Ma.vala.v rav -iroXtov- offered: Porphyr. De Abst. iv. 380. 

X<H> Kal rbv 'Airt\\uva rbv Holrtov Kal G. B. Hussey, AJA vi. 59 ff. , calculates 

rav Karovv Kal rav 'Aprefj.u> Kal rbv that hero-shrines are rare except in 

"Apfa Kal rav 'A<j>op5lrav Kal rbv 'Eppav Laconia (28 known) and Attica (16), 

Kal rbv "A\tov Kal rav Bpir6fiapriv Kal two of the most conservative parts of 

rbfi 3>oiviKa Kal rav ' Afji<f>i(jjvav Kal ray Greece. 
Tdv Kal rbv ovpavbv Kal ijpwas Kal ypudff- 3 tptinoK\T)<rid or 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 13 

times 1 , and may fairly be assumed to stand on spots hallowed, 
for whatever reason, from times still more ancient. Some adjoin 
sacred wells, or sacred trees 2 , on which hang the rags of devout 
worshippers, and may have been holy places before the Greeks 
came to Greece. Some are still cared for and kept neat ; 
within you find a rude altar, an icon or two, some tapers and a 
font, with the offerings of the faithful. But most of these 
chapels, even ruined ones where a village is near, are the scene 
of some yearly festivity. Their patron saints are remembered 
by the country folk ; and on the saint's day there is often a 
local Panegyris, and even the sacrifice of some animal with 
gilded horns 3 . It would be rash to propound theories when so 
little is known; but it is surely not fanciful to believe that 
these shrines may often stand on the site of a hero-shrine, or some 
farmer's chapel sacred to Pan or Demeter. Several are found 
near a medicinal spring, or ancient baths, and bear the name of 
the Saint Healer 4 . There are chapels on most of the high hills 
of Greece, now sacred to St Elias; in ancient times Zeus 
was usually worshipt in such places, and he seems to have 
displaced local names 5 . 

Closely allied with these are the chthonian deities ; who may 
themselves have been often deified heroes, but in any case, like 
them, have protective and retributive power 6 , and were ap- 
pealed to in sickness 7 . Assuming that they really are deified 
ancestors, it becomes easy to understand why they so often go 

1 As the MijrpoTroXis near Dip in worshipped Athena, to the Virgin. 
Lesbos. The Ilavayia r&\<rov, or Virgin of the 

2 Mesotopos in Lesbos ; another in Grove, just outside the city of Cos, 
Cos up on the hills. I have noted may preserve a memory of the grove 
many in the eastern islands. See of the ancient shrine; there is no 
folk-Lore, vii. 149. vestige of a grove there now. 

3 Near Kalloni, Lesbos ; see my 5 Preller, Gr. M. 116 foil. Cp. BCH 
paper in Folk-Lore, vii. 147. Cp. xxii. 244 (Taygetos, Parnassos, Ar- 
Homer Od. 425 ff., CIA iv. 2. 27 b dettos, etc.) ; Pans. ix. 23. 6 ; Farnell, 
TfHTTolav fiovapxoj' xP vffOK ^P <av - i- 152 ff . 

4 At Qa.pa.iros or Qapdirrjs. In Lesbos, 6 Aesch. Eum. 263 fieyas yap "Aid-rjs 
near the Bay of Kalloni ; in Geranda, tariv etiffvvos fiparCiv virepffe xOovbs 
near Branchidae ; a little way from deXroypd^y v6.vr etruirq. <ppevl. 
Bassae. The last item is signifi- 7 The sanctuary of Hades and Per- 
cant. So is perhaps the dedication of sephone at Acharaca was visited by 
the church in Lindos (Rhodes), which the sick. Strabo xiv. 1. 44. 



14 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

in pairs. There would seem to have been an earlier local pair 
at Eleusis, which were displaced by the coming of others ; for 
one relief, which bears the presentment of Demeter and the 
Maid, shows a pair of divinities seated by them, who are 
inscribed as the God and the Goddess 1 . Where the great gods 
are distinguished by appropriate titles, they may well have 
stepped into the places of such as these. Zeus Chthonius and Ge 
Chthonia 2 may be an instance in point ; and another pair, Zeus 
Meilichius and Meilichia 3 , have associations much the same as 
those of Demeter Chthonia 4 . In the Hellenistic age, Sarapis 
and Isis inherited the functions of many of the older pairs. 

So much by way of introduction, and very necessary it is to 
the right understanding of the reliefs. As to the occasion of 
the offering, we have as a rule no key ; except that we may 
assume the customary feast as a usual time of dedication, and 
sentiments of gratitude or propitiation for the cause. In this 
chapter we shall deal only with the general features of Dedica- 
tions to Heroes, leaving aside for further examination those 
which are specifically inscribed as thank-offerings for healing or 
deliverance, and all that are associated with Asclepius and other 
healing gods. With the exception of this last important class, 
most of the dedications to the heroes known to us belong to the 
later periods of Greek history: but this is probably an accident, 
due to the fact that their shrines were less important and have 
not been so thoroughly examined. 

An obvious offering would be the figure of the Hero. The 
base of one such has been discovered in Athens 5 , and in Argos 
another base which seems to have borne one of the Dioscuri 6 . 



1 'E</>. 'Apx- 1886, 19, pi. 3. statue of the stiff ' Apollo ' type. 

2 Dittenberger, Sylloge 373, Myco- M. Frankel (AZ xl. 383) argues that 
nos. the sons dedicated their father's por- 

3 BCH ix. 404 Boeotia ; IGS, 1814 ; trait, because (1) there was one statue, 
Xen. Anab. vii. 8. 4. (2) the givers' names are omitted. But 

4 Dedications to her in Hennion : (1) dedications to one of the Dioscuri 
Collitz iii. 33823. are known, AM ii. 218; and (2) the 

8 'AOrivaiov v. 161. 23 ...TIJ! ijpui. dedicators' names are not necessary 

etfa(wvos. (see chapter xn.). Frankel quotes a 

6 Collitz iii. 3262 r&v pava^uv similar dedication from Delphi BCH 

rol Nipdxa totOev. The base bore one vii. 445. But the conclusive objections 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 15 

Statues of course stood in the shrine 1 , but the number is small 
of those specially dedicated. I may mention a figure of Heracles 
dedicated by a Greek near Rome 2 ; and a statuette of Hades 
enthroned, one of the few such which are inscribed 3 . At 
Eleusis 4 and at Tegea 5 have been found hundreds of small 
statuettes representing Demeter enthroned, with high head- 
dress and long robes. Similar figures were offered in other 
shrines of importance, but there is little direct evidence for the 
Heroes. One shrine, however, that of Menelaus and Helen near 
Therapne in Laconia 6 , has been excavated, and has yielded an 
interesting series of figures 7 . About four hundred objects made 
of lead were found, including warriors armed with round shield 
and Corinthian helmet, mounted men, others stark-naked ; and 
female figures of various types, some dressed in a long robe and 
holding a spear, others armed with the bow, others winged. 
There were also draped female figures with the polos head-dress, 
girls playing upon the flute, and what look like running or 
dancing men ; there were animals, the lion and the horse, palm 
leaves and garlands, a Centaur, and other things 8 . Some of 
these may well have been meant for the figures of Menelaus 
and Helen, armed or dressed in various fashions because the type 
was not fixed, and the idea was that of a protecting power 9 . If 
the winged goddesses were not Helen (and no reason appears 
why they should have been Helen), perhaps they may belong to 
a yet earlier shrine of the ancient goddess called by the Greeks 

to his view axe that the person dedicated gods: ovx ws ijputnv d\\' us deois, 

must be mentioned in an honorific 63. 

inscr., and that honorific statues are 7 AZ xxx. 8 &., pi. i, ii. 

not known so early. For the difficult 8 The palms or garlands were per- 

inscr. of Niocles see p. 27. haps held in the hands of figures, as 

1 Paus. iii. 15. 3, CIA i. 360. we see them in terra-cotta statuettes 

2 IGSI 1004. Pausanias ix. 11. 6 (below, ch.vin.). The grills or gridirons 
records another. which M. Perdrizet found so mysterious 

3 Sparta : no. 3 in Dressel-Milch- are the bases of animal figures ; many 
hofer's Catalogue AM ii. 297 ff. were found at Olympia with the 

4 In the Museum at Eleusis. animals upon them. Bronzen von 
6 AMiv. 170 ff.; below, ch. vm. 01. 198, 202, etc. 

6 Paus. iii. 19. 9, Herod, vi. 61, 9 Without proof I cannot accept the 

Isocr. x. 63. By the time the Laus suggestion that they were meant for 
Helenae was written, they had become Athena. 



16 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Artemis ; similar figures were found in Apollo's temple at 
Amyclae, which appear to be as old as the Mycenaean age 1 . 
But the maidens with musical instruments are more likely to 
have been meant for the worshippers, or for some official who 
played a part in the ceremonies, dedicated as a memorial of the 
rite. Palmettes and wreaths, if offered independently, would 
be cheaper memorials of the act of worship. Animals must be 
interpreted in the light of the larger series of Olympia, Dodona, 
and the Cabirium 2 . We never hear of the lion as a sacrificial 
animal ; and if the horse was sacrificed to a hero, it was not sacri- 
ficed to Zeus. It is safer therefore to assume, that the lion is 
the hunter's thank-offering, and the horse that of the warrior, 
the racer, or the breeder. At this date, the early sixth century, 
toys are probably out of the question. What to make of the 
centaur I do not know. In the Olympian Pelopeum were 
figures of men and animals, tripods, vases, rings, needles, 
articles of adornment and of value, and armour 3 . A variety of 
objects, though not so great, was found in the Tarentine shrine 
of the Dioscuri 4 . Here we have reclining male figures and 
seated female figures, probably combined together originally 
into a group like that of the Hero Feast ; but very often a child 
is held by the female, or climbs upon the couch. There are also 
masks, and terra-cotta discs with a head in relief; heads of Pan, 
Silenus, and the Gorgon ; and miniature vases, amphorae and 
others, in thousands. There are armed men and riders, a youth 
with an oil-flask, a satyr, a lad on a ram, and numbers of human 
heads covered with a ceremonial head-dress. 

Fragments of bronze and fictile vases have been found 
bearing dedications to heroes: the hero's name is commonly 
not given. It is impossible to say whether they were given 
because of their value, or for use, or as memorials of some act 
of ritual. That vases used in ritual were left at the shrine 
is proved by the tomb of Menidhi, but an inscription 
suggests some more special occasion. Part of a fictile vase, 
with an archaic dedication, was found in a place at Megara 

1 AZ xxx. 19. 4 Gaz. Arch. vii. 155 ff., AZ xl. 

2 Below, chs. ii. and vm. 286 ff. 

3 Bronzen von 01. 3. 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 17 

identified by another inscription as a hero shrine 1 . A vase 
found at Tarentum, bearing the hinder part of two horses, 
is dedicated to the Saviours 2 . A black fictile vase of the early 
fifth century, found at Mycenae, is inscribed " of the hero 3 ." A 
trade guild dedicate a bronze vessel to their local hero in 
Phocis 4 . A vessel of stone from Cyprus bears a similar 
legend 5 . Altars are also dedicated to the heroes: to the 
Dioscuri for example 6 , or to Theseus in Attica 7 , to Heracles 
in Boeotia 8 . One at least of these was the gift of a priest on 
his election 9 ; one was given in obedience to a dream 2 ; others 
in return for preservation 10 : all are of later date than the fourth 
century. Diomedon of Cos, who left by will an estate for 
founding a sanctuary to Heracles, presented the furniture : 
table, couch, cups and mixing jar, lamps, brazier, censers, 
and a rug, together with two clubs and five golden crowns 
for the statues 11 . Herodotus speaks of gold cups being offered 
to Protesilaus 12 . 

The dedication of arms and armour is also recorded, but 
the motive is not always clear. If Heracles could be invoked 
in battle 13 , then captured arms might be offered to him ; and 
Philostratus mentions Mysian arms that hung by a medicinal 
spring 14 . But the shield and helmet which hang on the wall of 
a heroum, in a fifth century relief from Cumae 15 , or in later 
reliefs from Samos 16 , may be part of the hero's own equipment. 

We need do no more than mention the offerings of firstfruits 
in kind 17 , food, flowers, wreaths 18 , money 19 , and locks of hair; the 

1 IGS iii. 1. 3493 [E]^Xei5aj (cat n Paton, Inscr. of Cos, 36 d. 
M/iet\o...dv&v: cp. 3492, 34957. 12 Herod, ix. 166. 

2 IGSI 2406 108 (ffurijpes). 13 Below, p. 96. 

3 IGA 29, Collitz iii. 3313 rov ijpuos 14 Philostr. Her. 300 (691). 

^.' 15 Cat. Berl. Mus. 805, Roscher 

4 IGA 323 E0<ayuos Kal rol ffwda- i. 2555. 

fjLiovpyol a.vtd-r}Kav ruk Tjpwi. 16 AM xxv. 176 ff. 

5 Collitz i. 96 Euyu^s t6r)ice ru>i rjpwi. 17 Thuc. iii. 58, Herod, iv. 71. 

6 CIA iv. Suppl. 1. 1663 b dj/d/coix. 18 Philostr. Her. 296 (684) Mea 

7 CIA ii. 1205, Sybel 62212. vo^ovtriv tirl ffrinaruv AvOpuiroi, tirt- 

8 IGS i. 1829 (Leuctra) $i\eivos Ato- <f>epe rfj x6vei ras re ijSiovs TUV dfj-TT^Xuv 
vuffu 'Hpa.K\ei KO.T' oveipov. ^aipuv avrf KpaTTJpa tTptiya, Kal vfi.irl- 

9 CIA ii. 1205 ' Airo\\wvt8ris 'Itpwvos veiv rf IIaXct/^5ei tcpafficev. Luciaii, 
"Pa/j.vov<rios iepevs yev6fjLevos rif Qjjffei. Charm. 22. 

10 BCH iii. 293 6e$ ff^ovri evtfiv. 19 Aelian, VH viii. 18. 

R. 2 



18 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

first and last will be presently considered, and with the others 
we have no concern. We must, however, mention that models 
or images of the perishable things offered in the sacrifice were 
sometimes offered in stone, metal, or clay. Thus among the 
finds at a sanctuary of chthonian Persephone, unearthed at 
Tarentum, are a number of clay animals, and in particular 
a whole series of pigs 1 . One Lysistrate at Athens dedicated 
to Heracles a stone shaped like a cake, with appropriate in- 
scription'-. Statuettes of the votary holding a pig or other 
sacrificial animal are known in several places 8 ; they may be 
mentioned here because the pig was a favourite offering to the 
chthonian deities. 

But the most interesting dedications are the reliefs, which 
survive in large numbers. The hero is represented in various 
forms. Sometimes he is distinguished by attributes ; as Heracles 
by club and lion-skin, the Dioscuri by their horses and hats of 
a peculiar shape. More often the heroes are stalwart young 
men, as Theseus is represented ; or youths mounted on horseback, 
or standing beside their horses, with hounds or huntsmen. We 
learn from Philostratus that these were the forms under which 
the hero was supposed to appear to his worshippers 4 . He tells 
us that if they showed themselves in a sweat, it portended 
storm and flood ; if dusty, drought ; blood on their arms meant 
plague and pestilence ; and when none of these signs were 
seen, good seasons would follow and the earth bring forth her 
kindly fruits. Horse and snake are the general attributes of 
the hero 8 , and the snake often twines round a tree, repre- 
senting no doubt the sacred grove. The hero is often found 
associated with greater deities : as Neoptolemus at Delphi, 
Erechtheus at Athens, Triptolemus at Eleusis. The type of 

1 JHS vii. 22, 24. horse has a hidden meaning, and is 

2 Sybel 4014; below, ch. vni. meant to symbolize the "mastery" of 

3 Kekule, Terracotten von Sicilian, the ancestor over his descendants; or 
25 Camarina, 33 Gela, 19 Acragas. that the dog is there because "sacred" 

4 Philostr. Her. 294 (680) iwiroTpo- to certain deities. Horse and dog are 
<f>eiv re yap <f>atnv avrbv Kal 6ir\iTfvcii> the natural comrades of the hunter ; 
ical Or/pas airreffOai. The horse was not and they cannot tell us what hero is 
peculiar to the Dioscuri. depicted. They are properties in a 

5 It is hard to agree with Furt- character costume. See more in ch. 
wangler (Coll. Sab. i. p. 27) that the xiv. 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 19 

hero-reliefs is freely used for sepulchral, where the dead is 
heroized; but the votive character of many of these is clear 
from the inscriptions 1 . I shall cite these as votive where they 
are so inscribed or not at all, but omit those which bear only 
the usual sepulchral formula. 

The reliefs 2 may be divided into three main classes : scenes 
of Kitual, scenes of Feasting, and scenes of the hero's Activity. 
The third class splits into two groups, according as the horse 
does or does not form an integral part of the composition. The 
groups overlap to some extent. 

1. Ritual: the Hero Enthroned. Chief and most ancient 
in this division are the Laconian reliefs mentioned above. 
Sometimes a heroized pair is seated upon the throne 3 ; or the 
female stands before the male, pouring the libation for him 4 ; 
many show the male figure alone 5 , and two male figures even 
are found 6 . The hero feeds a snake from his goblet 7 ; or a 
dog fawns upon him 8 . He holds a pomegranate in one hand, 
the goblet in the other 8 ; or the woman holds a wreath 9 . 
A horse's head, or a whole horse, appears framed in the corner 5 . 
Once a youth holding jumping- weights appears between two 
male figures 6 . The later slabs are inscribed with names 10 . 

The same type recurs in Boeotia. An archaic slab from 
Lebadea shows the hero seated, with staff and goblet 11 ; in 
another, of the fifth century, a female pours the libation before 
him 12 . From Patrae in Achaia we have a seated hero, with the 
female figure behind, and in front nine worshippers leading 



1 E.g. Cat. Berl. Mm. 807 KaXXtr^- F-W. 55. 

XT/S *AXe I/MXWI avtOrjicev, 4th century. 10 Deneken sees a similar type in 

2 My account is based on Boscher's Crete : Eoscher i. 2569 n. Plutarch 
Article Heros, but the classification is says that the Spartan tombs were not 
not quite the same. See also F-W. inscribed with names except when the 
55 ff. ; AM iv. 125 ff. dead was killed in battle : Inst. Lac. 18. 

3 Coll. Sab. i. l, = Cat.Berl. Sc. 731. AM iii. 317. 9, iv. 270, v. 141: 

4 Ny-Carlsberg 12,=AM viii. 364, F-W. 45. 

pi. xvi. 12 No. 140 in Korte's Catalogue, AM. 

6 AM vii. 260 ff. iii. 301 ft. Sometimes the female figure 

6 AZ xli. pi. 13. 2. becomes the most important of the 

7 AM iv. 127. 4, pi. viii. 2, v. pi. relief, as nos. 3032 in Dr.-Milchh., 
vii. 1; AZ xxxix. 294; AM vi. 358 62 . AMU. 134, but there is no principle of 

8 A M vii. pi. vii. difference to suggest a new class. 

22 



20 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



a ram ; there is a shield hanging upon the wall, and a horse- 
head in frame 1 . In the museum at Corfu is a terra-cotta slab, 
with a female pouring the libation before the enthroned hero, 
and a second female figure also enthroned. The hero feeding 
a snake recurs in Olbia, where we know Achilles was wor- 
shipt 8 . In Berlin is a slab of uncertain origin, but of late 
date, in which we see the hero enthroned on a raised dais by 
the altar, and a troop of worshippers, one of whom leads a horse ; 




FIG. 2. Hero Eelief, from Patrae. 
Roscher i. col. 2571, fig. 8. 

there is a tree with a snake twined round it ; and on the wall 
hangs a case with tools, doubtless meant to indicate the dead 
man's calling 3 . A fine third-century relief shows a bearded 
man seated in a chair, under which is a snake ; a female pours 
the libation. The type resembles Asclepius, but is not that 
god 4 . Sometimes the hero stands in a sacrificial scene before 
the altar, as in a relief from Samos 5 . 

2. The Hero reclining, and partaking of a feast. Of this 
type, which is known as the Hero Feast or the Death Feast 6 , 



1 AM iv. 125. 1, 164; F-W. 1071. 
See fig. 2. 

2 Roscher i. 2571. 

Cat. Berl. Sc. 804. 

4 AM viii. 364, pi. xviii. 1 (Leiden). 

5 AM xxv. 172 "Hpws A^JTTTJS: 
altar, one worshipper. The same hero 
in Peiraeus, coupled with Bendis : 
BCH xxiii. 370 ; Diimmler, Annali Iv. 
192. 



6 See Milchhofer, Jahrb. ii. 25 ; Cat. 
Brit. Mug. Sc. p. 298, and nos. 711 ff. ; 
Cat. Berl. Sc. 814 ff. ; Wolters, AZ xl. 
300 ; Gardner, JHS v. 107 ; von Fritze, 
AM xxi. 347. The last completely 
disposes of the attempts to explain 
these as Family Feast simply. The 
history of the type is dead against 
supposing them to have originally 
referred to the mythical Feast in the 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 21 



some three hundred examples remain, the oldest of which comes 
from Tegea. Most of them belong to Attica, and the type is 
rare in Peloponnese and the southern islands, somewhat more 
common in Thrace, Asia Minor, and the northern isles; in 
Boeotia and Thessaly it is practically displaced by the Rider 
type. One example comes from Naucratis 1 . 

The Tegean relief is broken, and the reclining hero has lost 
all but his feet. A seated female figure turns towards him, 
and before her is a naked lad holding a wreath uplifted in his 
left hand 2 . A fifth-century relief from the Peiraeus shows the 




FIG. 3. Death-Feast Belief, from Peiraeus. 

hero reclined and holding a bowl, while the female sits as 
before ; a boy draws wine from a mixing-bowl, a dog eats the 



Underworld; but this idea may have 
become associated with the old type 
in later times. The actual moment 
represented may perhaps be, as von 
Fritze believes, the dessert ; but too 
much stress must not be laid on the 
fact that cakes of pyramidal shape are 
"not known in the death cult" (349). 
Do we know everything about the 
death cult ? It is equally rash to deny 
the sacrificial character where the hero 
himself pours the libation : he may be 
supposed to do so as head of the 
family. The same type is used for the 



gods, where there can be no question 
of a family meal. Milchhofer points 
out that while only one (possibly) is 
found in a cemetery, many are found 
in shrines: Sybel 3992, 4093, 4272, 
4326, 4694, 4897, 4958, 4983, 4985. 

1 Naucratis ii. 22 3: hero reclines 
on couch, female sits feeding a snake 
out of a saucer; boy drawing wine 
from crater; horse's head in corner: 
one female worshipper with uplifted 
hand. Samos: AM xxv. 176 ff. 

2 F-W. 54, AM iv. 135, 162, pi. vii., 
Sybel 3090. 



22 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

scraps under the table, and a worshipper is present 1 . An altar 
for incense often appears, on or near the table 8 ; the crater is 
constant, and the hero holds a drinking horn 3 . Fruit, especially 
pomegranates, and cakes lie on the table, the cakes being of 
a pyramidal shape*. Dog and snake often appear, and the 
horse is hinted at 8 . Rarely we see a boat, or a man in a boat 8 . 
Weapons occasionally hang on the wall. Sometimes two male 
figures recline together 7 , or a woman alone, who perhaps offers 
drink to the serpent 8 . 

The Death-Feast type has been found, as might have been 
expected, in the Asclepieum at Athens 9 , in the shrines of Am- 
phiaraus in Oropus and Rhamnus 10 , and at Athens in company 
with an Amphiaraus relief". These facts go to show both the 
votive character of the type, and the heroic character of 
Asclepius and Amphiaraus. The type of face varies, often 
approaching that of Zeus or Hades. The same type of 
relief is associated with Asclepius 12 , with Dionysus 13 , with 
Hercules and the Muses 14 , with Hades 18 , with Hecate 18 , with 
the Dioscuri 17 , with Zeuxippus and Basileia 18 , later with Isis 19 . 
The heroic figures sometimes have the look of portraits 20 . 
Once the scene is found on a painted vase 21 , and the type is 
known in terra-cotta groups 22 . 

1 F-W. 1052, Sybel 325. Roscher 9 Jahrb. ii. 26 ff.; AMxviii. 241. 

i. 2555, fig. 3. See fig. 3 in text. From 10 Deltion 1891, p. 27 no. 23 ; AM I.e. 

the place of finding the hero is identi- ll Deltion 1891, p. 115 no. 5; AM 

fied with Asclepius. Cp. F-W. 1053 ff., I.e. 

Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 711. 12 F-W. 1070. 

2 If incense was first offered to the 13 F-W. 1135, 1843. 

dead in the Hellenistic age, this proves 14 AZ xlix. 81, Cat. Berl. Sc. 832 

nothing for the origin or general inter- (Roman date, from Smyrna). Cp. 

pretation of the type. another in Tarentum, Roscher i. 2542*. 

3 For the significance of this see 18 Eleusis : 'E<f>. 'Apx- 1886, pi. 3. 
Athenaeus xi. 461 B, Aristoph. frag. 18 Woman with torch, perhaps the 
Kock i. p. 517. Maid : Sybel 5931. 

4 See for these AM xxi. 351 2 : 17 Tarentum, terra-cotta : Roscher 
pomegranates, AZ xxxv. 139 ff., no. i. 2579. 

91, inscr. ...TVXW dirivruv. 18 Jahrb. ii. 27. 

6 No. 92 in von Duhn's list, AZ 19 Antike Bildwerke ii. 193. 

xxxv. 139 ff. Snake: Cat. Berl. Sc. w See Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 734. 

815, 818, etc. 21 AA 1890, p. 89. 

6 F-W. 1057. 22 Tarentum : AZ xl. 286, Gaz. Arch. 

7 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 712. vii. 155. 

8 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 721. 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 23 

A combination of the types of Sacrifice and Feast appears 
on some monuments. Thus worshippers are seen in the corner, 
assisting at the feast with uplifted hands 1 . The heroes take 
no account of them, and they stand as accessories outside the 
picture, just as the dedicators kneel unnoticed in some Italian 
painting 2 . So too we see victims and sacrificial implements 
forming part of the festive scene 3 . 




FIG. 4. Hero Feast, from Peiraeus. 
Le Bas, Voyage, pi. 54. 

3. We come now to the third group, where the Hero 
appears as Rider or Hunter. In a fifth-century relief from 
Cumae 4 the hero is a youth clad in chlamys and petasus, and 
bestrides a prancing steed ; behind him appears the heroized 
wife. A group of worshippers, of smaller size, face the pair, 
their hands uplifted; on the wall hang shield and helmet. 
There are no offerings and no altar, but a hare fawns on the 
smallest figure. Both hunting and war are thus hinted at in 



1 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 716 ; Le Bas, 
Voyage, pi. 54; F-W. 1059. 

2 Cat. Berl. Sc. 814 : 4th cent. 
A similar series in the Samos Museum : 
AM xxv. 175ft. 



3 Coll. Sab. i. pi. 33, Cat. Ath. 
Museum Sc. 1516, 1539; AM xxi. 356; 
Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 713, 714 (horse's 
head also), 717 (same). 

4 Cat. Berl. Sc. 805. See fig. 5. 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



this scheme, and the combination is clearer still in another 
example from Tanagra 1 . The rider is armed in the cuirass; 




Fio. 5. Hero Belief. 
Cat. Berl. Sculptures, no. 805. 

behind him a slave, with the hunting-club, and game on his 
shoulder, holds fast to the horse's tail. A heroized female 
figure bears bowl and jug for the libation. Often the hero 
leads his horse, as in a fourth-century relief from Tanagra 2 , 
where an altar is present, and libation and adoration are 
repeated. A fine Attic piece of the fifth century 3 contains two 
divisions. In the upper is a heroum, containing a statue, with 
a large heroic figure seated on either side ; below, the hero 
unarmed leads his horse, the dog following behind. One adorer 
and an altar complete the group. There is only one early ex- 
ample from Attica of this type 4 ; but both motives, the warrior 
and the hunter, become regular for sepulchral monuments. 
Boeotia presents us with half a hundred monuments of the 
type now in question, many of them being carved on small 
altars which were doubtless used for the rite depicted 5 . The 
hero now bestrides his horse, now stands by it; he may be 
armed; the horse approaches an altar, or even places a hoof 



1 F-W. 1076, 4th cent. 

3 Cat. Berl. Sc. 807 KaXXtrAijj 



F-W. 1073. 



* Cat. Berl. Sc. 808, 4th cent. The 
worshipper holds out a cake. 

8 Korte, Kat. der boiot. Sk. in AM 
Hi. 319 ff. quotes 52. 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 25 

upon it. A female figure is often present, ready for the 
libation 1 ; and there are troops of worshippers 2 . The hunt- 
motive only occurs on the tablet from Tanagra described above. 
Nearly all are early; one of the fifth century 3 , several of the 
fourth 4 ; the best show Attic work or influence. 

From Thessaly comes a unique example; there is the youth 
and the horse, and a group of worshippers ; but there is also a 
female figure enthroned 5 . The sepulchral slabs from this 
district, when inscribed, are all dedicated to the heroized dead 6 . 
The hero on horseback reappears in Laconia, and a beast 
is offered to him 7 . We shall come later to the Dioscuri, who 
occur in this scheme. From Argolis we have an actual hunting 
scene, an armed rider attacking a boar; the altar, tree, and snake 
occur on this slab 8 . In a Thyrean relief 9 , the youth holds the 
horse's bridle, whilst he feeds a snake which coils about a tree. 
On the tree hanging are a shield and a sword, on the ground 
lance and body-armour, whilst a boy carries the helmet. The 
type is known in Pergamus, with a female in the divine aspect, 
and no worshippers 10 . 

Examples have been found in Rhodes 11 , in Lemnos 12 , and in 
Thasos 13 , but in the small islands only one so far 14 . This is more 
likely to be due to accident, or to the greater rarity of all 
works of fine art, than to the nature of the ground 15 . There 

1 Nos. 138, 1434, Cat. Berl. Sc. 807. 10 BCH xiii. 509, pi. ix. 

2 Nos. 145 ff., Berlin 806 f. u AZ xlii. 485. 8= Cat. Brit. Mus. 

3 No. 10, AM iv. pi. xiv. 1 ; perhaps Sc. 753 ; Furtwangler, AM viii. 370. 
the fragment F-W. 1205, which is 12 Conze, Reise auf Lesbos, 31 pi. 
made of Boeotian stone. 15. 1. 

4 Nos. 138, 141, 143, 145 ; Berl. Conze, Inselreise, 29 pi. 10. 8, 66 
807 = Coll. Sab. pi. 29. pi. 10. 6. 

5 BCH xii. pi. v.: ...tot Stf/ujitaxos... u From Amorgos : AM xxi. 195 
Qpaffvdafios avtOrjKtv. (cut). The hero, in helmet and tunic, 

6 Ussing, Inscr. Gr. med. 39 ; rides a prancing horse. There is a 
Heuzey, Miss. arch. 418 pi. 26 1 , tree and snake, female divinity, wor- 
Mont Olympe 469 5 , 475 17 , 476 19 , shippers, and a boy leading a ram to 
478 w , 483 *; Lolling, AM xi. 51 21 , the altar. Now in Syra Museum. 

54 , 59 *, 120 s1 . 52 , 130 , 131 . 15 Horses are used in every island, 

These references I take from Koscher. and doubtless were used there in 

7 AMU. 422, no. 264. ancient days. Deneken (in Roscher's 

8 AA 1855, 58, and others. Diet.) takes the view that horses were 

9 Sybel 574, F-W. 1812. less likely to be used in small islands. 



26 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

are no early examples from the less Greek parts of the 
Greek world ; but the type is common in Thrace during the 
later periods and the age of Roman dominion, and then 
appears in Macedon, Asia Minor, and even Illyria. In Thrace, 
several were found in a hero-shrine 1 . The Thracian copies are 
inscribed 'to the lord hero,' with or without the word eu^V, or 
to the heroized dead 3 , one to Apollo 4 , and one to the Dioscuri 8 . 
The hero rides or stands by the horse; dog and altar appear, 
and often the tree with coiling serpent 8 . Sometimes he hunts 
the boar 7 . Once a woman is present 8 , and once perhaps a 
worshipper 9 . 

The Macedonian examples are all dedicated to the heroized 
dead. Among them we meet with the boar hunt, and the 
snake coiling about a tree 10 . In Illyria the rider is armed, 
and gallops with lance in rest 11 . Most of the Asiatic types 
belong to heroized dead 12 . Smyrna has produced several 13 , and 
Cyzicus a few 14 , amongst the latter being one dedicated to 
Apollo 18 . One of the Smyrna reliefs, as may be seen below, has 
travelled far from the original conception, including as it does 
an honorific inscription. From Pergamus came two rider-reliefs 
with worshippers, dedicated to the Hero Pergamus 18 . A large 
number have come to light in Phrygia or Pisidia, inscribed to 
the Preserving God 17 . Coloe has two, inscribed to heroized 
dead, one of them to Gaius Germanicus Caesar 18 . 

1 Dumout, Inzer, et mon. fig. de la 'A/ov vof below, ireuSei/rTjs ijpus: 

Thrace, 71. (The reff. to Dumont I 812 (broken). .. .icwfrv : 835 'Awo\\u- 

borrow from Roscher.) t>i8r)s 'Aff/cXijTruxSou rjpws <&i\6ira.Tpis' ol 

2 xvpiy ijpui, Dumont nos. 24, 82, \uplrfoi. ZeXetrtDi' a-refavovviv dtidlw 
33 c, 39 ; e\>\-f)v 32, 33 a, c, 39/. crrfQavu, ol /cw/u^reoi yvicfyu ore^avw 

8 Dumont 27. deiSi'w trrt<J>ai>u : JHS vii. 250, pi. C. 2. 

4 Dumont 40. 14 AM iv. 14 f., vii. 253 f.; Frohner, 

8 Dumont 61 a. Inscr. du Louvre, 263. 

6 Dumont 58, etc. 15 AM x. 208. 

i Dumont 40, 49, 102. 16 JHS v. 261 ; vii. 250 pi. C, with altar 

8 Dumont 32. and adoring women : ijpui Uepyafiut. 

9 Dumont 33 c. 6e6s ffwfav : BCH i. 366, ii. 170, 

10 Frohner, Inscr. du Louvre, 194,216. iii. 346, iv. 291, pi. ix., x. ; JHS viii. 

11 Heuzey, Hits. arch, de Mac., 399 255 ; Coll. Sab. i. E 36. 3. 

pi. 31 4 , 33 2 . 18 Cat. Berl. Sc. 813 ; AM xiii. 18 ff., 

12 BCH vi. 442. Fcuy TepnaviKif atiTOKparopi Kaicrapi, 

13 Cat. Berl. Sc. 809, 810 ; 811 *Atos female with bound hands 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 27 

The enthroned figure is combined with the horse in an 
Athenian relief 1 . The rider is also found combined with the 
Feast type, as in a slab from Tarentum. Here two male figures 
recline at the festive table, with the usual accessories, whilst a 
man leads a horse towards them 2 . 

4. In the last type, the horse forms no integral part of the 
scene. The Hero stands free, and is usually armed ; in an 
Argive relief he stands before an altar on which a boy is laying 
fuel 3 . 'In others, the female figure is over against him, pouring 
a libation. The oldest of this class known comes from Tegea, 
and is archaic 4 . Another example is in the Corfu museum, and 
has worshippers 5 . In Attica 6 and in Sicily 7 we meet with the 
same scheme, and there are others. Or the Hero gives the 
libation to a snake ; as in certain examples from Sparta 8 and 
Tarentum 9 . 

A transitional type, between this and the thank-offering 
for a victory, is seen in the piece from Palermo, where Victory 
bearing a fillet flies towards the hero 10 ; and in another, where 
Victory pours the libation 11 . 

We shall now briefly consider dedications made to particular 
Heroes, and see how far these fall into the classes defined above. 
Dedications made expressly for stated occasions, such as grati- 
tude for healing or deliverance, will however be excepted, as 
I propose to take these in the succeeding chapters 12 . 

1 Sybel 2039, Schone 111. this form so early and leave no other 

2 F-W. 1054. trace ; in late periods of course it is 

3 AM iv. 158. 6. common enough. It is hardly easier 

4 Le Bas, Voyage, pi. 103. 1. to suppose the noun QiotcXrj to be accu- 

5 Roscher i. 2565. sative, as this also is a late formula. 

6 Hon. Grecs pi. 1, = Roscher 406, There seems to be no doubt as to the 
where it is wrongly explained as Ares reading ; the hero's staff comes be- 
and Aphrodite. tween the two first words, so it is 

7 Palermo : AM viii. 370. unlikely that Aioa-Kotpoiv can be meant. 

8 Cat. Berl. Sc. 732 (archaic) ; IGA But perhaps the dedication is meant 
51 ; Collitz iii. 4400 ; Roberts, Gr. for one only ; see p. 30. 

Ep. no. 205. The inscription reads 9 Roscher i. 2566. 



.. fifi 

11 AM iv. 166, note 1. 

restored by Rohl -rol ic6poi QioK\et No- 12 p or Asclepius see ch. v. ; for Per- 
ixprida, as a dedication by the youths se phone and Demeter in their relation 
to Theocles, a man. It seems in- to agriculture, ch. u. 
credible that the dedication could take 



28 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Turning first to the chthonian deities, as most closely allied 
to what we have treated as the earliest type of worship, we find 
that Hades or Pluto 1 has more of the heroic than the divine 
about him. There appears to be only one temple recorded 
where Hades is worshipt under this name and alone, that 
seen by Pausanias in Elis 2 . He is generally associated, as 
Hades or Pluto, with the Maid and Demeter or with one of 
them 8 ; sometimes with other heroic figures, Triptolemus, 
Eubuleus, or lacchus; sometimes he goes by the name of 
Zeus Chthonius 4 , or of Buleus 5 . The practice of lectisternia 
is certain for Athens 6 , and probable for his other centres of 
worship. A terra-cotta relief from the Malian Locri 7 shows 
a remarkable likeness to the Spartan Type 1. Scherer can 
hardly be wrong in his interpretation of this work as Hades 
and Persephone 8 . The pair, a bearded male figure, with 
wreath, and a female figure with diadem and veil, sit side 
by side ; he holds a spray of flowers, narcissus apparently, and 
she a large bunch of corn and a cock. The arm of the 
throne terminates in a snake. This is all which remains; 
one quarter of the original slab. Two reliefs of the Feast 
Type 2 came to light at Eleusis; these clearly represent the 
lectisternia already mentioned. They are not of early date or 

1 Pluto is the god of wealth, and as Amorgos : AM i. 334. Myconos : 
such does not concern us here. The 'AOfyaiov ii. 237. Paros : 'AOrjvaiov v. 
name is first applied to the lord of the 15. 

underworld in Soph. Antig. 1200. Asia Minor : Acharaca, Strabo xiv. 

2 Paus. vi. 25. 2, Boscher, Diet. 1. 44. Hierapolis, Strabo xiii. 4. 14. 
' Hades ' 1788. Halicarnassus, Cnidus : Newton ii. 

3 See Preller, Gr. Myth. 302, note 1. 714. Aphrodisias : Mou<r. TT?J Evayy. 
Athens: with theEumenides, Paus. i. Zx- p. 180. 

28. 6, and at the Eleusinium, with * Their identity may be seen from 

Demeter, the Maid, and Triptolemus. II. ix. 457 Zetfs re Ka.TaxQbvi.os KOI firaivrj 

Eleusis: with Demeter, the Maid, Hepff((f>6vfia. 

lacchus, and Eubuleus (see below), 8 Eubuleus in Eleusis ; see note 3. 
BCH vii. 387 ff. CIAii. 948 950, combined: 

Coronea : with Athena, according to tirubifsaTo 6 lepo^cif TTJJ rty K\lvr)v 

Strabo ix. 2. 29. o-ai T< nXotiruvi ical TTJV rpdirf^av A 

Peloponnese : Argos, Corinth, Pylos you /card rrjv /jtavrelav rov 0eov. 
Triphylia, Sparta, Hermione, Olympia ; 7 Boscher i. 1797, after Ann. d. Imt. 

sometimes as Zeus Chthonius, or as xix. pi. F. 

Clymenus (Roscher, 1788 9). Tegea, Roscher, I.e. There was a famous 

with Demeter and the Maid: AM v. 69. shrine of Persephone in this place. 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 29 

of great artistic merit ; but they have considerable interest as 
attesting the cult of a chthonian pair in Eleusis beside the Two 
Goddesses. The first shows two pairs, each seated by a separate 
table, with a pilaster between. The pair on the right are in- 
scribed To the God and To the Goddess ; the others though not 
inscribed are probably meant for Demeter and the Maid. A 
youth holding a jug over a large amphora completes the scene 1 . 
The other, but a fragment, bears the heads, both inscribed, of 
Pluto and the Goddess side by side ; Triptolemus was present, 
and his torch still remains; so was Eubuleus 2 . 

The third type does not appear to be used in connexion 
with Pluto, but the fourth is found in a late dedication from 
Macedonia; where the god, his body naked from the waist 
upwards, stands beside Cerberus 3 . 

Of other heroic personages, the Dioscuri are represented on 
the oldest known monuments, and these from Sparta, where 
they had a chthonian character 4 , and where their worship was 
very ancient 5 . They appear chiefly in Types 3 and 4 : as a 
pair of naked youths, without attributes, mounted 6 or usually 
standing beside their horses 7 , or standing opposite each other 
without horses 8 , or holding a wreath 9 . The inscription on the 
last example declares that the dedication is made for fear of 
the wrath of the sons of Tyndarus 10 . A later relief, which may 

1 "&<f>. 'Apx- 1886, 19, plate 3: Auo-i- 5 Plut. De Frat. Am. 1. See Paus. 
fj-axiSi)? avtOriKe- deac 0eu>i. CIA ii. iii. 24. 5, 26. 3. They were also wor- 
Add. 1620 b. shipt in Messenia, Arcadia, Argolis, 

2 'E<. 'Apx- 1885, 26, plate 3 2 : Achaia, Attica : see Paus. i. 18. 1, ii. 
AaicpaTfiSris 2,w<rrpa.Tov 'Iicaptevs Ifpftis 7. 5, 22. 5, 36. 6, iii. 14. 6, 20. 2, viii. 
0eoO (cat 0eas KO.I Efy3ovA&os...inrp eairroO 9. 2, 21. 4. They were probably the 
Koi T&V vu>v...Kal rrjs Bvyarpb* X a P l ~ avaKres ircu8es of Amphissa : AMn. 86. 
ffr-rjpiov Ari/jniTpi ical K6pr]i dvtffriKfv. At Cyzicus, CIG 2157, 2158. 
H\OVTUV. Bed. Tpnrro'Xe/ioy. Etf/JovXetfs. 6 AM ii. Cat. no. 219. 
Restorations are certain, and therefore 7 F-W. 67, AM ii. Cat., nos. 14, 20, 
not indicated. CIA ii. Add. 1620 c. 201,202,209212,220. Crete: AJA 

3 Heuzey, La Ville d'Eane en Mace- N.s. i. 249, fig. 5. 
dome, Rev. Arch. N.S. xviii. 22: 6e$ 8 A M ii. no. 204. 
SeffTOTTj IlXouruvi ical Trj TroXei 'Ecu'?? 9 AM viii. 371, pi. xviii. 2. 

T. <\aotftos AeoKas, etc. (Roscher, 1792). 10 1GA 62 a IIAewTiaSas ^ dWOrjice 

4 Pind. Nem. x. 56 virb KfvBecn A.ioffKovpouri.i> a-yaXp-a.. Tivdaptddv 5i8v- 
yalas ev yva\oi.s Qepairvas. Alcman |u>v fj.ai>iv <57rt556(MVOS. AM viii. 372, 
frag. 5 virb TTJV yrjv TT;J Qepdirvr)* elvai pi. xviii. 2. 



30 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

be votive, shows two youths on horseback, clad in chiton and 
chlamys, but without the distinctive hat. They are beardless, 
and their hair is bound with a diadem 1 . In another relief two 
youths stand with an altar between ; each holds a spear, and one 
has a bowl, the other a jug 8 . Sometimes they are armed with 
swords 3 , sometimes their feet clad in boots 4 . The two urns 
frequently appear 8 , and in one case snakes are wreathed round 
them. A table also appears with something upon it, the 
silphium no doubt which we have read of 8 . Animals appear 
at their feet 7 , and of course the snake 8 ; while cocks may be 
seen in the gable 9 . 

The identification even when no horses are seen, is made 
certain by the dedication of one at least 10 . A dedication is 
found to one of the two alone 11 , which makes it possible to 
assume the same thing for a fragmentary relief which has been 
much discussed 12 . One or two late examples are offered by 
a company of persons, probably those who took part in some 
great feast 13 . Here a female figure appears, doubtless Helen. 
A relief found in Cythera shows that the cult was practised 
there 14 : and a dedication to them comes also from Thessaly 15 . 
Dedications go on until Roman times 16 . The stars, which later 
are identified with these heroes as protectors at sea, do not 
appear ; but if the story of Lysander be correctly interpreted, 
they were known in the fifth century 17 . At Tarentum the youths 
often ride or drive in a chariot 18 . 



1 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 780. fftTT/Wvrej M... followed by a list of 

2 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 781, cp. AM officials. The date is not long before 
ii. Cat. no. 220. the Christian era. 

3 AM ii. nos. 203, 206, iv. p. 126. 14 AM v. 231 M^ovSpos apfuoffr^p 

4 AM ii. no. 212. fivSaplSai... See BCH ii. 394. Paus. 
8 AM ii. nos. 209, 210. x. 9. 8. 

6 Paus. iii. 16. 3 rpaire^a KO! ari\(f>iov 1B foots neyaXois, relief of Dioscuri : 
tir' afrrj). Collitz i. 347. 

7 AM ii. no. 213. 19 AMii. Caf.no. 208 with Latin inscr. 

8 AM ii. nos. 209, 220. 17 See Plut. Lys. 18. Euripides asso- 

9 AM ii. no. 209. ciates them with the stars : do-rpou 

10 AM ii. Cat. no. 204 KaXXt/c/xrnjs o/uxutflrre, Hel. 140. But this does 
TwSapi'Sau. not imply that Lysander meant the 

11 AM ii. Cat. no. 218. stars as "symbols of the Dioscuri," 

12 IGA 51, above, p. 27. see below, p. 135. 

13 AM ii. Cat. no. 202, F-W. 1848, RM xv. 23. 
Collitz iii. 4440 IT. : the formula is oi 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 31 



The Feast Type is fully represented in a series of reliefs 
found at Tarentum. The Dioscuri, on horseback, are seen 
approaching the feast which is set out 
ready for them 1 , or reclining at table, 
their horses sometimes appearing in the 
background'''. There are always two am- 
phorae placed at the two sides, one for 
each. These amphorae are associated 
with the libation in the ritual type, where 
the Dioscuri themselves pour it upon the 
altar 3 ; or they stand beside the two 
youths, who are unclothed and without 
attributes 4 ; or they stand upon a table 5 , 
while the youths raise a stlengis to their 
heads 6 , or drive past 7 . The amphorae may 
signify either the feast or the libation ; Fl(J 6 Tablet with ^ 
and where they stand quite alone it is 
impossible to say which 8 . 

Certain Spartan reliefs show two am- 
phorae, sometimes standing upon a table. 

A slab, of the second century perhaps 9 , bears the twins clothed, 
with the typical hats, and standing upon a raised base or 
platform. A worshipper reaches out his hand to touch one of 
two large amphorae, which stand also on a high base; below 
is a small altar, with a pig carved in relief upon it. There is 
a boat in the background. 

The snake is frequent on these reliefs, and the cock 10 is 




tvia of the Dioscuri 
(from Tarentum). 
EM xv. 24, fig. 3. 



1 EM xv. 24. I regard the figures 
not as sailing through the air, but as 
approaching. The artist has not the 
skill to represent the perspective. 

2 EM xv. 27. 

3 EM xv. 7. 

4 EM xv. 8, fig. 1. 

8 The table has a rude shape : two 
square uprights joined by a balk. This 
was traditional according to Plutarch, 
De Fr. Am. 1, and called d6Ka>>a. See 
EM xv. 43. Perhaps it is meant for 
their tomb ; so at least implies Etym. 
Mag. s.v. SOKCLVO.. 



6 EM xv. 8, fig. 3. 

7 EM xv. 22, 23. 

8 K. Petersen (EM xv. 41) thinks 
they denote prizes of wine. This is 
pure imagination, and I think the 
reader will prefer the explanation 
suggested above. Nor is there any 
reason to call them symbolic ; which 
would imply that the pots could repre- 
sent the heroes. 

9 Laconia ? Now in Verona. AM ii. 
nos. 209, 210; Eoscher i. 1171: in- 
scribed. 

10 A M ii. 20. 209. 



32 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

also found. We shall meet these beings later as saviours and 
protectors, especially of those who use the sea, and as givers 
of victory 1 . There remains the base of one statue at least 
dedicated to them 2 ; and the little figures two together in 
a cradle, which have been found in several different places, 
are supposed to be they or their sons 3 . Altars dedicated to 
them have also been found 4 . A number of slabs bearing 
snakes only are in the local museum at Sparta; these may 
be connected with the Dioscuri, but there is nothing save the 
place of finding to suggest it. Dedications to the Dioscuri by 
seafarers do not meet us early ; we may instance a late one from 
the island Megiste 5 . 

Heracles enthroned (Type 1) is to be seen on a relief of 
Attic character, found in Andros, and belonging to the fifth 
century. He sits before a temple or palace, whilst a female 
pours wine into his goblet 6 . 

In the fourth century the sacrificial scheme takes a different 
form. Lysistrate dedicates to him a stone carved to resemble 
a cake or loaf, with a relief: Heracles, wearing the lionskin, 
stands by a blazing altar, towards which a boy leads a sacrificial 
swine ; a group of women and children complete the scene 7 . 
A relief from Ithome 8 shows Heracles standing before a shrine, 
beardless, with club and lionskin; there are worshippers, the 
victims are ox and sheep. An ox alone is offered on a similar 
relief 9 , and there are remains of others 10 . In one relief Heracles 
appears to be holding out his hand for something 11 . 

1 Chap. v. 7 Sybel 4014 AvvurTparr) inrtp TUV 

2 Argos: AZ 1882, p. 383 TUIV fava.- iral8mv'Hpa.K\fi dvWrjicev ; CIA ii. 1565, 
(fuv. with 1564, 1565 b, which seem to be 

3 AM x. 81, pi. 4 ; Preller, Gr. Myth. fragments of similar reliefs. The 5th 
862. cent, piece F-W. 1134 is probably 

4 CIA iii. 195, IGI Hi. Thera 421, Theseus, as the lionskin lacks. 

422, etc. 8 Sybel 320, Schone 112, who illus- 

5 Collitz iii. 4331. trates the offering of these victims 

6 F-W. 1203 ; the editor explains by Died. iv. 39. 1 (Thebes), Pollux i. 
it as Hebe pouring wine for him in 30. 

Olympus. It is true the sacrificial 9 Described by Schone, col. 56, no. 

character of the relief is not clear; 112. 

but in view of the preceding examples 10 Sybel 372, 383, 5694 ; Cat. Brit. 

I prefer to regard it as a modification Mus. Sc. 791. 

of the votive type. u AA ix. 170: cp. F-W. 1134. 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 33 

The Feasting Type (2) is represented by a late relief from 
Athens, where Heracles appears as one of a group of heroic 
figures feasting, others perhaps being Apollo and the Muses. 
The scene is fanciful, including not only the apparatus of the 
feast, but trees and little winged loves 1 . 

Even the third type is found, although Heracles is no 
horseman. On a rough Rhodian piece of Roman date he 
appears club in hand mounted upon an ass 2 . 

The fourth type appears with characteristic variations. In 
a fourth century piece from Thebes 3 , Heracles, with club and 
lionskin, stands before a Doric shrine. He holds the horn 
of plenty in his right hand, and another heroic personage, 
perhaps meant for Dionysus (for he has the thyrsus), touches 
the horn in the hand of Heracles. There are fragments of 
other figures in the scene. He also appears conjoined with 
Athena and a personification of Demus or Academus 4 . A relief 
of the fourth century, inscribed to Heracles Averter of 111, 
represents the hero with Hermes on the steps of a shrine 5 . 

His aid in war is acknowledged by the statues of Athena 
and Heracles dedicated by Thrasybulus in the shrine of Hera- 
cles 6 ; and in games, by a relief of Roman date 7 . The hero 
lies resting, his weapons hung on a tree, and the inscription 
commemorates an ephebic triumph. 

His figure also appears on decree-reliefs, with Athena for 
instance 8 . 

Reliefs of the fourth type exist which are dedicated to 
Theseus. He is a youth, with cloke on shoulder, and cap, other- 
wise naked, and worshippers appear by his side in the usual 
attitude 9 . The hero looks very much like Heracles, except for 

1 Sybel 548. Boston Museum. 

2 Cat. Berl Sc. 689 'AiroXXciiaoj 8is 6 Paus. ix. 11. 6. 

'HpaKXet dvt6r}Ke firx^v. 7 At Oxford : CIA iii. 319. Cp. 

3 F-W. 1153 E^Sets dv^Kt, Michaelis, Oxford, 135. 

figured for the first time in Boscher 8 Scenes from the Labours, and 

i. 2188 : cp. Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 791 such as the struggle with the snakes, 

(fragment). are omitted, because votive reliefs are 

4 AZ iii. 130, pi. xxxiii. 'Hpa/tXijs, always connected with cult, and never 
'AOrjva ...TI/MS. mere records of myth. 

8 A A xii. 73 'H/joKX?os 'AXea/coi; : 9 Mon. delV Inst. iv. 223, figured 

R. 3 



34 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the costume ; but where the lionskin lacks, it is safer to suppose 
that Theseus will be meant. Sosippus the dedicator is pour- 
trayed ; and another male figure, from its size not human, 
perhaps a personification of Academus. 

One relief, if properly assigned to Theseus, is of the sacrificial 
type (1): the hero stands in front of a Doric shrine, club in 
hand, and holds the horn of a sacrificial bull in token of accept- 
ance 1 . There are three worshippers. 

These types are also connected with greater deities. Reliefs 
of the Hero Enthroned are inscribed to Zeus Philios* or to 
Sabazios 3 . 

The Rider type is used for Apollo 4 . 

As a rule there is no clue to the occasion of these dedica- 
tions. We find, however, now and then, instances of such as are 
usually connected with the great gods: victory in war or the 
games 8 , fulfilment of a vow 6 , even firstfruits 7 or acknowledg- 
ment of prosperity in trade 8 . In later times, we meet with 
bases which probably carried commemorative or honorific 
statues. One from Attica is dedicated to Eubouleus 9 ; others 
by bodies of men, as the Heracleot thiasus at Megara 10 , or what 
appears to be a company of athletes at Cefalu in Sicily 11 . 
Hermon of Oropus gives an offering to Heracles on completing 
his term of public office 12 , and a board of religious overseers 
acknowledges to Theseus the vote of thanks and the crown 
which they had received for their services 13 . Father and sons 
combine in an offering to Heracles". The votive formula is 



in Boscher i. 2499 : 07j<rei5j- SuHnirwoj IGSI 1002 e&xfy (near Rome). 

HavapxiSov fotOiiKev. CIA ii. 1525, 7 CIA ii. 1547 dirapxfy. 

AZ iii. 130, pi. xxxiii. 8 Apparently the cone of baked clay, 

1 F-W. 1134 ; cp. Schone 113. with an archaic inscr., found in Italy: 

F-W. 1128 (Peiraeus) Mvvviov Ail IGSI 652 Ktpaftffc. 

*tXfwt dW0t)Kc; Scbone, pi. 25. 105; 9 CIA ii. 1620 d. 

Sybel 3751. See fig. 6 a, p. 36. 10 IGS i. 192. 

3 Conze, Inselreise, pi. 17. 7. " IGSI 349 ...Kal ol dXfwfxijtwoi 

4 AM x. 208 (Cyzicus); Dumont, 'H/>a*cXj. 

Mon. fig. de la Thrace, 40. 12 IGS i. 436 "Epnuv 'A\efr>5pov tiri- 

6 Statuette of youth with oil-flask, /ueXijTrjs ycv6/j,et>os 'HpaicXfi: cp. 2235 

and armed warriors, at Tarentum : yv^vaffiapx^ffat- 

AZ xl. 309. Above, p. 33. " CIA ii. 1180 Itpoiroioi. 

6 Base: CIA ii. 1546 eitfo^evoj; 14 CIA ii. 1563, IGSI 718 (Naples). 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 35 

used for the gift of a colonnade at Coronea 1 , and elsewhere it is 
coupled with the late addition " to the state 2 ." A dedication to 
the hero Eurymedon was found in Attica 3 . 

It remains to point out that some of these relief types became 
in later times traditional for tombstones, completely losing the 
votive character. The transition may be seen in a tombstone 
from Attica, where beneath the figure of a horseman are the 
words "Theodorus the Hero 4 ." Boeotia is richest in this 
type. There a great number of horseman-reliefs have been 
found on tombs : sometimes with the horseman alone 5 , others 
with the addition of an altar 6 , others again with mourners 
in the attitude of adoration 7 . So far is the meaning 
forgotten, that the horse must needs appear on a woman's 
tomb ; so Husa holds the animal's bridle, standing beside 
an altar 8 . So too the same scheme is used where three 
people are entombed, two men and a woman 9 . Then the old 
conception dies, giving rise to two developments. On the 
one hand, Hero is used as synonymous with 'dead,' like the 
German selig or divus of Roman emperors 10 , and the relief 
disappears. On the other hand, the horseman survives as 
a decoration for the tomb of soldiers, as in the monument 
of Dexileos and others in Attica 11 . It would appear that statues 
on horseback were often placed by the tomb of dead men, as in 
a scene depicted on a beautiful Attic vase 12 . 

The Hunt-motive also appears on tombstones 13 , but more 
rarely; it is however common in sarcophagus reliefs of Roman 
times. The Banquet type is also found on tombs, although it 
did not like the horseman set the example for a series of 
monuments wholly sepulchral. Examples are known from 

1 IGS i. 2874 K ruv iSluv 'Hpa/cXet 7 IGS iii. 1813 with woman and 
nal Ha\atfj.ovt. TTIV ffroav. child: 'Iic&rios et'pwt <JW0T]K. 

2 IGS i. 2235 yv/jLvaffiapx^ffay, 'Hpa- 8 IGS iii. 1715 eirel Moi/0-p ijpwi. 
K\eT Kal TT; 7r6\et, rrjv ffroav Kal rty 9 IGS iii. 4244. 

efaoSov Kal ras Otpas. 10 IGS iii. e.g. 2001, 2073, 2110, 

3 CIA ii. 1516. 2123, etc. 

4 CIA ii. 1619 Qebdwpos ijpus. " F-W. 1005 : cp. 1004, Cat. Berl. 
B IGS iii. 2141, 2807, etc. Sc. 742. 

6 IGS iii. 2139, 2140, 2153, 2154, 12 AM xvi. 349 ff., pi. viii. 

2628, 2690. 13 Schone, 78. 

32 



36 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



Athens 1 , from Byzantium*, from Cyzicus 8 , from Smyrna 4 , from 
Antioch 8 , and from Kertch 6 ; and the well-known scene of 
a group of seated figures, with Charon's boat approaching the 
festive board, which still stands in the Ceramicus, is one of this 
class. Horseman and Feast types are combined on a late 




FIG. 6 A. Dedication to Zeus Philios. 
Farnell i., plate ii. b. 

sepulchral monument 7 from Tomis ; and another repeats the 
last faint and confused echoes of the old types, with the tree, 
the serpent, and the horse's head 8 . Here ends the history 
of the heroic reliefs, which from prehistoric days to the 
last period of Greek art maintain their connexion with the 
dead. 



1 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 723, with 
epitaph; 724(?). 

2 Rev. Arch, xxxiii. 12, pi. 1: Mar/jo- 
dwpou TOV KaXhiyflrovos' KaXXfyeh-aw 
Marpodupou. A male figure reclines, 
a female sits, a child offers her tablets, 
a child stands in attitude of mourning, 
a third child holds a vase. Tools on 
the wall. 

3 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 736. 

4 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 737. In Lycian 
tombs Bellerophon sometimes appears 



on his winged steed: Fellows, Lycia, 
136, 181, 232. A relief from his shrine 
at Gjolbaschi is in Vienna : 0. Benn- 
dorf, VorUluf. Bericht iiber zwei osterr. 
Exped. nach Kleinasien, Wien 1883 ; 
Arch.-Epigr. Mitth. vi. 2. 

8 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 738, where 
relief and inscr. are quite uncon- 
nected. 

8 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 740. 

7 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 742. 

8 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 745. 



THE DEAD, THE HEROES, AND CHTHONIAN DEITIES. 37 



NOTE ON THE MODERN REPRESENTATIVES OF ANCIENT 
SHRINES. 

I have tried in vain to find some satisfactory enquiry into 
the genealogy of modern Greek churches and chapels. The local 
chapels are not marked on the map, and no traveller has taken the 
trouble to note their names. It would serve no useful purpose 
to print here all those I have collected ; such as seemed to 
throw light on the heroes have been given above. I will add 
a few more churches and chapels which probably stand on the 
site of ancient temples. Some indeed are built on the old 
foundations or with the materials of the old building ; amongst 
them are one or two hero-shrines, but most of these have 
remained unnoticed. References given only by volume and 
page refer to Frazer's Pausanias, where authorities may be 
found cited. 

AMBROSUS : St Elias, v. 449. 

APOLLONIA, near Brusa: St George (formerly Apollo), Geographical 
Journal, ix. 153. 

ATHENS, Parthenon : the Virgin, Byzantine times (Athena). Monas- 
tery of Daphni (temple of Apollo), ii. 496. Virgin of the Rock (Artemis), 
v. 494. Ruined chapel by the Ilissus, v. 487. 

AULIS : Byz. church of St Nicholas (Artemis), v. 79. 

BATHOS : St George (deposit of ancient votive offerings), iv. 314. 

CALYDON : St Theodore (Zeus Scotites), ii. 318. 

CORINTH : St John (Poseidon), iii. 10. 

COTILUS, Mt, near Bassae : ruined chapel on temple foundations, iv. 
405. Cave and Glen called the Virgin's Gorge (Demeter), iv. 406. 

ELATEA : St Theodore, v. 426. 

ELEUSIS : St George, or the Saviour (Cyamites), ii. 494. Ruined chapel 
of St David (Hero Lacius), ii. 491. Chapel of the Virgin, above the ruins. 

EPIDAURUS : St Michael and St Damian, a physician (Asclepius). 

ERYTHRAE: ?Byz. church (Demeter), v. 5. ?St Demetrius (Demeter) 
v. 6. 

HELICON : St Trinity (Muses), v. 151. 

LIVADIA : old church (King Zeus), v. 199. 



38 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Lusi, Arcadia: the Virgin (Artemis), Jahrethefte, iv. 33, fig. 19. 
MEOARA : St Theodore, iii. 3. 

NEMEA : chapel on mound (barrow of Opheltes or Lycurgus), iii. 93. 
ORCHOMENUS : monastery, v. 186. 

PATRAE : the sacred spring or well, beside the church of St Andrew 
(Demeter). 

TAN AGRA : ruined chapel (Dionysus), v. 79. 

TEGEA : St Nicholas (Athena Alea), iv. 425. Byz. ruin (Apollo), iv. 441. 
THEBES : St Nicholas (Heracles), v. 47. St Trinity (Athena), v. 49. 
TITANE : St Tryphon (Athena), iii. 69. 

One of the unknown hero shrines is marked by a boundary 
stone found between Zea and Munychia : HEPOIO HOPOS 
AM vi. 311. The so-called temple of Vesta (? Hercules) near 
the Tiber, became sacred to Madonna of the Sun (De Brosses, 
Letters, tr. by Lord R. Gower, p. 162). 

Something is said on this subject by Mr W. M. Ramsay, 
in his paper On the Permanent Attachment of Religious Vene- 
ration to special localities in Asia Minor (Transactions of the 
Ninth Oriental Congress in London, 1893, ii. 381391). 



II. 

TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS 1 . 



KA( ce <t><\fNoo roTc 

AAeKATeyToyc TCON 6eu>N ip&c \ONTA KoiAf&c. 

ARIST. Knights 300. 

WHEN the earth and its growths were regarded by the 
simple soul as possest or protected by unknown powers, any 
intrusion upon new dominions was thought to be dangerous 2 . 
To clear the virgin forest or reclaim waste lands for the plow, 
to dig the foundations of a house, to build a bridge, was to 
disturb the primeval owners of the place and made necessary 
a solemn sacrifice. It seems to have been very common to 
sacrifice human life on such occasions, as we see from the 
legend of the death of Remus, the figures of straw thrown 
off the Wooden Bridge at Rome, or traditions on Greek soil 
like those of the Bridge of Arta 3 . 

Often a plot of land is left barren, or a clump of trees 
unhewn, to be the abode of the spirit which has been disturbed. 

1 See Dar. and Sagl. s.v. Dekate; Folk-Lore, -a, 184. Cp. Plut. Rom. 11. 
Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyc. s.v. air- The sacrifice of a youth and a maiden 
apx~fi, SeKarrj. each year at Patras suggests an agri- 

2 " In Arabia, the local earth-demons cultural origin, for their heads were 
are still propitiated by sprinkling the bound with corn-ears : Paus. vii. 20. 1. 
blood of a sacrifice when new land is Pausanias of Damascus says of Se- 
broken up, a new house built, or a leucus Nicator, on founding Laodicea, 
new well opened " : Robertson Smith, Ovcridffas Kbp-rjv dSarj 6v6fj.ari 'Aya\jt]v, 
Religion of the Semites, 159 note, who Troikas avry ffr-/i\ijv x a ^ K ^ v et ' s ^XV 
discusses the custom. rfjs aiWfc 7r6\ews (Hist. Min. Gr. , ed. 

3 Passow, Carm. Pop. Gr. 511, 512 ; Teubner, p. 160). 



40 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



In Greece, when land was occupied by conquest or colonization, 
a portion of the land was "cut off" (re/iei/o?) for the god's 
habitation 1 . The sacred grove in an eastern village is probably 
the last remains of the primeval forest, which since the world 
began has never been toucht by plow or dug with the spade*. 
So in Greece, we find often enough the sacred tree in a village 
square, as the willow of Samos and the holy olive of Delos 8 , 
the plane tree at Delphi 4 , Helen's plane at Sparta 5 ; or the 
sacred grove, as the olive groves of Athens 6 , or the groves 
of Artemis with their game which no man might kill 7 . This 
may be the origin of the grove at the hero's shrine, of the 
speaking oaks of Dodona, and of other trees associated with 
divine beings ; which like their attendant animals appear 
sometimes to have been selected for no other reason than that 
they were found on the spot 8 . But when animals were bred 
for use, and agriculture brought to men the kindly fruits of 
the earth, their gratitude for past favours and lively sense 
of favours to come would naturally prompt acknowledgment. 



1 Aesch. Earn. 400; Soph. Track. 
245 ; Thuc. iii. 30, 50 ; IGA 8 ; CIA i. 
31, 32; Nicias ap. Ath. xiii. 609 E 

Lv KTicrai>Ta...,fs -fjv KarotKi- 
Happaffluv Tivas r^/tevos /col ftu/jibv 
Ar)/j.rrrpi 'EXevcrivia. 

2 Journal of the Royal Asiatic So- 
ciety, 1899, p. 238. So the last remains 
of the Cedars of Lebanon are enclosed 
and bear a reputation for sanctity 
amongst the Christians. 

3 Paus. viii. 23. 5. 

4 Ath. xv. 701 D. 

8 Theocr. xviii. 45. 

6 Suidas s.v. noplai. 

7 Philostr. Imag. i. 28. 

8 Pausanias tells of the tragic death 
of Hyrnetho, and how she was buried 
and a shrine made in her honour; 
adding that all the "olives and other 
trees " which grew there were sacred to 
her (ii. 28. 7). Victors' crowns of wild 
olive, pine or parsley, and laurel were 
taken from the trees or plants which 
grew near. A similar reason is given 



"H/>a 

TOVS 

raws. 



for the use of Xtfyoy at Samos Ath. xv. 
673 D, and ivy 675 D tiri rbv idaffivov art- 
<f>avov rj\6ov avr6fjiaT6v re /ecu iro\iiv 6vra 
xal /caret irdvra rbirov yevvu^evov (Philo- 
nides). Of course explanatory tales 
spring up. For the animals compare 
Ath. xiv. 655 A B and Philonides in 
'HXfov (iv (paffi ylyvtaOai 
tv 'AOfycus S( y\avKas ' 17 
itf\ftas 8ia<pt>povs ' i) d' tv 
rb \pvaovv, <pa.<rlv, dpvidwv 
/ca\\i/tt6p<oi;s Ka2 irfpifiXbr 
C irepl 5 rb iepbv rrjs wapOtvov tv 
flfflv ol KaXoijfJievoi 6pvi6fs /j.e\eaypides. 
The commonness of owls at Athens 
gave rise to the proverb y\a.vic' ' AOrivafc. 
The owl on Athena's hand, or on the 
coins, may have been originally nothing 
more than a mark of differentiation. 
The inevitable result was that these 
creatures came to be regarded as 
sacred. I do not suggest the same 
origin for them all ; the mouse of 
Apollo Smintheus, for example, or the 
bull of Zagreus. 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 41 

The beneficence of the earth deities must be recognised, or it 
might be withheld : hence vintage and harvest time were 
natural seasons for sacrifice and worship 1 . The offering of 
firstlings or firstfruits, then, appears to be partly an act of 
propitiation, by which precious things hitherto forbidden might 
be made available ; partly an act of gratitude and hope. The 
rite itself, in some cases at least, had a sacramental character, 
the god and his worshippers being conceived of as partaking 
of the same food : a striking parallel to the interpretation 
already suggested of the Hero- Feast 2 . The idea that these 
ceremonies made it lawful to enjoy the gifts of the gods is 
expressly voucht for in Greece 3 . 

We are not now concerned with proving the principles here 
assumed, nor with illustrating them by examples. It is worth 
while however to note one or two significant points in the 
practices of savage tribes. One is, that firstfruits are often 
offered to the ghosts of departed ancestors 4 . So we have seen 
the funeral feast held in the shrines of the heroized ancestors 
in Sparta ; and firstfruits and tithe offered to a hero 5 . Again, 
the kings or chiefs often take the place of the gods, or, when 
ritual is developed, the priests have at least a share 6 . So in 
the Greek temples, the priest always had his perquisite of 



1 For the principles here laid down, /card rds x^P a ^ O-VTOV d<t>TJKev, IV 
and examples in proof, see Frazer, \vfj.^vtjTai. 

Golden Bough* ii. 318 ff., 459 ff. ; 3 Schol. Arist. Pint. 660 : 6<nw0et'<r7;j 

Robertson Smith, Religion of the Se- TT/J ffvelas KCLI rCiv dirapyndT&v tiri T&V 

mites, 240 ff., 463. In Frazer p. 468 /Sw/u.wi' reOtvruv, d-irrovras rov /Sw/ioO -fj 

the Tonga chieftain thanks the gods TOV KO.VOV ical ewKpOtyyovTai. 6'<ria, /cai 

for their bounty in favouring the land rare e<7Ti rots OTTO TT/S Ovtrtas d5ws 

with a good prospect of harvest, and xpTjffOai. 

prays that their beneficence may be 4 Frazer, 463 (Malay), 464 (Fiji), 

continued. Where the thing is not 466 (Solomon Islands), etc. So the 

sought for use, it was natural to dedi- Scythians did, Herod, iv. 71. The Mag- 

cate the whole : thus Theseus, after netes of Thessaly offered firstfruits of 

mastering the Marathonian bull, sacri- their herb simples to Cheiron, himself 

ficed it to Athena in the name of the of the nature of heroes : Plut. Symp. iii. 

township of Marathon (Paus. i. 27. 1. 3. The Athenians offered firstfruits 

10). to the shades of the na.paduvoijAx.ai. : 

2 Schol. Arist. Knights 1238 Oeneus, Thuc. iii. 58 (irdvruv dirapxds). 
sacrificing the firstfruits, OVK ZOvaev 5 Above, p. 17. 

66ev 6pyiff8eiffa ffvv fdyav 6 Frazer, 468, etc. 



42 



CJREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



a slaughtered victim. Where the tribal feast became a social 
institution, the tithe still continued to be paid at the feast 1 . 
And again, firstfruits were offered not only from corn and vine, 
but from flocks or fish or the produce of the chase ; and loaves 
or cakes are sometimes made from the sacred portion of grain*. 
The practice of making up a sheaf of corn or the like into 
the shape of a human figure, and preserving it until the next 
year, is also found in connexion with the harvest celebrations 8 . 
We know so little of the every-day life of the Greek 
farmer, that it is impossible to say how far he kept up the 
ancient rites. Were Stratonicus and Eudemus alone, when 
the one left a plot of ground unsown in his field in honour 
of Pan 4 , and the other dedicated in his a shrine to Zephyrus, 
because he had helped him to winnow the corn 6 ? or the old 
vinedresser in Philostratus, when he set apart a corner for 
his hero Protesilaus 6 ? What was that local precinct, where the 
farmers are bidden sacrifice to Asclepius and Hygieia 7 ? or the 



1 Dosiadas, Cretan History, ap. Ath. 
iv. 143 A ot 5 AVKTIOI ffvvdyovtri i*v TO. 
Kon'a ffvfffflria oCrws' XicaffTos r(av yivo- 
fifruv Kapiruv avafepti r^v SeKdrifv fit 
rr)i> traiplav. 

2 Frazer, 468, 469, etc. 

3 Frazer, 216 ff. 

4 Anth. P. vi. 79. Compare the 
curious Shetland custom: "In the yard 
near the stiggie was often to be seen a 
small skroo of corn, standing apart 
from the rest. This was the annual 
offering set apart to Broonie, a house- 
hold deity whose annual services were 
thus secured." Shetland Folk-Lore, 
John Spence: Lerwick 1899, p. 174. 
" In a corner of the looder [in a Shet- 
land water mill] stood a toyeg (a small 
straw basket), containing as much corn 
as would be a hurd o' burstin. This 
was the annual offering to the Water 
Neugle, in order to insure the good 
offices of his godship. When this was 
neglected, the Neugle would some- 
times grasp the tirl and stop the mill, 
and could only be dislodged by drop- 



ping a fire-brand down by the light- 
ning tree " (p. 172). So in the N.-W. 
provinces of India, firstfruits of sugar 
and corn are dedicated before use : 
North Ind. Notes and Queries, 1893, 
203. An old Boeotian inscr., IGS 
i. 1670, appears to dedicate firstfruits 
to Demeter. So the farmer, in exor- 
cising the mice, gives them a plot for 
themselves : tj-opiclfu (ivs TOVS evravOa. 



a\\ov tdfftrrf diou/ju yap aypbv vfui> 
r6vde, Geoponica xiii. 6. 4. Compare 
the story of Poseidon's temple on dis- 
puted ground, Paus. ii. 22. 4. It is 
the same idea which makes the Pythia 
ordain that the Cirrhaean land should 
lie waste : Aesch. Ctes. p. 406 TTJI> \apav 
afrrwv (KiropO'fiffavTas Kal afirovt dvdpa- 
s dvaOewat rip 'Air6\\wvt rtf 
Kal Ty 'Apr^fjuSi Kal ATJTOI KO! 
'AOrjvif. Ilpovoia tvi Trd.<ry depyiq. 
8 Anth. P. vi. 53. 

6 Philostratus, Heroicus 286 = 665. 

7 Attica (Roman date) : Itpbv TO 

TOV 'AffK\i)iriov Kal TTJS ' 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 43 

private plot at Cnidus, consecrated to the infernal deities 1 ? Was 
the shepherd of Theocritus alone, when he feasted at the altar 
of Demeter at the threshing-floor, and did he perchance dress up 
a sheaf to represent bounteous Mother Earth 2 ? These questions 
can never be answered now; but it does not follow by any 
means that there was nothing of the kind because we hear 
so little about it. There needs a reaction from city life, and 
the self-conscious art of a later age, to suggest that rustic 
merrymakings are worth describing. But when the glorious 
prime of the ancient cities is past, and they have all come 
under the iron rule of Rome, then the old country customs, 
which had survived so many vicissitudes, come into our view. 
Such scenes as Longus describes in his pretty pastoral tale 
could not be the invention of his own day ; and I make no 
apology for quoting from him in illustration of the time when 
Peisistratus was not yet born. " A cave of the nymphs there 
was," he writes 3 , " being a great rock hollow within and rounded 
without. The images of the nymphs themselves were carved 
out of stone: unshod feet, arms bare to the shoulder, hair loose 
and flowing down over the neck, a girdle about the waist, 
a smile on the brow ; their whole aspect was as it were a troop 
of dancers. The mouth of the cave was in the centre of the 
great rock. And from it a spring of water bubbled up into 
a rippling stream, so that a delightful meadow stretcht out 
before the cave, with much fresh grass fed by the water. And 
there were offerings of milk-pails and cross-flutes and pipes 
and reeds, dedicated there by the older shepherds." Hard by 
was a pine tree, with an image of Pan ; horned, goat-footed, 
syrinx in hand 4 . Here the country folk worship the nymphs, 
sacrificing to them and praying them to interpret their dreams, 
and in the spring-time wreathing the heads of the statues with 



TOVS yeupyovs Kal TOVS irpo<rx<i>povs <f>ortpriffiv txoura. 
TOO> ffeoiv ffi 6e/MS, BCH v. 262. 3 Longus, Daphnis and Chloe, i. 4, 

1 Newton, Branchidae 380, 407. iv. 26, 32, 39. Cp. Xenophon, Symp. 

2 Theocr. vii. 154 rolov veKrap...olov vii. 5. 

8^ rdica. irufM 8ieicp<u>d.(ra.Te, vtipQai, 4 Longus ii. 24. Achilles Tatius 

fiunf Trap Ad/xaTpoj dX^dSoj ;...< 5e viii. 6 speaks of Pan dedicating a 

ye\dff(rat dpd.yfjt.ara Kal fj.&Kwvas iv dp- syrinx in a cave. 



44 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

flowers 1 . After the vintage and wine-treading, he says of 
his rustic pair, "in great joy they worshipt the nymphs, 
bringing them bunches of grapes as firstfruits after the vintage 2 . 
Indeed, they had not neglected this in the former time, always 
waiting upon them as they set out for their pasturing, and 
worshipping them when they returned ; and always they brought 
some offering, flower or fruit or fresh leafage, or again a 
libation of milk. And this in time brought them a recompense 
from the goddesses 8 ." Songs and pipings and dancings in 
their honour were not wanting 4 . In misfortune, Daphnis 
vows the sacrifice of a goat for help, and an answer is given 
in dreams 5 . His prayer heard, he chooses the best of his 
flock, crowns him with ivy, slays and flays him, and hangs 
up the skin at the holy place, adding thereto a libation of 
milk. The flesh, after a portion offered, and the rest of 
the milk, he and Chloe themselves partake of. The same 
ceremony, with a libation of wine, is done before the statue 
of Pan. Limbs and skulls of animals, part of the sacrifice 
no doubt, were hung up on trees by the farmers to ensure 
fertility 6 . 

Some such scenes as these we may fairly assume to have 
been common in Greece from early times. Homer alludes as a 
matter of course to the altars of the nymphs, where all way- 
farers did sacrifice 7 , to their caves 8 , and to their dances 9 . The 
god might vary with place and age, appropriate titles being 
added to the greater gods 10 , or late-comers taking over the 
rights and duties of their predecessors as the successive tenants 

1 Longus i. 9, 32. 7 Od. xvii. 210, a spring, a grove, 

2 dirapxds. and wyuds 5' tyvirepOf T^TVKTO vvfjuf>dui>, 

3 Longus ii. 2. 59i irdires tirtpptfcffKov odirai. Coupled 

4 Longus i. 36, 37, ii. 3. with Hermes xiv. 435. 

5 Longus ii. 24, 30, 31, iv. 34. 8 Od. xiii. 350 fftrtos...ti>0a. <ri> ToXXas 

6 Schol. Arist. Plut. 943 eidiOaffi TOIS tpSarKfS v6n<p-Qffi reXi;6ro-as ar6/u/3aj. 
Stvdpott Kuj\a Kai icpavta. trpoffiraTTa- 9 Od. xii. 318. 

Xetfeti' irpds ajrorpoirijj' pafficavtas ol 10 Demeter XX6^ or Ei/x^6i;. 'Afjutla, 

yew/ryot, irpds TO /XTJ r)pai>()i)vat. avrd. ''Eir&yjju.os ; Dionysus Ai^ln;* ; Zeus 

His explanation is not necessarily "Erdevdpos, 'Ovupefa, 'Ewucdpirios ; Po- 

true, but it is the reason given by the seidon 4>t/T<iX/uos, <l>i5/uoj are a few 

modern Greeks for doing the same examples. See Usener, Gotternamen, 

thing. 242 ff. 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 



45 



of the oracular cave did at Delphi 1 . We find not only the 
local hero Agenor blessing the Argive flocks at his tomb 2 , nor 
the national hero Heracles associated with Hermes and Cybele 
amongst the mountains 3 ; but the " hero " and the " heroine," 
nameless, coupled with Zeus Anthaleus in a farmer's calendar*, 
Demeter guardian of flocks in Sicily 5 as she was giver of 
corn, Apollo as shepherd's god in many places 6 , perhaps 
Aphrodite even when she rides on the goat 7 . Sicilians make 
prayer for prosperity to the Mothers, and offer all kinds of 
acknowledgments 8 . Gram is offered to Cybele 9 . But the 
countryman's eyes were generally turned to Artemis and Pan, 
two of the most ancient deities of the Greeks, coupled with 
Hermes 10 and the Nymphs. Wreaths of corn were offered yearly 
to Artemis in Patrae 11 . Artemis is usually worshipt by herself, 
until later she became associated with Apollo ; but the others 
go in a group together'for the most part 18 . The Nymphs were 
often confused with the Graces and the Seasons, but each group 
seems to have had its own particular dances 13 . 



1 Aesch. Eum. prologue. 

2 Plut. Quaest. Gr. 80. 

3 Aristides v. 65 aXXa /J.TJV "Eppov ye 
icai 'H/>a/cX^ous ecrrt vvv a'yd X^tara Koivd 
...tdois 8' &v /cat ti> opfffi /^(rots 'Hpa/cX^a 
irapa inijTpi 6euv, /cat ev Affrecn, /cat ira.- 
\iv o.Z avv AioffKvpois. Pan associated 
with Cybele, AM xxi. 275. 

4 AJA x. 210 (from Marathon) ijpw- 
tvrii, 'loX^wt ols, Kou/}orp60wt xo'pos, ijput, 
Neapfai, Mofpau, Zeiu 'AvflaXei/s, yfj ey 
ytiais, etc. One Tipuivrj receives TO. upaia ; 
since no price is named (which is done 
for the other offerings) I take these to 
be firstfruits. Zeus was also called 
Few/xyis. Sophocles speaks of giving 
T^\T) HyKapira Krjval^) Ai, Track. 238. 

8 MaXo06/>os, Paus. i. 44. 3 ; Collitz 
iii. 3046. She is worshipt in a cave, 
Paus. viii. 42. 4. 

6 eTri/u^Xios in Camirus, irolfjLvios and 
rp&yios in Naxos (Macrob. Sat. i. 17. 
45, Steph. s.v. rpayia), /j.a\6ets in 
Lesbos (Thuc. iii. 3, Steph., Hesych.), 
Kapetos (Preller, Gr. Myth., Index). 



See Stephani, Compte Rendu 1870, 
p. 100. He is also called lord of the 
earth, Plut. Quaest. Gr. 24. 

7 (TTiTpayia : compare ^Trt/itijXtoj and 
rpdyios of Apollo. The artistic form 
may be due to the form of the word, 
which might mean riding upon a goat. 

8 Diod. iv. 80. 

9 Dittenberger, Sylloge, 377 8 . 

10 Hermes was a special guardian of 
flocks : Paus. ii. 3. 4. 

11 Paus. vii. 20. 3. 

12 But first-figs were offered to 
Hermes. Corp. Paroemiogr. Gr. i. p. 
157 etTTore ydp <f>aveii) truKov, TOVTO rt$ 

i, TOVTO df oi /3ov\6fj.evoi 



13 Philostr. Apoll. iv. 21. 73 : at the 
Dionysia there were dances in the 
theatre, differing from the choric 
dances, TO. ntv ws w/>as, TO. Se ws vv/j.<j>as, 
TO. d ws Bd>cx aJ TrpdTTOvffiv. See also 
Heuzey, La danseuse voilee d'Auguste 
Titeaux, BCHxvi. 73 ff. ; Heydemann, 
VerMllte Tanzerin, Halle 1879. 



46 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

The offerings were made to Hecate also, as to Hermes, at 
their wayside statues, cakes, cheese, and fish 1 . Firstfruits were 
also offered to Hestia 8 . 

The worship of Pan and the Nymphs was widespread in 
Greece, and the literary tradition probably gives a very in- 
adequate idea of their importance. As the peasant of to-day 
fears the mysterious Neraidhes, who can bewitch him to death, 
or strike him deaf, dumb, or blind 8 ; so in ancient days the 
dweller in solitudes feared that panic madness or nymph-stroke 
which the god and his woodland elves could plague him with*. 
Pan ruled the mountains and the forests ; gave luck to the 
hunter, and kept the flocks from harm 5 . He appears in classical 
times as the national god of Arcadia 6 , where Artemis was also 
at home 7 , and where if anywhere we should expect to find the 
most ancient faith and ritual of Greece : but his sanctuaries 
are dotted over the land from Cape Malea to Macedon 8 . In 
particular, wherever there is a notable cave or grotto, there we 
are likely to find him ensconced. At Delphi, when Apollo was 
a new-comer, Pan and his nymphs took refuge in the Corycian 
cave 9 . It was a cave of the Nymphs in which Ulysses hid his 

1 See Pausanias Index for the way- xix. 5. Priapus was also worshipt 
side Hermes; and for Hecate, AM " where there are pastures for goats or 
iii. 194. Schol. Arist. Plut. 594 KO.T& swarms of bees " (Paus. ix. 31. 2), but 
vov(jLrji>la.v ol ir\ov<Tioi tire/j.iroi> Sfiirvov he plays a small part in dedications. 
Ifftrtpas uffirep dvalav rrj 'EccciTfl iv rotj Paus. viii. 26. 2. 

T/>t65ois. Schol. Arist. Peace 277 5ia- 7 Lusi. 

pbyTov T\V rit Z-qplvdiov dvrpov, tv&a. TT^V 8 Sanctuaries : Heraea (Paus. viii. 

'EKdrijv 6pyidfeiv \tyero, Kal TeXerds 26. 2), near Lycosura (viii. 36. 7), Mega- 

rjyov avry Kal Ktivas tOuov. lopolis (viii. 30. 2), Acacesium (viii. 37. 

2 Schol. Arist. Wasps 846 (she askt) 8) ; also at Sicyon (ii. 10. 2), near 
dirapxfa Ovontvuv avrrj v^fffOai -a-pury Argos (ii. 24. 7), atTroezen (ii. 32. 5), 
wapa TUV dvOpuiruv. at Oropus (i. 34. 2), in Thessaly 

3 I met an old goatherd in Lesbos, (Theocr. vii. 103), and others named 
who told me that one night on the in the text. The Sicilians held feasts 
hills he heard the sound of bells rung and vigils in honour of the Nymphs at 
by the Neraidhes, which made him to their own homes : Timaeus ap. Ath. 
be deaf ever after. For more on this vi. 250 A tOovs ovroj Kara ZuctXlav 0v<ria.s 
head see Schmidt, Volkslcben der iroifurOau Kara rds olidas rals VVH<JMI.S ica.1 
Neugriechen, 98 fif., and my paper in trepl T&. dydXnara iravvv\lfiv, /j.tdvffKo- 
Folk-Lore, vii. 145. /t&ovs, 6pxeiff6ai re wepl rds 0eds. 

4 Paus. x. 23. 7. 9 Paus. x. 32. 7. Still to be identi- 
8 Paus. viii. 38. 8, Horn. Hymn fied by inscriptions : see Collitz ii. 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 



47 



treasures when he returned to his native isle 1 . In Attica the 
popularity of Pan dates from the Persian invasion, although 
the story implies that he was there worshipt before 2 . The 
people consecrated 3 a grotto to him under the acropolis, and 
establisht a torch-race in his honour. At Vari there was a cave 
and garden of the Nymphs 4 , and a grotto of Pan on Parnes 5 . A 
shrine of the Nymphs down by the Ilissus was known to Plato, 
who in speaking of it implies that such a sight was common 6 ; 
and to Euripides, who alludes to the votive tablets hung in 
these places 7 . The nymphs had caves in Cithaeron 8 , Samicum 9 , 
Siphnos 10 , Pan at Marathon 11 and Calamata 1 *. The belief in a 
plurality of Pans, which has left some traces 13 , may be due to 
the number of places where he was worshipt, aided no doubt 
(but at what date first we know not) by a popular derivation 
of the name from 7ra<f. His general favour is attested by the 



1536. For other sacred caves see : 
IGS i. 3094 (Lebadea) ; Collitz iii. 
4673 (Messenia) ; caves in Euboea 
sacred to Dionysus (Paus. ii. 23. 1) ; 
in Cyprus sacred to Apollo and Anassa, 
Collitz i. 31, 32, 38 ; rb Xapdiviov avrpov 
at Acbaraca, Strabo xiv. 1. 44. The 
caves of Ida and Dicte in Crete are not 
alone ; a cave is sacred to Hermes 
Cranaeus (Mus. Ital. ii. 914) ; another 
to Hermes at Ehethymna (Melidhoni) 
(GIG 2569) ; cave of Rhea in Mount 
Lycaeus (Paus. viii. 36. 3) ; a cave in 
Phrygia, sacred to the Mother (Paus. 
x. 32. 3) ; another, to Heracles, Her- 
mes, and Apollo (5) ; one near Mag- 
nesia, to Apollo (6) ; cave of Apollo 
in Delos ; of Poseidon at Taenarum 
(Paus. iii. 25. 4); of Hecate (Schol. 
Ar. Peace 277). 

1 Od. xiii. 349. It is identified with 
a stalactite cavern, just above the 
little bay of Dhexd, the next " on the 
right hand " before you enter the 
harbour of Vathy. 

2 Herod, vi. 102, Paus. i. 28. 4. His 
worship is alluded to by Lucian, 
Dialogues of the God*, xxii. 2 ; and 



Schol. to Clem. Alex. Strom, iii. 45, 
p. 49 in Potter. Schol. Arist. Lysistr. 2 
liavl upyiafav al yvvaiKes //.era Kpavyfjs. 

3 Or reconsecrated ? 

4 CIA i. 423 ff. 

5 CIA iii. 210, AM v. 291. 

6 Phaedrus 230 B f/ re yap irXaravos 
avri) fjiaX 1 dfJ.<pi\a^s re Kal 1^77X77, TOV 
Te ayvov rb C^os Kal rb avffKiov tray- 
Ka\ov,...TJ re aft Trrjyi) -^apieffTart] virb 
T^J TrXardVov pel yuaXa \l/wxj>ov liSaros, ws 
'ye rtfi irodl TK(jnqpacr6ai' Nvfupwv re 
TIVUV Kal 'A.\e\<jov lepbv airb rGiv Kopuv 
re Kal d'yaXjudraw l-oiicfv elvai. Dedica- 
tions to the Nymphs and Achelous, 
AM x. 282, GIG 470 b. 

I Eur. Ion 492. So in hero shrines, 
Aeneas Tacticus xxxviii. 10. 

8 Paus. ix. 3. 9. 

9 Paus. v. 5. 11. 

10 IGA 399. 

II Paus. i. 32. 7, still easily identi- 
fied ; Frazer, ad loc. p. 439. 

12 IGA 74. 

13 Arist. Eccles. 106" w floVes, u 
Kopi^cwrej. Aristides i. 14, Paus. viii. 
37. 2. Compare Lucian's remarkable 
story of Great Pan's death. 



48 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

sixth book of the Anthology, where he receives more dedica- 
tions than any other deity there mentioned 1 . It is remarkable 
that in the matter of temples and shrines he falls far behind 
most of the others 2 ; but there are traces that his power had 
dwindled from what it once was 8 . He is in fact essentially 
a deity of country life ; and in his worship bears to the great 
city gods much the same relation as the heroes. We are not 
surprised to find, then, that he is neglected in after days. 
" They don't treat me as I deserve at all," Lucian makes him 
say 4 , " far worse indeed than I might have expected, when I 
defended them from all that barbarian garboil. However, they 
do come up twice or thrice in the year, with an unmistakable 
billygoat smelling most rank; then they sacrifice him, and 
make a feast of the flesh, calling me to witness their jollity 
and honouring me with a handclap or two." So we find the 
farmer or breeder, if he were able, consulting the famous 
oracles in his own interest. At Dodona, the only place which 
has yielded a series of such documents hitherto 6 , Cleotas 
enquires of Zeus and Dione whether he shall have profit and 
benefit of his sheep-rearing 6 ; others ask how they are to prosper 
in their business 7 , or desire a recommendation to some other 
"god or hero" who may be depended upon 8 . I have already 
pointed out how the later gods usurp the rights of the earlier. 
At this stage differentiation comes in : thus in a Rhodian 



1 Thirty-four in all ; as against deities outnumber male by 57 to 43 
Athena 27, Artemis 26, Aphrodite 23, per cent. 

Apollo 21, Hermes and Dionysus 16 3 Paus. viii. 37. 11. 

each, Priapus, Demeter, Cybele 10, * Lucian, Bit Accusatus, 10. 

Zeus, Poseidon, and the Nymphs alone * One fragment was found at Delphi : 

9, the Muses 7, Hera, Heracles 5, Collitz ii. 2970 ; and a few others are 

Asclepius, Ares 3, the others two or one. recorded. 

2 Statistics are given by G. B. 6 Collitz ii. 1559 : tpovriii K\eoi/ras 
Hussey, A JA vi. 59 ff. ; the order is rbv Ata teal rb.v Ai^xa?, at ten avrol 
Apollo, Artemis, Athena, Zeus, Aphro- irpo^arfvovri 6vaiov xal d><f>f\i.fj.ov. 

dite, Demeter, Dionysus, Asclepius, 7 Collitz ii. 1561 c, 1568. 

Poseidon, Hera, Cybele, Heracles, 8 Collitz ii. 1582, etc. The god's 

Eileithyia, Dioscuri : after which replies are tantalising indeed, and keep 

Tyche, Hermes, Pan, the Maid, Ares, up the oracular mystery. They break 

Pluto, the Fates, and Ge come to- off at the interesting part, 
gether. The rest are rare. Female 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 49 

inscription, offerings of grapes are made to Bacchus, of sheaves 
to Deo, of olives to Athena 1 . 

We may take it, then, that the offerings of firstfruits recorded 
in the Anthology, though late in date and at times fanciful, do 
not misrepresent the ancient custom. Sheaves are offered to 
Deo in thanks for a good harvest 2 ; even if the earing be small, 
she must have her share, a handful of corn and a few seeds laid 
on a wooden stool 3 . Or the same offering is made to the 
Nymphs, as a tithe of winnowing 4 . At the vintage, grapes 
are offered to Aphrodite*; grapes, figs, and pomegranates are 
the portion of Priapus 6 . So the herdsman offers his milk to 
Pan 7 , the bee-keeper his honey 8 . The firstfruits may also take 
the form of cakes dedicated to Pan and Priapus 9 , or Hermes 
of the Roads 10 ; a cake is laid in a basket on the threshing-floor 
as a thank-offering to Demeter 11 . Three jars of wine are offered 
to Bacchus and the Satyrs as the firstfruits of three vineyards 12 . 

There is a striking parallel to these ancient customs in the 
communion feast of a modern panegyris, especially when this 
falls in harvest time or vintage. In some places, the pious will 
eat nothing of grape or grain until it has been blest by the 
priest at the harvest home. The service on the saint's day 
always begins about sunrise; and after it is over, the holy 
bread (which has been provided by some of the more well-to-do 
of the company) is handed round. The people emerge : in the 
precinct stand little tables, on which stand bunches of grapes 
and small decanters of mastick, also a gift, which all taste of, 
as they eat the pieces of consecrated bread, wishing each other 
a happy year in the set formula. Then too in the church may 
sometimes be seen offerings in kind, when they are such as to 
last : as the sponge-fisher's tribute, chosen from his last takings, 

1 IGS i. 781. 5 Anth. Pal. vi. 119. 

2 Anth. Pal. vi. 36. 6 Anth. Pal. vi. 22. 

3 Anth. Pal. vi. 98 <?K fUKpdv 6\L- 7 Anth. Pal. vi. 99. 
yiffra. Anth. Pal. vi. 239. 

* Anth. Pal. vi. 225. See Dionysius Anth. Pal. vi. 232. 

ap. Ath. ix. 401 F : vvfj.<f>C>v virb air-fi- 10 Anth. Pal. vi. 299 : compare pp. 

\vyya rr\v a.vr()<TTeyov vvaypov fKpb\fiov 45, 46, above. 

ttiOypov /cXi/eij/, $ TrXetoT' airapxas dicpo- u Anth. Pal. vi. 258. 

0tvidofj.ai. 12 Anth. p a i ^ 44. 

R. 4 



50 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

which hangs beside the icon of the patron saint. Even a 
last trace of the Corn-maiden seems to survive, in a curious 
plaited mat made of the ripe ears, hung up in the peasants' 
houses 1 , which bears a distant resemblance to a begowned 
human figure. 

In like manner the huntsman paid his devoirs to Artemis 
Agrotera, or Pan, or other deities of the woodland, in local 
shrines or under a tree 2 : where he hung up the head, horns, 
and skin, and offered a share of the catch 8 . One of the local 
shrines is described by Philostratus 4 , and another may be seen 
on a marble relief 8 . " There is a shrine of the goddess at hand," 
says Philostratus, "and an image smooth with age, and the 
heads of boars and of bears ; and thereby live wild beasts at 
large, fawns and wolves and hares, all tame and fearing man 
not at all." Evidence has at last been found of the antiquity 
of these customs, in the temple of Artemis at Lusi ; where 
have been found stags' horns with boars' tusks and the teeth 
of bears in numbers, apparently the relics of early offerings 6 . 
Xenophon offered a tenth of his hunting to Artemis in the 
private shrine which he built 7 . King Philip slew a wild bull 
at Arbela, whose horns and skin he consecrated to Heracles 8 ; 

1 See my paper in Folk-Lore, vii. and were built up for a whim, like the 
147, with photograph. I have seen pile of tripods at Dodona (Steph. s.v. 
these as far east as Lesbos, where they Auduvi)). Deer were sacrificed toArte- 
are regular, and rarely on the main- mis,attheElaphebolia, inPatrae(Paus. 
land of Greece. The people call them vii. 18. 12, Bekker, Anecd. i. 249), the 
\fsd0a, ' mat,' or crirdpi, ' corn,' and have hunter's firstfruit being made a custom, 
forgotten what they once meant. Skins of African buffaloes were hung 

2 Diodorus (iv. 22) tells of an im- in the temple of Heracles at Rome 
pious man, iv pv rots tuirpoaOfv (Ath. v. 221 F). 

Xpbvois fluOtvat rCiv \ri<p&tvTwv ffrjplwv 4 Philostr. Imag. i. 28 TT\V 'Ayporlpav 

rets Kf<pa\ds KO.I robs 7r65as dva.Ti$frat irpottvrfs q.ffovra.1, ieu>j ydp TIS avrrjs 

TT; 'Aprt/jLiSi leal irpoffi)\ovv TO<J StvSpeffi, tKfi /cat 8.ya\/M \eioi> virb TOV XP^ VOV 

who dedicated one to himself, with KO.I vvCiv \-0o\ai nal dpuruv, v^/wrai 5' 

disastrous results. atirrj ical 6t)pla dvtra, vffipoi /cat \VKOI KU.I 

3 Schol. Arist. Pint. 943, Diod. iv. \aywol, irdvra ijfj.epa Kal /J.T) 6f5i6ra robs 
22, Philostr. Imag. i. 28. 6 : wpurdypia, dvOpuirovs. 

irpwr6Xeta, dupoffivia. Or money : Ar- 5 Roscher i. 311, from Braun, Ant. 

rian De Yen. 33. The altar at Delos, Basrel. figs. 9, 10, pi. 77. 
built of horns, has no demonstrable 6 Jahreshefte iv. 37, 58. 
connexion with hunting ; the horns 7 Xen. Anab. v. 3. 9. 
were doubtless relics of many sacrifices, 8 Anth. Pal. vi. 114 116. 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 51 

and following the Greek custom, a party of elephant hunters 
in Egypt dedicated their catch 1 ; whilst Hadrian the Emperor 
dedicated in Thespiae the firstling of a bear hunt*. In the 
Anthology, skin and antlers of a slain stag are offered to 
Artemis 3 , or the horns hung on a tree for Pan 4 . A hunter in 
chase of a wild bull, knocks off his horn with the hunting- 
cudgel, and hangs it upon a wild pear-tree 6 . Two brothers 
dedicate stags' heads to Apollo, hanging them in the porch of 
his temple 6 . A lionskin and claws are hung on a pine tree 
for Pan 7 , a wolfskin upon a plane 8 , a boar is offered to him 
under a birch tree 9 . Hunters' dedications are found as late 
as the sixth century after Christ 10 . Perhaps we may include 
here the elephant's skull which Pausanias saw in a shrine of 
Artemis in Campania 11 . 

The fisherman also dedicates firstlings, and not to one god 
only. It seems to have been the custom for tunny-fishers after 
a good haul to offer the first tunny caught to Poseidon 12 ; but 
the eel-catchers of Copais offered their finest eels to "the gods," 
by ancient prescription 18 . These gods may be the nameless 
deities, or the Cabiri, or the Ptoan hero, or Apollo. In the 
Anthology we find the fisherman offering a crab to Pan as first- 
ling of his catch 14 ; or a seasnail to the nymphs of the caves 15 ; 
or a parcel offish, wrapt in seaweed, to Artemis 16 . 

The Magnetan herbalists dedicated firstfruits of their simples 

1 Classical Review xii. 275 ; Brit. 9 Ant h. Pal. vi. 168. 

Mus. Inscr. 1207 (208-6 B.C.). 10 Brit. Mus. Inscr. no. 1043. 

2 IGS i. 1828. Doubtless he com- u Paus. v. 12. 3. 

posed the epigram: u irai ro^bra 12 Antigonus aj>. Ath.vii. 297 D: 'Avri- 

KvTrpidos \iyfi-rjs, 9eer7ratj ' 'EXucwviaiffi yovos 6 Kaptiffrios . . . TOVS a\i4as \tyet. 

valwv, vapKiffffov trapa Krjirov avdiovra., Ovalav tTriTeXovvras r< ILoffeiduvi iitrb 

iXi^Koty TO 5^ rot didiaffi 8!-o a-Kpodelviov rrjv rCiv Otivvuv u>pav, OTO.V evayp^ffuffi 

'Adptavbs apKrov, rjv avrbs K&vev 'nnr60ei> Otietv r< 6e$ rbv irpGiTov d\6vra dtivvov. 

Tvxriaas- fff> 8' avrut x^P iV ^" T ' T v 13 Agatharchides ap. Ath. I.e. : <f>Tr)<ri 

<ra.6<ppwv irveois ovpavias air A<ppo8i- yovv 6 'AyaOapxiSrjs...rat virep<pvfis ruv 

TJJJ. KuiratSuv tyx^euv lepeiuv rpbirov crre- 

3 Anth. Pal. vi. 111. <t>avovvras ical Karevxo/j.vovs ov\ds r' 

4 Anth. Pal. vi. 96. iirif:l<i\\ovra.s B'ueiv rols Oeots TOUS Boiw- 

5 Anth. Pal. vi. 255. rofc. These are ra irpoyoviKa v6fj.i/j.a. 

6 Anth. Pal. vi. 112. " Anth. Pal. vi. 196. 

7 Anth. Pal. vi. 57. 15 Anth. Pal. vi. 224. 

8 Anth. Pal. vi. 106. Anth, Pal. vi. 105. 

42 



52 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



to Cheiron, the Tynans to Agenorides ; the " first physicians," 
and their own patrons 1 . 

Besides the private celebrations of the countryside and the 
shore, there were public ceremonies by which the state sought 
to express gratitude arid to avert dearth. The Hyperboreans 
used to send firstfruits and tithes in a mysterious fashion to 
Dodona and Delos 2 . Eretrians and Magnetes paid firstfruits 
to Apollo as "giver of corn 3 ." At Athens the Eiresione* was 
a sort of harvest home, at which bread and fruit, honey, oil, and 
wine 5 were offered to the Sun and the Seasons, or to Athena 
Polias". The IT pot] poo- ia was similar 7 , and so was the bunch 
of grapes offered to Dionysus at the Oschophoria 8 . At the 
Panathenaea, the eiresione was a branch pluckt from the 
sacred olive groves, and offered to Athena 9 . The Troe- 
zenians gave firstfruits to Poseidon 10 ; and firstfruits due to 
Apollo are mentioned at Decelea" and at Delphi 12 , in which 
latter place the " threshing-floor" had an important part in the 



1 Plut. Symp. Hi. 1. 3 Tvpioi 
'Ay-qvopidri, 'M.dyvrjre^ 8t Xclpuvi, 
*T>WTOIJ iarpevcrai Xeyofitvoit, 
xofjU^ovffiv plfai yap ei'en Kal fiordvai di' 

<j)V lufTO TOI/S Kd/JlVOVTaS. 

2 Herod, iv. 334. Paus. i. 31. 2. 
Compare Plut. Mor. 1136, Callim. 
Hymn to Delos 278 d/j.<piTtis 8fKaTT)<p6poi 
alfr dwapxal V^TTOVTO.!. ; Mannhardt, 
Wald und Feldkulte 233. The first- 
fruits are mentioned in an oracular 
response from Delphi (AM xviii. 193 8 ) 
and at Samothrace (loc. cit. 349 B 9 ) 
So too some " barbarians " sent first- 
fruits to the Syracusan shrines, Thuc. 
vi. 20. 4. 

3 Plut. De Pyth. Or. 16. He says 
dvtipuiruv dirapxals, which must be 
wrong if the reason be right. Query 
Kapir&v or irdvTuv. 

4 See Dar. and Sagl. s.v. ; Mann- 
hardt, Wald und Feldkulte 239 ff. ; 
Botticher, Baumkultus, ch. xxv, who 
however has misunderstood part of 
the evidence. The offerings are called 

in Bekk. A need. 246. 



5 The verses they used to sing are 
given by Schol. Arist. Plut. 1054 and 
Eudocia, no. 333 : elpeffiwvi) avxa tptpti. 
Kal irlovas dprovs KO.I /iAi iv KortiXri KO.! 
f\aiov diro'ij/'fiffaffOa.i Kal KV\IK' fOfapov 
ws av neOvovaa. KaBtvUy^. Those who 
wisht to find a reason for the rite 
ascribed it to a plague: Schol. Arist. 
Knights 732, Eudocia I.e. If the 
Delphic oraole commanded the public 
celebration, that proves nothing for 
its first origin. 

6 Schol. Arist. Knights 732. Here 
we see the celebration diverted to the 
patron deity of the state. 

7 Suidas s.v. ; Schol. Arist. Knights 
732, Plutus 1054. 

8 Botticher, ch. xxvi. 

9 Schol. Clem. Alex. p. 9. 33 (Potter), 
quoted by Dar. and Sagl. 

10 Plut. Theseus 6. 

11 Xen. Hellen. iii. 5. 5. 

12 Collitz ii. 2561 D 49 Bowcart'ots rwi 
AJ irarpwiui Kal rdnr6\\wvi ra dxpotiiva 
(4th cent.). 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 



53 



religious ceremonies 1 . The cereals offered to Zeus and other 
deities in sacrifice, and possibly the sprinkling of barley meal, 
would appear to recal the ancient custom 2 . Aristotle says dis- 
tinctly, that the ancient sacrifices, made after the harvesting, 
were a kind of firstfruits 3 . We see the old surviving into the 
new order of things, when the Eleans after their ancient custom 
sacrificed monthly on "all the altars" wheat kneaded with 
honey 4 . The custom of sacrificing cakes, and things without life, 
was ancient in Athens also 5 ; and the traditional offering to 
Phigalean Demeter was fruit, honeycombs, and wool yet unspun 6 , 
while the fruits of autumn were offered to Demeter in Myca- 
lessus 7 . 

The word " firstfruits," although it does not occur in Homer, 
is implied by the cognate verb which has a ritual meaning 8 , and 
Homer uses dpy/tara in the sense of cnrap-^aL 9 . The same form 
occurs in very old Attic inscriptions 10 . Homer recites also how 
Artemis sent the great boar to destroy the crops, because the 
usual offerings had not been made to her on the threshing floor 11 . 



1 Collitz ii. 2642 M ironirevbvTta e'/c ray 
aXcoos ev rbv vaov. 

2 Collitz iii. 3636 48 . 

3 Arist. Eth. xi. 1160 a 25 ai yap 
dpxaiai dvfflou Kal vfooSoi tfoaivovrai 
ylvevOai fiera ras rCiv Kapir&v avyKopi- 
Sas olov dirapxai. 

4 Paus. v. 15. 10. 

5 Paus. viii. 2. 3. 

6 Paus. viii. 42. 11. 
? Paus. ix. 19. 5. 

8 aTrdpxfo-Bai : II. xix. 254, Od. xiv. 
428. See for this subject the article 
dirapxal in Pauly, from which I take 
a few references which had escaped 
me. The verb appears to be used, but 
in the active, on a very old Tanagran 
inscription, recording a dedication to 
Hermes; a bronze cup BCH xix. 242, 
lapbv TW KapvKefid) <&\6fa<fos dirdpxovros 
XeKTOts 6ij/3aots avtOeav. Cp. Jahres- 
hefte iii. 137. In Eretria : GIG 2144. 
{jrapxTl seems to mean a fee or money 
contribution : CIA ii. 588 eirapxr) ty 



rai ol d7ifj.6rai diro TTJS ap 
175 &v Xdx, f's fty olKoSo^Lav 
ruv lepuv Kal TUV olKo8o/j.i)/JLaTuv Kal TTJC 
'idpvffiv TUV iepw. IGS i. 235 21 . But 
it also appears to mean firstfruits 
in Delphi ; and t-n-apy/jLara certainly 
bears that sense in Thera: IGI iii. 
436 oBpoi yas Oeuv /j.arpi ... Ovtria 'Ap- 

\LVOV T(Dt ?Tt TUl TTparlffTUl dvffQVTL 

POVV Kal Trvpuv ey fi.e5i/j.vov Kal KpiQ&v 
ty 5iJO fifSLfjiixav Kal otvov (jLerprfTav Kal 
dXXa tTrapy/j,ara uv at (Spat Qtpovcri. 
CIA ii. 632 has tirl -rpaire^av Karapx~nv. 
aKpo&Lvia is also used for firstfruits : 
Suid. s.v. al rdv fviavffiuv KapTrwv 
airapxai. So Hesych., adding Olves 8 
elfftv ol ffcapol TUV irvpuv Kal Kpi6/Sv. 
Od. xiv. 446. 

10 iirdpyfj-ara CIA i. 347, cp. GIG 
2465. ToCybele: Dittenberger, Sylloge, 
377 14 (Thera). 

11 II. ix. 534 x<aoantvii o pot ( o0rt 
OdKvoia yovt><f aXw^s poivebs p^'. Com- 
pare Apollodorus i. 8. 2. 



54 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Herodotus, who first uses the noun aTrap^n^ speaks of the first- 
fruits of his inheritance which Croesus sent to Delphi and 
elsewhere 1 . Inscriptions mention the firstfruits of corn 2 , of oil 8 , 
of the fruits of the earth 4 : those of fish and of house-property, 
in Delos, are probably a civil tax 5 . Firstfruits of tribute money 
occur often in Attic inscriptions 6 ; and firstfruits of men 7 were 
dedicated to the gods, originally perhaps for sacrifice, later for 
use as slaves. The word occurs on inscriptions of Rhodes 8 , 
Miletus 9 , Delos 10 , and is very common in Athens as we shall see. 
aicpodlvLov or dtcpoOiva is used in a similar sense ; for firstfruits 
in kind I have already given an instance", and it is applied to 
a statue dedicated by a poet or some such person in Phocis 1 *. 

There is nothing to show whether the firstfruits formed any 
particular fraction of the whole, but the country custom would 
appear to have been that a sheaf or two was enough for the 
small farmer. Indeed, so long as there was no organised priest- 
hood, there would be no reason to offer more than would make 
a good show. But with the organised priesthood, and with the 
organised social system, there must needs come a change. 
A fixt minimum would be appointed by the king or the repre- 
sentatives of the god, and exacted as a due 18 . Moreover, with 
large amounts offerings in kind become inconvenient ; and we 
can hardly doubt that as soon as a fixt currency was intro- 
duced, whether in tripods, axes, cauldrons, or what not, which 
each represented some unit of value in kind M , the firstfruits 



1 Herod, i. 92 TWI> irarpyuv xpw^ TW " 8 ^Gl i- 466 statue, Athena Lindian, 
airapxriv. etc. 

2 xapirov CIG 484 : particulars of 9 GIG 2855. 
wheat and barley for each tribe, CIA lu BCH xiv. 408. 
iv. 2. 834 b. Above, p. 52 . 

3 AatoO CIA iv. 1. 27 b. IGS iii. 1. 131. 

4 IGI iii. 436 aira.pyfj.aTa uv at upai ls The tithe of Peisistratus : Aristotle, 

Ath. Pol. xvi. ; Diog. Laert. i. 6. 53 

quoted by avayti STJ t-Kaffros TWV 'AOipaiwv roS 

Homolle, Dar. and Sagl. s.v. Donarium avrov K\jpov deKarriv, OVK 4fj,ol dXXA 

p. 366 note 47 . birbOtv ferai dvaXovv h re 0v<rlas rat 

6 CIA i. 226, 257, etc.; iv. 1. 51. Sij/xoreXtts, *cal etn dXXo TWV KOIVUV, 
airapxn i s used of money in Eleusis, *ca2 ffv 6 7r6\e^oj r)/j.ds KaraXd/Sj;. Arist. 
AM xix. 192. Oec. ii. 1346 b 3 eiriKapiria xal SfKartj. 

7 Plut. Quaest. Gr. 35, CIA i. 210, 14 Ridgeway, Origin of Coin and 
Dionys. i. 16. 44. Weight Standards, Index. 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 55 

would be commuted for their value. This is perhaps the origin 
of the tithe (SeKarr)) 1 ; although since the two words are used for 
votive offerings side by side, as we shall see, the question is not 
yet clear. The principle of the firstfruits or tithe offering was 
extended, as civilisation increased, to merchants and tradesmen ; 
and was applied also to the portion set apart by states for their 
patron deity, or for support of some national shrine 2 . The tithe 
was also dedicated to the gods not only from yearly profits but 
from occasional gains, such as the spoils of war, and a windfall 
or lucky find. The same idea prompted the consecration of 
one-tenth of the land apportioned out for cleruchs' allotments 3 , 
and one-tenth of confiscated property, which we shall discuss 
later. 

The evidence for the extent of the tithe offering is not 
complete. The reason, however, is probably that the inscrip- 
tions so far discovered are unevenly distributed, whilst smaller 
towns would have a less organised cult. The earlier inscrip- 
tions, moreover, have often only the deity's name, often only his 
and the giver's, with or without a verb ; and as we know that 
some dedications so inscribed were the firstfruits or the tithe of 
war 4 , the fact that this is not specified elsewhere does not prove 
that it was not true. The Pelasgians offered the tithe 8 , as the 

1 Robertson Smith, Religion of the 2 The tithe was a royal tax under 

Semites, 245 ff., 458, discusses the Peisistratus : Arist. Ath. Pol. xvi. ; 

tithe. The tithe appears to have gone and perhaps later, Xen. Hell. i. 1. 22, 

to the kings, and the maintenance of Pollux vi. 128, ix. 28. 

the tribal sanctuaries to have been a 3 Thuc. iii. 50 records this of the 

first charge upon it. See also Trans- cleruchy in Lesbos. We have no 

actions of the Victoria Institute, xxxi. further information on the subject, 

126. The fraction chosen depends on but he mentions it as a matter of 

the fact that a man has ten fingers, course. 

and therefore ten is the natural basis 4 As IGA 32, 46, 510 on helmets 

of arithmetic. SeKafctv, like Trefj.ira.fav, and a lance, each naming an enemy, 

meant properly to ' count ' (not as 5 Stephanus s.v. 'Afiopiyives. Diony- 

Suidas says s.v. dei<dff(r6a.i, derived sius i. 18. 49 Se/cdraj es Ae\0oi)s 

from a marshalling of the recipients av7jyot> rif 6e$ nal TUV dirb TTJS OdXdrTijs 

in tens). Later the word Senary, like w0e\eiw' etirep Twes KO.I aXXoi Xafjurpord- 

SeKareijeiv, may have lost its exact ras. So did the Carthaginians (Justin 

sense, so as to be used for any sacred 18) and the Tyrians (Plut. Symp. 

portion. Cp. IGI iii. 258 detcdrav virep 313). 



56 



GRKEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



Hyperboreans did J . There are ancient dedications of a tithe of 
war in many places 8 ; the tithe not specified is offered to Zeus at 
Thebes 8 , to Demeter by men and women in Argolis 4 , by a woman 
to Athena at Paestum 5 , to Apollo by a man at Naxos 8 . Statues 
on the Sacred Way at Branchidae are an early example of the 
dedication of the tithe to a non-local deity 7 . In Athens we find 
the war tithe early 8 , and a tithe of slaves is mentioned 9 . A great 
number of other tithes have been found here, which we shall 
consider by and by 10 . Dedications from Calabria 11 and Calymna" 
are specified as a tithe of work. Later, we find the tithe in 
Anaphe 13 , Boeotia 14 , Crete 15 , Cyrene 16 , Delos 17 , Didymi 18 and Epi- 
daurus 19 in Argolis, Halicarnassus 20 , Ithaca 21 , Megara 22 , Naxos 23 , 
Rhodes 24 , Thera 28 . The tithe of trade is alluded to incidentally 
in a Cretan inscription of the third century 28 . It is also used 
in connexion with feasts for the dead 27 . The tithe is not 
mentioned in Homer. 



I Herod, iii. 33 4, Callim. Delos 
278 ff. 

3 See below, chap. in. 

3 IGA 191. 

4 Collitz iii. 3407, CIG 1172 ; IPI i. 
580, 977. 

8 IGA 542. 
8 IGA 408. 

7 IGA 483. 

8 CIA i. 334. 

9 CIA i. 210. Xenophon's men sold 
their slaves and gave a tithe to Artemis, 
Anab. v. 3. 

10 Tithe and firstfruit occur together: 
Ear. 269 CIA iv. 1. 382 p. 154. ..rW 
dvapx^v tvtjdjwvos StKaTT/v. One is 
offered by each of two persons, CIA 
iv. 1. 373 77 . 

II IGSI 643 (Hera) ; see below, p. 92. 

12 Boss, Ined. Insc. iii. 298 Xixiaj /x' 
dvt6i}Kev ' A.ir6\\uvi tpyuv TTJV SfKariiv. 

13 IGI iii. 257, 258: Apollo. 

14 IGS i. 1739 18 (Thespiae, to Hera- 
cles), IGA 191 (Thebes, Zeus). 

15 CIG 2556. 

18 Collitz iii. 4839, 4840 (Apollo). 
AM xxiii. 22: woman to Artemis. 
CIG 5133. 



17 BCH vi. line 47. 

18 Collitz iii. 3407 : two women to 
Demeter. 

19 Collitz iii. 3335: a woman to 
Demeter. 

20 CIG 2660 : Athena. 

21 IGS iii. 1. 654 : Artemis. 

22 Paus. i. 42. 5 : Apollo &CKO.Ti)<f>6pot. 

23 IGA 408 : Apollo. 

24 IGI i. 817 a 3: Athena Lindia 
(common). 

25 IGI iii. 431 : Heracles (in a cave) ; 
437 : Mother of the gods. 

86 CIG 2556 M al 5t n ruv Otuv /3wXo- 
fjL^vuv 2\otfj.ei> dya66v dirb rwv woXffjduv 
i) Koii'di t!-odouffavTs, j) iStai nvts vap 1 
^KO-ripuv rj Kara ydv rj Kard 6d\affffai>, 
\a."f\a.vl)VT<i)v fKarepoi Kara r6s dvSpas 
r6$ HPTTOVTO.S, nal ras Sexaraj \a/u/3aj'o'- 
TUV e/carepot ^j TO.V I5tav iro\iv. 

Heracles, we learn from Diodorus 
(iv. 21), promised weal and wealth to 
those who would tithe their goods to 
him, and many Romans grew rich by 
that means. 

27 CIG 1034 leaden tablet ri\ ruv 
rptaKaduv dvitpuffii>...luf>' ijj dfdwxa Sf- 
KO.TIJV /u^xpt rjfjiepwv 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 



57 



At the great national sanctuaries, in which every Greek 
city was interested, each city which hoped for the favour of the 
presiding deity made offering occasional or regular 1 . Herodotus 
speaks of the tithe due to Apollo 2 and Zeus 3 , and each deme 
appears to have been bound to pay its share 4 . The Athenian 
theori, who sailed to Delos in the sacred ship of Theseus, in 
memory of his vow to Apollo 8 , took the firstfruits with them 6 ; 
and the same was done by other states 7 . Vases were dedicated 
as firstfruit by Cos 8 and Rhodes 9 ; and the Mapsidichae, perhaps 
an agricultural tribe, send their firstfruits year by year 10 . The 
same was the case at Delphi 11 . The Eleusinian shrine was 
supported from early times by the firstfruits which had been 
enjoined by a Delphic oracle apparently upon all the Greeks 12 , 
and were sent to Athens " from all parts." During the fifth 
century, this pious custom fell into disuse ; and just before the 
war, a law was past making it compulsory upon Athens and 



1 Cp. Eur. Meleag. fr. 520 Olvets 
WOT' fx yijs TroXtfyuerpoi' Xo/3oj' ffra.'xyv 
Otiuv awapxds. 

2 Herod, vii. 132. 

3 Herod, i. 89. 

4 Crates ap. Ath. vi. 235 c: rbv d' 
e/trea iraptxew ts ra dpxfia r$ 'Awo\- 
Xowt roi)s 'Axapvtitiv wapaffiTovs dirk rijj 
tic\oyrjs riijv Kpidwv. Called dirapxal 
below. 

5 Plut. Thes. 22. 

6 CIA ii. 984, 985 ; BCH xviii. 183; 
Mommsen, Heortologie 402, Feste der 
Stadt Athen 451. 

7 BCH xx. 695. Poeta ap. Clem. 
Al. Strom, iv. 24. 164 6(f>pa...SeKdri)v 
aKpoGtvid re Kpe/juicrai/j.ei>. 

8 BCH xiv. 408 <f>tdX-r)...rrjs TroXewj 
TTJS 'Kuiwv dvdOrjfM, rut 'AiroXKuvi 
dirapx-nv (279 B.C.). 

9 Ibid. These cups are only part of 
the offering, no doubt. 

10 BCH vi 41 114 , etc. 

11 BCH xviii. 183, xx. 6956 ; Xen. 
Hell. iii. 5. 5 dpyifouevoi at/rots rrjs 
ovTiXij^ews TTJS roO ' A.iro\\wvos Senary* 



12 CIA iv. 1. 27 b (ceXeu^Tw 8t 6 lepo- 
ipdvTtjs Kal 6 SaiSovxos /uixn-rj/ofots dwdp- 
XfffOai. TOI)S "EXXr/vas rov Kapirov Kard. 
rd. Trdrpta Kal TTJV /Mvreiav rty ey 
Ae\<t>uv. The tax was ^ T ; it was 
paid in kind, and sold ; votive offer- 
ings were bought with part of it, and 
inscribed dirb rov Kapirov rrjs eirapx^. 
See also Korte, AM xxi. 322 ff., who 
gives the later history of the custom, 
and makes some interesting deductions 
as to the price of cattle. He places 
the date of our decree later than it is 
done in the Corpus. Cp. Isocr. Paneg. 
31 ai /ji> yap irXetorat TWC TroXeuv 
VTr6fj.i>T)/j.a rjjs iraXatas evepyevias dirap- 
Xas rov fflrov Ka0' 'eKaarov rbv tviavrbv ills 
ijuds dTTOTT^fjLTrova'i, rals d' fKXfiirovffais 
7) HvOia irpoatrat-ev diro(j>peii> 
ruv Kapiruv Kal Troieiv irp6s TT\V 
iro\iv TT]V T)/j.tr4pav ra irdrpia. Schol. 
Arist. Plutus 1054 x a P ta " t "hP ta Tavra- 



T&S dirapxds. See also CIA i. 32, Schol. 
Arist. Knights 727. The Delphic oracle 
does not imply that the practice was 
not older : it merely sanctions it. 



58 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

her allies, and inviting the other states to join in 1 . Occasional 
offerings were sent for some special prosperity. Here the tithe 
or firstfruit assumes a developed form ; it is a thanksgiving for 
that which gave wealth to the dedicating state. Thus Croesus 
sends to Delphi an offering of the gold which was found in his 
country 2 . The Siphnians offer a tithe of their mines 3 ; the 
Corcyreans acknowledge a special haul of fish at Delphi and 
Olympia 4 , and Tenedos makes similar acknowledgment ap- 
parently for a fine catch of crabs 5 ; Selinus renders thanks for 
its celery 8 , Metapontium 7 , Myrrhina, Apollonia 6 for their corn, 
all at Delphi. 

The Samian merchants tithed their profits to the amount of 
six talents ; and with the money they procured a magnificent 
bronze crater supported on kneeling -figures, which they dedi- 
cated in the Heraeum 8 . 

When we examine the private dedications of this class, we 
find a great variety of callings represented. Sometimes the 
nature of the offering alone shows that it is the tithe or first- 
fruit of husbandry, orchardry, shepherdry, or hunting 9 ; but in 
many cases the dedicator records his calling. Actor and 
physician offer a tithe of profits at Delphi 10 . Ou the acropolis 
of Athens we find the fisherman 9 , the breeder 9 , and the farmer 11 , 
before the Persian invasion ; and a fisher apparently vows his 
first cast to the nymphs of Syra 12 . Among the early inscrip- 

1 tev poAXuvrai. 6 Plut. De Pyth. Or. 16. 

2 Herod, i. 50. 7 Strabo p. 264. 

3 Herod, iii. 57, Paus. x. 11. 2. The 8 Herod, iv. 152 ol 8t ZA/uoi rr,v 
finding of the mines was an unexpected 5eKdnji> T&V tiriKepSlwv ie\6i>Tes ? 
windfall, but the offering thereafter rdXavra, etc. 

vowed was to be regular. When it was 8 Cp. Kar. 2, CIA iv. 1. 

neglected, the sea flooded their mines 10 BCH xx. 695 rdde iroXtu ical 

and destroyed them. Idtwrai tirdpZavro. 

4 Paus. x. 9. 3, v. 29. 9. The objects 373 eE-ypas airapxrjv, CIA iv. Suppl. 
sent were axes. 1. 373 121 p. 182 : Td6t}i>aLai dfKdrtjv 

5 Plut. De Pyth. Or. 12. I take dwb \wpiov 'Aenovbdev Xaip^5t]fj.o^ 4>i\&t. 
TUV Kapxivuv to be the account given to 12 IGA 7, if rightly restored. It was 
Plutarch and his explanation to be the rule to dedicate the first tunny of 
wrong. Axes were once a unit of a good haul to Poseidon ; Athen. vii. 
currency (Ridge way, Or igin 3 19). Why 297s, 302 B, 346. So the fisherman 
on earth should Tenedos offer an axe in the Anthology dedicates a crab as 
simply because the pattern on the back the firstfruit of the quest, vi. 196. 

of a crab was like an axe ? 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 



59 



tions of Athens are dedications of fullers 1 , potters 2 , a baker 3 , 
a tanner 4 , a physician 8 , a builder 6 , a recorder 7 , and washermen 
or washerwomen 7 , who seem to have been a pious tribe. One 
inscription may refer to a shipwright 8 , a later inscription of 
Astypalaea to a shipmaster 9 . Elsewhere we read of a butcher 
or cook 10 , a courtesan 11 , and possibly a smith 12 . Several, both 
men and women, speak in general terms of a tithe of their 
earnings or property 13 , or of their blessings 14 , of their skill, or 
of their holy works 15 ; others pray for skill 16 . Pairs of partners 
or brothers 17 , and even larger companies 18 , combine in one 
offering. A vow was often made before the offering 19 . All 
handicraftsmen at Athens, we know, bearing baskets of offer- 
ings, used to worship Athena at the feast of Chalces 20 ; this 

1 CIA iv. 373 /, p. 42: 2lfuav...6 
Ki>a<pfus btKa.rt]v ; others below. 

2 Below, p. 60 7 , 61 i.*- 3 - 4 . 

3 Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes 264. 

4 <TKV\o5tyi)s CIA iv. 1. 373 s*. 

5 CIA iv. 1. 422 14 , p. 185. Nothing 
else surely can be the source of another 
inscription : do-rwv 6a\6vT<av, jro\it}6'xe 
irbrvC 'A6dva, lEfUKpov KOI iraLStav 

fyoi ijSe 7r6Xu : CIA iv. 2. 373 106 . 

6 CIA iv. 1. 373 262, p . 203. 

7 CIA i. 399, iv. 2. 373 84 . 

8 CIA iv. 1. 373 ", p. 198 : 

Ot\KV TC10T]VCUCH 8eKdTI]V 

Very archaic, vafv- is Naxian. 

9 IGI iii. 203 vaGiv &Kvdp6\t.(ov ir6\\' 
oiro KTf]a-dfj.evos. vowcXapos TraXXa... 
Ear. 185. 

10 IGA 543 (Calabria). 

11 Rhodopis: Herod, ii. 135 (Delphi), 
ep. BCH xv. 113. 

12 BCH vi. 47 168 , &Kfiuv in Delos. 

13 Croesus: Herod, i. 92. CIA i. 345 
i-pywv a.ira.p'x^v (boustrophedon); Kred- 
vuv CIA iv. 1. 373 105 - 2 i8 ; ii. 1434; 
iv. 2. 1550 d ; iv. 1. 373 , EOT. 172 
5eKCLTt]v 2pYov Kai xP 7 l/ M * TUt '- A dedi- 
cation to Athena Ergane can only be 
that of a work-woman : CIA iv. 1. 
373 wi. So in Delos; see below, p. 
60 3 . 



14 BCH xiii. 160 ' 

OIJK' A(j>po5iTi]i SCipov a.irap'xriv TTOTVLO. 
ruv a.'ya.dCiv, rok cri) 5ds d<f>6ovia.v, etc. 

15 Ear. 48 airap-yfia rt\i>ijs. IGS iii. 
1. 131 ^ offiuv Zpyuv aKpoOiviov. 

16 CIA iv. 1. p. 79. 

17 CIA i. 351, 358, 375, 396; iv. 
1. 373 215 . dve6tTi)i> is common (373 

113, 183, 189^ 418 0). 

18 CIA iv. 1. 373 124 . 

19 CIA i. 349, iv. 1. 373 202 , etc. 

20 Mommsen,Heortologie,31B: Soph. 
frag. 724 /3or' tt's 656v Si] iraj 6 x ei P&~ 
val; Xews of rr)v Aibs yopytatriv 'Epydvrii' 
ffTCLTOis \IKVOKJLV irpoarptireffde. Of 
course no special deity was necessary 
for the artisan to worship ; but Athena 
in this aspect was often called Ergane, 
the Worker (Diod. v. 73, Paus. i. 24. 
3), and coupled with Hephaestus (Solon 
xiii. 49, Paus. i. 14. 6, CIA ii. 114 ft). 
Athena Ergane at Sparta, Paus. iii. 
17. 4 ; Olympia, v. 14. 4 ; Megalopolis, 
viii. 32. 3 ; Thespiae, ix. 26. 8 ; Organe 
at Delos, BCH vi. 351 ; Ergatis at 
Samos, Hesych. s.v. (Farnell, Cults i. 
410). There is no evidence or likeli- 
hood of a special type, cult, or temple 
of Ergane at Athens (cp. Farnell i. 
344 f.). As Stathmia, she protected 
commerce, Hesych. s.v. The Bur- 



60 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



then would be the season for such offerings, and the custom of 
dedicating them must have been common. Isaeus speaks of a 
generous man performing this duty for those who could not or 
would not 1 ; and the custom is attested by the inscriptions*. 
Cleon then, is not gibing, when he says to the sausage-seller, 
"I'll denounce your sausages as confiscate to the gods; never 
a tithe have you paid on them 8 ." The tithe of profits, with 
reference to fishermen, is alluded to as a thing of course by 
Diphilus, but as being sometimes dishonoured in the breach 4 . 
Later, a cordwainer's guild dedicates a statue in Lesbos 8 . 
As late as the Roman age a trade-dedication is found in 
Amphipolis 6 . 

If we may trust analogy, the firstfruit of a craftsman would 
be his first finisht piece, the 'masterpiece' of the mediaeval 
workman ; and some of the dedications appear to be of this 
kind. The most conclusive evidence is furnisht by a covered 
earthenware jar, found at Athens, and inscribed "Lycinus 
dedicated to Athena his first piece of work 7 ." "Firstfruit of 



nishers of Olympia sacrificed to the 
Worker goddess before polishing the 
image (Paus. v. 14. 5). 

1 Isaeus vi. 42 {TI 5' iv dKpowoXti 
dirapxa* TUIV OVTWV dvaBtvres TroXXoiy, 
us dir6 t'Sioj /crijffewj. 

2 CIA i. 349 deKdrijv roO T&KVOV ei>x~ 
<ra|ilvov ; Collitz iii. 3448 (Anaphe) 

j Ko.1 'AceoTfyi 



Sficdrav ' A.ir6\\ui>i ; IGI ii. 
258 (Lesbos). 

8 Arist. Knights 300 <r <f>alvu roit 
wpvrdveffiv ddeKaTfivovs TUIV OfQtv Jp&s 
XXOVTO. Kot\las. The tithe is mentioned 
CIA i. 353, 384, 385 ; the firstfruit i. 
351, 352, 375, 382 ; and in the Acro- 
polis inscriptions (KardXoyos vol. 1), 
some 427 in number, dirapxri occurs 
49 times, SeKdrtj 37, not counting doubt- 
ful instances ; and both together, dedi- 
cated each by a separate person, CIA 
iv. 1. 373 91 (cp. 382). When it is re- 
membered that hardly any of these 
inscrr. is complete, and that they fall 



within a comparatively small space of 
time, it is clear that the practice was 
common. The tithe of work appears 
also in Delos, BCH vi. 193 M . Isaeus, 
as quoted above (note 4 ), speaks of 
this as a common practice ; so does 
Demosthenes, alluding to the same 
age, Androt. 617, airrouj SeKarfvorret ; 
Timocr. 741 TUIV deteaTuiv TTJS 6fov dfit- 
\TJffai. War is nearly always specified 
when it is the occasion. 

4 Ap. Ath. vi. 226 E 01) JTWITOT' IxOvs 
olSa Ti/juurtpovs Iduv ' H6ffei5ov, el 5ei(d- 
TTJV t\d/j.pa.t>fs a.{>Tuv . . .iroXt) TUIV BfCiv &v 
ijffffa TrXowriwrepos. 

8 IGI ii. 109 <rvyKa0itpuff<u> ol TTJV 
ffKVTiicty rtxmjv epya.f6fj.fvoi. 

6 BCH xix. 110 M. KoiKAios 
6 xaXcei>j dwo rrjs T^x" 7 ?* # eo 
rotj iv ZafjwdpdKr). 

7 AVKIVOS dvtOriKfv TTJI 'A.6r)i>dcu r& 
vpurov TjpydffaTo : BCH ii. 522, 547, 
with cut. De Witte, who edits it, 
believes the inscr. to be genuine. A 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 61 

work" is scratcht on a fictile vase found on the Acropolis 1 ; 
and perhaps some of the famous vase-painters whose names 
also appear there, such as Aiidocides 2 , Nearchus", aud Euphro- 
nius 4 , may have dedicated a choice piece of their own. The 
phrase "with his hands" inscribed on another block may be 
interpreted in the same way 5 ; the same by one reading may be 
said of one of the pottery tablets at Corinth 6 . An Aeginetan 
artist made a statue for his deity 7 . Another inscription, appar- 
ently from Corinth 8 , records that Midonidas offered a piece 
which he had himself painted; and a similar formula is found 
at Athens 9 . An Athenian vase bears the figure of the goddess 
armed, and upon the shield is the legend " Callis made and 
dedicated it to Athena Health 10 ." We may perhaps take as 
the workman's first attempt a rough obelisk of terra-cotta 
found at Metapontium, and dedicated by a potter to Heracles". 
A bronze statuette of a youth, ascribed to the fifth century, 
and dedicated to the goddess at Rhamnus, is a firstfruit 12 . 
Ecphantus's offering from Melos was made by himself 13 ; it may 
have been the column, or a statue upon it 14 . Iphicratides of 
Naxos also dedicated an offering to Delian Apollo which he 
made himself 16 ; and Tisagoras, "whoever he was," dedicated an 

potter's son, perhaps an apprentice, n Kohl, Imagines xv. 5, Collitz ii. 

dedicates a vase at Athens : CIA iv. 1. 1643 x</*> /&"<* 'Hpa/c\^s. XiK6/*a- 

373 M?. x<5s /*' ^7r6ei, 6 TOL Kpa/j.evs fj.' dv^Orjice. 

1 CIA iv. 1. 373 12 b, c ; f has dfc 8t f iv dv0puiroi<! So^av txn v o.ya6dv. 
SfK&Tijv. A potter's son dedicates no. Roberts, p. 302; see fig. 7, p. 62. 

373 w. 12 CIA iv. 1. 422 16 AwrucXe^s oW- 

2 CIA iv. 1. 373 215 ; Klein, Griech. OTJKCV 'Eravdpidov vibs oTnjapxV r6v6e 
Vasen mil Meistersign. 188, etc. 0tdi rrjiSe 17 r6d' x ei rtpevos. Lysi- 

3 CIA iv. 1. 373 91 ; Klein, 38. cleides was perhaps a better craftsman 

4 CZ.4.iv. 1.362; Klein, Euphronios. than poet. 

5 CIA iv. 1. 37S 249 . 13 1GA 412 irat Ai6s 'E^dj/rwi dtai 

6 Reading avTOir6fia with Collitz iii. r65' a/xei^j iryaX/Ma, aol -yhp ttrevxh- 
3119 M ; but see p. 81 4 . ^ievos TOVT' ^rAecrere yptyuv. 

7 IGA 352 'Ap\iuv tirolr)<re. u &ya\fj.a is any precious thing ; a 

8 IGA 36 a p. 170 Mt8au5as Zypaij/e tripod in two inscrr., Herod, v. 60, 61, 
Kaj^Tj/te. cp. Paus. x. 7. 3 (quoted by Roberts, 

9 CIA iv. 1. 373 17 * ^Toiet /cdv^/ce p. 32). 

run Oewi, on the fragments of a small 15 BCH xii. 464 fi<f>iKpaTiS^ n' dvt- 

column. 0-riKf 6 Nd|toj iroi^tras (very archaic). 

10 AM xvi. 154 'A077ca<H 'Yytelai The base has rams' heads and gorgo- 
KdXXis lirolrjcrt Kal dv^t]Kv. neia carved on it. 



62 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 




FIG. 7. Workman's dedication. Roberts, p. 302. 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 63 

iron group of Hercules and the Hydra at Delphi, and iron 
heads of lion and wild boar to Dionysus at Pergamus, all 
which he had made himself and were "marvels of skill 1 ." 
Perhaps the "beautiful partridge" of Protogenes, dedicated at 
Rhodes, was offered with the like feeling 2 . The wording of an 
ancient inscription on the steps of the old temple at Syracuse 
suggests a maker's dedication 3 . Of the same kind will be the 
two amphorae dedicated at Erythrae, by a master and pupil, who 
held a contest to see which could make the thinner 4 . Palamedes 
is said to have dedicated in the shrine of Fortune at Corinth 
the dice which he had invented 6 . Parmenion a painter painted 
a pig so naturally that those who saw it expected a grunt ; and 
this he dedicated 6 . The outline which traditionally suggested 
to Butades of Sicyon the moulding of portraits in clay, was 
preserved in the Nymphaeum 7 . Eubulides of Athens, too, 
made and dedicated a statue of Apollo 8 . Two sacrificial vessels 
are made and dedicated to Pan and the Nymphs by the same 
man 9 . It is on this principle I would explain the bronze 
Apollo, with an inscription in silver letters declaring that 
Charidamus dedicates it as a tithe to Athena 10 . There is no 

1 Paus. x. 18. 5. ex argilla similitudines Butades Sicy- 

2 Eudocia, no. 994: el 5t x/"7 T *l v onius figulus primus invenit Corinthi 
vfjcrov ro.i>rt\v o{> /.LOVOV rif neyicrrtf} filiae opera, quae capta amore iuvenis, 
KoXoo-cry ffeftvvvai, ciXXa Kal fffj-iKpordT^ abeunte illo peregre, umbram ex facie 
TLVL dirdpai dva.0rifj.aTL- e/cet yap Kal 6 eius ad lucernam in pariete lineis cir- 
(caX6s wepdi yv, rb TOV Hpuroyfrovs cumscripsit, quibus pater eius impressa 
v/j.vo>j/j.evoi> irdpepyov. argilla typum fecit et cum ceteris 

3 IGA 509 K\eo/?v77s tirol^e ruire- fictilibus induratum igni proposuit, 
Xwvt 6 T&CTV?...DO the words refer eumque servatum in Nymphaeo donee 
to part of the temple ? Mummius Corinthum everterit tra- 

4 Pliny, NH xxxv. 12. 46. dunt. 

5 Paus. ii. 20. 9 with Frazer's 8 Paus. i. 2. 5. 

note. Eustathius on 11. ii. 308 says it 9 AM xxi. 437, Attica : ffTrovSrjs KO.\ 

was a draughtsman, and dedicated at \ifldvov 6e\KT^pia x a ^ K ^ a retinas HavL 

Argos ; perhaps Palamedes distributed re Kal Ntf/i0cus QiJKe <ptpwv NO/UK 6s. 

the set as Alexander did with his Space on top for airovSelov and 6v/j.ia- 

arrns. r^piov. 

