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Greenhouse Management 
for amateurs: 








And Illustrated throughout. 

By W. J. MAY, 

Author 0/ " Vine Culture Jor Amateurs," " Vegetable Culture for Amateurs," ^-c. 

London : 


LOiSl)ON ; 



The success wliiclD. attended the first issue of tliis work has 
induced us to publish another edition. This volume has been 
arranged on a basis which will prove of great value to amateurs, 
for whose benefit it was specially prepared. Indeed, it has been 
entirely recast and remodelled, and a careful revision has taken 
place in matter and style. The principal feature of the work 
is the addition of illustrations, which, to amateurs, are of much 
practical value, as they convey at a glance the form and charac- 
ter of the plants which are under notice. We do not profess to 
lead our readers by any new or easy way to the art of green- 
house management ; but we have set down in plain language the 
method to be followed by the amateur, and ^Dlaced before him 
simple instructions which should be carefully observed. It is 
practice alone which leads to perfection ; and that can only be 
attained by patience and experience, in combination with obser- 
vation and common sense. 

A book may do much by shortening the experimental stage, 
by giving the result of the ofttimes dearly-bought experience of 
others, and that is all that we claim for " Greenhouse Manage- 
ment for Amateurs." 

The plants which we recommend for cultivation are those 
which we know by practical experience an amateur is able to 
grow successfully if our directions are followed. 

For the convenience of those of our readers who wish to keep 
their greenhouses or conservatories furnished with flowers the 
year through, we have appended tables showing at a glance all 
the plants mentioned in this book which bloom in each month. 

"We have only to add, that we shall be pleased at all times to 
give any further information, or to answer questions on gar- 
dening subjects, through the columns of The Bazaar, which is 
published at 170, Strand, London, W.C. 

W. J. M. 




Introduction and General Eemarks ». 1 

Greenhouses and Frames 6 

Heating 18 

Insects 37 

Cultural Directions 50 

Dictionary of Plants C2 

Monthly Calendar 348 

Monthly List of Plants in Bloom in the Greenhouse ... 370 

(|rppn|Qu^p InQBnegpmpnf for 

i.~Introduction and General Remarks. 

HE Greenhouse is a structure that is perhaps 
the most varied in shape, size, style, and 
appearance, of any that are used 
for horticultural purposes, and the 
contents are as a rule of the most 
heterogeneous character. Apart from 
the house or plants, the heating 
arrangements are generally far from 
useful, and on this alone much of 
course depends. As it is our wish 
to give only useful information com- 
bined with practicability, we shall treat 
the subject from the beginning, describing 
the way to stock various structures for 
the use of amateui-s. As all our readers 
probably know, a gi-eenhouse is a rather 
costly building when puu up by a builder, 
as generally a lot of superfluous ornamentation is added to the 
erection, which, while giving a rather showy appearance to the 


2 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

house, tends to obstruct the light, and so reduce the value of the 
house for horticultural purposes. Yentilation is a subject of 
paramount importance, as on the method of obtaining this a 
very great deal depends ; in fact, we may say that more plants are 
injured from bad ventilation than from any other cause. Ill- 
placed ventilators, and inaccessible swing sashes, are often 30ui*ces 
of continued annoyance and loss, and in a well-found house or 
conservatory should not exist, but still it often happens that for 
some caprice of the builder the ventilation is "badly arranged"; 
and as a certain consequence the plants suffer. The heating 
arrangements are the most troublesome of any, as in hundreds 
of cases some loudly praised affair which is well recommended by 
the vendor is purchased by the amateur, and before the season is 
out breaks down, and consequently entails the whole or partial 
loss of the stock of plants that has cost so much labour to get 
together. It is therefore the best plan to have a well-con- 
structed affair at first, the cost of which in most cases not being 
much more than the cheap (?) apparatus. 

Stock. — The stock of plants should not be too great at first, 
as there are always plenty of opportunities to add to it. Indeed, 
if the house is only about 12ft. square, two or three dozen per- 
manent plants will be ample, as there are plenty of season 
plants to keep the house gay at all times. A few pots of 
crocuses, musk, scarlet pelargoniums, &c., serve to give a very 
bright appearance to what would otherwise be a dull unin- 
teresting mass of green, and if the amateur has a taste for 
tricolor and bronze pelargoniums, then at no season of the 
year will the house be devoid of interest. Camellias, azaleas, 
epacris, chorizemas, solanums. Cape pelargoniums, and genistas, 
are a host in themselves, while of roses it may truly be said that 
they are of inestimable value. We would advise our readers to 
have only a few plants, and do them all well, rather than have a 
large collection and do none of them well. There are many 
ways of making a house look gay at a far less expense than 
is generally allowed, thus making a greater pleasm'e in the 
place than there otherwise would be. 

Fots and Sand. — Pots and sand should be selected with 

Introduction and General Remarks. 3 

care, as they are of some importance in horticultural work. 
Pots should be of a porous and hard natui-e, and when suspended 
and hit with the knuckles should give off a sharp resonant 
sound. Close smooth-grained pots should be avoided, espe- 
cially if made of the London clay, as they soon go rotten and 
cinimble away. Coarse sand should be used for all purposes, 
as it gives far better results than the fine, and has not that 
tendency to become covered with a green slimy coating that 
very frequently shows up on dirty and fine soft sands. 

Soils. — Soils and manures should be of the best quality and 
suited to the work for which they are required, and cheapness 
should not be a consideration in . laying in a stock of these 
necessary adjuncts to the greenhouse. 

The necessary soils for general use are maiden loam, yellow 
loam, peat, leaf mould, and sand, and these we will describe in 
tui'n. Loams should be laid up for at least six months to become 
quite rotten and mellow, and to attain that state so necessary to 
the well-being of the plants. 

Maiden loam is the top spit of a pastui*e, and should be 
free from clay and, if possible, wireworm. It should also be 
free from red, rusty looking streaks, as such loams are, as 
a rule, taken from water-logged pastures, and are generally 
sour and bad. If the common hard-rush is found in the 
herbage, it is also a sign that the soil is poor, and, therefore, 
of course, should be avoided. Our plan is to use turf cut oif as 
for making lawns, and laid up for a year, as it is much richer in 
fibre, and plants of all kinds do better in it. The price of 
ordinary loam in London is about 6s. per cubic yard, and the 
turf about 9s. per 100, and it will be found that the latter is 
the cheaper in the end. 

Yellow loam is, as its name implies, yellow in colour, and is 
the top Gin. from a common. Wimbledon and Epping loam 
used to be considered the best near London, but since this has 
become unobtainable we believe the article is obtained much 
farther off. The best is full of fibre and bracken roots, 
•and is quite mellow. It also contains a certain, or rather 
uncertain, quantity of sand, and no clay. "VYe have found the 


4 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

loam, peat, and sand, supplied by Mr. Kennard, of Old Swan- 
place, Old Kent-road, to be the best to be obtained in or near 
London, as Mr. Kennard makes a speciality of sncb tbings. 

Teat is the top spit of a " dry " bog, and is quite distinct 
from the peat that is used for fuel, which latter is useless for 
plant food. Fibrous sandy peat is the best, and can be obtained 
of Mr. Kennard, as above.' 

iea/ mould is simply thoroughly rotted hard-wood leaves, 
and the soil is thus full of humus, a very necessary condition 
for primula and similar plants. 

Silver sand is a white sand formed principally of pure silica, 
and free from lime. It should be very coarse and sharp, and 
also very clean, or it soon becomes covered with a green slimy 
film, which, although very beautiful under the microscope, is 
almost certain death to cuttings or seedlings that may be 
surrounded by it. Reigate sand is generally esteemed the best . 
The line white scouring sand sold at the oilshops is of very 
little use for plants. 

Manures. — Manures are a matter of importance, and are 
generally the least thought of. With the majority of green- 
house plants a steady lasting e:ffiect is desired, and not a sudden 
spurt, and then a complete standstill, and to obtain the best 
effects thoroughly rotten good manure must be used. Horse 
and cow manures are the best, either mixed or separate as 
occasion may require, and they should be used for all purposes. 
Guano is a substance that has a great effect in driving the 
plants up, but they are useless for any purpose afterwards. 
For quick- acting liquid manui*e we prefer sulphate of ammonia, 
but for all hard-wooded plants, the best liquid manure is made 
by soaking a quantity of rotten horse manure in water, and 
using the clear liquid after the solid portions have settled. 

With, all soils and manures it is the better plan to have a 
shed, with compartments in which the soils can be placed and 
kept free from superfluous moisture. 

Sundries. — A good supply of crocks for drainage should' 
also be provided, or the plants will probably suffer for want 

Introduction and General Remands. 

of the proper means for the exit of superfluous water. A 
hammer, trowel, water cans, both of the ordinary shape and 
what is known as a strawberry pot, and a few other tools will 
be required, but of these we will speak in the future. Amongst 
the sundry requisites of a greenhouse are a good syringe — one 
of Read's loin., with three roses, is as good as can be bought 
— labels, flower pots of various sizes, square propagating pans, 
some squares of glass, one of Brown's or Dreschler's Patent 
Fumigators, some insecticides, flowers of sulphur, and a few 
camel-hair pencils, besides a few other articles that are more 
for show than use. Of course, a strong potting board, a pail, 
step ladder, and two or three brushes and brooms, and the 
necessary tools for the stokehole, are absolutely necessary. We 
may as well mention here that plain, serviceable and strong 
tools and utensils are far better than showily got up goods, 
although the former may cost a lot of money if judged by 
appearance only ; in all cases it is far better to have good 
tools (although they are expensive) than cheap ones that will do 
no service, as it is certain that cheap tools are dearer in the 
end. Another thing to be borne in mind is, never to buy a 
lot of useless articles, however much they may be puffed up, 
as success does nob lay in the tools, but in the cultural skill 

We consider frames to be a necessary adjunct to an amateur's 
house, and therefore two or three two-light boxes should be at 
hand for use. The form of house is not of much consequence, 
80 lonjr as it is well built and ventilated. 

II.— Greenhouses and 

ANY and various are the houses or 
glass structures that are made ex- 
pressly for amateur gardeners, and, 
as they range in price from £5 to 
£50, it is as well to point out the 
best forms of house, bearing in mind 
cost and general suitability to the 
purpose in hand. Of course, with 
existing structures, very little can be 
done, as it is, as a mle, expensive to 
meddle with old buildings, the wood 
very often being half decayed, and 
the nails rusted in ; consequently, in separating or remo\'ing 
portions of woodwork, they are very much damaged, and, in 
many cases, are rendered quite useless. It also frequently 
happens that another obstacle presents itself, viz., the house will 
not fit another place, and we know, from sad experience, that 
it costs as much to alter such a house as to build a new one. 
We may as well mention here that we always deal with Messrs. 
Lascelles & Co., Bunhill-row, London, and find their prices 
moderate, and the articles they supply are, as a rule, first-class. 
Wood, workmanship, and shape are as near as can be, perfect, 
and, considering the price the articles are made at, it is indeed 
a remarkable fact that so few persons possess really serviceable 
glass houses. 

Greenhouses and Frames. 

Lean-to House. — The most general form of house is the 
lean-to, shown at Fig. 1. The cost of erecting one of these 

Fig. 1.— Lkan-to House. 

varies according to the manner in which it is built, as some 
persons have heavy sashes and timber, and, in some cases. 

Fig. 2.— Lean-to House. 

ornamental guttering, fancy designs in painting, &c., all of 
which cost money, and have the disadvantage of making the 


Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

house considerably darker, wliich causes the plants " to draw " 
and makes it more difficult to keep them in good order than 
it would he in a light place devoid of superfluous woodwork. 
A house, 12£t. square, built in this style, would cost at least 
£50, and in some cases it will be found that £75 will not cover 
all expenses. If, however, it is desirable to study economy, a 
house of the same size as that mentioned can be put up for 
about £35 in the style of Fig. 2. As will be seen in the figure, 
no top sashes are used, but simply ventilators, which answer 







i ' 1 

f '"■ •' ""\ 

Fig. 3. — Sectional View of Lean-to. 

quite as well; front sashes are, of course, necessary, but 
need not be so heavy as those generally used. In the 
example before us there are three front sashes, and five glazed 
ventilators at the top, and a door at one end. The cost of 
erecting the house a few years ago was £28 17s. 6d., without 
heating apparatus, which subsequently cost £12 10s., thus 
making a total of £-41 7s. 6d. for a good house 12ft. by 8ft., 
staging, heating, building, and all complete. Now, had heavy 
eashcs and timber been used, about £20 more would have 

Greenhouses and Frames. 

been charged, and, besides the additional price, a great deal 
less light would have been admitted. In this instance Sin. 
timber was used, consequently great weight was avoided, the 
staging was made to accommodate plants of a large size as 
well as small pots, each shelf being a foot wide. The uprights 
and stays were made of sound yellow deals, and the glass used 
was 21oz. Belgian, which is, by the bye, a very useful and 
serviceable article. Fig. 3 is a sectional view of the house. 


Fig. 4. — Gkouni> Plan of Lean-to. 

We will here give the plans for a lean-to greenhouse, as no 
doubt some of our readers are amateur carpenters, and with 
a little care such persons can be their own greenhouse builders. 
We propose to take in hand a house 10ft. by 12ft., 5ft. 9in. high 
in front, and 9ft. high at back, a very handy size for general 
work. Indeed, we have seen very fine plants, and grapes 
too, grown in such a house, and it was entirely built by the 
gentleman himself. Fig. 4 is a ground plan of the house, 
showing the walls, back stage (a), path (6), front stage (c). 

10 Greenhouse Managejnent for Amateurs. 

boiler and stokeliole (cZ), and stone door sill (e); the pipes 
are shown by the dotted lines, a single flow to the corner (/), 

Fig. 5. — Fkont Elevation of Lean-to. 

and then a double flow along the front of the house, as shown, 
with a single retui-n back to the boiler. All must be 4in. 

Fig. 6.— Side Elevation of Lean-to. 

pipes or sufScient heat will not be obtained. Fig. 5 is the 
front elevation of the house. In the first place, there is a 3ft, 

Greenhouses and Frames, 


brick wa/11 around the liouse, and this must be of 9in. work if 
carried up in mortar, or 4|in. if put up with Portland cement ; 
but in any case, if the district surveyor sees the place, he will 
insist on 9in. work. A two-course footing will be found 
necessary for the security of the building. On the top of the 
wall a 2in. wooden plate must be laid, and well bedded in either 
moi-tar or cement, as the case may be. This plate should 
overlap the wall on either side, and on the outside a gi-oove 

Fig. 7.- Side Elevation of Lean-to. 

should be cut out with the plough to allow the water to drip 
off instead of running down the wall; this is very necessary, 
or the wall soon becomes green and unsightly, besides causing 
the plate to rot where it is laid on the wall. Upright quartering 
Sin. by Sin. is used for the corners, and divisions between the 
sashes, and along the top of these, a plate 4in. by Sin. is laid 
to fonn the front of the roof. There are three fixed, and three 
swing lights (a) which are sufficient for all practical purposes 
Fig. 6 shows the end view where the door is, and Fig. 7 the 

12 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

other end. It will be seen that the sash bars reach from top 
to bottom of the house at the ends, and the glass is held in 
its place by iron brads, besides the putty. By this plan there 
is no fear of the glass falling out by the jar consequent 
on the slamming of the doors, &c. The roof is shown in Fig. 8, 
and it will be at once seen by wbat means tlie ventilation is 
obtained. Four sashes 3ft. square, rising on hinges, occupy the 

Fig. S.— Eoof to Lean-to. 

Tipper portion of the roof, and the lower portion is formed of 
sash bars, a plan that greatly increases the light admitted, 
besides materially decreasing the cost of building; a Sin. by 
4in. beam goes across the roof, where the top lights close down, 
and one upright support takes its bearing in the centre of this 
beam. It will be found quite an easy matter to build such a 
house as we have described, as all the parts can be purchased 
in a prepared state, and ready for use. A saving of at least 

Greenhouses and Frames. 


25 per cent, will also be effected by building bouses in this 
manner, tberefore there is a double advantao^e in building your 
own greenhouses. If the amateur desires to make every part 
himself, he will find very minute directions in " Carpentry 
and Joinery for Amateurs."'* 

Fio. 9.— Curved Eoof House. 

Curved Koof House. — Where the object is to obtain the 
lightest house possible, the curvilinear form offers the best 
design for the fulfilment of the object in view; but, at the 
same time, the price is much more than a plain lean-to, or span, 
as in many cases bent glass has to be used, and this is rather 
expensive. It is not often that amateurs go in for this style of 
house, but still, where it is desired to grow plants for exhibition, 
it is sometimes of use to have such an one. Iron is the best 
material to use for the sash bars, and in some places the whole 
of the building may be of iron, doors and staging, of course, 

* '* Carpentry and Joinery for Amateurs :" Containing full description-; of the variou-s tools 
required in the above Arts, to^'ethor with practical instruct'ons tor their use. By the author 
of " Turning lor Amateurs," '• Working in Sheet MctU," tS;c In cloth gilt, price Ca. , 
post free. London : L. Upcott Gill, 170, Strand, W.(J. 

14 Greenhouse Manapement for Amateurs. 

excepted. In Fig. 9 we give a sectional view of a liouse that was 
built by a good firm, and whicb. looked very well. It was built 
of wood and iron, and for stability it was unequalled. This 
style of house is good for conservatories or greenhouses, as the 
plants are not liable to " draw " so much as in ordinary lean-to 
houses, and, as before mentioned, light is a great point in the 
cultui'e of some plants. 

Half-span House. — Houses with short back roofs, or, as 
some persons call them, half -span roof (Fig. 10) are very useful, 

Fig. 10.— Half-Span House. 

and as they may occupy the same positions as the lean-to houses, 
they afford greater facilities for the culture of plants in general. 
They are easily built, and may be put up by anyone who has 
any skill at carpentering, although span-roofed structures are 
more troublesome to erect than lean-to's. The great advantage 
in using them is that a portion of the back light is utilised, 
especially where houses face north or north-west, the additional 
light and heat gained being of great service. This style of 

Greenhouses and Frames, 


house is particularly useful against low walls and in similar 

Span-roof House. — The span-roofed house is, however, the 
best for plant culture, where it can be erected, and, unless vines 
are grown, should take the place of all others. The cost is not 
excessive, and although more trouble to put up than a lean-to, 
anyone handy at carpentering could easily put one up. A 
handy size is 12ft. wide, and, of course, as long as desirable. 

Fig. 11.— Span-koof House. 

Less width will generally be found to cramp the paths, &c., 
although 10ft. wide gives a very good centre path and side 
stages ; but if a centre stage is required, then the house must 
be of greater width. There are several styles of span-roofed 
houses, but the two examples given will be found useful for all 
general purposes. Fig. 11 shows a very cheap form of this style 
of house, and, at the same time, one that is in much favour with 
growers for the London markets, especially for soft-wooded 
stuff. As will be seen from the cut, there are no side lights ; 


G ree n h otise Ma n a gem ent for A in n te ii rs . 

the ventilation is provided for by means of sliding sashes or 
ventilators that open on hinges, as before described. As a rule, 
a central path is made about 2ft. 9in. or 3ft. in width, and there 
are two side stages, or rather benches, the farthest edge of 
which is about 9in. from the glass. In the second example 
(Fig. 12) there are side lights, and, of course, the place is much 
higher and more expensive. This kind of house is useful for all 

Fig. 12.— Span-eoop House. 

the ordinary kinds of plants, both hard and soft wooded. It is 
also one of the best forms of house for growing specimen plants. 
"Where it is possible, the best plan is to have a centre stage and 
side stages, with paths around; this allows of the proper 
distribution of the plants, and more suitable positions to some 
of them than can be obtained in a lean-to. > For this reason we 
prefer a span-roofed house for all ordinary collections of plants. 

Greenhouses and Frames. 17 

Frames. — As these are necessary adjuncts to a greenhouse, a 
word or two on them may not come amiss here. The uses to 
which they may be put are so many and various that to 
omit a notice of them would he to omit one of the most 
important parts of our book. In the first place, there is 
the common melon or cucumber frame, which answers all 
ordinary purposes. It should be stood on a concrete bottom 
with a channel in front to allow the water to run clear 
away, or damp will do much damage. These common frames 
answer all practical purposes, and on account of their 
portability and the ease with which a hotbed can be made 
Tinder them, they will be found the best for amateurs. The 
best size is that technically termed " two-light frames," with 
6ft. by 4ft. lights, as more lights cause a difficulty when making 
up a hotbed. We do not give an illustration of these, as they 
are so generally known. The only point is to have them made of 
the best yellow deal, as free from knots and shakes as possible, 
and painted three coats with the best lead paint. 

It is not our intention to treat of conservatories and window 
cases, as, although they are sometimes affected b^ wealthy 
amateurs, yet in the majority of cases the greenhouses before 
mentioned, or modifications of them, are the rule among persons 
who make a hobby of gardening themselves, and do not employ 
gardeners to do the work for them. Window cases or con- 
servatories do not therefore come within the scope of the 
present work. 


"^^^ EATING is rather a difficult matter 
to treat, as the wants and require- 
ments of sucli a large community 
as amateur gardeners are so great 
that one might write a volume 
without exhausting the subject. In 
the first place, the sort of green- 
house to be treated is a gi*eat con- 
sideration, for, as the term is now 
generally applied, a glazed rabbit 
hutch and a winter garden may 
equally be termed greenhouses, pro- 
vided there are a few plants in them. 
"We have seen " greenhouses " about 
4ft. by 6ft., and about 7ft. high, and 
to these no apparatus could be affixed that would heat the 
small space thoroughly, without using an extravagant amount 
of fuel in proportion to the size of the place. Of course, 
it is an easy matter to heat any place when expense is no 
object, but with the majority of gardeners the cost is one 
of the most prominent points of consideration. For many 
small places the cost of the special fuel requii'ed by some of 
the contrivances offered is a great drawback. Patent fuel 
is often objectionable, as it cannot always be obtained in 
country places. Another objection to many stoves is that the 
fire does not last a sufficient time after being made up, and the 


Heating. 19 

consequence is that the frost gets in and destroys the whole 
of the plants. In a garden where a large amount of glass 
has to be kept at a nearly unifonn temperature, the gardeners 
have to visit the fires during the night. But there are 
few persons who would like to leave their beds on a cold, 
and, probably, frosty night, for the sake of attending the 
fire of a small house in which there is perhaps only a 
pound's worth of plants ; and, therefore, the stove should be so 
constinicted as to bum at least eight hours, if not longer. 
In the case of simple stoves that give out heat only and do not 
retain it like hot water, this slow combustion principle should 
be very nearly perfect, or failure, will result. In hot water 
apparatus, of course, it is an advantage to have the fire kept 
in for as long a period as possible; but at the same time, if 
there is a sufficiency of water, heat will be given out long after 
the fire is out, and circulation has ceased. 

Nothing less than 4in. pipes should be used in a house of any 
size ; and if frost is not too severe, and the boiler and furnace 
have been fixed in a proper manner, a good heat should be 
given off for twelve houi's at least. In fact, we have had 
boilers fixed under our own superintendence that would give a 
good circulation of water (hot, not warm ) for fifteen hours right 
off, without any attendance during the time, but as boilers are 
very often set by country bricklayers, thi-ee or foui- hours' non- 
attendance is sufficient to let the frost into the house. Heating 
by means of flues is a very good plan where firing is no object, 
but when coals are up to 25s. per ton, it will be found to be a 
case of penny wise and pound foolish to have flues. The 
lamps or stoves to burn mineral oils serve for small places 
only, and gas is not always to be obtained. 

Heating with Mineral Oils. — The stoves for this purpose 
are of various constructions, and also degrees of utility, and 
most of them are advertised to do more work than they are 
really capable of doing in a regular way. It must be 
borne in mind that a glass house is more exigent of 
warmth than a room, and requires at least three times as 
much heat to keep out the frost in proportion to the size 


20 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

of the structure. What would keep a room 12ft. square 
at a nice lieat would not keep tlie frost out of a greenhouse 6ft. 
square, unless such house was very much sheltered. Now, for 
all practical purposes, a sufficient heat must be ^iven to keep 
out frost, and at the same time no great amount of smoke must 
be engendered by the (imperfect) combustion of the oil. To 
this end the wick after it is lighted must be turned down under 
the dome, so that a sufficient amount of oxygen shall be con- 
sumed to ensure 
the perfect com- 
bustion of the oil. 
It should also be 
remembered that 
smoke is simply 
unconsumed fuel, 
and the more smoke 
made the greater 
the amount of fuel 
that will be re- 
quired. This should 
be remembered by 
all persons who 
have the charge of 
, any kind of heat- 
% ing. A good stoker 
is a truly valuable 
person in either 
a dwelling or an 
engine house, and should be kept when obtained. 

But to return to our oil stoves, anyone with care may use one 
of Hinck's or Dietz's kerosine stoves in a house that has not 
more than 500 cubic feet of interior capacity ; over that, large 
sized stoves must be used, or more than one of the smaller size,, 
but of this it is only possible to give a decisive opinion on a 
personal inspection. We would have it understood that we 
only advise the use of oil stoves for small places, as for 
larger houses other plans are more effective, and not more- 
expensive. In all plans of heating, of course price is a con- 

Fig. 13.— Messes. Dietz and Co.'s Paeagon Boilee 
FOE MiNEEAi. Oil. 

Heating. 2\ 

sideration, and therefore we advise readers to use oil stoves for 
small houses. 

Botli the Albion Lamp Co. and Dietz and Co. (Fig. 13) make a 
good form of stove for using mineral oils. They are somewhat 
similar in construction to Wright's gas stove, and consist of a 
boiler, mineral oil lamp, and three or more hot water pipes, and 
they do their work well, and from the increased heating surface 
obtained by using hot water, a greater heat is given oif than from 
a lamp alone. We have seen both in operation, and think them 
well worth the money charged, and all things considered, they 
will be of far more use in small conservatories than any simple 
lamp. A friend of ours who has one of each maker's apparatus 
in use says there is no difference in the oil consumed, and the 
heat given off is about the same, while compared with the 
simple lamps, or stoves, as they are called, two of this new 
apparatus give off as much heat as, or rather raise the tem- 
perature in the small conservatory he has higher than will 
three lamps which he has been using, thus showing a clear 
saving of nearly a gallon of oil per week. Three lamps cost him 
£4< 10s., and the two apparatus in question cost him altogether 
about £6. 

Both George's Calorigen and Ritchie's Lux Calor, described 
further on, can be used with mineral oil lamps. 

Heating with. Hot-air Stoves. — Under this we class all 
the various stoves that are heated with coal, coke, or cinders, 
and which give off dry heat. In the majority of cases these 
are, for more than one reason, objectionable. In the first place, 
they give off dry, overheated, and deleterious fumes, especially 
if they are made of wrought iron, and, as a natui'al conse- 
quence, the plants do not succeed well. In the next place, they 
are generally dirty and untidy, and, lastly, their fires have a nasty 
habit of going out when most wanted. The last objection is 
the trouble of attendance, which, if not very great, is not a 
cleanly job. Of course, very much of the pleasure of a green- 
house depends on the nature of the work that has to be done 
by the owner; for if there is much work of a dirty kind, the 
place soon loses favour, and then comes discontent, and eventu- 

22 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

ally failure. In choosing a stove, have one with a cast-iron 
fire bucket, or one that is lined with fire bricks, by which means 
direct heat is kept from the wrought iron, and the fumes given 
off are reduced to a minimum, so increasing the probabilities 
of growing plants successfully. In addition to this cast-iron 
or brick fire-pail, it is also necessary to have some contrivance 
to hold water to be evaporated, and so tend to regulate the 
dryness caused by the stove. Of course, the amount of moisture 
that is necessary will be regulated by the number of plants in 
the house, and the quantity of water given. 

Nearly all the stoves that have chimneys answer well, with 
care in stoking and by using cinders and coke broken small 
for fuel; they must be small, or they will cake together. We 
can, however, only speak of Green's Patent Suspension Stoves 
from experience, as we have generally had hot-water apparatus 
under our charge. There are, however, many other stoves with 
flues that answer well if they are constructed as described above. 
It is all very well to purchase a stove without a flue for the 
reason that there is no smoke, but though no visible smoke 
exists, there are fumes of a most deadly nature both to 
plant and animal life, which get dispersed over the house in 
which the stove is inclosed, and eventually ruin and destroy 
the whole of the jDlants. There is, indeeed, the one probability 
that the glazing of the house is so bad that sufficient draughts 
obtain admission to blow off the vapours that would otherwise 
accumulate ; but in many cases the house is comparatively 
aii'-tight, and so the plants die. 

The size of the stove of course regulates the size of the 
house it will heat, but one of Green's Suspension Stoves, that 
burns about a bushel and a half of fuel daily, will heat 
from oOOft, to 1500ft. of cubical capacity, according to the 
situation and exposure of the house. To a certain extent the 
space that can be heated by stoves is unlimited, but of course, 
the larger the space to be heated the greater must be the heat 
given off by the stove. A drier atmosphere will thus be ob- 
tained, and the growth of the plants will be more or less seriously 
affected. It also equally applies in heating schools, &c., with 
stoves, that if there is not sufficient heating surface to give 

Heating. 23 

off enough heat without overheating the stoves, very undesir- 
able results will follow : severe colds, itching of the eyes, and 
sometimes sore throats, are caused by this means alone, all of 
which, we venture to say, would never appear were the stoves 
sufficiently powerful to heat the place while at a comparatively low 
heat themselves. With plants the effect is very bad, and it is far 
better to have two stoves at a moderate, than one at a fierce heat. 

In fixing these stoves two things are requisite, a draught 
sufficient to keep the fire alight fairly, and sufficient piping to 
exhaust the whole of the heat before it reaches the chimney. 

The first is easy to attain if the pipes can be led into a 
chimney belonging to the dwelling house, but some difficulty 
will often be found in obtaining sufficient length of pipe. We 
have found it the best plan to take the pipe upright for three 
or four feet, and then turn it off at right angles, and take 
it across the house into the chimney; this, of course, allows 
of the whole of the heat being utilised, that would otherwise be 
blown out of the roof. The joints should be made good with 
red lead and oil, so that no fumes escape, and the whole is 
then complete — complete at least so far as the fixing goes; 
but the more important item of stoking still remains. This 
is a point that requires much attention, as on it the durability 
of the fire depends. In the first place, light the fire with 
shavings or paper and short pieces of wood ; when these are 
well alight put in a little coke broken small, or perhaps a few 
cinders, but no coal. If coal is used the greatest probability 
will be that the fire will cake and go out, and consequently 
the frost will get in and the plants will be lost. As soon as 
the fuel first put on is well alight, fill up the stove with dry 
fuel, and partially close the air inlet at the bottom. With a 
little care the fire may be kept well alight from eight to twelve 
hours, or as long as can reasonably be expected with the amount 
of fuel consumed. 

Heating with Gas. — This is one of the vexed questions of 
the day, and will never be definitely settled until we can have 
gas at a good pressure throughout the night, and at a moderate 
price; and even then the risk attendant on this system of 

24 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

heating will debar very many persons from using it. It must 
in all cases be remembered that the low first cost of an 
apparatus of any kind does not imply that it will be cheap 
in the end; in fact, it is very often quite the reverse, as cheaply 
made articles as a rule are not so well made as those for which 
a fair price is charged. Joints and rivets are insufficiently 
fastened, plates are cracked because the holes are not drilled 
large enough, and, worse than all, the arrangements are such 
that in the case of an apparatus that depends on hot water 
for the heating medium, the water in many cases will 
not circulate. "We have had a good experience of gas ap- 
paratus, and in no case have we found that the work done, 
in proportion to the cost, equals that done by good sound 
fuel in a plain conical boiler. The plates used in the manu- 
facture of gas apparatus are generally very thin, and the action 
of the gas where it burns against them soon causes them to 
break into holes, and so allow the fumes of the gas to escape, 
to the great injury of both plant and animal life. Common 
burners are also used in many of the contrivances, and the 
result is that the gas is not thoroughly bm-nt, and there- 
fore an exorbitant quantity of gas has to be used in pro- 
portion to the heat obtained. A 
good burner that allows the gas to 
be well oxygenated makes very little 
smoke, and consequently there is not 
so great a waste of heat as where 
large deposits of soot are fonned. 
All parts of the apparatus that come 
in contact with the flame should be 
of copper, and where a boiler is used 
it should be entirely of copper, so 
that the greatest amount of dura- 
FiG. 14.— Qeokge's Catoeiqen. bility shall be insured. 
A, room ; B, exterior of building ; There are two plans of heating with 

C, wall ; D,Calorigeu;E, cylinder; •,-, m- wiflinnf Vnf wnfpr Tn 

P F, pipes communicating with 5^^' ^^^^ ^^ WltUOUt UOL water, in 

stove and cylinder to supply air ^j.^ latter case, heating by means of 

for combustion and to carry oil ' o ./ 

products of combustion; G, pipe the gas alone, George's Patent Gas 

for supply of air to be warmed; ^ , . ._,. -,,'.• -, , ,-, i j. 

H, outlet of warmed air. Calorigen (Fig. 14) is about the best 



apparatus there is, as by its use a current of fresh heated 
air is supplied to the interior of the place to be heated, whilst 
the products of combustion are carried out into the outer air, 
thus obviating all inconvenience that generally arises from the 
fumes of the gas. The whole apparatus is of neat appearance, 
and is constructed to burn well, independently of draughts. 

Next to the Calorigen, a plain conical tube, with straight 
chimney, gives the best results, provided down draughts can be 
guarded against. A plain ring of lights impinge on the sides 
of the cone near the bottom, and of course heat it to the top. 
No bottom is required to such an apparatus, but the joints 
and seams must be perfectly sound and 
tight, and to ensure this, all joints, &c., 
should be luted with red lead and oil, 
which will make the 'whole tight. Open 
gas fires should on no account be used, 
as the fumes given off will destroy all 
the plants. 

The Lux Calor (Fig. 15) is also a very 
good simple gas stove for small houses. 

A is a door which opens on a Bunsen 
atmospheric burner, and B B are tubes 
in which the products of combustion 
are condensed (with the exception of the 
carbonic acid) into fluid form. These 
tubes become hot, and the heat is then 
radiated from them. 

In the more important class of apparatus, i.e., that in which 
water is used as a heating medium, there are various makes of 
more or less excellence, but all of them require the services of 
a gasfitter or hob-water engineer to fix them to the best ad- 
vantage. In all hot- water arrangements it must be remembered 
that hot water ascends, and the cold portion contained in the 
pipes descends ; therefore it is of the greatest importance that 
the point most distant from the boiler should be the highest, 
and that this part should contain an air pipe to relieve the 
pipes from any air or vapour which may from time to time 
accumulate. It is almost useless to attempt to specify any 

Fia. 15. — Eitchie's Lux 

26 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

particular one amongst the many kinds of apparatus that 
are offered to the public; nor do we wish to imply that those 
we mention are the only good ones ; on the contrary, we know 
that there are many that are good if properly fitted up. 

The gas boiler made by Wright and Co., of Birmingham, 
of which an illustration is given (Fig. 16), is a good one, and 
does its work economically and well. The Shrewsbury gas 
boiler is also very good. Mr. Mussett, of Winstanley-road, 

Fig, 16.— Messes. Wright and Co.'s Gas Boilee. 

Clapham Junction, S.W., and Mr. W. G. Pendleton, of "Walton- 
on-Thames, also make some very efficient apparatus at reason- 
able prices ; and there are many other makers who supply good 
articles at fair prices. 

We would give a word or two of advice to all about to use 
gas for heating conservatories. In the first place, employ none 
but really competent workmen to fix the apparatus when 
bought ; make all joints and crevices secure with red lead 
putty, have hot water pipes fixed so that they rise to the point 
farthest from the boiler, and, lastly, buy a good article. It is 
a good plan to have a written warranty with each apparatus, 
a waiTanty that specifies exactly what the boiler will do, and 
that it is in a projDer order to do it. If this rule were always 
observed fewer mishaps would happen. 

Heating, 27 

Heating by Hot Water. — This is comparatively a modern 
invention, but it is about tbe cheapest and best method of 
applying heat to liorticultural purposes. Who first made a 
really practical use of hot water is rather a disputed point, 
and may possibly never be satisfactorily determined, but for 
our present purpose it is sufficient that it is about the only 
really good method that is in practice. Of course, it is necessary 
that a proper amount of care be paid to having a due proportion 
of heating surface to the space to be warmed, and also that 
the boiler be large enough to heat the length of pipe, but if 
these points be conceded, no method at present in use will 
give such uniform diffusion of heat as hot water will. Neither 
will the amount of fuel burned be so small in proportion to the- 
results attained. Hot water is also better for plant life, as it 
does not produce that dryness of the atmosphere that is caused 
by flues or other modes of applying heated air, and the hot 
water pipes, extending the whole length of the house, cause the- 
warmth to be equally distributed. 

Sealed pipes we object to, but if these are left out, so long as 
the return pipe, or any part of the return pipe, is not below the 
bottom of the boiler, a circulation can be kept up. The cheapest 
plan is to have both the flow and return pipe above the boiler, 
but still, by the use of a syphon, as we shall presently describe^ 
this is not absolutely necessary. 

The golden rule in hot water work is to have this fact 
constantly in mind : hot water always ascends, while cold water 
descends, and on this success depends. An egress for air must 
be provided at the highest point of each system of pipes, and 
wherever there is a dip under a doorway or other place, other- 
wise a partial vacuum will be formed, and the circulation will 
be seriously impeded, if not stopped. It must be remembered 
that all water becomes foul while confined in the pipes, and foul 
water generates gas, besides which, the fluctuation in the heat 
of the water considerably assists to draw in air from outside ; 
therefore, in all cases, air cocks or pipes should be provided 
wherever necessary. 

It is likewise very desirable that draw-off cocks should be 
placed in the boiler, and also in some of the angles of the pipes. 

28 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

as tlie accumulation of dirt and scale makes it necessary to 
clean out the wlioie apparatus at times. Although no one 
would be so foolish as to fill a boiler and hot water pipes with 
dirty water, yet dirt will get in, and if not removed, causes a 
choked state of some of the smaller pipes, and a poor and 
sluggish circulation is the result. 

The connection between the boiler and pipes should be of 
l|in. or 2in. pipe, external, or IMn. gas barrel, as smaller pipes 
soon get furred up. All connections between house and house, 
or between coils, should be of 2in. cast pipe ; but between boiler 
and coil it should be as we mentioned before. Too much small 
pipe, or variation from large to small, chokes the circulation 
somewhat, and renders the heating power of a given amount 
of fuel much less. Besides, for many other reasons, avoid 
small pipes, and notably because a small pipe chokes or furs 
up sooner than larger ones, and sometimes where the matter is 
not thoroughly understood, a blow-up is the result, especially 
where water is much impregnated with lime or organic matter. 
"We have ere now had hot-water apparatus taken to pieces, and 
have found the lin. gas barrel so encrusted, or furred, that we 
could scarcely pass an ordinary lead pencil through. Where 
there is any danger of this incrustation taking place largely, 
if the water is slightly acidulated with muriatic acid, say a half 
pint of acid to 100 gallons of water, incrustation will be very 
greatly reduced. More acid than in the proportion given must 
not be employed. Salt water should not be used for any hot- 
water apparatus, as the boiler and pipes soon get incrusted with 
saline particles, and require burning or some other method of 
cleaning to free them. 

Where pipes have to be taken underground, they should be 
carried through a brick or board trough, so constructed as to 
be water-tight, as the earth absorbs an immense quantity of 
heat. In fact, a 4in. pipe, 50ft. in length, would lose more heat 
in the soil than would one of thrice the length in a trough that 
was closed alike from air and moisture. For this reason it is a 
matter of economy that all pipes used for bottom heat be in 
a hollow chamber. 

For many reasons, it is necessary to have valves, and the 

Heating. 29 

more simple these are the better it is for the person using 
them. For all ordinary purposes we prefer the plain throttle 
valves, but, where pressure has to be applied, there is a specially 
strong valve for the purpose. Special valves are made for 
special purposes, but these are not ordinarily requii-ed. It is> 
a good plan to have a number of valves, although they are 
rather expensive, but it is absolutely necessary to have them 
where more than one house is heated from the same boiler. It 
is also advantageous to have one or more valves to regulate the 
top and bottom heat in the same house, but of this we will speak 

The pipes may be packed with r-ed lead and oil putty well 
mixed with yarn or tow ; with tarred yarn and Portland cement ; 
or, with indiarubber rings and Portland cement, or, where the 
pipes are on a firm base, with the rings alone, as in Fig, 17. 
The socket and spigot ends of two pipes (A A) are shown 
in situ, with the ring (B B) and Portland cement packing (0 C)^ 
If not packed with 
cement, only the ring ^ 

(B B), will be in its cs 
place, the cavity 
shown filled with ce- 
ment, being then left 
open. "We do not 

advise the use of iron 

cement, as where it is ^'^' 17.-Joint in Hot-water Pipe. 

employed there is -A- A, socket and spigot ends ; B B, indiarubber ring ^ 

, ,. 1 .,., „ ., C C, Portland cement packing, 

great liability 01 the 

sockets splitting from unequal expansion, and where this happens 
a continual expense is incurred, for split pipes are unsafe under 
pressure. And another thing militates against the use of iron 
cement for joining pipes ; if from any cause the pipes have to- 
be taken apart, they have to be cut at the back of the socket, 
or, in fact, the socket has to be cut out, and a loose socket or 
"thimble" substituted. Gas barrel pipes are, of course, con- 
nected with union sockets. 

Two 2in. pipes should be used for bottom heat, in preference 
to one 4in. one, and in some cases Sin. pipes will be found better 

30 Greenhouse Management for A7nateurs. 

-than larger ones. One foot of 2in. pipe contains about 72 square 
inches of heating surface ; 1ft. of Sin. pipe about lOSIn., and 1ft. 
of 4in. pipe 14-iin. ; and 1ft. of the latter should heat about 90 
■cubic feet of interior capacity in an ordinary greenhouse. For 
other houses, however, more or less may be needed in proportion 
to size, or the plants grown. The greater the superficial area of 
the glass roof, combined with a comparatively small interior 
.space, the more pipes are required to heat a given length. 

Amongst the many inventions in pipes, we do not find any to 
beat the old-fashioned plan, and therefore pass them over 
without comment. Flange pipes, joined with bolts and nuts, 
.are used sometimes, but they have no advantage over the 
common foi*m of pipe. 

The fuel used depends on the class of boiler employed, but 
there is nothing to equal clean hard coke, broken to about the 
size of hens' eggs, if the boiler is constructed so that the 
•draught can be well regulated. Such boilers as the Independent 
conical, plain conical, and others on the slow combustion 
principle, are really the best for amateur use, and for these coke 
is most suitable, but for saddle and some other boilers, if 
properly set, coal, cinders, and refuse of almost any kind may be 
used. It is, however, very doubtful whether there is much 
saving effected or economy gained in heating a given space by 
using rubbish as fuel, and particularly if the boiler is not 
properly set or a good stoker is not at hand. There is consider- 
able art in proper stoking, and the difference between good 
and bad stoking is very great, so great, indeed, that a saving 
of 25 per cent, in fuel may be effected by a really competent 

The choice of a boiler for amateur work is rather a difficult 
matter, as, unlike a gardener, who 'must do certain work com- 
pulsorily, the man who has money does not care too often to soil 
his hands, and therefore the boiler, or form of boiler, which does 
its work well and requires the least amount of attention is the 
one most suitable. For this reason boilers which can be used on 
the slow combustion principle are the best for amateur use and 
for those who are liable to be called away at uncertain intei*vals. 
Where, however, there is a staff of men kept and a large amount 



of glass to be lieated, it is necessary tliat a good boiler, or, 
perhaps, two boilers, be used, as in using sucli, a great economy 
is effected in the fuel and labour, and, besides, one fire is not so 

Pig. 18.— Plain Conical Boilbr. 

A A, Ijoiler; B B B B B B, flue, both spiral and top : C, damper ; D, fire lump ; 
E, furnace; F, ash pit. The arrows show the direction of the draught. 

liable to be forgotten as one in a dozen. Where labour is 
plentiful and cheap it is of very little consequence whether a 
saddle, conical, Cornish, or other boiler is used, but we prefer 
the plain conical boiler, as it is easy to work, moderate in con- 

^2 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

sumption of fuel, and, wliere properly fixed and attended, 
certain in its action. Coke, broken to the size of eggs, is the 
best fuel, and the harder the coke the better the fire. In Fig. 18 

Fig. 19.— Ttjbulae CoiriCAi, Boilee, 
A A, boiler ; B B B B, flues ; C, damper ; D, fire lump ; E, f amace ; F, ashpit. 

we give a sectional view of a plain conical boiler, fixed in brick- 
work, and where the buildings are permanent, this is as good a 
form of boiler as can be used. Next in order of merit comes the 



tubular conical boiler (Fig. 19), and bere certain drawbacks have 
to be contended with in setting, for, if not closely watcbed, 
many bricklayers will use tbeir own ideas about tbe matter. 
The most common faults are either to brick close to the tubes, 
and so make the fire bum inside where it should be dead, or 
otherwise to leave too large a chimney, which causes the fire to 
bum in one place only. Set as shown, the boiler will keep going 
for twelve or fourteen hours, and heat the pipes in an efficient 
manner. In both Fig. 18 and Fig. 19 the measurements are 
marked in inches. 

The saddle boiler, if well set and of sufficient size, will be 
found as good as any in an 
economical sense, and, indeed, 
it possesses many advantages. 
In the first place, cinders, 
hard or soft coals, coke, slack 
■coal and clay, culm and clay, 
or even coal and wet ashes, will 
burn and keep up the heat, 
but the boiler must be long, 
and not choked too much at the 
back. A saddle boiler should 
not be less than 3ft. long, and 
where a great length of pipe 
has to be heated, a 5ft. saddle 
is not a bit too large. The L 
ended saddle boiler is a great 
improvement on the old one, to 
which, from careful trial, we 
prefer it. More surface is ex- 
posed to the fire, and greater 
heat is thus extracted from it. 

The Independent saddle 
boiler is very useful where 


20. — The Independent Conical 


A A, wrought iron boiler ; B, cast base ; 
C, fire-bars ; D, flue ; E, dome top ; F, 
feeding lid ; G, flow pipe; H, return pipe. 

drainage is bad, and this and the next one (Fig. 20), the Inde- 
pendent conical boiler, are perhaps the two best independent 
boilers. They are, however, much more expensive than those 
-which require fixing in brickwork, but as they are absolutely 

34 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

owned by tlie tenant tkey are cheapest in tlie end, particularly 
where the property is only held on a short lease. 

There are dozens of forms of boiler for fixing in brickwork, 
and, properly fixed, they are, no doubt, good, but the more 
simple the boiler the better the results, as a rule, unless a brick- 
layer used to firework has the setting of them. Coil boilers we 
have but little faith in, if we except those made by Deards, and 
these are best in the larger sizes. 

As fuel has a great deal to do with the performance of 
heating apparatus, we will say one or two words on the matter. 
In the first place, such boilers as Figs. 18, 19, and 20 should be 
fed with coke or anthracite coal only, but open boilers, like the 
plain saddle, will bum almost anything. This much must, how- 
ever, be said : fuel to be most effective should be broken up 
small enough to pass through a l^in. or 2in. ring, according to 
the size of the boiler, and should be free from dust. Slack coal 
and other stuff burnt in the common saddle boiler should be on 
io'p of the fire, and should be well wetted before use, so that it 
shall cake. Coke should also be used wet, as it bums better and 
throws off more heat. Where cinders are used it is always best 
to sift them through not less than a half-inch meshed sieve,. 
as a finer sieve would hold back too much dii*t, and ashes are 
of no use to burn. 

In the selection of a boiler, always have one too large for the 
work required, i.e., if you have about 100ft. of 4in. pipe to heat, 
choose a boiler that will heat nearly as much again, and then 
you will be safe in the hardest weather, and not have to " drive "^ 
the boilpr. Always have a wi'ought iron boiler, as cast boilers 
are liable to split, and, should a stoppage occur in any of the 
pipes, will sometimes explode with some force, whereas a 
wrought boiler is only likely to rip or tear, so doing less 
damage. The best material for any kind of boiler is copper, but 
the great cost — say, £60 to £70 per ton — is against it. 

We do not give plans of heating, as there is scarcely a case 
where two houses can be heated alike in all details. 

In wet places, where several houses at different levels have to 
be heated from one boiler, the following arrangement (Fig. 21) 
can be used, provided the return pipe is not below the boiler. A 



siplion from 5ft. to 15ft. liigli rises above the boiler, and the 
water descends through the whole of the pipes. A is top of 
boiler, B B siphon, C air pipe. The 
water rises in the direction of the arrows, 
the top of the siphon being the highest 
point in the whole system. In working 
this plan very strong boilers are neces- 
sary, and it is also desirable that the 
strongest cast pipes be used for the 
siphon. "We have shown flanged pipes, 
but these are not absolutely necessary, 
as the ordinary form of socket pipe will 
answer all purposes. Good workman- 
ship is absolutely necessary, or failure 
is sure to result, the pressure in the 
boiler and siphon being so much greater 
than with the ordinary system of heat- 

The points to be observed are : First, 
a boiler large enough for the work, as it 
is false economy to have a boiler too 
small. Secondly, that the boiler shall 
be properly fixed. Thirdly, that the 
pipes are large enough and of a suffi- 
cient length to heat the house properly ; 
and, lastly, that an experienced hot- 
water fitter be employed for the fixing, &c. If these points 
are attended to, success will follow. 

Pig. 21.— Siphon for Heat- 
ing ON THE Descending 

A, top of boiler; B B, siphon 
pipe; C, air pipe. The arrows 
show direction of flow. 

Heating with Flues. — This old-fashioned method is hardly 
worth describing at the present time, as it is so little used, 
but for the benefit of those who may like the plan, we give 
a few hints. In the first place, a furnace is required, and this 
must be constructed so that the flames and heat rise into the 
flue. The construction is very simple, as it consists of a 
long chamber, about a foot high, and a little wider, if con- 
venient, with an ashpit under ; it is also desirable to provide it 
with good fire bars, as the common ones soon burn through. 

D 2 

36 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Tlie flue should rise from tlie top of tlie furnace in a slanting 
direction, and sliould have no dips or sudden falls in it, or in 
many cases failure will result, as hot air, like hot water, always 
rises. In building the flue it will be necessary to raise it the 
thickness of a brick on edge above the floor of the house, 
and this is done by placing the brick so that the edges of two 
tiles (lOin. square) lie on each brick ; these must be well 
bedded in mortar, and when the whole of this foundation is 
laid, three bricks on edge should be built up on each side, on 
the tiles, and this should be covered in with other tiles, well 
mortared together, or the smoke will escape. The flue, when 
finished, will have an interior size of about a foot high and from 
five to six inches wide, and as it will get very hot it will be 
necessary to use good materials. It will be found the best 
plan to employ a good bricklayer to do the work — if possible 
a man who is used to it — as it is necessary to have it done 
well, but, at the same time, it is far cheaper in the end 
to have a properly fitted hot- water apparatus. It will be 
found that, unless fuel is cheap, a great loss will result in a 
very few years — in fact, more than would pay for the first 
cost and maintenance of a hot-water apparatus, which would, 
moreover, be of far greater practical use. The smoke, too, 
from most flues is simply a nuisance, oft times to an intolerable 
degree, whereas there is but little smoke from properly set 
boilers, for, generally, these latter consume their own smoke. 
The stoking is also a subject that few persons will undertake, 
as the fire wants attention every few hours, and, from expe- 
rience, we can confidently say that it is no pleasant job to have 
to get out of bed at three or four o'clock in the morning to look 
after the fires, and perhaps find it raining or snowing hard. 

In concluding our notice of heating we may add that a few 
mats thrown over the roof or front of a house to exclude the 
wind from the laps in the glass, will often save a great deal 
of firing, while a stout canvas cover, such as a rick cloth, if 
fastened so as to leave a space between it and the glass, will 
make a difference of several degrees. The hardier the plants 
the less heat will be required, and it is as well to keep the 
plants as hardy as possible. 


ET destruction, and, still more, prevention, 
be applied to insect pests, which, are 
of more importance, and engross more 
time and cause more trouble than is 
generally allowed by amateurs. There is 
not the least excuse for having plants 
covered with insects of any kind, as they 
are all amenable to proper treatment; and 
it must always be borne in mind that a 
crop of insects most decidedly means a 
vast quantity of unprofitable work, and 
work that could be easily avoided if the 
proper method of doing things were only taken. It is not of the 
least use relying on clearing off the insects in one lot, should they 
become too numerous, " because a few cannot do much harm," as 
that is just where the mischief lies ; for two or three scale, or 
aphides, or red spider, multiply and grow very numerous, and 
what could have been done in half an hour a fortnight ago takes 
five or six hours now, and much damage has been done besides. 

Where it is really desired to grow plants worth looking at it is 
absolutely necessary that all insect pests should he destroyed 
when they first apjpear, and close attention should be given to 
this matter, for on the absence of insects. the future of the 
plants depends. If an aphis or other insect is seen, crush it at 
once; or should a slug or snail leave its slimy track across a 
leaf or on the floor of the house, hunt till his death can be safely 

38 Greenhouse Management for Atnafeurs. 

registered; and if ferns or orchids appear to be eaten, do not 
rest until every wood-louse, beetle, and cockroacb is exter- 
minated, as it is a certain fact that where there is one now, in a 
short time there will be hundreds. No sentimental feeling 
should be allowed to get the better of us in this work, for 
sentiment and good plants will not go together. The live-and- 
let-live policy is no good in plant growing, as it does not work 
well, neither is it satisfactory so far as the results go. 

Amongst tbe insects that are injurious to pot plants may be 
enumerated aphides, thrips, red spider, scale, caterpillars, wood- 
lice, and the ordinary slugs and snails ; while weevils, wire 
worms, juli, and maggots also attack some plants. The first 
three are perhaps the most troublesome, as they are so prolific, 
though in a collection of hard-wooded plants scale is very 
troublesome, but still if they are taken in time a little care will 
soon eradicate them. Wire worms and juli are not so easy to be 
rid of, as they are in the soil, and are not always suspected until 
the mischief is done, and then the matter is past recall. 
Maggots in cutting pots at times do much damage, but they are 
easily managed. Wood-lice are perhaps the most troublesome 
of all the larger insects, as there is great difficulty in persuading 
them to come and be killed. In fact, once get a stock of them 
and they remain for ever. We will take the insects we have 
named in rotation, and give some remedies that have been found 
useful for their destruction, premising that all insecticides are 
used with due care and discrimination. 

Ants. — In the greenhouse the presence of ants is a source of 
unmitigated trouble, and unless stopped in time, the insects 
will work great mischief. The damage done is principally 
mechanical, and the plants are not in any way injured in the^ 
manner that aphides or red spider cause injury, but the soil 
in the pots is disturbed, and the plants are seriously injured 
by~^EEi^t means. As a rule, the plants die, or at least, become 
much injured by the water passing through the pots by means 
of the ant runs, instead of going through the whole of the 
soil and moistening it, and, therefore, some means must be 
taken to destroy the producers of this evil. Where there is 



plenty of dry rotten wood, virgin cork, or other light dry 
material in which they can work, the large black ants are liable 
to put in an appearance, but the small black ant is the one 
that is most to be feared. The red ant, too, will sometimes 
be found, but not so often as the black ones, and, as the same 
methods can be used for the destruction of the whole family, 
it matters but little which attacks have to be guarded against. 

Where the ants have taken up their head-quarters in pots, the 
best, and, indeed, the only plan, is to p] unge the pots in water 
for ten or twelve hours, and so drown the insects. In this it is 
necessary to use some discrimination, as balsams and plants of 
a similar nature would not do well if this treatment was often 
repeated, and hard-wooded plants at rest would in many cases 
start into growth prematurely, and thus perhaps the cure would 
be worse than the disease. As, however, in the greenhouse 
proper, the plants and the ants commence active life together as 
the weather becomes warm, this flooding is not likely to do much 
harm, but still some amount of judgment is necessary, as at 
times failures do occur. 

Our favourite plan, although a dangerous one, can easily be 
applied to all plants not in pots, and, as we never have a failure, 
we give it here. To half-a-pound of fine sugar add an ounce of 
white arsenic, and mix intimately with about a pound of medium 
■oatmeal, keeping the whole dry. To use, spread small portions 
about the places the ants frequent, and in a very short time they 
will all disappear. Again : Two ounces of white arsenic boiled in 
about a half -pint of water, to which is added, after the mixture is 
boiled, a quarter-pound of treacle, and allowed to cool. To use, 
dip a sponge or piece of bone in the mixture, and place near the 
haunts of the ants, or sprinkle the mixture around the hill or 
infested place, and the ants consuming it, die in great numbers. 
It is needless to state that these preparations of arsenic are 
deadly poison, and should be used only when other remedies 
fail. Great care should also be taken that the packages or 
bottles containing these mixtures are labelled " poison, " and 
kept in a secure place. 

Other plans are to lay shallow saucers of oil near the runs of 
the insects, in which large numbers will get killed — of course 

40 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

changing tlie saucers sometimes. A sponge soaked in weak 
sugar- water and placed in tlieir runs will collect a great many, 
and if the sponge is taken up two or three times a day and 
thrown into very hot water a large quantity can be killed. A 
maiTOw bone is also a very good trap, the insects being scalded 
to death when a large number have congregated together; and 
there are also some other traps of a similar nature. 

Boiling water poui'ed down the runs and nests of the ants 
is of much use in destroying these pests ; but perhaps the best 
and simplest plan is to see that no accumulations of soil exist 
in out-of-the-way places, and that all the brickwork, flooring, 
and woodwork is in sound condition, and free from crevices 
in which these ants can make their nests. In no case can 
carbolic acid, chloride of lime, or other offensive agents be 
used in the greenhouse, as such do more harm than the ants 

Aphides. — Of these there are two that claim especial 
attention — the green fly {Aphis rosce) and the black or cherry fly 
{Aphis cerasi) — ^both of which have to loe combated at one time or 
another. Everyone knows the green fly, which seems to have an 
indiscriminate taste for feeding on all succulent foliage, and 
which, if taken in time, is easily kept under. There is this tO' 
remember, however, and that is, the harder the foliage on which 
the aphides feed the harder it is to destroy them. 

Fowler's Insecticide, if applied as directed on the bottles, is a 
good remedy, and one that does not injure the plants. It is alsa 
not objectionable so far as appearance goes. 

Gishurst Compound is another very good insecticide for hard 
foliaged subjects, but it has to be washed off after twenty-four 
hours or the foliage will be much stained. It is also not 
advisable to apply this article to plants having hairy or woolly 
leaves, or to plants having tender foliage, as the results will 
frequently not be very desirable. 

Tobacco water made from the liquid expressed from " pigtail,'* 
"ladies' twist," and similar tobaccos, and sold by most large 
seedsmen, is very useful for many subjects, but must not be 
applied to tender foliage or blooms, as it leaves a stain. The 

Insects, 4 1 

strength is about a quarter ounce to the gallon of water, applied 
in the evening and washed off in the morning following. 

Pooley's Tobacco Powder is a very useful dry application, and 
should be always at hand. It is the waste tobacco from the 
large factories, and is mixed with lime and a small quantity of 
assafoetida, but not enough to make the use of the powder 
offensive. In this state it is sold duty free, and is consequently 
much cheaper than snuff and quite as eifective. The powder 
should be dredged or sprinkled on the plants thi'ough a small 
dredger — a penny tin pepper-box answers admirably — and 
washed off with the syringe the next morning. If allowed to 
remain on too long it is apt to disfigure the plants, but with 
ordinary care it is one of the safest and most easily applied 
insecticides there is. Hardman's Insect Powder, applied with 
one of the little tin French bellows to be had for a few pence of 
most chemists, is a first-rate insecticide. 

Fumigation with tobacco, tobacco paper, tobacco cloth, or any 
of the numerous preparations of tobacco that are in the market, 
is also a sure method of dealing with these pests, but it smells 
badly, which renders fumigation particularly obnoxious where 
ladies have the handling of plants. "Where plants are in full 
bloom it is also very dangerous to use tobacco smoke, as it takes 
all the blooms off ; therefore, before fumigating any plant house, 
it is necessary to remove all the plants that may be in bloom — 
a task that cannot always be performed. The whole of the 
plants in the house should be fairly dry at the roots, and the 
foliage should be quite dry when fumigation has to be done, 
care also should be taken that there is no water on the leaves, 
or there is a great probability of the foliage being badly 
spotted, so spoiling the beauty of the plants and injuring 
them as well. When all is ready, two or three pots should be 
prepared by placing some well-lighted charcoal in the bottom 
of each, and on this the fumigating material in a damp state 
should be placed. The material should have been previously 
prepared by tearing into small pieces, and it should be just 
damp enough not to flame, or the consequences will be disas- 
trous to the plants around. Care must be taken that the pots 
do not burst into a flame after they are lighted, but otherwise 

42 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

no further attention is requisite. The necessary amount of 
smoke is difficult to determine accurately, but it is better to 
give two or three fumigations on alternate nights than to 
overdo the matter in the first fumigation. Of course, it is 
desirable, or rather necessary, that all the glass in the house 
is in good condition, and that extra large crevices are stopped 
up with moss or other material, so that the smoke shall be 
kept in the house as long as possible, or it will only be waste 
of time and material to attempt to fumigate the place. The 
morning after fumigating, the plants should be thoroughly 
syringed, and plenty of fresh air should be admitted to clear 
off the bad smell, and reduce the bad eilects on the plants, if 
there is any chance of such effects occurring ; and in fact the 
place should be thoroughly cleaned out. Where the plants are 
badly infested with fly, at least thi*ee fumigations on alternate 
evenings will be necessary to destroy the young broods, but 
if taken in time one fumigation will be sufficient. Where the 
expense is not objected to, one of Dreschler's or Tebb's fumi- 
gators will be found to far supersede the use of pots ; or if the 
matter of a guinea is not too much, one of Brown's patent 
fumigators will render the process of filling the house with 
smoke a not very unpleasant matter, as the operator can stand 
outside with the machine and fill it both rapidly and well 
with no further trouble than turning a handle. In fact, for the 
amateur there is no machine to beat Brown's, as no incon- 
venience need be experienced with it. 

Other methods of destroying aphides besides those we have 
mentioned are in use, but they are not so useful to the amateur. 
If a few plants only are infested, they can be fumigated under 
a box ; but the use of some insecticide will be found preferable 
as a rule. 

Caterpillars. — Catei'pillars and grubs of various kinds 
sometimes attack the foliage of plants, but the attacks are 
more particularly confined to those which have large suc- 
culent leaves, such as pelargoniums, and on these they 
show to serious disadvantage. The common butterflies do 
very great damage amongst collections of tricolour geraniums 

Insects. 43 

and otter plants of a like nature, and therefore it is a 
matter of good policy to keep them from entering the 
house if possible. This is best done by using tiffany net- 
ting, or Hay thorn's netting, over all the openings ; but where 
this cannot be done it is advisable to destroy all the butter- 
flies that can be caught. Next to this, constant attention, 
so far as examining the plants and destroying the caterpillars 
go, is all that can be done, and hand-picking is the only 
real remedy. There is no application of any real service, and 
therefore it is really useless to go further into the matter. 
Hand-picking and constant attention are the only remedies, and 
without these the foliage is sure to be punctured and eaten. 

Maggots. — It frequently happens that in cutting pots a 
large white maggot puts in an appearance, and, in some cases, 
it does a great deal of damage. There is only one remedy for 
these maggots, and that is to bake the sand before using it. 
As, however, it is only in dirty sand that the maggots appear, 
cleanliness is one of the first requisites, and it is by having 
clean-washed sand that the best results can be had. If the 
maggots appear at any time, there is nothing left but to take the 
cuttings out and bake the sand. There is no application that can 
be safely applied to the pots for the destruction of these insects. 

Red Spider. — The red spider {Acariis telarius) is one of the 
worst insects that can get into a house, and, at the same time, is 
one of the most difficult to eradicate. When the conditions 
under which they thrive best are known, it should be an easy 
matter to prevent the appearance of the spider from obtaining 
any great headway; but at times the plants require an 
atmospheric condition that is favourable to the spider, and then 
it is that various remedies have to be employed to destroy it. A 
dry arid atmosphere, combined with dryness at the roots of the 
plants, will be almost certain to cause the red spider to put in an 
appearance, and outdoors, in very hot dry weather, the insects 
also appear, and thence gain an entry into the house. Some 
plants are more liable to the attacks of spider than others, and 
special treatment has to be given in such cases, but with the 

44 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

ordinary stock plenty of clean water applied with the syringe to 
both surfaces of the foliage, and applied pretty often, will be 
found as good a cure as any. We have no faith in insecticides 
for this purpose, but there is no harm, in trying them if it is 
desired to spend money over the matter. 

Where it is not convenient to use the syringe, sulphur can be 
dusted over, or rather under, the foliage and blown off with a 
pair of bellows in a few hours, and in many cases this will be an 
effectual cure, but care must be taken that the foliage is not 
injured by the sulphur. To this end it is desirable that the full 
sun should not be allowed to reach the foliage while the sulphur 
is on, as the fumes given off would perhaps do injury. 

Another good plan where there is much spider is to paint the 
hot-water pipes with a mixture of sulphur and clay, and then to 
warm the pipes to a nice heat, about as warm as the hand can 
bear comfortably, as if the heat is too great the plants will 
suffer from the fumes. In fact, this process should only be 
attempted by persons who are conversant with fumigating with 
sulphur, or serious effects may be caused. 

A modification of the above is to heat some bricks in boiling 
water, and when nearly at the boiling heat they should be taken 
into the house and sprinkled with flowers of sulphur. On no 
account must the bricks be placed under tender or delicate 
plants, nor should they be placed so that the streams of ascending 
fumes impinge on any climbers on the roof, or the foliage will 
be seriously damaged. In no case must the bricks be heated in 
a fire. 

Where practicable, the cold-water cure is, however, the best, 
and gives the least trouble, and therefore it is the safest in the 
hands of the amateur. The sulphur remedies require care to 
use safely, and in unpractised hands often do more harm than 
the red spider. 

Snails and Slugs. — These are often introduced in the 
pots in which are close-growing plants, and it is therefore 
obvious that too great care cannot be taken to insure the 
cleanliness of both pots and plants. In all cases before 
introducing pots into the greenhouse or conservatory they 

Insects. 45 

should be examined carefully, especially in tlie drainage holes, 
to see that neither the black nor white slugs are concealed 
about them ; and the plants should also be looked over to see 
that they are clear from insects, as one or two slugs or snails 
will do damage to the extent of several pounds amongst valuable 
plants. Faulty brickwork, badly- arranged ventilators, and dirty 
houses, aU tend to render it more difficult to exclude slugs and 
snails, and therefore these points should be carefully attended 
to, on the reasoning that prevention is better than cure. Hand- 
picking is the only way by which the number of these pests can 
be reduced, and we always make it a rule that if a trace of 
either slug or snail is seen, it should be traced to the end and 
the insect destroyed. There is no application that will destroy 
or deter these insects in the greenhouse, but outdoors soot and 
lime are useful. 

Little heaps of wet bran laid about will attract the slugs, as 
will also cabbage leaves, and, in fact, any rubbish will attract 
them. Hence the necessity of great cleanliness in and about 
the houses. 

Scale. — This is a very troublesome insect when once well 
established, and great care is necessary where it exists, as it 
soon spreads to other plants, and renders them comparatively 
valueless. There are two kinds of scale — the brown and the 
white — that are common, although there is, according to some 
authorities, a large variety, various trees having their own 
especial scale insect ; but this we will not discuss. Suffice it to 
say that the brown scale is all that the amateur can wish for 
without having a dozen or more to contend with. Scale renders 
the plants unsightly, and does an immensity of damage, so that 
it is a matter of urgent necessity that it should be destroyed 
ere it gets established, or the hoase will never be clear. Of 
course, if taken in time, before there are many insects on the 
plants, but little harm, comparatively, will be done ; but woe to 
the neglectful gardener who just lets the plants alone because 
*' there are only two or three " scale on them. "We can assure 
our readers that nothing is more prejudicial to the appearance 
of the plants than this mode of doing work, and it should be, 

46 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

therefore, most carefully avoided ; and anyone who takes the 
destruction of insects in hand before they have had time to 
become established — especially in the case of scale — will find 
that the battle is won, whereas if the scale have once the upper 
hand, only a losing war can be waged against them. 

The methods of destroying scale are not numerous, and 
they are very simple, albeit rather tedious. In the first place, 
all the insects must be cleaned off, and then the stems of 
the plants should be washed with tobacco water, to which soft 
soap has been added in the proportion of two ounces to the 
gallon. After cleaning the plants, the surface soil of the pots 
should be carefully cleared off to the depth of from a half -inch 
to an inch, and fresh soil added to fill up the vacancy thus 
caused. If the scale again appears, the process must be again 
repeated, nor the insects allowed to attain too large a size before 
commencing operations against them. 

Another plan is to apply weak size water with a, syringe to 
plants such as oranges, camellias, and similar smooth-leaved 
subjects, and washing off with lukewarm water forcibly applied 
with a syringe after twenty-four hours. On no account must 
this be applied to hairy-leaved plants, or where there would be 
great difficulty in its speedy removal, for in such cases the 
remedy is as bad as the disease. The first is the better plan for 
the amateur to adopt. 

Thrips. — These are perhaps one of the worst pests with 
which plants can become infested, as they are both very small 
and tenacious of life, while they multiply to a prodigious extent 
in a very short time. iN'o plant that they are at least partial to 
long escapes their attacks, and therefore it is very desirable 
that, as soon as they appear, some steps should be taken to 
destroy them. The general cause of their overininning a house 
is, plants are purchased containing more or less of their 
number, and thence they spread to other plants before they are 
noticed. It is necessary to use some thorough methods of 
destruction with them, and, whether fumigation is applied, or 
some liquid insecticide is used, it is necessary that it shall be 
repeated more than once, or in a few days the plants will be as 



badly infested as before. Fumigating for tbree alternate niglits 
is a good remedy ; but it is necessary that no plants be in 
bloom in the house, or the bloom will all fall off. For full 
directions for fumigating, see under "Aphides." 

Fowler's Insecticide is a good application, if applied on three 
alternate evenings; and where it is possible from the hardy 
nature of the plant to apply it, tobacco water made from the 
liquid previously mentioned is good. 

Simpson's Antidote, Gishurst Compound, and various other 
insecticides are of use for destroying thrips, and, therefore, 
we need only add that constant attention is the chief point to 
be looked to. 

Wireworm. — These are one of the greatest nuisances that 
it is possible for a gardener to be plagued with, especially in the 
case of the grower of carnations, pinks, stocks, and similar 
plants. There is no application that can be made to the soil 
for the destruction or eradication of these pests, and all that 
remains is to pull the soil in pieces by hand, or to bake it, but 
the latter process we object to, as it drives off some of the 
more useful chemical constituents. 

In the preparation of all soil likely to contain these insects^ 
it is desirable that it shall be carefully pulled into snch smaU 
pieces as will not conceal them, unless, indeed, they be almost 
invisible ; and when caught each worm should either be di\dded 
or else consigned to the fire. If it is considered more desir- 
able to bake the earth, this operation should be done in such 
a manner as not to destroy the fibres in the soil, but it must 
be continued for such a time as to render the compost dust dry, 
and dry up any wireworm that is concealed therein. The same 
treatment applies to juli, but these are not very often present. 
In no case must soil be boiled, as is often recommended, as 
boiling destroys its texture, thus entirely unfitting it for the 
growth of plants. 

Weevils. — These sometimes give trouble where vines are 
grown, and they are not easily caught. The only effectual 
plan is to spread a sheet of paper or a white cloth under 

48 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

the infested plants, and at night to come out with a light and 
shake the insects off and ciiish them. If, however, ordinary care 
in the destruction of the common insects of the house is per- 
sisted in, weevils of no kind will trouble the amateur, that is if 
the place is kept clean ; but, as we said before, unless cleanliness 
is maintained, a clean bill, as regards insects, cannot be 

Woodlice. — These do much harm to fenis, tubers, and 
various of the ordinary greenhouse plants, paring or rasping 
off the outside cuticle, and then eating their way into the 
interior of the stems, &c. Woodlice are a sure accompaniment 
of dirt and decay of all kinds, and the cause removed, their 
number soon dwindles. Yarious methods are employed to 
destroy these pests, but only with partial success, as they 
seem to resist all allurements whatever. The best plan that 
we have found to succeed in practice was to fill a pot full 
of dirty moss, to which a few crumbs of potato were added, 
and leave the pot in one of their favourite haunts for a 
few days, then taking it up and dropping the contents into a 
pail of hot water, ridding the place of large numbers each time 
of operating. 

Another plan is to place raw potatoes, scooped out in the 
centre, about their haunts, and to shake the woodlice into 
a pail of hot water each morning; and, indeed, almost any 
root will answer for this purpose, and a moderately large 
turnip is a good trap when several fair-sized holes are bored 
in. it. 

A very effectual trap is to obtain some dry horse droppings, 
and to mix a few potato parings amongst them ; place in 
shallow boxes in dark places, and once a week empty the whole 
into a fire or a pail of boiling water, by which means vast 
quantities will be destroyed. Pouring boiling water around 
the crevices where they mostly congregate is also effectual, 
but the best plan is to stop all cracks and crevices in brickwork 
and wood, to have sound, clean floors, thoroughly lime-whited 
walls, and to keep a few toads about the place. Thorough 
■cleanliness is the greatest enemy of woodlice. 

Insects. 49 

Mildew. — Although this is not an insect, or the effect of 
insects, jet we give it a place here, as it has to he largely com- 
bated in badly - ventilated or badly - managed houses. It is 
simply the result of a warm, moist, and stagnant atmosphere, 
and if this is not maintained mildew will rarely appear. In 
a well-ventilated house mildew is not often troublesome. 

Swing's composition is a good cure for this disease, as is also 
flowers of sulphur applied one day and blown ofB the next. 
With care, however, the plants will easily be kept free from 
mildew, and where our directions are carried out not one of the 
pests mentioned above will give much trouble. 

In " Garden Pests and their Eradication,"* we have described 
many other insects, which occasionally give trouble in the green- 
house, with the best method of destroying them, and we must 
refer our readers to that work should they unfortunately require 
further information on the subject than is contained in this 

* "Garden Pests and their Eradication": Containing Practical Instructions for the 
Amateur to OvRrcome the Enemies of the Garden. With numerous lUustiutions. In paper, 
price Is., post free. London : L. Upcott Gill, 170, Stmnd, W.C. 



BELIA. — Hardy hard-wooded shrub ; grown 
for its flowers. Minimum temperature, 
30deg. These are very ornamental and are 
well suited for the cold greenhouse, either 
trained on trellises or grown as pot plants. 
They foi-m very neat bushes, from 18in. to 
3ft. high, and when the blooms expand at the 
ends of the shoots, either in twos or threes, or 
perhaps singly, they have a very fine effect. The blooms are 
about 2in. long, and divide at the top into five segments. In 
appearance, the plants are like large daphnes, save as to the 
flowers. They are very floriferous when well grown, and are of 
very easy culture, growing well in a compost of peat and loam 
in equal parts, to which a sufficient quantity of sharp sand has 
been added. The care required is not much — simply watering, 
<fec. — treatment as hardy plants being, in fact, sufficient. Of 
course they will bloom earlier in the house than out of doors, 
but forcing is not a desirable point with them. Such treatment 
as recommended to camellias suits these evergreens well. 

Propagation is performed by inserting cuttings in pots of 
well drained compost of sand and loam, taking the cuttings 
when the plants are at rest. As, however, propagation is best 
done in houses devoted to this class of work, the amateur 
will generally find it better to pm'chase small plants at a 

The better of the two varieties is A. fiorihunda, which bears 

Cultural Directions. 51 

observed to prevent tlie plants being starved, as sucli starving 
tends to an early maturity, when the blooms are either to a 
large extent abortive, or they are small and stunted, while the 
plant itself is &o diminished in size, injured in constitution, 
and the foliage so small and distorted, as to leave much doubt as 
to the identity of the variety itself. Insects are also very ob- 
jectionable for the same reason, as well as from the mechanical 
haiin they do in devouring the foliage, and, as it were, destroying 
the lungs of the plants. 

The chief points in growing annuals are slow and steady 
growth, giving sturdy and fii-m habit, and with those plants 
which are from any reason too slender or weak to support them- 
selves, a careful training and supporting by artificial means. 
Great care is also necessary to ensure a sturdy growth under 
glass, and the best means of preventing the plants drawing to 
an undue extent is to afford them as much air as possible, and 
to keep them as near the glass as their individual habits will 

Hardy Annuals are only of real practical utility for early 
work, i.e., until about June, and therefore it is necessary that 
they be sown in the September previous. The way we grow 
hardy annuals for this and some other purposes is as follows : 
In the second week in September seed is sown of the various 
plants we require to stand the winter and the seed beds are well 
attended to until the plants are large enough to handle. Some 
beds of poor and rather sandy soil are then prepared, so that 
the glass of the lights does not stand above 6in. or 7in. from 
the soil. Into these beds the plants are transplanted, being 
set about three inches apai*t each way, or, with very slender 
things, two inches apart. After planting, the beds have a good 
soaking of water, and the lights are kept closed for a few days, 
but after a week the lights are removed on eveiy favouraole 
opportunity, and open at all times, except in frost or fog. The 
plants are prevented from becoming frozen, and the supply of 
moisture is so regulated that there is no rotting off during 
the winter months, and insects are kept in check. If fumigation 
has to be resorted to, great care is taken that the foliage is 

E 2 

52 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

perfectly dry, or the results would be most disastrous, the smoke 
having a great tendency to destroy it when it is damp. About 
February or March, according to the situation of the gai-den and 
earliness of the season, the plants are carefully taken up and 
potted in four or six-inch pots, in a good rich sandy com- 
post, and a fair amount of drainage afforded. The soil is in a 
moist but not wet state, and, after potting, the plants stand for 
a day or two before watering. If, after potting, they are taken 
into a gi-eenhouse at a temperatm'e of about 45deg., and there 
placed in a light position near the glass, kept watered, and 
otherwise attended to, they soon come into bloom, and when 
fully out are removed where they are required. Successional 
batches are taken in as needed, and after the middle of April 
they either remain in the frames or ai*e removed to the cold 
house as desii-ed. 

The following sorts are useful for the above purposes, and, 
grown as described, will not fail to give satisfaction : Agrostemma 
coeli-rosa, rose; Asperula azurea setosa, blue; Bartonla aurea^ 
yellow; Cacalia aurea, orange; C. coccinea, scarlet; Galandrinia 
grandifiora, rose; C. speciosa, purple; Candytuft, the pui-ple and 
crimson varieties; Chrysanthemum Dunnettii, double white and 
double golden; C. Burridgeanum, crimson and white; Clarlcia 
pulchella, var. Tom Thumb, rose ; C. p., var. Tom Thumb, alba, 
white; CoUinsia hicolor, lilac and white; C. multicolor, crimson, 
black and white ; Convolvulus minor, various ; Coreopsis nigra 
nana, dark red ; Erysimum Perofshianum, orange ; Eucharidium 
grandiflorum, red; E. g. roseum, rose; Gilia minima coerulea, 
blue; (rocZe^ia, The Bride, white and crimson; Godetia Whitneyi, 
blush and crimson; Godetia, Lady Albemarle, carmine; Gyp- 
sophila elegans, lilac; Hibiscus Africanus major, primrose; S, 
calisureus, crimson, with black eye ; Jacobcea, in double crimson, 
pui'ple, rose, and white; Kaulfussia amelloides, blue; Lark- 
spurs in variety; Leptosiphons in various coloui's ; Malope 
grandifiora, crimson ; Mignonette ; Mimulus in variety, which 
can be treated as annuals, although they are strictly perennials ; 
Nastui'tiums of the Tom Thumb section; Nemophila insignis, 
blue; N. i. grandifiora, hlue ; JSf. i. marg inata, hlue and white; 
K atomaria coslestis oculata, blue with black centre; N. dis- 

Cultural Directions. 53 

coidalis, black ; Nigella, both, blue and purple ; Sanvitalia pro- 
cumhens, botb single and double, yellow ; Saponaria Calahrica, 
pink ; Silene pendula compacta, rose pink ; Yirginian Stock, red 
and white; Viscaria oculata nana, pink; F. elegans pida, crimson 
and wbite; WJiitlavia gloxinoides, white and blue: and Zea 
japonica variegata, variegated maize. 

Half-hardy Auuxials, unlike hardy annuals, will not stand 
the winter in frames, but such sorts as are sown in autumn must be 
kept in pots or in store pots through the winter. Take lobelias, 
for instance — it is rare that anyone can obtain the plants of a 
sufficient size if sown in spring, but if sown in August, and 
pricked off into store pots or boxes, they can be wintered well, 
and in spring when potted off they make fine plants. Some 
things, such as marigolds, ageratum, one or two of the 
amaranthuses, Eucnide hartonioides, tobacco, perilla, ricinus, 
&c., if sown in the end of August, and kept in a light house 
during the winter, do much better than if sown in spring ; at 
the same time it is too difficult an operation for the majority 
of amateurs. There is, of course, a little difficulty in keeping 
annuals in a bouse, as they require plenty of light and air, and 
not too much moisture, while the compost should be light and 
fairly rich. A temperature of about 40deg. is also necessary, 
but many degrees higher or lower will cause the plants to run 
up dwindly or else fog off, either of which renders the trouble 
taken of no avail. Where plants are kept in the manner 
described above, they should be potted off in March and gradu- 
ally hardened to plant out in May. 

The best plan for amateurs to adopt is to sow the seeds 
of the various half-hardy annuals in heat in January, and 
gradually grow the plants on in wai-m frames, or in a green- 
house, until April, when they should be transferred to the 
frames to harden off preparatory to planting out in May. By 
doing this, good results are obtained without the trouble of 
keeping through the winter. "Well-drained seed pans or pots 
should be prepared in January, and a compost used of rich light 
soil ; these pans should be well watered and set aside for some 
hours to drain. The seeds should be sown evenly and thinly 

54 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs, 

over the surface of tlie soil, and tlien covered witli their own 
thickness of fine sandy compost. When placed in the position 
they are to occupy, each pot should be covered with a sheet of 
glass, and in a short time the young plants will appear. It is not 
advisable to water the pots overhead; the better plan is to 
stand each pot in a tub of water reaching to the rim of the pot 
only, and when the water soaks through, the pots should be set 
aside to drain, and then returned to their places, unless there is 
plenty of drainage at their own spot, when they can be put there 
as soon as they are removed from the tub. When the seeds 
have fairly commenced growth the glasses should be gradually 
removed, and the heat gradually diminished, air at the same time 
being admitted to the plants in proportion to the rate at which 
heat is taken off. When in rough leaf they should be potted off 
into single pots, or two or three in a pot, according to the size, 
of the plants and the purpose for which they are intended. If 
for indoor use they should be put into small 60-sized pots, and 
thence transferred to 4in. pots when the roots kiss the sides of 
the pots ; but if for outside work they should — with the excep- 
tion of such things as ricinus — be stood where they are to 
remain until planted out. Plenty of drainage and a fairly rich 
and light soil are necessary for the well-being of the plants, 
whether grown in or outdoors. The general treatment is the 
same as for half-hardy soft- wooded plants if grown indoors; 
therefore we shall not refer to it further here. 

For sorts of half-hardy annuals select from the following, 
those marked with an asterisk being most suitable for house 
decoration; Ahronia umbellata, rose; ^Acroclinium roseum, 
rose; *J.. roseum alhuni, white; Alonsoa Warscewiczii compacta, 
scarlet ; Amaranthus tricolor, hicolor, and melancholicus ruber, 
fine foliage plants; Arctotis hreviscapa, orange; ^Asters of 
sorts (to be sown in March) ; *Begonia sedeni Victoria, various 
colours; ^Clintonia pulcliella,'^\xx^\Q and yellow; *G. pulchella 
alba, white ; Convolvulus of sorts, various colours ; Datura 
ceratocaulon, pink and white; D. chlorantha jl.-jpl., white; the 
datui'as are very fine for borders ; * Eucnide bartonioides, 
yellow ; Fenzlia diantliijiora, rosy lilac ; Gaillardia amblyodon, 
deep red ; Helichrysum brachyrinchum, yellow ; Helijpterum 

Cultural Directions. 55 

8andfo7-dii, yellow ; Ice Plant, white ; Ipomoea Learii, violet and 
blue ; I. rubro ccerulea, sky blue ; I. r. c. alba, wMte ; these 
three are fine for greenhouse work, other Ipomceas are useful 
for outside decoration ; marigolds, in variety : Martynia 
fragrans, crimson ; ^Mesemhryanthemwin tricolor, crimson and 
white; M. t. album, white, both useful for hot situations; 
Nemesia versicolor corrvpacta, various colours ; Nicotiana vir- 
ginica, pink; N. grandiflora purpurea, purple; N. macrophylla 
gigantea, pink ; Nycterinia Capensis, white ; Perilla Nankin- 
ensis and P. atro purpurea laciniatus, bedding foliage plants ; 
Phlox Drummondii, various; *Portulacca, of sorts, stands 
heat well; *Ithodanthe, of sorts, various; Ricinus, various 
coloured foliage; Salpiglossis atro-purpurea, pui'ple; S. coccinea, 
scarlet; *Schizantlius, of sorts; Stocks, of sorts; Tagetes sig- 
nata pumila, yellow, excellent for bedding purposes ; Waitzia 
aurea, yellow ; W. corymbosa, various ; and Zinnia, of sorts, 
various colours, most useful for bedding purposes. The 
above do not comprise some for which we shall give special 

Tender Annuals differ from the preceding, inasmuch as 
they require to be grown under glass for the greater part, if not for 
all the time of their existence. Balsams, cockscombs, and such 
like are tender annuals, and as they well repay any trouble in 
their culture, we have given separate instructions for their 
growth under their own headings in the " Dictionary of Plants." 
The chief points to be seen to are a light house in which 
to grow the plants, and a careful system of attention by which 
the j)lants will be kept as stocky as possible, as long, lanky 
plants are not good to look upon. 

Raising Seeds. — Besides annuals, there are a large number 
of plants that can be raised from seeds, and, as they are often 
difficult to manage, it will not be amiss to give a few hints on 
the subject. The pot or pan in which the seeds are to be sown 
should be about one-third filled with crocks, and the soil should 
then be filled in to within about half an inch of the top, and 
gently compressed by tapping the bottom of the pot on the bench. 

56 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

The pots should tlien be stood in a tub of water, up to the rims, 
until the water soaks tlirougk to the STirface, and then be set 
aside to drain. When drained clear of all supei*fluous water, the 
seeds can be sown on the surface, and a covering of fine soil 
placed over them ; this covering of soil not to exceed the 
thickness of the seeds themselves. With very small fine seeds 
it is not desirable to cover at all with soil, but rather cover the 
pot with a sheet of glass, and keep shaded until the seeds 
germinate. In fact, with all but the larger seeds, it is desirable 
that a sheet of glass be laid over the pot or pan in which they 
are sown, as by this means undue evaporation is prevented, and 
a more equable moisture both in the soil and atmosphere is 
maintained. These points are particularly impoi'tant in the 
case of old seeds, or those where from any cause the ger- 
minating powers are feeble, such as is the case in seeds ripened 
under adverse conditions, or which have not ripened on the 
plant, although they have attained their full size ; indeed, too 
much care cannot be taken to insure the proper conditions under 
which the seeds will germinate. While on this subject we may 
as well mention that there are but few seeds that will germinate 
properly in a lower temperature than 45deg., and for the majority 
of comparatively hardy plants that are raised under glass a 
temperature of from 50deg. to 60deg. is most advantageous to 
the raiser. With greenhouse plants generally the seeds should 
be subjected to a heat of from 50deg. to 75deg., according to the 
class of plants; and in palms, acacias, and some other hard 
seeds, a temperature of from 75deg. to 105deg. will not be too 
much, provided that a moist atmosphere is at the same time 
equally maintained. 

Watering is a very important subject where seeds are con- 
cerned, for, unless this is done properly and in a consistent 
manner, the seeds will either rot in the soil or else the young 
plants will fog off ere they attain to sufficient size for potting 
off. It is useless to slop water around indiscriminately : far 
better leave the soil dry, as then the compost would not be 
destroyed if the seeds or plants were. What is required is 
sufficient judgment to tell when water is required, and to know 
how to apply it. Where large quantities of pots are used for 

Cultural Directions. 57 

raising seeds, it is a good plan to keep a large square washing- 
tray, but wliere only a few are used an ordinary tub is sufficient 
for tlie watering process. The way to apply water is to stand 
the pots in water to the rims, and to allow them to remain so 
until the water has soaked up to the surface of the soil ; by this 
method the whole of the soil becomes thoroughly moistened and 
the tender plants are not wetted, a matter of some importance. 
It is important to add that the water should be of the same 
temperature as the house, or the roots will be chilled, and 
the plants will, consequently, receive a more or less severe 

The soil in which seeds are raised should be of a sandy, 
friable nature, so that when the plants are raised from the soil 
for the purpose of repotting, there will be a quantity of the soil 
adhering to the fibrous roots ; but, at the same time, it is 
absolutely necessary that the soil shall be of such a nature that 
it breaks up freely without injuring the roots. On these points, 
however, the best medium is only attained by a little practice, 
and if a whole page were written on this subject but little 
practical service would be done. 

In potting off the seedling plants, care should be taken to 
shift them ere they become too large, and, for a few days, they 
should receive as nearly as possible the same treatment as 
before, and then they can be gradually brought round to that 
which they are to receive for the future. In no case should 
violent changes, either of soil or temperature, be indulged in, 
and the treatment should always be as consistent as possible 
with the recognised methods of culture. 

Propagation. — This is one of the most difficult parts of plant 
culture, and, unless proper conveniences exist, there are only 
a comparatively few plants that can be readily propagated 
by the general amateur. In nature, plants are most generally 
increased by means of seeds, offsets, and stolons, or runners; 
but in an artificial state cuttings, layers, and root division 
are resorted to, and to meet the exigencies of trade these modes 
of propagation are carried on to such an extent that the plants 
become partially exhausted by the rapidity with which they 

58 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

are multiplied, and their inability to become sufficiently 
matured before being propagated from. If we take tbe ordinary 
scarlet pelargonium as an instance, tbe plant as raised from 
the seed is very robust, and with the general run of plants 
will attain a height of 5ft. or 6ft. if a little care is taken ; 
but let the plants be of sufficiently high merit to create a 
demand, and it will be troublesome to make one of the 
young plants attain a height of 2ft. or 3ft. This we have 
practically tried when raising large standard plants, it being 
far easier to graft good varieties on the top of seedling stems 
than to attempt to raise standards on their own bottoms; while 
seedlings do best on their own roots, simply because they are 
not exhausted by undue multiplication. 

Such plants as can be propagated by layers do not generally 
deteriorate in so great a degree as those raised from cuttings, 
and the deterioration is very much slower, but still, in time 
the habit of the plant is in more or less degree changed. 

Where the plants propagate themselves by offsets or stolons, 
but little deterioration ensues, but still there is a tendency to 
deteriorate in a florist's point of view. In fact, the propagation 
of any kind of plant, if it has been improved, or in any way 
altered from its natural foim, notwithstanding the care with 
which it is done, tends to cause the plant to revert in a greater 
or less degree to what it was naturally. Excessive propagation 
tends to weaken the plant to a vast extent, and, therefore, 
where possible it should be avoided. It is far better to have 
double the number of stock plants than to risk the loss of 
quality caused by over propagation. 

In striking cuttings it is necessary that a free sandy soil 
be used, and that the pots be well drained, also that the pots 
are clean. The cuttings should be made of a moderate length 
only, and should be cut close below a leaf, with a sharp, 
smooth -edged knife. The cut should not be slanting, but 
should be directly across the stem, so that the smallest possible 
wound is made — with the exception of cuttings made from 
deciduous shrubs in winter. With soft-wooded plants of a 
sappy nature, it is advisable that a few hours should elapse 
between the making and inserting of the cuttings; but with 

Cultural Directions. 59 

such things as fuchsias, verbenas, and other plants of a like 
habit that have to be struck in bottom heat, the fresher the 
cutting is the quicker will it root — at least, such is our expe- 
rience. The soil in which cuttings (with the exception of 
succulents) are inserted should be fairly moist, or in a good 
state for ordinary potting, and on the top of the soil a half - 
inch of sharp, dry, silver sand should be placed, which, as 
the dibble is removed and the cutting inserted, fills the space 
between the cutting and the soil, and so tends to cause a more 
certain result. After the cuttings are inserted it is a good 
plan to water the pots to settle the soil around them, and 
after that the watering must depend on the requirements of 
the plants, as no fixed i-ules can be made on these points, the 
amount of water required wholly depending on circumstances 
over which the grower alone has control. 

As to the varieties and species of plants to be raised in 
heat, these can only be ascertained by practice, as some persons 
can raise plants best in heat, while others do this better in 
the ordinary house, and hints on the subject are given with 
the ordinary cultural directions in the "Dictionary of Plants." 
In all cases with hard-wooded subjects, it is better to purchase 
young plants from a nursery. 

Layering consists of pegging a shoot or shoots of the subject 
to be increased into a pot of soil, or into the borders out doors, 
as the case may require, first making a slit in the under side 
of the shoot. 

Runners of plants should be pegged down on the surface 
of a pot of soil, and when well rooted the connection with the 
parent plant can be separated. For this purpose the ordinary 
soil and treatment aiforded to the parent plant are all that is 
necessary, except that the supply of moisture must be carefully 
looked to, so that the young plants are not rotted by an undue 

Offsets and divisions of the plants, as a rule, are very simple, 
the plants thus obtained being treated in the same manner as the 
old plants, with the exception of not being allowed to bloom, 
and more attention being paid to watering, &c. 

Striking cuttings in water and similar devices we do not 

6o Greenhouse Managemetit for Amateurs. 

hold witli; still tliey are at times practised with more or 
less success ; but, as a rule, the young plants thus obtained 
do very poorly, as the roots are very fragile, and get much 
damaged in potting oif. We would rather lose half the cuttings 
in the ordinary methods of propagation than strike the cuttings 
in water and have such enfeebled plants as to be of no service 
when groTNTi. In no case is it at all advisable to use methods 
that tend to weaken the plants, as from experience we find 
that amateui'S generally have enough trouble with the most 
robust and healthy subjects, leaving out those which are 
rendered difficult of culture by unfair propagation. 

The temperature in which cuttings emit roots varies, but 
for general purposes a temperature of about 60deg. will be found 
the most useful, unless, indeed, bottom heat is required, and 
then from 65deg. to Sodeg., according to the subjects, will be 
found desirable. Care must always be taken that too great a 
heat, or too moist an atmosphere, is not m-aintained, or the 
results will not be of the most satisfactory kind. Of course, 
with stove subjects that luxuriate in a moist heat, the condi- 
tions under which the cuttings are struck must be somewhat 
similar to that in which the plants grow, but with the ordinary 
stock of the greenhouse great heat and moisture are quite 
unnecessary, so far as good work is concerned. 

It is useless to attempt to strike plants of the ordinary 
character in an arid atmosphere, as they rarely succeed; and 
if — as should be the case — the foliage is left on the cuttings, 
the undue evaporation set up by such a method will cause both 
foliage and stem to shrivel, and so prevent the attainment of 
the end desired. 

So soon as any kind of cuttings are well rooted, it is generally 
desirable that they should be potted off, and this operation 
should be carefully done, or the roots will be damaged, and, in 
some cases, wholly destroyed, which, of coui'se, means the 
partial or complete destruction of the plants ; in fact, the 
loss of part of the roots at this period of the plant's existence is 
felt for a long period aftei*wards, and with slow-rooting plants 
it frequently causes failure. Too great care cannot possibly 
be taken to keep the roots intact if real success is desired. 

Cultural Directio7is, 


Where plants are rooted in heat, the soil used for re-potting 
should be of the same temperatui-e as that from which the 
plants are taken, and the plants should be replaced in heat 
for a few days until the roots have taken hold of the new soil, or 
the chill given consequent on the change to a cooler temperature 
will almost inevitably cause a severe check, from which it is 
possible they may not recover until too late. All plants raised 
in heat should be gradually hardened off, so that all checks are 


v.-(JuLTURAL Directions. 

"^ Annuals — Raising Seeds 

f^ N the decoration of either greenhouse 
or conservatory, whether heated or 
not, annuals form most important 
decorative subjects, and as some of 
these are of a particularly flori- 
ferous nature, they make a vast 
display amongst plants that are 
quite devoid of bloom, leaving out 
of the question the advantage they 
have when mixed with other bloom- 
ing plants. A few hardy annuals 
in pots come in very handily early 
in the season, particularly Nemo- 
pliila insignis and Collinsia bicolor, 
both of which are very easy to grow, and are also very effective. 
We have found that in a cold house hardy annuals form a very 
important feature, and plants grown as we shall hereafter describe 
answer every expectation, and more than repay any trouble taken 
with them. The chief point with annuals is to obtain plants that 
are fully developed, and to gain this, as long a season of growth 
as possible must be accorded them. AVhether we take green- 
house annuals proper, or hardy annuals, great care must be 

Dictionary of Plants. 63 

reddish pink blooms, and is tlie more floriferous. A. triflora 
does not produce its red flowers so freely as tlie other, and is not 
so well suited to house culture, but still at times it is very useful 
as a change. 