6 Corp. Paroem. Gr. i. p. 412 nap- 10 IGSI2274 XapL8a/j.os'A.0Tivala(. 8e- 
/jLfviuv 6 wypd</>os ui> ypd\j/as dv^dr/Ktv xarav ; archaistic, probably of the 1st 
yv Kal (p<>)i>T]v d(f>Uvai ol 6eu/j.evoi ^56- or 2nd cent. B.C. The makers' names 
KOVV. (there were two makers) were engraved 

7 Pliny, NH xxxv. 43. 151 fingere on lead and put inside ; unluckily they 



64 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

meaning in dedicating the statue of one god to another, except 
it be dedicated as a work of art or a thing of value 1 . It 
can hardly have been dedicated by this man, as a tithe of war. 
Perhaps too the curious cast bronzes, found in the Idaean 
cave of Crete, are the maker's masterpiece 8 . I suggest this 
because they include two or three scenes cast in one piece : a 
war-galley manned, a man milking a cow, and other incongruous 
scenes together. Each scene has its own base, so they were 
meant to be separated ; but there seems no reason why they 
should be dedicated together unless as specimens of the maker's 
art. 

A somewhat fanciful extension of this idea suggests to the 
literary man the dedication of some of his work. Plato is using 
metaphor, no doubt, when he speaks of the mottoes at Delphi 
as the "firstfruits of wisdom" dedicated by Solon and other 
wise men 3 ; and Pindar, when he uses the dedicatory verb of 
his odes* ; but Heraclitus dedicated his book in the temple at 
Ephesus 5 . The poems of Hesiod appear to have been dedi- 
cated on Mount Helicon, where Pausanias saw them engraved 
on ancient tablets of lead 8 . At Delos were the poems of 
Alcaeus and the astronomy of Eudoxus 7 , and at Lindus the 
Seventh Olympian of Pindar 8 . A "golden book" was dedi- 
cated at Delphi by the poetess Aristomache, who had won 
a prize at the Isthmia 9 . The custom was not confined to 
Greece ; for the Carthaginian traveller Hanno dedicated his 
log-book in the temple of Baal at Carthage 10 . Oenopides of 
Chios dedicated an astronomical table of bronze at Olympia"; 

cannot be made out, but one was a 5 Diog. Laert. ix. 6 avfOrjice Se avrt> 

Bhodian. it rb rijs 'Apr^iuSos Iep6v. 

1 For Panofka's view see the final 6 Paus. ix. 31. 4. Whether in a 
essay, ch. xiv. temple is not stated, nor the dedi- 

2 Mus. It. ii. 727 ; see fig. 8. cator. 

8 Plato, Protag. 343 B; cp. Paus. x. 7 Dar. and SagL, Donarium 378. 

24. 1. Isocrates also uses the meta- 8 Schol. Pind. Ol. viii., p. 157, 

phor (Law* Hel. 29 p. 219). Bockh (Lindian Athena). 

4 Pind. 01. xiii. 35 4v 'AX^eoO 9 Plut. Quaest. Conv. v. 2. 9. 

frttOpoiffiv aty\a iroduv dvdKeirai; xi. 10 Bosworth Smith, Carthage 13. 

(x) 8 dtf>6t>v7jTos 5' alvos '0\v/j.wioi>lKais u Aelian, VH x. 7. 
OUTOJ 



TITHES, FIESTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 



65 



Xenocrates at the Pythium on Mount Olympus, his calcula- 
tions of the height of the mountain 1 . 

In later days we find prize poems so treated. Paeans to 
Apollo have been unearthed in the Treasury of the Athenians 




FIG. 8. Votive offering, from Crete. 
Museo Italico ii. 730. 



at Delphi 2 , and a hymn to Dionysus in the same sanctuary 3 ; 
all these of the fourth century. Such another is Thrasyllus' 
hymn to Apollo Maleatas and Asclepius, found at Epi- 
daurus 4 . At Delphi also have been found two inscriptions 
in shorthand, and references to a work of Aristotle 5 . So 
we see Agathias dedicating his book to Paphia 6 . Perhaps 
the alphabet inscribed on a piece of pottery, and dedicated 
to Poseidon at Corinth, may represent a learner's first 



1 Plut. Aemil. 15. 

2 BGH xix. 562, xvii. 561, 569. 

3 BCH xix. 392. 

4 Collitz iii. 3342 (dvterjKe is used). 

R. 



8 BCH xxii. 269, 270. A. received 
a vote of thanks, and his work was 
placed in the temple library. 

9 Anth. Pal. vi. 80. 



66 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

' masterpiece 1 ' ; and the same explanation may apply to 
others 2 . 

The offering in kind was often commemorated by a model. 
There is no reason to think that the models took the place of 
the tithe or firstfruit; it is rather to be supposed that they 
accompanied the offering, and were meant to keep it in mind. 
Thus we find three cities sending "golden harvestings" or 
sheaves to Delphi 3 , and eleven ears of corn, silver gilt, were 
among the Parthenon treasures in the -fifth century 4 . At a 
later date other gilt corn -ears are mentioned here, standing 
upon a little pillar 8 . For a similar reason, doubtless, Selinus 
sent a golden head of celery 8 . A golden olive appears at 
Oropus 7 ; golden vine-clusters at Delos 8 and at the shrine of 
the Cabiri near Thebes 9 ; at Delos was also a golden sea- 
lavender 10 . The Ampeliots, a Libyan tribe, sent to Delphi a 
head of the precious silphium ; an offering small indeed, and 
perishable too, if it were not a model 11 . All these are men- 
tioned by the way, but they were certainly not alone : Pliny 
adds a golden radish, a silver beet, and a turnip of lead 12 , 
private offerings no doubt. 

Many of the animals mentioned in the Inventories, or found 
in excavations, may have had a similar origin. Some may have 



1 Oollitz iii. 3019 k ; IGA 20 13 . irore xpwovv ai\t.vov dvadflvat 

As that from Calymna, Inscr. Brit. 7 IGS i. 3498 61 <?Xafa xpv<ri). 

Miw. 123. It may however have been 8 BCH xiv. 406 ayi*?reXoj 

meant for a charm ; alphabets have Also poiai, nr}\oi>, perhaps parts of 

been found in tombs, IGA 390, and on ornaments. 

a vase placed there 524. 9 IGS i. 2425 a 9a.\\w a/j.irt\ov. 

3 Plut. De Pyth. Or. 16 OtpT, \pvvS. 10 BCH vi. 30 \ein6viov. 
(Myrina, Apollonia); Strabo vi. 264 " Schol. Arist. Plut. 925 = Eudocia, 
(Metapontium), Hv\lwv 8t \tyerai. no. 226: /cat ol 

Kriffft.a...oi>s OVTUS dirb yewpytas evrvxy- At/Sifyj, AfX< 

ffai (jxiatv wffTt 0tpos \pvoovv ei> AeX^ots ffi\<plov, ws <j>ij<nv 'A\t!;a.i>8pl8r)s. The 

avaOuvai. The ear of corn was a Libyans were connected with the 

device on the coins of Metapontium : Pelasgi : Ridgeway, Early Age 230. 

Head, Hist. Num. 62. 1S Pliny, NH xix. 86 ut est Graeca 

4 CIA i. 161 9 \riiov TTfpixpvffov ffra- vanitas, fertur in templo Apollinis 
X AI, B.C. 434. Delphis adeo ceteris ibi praelatus 

5 CIA ii. 731 <TTaxi>S Iv irvpylffKwi raphanus, ut ex auro dicaretur, beta ex 
XoXxtDi lTrl\pwroi. argento, rapum ex plumbo. 

8 Plut. De Pyth. Or. 12 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 67 

been dedicated as ornaments or trinkets; and yet it is not un- 
likely that the Athenian silver duck was a poulterer's offering 1 , 
or that the goats and rams given at Delos by Parmenion and 
Timoxenus were firstlings in model 2 . At the Argive Heraeum 
were found the duck, the cock, the sheep, and the cow 3 . Oxen, 
sheep, pigs and suchlike found amongst the ruins of a temple 
may be memorials of sacrifice 4 ; but it is difficult so to regard 
the riderless horse and the mare. I may mention, then, that 
models of horses were dedicated in the ancient shrine of 
Menelaus 5 , at Calaurea 6 , Taenarum 7 , Delos 8 , at Dodona 9 , at 
Olympia 10 , in Crete", and in the Heraeum 12 , most ancient of 
all. Bulls, rams, stallions and brood-mares will come under 
a different category 13 , although it is possible that some of these 
were model firstlings. 

The fruit or offering in kind which is sometimes seen iu the 
hands or upon the knees of votive statuettes may represent the 
firstfruit or tithe. 

There is direct evidence for the hunter's dedication of a 
model of his prey. Hesychius tells how a Samian hunter made 
such an offering to Hera in his native isle 14 . Another example 
will be the bronze hare dedicated to Apollo at Priene 15 . Cakes 

1 CIA ii. 698 n 21 vrjrra dpyvpa. 8 AZ xl. 333: oxen and horses, 

2 BCH vi. 34 49 ffK<i(piov...dirb TUV bronze and clay, in the lowest stratum. 
aly&v KO.I r(av rpdyuv wv dv^&rjKav Tt/oi6- 9 Carapanos, pi. xx. 4 bull, xxi. 1 
lej'os Kal Hapfj.ei>i<j}i>. If not, they were mare, 2 ram. 

living firstlings ; but in that case we 10 Bronzen, 28 foil. ; all strata, lowest 

should expect rt/xi? to be added, with mostly horses and cattle : pi. xi xiii. 

the value. I assume the models to bull, ox, horse, mare, pig, ram, goat, 
have been melted and cast in form of u Mus. Ital. 727 milch cow (Cave of 

a cup : the formula is regular for this Ida) ; 906 bulls, rams, etc. (Cave of 

process (cp. line 51 iffVKrripiov awb rijs Dicte) ; 914 pi. xiv. goat, ox, cow, ram, 

Aa<ov Kal rpdywv). Note that a calf etc. (Cave of Hermes), 
is offered for a good harvest in Anth. 12 Bull, cow, ox, goat. Bronzes : 

Pal. vi. 258. 10 ff . 

3 Bronzes : 44, 47, 22, 27. 13 Below, p. 75. 

4 See chapter vin. Mandrabolus 14 Hesych.s.u. RaraKdpas- dijoravra 
certainly dedicated a model of the 6v6fj.ara [perhaps only one, after all] 
sacrificial animal. fTriy^ypairrai 5 eirl dvaOtf/j-aros v r(j> 

8 Rev. Arch. xxx. 13, early 6th cent. rijj"H/>as iep$ ovrw Bora Kdpas Sa/uoj 

6 AM xx. 308. "H/jfl rfySe 0-^p-ijv aviOyKe. 

7 Frazer, Pausanias, ii. p. 397. 15 IGA 385, Roberts 153, Cat. Brit. 

52 



68 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



in the form of deer were offered to Artemis at Patrae at the 
feast of Elaphebolia 1 . As late as the sixth century after Christ 




FIG. 9. Votive hare, from Priene. 

a hunter in Egypt places a model of his antelope on a pillar, 
and dedicates it to Isis, with an inscription which he proudly 
claims to have carved with his own hand 2 . Others are perhaps 
the deer of silver or gold mentioned in the Delian inventories 8 . 
Many other animals are named in the lists which may have a 
similar origin, though it is impossible to say that they were not 
toys or ornaments : at Delos were two silver beasts in a wooden 
cage 4 , at Athens a basket with ivory beasts in it 8 . There was 



Mus. Br. 237 : 'Air6\\uvi T 
fji 1 dv^6rjKv 'H(f>a.iffTi(i)v (date about 
500). See fig. 9. The bronze hare 
found on the Athenian Acropolis ap- 
pears to have had a handle : Cat. 
Bronze Acrop. Mus. 463. 

1 Athen. xiv. G46 E. 

2 Classical Review xii. 282, Br. Mus. 



Inscr. 1043, from Coptos : " 
avtOriK 'A flavour a (?) dopxa5a 
y\v<f>ldt y\d\f/as rbv 

3 BCHvi. 34 . 

4 BCH vi. 32 31 



dpyvpS. II Iv 



CIA ii. 678 A n 9 KO.VOVV Iva. TO. 
i.va. fwio ; cp. 59 . 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 



69 



a bronze bison's head at Delphi, dedicated by a Paeonian chief 1 . 
It is difficult to doubt that models of beasts of prey or the chace 
were often, if not generally, the hunter's gift. For such groups 
as the bull attacked by a lion, found at the Heraeum a , and the 
stag brought down by hounds, two at least of which kind were 
found at Olympia 3 , the explanation is practically certain ; and 
it is likely for the figures of lions, bears, stags, hares and 
rabbits which have been unearthed at Olympia 4 , at the shrine 
of Menelaus 5 , at the Cabirium 6 , at Calaurea 7 , at Athens 8 , at 





FIG. 10. Hare, from Olympia. 
Bronzen xiii. 209. 



FIG. 11. Stag on stand, from Olympia. 
Bronzen xiii. 205. 



Naucratis 9 . From the Argive Heraeum come the stag, the 
wild goat, and wild birds with long beaks, in pairs or singly 10 : 
these last belong to the stage of geometric decoration. Heads 
of lions, eagles and other creatures were probably ornamental 11 . 



1 Paus. x. 13. 1. 

2 Dr Waldstein. It is worth noting 
that a colossal group of a bull attackt 
by a lion was found on the Athenian 
Acropolis. 

3 Bronzen, pi. xiv. 219, 220. 

4 Bronzen, pi. xi. 213 stag, 207, 207 a 
etc. roe, xiii. 208, 209 hare. See figs. 
10, 11. 

5 Rev. Arch. xxx. 13, lions. 

6 AM xv. 356, hares, bears. 

7 AM xx. 322, hares, rabbits ; cp. 



BOH xix. 171 (Boeotian shrine). 

8 Cat. Acr. Mm. Br. 524 deer, 463 
hare; 53843, 46475, eagles and 
lions may have been parts of larger 
objects. 

9 Petrie and Gardner, Naucratis i. 
14, ii. 56 lions. 

10 Bronzes: nos. 19, 21, 37ft. 

11 Plataea AJA vii. 406 /Sou/ce^aX?;. 
Delos BCH vi. 49 191 irporow \fovros ; 
Athens : see Indices. 



70 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS, 

The workman or artist might dedicate a picture or model of 
his work, when the work itself was not suitable for the purpose. 
Mandrocles, who built Darius's bridge over the Bosporus, spent 
part of the fee in a picture of the bridge, which he dedicated to 
Hera in Samos for a firstfruit 1 . A shoemaker dedicated a stone 
relief of a shoe to an Athenian hero 2 . I have met with no 
other certain example of the kind, but perhaps the models of the 
temple at Delos, preserved amongst its treasures, and the wooden 
pattern of the tiles 3 , were dedicated by the master mason. 

It is a pretty thought which suggests the dedication of the 
workman's tools, after a successful job, or when they or the owner 
are past work. I have found no direct evidence for this in the 
classical age 4 ; but both legend and history prove that it was in 
accord with Greek ways of thought. The Argo was dedicated 
to Poseidon after its famous voyage 5 . Meleager, it is said, dedi- 
cated in Corinth the spear with which he slew the great boar 6 ; 
and a story of Cimon from the year 480 implies the same idea. 
When the Athenians, we read, were hurrying out of the city to 
take refuge in Salamis, " Cimon was the first man that went 
with a life and jollity into the castle, carrying a bit of a bridle 
in his hand to consecrate unto the goddess Minerva : signifying 
thereby, that the city had no need of horsemen at that time, 
but of mariners and seamen 7 ." Eighty years later, it is on record 
that Xenophon's men, their long march over, consecrated their 

1 Herod, iv. 88 dtr' uv 5rj Mavdpo- the third century or later. 
K\TJS dirapxriv, f<pa ypa\j/dfj.vos irdvav 3 BCH vi. p. 105, irapa.deiyfj.aTa ; p. 

TT)V i^fv^iv TOV Bo<nr6pov, (cat flaffi\{a re 48 17Z TVITOV !-ti\u>ov Kfpa.fj.i5wi> rCiv firi 

Aapelov iv Trpofdpiy Karrintvov, ccat TOV T&V KepaTwva. They may of course 

ov avTov diafialvovTa, ravTa ypa\f/d- have been sent in by the contractor, 

aW0i7*ce fs TO 'Hpaiov, tTriypd\f/as and kept for reference; but if so, why 

E6ffiropov ix.Ov6ei>Ta yeQvpdxras were they preserved afterwards ? 
Ke Mav5poK\tw "Hpij iwyv-bawov * Unless the passage of Alcman, 

*' avT$ /u.iv ffT^<f>avov Trtpideis, 2a- quoted on p. 276 1 , be rightly inter- 

fitoifft, 5t KvSos Aapeiov /3a<n\^os ticTeXe- preted as the dedication of a plough 

ffas /card vovv. See Anth. Pal. vi. 341. (0apo?, schol. aparpov in MS. and 

a Pollux vii. 89 i7/)wj 'A.6rivr]ff<.i> 6 tiri papyrus, so also Herodian ii. 942 13 ; 

/SXat/T?;' aW07;Ke yap TIJ <r/ci/Tor<S/ttos ipapovv dporpidi* Hesych.). 
/SXatfrTys \idivov TVTTOV. Gp. CIA iii. s Apollod. i. 9. 27. 

411. The title doubtless refers to the 6 Paus. ii. 7. 9. 
hero's figure. The dedication is not 7 Plut. Cimon 5 ; North's transla- 

early, for reliefs of this sort belong to tion, p. 494. 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 71 

staves upon a cairn which they there built where first they had 
caught sight of the sea 1 . These indications are too scanty to 
decide how far the customs recorded in later poems of the Antho- 
logy are true of earlier times ; but in these all sorts and conditions 
of men seem to conform to them. The hunter hangs club and 
dog-collar on a plane tree in honour of Pan 2 , or dedicates a 
spear to Pan and the Nymphs 3 . When he wants a rest, he 
entrusts his bow and arrows to Artemis " during the truce 4 " ; 
when he is too old to work, he leaves his gear to Pan 5 . Traps 
and snares are dedicated to Hermes 6 . The fisherman dedicates 
rods, nets, and creels 7 , trident and other tackle 8 , his very boat 9 , 
to Poseidon. The carpenter retiring from business offers to 
Pallas saw and axe, plane, auger, and footrule 10 . The goldsmith, 
gone blind with age, gives over to Hermes the file, tongs, and 
blowpipe of his calling 11 . A plowman dedicates his plow and all 
his gardening tools to Deo 12 . The lucky delver, on finding a 
treasure in the earth, offers to Athena his rake, shovel, pick, and 
axe 13 . So Lucian's Timon, when he accepts the offers of Plutus, 
exclaims : " my spade, and beloved leather jerkin, now it were 
well to dedicate you to Pan 14 ." The harpist dedicates his lyre 
to Phoebus 15 . Spinther the cook, on leaving service, places in 
the shrine of Hermes his pots and pans, pestle and mortar, 
chopper and ladle, fan, flesh-fork and sponge, and the key of 
the pig-sty 16 . The grim pedagogue superannuated remembers 
Hermes, and hands over his cane and tawse and skullcap 17 . 
Ascondas the writer, appointed tax-collector, gives his writing 

1 Xen. Anab. iv. 7. 26 dverifffffav 6 Anth. Pal. vi. 296. 

Sep/MTUv ir\ij9os w/uo/Soei'wc KCU f3a.KT-r)pias 7 Anth. Pal. vi. 192, cp. 107 (Pan), 

Kal TO. aJx/uaXwra y^ppa. 4, 5, 25 30, 38. 

2 Anth. Pal. vi. 35, 106, 107. 8 Anth. Pal. vi. 1116, 23, 24, 33. 

3 ^n^.Pai.vi.6,57,177,cp.l76. The 9 Anth. Pal. vi. 69, 70, cp. 90. 
epigram recording the dedication of a 10 Anth. Pal. vi. 103, 204, 205. 
bow and quiver (326) is clearly modelled u Anth. Pal. vi. 92, 95. 

on the well-known epigram of Mna- 12 Anth. Pal. vi. 104, cp. 21 (Pria- 

salcas (9) ; but here " my arrows are pus). 

in the quarry " is ridiculous. A fine ls Anth. Pal. vi. 297. 

huntsman this, to waste all his shafts 14 Lucian, Timon, 42. 

and bag nothing. 15 Anth. Pal. vi. 83. 

4 Anth. Pal. vi. 121. 1S Anth. Pal. vi. 306. 

5 Anth. Pal. vL 73, 109. 17 Anth. Pal. vi. 294. 



72 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

materials to the Muses 1 . The working woman, her task at 
length done, consecrates to Athena shuttle and spindle, bobbins 
and basket 2 . The same thing is seen where a person changes 
his manner of living. Nicarete turns music girl, and dedicates 
her bobbins and quiddities to Aphrodite 3 . Bitto offers her 
Keptei<; to Athena, having found at the age of thirty that more 
profitable is the cult of Aphrodite 4 . Courtesans on the same 
principle make free to dedicate their mirrors 5 or other articles 
of ornament 8 and dress to Aphrodite. The occasion is not 
always stated ; but it is now a lawful marriage 7 , or again 
when old age has robbed the woman of her beauty, and her 
day is past 8 . On the last occasion, one offers a bronze mirror, 
sandals, girdle, ringlets, and other symbols 9 . When Alexis the 
eunuch sickens of effeminate revelry, he leaves his cymbals and 
other gear in the shrine 10 . Cleitosthenes too can no longer use 
his musical instruments, so to Cybele fall the tambours and 
cymbals, the flutes and the knife 11 . A eunuch dying of excesses 
gives to Priapus his muslins and false hair, his box and his 
pipes 12 . After the orgies, Porphyris of Cnidus gives garlands, 
thyrsi, and anklet to Dionysus 13 . Many of these epigrams are 
only half serious, and we are now prepared to find the poet 
playing with the idea. The effect is pretty enough when the 
labouring ox, outworn with toil, is dedicated in his old age to 
peace and rest 14 ; but one Xenophon, after making a night of it, 
is frankly impious : 

Bibbing Bob to Bacchus brings 
These his pious offerings, 
Empty bottle, empty pot 
All that Bibbing Bob has got 15 . 

The inscriptions furnish hardly anything to bear out this 
custom. A hunter dedicates his club in a late inscription 16 ; 

1 Anth. Pal. vi. 295. 9 Anth. Pal. vi. 210 a T' ov 
Anth. Pal. vi. 39, 160, 247. 7>6j &<$pas (Aphrodite). 

3 Anth. Pal. vi. 285. 10 Anth. Pal. vi. 51 (Cybele). 

4 Anth. Pal. vi. 47, 48, cp. 74. " Anth. Pal. vi. 94. 

5 Anth. Pal. vi. 1, cp. 1820, 211. 12 Anth. Pal. vi. 254. 

6 Anth. Pal. vi. 206, 207. " Anth. Pal. vi. 172. 

7 Anth. Pal. vi. 208, perhaps 206, 14 Anth. Pal. vi. 228. 
207, 133. 15 Anth. Pal. vi. 77. 

8 Anth. Pal. vi. 1, of Lais. i BCH iii. 323 \aywfc. 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 73 

and in Athens we find a spool of thread dedicated by a woman 1 , 
whilst another apparently offers a basket of soft wool 2 , both 
perhaps given (though this is only a guess) in memory of their 
part in weaving the peplus*. Wool is also dedicated by a 
woman at Plataea, why or to what deity is not known*. It is 
not unlikely that the loom- weights and similar objects found 
in great numbers under the soil of ancient sanctuaries 8 , were 
dedicated by work-people ; two or three such loom-weights are 
inscribed with a woman's name 6 . Physicians at least seem to 
have consecrated their tools. Even if the /ca^er^pe? of Athens 
and Delos 7 were not such (the word may mean a necklace 8 ), 
Medon certainly dedicated his probes 9 ; and for a later date 
the practice is proved by a relief in stone of a whole case 
of surgical instruments 10 . A leaden quiver is inscribed, 
" These saved us from starving 11 ." We meet with no other 
tools in the Inventories which may be confidently placed in 
this class ; but there is a fair probability for the iron anchors 
and the four metal ox-goads at Delos 12 , and the cow-bell dedi- 
cated to the Cabiri 13 . There are, however, a great many picks 
and mallets, fleshhooks, scrapers and choppers, and articles of 
female use and ornament, some of which were votive offerings 
and all may have been so 14 . It would be rash indeed to assume 
that every axe was dedicated by a retiring butcher, or a mirror 
by some lesser Lais or Rhodopis ; but with this caution, we 
may briefly review the remains. A mirror found at Dodona was 
dedicated by a woman Polyxena 15 . Most of the objects are 

1 CIA ii. 757 'P68rj \iva tiri Tnjvlois 9 BCH ii. 431, Delos. 

(335-4 B.C.): Artemis? i BCH i. 212 plate ix., 'E<. 'Apx- 

2 CIA ii. 758 38 gpia /xaXa/ca cv /caXa- 1877, p. 166, no. 86. 

0icrKcuL. 11 JHS i. 31 TO.VTO. yap Treivijv Hffwcrev 

3 As epyaffrlvai, two TUV r/pyaff/Jtvuv r^a?. 

1-171 'Afloat rd ?pia, CIA iv. 2. 477 d 12 . 1Z BCH vi. 47 188 , 48 m . 

4 AJA vii. 407. 13 AM xiii. pi. ix., AA ix. 176, Cat. 
6 E.g. in the Heraeum, Athens, Brit. Mus. Bronzes 318 : Ilvplas Ka/3/- 

Crete, Tegea, Boeotia. put KCU. TTCU&. Proceedings of the Soc. 

6 BCH xi. 416 0e5w/>ij 'ABavau, of Antiquaries, xv. 74. 
Elatea ; AJA N. s. ii. 593 ' Apxapttrras, u See Indices. 

cave of Hermes, Crete. 15 Carapanos, pi. xxv. 1 : Ilo\v{va 

7 Indices ; BCH vi. 29. raytv dvridriTi TWL Ai /ecu \p^^ara (early 

8 BCH ii. 421. 5th century). So in the Heraeum. 



74 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



uninscribed. They include pins, bangles, and brooches in- 
numerable, mirrors and clasps, in the Argive Herueum 1 and 
Dodona 2 , rings, pins, and bracelets at Olympia 3 , spindles and 
pins at Delos 4 and Tegea s , pins 8 , bangles 7 , and brooches 8 , 
mirrors 9 , earrings 10 , perfume-pots 11 and lamps" on the Acro- 
polis of Athens, gold or silver girdles and cords, and earrings 
at Plataea, where one woman dedicates the ornaments she 
wore 13 . At Dodona were found spurs and horse-trappings, 
knives and tools 14 ; at Elatea picks and mallets 15 ; at Athens 
axes and knives 16 ; at Delos are recorded ox-goads and spits 17 ; 
while quantities of iron spits were found in the Heraeum 18 . 

A remarkable example of the dedication of the tool when its 
work is done, is the story of Pheidon king of Argos. Pheidon, 
we are told, was the first to coin money in Aegina ; and 
he dedicated the metal rods, which formerly past current, in 
the temple of Hera in Argos 19 . It is interesting to note that 
large quantities of metal rods have been found there, and 
some iron objects of huge size, which the discoverers are 



1 Dr Waldsteiu ; and AJA viii. 210, 
224. 

2 Carapanos, pi. 1, li. 

3 Bronzen von 01. pi. xxi xxiii., 
454 ff., 474. 

4 BCH vi. 31 17 , 46 157 - 167 ; CIA ii. 
751 u , certainly votive. 

5 AM\. 67. 

6 Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes 243. All 
these are votive, if the inscr. (no. 428) 
refers to them : ol rafilat rdde xaXxia 
...{rvXX^cwres, Atds Kparepofypovi Kovprji 
dvftwav. 

7 Cat. Acrop. Mug. Bronzes 241 2. 

8 Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes 214 5. 

9 Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes 2369. 

10 Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes 243. 

11 Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes 2501. 

12 Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes 425 
7. 

13 AJA vii. 406 {^vy dpyvpd, d/ti/udrta 
Svo xpvffa, tv&Tiov, 'flvibx* T&- ^0' 
avrfjs. For a more probable explana- 
tion see below, p. 251 2 . 



14 Carapanos, pi. Hi., liii. 

15 BCH xii. 60. 

1B Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes 31934, 
33648. 

17 BCH vi. 48 171 povirdXiva, 87 note 



18 DrWaldstein. For these however 
see below, chap. xiv. 

19 Etym. Magn. s.v. d/JeXtV/cos irdv- 



tKO\jsfv tv Aiyivff Kol 5oi)s r6 
/cat dva\a^<j)v TOI/J 6/3eXi'<TKOi;j, dv^OrjKf 
rfj iv 'Ap^et "Hpa. For iron currency 
of this sort see Ridgewa)', Origin of 
Coin and Weight Standards, 214 ff. 
The iron flovwdpovs <5/3eXot)s which 
Bhodopis sent to Delphi as a tithe 
were perhaps an early currency 
(Herod, ii. 135). Plutarch calls them 
'obelisks': De Pyth. Or. 14. The 
word meant originally a long straight 
spit. What was the iron currency of 
Sparta? 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 75 

inclined to explain as the largest multiple of the mint. I 
suggest, but with diffidence, that the same principle may 
explain a curious entry of twenty-one golden letters in the 
list of the Chalcothece at Athens 1 . Could this be the old 
Athenian alphabet, dedicated when Euclides changed the 
official script in 403 2 ? The dedication of an alphabet would 
not be unexampled, if Newton was right in regarding one 
found at the temple of Apollo in Calymna as votive 3 ; and 
an alphabet is painted on one of the Corinthian tablets 
dedicated to Poseidon 4 . 

It is a step further in artistic expression, when the devotee 
attempts to express by his offering the act or process which 
the deity has blest to his prosperity. The evidence is scanty, 
but quite clear. Nothing else can be meant (for a portrait- 
model is out of the question) by the model of a stone-ram 
dedicated on the Athenian Acropolis, with an inscription which 
admits of no mistake 5 . We may therefore interpret in the 
same way the bronze ram inscribed to Apollo Maleatas 6 , and 
the rams found or recorded at Delos 7 , Dodona 8 , Lycosura 9 , 
Olympia 10 , and Naucratis 11 . A group such as the brood-mare 
suckling a foal, again, several of which were found at Athens 12 
and at Olympia 13 , can hardly be mistaken ; or the stag brought 
down by hounds, also found at Olympia 14 ; or the man milking 
a cow, from Crete 15 . This is the most likely interpretation of 



1 CIA ii. 721 15 xapaKTrjpes AAI, cp. 8 Carapanos, pi. xxi. 2. 

720. 9 Frazer, Pausanias, iv. p. 370. 

2 ABrAEZH9IKAIOOIIPSTT4>X, 10 Bronzen von 01. xii. 195. 

there being no vowel rj (H was the n Petrie and Gardner, Naucratis, 

aspirate), w, , or \f/: Roberts, Epi- i. 14. 

graphy, 106. 12 Cat. Acr. Mm. Br. 480, 481. 

3 5th century: see Inscr. Brit. Mw. 13 Bronzen von 01. xiv. 217, 218. 
123, Roberts, p. 19. See fig. 12. 

4 1GA 20 13 . 14 Bronzen von 01. xiv. 219, 220. 

5 Ear. 72, Cat. Acrop. Mus. Bronzes See fig. 13. 

527 TI)I> tiKdav fte rMfivalai fot8i)icev 15 Mus. Ital. ii. 727. Although this 

(i.e. oxeio-v). group is cast along with two others, 

8 Collitz iii. 4536 MaXedra bis. But not connected with it, in one piece, 

it may be the sacrificial victim ; below, we may argue from the type equally 

ch. vni. as if it had been dedicated alone. 

7 BCH vi. 34 49 ; but see above, p. 67. 



76 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 




FIG. 12. Mare and Foal, from Olympia. Bronzen xiv. 217. 

the models of stallions 1 , which could not have been sacrificed; 
and may be the right interpretation of some creatures which 




FIG. 13. Stag attacked by hounds, from Olympia. Bronzen xiv. 220. 

could, the bulls of Argos 2 , of the Cabiri 3 , of Dodona 4 , of Olympia 8 , 
of Athens 6 , of Crete 7 , of Naucratis 8 , the fine bull engraved on 



1 Bronzen von 01. xii. 171, xiii. 194, 
perhaps xiv. 216 (bird on rump). See 
fig. 15. Cat. Acr. Mm. Br. 4836, 493, 
498. I omit the horses of Corinth 
(Frazer, Pausanias, v. 545), Crete, 
Delos, Therapne, the Cabirium, and 
other places, where the sex cannot be 
distinguished. This is the case with the 
early terra-cotta animals, innumerable 
and found in many places, but of form 



so indistinct that nothing definite can 
be made of them. 
4 Bronzes : 24, etc. 

3 AM xv. 365. 

4 Carapanos, xx. 4. 

5 Bronzen von 01. xii. 187. 

6 Cat. Acr. Mus. Br. 517, a fine 
creature. 

7 Mug. Ital. ii. 736 (Ida), 906 (Dicte). 

8 Naucratis, i. 14. 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 



77 



a silhouette plate found near Apollo's temple at Metapontium 1 , 
and the Athenian or Olympian boar 2 . The sire, or the dam 
with young, thus embodies as it were and sums up the 




FIG. 14. Boar, from Olympia. 
Bronze n xii. 196. 




FIG. 15. Stallion, from Olympia. 
Bronzen xiii. 194. 



breeder's work. A horse carrying two jars, found in Cyprus, 
suggests traffic in oil 3 ; one laden with loaves or fruit in 
baskets may also have been dedicated to Cabirus by a trader 4 . 
Groups like the milch-cow in milking and the stag at bay re- 
present the dedicator's work more fully ; and a similar thought 
may have caused the dedication of a cart drawn by oxen, 
found in the Dictaean cave 5 . The hunter's dog was sometimes 
dedicated in effigy, as a late Lesbian inscription testifies 6 , and 
a poem of the Anthology 1 offers a "stone dog instead of 
a real one." These may explain the model hounds of Lusi in 
Arcadia 8 and the Cabirium 9 , and the model hawks of Naucratis 10 . 



1 A JA iv. 28 ff., figured. Mr Emer- 
son, the editor, suggests this explana- 
tion as a guess, along with a symbolical 
interpretation which is quite untenable. 
The district was noted for agriculture 
and breeding, as the corn and bull 
devices on coins of Metapontium and 
Thurii go to show. 

2 Cat. Acr. Mm. Br. 479, Bronzen 
xii. 196. 

3 Sanctuary of Golgi : Cesnola, 
Cyprus, 140. 

4 AM xv. 357. A horse carrying 
two jars was found in the prehistoric 
palace of Phaestus (Crete) while I was 
there in 1900 ; but whether votive or 
not there is nothing to show. 



5 Annual of the British School at 
Athens vi. 108, fig. 39. 

6 IGI ii. 514 6ea neyd\rj ' 
TT\V KVVO. KXatfSios Aowaavdj ' 



7 Anth. Pal. vi. 175, 176 (Pan and 
Nymphs). 

8 Jahreshefte iv. 48, fig. 64. 

9 AM xv. 356. 

10 Naucratis, i. 14. I do not forget 
the connexion of hawks with Egyptian 
worship, but there is no reason to 
separate them from the other animals. 
Why should the sacred Egyptian bird 
be dedicated to a Greek deity? The 
assumption cannot be accepted with- 
out evidence. See also chap. xiv. 



78 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Perhaps the golden anvil of Delos 1 was another attempt in 
the same direction. In later days, at least, such models were 
common. Philostratus describes how in the temple of Dionysus 
on Mount Nysa, were " sickles, pruning knives, and wine-presses, 
and all things belonging thereunto, made of gold and silver, 
and dedicated to Bacchus, as to one concerned in the vintage 2 ." 
It is fitting also to mention the " foundation deposit " of the 
temple at Naucratis, which consisted of model knives and 
axes, hoes, rakes, adzes, chisels, trowels, with libation bowls 
and other such things ; models of a mud brick and a glazed 
brick, ingots of gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, and pieces of 
precious stone : all the tools and materials used in the 
building 8 . 

The same explanation must be given of figures representing 
the worshipper in some characteristic attitude. There is very 
little evidence for this in early times. At the Argive Heraeum 
was found the figure of a man cooking or something of the 
sort 4 ; in Cyprus, a baker kneading bread 5 . From Dodona 
comes a youth clad in hide or frieze cloke, and carrying a 
hunting club 6 . At Naucratis was found a hunter's figure 
carrying game, and inscribed to Aphrodite 7 . Perhaps the 
" statue with a hare," which is recorded in the Athenian list 
of bronzes on the Acropolis, may have been dedicated by a 
hunter 8 . One statuette was found at Paestum, which I cannot 
explain otherwise, although I do not suggest the present 
explanation with any confidence. It represents a woman, 
draped but without distinguishing attributes, one hand raised 
to support a basket or some other article which has disap- 
peared. The figure stood on a small pillar, and was dedicated 
by Phillo to Athena as a tithe 9 . It is impossible to suppose, 



1 ECU vi. 47 168 &KHW. A plow 4 Dr Waldstein. 

found in Boeotia has been claimed 5 JHS xii. 140. Both may be 

as votive, on what grounds I know toys or d-ydX/wtra. 

not : BCH xvii. 80. 6 Carapanos, pi. xiv. 

2 Philostr. Vit. Apoll. ii. 4. These 7 Naucratis, ii. pi. xiii. 5. 
are a shade less material than the 8 CIA ii. 742 13 . 

dedications of real tools. 9 IGA 542 TaOyvcU 4>iXXw 'Kap/j.vXiSa 

3 Naucratis, i. 28. SfKdrav. Not later than 500. 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 79 

as Curtius does 1 , that a temple official dedicates a tithe of her 
pay, without evidence of such pay, and without authority for 
such a custom. The word tithe had its proper meaning at 
this date, and therefore the figure cannot be the memorial 
of an honourable place in the ritual, the representation that 
is of a canephorus in some procession. It is conceivable that 
the figure represented a working woman or huxter ready to 
trade ; and I can think of nothing else. An equally puzzling 
object is the well-known marble disc bearing the portrait of 
Aeneus the physician, inscribed as a "memorial of his skill 2 ." 
Style and script suit the latter part of the sixth century; and 
the Aeneus mentioned is probably a physician of Cos, uncle of 
the great Hippocrates 3 . Where it came from is not known; 
but it cannot be sepulchral 4 . It may conceivably have adorned 
some physician's hall ; if it be votive 5 , it differs in formula 
from all others I have met with, and is the unique example 
of a votive portrait at so early a date 6 . Even so, however, 
it will be more than a portrait, and falls in here with the 
rest. It is at least probable, then, that a successful hunts- 
man, artist, craftsman, trader would dedicate a figure, in 
character, as a thank-offering for success in his calling. 
Further, we have Aristotle's evidence for such a dedication 
as a thank-offering for good fortune. There was to be seen 
on the acropolis, he says, the " ancient statue " of a youth 
standing beside a horse, the figure (not necessarily a portrait, 
of course ; but an image not divine) of one who by some 
lucky chance rose from the lowest class into that of the 

1 AZ xxxviii. 27, pi. 6. vi. 215 fj.vdfj.ara vavpaxlas. Once only 

2 CIA iv. 1. 422 u /j.vafj.a r6d' Al- have I met with this type of phrase on 
velov <ro<t>las larpov aplffTov, Jahrb. xii. an early epitaph, fj.va.fia <f>i\ijfj.offijvr)s 
pi. 1. CIA i. 472, where it suits the occasion 

3 Jahrb. xii. 1, Steph. Byz. s.v. pat, which /jj>afj.a aortas does not; 

4 nvrjua alone is found on tombs : moreover, there crr/fia is coupled with 
CIA iv. 1. 477 c, d ; Amorgos, Roberts it. 

158 a, b; Thespiae, IGA 146, 284; 5 Votive plaques of marble like this 

and others. With the abstract noun are known : IGI i. 700, and Jahrb. 

(as here <ro^as) it is common on votive p. 4 note (the last from Priene). 
monuments. To the exx. given in 6 The characterised figures were not 

the Jahrbuch I add CIA i. 374 fj.vdfj.a realistic portraits, so far as we know. 
*A/>eos, Simonides in Anth. Pal. 



80 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Knights 1 . The ancient fragment of a led horse which is 
among the votive offerings found there may belong to a similar 
monument*. 

In a picture, of course, the craft or calling can be more 
clearly represented ; and it is certain that the practice of dedi- 
cating terra-cotta tablets was common. Its prevalence cannot 
be measured by the few which survive, because articles like 
these, of no intrinsic value, were sure to be destroyed; and 
those actually found appear to be the refuse of the sanctuary 
of Poseidon But it so happens that a large deposit of them 
has been found at Corinth, and these of a high antiquity 3 . 
Corinth was famed for its potteries in the old days, and 
Corinthian vases were largely exported to Italy; amongst the 
tablets are a large number which refer to the potter's craft ; 
others relate to hunting or to agriculture, others to war or the 
games. This single find is enough to show that votive offerings 
of all sorts were made to the patron deity of a city, irrespective 
of his later traditional character. Some of the sherds are painted 
on both sides, and therefore must have been meant to hang free, 
not against a wall. A large number represent Poseidon, with 
or without Amphitrite, sometimes with other figures such as 
Athena 4 or Homeric heroes 8 ; besides the votive inscription, 
the names are often inscribed, and in one case the furnace 6 . 
With two possible exceptions, the occasion is never mentioned, 
nor any word said in elucidation of it, but prayers are found 7 . 
The figures of oxen are common, and in one case they appear to 



1 Arist. Ath. Pol. vii. 21 eltcova.. He Griechische und Sicilische Vasenbilder, 
quotes two lines of the inscr. : Ai<f>i\ov SS. He quotes Aeneas Tacticus xxxviii. 
'AvOefj.lwv T-f/vS' dvt6r)Kf Oeois, OTJTIKOU 10, who speaks of such tablets as com- 
dvrl rtXovs lirirdtf d/j.(i\f/dfjLvo^. Aris- mon in hero shrines: iinrta. <t>u<r<t>6pov 
totle implies there were other figures rj on dv /3oi)\ei. 

of the kind. * IGA 20 M . 

2 Jahrb. viii. 135, no. 697. 5 IGA 20 45 'AxiXXetfs; Ant. Denk. 

3 Antike Denkmaler i. 7, 8, ii. 23, 24, i. 7. 15. 

29, 30 ; Jahrb. xii. 9 flf. ; IGA 20, Kat. e /cd^^oj : Jahrb. xii. 19, F. no. 

der Berl. Vasensammlung (referred to 482. 

below as F), pp. 48105. More than 7 IGA 20 62 - 4 ri> Si 56$ \apleffffav 

1000 fragments were found. The other dQopfj.dv. 

remains are discussed by Benndorf, 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 81 

be drawing a plow 1 . The vintage is represented 2 , and perhaps 
the grapes growing on their vines, with a predatory fox below 8 . 





FIG. 16. Artist at work (Corinth). 
Ant. Denk. i. pi. 8, fig. 20. 



FIG. 17. Corinthian votive tablet. 
Ant. Denk. i. pi. 8, fig. 24. 



One appears to record thanks after a shearing 4 . We see also 
the hunter and his dog 5 , wild boars 6 , and Poseidon with a hare 7 , 
all which may be ascribed to the huntsman's life ; perhaps 
some of the stray beasts 8 have the same origin. One tablet 
shows a statuary at work 9 . But the potter is most chiefly in 
evidence. Here are miners, with pads on their heads to 
support the baskets 10 , or digging the clay underground with 
picks 11 ; there the craftsman moulds his pot on the wheel 12 , or 



1 Jahrb. xii. 31, F. 729 ; cp. 44, nos. 
8390. 

2 Ant. Denk. i. 8. 24. See fig. 17. 

3 Ant. Denk. i. 8. 2. This was 
originally interpreted as the fable of 
fox and crow, but the letters 90 are the 
beginning of a name which has since 
been completed, Jahrb. xii. 34. 

* IGA 20 &t0i)ice HortBavJ. F<- 
VO.KTI airro7r6/aa ; Jahrb. xii. 23, F. 
524. Collitz reads cuJroirfcta ; above, 

R. 



p. 61 6 . 

5 Ant. Denk. i. 8. 13 dvtOijKe TUI 
HoreiSavi. See fig. 18. 

6 Ant. Denk. i. 8. 19, Jahrb. xii. 44, 
nos. 83 90. 

7 Ant. Denk. i. 8. 27. 

8 Jahrb. xii. 15, F. 422. 

Ant. Denk. i. 8. 20. See fig. 16. 

10 Jahrb. xii. 27, F. 648. See fig. 20. 

11 Ant. Denk. i. 8. 7. 

12 Ant. Denk. i. 8. 17. 

6 



82 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



gives it the finishing touches 1 . The stoker pokes up the 
furnace 8 , the vessels are stackt within it and burnt 8 , out they 
come and are hung up in the shop 4 , and finally the ship sets 
sail with the articles strung in a row on the rigging 8 . The 
voyage safely accomplisht, comes back the 'merchant from 
Italy or "from Peiraeus 6 ," and pays his offering with a prayer 
for future blessings 7 , accompanied with adoration and solemn 
sacrifice 8 . 




Pio. 18. Votive tablet, from Corinth. 
Ant. Denk. i. pi. 8, fig. 18. 

An Athenian vase-painting of the fifth century shows a 
scene which has been interpreted as a tradesman's thanks- 
giving 9 . The worshipper, a bearded man with a garland upon 
his head, approaches a blazing altar. On the twigs of an olive 
tree hang three tablets, perhaps (like those of Corinth) depict- 
ing his trade ; a statuette which he has dedicated stands on a 



1 Ant. Denk. i. 8. 14. 
3 Ant. Denk. i. 8. 1, 4, 12, 15, 26; 
Jahrb. xii. 44, nos. 7480. 
8 Ant. Denk. i. 8. 12, 19 b. 
* Jahrb. xii. 26, F. 640, fig. 15. 
fi Ant. Denk. i. 8. 3. See fig. 19. 



8 IGA 20 5 IIepae60ei' fooM. Not 
the Athenian port. 

7 IGA 20 M - M . 

Ant. Denk. i. 1. 16. 

9 J. E. Harrison, Mythology and 
Monuments of Early Athens, 461. 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 



83 



slim pillar ; to the right is Athena in the form of the armed 
Parthenos. Whether the reliefs, which came into fashion in 





FIG. 19. Ship with Freight of 

Pottery, from Corinth. 
Ant. Denk. i. pi. 8, fig. 3 a. 



FIG. 20. Miners digging for potter's clay 

(Corinth). 
Ant. Denk. i. pi. 8, fig. 7. 



the fifth and especially the fourth century, ever represented 
the tradesman's craft, the remains are too scanty to show. 
One tithe dedication of an early date is affixt to the remains 
of a relief 1 , but there is too little left to determine its character. 
Those which can be made out are mostly sacrificial, that is they 
represent and commemorate an act of cult 2 . If the tithe were 
habitually offered at the Chalces the relief might depict the 
ceremony at that feast. One relief, inscribed to the goddess, 
shows her standing with an altar upon her left hand, and 
behind a votive pillar with a sunk panel in it 3 , and a fragment 
of a similar relief shows the worshipper, a woman in this case 4 . 
Reliefs to Zeus Meilichios, which show worshippers in the 
presence of the deity enthroned, have been found at Athens 5 ; 
and since this deity is connected with agriculture 6 , they may 
be placed here. The Good Spirit has the same pose and aspect 



1 CIA iv. 1. 373 2 . 

2 See below, ch. vm. 

3 CIA iv. 1. 418 i 'AlVafai av^O... 
This and the next, if part of hex. 
verses, may have read dirapxfy- 

4 Syhel 3253 'Adyvalai a^erjKe. Cp. 



5214, 5215. 

5 Cat. Ath. Mus. 1431, cp. 13889, 
1408; Farnell, Cults i. 117, 119, 
pi. ii. See fig. 21. 

6 Worshipt at the Diasia : Momm- 
sen, Feste ; Preller, Gr. Myth. 146. 

62 



84 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



on another relief, from Thespiae, which is likely to be a thank- 
offering for prosperity 1 . Very late we have a barbarous relief 
to Men, Saviour and Giver of Wealth 2 . 



A P i 1 TAPXHAIlAlETlAlxi**.! \ 




Fio. 21. Dedication to Zeus Meilichios, from Athens. 

We are but little better off with Artemis. Since the god- 
dess is typically represented in huntress garb, we cannot read 
any reference to the occasion into such representations of her; 
they were the natural offering in a shrine where she was 
worshipt, if the worshipper desired to offer an image 3 . Nor can 
we interpret so common a motive as holding a flower to the 
nose, to imply that she was here regarded as goddess of vegeta- 
tion 4 . But sometimes a hunting scene is suggested ; and it is 
not too fanciful to interpret as the hunter's thank-offering an 
Athenian relief which shows a naked figure, apparently in the 
act of shooting his arrow, with a dog, Artemis appearing in 
the background among rocks 8 . So too where the goddess is 



1 AM xvi. 25 'Aytffrpbrov Ti/xo/cpd- ical 



Sa.ifj.ovi. The title was applied to the 
god as giver of all good, Paus. viii. 
36.5. 

3 BCH xxiii. 388, pi. 1 : Mrjvl Zwrijpt 



3 Such, for example, as the Corfu 
statuettes : below, ch. vin. 

4 As Farnell does with an old Acro- 
polis vase, Cults ii. 523. 

6 Sybel 4300. 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 85 

striking the animal with arrow 1 or spear 2 , especially if a male 
worshipper is also seen 1 . In these the deity is conceived as 
herself carrying out the process which she has blest. Perhaps 
the Macedonian relief to Fruitful Demeter is a farmer's offer- 
ing 3 . Perhaps also a relief, dedicated to the river-god Hermus, 
is a fisherman's ; on a couch a male figure reclines, holding a 
fish and a vase 4 . 

One class of relief has so obvious a reference to the celebra- 
tions of country life and the worship of the rural deities, that we 
may fairly bring it into connexion with the tithe and firstfruit. 

These represent as a rule Pan and the Nymphs, sometimes 
associated with other deities. The songs and dances which 
accompanied their festivals have been already described. The 
scene is a rough cavern, in which is an altar; within the cavern, 
the nymphs are seen dancing, clad in flowing robes which 
sometimes shroud the head also. The number is usually three ; 
they hold by each other's girdles, or some part of the dress. 
Occasionally Pan, or at times Hermes 5 , is in the cave; other- 
wise Pan sits in a corner, playing for them upon the pipes. 
The head of a river-god is usually visible to one side, and there 
are sometimes small figures of worshippers in the attitude of 
adoration. Apollo as god of the herds is sometimes found in 
the same connexion. The grotto at Vari was dedicated to 
Apollo, Pan, and the Nymphs in common 6 ; and the two deities 
were neighbours under the Acropolis rock, where they were 
worshipt far into the Roman age 7 . 

1 Sybel 5995, cp. Cat. Br. Mus. Hours: see AM ui.lSlB., Die Chariten 
Sc. 778. Same type, with female der Acropolis. Such names as Auxo, 
worshipper: Cat. Br. Mus. Sc. 779. Carpo, Thaleo, Pandrosos, Agraulos 
See below, chap. vi. point without doubt to natural per- 

2 F-W. 1202. Bonifications; and for our purpose it 

3 Sybel 358 : ... TTTTOS KXeoTrcir/sas is immaterial what they be called. 
'Aju/ucu'T/ yvfi] avrou A^IJT/H Kapiro- It is very doubtful whether there were 
(f>6fXf> tv-)(T)v- Demeter with torch, many dedications to the Graces. The 
burning altar. authorities speak of one famous ex- 

* AM xix. 313 'IXapluv 'Ep/j.wi <ivt- ample, made by Socrates: Schol. Arist. 

Oifxev. Clouds 773, Paus. ix. 38. 5. 

6 For Hermes see BCH xiii. 467. 6 CIA i. 423431. 

It is impossible now to define clearly 7 'E<j>. 'Apx- 1897, 1 ff., 87 ff. 
the relation of Nymphs, Graces, and 



86 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



The oldest relief of this class comes from Thasos, which, 
though not votive, is interesting from its scheme 1 . Apollo, 
lyre in hand, stands on one side of a door or the opening of a 
cave ; a female figure crowns him. On the other side of the 
door are Hermes and three nymphs. Of the typical scene in the 
cave there are many examples. In one variation, Pan plays on 
the pipe to three dancing nymphs, one of whom carries ears of 
corn in her hands 2 . Another shows the head of the river-god 
on one side 3 . A third, found in the grotto on Parnes, has Pan 
seated aloft, with goats' heads indicated on the edge of the 
carving; within the cave, Hermes leads the nymphs in their 
dance, and as before the river-god's head is visible 4 . A fourth, 
this from Megara, adds the figures of four worshippers 5 . Yet 




FIG. 22. Pan, Hermes, and Nymphs in grotto with altar and worshippers. 
Cat. Berl. Sc. 711. 

another variant is seen in the Archandrus relief 6 . Here Pan 
appears to be peeping out of his grotto upon the dance, whilst 



1 In the Louvre. Rayet, Man. de 
VArt Antique, ' ' Bas-reliefs de Thasos " ; 
Harrison, Myth, and Mon. 544. viift.- 
OrjXv Kal 



ovSt -^oipov, oil waiuvlftTat. 
Sybel 317, 6961. 

3 Harrison, Myth, and Mon. 547 : 
this has a hole for suspension. 

4 TijXe^dcTjy di>6r]Ke TLavl Kal Ntf/x- 



<f>ais: Sybel 360, cp. 387 (Megara), 
1238, 3139 (Eleusis), 3753, 4212 : F-W. 
1839. 

8 Harrison, 546; Cat. Berl. Sc. 
711. See fig. 22. 

6 Harrison, 548; Sybel 4040 "Ap- 
XO-vdpos NiV^ats tal Ilavi. For the 
portrait figure see AM v. 206 ff. 
This is the oldest Attic example, 
5th century. 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 87 

a worshipper gazes over the altar at the nymphs, who this time 
are standing still. The figure of the dedicator seems intended to 
be a portrait. A slab found in Rome, but of Greek workman- 
ship, shows this scene with all its meaning refined out of it. 
There is no cave, no Pan, but Hermes leads three very quiet 
nymphs towards a worshipper, and from behind a river-god 
looks benevolently on 1 . 

Three curious reliefs show a pair of Pans in the grotto. In 
one the Pans carry each a goad, while the nymphs dance above 2 . 
In another, of later date, the Pans have crescent horns 3 . The 
popular belief in a plurality of Pans, which was fostered by the 
derivation of the name from Tra? 4 , has been already mentioned. 
The dedication of this piece to Cybele reminds us that Cybele 
and the nymphs are associated as early as Pindar 5 . They are 
joined in a Tanagran relief 6 , and in the deme Phlya they were 
worshipt together 7 , as in the grotto of Archedemus at Vari 8 . 
A sacrificial relief to M 77x77/9 No/iata must belong to this class 9 . 
But the mass of Cybele dedications have no obvious reference 
to rustic celebrations. The female deity, with calathus on 
head, in another relief (4th century) may perhaps be Demeter ; 
a female idol, holding two torches, meant perhaps for Hecate, 
is present, and a smaller male figure holds a libation-jug 10 . 
Another relief, even more puzzling, was found near Phalerum 11 . 
The slab is carved on both sides: one representing Echelus and 
Basile, two local heroes, in a four-horse car ; in the other, the 

1 Cat. Berl. Sc. 709. 7 Pans. i. 31. 4. 

2 AM xxi. pi. 8 ; another, p. 276. 8 CIA i. 423431. 

Cp. Beschreibung der Glyptothek zu 9 GIG 6838 M6<rxo$ 'M.rjrpl Nonfat 

Munchen, 456. fvxfy- 

3 AM xxi. 275 EWs bioddipov IK 10 Cat. Berl. Sc. 690. 
Aafj-irrptuv ~M.ijrpl deuv KO.T' iiriTay^v. n AJA ix. 203, pi. xii., 'E<. 'Apx- 
iravTa Bfbv ffeninjvofiw. 1893, 128, pi. 9, 10. (A) "ExeXos, 

4 Arist.jEccZ. 1069 w Haves. Cp.inscr. BcunXij. (B) 'Ept*T)i /cai NtVt^ata-w a... 
in last note, and on the Washermen's Echelus is the eponym of deme 
Relief iraffi Oeois, p. 88 3 and p. 89 below. Echelidae, Basile is Basileia (CIA iv. 
Note that other gods are represented 1. 53 a, Diod. iii. 27). I do not know 
double: Athena and Cybele for instance. any other votive relief with a purely 
AM xxi. 280, 'E<. 'Apx- 1890, pi. i. mythological scene ; there must be 

5 Find. Pyth. iii. 77 = 137. some reference to cult which has been 
AM iii. 388. lost. 



88 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

three nymphs appear with a river-god, and the other figures are 
a youth and a bearded man who face one another. A rude piece 
from the bed of the Ilissus appears to be dedicated to the Naiads 1 ; 
another shows Achelous, Hermes, and Heracles, the last two 
pouring libations to a seated god, perhaps Zeus Meilichios*. 
An interesting memorial of nymph-worship is an Athenian 
relief, recording a dedication of a dozen washermen and washer- 
women 3 . Two scenes are represented, a space being left 
between for the inscription. The upper scene is a grotto of 
the familiar type ; to the left is the head of the Achelous, 
towards which advances Hermes leading three nymphs ; in the 
right Pan squats on his haunches playing upon the pipes. The 
lower scene represents Demeter and the Maid, facing an altar, 
towards which advances a bearded man leading a horse. The 
stature of the man shows that he is not human, and his horse also 
suggests that we have here some local hero. That washermen 
should worship the nymphs down by the Ilissus 4 , who sent 
them water to ply their trade, is as natural as it is for the 
farmer and the huntsman to thank them for their winnings. 

Dedications are often made to the nymphs alone. The 
earliest dates from the early sixth century 8 . One which is 
assigned to the fifth century is fragmentary, but appears to 
have contained the nymphs only 6 . So we find a dedication of 
the fourth century to them alone 7 . The groups of three dancing 
figures, called by some the Graces, would appear to belong .to 
this class ; and if so, they show an earlier form of the votive 
tablet than the cave of Pan 8 . In a piece from Naples, a female 
worshipper joins hands with six others of larger size, doubtless 
Nymphs and Graces together 9 . 

A series of reliefs from Thrace, of the second or third 



Xeueuriv? Natal AU? 6 AM xxiii. 367 ...K\fwvv6ov Nifyt- 

'E0. 'Apx- 1894, 131. 0eus. Three Nymphs or Graces on a 

2 'E<f>. 'Apx- 1894, 131, pi. 7. Samian relief: AM xxv. 172, no. 67. 

3 Cat. Berl. Sc. 709 ol rXwijs Ntfjt- 7 Sybel 4038. It is dated tvl iep<?ws 
<cus fvdfj.fi>oi. KO.I ffeois va.ffw, followed ' AffK\rfirtoi) . . . No. 5983 is a fragment. 
by names of ten men and two women. 8 Not inscribed. Discussed as Graces 

* Plato, Phaedr. 230 B. by Furtwangler: AM iii. 181 ff. 
5 Beschreibung der Glyptothek zu 9 Harrison, Myth, and Mon. 645, 

M line lien, no. 241. fig. 7. 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 89 

century after Christ, may be here mentioned, although they show 
a debased feeling 1 . Four types are represented. In one (1) the 
three figures are nude, and stand in a cave, entwined in the 
attitude of the familiar group of the Graces ; or they dance and 
wave a veil or a wrap. In another (2) they stand draped 
in various attitudes. A third (3) adds the figure of a priest 
placing incense on an altar ; and a fourth (4) adds Zeus and 
Hera in large size, the nymphs being small. A horseman also 
appears. The ritual dance and sacrifice here reappear, but the 
representation has become artificial. In the last type, the 
nymphs are subordinated to Zeus and Hera; in the early 
examples, they are always the most important figures. We do 
find, however, other deities united with them. Cybele, Demeter 
and the Maid we have seen already 2 ; Dionysus and Pan are 
found on another piece 3 ; in the second century, Men appears 
by Pan's side in a grotto 4 ; but the most explicit rendering of the 
idea that Pan is All Gods has yet to be mentioned 5 . Here 
a table stands in the grotto, and the river-god's head is upon 
it. On either side is a group of deities, seven in all ; Zeus 
enthroned holds the centre, and amongst other figures which 
cannot be identified, we see the Maid holding two torches, 
and a male figure holding the horn of plenty. The three 
dancing nymphs are a subsidiary motive in a late relief dedi- 
cated to Isis, in which the central figure is a reclining male 
person, perhaps Achelous 6 . 

Again, the tithe often took the form of a statue of the friendly 
deity. An example in point comes from legendary times. 
Ulysses, we are told, being of a mind to breed horses, dedi- 
cated an image of Horse Poseidon in Pheneus 7 . Bathycles of 
Magnesia, who made the gold-ivory Apollo at Amyclae, his work 
done, dedicated statues of his patron deity Artemis and the 
Graces 8 . Statues appear to have been dedicated in Olympia for 

1 BCH xxiii. 122 ff. N^ats et5xV; 5 Megara: Cat. Berl. Sc. 679. 

one with a name and eyx 7 ?** > icvplcus 6 RM xii. 146 Evvoia "EtcnSi. e^x 1 ?" 



2 Above, p. 87 ; another from Aero- 7 Paus. viii. 14. 5. 

polis, AM ii. pi. 18. 8 Paus. iii. 18. 9. Artemis Leuco- 

3 Cat. Berl. Sc. 687. phryene was worshipt in Magnesia. 

4 BCH xx. 78 (cut). It is easy to understand the Graces. 



90 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



the Naxian builder who invented marble tiles 1 . In Athens, before 
the battle of Salarais, Phrygia the baxter dedicated a bronze 
statuette of Athena armed, whose shield remains still*; other 
such figures remain, one being inscribed as a tithe 3 . The word 
used on other Athenian tithe and firstfruit dedications is that 
specially applied to divine figures at this date 4 . The statue is 
even inscribed as a "maiden "; that is, the image of Athena her- 
self, otherwise the offering would have no point. When further 
we find that a private person, and he a man, dedicates as a first- 
fruit 8 or tithe 8 a statue of the same type as the famous Maidens 
of the Acropolis, and the same type is seen on reliefs to be 
meant for the goddess 7 , a new light is thrown on these mysterious 
statues. Other columns of the same shape as those which bear 
these inscriptions, and inscribed as the tithe or firstfruit, may 
well have borne similar statues 8 , and they were so common that 
Euripides uses them for a simile 9 . Thus some of them were 
demonstrably the tithe or firstfruit thank-offering of a tradesman 
or artisan 10 ; and they may all have been such, or at least we 



1 Paus. v. 10. 3 Noios Etiepyos /te 
yfrtt ArjTovs irope, Bi/few ircus, 8s Trpw- 
Tiffros revise \t6ov Ktpa.fj.ov. He lived 
in the time of Alyattes. Pausanias 
calls the offerings d-ydX/aara, and says 
that Byzes dedicated them, which seems 
to imply that the son merely made the 
formal dedication. 

2 Cat. Acr. Mus. Br. 260, fig. 60, 
JHS xiii. 124 $>pvyia avWijice rrji 
'ABrjvatat rj dpTOTrwXis. 

3 '<*.. 'A PX . 1887, 134. 

4 AyaXfjia, now contrasted with dK&v, 
' a portrait.' It occurs in CIA iv. 
1. 373 10 , cp. "1,218 with wapxfr, 
373202.216 with 0(K< i T1tv , ciA i. 375 
(perhaps therefore 351), made by 
Critias and Nesiotes, must have been 
a statue. So i. 402, 403 by Cresilas. 
See also 'E#. 'Apx- 1891, 55, pi. 6 
a.Trapx~/if. Earlier, aya\na meant any 
ornament or precious thing : II. iv. 
144, Hesych. s.v. TTO.V t<p' <J5 TIS d>dX- 
Xerot. Of a stone basin : Ear. 360. 



5 CIA iv. 1, 373 9 , p. 179: 
Kopyv a.vtOi)Kfv awapxriv .. .\6xof Ay pas 
r)v ol -rrovTO/dduv \pvtroT pi'aic' tiroptv. 
This is not a dedication to Poseidon, 
as the formula shows. CIA iv. 1. 
373 179 Nf/cuXXos foWrticev, base, with the 
statue belonging to it figured in 'E<f>. 
'Apx- 1887, 134. 'E0. 'Apx- 1886, 81 
NVap^os Hpyuv a.irapx'hv. 

6 Several pillar-bases in the Acropolis 
Museum have SeKdr^v, e.g. no. 150. 

7 Acrop. Mus. 581. 

8 CIA iv. 1. 373 /, 373 104 - 197 - n8 : 



9 Eur. Phoen. 220. 

10 For other explanations see BCH 
xiv. 573, AM xiv. 493; Collignon, 
Sculpt. Gr. i. 340 ff.; Frazer, Paus. 
ii. 346. All are full of difficulty ; the 
figures are too numerous for priestesses, 
and there is no evidence for the 
customary dedication of priestesses at 
this date. They were not dedicated by 
their makers, nor would a series of 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 91 

may say that all were intended to represent the goddess and 
to be thankofferings of some sort. Isaeus seems to allude to 
these divine figures, when he speaks of the custom of dedicating 
firstfruits of one's substance 1 . The type is the simplest possible 
conception of an anthropomorphic goddess, without attributes. 
In this light we may interpret a similar series of Maidens found 
at Delos 2 , although there we have not the help of inscriptions ; 
the remains of other such elsewhere 3 ; the series of so-called 
Apollos, which in their nakedness may often represent other 
gods 4 ; and the figures of Zeus or other gods without attributes 5 . 
Indeed, as Phrygia's armed Athena proves, any figure of a deity 
may have been dedicated on some such occasion as these 6 . 

A few allegorical offerings may be mentioned. There was 
one at Delphi, attributed to the great Hippocrates ; a moulder- 
ing corpse, nothing but bones left, perhaps an articulated 
skeleton 7 . The people of Corcyra, who had been guided to 
a great haul of fish by the bellowing of a bull, dedicated an 
image of this animal at Olyrnpia and another at Delphi 8 . 
Aelian's account of the golden sheep of Mandrobulus was that 
the lost treasure of the temple had been found by a sheep 9 . 
There was a group of Earth praying for rain on the Acropolis 
at Athens 10 . 

So far the offerings have been more or less of an ideal type ; 
their value depending wholly or in part upon their meaning. 
But here as elsewhere the offering may be given for its intrinsic 

masterpieces all follow one type. The regards the Delian statues as meant 

word K6pi) is used by Plato of dedica- for Artemis. 

tions to the Nymphs ; Plat. Phaedr. 3 Sicily : Kekule, Terracotten von 

230 B vv^Qiv r rivtav ical 'AxeX^ou -Sic., pi. 1 (life-size). Eleusis : 'E<j>. 

lepbv dirb r&v Kopuv re Kal dya\/j.druv 'Apx- 1885, 179, pi. 8. Marseilles : 

ZoiKev elvai. It is also applied to the Gaz. Arch. ii. 133, pi. 31. 

goddess Persephone. See further in * See ch. xrv. 

ch. xiv. 8 Zeus: Olympia, Bronzen von 01. 

1 Isaeus, De Dicaeog. Her. 113 : oi vii. 40. 

Tf/^Tepot irp6yovoi...tv aAcpoirdXei dirap- 6 Terracotta statuettes are common 

X&s TWV &VTUV dvaOfrrfs iroXXotj, ws in the Maiden type: see below, ch. 

a7r6 ISlas KTrjffews, dydXfJMai x a ^ K L* Ka ' VIII XIV - 
\i6tvois KeKOfffj.'/iKaffL rb lepov. 7 Paus. x. 2. 6. 

2 BCH xiv. 573 ; AZ xl. 326 ; 8 Paus. x. 9. 3, v. 29. 9. 
Homolle, De Antiquissimis Dianae 9 Aelian, Hist. An. xn. 40. 
Simulacris Deliacis (Paris 1885), ch. 2, 10 Paus. i. 24. 3. 



92 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

value, and have no reference to the occasion at all. A man 
of Boeotia offers a sum of money, apparently in gratitude for 
a legacy 1 . A shrine or other building might commemorate 
exceptional profits or a lucky windfall. According to the 
legend, Danaus founded a shrine of Apollo Lycius in Argos, 
having got the kingdom after seeing the omen of a wolf killing 
a bull*. The Siphnians built their treasury at Delphi on the 
first discovery of their gold mines 8 . 

The tithe might be paid in money or valuables bought 
with money. A silver ingot found in Sicily, and dedicated 
to Zeus, from the names of the dedicators has been ascribed 
to a similar origin*. In the Inventories we find such entries; 
as Andron offered so many gold pieces as firstfruit 5 . The 
courtesan Rhodopis sent a tithe of her earnings to Delphi 
in the form of iron bars or goads, which I have already 
suggested may have been used for barter 8 . Offerings from 
Corcyra and Tenedos are more than once said to have been 
axes, which were another ancient unit of currency 7 . Axes 
of similar shape have been found in the Dictaean cave of 
Crete 8 , at Dodona 9 , in the temple of Artemis at Lusi (Arcadia) 10 . 
A bronze axe found in Calabria is dedicated to Hera by 
a butcher as tithe of his business". 

1 IGS i. 4137 KdTriXXos ST/XITWI'OJ explains by a rnyth, as others have 
Aypov/jivefc <W0e TV 'AiroXXmvi TV done before him (Aristotle to wit), 
Tlruiv x a ^ K '* > Spax/^as ireTpa.Kt.^x t -^ as an ^ since. It is natural of course that 
eirra*carias yapitrreLpiov, *a0ws 4/dpiJ-e when axes were no longer current as 
6 K\apoi>6/j.os KO.T rav Sia6t(icay...Aui>v- money the sight of them should have 
ovffiw. suggested the proverb. 

2 Paus. ii. 19. 3. 8 Ann. Br. Sch. Ath. vi. 109, fig. 40. 

3 Herod, iii. 57, Paus. x. 11. 2. 9 Carapanos, Dodone, pi. 54. These 

4 IGA 523 Aids Ai5*a, Tpvydv. are unfit for use, and they were pro- 

5 CIA ii. 652 B 19 (4th cent, early) bably simulacra made for exchange, as 
'Avipwv 'EXaowrio? dir'/ip^aro xpu<ras \-\-, we shall see in chap. xiv. 

Qpdcrv\\os EiWeus \nvaovv C. 10 Jahreshefte, iv. 49, figs. 67, 68. 

8 Herod, ii. 135, Plut. De Pyth. Or. " IGA 543 ras "Hpas Zepos d/u ras tv 

14; above, p. 74 19 . ireSiw QvvioKos fj.e avfOrjKf upTa/ws 

7 Plut. De Pyth. Or. 12, Paus. v. pipyuv deKarav. It is a very fine 

29. 9, x. 9. 3, 14. 1. The last, an ornamental specimen, and perhaps 

offering of Periclytus, is explained by only took that shape through tradi- 

Pausanias as referring to the pro- tional association, 
verbial ' axe of Tenedos,' which he 



TITHES, FIRSTFRUITS, AND KINDRED OFFERINGS. 93 

But the most numerous dedications are vases and vessels of 
one kind or another 1 dedicated in the Acropolis. One appears 
to have been a marble sprinkling-bowl, a firstfruit 2 , and a similar 
article, given by a washerwoman, is inscribed as a tithe 3 . A fuller 
dedicates a bronze vase, of which fragments remain 4 ; another is 
a bronze patera 5 . 

Articles made of gold or of silver were also dedicated as 
trade-offerings, like the bowl of Dazos 6 or the silver tithe- 
saucer of Proxenus, in the Delian inventory 7 ; and it is impossible 
to say how many of the innumerable bowls which are mentioned 
have the same origin. Bowls are among the offerings made by 
huntsmen to Pan 8 , or by fishermen as a tithe to Priapus 9 . Two 
bowls, dedicated to Pedio, suggest a connexion with agriculture 10 . 
There are two little pots of gold offered at Delos by Cleino, a 
courtesan of the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus II. 11 

Pieces of several fictile vases were found in the Acropolis, 
inscribed as votive offerings, one at least with the tithe 
specified 12 . Vases are dedicated to Pan and the Nymphs 13 . 
In the Anthology, Eurydice learning to read in her old age, 
dedicates a crown to the Muses 14 . 

What objects stood on the base which bore a double dedica- 
tion, perhaps of man and wife, for firstfruit and tithe 15 ; or on 

1 Vases, such as 0ia\cu, were stored 6 BCH vi. 34 line 53 <f>id\-ri, inscribed 
in vast numbers in the shrines, as a Adfbs Aaficncov 'Afavrtvbs a<j> wv elpyd- 
convenient way of keeping bullion. aa.ro 'AirdXXwt. A ' masterpiece ' ? 
They are spoken of as units of value 7 BCH vi. 34. 47 Kvupiov, Hp6^evos 
by Nicolaus Damascenus (ed. Tauchn.) /cat TratSes SeKarrjv run 'Airo\\uvi. 

p. 11: a reward of 10 talents in gold, 8 Anth. Pal. vi. 35. 

10 gold phialae and 200 silver. 9 Anth. Pal. vi. 33. 

2 CIA iv. 1, 373 v, p. 126, also w, 10 IGA 519, 520 = ZGS7 595, 596 
Ear. 362, 367, 3713, 375, 378, 379, HeSio?. A "Epa ev ireSiwi has been 
381, 383, 388390, 393. There are mentioned above, p. 92 . 

several others. u BCH xv. 118 X ot5ia. 

3 CIA iv. 1. 373 s *. 12 CIA iv. 1, 373. 12/, cp. 12 c. There 

4 Cat. Acr. Mus. Br. 178 HO\VK\T)S were thousands of uninscribed vases; 
avtOtjKev 6 Kva<f>f{/s ra.6iiva.ian. <j> is for which see chap. vm. 

written 6, and 6 . 13 AM xxi. 437. 

6 Cat. Acr. Mus. Br. 219, Kor. xvii. 14 Plut. De Educ. 20. 

ebrapx^"- Compare Ear. xiv. xl. Ixvii. 15 Two offerings stood there. CIA 

Ixviii. Ixx. Ixxvii. iv. 1. 373 n . 



94 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the oblong base of the potters' offering 1 ; or on the numerous 
pillars 2 , it is impossible to guess. The boy who has gained 
a prize of twelve knucklebones for learning to write well 
dedicates a comic figure to the Muses 3 . Here, as elsewhere, 
there is no limit : anything may be offered. 

1 CIA iv. 1. 373 18 , tithe. Jahrb. iii. 269. 

2 See R. Borrmann, StelenfUr Weih- * Anth. Pal. vi. 
geschenke auf der Acropolis zu Athen, 



III. 

WAR 1 . 

And the Lord discomfited Sisera, and all his chariots, and all his host, 
with the edge of the sword before Barak. 

Judges iv. 15. 

THE Greek army went into battle after solemn libation and 
sacrifice, singing paeans to invoke the protection of the gods; 
and victory was celebrated by thanksgivings 2 . We need feel 
no surprise that the prayer for protection was often accom- 
panied by a vow 3 , and that victory was regularly followed by 
an offering. Indeed, inasmuch as war was the natural state of 
humanity in the early ages, the records of these vows and 
offerings form a very full series, beginning in prehistoric times 
and running on to the end of Greek history. 

The Greeks had, however, no single and exclusive God of 
Battles. We are accustomed to think of Ares as such, and it is 
true that as early as Homer he is supposed to inspire com- 
batants, even the very weapons they used 4 . He is fierce and 
furious, he laps man's blood, he is armed in panoply capapie : 
the personification of the lust of battle, one would call him in- 
vincible, it would seem that he alone should be prayed to by 
this side or that, yet the truth is far otherwise. Ares is on the 

1 In this chapter I have made use deriving the word from 7rai/w. 

of Franciscus Ziemann's program De 3 Besides those recited below, I may 

Anathematis Graecis : EegimontiBorus- mention the vow of Callimachus before 

sorum 1885. Marathon to sacrifice as many oxen as 

2 Schol. Arist. Plutus 636 iranav /jv they should slay enemies (Schol. Arist. 
Cftvos e<rrlv eis 'AirbXXuva eirl irataei. Knights 660). Compare Soph. Track. 
XotjitoD q.d6/j.evos, dXXa xai eirl iratifffi. 240. 

iro\tfj.ov, TToXXdm 5 Kal irpoff5oKu/j.{vov 4 II. xvi. 615, xvii. 210. 

Seivov. We need not follow him in 



96 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

side of Troy, yet Troy is taken ; the very god of war is himself 
beaten in the fray. Athene causes him bitter pangs 1 ; and with 
her aid, the mortal Dioinedes wounds him, and makes him roar 
as loud as ten thousand men 2 . If Ares or Enyalios is some- 
times invoked by the fighter 3 , yet the paean belongs specially 
to Apollo, and no less powerful on the battlefield are Zeus the 
Saviour 4 , or Zeus of the Rout 5 , Athena, Poseidon", Aphrodite 7 , 
or even the demigod Heracles 4 . Later, no doubt, some deities 
had special prestige in this matter, as in the Middle Ages 
St Peter or our Lady of Walsingham had in danger of ship- 
wreck 8 ; but the natural instinct of each tribe or each person 
would be, to call upon that deity who was likely to be most 
favourable to him in particular. This god was god of the 
hills, and that of the valleys 9 ; and Ares was the local god of 
Thrace. The people of Selinus are most impartial, and ascribe 
their victories to Zeus, Fear, and Heracles, to Apollo, to 
Poseidon and the Tyndaridae, Athena and Demeter guardian of 
flocks, to Pasicrateia and all the other gods, but most to Zeus 10 . 
So when the strife was won, the victorious host would testify 
their gratitude by some offering to their own deity, in the 
chief shrine of their own city 11 , or in a national sanctuary like 
Delphi or Olympia. Thus it is we find offerings in these 
national shrines made by any of the various states of Greece, 
and mortal enemies there meet in friendship or truce at 
least ; whilst war spoils are found on the Acropolis of Athens 
dedicated to the maiden Athena, and in Samos to Hera, other- 
wise the goddess of peaceful wedded life. The attitude of the 

1 II. v. 766. Posidonius ap. Ath. viii. 333 D. 

2 II. v. 590909. 7 Ath. xiii. 573 D. 

3 Xen. Anab. i. 8. 18, Hell. ii. 4. 17. 8 Erasmus, Colloquies : ' The Ship- 

4 Xen. Anab. vi. 5. 25 Zei>s 2<m)/>, wreck.' 

'Hpa/fX^s riyeuwv was the watchword. 9 Compare 1 Kings xx. 28. 

Cp. Pans. ix. 11. 6. Altar to Zeus 10 IGA 515. See p. 126 4 below. 

Areios in Olympia, Paus. v. 14. 5. u Soph. Track. 182 /x^X 7 /* Hyovr' 

Offerings of spoils are made to Leto in airapxas Oeoiffi TO?J iyxuplois. So when 

Anth. Pal. vi. 215. Artemis : Farnell, Messene was rebuilt, each helping 

ii. 585. tribe sacrificed to its own gods (Paus. 

6 There was a yearly sacrifice to Zefo iv. 27. 6). Compare Jonah i. 5 " Then 

Tp6jratos on Salamis Day : CIA ii. 467. the mariners were afraid, and cried 

9 A sacrifice to Poseidon Tropaios, every man unto his god." 



WAR. 97 

Greek to his patron deity is clear, when we remember that he is 
the Champion of his city; and so Athena, and even Aphrodite, 
appears in full armour. Solon's temple 1 is the only historical 
dedication connected with war, made to Ares, until we come to 
the later poets of the Anthology*. It is not for nothing, then, 
that the gods of the Homeric pantheon take sides : the Greek 
always thought of his gods as taking sides, and his prayers 
were guided accordingly. 

What vow should be made before the battle, or what offer- 
ing after, depended of course on circumstances : the importance 
of the issue, the wealth or number of the combatants, and so 
forth. It did happen once or twice that a leader, confident in 
his cause and his own right arm, paid the vow before the 
battle was fought; but on most of these occasions the deity seems 
to have mistaken his faith for presumption, and allowed him to 
be defeated 3 . Legend tells how Polyneices and his Argive allies 
set up statues of Ares and Aphrodite before their disastrous 
expedition 4 . As a rule, this kind of faith did not appeal to 
the Greek ; he waited to let the god fulfil his part of the 
bargain first. In some cases, however, the deity does not seem 
to have been displeased by an act of bravado. Aristomenes, the 
hero of the second Messenian War, struck terror into the 
Spartans by entering their city by night, and hanging up a 
shield in the Brazen House of Athena, inscribed with the words 
"Aristomenes from the spoils of the Spartans 5 ." Afterwards, 
like King Rameses at Lachish, he is said to have routed a body 
of Lacedaemonians all by himself. The hero's shield was 
turned to account before the battle of Leuctra. Before the 
battle the Thebans had sent to inquire at various oracles, 
amongst others of Trophonius, who returned them answer that 
they should set up a trophy and adorn it with this shield. 
Epameinondas gave orders accordingly, and the trophy was set 
up by Xenocrates with the shield upon it, in a place where it 

1 Below, p. 119. Xpwrow' Hva. KO.L dpyvpaiov %va Kal x a ^~ 

2 E.g. Anth. Pal. vi. 81, 163. Late KoOj y tir dyaffu. 

in Egypt : GIG. 5128. King Aizanas, 3 Paus. ii. 6. 3 and iv. 25. 1. 
virep 8 e{i\apiaria.^ rov fj yevvriffavTos 4 Paus. ii. 25. 1. 

dviK-firov "Apews dvtdrjKO. O.VTU avdpiavra. 5 Paus. iv. 15. 5. 

R. 7 



98 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

could be seen of the Lacedaemonians. They knew it, and 
perhaps recalled the old precedent; at all events, the oracle was 
justified of his words 1 . The statue of Xenocrates was after- 
wards set up at Thebes 2 . Themistocles, again, founded a temple 
before the battle of Salamis 3 . So, too, Thrasybulus and his 
men, on setting out from Thebes to return to Athens, dedicated 
statues of Athena and Heracles in the Theban Heracleum 4 . 

It is usual to distinguish those offerings which the com- 
mander made on behalf of his army, or those made by the 
state, as public, from the private offerings whether of the 
commander made on his own behalf or of his men. The dis- 
tinction is merely formal, not one of principle, and as it serves 
no useful purpose I have neglected it here. The offerings 
themselves may be broadly classified as follows : 

"I. Spoils : the arms of the vanquish t, or their treasure. 

II. The Victor's Arms or dress. 

III. Other Commemorative offerings. 

I. Spoils. No doubt if the Greek gods had so ordained, 
the people would not have questioned their right wholly to 
dispose of the life and property of a conquered race, as was com- 
manded in the matter of Amalek by the mouth of the prophet 
Samuel 5 . We know how Cypselus vowed to dedicate all the 
property of the citizens if he gained possession of Corinth, aud 
with what skill he observed the letter of his vow whilst violat- 
ing the spirit 6 . But in practice the gods are not grasping. 
As they give men the world and its fruits subject to tribute, so 

1 Paus. iv. 32. 5, ix. 39. 14. /uax'as. 

2 IGS i. 2462. See Plut. Pelopidas * Paus. ix. 11. 6. 
8, De Genio Socratis 25, 30. The in- 5 1 Sam. xv. 3. 

scribed base has been found, as follows : 8 Arist. Oec. ii. 1346 a 32 Ki/^Xoy 

Sevo/cpdr?;?. Qe6irofj.iros. MvatriXaos. e^d^evos r$ Au fay xvpios ytvrjTcu TTJS 

ai'tKa TO "Lirdpra.? titpdrfi S6pv TtjvdKis iroXews rd 6vra. K.opii>6iois wtivra. dva.6^- 

tl\ev AeivoKpdT-rjs xXdpy Ztjvl Tpbiraia. aeiv, etc. For the very opposite Moxus 

tptpeiv, ov rbv OTT' Evpura Seuraj artiKov the Lydian vowed a tithe : Nicolaus 

oi>5 AdKaivav dffirida. " Qrjpaioi Kpeia- Damasc. (Hist. Min. Gr. p. 19) M6oj 

owes fv 7ro\^/tM()." Kapvfffffi Aet//crpotj 6 Au66s...T6' M^Xij*' TT/S Tvpavi/lSos 

viKa<p6padovpLTpoTraia,ov8"Eira/j.(ivuvda Ka&eXwv TOIJ Air&jis irapeKfXfVffaro TTfn 

dfurepoi ^SpdfJ.ofnev. SfKdTijv dirodovvai Ka6d Caro TOJ 

3 'E^.'Apx- 188 5, P- 170 45 : 6 ISpvyaro ^ws. 
OfuiffTOK\TJs irpb rrjs trfpl ZaXttjiufa vav- 



WAR. 99 

they are content to leave the conquerors what they win pro- 
vided that certain dues are paid, the tithe or firstfruit of the 
spoils. These dues are voluntary, in the sense that a man may 
choose whether he do right or wrong, but to deny them would 
be impious. They are however gladly given for the most part; 
and they are rightly counted among votive offerings. 

One form of this tribute is the trophy (rpoTraiov) 1 , arms and 
armour of prize hung about some tree-trunk or pillar, or piled 
in a heap, on the foughten field : which as its name denotes is 
a memorial of the rout (rpoir^), and Zeus is invoked as rpoTraio? 
by the fighting host. I do not doubt that this is an offering to 
the protecting deity, set up in that spot where he had proved 
his present power. Sometimes it is distinctly said that trophies 
are consecrated to the gods of battle 2 , sometimes a permanent 
trophy is erected in a sanctuary 3 . Sacrifice was done before a 
trophy periodically by the Athenians both at Marathon and 
Salamis 4 , and doubtless elsewhere 5 . 

In legend Pollux erects a trophy for his victory over 
Lynceus 6 . The trophy is recorded as far back as the eighth 
century in Sparta 7 , the seventh century in Athens 8 , and except 
Macedon was universal in Greek lands 9 . The trophy was so 
much a matter of course, that it was erected for victory even 
when spoils there were none 10 . Perhaps it is not too much to 
assume that this is the earliest form of war-dedication, inde- 
pendent of temples, and accepted by the protecting gods as 

1 See Pauly, Realencycl. s.v. 7 Paus. iii. 2. 6, when the Dorians 

2 Dio Cass. xlii. 48 ; the Theban took Amyclae. Plutarch Ages. 33 says 
trophy from Tolmides, to Athena that in early days the Spartans offered 
(Paus. i. 27. 4) ; Mantinean trophy to only a cock as vucrjTTipiov, but he must 
Poseidon for victory over Agis (viii. 10. surely have taken for granted the 
8). Sometimes made of sacred wood : trophy and spoils. 

Eudocia (Flach) p. 9 avi<TTa<riv avrfj 8 Dem. Amat. 1416 26\uv...r6 irpbs 

(Athena) Tpbirata, e/c v\<av EXaiVwr. Me-yap^aj Tp6iraiov vir6iJ.vi]fj.a Ka.TO.\nri!>i>. 

3 Paus. x. 18. 7 (Delphi). See for others, Herod, iii. 59, Thuc. iv. 

4 CIA ii. 471 26 ' 71 , 467 27 to Zeus 12, vii. 23, Xen. Hell. ii. 3. 8. 
Tropaios. Paus. ix. 40. 7. 

5 A late vase painting shows Victory 1 In the bloodless battle recorded 
sacrificing before a trophy: Stephani, by Xenophon, Hell. v. 4. 53: dirtdavev 
Compte Rendu 1869, p. 161 = AZ 1865, fj.tv ovdfk, fyws dt ol Q^aioi rpbircuov 
pi. 199. 3. tffT-qaavro. 

6 Paus. iii. 14. 7. 

72 



100 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Pan accepted the trophies of the chace hung upon some 
mountain pine 1 . 

But the usual practice was also to dedicate in some temple 
the choice pieces, the firstfruits, or the tithe of spoils 2 , as we see 
in our cathedrals the flags of our ancient foes. The booty was 
collected, and a portion set apart for the gods; this was either 
dedicated all, or a part of it, the remainder being sold and the 
proceeds used to procure some offering of price or magnificence. 

Now and then a permanent trophy made of bronze or 
some other material was set up in a sanctuary. The Persians, 
if the common report be true, intended to make one such 
in 490 if the}' had not been defeated 3 . Pausanias mentions 
a battle fought in the Altis at Olympia between the Eleans 
and the Lacedaemonians: the Eleans, who won the day, 
erected a bronze trophy with an inscription upon the shield, 
under a plane tree in the Altis 4 . A similar memorial was put 
up after Leuctra 5 . A bronze trophy was dedicated at Delphi 
by the Aetolians, after they had chastised the Gauls for their 
horrific treatment of Gallium 6 . Trophies of Gallic arms in relief 
were carved on the temple of Athena at Pergamus, built in 
memory of the defeats of the Gauls 7 . The Mantineans, to 
commemorate a defeat of Agis, placed a stone trophy " over 
against the temple of Poseidon 8 "; the Argives, having con- 
quered the Lacedaemonians, placed the like beside a tomb in 
Argos 9 . The permanent trophy at Marathon was of white 
marble 10 . 

When the practice of dedicating the tithe of spoils became 
general, we have no means of learning. There is no direct 
evidence in the Homeric poems of a systematic dedication of 

1 Above, p. 51. A miniature trophy of bronze, perhaps 

* dKpoOii>ioi>,aira.px-?i,8eKa.TTi. Herodo- Etruscan, is in the Antiquarium at 

tus viii. 12 uses dxpoOlvia. and dpiarfia. Berlin. 

in one sentence of the same thing, but 8 Cic. De Inv. ii. 23. He tells us it 

not necessarily in the same sense. was not the custom to erect a perma- 

3 Paus. i. 33. 2 ; Anth. App. Plan. nent trophy when Greek met Greek. 
221, 222, 226, 263. 6 Paus. x. 18. 7, 22. 3. 

4 Paus. v. 20. 4, 27. 11, vi. 2. 3. 7 Paus. i. 4. 6, with Frazer's note. 
Robert refers the trophy to 418 or 8 Paus. viii. 10. 5. 
thereabouts, when an Elean contingent 9 Paus. ii. 21. 8. 

aided the Argives (Thuc. v. 5860). 10 Paus. i. 32. 5. 




WAR. 



101 



arms or tithe by the conquerors, or of any vow made against 
the taking of Troy 1 . When Pausanias relates that Polyneices 
made an offering before attacking Thebes, this is evidence 
only that the later Greeks believed the practice of their own 
day to be as old as the heroic age. The inference that it 
was really so is, however, not unreasonable, in view of the 
practice of single warriors. Hector, when about to fight with 
Ajax, vows to dedicate the spoil in Athena's temple at Troy 2 . 
Ulysses, being out of reach of the temples of his native land, 
hangs the bloody armour of Dolon " upon the poop of a ship, to 
make a shrine for Athena 3 ." Menelaus dedicated the spoils of 
Euphorbus in the Argive Heraeum ; where Pythagoras, who 
claimed that the soul of the hero breathed in him, proved 
his claim by recognising the arms he once had borne 4 . In 
the caves of Dicte and Ida in Crete lance-heads and shields 
have been found which belong to the Dorian period 5 . We 
know how Alcaeus' shield was captured by the Athenians in 
606 and hung up in Athena's shrine 6 . Aeschylus speaks of 
arms and foemen's dresses pierced with the spear-point as hung 
in temples 7 , Euripides of the spoils of the Amazons dedicated 
by Heracles at Delphi 8 , and Pindar of the dedication of choice 
prize 9 . 



1 Hecuba does however vow to offer 
a precious robe to Athena if Troy is 
not taken, II. vi. 269. Compare Hec- 
tor's offering, ii. 82 ff. 

2 II. vii. 82 foil. 

3 II. x. 460 Kal TO. y' 'AOijvairi \TjLTi5i 
5toj '05ur<rei)s v\jso<r' aveff-)(e6e. The 
phrase Athena of the Spoils shows how 
these epithets do no more than repre- 
sent one aspect of a deity's power. 

4 Paus. ii. 17. 3, Hor. Odes i. 28. 
11. 

5 In the Museum of Candia. Mus. 
Ital. ii. 696, 906; AJA iv. 430, pi. 
xvi xx. ; Annual of the British School 
at Athens vi. 110. So elsewhere. In 
the temple of Ningirsu, at Tello, 
Babylonia, a bronze spear-head was 
found inscribed with a king's name : 
AJA N.a. ii. 105. Appius Claudius 



was said to have first dedicated shields 
in Borne as a private person, which 
implies that public dedication was 
earlier : Pliny, NH xxxv. 3. 12. The 
sword of Goliath will be remembered : 
1 Sam. xxi. 9. 

6 Ale. 32 (Strabo xiii. 600, Herod, v. 
95) (7<j ' AXxaZos "Apr/, t-vrfa 5' ofl' KVTOS 
dvdKTOpov e's rXav/cttiTw Ipbv 6veKpt/j.affav 
'ArriKoi. 

7 Aesch. Sept. 265. 

8 Eurip. Ion 1143 irr^pvya 

dvd6rjfj.a Alov irai5 
' AfJiafovuv ffKuXev/j-ar 

6e$. Cp. Phoen. 856 r 

ffrtyavov, ws opg.s, lx w Xafiuv aTrapxas 

TroXf/J.iuv (TKvXevfj.drwv. 

9 Find. 01. ii. 4 'OXv/j-iridSa 5' Icrra- 
ffcv 'Hpa/cX^jjs d.Kp6diva iro\fnov: xi. 56 
TO.V TroX^toio dbffiv dtcpodiva SteXwp i-Ove. 



102 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



There are dedications of the war-tithe at Apollonia 1 , 
Athens 1 , Branchidae 8 , Crete 4 , Mantinea 6 , Megara 8 , Boeotia 7 , 
and Sparta 8 ; at Delphi by Athenians", Oaphyes 10 , Cnidians", 
Liparians 1 *, Spartans 13 , and Tarentines 14 ; at Olympia by Clei- 
torians 15 , Eleans 18 , Messenians 17 , Spartans 18 , Thurians 19 . But it 
must be remembered that all dedications of war-spoils are 
either tithe or firstfruit. 

If cattle formed part of the booty, a part of these would 
be sacrified 20 . The tithe of captives was also reserved, and 
sent to Delphi or some other sanctuary: at first for sacrifice 21 , 
doubtless, or to be temple slaves 22 , which happened to the 
daughter of Teiresias 88 ; but by softening of manners they were 
later sent forth to found colonies. The Dryopians, conquered 
by Heracles, and dedicated, went forth to found Asine 24 . But 
the Greeks were more merciful than their own Apollo, who hung 
up the very skin of Marsyas in a cave 28 . Thebes was "deci- 
mated " by the Greeks for its defection to the Persian side ; 
and the writers use the phrase in a way which shows it 
needed no explanation 26 . For other reasons, a tithe of men 



1 Paus. v. 22. 3. 

2 Paus. i. 28. 2, x. 10. 1. 

3 Newton, p. 777. 

4 Man. Ant. iii. 4024. 

8 IGA 100, Collitz i. 1198. 

6 IGS i. 37. 

7 IGA 191 ; A JA N.s. ii. 250. 

8 Paus. iii. 18. 7. 

9 Paus. x. 13. 9. 

10 BCH xviii. 177. 

11 BCH xxii. 592. 

12 Diod. v. 9. 

13 Plut. Ages. 9, Xen. An. v. 3. 4. 

14 Paus. x. 13. 10. 
18 Paus. v. 23. 7. 

16 Paus. vi. 24. 4. 

17 Inschr. von 01. 259. 

18 Paus. v. 10. 4. 
Below, p. 106 10 . 

20 Soph. Track. 760 ravpoKrovei 



of human sacrifice in early times, as 
the story of Aristodemus shows : Paus. 
iv. 9, see also vii. 19. 4. So at Dodona : 
Paus. vii. 21. 3. 

22 Eur. Ion 309 TOV Qtou /roXoC/oat Sov- 



/SoDj. 



21 The Delphic oracle was not shy 



fliro; Compare the captives in the 
Trachiniae, and verse 245. 

23 Diod. iv. 66 ol /u^v lirlyovoi. rrjif 
iro\iv {\6vrcs Sffipira.aa.tf Kal rijs Teipeffiov 
Ovyarpfa Aat/'i'^s tyKparfis yv6/j.tt>oi, 
ro.vrr}i> dv^Oeffav e/s AeX0oi/s, Kara, rtva 
fvxfy, oiKpoOlviov rtf 0e<. She became 
a prophetess. 

- 4 Paus. ii. 35. 2, iv. 34. 6 ; Diod. iv. 
37 ; Apollod. ii. 2. 7 (Pauly). Compare 
Plut. Thes. 16, Plato, Laws x. 919, 
Strabo vi. 257. 

25 Xen. Anab. i. 2. 8. The skins of 
sacrilegious Danes are to be seen on 
church doors, as at Tewkesbury. 

38 Herod, vii. 132 ri> Si SpKiov w5e 
elx' off 01 rip llipffj) ESoffav <r^as airroiit 



WAR. 103 

was dedicated by Chalcis 1 , and firstfruits of men by Crete 2 . 
The tithe of ransom was also dedicated 3 . In historical times 
the consecration of the war-tithe was a matter of course 4 , 
and applied not only to the enlisted hosts but to privateers 8 . 

We may now pass in review the chief instances of the 
dedication of spoils, in historical order : and first the enemy's 
weapons, armour, and equipment, the material of war. 

The earliest recorded naval memorial conies from the war 
waged between Athens and Megara for the possession of 
Salamis. The Megarians commemorated one victory (which 
must have taken place about B.C. 600, before Solon aroused 
the Athenians to reconquer the island) by placing the bronze 
beak of a prize ship in the Olympieum at Megara 8 . Another 
such was erected by the Aeginetans, who somewhere about 
520 conquered a colony of Samians settled at Cydonia in 
Crete. The beaks of their ships, which were boars' heads, 
they hung up in the temple of Athena in Aegina 7 . The beak 
became the regular token of the captured galley, as we shall 
see later 8 . It is worth mentioning that the roof of the Odeum 
at Athens was made from the masts and timbers of Persian 
ships 9 . 

The great struggle in Sicily between Carthaginian and 
Greek left, as might have been expected, many traces. 
Amongst them are the spoils which Pausanias declares to 
have been dedicated by Gelo and the Syracusans for some 
victory gained by sea or land 10 : three linen corselets, doubtless 

"EXXiyves f&vres, HT] dvayKacrOfrTes,... r&v vnertpuv TroXtfuuv 5e/caros...ej' 

TOIJTOVS 5e/careC<roi T<$ tv AeX^oari 0e<f>. <wrp07r6X ret dpitrreia TTJS 7r6Xews, a 

Lycurg. Leocr. 193, Diod. xi. 3. 29, Xa/3ej/ airb rCiv pappdpwv. 

Polyb. ix. 39. 5, Xen. Hell. vi. 3. 20. 5 Lys. Polystr. 686 Ai7tf6/j> xai roi>s 

I see no reason why the word should TroXe/u/ouj /caxais firotovv, wore rrj 0<f 

not mean what it says, although rds Se/cciras ^atped^vai TT\(OV 17 rpid- 

Stengel (in Pauly) and others take it KOVTO. ^vas. 

to mean devastation of the whole race. 6 Paus. i. 40. 5 (Zeus). 

1 Strabo vi. 257. 7 Herod, iii. 59 nairptovs txovatwv 

2 Arist. ap. Plut. Thes. 16. ras Trpc^pas. 

3 Herod, v. 77 rCiv \tirpwv TTJV 8e/ca- 8 So in Rome, the column of 
ri)v. Duilius, the Rostra, etc. 

4 Xen. Hell. iii. 3. 31, iv. 3. 21 ; cp. 9 Plut. Pericles 13. 
Dem. Timocr. 741 diroffrepw ras dird 10 Paus. vi. 19. 7. 



104 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

taken from the dead bodies of their foes. The spoils are 
generally assigned to the battle of Himera, B.C. 480; but we 
shall see cause to think that they really belong to an un- 
known victory of much earlier date 1 . A more interesting relic, 
from the battle of Cumae in 474, when Hiero defeated the 
Tyrrhenians and his victory was sung by Pindar himself 2 , was 
found at Olympia. It is a bronze helmet, much battered, 
and inscribed in what appears to be a rude attempt at verse *. 
Two other articles of the same batch of spoils have been found, 
the remains doubtless of a larger sending. 

In the early years of the fifth century an obscure war 
between the Phocians and the Thessalians seems to have given 
cause for votive offerings on both sides. The Phocians we 
know to have been victorious in one affair, when Tellias of Elis 
whitewashed six hundred men, who so struck terror into their 
adversaries that they slew no less than four thousand 4 . For 
their victory the Phocians sent half the captured shields to 
Delphi and half to Abae. The effect of the stratagem, though 
it was intended merely to help recognition, reminds us of Lord 
Dundonald, when in command of a crazy cockboat he kept the 
whole Biscay coast on a flutter. He once blacked the faces of 
his whole crew, including doctor and supernumeraries, and 
launched upon the deck of a Spanish ship of war every man who 
had legs to walk ; before the enemy discovered that these yelling 
monsters were not devils, the Englishmen had won the ship. 

When we come to the Persian Wars, there is some confusion 
in the accounts of thank-offerings on the Greek side, because 
Marathon came later to overshadow all other victories in the 
popular imagination. Whether because this victory was won 
without any outside help save the Plataeans, or for whatever 
reason, votive offerings were attracted to it as jokes to Sydney 
Smith, or Psalms to King David 5 . There are a number of 
bronze weapons in the Acropolis Museum at Athens, which 

1 See below, p. 123. 250. 

2 Find. Pyth. i. 137 and Scholiast. 4 Herod, viii. 27. 

3 GIG 16, IGA 510, etc. 'Idpur 6 6 See on this subject the judicious 
Aeico/^veos ical rol ~Lvpa.K(xnoi TUI Ai remarks of Brunn, Gesch. der gr. 

' da-6 KtVaj. Cat. Br. Mus. Br. Kilnstler, i. 162; and Paus. i. 14. 5. 



WAR. 105 

must be earlier than 480, and may well have come from 
Marathon ; but there is nothing to prove it 1 . Amongst them 
are helmets, one inscribed to Athena 2 ; shields, but not all 
these have had to do with war 3 ; heads and butts of lances, 
some inscribed with Athena's name 4 ; and swords 5 . Plutarch 
records 6 that one Lycomedes, who captured the first prize at 
Artemisium, dedicated the ensign or figurehead of this ship to 
Apollo Daphnephoros at Athens. After Salamis, the Greeks 
in general dedicated amongst other things three Phoenician 
triremes : one at the Isthmus, which Herodotus saw ; one at 
Sunium ; and one to Ajax at Salamis 7 . The Athenians con- 
secrated in the Erechtheum Masistius' golden cuirass and the 
sword of Mardonius 8 . In 447 Tolmides led a rash expedition 
into Boeotia to quell a rising of exiles, and was slain : the 
Thebans afterwards erected a trophy on Mount Helicon to 
Athena Itonia 9 . 

All these may be regarded as public offerings; but there 
are not wanting private ones from the same period. Themis- 
tocles, we learn, sent a part of his own spoils to Delphi; but 
the Pythia told him to take them home again. It is hard to 
say why Apollo, after accepting so many treasures of the vile 
barbarians, should boggle at this; unless the sender found 
means himself to procure the answer. The explanation sug- 
gested by Pausanias, that the god knew Themistocles would 
end his days in Persia, and did not wish to make the Persian 
king hate him, does credit to someone's ingenuity. Perhaps 

1 De Bidder, Catalogue des Bronzes 3 Cat. 263 mentions several frag- 
trouves sur I'Acropole d'Athenes. The ments of large shields. For the 
letter M seen on some of them is not baker-woman's shield, which belonged 
at all likely to be the first letter of the to a statuette of Athena, see above, 
Median name, as some have imagined p. 90. 

(JHS xiii. 53); it is doubtless, like 4 Cat. 266 ft., 282 'AOtivaiai, 287 

other letters of the alphabet, placed 'A6r)vatas. 

there as the ticket of a shelf or division. 6 Cat. 316 ff. 

No. 307 in de Ridder has M, with 'AOij- e Plut. Themistocles 15 TO. irapda'rjfj.a 

vala.3 beneath; 308 and 309 have A. irepiKtya.*; cp. Herod, viii. 11. 

For other examples of letters so used 7 Herod, viii. 121. 

see 283, 284, 289, 290. Compare 8 Herod, ix. 2024; Pans. i. 27. 1. 

chapter xin. 9 Paus. i. 27. 4 ; Plut. Agesilaus 19 ; 

2 Cat. 252 'AOrjvalai. Thuc. i. 103, 108, 113. 



106 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

it was an afterthought of the oracle 1 . An Athenian Callias 
also sent thither a horse, which he had taken in the Persian 
Wars 2 . Sailors dedicate prize arms to Leto s . 

After the Euryrnedon (469), the southern wall of the Acro- 
polis of Athens was built with .the proceeds of the spoils 4 ; 
and Cimon, we are told, adorned this wall with " the spoils of 
Mycale and the rebellious islands 8 ." The Athenians sent also 
a tithe of these to Delphi 6 . 

Other dedications of arms are of less certain date. At 
Dodona 7 a bronze tablet was found, bearing a legend which 
declares it to belong to Peloponnesian spoils. The shapes of 
the letters suggest that it dates from the middle of the fifth 
century ; it has consequently been assigned to the great sea- 
fight off Aegina in 460, where the Corinthians, Epidaurians, 
and Aeginetans were defeated 8 . The arms named on the much- 
talked-of Colonnade of the Athenians at Delphi may have 
come from the same battle 9 . After the sack of Thurii, the 
Tarentines appear to have sent captured arms to Olympia. 
There three spearheads were found, inscribed as spoils from 
Thurii 10 . Arms taken from the Spartans by the Methoneans, 
and found in the same place, are ascribed by Ziemann 11 to the 
period 440 420. 

1 Paus. x. 14. 5, 6, who gives the dnQorepais x e P% xparet iroX^ov. I take 
words of the oracle. yaly M^Swi/ for Ktiirpy MiJSouj from 

2 Paus. x. 18. 1. Aristides iii. p. 260. 

3 Simonides 134 (Bergk) ; Plutarch, 7 Carapanos, Dodone et ses mines, 
De Herod. Mai. 39; Anth. Pal. vi. 215. p. 47, pi. xxvi. 2; IGA 5 'A^atoi 

4 Plut. Cimon 13 ; see Frazer on dtrb IleXoirovvriffiuv vav/j.axiai vucfiffavres 
Paus. i. 28. 3. dW9rav. Phormio's victories, which 

6 Plut. Cimon 2. have been suggested (BCH v. 18), are 

6 Diod. xi. 62 6 5 5-^/uos TUV' A.9r)va.i<i>v, too late for the script. 

SfKdrijv e|\(Syoievos (K ruv \a<pvpuv, dvi- 8 Thuc. i. 105 ; JHS i. 107. A list 

6i)Ke T$ 0e<> Ka ' TV" fir<-ypa.<t>r)t> tiri rb of the fallen is given in CIA i. 433. 

KaraffKevao-fftv dvd6r]/j.a fir^ypatf/f rfySf 9 IGA 3 a, p. 169. See below, p. 

t oC 7' Evpunrrjv 'A<rias S<-X a TTOVTOS 107 1 . 

frfifj-e, Kai 7r6Xioj dinqrCiv Oovpos "Aprjs 10 IGA 548 <ricv\a. dir6 Qovpluv Tapav- 

iir^\fi, ovStv TTW TOIOVTOV ^vix^ovldiv Tivoi dv^6riKav Ad '0\vftirl(ai. 

7^er' dvdpuv tpyov iv rjirfipif) Kal /card Cp. also Hicks, Gr. Hist. Inscr. 321. 

irbvTov a/Mi. oi'5e yap iv yairi MiySwi' 163 ; Collitz UL 4615. See Strabo vi. 

TroXXoiis 6\tffavTfs, $>oivlKuv ^Ka.rbv vaus 264. 

i\ov iv irtXayti, dvSpwv TrXyOovvat, n Op. ct(., p. 19. 

/J^ya $' (ffrevtv 'A<ris irr' avruv 



WAR. 107 

Phormio, after his brilliant victories in the Gulf of Corinth 
(429), seems to have dedicated a quantity of arms at Delphi 1 , 
and the Peloponnesians on their part offered a prize-ship in 
Poseidon's temple at Rhium not far from the battle-scene 8 . 
The signal success of Demosthenes over the Ambraciots in 426 
secured an immense booty. The general's own share of the 
spoils was no fewer than three hundred panoplies, which were 
dedicated in the Athenian temples 3 . The shields of the 
Spartans captured at Sphacteria (425) were hung in the Painted 
Colonnade 4 . By their side were afterwards hung the shields 
of the Scionaeans 5 , when their revolt had been quelled in 423. 
When the Syracusans in 413 annihilated the Athenian army, 
they must have followed the usual custom ; for in Plutarch's 
day we learn that a shield magnificently adorned was still 
shown in one of the Syracusan temples as that of Nicias 6 . 

Passing on to the fourth century, we first meet with a 
memorial of Iphicrates, who in 392 did a brilliant feat of arms 
by annihilating a Spartan regiment. It is natural to assign to 
this victory a gilt shield which he dedicated on the Acropolis 7 . 
After Leuctra (371), the Thebans hung up the Spartan shields 
which they had taken in the temple of Demeter at Thebes 8 . 
Timoleon's victory of the Crimesus (343) may have been com- 
memorated by the offering of a two-horse car, if an inscription 
of the fourth century (which is sadly mutilated) be rightly 
restored 9 . We know there were war- wagons in the Carthaginian 
host, and that the victor dedicated the best of the spoils 10 . 
Be that how it might, there is record of a trophy set up by 



1 Paus. x. 11. 6. His mistake in 6 Plut. Nicias 28. He did not see it 
attributing to him the Colonnade of himself. 

the Athenians may be due to the 7 do-iris tirixpvaos T\V 'ItpiKparys <W- 

fact that these arms were placed OTJKCV : CIA ii. 733 14 , restored with the 

there. aid of 735. 

2 Thuc. ii. 92. 5. For the temple 8 Paus. ix. 16. 3. 

see Strabo, p. 335. 9 AM xx. 483. The words M 

3 Thuc. iii. 114. KapxySoviuv, rCa 'Air6\\wvi, and fcuyos 

4 Paus. i. 15. 4 ; Arist. Knights ZffraOi are certain ; but nothing re- 
849. mains of the name, restored as Timo- 

8 Thuc. iv. 120, v. 32 ; Paus. i. leon, save the last two letters. 

15. 4. 10 Plut. Timoleon 27. 



108 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Mamercus tyrant of Catana, who making common cause with 
Carthage slew a body of Timoleon's mercenaries. He dedicated 
their shields, and proud of his poetic skill, himself composed 
the following epigram, worthy of the latter-day music halls': 



ica 
a<T7ri8a<? acrTTtStot? 

Alexander the Great, after the battle of the Granicus (334), 
sent to Athens three hundred suits of Persian mail ; some of 
the shields were hung on the architrave of the Parthenon-. 
When he defeated Porus (326), he sent the royal elephant to 
the Temple of the Sun at Taxila 3 . It is doubtless a mere 
accident that we hear of no other spoils offered by this magni- 
ficent person, who was Greek of the Greeks in his religious 
practices, and spread Grecian customs over half Asia. 

Greece now comes in contact with east and west, yet the 
practice of dedicating spoils continues. Shields of the Gaulish 
barbarians, after their repulse in 280, were dedicated at Delphi 4 . 
Pyrrhus, after his return from Rome, defeated Antigonus at 
the head of a mixt force of Gauls and Macedonians (274). The 
arms of the Gauls he offered to Athena Itonia at her temple 
between Pherae and Larissa; the Macedonian arms he sent 
to Dodona 5 . Some of the arms found at Dodona by M. Cara- 
panos, and now in his private museum at Athens, may have 
been part of this offering. Pyrrhus also made a dedication 
to Zeus of the Waters at Dodona, for some victory gained over 
the Romans 6 . In 272 Pyrrhus was killed in the streets of 
Argos ; and his shield was hung up in the temple of Demeter 
there 7 . Demetrius Poliorcetes also sent shields to Delphi 8 . 

Foreign potentates followed the same fashion. The long 

1 Plut. Timoleon 31. Anth. Pal. vi. 130. It should be noted 

2 Plut. Alexander 16; Arrian, Hist. that Athena Itonia was invoked by the 
An. i. 16. 7: 'AXe^avSpos &i\iinrov icai Thessalians in this battle, Paus. x. 1. 
oi "EXX^vej ir\T)v AaKtSaifiovluv &irb ruv 10. 

f$appdpui> ruv TTJV 'Affiav KO.TOIKOVVTUV. 8 Ndt'os : the inscr. in Hicks, Greek 

3 Philostratus, Vit. Apollon. ii. 12. Historical Inscriptions, 162 ; Collitz ii. 

4 Pans. x. 19. 4. 1368. 

5 Paus. i. 13. 2, where the inscrip- 7 Paus. ii. 21. 4. 
tions are given ; Plut. Pyrrhus 26 ; 8 Plut. Demetrim 13. 



WAR. 109 

struggle between kings of Pergamus and the Gauls seems 
to have been specially commemorated by Attalus II in his 
own name and his predecessors' ; and in the splendid memorial 
pile built for this purpose, the Gallic spoils were displayed 1 . 
No tribe so obscure that it did not follow this custom 2 . So 
Mummius, after the custom which also prevailed in his own 
country, but himself the first Roman to dedicate war-spoils 
in a Grecian temple, sent to Olympia a number of the shields 
captured at Corinth (146) 3 . 

The ancient caves of Crete contained, as I have said, arms 
of offence and defensive armour 4 . In the great sanctuaries 
of Delphi, Olympia, and Dodona, at Athens, and elsewhere 
weapons of war have been amongst the finds. At Olympia 
a large number of bronze shields were found, most of them 
entire 5 . Sometimes it is possible, as in the case of Hiero's 
helmet, to identify them ; more often they are without in- 
scriptions, or if inscribed, give no clue to the dedicator. We 
have, for example, inscribed spear-heads from Olympia 6 , and one 
from the Peloponnese bearing what is clearly a private dedi- 
cation 7 . Spear-heads and lance-butts from the Acropolis of 
Athens have been mentioned already 8 ; in the same place 
were found bronze arrow-heads, though none inscribed 9 . At 
Athens were also found swords, knives, an axe-head, and 
helmets 10 ; at Olympia shields, greaves and corselets, the last 
engraved with scenes in the geometric style 11 . A helmet once 
actually used in war, and dedicated by the Argives, is now in 
the British Museum 12 ; another very old helmet, found in the 
Alpheus, is inscribed of Zeus 13 . Yet another, found in South 

1 Paus. i. 4. 6. See below for the cp. IGS 2735. 

other offerings, p. 122, 132. 8 Cat. Bronzes 282, 287, 298, 307. 

2 Paus. vi. 19. 4, the Myanians. So Thucydides speaks of ffKv\a ~M.rjdiKa on 
the Arvernians hang a captured sword the Acropolis, ii. 13. 

in a temple : Plut. Caes. 26. 9 Cat. 310. 

3 Paus. v. 10. 5. 10 Cat. 310, 336, 319, 252. 

4 Above, p. 101. n Bronzen von 01. Iviii Ix. 

5 Bronzen von Ol. p. 6. 12 rdpyeToi dvWev, JHS ii. 67. 

6 IGA 565 'OXwirfou At6s ; shield 33 13 JHS ii. 68, plate xi. ; IGA 123 
rdpyeloi dWOtv. Z?;v6j '0\vviriov. 

7 IGA 564 0e65wpos dvtOrjxe curiX; 



110 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Italy, is dedicated to Persephone 1 . Shields, bow, and quiver 
appear in the Delian treasure-lists ; but it is doubtful whether 
the bow and quiver were not models in the precious metals 2 . 
In Delos was also a Heracleote bow and quiver, inlaid with 
gold*, an iron spear 4 , helmets, one being silvered, cavalry 
swords and sheaths, an e^ivrj a-rpaTioDTiKr) (be that what it 
may)*, a ship's beak and anchors 6 . A spear-head was found 
at Acraephia (Boeotia) dedicated to Apollo 7 . Iron lance- 
heads have been found at Orchomenus 8 , and there was a 
Sarmatian corselet in the Asclepieum at Athens 9 . A cuirass, 
said to have come from Epidaurus, is inscribed to Zeus Cronion 10 . 
To the same class we must assign a marble base found at Delos, 
which once bore a four-horse chariot dedicated to Apollo "from 
the spoils 11 ." Perhaps the tithe offered to Athena at Megara 
by a company of persons, whose names have been lost, was a 
private dedication 12 . 

Scanning the Athenian lists 18 we see in the Hecatompedos 
shields 14 , missiles of many kinds 15 , spears 16 , breast-plates 17 , 
helmets 18 , swords and cavalry sabres 19 , greaves 20 , horse-trap- 
pings 21 , and a panoply". A spear-stump occurs in the frag- 
mentary Eleusinian list 23 . It is not certain that all were votive, 
although most were so. 

1 IGA 538 Hr)pi<pt>va.i clvflh]K<? pe with. 
Seva-y^ras- " BCH iii. 471 neiffiffrparos 'Apiffro- 

- BCH ii. 325 TOOV a-KvOinbv KO.1 X6%ou 'P65ios vavapx^ffa-^ icai rol avcrrpa- 

<f>ap^rpo.v : Ovptbv TreiK6v (long round Tev6fjLfvoi aird TUV \atf>i'ipui> 'Air6\\ui>i. 
shield) ; another is said to be gilt, and 12 IGS i. 37 rot'5' diri> XaCas rav 3e/cd- 

was therefore no doubt a real shield. rav dv46r]Kav 'AOdvat, archaic. 

8 BCH vi. 32 (paptrpa 'UpaK\euriKTi 13 CIA i. 117175. 



4 BCH vi. 47, line 171: S6pv aidy- 15 /3Aoj, /3<?\7; Kar(nra.\Tuv, /3eXa5v 

pOVV. Toi-lKUV OKiOej. 

8 BCH vi. p. 130 KOWOS, TTfpiKetf>a\ala 16 d6pv, dopdnov. 

ffiSripd VfpiT)pyvp<t}p.tvri, /udxatpa iiririK^, 17 Oupai-. 

K0\ebv fiaxaipa^ iTrtriKTJs, dxpoffrbXiov. 18 Kpdvos, icpdvos w/xo/SoiVix, KpaviSiov, 

6 BCH vi. p. 47 vews tufioXov. KVVT). 

7 IGS i. 2735 ru Uruieios iapbv. 19 /tdxenpo, ft. liririK^, i0o/xdxat/>a. 

8 BCH xix. 208. K^S. 

9 1'aus. i. 21. 5. 21 KtKpti<f>a\o! iiTTi/c6j. 

10 RM iv. 71 dviOtiKf Al 'K.povluvi. 22 vavowXla. 

(early 5th cent.). This is the only CIA ii. 682 c, iv. 225/, 225 b ffTvpd- 

dedication to Zeus Cronion I have met KLOV S6paros. 



WAR. Ill 

Thus we have a continuous tradition of the dedication of 
foemen's arms from the heroic age down to the loss of Greek 
independence ; and it would be easy to trace it further. Less 
commonly heard of is another custom, by which the victor 
dedicates the arms which helped him to win the victory: or 
the old warrior no longer fit for the fight, his outworn weapons 
of war. The thought seems to us so natural, and is indeed 
so frequently exemplified in later days, that we are surprised 
at first in meeting with so little evidence before the days of 
Alexander the Great. Perhaps rightly considered it involves 
a self-consciousness not suited to earlier and more simple times. 
Simonides gave it the noblest expression, and he could hardly 
have been drawing on his imagination when he wrote 1 

ro^a raSe TrroXe/zoto Trevrau/xe^a Satcpvoevros 



7ro\\aKi 8/7 aTovoevra Kara K\OVOV ev Sal' 
Tlepcrwv i7nrop,d-%<t>v aip,art, \ovad/j,eva. 



Meleager elaborated the same thought from another side, in 
the lines 2 



Ti? rdSe fjuoi 6vr)TU>v rd Trepl 6pi<yKol<riv 

aKV\a, Travaia'xia-T'rjv reptyiv ' 
OVTG yap alyaveai Treptayees ovre TI 

a\Ao<o9 ovre <f>6va) ^pavOev aprfpe 
aXX' atmo? <yavowvra icai d0TV(pe\iKTa 

old Trep OVK evoTras, aXXa ^opatv evapa. 
049 6d\.afMov Kocr/jLeire yaaij\iov' ovrXa Se \vdpq> 



But there are indications that the custom was not unknown 
in very early times. I say nothing of the weapons of Homeric 
heroes, for they were no doubt spurious, and in any case the 
dedicator generally remains unknown 3 . But Aristomenes the 
Messenian, who had lost his shield in the victory he gained 



1 Anth. Pal. vi. 2. 3 See below, chapter x. 

2 Anth. Pal. vi. 163. 



112 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

single-handed over a Spartan regiment, on recovering it 
dedicated it to Trophonius at Lebadea 1 . Simonides celebrates 
a spear grown old in warfare 2 ; and Anyte, if we may venture 
to suppose this fine poetess to belong to an earlier age than 
the third century, may also be brought in evidence 8 . The 
story of Cimon and the bridle, already related 4 , points in 
the same direction. Herodotus mentions that King Nekos, 
after taking Cadytis, dedicated to Apollo at Branchidae the 
costume he wore on that occasion". There is a spear-head 
from Sicyon, with the inscription ZeKvwvlwv upon it in very 
ancient letters, which if dedicated must belong to this class 8 . 
But these few examples exhaust the list of those recorded before 
the fourth century. 

From the fourth century come a few more. The shield of 
Asopichus, a friend of Epameinondas, who did brave deeds, was 
dedicated in Delphi, but by whom does not appear 7 . Alexander 
the Great seems to have been struck by the idea, and on visit- 
ing Troy he left his armour there in the temple, taking thence 
in exchange some which was reputed to have belonged to 
heroes of the great siege 8 ; a sacred shield was afterwards 
carried before him when he went to battle 8 . If we may draw 
an inference from this, and from the cuirass and spear which he 
dedicated to Asclepius in the Arcadian Gortys, he may have 
shed his arms frequently as he marched along his conquering 
way 10 . His example was followed by his namesake the son 

1 Paus. iv. 16. 7. This partakes also ~ Theopompus ap. Ath. xiii. 605 A 

of the class of spoils. Oavnaffrus avrbv KtvSvvtvw a.va.KfiffOa.1 

- Anth. Pal. vi. 52. 8 rrjv avirida. TOLVT^V iv AX<os iv ry 

3 Anth. Pal. vi. 123. <TTO. The word avaKfurOat is so loosely 

4 Plut. Cimon 5 ; above, p. 70. used in this age that it may mean 

5 Herod, ii. 159 iadfc. Cp. Paus. i. nothing more than preservation as a 
21. 7 " linen corselets may be seen curiosity. 

dedicated in various sanctuaries, par- 8 Arrian, Anab. Alex. i. 11. 

ticularly at Gryneum (to Apollo)." 9 16. ii. 9. 

They are worn by Homeric heroes 10 Paus. viii. 28. 1. The epigram 

(II. ii. 529), by Persians (Xen. Cyrop. Anth. P. vi.97 professes to be inspired 

vi. 4. 2), and are mentioned in the by an inscribed spear dedicated by 

armoury of Alcaeus (frag. 15). See Alexander somewhere to Artemis, 

Frazer on Paus. I.e. which he vowed in the fight, and 128 

6 IGA 27 a, p. 171. has a shield under the same name. 



WAR. 113 

of Polyperchron, whose panoply is attested by an inscription 1 
to have been once on the Acropolis of Athens. A barbarian, 
probably in the fourth century, dedicated his helmet at Olym- 
pia 2 . On the same principle, the shield of Leocritus, who was 
the first to leap into the Museum at Athens, and fell gloriously, 
when Olympiodorus drove out thence the Macedonian garrison 
in 288, was inscribed with his name and deed and dedicated to 
Zeus Eleutherios 3 . So also Cydias the Athenian, who distin- 
guisht himself in the repulse of the Gauls from Delphi (280), 
was honoured in like manner 4 . Lastly, in the Roman age, 
Flamininus, after his defeat of Philip in 197, sent his own shield 
inscribed to Delphi 5 . So another Roman, perhaps one who 
fought against Mithradates, dedicated his shield "to the gods" 
at Syme 6 . An impious offering was that of Alexander tyrant 
of Pherae, who dedicated the spear which he used to murder 
his own uncle Polyphron, about the year 370 7 . He was wont 
in fact to wreathe it about with garlands, and to worship it 
as a god. 

In the Anthology we meet with the principle of dedicating 
tools which were to be used no longer, under many forms ; but 
examples of weapons are not many. In a daring epigram 
Mnasalcas (about 200 B.C.) imitates his master Simonides, and 
just overshoots the sublime 8 : 



aol fjiev Kdfjiirv\a ro^a teal lo^eaipa fyaperpa, 
Swpa Trapd Upof^d^ov, <&ol/3, rdSe Kpe/j,arai' 

lov<s Se Trre/Joei/Ta? ova K\OVOV avSpes e%ovcriv 
ev tcpaSiais, 6\od geivia 



Paulus Silentiarius makes his Lysimachus dedicate shield, 



1 CIA ii. 723 ira^oir\a rfjv 'AX^- Malory, Morte 14. 
avdpos 6 IIoXvjr^pxovTOS dv^Orjicev. 6 IG I iii. 7. 

2 Inschr. von Ol. 695 Ftpat> I>d- 7 Plut. Pelopidas 29. 

/3&WOS 1 F^fai'T6s eipu. 8 Anth. Pal. vi. 9. Compare 91. 

3 Pans. i. 26. 2. This very epigram is imitated and 

4 Paus. x. 21. 5. overshot in another, no. 326, which is 
s Plut. Flamin. 12 (Dioscuri). King mere bathos. 

Arthur dedicates his sword in a church : 

R. 8 



114 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

spear, and cuirass to Ares, when he is too old to fight more 1 ; 
and his Nicagoras dedicates the battered remnants of a shield 
to Zeus*. Echecratidas the Cretan, in an epigram of Anyte 
which has all her simple strength, dedicates his spear to 
Athena 8 ; Timanor to Pallas the shield which has protected him 
in many battles 4 . The very war-trumpets come in for their 
turn*. A whole armoury is offered in two other epigrams, one 
of which is of a degraded style, a vulgar slang, giving only 
single syllables for whole words 8 . The votive epigram here 
becomes the means of breaking a paltry jest. But the lowest 
level is reached in that which celebrates the lover's triumph 
over Sochares the Cynic, whom he had captivated, and now 
dedicates over the lintel his staff, slippers and flask, and his 
wallet stuft full of wisdom 7 . 

Occasionally an offering was specially made in a shape 
which had direct reference to the spoils of war. Gilded shields 
have been mentioned already; but sometimes shields were 
made all of silver or gold, and hung up to adorn the temples. 
There were golden shields hung on the architrave of the 
Delphic temple, which Pausanias assigns to Marathon 8 , but if 
Aeschines 9 be right in telling us that they were inscribed as 
spoils of the Medes and Thebans together, they must belong to 
Plataea. In 457 the Lacedaemonians defeated the Athenians 
at Tauagra, and in memory of the fight they sent a golden 
shield to Olympia, where it was hung on the gable just under 
the statue of Victory 10 . Flamininus sent silver targets to 

1 Anth. Pal. vi. 81. rots E\\i)<riv efiaxovro ; see Brunn, 

2 Anth. Pal. vi. 84. Geschichte der griechischen Kiinstler, 

3 Anth. Pal. vi. 123, cp. 122. 163. 

4 Anth. Pal. vi. 124, cp. 141, 264. 10 Pans. v. 10. 4 xa6j fjiev <f>id\av XP*>- 

5 Anth. Pal. vi. 159 o-dXiri-yf : cp. tr^av ?x et . ^K ^ Tavdypas rd Aa/ce5ai- 
151, 195, ai)\6j. fj.6vi.oi. ffvnfj.a\ia T' avtOtv 5&pov CLTT' 

6 Anth. Pal. vi. 85, 86. In the for- 'Apydwv Kal 'AOrivalwv Kal 'luvwv, ray 
mer we have rbv 6(a, Kal raj KVTJ, rdv T' dfKdrav vitas eiW/fa TW TroX^/xw. The 
dffTr/Sa, Kal 56pv, xal Kpa. shield stood on a block, which was fixt 

7 Anth. Pal. vi. 293, cp. 298. on the top of the gable. Three bits 

8 Paus. x. 19. 5. of it have been found, bearing parts of 

9 Aesch. Ctes. 409 ras xP vff affirl- each line : Olympia, Ergebnisse, Die 
dasdt>t9fnti>...Kaliirfypd\l/atJ.fi>,'A<)7}vaioi Inschriften, no. 253. They agree with 
da-6 M^duv Kal Qrj^aiuv, 6re rdvavrla. Pausanias, except in giving TOV instead 



WAR. 115 

Delphi 1 . A marble model of a shield was dedicated by a 
general in Cos 2 ; others in Camirus 3 . 

On the same principle a four-horse chariot of bronze was 
made about the years 509 505. The Athenians had defeated 
a Boeotian force, an.d on the same day crossed over to Chalcis 
and gained a second victory. Several hundreds of prisoners were 
taken, and kept in chains ; but these being afterwards ransomed, 
their chains were hung up on the Acropolis, and a tithe of the 
ransom money was used in preparing the chariot, whose base 
has been found on the spot. There remain a few fragments of 
the original inscription, which Herodotus (who tells the story) 
preserves complete 4 . Perhaps the chariot mentioned above 5 
was also made, like this, for the purpose of dedicating. 

Another offering of the same class is a group of horses and 
captive women, made by Ageladas in bronze, which was sent 
to Olympia by the Tarentines, as victors over the Messapians in 
a border war (473) 6 . Pausanias mentions " another tithe of the 
Tarentines, from the spoils of the barbarous Peucetians," sent to 
Delphi: being images of footmen and horsemen by Onatas, 
amongst them Opis king of the lapygians who fought for the 
barbaric foe 7 . Some time before the beginning of the Pelopon- 
nesian War, the Athenian Knights won a victory which was 
commemorated by the statue of a horse, set up on the Acropolis. 
Their leaders were Lacedaemonius son of Cimon, who was 

of the Doric TU>. Pausanias speaks as first and third lines are transposed : 
though the inscr. were on the shield, CIA i. 334, iv. 1, p. 78, 334 a. Doubt- 
as such often were; and perhaps the less the monument was destroyed by 
stone has a later copy made for some Xerxes and afterwards restored with 
reason. this change. This explanation is pre- 

1 Plut. Flamininus 12. ferable to that of Hicks, Or. Hist. 

2 Collitz iii. 3655 ffTparayriffas Gtois Inscr. 27, who supposes the money 
= Paton and Hicks, Inscr. of Cos, 66, voted for the dedication to have been 
67. first employed by Pericles about 445. 

3 IGI i. 7013. 5 Page 107. 

4 Herod, v. 77 tdvea. BOMTWV KO.I e Paus. x. 10. 3. An inscription 
XaXKiS^ow' da/idcravres Trcudes 'Adrivaiuv SeKdrav has been found on a support- 
tpy/j.a<TLi> fi> TTO\{/J.OV, Se<r/j.wi ev dx^v6evri ing wall close to the spot where 
<ri5i]ptwi Zffj3e<ra.v vfipw r&v iWovs 3e- Pausanias saw it, which M. Homolle 
Kdrrjv Ila\\ddi rdffd' Z6e<rcu>. Paus. i. conjectures to have belonged to the 
28. 2. The inscr. seems to have been Tarentine trophy : BCH xviii. 187. 
re-cut in the Periclean age, and the 7 Paus. x. 13. 10. 

o o 

o 4 



116 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

killed at Potidaea in 429, Xenophon, and another 1 . It is not 
likely that the statues of men-at-arms, which are found in 
shrines, were meant for captives. 

It is usually said that mock arms were sometimes made for 
soldiers to dedicate, but I have not found early evidence in 
support of this 8 . There was a thin shield found at Olympia, 
which the Argives dedicated, useless as it stands; but it may 
have been merely a bronze casing for a substantial frame 3 . 
The same must be said of the bronze casings from the Idaean 
Cave 4 . A terra-cotta lance-head in Olympia, if it really be 
meant for a lance-head, is unique 5 .- Miniature models in 
the precious metals are not unknown. Lysander sent to 
Delphi a trireme of gold and silver, which Cyrus had given 
him in honour of Aegospotami 6 , and there was another 
such at Delos 7 . Silver shields are known at Athens and 
Delos 8 . Some of these shields were buttons or ornaments 9 , 
but it is impossible to say that none were dedicated by 
soldiers. There have also been found at Olympia knives, axes, 
helmets, and shields 10 , and at Delos lance-heads and arrow- 
heads 11 , shields, cuirasses, and axes in Crete and Lusi 1 *, small 
and of thin foil, which have no use and appear to have had no 
value. These are usually explained as soldiers' offerings, but as 
such they would be very mean. It is true that the Greeks 
were familiar with the idea of dedicating a valueless model, 
especially models of beasts 13 , but also models of tripods" : it is 
therefore conceivable that a soldier might have dedicated such 
trifles as these. On the other hand, he ought to have given 
part of his spoil, if he won any ; and the things would have 
no meaning as models of anything but spoil, his own arms 



1 CIA iv. 1, p. 184, 418 h : oi Imfr 8 dffirlt if^vpo. ; see lists and BCH 

iirtt TUV Tro\f/J.luv iifirap\oiJVTuv Aa/ce- iii. 125. 

daifj.ovlov Sfo^wvToj Ilpov.... 9 cLffirlSiov, dffiriSiffKi) ; dcririSlffKcu M- 

Pausanias says shields were hung \iva.i BCH vi. 32. 

in a gymnasium 0fos tv e*o /cot OVK tk 10 Bronzen von 01. 520 27, 530, 1002 

tpyov TTo\t(Mv, vi. 23. 7. 5, 1021. 

3 IGA 33. " AZ \\ 333. 

4 Above, p. 101. " Below, ch. MV.; Mus. Ital. ii. 712. 
8 Bronzen von 01. 1041. " Chapters vm., xrv. 

Plut. Lytander 18. 14 Below, p. 145, and chap. xrv. 
i BCH vi. 



WAR. 117 

for example. It is not likely that toys would be dedicated 
at Olympia or Delos, and some of them, the axes at any rate, 
are so old that they are not likely to have been toys ; for such 
toys belong to a somewhat advanced stage of culture. I have 
another explanation to offer of these anon 1 ; and am fain to 
leave the question open. 

Choice prize, not arms only, was commonly dedicated. 
Sthenelus is said to have dedicated at Larissa a three-eyed 
Zeus, taken by him at the sack of Troy 2 . Pausanias saw in 
temples at Elis and Argos statues taken at the sack of Tiryns 3 . 
Croesus sent to Apollo of Branchidae spoils taken from "an 
enemy" who had plotted against him 4 . At Olympia stood 
a group of suppliant boys, taken by the Agrigentines out of 
the spoils of Motye, a " barbarian city " of Sicily 5 . Xerxes' 
silver-footed throne was placed on the Acropolis of Athens after 
Salamis 6 ; and the Tegeans dedicated to their Athena Alea 
a bronze manger which they found in Mardonius' tent on the 
Plataean battle-field 7 . Callias sent a horse to Olympia as 
part of the spoil taken by himself in the Persian war 8 . After 
the sack of Thebes, Alexander consecrated to Apollo at Cyme 
a hanging lamp which Pliny describes 9 . The statue of the 
jumper which Pausanias saw at Olympia was dedicated by the 
Thracian Mende, at an unknown date, after the sack of Sipte, 
as firstfruits of the spoils 10 . Whether the "statues" (dvSpi- 
ai>T9) dedicated by the Liparians after conquering Tyrrhenian 
pirates 11 were part of the spoil, or part of a group of victors 
or vanquish t, does not appear; but we learn that they sent 
many remarkable tithes to Delphi from their perennial feud 12 . 
Perhaps the statue of Athena, sent to Delphi by the Achaeans 
after the sack of Phana in Aetolia, was part of the spoils of 



1 Below, chap. xiv. the Parthenon. 

2 Paus. ii. 24. 3. 7 Herod, ix. 70 <f>drvr} 

3 Paus. viii. 46. 3. Called aicpo6ii>ia., Herod, viii. 121. 

4 Herod, i. 92. 8 Paus. x. 18. 1. 

8 Paus. v. 25. 5, with Frazer's note. 9 Pliny, NH xxxiv. 8. 14. 

6 Herod, ix. 2024, Paus. i. 27. 1, 10 Paus. v. 27. 12, inscribed. 

Demosth. Timocr. 741 ; Harpocration u Paus. x. 11. 3. 
t.v. 'Apyvpfaefa says it was kept in la Diodorus v. 9. 



118 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

war 1 . King Prusias II of Bithynia sent to Branchidae a 
number of articles which he seems to have taken in his sack 
of Pergamos (156) 3 . There is some reason to think that the 
veil of the temple at Jerusalem was dedicated at Olympia 3 . 

III. Other Commemorative Offerings. 

It would be commonplace merely to dedicate to a god the 
money gained by selling his share of the booty, although such 
a gift doubtless had its charm for the recipients. Moreover 
this left no memorial, and was therefore unsatisfactory from 
the victor's point of view ; hence Agesilaus stands almost alone 
in our records when he sends a hundred talents of gold to 
Delphi as the tithe of his Asian spoils 4 . Others may have done 
it, and the deed thought unworthy of record, especially if the 
sum were small. Votive coins indeed meet us by thousands in 
the treasure lists, but there is generally no clue to the occasion. 
It is however worth while to point out, that some of the 
magnificent Syracusan medallions bear on the exergue of the 
reverse a trophy of arms 5 : these then may have been struck 
out of military spoils, and in particular from the spoils of the 
Athenian army in 413. If the view be right that the panoply 
represents a prize in the games, yet these games were instituted 
to commemorate victories, and these very prizes may have been 
arms taken from the enemy. 

But the tithe-proceeds usually went to procure some per- 
manent offering. Sometimes the offering had value chiefly or 
wholly for itself, as the sacred couches made out of captured 
iron and bronze, and dedicated to Hera by the Lacedaemonians 
who had destroyed Plataea 6 . Sometimes the value lay in 
its meaning, as in the case of pictorial tablets. Usually there 
is something of both, as there is in the dedication of captured 

1 Paus. x. 18. 1. Evans, Syracusan Medallions, 8, 142, 

2 CIG 2855 <j>iA\r}...fK TT/S diroara- etc. Victory crowns the charioteer 
\tLffrjs aVopx^s virb /3a<n\^wi npovfftov. on earlier coins of the required date 
Both he and his queen send other (p. 153) ; they are usually interpreted 
articles. as being connected with races. 

3 Frazer, Pausaniat, iii. p. 545. 8 Thuc. iii. 68. There is more of 

4 Plut. Agesilaus 9. propitiation than thank-offering here. 

5 Head, Historia Numorum, 154 ; 



WAR. 119 

arms 1 . We shall take first those in which material value 
predominates, the others second. 

1. Buildings. When the tithe was large enough, or the 
giver sufficiently grateful, a temple or shrine was often built ; 
and a certain number of these buildings were ascribed by tradi- 
tion to this origin. Thus Heracles, after conquering Hippocrates 
and his sons, is said to have built a shrine to Athena Axiopoina 
and Hera Aigophagos 2 ; after conquering Elis, another to Apollo 
Pythian in Arcadia 3 ; and a third to Delphian Apollo, after 
conquering Phylas and the Dryopes 4 . Theseus followed his 
example after he had vanquisht Asterion, son of Minos, in 
Crete, by dedicating a temple to Athena the Saviour 5 . Where 
the Amazons ceased their forward march, near the town of 
Pyrrhichus in Laconia, a temple was built to Artemis of the 
War-host 6 . 

Similar traditions, which may be true, but there is nothing 
to prove it, come from the borderland between history and 
fable. When the Dorians swarmed into the Peloponnese, they 
commemorated a victory near Sparta over the Achaeans and 
Amyclaeans by founding a temple to Zeus of the Rout 7 . 
In historical times Solon built a temple to Ares after taking 
Salamis 8 . We have also the temple of Artemis of Good Fame 
at Athens, built from the spoils of the Medes 9 ; and the shrine 
of Pan in the cave on the Acropolis. It will be remembered 
that as Pheidippides the runner was sent to Sparta to appeal 
for help against the invader, Pan is said to have appeared 
in his path, upbraiding the Athenians for their neglect, in 
spite of many good deeds done them in the past, and more 
which he promised for the future. When the battle of 
Marathon was won, the runner's tale was remembered ; and 
"the shrine of Pan was founded beneath the Acropolis," where 
the Athenians henceforth honoured him with yearly sacrifices 



1 The victor's arms belong to the 6 Paus. iii. 25. 2 'Affrpdreia. 
second class. 7 Paus. iii. 12. 9 rpbiraios. 

2 Paus. iii. 15. 6, 9. 8 Plut. Solon 9. 

3 Paus. viii. 15. 5. 9 Paus. i. 14. 5; Plut. Aristides 20; 

4 Paus. iv. 34. 6. GIG 467. 
8 Paus. ii. 31. 1. 



120 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

and a torch-race 1 . At Salamis, a serpent appeared among the 
ships, and was interpreted to be the hero Cychreus; accordingly 
after the battle the Athenians erected a shrine to Cychreus, and 
a trophy of the battle, on that island 3 . Themistocles built 
in Melite a shrine to Artemis of Good Counsel 3 , and one at 
Peiraeus to Aphrodite 4 . The temple of Athena Areia at 
Plataea was rebuilt and refurnisht with eighty talents, which 
the Plataeans had received as the prize of valour at the battle 
of 479 s . The Athenians erected a shrine by the Ilissus to 
Boreas, because he blew with his wind, and tho ships of the 
Persians were scattered 6 . We have also temples erected from 
the spoils of the Carthaginians at Himera, to Demeter and the 
Maid, two at Syracuse and one at Etna 7 . The great temple 
and image of Zeus at Olympia are said by Pausanias 8 to have 
been built from the spoils of Pisa, which was destroyed by Elis 
in the sixth century ; but a variety of considerations 9 go to 
fix the date of this temple between 480 and 457 : if, as seems 
likely enough, war spoils did give the occasion and the means 
for building it, they probably came from a later war, perhaps 
that mentioned by Herodotus and Strabo 10 . The beautiful 
temple of Wingless Victory on the Acropolis of Athens must 
commemorate some feat of arms ; it cannot commemorate the 
capture of Sphacteria (425) and the Peace of Nicias, since the 
decree which directs the building of it goes to prove that the 
temple is older than the Propylaea, and it must belong to some 
earlier battle, Oenophyta for instance, or Oenoe 11 . 

The tithe of spoils won by Xenophon's army of Greeks was 
allotted to Apollo and Ephesian Artemis, each general taking 
a portion of it into his charge. What Xenophon did with 

1 Herod, vi. 105 iSpvaavro virb rjj This is unlikely; but see Frazer on 

dKpoir6\i lloi^s Ip6v ; Paus. i. 28. 4, Pausanias i. 1. 3. 

with Frazer's note. B Plut. Aristides 20. 