Abutilon. — Greenhouse hard-wooded plant ; grown for 
foliage and flowers. Minimum temperature, 36deg. This is a 
class of plants which, if well grown, are very beautiful, and 
deserve a place in every collection, and more particularly where 
heat can be given in the winter, as they will bloom well at that 
time. The Abutilons are erect-growing plants, with foliage 
somewhat resembling maple leaves, and bear rather bell-shaped 
axillary flowers. They attain a height of from 3ft. to 5ft., but 
should be kept down by pruning. Some varieties have varie- 
gated foliage. As a rule, the plants will bear much hardship; 
but while such may be the case with many of the varieties, there 
are some which will not stand harsh treatment. In all classes of 
work with these plants, the object should be to get hardy and 
sturdy growth, but unnecessary time should not be wasted in the 
process. For general treatment, the following will be found to 
work in well where there is a mixed collection of plants, but of 
course for special purposes some slight alterations will be 
needed. For soil use rather sandy loam, enriched with about a 
sixth part of well decayed manure, and pot fairly hard, but not 
sufficiently so as to cause the soil to become sour and so unsuited 
to proper plant growth. When planted out as wall or pillar 
plants, the same soil should be used, and good drainage 
provided, because sturdy, well-ripened wood produces the best 
and largest amount of flowers. Plant out in a comparatively 
small state, and by judicious training and pruning, the plants 
will soon furnish a large space well and effectively. In pot 
work the plants should be had in a small state — that is, in 
4in. pots, and should be pruned into such a shape as will 
cause them to form a handsomely shaped bush, the pruning 
being done when growth is dormant. When growth has made 
a fair start pot on into 6in. pots, and keep in a light position, 
eo that the plants are not crowded by other subjects. In July 
and August they can be stood out of doors, if necessary. 

64 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

and in September again brouglit into tlie house, where tliey can, 
if the house is warm enough, be kept in good form till Christ- 
mas or later, and in a stove-house temperature through the 
winter, but this part of the work is outside our present purpose. 
"When the plants are again dormant they can be again repotted, 
and treated as before, and fi*esh stock can always be kept 
growing on to take the place of that which becomes too large for 
the place. With A. Thompsoni a different plan can be pui-sued 
and the following will be useful where room can be spared, and 
will give a good stock of useful stuff for decorative purposes, 
where a winter temperature of about SOdeg. can be kept up. 
Strike a batch of cuttings in heat early in the season, and pot 
off early into small pots. In June make up a rich bed out of 
doors, and plant out the young plants about eighteen inches 
apart. About once a fortnight cut round the roots with a 
garden trowel about three inches from the stem, to prevent 
them running away. Water when needed, and stop back the 
shoots two or three times to get good bushy plants. Early 
in September pot up into pots just large enough to hold the 
roots, and for the greater part of the winter they will make a 
really good display. 

Abutilons are best propagated by means of cuttings struck in 
heat, using good sandy loam for a rooting medium. When 
rooted, pot off the cuttings into small pots, and when the roots 
kiss the sides of the pots stop the plants back to cause bushy 
growth. When young growth starts repot into 4in. pots, and 
afterwards treat as before described. 

Good varieties are A. striatum, A, Fattersoni, A. Verschaffelti, 
A. vexillarium, A. Boule de Neige, A. Thompsoni, and A. vexil- 
larium variegatum. 

Acacia. — Greenhouse hard-wooded plant; grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 36deg. -Acacias afford some 
of the most beautiful shades of yellow, and as they are early 
they combine with the first azaleas, and help to produce an 
effect that is unattainable without them. The bright tassels 
of yellow bloom inserted at the base of the leaf stalks 
and the dark foliage form a beautiful contrast, and is, in our 

Dictionary of Plants. 65 

opinion, more e:ffective in securing admiration than the more 
gaudy cytisus. Of course, the cytisus is an invaluable aid in 
arranging a large show, and one or two plants are useful, but 
the preference should rather be given to the different Acacias 
than to the last-named plant. The Armata section form dense 
bushes of dark foliage and stems from 1ft. to 5ft. high, and 
are much branched, while the taller growing kinds, such as 
A. dealhata, make a less branched growth, and bear more or 
less finely-divided leaves, like the Rose Acacia of the outdoor 
gardens, but have tassels like axillary flowers, instead of 
papilionaceous ones, as with the Rose Acacia {Robinia). The 
Acacias we are now referring to are not the common Acacias 
of the garden (Robinia pseudo-acacia), but Acacias proper, none 
of which are really hardy. There are several varieties of this 
family in nse in our English gardens at the present time, the 
•commonest of all being, perhaps, A. armata, a variety that 
has small globular tassels of bloom at the axils of the leaves. 
This variety is frequently seen in markets and on the coster- 
mongers' barrows, and ranges in price from Is. Gd. to 5s. for 
plants fit for an amateur, while for large plants the price 
varies from 10s. to £5. The majority of growers have the 
plants very ugly, but it is really very little trouble to train 
Acacias into shape, if the training is commenced when the 
plants are young, but if they are allowed to get old and hard 
stemmed, then little hope can be held out on the subject of 
shapely plants, the wood being so very brittle. Some of these 
are also useful for pillars and trellises, the best for the pur- 
poses being A. dealhata, A. longifolia magnifica, A. lopliantlia, 
A. pubescens, and A. verticillata. 

In training, the first thing is to determine what form the 
plants have to assume, and when this is settled satisfactorily, 
the necessary work of forming the base or frame of the plants 
must be proceeded with. The framework of these subjects must 
be formed or built up as the plant grows, for it is not often that 
sufficient bottom growth can be obtained after the plant has 
made a head. The size and height must, of course, depend on 
the size of the house, but for general use we find pyramids 
about 30in. high to be most suitable. Standards are also very 


66 Greenhouse Majiagement for Amateurs. 

useful, and may be somewliat liiglier tlian other shajDes, but 
with them it is advisable to have conical heads, as it sets off the 
bloom to greater advantage. The great point to be aimed at in 
training Acacias is to have a central stem, and to build up the 
framework of the plant while it is still pliable and young. ' 

Our plan of cultivation with all free growing plants is to 
obtain good, sturdy, and at the same time free growth, to obtain 
it as early in the season as is consistent with safety, and to 
harden ofE and ripen the wood perfectly before the wet cold 
weather sets in. To get these results as much of the growth 
as possible should be made in the frames (in the case of nearly 
hardy plants like Acacias), and, if possible, the plants should 
have a structure to themselves, but, of course, this is not 
generally obtainable, and, therefore, the lightest and driest part 
of the house should be set apart for them. 

For soil for Acacias use equal parts of maiden loam and 
sandy peat, with enough sharp sand to keep the compost open. 
Manure in no form enters into our compost, as we consider that 
it tends to miake the young wood too soft and sappy, but it is 
often recommended by some gardeners as a part of the compost. 

For amateur use, the best method of propagation is by means 
of seeds. Sow in pots or pans of well-di-ained sandy loam, and 
place on a gentle bottom heat, or if such is not at hand, in the 
greenhouse. If the seed is sown in spring, and the plants are 
potted on during the summer, they will make good plants the 
second year. A. armata and similar kinds are best purchased, 
however, as they are cheap, and a lot of trouble is saved. 

There are about twenty sorts or varieties of Acacia, all of 
which are useful and of easy culture. We have found the 
following to be amongst the best : A. afinis, A. armata, A. 
coccinea, A. dealhata, A. eriocarpa, A. lophantha, A. pithescens, 
and A. verticillata, all of which are not yellow. 

Acers. — Hardy hard-wooded plant; grown for foliage^ 
Minimum temperature, 28deg. Acers are a class of a highly 
decorative order, and may with advantage be represented in 
nearly all collections of fine foliage plants. They are free- 
growing and moderately-branched trees, bearing leaves with 

Dictionary of Plants. 67 

from three to five lobes, and tlie foliage in tlie kinds named 
is very ornamental. Tlie size of the specimens for greenhouse 
■work is regulated by pruning, but they are best when from 2ft. 
to 5ft. in height. The flowers, when borne, are valueless from 
a decorative point of view. 

This class of plant is very effective on stems, as standards 
or half standards, and in these forms give a more finished 
appearance to a high structure than it would otherwise have. 
Of course, the larger the tree the larger the house required, and 
this must be borne in mind when purchasing. 

We have grown these plants in rather rich loam and sand, 
with just a little manure, and they did thoroughly well, the 
variegated foliage coming very finely in this soil. Pruning 
must be done in spring, before the growth commences, and 
the last year's shoots should be reduced to three or four eyes. 
This causes an abundance of young shoots that are well 
furnished. We do not advise too early pruning, as wet will 
sometimes cause the shoots to die back, as they are not of 
solid construction. 

All kinds of Maples ( J.cer) of the choicer kinds are grafted on 
stocks of the commoner kinds, a process which is beyond the 
reach of any but skilled operatives. Small plants should be 
obtained at a good nursery, because not one amateur in a 
hundred could do more than spoil the stocks on account of the 
peculiar nature of the scions. 

Amongst those sorts that may be tenned the best are A. 
albophylla viride reticulata, A. atropurpurea, A. pahnatum, and 
A. polymorphum variegatum. 

Agapanthus. — Semi-hardy bulbous plant ; grown for flower 
and general effect. Minimum temperature, 30deg. This is a 
very old-fashioned plant, but at the same time its magnificent 
heads of bloom render it a fit associate for the choicest plants. 
The plant forms a large mass of flag-like leaves, about 2ft. high, 
and the umbels of bloom are borne on strong footstalks well 
above the foliage, the flowers being large and in great number in 
each umbel. The flowers are blue (or white in alhiflora), and are 
borne on stout footstalks, and vary from fifteen to twenty-five 

68 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

in number, forming a magnificent liead of bloom. There is also 
a variety witb striped leaves, but this we do not consider an 
advantage, except when the plant is out of bloom. All offsets 
must be kept removed during the growth, or the plants soon 
become weak, and give but few blooms. These offsets should 
be potted into small pots, and placed in a little bottom heat, 
when they will root freely, and if treated in the same manner 
as the old plants will make good blooming specimens. The soil 
we use is one-half sandy loam and one-half thoroughly rotted 
manure, with sufficient sand to keep the whole of a proper 
porosity ; the pots being filled one-third full of crocks to insure 
proper drainage. Pot the plants about March, and place in a 
greenhouse or on a gentle bottom heat, and each time the pots 
are filled with roots, repot into a size larger until sixteen or 
twelve sized pots are reached, in which they should bloom. 
During the whole of the growing season give abundance of 
water, but this should be nearly discontinued during the season 
of rest. As soon as the bloom is over place the plants out of 
doors until autumn, when they should be removed into dry 
cold frames or pits for the winter. In spring remove all dead 
fibres and exhausted soil, and treat as before. "With established 
plants it is an advantage to raise some in a pit as well as in a 
greenhouse, as the season is prolonged by this means. 

Propagation by division of the bulbs, or, more properly, 
offsets when the plants are at rest. Treat as described for 
the old plants. 

Four sorts, A. umbellatus, blue, A. u. maxima, blue, A. u. 
■variegata, blue, variegated striped foliage, and A. u. albifiora, 
white, are the sorts mostly catalogued, and are all good. 

Agave. — Succulent gi-eenhouse plant ; grown for its foliage. 
Minimum temperature, 40deg. These plants, Aloes as they are 
generally termed, are of easy cultui*e, and need only an annual 
potting to keep them In good health. We prefer repotting in 
April or May, using well-drained pots, and for soil, a compost 
of about equal paiiis good yellow loam and pulverised mortar 
rubbish, potting very firmly. During the season of growth a 
good supply of water is needed, but beyond preventing the 


70 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

foliage from shrivelling, no water is required during the season 
of rest. Great care should be taken to prevent the foliage 
being scratched or damaged, and unless this is done they 
become unsightly. 

Propagation is effected by taking off the offsets, which are 
produced pretty freely round the collar of the main pIPvnts, 
and striking in sandy soil, preferably with a little bottom 

Good kinds for our present purpose are Agave Americana (see 
Fig. 22) variegata, A. applanata, A. Verschaffelti and A. univittata. 

Ageratum. — Greenhouse soft-wooded plant; grown for its 
flowers, and for bedding purposes. Minimum temperature, 
40deg. Ageratums, which are somewhat extensively used for 
bedding purposes, are also very useful for the conservatory if 
well grown. They are rather hairy-foliaged j)lants, ranging 
from 9in. to 2ft. in height, and bearing terminal clusters of 
cushion-shaped flowers, which are of varying shades of blue, 
and, in some varieties, white ; in habit, they are somewhat like 
the calceolaria. Whether the dwarf or tall sorts are chosen, 
they come in useful, although, in our opinion, the larger sorts 
are best for the cool conservatory, and the more dwarf kinds for 
outdoor work. The culture is very easy, and within the reach 
of everyone who has a hot bed on which to raise the seed, 
for although Ageratums can be raised from cuttings, the same 
as other bedding plants, they are done easiest from seeds. "We 
sow the seeds in January, in heat, on sandy soil, barely covering 
the seeds, and as soon as the young plants are large enough, 
we prick them off into thumb pots, and place in heat till they 
grow freely, and then they are brought into the warmest part 
of the greenhouse. Those for bedding we rarely repot, but 
those for indoors we shift as the present pots are full of roots, 
and keep on shifting until the end of June, when the pots used 
are lOin. or 12in. "When these pots are full of roots, the plants 
are watered with liquid manure twice a week, and they soon 
bloom well, and make fine specimens. During the whole of 
the hot weather the plants are well syi'inged with cold water 
daily, to keep down red spider, and after July they are kept 

Dictionary of Plants. 71 

m a cold frame until wanted indoors, but those for beddine 
purposes are put out in tbe end of June. 

Propagated from seeds as described above, and from cuttings 
struck in bottom heat in spring. "We, however, prefer seeds, 
as they come fairly true to name and are far less trouble than 

For sorts we use the old tall form of A. Mexicanum, which 
varies from azure to greyish blue, and the white A. Imperial 
Dwarf, and for bedding the latter named variety, A. Imperial 
Dwarf (blue), and A. Tom Thumb (blue), both indoors and out, 
but particularly in warm situations in the country. It is also 
very useful in a warm light house for cut blooms, from Christmas 
till April, but it must be kept clear of insects. 

Alonsoa. — Half hardy annuals ; grown for flowers and 
general apj^earance. Minimum temperature, 45deg., or for 
winter work, 55deg. These are showy plants, useful alike for 
indoor use, or summer decoration outdoors. The culture is very 
simple, being in fact the same as that for the ordinary stock of 
the greenhouse. Some of the varieties will bloom nearly the 
whole year round. They require a good rich light soil, similar 
to that which is used for several other plants, and as the plants 
go out of bloom they should be cut down, and they will bloom 
again in six weeks or two months. 

A. incisifolia, scarlet, and A. Warsceiviczii, deep orange, 
with black centre, are two of the best for the purjiose in hand. 

Propagated from seeds sown in March or April in gentle 
heat. Although really annuals, they will, like many other 
subjects, last several years as perennials, and be treated as such 
at pleasure. 

The following are good kinds : A. Warscewiczii compacta, 
scarlet ; A. Warscewiczii, deep orange ; A. linifolia, scarlet ; A. 
incisifolia, scarlet ; and A. myrtifolia, scarlet. 

Aloysia. — Greenhouse semi-hard-wooded plant ; grown for 
its finely scented foliage. Minimum temperature when at rest, 
30deg. Alo2jsia citriodora is a shrub that should never be 
omitted from a collection of plants, as its perfume is so fine, and 

72 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

the appearance is so graceful, if the plant is -well grown. 
Large plants are not as a rule desirable, but if room exists, 
they may be had on pillars, or trellises against walls. It 
bears long ovate lanceolate leaves of about 2in. in length in 
well-grown specimens, and the habit of growth is erect, and 
sparsely bushy in the current year's wood. It makes a bushy 
shrub, from 18in. to 3ft. liigh, according to age, and will bear 
pruning well. The flowers are of small value for decorative 
purposes. The first j)oint in growing the Aloysia, or, as it is 
more generally termed, Lemon Yerbena, is to afford generous 
treatment, instead of adopting the stai*vation system that is 
so much the practice. The best plan is to obtain well-grown 
thrifty young plants in spring, and grow them on for the 
season. As the wood ripens give less water until they are at 
rest, when the water must be nearly, if not quite, withheld. 
About the end of January bring into the light and warmth, 
and water thoroughly ; as soon as the plants break, cut back 
to three or four eyes, and when the young shoots are about an 
inch long, re-pot into rich sandy soil, using pots a size or two 
smaller than they were in before, and as soon as the pots are 
full of roots re-pot into the pots that are to hold the plants 
for the season. By this mode of culture good specimens can 
be maintained for any length of time. It is almost useless to 
think of keej)ing this plant in an evergreen state, as it soon 
deteriorates if this is attempted. 

Mr. J. Groom, of Henham Hall, writing to the Garden of 
Sept. 11th, 1875, says ' " This little shrub, favourite though it 
be, is seldom seen in good condition. When confined in a pot 
it has generally a sickly aspect, but when planted out it becomes 
a large bush, or forms a handsome pillar plant. In the kitchen 
garden here, against a south wall, I have two plants of it that 
are 10ft. in height, and at least 3yds. in width, and the 
quantity of spray they yield for mixing with cut flowers is 
surprising. The only care which they require is protection 
from frost in winter, and to effect this they are generally 
unnailed in November ; the branches are then tied into 
bundles and enveloped thickly in hay bands. Upon these is 
also put an outer covering of straw, which keeps all dry, their 

Dicti07iary of Plants. 73 

base being covered with, coal ashes. When all danger from 
frost is over in spring the cover is removed, the branches are 
spread out, and as soon as growth commences all dead wood is 
removed, the main branches being re-fastened to the wall. 
They require no summer training, their young growth being 
continually cut off for the many purposes of decoration to 
which they are applied, and to which they are so well 

We can fully indorse Mr. Groom's statement, and besides out- 
door work as he describes, the " Lemon Plant " is very useful 
in cold houses, where frost is only just excluded, provided they 
are planted out in the borders. We can with pleasure recall to 
memory a house where camellias were grown, and where a few 
plants of Aloysia were in the borders, and they throve won- 
derfully, and were the admiration of all visitors. We may add 
that they are very easy to grow, and on no account should be 
omitted from any collection. 

Propagation is effected by cuttings inserted in bottom heat, 
or by means of the small plants which, are formed on the 
exposed roots at the base of the main stems. As, however, only 
a very few plants are desirable, it is the better plan to purchase 
them in a small state, as they are not very expensive. 

Amaryllis. — Greenhouse bulbous plants ; grown for their 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 45deg. This is a class of 
bulbous plants that is well worthy of cultivation in every 
collection, and although there may be some little trouble in 
growing them to perfection, they yet repay for all care 
bestowed on them. Like many other things, they have had 
their rise and fall, and although rather more in fashion than 
they were a short time back, they are not so much, cultivated 
as they should be. Some of the varieties are evergreen, and 
others deciduous, and although, the former require to be kept 
in a drier state during the season of rest, they must not be 
kept so dry as the deciduous kinds. The plants have flag-like 
leaves, and these are from 1ft. to 18in. in length, the flowers 
being borne on a stout footstalk, which rises well above the 
foliage. The flowers are large and handsome, and in some 

74 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs, 

kinds they are from 2iin. to 3Mn. in diameter, and several are 
borne on each, footstalk ; the petals are recurved. The soil 
should be good sound fibrous loam, to which enough sand has 
been added to preserve the natural porosity, and to prevent 
the pots becoming waterlogged from the liberal apjplication 
so necessary during their season of growth. Give plenty of 
drainage, and not too much root space — although it is not 
advisable to contract the roots too much — and good spikes of 
bloom will be produced. A temperature of not less than 45deg. 
is necessary in winter, and about 70deg. in the growing season. 
The deciduous kinds should be dried off in winter, while the 
evergreen kinds should have a diminished supply of water only. 

Propagation is effected by division of the offsets or small 
bulbs while the plants are at rest. When in the new small pots 
and started into growth, treat the same as the old plants. 

For sorts select from the following, which are all good : A. 
Achermanii, A. aulica, A. a. superba, A. Amazon, A. Brilliant, 
A. calyptrata, A. Cleopatra, A. conspicua, A. crocea grandifiora, 
A. delicata, A. Diadem, A. Eclipse, A. Edith, A. Excellent, A. 
falcata, A. Johnsonii, A. J. psittacina, A. longifolia, A. pardina, 
A. Prince of Orange, A. regina, A. vittata, A. Yivid, and A. 
William Pitt. It must, however, be borne in mind that 
amaryllis require a warm greenhouse to do them at all well, 
and it is quite useless to attempt their culture in a cold green- 
house where the frost is only just kept out, as in such a house 
the bulbs rot away. 

Amygdalus. — Hardy tree ; grown for its flowers. Lowest 
temperature for ]Dot specimens, 28deg. Almonds are very 
pleasing subjects if obtained in a small pyramidal shape, and, 
from their great beauty when in bloom, they form most appro- 
priate subjects for the decoration of a medium-sized house. 
They are, however, not suited to a small place, as the plants, to 
bloom well and be effective, should be at least two or three 
feet high, and, of course, wide in proportion. A pot should be 
chosen that will hold the roots comfortably, and the tree 
should be carefully potted, using soil that will work freely and 
run into the interstices amongst the roots. After potting, water 

Dictionary of Plants. 75 

thorouglily, and place the trees in a cold vinery or frame for 
a few weeks, when they can be removed to the place they are to 
occupy. We have premised that the tree has been prepared 
in the open ground in a nursery, and if such is the case if there 
are plenty of good fibrous roots, there is no reason why the trees 
should not bloom well the first year. A temperature of about 
50deg. or 55deg. is amply sufficient to bring the plants into 
bloom, and indeed a higher temperature is apt to frustrate the 
object in view. Successional plants can be brought in from 
time to time, as the bloom does not last very long. After 
blooming the plants should be gradually hardened off until 
about the end of May, when they should be plunged out of 
doors for the season. Repotting should be done as soon as 
the leaves fall. 

Propagation is effected by grafting on the common plum 
stock, and generally is beyond the reach of the amateur. 

The best varieties of Amygdalus for our present purpose are 
A. Persica jlore-jpleno, double pink ; A. P. fl. ])l. alba, double 
white; A. P. caryojphyUoides, double carnation striped, and 
A. P rubra, double crimson. 

Anagallis. — Soft-wooded plant , grown for its flowers and 
general appearance Minimum temperature, 35deg. This is 
a somewhat old-fashioned dwai-f trailing or semi-trailing plant, 
very useful for baskets, vases, and pot work, bearing a showy 
and large amount of flowers, and being well adapted for general 
cultivation. The blossoms are produced in great profusion, 
and the plants are useful for both in and out-door work. The 
treatment is easy in the extreme, as the plants will do in any 
well-drained ordinary soil, all that is necessary being to pot 
on till 4in. pots are reached, or to divide and re-pot in spring 
as the case may be Practically the treatment is similar to 
that of the ordinary stock of soft-wooded plants, and therefore 
needs no farther description. 

In the hands of the amateur, propagation is best effected by 
means of seeds sown in spring in a warm greenhouse or frame 
and then potted on, as the diff'erent varieties come true to name 
from seeds. 

76 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Some good varieties are : Anagallis grandifiora Br ewer ii, blue ; 
A. g. Garibaldi, vermilion; A. g. Memoria deV Etna, bright red; 
A. g. Parhsii, rose; A. g. Philipsii, blue; and A. g. Trionfo di 
Firenze, pale blue. 

Aniseed Tree. — See " Illicium." 

Fig. 23.— Anthericum Liliastrum. 

Authericum. — Hardy bulbous plant; grown for its flowers. 
Minimum temperature, 30deg. Antbericums are useful for 
cold bouses, and as tbeir culture is simple and tbe price 
moderate, tbey come within the reach of all. For soil use a 
compost of fibrous loam and coarse sand, enriched with a little 
thoroughly decomposed leaf soil, allowing plenty of drainage 
to the pots. The pots should be comparatively large, but if 

Dictionary of Pla^its. 77 

they can be liad of a deep pattern, it is far better tban a wide 
one. The number of roots to be grown must depend on the 
size of the pots and on the size of the specimens required ; 
but about three make a very good potful. Re-pot as soon as 
growth commences, and keep watered as advised for lilies. 
After blooming remove the pots to a bed of coal ashes and 
supply with water until the plants are ripe. Keep from frost 
and introduce to the house as required. A gentle warmth will 
hasten the blooms a little, but if forcing is attempted but poor 
results will be obtained. 

Propagation is effected by division of the bulbs when at rest, 
as like lilies they break up into several new bulbs from time 
to time. After re-potting treat as above directed, or the 
smaller bulbs can be planted out doors to gain size. 

A. LUiago (St. Bernard's Lily), white ; A. Liliastrum (St. 
Bruno's Lily), white (see Fig. 23) ; and A. graniinifolium, white, 
are all good and repay the trouble^bestowed on them. 

Aralia. — Greenhouse hard-wooded plant ; grown for its 
foliage. Minimum temperature, 45deg. This is a family of 
ornamental foliage plants, and as such is worthy of a place 
where good-sized specimens can be used. Small plants of 
Aralia are not desirable, as they do not show the full beauty 
of the plant, and it is also not desirable to have big specimens 
of these large foliage subjects, and therefore means must be 
taken to restrict their growth to the proper proportions, not 
by ill treatment, but by using a moderately poor soil, and very 
firm potting. This we have found to answer very well, and 
by having young plants every three or four years, nice speci- 
mens can be kept. For soil good maiden loam, and enough sand 
to keep it open, will be found to answer well, provided the 
plants are potted firmly enough. 

Propagation is effected by striking cuttings of young wood 
taken olf with a heel of old wood attached, or half ripened 
wood in the same way as fuchsias. A good plan is to use 
gentle bottom heat, and get into small pots as soon as rooted. 
Too extended a root run is not needed for young plants, as 
they are liable to rot off at the collar when over-potted. 


Dictionary of Plants. 79 

For sorts we prefer A. le'pto^liijUa, A. Sieholdi (see Fig, 24), 
A. Sieholdi argentea variegata, and A. Sieholdi aurea variegata. 
The last three are perhaps the best for an amateur's use. 

Araucaria. — Greenhouse hard-wooded tree ; grown for foli- 
age and general effect. Minimum temperature, 45deg. Like 
the Aralias, these are valuable for their habit of growth and 
graceful appearance, and not for any flowering properties. 
They are useful where large houses have to be filled, and in 
such situations are unequalled for effect by any other plants of 
the same habit ; but they cannot be shown oft* to good advantage 
in a small house. Xearly everyone knows the A. imhricata, 
or Chilian monkey puzzle of gardens, and no doubt has 
admired it greatly on account of its fine foliage and unique 
form. When we say foliage, it must be remembered that these 
plants belong to the pine tribes, and do not bear leaves in the 
same way as apples or other trees, but, on the contrary, their 
leaves are more like those of firs, pines, &c. The greenhouse 
kinds are somewhat of the form of a silver fir, but with a much 
more elegant appearance, and have a good effect, whether used 
as small specimens, or as fair-sized plants about 3ft. or 4ft. 
high. They are, however, best suited to large conservatories. 

We have found a mixture of equal parts of maiden and 
yellow loam, with a little sandy peat, do well for these plants ^ 
and keep them healthy ; but they must not be overpotted. 

Propagation is by seeds raised in a strong bottom heat, and 
as a rule is beyond the means of amateurs. Well grown plants 
should therefore be purchased. 

A. excelsa and A. Bidivilli are very good for oui* purpose, aa 
are also A. Cooici and A. Cunninghami. 

Arum. — Hardy bulbous plants; grown for both flowers and 
foliage. Minimum temperature, 30deg. Some of these pay well 
in the cold house, and the treatment bestowed is so nearly 
similar to that required for Calla ^thiopica, that a detailed 
description is not necessary. They all bear a likeness to the 
calla, and vary in height from 1ft. to 2^it., but while the form 
of the spathe is the same as that of the plant just mentioned,. 


Dictiona?y of Plants. 8i 

the form of tlie foliage is in some cases quite distinct. The 
roots must not become frozen, nor yet soddened witli water 
during the season of rest, although it is not advisable that the 
soil In the pots should become dust dry. During the season 
of growth liberal supplies of water must be given, and due 
care must be taken that the plants are not drawn up spindly. 
The curious spathes are of various colours, brown, yellow, and 
white being the chief, and the plants are certainly a change 
on the ordinary subjects one so often sees. A house is not 
really necessary for the plants, as a cold frame answers as well. 

Propagation Is the same as with Calla Mtliio'pica. 

We have used the following for the present purpose : A. alhi- 
spathum, brown ; A. cornutum, yellow ; A. crinitum (see Fig. 25), 
brown; A. Italicum, pale yellow; and A. maculatum, white. 

Asparagus. — Greenhouse soft-wooded herbaceous plant ; 
grown for its foliage. Minimum temperature, 40deg. This is a 
plant that is very useful, on account of its fine feathery spray, 
which works in well for bouquets and other floral decorations. 
In the house It can be trained against arches, &c., and has a 
very light appearance. The culture is very simple ; a large pot 
filled one-third with crocks, and then to within an inch of the 
top with rich, moderately light soil, being all that is required if 
liberal waterings and plenty of air be given. The bright pea- 
shaped hemes, or the insignificant blooms, are of far less iise 
than the spray, which is very fine and chaste, and the plant 
has a fine, feathery, and light appearance, quite distinct from 
all other greenhouse plants. As a useful plant for cut spray 
this stands pre-eminent. 

Propagated from seeds sown on a gentle bottom heat in 
spring. Seeds can only be had of a good nurseryman, as they 
are not usually quoted in trade catalogues. It is, however, 
well to start with a plant or two purchased at a nursery, and 
then, with good luck and care, a good stock of plants can 
be had. 

Good kinds are Asparagus decumhens, A. racemosus and 
A. plumosus nanus, which last is, however, expensive, costing 
from 15s. to 21s, each. 

82 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Aspidistra. — Greenliouse soft-wooded herbaceoiis plant ;. 
'grown for foliage only. Minimum temperature, 40deg. From 
their handsome appearance and general indifference to hard- 
ships in the way of gas and dust, these plants are very desirable 
for both greenhouse and room decoration. They have hand- 
some flag-like foliage which, in the variegated form, is striped 
with creamy white, and if kept clean this variety is very 
pleasing. The blooms are not, however, of any decorative 
value. The culture is very simple, as the plants do well in 
almost any soil, but we prefer to have them in well-drained 
pots of loam, or loam and peat. "When at rest they should 
not be overwatered, but when growing freely plenty of water 
is necessary; in no case should they be overpotted. 

Propagation is effected by division, and sometimes a little 
bottom heat is needed to make the young plants start freely. 

The best kinds are Asjpidistra lurida, and its variegated form, 
A. lurida variegata. 

Asters. — Half hardy annuals ; grown for their flowers. 
Minimum temperature, 45deg. These are much esteemed for 
conservatory decoration when in pots, but our advice is, " Don't 
grow pot Asters in the pots; grow them in the open garden."" 
We have seen them grown, and grown them in pots oui-selves, 
and never have we come across such good specimens as those 
from the open garden. A bed of fairly rich good soil should 
be prepared in the kitchen garden, taking care that it is free 
from wireworms, and also that it is deeply dug. The seeds of 
aster should be raised in a cold frame in March or April, and 
when large enough, transplanted into the beds about 18in. 
asunder each way. Attention in the way of weeding, waterings 
&c., must be afforded, and when the first bloom opens, the 
plant should be carefully taken ujd with a good ball of earth 
adhering, and transferred to a pot sufficiently large to hold 
the roots comfortably. The whole of the plants should be 
served in the same manner as they become ready, and as soon 
as they are potted they should be removed to a frame facing 
the north, and kept shaded from sun, and should also receive 
liberal supplies of moisture. In from three days to a week 

Dictionary of Plants. 


after potting tliey can be taken to the place they are to occupy. 
We leave the choice of sorts to the intending grower, but 
perhaps the pyramidal varieties are best. A reference to any 
catalogue will give a wide selection of colours and varieties. 
Propagated by seeds only. 

Fio. 26. 
Truffatjt's Pxkfection Aster. 

Fig. 27. 
p^ont-flowered aster. 

Gdod sorts are Pseony-flowered (see Fig. 27), dwarf-chrysanthe- 
mum-flowered, dwarf bouquet, and Betteridge's named varieties. 

Astilbe. — See " Spiraea." 

Aucuba. — Hardy shrub; grown for its berries and foliage. 
Minimum temperature, 30deg. These plants, although not 
really greenhouse plants, make a great show when well covered 
with berries, and, as the foliage is pretty, they are worth any - 
one's notice. In the first place, the plants are perfectly 
hardy, and at the same time, of easy culture; and, besides, 
they stand much knocking about, while the price is pretty 
moderate. Plants fit for our present purpose can be had 
from ninepence each, while similar plants, if well berried, 
would cost from half-a-crown. Of course, a male plant is very 
necessary to produce pollen, with which to impregnate the 

G 2 

84 Greenhouse M anagement for Amateurs. 

blooms of tlie female plant, wliicb. alone produces seeds, or, 
more properly, berries. The female plants are variously varie- 
gated, some of them being more beautiful than others, but all 
being noticeable for theii* glossy laurel-like leaves and fresh 
and cheerful appearance, which, on ripeness, is further enhanced 
by the beautiful scarlet of the berries. The bloom is rather 
inconspicuous and, from a floncultural point of view, of no value, 
the beauty of the plant lying in the foliage and berries. The 
male plants have generally green leaves, which, if clean, have 
a bright glossy appearance ; they are, of course, necessary for 
the production of the fruit on the female plants, but one male 
plant produces (if it blooms freely) sufficient pollen for the 
impregnation of bundreds of female blooms. 

The process of fertilising is very interesting, and brings out 
the more delicate skill of the operator. "We say " delicate," as 
it is useless to attempt this kind of work in an off-hand 
manner, and with no more care than is generally exercised in 
cutting a cabbage, or the result will most probably be that 
the greater part of the available pollen will be lost, and the 
crop of berries will be almost nil. The proper mode of opera- 
ting is to collect the pollen from the anthers of the male 
plant with a camel's-hair pencil, and then transfer it to the 
pistils of the female. This requires great delicacy of touch, 
especially as only a very few grains of pollen are necessary 
to each pistU. The time for applying the pollen is when the 
pistil exudes gummy matter, and otherwise shows signs of 
maturity. It, however, often happens that from some unfore- 
seen cause the male blooms are open, and the pollen matured 
before the female blooms are ready. In this case it is well 
to collect the pollen on a dry pencil and transfer to perfectly 
dry sheets of glass, and when all the pollen is obtained, another 
sheet of glass should be laid on that on which the pollen was 
laid, and the whole should be placed in a dry, cool place till 
wanted. P.ollen thus saved and stored will retain its vitality 
for a long time ; in fact, we have used it when seven weeks old, 
and it has given very good results, although not perhaps 
60 good as would have been attained with pollen fresh from 
the plant. 

Dictionary of Plants. 85 

The cultivation is very simple. Pot tlie plants firmly in 
rather sandy yellow loam, allowing plenty of drainage; and 
during the growing season allow plenty of water ; but as soon as 
the growth is over less water will do. During the summer the 
plants can be plunged into tlie borders out of doors, and can be 
brought in again as soon as required to occupy their situations 
in the house. One point we have, however, found of great im- 
portance, and that is, always keep the plants in rather small 
pots, so that the roots may not be allowed to ramble too much, 
and so tend to produce vigorous and unfruitful growth, such 
growth being most undesirable for our present purpose, however 
desirable it may be for outdoor work. Short- jointed hard wood 
is of most value for pot work, as it produces the best bloom, 
while the free growing suckers that spring from the base of the 
plant, as a rule, produce leaves only. 

Propagation is effected by layering, by cuttings inserted in 
cold frames early in November, or in pots of sandy soil in 
January, on a gentle bottom heat. As, however, the plants are 
very reasonable in price, it is doubtful if there is any gain 
in propagating them to the exclusion of more profitable subjects. 

For sorts, we prefer the following, as they have given general 
satisfaction as far as we have had them under our notice. 
There is, however, a difference in the berries, and as half a dozen 
would not be over many in a house, one of each would not be 
too many : A. ^(^'ponica alho variegata, A. japonica arborea vera 
fcemina, A.jajjonica aureo maculata, A.japonica aureo margiyiata, 
A. japonica lati-maculata, A. japonica longifolia, A. japonica 
longifolia variegata elegans, for female varieties; and A.japonica 
angustifolia maculata, A. japonica arborea vera mascula, and A. 
japonica viridis mascula for males. A. japonica viridis fructu-albo 
has round white or cream-coloured ben-ies, and green foliage ; 
v^hile A. jaiJonica luteo-carpahsiS oval yellow berries and leaves 
of a full green, splashed more or less with yellow. The ordi- 
nary aucuba of the garden {A. japonica maculata) is too well 
known to render any detailed description of the other rather 
numerous varieties necessary, as they all are very similar in the 
habit of growth and forai of the foliage, the distinction con- 
sisting chiefly in the variation of the leaves. 

86 Greenhouse Managemeyit for Amateurs. 

Azalea Indica. — Greenlioiise shrub ; grown for flowers and 
general appearance (see Fig. 28). Minimum temperature, 40deg. 
These are one of the mainstays of an amateur's house, and 
should be well represented, so that a continuance of bloom may 
be kept up. We do not wish to imply that the stock of hard- 
wooded plants should be wholly made up of the numerous 
varieties of Azaleas, but still a good proportion should be kept. 
In colour a very great diversity exists, from white to the 
brightest scarlet, salmon, purple, red, rose, orange, yellow, and 
various shades and tints of the different colours ; while at the 
same time variegated flowers are in abundance ; blotched, 
striped, and, in many cases, spotted flowers being produced, 
rendering a collection of Azaleas well worth a visit at any time 
from Chi'istmas till June, and in some places later. It is a good 
plan to have a few plants (say two or three) of a sort, and say, 
five or six sorts, according to the size of the house. Of course, 
we should not advise more than a proper proportion of plants, as 
there are numerous other subjects that afford a fine display of 
differently habited forms, both of growth and blossom, and it 
would be a pity to oust them for the sake of one class of plant — 
many of the plants in question affording blue and yellow 
flowers, an object of much importance in greenhouse fui*- 

The culture of the Azalea is very easy, and, in fact, anyone 
can grow them if a few simple rules are followed In the first 
place, potting claims attention — in fact, the way in which 
the plants are potted has more effect on their blooming capa- 
bilities than the soil in which they are potted. We make it a 
rule to put at least an inch of drainage into 4in. pots, and 2in. 
into 6in. pots and upwards, as we consider this is the first point 
in successful culture. For soil we use three parts sound old 
peat, one part best maiden loam, and one part sand. Using 
the loam is, however, a matter of choice; some persons 
omit it altogether, while others, again, use more than we do. 
But it must be remembered that peat is generally employed for 
all the heath family of which the Azalea is a member, and, there- 
fore, it is necessary to use it in the compost. In repotting, the 
whole of the crocks should be removed from the base of the ball 

Dictionary of Plants, 


of soil and roots, and tlie top should also be removed till tlie fine 
roots are reacted. The plant should then be put in the new pot 
and the soil that is put in should be rammed firm to prevent the 
water running through it, and not wetting the ball of roots 
inside. In all cases the roots next the stem should be above the 
other soil, so that the water may not sink in next the stem, 
or disaster will certainly ensue. After potting, the plants 
should be kept close for a few days, and then may have the full 
benefit of the air. The best time for potting is after the growth 


Fio. 28.— Azalea Indica. 

has been made, as the roots tben elongate, and take hold of the 
new soil. From October till June the plants should be in the 
greenhouse, and the other months in a cold frame, or if that does 
not exist, they should be plunged in the borders out of doors. 
Water will have to be given abundantly through the blooming 
and growing season, and at other times the plants must not 
become dry, or no bloom will result. A proper amount of care 
must of course be exercised, so that the plants are not swamped 
one day and dried up the next ; but this will easily be seen by 
the person who has the charge of the collection. 

88 Greenhouse Managemerit for Amateurs. 

Named varieties are propagated by grafting on seedling 

In regard to sorts, we find the following to be very good and 
suitable for the purposes intended, and sucli a selection as we 
give is almost sure to give everyone satisfaction : Admiration, 
AmcBncb grandijiora, Bijou de Ledeberg, Brilliant, Cedo Nulli, 
Comte de Hainault, Concinna, Criterion, Dieudonne, Due 
d'Ai'emberg, Due de Nassau, Duke of Edinburgh, Exquisite, 
Flag of Truce, Gem, Glory of Sunninghill, Grand Monarch, Her 
Majesty, Indica Alba, Insignis, Lateritia alba suprema, Leeana, 
Lizzie, Madame Ambroise Yerschaffelt, Madame van Houtte, 
Magnifica, Mars, Ne Plus Ultra, President, Prince of Orange, 
Princess Alexandra, Princess Helena, Purity, and Queen Victoria. 
All the above can be obtained of Messrs. Yeitch and Co., 
King's-road, Chelsea, to whom we should advise readers to 
apply if they have not a nurseryman who supplies them 

Azalea Sinensis, &c. — Hardy shrubs; grown for their 
flowers. Minimum temperature, SOdeg. The hardy Azaleas are 
very useful for the cool house, and also for those where a little 
heat can be had, as they readily accommodate themselves to 
various situations, and if gradually brought into a heated 
structure, will bear a good amount of forcing. Plants should be 
well established in pots for this purpose, and the general treat- 
ment is much the same as for A. Indica ; that is, so far as the 
management of the plants go. They- should be re-potted annually 
as soon as the foliage is ripe, and either loam and peat in equal 
parts, peat, or fibrous loam alone, can be used, provided that suffi- 
cient sand is mixed with the soil, and a proper drainage is 
afforded. The plants should be brought into a warm house in 
successional batches ; and the plants for this purpose should be 
kept in well ventilated cold frames, so that the sudden change 
shall not bring the buds off. "With these, as with all plants, the 
changes from cold to heat should be gradual, or the effects will 
be most disastrous. In no case will nature perform its functions 
if excited by fits and starts, or if too sudden changes are 
indulged in. 

Dictionary of Plants. 


The colours are very bright, and range from, white through 
orange to red, and from red to crimson, and while some have 
blossoms while the stems are quite bare, others have both flowers 
and foliage together. 

Propagated by seeds in the common varieties, named sorts are 
grafted on seedling stocks. Both processes are, however, beyond 
the reach of the ordinary amateur, and as the plants are very 
cheap they had better be purchased. 

Fig. 29— Azalea Sinensis 

The various hybrids, and varieties of A. Quollis, A. Sinensis 
(see Fig. 29), A. nudifiora, and A. Pontica, are very useful, and 
are obtainable at all hard- wood nurseries. It is, however, the 
best plan to select the plants while in bloom, as the colours or 
shades of colours are so numerous that no real idea of their 
appearance can be written. Suffice to say all are good, and 
reasonable in price. 


Greenhouse Management for Amateurs, 

A L S A M. — Tender annual; grown for 
flowers and general appearance ; mini- 
mum temperature, SOdeg. A well-grown 
Balsam is a plant of wliich tHe grower may- 
be well proud, but it is rarely tliat it is 
seen in good condition. Tbe general fault 
with plants grown by amateurs is tbe long 
stem and poor blooms — blooms that are not 
even semi-double being very common — and, 
except where Balsams form the one hobby of the grower, it 
is rare to see the camellia flowered and other varieties in good 
form. A good Balsam bloom should be quite as double as a 
camellia, and to show to the greatest advantage should 
appear like one in the arrangement of the petals. The great 
difficulty in starting the culture of these plants is obtaining 
good seeds, and unless the intending cultivator knows anyone 
who makes a fancy of Balsams, or unless he can obtain first-rate 
plants, some time will probably elapse ere a good fixed strain of 
flowers is obtained. Seeds should only be saved from the finest 
and most perfect flowers, and although the quantity must of 
necessity be small, the quality will be good, and this is vhat is of 
most importance. Only the best blooms on a plant should be 
reserved for seed, and if it is desired to have the seed extra good, 
only the blooms selected for seed should be allowed to remain on 
the plant. 

The cultivation of Balsams is very easy, and provided the 
seeds are right, the results are sure to compensate for the 
trouble of culture. About the third week in March seeds should 
be sown on properly prepared pans of sandy rich soil, and 
placed in a gentle bottom heat, say of about 65deg., and as soon 
as the first rough leaf appears the plants should be potted off 
into Sin. pots, care being taken to keep them close down, i.e., to 
let the seed leaves be close to the soil. As soon as the roots kiss 
the sides of the pots re-potting should be resorted to, and this 
should be repeated until the plants are in Sin. or lOin. pots. 
During the whole of the time the plants are under glass they 

Dictionary of Plants. 


should be kept as near tlie light as possible, and be frequently 
turned around, so that they do not draw to one side and become 
unsightly. Careful training must be given to the plants, or at 
least to such as are required in fine form. Disbudding is also 
necessary to such plants as are wanted at their best, removing 
all bloom from the main stem and base of the branches until the 

Fig. 30.— Camellia flowered Balsam 

plants are of suflficient size, and then the buds at the tops will 
bloom almost simultaneously, and cause the plants to be really 
splendid objects. The buds that will be formed afterwards will 
cause a continuance of blossom for a long time ; in fact, for 
some months, if the plants are liberally supplied with liquid 
manure. Instead of being grown imder glass the whole time, 
they may with advantage be treated in the following manner, the 

92 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

same rules as to potting, training, &c., being applicable. By this 
method an advantage is gained, for although the plants will not 
be extra large they will be very hardy, and fit to stand about in 
places out of doors where required ; and, being hardy in a com- 
parative sense, they will be able to endure many little hardships, 
want of water alone excepted. About May the plants should be 
transferred to a frame where the heat is not above 50deg., 
and kept in a steady growing state, air being admitted as 
required, nor water omitted as necessary. They should be 
kept growing on steadily, disbudding and training as above 
mentioned. About June the plants should be fully exposed 
during the day, and when all danger of frost is over the lights 
may be kept o:ffi altogether. These should bloom in whatever 
size pots they are in at the end of June, and, if ordinary 
attention has been paid them, they will be very fine. In all 
cases plenty of drainage must be allowed, as the amount of 
water required is immense. Insects must also be looked 
after sharply, especially green fly, slugs, and snails, one of 
these latter often destroying several specimens in a night. 

Propagated from seeds only. 

For varieties the following ^dll be found very good : Camellia 
flowered (see Fig. 30), Rose flowered, both containing ' various 
coloui's ; Solf erino, striped blooms, and Emperor, spotted, both 
kinds ha\dng various coloured grounds. The first is, however, 
generally most esteemed by lovers of fine flowers. 

Bambiisa. — Greenhouse hard-wooded plant ; grown for its 
foliage and general appearance. Minimimi temperature, 36deg. 
The Bamboos are a class of plants that are ornamental in 
the extreme, having erect simple stems clothed with willow-like 
leaves of various shades of green or, in some cases, green and 
creamy white, but from their natiu'e they are not well adapted 
to small houses. There is one variety, however, that has a 
fine effect anywhere, as it is comparatively dwarf and compact, 
with finely variegated foliage, and is adapted to pot culture. 
We allude to B. Fortunei variegata, which comes from either 
China or Japan, and is really good. All the bamboos are semi- 
aquatic, gj-owing natui-ally on the banks of rivers and in marshy 

Dictionary of Plants. 93 

places." During the season of growth plenty of water must be 
applied, and if large growth is desired, weak liquid manure may 
be used with advantage. Like all free-growing plants, bamboos 
like a rather porous soil to grow in, and we use two-thirds of 
fibrous loam, one-third thoroughly rotted leaf soil, and plenty of 
coarse silver sand ; we also hold that the plants should not be 
potted too firmly, or in some cases the young shoots will have 
some diJEculty in pushing through. As a decorative plant, the 
one mentioned above will, if well grown, be found of great use, 
either for the greenhouse or for the table, as its foliage is both 
elegant and graceful, and shows well under gaslight. For the 
table, plants about a foot high, in 48-sized pots, sui'rounded with 
a plant or two of Isolepis gracilis, and the spaces filled in with 
Selaginella denticulata will be found to make very effective 
low centres for tables, and will last for two, or three months 
with ordinary care. "We have frequently used a bamboo for the 
centre, five isolepis (in large 60 pots) around and close to the 
centre pot, and as many selaginellas in thumb pots as required, 
which generally amounted to from nine to twelve pots, if the 
plants were well grown. 

Propagation is effected by division when the crowns of the 
plants are of a sufficient size, but this process must not be 
carried too far, or the whole stock will be lost. Propagation 
is best done just before growth commences. 

Bamhusa Fortunei variegata is the only dwarf kind fit for pot 
work, but where a large tub can be allowed and plenty of house 
room is at hand, a plant of B. metahe or B. gracilis is very 
effective, but they are from eight to ten feet hign. 