1 Paus. i. 36. 1. 6 Herod, vii. 189. 

5 Plut. Themistocles 22 d/xoTo/SotfXi;. 7 Diodorus xi. 36. 

His own statue was in it. 8 Paus. v. 10. 1. 

4 Schol. on Hermogenes (Walz, 9 Summarized by Frazer in his note 

Rhttores Graeci, vi. 393), quoting on Pausanias v. 10. 2. 

Ammonius. An inscr. of Roman date 10 Herod, iv. 148, Strabo viii. p. 355. 

probably alludes to this shrine, but n Hiller von Gartringen, Arch. Am. 

says it was dedicated before the battle. xiii. 124 ff., 'E<. 'Apx- 1897, 177. 



WAR. 



121 



Apollo's share he does not state ; it was not used for a temple 1 . 
But the share of the goddess he took with him to Greece, and 
at Scyllus bought with it a plot of ground upon which he built 
a temple, which, to compare small with great, was as like as 
possible to the Ephesian, with a grove about it, and there held 
annual feasts 2 . 

Conon, after defeating the Persian fleet at Cnidus (394), 
dedicated a temple to Zeus the Saviour at Athens 3 , and one 
to Aphrodite at Peiraeus beside the sea 4 . This was probably 
Aphrodite of the Fair Voyage, under which title she was 
worshipt at Cnidus. In some feud between Elis and 
Arcadia, the Eleans founded a temple of Eileithyia and 
Sosipolis at Olympia 5 , and in Elis a shrine to Sosipolis 
alone 6 . For material magnificence probably no votive shrine 
could vie with those which commemorated the victories of the 
kings of Pergamus over the Gauls 7 . Eumenes II (197 159), 
we learn from Strabo 8 , adorned the city and temples in many 
ways, and offered up thank-offerings for his successes ; while 



1 Xen. Anab. v. 3. 5 dvadr)fj.a iroi-rjffa- 
fievos avariOtjffiv e/s rbv tv AeX0cus TUV 
'AOrjvaiwv 6-rj(ravp6v. 

2 Xen. Anab. v. 3. 11 Ivi 3 iv T$ iep$ 

al a\ffi) 



fiecrra, IKCLVO. Kal ffvs Kal alyas Kal /3ovs 
rp<peiv Kal tirirovs, uffre Kal TO. TWV fs 
T7)v eoprijv itivruv virotfryia evta^fiffOai. 
vepl Se atirbv rbv vabv a\ffos ijfjifpuv 
dtvdpwv t<pvTf>bOii ova tarl rpUKrd tiipaia. 
6 5 vabs us /MKpbs fj.e-ya\(f) rip fv 'E^cry 
elKavrai, Kal rb %bavov ZoiKfv ws Kvirapicr- 
fftvov xP vff V t> VTl T V & 'E0^<r<fj. Kal 
<rrri\ri i-ffTrjKe wapa rbv vabv ypdn/j.ara 
fyovffa- 'lepbs 6 x&P o * T W 'AprtfjuSos. 
Tbv ?x VTa Ka l Kapiro'Ufjifvov TTJV fdv 
dfKarrjv KaraOijeiv eKatrrov Irous. e/e 6 
TOV trepiTTOv rbv vabv f trier Kevafeiv. av 
5t rtj ^177 TTOirj ravra rij Oe 



A pious person of Ithaca, emulous of 
Xenophon, dedicated a like precinct 
in his native isle, with the same 
inscription : IGS iii. 1. 654 (2nd cent. 
after Christ). 



3 Isocr. Euagr. 57. 

4 Paus. i. 1. 3. A dedication to 
'A<ppodirri Evir\oia has been found at 
the Peiraeus, CIA ii. 1206 ; and there 
was another temple of Aphrodite there, 
founded by Themistocles (above, p. 
98). Aphrodite appears as guardian 
of seafarers in later times : see below, 
eh. v. 

8 Paus. vi. 20. 5. Sosipolis is a 
title, like Soter, here personified ; it 
is applied to Zeus in Magnesia : Strabo 
xiv. p. 648. 

6 Paus. vi. 25. 4. Purgold (Fest- 
schrift fiir E. Curtiusz. 70. Geburtstag, 
1884, Olympische Weihgeschenke) as- 
signs others to this date, amongst 
them the Hermes of Praxiteles, but 
without cogent reasons. 

7 See the records of the excavations ; 
and Baumeister, Denkmaler, s.v. Per- 
gamon, for references: Paus. i. 4. 6, 
25. 2. 

8 Strabo, p. 624. 



122 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Attalus II seems to have commemorated his predecessors' 
victories as well as his own, according to the inscription dis- 
covered on the spot 1 . The temple of Athena was rebuilt, and 
a great altar was erected to Zeus; the temple was adorned by 
trophies of arms carved upon it, and the altar with the battle of 
gods and giants, a "heroic precedent." It remains to mention 
that after Actium (31), the Mantineans, who fought on Octavius' 
side, dedicated a temple to Aphrodite Symmachia 2 : this goddess 
being no doubt chosen because of the legendary connexion 
of Aeneas with Rome 3 . So, in modern times, after the repulse 
of the Turks from Rhodes in 1480, d'Aubusson built a chapel 
to Notre Dame de la Victoire, whose image is still in the Latin 
chapel at Rhodes 4 . 

A distinct class of votive buildings is formed by the 
Treasuries and Colonnades, which were erected at great na- 
tional shrines. The Treasuries are cell-like buildings, much 
of a shape with temples but on a small scale, being a cella with 
a foreroom, opening through a couple of pillars between antae. 
The foundations of twelve have been found at Olympia 5 ; Pau- 
sanias 6 mentions seven at Delphi, and there were besides five 
others, making the same total ; at Delos again several are 
known to have existed 7 . These buildings were used as show- 
houses for the display of votive offerings. The first we can 
assign to a victory in war is the Megarian Treasury at Olympia, 
built with the spoils of some victory we cannot identify. Pau- 
sanias 8 gives it an absurdly high date, but the evidence of the 
remains is conclusive for the later part of the sixth century. 
To the gable was afh'xt a shield, which bore an inscription 

1 /3a<riXei>j*ATra\oj/3a(nX^ws'ATTaX<>u 3 Should the Philippeum, built by 
Ail KCU 'A.6ijva.i viKy<f)bpu>i x a P tff7 "^IP i0> ' Philip after Chaeronea, be added? 
Ttav Karii ir6\efj.oi> Ayuvwv, quoted by Paus. v. 20. 10. 

Frazer; BaUmeister, Denkm. 1222. 4 Biliotti, History of Rhodes, p. 

2 Paus. viii. 9. 6. The list might 266. 

be carried further, if it were my 6 Pausanias mentions ten ; but be- 

purpose to go down into Roman times. fore his day two were destroyed. 

The latest I have met with is a shrine 8 Paus. x. 11. 1 fif . Qij<ravpol. 

dedicated to Zeus by Jovianus, about 7 BCH vi. 88 Ai/Xta? ofaos, No^wv 

363 A. D., when he restored the pagan ol^os; 158 'Avdplwv O!KOJ ; 178 

worship, 'EXX^pcw re/j^vrj ical j3wfj.ovs olnos. 

^aXajroaj: IGS iii. 1. 721. 8 p aus> v i. 19 2. 



WAR. 123 

telling that the building had been made from Corinthian spoils. 
Not much later is the Treasury built by the Syracusans, 
commonly called of Carthage. It contained a colossal image of 
Zeus and three linen corslets, which Pausanias declares to have 
been the offering of Gelo the Syracusan for some victory either 
by sea or land. The words of Pausanias are not clear to decide 
whether the Treasury itself was to be of the same dedication, 
but I think he did mean this, and that its common title, 
Treasury of the Carthaginians, refers to its origin 1 . The spoils 
are generally assigned to the battle of Himera (480), but this 
date is many years too late for the building. It is possible 
that both building and spoils were dedicated, as Pausanias says, 
by Gelo, after some victory we know nothing of, when he may 
have been in command though not yet tyrant; or it may be 
the spoils belong to Himera, and the building to this earlier 
victory, by whomsoever dedicated; or the treasury may have 
been dedicated by the Syracusans before Gelo came on the 
scene. Style of architecture and sculpture, and the alphabet 
used in the inscription, alike point to the years 510 500 at 
latest ; and there are indications 2 that the cities of eastern 
Sicily did about that time wage a dire struggle with Carthage, in 
which they were victorious 3 . The Athenian Treasury at Delphi 
was built out of the spoils of Marathon 4 , and on the metopes 
were carved the Battle of Gods and Giants, with the deeds 
of Heracles and Theseus 5 : clearly a heroic precedent like 
those of Pergamus. " Brasidas and the Acanthians " used the 
Athenian spoils to build another of these cells in the same 
place 6 . When the Athenian empire went to wreck in Sicily, 

1 For other views see Frazer's note 5 See Frazer's note, and BCH xvii. 
on Paus. vi. 19. 7. 217 ff., 612, xviii. 169. A terrace next 

2 See Herod, vii. 158. this building bears the inscription, 

3 See Freeman's Sicily ii. 98, App. which has been cut or re-cut in the 
vni. pp. 478 9. The Treasury may third century, ' AOrjvaioL Td.ir6\\uvi. 
be used as another argument in support aKporlvia rrjs MapatfuWj : the explana- 
of his suggestion. tion is unknown (Cecil Smith, in 

4 Paus. x. 11. 5. The remains of Frazer, I.e.). 

the inscription cannot be fitted in with 6 It contained a statue of Lysander. 

his words : BCH xx. 608 'A0tji>a.?oi rtai Plut. Lysander 1, De Pythiae Oraculis 
' Airo\\ij}vi diro MrjSwc dfcpoOiVta rfjs 14, 15 ; cp. Thuc. v. 10. 



124 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the Syracusans built their Treasury at Delphi (4 IS) 1 . After 
the battle of Leuctra (371) the Theban Treasury was founded 
there also 1 . As to the other Treasuries, it is fair to conjec- 
ture that some of those whose origin is not attested were built 
from war-spoils. This is probable for the one which Cypselus, 
tyrant of Corinth in the seventh century, erected at Delphi 2 , 
and for the Sicyonian Treasury there, which belongs to the 
early sixth century 3 . Others are mentioned, dedicated by 
Croesus and Gyges 4 , by Massilia 8 , and by the city of Spina 
on the Adriatic coast 6 . The Cnidian Treasury, in spite of 
Pausanias' statement, seems to have been built from a tithe 
of war 7 . 

Occasionally the victor preferred to build a colonnade from 
war-spoil. Thus the Spartans built in their own city what was 
called the Persian Colonnade, in which were statues of Mardo- 
nius, Queen Artemisia, and others, "from the Persian spoils 8 ": 
statues of Persians in their barbaric dress supported the roof 
in place of pillars 9 . A colonnade of the Athenians at Delphi has 
given rise to much controversy 10 . The inscription, which is 
complete, still remains on the spot where it was placed 11 . The 
alphabet is puzzling, some of the letters pointing forward in time 
and some back. Kohl assigns it to the time of Peisistratus, 
U. Kohler to a victory won over the Aeginetans about 490 ; 
Pausanias again gives the victory to Phormio 12 , which is impos- 
sible, not only from the antiquity of the script, but because 
Phormio's victories, though brilliant, were not considerable 

1 Paus. x. 11. 5. adorned with Persian heads, which 

2 Herod, i. 14 ; Paus. x. 13. 5. Ctesylis dedicated at Delphi (BCH vi. 
8 BCH xviii. 187 fif. ; Paus. x. 11. 1. 152), would have been appropriate to 

4 Strabo ix. p. 471. the great war ; but there is no reason 

5 Diodorus xiv. 93. for assuming any connexion. 

6 Strabo v. p. 214, ix. p. 421; Pliny, 10 Hicks, Gr. Hist. Iwcr. 20; Paus. 
NH iii. 120. The last reference I take x. 11. 6 with Frazer's note, where the 
from Frazer on Pausanias x. 13. 5. rival theories are stated. 

7 Paus. x. 11. 5; BCH xxii. 592 IGA 3 a, p. 169 : 'Afl^euoi dv^eyav 
KvtSioi dvf'OrjKav rbv Orjffavpitv Kal TT\V ffroav xai TO. ovXa. ncai TcUpwnJpta 
ray<i\fJMTa. "AinJXXwvi IlvOiui Sexarav i\6vres TUV iro\e^iuf. 

airo TWV iro\cp.icjv. ls Paus. x. 11. 6. Some of Phormio's 

8 Paus. iii. 11. 3. spoils may have been added later, as 

9 Vitruvius i. 1. 6. So the bowl, I have suggested (p. 107 1 ). 



WAR. 125 

enough to have afforded so rich a booty. The probabilities are 
in favour of some victory between 490 and the mid-century, 
such as the sea-fight of Cecryphalea off Aegina in 460. Another 
colonnade, called Myropolis, was built by Aristodemus, who was 
tyrant of Megalopolis before the Achaean league, after defeating 
Acrotatus and his Lacedaemonian soldiers of fortune 1 . There 
was also a colonnade in Elis built from spoils of Corcyra 2 . 
Some kind of building appears to have been dedicated at 
Athens by the Tarentines during the period of their alliance 
(280 279), perhaps for the victory of Heraclea 3 . Colonnades 
were amongst the buildings erected by Attalus II 4 . 

To the same category belongs an altar which is connected 
with Plataea After the battle of 479, the united Greeks 
decreed exalted honours to the city, promising them eternal 
independence and protection 8 ; and there they built an altar to 
Zeus Eleutherios 6 , with an inscription by Simonides 7 . This is 
the only altar I have noticed as dedicated for a feat of war, 
until we come to the end of Greek history, when Mummius 
dedicates an altar to the gods at Thebes 8 . But perhaps the 
altar of the Chians at Delphi was one such 9 . The altar, how- 
ever, was not an obvious offering nor a thing beautiful in itself; 
it was not necessarily built at all, and it was often made of the 
ashes of immemorial sacrifices 10 . 

2. Divine statues. An obvious dedicatory offering was the 
statue (aya\/ji,a) of the protecting deity, and examples are 
many 11 . Cypselus having vowed to dedicate the goods of the 

1 Paus. viii. 30. 7. 9 Herod, ii. 135. The inscr. which 

2 Paus. vi. 25. 1. has been found belongs to the fifth 
8 Hicks, Gr. Hist. Inscr. 163 : fapav- century : X2bt 'AiroXXowi rbv (}W/MI>. 

TIVOI dirb TUV iro\e/j.twv aytdeffav. BCH XX. 617. 

4 Baumeister, Denkmaler, 1222 : 10 See Paus. v. 13. 8, 11, 14. 8, 10, 

above, p. 122 1 . 15. 9, ix. 11. 7. Also of unhewn 

4 Thuc. ii. 71. stones vii. 22. 5; of unburnt brick 

8 Plut. Aristides 19. vi. 20. 11. 

7 Anth. P. vi. 50. u One statue, perhaps of Zeus, at 

8 Hicks, Gr. Hist. Inscr. 199. But Olympia, bore an inscr. unique in 
altars were made to Peace and sacri- form : fa\fluv vepl 'Ofwvolap, Inschr. 
fices offered after the peace of 374: von 01. 260 (?cp. Paus. v. 24. 4). 
Nepos, Timotheus, 2. 



126 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Corinthians if he won Corinth, used the money to procure a 
golden Zeus which he sent to Delphi 1 . At the beginning of 
the second Messenian War (685 668) the Spartans are said 
to have dedicated a statue of Zeus which Pausanias saw at 
Olympia, thus inscribed : 

K.poviBa, ZeO 'Q\vvTTi, rca\6v ayaX/ia 
0vfjL(2i rotX AaxeSat/Jboviois. 

The base of this statue has been found, and is a useful proof 
of the uncertainty of these early traditions : the alphabet is of 
the sixth rather than the seventh century, and the inscription 
has even been claimed for the Messenian revolt of 464 2 . Some 
warlike feat must be commemorated by the great statues found 
on the Sacred Way in Branchidae, for nothing else surely 
could have so magnificent a tithe 3 . The oldest of many 
memorials of the great struggle between Carthaginian and 
Greek in Sicily, is an inscription of Selinus, which belongs 
to the middle of the sixth century ; this appears to record a 
vow made before the fight, that when peace was made statues 
of gold should be erected to guardian deities; but the frag- 
mentary state of it makes certainty impossible 4 . From the 
same struggle we have an Apollo dedicated by the Massaliots at 
Delphi, as the firstfruits of the sea-fight with the Carthagi- 
nians 8 . Gelo's thank-offering after Himera included a colossal 

1 Paus. v. 2. 3 and Frazer's note ; TOUJ 0eoi)j -rotfsSe VIKUVTI rol ZeXivot/v- 
Strabo viii. 353, 378; Plato, Phaedrus TIOI- 8ia rbv Ala vtKufj.es Kal 5iA -rbv 
236 E; Suidas and Photius s.v. Ku^e- 4>6/3ov Kal 8<& 'UpaK\a Kal SL' 'A.ir6\- 
\iSwv dvd6t)fj.a. \wva Kal dia noreiSaVa Kal dia Tvvdapi- 

2 Paus. v. 24. 3; Die Inschriften das Kal di' 'A6ca>a.av Kal 5i<i MaXo- 
von Olympia, no. 252; Eohl, IGA, <f>6pov Kal 3iA nao-tKpdreiav Kal dia. 
no. 75. rot')? dXXoi.'s deovs, Sect 6i Aia /id- 

3 Newton, Branchidae, inscr. no. 66, Xtora. 0iXas 5^ ytvontvas ty 
p. 777 : ra dya\fj.ara rdSe avtOeffav ol xp vff ^ ul ^Xd<ra'ros, rd 8* bvvnara 
TLvQuvos iraiSei TOV dpxfiyov, 0aX^s Kal ravra /coXdij/ajras S TO ' Airo\\wviov 
Ilaff(.K\ijt Kal 'Hyriffavdpos Kal AI^KIOS Ka00tfj.fv, rb AIDS trpoypa.tya.VTfs ' rb 
Kal 'Avaf/Xews, SeKarTjv run 'An-6\\uvi. dt xpvfflov ^tJKovra ra\dvrtav clpcc. 
British Museum : assigned to the 6th Hicks, Gr. Hist. Inscr. 25, assigns this 
century. See also 780, 781, nos. 67, to the fifth century, and the struggle 
68. between Selinus and Egesta. 

4 IGSI 268, IGA 515, Collitz iii. Paus. x. 18. 3. 
3046. As restored, it runs thus : Sia 



WAR. 127 

Zeus 1 . There was a standing feud between Thessaly and 
Phocis; and when fortune looked with favour on the Thessalians, 
they dedicated a Zeus at Olympia 2 . The Lipari had much ado 
to protect themselves against Tyrrhenian pirates, and many a 
victory sent its tithe to Delphi 3 . Once the Pythia, it is said, 
told them to put to sea with as few ships as possible ; they 
accordingly sent out a squadron of five. The Tyrrhenians, with 
more romantic pride than one would expect of pirates, thought 
shame to meet them with a larger number. The five pirates 
were defeated and taken, and a like fate befel three other 
squadrons of five ships each which followed. The victors then 
sent to Delphi an Apollo for each captured ship 4 . Miltiades, 
as we have seen, had special cause to be grateful to Pan ; he 
consequently dedicates a statue of Pan, perhaps in the Acropolis 
cave, and Simonides writes him the epigram 5 . The famous 
bronze Athena Champion, which stood in front of the Par- 
thenon, was said to have been made by Pheidias from the 
Marathonian tithe 6 ; no doubt it was set up at the close of 
the Persian Wars 7 , and called after Marathon by the loose 
convention already spoken of 8 . After Salamis, a colossal image 
of Apollo was erected at Delphi, and one of Zeus at Olympia, 
by the Greeks in common 9 . The tithe of Plataea was used to 
purchase two colossi : one of Poseidon to be placed on the 
Isthmus, its face set towards the rising sun; and one of Zeus 
for Olympia 10 . Another Zeus was given to the same place by 
the Argive Epidaurians, out of Median spoils 11 ; and a third, 
this colossal, by the Clitorians as a " tithe from many cities 12 ." 
Deliverance from a wandering horde of Mardonius's men was 

1 Pans. vi. 19. 7. Tttov paid by the Greeks ; xix. p. 478. 

2 Paus. v. 24. 1, x. 1. 3 11 : the He is alone in this view and probably 
occasion is not known. wrong. 

3 Diod. v. 9, Strabo vi. 275. Paus. x. 14. 5. 

4 Paus. x. 16. 8. 10 Herod, ix. 80; Paus. v. 23. 1, 

5 Anth. App. Plan. xvi. 232 ; Bergk, x. 13. 9. 

Poetae Lyr. Gr. Hi. 1163. " Paus. x. 15. 1. 

6 Paus. i. 28. 2 npfaaxos. The base 12 Paus. v. 23. 7. At Olympia was 
is identified with CIA i. 333. another Zeus, dedicated by the Eleans 

7 So says expressly the Schol. on for their victory over Arcadia: Paus. 
Aristides (iii. 320 Dind.). vi. 24. 3. Another from the Psophidii, 

8 Demosthenes says it was an dpiff- v. 24. 4. 



128 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the occasion for dedicating the Saviour Artemis at Megara 1 . 
Later, in 445, the Megarians revolted from Athens, and slew 
most of the Athenian garrison ; in memory of which they 
sent an Apollo to Delphi*. After the Sacred War (346), the 
Amphictyons set up an Apollo at Delphi, and the Thebans 
a Heracles*. There was a bronze Apollo in the Pythium at 
Athens, dedicated as a war-tithe about the middle of the fourth 
century 4 . The people of Patrae, who had helpt the Aetolians to 
fight the Gauls, set up a statue of Apollo in their own capital*. 
The Colossus of Rhodes was procured with the money got by 
selling the siege-engines of Demetrius Poliorcetes, who gave them 
to the Rhodians when he was forced to raise the siege (303) 8 . 
Mummius set up at Olympia two bronze statues of Zeus 7 ; and 
after Actium, one Nicippe dedicated a statue of Aphrodite in 
the temple then built for her honour 8 . 

We know of one divine statue dedicated by a private 
person for success in war: Hegelochus the alien did this at 
Athens in the fifth century 9 . It may be that some of the archaic 
' Apollos ' discovered in Boeotia or other places are images of 
the deity, Apollo or who not, dedicated for this cause. One 
bronze figure of this type at least is inscribed as a tithe 10 ; and 
there is no indication that it was a trade-tithe. A fuller dis- 
cussion will be found in a succeeding chapter 11 . 

Two items call for remark. Cimon, after his victory on the 
Strymon (477), was allowed as a special honour to set up two 
Hermae in the Street of Hermae, but without inscribing his 
name upon them 12 . I do not know whether he regarded Hermes 
as the source of his good luck, or whether the motive was 



1 Paus. i. 40. 2. Xr/v Si ^tXofewTjs AfKTrjs re ira.ffi)t 

2 Paus. x. 15. 1. fx uv f^"Se ir6\iv vinertu. Kplrios KO! 

3 Paus. x. 13. 1, 15. 1. NijfficiTi;* lirvr\a<iT-t)v . 

4 CIA ii. 1154, 1204. 10 AJA N.S. ii. 50 MAvn/cXdj M' <W- 

6 Paus. vii. 20. 3. ffeiiee feicaj36Xi dpyvpor6^ui raj dcxdrat' 
Eudocia says it commemorated TV 5t 4>/3e Sidoi \a.plffrra.v d/xotpav. 

victories by sea (no. 994). Archaic. 

7 Paus. v. 24. 4. u Chapters viu. and xiv. 

8 Paus. viii. 9. 6 ; see above, p. 122. " Plut. Cimon 7. Inscribed hernia 

9 CIA i. 374 irapfleWi 'EtcffxivTov ne in Jahrb. ii. 22830, one inscr. = 
TOTTJP dvtOijKf leal vlbt tvOad' ' A.6i)vaiiji Anth. Pal. vi. 144. 

Tfbvuv 'Apfo* "HyAoxoi. /trya- 



WAR. 129 

pride 1 . The other is the dedication of the Saviour Demigods, 
the Dioscuri no doubt 2 , to Poseidon at Elatea, in memory of 
some signal deliverance 3 . The inscription dates from the fourth 
century; and I cannot believe with M. Paris 4 that the lines have 
been recut and that the dedication belongs to an earlier age, 
perhaps to the affray when Tellias struck terror into his adver- 
saries by means of a coat of whitewash 5 , because the dedication 
of the statue of a deity to whom gratitude is due is always made 
to that deity himself while Greek religion is sincere 6 . 

3. Artistic representation of the human act blest by the god. 
To set up a divine statue was one way of acknowledging 
his power; and although we are not often told what the 
figure lookt like, we know that the plastic genius of Greece 
often exprest this power by clothing him in attributes, such as 
armour, and by placing weapons in his hand. As the faculty of 
artistic expression grew, attempts were made to depict in some 
way the effect of that power, or more precisely the event 
wherein he had shown it. The Odes of Pindar show us how 
the Greek mind would naturally regard human life in relation 
to higher things ; and as he seeks out heroic or mythological 
precedent for the feats which he celebrates, so victories in war 
were sometimes commemorated by a mythological or allegorical 
group. So is explained the scene on the Aegina pediment, so 
the metopes of the Parthenon. In the offeriogs which we have 
first to do with, there is no realism. At most along with 
the divine and heroic figures, mortal man whose strong arm has 
helpt may sometimes be found. 

1 Dem. Lept. 491 cites an inscr. in <r<j>eTtpwi> d\6x^v. The stone reads 
this street as a chief mark of honour XPONOTIEI in the first line. 

in olden days : <?TTI TUV wpoybvuv iro\\d 4 P. Paris, Elatee, 10, 223. 

dyaffd elpya.ff/j.fvoi rives otidevbs r/^iovvro 5 Herod, viii. 27. 

TOIOVTOV, dXX' dyairrirus eirtypdfj.fj.aTos ev e For this point see ch. xiv. It 

rots epfj.ais erv^ov. is true that if the dedication refers 

2 There was a pavaKeiov at Elatea : to peril at sea, there would be some 
IGS iii. 1. 129. fitness from a latter-day standpoint ; 

3 BCH x. 367 ; IGS iii. pt. 1. 130 but it has yet to be proved that this 
irovrlw iinro(j.{dovri Hoffeid&vi xP^ vov was true of the great age. If these 
vlet i] ir6\is ei/^a/j^vt] rofod' dvedriKe figures w^re a group in action they 
0ewt, rifuOtovs ffwrr/pas virep irpoyovuv may be older ; see next section. 

re Kal avruv Kal yip KOI rebuts K<d 

R. 9 



130 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

This is the meaning of the group sent to Olympia by the 
Argives for their victory at Oenoe : the seven who fought 
against Thebes and the Epigoni, together with the chariot of 
Amphiaraus and his charioteer Baton 1 . At Olympia also, upon 
a great pedestal, stood Zeus, Thetis, and the Day, with 
a number of Homeric heroes in fighting pairs, the group 
being the tithe of Abantis sent by the city of Apollonia on 
the Ionian sea 2 . A group of Heracles and Apollo, striving 
for the tripod, was dedicated at Delphi by the Phocians after 
their defeat of the Thessalians 3 . Attains I commemorated 
his Gallic victories by several groups on the Acropolis of 
Athens : battles of the gods and giants, of the Athenians 
with the Amazons, and the battle of Marathon, then held of 
equal importance with the great deeds of legend 4 . Perhaps 
the cedar-wood group of the struggle of Heracles with 
Achelous, in the Megarian treasury at Delphi, was meant in 
the same way 6 . At some date unknown, the citizens of 
Heraclea Pontica, having conquered a barbaric tribe, the 
Mariandyni, sent to Olympia a group representing the Labours 
of Heracles: the Lion, the Hydra, Cerberus, and the Eryman- 
thian Boar". The same principle must also explain an Argive 
offering at Delphi, a bronze copy of the Wooden Horse of Troy, 
bought from Lacedaemonian spoils. This should belong to 
the successful raid of Argives into the Thyreatis in 414, when 
they took booty to the amount of h've-and-twenty talents 7 . 
Perhaps the "Wooden Horse" of bronze on the Athenian 
acropolis had a similar origin 8 . 

1 Pans. i. 15. 1 with Frazer's note ; Frazer on Paus. I.e. 

x. 10. 4. C. Robert (Hermes xxv. 412) s Paus. vi. 19. 12. It should be 

places the battle between 463 and 458 ; noted that the gable had the war of 

this date is supported by IGA 165, gods and giants, and the building was 

where the sculptors of the group, ascribed to a victory. 

Hypatodorus and Aristogeiton, are * Paus. v. 26. 7. 

named in an inscr. assigned to the 7 Paus. x. 10. 9 ; Thuc. vi. 95 ; 

early 5th century. Others place the Brunn, Gesch. der gr. Kiinstler, i. 283. 

date in the 4th century. Pausanias appears to refer it to their 

2 Paus. v. 22. 6. well-known victory of a hundred and 

3 Herod, viii. 27 ; Paus. x. 1. 8, fifty years before ; but Autiphanes, the 
13. 6. founder of the Horse, was not earlier 

4 Paus. i. 25. 2 ; Plut. Antonins 60. than the Peloponnesian War. 

Ten existing statues are identified as 8 Schol. Aristoph. Birds 1128 ; Paus. 
originals or copies from these groups ; i. 23. 8 ; CIA i. 406 Xcupt5ri/j.os Evo-y- 



WAR. 131 

Another expression of the same idea is a group including 
the protecting deities, together with personifications of the 
dedicating states, either in the form of the local heroes or 
otherwise, sometimes also the commander or anyone who had 
rendered signal help in the event. The Phocians, after the 
successful stratagem of Tellias the soothsayer, sent figures of 
their local heroes to Delphi and Abae, with Tellias and their 
generals, Rhoeus and Daiphantes 1 . Another group was sent 
by the Athenians to Delphi after the Persian Wars 2 : in the 
presence of Apollo and Athena stood Erechtheus, Cecrops, 
Pandion, Leos, Antiochus son of Heracles, Aegeus, and Acamas, 
all tribal eponyms; Codrus, Theseus, and Phyleus, ancient 
chiefs ; and the general Miltiades. The three remaining 
eponyms, Ajax, Hippothoon, and Oeneus, must surely have 
formed part of the original dedication; but when Pausanias 
saw the group, these three statues had been dubbed with the 
names of Antigonus, Demetrius, and Ptolemy 3 , who had given 
their names to later Athenian tribes 4 . After Salamis, a 
colossal statue was set up at Delphi, holding in one hand 
a ship's beak 5 ; the word dvSpids, used by Herodotus, cannot 
apply to the Apollo mentioned by Pausanias 8 , and it was 
probably a local personification of Aegina, or Salamis. The 
Arcadians, after ravaging Laconia, probably under Epami- 
nondas (370-69), sent to Delphi a large group: images of 
Apollo and Victory, of Callisto mother of Areas by Apollo, of 

yt\ov ex Kol\r)s avid-rfKev. But this reason for taking away the three which 

appears to be a private dedication. are missing, and I therefore assume 

1 Herod, viii. 27 ; Paus. x. 1. 8, that only the names were changed. 
13. 6. 4 E. Curtius, Gesammelte Abhand- 

2 Pausanias says (1) the sculptor lungen, ii. 365. 
was Pheidias, (2) the group was really 5 Herod, viii. 121. 

and truly part of the Marathon battle- 6 Paus. x. 14. 5. Hero statues were 

tithe. It is hard to reconcile these so called : Arist. Peace 1183 rbv &v- 

statements, unless we suppose that Sptdvra rbv HavSlovos. We read also 

the money was kept unused for a of one of gold, not described, bought 

long time. It should be noted that with Median spoils : Epist. Philippi 

Miltiades soon fell into ill odour, and 179 (speaking of Amphipolis) 'AXe^dy- 

so the date is likely to be after his Spov rov irpoybvov Karatrx^Tos rov rbirov 

death. oOev Kal ruv eu'x/iaAwrwj' M^Stov airap- 

3 Paus. x. 10. 1. If the three last xV AvSpidvra xP vff0 "" o.vfffrijffv els 
had been new statues, there was no Ae\0otfj. 

92 



132 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Areas, and his sons 1 . Tolmides and his soothsayer stood on 
the acropolis of Athens, as part of a group with Erechtheus 
fighting against Eumolpus 2 . This should refer to the raid on 
the Peloponnese in 455, when Gythium was burned and Cythera 
taken 3 . Similarly Aetolia was placed at Delphi amidst a group 
of protecting deities, Apollo, Artemis, and Athena, and the 
generals Polyarchus aud Eurydamus, when the Aetolians 
conquered the Gauls (280) 4 . A type of Aetolian coins struck 
after this date seems to have been copied from this figure ; 
whence it would appear that she was seated upon a pile of 
arms 5 . 

Lysander's oriental ostentation was doubtless to blame for 
the tone of his group dedicated after Aegospotami. There 
stood Zeus, Apollo, Artemis, Poseidon, and the Dioscuri, there 
stood Lysander and all his admirals, his pilot, and his priest ; 
and Poseidon was placing a crown on Lysander's head". 

The event itself might be more realistically presented. 
A group dedicated by the Tarentines at Olympia consisted of 
a number of horsemen and footmen, with King Opis coming 
to help the Peucetii; he is dying, and over him stand the 
heroes Taras aud Phalantheus, and a dolphin is near. It is 
inscribed as a tithe of the Peucetian spoils 7 . 

Attalus I added a group representing his Gallic victory 
to the great historic fights mentioned above 8 . 

Groups representing a man Phormis, a Maenalian, fighting 
with various foes were dedicated by a friend, Lycortas the 
Syracusan, in Olympia 9 . 

1 Paus. x. 9. 5 and Frazer, AM xiv. barians, but this was perhaps a super- 
15 40. ficial view (cp. Eidgeway, Early Age, 

2 Paus. i. 27. 4. 70). 

3 Thuc. i. 103, 108, 114. 5 P. Gardner, Types of Greek Coins, 

4 Paus. x. 15. 2, 16. 4, 6, 18. 7, 19. 4. pi. xii. 40 ; Head, Hist. Num., 283 f. 
The same principle may explain other 6 Plut. Lys. 18 ; Paus. x. 9. 7. Pede- 
mythological groups. Hercules fight- stals and inscrr. have been found, but 
ing Achelous, whom Ares helps, with are not yet publisht. 

Zeus and Deianira (Megar. Treas. 01., 7 Paus. x. 13. 10. 

Paus. vi. 19. 12). It is to be noted 8 Paus. i. 25. 2 ; above, p. 130. 

that the Sardinians sent a statue of 9 Pans. v. 27. 7. At Aegira was 

their eponym to Delphi (Paus. x. another group; a warrior who had 

17. 1). Pausanias calls them bar- died fighting bravely, his father in the 



WAR. 133 

Towards the end of the fifth century, reliefs began to be 
commonly used for dedication ; and a few of them suggest war. 
Some indeed are inscribed ; there is no doubt about the battle- 
scene dedicated by a cavalry commander at Eleusis, which 
belongs to the fifth century : horsemen are chasing and cutting 
down the enemy 1 . Others, though not inscribed, show warlike 
subjects : Victory and a trophy", warriors armed or wounded 
men 3 , or a ship 4 . Now a battle-scene on land seems to be 
represented 5 , now a sea-fight 6 . A Roman copy of a Greek ori- 
ginal has Victory holding a ship's taflfrail-ornament (a^aarov), 
and an armed warrior beside a pillar wreathed with a snake 7 . 
So perhaps the reliefs where Athena stands by a trophy of 
arms hung on a tree 8 ; or she stands armed, a Victory in her 
hand, between an armed and an unarmed man, the latter 
holding up one hand in the attitude of worship 9 . The warrior 
pouring a libation may represent the thank-offering after 
battle 10 . That the relief or picture was familiar in the fourth 
century we learn from the story of Charon, a Theban, who helpt 
Epaminondas and Pelopidas to free the country, and afterwards 
won the victory in a cavalry fight shortly before Leuctra (371). 
Androcydes of Cyzicus was just then at work on a relief or 
painting (iriva%) of some other battle, which when the revolu- 
tion took place was all but done. This had been preserved, and 
Menecleidas, being jealous of the two chief movers, persuaded 

attitude of mourning, three sisters Samoa Museum, no. 54, see AM xxv. 

doffing their trinkets in token of 174. 

mourning, and three brothers. Pau- 3 Sybel 6623, 6711. 

sanias (vii. 26. 9) does not say that it 4 Sybel 1379. 

stood in a temple, but " in a build- 5 Sybel 379. 

ing." 6 gybel 370. 

1 CIA iv. 1. 422", p. 184: ...j 'En-t- 7 A A ix. 171, restored from Louvre 
ffl\ov iirirapxr\<ra.s dv&t]KCv or the replica; Miiller-Wieseler, Denkm. der 
like. See AM xiv. 398, pi. xii. CIA ant. Kunst, i. pi. 14, 48. Other exx. 
iv. 1. p. 84, 373 63 reads Imrapx... in 0. Jahn, Arch. Beitr. 210. Furt- 
drr6 TWV iroXtptcov ? The relief of a wangler, Meisterwerke 202 2 , guesses 
horseman and prostrate foe, Sybel that the original may have been dedi- 
3140, may be a tombstone, like that cated by Nicias. 

of Dexileos. 8 Sybel 4239. 

2 Sybel 368. So on bases : Sybel 9 Schone 85. Victory appears to be 
6418 (5th century), 6743 Victory and holding out a wreath to the latter, 
trophy on a relief of Roman date in 10 F-W. 1197. 



134 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the people to add Charon's name to it, and to dedicate it in 
memory of the victory aforesaid 1 . In the Lamian war (323) 
Leosthenes the Athenian defeated the Lacedaemonians in 
Boeotia and at Thermopylae, and shut up the garrison in 
Lamia, where he fell ; a picture was put up in the joint 
temple of Athena and Zeus at Peiraeus, showing Leosthenes 
and his sons engaged in the fight'-. Olympiodorus, who raised 
the siege of Elatea (298), was honoured by a painting in Eleusis, 
perhaps votive 3 . Porus is said to have dedicated in some Indian 
temple bronze tablets portraying the feats of Alexander 4 . It 
will be remembered that Queen Matilda is supposed to have 
dedicated the famous tapestry in Bayeux cathedral after the 
conquest of England. 

A fragment of a war scene in bronze repousse was found at 
Dodona 5 , but I hesitate to place it here as it was probably part of 
the bronze case of some other object. Similar friezes at Olympia 
bear warriors fighting 6 . A war galley comes from Crete 7 . 

In Corinth, where painted pottery was made from an early 
day, the poor man seems to have had the means to make a 
dedication of this sort. At least, some of the sherds amongst 
the refuse of Poseidon's temple fall in place here quite naturally. 
There are pictures of Poseidon and Amphitrite, with other 
deities, common enough, although giving no clue to the occasion; 
but others represent Homeric combats, one of the motives as 
we have seen of the warriors' heroic precedents 8 . Others again 
bear armed warriors, or two or more men fighting 9 , or a battle- 
ship 10 . These date from the sixth century or earlier, and there 
is no reason to suppose that they were not matcht at other 
places, such as Athens, where such things could be made. 
Archaic reliefs of warriors, in terra-cotta, come from Praesus 
in Crete 11 , one leading a captive 12 . 

1 Plut. Pelopida* 25. 9 Antike Denkmiiler i. 8. 13, ii. 23. 

2 Pans. i. 3. 4. 14 6, 24. 24; Gaz. Arch. vi. 107 ; Jahrb. 

3 Paus. i. 26. 3 "to his memory." xii. 16 no. 521, 579, cp. 589, 593. 

4 Philostr. Apoll. ii. 9. 10 Jahrb. no. 621, 647, 650, 654. 

8 Carapanos, Dodone, xvii. 1. n AJA N.S. v. 390, 392, figs. 19, 25, 

6 Bronzen von Ol. xxxvii. 709. plate xii. 3. 

7 Above, p. 65, fig. 8. 12 AJA N.S. v. 390, 392, figs. 19, 25, 

8 Antike Denkmiiler i. 7. 15. plate xii. 4. 



WAR. 135 

The following I would also interpret as a representation of 
the event. After Salamis, the Aeginetans dedicated at Delphi 
a bronze mast with three golden stars upon it. I can only 
suppose that St Elmo's fire had been seen on the ships, and 
that it was thus commemorated as a good omen 1 . One of 
Ly sander's many offerings after Aegospotami was a pair of 
golden stars by him sent to Delphi, which may have had a 
similar origin 2 . Plutarch, who for a sceptical observer was 
singularly awake to portents, notes that these stars mysteriously 
disappeared before the battle of Leuctra. 

Further, the story of the Corinthian women should be ex- 
plained in the same way. It is said that when the Persians 
invaded Greece, the courtesans of Corinth went to Aphrodite's 
temple and prayed for the preservation of Greece. After the 
triumph the people dedicated a picture or a bronze group of the 
women in the same place, which we are to suppose was not a 
row of portraits, but the women in act of supplication 3 . 

We have seen in sundry of the groups described, how the 
victorious general stood in the high company of gods and 
heroes. The sentiment which caused him to be included is not 
quite simple, and as the ancients have not themselves analyzed 
it we should be rash to jump to conclusions. There was a 
desire, no doubt, to show honour; but this was certainly not the 
main motive, as it was in honorific statues of later days. 
Demosthenes 4 recognises the distinction quite clearly, when he 



1 Herod, viii. 122. He says nothing \f/avTwv, rds rare iroiriffa/jitva.* r\\v 

of the Dioscuri, but later writers of reiav, Kal vvrepov irapovaa.?, 

course identified the stars with them. r68f TO eirfypa/u/ta At5' virtp ' 

They do not explain why there were re Kal fvOvpdxuv voXnrrav faraOev 

three, or what the mast meant. As a eOxeffOai Kvirpidi 5a.ifj.ovlq.. ov yap 

fact, the stars are not known as sym- To&tpbpoiffiv e^aaro 81' 'A^poSirij Iltp- 

bols of the Dioscuri until much later. <rais 'E\\fywi> aicpdiroXiv vpod6fj.ev. 

' 2 Plut. Lys. 18. Plutarch interprets Plut. DC Herod. Malign. 39 says 

them as signifying the Dioscuri. It is bronze statues. 

true the Dioscuri were special patrons 4 Demosth. Aristoer. 686 tKeivoi 9e- 

of Sparta, but see last note. Lysander /utoroKX^a, rov rty iv 2a\afuvi vav- 

mnst have known of the older offering. fiaxio-v vtic/iffavra, /cat MiXnddijv rbv 

3 Theopompus and Timaeus ap. Ath. ^yofyifo" Mapaffuvi, KO.I TroXXoOs dXXouj, 

xiii. 573 . ..Si^aw5?;s, dva.di>TWv T&V Ko- OVK t<ra TOIS vvv ffTparrjyots dyaffa elp- 

pivffiuv TrivaKO, TTJ 0e<p, rbv fn Kal vvv yafffifrovs, ov xaX*coOj Iffraaav ovS' vtrtp- 

Sia^vovra, Kal rds frat'paj iSiq. ypa.- rfydiruv. OVK &pa rots eavrovs dyaObv n 



136 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

says that Miltiades and Themistocles did not expect the honour 
claimed by latter-day captains; no bronze portrait statues 
were set up to them. The victory was not the captain's but 
belonged to the Athenian people; and a memorial portrait would 
have been out of place. And yet Miltiades was one of that 
Marathonian group which stood at Delphi ; yet the figure was 
recognisable for the man. If then this figure is to be distin- 
guisht from an ordinary portrait, the distinction lies not in the 
form but in the motive of dedication. Perhaps we may regard 
him as partly the personification of the fighting force, the armed 
conflict being as it were summed up in its leader appropriately 
arrayed ; partly the intermediate instrument through which the 
god worked. The statue was a memorial, not an honour; just 
as the bronze ass, dedicated by the Ambraciots at Delphi, 
was to remind all men, how the god had used him as a humble 
instrument by his braying to reveal the ambush of their 
Molossian foes 1 . But the essence of the moving idea was 
exprest by the group, and the single statues had no meaning. 

If Miltiades then, and Tellias, Rhoeus and Daiphantes were 
to be seen in Delphi, the figures were not placed there as the 
portraits of great men. By the same principle we must judge of 
human statues when dedicated alone in the great age of Greece. 
Statues of Scyllis the renowned diver, and his daughter Hydra, 
who at the battle of Artemisium were said to have dived under 
the sea, and cut the Persian cables, sending their ships adrift 
to destruction, were dedicated in Delphi by the Amphictyons 2 . 



iroiovaiv x^P tv f^X ov 5 fftpbSpa. ye, 0> Avdpes TTJV /j.6pai> K 

'Afljjvcuoi, Kal direbidocrdv ye Kal avrwv vfpl Ndo' Ivlxa vavpaxiav Xa/ip/os. 

Kaxfivuv d'i.iav 6vrts yap TroXXoO irdvTes When Pausanias claimed the victory 

dioi, irpoOKpivov tKfivovs airrQiv jjyflaBai. of Plataea as his own, the Greeks 

Iffn 5t ffu><f>poffiv dv6punrott, Kal vpbs would not have it: below, p. 147. 

d\-f)0iat> f}ov\o/j.tvow ffKowfiv, TTO\{> fj.fi- l Paus. x. 18. 4. 

far Tt/xij TT;S x a ^ K W clK&vot ri> xaXuf 2 Paus. x. 19. 1. Ziemann, p. 16, 

Ka.ya.0uv dvBpuv KfKpiffffat irpurovs. speaks of a statue of Euchidas, who 

Kal ydp TOI -riav tpyuv ruv rbre ovSevbs ran to Delphi and back in one day for 

direffTtpyffaif tavrovs' oi)5' fffriv ovdeis the sacred fire, and fell dead on the 

&rm dv ftwoi TTJV tv ZaXa/xm va.vfj.a- spot, quoting Plutarch, Arist. 20. But 

xiav Qf(uffTOK\tovs, dXX' 'AOyvaluv, Plutarch says nothing of a statue, 

ovd( rr)t> Mapa6wi>t fj.dx"n" MiXrtdSoi;, only that they buried him (lOa^av) in 

dXXa r^j ir6Xwj. vvv dt woXXoi TOVTO the precinct of Artemis Eucleia. 



WAR. 137 

The only possible memorial of this deed in the round were the 
figures of the divers, characterised no doubt in some way as 
doers of the deed. The same is true of any man who might 
be thought to have done more than a single man could do ; 
and yet it is doubtful whether Greeks, with their keen sense 
of the fitting, would have done at that time what the Lydians 
did, in dedicating to Artemis a statue of one Adrastus, who 
fought against Xerxes as a volunteer in the Greek army, and 
fell fighting valiantly 1 . Arimnestus it is true, who led the 
Plataean men-at-arms at Marathon and Plataea, was to be seen 
in the temple of Athena at Plataea 2 , and he seems to have stood 
alone ; if he was dedicated alone, it would seem that the centre 
of interest was shifting already, and that the great change was 
begun which in the next century was to make these dedications 
morally worthless. Why the statue of Phormio was dedicated, 
whether for his feats in the Gulf or for something else, is not 
stated 3 . 

Apart from these I can find no evidence for the dedication 
of the victorious general alone in the fifth century. But once 
human statues were dedicated for whatever cause, the motive of 
compliment was bound to come in sooner or later ; and Lysander 
gives us the first distinct proof that the change had begun. 
When Poseidon is made to crown his figure in the memorial of 
Aegospotami, the human agent not the god becomes the centre 
of the composition. In the fourth century there are many 
statues of generals and other such on record. A portrait of 
Thrasybulus, soothsayer of the Mantiiieans when they fought 
against Agis, stood at Olympia 4 . Iphicrates was set up by his 
grateful country, but not until long after his celebrated feat of 
arms 5 . This distinguisht honour became cheap with Alexan- 
der, if (as seems likely) he dedicated the statues he had caused 
to be made of four and thirty Greeks who fell at the Granicus 
(334) 6 . About the year 300 we find the statue of a certain 

1 Pans. vii. 6. 6. Aristotle, Rhet. 13976; Paus. i. 24. 7 

2 Paus. ix. 4. 2. with Frazer's note, from whom I bor- 

3 Paus. i. 23. 10. row these references. 

4 Paus. vi. 2. 4. 6 Plut. Alexander 16; but the word 

5 372/1 : Dionys. Hal. De Lysia used is 
indicium 12 ; Demosth. Aristocr. 663 ; 



138 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Timagoras, who had commanded in a victorious sea-fight, 
dedicated at Astypalaea, nominally by Ares himself 1 . Olympio- 
dorus the Athenian, who raised the siege of Elatea when beset 
by Cassander (298), was honoured probably at this time by a 
bronze statue, which the Phocians dedicated at Delphi". There 
was also a statue of the same man on the Acropolis, and another 
in the Prytaneum, the former at least votive, dedicated no doubt 
after he had got rid of the Macedonian garrison in 288 s . The 
Phocian allies put up there also a statue of their own leader, 
Aleximachus, who in fighting against the invading Gauls 
(280) did all that valour could do, and fell 4 . In 207 Philopoe- 
men defeated and slew Machanidas, tyrant of Lacedaemon ; for 
which deed the Achaeans dedicated a bronze statue of him in 
Delphi*. In later days the dedication of a commander was a 
compliment for ordinary services, like that of an honorific 
crown". The base of a statue, dedicated by Hermolycus, son of 
Diitrephes, "as a firstfruit," has been found 7 ; this cannot com- 
memorate the wanton and horrible raid of Diitrephes mentioned 
by Thucydides 8 , but must belong to some other event. 

It is to be noted that none of the generals, not even 
Lysander, dedicates his own statue 9 ; that combination of vanity 
and impiety was reserved for creatures of Nero's kidney. It is 
not to be conceived, however, that they made no private 
acknowledgment of their victory or their deliverance; or that 
the private soldier, whose safety was not less momentous to 

1 IGA iii. 211 K&ff/j.ov "Apijs varpidi " Kp/j.6\i'Kos Aurpf'^oi'j aira.p\iiv . 
ffTTJ<re iv06.Se iraTSa IliSwvos Tiftaybpav KpecriXaj tirb-tjffev. CIA i. 402, but the 
videos va.vfj.axov Tiytfji&vci. editor of the Corpus gives reason for 

2 Paus. i. 26. 3. thinking it is not the same. 

3 Paus. i. 26. 3, 25. 2. 8 Thuc. vii. 29 ; Paus. i. 23. 3. He 

4 Paus. x. 23. 3. held a command in Thrace 411 B.C. 

5 Plut. Philopoemen 11. (see Frazer, on Paus. I.e.). 

8 IGI i. 41 Rhodes ffTparfvffdnevov 9 Paus. vi. 16. 5. But in later 

tv re rots d<t>pdKTois Kai rats Kara<f>pdK- days, Philonides, a quartermaster or 

rotj vavffl /tori ir6\ffjiov. Cf. 40, 42, ' stepper ' of Alexander the Great, 

43,56; and Demosth. quoted p. 135, seems to have dedicated his own statue 

note 4. It has been too readily assumed at Olympia. Hicks, Gr. Hist. Inscr. 

that the statue was that of Diitrephes ; 129 pacrtMws 'AXegdvSpov ^/xepoSpo/uas 

but it probably was that of the wounded neat flr)fj,a.TiffTi)t rip 'Aaiar JuXwviSijs 

man mentioned by Pliny, NH xxxiv. 74 Zurov K/>ijs Xtpffovaffiot dvt0i)Kt Ad 
Cresilas [fecit] vulneratum deficientem. 



WAR. 139 

himself than that of any captain who ever lived, should offer no 
thanks for this great event beyond a sacrifice at the altar. We 
do not know how far a private soldier felt bound to tithe his 
share of spoils which had been tithed in common ; but if he 
was grateful enough he would not stop to count obols 1 . The 
question now arises, What is the meaning of those figures of 
armed warriors so often found in ancient shrines: were they 
meant for the divinity, or for what ? 

We must first clear our minds of a misconception. The 
attributes of a Deity were not fixt by immutable laws; they 
express the conception in the worshipper's mind, which within 
certain limits might vary 2 . If the deity be conceived as 
a protector, he will naturally be armed, as the heroes are, 
now with spears, now swords, now in panoply as Aphrodite 
and Athena. Although Zeus is from early times armed with 
the thunderbolt 3 , yet he bears a helmet in Phrygia 4 and 
a battle-axe in Caria 5 , and there is no reason in the nature 
of things why he too should not have been represented 
in the panoply. If armed warrior figures, then, are dedicated 
to male deities, they may be meant for those deities. But 
the question takes a different turn when we see that such 
dedications are found in the shrines of female divinities, as 
of Athena and Aphrodite. Take this in conjunction with 
the rare figures in hunter costume 6 , and with those of athletes 7 , 
and it is clear that we may lawfully deny the warrior figures 
to be meant for the god. 

It does not follow, however, that they were meant as 
portraits of the worshipper 8 . The facts given in the last 
section go to show that for a worshipper to dedicate his 
portrait would be the height of arrogance. Moreover, one of 

1 After the 4th cent, at least sol- But the votive statuettes of this type 
diers' dedications are certain. CIA ii. in Dodona are not early. 

962 ol i7T7rs TTji 2a.\a/juvi. avtOeaav for 4 Overbeck, Kunstmyth. pi. i. 1. c. 

defeat of Pleistarchus ; 'E#. 'Apx- 1898, 5 Plut. Quaest. Gr. 45. 

16, no. 10 oi ffTpanwrai oi 'Adrjvaiuv in 6 Above, p. 78. 

wreath. 7 Below, pp. 1689. 

2 See on this point more fully in 8 I am indebted to Dr Waldstein for 
ch. xiv. a hint which brought these figures 

3 Bronzen von 01. vii. 45, viii. 44. into their proper place. 



140 



(JREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



these figures is dedicated by two men together. Neither can 
we fairly interpret them as a personification of the spirit of war, 
which, if not over-subtile, would at least fail to meet the case. 
We are supposing that the warrior wishes to commemorate his 
success in war as the act of his protecting deity ; and his 
artistic expression being unequal to the task, he embodies the 
idea of successful war in the concrete figure 
of an armed warrior in act to strike. These 
figures are then less and more than portraits: 
they attempt to express the act which divine 
protection has blest. 

The footman armed capapie is represented 
by a fine bronze statuette from Dodona, assigned 
to the year 600 or thereabouts 1 . Another, but 
lacking the cuirass, was found in the precinct 
of Apollo Ptoan 2 . Two warriors were unearthed 
in Olympia 3 , and one at Selinus in Laconia, 
armed in the panoply 4 : the last is dedicated 
to Apollo Meleatas 5 . Another represents a naked 
bearded man, the hand uplifted to hold some 
weapon, and is dedicated by two persons in 
common to Apollo Ismenian 6 . On the Acropolis 
of Athens were found several ancient figures of 
armed warriors 7 , and statuettes of warriors were in Cyprus 
dedicated to the Paphian goddess 8 , to Artemis 9 , to Apollo 
at Golgi 10 , and to deities unknown 11 . Besides these clearly 
characterised figures, others of rude make and probably older 
still were found at Olympia 12 , one in terra-cotta 13 ; others in the 




Fio.23.Warrior, 
from Olympia. 
Bronzen vii. 41. 



1 AZ 1882, pi. 1, Baumeister, Denk- 
miller, fig. 2091. 

2 BCH xi. 360, pi. ix. , and also pi. 
x. probably. 

3 Bronzen von 01. pi. xxv. a. 1, xxiii. 
2; xxvii. 3. vii. 41, 42. See fig. 23. 

4 ^3/iii. 14, pi. i. 

6 IGA 57; Collitz iii. 4525 Ka>iXoj(?) 
a.viOf)Kf rwi MaXedrat. 

6 IGS i. 2455 liruituv Macros run 
'Iff/jLfivlui avatar; Roberts, p. 214, no. 
202; AM i. 97, pi. v. Berlin Antiqua- 



rium, Bronze Case vm. A, T. 7100. 

7 Cat. ACT. Mus. Br. 741-5, cp. 748 
(? parts of some other object). 

8 Cat. Cypr. Mm. 5347. 

9 Cat. Cypr. Mus. 55412. 

10 Cesnola, Cyprus, 150. There were 
also rows of larger figures of the same 
sort. 

11 Cat. Cypr. Mus. 60015. 

12 Bronzen von 01. xv. 247, xvi. 242, 
243, etc. 

13 Bronzen von 01. xvii. 288. 



WAR. 141 

Idaean cave in Crete 1 , and in the shrine of Therapnae 2 . Armed 
riders are also known from the Temple of Athena in Calaurea 3 , 
and some of the Cyprian examples were mounted in chariots 4 . 
It is perhaps worth while suggesting the question whether some 
of the Olympian chariots may not have been war-offerings. 

The same principle will explain a series of votive statues 
found on the Acropolis of Athens, which belong to the time of 
the Peisistratids. These are the so-called " Persian horsemen," 
clad in oriental costume, with soft cap and hose fitting tight to 
the leg. It has been pointed out that the costume is as much 
Scythian as Persian, and that the style is too early for the 
Persian wars 5 . It is more likely that they have to do with the 
rule of Miltiades and his family in the Thracian Chersonese. 
The romantic story of the first Miltiades, a Greek Rajah Brooke, 
his victories over the savages, and his marriage with a Scythian 
girl, seems to have caused intense excitement in Athens ; 
Scythian caps became all the wear, and amongst other signs 
of the public interest we have the Miltiades plate, now at 
Oxford 6 , with a figure almost exactly like the Acropolis horse- 
men. The adventurers would naturally wear the dress of the 
natives, which was better suited than their own to the climate. 
The elder Miltiades we know commemorated one of his exploits 
by a dedication at Olympia 7 . Similarly these Horsemen may 
have been dedicated by some of the Scythian adventurers, 
perhaps in gratitude for a fortune gained in that flourishing 
colony. One base has been found with a fragmentary inscrip- 
tion 8 placed on the small end, showing that the sculpture 

1 Mus. It. ii. 731. but in pairs or in rows, both on foot 

2 Rev. Arch. xxx. 13; above, p. 15. and mounted, in relief or repouss6 or 
Warrior figures, apparently dedicated, silhouette. 

come from Etruria (Baumeister, pi. 3 AM xx. 315. 

Ixxxix.). One from Orvieto is in 4 Cat. Cypr. Mus. 6001 5. 

my own possession. Many warrior 5 Studniczka would assign them to 

statuettes have been found in Sardinia : a Marathonian trophy : Jahrb. vi. 239. 

Gaz. Arch. x. 177 ff. ; and others were 6 See W. Klein, Die gr. Vasen mil 

found in a large votive deposit at Lieblingsinschr. (Wien 1890), pi. 1. 

Este (Notizie, 1888, pi. vii. ff.). The 7 Paus. vi. 19. 6. 

interpretation suggested in the text is 8 npotc(?)Xei'5T?s crn'O^ice | rov Ato- 

confirmed by the fact, that at Este (cA^ous ra.6tjva.(.o.\.. 

were found warriors not merely alone 



142 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

upon it was something of the shape of a horse, not a group ; 
and in fact the base would fit the " Persian horseman 1 ." 
A similar dedication was made about 446 by a body of 
knights, who offered the statue of a horse or more probably 
a horseman out of the spoils 2 . 

A step further leads to personification of an abstract idea ; 
and one expression of it, the statue of Victory, was especially 
common as a war-dedication, and is never before the fourth 
century found dedicated alone for anything else 8 . 

Hiero sent a gold Victory to Delphi after the battle of 
Himera, and Gelo did the like 4 . Diodorus 5 relates that Hiero 
dedicated another for the Cumaean victory which has been 
already spoken of, but this may be the same statue. The most 
famous example of this class is the Victory of Paeonius, which 
was found at Olympia 6 . The Messenians themselves declared 
it to be a thank-offering for their part in the capture of 
Sphacteria (425), and that the name was omitted from fear 
of the Spartans 7 . Mr Frazer suggests that it may have been 
erected after the Peace of Nicias (421), so that it should refer 
to the general result of the first period of the war: in that 
case, however, fear of Sparta would hardly have caused the 
omission of the name. The Athenians took a great pride in the 
capture of Sphacteria, and we need not wonder at finding that 

1 See Winter, ArchahcheReiterbilder CIG 2069, 2073-4. 

von der Acropolis : Jahrbitch yiii. 135. 4 Athenaeus vi. p. 231, quotiiig 

These are the chief fragments (illus- Theopompus and Phanias. See below, 

trations of most are given) : pieces of p. 146 5 , for the discovery of the base, 

horses once part of a quadriga, Mu- B Diod. xi. 51. 

seum, nos. 575 580; pieces of a 'It is inscribed ~M.fffffa.vtoi teal Nou- 

horseman, no. 590 ; a horseman, no. wdKnoi &i>40ev Ail '0\v/jiiriut SeKarav airb 

1359; another, no. 700 (Collignon, run iro\efjdwv. Ilaiuvios tirolr)ffc MfK- 

Sculpt. Gr. p. 358); the "Persian Scuos, *al roKpurripia irotiav eirl rbv 

horseman," no. 606. va.bv M'/ca. 

2 CIA iv. 1, p. 184 ol hnrijs *.*& rCiv ' Paus. v. 26; Thuc. iv. 9, 32, 36, 
Tro\ffji.iwv lirirap\o6vTwv A.tuce8aifunflou 41. Pausanias would place it some 

Sevo^uWos Ylpo AI'IKIOS lirolrjaev thirty years earlier, when the Messe- 

'E\ev6tpffo Mupwcoj. nians of Naupactus sackt Oeniadae. 

3 But in later days a silver or gold Schubring, A Z xxxv. 59, recounts all 
Victory seems to have been offered possible victories, and supports Pylos. 
as a customary dedication to Apollo So Collitz iii. 4637. 

Prostates at Olbia, by the five strategi : 



WAR. 143 

they dedicated a bronze Victory on the Acropolis 1 . If the wing- 
less Victory, sent to Olympia by the Mantineans, was the work 
of Calamis, as Pausanias says, it cannot belong to this period, 
but otherwise it would be possible 2 . The magnificent Victory of 
Samothrace, now in the Louvre, was dedicated by Demetrius 
Poliorcetes for his victory of Salamis 3 : she stands poised on 
the prow of a great stone galley. Lysander commemorated his 
victories at Ephesus and Aegospotami by presenting two eagles 
with statues of Victory upon them to the temple of Athena 
the Worker at Sparta 4 . The ancient winged Victory by 
Archermus was dedicated in Delos by the Chians ; on what 
occasion is not specified ; probably, like all the rest, for a feat 
of war 5 . 

The Athenian temple lists frequently mention golden 
Victories 6 . There were in Pericles' time no less than ten of 
these, each weighing about two talents; and it would seem 
these should have been made at some time when Athens was 
at the zenith of her power. It is fanciful to suggest, perhaps, 
that they were part of the imperial tribute, preserved thus 
against any time of need, and their shape determined by 
that abiding sense of victory over the barbarian which the 
Delian League kept ever fresh. Certainly they were most of 
them melted down before the end of the war. One was melted 
in 407 7 , and at the beginning of the next century only two 
of the old ones remain, but a new one appears, perhaps, as 
is suggested, made out of the goods of the thirty Tyrants 8 . 
We have no hint of the occasion of these Victories ; but 
although Eutychides and Timodemus are mentioned as dedi- 
cators, it seems unlikely that they can be really private offer- 
ings. The official who had to do with their casting might 

1 Paus. iv. 36. 6. M^Xavos waTpwiov atrrv VCJIOVTCS. 

2 Paus. v. 26. 6. 6 These are treated in the paper, 

3 Revue Archeologique xxxix. pi. ii. Les Victoires en or de VAcropole, BCH 
* 'A0T)i>a "Eipy6.vri : Paus. iii. 17. 4. xii. 283 ff. They are mentioned in 

The epithet must be meant in a wide CIA i. 32 B, iv. p. 12, p. 63 : 435 B.C. 

sense as the accomplishes eiriffTdrai rotv viicaiv are spoken of. 

5 AMxiii. 149 MtKKid8t]s ToS* dfyaXMct 7 BCH xii. 288. Compare Demetrius, 

jcaXdv 7reTiv6v Hrfv^tv'Apxtpnov ffofyyi- Ilepl 'Ep/u.. 281. 

civ ' 'E*c7//36Xwi ai/r' oj>tQt\Ka.v ol Xtot, 8 BCH xii. 292. 



144 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

be said to dedicate them 1 . On the other hand, the small 
bronze Victories of the Acropolis- may well have been private ; 
and we are justified in counting them amongst dedications of 
war, for the reason given above. 

Another aspect of the event is personified in the great 
statue of Nemesis at Rhamnus, carved (if the common tale 
be true) out of the very block which the Persians had intended 
for a statue of Victory 3 . 

A third personification is the Lion. Heracles is said to 
have dedicated a stone lion which stood before the temple of 
Artemis Eucleia at Thebes, in commemoration of a victory over 
Orchomenus 4 . A stone lion was one of the statues found at 
Branchidae, which can hardly be but a war-tithe 8 . The 
Elateaus, when Cassander was driven away from their walls 
by timely help (298), sent a bronze lion to Delphi 6 . The lion, 
placed on a cliff, overlooking the place where the battle of 
Cnidus was fought, probably marks the tomb where slain 
heroes rest; like the great lion of Chaeronea, which still guards 
the bones of those whom Philip slew 7 , or that other in Ceos 
which covers unknown dead 8 . It would appear from these 
instances that the lion laid stress not so much on the victory, 
as the courage of brave men, whether victors or vanquished ; 
and the symbol has thus a pathos and nobility of its own, 
which sets it above the records of mere triumph and pride. 

There is more than personification, there is a complete 
allegory, in what the Athenians sent to Delphi after the Eury- 
medon (469) : a palm tree of bronze, with fruit upon it, a gilt 
Athena and a couple of owls being apparently percht on the 
branches 8 . This must surely imply that Athena and her 

1 As the rafj.iai did with the old TI^V rwi ' Air6\\ui><.. 
bronzes, Cat. Acr. Mm. Br. 428. 6 Paus. x. 187. 

2 AM xi. 373. 7 Paus. ix. 40. 10. 

3 Paus. i. 32. 2; Anth. App. Plan. 8 Bent, Cyclades, 453; 'E#. 'Apx- 
221, 222, 226, 263. 1898, col. 231, plate 14. 

4 Paus. ix. 17. 2. Paus. x. 15. 4; Plut. NIC. 13. 
6 Newton, Italia, m* 6 : rddyd\/j.ara There was a palm tree with frogs 

rdSe avtOeaav ol TlvQuvos muSes TOV and watersnakes at the foot, in the 
v, 0X77* Kal llaffiK\rjs Kal 'Hy/i- Corinthian treasury, but nothing is 
xal Atficioj Kal 'Ava^/Xews, SfKd- known of its origin : Plut. Pyth. Or. 



WAR. 145 

favourite cifcy were now possessors of the east and its riches. 
Plutarch notes that just before the Sicilian disaster, crows 
peckt off the fruit. So perhaps the horn of Amalthea, sent by 
Miltiades the elder to Olympia, after taking a city 1 . Pausanias 
explains on a like principle why the Corcyreans and the 
Eretrians sent to Olympia 2 , the Plataeans and the Carystians 
to Delphi 3 , each a bronze ox, after the Persian wars ; because, 
says he, they were now able to plow in peace. It would be more 
satisfactory to have the givers' word for it, but the thing is not 
impossible. The Council of the Areopagus dedicated a bronze 
bull on the Acropolis, which, if it belongs to the same period, 
may have a similar reference to stock-breeding 4 . But all five 
may be memorials of sacrifice. A distinct example of the 
sacrificial model is known as a war dedication. Orneae, having 
conquered Sicyon, in the heat of gratitude rashly vowed to 
institute in the god's honour a daily procession at Delphi, and 
to sacrifice such and such victims ; but this proving a burden 
upon them, they dedicated a bronze representation of the whole 
procession, victims and all, instead 5 . 

Tripods form a large class of war-dedications, and I have 
reserved them for this place because the motive of choice 
differs in different ages 6 . Originally they are dedicated for 
their value ; and this explains why in the first Messenian War 
(743 724), when the Messenians shut up in Ithome enquired 
of the Delphic oracle what they must do to prevail, the reply 
was, That whichever side should first dedicate a hundred tripods 
to Zeus of Ithome was to possess the Messenian land. The 
Messenians being too poor to make these of bronze in due 

399 F. Another in Delos : Ath. xi. * Paus. x. 16. 6. 

502 B "ZrjfjLos d' kv A^Xy avaKfiffdai <j>rj<ri 4 Paus. i. 24. 2; see AZ xviii. 

XO^KOVV (fioiviKa NaZiuv avdffijfM ical 37. It does not help us to know that 

Kapvuras <f>id\as \pv(ra,s. Hera was worshipt in both places, 

1 Paus. vi. 19. 6 Zijvi /*' S.ya\p.' avt- and that a cow or bull is seen on 
OrjKav 'QXv/jnriy tic Xepovfjffov re^os coins of Carystus (Head, HN 294, 
e\6vres 'Apdroir eirrjpx.e d MtXTtdfojj 302). 

ff<t>lv. 5 Paus. vi. 18. 5. 

2 Paus. v. 29. 7 : the base of one of 6 For the history of the tripod see 
them, and one ear, remain : Inschr. ch. xiv. 

von 01. 248 "Eperpirjs TUI A. 

K. 10 



146 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

form, proceeded to make images of them in wood; but mean- 
while Oebalus a Spartan, a man of no mark but shrewd 
enough, made him a hundred tripods of clay, and having by 
stratagem got within the walls of Ithome, set these up before 
the god at dead of night 1 . In this way the Spartans were 
victorious ; and at the close of the war they used part of the 
spoils to procure three tripods, each having a statue beneath it, 
of Aphrodite, Artemis, and the Maid, which they dedicated to 
Apollo of Amyclae 2 . 

But in course of time the tripod became a traditional form 
of dedication, which endured long after the bronze article ceased 
to circulate. The beauty of its shape no doubt helpt to keep 
the type in use ; but that tradition had more to do with it, is 
clear from the miniature mock tripods and kettles which were 
found in great numbers at Olympia, some cut out of thin foil, 
others in model 3 . But when they are made of gold the orna- 
mental side becomes important. Tripods of gold were sent to 
Delphi after Himera by Hiero and Gelo both 4 . An epigram by 
Simonides mentions the four brothers ; and as four tripod bases 
have been found together, two of which are those of Hiero 
and Gelo, it is likely that all four did dedicate tripods, and 
that the first two eclipst the more modest offerings of the 
others 5 . A tripod of Hiero's, sent to Delphi after the battle of 
Cumae (474), is also mentioned 6 . Most famous of all votive 
tripods, and perhaps of all dedications, was the golden tripod 

1 Paus. iv. 12. 9. spurious. See Freeman, Sicily, ii. 190, 

2 Paus. iv. 14. 2, with Frazer's note. 206 ; T. Homolle, cited in next note. 
Either date or artist's name is pro- 5 T. Homolle, Melanges Henri Weil, 
bably wrong. Pausanias may have 212, who discusses the whole question, 
mixt up the different Messenian wars. Inscrr. on the bases : (1) lYXuw 6 
For a statue beneath a tripod see Aeivo/ji^vtos dvldtjKf Tu>ir6XXow 2i/pa- 
Paus. i. 20. 1. 9<4<rtoj' TOV rpiiroSa ical TTJV V\.K.T\V tpyd- 

3 Bronzen von Ol. xxvii. 536, 540, ffo.ro Blui> AioSwpou wos MtXij<rios ; (2) 
etc. 'Idpwv 6 AavofwVos dvtOtjKf, with 

4 Schol. Pind. Pyth. i. 155 ^r/fj.1 firrd iu>a.l at end as part of the weight 
lYXow' 'Itpwva Ho\vi)\oi> Qpa.<rvfiov\ov, (fragm.). Schol. Pind. Pyth. i. 151 
TratSas Afivo/jdvovs, TOVS rpiiroSas Oepfvai, says Gelon offered three, tva. ^v Si' 
fidpfiapa j't/ojcrtu'Taj fOvrj, xroXXV Se ^avrdv, 5i/o 5 Sid rovs dde\<f>ovs : the 
irapa.ffXfii' ff^fJ-fJ-a-X " "EXXijffU' xp' ey discrepancy may be explained if we 
t\ev6eplriv. Anth. Pal. vi. 244, the suppose that Hiero's was independent, 
last two lines of which are probably 6 Diod. xi. 21. 



WAR. 147 

bought from the Persian spoils, and set up at Delphi after Plataea 
had been fought and won j . It stood on a bronze pedestal made 
of three snakes intertwining, and this seems to have been 
supported on a stone base which was found in the recent 
excavations. Pausanias had a couplet composed by Simonides, 
and engraved upon the base, as follows 2 : 

'}L\\r]v(0v apxyyos eirei arparov o>Xe<re MijBwv, 

Tlava-avias 4>o//3&> pvrjjjL aveQijtce roSe. 

The Amphictyonic Council, incensed at his arrogance in 
claiming the victory of Greece for his own deed, caused this 
inscription to be erased, and the following to be put in its place 3 : 

'EAAa6o9 evpw%6pov (rwrripes rovS" aveOijtcav 

8ov\va-vvrj<? crrvyepas pvcrdfjievoi TroXta?. 

At the same time they engraved on the writhing snakes the 
names of all those Greek states which had fought at Plataea or 
Salamis, thus changing the character of the monument which was 
originally a memorial of Plataea only 4 . The golden part of the 
monument 5 was carried off by the Phocians in the Sacred War; 
and the bronze column, which Pausanias saw on the spot, was 
taken by Constantine to his new city, where it still stands in the 
Hippodrome, broken and defaced. To the same period we 
may assign the marble group of Persians supporting a bronze 
tripod, which Pausanias saw in the Olympieum at Athens 6 . A 
remarkable group of tripods is associated with Plataea. We 
have seen how great importance the Greeks attached to this 
victory, and how yearly sacrifices were decreed in memory of it. 
Part of the ceremony may have been the dedication of a 
magnificent tripod ; but whether that be true of the fifth 
century or not, it appears that in the fourth and third centuries 
a board of seven magistrates was elected for the purpose of 

1 Herod, ix. 80 ; Paus. v. 23. 1, x. history of the monument. The heads 
13. 9 ; Diod. xi. 33 says SeKdrrj, Time. of the serpents were broken off by the 
i. 132. 2 axpoOivtov, Dem. Neaera 97 Turks, but one is in the Museum at 
dpiffTeiov rip ' Air6XXwt dv4driKav. See Constantinople. 

also Jahrb. i. 176. 5 Some think that the framework 

2 Thuc. i. 132 ; Anth. Pal. vi. 197. was of bronze : see Frazer on Pau- 

3 Diod. xi. 33. sanias, I.e. 

4 For list of states see IGA 70, 6 Paus. i. 18. 8 ; Ziemann, p. 17. 
where references are given for the 

102 



148 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

performing certain ceremonies 1 , at the end of which they dedi- 
cated a tripod. Three of these dedications have been found, 
dedicating the tripod to Zeus Eleutherios at Plataea 2 ; one 
at Thespiae to the Muses 8 ; seven at Acraephiae to Apollo 
Ptoan 4 ; one at Orchomenus to the Graces 8 . As the formula 
in each shows the dedication to be made in the name of the 
Boeotian community, we may perhaps fairly assume that the 
occasion was one, and that the place, and consequently the 
deity, varied for political reasons 6 . To assume further that 
the memory of Plataea was the occasion, is to go beyond the 
evidence; but in default of a better explanation I would 
suggest it. Three tripods are mentioned as dedicated by 
Phormio on some occasion unknown, perhaps for one of his 
victories 7 . Two bronze tripods were dedicated at Amyclae from 
the spoils of Aegospotami 8 . Some Knights of Thespiae, sent 
home in 330 by Alexander, dedicated a tripod to Zeus, the 
inscription of which is preserved in the Anthology 9 . Perhaps 
the Knights of Orchomenus, their companions, made the same 
offering to Zeus the Saviour, but it is not described 10 . 

One very artificial offering remains to be mentioned. Aris- 
tonous wrote a paean in commemoration of the repulse of the 
Gauls from Delphi, which was performed at the Soteria, a 
yearly festival of thanksgiving for the deliverance. This was 
engraved on a slab and set up in the Athenian treasury there, 
together with a list of honours decreed to the successful poet 11 . 
This dedication has wandered far from the simple piety or 
thankfulness of earlier use, and is a mere method of self- 
glorification. 

1 d<f>tSpiaTfVfiv t as interpreted by the iM\v()8u>oi>. Some adjective of metal, 
editor of the Corpus, W. Dittenberger. gold, silver, or bronze, must have been 

2 IGS i. 1672 4. added to the rpJiroSas in the original. 

3 IGS i. 1795. 8 Pans. iii. 18. 8. 

4 IGS i. 27234, 2724 a, b, c, d, e. 9 BCH iii. 457; Anth. Pal. vi. 344. 

6 IGS i. 3207. 10 BCH iii. 453 rol linr&s roi iv 
8 IGS i. 1672 BoiWToi Ad 'E\ev6fplui T&V 'Atrlav 0TpaTv<rdp.voi (3a.o-iX.ios 

rbv TpforoSa Kara ria> /j.avTftai> ru> 'A\cdv8pu ffrparayiovTOS QtoSwpu 

'Air6\Xwvos. ft\idpx<>vTOS, Ail 'Zwr-fjpi dvl6f<rav. 

7 Cratinns, frag. 456 Kock, quoted " BCH xvii. 561 ff. The slab has 
by Zonaras 1366 : bopfduv rpea tyy been found. 



IV. 

GAMES AND CONTESTS 1 . 

K&KOJN |-<*P ONTCON MypftON KA0' 'EAA<\A<\ 

oyAeN KAKION ecriN AGAHTtoN feNoyc. 

EURIPIDES, Frag. 282. 

ATHLETIC games, races, and contests of other kinds are 
found amongst the Greeks from very early times. In Homer 
a chariot-race is spoken of as the natural thing to celebrate the 
death of a warrior 2 . Hesiod visited the Games of Amphidamas 
in Chalcis, where many prizes were given, and himself won 
a tripod for victory in song 3 . In the historical period we find 
this competitive spirit exprest in the four great Games, which 
later sprouted into innumerable off-shoots 4 ; whilst many cities 
had their own special games, as Athens had the Panathenaea. 
It is not our purpose to discuss the history of these ceremonials, 
but merely to consider how they were commemorated by votive 
dedications. 

The prizes at these games were, according to the earliest 
records, articles of recognized value, but of many different 
kinds. Homer speaks of tripods, kettles, and slave-women as 
prizes 5 . Besides these, Pindar mentions vessels of gold 6 and 

1 In this chapter I have used Emil 4 See list of local Olympia in Smith's 

Keisch's Griechische Weihgeschenke Diet. Ant., s.v. These games, accord- 

(Abh. des Arch-Ep. Sem. der Univ. ing to legend, were originally sepul- 

Wien, viii.) : Wien 1890. I acknow- chral. 

ledge special obligations for the sec- 5 II. xxii. 162 4, xxiii. 264 ; cp. xi. 

tions on musical and dramatic con- 701; Hesiod, Shield, 312 (golden tripod). 

tests. s Find. Isthm. i. 18 ft T' at6\oi<ri 

II. xxii. 162 4. Qlyov irXtiffruv aydivuv, Kal Tpiir65effffu> 

3 Hes. Op. 654 7 fv9a (it tfnifu Sfivif ^K6fffj.r)<rai> d6/j.ot> Kal Xe/JiJre<rcrt (j>id\ai<rl 
viKr)<Tavra tfitpetv rpiiroS' 



150 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



silver 1 , articles of bronze 8 . Bronze tripods were given in the 
Games of Heracles at Thebes 8 ; a bronze shield at the Argive 
Heraea 4 , bronze articles in the Arcadian feast of Lycaean Zeus 8 , 
a kettle often 8 , a crater at the Games of Aeacus in Aegina 7 ; 
silver cups at the Heraclea of Marathon 8 ; a cloke or frieze 
jerkin at Pellene 9 . One of the oldest inscriptions of Troezen 
records the winning of a tripod at Thebes 10 . A prize kettle for 
the long race is commemorated by an epigram in the An- 
thology 11 . Apparently a cuirass was also given at Argos, if we 
may judge from a mutilated inscription 12 . At the Panathenaea 
the prize was so many jars of oil made from the sacred olives, 
which only victors were allowed to take out of the country". 
It will be rioted that at Athens, Pellene, and Argos the prize 
was an article of local make 14 . The others, whether of local 
make or not, were given for their own value, not for any hidden 
meaning supposed to be implied by them ; and the tripod must 



1 Find. Nem. ix. 51 dpyvp4ai<Ti...<pid- 
\aiff i... as iroff' frnroi KTri<rd/jiei>ai, etc.; 
x. 43 iKvui>66f 5' dpyvpwfftvTfs <rvv 



2 Find. Nem. x. 22 dyuv ^dX/ceos. 

3 Schol. Find. 01. vii. 152 tSidoro rots 
viK-fi<raffi. rplirovs x a ^ K v*' 

4 Schol. Find. Ol. vii. 152 xaX/o) 
dffirls Kai (TTe'i/xii'os e\- ftvpaivris. 

5 Schol. Find. 01. vii. 152 tricevtffi 
XaXKois. A bronze basin from Cumae 
is inscribed tiri rots 'QvofMurrov rov 
4>et5wXew d0Xois tOt6i)V. Roberts, no. 
174, Cat. Br. Mug. Bronzes 257. Bather 
interprets two Athenian inscriptions 
in the same sense: JHS xiii. 233. 

Schol. Find. Nem. x. 84 \t$irra....iv 
iroXXoij TWC dywvuv. 

7 Schol. Find. Ol. vii. 176 tcpa-Hip. 

8 Schol. Find. 01. xii. 155 dpyvpai 
<f>id\ai. 

Find. Nem. x. 44 IK di HeXXoKos 
iirifOffdfJievoi vGrrov /xaXaxalcrt Kp6Kais ; 
Schol. ad loc. riOerai 8t Trax^a i/mna 
iv MeXX^?; &yva<f>a. So Schol. Find. 
01. xiii. 155. Also called di<f>8(pa. 



10 BCH xvii. 85 on a column : 
r6Sf cra/xa <f>i\a ffpyaaa.ro 
' A\i<pi8d/J.a. 01) yap iraiSft 4vi neydpois 
tytvovro Kal rpliros &v 6^/3atr(rt deov 



iraiSi. This is of course an epitaph. 

11 Anth. Pal. xiii. 8 *K So\ix<>v r6t>5f 

tpvp^Xarov, (is Tdx*<- Kpar^ffas, vlot 



12 CIA iii. 116. 

13 Schol. Find. Nem. x. 64 riOfvrai 
yap 'AflT^cuj iv (irdOXov rd^ft vSpiai 
TT\r)p(is e'Xai'or, quoting Callimachus 
frag. 122 ai 70^ 'AO-rivalois irap' tirl 
ffrtyos Itpbv ijvTai Ka\iriSfS, ov xoff/j.ov 
ff^fji^oXov, dXXa TrdXT/j. On 57 he says 
dn<pupopev<Tt xaXxojj; but Pindar him- 
self yaia 8t xavOfiffa vvpi Kapirbs e'Xai'as 
...fv ayyediv epKeffiv irafjurotKiXois. CIA 
ii. 965 gives so many d/j.<j>oprjs fXalov 
as the prize for athletic events, a vdpla 
for the torch-race. For the fiopiai see 
Schol. Arist. Clouds 1005. 

14 Schol. Arist. Birds 1421 xXafrat 
8e dia<f>tpovffai Iv IleXXiJc?; ylvovrai. 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 151 

be included, for as we shall see below 1 , it is not confined to one 
deity or one occasion. It is in fact given for wrestling in the Iliad 3 , 
and appears on a Corinthian tablet between two men-at-arms 3 ; 
on vase-paintings it stands as the prize for chariot-races 4 and 
other races 5 , and for boxing and wrestling 6 . The tripod continued 
to be given as the traditional prize for the lyrical chorus at 
Athens 7 , long after its origin was forgotten. It was also given 
at the Panathenaea 8 . In the great games no prizes were given 
but the wreath of glory ; but in local games prizes of value con- 
tinued to be the rule. Money was given at the Salaminian boat- 
race 9 , weapons and other articles at Delos 10 ; at the Panathenaea 
a gold crown for the harpist, a hydria for the torch-racer, an ox 
for the pyrrhic chorus 11 ; at the Pythia a gold crown for the city 
which sent the finest sacrificial ox 12 ; fine arms and armour or 
golden crowns for soldiers' sports 13 : these are a few examples. 

We may divide the offerings in this chapter into three 
classes: (1) The Prize, (2) The Instrument, (3) Other Com- 
memorative Offerings. 

1. The Prize. 

On the same principle which suggested the consecration 
of war-spoils, the victor often made an offering of his prize. 
There is no trace of this custom in Homer, although one 
of the Delphic tripods was traditionally ascribed to Diomede, 
who should have won it at the funeral games of Patroclus 14 . 
Hesiod however brings back his prize from Chalcis and dedicates 

1 See chap. xiv. xvi. 550, pi. iii., vii. ; CIA iv. 2. 1305 6; 

2 II. xxiii. 702. cp. Gerhard, Auserles. Vasenb. iv. 17, 

3 Cor. Tablet, no. 697. pi. 247. 

4 Dipylon vase (Mon. delV Inst. ix. pi. 9 BCH xvi. 797 ; cp. CIG 2758. 
39. 2) ; Corinthian (ibid. x. pi. 4. 5) ; the 10 CIG 2360. 

Francois vase and elsewhere (Reisch). u CIA ii. 965. 

5 Vases : Berlin 1655, 1712 ; Ger- 12 Xen. Hell. iv. 4. 9. 

hard, Auserles. Vasenbilder iv. 17, 13 Xen. Hell. iii. 4. 8, iv. 2. 7. 

pi. 247, 256 (Reisch). 14 Phanias ap. Ath. vi. 232 c M 5e 

6 Amphora by Nicosthenes : Klein, rpiirodos, 6s T\ V eft TUIV eirl Jlarp6K\< l > 
Heistersig. 31 (Reisch). Bather in &0\wt> TcOfrruv x<& K *fa fy" rpiiroin, 
JHS xiii. 267 18 gives references to two Hv0ol 5' dva.Kfifj.ai aya\fn.a, ical p' ivl 
vases, chest of Cypselus, throne of T\a.Tpt>K\ip BTIKSV ?r65aj O>KI>J 'AxtXXei's. 
Apollo, and Hesiod, Shield, 302, 313. TvSeld^ 5' avtdtiice /SoV d-yatfos Aio- 

7 So at Delos : CIA ii. 814 32 , p. 279. n^Sri s vuchaas Iwiroicri irapi TC\O.TVV 

8 Base of Bryaxis. BCH xv. 369, 



152 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

it appropriately enough to the Muses of Helicon, where they first 
made him master of the singer's craft 1 . In the temple on 
Helicon Hesiod's reputed tripod was to be seen, and perhaps the 
obviously spurious epigram, preserved in the Anthology, was 
engraved upon it 2 . Others were there also, some of which may 
have been prizes 3 . In the first Pythian Games prizes appear 
to have been given; and a tripod (perhaps one of them) was 
dedicated to Heracles at Thebes by the Arcadian musician 
Echembrotus 4 . Of the sixth century, or earlier, is the Athenian 
dedication of a tripod won for tumbling or juggling 8 . A bronze 
kettle, of which a fragment was found on the Acropolis, appears 
to have been dedicated as a prize ; this comes probably from 
the sixth century 6 : and a tripod is named in another dedication 7 . 
From the fifth century we have a tripod dedicated at Dodona 
by a rhapsode Terpsicles 8 . Herodotus mentions a tripod at 
Thebes the offering of a victorious pugilist 9 . By Herodotus' day it 
was a matter of course with victors in the Triopia to offer their 
prize tripods to Apollo ; indeed they were not allowed to take 
them out of the precinct 10 . Many tripods have been found, 
whole and in fragments, at Athens, Delos, Delphi, Dodoua, 

1 Hes. Op. 654 IvOa S' tyw fir' ae0\a (JHS xiii. 129, 233) sees prizes in 
5at<j>poi>os 'AfJ.<j>i8jfj.avTos XaXxiSa T' several Acropolis fragments of bowls 
etffeirtpriffa.' ra 5t irpoirf(t>pa.8^va iroXXa or tripods. No. 62 TWV tir\ A.a.fj.ffiSa.1 
a6\' tdtaav iraiSes /ufyaXijropes Hv6a &9\<i>v...KO.Tt(>r)Kfi>. 646 liri 'Pax^iSai 
fd 0i7/u fywcj; vixriffaitTa <f>tpeu> rpiirod' TlvBluv /xe KaT^6TjKv...Aaj'(rei5oi/ "ZOevi- 
urdxvTO.. rov ptv tyu MoiVats 'EXtKw- Sat. Cp. Od. xxiv. 91 oT ejri ffol Kart- 
vtddfffff' dv^d-rjKa, (v6a /ue rb irpurov tfjj/ce 6ta. irepiKa\\f ae#Xa. We need 
\tyvprjs tirtpriaav aotSrjs. not suppose with Bather that these 

2 Anth. Pal. vii. 53. were placed on the Acropolis as de- 

3 Not however of the Musaea, where posits. 

the prizes were garlands : IGS 1735, 8 1GA 502 Ttp\f/iK\j)s T( Al Nafon 
etc.; Plut. Amatorim 1. pa\{/wi56s av46r)Ke; Carapanos, Dodone, 

4 Paus. x. 7. 6 inscr. ' Ex^Pporo^ p. 40, pi. xiii. 2. 

'Apicds tffijKe T$ 'Hpa.K\ei viK^ffas r6d' 9 Herod, v. 60 inscr. S/rotos vvy- 

dya\/j.a 'An<fnKrv6vuv ti> d^0Xois"EXX?j<n' p.ax.^v fj.e tKrifidXy 'A.ir6\\wi>i Pi/njeraj 

8' q.5<ijv fj^Xea KO.L eX^-yous. This would dv^0i)Ke retv ire/ji/caXXes AyaXfjui. 
be in the year 586. 10 Herod, i. 144 tv ybp r<p dyuvi rov 

6 CIA iv. 1.373 79 , p. 86: r6vSe $i\wv TpioTrtov 'Air6\\u>>os trlOfffav rb ird\ai 

&v{6r)Ktv ' AOyvaiai rpiiroSiffKov 0a.6fjLa.ffi rplTrodas x a ^ K ^ ovs Tolffi viKutffi' Kal roti- 

viKTrfffa^ ^j ir6\u> apfffiov. TOVS XP^ V T v* Xa/tt/3dvo'Taj K TOV Ipov 

6 Kar. iv. &$\6i> /x6....&v^Oi)Kfv. A"? tiafrtpeiv, dXX' avrov dvariOtvai rt? 

"' Kar. 236 ; CIA i. 493. Bather Oe$. 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 153 

Olympia, and elsewhere x ; but without inscriptions we cannot 
assign them to any particular occasion. 

The musical prize in Sparta was an iron object, part of the 
ceremonial headgear, and named crrXe77t9 from its likeness to 
the body-scraper 2 . There are dedications of these to Artemis 
Orthia, and one of them still remains fixt in the stone 3 . A strigil 
now in the British Museum was a prize 4 ; and many such are 
mentioned in the Athenian and Delian inventories 5 , which, like 
Xenophon's gold ones 6 , may have been the same. Bronze 
vessels, or other prizes, may have stood on certain bases with 
dedicatory inscriptions of torch-race runners, but there is 
nothing to prove it 7 . One of these bases has round holes, as 
if for torches ; and torches, or torch-holders, appear to have 
been dedicated as prizes, at least there is one such dedication 
to Hermes and Heracles from the second century after Christ 8 . 
In the third century B.C. Straton a flotist won a prize, which he 
dedicated in Thespiae 9 ; and a harpist appears to have dedicated 
his in Athens 10 . The Argive shield is modelled in relief as late as 
the age of Hadrian 11 . Other dedications of prizes are recorded, 
whose nature is not known. Such are the torch-racer's prize to 
Hermes and Heracles at Byzantium 12 , the harpist's to Apollo and 



1 See chap. xiv. NtKt'as ' 

8 So used in Sparta : Sosibius ap. 6 Above, note 2 . 

Ath. xv. 674 A ffVfj.^aivei...KaXdfj.ois 7 CIA ii. 1229 'Aica/uaVTls MKO. Xa/j.- 

ffT<f>avovff6ai fj trrXeyyidi. InAndania: irdSt Havaff-^vaia TO. /j.eyd\a (346/5), 

Collitz iii. 4689 13 . As prizes in an with round depression; cp. 1230, 1232, 

dyuv : Xen. Anab. i. 2. 10 rd 8t adXa 1233. 
Jfyav ffrXeyyiSes xP Vffa ^- See further 8 CIG 250 

Collitz iii. Nachwort p. 143. d#Xa TO. TTJS vlicris wpapios 'H/)aK\Wh]S 

3 Collitz iii. 4498 ...olNiKri<j>6povi>iKd- Xa/*7ra5as 'Ep/xei'at t)9)Ke /cat 'HpaK\fi. 
avrep Ka.aa'tipa.Tbpiv, pwav KCLI \wav For models of torches see chap. vm. 
'Aprtfjudi Btop^o dvt0T)Kav (temp. Marc. 9 IGS i. 1818 roibffS 1 e&v deipar' tic 
Aurel.) ; 4501 'Opdelij S&pov Aeovrei)? Mowrav tpt 'Zrpdrtav dywvos. 

dvedrjKe fioaybs fj.Cia.v viK-fjffas Kal rdd' 10 CIA iii. 112 viicas ' A\Kij3id5ov 

firadXa Xa^uv. ffTj(i-f)iov tvOdde Kf'i/j.ai, ffraffe dt p.' ov 

4 Cat. Bronzes Br. Mus. 326 rpia- /xoXiras a\\' dperas dfOXov. 

KO.TIUV ddXov. n CIA iii. 127 rrjv {% 'Apyovs dtnriSa. : 

5 See Indices. A TriXos dpyvpovs is mentioned, not dedicated. 

also mentioned in Delos: BCH vi. 12 Collitz iii. 3058 ore^aj'wtfeij rat 

33 38 , x. 465 115 , 465 113 ffrXtyyides eirt- Xa/j.irdSi. rwv avri^wv . . .rb a.8\ov 'Ep/j.ai 

TIJKTOI. /cat <7T^0a^os H 1 1 1 &ffraroi, as Kal ' Hpa/cXet. 



154 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the Muses in Cos 1 , and a third from some unknown contest in 
Aegae 1 . Even perishable wreaths may have been dedicated, as 
the Cretan A Icon did at the Isthmia 3 , the soldiers of Agesilaus 
did with theirs at their friendly contests in Ephesus 4 . In 
a Delian temple-inscription is a long list of articles handed 
on from archon to archon, and apparently votive offerings; 
all are goblets of the different kinds mentioned among the 
temple treasure: since a list of victors in the artistic contests 
is also given, it looks as though these might be prizes 6 . In 
the list for the year 364 we find irorijpia ^opela, ^laXtj vnco- 
8p6[ieio<;, and eleven silver goblets, which had been prizes in 
the horse-race 6 . 

We have seen that the panathenaic amphorae are mentioned 
as early as Pindar, who speaks of the " fruit of the olive in 
gaily bedeckt jars 7 ." These jars have been found in many 
places, a large number of them in Etruria, others in Cyrene, 
in the Crimea, and in various parts of Greece 8 . The oldest 
existing specimen bears the inscription, in archaic script, TWV 
'AOijvijBev X&Xwv dpi: the goddess, armed with helmet, shield, 
and spear, and clad in the embroidered peplus, stands turned to 
the left, brandishing the spear, and holding the shield so as 
to show the device upon it 9 . So far the form is stereotyped, 
except that between 336 and 313 the figure for reasons un- 
known is turned to the right 10 ; in most specimens a pillar or 
two pillars are drawn, with sometimes a cock upon them, or an 

1 Collitz iii. 3651 viKa.<ra.s...Ki6apiffiJ.C)i the last, <f>id\ai apyvpat A I, 50Xa, irepi- 
...rb TfOev a.0\ot> 'A7r6XXaw xal Mo&rats. y(v6nevat (K rijs iiriroSpofilas, does not 
Ancient dedications of Kiffapydol in imply that they were dedicated by the 
Athens : CIA i. 357, 372. victors. They may have been extra 

2 Bahn - Schuchhardt, Alterthiimer stock kept until next time. The 
von Aigai, 43 yuccas eWflijure rb axpo- phrases dn<popiffKos ir<mu'iot, Kparqp 
dtviov ? rpirip-irnKfa (466) may refer to shape. 

3 Simonides 158 (Bergk) Kpr)s"A\icuv * Page 150 18 . 

AidvfjLov Qoifty ffrtyo* 'IffOfj-i' t\wv irv. 8 Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 1151, 

4 Xen. Hell. iii. 4. 18 rods AXXovs gives references. I take from him the 
ffTparuirras iareffxtvufilvov^ dird TUV yvn- description of the vases. 

vaffiuv a.Tri6vTas Kal ava.TiOivTas roin 9 Baumeister, fig. 1346 ; Mon. dell' 

ffTe<pavovs Tg 'AprefilSt. Inst. x. pi. 21. 

8 BCH ix. 147 ff. di>t0i)K( occurs 10 The dates of later specimens are 

line 15. known by the archon's name. 

6 BCJI x. 462. But the wording of 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 155 

owl, a panther, a Victory, a figure of Athena herself 1 . On the 
reverse of the vase is another scene, generally agonistic. As 
fragments of these jars have been found on the Acropolis, it is 
natural to suppose the winners, who received a certain number 
of jars for each victory 2 , sometimes offered one to Athena. 
Perhaps they also dedicated the prize at home : at least, one 
victor in the Eleusinia offered something in Lesbos, and on the 
inscribed slab is carven an amphora and olive leaves 3 ; and 
a panathenaic amphora was found at Eleusis 4 . One such vase 
appears to be dedicated to Asclepius 8 . 

The golden crowns and the like, won in public contests, 
were sometimes consecrated. In the Panathenaea a crown was 
the reward of musical contests, which by Pericles were added to 
the list of events 6 . Xenophon relates how athletic and military 
competitions were held for the army of Agesilaus at Ephesus ; 
among the prizes were fine arms and golden crowns 7 . There are 
a large number of gold crowns in the Athenian inventories, 
but few can be identified 8 . In the Delian lists one donor is 
Xenophantus, whom Homolle identifies with the famous flotist 9 . 
There are some fifty gold crowns mentioned in the list 10 ; myrtle 
crowns are dedicated by the Delian girls as the prize of 
dancing 11 . One laurel crown bears the name of Nicias 12 . The 
state is also found dedicating a victor's crown 13 . Nero, who was 
nothing if not a mimic, dedicated in the Argive Heraeum a 



1 One of them shows a male figure 9 Homolle, Les archives de Vinten- 
holding a Victory ; interpreted by C. dance sacree. a Delos, p. 68 ; Plut. Dem. 
Torr as Lycurgus (Plut. X. Or. vii. 5, 53 eXXoyindraros avXrir^. He lived in 
iii. 4). See Rev. Arch. xxvi. 160. the early third century. 

2 The prizes vary from 8 to 60 jars : 1 BCH vi. 120. 

Mommsen, Heortologie, 141. u BCH vi. 29, line 5 a-T^JMvia xpvffS,, 

3 IGI Lesbos 132 viKacrcus 'EXeu- ded. to the Graces ; 30, line 7 ff. <rrt- 
crivia, dV5pas ffradiov. Cp. 133. <f>avos 6pv6s, Ki<r<rov, 56.<f>vi]s, fivpaivris, 

4 AM xvii. 126. p. 39 Aates. 

5 AM xxi. 294. 12 BCH xiv. 411 ffrtyavos XP* 

6 Mommsen, Heortologie, 151 ; Si- Nudou avdOrifw., with 42 leaves 9 berries, 
monides, frag. 155 (213) /cai UavaffTjvatois l3 CIA ii. 652, line 36: err^acos 0aXXoO 
0Te<f>cu>ovs Xa/3e irfrrt : CIA ii. 965. xP vff v*> & v "h ""<^'* da>0riKC TO, viKtjT^pia 

7 Xen. Hell. iv. 2. 7. TOV KiOap<?8ov, list of 398/7. Or can 

8 CIA i. 170 172. Many were this have been deposited against the 
honorific : see below, ch. vii. next contest ? 



156 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

golden crown and a purple robe; the first doubtless 1 a musical 
prize, the latter the dress he performed in 2 . So also he sent to 
Olympia a golden crown*. 

The most important series of prizes thus dedicated, are the 
tripods awarded for the best tribal chorus at the Dionysia and 
cyclic chorus at the Thargelia 4 . The origin of the form has 
been spoken of; here it remained as an honorific prize, its very 
type, its shape and size, the ornamental lion-claws and so forth, 
being traditional. In the vase paintings, it should be noted, 
there seems always to be a kettle too. This tripod is usually 
represented as being taller than a man 5 . Ever since the tribal 
competition was establisht by Cleisthenes the tripod seems to 
have been the only prize 8 ; there is clear evidence for the fifth 
century 7 and for the fourth 8 . Simonides mentions fifty-six 
tripods won by his choruses 9 . In the earlier part of the fourth 
century we find the usual victors' records of choregi 10 ; but as the 
city became poorer, the choregia had to be shared between two 
or more, whose names appear jointly as victors 11 . By the end of 
this century the burden appears to have grown too great for 
private citizens, and the state takes it over 12 , placing the celebra- 
tion in the hands of a public official, the Agonothet 13 . This 
reform is ascribed to Demetrius of Phalerum, who presided at 
the Dionysia in 309/8 14 . The records after this date are not full, 
but we find dedications in the second century 15 . Outside Attica 

1 As Eeisch suggests (p. 60). 10 CIA ii. 3. 1229 ff. ; inscrr. in 

2 Paus. ii. 17. 6. Delos BCH ix. 147 ; further list in D. 

3 Paus. v. 12. 8. and S. s.v. Chorepug. 

4 See especially Reisch, chap. iii. n CIA ii. 3. 1280 ff. There is an 
In antiquity Heliodorus wrote a work example of joint dedication before 404, 
irepl ruv 'AOrivrjcn rptirbduv (Suidas s.v. when Gnathis and Alexandrides com- 
TiMiov). memorated two victories, of a tragedy 

5 Beisch discusses the existing bases by Sophocles and a comedy by Aristo- 
75 ff. ; the vase evidence 68, 80 ; the phanes. The stone was found in 
reliefs 70. A pillar usually supported Eleusis. But this is clearly a dedica- 
them in the middle ; one remains, tion of a different sort. 

'Ae^vatov i. 170. 12 CIA ii. 3. 1289 6 5^/xos ^opiftei ; 

6 Hermes xx. 66. ff. 

7 Isaeus v. 41, cp. Xen. Hieron. 13 aywvoOtri]*, I.e. 

ix. 4. i< AM iii. 229 ff.; CIA ii. 3. 1289 

8 Demosth. Meid. 6. note. 

9 Anth. Pal. xiii. 28. 15 CIA ii. 3. 1298. 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 157 

we have no means of knowing how far the choregic customs 
prevailed ; but there are traces of such dedications at Eretria in 
Euboea 1 , at Orchomenus 2 , and elsewhere. The practice seems 
to have died out for a time, perhaps for lack of musical talent. 
After the Christian era the competition seems to have been 
artificially revived 3 . The Thargelian contest ceases to have 
importance as early as the fourth century. 

Originally the Dionysiac tripods were dedicated in the 
precinct of Dionysus 4 , and the Thargelian in the Pythium 5 . 
But when there was no longer room, or the choregus became 
more ambitious, they were set up in a street close by called 
after them The Tripods 6 . The state used to pay a thousand 
drachmae towards the cost 7 ; but the opportunity for magni- 
ficence or display was not neglected by the choregus, and thus 
the offering partook of both public and private character. They 
were placed on a plain basis, or on steps, or on a pillar 8 , like 
that of Aristocrates, which is still preserved. It seems pro- 
bable, as Reisch suggests, that the three-sided marble bases, 
with concave sides, some inscribed, some bearing Dionysiac 
reliefs, even tripods, were intended to carry votive tripods 9 . 
Nicias would seem to be the first who made the base of a 



1 AJA o.s., x. 335. 7 CIA ii. 814 a A 31 rplirodes viicf)- 

2 IGS i. 3210. njpta rots xP? s Ka ' T( ">i ipyeurufUfVt 

3 CIA iii. 68 b, 79, 82 c. Inscrr. on (375/4). Theoretically, the offering was 
bases : CIA i. 336, 337, iv. 1. 337 a, ii. therefore public ; but practically pri- 
1250 (B.C. 415), ii. 1281 (early 4th vate. This feeling is perhaps exprest 
cent.), 1240 (B.C. 344/3), 1249, 1258, by the change of formula from the 
1262. For the Thargelia : CIA i. 421, tribal name to the choregus', 6 dciva, 
422. Beisch adds reff. to Athen. ii. xop-rtyuv MKO. : cp. CIA ii. 553 (400 
37; Arg. to Dem. Or. xxi. p. 510, B.C.), 1234, and later. The choregus 
Schol. Aesch. Tim. 10 p. 255 Schulz. is victor in the Thargelia, CIA i. 422, 

4 Isaeus v. 41 jwij/ueia rrjs O.VTUV Aristocrates, whose offering is mention - 
dpeTrjs avfOetrav, TOVTO ptv iv Aiovfoov edinPlato,Gor<7is472A(below,p. 158 J ). 
rpliroSas, oOs xwyowres Kai viKuvres 8 See the vases figured in Reisch, pp. 
t\a.pov : of a man who died in 429. 68, 80. Three cylindrical bases from 
Cp. Anth. Pal. vi. 339. the Thargelia, p. 88. Reisch is in- 

5 Suidas s.v. HvOiov lepbv 'AwiXXw- clined to ascribe this to Delphic tradi- 
vos, ' A6-fivi]ffi,v virb Heiffiffrparov yeyot>6s, tion. The first certain evidence for 
efc 8 TOUS rpliroSas ^rlOeaav ol T KVK\i(f pillars under the Dionysiac tripod 
X<5py viK-fiffavTfs TO. Qapy/i\ia. comes from imperial times, p. 89. 

6 Paus. i. 20. 1, with Frazer's note. 9 Reisch, pp. 90, 92 note. 



158 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

tripod something more than a base. Plato alludes to the 
tripod of Nicias and his brothers in the Dionysium, and to 
the " beautiful offering" of Aristocrates 1 ; and the words of 
Plutarch 1 imply that those of Nicias were placed upon some 
kind of a shrine, on the gable top and ends perhaps. Whether 
or no Nicias may claim to be the inventor of the tripod shrine, 
the latter half of the fourth century saw a number of these 
erected in the Street of Tripods, of which the beautiful monu- 
ment of Lysicrates (335/4) still remains on the spot 3 . The 
tripod stood probably on the trefoil ornament, and the frieze, 
which represents scenes from the life of Dionysus, was doubtless 
taken from the prize poem. A similar monument, called the 
Lantern of Diogenes, is described by a traveller as standing in 
1669 4 . Another choregic inscription (of the year 323/2) is 
carved on a piece of a Doric epistyle 5 . The well-known monu- 
ment of Thrasyllus, who won a victory with the men's chorus in 
320/19, was placed against the Acropolis rock over the theatre, 
and there its remains are still" ; a second Nicias won with the 
boys' chorus in the same year, and built a little Doric shrine 
for his tripod above the Odeum 7 . The agonothetae probably 
continued the practice of the choregi, as we see from a similar 
inscription on the fragments of an Ionic architrave 8 , and there 
is evidence for similar buildings in the imperial age 9 . 

The tripods themselves were sometimes covered with silver, 

1 Plato, Gorg. 472 A : /j.aprvp^ffovffi 1675, quoted by Beisch : Laborde, 
trot, Idv fi.lv potXy, NiKlai o NiKT/paroi; Athenes, i. 219, 244, ii. 33. 

K<d ol a,Sf\<f>ol ner' abrov, ut> of rplirodes 8 CIA ii. 1245. 

ot <?<ei?s ^riDr^y elffiv iv T$ ^tovvffitf, 6 Dorpfeld in AM x. 227; CIA ii. 

ear 5i* /3cw\77, 'ApterTOKpaTTjj 6 Z/ceXX/oi/, 1247. His son Thrasycles won two 

oO <x& tffnv tv HvOlov TOVTO rb KO.\OV victories with choruses furnisht by the 

dvaOripa. state in 271/70, and commemorated 

2 Plut. Nic. 3 6 rots xopW " r pL- them on the same spot : CIA ii. 1292, 
iroaiv vvoKfinevos (v Aiovvffov pewj. 1293. 

3 Stuart and Revett, Antiquities of 7 Dorpfeld in AM ix. 219, with 
Athens, i. 32 ; C. von Liitzow, Ztschr. restoration, pi. vii. ; CIA. 

/. bild. Kunst, 1868, p. 233, 264 S. The 8 CIA ii. 1264, AM iii. 234 : but it 

inscription runs CIA ii. 1242 Av<ri- is doubtful. 

KpaTijs Kucvvvfi/s f\op^iyei, 'AKanavTls 9 CIA iii. 68 b : the tripod, or a 

iralSwv iviKa, Q4ut> riC\ti, AwrtaS^s memorial of it, is dedicated to Ascle- 

atos tSidaffxe, Evalvero* f/pxe- PIUS privately, and not in the year it 

Guillet, Athenes anc. et nouv., Paris was won. 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 159 

as that of Aeschraeus in the fourth century 1 ; and some of them 
had statues enclosed between the legs. The suggestion came 
doubtless from ornamenting the pillars, which as we have seen 
stood below the belly of the cauldron for support. 

Praxiteles placed his famous Satyr under one of the 
tripods in this street 8 . A Dionysus, with Victory by his 
side, made by the same artist and doubtless dedicated by him, 
is alluded to in the following lines 3 : 



e tcai rt<? Trporepwv 

lepd, KOI Nt/cr?* roidSe Swpa 
r}v Trdpe&pov Bpo/uon K\IVOI<> ev dyaxri re 

Tlpaj~ire\r)<; St<7<rot? eicraff VTTO rpiTrocrtv. 



Perhaps the group of Apollo and Artemis slaying the Niobids, 
seen by Pausanias, was there placed 4 . One Praxiteles placed 
statues of Victory under two tripods, probably for musical 
victories 5 . A similar tripod, with Dionysus beneath it, is 
mentioned in the Anthology as dedicated by Damomenes the 
choregus 6 . The practice is illustrated by a marble tripod found 
at Magnesia on the Maeander, which has Hermes between the 
legs 7 . A portion of what seems to be the marble base of a tripod 
is preserved in Madrid : it is three-sided, and there remain two 
graceful figures of dancing girls 8 . Three dancing figures of a 
similar type found at Delphi seem to have adorned a tripod base 9 . 

1 Harpocration s.v. Kararo/j.r] : <l>cX<5- mean "in the grotto"; it can hardly 
Xopos ev ZKT-TI oi/rws' Altrxpaios 'A.vayv- mean, as Reisch suggests, they were 
pd<rtoj <W0T//fe rbv virtp Otarpov rpl- ornamental work on the tripod, which 
iroda Karapyvpuxras, veviKriicws rf irpb- Pausanias expresses by ireipyaff/j,tvos. 
repov trei xop-riywi' iraiuL. Perhaps the scene was taken later by 

2 Paus. i. 20. 1. The interpretation Christians to mean devils attacking 
has been doubted, but seems to follow the Virgin, and hence the modern 
from a reasonable rendering of Pau- consecration of the grotto to Our Lady 
sanias. See for a discussion of pros of the Cave, Speleotiosa. 

and cons, Eeisch, pp. 111112. 5 CIA ii. 1298. 

3 CIA ii. (3) 1298. The dedicator 6 Anth. Pal. vi. 339. 

alludes to the work of Praxiteles as a 7 AM xix. 54. It is not of the 

thing known. choregic type. 3rd century. 

4 Paus. i. 21. 3 ffir-/i\ai6i> e<rriv... 8 AA viii. 76, 77. Attic, early fifth 
rpiwovs 5 ftrecTTt KO.I ro^ry > A7r6X\wj' century. 

8 4v avrtfi KO.I "Apreyous TOI)S TraiSds fiffiv 9 BCH xviii. 180. 

avaipovvres rovs Nto/Sr/s. But this may 



160 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

The model of a tripod in stone was dedicated at Tremithus 
in Cyprus, apparently by the winner 1 . 

2. The Instrument. 

As the victorious warrior might consecrate his own arms, so 
the athlete might do with the implement of his game. This 
class, like the corresponding class in the last chapter, is smaller 
than the preceding ; but there is evidence for it from either 
extreme of Greek history, which may throw light on the 
obscurity which lies between. At the same time, quite a num- 
ber of competitions are by their nature excluded. Singing 
choirs used nothing which would suggest an offering ; the pent- 
athlete had his quoit, his weights, his javelin, but the runner 
had nothing to show ; neither had the hoplite, who for obvious 
reasons must not run in his own armour 2 . It is in fact the 
contest of quoit-throwing, or putting the weight, which is most 
useful to us just at this point. 

In Olympia is a huge irregular stone, declaring by an 
inscription that Bybon threw it over his head with one hand 3 . 
We know that the stone was used in putting before quoits 
came in 4 ; and although this has no dedicatory inscription, the 
place of its finding implies that it stood in the holy place. We 
cannot feel quite certain about the quoit called of Iphitus, on 
which was engraven the formula of the sacred truce 5 . But a 
very ancient bronze quoit from Cephallenia is inscribed with 
words which leave no doubt 6 : 

Kovpoiv 



A thousand years later we find a quoit dedicated as a thank- 
offering by Publius Asclepiades in the year 241 of our era 7 . 

1 Collitz i. 122 Tfy4aX/toj...f' eXwv of strength; we read of one weigh- 
...6vt0rjKe 'Air6\uvi. ing 200 Ibs. (Games of Argyllshire, Folk- 

2 Paus. v. 12. 8. Lore Soc., 1900, p. 233). 

3 IGA 370 ; Koberts 167 : Erf/Suv 4 Paus. ii. 29. 9. 

T-tfrtprii xpi vvtp Ke<f>a\S.s u7rep^/3aXe rb 8 Paus. V. 20. 1 ; Hicks, Gr. Hist. 

ov<f>6pa (t). It measures 0'68 x 0-33 Inter. 1. 

x 0-29 m. Such stones used to be 6 IGS iii. 1. 649. 

kept by highland chieftains for trials ~ Inschr. von 01. 241 IIoTrX. \\a-K\rj- 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 



161 



Again, a victorious pentathlete of the sixth century dedicates 
at Athens a base with a flat circular depression, which may have 
held a quoit 1 . What more natural, then, than to assume that 
two quoits, engraved with scenes from the five events, either 
were votive or represented a votive type ? Both represent the 
jump and the javelin, which with the quoit were therefore the 
three events which the owner won. One is from Sicily, and is 
dated about 500 2 ; the other, found in a tomb in Aegina, belongs 




FIG. 24. Discus with representation of two events of the pentathlon, leaping 

and javelin-throwing. 
Cat. Brit. Mus. Bronzes 248. 

to the fifth century 3 . These, or such as these, may be models 
made for memorial or dedication. Several discs, not inscribed, 
were found at Olympia, which are most likely to be votive 4 . 
To the same class belongs the leaden jumping weight of 



3 Dar. and Sagl. s.v. Discus, figs. 
251,2462; Ann. d. Inst. 1832, pi. B; 
Friedrichs, Berl. Ant. Bilder, ii. 1273 ; 
Baumeister, Denkm. fig. 612; Schrei- 
ber, Atlas, xxii. 11. The beautiful 
quoit of the sixth century, bearing a 
dolphin, must have been made as a 
memorial of some sort : HavaO-qvaia, ii. 
31 ; Jahreshefte ii. pi. 1. 

4 Bronzen von 01. 179; AZ 1880, 
p. 63. 

11 



opivdios irtvraOXos e 
Atei 'OXi>MTtw OX. ffve ( = 01. 255). 
There is a mysterious legend on the 
other side which I have no concern 
with here. 

1 Ear. 13; CIA iv. i. 373 189 ...oj 



2 Cat. Brit. Mus. Bronzes 248, figs. ; 
Gaz. Arch. i. 131, pi. 35; Schreiber, 
Atlas, xxii. 15. See fig. 24. 

R. 



162 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Epaenetus, found at Eleusis 1 . There was a stone weight found 
at Olympia inscribed with a name, but without a dedication 8 . 
Two weights were found at Corinth, but without inscription*. 
I do not know whether we ought to call votive the stone flute 
found in Ithaca 4 . 

If Arcesilas IV of Gyrene, who won the Pythian race in 
466, did as it seems dedicate the car he drove in, this would 
be another example of the same principle 6 . Euagoras did 
so at Olympia 6 ; and perhaps we may take it that this was 
the earliest, as it is the most natural, custom. 

Trappings of horses have been found at Dodona 7 , Olympia 8 , 
and elsewhere, but to assign these to any special class would be 
guessing. 

But in the fifth century the victor in musical and scenic 
contests dedicated the trappings of his work. Lysias speaks of 
the dedication of stage trappings by the choregus 9 ; and an 
inscription of Teos mentions the masks and the crowns 10 . A 
fragment of Aristophanes 11 alludes to the "bogie-masks" hanging 
in the precinct of Dionysus ; and a number of reliefs from the 
Athenian theatre show tragic masks suspended in rows 12 . The 
masks appear to have been either hung on the walls, or placed 
on their own bases 13 . Such reliefs may have been themselves 
votive, just as a trophy might be made in permanent form of 
bronze; or they may simply reproduce the appearance of the 



1 CIA iv. 1. 422 4 d\6(j.evo3 vlxi^ffev <rtn> rrj TTJS VKevrjs dvaOtati irevT 
'Eiralvtros, ovvrica rwde dX.TTJp ____ ; 'E0. dpaxpds: 700 tiri 8t EvK\fiSov apxovros 
'A.px- 1883, 189 : sixth or seventh Kw^ySots xopVfvi' 'K.T)<}>iffo8wp<p tvixuv, 
century. Kal dt>ri\uffa avv rfj TT?S ffKevrjs dvaOfcti 

2 IGA 160 Kvudlas ; Bronzen von tKKalSetca /was. 

01. 1101. 10 Le Bas, As. Min. 92 : ra irp6ffwira 

3 'E0. 'Apx- 1883, 104, figs. xal rovs ffrttfidvovs. 

4 IGA 337; IGS iii. 1. 655 tap6s. " Arist. Geras, 131 Kock: rkav (f>pd- 
8 Find. Pyth. v. 32 KaW/cXcwe yap ffeif irov '<m rb J\IOVV<TIOI> ; oirov rb. 

d\\a Kp4fj.ara.t, fj.opfjiO\vKela trpoffKpt(j.dvvvTai. 

uv 5a/5a\' &ywv ia AZ xxiv. 170, Abb. 13; Reisch 

Kpiffdiov \6<j>ov &/j.i\f/ev, etc. 145, 146, figs. 13 and 14. 

8 Paus. vi. 10. 8. Pompeian wall-pain ting, Mus.Bor- 

7 Carapanos, Iii. ban. i. 1; Helbig 1460; Reisch 145; 

8 Bronzen 1102 ff. theatre ticket, Hon. d. Inst. viii. 52, 

9 Lysias, Dorod. v. 698 di>8pd<rt XO/MJ- 732. 
yZv efr Aioi>v<ria ivlicrjaa. Kal dvtjKwffa 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 163 

temple walls with real masks hanging upon them. The dedi- 
cation of the real mask comes first in point of development, 
although since this class of dedication does not appear 
until the practice of dedicating models had begun, there is 
nothing to show which kind, if either, comes first in time. 
A large number of model masks are preserved; Sybel notes 
about thirty of them in Athens 1 , and the practice will doubtless 
have been followed elsewhere. A fine tragic mask of terra- 
cotta, with holes for hanging, came from Thebes 2 . A disc, of 
the Roman period, made for hanging, bears on one side two 
Bacchic masks, and on the other a Satyr 3 . 

A few other examples may be mentioned. Athenaeus alludes 
to a Contest of Beauty which Cypselus founded in honour of 
Eleusinian Demeter, in which his own wife was the first victor 4 . 
In a poem of the Anthology a victorious maiden offers as 
trophies of such a contest a fawn-skin and a golden vase, together 
with her dress and trinkets, to Priapus 5 . A votary dedicates 
to Hermes the torch which he had used in the torch-race 6 ; 
Charmos offers to Poseidon his whip, curry-comb, and the other 
trappings of his horses after winning the Isthmian race 7 ; the 
trumpeter dedicates his trumpet 8 , and the actor his mask 9 . An 
oil-flask appears to be dedicated in a Boeotian inscription of the 
third century 10 . 

3. Other Commemorative Offerings. 

The most important offerings, however, connected with the 
Games are those which represent the act or process blest by the 
god. 

1 Sybel 3875, 3877, 38823, 3968, Coll. Castellani, 671. 
3978, all from the theatre; 1069 ff., 3 Cat. Berl. Sc. 1042. 

3256, 3467, 3531, 4095, 4107, 41412, 4 Ath. xiii. 609 P AT^T/H 'EXeimi'/p, 

4145, 4155, 4803, 5744, 6130 (2527), rjs ev ry eoprfj ical rov rov /cdXXovs dyuva 

6475, 6566, 6810, 7134; Keisch 146. iiriTeXtvai [Kv\j/f\oi>], KaivtKTJffanrp&rov 

The item from the Delian inventories avrov TTJI/ yvvaiKa'flpodLKirjv. 

(BCH ii. 325) irlva irptxrMira. ^" 5 A ^th. Pal. vi. 292. 

rpia cannot be taken of masks, as 6 Anth. Pal. vi. 100. 

Eeisch diffidently suggests ; irptxruirov 1 Anth. Pal. vi. 246 ; so 233. 

is used in the Inventories of 'persons' 8 Anth. Pal. vi. 350. 

(e.g. CIA ii. 83S 33 ), and the irlva was 9 Anth. Pal. vi. 311. 

a relief. 10 IGS i. 3091 tX-qoxplffriov. 

2 NowinMadrid:^l^lviii.95; another, 

112 



164 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

The athletic and equestrian contests gave good scope for 
those representations in modelling. The chariot with its team 
and driver, the race-horse and jockey, and the athlete with dis- 
tinguishing marks or attitudes were at once simple as con- 
ceptions and effective as memorials. An ideal element was 
often added to the chariot by placing a statue of Victory beside 
the driver. 

The earliest dedication of the chariot-model recorded by 
Pausanias is probably that of Cleosthenes the Epidamnian, 
victor in 516 1 . He and his driver stood in the car, and he went 
so far as to inscribe the names of the horses upon them. 
Gelo, despot of Gela and afterwards of Syracuse, won the 
race and dedicated a similar group in 488 8 . The chariot of 
Hiero, who succeeded him, was dedicated at Olympia by his 
son 3 ; and the remains of a magnificent monument found at 
Delphi testify to a Pythian victory for the same man. It is 
a bronze charioteer, with the wreath of victory on his head, and 
parts of the horses 4 . Others recorded are those of Cratisthenes 
the Cyrenian 8 , and of Cynisca, daughter of Archedamus of 
Sparta 6 . Cratisthenes was probably the first to place a Victory 
beside the driver 7 ; but in other cases appears a "maiden" 
who is probably meant for this personification 8 . Pliny mentions 
another, that of Tisicrates, by Piston 9 ; and probably the tirvrot 
%a\Kai of Cimon, said by Aelian to have been in Athens, were 
the memorial of a successful race 10 . Calamis, Aristides, and 
Euphranor, as well as Lysippus, Euthycrates, Pyromachus, 
Menogenes, and Aristodemus, made well-known chariot-groups, 



1 Paus. vi. 10. 7 inscr. KXeo<r0^i?s VAcad. des Inscr. xxiv. 186. A plate 
fj.' divtOijKev 6 H6vrios t 'Eiri8d/j.vov, of the charioteer in AA xi. 174. 
wfiffas iTTirots Ka,\bv dyuva Ai6s. Names 8 Paus. vi. 18. 1. 

of horses &olvi, K6pa, KvaKlas, 2d/j.os. 6 Paus. vi. 1. 6: 4th century. See 

2 Paus. vi. 9. 4 : part of the base is below, p. 165. 
believed to have been found : Inschr. 7 Paus. vi. 18. 1. 

von Olympia 143 ; IGA 359 ; and see 8 p a us. vi. 4. 10, 12. 6. 

Frazer's note on Pausanias I.e. 9 Plin. NH xxxiv. 89. 

3 Paus. vi. 12. 1, inscr. in viii. 10 Aelian, VH ix. 32. Cimon the 
42. 9. elder won three chariot-races, Hdt. vi. 

4 Dedicated by his brother Polyzalos: 103. His horses were buried near 
AJD N.S. ii. 440; Comptes Rendus de him. 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 



165 



some of which we may assume to have been votive. Quite late, 
the chariot of Lampus of Philippi in Macedon is mentioned 1 . 

These models we may assume to have been full size, but 
others were small. That Glaucon the Athenian's chariot was 
small is proved by its base, which has been found 2 . Cynisca 
also placed a small chariot in the ante-chapel at Olympia 3 , and 
the car of Polypeithes the Laconian was " not large 4 ." What 
may be the wheel of one such model was found, it is said, in 
Argos, and it is dedicated to the Dioscuri 8 . Fragments of 
chariots and drivers were found at Athens 6 . A number of 
smaller models in bronze and 
terra-cotta were found at Olympia 7 , 
so many indeed, and such trifles, 
as to suggest a doubt whether they 
can be meant for this great event. 
Can it be that such things were 
offered beforehand with the pro- 
pitiatory sacrifice ? I know of no 
evidence for this, however. A 
number of wheels were found which 
had no chariots belonging to them ; 
they are cut out of thin foil 8 , or 
cast 9 , most being of the four-spoke 
type, but two, the wheels of the 
mule-car 10 , with five spokes. All are 
older than the traditional founding 
of the Games. It may be that 
some are the bases of animal 
figures 11 , but this will not help with the rest. Reisch believes 




FIG. 25. Charioteer, from 

Olympia. 
Bronzen xv. 249. 



1 Paus. vi. 4. 10. 

2 Paus. vi. 16. 9, Inschr. von 01. 
178 Ad 'OXi>(iiri T\O.VKWV 'Ereo/cX^- 
ovs 'AOyvalos. 

3 Paus. v. 12. 5; Collitz iii. 4418; 
she claims that she was the only Greek 
woman to win the chariot-race. 

4 Paus. vi. 16. 6. 

5 IGA 43 a rol(v) fav6.Koi(v) elfd. EtfS 
. . s dv^6r)Ke. But see chap. xiv. 



6 Cat. Acr. Mus. Bronzes 753. 

7 Bronzen von 01. xv. 24850, 253, 
etc.; p. 40. Terra-cotta, xvii. 285. 
See fig. 25. 

8 Bronzen 498 ff. 

9 Bronzen 503 ff . 



10 Bronzen 510. 
with the mule-car 



There were races 
air-tivrj between 01. 



70 and 84 : Paus. v. 9. 1. 
11 Bronzen 509. 



166 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



that they were dedicated for the whole car by a convention, 
and so explains also the Argive wheel mentioned above 1 . If 
the Greeks could have dedicated a wheel for a chariot, they 
could have dedicated the leg of a tripod for the whole ; and 
there is no evidence whatever that they ever made such an 
artistic blunder. They might restore Heracles from a foot, 
but they would hardly offer a foot for Heracles. I shall offer 
another explanation of these wheels by and by 2 . 

Turning to the horse-race, we find figures of jockeys on 
horseback placed on either side of Hiero's chariot 3 . We learn 
that Canachus, Hegias, and Calamis made such groups 4 . 
Crocon the Eretrian was another 
who dedicated his horse 6 , and al- 
though no jockey is mentioned 
he would be necessary to express 
the idea we have seen in these 
groups. There is one example of 
the animal dedicated alone, but 
then there was a reason for it. 
At the outset of this race the 
jockey who was riding Pheidolas's 
mare fell off, yet the mare ran on 

and came in first; so Pheidolas was adjudged victor, and was 
allowed to dedicate his mare alone 6 . But the animal is singled 
out for special honour in another Olympian victory of the sons 
of Pheidolas 7 . Other victorious jockeys are thus represented ; as 
Aesypus who rode for his father Timon 8 . These statues might 
also be dedicated at home ; the base of Onatas on the Athenian 
Acropolis seems to have borne some such group 9 . Whether the 
equestrian statue of Isocrates was dedicated for a race, or for 




FIG. 26. Rider, from Olympia. 
Bronzen xv. 255. 



1 Reisch p. 61; accepted by Furt- 
wangler, Bronzen, p. 68. 
9 Chap. xiv. 

3 Paus. vi. 12. 1. Pliny, NH xxxiv. 
5. 19 says sed illi celetas tantum dica- 
bant in sacris victores, postea vero et 
qui bigis vel quadrigis vicissent. Cp. 
Pind. 01. i. 

4 Pliny, NH xxiv. 19, 75, 78. 



6 Paus. vi. 14. 4. 

6 Paus. vi. 13. 9: about 500. She 
was named A0/xt. 



7 Paus. vi. 13. 10 

.ira.1-, 5t/o 5' 
vaidwv tffTf<t>a.vdi 

8 Paus. vi. 2. 8. 

9 CIA iv. 1. 37399, 
p. 146. 



AI//COS 



So.uocs. 



. 'A.p X . 1887, 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 167 

some athletic contest, is not stated : but there it stood on the 
Acropolis of Athens 1 . Statuettes of riders were found at 
Delos 2 and Olympia 3 , one at Dodona on a galloper 4 , a galloping 
and a walking or trotting horseman at Athens 5 , an archaic 
jockey in Argos 6 , a youth in the attitude of riding at 
Megara Hyblaea 7 . Horses alone are quite common as votive 
offerings, as has been pointed out : in the Cabirium there were 
riders also 8 . 

When we come to the statues of athletes, we are met by 
a very puzzling question. The athlete, we are told, was 
allowed to dedicate a statue of himself for each victory; the 
girl runners at the Heraea, pictures of themselves painted 9 . 
The question is, whether these were really votive offerings, or 
nothing but an honour done to the winner. 

Now Pausanias says distinctly that whilst all the objects on 
the Athenian Acropolis were votive, statues included, the athlete 
statues at Olympia were not; but that, as a kind of prize, the right 
of dedicating them was given 10 . Since in the time of Pausanias 
dvariOevai and dvd0r)fj,a were used of honorific statues, it 
is likely that he got this distinction from an earlier writer". 
It is true also that the inscriptions on many of these 
statues are not dedicatory 12 , that the right to erect one was 



1 Plut. X. Or., Isocrates, 42. rrj ' ' M^v-gym o't re dvSptavTes Kal 

2 AZ xl. 328 61 . &\\a, TO. irdvra effTiv 6/uo/ws ava.OrifjLa.Ta.' 

3 Bronzen von 01. xv. 255, xvi. 258. ev 5t r-g "A\rei TO. fj.ev Tififj rrj ts r6 
See fig. 26. Oeiov avaKfirai, ol 8 avdpiavTes r<av 

4 Carapanos, 183, pi. xiii. 1, 3: VIKWVTWV ev 6.6\ov \6yu ff<j>i<ri. Kal OVTOI 
other fragments xi. 3, xii. 2. The diSovrai. Furtwangler (AM v. 29 ff.) 
same attitude as in old Attic tombs, and Curtius (Inschr. von Ol. p. 235) 
where the dead man's feats were repre- agree with this view. Beisch p. 35 
sented : AM iv. 36, pi. ii. regards all as votive, because they 

5 Cat. ACT. Mus. Bronzes 751, 752. stood in the precinct. This misses the 
Also Sybel in AM v. 286. point which I have tried to bring out 

6 Catalogue, no. 3. in the text, that the motive was 

7 Mon. Ant. i. 932 115 . changing. Moreover, a thing might 

8 AM xv. 357. belong to the god and yet not be a 

9 Paus. v. 16. 3 dvaOeivai ff<j>i<rii> e"<TTi votive offering. 
ypaif/afdvau eiKovas. This does not u Frazer, ad loc. 

mean " statues of themselves with their 12 E.g. Inschr. von 01. 146 Ka\X/as 

names inscribed," as Frazer trans- AiSvuiov 'A0r/va?os ira.yKpa.Tiov 

lates, but something painted. ivoiijfffv 'A^aios. 

10 Paus. v. 21. 1 ev axpoiroXei pen yap 



168 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

held to be a high honour, and that this fact is sometimes 
stated or implied in the legend 1 . On the other hand, we have 
seen that it was a recognised principle to make the votive 
offering a representation of the event ; and this could be done 
for athletes by showing them in some characteristic attitude or 
holding characteristic attributes. There is therefore nothing 
in the nature of things to prevent the athlete dedicating in 
the true sense such a figure of himself. Further, some of the 
athlete statues have true dedicatory inscriptions; and the 
chariot groups are admitted to be truly 'votive*. 

The truth seems to be, then, that some athlete statues 
were votive and some were not. Here in fact is the earliest 
beginning of that change which is completed in the fourth 
century, by which the votive offering becomes chiefly a means 
of self-glorification. Why the change should begin here is easy 
to see. Victors in the chariot-race did not owe their victory 
to themselves alone 8 ; horses, car, and driver had a share in it, 
and the group was distinct from the owner: but the athlete 
stood alone, and in his case to represent the deed in doing was 
to represent the man. The inevitable result was that pride 
swallowed up piety, and in the fifth century or even earlier 
the athlete's statue became a memorial of a personal honour. 

I take it then, that originally the Olympian athlete statues 
were as truly votive as the chariot groups or race-horse and 
rider, and as truly as athlete statues continued to be votive 
which the victor dedicated at home. Pliny gives a hint in the 
same direction, when he implies that they were generally 
not realistic portraits*. But those actually recorded must be 
divided into two distinct classes, those which are votive being 

1 As by Euthymus : below, p. 169. viK-^cras 8t Kal diropuv xputn'ov, Kurd riva. 

2 Inschr. von Ol. p. 239. eoprijv tirfxupiov K(Kofffj.r)p.tvas ISuv rctj 

3 Yet two chariot-victors, Timon ywaiKcu, wdvra. a^eJXero rbv Koapov, 
and Telemachus, seem to have dedi- Kal fire^e rt> dvd6ri/j.a. Perhaps it was 
cated their own statues alone: per- in the car. 

haps the effect of the athletes (Paus. 4 Pliny, NH xxxiv. 4. 16 omnium 

vi. 2. 8, 13. 11). Diogenes Laertius qui vicissent statuas dicari mos erat, 

i. 7. 3 says that Periander offered a eorum vero qui ter ibi superavissent, 

golden statue of himself: "E<popos Iff TO- ex membris ipsorum similitudine ex- 

pei wj eCatTo, el vucfiatitv '0\vfjLina pressa. 
Tt6plirir<f, xpuaovv dvSpidvra dvadelvai. 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 



169 



inscribed to that effect. If the dedicator was content to 
describe his statue as a votive offering, I am content to 
take him at his word, without assuming that he would say 
what he did not" mean, because like a fourth-form schoolboy 
he wanted to make his verses scan 1 . 

One of the few that remained truly thankful for his mercies 
was Euthyrnus the boxer, who won his third Olympic victory in 
472 Z . He is however not unmindful of his own pride, but 
another boxer Damarchus is more modest 3 . The same formula 
is used of Tellon in the fifth century 4 , and of Milo the wrestler 5 . 
These are the mainstays of my argument; but I may add 
Cyniscus 6 from the early fourth century, after which no others 
demonstrably 7 use the formula until the first century 8 , when 
the practice becomes general 9 . 

If the principle of dedication which I have adopted is 
correct, the dedicatory statues must have been intelligible to 



1 As Curtius in the Inschr. von 01. 
p. 239. He overlooks no. 213, which 
is in prose. So Furtwangler, AM v. 30. 

It is hardly possible to argue that the 
word avt6-riKev was losing its force thus 
early, because (1) athletic statues were 
actually dedicated at home, and (2) the 
word has full force elsewhere for an- 
other century or more, whilst Lysander 
has already given a sign that the motive 
of dedications was to change (above, 
p. 132). 

2 Inschr. 144; IGA 388 E06v/j.os Ao- 
Kpbs 'A<TTVK\eos rpls 'OXv//7ri' V'LK<I)V, el- 
Kova d' tffTri<Tev Tr/vSe /Sporots fcropav. 
E00v/ios AoKpbs a.irb Ze<pvplov av^O-r/Ke. 
Paus. vi. 6. 6. The dedication, it will 
be observed, is in prose. I do not 
think that even the fourth-form boy 
would believe the last line to be a 
hexameter. 

3 Paus. vi. 8. 2 uids Aivvvra Act/oiapxos 
ravd' av46riKev elKov' O.TT' 'A/caStas Hap- 
patriot yevedv. 

4 Paus. vi. 2. 9, IGA 98; Inschr. 
147 : the dedication is in later letters, 
but the whole inscr. has been recut 



and part of the older remains. 

5 Paus. vi. 14. 5; Inschr. 264; IGA 
589 MCXwv AiOTt/iou dvWriKev. Curtius 
and Adler deny the restoration because 
it contradicts their canon about prose ; 
there is no other reason. They ought 
to have heard of Dawes. For Milo see 
Simonides 156. 

6 Inschr. 149; IGA p. 175; Paus. vi. 
4. 11. 

7 Other examples of avtOrjicev are 
IGA 563 (stadium), and 355 (cp. Paus. 
vi. 10. 9 ?) ; but the object is obscure. 

8 Inschr. 213. 

9 Furtwangler, AM v. 30 note, cites 
the following (for which see the place, 
and the Index to Pausanias) : early 
4th cent. Aristion, Critodamus, Da- 
moxenidas, Eucles, Pythocles, Xeno- 
cles; later 4th Troilus, Telemachus; 
3rd Philippus, Archippus; 2nd Acestori- 
des, Hellenicus. None of these use 
the votive formula. Telemachus won 
in the chariot-race; Troilus acknow- 
ledges the help of Zeus (Inschr. 166) ; 
the others are bald descriptions for the 
most part. 



170 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the chance beholder. And in fact so were those which are 
minutely described. Damaretus, the first victor in the hoplite 
race, was armed with shield, helmet, and greaves 1 . Glaucus 
was in the attitude of sparring 2 ; Diagoras had the left hand 
guarding the mark, the right uplifted 3 . The base of Athenaeus 
the boxer shows that he was in the act of striking 4 . The 
knuckle-dusters or thongs of cow-hide bound on the hand 
(//zai/res) also served to make out the boxer, as in the case 
of Arcesilaus 8 . Tisicrates the pancratiast was represented as 
boxing 6 . The wrestler Xenocles was apparently poised as about 
to grip 7 . Other motives are possible: as the luctator anhelans 
of Nauceros. The leaper, or pancratiast, might hold the leaping- 
weights 8 ; the discobolus holds or hurls his quoit, the doryphorus 
his spear. The racer might be crouching down to prepare for 
the start 9 . More general attributes would be the hand upheld 
in prayer for victory, the oil-flask 10 , the wreath 11 , and the palm 
of victory 18 . 

It would serve no purpose here to enumerate the statues 
we know of, from the wooden figures of Praxidamas and 
Rhexibius down to the age of Hadrian 13 ; for without inscrip- 
tions we have no clue to guide us as to the motives of the 
dedicator. But it is fair to assume that statues in the attitude 
of adoration were really votive. In this attitude were Anaxan- 

1 Paus. vi. 10. 4 (65th 01.). Helmet athlete statues; now in Ath. Mus. 
and greaves were afterwards discarded See YlavaO-^vaia, vol. ii. plates. 

for this race. 8 Paus. v. 27. 2 (part of spoil, yet 

2 Paus.vi. 10.3 ffx^d' ffKiafjMx ""' 1 ' ^'- an athlete statue originally). 

early 5th cent. 9 So apparently Ladas, Anth. Pal. 

3 Schol. Find. Ol. vii. p. 157 Bockh. xvi. 54; and the running maiden of the 

4 Paus. vi. 4. 1; Imchr. 168: 4th Vatican. 

cent. 1( > Keisch 46 : he would add Apoxyo- 

6 Paus. vi. 7. 1; Schol. Pind. I.e. meni. Cp. F.-W. 462 f.; Pliny, NH 

The battered ears of the Olympian xxxiv. 76 pueri destringentes se; 34, 

head are due to realism and have no 86, 87 perixyomeni. 

value here. 11 F.-W. 325 (the Olympian bronze 

6 Lowy, Imchr. der gr. Bildhauer, head). 

12 - 12 Sybel 411; Pliny, NH xxxv. 75; 

7 Paus. vi. 9. 2; Inschr. 164; Ergeb- C p. 63, 71, 106, 130, 138. 

nisse, Tafelband, ii. 150. Part of what w Paus. vi. 18. 7 ; Pind. Nem. vi. 15. 
seems to be a group of wrestlers was It was always placed in the victor's 
dredged up in the sea at Cythera, with hand, Paus. viii. 48. 2. 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 171 

drus, victor in the chariot-race 1 , and Diagoras and Acusilaus 
the boxers 2 . There is a bronze boy in Berlin, holding up 
one hand in prayer, and with the other holding a leaping- 
weight 3 . If it could be shown that this attitude was taken 
by any other of the athlete statues, we should have to alter 
our view of them ; but we do not know how far it was 
customary 4 . 

At Delphi, the wider religious interest eclipst the games ; 
and neither there nor on the Isthmus, nor at Nemea, did 
Pausanias think it worth while to go into detail. A. great 
many of the Olympic victors did however win also at one or 
more of the other three places, and we may shortly hope to 
be in a position to judge how the monuments at Delphi are to 
be regarded. Statues were, however, not infrequently set up 
at home for victories abroad. Callias in the fifth century 
stood upon the Athenian Acropolis, and the inscription may 
confidently be taken as votive 6 . There were also Herrnolycus 
the pancratiast 6 , and Epicharinus, who won the hoplite race 7 . 
Promachus of Pellene 8 , and Aenetus of Amyclae 9 , had statues 
dedicated at home. Agias the pancratiast was honoured in the 
same way in his Thessalian home 10 . The man "in the helmet" 
in the Athenian Acropolis may have been a hoplite racer 11 . 
The victor's portrait is spoken of as a matter of course in the 
fourth century 12 . 

It does not seem to have been the custom to dedicate 
musical victors in this way. The statues which existed at 

1 Pans. vi. 1. 7. 9 Paus. ii. 18. 5. 

2 Schol. Pind. OL vii. 10 E. Preuner, Ein delphisches Weih- 

3 Catalogue 6306; AM vi. 158; cp. geschenk (Teubner 1900), 17, 18: the 
Paus. v. 27. 2, vi. 3. 10. victor borrowed the epigram used by 

4 See Scherer, DC Olympionicarum Daochus at Delphi, p. 3. 

statuis, 31 ff. n Paus. i. 24. 3 Kpdvos tiriKel[j.ei>os 

5 CIA i.419Ka\Masdv^9riKvorKoT. dv/ip ; Eeisch (p. 39) points out how 
163 KaXX/aj Ai8vjj.Covdv^Or)KJ'tK3v with like the phrase is to what is said of 
list of victories. The restoration of Telesicrates, avyp ^x (av Kpdvos, Schol. 
dv^&rjKe is justified ; see note 8 . Pind. Pyth. ix. 401 Bockh. 