Begonia. — Greenhouse soft-wooded plant; grown for both 
flowers and foliage. Minimum temperature, 40deg. Begonias, 
which are of comparatively easy culture, contain both blooming 
and fine foliage specimens, and the greater part of them can be 
grown well in a greenhouse that is kept about 40deg. There are 
also some nearly hardy kinds, but of these we do not intend to 
treat here. The fine foliage kinds are very useful for any kind 
of wall decorations, the larger foliaged kinds being particularly 
useful for the purpose, as they grow so that the leaves quite 

94 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

hide the pots when the latter are suspended against a wall, 
The colours of the leaves are very rich, from silver to rich 
bronze, of a very metallic appearance. A single plant in a 
small vase also looks well on a table, and as the plants stand 
the gas pretty fairly, they do well for table decorations, or for 
sideboards, mantel shelves, &c. Of the ornamental foliaged 
kinds, those of the Bex section (see Fig. 31) are very useful, 
as they will stand a fair amount of cold if it is not accompanied 
by a damp atmosphere. At one time they were classed as stove 
plants, but experience shows that they can be used for deco- 
rative purposes in almost any greenhouse where the temperature 
is kept at from 38deg. to 40deg. through the winter. 

The culture is very easy, and the various hybrids of the 
different kinds, caused by crossing B. rex with other varieties, 
are really beautiful. The aim in winter in a cool house should 
be the preservation of the foliage that is already formed rather 
than the production of new, and this can only be done in a 
place where the atmosphere is not surcharged with moisture. 
Where the temperature exceeds 50deg. the plants can be kept 
growing, and so will maintain plenty of foliage. Re-pot once 
or twice a year, using equal parts of peat and loam and plenty 
of sharp sand, or perhaps, where the loam is heavy, one-third 
should be used to two-thirds peat ; pot moderately firm, and 
while giving sufl&cient water do not overdo the matter, so that 
the plants become waterlogged. For this reason plenty of 
drainage must be given, or the same undesirable results will 
follow With the tuberous - rooted kinds, which are now 
coming well to the fore as bedding plants, and have a wide 
variety of colours, a somewhat different style of treatment 
must be pursued, as the plants rest through the winter. 
Our plan is to pot in the end of March, in somewhat 
rich sandy loam, affording plenty of drainage, and placing 
the plants in the light. Here they soon break, and in due 
course produce their flowers. Most of the varieties require 
sticks to keep them in form, and as the plants can stand in 
the greenhouse throughout the season, they require some 
assistance, as thej'" sometimes get a little drawn. Plenty of 
water is necessary during the growing season, and aa occa- 

Dictionary of Pla?its. 


sional -watering with liquid manure will be found of great 
advantage. Wlien the plants have bloomed out the supply of 
water should be lessened, and as the foliage dies off watering 
should be practically discontinued, but the &oil must not become 
dust-dry. During the winter the roots should be kept in a 
place where the temperature is about 40deg., as in a much 
cooler place they would rot. Although Begonias are generally 
termed stove plants, they can, as a rule, be treated as green- 

FiG. 31.— Begonia Eex. 

house plants, the only essential being that the temperature 
shall not fall below 40deg. Of course, for winter blooming, 
a stove is necessary, as the heat given to the Begonias would 
prove very injurious to the other plants in the greenhouse; but 
for summer and autumn decoration the plants are excellent. 
In fact, the fine-foliaged kinds are useful all through the year, 
while the latter kinds are not. 

95 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Propagation is effected by means of cuttings, division of the 
roots in tlie tuberous section, and by seeds. Cuttings root 
readily in sand, or sandy peat if on a good bottom beat, 
divided roots start well in a warm greenhouse if this mode of 
propagation is taken in hand just as the plants start into 
growth, and seeds will grow freely if started in a mild bottom 
heat or in a warm greenhouse, In fact, it is quite possible to 
have Begonias from seeds in all houses that are moderately 
warm in April or May, but preferably they should be sown in 
February if a proper heat of about 55deg.. can be maintained. 
We have found it the better plan to sow thinly on well- drained 
pots of sandy peat, covering each pot with a sheet of glass to 
prevent undue evaporation, because as the seeds are small if 
much watering has to be resorted to a large quantity will be 
washed away. 

For ornamental foliaged plants select from the following, 
which are all good: B. vex, B. Marsliallii, B. Duchesse de 
Brabant, B. Queen Victoria, B. Comte de Lemminghe, B. Chas. 
Lievens, B. Diadem, B. nehulosa, B. Sambo, and B. Snowflake. 
For blooming kinds select from B. Breigeii, white flowers and 
huds ;B.spathulata, white; B. nitida, rose; B. Saundersonii, deep 
rose ; B.manicata, flesh; B. Frcebeli, crimson-scarlet; and several 
of the intermediate hybrids. In fact, where there exists the 
means of raising the plants from seeds, a 5s. packet of seed will 
produce a good collection. M. Victor Lemoine, of Nancy, has 
also raised some double-blossomed varieties, which are excellent, 
but rather expensive. They are B. Gloire de Nancy, bright 
vermilion ; B. salmonea plena, rosy salmon ; B. Mons. Lemoine, 
orange vermilion; B. President Burelle, red, shaded scarlet; 
and B. W. E. Gumbleton, rosy salmon with orange centre. He 
has also raised some semi- double varieties of much excellence. 

Bignonia. — Nearly hardy hard- wooded climbers; grown for 
foliage chiefly, but the flowers are interesting. Minimum tem- 
peratui*e, 36deg. These are handsome climbers, of great use 
in comparatively large houses, and in such give great satisfaction 
when well grown; but if neglected, and the foliage rendered 
unsightly by the attacks of insects, are of but little beauty. 

Dictionary of Plants. 97 

The great point in the culture of all climbers is to obtain free, 
and at the same time sturdy, growth, giving due attention to 
training, pruning, &c., or the plants soon exceed all limits. 
Like all free-growing plants, Bignonias do best planted out in 
the borders, and if in suitable soil they soon make a fine show, 
the fine pinnate leaves setting the large bell- shaped flowers off 
to the greatest advantage. B. radicans does well in a large cool 
conservatory, and in many places it answers fairly out of doors 
in a warm situation, and on a warm sheltered wall they grow 
and bloom well, and are therefore generally termed hardy in 
catalogues ; but in many instances the term is delusive, as they 
do well only in the warmer parts of the British Isles. The best 
plan is to plant out in borders of comparatively light loam 
and leaf soil, affording plenty of drainage, and taking care the 
soil is in a sweet and fresh, condition. 

Propagation is effected by layers, and by short jointed 
cuttings inserted in pots of sandy loam, taking the cuttings 
when the plants are at rest. As, however, there is rarely any 
advantage in having more than one or two specimens, we 
advise the purchase of the plants at a nursery. 

The sorts that are useful for our present purpose are B. 
Austratis, B. Capensis, B. cajoreolata, B. grandiflora, B. speciosa, 
B. Tweediana, and B. venusta, all of which are good, that is, 
good for large houses. 

Boronia. — Greenhouse hard - wooded shrub ; grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg. In a well-found green- 
house these should always be represented to a certain extent, 
more or less according to its size. It is, however, a rather 
tender plant if taken relatively with some of the other kinds, 
such as acacias, &c., but still, like the chorizema, it is of 
much individual beauty, as it has fair-sized flowers of taking 
colours, and the foliage is elegant, and well clothes the somewhat 
erect and slender stems. 

It is not necessary, nor even desirable, to have too many 
plants of a sort in a small collection, and if such as those 
mentioned below are represented by one or two good (though 
not large) specimens, it will be far better than a large quantity 


98 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

of small ones, as tlie numerous soft-wooded and Lardy plants 
tliat can be introduced from time to time will generally 
supply plenty of variety and bloom witliout tlie trouble 
tbat generally lias to be bestowed on tbe better class of bard- 
wooded plants. And another, and perhaps the more important 
point, is that the hardier subjects require less attention than 
the regular greenhouse subjects. Like many of the other plants 
that decorate our glass houses in winter, Boronias should be 
placed out of doors from July to September; in pits is the 
better plan, as then there are greater facilities for protecting 
from heavy rains and thunder storms. They should not be 
fully exposed when first put out, but in the course of a week 
they may have all the sun and air possible. Potting should be 
performed once a year, as soon as the top growth ceases, as 
the roots then extend themselves in preparation for their next 
year's work. For soil we use peat and maiden loam equal parts, 
and about one-sixth sharp silver sand, which we find best for 
general use, although many gardeners use a somewhat different 
compost. This plant also requires some attention in regard 
to water: it must not be allowed to get dry, or disastrous 
results will follow, especially in summer, as a little drought 
then will soon cause it to lose its foliage. 

Propagated by cuttings taken off when the plants are at rest, 
and struck in sand or sandy peat, either in a warm greenhouse, 
or by the aid of a gentle bottom heat. 

5. pinnata, purple, and B. serrulata, scarlet, are two of the 
best, while if more varieties are .desired, B. tetranda, red, B. 
Brummondii, and B. anemoncBfolia, red, can be added. 

Bougainvillea. — Greenhouse hard- wooded climber; grown 
for its flowers and general appearance. Minimum temperature, 
40deg. This is one of the most useful climbers there is, either 
for comparatively cool or for warm conservatories. During the 
summer it does well in a cool greenhouse. It can be grown in 
pots, and in the borders, but it certainly does best in the latter, 
as the plant is essentially a very gross rooter, and therefore 
requires plenty of space in which to extend. Strict training 
and pinching are not very advantageous, as they do not 

Dictionary of Plants. 


tend to induce the free production of bloom ; indeed, the best 
plan is to allow the plants to ramble freely over the roof of a 
moderately high house, or along the upper portion of a back 
wall, and they will then bloom profusely for several months 
in the year, bearing terminal clusters of tube- shaped flowers, 
which set the large oval leaves off to great advantage. Always 

Fig. 32.— Bottgainvillea Glabra. 

provided that the proper attention is paid to feeding, and 
the plants are in a properly prepared medium. In preparing 
a border for the reception of Bougainvilleas, the first point 
to be considered is the drainage, which it is necessary to 
thoroughly secure. This is best done by laying in a quantity 


100 Greenhouse Manaoement for Ajnateurs. 

of brick rubbisb, about, 6in. in thickness, and communicating 
witb the drain belonging to the greenhouse or conservatory, by 
whicli means all sourness and unfitness of the soil is obviated. 
The bed should be excavated to a depth of 2ft. or 3ft., according 
to the soil and position. For soil, use rough turf, loam, and 
fibrous peat, about two parts of the former to one of the latter, 
and about one-fourth to one-sixth part of sharp, gritty sand, 
according to the quality of the other soils, heavy loams 
requiring more sand than that which is more friable. Some 
cultivators use manure in the compost, but this we do not 
recommend, as it tends rather to cause the soil to become stiff 
and impervious to air, which, to say the least, is very unde- 
sirable, as such a condition is directly opposed to the well- 
being of any plant. We would rather advise the liberal 
application of liquid manure, as this supplies all the necessary 
food without destroying the porosity of the soil. As a rule, 
these plants do not answer for pot culture in the greenhouse, 
as for this kind of treatment they require stove heat, which 
cannot be generally given in such a house. When the plants 
cease blooming each year, say in November or December, they 
should be closely spurred in, the same as with vines, and all 
weak leaders should be removed, so that strong wood only 
is left. Scale and mealy bugs are the only insects to be feared, 
and these can only be kept down by hand picking. 

Propagated by means of layers pegged down into the borders 
or into pots of sandy soil, and left for at least a year before 
they are severed from the parent plajit. 

For sorts choose from 3. glabra, B. speciosa, and JB. ajplendens, 
which are all good. 

Bouvardia. — Greenhouse hard-wooded shrub ; grown for the 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg. Bouvardias are, par 
excellence, the flowers for cutting for bouquets, and are of 
comparatively easy culture. We think that the peculiar beauty 
of these plants well repays their cultivation, as no bouquet 
in winter is complete without them, their tubular jasmine- 
like fragrant flowers being very chaste and useful. The leaves 
are somewhat like those of the orange, and a well- grown plant, 

Dictionary of Plants. loi 

about a foot high, having five or six trusses of bloom, is a 
very pleasing subject, the trusses being on the ends of the 
branches. The almost continual habit of blooming which 
Bouvai-dias possess when well grown renders them valuable 
to growers of cut bloom, leaving out their intrinsic value. 
We once had the curiosity to ask some of the salesmen in 
Covent Garden the value of what they had sold of these blooms 
in one morning, and we found that five of them had realized 
£50 between them. Of course, this was in the season when 
flowers are expensive, but still it shows the decorative value 
of the plant. The white varieties are, perhaps, the most 
valuable, as their colour is siii-e to match with almost any 
other, but, at the same time, the scarlet varieties are good. 

The mode of cultivation differs somewhat, according to the 
season in which it is desired the plants shall bloom, and, 
therefore, it is necessary that they be prepared accordingly. 
It must, however, be distinctly remembered that Bouvardias 
are not fond of a cold house during winter, an intermediate 
house suiting them very much better. In fact, they are 
better adapted to those who have warm greenhouses than to 
persons who keep out the frost only, these latter not being 
able to achieve much success; for although these plants do 
well in frames during the summer months, they are very 
susceptible to the cold of our winters. For ordinary work 
the following practice will probably suit most amatem-s, and 
we know it will suit the plants . 

In the first place, soil is a consideration, as the plants are 
rather fastidious in this respect, and they require rich food 
to grow them at all well and keep them in health. We use two 
parts thoroughly rotted manure and leaf soil and three parts 
good loam, with enough sand to keep the compost open. Strike 
the cuttings in a brisk bottom heat in spring, and when 
rooted pot off into thumbs ; still keep in a warm, genial, 
atmosphere, and as soon as the roots kiss the pot, pot off 
into large sixties. As soon as the pots are filled with roots, 
shift into forty-eights, and about the middle of June the 
plants may be put into airy frames out of doors; give each 
plant plenty of room to develop itself, and by a careful atten- 

102 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

tion to stopping back during the earlier stages of their growth, 
let each plant have from six to eight leads. In the end of 
August pot into thirty-two sized pots, and keep close for a 
day or two until well established. About the end of September 
the plants should be housed in an intermediate house, if they 
are wanted for spring blooming, and just kept moving through 
the early part of the winter; at least 50deg. should be main- 
tained as the temperature of the house where the Bouvardias 
are kept. It will be found that the plants kept thus will 
Dloom in the end of February and March, as soon as the sun 
gets warm. Of course, the nearer they can be kept to the 
glass the better it will be for them, as they will remain sturdy 
and strong, and be in better condition for a long continuance 
of the blooming season. In such a house as is required for 
these plants, coleus, alternantheras, and other plants requiring 
warmth during winter, will do well. Those which are required 
for blooming in December and early the next year must have 
a brisk heat night and day through November and onwards, 
and they should be kept near the glass. About 65deg. at night 
is a very good temperature, but some little allowance must 
be made according to the weather. "Water must be given to 
meet the requirements of the plants, but it must not be either 
over or under done, or bad results will be sure to follow. 
Bouvardias cannot be grown in the " handsome glass con- 
servatory," such as is fixed to modem villas, unless they are 
heated, and built in such a manner as to retain the heat when 
it is applied. Neither can they be grown in a house from 
which sunlight is wholly or partially excluded, as they want 
all the light and sun they can get during winter. Young 
plants, liberal cultivation, and plenty of warmth in winter, 
is the only secret of success. Always water with water of the 
same temperature as the house, syringe well occasionally, and 
fumigate once or twice if green fly appears. We have, how- 
ever, found that the less the plants are fumigated the better 
will they bloom, as the smoke appears to affect the foliage, 
and cause a partial arrest in the due performance of its natural 

Propagation is effected by means of cuttings struck on a 

Dictionary of Plants. T03 

bi-isk bottom, heat in spring, in the same way as fuchsias. Only 
young wood should be used for cuttings, and it should be quite 
free from aphides, or great trouble will be experienced, if, indeed, 
the trouble taken is not quite thrown away. 

We have grown all the following, and found them good 
for their respective habits, but, perhaps, the easiest to do is 
B. jasmincpjiora. This very much resembles the white jasmine, 
and by some persons it is mistaken for that flower, although to 
those who are well up in flowers the difference is so great as 
to make the two flowers easily distinguishable. The list is as 
follows : B. candidissima (pure white), B. Hogarth (scarlet) B. 
Humboldtii corymhijlora (white), B. jasmincejiora (white, very 
free), B. Laura (fine rose), B. Leiantha (bright scarlet), B. 
Leiantha compacta (scarlet), B. longijiora fiammea (rosy-blush 
tubes, salmon lobes), B. Rosalinda (salmon), B. tripliijlla (orange- 
scarlet, very free), B. Vrielandii (white, tinged with blush). The 
preceding are all good, and anyone fond of flowers would find a 
collection of them invaluable for winter use, or, for that matter, 
summer use as well. 

Brugmansia. — Greenhouse hard- wooded shiiib or small tree ; 
grown for its flowers. Minimum temperature, 36deg. These 
plants are well worth attention on account of their beauty, and 
also on account of their easy cultivation, and, as they are nearly 
hardy, they are very suitable for cool houses — in fact, more so 
than many of the more fashionable plants. They look best as 
standards from three to five feet in height, as the large ovate 
leaves and pendulous blooms, which are somewhat like immense 
lilies, can then be seen to the best advantage. The flowers are 
from five to seven inches in length, and about four or five inches 
in diameter, so that it does not take many to make a good 
display. A pretty large pot should be used, according to the 
size of the plant, and plenty of drainage must be afforded. For 
soil use either peat and loam, about one-third of the former to 
two-thirds of the latter, or use good sandy loam alone. A goodly 
amount of sharp sand should be allowed to keep the whole open, 
as a water-logged soil is not conducive to the welfare of the 
plants. Ordinary greenhouse treatment should be given, and 

104 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

the plants will not fail to produce their fine blossoms in due 

For sorts B. lutea (yellow), B. Knightii (cream), and B. saw. 
guinea (red), are the best and most effective. 

,ALAMF£LIS. — Almost hardy climber. 
Grown for its ornamental foliage and 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg- 
This is a useful evergreen climber, and is 
well worth growing in suitable positions, 
looks well, and is of comparatively easy cul- 
ture. The orange-coloured flowers, which are shaped 
somewhat as those of the pentstemon, are borne in 
terminal racemes, and the light green foliage is 
small and somewhat like that of the ordinary garden pea, having 
a tendril at the end, which grasps any projection in the wall or 
trellis very firmly. It is of free growth and soon covers a large 
space, and therefore is very useful in many situations. The 
same cultural remarks apply to this as to Cohoea scandens, which 
is treated further on, and therefore it is unnecessary to enter 
on the subject here. 

Propagated by seeds in the same manner as half-hardy 
annuals generally. 

Calceolaria (herbaceous). — ' Nearly hardy soft-wooded 
herbaceous plants; grown for their flowers. Minimum tem- 
perature, 35deg. These, like the preceding, are very useful for 
both house and conservatory decoration. Unless a stock of 
named plants exists it is scarcely worth while to purchase 
named sorts, as a packet of seed from a first-class firm will 
produce a good percentage of flowers nearly, if not quite, equal 
to many of the named varieties. The chief reason for using 
plants from seed is, however, the cheapness of the process, 
for one or two good named sorts would cost half-a-crown, 

Dictionary of Plants. 


while a hundred or so of good plants can be obtained from a 
packet of seed costing that amount. The seed should be sown 
about the middle of July on pans of light soil, which should 
have been previously soaked with water. Care must be taken 
to make the surface of the soil level, and also to sow the seed 

Fio. 33. — Herbaceous Calceolaria. 

as evenly as possible, a matter of some little difficulty with 
fine seeds like Calceolaria, musk, lobelia, &c., as the seeds fall 
in bunches from inexperienced fingers. The seeds should be 
just covered (no more) with fine soil, a sheet of glass should be 
laid over the pan, which should be placed in a shady part of the 
greenhouse until the young plants show the first leaf. The glass 

io6 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

can then be gradually removed. As soon as they can be handled, 
the plants should be pricked out into pots or boxes, being 
kept about two inches asunder, and, as soon as they begin to 
crowd each other, each alternate one should be transplanted 
into other pots or boxes, so that the plants are about four 
inches apart. By the end of September to early in November 
they will be nice and strong, and fit for wintering, and the best 
place for them is in a dry pit, where frost is excluded, or on 
the shelf of a cold greenhouse. Give only enough water to 
prevent the plants flagging, and keep all dead leaves re- 
moved. At the first appearance of green fly, fumigate with 
tobacco, as this blight does a vast amount of harm. About the 
end of January remove the plants into their blooming" pots, 
using those from Tin. to 9in. in diameter, giving plenty of 
drainage, and a compost consisting of one-half good fibrous 
loam, one-fourth thoroughly decayed manure (cow manure 
preferably), and one-fourth leaf soil. To this should be added 
sufficient coarse sand and powdered charcoal to keep the whole 
open. Take the plants up with good balls of earth and roots, and 
pot them moderately firm, A good watering should be given 
through a fine-rosed watering pot, and the plants should be put 
on an airy shelf in a cold pit or greenhouse, where frost can be 
just excluded. For a few weeks constant attention is neces- 
sary — watering, aeration, fumigating, &c., all being of para- 
mount importance to the future well-being of the plants. Care 
must be taken to give plenty of room, and to support the flower 
stems as they rise with small neat sticks. About May the 
plants will commence blooming, and continue to do so for a 
couple of months. As soon as the bloom is over, if the plants 
are cut down and placed in a somewhat shady border of light 
rich soil, they will afford plenty of stock for the next year ; 
but, at the same time, we advise the use of seedling sorts. 
Clear liquid manure, not too strong, is very useful for herbaceous 
Calceolarias, if employed in moderation ; but it should not be 
used too often after the flowers show colour, as it tends to mar 
their clearness. The chief points in the culture of herbaceous 
Calceolarias are plenty of air and light, attention to watering, 
<fcc., and the destruction of fly as soon as it appears. 

Dictionary of Plants. 107 

Propagated by seeds as described above, or by division of 
the plants in tbe case of named sorts. Tliis division should be 
done in October wlien taking the plants up from the borders. 

Calceolaria (shrubby). — Half hardy semi-hard- wooded 
plants ; grown for their flowers. Minimum temperature, 35deg. 
Nearly every one is acquainted with this class of Calceolaria, 
which is so much used for bedding purposes, but only a com- 
paratively small number know what fine decorative plants they 
are when well grown. This is much to be regretted, as a well 
grown shrubby Calceolaria in a Gin. or Sin. pot is really a 
very handsome and showy subject, useful alike in conservatory 
or dwelling house. It will be found more convenient to grow 
these in a pit or frame, as they are not so much attacked by 
fly in such a place, and also make sturdier plants. They 
are, however, a little later in blooming, but this is fully com- 
pensated by the better habit obtained and smaller trouble 
incurred. So long as frost is excluded, and the plants are 
kept moist, and receive plenty of air on favourable opportuni- 
ties they will succeed very well in a frame, but should exces- 
sive moisture be applied or should the plants be frozen, tnen 
good pot plants will not be obtained. In the case of the ama- 
teur cultivator, it is a question as to which is the best time to 
strike cuttings of these plants, as unlike those set aside for 
bedding purposes, which are best struck at the end of September, 
the plants for pots are required of a pretty good size if large 
specimens are wanted, but if it is only desired to have medium 
sized plants they can be treated as the bedding plants are until 
spring. If large plants are required they should be struck in 
August, the cuttings put in a cold frame facing the north, 
and, as soon as rooted, potted off into sixty-sized pots; and 
when the roots kiss the sides of the pots, re-potted into large 
sixties, or Sin. pots, in which they will remain until the end of 
February. The points of the plants should then be pinched 
out, and as soon as they break they should be potted on into 
forty-eight size pots. If there are from four to six breaks to 
each plant it will be sufiicient, but should such not be the case, the 
plants should be stopped again, when the requisite number of 

io8 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

breaks will probably be obtained. As soon as the roots kiss the 
pots the plants shoiTld be transferred to their blooming pots 
(either 6in. or 8in.), and the shoots should be tied out so as to 
develop fully, a point of much importance. Every effort should 
be exerted to maintain the foliage green to the base of the 
plants, and to attain this end the plants should be fumigated 
at the first appearance of green fly. From the end of February 
the plants should occupy a light airy pit, or frame facing the 
south, and as the warm weather arrives the pots should be 
plunged in coal ashes, as it is very essential that the roots 
should be kept cool, as in the native habitat of the plants. 
Very little manure should be used in the soil, but as the flower 
spikes are thrown up, weak liquid manure should be given two 
or three times a week. We follow the above plan successfully, 
and find that the plants are less liable to be attacked by insects 
than in an ordinary greenhouse, and from May till August the 
plants are all that can be desired. We place no reliance in old 
plants, but still, as is seldom the case, if a house is devoted to 
Calceolarias, they pay for attention. 

Bedding varieties should not be potted, but should be 
inserted about Sin. apart over a bed in a cold frame, and after 
breaking (the tops should be taken off early in March or about 
the middle of April) should be planted out where they are to 
remain. By this means the " disease " will be obviated. Should 
frosty weather ensue, the plants should be protected with 
inverted flower pots, a piece of slate or crock being placed on 
the hole — we have thus often protected more tender plants than 
Calceolarias — the chief object being to shield from the drying 
winds that at times accompany frosts. 

For soil use one-half good fibrous loam, one-eighth thoroughly 
rotted manure, and the remainder leaf soil, and enough sharp 
sand to keep the whole open. 

Propagated from cuttings, as described above, or from seeds, 
as described for the herbaceous section. 

We mention a few good shrubby Calceolarias ; but, with the 
general grower, we would advise the use of seedlings in 
preference : C. aurea fioribunda, yellow ; C. Excelsior, orange- 
brown, gold cap; C. Firefly, orange-crimson; C. Pluto, dark 

Dictionary of Plants. 109 

crimson ; 0. Aurora, crimson face, scarlet back ; C. Clio, deep 
dark crimson; 0. Sparkler, crimson, gold cap; C. Beauty of 
Montreal, bright crimson; C. Crimson Queen, scarlet tinted, 
bronzy crimson; C. Prince of Orange, red; C. Mrs. W. Paul, 
dark crimson ; and C. Starligbt, bright red. 

Calla. — Tuberous greenhouse soft-wooded plant; grown for 
its flowers. Minimum temperature, 36deg. Calla, or Richardia 
^thiopica, or the white arum lily, is one of the most useful 
plants of its class. It can be had in bloom at any season, and 
can be grown as a window plant anywhere where frost is 
excluded, while its fine white spathe and yellow spadix render 
it peculiarly interesting. It can also be treated as an aquatic, 
eubaquatic, or terrestrial subject, and in all cases it repays 
cultivation. Like most of the aroids, it likes a moderately 
open compost, well enriched, and during the season of growth it 
is very greedy of water — in fact, if the plants have good 
drainage and a proper soil, it is scarcely possible to give them too 
much. Of course there is a medium in all things, and a careful 
cultivator is sure not to exceed this. There are two or three 
different modes of culture, two of which we have followed very 
successfully. The best plan in our hands is the following : As 
soon as the plants have ceased blooming, weak liquid manure is 
applied until the end of June, and meanwhile a trench has been 
prepared, like that for celery, well-rotted manure being used, 
and in this the plants are turned out, and kept well supplied 
with water during the growing season. A partially-shaded 
situation is best, and if a mulching with cocoa fibre refuse, or 
other fibrous material, is given, it tends to keep up a moist soil 
with fewer waterings. While planted out, all the flowers are 
removed, so that the strength of the plants is concentrated in 
the strong crowns. The plants are taken up about the end of 
September, and potted carefully in a rich and rather open com- 
post, well watered, and placed in a close pit for a week or so, 
and thence they are removed to the greenhouse, where by 
forcing some and retarding others a continuation of bloom is 
maintained for a long time. The other plan, which is not so 
good as the preceding, is, however, more suited to small gardens 

f 10 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

where a kitchen garden, in any form, does not exist. As soon 
as the plants cease blooming in spring they receive a liberal 
shift, the roots disturbed as little as possible, and a good 

Fig. 34.— Calla ^thiopica. 

rich open soil nsed. They are then placed in a moist pit for a 
few weeks until they commence growth, when plenty of air and 
water is freely given. From the middle of June water is given 

Dictionary of Plants. 1 1 1 

more sparingly, and the plants are gradually exposed to the air. 
The plants are plunged in coal ashes out of doors until the 
middle of August, only water enough being given to keep them 
from shrivelling. In August they are replaced in the pit, and 
well watered, and they soon commence growth, when by forcing 
some and retarding others a succession of blooms is maintained. 
In all cases plenty of drainage must be given, and close sticky 
soil must be avoided. 

Propagated by the small offsets formed on the main root. 
These are taken off and planted in small pots when the parent 
plants are re-potted. In May or June these small plants should 
be put out into rich soil, kept well- watered, and potted up in 
September for wintering. The second season they should be 
planted out again, and if carefully tended the majority of them 
will bloom the next year. 

The two sorts we find best are C. ^thiopica and C. alha- 

Camellia. — Greenhouse hard-wooded shrub. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg. The most important 
plant that is grown for fine blooms is the Camellia, Con- 
sidering the price the cut blooms fetch in market, it is 
surprising that more attention is not paid to the cultivation 
of this plant by amateurs than is generally the case; but if 
anyone expresses astonishment at the fact, they are told that 
" the buds drop off','' and the plants cannot be made to do 
anyhow. To this we would reply that Camellias are as easy to 
grow as any other plant if you only go the right way to work. 
Dryness of the atmosphere and want of water at the roots will 
generally be found the causes of failure, and the remedy for 
these evils will, of course, rest with the cultivator. During the 
summer, Camellias can be plunged in the borders, or other places 
out of doors, and thus afford a little decorative display, while 
at the same time they are making growth and bloom buds. For 
ourselves, we prefer to keep the plants always under cover if 
they are at all large, as we then contrive to get better results 
from them ; in fact, we prefer to have the plants in the borders 
of a cool conservatory as permanent plants, as they then make 

112 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

the finest growth. Indeed, permanent plants give far better 
results than any that are in pots or tubs, but as they require 
a large conservatory to give that room which is so necessary to 
them when grown in this manner, they are not generally 

Fig. 35.— Camellia Japonica Fl. Pl. 

suitable to amateurs. The best mode of cultivation for amateurs 
is, therefore, in pots or tubs. 

Before going into the matter of treatment it may, perhaps, 
not be amiss to point out a few of the uses to which the blooms 

Dictionary of Plants. 113 

of the Camellia may be put, and foremost amongst these bou- 
quet making certainly takes a place. "White Camellias (with 
other flowers) are much used for bridal bouquets, for the hair, 
and for buttonholes, and also for table decorations, and the red 
are used for the same purposes, with the exception of bridal 
bouquets. A single bloom of Lady Hume's Blush, properly 
mounted and wired, is one of the nicest flowers imaginable for a 
lady's hair, as is also a bloom of Imbricata ; they are also very 
good for buttonhole bouquets, although for our own part we 
should prefer a rosebud and a spray or two of bouvardia, backed 
with a frond of Adiantum gracilliinum, as we consider a large 
flower is out of place in the coat. Some of the semi-double 
varieties come in very usefully in a half-expanded state, as they 
are pretty and not too large. In the decoration of a dinner 
table, both single and double sorts are very valuable, as they 
take the place of roses, and besides, they last for many days if 
they are properly gummed and mounted. Gumming is neces- 
sary with all flowers grown indoors, or they soon fall to pieces. 

The cultivation of the Camellia is very simple, attention to a 
few easy rules only being necessary for their proper culture. 
The great faults in growing Camellias are too great heat, with 
very often a dry, arid atmosphere, and too much or too little 
water. We have very often seen plants kept dust dry, and as a 
natural consequence all the bloom buds fell ofl", as they would 
had they been kept over wet at the roots. Too much dry heat 
will fetch off the buds with a run, as will also forcing, or rather 
trying to force the plants into bloom early. The way to get 
Camellias to bloom well is to keep them just moist enough, and 
at a temperature of from 45deg. to SOdeg., allowing lOdeg. 
to 12deg. rise for sun heat; fresh air of the temperature of 
the house may be admitted, so that mildew is kept down, and 
little else has to be done. To obtain the blooms early, the 
plants should be gradually induced to ripen early, so that 
early blooming may follow, according to the natural order of 
things, as the plants will not bear to be forced in the general 
acceptance of the tenn. Plenty of light, also early varieties 
of the plants, are necessary for early work ; and with care, 
Camellias can be had for some months, but they must, of courae, 


114 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

be ratlier strong iu numbers. It should be remembered that 
Camellias are nearly hardy (in some places the single white 
blooms well out of doors), and in places where frost is excluded 
they do well if not neglected, but, as with all plants, attention 
is one of the secrets of success. The time to pot Camellias is 
when they cease blooming, using two parts good fibrous loam, 
one part peat, and enough sand to keep the whole open. Pot 
firmly and not deeper than before, or it is probable that the 
plants will be killed by the water settling round the collar. 
Liquid or other manure is not required, nor is it desirable to 
apply it, as it sooner or later causes the destruction of the 

As a rule, insects do not trouble this class o£ plants, but 
scale will sometimes appear, and can easily be removed by 
hand. Thrij) also occasionally appears, when a little smoke 
will settle them. A mildew like that which attacks Cape 
pelargoniums sometimes shows up; but it is not very often 
the case, and a soft sponge and some lukewarm soapy water 
will soon clear it off, but if the place is ventilated, and kept 
fairly clean, there is very little fear of its appearance. 

Propagation is effected by grafting on stocks of the common 
single v?a*ieties, and is beyond the reach of the ordinary amateur, 
such work being done well in quantities, and in houses devuted 
to Camellias only. 

For a selection of double Camellias we would recommend 
^Imbricata red; Alba plena white; *Lady Hume's Blush 
white blushed carmine; Angustina superba transparent rose, 
occasionally spotted with . white ; *Bealii crimson ; Circe 
white; the flowers of this are small, and suited to bouquet 
making ; Comte de Gomer soft rose ; Comte de Paris salmon 
pink; *Duke of Lancaster clear rose; *Eximia dark crim- 
son scarlet; Exqiiisita rose, flowers small and suitable for 
bouquets; Fimbriata white, the edge of each petal is nicely 
fringed ; Frederici crimson, maroon ; Nigra deep crimson 
lake, the darkest flower in the family; Wilderii soft rose. 
All the preceding are double, of fine form, those marked with 
an asterisk being old favourites with growers. The following 
are either single or semi-double, and are very useful for cutting 

Dictionary of Plants. 115 

wlien lialf expanded: Alha marginata single red, variegated 
foliage; DoncTcelaarii semi-double, ricli crimson, marbled and 
blotched wbite; Reticulata semi-double, bright rosy lake; Sa- 
sanqua foliis variegatis, single red, variegated foliage; Sasanqua 
rosea single, bright red ; Tricolor semi-double, white, deeply 
flamed with carmine. We have excluded striped and flames 
flowers, because, as a rule they have a somewhat confused 
appearance, but if anyone wishes for them they are rather 
plentiful. All the above are suited to pot cultivation, and, 
if one of each is obtained, they make a nice selection. 

Campanula. — Hardy herbaceous perennial. Grown for 
their blooms. Minimum temperature (when grown in pots), 
30deg. Campanulas, or bell flowers, are amongst the most 
beautiful plants grown, both for form and colour of the bloom 
and the form and fresh green appearance of the foliage. The 
dwarf varieties are really very fine for pot culture, and form 
masses of light green foliage covered with a greater or less 
number of bright white or blue flowers, that render the plants 
very acceptable either for rooms or the cool greenhouse. 

A comparatively rich sandy loam suits the plants, if plenty of 
drainage is afforded. We keep them in cold frames during the 
winter, and introduce them as required, unless, indeed, it has 
been found necessary to keep them in the greenhouse altogether. 
The chimney Campanula is quite out of place in a small house, 
and, besides, it is not of any great decorative merit, the dwarf 
kinds only being really admissible to the greenhouse. As a 
rule. Campanulas should be repotted in autumn; pot firmly, 
and keep the crown of the plant just a trifle raised above 
the soil, or at times they will fog off through the water 
lodging aro.und the collars. The plants should be repotted 
each autumn, when they may be divided into as many plants 
as there are rooted crowns, if numbers are the chief object ; 
but if moderate sized plants are desired, then the old plants 
should not be too much divided. 

Propagated by means of division, or by seeds sown on sandy 
loam in April or May. 

Of sorts there is a pretty wide selection, especially as the 

1 16 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

greater part of the family can be cultivated in pots. 0. Garga- 
nica, pale blue, 6in. ; C. G. alba, wbite, 6in. ; G. Carpatica, blue, 
9in. (Fig. 36); C. G. pallida, pale blue; G. G. alba, white; G. tur- 

Pi0. 36.— Campanula Carpatica. 

Fig. 37. — Campanula Media. 

binata, purple blue, 9in. ; C. t. fioribunda, blue; 0. t alba, white; 
G. Barrelieri, 6in., blue; G. nitida, blue, 6in. ; G. n. flore pleno, 
blue; G. pulla, 6m., blue; and C. rubra, red, 6in., we have found 
to answer the purpose well, and at times we have used the Canter- 

Dictionary of Plants. 1 17 

bury bell— C. media (Fig. 37) and C media fi. pi. — very success- 
fully. The plants are grown out doors until just before tbe 
flowers open, and are then carefully potted up and watered; 
on being kept in the shade for a few days, the blooms open and 
become very handsome. The new variety, 0. media calycan- 
thema, in which the calyx is of the same colour as the corolla, 
is also very effective when treated in this way. 

Canna. — Half-hardy herbaceous perennial plant. Grown for 
its foliage. Minimum temperature when at rest, 30deg. These 
plants are used very much for subtropical gardening, and 
they are very fine, as will be seen by Fig. 39, and a few 
plants transferred into the house late in the year have a 
bright appearance for a month or so. It is, however, for the 
flower garden that the Canna is chiefly grown, and for this 
reason it is advisable to treat them for this purpose and for 
the cold greenhouse alone, and, if it is desired to introduce a 
few plants into the greenhouse late in the season, they can be 
grown in the borders or kitchen garden. Fig. 38 shows growth 
and inflorescence of C. indica. 

As Cannas can be raised from seeds as well as division of the 
roots, we give the treatment from the first. Seeds should be 
sown in light soil in January or February, in a brisk bottom 
heat, and, when large enough, should be potted off singly into 
small pots, using rich moderately light soil. As soon as the 
roots kiss the sides of the pots, re-pot into 4in. pots, and get the 
plants hardened off by the end of May, so that they can be put 
out early in June. A deep, rich, loamy soil is the best for the 
plants while out of doors, and good- drainage is a necessity. 
Plants to be put into the greenhouse should be taken up and 
potted into large pots about the end of August, well watered, 
and kept close for a week, when they may be stood out of 
doors until the time arrives for frost, and then they can be 
housed. As soon as the frost cuts down the foliage the old 
plants should be taken up, placed in boxes, and kept mode- 
rately dry until March, when they can be divided and started 
in the greenhouse preparatory to bedding-out in June. Besides 
the ordinary green foliage, some of the plants have leaves 

1 18 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

finely marked, wliicli tlius form an additional attraction, while 
the flower (which somewhat resembles that of the gladiolus) is 
very handsome. 

Propagated by seeds, as described above, and by division of 

Fio. 38.— Canna Indica, showing New Growth and Inflorescence. 

the roots when growth has just started in spring. The latter 
plan is, perhaps, the best, as it takes a long time comparatively 
to get good plants from seeds. 

The following is a selection of really good sorts, and well 
worth cultivation : C. Annei, large glaucous foliage ; C. A. dis- 

Dictionary of Plants. 


color, purple stems, orange flowers; G. A.fidgida, zebra-marked 
foliage; C. A. rosea, tall, orange flowers ; C. Angnste Ferriere, 
very large oval green leaves, orange-red flowers, plants eight fe^ 


Fig. 3D.— Canna, sho-wing Entire Plant. 

liigh ; C. aurantiaca zehrina, brown barred foliage ; 0. coccinea 
vera, scarlet flowers; 0. Daniel Hooinbrencb, bright yeilow 
flowers ; 0. Depute Heron, leaves glaucous, flowers sulphur and 

120 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

orange ; C. excelsa zebrina, dark-veined long leaves ; C. expansa 
rubra, dark leaves, blood-red flowers ; C. insignis, large foliage 
rayed witli cliocolate ; C. limbata major, undulated foliage, red 
flowers; (7. 77ie^aZZica, magnificent reddish bronze leaves ; C.Ren- 
datleri, long narrow violet leaves, orange flower ; C. Schubertii, 
ruby flowers; C. tricolor, very fine foliage, streaked and mottled 
with creamy white, and margined with red, and red stems ; and 
C. Warszewiczii major, scarlet flowers, . green musae-like foliage, 
dark margins. Of course, all these will not be grown, but on no 
account should C. tricolor be omitted, as it is so very beautiful. 

Carnation (Tree or Perpetual). — Hardy, or nearly hardy, 
soft-wooded plant. Grown for its flowers. Minimum tem- 
perature, 40deg. 

These are, without doubt, some of the most useful plants 
grown for cut bloom, and, as the culture is of the easiest, it 
is a matter of much sui'prise to us that they are not more 
grown by amateurs than is at present the case. 

"We strike the plants from June till the end of September in 
the ordinary manner, and, when well rooted, pot them off into 
Sin. pots ; when established in these, about the end of August, 
we give a shift into 4in. pots, in which they are wintered 
the first season. As the plants are nearly, if not quite 
hardy, all the light and air possible are given, and undue 
moisture avoided. The second season the plants are grown on 
and not allowed to bloom, two or three shifts being given until 
they are in 12in. pots, when they will be from 2ft. to 4ft. high, 
and capable of producing a large amount of bloom, as, unlike 
the old clove carnation, if well treated, they bear abundance of 
flowers, which are like those shown in the illustration (Fig. 40). 
Meanwhile the shoots are tramed out into their places, and the 
general contour arranged. When the pots are filled with roots, 
liquid manure is supplied, and about the middle of September 
the plants are taken indoors, and plenty of air admitted for 
some days. By maintaining a temperature of 5deg., and ap- 
plying sulphate of ammonia as liquid manure, ample bloom 
is obtained in the proper season. 

For soil we use good fibrous yellow loam, and sand enough to 

Dictionary of Plants. 


keep the wliole sufficiently porous to admit of the free passage 
of water. By this system late bloom is obtained. 

Where heat can be afforded without detriment to other 
subjects in the house, the following is as good a plan of culture 
as any. From November to the end of February take cuttings 
and strike them in bottom heat; as soon as rooted pot them 
off and gradually harden them, so that they will bear removal 
to the greenhouse, where 
they should remain till April. 
Then plant them out on 
heavily-manured ground, and 
water in, if necessary. In 
June go over the plants and 
take off the tops, and about 
once a fortnight take off' the 
tops of any of the side 
shoots which may appear 
likely to bloom. About the 
end of Sex)tember carefully 
pot up the plants, and shade 
for a week or ten days, being 
careful to keep them in a 
healthy state of moisture, and 
give an unlimited supply of air 
until frost sets in. Commence 
fire heat in the early part of 
November, gradually work- 
ing up to and maintaining a 
night temperature of 60deg., 

admitting a free circulation of warmed air during the day. 
Fumigation must be resorted to if fly should put in an 
appearance, and, for mildew, flowers of sulphur should be 
thoroughly dusted over the plants, washing it off after three 
days, and being very careful to remove all dirt from the 

Propagated by layers or cuttings, as described above. 

The following are very good sorts for general purposes : 
Garibaldi, rosy scarlet; Souvenir de Malmaison, blush white;. 

Fia. 40.— Group of Carnations. 

122 Greenhouse Manacrement for Amateurs. 

Bride, piire white ; Covent Garden Scarlet, scarlet, very fine ; 
Dragon, scarlet ; Boule de Feu, scarlet ; Prince of Orange, 
yellow, edged crimson ; La Belle, pure white ; Jean Bart, bright 
scarlet ; Oscar, yellow ; Henshaw's Scarlet, good scarlet ; Lee's 
Scarlet, a very good serrulated scarlet ; Yaliant, rosy scarlet ; 
Rembrandt, large crimson ; Maiden's Blush, blush white. 
Rather more trouble will be found with the yellows than with 
the other varieties, but the yellow sorts are often the most 

Cassia. — Greenhouse hard-wooded shrub. Grown for 'its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 30deg. This is one of those 
good old-fashioned plants that the rage for novelties has nearly 
displaced, and consequently it is not seen so often as it 
should be. Its beautiful hawthorn- shaped golden blossoms, 
which are borne plentifully in teiTuinal clusters from June 
till the end of the year, are always in demand for cutting, 
and make a back wall or pillar a mass of golden wealth. It 
is also a fine subject for outdoor decoration, as it blooms till 
frost cuts it down. Young stock struck in sj^ring and grown 
on make very acceptable plants for autumn decoration, and, 
in fact, no house should be without them. Indeed, Cassia 
corymhosa (yellow) is one of those old neglected plants that 
well repay cultivation, but from prejudice, or some other 
reason, seem almost dying out. From the very simple nature 
of its culture it is essentially a plant for the amateur, and 
should never be omitted from a collection of hard-wooded 
plants. For indoor use we pot in maiden loam and sand 
and a little peat, and in this the Cassia does well. For out- 
doors, we plant out in June, and as soon as the frost touches 
the foliage we pot them up (after cutting back nearly to the old 
wood), and winter in the back part of the greenhouse, or where 
there is a vinery, in that, just keeping out frost. For beauty 
of bloom, easiness of culture, and general usefulness, in our 
opinion, there is no plant to beat this. 

Propagated by cuttings inserted in pots of sandy soil, either 
in a greenhouse or by the aid of a little bottom neat. As a 
rule, spring is the best time to strike cuttings. 

Dictionary of Plants. 123 

Celosia. — Tender aminal. Grown for its inflorescence. 
Minimum temperature, 50deg. Unlike cockscombs, Celosias 
have large plumes of bloom, and form pyramidal masses of 
colour, not greatly unlike tlie old Love-lies-bleeding and Prince's 
feathers, "which they resemble, in both leaf and inflorescence, 
to a great extent. The Celosias are, however, greenhouse sub- 
jects, while the amaranthuses are practically hardy. The 
plants attain a height of from 2ft. to 5ft., and in some 
strains they have a graceful pendant habit, which renders 
tbem particularly beautiful when they are well grown. Like 
cockscombs, they do not really answer unless a moist warmth 
is kept up, and, like them, they must be kept near the glass, 
and have plenty of room for their free development. With all 
the Celosias frequent syringings are also necessary to keep 
down thrips and red spider ; but, if grown in a moist frame, less 
trouble will be experienced on this head. The seed should be 
sown in the same manner as cockscombs, and the treatment 
should be the same until the first potting. After this the plants 
should have frequent shifts until the blooming pots are reached, 
those for the largest plants being 12in. ; but they can be 
bloomed from Gin. pots upwards. A moist genial atmosphere 
must be maintained, and the plants must not suffer from 
drought, or the foliage will be lost. As soon as they 
become too lai-ge for the frames, they should be transferred 
to a span-roof greenhouse, allowing plenty of room for the 
circulation of air and free admission of light, and plunging 
the pots in cocoa-fibre to maintain as equable a temperature of 
the soil as possible. As soon as the blooming pots are filled 
with roots, copious supplies of liquid manure should be given, 
and, where necessary, stakes should be placed to the plants to 
keep them upright under the weight of plumes. Such little 
matters of routine as we have frequently mentioned before will 
also require to be seen to and the plants will be well worth the 
trouble taken with them. 

Propagated from seeds as described above. 

The sorts of Celosia pijramidalis that are to be recommended 
are C. p. aurea, yellow; C. p. coccinea, scarlet; and C. p* 
puvpurea, purple. 

124 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Centaurea. — Half-Lardy perennial. Grown for its foliage. 
Minimum temperature, 40deg. These are white-foliaged plants 
of much, use for bedding purposes, and also for the decoration of 
the greenhouse during the cooler months of the year ; and as they 
have a somewhat snowy appearance, they blend well with richer 
forms of coloured foliage, but the thistle-like blooms, which are 
generally yellow, are of no value from a decorative point of view. 
The culture is simple. 

Sow seeds in August on sandy soil, and prick off into small 
pots, and as soon as the roots fill them, re-pot into large 
sixties. Winter the plants in these, and in March re-pot into 
4in. pots, in which the plants can stand until June, when, if 
large plants are required, they can be re-potted into 6in. pots. 
During the summer, the plants can be stood out in the frames, 
or where grown as bedding plants they can be put out, and 
the contrast afforded will be very good. A moderately rich 
and sandy soil is necessary, and freedom from excessive 
moisture is essential. The plants can also be raised from 
cuttings taken off with a heel attached, and struck during 
summer in a frame facing the north, or in a slight bottom heat 
in spring. 

Propagated by seeds or cuttings, as described above. 

For sorts choose from C. argentea ijliimosa; C. gymnocarpa; 
C. ragusina, and C. r. compacta. 