6 Paus. i. 23. 10. 12 Xen. Mem. iii. 10. 6 OTI/J^V dXXofovs 

7 Paus. i. 23. 9; CIA i. 376 'ETTI- Troietj apo/xeay re na.1 iraXcucrras ical TTWCTOS 
Xapivos a.vidi)Ki> . . . KO.I irayKpaTiaffTas bpu re Kal olSa (said 

8 Paus. vii. 27. 5. to a sculptor). 



172 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



Delphi 1 do not appear to have been votive in the true sense; 
and the same may be said of heralds and trumpeters 2 . There 
were statues of poets or musicians in Mount Helicon who won 
the prize there, and an epigram of the fifth century which was 
on one of them is votive in form 8 . The relief of Pythocritus the 
flotist in Olympia is also uncertain 4 . The pretty tale of the 
cicala is worth mentioning. A musician broke his string, and 
a cicala settling upon the lyre buzzed the note of the broken 
string so well that he gained the prize. An image of the little 
creature was dedicated in remembrance of this timely help 8 . 





FIG. 27. From Olympia. 
Bronze.n vii. 48. 



FIG. 28. The Tiibingen bronze. 
Jahrb. i. pi. 9. 



Some of the statuettes found at Olympia appear to have 
been athletes, and these are certainly votive. One naked 
youth held an object in each hand, perhaps leaping- weights 6 ; 
others, with one foot advanced, are not clearly characterised 7 . 



1 Paus. x. 9. 2. 

8 Reisch, p. 54 note, gives examples. 
3 Ath. xiv. 629 A quoting Ampbion 
irepl TOV tv "EXiKwvi 'M.ovffetov : 



Avdpas' 6 8' ai)XjTaj yv "Avaicos 



pa 



4 Paus. vi. 14. 9 dvrip 



5 Clem. Alex. Protrept. i. 1. 1 ; Anth. 
Pal. ix. 584 ; Strabo vi. 260. 

6 Bronzen von 01. viii. 47 (oldest of 
all). An Etruscan statuette holding 
the weights is inscribed : Gaz. Arch. 
xiv. 59, pi. 13. A possible athlete at 
Delphi, BCH xx. 702. 

7 Bronzen von Ol. vii. 48. But these 
seem to wear ceremonial stlengis. See 
fig. 27. 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 173 

There is a boxer 1 , a quoit-thrower's arm 2 , and many fragments 
of similar figures. A bronze quoit-thrower was dedicated in 
the Cabirium 3 . A group of wrestlers 4 , a boxer 5 , and the arm of 




FIG. 29. Victorious athletes with votive tablet and prize. 
Benndorf, Gr. und Sic. Vas. pi. ix. 

a quoit-thrower 6 in small were found on the Athenian Acropolis. 
The running girl of Dodona wears the short tunic of the Spartan 
racers 7 . The hoplite-runner has been seen in a remarkable 

1 Bronzen von 01. viii. 57. Wien, pi. 37. 4, 35. 1. 

2 Bronzen von 01. vi. 59 (5th century). 4 Cat. ACT. Mus. Br. 747. 

3 AM xv. 365 Kafilpov, archaic. 5 Cat. Acr. Mus. Br. 746. 
Such statuettes are not rare, but it is 6 Cat. Acr. Mus. Br. 636. 
uncertain whether votive : Keisch re- 7 Carapanos, xi. 1. She is not likely 
fers to JHS i. 177 ; Sacker-Kenner, Die to be Atalanta. 

ant. Bronzen im k. Munzkabinet in 



174 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

figure called the Tubingen bronze 1 . At Delphi was found 
a very ancient statuette of bronze, girt in a loincloth, the 
hands clencht as though holding something; which may be 
meant for a runner 2 . 

Pictorial representations of the act or process appear to 
have been common, although we hear little of them. Some 
such are upon the Corinthian tablets dedicated to Poseidon 8 : 
a pair of pugilists, riders, and what not. There is a vase 
which shows a youth, carrying a Panathenaic vase and a tablet 
on which a human figure is painted 4 ; one was held in the hand 
of a statue which used to be at Olympia 8 . I do not know 
whether we might venture to explain the scenes on some 
Athenian tablets which remain as due to mythological pre- 
cedent ; otherwise the apotheosis of Hercules might be used by 
some one who could claim connexion with him, to indicate 
labours accomplisht 8 . The painter Nicomachus made a scene 
of Victoria quadrigam in sublime rapiens, in which Victory 
seems to have been driving, and holding a palm 7 . Nothing 
but a more florid group would suffice the imagination of 
Alcibiades, who dedicated two pictures in the Pinacotheca. 
In one, Olympias and Pythias were crowning him ; in the other, 
Nemea was sitting with him upon her knees 8 . One is reminded 
of Pindar's phrase that the victor "falls at the knees of 
Victory 9 ." A similar picture, apparently the memorial of a 
race, is described by Pliny 10 : Nemea palm in hand is seated 

1 Hauser, Jahrb. ii. 95; AA x. 183; 6 Benndorf, pi. iii. : Heracles and 
L. Schwabe, Zur Tiib. Bronze, Jahrb. i. Athena in car. Others are: iv. 1 
153, pi. 9, believes him to be a charioteer, Athena in car, Hermes standing by; 
which is impossible, because (1) the iv. 2, v. 6 Athena meets car ; v. Pro- 
attitude does not suit, (2) he wears a cession of the gods. 

helmet, (3) he stands on a base and 7 Keisch, p. 149. 

therefore did not stand in a chariot. 8 Athenaeus xii. 534 D, K 5i)o iriVaxas 

See fig. 28. avtOyKev, ' Ay\ao(f>uvTo^ ypa.<t>r)V wv 6 

2 BCH xxiii. 620, pi. x., xi. /xei/ et^f 'OXu/tiridSa ical HvOidSa <rre- 

3 Gaz. Arch. vi. 107 fig. Antike Qavofaas airrbv, tv dt OartfHf Ne/iedj rjv 
Denkmfiler i. 8. 24. See above, p. 81, Ka0rj/j.^vri ical tirl TUV yoviruv a&rrjs 
fig. 17. 'AXw/StdSijj ; cp. Pans. i. 22. 6. 

4 Benndorf, Gr. und Sic. Vatenb., PinA. Nem. v. 42; Isth. ii. 26: 
pi. ix. See fig. 29. viKas iv yovvaaiv, Iv dyK<bi>f<Tffi vtrvuv. 

6 Pliny.NHxxxiv. 59Libyn, puerum 10 pii nV) NH xxxv. 27. 
tenentem tabellam. 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 175 

upon a lion, and by her side stands an old man with a staff, 
over whose head hangs a picture or tablet with a two-horse 
car upon it. 

I must not omit to mention that the scene of the contest, 
or something connected with it, is sometimes depicted upon the 
prize (as in a Panathenaic vase 1 , and perhaps the quoits of 
Sicily and Aegina), or upon the base which supported the 
offering. An archaic base from the Athenian Acropolis shows 
a four-horse car 2 , one from Aegina the pair-car 3 ; others show 
the Pyrrhic dance 4 . The well-known base of Bryaxis (4th 
century), which once upheld the memorial of the Athenian 
contest in horsemanship (avOnnraa-ia) 5 , was dedicated by a 
father and two sons. Upon it the hipparch is seen advancing 
at full gallop to receive the prize, a large tripod 8 . A boy on 
a race-horse appears elsewhere 7 . 

But reliefs independently dedicated form a very large class, 
which I cannot here do more than indicate in its main 
features 8 . The interpretation of details, the fixing of the 
occasion, and so forth, is still mainly a matter of guess. The 
publication of the whole mass in some handy form would 
probably make it possible to advance a step or two further. 
Meanwhile, it is encouraging to see that most of the existing 
reliefs fall into certain main categories, and that these fit in with 
what we see elsewhere. 

Taking the pieces which seem to be agonistic, we may 
divide them threefold : (i) The Contest, (ii) The Victory and 
Prize, (iii) The Sacrifice or Libation. Each is a different aspect 
of the act or process blest by the deity. 

We shall take first athletic and equestrian contests, and 
secondly those relating to music or the drama. 

(i) The Contest. Part of a chariot and pair in full course, 
found at Cyzicus, is ascribed to the sixth century; but there is 



1 Baumeister, fig. 1156. 6 CIA iii. 1291 d.v6tinra.(rlq. Uava- 

2 Schone 73 ; Sybel 6741. Orivaia TO, fj.eyd\a. 

3 Collection Sab. i. pi. xxvi. ; another, 7 AZ xxxv. 139, no. 89 (von Duhn). 
Sybel 6739. 8 Reisch 49 ff. has discussed this 

4 Sybel 6569. group, and I have borrowed a number 

5 Xen. Hipparch. iii. 11. of examples from his list. 



176 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

no proof that it is votive 1 . Archaic reliefs of the Acropolis 
show similar scenes, one with a shielded person who may 
perhaps be an apobates*. There is no doubt in the case of 
a remarkable Spartan monument. Damonon, who has won 
a number of victories, several of them with the same team, 
dedicates to Athena a pillar recording the victories, with a 
relief of himself driving his quadriga 3 . 

A group of athletes has also been found with names 
inscribed 4 . There are representations of Pyrrhic dancers 5 and 
of victors in the torch-race 8 . Some of the scenes are explained 
as referring to victorious apobatae, since the driver is armed 7 . 
The scene may depict various moments of the contest or its 
conclusion. Here the driver is mounting upon his car 8 or 
driving at speed in the race ; or the steeds move at a moderate 
pace, before the start or after the finish 9 . A more solemn pace 
is seen in a tablet from Palermo 10 . Or again, a boy gallops 
past on his racer 11 . Lads leading horses, perhaps victorious 
ephebes, appear on one Atttc relief 18 ; a mounted boy on another 13 . 
A horseman leading a group of other horsemen may refer to the 
anthippasia u . A puzzling relief shows two male figures seated, 
of heroic size, betwixt whom is a lad leaning upon a spear, and 
apparently holding the jumping weights 1S . 

1 BCH xviii. 493. Pliny, NH xxxv. F-W. 1838. 

99, describes a similar piece by Aristides 8 Sybel 6741. Compare F-W. 1838 

the elder. Gazette des beaux arts (1882), 452, 456. 

2 Acr. Mus. no. 1391 : traces of inscr. 9 Sybel 6739; cp. Coll. Sab. xxvi.; 

3 IGA 79; Roberts 264. ^a^vuv Oropus, Cat. Berl. Sc. 725, and per- 
dvt6r)Ke 'AOavatai IloXtdxwi IHKCL&S ravra haps Bull, de Com. Arch. iii. 247 
cir' otfSrjs Tr-rjiroKO. ruv vvv. rdde Mnat (Athens) ; cp. Sybel 5128 ; Gall, di 
Aap.wvwv rtDi avrui TtQpiirirui aiirbs Firenze, iv. vol. 2, pi. 86. Thebes, 
avioxiw (list)...<MKij "E\ /cal 6 /cAij Le Bas, pi. 92. 2; AM. iii. 414; Delphi, 
d/j.5. avrfa dvioxiuv ivfifiwais Virirots, etc. Pomtow, Beitrdge zur Topographie von 

4 Sybel 6154 'Avriy^s, Aad57?j, Delphi, 107, pi. xii. 32. 
'ISo/iifvfvs "Orjffev, 'Avr... 'Axap"etfs. 10 Beisch 50. 

5 Sybel 6151 CIA iii. 1286 with " Terra-cotta from Thera; BCH v. 
relief, seven lopevroLl and x<V"776s. 436. Cp. F-W. 1206. 

6 Cat. B. Mus. 813 (slab) ; CIA ii. 12 Sybel 307. 

1221 ; cp. 1229. 13 F. von Duhn, AZ xxxv. 139 ff., 

7 Cat. Berl. Sc. 725; AM xii. 146; no. 88. 

Bull, de Com. Arch. iii. 247 ; some u Schone 79. 
reliefs in Lisbon, see BCH xvi. 325 ff.; 15 AZ xii. pi. 13. 2. 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 177 

(ii) The Victory and the Prize. The moment of victory is 
anticipated, when Victory throws a wreath on the driver's head 
as he mounts 1 , or flies through the air to place the crown on 
the victor's head, he driving at full speed the while 2 ; or upon 
the head of a victorious steed 3 . Victory herself may even 
drive the chariot 4 , or the victor wears a fillet upon his brow 8 . 
The quadriga, and apparently Victory in it, appears on a curious 
relief dedicated to Hermes and the Nymphs, from Phalerum 6 . 
Perhaps the deity offers a winged Victory to her worshipper 7 , 
or Victory holds a fillet over his brow 8 . There again stands 
the prize by the hurrying chariot ; an amphora in one relief 9 , 
a tripod perhaps in another 10 . Even the votive tablet appears 
to be depicted in the left-hand corner of the Oropus relief". 
The judge crowns the victorious runner in the torch-race, 
whilst three athletes are grouped near by 12 ; or the whole troupe 
of runners. A fine relief in the British Museum shows a 
company of eight naked youths headed by two men draped, one 
of whom offers a torch to the statue of Artemis Bendis 13 . 

An Athenian relief assigned to the fifth century combines 
Types i. and ii. There are two divisions : below are fragments 
of two horses ; above, a man as it were engaged in sacrifice 14 . 

(iii) The Sacrifice. I know of no instance which distinctly 
refers to athletic or equestrian contests, although some of those 
in which Victory appears may be such. The class of sacrificial 
relief is, however, very large, and as a rule the occasion is not 
clearly indicated 15 . 

1 Brit. Mus. Anc. Marbles, ix. 38. 2. (archaic). These may refer to the 

2 Cat. Brit. Mm. Sc. 814 ; cp. 815. Panathenaea. 

3 Schone, pi. 18, 80 ; F-W. 1142 ; n Berl. Cat. 725. 

cp. Sybel 7014. 12 CIG 257 \a.fj.irddi vucfiffas yv/jLvaffi- 

4 Hiibner, Bildwerke in Madrid, apxCiv ; Hicks, Inscr. B. Mus. I. xli. ; 
241, 559 ; Ann. d. Hist. 1862, pi. G, Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 813. The lad 
p. 103 ; Acropolis Museum 1342. carries a whisk for sprinkling ; there 

5 In the Palermo relief, Reisch 50. is an altar. 

6 "E<f>. 'A PX . 1893, 108, pi. 9, 10 A. 13 Br. Mus. no. 7* ; AA xi. 143 ; 

7 Schone xix. 85, xxi. 93. Plat. Rep. i. 1. See C. Smith, Class. 

8 AM xxv. 169, to Hera (Samos). Review, xiii. 230. 

9 Reisch 50; Marm. Taurin. ii. pi. 14 von Duhn, AZ xxxv. 139 ff., no. 
xxxiii. ; Dutschke, iv. 92, no. 174. 69. 

10 Sybel 308, 6619, 6741 with biga 15 See chap. vm. 

R. 12 



178 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

We now come to the musical and scenic class, for which 
direct evidence is scanty. That some dedication was customary 
in the fourth century is clear from what Theophrastus says of 
the Mean Man. " When he wins a prize at the tragedies," 
says Theophrastus, " he is content to offer a wooilen slab to 
Dionysus, with his own name upon it 1 ." Plutarch tells us 
that Themistocles dedicated a TTIVU^ r^ viict)<$, inscribed 2 ; and 
the same word is used by Aristotle of the victory of Thrasippus 3 . 
Simonides also alludes to a dedicatory iriva% which he finally 
offered after winning fifty-six prizes 4 . Now the word TriWf 
may be used of an inscribed slab and no more, and we know 
that the yearly victories were recorded on such slabs. But on 
the other hand, this was done officially, and our authorities 
refer to the victor's dedication. Moreover, iriva% is so often 
used of reliefs or paintings, that we may assume some such 
memorial was meant here 5 . At all events, there exist still 
a certain number of reliefs whose subjects are connected with 
the stage ; and we may provisionally take these to be the votive 
offerings of victorious composers, or perhaps actors. 

(i) The Contest. There is a work apparently of Roman 
date, which however seems to imply an earlier Greek original, 
where we see a man crowned with ivy and clad in stage costume 
and buskins, seated upon a kind of throne, and holding a 
sceptre in his right hand. On one side is a boy playing upon 
the flute ; on the other what seems to be a dancing girl 8 . 
Another is a relief in the Lateran. Here a young man, appa- 
rently a portrait figure, sits on a chair, holding a mask in one 
hand, while on the table before him lie two other masks and a 
roll of manuscript. A woman stands beside him in the attitude 
of declamation 7 . A variant of this type shows the artist gazing 



1 Theophrastus, Charact. xxii. : viic/i- avSpCiv tvS6!-ov NiVew ay\ai>v apfji 1 

(raj Tpayydots raiviav v\lvijv avaOtivai 8 The Picture Gallery on the Acro- 

T(j3 Aiovfat?, 4iriypd.\f/as tavrov rb 6vofJLa. polis was called the Pinacotheca. Paus. 

2 Plut. Them. 5. i. 22. 6. 

3 Arist. Pol. viii. 6. 1341 A. Reisch 56, quoting Cabinet Pour- 

4 Simonides, Anth. Pal. vi. 213 | firl tales, pi. xxxviii. ; HUB. Pio-Clem. 
TTfvrriKovTa, 2i/xuW5i;, ijpao ravpovt Kal ii. I, iv. ; Wieseler, Denk. der Biihnen- 
rpLwoSas, vplv T&V$' dvOtntvai vivaKa. wesen, iv. 10. 

5' IfjifpfavTa. di8adjjvos xopop 7 Reisch 54, quoting Benndorf and 



GAMES AND .CONTESTS. 179 

upon a mask which lies in a box before him 1 , or holding one in 
his hand' 2 . 

(ii) The Victory and the Prize. A certain number of 
Athena reliefs may belong to this class. The goddess sets 
a garland upon a man's head; she is armed, standing 3 or 
seated 4 , sometimes with her owl fluttering near, and wor- 
shippers are present. Similar scenes with armed men may 
represent the victorious hoplite-races 5 . Hints of the same 
origin, in the case of the wreath, appear on Dioscuri reliefs 
from Tarentum 6 . A relief-fragment from Athens 7 shows a 
bearded man beside a gigantic tripod, which should be regarded 
as a choregic offering, or perhaps the poet's own 8 ; doubtless 
the offering of the bull, so often coupled with the tripod on 
vase paintings, occupied the missing part of the scene 9 . In 
yet another scene, beside the man whom we may regard as the 
poet and dedicator is a bearded satyr, who places the tripod 
upon a base 10 : the satyr may be a personification of the 
dithyramb, as such a one is inscribed on a certain vase 11 . A boy 
holding a palm is seen on a late relief standing beside a grown 
man and a herm 12 . 

(iii) The Sacrifice or Libation. The so-called Harpist 
Reliefs are perhaps memorials of a musical victory 13 . On one 
of these the scene is laid before a temple ; Apollo, holding the 
lyre in one hand, with the other reaches a bowl towards Victory, 

SchSne, Lateran, no. 487 ; Wieseler, as Sybel 5013 says, there is a tripod. 

op. cit. iv. 9 ; Michaelis, Ancient None is visible in Schone's sketch. 
Marbles, 457 (replica). Schreiber, Cult- s So Simonides in Anth. Pal. vi. 213 

hist. Bilderatlas, v. 4, for reasons best (above, p. 178 4 ). 
known to himself, entitles this Philis- 9 Reisch 57. 

cus tragoediarum scriptor meditans. 10 Sybel 3983. 

1 Mm. Borbon. xiii. pi. xxi. (Naples); u Ai0upa.fj.j3os, Welcke, Alte Denkm. 
Zoega, Bassirilievi, pi. xxiv. (Villa iii. 125, pi. x. 2, quoted by Reisch. 
Albani). 12 Maas, Jahrb. xi. 102 ff . ; he sug- 

2 Cat. Berl. Sc. 951 (Hellenistic). gests for the female Tragedy, Hypo- 

3 Sybel 5026. crisis, Didascalia, the T^x" 7 / of t^ 6 

4 Sybel 5121 ; Schone 87. guild, or what not, 104. Inscr. 'Hpaeis 

5 Schone 85. Aiovvvui ai^(h]Kav. 

6 EM xv. 1 ff. 13 We must not be too sure, how- 

7 F-W. 1196 ; Schone 82; Wiener ever, since the traditional attributes of 
Vorl.-Bl. viii. pi. x. So the relief with a deity need not indicate the occasion. 
Athena and seated men, Schone 83, if See ch. xrv. 

122 



180 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

who standing beside an altar pours from a jug into the bowl. 
Artemis and Leto follow the god '. One found in Euboea, near 
a shrine of Artemis, bears Artemis, Leto, and Apollo with 
a male worshipper*. Much the same type is seen in the rest of 
this class. An Attic relief of the fourth century was dedicated 
by an actors' guild to Dionysus. A draped female figure, 
probably a personification, holds a tragic mask, and three more 
masks hang on the wall; a boy is engaged in libation, and 
there are traces of a male figure, perhaps Dionysus himself 3 . 

The Sacrifice proper may be rendered in some of those 
indeterminate scenes where Victory sacrifices a bull. Less 
obscure is a relief from Coropi, where a male deity, perhaps 
Dionysus, holds a cup, and by him stand sixteen men (the 
choregus, that is, and his chorus), whilst a boy leads a pig to 
the altar 4 . 

The Sacrifice proper is often replaced by the Feast scheme, 
which we have already considered. Here the type has clearly 
become traditional, and that it is votive is attested by an 
Athenian example which bears the inscription of a choregus 8 . 
Another appears to be the dedication of a poet 6 . An old man, 
crowned with ivy, whose features are distinctive enough to be 
a portrait, reclines on a couch. At his feet sits a maiden, and 
before them is a table laden with light food ; a lad pours wine 
for the banqueters. To them enters the youthful Dionysus, 
holding a thyrsus, and a snake appears on the scene. The 
female figure is probably allegorical 7 , Poesy or Comedy perhaps, 
as she probably is in a relief of the fourth century not dissimilar. 
Here the reclining male figure may be Dionysus himself; 
the female wears a fawn-skin. Hard by stand three actors, in 
stage dress and masks ; and the inscription has been interpreted 
as Tlai&rja (i.e. HcuSet'a) 8 . A large class of reliefs, which have 

1 Cat. Berl. Sc. 921 (archaistic : im- 6 F-W. 1843 ; AZ xxxix. 271, pi. 14 
perial age) ; F-W. 427 ff. (Louvre). 

2 'E0. 'Apx- 1900. P- 4, pi. 2 (4th 7 So in the Decree relief F-W. 1181 
century). the figure is Eirraa. 

3 Cat. Berl. Sc. 948 ; cp. 10556. 8 F-W. 1135. The reading is very 

4 Beisch, p. 124, fig. 12. unlikely to be right, but it is clear that 

5 Milchhofer, Jahrb. d. Inst. ii. 27 12 : the female has something to do with 
Av<r/as ' AiroXXoScfyxw xopayCiv. Dionysus. 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 181 

been interpreted without good reason as the visit of Dionysus 
to Icarius, show the god, sometimes with satyrs in company, 
breaking in upon a scene of feasting. Masks are also some- 
times represented in these scenes ; and taking all points into 
consideration, it is possible that they were the votive tablets of 
poets or actors 1 . Dionysus and Victory are found on a tripod 
base which once stood in the Street of Tripods 2 . 

These examples do not by any means end the tale of scenic 
dedications, but the most part give no hint of the object 
dedicated. We may fairly assume, however, that since these 
dedications, ranging from the earliest times to the Roman 
empire, from Sicily to the Crimea, from Macedon to Crete, 
fall into a few well-defined classes, those which have perisht 
belonged to some of them. A few early examples may be here 
added. There is an archaic pillar from the Argive Heraeum, 
inscribed with a dedication, and mentioning Nemean and other 
games 3 . Aristocrates son of Scelius made a dedication at 
Athens 4 ; there are records of a chariot- victory at Eleusis 5 , 
and at Athens of the victory of Alcibius, a flotist from Nasus 
in Asia Minor 6 . There is a dedication to the Twelve Gods for 
Isthmian and Nemean victories 7 ; and the offering of Phayllus, 
thrice Pythian victor 8 ; and a pillar on which can be dis- 
tinguisht an allusion to the games 9 . Plato also speaks of 
dedications made for such victories 10 . 

In the fourth and succeeding centuries we meet still with 
victories in the great games : Hegestratus conquers at Nemea 11 ; 
Diophanes wins the youths' pancratium at the Isthmus, and he 
mentions with pride a success of his grandfather's 12 ; another 
man, whose name has been lost, wins the pair-horse race at 
Olympia 13 , another is victor in the three remaining celebra- 
tions 14 . The allusions to these games become fewer, however, 

1 F-W. 1844, 1843, 2149, etc. ; Cat. 47 : he commanded a ship at Sala- 

Berl. Sc. 919, 920. mis. 

8 F-W. 2147 ; Sybel 305. 9 CIA iv. 1. 2. p. 91, 373 108 : rbv 

3 A JA ix. 351 Tifj.oic\fjs p tO-qice. ayuva. 

4 CIA i. 422. 10 Plato, Laws 955 B. 

5 CIA i. 419. u CIA ii. 3. 1300. 

6 CIA L 357. 12 CIA ii. 3. 1301. 

7 CIA i. 420. 13 CIA ii. 3. 1303. 

8 CIA iv. 1. 373 258 , see Herod, viii. " CIA ii. 3. 1304. 



182 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

though we do find the -rrepioBovUt]^ quite late 1 ; and the interest 
is diverted to a host of minor celebrations which spring up else- 
where. The Panathenaea is always with us a , and the 'Argive 
shield ' is not uncommon 3 ; but along with them come Ephesia, 
Claria, and Iliaea 4 , Eleusinia 8 , Amphiarea 6 , Trophonia in 
Lebadea, Dionysia 7 , Thargelia 8 , and Naa in Dodona 9 , Delia, 
Soteria 10 , Heraclea in Thebes 11 . During the Roman period we 
find the Thesea", Epitaphia 13 , Hephaestea 14 , Charitesia in Orcho- 
menus 15 , even Panellenia, Hadrianea, Eusebea, and Capitolea 16 . 
The events in these are often athletic, but oftener still of other 
types which will shortly engage our attention. 

Outside Attica the records are less complete, but they suffice 
to show that the victor's pride was as great, and his gratitude 
acknowledged in the same way, all over the Greek world. An 
ancient inscription of Argos describes how Aeschyllus won the 
stadium four times, and the race in armour thrice, at the home 
games, for which he dedicated to the Dioscuri a slab depicting 
them in relief 17 . A Theban pancratiast erects a memorial to 
his Pythian victory at home 18 . Another has won the boxing 
at the Trophonia, Coriasia, and Poseidea 19 . A redoubtable boxer 
of the second century has twelve victories to his credit 20 , and 
another athlete of three or four centuries later no less than 
twenty-four 21 . A man of Tegea wins forty-three victories in 
racing on foot or on horse back, including the Asclepiea, Lycaea, 
Hecatombaea, and Basilea 22 . A Delphian records victories at 
Olympia, Nemea, the Isthmia and the Pythia 23 . Victories are 
also still recorded in Sparta 14 . An Athenian commemorates at 

1 CIA Hi. addenda 758 a ; cp. ii. 3. ia CIA iii. 107. 
1319, 1323. 13 CIA iii. 108, 110. 

2 CIA ii. 3. 1289, 1302, 1304, 1314, 14 CIA iii. 111. 
1318, 1319. 1S CIA iii. 115. 

CIA ii. 3. 1320 ; iii. 116, 127. 16 CIA iii. 128. 

4 CIA ii. 3. 1311. " IGA 37. 

6 CIA ii. 3. 1313, 1316. 18 IGS i. 2533, Add. p. 749. 

6 CIA ii. 3. 1312. "> IGS i. 47. 

7 CIA ii. 3. 1314. IGS i. 48. 

8 CIA ii. 3. 1302. M IGS i. 49 : age of the Antonines. 

9 CIA ii. 3. 1318. ** CIG 1515. 

10 CIA ii. 3. 1319. * CIG 1715. 

11 CIA ii. 3. 1323. M CIG 1397, 1418, 1430. 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 183 

Oropus his victory in casting the javelin on horseback 1 . A 
victor of Elatea mentions eight victories, the Nemean amongst 
them 2 . Victors of Megara dedicate some building at home for 
victories abroad 3 . So too with the island communities. Doro- 
cleidas of Thera wins the boxing and pancratium, and dedicates 
a thank-offering to Hermes and Heracles 4 . A Rhodian wrestler 
commemorates his success at half-a-dozen places, including 
Nemea and Delphi 5 ; others a victory with a chariot in Olympia 6 , 
a pancratium 7 , arid so forth. In Asia Minor the same features 
offer themselves 8 . 

The variety of local games will not fail to have struck 
the reader in examining the inscriptions quoted above. And 
along with the new Games new kinds of contests come into 
notice. At Delos, for example, we find recorded the regu- 
lations for a yearly feast, probably that called the Coressia 9 . 
The youths are to be carefully trained, and fined for absence ; 
in the final contest there are prizes for shooting with the bow, 
(1) a bow and full quiver, (2) a bow ; for casting the javelin, 

(1) three javelins and a irt-piKefyaXaia, (2) three javelins ; 
the KaTa7T\ra(f)Tr)^ receives (1) a 7repiK(f>a\aia and KOVTOS, 

(2) a KOVTOS ; the leader of a torch-race, a shield ; and boys, 
a portion of meat. These contests of the youths on entering 
manhood were customary also elsewhere. In Athens 10 the 
ephebes appear to have been educated by the state for military 
purposes. We have no record of their organisation, if there was 
any, in the fifth century, and it is now generally believed to 
belong to the fourth, from which time the inscriptions go on for 
some six hundred years. In the fourth and third centuries the 
military spirit gives way before a growing interest in things 
intellectual or artistic. In the fourth century they were under 

1 IGS i. 444. pia 5' dws dls Awpo/cXet'Sax ftttv de6\o- 

2 IGS iii. 1. 138 (Roman age). <f>bpov. 

3 IGS i. 47; cp. 48, 49. 8 IGIi. (Rhodes) 73. 

4 IGI iii. (Thera) 390, Anthol. Ap- IGI i. (Rhodes) 76 apfiari. irwXucwt. 
pendix (Cougny) i. 168 : Awpo/cXef5as 7 IGI i. (Rhodes) 77. 

'I/*I'/JOI>TOJ 'Epyitat *ai 'HpaK\- a vlKa. 8 GIG 2723, etc. 

?ri;/cTcu0 p ( Si' afyiaTos' a\X' Irt BepfjAv 9 CIG 2360. 

in>ev/j.a (fitpuv <TK\r)pas ircus dir6 iriry/xa- 10 See Art. Epheboi in Dar. and 

X^as 1-ffTa ira-yKpariov flapiiv irbvov a. Saglio. 



184 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the charge of Sophronistae 1 , who at the end of this period were 
themselves subordinate to a Cosmetes*. During the same 
period we find two Paedotribae 8 who managed the gymnastic 
part of the youths' training, assisted by other officials for the 
bow, the javelin, the catapult, or other arms 4 . They cele- 
brated feasts with appropriate competitions, including races and 
regattas. Athenaeus tells us that the prize for the foot-race 
was a KtsXtff*. At the end of their time it was customary to 
pass votes of thanks to the officials, whose statues or busts were 
put up in the Gymnasium 8 ; and reliefs have been found, which 
appear to have been dedicated on such occasions, bearing 
representations of the boat-races or athletic exercises 7 . Similar 
institutions are recorded for all parts of the Greek world : 
Megara, Peloponnese, Boeotia, Euboea, Thessaly, Thrace and 
Macedon, Chios, Cyprus, Corcyra, Cos, Delos, Icaria, Naxos, Paros, 
Rhodes, Samos, Tenos, Thera, the chief cities of Sicily and 
Asia Minor, Gyrene, and Massalia 8 . Amongst the competitions 
of later days, which we may assume to have been .practised by 
this class, are reading, painting, calligraphy, general progress, 
and others which are hard to interpret, besides various kinds of 
musical and dramatic competitions 9 . As regards the more 
general competitions, an inscription of Aphrodisias 10 mentions 
the trumpeter, herald, encomiast, in addition to others more 
familiar. Mention is made of the erecting of statues for the 
victors". In the commemoration of these victories, the old 



1 BCH xiii. 283 ; represented on a " viropoXrjs dt>ra.ir{>8uff<.s, 

relief, D. and S. fig. 2679; CIA iii. iro\v/Jia6ia, faypa<pla, Ka\\iypa<f>ta, 

1152. ^aX/uos, /aflapicr/uos, KiOapydia, pvOfjio- 

AM iv. 326. ypa<f)la, Kwfjufdia, Tpa.y<pdla, fif\oypa.<f>ia : 

3 Arist. Ath. Pol. 42. GIG 3088 (Teos). The dvayvAffr-ns was 

4 CIA ii. 471 6ir\ondx^> d/coi'TtonJs, probably a priest who recited the for- 
To6T7j, d^TTjs; Arist. I.e. mula. See list of Spartan officials in 

6 Athenaeus xi.495F ty-fifiuv &p6/j.os- Collitz iii. 4440. 

6 viK-fiffas Xa/n/Sdvet KV\IKO. rijv XtyofUvrjv 10 ffa\iriyKr/it, icrjpv, tvKWfuoypdipot, 

Trfi>Tair\6av Aral KUfidfei /aera \opov. iroir)T^, Tratj KiOapwtdos, 116010* av\r)- 

6 A fine series in the Athenian Na- TTJJ, KIJK\IOS av\TjTris, rpaywtSos, KU^UI- 
tional Museum. Cp. CIA ii. 466, 480, 56s, ypannarcvs, iravriyvpidpx'ri*, x<v>ai5- 
etc. Xi;j, xppoKiOa.pos, irvppi\^, vdrvpos, and 

7 D. and S. figa. 2681, 2682. To athletics: CIG 2758. 

Heracles (Rom. date), CIA iii. 119. " Ephesus dv$piivTa.t TO?J dyuviffraTt 

8 References in D. and S. p. 634. dvaffTJi<ravr&: CIG 2954; cp. 2758 Jin. 



GAMES AND CONTESTS. 185 

simplicity of dedication is quite gone. The statues become 
practically honorific, and although the old formula is used, they 
are placed in the gymnasium or elsewhere ; whilst the word has 
so far lost its old meaning, that a sacred month may be said 
dvatcelffOai rfjt 0(bt l . So too the victors no longer dedicate 
their offering out of pure thankfulness of heart. The in- 
scriptions, with their long list of distinctions and their carven 
wreaths, become a means of advertisement or self-glorifi- 
cation. Finally, the offering becomes compulsory, and is 
looked on by the temple officials as a source of revenue 2 . 

In reviewing the dedications of this chapter the reader 
will be struck with certain contrasts as against those of other 
kinds. There is no dedicating of shrines, divine statues, or 
Victories. The only thing of the kind I have met with is 
a couple of model shrines of bronze, offered by Myron tyrant 
of Sicyon for an Olympian victory in 648 3 . Victory appears in 
groups, but not alone, unless it be implied in a late inscription of 
Tegea which records victories in the games 4 . A dedication 
which I am at a loss to explain is the p.rj\a of latter-day 
Athens 5 . Another freak is the slab with a shaggy head 
in relief, dedicated with a set of verses to the Muses at 
Thespiae 6 . Stratonicus the musician plays with the dedicatory 
idea when he sets up a trophy in the Asclepieum, after 
vanquishing his rivals at Sicyon, and labels it "Stratonicus from 
the bad harpists V 

In this chapter we see the old simplicity and devotion being 
gradually overlaid with ostentation and show, until nothing 
else remains. The beginnings perhaps are earlier here than 
elsewhere ; and the seed of degradation which lay in the 

1 GIG 2954. 6 BCH xiv. 546, pi. ix., x.:...'A/^t- 

2 Delphi: Collitz ii. 2501 ^ X/w/o-n}- Kplrov Modern ai>{0r)ice. 

piov [sic'] afrts .fj.rj jrap^x'7 l > fKa/rov 7 Ath. viii. 351 E viic/iffas d' v St/ci/wvt 

ffTarfipas 6<t>e<.\ru (4th century). robs array wviffTcis dvtOrjKev els rb 'AffK\ri- 

3 Paus. vi. 19. 2. Frazer in his note ^leto- rpoiraiov iiriyptyas- CrpATO- 
shows that Pausanias was wrong in NtK oc <ur6 TU>N KAKCOC Ki0&pizoN- 
including the Treasury itself. TCON vil( ^ fffri)ffe TpArata ig U8ed 

4 GIG 1519 'A-ya^/ww lics in XP*>- metaphorically of Magnes, by Aristoph. 
ffov ^pei. Knights 521. 

8 CIA iii. 116. 



186 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

dedication of athlete statues began to sprout, it may be in the 
sixth century; but the critical point, or rather perhaps the 
point where the new spirit stood revealed to itself, was in the 
fourth. The lowest pitch of degradation, and the highest point 
of self-glorification, is reached in that hideous monument of 
Porphyrius, victor in the chariot-race at Constantinople. In 
that monument piety there is none ; but every feat of the victor 
is represented in artistic style as bad as its taste, and we 
leave him with relief to enjoy the applause of a shouting 
populace 1 . 

1 AM v. 294 ff. pL xvi. 



V. 

DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 

\Afpoic ANA TT&fHON, 6c MeAeic TPI'KKHC 
KA! KCON r^Y Ke ^ AN KHTT(AAYPON CPKHKAC. 

HEKODAS iv. 1. 

rroAAol TOYT<*> AoycAMeNOi ocjjGAAMoyc eKO/v\fcANTO, noAAol Ae 
TTIONTGC CTepisiON IAGHCAN KA} TO ANAI-KATON TTNeyMA AneAABoN, T>N 
Ae TioAAC eScopGcoce, TOON Ae AAAo TS, HAH Ae TIC ni<i)N e5 A<J)CONOY 

<t>60NHN A()>HK6N. 

ARISTIDES, Els TO (frpeap roii 'A(rcAi;7rto{;, 445. 

WE have seen reason to believe that the cult of heroic 
spirits was widespread on Greek soil, and prevailed from the 
earliest to the latest times. They were propitiated or worshipt 
as beings of great and mysterious powers, and as such likely 
to be useful both in their general influence on the daily life 
and in occasional times of need. In their first aspect we find 
recurrent feasts held in their honour, and memorial offerings 
of these feasts dedicated, whilst tithes or firstfruits are some- 
times offered to them ; nor have there been wanting some 
indications that they were approached in time of need. All 
inscriptions which mention the vow or prayer imply help given 
in some such time 1 . We have seen that the hero-shrines may be 
supposed to have had much the same part in the national worship 
as the scattered chapels of to-day ; they would be the natural 
places for use of the country folk who lived afar from large cities. 
In the cities themselves ancient shrines of this sort would 
remain by tradition when new manners had come in, just as 

1 See ch. xn. 



188 



OREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



Holywell so long remained in London, or Baruwell still remains 
in Cambridge 1 , as the well of divination remained and still 
remains in Patrae 2 , or like the shrines of Amynos and the Hero 
Physician in ancient Athens 3 . But side by side with this 
ancient popular worship grew up the cult of the great gods; 
and it usually happened that the gods were invoked for the 
same purposes as the heroes were, and under similar titles. 
Zeus is connected with the underworld as Catachthonios 4 , and 
he is also Meilichios 5 and Soter 6 . Apollo is Alexicacos 7 and 
latros 8 ; Artemis is Soteira 9 , and so is Demeter 10 ; Dionysus is 
also latros " ; Athena is Hygieia, Health 12 . The worshipper in 
offering his prayer adds naturally such titles as these, to indicate 
the manifestation of the divine power which he desires. Indeed, 
he goes into detail so far, that when about to sacrifice he may 
invoke the hero as Flycatcher 13 , or Zeus as Averter of Flies 14 . 
No less naturally does he address his prayer for protection to the 
patron deity of his city, who may be supposed to be most 
powerful there ; and if at the same time he addresses the local 
hero, that is but prudence 18 . 



1 I have known a person send to 
Barn well for water in case of sickness, 
for superstitious reasons. 

2 Paus. vii. 21. 12. There is a well 
there still held in repute, close by 
St Andrew's Church, which therefore 
probably covers the site of Demeter's 
temple. 

8 Demosth. xix. 249, CIA ii 403. 
We see, in fact, Asclepius and Amynus 
worshipt together in this shrine : 
AM xviii. 234. 

4 II. ix. 457; Hesiod, Op. 465. 

5 ECU vii. 407. 

6 Aesch. Suppl. 26. 

7 Paus. i. 3. 4. Dedication to Zeus 
Eubuleus in Amorgos: AM i. 331. To 
Zeus Asclepius GIG 1198. 

8 Arist. Birds 584, cp. Kaibel Ep. Gr. 
798. 1 IrjTijpi. v6<rtav. 

9 Anth. Pal. vi. 267. 1. Farnell 
ii. 585. A dedication to her by this title 
comes from Phocis : Collitz ii. 1528. 



10 Arist. Frogs 378 ; she is also Chtho- 
nia: GIG 1198. 

11 Kock, Com. Frag. iii. p. 423. 

12 Ancient worship on the Acropolis. 
Farnell, i. 316. Cp. Aristides ii. 25 
'A.9i)i>aiti)v ol wptffpfrraToi KO.I 'T-yie/oj 



13 Paus. ix. 26. 7 Aliphera. 

14 Paus. v. 14. 1 Elis. 

18 Very few of the old Acropolis dedi- 
cations can be referred to sickness. 
I have noted two ancient ones from the 
Acropolis: CIA i. 362, iv. 1. p. 79 
Ei/^pdftos xepa.iJ.fvs ittttriav'Tyitlai. Kar. 
96 'Affrjvalot rrji 'AOrivaiat riji 'Tyiflai. 
Several have vvtp (49, 189, 238, 246), 
but this formula may be used of an 
ordinary tithe or firstfruit (238). We 
may infer that the people visited latros 
or Amynus in that case. Perhaps 
Pericles' own dedication was made 
on purpose to assist in transferring the 
popular allegiance. 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 189 

It is chiefly sickness, danger, or sudden calamity which 
directs the soul to the unseen powers : and these are the special 
occasions when the ancient Greek paid his vows or exprest his 
gratitude. One constant and pressing source of danger was 
war, but the dedications connected with war have been already 
dealt with ; in this chapter we shall take the rest, and chiefly 
the vows and dedications made in time of sickness. This it so 
happens is the easier, because in early times certain divinities 
had come to be regarded as specially powerful against the ills 
which the flesh is heir to. We have already seen that the 
protective power of the heroes was quite general; but as the 
great gods relieved them of responsibility in their more public 
and striking aspects, the private function of alleviating the 
pains of sickness became their peculiar care, and in particular 
devolved upon two or three personages who by accident or 
otherwise achieved notable fame. 

In accordance with the principle suggested in the last 
paragraph, public offerings for deliverance from plague and 
pestilence are generally dedicated to one of the great gods. 
Epimenides, summoned to Athens in time of pestilence, is said 
to have cleansed the city, and built a shrine of the Eumenides 1 . 
Three temples are referred to afterclaps of the great plague 
at Athens (430 427). One is the romantic fane of Apollo 
the Helper, erected among the mountains at Bassae by the 
village of Phigalea, and looking down over the Messenian plain 
to far distant Ithome 2 . Next comes the temple of Apollo 
Healer at Elis 3 ; and last that of Pan Deliverer in Troezen, 
who had revealed to the city magistrates in a dream how they 
might heal the plague 4 . A public dedication of some statue 
to Athena Hygieia exists, but this is too trifling to refer to the 
great plague 5 . There seems to have been a temple and statue 
of Heracles Averter of 111, dedicated in the deme Melite whilst 



1 Eudocia, no. 349 : TWV cre/wwj' 0ewv 3 Paus. vi. 24. 6. 

lepbv Ka.6a.irep v Kpriry lSpfiira.ro. 4 Paus. ii. 32. 6. We have no means 

2 'EiriKotipios : Paus. viii. 41. 7. The of determining the date of the last 
architect was Ictinus, who built the two. 

Parthenon, and the style favours a 5 CIA i. 335, Kar. 96 (above, 

date later than 431. p. 188). 



190 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the plague was raging 1 . Early in the fifth century Hermes was 
said to have averted a plague at Tanagra by carrying a ram 
about the walls ; and in gratitude the people caused Calamis to 
make them a statue of Hermes the Ram-bearer 2 . In similar 
danger the people of Cleone, in obedience to an oracle, sacrificed 
a he-goat to the sun ; and when the plague was stayed, they 
dedicated a bronze he-goat to Apollo at Delphi 8 . Statues of 
Apollo Averter of Mischief, by Calamis 4 , and of Heracles under 
the same title, by Ageladas 8 , which existed at Athens, may be 
referred to a similar origin. Indications are not wanting that 
the practice continued later ; one such is a hymn composed and 
sung to Asclepius on deliverance from a noisome pestilence 6 . 

The same practice holds for other dire visitations. Deliver- 
ance from a plague of locusts was recognised by a statue of 
Locust Apollo, attributed to Pheidias 7 . Perhaps the cult of 
Mouse Apollo in the Troad was originally due to a plague 
of mice, although it may be propitiatory or even totemistic 8 . 
There was a statue of Earth praying for rain on the Athenian 
Acropolis, dedicated therefore probably to Athena, which com- 
memorated a drought 9 . We do not know the date of this, but 
Pausanias would have heard more about it if it had been near 
his own day ; and if not, the dedication may be illustrated by 
an inscription on the rock, of the first or second century after 
Christ, which mentions Earth the Fruitful 10 . We read of another 



1 Schol. Arist. Frogs 501 77 6t Wpwrtj 24. 6. 

lytvero KO.TO. TOV /jL^yav \oifjav, oOev Kal * Schol. Arist. Frogs 504. 

ira.vffa.To i] v6<ros. 6 CIA iii. 171. 

2 Kpto06pos: Paus. ix. 22. 1. The 7 napvoirtos : Paus. i. 24. 8. 

type will meet us again ; it occurs also 8 Zfuvffftis: Paus. x. 12. 5. Votive 

on coins, Imhoof-Blumer and Gardner, bronze mice have been found in Pales- 

Niimismatic Commentary on Pausanias, tine : M. Thomas, Two Years in Palestine 

116, pi. X. x. xii. The story seems to (1899), 6. The reader will recall the 

be an attempt to explain the type, but cult of the Brazen Serpent, Numbers 

is good evidence for all that. xxi. 9; and the mice in the Ark, 

:l Paus. x. 11. 5; see Frazer's note 1 Samuel vi. 5. 

for connexion of Apollo with the goat. 9 Paus. i. 24. 3. 

4 Paus. i. 3. 4 'AXei/ccucoj, wrongly 10 yrjs KapTrotf>6pov Kara nwreiav CIA 

assigned to the plague of 43027. iii. 166. The Delphic oracle orders 

Calamis flourisht 500 460. Apollo sacrifice to Ge Carpophores and Posei- 

was also Healer in Elis : Paus. vi. don Asphaleios, Collitz ii. 2970. 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 191 

great drought that fell over all Greece, so that envoys were sent 
to Delphi to enquire what help there might be. They were 
instructed to propitiate Zeus by means of Aeacus as inter- 
mediary, and messengers were sent to Aeacus asking his aid. 
By prayers and sacrifices to Zeus Panhellenian the drought was 
stayed ; and the Aeginetans set up images of their envoys in a 
precinct called the Aeaceum 1 . 

Such offerings were most naturally promised beforehand 
and paid on deliverance, but they were occasionally made in 
faith while the devastation went on. Thus during a flood of 
the Eurotas, an oracle commanded the Spartans to build a 
temple to Hera Protectress, which they did 2 . To avert from 
their vines the baleful influence of the constellation called the 
Goat, the Phliasians dedicated a bronze goat in the market 
place 3 . To end a barrenness in the earth, the Epidaurians set 
up statues of Damia and Auxesia, personifications of Subduing 
and Increase 4 . 

There are not wanting private dedications to the gods for 
healing and deliverance. Alyattes the Lydian, early in the 
sixth century, offered at Delphi for the cure of a disease a great 
silver bowl, with a stand of welded iron, which struck the 
imagination of Herodotus 5 . A relief dedicated to Athena seems 
to acknowledge help of this sort 6 , and perhaps another to Paean 
Apollo is of the same class 7 . Pericles we know dedicated a 
statue to Athena Hygieia, for saving the life of a workman 
who fell from a scaffolding there 8 . Demeter was a healer at 

1 Pans. ii. 29. 7. Athenian people. See for Ath. Hyg., 

2 "Tirepxeipla: Paus. iii. 13. 8. Farnell, Cults i. 316. I suggest that 

3 Paus. ii. 13. 6. Pericles made the dedication on pur- 

4 Herod, v. 82. These occur on pose to support the worship of Athena, 
inscrr.; as Collitziii. 3337 (Epidaurus), then not fashionable with the con- 
4496 (Sparta). servative nobles or with the country 

5 Herod, i. 24. Alyattes died in folk. The question is too wide to be 
560. The stand was there in the time discussed here ; but some suggestive 
of Athenaeus (v. 210 B). evidence is to be found in Aristophanes, 

6 F-W. 117. where the oath by Poseidon is the 

7 F-W. 1849. favourite with these classes (see e.g. 

8 Plut. Pericles 13. The statue CIA Knights 144, 551, 843, and Neil's 
i. 335 cannot be this offering, for that notes). 

of Pericles was not dedicated by the 



192 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Eleusis 1 ; and when Asclepius came to Athens he must needs 
be initiated into the mysteries and so be affiliated to her*. 
She appears to have had the same function elsewhere*. 
Artemis Lye was invoked for sickness in Sicily* ; Artemis 
Oulia and Apollo Oulios at Lindos in Rhodes", and at Miletus 8 . 
Appeals in sickness are made to Lathrie 7 and to Cytherea 8 . 
Micythus of Rhegium, who in his son's sickness had spent 
much on many physicians without avail, dedicated at Olympia 
a number of statues and other offerings " to all gods and god- 
desses 9 ." The Mothers in Sicily 10 , Hecate", Cybele 12 , and Men" 
are appealed to in sickness, and a river is called Saviour 14 . The 
oracle at Dodona, and doubtless not only that oracle, was con- 
sulted in the same case 15 . Perhaps Good Luck and the Good 
Daemon may be added to the list. 

But although the greater gods were a present help in time 
of danger, if they could be prevailed on to act, a being of humbler 
origin won the highest fame in this sphere, and finally himself 
attained to divine honours. This was Asclepius. 

All indications point to Thessaly as the original home of 
Asclepius 16 . He was the founder and deified ancestor of the 
Phlegyae and Minyae, the ruling class in Tricca and one 
or two neighbouring towns. In Homer he is neither god nor 
hero, and his two sons, Podaleirius and Machaon, are mentioned 

1 AM xx. 361. She was recognised 6 Macrob. i. 17. 

in the Asclepieum, and at Epidaurus ; 7 Anth. Pal. vi. 300. 

p. 3656. 8 Anth. Pal. vi. 190. 

2 'E0. 'Apx- 1894, p. 171. Herodes, 9 Herod, vii. 170, Pans. v. 26, IGA 
who brought Asclepius to Athens, 532. Cp. Newton, Branch, p. 751, 
dedicated the god's statue on this oc- no. 32 : x a P ta " re ' a y TO-PI Otois, Oepairev- 
casion as a mystic. " ; ?. 

3 See below for the marble breasts at 10 Diod. iv. 80. 

Cnidus, p. 216. Artemidorus, Onelrocr. u IGI i. 958 Itpa aurretpa, A.-E. 

ii. 39: AT/^TT/P Kbpy ical "lajcxoj TOUJ Mitth. xviii. 4, Roberts 242 a. 
voaowTas dittffTaffi Kal ffu^ovffi. Relief 12 AM xxi. 292, CIA iii. 134. 

from Philippopolis Overb. Kunstmyth. 13 BCH xx. 75, etc. 

pi. 1 and 7 inrtp rrjs 6p<f<rewy 0e AT;- 14 Herod, viii. 138. 

rfrpt. 8upov, Anth. Pal. ix. 293. " Collitz iii. 3407*. 

4 Diomed. iii. p. 483, Probus on 16 The account of Asclepius is based 
Virgil, Eel. p. 2. 28 (Keil); cp. Anth. on the articles in Pauly-Wissowa and 
Pal. vi. 240, Theognis 484. Roscher. See also Preller, Gr. Myth. 

5 IGI i 834 3 , cp. CIG 2566. 514 ff. 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 193 

in the Catalogue of the Ships 1 . If there were legends connect- 
ing him with Messenia and Arcadia, these rest on later authority, 
and were doubtless local attempts to claim him when he had 
become famous. The Arcadian legend makes Apollo his father, 
which alone is enough to condemn it 2 : this is just one of those 
attempts which we not seldom find, to make the pantheon 
symmetrical, by reconciling conflicting claims. Strabo follows 
the general opinion of antiquity in calling the shrine of Tricca 
" the oldest and most famous" of those which Asclepius had*. 
Cheiron was his teacher, and Cheiron stands as the embodiment 
of all natural lore, woodcraft, and herb simples 4 . On the mount 
Pelion, where he got all his master could teach him, Asclepius 
first associated himself (we are told) with the serpent, which 
afterwards became his attendant and attribute. He is still 
a man, if a mighty and wise man, and his death by the bolt 
of Zeus is not consistent with any higher character. After 
death he becomes a hero, famed for his healing powers, and 
a chthonian oracle. 

With the wanderings of his clan, in their career of migration 
or conquest, Asclepius gradually moves southwards, and we find 
him next in Boeotia and Phocis. Here he comes into conflict 
with Apollo: the god proves victor, but their feud is reconciled 
by the legend which makes Asclepius son of Apollo by Coronis, 
who should be faithless to her husband. We next see traces of 
Asclepius in the Peloponnese, in Titane and Arcadia. Messenia 
claims him for her own, and warps the legend to suit her claim. 
Finally he appears in several parts of Argolis, and particularly 
in the great shrine which afterwards became most famous. 
That the Epidaurian shrine is one of the latest is shown by 
the fact that the legends have changed under the influence 
of Delphi, and have forgotten their origin at Tricca 5 . From 
Epidaurus, now become his headquarters, came a number of 
'offshoots 6 . Chief of these were : (1) Sicyon, at a date unknown ; 

1 II. ii. 729 32 ; Machaon again II. 5 Maleatian Apollo was apparently 
iv. 200, 219, etc. united with him here: Cavvadias, 

2 Paus. ii. 26. 4. Fouilles d'Epid. i. 75, no. 235. 

3 Strabo p. 437. 6 Paus. ii. 26. 8, x. 10. 3, iii. 23. 6; 

4 II. iv. 202, 219; Mannhardt, Wald Julian, Adv. Christ, p. 197. 
und Feldkulte, 48. 

R. 13 



194 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

(2) Athens, founded in 420 ; (3) Balagrae in the Cyrenaica ; 
(4) Epidaurus Limera; (5) Cos, though Herodas will have it 
the cult came straight from Tricca 1 ; (6) Naupactus, about 300; 
(7) Tarentum ; (8) perhaps Syracuse ; (9) Pergamus ; (10) Rome. 
Besides these he is found at Clazomenae, Delos*, Teos, and 
Phocaea, and cults connected with him at many other places. 

By this time Asclepius has become a full-fledged god, and 
his family has increased and multiplied. His sons Machaon 
arid Podaleirius belong, as we have seen, to the earliest period 
of the legend ; but he has now more, whose names indicate 
personifications of his powers, laniscus and Alexenor 3 , and 
Euamerion also called Telesphorus or Acesis 4 . A blooming 
bevy of daughters has also sprung up around him, laso, Aceso, 
Aegle, and Panaceia 5 , together with the more general personi- 
fication Hygieia or Health. The last is assumed by some to be 
not a daughter, but an independent personification, which was 
naturally associated with him and then became younger to suit 
her new character 8 : the cult of Athena Hygieia makes for 
this view. His wife's name is differently given as Xanthe, 
Lampetie, Aglai'e, or Hipponoe 7 . 

Amphiaraus in some points resembles Asclepius. He ap- 
pears in legend as a doughty hero, who took part in adventures 
such as the hunt of the Calydonian Boar 8 , the voyage of the 
Argo 9 , and through the covetousness of his wife Eriphvle, who 
accepted the famous necklace as a bribe, in the war of the 
Seven Against Thebes 10 . Fleeing before his foes in his chariot, 
drawn by the two renowned horses Thoas and Dido, he was about 
to be overtaken, when Zeus cleft the earth with a thunderbolt 
and he plunged in. Hence arose the great shrine of Amphiaraus 
at Oropus near Thebes, the seat of an oracle and a health resort, 
where the heroized seer gave responses and healed the sick". 

1 Herodas ii. 97. p. 28 (Teubn.). 

- BCH vi. 343 M , xvi. pi. vi. 7 Roscher i. 621 c. 

3 Schol. Arist. Pint. 701. 8 Apoll. i. 8. 2. 

4 Paus. i. 11. 7. Apoll. i. 9. 16. 

8 Schol. Arist. Plut. 701 ; Suid. s.v. 10 Apoll. i. 9. 13, iii. 6. 2. 
'Hirt6?i7. n He received the gift of divination 

6 Eorte, AM xviii. 250. She is by sleeping one night in the " House of 

called daughter of Asclepius by Eudocia, Divination " at Phlius, Paus. ii. 13. 7. 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 195 

Amphiaraus was not, like Asclepius, a colonising deity 1 . As 
communication became easier, patients made it a commoner 
practice to visit shrines of repute, which thus became health- 
resorts and places of pleasure not unlike the Baths or the Wells 
of eighteenth-century England. Moreover, Amphiaraus had 
not the advantage of belonging to a wandering clan ; and 
when the time of his fame arrived, it was too late for colonising : 
he had been outstript by his rival 2 . Like Asclepius, Amphiaraus 
in time becomes a god, first recognised by the Oropians but 
afterwards by all the Greeks 3 . 

It is with these two deities we shall have chiefly to do in 
the following pages ; but it will be convenient to collect at the 
same time such instances of thank-offerings to other gods as 
come within the scope of this chapter. In the Roman age we 
find a large number of new rivals for fame as healers and 
deliverers, especially Men and Anaitis in Asia Minor, Sarapis in 
Egypt and in Greece. But by this time the old ideas had lost 
their significance, and such examples will only be adduced for 
illustration. For the same purpose I shall refer to Cybele, 
Hecate and others, whose functions were not restricted to healing. 
Hecate, indeed, with or without a consort, had sometimes 
a special power in this department. A throne cut out of the 
rock is dedicated to her in Rhodes as Saviour 4 , and in the 
island of Chalce a similar throne is ascribed to her 5 . 

Three shrines are chiefly important for our survey : those of 
Asclepius at Epidaurus and at Athens, and that of Amphiaraus 
in Boeotia. Each of these fills up a gap in the record, and 
from the three we are able to piece together a fairly complete 
account of the cult. We may assume that the practice at 
Athens and at Epidaurus did not materially differ; and the 
points peculiar to the third will be noted in their place. 

The story how the Asclepieum at Athens was founded is 

1 He only colonised Byzantium ; but through Greek history, 
he had another shrine at Ehamnus. 3 Paus. i. 34. 2. 

2 The Theban oracle was very old, 4 IGI i. 914 lepb. adrreipa evaicovs 
but the sanctuary of Oropus seems to <f>w(r<t>6pos eivoSia. 

date only from the fifth century. 6 IGI i. 958 Aios, 'EKOTIJS; A.-E. 
(Frazer on Paus. ix. 8. 3.) For dream- Mitth. xviii. 4. For Cybele see CIA 
oracles Amphiaraus was worshipt all iii. 134. 

132 



196 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

interesting and instructive in more ways than one, and fortu- 
nately we have a full account of it 1 . In founding a new shrine 
the custom of the Epidaurian priests was to send out one of the 
sacred snakes* from their sanctuary. Pausanias describes how 
Asclepius came to Sicyon under the form of a snake, in 
a car drawn by a pair of mules 3 . The same thing is told 
of the founding of Epidaurus Limera 4 , and of the temple 
on the Tiber Island at Rome 5 . So when Telemachus of 
Acharnae proposed to found the Athenian shrine, in the year 
420, the same procession of snake and car may be assumed 8 . 
Asclepius then, or the priest perhaps or even the serpent, in 
place of him, was actually initiated into the Mysteries at 
Eleusis, and a statue was set up on that occasion 7 . The priest- 
hood of the Goddesses appears to have welcomed him at first, 
it may be in the hope of retaining him in their shrine ; but 
when it appeared that Telemachus was for building a new 
shrine at Athens, they turned round and fought him tooth and 
nail. Part of the precinct would lie in the Pelasgicum, which 
as we know was better empty 8 ; and whether or not for this 
reason, the college of State Heralds were egged on to claim the 
land. In time however the god prevailed, and after a few years 
he had settled down comfortably at Athens. 

The shrine of Asclepius at Athens 9 , thus erected at the close 
of the fifth century, stood in a grove of trees like the ordinary 
hero-shrines' . There were porticoes or covered buildings for the 
patients to sleep in when they consulted the god 11 . In the 



1 Paul Girard, L'AscUpieion d'A- ~> 'E<j>. 'Apx- 1894, p. 171: 
tkenes (Paris, Ernest Thorn, 1881) ; 'HpuSrjs 'A.<rK\riiri&i> etaa.ro Aijol vovaov 
Korte, AM xviii. 249. dXe^ffavr' dprtxa/uftf/xei'os. See also 

2 These were of a special breed kept Paus. ii. 26. 8 ; Philostr. Apollon. iv. 
in the precinct: Paus. ii. 11. 8; Arist. 18. 

Plut. 733; Herodas iv. 90. 8 Thuc. ii. 17. 1 rb neXaayiKOv apyov 

3 Paus. ii. 10. 3. ap.ti.vov. 

4 Paus. iii. 23. 7. 9 There was another in Peiraeus: 
4 Livy, Epitome xi. ; Ov. Met. xv. Schol. Arist. Plut. 621, etc. Beliefs 

626744; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 94. have been found there. 

8 If we accept Korte's clever restora- 10 f<f>vrevfff occurs in CIA ii 1649. A 

tion, A 31 xviii. 249. In CIA ii. 1649. tree appears on many of the reliefs. 

7 the letters ...ytv Sevpe ty\.. suggest n Girard 19; for regulations see 

rjyaytv devpe ty apfiaros. See also 'E#. 'Apx- 1885, p. 96. 
1650. 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 197 

precinct was a spring, and perhaps a basin of water for 
ceremonial use 1 . In the same precinct were afterwards erected 
a number of altars and statues of various divinities, Demeter 
and the Maid, Athena, Aphrodite, Hermes, Pan and the 
Nymphs, the hero Heracles, and later Isis and Sarapis 2 . Many 
of the votive offerings stood here, but the more precious were 
kept within the temple, stored away, placed on shelves, or on 
the walls and ceiling 3 . Withinside was a statue of Asclepius 
himself, a sacred couch and table, tripods, altars, and tables of 
offerings. The effect of the scene is well described in Herodas, 
who represents two women in the temple of Cos, in a passage 
which is worth reproducing 4 . 

Phile. Hail, healer Lord, who rulest Tricca and hast made thy 
abode in lovely Cos and Epidaurus ; and withal Coronis thy mother and 
Apollo hail, and Health, whom thy right hand touches, and those of whom 
are these honoured altars, Panace and Epio and leso, hail ; and ye who 
sackt the city of Laomedon with its fortress walls, healers of fierce disease, 
Podaleirius and Machaon, hail, and all gods and goddesses who are housed 
by thy hearth, father Paean 5 .... Put the tablet on the right hand of 
Health, Coccale. Ha, my dear Cynno, what fine statues ! why, what artist 
wrought this stone, and who offered it ? 

Cynno. The sons of Praxiteles : don't you see the writing upon the 
base there ? And Euthies son of Prexon is the dedicator. Paeon bless 
them and Euthies for the fine things. See yon girl, Phile, looking at the 
apple ? Wouldst not say she will die outright if she do not get it 1 

Phile. And the old man there, Cynno. By the fates, how the boy 
throttles the fox-goose. If 'twere not for the stone beside you, you would 
say the thing will speak. Ha, the time will come when mortals will make 
the very stones live. Dost see how that statue of Batale 6 stands, Cynno ? 
If one has never seen Batale, look at this portrait and never miss the 
other.... And if I scratch this naked boy, won't there be a wound ! 
There's the flesh throbbing warm as it were, all warm on the tablet. And 
the silver tongs ! why, if Myellus or Pataeciscus see it, won't their eyes 
fall out of their heads thinking it is really made of silver 7 ? And the ox, 

1 Girard 19; Arist. Pint. 656: 0<L- 1482. 

\arra does not necessarily mean sea- 5 A paean was sung when sickness 

water, Aesch. Again. 932. was cured, according to Schol. Arist. 

2 Girard 19. Pint. 636. 

3 Girard 16; CIA ii. 766, 835. EaraX^ TTJS fUJTrew. Is this a 

4 Herodas iv. It is curious that a proper name? or is it Batale the blind 
woman named Phile dedicates her girl? 

breasts to Asclepius in Athens, CIA ii. 7 This points to painting or silver- 



198 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

and the man leading him, and the woman who follows, and this old hook- 
nose, to the very life ! I don't want to do what ill becomes a woman, or 
I would have shrieked for fear the ox should hurt me, with that wicked 
squint in his eye. 

The Epidaurian shrine was laid out on a still more mag- 
nificent scale, with every convenience for patients and visitors. 
The temple 1 contained a gold-ivory statue of the god seated, 
which is copied in many of the votive statuettes or reliefs there 
found 2 . Besides the ordinary dormitories and porticoes, there 
was the curious Rotunda, perhaps a pump-room, with a grove, 
a stadium, and a theatre which was the pride of the place 8 . 
Its fame lasted undiminished to Roman times, and under the 
empire Antoninus (probably Pius) built a place outside the 
precinct for women lying-in and for the dying 4 . 

Our information as to the priesthood of the Athenian shrine 
is fairly full 8 . Chief of all is the priest, elected yearly until the 
Roman period, when the Zacoros grows into greater importance. 
A board of officials presides over the sacrifices. Of temple 
servants we read of the sacristan and fire-bearer, and two 
women, the basket-bearer and the Arrephoros. Some persons 
went by the title of physician, and both the priest and the 
Zacoros at least occasionally held this office 6 . A board was 
nominated yearly by the people to inspect and catalogue the 
ex-voto. In Epidaurus there were priest, pyrophoros, dadouchos, 
and zacoros ; a hierophant is also mentioned 7 . In Cos we find 
a Neocoros presiding at the occasional sacrifice of the devout, 
killing the victim, and offering prayer 8 . There were two great 
feasts in Athens, Epidauria and Asclepiea, and apparently also 
a more modest feast, the Heroa. The Epidauria celebrated the 

leafing of the reliefs, unless a picture 8 Girard 22 34 lepevs, fik-opoj ; Itpo- 

be meant. The Athenian reliefs show votoi; *c\ei5oi/xos t Trvp<pbpos, Kavrt<p6pos, 

traces of colour. The names are doubt- appri<f>6pot. 

less meant for well-known silversmiths. 6 Onetor the priest and physician: 

1 See Frazer's Pausania*, iii. p. 237 CIA ii. 835 l3 - 74 . Zacoros: CIA iii. 1. 
for a map and account of the place. 780. 

2 Cavvadias, Fouilles d'tipidaure, i. 7 Cawadias, p. 114. A society of 
pi. ix. 21 24; Paus. ii. 27. 2. Asclepiasts was found there later: 

3 Paus. ii. 27. 3ff. p. 115. 

4 Paus. ii. 27. 6. 8 Herodas iv. 79. 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 199 

initiation of the god at Eleusis ; and a relief offered perhaps 
on this occasion has been found, where Asclepius, leaning upon 
a staff, stands in the presence of Demeter and the Maid, and 
a troop of six worshippers approaches them 1 . This is con- 
jectured to be a formal public offering on behalf of five magis- 
trates or others who represent the city, having received a vote 
of thanks and a crown each for their services 2 . The Asclepiea 
seems to have been less important, as no inscriptions have been 
found which relate to it. The Heroa was doubtless held to 
keep up tradition, and we may suppose that this is the occasion 
when the Death -feast reliefs were dedicated. At the public 
feasts an ox or a bull was sacrificed ; there was a lectisternium 
and a watch-night with illuminations, as in the worship of 
other gods 3 . It is to be noted that the sacrifice had to be 
consumed within the precinct at Epidaurus and Titane 4 , at 
Athens 5 , and at the oracle of Amphiaraus 6 , which was the 
custom with heroes in some cases at least 7 . 

The private worshipper, who wisht to offer his prayer or 
find a cure for his complaint, probably had to prepare himself 
by a ceremonial purification. We know that death or birth 
was supposed to pollute a Greek shrine 8 , and in particular 
neither should take place in the shrine of Epidaurus. So 
there are indications that the worshipper was expected not 
to come in contact with such things, and must keep conti- 
nence for a certain time before he approached the god 9 . But 
let that pass : and now suppose the worshipper duly prepared. 

1 AM ii. pi. 18, Girard pi. ii. 835 6, e.g. 836 82 . 87 - 94 . 

CIA ii. 1449. Names are engraved 3 0v<ria, ffrpwffis Trjs K\ti>ris, /cioy^crtj 

above the figures, and below are five TT?J rpcnrtfrs, iravvvxl* ' Girard 39. 

names within garlands. Only three Compare CIA ii. 1. Add 435 b, 453 c, 

have the hand uplifted; the rest may Add. Nova 3736. For the table in other 

be friends, three of each set being the cults see CIA i. 4; Herod, i. 181 3. 

same. A dedication to Demeter and 4 Paus. i. 27. 1. 

Asclepius was found in the precinct, 6 Arist. Pint. 1138. 

AM ii. 243; and the two are again * IGS i. 235 31 . 

associated on a relief, BCH i. 163, 7 Paus. x. 4. 10. 

no. 33. 8 'E</>. 'Apx- 1894, p. 167 f. (inscr.); 

2 Five human names are enclosed Thuc. iii. 104. 

in wreaths: Girard I.e. Dedications 9 Rev. Arch, xxxix. 182. 
of "the people " to Asclepius in CIA ii. 



200 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

He must probably first pay an entrance fee of a few obols 1 , and 
then perform the preliminary sacrifice*. At Epidaurus, when 
the worshipper desired to be cured of a disease, it appears that 
the 7rvp<f>6po<; asked for a solemn engagement that he would 
make the customary sacrifice and offering if a cure was effected, 
which was undertaken by the patient or by some one else for 
him 8 . The patient then underwent a ceremonial cleansing 
with water 4 ; after which prayers were offered at the altar, and 
cakes were offered upon it, sometimes perhaps being burnt 5 . 
This done, he waited for the night. 

The central ceremony of the whole was that of sleeping 
in the precinct, technically called incubation 8 . That this took 
place originally in the temple there can be no doubt, and at 
Tithorea such continued to be the custom 7 . But at the larger 
health resorts, halls or colonnades were provided for the pur- 
pose. There were two at Oropus, and probably at Epidaurus 8 ; 
but the description of Aristophanes implies that men and 
women occupied the same hall at Athens, doubtless each sex 
to a side 9 . Even their friends could accompany them, if the 



1 This is not certain for the shrines <rrov <(>\oyL 

of Asclepius, but was the practice at 6 ^yicofyiijtns, eyKafJetSeiv ; the dormi- 

Oropus: IGS i. 235 etrapx-f) 9 obols. tory was ^y/cot/^rpioc or cLfiarov. See 

It was placed in the Treasury (0ij- besides the authorities to be cited, 

ffOLVpos). There was a Oyffavpbs at the Aristides i. p. 446 ; Marcus Aurelius 

shrine of Asclepius in Lebena (Crete). v. 8 ; Philostr. Apoll. i. 9, Vit. Soph. 

2 tlffiTfjT-fipiov, irpoOvfffffai Cure inscr. ii. 25. Incubation is known also at 
3339 42 ; TT pod u ^ara. Arist. Plut. 660. Sicyon (Paus. ii. 10), Troezen (Cavva- 

3 The formula is given in Cures 3339. dias, no. 2), Rome (Plant. Cure. 245). 
43 4 6 ITOUJ 6 r$ 6e$ irvp<f>opwt> ... See Pauly 1690. See also L. Duebner, 

TOV tviavrov Tvx&vra ttf d De Incubatione (Teubner, 1900). A 

airo8vffeit> TO. ta.rpa.',...vvoUKO- vivid account of the visions of a 

IMI. dwoirt/j.irfii> tarpa 3340 35 , airoSi- neurotic subject is given in Aristides 

56wt 3339 88 , dirdyftv 3340 8 . xlviii.. (Keil), ifpw \6yuv ii. 

4 Arist. Plut. 656 vpCrrov ^v avrbv ' The reader will remember how 
cirl 6d.\a.TTav yyouev, lireir' tXovutv. young Samuel slept in the Tabernacle 
This was not the sea, for the scene and had a dream : 1 Samuel iii. 

was in Athens not at the Peiraeus: 8 For a description of the remains 

Schol. v. 621 and Frazer on Paus. ii. see Frazer on Paus. ii. 27. 2. It was 

27. 2. At Epidaurus there was a well. certainly enclosed with walls: see 

8 Arist. Plut. 655 with Schol., 661: Cures in Baunack i. p. 118. 
ir6iraa>a, Kal wpo6v/jMTO., irt\avos 'H<f>ai- B Arist. Plut. 688. 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 201 

poet has kept to fact, which there is no reason to doubt 1 . 
During the night, the god was expected to appear in a vision, 
and either to treat the patients or to tell them what to do. 
Hear Aristophanes describe the scene : 

"All round," says Carion in the comedy, "were people sick of all 
manner of diseases. In comes the verger 2 , puts out the lights, and bids us 
sleep ; and, quotha, if you hear a noise, keep a quiet tongvie. So we all 
composed ourselves decently for sleep. But sleep I could not, for my eye 
caught a pot of pease which stood just behind the old gammer's head, and 
I had a monstrous craving to crawl after it. Then I looked up, and what 
should I see but the priest grabbing the cakes and figs from the sacred 
table. Then he made the round of all the altars, to see if there was a 
biscuit or two left, and these he consecrated into a bag he had with him. 
I looked on the performance with much awe, and up I got to fetch the 
pease." " You bold bad man," says the other, " weren't you afraid of the 
god ?" "Afraid ! yes, afraid that he might get there first with his garlands ; 
the priest showed me the way, you see. Well, when gammer heard the 
noise I made, she got hold and tried to pull it away ; but I gave a hiss and 
bit her, as though I had been one of those hooded snakes." 

Cario then tells how the priest, with laso and Panacea, went 
round inspecting all the diseases ; and although the story 
now becomes pure farce, it is clear that he diagnosed them 
after a fashion, examining the wounds, and treating them with 
his drugs. When he came to Plutus, after treating his blind 
eyes, he whistled, and a couple of great snakes came out which 
proceeded to lick them ; and the blind was made whole 3 . 

This picture is certainly true to life, for it can be paralleled 
in almost every particular from the votive reliefs and from the 
Cures of Epidaurus. These remarkable inscriptions, which 
Pausanias saw in the dorter 4 , contain a long list of miraculous 
cures, which remind one of nothing so much as a modern patent 
medicine. There were similar tablets at Cos and Tricca 5 , which 
have not yet been found; and fragments of others have been 

1 Arist. Plut. 658. The inscrr. date from the 4th cent., 

2 TT/aoTroXos, Plut. 670 ff . but they contain older cures (Aelian, 

3 Arist. Plut. 732. Nat. An. ix. 33, mentions the woman 

4 Paus. ii. 27. 3; Cavvadias, i. 23 ff.; of Troezen with a worm inside her). 
Baunack, Studien, i. 120 ff. ; IPI i. Another Epidaurian miracle in Didot, 
9512; Collitz, Gr. Dialekt-Inschr. Frag. Hist. Gr. ii. 158. 

iii. 33393341. I quote from Collitz. 5 Strabo, viii. p. 374. 



202 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

unearthed at Lebena in Crete 1 . In the Epidaurian Cures we 
see that the patient lay to sleep just as the poet describes. 
Faith he must have had, or he would never have got so far ; 
and in his exalted state he was prepared to believe that the 
figures which appeared before him were really divine. We can 
hardly doubt that the priest and his attendants were got up to 
represent the god and his sons and daughters, which would help 
the illusion. So in the votive tablets, which we shall examine 
by and by, the divine personages feel the diseased part, and 
apply remedies to it. In the Cures the god, or a "hand- 
some man," as he is realistically described sometimes 8 , pours 
medicine into diseased eyes, and anoints them with ointment 3 . 
Or he uses massage, chafing the stomach 4 or the head 5 , and 
giving medicine and instructions how to use it 8 . He even 
attempts surgery, extracting a lance-head 7 or cutting an ulcer 8 . 
Now and then he enquires the symptoms 9 ; he even condescends 
to ask what the patient will give if he be cured, and can enjoy 
a humorous answer 10 . Nothing is too humble for him : he will 
even compound me a hair-restorer for one whose bald head has 
been the mock of his friends". The tame snakes 12 and dogs 18 are 
frequently mentioned ; they come out and lick the sores or the 
eyes of the sufferers. Dogs appear also at the Asclepiari shrine 
in Peiraeus 14 . 

Some of the cures are clearly made up, or doctored for 
effect. Sheer impossible miracles are to be found among them, 
such as the mending of a broken earthenware pot 18 . The sceptic 
who will not believe is trotted out and convinced 16 , and solemn 

1 I saw them there in August, 1900. 9 Cures 3340 30 . 
No doubt other such were found else- 10 Cures 3339 69 . 
where. " Cures 3339 l24 . 

2 Cures 3339 117 SoKftr veavlffKov et- Cures 3339 113 6.vr,p SO.KTV\OV laOi) 
irpevi) rii/j. p.op<pdv lirl rbv SO.KTV\OV vv6 o<f>ios...0wov dt viv Xa/SjpTos Iv 
iirnrr)v <f>apfjMKoi>, 3340 30 . TOI/TOH Spaicuv K rov dparov ti-eXOuv 

3 Cures 33S9 39 ' 77 - 121 , 3340 in . lnaa.ro rai yXAffffat. 

4 Cures 3340 125 . 13 Cures 3339 127 <j>a.ptMKwi...lhrap i/iro 

6 Cures 3340 M . KW&S Oepawevbutvos, 3340 87 rat y\uff<rai 
8 Cures 3340 1M : he gives a 0td\o, tOfponrfwre. 

with directions. 14 'E#. 'Apx- 1885, 88; CIA ii. 1651. 

7 Cures 3339 98 , 3340 67 . Cures 3339 79 

8 Cures 3340 61 . 16 Cures 3339 M . 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 203 

warnings are addrest to the scornful. Aeschines was a naughty 
lad, who climbed up in a tree and peept into the place 
where the suppliants were sleeping. He immediately fell down, 
and his eyes were put out by the fall. Now he was compelled 
to eat humble pie, and to become a suppliant himself, when the 
god magnanimously cured him 1 . Terrible also is the fate of 
those who forget to pay their dues after they have been cured. 
A blind man who received sight and then declined to pay, became 
blind again until he had done so 8 . Another man, who had been 
cured of disfiguring marks on the face, sent his fee by a friend's 
hand, but the friend disowned the payment. It so happened that 
the friend came to be cured of a similar affliction ; and as he lay 
in the holy place, the god took down from the wall the other 
man's bandage (which had been left in grateful remembrance 
of the cure) and laid it upon the deceiver's face ; who departed 
thence punisht like Gehazi, with the original scars besides 
his own 3 . In view of such things as these, it may be objected 
that there is not a tittle of evidence for the truth of one of 
them. To this I reply, that there is no reason why some of 
them should not be true. In cases of nervous disease, such as 
paralysis 4 , the high-strung imagination may have worked a 
cure, as it does to this day at Tenos or Lourdes. Nor is there 
any reason why the priests or doctors, call them what you will, 
should not have had some rough and ready knowledge of drugs 
and surgery, like the bone-setters or herbalists of rustic England, 
which they found it convenient to use with a certain amount of 
mummery. In fact they took up the same position with regard 
to the unlearned, as in our own day priestly advocates of the 
esoteric interpretation of ritual take up towards the laity. One 
of the Epidaurian cures, that of a Roman, M. Julius Apellas, 
describes minutely both the symptoms of the disease and the 
treatment, which was chiefly dietary 6 ; and a fragment of a 
similar document was found at Lebena 6 ; Hippocrates himself, 
if we are to believe tradition, learnt the elements of his craft 
from the Cures of Cos. But whatever be the fact about the 

1 Cures 3339 90 . 5 Cures No. Ix. 

2 Cures 3340 7 . 6 Seen by the writer, 1900. Other 

3 Cures 3339 60 . records from this place in AM xxi. 

4 Cures Nos. xiii., xiv. 67 ff. 



204- GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

cures, yet the setting of them must have been true. If there 
were no incubation, no vision of a god or a handsome man, no 
dogs and snakes, the testimonials would have simply excited 
the laughter of those who came to seek health from the god. 

Incubation was also practised at the oracle of Amphiaraus, 
but the ceremony which preceded it differed from that we have 
described above. Those who would consult the oracle first 
purified themselves, then sacrificed a ram, and slept on his skin 1 . 

And now, in spite of all reasons to the contrary, the patient 
is cured : he is to pay the thank-offering due. A private 
person, unless he be rich, can hardly be expected to offer a bull, 
or even a pig 2 ; his tribute was commonly a cock. We return to 
Herodas, who describes this part of the proceedings 8 . 

" Hither come," cries Phile, invoking the gods named, " and be kind to 
us for this cock which I sacrifice to thee, the herald of the house, and 
accept the cakes and fruit 4 . We have not much substance nor to spare, 
else would I bring thee an ox, or a sow in pig 5 fat enough, and no cock, to 
pay for the healing 6 of the diseases which thou hast wiped away, with thy 
gentle hands touching them. Put the tablet on Health's right hand, 
Coccale." 

The victim is handed to the attendant 7 , who goes out and 
kills it. When the worshippers have gazed their fill at the 
sights, they recall him, and he enters through a door 8 , with the 
words 9 , 

Good is your sacrifice, women, and promises well for you ; no one ever 
had greater favour of Paeon than you have. Ie ie Paie'on, be gracious to 
these women for this sacrifice, and to their lovers if they have any, 
and their offspring to come. Ie ie Paieon, so be it, amen ! 

1 Pans. i. 34. 5; cp. Lucian, De models have been found at several 
Dea Syria, 55 ; Strabo, vi. p. 284, places (see chapter vm.) ; but I do not 
describes a similar rite in the shrine venture to assert that these are for 
of Calchas at Drium (Apulia); so at healing. They may be models of a 
Athens, Hesych. and Suid. .t>. Aio? quite common sacrifice. 

KuOiov. * rdiriSopira. 

2 BCH ii. 70 ; Herodas, iv. 15. 6 vevrjutviiv xotpoi'. 

3 Herodas iv. 12 ff. ; Lncian, Bis 6 trjrpa ; cp. tarpa Cures passim. 
Ace. 5; Artem. Oneir. v. 9; Pint. 7 veuK6pos. 

Pyrrhus iii. 8; GIG 5890. 66. Socra- 8 i] Otpri yap wucrai icdvfiO' 6 iraoroj, 

tes" last words, then (Phaedo 118 A), 55. 

would appear to be ironical. It 9 Herodas iv. 79 ff . 

should be mentioned that cock- 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 205 

Phile. Amen, so be it, O mighty! and in all health may we come 
again with husbands and children bringing greater victims. Coccale, 
don't forget to cut the leg of the fowl for the attendant, and pop the cake 
into the serpent's hole in dead silence, and moisten the barley-meal. 
We'll eat the rest at home. And don't forget to give some for Health. 

Thus the thank-offering is made, the prayer is said ; the 
temple receives its dues, and the rest of the victim makes all 
merry at home. At Epidaurus and at Oropus the whole had 
to be eaten in the precinct, and none might be taken away 1 ; we 
do not know what was the rule at Athens. 

We read of a physician, it will be remembered, in the 
Athenian inscriptions, and it is worth while enquiring what 
the relation was of the Asclepian shrines to scientific medicine 
or surgery 2 . Scientific doctors there were in ancient Greece, as 
we know, the most notable being the medical school of Cos 
with its great leader Hippocrates 3 ; where also at a later date 
the professional physician is known 4 . In the works which have 
come down to us under this name are included a large number 
of independent treatises by different persons ; some of which 
are of real value, and show that the ancient schools used 
research and experiment, and had more than empirical know- 
ledge of their art. There are also collections of cases among 
them, which describe symptoms, treatment, and result. How 
seriously the physicians took their calling may be seen from 
the remarkable oath which all had to take before admission to 
the guild 5 . That there were professional physicians practising 
at Athens in the sixth century is proved by the tablet of 
Aeneus already described 6 . In the fifth century we find private 
practitioners 7 , and also public physicians appointed by the state 

1 Paus. ii. 27. 1 ; IGS i. 235. Did Thucydides draw on professional 

2 La Medecine publique dans I'anti- knowledge in describing the plague ? 
quite grecque, Rev. Arch, xxxix. 99, 4 Collitz iii. 3618 TUV larpuv rwv 
231, 309, 348. 8ajio(Tiv6vTwv, etc. 

3 See the chapter in Gompertz, 5 Littre, (Euvres d'Hippocrate, iv. 
Greek Thinkers, i. 275 ff. An interest- 628 S. 

ing inscription of Cyprus records the 6 Above, p. 79. 

hire of a doctor by the king of Idalion 7 Idturetoi'Tes, Plat. Polit. 259 A ; 

to treat his wounded soldiers, Collitz Gorgias 514 E; Aristoph.-Eccfes. 365 6. 
i. 60. So in Carpathos, IGI i. 1032. 



206 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

to a dispensary or hospital 1 . Herodotus* speaks of one Demo- 
cedes, of Croton, most famous physician of his day ; and at 
an early date we find Menocritus of Samos practising in 
Carpathos 8 . These physicians were distinct from the staff of 
the Asclepieum, but there does not seem to have been any 
antagonism between them. In the third century it was an 
' ancient custom ' for the public physicians to sacrifice twice a 
year to Asclepius and Hygieia, and to make an offering on 
their own behalf and their patients 4 . Such may have been the 
origin of the relief already described, where six worshippers 
approach Asclepius, Demeter, and the Maid 8 ; of the three 
names inscribed above the tablet, two are known to have been 
physicians, Epeuches and Mnesitheus 8 . Perhaps the people on 
this occasion voted money for the cup mentioned in the Ascle- 
pian lists, as they did for the ephebes at Eleusis 7 . The fact is, 
the physicians and the temple appealed to different classes of 
persons. The fullest information available as to the ancient 
dedicators comes from the Inventories of the Athenian shrine 8 . 
There the women are slightly in excess of the men 9 . A number 
of priests are among them, but their dedications do not 
concern us here 10 . Nicomachus is called physician as well 
as priest", and so is Onetor 12 . Half-a-dozen more priests 



1 iarphs S-rjuofftftjuv, elected by x- CIA ii. 835 6. 

porovla: Schol. Ar. Ach. 1030. Plato, 8 CIA ii. 766 (B.C. 341/40), 835, 836 

Gorg. 455 B. For the larpetov see Eev. (B.C. 32017), 839. 

Arch, xxxix. I.e. 9 I make the proportion 291 : 233, 

2 Herod, iii. 125, 131 2. but the same name often recurs, so 

3 Rev. Arch. viii. 469 (Girard). See that the number of dedications is 
p. 205 3 . considerably greater. One person dedi- 

4 CIA ii. 352 b (Add. Nova) {weidy cates no less than fifteen times. 
Tr&rpwv tffTiv rot-s larpolt Sffoi 8i)no<rifu- 10 They were official, not thank-offer- 
ovffiv 0uivTui'A0K\Tiiriui Kal Trji'Yyiflai ings; thus Nicomachus dedicates a 
Sis TOV tviavTov vvep re avT&v Kal ruv censer made out of old offerings melted 
ffufidrwv uv ZKCUTTOI Idaavro: early 3rd down CIA ii. 836 33 ; Lysanias spends 
century. the price of a sacrificial ram on an 

5 AM ii. 243, pi. xviii. ; Girard 43, offering 836 33 . 

pi. ii; BCH ii. 88. " CIA ii. 836 17 ss 'OvtJTwp larpbs. 

6 AMi%. 80; above, p. 199 1 . 12 CIA ii. 835 13 - 84 itpevs ' 

7 CIA ii. 471. 34. There are several MeXtrei/j. 
dedications of the people in the lists 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 207 

are named : Archicles, Antocles, Ctesonicles, Philocrates, Theo- 
dorus, Xenocritus. One dedicator is termed ap^i^e'topcx? 1 . 
Beyond these there is nothing to tell who the dedicators were, 
or what was their calling in life 2 . The names are as other Greek 
names, but those of women are often diminutives. It must be 
borne in mind that these lists do not include all the offerings 
in the temple, nor perhaps the chief of them. There are no 
inventories amongst the Epidaurian inscriptions, but in the 
Cures there is evidence that it was usual to dedicate a 
memorial after cure 8 . Childish anecdotes like the Epidaurian 
Cures would have been rejected by Plato or Sophocles as readily 
as by any educated man of to-day ; such as these, and doubtless 
the richer citizens, with a few exceptions like Theopompus 4 , 
went to the physicians. But the ordinary Greek was simple, 
and tried the faith cure, which was at once cheaper and more 
in accord with ancient tradition. If we set aside the temple 
officials, who naturally would support the establishment, most 
of the dedicators' names in the lists lack the demotic adjective; 
which may imply that they were foreigners, or humble trades- 
men, not citizens of Athens. Or the temple might be the last 
resort of those who could get no relief from the physicians, as 
Micythus of Rhegium 5 , and the sufferer in the Anthology 6 : 
a small indication, but it points the same way as our theory. 
In this respect modern analogies are instructive. To pass by 
the peasants of Europe, who still consult their wise women and 
seventh sons of a seventh son, the sanctuaries of the Levant 
show much the same thing as we are assuming for the ancient. 
There are properly trained doctors in every part of the Greek 
world ; yet the people still throng to the feast of the Virgin at 



1 CIA ii. 835 *>. foOt^a. 3339 59 . Cp. 3339 39 - 7 - 60 - 89 . 

2 From Phocis we have a stone- 4 See below, p. 217 l . 
mason's dedication: <f>L\uv \t6ovpybs 5 Herod, vii. 170; above, p. 192. 
'Ao-KXcuriwt, Collitz ii. 1541. On the 6 Anth. Pal. \i.S30 OvriTtav ptv T^xva-i? 
Acropolis, before the Persian invasion, airopovtj.fi>os, es 5 TO Oeiov tXirtSa irairay 
& fuller makes a dedication to Health, tx uv > TpoXnrwv eSTraiSas 'Atfi^as, Id6r)v 
above p. 188 13 , 191 8 . t\dwv, 'Ao-/cX^7Tie, ny>ds TO <r&v <SX<roj, 

3 Xti/Suv whiMTa. ware avOtnev T$ Oe(j) AKOS fyuv Ke0aXijj eviadffiov , tv rpurl 
Cures 3339 54 , el \oi xp^juara eiriBrjv 



208 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Tenos or Ayassos, and to many another shrine ; the monasteries 
generally contain one or more families who come in hope of 
healing and deliverance 1 . 

We may classify as follow the offerings which commemorate 
a deliverance from sickness. 

1. The Image of the Deliverer. 

2. The Image of the Person Delivered. 

3. Representation of the act or process. 

4. Miscellaneous. 

(1) Image of the Deliverer. A number of bases, or frag- 
ments of bases, found at Athens, seem to have borne statues 
of Asclepius. Asclepius was probably dedicated by Cichesippus 
in the fourth century*, and Hygieia with him in another case 8 ; 
she also stands alone 4 . Herodes dedicates to Demeter a statue 
of the god as initiate 8 . It is possible, of course, that some of 
these bases bore statues of the persons delivered. At Epidaurus 
were found many statuettes of the god, some inscribed, but 
none of early date 8 . One bears the legend, " Ctesias to the 
Saviour 7 " ; another has a verse inscription of Plutarchus, high- 
priest of Bromius in Athens in the fourth century after Christ 8 . 
Statuettes of Hygieia are also preserved 9 , one dedicated to her 
as Saviour and Telesphoros 10 , one as medical fee". A statuette 
of Athena, of Roman date, is inscribed to Athena Hygieia by 
a priest of Asclepius 1 *. It would seem, then, that the image 
of the god was not dedicated by private persons in early times 
for the healing of disease. Perhaps the seated image of Hecate 
from Attica belongs to this place ; but who knows 13 ? 

1 See below, p. 236. Lebena in Crete. 

3 CIA ii. 1455 'Ao-KXijTrtwi Ktxi}<riir- " Cat. Ath. Sc. 270. 

iroj Atocvo-fov 'Avaicaiei)? <W0rjK, 2rpa- 8 Cat. Ath. Sc. 264. 

ruvidrjs tirbrjtrt. There has been a 9 Cat. Ath. Sc. 271 ff. 

verse inscription below, of which the 10 Cat. Ath. Sc. 272 ffUTeiprj xal Te- 

words dujpov 0u>( tlvat appear. \tff<p(tpu. 

3 CIA ii. 1551. " Cat. Ath. Sc. 271 tarpa; cp. Epid. 

4 CIA ii. 1446, if the inscr. is com- Cures. 

Plete (?). 12 Cat. Ath. Sc. 274 'ABijvai " 

5 'E0. 'Apx- 1894, 171; see p. 196 7 . 6 2epei>j rov ffurrjpot ' A(nc\T}iriou. 
9 Cat. Ath. Sc. 263 ff. Others at " CIA iv. 2. 422 s Atyuv 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 209 

The same idea, but distorted, suggested the dedication of 
the physician. In the latter part of the fourth century a sick 
girl seems to have vowed this offering in ease of cure, and her 
father paid it 1 . This is practically a honorific statue, and it 
falls after the great dividing line. The statue of Polycritus, 
which was represented with a libation vessel in its hand, if he 
were the famous physician of Mende, was probably honorific ; 
but it may belong to the next class 2 . 

Several of the offerings are snakes. Four little snakes are 
offered together 3 ; a woman of Megalopolis gives a silver snake, 
weighing nearly 25 drachmae 4 ; another is given by Philista 5 . 
It is conceivable that these had some reference to the temple 
snakes, which as we have seen used sometimes to lick the 
patients ; and the snake is found carved alone on reliefs of late 
date 6 . The snakes in that case would by a convention represent 
the instrument by which the god acts. But there is no evidence 
whatever for this, and I do not believe it. They may be all 
ornaments, bracelets or what not ; but it is only fair to mention 
them here, because at the end of the fourth century many 
things are possible which would have been impossible in the 
fifth. It should also be added that terra-cotta serpents were 
found in the shrine of the Mistress at Lycosura 7 . 

(2) The Image of the Person Delivered. There are no 
examples of this class before late in the fourth century, when 
honorific statues were common 8 . Herodas speaks of a portrait 
statue of a worshipper at Cos 9 , but we do not know the date 
of Herodas. At Epidaurus, Clearista dedicated a statue of her 



Berl. Hus. Three - figured pbs TOU dvdpidvros TOV HoXvicplrov. 

hecataea are more probably the me- 3 CIA ii. 836. 14 SpaKovria r^rrapa. 

morials of some feast: AM xxv. 173 4 CIA ii. 836. 66 dpdKuv dpyvpovs. 

(Samos). 5 CIA ii. 835. 7 otpidiov dpyvpovv. 

1 CIA ii. 1461 Qavforparos. A-n\o(pdv-r]s 6 Page 222. 

dv^6r]K XoXap-yevs tlicova njvSe rrjs av- 7 Frazer, Pausanias iv. 370. I should 

rov Ovyarpos AupCSos v|a(ivr]s A.V&I- like to see those serpents. Ancient 

/tax 7 ?' yap Wpl 8os ircuwviov \8wv bronze serpents were found on the 

\eipa. fitja-s (rwTT?/3...opryv. As to the Acropolis of Athens, all which may 

part of the restoration which I am re- have been parts of larger objects and 

sponsiblefor, seeSuidass.i;.0e67ro/roy, probably were so. 

below, p. 217 1 . 8 For IGA 549 see ch. vni. 

2 CIA ii. 766. 28 olvoxo-n tic rfc x- 9 Herodas iv. 36, 37. 

R, 14 



210 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



son to Asclepius 1 , and the date of this is taken to be about 300. 
A father similarly dedicates his son in the Athenian shrine to 
Asclepius and Hygieia*. No doubt other bases, inscribed on 
a son or a daughter's behalf, bore portrait statues. The only 
parallel I have noticed in the lists is the child of Philostratus 3 , 
a gold or silver statuette of eight drachmae weight. A number 
of statuettes of children, found in the Athenian precinct, were 
doubtless votive*. One patient in the Epidaurian Cures promises 
to set up a portrait 8 ; and a man and wife dedicate their two 
sons in fulfilment of such a vow 8 . We must not forget, how- 
ever, that these images or reliefs, as the descriptions show, are 
commonly in the attitude of prayer, and thus fall into line with 
the earlier representations of the act or process which the god 
has blest (section 3 below). It is only late we could expect 
to find a realistic figure of a patient in the last stage of 
consumption, like that from Soissons 7 . 

During the same period another custom grew up, that of 
dedicating models of the diseased part 8 . This custom shows 



1 Cawadias, no. 23. 

* CIA ii. 1500. 

3 CIA ii. 836 ^ ircuSiov 
end of 4th cent. 

* AM ii. 197, note 2. 

8 avOrjffelv oi flKbva ypaij/d/j.evos 
3339 M ; marble was painted, so it is 
not possible to say which is meant. 

6 Collitz iii. 3301 ZTpdruv Qeuvls 
'Apyeioi robs fioi)s y Air6\\uvi 'Ao'/cXa.TritDi 
fvxdv. Later, and in modern times, 
the idea has seemed natural. Compare 
the passage from Aristides xlviii. quoted 
below, p. 211 *; and see De Brasses' 
Letters, tr. Lord Ronald Gower, p. 283 
(Casa Santa at Loreto): "Opposite, 
an angel in silver presents to the 
Madonna a little Louis XIV in gold, 
of the same weight as the prince 
weighed when he first appeared in 
this world : it was a vow of Anne of 
Austria." With the same idea, the 
lover in a late Greek romance dedi- 
cates to Aphrodite a golden image 



of his beloved lady: Chaereas and 
Callirrhoe, iii. 6 : elSe irapd rrjv Oebv 
eli<6va. Kd\\ipp6j]s xP vff ^ v t dvddrjfia. 
Aiowffiov. It was recognised by her 
husband. The same feeling in modern 
Greece is echoed by the poet Solomos, 
who, speaking of a shepherd girl who 
has lost a lamb, makes her say: a> 
TravayLO. ftov, icdfie TO 6avfjM, Kal va. at 
Kdfj.w Zva dpvl. 6V dffrjfjif'vio va. TO Kp/j.diru 
eh Ti)v fiKova (rov TT) (mm-/! (Works, 
p. 285). 

7 Rev. Arch. i. 458, pi. B ; CIO 
6855 b ; Michaelis, Richmond 29 : sick 
man in chair, bronze with silver eyes, 



8 C. F. Pezold, De membris humanis 
diis gentium dedicatis ; J. J. Frey, De 
more diis simulacra membrorum con- 
secrandi ; these books I have not been 
able to get. The bronze or marble 
hands, with all kinds of symbolic 
things upon them, have nothing to 
do with us here (see Elworthy, Horns 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 



211 



how low the artistic taste of the Greeks had already fallen, 
but it is not without its moral interest. We are not to suppose 
any idea of mystical substitution 1 ; as before, it is the simple 
wish to perpetuate the memory of the divine help, but the fact 
that the old idea takes a new shape proves that it is alive. 
Whilst in other directions piety had generally become an empty 
form, here it lived still, and it has continued living from that 
time to this. 

These objects made of gold or silver are extremely common 
in the lists. In modern times they are made of the thinnest 
possible silver foil, very rarely of gold or gilded 2 ; but as one 
or two in the lists are said to be hollow 3 , the implication is that 
they were then usually solid. It must be remembered that the 
patients practically paid their doctors' bills in this way ; and 



of Honour). Some of the Italian offer- 
ings of this class have been described 
by L. Stieda, R. M. xiv. 230ff. Aristides 
vi. 69 dXXa Kal fj.t\r) TOV erw/ctaroj airovv- 
TaL Tives, Kal avSpes \tyta Kal yvvaiKes, 
Trpovoia TOV 6eov yevecrOai. ff(f>iffl, TUV 
irapa T??J (ftvffew SiatpOaptvTwv. Kal 
KaTa\eyovffiv aXXos aXXo n, ol /J.ev airb 
<TT6fjiaTos ovTWirl (ppdfrovres, ol S' Iv TO?J 
avad-f]fJ.O(Tiv e^r]yov/j.evoi. ij/juv Toivvv 
ov"xl fdpos TOV (rwytiaros dXX" ciirav rb 
ffCjfJLa. ffvvffets Te Kal ffvfaw^^as avTbs 
ZSuKe Supedv. Clem. Alex. Stromata 
v. 566 D TO. Te uTa Kal TOI)S 6(pda\fju)vs 
oi 8-rifj.iovpyovvTes el- v\-ns Ti/jdas Ka6ie- 
pouffi rots 6eois ava.Ti6vTes tls rous vewj. 
Parts of the body named in CIA ii. 
835 and 836. Doubtful names and 
words are not counted : the numbers 
must be taken as approximate only. 
aido'tov 11, y6vv 1, SO.KTV\OS, SO.KTV\OI 3, 
TJpr) ywaiKbs 2 (once ^77 of a man), 
iffxta 2, KapSia 4, Ke<pa\ri 1, 6d6vTes 
1, ouj, <5ra, wrdpia 20, 6<p6a\/j.6$ , 
6<f>0a\fju>i 121, 7r65ej 1, irpbauirov (or 
part) 10, pis 1, fftay<l}i> 2, cncAos, ffK^Xrj 
36, ffTrjtios 2, <rr6 / ixa 7, crw/io, <ru/juiTiov 
58, TiT06s, TT^, TiTdlov (sing, or pi.) 12, 
1, x e ^P> X e ip e *> "Xfi-pi^ov 18. 



Shrine of Hero latros CIA ii. 403: 
/j-Tjpoi, 6(f>6a\/j.ol, xdp. Golden models 
of parts of the body in India : North 
Ind. Notes and Queries, 1893, ii. 6; 
silver eyes offered in smallpox, iv. 42. 

1 Nor the sacrifice of a part for the 
whole, another idea which is found 
late. Aristides xlviii. 27. 472 describ- 
ing what the god told him to do, says : 
5eiv Se Kal TOV <rw//.aro$ avrov irapa,Tp.ve(.v 
virep ffUTr/plas TOV iravTbs ' dXXa yap 
flvat TOVTO pyu>5fs ' TOVTO /Jifv yap Si) 
TrapUvai fj.oi, dvn Se TOVTOV TOV SaKTV\tov 
ov efopovv irepi{\6/j.evov dvaOeivai T$ 
Te\e<r<p6p<j}. TO yap avTo Troieiv uxrirep 
av ei TOV SdKTvXov avTov TrpoelfJ.r]v. At 
Gurgaon, in India, there was a man so 
fond of a shrine, that he happening to 
die there his body could not be re- 
moved until one of his fingers was cut 
off and buried in the shrine: North 
Indian Notes and Queries, v. 544. The 
sacrifice of a finger is sometimes a 
substitute for human sacrifice; see 
Frazer, Pausanias, iv. 355. 

2 I have seen gold or gilt specimens 
in Patmos, Tenos, and Calymnos, but 
I remember no others. 

3 CIA ii. 835. 

142 



212 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

a fashionable physician's fee would make a very respectable 
silver leg. The favourite disease in Athens during the fourth 
century seems to have been bad eyes : votive eyes, in ones and 
twos, make up two-fifths of the whole number. Next to the 
eye comes the trunk : this may betoken internal pains, or it 
may include various segments of the body which would tell 
different tales if we could see them. Two patients out of every 
fifteen suffered from bad legs, and one out of fifteen from ear- 
ache or diseases of the hand. Breast, face, mouth, and penis 
are each several times represented ; and now and then half 
a face or the lower part is specified. Head, feet, fingers, knee 
and jawbone also appear; one man had toothache, while one 
man and one woman gave their hearts to Asclepius in fact 
the woman actually offered two. 

If Asclepius was successful as an oculist, Amphiaraus seems 
to have been a specialist in lung complaints. At least his list 
contains dozens and dozens of breasts, all presented by men ; 
one man gives sixty or seventy of them to the shrine. There 
are also the face, the hand, the nipple, and the pudenda ; but 
the number of such things is small 1 . The worshippers evidently 
consulted the oracle about other things than bodily health, so 
that we cannot assume that the votive bowls and baskets, 
scrapers, lamps, and masks, or the figures of Victory", had 
necessarily to do with sickness or health. How far these things 
were common elsewhere we do not know ; but there is apparently 
a golden model of the pudenda muliebria in Delos 3 , where also 
were a bronze leg and ear 4 (perhaps fragments of vessels), and 
a number of golden or silvern breasts 8 (possibly a kind of vase). 

Parts of the body were also made in relief or repousse* work. 
Amongst these we have the trunk 6 , the eye 7 , the ear 8 , the leg 9 , 

1 The parts of the body mentioned * BCH vi. 33, lines 44, 93, xiii. 412. 
are : aldoiov, /uaoTos, irpbffuirov (wpoffA- See Athenaeus 487 B. 

irtov), TiT06s, x e fy> : for yua<rr6$ see note 5 . 6 CIA ii. 835 ^ TI/TTOJ n-pAs irivaidui, 

2 Yet there were Victories dedicated tvi ff&/j.a dv5/>6s. 

in the Asclepieum : CIA ii. 766 15 . No 7 CIA ii. 835 14 trw/ta fr -njirwi Kal 

doubt ornaments. 600aX/x6s. 

3 BCH vi. 50, line 202 : xp^ofo TI/TTOJ 8 CIA ii. 835 17 TUTTOI, oCs / 
jur7T/HK6s. rt> elanrpaxO^v. 

* BCH vi. 47, line 167. CIA ii. 835 * <rxAof. 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 213 

and doubtless a fine variety of other members and sections of 
them. But while the round form is best suited to metal work, 
the relief is suited best for stone ; and the parts of the human 
body represented in this way are very numerous. These hardly 
appear in the fourth century, but in the third they spring 
suddenly into favour and never lose it again. The reason may 
well be, as Bruckner has plausibly suggested 1 , the law which 
Demetrius of Phalerum made during his rule over Athens 
(317 307), forbidding the custom of erecting sepulchral reliefs. 
This killed the whole industry, and in a generation there were 
few workmen skilful enough to do more than rudely to carve 
a limb. There appear to be only three which can be assigned 
to the fourth century. One is a woman's breasts, dedicated by 
Phile to Asclepius 2 ; another is also a breast, found in the 
neighbouring shrine of the hero Amynus 3 ; the third is a fore- 
head and a pair of eyes dedicated by Praxias 4 . Amongst others 
are Menestratus' leg 8 , a foot and leg 6 , part of the trunk 7 , the 
upper part of a couple of thighs 8 , breast 9 , penis 10 , finger 11 . Most 
of those just mentioned are quite late. A new type which comes 
into favour in the Roman age, is represented by a pair of large 
feet in the round, placed upon a small base 12 . In Roman times 
this practice must have been very common, and feet in clay 
of all sizes may be seen in nearly every museum. Of those 
which may be assigned to Greek cities I would name one 
which came from Athens 13 ; and two colossal feet with sandals, 
finisht off at the top and not fragments, coquettishly poised 

1 A A 1892. 23; cp. AM xviii. 245. and Hygieia. Compare 3709, 4764; 
So in one generation the art of wood CIA iii. 132 h. 

engraving has been killed by the de- 7 Sybel 2982 4 ('A<r*cX. ei>xw), 4689. 
testable 'process.' 8 CIA iii. 132 g: inscr. to Ascl. and 

2 CIA ii. 1482 $1X17 'AoTcXTjTrtuH. Hyg. evxfy- 

Other breasts : Sybel 941, 1133, 1154. 9 CIA iii. 132 k : Ascl. eW- Sybel 

3 CIA ii. 1511 c; AM xviii. 241 2995, 3015 &vd8wa 'E/cdX^s. 
(woodcut). 10 Sybel 4058. 

4 CIA ii. 1453 inrtp rfc yvvaiKtis n Sybel 4385. Nose Sybel 1126, ear 
IIpata.s 'Aer/cXTjTriwi. 1151. 

5 CIA ii. 1503 MfvtffTparos evxV 12 CIA iii. 132 i : <X. 'Ea-f/mjTos to 
avifa\Kev : Sybel 7213. Ascl. and Hyg. ei/xty- 

6 Sybel 2980 : inscr. to Asclepius 13 Cat. Berl. Mus. 661. 



214 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

on a base, which were found in South Russia 1 : these are of 
stone. Melition of Thera, who seems to have suffered from 
elephantiasis, hit on a quaint way of indicating her gratitude 
to the god ; around the word which described her disease she 
had drawn a line representing the gigantic size of her foot 
before the divine power came upon it 8 . A ghastly pair of ears, 
done in relief and painted, from Epidaurus, belongs to the 
Roman age 3 . From Melos comes half a left leg 4 . 

There were even models of disease, like the golden boils and 
blains in the ark of Jehovah. Thus Timothea dedicates an 
ulcer 8 ; and possibly the Epidaurian patient who was cured 
of the same thing may have commemorated it in the same 
way 6 . Perhaps the inner part of another's ear was realistically 
portrayed in diseased form 7 . 

A large number of these articles come from the shrines of 
other healing deities. There was in Athens, near the Areo- 
pagus, a shrine and a cult of a hero Amynus, the Helper, 
excavated a few years since 8 . It was ancient, as is proved by 
archaic terra-cottas which were found in the precinct; as old 
as the sixth century, and probably older. At the coming of 
Asclepius there was a danger of the old hero losing the popular 
favour ; but perhaps through the influence of the poet Sophocles* 
he continued to be worshipt, and a society of Orgeones kept 
his name alive. Here was found one of the oldest limb-reliefs, 
belonging to the fourth century : it shows the lower part of 

1 In the Hermitage : no. 110 ; cp. have been a priest TOV "AXwvos, which 
117, 123. Meineke emended to "AX/cwvos. Korte 

2 IGA iii. 388 X^TTOI/J MeXinov.... ingeniously suggests that the reading 

3 'E</>. 'Apx- 1885, p. 199. should be 'Apwov, and uses this to 

4 Cat. Brit. Mm. Sc. 809 ' A.<rK\r)irt<p explain the heroizing of Sophocles 
Kal 'Tyiely. evxapiaT-fipiov. under the name of Dexion, " because 

8 CIA ii. 836 B1 Kapidvos. he welcomed Asclepius" (Etym. Mag. 

Cures 3340 68 . Aeiu>'). Sophocles may have been 

7 n-fiKtav, CIA ii. 836 *. the priest of the old deity, and have 

8 By Dorpfeld. See A. Korte, AM welcomed Ascl. into the shrine, as was 
xviii. 231 ff., xxi. 303 ff. As usual, done at Eleusis, so that the shrine 
it had a spring of water. The altar became sacred to both jointly. There 
has a snake carved upon it are dedications to both personages 

9 In the Life Sophocles is said to together, AM xxi. 294, 296. 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 215 

a female body, from the ribs down 1 . There were found also 
a female breast, of the third century 2 , several fingers, a pair 
of ears, and a penis, with ground painted red, and a hole in 
the tablet for hanging. Another series of these objects, found 
in a cave, on the terrace called the Pnyx, are dedicated to 
Zeus the Highest 3 . Amongst these are several breasts, the 
pudenda muliebria, a female body from the waist downwards, 
a pair of arms, part of a thigh, the eyes, and the forepart of 
the right foot. From Golgos in Cyprus 4 come a face, ears, 
eyes, thumb, breasts (perhaps with disease markt), a penis, and 
an inscribed slab with two painted eyes in relief 5 . Other 
fragments had nothing visible upon them, and were doubtless 
painted. From Cyprus also comes an ear with the disease 
inscribed in words 6 . There is a model of pudenda muliebria 
in Samos 7 ; a relief of the hands and part of the arms is in 
Sparta 8 , with a small stone foot 9 . A foot dedicated to Zeus 
comes from Asia 10 . An eye is dedicated to Athena in Lesbos 11 ; 
a foot in Samos to Hera 12 . A tiny leg from the Idaean cave 
in Crete 13 is perhaps an ornament, as nothing else of the kind 
was found there. A series of double breasts in marble were 

1 ...owis (W9r]K 'A\kwui. 9 Not inscribed. Other limbs in 

2 CZ4ii. 15116; .Ofxviii. 241'H5era the School at Mavromati (Ithome), 
'AffK\r)Triui. M. Carapanos' private museum at 

3 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sculpt. 799808; Athens (from Dodona), Odessa (from 
CIA in. 150156 ; Cat. Berl. Sc. 718 Olbia). 

721. They are mostly inscribed Ad 10 GIG Add. iv. 6832 ' A/j.fj.eiai>bs Aid 

vil/lffTip evxfy or without At. The title ei/x^"- 

is known in Thebes, Corinth, and u IGIii. 121. I have a clay eye and 

Olympia : Paus. ix. 8. 3, cp. Find. Nem. foot from Borne. We may suppose that 

i. 60. the very poor offered these models in 

4 Cesnola p. 158, BCH xix. 362. clay. Numbers have been found in 

5 6t$ tyiffTy eva/ji:fvi\. The same Rome and Veii. An altar, with two 
deity was worship! in Olbia (Odessa ears in relief, inscribed to the Bona 
Museum, no. 130, inscr.). Another Dea, is in the museum at Aries. Others 
penis from Rhodes, Cat. Berl. Sc. 728. in Orvieto. 

Collitz, i. 103 air' urodaKuv. An 12 AM xxv. no. 55 in Samos Cata- 

ear from Cyrene not inscribed, Cat. logue. One, inscribed of Lucilia Pom- 

Br. Mus. Sc. 810. pilia, was found in the Pool of Bethesda: 

7 AM xxv. 174 ZfMpdySiv : cp. CIA M. Thomas, Two Years in Palestine, 
ii. 1569, iv. 2. 155S (Aphrodite, Daphni) , 132. 

Cat. Berl. Mus. Sc. 721. 13 Annual Brit. Sch. Ath. vi. 112. 

8 Aa/actr/Mos 'Etriyevfia 'KOa.va.Te.... 



216 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

found at Cnidus ; but as each specimen has a handle, and as 
they bear some proportion in weight to each other, it is very 
unlikely that they had to do with disease 1 . 

Another shrine which had similar reliefs was one sacred to 
Artemis Anaitis and Men Tiamou in Asia Minor 2 . The objects 
are of late date, and inscribed in horrible Greek. One re- 
presents the arm from the elbow ; another has a whole batch 
together, two female breasts, a right leg percht on a cushion, 
and two eyes, dedicated by a whole family in common 8 . 

(3) Representation of the act or process blest by the god. 

The relief carvings which are among the most interesting 
remains connected with the worship of Asclepius, fall into four 
classes, according as they depict the Visitation of the Sick, the 
Prayer or Adoration, the Sacrifice, or the Banquet 4 . 

(i) Visitation of the Sick. This type is voucht for in the 
early days of the Athenian shrine. Suidas tells us that Theo- 
pompus, the comic poet, who flourisht about 400, fell very ill, 
but being cured by Asclepius, he was able to go on composing 
comedies. On his recovery, he caused a memorial to be carved 
of Parian marble, inscribed with his name and patronymic. 
Theopompus was represented lying upon a couch, and beside 
him the god stood " stretching out his healing hand." Another 
figure was a young lad with a smiling countenance, whom 



1 Newton thinks they are standard ffdntw jjuirtpav 'Avatinv virlp T^KVUV 

weights : Branchidae, Halicarnassus, /ecu Ope^druv, tvypa<f>ov tcrTijaav frous 

and Cnidus, ii. 386, 805. We have H 

, j ^ u i- T-K'AM favSiKov. Leemans reads 

already seen Demeter as a healing 

, ., ei\Affa/j.ev Ofj.ijTfpay, which is nonsense. 

' See Verhandl. der kon. Akad. der J take d**"^ to be for IX^d/ie, 

Wetemhappen, xvii. 1 fit.; Leemans, and ^ r ^ av an earl y form of the acc ' 

Griekshe Opshriften uit Klein-Azie. which afterwards became regular, as 

Perhaps the shrine was in Coloe, where U now is ' < Co P ied from the 8toue ') 
a similar relief was found: BCH iv. " The y have been collected and 

128. The Mother of the Gods was examined b J P - Girard > Ex-Vato a 

also addrest as a healer: CIA iii. Esculape, BCH ii. 68&.; I^Asclepieion 

134 29 ff. ; F. von Duhn, AZ 1877, 139 ff. ; 

/, ~ > . , I. Ziehen, Studien zu den Asklepios- 
3 Ota AvafiTi KCU M^vi Tta/xoi; Ti/x? 

. , . reliefs, AM xvii. 229 ff. Compare also 
Kol 2ocpa7-ns /cat Auutacos Acat Tp6rf)iuoj 

. , . . _ AM ii. 214 ff. pi. xiv. xvii., BCH i. 

ol Afj.ti.iov, Kal <PiA77T77 KCU iwKpcma at 

, . .. 156 ff. 92 pieces). 

A/x/aiddoj, iror}ffa.VTCS ro ifpoir(rr)na, el\a- 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 



217 



Suidas takes to be a personification of the comic poet. " If any 
one thinks otherwise," quoth he, " let him keep his opinion ; but 
he must not worry me." I would fain not disturb Suidas in his 
grave, but the figure is more likely to be one of the Asclepiad 
family, or perhaps the attendant who carries the medicine-case 1 . 
The existing remains well illustrate this description. They 
represent scenes in the dortor, where the god's representative 
attends to the needs of his patients. The following may be 
taken as types, (a) Now Asclepius sits by the bed ; near the 




FIG. 30. Asclepius by the sick-bed. 
Sybel 7161. 

head of the sufferer is one of the god's sons, holding over him 
an object which cannot be made out, perhaps a surgical tool. 
Behind the god's throne are two worshippers, distinguisht as 



1 Suidas s.v. Oe6iro/ti7roj ori 'Atr/cAij- 
TTIOS /cat T<J)V iv iraidelq. rjv vpo^Or)^. 
ipObri yovv Qe6iro/J.irov pLviJj^fvbv re Kal 
\eif36/j.fvov ld.cra.To, Kal Ku^diav avdis 
SiddffKeiv iTTTjptv, 6\6/c\77p6j' re /cat <rwv 
/cat aprefJiT) pyaffd/j.evos. /cat 
Kal vvv VTTO \i6<p QeoTr6fj.irov, irarp 



os airrbv TOV 
(Tiffa/j.evov yap rjv ui6$,) dSui\ov Ilap/aj 
\L6ov. Kal Hffri rb tvda\fj.a TOV iraQovs 
yaaXa evapyts, K\ivr) Kal 01)777 \i0ov. eir' 
avTrjs /cetrat voffovv TO teeivov <pdff/j.a 



Oeds Kal dptyei oi TT^V iraiuviov x e *P a > 



218 



GHEEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



usual in such cases by their smaller size 1 , (b) Or Asclepius 
stands, leaning upon his staff, about which a snake is entwined*. 
Over the sick man leans a bearded figure, who holds the man's 
head in both hands 8 , (c) Or 
again, a female figure, Health, or 
one of the four daughters. Those 
who attend to the sick man are, 
in this case, from their size, clearly 
meant for human beings. By 
the bedside is another figure, 
apparently female, but also not 
divine 4 . Behind Asclepius, who 
gazes upon the bed, are four wor- 
shippers, men and women, and 
an attendant leads up a pig for 
sacrifice. At the side of the bed 
a large basin rests upon the floor 5 . 
(d) Another relief shows not only 
Asclepius seated, with a snake 
under his chair, but Epione seated, 
and Aceso, laso, and Panaceia 

standing. There are traces of a group of worshippers 6 , (e) The 
two sons of Asclepius, Podaleirius and Machaon, are seen with 




FIG. 31. Tending the sick in the 
sanctuary of Asclepius. 

Sybel 3010. 



Kal irais veapbs viro/j.eiSiitji' Kal ouros. 
ri df apa voei 6 vats; ycb ffvflr)/j.i TOV 
<t>i\oira.lffTip> ironfrriv inrodr)\ovv ' yf\q. 
yap Kal T?Js KW[j.u5ia.s rb IStov dia, <TV/JL- 
/36\w' alviTTfrai. el 8 dXXoj voei 
s, Kpareiru rrjs eavrov yvd/j,r)s, t/d- 
The account is quoted 
from Aelian, as may be seen under 
llamas \l0ov and <f>96i]. I cannot 
follow Ziehen in regarding this as 
meant for the Death-Feast : the god's 
healing hand seems conclusive. It is 
to be noted, however, that in one 
relief, while Asclepius sits, Hygieia 
standing holds forth a hand as it were 
blessing a suppliant who is seen beside 
the altar (AM ii. pi. xvii). 



1 Sybel 7161 ; von Duhn 115. Frag- 
ments of similar reliefs are figured in 
AM xvii. 231. See fig. 30. 

8 Sybel 3010; Ziehen, fig. 3. In- 
scribed : dW07?/ce 'AffK\T)irup. In Ziehen, 
fig. 4, the doctor also touches the 
head. See tig. 31. 

3 Cp. Arist. Plut. 728 ; Epid. Cures 
3339 117 . 

4 Another attendant? or a friend? 
See Arist. Plut. 653. 

6 From Peiraeus; now in private 
hands; Ziehen, fig. 5. Drawn from 
a photograph of the English Photo- 
graphic Company. 

6 AM xvii. 243: inscr. 'Hiriovt], 
w, 'Ia<ro>, Ha.va.Keia. 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 219 

him in a fifth tablet, which comes from Epidaurus 1 . One 
of them offers Asclepius something which may be a surgical 
tool. Two worshippers are present with uplifted hands, and 
there is a dog 2 . On another tablet a woman receives something 
in a bowl, perhaps a medicine 3 . The gestures and implements 
differ with each case, and suggest that these tablets were 
usually made to suit the dedicator and at his order. It is 
to be noted that two distinct scenes are represented, both 
the cure and the service of thanksgiving. The divine persons 
take no notice of the worshippers, who are of course only present 
by a convention : the interest centres upon the sick-bed. A 
relief of this type may be that in which Athena hands some 
indistinguishable object to a man seated in a chair 4 . 

(ii) Prayer or Adoration. The scene is laid usually in a 
shrine, symbolised by a couple of pilasters supporting an archi- 
trave and gable end. On one side sits Asclepius, with or 
without the deities associated with him ; on the other the 
suppliants approach, upraising the right hand. There is nothing 
characteristic in the attitude or the dress of the suppliants. In 
one fragment, the oldest perhaps of all which have survived, 
Asclepius stands, while a horseman approaches him, followed by 
his horse 5 . Hygieia stands behind the god, holding a jug. One 
of this type was found in the shrine of Amynus 6 . A remark- 
able tablet from Cythnus shows Asclepius and his four sons, 
with a worshipper; and the god holds out his right hand to 
another heroic figure. It is suggested that Asclepius here 
recognises the power of a local brother in the craft, as we have 
seen him in partnership with Amynus 7 . 

There are a few reliefs from the sanctuary of Anaitis, which 

1 AM xvii. 244, fig. 8. Machaon There is no altar ; god and worshippers 
named also in Sybel 4047, = von Duhn touch; and the face looks like a por- 
25. trait. 

2 See p. 202 13 . AM xxi. 290, male and female 

3 BCH i. 168, no. 79. So Cures worshippers. 

3339 124 6 0e6s xpls> 117 ^iirrjv ipapfui- 1 AM xvii. 246, pi. xi. ; there were 

KOV, 3340 126 <f>ia\av ol d6/j.ev, 63 fyaaOai. hot springs in Cythnus. Asclepius 

4 Schone 86. The figure is small, and his whole family appear only on 
and clearly human. one relief from Argos : Annali xlv. 114, 

5 AN 201 is in the pre- pi. MN. 

Eucl. alphabet: AM ii. 214, pi. xiv. 



220 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



I may just mention for their intrinsic interest, although they 
hardly belong to Greek religion. One represents a god with 
radiated head, and Artemis-Anaitis in the mural crown, with 
veil, fillet, and crescent ; the inscription mentions that the 
dedicator was healed by an incantation chanted by the priestess 1 . 
The standing goddess appears on others, but the formulae 
greatly differ 2 . 

(iii) The Sacrifice. Where the scene is intended to repre- 
sent a sacrifice the altar is present, sometimes with fire burning 
upon it 3 . The only animals found on the Athenian reliefs are 
ram or sow 4 ; the cock is not found at all ; it is the poor man's 




FIG. 32. Sacrifice to Asclepius. 
BCH ii., pi. vii. 

gift, and probably those who dedicated it would be not usually 
able to afford much more. In Cos, however, we have seen the 
two combined 5 . The worshippers approach with the same 



iea.1 



(date). The others 



1 No. 1 : 'Aprffjddt 'Avaetrt 
'ATro\\uvlov, TffpLirrufjLO. cr^oCc 
tfoffBeiffo. iiirb TTJS iepdas, evxtf 

2 No. 2: (names, etc.) virep vyieias 3 Nat. Mus. Ath. 1333. 

TUV 6<j>6a\fjiuv evxfy, a.vt<si~t\atv. No. 3 : 4 Ram and pig together, Nat. Mus. 
(names) dvtSuKav TO iepoirbrifjia. evxo.- Ath. 1395. 



call for no remark. 



(date). No. 5 : (name) dva- 6 Herodas, quoted on p. 204. 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 



221 



gestures as before, and the animal is held by a small figure, 
which often has likewise a knife or a bowl 1 . Behind follows 
a figure with a large cylindrical box or basket upon the head, 
half covered with a cloth ; this may have contained cakes or 
fruit 2 . Sometimes a little casket is carried, containing perhaps 
a more precious offering. Fruit often appears, grapes or pome- 
granates and the poppy; snake and tree also appear 3 . The 
picture of the scene may be completed from a Boeotian vase, 
which shows a girl bringing in a tray of cakes, in one of which 




FIG. 33. Offering in a healing shrine : a girl bearing a tray of cakes with 

lighted taper, and a jug. Votive limbs on the wall. 

'E0. 'Apx- 1890, pi. 7. 

is a lighted taper. The remains of a sacrificial relief, with the 
leg of an ox and the word " hero " upon it, were found in the 
Amphiaraum at Oropus 4 . Others were in the shrine of 
Amynus 5 . 

(iv) The Banquet. Beside a table sits or reclines a male 
figure, naked to the waist. On a table are cakes of various 
sorts, always some of a pyramidal or conical shape. The 
worshippers face the deities, and a horse's head appears in the 
corner. Near the table is a crater, from which an attendant 



1 BCH ii. pi. vii. In Nat. Mus. Ath. 
1408 an adorer kneels, receiving a bowl 
from Asclepius. 

2 Arist. Thesm. 284 <3 Qp^rra, rj\v 
Kiffrrjv Ka.6e\e, KQ.T' IfeXe TO irdiravov, 
OTTWS \afiovffa. 0i5(rw rolv Oea.lv. 



3 AM ii. 220, pi. xvi.; CIA ii. 1477; 
BCH ii. 73, pi. viii. ; Cat. Nat. Mus. 
1330, 1333. 

4 IGS i. 440. 

5 AM xviii. 238 (woodcut), 241. 



222 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



takes wine and offers it to the banqueters 1 . The scheme 
resembles that of the Death-Feast, which was doubtless the 
original type of it. Fragments of this scheme, showing amongst 
other things the horse's head in a frame, come from the shrine 
of Amynus*. 

We have seen above that there are combinations of the 
types of healing and of worship. There is also one relief, found 
in Delos, of careless workmanship, which 
combines the types of Banquet and Sacri- 
fice. The god, holding a patera, reclines 
by a table heapt up with fruit ; one 
worshipper stands in the corner, and an 
attendant leads up a ram for offering 3 . 

Ruder reliefs, all of late date, some- 
times show the serpent alone. There are 
several serpent slabs now in the Museum 
at Sparta ; others were found in Athens, 
with the serpent only 4 , or entwined about 
a tree 5 . A serpent-relief was found in 
the Athenian sanctuary of the hero 
Amynus 6 . 

In the same shrine, amongst frag- 
ments of the familiar types of Reliefs 
sacrificial, with libation or with victim, 
and the Death-Feast, came to light a 
relief which is unique. It represents 
a bearded man, who holds in both hands a colossal leg, nearly 
as big as himself, with a thick varicose vein, which may be 
anatomically correct, but does not look it. He is evidently 
offering this in the shrine, for a pair of votive feet can be seen 
inside a recess of the wall 7 . 




FIG. 34. Man with votive 

leg : votive feet visible, 

affixt to the wall. 

AM xviii., pi. xi. 



1 Girard BCH ii. 68 ff. mentions 
three only of this type. See also 'E<p. 
'Apx- 1885, p. 9, pi. 2. 

2 AM xxi. 290, xviii. 241. 

3 BCH xvi. pi. vi. : 'Ep^to/cpdr^s avi- 

0t]KV ' A<TK\TJ1TIW. 



See Cat. Nat. Mus. 1462. 

5 CIA ii. 1509 : perhaps a fragment 
of a larger scene. See Cat. Nat. Mus. 
1335. 

6 AM xviii. 242. 

7 AM xviii. 235, pi. xi.: ....wv rev- 



4 CIA ii. 1445 Hv66dwpos Al6a\ldr)s |a wv 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 223 

From the Inventories it is clear that similar reliefs or 
repousses, made of gold or silver, were equally common. This 
kind of course were sure to go into the melting-pot when hard 
times came, or to be carried off by a Sulla or a Brennus ; indeed, 
they were melted down each year to make room for others : so 
that we need feel no surprise that none have survived the 
changes and the chances of two thousand years. Those we read 
of bore the same general character as those I have described. 
There were usually figures of one or more worshippers 1 ; some- 
times the god stands with them 2 , but no further description of 
the scene is given. One or two are said to be in a little cell or 
shrine 3 . They were generally inscribed with the names of the 
offerers ; the figure on the relief is always of the same sex as the 
dedicator, except where it is given on another's behalf ; and in 
one case at least the worshipping figures are expressly identified 
with the dedicators 4 . The figures were intended then to repre- 
sent or recall the dedicators. They were therefore made to order, 
as votive paintings of the same sort are made in Italy to-day. 
Considerably over a hundred reliefs or chasings are mentioned 
in the lists ; and they are not only offered singly, but sometimes 
one person gives two, four, six, or as many as fifteen 5 . The 
pious Sibylla probably did not consecrate all her fifteen at one 
time, but we may take her to be a chronic sufferer, whose faith 
rose triumphant after every relapse. The same practice held at 
other shrines whose lists have been spared by time ; as that of 
the Hero Physician, where a number of reliefs are mentioned 6 . 

(4) Miscellaneous. 

Heracles, we learn, being healed of a wound in the hollow of 
his hand, built a temple to Asclepius Cotylean 7 . Unfortunately 



Av<n/jAx v 'Axapj/evs. Early 4th 3 CIA ii. 766 4 , cp. 75 : Trp6ffuiiroi> 

century. No such indication of the /juKpbv lv KaXidSt. 

interior of a shrine is known on the 4 CIA ii. 835 m -rtiros /j-tyas Kard- 

other reliefs, but one is seen on a vase, HOLKTOS, Zveuri Trpocrevxbv-evoi KaXXto-rw, 

'E</>. 'A PX . 1890, pi. 7 : see fig. 33. 'A06/3^Tos. So in 766, the formula is : 

1 CIA ii. 835 3o TIJTTOS -y/*a/CTOs, irpdff- 6 deiva tv Tri.vaidi$. 
wirov yvvaiK&s irpofffvxofitvrjs. 5 CIA ii. 835 54 . 

2 CIA ii. 835 31 T^TTOS Kard/uiKTOj, 6 CIA ii. 403. 

tv Jt tvi 8ebs Kal irpoffVX^>/J'i>o3. 7 Paus. iii. 19. 7. 



224 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

for our faith, in the days of Heracles Asclepius was not yet 
born. But in historical times two patients showed their gratitude 
by building each a new temple for Asclepius, whom they thus 
introduced into their own places. One was Archias, who built 
a temple at Pergamus, when a strained limb had been healed 1 ; 
the other, Phalysius of Naupactus, who received his sight in a 
miraculous manner, which those who wish may see set forth by 
Pausanias in the last paragraph of his wonderful book 2 . Altars 
are dedicated to this god as to others, but late 3 . 

Asclepius, like other gods, received a vast number of odd- 
ments which it is impossible fully to classify. Some of them, 
with the temple just named, are given for their own value ; 
others for their ideal ; others again partake of both kinds. 
Amongst these now and then we meet with surgical instruments 4 
which if the surgeon dedicated, they belong to another class, but 
it is possible that the patient may have done so, on the same 
principle as he might dedicate his doctor's portrait or the 
image of the saviour god. The conception is crude, no doubt, 
but that is not enough to exclude it. More natural is the 
feeling which suggests a dedication of something which the 
patient has used or worn 5 . Pandarus, whose sores were cured at 
Epidaurus, who left his bandage behind him hanging upon the 
wall 6 , and the lame woman who left her crutch by a healing 
spring 7 , act on the same principle as the soldiers who dedicate 
a worn-out helmet. The offering of a trinket or garment is 
different, and less obvious ; but it is difficult to see what other 
reason there could be for keeping three pairs of women's 
slippers in the shrine of Asclepius 8 , or a cloke 9 , a leather 

1 Paus. ii. 26. 8. of magic. 

2 Paus. x. 38. 13 ; the remains de- 6 Cures 3339 53 . 

scribed in AH iv. 22 ff. ' Anth. Pal. vi. 203. St Giovanni 

8 ECU xiii. 304 (Asia Minor). e Paolo at Venice and St Nicolo at 

4 nrjXat ' probes,' CIA ii. 836 64 ; per- Verona are half full of crutches, 
haps KadeTTjp vd\ivos or SidXitfos, which 8 CIA ii. 766 30 viroSrm&rtav ywai- 
often occurs, is the instrument for Kflwv fetf-y?? III. These are not stated 
emptying the bladder, though it may to be votive, nor the next ; but of 
be a necklace (Pollux v. 98). course they would have no inscription 

5 This is not the same thing as the on them, 
dedication of garments or rags by way 9 CIA ii. 766 18 . 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 225 

bottell 1 , a soft pillow 2 . When Myrrhine dedicates together 
a female trunk and a bangle, " on behalf of herself and her boy," 
it is difficult not to see a relation between the bangle and the 
boy; and none so simple as that he should have worn it 8 . 
Whether any such thought were in the worshipper's mind 
or whether the pious offer them simply as the most precious 
things they had, we find a great quantity of jewellery and 
ornaments, of gold and of silver, of brass and even of iron. 
The ornamental head-dress of wire 4 , bracelets and armlets, 
serpent-bangles, earrings, mirror, fan, unguent-box; finger- 
rings of all sorts, and engraved gems or cylinders; sard and 
jasper, " stones like the sea 5 ," crystals all these appear, some 
of them again and again. The pushing snob in Theophrastus 
" dedicates a brass finger-ring to Asclepius, and wears it down 
to a wire by his eternal oilings and burnishings 6 "; but many 
poor folks offer their brass or iron trifle with a full heart, and 
surely with acceptance. No such personal reference can fairly 
be assumed for the numerous oil-flasks and horns, cups and 
bowls of all sorts, which occur in the lists 7 . Some indeed, as 
the Thericlea, are of special make, or perhaps bought out of the 
income of a dead man's bequest, as has been suggested ; but 
most will have been given for their value. The same may be 
true of a wooden seat, if this be votive 8 . So with the rarer 
things : such as a scraper 9 , or a small tripod with chain and 

1 CIA ii. 766 33 XiJ/c vOos <r/cirrCvT). scription such as Kpovov iral, a simple 

2 CIA ii. 766 M TrpoffKe<pd\aiov epeovv. vocative.) 

3 CIA ii. 835. 47 cru>/jt.a ywaucbs /cat 4 KeKpv<f>a\os. 

irepiffKfXidiov 6 avtOriKev Mvppivy vTrtp 5 CIA ii. 835 Xi'0os 0aXa<nroet5?7S ; 

avTrjs /cat TOV waidiov. Compare Aris- 67 XtddpLov ffTpoyyvXov did\evKov. 

tides xlviii. 27. 472 : in the vision, 6 Theophrast. Mi/c/xx^iXoTt^tcw Kal 

after certain directions for sacrifice, dvadeis 5<x/cTi)\iov ^aX/coOy & T V 'Acr/cXTj- 

de'iv 8e Kal TOV crw/xaros avTov irapa- wieiy TOVTOV eKTpifieiv ari\in><2v Kal ciXet- 

r^fj-veiv virep aurypias TOV TravTbs- ciXXd (f>eiv 6<nr)[j.tpai. 

yap flvai TOUTO ipyudef TOVTO fj.tv yap 7 One who gave a bowl at Oropus 

5rj irapitvai /xot, curl 5e TOVTOV TOV 5a/c- was Ptolemy Philopator, IGS i. 303 59 . 

TV\IOV ov (j>6povv Trepie\6fjLei>ov avaOflvai 8 Opbvos v\ivos CIA ii. 766. 

T<> Te\fff(p6pij}. TO yap avTb irateiy wffTrep 9 <TT\eyyls (perhaps head-dress): there 

an ei Tbv SaKTv\ov afobv trpod^v eiri- is another in Oropus, also a colander, 

ypdif/ai 5 ets TTJI> ff<pevd6ft]v TOV oaKTv- a basket of metal, and a lamp with 

\iov, K.p6vov Traf. Tavra TTOLOVVTI ata- three wicks. 

rrjpiav elvai. (I have met with no in- 

R. 15 



226 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

cauldron 1 complete ; or small shields 8 , or little statues of Victory 
or of Aphrodite 3 . Almost anything would do for an offering, 
here as elsewhere. The number of coins is very great, and 
they comprise triobol, drachma, tetradrachm, and all sorts of 
intermediate sums up to 153 drachms and 125 tetrachms offered 
each sum by one person. . The commonest coin is the tetrachm, 
a four-drachma piece 4 . What strikes one as odd is, that these 
coins were kept carefully apart like the other offerings ; doubt- 
less they were used eventually, but for a time at least there 
they remained in little heaps. So I have seen in a Greek 
church coins affixt to the face of an image with wax 8 . 

Quite unique is the humour of one case, where the god of 
Epidaurus bids an unbeliever to dedicate a silver sow in memory 
of her folly 6 . The worshipper's thoughts are generally very far 
from subtile ; and none of them would have understood the 
humble devotee, who in a chapel above the Pool of Bethesda 
dedicates his heart to the Virgin "in gratitude for his conversion 
from Protestantism 7 ." 

As regards deliverance from peril of other kinds, there are 
a good many instances recorded. Alcathous, when he slew the 
lion of Cithaeron, built a temple to Apollo and Artemis in 
Megara 8 . On hearing of the death of Polycrates, Maeandrius 
his successor erected an altar to Zeus of Freedom 9 . The 
famous chest of Cypselus was dedicated to Zeus at Olympia by 
his family, as the means of a notable deliverance, he having 
been hidden in a chest to the saving of his life 10 . Themistocles 
built a shrine to Dindyrnene, who in a dream had warned 



1 fnirvpov. 6 Sanctuary of St Michael in Manda- 

2 CIA ii. 835 w dffirlSey rpets, with madhos, Lesbos. The figure is a black 
representations of a horseman, a hop- image, not a picture. 

lite, and Theseus facing the Minotaur; 6 Cures 59 s9 vv dpyvptov vir6(ju>aij.a. 

datridiov in the shrine of Hero latros, TTJS d/xa&'as. 

no. 403. There was a Sarmatian 7 M. Thomas, Two Years in Pales- 
corselet in the Asclepieum : Paus. i. tine, 133. 
21. 5. s p aus< j. 4i. 3> 

8 ret fuclSia CIA ii. 766 15 , 'Atppo- i\ev6fpios : Herod, iii. 142. 

dtffia Illl 836 14 . There are viKijr-ftpia. 10 Paus. v. 17. 3. Perhaps the 

in Oropus, IGS i. Treasury at Delphi had the same 

cause. 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 227 

him of a plot to murder him 1 . His sons also, after their return 
from v exile, placed a memorial picture containing his portrait in 
the Parthenon 2 . Pericles dedicated to Athena Health a statue 
in memory of a workman who had fallen from a scaffolding, but 
was saved 3 . Athena too was the goddess whose help Lycurgus 
acknowledged for the sight of his eye, and built her a temple 
under the title Optilitis or Ophthalmitis 4 . So no doubt in 
other less common deliverances. Parmeniscus, we know, could 
not laugh until he saw the wooden image of Leto at Delos ; 
and it is odd that one Parmeniscus in the fifth century 
dedicates at Delos a magnificent crater of silver 5 . Battus 
consulted the Delphic oracle about his stutting tongue 6 , and 
it would be strange if he were not prepared to acknowledge 
help in that matter ; or if the ugly babe, whom Helen's spirit 
made beautiful, and who after became Ariston's wife, had 
no thank-offering to make 7 . Gratitude for any favour was cause 
sufficient ; for Amphictyon erected an altar to Dionysus 
Orthus, because he had taught him so simple a feat as to 
mix wine with water 8 . What a difference between this simple, 
if childish thought, and the base flattery which deified the 
mistress of Demetrius Poliorcetes, and built a temple to 
Aphrodite Lamia 9 . 

1 Plut. Them. 30. %opos 5t <t>T)<nv ' ' K^LKT^OVO. rbv ' AOyvatuv 

2 Paus. i. 1. 2 : doubtless not his /Sao-iX^a, fj.a66vra irapa Aiovfaov rijv rov 
portrait alone. otvov Kpa<riv, irpurov Kepdvai. dio Kal 

3 Plut. Per. 13. Pliny, NH xxii. 44 opdobs yevfoOai TOVS dvOpwirovs OVTW 
appears to confuse this statue with Tvlvovras irpbrepov virb rov aKpdrov Kafjar- 
the famous splanchnoptes, a slave TO^VOVS- Kal Sia rovro IdptiffavOai /3w- 
represented in the act of inspecting fj.6v 'OpOov Aiovtiaov ti> TQ TUJV wpw^ lepQi- 
the entrails of a victim. avrai yap Kal rbv rrja dfj.irt\ov Kapirw 

4 Plut. Lycurgus 11 ; Paus. iii. KTpt<f>ovcri. ir\ri<riov d' avrov Kal TCUS 
18. 2. vti/jKpais PW/JLOV tdfi/j.ei>, vTr6fj.vrjfj.a TO 

5 BCH xv. 127; cp. Ath. 614 A xpu^" 01 * T ?7 J Kpdcrews Trotoifytei'os Kal 
(quoted by Homolle). The motive is yap Aiovfaov rpotpol al vtip,<t>ai \tyovrat. 
familiar in folk-tales; see Grimm, no. The epithet '0/>06s shows how such an 
4, 121 ; Zeitschr. des Ver. f. Volksk. offering was regarded as a memorial of 
iii. 456 ; Alcover, Aplich de Rondayes the whole process. 

Mallorquines, ii. 193 ; Rand, Legends 9 Polemon ap. Ath. vii. 292 A 9i?/3cuoi 

of the Micmacs, 34. KoXa/cetfopres rbv Ar)/J.rfrpioi> Idpijcravro 

6 Herod, iv. 155. vabv 'A<ppodlrr)s Aaftlas' tpu/j.tvr) 8t j]v 

7 Herod, vi. 61. avrri TOV Arjfj.r}Tptov. 

8 Philochorus ap. Ath. ii. 38 c <i>i\6- 

152 



228 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Most of the records of this class refer to peril by sea, and 
they begin with legendary times. Britomartis fishing with 
nets fell into them, and being saved by Artemis, built a temple 
of Artemis Dictymna in Crete 1 . Daedalus delivered from 
the sea erected a statue to Heracles at Thebes". The Argonauts, 
after their perilous voyage, built a temple to Athena 3 , and 
dedicated the Argo herself to Poseidon at the Isthmus 4 . Arion 
on his miraculous escape placed at Taenarum a group repre- 
senting himself upon the dolphin 8 . Diomede, who escaped 
shipwreck after the sack of Troy, built a shrine to Apollo 
Epibaterios in Troezen 6 ; Agamemnon dedicated his rudder to 
Hera in Samos, as the means of his deliverance 7 . In the 
Odyssey Eurylochus vows a temple to the Sun if he return 
safe 8 . Herostratus voyaging from Cyprus, and having in his 
possession a small figure of Aphrodite, off Naucratis a storm 
arose ; he prayed to his divinity, and the sea fell calm, and when 
he came safe ashore he dedicated the figure in Aphrodite's temple 
in that place 9 . 

The idea of Divine protection at sea is thus regarded as 
natural, but the deity is not always the same. It might be 
a " saving fortune " who alighted upon the ship, and steered it 
safe 10 ; it might be Poseidon 11 , or the Cabiri 12 , or the Dioscuri 13 
who came to be confused with them ; a local protector, Apollo 14 , 
Athena 15 or Aphrodite of the Fair Voyage 16 , or the Delian Brizo 17 , 



1 Schol. Arist. Frogs 1356. 

2 Paus. ix. 11. 4. 10 Aesch. Ag. 644 rv^n & ffWT 

3 Paus. iii. 24. 7. 6t\ovff' efafcro u>s /XT;T' ev op/xoi 

4 Apollod. i. 9. 27. ^d\r)v tx eiv M^ T> ^o/cetXat Trpds npa.Ta.l- 
8 Paus. iii. 25 ; Herod, i. 24 ; an Xeow yBbva.. 

epigram written for this is in Aelian " Apollod. i. 9. 27. 
Hist. An. xii. 45, Cougny, Appendix " Anth. Pal. vi. 245. 
to Anthology i. 3. 1S Roscher, i. 1171. 

8 Paus. ii. 32. 2. 14 Paus. ii. 32. 2 ; CIA iii. 236. 

7 Callim. Hymn to Art. 228 and 15 Od. ii. 267, etc. 

Schol. i6 Stephani, Covipt . Eendus 1881. 134. 

8 Od. xii. 346 irlova. v-rfav rev^ofjifv, Iv 17 Ath. viii. 335 B TOUTTJ ovv \T-Q 
Se /te Oeiptv dyd\fJ.ara iro\\a nal tcrOXd. orav Ovwaiv at AT/XtdSes 

9 Polycharmus ap. Ath. xv. 676 A, B O.VTTJ <r\-d0as irdvrwv TrXijpetj 
dyaXfidrtov 'A<f>po5irr]s ffiri9afudtoi> dp- irXriv Ixdvwv, Sid rb tCxe<r&ai TO-tiry irepl 
Xa-iov r-g T^x v tl &v-qadfj.fvos jfei <pipwv re irdvrwv Kal virtp rrjs TUV irXoluv 
e/s Trjv yavKpanv ...dvaOth rrj 'AtppodiT-Q 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 



229 



Hera 1 , Hermes 2 , the Theban Heracles 8 . But in any case, the 
rescued mariner must needs make his acknowledgment*. In- 
scriptions which record a safe return belong to the same class 2 . 
Asclepius himself was worshipt as a protector from peril in 
general 5 ; and here I see not an extension of the older idea, 
but a survival of the general protective powers of the Hero as 
Saviour. In Syros offerings are made to him for protection 
from shipwreck 6 , and even in Epidaurus he is acknowledged as 
a god with more powers than medicinal 7 . Among the Athenian 
reliefs is one in which a man, together with his family, renders 
thanks to Asclepius and Hygieia for being ransomed out of the 
hands of the enemy 8 ; and the fragment of another, which shows 
only the remains of two horses' heads, may be part of a scene 
which depicted the devotee in danger of being dasht over the 
rocks in a runaway carriage 9 . From the fourth century we 
have a dedication of a portrait to Pallas for deliverance " from 
great dangers 10 ." From Camirus comes another, offered to 



1 Callim. Art. 223 and Schol. 

2 CIA iv. 1. 373 208 , p. 204: 
'EP/J.TJI aya\fj.a "Eipfj.offrpa.Tov ' 
ZaTyffefi. TroXXds 6t]<rd/j,evos irfaijas 
cent. Collitz, iii. 3776 VOOTOV 



5th 



3 Paus. ix. 11. 4. 

4 Diphilos ap. Ath. vii. 292 A 
vavK\Tjpos airo6vei TIS evxyv, aTro@a\ui> 
TOV iffrov 77 TTT/SdXia ffvvrptyas j'ftis, 

77 <f>oprC t$-tppi\l/' virtpavT\os yevbfj.evos. 
There is a story of drunken youths 
in Acragas, who thought they were 
at sea, and cast all the furniture 
out of the windows. The town guard 
came up and they cried av \i/j.4vos 
7TJ%w^tey airaXXayfrTes TOffofrrov K\V- 
5<i)vos, (TWTTJpas i)/xas /nerd. T&V 6a\afffftuv 
Sai/J.6vuv v TYJ irarplSi idpv<r6fj.eda u>s 
at'o-i'ws ij/juv eiri<j>a.v{vras : Timaeus ap. 
Ath. ii. 37 E. An early inscr. of 
Cephallenia appears to record a de- 
liverance : Collitz, ii. 660 Mvdcrios 
KXedptos ffduffrpei (? = (TWT%H); cp. Cat. 
Ath. Sc. 276. 

5 Aristides xlii. (Keil) p. 337 17577 



ToLvvv TIVWV TJKovffa \fy6vTwv ws avrois 
Kal Oopv^ov/j^vois (pavels 6 Oeos 
tSpfi;et>, Hrepoi dt tprjoovffiv ws Trpdy- 
/j.ara &TTO, Ka.Tup9w<Tav irrofrfJKau d/co- 
XovOrfffavTes TOV 0eov...d\\d KOU ao<f>lff- 

/J.O.Ta WVKTIKO. TTVKT7] Tivl T&V Ifi rjfjLUV 

lyKaOevSovTL irpoenrelv \^yeTai...fia6^- 
/jLaTa. dt i]fjuv Kai /uArj Kal \6yuv VTTO- 
Otcreis Kat irpbs TOVTOIS evvo^^aTa, avrci 
Kal TTJV \tt;iv. 

6 'M-fivaiov iv. 20, no. 33 f. 

7 Cavvadias, Fouilles, no. 2. 20, 7. 
57; Collitz, iii. 3340 20 . 

8 BCH i. 157. 4; AZ xxxv. 152. 32 ; 
CIA ii. 1474 <rw#ets K rw/u iroX^/juav Kal 



9 CIA ii. 1441 TU>/J. ireTpuv 

...... v ffwOels 5 'AffK\-r)irit, TOVTO d.vt- 

0T|Ka ...... v ts T^/j.evos TWI SiSov evrv\iav. 

The last word I have restored. Similar 
scenes of runaway horses are common 
among the votive pictures of St Nicolo, 
Verona. 

10 CIA ii. 1427 ffuOels <?/e (jieydXw 
KivStivwv eiKOvo. Tfybf ffTTJffev Avoifj.ax.os 
IloXXdSi rpiToyevei. 



230 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Hecate and Sarapis on a similar occasion 1 . A wayfarer in 
Phrygia, who escaped drowning at a perilous ford in a river, set 
up a memorial to Zeus, Poseidon, Athena, and all the gods*. 
Three persons with Roman names give thanks in Lesbos to 
God on High for deliverance after a tempest*. Eutychus, who 
may have been a skipper, returns thanks at Delos to Fair- 
weather Zeus and the Egyptian deities, on behalf of himself 
and his son and all on board 4 . In Delos also, and to Anubis, 
Demetrius of Sidon dedicates a part of the ship's deck, which 
we may suppose to have saved his life when the ship went to 
pieces 8 . There is a relief with a boat upon it, dedicated to the 
Dioscuri, which possibly is a seaman's thank-offering 6 . In the 
second century after Christ, Artemidorus and his family 
dedicate a relief, representing a sacrificial scene, for deliverance 
at sea 7 . 

Perhaps a silver trireme in the Delian shrine may be a 
sailor's thank-offering 8 . In the same treasury were silver 
anchors 9 and a ship's beak 10 , and a beak there was also in the 
shrine of Hero latrus at Athens 11 . No doubt the images of 
Calm and of the Sea, which were dedicated to Poseidon at the 
Isthmus, had reference to perils upon the deep 12 . A dedication 
by an admiral Pantaleon to " Poseidon saviour of ships and to 
Aphrodite mistress of ships" was found at Kertch 13 . Some of 
the paintings in the temple of Phocaea may have been thank- 
offerings of seafarers, which depicted perils on the deep 14 . 



1 IGI i. (Rhodes) 742. ' r r\f/in48ui>...ovi>eKdoi eirfrevffa.* I'Seii/ dX6s 

s BCH iii. 479 M?)m Adou Ail Kal &cro0t yaiav. The tree still appears in 

Hoffeidwm Kal 'AG-qva Kal irdffiv 0ews this relief : and burning altar. CIA 

ei>xapiffT-/ipioi>, Kal iroTa/j.w Evpu Ktvdvveu- iii. 170. 

ffas Acoi SiaffwBels tv rwSe rQ> T6wu. 8 BCH vi. 32, line 31 : Homolle takes 

3 IGI ii. (Lesbos) 119 : (names) x- this for an ornamental vase. 

es tv ireXdyu flew vif/lcrru xp 7 !' " BCH vi. 47, line 168. 

(sic). 10 BCH. vi. 130. 

4 BCH vi. 328 22 Zei)j Ovpiot, Sarapis, CIA ii. 403 72 . 
Isis, Anubis, Harpocrates, vwtp iavrov 12 Paus. ii. 1. 9. 

Kal TOU vlov Eu/36\ov Kal virtp ruv 13 Stephani, Comptes Rendus 1881. 

ir\ol'fofj.^vuv irdvTiav. 134 : Ilo<reiduin ffwfflvey, ' A.<f>po8irri vav- 

5 BCH vi. 340 ". apxiSi. 

6 Figured in Boscher, i. 1171: 'Ap- lt Herod, i. 164; cp. Anth. Pal. vi. 
yevldas 'ApiffToytvida Ato07c6/>ots evxdv. 221. 

7 Sybel 362 : verses addrest to 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 231 

A sacrificial relief dedicated to Poseidon is probably due to a 
like cause 1 . Another from Halicarnassus, now published for 
the first time, represents three scenes carved on a marble drum : 
(1) two seamen in a boat under full sail; (2) Poseidon on a 
galley, resting on an oar, and holding a dolphin, and a 
worshipper kneeling before him ; (3) Asclepius, Hygieia, and 
the serpent, with a worshipper between 2 . 

Of other occasions I may mention a few examples. The 
famous work of Lysippus, Alexander's Hunting in Delphi, was 
dedicated by Craterus who had saved the king's life from a 
lion 3 . Deliverance from earthquake is also recorded 4 , and 
deliverance in general terms 6 . The people of Aegae build a 
temple to Apollo Chresterius, for having been " saved by the 
consul Publius Servilius 6 ." Prayer and thanksgiving are 
offered for deliverance from poverty 7 or for general goodwill 8 . 

One allegorical dedication may be added. After the ex- 
pulsion of the Peisistratids (510), the people set up a bronze 
lioness on the Acropolis, in memory of Leaena Aristogeiton's 
mistress, who had been tortured and found faithful unto 
death 9 . The lion we have already seen allegorically used of 
the courage of brave men 10 ; and it never was more appropriate. 

Whilst athletic victories gave rise to the glorious odes of 

1 AM xvi. 140 Horeidai'i evxfy- ae/tv/iv ; IGSI 1030. 6 IK peydKuv 

2 In possession of Mr W. R. Paton, Kw&tvuv iroXXdicis, 997 tt- vdaruv, 2564 
to whose kindness I owe the photo- K iro\t}j.ov, all late. 

graphs. Efiir\oid aoi evTuxr) ( = evrijx.fi) 6 Bahn-Schuchhardt, Alt. vonAigai, 

Qe6dov\e' Trepl (?) idiov \[/v%aplov TW 47: 6 dafjios 'Air6\\tavi XprjffTTjpiwi xa.pi- 

OToXo; dv^drjKa. arripiov cruOeh vir6 HoirXiu 2epoi/t\/w 

3 Plut. Alex. 40 ; Pliny, NH xxxiv. IloirXtw vlu TU dvdvirdrw. 

19. 64 ; BGH xxi. 598, where the inscr. f Anth. Pal. vi. 190, 231, 245. 

recently recovered is given ; xxii. 566. 8 Anth. Pal. vi. 143. 

The motive has more of pride than of 9 Paus. i. 23. 2 ; Plut. de Garrul. 8. 

gratitude. When the Aetolian confederacy in 

4 IGI i. 23 perd rbv ffet<rfj.6i'. later days dedicated an image of 

5 CIA iii. 134 (Mother of the Gods) ; Cylon, who freed the Eleans from the 
BCH xx. 107 Phrygia wepl ffunjpias tyrant Aristotimus (Paus. vi. 14. 11) ; or 
Aii ppovrwvn evxfy ', IGS i. 3416, iii. 1. the Achaeans did the like for Philo- 
134 ; IGI i. 914, etc. ; Anth. Pal. vi. 109 poemen, after he slew the tyrant; 
(nymphs). GIG 6810 (Germany) <rw- we have little more than honorific 
0eis tic fj-eyaXw Kal d/j-erp^Tuv ftdXa. statues. 

ev^dfievos dv^BrjKa Feviov eiK&va 10 Above, p. 144. 



232 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Pindar, gratitude for deliverance has left little mark in litera- 
ture. The earlier dedications are as simple as they could 
possibly be, and the vast majority of the objects described in 
this chapter were ticketed merely with the names of the giver 
and the god, or the giver alone. Verse dedications, so common 
in other cases, are rare in this, and I know of none which are 
very early. We have met with a few upon the offerings in 
Athens 1 , and one is quoted in the Epidaurian Cures'. In the 
sixth book of the Anthology there are only two dedications to 
Asclepius 3 , and some half dozen references to disease 4 . On the 
other hand, the records of other perils are many. Dionysius 
alone was saved from shipwreck out of forty persons, by virtue 
of a charm which he tied on his thigh ; he now dedicates an 
image of the saving "tumour 8 ." Diogenes perhaps cannot 
afford to buy an offering, but dedicates his cloke to Cabirus, 
who being invoked in a storm saved him from the perils of the 
great deep 6 . The hair might also be offered on such occasions 7 . 
Shepherds delivered from a ravening lion dedicate to Pan, and 
hang upon an oak tree, a representation of the adventure 8 . 
A variation on this theme gives several epigrams, which 
describe how an emasculate votary of Cybele is saved from a 
lion, and dedicates to the goddess his trappings with locks of 
his hair 9 . A father who had shot a snake which was coiling 
about his son's neck, hangs up his quiver on an oak to Alcon 10 . 
A mother thanks Aphrodite Urania for taking care of her 
children 11 . A thirsty traveller led by the croak of a frog to a 
place of water, dedicates the frog's image in bronze at this 
spring 12 . Self-conscious literary art plays with this idea, but 

1 Above, p. 209 1 e.g. 6 Anth. Pal. vi. 245. 

2 Cures 3339 7 01) /tye0os irivaicos Oav- 7 Lucian, irtpl ruv tirl mady avvbv- 

v, d\\a rb 6tiov, wtvfl' frij wj TUV, init. 
ey Kaffrpi K\eu> /3d/>oj, (are fry- 8 Anth. Pal. vi. 221. 

Ori, /ecu /" Wi?*e 1)7*77. 9 Anth. Pal. vi. 217 220, 237. 

3 Anth. Pal. vi. 147, 330. 10 Anth. Pal. vi. 331. 

4 Exclusive of childbirth, for which n Anth. Pal. vi. 340. 

see below, chapter vi. See Anth. Pal. 12 Anth.Pal. vi. 43. There is actually 

vi. 191, 300. a votive frog known (Dar. and Sagl. 

5 Anth. Pal. vi. 166 Vc*a TTJS K^\?;S. fig. 2538, s.v. Donarium), inscribed 
Sacrifices of animals for protection 'A/xaw ZcwAov Bofoovi or Bodawn, in 
upon the deep, 231, 245. retrograde writing, Collitz, iii. 3159, 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 



233 




FIG. 35. Votive frog. 
Daremberg and 
Saglio, s.v. Dona- 
rium, p. 375, fig. 
2538. 



hardly improves upon it. Thus Callimachus makes his Eu- 
demus offer a salt-cellar to the Samothracian gods, in token of 
deliverance from "storms of debt 1 ." 

There remains yet one class of dedications to be mentioned, 
those connected with trials by law, vengeance, imprisonment, 
slavery and the like. When Heracles punisht 
Hippocoon, he built a temple to Athena 
Axiopoinos 2 . Orestes, acquitted before the 
Areopagus of the guilt of murder, dedicated 
an altar on the spot 8 . We learn that those 
who were acquitted in that court used to 
sacrifice to the Eumenides ; and the occasion 
would be a fitting one for a votive offer- 
ing 4 . Hypermestra, who had disregarded 
her father's command to kill Lynceus her 
husband and was brought to trial for the 
same, on being acquitted set up a statue of 
Victorious Aphrodite, and built a shrine of 
Artemis surnamed Persuasion 5 . In the temple 
of Athena Alea at Tegea were fetters hung, which the Spartans 
had once brought for the enslavement of the Tegeans ; but 
being defeated, they had themselves to wear them, and they 
were afterwards preserved in memory of the great deliverance 6 . 
There was a similar memorial on the Acropolis of Athens 7 ; and 
in Phlius prisoners set free used to hang up their fetters in a 
sacred grove 8 . The idea of memorial is clear, but with other as- 
sociations, in a story told of Croesus. When Cyrus proffered him 
a boon, he requested that his chains might be sent to Apollo 

IPI i. 357 ( from the Peloponnese) . The 
deity was probably a local hero, addrest 
by an epithet appropriate to the occa- 
sion, or the personification of some 
by-dwelling spirit assumed. Frankel, 
without authority, identifies him with 
Apollo. Those who wish may believe 
with Frankel that the frog was likely to 
please Apollo, because the creature is 
endowed with " seherische Kraft " 
(Jahrb. i. 48 foil.) : 4ft^ 5e ^ tvo-x\ovv- 
TWV. See fig. 35. 



1 Anth. Pal. vi. 301 \finuves davtwv. 

2 Paus. iii. 15. 6. 

3 Paus. i. 28. 5. 

4 Paus. i. 28. 6. Compare Aristoph. 
Plutus 1180. 

8 Paus. ii. 19. 6, 21. 1. 

6 Herod, i. 66 ; Paus. viii. 47. 2. 

7 Herod, v. 77 : of ransomed Boeo- 
tian and Chalcidian prisoners, about 
B.C. 507. 

8 Paus. ii. 13. 4. 



234 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

at Delphi, and that the god might be asked why he had so 
deceived him 1 . 

Two dedications to Nemesis show the goddess trampling 
upon a prostrate man, and beside her a serpent and a griffin ; 
in one of them she is winged, and holds a wheel. They come 
from Gortyn and Peiraeus. The inscription which is found on 
the latter does not imply any special occasion 2 . A late relief 
is dedicated to Nemesis 3 as a thank-offering for freedom. 

A curious group of inscriptions, dating from the end of the 
fourth century or thereabouts, refer to the dedication of a thank- 
offering by freedmen 4 . When a slave had acquired his freedom, 
whether by purchasing himself or by his master's grace, he was 
expected to perform certain duties to his old master, chief of 
which was to choose him for patron 8 . The enfranchised now 
took the position of a fterot/co?, and could engage in business. 
If he failed to perform his bounden duty, an action at law 
would lie against him 6 . If the former master prosecuted him 
under this law, and won his case, the man was sold ; if he lost, 
the man was forever free of obligation. From our inscriptions 
it would appear that the slave on winning his case presented a 
silver bowl to Athena. Here we have lists of the bowls kept 
in the treasury, which all appear to have been inscribed with 
the necessary particulars ; they would serve as an official 
register of the fact. They were periodically melted down 
into silver hydriae, and a record made of the names 7 . The 
connexion of these lists with the &IKT] anroa-raa-iov is shown 
by the recurring word aVo^trytuy or d-nofywyovcra, and by one 
allusion to the trial 8 . Men, women, boys, and girls appear 

1 Nicolaus Damascenus (Tauchnitz), XaiWoio-i TVTTOIS. The voice of Artemi- 
p. 11 : alrovfjuil <re dovvai fioi Tr^/i^cu dorus will be heard again. 

IIu0u>Se ras iredas rdffSe, /cai rbv Oebv 3 GIG Add. vi. 6834 Aei>0e/>fas x a P iff - 

tpeffOat ri waBCev e'&irdTa fj.e rrjs xP r l ff ~ Typta. rr\i Ne/*^<r 'Pafivovvr66fv N^aipa 

/lots e"irdpa.s ffrpareveiv e"irl (re ws irepieffb- 'ABrjvaia xa/>""o/3X^0a/)o$ dveO^Kev. 

fj.evov. ('8TovavT<j>TddedKpo0ivia.Trtfj.iru. * CIA ii. 768 775 4e\ev6epiicfa, not 

2 BCH xxii. 599 ff., pi. xv., xvi. : a7reXeu0e/>os, is the word used. See 
el/j.1 fiv, us iffopq.^, ytfj.effis p-tpovuv AM in. 172, AJA iv. 154. 



d' dvd Kka^ov del wo\v- 6 Sixt) diroffTOfflov. 

i 0vfj.w, SepKOfj^va dvaruv <pv\ov del 7 CIA ii. 720 A 1, 729 A 8 11. 

d\\d fj.e (reyw^s dvi)p Tevas 8 CIA ii. 776 diroffrafflov. The 

' Aprtntdupos ffrqffev eir' evx^dis formula is, e.g. Evrvxk Kair^Xtj, diro- 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 235 

as parties; they follow all sorts of occupations shopman 1 , shop- 
woman 2 , farmer 3 , hired man 4 , vinedresser 8 , woolspinner 6 , shoe- 
maker 7 , merchant 8 , baker 9 , fishmonger 10 , secretary 11 , harpist 12 . 
One of the inscriptions is a puzzle 13 . The formula here 
differs 14 , the citizen's name being in the nominative and the 
other's in the accusative case. It seems natural to assume 
that in these cases the citizen won his suit ; and for reasons, 
religious or legal, commemorated the fact in the same way. 
An enfranchised slave's thank-offering for freedom comes from 
Thessaly 15 . Freed slaves at Epidaurus dedicated a seat in the 
stadium 16 . 

The practices of the modern Greeks show in many respects 
an instructive parallel to the ancient worship of the healing 
gods. Everyone has heard of the famous sanctuary of the 
Virgin at Tenos, but this is a quite modern foundation, and 
there are many local shrines less known but no less effective to 
their end. The most remarkable of all is perhaps the Church 
of the Virgin at Ayassos in Lesbos. The panegyris falls at the 
end of the Sarakoste fast, on August the fifteenth (old style), 
and thousands of persons assemble from the villages of Lesbos 
and from all Greek settlements within reach. The last night of 
the fast is kept as a vigil 17 : there is a service in the church, and 
afterwards all the world dance and make merry, feasting their 
eyes on the red joints of meat which to-morrow they hope to 
consume, which in the meanwhile hang tempting on their 
hooks, covered with pieces of gold foil 18 and adorned with sprigs 

<f>vyov<ra "ZuffTpaTOv, ~M.vriffiffTpa.Toi>, 9 111 apToiru>\^. 

'A\wTreKrj0ev, <j>ia\T), ffTadfibv H 768 16 ; 10 773 Tapi^oiruiK-ris. 

or IlXivva t/j, Heipaiei olxovffa 768. u 772 ypa.fifia.Tfvs, 769 vTrorypafj.ua- 

Occasionally the prosecutor is a cor- Tevs. 

porate body, 768. Cp. Arist. Pint. 1179 12 773 /a0a/>wt56s. 

6 (lev av TJKUV Zfiiropos i-Ovffev lepeibv TI 13 772 B. 

ffwOeis, 6 5t rts av 5'iK^v airo<f>vyuv. 14 HoXvffTpaTos Ho\vffTpdT(ov) 'ETTIKIJ- 

1 773 /caTTT/Xos. <piffios "Swcriav yewpydv ev 'H<|>arr(a- 

2 768 /caTTTjXfc. (duv) oiKovvra, <f>id\T) H. 

3 768 7eu>p76s. ls Collitz i. 368 'A.ir\owi TenireiTa 

4 769 /juff6wT6s. ' Ai'erxiAis "ZaTvpoi e\tvdtpia. 

5 773 anTre\ovpy6s. 16 IPI i. 12191245 (late). 

6 772 Ta\a0t.ovpy6s. 17 So Asclepius had his iravvv^ls. 

7 772 0KVTOT6(j.os. ' 18 So the horns used to be gilded, 

8 773 tfLTTopos. above, p. 13 3 . 



236 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

of leaves. Those who are ill and hope for cure take care to 
spend the night in the holy precinct. The church stands in a 
paved quadrangle, the sides being formed by buildings in two 
stories arranged much like an English College or Inn. The 
upper floor opens upon a loggia, the lower directly upon the 
court ; the buildings consist of a long series of small cells, with 
living rooms for the priests, kitchens, stores, and other such 
necessary apartments. During the panegyris all the cells are 
filled to overflowing, the balconies and the court itself are 
strewn with beds, each family with its bundle of rugs, stores of 
food, and all things needful. Not only that, but the church 
itself is invaded : the first comers have taken up their abode 
here, with their blankets and cooking pots, and line the side-aisles 
and almost every square foot of the floor : there in the church 
they sleep ; and next morning, when the priests march round in 
solemn procession, the sick ones throw their bodies across the 
path that the priests may step over them. Every year mira- 
culous cures are said to be wrought here. So too at Tenos, 
where those who can find room pass the night in a little under- 
ground chapel which marks the site where the sacred picture 
of the Virgin was found. Other shrines have a local reputation, 
such as the remarkable sanctuary of St Michael of Manda- 
madhos, also in Lesbos, which can boast of possessing the only 
image used in the Greek Church, where images are unlawful. 
Hideous is the archangel, and black as a boot 1 ; he is said to be 
made of plaster, and to be complete, though to outsiders 
nothing is visible but the head. This curious exception to 
a strict rule suggests that St Michael has inherited the powers 
and the form of an earlier deity. But sickness is not confined to 
the month of August ; and those who are so unlucky as to be 
sick when there is no panegyris to hand, are accustomed to 
take up their abode in one of these holy quadrangles, or in the 
nearest monastery, there to remain until they are killed or cured. 
The priests pray over them regularly, and although no charge 
is made, the sufferers if cured naturally make what acknow- 
ledgment they can : some an offering of value, or even a lock of 

1 I have described him, with a photograph, in the Annual of the. British School 
at Athena, vol. i. 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 237 

hair. So it is that all the holy places mentioned, and almost 
every other church in the Levant 1 , has its store of votive 
offerings in silver. These are dedicated not only for the 
cure of disease, but for escape from peril of every kind, 
especially at sea. In Tenos are a host of silver boats, smacks, 
barques, brigs, and steamers, modelled in the round, and hang- 
ing by strings from the lamps; or made of flat foil, and arranged 
along the walls in rows 2 . There are also human figures of all 
ages and ranks: soldiers and sailors, men or women in European 
dress and others with the Albanian petticoat and leggings, boys 
and girls, and babies in their cradles or in swaddling clothes, 
and cradles empty. Here is to be found every conceivable part 
of the body hand, ear, leg, heart, breast, whole body or half 
body naked : animals horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, turkeys, fowls, 
and fish: coach and four, carriage and pair, horse and cart: trees, 
barrels, ears of corn : swords, scissors, fiddles, even keys : huts, 
houses, manufactories with smoking chimneys 3 . Sometimes an 
attempt is made to represent a scene : in one piece, a patient 
is represented lying in bed, with the family standing round; 
in another, a row of men stands, each holding his hat in his left 
hand and placing his right hand to his breast, a crude method 
of expressing adoration 4 . From time to time accumulations of 

1 Especially the churches in sea- "Epfj.oinr6\ei, 1884, p. 7). 

ports or fishing villages, often sacred 3 In a collection of these which I 

to St Nicholas, the patron of sailors, bought from the monastery of St 

whose icon hangs in every ship. The Michael Panormites at Syme, occur 

old cathedral at Athens, sacred to St the following : babies in swaddling 

Eleutherios ( = Eileithyia?), is a fa- clothes; women, girls, or boys, the 

vourite for women in labour. Eings, hands folded across the breast ; others 

earrings, parts of the body, children, holding up the right hand, the left 

and ships are found here. laid upon the heart ; figures with 

2 A paddle-steamer is inscribed : 6 the left hand or both hands uplifted, 
TrXoiapxos /cat TO ir\-/jpufj.a dr/j.oir\oiov or both held by the sides (many of 
Iltrpov 4>o(TK6\ou 6 AeKe/j.j3piov 1892. these very grotesque); others holding 
So in Psara, as the historian tells us a cross or a palm-branch ; head and 
of the treasure of St Nicholas' church bust; eye or eyes, ear, teeth, arm, 
before the Turks destroyed it : jjffa.v finger, leg, ribs, and nondescript. One 
8\wv TUV TrXoidpxuv TO. Tr\ola...irdvTa figure is a girl with a swollen face, and 
dpyvpa...elxoi> Se ical &vefj.6fj.v\ov, 6v an expression of pain, holding one 

TV<J>\OS ns ("H./j.epo6ffia 2u/i- hand to her cheek. 
TTJS dXwo-ews rwv ^appuv: tv 4 Compare the reliefs, p. 219. 



238 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

these things are melted down, and a large censer or lamp made 
out of them, or the proceeds used for the purposes of the 
church 1 . 

So far as I have seen, paintings of this class are never used 
for dedication in Greek lands, but they are very common in Italy; 
and for the sake of the ideas implied in them, it may be worth 
while to examine one collection 2 . This is preserved in the 
entrance corridor of S. Nicolo in Verona, and consists of about 
one hundred pictures. All the pictures are much of a size ; they 
are oil paintings of ten to twelve inches square, and coarsely 
painted. Most of them belong to the eighteenth century, but 
one bears date as late as 1892. They have on them usually an 
inscription, the giver's name, the circumstances of his deliver- 
ance, and the letters, P. G. R., pro gratia recepta, or per grazia 
ricevuta, with ex voto appended. They depict all sorts of danger 
and catastrophe. The commonest type is the patient in sick- 
bed, with or without the friends praying at the bedside. In 
the air usually hovers the patron saint, or the Virgin ; some- 
times a group of heavenly beings is seen in the clouds, and 
below others in the pangs of purgatory. We see a boy tum- 
bling from a ladder; a child falling down stairs; a man run 
over by a cart, or a cart falling over a precipice ; a building 
falls, cariying some workmen with it ; and so forth. Here are 
shipwrecked mariners on a raft, while a boat rows up to rescue 
them. There is an attempted murder outside the amphitheatre 
at Verona, which is unmistakably portrayed in the back- 
ground 3 . Two women and a man are welcomed by nuns at a 
convent door, and the legend informs us that they were led by 
God's invisible hand*. One picture, curiously realistic, repre- 
sents two scenes, which are placed together without division. 
In the first, a man drest in tail coat and tall hat sits in a dog- 
cart drawn by a runaway horse. He looks horribly frightened, 
throws up his hands in despair, and his tall hat has been 

1 The former is done I know at " Italian Votive Offerings." 
Tenos and Ayassos, and probably 3 Inscribed : P. G. K. 1847 M. P. 
elsewhere. The latter is done at 4 Tre Germani traviati il gran Gae- 
Symi. tano conduce a Dio con invisibil ma-no. 

2 See my paper in Folk-Lore, v. 11 ff. : 



DISEASE AND CALAMITY. 



239 



knockt to the back of his head. Back to back with this we 
see the same dog-cart quietly stopt at a door, the man looking 
happy, and his hat straight again 1 . Votive limbs and other 
offerings like those of ancient times are common not only in 
Italy but in other parts of the Continent : in France, Austria, 
Switzerland 2 . The church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, in 
Venice, has a shrine of S. Vincenzo, who is credited with the 
power of healing cripples by miracle : near it hang a number 
of modelled limbs, together with the crutches of grateful 
patients who no longer had need of them. 



1 Others of great interest, which I 
have not seen, are in Locarno and 
Oropa (three hours from Turin by rail). 
They are mentioned by S. Butler, Alps 
and Sanctuaries, 220, 350, who gives a 
sketch of one (p. 160). Mr Butler in- 
forms me that the oldest he has seen 
is dated about 1480 in the Museum at 
Varallo. Others in Sta Maria in ara 
Cieli and Pantheon (Kome), Naples, 
etc. 

2 Ships at Marseilles; eyes at St 
Ottilien near Freiburg i. B. ; etc. At 
Marseilles are votive pictures: sick- 
beds, burning houses, runaway horses, 
lightning, railway train passing over a 
bridge, ships in rough weather. Even 
pictures of limbs in Sta Maria in ara 
Cieli. Lever describes similar scenes 



from South America: " Upon several 
of the altars, pieces of solid gold and 
silver lay in security... while lamps of 
pure silver hung in profusion on every 
side, surrounded by votive offerings of 
the same metal such as shovels, bar- 
retas, picks and sieves.... Pictures, 
representing terrible catastrophes, by 
falling masses of rock, irruptions of 
torrents, and down-pouring cataracts, 
showed what fates were ever in store 
for those who 'forgot the Church.' 
And as if to heighten the effect, wher- 
ever a cayman or a jaguar was ' sloping 
off with a miner in his mouth,' a 
respectable saint was sure to be de- 
tected in the offing wiping his eyes 
in compassion, but not stirring a finger 
to his assistance." 



VI. 

DOMESTIC LIFE. 

eyY err} AnAcy eB&iNe MOTOCTOKOC EiAefGyiA, 
AH TOTC THN TOKOC eTAe, MeNofNHceN Ae TKec6<M. 
AMC})} Ae 4>o(iMiKi B&Ae rrHxee, foyNA, A' epeice 
AeiMcoNi M&AAKO)' MefAnce Ae r<*f yneNepOeN. 

HOMER, Hymn to Apollo Delian, 117. 

SACRIFICE and offering was customary at each of the two 
great moments of human life : at marriage and childbirth. We 
may fairly take it that in prehistoric Greece, as elsewhere, 
puberty and marriage came close together ; and that the offer- 
ings originally commemorated puberty, which is a natural 
change, and not marriage, which is an artificial institution. 
But in civilised countries the second it is which attracts chief 
attention, and it is not possible wholly to explain how the 
Greeks regarded the two as connected. 

The most peculiar practice connected with puberty is the 
dedication of the hair, a very ancient survival which held its 
own long after the Greeks had outgrown any real faith in their 
theology. It will be well to collect here the various instances 
of the practice, although some of them will be obviously due to 
other occasions than puberty 1 . 

The earliest form of the custom would appear to be the vow 
or dedication of hair to a river 2 , to be cut either at puberty or 
some other crisis, or after escaping some threatening peril. 

1 See on this subject Inscriptions ship, Trans. Roy. Soc. Lit. 1878, 173 ff. 
du temple de Zeus Panamaros, BCH For parallels to the hair offering, 
xii. 479 ff. ; Dar. and Sagl. s.v. Coma. Frazer on Paus. viii. 34. 3, 41. 3. 

2 See P. Gardner, Greek River-Wor- 



DOMESTIC LIFE. 



241 



The river- worship here, as we have seen it in conjunction with 
Pan and the nymphs, is a mark of antiquity 1 . Achilles at the 
funeral of Patroclus shore the locks " long kept for Spercheus, 
if he should return safe 8 ." Ajax made a similar vow to the 
Ilissus 3 . Orestes laid on his father's tomb the hair he had 
vowed to Inachus 4 , perhaps one lock of hair left to grow long, 
as the Brahmins use in India. Similar vows are recorded for 
the Cephisus 6 and the Neda at Phigalea 6 , and the same is 
implied by the story of the mythical Leucippus, who was 
keeping his hair long for the Alpheus 7 . When the great gods 
come in fashion, they attract this offering like the rest. Thus 
Agamemnon in perplexity tore out handfuls of hair as an 
offering to Zeus 8 ; hair was also dedicated to Phoebus 9 , Zeus and 
Artemis 10 , the Heroes 11 , and Health 12 . It was an old custom, says 
Plutarch, for lads to " offer firstfruits of their hair" at Delphi, and 
he describes how Theseus went thither for that purpose 13 ; the 
custom is also recorded in history 14 . The hair offering is known at 
Athens 15 , Argos 16 , Delphi", Delos 18 , Megara 19 , Troezen 20 , Titane 21 , 



1 Like the worship of Poseidon and 
the Cretan old men of the sea. Cp. 
the dedication from Asia Minor, AM 
xix. 313 \alveov /ue T^x.vafffJ.a iffopq,* 
dXnja ytpovra, OrJKe 5 ' ATroXXaws dvdffrj- 
fia Noffeiddwvi. 

2 II xxiii. 141. 

3 Philostr. Her. xii. 2. 

4 Aesch. Choeph. 6 irXoKafj-ov 'I 



5 Paus. i. 37. 3. Cp. Philostr. Imag. 
i. 7. 1 (Memnon) 6 TUV fioffTpvxuv Sara- 
Xvs oOs ol/xai NeiX(fj frp<j)e. 

6 Paus. viii. 41. 3. Frazer in his 
note gives parallels from India and 
Australia. See also North Indian Notes 
and Queries, v. 544: children cat off 
their scalp-lock at a shrine. 

7 Paus. viii. 20. 3. 

8 II. x. 15 TroXXds eK Kf>a\T)s irpo- 
OeXti/jivovs Z\Kero xalras vtf/66' tovrt 
Aii. 

R. 



9 Anth. Pal. vi. 278. 

10 Anth. Pal. vi. 242 ; Plut. Thes. 5. 

11 Paus. i. 43. 4, ii. 32. 1. 

12 GIG 2391. 

13 Plut. Thes. 5 dirdpxfffOai rip 6e$ 



14 Theopompus op. Ath. xiii. 605 A 
eis AeXc^ous ira.pa.yevofjL^vif T<$ HvOodupov 
rov 'ZiKvuviov viq diroKeipofdvq rty 

K6fJ.T]V, 

15 Pollux, Onom. iii. 3 ; Hesych. 
ydfiuv tdri; Diphilus fragm. 66. 6 
(Kock). 

16 Stat. Theb. ii. 254 with Schol. 

17 Plut. Thes. 5. 

18 Paus. i. 43. 4 ; Callim. Hymn to 
Delos, 296. 

19 Paus. i. 43. 4. 

20 Eur. Hippol. 1421; Orest.113, 128; 
Lucian, De Dea Syria, 60. 

21 Paus. ii. 11. 

16 



242 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Paros 1 , Thessalian Thebes 8 , Phigalea 8 , Erythrae 4 , Hierapolis 8 , 
Alexandria 6 , and Prusa 7 ; whence it would appear to be a 
general custom among the Greeks. A special lock seems to 
have been kept for the sacred purpose 8 , and it was so common 
as to give rise to a proverb 9 . 

The later records attest the same custom. A child's first 
hair was so dedicated, with a prayer that he might live to be 
old, or that Acharnian ivy might afterwards grace his head 10 . 
The first down on a man's chin was also thus dedicated 11 . Girls 
also cut and dedicated their hair before marriage (at puberty, 
that is, according to the original conception), to Hippolytus at 
Troezen", to Iphinoe at Megara 13 , to Athena in Argos 14 , and at 
Delos, where lads and lasses both shore it in honour of the 
Hyperborean Maidens ; the lads winding their hair (or first 
beard) in wisps of a certain grass, the lasses their hair about a 
spindle, and laying it upon the maidens' tomb 15 . Several Delian 
inscriptions relate to this. According to Pollux 16 the hair was 
regularly dedicated before marriage to Hera, Artemis, and the 

1 CIG 2391. 'Eira<f>p6di,TOS...virp rov wai&iov . . . Tyr 

2 Inscribed tablet with hair carved ircuSixV rplxa 'Tyitia Kal 'AffK\t)irtw; 
on it, see below. 2392 ri}v trpwrdr/MriTov rpixa TJ]V tyyfii- 

3 Paus. viii. 23. 3, 41. 3. K^V Kelpas ; so 2393 with variations. 

4 Inferred by W. Robertson Smith n Anth.Pal. vi.242 ; Lucian, De Dea 
from the story of the rope of hair in Syria, 60 : T&V yeveluv dirdpxovTai. 
Paus. vii. 5. 5 ; see Frazer ad loc. 12 Lucian I.e. ; Paus. ii. 32. 1 ; Eur. 

8 Lucian, I.e. Hippol. 1424. 

6 Catullus, Coma Berenices ; Hygin. 13 Paus. i. 43. 4. 

Poet. Astr. 11. 24. " Stat. Theb. ii. 253 ff. hie more 

7 Himerius, Or. xxiii. 7. Berenice parentum lasides, thalamis ubi casta 
vowed if her husband returned from war adolesceret aetas, virgineas libare co- 
unwounded to dedicate her hair in the mas,primosquesolebantexcusaretoro8. 
temple, and did so (p. 245). w Herod, iv. 34 ; Paus. i. 43. 4 ; Cal- 

8 Diphilus ap. Ath. vi. 225 B tvravda. lim. Hymn to Delos 296 ff. 

yovv tffriv TIS virtpriKOVTiKus, K6fju)i> u Pollux iii. 38 "Hpa rAetos rj <ri'fu- 

Tp{</>uv ftfi> Ifpav TOU Ofov, ws <f>rf<rlv yla, TOI/TTJ y&p TOW TrporeXe/ots irpovrt- 

ov 6ia TOUTO y' d\\' tffTiytufros, irpb TOV \ovv rets *c6/)as, Kal 'AprtfjiiSi Kal Mot'pcus, 

(jLeruirov Trapajr^TOff/i' afirrjv fai. Kal rrjs K6/j.ijs Sf r6re airJipxovTo rats 

9 Anth. Pal. vi. 310 tepos 6 irX6/cajuos, Otals al K6pai. Frazer on Paus. ii. 
Tofift^v 6veiap ffjLol. Eur. Bacch. 494 32. 1 quotes parallels from Fiji and 
Jepdj 6 TrXoKa/ws- r$ Oetp 5' avrbv Tpt<f>w. Cambodia, from Africa, and from 

10 Anth. Pal. vi. 278, 279; CIG 2391 America. 



DOMESTIC LIFE. 243 

Fates. In the Syrian Hierapolis, Lucian tells us that the hair 
when offered was preserved in sacred vases ; he himself in his 
youth had conformed to the custom 1 . A series of inscriptions, 
found at Panamara in Oaria, throw some light on the hair- 
offering 2 . They belong to Roman times, and to Asia Minor ; 
but there is nothing in them which may not be genuine Greek. 
The devotees enclose their hair in a small stone coffer, made in 
form of a stele, which is set up in the precinct. A slab covers 
the hole, and an inscription is placed upon it. The poorer sort 
are content to make a hole in the wall, or even hang up their 
hair with the name only attacht. Even slaves are among the 
dedicators. It is peculiar that no women's names are found at 
all, though the inscriptions number more than a hundred ; and 
that the deity honoured is Zeus, never Hera. Possibly, as the 
editors conjecture, women were not allowed within the precinct. 

Pausanias saw the statue or relief of a youth shearing his 
hair in honour of the Cephisus 3 . A curious memorial of the 
custom is seen in a stone from Thessaly, upon which are carven 
two long plaits of hair dedicated to Poseidon 4 . 

A few further examples may be added from the Anthology 
to show the variety of possible occasions for this rite. A woman 
offers the hair to Cybele with a prayer for a happy marriage 5 , 
or in honour of Pallas on attaining marriage with her lover, 



1 De Dea Syria 60. sometimes. Formulae are: 61 

2 See Deschamps and Cousin, In- Aiovveiov tvrvx.us, 66 T^xjl dyaOy Ati 
scriptions du temple de Zeus Panama- Havafj-dpy ef>x^ v KO/J.O.S with name, 74 
ros, BCH xi. 390, xii. 82, 249, 479, {nrtp evxtjs; indications of a recurring 
xiv. 369 ff. The dedications are in rite no. 80 8h c6/iou. An interesting 
varying forms, and many are illiterate. name is given in 76, 'EiriKT-f/Tov KO^OLI. 
We find dedications of many persons In Egypt, parents used to pay the 
together as xi. 39 firl ieptws Tt. 4>Xo. weight of the children's hair in silver 
Atvdov 'Idaovos, KOfiai Xai/aiy/uovos 'Aya- for a vow; see p. 244 9 . 

BofiovXov 'IepoK\tovs Aiovvvtov 'Hpct/r\e/- 3 Paus. i. 37. 3. The dedication to 

dov MavTiBfov; BCH -ai. 390: a house- Cephisus from Lilaea in Phocis may 

hold, xii. 487 ff. no. 115 6yucu <pafj.i- be similar: IGS iii. 1. 232. 

\las Qv\Triov'AffK\T)TridSov: of children, 4 $i\6/j.j3poTos ' A<p66i>T)Tos &e<.vo/j.dxov 

no. 103 K(5/uai EfljraSos Kal iraidiuv at- IloffeiSuvt.. Figured in Dar. and Sagl. 

TOV, 104 Kal vlwv, 111 /cat T^KVUV; of s.v. Donarium, p. 376, fig. 2543. See 

brothers, 110 c6yucu 'Epwros KCLI d8e\<j>ov fig. 36 below. 

and BCH xiv. 371, of slaves, 117 ol- 5 Anth. Pal. vi. 281. 

KfTuv. The singular KO'/W? is found 

162 



244 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



and after the birth of a male child desired 1 . A man offers his 
white hair, having vowed it when dedicating the first locks of 




FIG. 36. Votive hair, from Thessaly. 
Daremberg and Saglio, s.v. Donarium, p. 376, fig. 2543. 

his youth*. A eunuch after his orgies dedicates his hair to 
the Sangarian mother 3 . A lock of hair is offered by an elderly 
courtezan with other gifts to Cypris 4 . So Marcellus on return- 
ing to Italy victorious from the east, dedicates the first shaving 
of his beard 8 . The offering takes a sportive turn, when Lucil- 
lius dedicates hair to all the sea deities named in a string, 
because he has nothing else to give 6 . The growing of sacred 
hair is also attested for Rome 7 ; and Herodotus mentions that 
the priests of Egypt wore their hair long 8 , and that vows were 
paid by weighing silver against the shorn hair 9 . He also tells us 



1 Anth. Pal. vi. 59. 
* Anth. Pal. vi. 193. 
8 Anth. Pal. vi. 234, 173. 
4 Anth. Pal. vi. 200. 
8 Anth. Pal. vi. 161. 
8 Anth. Pal. vi. 164. 
7 Suet. Nero 12; Xiphil. Nero 19; 
Martial i. 32; Stat. Theb. 493; Petron. 



29 (see the article cited from BCH). 

8 Herod, ii. 36; Plut. Is. p. 352. 

9 Herod, ii. 65 ei/xof^foi T< 0e$, rov 
SLV 77 -rb Oriplov, vpovvres TWV iraidlwv rj 
iracrav rr)i> /ce^aArji' rj rb rplrov fdpos TTJS 
KeQaXrjs, Iffraai ffraOfjup irpbs dpytipiov 
rds rplxa.s. rb 5' &v f\Kvffrj, TOVTO Ty 
fjie\fSuv<f rdiv Orfpluv diSoi. 



DOMESTIC LIFE. 245 

that the Arabs used to shave their heads in honour of God 1 . 
The custom is still used, when Arabs offer the hair to God or 
the heroised dead*, and women lay theirs on the tombs of tribal 
benefactors 3 . 

When the Delians place locks of hair on a tomb, they 
furnish a link with another common occasion of dedicating the 
hair. Heracles built a tomb for Leucippus, and offered there 
some of his hair 4 . The Achaeans used to cut their hair in 
mourning 5 . Achilles, as I have mentioned, shore his at the 
funeral of Patroclus 6 ; and the soldiers of Masistius, at their 
leader's death, clipt not their own hair only but the manes of 
their horses and mules 7 . So did the soldiers of Pelopidas over 
their leader's corpse 8 . At Hephaestion's death, Alexander the 
Great had his animals clipt 9 . It will be remembered that hair 
is among the things offered to heroes. Oddly enough, we are 
told that the Syracusans shore the captive horses after Nicias 
was taken 10 . There are several allusions to the custom in the 
dramatists 11 , and Sappho mentions it 12 . 

Further, it was often vowed in time of peril and offered in 
gratitude. Orestes shore his hair when he came to his senses 13 . 
Berenice vowed and paid her hair for Ptolemy's safety in war 14 . 
The statue of Health at Titane was covered with locks of 
women's hair 15 . A mariner offers his hair to the sea-gods 16 , and 
Lucian mentions a similar vow". St Paul, it will be remem- 
bered, shore his hair at Cenchreae in fulfilment of a vow 18 . 

We may now pass on to a general consideration of the 
marriage offerings in Greece. It is unfortunate that here, as in 

1 Herod, iii. 8 ; Robertson Smith, 10 Plut. Nic. 27. 

Kinship and Marriage in Ancient Ara- u Aesch. Cho. 6 ; Eur. El. 91 K6ni)s 

bia, p. 152. dirrjpZdnrjv, Or. 96 *6juijs dirapxds, 

2 Goldziher, Rev. de VHist. des Re- Phoen. 1525. 
ligions, x. 351, xiv. 49. 12 Sappho 119. 

3 Goldziher, op. cit. xiv. 352. ls Paus. viii. 34. 3. 

4 Paus. vii. 17. 8, where Frazer gives 14 Catull., Coma Berenices; Eudocia, 
modern parallels. no. 218. 

5 Eudocia, no. 518. 15 Paus. ii. 11. 6. 

6 II. xxiii. 141. 16 Anth. Pal. vL 164. 

7 Herod, ix. 24 ; Plut. Arist. 14. 17 Lucian, irepl rCiv 4irl /uffOy avvbv- 

8 Plut. Pel. 33. TUV, init. 

9 Pint. Pel. 34, Alex. 72. 18 Acts of the Apostles, xviii. 18. 



246 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



other things of every day, our information is scanty ; but we 
know that sacrifices were customary before marriage, and where 
there is sacrifice there may always be votive offerings. In 
some places initiation formed part of the wedding ceremony 1 , 
and the priestess of Demeter officiated at weddings*. The 
little girls of Athens used to take part in a ' mystery 8 ,' 
imitating bears in honour of Artemis Brauronia, whose shrine 
stood on the Acropolis. The accounts of this rite are confusing, 
but in one it is said to have been done by all the girls as a 
preliminary to marriage 4 ; and in any case it looks like an 
ancient ceremony to mark the time of puberty 6 . If another 
writer be correct in confining the ceremony to a select few 6 , the 
word Setcareveiv used as a synonym for dpicreveiv to designate 
it, suggests that the maidens were a tithe of the women, like 
the tithe of men described above 7 . When marriage actually 
took place, a sacrifice was made to the gods of marriage 8 , who 
are variously given as the Furies 9 , Zeus and Hera 10 , or Hera, 
Artemis, and the Fates 11 , or the Nymphs 12 , later to Aphrodite 18 . 
At Sparta, mothers would sacrifice to Hera and Aphrodite 
when their daughters married 14 . We may assume that, as in 
other cases, each tribe would originally sacrifice to its own 



1 Paton, Inscr. of Cos, 386: rah 5e 
reXevfAf'vais Kal rats tirtvv(j.<f>evo(dvais 
rin-ev rai dri\ojj.e'vai K0.66.irep Kal irplv 
irw\r)Tav yeveaOon rav lepditrvvav crwe- 

j, TrevTOJ36\os SiSowrcus diroXeXinrffai 
dva.\w(j.dTwv irdvTUv ' jrapa- 
de rcus TeXevfdvais ras iepjjj 
TO, vo/j,Lfo/j.(va. 

2 Plut. Con/. Praec. ad init., quoted 
by Paton. 

3 T6/ui0T77/HO<rweTAovi', Schol. Arist. 
Lys. 645. 

4 *pk ydnov, a second schol. ad lac. 

8 The age is given as five to ten 
years, but Mommsen gives reason for 
believing this to be a mistake (Heort. 
406 note). He suggests 10 to 15. 

6 etriXfybnevai wapOevoi, Schol. Arist. 
Lys. 645. 

7 It is usually referred to the chil- 
dren's age as being about ten years. 



8 irpore'Xeia, ydfjiuv, irpoydftfta : Oeol 
yafj.ri\toi. See also Anth. Pal. vi. 55, 
318, and for Sparta Paus. iii. 13. 9. 

9 Schol. Aesch. Eum. 834 ws irport- 

TCUJ 'Epivfoi. 



10 Diod. Sic. v. 73; Aesch. Eum. 214. 
Cp. Ath. xv. 694 D "Aprefj.iv a ywaiKwv 
fj.ty' fyei Kpdros (Scolion). 

11 Pollux iii. 38 ; Artemis in Boeotia 
and Locris, Plut. Aristid. 20. The 
Furies in Aesch. Eum. 835; cp. p. 254 
below. 

14 Plut. Amat. Narr. 1, p. 944. 

13 Paus. iii. 13. 9 Hera-Aphrodite. 
It will be remembered that Aphrodite 
was not a Greek goddess. She was, 
however, worshipt on the Athenian 
Acropolis in the sixth century, as in- 
scribed potsherds prove: A A viii. 147. 

14 Paus. iii. 13. 8. 



DOMESTIC LIFE. 



247 



gods ; and that the country folk, perhaps following the oldest 
custom, would sacrifice to the nymphs or heroes. But as 
theology became systematic, Zeus and Hera as the divine 
wedded pair seem to have gained the chief importance as 
patrons of wedlock. Hera, indeed, as the Maid, the Wife, and 
the Widow, represents the whole life of woman on earth 1 ; and 
the Holy Marriage ceremonial is connected with her and Zeus at 




FIG. 87. Zeus and Hera, from Samos. 
Farnell, Cults, pi. v. b. 

Samos and elsewhere 2 . This ceremonial is perhaps commemo- 
rated by a terra-cotta group from Samos, probably representing 
Zeus and Hera as bridegroom and bride 8 , which we may suppose 
to have been dedicated at some human marriage. The principle 



Theocr. xv. 24). 

3 Farnell i. 208, 238, plate v. 6, 
see fig. 37, in text. A scheme with 
the same attitude as the metope of 
Selinus appears in the fragmentary 
relief, from Athens (?), Cat. Brit. Mus. 
Sc. 770. The relief may, however, 
commemorate the ceremony ; see chap. 



, reXeia, x^P a ' see Farnell, 
Cults, i. 190 ff. But elaborate symbol- 
ism is foreign to early Greek religion. 
2 Farnell i. 192, 200, 208, 244. It 
appears to have been a very early part 
of the cult. Athens (Photius s.v.), 
Plataea (Paus. ix. 3. 1, 16. 57), 
Argos (Paus. ii. 17. 3), Euboea (Schol. 
Arist. Pax 1126), Hermione (Schol. 



248 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

would be that of mythological precedent; and that it was 
natural here is seen not only from a comparison of parallels, 
but by the fact that Sappho in an epithalamium sings of a 
mythological wedding 1 . Perhaps this is the origin of an Athe- 
nian painted tablet, which bears the apotheosis of Heracles*. 
The sacrifice of a pig before marriage is attested by Varro for 
the Greeks of Italy 3 ; and an inscription to be quoted below 
may refer to this. Perhaps the dedication of a garland to Hera, 
which Alcman speaks of, may refer to the marriage feast 4 . 

Some legendary dedications are connected with marriage, 
and are of interest as showing how natural the practice was 
felt to be. Pelops, when he prayed for success in his suit for 
Hippodamia, dedicated in Temnus an image of Aphrodite made 
of a growing myrtle tree 5 . Theseus, when he took Helen to 
wife, built a temple of Bridal Aphrodite 8 . He also dedicated in 
Delphi a statuette of Aphrodite which he got from Ariadne 7 , 
and set up portraits of Ariadne in Cyprus 8 . Menelaus, after 
sacking Troy and recovering Helen, set up statues of Thetis 
and Praxidica (' exacter of punishment ') hard by the temple of 
Aphrodite Migonitis in Gythium 9 . This temple was reputed as 
the foundation of Paris himself for the rape of Helen 10 : let those 
believe it who will, and those who will not, may choose. Icarius 
commemorated the wooing of Odysseus by an image of Modesty". 
Odysseus himself founded two temples after vanquishing the 
competitors for Penelope's hand, but the motive must remain 
doubtful 12 . Equally legendary, no doubt, was the temple to 
Aphrodite Callipygos built by the two maidens who were so 

1 Sappho 51. 5 Paus. v. 13. 7. 

2 Benndorf, Gr. und Sic. Vasenb. Paus. ii. 32. 7 Ni^fa. 
pi. iii. 7 Plat. Thes. 21. 

8 Varro R. R. ii. 4. 9 nuptiarum 8 Plut. Thes. 20. 

initio antiqui reges ac sublimes viri in 9 Paus. iii. 22. 2. Kuhnert conjec- 

Etruria in coniunctione nuptiali nova tures Themis for Thetis, Jahrb. f. Cl. 

nupta et novus maritus primumporcum Phil. 1884, p. 252 n. 3 (Frazer). Praxi- 

immolant. Prisci quoque Latini etiam dica is invoked in curses ; see CIA 

Graeci in Italia idem factitasse viden- Defix. Tab. 109. 2. 6. 

tur. 10 Paus. iii. 22. 1. 

4 Alcman 18 ical rlv eGxofi.cn. ftpoiffa. u Paus. iii. 20. 10: see the story 

T6vS' f\ixpvffta TuXewra KrjpaTu KViralpu. there. 

Athen. xv. 618 A, 678 A. 12 Paus. iii. 12. 4. 



DOMESTIC LIFE. 249 

proud of their figures, when they obtained rich husbands 1 . 
Charmus, a lover of Hippias, is said to have built an altar to 
Love in the Academe 2 . 

Maidens before marriage, originally perhaps at puberty, 
were accustomed to dedicate along with their hair the dolls 
and other toys of their past childhood, on the same principle 
as the warrior dedicates his worn-out arms, or the workman 
his tools. They also offered their veils 3 , or with obvious sym- 
bolism their girdles*. Thus the Troezeuian girls offered their 
girdles to Apaturian Athena 5 . Timareta, in an epigram which 
appears to have been copied from the stone 6 , mentions drest 
dolls, ball, tambourine, and her own headdress 7 . Similar dedi- 
cations occur of garlands, girdle 8 , mirror 9 , and /jbirpai 10 . Alcibie 
(perhaps the well-known courtezan) dedicates her hair-net to 
Hera on obtaining a lawful marriage 11 . So Calliteles, on coming 
of age, consecrates to Hermes his hat, buckle, cloke, ball, 
scraper, bow and arrows 12 ; Philocles to the same god ball, rattle, 
knuckle-bones, and bull-roarer 13 . 

Such things as these, being perishable and not precious, 
could not have survived in any numbers. Yet jointed dolls 
were found at Delos 14 , in the shrine of the hero Amynus 15 , and 

1 Ath. xii. 554 T\V KaXKiirvyuv feu- 10 Anth. Pal. vi. 276. 

705 tv 2vpa.Kovffa.is. avrai oSf, tiri\a- n Archilochus, 18 Bergk: 'AA/ci/Sb; 

fio/Mvai ovffias \a/j.irpds, ISpuffavro ' A0po- TT\OKa./j.ui> lepijv av0T)Ke KaXinrTpyv "Hpy, 

5tT?js iepov, Ka\tffa<rai Ka\\iirvyov TTJV Kovpidiwv evr' tKvpyffe yd/j-uv. Anth. 

Oebv, ws IffTopei Kal 'A.pxf\aos <h> rots Pal. vi. 133. Cp. 206, 270. Compare 

t<i^/3oty. The story is of significance Herod, ii. 182. The courtezans appear 

as throwing light on the distinctive to have had their guilds and their own 

epithets of the gods. KaXXiirvyos is goddess, unless the curious inscr. of 

not meant to describe Aphrodite, but Paros stood alone (A Jfxviii. 17). There 

to recall the occasion. they worshipt Olffrpu. 

2 Cleidemus ap. Ath. xiii. 609 D. 12 Anth. Pal. vi. 282. 

3 Pollux iii. 38. 13 Anth. Pal. vi. 309 iralyvia. Com- 

4 at yap irapOtvoi ^XXovcrai irpfo /J.fii- iv pare Collitz iii. 3339 70 'Eixftdi'rjs 'Ejri- 
<tp-X<fOa.(., dverlOeffav ras irapfffviKas at)- Satipios irats... I5oe 5 avrut 6 6e&s 
rdv fwvas rrj 'Apre/j-iSi, Apostolius x. 96 tiriffras eiTreiv, rl /J.QI 8w<reis at TV KO. vyii) 
in Corp. Paroem. Gr. ii. 513. TTOITJCTW; avrbs d <p6.[j.ev, MK" dar/ja- 

5 Paus. ii. 33. 1. 6 &5if\ov. yd\ovs. rbv Si 6ebv yeXdvavra <f>dfj.ff vw 

7 KfKpv<f>a.\os : Anth. Pal. vi. 280 icavaeiv. In Thebes, dffrpaydXus irtr- 
(Limnatis). rapas IGS i. 2420 22 . 

8 Anth. Pal. vi. 59, 210 (Aphrodite). 14 BCH xi. 423. 

9 Anth. Pal. vi. 210. 15 AM xviii. 243. 



250 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



on the Acropolis at Athens 1 ; dolls, masks, and grotesque heads 
in the Cabirium 2 , at Tegea 8 , at Calaurea 4 , at Lysi in Arcadia 8 , 
in the temple trench at Cnidus 6 , grotesques at Naucratis 7 ; and 
many of the innumerable clay animals found upon sacred sites 
may have been children's toys. In the Pelopium at Olympia 
were found a number of miniature bronze kettles, cymbals, 
small axes, and the like, some of which may have been toys 8 , 
and a miniature bucket of silver in the sanctuary of Athena 
Cranaia 9 ; but all these may be better explained on the 
principle to be set forth later 10 . The inventories include such 
things, but there is nothing to show why they were offered; 
we may however claim as toys the Delian rattles 11 , the tops of 
Oropus 12 , perhaps also four little snakes and Timothea's crab". 

It is probable that three dedications to Limnatis belong to 
this place ; several small cymbals have been found in Laconia, 
which were probably children's toys 14 . A fourth, the much 
discussed offering of Camo, is probably dedicated to the same 
deity for the same cause 18 . All the dedicators are women. 



1 In the Museum. 

2 AM xiii. 426, xv. 358 : tops and 
other toys of terra-cotta and bronze, 
knuckle-bones, small vases, Sileni, 
children in goat-waggon, caricatures 
of lyre-players, masks, are among 
them, not to mention animals. 

3 AM iv. 170. Archaic woman on 
camel, man clinging under a ram. 

4 437 xiii. 3223. 

8 Jahreshefte iv. 43,48: satyr, cocks, 
horses, little axes marked as dice, 
swordlets, comic figures : some 5th 
century. Many miniature vases. But 
see chap. xiv. 

6 Newton, Branch. 397. 

7 Ann. Brit. Sch. Ath. v. 72. 

8 Olympia : Ergebnisse, Textb. iv. 3. 
But see chap. xiv. below. 

9 BCH xii. 47. 

10 Chapter xiv. 

11 BCH ii. 431 Kpt>ra.\ov. Cp. jrcu5i<ci 
\LOiva. ?f, 325. 

12 IGS i. 2420 25 <rrp6/3(Xoi. 



13 SpaKovria, KapKlvosTinoOtas, line 51 
I.e. A number of supposed playthings 
of lead were found in the temple pre- 
cinct of Jupiter at Tarracina : chairs, 
tables, and other furniture, cooking 
utensils, candelabrum, boy with tray, 
plates with viands upon them, etc. 
AJA o.s. x. 256. 

14 See AM xxi. 442 ft. IGA 50 
Aifj.va.Tis, Gl'Ojrwpis bvtOriKe AijtwdTt, 73 
noXvavflis avtdrjKe rdi A.i/jn>6.Ti : figures 
given. Above, p. 249 7 . 

15 Ka/xw Ov tffvffe rat Kdpfai, Cat. Ath. 
Sc. no. 7959, IGA 324. This seems to 
record the marriage sacrifice of a pig. 
For another interpretation see AM xxi. 
240 ff . ; it does not touch the present 
point. Collitz i. 373 takes f0vfff = ^y 
Ofays, which would make it a ritual 
offering. The aorist could not be 
used to denote an official. It should 
be mentioned that the inscr. has also 
been read Kdfj.ow = K.dfj.ui>, a man's 
name (AZ xxxiv. 28). 



DOMESTIC LIFE. 251 

There is a pair of cymbals, dedicated by a man to the same 
deity, and one by a man to Asclepius 1 . On this principle I 
would explain the woman's dedication in Plataea of " what she 
had on," her trinkets probably to judge from the context 2 . 

I do not know what to make of the bridal baskets 3 , the 
bridal cauldron 4 , and the bridegroom's footstool 5 mentioned in 
the Athenian Inventories. There is no proof that these were 
votive offerings, but they may be such. 

At marriage, prayers and vows were offered for fruitfulness 
and prosperity 6 . It seems likely that a relief from Sicily of 
the second century, dedicated by a man and woman to Artemis, 
was offered on the occasion of marriage 7 . Artemis Eupraxia 
is clad in a chiton which leaves bare the right breast ; in her 
right hand she holds a torch, in her left a basket ; before her 
stands an altar. We may suggest the same explanation of 
Polystrata's offering, an Argive relief of the fifth century, 
showing Artemis alone clad in Doric chiton, with bow, quiver, 
and torch 8 ; and of others which show the goddess with her 
usual attributes, and a female worshipper 9 , or with male and 
female 10 . 

At childbirth, prayer and vow were made to various deities, 
no doubt to any patron deity of a tribe or a family. Hera and 
Artemis are the favourites. A late inscription u from Paros names 
a whole group of divinities : Hera, Demeter, Thesmophoros, the 
Maid, Zeus Eubuleus and Babo. Asclepius was also invoked by 

1 Fava^'Xas K, i.e. (c6/>eu : AA xii. 73. Aristid. 20. 

IPI i. 1202. 8 Cat. Berl. Sc. 682 TioXuffrpdra &vt- 

2 AJA vii. 406 74 'Hvi6x a Ta <' ay- tfij/Ke: rough bottom to fix in ground or 
T?;J. base. Farnell, Cults, ii. 539, pi. xxxiv.a. 

3 KO.VO. vvfj-fpiKb. CIA ii. 678 B ; KO.VOVV A similar one from Asopus, in private 
ya/MKbv ii. 850. collection : Collitz iii. 4559 Hedirls dvt- 

4 X^STJS vv(uf>tK6$ CIA ii. 721. 6r)Ke 'Aprdfju; AZ xl. 145, pi. vi. 

5 vTrbfiaOpa. VV^IKO. Svo CIA ii. 671 ; 9 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 779 : huntress 
appevos vTTofidTTjs 678 55 . Artemis, hound, altar, stag. 

6 Compare Aesch. Eum. 834 iro\\rjs 10 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 778. 

dt x^po-s TTJcrd' ?r' dxpoBlvia, Binrj trpb iral- u Athenodor. v. 15 ' Epaffiinrr) Upd- 

Suv KO.I yafj.rj\iov rt\ovs. <Tuvos"Hpri A^yuijT/u Qftr/M)<f>6ptj> KO.I K6py 

7 GIG 5613 b Tlpuros Kal Mevlirirrj icai Ad Ei5/3oiAet KCU Ba/3ot. Farnell, ii. 
'AprffuSi EvTrpala.t.. Farnell, Cults, ii. 194, takes it, no doubt rightly, as a 
531, 575 ; cp. Anth. Pal. vi. 276; Plut. thank-offering after childbirth. 



252 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the would-be mother 1 . On such occasions a title appro- 
priate would be added, as Courotrophos to Athena* and 
Demeter 3 , Epilysamene to Demeter 4 , Eileithyia to Hera 8 and 
to Artemis 6 , Locheia to Artemis ; and it appears that Eileithyia 
and Lecho are titles of the divine powers, personified as 
the protectors of childbirth 7 . The spirits who preside over 
childbirth were also called Genetyllides 8 . The scanty evidence 
goes to show that the prayer for a safe delivery was often 
accompanied by the dedication of a veil or hair-net or some 
such trifle 9 . Articles of dress were also offered after the birth : 
sandals it might be, or a part of the robe, a girdle, a breast- 
band 10 . Later we find these offerings made to Aphrodite; 
the girl in Theocritus intended her breast-band for this 
purpose 11 . The clothes of women who died in childbirth were 
left at the grave of Iphigenia in Halae 12 . Herodotus says that 
women made a special practice of dedicating their pins in 
Argos and Aegina 18 . Perhaps some of the dresses dedicated 
to Artemis Brauronia or to an unknown deity at Thebes were 
due to childbirth or the like"; and the beautiful pins, earrings, 
fibulae and diadems of Lysi in Arcadia, offered to Artemis 16 . 
There seems to have been a kind of churching for women, 
sitting publicly in the shrine of Eileithyia 16 . 

Women's dedications to Eileithyia, in Laconian Eleuthia, 

1 Cures ofEpid., 3339 7 . 8 Paus. i. 1. 5, Aristoph. Clouds, 52. 

2 The dM<i8pW were held in " Anth. Pal. vi. 270274, 276. 
honour of Athena Koi;po7-p6<os : Eu- 10 Anth. Pal. vi. 200 Eileithyia, 201, 
docia, no. 54. 271, 272 Artemis. 

3 CIA iii. 172, etc. " Theocr. xxvii. 54 <f>ev <j>ev, /rat rav 
* Hesych. s.v. ''EiriXva-a/j^vr). ulrpav dWffxuras' & fl S' ?Xi/<ras; rq. 
8 Argos, Hesych. .r."Hpa fr'Apyti', lla<pia vpdriffrov fyu r6de dwpov 6ir<ifa. 

Athens, inscr. in Roscher, col. 2091 In Herodotus ii. 181 Ladice vows a 

(Farnell). Dedications to Hera, Anth. statue to Aphrodite ijv ol IT' ^Kflv^v 

Pal. vi. 243. rty VVKTO. fuxOrj 6 "A/ucwts. 

6 Farnell, ii. 615 2 , gives reff. : Attica, ia Enrip. 1. T. 1464. 
Sparta, Boeotia, Crete. Compare Anth. 13 Herod, v. 88. 

Pal. vi. 201, 271, and see IGS i. 3214, CIA ii. 751 ff. ; IGS i. 2421. 
33856, 341012, 'AirAXXcwoj Aet^cct- 16 Jahreshefte iv. 51 ff., diff. dates. 
ipopiu 'AprdMtSo* ZowSkas 3407. 16 Isaeus v. 39 rty de nrjrfpa rip 

7 So also Farnell, ii. p. 608. Com- oirroO KaQri^vtiv tv r<# TTJS El\i)0vias 
pare Anth. Pal. vi. 200. In Sparta we 2ep<p ird^res tupav, Kal TOI/T^ fyKaXoCffar 
find an old dedication to Lecho: Ae^ ' ^y^ alffxtivojuu \tyeiv, ovros 5t 
IGA 52. O 



DOMESTIC LIFE. 253 

Eleusia, or Lecho, are not uncommon 1 , but what was the 
thing dedicated does not appear. A woman offers a bowl to 
Eileithyia in Delos 4 , and an amphora in Peiraeus to the 
Nursing Mother 3 . The Acropolis vases dedicated to Aphrodite 
have been already mentioned 4 . 

Existing remains are few. We may perhaps regard as a 
wife's offering the silver pin dedicated to Hera which was 
found in Argolis 5 , and a gilded bronze pin from Cyprus 6 . 
Innumerable brooches, pins, armlets, and suchlike ornaments 
have been found in the Argive Heraeum 7 , and one of the 
mirrors is inscribed with a woman's dedication 8 . A number 
of women's ornaments are mentioned in the inventories, but it 
is impossible to decide upon what occasion offered. In Delos 
we find Melitta's crystal or glass unguent box 9 , a bronze mirror 10 , 
golden pins 11 , and buttons, earrings, necklets or armlets, head- 
bands, fly-flappers, and rouge-pots 12 . In a shrine on the 
Acropolis slope, probably the Asclepieum, we find mention of 
earrings 13 . Perhaps it was on such an occasion that Roxana 
sent a gold vase and necklet to Athens 14 . The shrine of Athena 
Cranaia has yielded up a gold bangle 15 , with buckles, hair-pins, 
spirals, and fibulae of bronze 18 . At Dodona was found a mirror 
dedicated by a woman 17 . A glass ring and toilet-casket, in- 
scribed to Habrothaus, have been found in Cyprus 18 . 

1 Collitz iii. 4584 (Hippola), 4462 9 BGH ii. 430 6 ^dXuirrpov {id\ivov 
Aexoc (Sparta), 4466 'A^poStrcu (ibid.), MeXn-T?;s. 

'E0. 'Apx- 1900, 59 Aphr. (Thessaly), 10 BCH ii. 430 10 Kdrpoirrof [sic] 

all by women : 4431 MaxafiSas dvtOrjKe xaX/coOi'. 

rat 'EXewtai (Sparta). u BCH vi. 38 s5 ir6prri) xpvrf- 

2 BCH vi. 34, line 50. 12 BCH vi. 125 dffin5i(TK-q, evtbiriov, 

3 'E<. 'A.px~ 1885, 94 JXiKOvrpdrr) evuirldiov, e^aXfiirrpa, /Mvoabfiai, Trepi.- 
KovpoTp6^>tti. (T/ceXt's, Trepbvr), iropTrrj, ffrXeyyis, ffrXey- 

4 A A viii. 147 ; above, p. 246 13 . yiSiov, <pvKla xpvffd, ^Xiov. 

5 ras "Upas (arcbaic) : AA xii. 196 : 13 BCH iii. 125. 
in Britisb Museum. 14 CIA ii. 737. 

6 JHS ix. 223, pi. xi.: ' A.<f>podiTrj 15 BCH xii. 46. 
Ila0ta EujSouXa evxty }] ytiiT) TJ 'Apdrov 16 BCH. xii. 54. 

TOV ffvyyevovs nai Tayakra. 17 ColUtz ii. 1369; Carapanos, Do- 

7 Bronzes : Inventory 1105 ff. rings done, xxv. 1 : noXu^a raytv dvaridriri. 
of various sizes, 1571 ff. mirrors, 1614 roi At Kal xprifJ-ara. 

ff. small discs perforated, 1695 ff. the 18 Collitz i. 129130 Aa/3t'5^s 'A/3po- 
same larger. 6dw. 

8 Bronzes, 1581. 



254 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

As regards the other offerings made on this occasion, we 
read of one or two temples which were due to it. Helen, after 
bringing forth a daughter, is said to have founded a temple of 
Eileithyia in Argos 1 . Again, the women of Elis, long barren, 
when at length they found themselves with child, built one to 
Athena the Mother 2 . The image of the protecting deity here 
as elsewhere is a natural offering. Phaedra is said to have 
dedicated two ancient statues of Eileithyia 3 . A statue of 
Artemis offered at childbirth is attested by an inscription 4 . 
There exists also a late statuette of Eileithyia dedicated by a 
woman 5 ; and a pillar inscribed with the name of Asclepius pro- 
bably supported a statue of him dedicated on the like occasion 6 . 
Perchance the archaic statue of Artemis, dedicated at Delos by 
a woman, belongs to this class 7 . Little altars are often dedi- 
cated to Artemis the Nurse in Roman times 8 . 

Three ancient reliefs from Argos are dedicated to the 
Eumenides by women, and the connexion of these beings with 
childbirth has been already indicated 9 . The three goddesses 
stand, holding each a snake in the right hand and a flower in 
the left, with worshippers in their presence 10 . A relief of two 
female figures with torches may refer to this occasion". 

The most characteristic records of this occasion are those 
which represent the act or process blest by the god. This 
class is represented by groups of statuary or small figures, 
and by reliefs. An archaic marble statue from Sparta repre- 
sents a female figure kneeling, with a small male figure on her 
right holding one hand to his lips, while on the other a second 
male figure presses his hand over the woman's womb. It 
should be remembered that women in ancient Greece knelt to 

1 Paus. ii. 22. 6. ^(C77/36Xwt loxeaipijt Qo^prj AeivoS6Krjo TOV 

2 Paus. v. 3. 2. Nation |oxos aXr/uv, Aeivo/jitvovs 6 

3 Paus. i. 18. 5. Kaffiyv^rr), <&p<i!-ov 5' a\ox6s (*. 

4 GIG 24 'Aprefu, aol rbV &ya\n' 8 'E<p. 'Apx- 1896, 54 'Aprtfudi Kovpo- 



tivydrrip (Peloponnesus). 9 Aesch. Eum. 835. Pregnant sheep 

Sybel 3153 Ea\0ia 'A\e%di>5pov inrtp sacrificed to them at Sicyon, Paus. ii. 

'El\ti&viri ffufovvi) evxfy- H- 4. See p. 246. 

8 Sybel 7215: the inscr., much 10 AM iv. pi. ix., x. ; Collitz iii. 

damaged, contains the words ' A.aK\tjirU, 3279 f. (name) TZvfj.ft>l<ru> 

dvtBriKe -yi/vrj, vt> tfipvov. u ECU iii. 195. 
7 BCH ii. 4 



DOMESTIC LIFE. 255 

bring forth a child 1 . These two guardian daemons are doubtless 
assisting at the birth, one as a midwife does, the other signing 
for silence from inauspicious words 2 . A statue in a similar 
pose comes from Myconos 3 , and a relief from Cyprus 4 . Nude 
female figures, apparently lying down, with one hand held to 
the breast, have been found at Naucratis ; and these were 
perhaps thank-offerings for childbirth 6 . An ivory casket from 
Athens unmistakably portrays a birth. The newly-delivered 
mother kneels on the ground, and by her side stands a female 
figure, much damaged, which supports her with one hand. As 
this figure holds a lance or staff she is interpreted to be Athena. 
The midwife is bathing the babe. On the left another female 
figure is standing, half-draped, with a long staff in the left 
hand, and in her right she holds a jug. I suggest that this 
casket may have been dedicated as a mother's thank-offering, 
although there is nothing to prove it 6 . Perhaps I might venture 
to suggest further, that the female figure of gold sent by 
Croesus to Delphi, and called locally his ' baker- worn an/ was 
really a woman (his queen perhaps) in the attitude of child- 
birth, which might easily be mistaken for one kneading dough, 
or even so miscalled in jest. It should be noted that his 
queen's girdles and trinkets are mentioned along with it 7 . 

1 Homer, Apoll. Del. 116 ft., and the original it is impossible to judge 
other citations in an article on this how far the reproduction is accurate ; 
group by Marx, AM x. 177 f. It was but I see no trace of an aegis, and if 
the position of the image of Eileithyia the ' lance ' were not so clear this 
in Tegea (Paus. viii. 48. 5), which no figure would be better taken as a mid- 
male eye might see (ii. 35. 11). wife or an attendant. The figure on 

2 AM x. pi. vi. the right may then be Hecate or 

3 Mon. dell' Inst. i. 44 ; AM x. 187. Eileithyia with a torch. 

4 Cesnola, Collection of Cypr. Ant., 7 Herod, i. 51 ywaucbs etdwXov \p6- 
i. pi. 66. ffeov rpiirrfxy, rb AeA0o2 TTJS &pTOK(>irov 

5 Ann. Brit. Sch. Ath. v. 83, pi. xiv. TTJS Kpolffov eiK6va \tyov<ri elvai. Trpbs 

6 Schone 149, who refers it to the 5 ical rrjs ewvrov ywaucbs ra airb TTJJ 
child Dionysus. I differ entirely from Sdprjs dv^d-qice 6 Kpoaros /cat ras fwvas. 
him ; the scene as sketcht has every Compare the dedication in Plataea, 
appearance of a transcript from real 'Hw6xa rb ty' airrijs, AJA vii. 406 74 . 
life. In the sketch, the kneeling figure It is fair to add that Plutarch says this 
appears to be naked from the waist baker had saved Croesus' life, and the 
down. She is pouring water from a figure was dedicated in gratitude, 
jug into the basin. Without seeing Pyth. Or. 10. 



256 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Other reliefs show different moments. Some from Cyprus 
have the figure of a woman seated upon a chair, and holding 
a swathed infant. There is fruit in one hand, and beside her 
a child stands, also holding a fruit 1 . In a relief from Sigeum, 
the enthroned figure seems to represent Eileithyia or some 
suitable divinity : to her approach three women bearing infants 
upon their arms, and a fourth with a dish or casket 2 . One 
4 harpist ' relief may belong to this place. Apollo, holding 
lyre and bowl, stands beside Artemis (who pours a libation), 
Leto and a female figure who is inscribed KovpoTp6<f>o<> holding 
a torch ; a male worshipper stands near, holding up one hand 3 . 
An archaic Italian relief in terra-cotta, where Aphrodite holds 
Eros on her arm, is too vague to interpret 4 . 

An attempt has been made to show that the mysterious 
relief of the Acropolis, where Athena is seen leaning upon a 
spear in an attitude of grief, and contemplating a square pillar 
with ( nothing upon it, is really a dedication to her as Nursing 
Mother 5 . A vase is cited which shows a similar scheme, but 
a child's figure is upon the pillar, and the pillar bears a dedi- 
catory inscription 6 . The child's figure on the relief is assumed 
to have been painted. If this be correct (and it is most 
ingenious), the relief will be an example of 'divine precedent'; 
for Athena is supposed to be contemplating the infant Erich- 
thonius. To the same occasion M. Lechat assigns a relief of 
the fourth century, where a babe lies on the ground between 
Demeter and the Maid 7 ; one which shows a man and a small 
child before Athena 8 ; and one where are a man and wife, with 

1 Cat. Cypr. Mus. (Idalion) 6311, birth, this is evidence that the harp 
6313. has no special meaning in these re- 

2 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 789 : there liefs. 

taken to be the base of a statue. 4 Farnell, Cults, ii. 697, pi. xlviii. 

Similar Roman reliefs show the mother 5 H. Lechat, Mon. et M6m. iii. 21, 

with a child in her arms, or the child pi. i. 

being given to her, with other figures : 6 Benndorf, Gr. und Sic. Vasenb. 

Arch.-Epigr. Mitth. xix. 1 ff. Pettau, xxxi. 1. 

18 Italy. 7 AZ xxv. 94* &V^KI\V (sic) ; cp. 

3 AA ix. 26 : 5th cent., oldest of Benndorf 57. 
the Harpist class, and the only one 8 Schone 87. 
with dedicator. If it really belongs to 



DOMESTIC LIFE. 257 

a child in a tub or basket on the ground 1 . These he interprets 
to represent the ceremony of the father's acknowledgment. 

The act or process is also represented by small figures of 
nursing mothers, which cannot be meant for the deity 2 . Many 
have been found in Sicily and Paestum, and although the place 
of their finding is not conclusive, they were probably a votive 
type 3 . One of them appears to represent a woman in child- 
bed 4 . We know that the Sicilians used to pray to the Mothers 
and make them rich offerings 6 . In Cyprus, a great many have 
been found within temple precincts. In one case the infant 
holds up its hand in the familiar attitude of adoration 8 . Some- 
times a female figure enthroned holds the infant 7 . The figure of a 
woman erect, holding a child on her arm, was found in an ancient 
shrine of the healing hero Amynus at Athens 8 . A large archaic 
group of a woman suckling a child comes from Sparta 9 ; and 
statuettes with the same subject have been found on the 
Acropolis of Athens 10 . One mother, in Roman times, dedicates 
an image of her breast to Aphrodite, a cruder hint of the idea". 
From the Argive Heraeum comes the unmistakable figure of a 
pregnant woman 12 , but I know no parallel. 

The modern Greek regularly dedicates her silver babe, in its 
swaddlings, or even the cradles they lie in, made of the same 
metal 13 ; and it seems to us natural that the ancients should 



1 Schone 66. 7 a c. Cp. Usenet, Gotternamen, 

2 We have one piece of direct evi- 124 ff.; AJA 1895, 209 ff. 

dence in the late romance of Chaereas 6 Cat. Cypr. Mus. : Idalion 109, nos. 

and Callirrhoe. A mother places her 30959 ; Chytri 149, nos. 521747 ; 

babe in the arms of Aphrodite's statue, Citium 153, no. 5520. 

and the writer says: Kal uxfrOt) 6^afM /cd\- 7 Cat. Cypr. Mus. 5217 ff. 

\iffrov, olov afire ({>ypa<f>os Hypa\j/fv o&re 8 AM xviii. 243. 

Zir\a<rev otirc irotijr^j i<rr6/>ij(re 9 AM ii. 297. No. 1 in Dressel- 

v ouSeJs yap afrruv iiroi^ffev Milchhofer's Catalogue. 

17 'A6i]t>a>> /3/><?0os dv ayKtiXais 10 In the Museum. 

Kofj.lfov<rav (iii. 8). u Sybel 4542 'A<j>po5^T7; iv r6icoi.s. 

3 Kekule, Terracotten von Sic., 8, 19, 12 Excavations of the Am. Sch.: the 
23 ; Gerhard, Ant. Denkm., 96. 8. Heraion, i., pi. viii. 19. 

4 Kekul6, Terracotten, fig. 38. ls So in India : North Ind. Notes and 

5 Diod. iv. 79 rCiv tiartpwv . . . dvaOj- Queries, 1893, 198 Saharanpur: "Close 
ficLffi TroXXots KOfffjiovvTes rb lepbv atiTuiv. to the temple of the Deib, under a tree, 
Cp. GIG 5570 b, 5748 /; IGS 2407. on a raised platform, I found the broken 

K. 17 



258 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

have done the same for the child granted like Samuel in answer 
to prayer 1 . Yet I can find no evidence for this, even at the 
time when models of limbs were so common. The marble 
figures of little children found beside the Ilissus, hard by a 
dedication to Eileithyia, are not infants ; and their interpretation 
remains doubtful 2 . Equally doubtful are the figures of young 
children found in the Cabirium, which are most likely toys*. 

head of an image of Debi surrounded touched by the hand of the children." 

by wooden statuettes representing chil- 1 Anth. Pal. vi. 357 t fvxf)t 

dren. Women who pray for birth or 2 AM ii. 197. 

longevity of children visit this place, * AM xv. 363. 
and offer these wooden statuettes 



VII. 

MEMORIALS OF HONOUR AND OFFICE. 

H Ae MiKpO(}>iAoTiM(A AoSeieN AN eTNAi 6pe5ic 
TIMHC ANeAeyeepoc. 

THEOPHRASTDS. 

oyY AN erto Zep((J>ioc CON epeNOMHN eNAoJEoc, oyre cy 'AGHNAfoc. 

THEMISTOCLES. 

IT does not appear that in early times an official dedicated a 
thank-offering for his office as a matter of course. Only a few in- 
stances are found, and we should regard these as due to the same 
feeling of gratitude which prompts freewill offerings in other 
cases. In the sixth century we find two altars which may be 
referred to such an occasion. At Athens the Peisistratids, we 
are told, kept up the old forms of government, but took care 
that one of themselves should be archon; and Peisistratus, son of 
Hippias, who held this office under his father, set up an altar in 
the market-place to the Twelve Gods, and one to Apollo in the 
Pythium 1 , the inscription of which still remains 2 . Another altar 
from Amorgos bears an inscription of the same date, recording that 
it was the offering of two archons 3 . An archon of Ceos makes a 
thank-offering to Aphrodite*. In the year 408/7 the Athenian 
prytanes of the Erechtheid tribe made a joint dedication to the 

1 Thuc. vi. 54. 6 UeurlffTpa. 6 2 CIA iv. Suppl. 1. 373 e, p. 41 : 

'Iirirlov TOV Tvpavvfv<ravTOS vios...os r&v fj.vr)/jia, r6d' i$s dpx 7 ? 5 TleiaiffTpar 

5w5e/cct tie&v fiufiibv rbv ev T-Q dyopq. vif>s OiJKev 'Air^XAwfoj Hu6iov ev Te 
apxuv dv6r)Ke /cat rbv TOV 'Air6\\uvos tv 3 BCH vi. 189 apxovres. 

Ilv6iov. 4 IGA 397 apas. 

172 



260 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

goddess 1 . It is stated that the Athenian college of archons used 
to dedicate an inscribed herm in the Street of Herms if they 
had reason to be proud of themselves'; and when the Long 
Walls were begun, they did erect a statue of Hermes 8 . A 
state herald dedicates a statue of Hermes for a memorial*. 
There is a pillar dedicated on the Acropolis before 480 by an 
overseer of moneys 5 . Herodotus saw a tripod at Thebes, 
reputed to have been dedicated by Laodamas to Apollo during 
his rule*. Pausanias also dedicated at Byzantium a bronze 
bowl as a memorial of his rule 7 . There is even apparently one 
of that class of offerings which indicates the human activity or 
process blest by the god : the figure of a man seated, and appa- 
rently writing upon tablets, which may be that of a recorder or 
temple steward, found upon the Athenian citadel 8 . Probably 
we should also add the ancient statue of Chares, potentate of 
Teichiusa, which he set up at Branchidae to the glory of Apollo 9 ; 
whether this be regarded as another instance of the plastic 
representation of human activity, or (in view of the eastern 
character) as mere self-glorification. 

Later, the number of these dedications increases so enor- 
mously, that it appears to become the regular thing that an 
official should make an offering on taking or leaving office 10 . It 
is in the fourth century that this change begins, and it coin- 
cides with other changes in the old simple ways, which rob the 

1 Kar. 99 ; CIA 338. /ww' operas avt6i)Kt, Hofftidduvi S.VOLKTI. 

2 Harpocr. s.t'.'Ep/u; cp. Dem.Lept. Ilowraiuas, apx^" 'EXXdSos evpvx&pov, 
491. irbvrov tir' Ev^fivov, \a.Kf$aifj.6vios yivos, 

3 Wachsmuth, Die Stadt Athen, i. vtos KXeivx/3p6roi;, apx a '<" 'H/xucX^oj 
208. yfveas. 

4 CIA iv. 1. 482, fj.vqp.oa'uv^ fr/exa. 8 AM v. 174, pi. vi. (so Furtwangler). 
For Hermes as the herald's patron see Perhaps the recorder of the old Acro- 
Aesch. Suppl. 895. polls inscriptions is a case in point : 

6 CIA iv. 1. 373 23 ?, p. 199: bvi^Kev above, note 5. 

'M-nvala. Xaipiuv ra.fju.evuv. So ii. 1209 9 IGA 488 Xd/j?;* et/J.1 6 KXe/crtos 

rauias. Tdxiovtrijt apxfo' aya\fj.a TOV 'Air6XXw- 

6 Anth. Pal. vi. 8. Herod, v. 61 vos. 

Aao5d/taj rplirod' avrbv fiiffK6ir< i > 'A.ir6\- I0 This appears from the aorist tense 

\wvi fiowapxtuv oW077/te rttv vfpiKaXXts generally used. The present implies 

aya\na. that the dedication is made during 

7 Herod, iv. 81 ; inscribed accord- office, and its cause can only be in- 
ing to Nymphis (Athen. xii. 536 6) ferred. 



MEMORIALS OF HONOUR AND OFFICE. 261 

votive offering of its grace and moral worth, and turn it into a 
formality. There are indications that these offerings, with 
those for victory in the games, were even made compulsory by 
law. A decree of an Attic deme exists which is not likely to 
be unique in Attica. It appears that the deme, whether by 
battle, earthquake, or other cause, had fallen on evil days, so 
that money was scarce for religious purposes ; and it was con- 
sequently decided that every person elected to an office should 
pay a contribution. The decree proposes a vote of thanks to a 
man who had undertaken to help in rebuilding the shrines and 
in placing offerings in them 1 . A similar record comes from 
Caria 2 . Here the dedication has become a duty, like the litur- 
gies ; and that it was also regarded as a personal honour is clear 
from inscriptions which expressly give leave to dedicate 3 . Thus 
the freewill gratitude of earlier days has given place to a feeling 
which is partly public spirit and partly pride. We are not 
surprised, therefore, to find dedications made not only to the 
gods, but to the people. 

At Athens, the Senate appears to have made a yearly dedi- 
cation to Athena at Athens 4 , and perhaps to the goddesses at 
Eleusis 5 . One altar exists dedicated by them to Aphrodite 
Guide of the People and to the Graces 6 . We now find these 
dedications made by the Archon 7 , the Basileus 8 , the Polemarch 9 , 

1 CIA ii. 588 (late 4th cent.): KOI avrwi xpt> vul norr/pia rpia rj 0iAas (sic) 
dva&ri/j.ara dvaBr/ffeiv fv ro?s iepo?j trpoff- rpets. 

a.va\i<TKwv TOW 5rj/j.6rais trap 1 eavrov tirl 3 IGI iii. 170 (Astypalaea) : to an 

TTji lirapxyi r}v ttrdpxovrai oi 5ijn6rat dyopav6fio$ : Qiffrw 5 avr&i KO.I dvd6i)fj.a 

dirb TTJS dpxw ffooroj 175 av Xdx 7 ?', et's dvaffffifi' oirai /ce XP 1 ? 1 ? 7 ? 1 r * s dyopas. 

rrjv oiKodopiav rwv lepCov Kai TWC dvaOij- Not in a temple now, observe. 
/j.dT<i}v...VTrp vyitias ai)rwv Kal TTJS TOV 4 CIA ii. 652 46 ^d.-)(aipa....ra.'jTriv ij 

Si]|j.ov o-wTTjpfcxs- Compare 741 e dedi- f)ov\r) dv^driKev r^ M... ; or crowns (list 

cations Kara rbv vbp.ov. in 698, restored from others). 741 e 

2 A J/ xv. 261 OTTWS /j.7)6v r&v ffvfi- adds Kara rbv v&nov. 
<j>ep6vr<i> irapoXeiTTTyrot, 8&ox6ai ocroi av 5 CIA iv. 2. 767 b ** <pia\t). 

r(av <pv\eru>v rinyBuviv inrb rrjs 0u\ijj 6 CIA iv. 1161 b T]ye/J.6vei rov Sijfj.ov. 

...dvariOfrai %Ka.trrov rui Aii TM 'Tap- 7 CIA ii. 1325, 1348, iii. 88, 97; 

fieavr&v irorripiov dpyvpovv r\ <pi<L\ijv dirb apparently golden crowns in ii. 698 

Spaxpuv 'A\f$av8peiuv eKarbv, inscribed (371 B.C.). So down to Augustus iii. 

with the occasion, and weight, within 1. 88. 

six months ; tav 8t d(j> er^pas <f>v\rjs 8 CIA iii. 95 (Trajan). 

nt rini}0TJi avartd^ria iv TWI 9 CIA iii. 91 (Trajan). 



262 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the strategus 1 , the archon of a clan 2 , by thesmothets 8 , curators 4 , 
secretaries 8 , inspectors of markets 6 ; dejnarch 7 , gymnasiarch 8 , 
lampadarch ; so the priest 10 or sacrificer 11 , the leader of a pilgrim- 
age or religious procession 12 , the Trvpo<j>6po<; ia , Superintendent 
of the Mysteries 14 , or of any public place 15 , by a board chosen to 
make a statue of Aphrodite 18 or Dionysus 17 . Demetrius of Pha- 
lerum, on being chosen Epistates, makes his offering with the 
rest 18 . The gymnasiarch at the Dionysia appears once at least 
to have dedicated tripods 19 . Officials of a guild dedicate a great 
silver goblet 20 , with many fine offerings 21 . The ephebes by custom 
offered a silver bowl at the Eleusinian Mysteries 22 , to the Mother 
of the gods 28 , to Dionysus 24 , as it would appear in short at all 
the great public feasts they were concerned in ; the cosmete 
would join in the offering 25 , and the gymnasiarch dedicate arms 28 . 
The ephebes make a dedication to Hermes when their training 
is over 27 . 

In other parts of the Greek world we find the same practice 
observed within the same limits of time ; for earlier days there 
is no evidence. The earliest official dedication of a prytany 
outside Attica comes from Corcyra in the fourth or third century 



\fipoTovi)6eis, CIA iv. 2. pluv yfi>6/j.tvos. 

1206 b ; ii. 1195, about 200 ; 12067, 18 CIA iii. 89. 

in the year 97/6, to Aphrodite Euploia. 16 CIA ii. 1208, dedicated to Aphro- 

2 CIA ii. 1359. dite. 

3 CIA ii. 1187. 17 CIA iv. 2. 1211 b. 

4 CIA ii. 1209 tiri(jie\i)Ta.l Kal rafjdai. 18 CIA ii. 584, if correctly restored. 
8 CIA iii. 87. 19 CIA iv. 2. 373 g. 

6 CIA iii. 98 dyopavdfjio*- '* CI ^ iv - 2 - 615 b 'for^piov. 

7 CIA ii. 1211. 21 CIA iv. 2. 673 d. 

8 CIA ii. 1227; of a tribe at the ^ CIA ii. 467 <f>ta\r]v AfarjTpi K al 
Panathenaea 1181 ; iv. 2. 1233 6 Kop-qi xapiffrfyiov. 

Bhamnus. 23 CIA ii. 467, 468 etc. 

9 CIA ii. 1228 to the Muses. M CIA ii. 470. 

10 CIA ii. 1205. CIA ii. 471 79 . 

11 CIA ii. 1329 ifpoiroifcavTes, iii. 94 " 6 CIA ii. 594 dvtOijKev Si Kal oTrXa 
lcpa.Tf6o-a.ffa. <5KTi6 (shields). 

18 CIA ii. 1325 iro^iroffTo^ffar, base, 27 CIA ii. 1225 ft., iv. 2. 1225 6, d. 

Sybel 4999 (2nd cent.). In the archonship of Heracleides there 

13 To Artemis : Collitz iii. 3333 4. was only a solitary one : 1226 c. 

14 CIA ii. 1148 iirt/ji(\r]T7)s rdv 



MEMORIALS OF HONOUR AND OFFICE. 263 

and is inscribed to Artemis 1 ; others more detailed contain 
the official title 2 . The Damiorgi of Megara 3 , and all the public 
officials of Acrae 4 and Himera 5 in Sicily, make joint offerings to 
Aphrodite. In Delos the archon was supposed to make a yearly 
gift to the temple treasury 8 . Dedications are made by the archon 
in Olbia 7 , by the poliarchs in Thessaly 8 , by the cosmetes in 
Crete 9 , by the strategus in Olbia 10 and Rhodes", by the hiero- 
mnamons in Epidaurus 12 and the mnamons in Acrae 13 , by the 
agoranomus in Opus 14 , Amorgos ls , Olbia 16 , Sicinos", and many 
places 18 , by gymnasiarchs in Delos 19 , Lesbos 20 , Melos 21 , Tegea 22 , 
lulis 23 , by the agonothet in Branchidae 24 and other parts of Asia 25 , 
Boeotia 26 , Opus 27 , Selymbria 28 , by the recorder at Cnidus 29 , by 
the harbour-master at Thespiae 30 , by a senator in Sparta 31 . 

The largest number of such dedications are connected with 
the priesthood or temple service. Oldest I should also have 
said, were it certain that priests dedicated their own statues, 
or that the state did this for them ; but although statues of 
these officials existed, there is no information as to who 
dedicated them, and on what occasion. Most of this class are 



1 IGS iii. 1. 706 <t>i\ofej/oy A^X^'OH/OS IGI ii. 134. 
Kal ffvvdpxoi 'Aprd/juri. 21 GIG 2430 

2 IGS iii. 1. 706 10 irpvraveijffas. Hermes and Heracles. 

3 Collitz iii. 3030. M CIG 1517. 

4 Collitz iii. 3240 ff. ; IGSI 209 ff. ^ CIG 2367 c, d "Eprfi. 

6 IGSI 313. 24 The five agonothets offer each a 

6 BCH vi. <j>ia\T) : unpublisht (kindly communi- 

7 CIG 2076, Achilles Pontarches. cated by M. Haussoullier). 

8 Collitz i. 1330 'ABdva Ho\ia5i oi ^ AM xix. 37 Magnesia; Newton, 
TToXtdpxoi. Halic. 802 103 Bargylia. 

9 BCH xiii. 69 'E/ycai bpofdui. 26 IGS i. 3091, 1830 ri>v tpuTa Kal ra 

10 CIG 2067 ff., Apollo Prostates. iv TWI irpovaiui dvp^nara, K ruv Idiuv 

11 IGI iii. 1077. iireaKttaaev. 

12 Collitz iii. 3328. IPI i. 978 ff. IGS iii. 1. 282. 

13 IGSI 204: ayvais Beats nvafievefoau. * Collitz iii. 3071. 

14 IGS iii. 1. 282. ^ Collitz iii. 3511 ypa/j.fj,a.Tevwi> pov\ai 

15 AM xxi. 199. 'Adavat Nt/cij^opwi Kal "Evriat BouXa/oi 

16 CIG 2078 /. (3rd cent.). 

" CIG 2447 d 'Epw. 30 IGS i. 1826 \ifjxvapx-/i<ras Sis AHXT- 

18 Hirschfeld, Zeitschr. f. ost. Gymn. Kotpois xal rrji iro\ei. 

1882, p. 502 3, quotes fourteen ex- 31 Collitz iii. 4465 ytpovreijuv, rut 
amples. 

19 BCH xv. 251, Apollo and Hermes. 



264 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

honorific and of late date 1 . This is however the proper place 
to mention that the statues of the priestesses of Hera at 
Argos, but of what period is not plain, were seen before her 
temple*. The same is related of the temple of Demeter at 
Hermion 8 , and the shrine of the Eumenides at Cerynea in 
Achaia 4 . There is some evidence for priestly statues at Athens 
(and the figure of Lysimache has been claimed for one 5 ), but 
not enough to show custom. The Butaclae, a very ancient 
Athenian clan descended from the early kings, furnisht the 
priestesses of Athena Polias and the priests of Erechtheus, who 
were both worshipt in the Erechtheum. Paintings of the 
Butadae were on the walls of that temple 8 , and wooden statues 
of the orator Lycurgu.s and his sons (who belonged to the 
family) were also there 7 . Habron dedicated their pedigree on 
his election to the priesthood, and no doubt all the statues had 
reference to this right. A priest's statue stood in the temple 
of Artemis at Cnidus 8 . If this really was an early custom, the 
statues were doubtless properly characterised, and will have 
represented the priest's function in plastic form. Mere portraits 
they could not have been. 

In later times priestly dedications are very common. 
Hierarchs 8 , priests 10 , overseers of sacrifice 11 , and their staff" 
occur amongst these, but the usual designation is vague 13 . The 

1 Thus a priestess characterised, for life. Epidaurus : IPI i. 995 ff . 
holding a patera, is dedicated by her " dpx<-fpo()vTa.s IGS i. 788, Sa/iioi/pyi)- 
son in Bhamnus : CIA iv. 1380 b. <ras 704, 705, iepapxfaas Thebes IGS 

2 Pans. ii. 17. 3. The canephorus i. 2480, (jriffTdrai Delos BCH ix. 155. 
cited here by Frazer was a tithe; see " iepoirotoi IGS i. 705 Lindos, IGS 
above, p. 79. i. 653 Ithaca (archaic), CIA ii. 1333 

3 Paus. ii. 35. 8. Attica, Delos (yearly) BCH ix. 155. 

4 Paus. vii. 25. 7. lif ieparefoaffa Athens CIA Hi. 94, 
8 Frazer on Paus. ii. 346, quoting Halicarnassus CIG 2661 b, lepTjrftffai 

CIA ii. 13778, 1386, 1392 b, all late Boeotia IGS i. 3097, cp. 3215, 3219, 

and of no account for our argument. Delos BCH xii. 250, Corcyra IGS iii. 1. 

8 Paus. i. 26. 5. 712, Bhodes IGI i. 31, 62, 825, 832, etc. 

7 Pint. X. Orat. 39. (regular), <?iriXaxu> itperij 833 ; lapa- 

8 Collitz iii. 3502. reiWa Boeotia IGS i. 3216 ; iepoevrj- 

9 BCH xix. 375. <ras Rhodes IGI i. 836 ; iapireiuv Cyrene 

10 Cyprus: Collitz i. 1. Liudos: IGI Collitz iii. 4841 ff.; ia/>ireiVcu>Te 4649 
i. 788. Bhamnus: Sybel 6221. Athens: (Messenia); two women Oe 

CIA iv. 2. 1205 b, on becoming priestess Aetolia IGS iii. 1. 421. 



MEMORIALS OB' HONOUR AND OFFICE. 265 

inferior temple officials, such as ^dicopos 1 , Trvp<f)6po<; z , <TT<j)avr)- 
</>o/909 3 , v8po<j>opo<;*, 7rpo<?;T?7<? 5 , are not wanting, nor the band- 
master himself 6 and the sacred crier 7 . A whole group often act 
together; as in the dedication to Zeus Soter and Aphrodite, 
apparently made after some games 8 , or in the sacrificial body 
mentioned above 9 , or these and the mystae in Samothrace 10 . 

The priest of Apollo at Thebes often, if not regularly, used 
to dedicate a tripod 11 . The sacrificial staff at Cos appears to 
have made periodic dedications". A woman who carried the jar 
of water in the rites at Branchidae, dedicated a vessel of some 
sort in memory of the occasion 13 . 

The occasion of these offerings cannot be distinctly made 
out: it cannot be stated, that is, how far they were thank- 
offerings for election to the office, and how far due to special 
occasions. The formula now and then seems to indicate that 
the election itself is the reason 14 ; and a similar idea perhaps 
suggested Peisistratus' altar 15 . But such phrases as 'thank- 
offering' tell us nothing 16 , while those which were made in 
obedience to a dream" do not belong to this place at all. It is 
fair to assume that where the aorist participle is used, the 
offering has a direct reference to the office 1 *; the present parti- 
ciple implies only that the dedicator was in office at the time. 
It is possible that where the present participle is used, all, as 
certainly some, were paid for out of the temple funds and that 

1 CIA iii. 102 ; Asclep. and Hyg. inr6fj.vT\\i.a. dvcOTjKC. 

2 Argolis: GIG 1178 iepei>s irvptpopos. 14 iepei)s yevofj-evos Sybel 6221 ; fd/copos 
IPI i. 1050 ff. yevtfj.evot 6222. So IGI iii. 117 (Lesbos) 

3 CIG 2713 ffT<pai>i)<t>opi2v. iepa.T(v<ras x a P LffT 'hp'- ov > BCH xviii. 290 

4 CIG 2886 vdpo<j>opov<ra. (Rhodes) ^irtoraTei/o-as x a P lffT1 1P lot 'i * 

5 Rhodes : IGI i. 833. Hermes Propylaeus ; IGI ii. 112 K a<r- 

6 fjio\Trapxriffa.s, Amorgos, BCH xv. raOeis fiiro raj /JoXXaj evxapiffrripiov ; 
597. 117 tepOTet/crais x a P tffl "nP lov (Lesbos) ; 

7 iepoKi)pv, Amorgos, BCH xiv. 596. BCH xviii. 290 eTao-rarei/cras xapiff- 

8 Epirus : CIG 1798 pdvTis, avXijTas, r-fipiov (Rhodes). 

Kapv%, ei/>6s, oivoxfa. 1S fivijfM dpxrjs, above, p. 260. 

9 Note 12 , p. 264. is IGI i. 31. 

10 CIG 2157 lepoiroiol Kal /ttforat ev<re- 17 CIG 1176 6 lepoQavTW KO.T' ovap. 
Pels; cp. 2160. is But one inscr. has fipfas, birtp -rijs 

11 Paus. ix. 10. 4. 0vyarp6s, and etd(ievo<i( Cyprus): BCH 

12 Collitz iii. 37089. xix. 340. 

13 CIG 2855 dvytiov 6 i>dpo(popri<raffa. 



266 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the dedicator was acting officially for the hierarchy 1 . These 
refer perhaps to buildings or repairs, consecrated thus by the 
officials*. 

A key to the occasion is found in a large class of decrees 
which record a vote of thanks past to an official after his 
term, which was usually accompanied by a crown 8 , either of 
leaves or of gold, according to the importance of the person. 
The recipient seems to have made a sacrifice of thanksgiving 4 , 
and he naturally wisht to commemorate the occasion in some 
way. Megacles of Rhamnus dedicates a statue to Themis on 
receipt of this honour from his demesmen 5 ; the usual thing 
was to dedicate the crown at least. The fact is frankly 
recognised in an inscription which records the gift of a crown 
to Spartocus and Pairisades, of Bosporus, in 346, who as 
foreigners might have neglected the wholesome use : they are 
directed to dedicate their crowns on the Acropolis forthwith 6 . 
This custom explains the immense number of crowns recorded 
in the Inventories. One of the Athenian lists, from the latter 
part of the fourth century, consists wholly of such crowns 
dedicated by the recipients 7 ; three of the persons mentioned, 
Nausicles, Neoptolemus, and Charidemus, are stated by Demo- 
sthenes to have received honorific crowns 8 . Dedications, cer- 
tainly or probably including the crowns, are made by bodies of 

1 Collitz iii. 4844 e/c ras ruv TW &va.Ti6tva.i row ffre<pdi>ovs iirtypd\f/a.i>Tas' 
'AiriXXawos iepttav firtdbffios ; ibid. 4845 ZTrdproKos ical naipurdS-ris A(6K<avos iraT- 
iic rav TU> 'AiriXXwpos irpoffbSuv, both of Ses dvtOeaav rrjt 'AByvaiai ffrt<pa.vtj)6tvTts 
Koi nun date. viro TOU 5Jj/j.ou TOV 'AOrjva.lwi'. 

2 Collitz iii. 4842 lepeiretuv TO.V 7 CIA ii. 741, p. 511 (338 B.C.). 
Kpdvav tireffKfvafff. s Dem. On the Crown 114, p. 264 ; 

3 For a discussion of the inscrip- cp. Aesch. iii. 46. A Rhodian inscr. 
tions which are accompanied by a tells of several honorific crowns and 
crown carved in relief, see AJA vi. fillets, dedicated by the recipient to 
69 ff. several gods: IGI i. 155 11B df^xe 

4 Collitz iii. 3106 r6v re dvSpLdvra Atoi'&rwi BaKj^wi *cal TUI KOIVUJI (the 
dvaffrAffas Wvffe vaffi rots Oeois Kal guild), also the odd phrase 155 50 dvt0i)K 
ISlirvifff rovs TroXe/ras irdvras. rats Tpieryplffi Kal rCii KOLVWI. The man 

5 CIA iv. 2. 1233 e. So in Lesbos : was periodically to receive a crown 
IGI ii. 96 dydXfjMTa, t{5paii. bought by a poll-tax, and after his death 

8 CIA iv. 2. 109 b 33 tireidr} Se TOI)J the money was to be used to buy a 
aretpdvov* dvanOfaai rrji 'Affyvai rfji crown, which was then to be sold, 
IloXtddi, TOI>$ d0Xodlra$ efr rbv vew the sum being entered in the books, 



MEMORIALS OF HONOUR AND OFFICE. 267 

men in common: by "archons and parasiti" at Pallene 1 ; by the 
senate of Athens in recompense for its services*; by a board of 
arbitrators which has given satisfaction 3 ; by the prytanes of 
the tribe which has best approved itself in the tribal competi- 
tion 4 ; by bodies of thiasotes or orgeons 4 . A decree of Minoa 
ordains that each year the officials who did sacrifice in the most 
magnificent way should be crowned 6 . .Here is a man thus 
honoured by a public vote of the senate, the soldiers, and the 
deme 7 ; there is a general so honoured 8 , or the trainer of a band 
of youths 9 , or a guild official 10 . Bare justice and upright dealing 
is cause sufficient 11 , or even public spirit 12 . Several crowns 
conferred by the Athenians upon distinguisht men are found 
amongst those dedicated on the Acropolis ; amongst others, one 
of Alexander the Great, and one of the Paeonian Tisamenes 13 . 
Lysander after the defeat of the Athenians received crowns 
from many cities 14 ; and crowns are known to have been dedi- 
cated by him both at Delos 15 , and, by a refinement of insult, at 
Athens also 16 . Conon after his victory over the Lacedaemonians, 
and Chabrias after the sea-fight off Naxos, dedicated crowns on 



evepy^Ta ffTe<f>a.v(iidtvTos 8 CIA ii. 1194 ffTpar-qybs tirl TT)I> 

ffTe(f>dvbji es TOV del \pbvov, TrapaXtav. 

ffT(f>dvov TOV 7r/>a0eVTOs 155 65 . 9 CIA iv. 2. 1571 b. 

1 Ath. vi. 234 F iv 51 Ua\\i]viSt rois 10 CIA ii. 987, etc. One of these 
ava.d-qna.Giv fTriytypa.TTTai.Ta.5e' apxovTts dedicates a firstfruit : CIA ii. 9 airap- 
Kal Tra.pa.ffi.TOi dv^dfffav oi firi HvBoSupov x*l v ffTetpavuQeis vrrb r(av erracrtwrcoi'. 
(LpxovTos ffTe<pa.vw6tvTS xP vff V ffTe<t>dvi$ u BCH xviii. 505 Imbros : ffT<f>avo}- 
eVi AK^/XTJS lepelas. fleVrej StKaioffvv-rjs frtKa. 

2 Probably : CIA ii. 1157 (a statue), 12 IGS i. 1863 Thespiae : apiffTa. TTO\I- 
cp. 1174. Tevaa.fj.fvov. 

3 CIA ii. 942, 943 (B.C. 325/4), 1182. w CIA ii. 741 / 4 ffrefdvw Svow, ok 
Arbitrators themselves offer a silver 6 Sr}/ios IffTecpdvuve 'A\t%a.v5pov, etc. 
bowl : ii. 733 with 735. 14 Xen. Hell. ii. 3 <rTe<pdvovs of)j irapa, 

4 For the competition, see CIA i. TWV 7r6\ewi> ^Xa/3e. 

338 (408/7); BCH xiii. 346 (360/50), i BCH vi. 153, xiv. 407: crr^aiw 

v. 362 (340) ; for the crowns CIA ii. nvpplv^ x/wo-oDs, Avffdvdpov Aa/ce5at/xo- 

864 viKriffavTfS, 56av rwt STJ/JLUI, with vlov avdd^^a, O\KT^V dpaxfJ-a.1 P P h h H 

the following inscrr. ff vv rut poSut. He also offers a crown 

5 CIA ii. 988, 990 (statue to Ascle- of vine and a third of laurel, 410. 
plus). is QIA jj ego I5 <rT<?0avoj xpwrovs 8v 

6 Rev. Arch. xxix. 79. AvffdvSpos A-aKedai^oviov drf0T)Kfi>, ffra.6- 

7 CIA ii. 1191. tf> v roinov P P|-|-|-. 



268 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the Acropolis, which may be assigned to a similar occasion 1 . 
Amongst the donors in the Delian treasure lists is Pharax, 
doubtless the Spartan admiral who aided Dercyllidas in the 
invasion of Caria (397): he offers a gold crown to Apollo 
Pythian 8 . Another crown is set down to Ameinondas, perhaps 
a mistake for Epameinondas, who occurs in a different list, if 
we may suppose the inscription to have been damaged 3 . Other 
dedications at Delos are Callicrates, King Demetrius, Antipater, 
Philocles King of Sidon, and Polycleitus admiral of Ptolemy*. 
A golden circlet, offered by Datis at Delos, may be mentioned 
here ; although whether Datis were the Persian leader, or what 
the occasion of the offering, does not appear 6 . Flamiuinus, 
after his victories in Greece, sent a gold crown to Delphi 8 ; and 
L. Cornelius Scipio one to Delos 7 . Four crowns were dedicated 
by Nero in Olympia, but these were probably his prizes 8 . 

Golden crowns were commonly presented to the Athenian 
people by states which had cause to be grateful to them, and 
these also were dedicated on the Acropolis. What pride the 
Athenians took in these memorials is told us by Demosthenes 9 . 
"I think all of you," he says, "have seen the red letters inscribed 
under these crowns, setting forth how The Allies crowned the 
Athenian people for its courage and uprightness, or The 
Euboeans saved and set free crowned the people." In the 
fourth century we find these crowns of honour presented to the 
people by Andros, Arethusa, Carthage, Elaeus, Erythrae, 

1 Demosth. Timocr. 756 ewfytypatrrb 6 Plut. Flam. 12. 

TTOV trd\iv' K.6vuv dirb rrjs vavfj-axtas TTJS 7 BCH vi. 39 90 ffrparrjybs 'Pti>fj.aiuv. 

irpbs Acucedaifioviovs, Xa/3/n'as dirb rTjs v 8 Paus. v. 12. 8. 

Ndy vavfiaxias. So again in Androt. 9 Demosth. Timocr. 756 ofyu yap 

616. vfj,as diravras opdv virb TUV <rre<t>dv<ijv 

2 BCH xiv. 409. Tails x MVlK ^ <ft ndrufffv yeypafufj^va' ol 

3 BCH XV. 134. The crown was ffvfj.fj.axoi rbv drjuov rov ' Adrjvai'^v dvdpa- 
older than 364; the entry alluded to yaBias ?' foTf<pdvuffav >rcu SiKaioffvvV 
belongs to 279. ^f, ol ffvfj.fj.axoi dpiffre'iov ry 'A0i)v$ dvt- 

4 BCH xiv. 407, 409. Bfffav rf Kara 7r6XetJ, ol delves rbv Sfjfiov 
8 BCH vi. 152, xiv. 410 ffrpeirrbv earf<t>dvu><rav, ffw&4i>Tes iiirb rov drjfwv, 

Xpvffovv AdrtSos dvddijfua. A similar olov Ei//3oe?j audevres Kal IXevOepwOevTes 

circlet was the customary offering of tartyavwaav rbv orifj-ov. He calls them 

the five generals at Olbia " for the *aX4 *al fi/Xwri fwiypdfj.fj.ara. Cp. the 

prosperity of the city, and for their Androtion, 616. 
own safety and courage," CIG 2067 ff. 



MEMORIALS OF HONOUR AND OFFICE. 269 

Mytilene, Samos, perhaps Thasos and Naxos 1 , by Boeotia 2 , 
Alopeconnese, Chersonese, and Samothrace, and by the soldiers 
in Sciathus. Methymna sends a flute-case 3 . Paros sends a 
crown to the Boule 4 . Others come from Myrrhina, Tenedos, 
Pontus 8 . Similarly, a golden crown given by Athens to the 
sanctuary at Oropus was dedicated there 6 . 

It is but a short step from these to the honorific statues, 
which in the later ages and especially under the Roman rule 
meet us in swarms 7 . The dedication of these is a departure 
from the simple thanksgiving of the older worshippers, which 
recognised only the divine help, to a feeling which soon 
degenerates into flattery or self-glorification. It was in fact an 
honour pure and simple, so that decrees are past giving the right 
to dedicate 8 . We see the beginning of the practice in the 
dedication of the statues of victorious athletes, and in those of 
groups containing victorious generals and deliverers ; and by 
their side we may place a few others which are not undeserved. 
The difference is, that they commemorate rather a general 
respect and feeling that honour is due, than a special de- 
liverance where the man may be looked on as the instrument 
of God. This seems to be the origin of the statues of Epami- 
nondas, several of which are mentioned. One the Thebans 
dedicated in Thebes, with an inscription which sums up his 
achievements 9 ; there was another in the sanctuary at Epi- 
daurus 10 , and a third in Messene 11 . Several statues or reliefs 
were erected to Polybius, for his services done to Greece 
after the conquest; at Mantinea 1 ' 2 , Megalopolis 13 , Acacesium 14 , 

1 CIA ii. 699 701 ; called crrtyavoi TTJS TroXews Tj/JuSv TOTTW. Many other 
^Tr^reiot in 701 18 . examples. 

2 CIA ii. 736. Paus. ix. 12. 6, 15. 6. 

3 CIA ii. 660 ffvp-fivr). 1 Paus. iv. 31. 10. 

4 CIA ii. 700. 11 Paus. iv. 32. 1. 

8 CIA ii. 733. 12 Paus. viii. 9. 2 TOVTO KvKbpra. iraidl 

6 IGS i. 7r6Xis 7re/XKaXXs aya\fj.a avrl KO.\UIV 

7 Details are given in many inscrr., Zpyuv 'iaaro HovXvftty. The stele, with 
e.g. one from Bithynia, where a man portrait relief, and part of the inscr., 
is rewarded fLabvi ypawry 4v6ir\if KO.I has been found : BCH xx. 145. Inxchr. 
AXXfl fii<6vt Ka.i djaX/jLari fj.apfj.aplv(f>, and von 01. 449 ivravda dvrjp fireipyaffrat 
a marble statue for his mother : BCH O-T^XTJ IloXtf/Jios 6 Awc6pra. See also 
xvi. 320. Polyb. x. 46, xl. 8. 11. 

8 CIG 2152 6 13 ttTvai Se avro'ts dva- " p aus . v iij. 30. 8. 
deivai Kal a.v5pid.vra.s iv T& firiffr]fj.oTa,Tta 14 Paus. viii. 37. 2. 



270 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Pallantium 1 , Tegea*, Olympia", and Cleitor 4 : and certain exiles, 
who had been befriended by Aratus, did the same for him 6 . 
Statues of Isocrates were dedicated at Eleusis by a friend 6 , and 
at Athens by his adopted son 7 . Pupils dedicated the statues 
of their masters. Thus in Peiraeus, sacred to the Muses, 
were statues of Artemon, Dionysius, Philetairus 8 ; in Athens, 
Attains II and Ariarathes V set up a statue of Carneades, 
who taught them philosophy 9 . A well-known story tells how 
Pyrrhias went so far as to sacrifice an ox to his benefactor 10 . 

To enumerate the world of honorific statues or pictures 11 
which are attested by inscriptions would serve no useful pur- 
pose ; but it may be worth while to give a few examples of 
their kinds. The ground of the dedication is either some 
specific act of generosity or service, or even the vaguest good 
life 12 or good citizenship 13 . The people, or the senate and the 
people, dedicate statues of officials who have done their duty ; 
thus Salamis does honour to her general 14 , Athens to her 
taxiarch 15 , trierarch 16 , or admiral 17 . The members of a deme erect 
the statue of a gymnasiarch 18 . The troops on service at Phyle 
and Eleusis dedicate a statue of their captain to Demeter at 
Eleusis 19 , mentioning on the same slab his victories in the 
games, as one might now add a man's titles or degrees. The 
ephebes honour their trainer, and the senate both trainer and 

1 Paus. viii. 44. 5. 10 Plut. Quaest. Gr. 34. 

2 Paus. viii. 48. 8. " E.g. CIA ii. 621 ava.eelva.i 5e avrou 

3 Inschr. von Olympia 449. tiKova tfj. irlvaKi. tv TCJI vaui. So tli<uv 

4 AM vi. 154 ff. with AZ xxxix. ypairrrj frequently. We also find silver 
153 ff. masks mentioned (Trp6ffuira). The 

5 Plut. Aratus 14: BCH xiii. 193 word aya\/j.a is used of a honorific 
(Troezen) "Aparov KXtivia "ZtKvuviov 6 statue in Messenia (3rd century or so), 
SOMOJ cW07?/ce. Collitz iii. 46512, 4660. 

6 Plut. Vit. X. Or. 27 elKwv xoXio}... 12 Collitz iii. 3435,3439 (Anaphe) plov 
Kal tiriytypaiTTai, ' Ti/i60eo? <j>t\ias re apiffra flHixravTa. 

\dpiv, vve<rii> re irporifjiui' 'Iffoicpdrovs 13 Collitz iii. 4658 a-purra TroXirewnx- 

fku> Tjd' dvter)Ke 0eeuj. fixvov. See also p. 267 12 . 

7 Plut. Vit. X. Or. 41 *v>ds T<?'O\UM- 14 CIA iv. Suppl. 2. 1161. 
wtfl v , wy M dovos K al trtypafcv ls CIA ii. 1340 (B.C. 346/5). 
'lowpdrovs 'A^>api>s irarpos flKbva. r^vS 1 18 CIA ii. 1354. 

dvtQriKf Zrjvi, Oeovs re atfiuv Kal yovtuv 17 CIA ii. 1359. 

dp fT fy. u CIA ii. 1340. 

8 BCH vii. 767. 19 CIA ii. 1217. 
8 A M v. 2846. 



MEMORIALS OF HONOUR AND OFFICE. 271 

ephebes 1 ; merchants the captain, who has probably helped to 
preserve them and their trade 2 ; a school of art their poet 3 ; 
similar honour is paid to the gymnasiarch 4 or agonothet 6 , to 
the public physician 6 , the hierophant 7 , the manager of the 
Mysteries 8 , priest or priestess 9 , leader of a pilgrimage or pro- 
cession 10 , the canephori 11 or arrhephori 12 , the priestess of a guild 13 . 
Even the upright judge 14 and the ambassador 18 are not for- 
gotten; an official is dedicated by his colleagues 16 . There 
seems to be absolutely no kind of service which might not be 
recognised in this way. It becomes indeed so commonplace 
a compliment, that parents dedicate the statues of children", 
children of parents 18 , and mothers 19 , grandfathers 20 , sisters 21 , 
brothers 22 , uncles 23 , husbands 24 , wives 25 , even nurses 26 , are found 
among the dedicators or dedicated. Commonly these statues 
were erected in sacred precincts ; but when the sacred 
character of the dedication was obscured, they came to be 
set up in the gymnasium or the market square or in any place 
which might be convenient. These statues are seen all over 
the Greek world ; and in particular, the Roman emperors were 
put up everywhere with a rivalry of adulation, being coupled 
with gods, called Hero and Founder, or even themselves divine 27 . 
It may be worth while to mention one peculiar case, that of 
Artemidorus of Perga in Pamphylia, who was a prominent 

1 CIA ii. 1350. 17 CIA ii. 1402; a daughter 1383. 

2 CIA ii. 1329, cp. 1206. 18 CIA ii. 1397. 

3 CIA ii. 1351. Even the senate 19 CIA ii. 1376 ; IGS iii. 1. 287. 
does this : IGI iii. 519. 20 CIA ii. 1391 ; IGS i. 3423. 

4 CIA ii. 1340. 21 CIA ii. 1392. 

5 CIA iv. Suppl. 2. 14026. 22 CIA ii. 1398. 

6 IGI i. 1032. 23 CIA ii. 1403. 

7 CIA ii. 1345. 2* CIA ii. 1413. 

8 CIA ii. 1346, 1358. 25 CIA ii. 1413. 

9 CIA ii. 1598. BCH xix. 113 ff. Eleusis : rty 

10 CIA ii. 1358. ea.vrrjs r-f}Qtjv, ifp6<f>a.vTiv i/ewre/xw: 'E0. 

11 CIA ii. 1345, 1387, 1388. 'Apx- 1900, 31 'Yylav Zir6j>&; i> eavrijs 

12 CIA ii. 1383, 1385. Bpeirriiv (JLV/IMS x^P'" (relief of woman) 

13 CIA ii. 619 dvaOeivai Se avrrjs dicttva. shows the type used for sepulchral 
ev rui vaui, etc. tablet. 

14 CIA ii. 1358 SiKatn-Tjv SiKaiotrvvr)! w As in Sparta, Zavl 'EXevOepioi 'A.v- 
tveKfv. See also p. 267 n . ruvlvoi Swr-^pt, Collitz iii. 4492 ; Lesbos 

15 CIA ii. 1359. IGI iii. 140201. 

16 IGI i. 43. 



272 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

citizen of Thera under Ptolemy Euergetes. He seems to have 
had a mania for building altars. Having served in an expedition 
against the Troglodytes, he built an altar to Pan of the Safe 
Journey, which was found in Nubia. In Thera he built altars to 
Hecate, Priapus, and the Dioscuri ; and cut a number of others 
out of the native rock, inscribed to 'O/j,6voia, the Samothracian 
gods, and others, in verses which he doubtless thought elegant, 
in all which the name of Artemidorus is prominent. The 
consequence was that the Therans crowned him, and set up a 
memorial of himself which was to last "as long as the stars 
shine in the sky, or the solid earth remains 1 ." 

As regards the objects dedicated, there is little to say. I 
have already mentioned statues, crowns, and altars 2 . Once or 
twice we find an inspector of markets most appropriately dedi- 
cating his measures and weights, the measures being cut into a 
stone table 3 ; and it is clear that the object of the dedication 
was not thanksgiving or prayer, but simply a record of fair 
dealing. Priests and temple officials, so far as we can learn, 
seem to have chosen such things as would be useful in the 
temple; such as a number of stone tables for playing at 
draughts 4 , or stone lavers 8 , which have been found at Epidaurus. 
The same idea may have suggested an omphalos dedicated to 
Apollo in Rhodes 6 . Now and then the inscription names the 
gift, as one from Crete names a human statue and a gold 
crown 7 . 

1 F. Hiller von Gaertringen, 'Apre- appear to have been kept in temples, 
nidupos, in the local paper Zavroplvri, but not inscribed as sacred. Thus on 
Aug. 2, 1899. fju>r)(j.6ffvvov Qripg. icai ?ws the Acropolis of Athens we find one 
TTO\OV dffrp' Imr AXet, 7175 ?5a06s re fdvei, with a dolphin upon it, with the words 
6vo/J.' ov \tirev 'Aprefu&upov. Again : i)fj.t.crTa.Trjpov, dr)/j.6ffiov ' Adrivaiuv ; also 
Qrjpatoi &ffTe<t>dv<aaa.v tv ...ffivtouriv f\alas a dfKaffTdr-rjpov (both early). Lolling, 
tpvecriv 'Apre/jiLdtapov, 8s devdovt nrlffe KardXayoi i. 122, 123 (= museum 
/3wyaoi)y. numbers 6994, 11457). 

2 Above, pp. 270, 266, 259. * AM xxiii. 1 fif. with figures. These 

3 CIA iii. 98 vyi>i> Kal TO. fjuirpa ; bear merely names, no titles. 

Eph. Nov. 416 Gythium Se/Saorot* Kal 8 AM xxiii. 21 ifpofwdfiovf, p. 22 

rfj ir6\ti Kdpiros dyopai>ofj.&t> dvtQrjKf TO. lapevr^wv. 

fi^rpa, with stone table as described. 6 IGI i. 733. 

A leaden weight found in Euboea, 7 Mus. Ital. iii. 588 Itanos: 'A7r6X- 

near a shrine of Artemis, is inscribed \uvi Ilvrivi loparewas . . .TOV 

'Aprtjudos, 'E#. 'Apx- 1900, 21. It Kcd rbv \pvvtov <rrt<t>a.vov. 

should be noted that standard weights 



MEMORIALS OF HONOUR AND OFFICE. 



273 



In later times a large number record buildings put up or 
repaired or something done for the beautifying of the temple 
property. It would appear to be one of the prerogatives of 
office to pay for any necessary repairs, which were regarded as 
'dedicated' by the official 1 . Thus we find seats 2 or an exe.dra 
erected 3 , a fountain with images beside it 4 , shrines 5 , porticoes 6 , 
even a proscenium 7 and pillars 8 . A gymnasiarch of Cythera 
commemorates his tenure of office by dedicating a vapour- 
bath and an arena to Hermes 9 . Dedications are found of 
pillars, pediment, and screen 10 , of a stage in the theatre of 
Dionysus 11 , windows or doors 12 , colonnades 13 , a fountain and 
conduit 14 , a wine-fat 15 , a round-house 16 , guest-rooms 17 , a treasure- 
chest 18 , and chambers or shrines 19 . Even two large tiles are 
dedicated by two persons, whose calling is uncertain 20 , and a 
clock in Cos was dedicated to Good Luck, the Good Spirit, and 
the people 21 . On the same principle, the ephebes were in later 
days expected to make certain contributions to the public 
good ; amongst them, the gift of a hundred volumes to the 
' Ptolemaeum.' These they are said to ' dedicate,' but in 
doing so they obeyed a law 22 . 



1 See e.g. CIA ii. 489 b, where an 
official is thanked for this kind of 
dedication (av6t)Kev) ; and iv. 2. 169 b, 
623 d ; Rhodes, IGI i. 832 ; Aetolia, 
Collitz i. 311; Aspendos 1260. Cp. 
CIA HI 385 ff . 

2 CIA ii. 1570. 

3 GIG 2430; IGS iii. 1. 96. 

4 IGS i. 3099, iii. 1. 282. 

5 ytvei Se/3a0"rtDj' /cat TT; 7r6\ei rdv 
VOLOV 'Aprtfudi, etc. IGS i. 2234. 

6 yvfj.vacriapx'flo'ci'S K r&v iditav aW- 

0r)KfV TT)V ffTOaV Kal TTJV ftffodoV Kal T&S 

Ovpas 'Ep/xTJ, 'Hpa/cXet, Kal ry 7r6\et 
IGS i. 2235 ; rrjv TracrraSa /cat TO irpo- 
irv\ov Collitz ii. 1519. 

7 IGS i. 423. 3409. 

8 CIG 27134 Mylasa: areQavr,- 
ff>opCiv...Kiova. ffbv ffireip-g Kal Ke<f>a\rj ; 
AM xv. 260 iepfvs Atos 'Ocroyu Zrjvo- 
TrocretStDvos. 



9 Collitz iii. 4553 yvfj.va.i 
irvpia.T-fipi.ov Kal TO K6vi<T/j.a 'Ep/tai. 

10 CIA iii. 162. 

11 CIA iii. 239 ; cp. Collitz iii. 3738 



12 IGS i. 1830, 2873, 2876, 2235 ; 
BCH iii. 324 (Chios). 

13 IGS i. 2235, 2874. 

14 IGS iii. 1. 47, 282, 390 ; IGI iii. 
129. 

15 IGS iii. 1. 282. 

16 BCHxix. 46 (Magnesia). 
tf Collitz iii. 3634 (Cos). 

18 IGI iii. 443 ert<ra.vp6v, 3rd cent. 

19 BCHxviii. 26; AM xx. 468; IGS 
i. 2873 f., 2233, etc. 

20 CIA iii. 206 iepfo 3Lt)Tpl 6euv Ato- 

VVfflOS Kal 'AyUyttWJ'lOJ. 

21 Collitz iii. 3650. 

22 CIA ii. 468, 482 ; cp. 466, 478. 



B. 



18 



VIII. 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS 

TOGETHER WITH HUMAN AND DIVINE FIGURES, MODELS OF ANIMALS, 
AND INDETERMINATE RELIEFS. 



'EpexOefAAiciN, ocoi TTANAfoNoc &CTY 
NAiere, KA! nATpfoici NOAAOIC lOyNee' eoprAC, 
/v\e/v\NHC9Ai BAKXOIO, KA! eypyxopoyc KAT' ArY IAC 

iCTANAI cbpAfoiN BpOMfo)! X*P IN AMMIfA TTANTAC, 
KAl KNICAN BtOMOTCI, KApH CT<J>ANOIC TTyKACANTAC. 

Oracle of Dodona. 

VERY many of the recorded dedications cannot be assigned 
to any of the above classes, and it will be convenient to group 
the more important of them together now as memorials of re- 
current festivals. Since an offering might commemorate any 
rite which a worshipper took part in, so at certain customary 
feasts it was the custom to make a dedication, public or private, 
in a general spirit of thanksgiving and prayer. It is possible 
that many of the dedications we are now to speak of were 
given on some occasion of private importance, but there is 
nothing to show it, and hence provisionally they are placed 
here. That votive offerings were to be expected at festival 
times is clear from the Andanian inscription 1 , not to mention 
other indications. 

The ancient Greek sanctuaries had naturally their special 
celebrations yearly on fixt days, as a modern church observes 
the holy day of the saint. It seems to have been a common 
thing, that the most ancient and revered idol of a city, itself 

1 Collitz iii. 4689 91 S.v n elcdtfqua into TUV 6v<riaf6vTui> 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 275 

often hideous or without form, was deckt out on solemn 
occasions with magnificent robes of state. Such robes would 
be an appropriate offering, whether in time of special need, or 
at intervals when the old robes were worn out. For worn out 
they were, inasmuch as they would be worn from time to time, 
and washed, and perhaps regularly discarded, as is still done 
in India. The earliest mention of such customs is found in 
the Iliad, where Hecuba propitiates Athena by the gift of the 
finest robe in her stores ; which by the priestess is laid on the 
goddess's knees 1 . The statues of Eileithyia in Attica were 
draped 2 . Amongst the catalogues of temple treasures are lists 
of sacred robes belonging to different sanctuaries. There is 
one list of the divine robes from Samos, tunics, girdles, veils, 
clokes, and so forth 3 ; there are others of those belonging to 
Arte*mis Brauronia at Athens, for whose wardrobe the English 
language is insufficient 4 ; dress of Athena at Lindos 5 is also 
mentioned, and of Dione at Dodona 6 , to whom the Athenians 
sent a whole outfit ; Asclepius at Titane was clad in a woollen 
shirt and a mantle 7 ; and there is no reason to suppose that 
these were exceptional, especially in view of the practice of 
other nations 8 . Garments were offered to the Cabiri in Boeotia 9 ; 
Laodice sent from Cyprus a robe to Athena at Tegea, in 
memory of her ancestral connexion with Arcady 10 ; King Amasis 
sent an embroidered linen tunic to Athena of Lindos 11 , and 
another to Samian Hera 12 . A statue said to have been once 
worshipt as Poseidon, seen by Pausanias in the city of Olympia, 
wore clothes of linen and wool 13 . Alcman's Partheneion seems 
to commemorate the dedication of a robe to Artemis Orthia 

1 II. v. 87, vi. 301. 7 Paus. ii. 11. 6. 

2 Paus. i. 18. 5. He does not imply 8 See Frazer's Pausanias ii. p. 575, 
that others were not draped, only not and note on v. 16. 2. 

so fully. 9 IGS i. 2421, 3rd cent. 

3 Curtius, Samos, pp. 10, 17; BCH 10 Paus. viii. 5. 3. 

ix. 90. " Herod, ii. 182 STI TO Ipov TO Iv 

4 CIA ii. 751 8 (some inscribed); Alvdt? TO rijs 'Affrivat^ A^yeTOi TCLS TOV 
see Indices. Cp. Paus. i. 23. 7. AavaoO 0irycn-^pas lopvffOai. 

5 IGI i. 764 contributions <fs TO.V 12 Herod, ii. 182 KO.TO, ^etvlrjv TT\V tuv- 
diroKa.TdffTa.ffiv TOV K&ff/j.ov TO.I 'AOavdi. TOV icai Ho\VKpa.Ttovs. 

6 Below, p. 278. Hyperides iii. col. 1S Paus. vi. 25. 5 <?<r0j/ra tpedv ical diro 
35 37 (Blass), quoted by Frazer. \lvov re Kal /3iWov. 

182 



276 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

by women 1 . In the great pomps described by Athenaeus, the 
divine and heroic figures are quite naturally drest*. 

We see then in the famous peplos at Athens no isolated 
offering, but a kind which was probably more general than we 
now know. It was presented at the Panathenaea, which in- 
cluded a harvest thanksgiving, sacrifices to Athena Health 
and Athena Victory, a watchnight and dances ; which feast 
being celebrated in autumn appears to be an old agricultural 
feast with such additions as city life would suggest. The 
great ship, which was drawn in procession with the peplos 
outstrecht as a sail, looks towards the imperial power of 
Athens won at sea 8 . But although there are thus late 
elements in the feast, its origin was older than the Athenian 
empire, older perhaps than the city of Athens itself. Although 
Peisistratus was the first to make the dedication of the peplos 
customary, we may infer from the other evidence that he did 
not invent the practice 4 . At this feast, chosen maidens of 
Athens, the Ergastinae, under the priestess and two Arrhe- 
phori, embroidered the robe with the exploits of Athena 8 ; and 
in the procession were other maidens bearing baskets upon 
their heads (canephoroi). Besides the peplos itself, other 
offerings were sometimes given by the maidens thus honoured, 
but the examples do not come from early times. An inscription 
giving a list of the Ergastinae records that the people dedicated 
a bowl in memory of their public spirit 6 . Often the maidens 
who took a prominent part in the ceremony had their statues 
dedicated, in later times at least ; and a number of the bases 
have been found which once bore arrhephoroi 1 . A girl who bore 

1 Alcman, 23 (Bergk); better in 8 See Harpocration and Et. Mag. 
Smyth, Greek Melic Poets, p. 6: ral s.v. dppr]<f>opeiv ; Hesych. s.v. ipfaffrivai ; 
TreXeidSes yap afiiv 'OpOlq. <t>apos (f>epol<rais AM viii. 57 ff. ; Mommsen, F esle, 107. 
vfara. Si' dfj-fipofftav are <rfytov dffrpov They might be as young as seven, 
dveip6fj.e>>ai /j.dx oirTCU - Arist. Lys. 641 and Schol. Doubtless, 

2 Ath. v. 198 A, 200 c, etc. as M. suggests, their touch was sup- 
8 It is not known when this practice posed to be lucky. 

began : Mommsen, Feste, 115 z . 6 AM viii. 57 ff.; CIA ii. 477, which 

4 Mommsen, Feste, 113. With P. doubtless refers to the ipyaffTivai; CIA 

it was offered every four years; later iv. 2. 477 d. 15. 

every year. Diod.xx. 46 (late 4th cent.); 7 CIA ii. 137885, 13901, 1393; 

Schol. Arist. Knights 566. Hi. 887, 91618 ; Symmachus, Ep. i. 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 277 

water in the sacred feast of Branchidae offers a piece of tapestry 
to Artemis 1 ; and small figures of water-bearers are known in 
Tegea 2 . A priest at Magnesia on the Maeander dedicates a 
hydria 3 . 