Cerasus. — Hardy hard-wooded small tree or shrub. Grown 
for its flowers. Minimum temperature (for pot work), SOdeg. 
The cherries are very useful for house decoration if treated the 
same as almonds. The double varieties are the best for the 
purpose, having flowers like large double daisies, either white 
or pinkish white, according to the nature of the soil. The single 
varieties are of little use indoors, but are fine outside; and 
as the bloom is not so persistent as in the double kinds, the 
plants are not so well suited for indoor work. The application 
of manure of a highly nitrogenous character frequently causes 
the blooms to be suffused with pink to a greater or less degree ; 
but it is better to select plants having this characteristic while 
they are in bloom, so as to insure — to a certain degree — its 

Dictionary of Plants, 125 

repetition. These are amongst the prettiest hardy deciduous 
hard-wooded subjects there are. 

Propagation is effected by grafting on stocks of C Mahaleb, 
or in modern practice generally by budding ; grafting just as 
the growth starts, and budding when the bark will " run " well 
and the plants are in active growth. 

C. Japonica multiplex, double dwarf pink ; C. J. alba fi. pi. 
double dwarf white ; C. serrulata, double Chinese ; C. sylvestris 
fl. pi., double French ; and G. vulgaris fl. pi., common 
double, are about the most useful of all the plants amongst 
the cherries, and, as we said before, they well repay any 
trouble bestowed on getting them forward in the house. 

Chimouauthus. — Hardy hard- wooded shrub. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 30deg. This is a very useful 
class of plant, of very easy culture, best suited for planting out 
in the borders of a conservatory. In fact, we have never seen it 
done well in pots, either in a private garden or nursery, and, 
therefore, cannot recommend it for pot work. The plants should 
be grown in a compost of loam and sand, enriched with leaf soil, 
a sufficient root space should be afforded, and they should 
be trained against a wall, so arranged that a sufficient space 
for the full development of the large laurel- shaped foliage is 
afforded. The same general treatment as regards watering, 
ventilation, &c., should be given as to other hardy hard- wooded 
subjects, and the plants will grow and bloom freely. The flowers 
are highly fragrant, and although not very ornamental, are yet 
very useful for various purposes. 

Propagated by cuttings, taken oif while the plant is at rest, 
and struck in sandy soil in cold frames. It is, however, the 
better plan to purchase plants when needed, as but little good is 
to be gained by propagating plants of this class. 

The sorts we would recommend are 0. fra grans, brown, and 
C. luteus, yellow; C. grandijiorus, yellow, is also very good. 

Chorizema. — Greenhouse hard-wooded shrub. Grown for 
flowers and general appearance. Minimum temperature, 40deg. 
This is a family of plants that is most decidedly ornamental, 

126 Greenhouse Management for Ajnateurs. 

and although not so easy of culture as some of the other hard- 
wooded plants, will repay any trouble bestowed on it. The 
pea-shaped flowers are very handy for bouquets, and the small 
holly-like foliage is also very elegant, being of a very fresh 
green. Trained on a balloon frame, about fifteen inches 
high, the plants when well bloomed form quite " a picture," 
and for decorating a window are first-rate. Allowed to grow 
naturally, small specimens are very effective, and amongst 
other flowering plants give a rich, bright appearance that 
few other subjects possess, and many amateurs we have known 
say they cannot wish for a better retui-n for their care and 
attention than these plants give. The flowers, which are 
somewhat pea-shaped, are borne well above the foliage, and 
are not so awkward to arrange in a bouquet as some others, 
and for this reason alone would be worth cultivation, were the 
bright colours left out of consideration. The plants can be kept 
outdoors from the beginning of July till well into September, 
and require no trouble with the exception of watering. Potting 
should be performed as soon as the plants cease blooming. 

The soil we use is two parts peat to one part maiden loam, 
and plenty of sharp sand. "We are aware that some gardeners 
use a somewhat different compost, but we bave always had good 
success witb tbe above, and can recommend it. 

Propagated by means of cuttings struck in a gentle bottom 
heat, or what is more useful to amateurs, by seeds sown in April, 
and as soon as large enough, potted off into small sixty-sized 
pots, where they. will, after once stopping, remain till the follow- 
ing spring. Ke-pot in March or April, and afterwards treat as 
for the older stock. 

For sorts the following will suit the most fastidious, and we 
know that where we have had them they have given every satis- 
faction : C corcZa^rt, red ; C. cordata splenclens, red; C.flava; G. 
ilicifolia, yeLow; C. Laivrenciana, orange; C. macrophylla, red; 
C ovata, scarlet ; 0. varia, orange, red ; C. varia nana, dwarf 
yellow, red ; C. varia Chandlerii, orange, red ; amd C. varia 
rotundifolia, red. 

Chrysanthennim. — Hardy herbaceous perennial soft-wooded 

Dictionary of Plants. 


plant. Grown for its flowers. Minimum temperature (for pot 
work), 36deg. These, though hardy, if grown for indoor 
decoration require such special treatment as to render them 
worthy of a place amongst greenhouse plants. "Whether the 
pompones, ordinary sorts, or Japanese varieties are grown, the 
show of colour and varied form will be very great, and supposing 

Fio. 41,— New Japanese Chrysanthemum, "Chinaman." 

that a fair collection exists, a very good display of colour will 
result. Indeed, the varied colours render the greenhouse very 
gay for some of the dullest months in the year. In all cases it 
is, however, . veiy necessary that proper attention and liberal 
culture be given, or the plants will not be so brilliant either in 
foliage or bloom ; and as good foliage is as much an essential as 
fine blooms, plants that are deficient in that respect are certainly 

128 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

not good specimens of culture. With all flowering plants bai'o 
stems, as a rule, indicate some error in their cultivation, and to 
exhibit such plants on the stage of a greenhouse generally shows 
up their defects. The methods of cultivation are legion, and 
nearly everyone who grows for market or home use has some 

Fig. 42.— Japanese Chrysanthemum, " Red Dragon." 

particular part or parts of his treatment different to his neigh- 
bour's. But whatever plan is pursued, the object is the same, 
i.e., the production of well-fumished, free-flowering plants, of 
not too great a size. For the use of an amateur, large plants 
are frequently in the way, as are also those which attain a great 
height, unless, indeed, the bloom is required for cutting for 
exhibitions, when the best plan is to allow the plants to attain 

Dictionary of Plants. 


their maximum growth, as finer flowers are then produced, but 
as only one or two blooms are allowed to each, plants grown for 
cut blooms are certainly not very ornamental. 

In the end of March or the two first weeks in April, strong 

Pig. 43.— Recurved Chrysanthemum, "Dr. Sharpe.* 

cuttings, Sin. or 4in. long, should be inserted, three in a Sin. pot, 
and the pots should be plunged into a gentle hotbed. When 
well rooted, the plants should be hardened off somewhat and 
potted singly into Sin. pots, keeping them close for a few days and 
then giving air more or less freely, according to the weather. As 


130 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

soon as tTie young plants have grown about 2in., tlie points 
should be pinched out, so that they may be induced to 
break freely, a point of much moment. As soon as the pots are 
fall of roots (not pot bound) a shift into 4in. or 6in. pots should 
be given, particular attention being paid to watering and stop- 
ping back where necessary. About the end of May the plants 
can be removed to their blooming pots, Sin. or lOin., and 
at once plunged in a bed of coal ashes. The soil used 

Fni. 44.— Ankmone-flowered Pompone. 

for potting should be composed of three parts good loam, one 
part rotten manure, and one part good rotten leaf soil, with, 
perhaps, a small quantity of hoof raspings from a farrier's shop. 
To these a sufficient quantity of sharp sand should be added to 
render the whole sufficiently porous to admit of the free passage 
of water. Drainage should be particularly cared for, on account 
of the large quantity of water the plants require during their 
season of growth. They should not be stopped after the middle 

Dictionary of Plants. 


of June, but tlie branches should be kept -well tied out, both 
to admit a free circulation of air and to maintain a comely, 
well-balanced shape. As the pots become filled with roots 
liquid manure should be supplied, and continued until the 
blooms begin to open, when it should be discontinued. Another 
plan is to turn the plants out into good soil in April and care- 
fully grow them on outdoors, potting them up in the end of 

Fig. 45.— New Pompone, "Model of Perfection." 

September. Small plants are easily obtained by layering 
branches, and, when rooted, gradually severing the branch, and 
then potting the young plants without injuring the roots more 
than can be avoided. Chrysanthemums bloom well in a tem- 
perature of 38deg. to 45deg., provided plenty of air is admitted 
to keep down mildew. Fly must be got rid of by fumigation 
and mildew by dusting the parts affected with flowers of 
sulphur. The chrysanthemum fly is sometimes troublesome. 

K 2 

132 Greenhouse Mana^^ement for Afnateurs. 

The egg is laid under the skin of the leaf, and if the grubs are 
not removed tlie plant is very much weakened. Their presence 
is easily detected by the brown channels they form in the leaves. 

Propagation is effected by cuttings as described above. 

The following are some good plants for pot culture, thougb 
most of tliem are old : — Anemone- flowered -. Antonius, yellow ; 
Empress, lilac ; Prince of Anemones, lilac blush ; Lady Mar- 
garet, white; King of Anemones, crimson purple; Firefly, bright 
scarlet. Pompones : Aigle d'Or, yellow ; Helene, rosy violet ; 
Madge "Wildfire, bright red, gold tips ; Mrs. Dix, blush ; Rose 
Trevenna, rosy blush ; The Little Gem, delicate peach ; Model of 
Perfection (Fig. 45), beautifully quilled, and of a delicate mauve 
colour, with petals edged with a lighter tint. In Fig. 44 we 
illustrate an Anemone-flowered Pompone. Japanese : China- 
man (Fig. 41) is one of tbe newest and most remarkable of this 
picturesque tribe, with curiously twisted florets, the effect of 
wbich is increased by the telling contrast of upper and lower 
sides. The other type we give of this class is our old favourite, 
Red Dragon (Fig. 42); this is a large, loose flower, of a rich red 
cbestnut, tipped and centred with gold. Prince Satsuma, golden 
yellow; Tasselled Yellow, good yellow. Chinese or ordinary : C. 
aurea inultiflora, pure yellow; Beverley, ivory white; General 
Slade, Indian red, orange tips ; Gloria Mundi, golden yellow ; 
Golden Beverley, rich gold ; Golden Queen, canary yellow ; 
Josiah. Wedgwood, rosy carmine; Lady Slade, lilac, pink centre; 
Mount Etna, rich red ; Mibs Mary Morgan, delicate pink ; Mrs. 
G. Rundle, white ; Prince Alfred, rosy crimson ; Queen of 
England, ivory white ; Queen of Whites, large white ; Rifleman, 
dark ruby; Bosa oiintabilis, delicate peach; Sam Slick, ruby, 
bronze tips; Yellow Perfection, golden yellow. The reflexed 
flowered class form a very distinct group, one of th.e best of 
which is Dr. Sharpe (Fig. 43), a conspicuous, perfectly-shaped 
flower, of a rich, amaranth colour, and of recent introduction. 
The above sorts, if obtained true, will be found to answer all 
requirements, and all the plants are good both in foliage and 

Cineraria. — Half-hardy perennial soft-wooded plant. Grown 

Dictionary of Plants, 


for its flowers (see Fig. 46). Minimnm temperature, 38deg. These 
are amongst the most ornamental, and, at the same time, most 
easily grown plants there are, and as a half-crown packet of 

Fig. 46.— Flowering Head of Cinerakia. 

good seed will produce a vast assortment of colours, they 
should be grown by everyone possessing a house where 
frost is excluded during winter. The colours range from 
pure white to purple and crimson in selfs, and all the 

134 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs, 

various colours, banded witli others, as wliite banded with 
crimson, wliite banded with blue, blue banded with white, &c., 
all of which contrasts are very effective and look excellently 
well as individual blooms. Some of the named varieties are 
fine, but, at the same time, many of the " strains " of seedlings 
of the last few years are (except in the view of professional 
florists) as near perfection as possible. In all cases it is advis- 
able to grow Cinerarias in loits or frames, so that they do not 
exceed 18in. in height, with just enough heat to keep out frost ; 
but, as the generality of amateurs cannot afford heated pits, 
the plants should be grown in frames until frost sets in, and 
then removed to a light airy position in the greenhouse to pro- 
duce their daisy-like blooms. Seed should be sown under glass 
in July and August, and, when large enough, the young 
plants should be potted off into small pots, and kept close for a 
few days. As soon as the roots kiss the sides of the pots, 
give a shift into others an inch larger, and continue to do ro 
until Sin. pots are reached, when liquid manure should be 
applied, and as the plants get pot bound they will commence 
to bloom. In the case of edged varieties, as soon as they 
commence to show colour the liquid manure should be discon- 
tinued and clear water substituted, or the flowers will become 
muddy, and not look well. With old plants the culture is much 
the same ; the plants are divided early in August, repotted into 
small pots, and grown on as before directed. 

For soil use the following compost : Two parts of fiKrous loam, 
one part leaf soil, and one part cow manure, with enough sand to 
keep the whole open, for if once the plants get waterlogged they 
are spoiled. It is, therefore, necessary to provide plenty of 
drainage to each pot, and to stand the plants where the watei 
will run away easily, instead of placing them in saucers where, 
as is too often the case, the stagnant water is not removed. 
Pegging out the foliage and tying out the blooms wiU, of 
course, be necessary to make the plant appear at its best. 
After blooming, such plants as it may be desirable to keep 
should be cut down to within 6in. of the pots, so that they 
shall afford plenty of suckers to provide the plants of the 
aext season. Green fly must be kept down by frequent fumiga- 

Dictionary of Plants. 135 

tion, and should mildew appear, flowers of sulpliur should be 
dusted over the plants. 

Propagated from seeds or divisions, as described above. 

We grive a selection of some really good named varieties : — SeZ/s : 
Adam Bede, bright rose ; Blue Beard, deep blue ; Brilliant, bright 
crimson; Captain Schriber, light blue; Duke of Cambridge, 
crimson; Eclipse, rosy carmine; Eclat, shaded pui-ple ; Reynolds 
Hole, scarlet crimson : Snowflake, pure white ; Uncle Toby, 
deep purple. Edged and banded : Agrippa, white, rosy crimson 
edge; Amazon, light ground, crimson edge; Auricula, white, 
heavily tipped blue; Bridesmaid, white, purple margin; Chan- 
cellor, deep purplish crimson, white circle and disc : Chas. 
Dickens, white, rosy crimson edge; Evelyn, light ground, tipped 
crimson ; Flora, pure white, crimson edge ; Ino, white ground, 
heavily tipped crimson ; Juno, crimson, white ring ; Meteor, 
crimson, white ring; Miranda, white, blue edge; Orb of Day, 
rich glossy crimson, white ring; Zoe, rich crimson, light ring. 
As it is impossible to suit anyone's taste by a mere descrip- 
tion, we would advise those who require a collection of really 
nice sorts, all distinct, to visit a good collection in the blooming 
season, and select the varieties that they prefer, as tastes vary 

Citrus. — Hard-wooded greenhouse shnib or small tree. 
Grown for its flowers and general appearance. Minimum tem- 
perature, 40deg. (45deg. for fruiting plants). To this family 
belong the orange, lemon, citron, and two or three other 
fruits, and it is generally the wish of the proprietor of a green- 
house to grow and fruit one or other of these. Now, however 
unsuccessful anyone may have been, there is not the least 
reason why oranges should not be bloomed (if not fruited) in 
every light conservatory or greenhouse in the land, if only our 
directions are followed, and, in any case, it will be found that 
the bloom, which is five cleft, sweetly scented, and borne either 
separately or in small axillary clusters on the terminal branches, 
alone pays for any trouble bestowed on the plants. The first 
consideration is, what sort of orange to grow. In this, please 
yourself, as all the Citrus family are pretty, but for our own 

136 Greenhouse Manaaement for Amateurs. 

part, C aurantium (tlie sweet orange, Fig. 48) would be the 
clioice, as it is no more trouble to grow tlian tlie compara- 
tively useless bitter orange, and, should fruit be perfected, it is 
usable, whereas that of the bitter orange is of too acrid a flavour 
to be at all pleasant. The bloom is, moreover, as useful as is 
that of all the oranges (see Fig. 47). To grow any of the Citrus 
family well, attention must be paid particularly to the soil. 

F16. 47. — Flowering Branch of Orange {C. aurantium). 

This should be sound, hea^'y loam, to which a liberal portion 
of sand has been added. No manure should be used, as it tends 
to promote the growth of fungi. During the growing season 
some liquid manure should be regularly supplied, but as soon as 
growth begins to slacken, this should be gradually stopped and 
clear water substituted. A moist atmosphere should also be 
kept up while growth is vigorously going on, and for this reason 

Dictionary of Plants. 


a Yinery is a very good place for the plants at this season; where 
a dry atmosphere is maintained the plants are sure to have a 
starved and stunted appearance, very foreign to what it should 
be, and, as a rule, the bloom will be poor and scarce. In potting, 
the soil should be moderately hard in the pot, or the wood will 
be too soft and sappy and not ripen properly. It should not, 
however, be too much compressed, or the plants will not thrive. 
In a greenhouse the heat must not go below 40deg. in winter, 

Fig. 48.— Fkuiting Branch of Okange. 

and in summer, of course, it will depend on circumstances, 
but, in all cases, plenty of air is necessary unless frost 
is present. We have fruited the Tangerine orange in an 
ordinary greenhouse, heated by a flue, and always found (with 
some dozens of plants) the preceding treatment answer very 
well, as we had plenty of fruit and cut bloom. Of course, 
the plants have to be kept clear of insects and dirt, or they 
soon begin to suffer, as will any evergreen. 

I'SS Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Properly worked plants must be obtained if flowers are 
desired, altliough those raised from seed are interesting from 

Fig. 49.— Fruiting Branch of Lejion (C. ac\d.a). 

the remembrances they bear. It is, however, many years before 
they bear fruit. 

Dictionary of Plants. 139 

Propagated by grafting in the same way as tlie camellia, or 
from seeds, but seedlings take a very long time to get into a 
blooming state. It is by far tbe better plan to purchase the 
jDlants in a fruiting state at first, as then there is a good chance 
of achieving success. 

The sorts we have grown comprise C. acida, lemon (Fig. 49); G. 
auranthim, sweet orange; C. aurantium bigardia, bitter orange; 
C. aurantium sanguinea, blood orange ; 0. limonum, lime; 
C. Medica, citron ; and C. myrtifolia, myrtle-leaved orange. 

Clematis. — Hardy hard-wooded climber. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 36deg. In this family we 
have a class of plants which is useful and good in all green- 
houses or conservatories alike. The flowers of some of the 
varieties are really magnificent, both as to size and colour ; 
and when trained on a wall or on a balloon trellis the effect 
they produce is more easily imagined than described. The 
flowers of most of the Clematis are borne in axillary clusters, 
or singly, at the end of the current year's wood, and, in some 
kinds, are somewhat like the Japanese anemones in form, while 
in others they are more deeply cleft, and like single dahlias, 
save in colour and the number of petals, which are fewer. 
In size the flowers vary from an inch to four inches in 
diameter, but the medium flowering sorts of the Jackmanii 
type are the most floriferous. Of course, large effects cannot 
be expected from small specimens, and to produce large ones 
it is necessary to give liberal culture. The majority of 
Clematis are quite hardy, and should, therefore, receive plenty 
of air, and but little excitement from too great a heat, or 
the shoots exhaust the roots to a great extent, and, after 
a time, the plants become less floriferous and useful. For 
general purposes, therefore, it is preferable to have a well- 
lighted house for the cultivation of the Clematis, and care 
should also be taken to avoid a too close atmosphere, a well- 
ventilated house being a sine qua non. As the blooms are 
produced on the ends of the current year's shoots the mode 
of cultivation should be such as will allow the plants to be 
well pruned back each winter, and also the situation chosen 

140 Greenhouse Management for Ajnateurs. 

should be suitable for this purpose, or a vast amount of bare 
steins will soon be obtained. The secret of success lies in 
liberal cultui'e and close pruning ; when we say close pruning, 
we mean spun-ing the shoots in to two or three eyes. For 
soil, use three parts good sandy loam and one-fourth well- 
rotted manure, thoroughly incorporated. To these may be 
added about an eighth pai*t of broken sandstone, or broken 
bricks passed through a ^in. meshed sieve, so that the requisite 
porosity may be maintained, as Clematis dislike a wet, heavy 
soil, and, in fact, soon die out in it. If the plants are put 
into the borders, they should have 6in. of drainage, and 18in. 
to 24in, of the above compost in which to grow. During the 
period of growth liberal supplies of liquid manure should be 
given, and by cutting back the shoots when they cease bloom- 
ing two or three successive lots of bloom can be easily obtained. 
A house that has a temperature of 40deg. to 50deg. is the 
best, and whether the plants are trained on the roof or on a 
back wall, the above rules should be observed. 

Propagated by root grafting, which needs especial skill, and 
special structures. 

The following are good for house cultivation : C. aristata, 
C. indivisa lohata, C. Jachmanii, C. magnijica, Thomas Moore, 
C. Standishi, Lady Bovill, Mr. F. 0. Baker, Albert 
Victor, Lucy Lemoine, John Gould Yeitch, C. rubella, 
Star of India, and Lady Caroline Nevill. All but the first 
two are hardy and have very fine flowers, and all or any of 
them are well worthy of cultivation. 

Clianthus. — Greenhouse hard-wooded climber. Grown for 
its flowers and general appearance. Minimum temperature, 
40deg. This is a greenhouse climber of much beauty, the 
papilionaceous, flowers being both large and of a brilliant 
colour, in appearance like some of the Everlasting peas. The 
whole plant — ^the Glory Pea of New Zealand — is very orna- 
mental when well in bloom, the large flowers and handsome 
foliage contrasting well with other plants; but from its great 
liability to the attacks of red spider, it has got into disrepute 
amongst amateurs and gardeners who do not take a real 

Dictionary of Plants. 141 

interest in tlieir work. Now, it is not difficult to keep down 
spider if it is not allowed to get a firm footing on tlie 
plants, but let it once get fairly at liome on the foliage, it 
is almost an impossibility to be rid of it. The only way to 
keep down red spider is to syringe daily throughout the grow- 
ing season with clean water. Scale sometimes attacks them, 
but careful hand picking and sponging with Fowler's Insecticide 
will keep this unwelcome visitant at bay. The best plan for 
an amateur to pursue is to obtain j^lants from a nursery in 
the fall of the year, and keep them in a greenhouse until 
April, when they should be examined, and if the roots are 
moving they should have a 2in. shift, good fibrous sandy loam 
and sand being used for compost, or, if this is not attainable, 
peat and sand. The compost should not be sifted, but should 
be broken up by hand and compressed firmly in the pots. 
After potting, the plants should be placed in a pit with other 
young hard-wooded subjects, kept close for a few weeks, 
and turned and syringed daily. Training must be attended 
to regularly if it is desirable to keep the base of the plants 
well furnished, as the wood when old is very liable to break 
off. If it is preferred to keep the plants in pots, they can 
be either trained out on sticks or on a trellis, either flat or 
balloon-shaped, or they may be planted out as pillar or wall 
plants, but from their liability to the attacks of spider the 
amateur will probably do them best in pots. Remove the 
points of the leading shoots and attend to watering at the 
roots, and the treatment is complete for the season. "Winter 
as before, and give a Sin. shift in April, attending to watering 
and syringing, and as they will probably bloom during 
July or August, the leading shoots should not be stopped. 
After blooming the shoots should be cut back and the plants 
be treated as before. The next season give another Sin. shift 
and treat as previously, and a good head of bloom will result. If 
only moderate sized plants are required, instead of re-potting, 
remove the top Sin. of soil from the pots and fill ivith the 
compost above recommended, to which a fifth part of rotten 
manure has been added; apply liquid manure once or twice 
a week, and with this treatment the plants will last for years^ 

142 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Propagated from seeds sown in spring in sandy soil on n 
gentle bottom heat, and re-potted and grown on carefullj. 

Fig. 50.— Cobcea Scakdens. 

They, however, are very awkward subjects to deal with in 
a mixed honse for the first year, owing to the attacks of 
.red spider, which cause much loss. 

Dictionary of Plants. 143 

For sorts, G. puniceus (the Glory Pea of New Zealand) and 
C. magnificus and C. Dampieri are all that can be desired. 

Clivia. — See " Imantophyllum." 

Coboea. — Greenhouse hard-wooded climlDer. Grown for its 
foliage. Minimum temperature, 40deg. This is a family of 
free-growing climbers that is suitable for either greenhouse or 
conservatory, and also for summer use out of doors. It is very 
free-growing, and, during the season, its free growth renders it 
peculiarly useful for covering the roofs of ferneries or other 
places where shade is a desideratum, as it only requires a 
circulation of air to maintain it in good health, and, as it is not 
particularly liable to the attacks of insects, it is, to say the 
least, a desirable plant for the purposes mentioned. The 
variegated form is well suited for giving brightness to bare 
walls, or for arches, porches, &c., while, like all the family, the 
general gracefulness of outline renders it an object of admira- 
tion. The Coboeas are readily raised from seeds in spring, a 
little bottom heat alone being necessary if the seed is new ; but 
old seeds are, as a rule, very unreliable. A free, moderately rich 
soil is necessary, and the plants do best if placed out in the border, 
but, at the same time, they do very well in large pots. In autumn 
the long shoots can be pruned back, and fresh growth will be 
made in spring. In fact, these are about the handiest plants 
there are for covering large spaces. The flowers, which are 
large, bell-shaped, and purple in colour, are noticeable for their 
size, but are not very decorative, and are useless for cutting. 

Propagated from seeds as described above. 

The sorts are, C scandens (Fig. 50), C. s. pendulceflora, and 
C s. variegata, which has handsome variegated foliage. 

Cockscomb. — Tender annual, grown for its inflorescence. 
Minimum temperatm-e, 60deg. Before giving cultural direc- 
tions for this plant {Celosia cristata), we may as well remark 
that it is of no use trying to cultivate it without heat, and many 
amateurs are without this requirement. Cockscombs, to be of 
real use, must be dwarf in stature, and the heads must be as 

144 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs, 

large as can be obtained, so as to present as great a mass of 
colour as possible to tlie beliolder. To the general reader -we 
say, buy the plants in full bloom, but, where it is really desired 
to grow them, great pains must be taken to obtain the proper 

conditions for their 


A good Cockscomb should be not 

Fig. 51.— Cockscomb. 

more than 9in. high, and it should be quite that width over 
the top of the bloom, if not more. The bloom, which is well 
shown in Fig. 51, should also be as wide or thick as 
possible, and, whatever the colour, it should be at the same 
time clear and dense. The foliage must be kept quite green, 
and a sufficiency of leaves should occur on the stems, or the 

Dictionary of Plants. 145 

plants will have a very poor and bare appearance, far from 
pleasing to look at. The first point in growing these plants 
is to have the seeds sown at the proper time, and in this 
respect different growers vary in opinion. It is, however, 
necessary to sow the seeds some time in March or April, 
using pans of well-drained, rich, sandy soil. Seed of a good 
strain should be obtained, and, if it is possible to obtain it 
from a gardener who has it about three years old, so much the 
better, as the plants raised therefrom are not so much inclined 
to run to leaf as those from new seeds. Where dependence 
can be placed in the seed, even if it is four or five years old, 
there is no harm done, but, in such cases, it is better to sow 
rather early, so that, if one sowing fails, there may be time to 
get in another without endangering the crop. After sowing, 
the pans should be placed in a hot-bed, with a night tempera- 
ture of about 65deg., rising to about 70deg. with sun heat. A 
moist, but not stagnant, atmosphere should be maintained, and, 
as soon as the seeds germinate, they should have plenty of light 
and just a trifle of air, care being taken that the soil in the pans 
does not become dry, or the plants will be ruined. The pans 
must be kept near the glass, and, as soon as the plants are large 
enough to handle, they should be potted off into small 60-pots, 
the seed leaves being carefully kept close to the soil, as the 
object desired is dwarfness. The pots must be placed in a 
position close to the glass, in a frame where the same con- 
ditions are maintained as above mentioned, allowing a rise 
of 5deg. or 6deg. in the day-time. The plants should be 
grown on as quickly as possible, the soil being kept rather 
dry, but, of course, not dust-dry, and, as soon as the heads 
show so that the best-formed ones can be selected, these latter 
should be re-potted into 4in. or Sin. pots, with a good soaking 
of water ere re-potting, and a few hours allowed for the pots 
to drain. After potting, the plants should have a position 
close to the glass. The pots should subsequently be plunged 
to the rims in a bed of ashes or cocoa fibre on a hotbed 
just sufficient water, but not too much, must be given, and 
.more air must be admitted. It is necessary, however, that 
the surface temperature do not fall below 65deg., or a check 

146 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

■will be given that will probably retard tlie growth of the heads. 
If the heads are required large, another shift must be given 
before they are too large or much developed, and from oin. 
to Sin. pots should be used for this final potting. The same 
rules as to keeping close to the glass, &c., must be observed, 
and, when the pots become filled with roots, liquid manure 
should be given about twice a week. 

We have found the following to be a good compost for these 
plants, if due care is taken in potting : Three parts rather light 
loam, pulled to pieces, but not sifted, except for the seed pans, 
and one part of thoroughly decayed cow manure, to which has 
been added a good dash of sharp sand. In potting, the soil 
must be pressed pretty firm around the roots, but not 
too hard, or the water will not run through. Too loose 
potting, however, will cause the plants to run too much to leaf, 
consequently it is necessary to choose the medium course. 

Propagated from seeds as described above. 

Of varieties, crimson Tom Thumb and Sutton's prize Dwarf 
are good crimsons. There is also a yellow variety, and a 
variety having heads striped with crimson and yellow alter- 
nately ; but the crimsons are best. 

Coleus. — Soft-wooded stove plant. Grown for its handsomely 
coloui-ed foliage. Minimum temperature, 55deg. These are 
foliage plants, unsurpassed for beauty of colour or richness of 
foliage, and whether grown as large or small plants, they are 
extremely useful for decorative purposes. The leaves, which 
are the chief points of beauty with coleus, vary in size from one 
to four inches long to from half an inch to two inches in 
breadth, and are shaped like those of a fuchsia, but instead of 
being glossy are of a velvety texture, and thus show off their 
varied colours to the greatest advantage. Their culture is 
very simple; no expensive manures or medicaments are required, 
but unless a minimum temperature of at least Sodeg. is main 
tained, the plants cannot be wintered successfully. In such a 
case it is far better to purchase plants in April, grow them 
on carefully for the season, and then throw them away, than 
to encumber the house with what will prove to be so much 

Dictionary of Plants. 147 

useless rubbish before tbe winter is out. The following is the 
plan we follow most successfully, as it saves us the trouble of 
wintering old plants. 

In April we purchase a quantity of plants in thumb pots, at 
a cost of about 2s. 6d. per dozen. We then transfer them into 
Sin. pots, and place in a warm part of the house, keeping 
moderately moist. As soon as the plants are about two 
inches high the points are pinched out, and this causes the 
plant to break freely, and as each break gets to be about 
two inches long we repeat the process, until a good framework 
is obtained on which the future plant can be constructed. 
As soon as the roots touch the sides of the pots a 2in. shift 
is given, and this is repeated until lOin. pots are reached, 
when, with care in training, watering, &c., magnificent plants 
will have been made, as the structure prepared at first would 
cany a very fine head of foliage. For compost we use one- 
half rotten turf from an old pasture, one-fourth thoroughly 
rotted cow manure, and the other fourth composed of sharp 
sand and leaf soil in equal proportions. Pot moderately firm, 
and water freely when growth has commenced, giving occasional 
doses of liquid manure (not sulphate of ammonia), especially 
during the hot weather, as the plants grow very rapidly then. 
Plenty of air and light must at all times be aiforded, so that 
the plants are short- jointed and the wood firm, long spindling 
shoots not holding the leaves firmly, consequently soon 
becoming bare. G-reat care must be taken that the plants do 
not suffer from the want of water, or the lower leaves 
will fall and render them unsightly. A well-grown plant 
should be of a globular or pyramidal form, and the lower 
leaves should cover the edge of the pot, so that neither bare 
stems nor soil are visible. The chief points to be observed in 
the culture of Coleus are, free rich soil, plenty of water, and 
a warm temperature, and careful attendance. The bloom is 
insignificant and of no decorative value ; when, therefore, there 
is the least appearance of a flower spike, the point of the shoot 
should be at once pinched out. 

Propagated by cuttings struck in bottom heat in spring, or, 
in fact, at any time. For greenhouse work, cuttings should be 


148 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs, 

struck in spring only. The plants, as a rule, cannot be kept 
througli the winter. 

The following are all good and effective sorts, and are well 
worth cultivation: Golden Gem, scarlet, edged gold, fringed 
edge ; Brilliant, bronzy red, yellow edge ; Hermit, dark 
purple, fringed brown; Sunrise, deep bronze red, edge beaded 
gold; Her Majesty, the same as preceding; Cloth of Gold, 
fine yellow self; Beauty of Widmore, dark marone, belted 
with rose and green, and edged with silver, very fine ; 
Refulgens, deep velvety purple, beaded bright green ; 
Warrior, intense black velvet, belted pale yellow; Princess 
of Wales, reddish carmine; Yerschaffelti, rich crimson; 
Diadem, rosy crimson, gold edge ; Mr. J. H. Claringbull, 
dark scarlet, wide golden edge ; Mrs. Galbraith, bright 
scarlet, tinged purple, edged white; and at least five hundred 
other varieties are really as good. If a couple of each of the 
above are obtained in spring and carefully grown on, they will 
form a splendid collection. 

Convallaria. — See " Lily of the Yalley." 

Coprosma. — Hard-wooded greenhouse or bedding plant. 
Grown for its general appearance, but particularly for its 
ornamental foliage. Minimum temperature, 40deg. Cojorosma 
Baueriana variegata is a shrub or plant of a highly decorative 
character, being of compact growth and having obovate leaves 
with edges of a creamy white, for which it is grown, both for 
the greenhouse and bedding out, although it is somewhat 
difficult of cultivation, oi* rather propagation. It requires a 
brisk bottom heat to strike the cuttings, but where convenience 
exists it well repays the necessary trouble. In the greenhouse 
one or two plants look very well, and they may be put out 
of doors throughout the summer. The green and white foliage 
is very conspicuous, and shows up well. Cuttings should be 
made in March, of young wood, taken off with a heel of the 
old wood adhering, and put into cutting pots filled two-thirds 
full of crocks, then a thin layer of rich light material, and 
on top a layer of sand. Place the pots in a brisk bottom 

Dictionary of Plants. 149 

heat in a propagating frame, or into a sweet hotbed, covering 
the pots in the latter case with bell glasses, and dui-ing the 
time the cuttings are making root only just sprinkle the pots 
with water, or the cuttings will damp off. When rooted, pot 
into rich sandy soil, and gradually harden off as in the case 
of other bedding plants propagated in a similar manner. 
Another plan of propagation is to place the plants in a pro- 
pagating bed, and layer the shoots that overhang the pot. 
Old plants should be potted in a similar compost to that 
recommended above, and should be pruned into shape each year 
if necessary. 
Propagated by cuttings, as already described. 

Cordyline. — For particulars of Cordyline indivisa see under 
" Dracaena." 

Corouilla. — Greenhouse hard-wooded shrub. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 38deg. This is both a pretty 
and an easy subject to grow, and, like the cytisus, should be in 
every collection. The flowers are borne in clusters, well above 
the foliage, and are pea-shaped. The foliage is of a pleasing 
and somewhat glaucous green, and when the plants are trained 
over a trellis have a very good appearance. The variety C. 
glauca variegata has the foliage striped or margined with 
creamy white, and while being much prettier than the species 
when out of bloom, is not so showy when the blooms are on it. 
"We have found the treatment advised for the sorts of cytisus 
answer admirably in the hands of amateurs, and therefore it is 
not necessary to enter into a prolonged description. 

Propagated by cuttings struck in sandy soil, in a close frame 
or greenhouse, during spring or autumn. 

For sorts both Coronilla glauca, yellow, and C. g. variegata, 
yellow, variegated foliage, are good. 

Correa. — Greenhouse hard-wooded plant. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 45deg. This is a class of plant 
that commences to bloom in April, and the different varieties 
keep in bloom till the end of the year. They are really fine 


Dictionary of Plants. 151 

plants, and should be in every collection. The blooms, which, vary- 
in colour from scarlet to deep crimson in the tube, with a green 
or light coloured band near the apex, are tube-shaped, and are 
freely XDroduced from the matured wood of the past season. As 
a decorative plant it is not easy to sui-pass it. It is of erect 
growth, and therefore does not require to be tied out like 
many others. In our opinion, it is far better to pinch back 
the iDoints, so as to induce bushy growth, than to tie the 
branches out with a multiplicity of sticks, judicious pruning 
being in all cases preferable to sticks, if the plants are naturally 
shrubby. Of course, with young specimens it is necessary to 
keep the bottoms well furnished, both by pruning and tying 
out ; but training is not a necessary operation after the plants 
are furnished and the growth is set. "We find that these do 
very well with much the same treatment as oranges, so far as 
temperature and moisture go, and we have grown both Con-eas 
and oranges successfully side by side. The plants should be 
potted in April in good sound peat, to which is added a fair 
allowance of sharp sand to insure porosity for a length of years, 
as it is not advisable to reduce the ball of roots. When the 
plants reach 12in. pots, potting should cease, and they should be 
kept in blooming order by being watered with weak liquid 
manure once a week, by which means they will keep in blooming 
condition for two or three years ; meanwhile young plants can 
be got on to take their place. 

Propagated by cuttings of young wood taken off with a heel 
and struck in sand or sandy peat in a close frame, with or 
without a slight bottom heat. 

For sorts we should choose C. hicolor (Fig. 52), C. Brilliant, 
C cardinalis, C Cavendishii, C. delicata, C. Jardin d'Hiver, C. 
magnifica, C. Ne plus ultra, and C. victa superha. All of these 
are good and well worth growing. 

Crassula. — See " Kalosanthes." 

Crocus. — Hardy deciduous bulb. Grown for its flowers. 
Minimum temperature, 2odeg., or when in active growth, 
35deg. This is a class of early blooming bulbous plants that 

152 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

comes in very usefully in either cold or warm greenhouses, and 
the cultui'e is very simple. Place from three to seven bulbs in 
a pot, according to the show required, and arrange the colours 
according to taste. Use a compost of rather rich loam and sand, 
and allow plenty of drainage, as the plants will require liberal 
watering while growing. For further treatment see " Hyacinths." 

Propagation is effected naturally by the increase of the bulbs, 
which occurs every year, 

The following are good sorts for pot cultui*e : C vernus, 
various (Fig. 53) ; C. vernus versicolor, white striped with purple 
(Fig. 54); O.Albion, white, striped blue; 0. Alfred Tennyson, 

Fio. 53.— Ceocus Vernus. 

Fig. 54.— Ckocus Vernus 

dark violet, striped white; C. Brunei, dark shaded blue; C. 
Mammoth, white; C. Marquis of Lome, dark purple; C. Ne 
plus ultra, blue, white margin ; C. Prince of "Wales, dark blue, 
edge white ; C. Purity, pui-e white ; C. Golden Yellow ; C. 
Cloth of Gold, golden yellow, bronze crimson stripes; and C. 
Sir John Franklin, very dark indigo. 

Cuphea. — Half-hardy perennial soft-wooded plant. Grown 
for its flowers and general appearance. Minimum tempera- 
ture, 36deg. C. jpiatycentra is very old-fashioned, very pretty, 

Dictionary of Plants. 153 

and withal very easy to cultivate. It is useful either as a pot 
or a bedding plant, and, besides being simply pretty, the whole 
plant is both strong and interesting. The flowers are tube- 
shaped, about an inch long, of a reddish orange colour tipped 
with black, and are shaped somewhat as the blooms of Fuchsia 
fulgens. In fact, excepting that the flowers are axillary instead 
of teiminal, the cuphea might betaken as a miniature F. fulgens, 
as the leaves and flowers are both like the fuchsia named, and 
the plant does not get above a foot and a half high. The old- 
fashioned plan was to raise the plants from cuttings, which 
strike freely in March or April if placed on a brisk bottom 
heat ; but by far the better method is to sow seeds in January 
or February, and then grow the plants on in rich sandy loam. 
Grow on to nearly the size required, repotting from time to 
time, and, when large enough, let the plants fill the pots with 
roots, and then give ample doses of liquid maniu-e occasionally. 
For vases, pots, window boxes, and various uses outdoors, 
Cupheas come in very useful, and for the conservatory they are 
fine subjects. In fact, we often wonder why they are so little 
grown now. 
Propagated from seeds or by cuttings, as described above. 

Cyclamen. — Half-hardy deciduous bulb. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 36deg. These are plants that 
should be represented in every greenhouse and conservatory, as 
their decorative power is great for a bulbous plant. C. Persicum 
is, pernaps, the best of the family for pot culture, but C. Coum 
(Fig. 55), C. Euro2JCBum (Fig. 56), C. AtJcinsii, C. repandum, 
and G. Ihericum are all useful according to their different forms. 
The culture is comparatively simple, and with ordinary care 
success is certain, but while the plants are in active growth they 
must neither be neglected nor coddled up. 

We have found the followmg method answer well in practice, 
although quite opposed to the old-fashioned plan of drying 
off the bulbs in summer, a plan that only tends to destroy the 
bulbs and render them the reverse of floriferous. The culture 
(to begin at the beginning) that we now adopt is as follows : 
In October we sow the seed in broad pans, using a compost of 

154 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

leaf soil, sand, and fibrous loam, and tlien stand the pans in a 
warm hotbed until tbe plants are pricked off, in about six weeks 
from sowing. The pans will be all the more suited for the 
purpose if they are covered with flat sheets of glass, as it greatly 
hastens the vegetation of the seeds, and, at the same time, a hot- 
bed is not then necessary, as a warm greenhouse or stove will do 
as well. When large enough we prick off into small pots and 
place on a shelf in a warm greenhouse until February, when we 

Fig. 55.— Cyclamen Coum. 

pot off into 4in. pots, using good friable loam five parts and 
thoroughly rotted cow manure three parts, with a good quantity 
of sharp sand. "We then grow them on briskly until the first 
week in May, and then transfer them to a pit or frame, and 
gradually harden off ready for planting out the last week 'in 
the Dionth. Meanwhile, we prepare a bed for their reception, 
either on a north or a shady border. This bed is deeply dug and 
pulverised, and a liberal dressing of thoroughly rotten manure 

Dictionary of Plants. 


and coarse sand is added to make it both, rich and friable. 
We plant the bulbs out about a foot asunder, being careful to 
retain a good ball of earth to each, and not cover more than one- 
third of the bulb with soil. A good watering once a week and a 
sprinkling with a syringe every day are all that are required 
during the summer. About the second or third week in August 
we take the plants up, with good balls of earth adhering, and 
pot into 6in. or 8in. pots, 

placing them in a close frame 
for about ten days after they 
are potted, and then ad- 
mitting air as necessary, at 
the same time paying due 
attention to watering, &c. 
About the end of September 
the pots are found full of 
roots, and the plants are 
then removed to a shelf near 
the gl^-ss in a warm light 
greenhouse. Here, with at- 
tention, they bloom for a 
long period, and about May 
they undergo the same treat- 
ment as before. Care must 
be taken to afford plenty of 
drainage at all times, and 
insects must be scrupulously 
destroyed. So much for 0. 
Persicum. For the hardy kinds a somewhat different treatment 
is necessary, but as they are quite hardy they do not require 
to be placed in a greenhouse at all. They should be potted 
into 4in. or 6in. pots, the soil being as before recommended; 
and, after potting, should be plunged in a pit or frame facing 
the north. About October the position should be changed, and 
the plants made to face the south during the winter. Air 
ought to be given at all times, except in actual frost, and during 
fine weather the lights should be thrown right off. In the place 
of partly burying, the bulbs, as in the Persicum section, the 

Fig. 56.— Flower, Bud, and Leaf 
OF Cyclamen EuROPiEUM. 

156 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

crowns of tlie bulbs of C. Couin, C. Europceu7n, &c., should be 
about balf-an-inch below the surface of tbe soil, as in many 
cases the roots start just below the crown of the bulb, instead of 
the base. 

During the summer we treat the hardy Cyclamen much the 
same as the tender section — that is, those for pot culture — but, of 
course, permanent plants do best in sheltered borders or in a 
rockery. In all cases it is absolutely necessary to give hardy 
Cyclamen a deep, rich, and well- drained border, where they are 
pennanently planted ; and it is also requisite that the plants 
should be protected from violent hail storms and very heavy 
rains, as the leaves, being persistent during winter, are very 
liable to be damaged if not protected. 

Propagated by means of seeds as described above. The hardy 
kinds should be sown on pans of sandy soil in a cold frame, and 
potted as soon as they can be handled. The following season 
they can be grown on in pots or planted outdoors, as may be 

For sorts of C Persicuvi, the following are distinct, but a 
packet of good seed will produce a great variety of colours 
and markings : C. Persicum album, C. P. delicatum, 0. P. 
punctatiim, C. P. puiyureum, G. P. roseum, C. P. rubrum, and 
some others to be obtained at nurseries. For hardy sorts, 
C Athinsii, C. A. carneum, C. A. roseum, G. Goum, G. G. carneum, 
G. G. vernum {marmoratwin), G. Pluropoeum, G. Ihericum, G. I. 
album, and G. repandum. For making a selection for pot culture 
alone, we should use the Persicum section only, unless, indeed, 
quiet instead of showy plants are requii-ed. 

Cyperus. — Greenhouse soft-wooded plant. Grown for its 
foliage. Minimum temperature, 45deg. This plant, which is so 
much used on account of its graceful palm-like appearance, is 
not very hard to cultivate. Being a semi-aquatic, it likes plenty 
of moisture while in active growth, and also likes good drainage, 
so that the surplus water does not stagnate round the roots. 
A good loam, or peat and loam mixed, is the best soil, and the 
mode of culture is somewhat as follows : As soon as the stools 
Btart growth in spring they should be divided if necessary and 

Dictionary of Plants. 157 

repotted into suitable soil, care being taken to provide good 
drainage, and to pot fairly firm. Tbe soil should be moist, 
but not saturated with water, and tbe pots placed in tbe 
warmest part of the bouse. As growtb increases so must tbe 
amount of water given be increased, because, when in full 
growtb, great evaporation takes place. After tbe plants bave 
attained tbeir full size, tbey are in form very like minia- 
ture date palms, a foot or eighteen inches in height. If kept 
regularly moist, they will last for some months, but they 
must not be cut down till the young growth commences to 
appear, and the pots must not be allowed to get dry till 
then, or the stools (or roots) will be destroyed. 

Propagation is effected by division of the stools or crowns 
when the plants start growth, as mentioned above. 

Good sorts for greenhouse work are: Cyperus alter nifoliuSf 
green foliage ; G. a. fol. var., variegated fob'age, and where a 
minimum temperature of 50deg. can be maintained ; C. laxus 
fol. var., variegated foliage, is very useful. 

Cjrfcisus. — Half hardy hard-wooded shrub. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 36deg. This is a plant that is 
much grown for the London markets, and is well worth growing. 
Its racemes of bright yellow flowers and its elegant foliage 
make it a favourite with everyone, and a plant or two in a 
greenhouse gives a bright appearance to what would, perhaps, 
be only a mass of green foliage. The culture is very easy, and 
the adaptability of the plants to an amateur's treatment is 
very great, more so than scores of other hard-wooded plants ; 
besides which the cost is very moderate; indeed, nice plants 
in full bloom are to be had from a shilling each in the 
season. It is one of the most popular spring plants that is 
grown near London for sale, one large firm of our acquaint- 
ance growing from 9000 to 12,000 plants annually. It is well 
adapted for house decoration, as it lasts in bloom for a long 
period, and, unless large plants only are grown, forms one of the 
most useful house plants with which we are acquainted. Plants 
about a foot high look very well for table decoration, only, 
as the flowers are golden yellow, they look white by gaslight. 

158 Greenhouse Maita^etnent for Amateurs. 

Cytisus and Genista are the names the plant is known by in 
different places, and it is immaterial which is asked for, 
although Cytisus is now the generally accepted name. 

The plants should be potted as soon as the bloom is over, 
in rich sandy loam, with sand enough to keep the soil well 
open. In the end of June they should be put out of doors, 
and should remain out until September, when they should be 
brought indoors, and jDlaced in a light position, so that they 
may start soon after Christmas. They bear forcing very well, 
and, where convenience exists, may form part of the early 
batches of plants. 

Propagated by seeds or by cuttings. Seeds should be sown 
on sandy soil early in the season, pricked off into small pots 
as soon as large enough to handle, and grown on till of a good 
size ere being allowed to bloom. Cuttings can be struck in cold 
frames or in the greenhouse in spring or autumn, friable soil 
being used for the purpose. 

For sorts we prefer C. racemosus, yellow; C. racemosus 
superha, yellow ; C. Atleeana, yellow ; and C. filipes, white ; and 
they are really good. "Where one or two plants only are grown, 
the first two will be found to give satisfaction. 