Two other dedications of the same kind as the peplos are 
recorded. Sixteen Elean women every four years made a 
similar robe and dedicated it to Hera at Olympia 4 ; and at 
Amyclae, women made a tunic for Apollo 6 . 

Priests and priestesses seem occasionally to have dedicated 
their own robes or ornaments, used on solemn occasions. Such 
occasions were no doubt commemorated by the toilet reliefs of 
late date, found near Amyclae ; on which are carven mirror, 
torch, spindle, phial, a nest of boxes, pestle and mortar, knife, 
strigil, bottle, two bodkins, a pair of shoes, a cap, and other 
like objects 6 . The dedications of robes to Brauronian Artemis 
may be similar 7 , and the marble footstool dedicated by a 
priestess to Demeter at Cnidus 8 . We shall see that the mystae 
dedicated their garments at Eleusis 9 . It seems likely that 
the stlengides of the Sybarites were dedicated at Delphi as 
part of the ceremonial costume 10 ; and possibly a series of bronze 
fillets found in Laconia were dedicated to Apollo Hyperteleatas 
by the priests whose names they bear, although it is true the 
formula of dedication is wanting 11 . A stlengis found at Dodona, 
with a nonsensical inscription, which seems to refer to ritual, 
is a real scraper 12 . When the Oijaavpos or offertory-box was 

33. There is no evidence earlier than 'Ay-fira ' Avrnrarpov ttpeia ; F-W. 1851 

these inscrr. The statuette of a so- 2 ; Newton, Essays, 193. 

called canephorus found at Paestum 7 CIA ii. 751 ff. ; above, p. 275. 

has been otherwise explained : p. 79. 8 Newton, Halic. 392. 

1 vdpo4>opov<ra TO Tra.pa.TrtTa.fffj.a, GIG 9 Below, p. 282. 
2886. 10 Below, p. 281. 

2 See below, p. 288. n 'E<. 'Apx- 1884, p. 79 ff. Names, 

3 AM xix. 42 KX&upos KXealvov dp- iepeus, Trvpo(j>6pos, etc. Ancient dedica- 
XiepyTfvuv ri)v vSpiav. tions to the same god found with them, 

4 Paus. v. 16. 2, vi. 24. 10. The 198 ff. 

Sixteen appear to represent the chief 12 Carapanos 107, pi. xxvi. 3: Zijv' 
cities of Elis, v. 16. 5. IKSTTJ (ia.(ri\el yjnyra.i...^JMt Naow KCU 

6 Paus. iii. 16. 2. Auoj/as XPW"* xal epyaffias airaff... OI)TOJ 

6 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 811 ' AvOofot) 
ov viroffTOLTpia.; 812 KXcuSia 



278 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

opened at Eleusis, part of the money found there was used in 
buying an offering 1 . 

It is natural to suppose that a sacred embassy, which un- 
doubtedly performed sacrifice, brought also some offerings for 
dedication ; and there is not a little evidence which points that 
way. It is recorded that an Athenian who conducted an 
embassy to Delphi took a tripod with him*. Hyperides gives 
details of one of these sacred missions 8 . From Demosthenes 
we learn that the Athenians were on one occasion commanded 
by an oracle of Dodona to deck out the statue of Dione, and 
to send certain victims, a bronze table, and the gift which the 
Athenian people had offered 4 . A phiale or bowl appears from 
our records to have been the usual gift of a theoria. Cyzicus 
sends a bowl to Branchidae, yearly if we may argue from the 
scanty evidence 8 ; and occasional dedications are recorded of 
the theori from Ephesus 6 , of those from king Ptolemy and the 
people of Alexandria 7 , of kings Prusias 8 , Seleucus, Antiochus 9 , 
and Queen Camasarya I0 . A tribal offering is also mentioned 11 . 
In one year were dedicated at Branchidae silver bowls from 
Alinda, Carthage, Chalcis, Chios, Clazomenae, Cos, Cyzicus, 



1 'E0. 'A.px- 1883, p. 125 3 . Kal 6ewpiav Kal ffvyiav TTO\\UV 

8 BCH xviii. 92. In the previous diroffTflXavres aireKo<r/xi?<rare rd I5os 7-775 

inscr. (p. 87), it is true, he brought it AIC&PT/S a/ws Kal vpCiv ain&v Kal 7-775 Oeov 

back again (dire/c6/xt<r'), so perhaps ...tdv/j.tv roivvv TO, irepl r^v <f>id\r)v yeyo- 

the object of the mission was to get v6ra tv dSiK^fian \f/rj(piffriffOe elvai, etc. 
it blest. Or did he fetch the sacred 4 Dem. Meid. 531 eV AwSwv^j /j.av- 

fire, as the Lemnians did each year reiai. T$ 3r)MV T V ' A-6ijvatuv 6 rou Aids 

(Philostr. Her. xix. 14)? So did the fftj/j-aivef Sri ras w/jaj wa.privtyKa.Tf 7-771 

allies : CIA i. 37. Bvalas Kal 7-77$ Oewplas, aiperoi/s Trt/j-weiv 

3 Hyperides, Euxenippus xxviii.: KeXevei ^ewpoiis elW^a 5ta rdxew, rip Aii 

delegates were sent to sleep in the T<$ Nafy rpfls /3oOs Kal 7r/>6s fKaffrq /3of 

shrine and report their vision : 6 S^/uos Svo ols, TTJ Atw7; fiovv Kal apva. iepeta, 

irpofftra(v Evevlirirui. rpirui o^rwt ^7- Kal rpdire^av \a\Kriv irpos TO avaOtifJM 6 

KaTaK\i0TJi>ai eis r6 Ifp6v, OVTOS df KOI/J.T)- dv^drjKfv 6 dijfMO^ 6 ' Affr/valuv . 
0els Mirvittv <fn}ffiv idfiv 6 TUI S^wt s CIG 2855, 2858. 

diraryXat. Then xxxv. : vjuv yap 6 6 CIG 2860. 

Zei>j 6 AwSwi/atos vpofffTa^ev tv TT> 7 CIG 2860 (thrice repeated). 
fj.avTeiai Tb &ya\fjM Trjs Aiaii'T/s fin- 8 CIG 2855. 

Kal vfieis irp6ffwir6v re Trotrj- 9 CIG 2852. 

wj 0161* Tf KdXXiffTov Kal Ta\\a 10 CIG 2855. 

xdvra rd d^XovQa, Kal K^fffnov iro\iiv u CIG 2855 KOVOVV TT)S <f>v\r)s rf)s 

Kal To\irre\7; TTJI 6ewi irapaffKfvdffavTet 'AffurrlSos (?). 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 279 

Erythrae, lasus, Megalopolis, Mylasa, Myrrhina, Rhodes and 
Smyrna 1 . At the public feasts of Delos too, foreign cities and 
potentates regularly sent their offerings 2 . Thus the islands of 
Cos, Calymnos, and Rhodes sent a bowl thither year by year in 
the hands of their theori 3 . So too the kings of Egypt and 
Macedon, less regularly of Syria 4 . We have mention of Ptolemy, 
and Berenice, Demetrius, Stratonice, Philocles of Sidon, and 
others. 

The temple officials dedicated bowls yearly at the feasts of 
Eutychea and Philadelphea 5 ; and from the names of other 
vessels it would appear that private persons may have left a 
sum of money for such a yearly gift, as the mediaeval Christians 
founded their chantries 8 . Delian women, the dancers at the 
feast, appear again and again offering a crown 7 ; and the Thyes- 
tidae and Ocyniadae, two Delian trittyes, offer a bowl each year 8 . 

It will be convenient here to gather together some vases 
with dedications upon them : again not to assume that they 
all commemorate a ritual act, but that they may. Often, no 
doubt, vases were dedicated for their own worth, and we have 
seen that there were many occasions when such offerings were 
made. Some of them were dedicated by priests, as in the 
Boeotian Cabirium 9 . A number of bronze vessels on the Acro- 
polis of Athens bear dedications 10 , but many of these were 
firstfruits. In the same place was found a vase of pottery, 
with the formula of dedication painted upon it ; this contains 
a picture of Artemis, and in the missing part there is room for 
her name 11 . One Acropolis vase is inscribed Of the Good God 12 . 

1 MS. catalogue from an inscr. dis- its maker, and possibly these were the 
covered by M. Haussoullier, who kindly same : Athen. xi. 467 B. For endow- 
sent me a copy. ments see IGS i. 43. 

2 BCH vi. 144; Ziemann, p. 4. 7 BCH xiv. 407, xv. 120. 

3 BCH vi. 29 ff., lines 31, 35, 37, 8 BCH xv. 139. 

38, 39, 94, 95, 107, 109, 162; xiv. 408; 9 AM xv. 409 89 lapets, $iX6xo/>oj 

xv. 125. iapcvs : cp. ss . 

4 BCH vi. 157, 158 ; xiv. 407 (gold ' 10 JHS xiii. 126 foil. 

crowns, myrtle, ivy), 409. u AM v. 256, pi. x. : 6 wals *ca\6s. 

5 BCH vi. Ill : they are called ei)ri5- <W0i7/ce.... 

Xos and 0iXa5A<eios. 12 Rev . Arch, xxxii. 185 070^00 0eou. 

6 BCH vi. 110, 111 : yopyieios named Another from Athens, AIOJ SWT%>OJ, 
from Gorgias, /uKiH6eios from Micythus. ibid. 

6i)piK\eu>v is a special kind named from 



280 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



In Boeotia a few have lately been found, inscribed to Apollo 
Coryceus or Pythian l ; at Dodona vases dedicated to Zeus 
Naios 8 . Vases inscribed to Athena were found in the temple 
of Athena Cranaia at Elatea 3 . A fragment dedicated to Ascle- 
pius was found in the shrine of the hero Amynus at Athens 4 . 

Stone vessels, perhaps for holy water, were dedicated in 
Athens 5 . A kind of stone laver was dedicated at Epidaurus, 
meant no doubt, like the draught tables, for use in the precinct 6 . 
At Naucratis, numbers of pottery fragments were found, with 
dedications to Apollo and Aphrodite scratcht on them 7 : others 
were dedicated to Hera and the Dioscuri 8 , to Heracles 9 , and 
to the "gods of Greece 10 ." Among the dedicators is one 
historical name, if the Phanes who presented a magnificent 
bowl" be the same who deserted Amasis for Cambyses 1 *. Perhaps 
the sculptor Rhoecus is another 18 , and the courtezan Archedice 1 *. 
The vessels are cups and bowls, plates, ewers and craters, in 
great variety 18 . A vase dedicated to Hermes comes from 



1 'E<. 'A?*. 1900, 107 ff. : 

lapbv 'ATiXowoj KapvKtfio ; iapov rov 
TlvOlov FifffbStfos ov<?077Ke. Apollo Py- 
thian at Epidaurus : IPI i. 1169. 

2 Collitz iii. 1373 Zwraipos av^Kf 
Ail Naiwt. 1374 adds d eCaro. Cp. 
1375. 

3 BCH xii. 41 'Aeavat 2ep6s, and 
fragments with a.vtOrjKe. The editor 
suggests these may have been the 
dffdfj.iv6ot in which the child-priestesses 
of Athena bathed : Pans. x. 34. 8. 

4 AM xxi. 294. Epidaurus: IPI i. 
1203. 

8 CIA i. 343. 

6 'Etf>. 'Apx- 1898, 17 EvapxiSas 'Apiff- 



/tjs fi.e dvtOtjKe TT)<f>podirr)i ei/x^^ ', 
787 rat 'AtppoSlrai; 787 93 are in 
Aeolic, and use /cd00r;/ce ; they are made 
of different ware, probably Lesbian. 

8 No. 833 Axr9ofyois; 845 "Hp-qi. 
[Argive Heraeum TOIS "Hpas dpi. IPI 
i. 507.] 

9 Ann. Br. Sch. Ath. v. 39. 

10 Ann. Br. Sch. Ath. v. So 73 " 76 0eo?s 



* Naucratis, i. 12, 47, 54, ii. 61 ff., 
pi. v. viii. No. 1 TloXefjMpxfa |u 
dW(h]K TwTnJXXawt Kal rty irp6xovv 
Kal TO viroKpirr^piov ; 1 a 'Air6\\(av6s 
tl/u ; 1 b *Air6XXw <r6j elm ; 3, 4 ' A7r<5XXw 
ffov elfu ; 109 ff. 'Air6\Xw abv ei/ti, 
<r6i> el/j.t. No. 752 TTJS 'A0po- 
s, dvt6i\K(v 'Epfwyevrjs ; 753 Ei)/cX^j 
dv(6r)K(v Itpty rri<j>po6iTi)i. ; 776 7 Xdp- 



11 No. 218 ^di/Tjj fj. dvtOijKf ruir6\- 
\u>t>i TWI MiXTjff/wt 6 TXav^ov. 

12 Herod, iii. 4, quoted by the editor. 

13 Naucratis, i. (Inscription*). 

14 Ann. Br. Sch. Ath. v. 56 108 ; Herod. 
ii. 135. 

15 These inscrr. are often scratcht 
anyhow over the design, and the editor 
explains them as discarded fragments 
thus markt to keep from profane use 
after they were cast into the temple 
limbo. It is unsafe, however, to argue 
from the carelessness of the inscrip- 
tions, for in votive inscriptions all 
variety of carelessness is found. More- 
over, the variety and beauty of the 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 281 

Clazomenae 1 ; vases probably dedicated to Zeus have been found 
at Megara 2 , to Apollo at Cynuria 3 , and Epidaurus Limora 4 , to 
the Paphian in Cyprus 6 . Besides these, there are innumerable 
fragments of pottery uninscribed, from Argos, Athens, Eleusis, 
Naucratis, Olympia, and all the chief temple-sites. 

At Delphi we find mention of four golden stlengides, which 
have obvious reference to a sacred pomp, dedicated by the 
Sybarites ; a silver goblet by the Phocians ; a gold crown of ivy- 
leaves by the Peparethians, others of laurel by Ephesus and 
Lampsacus, which may have had some connexion with the same 
occasion 6 ; we also find mention of many others at Olympia 7 . 
In the temple of Apollo Ptoan (Boeotia), there are several 
dedications from delegates of the Boeotian confederacy 8 , and 
several from separate cities, such as Thespiae and Acraephiae. 
A bronze vase found at Olympia was dedicated by the people 
of two cities of Elis 9 , and one by the Spartiates 10 . So too 
the initiated mystae made dedications in Samothrace" and 
elsewhere. Such an offering is attested by inscriptions found 
in Thessaly 12 and at Magnesia on the Maeander 13 . We learn 

fragments indicate that they were dvo, dTroffvffrdviov dpyvpovv, <pid\ai rpets 

offered by votaries, not used and then Mxpvffoi. vabs Bvfavriwv, tv $ Tptruv 

discarded. Nor are there such inscrip- Kvira.plffffi.vo3, Zyuv Kpardviov dpyvpovv, 

tions on the rude cups characteristic "Zfiprjv dpyvpa, Kapx^ffia Svo dpyvpa, 

of Hera (ii. 61), nor is the supposed KV\I% dpyvpa, oivoxor) xpvffrj, Ktpara dvo. 

custom found elsewhere. 'Ev Se T< va$ rijs "Hpas T ira\ai$ 

1 AM xxiii. 63 ' A0r)vay6pi) 'Ep/jLrji. <pid\ai dpyvpai rpidnovra, Kpardvia dp- 

2 IGS i. 3493 Ei)/cXei'5ay /cai MXo... yvpd ovo, -^vrpos dpyvpovs, diroOvffTa.viov 
dve'9ev: 3494 Ail 'Altaian carelessly xpvvovv, Kpariyp xpvffovs, KvpT)t>aiwv dvd- 
scratcht. 6r)/j.a, fiaria-Kiov dpyvpovv. 

3 Collitz iii. 4535 Mej-oCrtos a.ve0t)Ke 8 BCH xiv. 200; four in 4th cent., 
ruk Il.v6a.Ltl; IGA 59. six in 3rd cent. 

4 Collitz iii. 4539, 4541, 4540 TWI 9 IGA 120 'AXao-^j /cat 'Aicpwpeioi 



5 Collitz i. 62, 77, 96, 102. 10 IGA 63. 

6 Theopompus ap. Ath. xiii. 605 B, c H CIG 2157. 

2vpapiTuv dvaO^aTa, ffrXeyyiSia. xpvffd 12 A slab shaped like a shrine, once 

rfffffapa, Kapxjjffiov dpyvpovv ^taKa^wv painted : Ad/ttarpi /cat K.6pa M^Xieraa 

Ka.1 ffrtcpavov xpvffovv KITTOV HeirapTjdiwv, Te\ftov/J.a, AM viii. 110. 
ffrt(pa.vov dd<pvr)s, '~E<j>e<rt<av dvd&fifj.a., etc. 13 AM xvi. 249 0D Aiovfow AiroXXw- 

7 Polemon ap. Athenaeum xi. 480 A vios Mo/c6XX?;y dpxaios fjLvffrris apxatov 
vaos Merairovrivuv, ev y <j>id\ai dpyvpai XPV I MOV ^ lr ^ OT^XTJS dvaypdif/as ffvv TW 
exarbv rpidKovra dvo, oivoxoai dpyvpai jSw/i.w a.vtdr)Kev. 



282 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

from Eudocia's notes that mystae used to dedicate their dress at 
Eleusis 1 . At Megara was a yearly sacrifice to Apollo Protector, 
and the magistrates on this occasion used to make a dedication 
of some sort*. 

Even a joyous celebration of any kind might suggest an 
offering. The state gave the men of Phyle a thousand drachmas 
for a sacrifice and votive offerings 3 . When Demetrius Polior- 
cetes came to Athens, he was received in triumphal pro- 
cession, and a decree was past to give a prize in money to him 
who made the most sumptuous show, which money he was to 
expend on a votive offering 4 . 

Again : colonists sent offerings to the great feasts of the 
mother city. We know that the Athenian colonies sent an ox 
each to the Panathenaea 8 ; and two dedications of colonies 
made in Athens are extant 6 . In Sparta was a statue of Athena 
dedicated by the Tarentine colonists 7 . 

Private persons of course also made dedications on con- 
sulting an oracle. There is a fine relief from the Pythium at 
Athens, representing the god seated upon the tripod, and two 
other figures, female, of divine size, one with her hand upon 
the god's shoulder 8 . This may be a thank-offering for some 
oracular response. In later times the offering seems commonly 
to have taken the form of a small altar. One such comes from 
Troezen, and is inscribed with the question put to the oracle 
and the answer 9 . This was the custom at the oracle of Libyan 
Ammon, and Pausanias saw there altars with the questions of 
Eleans and the answers given them 10 . The first celebration of 
the taurobolium at Athens was commemorated by an altar, and 

1 Eudocia (Tenbner) 656 irtpl T&V 6 CIA i. 339, 340, 5th cent. : Eretria, 

tv 'EXevfflvi /jLvffTrjpluv : ir6.Tpi6v iffn Potidaea. 

TCUJ 0ea?j dvifporv xal ras trroXaj TOI>S 7 Paus. iii. 12. 5. 

(ju&ffTas tv aft rvxoifv /xi/i;0^iT, quoting 8 Cat. Ath. Sc. 1389: ...EaKxtov avt- 

Melanthius. BijKe. 

8 IOS i. 89 ; Collitz iii. 3027 f. For BCH xvii. 85 EMvfdSa* <W<V* , 

the god see Paus. i. 44. 2. a KO. woiuv irol rbv Oebv ioirji Xowra/iepoj 

8 Aesch. Ctes. 187. dayvai xpyfai'. 0<jffaiJ.ev 'Hpa/cXet ...fwj 

4 Pint. Demctr. 12. lUvra. eVi XcuA oluvbv. 4th cent. IPI 

8 Schol. Arist. Clouds 385 ; cp. CIA i. 760. 

i. 9 (of Erythrae), 31 (Brea). 10 Paus. v. 15. 11. 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 283 

the same offering was repeated at a later. date 1 . A series of 
altars, all late, were found in the port of Delos 2 , which may be 
assigned to pilgrims ; they record the dedication of other things, 
such as a shrine 3 , a circuit- wall 4 , statues of Athena 5 , Heracles 6 , 
Maia 7 , and other gods. Memorials of a periodical sacrifice to 
some deity unknown are cut in the rock at Lindos, with the 
names of those who performed it 8 . In Egypt records have been 
found of the pilgrimage of devotees to the shrine of Isis, all of 
late date 9 . The answer of a god might be dedicated alone 10 . 

A large number of dedications have reference to the sacri- 
fice itself. We may classify them thus : 

(1) Figures or groups which represent the devotee pre- 

pared for sacrifice, or engaged in some ritual act. 

(2) Models of the thing sacrificed. 

(3) The articles used in the ritual. 

(4) The deity to whom sacrifice is made. 

(1) Figures or groups which represent the devotee. 

The figures found in the temple precincts are difficult of 
interpretation. The question is, whom do they represent ; the 
deity, the priestly person, the devotee, or (it is even asked) the 
devotee in the garb and aspect of the deity ? The last sugges- 
tion may be dismist. Whatever be the origin of sacrifice, what- 
ever the practices of savages, I know of no evidence to show 
that the Greek devotee in sacrificing regarded himself as one 
with the god. Indeed, Pausanias speaks of a figure of Alexander 
in the garb of Zeus, with a tone which suggests that it was an 
impious thing 11 . If one priest on a great day wears the mask of 
Demeter 13 , if a priestess of Artemis rides in a car drawn by 

1 CIA iii. 172, 173 ; Sybel 581 ; to Aanr6Xioj (pyovwv ir/xxrxapcuos ffvffla. 
Attis and Bhea. The name of the ceremony was Bou- 

2 BCH xxiii. 60 ff. icoirla. 

3 No. 6 ol avrol Kal roih Ofobs ot Kai 9 CIG 4846 TO irpoffKtiinjfia 'Aire\\as 
T-bwabvavtO-qKav. This has a relief also. \6yyov; 4897 ff., 4981 ff., 4917 TJKU 

4 No. 9 ot Kal rbv TrepifioXov. Kal irpoffKeKVvqffa ^ : r\v Kvpiav *I<riv Kal 

5 No. 8 ot Kal Ti]v 'A8t]vav. ireiroi-qKa TO irpoffKvvtjfj.a TUV </>t\oiWw' 

6 No. 7 of xal ryv "KpaK\ijv (sic). ^e. See also JHS 1899, p. 13. 

7 No. 5 ot TV Malav ol afcol Kal rbv 10 IPX i. 492 Mycenae (6th century). 
/Sw^op. So in Epidaurus : IPI i. 873. ll Paus. v. 25. 1. 

8 IGI i. 791 ff. : e.g. ruv GdXXtoj Kal 12 Paus. viii. 15. 1. 



284 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

deer 1 , these need prove no more than that a mystery-play was 
being acted ; and even so, they are exceptions. This mystical 
notion was, if I read aright, foreign to the sanity of the Greek 
intellect, and their idea of the sacrifice was much more simple. 
As regards the other interpretations, some figures are quite 
clearly meant for the deity, others, as male figures offered to 
a female deity 8 , quite clearly are not; very many are doubtful. 
Again: of those which are not divine, some may be priestly 
persons, some cannot. The last class cannot be all ornaments, 
because many of them are not ornamental ; even supposing 
toys to have been used and dedicated at an early date, they 
cannot all be toys, because some have direct reference to cult 
(as the ring-dancers), some have the attitude of worship, some 
represent the phases of human life at which votive offerings 
were customary. We have already seen how war 3 and athletic 
prowess 4 , the earning of daily bread 8 and the birth of children 6 , 
are indicated in this way. It follows, then, that the devotee 
was sometimes represented by votive figures. But, as I have 
before pointed out, it is the devotee doing something or other. 
Portraits are out of the question, so is all idea of substitution 
by similitude. The figures represent the act or process, the 
human activity which has been blest by the god, or which the 
man desires to keep in remembrance. The sacrificial group 
of Oenoe is the most complete example of the attempt to 
perpetuate the memory of a sacrifice 7 . 

Here we have specially to consider those human figures 
which suggest the rites of sacrifice ; and I shall first name the 
most significant examples, passing on to interpret others in the 
light of these. 

First, the archaic statue of Rhombus or Combus found on 
the Acropolis of Athens, bearing a calf on his shoulders 8 . He is 
clad in a shepherd's cloke of thick frieze or hide, which hangs 



1 Paus. vii. 18. 12. Page 163. 

a Examples will be given p. 289 ; to 5 Page 80. 
which add a find of male and female ' Page 254. 

statuettes together at Corinth: AJA 7 Page 130. 
xi. 371 ff., JHS xvi. 340. 8 CIA iv. 1. 373 215 , p. 198: ' 

3 Above, p. 129. dv^Kev 6 lld\ov. 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 285 

down before and behind him. I am aware that this is the 
attitude of Hermes Criophorus 1 , but here we are in Athena's 
shrine ; moreover, the attitude is exactly that of the modern 
Greek peasant, who may be seen any Good Friday in the streets 
of Athens, thus bearing the lamb which he is to slay for his 
Easter Feast. I take Rhombus, then, to have set up this 
memorial of the sacrifice which he did, perhaps for some un- 
exampled prosperity or the present help of the goddess. A 
bronze statuette from Crete 2 , like Rhombus bearing an animal, 
clad in the ancient loincloth of the Mycenaeans 3 , and standing 
upon a base, was no doubt dedicated for the like reason. A 
ram-bearer of the same type comes from the Theban Cabirium 4 , 
and one was found at Gela 5 . Pausanias saw in the temple of 
Apollo Lycaeus at Argos the statue of a man Biton with a bull 
on his shoulders : a story was told to explain it, of course; but 
we may place him by the side of Rhombus 6 . In the Cabirium 
too 4 were several figures holding a lamb under the arm, which 
we may now interpret in the same way. Others carry a cock or 
some other bird 4 . In the temple of Apollo at Naucratis there 
are two figures of a man leading a bull 7 . A bronze ox being led 
to sacrifice stood in the Eleusinium at Athens 8 . Very ancient 
figures, from Praesus in Crete, hold some offering in the hand 9 . 
Finally, some figures of Artemis found in Corcyra show a human 
figure dancing before her, or clasping her knees 10 . 

1 On this divine type see A. Veyries, 4 AM xv. 359 : why should they be 
Les Jig. criophores dans Vart grec, called Hermes ? 

Thorin, Paris, 1884 ; K. Friederichs, 5 Kekule, Terrac. v. Sic., pi. iii. 3. 

Apollon mit dem Lamm, Winckel- 6 Paus. ii. 19. 5. 
mannsfest, 1861. Hermes Criophorus 7 Naucratis, i. 13. It may be worth 

at Corinth, Paus. ii. 3. 4 ; in Messenia, while to mention that figures of a man 

iv. 33. 4 ; at Olympia, v. 27. 8. Com- riding upon a ram (AZ xl. 320), and 

pare Stephani, Compte Rendu, 1869, of a man clinging beneath a ram, 

96 S. perhaps Odysseus (AMiv. 170 foil.), are 

2 Annali Hi. 213, pi. S. also known ; the first from Tarentum, 

3 The loin-cloth also on archaic the second from Tegea : both are 
statuettes from Olympia (Bronzen, pi. probably toys. 

xvi.), statuettes and the great Naxian 8 Paus. i. 14. 4. 

Apollo of Delos (AZ xl. 329), perhaps 9 AJA N.S. v. 381. 

Delphi (BCH xxi. pi. x.), statuettes 10 BCH xv. 1 ff., pi. i. viii. See 

in the Dictaean cave (Ann. Br. Sch. fig. 38. 

Ath. vi. 107). 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



We have now a criterion to determine the interpretation of 
the numerous figures which bear a calf, pig, cock, dove, or other 
bird, fruit or flowers, and other things 
which could actually be offered. Other 
figures, again, have reference to the 
ritual. Unmistakable are the ring- 
dances of women, a whole series of 
which were found at Olympia 1 and in 
Cyprus ; and by their help we shall 
explain figures which play upon the 
pipes or the harp, or which carry a 
musical instrument, a bowl and jug or 
a lustral spray, or a jar of water upon 
the head, which clap the hands, or 
imitate any act of the possible ceremony. 
Further: figures are found which hold 
up the hand in the attitude of worship, 
as at Cyprus and Tegea. It will now 
be useful to consider the centres one 
by one, in order to give some idea of 
the variety to be found in each. 

Beginning with the Mycenaean age, 
a few figures are known which play 
upon the harp or the pipes*. In the 
Argive Heraeum, probably the most 
ancient shrine in Greece, we find both 
male and female figures, but few human 
figures which have reference to ritual. FlG - 
There are however a few women who 
appear to be carrying something; and 
male figures are found, which cannot 
represent the goddess. At Olympia 

the ring-dancers, and a number of figures of both sexes, 
one a female holding a dove 3 , but nothing else characteristic 
of cult*. At Dodona we have bronze ritual figures which 

1 Bronzen von 01. 263, pi. xvi. See 8 Bronzen von Ol. 56, pi. ix. : called 
fig. 39, p. 287. Aphrodite by the discoverers. 

2 Perrot and Chipiez, Hist, de I'Art, 4 Bronzen von 01. 263, 38, 44. 
vi. 751. 




38. Artemis with 
fawn and dancing votary 
(Corcyra). 

BCH xv. pi. vii. 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 



287 



may be meant for the priest, holding in his hand objects 
used in the cult ; the priestess, holding a dove, vase and 
saucer, or some similar object; and a sacrificer, with a knife 1 ; 




FIG. 39. King-dancers, from Olympia. 
Bronzen xvi. 263. 

also a flute-girl with double flute, of the sixth century 2 . At 
Amyclae was found a bronze male figure in ceremonial head- 
dress, which once held something in the hand 3 . On the Acro- 
polis of Athens are a male 4 and a female 5 figure of bronze which 
appear to be dancing ; and a naked man holding up a wreath 
as if offering it 6 . Large numbers of clay figures here found are 
unarmed, and hold a bird, an apple or a pomegranate 7 . Stone 
figures of boys holding a dove or some such object 8 , and of a girl 
with a holy-water basin, are also known at Athens 9 . From 
Eleusis comes the figure of a boy carrying a bundle of sticks, 
which are familiar in the cult 10 . The Cabirium yielded some 
hundreds of male figures, both clothed and naked, carrying 
a lamb, or holding a cock to the bosom, and in the other 
hand a jug or bowl, or holding hare and bowl, lyre and 



1 Carapanos, pi. xiii. 3, xxi. 4 ; 
BCH xiv. 159, pi. iv., v. A dove held 
in the hand : Carapanos xxi. 4 bis. 

2 Carapanos 31, pi. x. 1. 

3 'E0. 'Apx. 1892, pi. 2. 

4 Cat. Acr. Br. 757. 



5 Cat. Acr. Br. 787. 

6 Cat. Acr. Br. 731. 

7 AM xix. 492. 

8 Sybel 43015. 

9 Sybel 4308. 

10 AM xx. 357 ; A A 1892, p. 106. 



GRKEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



bowl, or a bird, or with jug and bowl together 1 . At Tegea 
were some hundreds of girls bearing water-pitchers, female 
figures standing with a pig or a wreath in the 
hand, and a few dancers*. Figures of girls 
carrying pigs were found at Paestum* and 
several places in Sicily, Acragas, Camarina, and 
Gela 4 ; girls with pig and torch at Camarina 8 , 
girls with dove or wreath at Megara 8 . A shrine 
near Catania contained many archaic figures of 
girls holding a pig 7 , a flower or fruit 8 , basket 
of eatables 9 , torch or sceptre 10 ; but some are 
probably divine. Naucratis gives us stone figures 
of the sixth century holding the libation bowl, 
and females in terra-cotta playing upon the 
pipes or the lyre 11 ; from the temple of Aphrodite 
came male figures draped and nude 12 , flotist and 
harpist 13 . The female figures holding bird, goat, 
or flower to the breast, are perhaps the god- 
dess 14 . The girl flotists in the hero-shrine at 
Therapne have been mentioned already 15 . There 
were silver and gold statuettes in Delos, and 
one held two Attic drachmae in the hand: a 
new motive 18 . The scheme of the Hero Feast 
is represented in ninety-nine per cent, of terra-cotta examples 
from Tarentum 17 . In the Dictaean cave of Crete were figures 

9 Mon. Ant. vii. fig. 38. 

10 Mon. Ant. vii. figs. 3941. 

11 Naucratis, i. 13, 14. 

12 Naucratis, ii. 56. 

13 Naucratis, pL xvii. 4, xiv. 14. 

14 Naucratis, ii. 56; Ann. Brit. Sch. 
Ath. v. 72 ff., 83. 

15 Rev. Arch. xxx. 13. 

16 BCH x. 464 " dvSpiarrlffKot ; 
avdpiavrlffKos xP vff vs Q silver base ; 
dvdp. dpyvpovs TT/OOS riji x fl pl ^X w>/ 
Spaxc-as dr-n/cAs II, coins affixt to the 
hand. 

17 AZ xl. 286 ff. ; Gaz. Arch. vii. 
155 ff. 




FIG. 40. 

Mon. Ant. vii. 
237, fig. 29. 



1 AM xv. 359. 

2 AM iv. 170 ff. ; Gaz. Arch. iv. 42 ff.; 
Nuove Memorie delV List, di Corr. Arch. 
72 6, pi. vi.j Gaz. des beaux Arts, 
xxi. 108. Gerhard, Bilderkreis von 
Eleusis, Arch. Aufs. ii. 561, 563, quotes 
parallels from Megara, Thebes, Sicily, 
Thespiae, Cnidus. 

3 Ann. delV Inst. 1835, p. 50. 

4 Kekule", Terracotten, 19, 25, 23. 

8 Kekule', Terracotten, pi. v. 18; 
Mon. Ant. ix. 231, figs. 236. 

6 Kekul, Terracotten, 9, 10. 

7 Mon. Ant. viL 235, figs. 25, 29, 30, 
pi. vii. See fig. 40. 

8 Mon. Ant. vii. pi. iv. 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 289 

both male and female, the hand being frequently raised to the 
head as in adoration 1 . Similar is a statuette from Athens, of a 
female deity holding a torch or staff, whose hand rests on the 
head of a small figure of a man by her side 2 . Abundant evidence 
for this practice comes from Cyprus. At Voni, in the sanctuary 
of Apollo, were found a host of figures, draped, and all male 
except two, ranging from the archaic to late periods. Some 
are playing on the double flute 3 , some hold a dove and pyxis 4 , 
or a pyxis and a branch 5 , others have no attributes at all 6 . 
They are bearded 7 or beardless 8 , and some of later date appear 
to be meant for portraits 9 ; one is inscribed 10 . There is great 
variety of type. The two female figures" are explained by the 
compilers of the catalogue as " inappropriate offerings brought 
from home," a somewhat lame explanation. At Chytri, a 
sanctuary of the Paphian goddess, there are " crouching boys," 
holding a bird or a patera, perhaps the temple attendants 12 ; 
female devotees, erect, with hands raised to the head, or by 
the sides, or touching the breasts 13 , holding a pyxis 14 , drum or 
tambourine 15 , or a flower 16 , playing on the flute 17 or dancing in a 
ring 18 . At Soli both male and female figures are found 19 , with a 
number of ring-dances' . At Citium, in the sanctuary probably 
of Artemis, most of the figures are female, but male are found. 
Commonest is the votary, male or female, playing upon the 
tambourine 21 ; two or three play upon the harp* 2 . Others bring a 
flower or wreath 23 , dish of cakes 24 or bowl of wine 25 , bird 26 , or calf 27 ; 

1 Ann. Br. Sch. Ath. vi. 107, pi. x. 14 Catalogue, 5284. 

2 Annali xxxvi. pi. G. Jahreshefte 15 Catalogue, 5296 ff. 
iv. 37, 38, fig. 30. 16 Catalogue, 5289. 

3 Catalogue of the Cyprus Museum, 17 Catalogue, 5302 3. 
50012. 18 Catalogue, 531534, 529095. 

4 Catalogue, 501931. Catalogue, 5484 ff. 

5 Catalogue, 503247. 20 Catalogue, 5401 ff. 

6 Catalogue, 500310. 2l Catalogue, 5501 ff. 

7 Catalogue, 5012 ff. 22 Catalogue, 5516. 

8 Catalogue, 5003 ff. 23 Catalogue, 55334, 5538. 

9 Catalogue, p. 141. 21 Catalogue, 55224. 

10 Catalogue, 5009 FtXXi/cas Ka.Ttara.ffe ^ Catalogue, 55257. 

6 SracriK/xiTeos (Cypriote script). 26 Catalogue, 5529 31; swan or dove, 

11 Catalogue, p. 141. 55357. 

12 Catalogue, 5201 ff. ^ Catalogue, 5528, 5532. 

13 Catalogue, 5253 ff. 

R. 19 



290 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

a few, all female, have a lamp on their heads 1 . These objects are 
of importance, because some of them have the hands in a posture 
of supplication, and are therefore unmistakable as devotees 8 . 
In the sanctuary of Aphrodite at Idalium, all the statuettes 
are female. Many have no attributes, but there are others bear- 
ing flowers 3 , cakes 4 , or birds 5 , clapping the hands 6 , playing 
upon lyre 7 or tambourine", or with arms raised or extended 9 . 
A series of large terra-cotta figures come from Salamis, which 
from their look and costume seem certainly meant for human 
votaries 10 . The female type holding fruit, flowers, or animals 11 , 
tambourine or bowl 12 , is represented, and male figures also 
hold flowers 13 or kids 14 . From Tamassos come a number of 
statuettes, all male, apparently of the votary 15 , sometimes 
offering a plate of fruit 16 , or holding a bird, pyxis, or lustral 
spray 17 . At a sanctuary in Asia Minor, probably that of 
Artemis Anaitis, were found a number of objects which show 
an economical way of representing this idea : they consist 
of the hand as far as the elbow, holding fruit, birds, or some 
other offering 18 . In view of this evidence, we must conclude 
that the statuettes were not all meant for the deity ; that 
some at least were meant for human beings ; and that prob- 
ably there were worshippers as well as priests among them. 
But once more, these are not portraits : they represent an 
act. 

It will be convenient here to enumerate such votive reliefs 
as we have not been able to find a place for. We have seen 
that these reliefs (with one possible exception) 19 never represent 
a myth or legend as such, but are divisible into those which 
exhibit (1) the power of the deity, (2) the act or process which 



1 Catalogue, 5540. " JHS xii. 140. 

2 Catalogue, 55179. 12 JHS xii. 158. 

3 Catalogue, 5604, 5641, 5650, etc. 13 JHS xii. 147. 

4 Catalogue, 56601. " JHS xii. 155. 

5 Catalogue, 5717. 15 Catalogue, 6014 ff., 6156 ff. 

6 Catalogue, 5705. 16 Catalogue, 6025. 

? Catalogue, 5674, 571015. " Catalogue, 6092 ff. 

8 Catalogue, 5601, 57079. 18 In Leyden Museum. 

9 Catalogue, 56865704. 19 Page 87 ". 

10 Catalogue, p. 161 ; JHS xii. 163. 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 291 

he has made to prosper, or (3) the ritual. It is likely that 
most votive reliefs commemorated not an ordinary but an 
extraordinary moment, some signal favour of the god for which 
his worshipper has done sacrifice ; but generally we cannot 
divine the occasion. The indeterminate pieces cannot, however, 
fairly be left unnoticed ; and provisionally they may be placed 
here. I shall include any which do not violate the principles 
shown in the others; feeling quite certain that the presence 
of worshippers or a sacrificial scene is conclusive for their in- 
terpretation as votive. 

An unmistakable votive tablet, found lately in Euboea, 
shows Artemis, Apollo, and Leto in the presence of a wor- 
shipper : Apollo is playing upon the harp, Leto apparently holds 
a sceptre (painted), and Artemis holds torches 1 . Sacrifices to 
the three deities together were made at Delphi 2 . One with a 
similar scheme, on which however Artemis takes an arrow 
from a quiver, and a gazelle stands by her side, and which lacks 
the worshipper, is in the Athenian Museum 3 ; and a third is 
inscribed with a dedication 4 . These are strong evidence that 
the series of Harpist reliefs is votive ; but prove nothing for 
the occasion, which may be other than a musical victory. A 
fragment, inscribed as a dedication of two men, from the late 
fifth century, shows Apollo seated upon a rock 5 . The society 
of Pythaists, singly or in groups, made similar dedications to 
Apollo. The god sits on the omphalos, a bowl in his right hand, 
a lustral spray in his left ; beside him Artemis, with quiver ; a 
worshipper uplifting his hand completes the scene 6 . Another 
shows Apollo playing upon the lyre, Artemis, and Leto, with a 
male worshipper 7 . Other thiasi or similar societies thus com- 
memorated their festival times. Thus Xenodotus dedicates a 



1 'E0. 'Apx- 1900, 4 ff., pi. 2. 1. Ath. 

2 Collitzii. 264255. 6 AJA v . 471; pL xi . . Icaria; 4th 

3 Cat. Nat. Mus. Sc. 1400. cent. : nu0cu<rrf/s HeiffiKpdrTis 'AKporifiov 

4 Cat. Nat. Mus. Sc. 1380 T6pyuv... wtB-qKev. 

avtdrjKe (Thessaly). 1 AJA I.e. Buck, Papers of the Am. 

5 AM vii. 320 ...pdrijj ical A W o..., School, v. 119, pi. vii. 3; CIA iv. 2. 
...i/j.ij\ov viei dve9{T>\v, Central Mus. 1190 b, c. 

192 



292 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

feast-relief to Apollo 1 ; and Golgos yields a relief of Apollo 
enthroned, with a procession of worshippers ; the lower division 
of the slab shows a feast and a ritual dance*. Apollo is also 
associated with Athena 8 , and in a piece from Cyzicus, with 
Dionysus and Zeus 4 . The beautiful terra-cotta relief of 
Aphrodite from South Italy is probably meant to suggest the 
goddess's divine power. She stands before Hermes, holding 
out to him in one hand a pomegranate, in the other a winged 
love 8 . Another, of the type called Aphrodite and Ares, 
shows a goddess pouring a libation into a bowl held by 
an armed warrior over an altar ; a worshipper in the corner 
proves the votive character 8 . Arctinus and Menecratia dedicate 
a relief to her as Leader of the People 7 . Athena also appears 
on reliefs which tell no plain tale, other than by their altar or 
sacrificial scene or inscription that they are votive 8 . The 
Acropolis relief of Athena offering a hand to a seated man 
has been spoken of already 9 . Again, an archaic female 
figure offers a cake or garland with one hand, and holds some 
vessel in the other 10 . A man and a small boy appear as wor- 
shippers in another case, but all that remains of the goddess is 
her hand with an owl percht on it 11 . The goddess sometimes 
brandishes her spear 12 , sometimes sits with her helmet upon her 
lap", or by her side 14 , or stands in a quiet attitude 16 . Once she 
appears robed like the archaic Maiden statues of the Acropolis, 
but with a helmet, in company with two other female figures of 
divine size before a group of three worshippers who are leading 
a sow 16 . There is also the much discussed relief-niche in which 

1 Rev. Arch. xxv. 159 Se^Soroj 9 Above, p. 219. No. 577 in the 
'Air6XXwj/i. Acropolis Museum: Schone 83; cp. 

2 Rev. Arch. xxv. 159. 77. 

3 Sybel 4319. 10 No. 593. 

4 Cat. Br. Mus. Sc. 817 Aii ity tory u Schone 87 : the man's face looks 
KCU rip xPV T ^ v Te\afj.wva air t 5w KO.. like a portrait. 

8 Farnell, Cults, ii. 697, pi. 48. 12 Schone 84, 95. 

6 Farnell, Cults, ii. 702, pi. 506. . ls Schone 91. 

7 Farnell, Cults, ii. 662 (3rd cent.) " Schone 92. 
T]yffj.6vt]i TOV drifjLov. 15 Schone 61, 94. 

8 CIA iv. 1. 418 1 ...'ABrjvaiai dve- 16 'E<f>. 'Ap*. 1886, 179, pi. 9. So 
0T]Kcv. Acrop. Mus. no. 581. 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 



293 



are two armed Athenas side by side 1 . She is joined also with 
Cybele and a bearded male figure in a mantle who holds a club, 
probably from Asia Minor*. 

Characteristic offerings to Cybele were the votive niches or 
small shrines, none of them early, 
in which she is seated upon a 
throne with various accessories. 
She sits in the shrine alone, 
holding a bowl and tympanum 3 ; 
or she has attendants, a youthful 
male with sacrificial vessels, and 
a bearded deity, perhaps Hermes 
and Priapus 4 . On the pilasters 
of the shrine are often engraved 
the figures of worshippers 5 , who 
also appear within 6 ; even Pan 
appears on the pillar 7 . A lion 
is at her feet 8 , or two lions 9 , or 
she is even seated upon a lion. 
An altar sometimes appears, or a scene of sacrifice 10 . These 
little shrines come from Peiraeus 11 , Ephesus 12 , Minutoli 13 , 
Sardis 14 , Perinthus 15 , and Samos 16 , and go back to the fourth 
century. One fine specimen of terra-cotta was found in a 
tomb 17 . They are sometimes inscribed 18 . A double Cybele 




FIG. 41. Belief dedicated to Cybele. 
Cat. Berl. Sci. 691. 



1 'E<. 'Apx- 1890, 1, pi. 1 ; explained 
by Mylonas as Athena in two aspects, 
those of peace and war, or Polias 
and Parthenos. But Athena is also 
Ergane, Hygieia, and so forth ; and 
there is no difference between the 
two figures. Mylonas compares several 
other double Athenas, and also double 
Cybele, Zeus, Hermes. This was 
found on a tomb, but the type is 
votive. 

2 F-W. 1845. Unexplained. 

3 Cat. Berl. Sc. 692, 694, etc. 

4 Cat. Berl. Sc. 697; F-W. 1846 
(Petersburg). 

8 Cat. Berl. Sc. 692. 

6 Cat. Brit. Mus. Sc. 782. 



7 AM xxi. 280. 

8 Cat. Berl. Sc. 697, 703, etc. 

9 Cat. Berl. Sc. 732. 

w Cat. Br. Mus. Sc. 782. 

11 Cat. Berl. Sc. 692,694, etc.; prob- 
ably Cat. Br. Mus. Sc. 782, etc. 

12 Cat. Berl. Sc. 699, 704. 

13 Cat. Berl. Sc. 701. 

14 Cat. Berl. Sc. 702. 

15 Cat. Berl. Sc. 703. 

16 Samos Museum 51 ; AM xxv. 174. 

17 AM ii. 48, pi. iii. 

18 CIG 6837 MTJT/M Of^v 'Ayylvret 
'A/oi^/H/ivcs otVoi'6/xoj TTJS 7r6Xews ebxfy. 
AZ xxxviii. p. 1 ff. MdpT/s M.rjTpl Kai 
Mka Mrirpl 6euv; Sybel 3099 (4th 
cent.. 



294 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

has also been found in several examples', like the double 
images of Athena and Pan. There is also a fine relief of the 
early fourth century, where Cybele sits sideways, holding bowl 
and tympanum, a lion at her foot, and facing her is a female 
figure bearing a torch. Here also ' Hermes' appears 2 . Another 
relief is in Venice, and shows Cybele with attributes, Attis, 
a woman worshipper and a female attendant 8 . A relief bust 
from Mysia is inscribed 4 . 

Dedications to Demeter and the Maid, which represent 
scenes from the Mysteries, belong to this place. One such 
appears to be the famous relief from Eleusis, representing the 
goddesses with Triptolemus standing between 8 . Another 
represents Triptolemus on a throne before the goddesses', or on 
a waggon with snakes attendant 7 . Demeter sits on a throne, 
holding sceptre and ears of corn, while the Maid with her 
torches draws nigh ; or the Maid stands behind Triptolemus, 
who sits on a winged throne, whilst a train of worshippers 
approaches 8 . Others similar exist, one inscribed 9 . On a slab 
in the Eleusis Museum the Maid holding torches approaches 
Demeter enthroned ; and others show Triptolemus seated in a 
throne with snake and wing, the Maid holding torches on his 
left, and Demeter on the right, with four worshippers. Other 
reliefs, which show two female divinities, one with a torch, the 
other resembling the typical Demeter, are assigned to this 
pair; the presence of worshippers will attest the votive 
character 10 . A late relief from Sparta represents standing in 
the centre Demeter and the Maid, holding torches; one is 
seated, and Cerberus beneath the throne ; to their right, a man 
with a long staflf, and to their left a girl holding a bundle and 
some fruit ; over the girl's head is a winged figure with wreath. 

1 F-W. 1133; Sybel 386 (Eleusis), 6 AA xi. 100; AM x. pi. vi. 

3049, 4381, 6139; AM xxi. 280. Ex- 7 F-W. 1132. 

plained as Cybele and Aphrodite by 8 AM xx. 245 ff., pi. v. (early 5th 

Foucart, Ass. liel. 100. See/l^xxxviii. century), vi. (4th century), 
pi. 2. 1, xxxix. p. 1. 9 AM xx. 258 n\aro Aiovvfflov 

'* Cat. Berl. Sc. 691. See fig. 41. KKBaOrivaUws dv^Kc. Another in AM 

3 Monuments Green, p. 11, pi. 2. xxvi. 49. 

* CIG Add. iv. 6836 'AvSip^ I'M- 10 Cat. Brit. Mm. Sc. 793; Sybel 323, 

KLVVO. Mijvo^wvros Otwi ayvTJi evx^. cp. 361, 1488 ; Munch. Glypt. 198 ; 

8 F-W. 1182. AA 1855, 57. 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 295 

It is inscribed as a thank-offering ; the meaning is not clear, 
but a ritual act most likely 1 . It may be worth while to 
mention a beautiful vase found in Eleusis, depicting the 
Rape of Persephone, and with a dedicatory inscription scratcht 
upon it 2 . 

Dionysus also appears in groups which do not suggest a 
musical or dramatic victory. Thus in a Theban relief he sits 
on a rock, thyrsus in hand, and before him stands a female 
deity 3 . He appears on his throne, a snake beside him 4 ; or as 
Sabazios he is seated in a biga, having snake and eagle 5 ; or 
he is in company with a goddess clad in the fawnskin 8 . 

The usual scenes of adoration and sacrifice occur 7 . 

Many offerings are made to Hecate ; and the variety of her 
functions, as a chthonian deity and therefore connected with 
the worship of the dead, as well as likely to be appealed to for 
help, or as connected with marriage and birth, or in other 
capacities, makes it impossible to guess at the occasion. None 
of the reliefs are archaic. She appears triform in a votive niche, 
holding torches and the vessel of libation 8 ; or in the hideous 
oriental shape 9 . Hestia is also thus commemorated on a 
Thessalian stone 10 . There are one or two dedications to Zeus 
Philios, whose occasion can only be guessed 11 ; and another relief 
to Zeus, with worshipper, is a thank-offering 12 . 

The crudest example of this idea in art is the relief of 
two hands alone 13 . 

(2) Model of the thing sacrificed. 

We have already seen animal models forming part of a 

1 AZ xii. 223, pi. 13. 1 : Turi/c/>dnjs F-W. p. 165 ; Baumeister 632. 

' A.ya.6oK\eiav TO.V idiav Bvyarepa Ad/iarpt 9 Cat. Berl. Sc. 683 : from Magnesia. 

ical K6pai xa.piaT-iipiov;?=AM ii. 378 193 . Also Stephani, Compte Bendu 1870, 

2 AM xxi. pi. xii. 'A.v6iinri\ oVe-flij/ce. 191 : hecateum Bd0v\\os A<?p/uos 'Erdnj 

3 Sybel 352 ; Schone 110. S7rd/jr??s f/.edeo6(n\. 

4 Conze, Inschr. d. thrak. Meer, pi. 10 BCH xii. 184. 

17. 7. u Farnell, Cults, i. p. 118. 

5 Roscher i. 1111. 12 GIG Add. iv. 6831 AiJ eflxapHrrrf- 

6 Sybel 585. piop. 

7 Sybel 373: man, woman, and l3 GIG Add. iv. 6845 b Kovnuptpa biriu 
child. Dionysiac precinct, Athens. ical Siicalw (Trieste). 

8 Farnell, Cults, ii. 552, pi. 39 c ; 



296 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

sacrificial group, and we are prepared to find them dedicated 
alone. This is in fact the simplest permanent memorial of a 
sacrifice, if the offerer wishes to commemorate it at all. It is 
well known that the Greeks often dedicated cakes in the form 
of animals : at the Diasia, for instance, an ancient agricultural 
feast, held in honour of Zeus Meilichios, cakes were offered in 
this shape by tradition 1 . The lexicographers mention a cake 
in ox-shape s , which was offered no doubt by the poor; and 
a peasant in the Anthology offers cakes in the shape of oxen 
to Deo 8 . The cake itself was even modelled in marble 4 , and 
the clay model of a tray of edibles was found in the Argive 
Heraeum 8 . The relief of Philombrotus's hair is another example 
of the same principle 6 . 

But we are not left to inference from analogy in the inter- 
pretation of animal models. By a great stroke of luck, the 
Acropolis of Athens has furnisht a beautiful sheep, bearing the 
legend in very ancient letters, " The supplication of Peisis 7 ." 
The proverbial Mandrobulus, too, having found a treasure in 
Samos, offered to Hera a golden sheep the first year, one of 
silver the second, and one of bronze the third 8 . This may be 
the true explanation of the bronze oxen sent to Olympia by the 
Corcyraeans and the Eretrians 9 , the bronze oxen at Delphi 

1 Thuc. i. 126, or gloss : Otovai turn to the traditional offering by 
ToXXoi ofy Ifpeta, dXXA ff^ara eiri- praying that Deo will bless his real 
X^pta ; schol. cited by Poppo rtvi oxen. 

Trinnara els fy(i>v yuop^ds Terviru/jifra. * Sybel 4014. 

Plato Laws 782 c wtXavoi xa.1 ^\ITI 5 Dr Waldstein. In the Castle at 

Kapirol dtdev/jiivoi Kai roiavra d\\a ayva Mytilene are a number of such trays 

0v/j.a.Ta. Mommsen thinks the first- of food in relief, all of late date. 

fruit corn at Eleusis was workt up 6 Pages 243, 244. 

into such cakes. 7 CIA iv. 1. 373 a, p. 41; Bidder 529 

2 Hesych. s.v. ?j85oM05 /Sous' eZSos IT^M- Ile/o-iSos ketrt'a. 

Aiaroj Kipa.ro. tx ovro *- /3oOr voirav6v 8 Corp. Paroem. Or. Zenobius iii. 

TI TWV OvofLfvuv ofrrus iv rais ayiura- 82; Greg. Cypr. iii. 50; Aelian, Hist, 

rats ' A0rii>7}ffi Ovfflats' %v Se /3of irapa- An. xii. 40. 

ir\-fl<noi>. Suidas *.r. /3. ?/35. adds that 9 IGA 373 <ttX 170-105 eVo/ci* 'EpcrpiTjs 

it was made like the crescent moon ; TWI A( (early 5th cent.) ; Paus. v. 27. 9. 

if this refers not to shape but to in- Bronze oxen seem to have stood on a 

terpretation, it is naught. CIA ii. base dedicated to Zeus Atabyrius in 

1666 altar 0viv rpetj ^336/w /3oOs. Rhodes : IGI i. 31 roui /3oOs x a P l<rTT J- 

3 Anth. Pal. vi. 40: he gives a new ptov. 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 297 

given by the Plataeans and the Carystians 1 , the bronze bull 
dedicated by the Areopagus' 2 , and a bronze ox by the courtezan 
Cottina in Sparta 3 . Another explanation has been suggested 
of the bulls and rams which have been found : but it is clearly 
possible they may be sacrifices like that of Peisis. It will be 
well, then, briefly to enumerate here as well those animals 
which are inscribed as those which are not. 

But first we must form some idea, what animals could be 
sacrificed. It is true, certain deities preferred certain animals, 
as Demeter and Persephone the swine, or refused them alto- 
gether, as this creature was refused by Aphrodite. Local and 
special rules, again, prescribed certain victims, for certain places 
and times. But sheep and oxen were always welcome, and wild 
animals were never part of the ordinary sacrifice 4 . It is pro- 
bable, however, that there was more licence than we now 
imagine. Thus there was no necessity in most cases for the 
sex of the victim to be that of the deity. And further, the poor 
could probably sacrifice much as they would. The cock must 
have been a common offering, to judge from the way Aristotle 
speaks of it, and we are given to understand that they were not 
necessarily slain but simply presented 5 . I take this to have been 
the poor man's offering to other gods than Asclepius 6 . I shall 
venture, then, to cite the models of cocks in this section, not 
forgetting that they may sometimes be fighting cocks offered 
for other reasons 7 . So also, the doves and other birds held in 
the hands of votive figures are fairly to be taken as meant 
for offerings given or accepted ; and if so, models of these 
creatures may be interpreted in the same way. The dove is 
certainly not a necessary attribute of Aphrodite, as we have 

1 Paus. x. 16. 6. 6 Herodas iv. 15. The last words 

2 Paus. i. 24. 2. of Socrates have probably caused a 

3 Polemon ap. Ath. xiii. 574 D ova- mistaken idea of some close connexion 
0-ij/j.a 5 O.VTTJS <TTI Pot5i6v n X<&KOVV. between the cock and Asclepius. 

4 For the rare exceptions sec Stengel, 7 Suid. s.v. aXexTpvova. d9\r)Triv Ta- 
DieGriech. Kultusalterthumer{M.ul\eT's vaypaiov adovrai 5 evyeveis OVTOI. 
Hdbch), 83 5. cuptrjffi T$ ' AffK\i)iri$ dvdfftjud re Kal 

5 Arist. Hist. An. 614 a 8 iv ^v yap advpua elvai, oiovel Oepairovra Kal OIK{- 
TO?S iepols, otrov dvev 6t)\et.>v dvaKeivrai, TTJV irepnroXovvTa rip veip, rbv 6pviv 6 
rbv dvaTi0^/j.evov irdvTes ev\6yus 6xfvov- 'Atrir&'Stos offros. 

<nv. So Ath. ix. 391 D. 



298 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

seen 1 . To Artemis Laphria at Patrae were offered " edible 
kinds of birds and victims of every sort 2 ," and it would be rash 
to assert that she was alone. To the Mistress in Lycosura, 
every one sacrificed what he had 3 ; at Aulis all victims were 
lawful 4 . In Messene, says Pausanias, at a " hall of the Curetes, 
they sacrifice all victims alike ; they begin with oxen and goats, 
and end with birds, throwing them all into the flames 6 ." 
A sacrificial calendar from Marathon, which gives details 
of many sacrifices, does not observe any rule as to the 
sex of the victims being the same as that of the deity. 
Ram, goat, sheep, kine, and pig are mentioned ; and the 
sacrifice made to Athena is an ox, three sheep and a pig 8 . 
In the shrine at Patrae wild boars, deer, and roe were offered, 
even the cubs of wolves and bears, or the full-grown beasts. I 
regard these as originally the firstlings of the hunter, and 
have already cited other examples under the same head 7 ; 
they will therefore not come in here. Nor will the models 
of horses, which were only sacrificed on the rarest occasions 8 , 
and which are more naturally regarded as firstlings; nor the 
figures of dogs, although the sacrifice of these creatures is 
not unknown 9 . The general principle seems to have been that 
the victims should be edible food for men ; and Suidas mentions 
as the regular ones sheep, kine, swine, goats, fowls, and geese 10 . 
We may now take a general review of the animal models : 
not to imply that they must commemorate a sacrifice, but that 
they may. The Argive Heraeum yielded hundreds of animals 
in bronze and clay 11 : bulls, cows, oxen and ox-heads, goats, 

1 Page 289. Plutits 277, Plut. Quaest. Ram. 52 (who 

2 Pans. vii. 18. 12. also mentions the custom for Argos); 

3 Pans. viii. 37. 8. Hesyoh. s.v. TeveTv\\k- ywaiKela. Oebt 

4 Paus. ix. 19. 7. ...toucvta TJ; 'E/cdTTj Sib Kal rai/rj? KVVO.S 

5 Paus. iv. 31. 9. irpoeTl6f<rai>. 

6 AJA x. 210. 10 Suidas, s.v. Ovaov 8n If Ovalat 

7 Page 50, above. t f^vx^v tBvovro, irpofiaTov Ms /3ois 

8 Paus. iii. 20. 9 Tyndareus sacri- alybs tipvidos x 7 ?"^' tWero ?/35o|xos 6 t 
ficed a horse and swore the suitors of aXeupov. See /SoOs ?/35oMos. Dogs were 
Helen upon the pieces of it. eaten by the Thracians, " and this 

9 Puppies to Enyalius by Spartans, may have been an old Greek custom"; 
black female puppies to Einodia at Sext. Empir. (Bekker), 174. 
Colophon, Paus. iii. 14. 9 ; to Hecate u Dr Waldstein. A sheep, no. 22 ; 
in the Zerinthian cave, Schol. Arist. wild goat, 27; duck, 44; and others. 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 



299 



sheep, cocks, ducks and other birds, including perhaps a 
swan. Olympia 1 yielded thousands of beasts cast in bronze 





FIG. 42. From Olympia. 
Bronzen xi. 148. 



FIG. 43. Cock, from Olympia. 
Bronzen xiii. 212. 



or copper, a few of metal foil cut in profile, mostly cattle 2 ; they 
belong to the earliest strata and become fewer as time goes on: 





FIG. 44. Animal in thin foil, from 

Olympia. 
Bronzen x. 99. 



FIG. 45. From Olympia. 
Bronzen xiii. 213. 



bull 3 and ox 4 appear, ram 5 , goat 6 , and pig 7 , cocks 8 and other 
birds 9 . One of them is an oddity which I cannot name 10 ; if it 



1 Bronzen von 01. 28 ff. 



196. 



2 Bronzen von Ol. x. 99 ; see fig. 44. 8 Bronzen von 01. pi. xiii. 212 ; see 

3 Bronzen von 01. pi. xii. 187. fig. 43. 

4 Bronzen von Ol. pi. xi. 148, 224; 9 Bronzen von 01. pi. xiii. 210, 211, 
see fig. 42. etc. 

6 Bronzen von Ol. pi. xii. 195. 10 Bronzen von 01. xiii. 213; see fig. 

6 Bronzen von 01. pi. xiii. 225. 45. I do not know why a sechsbeiniger 

7 Bronzen von 01. pi. x. 133, xii. Kdfer should be dedicated. 



300 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

had fewer legs it might be a tortoise. At Dodona were fewer : 
but the bull 1 , ram 2 and dove 3 appear. In the Cabirium 4 is a 
total of more than 500 animals in bronze and lead, the greatest 
number being bulls or oxen ; more than twenty-five bulls are 
inscribed 5 . They include a few goats and rams; and in clay 
were hundreds of bulls or oxen, sheep, and pigs. All whose 
sex can be made out are male, but many are indeterminate. 
Numbers of bulls and horses were found in the sanctuary of 
Poseidon at Taenarum 8 . Models of animals were found on the 
Acropolis of Athens 7 : besides the sheep of Peisis, and the stone 
ram 8 , there are the bull 9 and the ox 10 , the sheep or ram 11 , and 
cocks 12 . Other birds there were, which were probably parts of 
vases or held in the hand of some figure 13 , as indeed the cocks 
may have been 14 . The bull and bullock were found at Eleusis in 
bronze, with fragments of earthen rams and oxen 15 . A bronze ram 
from Prasiae is inscribed to Apollo Maleatas 16 . Fragments of 
rams came to light at Amyclae 17 . At Lusi animals were found, 
but mostly wild ones; there were doves, however, among them 18 . 
From Crete we have a bull and fragments of animals in the 
Idaean cave 19 ; oxen, goats, rams, kine, of bronze and terra-cotta, 
in the cave of Hermes 20 ; bulls, with rams and many other 
animals, in the Dictaean cave 21 . In a shrine near the Boeotian 
Orchomenus were found numbers of beasts, with an ox-head 

1 Carapanos, pi. xx. 4. 10 Bidder 513. 

2 Carapanos, pi. xxi. 2. " Bidder 5258 ; JH S xiii. 242. 

3 Carapanos, pi. xxi. 5. This must 12 Bidder 535, 3789. 

not be taken alone, and referred to 1S In particular, owls, for which see 

the oracular doves, but explained along chap. xiv. ; and a crow, Bidder 541. 

with other doves. " See CIA ii. 742 16 . 

4 AM xv. 355 ff . 15 AM xx. 306 ff. 

8 AM xv. 365, 388; IGS i. 2457, 16 IGA 89 ; more probably a breeder's 

2459 : three had ^curoN-Sets avtOciKc, offering, see p. 75. 

one adding run Kafielpwi ; others lapfo 17 'E<f>. 'A.px. 1892, pi. 3. 

Kafiipu, run iraidi, 6 5e1va Ka/Se/pwt, etc. 18 Jahreshefte iv. 39. The cocks, 

One has found its way to the Athenian p. 49, were brooch-pins or something 

Acropolis : Kar. i. 129 'Em^tS^ Kafil- of the sort. 

pt, : Bidder 515. 19 Mus. It. ii. 736. 

8 Frazer, Pausanias, iii. 396. * Mus. It. ii. 914, pi. xiv. 

7 AA ix. 140. a Mus. It. ii. 906, pi. xiii. ; Ann. Br. 

8 Above, pp. 296, 75. Sch. Ath. vi. 108. 

9 Bidder 514, 51721. 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 301 

and a rabbit 1 . In Therapne were found some of the bases 
which support models of animals 2 . A marble ram was dedicated 
at Cnidus to the Maid s . Archaic Greek models of votive oxen 
were found in Apulia 4 , and in Tarentum (where was a shrine of 
Persephone) a whole series of pigs 5 . Some of the golden or 
silver animals mentioned in the lists may have been dedicated 
on the principle here discussed 6 . There were fifty or sixty 
golden ox-heads, modelled with an axe between the horns, found 
in one of the tombs at Mycenae ; perhaps representing sacrifice 
to the dead. The same may be true of the magnificent ox-head 
in gold and silver 7 . It is recorded that a priest spent the price 
of a ram on a votive offering 8 . 

(3) Articles used in the ritual. 

From. the long series of vases found in the tomb at Menidhi, 
it would appear that the vessel used to hold the food or what 
not which was brought to the sacred place was left ^vith it and 
formed part of the offering. This will explain the hosts of rude 
vases, usually all of a shape, found at sacred places. Examples 
are: the Argive Heraeum 9 , the Dictaean cave 10 , Naucratis 11 , at 
Olympia seemingly 12 , and at Eleusis, in which last place the 
visitor may still grub up tiny pots from the loose earth. To 
dedicate these was probably a common custom. 

Lamps appear also to have been offered, and a number 
were found in Athens 13 , Bathos 14 , and the Cretan cave 15 . There 
are some indications, though I cannot call them conclusive, that 
models of the wreaths which were worn, or some other objects, 
were possible dedications. A few of these were found in the 

1 AM xix. 171; above, p. 69. TI/J.TJS TOV xpiov (Asclepius). 

2 Rev. Arch. xxx. 17 ; found with 9 Dr Waldstein. 

animals on them at Olympia. 10 Ann. Br. Sch. Ath. vi. 101. 

3 Collitz iii. 3518 "Kovp-rj IIXaBatvis, u Gardner, Naucratis, ii. 61 ; cp. i. 
IIXctTWj'os yvvrj. 12, etc. 

4 CIA ix. 120. Oxen also at Este : 12 Bronzen von 01. 198 ; Frazer, 
Not. degli Scavi, 1888, pi. vii. ff. Pausanias, iii. 556. 

5 JHS vii. 24. is Ridder, Cat. 425-7. 

6 As the rpayLffKoi at Delos, BCH " J#s x iii. 227 ff. 

xiv. 404. 15 Ann. Br. Sch. Ath. vi. 105. At 

7 Schliemann, Mycenae, 218. Cnidus : Newton, Halic. 494. 

8 CIA ii. 836 33 lepete Avffavias & TTJS 



302 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

hero-shrine at Amyclae 1 ; and in Olympia, fragments of bronze 
wreaths or sprays 1 . It is not likely, but not impossible, that 
models of wreaths might be dedicated, since the figure of a man 
bearing a wreath has been found. The wreath would bear the 
same relation to the figure as the separate animal to a figure 
holding an animal. I can see no other reason for the dedication 
of models of torches made of the precious metals, recorded in 
Boeotia, than that they are memorials of some vigil or ceremony 
where the dedicators had held them 8 . 

(4) The deity. 

We have seen that one of the most common offerings for 
occasions of all sorts was the figure of the deity ; and we may 
assume therefore that a pilgrim would as naturally dedicate 
one when he paid his devoirs at the shrine, as the pious Catholic 
offers a figure of the Virgin and Child. I propose here to 
consider those large series of divine figures, which have come 
to light in many parts of the Greek world, which were offered 
on occasions unknown by generations of worshippers, and which 
in default of direct evidence may be supposed to have been 
given at the recurrent feast or pilgrimage. And first, the facts. 

The earliest figures of this class are rude female idols of 
stone, quite naked, of which examples have been found in Delphi 4 
and on the Acropolis of Athens 8 . The former, being made 
of Parian marble, should have been carried to Delphi by a 
visitor, perhaps when Delphi was the oracle of her whom 
Aeschylus calls Themis, or the Earth 6 . Others of this type 
have been found in the islands, placed in ancient tombs. 
There are also figures of a female deity with wings, found 
at Amyclae and Therapne, which may be referred to another 
ancient goddess, she who is identified by the Greeks with 
Artemis 7 . A series of goddess-figures with animal heads is said 

1 Rev. Arch. xxx. 19 : but the object ya a time. AJA vii. 406. 

has a handle, and is really a hoop 4 AM xvi. 361, Perrot and Chipiez, 

with jags attacht. vi. 738, fig. 325. 

s Bronzen von 01. 1171 ff. 5 AM xvi. 57. 

3 Plataea : a catalogue. All the 6 Aesch. Eum. init. 

dedicators are women ; 33 5afS ; 7 Rev. Arch. xxx. 10, 19. 
offered singly, once three, once five 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 303 

to have been discovered 1 . But these are isolated ; and the 
types we have next to consider show a series long and unbroken, 
reaching back to pre-historic times. 

In the Argive Heraeum 2 thousands of terra-cotta figures are 
found in pockets, probably round altars which go back beyond 
the Mycenaean age. They range from the earliest primitive 
idol, shapeless, without mark of sex, and naked, to the seated 
and standing figures of the so-called Tirynthine type, to the 
class called Mycenaean, these more nearly indicating the human 
head on a rude body, down by regular transition through the 
Dipylon stage to archaic Greek : and there they stop. A few 
bronze figures are also found. The immense preponderance of 
female figures suggests that the goddess is represented by 
most of them ; for men worshipt Hera, and men were not 
forbidden her temple ; moreover, after reading the earlier chap- 
ters of this book, the reader will I think not be inclined to 
admit special deities for males and females in the ancient days 3 . 
It will be noted that the goddess is not characterised by cuckoo, 
peacock, or other distinctive attributes. 

The earthen fragments found on the Acropolis at Athens 
number about five thousand. They include two shapeless idols 
in a standing posture, and some three hundred seated idols of 
the same class, which appear to belong to the Mycenaean age ; 
about a thousand standing and seated female figures of a more 
advanced style, clothed, and not unlike the ' Maiden ' statues, 
but for a headdress which they wear. The standing figures 
are for the most part without attribute ; but some have the 
shield and gorgon's mask 4 , or a plume on the head, and hold a 
fruit or bird to the breast with the right hand ; others have the 
right arm raised as if in battle, although no trace of a spear 
was found. The seated figures sit on a throne wide or narrow 8 , 
wearing stephane or polos, a hand sometimes holding fruit. A 

1 BGH xxiii. 635. The heads may tombs : Hist. vi. 759. 

have been meant for human shape. 4 Acrop. Hits. no. 625; no. 593 holds 

2 For this information I am indebted oil-flask to bosom. 

to Dr Waldstein. See also the Pre- 6 This is evidence for a seated 

liminary Report of Excavations. Athena in this place. But the seated 

3 Perrot points out that the stone goddess has been found in the shrine 
female idols are found in warriors' of the hero Amynus, AM xxi. 293. 



304 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



number of pieces are the head only, in high relief and hollow, 
or upon a flat slab, with holes for hang- 
ing. As these are all female, and not 
distinctly marked as the devotee, they 
should be meant for the goddess her- 
self 1 . In the same place statues of 
Artemis were found, but less numerous. 
She also appears both seated upon a 
throne and standing erect. The seated 
figures hold a fawn with one hand or 
the other; those standing hold a fawn 
in the right hand, a flower or leaf in 
the left 2 . At Eleusis is a whole series 
of seated goddesses of the familiar 
type, not distinguishable from those 
found elsewhere 3 . In a sacred precinct 
at Tegea, much the same features re- 
appear. There are figures both seated 
and standing, fifteen hundred in number, 
all female with perhaps one exception ; 
which makes it likely that the figures 
are meant for the deity, were it Athena, 
Demeter 4 , or who not. This must be 
true of the most part, but some which 
hold pigs in their arms, or carry jars 
of water, or dance, may perhaps be 
human beings who took part in the 
sacrifice. The enthroned figures gene- 
rally hold a bird, or a flower, close to 
the breast ; grapes lie sometimes upon 
the lap 6 . In a sanctuary of Artemis in 
Corcyra were some thousands of draped female figures 6 , mostly 




FIG. 



46. Artemis with 
fawn (Corcyra). 
BCH xv. pi. iii. 



1 A A viii. 140 ff.; AM xix. 491. 
Castriotes explains them as devotees, 
virgins who took part in the Pana- 
thenaic procession, made in Athena's 
type. No proof is given. 

* AA viii. 146. Artemis Brauronia 
was seated in historical times. 



8 In the Museum. 

4 Paus. viii. 53. 7. 

5 AM iv. 170 ff. Offerings were laid 
on the knees of seated deities, II. vi. 273. 

6 In Carapanos Museum, Athens. 
See BCH xv. Iff., pi. i. viii. See 
fig. 46. 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 305 

archaic, which hold a garland or flower, a bird, fruit, or some 
such offering, or nothing at all. The interpretation of these is 
as before doubtful; but there are others which represent the 
goddess herself, in her character of goddess of the wild woodland. 
She holds a deer with one hand to her breast ; or animals 
fawn upon her, which she caresses, hare, deer, boar, panther, or 
lion ; again she holds her bow, and in the other hand a bird, 
deer, or lion, dangling by one leg; sometimes she stands in 
a chariot behind a pair of deer 1 . Most characteristic of this 
shrine are others which show a small human figure in front 
of the goddess, apparently in the act either of dancing past or 
of clasping her knees 2 . Thus the goddess is clearly intended 
by independent figures similarly attired. Figures of a similar 
type, the goddess with her hand on the head of a lion or 
stag, or with a dog or some animal fawning upon her, come 
from a grotto near Syracuse 3 . Characterised figures of Artemis 
come from Locri 4 . Figures of the goddess have also been found 
in the precinct of Athena Cranaea ; and amongst the hundreds 
labelled " nondescript " we may see the goddess herself without 
attribute 8 . So in the shrine of Aphrodite at Naucratis, figures 
were found which are believed to represent the goddess 6 ; for 
one female figure dedicated by a man Polyhermus, cannot be 
meant for the dedicator 7 . Figures of Apollo occur at his shrine 
in Voni (Cyprus), with eagle, fawn, or Victory as attributes, 
and with the " temple boy " or votary 8 . A rough female head, 
from Thessaly, is dedicated to the Earth by a man 9 . 

In the western colonies similar series have been found. 
Thus at a shrine near Catania, we see the matronly type and 
the maiden type, both standing, the latter holding pig, fruit, 
flower, or torch; and seated female figures of wooden modelling 10 . 
At Megara Hyblaea are the upright draped figure, xoanon type, 
the seated Demeter type, having the calathos headgear, and 



1 Compare Paus. vii. 18. 12. fj,' dv8r)K rrji ' 

2 See above, p. 286, fig. 38. 8 Cat. Cypr. Mus. 5048 ff. 

3 Notizie degli Scavi, 1900, 353 ff. 9 Rev. Arch, xxxiv. 329, pi. xii. (3rd 

4 Jahreshefte iv. 48 ff. century) Td Ylavrap^ra Kaw'eus TleiOoti- 

5 BCH xi. 412 with pi. v. veto*. 

6 Naucratis, i. 58. 10 Hon. Ant. vii. 217 ff., pi. iii. ff. 

7 Naucratis, pi. xxi. 794 : Ho\vep/MS 

R. 20 



306 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the maiden standing with hand to breast, and holding a bird 
or other object in it 1 . Masks are also found in some places. 

The female standing type called Maiden is also known in 
two series of large marble statues at Athens and at Delos, and 
in scattered analogues elsewhere*. One holding a dove comes 
from Marseilles 3 ; one from Eleusis 4 , two from the neighbour- 
hood of Apollo Ptoan 8 ; one from Samos is dedicated to Hera 
and differs somewhat from the rest in appearance 6 . A certain 
variety in the costume is to be seen at Athens, but, magnifi- 
cent as it is, the costume is human, no doubt the Athenian 
lady's gala-dress of the sixth century 7 . As a rule they 
carry nothing in the hand, but one holds a strigil and a 
flask 8 . The human air of these figures is most markt, and has 
suggested that they may be meant for priestesses or arrhephori. 
I have already given strong reasons for thinking that some 
must, and all may have been meant for the goddess 9 ; and 
pointed out, that as there is no evidence for the honorific 
dedication of priestesses thus early, so the statue of an official, 
if it was dedicated, must be more than a mere human figure, 
and must in some way represent the function fulfilled. The 
question becomes clearer still when viewed in the light of 
these large series of divine figures. It was clearly needless 
to characterise a deity always in the same way ; whilst various 
deities are drest alike, stand in the same pose, and are in- 
distinguishable from each other and from human beings 10 . A 
seated statuette, which otherwise might be taken for Demeter, 
is inscribed as Hecate 11 . A statue from Samos, inscribed to 

1 Mon. Ant. i. 913 ff. word K6pr) has been taken to imply 

- Gaz. Arch. ii.!33pl. 31; Collignon, humanity, seeing that Demeter's 

Hist. Sc. Gr. i. 120, 340. daughter goes by that name alone. 

3 Gaz. Arch. ii. 133, pi. 31. 10 The reader will no longer dub a 

4 Collignon i. 122, fig. 60. goddess Aphrodite because she holds 

5 Collignon i. 122, 123, figs. 61, 62 : a dove (as Lenormant does, Gaz. Arch. 
perhaps Artemis. ii. 133) ; or he must see Aphrodite in 

6 Collignon i. 163. Athens, Tegea, and Corcyra. 

7 Collignon i. 342. One is inscribed. AZ xl. 267 ; CIA iv. 1. 422 3 Ai-yaw 
IGS i. 2729 ...pwv dvt6fiK( rui 'AirbXuvi dvtdrjice fl^arTji. These are very rarely 
rCii IlTwter ...OTOI tirolffiffe. inscribed; another from Aegina, per- 

8 Collignon i. 353, fig. 178. haps Athena therefore, has ... fc V I A 

9 Page 90. It is strange that the 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 307 

Hera, much resembles the archaic Delian series 1 . When the 
conception of a deity becomes clearer, the attributes emerge; 
and Athena protectress assumes now helmet, now shield, now 
spear, or all together. This brings us to the definite type of 
armed Athena, in act to strike with the spear, which is repre- 
sented by a number of bronzes found on the Acropolis 2 . 

The question of the male figures, found in the shrines of 
male deities, is similar, but it is complicated by the fact that 
such figures may be meant for athletes. There is a series of 
archaic stone figures from the sanctuary of Apollo Ptoan, quite 
naked and without attributes of any kind, some inscribed 8 . 
One found in Samos 4 , and an archaic bronze figure of a similar 
type, probably from Thebes, are both inscribed like these to 
Apollo 6 . 

Single examples of a similar type are known from Orcho- 
menus 6 , Thera 7 and Sparta 8 , in the same attitude but of style 
more advanced from Tenea 9 and Naxos 10 , from Melos, Paros, 
Phigalea, Actium and many other places 11 . It will be noticed 
that all those inscribed are dedicated to Apollo. Now an athlete 
statue must be either honorific, or by the principles we have 
everywhere seen, it must represent somehow the act recorded. 
But honorific statues were known before the fourth century in 
no divine precinct except at Olympia, and perhaps the other 



Z xxv. 123, pi. 228. 3. rpdrov, in sixth century alphabet, may 

A goddess enthroned, doubtless Hera, perhaps belong to one such. 

comes from Samos : AZ xxii. 140, pi. 4 Aetfotos avtO-nicev rut 'Avo\\uvi : 

jg2 2. Gymnasium Museum, Vathy, no. 25. 

1 BCH iv. 483 ff. Xijpafiirtjs /*' art- The name Lychas occurs in Bran- 
OTiKtr rf,w<- aya\/jia. chidae. Apollo in Samos, Paus. ii. 

2 Ridder, Cat. 31 - 9 - 

3 BCH x. 66, 98, 190, 269, pi. iv. 5 AJA N - s - 25 MavriKXos p avt- 
ix.; xi. 275, 354, pi. ix. x.; x. 196; eeiKe FeKafioXwi apyvporofat ras deKaras' 
IGS i. 2732 Kldos avMeiKe TW Hrwiett ; Tl) S * *te SlSoi x.a.plhrrav a>oiFav. 
BCH x. 18... ov <W0i7/ce r<Si 'Air6\\wi TUL * Collignon i. 114. 

Urwet (boustrophedon) ; IGI EiJ . en-fas 7 Gardner, Gr. Sc. 123. 

drt0r) Ke - rw Uruieios ; 270 (corrects xi. 8 Collignon i. 132. 

287) Hi/Was wK-pai0tei)s ical Alaxpluv 9 Collignon i. 202. 

wfOfrav with a fragm. of dpyvporofai ; 10 CoUignon i. 253. 

IGS i. 2729, 2730. Collignon i. 196 ff. "Gardner, Hist, of Gr. Sculpt., 

An inscription found in the same Index, s.v. Apollo. 

precinct, "Iirwapxos drtOrjinfv 6 Ilcwrwr- 

202 



308 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

centres of the great games ; therefore they can hardly be 
seriously considered for the Ptoan precinct. As the statues 
are naked, most of the contests are excluded also. A runner 
ran naked, and so fur the statue might be an athlete ; but as 
we saw in the hoplite-runner of Tubingen, he could assume a 
characteristic attitude. If therefore these were athletes, duly 
dedicated to Apollo, they should show it in their attitude. 
It must be admitted, however, that the statues might possibly 
be meant to represent the ^V^VLKO^ dy<av l ; so that this 
argument by itself is not conclusive. Further: athletic dedi- 
cations always record the occasion ; these use mostly a bare 
formula, but the only one which says anything of the occasion 
calls the statue a tithe. It follows that one of the Ptoan statues 
was not an athlete, that none of them need have been an 
athlete, and that such evidence as is to be had goes to show 
that they were not. We may therefore assume that they were 
meant for Apollo; and his naked figure stands in the same 
relation to that armed with the bow, as the Athenian Maiden 
to the Promachos. How far the same explanation is true of 
the so-called Apollos depends on the place they stood in ; and 
as this is generally unknown, I leave them alone. But the 
Samian and Theban figures go with the Ptoan 2 . Figures of 
Apollo have been found at Delphi 3 and Amyclae* ; and we are 
told that an Apollo was the oldest of all the dedications at the 
Delphic shrine 6 . 

The question of Zeus is easier. Most of his figures (there 
are not many) found at Olympia and Dodona are characterised 
by holding the thunderbolt, or seem to have held it 6 . Two have 
the bolt and what is called an eagle 7 . So also at Dodona 8 . 
But the bearded male figure in a mantle, which once held 

1 This was suggested by Prof. E. A. girdle. 

Gardner. 3 BCH xxi. pi. xi. 

8 The male figures on the Acropolis 4 'E<f>. 'Apx- 1892, pi. 2. 

of Athens (Cat. 734, 736, 737, 740) all B Paus. x. 16. 8. 

appear to have held something in the 6 Bronzen von 01. vii. 43, 46. 

hand. These were certainly not 7 Bronzen von 01. vii. 45, viii. 44 ; 

Apollos; but no doubt athletes. A see fig. 47. 

figure called Apollo at Delphi, BCH * Carapanos xii. 4 (2nd cent, archa- 

xxi. pi. x., xi., is naked but for a metal istic). 



MEMORIALS OF FEASTS AND CEREMONIALS. 



309 



something (now gone) in his left hand 1 , may be Zeus as truly 
as the Maiden type may represent Athena. I do not know 




FIG. 47. Zeus with thunderbolt, from 
Olympia. 

Bronzen viii. 44. 




FIG. 48. Figure from 
Olympia (Zeus?). 

Bronzen vii. 40. 



how to interpret the seated male figure with long braided 
hair and conical hat, also found at Dodona 2 . 



1 Bronzen von 01. vii. 40; see fig. 48. 



2 Carapanos x. 2. 



IX. 

PROPITIATION. 



oi AAKeAAiMONioi eKeAeyoN royc ' 

HC 6eoy- 



THUG. i. 126. 

ALTHOUGH the greatest part of recorded offerings were 
promised or given, from thankfulness for favours bestowed or 
intelligently anticipated, there were others due to fear. It is 
possible, as I have already suggested, that fear may have entered 
into the offering of firstfruits ; but the feeling is clearer where 
a votary has to propitiate some offended deity. The feeling is 
illustrated by the words of Telemachus to Odysseus, whom he 
takes for a strange god of unknown tastes : " Be gracious, that 
we may give thee sacrifices to please thee, aye and gifts of 
wrought gold 1 ." Sin-offering and thank-offering are mentioned 
as natural complements in, a story of Orestes*. Such offerings, 
it is true, lack the freewill which is the essence of the rest, but 
it would be amiss to pass them by without notice. 

The most of this class were dedicated to atone for a definite 
breach of rule or of duty. So, in Homeric days, Artemis must 
be appeased by the sacrifice of Iphigenia, and sacrifice has to 
be rendered for the violation of the priest 3 ; Aegisthus 
propitiates heaven with gifts of garments and gold*; and 

1 Od. xvi. 184 dXV f\ij0' ha TOI *ex- 3 Cp. Iliad, i. 22, 428, 441. 
pi.fffj.tva. o<l)0fj.v Ipd 7)5t xj>v<rea owpa * Od. iii. 274 rroXXA 5' dyaXfjiar' 1 drrj- 
Tervyft^va. \J/(v, v<f>dff/j.ard re 

2 Paus. viii. 34. 3. 



PROPITIATION. 311 

it is likely that sacrifice was often done on similar occasions. 
The crew of Odysseus, about to steal the oxen of the sun, vow 
to build a temple to the sun, and fill it with fine offerings 1 . So 
Croesus, who had offended the oracles of Greece by doubting 
their power, which he put to the test by asking them a 
ridiculous riddle, tried to appease 2 the two which were found 
true, by offering magnificent gifts. At Delphi, after first sacri- 
ficing, he presented the shrine with a large number of golden 
ingots of two standard sizes, which were piled in a heap to be 
the base of a great golden lion ; a gold and a silver crater, four 
pitchers of silver, a gold and a silver holy-water basin, and other 
objects 3 . To Amphiaraus he sent a gold shield and a golden 
spear*. Xerxes too, after flogging the Hellespont, propitiated 
the powers of the sea by sacrifices done on the bridge, and 
by casting into the waters the golden bowl which he had used 
in libation, with a golden crater, and a Persian sword 5 . When 
the Lacedaemonians had so treacherously murdered the Plataean 
prisoners, and razed their city to the ground, they built a new 
temple for Hera and used the bronze and iron they found within 
the place to make fittings for it 6 . 

At Olympia, he who broke the rules of the games had to pay 
a fine, which was used to purchase a bronze statue of Zeus ; these 

1 Od. xii. 343 d\X' ayer', 'HeXioto Kal fj.vpffivriffi ffropvvvres TTJV 65ov. wj 
pouv ^Xdffavres dpiffras pe^ofifv dOavd- d' e"irav{reX\e 6 rJXios, <rirfi>5uv e XP V ~ 
rotffi, rot ovpav&v evpvv tjfawTOf. el 8 ffr)s tpidXrjs Sifp^rjs es ri]v BdXaffffav, 
Kev els 'I6dKriv d<pLKolfj.eda irarpiSa yaiav, evxero ?rp6s -rbv yXtov ...ev!;dfj.voi 8t 
atyd Kfv 'HeXicjj 'Tirepiovi iriova vybv e<re/3ctXe rrjv (pidXtjv es rdc'EXXijtnroi'Toi', 
Tetil;on.ev, ev 86 Ke 6eijj,ev dydX/j.ara iroXXd Kal xp^ fffov Kprirrjpa Kal HfpffiKbv i<f>os 
Kal fcr6\d. ei d x o ^- u<r i l JLfvo ^> e ^c. r ^ v eucii'dx^f xaXtovffi. ravra OVK ?x<a 

2 So I interpret iXdcrKero; cp. IXav- drpeictus diaKplvai, afire ei T< i)Xitfj dva- 
ftoi for bloodguilt, Plut. Solon 12. riOels Karijice es TO ireXayos, which is 

3 Herod, i. 50, 51. These were not far from likely, ovre ei peT/j.tXrj(T ol 
dedicated all at the same time; see rbv'^XX-fiffirovTov naffTiyiixravri, xai dvrl 
above, p. 255. It should be mentioned Tovrewv rrjv OdXaa-crav edwpefro. Offer- 
that he also burnt a number of articles, ings of gold, silver, and fine raiment 
furniture and fabrics included, e\irl- were thrown into a river at Aphaca in 
$tav TQV 6ebv /juiXXov TI Tovrouri dvaKT~q- Syria : Zosimus, i. 58. 

ffevBaL. 6 Thuc. iii. 68 Kal rots dXXou (expij- 

4 Herod, i. 52. ffavro) a rp> ev rif re/x et T"rXa, ^aX/cos 

5 Herod, vii. 54: at sunrise, Ovfju-fifiard Kal <ri8r)po$, KXivas KaraffKevdeavTes dvt- 
re iroXXa. eirl rdv yetyvpeuv Karayifovres, Oecrav r-g "H^^. 



312 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Zanes, as they were called, stood in a row near the Treasuries. 
The first offence recorded is that of Eupolus of Thessaly 1 
(98th Ol.) who bribed his competitors in the boxing. The whole 
six of them were fined, and appropriate inscriptions were 
placed upon the statues, as thus: "the victory is won by strength 
and swiftness, not by money": " the statue stands for honour to 
God, for the piety of the Eleans, and fora terror to evildoers." In 
Ol. 110 Callippus of Athens bribed his rivals in the pentathlon 1 . 
The Athenians took the matter up, and sent the orator 
Hyperides to plead for him ; but he lost the case. Still, the 
Athenians refused to pay, and consequently all of that city were 
excluded from the games until by oracle from Delphi they 
were persuaded to pay the fine. A curious case was that of the 
Alexandrian boxer, Apollonius 3 . He arrived late, and pleaded 
baffling winds ; but the fact was he had been prize-hunting all 
over the Aegean, and this made him to be late. When the 
judges refused to admit him to compete, and the victor had the 
wreath awarded to him without a contest, in fury Apollonius 
rusht at him ; and for this contempt of court he was fined. In 
Ol. 192 even an Elean dared to cheat. The competitors, 
Polyctor and Sosandrus, were on this occasion held guiltless, 
or at least one of them*. The two fathers were punisht in the 
usual way. In 01. 201 Serapion of Alexandria, who had entered 
for the pancratium, played the coward and departed before 
the event, and for his cowardice was fined 8 . Fines were 
customary at Olympia for other breaches of sacrificial rules 6 . 

When the Athenians fell into arrears with their sacred 
mission to Dodona, they were enjoined to sacrifice, and to offer 
a bronze table with some other object not specified 7 . 

There is an indication that the practice was wider than we 
know, in a late inscription from Coloe. On a slab of marble, 
beneath a relief of a mounted hero or god holding a double 
axe, is a legend which informs us that this was dedicated by 
Antonia to Apollo, as atonement for having attended a cere- 

1 Paus. v. 21. 2. 5 Paus. v. 21. 18. 

2 Paus. v. 21. 6. Collitz i. 1158. 

3 Paua. v. 21. 12. 7 Quoted by Dem. Meid. 15, p. 

4 Paus. v. 21. 16. 630. 



PROPITIATION. 313 

monial dance in a dirty dress 1 . The base of a "thank-offering 
and atonement" was found at Cnidus*. The Epidaurian pig 
demanded as a punishment for scepticism, will be remembered 8 . 
Two entries in the catalogue of the Asclepieum suggest fines 4 . 

In some sanctuaries, where the worshipper's dress was 
prescribed, jewels and ornaments were not to be worn ; any so 
brought in were forfeit, and consecrated in the shrine and to 
the deity 5 . This was the law in the temple of Despoina at 
Lycosura, for garments purple or black, or of any bright colour, 
sandals, rings, and gold ornaments 6 . A similar rule held in 
Andania 7 , lalysus 8 , and perhaps elsewhere. We find "false 
staters," apparently confiscated from Lacon, in the temple of 
Brauronian Artemis at Athens 9 . So also at Delos 10 . Dionysius 
of Syracuse made all the women dedicate their ornaments, 
which he then seized; if anyone thereafter wished to wear 
gold, she had to dedicate a votive offering of some sort 11 . 

For the crime of bloodguilt, expiation was sometimes made 
in the same way, as Plutarch implies 12 . The Metroum at 
Athens was founded to propitiate the soul of a murdered 
man 13 . In the story of Coroebus and his slaying of Poene, 
the oracle of Apollo commanded him to expiate the guilt 
by founding a temple 14 . A statue of Cylon on the Acropolis 15 
may perhaps have been dedicated because of the murder 
of the conspirators in violation of the sanctuary of the 



1 Cat. Berl. Sc. 680 'A.vruvLa 'Av- 9 CIA ii. 652 B 

Tuviov 'ATroXXow 0e Bof^pw did rb tv Kif3ci>T(u>i o-ta~t\\i,a.a-/j.^voi ol Trapd 

dvafte^riK^ve /j.e tirl TOV -)(opbv ev pvirapu AdKwvos; CIA ii. 654 B apyvpiov K- 

tirevSim), Ko\acr6icra d d^<afJ.o\oyr)ffdfj.Tjv ftdyXov rb 'E\evffiv66fv. 

K dvtBrjKa evXoyiav on iyevo^-qv 6X6- 10 BCH vi. 

/c\7?pos. n Arist. Oec. ii. 1349 a 24 MXevtre 

2 Newton, Branchidae, i. 380. rty ftov\o^v-rjv xP Vffo< t >0 P f ' v fdypu n 

3 Page 226, above. ivanQtvau. et's rb iepbv. 

4 CIAii.835 ls aXvffiov TO flffTrpaxOtv, 12 Plut. Solon 12 ZXa<7ju,ots run Kal 
64 Kv/J-filov TO elairpa.'xfl^v. Ko.da.piJ.ols /cat ISpfoefft. 

5 Cp. aly\oi Kal dcmol e^dyiffTOi, in a 13 Suidas s.v. (jnjTpayvpTrjs, f}dpa.6pov; 
catalogue of Eleusis, CIA iv. 2. 7676. Photius s.v. MriTpfov; Schol. Arist. 

6 dvaet iv Tb iep6v, 'E0. 'A/>x- 1898, Plut. 431 ; Frazer, Pausanias, ii. 67. 
249. " Paus. i. 43. 8. 

7 Collitz iii. 4689 22' 26 - 39 - 88 . Paus. i. 28. 1. 

8 IGI i. 677. 



314 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

goddess 1 . The same principle is seen in two statues of Pau- 
sanias, dedicated in the Brazen House at Sparta, from which 
he had been dragged forth and slain 2 . Perhaps we may con- 
jecture that one was intended to lay the ghost of Pausanias*. 
and the other to lay the ghost of the hapless Cleonice, who was 
killed by Pausanias in mistake. We are told that Pausanias 
had tried in vain to set her spirit at rest, what with wizards 
and what with sacrifices to Zeus, as god of Flight 4 . These dedi- 
cations were enjoined by the Delphic oracle. When a certain 
Timagoras, a foreigner, was bidden by his Athenian lover to 
cast himself down from the Acropolis, he did so ; whereupon 
the lover did the same. For this the foreigners of Athens 
dedicated an altar to Anteros, or as Suidas says, a statue of the 
Athenian 5 . A temple of Artemis at Tegea was built to expiate 
the slaying of the tyrant Aristomelidas by one Chronius, who 
did it in obedience to a vision of Artemis 6 . The Argives, after 
an internecine feud, expiated the bloodshed by setting up a 
statue of Gracious Zeus 7 . We might be tempted to place here 
the reliefs dedicated to Zeus under this title, but that he was 
worshipt as Gracious by the farmers 8 . Propitiatory offerings 
were certainly made to him under this title 9 . 

Treaties and laws were sanctioned with fines for the break- 
ing of them 10 : although these are assessed in money, the sums 
were, sometimes at least, expended in a votive offering, so that 
they cannot be excluded. Periander decreed that anyone who 
helped his banished son should pay a fine to Apollo". In the 
ancient Elean treaties, the violator was to pay a sum of money to 
Zeus Olympius 12 . Similar rules appear in Athenian documents 1 *, 

1 Herod, v. 71: Schafer, A. Z. xxiv. 6 The tyrant himself was blood- 
183. It may have been dedicated by guilty. Paus. viii. 47. 6. 

himself for his Olympic victory in 640. 7 Paus. ii. 20. 2. 

2 Paus. iii. 17. 7, 9 ; Thuc. i. 134. 8 Above, p. 83. 

3 Plut. dt ser. num. vind. 17. 9 Paus. ii. 20. 1. 

4 Paus. i. 28. 1. 10 So in Assyria: a common penalty 
6 Paus. i. 30. 1, Suid. g.v. MAijroj. for breach of contract was to dedicate 

Suidas says Meletus offered Timagoras a bow to Ninip. Kidgeway, Early Age 

some cocks, and when they were scorned, of Greece, i. 616. 

threw himself down. The statue, we ll Herod, iii. 52. 

are told, represented a youth holding 12 IGA 112, 115. 

two cocks. 13 CIA i. 41, ii. 11. 



PROPITIATION. 315 

and in the treaty between Orchomenus and the Achaean 
League 1 . The Amphictyonic Council imposed fines, not only 
on states (as in the case of Phocis") but on single persons for 
breach of oath 3 . Other ordinances of Delphi, such as a vote of 
privilege to a distinguisht man, were guarded by fines in case 
of violation*. For any offence against a certain decree of Acrae- 
phia, two thousand staters were to be paid as sacred to Apollo 8 . 
Emancipations were sometimes similarly guarded. At Messene, 
he who infringed the liberty of an enfranchised slave paid ten 
minae to Limnatis 6 ; at Delphi, a silver talent to Apollo 7 ; at 
Elatea, ten minae to Asclepius 8 . So in Coronea 9 , Daulis 10 , 
Hyampolis 11 , Stiris 12 . 

At Athens, officials who broke their oath or neglected their 
duty were compelled to make an expiatory offering. Under 
the Solonian constitution the nine archons swore in such case to 
dedicate a golden statue, which from the words used appears to 
have been meant for a portrait 13 . Suidas 14 appears to imply that 
three were to be offered, in Delphi, Olympia, and Athens, one 
each ; and Plato 15 and Plutarch 16 add, that it was to be of equal 
weight with the offender. The archon who failed in his duty 
to orphan heiresses, by not compelling the next of kin to wed 
or to dower them, paid a thousand drachmae to Hera 17 . 
Archons who failed to punish tradesmen for using false 
measures, were fined a thousand drachmae sacred to Demeter 
and the Maid 18 ; and those who violated a law concerned with 
trierarchy paid a like sum to Athena 19 , as also did prytanes or 

1 Collitz ii. 1634. n IGS Hi. 1. 86. 

2 IGS iii. 1. 110, 111. 12 IGS iii. 1. 34. 

3 CIG 1688 19 , etc. 13 Arist. Const. Ath. 7 ol 5' twta 

4 Vote of thanks to an architect: Apxavres 0/xviWes irpbs T$ Xifftf /care- 
Collitz ii. 2522. <pa.Tiov dvaOrifftiv dvdpidvra xpvvovv i&v 

5 AM xvi. 349 86ca /JLVO.S dpyvpiov TWO. irapa^ucn TWV vbntav. Sdev frt Kal 
icxpds rat At/apart. vvv oOrws o^viiouffiv. So ch. 55. 5. See 

6 Collitz ii. 1532 ft. next two notes. 

7 Collitz ii. 1548. 14 Said. s.v. \pvffT) eiK&v. 

8 IGS i. 2872. 15 Plat. PJiaedr. 235 D xp 

9 Collitz ii. 1523 10 ; IGS iii. 1. 66. Iffo^rp^rov. 

10 BCHxiv. 21, line 21 : dvoreiffdrw 6 18 Plut. Solon 25. 

dSiKuv 5rx'Mous <TTa.TT)pas KCLI 8 CLV Kara- 17 Law ap. Dem. Macart. 1064. 

P\d\f/rii, rot 5 KaradiKcurOfrTa. x/M^aTa J 8 CIA ii. 476. 

iepk Iffru TOV 'ATToXXfcwos ToO Urwtov. 19 CIA ii. 809 b 5 (about 330). 



316 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

presidents who failed in their duty 1 . The magistrate who had 
not past his audit was forbidden to make any votive offering at 
all"; possibly to prevent a sham dedication after the principle 
of corban. If a member violated a rule of the phratry he 
paid a hundred drachmae to Zeus Guardian of the Phratry 3 ; a 
similar penalty fell on the offending priest of a body of thia- 
sotes*. A breach of law at Eleusis involved a fine to Dionysus*. 
At Chalcedon, any proposal contravening a sacrificial law, made 
in the assemblies, was atoned for by a fine to Asclepius 9 . 
A similar provision was made at Lampsacus 7 ; and a Carian 
law was sanctioned under a thousand drachmae paid to Zeus 8 . 
A tomb in Asia Minor is guarded against violation under fine 
to Hephaestus 9 ; a very common thing in the later times. Even 
in a decree for army transport during the Peloponnesian war, 
the provision is made that a neglect of contract should involve 
a fine to Athena 10 . 

The tithe of certain fines was due to the gods. This was 
done when a man was mulcted for damaging the sacred olives 
at Athens", in Rhodes for violating a certain decree 12 . A portion 
of confiscated goods was also consecrated. After the fall of 
Polycrates, his secretary dedicated in the Heraeum the splendid 
furniture and ornaments of his hall 13 . At Athens, it was 
the tithe of the confiscations which the goddess claimed 14 . 
Anyone who spoke or acted against the constitution of Brea, 
a colony founded about 444, must forfeit his goods, of which 
one tenth went to Athena 18 . In the treaty between Athens 

1 Law ap. Demosth. Timocr. 707. 8 AM xv. 269. 

2 Aesch. Ctes. 21, 373. The law rbv 9 GIG Add. 4325i. 
itirttidvvov OVK Of. rrjv ovffiav Kaffiepovv, 10 CIA iv. 1. 35 C. 

ovd' di>d6T)fjM dvadflvai. u Law ap. Dem. Macart. 1074. 

3 CIA. ii. 8416 ( a b ou t 350) iiiv ia IGI i. 977 M . 

Si \fsri<piffatJ.v<i)i> TUV Biaffdrrwv elvai 13 Herod, iii. 123 rbv Kbffnov rbv K 

a&Tots (pparipa oi dXXot (ppartpes diro\fsi)- rov dvSpeCivo^...il)vra dio0triTov dv^O-qice 

<f>lff(j}vra.(. 6<pfi\6vT<av fKarbv 5/>axM&s lepds ir6.vra. it rb '~B.pa.1ov. 

TWI Atl rw 3?parplwi. So 841 b p. 535 14 Law ap. Andoc. Myst. 96 ; Xen. 

(396/5), and CIA iv. 1, p. 206. Hell. i. 7. 10 rd di yj^fMra aiirov 817- 

4 CIA ii. 614. fuvOrjvai Ko.1 Trjs 0fou rb 

6 CIA iv. 2. 5746. efccu; Plut. X. Or. 834. 
Collitz iii. 3052. 1B CIA i. 31, cp. 32 21 . 

7 CIG Add. 3641633. 



PROPITIATION. 317 

and Chalcis, all men of age had to swear good faith on pain 
that his goods be confiscate, and a tithe of them given to Zeus 
Olympius 1 . The same provision was made for a tithe to Athena 
in the treaty made between Athens and a number of states in 
378 2 . 

The fines and votive offerings touch in the Zanes ; and they 
touch also in the case of Themistocles, who, when overseer of 
the water supply, used the fines of those who had diverted 
the water to purchase and dedicate a bronze ' maiden,' that is 
on our supposition a statue of Athena, which the Persians 
afterwards carried away amongst their booty to Sardis 3 . 

1 CIA iv. Suppl. I. 27 a (about 445). 

2 CIA ii. 17 57 (378 B.C.) tiriSti<a.Toi>, cp. ii. 65. 

3 Plut. Themist. 31. 



X. 

RARITIES AND VALUABLES. 

cy WN NYN AAOI rreieoMerwoc, nofncoN rrpoc TAC eyryxfAC 

C TO AN eypHC t6n TGI TTAei'cToy A^ION, KA) en' t$ cy 
ATToAoMeiMCjj MAAICTA THN YYXHN AAfHceic, TOYTO AirdBAAe oyrco, 
OKCOC MHKeri H5ei ec ANSpconoyc. 

AMASIS TO POLYCRATES: HEROD, iii. 40. 

How David poured out before the Lord the water which 
his chiefs brought him from the well of Bethlehem, is a story 
familiar to all. The same spirit which moved David is seen 
amongst the Greeks also: it is in fact what prompted the 
dedication of the dicpoOLviov. Anything rare or strange would 
naturally be a fit offering for a god ; and the legends of heroic 
ages gradually became attached to these offerings. Thus the 
pious Greek could behold at Delphi the very stone which 
Cronus swallowed in place of Zeus, still ceremonially anointed 
with oil and held in honour 1 . At Chaeronea he could see that 
sceptre, made for Zeus by Hephaestus, which had past through 
the hands of Hermes, Pelops, Atreus, Thyestes, and Agamemnon, 
and was found buried on the confines of Phocis ; to which the 
Phocians ever after paid supreme honour, doing sacrifice before 
it, and setting out a sacred table laden with all manner of 
meats'. At Olympia were the bones of Geryones, dedicated by 
Heracles 3 . The shrine of Asclepius in Megalopolis contained 
enormous bones, greater than human, which had once been those 

1 Pans. x. 24. 6. gold, and therefore may have been laid 

2 Pans. ix. 40. 11 6euv /tdXiora at- in some prehistoric tomb-chamber. 
{iov<m> -. it was kept by a priest elected See Iliad ii. 101 107. 

yearly in his own house. It was 3 Philostr. Her. 289 (672). 
said to have been found along with 



RARITIES AND VALUABLES. 319 

giants who helped Rhea in her revolt 1 . So in later days, the 
fisherman dedicated to the sea-gods a huge rib which his net 
had caught 2 . The flutes of Marsyas were preserved at Corinth, 
in the shrine of Persuasion, where they had been dedicated by 
the shepherd who found them 3 . The Golden Fleece found a 
last resting place in one temple 4 , and in another were the wings 
of Daedalus 5 . Of the Calydonian boar, both skin and tusks were 
preserved in the temple of Athena Alea at Tegea; the tusks 
were three feet round, and no doubt belonged originally to some 
mammoth 6 . So mammoth ribs found in Warwickshire have been 
popularly assigned to the terrible Dun Cow slain by Guy of 
Warwick. Meleager was so considerate as to leave the spear 
he slew the boar with at Corinth, where it was dedicated rather 
inappropriately in the shrine of Persuasion 7 . Even the fatal 
necklet of Eriphyle was dedicated at Delphi by the sons of 
Phegeus 8 ; and an imitation of it is mentioned in the temple 
catalogues of Delos 9 . It consisted of " light-coloured stones," 
amber perhaps, strung upon gold. In Gabala, Pausanias saw 
the robe which was wrapt round the infant Alcmaeon, when 
he was delivered to Eriphyle 10 . The gold-hafted knife of 
Oenomaus was in the Treasury at Olympia 11 ; there also the 
sword of Pelops, with a golden hilt, was preserved 1 ", and his 
chariot stood on the roof of the Anactorium at Celeae 13 . At 
Olympia, under a roof set up to protect it, stood a wooden 
pillar which once supported the roof of Oenomaus' house, thus 
inscribed : 

teal yap ey&> K\eivdSv et'/u,' w j~eve \eltyavov OIKWV, 

CTT{)XO<? ev Olvofj,dov irpLv iror eov&a SO/JLOK' 
vvv Se Trapa KpoviSrjv Keipai raS' e%ovcra TO. 
ot>8' 0X0?) Satcraro <Xo //, 



1 Paus. viii. 32. 5. fered by Alcmaeon to cure madness 

2 Anth. Pal. vi. 222, 223. (vi. 232s). 

3 Pans. ii. 7. 9. 9 BCH xiv. 406. 

4 Schol. Ap. Rhod. iii. 584. 10 Paus. ii. 1. 8. 

5 Justin, Paraenet. 34. u Paus. vi. 19. 6. 

6 Paus. viii. 24. 10, 46. 1, 47. 2. 12 Paus. ii. 14. 4. 

7 Paus. ii. 7. 9. 13 Paus. v. 19. 6. 

8 Paus. ix. 41. 2 Ai0ot x^po/. " Paus. v. 20. 7. 
Athenaeus says the necklace was of- 



320 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

These words suggest that the ancient column, saved thus 
miraculously from the burning, was consecrated as a thing 
holy and in a way under the protection of the god. From the 
Homeric age we have a stone on which Manto, daughter of 
Teiresias, used to sit, which was preserved at Thebes 1 . At 
Nicomedeia was the knife of Memuon 2 . The spear of Achilles 
found its way to Phaselis 3 , and an epigram speaks of the dirk 
of Helicaon 4 . The lance of Caeneus was also to be seen 5 ; arid 
in the temple of the Mothers at Engyion in Sicily were spears 
and helmets, used by Meriones and others, and then dedicated 
by Odysseus 6 . Helen's golden stool was to have been given to 
the wisest man in the world; but as all the wise men of 
Greece were too modest to take it, a final home for it was 
found in Delphi or the temple of Apollo Ismenius at Thebes 7 . 
Hippodameia's couch was to be seen in the Heraeum at 
Olympia 8 , Nestor's cup was dedicated to Artemis in Capua 9 , 
and the cup of Odysseus somehow found its way to south 
Italy 10 ; while the Argonauts left a number of cups in a shrine 
at Samothrace". Still more notable, the very goblet which 
Zeus gave to Alcmene, when he assumed the shape of 
Amphitryon, was preserved, and doubtless this too was dedi- 
cated in a temple 12 . A folding chair made by Daedalus was 
preserved in the temple of Polias at Athens 13 . Cypselus, who 
sacrificed some magnificent oxen to Zeus at Olympia, seems to 
have dedicated their horns 14 . 

Arimnestus, king of Etruria, dedicated his throne at 
Olympia 15 . A huge ornamental crater of bronze, sent as a gift by 
the Lacedaemonians to Croesus on their alliance, came somehow 



1 Paus. x. 10. 3. ypafj.fMLTiKbv avaKtifjuvov tv Kairvrj 

2 Paus. iii. 3. 8. ~K.a/j.irai>[a.s, inscribed ws rb 

3 Paus. iii. 2. 8. ov, cp. 489 B. 

4 Anth. App. 213. 10 Strabo v. 232. 

5 Schol. Apoll. Rhod. i. 59. n Diod. iv. 49. 

8 Plut. Marcellus 20. Others at 12 Athen. xi. 475. 

Troy, Arrian V.H. i. 11. 13 Paus. i. 27. 1. 

7 Plut. Solon iv. Schol. Arist. 14 IGA 27 d /3owv Kv^Xov, as ex- 
Plutus 9. plained by Rohl. 

8 Paus. v. 20. 1. ls Paus. v. 12. 5. 

9 Ath. xi. 466 E 



RARITIES AND VALUABLES. 321 

to Samos, where it was dedicated in the Heraeum by the 
Samians 1 . At Delphi was Pindar's seat 2 . Phryne appears to 
have dedicated at Thespiae the famous Love which Praxiteles 
made for her, on the same principle 3 . A curious piece of 
quartz or some such stone, mounted upon a wooden base, was 
dedicated at Athens to Athena*; a curiously shaped shell was 
found at Delphi 5 . Some lead ore was preserved at Delos*. In 
the temple of Heracles at Erythrae were to be seen the horns 
of a certain Indian ant, which were there set up for a wonder 
to posterity 7 . 

A few objects of this class have survived. In Corcyra was 
found an unhewn stone of conical shape, a kind of baetylus 
perhaps, bearing a very ancient inscription with the dedicator's 
name 8 . This, as Six suggests, may have been meant for Apollo 
Agyieus, who is described as a conical pillar 9 . Two other 
conical stones in Corcyra are inscribed with a river-name in 
the nominative 10 . A similar stone found in Gaul was dedicated 
to Aphrodite 1J . 

It is perhaps this principle which suggests the preservation 
of laws and official documents in temples, where they were 
always set up 12 ; and it was also the custom to erect there the 
tablets which bore official decrees and lists, as well as votes of 
honour and gifts of citizenship 13 . 

1 Herod, i. 70. 9 Harpocration.v.'A7wei;j- Kluv ek 

2 Paus. x. 24. 4. <5i> \riywv, Hesych. 'Ayviefa, Pans. viii. 

3 Strabo ix. 410, Anth. Pal. vi. 260, 32. 4. 

Athen. xiii. 591 B T) S eXo^vr, rbv 10 IGA 347 ; see p. 325. 

"Epura ai>t0rjKei>, etc. n IGA 551. 

4 CIA ii. 676 9 XP V <" T '* M0s <W 12 E.g. a law at Olympia Iap6s IGA 
Kiovos %v\ivov. 112. ypa/j.jjLa.Ttiov Delos. 

6 BCH xx. 604. 13 Athens, CIA ; Carpathos IGI i. 

6 BCH vi. 47. 1033 ; Cos, Collitz iii. 3619 ; Rhodes, 

7 Pliny, NH xi. 31. IGI i. 761 50 ; Olympia, Collitz iii. 

8 AM xix. 340, Indogerm. Forsch. 1173 32 ; Sparta, Collitz iii. 4516; 
1893, 87: MOj ^ taa-ro. Thessaly, Collitz i. 345 w , 1332 32 . 



B. 21 



XL 

FORMULAE. 



AN inscription was no necessary part of a votive offering. 
The mere fact of its being laid in the shrine with intent to 
dedicate, could suffice 1 ; and the large majority of things which 
have been found in sacred places, such as statuettes, articles 
of use, spoil of war, toys, and toilet utensils, are wholly without 
inscription. So, too, were the greater part of the articles 
named in the Inventories. But it was natural that the 
dedicator should wish the memory of his gift to be kept, and 
this we shall see later to have been a prevailing motive in 
the dedication ; so when letters began to be commonly used, 
an inscription was naturally made. As it is the mark of early 
inscriptions to be sparing of words, and as the god to whom 
the offering was made would be clear from the place, (1) we may 
expect that the earliest dedicators contented themselves with 
recording their own names. But (2) a large number of ancient 
objects bear the god's name without a dedicator's. Many 
of these may have been not dedications at all, but like 
Ptolemocratia's "sacred pail of Venus," which sang its own 
song, and told by letters whose it was 2 , they may have been 
bought out of temple funds for every-day use. This, however, 
is not true of others, such for example as the bulls of the 



1 This fact has been taken to prove may be iep6s, without being an 

the votive character of the Olympian pa; for example, the tiles of his roof. 

athlete statues (above, p. 167). But 2 Plautus, Rudena 478. So irorripioy 

a thing may belong to the god, that is, ypafj.fj.aTiK6f, p. 320 9 . 



FORMULAE. 323 

Cabiri, which were dedicated without doubt by pious wor- 
shippers; hence we are justified in recording such in this 
place. (3) A third class will show both devotee and deity, 
(a) either the names only, or (6) along with a verb ; and to 
these will be added (4) others which offer a reason for the act, 
or (5) a prayer, or (6) both together. The more ambitious 
dedications are written in verse. Such is the main classification 
of the formulae, which in later times appear in many and 
striking variations. 

The verb avari&rjiu, in passive sense avaicelp,ai, and its 
derivative dvd0r)/j.a, are universal for the votive offering. The 
noun appears locally in the form dvd0fj,a l , avBefJM* or dprrj^ia 3 , 
while eirdvderos*, in Argos 7rdv0efj,a s , in Athens eVereto? 6 , is 
applied to the dedications of the current year.' For human 
gifts, the proper words are 8&pov and StSovat or eViStSoz>at 7 ; 
but Swpov is found early in conjunction with votive formulae, 
and late by itself 8 . For tombs, the formula is riOrj/ju, or eVt- 
TiOrjfjbi*, sometimes e</icm;/u 10 . Later the votive avariBifiu 
loses its force, and is applied to games and months and the 
like 11 ; while by its side we meet with ridtj^i the simple 
verb 12 , which occurs once in an archaic dedication from Argos 13 , 
t 14 , ia-rijfj.1 and compounds 15 , even ev^apia-rco 16 , and 



1 IGS i. 303 40 (Oropus); IGSI 608 p. 44 Supov. Aegina IPI i. 12. Cp. 
(Sardinia, late) ; BCH vi. 30 (Delos), dwpov in Homer, Od. xvi. 185, and 
Collitz iii. 4689 91 (Andania), etc. Hesiod in Plato Rep. iii. 390 E. 

2 Collitz iii. 3339 59 (Epidaurus) ; 161 9 IGA 495 : tirl with name alone and 
i. 783. no verb; IGA 131, etc. 

3 Hon. Ant. iii. 402 (Crete). i IGA 265. 

4 IGS i. 3498. 11 Collitz i. 1231, Schol. Find. Nem. 

5 AJA ix. 357. IPI i. 526 6 . ii. 1, of games. Aeschylus is said 

6 CIA ii. 660 58 . to have "dedicated his tragedies to 

7 Collitz iii. 3164 'Eiralverds p.' tduice Time," Athenaeus viii. 39. 
Xap67rwi; IGA 206a, 219 ; 210a tirtduict. 12 Collitz i. 37. 

In Athens tiridoo-is is a contribution for 13 AJA ix. 351 Ti/xoKXijs jj? 26r)Ke. 

public purposes. 14 Collitz i. 41, dirtduKa BCH xvii. 

8 As SZpov dTrapx-nv: Kar. 261 = OL4 520, xx. 57, AM xx. 506 + tirayjl\as. 
iv. 1. 422i 3 , 3 73c . cp- 5- fotOiiKe late 15 ffrrjffe early Kar. 131 = 014 iv. 1. 
IGSI 982, 981 Ot\wv. Annali xxxiii. 373 iil6 ; lori/o-e IGSI 608; dv- AM xxi. 
pi. S 0ea A^fj.Tjrpi S&pov, BCH xxiv. 112 : Collitz i. 37 narta-raffe. 

161 (Thrace). Carapanos, Doddne, pi. i6 IGSI 832, etc. 
xxiii. 4 Ati fi&pov avtdt)Ke TnSXts Aexutw, 

212 



324 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

coupled with Tt0r}pi or avarlBijfJU 1 , aTrobiSovai*, eVreXeii/ 8 , and 
barbarously Troteii/ 4 . Even icadiepovv is sometimes found 8 . 
Another group of words, iSpvw and i^pufia, are used of buildings 
and altars, trophies and statues 6 . Kararid^fii is used on the 
earliest Lesbian dedications known, which were found at 
Naucratis 7 , and in Cyprus 8 . TrapaKa-randevat, and TrapaKara- 
drjKT] are used of things deposited in temples for safe keeping 9 . 

(1) No deity is named. I have met with no votive offering 
which bears the offerer's name in the nominative case alone 10 ; 
but there are examples of it in the genitive. The statue made 
by Tharrymachus, and inscribed "of Praxilas," is probably one 11 . 
A vase found in the temple of the Cabiri is labelled " of the 
Thebans 12 "; there are similar inscriptions at Corinth 13 and 
Athens 14 . 

Most of those which belong to this class have a verb of 
dedication added. One of the oldest is the baetylus dedicated 
by Mys at Corcyra, which takes the quaint form of a speech 
from the stone to the spectator 18 . So also does the Corey ran 
bronze plate of Lophius 16 . 

Others have the commoner shape of the Olympian stone 

1 IGSI 2524, 892 dva-, etc. Athens be a prize formula, as Bather 

2 IGSI 2427, Collitz iii. 3072, AJA suggests: JHS xiii. 129 62 , 233 rur rl 
xi. 599. Aa.M<n5cu aOXa>v ? 6 Sciva Kar^Tjucef. 

3 IGSI 873. 8 Collitz i. 1 etc. 

4 IGSI 1025, 1124. 9 CIA ii. 660 50 irapa.Ka.Ta6-/tKi) 'A0ij- 

5 Collitz iii. 3596 ffvyKaOitpwfff. The vala.s. 

simple verb is the regular general 10 Perhaps the vase inscribed Hpixuv 

word for consecration. is one, IG.4 126 a ; cp. 130. The 

6 I take the following reff. from owners of vases are inscribed in the 
Dar. and Sagl. Donarium. iSptiu: genitive; IG.4 247 a Topyldao riftl, 521, 
temple or altar Herod, i. 69, vi. 105 ; 524. 

trophy Eur. Heracl. 786; statue Arist. n IGA 449 Hpal\a fal- Qapp6n*X* 

Pint. 1153, Peace 1091. tSpvpa : tern- f vo iei (Thera). 

pie Herod, viii. 144, Aesch. Ag. 339 ; 12 IGS i. 3595 e^atuv. 

altar Dion. Hal. i. 55; statue Aesch. 13 IGA 20 ' 6 ...ov elfu. 

Pers. 811. pwftbv I8pvffa.ro, IPIi. 1009 6 . " Kar. 97, 98. 

7 Gardner, Naucratis, DOS. 78793 ls MOs pe laaro, above p. 321 8 . The 
Ka60riKc; perhaps 185. ..(wia* /car^Ke address is common in early inscrr., 
rwt..., which he suggests may have e.g. on a tomb, IG.4 256, 344. 

been a deposit. But the others must 16 A<ty><6s /*' dvtOijice (complete), IG.4 
be votive, even if the example in 341. 



FORMULAE. 325 

"Hiero was the dedicator 1 "; or the Samian stone which adds 
the patronymic 2 . Other such came from Melos 3 , Argos 4 , 
Samos 5 . 

The father's name may be added 6 . 

(2) The deity's name without the dedicator's. 

Many very ancient dedications show this type. The name 
appears very rarely in the nominative, as on a greave found 
in the temple at Olympia, which bears the legend Zeus 
Olympian 7 ; and perhaps on two conical stones from Corcyra, 
inscribed with the name of a river 8 . It is not uncommon in 
the genitive case, as at Olympia 9 , Thebes 10 , Athens 11 , Sparta 1 ' 2 , 
.Naucratis 13 ; or in the dative, as in Sparta 14 . Once the word 
"firstfruit" occurs in the nominative with the deity in the 
dative 15 . Or again, the offering utters a voice and addresses the 
bystander. " I am the hero's," quoth an ancient vase of 
Mycenae 16 . So say the vases of the Cabiri 17 , and the dedica- 
tions to Paphia in Cyprus 18 . Some say more fully "I am 
dedicated 19 "; and the word "sacred" may be added 20 , or even 
" offering 21 ." In a series of inscriptions from Naucratis, the 
offering lifts up its voice and addresses the deity, " Apollo, I 
am thine 22 ." The word iepos is used alone sometimes to 
characterise offerings which are certainly votive, such as the 
bulls offered to the Cabiri in Boeotia 23 , or a lance-head sacred to 
Apollo Ptoeus 24 . Others have the god's name added in the 



dvt6rjice, IGA 82, cp. 120. 14 Aexoi, IGA 52 (broken, however). 

2 IGA 386. 15 KO.T. Ixxiv. avapxr) rd6r]vcila.i. 

3 IGA 420. 16 IGA 29 rov ijpwoj i)/, Collitz iii. 

4 IGA 45. 3313. 

6 IGA 386. 17 IGS i. 3969. 

6 Kar. W = CIA i. 358. 18 Collitz i. 4. 

7 IGA 559 Zei)j 'OMirios. la Kar. 48 dvdKCifJiai. 

8 IGA 347 'Poos IIvtfaFos; see above, 20 Collitz ii. 1601 lapbv avte-iiKev rat 
p. 321. 'Apr^/uSi. 

9 IGA 123 Zr,v6s 'OXvpiriov, cp. 24 ; 21 AM xv. 391 HvOfua rut iratSl ru> 
(vase) 561 rov Atos; 565 (spear). Ka^ipu. 

10 IGS i. 3907 Ka^tpw, etc. M Gardner, Naucratis, ii. no. 1 b, 

11 EOT. xcii. 'AtfTjvaj, xciii. 'Affyvalas 'AiroXXw o-6s el/u, 109 ft. 'AiroXXw or 
(helmet), and many other weapons: 'Qir6XXw <r6v elfu, 3 4 'A7r6XXw <rov 
abbreviated 'A.0i)v. ciii. efy. 

12 IGA 89 MaXedra. M IGS i. 2459 laptv. 

13 Gardner, Naucratis, ii. no. la. ^ IGS i. 2735 rov nrweios lap&v. 



326 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



genitive, as others of the Boeotian bulls and vases 1 , a vase of 
Athena Cranaia 2 , and many more. But vases which bear this 
legend may have been articles of use ; although their number 
makes it unlikely. They are found in Athens 3 , Phocis 4 , and 
elsewhere. The god's name occurs in the dative amongst the 
Theban offerings 5 , and at Athens 8 . Finally the offering speaks, 
as before, in Athens 7 and Olympia 8 . Occasionally the dedi- 
cator's name is added in a new sentence ; as " I am of the 
Anakes: Eudemus offered me," in Argos 9 , as at Thebes 10 , 
Athens", Naucratis 12 . 

(3) Both deity and devotee are named. 

Some of these have nothing more than the two names. Ex- 
amples are found in Athens 18 , Boeotia 14 , Elis 18 , Italy 16 , Thessaly". 
The patrouymic may be added 18 , and the fatherland 19 , and the 
words "daughter" or "wife" sometimes occur 2 ". But most 
contain also the verb of dedication. These occur in Boeotia* 1 , 
Epirus 22 , the Italian Locris 23 , the Peloponnese 34 , Phocis 25 , Priene 46 , 
Sicily 27 . Official dedications are followed sometimes by lists 
of names 28 , and the dual is very common* 9 . The fatherland 



1 IGS i. abbreviated HI KABIPO 
3588. iapds Kaplpu, Zapds rC> Kafiipu 
3942. 

2 BCH xii. 41. 

3 Kar. Ixxix. iepa 'Atfjji/a/aj, Ixxxi. 
lepbv TTJS 'A6i)vaia.s, etc. 

4 IGS iii. 1. 149 ff. 

5 IGS i. 3953 TWI KaflCpwi Jap6s. 
8 Kar. Ixxx. lepbv rrji 'AtfT/vaiat. 

7 Kar. Ixxxviii. 

8 Collitz i. 1148 Jap6s TOV Ai6s 
elfu. 

9 IGA 43a Tol(v) pav6.Koi(v) dpi- 
EC5ap>s 6.vt6t)Ke ; Collitz iii. 3333 (Epi- 
daurus), 3262 (Argos). 

10 IGS i. 3968 (Thebes), 2730. 

11 KO.T. 143 IlaXXdSoj dpi 6 fat, &vt- 
0r]Kf 64 /j.' EvSLKOv vi6* = CIA iv. 1. 
373 218 . 

12 Gardner, Naucratis, ii. no. 752: 



14 IGA 151 Kplruv Kai 0et6cr5oTos rui 
A2 Tuijrwp^t; Kar. cxxix. 'E7ri9^5ijs 
Kat. (from Thebes); BCH xi. 416 
0e5w/Hj 'AOavai (Elatea). 

15 IGA 373. 
18 IGA 549. 

17 IGA 327. 

18 Collitz iii. 3330 (Epidaurus). 

19 IGA 339 *t\o(cXei5o($) 6 Aano<t>l\ov 
Aevuddios Ai Nai'toi. 

20 Cnidos: Collitz iii. 35145. 

21 IGS i. 2732. 

22 Collitz ii. 1372. 

23 IGA 537. 

24 IGA 564, 59, 61. 

25 Collitz ii. 1516, 
IGA 385. 

27 IGA 57. 

28 Athens: KOT. 99 (408/7). 

29 CIA i. 351, 358, 375, 396, iv. 1. 
373 18S , etc. 



13 Kar. 96. 



FORMULAE. 



327 



and patronymic also appear 1 , with other such details 2 ; the 
word son 3 or wife 4 or daughter 8 is actually used. Demotic 
adjectives are common with the older Athenian inscriptions, 
rare in the offerings to Asclepius, perhaps because of the 
rank of the dedicators 6 . Further a description of the dedicator 
sometimes appears ; as the rhapsode of Dodona 7 , at Athens 
the fuller 8 , the harpist 9 , the potter 10 , the builder 11 , and others 
in combination with the word tithe or firstfruit. So we 
find the "cook " at Epidaurus 12 ; perhaps "bankers" in Athens 13 . 
Officials, however, as the priests or physicians of Asclepius, do 
add their titles 14 . This is so common in later days as to need 
no illustration. The word lepos may be added, as in the 
previous section 15 . It is unnecessary to name the object, but 
this is often done in the verse inscriptions. Thus we find 
aya\,/j,a or "ornament," specially used of a divine statue, but 
not always so, in Samos 16 , Paros 17 , Melos 18 , frequently at Athens 19 . 
The word is applied also to a stone vase 20 . A human portrait is 
named in Olympia 21 , Cyprus 2 *, and commonly in honorific in- 
scriptions; a cauldron 23 and a tripod in Athens 24 ; a goblet in 
Cyprus 25 ; an altar in Crissa 26 , and elsewhere 27 ; a relief or picture 



1 IGA 388 Etffluyuoj AoKpbs dirb Ze0v- 
plov av6r)Ke, Ear. 67 (Athens) ; Collitz 
iii. 3382 (Argolis). 

2 IGA 402, 407 XiKdvdpr, /*' dvt0i, K e 

eivo&Kew TOV 



t), $>p<it;ov d' fiXo^os jUifv : Kar. 
46 ~X.aiptdr)tJ.os EtfayyAou tc Ko^Xijs dvt- 
Ot)Kfv, 105 ncucwetfs. 

3 Collitz iii. 3391 (Hermion), prob. 
KOT. 153, 220 (Athens). 

4 Kar. 148. 
6 KCLT. 119. 

6 See CIA ii. 766, 835. 

7 IGA 502. 

8 Kar. xxxvi. 

9 Kar. 53, from several fragments; 
106 = CIA i. 357. 

10 KOT. 144; so in Italy Collitz ii. 
1643. 

11 KOT. 283 = CIA iv. 1. 373 262 . 



12 Collitz iii. 3224. 

13 CIA ii. 1507 

14 CIA ii. 835 13 , 836 . 



Kar> 



8. 



18 Gardner, Naucratis, ii. no. 753 Ei)- 



16 IGA 384 



fj. 



17 IGA 401, 402. 

18 IGA 412. 

19 Rax. 12, 102, 180, 207, 220. 

20 KaT. 360, 369 = CI4 iv. 1. 373u>. 
20, 24. 

21 IGA 388 el K 6va. 

22 Collitz i. 76. 

23 KaT. 229 X.f/3T]Ta? 

24 KaT. 215 = CIA iv. 1. 373 79 rpnro- 

SiffKOV. 

25 Collitz i. 102 diiras. 

26 Collitz ii. 1557. 

27 IGSI 608, IGS i. 



328 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

in Rhodes 1 , a jug and a stand in Naucratis*, and war-spoils 
often* ; a human statue or a pillar in Thera 4 , tables in Lesbos 8 , 
a slab or stone base in Asia Minor 8 ; mules and men in 
Branchidae 7 . The word aya\pa, at first an ornament, later 
used specially of divine figures, needs no illustration. More 
often, however, some periphrasis like "from the enemy" is 
enough 8 . An epithet of the deity is often added, and this may 
give a clue to the occasion of the otfering. Thus Athena is 
addressed as Poliouchos 9 , Hygieia 10 , Ergane 11 ; Zeus as Oporeus", 
or Giver of Fruits 13 , or Protector of the City 14 , Saviour 15 , or 
god of Strangers 18 ; Dionysus as god of the Grape 17 ; Heracles, 
Averter of 111 18 ; Artemis, Saviour 19 , and so forth. 

The occasion of the dedication is more clearly indicated, 
when the words tithe, firstfruit, or vow are added. The first 
two are exceedingly common in the early inscriptions of Athens, 
where the practice, known indeed elsewhere, seems to have 
been regular ; as to its distribution and nature the reader may 
refer to the fuller discussion above 20 . The word tithe, like 
other of the formulae, loses its meaning in later times ; so that 
a man can dedicate an honorific statue as a tithe 21 . The word 
firstfruit also loses its meaning 22 . The vow is also attested for 
early Athens, but it is only named in the periphrastic phrases 

1 IGl i. 914 rb/j. viva. 8 Kar. 63, etc. 

2 Gardner, Naucratis, i. no. 1 TT]V 8 Kar. 34, 158. 
irpdxow, rb tfjroKpj/TjJpioc. 10 Kar. 96. 

3 See chapter m. above. cncCXa: n Kar. 119. 
IGA 548 a, oirXa in Delphi, etc. 12 IGA 151. 

* IGI iii. 410 'Ayvfji 6tu>i rov iciova 13 AM vii. 135 Aii Kaptrodorg. 
XapiffT-fiptov ; 419 rov avSpidvra Aiovu- u IloXtevj in Rhodes, Collitz iii. 
fftui. 4614. 

5 IGI ii. 535 * A(j>aiffTis Qeodupeia ls ZWTTJ/> IGI i. 32. 

ytfm rais rpaintfais Marpi. 16 S#-ios IGSI 990. 

Cat. Br. Mu. Sc. 817 (Cyzicus); 17 EiVrd^eXos IGS i. 3098 Lebadea. 
Stephani, Compte Rendu, 18828, 18 IGS i. 3416 Boeotia. 

nine names o.vtari\ao.v rbv reXo/^wva 19 IGI i. 915. 

6cui 'AjriXXawi. Cp. the archaic Argive ^ Chapter n. 

inscr. : IPI i. 517, AJA xi. 43 d <rrdXa a CIG 5133 Cyrene : name rbfi. ira- 

Kal o reXa/xui. rtpa "Aval-iv Zeui/*cixw rwt 'AwfoXXuvi 

7 Haussoullier, MS. catalogue, No. 48: SeKdrav 6.vtOi)Kev. Also above, p. 79. 

fei/y>; TJ/JUOVIKO. irtvTf (cat roiis ^(rraXju^ony ffl CIA ii. 1329 d^rapxV ffTf<pavu6ets. 
tirl T-^S rovruv ^e/xtireias dvdpas tr^vre. 



FORMULAE. 



reXetra? 2 , and the like. So in Boeotia we 
find ev^av Kre\ecravri a . Here the vow is sometimes paid by 
another than he who made it 4 . But the later custom is to 
affix the word ev-^v or ev^wKrjv to the simple formula; and 
this is found earliest in Naucratis 5 , and in dedications of the 
third century or later at Athens 6 , Argos 7 , Messenia 8 , Sparta 9 , at 
Selinus 10 and Apollonia", at Cnidus 12 and in other parts of Asia 
Minor 13 , and in Anaphe 14 , Cyprus 15 , Delos 16 , Lesbos 17 , Melos 18 , 
Rhodes 19 , Thasos 20 , Thera 21 , Thrace 22 ; further, in Boeotia 23 , and 
in Greater Greece 24 . Kar ev^rjv also occurs 25 . Extraordinary to 
relate, the formula with ev^v is used for a late tomb in Asia 
Minor 26 . 

Another word xapumjpiov becomes very common in later 
times. It is foreshadowed, like ev^v, by a paraphrase in the 
old Athenian inscriptions, <rol xdpt,v dvrt&iSovs'* 7 , but like 
ev^v is only common after the Alexandrine period, and chiefly 
in the Roman age. We find it in Arcadia' 28 , Attica 29 , Boeotia 30 , 

1 Kar. Iviii., Ixxvi., 56, 102, 180, etc. 12 Collitz iii. 3519. 

This remains the formula in Athens: 13 Arclt.-Ep. Mitth. xix. 51, 60, 61 

CIA ii. 1458, 1481, etc. So in latest (late, with simple formula). 



times : IGSI 922, 958, etc. Collitz ii. 
1374 Awpo/3tos avtQijKe a AioTrtBys etforo 
(Dodona). Late /ca0u>s virfrxero (Caria) 
BCH ix. 78. 

2 Kar. 182. 

3 IGA 284; IGSi. 1794. 

4 Kar. 243 rov T&KVOV etffa^j'ou = 
CIA i. 349 : later such formulae as 
virtp TUIV iralduv ev^dfj-evos CIA ii. 1481 
become very common, especially in 
cases of sickness. See 1440, 1453, 
1485, 1494, 1497, 1501. Kar. 189 virip 
tavrov Kal TWV ira8wv ? is a similar ex- 
ample from the early days. So 231, 238. 

5 Gardner, Naucratis, ii. no. 776: 



So 777. 

6 CIA ii. 1503. Cp. BCH vi. 33. 

7 Collitz iii. 3280. 

8 Collitz iii. 4657. 

9 Collitz iii. 4607. 

10 Collitz iii. 3049. 

11 Collitz iii. 3222. 



14 IGI iii. 259. 

15 Collitz i. 27 evxu\ri. 

16 IGS i. 560, 2736, etc. 

17 IGI ii. 114. 

18 IGI iii. 1087. 

19 IGI i. 23 (?). 

20 BCH xxiv. 271. 

21 IGI iii. 434. 

22 BCH xxiv. 160. 

23 Inventory: BCH vi. line 193. 

24 IGSI 860. 

25 IGI iii. 263 Anaphe; IGS i. 252 
Megara. 

26 BCH xxii. 237, citing Gott. Gel. 
Anz. 1897 p. 409: dydey rtxy 26Xw' 
iepbs Kara ^irirayriv Ail Ai^) ei)xV K<: 
favr<j> fwj'. 

27 CIA i. 397 ; \dpiv lKTt\t<ras IGS 
iii. 1. 390. 

28 Collitz i. 1223 /tcrr/at x a /"< J " r7 7/"'- 

29 CIA ii. 1503. 

30 IGS i. 3100. 



330 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



and Phocis 1 , in Asia Minor*, in the islands, such as Anaphe 8 , 
Crete 4 , Delos 8 , and Megiste", Nisyros 7 , in Rhodes 6 , Thera 8 , and 
in Italy 9 . Once it appears to be used for victory in a chariot- 
race 10 . The plural ^apiarrjpia occurs also 11 . Variants, all late, 
are v%api<TTijpiov l * and ^apia-relov", and once %dpiv 14 . We also 
find now and again such words as o-worpa 18 , eXevtfepia, e/cri- 
jAarpa 17 , \vrpov 16 . Gratitude is more freely expressed in some 
inscriptions ; like that of Hegilochus, who acknowledges " a 
great share of hospitality and all manner of goodness " on the 
part of his adopted city 19 . 

Another group of phrases glances at the injunction of a 
dream or an oracle. Marreioz> occurs in an old Attic inscription, 
which is unfortunately mutilated 20 , and Oeov <f>paSai<; in another 21 . 
The commonest phrases are /car' ovap ", /tar' ovetpov, ovap IBcov 2 *, 
Kad' opa/jLa' 25 , KCLT fTrKfxiviav* 6 ', once or twice o^iv iSovcra aperrjv 
T?7<? 0eov'*, icaff' VTTVOV once in a relief offered to Zeus Xenios 28 , 



1 Collitz ii. 1536, IGS iii. 1. 89. 

2 A.-E. Mitth. xv. 93. 

3 IGI iii. 261. 

< BCH xxiv. 245. 

8 Inventory : BCH vi. line 148. 

IGI i. 21, 770, etc. 

7 IGI iii. 96, 103. 

8 IGI iii. 410. 

9 IG-SI 720. 

" IGI i. 1039. 

11 IGS i. 2469 a Boeotia; IGSI 988 
Borne, etc. 

12 IGS i. 3417 Boeotia ; IGI iii. 1086 
Melos, 458 Thera, with &vtO-t)Ke. 

13 IGI iii. 416 Thera; Collitz iii. 
3517 Cnidus; 3528 (plural). Mm. It. 
iii. 588 Crete ; xp^ffT-fipiov i Q Lesbos is 
a blunder IGIii. 119. ei>xa.v xai x a P tff ' 
njov Crete, Mas. It. iii. 684. 

" BCH xxiv. 235 Crete, 4th cent.: 
Tov8* otvl0T|Ke va.bv <t>oipui x^P lv 'HpfXa 
wos Aa^tO\tip7;s Wi''<ras I'Kart KO.I duo 
/3ouj. The poetic style would suggest 
that the metre chose the word. 

14 IGSI 967 Rome. 

18 See General Index : Greek. 



Collitz iii. 3517. 

18 BCH xx. 57. 

19 CIA i. 374 neyd\ri>> Si 

ITCUTTJI /J.oipai> (x 



20 Ear. 66. 

21 KOT. 244 = CI^1 iv. i. 422 \ 

22 IGSI 2256 Italy; IGI i. 979 
Ehodes; CIA iii. 128, 224; Mug. It. 
iii. 724 Crete; IPI i. 1008 Epidaurus. 

23 IGS i. 1829 Boeotia; iii. 1. 134 
(pi.) ; CIA iii. 199. 

24 CIA iii. 211. 
M IGI iii. 137. 

26 Koscher, ii. 524; cf. Ath. xv. 672 A 
rijv r 



"BCH xiii. 168 (Athens early 4th 
cent.); CIA iv. 2. 14266. Compare a 
statue of Cybele inscribed 'P65a 'Apre- 
fj.tdupov aptrav rrjs $cov, BCH xxiv. 
239. 

28 IGSI 990. A late inscr. with 
hideous hybrid relief has TOT&IJTI Oeo- 
Sai/j.ovi Oirvwi, followed by a Homan 
name: BCH xxii. 350. 



FORMULAE. 



331 



' 7TLTayiJ,a l , e eTTirdyfAaTos*, perhaps rayev 3 ; 
rov deov*, Kara 7rp6crrayiJ,a s or /car' eTrirayijv 6 , once apparently 
TTorLTayjAa 7 in apposition like ev)(riv, Kara fceXev&iv rov deov 8 , 

9ff 1 ^ / 9 \ ' 1O \ / 11 \ 

e eytcehevo-ecas , Kara ^prja-fjiov , Kara / xpr)jj,ario-/*ov , Kara 
pavreiav, Kara cruvrayrjv 13 . Again : rv^obv vyieias 14 , vjrep 
o-&>T77/Ha<? 15 or vyieias 16 may be added, even v-jrep ei^r??' 7 or 
rrjs ef'%779 a7roSocre&>9 ^dpiv 18 , even virep et^aptcrri'a? 19 and ev^s 
%dpiv' M . vTrep is added also with the names of family or friends 21 , 
whose welfare the dedicator has at heart. This is especially 
common in the Asclepian dedications, as we see from the 
Inventories 22 . 

Amongst the earlier records, the only others which give 
definite explanations of the occasion are the dedications of 
victors in the games and war-spoil, of which enough has been 
said 23 . But later the practice grows of recording prayers for a 
safe voyage 24 , or such grounds for thankfulness as rescue from 
peril 25 or sickness 26 ; or again, some honour or office, as has been 



Uo\v&i>a raytv 
a (Dodona). 



1 CIA iii. 163. 

2 Boscher ii. 524. 

3 Collitz ii. 1369 
d.vaTi0rjTL roi Ai xai 

4 CIA ii. 1491. 

5 IGSl 608, 974; GIG 2304, etc.; 
CIA iii. 164. 

6 IGIii. 108, i. 785 (Twelve Gods); 
BCH xx. 57. 

7 Arch.-Ep. Mitth. xviii. 1; IGI i. 
957, 962. 

8 IGSl 984, etc.; BCH iv. 293. 

9 Boscher, ii. 524, mentions it ; I 
have noted no example. 

10 IGS i. 3098 Lebadea; Collitz iii. 
3597 Calymna. 

11 IGI ii. 108. 

12 CIA iii. 166; IGS i. 1672. 

13 IGS iii. 1. 717. 

14 CIA iii. 138. 

18 IGSl 688, etc.; CIA iii. 266. 

16 IGSl 1037, etc. 

17 BCH xiv. 371; IGSl 1042, 446, 
179; IGI i. 903 (Christian), cp. 9112. 

18 IGS i. 413 (by Sulla). 



19 7GS7915. 

20 IGSl 991, CIA iii. 142; A.-E. 
Mitth. xv. 214. 

21 See General Index : Greek. 

22 OL1 ii. 766,835: virtp avras, tirtp 
rov iratSfo, etc. Cp. CIA ii. 1440, 1453, 
1481, 1485, 1494, 1497, 1501. 

23 I may add from the old Attic 
inscrr. i/iKiJ<ras or VIKU>V Kar. 13, 163, 
215. 

24 ei>7r\olas treica or the like. IGSl 
452 (Sic.), 917; compare the prayer 
cut on a rock in Prote: Ai6<r/coi//xH 
eOirXoiav Collitz iii. 4686. 

25 IGSl 1030 <rw0eis 6/c /jifydXw KIV- 
Stivwv 7roAXd/us, cp. IGI i. 742 (to 
Hecate and Sarapis) ; IGI i. 23 ica.6' 
a.v fvfd^avro yuerd rbv fffifffj.6v ev~)(jiv ; 
CIA ii. 1474, 1441; Bahn-Schuchhardt, 
Alterthilmer von Aigai, 47 : 6 Sa/ios... 
ffuffeis virb (name). 

26 IGSl 2283 larpeveds. The occa- 
sion is never given in the Attic inscrr. 
to Asclepius, unless it be other than 
sickness (? perhaps in CIA ii. 1461). 



332 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



already explained. These often give in much detail the cir- 
cumstances of an offering. Earlier, we find only a few examples, 
such as the great stone of Bybon, or now and again in the 
poetical inscriptions to which we shall come immediately. I 
need do no more than briefly indicate the varieties of the 
honorific class. These are dedications by the TroXt? 1 or the 
Sripos*, or the fiovXrj 3 , sometimes both the last two together 4 , 
the <J)v\ri* or the KOIVOV, whether a state 6 or guilds or a mere 
society of men 7 . "By the resolution of the senate" or a like 
phrase is added sometimes 8 . 

The dedications are made to the gods all or singly, some- 
times coupled with the people 9 . Here the phrase loses its 
force and becomes a mere compliment. When we find dedica- 
tions "to the community" of buildings or land for common 
use 10 , and a man is spoken of as having " dedicated the bath to 
the young men 11 ," the word is indistinguishable from its English 
equivalent". 



1 Collitz iii. 1252 Arcady, 3394 
Argolis. 

2 Collitz iii. 3433 Sparta (6 5o>os r&v 
AaKedaifioviuv rbv da.fj.ov TOV ' AXelwv) ; 
3596 Calymna, 3433 Anaphe; etc. 

3 See IGI iii. 140201, 202-267, 
516, 541 etc., and Indices. 

4 Collitz iii. 3666 Cos, 3432 Anapbe. 
s Collitz iii. 3296 Argos. 

6 Collitz ii. 1635 Achaeans, iii. 3298 
Argos, IGI i. 40 Rhodes. 

7 BCH vii. 474 Delos TUH KOIVM 
^Tjpvriuv efj.iropuv Kal vavK\-f)puv Kal 

lyOO\(ti3V TT\V ffTOiLV dveOyKtV. 

8 Collitz iii. 3429 /caret TO yeyovbs 
\f/d<t>ur/Mi virb TOV 6-/I/J.OV ; IGS iii. 1. 322 
\fs(ri<t>lffnaTt) P(ov\rjt). IPI i. 783, \f>. 5. 

9 See Collitz iii. 3482 Astypalaea, 
3650 Cos, 3595 Calymna; IGS iii. 1. 
282 Locris. An early inscr. from 
Eleusis is generally quoted as the 
earliest example: CIA i. 332 fo^tot 
'A0Tivaluv...avi9i\Kfv. The stone has 
disappeared, and as no such expression 
appears in Greece for a couple of cen- 



turies later than this seems to be, 
I do not believe the restoration can be 
right. 

10 IGI i. 36 Rhodes : rui KOIVUI (of 
a guild), etc. So a bronze weight GIG 
Add. iv. 8545 b 0eots <re/3ao-rot$ Kal TW 
Sdfj.w. From Erythrae : 
rr)v 'AyaOijv Tt/x*?'' T( 
1172. Wood's Ephesus, p. 
dpyvpta 'A0T)va.s ffafj.f*ovffov . . . 
T-fj re 'A.prt/j.i5i Kal ro? 



AM xxvi. 
36 



11 Collitz i. 31 1 40 bvOtvra. rd /Sa 

rois veoiffi (Cyme in Aeolia). Compare 
iii. 3664 roti v^ois Kal TWI 8a.fj.wt (Cos) ; 
4560 dvOevra TO *\aiov. IPI i. 777 rr)i 
irarpidi (Troezen), 782 riji ir6\ei. 

12 So dva.Kelfj.ai is used of cities and 
things which cannot hang, such as 
months : ir6\eis Paus. i. 34. 2, dvd(p.tv 
of the same in an oracle BCH xiv. 
21. Ath. xv. 701 E says 'HpaK\dSrjt 
TlovriKos . . .rb rpifjterpov KaXovfievov dva- 
TlBr)ff(. rif 0e$, gives it a close connexion 
with him. The verb is used in classi- 



FORMULAE. 333 

Along with the offering a prayer is commonly found. 
" Grant me," says the potter of Metapontium, " to have good 
fame among men 1 ." " Herodorus has dedicated me to Aphro- 
dite as a gift, a firstfruit of his goods ; to whom do thou, 
O queen, grant abundance, and thwart all those who falsely 
speak evil against him 2 ." Aigialeus, in dedicating his first- 
fruit to Athena, has paid his vow, and shown gratitude to her : 
for which he prays that she may preserve him in well-being and 
make a return on her own part 3 . Others pray that all may 
go well with their work 4 , or ask for a " pleasant return 8 ." 
Telesinus, in dedicating a statue to Athena, asks, in simple 
shrewdness, that the goddess will give him the means to dedicate 
another 6 . Pyrrhis of Italy would drive a bargain, and asked 
his deity to give him twice as much as he had earned before 7 . 
The idea of pleasing the divinity is clear in many, whether 
implied by the complacent "fine" or "faultless ornament 8 ," or 
stated in plain terms 9 . The verse-inscriptions often take the 
form of a direct address to the god 10 , and his glory is set forth 
either by epithets or rarely in some other form 11 . Artists' names 
and explanatory inscriptions are sometimes added to the votive 
offering. This is especially common with the statues at Athens 
and Olympia, and with reliefs or painted tablets such as those 
of Corinth. Such additions however form no part of the votive 
inscription. 

One or two offerings are inscribed only with a general 

cal Greek in the sense of ascribing or 5 IGA 20 62 ff., 108a ri> Si 56s x a p' lfff<fa - v 

making someone responsible for a d/j.oifdv or d<popfjuii>, a common formula 

thing. at Corinth, like "Afflictions sore long 

1 Collitz ii. 1643. time he bore " in village churchyards. 

2 CIA iv. 1. 422 13 = KoT. 261 'Hp6- 6 Kar. 207 0a/>0<?/e, ev d K poir6\ei 
5w/>6s p a.vtQi]K 'Atf>podLrTg Sdpov airap- TeXecrtvos dyaX/A 1 dvt0T)Kev KiyTios, wi 
"Xri", TOTVIO., T&V dyaduv, ry cri> 56y x a fy> ol/cra Sidoi-rjs a\o dvaOeivai. Many 
d<f>6ovlai>, o'i Te \4yovffi \6yovs <i<5tKa>? prayers for prosperity in CIA iv. 1. 
^euSets Kar' t'/ctivov rwv... Compare the 373 1 ~ 250 . 

Delian couplet, BCH vi. 33. 7 Collitz ii. 1657 reads Sis WTJ Uvppi 

3 CIA i. 397 er<j5f'e...T<2j'5e \a.p\v 9- 56s Toi6v viv eVcuraro. 

|MV7i; iv. 1. 373 107 = Kar. 245 x^P iv a IGA 412 dtfri r66' &nev<f>fs &ya\na. 

dvnSidov. 9 Kar. 51 rrji d 0euu \a.piev, etc. 

4 CIA iv. 1. 373 1 = Kar. 237 T^V 10 IGA 402; IGS i. 3598; Ear. 123. 
\d>'iov geiv ; compare the formula of con- n Collitz i. 69 (altar) riyuw TO, Suparo- 
sulting the oracle, Collitz ii 1561, etc. dipao Hcupiya ye 5ifj.uois. 



334 OREKK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

description of the dedication in the nominative case. Such 
are " the supplication of Peisis " at Athens 1 , the firetfruit in 
the same place 2 , "Anaus's prayer" in Cyprus*. 

Speaking generally, the dedicative formulae are made in 
prose from the earliest times to the latest ; and they keep to 
certain quite simple types. The most verbose expansion of the 
early type, which yet means no more than the simple form, 
is seen in Cyprus. " I am of Prototimus, priest of the Paphian," 
says one record, " and he dedicated me to the Paphian Aphro- 
dite 4 "; or "I am of the Paphian goddess; now Onesithemis 
dedicated me 5 ." Many of the Cyprians, who are most free 
in their handling of the types, add " in luck " or " with good 
luck 6 ," " for the best 7 ," even a note of time 8 . But attempts at 
verse, more or less successful, are found quite early and in many 
parts of the Greek world. They are mostly hexameters, one or 
more 9 , not seldom elegiacs in one 10 or more couplets", and now 
and then a rude sort of iambic 12 . Some licence is allowed in 
the case of proper names which may be difficult or impossible 
to scan 13 . In the fourth century begins, and later grows to 
great lengths, the custom of adding self-glorification of all sorts,' 
which robs the offering of its pious simplicity. 

1 Ear. xxxiv. lleifflSos iKfffla. s Gollitz i. 76. 

2 K.CLT. Ixxiv. IGA 20 7 (Corinth), 37 (Argos), 

3 Collitz i. 96 dp*. 'Avdw (statuette). 120 (Olympia), 314 (Phocis), 407 

4 Collitz i. 1 ripwrorfyiw rjfj,l TOLS (Naxos), 512 (Syracuse). 

HcKplas TOV leptfos- /cds p.e KartdriKe TO.I 10 IGA 99 (01.), 354 (Aegina), 412 

Hafoai 'A</>/>o3/rcu. See for the verb, (Naxos), 62 a (Laconia). 

above, p. 324. u IGA 401 (Paros), Ear. passim. 

5 Collitz i. 2 ras 0eas raj llamas ij|if 12 IGA 32, 36a (catalectic). 

airrdp fu *car^0T]Ke 'Ovacufle/us. 13 20 7 Zifuuv, 512 T<U ZvpaKbcrioi, 

6 Collitz i. 47, 17 lv TV-%O.I, rvx^t or rol SJpa/cwrtot, something wrong 
dyaBrji: i TI^XCU dfaflai 37: 120 <rii either way; Kar. 261 'HpoSwpos. Few 
rvxai cp. IGS i. 3100 Boeotia. can beat the Delian bard in this line: 

7 Collitz i. 37 rdirl 8etui. Compare 'loriatei/s p avtOrjicev KdXXwvos vvtp- 
evrvx&s in Caria, BCH xiv. 371 ; Ov- <j>L\' 'AirbXXuv rfySe ffvva./j.<j>ortpois evrv- 
pavia "Hpa 'A/i/iou'tos d.^6r)Ke tir' dyaOu X^ v faaffov. BCH vi. 33. 

CIG Add. iv. 7034. 



XII. 

LATER USES OF THE VOTIVE FORMULA. 

HTU) ANA6e/V\A. 

1 Ep. ad Cor. xvi. 22. 

WE have already seen that human beings were once dedi- 
cated to the gods, whether for service or sacrifice ; and although 
an investigation of this topic does not lie within our scope, it 
suggested a curious development which must be mentioned, 
the formality of emancipation. In many Greek states, eman- 
cipation was a civil act 1 ; but in some, it took the form of 
a dedication of the slave to the patron deity of the city, by 
which act he was made free of human control, and that 
meant (since the deity did not enforce his claim) his own man. 
Witnesses or guarantors are sometimes present at the transac- 
tion, which is a legal fiction. A payment of money, and other 
legal processes, are occasionally alluded to 2 ; some contain the 
word 'sold 8 .' 

The practice is not attested in Greece for the early times, 



1 As at Delphi, Collitz ii. p. 184 ff. ; rb yu>6/j.(vov dpaxn&s PLKO.TI 

Daulis IGS iii. 1. 63 KaXetravres tirl So in Collitz ii. 1461 is a list of slaves 

TT}V idiav iffrlav, another form like the each paying fifteen staters. 
Eoman manumissio per mensam; Hy- 3 So all the Delphians; Tithora, 

ampolis 86; Elatea 109, 120127; dtrtSoro lir' eXevOeplai TUI 6eui IGS iii. 

Calymna Collitz iii. 3599; Epirus 1. 188 90; Amphissa 318; Chalium 

Collitz ii. 1349 ; Aetolia 412. 331 ; Physcus 349 ff. ; Naupactus 359 ff .; 

2 IGS i. 3303 TO.V av&Oeaiv iroiounevos Phistyum 417 ; Stratus 447 ; Chaleion 
Sia ru) ffvvfSpiw KO.T rbv v6fj.ov, Kal KCLT^- Collitz ii. 1477, where the price is 

ra/jLtrj TV eiri TWV iapwv x/wj/udrwi' named, and receipt given. 



336 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

but the same seems to have been used by the Semites 1 . One 
from Phocis* belongs to the fourth century, but as the beginning 
is lost, whether the votive formula was used or not cannot be 
made out ; most of them date from the third or second 
century, or even later. The custom depends, however, on the 
right of sanctuary, known to us from the stories of Cylon and 
Pausanias, and from the ancient practice of sparing captives 
who took refuge in a temple 3 . Slaves too might be protected 
from their masters by fleeing to the Theseum or the fane of 
the Eumenides at Athens 4 . 

In Coronea 5 , Orchomenus 6 , and Chaeronea 7 , the owners dedi- 
cate their slaves to the Egyptian gods, Sarapis, Isis, and Anubis, 
under certain restrictions ; if any one in Coronea infringes his 
liberty, he is to pay a fine of a thousand drachmae to those 
gods. At Lebadea, the slave was dedicated to Zeus the king 
and Trophonius, whose priests were charged to make good the 
act against aggression 8 . In Stiris, they are dedicated to 
Asclepius 9 ; in Daulis, to Athena Polias 10 . The only Messenian 
emancipations which have been found are too badly broken 
clearly to show whether they were dedicatory ; but as a fine 
has to be paid to Lirnnatis they are likely to have been so 11 . 
Fifth and fourth-century dedications of slaves to Poseidon, by 

1 Robertson Smith, Kinship and ftria 36ca, /caflwj 6 irardp iroTtTaf. 17 
Marriage in Early Arabia. 5t *ca tri Swti 'A.davo$upa, ftffi 'A.v5piK&s 

2 IGS iii. 1. 119. A list of gods is <f>6pov rbv iv rfj 0eki; ytypa.nfi.tvov -f)bfTi 
named at the end. KO. irdfffi ' AOavoSupa., ira.pfj.fvi 'Av5pt<c6j 

3 Xen. Hell. iv. 3. 20. It was im- rbv irepiTrbv xpbvov wap AonXoi', tima. 
pious to disregard this, yet that was Iap6s tffriv, pel iroBlKwv p.eiOfvl peiOtv, pel 
sometimes done, Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 9. faatlnev Se KaradovXirraffOij 'Avdpixbv 

* Arist. Knights 1312 and scholiast; peiffevl, 'Avdpucbv 5e \tirovpytntv iv rrjs 
Thuc. i. 126 ; Pint. Thes. 26. flwm;* ruv 6tuv ofrrwv. 

5 IGS i. 2872 (dvarietaffi. Iep6v). 9 IGS iii. 1. 36 ive\evOtpuffw ica.1 

IGS i. 3198. AvtO-nKav, 39 d^ar^etrt TU> 0D ru 'A.<rff- 

7 IGS i. 33013377, 33803. /c\7prtw. 

8 IGS i. 3080 foil. No. 3083 may 10 IGS iii. 1. 66. The words oOj 
be given as a specimen: 0i6y rov^a dvtOrjKf are used of the emancipated, 
dyaffd. faffrlao &PXOVTOS BotwrOs, tv 5 Collitz ii. 1523. 

AtpaSelriAlpKuvos, AwfXos'I/jav^wdvaT/- u AM xvi. 349, cp. Le Bas-Foucart 

Oeiri rbv fldtov Oepdirovra. 'AvdpiK&v rv 309, 310, 310 a. Collitz iii. 4642 re- 

At TV paffiXfit ici] ru Tpo<pwvlu, lapbv el/j.ev stores 

ira.ptiflva.VTO. irdp TO.V (juiTf'pa 'A.6avo8tl)pav 



LATER USES OF THE VOTIVE FORMULA. 337 

a very simple formula, are found at Taenarum 1 : it should be 
remembered that Poseidon was the god of the ancient popula- 
tion of Laconia, who were reduced to slavery by their con- 
querors 2 . Manumissions of the same class have been found 
at Olympia 3 , and allusions to such are known in Cos* and 
Epidaurus 5 . 

The formula shows a transition in Stiris, where the slave is 
set free and 'deposited' before the gods, Asclepius, and the 
citizens 6 . 

In the second place, curses are often conceived of as a kind 
of votive offering. The curses have been found in Attica, 
Boeotia, Megara, Italy, Crete, Cyprus, Asia Minor, and Africa. 
The specimens to be quoted are not older 7 , and most are later, 
than the fourth century ; but the practice was old without 
doubt. Plato mentions it 8 , and there are allusions in many 
other classical authors. Its association with the worship of the 
dead suggests a hoary antiquity, since this worship is charac- 
teristic of the earliest inhabitants of Greece. The practice of 
writing the spells backwards may perhaps have begun when 
Greek was written that way 9 . Curses show a very strange and 
pathetic side of ancient religion. They were commonly used 
under the influence of passion ; but to judge from the numerous 
remains, the people would resort to them on any provocation. 
One could pardon the man who complains of assault and 
battery 10 , the lover who invokes curses on a rival or a faithless 
mistress"; but there is small excuse for the unsportsmanlike 

1 Collitz iii. 4588 ff., e.g. avtBriice 7 No. 26 may be fifth century. 

rcDi Hooiddvi Qeapys KXevyfrij, *E<o/>os- 8 Plato, Rep. ii. 364 c, Laws xi. 933 A. 

Aafoxos, firaw 'Apiuv, Avuv. IGA 88 9 Wulsch (p. iv.) suggests that it 

(5th cent.). was done for a magical effect, like 

2 Schol. Ar. Ach. 510. walking widershins ; and in 67 this is 
s IGA 552 d<pfJKe...lapus rou Ai6s... stated, uffirep ravra ^f%pa /cat firapi- 
4 Paton, Inscr. of Cos, p. 66. artpa. oCrws ra Kpdri?TOS ra prifj.a.Ta. 
6 Baunack, Studien. ^ v XP a /ca ' eirapiarepa ytvotro. This 
6 IGS iii. 1. 34 d<pir)Ti (names) TO, need not have been the original motive. 

tSia ffd/jLara {\etidepa. (names), Kal irapa- 10 Newton, Branchidae, 95, p. 745. 
KararldevTi irapa TOI)S 6eo\>s Kal rbv 'A<r- u CIA Appendix: Defixionum Tabu- 
K\i)iribv Kal robs TroXiVas Kal TOUJ <!>WKS. lae ; Theocr. ii. passim; Newton, .Bran- 
Deposits were commonly left in the chidae, no. 87, p. 739. Latin curses 
temples (Trapa/caro^/cij) : e.g. CIA ii. on lead at Carthage : Classical Review 
660 M . xi. 415. 

R. 22 



338 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

boxer who prays that his antagonists may lose their strength 1 , 
or the litigant who asks that his opponent's tongue may be as 
cold as the lead he writes on a , or the ill-wisher who invokes 
misfortune on his friends, feet and hands, soul and body, their 
works and their craftsmanship, their brothers, sisters, wives, 
children, and associates. The descriptions are full : here is a 
helmet-maker 8 , there a maker of panspipes 4 ; shoemaker 8 , silk- 
spinner 6 , carpenter 7 , actor 8 , are anathematized with all the 
brains in their heads and all the goods in their shops. One 
aggrieved person "sends a letter to the spirits and Persephone" to 
call their attention to "Tibitis, who does me wrong, her daughter, 
husband, and her three children, two girls and a boy 9 ." The 
curses are as detailed as that of the Jackdaw of Rheims. 
Hermes is the favourite god for these invocations, and others 
are Demeter, Persephone, Hades, the Earth, and mysterious 
demons 10 . The curses are engraved on leaden sheets, and 
buried in the earth, often in the tombs 11 . 

The material is in later times supposed to be symbolic, 
whatever were the original motive for using it : " as this lead is 
useless, so be so-and-so useless 12 ," or " as the lead is cold, so 
grow he cold 13 ." In the Attic inscriptions, the formula is 
generally KaraBda "I bind"; but we find also " I send as a gift 14 ," 
and " I deposit 15 ." The Boeotians have KaTaBiBrj/ju or Kara- 
iypd<j)(i); TrapaBiBojfjLt 17 occurs in imprecatory inscriptions on 
tombs. It is hard to draw the line at this period between 
votive offerings and other gifts from the formulae used ; but 
we are justified in mentioning them here, because a certain 

1 Def. Tab. 102 b Kar6xovt rty TTJV 9 Def. Tab. 102 ; so frequently. 
rovs irvxTas 'Apiffr6/j.axos KO.I 'Apurruv- 10 dupoi, Def. Tab. no. 62, p. xvi, 
vv.uos xdrtxe TT\V 6vva/j.iv airaaav (icel- etc. ; see Indices for the rest. 

vwv. So the horses of the green " Def. Tab. pref. p. xxx. (papyrus), 

faction are cursed (Carthage), OIL 12 Def. Tab. 1066. 

12508. Def. Tab. 107 a. 

2 Def. Tab. 105, 94. " Newton, Branchidae, no. 81 ff. p. 

3 Def. Tab. 69. 719 f. 

4 Def. Tab. 55 a. Def. Tab. lOOa, CIL 12508 uv rd. 

6 Def. Tab. 12. <$p6/xard <roi TrapaKarar^O^Ka. 
Dff. Tab. 85 a. 16 Def. Tab. p. viii. 

7 Def. Tab. 55 a. CIA iii. 1423 e.g. 

8 Def. Tab. 45. 



LATER USES OF THE VOTIVE FORMULA. 339 

number contain the technical term. The Furies also claim the 
bloodguilty as "dedicated" to themselves 1 . Those documents 
which were found at the shrine of Demeter at Cnidus begin 
with aviepol or dvarLOifi^i (dvari07)Ti)*. These also, with another 
from south Italy, show that it was a custom to dedicate a lost 
or stolen article to a deity, with a curse for those who kept it ; 
and so apparently with false coins 3 . Hegemone of Cnidus 
devotes to Demeter and the Maid the bracelet she lost in the 
gardens of Rhodocles ; good luck to him who brings it back, 
but if the possessor do not, then let the gods see to it 4 . 
Collyra of Bruttium devotes to the temple officials a cloke and 
ornaments which Melita will not return to her ; Melita must 
pay the goddess twelve-fold and a measure of incense, and may 
she not die till she does it 6 . Later we see the word avade^a- 
ri(i) in use 6 , and the familiar "anathema" in St Paul's Epistle 
will be remembered 7 . The curse itself is sometimes called 
Kardde/^a, a curious opposite of dvd6e/j,a, quite appropriate to 
the buried lead 8 . One tablet promises a sacrifice if the prayer 
should be answered 9 . A large number of names inscribed on 
lead were found in a tomb in Euboea ; it seems possible that 
they were intended as curses 10 , although their number is against 
that supposition. 

The curse is even found combined with a relief in the 
sanctuary of Men at Coula. Artemidorus, having been insulted 
by Hermogenes and Nitonis, denounced them to Men in a 
votive tablet (TriTTaKiov); whereupon Hermogenes, punished by 
the god, offered a propitiatory sacrifice and changed his ways 11 . 
Two orphans sacrifice to the same god, and offer a relief repre- 
senting an altar, a man and a boy, for his protection against 



1 Aesch. Eum. 304 KaOiepuntvos. Oewi. So gold coins stolen are devoted 

2 Newton, no. 81, p. 719 ff. to Juno Lacinia GIL 5773. 

3 JHS iv. 246. Def. Tab. pref. xiii. 

4 Newton, no. 86. ? j ^or. xvj [ 2 2. Still used in this 

5 IGSI 644 aviepi^fi Ko\\tipa rals sense. 

7rpo7r6Xots ras 0ew TWS T/JIS xP va tus, TU>S 8 Def. Tab. p. xxiii. 

IXa/3e MeXh-a Kal owe AtroSiSuri- foOdy 9 Def. Tab. 109 euayyAta Ofow. 

TO.I 0f&i dvuSeKiiirXwas ffvv /j.edi/j,i>ui 10 IGA 372. Kohl thinks they were 

\ifiavta rak ir6\is vofjii^ei. fj.7) irpbrepov sortes vel tesseras. 

dt rbi> ^vxav dvdr,, lore d.v6dt) rat n CIG 3442, BCH xx. 58. 

222 



340 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the evil devices of their enemies 1 . Again: Scollus has borrowed 
money from Apollonius, and refuses to repay; Apollonius 
devotes Scollus to Mother Atimis and Men Tiamou, by 
whom Scollus dies. His son paid the debt, and this pillar 
records the recipient's gratitude*. As the hand held up is 
carved on a curse-slab 3 , it may be that the bronze votive hands 
in the same position found in the temple of Artemis at Arcadian 
Lusi, were dedicated for some such purpose*. 

With the further developments, when Semitic and Gnostic 
titles appear, El, Michael, Nephtho, Sabaoth, and the por- 
tentous 'Ephesian' nonsense-jingles, we have no concern. 
It may however be worth remarking, that the formulae of 
cursing have remained much the same for two thousand years, 
and I am much mistaken if they are not still in use 5 . At 
least, "binding-spells" or Befiara are still the terror of the 
Greek bridegroom. 

The votive type is also used for money gifts or legacies 
given to a shrine for paying the cost of sacrifice, and the like. 
So Agasicratis of Calaurea dedicates to Poseidon three hundred 
drachmae for buying victims 6 . So the money sent by king 
Attalus to Delphi, for education and the keeping up of 
sacrifices, was sanctified to the god that the gift might be in 
force for ever 7 . Diomedon of Cos left property by will for 
founding a shrine 8 , as Epicteta did in Thera 9 , and the same 
thing is known in North Greece 10 . 

There remains to mention in a brief word the Decrees of 
the Greek states. These did not adopt the votive formulae, 
except in so far as Oeois was sometimes prefixed"; but often 

1 AM vi. 273, BCH xx 59. 210 A. D. compiled in 1798 in the island of 

3 BCH xx. 59. Calymnos (see Folk-Lore x. 156 ff.). 

3 Jahreshefte iv. Beiblatt 14 and 6 Collitz iii. 3380ci^077Ke... wore 01/etJS 
cut. etc. 

4 Jahreshefte iv. 48, fig. 61, 62. They 7 Collitz ii. 2642 OTTWS vvdpxri a 
could hardly have been dedicated for duped e/s irdvra rbv \p6voi> euSios...eZ/i' 
healing, or there would have been other rb dpytpiov irodlepov TOV Oeov. 

parts of the body. Besides, the prac- 8 Paton, Inscr. of Cos, 36. 

tice of dedicating votive limbs is not 9 IGI iii. 330. 

older than the late fifth century. 10 IGS i. 1786, iii. 1. 87. 

8 I have a number of them in a MS. u IGSI i. 43. 



LATER USES OF THE VOTIVE FORMULA. 341 

when they recorded an alliance they adopted the scheme of the 
sacrificial votive relief: the personified figures of the contract- 
ing states joining hands, with an altar beside them. A sacrifice 
ratified the treaty as a matter of course. The gesture is more 
than a mere greeting ; it is the solemn symbol of friendship or 
pact 1 ; and the scene is the memorial of the solemn libation 
and sacrifice done to ratify the pact. The curse or sanction 
is usually recorded in them. 

1 Xen. Hell. iv. 1. 31. 



XIII. 



DISPOSAL OF THE OFFERINGS. 

TTTHNOON A|~A&C A? BAATTTOyCIN 

ANAGHMATA, roSoiciN e/v\oTc 

6HCO/v\eN. 

EUR. Ion 106. 

THE offerings when brought by the worshipper, after the 
proper invocation and sacrifice had been made, were then laid 
on the table, or set up in the precinct, doubtless under direction 
of the officials. Statues, large vases, tripods, carven slabs, and 
other such things were placed upon bases which stood all round 
in the precinct, or sometimes within the temple itself 1 . The 
bases were shaped to suit the offering, but very many offerings 
stood on small pillars 2 ; and the inscription was commonly 
graven upon the base. The offering was often fixt in a slab of 
stone, and some such have survived ; in other cases the marks of 
attachment or a sunken panel are still to be seen 3 . The hosts 

1 A slab on a pillar is shown on a being fastened to it with a chain : 

voti ve relief : CIA iv. 2.418 i. Thuc. iii. 104. 2 Ho\vKp&nit...r^9 

3 The Acropolis pillars have been 'P^vaav Awv avtOrfKe T$ 'A.ir6\\<ai>i 

examined by R. Borrmann, Jahrb. iii. r<p ArjX/y ctXwrei Sijous wpbs rJjr 

269 ff. : Steten fiir Weihgeschenke auf A^Xov. The Ephesians besieged, thus 

der Akropolis zu A then. A pillar from fastened their city to the temple 

Epidaurus Limera Collitz iii. 4537 of Artemis : Herod, i. 26 av^deaav r^v 

has Mevecrri/cX^j rui 'AirAwi't dv'0t]K ; iruXtv Ty 'Aprt/jitdi t!;d\j/ai>Tes tic TOV vrjou 

one from Eleusis. ffxowiov ^s TO ret^os. (Cities dedicated 

3 CIA ii. 1453. So the hair-caskets to a god iu IGS i. 4136.) Cylon's 

in temple of Zeus Panamaros: liCH rebels fastened themselves by a string 

xii. 479. Fastening by a thread or to Athena: Plut. Solon 12. Fillets 

the like may have been used as a sign used to tie objects to a shrine, which 

of dedication with larger objects. are seen in works of art, would therefore 

Bhenea was dedicated to Delos by seem to imply dedication. 



DISPOSAL OF THE OFFERINGS. 343 

of smaller offerings were arranged within the temple or its 
storehouses, such as the treasury 1 , or the show places of 
separate states 2 . Things of no value, such as the clay figures 
or models, were, no doubt, deposited upon the holy table for 
the nonce, and afterwards (like the tapers in a Catholic church) 
removed by the attendants. What became of the objects in 
gold or silver which abound in the fifth and succeeding 
centuries, we can say with some certainty. I combine into 
one picture the information from several sources, as there is 
no reason to think that the customs greatly differed in different 
parts : indicating at the same time what those sources are. 

When the offering was brought, it was entered with the 
giver's name upon an official list 3 , which would be used later 
for checking. Sometimes a number 4 , a letter of the alphabet 5 
or other sign 6 , was inscribed on them singly or in groups, with 
the weight of the metal. They were then placed on shelves 
or affixt to the wall in batches or rows 7 , or hung over the door 
or windows, in fact wherever it might be convenient 8 . They 
were generally placed in order as they came 9 , but objects of 
the same kind were often kept together. Crowns and other 
such objects, and others in strings, were hung on the walls. 
As long as there was room, there they all remained ; but if 
necessary they were then stored in boxes 10 or in store chambers 



1 6r)<ravpol at Olympia and Delphi ; Bronz. 283, 307, etc. (earlier than 
at Delos BCH vi. 1. 76. There were 480 B.C.), BCH ii. 421 ; CIA ii. 726 A, 
6t]<ra.vpoi elsewhere, but mostly used as 731, 741 B b, 751; Dodona: Carapanos, 
money-boxes (Epidaurus Collitz iii. DodoneSl, pi. xx. 4, 9; Delos: BCH 
3325 2 31 , Andania Collitz iii. 4689 90 vi. 89. 

Oyffavpoi \lffivot Suo K\aiKTol, Thera 6 For the symbols of Epidaurus see 

Collitz iii. 4768). below, p. 379. 

2 At Delos "Avdplwv ol/cos line 155, 7 pvpol. Delos : BCH vi. passim ; 
TLwpivos olxos 178, Ari\iwi>, Naftai' p. Athens : CIA ii. 642 f. 

88, besides several temples ; similar 8 Delos : BCH vi. line 34 (wall), 52 

treasuries or show-rooms at Olympia twiOvpov, 94, 115 virtp TO Qtiperpov, 67, 

and Delphi. 70, 115 virtp rb virtp6vpov. 

3 Delos : irlva.% , 5<f\T j, xaprai, \et- 9 BCH vi. 100, 101. 

KWfia. BCH vi. p. 88 (4th cent, and 10 K TOV irpurov pvpov TOV K TTJS 

later). KifiwTov BCH vi. 25. iv Kifiurlwi CIA 

4 Halicarnassus : Newton, p. 670. ii. 751; lettered A, B, etc., and weight 

5 Athens : Ridder, Cat. Acr. Mus. put on them, 706. 



344 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

assorted. Thus we find whole collections of crowns 1 or bowls* 
or silver hydriae catalogued together. So too the other things, 
bronze articles, statues and the like, often had their own place*; 
Artemis Brauronia 4 and Hera of Samos 8 had a huge wardrobe 
of clothes. The articles themselves were often ticketed or 
inscribed with the names of the givers, and other details in 
prose or in verse. 

Each year a board of magistrates (ten at Athens under 
presidency of the strategus) was appointed to take stock of 
the treasures. At Athens these were the "stewards of the 
sacred moneys," whom we find in a very early inscription col- 
lecting and cataloguing the bronze articles 6 . Later we have 
regular accounts of them for a few years preceding and following 
400, and for the middle of the fourth century 7 . At Athens, 
besides the Acropolis records, we have others for the Asclepieum 8 
and the shrine of the Hero Physician 9 . At Delos, the Am- 
phictyons or the 'lepojroiol had this charge 10 , and similar lists 
prove the practice for Aegina", Argos 12 , Branchidae 13 , Delphi 14 , 
Eleusis 15 , Oropus 16 , Paros 17 , Plataea 18 , Samos 19 , so that it is likely 
they once existed at other shrines. Demosthenes has told 
us of one decree past for recasting, and how scandalously 
Androtion carried it out 20 . 

1 CIA ii. 699701 (begins 357 B.C.), Delos : CIA ii. 813 foil., see note I0 . 
728, 736. 8 CIA ii. 836. 

2 CIA ii. 768; BCH vi. 105 fifty- CIA ii. 403. 

three bowls grouped together, which 10 BCH vi. 87 ; lists in ii. 570 ff., 

had been described in previous lists as vi. 29 ff., x. 461 ff., xiv. 389 ft.; CIA 

they came in. ii. 813 ff. 

3 CIA ii. 7425. " IPI i. 1588. 

4 CIA ii. 7514. AJA ix. 357, IPI i. 526. 

8 ECU ix. 90 avXaiai, Ifjuina, KI- ls GIG 28529; other unpublisht 

ffuves, KeKpv<f>a\oi, Kp-^Se/j-va, fitrpai, inscrr. found by M. Haussoullier. 

irapairfTafffiara, irepifafna, ffirXrjvlffKoi : 14 Fragm. BCH vi. 457. 

Curtius, Samos, 15. 15 CIA ii. 682 c, iv. 1. 225 /, 2256. 

6 ra.fj.lai T&V iep&v xpwaTuv. Bidder, 'E<. 'A.px- 1890, 5, 90. 

Cat. Ath. Br. 428 : ol rafjdai rdSt xa\Kla 18 IGS i. 3498 (about 200). 

ffv\\tfcvTfs, etc. 17 CIG 2384 g. 

7 CIA i. 117175 (435 B.C. onwards), 18 AJA vii. 406. 

lists in Parthenon, Hecatompedos, 19 Curtius, Samos, Inscr. no. 6. 

Pronaos, temple of Brauronia ; ii. 403, x Dem. Timocr. 755 rl yap fiovKtaOe 

404 (same) ; ii. 835 foil. Asclepieum. elvu ; ra iro/iireta ws ^ire<r/cewi(ta<rt ; /cal 



DISPOSAL OF THE OFFERINGS. 345 

The new gifts of the year were described in detail 1 , with 
nature, weight, and inscription (if any) ; the older ones named. 
Sometimes those which were broken were repaired, but for the 
most part they were left alone until they fell to pieces or until 
there was need to make room for more 2 . What followed then 
may be told in the words of the Oropan inscription. " Since 
some of the plate on the table of Amphiaraus has become useless, 
and some is in need of repair, while some of the offerings on 
the walls have fallen down," three men were to be chosen, 
who were to receive such articles from the hierarchs, and to 
melt them down under supervision. A portion of the gold 
was to be kept as a sample, the rest to be recast as a golden 
bowl. The names of all those whose offerings were thus 
treated were to be inscribed on stone, together with the 
weight and description of each offering 3 . Allusions to this 
practice are found elsewhere. Thus at Delos a bowl takes the 
place of a condemned vessel 4 ; or certain articles are said to be 
handed over to the workmen 5 ; in Athens we have a crater 
made from the freedmen's bowls 6 and bowls made from melted 
crowns 7 . The same practice is still kept up in the Levant. 
At Tenos, the countless offerings are cast in the shape of hang- 
ing silver lamps, or the silver is sold and the money used in 
beautifying the precinct or in public works. The same is done 
to my knowledge at Ayassos in Lesbos and in Syme, and doubtless 
enquiry would show it to be done elsewhere. Amongst other 
things, the road and harbour mole at Tenos have been built 
by this means, and a road at Ayassos. The silver bowls or 
hydriae which were thus made in ancient times were kept as 



TTJV T&V ffTf<t>dv<av KaBalpffftv ; 7) TTJV r&v ' Avdporluvos ^TTL/J.\OV/J^VOV 

<pia\>v iroir)(nv TT\V KaXr/v ',...rd fj.fr ot/v ^iriytypaTrrai. 

TToXXa uv \tywv v/j.as tyevaKifrv 'Avdpo- l Formulae above, p. 323. 

rivis, irapa\el\f/b>. <t>-f)<ras 8 diroppeiv TO. 2 BCH vi. 92. 

<j>v\\a T&V <TTe(pdv<i)v Kal ffawpovs elvat IGS i. 303. 

dia TOV xpofov, uffirep tuv 77 pbSuv 5vras 4 BCH vi. 94. So we read of a 

dXX' ov xP vff ' i0v i ffvyx&veveiv fireifffv. silver tripod Kal TO irepiyevo/j.fvov x^M* 

alpeQeh 8 tirl ravra, he proceeded to Kal doKifj-eTa 149. 

destroy the inscriptions which you 5 vi. 31 irapadoOtvros rots dvdpdffiv. 

took such pride in (quoted already, 6 CIA 720 A 1. 

p. 268), tirl dt rats (pidXais as dvr 7 Above, p. 344 20 . 

^Keivwv ^Troi^(ra6 J vfuv 6 irbpvos euros, 



346 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

part of the temple treasure, almost as convenient as ingots and 
more beautiful, until they were wanted for public purposes 1 . 

Objects of clay, images and vases and such things as were 
of no intrinsic worth, when their number became overwhelm- 
ing, were put in store-rooms or finally buried in trenches class 
by class. Store-chambers have been found at Camarina a , at 
Cnidus 8 and in Cyprus 4 ; and trenches, in which the objects 
were laid side by side and buried, in the Cabirium 8 , Corcyra 8 , 
Delphi 7 , Elatea 8 , Naucratis 9 , Olympia 10 , Praesus in Crete", 
Tarentum 12 , perhaps Paestum"; probably in Argos 14 , Tegea 18 , 
Camarina 18 , Catania 17 , Megara Hyblaea 18 . 

It is assumed by some that the articles were intentionally 
broken either in order to sanctify them more effectually (as 
savages do for the dead) or to prevent their being turned to 
profane uses 19 . The same reason is assigned for the inscriptions 
scratched on earthen vases. This cannot have been a general 
practice, because many hundreds of these offerings are still whole. 
The idea is not without parallels, and the assumed custom is 
possible, but it was certainly not always followed. 

What became of the larger objects we cannot certainly say. 
That so many bronze statues were stored together in the Bronze 
House on the Acropolis of Athens 20 would suggest that the less 
recent ones were commonly so disposed of. The fact that so 
many female statues, made within a few years, were standing and 
were thrown down at the time of the Persian invasion, points 
in the same direction. The number of such offerings must 
have been enormous ; and got rid of somehow they must have 



1 Sometimes the treasure was kept n AJA N.S. v. 378. 

in the form of ingots: BCH vi.' 94 12 JHS vii. 1 ff., Gaz. Arch. vii. 

(\vn<t.). 155 ff. 

2 Man. Ant. ix. 226. l * Many of one type, Berlin Museum, 

3 Newton. Terracottas sect. v. 
* Cat. Cypr. Mus. 14 Dr Waldstein. 
8 AM xv. 355. 15 AM iv. 170. 

6 BCH xv. 9. 18 Mon. Ant. ix. 226. 

7 BCH xviii. 181, 183. " Mon. Ant. vii. 217 ff. 

8 BCH xi. 406. 18 Mon. Ant. i. 913 ff. 

9 Naucratis i. init. 19 BCH vi. 407, xv. 9. 

10 Bronzen, 28, 43, etc. 2 CIA ii. 742 ff. 



DISPOSAL OF THE OFFERINGS. 347 

been, unless there were any special reason in the fineness of 
the object or the fame of its maker or dedicator, to leave it 
unmolested. 

The number and variety of the objects dedicated may well 
cause surprise. In Delos, we find about sixty different kinds of 
vessels ; and there were some sixteen hundred phialae in the 
temple of Apollo alone 1 , smooth, fluted, figured, or chased, 
damascened or inlaid with gold, set with gems, some of gold 
solid. There were fifty or more golden crowns of all sizes ; 
with rings, bangles, necklets, bracelets, anklets, chains, brooches, 
headbands, earrings, scentbottles, rouge pots, and fans. All 
manner of weapons were found there : helmet, shield, and 
spear, bows, arrows, ox-goad, dirks, with ship's beak and rudder. 
There were anvil and spindles, figures of human beings and of 
animals, balls and discs, and other things nondescript. The 
same variety is seen in the other great shrines, and is of 
importance as we shall see for the interpretation of the idea 
which votive offerings imply. 

1 BCH vi. 109 ff. See the lists below. 



XIV. 

GENERAL SKETCH 

OP THE CUSTOMS CONNECTED WITH VOTIVE OFFERINGS, THEIR ORIGIN, 

AGE, DISTRIBUTION, AND MEANING, TOGETHER WITH A CONSIDERATION 

OF CERTAIN QUESTIONS ARISING OUT OF THEM. 

WE are now in a position to take a review of the whole 
subject. 

The period we are concerned with is comparatively short. 
True, there is evidence that the custom of dedicating divine 
images at holy shrines is very ancient. Even if we set aside 
the rude female idols of stone, which have been found in the 
islands and rarely on the mainland of Greece 1 , we have for 
example in the Argive Heraeum a series of idols, ranging in an 
unbroken series from the archaic Greek period back through all 
periods intermediate to the Mycenaean age, and earlier still, 
for how many centuries we can but dimly guess 2 . We have 
evidence also, that tithes and firstfruits were offered by the 
country people to their most ancient gods, and there is a pro- 
bability that this custom is as old as the other 3 . So too in the 
ritual of the dead, food and drink, with the vessels containing 
it, were offered at the tomb from the Myceneau age to historic 
times 4 . But apart from these, where evidence as to motive and 
meaning is vague, the practice of dedicating what are techni- 
cally called avadrifiara, that is permanent memorials of a 
special benefit, at first (as the name denotes) intended to be 

1 Page 286. 3 Page 55 ff. 

2 Page 286. 4 Page 4. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 349 

hung in the shrine, but including later all objects which 
embodied the idea, the evidence for this practice is confined 
within narrow limits. I do not imply that it was unknown 
before, but we can only trace it where it is attested by the use 
of a fixt formula; we depend, that is, upon literary and epigra- 
phical evidence. With the aid of this evidence, we are able to 
interpret the archaeological remains in certain holy places; and 
these remains show a variety of new features within the same 
limited period. 

The Homeric poems attest the dedication of things which 
have a material value, as Hecuba's robe, and a temple full of 
fine ornaments 1 ; but they say little of the dedication of things 
for their meaning sake, such as blood-stained spoils of war 2 ; and 
in neither case does the poet use for them the regular formula 
of later days, which he indeed uses in a different sense 3 . But 
Hesiod speaks of dedicating his prize as a matter of course, and 
uses the proper verb of dedication 4 . Now the formula is neces- 
sarily later than the beginning of practice, but not much later ; 
and if Homer records a few instances of the practice, but with- 
out the formula, we may fairly infer that the practice was 
beginning in his day amongst the people he wrote for 5 . But it 
was recognised in Hesiod's day; therefore it became recognised 
somewhere between the two, that is between the eleventh and 
the eighth centuries. The archaeological evidence enables us 
to trace the custom back to the eighth century or thereabouts 
at Olympia, at Argos perhaps further ; and the oldest offerings 
in Delphi, Lusi, Thebes, perhaps Athens, Corcyra, and Samos 
can hardly be much later. Again : in the fourth century the 
motives of dedication undergo a change so markt as to rob the 
custom of all its meaning, except in case of deliverance from 
disease and peril, and in other cases with humbler folk 6 . The 

1 Page 311. 5 This does not imply that avad-f)- 

2 Page 275. fiara were not offered by the humble 

3 II. xxii. 100 fj.oi ^Xe7x 7 ? J ' toaO-fttrei, country folk, or by another race than 
ascribe: Od. i. 152 dvadri/j.ara 6aiT6s, the Achaeans. 

graces or luxuries, something over and 6 This coincides with the decay of 

above what is necessary, added to give religious faith in general. It has been 

delight. pointed out, for example, that in the 

4 Page 152. fourth century the character of sepul- 



350 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

beginning of memorial dedication, then, other than the vaguest 
sort, may be placed in the ninth or tenth century, its end in the 
fourth ; while as in the case of religion and the fine arts 
generally, its noblest and fullest expression is seen in the sixth 
and fifth. 

It was a very simple conception of the deity which suggested 
the votive offering. He was a being not very different from 
his worshipper, and likely to be pleased with a gift. Croesus, 
it will be remembered, burnt his offering, that Apollo might 
get it sooner 1 , just as offerings made to the dead were 
burned or buried according to the conception of the other 
world which the survivors had. A god needs a house to live 
in, and furniture ; even food does not come amiss, and the 
libation and sacrifices provide for this. If he gives wealth or 
a lucky windfall, some acknowledgment must surely be made : 
a portion of the wealth, the best piece of the find, will content 
him, and the worshipper may enjoy the rest. So the warrior 
dedicates a part of his spoil, the tradesman or farmer a part of 
his profits. If the god is offended by a breach of law, wilful or 
unwitting, amendment must be made in proportion as would be 
necessary in social life. Is the votary delivered from peril or 
sickness, it is natural to acknowledge the favour in the same 
way. If he has cause to pray, he will be wise to accompany his 
prayer with a vow, and even perhaps to do his part beforehand*. 

The essence of a votive offering is freewill. It may be 
customary, as the firstfruits ; of fixt proportion, as the tithe ; 

chral monuments undergoes a change of a human feast viii. 549 Kvlirijv IK 

such that it is no longer possible to wedloC &vtfj.oi fapov ovpavbv efaw rjde'ia.v 

see any religious meaning in the TT)S 5' oCri 0tol Sar^ovro ovd' tt)e\ov. Fire 

designs. Examples of rank impiety was specially the gods' ytpas, which 

have been given above, pp. 50 2 , 72, Prometheus stole and gave to men. 

113, 283. The natives of Borneo have the same 

1 Herod, i. 50. The god enjoyed idea as Croesus; when they send a 

the smell or smoke of the offering, message to the omen-birds, they light 

as men enjoyed it by eating. II. a fire and ask the fire to tell the bird 

xxiv. 70 oO not wort /3w/xos fSttfTo (Haddon, Head-Hunters, 337, 344). 
5air6j, Xoi/3^j re icvlffijs TC TO yd.p 2 Eur. Ion 1380, Ion offering his 

.fv ytpas rjfieh ; i. 66 af Ktv irws cradle Kal vvv \aftiav rfyS' dvTiirrjy' 

KvlffT)t alyuv re reXeiuv /SotfXerat ofou 6f &' eOpu fujStv uv ov /3oi/Xo/xat. 
uv diro \oiybv d/j.vvai ; and 



GENERAL SKETCH. 351 

but it must not be compulsory, or it becomes a tax. This does 
not imply that the deity is not to resent a denial of his share. 
Such a motive as led the Siphnians to refuse a tithe of their 
mines 1 to the deity whose act they saw in the finding of them, 
would be mean towards men, and was no less so towards 
Apollo ; Artemis may fairly retaliate if her firstfruits are 
withheld 2 : but custom is not compulsion. The element of 
compulsion is one of the two which rob the later offerings of 
their moral worth. This premised, the ruling motive in the 
giver may be one of three : thanksgiving, propitiation, or 
prayer. By far the commonest in earlier times is the thank- 
offering ; I know of one only where fear is stated as the 
ruling motive 3 . Offerings may be made in fulfilment of a 
vow, but one of these motives will also be present. A few 
of early times, and many later, declare obedience to the bid- 
ding of the god; whilst the divine oracle was not above asking 
payment for its help 4 . When complete, the offering stands 
as a memorial for ever: it may be to remind man of God's 
providence, or to remind the god of his worshipper's gratitude, 
or both. But from the fourth century the giver desires his 
gift to be a memorial to men of his own piety or virtue 5 , or 
of his own great achievements; and the latter motive, as we 
have seen, began earlier still 6 . Thus the votive offering be- 
comes a means of self-glorification ; and this is the other 
element which robs it of its moral worth. 

The distinction usually made between public and private 
offerings rests on no principle: because the same feeling prompts 
both, and they are both meant to have the same effect. Public 
offerings are more often customary, as public prayers are now-a- 
days; being dedicated (for instance) by sacred embassies or 

1 Page 58 3 . eXwp dirb fffjs d\6x l deiprjs, ov irore 

2 Page 53; cp. Livy v. 23. Ktirpis !So>x' 'EXeV?; fdya 'x.a.pij.a.. wr 

3 Page 29 10 . <rot 'A\t%av8pos -r'unv t\Ql<Tri)v diro- 
* Ephorus ap. Ath. vi. 232 E Delphic Saxret. 

oracle to Alcmaeon : Tifi/fjtv /*' carets 5 Clearly stated e.g. in CIA ii. 470 

d&pov, Caviar a.Troirav(rai. Kal ffv <j>tpeiv virbSeiyjJia /cara\iir6vres rijs ir/ws TO\)S 

Tt/j.T)ev /j,oi ytpas, $ TOTS /j.T?iT-r)p'Afji:<f>i<i- 0eoi)s etf<re|3eaj : /caXXwrtw \nrb5eiyna. 

paov ?Kpvif/' u?rd yyv ai)ro?(ri <rvv 'lirirois. TTJS idlas <t>i\a.ya0las. 
To Menelaus : -irayxp^ " <t>tp e K&<THOV 6 Page 147. 



352 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

upon recurrent festival days. Yet they are no less free, that is 
compelled by no law 1 . On the other hand, public offerings 
may be occasional, as in the dedication of war-spoil; and 
private offerings may be customary, as those of pilgrims or 
mystics. Again: public offerings may be more magnificent; but 
if a man gave what he could afford, he felt that the gift was no 
less acceptable because it was small 8 . 

We find that these gifts are appropriate to all times and 
seasons. Gratitude for success in war or the games, for pro- 
sperity in one's calling, for unexpected good luck, for deliver- 
ance from disease or peril, for election to an honourable post, 
for the care which has brought a man to his manhood, a woman 
to her marriage clay; propitiation of the mighty dead or of the 
gods who are mightier still, as a precaution or in consequence 
of a fact ; prayer for help and deliverance, relief from adversity 
or continued prosperity: there is no part of human life which is 
not included under one of these. 

Neither is there anything in the world which cannot 
become a votive offering. Yet for all this infinite variety, the 
offerings fall into a few well-defined classes. There are two 
main divisions : I. Material : things which are given for their 
own value, and II. Ideal : things which are given for what they 
imply 3 . It is obvious that any object of the first class may on 
occasion be found under the second ; and we shall often find the 
same object dedicated under both heads. Both are prompted 
by the same feeling, fear, hope, or gratitude ; but the first 
involves a cruder conception of the deity than the other. 

I. Material : Objects given for their own intrinsic worth. 
Here the thing given is regarded as payment made to the god, 
whose favour is either bought, or requited with something like 
an equivalent. 

(1) First among these come such things as the god might 
be supposed to need, if he were a being not unlike mankind. 
He must, for example, have his house and grounds, with the 

1 The distinction is very real, as 2 Anth. Pal. vi. 98 K /j.ucpwv 6\l- 
may be seen in the story of Ananias ytffTa. 
and Sapphira, Acts of the Apostles v. 3 Here I follow Reisch (p. 5). 



GENERAL SKETCH. 353 

proper furniture for all uses, and beautiful things for his 
delight 1 . Thus the dead and the hero spirit are allotted their 
precinct and shrine 2 , the patron deity his portion of land 
conquered 3 or newly settled 4 , wherein a temple must be built 
and furnisht. Buildings such as the shrine or temple, the 
treasury or show-chamber and the colonnade, may be erected 
for any reason proper to the subject we have in hand. Danaus 
erects one when he has acquired the kingdom of Argos B . For 
success in war, so do Heracles and Theseus, and the Dorians 
after their invasion ; the Athenians thus testify their gratitude 
to Pan, when he appeared to Pheidippides 6 ; the Eleans build 
the great sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia 7 . Salvation from 
plague or pestilence is repaid by the shrine of the Eumenides at 
Athens, by the temple of Apollo at Bassae 8 ; from flood, by 
that of Hera at Sparta 9 . Diomedes thus returns thanks for 
being saved from shipwreck 10 , Themistocles when Artemis 
revealed to him in a dream how they plotted against his life ". 
Odysseus erects three shrines on winning his wife 12 , Helen builds 
one at Argos for the birth of a daughter, the women of Elis 
long barren when at length they discover themselves to be 
with child 13 . Hypermestra, acquitted on trial for her life, 
uses the same means of acknowledgment 14 . In expiation of a 
crime the temple of Artemis at Tegea is built 15 . Even the 
part of a temple might be separately dedicated, as Croesus 
and other kings dedicated the pillars of the great temple at 
Ephesus 16 . The treasury may be built for success in war ", or 
for prosperity in trade 18 . The colonnade occurs also as a war 
dedication ; that called of the Persians at Sparta, that built by 
the Athenians at Delphi 19 . 

1 aya\fw.Ta. n Page 226. 

2 Pages 4, 9, 10. 12 Page 248. 

3 Page 40. 13 Page 254. 

4 Page 55. " Page 233. 
6 Page 92. 15 Page 314. 

6 Page 119. 16 Herod, i. 92 ; Cat. Brit. Mug. Sc. 

7 Page 120. 29 cto-i\vis K/JOWTOS dviQ^Kfv, 1201. 

8 Page 189. 17 Page 124. 

9 Page 191. 18 Page 92. 

10 Page 228. 19 Page 124. 

R. 23 



354 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

So with the furniture of the sacred place. An altar is 
erected after the victory of Plataea ', or on acquittal of a charge 
of life and death, as that of Orestes 8 . We also find altars dedi- 
cated as a memorial of office by Peisistratus the younger, by the 
archons of Amorgos, and by the magistrates of the Athenians 8 . 
Numerous other altars are known, some being apparently 
memorials of some feast or ritual act 4 . These may often 
belong to the second class ; and the image of the deity usually 
does, unless it were the original cult-image ; but of the dedi- 
cation of these we have no information. But where garments 
were used to clothe it, they may be placed here. Hecuba offers 
a robe to Athena, with a prayer for Troy's salvation. Amasis 
sends embroidered garments to Samian Hera for friendship 
sake, to Lindian Athena because of ancient kinship 5 . Periodical 
offerings, which later came to partake of the ideal, were made 
by the Athenians to Athena 8 , the Eleans to Hera, and 
the Amycleans to Apollo 7 . Garments were also dedicated 
to Cabirus, Tegean Athena, to Olympian Poseidon, to 
Artemis at Athens, and to Hera at Samos 8 . We find no 
dedications of articles directly intended for the use of man 
in the sanctuary, until comparatively late days ; but then 
the repairs of the sanctuary 9 , and the supply of tables or 
basins for worshippers 10 , are the recognised duty of priestly 
officials. When Livia dedicated the golden E at Delphi, and 
probably when the Athenians dedicated theirs of bronze, they 
simply gave what were meant as ornaments to the sanctuary. 
What the original wooden E was, who offered it, and why, we 
have no means of knowing ". 

(2) For the support and glorification of the shrine the 
offering of tithes and firstfruits in kind must have been 

1 Page 125. no. 6. 

2 Page 233. 9 Page 273. 

3 Page 259. 10 Page 272. 

4 Page 282. " Plut. De El apud Delphos. It 
8 Page 275. has been ingeniously explained by Mr 

6 Page 276. A. B. Cook as Poseidon's trident: part 

7 Page 277. of an old image. 

8 Page 275. Curtius, Samos, Inscr. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 355 

customary from the earliest times : whether given by farmers 1 , 
breeders 2 , or hunters 3 , whether corn, grapes, and oil, or slaves 
and captives 4 . The tithe of precious minerals was given on 
the same principle 5 ; and many offerings are recorded, or still 
exist, which must be regarded as valuables in bulk. Of this 
kind are Rhodopis' iron bars 6 , ingots of silver 7 , and such 
manufactured articles as tripods, cauldrons, and axes 8 , perhaps 
knives, wheels, and shields in early times, gold and silver bowls 
or crowns in later. The tripod is dedicated for war 9 , and as 
a musical prize 10 , and large quantities of tripods and cauldrons 
have been found which bear no record. Axes, which are also 
frequently found, are dedicated as tithes" and therefore as 
articles of value. The immense number of bowls, not in- 
frequently their uniform size, and the fact that small objects 
were melted and cast in this form, appear to show that they 
were often regarded as so much precious metal stored in a con- 
venient way. The large mixing-bowls, however 12 , and sprinkling- 
bowls or lavers 18 , may have been used, but they also were 
probably intended as dyaX/j^ara. The bowl is dedicated by 
Alyattes for cure of disease 14 , by Croesus and Xerxes for 
propitiation 15 , by the Samians as a trade-tithe 16 , by Pausanias 
as a memorial of his rule at Byzantium 17 , by ordinary persons 
as a firstfruit 18 , by a courtezan with the same idea 19 , by a 
woman for childbirth 20 , by slaves who win a lawsuit 21 , by theori 
and temple officials at Delos 22 , by the Ergastinae at Athens 28 . 
Marble and bronze sprinkling-vessels are dedicated as tithe or 



1 Page 49. 12 Page 320. 

2 Page 58. 13 Pages 272, 280. 

3 Pages 50, 58. Page 191. 

4 Page 102. 15 Page 311. 

5 Page 58. 16 Page 58. 

6 Page 92. 17 Page 260. 

7 Page 92. 18 Page 93. 

8 Pages 92, 145. See below, p. 385, Page 93. 
for a discussion of tripods, cauldrons, M Page 253. 
and axes. a Page 234. 

9 Page 145. Pages 263, 296. 

10 Page 156. ^ Page 276. 

11 Page 92. 

232 



356 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

firstfruit at Athens 1 . Rings, bracelets, jewels, and ornaments 
of all kinds are also offered for their own value on many 
different occasions 8 . Lastly, coins are offered in large numbers 
at all shrines, and probably on any cause ; the fines (so far as 
they can be considered votive) are nearly always estimated in 
current money 8 . 

When Megalopolis was built, the Phigalaeans sent a 
statue of Apollo "as a contribution to the adornment" of the 
place*. 

(3) Thirdly, those objects which come under the title 
ciKpodivia were dedicated for their own worth. Anything 
specially rare or precious would be an acceptable gift to a deity 
of like passions with the giver. Thus we find preserved in 
temples marvellous things like the stone which Cronus 
swallowed 8 , a thunderstone or meteorite 6 , things too mysterious 
and precious for human hands to hold ; or oddities, such as 
the mammoth's bones 7 ; or relics of old days, the arms and 
armour of heroes long since dead 8 , the sceptre of Hephaestus 9 , 
the throne of Arimnestus 10 , the golden tripod of the wisest man 11 ; 
things famed in legend, Eriphyle's necklace 12 or Daedalus' 
wings 13 . The choice piece of war-spoil was dedicated as a 
matter of course : a fine piece of statuary, a divine image, 
the throne of Xerxes, the manger of Mardonius, the Theban 
lamp which Alexander admired 14 . The idea in this custom may 
have been originally the same as caused Polycrates to cast 
away his precious ring. 

II. Ideal: Objects dedicated for what they imply. But 
by far the greater proportion of votive offerings imply something 
more than the crude notion of payment ; for the Greeks knew 
as well as we do that the thought sanctifies the deed. The 

1 Page 93. 8 Page 320. 

2 See Indices. Page 318. 

3 Page 314. 10 Herod, i. 14, p. 320. 

4 Paus. viii. 30. 3. J1 Page 320. 

5 Page 318. 12 Page 319. 

6 Page 376. 13 Page 319. 

7 Page 319. 14 Page 117. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 357 

whole of this class may be called ideal, as meaning more than 
appears on the surface ; and memorial, as intended to keep 
the god's beneficence before the mind of the man, and no less 
the man's piety or gratitude before the mind of the god. This 
persistent idea is illustrated on the one side by the silver sow 
of Epidaurus 1 , on the other by the recurrence of the word 
'memorial' on so many early inscriptions 2 . In the later age, 
when thoughts were no longer understood only, but exprest, 
the idea is distinctly stated : as when Akeson, in offering 
a relief to Asclepius, says, " you know why ; if not, this tablet 
will remind you 8 ." 

(1) The most obvious offering of a grateful worshipper is 
the Image of the Patron Deity. The deity is most naturally 
represented in his traditional form, that is the' image will re- 
produce in essentials the cult-image of the temple. In early 
times we must not expect any subtilty of thought ; an armed 
god need not imply that the offering is made for success in 
war, but may mean only that the god in that place was familiar 
in this guise. Nor can we otherwise interpret the seated 
statuettes of Athena found in Athens, of Demeter in Eleusis, 
or the figures of Artemis with the fawn found in Corcyra. The 
absence of all attributes, again, implies nothing as to the 
aspect of the deity which the worshipper may have in mind ; 
if the naked statues of Boeotia and Samos were really Apollo, 
as I have given reason to think, we may infer that the local 
type was without attributes. To interpret the ' Maidens' 
of Athens, Delos, Eleusis, Massalia, Naxos and other places 
as a kind of domestic type of the goddess, is to go beyond 
the evidence. The interpretation may be right; but on the 
other hand, these figures may represent simply the cult-statue 
drest in its ceremonial robes. It is true, however, that about 
the beginning of the fifth century we find the beginnings of 
differentiation by attribute: when, for example, the statue 
offered for a naval victory is made to hold a ship's beak in 

1 Page 226. iii. 1285, fju>rjiJ.eTov iv. 2. 1512c; at\it.tiov 

2 fj.vTJ/j.0. CIA i. 374, Kar. 104, etc. ; iii. 112. 

compare in later days fj.t]fj.6a-vvoj> CIA 3 Anth. Pal. vi. 147. 



358 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the hand 1 . On the other hand, the dedication of an armed 
Athena by a baker woman is conclusive against the strict 
connexion of attributes with occasion 2 . 

In early times, the deity does not necessarily vary with the 
occasion. We find a statue dedicated for success in war to 
Zeus as early as the seventh century, when the Spartans con- 
quered the Messenians 3 ; and there are many more. Others 
honoured in the same way on a similar cause are Athena, 
sometimes differentiated as Promachos 4 , Aphrodite 6 , Apollo', 
Artemis the Saviour 7 , Hermes or Heracles 8 , Pan 9 , Poseidon 10 , 
and the Saviour Demigods". For deliverance from plague 
and pestilence, we have statues of Hermes Ram-bearer" and 
the Locust Apollo 13 in the fifth century, Asclepius in the 
fourth 14 ; in childbirth, Phaedra dedicates an Eileithyia 16 , another 
woman an Artemis 18 . Magistrates 17 , tradesmen, and artists 
offer the Athenian 'maidens/ often as tithe 18 ; a baker offers a 
statuette of Athena armed 19 ; Bathycles, after completing the 
Apollo at Amyclae, offers statues of Artemis and of the 
Graces 20 . Many statues of Zeus, and doubtless of others, are 
recorded, both public and private dedications, without cause 
assigned". The herms in the Street of Hermae at Athens, de- 
dicated by all sorts of people, amongst others by Cimon after 
the Eurymedon, were perhaps a recognition of good fortune in 
general rather than meant to refer to a special occasion 22 . Small 
images, in bronze or terra-cotta, of uniform type, were dedicated 
in hundreds on occasions now unknown, and have been found 
of Athena on the Acropolis of Athens, and the Cranaean 
shrine, of Demeter in Eleusis and Tegea and Cyprus, of Aphro- 

1 Page 131. 12 Page 190. 

2 Page 91. 13 Page 190. 

3 Page 126. " Page 208. 

4 Page 127. Page 254. 
8 Page 128. ' 16 Page 254. 

6 Pages 127, 128. 17 Themistocles, p. 317. 

7 Page 128. 18 Page 90. 

8 Page 128. Page 90. 

9 Page 127. 2 Page 89. 

10 Page 127. 21 Pans. v. 23 foil. 

11 Page 129. Page 128. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 359 

dite in Cyprus and Naucratis, of Artemis in Athens and 
Corey ra, and of Menelaus and Helen in Sparta, a few of Zeus 
in Olympia and Dodona, of Apollo in Delphi 1 . The image of 
Zeus was bought with fines at Olympia, that of a 'maiden' by 
Themistocles at Athens 2 . We may perhaps add the image 
of a goat, dedicated by the Phliasians to propitiate the goat 
constellation 3 . 

(2) The deity represented in his power. I have given 
reasons for doubting whether in the classical age the attributes 
of the deity could be used to differentiate the various aspects 
of his power. I do not imply that the attributes were not 
meant originally to express his power, because I believe they 
were; only that in dedicating statues they were reproduced 
conventionally, because the type had become fixt. Once the 
type is fixt, innovations such as the representation of Apollo 
with a spear, are few 4 . The same must be said of those reliefs 
which show the god or hero in his conventional aspect, as 
armed man, rider, hunter, or the like. We must therefore 
read no inner meaning in the reliefs of Heracles with club 
and lionskin 5 , Dioscuri armed and mounted 6 , the Saviour God 
holding the war-axe 7 . These types could be used for different 
occasions; thus the armed Apollo appears on one relief 
which was offered for a breach of temple rules 8 , and a harpist 
relief is inscribed with the title Kovporpcxfros 9 . But the idea 
of the divine power, if vague, was there ; and at the end of 
the fifth century finds a clearer expression in the reliefs which 
show Asclepius visiting the sickbed, diagnosing or applying 
remedies to the patient 10 . He even appears, like the saint in 

1 Pages 302 ff. * Plut. Pyth. Or. 16 Meyapcu... pivot 

2 Pages 311, 317. We must not a-xeSbv evrav0a \6yx'n v tx ovra r v 6 e v 
suppose that any allegory was im- taT-r\au.v diro TTJS M^X 7 ?*) V 'Atf^vafovj 
plied. There is no reason to think yuerd TO, Hep<nKa...viKi?iffavTes 

that the gift was taken to mean the 5 Page 32. 

triumph of the deity over wrongdoing, 6 Pages 29 ff. 

but the motive here will be as simple 7 Page 26 17 . 

as in other dedications of the divine 8 Page 312. 

image. Page 256. 

3 Page 191. 10 Pages 216 ff. 



360 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

some modern picture, guiding a team of runaway horses to 
a safe place 1 . Similar reliefs were dedicated by women in 
childbed, not only to Asclepius but to others 2 . One there 
is, which shows a group of goddesses, the nurse and child 8 ; 
one, the act of birth 4 . The 'nursing mother' appears on 
reliefs or suckling the new-born babe, in some series of 
statuettes, but these are probably meant for the mother 
herself 5 . The principle is the same, when Victory drives 
the victor's car 6 , perhaps where in the Corinthian pictures 
Poseidon and Amphi trite appear in their chariot 7 . So also 
with a relief from the Athenian Pythium, which represents 
the deity seated on the oracular tripod 8 . The ' harpist' reliefs 
may also be included 9 , and those where Artemis stands armed, 
or shoots at the prey 10 . 

(3) The Human Activity, the Act or Process blest by the god, 
may equally be represented. This meets us early in allegorical 
form, some mythological or heroic precedent being chosen 
which suggests the later event in plastic or pictorial art as 
Pindar's myths suggest it in poetry. The same principle is 
exemplified in the pediments of Aegina and the metopes of 
the Parthenon, or the architectural carvings of Treasuries at 
Delphi and Olympia. Tellias commemorates his victory by 
a group of Heracles and Apollo striving for the tripod"; the 
battle of Oenoe suggests a group of the Seven against Thebes 
and the Epigoni" ; the sack of a hostile city is commemorated 
by a model of the Wooden Horse 18 ; the people of Heraclea 
Pontica, mindful of their eponym, dedicate groups representing 
the Labours of Heracles 14 ; others go to the Homeric poems for 



1 Page '238. 10 Page 84. 

2 Page 256. n Page 131. Euripides invents or 

3 Page 256. describes another mythological group 

4 Page 255. at Delphi: Ion 1163 K^Kpoira Ovyarfpuv 
6 Page 257. irAas ffireipauriv flXlffffovr' 'A6r)valuv 

6 Page 177. TWOS dvo^/ua. 

7 Page 80. 12 Page 130. 

8 Page 282. ls Page 130. 

9 Page 291. l Page 130. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 361 

inspiration 1 . A step further, and the human instruments are 
more vividly suggested. A group commemorating the battle of 
Marathon includes protecting deities, eponymous heroes, and the 
victorious commander 2 ; the human element is stronger in the 
memorial of Aegospotami 3 ; and when we come to Attalus of 
Pergamus, the human affray is modelled realistically side by side 
with the heroic battles of ancient times and the war of gods 
and giants 4 . Lastly, the human battle is represented alone 
in some relief carving of a cavalry skirmish or a sea-fight, 
sometimes raised to a higher level of thought by the figure 
of Victory standing beside a trophy 5 . Perhaps the battles of 
Marathon 6 and Oenoe 7 were commemorated by votive paintings; 
the Lamian war certainly was so 8 . How far the rank and file 
used this pious wont is not clear; but it seems unlikely that 
Corinth was alone in its series of terra-cotta tablets. In these 
it is hard to interpret the scenes which represent Homeric 
combats or the fights of armed men as anything but a soldier's 
thank-offering 9 . 

The human act might also be indicated by human figures 
engaged in the act, or so posed or equipt as to suggest it. 
Thus Battus in his chariot was dedicated by the Cyrenaeans at 
Delphi "because he founded the colony 10 "; and Cleobis and 
Biton were represented in the Argive Heraeum, no doubt in 
such a way as to recall the act of filial piety which won them 
the best gift of the gods 11 . Of this class are the statuettes of 
armed warriors from the seventh century in Calaurea, Cyprus, 
Dodona, Laconia, Olympia, Thebes, and their ideal character 
(as opposed to portraiture) is clear from the fact that two men 
may dedicate one figure in the name of both 12 . So too with 
the victor in his chariot, often raised above common life by 
the presence of Victory in person by his side ; or the jockey 
on his racer. Athletes in characteristic guise are here also : 



1 Page 130. 7 Pans. i. 15. 1. 

2 Pages 130, 136. 8 Page 130. 

3 Page 137. 9 Page 134. 

4 Page 132. 10 Paus. x. 15. 6. 

5 Page 133. Herod, i. 31. 

6 Paus. i. 15. 3. 12 Page 140. 



362 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

the sparring Glaucus of the fifth century, the discobolus 1 , 
the runner in act to start 2 , the leaper holding his weights 8 . 
An athlete absolutely without attribute, and standing stiff, 
ought not to be counted with these ; and it has yet to be 
proved that such figures were truly votive. But true examples 
are the humble son of the people who became a knight, and 
stood with his horse on the Acropolis of Athens 4 ; the " Persian 
horsemen" of the sixth century 8 ; the hunter with his game, 
certain for the fourth century and probable earlier 6 ; the dairy- 
farmer milking his cow, in that ancient cave of Crete 7 ; sailors 
rowing their galley, from the same place 8 ; the scribe of Athens, 
with his tablets 8 ; the baker woman of Cyprus 10 , the cook 
of Argos 11 ; the pregnant woman, the woman in childbirth, 
the nursing mother, from Argos, Athens, Laconia, Sicily, 
Cyprus 12 : perhaps the physician in his consulting chair 13 . In 
later days we have realistic presentations of a patient in the 
last stages of disease". 

When painting or relief-carving was in use, the scene might 
be more fully set out before the eye. Sometimes it is the 
warrior leading his captive, or two men fighting together 15 . 
A few scenes of hunting and fishing occur on reliefs, but 
none very early 16 ; it is in Corinth we find clearest evidence 
that this custom existed. There we see every part of the 
potter's craft portrayed, from the digging of the clay to 
the working and painting, baking and export of the finisht 
ware" ; there too huntsman and farmer, vine-dresser and 
statuary are seen at work, often in the gracious eye of 
Poseidon 18 . More commonly, the scene of athletic contest 
is represented. This may be seen on a prize vase 19 or 

1 Page 170. " Page 78. 

2 Pages 170, 172. 12 Pages 255 ff. 

3 Page 170. 13 Page 79. 

4 Page 79. u Page 210. 

5 Page 141. 18 Page 134. 

6 Page 78. 16 Pages 84, 85. 

7 Pages 64, 65, 75. " Page 81. 

8 Pages 65, 134. Pages 81, 82. 

Page 260. 19 Page 155, cp. 173. 

10 Page 78. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 363 

quoit 1 or the base of a dedicated offering 2 . Oftener it is an 
independent painting or relief. Now it is the victor leading 
his horses or mounting upon his car, or driving it, while Victory 
crowns his head with a wreath 3 ; again Victory stands in the 
car or herself drives it 4 ; the judge places the crown upon his 
head 5 , or he offers his prize to his patron deity 6 . Apobatae 7 , 
athletes 8 , jockeys 9 , Pyrrhic dancers 10 , torchracers", all appear 
in this scheme. These memorials may perhaps go back as far 
as the sixth century, but they are commonest in the late fifth 
and the fourth. 

Representations of the act of worship may also be classed 
with these, if we may suppose the worshipper to have faith in 
the efficacy of prayer. Such are the sacred pomp of Orneae 12 or 
Aegina 13 ; the ring-dances of Olympia and Cyprus 14 , the dancing- 
girls of Corcyra 15 ; figures (whether priestly or other) in ritual 
costume 10 , holding the knife, the bowl or jug, the jar of water, 
the lustral spray, known in Dodona, Cyprus, Tegea, Calaurea, 
Thebes". Or again, the musician with {Jipes or with harp 18 , found 
in Cyprus and Tegea 19 . Others bear the sacrifice: as the Athenian 
Rhombus and his compeers of Crete, Boeotia and Tegea 20 , the girls 
bearing a pig or bird, fruit, flower, or garland 21 . Even hands are 
found, holding the fruit or victim which is to be offered to the 
god 22 . The athlete or ordinary votary with hand uplifted belongs 
to this class 23 ; perhaps we should add the figures from Crete 
and elsewhere which are described as " saluting 24 ." Models of 

1 Page 161. was represented in character : Herod. 

2 Page 175. iv. 13 15. Anyhow, he was more 

3 Page 175. than mere man. 

4 Page 177. 17 Page 287. 

5 Page 177, cp. 179. 18 To these mayperhapsbeaddedpre- 

6 Page 177. historic figures of flotists and harpists 

7 Page 176. in stone, found at Ceros. Perrot and 

8 Page 176. Chipiez, Hist, de VArt, vi. 760, 761. 

9 Page 151. 19 Page 286. 

10 Page 176. 2 Page 284. 

11 Page 177. 21 Pages 285, 286. 

12 Page 145. 22 Page 290. 

" Page 191. Pages 170, 171. 

14 Page 286. M Cp. the Mycenaean woman in 

15 Pages 285, 286. Perrot and Chipiez vi. 735. 

16 Probably the marvellous Aristeas 



364 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

sacrificial beasts were also dedicated; such as the series of 
pigs at Tarentum 1 , the "supplication of Peisis" at Athens 2 , the 
three rams of Mandrobulus 3 at Samos, the he-goat of Cleone 4 , 
the cock of the Dioscuri 5 , and many other animals inscribed 
with deities' names, from Boeotia and the Peloponnese 6 . 
Perhaps the statues of priestesses at the Heraeum and at 
Hermiori, later at Athens, should be added. Later we have 
statues of arrhephori and canephori, but I do not find these 
before the fourth century 7 . 

I conjecture that we should also place here statues which 
were dedicated by way of propitiation. It does not seem likely 
that a Pausanias 8 or Timagoras 9 , or the offending Athenian 
archon 10 , would be an acceptable offering as a portrait ; but the 
case is altered if we may suppose them to have exprest by 
some gesture their contrition or subordination to the god's 
will. Confiscated articles, such as ornaments or dress worn in 
contravention of temple rule 11 , or spurious money", also 
belong to this class, being a memorial of the error punisht by 
the god. 

Beginning in the fifth century, and lasting well over the 
fourth, sporadically later, we find a more complete record of the 
act of cult in the reliefs. These are chiefly of three types : the 
dance, the prayer, sacrifice, or libation, and the feast. The first 
type is found in the fifth century with the Eumenides 13 , the 
Graces, Hours, or Nymphs 14 , and Pan 15 ; their distribution has 
been already examined. In the fourth century and later we 
find other deities in conjunction : Hermes, Apollo, Zeus, and 
even (by popular etymology) All Gods 16 . The prayer type is 
exemplified with Asclepius, Bendis, and others. The sacrifice 
or libation type is commonest; and is found with Athena 17 (one 

1 Page 301. 9 Page 314. 

2 Page 296. 10 Page 315. 

3 Page 296. " Page 313. 

4 Page 381. 12 Page 313. 

5 Pages 300, 301. 13 Page 254. 

6 Page 264. u Page 88. 

7 For the woman of Paestum, see 15 Page 85. 

p. 78. 16 Pages 85, 87, 89. 

8 Page 314. 17 Pages 83, 292. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 365 

example being a tithe), Asclepius 1 , Cybele 2 , Apollo 8 , Demeter 
and the Maid 4 , Dionysus 6 , Hecate 6 , Hera 7 , Zeus 8 , the heroes 9 , 
or various combinations of these. The feast-type is common 
with heroes 10 , and is found also with Asclepius 11 . 

It is not easy to interpret the few monuments which repre- 
sent the 16/30? 7/zo9. It is possible to regard them as offered by 
couples on marriage, which we know was preceded by a sacrifice 12 , 
but even so they should refer to an act of cult, perhaps the 
mystery-play regarded as a mythological precedent. There is 
no reference to ^anything but the power of the deity in reliefs 
to Artemis which I have referred provisionally to marriage 13 . 

A more summary representation of the activity blest by the 
god is seen in the stone-ram of the Athenian breeder, and 
perhaps therefore other rams from Athens, Boeotia, Laconia 14 ; 
bulls from Athens, Dodona, Boeotia, Olympia 15 ; horses from 
Argos, Athens, Boeotia, Dodona, Olympia 16 , and half-a-dozen other 
places. Similar are the mare suckling a foal known in Dodona, 
Olympia, and Athens"; the stag brought down by hounds, from 
Olympia 18 . So an ass sums up the story of a night surprise 
forestalled by his bray 19 ; a sheep tells of a treasure lost and found 
by a sheep's guidance 20 ; the bull recalls how a bull led the 
Corcyreans to a great find of fish 41 ; a frog, how a thirsty 
traveller was enabled to find a hidden spring 2 "; a cicala, how a 
musician broke his string and yet won the prize 23 . The bronze 
lioness dedicated in memory of the brave Leaena sums up her 
story in a metaphor 24 . Probably we should add the hunter's 
hound of Athens, Delos, and Lusi 25 ; perhaps the fighting cock 

1 Page 219. 14 Page 75. 

2 Page 293. 15 Page 76. 

3 Page 291. 16 Pages 75, 76. 

4 Page 294. 17 Pages 75, 76. 

5 Page 295. 18 Page 75. 

6 Page 295. 19 Pans. x. 18. 4. 

7 Page 89. 2 Page 91. 

8 Pages 83, 295. a Page 91. 

9 Page 19. 22 Page 232. 

10 Page 20. 23 p a ge 172. 

11 Page 220. Page 231. 

12 Page 246. Page 77. 

13 Page 247. 



366 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

of Thebes 1 . It may be also that the Asclepian snakes were 
meaut to recall how the temple snakes lickt a patient's sores 3 . 
Here also come the models of disease and of parts of the body, 
as a summary method of indicating what the god's blessing has 
done 3 . These begin in the fourth century, and in fine become 
practically universal. 

(4) The Winnings. The prize or gain of the acts which 
have been blest is another common dedication. The earliest 
we know of, and perhaps almost as old as the worship of the 
gods, is the dedication of war-spoil, whether as a trophy upon 
the battle-field or in a temple. This custom is known to 
legend and to Homer 4 , and dedicated arms and armour have 
been found in some of the most ancient sanctuaries of Greece, 
the cave of Mount Ida in Crete 5 , Delphi, Dodona, Olympia 8 . 
There is a continuous record testifying to this custom from 
Alcaeus 7 in the seventh century until long after the Christian 
era. As before, these dedications are made to almost every 
god or goddess, and even to the heroes. A secondary develop- 
ment was to dedicate gold or silver, or gilt models of shields 8 , 
a silver trireme 9 , and such like : the permanent bronze trophy 10 , 
and models of horses or captive women 11 . 

As with prize of war, so with the prizes won in the games 
or musical contests. This custom is recorded for the eighth 
century, if that was Hesiod's date 12 , for the early sixth century 
in the person of Echembrotus 13 , and is exemplified later by the 
choric tripods at Athens 14 , the tripods of the Triopia 18 , the 
stlengis, vase 18 , crown", and what not. What were or may 
have been prizes have been found by excavation at Athens 18 , 



1 AM xv. 355 ff. 10 Page 100. 

2 Page 209. " Page 115. 

3 Pages 210 ff. 12 Page 151. 

4 Pages 99, 101. 1S Page 152. 
6 Pages 101, 109. " Page 156. 
6 Page 109. 15 Page 152. 
i Page 101. 18 Page 153. 
8 Page 114. 17 Page 155. 
Page 116. 18 Page 155. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 367 

Delos, Delphi, Dodona, and Sparta 1 . In this section too 
models were sometimes made, as of the tripod 2 and the shield 3 , 
in stone. 

Honorific crowns come into the same category. These 
begin with Lysander 4 , and grow very common indeed in the 
fourth and succeeding centuries, when it became a matter of 
course to dedicate them 5 . States like individuals dedicate 
crowns of honour 6 . 

All these are what may be called occasional prize ; but the 
prize of work, although more regular, is also suitable for dedica- 
tion. It is not absolutely certain that the Greek craftsman 
would dedicate the first specimen of his skill, or a choice piece 
of his own work, in gratitude for the divine help in his calling ; 
but he did dedicate tithes or firstfruits of his profits in some 
form, and the form was often a piece of work made by his own 
hands. Thus we have Lycinus' pot, "the first he ever made 7 "; 
Ecphantus of Melos, with his "fine ornament 8 "; the rival 
potters of Erythrae, with their superfine pots 9 ; Protogenes and 
his partridge 10 ; and others from Athens 11 , Aegina 12 ,Metapontium 18 , 
Naxos 14 . So the author (from the fourth century at least) 
might dedicate his book 15 , the poet his poem 16 ; and if I have 
rightly interpreted the Corinthian fragment, a learner might 
dedicate his alphabet 17 . 

The workman would also at times dedicate a picture or 
model of his work. One such is the picture of Mandrocles' 
bridge over the Hellespont, which dates from 480 18 ; possibly we 
may add models of the temple of Delos 19 . Hippocrates, with 
grim humour, offered as the result of his labours the model 
of a corpse or skeleton 20 . 

1 Pages 152, 153. Page 61. 

2 Page 160. 12 Page 61. 

3 Page 153. 13 Page 61. 

4 Page 267. 14 Page 61. 

5 Page 266. 15 Page 64. 

6 Page 268. i Page 65. 

7 Page 60. i? Pages 65, 66. 

8 Page 61. 1S Page 70. 

9 Page 63. 19 Page 70. 

10 Page 63. 20 Paus. x. 2. 6. 



3G8 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

The grower or breeder commemorated some special luck by 
models of the prize of his calling. Of this class are the golden 
sheaves of Delphi and Athens, the golden silphium, vine, and 
olives of Delos and Oropus 1 ; and perhaps one or another horse 
or goat, silver duck, or goose, or bronze bullock. The huntsman 
on the same principle dedicates a model of his prey : a hare at 
Samos and Priene 2 , perhaps the deer, bears, or other game 
found in excavations or ancient lists 8 . 

(5) The Tool or Means. An appropriate memorial of a 
successful piece of work is the tool it was done with. This 
class is not so large as the last ; but it is exemplified in legend, 
for example the Chest of Cypselus, and voucht for in literature 
from a very early date. There are a few examples of the arms or 
the clothes worn and used in a battle being dedicated. Earliest 
is the shield of Aristomenes the Messenian, from the seventh 
century 4 ; King Nekos of Egypt and the spear sung by 
Simonides 8 come next ; by Alexander's time and a little later 
the examples become more numerous 6 , but there is no reason 
to deny this to be an ancient custom, and it never (except 
perhaps in Alexander's own case 7 ) loses the simplicity and 
dignity of olden days. 

The objects used in the games were dedicated on the same 
principle : the victor's chariot, the weight or quoit, and doubt- 
less did we but know others besides. Bybon's huge stone was 
dedicated as much for his own glory as for the glory of God, 
but there it is still in Olympia, where it has rested for twenty- 
six centuries 8 . From the same early date come an Eleusinian 
leaping-weight 9 and a Corcyrean quoit 10 ; in legend we have the 
quoit of Iphitus". The earliest racing-car dedicated, which is 
on record, is that of Arcesilas (466)'*. 

As regards other tools, we have from legend the spear of 
Meleager 13 ; otherwise there are very few indications that the 

1 Page 66. 8 Page 160. 

2 Pages 67, 68, 69. 9 Page 161. 

3 Pages 63 ff. 10 Page 160. 

4 Page 112. " Page 160. 
Page 112. ia Page 162. 
Pages 112, 113. 13 Page 170. 
7 Page 112. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 369 

practice was ancient. Later, as exemplified in the Anthology, 
the custom seems to have been common enough 1 . In these later 
days, physician and author followed suit; indeed, physician's 
tools are not unknown as votive offerings in the early fourth 
century 2 . Even models of tools are found : a golden anvil at 
Delos 3 ; sickles, pruning-hooks, and winepresses in the time of 
Philostratus 4 . 

But to show that they were sometimes dedicated with a 
rather different idea, as things worn out, whose work is over, the 
evidence is slightly less scanty. The story of Cimon's bridle 5 , 
taken in conjunction with one or two epigrams of the fifth 
century 6 , and with the walking-sticks of Xenophon's host 7 , 
implies that the practice was ancient if not common. Later, 
the motive becomes a commonplace 8 . Now also the sick 
man's bandage and the lame man's crutch are dedicated 9 . 
Here tod we have the parallel of toys, trinkets, and other 
such things dedicated at puberty, when the owners put away 
childish things 10 . Both arms 11 and tools (e.g. loom-weights 
inscribed 12 ) have been found on sacred sites; whilst female 
ornaments and trinkets, brooches and pins, combs and mirrors, 
have turned up in Argos, Athens, Delos, Delphi, Dodona, 
Elatea, Tegea, Thebes, and almost in every temple which has 
been excavated 13 . Why these were dedicated, however, we 
cannot tell for certain ; we have choice of more than one 
explanation. Further examples of the principle we are dealing 
with were Pheidon's currency-bars 14 and possibly the old Attic 
alphabet 15 . 

One step further, and we come to clothes or trinkets worn 
in time of peril. These are dedicated as things done with, but 
also as memorials of the peril happily by God's grace escaped. 
We hear little of this in early days: hardly anything in the 

1 Page 71. 9 Page 224. 

2 Page 73. 10 Page 249. 

3 Page 78. n Pages 112, 113. 

4 Page 78. 12 Page 73. 

5 Page 70. 13 See Index. 

6 Page 112. 14 Page 74. 

7 Page 70. 15 Page 75. 

8 Pages 71, 113. 

R. 24 



370 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

fifth century, except captives' chains or chains intended for use 
on the victors 1 . After childbirth however something of the 
kind used to be done*. In the fourth century, shoes are found 
in the Asclepieum 8 ; in the Anthology, men saved from ship- 
wreck dedicate their clothes 4 . 

As memorials of the act of worship, the clothes or orna- 
ments 5 worn by the worshippers were sometimes dedicated ; 
perhaps, though there is no direct evidence here, the vessels 
used in the rite. This might explain the hosts of small 
cups, all of a shape, found on certain sacred sites 6 . Examples 
of the first group are the stlengides or head-ornaments in 
Delphi 7 , Delos 8 , Athens 9 , and elsewhere, and the clothes of 
mystae 10 . 

The offering of the hair must not be omitted, though it is 
difficult to find the right place for it. It is a custom of the 
highest antiquity, and originally (to judge from analogy) 
implied that the worshipper placed himself in the power of the 
god ; but in the classical age it was traditional and its meaning 
had long been forgotten. The hair is the 'firstfruit' of the 
worshipper, and as such it was offered at Delphi to Apollo 11 . It 
is offered to rivers and heroes ; the right is absorbed by the 
great gods, and it is then claimed later by many of them, 
especially Hera and Zeus 12 . The long youthful hair, or the first 
down on the chin, is offered at puberty, or at marriage ; it is 
also cut in mourning 13 . As a vow in time of peril and a dedica- 
tion for safety the rite is known from Homer to Lucian and 
St Paul 14 . Sometimes the cutting of the youthful lock is kept 
in the god's mind by a carving or an inscription 15 . 

Lastly, certain kinds of dedications are Allegorical. Such 
are those which personify the power of the god under the title 



1 Pages 115, 233. See Index .u. ff T\eyyh. 

2 Page 252. Page 277. 

3 Page 224. " Page 241. 

4 Page 232. 12 Page 241. 

Page 277. 13 Pages 242, 245. 

Page 301. " Page 245. 

7 Page 231. ls Pages 243, 244. 

8 Index. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 371 

of Victory ; which independently is a thank-offering for war 
alone 1 , but plays a part also in agonistic reliefs 2 . Of the same 
kind are the personified statues of Good Luck and the Good 
Spirit 3 , or of Vengeance 4 ; and such figures as Praxidica 8 , 
Damia and Auxesia 6 , Hygieia 7 . On the reliefs we also find 
personifications of Telete or Initiation, of the Dithyramb 8 , and 
of Good Order 9 : these last are not found independently, either 
as offerings or as deities to receive offerings. As a whole, this 
class is rare, but ancient. Enyalios, Eileithyia, and Lecho are 
probably personified epithets 10 ; Praxidica belongs to the legen- 
dary age ; Damia and Auxesia are ancient, and had a larger 
place in cult than appears on the face of it ; Victory is a votive 
offering as early as Archermus, and is not uncommon in the 
best age. 

The Epidaurian silver pig 11 is also allegorical, translating a 
metaphor into concrete form. The allegory is more elaborate 
in the group of Athena perched upon a palm tree, which was 
dedicated after the Eurymedon 12 ; and in the group of Alcibiades 
on Nemea's lap, dedicated for a Nemean victory 13 . A punning 
dedication by Comaras 14 , who offered the model of a strawberry, 
completes our list 15 . Allegorical figures and personifications are 
not unknown in the great age of Greek art 16 ; but in the fourth 
century they become common, not only on decree reliefs, but 
elsewhere 17 . 

It will be noticed that the portrait of the worshipper does 
not appear at all in the above classification. It is true that 

1 Page 142. probably from South Greece. 

2 Page 177. 15 The reader will recall the device of 

3 Page 192. a rose on Rhodian coins. 

4 Pages 144, 234. P. Gardner, JHS ix. 57 ff. He 

5 Page 248. quotes Night carrying Sleep and Death 

6 Page 191. on the Chest of Cypselus; Corinth 

7 Page 208. and Leucas on a fifth century mirror ; 

8 Page 179. to which may be added Hesiod's Dike 

9 Page 179. and Eris, Works and Days 220, 256, 

10 Page 252. 11 ff. The oldest on a decree is given 

11 Page 226. in AZ 1875 p. 104. 

12 Page 144. 17 As the figures in the Pomp of 

13 Page 174. Antiochus II and that of Ptolemy IV, 

14 IGA 556 9o/tdpas vvt6i)Kf : Athenaeus v. 1946. 

242 



372 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

many of the examples which I have recorded have been taken 
by others to be portraits; but I have found no reason to believe 
that the portrait as such was ever dedicated by a Greek until 
the votive dedication had lost its meaning. I do not say that 
Miltiades, for example, in the Marathonian group, was not 
recognised for Miltiades, or that he was not represented in form 
and feature to the life ; that may well have been so, and yet no 
dedicatory portrait. It makes all the difference in the world 
that Miltiades was part of an ideal group. So it was with all 
the other human figures in question which are clearly described : 
something of the ideal was in them, so that they suggested not 
this or that man, but this or that action or event. And since 
this principle seems never to be forgotten in the great age of 
Greece, I have ventured to assume it for the very few cases 
where nothing but the name or office of the person is given. 
I take it that to dedicate a portrait as such would have seemed 
the height of arrogance to a Greek, as the story of Pheidias and 
the shield of Athena implies, and as Demosthenes implies in 
an age when the thing was common 1 . And a few instances 
which I have yet to mention fully bear out this idea. It was 
no Greek, but the Egyptian Amasis, who sent two portraits of 
himself to the Argive Heraeum, and one to Gyrene*; it was the 
Asiatic Chares of Teichiusa who placed his own statue at 
Miletus 3 . These were the kind of men who would think their 
own image an ornament to any shrine: a peck of pride to a 
speck of piety. Pausanias himself did not dare to follow this 
example ; but the colossal vanity of Alcibiades was flattered by 
a statue dedicated in the Heraeum*, where also Lysander and 
his captains, many of them men otherwise unknown, were placed 
side by side with the Egyptian 5 . If these statues were portraits 
and nothing more (as the words of Pausanias suggest) we have 
here the earliest examples of honorific statues. But meanwhile 
an evil leaven had been working in the whole lump. The 



1 Page 135*. 

2 Herod, ii. 182 <?s ~K.vp^rjv...dK6va 3 Page 260. 
tuvrou ypa.<pij flKafffdvyv, 4s Zdjuoc T-Q 4 Paus. vi. 18. 2. 
"H/>]7 tiKWas fuvrov Buftaffias v\lvas, at ' Paus. vi. 3. 15. 

i5pva.ro fri tl 



GENERAL SKETCH. 373 

athlete statues of Olympia were generally not dedications, but 
set up as an honour 1 ; these had accustomed men to the sight of 
human figures in the divine presence, and the thought had 
become familiar that honour might be done to a man by 
placing him there. This new idea was turned to account, and 
the statues of the famous dead were placed in temple precincts : 
as Pericles and Anacreon on the Acropolis of Athens 2 , Anaxi- 
menes 3 and Aristotle 4 at Olympia, Gorgias at Olympia 5 and 
Delphi 6 . Now too the statues of living men were added. Conon 
and his son Timotheus were placed on the Acropolis in their life- 
time 7 , but without the dedicatory formula. The dedication of 
men like Epameinondas and Philopoemen was natural ; and 
Alexander the Great made the honour cheap. So by the end 
of the fourth century we have honorific statues dedicated with 
all formality for trivial reasons. More, the licence becomes 
impiety in the golden image of Phryne ; and Cottina of Sparta 
had the effrontery to dedicate her own image to Athena 8 . 
Long before the Delphic oracle had not refused the offering 
of Rhodopis ; but now so low had the gods sunk, that they 
could accept the image of a common strumpet, the trophy of 
Grecian intemperance. 

We have seen that the ideas of the dedicator, until Greek 
religion began to lose its sincerity, were simple; but as many 
have used symbolism largely as a principle of interpretation, it 
is necessary to examine the question. It has been asserted, for 
instance, that the attributes of a deity were regarded in some 
sort as representing him, and that they were dedicated to him 
for that reason ; that Artemis, say, was specially pleased by the 



1 Page 167. 6 Athen. xi. 505 D Topyia* fj-erd. ri> 

2 Paus. i. 25. 1. There is no reason iroiriffaffBai rr)v avadeviv TJJS iv Ae\</>o?s 
to suppose that the portrait of Pericles eavrov xpi'0">7S einovos. 

was dedicated during his lifetime. 7 Paus. i. 24. 3; CIA ii. 1360 K6vw 

3 Paus. vi. 18. 2. Ttyuotfeov, Tt/u60eoy Kbvuvos, without 

4 Paus. vi. 4. 8: set up by a pupil, dedicatory formula. 

or a soldier who knew that Aristotle 8 Polemon ap. Ath. xiii. 574 D av6.- 

had great influence with Antipater and 6t)/j.a 5e atfrijs e<rn...r6 

with Alexander before him. elK6viov. 
8 Paus. vi. 17. 2, 17. 7, 18. 7, 19. 1. 



374 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

offering of a deer, Athena by an owl, Zeus by an axe 1 . Let us 
see whether there are grounds for this statement. 

The objects associated with the gods are of two kinds : 
living creatures and inanimate things. Of the first kind are 
Athena's owl and serpent, Poseidon's dolphin, Hera's peacock, 
Aphrodite's dove or swan, the fawn of Artemis, the sacred crows 
of Apollo 3 , the eagle of Zeus, the horses of the Dioscuri, the 
snake of Asclepius. Of the second kind are Athena's aegis, 
gorgon-mask, lance, helmet, and shield ; Poseidon's trident ; 
the bow of Artemis ; the thunderbolt of Zeus ; the caduceus 
and hat of Hermes ; spear or sword, cloke, and conical cap of 
the Dioscuri ; Heracles' club and lionskin ; Apollo's harp or the 
tripod ; the fawnskin and thyrsus of Dionysus. 

To prove the symbolic use of these things it would be 
sufficient to show that the things in question were treated in 
the same way as their owners, that is worshipt ; to prove their 
symbolic dedication, in default of direct statement, it must be 
shown that certain articles, characteristic of a deity, were 
dedicated to that deity and to no other. Even then the motive 
would not be certain, but the hypothesis might nevertheless 
pass for the nonce. 

The first point is easily disposed of. There is no worship of 
the owl, the dove, the eagle, the peacock, or the fawn. The 
serpent comes nearer to being a symbol of Asclepius : it is 
credited with a share of his power, helps in his cures, and is 
fed by the worshippers with sacrificial cakes 8 . It is on some 
occasions regarded as a kind of embodiment of the god himself 4 ; 
and on the reliefs takes its place almost as one of the family. 
But the snake is also associated with Athena, and it is never 
treated as an embodiment of that goddess ; it is also associated 
with the heroes, Dioscuri and others. Since then the snake is 



1 Reisch, p. 9; Bather, JHS xiii. 

242; Evans, JHS xxi. 99 fit.; Hogarth, 4 Paus. ii. 10. 3. So a serpent was 

Ann. Br. Sch. Ath. vi. 114. said to be a hero i. 24. 7, 86. 1, iv. 14. 

1 Schol. Arist. Plutus 604 irtpl rbv 1. Dedications to it are only found 

nayaffijTiKov ic6\irov eldov irepiwTa/j.ti>ovs very late, as Rev. Arch. xxvi. 27 Troiak, 

TOUS ToO 'AiriXXwvos kpous KopaKas. Ti. Claud. Kufus 5p6.Kovn -njJ w5e 

3 Page 205. So the dogs in Pei- r^co^eVy Supov, with relief of the snake 

raeus : "E0. 'Apx- 1885 rpia irbirava. rots approaching a cup. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 375 

not confined to Asclepius, nor even to the heroes, its figure 
must be a very imperfect symbol ; for no one seeing it alone 
would understand what it was meant to symbolize. There are 
it is true reliefs which show the serpent alone, without a divine 
figure, and there is even a dedication to the serpent 1 ; but these 
may all be disregarded, for they fall after the great dividing 
line of the fourth century. Nor can I admit that the owl as a 
coin type is a symbol in the proper sense. Rather it is a 
shorthand mark, so to say, for Athens, which was noted for its 
abundance of owls, and it doubtless had for the ancients the 
same meaning as the Russian Bear in a cartoon of Punch, or 
the beaver and the kangaroo on a postage stamp. It is in fact 
a pictorial representation of Athens, not of Athena, and need 
have no more religious significance than the rose on a coin of 
Rhodes. Athena with the owl is recognisable for Athena with 
Athens in her hand, as Athena with the raven or crow is Athena 
ruling Corone 2 . The Bull Dionysus, the Wolf Apollo, and such 
like cannot be brought in evidence ; for these are not attendant 
animals at all, whatever their meaning may be. No one has 
ever yet heard of an Owl Athena, an Eagle Zeus, or a Peacock 
Hera. The attendant animals are therefore not treated as 
equivalent to their deities, and are therefore not proved to 
be symbols of them. 

Nor is there any evidence, before the fourth century, of any 
tendency to treat the inanimate attributes of a deity as his 
equivalent. Again I must draw a distinction. There are traces 
of fetishism, that I freely admit. The sceptre of Hephaestus 
was worshipt in Lebadea; but for its own sake, not as the 
symbol of any god. A legend tells how Aeneas set up a spear 
in the market-place, and bade the people worship it ; but he 
did not call it a symbol of Athena, of Aphrodite, of the Dioscuri. 

1 Page 374*. But in IGA 162 6<f>ie<rffi KOP&VTJ 8' ek TT\V ' AdrjvaLwv 6.Kpl>iro\iv 
is wrongly restored. See IGS i. 2734. OVK forw ^Tri/Sara, but he does not say 

2 At Corone she carried a crow why. Perhaps because it was thought 
(Paus. iv. 34. 6), which was no doubt to be an enemy to the owl, Arist. Hist. 
a plastic pun like the rose. What did An. xi. 608 a 8, Plut. de inv. et od. 
she carry in Ithaca? Aelian mentions 537s, Neil on Knights of Aristoph. 
(Hist. An. v. 8) that ravens were not 1051. For figures of ravens or crows, 
allowed on the Athenian Acropolis, see below p. 383. 



376 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

I do not know whether any one will summon to court the mad 
tyrant of Pherae, who worshipt his own murderous spear 1 ; or 
the Scythian Sauromatae, who worshipt a dirk 8 , or the Arcadian 
chieftain in Aeschylus, who swore by a spear-head 8 . The stone of 
Cronus was regularly oiled and worshipt 4 ; but not as a symbol 
of Zeus. Stones, which may have been meteoric, were deified 
at Thespiae and Ephesus 8 . To the thunderbolt were paid divine 
honours in Seleucia, and in the Hellenistic age 8 ; it may be in 
Arcadia 7 and Olympia 8 at an earlier date. But fetish worship is 
quite a different thing from symbolism. The stones are feared 
for their supposed power, and were probably worshipt before 
iconic deities were known : they are not the distinguishing 
mark of a deity, abstracted from his whole figure and worshipt 
in his place. The only possible exception is the case mentioned 
by Arrian ; even that is not certain, and in any case the date 
puts it out of court. For the other attributes as symbols there 
is not a particle of evidence. There is not a sign that the 
aegis, spear, or shield was worshipt or even held in special 
honour as representing Athena; there is no worship of the 
tripod or the lyre, of the thyrsus and fawnskin, of the trident, 
of the herald's staff, of Hermes' topboots and wideawake hat. 

When we examine these attributes, they are seen to be all 
(with three exceptions) things of every day : club, bow, and 
spear, or battleaxe, helmet and shield ; travelling boots, hats 
conical or flat ; fawnskin or lionskin ; sheaves of corn, a bunch 
of grapes; torches, hunting-spear or harpoon. They are in fact 
simply the properties of a character costume. If the god is to 
be represented before the eye as a protector, he will naturally 



1 Page 113. 7 Collitz i. 1197. 

2 Herod, iv. 62 dKwd/cijs <n5i)peos... 8 Paus. v. 14. 9. It may be merely 
tffrl TOV "Aprjos TO aya\/j.a. Clem. Alex. that the noun is put in apposition 
A dm. ad Gent. 43 A "2,KvOu>v 5t ol 2av- like Athena Hygieia, and that the 
pofj-drat, ws <fyrj<riv 'IK&HOS fr r$ irepl phrase meant the same as Zeus Bronton 
(jLVffTTiplwv, dicii>dKi)v fftfiovffiv. (BCH xx. 117) or Zeus Brontesios. 

3 Aesch. Sept. 516 o/wwi 5' alxj^i]v How loosely such appositions could be 
rjv #x> IM\\OV Oeov ff^eiv ireiroiOAs. used is seen from the Torch Dionysus 

4 Page 318. at Pellene (Paus. vii. 27. 3), for whom 
8 Paus. ix. 27. 1. a torchlight vigil was held. So Aphro- 
8 Appian, Bell. Syr. 58. dite Symmachia, Paus. viii. 9. 6. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 377 

be armed; but the arms do not distinguish between Athena 
and Aphrodite 1 . Or again, in a place where the warrior rides, 
he may be mounted on horseback ; but horse and spear do not 
distinguish the Dioscuri from Poseidon 2 . If he is to be regarded 
as a traveller, he wears hat and boots; but the} 7 do not 
distinguish the Dioscuri from Hermes 3 . Poseidon holds a 
trident because the trident was used in fishing, or in war, or 
both 4 . Hermes bears the herald's staff because he is herald of 
the gods ; but Iris on the same duty carries it too 5 . 'Examples 
of the staff exist which once belonged to human heralds 6 ; and 
it bears a striking resemblance to the shepherd's crook 7 . And 
as the attributes do not distinguish one deity from another, so 
they are not essential nor constant. If the conception is that 
of a deity, male or female, and nothing more particular, the 
deity will naturally be arrayed as a human being would be. 
So the simple woman's dress does not distinguish between 
Athena, Artemis, and Demeter. The figures found on the 
Acropolis of Athens, which I have given reason to take for 
Athena, represent now a beautiful maiden in gala dress 8 , now 
the matronly figure seated upon a throne, indistinguishable 
from Demeter or Hecate ; or again, many possible variations 
of garb, the maiden simply draped holding a spear or a shield 
and approximating to the belligerent type in panoply with 
spear at thrust 9 . The seated Demeter of Eleusis might be 
Athena; and at Tegea the explorers hesitate which name to 

1 Armed Aphrodite at Corinth, Paus. 8 Gaz. Arch. i. pi. 15, r.-f . vase ; 
ii. 5. 1 ; at Cythera, iii. 23. 1 ; Sparta, Hon. Ined. vi. pi. 58 ; etc. 

Plut. de fort. Rom. 317 r. Cat. Br. Mus. Bronzes, 319. 

2 Paus. i. 2. 4; cp. vi. 25. 5. 7 See the Crook of Talthybius, 

3 The shape of the hat worn by the Wiener Vorlegeblatter, Series C. vi. viii. 
Dioscuri varies ; but it depends on 3. The snakes are a later develop- 
local custom. ment, like the wings on his boots ; the 

4 Stephani, Compte Rendu, 1867 p. staff has a very simple origin. The 
89, 1868 p. 65. It is borne by Taras, mystical interpretation must not be 
Bellerophon, Amphitrite, Pan and A- suggested for early days, as Frazer does 
polio, in Asia Minor by Osogos and (Pausanias iii. 649). 

Zeus Labrandeus, who has both axe 8 It should be noted that the 

and trident. For trident as fish-spear, simple drapery appears on some reliefs, 

see Anthol. Pal. vi. 30, 38; Eudocia and is very frequent with the helmet 

(Teubner) p. 571. I have seen it so and spear only, 

used myself in Greek waters. 9 A A viii. 140 ff. 



378 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

use 1 . At Erythrae, Athena holds a distaff in either hand 2 , 
the embodiment no doubt of good housewifery. Apollo holds 
now a lyre now a bow, or again he is stark naked and 
unarmed 8 . Artemis appears in the same temple now with 
torches, now with bow and arrow 4 . Zeus himself, if I am not 
mistaken, appears at Olympia drest as a man of reverend 
and benevolent aspect, without thunderbolt 6 . The truth is, 
that the meaning of these figures is conveyed by the whole, 
not laid on in the shape of external attributes 8 . Coupled 
with the whole figure, the attributes have meaning ; alone they 
have none. There are only three which were not common 
articles of use: thyrsus, aegis, and thunderbolt. The thyrsus 
was however used by human beings on special occasions, and 
we may suppose the god to carry it because his worshippers 
did, not vice versd. The aegis, again, was in all probability a 
goatskin once used as a cape by the people who worshipt 
Athena 7 ; but its origin forgotten it became a traditional 
ornament. Remains the thunderbolt, which as represented in 
art is perhaps an attempt to reproduce the aspect of forked 
lightning; but its origin does not matter for my purpose, as 
I shall be able to show that it does not help the symbolists. 

This view of the divine attributes applies ex hypothesi down 
to the fourth century ; after which a great change takes place. 
Now the religious conception of the gods decays, and what may 

1 AM iv. 170 ff. to suppose that a poet can personify 

2 Paus. vii. 5. 9. anything by giving it a capital letter; 
1 Paus. ii. 30. 1. or that a soldier would salute his 

4 Paus. ix. 19. 6. Compare Anth. colonel's dress tunic. 

App. Plan. xvi. 253 "Apre/xt, irov <roi 7 Herod, iv. 189 T^>> 8t Apa fffffrjra. 

To|a, trapavxtvlTi re <f>ap^rpi}; irov ot Kal rds aiyidas ruv dyaX/Miruv TTJS 'AOrj- 

A.vKaffreiwv iv6pofi.it dppvXiSwv, ir&pin] valrjt K r(av Aipwrfftuv tTrorfffavro ol 

5 xpvffoio Tcrvytdvri, 176"^ irpbs AKprjv "EXXT/yes 1 wXty yap rj on ffKvrivi) ri 

lyvvrjv <f>otvi irtir\os i\ ur<r6fji(vos ; Kfiva <rOris ruv Aifiufffftuv tarl, Kal ol Oixravoi 

fj^v eis Aypriv oirXlfofiai- s Si 0vr)\bs ol K ruv alylSuv airryffi OVK o^t^j dffi, 

fl/ji aOrws, Ipuv dvro/J^vr] ffv^uv. dXXA. IfjAvnvof TO. 5 &\\a irdvra. (carA 

5 Bronzen ton 01., vii. 40. TWVTO tffTa.\Tai...a.iy4as yap ire/)i/3dXXov- 

6 As has been well said of allegorical rai ^iXij irepl rty iffOffro. a.1 Alfivffffai. 
figures in good art by P. Gardner, JUS The goatskin is used as a war-coat in 
ix. 57. To give meaning to the attri- Borneo : Haddon, Head-Huntert, 352. 
bate alone is as crude a thought, as 



GENERAL SKETCH. 379 

be called idolatry takes its place. The first trace of an abstrac- 
tion of divine attributes which I have met with is in the 
Pomp of Ptolemy described by Athenaeus 1 . Here amidst a 
magnificent spectacle of gods, heroes, and personifications, are 
a gilded caduceus of forty-five cubits in length, and a gilded 
thunderbolt of forty cubits. And Artemidorus, the man who 
built so many altars in Thera 2 , when Ptolemy Euergetes was 
King of Egypt, engraved on a rock the figure of an eagle with 
a dedication to Zeus, and the figure of a dolphin dedicated to 
Poseidon 3 . The same tendency is shown in a series of catalogue- 
marks used by the Epidaurian priests to distinguish the property 
of the various deities which were in their place 4 . A number 
of these appear to be arbitrary, or at least they have been 
conventionalized out of recognition ; but many are easily 
distinguishable as attributes which had by that date become 
traditional. Athena is denoted by spear and shield in outline ; 
Artemis by an arrow drawn to the head in a bow ; Poseidon by 
the trident ; Hygieia by the snake 5 . These of course are mere 
shorthand marks and bear no religious significance; but they 
illustrate the tendency of the day. At the same time, fanciful 
interpretations began to be given for the association of this or 
that with a deity 6 , of which the most striking example is 
Plutarch's debate on the significance of the Delphic E. 

1 Athenaeus v. 202 c KyptKeiov tirl- Fortune. 

Xflvffov ITIJXUV TfffffapaKOVTa irtvre, Ktd 6 Athenaeus vii. 325 A TJ 5' 'E/cdri; 

Kepavvbs tiri\pixros ir-r]X^> v TeffffapaKovTa. diroSlSoTai 17 rply\ij Sid. TIJV rijj dvo/Jiafflas 

2 Above, p. 272. Koivb-rqTa. rpiotiiris yap Kal TplyXrjvos- 

3 F. Hiller von Gaertringen, 'A.pre/j.1- Kal rats rpiaKdffi dt afrrrj TO. Seiirva. 
Swpos, in the local paper lE,avropivij, fapowi. Kara TO irapair\-t]ffiov 8' ot- 
Aug. 2, 1899. At* '0\vfiirl<i>. 'Aer&v Keiovfftv 'Atr6\\uvi fjLev KiQapov, 'EpM 8e 
v\f/iiTfrrj Atos d'yyeXoi' 'Apre/j.ldupos attv /36aa, Aiovi/o-y 8 Kirrdv, Kal 'A<f>poSirrj 
Ty ir6\ei eke Kal dBavdroiffi ffeoifftv. <pa\api8a...KaTa ffwepQaffiv rov <pa\\ov. 
H<xrei8u>vi IIe\a7^. Il^rpa ev aKO.fia.Tri Kal TTJV vrfTTav KaXovfUv-rjv HoffeiSuvl 
Se\<piva Beolfftv ^Tev^ev, eCvovv avQp&irois Tives olKeiouffi, etc. Even Nestor's 
vevopifffdvov 'Apre/iiSwpoj. prize at the funeral games, a 0iXi7, is 

4 AM xxiv. 386 ff., IPI i. p. 186 ff. said to be given in Sia TT\V QiXoirwriav : 

5 Others are: three dots for the sons Ath. x. 433 D. So Pausanias (vii. 23. 
of Asclepius, scales for Justice, a twig 6) explains the torches of Eileithyia 
for Zeus, hammer and tongs for as either symbolizing the fiery pangs 
Hephaestus, sistrum for Isis, whip for of childbirth, or the ushering of the 
Poseidon Hippius, horn of plenty for child into the light of day. 



380 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

If this reasoning be sound, it follows that the Greeks would 
not consecrate an attribute, or an attendant animal, as an 
equivalent for the deity himself; nor was there any reason 
why they should expect the deity to be specially pleased with 
such a gift. Let us see whether the facts fit in with this view. 
If I can show (1) that some attributes supposed to be specially 
agreeable to a deity are not consecrated to that deity at all, in 
kind or in model; (2) that some of those which are so con- 
secrated, are given to other deities as well ; (3) that where the 
reason is recorded, it is not that the thing was the deity's 
attribute or attendant animal : I shall be justified in denying 
the principle and in leaving the burden of proof with those who 
uphold it. If I find this rule violated after the fourth century, 
I shall regard this as further evidence that the change of idea 
which I see in the fourth century did take place. And first as 
to the animals. 

(1) Before the fourth century there is no recorded dedica- 
tion of an owl to Athena 1 , an eagle or a dove to Zeus, a cuckoo 
or peacock to Hera, a dolphin to Poseidon, or of a snake to 
Asclepius or the heroes. But on the other hypothesis we 
should expect to find whole series of these objects in the 
shrines. 

(2) The stag or fawn was sacrificed to Artemis Laphria at 
certain seasons, and models of wild game are dedicated to her 
at Lusi. But the stag or fawn, the hare, bear, or lion are 
dedicated in model also to Zeus, to Cabirus, and to Menelaus 
and Helen, whose attendant animals they are not. Now on the 
other hypothesis we should expect not a few, but whole series 
of such dedications at the chief shrines of Artemis ; yet there 
are none, I believe, either in Delos or in Corcyra. I have given 
reason to think that these models are hunters' offerings, or that 
after a certain date they may be toys. If they were hunters' 
offerings or toys when dedicated to Zeus and Cabirus, they may 
fairly be regarded as the same when dedicated to Artemis. 
These animals must also be taken in conjunction with the 
bull, the ram, the goat, the sheep, and the horse, which are 

1 For the bronze owls of the Aero- the Inventories, 383 -. 
polls see below, p. 383 ; for the owls of 



GENERAL SKETCH. 381 

also widely distributed ; and if simple ideas can be suggested, 
that they were a memorial of an act or process, or models of 
prey or gain, to cover all, they are more likely to be true than 
a subtile philosophising reason for which no evidence can be 
produced. 

(3) I find in the Anthology a bronze cock dedicated to the 
Tyndaridae, but for victory 1 ; and a lion dedicated to Cybele, 
but because the beating of the priest's tympanum saved him 
from a lion*. Two gold eagles were dedicated at Delphi, and 
the reason given is not that they were symbols of Zeus, but that 
they might be memorials of the legendary meeting of two eagles 
at the centre spot of the earth 3 . All these, moreover, fall after 
the fourth century; and in the same period there is an owl 
dedicated by Phaedus on the Athenian Acropolis 4 , and a peacock 
dedicated by Hadrian to Argive Hera, "because the bird is 
held to be sacred to Hera 5 ." The dedication of the owl, so far 
from appearing a natural thing, seemed ludicrous, and the 
familiar proverb was applied to it with a difference, as though 
the man had sent coals to Newcastle. Thus we are not at 
liberty to interpret the ancient bronze owls found on the 
Acropolis as independent dedications, but as parts of statuettes 
or other objects 6 . The eagles and doves found in Olympia and 
Dodona were also not independently dedicated 7 . There were 
terra-cotta images of snakes found in the sanctuary of the 

1 Anth. Pal. vi. 149. no clue to their origin. They may 

2 Anth. Pal. vi. 218 9. have been part of a group. See note 

3 Schol. Eur. Or. 331 ava.Ket<r0a.t dt 6. The tortoise called votive in the 
Xpwovs aerovs faffi ruv fj.vdevo/j.frwv Cat. Cypr. Mua. 3277, was found in a 
deruv viroiJ.vTtfM.ra.. Similar memorials tomb. 

of a myth may be the goat suckling 5 Paus. ii. 17. 6. It will be remem- 

Apollo's children in Crete (Paus. x. 16. bered that Hera at Argos had a cuckoo, 

5) ; these were the founders of the not a peacock, which was her bird in 

state. And Procne and Itys at Samos (Athen. xiv. 655 B). 

Athens (i. 24. 3). 6 Bidder, Cat. 532 ff. Like the 

4 Corp. Paroem. Gr. i. p. 391 7X011$ swan (530), the eagles (538 40). No. 
iv vbXei- virb &al8ov dvertOTj y\av iv 534 however is doubtful. There are 
aicpoTrbXei. I will not assume that the also crows in this place (541 3) and 
tetradrachm is meant, Hesych. s. v. snakes (544 ff.). 

7Xatf. A rude stone owl is in the 7 Bronzen von 01. xiii. 210, 211 etc.; 

Acropolis Museum, No. 1347, and one cp. vii. 45, ix. 56. Carapanos, Dodone, 
or two others were found; but there is xxi. 5, cp. xxi. 4 bis. 



382 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Mistress in Arcadia; but their date is unknown, and their 
object is unknown 1 . There were gold or silver snakes 
dedicated to Asclepius in Athens, but not before the fourth 
century: these were probably bangles, which went by the 
name of snake. A bronze peacock was found in the Heraeum ; 
this too may have been part of another object, or if not, 
why should it not be a toy or ornament equally with the 
porcelain monkey and the porcelain cat 2 ? A few doves, 
one pair billing together, were found by the shrine of 
Aphrodite at Daphni 3 and in Cyprus: if they were votive 
offerings, what was their date? and were they dedicated 
perhaps as a model of sacrifice, or as an allegory of human love ? 
Crows are found in the shrine of Athena at Athens ; but we 
hear nothing of their being sacred to her there or elsewhere. 
Aphrodite stands in Elis with her foot on a tortoise, " a hint to 
wives," says Plutarch, " that they should stay at home and hold 
their tongues 4 "; but more prosaic souls will remember that 
the tortoise was a common form of footstool 8 . Lais was killed, 
it is said, by jealous Thessalian women, who beat her to death 
with "wooden tortoises" in the temple of Aphrodite 8 . I do not 
know how it is to be proved that these were models dedicated 
to the goddess for mystical reasons, and not rather footstools 
caught up or brought from home as a ready weapon. 

The facts may be summed up thus. There is no series of 
attendant animals dedicated to a deity on which an argument 
can be based. A few sporadic examples of these animals are 
found ; but such animals dedicated to one deity generally are 
dedicated to one or more others. Those which can be shown to 
imply the idea that a deity preferred his attendant animal as a 

1 Frazer, Pausanias iv. 370: the Kal <rtwir7?s. Representatives of this 
date of the temple is later than the type are known in art: Roscher i. 
fourth century. 412 ; Bernouilli, Aphrodite, 150 2 , 323 

2 Frazer, Pausanias iii. 177 8. (quoted by Frazer on Paus. I. c.). 

3 Frazer, Pausanias ii. 497. 8 Athen. 589 B, Hesych., Suid. 

4 Paus. vi. 25. 1 leaves the curious 6 Schol. Arist. Plut. 179 xa.1 
to guess the meaning of the tortoise on frXoTwirovffat. al QerraXal yv 
and the goat. Plut. Pr. Con. 142 D tybvevaav OI/TTJC ^l 
'A.<f>podlrT)v 4>ei5/aj iiroljiffe xeK&vyv ira- rovffai iv T<J5 ie/xj> -rijs ' 

, olxovpias ff6(i./lo\ov TCUS yvva.1%1 



GENERAL SKETCH. 383 

votive offering, are all too late to be brought in evidence 1 ; 
those of which this cannot be shown are better explained on 
other and simpler principles. The doubtful ones cannot be 
proved to have been dedicated independently, and most of them 
are clearly parts of something else. Some few, apparently old 
and genuine, remain unexplained, such as the crows and the owl 
of Athens which stand on independent bases 8 . I will grant these 
to the symbolists; to build up a reversed Chinese pagoda, on 
a point supported by three crows and one obscure bird of night. 
Next, the inanimate attributes. 

(1) The only divine attribute which is really distinctive is 
the thunderbolt, and this would make a pretty object for 
dedication ; in fact objects of the same shape as the bolt of 
Zens are now made and used as charms in India under the 
name of Indra's thunderbolts 3 . But the thunderbolt is never 
dedicated to Zeus or anybody else, neither has one been found 
in any of his shrines except in the hand of a figure. The 
symbolic argument fails utterly, then, just where it should be 
strongest, and gives presumptive evidence against the symbolic 
theory elsewhere. 

(2) Arms and armour are the attributes of Aphrodite, 
Athena, Apollo, Artemis, the Dioscuri. They are constantly 
dedicated, and not to these deities only 4 but to Zeus who does not 
wear them. The distinctive mark of Athena, the aegis, is not 
dedicated to any ; nor are the hats of Hermes and the Dioscuri. 
Clothes and shoes are dedicated, not to these deities, but to 
Artemis and Asclepius, to Athena, Apollo, and Poseidon 5 . Corn, 
or its model, is dedicated not only to Demeter but to Apollo, 
Athena, Artemis 6 ; grapes not to Dionysus only, but to Athena, 
Apollo, and Amphiaraus 7 , to Pan and Cabirus 8 . Skins of beasts 

1 Tortoises on Mt Parthenius were here will exclude the other. Owls were 
sacred to Pan, and were not allowed welcomed in this spot, crows or ravens 
to be slain (Paus. viii. 54. 7), but we driven away. 

hear nothing of the votive dedication 3 I have several in my possession. 

of tortoises to him by worshippers. 4 If there is an exception, they are 

2 Bidder Cat. 541 3, 534. The owls accidental. I do not remember a dedi- 
of the Athenian Inventory (see p. 394) cation of spoil to the Dioscuri. 

are not earlier than the fourth century. 5 Pages 249 9 , 275. 

It should be observed that a symbolic ex- 6 Pages 66, 53. 7 Pages 52, 66. 

planation which suits either owl or crow 8 Chap. n. ; page 66. 



384 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

are offered to Artemis, Pan, and the Nymphs 1 as well as to 
Heracles and Dionysus. Torches are offered not to Hecate but 
to Athena 2 . No lyre is dedicated to Apollo, who bears it, but it 
is dedicated to Athena, who does not 8 . Tridents are offered 
to Poseidon, the thyrsus to Dionysus and to no one else : but 
why ? This brings us to the third point. 

(3) The reasons given for dedication are never symbolic 4 . 
The arms and armour are spoils of war or weapons used in war ; 
clothes and shoes are firstfruits of work, thank-offerings for 
healing, or meant to dress the god's image. Corn and grapes 
are the firstt'ruit or tithe. Skins of beasts are the hunter's 
firstfruit, the fawnskin and thyrsus 8 are the ceremonial dress 
dedication in memory of the orgy. Torches are a prize or a 
used tool, tridents the fisherman's spears which have been used, 
or are now past use. The lyre is a gift from Lesbos, where 
such things were made 6 . 

In and after the fourth century, I still find no thunderbolts 
and no caduceus ; but Antiochus, it is said, " dedicated " a gold 
aegis with a gorgoneum upon it, above the theatre in Athens 7 ; 
as little a true dedication as an honorific statue set up in the 
agora. 

I think I have proved that there is no case for the dedica- 
tion of attributes or attendant animals to a deity for the reason 
that they were his attributes or attendant animals. What 
originally suggested the mistaken idea was a difference in feeling 
which has grown up between then and now, and especially the 
reverence of Christendom for the Cross. It follows that the 
object dedicated, such as a wolf, cock, or torch, cannot be made 
a criterion for deciding to what deity it was offered 8 . 

Two articles need further consideration, because a symbolic or 

1 Pages 44, 50, 51. ception ; but it is later than the fourth 

2 Page 177 13 ; see also Indices *.t>. Soft, century. 5 Anth. Pal. vi. 172. 

3 Cakes in lyre form, or stampt with 6 See Index i., and cp. p. 269 s . 

a lyre, are mentioned by Steph. Byz.*.r. 7 1'aus. v. 12. 4. The aegis in the 

Jldrapa, as offered to Apollo in Lyciau Athenian Inventory is probably, like 

Patara; but we know neither their the Gorgon-mask, a shield-device (see 

date nor anything more about them. p. 894); but in any case both are not 

There is no parallel dedication of the earlier than the fourth century, 

real lyre, as in the case of animal cakes. 8 As is done in AJA vii. 406 fif. by 

4 Anth. Pal. vi. 158 is a possible ex- B. B. Richardson. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 385 

hieratic meaning has been attached to both : the tripod, which 
is supposed to have special reference to Apollo ; and the double- 
headed axe, which has been similarly associated with Zeus 1 . 

In Homeric days tripods and kettles formed no small part 
of human wealth ; they were given as prizes and gifts, and they 
are spoken of in numbers just as one might speak of so many 
ounces of gold 2 . They were dedicated in hosts at the great 
shrines, where they were one of the most notable sights 3 . At 
Dodona the old ones appear to have been so many, that piled 
in heaps they formed a wall 4 . Quantities of fragments have been 
found at the Heraeum, at Athens, Delos, Delphi, and Dodona. 
It appears, indeed, that like other material wealth, these had a 
certain fixed value, and past current like coins from hand to 
hand. Tripod and kettle are the names of units of currency in 
Crete 6 ; whether these were coins with that device on them or 
not, they can only be explained by supposing that the real 
things had once been such units 6 . This will account for the 
common use of the tripod as a prize 7 ; originally given for what 
it was worth, it became a thing of tradition. The ancient 
symbolists gave the tripod a mystical meaning, (for example) 
that the three legs symbolized past, present, and future ; and 
they associated it with Apollo because of his prophetic truth, 
with Dionysus because there is truth in the wine-cup 8 . The 



1 See Eeisch p. 6; Evans, Mycenean Kartdvo-e Sib rpnr65wv tpirifjuav; iii. 178 
Tree and Pillar Cult, JHS xxi. 99; ~n.vOu>va...tvOev aXts TpliroSas irepiica\- 
Hogarth, Ann. Sr. Sch. Ath. vi. 114. X&w rjdt X^rjras iropdrfffu ical xP vff ^>"> 
Bouse, The Double Axe and the Laby- aXis r 1 aWuva ffidypov, ml iro\\V 
rinth, JHS xxi. 268 ff. ^eifra. 

2 II. viii. 290, ix. 122, 264, xix. 243, 4 Carapanos, Dodone, 216 (Heuzey) ; 
xxiv. 233; Od. iv. 129, xv. 84, 129; Steph. By/. s. v. AwdAvr]. 

Hymn iii. 61 rpiirodas /card foiKov tiry- s Mus. It. ii.195 32 , 222; Roberts, p. 53. 

eravovs re \tftrrra.s ; Theopompus ap. 6 Ridgeway, Currency, 314 ; Hon. 

Ath. vi. 231 F r/v y&p rb waXaibv rb Ant. i. 79 85. 

lepbv KfKo<rfj.r]fji^vov ^aX/coIy avaQ-fjuaffiv, 7 Above, pp. 151, 152, 156. 

ofiK dvdpido-iv dXXa \t/3i)<n Ka.1 rpliroffi. 8 Diod. xvi. 26 ; Ath. ii. 37 F rb 

So in Sicily: Phanias ap. Ath. vi. viK-rjT-/ipiov iv Aiovfaov rplirovs- ical y&p 

232 c. As prizes, see p. 151 above. K rpiirodos \tyeiv tf>afj.tv rous a\-r]6eijov- 

Pindar Pyth. xi. 4 says of Ismenian raj...5t6 ' A.ir6\\wi>os /j.ti> ofoetos did, rty 

Apollo : xP vff twv is S.dvrov Tpnr65u>i> K (jiai>TiKrjs aM]6eiav, Atovi^erou $ Sii 

6i]ffavp6v. T$IV 4v fJ^By, Schol. Arist. Plutus 9 

3 Horn. Hymn ii. 265 ts S' ddvrov rpliroSi XP^) Tal 'A?r6XXwi' 8ib rouj rpets 

R. 25 



386 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

moderns, perhaps without going so far, have yet sometimes 
seen a special appropriateness in the gift of a tripod to these 
two gods. But the tripod has no special connexion with either. 
It is dedicated not only to Dionysus as a musical prize ; not 
only to Apollo in the shrines of Amyclae 1 , Delphi 2 , and Delos 3 , 
Apollo Ismenian 4 and Apollo Ptoan 8 : but to Zeus at Dodona 8 , 
Olympia 7 , and Ithome 8 , to Hera in Argos 9 , to Athena at 
Athens 10 , to the Graces and Muses 11 , to Heracles at Thebes 12 , in 
the Hierothysium at Messene 13 , and in the Idaeau cave of 
Crete". 

The double-headed axe also appears to have had a fixt 
value in early days, and to have been a unit of currency ; as it 
once was in America, and still is amongst backward races of 
men in Africa 18 . The people of Tenedos send axes to Delphi as 
a thank-offering for what appears to have been a large catch of 
crabs 16 . A Greek butcher in Italy offers an axe as tithe of his 
profits 17 . Silver bowl and axe of price were a gift from Timasion to 
Seuthes 18 . As the tripod, so also the axe forms a coin-device in 
Crete, Tenedos, and Pherae 19 ; and the " silver axe " is a coin in 
Cyprus 20 . These indications throw light on the store of axes in 
the palace of Odysseus, which were doubtless part of his wealth"; 
and on the axe as a prize in games 22 . But the axe has no 

Kaipovs r> irpayfj.d.Twv...T<i T ovra rd ll IGS. i. 1795. 

T' tabneva. irp6 r tbvra.. There is safety 12 Paus. x. 7. 6. 

in numbers. 13 Paus. iv. 32. 1. 

1 Paus. iii. 18. 7. 14 Museum of Candia; Mus. It. ii. 

2 In the Museum at Delphi ; Athen. 742. 

vi. 231, 232. " Ridgeway, Origin of Coin and 

3 BCHvi. 118. Weight Standards, 317; Early Age, i. 

4 Find. Pyth. ix. 5; Herod, i. 92, 443. 

v. 59; Paus. ix. 10. 4 (quoted by 16 Plut. Pyth. Or. 12; above, pp. 58 5 , 

Reisch). 92 7 , JHS xxi. 271. 

8 BCH ix. 478, 480, 524; AM iii. 17 IGA 543; above, p. 92. 

86. 18 Ath. iv. 151 C Kai ftfj-affiuv irpoirlvuv 

8 Carapanos, Dodone, xxiii. 3. <pid\yv re dpyvpav ical KoiriS' di-iav d^Ka, 

7 Bronzen von 01., p. 72. /JLVUV. Xen. Anab. vii. 3. 18. 

8 Bronzen von 01., p. 13, Paus. iv. u Head, Hist. Num. 
12. 9. 20 Collitz i. 60 etc. 

9 Dr Waldstein. m Od. xxi. 76. 

10 Ridder, Cat. Index ; JHS xiii. Od. xxiii. 851. 
233; CIA iv. 1.373". 



GENERAL SKETCH. 



special connexion with Zeus : it is found not only at Dpdoha 1 , 
Olympia 2 , and in Crete 3 , but is dedicated to Apollo in Delphi 
and elsewhere 4 , and to Artemis in Arcadia 5 . It is also seen in 
the hands of Dionysus 6 , the Amazons 7 , local heroes of Asia 
Minor 8 ; and Apollo in the same region 9 ; on a relief from Melos 
it is used to slay the Calydonian Boar 10 ; Ino attempts to kill 
Phrixus with it"; Theseus rights with it 12 . Double axes with 
marks of use on them have been found in a carpenter's shop at 
Anthedon 13 . There is nothing holy about this kind of axe, and 
if Zeus carries one at Labranda 14 , he does so because it is a 
weapon ; he stands for the protector of the city as Athena is 
with her spear and shield. There is 
therefore no recondite or symbolical mean- 
ing in the dedication of axes to Zeus or 
anybody else : indeed, where the reason 
is stated, they are either a tithe or spoil 
of war 15 . 

But there is another point to discuss. 
Both tripods and axes are made in 
miniature. At Olympia hundreds of tiny 
tripods were found; some carefully cast 
models 16 , others merely cut out of foil, the 
object being indicated in the rudest way 17 : 
many of which would be of no conceivable 
value to god or man. All the axes found in the Dictaean cave 
of Crete are unfit for use, the largest being too thin, and the 
smaller mere simulacra 19 . The small ones are of different 




FIG. 49. Tripod and 

Cauldron, from Olympia. 

Bronzen xxvii. 536. 



1 Carapanos, pi. liv. 

2 Bronzen von 01., xxvi. 520 7. 

3 Ann. Br. Sch. Ath. vi. 109. 

4 Plut. Quaest. Gr. 45, AZ xxxviii. 
38, Cat. Berl. Sc. 681. 

8 Jahreshefte iv. 69. 

6 Stephani, Compte Rendu 1863, 
128 ff. 

7 Vase paintings ; see last note. 

8 AM*. 12, BCH iv. 294. 

9 Cat. Berl. Sc. 680. 

10 Benndorf, Heroon von Gjdlbaschi, 



108; Stephani, Compte Rendu, 1868, 
75. 

11 Annali xxxix. pi. c. 

12 Stephani, Compte Rendu, 1867, 
177. 

13 A JA vi. 104 pi. xv. 
" Plut. I. c. 

15 Plut. I. c. 

16 Bronzen von 01., pi. xxvii. 536 ; 
see fig. 49. 

17 Bronzen von 01., pi. xxvii. 540. 

18 Ann. Br. Sch. Ath. vi. 108. 

252 



388 



GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 



types: thick and solid, like stone axes 1 ; thin, and sometimes 
markt with dots like dice 3 ; some are quite microscopic 3 . Many 





FIG. 50. 





FIG. 51. Miniature axes, from Dodona 

(50) and Olympia (51). 

Ridgeway, Early Age, fig. 79 ; Bronzen 

xxvi. 520, 525, 527. 



FIG. 52. Miniature shield, from 

Olympia. 
Bronzen, pi. viL 40. 



have handles of the same material, which may be perforated 
at the upper end 4 . They are made of copper or bronze 5 ; and 
it is to be noted that similar axes have been found made of 
gold at Mycenae 6 and on Mount Sipylus 7 , made of bronze in 
tombs at Hallstatt 8 and Cyprus 9 , and of bone in a tomb at 
Syracuse 10 . Other bronze specimens have been found in Egypt, 
made on the model of axes of the stone age 11 . Now what can 



1 Bronzen, xxvi. 520 ; see fig. 51. 

2 Bronzen, xxvi. 524 5 ; Ann. Br. 
Sch. Ath. vi. 109; with dot-marks, 
Bronzen xxvi. 524, 527 ; Jahreshefte 
iv. 49 fig. 67 two dots, fig. 68 six dots. 
See figs. 50, 51. 

3 Bronzen, xxvi. 522 ; Ann. Br. Sch. 
Ath. vi. 109 6 . 

4 Ann. Br. Sch. Ath. vi. 109 3 - 8 ; 
Jahreshefte iv. 49 fig. 67 (perforated 
handle). Another from Silchester in 
Reading Museum ; others in the British 



Museum ; all with perforated handles. 
8 Ann. Br. Sch. Ath. vi. 109. 

6 Schliemann, Mycenae, 253 s68 . 
Two axes, of different sizes, are 
figured on a gem as hanging together, 
ibid. 354. 

7 BCH iii. pi. 4, 5. 

8 Ridgeway, Early Age i. 443. 

9 Cat. Cypr. Mus. 3825. 

10 Notizie degli Scavi, 1895, 127. 

u In the possession of Prof. Ridge- 
way. 



PLATE I 





FIG. 53. 



Fio. 54. 




FIG. 55. 



FIG. 56. 



(Journ. Anthr. Inst. N.S. ii. pi. xx.) 
The side numbers are those of the original plates. 

1. Shield from Guadalcanal 1 , S. Pacific ; used for payments of high value. 
10. Caroline Islands millstone money. 13. African spade used as currency. 
14. African conventional spear-head. 15. African real spear-head. 16. Con- 
ventional iron plaque used for a girl's dowry (Africa). 18, 19. Conventional 
spear-heads from the Upper Congo. 



PLATE 




FIG. 57. 




FIG. 58. 




IS 



FIG. 59. 



10 




FIG. 60. 





FIG. 61. 



FIG. 62. 



l(Journ. Anthr. Inst. N.S. ii. pi. xxi.) 
The side numbers are those of the original plates. 

1, 2, 4, 6. Imitation axes. 3. Imitation spears, used as money (Africa). 
7, 10. Chinese knife-cash. 12. Imitation hoe, used as money (Congo). 
18. Conventionalised frying-pan used for money (Assam). 23, 26. African 

ring money. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 



389 




the meaning of these things be ? There is no evidence for the 

dedication of toys, or indeed for their existence, thus early; 

and the tombs were not the tombs of children, but of kings, 

warriors, full-grown men. It has been already 

pointed out, that there is evidence for the axe 

as a unit of currency; and where large axes 

still circulate, small ones in bundles of ten, 

each representing a fraction of the axe-unit, 

are used for exchange 1 . Little axes have also 

been found in Mexico, which are said by the 

Indians to have been used as money 2 . This 

must explain our axelets ; and the hole in the 

handle will have been meant to string them 

like Chinese cash. Whether the dots had 

any relation to the value there are too few 

examples to decide. Here I may mention, 

that Homer recognises the fractional half-axe 3 . 