ACTYLIS.— Half hardy soft-wooded plant. 
Grown for its foliage. Minimum tempera- 
ture, 38deg. These useful dwarf gramina- 
ceous pot plants are perfectly hardy, and 
must be brought into the house in relays 
as required. The inflorescence is not very 
noteworthy, and should be kept removed, as the 
foliage only is of value, and as this reaches 
only to about four inches high, and is very 
elegantly striped with a silver variegation, it is very effective. 
Either a warm or cold house suits them very well for a time, 
but, as the plants will not last long under glass, frequent 
changes must be made. A compost of sandy loam suits them 

Dictionary of Plants. 159 

well, but, as plenty of water is required, good drainage must 
be afforded. Some care will be necessary to keep down green 
fly if tlie plants are in a warm house, and with, this exception, 
but little fear of trouble from insects need be entertained. 
They are much used out of doors as edging plants in fixed 
designs, as their neatness renders them particularly useful in 
this respect. The plants can be wintered in a cold frame or 
in the greenhouse, where they are of value on account of their 
foliage and general appearance. 

They are easily propagated by division, a sharp, sandy loam 
being used for compost, and the plants kept close for a day or 
two afterwards. 

For sorts, D. glomerata variegata, and D. g. elegantissima are 
the best. 

Daphne. — Greenhouse shmb. Grown for its flowers and 
general appearance. Minimum temperature 38deg. This is a 
class of plants well worthy of general pot culture, both for its 
foliage and its finely-scented bloom, which, is borne in tenninal 
bunches, and is tube shaped, and something like that of the 
lilac in form, but is not above half the size. The leaves are 
laurel shaped, but not much more than two inches in length, 
and being of a dark green set the flowers off to great 
advantage. Plants about eighteen inches high and well 
bloomed are very effective. As it is nearly hardy, a cool 
house suits it very well, and, as the cultivation is easy, it is 
a very desirable plant for the use of amateurs. It does very 
well trained on the walls in a partly shaded cool house, and in 
several large gardens it is trained on the back walls of the 
camellia bouse, where it affords the perfume that the camellia 
lacks, and the foliage works in very well with that of the 
camellias. As an ornamental perfumed plant, the Daphne 
Indica (red) is second to none, and, as it requii*es no forcing 
house to bring it into bloom during the short days when 
fragrant flowers are scarce, of course it is within the means of 
most persons who have a greenhouse. The two Daphnes we 
prefer for house work are D. Indica rubra and D. cneorum (pink) ; 
D. cneorum (Fig. 57), though it is perfectly hardy, yet pays 

i6o Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

for potting-up and housing. The treatment of D. Indica is very 
simple. In the first place, instead of coddling the plants up in 
a high temperature, 55deg. is quite high enough for them 
during the growing season, and, if the bloom is wanted 
moderately early, the same temperature will gradually bnng 
them on. They are of slow growth, although robust-looking. 

and care must be taken to get the wood well ripened. During 
summer the plants may be placed in a sheltered position out of 
doors, and brought in at the same time as camellias and other 
similar plants. A moist atmosphere suits them admirably 
during the time they are making growth, but, when ripening 
the wood, a drier situation is necessary. After blooming, 

Dictionary of Plants. 1 6 1 

pruning may be resorted to; keep tlie plants in shape, or 
they become straggling in a few years, whereas they should be 
kept as bushy as possible, if good appearance is desired. As a 
rule, the plants are worked on one of the hardy kinds ; but we 
advise amateurs to get them on their own roots, as we have 
found them grow best when propagated in that manner. It 
will not stand over-potting, blooming best if rather pot-bound. 
Pot in the middle or end of February ; pot firmly, but, at the 
same time, insure sufl&cient drainage. For soil use two-thirds 
rich turfy loam, and one-third turfy peat, with plenty of very 
coarse sand, and it is no disadvantage if some charcoal or 
crocks are mixed with the soil. 

Propagated generally by grafting, but, for an amateur's use, 
cuttings struck in a cold frame or greenhouse, in sandy soil, 
are best. Cuttings snould be taken off as soon as the growth 

For pot culture it will be found that D. Indica rubra is the 
best, as D. Indica alba (white) is somewhat liable to canker; 
but still cuttings struck in a cold frame under a bell glass will 
do very well for a year or two. The first blooms from October 
to April if the plants are brought on in succession, while the 
white blooms during summer; this latter is best planted out in 
the conservatory borders where there is room. D. collina, D. 
dauphina, D. Fioniana, and D. Indica are the best for cold 
house culture, and are very sweet scented, thus rendering them 
very useful for bouquets. 

Darlingtonia. — Greenhouse soft-wooded plant. Grown for 
its flowers and general appearance. Minimum temperatui-e 
45deg. D. Calif ornica is one of the so-called carnivorous 
plants, and is of American origin. As a manifestation of plant 
life it is curious and interesting, and the structure of the plant 
is alike wonderful and beautiful, albeit it is destitute of the 
gaudy characteristics of many of our more ephemeral beauties 
that "bloom and soon decay." It requires a wann house to 
grow it well, a house where the minimum temperature is at least 
50deg., and a north-west aspect suits it well. A moist but not 
saturated atmosphere is required, and plenty of root moisture 


i62 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

is necessary. The best medium in wbich to grow this plant is 
chiefly chopped sphagnum mixed with about a fourth part of 
heath soil and charcoal, the whole surfaced with chopped 
sphagnum. Plenty of drainage must be afforded, and large 
pans are far preferable to pots, the plant being 
on a mound raised a little above the surface 
of the pan. Dr. Moore, of Glasnevin, has 
one of the finest specimens in Europe, and we 
believe his treatment is much the same as 
that just described. To an enthusiast in horti- 
culture this will be found one of the gems 
of the greenhouse, but it requires skill and 
attention to grow it well. 


Deutzia. — Hardy shrub. Grown for its 
flowers, which are much esteemed. Minimum 
temperature (under glass), 30deg. These are 
about the hardiest of the dwarf white flower- 
ing shrubs, forming bushes about a foot or 
fifteen inches high, with oblong ovate, or 
willow-shaped leaves, and in their season 
covered with a dense multitude of small 
white star-like flowers, borae in axillary 
racemes for the whole length of the preced- 
ing year's growth, and, as they can be bloomed 
in either a cool or forcing house, they are 
doubly useful. To have them at their best 
it is, however, advisable to bloom them in a 
temperature of from 45deg, to 50deg., as 
then both foHage and flowers are well 
developed ; but, at the same time, if only a 
cold house exists, they will do well in such 
an one. A compost of good sound loam, 
enriched with about a sixth part of thoroughly decayed cow 
manure, and rendered sufficiently penneable to water by the 
addition of coarse sand, suits them well, while the pots, 
which should not be too large, should be well drained. The 
plants should be repotted each year after blooming, and plunged 

Fig. 58.— Deutzia 

Dictionary of Plants. 


in a bed of coal ashes, attention being paid to training and 
arranging the shoots in such a manner that an equal growth 
is maintained throughout the plant, so that it shall have a 
somewhat globular form. Remove to a frame before frosts 
come, and thence remove the plants to their blooming 
quarters. Water will be required in proportion to the 
growth, and an occasional dose of liquid manure will be of great 

Propagated from cuttings, layers, or suckers, but, as well- 
grown plants are very cheap (about 5s. per dozen), it is not 

worth while to raise young 
plants; moreover, three years 
must elapse ere they are of 
useful size. 

The two best sorts are D. 
gracilis, single white, and D. 
crenata flore pleno, double 
white, this latter being finer 
in the individual blooms, but 
less effective as a whole than 
D. gracilis (Fig. 58). D. 
scahra is too gross a grower 
for the purposes to which 
the others are put. 

Dicentra. — See " Diely tra." 

Dielyijra. — Hardy her- 
baceous plant. Grown for 
both flowers and foliage. 
Minimum temperatui-e (in 
pots), 36deg. This is the 
familiarly named " Dutchman's breeches," of the herbaceous 
border, and is a deciduous perennial. The bright heart- 
shaped pink flowers which are borne on long spikes of a 
graceful drooping habit are very effective when combined 
with other plants, and the bright and somewhat glaucous 
foliage contrasts well with the darker greens of the hard- 

M 2 

Fig. 59.— DiELTTEA Eximia, 

164 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

wooded kinds. As a rule, it is not judicious to grow Dielytras 
in pots for more tlian one season. It is preferable to have 
fresh plants each year, returning those which were bloomed 
indoors into the borders, for one or two seasons, to re- 
cuperate their exhausted strength, and in their places to 
take others that have been in the borders for a similar 
term. The roots should be potted into a compost of sandy 
loam in well drained pots as soon as the foliage dies off, 

Fig, 60.— Dielttra Spectabilis. 

and the pots should be placed in a cold frame until introduced 
into the house. If grown in a warm house they should have 
a warm light position as near the glass as possible, and a 
moist growing temperature should be maintained. They should 
be neatly staked, and turned round frequently to equalise 
the growth. When the blooming is over, the pots should be 


Dictionary of Plants. 


removed to a cold frame, and as soon as severe frosts are 

Tig. 61.— Dion^a Muscipula. 
past the plants can be placed out in the borders. Successional 

i66 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

batches must be brougM in as occasion requires, and with 
little trouble bloom can be kept up from February to 
June. In tbe cold house the plants will flower — according 
to the severity of the season — from the end of March till 
June, and the general treatment is the same as in the warm 
house. Plenty of water is necessary when they are in full 
growth, and an occasional dose of weak liquid manure is an 
advantaga It is also necessary to keep down green fly, or 
ruin will be the consequence. 

Propagated by division of the roots when they begin to make 

The best sorts for pot work are D. spectabilis (Fig. 60), pink; 
D. spectabilis alba, white; and D. eximia (Fig. 59), red; but this 
last is not so easily grown as the other two. D. cucullaria, yellow 
and white, thrives well in a cold house, but is not so good as 
the rest. In fact, one rarely sees it grown in pots. 

Dionsea. — D. muscipula (Fig. 61) is a carnivorous plant. It 
does well with the treatment given to the Sarracenia, and is 
far easier to cultivate. It should be grown in pots one-thii'd 
filled with crocks, the compost one-third fibrous peat, and two- 
thirds sphagnum, and some very sharp sand, with perhaps a 
small quantity of charcoal. It requires a moist atmosphere, and 
where this cannot be obtained in the house the plants should be 
grown under bell glasses. The Dionseas are very interesting 
subjects, the one named being about the best for the use of 
an amateur. Some of the Droseras, also, thrive well with the 
above treatment. 

Dodecatheon. — Hardy herbaceous plants. Grown for their 
flowers. Minimum temperature (in pots), 36deg. These are 
the American cowslips or " shooting stars," and although they 
prefer a cool situation in which to grow, still they can be used 
to decorate the cold house, provided a somewhat shady cool 
spot is found for them. "We have grown them well with a 
very little trouble in frames, and in an old cold house just 
wind and water tight. The way our plants were treated was 
".s follows : In November they were taken up and potted 

Dictionary of Plajits. 


in 6in. pots, in a compost of loam, enriched with leaf soil, and 
rendered porous with a sufficient quantity of sharp sand. 

Ample drainage was 
afforded, as it is necessary 
to apply plenty of water 
while the plants are grow- 
ing. They were kept in 
a cold frame until the 
first week in March, and 
then transferred to the 
house, water being applied 
as required. After bloom- 
ing they were plunged in 
a bed of coal ashes, under 
a wall facing the north, but 
protected from inclement 
weather, and during the 
summer were well attended 
to. The following year 
they were treated in the 
same way, but larger pots 
given, and in the third 
season they were divided, 
so that they should not be- 
come too large. One thing 
must always be remem- 
bered, namely, that these plants will neither stand hot sun 
nor forcing heat, and are only fit for blooming in the cold 
house, or frames, or to stand in rockwork, &c., as hardy plants. 
Propagated by division when the plants are at rest. 
Dodecatheon Meadia (Fig. 62) and its varieties are best for 
pot culture, as they are the least trouble ; but the other kinds, 
if well grown, really repay the pains. D. integrifolium, 
crimson; D. Jeffreyanum, red; D. 3feadia, red; D.M. albiflorum, 
white ; D. M. a. violaceum, violet ; D, M. elegans — giganteum of 
some — rose and lilac ; D. M. lilacinum, lilac ; and D. M. pur- 
pureum longiflorum, purple, are all good for the purposes we have 
mentioned, and the first two make good exhibition hardy plants. 

Fig. 62.— Dodecatheon Meadia. 

1 68 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Dracaena. — Greenhouse hard- wooded plant. Grown for foliage 
Minimmn temperature, 45deg. This is a class of ornamental 
variegated foliaged plants that commands attention for general 
culture by amateurs, as it is so useful for decorative purposes 

Fig. 63.— Cokdtline (Dkac^na) Indivisa. 

indoors. Small plants from 1ft. to 18in. high make very useful 
centres for tables, for windows, and to stand in halls. The 
foliage is leathery and stands gas well, and when dirty is easily 
cleaned with a sponge and lukewarm water. Cordyline indivisa 
is, in appearance, much like the Dracaena, and as the cultiva- 
tion is much the same, we so treat it here. With these, 

Dictionary of Plants. 169 

as with all other fine foliage plants, care mast be taken to 
damage the leaves as little as possible, or the plants soon become 
very unsightly. Leaving out the varieties that require stove 
and intermediate house treatment, there yet remains a good 
variety for the greenhouse, which are all comparatively easy 
of cultivation. Scale is about the only insect pest to be feared, 
but with ordinary care can be kept down easily, hand picking 
being the means employed. We have, however, found that 
thrips will occasionally appear, but in a clean, well kept house, 
their visits will be few and far between. 

Dracaenas are not very particular as to soil, any ordinary 
potting soil answering pretty fairly; but, of course, to obtain 
the best results it is necessary to use the best only. This we 
find to consist of equal parts of peat and loam, with enough 
sharp sand added to keep the whole open enough for the water 
to pass through freely. The soil should be rather coarse, and 
not compressed too firmly, as the plants require plenty of 
water throughout the season of growth, and hard compressed 
soil makes it stagnate round the roots, thereby causing 
disease and finally death. For the same reason plenty of 
drainage must be afforded, and when large pots are used, 
they should be chosen with holes round the sides as well as 
at the bottoms. A rather humid atmosphere, plenty of water 
and wannth, and a light position are requisite during the 
growing season ; and if the plants are to be removed indoors, 
they will require to be hardened oif, or the leaves will suffer. 
For a start choose thrifty well-grown plants at a nursery, and 
grow them on carefully. The modes of propaga.tion will be 
described at the conclusion of our remarks on plants. 

Propagated by cuttings struck in a moist bottom heat, such 
as is afforded to stove plants. 

The following will all be found very good: Cordyline indivisa, 
VraccBiia atrosanguinea, D. Australis, D. BanTisii, D. Draco, and 
D. Veitchii. "We do not give the colour of the bloom as it is 
*)ut rarely borne in the ordinary greenhouse. 

1 70 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

ICHEVERIA.— Half liardy, succulent, soft- 
■^ooded plants. Grown for both foliage and 
flowers. These are what are termed suc- 
culents, and some of them are very fine 
when in bloom, while others are more con- 
spicuous for their foliage. The plants are 
shaped like a rosette, and the common house- 
leek affords an example of the form of the plant, 
but the flowers are not the same. The flowers of the 
echeverias, which vary somewhat in colour, are borne on spikes, 
which issue from amongst the leaves, and these spikes bear 
flowers for their whole length, of a bag-like form, but which are 
very effective. The culture is very simple, that of the secunda 
glauca varieties particularly so, the chief point being to keep 
them through the winter, or until bedding time, as they will 
remain in the house throughout the summer and autumn. They 
are good plants for decoration, receive no injury from di'ought, 
bloom profusely in the season, and bear hardships that would 
utterly destroy less succulent plants. For all the secunda type, 
a good, fairly rich, sandy loam is necessary, as well as com- 
paratively small pots, and plenty of drainage, but if they are 
required for house decoration it is advisable to use 4in. pots, 
and a somewhat richer soil. E. metallica forms a fine specimen 
in a lOin. or 12in. pot, especially when it is in bloom, and 
everyone knows its value as a bedding plant. Echeverias are 
easily propagated, either from seed sown in August, or from 
cuttings of the flower stems taken at the same time, which 
stems produce offsets ; or, again, from offsets which are produced 
more or less freely from the base of the stems. These last 
should be placed singly on small pots of sandy s jil, kept just 
moist, when they soon strike root. A frame is best for the 
purpose, kept nearly close. The young plants should have a 
shift in March, and if not used for bedding purposes should 
be placed in the frames in June. They should be shifted 
into 4in. pots, in which they may bloom ; or else into Gin. 
pots, when the foliage will be finer. Plants taken up from 

Dictionary of Plants. 


the ground should be potted fimily into small pots and kept 
nearly dry through the winter, as damp is the greatest enemy 
to be feared. All the Echeverias are useful for their foliage, and 
the bloom of all of them is interesting, especially in a mixed 
collection. The plants can be kept either indoors or out during 
the summer, and if by accident occasionally not watered, will not 

Fio. 64. — EcHEVERiA Agavoides. 

flag, unless drawn up weakly from want of light and air. They 
are also very easy to propagate, and anyone who has only a 
sitting room window can grow a very nice collection. They 
are, however, not quite hardy. 

Propagated by division of the offsets, or by cuttings, according 
to species. 

172 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

E. pulverulenta and E. formosa have both mealy, silvery 
leaves; E. rotundifolia is a cross between JE7. metallica and E. 
secunda glauca, and the leaves are nicely tinted on the edges ; 
E. fulgens is good both for foliage and flower, but for the 
latter particularly, as it bears orange red flowers, with sometimes 
a yellow tinge; it blooms with ordinary greenhouse treatment 
in March, earlier if forced into bloom by a higher temperatui-e. 
E. secunda glauca is good for its form and glaucous leaves ; 
E. secunda glohosa is one of the best of the series ; E. metallica 
has large fleshy, massive foliage, of a rich metallic hue, and 
is very handsome ; E. agavoides (Fig. 64) is very fine, with scarlet 
flowers, the plant being very much like an agave ; and E. atro- 
purpurea, also, is good for its bloom, the colour being purplish 

Epacris. — Greenhouse hard-wooded shrub. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg. These are worthy of 
more extensive cultivation, as they are little trouble, and very 
pretty when rightly managed. One of the chief causes of 
failure with the Epacris is neglect when it is out of bloom ; and 
to this neglect very many of the failures are attributable, as 
the plant is perfecting itself for the production of new blooms 
while it is seemingly at rest ; indeed, this is the case with the 
majority of plants, as they undergo many changes while not 
in actual growth. With blossoms, as most persons know, 
produced on the young wood, tube shaped and axillary, 
the Epacris are very like heaths, and, therefore, it is neces- 
sary that they should be properly grown and ripened to insure 
the setting of the bloom buds. As a whole, they have a some- 
what erect habit of growth, and are frequently taken for heaths 
by the uninitiated, but are much easier to grow. 

During the growing season it is a good plan to syringe 
overhead occasionally, but not often enough to produce mildew. 
After blooming, the plants should be cut down, and as soon 
as they start into growth should be re-potted into pots a 
size larger, good sound peat and sand being used for this purpose. 
Pot very firaily and afford plenty of drainage, so that the soil 
may not get sour, or the plants will suffer. Once in two 

Dictionary of Plants. 173 

or three years is often enough to re-pot, unless it is desired to 
have larj^e plants. The plants should be in frames through 
the summer, as, unlike heaths, they do best under cover as 
a rule. In some varieties the growth is rather straggling; but 
this is of small consequence, each shoot becoming a mass of 
bloom in its season. 

Propagated by ripe cuttings inserted in sandy soil, with or 
without gentle bottom heat. 

For a selection, choose from the following, all of which are 
first-class : Epacris alba odoratissima, white ; E. carminata, 
carmine : E. Alhertus, pink ; E. delicata, blush white ; E. densi- 
fiora, blush ; E. elegans, E. grandiflora, scarlet ; E. hyacinthi- 
fiora; Fireball, scarlet; Lucifer, red; Model, blush; E. mid- 
tifiora, E. picturata, blush white; E, sanguinea, red; E. splen- 
dida ; Vesuvius, red, and E. vesta, blush. 

Epiphyllum. — Greenhouse succulent soft-wooded plant. 
Grown for its flowers. Minimum temperature, 45deg. These 
are in reality cacti, or rather they belong to the cactus tribe; 
and they are often included in collections of plants, of 
which the majority are hard-wooded. As a decorative plant 
the Epiphyllum ranks in the first class, whether we use it 
exclusively in the greenhouse, or also for table decoration and 
cut bloom (which ranges in colour from pink to deep scarlet), 
as, in each case, it is very useful. The flowers are from lin. 
to 2iin. long, and are borne at the end of the leaves or 
branches, whichever they are termed, and are tubular, with 
a cleft lip. It is, however, impossible to properly describe them 
without an engraving, and it is better to see a well grown 
plant in bloom before adding them to the stock of plants. 
The treatment is very simple, as it is not supposed that 
an amateur will go to the expense of grafting, &c., which 
so often proves a source of trouble and annoyance, rather 
than pleasure. As a general rule, we consider that it is 
an ill-advised proceeding for an amateur to attempt the pro- 
pagation of any plants which require special treatment and a 
special place to grow them in, as, however interesting the process 
may be, failure is almost sui-e to cause disgust with the plants 

I 74 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

and all connected with them, and, therefore, should be avoided. 
In places where a proper heat and atmosphere are kept up, 
especially where a range of houses is under the charge of a 
competent gardener, Epiphyllums are very easy to graft, and in 
most houses under the charge of amateurs cuttings root freely, 
and form good plants for hanging baskets. Epiphyllum trun- 
catum var. is the only variety we shall describe, as it affords 
plenty of variety for a beginner. We advise the purchase of 
young pyi-amid or umbrella-headed plants as a start, and then 
if basket plants are required they can be struck from cuttings. 

As a rule, the plants bloom best if rather potbound; there- 
fore, for general purposes, it is not well to give too much root 
room to blooming plants ; but, at the same time, young grow- 
ing specimens should have plenty of room to grow into large 
plants, as they are the most effective. The soil they do best in 
is good fibrous loam, lime rubbish, and cowdung rotted to 
mould. Drainage should be well provided for, or the soil will 
get sour, and the blooms will not last, a point that is of much 
importance. Pot in the end of February, and keep close for a 
few days, after which gradually expose to the full sun to harden 
the growth, and so promote a large crop of bloom. While in 
bloom, and during the growing season, plenty of water is neces- 
sary ; but while the plants are at rest only a few waterings are 
required. The Epiphyllum should be in every greenhouse where 
a temperature of from 47deg. to 50deg. Fahrenheit is main- 
tained during winter. 

Propagated by cuttings inserted in sandy soil in a warm 
greenhouse, or by grafting on stocks of Pereshia aculeata. 

For sorts make a selection from the following : Epiphyllum 
truncatmn albescens, E. t. amahile, E. t hicolor, E. t. cruentum, 
E. t. magnijicum, E. t. purpureum, E. t. majus, E. t. salmoneum, 
E. t. splendens, E. t. tricolor, E. t. violaceum, and E. t. violaceum 
superhum. It may as well be mentioned here that the best plan 
is to select from a large collection, and have as great a variety 
of colour as possible, or the plants will appear very similar to 
inexperienced eyes. 

Eriobotrya. — Nearly harly hard- wooded small tree, grown 

Dictionary of Plants. 


for its foliage. Minimum temperature, 35deg. Eriohotrya Ja- 
ponica {the Japan Medlar) (Fig. 65) is a very handsome large 
foliaged evergreen tree that almost rivals the Ficus elastica 
in stateliness. The plant, which, is of doubtful hardiness, 
requires an ordinary greenhouse temperature to make it appear 

Fig. 65.— Eriobottra Japonica (Flowers and Fruit). 

at its best, and then it has its leaves from Sin. to 14in. long. 
We have always raised the plants from seeds, and, as tlie only 
point was to obtain fine foliage, our treatment was as follows : 
As soon as seeds or fruit could be had in the shops, they were 
sown singly in Sin. pots, and placed in a cold frame. When 

176 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs- 

frost set in tlie plants were taken into the greenhouse and kejDt 
moderately dry. In spring we re-potted into oin. pots, and in 
June plunged in the borders out of doors, taking care the plants 
were not starved for water. They were wintered as before, and 
in spring re-potted into Sin. pots. The plants were then kept in 
the conservatory altogether, or stood out the same as oranges 
during the summer. A small shift was given each year until the 
pots got large, and then an annual top dressing and a regular 
supply of liquid manure while the plants were growing were 
found sufficient. Plants obtained from a nursery, properly pre- 
pared for the purpose, will bear yellow fruit about the size of a 
small apricot, and these are both useful and ornamental. They, 
however, require to be a good size for this purpose, and there- 
fore it is only in large conservatories where they can be 

Propagated by seeds sown in loamy soil in spring. Each 
seed should be sown separately in a small pot, and the plants 
should be grown on, re-potting as necessary. 

Erythrina. — Half-hardy herbaceous plant. Grown for its 
ornamental berries or seed pods. Minimum temperature, 40deg. 
These are plants that are very ornamental when in fruit, and 
should be represented in every greenhouse. The plant is nearly 
hardy, and of an herbaceous nature, having particularly ugly 
root stocks, from which the roots spring. It is very easy to 
grow, and although it does best in a large pot, still moderate- 
sized specimens can be obtained with care. The height varies 
from 2ft. to 4ft., and the foliage is not bad-looking, but the chief 
things are the bloom and seeds, both of which are bright scarlet. 

The soil that suits it best is a sandy loam, or peat, with 
water during the growing season, and treatment much the same 
as cannas. The seed pods, when they open, contain many orange 
red or scarlet seeds, which have the appearance of coral. The 
blooms are somewhat pea-shaped, and vary in length according 
to cultivation and sorts. 

Propagated by seeds or division, but, as a rule, seeds are the 
best method. Sow when thoroughly ripe on pots of sandy soil in 
an ordinary greenhouse. 

Dictionary of Plants. 


The only two we have grown are JE7. crista-galli (Fig. 66) and E. 
profusa; but from what we have seen of E. conspicua, E. mar- 
ginata, E. ornata, E. Belangerii, and E. Marie Belanger, we think 

Fig. 66.— Ertthrina Crista-galli. 

them well worth cultivating. Cool treatment and proper 
rest are the chief points in the culture of Erjthrinas. 

Erythronium. — Hardy bulbs. Grown for both foliage and 
flowers. Minimum temperature (in pots), 35deg. The Dog's 


178 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Tootli Yiolet, as it is called, is a most useful pot plant if well 
grown in the cool house, and, with a little care, it can be done 
well also in a house that is heated moderately, but it is not 
advisable to subject it to too high a temperature. From its 
low growth of finely blotched and marbled leaves, which are 


Fig. 67.— Erythronium Dens Canis. 

about Sin. long, and its somewhat Cyclamen-like flowers, it is 
well worth growing in all places where there is accommoda- 
tion for it. As with all the Liliacese, careful attention and 
steady growth are the only secrets in their culture, but should 
they be done on the fit-and-start principle, then success will be 

Dictionary of Plants. 179 

very far from being attained. The destruction of insect pests, 
also, is a matter of importance, and, indeed, of necessity, as tlie 
plants, of wMcli tlie accompanying cut (Fig. 67) gives a good 
representation, will not bloom ujiless kept clean. The bulbs 
should be taten up in August or September, and potted, so that 
the foliage when expanded will cover the pots, and the soil 
should consist of about one-third peat or leaf soil and two-thirds 
sandy loam, with plenty of drainage. Pot in soil that is in a 
moist (not wet) state, and stand in a cold frame facing the 
north, but from which frost is excluded. In December remove 
the pots to the greenhouse, either warm or cold, keep the soil 
just moist until the foliage appears, and then apply water more 
liberally. After the blooming remove the pots to a frame, and, 
when the foliage ripens, stand them in a bed of coal ashes; 
re-pot the plants again in August, or, what is better, transfer 
them to the borders, and pot up fresh ones. 

Propagated naturally by the increase of the bulbs. 

For sorts select from ^. dens canis album, white; E. d. c. 
miajus, red purple ; E. d. c. majus roseum, rosy purple ; E. d. c. 
onajus album, white, brown base; E. d. c. passiflorum, light 
purple, shading to blue; E. d. c. 'purpureum, pui-ple; and E. 
Americanum, yellow. The above will repay for any trouble that 
may be taken with them, the cyclamen-like flowers being very 
handsome indeed. 

Eurya. — Greenhouse hard-wooded plant. Grown for its 
foliage. Minimum temperature, 40deg. Eurya japonica 
variegata is a plant that requires a rather warm house to do 
it well, but, as it is so handsomely variegated, it is worth a 
little extra trouble. During the summer, syi'inge once a day, 
and keep the roots well supplied with water, but after the 
middle of October this should not be persisted in, and the 
plants may be kept in a cool house during winter. Although 
it is nearly hardy, it makes finer growth in a warm greenhouse 
than in a cold one, and, consequently, the better plan is to 
give it the former. We make it a rule to pot twice a year, 
in February and June, until the plants have attained their full 
size, and then pot only once a year. The soil used is equal 


i8o Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

parts of fibrous loam, and peat, and a little sharp sand, and 
we find this do well. After it has attained its allotted size, 
ordinary greenhouse treatment should be given, and the plants 
will do very well. Insects of all kinds must be kept down, or 
they disfigure the leaves, and so spoil the beauty of the plants. 
Training out must be seen to if nice shapely plants are wanted, 
and any trouble will be amply rewarded. 

Propagated by cuttings struck on a gentle bottom heat or 
in a warm greenhouse. 

I C U S . — Greenhouse hard-wooded plant. 
Grown for its foliage. Minimum tempe- 
rature, 36deg. Ficiis elastica, which is more 
generally known as the Indiarubber Plant, 
is very much grown for indoor decoration, 
as its large glossy foliage stands gas and impure 
air far better than the majority of the plants 
generally used for the pui-pose, and so long as 
actual frost is kept from it, will do fairly well. 
Producing, as it does, longish oval leaves from lOin. to a foot in 
length, for the whole length of the stem, it is very suitable for 
all places where a handsome foliaged plant is needed, and the 
height may be from two to five feet. The culture is very 
simple in a greenhouse, as, unlike many other plants which 
we have mentioned, there is no harm in allowing it to become pot- 
bound so long as a sufficient supply of root moisture is afforded. 
The general plan is to grow the plants as upright rods, well 
fui'nished with leaves, although they can also be made to assume 
a bushy form by stopping the points from time to time, but 
bushy plants do not, as a rule, look best. Plants should 
be obtained about a foot high to start with, and should 
be grown on to the size desired ; but after a certain period the 
lower leaves will drop off, and they will become bare at 
the bottom. When this occurs they may either be placed 

Dictionary of Plants. i8i 

in a position where the stem is hidden, or they may be ex- 
changed for young ones, or, what is perhaps better, they may 
be sent to a nurseryman to be cut down, and have young 
plants made of the tops of the shoots. Propagation is a point 
in the life of this plant which an amateur should not attempt 
unless he has a propagating pit, and very few amateurs have 
this accommodation. The soil used by us is sandy loam, three 
parts ; rotten leaf soil, one part ; and from one -eighth to one- 
sixth part of silver sand. Sometimes we substitute peat for 
the leaf soil, and we have grown the plants entirely in peat, 
but the foliage is more lasting in the first -mentioned compost. 
Scale and mealy bug sometimes .attack the stems, but they are 
■easily removed and kept down, and it is only in dirty houses 
where they occur. The foliage should be sponged occasion- 
ally to remove dust. J^. repens and F. collina, also, are two 
good wall creepers, with foliage from lin. to 2in. in length, and 
■soon cover a rough wall or rockwork. As they have good 
hard glossy foliage, they look well, and form an agreeable back- 
ground for bright flowering or foliaged plants. For treatment 
fiee above. 

Pritillaria. — Hardy bulbous soft- wooded plant. Grown for 
its flowers. Minimum temperature in pots, 38deg. These are 
useful plants, in habit somewhat like the tulip (as shown in Figs. 
68 and 69), for early blooming, and are very little trouble. 
They can be had outdoors, in frames, or in the cold or warm 
house, but they must not be forced, or the foliage will be more 
remarkable than the flowers. They are chiefly useful for early 
work, but we have seen bulbs produce adventitious blooms in 
October, although such blooms are extremely rare. In August, 
or early in September, they should be potted, four or five in a 
pot, good sandy loam being used for compost, and plenty of 
drainage afforded. Treat the same as the tulip, and good 
results will be attained. 

Propagated by the natural increase of the bulbs, which takes 
place annually. 

F. meleagris, chequered purple; varieties of meleagris, of 
various colours ; F. Persica, brown ; F. prcecox, white ; F. pudica, 

1 82 Greenhouse Managejnent for Amateurs. 

purple and yellow; i^. tristis, brown; and F. tulip oefolia,hYoyni 
and pui'ple, are all useful sorts. It is, however, best to select 
tbe foi-ms of F. tneleagris for cbief dependence, as tliey are 
certain to bloom well if good bulbs are bad in the first place. 

Fuchsia. — Half-hardy soft-wooded plant. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 36deg. This is one of the 
most important of all the soft-wooded plants, and requires a 
very small amount of attention to produce ordinary small plants 

."Fig. 68.— Fritillaria Meleagris. 

Fig. 69.— Fritillaria Pudica. 

for summer use. liTot that it is in the least necessary to grow 
them in the house through the summer, but only during the 
earlier stages of growth. In very few cases do amateurs go in 
for show plants— rather the reverse— small well-grown plants in 
4in. or 6in. pots being all that is sought, and where such sorts 
as Conspicua, Mrs. Ballantyne, Yainqueur de Puebla, Talma, 
&c., are nicely grown, but little more is desired. 

Cultivation depends on which part of the year these plants are 
wanted, whether early or late. If early, the cuttings should be 
got in before Christmas, but if not required until autumn they 
may be struck from January to early April. As soon as rooted 

Dictionary of Plants. 


they should be potted off into thumb pots, and kept gently 
moving until March, when they should be placed in 4in. pots 
in a light position, growing on freely, and the first batch will be 
ready in May and June under glass. Those intended for 
autumn should be pinched back in May, and as soon as they 
break, placed in frames and closed for a few days. Then they 
should have plenty of air and light, and about June should 
have a shift into pots a 
size larger, and, with 
due attention to water- 
ing, nice plants for de- 
corative purposes will be 
had in August. Cut- 
tings struck in April and 
grown on into 6in. pots 
will bloom well from the 
end of August until near 
Christmas if taken in- 
doors as soon as the wet 
season commences, and 
kept at a minimum tem- 
perature of 55deg. Li- 
quid manure must, how- 
ever, be given in this 
method of cultivation, 
sulphate of ammonia 
being preferable to other 
more gross manures. 
For general use the pre- 
ceding is good if due attention to stopping, watering, &c., is paid, 
the principles of which are described farther on. 

We do not advise any amateur to attempt winter or early 
spring Fuchsias, as they do not pay for the trouble involved in 
growing them. As, however, some of our readers may possibly 
desire to grow exhibition plants, we will describe the process of 
culture. In September, cuttings should be taken of the desired 
sort, from robust tops free from bloom. If the cuttings have 
leaves produced in whorls of three, so much the better; but 

Fig. 70.— Fuchsia Fulgens. 

184 Greenhouse Managemefit for Amateurs. 

this, thougli an advantage, is not absolutely necessary. These 
should be inserted in 4in. pots, one-third of which should be 
filled with crocks, and then the pots filled with a compost of leaf 
soil, loam, and sharp sand, in equal proportions. Put from 
six to eight cuttings in each pot, and water in, giving a good 
watering to settle the soil. The cuttings should then be placed 

EiQ. 71.— Garden Fdchsia. 

on a light sheK in the greenhouse for the winter. 
March the plants should be potted off into Sin. pots, 
same compost, but, perhaps, a little less sand. The 
shoot, or " break," as it is technically tei-med, should 
permitted to remain, the others being pinched off. 
attain Sin. or lOin. in height small sticks should be 

Early in 
with the 
alone be 
As they 
placed to 

Dictionary of Plants. 185 

prevent tlieni bending or knuckling over ; also tbe points of the 
shoots should be taken out, so that side shoots may be induced 
to break. If the plants can have the benefit of a little warmth 
until the end of April, so much the better, always provided that 
proper care be taken to maintain as equable a temperature as 
possible. As soon as the roots kiss the sides of the pots, it is 
better to give a moderate shift than to wait until they become 
entangled and then give a large shift. This re-potting should 
be kept up until Gin. pots are reached, which should be about 
the second week in May, gradual hardening off going on mean- 
while. Care must be given to stopping and training, so that a 
good framework may be obtained,, it being remembered that 
the plants will be from 2Mt. to 5ft. high when finished. By 
the end of May, if they have progressed in a proper manner^ 
they will be ready for transferring to the blooming pots, which 
may be lOin., 12in., or 14in., according to the size and habit. 

For soil use one-half chopped fibrous loam, the other half leaf 
soil and thoroughly decayed manure, with enough coarse sand 
to keep the whole sufficiently porous. Pass through a fin. 
meshed sieve, not finer. Potting should be performed carefully, 
the soil being pressed firmly around the ball of earth and roots, 
but yet not made as hard as a gravel path. Place a neat stake, 
from 3ft. to 5ft. long, in the centre of the pot, tying the plant 
loosely to it. Now select a light, yet warm and sheltered, spot 
out of doors, and stand the pots on pieces of slate to prevent the 
ingress of worms. Carefully attend to watering and training, 
as before, and allow the plants to remain until the second week 
in June. Then plunge the pots into ashes, tan, or other 
material, turning them round once or twice a week to prevent 
them becoming lopsided or drawn. Liberal supplies of water 
must be given, and liquid manure should be given twice a week. 
Pinching should be discontinued about five weeks before the 
show, when the plants should be a perfect j^j^-amid of foliage 
and bloom; and slight shade should also be given about a 
fortnight before. The composts given above should be used 
for all classes of Fuchsias, either for show or ordinary pot work. 

Propagated by cuttings, as described above. 

The Garden Fuchsia (Fig. 71; may be recommended. The 

1 86 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

following, altlioiTgli not perliaps tlie newest, are good sorts for 
both form and colour. Dark single: Lord Elcho, Gipsy Girl, 
Senator, La Favorita, Prince Imperial, Souvenir de Corne- 
lissen. Double : E-ifleman, Percy, Universal, Amy Hoste. 
Single whites : Schiller, Rose of Denmark, Lady Heytesbury, 
Rose of Castille, Hugh Miller, Guiding Star, Maid of Kent, 
Fairest of the Fair. Red, with white corolla, single: Conspicua, 
Maria Cornelissen, Marchioness of Bath. Double : Yainqueur 
de Puebla, Mrs. Ballantjme, Emperor of the Fuchsias. To these 
may be added : Arabella Improved, Mrs. Marshall, Improvement, 
Nabob, Water Njonph, Avalanche, Blue Boy, Gen. Grant, Purple 
Prince, Sultan, and White Lady. In our opinion, the first twenty- 
four are the best for all purposes. Yariegated foliage we object 
to, as it detracts from the bloom, which is the strong point in all 
Fuchsias. Among the showiest species is J^./i*?^ews (Fig. 70). 

Funkia. — Hardy herbaceous soft-wooded plants. Grown for 
both foliage and flowers. Minimum temperature (in pots), 
35deg. As fine foliage plants for the cool or warm green- 
house there are very few that can equal the Funkias in 
particularly fine foliage, and, at the same time, the bloom is 
not to be despised. They are deciduous perennials, just as 
pseonies, and other plants of a like nature, having ovate leaves, 
and throwing up long spikes of flowers in their season, and 
when in their prime they appear as m the engraving {F. 
Sieholdii, Fig. 72). Consequently, they require to rest for a 
certain part of the year, and it is, therefore, best to keep 
them in a cold frame from which frost is excluded during the 
winter. In spring and early summer they can remain in 
the house, which they will help to decorate m a very e:ffective 
manner; but from the end of July, until the foliage ripens, 
it is best to stand them out of doors, and their orna- 
mental foliage will be useful in various places. The large 
ovate leaves of some of the varieties, and the gracefully 
curved spikes of drooping and somewhat lily- shaped flowers 
about an inch long, the spike being nearly two feet in 
length, render the Funkias very handsome specimens for flat 
vases, large pots, &c., and, as the beauty of the plants lies 


1 88 Greenhouse Manaoement for Amateurs. 

in tlie form and markings of the foliage, tliey do well 
stood rather low on the stages, or perhaps on the ground. 
It is, however, a matter of the greatest importance that 
plenty of light and air be given, and also that all insects, 
particularly green fly, slugs, and snails, be kept scrupulously 
destroyed, as, if these are allowed to prey on the plants, the 
foliage will be anything but handsome. We use a compost of 
loam, leaf soil, and rotten manure, to which some sharp sand 
has been added. Plenty of drainage is also necessary, as, 
during growth, the plants require free supplies of water. 

Propagated by division of the crowns while at rest. 

FunMa Fortunei, glaucous blue foliage ; F. glaiica, broad 
glaucous leaves ; F. grandiflora, handsome foliage, highly 
fragrant white flowers, which, if the plants are taken into a 
temperate house ere frost comes, will continue in bloom until 
December ; F. ovata variegata, leaves finely margined with 
white ; F. 0. aurea, soft yellow foliage; F. ovata, glaucous green 
foliage, puce flowers ; J^. ohcordaia, fine foliage and puce flowers, 
and F. undulata medio -variegata, fine foliage and puce flowers, 
will all be found very useful for the purposes named, and, 
besides these, there are very many more which are useful for 
either in or out-door decoration. The best plan is to see the 
plants before purchasing, and a visit to a good nursery, — say, 
Mr. Ware's, at Tottenham, — from June to September, would 
amply repay the intending pui'chaser. 

ALANTHTJS. — Hardy, bulbous, soft-wooded 
jjlant. Grown for its flowers. Minimum 
temperature (in pots), 30deg. The Snow- 
drops are so well known that a description 
is unnecessary; suffice it to say that a few 
pots in the cold house come in very handily early 
in the season. The culture is very simple — in 
fact, so simple that the only thing to be sur- 
prised at is the scarcity of these lovely blooms 
just after Christmas. All that is necessary is to pot the bulbs. 

Dictionary of Plants. 


about five in a large sixty-sized pot, using a somewliat rich 
compost of sandy loam and leaf soil, to which some sharp sand 
has been added. The bulbs should be potted as soon as they 
can be had, and then stood in a cold frame until the end of 
November, when they should be taken indoors and kept just 
moist until growth commences, when more water should be 
given. It is also necessary that a light airy position should be 
chosen for them, and it is an advantage if the house is kept at 

Fig. 73.— Snowdrop (G. Nivalis). 

a temperature of from 35deg. to 40deg. After blooming, the 
bulbs can either be turned into the ground or thrown away. 

Propagated by the natural increase of the bulbs. 

The best sorts are (r. nivalis (Fig. 73), G. nivalis fi.-yl., and G, 
plicatus, all of which are white, tipped with green. 

Gazania. — Half-hardy soft-wooded plant. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 36deg. These are showy,, 

190 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

nearly hardy bedding plants, and, from their habit and bloom, 
should be in every collection. The flowers are like very large 
single asters, and are two or three inches in diameter, according 
to kind and culture; the plants are somewhat trailing with 
lanceolate leaves, and being continuous bloomers, when well 
grown they are very effective. In many places they are quite 
hardy, while in others they require to be housed ; but in all 
cases it is well to keep a few store pots in readiness to fill up 
blanks or to guard against loss, while in places where the 
bedding system is pursued it is a good plan to have the stock 
in small pots at planting time, as in this state they are most 
manageable, and work into the designs more readily. We take 
cuttings in August and insert them eight in a Gin. pot of sandy 
soU, half filling the pots with crocks. These pots we place 
in a frame or on a bed of ashes until about the middle 
or end of October, when they are placed in a cool house until 
March. We then pot them off into comparatively small 
pots (2^in. to 3in.), and in April place in a frame till re- 
quired for bedding or for the furnishing of baskets, vases, 
<fec. Too much heat or water should be avoided, and all 
insects should be kept down carefully. A good sandy loam 
suits the plants best. 

Propagated as described above, or by seeds sown in a warm 
greenhouse in February. 

For sorts, select from G. pavonia, yellow ; G. rigens, orange ; 
G. splendens, orange ; and G. splendens fol. var., orange flowers 
and variegated foliage. 

Genista. — Hard- wooded plant. Grown for its flowers. 
Minimum temperature, 36deg. This is a very favourite plant 
for greenhouses and indoor decorations, as its bright yellow 
blossoms and light elegant foliage have a charming effect 
amongst other flowers. It is a plant that is very easily grown, 
and it is perhaps for this reason that it is so popular ; how- 
ever, its intrinsic merits fully entitle it to the high position 
it has attained. The Genista is more properly known as the 
Oytisus, and under that name full instructions for its cultivation 
and a list of the best varieties will be found. 

Dictionary of Plants. igi 

Geranium. — Hardy soft-wooded plants. Grown for their 
flowers and foliage. Minimum temperature, 36deg. One or 
two of the Geraniums can be used sometimes in the cool house, or 
they can be grown in a cold frame, and transferred to the house 
when in bloom. The plants are perfectly hardy, and bloom very 
freely in their season, bearing cup-shaped or recurved circular 
flowers from one to two inches in diameter on erect stems, and 
generally in trusses, as with the pelargonium ; but as they can 
be made to decorate the cold house so much the better, and 
the colours being of very pleasing shades tend to improve 
the appearance of the place greatly. The culture consists in 
simply re-potting when the growth commences, using a compost 
of leaf soil and sandy loam, and potting moderately firm. A 
fair amount of drainage must be afforded, or the plants will 
not thriv^e. In no case is it desirable to introduce them to a 
heated house, as they will not thrive well in such a place. 
Another good plan is to carefully lift them when showing 
bloom, and then pot them up, keeping in a shady place for a 
few days, and then introducing to the house. 

Propagated by seeds or division of the plants when at rest. 
AVe do not here refer to pelargoniums, but Geraniums proper. 

Some of the following can be used for cold house work 
G. albidum, white ; G. angulatum, purple ; G. Ibericum, blue 
G. nodosum, purple; G. jpliceum, black; G. pratense, blue 
G. roseum, rose; G. sanguineum, blood red; and G. Vlassovianum, 

Grevillea. — Greenhouse hard-wooded shi-ub or small tree. 
Grown for foliage chiefly. Minimum temperature, 36deg. 
This is a plant of an ornamental character, and is worthy of a 
place in all fair-sized collections. The foliage is ornamental, and 
of very elegant appearance, being finely divided, while the 
flowers are of rather a peculiar form, which it is impossible 
to describe without an engraving, particularly so in rosmari- 
nifolia, and for this alone the plants would be interesting. 
As, however, they are grown almost solely for their fern- 
like foliage, a deecription of the flowers is a matter of small 
importance. As a comparatively cold house, or an ordinary 

192 Greenhouse Mnnagement for Amateurs. 

greenliouse only is required, they come within the reach of most 
amateurs. We would, however, advise our readers to see them 
before purchasing. For soil we generally use good fibrous loam, 
and enough sand to keep the compost sufficiently open for the 
passage of water, as most loams go into a bad state as soon as 
the fibre decays, unless sand is used. The plants should be 
re-potted when they cease blooming, and they require much the 
same treatment as Cytisus. As a rule, specimens about a foot 
to two feet in height are best, but they can be allowed to get 
much higher if desired. 

Propagated by seeds sown in spring in a warm greenhouse, 
in sandy soil. 

For sorts we should prefer G. alpestris, red, yellow; G. Drum- 
mondii, white, yellow ; G. Hilli; G. lavendulacea rosea; G. punicea 
splendejis, scarlet ; G. rohusta, orange ; and last, but not least, 
G. rosmarinifolia, red. 

Guernsey Lily. — See '•' Serine." 

ABHOTHAMNUS. — Greenhouse hard- 
wooded shrub. Grown for its flowers and 
general appearance. Minimum tempera- 
ture, 40deg. This is a plant that does well 
in a house that is heated to about 40deg. 
or 45deg. during winter, and although it 
is generally used as a climber it makes no des- 
picable pot plant, as its foliage sets off the 
blooms to great advantage. It requires plenty 
of pot room, and we always find it do best in a free and 
moderately rich soil, where it will produce its terminal 
clusters of bright coloured flowers for the whole season, and in 
a warm house for the whole of the year. For pot cultivation, 
cuttings should be struck in August, and when- rooted should be 
potted as frequently as the roots reach the sides of the pots. 

Dictionary of Plants. 193 

They sliould be pinclaed back early to cause them to become 
bushy, and if this is done early in January they often bloom 
well according to their size ; but the next season they do better, 
as a iTile, if potted, and grown on' in the frames or outdoors. It 
is desirable to use large pots, as the plants require plenty of root 
room, and at all times they must be carefully looked after, in 
regard to watering, &c. Where it is desired that they shall 
form wall plants, they should hare large boxes, or, what is 
better, should be planted out in the borders, and receive liberal 
treatment ; bloom will then be plentiful. 

Propagated by cuttings struck on a slight bottom heat, or in a 
close frame, as described above. 

IL. elegans, carmine ; H. fasciculdtus, crimson ; and H. elegans 
fol. argenteus are three of the best. 

Haemanthus. — Greenhouse bulbous soft-wooded plant. 
Grown for its flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg. This is 
a very showy class of bulbous plant, resembling the amaryllis, 
and is well worth cultivation. We have found it do well treated 
in the same manner as the Guernsey lily ; in fact, we have had 
finer blooms by this treatment than by any other. 

Propagated by offsets, which should be treated in the same 
manner as the old plants. 

The best we have seen (not stove varieties) are H. coccineus, 
red ; H. alhifios, white flushed pink, sometimes pure white ; and 
H. puniceus. 

Hedychium. — Greenhouse soft-wooded herbaceous plant. 
Grown for its flowers. Minimum temperature (when at rest) 
35deg. Hedijchium Gardnerianinn, the Indian Garland Flower, 
as it is frequently called, is a subject that is well worthy of 
cultivation in all conservatories of a fair size, as it is best 
planted out, when it makes a fit associate to the various large- 
growing fine-foliaged plants used in such structures. Planted 
out in a wide border in a conservatory, with a compost of good 
loam enriched with a little thoroughly decayed manure, rendered 
porous by the addition of some sharp sand, the Hedychium will 
make heads of honeysuckle -like bloom and growths of Canna- 


194 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

like foliage far surpassing anything grown in pots; yet in the 
latter they are not bad if properly grown. Occasional supplies 
of liquid manure are also very beneficial in producing increased 
strength and vigour. 

For pot culture the following answers well : Purchase the 
plants in winter, and as soon as they show signs of growth re-pot 
into pots or tubs from 15in. to 18in. in diameter, giving about 
Sin. of drainage. Water thoroughly until growth pushes freely, 
and then apply pure water in an almost unlimited amount, 
occasionally giving a dose of liquid manure. By forwarding 
some and retarding others, a continuance of bloom can be main- 
tained for some months. As soon as the bloom is over the 
flower spikes should be cut down, and the strongest of the others 
left through the winter, when some of them will produce early 
spikes of bloom. If the flowers are fertilised artificially they 
will produce seeds of a bright orange scarlet colour, very showy 
and interesting, but of course the production of seeds weakens 
the plants a little. In spring, when the plants are re-potted, the 
rhizomes can be divided, and many plants will be made; but, in 
our opinion, one or two good specimens are preferable to a 
number of smaller ones, the size of the plant rendering a large 
number out of place in any but very large conservatories. In 
the second season the spent earth can be partly removed, and the 
plants re-potted into pots or boxes only an inch or two larger, 
or, if this is not convenient, into the same sized pots or boxes, 
and they will carry (with the aid of liquid manure) from eight 
to fifteen flower spikes, which make a handsome specimen. 

Propagated by division of the rhizomes, as described above. 

There are red, orange, yellow, and white Hedychiums, which 
any good nurseryman can supply, although we believe they are 
mostly unnamed. 

Heliotropium. — Half-hardy soft-wooded plant. Grown for 
its flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg. Heliotrope is a 
constituent of most bouquets in the season when it is in bloom 
out of doors, and in winter it is very much esteemed, as it is 
one of the best scented flowers to be had; and as these are 
borne in close heads of small five-cleft florets, they are very 

Dictionary of Plants,. 195 

useful for cutting. It is not very difficult to grow if certain 
simple rules are followed, but if tliese are neglected, small 
success will follow. There is little labour required to produce 
bedding plants ; simply strike tbe cuttings, in the autumn, 
and winter them in store pots, or keep old plants until 
early spring, and then strike cuttings and grow them on 
briskly, whichever is most convenient. In either case we find 
that it is the most convenient plan to strike the cuttings in a 
moderate bottom heat, and to strike in sand only. The advan- 
tage in keeping old plants is that sometimes plenty of bloom is 
had without any trouble, especially if a waiTo. and moderately 
dry atmosphere is kept up ; in fact, such a house as that in which 
tricolour pelargoniums are wintered will suit them nicely, pro- 
vided bloom is not the chief point aimed at. Another plan, 
where bloom is required, is to take up the plants used for. bed- 
ding, and, after potting them up, place in a moderately brisk 
bottom heat for a fortnight, and then cutting them back, place 
them in heat until they break freely, gradually hardening them 
off so that they may be brought into a house at a temperature 
of about oOdeg. "With care in training, &c., re-potting about 
the end of February, nice plants full of heads of fragrant bloom 
may be had during April and May. Planted out, and trained 
over a trellis in a conservatory, where a minimum temperature 
of 50deg. is maintained, heliotropes will bloom for the greater 
pai*t of the year, and few plants answer better. 

For soil, use good fibrous maiden loam two-thirds, and 
thoroughly decomposed manure one -third, adding sufficient 
sharp sand to maintain the whole in a porous condition. We 
strike in sand, and pot off into the above compost, in which the 
plants both bloom and grow freely. 

For conservatory decoration, pursue the following plan. In 
July or August insert about six cuttings round the edge of a 6in. 
pot, giving plenty of drainage, choose strong terminal shoots for 
cuttings, which should be about liin. long. Stand the pots in 
•a close frame, and shade from the sun, keeping the pots fairly 
moist. In about a month shift the young plants singly in Sin. 
pots, still keeping them in the frame, but admitting air freely. 
As soon as the pots get filled with roots, re-pot into 48-sized pots, 

o 2 

ig6 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

stand in tlie frame for a week or ten days, and then eitlier 
remove the lights altocrether or stand the plants out. Some of 
them will have a single stem only, and others will be bushy. 
The former should be nicely staked and reserved for standai'ds, 
as plants of this form, about three or four feet high, are 
extremely useful. As soon as there is the least chance of frost, 
place the plants in an airy light position in the greenhouse, 
and give only just enough water to keep them alive during 
the winter. As soon as they start in spring, turn them out 
of the pots, reducing the balls of earth somewhat, and then 
re-pot into pots one size larger. At the same time shorten the 
branches of the busliy specimens a little, and give them all 
more heat and moisture, to induce them to break freely. About 
May give another shift, and also less fire beat, and increase the 
supply of fresb air. Then divide the plants into two batches 
— one to be placed in the frames in June after being re-potted 
into Sin. pots, the otber to be kept in the conservatory, where 
they will bloom for a long time — many months, in fact. Those 
placed in the frames should be brought into the consei-va- 
tory in September, and, by maintaining a temperature of 
50deg. to 55deg., an abundance of bloom will be obtained 
until the late plants are ready. The first batch should be 
wintered and treated as before described. 

Standards should be run up to the height desired and then 
stopped, and afterwards the shoots stopped and trained into a. 
nicely-balanced head. The same general treatment applies ns- 
indicated above. The old K. Peruvianum makes a good plant to 
cover trellises in the conservatory, giving an abundance of 
bloom for many months in the year. The soil used must be- 
the same as mentioned before. 

Propagated by cuttings as already described. 

The best sorts for pot culture or bedding are : Surpasse Guas- 
coi, lilac to French white; M. Semeul, reddish purple; Mrs. 
Lewington,dark purple; Miss Nightingale, darkish purple; Hurst. 
Mettemich, French white; Madame Fillion, violet, white centre;. 
Jersey Beauty, lavender; Mme. J. Amy, light blue; Mme. Bour- 
charlat, dark blue ; Mons. Cassanave, dark purple ; and Souvenir- 
de Leopold I., light lavender lilac, very free and dwarf. 

Dictionary of Plants. 197 

Hibbertia. — Greenhouse hard-wooded climber. Grown for 
its flowers and general appearance. Minimum temperature, 
36deg. Hibbertia volubilis is a good pillar plant, as is also 
H. Cunningliamii, and the large yellow buttercup-like blooms 
which are freely produced over the leafy twigs of the whole 
specimen are very effective, rendering the whole of the space 
covered by the plants a mass of floricultural beauty. The 
Hibbertias are, however, only suited for covering pillars or 
walls, and should therefore only be used for such work. It is, 
however, not so much grown as it should be, although it 
deserves a place wherever there is space. It is a plant that 
requires plenty of root room, and may either be grown in large 
pots or planted out, care being taken to provide good drainage, 
a point that is too frequently neglected. We have grown it in 
peat and loam, both together and separate, always providing a 
sufficient quantity of sand to maintain the soil in a healthy 
porous condition, as in no case will any plant do well in a 
close sticky soil, hard-wooded plants particularly. If insects 
begin to attack, they must be got rid of at once, or they will 
soon cause the plants to become unhealthy and unsightly. 

Propagation is best effected by seeds, in the hands of the 
am^ateur gardener, but as only one or two plants are likely 
to be needed, it is better to purchase them when they are 

Hovea. — Greenhouse hard-wooded shrub. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg. It is well worthy of 
cultivation, especially in point of its adaptability as a roof or 
bush plant. It has pea-shaped flowers, and very distinct foliage, 
the blooms being produced freely from the axils of the leaves of 
the previous year's growth. In propagation it is best to raise 
from seeds, as cuttings are rather difficult to strike. The plant 
is rather slow growing, and, therefore, particularly suited to 
small or medium-sized houses. 

Sow on a gentle bottom heat in March, and pot off as soon as 
the rough leaf appears, using good turf, peat, or loam, witk 
about one-sixth silver sand, to keep it open. Grow on till the 
plants are about three or four inches high, and then pinch out 

igS Greenhouse Management for Amateurs 

the points, to cause the young plant to be busliy. As soon as 
a shift is required, a small one should be given. As the 
plants grow it is very likely that some of the shoots will 
take the lead over the others, and when such is the case they 
should be stopped back, and, in fact, it is not a bad plan to stop 
all the shoots again when they reach about six inches in height. 
This second stopping causes the plants to become pretty well 
furnished, and, as it were, lays the foundation of the future 
plants. Seedlings require the heat of an intermediate house 
rather than that of the greenhouse, for the first season, but 
after the first rest they^can be transferred to the greenhouse. 
For this reason the amateur will find it by far the best 
plan to purchase plants that are of a moderate size from a 
nursery, as then all the preliminary trouble is avoided, and no 
other than a greenhouse is necessary. If, however, plants are 
required for roofs, they had better be raised from seeds, and 
not stopped until the required height is obtained, when, if they 
are pinched back, and carefully trained, they will make good 
plants, and be very ornamental. 

The following treatment is more suitable for an amateur, and 
is that necessary for plants which have been purchased in 6in. 
pots in autumn. These should be wintered in a light house, as 
near the glass as possible, and at a temperature from 40deg. to 
45deg. It is advisable to pick off the flowers the first season, 
if it is desired to have nice specimens ; but at the same time it 
is not absolutely necessary to do so, if the bloom is particularly 
desired. As soon as they have started into growth an inch or 
so, give a shift into pots an inch or two larger, pot firmly, and 
allow sufficient drainage. Shut up the lights early in the after- 
noon to retain as much sun heat as possible, so as to ensure an 
early growth. About the end of April just sprinkle the plants 
in the afternoon with the syringe to ensure a good growth, arid 
should any of the shoots be inclined to run away, lie them 
down, so that the flow of sap may be equalised. Shade is not 
required, but a proper amount of water is necessary to ensure 
success, although over watering is to be avoided. About the 
end of August admit air freely to harden the plants off. 
Winter as before, and in the following spring they will be very 

Dictionary of Plants. 


fine from a decorative point of view. After blooming they 
should have a shift if the soil is full of roots, but if not it 
can be left for another year. The only insect that is likely to 
do much damage is scale, but this is easily destroyed by using 
a strong solution of " Gishurst Compound," or " Fowler's In- 
secticide," either of which will destroy it. 

Propagated from seeds, as described above. 

The varieties that we have found suitable are B.. Celsii, blue ; 
H. ^purpurea, purple ; and H. jpungens major, blue. 

Fig. 74.— Hota Carxosa, 

Hoya. — Greenhouse hard-wooded climber. Grown for its 
flowers and foliage. Minimum temperature, 40deg. This plant 
is remarkable for the wax-like appearance of the foliage and 
flowers which are shown in Fig. 74, and this is what causes it to 
be much sought after. It is one of those plants that give com- 
paratively little trouble, but which always look well if kept clean. 
Even if no flowers are obtained the foliage is far prettier than 
that of many of the plants that are grown for their foliage alone, 
the peculiar brightness and waxy appearance being very beauti- 

200 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

ful, and if we consider tlie appreciation it generally receives it 
stands pre-eminent as a wall climber. It can eitlier be planted 
out, or grown in good-sized pots, according to tbe convenience 
of the grower, but in neitber case must it get dry dui-ing the 
growing season, or tbe leaves will bave a rusty appearance. 
For soil, use peat and loam in equal parts, witb enougb sand to 
keep tbe wbole porous, and do not overpot, as tbere is no 
advantage derived from so doing. Tbe temperature of tbe 
bouse must not sink below 40deg., and tbe plants sbould not 
be exposed to full sun during very bot weatber. Training 
sbould be carefully attended to, and water sbould be applied 
wben necessary. 

Propagated by cuttings of ripe wood inserted in pots of sandy 
loam in tbe greenbouse. 

For sorts, iT. carnosa stands first, and, if one variety is not 
enougb, add H. c. variegata — a variegated foim of tbe preceding 
— or H. bella, wbicb is not of sucb free growtb as H. carnosa. 

Humea. — Half-bardy berbaceous perennial. Grown for 
its flowers. Minimum temperature, 45deg. H. elegans and 
H. purpurea are two very useful balf-bardy perennials; but 
tbey succeed best if treated as biennials, and, as tbe seed is 
very moderate in price, we recommend tbat course. Sow 
tbe seeds tbinly in ratber sandy soil in April, and transplant 
into small pots (tbumbs) as soon as tbe first leaf appears. 
After tbe young plants root into tbe fresb soil, gradually barden 
tbem off, and place in cold frames about tbe end of May, 
being careful tbat tbe temperature does not fall below 45deg. 
As soon as tbe pots are full of roots (but not pot-bound), re-pot 
into one size larger, paying particular attention to watering, 
and keeping free from insects. Continue re-potting as neces- 
sary, but giving only one size larger eacb time ; keep tbe plants 
as close to tbe glass as possible, wben it is necessary to keep 
tbe ligbts on, and syringe every evening during liot weatber. 
Early in September remove tbem to a ligbt position, near 
tbe glass in a greenbouse, wbere a temperature of 45deg. to 
50deg. is kept up, admitting as mucb air as can consistently 
be allowed, and re-potting from time to time as requisite, as 

Dictionary of Plants. 20i 

the chief secret in cultivating these plants is to keep them 
steadily growing. About the end of May they may be again 
transferred to the frames, the treatment being as before. From 
12in. to 15in. pots will be found necessary to bloom them well, 
and, during the whole of their growth, no check must be given. 
They will bloom from about July till the end of October, or even 
later, and, as the plants are very imposing in appearance, about 
4ft. in height, and the drooping feathery inflorescence is nicely 
perfumed, they are very welcome additions to the stock. In 
growing them a slightly moist atmosphere rather than a dry 
one should be kept up. 

The best soil to use is a good rich light fibrous loam, with 
enough sand added to secure the necessary porosity, as, when 
growing vigorously, they require plenty of water, and conse- 
quently plenty of drainage. 

Propagated from seeds as described above. 

The two varieties we name are fairly distinct, and are 
certainly good, viz. : H. elegans, reddish brown ; and H. 
purpurea, brownish crimson. 

Hyacinth. — Hardy bulbous soft-wooded plant. Grown for 
its flowers. Minimum temperature (in pots), 40deg. Yery 
few persons who have a greenhouse would care to have the 
Hyacinth absent, and as the plants are alike useful in both 
heated and cold houses, their value is so much the greater. 
The culture of the Hyacinth is comparatively simj^le, but 
at the same time it is necessary to observe certain rules. 
The first is to have perfectly sound heavy bulbs, which 
should be selected clear from offsets or protuberances, and, 
what is equally as important, with only one crown. In 
fact, a Hyacinth should be like a fine onion, clear in the 
skin, and smooth and well proportioned, and, at the same 
time, heavy for its size. Rich sandy soil should also be 
provided; and, lastly, a sufficient time for the production 
of roots should be allowed before they are brought to the 
light, or only very indifferent results will be obtained. A 
compost composed of one-half good loam, one-third good leaf 
soil, and the rest manure and sand, will suit Hyacinths well, 


Greenhouse Manage?nent for Amateurs. 

Fig. 75.— Single Hyacinth. 

and cause them to produce 
large spikes. Tlie bulbs 
sliould be obtained as early 
in the season as possible, and 
a portion — including some of 
the white Roman — should be 
potted up at once, plenty of 
drainage being given with 
the compost mentioned above. 
The pots should then be 
plunged in a bed of coal 
ashes or cocoa fibre refuse, 
and the bulbs covered to a 
depth of six or seven inches. 
The other bulbs should be 
stored in a cool place, potted 
up from time to time, and 
treated as the first batchy 
and these later lots will make 
good successions to the first 
.ones. After the bulbs have 
been under cover for about 
five or six weeks they can 
be taken out and placed in 
a frame or greenhouse, and 
kept moist. The flower spike 
will then soon throw up, and 
the plants should be kept 
near the glass, so that all 
the light that can be ob- 
tained may be afforded them. 
A temperature of 50deg. will 
bloom the bulbs well in the 
early house, and if plenty of 
water is afforded the plants 
when they are growing vig- 
orously, fine spikes of bloom 
will result. The successional 

Dictionary of Plants. 


batctes must be brouglit forward from time to time, and treated 
tlie same as the first lot. 

Propagated by division of the offsets, which are formed 
naturally round the base of each blooming bulb. 

Fig. 76. — Double Hyacinth. 

Some good single sorts (Fig. 75) for pot work are : Amy, 
bright red ; Meyerbeer, bright red ; Mrs. Beecher-Stowe, delicate 
rose; Ariadne, rose shaded with pink; Circe, carmine; Norma, 
delicate pink ; Yon Schiller, deep salmon pink ; Tubiflora, blush 

204 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

white; J.Z6a maajma, pure white; Blanchard, pure white; Grand 
Yainqueur, white; La Candeur, white; Couronne de Celle, blue, 
light centre ; Grande Yedette, pale porcelain blue ; Baronne Yan 
Tuyll, blue; Brunette, rich blue; "Chas. Dickens, pale shaded 
blue ; Nimrod, light blue ; General Havelock, black purple ; 
Mimosa, black ; Anna Carolina, yellow ; Heroine, jDale yellow ; 
Ida, good clear yellow; La Pluie d'Or, primrose. The yellows 
are not nearly so good for pot culture as other colours, but 
they make a change in the appearance of the plants. The 
doubles (of which Fig. 76 shows a good type) require special 
treatment, in order to make them worth notice ; and we 
mention no varieties because, unless where exhibition pur- 
poses are contemplated, such treatment will not be repaid 
by results. 

Hydrangea. — Hardy hard-wooded shrub. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 45deg. This, although a hardy 
shrub, is often grown in greenhouses, and when properly culti- 
vated produces such a fine effect that it is worth a place 
amongst the more generally accepted greenhouse plants ; it 
has a very handsome appearance, as shown in Fig. 77. H. 
hortensis (pink) and H. paniculata are the only members of the 
family to which we shall refer, as they are the best and most 
met with. The question to be determined is, whether plants 
with one large corymb of flowers, and about 18in. high (as 
grown for the London markets), or of larger size with several 
smaller ones, are desirable ; for, although the treatment is 
similar, it is necessary to select the plants for the different 
plans. Strike cuttings in gentle bottom heat in the end of 
August, and when well rooted, pot off into 4in. pots in 
a free rich soil, containing a small allowance of peat, or, if 
this is not obtainable, leaf mould and silver sand; choose 
only the lateral or side shoots, and keep them growing in a 
warm greenhouse, near the glass, throughout the winter. 
Liberal supplies of water are necessary to ensure large flowers, 
and, consequently, there must also be good drainage. During 
the time the jDlants are in full growth, occasional supplies of 
weak liquid manure can be applied with advantage. If more 

Dictionary of Plants. 


than one slioot is required, old cut-back plants can be used, 
but we think the single corymb makes the greater display, as, 
being larger, it is much more conspicuous. The same plants 
can, by attention to soil and culture, be made to bear blue 
flowers, and this opens to amateurs a wide field for interesting 
experiments. It is said that a ferruginous soil will produce the 

Fio. 77.— Hydrangea Hortensis. 

blue-colour, and we have certainly seen masses of Hydrangeas 
in Devonshire, where the soil is strongly impregnated with iron, 
covered with azure blossoms. 

Propagated by cuttings of ripe wood of the current year's 
growth inserted in pots of sandy soil in a cold greenhouse or 
frame, or by layers. 


2o6 Greenhouse M anacrement for A77iateurs. 

'CE PLANT.— Half -hardy annual, grown for 
its foliage. Minimum temperature, 45deg. 
It is very often necessary to grow these for 
decorative purposes, as they will stand the 
sun so well. The perennial kinds can be 
raised from seeds, but we do not think that 
it is advisable to do so as a mle, as more certain 
results can be had from cuttings ; but still they 
can be raised in the manner hereafter described 
if it is thought desirable. The Ice Plant, which is trailing, and 
has ovate leaves about an inch long, which appear to be covered 
with small globules of ice, and from which the name is derived, 
and one or two others which are best treated as annuals, do well 
if grown as under, and they are certainly fine plants in their 
particular section. In most cases where the Ice Plant {Mesem- 
bryanthenium crystallinum) is used for garnishing there is but 
poor foliage, i.e., foliage deficient in crystalline beads, to use a 
common expression, and this is usually caused by their being 
grown in too shaded a place. For our own part, we should 
choose a place fully exposed to the sun, but where a somewhat 
moist atmosphere can be maintained, for the purpose of pro- 
ducing fine foliage, at the same time starving the roots some- 
what. For the ordinary run of plants we sow in a warm house 
in February, using well-drained pans of sandy soil. The seeds 
are distributed thinly, and but slightly covered with soil, a 
sheet of glass being placed over the pans, as previously described 
for other seeds. The pans are then placed in a warm sunny 
position and not allowed to get dry, but at the same time they 
are not kept too wet, or the seedlings would rot off. As soon 
as large enough to handle, the plants are potted off in small 
pots, and as soon as these are filled with roots they are shifted 
into Sin. or 4in. pots in which they can remain for the season. A 
compost of two parts good loam, one part leaf soil or thoroughly 
decayed cow manure, and one part sharp sand, crushed mortar, 
and crushed charcoal in equal proportions, will be found to 
answer well, an inch of drainage being given to each pot. 

Dictionary of Plants. 207 

Propagated from seeds as described above. 

For sorts from seeds, and treated as annuals, we have found 
tbe following to be the best : ilf. crystallinum (Ice plant), white; 
M. tricolor, crimson and white ; and M. t. album, white. 

Illiciuni. — Half-hardy hard-wooded shrub. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature 36deg. I. Floridanum is by 
some persons much esteemed on account of its flowers being 
perfumed, the scent being very much like that from anise. The 
Illicium is very nearly hardy, having bright evergreen leaves and 
bearing axillary flowers which hang in twos and threes, and may 
therefore be treated as described for other things of a similar 
nature, the plants being put out of doors during the summer, 
&c. For soil use good sound turfy loam, to which a little leaf 
soil has been added, with enough sharp sand to keep the whole 
open. Pot moderately firm, and do not over water, and the 
plant will bloom abundantly. 

Propagated by cuttings as described for Hydrangea. 

Imantopliyllum. — Greenhouse bulbous soft-wooded plant. 
Grown for its flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg. It is 
also called by the name of Clivea, at least so far as two or 
three of the varieties are concerned. The culture is very simple, 
and provided proper attention is paid them at some seasons, 
at others they can remain under the stage of the green- 
house. The chief point is to grow them well and freely during 
the summer, and to give them rest during the winter. We have 
grown them successfully in the same manner as Amaryllis, 
which they much resemble in bloom and foliage, and also in the 
following manner : In March the plants are re-potted in a com- 
post of loam and leaf soil, with the addition of some sharp 
sand, in from 9in. to llin. pots, and they are watered in ac- 
cordance with the growth. The same heat as the other stock 
receives is given, and as the weather becomes warm, air is 
freely admitted, so that the plants shall be fairly hardy. The 
blooms should be supported by neat stakes, and as probably 
there will be several heads, they should be trained apart so that 
a fine head of bloom is shown on each plant. After the bloom 
is over it is well to keep the plants growing vigorously until 

2o8 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

the leaves begin to ripen, and then gradually leave off watering 
until they are in a dormant state, when they can be placed undei- 
the stage. 

Propagated by division in the same way as Amaryllis. 

The sorts we have grown are 1. AUoni, I. miniatiim, and I. 
cijrtantliiflorum. The colours are shades of orange red, and the 
flowers are produced in large numbers. 

Indian Garland Flower. — See " Hedychium." 
Indiarubber Plant. — See *' Ficus Elaatica." 

Iponioea. — Greenhouse and half-hardy annual climber. Grown 
for its flowers. Minimum temperature 45deg. to 50deg. Amongst 
the Ipomoeas some of the prettiest climbers for the conservatory 
will be found; and they are very useful, as both bloom and 
foliage are very handsome. The blooms, in form like those of 
the convohnilus, which the plants generally resemble, are of 
various colours, and, as these are very diverse, a fine show may 
be made ; if a little trouble is taken in hybridising the varieties, 
excellent results are almost sure to follow. It is, however, 
desirable not to save seeds from dirty-coloured flowers, such as 
brick reds or muddy-colom-ed blues, but in all the shades of 
colour clearness should be aimed at. The culture of the 
Ipomceas is very easy, and, in proportion to the beauty of the 
plants, may be said to be about as profitable as that of any- 
thing grown. Ipomoeas require plenty of root room, and do 
best in a border in the house; but, where this cannot be afforded,, 
large pots or boxes are necessary, that a sufficient run for the 
roots may be allowed. The plants are useful trained over 
trellises, or on pillars, or, in fact, anywhere, provided sufficient 
light is given, but, if the roof is overhung with grape vines, it 
will be useless to try to grow them. The time of sowing will 
depend much on the accommodation for growing, and, according 
as the seeds are sown early or late, so will be the period of 
blooming. Where convenience exists, it is well to sow early, 
placing two seeds in a small 60-sized pot. As soon as the 
roots kiss the sides of the pots, re-pot into 4in., and, when the 

Dictionary of Plants. 2og 

roots touch the sides of these, the iDlants should be transferred 
to where they are to bloom. Plenty of drainage must be 
afforded, and the soil in the larger pots should not be sifted, but 
broken up small with the hands. We have found a good 
compost to consist of equal parts of fibrous loam, rotten manure, 
and leaf soil, with enough sharp sand added to keep the whole 
well open. Plenty of water will be necessary during the 
growing season, and a rather moist atmosphere suits the plants 

Propagated by seeds as described above. 

For sorts, select from I. coccinea, crimson; I. Learii, violet 
and blue; I. rubro ccerulea, sky blue; and I. r. c. alba, white. 
There are several others, but we curtail the list so as not to 
include doubtful varieties. 

Iresiue. — Half-hardy, soft- wooded plant. Grown for its 
foliage. Minimum temperature, 40deg. This is much used for 
bedding, having oval leaves about an inch and a-half long, the 
plants being from 1ft. to l^ft. in height, and, from the metallic 
bronze colour of the foliage, whether dark red or bronze- 
coloured reddish green, it contrasts favoui*ably with other 
foliage plants of a brighter hue. The Iresines are, how- 
ever, plants that require a brisk heat to grow them freely 
at certain times, that is, to obtain presentable plants for bed- 
ding out; but, at all other times, a minimum of 45deg. will 
keep them in fair health. The way we manage them is as 
follows : We take up the old plants in September, or strike 
young ones in the end of July, and grow them on in pots, housing 
them in September, giving a light place near the glass, at 
the same time not over- watering for the winter. In the begin- 
ning of March cuttings are taken off and struck in nearly all 
sand, the pots being placed in a brisk bottom heat. The old 
plants from which these were taken are also placed in heat, and 
supply an abundance of shoots. When the cuttings are rooted 
they are potted off into a compost of loam and leaf soil, to which 
a large amount of sharp sand has been added ; they are returned 
to heat again, and, when about Sin. high, the tops are pinched 
out, and, as soon as the plants break freely, they are gradually 



Dictionary of Plants. 21 \ 

hardened off, and finally bedded out in June. Some of them 
may, however, be grown on in pots, and, by shifting frequently 
until Sin. pots are reached, stopping from time to time, and 
paying due attention to wateiing, fine decorative plants will 
be made. 

Propagated by cuttings, as described above. 

The following three varieties are good, viz., J. Lindeni, dark 
blood-red leaves, tall; I. acuminata, taller than the next, but 
variegated like the latter, having brighter colours, fine for pot 
work; and I. Herhstii, dark crimson, ribs and stems of a 
carmine coloar, but on some soils having a reddish bronze hue 
instead of coming true. 

Iris. — Hardy, bulbous, soft-wooded plant. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature (in pots), 3i3deg. Some of the 
bulbous Irises are worth growing in pots for the decoration of 
the greenhouse, but more particularly for that of the cold 
house, as there the colours come very pure, and the markings 
are very distinct. Great care, however, must, be taken that 
insects are kept down, and that the plants are kept as near the 
glass as possible, so that they do not become drawn, for, if that 
should happen, or the plants become infested with green-fly, 
they will not bloom, and, unless they bloom, they are useless 
from a decorative point of view. They are from a foot to two 
feet in height, and in general appearance as shown in Fig. 79. 
The general treatment is the same as for fritillarias, and if 
the directions for the culture of those plants are followed, a 
good show of bloom may be reasonably expected. Some of the 
evergreen Irises may be bloomed in the cold house, or in a cold 
frame, if the roots are carefully taken up and potted in pots 
sufficiently large to hold the clumps without damaging the roots, 
with good sandy loam for soil, and plenty of drainage. As a 
rule, however, it is not safe to try to force the herbaceous 
sorts, as they will not stand being over-excited, but, in the cold 
house, they can be had in bloom very easily. 

Propagated by offsets, which are produced naturally. 

Amongst bulbous sorts, the varieties of J. xijyhioides have 
the largest flowers; those of I. xiphium are the earliest. . The 

212 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

following varieties of J. xiphioides are very good, and are really 
worthy of being well cultivated : Brutus, reddish, purple ; Damon, 
pure white; Gloriosa, pale blue and white ; Grand Yainqueur, 
rosy lilac; La Beaute, lilac; Lord Palmerston, purple; Miss 
Barclay, white, splashed with violet ; Mungo Park, dark violet ; 
Penelope, white, mottled with, lilac; Pourpre Blenatre, rich 

Fig, 79.— Iris Eeticulata. 

purple. Of I. xi;p1iium, the following are really good: white, 
yellow, rich violet pui-ple, and blue. If the bulbs are had to 
the colours named, no advantage will accrue by purchasing 
named sorts, the only difference being in the price. I. Histrio, 
which is of the I. reticulata type, is very handsome (Fig. 78) 

Dictionary of Plants. 


and has also a very pleasant perfume, but, being of compara- 
tively recent introduction, is not so com- 
mon as others of the same type. It is 
well worth cultivation when bulbs can 
be had, and should be in every collec- 
tion. J. jjavonia major (peacock iris), 
beautiful white, with sky blue blotch 
on each petal ; I. Persica, white, blue, 
and yellow ; I. reticulata, deep blue and 
golden yellow (Fig. 79); I. Susiana 
' (Chalcedonian iris), broad petalled blush 
tinted brown flowers, netted with dark 
lines (Fig. 80) ; I. tuherosa (snake's 
headed iris), rich violet, tinted glossy 
black flowers ; I. primula, various ; and 
I. suavolens, various, are all good for 
our purpose, if grown in a manner con- 
sistent with their various habits. The 

chief points are, to treat as nearly as possible a,s hardy plants, 
to give plenty of air, and to keep free from insects. 

Fig. 80 —Iris Stjsiana. 

Isolepis. — Greenhouse soft-wooded plant. Grown for its 
foliage. Minimum temperature, 36deg. This plant, which is 
in reality a rush, is most useful for various decorative purposes, 
whether in rooms, in the greenhouse and conservatory, or for 
table decorations, its grass-like foliage surmounted with its 
tufts of flowers, in all about 9in. high, being very graceful 
and effective ; consequently it should be grown in every green- 
house in the land ; but, while it will do anywhere if frost is 
excluded, still it is far preferable to grow it in a house where 
at least a minimum of 45deg. is maintained. In fact, a higher 
temperature would produce better results, but, as in many 
cases this cannot be had without injuring the other stock, the 
former temperature must suffice. "Where sufficient heat is at 
hand the plants can be kept growing briskly throughout the 
winter, while in cool houses they should be in an advanced 
stage before winter sets in, so that the chief point may be to 
preserve and prolong their beauty rather than cause a fresh 

2 14 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

growth. Of course allowance must be made to meet any 
special features in the case, but the following treatment will 
be found to produce excellent results : Pot the plants (after 
dividing the old stools) in a compost of sandy loam, leaf soil, 
and thoroughly rotted cow manure in equal parts, adding 
enough sand to keep the whole open. Keep them close for a 
week or ten days, and then air can be admitted more or less 
according to the season. Re-potting can be done at almost any 
time when heat is readily obtainable, but in cold houses this 
operation is best perfonned in April and August, the plants 
being divided into two batches for the purpose. Few insects" 
attack the Isolepis, but slugs and snails must be guarded 
against. In no case must the plants get dry at the roots, or 
the foliage will become brown and unsightly, and the beauty 
be thus lost. 

Propagated by divisions of the tufts or crowns, and this 
division can be carried on to a very great extent if in a warm, 
moist greenhouse. Although seeds are to be obtained, they 
cannot be relied on, as they should be sown as soon as ripe. 

ASMIITUM. — Hardy hard - wooded 
climbing shrub. Grown for its flowers. 
Minimum temperature, 36deg. Jasminums, 
being of a not too robust growth, can be 
grown successfully in pots, and while 
young may be trained on trellises affixed 
thereto, either flat or balloon shaped. The 
blossoms being tubular, and more or less odori- 
ferous, they are very desirable for cut blooms, while 
the pinnate foliage is of a bright green, and very pleasing. The 
plants, which can be used on walls or pillars, or trained as 
bushes about two feet or more in height, are best purchased 
from a nursery in autumn, and kept in the greenhouse until 
about March, when they should be re-potted, or planted out 

Dictionary of Plants. 215 

as the case may be, good sound peat being cliosen, or two- 
tLirds peat and one part loam, and a suflB.cient quantity of 
sharp sand to ensure the proper porosity of the soil. A 
minimum heat of at least 40deg. must be maintained to keep 
the plants in thorough order, and while plenty of ventilation 
is maintained when necessary, the ordinary temperature of the 
house will be sufficient. "Water must of course be given as 
needed, and the syi-inge must be used occasionally both for the 
sake of cleanliness and to keep down red spider. Training must 
be afforded as required, and shoots that unduly take the lead 
over the general growth of the plants should be stopped. 

Propagated by cuttings of ripe wood of the cui-rent year's 
gi'owth, in sandy soil, with or without gentle bottom heat. 

For sorts select from /. Azoriciiini, J. gracile, J. grandijlorum, 
and /. odoratum. 

We have also seen the hardy /. revolutum grown well in a 
cool house, but it should be treated as a hardy plant during 
the summer, when, with careful treatment, it will bloom freely 
early in the season. The flowers are highly fragrant, of a 
bright yellow colour, and the foliage is of a very rich green. 
Treated as a shrub it does far better than as a climber c^r 
wall plant, and as it blooms better and earlier in the greenhouse 
than out of doors, it f ally repays any trouble bestowed on it. 
For soil we use turfy loam one half, good peat, as used for 
azaleas, one part, and leaf soil, or rotten cow manure, and 
sharp sand in equal proportions, one part, potting rather firmly, 
and not allowing too much room at the roots. We rather prefer 
to have the plants slightly pot bound, and to assist them with 
liquid manure. 

2i6 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

A Ii HH I A. — Hardy hard-wooded shrub. 
Grown for its flowers. Minimum tem- 
perature, 36deg. This useful class of 
American plant is well suited for the cool 
house. The flowers are very pretty, much 
like some of the rhododendrons, which the 
plants much 
resemble gene- 
rally, and the 

treatment given to those 

will suit Kalmias. With 

care they will bloom 

well each year, but we 

prefer plants freshly 

lifted, for these generally 

answer best. The plants 

that have bloomed in- 
doors can also then be 

planted out to prepare for 

indoor work again when 

required. A soil composed 

of peat and sand is neces- 
sary, and firm potting 

must be the rule. For 

treatment, see *' Rhodo- 

Propagated by cuttings 

or seeds, but as the plants are very cheap, and but few are 

needed, it is generally considered better to purchase than to 

be troubled with propagation. 

The sorts most suitable are K.glauca and K. latifolia (Fig. 81). 

both of which are very pretty, and repay the trouble that may 

be taken with them. 

Fig. 81.— Kalmia Latifolia (Truss of Flowers. 

Kalosanthes. — Greenhouse soft-wooded plant. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg. These plants, which 

Dictionary of Plants. 


are so mucli esteemed for decorative purposes during tlie season, 
are of easy culture if ordinary care is used ; but it is a sign 
of careless cultivation to see them 3ft. or 4ft. liigh, instead of 

18in., and the clusters of blos- 
soms consisting only of four or 
five, instead of several dozens. 
The scarlet variety is most effec- 
tive for decorative purposes ; but 
if the blooms are cut and wii'ed 
for table \vork, the flesh-coloured 
or pink variety also is very showy. 
For the decoration of rooms they 
are at times useful, but as their 
habit is erect they ai'e better 
suited for the consei'vatory, as 
they can be there worked in ■ to 
greater advantage. The flowers 
are also sweet-scented, which is 
an additional advantage, and the 
general appearance of the plant 
can be gathered from the flower- 
ing branch shown in Fig. 82. 
The best way to grow them is 
as follows : In August or early 
in September, take cuttings about 
3iu. long, choosing shoots which 
have not bloomed ; strip off a few 
of the bottom leaves and insert 
each cutting singly in a Sin. pot, 
using a compost of loam, leaf 
soil, and pounded biiek or crocks 
in about equal proportions. Place 
these pots on a shelf in the green- 
house or in a warm pit, keeping 
them as near the glass as possible, dnd gilding only enough 
water to prevent flagging. "When well rooted, remove to a 
cool dry greenhouse for the winter, giving but little water, 
BO that the plants shall be kejjt at rest till the spring. 

Fig. 82. — Kalosanthes Coccixea 
(Flowering Branch). 

2 18 Greenhouse Manageynent for Amateurs. 

Early in March re-pot into Sin. or lOin. pots, using a somewhat 
heavier soil, and also plenty of drainage. After potting, 
carefully introduce the plants into a growing temperature, and 
induce them to grow freely, but, at the same time, take care 
that they are kept near the glass, or they will become long 
and spindly and of small value. As growth commences some 
of them will have several shoots, while others will have but 
one. In the former case remove all but seven or eight, and 
in the latter pinch off the top to induce the formation of young 
shoots, as it is these which will bear flowers. About the end of 
May plunge the plants in a bed of ashes outdoors, or stand them 
on a hard surface, as the plunging is not absolutely necessary ; 
but it is necessary to give them a hot and open (though shel- 
tered) spot from the time of re-potting until the fall, when they 
should be taken into a cool house before the weather becomes 
too cold. Here they can remain, until the flowers open, in a 
temperature of 45deg. to 50deg. Some may be got on earlier 
by giving more heat, while others may be retarded by keeping 
them a little cooler, so that a succession can be kept up. If 
due attention is paid to watering, staking, &c., during the 
summer, fine plants, covered with large trusses of flower buds 
will be produced by autumn, and then the only question is to 
get the buds open at the time desired, and this is done by the 
routine already described. 

Propagated by cuttings as described above. 

The sorts we prefer are as follow: K. coccinea sujperha and 
K. coccinea (Fig. 82), crimson ; K. versicolor, flesh or pink. K. 
splendens is also very good; but the first two are decidedly 
the best. 

Kennedya. — Greenhouse climber. Grown for its flowers 
and foliage. Minimum temperature, 40deg. This is a family 
in which the old families of Zychia and Hardenbergia are incor- 
porated, or at least the three plants are now classed under the 
first name by most botanists and nurserymen, and we therefore 
comply with the rule. These plants afford considerable variety 
and for this reason are suited for general cultivation on a 
larger scale than is usual. The cultivation is comparatively 

Dictionary of Plants. 


easy, provided the soil is so prepared as to remain in a healthy 
condition, and plenty of drainage is afforded. Use either peat 
or peat and loam, with a sufficiency of sand, as previously 
advised for other plants, potting pretty firmly. Water must 
not be given more than is required, 
neither must the soil be permit ted to 
become dust dry at any time, or 
serious damage will be done. A warm 
greenhouse or conservatory — where 
they will produce their pea-shaped 
flowers in great abundance, which 
being prominent above the trifoliate 
foliage are very conspicuous — suits 
them best, but still, if the minimum 
temperature in winter is from 40deg. 
to 45deg., they do very well. The 
attacks of insects must be kept down, 
as advised for other plants, or the 
foliage will become unsightly. Be- 
sides being useful as climbing plants, 
they can be trained on trellises or 
balloon-shaped wire frames, but not 
less than loin, frames should be used. 

Propagated by seeds sown on sandy 
soil in a warm greenhouse, or in a 
gentle bottom heat early in spring, 
and carefully grown on until the 
plants attain some size. 

For sorts, select from the following : 
K. Australis, K. coccinea, K. Comjjton- 
iana, K. digitata, K. inophylla, K. i. 
vm'iegata, K. lilacina, K.mono2)hylla, 
K. m. variegata, K. ovata, K. 0. alba, 
K. 0. inirpurea, K. 0. rosea, K. pan- 
nosa, K. t'uhicunda, and K. r. siq^erha. 

Fig. 83.— Kerria Japonica 
(Flowering Spray). 

Kerria. — Hardy shrul), the stems of which are biennial, as 
with the raspberry. Grown for its flowers. Minimum temperature 

220 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

36deg. This old-fashioned plant is very good for bringing into 
bloom early in tlie season, and there is very little trouble in 
doing this. Suitable plants should be chosen as soon as the 
leaves fall, taken up carefully, so as to preserve all the roots, 
and potted up in pots of sufficient size to hold them comfortably. 
Good sandy soil should be used, and the pots should be well 
drained, but with the exception of these points no further special 
directions are necessary. The plants can either remain in a 
cold house, or they may be gradually introduced to a warm one, 
where the flowers will be freely produced. The blossoms, which 
are yellow — buttercup colour — are formed somewhat like a 
double daisy, and contrast admirably with the white cerasus, 
but they require wiring to be of use as cut bloom. 

Propagated by division of the stools, in the same way as 
with the raspberries. As they are perfectly hardy, it is advisable 
to place out the forced pot plants each year, and take up fresh 
clumps which have been divided the year previously, and grown 
on in rich soil for the purpose of potting. By following this 
plan the best results will be obtained. 

The only kind which is really worth cultivation in the green- 
house is Kerria jajponica flore-pleno, the old double yellow, a 
flowering spray of which is shown in Fig. 83. 

ACHENAIiIA. — Greenhouse bulbous soft- 
wooded plant. Grown for its flowers. 
Minimum temperature, 40deg. This is a 
class of greenhouse bulbous plants which, 
though of great individual beauty, is still 
much neglected. Indeed, at the time when they 
most require attention, as a rule, they have 
the least, probably owing to the fact that their 
blooming period is then over. The bulbs are com- 
paratively cheap, and are to be had at most nurseries. 

About October or November they should be put into Gin. 

Dictionary of Plants, 221 

or Sin. pots, from seven to twelve bulbs in the 6in., and from 
twelve to eighteen in the Sin. pots, ^j this plan good masses 
of foliage with a fair number of spikes of bell-shaped pendulous 
flowers are obtained, and a better effect produced than by 
growing in smaller numbers, the lax flag-like foliage forming 
a handsome mass from which the flower spikes issue. It is well 
to mention that here a little discretion must be used, as in many 
cases the bulbs will be strong, and then a less number will be 
required ; and, again, weak bulbs will require to be much closer 
together, so that in reality they must be planted according to 
size. By far the best plan is to place the larger bulbs in the 
centre and the smaller ones around, as the growth is then more 
evenly balanced. In potting, about an inch of drainage should 
be put, then an inch of thoroughly decayed cow manure, and 
the pot filled up with a compost of yellow fibrous loam and 
enough sharp sand to keep up the necessary amount of porosity. 
As the bulbs are very small, it is preferable to fill the pots and 
then insert the bulbs, first putting in a pinch of silver sand for 
the bulbs to rest on. ISTo water should be given until the plants 
are growing well, and then it must be given freely. To grow 
them well they should be stood on a bed of ashes in a cool 
frame, and kept somewhat near the glass, but especial care 
taken to exclude frost. It is also a good plan to exclude light 
from the bulbs until they are well started. "When well ad- 
vanced they may be placed on the front shelf of a greenhouse 
until their beauty is over, then they should be taken back to the 
frame to complete their growth and ripen off the bulbs, as on 
this depends their value as decorative subjects. 

Propagated by the division of the bulbs, which increase 

The best three varieties are Tj. pendula, red, tipped with 
pui'ple and green; L. quadricolor, and L. tricolor, scarlet, yellow, 
and green. For all cool houses these will be found gems 
amongst bulbs, but no forcing must be attempted. 

Lautana. — Greenhouse soft- wooded plant. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 38deg. These plants are useful 
for greenhouse decoration and bedding-out ; and whether grown 

222 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

for one or other of tliese purposes, or for botli, if grown well 
they are sure to give satisfaction. For ordinary greenhouse 
culture they are well adapted, as they produce flowers for six or 
seven months in the year, with no more trouble than is necessary 
to grow a geranium. They strike very freely, are easily raised 
from seed, and winter well, doing very well in a-house where the 
temperature does not fall below 38deg. Combined with these 
good points, the heliotrope-like flowers are consiDicuous, showy, 
and borne at the ends of the shoots, where they are in full 
view, and, what is more important to the amateur horticul- 
turist, they are not subject to any insect pest to an appreciable 
degree. In many places they are used pegged down in place of 
verbenas, with this disadvantage, that crimson, scarlet, pure 
white, and self purple are absent, the shades generally having 
more or less orange in them. Nevertheless, the whole of the 
plants are well worth cultivating. 

The way we manage them is to strike cuttings in August or 
early in September, pot off into small pots, and winter in an 
ordinary greenhouse, re-potting in March into Sin. pots, and 
when the sjde shoots are large enough stopping them back, and 
striking the points in a gentle bottom heat, by this means 
having plenty of plants from a small space. If it is desired to 
have large plants for decorative purposes, those that were 
stopped back should be re-potted into 6in. pots, and carefully 
grown on, a pyramidal form of growth being chosen, in which 
they ^dll exhibit their flowers to perfection. Plenty of water 
will be necessary while the plants are growing freely, but no 
liquid manure should be used until the pots are full of roots; 
then a solution of sulphate of ammonia may be applied most 
advantageously, as this manure is best suited for the production 
of flowers. The ordinary stock may be bedded out in the 
proper season, and will be very useful both for the display of 
bloom obtained, and for cutting, but great care must be taken 
in the latter case that no bruised foliage is used, as it then 
■emits a very unpleasant smell. 

For soil, we find a compost of one part leaf mould and two 
parts good maiden loam, and a fair amount of sand answer well, 
and we pot moderately firm, but not too hard, or the plants 

Dictionary of Plants. 223 

will not grow freely. We find Lantanas do best without 

Propagated by cuttings as described above. 

The following sorts, which we have grown ourselves, are all 
good, and should be in all collections : Ne plus ultra, centre 
of truss straw yellow, and shades off at the edges to rose pink 
tinted with lavender ; Lutea grandiflora, fine yellow ; La 
Manula, rose pink centre, yellow outside; Julius Caesar, bright 
bronze yellow ; Marquis de St. Laporta, bronze self ; Favorita, 
bronze yellow, changing to dark brownish scarlet, and tinted, 
bright purple ; Doni Calmet, pink, changing to peach and 
yellow; Mons. Felix Aliburt, purple pink suffused with gold; 
Distinction, orange scarlet; Imperatrice Eugenie, pale pink, clear 
yellow centre; Victoire, white, lemon eye; Kinus, canary 
yellow; and Mons. Rougier Chauviere, yellow, bordered bright 
red, changing to scarlet. There are also other named sorts, of 
which we have not sufficient knowledge to justify recommenda- 
tion, but the preceding we know to be good. A packet of seed 
from good varieties raised in heat in January or February will 
bloom some time between July and October, and will afford many 
different marked flowers, some of which are sure to prove useful. 