But while the large axes could be used, 
the small ones were of no use ; they were in 
fact tokens, half-way between the implement and the coin. 
It may be suggested that the small tripods and kettles 4 of 
Olympia were also tokens, having no value, but representing 
a fraction of the full-size article in exchange. It may be that 
this is true only of the better specimens, those cut out of thin 
foil being simulacra, dedicated because the tripod was a tradi- 
tional form of dedication. That the idea of dedicating simulacra 
was not unknown we see from the story which tells of wooden 
and clay tripods dedicated at Ithome 5 . 

Once the key is found, it may open more than one lock. We 
have already seen that iron bars were dedicated as a tithe 6 , and 
that bars of iron are recorded in the Delian shrine 7 . The late 

1 Kidgeway, Origin, 40 (figs.) ; Early 6 Page 92. Perhaps the original 



FIG. 63. Miniature 
axe, from Mexico. 

Kidgeway, Early 
Age, fig. 80. 



Age, i. 443. See fig. 58. 

2 Kidgeway, Early Age, i. 443, fig. 
80. See fig. 63. 

3 II. xxiii. 851 dtica. ptv ireX&ceas 



4 Bronzen von 01. 115 pi. xliv. 
6 Paus. iv. 12. 9. 



iron money of Sparta was in the shape 
of manufactured articles. Why is it 
just here that we find iron ' money ' ? 
Did the Dorians first introduce iron 
into Greece, or first use it to any extent? 
7 See Index vi. s.v. ovdXiov, 



390 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

excavations at Argos have revealed a vast number of these 
bars ; and it is suggested that large objects of iron the size of a 
mountain gun may have been the largest multiple of the bar 
currency, perhaps the very ones dedicated by Pheidon himself 1 . 
There are also a large number of objects hitherto unexplained, 
which perhaps may be brought under the same category. These 
are the rings of Argos a , Olympia 3 , and other places, lances and 
arrowheads of thin foil from Delos 4 , the miniature swords or 
knives 8 , and helmet 8 of Olympia, the miniature shields of 
Olympia 7 and Crete 8 , the miniature cuirasses of Praesus in 
Crete 9 , the miniature wheels of Argos 10 , Dodona", Lusi 12 and 
Olympia 13 . 

Now Phanias speaks of bronze knives along with tripods 
and kettles as part of the wealth of Sicilian shrines 14 , just as 
bars are mentioned as partof the wealth of Delphi byEpicharmus 15 . 
Shields in full size, and in miniature as fractions of the same 
shape as the larger, are used in South America for exchange 18 . 
There is evidence that shields were once so used in Greece 17 . 
Many of the small ones found are indistinguishable from the 
heads of large pins or buttons ; but in view of the facts given 

1 Dr Waldstein ; above, p. 74. s Ann. Br. Sch. Ath. vi. 109. 

2 Bronzes, 1614 ff., 1695 ff. AJA N.S. v. 383, 384, fig. 13. 

8 Bronzen von 01., 454 ff. (immense 10 IGA 43 a, IPI i. 566 ; also one in 

quantities in the Pelopeum). the Heraeum, Bronzes 2254. 

* AZ xl. 333; useless for practical n Carapanos, Dodone, pi. xxvi. 1 

purposes. '&<f>e\iui> ' A^poSirat Av^&rjKf, hardly in- 

B Bronzen von 01., xxvi. 530 ff. telligible unless given for its value real 

Some of the Cretan knives may be or traditional. 

simulacra: Ann. Br. Sch. Ath. vi. 110. 12 Jahreshefte iv. 51 74 . 

The little knives however may have 18 Bronzen von 01., p. 68: some cut 

been used as the hillmen in India do out of thin foil 498 ff ., some cast 503 ff. 

now; beside their curved klmkree they 14 Phanias ap. Ath. v. 232 c Iffropet 

have a little knife about 4 inches long Qavlas tv T$ irtpl rwv iv "LiKeKlq. rvpdv- 

in a sheath of its own within the vuv, ws x a ^' c< *'*' OVTUV T&V ira\a.iu>v 

larger sheath. So the Celts also: dvaOfi/Miruv nal Tpiir65ti>v ical Xe/3i^rwv 

Poseidonius ap. Ath. iv. 152 A t&v Si ical ^yx et P l ^ uv - 

5 TI dvffairfoiraffTov, youxxatp'v M'^PV JS -^p. Ath. viii. 362 c X^STjTef \4.\- 

ira.pa.Ttjj.vovTes, 6 rots /coXeots iv Idiq. /ceoi, Kpariipes, 65t\oi. 

e-fiK-g Trapd/teiTat. 16 Prof. Ridgeway has a specimen 

6 Bronzen von 01., no. 1041. of a miniature shield. See also fig. 56. 

7 Bronzen von 01., no. 1002 5. See 17 Ridgeway, Origin, 331, 334. 
fig. 52, p. 388. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 391 

above we need not fear to call them shields. Any article under 
the sun, used in exchange, might be modelled as a token; as we 
see from the researches of Ridgeway and Temple. I may here 
call attention to the ancient coinage of China, which imitates in 
metal a ring or a knife 1 , a bale of cloth, a spade or hoe, or a 
wheel 2 . So also we find shields in the South Pacific and in North 
America used as currency 3 ; and models of axes 4 , spear-heads 5 , 
hoes 6 , millstones 7 , even a conventionalised frying-pan 8 , are found 
in different parts of Africa, Asia, or America. If this explana- 
tion be right, the wheels of Olympia may have nothing to do 
with chariots or chariot-races ; and perhaps even the chariots 
themselves may often be simulacra given instead of the real 
thing. The Greeks were on the same path as the Chinese 
took ; but they did not follow it out to its logical conclusion, 
and offer paper money to the shades. 

. Two other classes of dedications demand a brief word : the 
dedication of one god in the temple of another, and the dedica- 
tion of grotesques or genre figures. 

The figure of a god might be dedicated in any temple as an 
ornament to the temple, choice spoil of war, and the like 9 ; of 
which we have seen examples in the old statue from Tiryns at 
Argos 10 , the Hermes of Praxiteles and Aphrodite which stood in 
the Heraeum at Olympia 11 , and probably the figure of Apollo 
dedicated as a tithe to Athena 12 . So Theseus dedicates at 
Delphi an image of Aphrodite which had belonged to Ariadne 18 . 

1 E. C. Temple : Beginnings of Cur- anciens de consecrer la statue d'un dieu 
rency, in Journ. Anthrop. Inst. N. s. ii. a un autre dieu: Rev. Arch. i. 439 ff. 
117, 122, pi. xxi. 7, 10. See pi. ii. Lettre a M. Hillingen, Annali vi. 198 ff. 
figs. 60, 61, 62. GIG 3159 says as much, late as it is: 

2 AJA iv. 284 pi. xii., xiii. KOVIVTOS BaXfyios 'lovXtavds HfjLvpvaios 

3 Journ. Anthr. Inst. N.s. ii. pi. xx. 'AffK\t)Trif ti/r^pi Aids 'Ztarjjpos &ya\fj.a 
1, 2, see pi. i. fig. 56. criiv /Mcrei apyvp^ri yti\j/ov neffrfj av40i]- 

4 Ibid. pi. xxi. 1 6, see pi. ii. fig. 58. Kev, but he seems to feel some appro- 

5 Ibid. pi. xx. 14, 15, 18, 19, see priateness in selecting Zeus Soter. 
pi. i. figs. 53, 54. The figure that Letronne calls Apollo, 

6 Ibid. pi. xx. 11, 12, xxi. 12, 13, which is dedicated to Asclepius, is more 
see pi. ii. fig. 57. probably a worshipper in ritual act. 

* See pi. i. fig 10. 10 Page 117. 

8 Ibid. pi. xxi. 18, see pi. ii. fig. 59. u Paus. v. 17. 4. 

9 This principle is correctly laid 12 Page 63. 
down by Letronne, Sur I'usage des 13 Paus. ix. 40. 3. 



392 GREEK VOTIVE OFFERINGS. 

Others are less clear. Hermes was said to have been dedicated 
by Cecrops in the temple of Athena Polias, where he stood 1 . 
The Eleans dedicated an Athena at Olympia 2 . Micythus 
dedicated Amphitrite, Poseidon, and Hestia in the same place 8 . 
Besides these Pausauias mentions Artemis in a temple of 
Demeter 4 , Aphrodite and Athena in a temple of Zeus 5 , Apollo, 
the Muses, and Heracles in a temple of Asclepius 6 , Artemis 
Leucophryene dedicated by the sons of Themistocles on the 
Acropolis at Athens 7 , Enyo, two statues of Aphrodite, with 
Heracles and Apollo, in a temple of Ares 8 . With what thought 
these were dedicated there is no saying. If such figures are 
part of a group, then the dedication is easily understood, and 
falls under one of the great principles we have seen working 
everywhere 9 . Perhaps they were all dedicated as dydX/jLara. 
But I cau find no authority for the dedication of one deity as a 
deity to another until very late times ; when it is exemplified 
by a dedication of Artemis to Apollo 10 , Sabazius to Zeus", 
of Heracles to Asclepius 12 , of Aphrodite to Asclepius 13 , of 
Athena to Artemis 14 or Asclepius 15 , of Hermes to Pan arid the 
Nymphs 18 . These are an extension of the vicious idea which 
brought honorific statues into the temples. There were of course 
often altars of other deities in a divine precinct, as at Athens, 
Olympia, Epidaurus, and there seems to be no reason why a 
dedication should not be made at those altars to those deities : 

1 Paus. i. 27. 1. Another from Ephesus: see above, 

2 Paus. v. 26. 6. p. 391 8 . 

8 Paus. v. 26. 2. Perhaps the group " BCH i. 308 Ail Kopv<j>alw A/a Zaovd- 

was meant to represent the act of salva- fror NeauXeir^i' (name) (vrfv; cp. Rev. 

tion done upon him. Arch. i. 280 Cereri Dianam e. p. con- 

4 Paus. viii. 37. 4. secravit. 

5 Paus. vii. 24. 2. 12 GIG 1794a. 

6 Pans. iv. 31. 9. 13 Cat. Ath. Sc. 285 'A^pi/ccwii 6 

7 Paus. i. 26. 4. iepei/t r6 F 'A<rcrK\ijireiw TT} 'A(f>poSirr]v. 

8 Paus. i. 8. 4. M Cat. Ath. Sc. 275 6toS ttpoarayri 

9 Above, p. 129 ff. So the Dioscuri 'A\tav8pos rty ' Ad-fivaiav ry 'Apr4fj.tdi. 
are dedicated to Poseidon, if the Another from Ephesus, see above, 
interpretation of IGS iii. 1. 130 be p. 391 8 . 

right, as engaged in some act of 18 Cat. Ath. Sc. 276 irarpoKao-v^vr^fiiv 
mercy. 'AffK\rjTriu elffar' 'A6t]vi)v 'AffKAXov tic 

10 CIG 6797 Gaul 'Air6\\wvi Avacrffav yairit ffCxrrpa <ptpuv Fec^Xts. 

18 Anth. Pal. App. (Cougny) 342. 



GENERAL SKETCH. 393 

but this is different. There are no figures demonstrable for other 
gods, and not part of an ornament or group, amongst the 
Acropolis remains, at Dodona, or in the part of Olympia which 
belonged specially to Zeus. On the other hand, in the Cabirium 
came to light twenty-five Pans, one inscribed to the son of the 
Cabirus 1 ; at Elatea, in the shrine of Athena, were twenty-two 
figures of other gods, Eros, Psyche, Leda, Dionysus, Aphrodite, 
Demeter ; in the shrines of Amynus were some ancient seated 
goddesses 2 . With the exception of the last, which may have got 
there by accident 3 , all these are probably given as pretty things 
which had some value for the givers ; the dedication of Pan to 
the Cabirus' little boy looks like a sympathetic thought. This 
will also explain the Silenus figures and grotesques, which meet 
us in shoals 4 . 

In taking a last look backwards it is impossible not to feel 
with a new force how little there is in early times of the 
specialization of functions. The local deity or hero was lookt 
to for help in all emergencies, and all sorts of offerings might 
be paid to him. Panofka 5 has written an elaborate study to 
prove that the dedicator chose his deity for some supposed con- 
nexion, based largely on names, that is by his hypothesis on 
the family worship : a man named Diodorus preferring Zeus, 
Apollonius Apollo, and so forth. The reader will search in 
vain in this book for evidence to support that ingenious theory; 
neither will he find it necessary to call in mythical kinship to 
explain the dedication of a statue of Athena to Apollo. And 
as our study has shown what variety of blessing one deity could 
dispense, so it shows the infinite variety of objects which could 
be dedicated for one cause. Every kind of prayer can be 
addressed to Athena, Apollo, Poseidon, or Zeus ; almost every 
kind of object is given to Asclepius for one and the same boon. 

1 AM xv. 359, 391 &v6efj.a TUI iraibi (Carapanos, p. 31, pi. ix.), two centaurs 
TU Ka/3i>w. on the Acropolis (Ridder, Cat. 429, 430). 

2 AM xviii. 243, xxi. 293. 5 Panofka, " Von einer Anzahl An- 

3 The Cybele probably did. tiker Weihgeschenke und den Beziehen 

4 Seventy in the Cabirium, AM xv. ihrer Geber zu den Orten ihrer Bestim- 
359; a dozen at Elatea, with seven mung": Abhandl. der Akad. der Wiss. 
hundred genre figures ; one at Dodona in Berlin, 1839. 



INDICES. 

Only one or two references as a rule are given. The word is quoted in the 
nominative, unless for special reasons an exact quotation is desirable. Restored 
letters are not indicated unless doubtful. It is not certain that all the articles 
mentioned were votive offerings, as miscellaneous stock is sometimes included in 
the lists ; but where the articles were clearly not votive they have been left out. 



I. ATHENS : Treasure of Athena and the other Gods. CIA i. 
117175 (EG 434 ff.), ii. 642738 (4th century and later), 
Suppl. iv. p. 175182. 



atyis 679 16 
aKicd/ojs \pvff ovs or 
646 

649 7 

652 W 

678 B 76 
<?a 652 18 
dfitpoptvs, dfj.<poplffKos 678 B 10 



161 6 , 



678 B 70 
dirapx-fl 225 i, cp. 652s 19 
dirdirrvyna 652 20 
diroppavr-fipiov 143 8 
dpyfipiov KLf3dr)\ov 660 B3 
dpyvpls 125 18 
dpurreiov (a crown, usually named) 

652 so, B 17 , 700 8 , 732 
do-Ti-Jj 161', 648 s , 716 8 , 720 n 17 (tin), 

dffirlSiov irofiiri.K6v, dcririSeiov 720 n 18 , 

dffiridlffKt) 713 18 , dffirtdiffKiov 733 n 7 
ar/xt/cros iv 716 b 

/S^Xos 720 B I 22 , /S^Xi; KaTaTraXriKwi' 
702 B i 25 , /SeXtDv TO^IKO 
733 B 22 

i\e<t>dvTivov 652 B 4 , 713 16 



7\aO 678 B 78 (nine), 706s 3 , y\avKldioi> 

dpjvpoOv twi KiovLffKov 735 s3 
yopyoveiov 161 7 , 660 S3 , see 

poro/ji'/i 170", 677 n 28 
170 U , 648 6 , 67S 22 



ioj 646 8 (Art. Braur.), 652 B 28 
, see ^irLcr-rifJLa 
os 678 B 73 
i' 720 B n 22 
' 5i)o feiVyi; 652s 28 
678 B 78 

s, one with silver feet 161", 646 13 , 
673 

doKifteiov 698 n 26 
dopdnov 735 
86/>i;, Sopdrtov 675 8 , 735 
Spd/cwj/ 173 7 
697 7 



cl\t/m)p 698 n 20 

tKOLTOffT-tl 721 A I 12 

tKiruna. 649 18 

if/err; 652 42 

^/wtStoK, some of tin 645 1B , 652 B 29 

itrlffi^jM. dcnrldwv 1 1 1 1 5e\<pls, yopyb- 

veiov, a/er6s, I'TTTTOS 678 B 37 
#pia 720 B n 25 

OS 720s II 49 

675 " 

652 B 24 , 660 8J 

, faiSdpiov 678 B 69 , 714 2 * 
675 ** 



678 B 7 
161 8 , 652 17 



^ 1> 675 7 



INDICES. 



395 



689 a 

0ep(j.dffriov 678 B 44 
BepfMffrpLs 675 ^ 
Opbvos 161 u , 647 1 
Ov/juarjpiov 161 6 , 646 17 
161 10 , 652" 



663 4 



i>ds 728 4 

iftdriov 720 B II 17 

tWos dpyvpoh 164 17 , 678 B 64 

/tdSoy 678 B S , KaSlffKos 678s 27 

KaOerfy 678s 27 

170" 

oOi' 161 6 , 668 s , /rava vvv<piKd 678 B 9 
xV'O" 149 10 , 649 12 (Zeus Polieus) 
Tjs 733 B 9 

KdrpoTTTov 720 n 40 

/carwpis 652 22, 660 " 

Ke/c/>t)0aXos Z7T7riK:6s 652 B 24 

ic^aj 12-2 7 , 665 7 

K0a\iJ 652 > 7 

Kijfibs 663 11 

/ct|8wT6s 720 n 49 

KiO&viov iv 7166 

f\i}is 675 44 , 682 c (iv. p. 178) 

K\IVTI 161 9 , 646 18 

Krntiis 678 B 5 , 714 17 

Koirr, 161 , 665 s 

KovSvXwrbv 660 *> 

(f6/)7j xpwi) irl ffT7i\r)s 142 6 

Kopv/j.j3os 731 B 6 

Kpdvos 161 12 , 716 9 , Kpdvos uf 
721 n 16 , KpavLdiov 676 40 

/cparefr^s 678 B 53 

/cpar^/) 660 s0 , 668 12 

K/^a7/)a 678 B 80 

AfptoO K6(^O\77 656 2 

Kpovoy x a ^ K fc 678 B 42 
/crets ffiSrjpovs 678s 41 
-i)a(?os 678 B 30 
Kt\iv5pos 733 A 17 
*ci>\t 126 19 , 660 ^ 
LSiov 731 B 15 
tX^ts 660 8 

i} 161 8 , 676 11 , 678 B 
OUV 678 B 58 



678 B 69 , X^T?S vv^i K 6s 721 3 
Xetat xP vffa i 5oKifj.fia 698 n 26 
Xe/cdi^ 678 B 58 

ice<t>a\-/i 170 12 
oj Trporo/xT? 677 n 28 
ireplxpvcrov 161 6 
161", 648 9 , 718 10 etc., XtfoK 
676 s6 

118 9 , 678 B7, XuxJ-etoj- 675 s8 



v^rra 698 n 20 
HKT? xP Vff TJ 652 16 
viKt}i~fipiov 652 B 37 



fw.Xai.pa 652 ^ fjAxaipa liririic/i 735 s7 
fj.ij\ov, of wood gilded 652s 27 
MvltrKos 678 B 48 



xaipa 162", 677 II M , 735 s8 
161 10 , 677 n 16 
673 9 , 676 35 



6|3eX/(r/cos 678 B 72 
otvoxori 652 ^ 
6 K Xa5ia 161", 676 28 
oXiceTov 678s 11 
ovvt 172 - >:) , 652s 12 
Spues 170 1 -, 648 7 , 652 A 17 
d^Wtoi' 722 A 17 
oxffoipos 652 B 34 

TraXXd5io', one of ivory 652 B 17 
ira.voir\la. 723 

irapdpv/jia rplxwov 721 B I 24 
irA-n? 164 17 , 723 2 
ir'Ta>/K>/3os 683 ^ 
ireplu$ 720 n 22 
irepovrj 652 20 
ir/ia| 661 d 9 , 677 n 39 
TrXda-rpa 679 16 
irXrJKrpov 652 B 30 
678s 76 

Trip 678 B 58 , irooa.vtwrijpi8i.ov 
721 n 9 

TroSetoj' 678B 67 
iroT-fjpiov 130 9 , 678 B 30 
irpoffutrof 161 6 
...irpoTOfj-j 649 14 
7roi5j 652 20 
Trtpavvov 722s 9 

(ra/id/oi' 70S 9 
<rrifj.a.To<j>opeioi> 731 B 14 
o-Xos 660 19 

678 B 18 
652 4 

Xos 652 24 , 660 12 
o-TrdOrj, or <T7ra9(s 720 B ii 49 
ara.eiJ.Lov 6S2 46 
o-TttT^/o 652 42 , B 20 , see X^tov 

fioTJKoi 652 B 11 
731 B 20 
<rr{pi<pov 652 2 s 
<rre<j>dvr) 652 17 

o-r^avos 122", 698 i, 692, 700, 701 
(rT^taros ^aXXoO 652 28 
o-rXeryij 666 14 , 678 B 
ffrpeirr&s 652 ^ 
tfrp6<piov 652 19 
vrvaKiov 678 B 52 

170 19 , 646 10 
v 689 7 
652, 652B 28 - 38 ff. 



396 



INDICES. 



660" 
720 II M 
678 B 74 



Td\avTov ffioypovv 678 B * 
Tpdwffr 161 13 , 676 a9 
rpl^-qvov 721 H 10 
Tpiuj3o\ov 675 s0 

WXij'oi' 646* 

udXioy dpyvpovv 645 21 

vdpia 660 23 , 737 A i, (twenty-seven) 699 
(Athena Nike 4, Artemis Brauronia 
7, Demeter and Phersephatta 5, 
Aphrodite 1, Anakes 3, Athena 
Polias 7) 

vir&pa0pa vvv<f>iKO. Svo 731 B 19 

wro/Jd-njs Appevos 678 B 55 

inroSepls 652 17 

inrifuyta 678 B 80 , 728 12 

VTroirbdtov 646 15 

VTct>ffTO.TOV 660 20 

678 B 67 



660 33 



^taXij /SaXavwn) 678 B 110 

irnXam} 701 
^.idXtoi' 722 A 8 
<f>v<ri)r6v, of wood gilded 652 B t7 



678 B M 
678 B 41 

ej AAI 720 n 54 , 721 n 9 
dpio-repd 652 18 , 660 9 
Seftd 652 21 , 660" 

679 7 
678 B S 
\epvifielov 660 4l 
XtraJi' 675 !6 
X*TWV oTforTrtvoj 675 M 
xXiSwv 652 B 38 
xXtSwvtov 70S 9 
XoOs 678 B- 19 

v 658 3 
&wpov 652*' 
155 10 , 660 8, 
652 '8 

\l6os 713 



678 B 13 



650, 



II. ATHENS: CATALOGUE OF BRONZE STATUES: 
Descriptive phrases. CIA ii. 742 ff. 

dytveios 743 12 #X ei & T ^) i dpurrepai 744 B 7 

dtcpoOivia. 745 9 

6irX(ro5p6|AO$ 744 2 
yevei&v 745 5 

7i3^ Ta -yi;av6s 744s 14 



III. ATHENS : ARTEMIS BRAURONIA. CIA ii. 751 ff. 



aXovpylt 754 49 
&.fjiir^-xovov 754 18 
dvddrifM 758 B n" 
6,ffiri8tffKTi 751 i a 8 

754 



(OJ 751 la 4 
751 ud 



751 n ft 19 
751 ii d 

4irlfi\riiJ.a 

fwta del-tot fifva 754 ^ 



754 15 

758 B in 21 

751 n d 

KardffTiKTos 758 Bii 18 



e/j. 



754 31 



ffirtvSuv /cat 



fyidria /xecraXoupy^ 757 al 

Z^dTio< di/Spetov 754 47 (offered by a 

woman) 
l/xdrtov ywaiKeiov irXaruaXou/xyes irepi- 

icu/adrtoi' 754 18 
IfiAriov \evKov ywauceiov tfj. wXawfwi 

754 16 
Ifjidriov XevKov jrapaXovpye's rouro TO 

\iOivov HSos dM^xerat 754 s7 
Ifidnov watdeiov 751 II B 7 



INDICES. 



397 



757 9 



KdSos 757 19 
KdXv/4/Mi 758 B II 25 
Ka.vOa.piov 751 la 10 
Ktivdvs Trot/aXos 754 19 
Ka,p\-r)ffiov 751 ii d 
KardffTiKTov durrtpvyov 754 s8 
|uffrt5wr6v 754 u 
XfipiSuTov 754 6 

Karpoirrov 4\e<pa,vriviiv Xa/Siyv ^X 01 ' 754 s3 
KeKpt<pa\os 757 18 
Kifiuriov 758 B in 24 
KpOKiarbv SnrXovv 754 62 
v 751 life 10 
s 7 

' 757 30 
757 31 



rl m/viois 757 19 
ov 758 B in 29 
754 



i>6/j.Lff/j.a 751 n 6 17 

irapa\ovpyidiov J(iaw 
wapaTroiKiXos 754 19 
7T^a| 758 BUI s 
ir\d<TTpa 751 la 11 
irX6/cto' 751 1 6 22 
iro/j.<j>6\vyes 758 n 13 

TTOT-flptOV 757 315 

ir^Sa^ 758s in 22 
751 n d 



751 1C 17 
es 758 in 38 
(rrXe77/s 751 i 6 11 
<r<ppayis 758 n 5 



754 s4 



rapavrivov 754 37 
rapavrivov i)fuv(ps 757 19 
rpipwvtov 754 M 
rpoxiXeia 751 lid 
Tpti(j>rj/jia 758 B ii M 

vvoSepls 751 i 9 
757 ^ 



\a\Klov 758 B in 32 

X<.6wviffKOS KTCVUTOS irepiirotKiXos- OVTOS 
ivixpafffdva. 754 9 
754 10 

754 51 
LT&VI-OV 751 II B 3 

0d\f/ivov vapaXovpyts 757 19 
&r67TTuxes 754 M 
ffTinrvivov 751 II B 
iTuvlffKiov Kaprbv iraidfiov avevlyptHpov, 
irapv<f>i)i> tx el Oepp-affriv 754 ^ ( 

aXovpyos Trot/ciXos ^/i TrXaurfwi 
754 12 (two women) 
<-ruvlffK03 di'dpe'ios 758 B ii 26 (by a 

woman) 

parpaxeiovs 758s n 12 
7Xai>Keio{is 758s ii 16 
i^iffTuv /crejwr6s 754 30 

754 ** 
s 754 43 
aXovpye? 
754 2J 

Trvpy<irr6s 7S4 26 
r^ aypatbos irapdBoXov ?YOf(ra 
75489 

Xcw'crjuoj' iraidiov Xevicbv xapr&v 754 40 
airvpov 751 i a 5 

758 B ni 37 



IV. ATHENS: Asclepieum. C/4 ii. 766 (341/40), 
835840 (320327). 



836 20 

rpov 836 a 38 

' 835 18 
dy5/)ids 766^ 
...apairXerpis 836 108 
dpyvpiov 766 10 
d<T7rs 835 6 s 
dcrr/>a7aXto>' 766 32 
dffrpdyaXoi dopicddeoi 766 2S 
avX6s 766 31 
d<j>po8lffiov 836 c 14 
836 a 35 



836 108 
P<a/*lffKos 836 a 39 

836 30 



766 J 
5dfcri;Xos 766 
8apei K 6s 766 1 " 
deicApoXov 837 ^ 

XWtvos 836 32 
766 17 
836 s4 



INDICES. 



SoKi/xcioy 835 a 84 



836 s4 



dpa.K6Tio>> 836c" (four), 83& n - M (two) 


T^5at 830* 8 


dpdKwx 836 M 


irtpiffKeXidiof 835 47 


SpaxM^l 766 31 


ir/i/a^ 766 31 


Spax/ty xpwvi 766 J1 


irorrjpldiov 836 86 




TTOTJplOV 766 14 


^wi5ia 836* 


T/xxTKc^dXaioy fpeovv 766 s8 


^dXetirrpov 836 c 8 


irptxruirov 766 4 


17/817 836 39 - 109 


ptTfj 836 c 10 


qSvirbTiov 836 s4 


#j 835 9 




pw6v 836 31 


0t}piK\fioi> 836 81 


pvr<xj>la\ov 836 c 10 


tfoXWtov 836 94 




tfoXlov 766 31 


adpStov 766 w 


Opbvos ^Xivos 766" 


fftaytiv 835 38 


6vft.ia.T-fipi.ov 766 7 


ffKd<pi.ov 836 2 * 




ffxtXos 766 ** 


fa<77ns 766 25 


o-r^^avoj 766 J 


io-xiov 835 s0 


(rr^eoy 836 " 




\ ^^^^/t -vmi/rni(i/ ftHfi 22 


Ka6fT-/ip 835 9 , 5idXi0os 836 a 30 


ffrXeyyfj 766 24 , ffidypa. 766 43 , x a ^^ 


KaxoDj- 835 


766 s4 


KapSia 766 16 


ffTofj-a 835 21 


/ta/JKixoj 836 51 


a<f>payldt.ov 766 81 


KdrpoTrrov 836 c 10 


fftppayis 766 18 


Kf K pv<t>a\o<i 766 JOJ 


<rwyna d'5/)6y 835 M 


Kepxviov 766 19 


"ywauciis 835 ^ 4 


Ace^aX^ 839 12 


o-w/adrtoc 835 45 


K< ^yx s 766 s 




tcparriplffKos 836 a 44 


TCTpadpaxp-ov 766 ^ 


/cwiflos 836 s8 


TfTpcLxfAov 835 


/cyXn'5poj 835 70 


TiTtfT? 8S6 68 


/cuXtx^s 766 31 


Ttrtftov 835 M 


KVfj.j3idiov 835 s8 


T/T00J 835 s8 


/ci/M^ov 766 15 


r/jax^Xos 835 s3 




rpurodlffKos 766 17 


\riKteiov 835 s5 


Tpi<l)8o\ov 836 "^ 


X^/ci/^os 766 s2 


Tl/TT/StOV 835 73 


\-fiKvOos ffKirrlvr) 766 s3 


Tvirlov 836 C 4S 


Xi/Savarrij 836 a 28 


T^ITOS 766 30 


Xttfdptov ffrpoYyvXov SidXevKov 835 w 




Xt^os 0aXarroet5^s 836 a 33 


UTrep ai/7^j /cal TWI< iraiSluv 835 s9 , cp. S9 , 


(?) <frt)yo(id-/is 835 ra 


836 4S . W 


Xiry-yoivptOl' 835 s9 


inrodr]fj.dTUV yvvaiKeiwv ^1/717 III 76fi 30 


Xi5pa 766 35 






<fnd\ri 766 12 


MKW 836 s 8 


^yoeiS^j, see XWos 


/XI^XT; 836 64 


(fiidXiov 835 7 


v/5tov 766 15 


Xe/p 835 21 ; of gold, silver, and stone 




835 4 


65ot/s 766 ^ 


Xfipidiov irai$i K 6i> 836 n , cp. 836 * 


olvoxfa) 766 B 


xXa/ti)s 766 8 


oi/u| 766 28 


Xo/<rKtos 766 10S 


ous 835 19 


Xofo-Kos 766 118 


6<f>0a\/j.6s 76622 


Xjtufflov 766 19 


d^/Stov 766 16 , 835 6 - M - w 


XvrpiSt-ov 835 8 * 



no\vffTparov SSe 23 - 49 



836 48 



INDICES. 



399 



Y. ELEUSIS. CIA ii. 682 c, iv. 7676; AM xix. 192. 

a\Kovs \vxvfiov 



KO.SOS 

KO.VOVV 



/coruXos 

Kpadevrris 

Kpedyptov 



(ivory) 



i-i<f>idiov 



S/3/XOS 

TrXdoT/w 

1TOT7}plOV 

irodavnrr^p 



ff(f>ayeiov 

cr<ppaylSiov 

<r<j>payis 

vdpla 
i/iroSepis 



d6paros 



\ej3-fiTiov 



yafj-iKoi iv 767 6 63 



VI. TREASURE AT DELOS : BCH vi. 20 ff., x. 461 ff, 
xiv. 389 ff. 



dyKvpa ffidijpa vi 47 168 

cue-rcSy x 465 102 

aierov /ce^aXr; xP vff V v ^ 49 191 

&K/J.UV vi 47 168 

dXd^ao-ros x 464 s8 

fijUTreXos xP vff ^i ^^ 406 

d(ji<t>idta x 463, xiv 412 

fo vi 50 199 

x 466 128 
dva7/catoir6ri7S vi 51 209 
dvSpi.avTLSi.ov vi 47 167 
dvSpidvriov xiv 412 119 
dvdpiavrlffKos x 464 ".93. 95 
vi 34 60 

v xiv 406 81 
dTrapxi? vi 41 "4 
dpytipiov a(rrifj.ov x 464 7S 
d/xyv/)^ vi 44 142 
dpvffrrip x 463 58 

vi 39 s * 7 



vi 32 32 
do-TTis dpyvpa vi 48 178 

jSariaioJ xiv 412 m 
/3artd/cto>' vi 108 
/3ou/3dXtoi' xiv 412 
(3ovK(pd\iov xpvffovv vi 50 199 
fiovjrdXivov vi 48 171 

yaffTp6irTTis xiv 467 142 
ytpavos i] Ka\ovjj^vr] x 464 s4 

5a,KTv\i5iov xiv 412 118 
Sa/crtfXtos x 463 B1 
Se/cdri? vi 34 47 
5eX0is xiv 403 18 
x 462 51 
vi 46 157 
>v fftdrjpovv vi 47 171 



400 



INDICES. 



ffKvraXai API I vi. 47 190 
s, see vfiis, rpirjpuiv t/j./3o\(H 

xiv 412" 
tvdrriov vi 34 M 

fKTTWfJ.0. X 464 

ttdXeiirrpov vi 430 8 
x 466 14 
to!' vi 48 l78 
vi 48 179 
(?) vi 47 1M 
xiv 412 
vi 48 172 
xiv 411 103 
vi 45 14S , 50 193 
xiv 415 12S , xv 160 
ffTaTi<imic/i xiv 413 125 



i' vi 32 , xiv 412 116 
xiv 403" 



fjSviroridiov vi 108 

vi 30 7 
vi 32 27 

rfKa.Ka.rn vi 31", 32 <28 , xiv 403 
ri/j.iKi>K\i.ov vi 32 31 
fimxav x 466 

6i]piK\tios vi 108, see /ci/Xi 
vi 32 28 



vi 35 ^ 



vi 39 98 
KO-Oer-qp vi 29 
Ka^oOj' vi 39 93 
Kapdla xiv 412 
Ka.pxf]ffLov x 462 
Kafffftrtpov (TKvraXai vi. 47 170 
Kepa/j.v\\iov vi 48 179 
<?pas vi 50 204 
AC^/XW t\d<j>io>> x 462 21 
/c?/>as K-pioO vi 47 167 
Kepx"'a x 464 80 

K-tKeiov vi 32 28 , 47 162 , xiv 410 M 
vi 34 62 

aoJ' ^^"'ov TrepucexpvffUfj^vov 6<j>f- 
criv dpyvpois dif^fj^vov x 465 103 , xiv 
405 * 

\lvri x 467 143 
y i 48 179 

/coXeoj /iax a 'P as iTT'^s xiv 410 97 
K6v5i; vi 108 
KovSvXiov vi 39 98 
xicryuos xP vff v* t^l <f>oiviKi5iov ' ~ 
vi 50 200 

oj x 466 1S7 
ios vi 108 
xpar^p vi 32 

TpllJpTrjTtKbs X 466 131 

Kpa.njpL5i.ov vi 108 
s x 462 



x 462 "< 
vi 39 93 
KVO.VOVV vi 48 17:l 
ci;\/Kto' vi 33 41 

KvXivdpos, Kv\u>5plffKos vi 426 70 , xiv 406* 8 
wXi^ vi 45 14 

A.aicuviic/1 x 462 18 

toj xiv 404 s7 
ijj xiv 409 79 
K r) x 462 18 
x 464 s7 
i 108 

plw vi 33 41 
^?; dpyvpd xiv 408 78 
u x 462 s1 
wv vi 108 
/oj vi 37 7B 



vi 47 J88 

s vi 47 167 

vi 47 166 , 51 2 , x 466 13 

w vi 47 167 , x 464 s6 

dvaOffj.a. 



' AffK\r]irlui vi 30" 
XeovTos Ke<pa\T?i x 464 s6 
trporo/jiTfl vi 4 1 108 
Xijv/s x 464 * 8 
Xt/Savwrfy vi 39 93 
vi 49 191 
(loXvfidovs vi 47 168 

xiv 406 49 
x 466 137 
Xi/x^^a xiv 415 
\vxvovxos x 466 

/id^j vi 34 * 
/J.CLVIOV vi 108 
fMffr6s vi 33 , 39 M 
/j.r]\ov x 462". 90 , xiv 406 
fj.i\i]<novpyT?is vi 108 
vi 32 33 



vews t/j.j3o\ov vi 47 167 
V^/CT; ^iri Urlvov xiv 415 
voiJ.ifffj.aTa. specified vi 49 189 , 50 w8 
dapeiK6s x 464 69 
5Lvop.ov vi 5 1 216 
SpaxMT? 'AXe^a^Spefa vi 30" 
'ArTtio) x 463 
A7?X/a x 465 10 
2i//>fa x 465 105 
if[uw{i\toi> ' KTTLKOV X 465 106 
v6fj.os vi 5 1 218 

(5/3oXos 'Ap/3uXi*c6y xiv 409 ^ 
'Arrt/c6s x 465 s7 
A^Xtos x 465 73 
'Opxo/^vtos x 463 59 
4>acai(c6s xiv 404 n 
Alyivaios x 463 60 
xiv 404 2 
xiv 404" 



INDICES. 



401 



Ndtov 

nroXe 

rerpdvo/Mov vi. 51 215 



464 7S 

463 61 

oj' xiv 404 21 
464 7 
j' xiv 409 30 



vi 30 14 
vi 30 14 
IlroXe/tat/cd xpuffa xiv 387 4 

MapwvtTiKdv x 463 62 
v 'Amicbv x 464 73 
'ATTIK&V x 465 101 
3?uKiK6v x 465 10 
4>w/cafs xiv 404 
Xpv<rovs 'A\ei-dv5pfio$ vi. 29 7 
<J>iXf7nreios vi. 29 7 

6pe\l<ricos xiv 411, 467 142 
olvox^Tl vi 39 93 
oX/ceio? x 466 137 
<J#j vi 108, x 462 
6vpa<pov x 464 17 
op/uSs vi 50 199 
<50i5iov xiv 406 51 
o<pu x 465 97 

s vi 51 205 
xiv 404 19 
irepidepidiov xiv 406 42 
irpiK<pd\aiov xiv 409 77 
ipiov x 466 139 

vi 50 199 
irepovT) vi 46 157 . xiv 407 
TrtXos dpyvpovs vi 33 36 
iriva.Kl<TKos x 462^ 
7r/va| passim 
TTodavnrT-fip x 466 138 
x 462 18 

VI 38 85 

vi S2 27 , 34 52 
v x 466 131 
x 460 14 
xiv 412 116 



vi 45 148 
xiv 406 ^ 

vi 34 s6 

djuTrAou x 410 90 

Sd^^j x 464 n 

5pi;6s vi 30 7 

Aaiaj vi 39 90 

KtTToD xiv 407 M 

Hvpplvijs x 464 82 

crrX/77ts x 464 s8 
aTpe7rr6s vi 32 s4 
O-TI/MJ xiv 415 
<r0at/>a vi 30 13 
cr^7f vi 50 19 
ff<f>payl6ioi> xiv 406 ** 
<r<j>payl<; x 462 51 

Tou-fa vi 32 s3 

vi 108 
xiv 41 1 101 

xiv 404 24 
rpdirefa vi 46 157 
v x 462 

dpyvpa SeXei^Kou dvdde/j.a vi 32 31 
^/i/3oXot x 466 138 
rpiir6Siov 5e\<piic6v vi 33 s9 
T^TTOUJ vi 45 148 , 47 169 
TtyTros xiv 412 
TI^TTOS /iijrpt/c6s vi 50 202 
TI/TTOS ^Xtvos Kepa/j-lduv vi 48 172 

Wp/a x 466 126 
viroSfpls x 465 97 



a vi 32 32 , xiv 411 10 
vi 34 w 

dKTivtlrrr) x 462 s4 
/SaXa^wTT? x 462 
yop7tetos vi 4 1 109 
^KTI/TTOS, 1/criiTra 
/xara 



po5ia.KT?i vi 108 
p65oK x 465 7 
poia vi 50 192 , xiv 406 
poird\iov vi 45 146 
pimSx vi 32 s7 

ffarvpi&Kos x 462 
<rKd<pr) vi 108 
<rKd<piov vi 32 s8 
O-K^XOJ vi 47 167 

s vi 47 170 
ov vi 47 170 
vi 32 30 

463 49 
vi 51 206 
os xiv 413 122 
vr) vi 30 13 

R. 



fltf vi 49 138 
vi 33 40 
X 462 ls 
x462 13 
Xeid vi 37 79 

7 ^ x iv 408 70 
os vi 44 14S 
/j,eios x 462 22 
^ vi 49 182 
ios vi 33 43 
Xe\idovfios vi 32 M 
XpvaoK\vaTos xiv 403 13 
0tdXio" x 462 -^ 
<pvKiov xiv 406 4 ' 2 

xdXKiox vi 108 
Xap:<T7T7ptoJ < vi 45 148 , 49 183 
Xetp <ri577pa xiv 414 129 
vi 32 M 



26 



402 



INDICES. 



iov x 466 
is vi 108 
XctSiov x 466 
Xor&u\to>> (sic) vi 35 81 

v KaOapov iff-qnoy x 463 s0 
x 466 is4 
vi 108 



vi 39 M 

vi 50 W1 
x 466 < 37 
vi 34 * 



vi 30 14 ' 



In the 1 Mi ;u i lists are dedications to Apollo and Artemis vi 44 1M , Apollo, 
Artemis, and Leto 44 139 , to Leto 29 4 , to Artemis and Hecate 48 178 , to Apollo 
and Aphrodite 43 131 , to Aphrodite 48 181 , to Asclepius 30", 41", Eileithyia 34 >, 
Hestia 44 lw and Pan 34. 



VII. TREASURE AT DELOS. CIA ii. 813828 
(BC 377 ). 



SXvffit 820 8 
avSputvTlffKo 
d/uireXos 820 9 



820 ls 



dpiffreiof 814 31 
dpwTTi)/> 818 21 

j8Jp<ro 827 M 

5a/cTi/\ioy 813 B 9 
SapfiKfc 813 B U 
827 19 
813 B 12 



818 19 



820 7 

ticrvirov dpyvplov 813 B 6 
SIS'" 
818 19 
817 3 ' 



819" 
817 30 
826 13 



826^ 
826 13 

KCM'oOl' 818 18 

KepaWiov 826 M 
/c^pas 820 7 

817 '^ 

p rpirjpiriKos 818 ** 

j 818 41 

817 31 



\fp-fiTior 827 8 
Xux^t'ov 827 5 



827" 

V 814 31 



0^0x617 818 20 
oX/teio? 817 2S 

TTfplppaVTTIpiOV 818 26 

iroTiov 818 22 
8 18 2 
826 14 



826 M 
s 817 14 
818 7 
SIS 13 
ff<f>payis 813 B 2 

ajKvpfiov 827 n 



rpdir^a. 817 32 

t/u.po\oi 8 
813 B 14 



ia 817 21 

827 n 



818 6 

fiov 817" 
817 - 7 

P 817 M 
iov 818* 



INDICES. 



403 



VIII. AMPHIARAUM, 16 S i. 303, 3498 (about 200 B.C.), 
CABIRIUM (2420), AND OTHER THEBAN SHRINES 

(24214). 



aldo'iov 303 70 
oXwrts 2420 

2420 



rTJpos 2420 
3498 7 .- 2 . 82 . 

s 3498 lu 



eXaia. xpvfffj 3498 60 
3498 82 



dfc 3498 10 
6(pidiov 303 71 

jredlffKat 2422 
trpoffuiriov 303 ^ 
irptxTwirov 303 , 2422 



^ iepd, p 



3498 7 



ijSviroTiSiov 303 73 
riSv-n-oris 3498 s 
3498 10 



2420 

/cdSoy 3498 17 

AcaXvTrTTjpes ^ dvaffTpo<piff/J.aro^ 3498 a 

/cavow 303 55 

/c/wj/iaTtj 3498 s2 

/ci5a(?os 3498 7 

Ai6W 3498 10 

KwOuviov 303 s 6 

\ipavwrts 303 73 
X^or 3498 5 , 2422 



jyiiox lepov 3498 9 

2420 

1 dTro TU>V irepifffiri/jidTUv 3498 21 

8498" 

iov (six) S498 27 etc. 
3498 12 
303 103 



ov irpbffUTrov 3498 2l 
ffivdtbv 2421 
ffKd<piov 303 63 
crrar^ 303 M 
o-raros 3498 13 
2420 



2421 
303 78 
303 6 

d 3498 3 
303 ^ 



3498 51 

303 57 
<pidXiov 303 57 

dpyvpovs irapd rrjv effriav ativ- 
3498 8 



303 73 

2420 
2421 

<ws 303 97 
(ingot) 303 1W> 
3498 14 
3498 13 

dirb TWV tiro. 



3498 w 



IX. PLATAEA. 



tpia 



(AJA vii. 406. All the dedications by women, whose names are given 
without further explanation.) 

iriva.% 

ffTf<f>dv<afj.a 
ffrvXLSiov 

rd <p' airrijs 
5ats (many) 



Ha.pa.v6fM 
p6v 
fflfi.a 

262 



Among the names are: 

'HdiffTa 

Zwirvpa 



Xa/J.irdSiov 
Xa/a?rds 



Kofffila 



404 INDICES. 



X. TEMPLE OF HERA AT 8AMOS, 436 B.C. 
Curtius, Samos 6. Stamatiades, 2a/xos, i. 218 ff. 



we pi f 'tafia aXovpyovv irot/ciXov 
8l<f>pos inscribed 'Hp65oro$ ZiJvwvos'Hpjji m55es X0wot 



r ir/xkrwTrov 

XtT6> 



(rrpoufloi 

virdpyvpoi 
ff<j>e\l<TKos 
icrj ptiicf lov <r<j>vd6vai Xtvcu 

KiBtllV KdTdffTlKTOS 

KiOuv Avdios T^rri-yes 



Koirls viroK<pd\a.ia. Svo 

Kp^defiva firrd 

Ki5/cXos x a ^ K v* <f>id\at (ninety-two) 

/jidxaipat f*. fj.axat-po9^Kei 
filTpi) Xiri) ffrviriTfiov 

ira.pd\afffft.s 



XL TREASURE OF APOLLO AT BRANCHIDAE. 

GIG 2855 ff. 



&ya\fj.a 2860 iraXifjuroTov 2862 

dyytlov 2855 irXaxoOs irfpir\pyvptfifvov 2862 

2855 iroXwiptfTjj 2862 

iroT-fipiov 2862 
2862 

(Tivduv 2862 

2859 (r/c^oj 2862 

<r/ii/p'77 2862 
KavoOi' 2855 

2862 Wp/a 2855 



XijSovwT/y 2855 <f>id\r) 2855 etc. 

Xi/3avwr6y 2862 

XuxvJa 2862 X'^wv xP^o^s 2862 



OK 2862 ^I/ACTI)P 2862 

2862 



INDICES. 



405 



XII. FRAGMENT OF LIST FROM AEGINA. 
IP I i. 1588. 



dya\fj.a 
dyaXftaT 
affTridicn 
dffirls 



\vxvlov 



iravaypls 

irepovat in batches from 
five to 120 



p6a 
<pidXri 



XIII. INDEX TO THE DEDICATIONS IN THE 
ANTHOLOGY. 

(Book VI. unless otherwise stated; App. means Cougny's Appendix (Didot).) 

&TPOLKT<K 39 4 , 160 3 
<xu\6s 51 8 , xiii. 20 

pdicrpov 203 10 
Podypiov ix. 323 J 

OL 1 2 V Af\1 

poe K lUapys 40 * 

Popees raxivol KaXuv 205 2 
fiorpvs 22 3 
/SoOs 156 3 

s ix. 332 2 , App. i. 293 
295 4 

ravpoSfm 41 2 

pu/i6s 10 3 , 50 4 , 145 1 , ^|>p. i. 31, 212, 
292, 302, 311, 313 

yavXbs 35 6 

ytXyiBes 232 5 

7eveidj 161 3 

^e^iywj' fftjtlyKTop' evppa.<f>ea. 233 2 

y\ti<t>avov KaXd/j.ov 63 7 

7\u0ts 64 6 

ypliroi 23 5 

CT? 2546 
34 3 



7 2 , 8 2 , 144 1 , 268 1 , 338 2 , 347 1 , 
xiii. 19, App. i. 6, 16, 17, 18, 20, 
34, 41, 43, 55, 60, 64, 110, 228, 
255, 327, 347 

AyKiffrpov 4 1 

ayxvpa 5 6 

dypi<t>T) 297 ! 

dyporis aiyavta 57 4 

a0\a App. i. 206 

aiyavta 163 s 

&KO.IVO. fiovir\tiKrpos 41 s 

aids dyiclffTpov 5' 2 

dKov-q Ka\dfj.uv 64 2 

dxpoBiviov App. i. 56, 242 

dupbirrepov aUrov 229 1 

d/cro KpyTaus 299 5 

&KUV 177 3 

dXtKTUp 155 3 

d\^KT<ap x^fetos 149 s 
&\li] 301 ! 

160 2 
306 7 
297 2 

232 3 

Tpov 185 2 
diruprjs 154 5 
na App. i. 253 
T) dypas 196 5 , cp. ^^p. i. 33, 127 

ia dXlwv 187 3 
dpls 103 2 , 205 5 
dpiffTfiov App. i. 21 
d/wcus 14 2 
dpvaj 157 4 
Aporpov 104 4 
"Aprefjus 266 1 
d/mjy 105 3 
dpvffrpis fw/uoD 306 5 
do-Trts 81 , 124 ! 
derT/)a7dXat 309 3 
a T' oy <f>tj)VT)Ta. irpos AvSpas 210 5 



336 3 

i5eti' 225 5 
SfKdrevfia 290 3 , xiii. 25 (KepSt 
denary 214 4 , 285 9 , 288 3 , 343*, 

53, 60, 63, 105, 243 
5^7ras 332 3 
depdyxv 109 3 
depatoirtSa 14 4 

168 8 

X^OVTOS 57 3 

*C<SA 200 3 
SlBvpcrov 172 x 
21 l 
s <rr6pt)vy!; 111 5 



406 



INDICES. 



II 1 

d6va( 23 
SoiVdf 5 1 
Sovpara 4 1 

Soxftci ypa<f>iKoto peidpov 63 s 
dpay/jia 36', 225* 
SpdKwv 206 7 
21 a 
95 s 

/xds 109 5 
a 299 4 

5<ipoK ^/>p. i. 2, 44, 53, 74, 77, 92, 
117, 214, 312 

86 ! 

xiii. 11, App. i. 27, 52, 72, 73, 80, 
85, 86, 90, 93, 107, 112, 120, 123, 
144, 145, 154, 218, 219, 220, 295, 
304, 334 

riis xiii. 24 
flfju 136 - 
etpia 250 5 
t\dr, 102 
Aafa 190 s 
s 21* 
v 236 l 
280 4 
217 10 
132 l 
Kia xiii. 18 

21 3 



294' 
296 s 
343 4 
ririroi 135', 

104 s 
42 s 
170 s 



274 ] 

191 3 
iiri\f<t\iov 233 4 
fpyov fvypafos 221 9 

4 

^s 259 J 

336 2 

211 >, 260 
101 4 

p^. i. 313, 209, 302 
App. i. 33 

41 s 



101 5 
59 2 
105 3 

101 3 
n; 39 4 , 174 4 



220" 
254 3 
tj 156 1 
Ovda. 306 7 
evptaffiri* 131 
^upe6s 129' 

158", 165 4 , xiii. 24 
86 ', 129 2 



. i. 150 



160 s 
63 4 
106 s 

206 s 
133 * 

KdfJULJ; 131" 

(cavom 62 s 

KO.VWV 63 2 

cdpa/3oy 89 4 

KapKlvos 111 1 , 295 5 

KapKlvos wi'/ja-y/^njs 92 3 

Kdpvov 22 4 

/car' oveipov App. i. 153 

Karoirrpov 1 3 

K(Kpv<f>a\os 206 4 

xtvrpov 104 5 



75 ^ 
39 s 



. i. 99 

112 2 
166 1 



233 2 

KTjpLov 55 ' 

83 * 

294 3 

62 3 

134 4 

Ki'(T7-; /iteXaj 
/cXotoj 107 8 
s 109 3 
86 J 
App. i. 114 

171 

51 8 , 155 1 
KOVTOS 91 4 
KOTT/J 129 2 
Koivij 35 3 
81 4 
246 2 
122 , 

Kpdvos 129 r 
Kpedypa 101 6 
Kpeaypls 306 1 
KPTJT-/IP 33 s 
21 1 



65" 



123 1 



63 J 



33 



51 5 



wv 175 J 
202 ' 

KVTTf\\OV 170 3 



209 1 



INDICES. 



407 



Ktuv 176 1 


oTvos 44 4 


KWTTTJ 5 l 


ois 258 ! 




oXirT; 26 1 2 


Xa.pvptv0o* elvdXios 224 l 


faXov 178 1 


\dyvvos 248 J 


opynilj 4 2 


Xayw/36Xo>> 152 1 


opuf 297 4 


Xaifj.oTr^da.1 16 4 


Sffirpia 98 4 


Xa/uTdj 100 J , App. i. 149, 206 


ox^Mtt ^^>p. i. 3 


X<?/3?7s 153 J, xiii. 8 




X^Krpov 58 ! 


7rd777 23 5 


X<fa> 218 


iravh 27 3 


Xi/3d6Vs 170 3 


irdyovpos 196 4 


M/Savoy '231 6 


Tra^ta 309 4 


XWoj 63 s 


nav painted 315 l , cp. x. 10, xvi. 232, 


XWos Tru/xroriKos 27 4 


258, 259 


XW (nets) 12 1 


7rcto"crctXoy 21 


Xfvos 5 3 


7rf5iXa 208 l 


X67X*? 107 2 


Tntfa 287 2 


XiVoy 148 2 


TT^fa Treplff(pvpos 211 2 


\c6irtoi' 245 5 


fl-Ae/ci>s 103 s 


Xwroy 94 3 


Tr^TrXos 200 s , ^p. i. 19 




i / -t r7rt o 
7TpLO'(pL'piOt f L t 


fi&fr 251 3 


irepbv-n 282 3 


Atdo-rtf 233* 


_,'_ OQO2 

7TeTCt(70S ZO^ 


(id* 234 4 


Tr^rpos (flint) 5 5 


iMffTodfrov 201 4 


TTIJKTri 55 l 


^Xav 64 5 


TTTjXljf 163 3 


/uAi 55* 


TT^T? 160 5 


MeXia 52 ! 


ir^cy 288 6 


fj.fXuro'ui' d/j.ppcxrir] 232 4 


Trijpa 95 2 


/j.rjXoi> 22 l 


T^XI/S 204' 


MXovxos 211 3 


7Tt00S 77 X 


MtXretoj' 205 3 


TTIXOS 90 5 


^irpa 201 \ xiii. 24 


7TiW| 147 4 , 213 2 


ya^yaa 197 2 , App. i. 12, 32, 40, 44, 51, 


TrXaKous 155 3 


257, 318 


7rXd App. i. 217 


fj-vTJfj.' dperijs App. i. 38, 58 


^-\^,^ r ;-^, Qnou 
Tr\ct,To.yTj ouy 


IJ.v-fjfj.ij App. i. 127 


> ' , 1 H A 2 
TTAO.TGCJ'OS All/ 


fivrHtAffwov 341 2 , App. i. 13 


irXtK^/s 295 6 


/t6Xt/3os 62 J 


irXoKafj-ls 59 1 , 60 2 


fj.6(rxos 258 2 


iroddypa 296 J 


/ii/eXot e/c ffTpofilXuv 232 2 


7ro5ew' 95 5 


fj.v<j}ip 95 * 


TroSiffTpa 107 6 




TroTrciKet^a 231 3 


vd/cos 78 J 


___'_ 0004 
TTOTTCtS ^O^5 


va6s 53 i 


TTp^WJ' 103 4 


vdpdos 231 5 


TrpOKa\VfJL/Jia TTpOffWTTOV 207 5 


vd/x9^ 294 2 


irpoxo'h 292 6 


yaOs 69 a , -4/?jp. i. 5 


TrreX^a 170 : 


j'e/Spfy 87 J 


* / jt fio 4 
TTTW/vOS TTOOCS y^ 


J^XT; (net) II 2 




y^/ia 286 5 


pd^35os 246 3 


vltcq App. i. 327 10 


pai<rT-/ip 117 x 




pti/at xapasrai 206 J 


6avov 189 4 , ix. 601, xvi. 248, App. i. 


P/PT? 92 2 


268 


plTT.S 101 2 


iwn)/j 205 5 


p65o/ 158 ! 




potd 22 J 


(5^3eX6y 306 5 


pou^os 165 1 


o7x>"7 232 5 


powaXov 3 4 


of os (p-ftyivos 37 J 


potrrpov 74 7 , 165 3 



408 



INDICES. 



pVKdrq 204 s 


rfrri^ x a ^- K v* ^8 S^ 1 


pvffia 274 * 


T<^a 2 1 




Top^fi y&fjL<f>uy 205* 


ffdyapit 94" 


ropvvi\ 306* 


<rdcos 84 


rpd7oj 32 4 , 167 2 


(rdXwryS 46 s 


rplatva 38 s 


o-dvSaXa 201 * 


rp/;3oXoj 104* 


^dri'pos 56 


rp7Xa 105 l 


ff7j/ia ^^. i. 39, 253 


rpka 95 4 , 104 6 


(nmeior ^pp. i. 211 


rpt65ouj 4 s 


ffifivmjt 93 1 8 


T/rfTow 8 1 , 103, 214 s , 339', 344 4 , cp. 


o-^i/vov 176 


xiii. 13, 28, App. i. 208 


<rJ/u'os 102 5 


rp/xeJ 164* 


<r/ca^j 297 


rpt>iratoi> App. i. 83 


ffKdQos 21 7 , Xpp. i. 1 


nJAtTavov 51 7 


ffK^irapvov 205 * 


Ti/w6j 299 4 , cp. xiii. 2, .4j>p. i. 351 


ffKiira.* euvrjs 58 l 




ffKJTrwv 294 ! 
ffKoXovfvdpa. 222 l 


C5wp 42 
ft-tj 104 4 


<r/cCXa 163 2 , App. i. 109 


virtvSvfM 292 J 


<nctfXos 35 2 , 165 2 




<r/jJ.\r) 62 2 




ffirdvfj ^88 


^aixdj 254 5 


trirbyyos 60 
<nrvpk 4 2 


<^)apos 208 


ardO^y 103 * 


(pap^Tpij 9 ^ 


<rrdX t $ 109 4 


^>eXX6j 5 4 
^otj 258 2 


<TTdxus 98 3 


^idXa; App. i. 53 


ffreydvy xpar6j 294 4 
ffrtfjifjia 172 J 
<rr^^aj'oj 59 J 
ffT-r)\rj App. i. 83, 225 


0pa5ai<ri vvfKpav App. i. 48 
^>wds 105 ' 
0(}\Xa pbSwr 154 6 


o-TXe77is 282 s 




<rryXis rprfpovs 342 ', cp. ^Ipp. i. 26 
ffiryxir 294 4 


Xatrai 173 5 
XaXiy6s 131 , 233 ! 


O-OKOJ- 22 2 


XaX/cos dpoTpijTT^s 41 J 


ff<f>ayls 306 4 


XaX/cos Siairy^s 210 s 


(r^atpa 280 2 


XdpTjs K<i3fj.iK&s 308 3 


o-00pa 103" 


xdpts App. i. 33 


<rxtfa 282 s 


X^f 231 4 


o-Xoivoj 103 


X^Atapos 134 4 


(TWTTJptO 216 ^ 


Xtriiy 81 3 , ^4pp. i. 117 




XtrtDves rpiy\o<j>bpoi (nets) 11 s 


raXapicr/coj 174 3 
TdXapos 39 s 


XXa/xiys 282 4 
XtfT/xw 306 l 


Tffdvi) Affiropa 79 l 




rtpcrpov 103 5 


\f/aiffTd 190 6 


TerpdTrous 101 s 


^Tj/crpa 233 6 



GENERAL INDEX GREEK. 



A^arov 200 6 
'Afiopiytves 55 5 
253 12 
xjl 329 ^ 
oO 279 12 
irapx'n 59 14 

&ya\/j.a 327, 328, 376 2 ; see 
a-yuH> x 1 *^ 605 150 2 
d7^at 0eai 263 13 
ci-yopd 26 1 3 

dyopav6(u>s 261 3 , 262 6 
'Ay port pa. 50 4 
'A7wetfj 321 9 
dSe/cdreuros 60 3 
fiSTjXoy 249 7 
a Aiow^0T)S eCZa.ro 329 * 
a eflfaro 280 2 
'A6V- 325 " 
'A6iiva.s 325 11 

325 u 
405 
376 3 
o-co 218 6 
mis 376 2 
184 4 
fjuii 49 4 



v, see 

Oj 33 5 , 75, 190 4 
dXo-os 207 6 
'A^aia 44 "> 

307 5 

'/)76s 235 5 
s \alov 150 13 
ts 184 9 
Ti/s 184 9 
323 
Ti{eiv 339 

57 8 , 121 1 , 167, 169 1 , 322 1 , 
323, 349 3 , 360 u , 373 8 , 390 14 
vaO^fiara : 

(LyaXfw. 47 6 , 61 13 - 14 , 90 1 - 4 , 91 1 , 124 7 , 
125, 126 3 , 143 B , 144 5 , 145 \ 151 14 , 
152 4 , 229 2 , 260 , 266 5 , 269 7 - 12 , 
270 u , 307 l , 310 4 , 31 1 1 , 333 6 . 8 , 
353 J , 355, 391 8 , 404, 405 
v 405 



. 

dyyetov 265 , 404 
a-yKiarpov 405 
AyKvpa 399, 405 
dypl<t>i) 405 
381 3 
, 323 

152 6 , 153 8 - 9 - 12 , 154 1 
alyls 394 

aldolov 210 8 , 212 1 , 397, 403 
aZer6s, ateroO Acec^aXi} 399 
d/cat^a 405 
a/caK0os 399 
dKivdKrjs 31 1 5 , 394 
d/ds 405 

59 12 , 78 S 399 
405 

iva 101 9 
iva 52 12 

iviov 50 3 , 51 2 , 54, 57 7 , 100 2 , 
102 23 , 117 7 , 123 4 - 5 , 147 1 , 154 2 , 
234 1 , 251 6 , 394, 396, 405 
a,Kpo6ivLov i-pydiv offluv 59 ls 
aKpoirrepov 405 

O.KpOffTO\lOV 110 4 

dKpwrjpiop 124 u , 394 

d/crij 405 

d/c^wv 399 

dXd/Saerros 399 

dXdpaffTpov 397 

d\fKrpv<J}v 297 7 

dX^/crwp 405 

dXteus y^puv 241 J 

dXiT? 405 

d,XK<yw' 405 

d\6rpi\f/ 405 

dXou/xy^s 396 

dXTTj/) 162 ! 

aXwru, dXi)<rtoi/ 313 4 , 397, 402, 403 

d/w; 405 

oLUftAriov 74 13 , 403 

dMTeXoy 17 18 , 402 

dyUTreXor xpvrf 66 8 

d/iTrAon ^aXX6j 66 9 

a.fjiiri\ovov 396 

a,(j.irpov 394 



410 



GENERAL INDEX GREEK. 



405 

Tpov 405 
<LfjL<t>idta 394, 399 
dnipopti'S, dfj.<j>oplffKOt 394, 399 
dvayKatoir&rqs 399 
dvddrjfj.a 396 
di'Sptdi'Tios 272 7 
drSptdvTiov, dvdpiavridiov, dvSptavri- 

ffKm 288 18 , 394, 399, 402, 404 
dvSpid* 97 2 , 131 8 , 167 10 , 209 2 , 266 4 , 
269 8 , 315 13 , 328 4 , 350 2 , 397, 399 
399 

41 s , 53 10 , 54 4 
T^X"?J 59 18 
dirapxt 9 6 , 34 7 , 41 4 , 44 2 , 46 2 , 49 4 , 
52 >- 4 , 53, 53 s - 8 , 54, 54 , 56 10 , 
571. 4. s, i 2i 58 io t 5913. u t 60 i. s t 61 i2 > 

64, 70', 90 4 - 8 , 91 *, 93 2 . 8 - 18 , 96 11 , 
100 2 , 10 1 8 , 102 20 , 103, 131 8 , 138 6 , 
245 >!, 328 2a , 333 2 , 394, 399, 404, 
405 
dirapx''] dyaffwv 59 14 

avOpuiruv 52 3 
fpyuv Kal KT(dvui> 59 13 

Konfjs 245 u 
dirotfu<7Tdvio' 281 7 
d7roirTiry/aa 394 
diroppavTT)piov 394 
dpyfiara 53 
dpytpiov 397, 399 
dpyuptov Kij35ri\oi' 313 9 , 394 
dpyvpls 394, 399 
dpfc 405 

dpicrrerov 103 4 , 127 8 , 147 J , 405 
&PKVS 405 
&porpov 405 
dproj 52 5 , 405 
dpwas 399 
dpwmjp, 399, 402 
dpvffrpts 405 
dff/cor 313 5 , 399 
do-TriStov 116 7 , 226 2 , 394 
dffiridiffKT) 116 7 , 253 12 , 394, 396, 399, 

405 

dairtdiffKiov 394, 405 
do-Trfj 107 7 , 114 6 , 226 2 , 394, 397, 

399, 405 
dffTrij dpyvpa 116 8 

- xpvffij 114 9 
dffrpayd\i), d^rpd-yaXos, d<7Tpa7d\ioj' 

249 ' 4 , 397, 405. 

a T' ov <pwvt]ra. irpos dvSpaj 72 9 , 405 
drpo/cTos 394, 405 
oi)\6s 114 5 , 397, 405 
iov 226 3 , 397 
s 397 
405 
ia 71 J 
v 405 
332" 



pandKiov 281 7 , 399 
396 
397 

JsAos'llO 14 , 394 
Podyptov 405 
poiSiov 297 :t , 394 
Pbrpvs 405 
povpd\ioi> 399 
p v K ((f>d\ij 69 ", 403 
BovKed>d\iov 399 

74", 399 
405 
a? 405 
405 
402 

r^vicos 397, 403 
/3wya6s 40 ', 259 \ 281 13 , 283 7 , 297 3 , 
404, 405 

7CUTT pOTTTTJS 399 

7aiX6s 405 
7^X71$ 405 
7'etdj 405 
7<?pavos 399 
: ppa 71 J 

^0^, 7X0^5401*, 381 4 , 394 
\.v<pavov, y\v<f>is 405 
76x1; 210 8 , 397 
yopyoveiov 394 
405 

.405 

ypvirbs wporofj.^ 394 
7wpir6j 405 
5ais 302 :t , 403 
da.KTv\ios, da.KTv\idiov 225 3 - 6 , 394, 

396, 397, 399, 402, 403 
5d/cTi;Xos 210 8 , 397 
SapeiKoj 397, 400, 402 
Sd<pvr] 405 
SeKdrevpa 405 

SeKdrr, 42 a , 54 13 , 55, 55 1 - 8 , 56 10 - 28 - 27 , 
57 7 - 11 , 58 8 , 59 1 - 8 , 60 2 - 3 - 4 , 61 1 , 
63 10 , 78 9 , 83 1 , 90 4 - 6 , 92 n , 93 2 - 7 - 18 , 
94 ', 98 8 , 100 2 , 102, 103, 106 6 , 
110 u , 114 10 , 115 4 , 116 S 121 2 , 
124 7 , 126 3 , 128 10 , 142 6 , 144 s , 
147 !, 328 21 , 399, 405 
Stttdr-n tpyuv 56 1 - 

ruv 59 13 
ov 58 10 
397 

!>' 394, 397, 399 
405 
405 

405 
71', 405 

394 
ita 405 

405 
iia 397 
5iceXXa 405 



GENERAL INDEX GREEK. 



411 



SIKTVOV 394, 406 


iiriraiviSiov 400 




Slvo/j-ov 400 


tiri<pv\\is 406 




SIVos 3;i7 


^irix^TTjs 400, 402 




SIOTTCU 394, 399 


eir^Xiov 406 




dlffKos 394, 399 


ZirXevTov 400 




5t<p6^pa. 402 


^p^rr; 406 




50pos 394, 404 


#pta 403, 406 




>a| 406 


pta /xaXa/ca ec Ka\at)iaKui 73 2 , 


394 


Sop&nov HO 15 , 394 


^pTruXXos 406 




SopKds 68 2 


^pwy, ^pwrtoj' 263 ^ 321 3 , 400, 


406 


Sopu HO 3 , 394, 399, 406 


tpuriffKos 394, 403 




doxttov 406 


<?(rxdpa 394, 400, 402, 406 




Spa.yfj.0. 406 


<?ffXapis 400, 404 




SPO.KOVTLOV 209 3 , 250 13 , 398 


^Xf"X^ts y<>/j.<f>os 406 




Spd/fcw 209 4 , 394, 398, 406 


<?X^"i 394 




dpax/J-ds 7rfTpaKwxXfas 92 * 


^X 17 ?'' 7 ? 400 




SpaXA"? 394, 400, 402 


eX^ 1 ? ffTpOTlUTlKlfl 110, 400 




dpfirdvT], Sptwavov 406 


^X'"os 399, 406 




dpvTrira 406 


feiryos 107 9 




E 354 1J ' 


fi/76' 272 3 




eyxeiptSiov 390 14 


<" "ua ^Xe^dj/Tti/a 68 5 




?7X Xi's 51 13 


fwtSdpta dpyupa 68 4 , 394, 400 




fyXs 406 


ifaidtoj' 394, 400 




eTSwXov 7i/vat/c6s 255 7 


fw/xa 396 




'(> 80 \ 167 9 , 169 2 - 3 , 210 s , 229 2 - 10 , 


fwAwfcwrij 394, 396, 399, 406 




255 7 .269 7 ,270 6 ' 7 - 11 ,27]. 13 ,315 14 .i5 > 


fwvi7 255 7 , 403, 406 




327 - 1 , 372 2 , 373 5 - 8 , 406 


fuij'')/ dpyvpd 74 13 




flKuv Tfviov 231 5 


^77 TrjpeeviKri 249 5 




eiKaw TT/S (07X775 232 5 


fwpos 406 




elXiKT-hp 394 


^ 210 8 , 398 




eZ>ta 406 


T/Si/TTorts, ydviroTiov, TjdvTroridiov 


398, 


flpeai&vT) 52' 


400, 403 




etVoaos 35 2 , 273 6 


i70M6s 394, 399, 400, 403, 406 




fKa.Tofji.fir) 44 8 


fjXaKdrr) 396, 400, 406 




^xTrw/ia 394, 400, 402 


ijXos 394 




/CTT? 394 


f]fJLlKVK\lOV 400 




ZKTVTTOV 402 


rifj.iTvfii.ov 404 




Aa/a (xpwrij) 66 7 , 403, 406 


7j>txo' 400 




Aatoy 52 5 , 332 10 


i)fj.ixovv 399 




eXatpjv 403 


rHuuptXw 394, 400, 402 




i\44at 400 


/9n.Xn./i7? 406 




j\ / -i f . i it 
e\i)oxpi<fTiov loo 


6aXXbs dfj-ir^Xov 66 9 




ipfidSei 406 


OipiffTpov 406 




l/i/3oXos 400, 406 


OepnavTripiov 395 




(fLTTVpOV 226 J 


6epfj.dffTiov 395 




dvde<Tfj.is 400 


depp.a.ffTpis 395 




^Si/Awx 406 


^pos xP vffo v v 66 3 




tvdvrov 406 


07jp?7 67 u 




tvwidiov 394, 396, 398, 399, 403 


6r)pi.KXfiov 398, 400 




evwiridiov 253 12 , 403 


B-qaavpbs 124 7 




tv&inov 253 12 , 400, 403 


6>6Xtov, BoXifaov 398 




^dXetTrrpo^ 253 9 - 12 , 396, 398, 400, 


0pt {(fafiiKri, iraiSiK-f), irpwroT}, 


L7/TOS 


404 


242 10 ; cp. 406, 408 




etavffrrip 400, 402 


flpovos (ftfXivos) 225 8 , 395, 


398, 


i48pa 266 4 


405 




lira6Xoy 153 3 


flvefa 406 




?7rap7/u.a 53 8 


evfj-iaT-fipiov 63 9 , 395, 398, 400, 


402 


wifi\y}fj.a. 396 


Ovvvos 51 12 




iTiMmTw 316 14 , 317 2 


0i^pa 35 3 , 273 6 




eTTlTTOpTT/S 406 


Ovpta.* 406 





412 



GENERAL INDEX GREEK. 



ava.Orina.Ta. : 

0vp6s HO 1 , 406 
406 
263* 

110 18 , 395, 396, 405, 406 
iris 398 
ia 296 7 
s 406 

TIOV 396, 404 
m) 406 
euj <p<i>ff<p&pos SO 3 

Jjnr^/coj 115 4 , 164, 404, 406 
Kov 410 

402 

SoTj 406 
406 

210 8 , 398 

Soy, /caSfo-icos 395, 397, 399, 400, 
402, 403 

73, 224 4 , 395, 398, 400 

406 

KdXa/xos 406 
Ka\avpoif> 406 
KdXivx/ia 397 

/caXthrretpa 406, KaXvirrpa 249 12 , 406 
Ka\vw-Hip 403, 406 
/caXutdtop 402 
406 

395 

KdvSvs 397 

Ko.vd6.piov 397 

KayoO* 278", 395, 398, 399, 400, 

402, 405 

KO.V&V, Kavovls 403, 406 
Kdpaflos 406 
/tapSta 210 8 , 398, 400 
xap/c^os 214 8 , 250 13 , 398, 406 
Kapvov 406 
Kapx-hfftov 281 6 , 395, 397, 399, 400, 

405 

Kaffffirepos 400 
Ka.Taird\Tr)S 395 
Kdroirrpov 395, 397, 398, 406 
KdTwpls 395 
/cavXos ffi\<(>iov 66 11 
Kficpv<t>a\os 225 4 , 249 8 , 397, 398, 

404, 406 

K(Kpt<}>a\o< ITTITIK^ HO 20 , 395 
K^vrpov 406 
K^pas, Kepaidiov, Kpa/J.v\\t.ov 281 7 , 

395, 400, 402, 404, 406 
s 406 

os, nepxviov, 398, 399, 400 
Tj 50 2 , 210 J , 395, 398, 406 
232 s , 406 
s 395 
Krjptov 406 
Kqptxfiov 400, 404, 405 

V 399 

397, 399 
395, 405 



406 
ov 395 
400 
406 
t 406 
406 

/WV 273 8 , 328 4 
395 

400 

31 1 6 , 395, 400 
406 
s 406 

^ HO 19 , 395, 406 
s 398, 400, 406 

395 

400 

406 

24 1 13 - 14 , 243 2 , 245", 406 
xbvdv, Kov6v\tov 400 
Kovr6s 406 
KOTT/S 404, 406 
K6fnj 90. 10 , 395 
Kupvfj.f-Sos 395 
Koptivij 406 
406 

316 13 , 400, 406 
<c6rra/3os 400 
6ri;Xoj, KoryX?/ 397, 399 
Koraweios 400 
KpaSfUT^s 399 
Kpavlov 44 6 

Kpdvoj, /cpdveto, Kpavioiov 395, 406 
Kpa.Ta.viov 281 7 
Kpareirnjj 395 
/cpa-nfc 281 7 , 311 5 , 390 15 , 395, 400, 

402, 406 

KparypiSiov, KpaTTjpiffKos 398, 400 
Kpedypa, Kpf6.ypi.ov, icpfaypls 395, 399, 
406 

v 404 

403 

icpiov Kf<pa\Ji 395 
Kp6^os 395 

250" 
395, 406 
Kua^j 400 
/ctfatfos 395, 398, 399, 400, 402, 403 

of'v 400 

406 

404 

iffKos 400 

395, 398 

/n/Xt{, KV\IKIO>> 281 7 , 395, 400, 406 
KuXtx^s, KV\IXVLOV, KvXixvidiov 395, 

397, 398, 400 
ov 406 
400 

uplov, KVfipiStov 93 7 , 313 4 , 397, 

398, 400 



GENERAL INDEX GREEK. 



413 



Kviracrcris 406 
KijweXXov 406 

KVpfif] 400 

Ktipros 406 

/CI/T-OS 101 6 

KVWV 46 \ 406, 407 

K&dv 400 

Kcitfwv 395, 397, 399, 400, 403 

KuOuviov 403 

K&\ov 44 6 

/cuvos HO 4 , 400 

KUTT1) 407 

Xa/fty 400 

\a.ptpiv6os 407 

XdYi/poy 407 

Xayu/SoXov 407 

Xa7<oyy 72 16 

\atfJMir5r) 407 

Xa/i7rade2bc 399 

XaMTrdy, Xa/wrdStov 153 8 , 400, 403, 

407 
X<^y 327 23 , 390 14 - 15 , 395, 399, 400, 

402, 407 

XepJTiov 397, 399, 400, 402 
Xeteu 395 

Xei/jLwviov 66 10 , 400 
XeKdvT, 395, 400 
Xticrpov 407 
X^ovros Ke<paMi, irpoTo/j-ri 69 11 , 395, 

400 

Xtfaw 407 
\-fldiov 397 

\rjiov trepixpvffov 66 4 , 395 
XIJKU^OS, \riKv6iov 398 
XijKf^os ffKvrivrj 225 1 
X77J/IS 400 
\ipavos 407 

\tpavurls 398, 400, 403, 404 
Xifiavurbs 404 
Xi^ds 407 

Xi0os, \i8dpiov, 398, 400, 407 
a\a<nroei.5-/is 225 5 
rt Tiji'fots 73 J , 397 
407 
Xot/3is 399 
Xon^noj' 405 
Xiryyotfptov 398, 400 
Xi5/)a, Xi^/Jiof 395, 398 
Xi^x^ 05 ) Xix'o''i Xuxi/foi* 395, 399, 

400, 402, 403, 404, 405, 407 
XvxPoOx * 400 
\unriov 407 
Xwr6s 407 
Atafa 407 

ftafow6fu> 403, 404 
fjidvr)s, fi6.vi.ov 400 
/tdo-Ti^ 407 
/icwrru 407 
fj-affToderov 407 
yttao-r6s, /JLaffriov 212 1 , 400, 403 



ipa HO 4 , 395, 400, 402, 404 
v 407 

roO crwpiaToy 210 8 
52 B , 407 
/a 407 
pa 272 3 
ca/ 2147, 398 

224 4 , 398, 407 
ov 66 8 , 185, 395, 400 
s 407 
395, 399 

%)OS 210 8 

Kbs TUITOS 212 3 

lov 407 
252 n , 395, 404, 407 

oj 407 
407 

i; 253 12 , 400 
fj.vu\f/ 407 
y<x/cos 407 

vo6j 158 2 , 228 8 , 273 5 , 283 3 , 311 l , 407 
vdpdos 407 
ydp^| 407 
vavs 407 
ye/3ps 407 
ve<f>4\T) 407 

yews fyfioXov HO 5 , 400 
pij/ua 407 
v^o-os 342 3 

VTJTTO. apyvpa. 67 1 , 395 
vfKTj 146 6 , 395, 400, 407 
t>iKrjr-/ipiov 99 1 , 155 13 , 226 3 , 395, 402, 

403 

vLKidiov 226 3 , 398 
v6/Mfffjia 397, 400 
vonos 400 

^0o/idxatpa HO 18 , 395 
^(^oy, fi^Wtoj- 311 5 , 395, 399 
\bavov 407 
^a-r-^p 403, 407 
^i/crris 395 
d/3eXtcr/coy, (5/3eX<5y 74 "- 19 , 395, 399, 

401, 407 

6p \6s 390 15 , 400, 403 

7X"7 407 

<55o^y 210 8 , 398 

ofoy 407 

olvos 407 

0^0x6?; 281 7 , 395, 398, 399, 401, 

402, 404 
oly 45 4 , 407 
6/ceia 75 s 
6K\adia 395 

oXmov 395, 401, 402 

0X71-77 407 

6vv% 395, 398 

6ls 401, 403 

6^a<t>ov 401 

67rXtro5p6^.oy 396 

oVXo.' 124 11 , 26226, 328 s , 407 



414 



GENERAL INDEX GREEK. 



407 

395, 399, 401 
opi 407 
Sffirpia 407 
<w 210 8 , 212 8 , 398 
<ty0aX/i6$ 210 8 , 212 7 , 398 
tyloiov '209 s , 395, 398, 401, 403 
o<j6is 401 
ox0oios 395 
Td-yij, JT07/J 407 
ird-yoiipos 407 
ira^ia 249 14 , 407 
raiding. \lOiva 250" 
iraiSlov QiXoffrpdrov 210 3 , 398 
iraXi^irirjjs, iraXfynroTOv 401, 404 
iraXXaSiov, TraXXdfnoi' 395 
ira.va.ypls 405 

irai/orXia HO 21 , 113 \ 395 
irapdy\vfj.fjM 398 
ira.pdofiyfj.a 70 3 
irapdXa<r(m 404 
irapair^Tafffj.a 277 J , 404 
irapdpvfJM 395 
irapdffijfjia 105 6 
irdtrcraXos 407 
TajTds 273 6 
*-<?Scu 234', 398 
407 

irepltr<j>vpos 407 
Ktvoj 405 
407 

110 13 , 395 

opos 395, 401 
407 
it 63 2 
ire/>t/3oXos 283 4 
irtpideplSiof 401 
irepifrl; 395 
irepifwfJM 404 
irepiKe<pa\ala 110 4 
ireptAce^>dXaio>' 401 
Kfpi.ppa.vT-tipi.ov 401, 402 
ireptffKf \LSiov 225 3 , 398 
wepiffKe\is 253 12 , 401 
irepiff<f>vpiov 407 
iretrax^Xia 395 

253 12 , 395, 401, 405, 407 

407 
407 

407 

407 
IT^CTJ, ir^vLov 407 

TTT^pO 407 

fl-^xfs 407 

irftfos 407 

irtXos (d/yyupoOj) 153 s , 401, 407 

*/<, irica/c^Kos 133, 135 3 , 174 8 , 

178 4 , 232 2 , 270", 328 1 , 395, 397, 

398, 401, 405, 407 
iriTr6.Ki.ov 339 



dvadr^xara : 

irXaKoDt 404, 407 
irXd| 407 

vXdffrpa 395, 397, 399 
irXarayi) 407 
395 
407 
407 

0peim}/>ioi 241 4 
397 
irj'i'yetyj 395 
iroSdypa 407 
7ro5a'tirT')Jp, jroSa.vfirrrjplSiot' 395, 399, 

401 

7ro5e?ov 395 
irooedjv 407 
woSlffTpa 407 
iroXis 342 s 

404 

vt 397, 401 
ta 407 
iroTravov 296 2 
u-oirds 407 
7r6/)7n7 253 12 , 401 

iror/ipiov, ironjpldiov 261 2 , 262 20 , 
320 10 , 395, 397, 398, 399, 401, 402, 
404 

TTOI/J 50 2 , 210 8 , 395, 404, 407 
irpiuv 407 
irpoKd\vfj./j.a 407 
TrpoTrv\ov 273 6 

irpoffKf<f>d\aiov tpeovv 225 2 , 398 
404 

rpoffuiriov 212 1 , 210 8 , 270 11 , 
395, 398, 403, 404 

TTpOTOfli) X^OVTOS 69 1J 

'/i 407 

oWto*' 280 7 , 328 2 , 401, 
402, 404 
Trpvfj.vr)ffia 402 
irpwdypia 50 3 
irpw6\(ia 50 3 
JTTW/COJ ?r65ej 407 
iruXew 248 4 
irfodai; 397 
irijpavvov 395 
irvprfviov 401 
407 
407 
403 
407 

398, 407 
pis 210 8 , 398 
poSta*^ 401, 403 
p^oi/ 401, 407 
po/a 66 8 , 401, 405, 407 
p<5/x0oj 407 

poirdXioi 1 , pbiraXov, pbinpov 401, 407 
408 
397 
22 3 , 398, 401 



GENERAL INDEX GREEK. 



415 



dva6rjfj.ara : 

pvro<t>ia\ov 398 
ffdyapis 408 
<rdKos 408 
<rdX7ri7f 114 s , 408 
ffdvdaXa 408 
ffdpSiov 395, 397, 398 
ZarvpiffKos 401 
Sdrvpos 408 
Zeip-nv 281 7 
(T^Xivop xP vff v v 66 6 
ffT)/j.aro(j>opeiov 395 
< rta7w' 210 8 , 398 
ffifivvris 408 
0-17X05 313 5 , 395, 399 
ffiyvvov 408 

(TIKUOS 408 

StXiji'oO irp!)ffU3irov 403 

<ri\<f>iov 66 11 

ffivduv, ffivSovlffKij 404 

ffKa,<f>fiov 395 

<d07;, <TKd<t>tov 395, 398, 401, 402, 

403, 408 
<TKd<f>iov diro r&v aly&v ml rpdyuv 

67 2 

o-/ca0h 408 

<Aos 210 8 , 212 9 , 395, 398, 401 
ffK^irapvov 408 
(TK^Tras ewijJ 408 
<rce^ 162 9 

ffK^TTUV 408 

ffKo\oTT^vdpa 408 
ovcDXa 106 10 , 328 3 , 408 
e^fj.aTa. 101 8 
408 

401, 404 
397 
408 
(rnvpvr) 404 
o-Trd^T? 395, 408 

ff1T\1)vi<TKOS 404 

triniyyos 408 

airovSeiov 63 9 

fftrovdox&'ri, ffirovSoxolSiov 401 

ffirvpls 408 

ffTdOw 408 

<rra.6fj.lov 395 

<rraXi 408 

<TTd/J.t>OS 401 

o-rar^p 395, 400, 403 
(TTar^p d/387jXos 313 9 , 395 
ffrafpvX'/i 408 
o-rdx^ej 66 4 , 395, 408 
ffreydvri /cparis 408 
crr^/jifia. 408 
395 



395, 401 

tyavos 101 8 , 153 s , 154 4 , 155 12 , 
266 6 , 269 1 , 272 7 , 281 6 , 344 19 , 395, 
398, 401, 402, 403, 408 



dva.0-fifjia.Ta : 
ffTt<j>dvu>fi.a. 403 

<7T^</OJ 154 3 

o-r^^os 210 8 , 398 

<rr7jXi7 408 

o-rXerx^toi' 253 12 , 281 6 , 398 

ffT\eyyU, ff r\iyyis 153 s , 225", 253 12 , 

395, 397, 398, 399, 401, 402, 

408 

ffrod 35 1 - 2 , 124", 273 6 , 330 7 
o-roX^ 282 l 
ffTbfM 210 s , 398 

405 

oj 395, 401, 402 
\ov 250 12 , 403 
Js 404 
ov 395 

s, ffTvMSiov 401, 403, 408 
(rrDXos 319 

ffTvpdKiov doparos HO 22 , 395, 399 
ffvp-rivr] 269 2 , 395 
(Tiryxts 408 
ffvKov 52 5 , 408 
a-<payflov 395, 399 
fffayis, 408 
o-^atpa 401, 408 
cr0eXtV/cos 404 
ff<f>evdovr) 404 
0-^47$ 401 
ffippayis, ff<ppayi5iov 395, 396, 397, 

398, 399, 401, 402 
o-^pa 396, 408 
o-xtfa 408 
o"X,otviov 402 
crxolvoj 408 

a-w/^a 210 8 , 212 6 .7, 225 3 , 398 
ffufidnov 210 s , 398 
<rwpaKos 396 
TOI OTTO TTJS Sei'pTjj 251 7 
rd ^' a^s 74 13 , 251 2 , 403 
raivia v\ivr) 178 1 , 401 
rdXavroj' 396 
rdXapos, TaXapt<r/cos 408 
rapavrlvov 397 
reXafjubv 328 G 
rtfj-fvos 40, 408 
riperpov 408 
rerpddpaxfJ-ov, Terpa.xiJ.ov 226 4 , 398, 

401, 403 

TfTpO.VOfJ.OV 401 
TCTpttTTOUJ 408 

rerriyiov 401 

r^TTtf 404, 408 

TIT010V 210 8 , 398 

rir^ 210 8 , 398 

Tir06s 210 8 , 212 J , 398, 403 

ro|ov HO 1 , 113, 401, 408 

ropeys 408 

TOpVVT) 408 

rpa7os 408 
Tpayiffxos 401 



416 GENERAL INDEX GREEK. 



328 5 , 396, 401, 402, 403 <om xXicoOj 144 10 

t 210 8 , 398 QvKlov 253 12 , 401 

Tpiaiva 408 0i'ius 408 

rplpXtov 401 ^Xaf 403 

rptpoXot 408 <t>wi)Tbv 396 

rpipdviov 397 x<" 24 1 8 , 408 

TpryXa 408 xaXi^j 396, 408 

401 XiX/dof 396, 397, 402 

401, 402 x*P*KTW" AAI 75 l , 396 

rpi/j.7]vov 396 Xdpijs KWfjuK^s 94 3 , 408 

Tp^a 403 Xe'/> 210 8 , 212 1 , 396, 398, 402, 403, 

rptofloi/s 408 404 

rpiiroStffKos, rpiirbdiov 152 5 , S27 24 , x^P^o" 21 8 . 398 

398, 401, 403 - x^P^ivrpov 396 

TpfTToi.s 146 8 , 148 7 , 149 3 , 151 14 , 152 10 , xP^a 396, 399 

157 4 ' 8 - 7 , 178 4 , 260 6 , 385, 390", X fp"^ov 396, 402, 404 

401, 408 x 1 ?" 408 

rptrrifibptov 401 X'M* 1 /' 05 408 

TpiruH' Kviraplffffivos 281 7 \ir<i)v, x'Tuivtov, x iTI ' )v l ffKO *i X lTU "^ ff ~ 

rpiuptXiov 401 KIOV 396, 397, 404, 408 

rpiApoXov 396, 398, 402 xXa/it/J 398, 408 

rpbiraiov 408 xXa''^, xXa^^iov, xXavurKiov 397, 404 

rpixprjua 397 X ' 5l "' 9 a ". 401 

rtjfj.ira.vov 408 xolpos 45 4 

TWOS, Ti)irtov, rw/Stoi' 63 7 , 223 1 - 2 - 4 , xo'"*. xo^f'os 398 

398, 401, 403, 408 xo^s 396, 397 

s 212 3 xM/tora 73 ls , 253 17 

Ktpa/jddwv 70 3 x/>w^" 396, 397, 398, 401 

396 XP 1 "^'^, xp vff ^ i0lr 396 

up/a 277 s , 396, 399, 401, 402, 403, XP" Xi^os 321 4 , 396 

404 xpwrw* 401, 403 

i/l6 j 210 6 x^a 403 

On* 408 X^pa. X^s. \vrpi^ov 398, 399, 

virtv8v/Mi 408 401, 402, 403 

virbpaBpov 396 X^po* 281 7 , 408 

viropdnis 396 X^poj 121 2 

396, 397, 399, 401 ^aurr6 408 

7-a 224 8 , 398 f^Xiov 253 12 , 402 

396, 402 Wtcrpa 408 

Vaiov 404 ^iMTifa 396, 397, 399, 402, 403, 404 

280 7 , 328 2 \l/vKT-tipiov diro TTJS eXd<pou teal rpdywr 

vTToirjSiov 396 67 2 , 402 

virbararov 396 cipata 9 6 , 45 4 , 121 - 

uj 63 6 drrdpiov 210 s , 398, 402 

C^cwia 396 dya/cero-^ai 112 8 , 185, 323 

0ai/cds 408 AvaKf! 17 8 

HO 2 , 113, 401, 408 &va.KTt<i iraides 29 5 

70, 276 1 , 408 dvanetvcu 64, 167, 169 1 , 323, 324, 336, 

vov 408 339, 349 3 

117 7 d^Spa^a^tas 1-vfKa. /cat 5iKaio<rvvr)s 288 9 

; 408 dv8pids 184 ai , see dvaff^fjura. 

408 'Avdpiwv olicos 122 7 , 343 2 

57 8 , 118 2 , 144 10 , 261 2 - 8 , dv f 6ti~r,v 59 17 

262 21 , 26S 24 , 278 3 , 281 7 , 311 s , dvt/j.6fj.vXov 237 2 
344 19 , 396, 397, 398, 399, 401, dvijp x<"" ^pdvos 

402, 403, 404, 405, 408 'AvOaXcts 45 4 

396, 398, 401, 403 di/fo/xa 207 3 , 323 



GENERAL INDEX GREEK. 



417 



&v6e/j.a TW iraidi 325 a 


d^TT;s 184 4 


dvBtpev 207 3 


d<Jrr)p<aifa 9 8 


dvdi.Tnra.ff la 175 


d^' wv elpydffaTO 93 6 


dvdpwirdjv dirapxal 52 3 




dvieplfav 339* 


fiaffnavla 44 6 


dj/iepow 282 !, 339 


Bdra Kdpas 67 14 


avTldep-a 405 


A... ^-,', n 1QQ9 
pTJIU,aTlffTTlS loo 


dvTtxa/'fo/ie'os 196 7 


/Stoi' apiaTa fiiuffavTa 270 12 


djrd7eiJ' Jarpa 200 3 


/3oa7os 153 3 


__/),/ ooft2 

aTTttiTTjc/eiS ^^u 


/36af 379 6 


dTrdpxeo-tfcu 53 8 , 57 12 


Bodcrwi/ 232 12 


dirapxeffBai. TTJS /co^s 241 13 , 242 16 , 245" 


Bof 771/6$ 313 J 


TUI> yevfluv 242 u 


.y, ,, A . ,*_ OQ38 
BQV KOTTtCt ^5OD 


dirapx 7 ?, see dvaOri/jiaTa 


BoiAcu'a 263 29 


in nominative case 325 


/3oi/X^ 332 


To.6riva.lai 325 5 


*/3oOs tpdo/jLos 298 10 


dTrapxV ffTf<t>avwefls 267 10 , 32S 22 


BpoyTtDv 231 5 


dTntfw/ca 323 14 




dTrtdwKav TO lepoTrorjfia 220 2 


yajj.ri\ioi Ofol 246 8 


dTT^I? 165 10 


yevtffta 4 1 


dn-TjpfciTO 92 5 


TeveruXXt's 298 9 


diro5i5<Wt 220 2 - 3 , 324 


7e'6/ie'os lepetis etc. 265 14 


ctTroSiSovcu farpa 200 3 


yepovTftuv 263 31 


diroSiS' trffaL 335 3 


Tewp76s 45 4 , 235 3 


cbroSocris 331 


Fi) ^v 7<;ats 45 4 


dirodveiv evxr/v 229 4 


7XaO' 'Atfifcafe 40 8 


dTro^i'/etv ra farpa 200 3 


rop7ietos 279 6 


'ATroXXw ffov et'yu.1, <r6s ei'yu.' 325 ffl 


ypafjifiaTevs 184 10 , 235 u 


airoua-vSaXta. 10 8 


'VpCt//./XCtT6lyWJ' 263 


diroirf/j.irfiv taTpa 200 3 


7pa/u / uart(c6s 320 10 , 322 2 


aTfOffTafflou ^o4 


yvp.vaffiapXT)ffas 34 12 , 35 2 


aTrd T^S vai/yaax'os 268 1 


7i>/ui>acriapxw' 177 12 


d7r6 r^s r^x"?s 60 6 


yv/j.t>iKos dyuiv 308 


aTTOrp^Tratos 7 5 




dTro^irywv 234, 234 8 


da/j-iovpyr/ffas 264 n 


air' wroSa/cwj/ 215 6 


Sdi/os 233 ! 


dpd 334 4 


5e/cdf V 55 ! 


dpyvpaire^a 117 6 


SeKaffTaTTjpov 272 s 


dper^v rijs 0eoO 330 


5/careue' 55 *, 60 3 , 102 26 , 246, 405 


apiffTa iro\iTevffd/j.evos 267 12 


Ae/caTTj06pos 56^ 


dpiffTfiov 268 9 , 394, 402 


S^Xros 343 3 


> r> /-v 1 OA 'i 

ApiO'TOpov\'rj &0 * 


5^/ia. 340 


dpKTffclV 246 


ae<-6T7js 29 3 


(ip|as 259 4 


Ar/Xiw^ ol/cos 122 7 , 343 2 


dpas, i^TT^p T^S OvyaTpbs ei^a/xepos 265 18 


A77X67TT17S 20 5 


dppri<t>6pos 198 5 


8i7Mxr t ei^eti' 205 4 , 206 J - 4 


ctpT07ru)X?/s 235 


dTJfj-os 332 ' 


dpTOTTUJXlS 90 2 


5i7jiiwi 332 9 


dpxieparei;a)f 277 3 


diaffwefls 230 2 


dpxiepo0(h-as 264 11 


ftitlfivni ^9^ 


dpxt^wpos 207 


At^ypa/x/3os 179 al 


dpxos 260 9 


5tKato<rwr;s ^esa 267 u 


dpxaw 259 3 , 260 7 , 261 7 , 267 1 


SI'KT; diroffTafflov 234 6 


do'd^u'^os 280 2 


diKfjv aTro(pvywv 234 


'AffTpaTfia 119 6 


Atos KwSiov 204 J 


ai)X7;nJs 184 10 , 265 8 


Sis KO/XOI 243 2 


A^ITTJS 44 9 


S^S TTT; IIi/ppi 56s 333 1 


ai>ro7r6eia? 61 6 , 81 4 


Slxpova 4 1 


/ 9 Ql 4 


56/cava 31 s 


d<pe5piaTffaw 148 x 


SoKifj.eiov 394, 398 



K. 



27 



418 GENERAL INDEX GREEK. 



Wfav TUN drifj.ii}i 267 4 ^iri/xeXijr^j TUV (nwrrriptw 262" 

dpaxfJ-ai Ifpal 316 s 'Eiri/tT}Xios 45 8 

Sports 171 M tTiviKia 406 

topo* 113, 153 3 , 192 s , 208 2 , 252 , tirivv^tv^eva.!. 246 J 

310 1 , 333 2 , 374 4 , 406 ftrMnceudfeti- 266 J 

Supof dirapx^v 59 14 , 323 8 , 333 2 Imordrcu rotv vlKanv 143 8 

tiri.ffTa.TT,* 264" 

j35ojuos 8ov$ 290 <?7ri(TT(XT6i/<rcis 265*^ 

K 200" tiriTietvai 323 

f<70cu 278 s ' ETTiTpa-y/a 45 7 

200 8 'Ejr^Mtos 44 10 

o- 200 8 'Epydi'T; 59 20 , 143 4 

223 l tpyuv dirapx^l 59 1 * 

217 l tpyuv dfKdrr) 56 12 

324 1S tpyuv 6<riuv dKpoOlvtov 59" 

Si'a 195 4 epnai 129 1 

t 265 8 dprifj.oK\riffid 12 3 

200 2 tvO-f,* 112 3 

/$ 313 8 eiaryAto 339 9 

394 Ei}j3ovXetfs 29 2 

eii' 324 etXoyla 3131 

330 eifd/ie^oj 34 6 , 215 8 , 231 5 , 329 

330 E07rXota 121 *, 231 2 

t XCLpiffr/lpio- 234 3 tCir\oiav 331 w 

>s 226 9 euTrXo^as ^vfAca 331 M 

229 8 , 268 9 E^ir/ja^a 251 7 

'EXeu<r/a 253 1 Eu<rTd^>Xoy 328 17 

oj 234 8 , 235 8 Ein-a^ia 180 7 

4 1 EirrAxctps 279 8 

5pos 44 10 etrruxws 243 2 , 334 7 
Trpoffevx.t>nevoi KaXXrra> 'A<p6pr)- ei/xav tKTe\tffo,VTi. 329 

ros 223* evxapiffTfiv 323 

'viatnepa 4 1 evxapiffrfpiov 89 J , 160 7 , 214 4 , 230 2 , 

Trivadwi 223 4 265", 330 

- r6Ko 257" etxa-pur-ruv 220 2 

is 313 8 evxt 26, 26 2 , 33 2 , 34 6 , 87 9 , 89 1 - 8 , 
4 a 210, 213". 7 . 14 , 215 3 - 10 , 220 1 - 2 , 229 4 , 

a 220 1 23(), 231 '. 8 , 243 2 , 253 6 , 254 8 - 8 - 10 , 

331 293 19 , 294*, 323, 329, S29 24 , 330 13 , 

Tdy/MTO* 331 831, 392 10 - , 400, 40q 

irwv 231 s EvxKrn 44 10 

234 4 e^XwX^ 280 7 , 329, 329 8 - 18 , 406 

12 3 fuxuXi/v Tf\tffas 329 

?w 97 s , 334 8 t<(>T,pwv dpuftos 184* 

iy 323" t<piffTo.va.(. 323 
323 

323 fd/copos 198 8 , 265, 265" 

tirdfx&reai 261 J ZeC/J KoraxWwof 28* 
^7ra/x^ 53 8 , 200', 261 J QMrua 325 7 

OCQI ooa 4>tXios 34 2 

-i09 , 646 

it 323 LrivowoffeiSuv 273" 

2ggi Zijdy OXvyurfov 325 9 

Iv^a 207 3 fwy/w0/a 184 9 

ia 54 13 - 10^2 

* cavaKeiov 129^ 

rdva/ces 14 8 , 32 2 , 165 8 

18 f furrfct 829 
epeiis 264" 

262 4 'H^e/xii'T; roO Sr}fjtov 261 8 

Vi>6utvos 34 1 nXios 311 8 



GENERAL INDEX GREEK. 



419 



324 10 



138 9 
389 3 

272 3 



vrj 218 s 
ij 45 4 
3p 4 

6 eirl ftXavrr) 70 2 
Htpya.fji.os 26 16 
iffTiwv 67 18 



0a\dffffioi 8a.lfj.ovfs 229 4 

OdXarra 197 J , 200 4 

GapdTTT/j, OapaTTos, Al' 13 4 

0av/j.a.fft viKr/ffas 152 5 

0ed 29 J ' 2 

0fa.ffa.fj.tvt]>> TTJV TTJS "Hpas {"TT 

330 a 8 

0eoi Ate7dXoi 30 16 
0eol oJ 'EXX^vwv 280 10 
foots ffepaffrois 332 10 
Oeo&via 10 
6>e6s 29 J - 2 

0e6s o-c&fwi' 17 10 , 26" 
?s 330 
s 192 10 
264 13 
i'a 278 3 
^ewpot 278 4 
(ftves 53 8 
6-npi K \eiot> 279 6 

8i)ffdfj.fvos TToXtjas iroXXds 229 2 
erjffavp6s 200 1 , 277, 343 J 
6v/j.ara eirtx^pta 296 J 
283 8 , 298 10 



Jape^s 301 8 

'laati 218 6 

farpa 200 3 , 204 6 , 208 11 

larpfiov 206 J 

larpevOds 331 * 

iarpos drj/jioffievuv 205 4 , 206 1 

idicarevuv 205 7 
ISiwreveiv 205 7 
Idpvfiv 324 
idpv/Mi 324 
Idpvffeai 275" 
%>wny 313 12 
Jepa 'A^va/as 326 3 
lepapx 1 ? 17 " 05 264 al 

iepare^a-as 262 11 , 264 13 , 265 14 , 272 7 
ieparei^w)/ 264 13 , 266 2 
Zepeta 277 6 

ie/je^s 198 5 , 206 , 265 2 , 277 n , 279 9 
ifpoOvT-/i(ra.s 264 13 

IfpOKTJpVJ; 265 7 

te/jov 120 ! 

fe/w' T^S ' Adyvaias 326 3 
tepo7roi77<ras 262 11 
ifpowoioi 344 



34 13 , 198 5 , 264 12 , 265 10 
280 '. 3 , 322 J , 325, 327 
6 7rX6Ko^ioj 242 9 

265 17 
liceffla 334 

^ai 311 2 
311 2 , 313 12 
JMs 170 
Iv rvx at 334 6 
'loX^ws 45 4 

133 J 
eiyj 116 3 

8uv 129 3 
tcraro 32 1 8 , 324 15 
'Itryaijj'ios 140 6 
icrrd^at 138 , 323 
t TVXO.I dfo^ai 334 6 

Ka/3t 326 14 
Ka.0ap/j,6s 313 12 
Ard^^/ce 280 7 , 324 7 
Ka.0iepovv 316 2 , 324 
KaOiffTdvai 289 10 
*ca^' 8pa.fj.a 330 
/ca^' CTTVOJ' 330 

329 J 
184 9 
269 2 
/caXiKs 150 13 
Kdfj-ivos 80 6 

/cava vvfj,(piKd, KO.VOVV yafJUKbv 251 
Kavr]<pbpos 198 5 
KcurTjMs 234 8 , 235 2 
Kd7n?Xos 235 J 
KapirodoT7)s 328 13 
Kapvetoy 45 6 
Kapiro(p6pos 190 10 
KapvKfpios 280 ! 
Ka.arTo.6ds 265 14 
Ka,Taypd<f)iv 338 
Karadflv 338 
Ka,TaSLdr)fj.i 338 
Kard0efj.a 339 
Kara KfXfVffiv 331 
/card fj.a.VTelai' 331 
Kara irpbffTa,yfj.a, 331 
Kara ffwrayyv 331 
Kara rd irdrpia 57 12 
/card r^j/ /j.avTfiav 57 12 , 148 6 
/card ro -yeYovoy if/d<pifff4a 330 8 
(card xpr/juaricrju.^ 331 
Kara xP r l ff ^ v 331 
Kar' tTriTayjv 87 3 , S24 24 , 331 
/car' eiriTayna. 331 
/car' e'iri<f>dvia,v 330 
Kar' ei)x i ?' / 329 
Kar' wap 265 17 , 330 
Kar' ovetpoy 17 8 , 330, 406 
223 2 ' 4 
183 

272 



420 



GENERAL INDEX GREEK. 



KararMvai. 152 7 , 280 7 , 324 


/udjTi 265 8 


KaTax^^'OJ Zeuj 28 4 


/xapa^uyo/xdxat 41 4 


Kdroirrpov 253 10 


/i*Xea"ypii 40" 


Ktxpo\l/ 360 !1 


fj.(\oypa.<f>ia 184" 


K t\rf 176 8 


/xerd TOV ff(tfffi6v 331 M 


Kfpaufvt 34 8 , 61 


fttTOlKOS 23 4 


KIJI-CMOJ 45 4 


Mi/c^tfeios 279 8 


KWMtotor 379 > 


/twflwriij 235 4 


*%>., 184 10 , 265 8 


M-^a 59 8 , 79 4 , 128 9 , 259 2 , 357 2 , 407 


(tiwr<Sj 343 10 


/ipTj/i' dperaj 260" 


Ki8a.piff(j.fa 184 9 


Hrriti.elov 157 4 , 357 2 


KlOapos 379 8 


fJ-vilfJiri 407 


Ki6apuiSia. 184 9 


fivrtubffvvov 272 ^ 357 2 , 403 


*i0apwiS6s 154 ', 235 12 


fi.vrifj.offvvrit tvfica. 260 4 


xi?5i/i'Mras <cal 5iacrw0e/s 230 2 


/toXTrapx^ffas 265 8 


xkSwot 229 10 , 231 s 


Mopmi 40, 15.0 3 - 13 


xioxris 379 6 


fjLOpfM\ VKIOV 162 U 


X<7TJ 22 1 2 


ftovvapx^v 260 8 


*XeiSoCxos 198 8 


fj.6x&ot 231 B 


icva^y 59 ', 93 4 


MOs 321 8 


KOIVUV 332 


fj.vffr-/ipiov 246 3 , 282 ' 


\ /) / QIQl 
KOAtKTc/CiS 0X0 


^<mj9 265 10 


KoXoffO'os DO 


/iuia' K'at Xiiay 153 3 


K6/xr; tepd 242 8 


' , 


K6/U.TJS dirapxo-i 245 11 


vapviriiyfa 59 8 


KOVT(ij 183 


Ndios 280 2 


Kopi? 250 16 , 306 9 


Na^/wv okos 122 7 , 343 2 


Kop^avrej 47 13 


Nai'apx's 230 1S 


Kofpor/)60oj 45 4 , 253 3 , 255 


i/at^/cXapoj 59 9 


/cpdvos 4iriKei/j.fvos dv/)p 171 11 


Neai'tes 45 4 


ivpto05pos 190 


j/fWKopos 204 7 


Kpovov TTO.I 225 3 


yijTra 379 8 


KTedvwv dirapx^ 59 13 


WKT; 185 4 


KTlffTTJS 8 8 


vtK:iJ<raj 152 4 - 8 . 9 , 153 3 , 154 1 - 2 , 161 J , 


^/cXtos oiXijnJj 184 10 


164', 176 3 , 177 12 , 267 4 , 331' 23 


/ctfXt 184 


Nt(c^6po5 122 J , 26S 29 


/cupios ^pwj 26 2 


Na.ids 153 s 


Ktfi/'eXos 320 14 


viKo8pbfi.fios (pid\Tj 154 


KUfiuiSia 184 9 


VIACWV 171 8 , 331 23 


/caytanSoj 184 10 


vbffTov x^pf 229 2 


Aa/i/a 227 9 


W/u/nc S9S16 

.^.M tOS >_' ' 


X^/3?js vv/jL<puc6s 251 4 


lej'tff^s 10 10 


Aei)/cio9 307 4 


|6axov 121 2 


XevKUfj-a 343 3 




Aexot 325" 


O/KKTTl}! S 8 


Aex& 253 J 


olicoi>6fj.os r^j ir6Xewj 293 19 


\i6ovpyfc 207 2 


oros 122 7 , 343 2 


Xi/ievapx^o'tts 263 s " 


ol Kpeirrovfs 7 s 


At/t^am 249 8 , 280 ls 


olvoxbo* 265 8 


AovKiifdpa 295 13 


O/o-rpti 249 12 


Xiryos 40 8 


oZ ffvfj.fiaxoi 268 9 


\vrpov 330 


ol rV aKvTiKTjv T^xvyv ipya6(j.ti>oi 60 8 




6 X/0os 315 ' 3 


MaXedraj 140 8 , 325 12 


6X K 7) 267 18 


MaX6s 45 8 


ovap I5wv 330 


M XodS'nos 45 8 


6 iratj AcaX6r 279 n 


MavSpoKX^s 70 : 


oTrXo^dxos 184 4 


A * ~t' OQ 10 


'Ojrwpetfs 44 10 


/j.arTioi> 330 


<Jp7tdfeti' 46 !, 47 2 



GENERAL INDEX GREEK. 



421 



'OpOla. 276 * 


irpoff(vx&f*.fvos 223 1>2 ' 4 


'Qoffos 227 8 


wpoffKvvelv 283 9 


dpx^ffOai 46 8 


Trpoo-Ktivwa. 283 9 


'Offoyus 273 8 


TrpoffTa.ca.VT03 TOU 0ov 331 


oif/iv ISovffa 330 


TrpooraTTjs 234 5 




Trp6ffUTrov 162 10 , 223 3 


7ra7/cpaTia<TT7)s 171 12 


irpbffwirov yvvaiKos irpoffevxo(Jitvr)S 223 x 


TTfltfif U7"nC TI/M 1C 2fi^ 


TrporAeia 246 8 - 9 


HaiSija 180 


irpo<f>7fT'f}s 2 bo 


Trats /a#apau56s 184 10 


/ QA^2 


__ \ _.__-!.., T71 12 
TTttAttlCTTTyS 1.1 A 


IlTWt6^S 316 


nava7ia rdXcrou 13 4 


nu0aieyj 281 3 


na.vd.Kfia, 218 6 


ntfflios 280 1 


Haves 47 13 


n^fltos auX77T77s 184 10 


7rav777upidpx??s 184 10 


TTtfKTTJS 171 12 


7ravtu)vtos Io4 


7ri/po</)6poj 277" 


iravvirY'fe'v 46 8 


jrvppixrjf 184 10 


Trawi/xts 235 16 


7Tup06pos 198 5 , 200, 262, 265, 265 3 


irapaSiSovat. 338 


Htipivos ol/cos 122 7 , 343 2 


TrapaSoOels rots dvSpdffiv 344 5 




/i ' QO 4 
TTCipGLKaTauTJKT] O^-i 


paii'wtSiis 15 2 8 


a/ H24 SS8^^ 


Poos Ili/^aios 325 8 


irapderiros 267 1 


pv6fj,oypa<pia, 184 9 


wapaT^fj-vfiv vwep fftirrrjplas TOV iravros 


pu^os 348 7 


225 3 


piVta 408 


naptfeVos 247 1 




Ila^oTTtos 190 7 


o-aX7rt7/cT7)s 184 J 


TrAavos 200 5 


o-apdvra 4 1 


TreXeia 40 8 


o-drupos 184 10 


Tr^Xe/cus 389 3 


o-awa-rpe? 229 4 


Tnf/iytittTCl ^9 6 


ffeifffj,6v, /aera TOV 231* 


'/" ^I^l 


ffffival deoi 189 J 


TTVTa.e\C)V 161 ! 


o-^a 408 


Treat ISiov \f/v)(a,plov 231 2 


err?Mov 153 10 , 357 2 , 408 


TrfpLK(f>a\a,ia. 183 


ffLTO.pt 50 X 


TrepioSoviicrjs 182 


(T/aa^axav 170 2 


irept ffbrnqplas 231 


ffKv\o8ty-r]s 59 4 


7Ttva| 178, 343 3 


ffKvrord/jLos 235 7 


TTlTTdKLOV 339 


Z/juvOfvs 190 8 


n-Xo/apxos 237 2 


(7"Oi VCtptJ' CtJ'TtOtOOL'S O!J..T 


7ro6iepos 340 7 


<r6s e^A" 280 7 , 32S 22 


TToterv 324 


ffvyKaOiepovv 324 5 


TTO^TTjs 184 10 


o-i^vapxot 263 x 


noi/avtos 45 6 


ffvffffLTia, 42^ 


7r6Xe/ios 229 8 , 231 5 


o-u Ti>x 334 7 


IloXteus 328 14 


ffTa.ep.bs 267 16 


7r6Xis 332 


<rrXe77is 153 2 


IIoAiy6pju.os 305 


<TTe(f>a.vt]<f>6pos 265 


TroXv/jiaOia 184 9 


ffTe<pavt)<popwv 265 3 , 273 8 


-v / OAO 12 


o-T^avos 267 13 - 14 ' 15 - 16 


n6vnos 129 3 


o~T^0avos ^/c fivpffLvrjs 150 4 


TriTravoj' 200 s , 221 2 , 374 3 


ffTf<t>avudels 153 12 , 266 6 , 267 1 - 10 . 11 


wopirrj 253 J1 


ffrpaTtiyrfffas 115 2 


TrOTLTCLy/iiQ, 331 


o-TpaTTyos 262 1 , 267 8 


nplwv 324 10 


ffTpaT-rjybs 'Pw/j-aiuv 268 7 


Trpoydfjifia 246 8 


o-TpaTtarr^s 139 ! 


irporipoffio. 52 


o-Tpe7TT6s 268 5 


irpodveffOai 200 2 


<rw0eis 229 8 - 10 , 231 s - 6 , 235 8 , 268 9 , 331 26 


irp66vfj.a 200 2 - 5 


o-tDjaa 337 6 


n/xi^axos 127 6 


Sajo-/vewj 230 13 



422 



GENERAL INDEX GREEK. 



330 

192 12 , 195 4 , 208 10 
8 8 , 17 2 , 129 3 , 208 12 , 228 10 , 229 4 , 
328 1S 

408 

228 17 



332 10 

TUH Kafilpui Iap6s 326 s 
Twt xotvwt 266 s , 332'. 10 
TWV 'XOijvriOev d6\uv elfjii 154 
TWV firl Aafurldai &ff\uv 152 7 



73 1S , 253", 331 
313 

icrqplffi 266 8 
Ta\affiovpybs 235 8 
Ta^as 260* 
Ta.fj.lai 144 l , 262 4 
racial T&V lepCiiv xp 1 Jf J - a ' rul ' 344 6 
Tafuevuv 260 s 

Tot? ISlav Ovyartpa x a P t<r7 "^P lo> ' 295 J 
Tdirl 5eiuu 334 8 
Tdiridopira 204 4 
Taptxoiru\ris 235 10 
ratij 40 8 

TeXe/a 242 16 , 24? l 
Tf\eiovfM 281 12 
Te\c<r<p6pos 208 10 
reXerai 46 J 

dirapyjjM 59 19 
271 ' 
Tji irar/)/5t 832" 

T~g 7r6X 35 2 , 272 3 , 273 8 - 8 , 332 11 
Trjs ' A.<j>podtT-r]s 

326 12 

T^J ei^X^ J a5ro56<rewj xdpiv 331 
rt^i-at 323, 324 
Tt/iav 333 
rots ^ois 332" 
TOIJ irat<ri 332 10 
r6yu iraT^pa 5e/cdra' 328 21 
Togfap 184 4 
TO Trp&TOv r)py<i<ra,TO 60 7 
roO TJpuos rjfj.L 325 16 
ToO riTwtetos iapov 325 M 
TOV T^KVOV evaiUi>ov 329 4 
Tpav/a, Tpdyios 45 6 
Tpayuidia 184 9 
184 10 
327 13 
es 4 ' 
379 6 
4 ! 

6s 154 8 
Tplodoi 46 ' 
ra 4 1 

4 1 

99 2 , 185 7 

119 7 

263 8 
56s xa.p 
80 7 , 333 
228 10 

d>a(?5 243 2 , 334 6 
TVXW vyielas 331 



'Tv^ia 61 10 , 188 1S , 208 i2 
vdpia. f\aiov ISO 13 
i>5po<t>opJ)ffa.s 265 13 
i'8po<t>6pos 265 

265 4 
277 J 
250 18 
i-ir^p 216 3 

i/ir^p avTTJs Kal TOV iratSiov 225 3 , 398 
virlp ^aw^j 254 B 
yjr^p lavrov Kal TOV vlov Kal irirfp TU 

TrXoi'foyU^i'Wj' irdvTuv 230 4 
virep ei/xapiariaj 97 2 , 331 
i-irep evxv 243 2 , 331 
ii?re/3 ffUT-qplas 331 

T^J 7uvatAc6j 213 4 
T^J 6/)d<rewj 192 3 
TOV iraidiov 242 10 
inrep TUV iraiowv ev^dfitvos 329 4 
virep vyielas 220 2 , 331 
inrep uyifias Kal crwrypias 261 l 
'eipla 191 2 
330 28 

vv/j.<ptKd 251 5 
Apptvos 251 5 
wo/SoX^j diTa7r65w(rts 184 9 
viroypafj./j.aTtvs 235 u 
inroyvfivaffiapx^ffas 263 21 
vir6deiyfj.a ev<ref3fias, <pi\aya6las 351 5 
57 12 , 99 8 , 227 8 , 265 13 
TTJS dfj.a6ias 226 8 

277 8 
230 7 
215 

<pa\apls 379" 
^.idX^ 234 8 , 235 w 
4>tXa5A</>eios 279 s 
^tXfas x^/>'" 270 8 

vvfj.<pwv 408 
316 3 
44 10 
332 

44 10 
195 4 



60 8 
344 8 
324, 330 
cta 192 10 
330 
330 13 
330 
57 12 , 



GENERAL INDEX GREEK. 423 



254 8 , 262 21 , 265 14 , 295 1 , 296 9 , 328 4 , xfmpdruv SeKdrrj 59 13 

329, 329 28 , 330, 402 xpn^piov 330 13 

343 3 X/ >6 /ttt 4 1 

262 1 xuplov deKdrij 58 10 
XfipoTovta. 206 l 

yeXwi'T? 382 4 - 6 i,W0a, 50 l 

247 x ^aXytt6s 184 10 

307 l $ /3- 3328 

XX6i? 44 10 f. 6. 332 8 
t vfvt\)j.ivt\ 204 5 

^cD' 180 5 <l}Kv5p&/jLa$ 166 7 

'XTjs 184 10 '07r6XXw (T6C efyu, croO e//tt 325 ^ 

i TTorripia. 154 wpra/j-os 92 n 

XopoitlOapos 184 10 (l}ffxo<f>opia 52 



GENERAL INDEX ENGLISH. 



Abantis, tithe of 130 

abbreviated inscriptions 325 u , 326 13 

Academus 34 ; altar of Love 249 ; 
personified on a relief 33 

Acamas in a group 131 

Acanthian treasury at Delphi 123 

accessories on reliefs 23 

Acesis, son of Asclepius 194 

Aceso, daughter of Asclepius 194 ; on 
reliefs 218 

Achaean s dedicate a soldier's statue 
at Delphi 138; dedicate spoil 117; 
defeated by the Dorians 119 

Acharaca, cave of Hades and Perse- 
phone 13 7 , 46 9 

Achelous in group 130 ; dedications to 
47 6 . See also Pan on reliefs 

Achilles dedicates his hair 241 ; his 
spear 320 ; worshipt at Olbia 20 

Achilles Pontarches, dedication to 263 7 

Acraephiae, decree of 315 ; makes 
dedication to Apollo Ptoan 281 ; 
tripods dedicated there 148 

Acragas, drunken youths of 229 4 

Acropolis, bronze store-house 346 ; 
overseer of moneys 240; walls 106 

Acropolis of Athens 

Dedications and dedicators : 
allegorical group 91; animal and 
plant models 67, 69, 75, 76, 144, 
296, 300; athlete figures 167, 171; 
breeders' offering 75, 270, 296 ; bridal 
baskets, stools, etc. 251 ; Criophorus 
285; crowns 155, 268; Cylon's statue 
313 ; dancers 287 ; divine figures 
90, 127, 303, 306; dolls and toys 
250; dress 277; fetters 233; first- 
fruits and tithes 32, 60 3 , 61, 90, 93 ; 
forfeits 313 ; grotesques 393; human 
figures 79, 138, 140, 284, 287, 289,313; 
jockey 167 ; knight and horse 79 ; 
lavers 280; Leaena's statue 231 ; 
maidens 90, 306, 317; male figures 
308; nursing mother 257 ; orna- 
ments 74, 253; picture relating to 



games 174, of Themistocles 227; 

prize 152; ritual figures 284, 287, 

289; spoil of war 105-110; toys 

250; trade-model 78; traders 58, 59, 

90; vases 253, 279; Victories 143; 

votary with wreath or other offering 

287 ; warrior 140 
Acrotatus, defeat of 125 
Act or Process blest by the god 360, 

361, 365 

Groups : agriculture 75 ; child- 
birth 254 ; games 164 ; marriage 

247; puberty 243; war 130 
Pictures: agriculture 80; games 

174; trades 81 ff.; war 134 
Reliefs: agriculture 80; disease 

and peril 216; games 175, 177, 178, 

179; war 133 

Summarily represented in model : 

animals 75 ; athletes 166 ; mast and 

stars 135; warrior 139 
Actium 128; temple built after 122 
actor's figure on relief 178 ; relief 181 ; 

tithe 58 

actors' guild 180 
Acusilaus, statue of 171 
adoration or prayer, attitude of 170, 

210, 290 ; figures in this attitude 257 ; 

on reliefs 219, 295 ; modern attitude 

237 

Adrastus, figure of 137 
Aeaceum, dedicatory group in 191 
Aeacus 191 

Aegae, prize dedicated in 154 
Aegeus in a group 131 
Aegina, dedicatory group 191 ; in- 
scribed statuette of Hecate 306 ; 

masterpiece 61 ; personified 131 ; 

prize 150; sea fight off 106, 124; 

temple inventory 344 
Aeginetans dedicate a mast and stars 

after Salamis 135 ; beaks of ships 

103 
Aegira, group of warriors and mourners 

at 132 9 



GENERAL INDEX ENGLISH. 



425 



Aegle, daughter of Asclepius 194 
Aegospotami 116; spoil 132; tripod 

dedicated at Thespiae 148 ; Victories 

on eagles dedicated at Delos 143 
Aeneas a hero 9 4 
Aenetus, statue of 171 
Aeneus the physician 79 
Aeschraeus, votive tripod of 159 
Aeschyllus, agonistic dedication of 182 
Aesypus the jockey 166 
Aetolia personified 132 
Aetolians dedicate a group 132 ; league 

231 9 
Agamemnon a hero 9 4 ; dedicates his 

rudder 228 ; offers his hair to Zeus 

241 ; his sceptre 318 
Ageuor, a hero in Argos, blesses the 

flocks 9, 45 
Agenorides, herb-firstfruits offered to 

52 

Agias, statue of 171 
Agis defeated by Mantineans 137; 

trophy from 99 2 
Aglaiie, wife of Asclepius 194 
agonistic scenes on Panathenaic vases 

155 ; dedications in later times 181 
agonothet 156, 263 
agricultural feasts 276, 296, 314 
Agrigentines dedicate spoil 117 
Ajax a hero 9 4 ; dedicates his hair 241 
Alcaeus, his poems at Delos 64; his 

shield 101 

Alcathous dedicates a temple 226 
Alcibiades, pictures of 174 ; statue 372 
Alcibius the flotist makes a dedication 

181 

Alcmaeon's swaddlings 319 
Alcmene's goblet 320 
Alcon, quiver offered to 232 
Alea, Athena 117, 233 
Alexander a hero 9 4 ; dedicates his 

own armour 112; dedicates spoil 

108, 117; his Indian campaign 134; 

his crown 267 ; his Hunting 231 ; 

his panoply 113 ; makes statues of 

fallen Greeks 137 ; assumes the garb 

of Zeus 283 

Alexander of Therae 113 
Alexandria, hair-offering 242 ; sends 

theori to Branchidae 278 
Alexenor, son of Asclepius 194 
Alexicacos Apollo 188, 190; Heracles 

33 5 , 190 

Aleximachus, figure of 138 
Aliphera, Hero Fly -catcher in 188 13 
all Gods 230, 266 4 ; dedication to 192 
allegorical offerings 91, 144, 145, 190, 

191, 226, 231, 365, 370 
alphabet dedicated at Calymna 66 2 ; 

possibly at Athens when the official 

script was changed 75 



alphabets in tombs 66 2 

Alpheus a hero in Sparta 9; hair 

sacred to 241 
altar, how made 125 ; of horns 50 3 ; 

dedicated for war 125; as memorial 

of ritual 282, 283; of oracle 282; 

of deliverance 233, 354; to heroes, 

to Heracles, to the Dioscuri 17, 282 ; 

of Zeus at Pergamos 122; at Plataea 

354 ; altars at Delos 283 ; of nymphs 

44 ; on reliefs 20, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 

220, 230 7 , 251, 251 9 ; with burning 

fire 27, 32; on tomb reliefs 35; 

with reliefs on them 24 
Altis, trophy in the 100 
Alyattes 19i, 355 
Amasis 275, 354; his statue 372 
Amazons repulsed 119; group of the 

fight 130 

ambiguous offerings 112 
Ambraciots dedicate an ass at Delphi 

136; spoil of 107 
Ambrosus, St Elias at 37 
Ameinondas (?Epaminondas) 268 
Ammon, altars dedicated at 282 
Amorgos, dedication to Zeus Eubuleus 

188 7 ; official dedications 263 ; rider 

relief from 25 14 
Ampeliots of Libya dedicate silphium 

66 
Amphiaraus 8 ; origin and history 194 ; 

oracle at Oropus 194, 199 ; at Thebes 

195 2 ; becomes a god 195; A. and 

the hero-feast 22; A. in a group 

130 ; offerings of Croesus to him 

311 
Amphictyon builds an altar to Dionysus 

Orthos 227 
Amphictyonic Council dedicates an 

Apollo 128 ; figures of Scyllis and 

Hydra 136 

Amphidamas, games of 149 
Amphione invoked 12 2 
Amphipolis, trade-dedication at 60 
Amphitrite on votive tablets 134 
amphorae in cult of the Dioscuri 31 ; 

on reliefs 177 ; alone on reliefs 31 ; 

at Panathenaea 154 
Amyclae conquered by the Dorians 

119; trophy of the capture 99; 

models of rams found there 300; 

winged goddesses 16 ; figure of votary 

287 ; tripods dedicated there 146 ; 

tunic offered to Apollo 277 ; figures 

of ' Apollo ' 308 ; tripods dedicated 

after Aegospotami 148 
Amynus a hero 8, 11; his precinct 

188, 214; finds there, dolls 249; 

limb-reliefs 213, 222 ; seated goddess 

303 6 ; woman holding child 257; 

vases dedicated to Asclepius 280; 



426 



GENERAL INDEX ENGLISH. 



sacrificial relief 221 ; reliefs of ser- 
pent, sacrifice, libation, feast 222; 
A. and Sophocles 214 

Anacreon's figure 373 

Anaitis 290 ; limb-models 216 ; reliefs 
220. See alto Artemis 

Anassa, cave sacred to 46" 

anathema 339 

Anaus' prayer 33 9 

Anaxandrus, statue of 171 

Anaximenes' figure 373 

Andania, forfeits 313; offerings at the 
festivals 27 * 

Andocides the painter 61 

Audros, Heracles relief 32 

Androtiou and the votive crowns 344 

animals, why sacred 40 8 ; dipt at a 
death 245; on reliefs 30; held in 
the hand of votaries 290; animal 
models 300 

Anne of Austria dedicates the image of 
Louis XIV as a baby 210 6 

Anteros, altar of 314 

Anthaleus Zeus 45 

anthippasia 175, 176 

Antigonus, figure of 131 ; heroized as 
Soter 8; spoil taken from him 107 

Antiochus sends theori to Branchidae 
278 

Antiochus, son of Heracles, in a group 
131 

Antipater's crown 268 

Anubis 230, 230 4 , 336 

Apaturian Athena 249 

Apellas, M. Julius, cure of 203 

Aphaca, river-worship in 311 5 

Aphrodite. Titles: Callipygos 249; 
Epitragia 45 7 ; Guide of the People 
261; Lamia 227; Migonitis 248, 
294 \ 306; Nauarchis 230 13 ; Nym- 
phia 248; of the Fair Voyage 228; 
Symmachia 122; Urania 232; Vic- 
torious 233 ; figures of the goddess 
228, 248, 289; in armour 139; on 
a goat 45; on reliefs 292; under a 
tripod 146; her statue set up after 
Ac-limn 128; as guardian of seafarers 
121 4 ; of marriage 246; as a war- 
goddess 96 ; A. and Eros on a relief 
256; "A. and Ares" so called 292; 
conical stone dedicated to her 321 ; 
A. in the Anthology 48'; in the 
Asclepieum 197 ; A. invoked 12 2 

Dedications and dedicators: agri- 
culture 45 ; animal models 77 ; 
baker- woman 78; bobbins 72; breast 
257; breeding 145; childbirth 257; 
devotee 289 ; disease and peril 
192, 232; divine figures dedicated 
by a man 305 ; dress and ornaments 
252; games 265; garland 249 9 ; 



grapes 49 ; hair 244 ; hawk 77 ; 
hunting 78; huntsman 78; law 233; 
limbs 215, 257 ; male figures 288 ; 
marriage 246, 248, 249 ; official 259, 
263; ritual 135, 288-290; seafaring 
228; temple 122, 248; toys 247 9 , 249; 
vases 280, 281 ; war 97, 122, 128 

Aphrodite Urania, dedication to 232 

apobates 176 

Apollo: 51, 289. Titles: Agyieus 
321 ; Alexicacos 188 ; Asclepius 194 ; 
Chresterios 231 ; Corycios 280 ; 
Delphinios 12 2 ; Epibaterios 228; 
Epicourios 189 ; Healer 189 ; Hyper- 
teleatas 277; latros 188; Ismenian 
140 ; Lycaeus 285 ; Maleatas 65, 
140, 300; Oulios 192; Poitios 12 2 ; 
Prostates 263 10 ; Ptoan, 11, 281, 
305, 306; as shepherd's god 45; 
lord of the earth 45 s ; saviour at 
sea 223; from pestilence 189; from 
locusts 190; invoked in war 126 *; 
land sacred to him 10 10 ; caves 46 9 ; 
fines paid to him 314, 315; pro- 
pitiated 310; hangs up the skin of 
Marsyas in a cave 102; associated 
with Artemis 159, 226, 256, 292; 
with Asclepius 193, 197; 'Apollo,' 
figures so called 91, 307; A. Crio- 
phoros 285 ; enthroned 291 ; rider- 
type 34 ; his figure on reliefs 34, 
179, 191, 256, 282, 291, 292; colossal 
figure 127 ; Apollo and Artemis slay- 
ing the Niobids, group in Athens 
159; temple to the two in Megara 
226 

Dedications and dedicators : agri- 
culture 58, 85 ; altar 283 ; anchor 73, 
230; anvil 78; arms and armour 
104 ff.; ass 136; Athena, statue of 
117 ; athlete figure 174 ; axe 58, 387 ; 
beasts in cage 68 ; beet-model 66 ; 
bison 69; bull 91; button 253; 
cicala 172; colonnade 124; corn- 
model 66; corselet 112 6 ; courtesan 
92, 93; criophorus figure 284, 285; 
crown 267 ; devotee 287, 289, 296 ; 
disease and peril 189, 190, 215, 226, 
231 ; divine figure 126 ff., 305, 307; 
doll 249, 250; domestic life 241; 
dress 277 ; earrings 225, 400 ; female 
figure 289 ; firstfruits 57 ; fishing 58 ; 
games 152 ; goat 190 ; gold ingots 
118; groups of figures 130 ff.; hair 
241; hare-model 67; headbands 253; 
horse-model 67; hunting 51, 67, 68; 
hymn 65; lamp 117; laver 311; lead 
ore 321; liou-model 311; literary 
works 64 ; loom-weight 73 ; lyre 71 ; 
mining 58; musician 71; necklace 
253, 319; official 259 ; omphalos 272; 



GENERAL INDEX ENGLISH. 



427 



ox-goad 73, 74 ; ox-model 145 ; palm- 
tree with accessories 144, 144 10 ; 
physician 73 ; pin 74 ; poet 64 ; pomp- 
model 145 ; prize 152 ff. ; probe 73 ; 
puberty 241; radish-model 66 12 ; 
ram-model 300; rattle 249, 250; 
reliefs 291 ; rider-figure 167 ; rouge- 
pot 253 ; sacrificial group 285 ; seat 
321; sheep-model 67, 300; shell 321; 
spindle 72, 74 ; spoils 104 ; stag 51 ; 
stlengis 281 ; stool 320 ; temple 189 ; 
temple-boy's figure 305; tile 70; 
tithe 52, 55, 58, 60 2 , 83, 93, 102; 
trade 58, 93; treasury 122; tripod 
146; trireme 116, 230; tunic 277; 
turnip-model 66 12 ; vase 227, 280, 
281, 311; Victory 142; war 96 ff., 
102, 104-108, 110, 112, 130, 140, 
142, 146, 148, 152 ff. ; warrior's 
figure 140 

Apollonia dedicates a group 130 ; 
golden harvesting at Delphi 66 ; 
tithes corn 58 ; war tithe there 102 

Apollonia, St George at 37 

Apollo's figure dedicated to Athena 63 

'Apollos' so called 91, 128, 307, 357 

apoxyomeni 170 10 

Appius Claudius dedicates spoil 101 5 

Apulia, animal models from 301 

Aratus, honorific statue of 270 

arbitrators 267 

Arcadia, Pan and Artemis 46; prizes 
there 150 ; temple built by Heracles 
119 

Arcadians dedicate a group 131 ; spoils 
of A. 127 12 ; feast in honour of heroes 
10 

Arcesilas IV dedicates his car 162 

Archermus, Victory of 143 

Archias builds a temple for Asclepius 
224 

archons and parasiti 267 

archon's thank-offering 259, 260, 261, 
262, 263, 267 ; sin-offering, a golden 
statue 315 

Areia Athena 120 

Areios Zeus 96 4 

Areopagus, altar of Orestes on 233 ; 
dedicates a bronze bull 145 

Ares as war-god 95 ; invoked 12 2 ; in 
a group 132 4 ; in the Anthology 48 1 ; 
arms dedicated to 114; temple 119; 
late date of most dedications 97 ; 
nominally dedicates a soldier's statue 
138 

Argive raid into Thyreatis 130 ; shield 
182 

Argives commemorate Oenoe by a 
group 130; dedicate a propitiatory 
statue 314; spoil 109 s 

Argo dedicated 70, 228 



Argolis, hunter reliefs from 25; pin 
dedicated to Hera 253 

Argonauts build a temple to Athena 
228; dedicate cups 320 

Argos, spoil of Tiryns at 117; dogs 
sacrificed at 298 9 ; Holy Marriage 
there 247 2 ; hair-offering 241; Pan 
worshipt 46 s ; Eileithyia 254; hero 
Agenor 9; prize shield and cuirass 
in the games 150; agonistic dedica- 
tions 181, 182; favissae 346; crio- 
phorus figure from A. 285; jockey 
167 ; statues of priestesses 264 ; re- 
liefs to Artemis 251 ; Eumenides 
254; Asclepius 219 8 ; inventory of 
temple 344 

Ariadne, portraits of 248 

Ariarathes V dedicates his teacher 270 

Arimnestus, figure of 137 ; his throne 
320 

Arion upon the dolphin 228 

Aristeas' statue dedicated in Delphi 
9 8 , 363 17 

Aristides on visions 200 6 ; on Asclepius 
229 5 

Aristides the sculptor 164, 176 1 

Aristoboule, Artemis 120 

Aristocrates, agonistic offering 181 ; 
tripod 157, 158 

Aristomache dedicates her golden book 
64 

Aristomelidas, slaying of 314 

Aristomenes as a hero 8 9 ; his bragga- 
docio 97; his shield 112 

Ariston, wife of 227 

Aristotle's works at Delphi 65 

Aries, relief in 215 " 

armed Aphrodite 377 1 ; armed Athena 
306, dedicated by a baxter 90; 
armed men in reliefs 179 

arms and armour on hero reliefs 17, 
20, 23; as attributes 17, 24, 26, 
139 

arrhephori 276, 306 ; of Asclepius 198 

arrogance of Pausanias rebuked 147 

Artemidorus 230, 234 2 , 271 

Artemis. Titles : Aristoboule 120 ; 
Astrateia 119; Bendis 177; Brau- 
ronia 246, 275, 344; Courotrophos 
254; Dictymna 228; Eileithyia 252; 
Eucleia 119, 144; Eupraxia 251; 
Laphria 298; Locheia 252; Lye 
192; Orthia 153, 275; Oulia 192; 
Persuasion, Peitho 233; Saviour, 
Soteira 128, 188. As goddess of 
childbirth 251; of marriage 246; 
of country folk 45; of hunters etc. 
50 ff.; invoked 12 2 ; appeased 310; 
impersonated by priestess 283; in 
the Anthology 48; worshipt in Ca- 
pua 320; Patrae 68; on the Aero- 



428 



GENERAL INDEX ENGLISH. 



polls of Athens 304; her sacred 
grove and game 40; Artemis never 
represented holding a child in her 
arms 257 2 ; Artemis and Apollo 45; 
Artemis replaced by the Virgin Mary 
and by St Nicholas 37; her figure 
under a tripod 146; land sacred to 
her 42 *; at Patrae deer-shaped cakes 
offered to her 68; a shrine of Ar- 
temis 50; priest's statue 264 

Dedications and dedicators: agri- 
culture 56; altar 254; axe 250 s ; 
ball 249; bird 298, 304, 305; bow 
and arrows 71 ; brooch 252 ; cake 
68 ; childbirth 251, 252 ; cock 
250 5 ; corn-wreath 45; cup 320; 
cymbal 250 ; deer 68, 305 ; devotee 
140, 285; disease and peril 192, 
216, 226; divine figure 254, 289; 
doll 249, 250; dove 300; dress 275; 
elephant's skull 51 ; feet of prey 
50-; firstfruits 53; fish 51; fishing 
51 ; games 177, 180 ; grotesque 250 ; 
groups of figures 2^5 ; hair 241, 242; 
hand holding fruit and food 290; 
head and horns 50; horse 250 s ; 
hound 77; hunting 50, 51, 71, 77, 
84; limbs 216; lion 144; literary 
works 64 ; male figures 289 ; marriage 
246, 250; mask 250; official 263, 
264 10 ; propitiation 310; puberty 
241-243, 250; relief 84, 177, 180, 
251, 291 ; sacrificial group 285 ; 
satyr 250 5 ; seafaring 228; stlengis 
153; sword 250; tapestry 279; 
temple 120; tithe 56; vase 279, 
320 ; Victory 226 ? ; warrior's figure 
140; wreath 154 

Artemisia, statue of, in Sparta 124 

Artemisium, spoil of 105 

Artemon's statue 270 

Arthur's sword 113 s 

arts and crafts, Athena protects 59 ^ 

Arverians dedicate spoil 109 2 

Asclepiasts, society of 198 7 

Asclepiea in Athens 182, 198 

Asclepieum founded at Athens 195; 
sacrifice must be consumed in pre- 
cinct 199 ; oddments dedicated there 
224 ff . ; tines there 313 ; inventory 
344 

Asclepius, origin 7, 8, 192 ; legends, 
migrations 193; becomes a god 194; 
his family 194 ; shrine founded at 
Athens 195 ; initiated at Eleusis 
192, 196 ; description of Asclepieum 
196 ; his statue 197 ; scene at Cos 
197 ; Epidaurian shrine 198 ; priest- 
hood and organisation at Athens and 
Epidaurus 193; sacrifice 191, 200; 
fee 200; formula 200; incubation 



200, 204; cures at Athens, Cos, 
Epidaurus, Lebena, Tricca 201, 202; 
snakes and dogs 196, 202; dedica- 
tions to him, armour and bones 
226 2 , 318; slaves 336; tripod 158 9 ; 
vases 280 ; divine statues 208, 254 ; 
votary's figure 209, 210; hero-feast 
relief 22 ; temple dedicated by Hera- 
cles 223; at Naupactus and Pergamus 
224; land sacred to him 42 7 ; 
hymns 65, 190; rarity of verse in- 
scriptions 232 ; fines paid to him 
315 ; helps boxers, poets, philo- 
sophers 229 s ; helps in childbirth 
251 ; as saviour at sea 229 ; in re- 
liefs 199, 217 ff. ; with Hygieia 229, 
231 ; his type 20 ; his statue robed 
at Titaue 275 ; worshipt with Amynos 
188 3 ; in the Anthology 48 1 ; As- 
clepius Cotylean 223 ; as a title of 
Zeus 188 7 ; replaced by St Michael 
and St Damien 37 

Asia Minor, agonistic dedications 183 ; 
altars dedicated to Asclepius 224 3 ; 
hero-feast reliefs 21 ; rider reliefs 
26 

Asine founded by tithe of captives 102 

Asopichus' shield dedicated 112 

Asopus, relief from 251 8 

Asphaleios Poseidon 190 10 

Ass dedicated in model 136 

Asterion defeated by Theseus 119 

Astrateia Artemis 119 

Astypalaea, soldier's statue dedicated 
at 138 

Atabyrius, Zeus 296 9 

Athena: 304, 309. Titles: Alea 117, 
233; Apatouria 249; Arei