Lapageria. — Greenhouse hard-wooded climber. Grown for 
its flowers and general appearance. Minimum temperature, 
36deg. This is a very fine climber or roof plant, where there is 
plenty of room for it to grow ; and as its long handsome bell- 
shaped and waxy-looking blooms are produced freely, it is of a 
very ornamental character. To be done well, however, it requires 
to be put out in a prepared border where plenty of room is afforded, 
although decent plants can be done in pots if care is taken. They 
are plants that dislike much sun, or a dry arid atmosphere, there- 
fore the best plan is to grow them in a moist shady house, or on 
a wall that is somewhat shaded, and as a rule the north wall of a 
house suits them, well, that is, if the long straggling shoots are 
allowed to ramble at pleasure, but if it is trained out in a stiff 
formal manner, it does not display its pendulous bell- shaped 
blooms to any great advantage. We think the best plant — or 
rather the best half-dozen plants — we ever saw were grown in 

224 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

an old vinery, wliere the roof was glazed with glass six inches 
square only, and the laps were filled up with dirt. In fact, 
it was essentially a "dark" house, which few cultivators would 
care to possess. But for all that, the plants produced on 
an average about 2000 blossoms each year, and they were 
much admired by visitors, who prized a few cut blooms very 
highly, as they retain their beauty for nearly a month, if 
the water in which they are kept is changed from time 
to time. To obtain the full amount of flowers, Lapagerias 
should ramble at their own sweet will and pleasure, the only 
training given consisting of the leading of the shoots in the 
direction it is desired they shall go. It is nearly hardy in the 
southern and midland counties, and at Messrs. Pince's nursery, in 
Devonshire, it flourishes against a wall and blooms profusely. The 
method of cultivation in pots is much the same as in borders, 
except that the plant is more unmanageable, and therefore, where 
it is possible, we should advise the use of a border. The same 
treatment applies to pots as to borders. In all cases plenty 
of root room must be afforded, and if the plants are tried 
in pots, large ones must be used. In the event of cultiva- 
tion in the border, the stations should be prepared as follows : 
In the first place, excavate the soil to the depth of three 
feet, and about four feet square, or a space of about the same 
capacity, the depth in all cases being the same. A good exit 
for superfluous water must be afforded, either by a drain or by 
a layer of rubbish, but preferably by a drain. At the bottom 
of the ^te put a layer, from six to twelve inches thick, of broken 
porous bricks ; on this place turves of fibrous peat, not broken, 
and fill the interstices with very coarse sand or broken pot- 
sherds that will pass through a quarter-inch meshed sieve. Fill 
in the hole with lumps of peat and loam, adding small quantities 
of sharp sand as the work proceeds, so that a sufficient porosity 
of the soil be kept thi-oughout. The soil must be lightly trodden, 
and then the place is ready for the reception of the plant. 
A good strong free-grown one is necessary to start with, and 
this should be carefully planted without disturbing the roots. 
This done, give a good watering to settle the soil around the 
roots, and as soon as the plant begins to grow freely, supply 

Dictionary of Plants. 225 

water in greater abundance. Tlie best time to plant is when the 
shoots commence growth, as they then take to their new quarters 
more readily. The chief insects which attack Lapagerias are 
thrips and a small white scale, both of which can be kept down 
by applying Fowler's Insecticide at a strength of about 
the gallon of clear water. Care must be taken not to break the 
leaves, which are very brittle at the axils, as faded or dead 
leaves do not enhance the beauty of any plant. 

Propagated by layers of ripened wood of the present year's 
growth pegged down for about twelve months before removal 
from the parent plant. 

The sorts are i. alba, L. rosea, and L. rosea splendens. The 
white one is, however, rather expensive, the cost being from 
£3 3s. to £5 5s. each for moderate-sized plants, whilst large 
specimens fetch higher sums. 

Lasiaudra. — Greenhouse hard-wooded shrub. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 45deg. These plants are well 
worth cultivating in places where it is desired to have a nice 
selection; and although — like all others of the better sort — 
they are rather more troublesome to grow than such as 
geraniums, they fully repay the care bestowed on them. 
They bloom in autumn and winter, and are, consequently, 
of much value, as at those seasons blooming plants are naturally 
scarce. The general appearance is like that of Pleroma elegans, 
but bearing large saucer-shaped flowers of a bluish purple ; and 
although they do not last long, the flowers open successionally, 
and being from two to four inches in diameter, make a fine 
display. In autumn select plants in 4in. or 6in. pots, and, after 
wintering them, re-pot into Sin. pots in February. Choose 
such as have been stopped at the third or fourth eye above 
.the collar, and have four or five shoots, otherwise there will be 
some difficulty in furnishing the bottoms. For soil, take either 
loam or peat — the former preferably ; use a sufficiency of sharp 
sand to keep the soil open, as this plant requires much water 
whilst in a growing state, and also provide good drainage to 
prevent sourness. Keep in a light position with a temperature 
of 45deg. to 48deg. at night, and a little higher during the day. 


226 Greenhouse Managetnent for Amateurs. 

As tlie sun gains power give air in tlie fore part of tlie day, 
and tlironglioiit tlie spring allow plenty of light. When the 
snn becomes very powerful apply a little shade, and about the 
end of June shift the plants into pots a couple of inches larger. 
Before they are re-potted — say six weeks previously — it is a good 
plan to stop the shoots, so as to maintain as bushy a habit as 
possible, or it is probable that some of them will have to be cut 
back, which means a loss of size in the plants. During the whole 
of the growing season syi'inge the foliage in the afternoon, and 
maintain a comparatively moist atmosphere, so that the growth 
may be good ; and it is also necessary to tie out the shoots to 
maintain an equal balance to the plants. If everything goes on 
well, about the end of July nip out the points of the strongest 
shoots, and in September gradually remove the shading, at the 
same time keeping a drier atmosphere, to ripen off the wood. 
Cease syi'inging, and give plenty of air, and by the end of the 
year they will commence blooming, at which season they 
should have a temperature of from 48deg. to 50deg. About 
the end of the succeeding February cut back moderately, give 
a shift into 12in. pots, and apply a similar treatment to that 
recommended above, with the exception of the second potting. 
Red spider sometimes attack Lasiandras, but these can be kept 
in check by plentiful applications of clean water with the 
syringe during the summer. Bro"s\Ti and white scale also 
attack them ; for the foi-mer of which use " Fowler's Insecticide," 
about 6oz. to the gallon, and for the latter "Abyssinian Mix- 
ture," 7oz. to the gallon, well brushed into the bark two or three 
times while the plants are dormant. 

Propagated from cuttings struck on a gentle bottom heat 
or in a warm greenhouse. 

L. Tnacrantha is, in our opinion, only suited for trellises or 
walls, and for this purpose should be planted out into the 
borders, or In large tubs or boxes, with much the same treat- 
ment as that just described. It should be grown the first 
year in pots, and then turned out into the borders. L. ma- 
crantha is not so suitable for pot culture as L. macrantha 
ftorihunda, which, with proper care, produces its blooms for some 

Dictionary of Plants. 


Laiimstinxis. — See Yihurnum tinus. 

Leucojum. — Hardy bulbous soft- 
wooded plant. Grown for its flowers. 
Minimura. temperature (in pots), 36deg. 
These are early blooming bulbous plants, 
of easy culture in the cold greenliouse, 
and are somewhat similar in appear- 
ance to tbe snowdrop, but tbey are much, 
taller, and, as shown in Fig. 84, the form 
of the blooms is more globular. The cul- 
ture is the same as for Anthericum, with 
a free sandy loam for soil and plenty of 

The plants are not well suited to other 
than the cold house, and, therefore, forcing 
should not be attempted. 

Propagated by the division of the bulbs, 
which increase naturally. 

The sorts we have grown are L. cesti- 
vum, L. pulchellum, and L. venium (see 
Fig. 84), all of which are white. 

Fig. 84.— Leucojum 

Leucophyta. — Half-hardy soft-wooded plant. Grown for 
its silvery foliage. Minimum temperature, 40deg. This is 
useful alike for greenhouse decoration and for bedding-out 
purposes, and, from its colour, is a very desirable acquisition to 
the stock of plants grown. It is of a peculiar silvery white; 
the growth is quick and slender, presenting the appearance 
of some marine plant rather than one belonging to the land; 
and it is not at all easy to describe. The stems appear to 
branch and ramify at will, apparently bearing no foliage ; but 
if closely examined they will be found to be thickly set with 
long narrow leaves. It is not very difficult to propagate, 
cuttings taken in August striking freely. "We grow it in the 
same manner as the Lantana, using the same soil, and we 
find that it does well with such treatment. The only variety 
with which we are acquainted is L. Brownii. 


228 Greenhouse Manacrement for Amateurs. 

Propagated by means of short-wooded cuttings struck in 
the greenhouse or close frame in August. 

Lilium. — Hardy bulbous soft-wooded plant. Grown for 
its flowers. Minimum temperature (in pots), 38deg. The only 
one of the Lilies proper that we consider worth cultivating 
under glass is L. auratum, or the Golden-Rayed Lily of Japan 
(Fig. 85), as it is sometimes called. In a spacious house one 
or two large clumps look well and diffuse a fine perfume, but 
too many must not be used, or the scent will be too powerful 
and cause a feeling of nausea each time the house is entered. 
The way we cultivate these plants is as follows : As soon as 
we can procure the roots or bulbs we put them into pots of 
suflScient size for the purpose required, generally 12in. or 14in. 
In these we put about two inches of crocks, and on this, again, 
about the same quantity of compost. We then place the bulb 
or bulbs on this soil, allowing at the rate of one blooming 
crown to each two inches in diameter of the pot, whether the 
crowns are in one or several roots or bulbs. On the bulbs 
we lay about two inches of soil, pressed down moderately firm. 
The pots are then placed in a cold frame with a bottom of 
coal ashes, and no water is given until the plants begin to 
throw up the flower spikes, when a good soaking is administered. 
When the spikes are about six inches high, another two inches 
of rough soil is applied; and when the roots appear above 
this the pots are filled up, as, by this method, we find that 
much finer blooms are produced. As the stems increase in 
height, liquid manure is given occasionally with advan- 
tage, and they are neatly trained out with stakes just 
strong enough to bear the weight of the head of bloom. 
During the whole of the time the plants are growing they 
are kept as close to the glass as possible, and given the 
largest amount of air that can be consistently allowed. In 
fact, it is far better to grow the plants in the frame until 
the end of May, and then only cover in case oE frost. As 
soon as the foliage dies off we re-pot the roots and treat them 
as before described. And here let us draw attention to the 
fact that there are no roots to beat those grown at home. 

Dictionary of Plants. 


alttougli tliey may be more expensive ; for home-grown bulbs 
always retain tbe thick, fleshy roots at the base, which are 
absent in imported samples; and this makes a vast difference 
in the beauty of the flowers. For compost there is nothing 
better than pure fibrous maiden loam, to which is added enough 

Fig. 85.— Ijilium Auratum. 

Band to maintain a porosity admitting the free passage of 
water. The soil should be roughly chopped up, so as to pass 
through a two-inch meshed sieve. 

Propagated by the natural division of the roots. 

There are two sorts we use, viz., h. auratum, the Golden- 

230 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

rayed, and li. ruhrum vittatum, the Red-rayed Lily. There are 
several different forms in botli these, and therefore if one comes 
across a taking flower it is as "well to secure the root, but if 
imported roots are purchased various forms of flowers vnll be 
obtained. Several of the other Lilies can, however, be tried in 
a cold house, L. speciosum, L. Humholdtii, and L. Leitchlinii, 
and some others being suitable for the trial; but, as a rule, 
unless the house is large, but little success will be obtained. 

Lily of the Valley. — Hardy, herbaceous, soft -wooded plant. 
Grown for its flowers. Minimum temperature (in pots), 

36deg. The Lily of the 
Yalley, or Convallaria ma- 
jalis (Fig. 86), is in much 
demand during the early 
part of the season, but it 
is rarely to be found grown 
in a proper manner in the 
hands of the amateur. It 
must be remembered that 
the plants will not bear 
forcing, as the term is 
generally employed, but a 
little coaxing must be re- 
sorted to if they are re- 
quired early. A compost 
of leaf soil and mellow loam 
in equal proportions, to 
which has been added a 
sufficient quantity of sharp 
sand to render the whole 
sufficiently permeable to the 
water that is applied, suits 
the plants very well for the 
time they are in the pots, 
for, after they have ceased 
blooming, they must be 
Whether prepared clumps or 

Fig. 86.— Lily of the Valley 
(Laxge Berlin variety) . 

turned into the open ground. 

Dictionary of Plants. 231 

single crowns are used, it matters but little in tlie results 
obtained if tbe treatment is of a rational cliaracter, and, indeed, 
many persons are of opinion that tlie single crowns, if carefully 
selected, are tlie best. Suffice it to say tbat we have found but 
little difference in the two methods of preparing the roots. As 
soon as the roots can be obtained, they should be potted into 
four or six-inch pots, according to the display required and the 
size of the roots. The crowns should be just covered with soil 
to the depth that they are covered when growing naturally, and 
after potting the plants may be stood in a dark and moderately 
warm place till the shoots get about three inches long, when 
they should be gradually introduced to the light to get the 
colour into the foliage and to open the blooms of a good size 
and colour. The plants may also be potted up and placed under 
the stage in the greenhouse, and when started removed to the 
light, to grow and bloom. In the cold house but little trouble 
is necessary, as they will only bloom about a week or so before 
their natural season. A temperature of about 45deg. is quite 
high enough if a good head of flowers is desired, but an addi- 
tional five degrees may be allowed as the foliage becomes fully 
expanded, as the flowers will open more freely in a temperature 
of about 50deg. Water must be given as required ; but it must 
be remembered that while plenty of water is necessary at some 
stages of the growth of the plants, if too much is given the soil 
will become water-logged and totally unfit for the growth of 
these subjects, and as a natural consequence they will fail, and 
probably rot off. After blooming, the plants should be turned 
into a border of maiden loam and leaf soil in about equal 
parts, and plenty of water should be given through the hot dry 
weather. Fresh lots of crowns must be potted each year if a 
good show of bloom is required, as the plants rarely bloom the 
second season in pots. 

Propagated by division of the crowns. 

The varieties used are — Convallaria majalis, single white, the 
best for ordinary work; C. m. Jlore pleno, double white ; 0. m. 
rosea, rose ; C. m. foliis marginatis, and C. m. foliis striatis, both 
hrving variegated foliage, and bearing white flowers. 

In Fig. 87 we show a one-year-old crown, which produces 

232 Greenhouse Managefnent for Amateurs. 

leaves only; in Fig. 88 a two-year-old crown, which is a doubtful 

Fig. 87.— One-teak-old Crown. 

Fig. 88.— Two-tear-old Crown. 

Fig. 89.— Three-tear-old Crown. 

bloom-producer ; and in Fig. 89 a three-year-old crown, which is 
sure to produce bloom under proper treatment. 

Dictionary of Plants. 


Lobelia.; — Half-liardy perennial soft-wooded plant. Grown 
for its flowers. Minimum temperature, 35deg. This class, 
whicli is rather large, is generally represented in most gardens 
by the ordinary blue Ij. speciosa, and its varieties, and it is 
chiefly used as an edging plant. Sometimes the hardy L. car- 
dinalis (Fig. 90) is employed in the herbaceous borders, but 

Fig. 90.— Lobelia Cardinalis. 

this is not so often used now as it ought to be. Of these 
latter, however, we are not now treating; but rather of the 
sorts which have to be grown under glass for at least some 
part of the year, 

Nearly everyone is acquainted with some of the varieties of 
L. speciosa, and to these dwarf bedding plants we will first 
direct attention. There are two ways of propagation which 

234 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

are in general use, and tlie first of these is raising from seeds. 
Before attempting to raise a good stock of reliable plants 
from seeds, care should be taken to have new seed, and that, 
too, saved from a good strain of plants, otherwise disap- 
pointment is sure to ensue. Premising the seed is as it should 
be, the next point is to prepare some pots of rich soil on which 
to sow it ; at least two inches of drainage should be allowed to 
a 4in. pot, and the soil should not come to within half-an- 
inch of the top. These should now be stood in a tub of water, 
but this must not be allowed to overflow into the top of 
the pots, and when the soil is well soaked they should be 
placed aside for an hour to drain. A small portion of clean 
seed should then be taken on the point of a penknife, and, bv 
a dexterous puff with the breath, distributed over the surface of 
the soil. No soil should be put on the seeds, but each pot 
should be covered with a sheet of glass, the pots having been 
first placed in a brisk bottom heat, or in a greenhouse where a 
temperature of 60deg. to 65deg. is maintained. When the 
plants are sufficiently large to handle they should be trans- 
planted at about an inch apart in other pots, and when large 
enough they should be re-potted into thumbs for use, and 
gradually hardened off as the season advances. The second plan 
is to cut down old plants in August, and, when they have broken 
freely, pot them up and place in a cold frame until the weather 
becomes too damp, and then take them into the greenhouse for 
the winter. In February the tops may be taken off and struck 
m heat, and if a warm temperature be given to the old plants 
they will produce a large number of cuttings, which may in 
their turn be struck, and a large stock of plants be made. The 
cuttings, when struck, should be treated the same as seedlings. 

Double Lobelias should be struck in gentle heat in January, 
or in a shaded position in August, and wintered in a cool house. 
In February they should be re-potted into Sin. pots, and as the 
pots become full of roots (not pot-bound) shifted again into 4in. 
or Gin. pots, as the size of the plants require. By keeping them 
near the glass in a well- ventilated house until April, and then 
transferring to a cold frame, all the time paying attention to 
the wants of the plants as regards watering, &c., giving plenty 

Dictionary of Plants. 235 

of air, but avoiding heavy rains, good pots of bloom will be had. 
It is, however, practically useless to plant these Lobelias out 
unless for the supply of cuttings, as they only make a good 
display for a short time, and then they are done for the season. 
A good soil for them is maiden loam three parts, rotten manure 
one part, and sufficient sharp sand to maintain the proper 
porosity of the soil. 

There is a fine Lobelia very suitable for the decoration of the 
greenhouse — li. suhnuda — a species with foliage much re- 
sembling some of the Anoectochili. It is one which, although 
not of very large size, is still extremely useful as a choice 
decorative plant, especially if small gems are desired for any 
special purpose. It is a native of Mexico, and, therefore, does 
best in the greenhouse. The plants form tufts about four 
inches, or a trifle more, in diameter, and the leaves are ovate, 
about an inch long. They are serrated at the margins, of a 
brownish-purple colour, the midrib and veins being bright 
green, thus forming a very elegant contrast. The under 
surface of the leaves is deep purple, while the flowers — which 
are produced freely on stems about six inches high — are of a 
very pale blue, but do not add much to the beauty of the plant. 
It is, therefore, a good plan to remove them as soon as they 
appear, unless seed is required, and then a spike or two may be 
left, as the plant seeds freely. The way we grow this plant is to 
sow seeds in April in a broad pan of sandy loam, distributing 
them thinly and evenly, and, when the plants are large 
enough, pricking each one into the centre of a 4in. pot. They 
are then carefully brought on in a warm position near the 
glass, but shaded from sun. With care in watering they soon 
get a good size and commence to bloom. If preferred, the 
seedlings may be placed in small pots at first, and then re- 
potted, and perhaps they will do better thus than as we do 
them. For soil we use fibrous, sandy loam, enriched with a 
little thoroughly-decayed manure, to which some sand has been 
added to ensure the proper amount of porosity. L. suhnuda is 
also sold as L. jpicta, but the former is the correct name. 
Propagated by seeds or cuttings as described above. 
For sorts of sing:le varieties selection should be made from 

236 Greenhouse Manage?nent for Afnateurs, 

tlie following : L. speciosa (true), L. pumila grandljlora, L. 
pumila magnifica, L. speciosa compacta, Brilliant, Henderson's 
Lustrous, Celestial Blue, Blue Boy, and Carter's Cobalt Blue, 
all various shades of blue. There are white varieties, but, "with 
the exception of "White Perfection and Duchess of Edinburgh 
for pot work, we do not recommend them. Of doubles, we think 
that L. pumila Jl. ^3?. is the best, as culture more than variety 
causes size and doubleness in the blooms. 

Iiuculia. — Greenhouse hard- wooded shrub. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg. This is one of the old- 
fashioned sweet-scented plants that is now much out of cultiva- 
tion, not because it is inferior to the new plants, or because it is 
not worth growing, but simply because it is somewhat out of 
fashion. As it is rather difficult of propagation, the best plan is 
to purchase fair-sized plants in autumn or early spring, and grow 
them on. We prefer to have the plants in 6in. or Sin. pots to 
start with, unless there is a regular gardener to attend to them, 
when, of course, the case is different. AYe have found that a 
somewhat similar treatment to that described for the Hovea 
answers well, with a compost of fibrous loam, peat, and silver 
sand. Good drainage must be afforded, as stagnant water is 
sure to stop growth. Shading from bright sun in summer and 
maintaining a moderately warm temperature during winter will 
cause the production of the magnificent cymes of pink hydran- 
gea-like tubular flowers, which are often a foot across, in its 
season. The best place for Luculias is in the beds or borders 
of a consei-vatory where they have plenty of room to grow. 
With care they will make magnificent j)lants in the course of 
years. Insects are rather partial to the foliage, therefore it is 
necessary to keep a good look out for them, and destroy them 
as soon as seen, but, let the drawbacks of this sort be what 
they may, the plant is well worth cultivating. 

Dictionary of Plants, 


succulent plant, grown for its foliage. 
Minimum temperature, 36deg. These suc- 
culent plants are very useful in many 
places, both for bedding out and other 
purposes, and some of them do not look bad in 
pots, but it is impossible to describe them in our 
limited space. "We grow all of them in the same 
manner, and with great success, there being only one way of 
doing them well. The great secret of success we consider to 
consist in exposure to the full sun at all times, and not potting 
in too rich a soil, a compost of lime, rubbish, yellow loam, sand 
and cow manure, in equal proportions, suiting them well. The 
way we grow them is as follows : In March we either sow seed& 
in a little bottom heat, or strike cuttings in a position fully 
exposed to the sun, and when these are of a sufficient size we 
prick off into small pots, from which we shift them into 4in. 
pots when large enough, or transfer to the open ground if 
intended for bedding purposes. The whole of the time the 
plants remain in the most exposed part of the house, and are 
not over- watered, and in due season they make fine specimens. 
It is not, of course, intended that they shall perish for want 
of water, but what we would imply is that water is only given 
when really required, a saturated soil not being desirable for 
their well-being. Mesembryanthemums are best struck the 
same as cacti, i.e., the cuttings inserted in dry sand and exposed 
to the sun till rooted, which operation takes place in a few 
days. "When rooted some moisture may be applied, and, when 
potted off, the general routine may be followed. 
Propagated by seeds or cuttings, as described above. 
The following sorts are very interesting, either for pot culture 
or for planting out on rockwork during the summer months : M. 
conspicitw)^, mauve pink blooms; M. lupinum, yellow blooms; 
M. tigrinum, curious foliage; M. echinatum, curious foliage 
(Fig. 91) ; and M. cordifolium variegatum, creamy variegation,. 



Dictionary of Plants, 239 

rose-coloured blooms. As in tliese plants form varies so much, 
and as the chief beauty lies in the grotesque character of the 
foliage, it is impossible to describe the best, for what one 
person would admire others would be indi:fferent to ; therefore 
we advise our readers to see a collection before purchasing 
largely. There are over fifty varieties grown by Mr. "VYare, of 
Tottenham, and he does not, we believe, cultivate the whole of 
those grown. 

Miguouette. — Half-hardy soft-wooded annual. Grown for 
its inflorescence. Minimum temperature, 45deg. This odorous 
plant, which is, as a rule, grown as an annual, blooms throughout 
the winter months if treated as a perennial. There are several 
modes of growing the plants for this purpose, but we shall give 
our own system. 

In the first place, never attempt to transplant mignonette, 
or failure is almost sure to result, as it is an extremely 
difficult matter to successfully transplant things of this sort, 
which, as a rule, make but few fibrous roots. The best plan 
is to select the blackest seeds from a packet, and to sow two 
of these (a slight distance apart) in small 60-sized pots, and when 
up strongly to remove the weaker plant, and allow the other 
to remain. The time to sow is March, or early in April, and 
a little bottom heat should be used to start the plants. As 
soon as the pots become filled with roots, but not pot-bound, 
shift into Sin. pots, and continue shifting as necessary, until 
the second week in September, when the final shift should be 
given. During the hot weather the plants should stand on a 
bed of coal ashes, in a north-east aspect, and should be kept 
supplied with water, on no account being allowed to become 
dry, or the foliage will get rusty, and the wood hard, and all 
labour lost. After the last potting has been given in September, 
the plants should be removed to a light airy greenhouse, and 
should be placed near the glass, but care taken not to neglect 
watering, or the destruction of green fly. The flower buds 
must also be pinched out for the last time, and after this 
all blooms may be allowed to open. A temperature of about 
45deg. to 50deg. will cause the plants to bloom well and freely. 

240 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

To this end it is also advantageous to give occasional waterings 
with sulphate of ammonia, as this induces bloom. 

For soil use two-thirds turfy loam, one part leaf soil, and 
one part road grit, with just enough sand to maintain the 
necessary porosity. Plenty of drainage must be afforded, and 
the plant must be neatly staked. 

Another plan is to sow seeds in July or August, keeping 
the plants in a cool north aspect, and by having about three 
or four in a Gin. pot, and giving liberal treatment, they can be 
had in bloom from November till after Christmas, or even later, 
but, of course, much depends on the season. 

Propagated by seeds as described above. 

Amongst the many sorts, we have found the following good 
in practice: Crimson Giant, Parson's New White, Parson's 
Hybrid Giant, New Dwarf Compact, and Pyramidal Bouquet, 
all of which are distinct, good, and have some speciality in 
growth or colour, which, although scarcely worth describing 
at length, is still of enough note to render the plants sufficiently 
distinct while growing. As a rule we should advise the use 
of the whole of the sorts enumerated, and then a good show 
could be maintained. 

Mimulns. — Hardy soft- wooded perennial plant. Grown for 
its flowers. l^Iinimum temperature (in pots), 36deg. These 
are nearly hardy, very ornamental plants, from a foot to two 
feet in height, and bearing large, somewhat flaccid, flowers of an 
open tubular form, and of varied colour, and are also of very 
easy culture. The best amongst them are Clapham's and 
Henderson's strains, which, though unnamed, are of very great 
excellence, and we always grow them in preference to named 
varieties, on account of obtaining a finer show from them. 
We sow twice in the year, in October and April, using a little 
bottom heat to get the plants up. When large enough to 
handle, we transplant into Gin. pots, about twelve in a pot, 
and those sown in October remain thus until February, while 
those' sown in March remain only until of sufficient strength 
to be transferred to single pots. If desired they can be 
transferred to thumb pots at once, and remain in these until 

Dictionary of Plants. 


the roots kiss the sides of the pots, when they should be trans- 
ferred to- Gin. pots, and if large plants be required, from these 
they should be again transferred to Sin. pots, where, if proper 
care has been taken, they will make plants from 18in. to 2ft. 
high. As with musk, however, it is necessary to give them a 
position facing the north during the hot weather, and a large 
amount of water — in fact, they 
require very liberal treatment. 
For soil we use leaf mould 
one part, cow manure one part, 
good maiden loam two parts, 
and sand one part, and we put 
at least a couple of inches of 
crocks in the bottom of each 
pot. As the pots get filled 
with roots we stand them in 
saucers of water, and apply 
liquid manure once or twice a 

Propagated from seeds, or 
by division of the stolon-like 
roots in spring. 

The strains of Mimulus we 
mentioned above vary in hue 
from white, yellow, brown, 
maroon, &c., to almost black, 
and the flowers are beautifully 
spotted with tints very dif- 
ferent from the ground colour, 
thus making very striking 
contrasts. The plants are 
bushy, and are from a foot to two feet in height ; the appearance 
may be gathered from the engraving (Fig. 92), which shows 
only one flowering branch. 

As, however, some of our readers might fancy a few named 
sorts, we give the names of half-a-dozen which we have gi*own 
ourselves : Attraction, large scarlet, yellow throat, spotted with 
crimson; Constellation, canary yellow, deep crimson spots and 

FiGt. 92.— Mimulus Varieoatus. 

242 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

blotclies; Goliali, clear yellow, ricKly spotted with crimson, 
very fine ; Illustration, yellow ground, crimson lobes, very large 
and fine ; Regulator, cream ground and margin, ruby crimson, very fine; Regulus, deep crimson, canary spots and 
band; zpaAM.aXhMs-elegantissimus, creamy 
wHte ground, crimson blotched lobes, and 
plum-coloured margins. These are all 
most excellent in form and markings, 
and offer an inexhaustible store for the 
supply of seeds, but a packet of either 
Henderson's or Clapham's strain would 
be found to give quite as good results. 

Muscari. — Hardy bulbous soft-wooded 
plants. Grown for their flowers. Mini- 
mum temperature (in pots), 36deg. The 
Grape Hyacinths are pretty bulbous 
plants, of dwarf growth, in habit some- 
what like the scilla, blooming rather 
early in the season, and in the cold house 
making a nice show, but at times being 
a month earlier than their fellows out 
of doors. The colours range from white 
to purple, and are of very pleasing tints. 
The culture is rather simple, as they will 
do well if treated in the same manner as 
galanthus. The plants must not, how- 
ever, be kept too wet, as they are liable 
to decay, and it is also necessary that 
plenty of di-ainage be afforded for the 
same reason. A rich sandy soil, or a com- 
post of sandy loam and a little thoroughly 
decayed leaf soil to which some sharp 
sand has been added, suits the plants 
well, and as they are not so good in pots 
the second year, the chief point is to obtain the best possible 
effect the first season. After blooming it is a good plan to plant 
the roots in a prepared border of rich sandy soil, and let them 

Pig. 93.— Muscari 


Dictionary of Plants. 243 

have a season's rest, and then they can be taken up and potted 
again, when a large increase will also be obtained. The bulbs 
are, however, cheap, and unless there is plenty of room out- 
doors, it is not worth while to save the bulbs for potting 

Propagated by division of the bulbs, which increase naturally. 

The varieties are — -M. hoti-yoides, blue; M. h. album, white; 
M. h. carneum, flesh; M. h. pallidum, white; M. comosum, 
purple (Fig. 93); M. c. atro-cceruleum, dark blue; M. c. monstrosum, 
blue; M. moschatiim,lohie and yellow; M. pulchellum, hlue ; M. 
racemosum and M. r. major, blue. 

Musk. — Hardy soft-wooded perennial plant. Grown for its 
flowers and scented foliage. Minimum temperature (in pots), 
35deg. Musk, or, more properly speaking, Mimnlus moschatus, 
is a good old-fashioned plant, welcome alike in both mansion 
and cottage. Of course, all our readers are acquainted with the 
plant, therefore it needs no description ; but the method of culti- 
vation is quite another matter. To have a fine pot of Musk is 
generally everyone's ambition, and if the simple rules we give 
are followed, fair success, if not perfection itself, will be 
attained. In the cultivation of Musk, that is, if fine growth 
is desired, a somewhat shaded position should be chosen, and 
it is also desirable that no fierce sun rays should drop 
across the plants at any time, or the foliage will have a rusty, 
faded appearance. It is therefore better to grow them in 
a place having a north aspect during the summer, and as the 
sun loses power to bring them to the warmer side of the house. 
The way we manage the plants is as follows : In January some 
roots are introduced into a warm position in the greenhouse, 
and as soon as they break freely the young plants are potted off, 
about five in a 6in. pot, with rich, fairly open compost ; plenty 
of drainage is also afforded, as they require an almost 
unlimited supply of water during the growing season. The 
young plants are then stood in a wann, somewhat moist 
position, and at once commence growth. As soon as they are 
about 2in. high they are stopped back, and this causes them to 
branch freely. Sticks are inserted round the sides of the pot at 


244 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

an early stage of the plants' orrowtli, and tliey are tlius 
kept in a good form for a long time. About tlie first week 
in Marcli, June, and August we also put in cuttings, and 
treat as before described, and thus have Musk in good order 
all the year round, which is not possible unless this practice is 
adhered to. 

Propagated by seeds, cuttings, and division of the roots, as 
described above. 

We are acquainted with only one species of Musk, M. mos- 
chatus. There are also varieties called the Giant Musk {M. m. 
gigantea) and Harrison's Giant Musk {M. m. Harrisonii), but 
these, we suspect, are only improved forms of the common 
species, and do not differ from the type, except in size. 

Myosotis. — Hardy perennial soft-wooded plant. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature (in pots), 36deg. The Myosotis, 
or Forget-me-not, is a plant of which many persons are very fond, 
and certainly the flowers, and, in fact, the whole plant, are very 
pretty. It has only one fault, and that is the inducement it 
offers to the aphides, which prefer the sub-aquatic to any other 
plant, with the exception of the herbaceous calceolaria. M. 
dissitifiora is the best kind for general cultivation, as it does 
not need such vast supplies of water as does the sub-aquatic 
section, and, moreover, the colour is more pleasing. The habit 
of the plant is also more compact and suited to the use of pots 
for its culture. Frames should be prepared with a moderately 
rich sandy soil in September, into which plants raised from 
seeds sown in August should be pricked out about six inchea 
apart. Treated in the same manner as other hardy plants in 
frames, they will remain until March, when they can be care- 
fully taken up with a good ball of earth adhering to the roots,. 
and potted into 4<in. pots. They should be carefully but. 
thoroughly watered, and returned to the frames for about 
a month, or until such time as the flower stems are thrown 
up, and then they should be transferred to the cold house,, 
where, with ordinary attention, they will bloom for a consider- 
able time. 

Propagated by cuttings or by seeds, as described above. 

Dictionary of Plants. 245 

Myrsiphyllum. — Greenhouse climber. Grown for its elegant 
foliage. Minimum temperature, 40deg. This elegant small- 
leaved climber is one of the plants whicb no amateur should 
be without, especially if he has any taste in vase or other 
table decorations. In the greenhouse it is also of great 
value, its extreme neatness rendering it useful for various 
pui'poses where larger and more striking plants are quite 
out of place. The Myrsiphyllum is very extensively used 
in America, where its beauties are far more appreciated 
than they are here ; and a friend, writing from Boston, 
U.S.A., says that large houses are there devoted to this 
plant alone, and that immense quantities of the cut plants 
(we know no other term) are sent to Philadelphia and 
New York. The way they grow it in America is as 
follows: From July to September the roots are planted 
(indoors) in prepared beds of light rich soil from 1ft. to 
18in. deep, and with a good amount of drainage below. One 
or two good waterings are given, and the plants are soon 
started, and grow rapidly away, so that in three months 
they are ready for cutting, that is, if they have been properly 
hardened oil* during the latter part of their growth. Each vine 
is trained up a single string, and when the time arrives it is 
cut, and the string being severed at top and bottom is slipped 
out, leaving the vine perfect. After this first cutting, more 
heat is applied, and treatment being given as before, in about 
three or four months the crop is again ready. During June 
and July rest is induced by nearly withholding water and by 
maintaining a cooler atmosphere ; and then it can be started 
early in August, to finish off by Christmas. During the whole 
period of growth plenty of water must be given, and clear liquid 
manure must also be applied about twice a week; the plants 
being gross root feeders, this is absolutely necessary. 

We have grown Myrsij^hylluin asparagoides in pots, and by 
the method recommended by a friend who has travelled in the 
States. Our plan is the same as that given above, so far as 
soil and time of planting are concerned; but, as the plants 
are in pots, variations have to be made. In the first place, 
we plant from four to six roots in a large pot, and treat as 

246 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

before described, but apply liquid manure wben tbe plants are 
in full growth, at least tkree times a week. The growth is 
gradually hardened off when it has attained the height of from 
four to six feet, and consequently it is then ready for use for 
decorative purposes. The chief rules for the culture of this 
plant are warmth, liberal treatment, plenty of water, early and 
continuous training, and hardening off before cutting the vines 
for decorative purposes. 

Propagated by seeds, cuttings, and division of the roots. 

The sorts we grow are as follow : J-i". asparagoides, M. longi- 
folium, M. variegatum, and M. gracillimum, all of them being 
very useful for baskets, &c., but, with the exception of M. 
asparagoides, of little use for cutting. 

Myrtle. — Half-hardy hard- wooded shrub. Grown for its 
flowers and scented foliage. Minimum temperature, 3odeg. 
In nearly all cases these are to be found in the greenhouses of 

amateurs, whether large or small, 
and it is too often the case that 
while the plants produce foliage 
they are quite devoid of bloom. 
This is much to be regretted, as a 
well-bloomed myrtle is a very pretty 
object, not to mention the useful- 
ness of the cut blooms. The scent 
of both foliage and blooms is very 
grateful to most persons, and hence 
the plant is much sought after. 
In the south and south-west of 
England myrtles are practically 
hardy, and bloom pretty well out 
of doors, but in less favoured po- 
sitions they have to be protected 
duiing winter, or they are very liable 
to be destroyed by frost. Myrtles 
form bushy specimens from a foot 
to three feet high, and the small, shiny, laurel-like leaves, about 
an inch long, set off the white flowers, which are shown in Fig. 94, 


Fig. 94.— FLOWERiNa Sprat of 

Dictionary of Plants. 


to great advantage. The plants do well in a compost of loam, 
sand, and leaf soil, with potting moderately firm, but not so 
hard as with azaleas, or fibrous rooted plants of that de- 
scription ; and by keeping them in a cool house, and attending 
to their wants as regards watering, aeration, &c., they will 
bloom well. The plants may stand out of doors throughout the 
summer, but must be prevented from becoming dry at the 
roots, or they will not bloom. During the growing season 
plenty of water will be found needful, and just a trifling shade 
during the hottest part of the day will be an advantage, although 
if the pots are plunged in the border it is not really necessary. 

Propagated by cuttings of the current year's ripe wood 
inserted in pots of sandy soil in a greenhouse, or in a frame 
where frost is kept out. 

For sorts, we prefer Myrtus buUata, M. communis, M. c: angus- 
tifolia, M. c.flore pleno, and M. c. latifolia, all of which are good. 

ARCISSUS.— Hardy, bulbous, soft-wooded 
plant. Grown for its flowers. Minimum 
temperature (in pots), 36deg. The Polyan- 
thus Narcissus {N. Tazetta — Fig. 95) and 
the jonquil (JV. Jonquilla) are both extremely 
useful for decorative purposes, and stand 
forcing well. They are also most useful in the 
cool house, as the extremely bright coloured flowers 
and fine scent render them objects of general 
admiration. The culture varies but little from that of hyacinths, 
but, perhaps, it had better be described. In the first place, it ia 
desirable that the bulbs — foreign by preference — should be had 
as early in the season as possible, and it is then a good nile to 
divide them into two lots, the first to be potted off at once, and 
the others to be kept in a cool place until the middle of October, 
when they should be potted up. When potted, they should 

248 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

be put in a dark place, or under a bed of cocoa fibre for a 
few weeks — say from four to six — and tbence tbey should be 
removed to tbe warm or cold bouse as occasion or season should 
require, and, if placed in a light position near the glass, the 

plants will bloom well, and throw 
up spikes of flowers without draw- 
ing to too great an extent. The 
amount of water required will, of 
course, depend on the degree 
of development, as we have 
frequently mentioned before, and 
aeration will depend on the wea- 
ther; but where it is possible to 
admit air with comparative free- 
dom the plants will thi-ive much 
better. A good rich sandy soil is 
requisite, and plenty of drainage 
must be given, as vitality will 
fail should the soil become water- 
logged or sour, and, therefore, all 
necessary precautions should be 
taken to prevent this. As the bulbs are only good for one year's 
pot work, as soon as they have done blooming they should be 
planted out in a sheltered border, or in the fronts of rhodo- 
dendron and other beds, where, after a season's rest, and, if 
left undisturbed, they will from time to time produce very 
acceptable blooms for bouquets, &c. 

Propagated by division of the bulbs, which increase naturally. 
The sorts or varieties we have found to answer best are 
Grand Soleil d'Or, yellow, orange cup; Queen of the Nether- 
lands, white, yellow cup; Grand Primo Citronnier, white 
Grand Monarque, white, pale yellow cup; and Lord Canning, 
yellow. Paper white, pure white, and the early Poman double 
white and yellow are all so easy to grow that anyone can grow 
them. We have not grown, but we have seen, Bazelman major, 
a fine white, and Bouquet Triomphant, in fine form ; and perhaps 
the above will be as good a selection of the 1^. Tazetta section 
as can be had for amateur use. Of Jonquils, the ordinary double 

Fig. 95.— Narcissus Tazetta 
(Polyanthus Naecissus). 

Dictionary of Plants. 249 

yellow, single, and Campemelli are tlie three best, and grown 
as above directed tliey are sure to give satisfaction. 

Xerine. — Greenhouse, bulbous soft-wooded plant. Grown for 
its flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg. It is a section of 
Amaryllis, and is quite hardy on some soils ; but as a rule, the 
bulbs are grown in pots for conservatory decoration. The 
botanical name is Nerine, and the name of the Guernsey Lily is 
N. Sarniensis. There are, however, other Nerines that are 
worth the same care as the Guernsey Lily, a list of which we 
give, and bearing, as they do, large trusses of open Amaryllis- 
like flowers, they should be in every collection. The culture is 
extremely simple ; the plants growing in a good light rich sandy 
loam, a fair amount of drainage being afforded, as a matter of 

Procure the bulbs early in September, and pot at once, say, 
three in a 6in. pot ; place the pots on a front shelf in the green- 
house, or in a frame, near the glass, where they can receive 
plenty of light and air. Keep the soil fairly moist, and growth 
will at once commence. The flower spikes should be neatly 
staked, and, as soon as the blooms are well advanced, give plenty 
of water, and place the plants in a dry, cool, and airy position. 
As the bulbs are comparatively expensive, it is desirable to keep 
them for successive years ; but as this cannot be done if they 
are starved, it is necessary that they should be re-planted. 
The best plan is to have some boxes a foot or thirteen inches 
deep, and of a size that is convenient to move about — claret 
cases, for instance — and, after providing for sufficient drainage, 
have ready some sandy loam chopped fine, but not sifted. Then, 
after blooming, turn the plants carefully out of the pots, and 
place each individual bulb about six inches from its neighbour ; 
water gently, to settle the soil around the roots, and place 
in a situation where a temperature of 40deg. can be maintained, 
and plenty of air can be given on mild days. The same treat- 
ment should then be given as that which is generally afforded 
to greenhouse plants. When the foliage begins to fade, the 
water should be gradually discontinued, and, when ripe, the 
bulbs should be stored away until the next planting season. 

250 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Propagated by division of the bulbs, whicb increase naturally, 
but tbe young bulbs will have to be grown on for a year or two 
ere they bloom. 

For sorts, select from, the following : 'N. corusca, bright 
scarlet ; N. flexuosa, pale rose ; N. Fothergillii, vermilion scarlet ; 
N. pudica, white ; N. rosea, rosy red ; N. Sarniensis, rose 
crimson ; N. undulata, lilac rose ; and N. venusta, crimson. 

Nerium. — Greenhouse hard- wooded shrub. Grown for its 
flowers and general appearance. Minimum temperature, 40deg. 
This is a class of old-fashioned plants that is of much beauty. 
They afford very useful semi-double rose-like blooms for 
cutting for bouquets or table decoration, and these are very 
serviceable on the plant itself, as they are produced in terminal 
clusters on the ends of the branches of the previous year's 
growth. There is no reason why they should not be grown 
more extensively than they are, either as large or small plants, 
but they should not exceed 4ft. in height. In the latter case, 
however, a pretty brisk heat is required to do them well, and 
that method is, of course, out of place here, but, at the same 
time, good serviceable plants can be grown by ordinary treat- 
ment. We will begin with cuttings. These, as a rule, cannot 
be struck in the same way as geraniums and similar plants, but 
require a rather peculiar procedure. The method is as follows : 
As soon as the young growth is matured, take cuttings about 
Gin. or 7in. in length, and insert them singly in bottles of water, 
to each of which a teaspoonful of powdered wood charcoal 
has been added ; place the bottles in a house where the 
temperature is about 60deg. to TOdeg., and let them remain 
until pretty well rooted ; then carefully pot them off into small 
pots in a compost of loam and river sand in equal parts, first 
putting in plenty of drainage. Keep in a wai*m place, and 
they will soon get established. The following April the plants 
should have a size larger pot, and should be grown on in a 
warm house, and they will bloom towards the end of the year 
But it is not this style of work that, as a rule, the amateur can 
do, and, therefore, the better way is to grow the plants in large 
tubs, or planted out in the house, but this latter plan can 

Dictionary of Plants. 


seldom be carried out. In growing the Oleander (Fig. 96) in 
pots, these should be increased in size as the plants grow, 
and the soil should be good sound loam and sand. During the 
growing season plenty of water should be given, both at the 
roots and the tops, but, at the same 
time, care must be taken to avoid 
the water at the roots becoming 
stagnant, or disease and death will 
be the result. No shade is at any 
time required, and, in fact, the 
warmest and sunniest spot in the 
house should be chosen for it. It 
is a very good plan to stand the 
plants out of doors from the mid- 
dle or end of May until the end of 
September, but it is not absolutely 
necessary to do so. 

Propagated by cuttings struck 
as above, or in a brisk bottom heat, 
in wbich case ripe wood of the 
current year's growth is taken and 

inserted in peaty soil, the pots being plunged in the fibre bed in 
a proper propagatiug pit. 

The best sorts are 'Nerium splendens, N. s. album plenum, N. s. 
luteum plenum, and iV". s. variegatum. The last is, however, 
more conspicuous for its leaves than its flowers. There are also 
some with single flowers, but these we do not give, as they are 
not so good as those named. 

Fio. 96.— Oleander (Neeiuii). 

ITicotiana. — Half-hardy annual. Grown for its foliage and 
general appearance. Minimum temperature, 45deg. Tobacco, 
although, most suited for outdoor decoration, is still worthy of 
a place indoors, if it can be had in bloom in tlie winter or 
spring months, and, as the plants are of stately appearance, 
having ovate leaves from Gin. to 15in. in length in the different 
varieties, they contrast well with the more dwarf stock of the 
soft- wooded plants that usually occupy the house of the ama- 
teur horticulturist. The seeds can be sown in April in a green- 

252 Greenhouse Management for Ainateurs, 

liouse in the ordinary manner, and as soon as fhe plants are 
large enough to handle they should be potted off into small 
pots, and from, these they should be transferred into forty - 
eights. As soon as these become full of roots it is necessary 
to pot oif into 6in. or Sin. pots, and in these they will remain. 
The plants should be kept in a partly shaded position, so that 

they do not show bloom until 
September or later, and about the 
end of September they should be 
removed into a light house, where 
the temperature is not lower than 
45deg. in winter. Great care must 
be taken that the foliage is kept 
clear from insects, for if the green 
caterpillar that is so common in 
the latter part of summer once 
obtains a good hold of the plants, 
the foliage will be spoiled, and 
the whole beauty lost. For soil 
use equal parts of loam, leaf soil, 
and cow manure and sharp sand, 
mixed; give plenty of drain- 
age and supply such water as is 

Propagated by seeds, as de- 
scribed above. 

The best sort for the purpose 
is "N. macropJiylla gigantea, a good 
rosy pink ; but at the same time 
N. Virginica, pink, N. grandiflora 
purpurea, purple, and N. affinis, 
white and sweet-scented, are veiy good. As most persons 
know, the fine foliage of the above Tobaccos renders them 
very useful for various bedding purposes. The flower of Nico- 
tiana is shown in Fig. 97. 

Fig. 97.— Flower of Nicotiana. 

Nierembergia. — Half-hardy soft-wooded plant. Grown 
fur its flowers and general appearance. Minimum temperature, 

Dictionary of Plaftts. 253 

36deg. The Niereniberglas, which are very good for cool 
houses, as they bear a great number of campanulate flowers on 
their trailing stems, are of comparatively easy culture, and as 
they only require the exclusion of frost, say a temperature of 
36deg. to 40deg., they are handy in many situations, especially 
where plants which do not require much heat are grown. We 
have grown them very successfully as follows, but we do not 
think the practice is in general use : We strike cuttings in 
August, and when well rooted pot off singly into small 60-sized 
pots, using sandy loam for the purpose. In the latter end of 
September we place these pots on a light airy shelf in the 
greenhouse, and through the winter give only enough water 
to prevent flagging. Of course, if a mean temperature of 
about 45deg. is kept up, we apply enough water to keep the 
plants growing, but not otherwise. In the second or third 
month we re-pot into 48-sized pots, if the plants are to bloom 
in pots, but if for outdoor decoration, then Sin. pots are used, 
and the plants do well. For soil we use good sandy loam 
three parts, thoroughly decomposed manure and sharp sand, 
mixed, one part, and the plants are potted pretty firm. A 
good light airy spot in the house is set aside for the purpose, 
and water is given according to requirements. When the 
heat becomes too great, the plants are removed to a sunny 
frame, and the pots are plunged in coal ashes, which keeps 
them in a healthy condition. When the pots are well filled 
with roots, a solution of sulphate of ammonia is applied, and 
plants thus treated never fail to bloom well. 

Propagated by cuttings as described above, or by seeds 
sown in a warm greenhouse in spring, and the plants grown 
on as soon as they can be handled. 

For sorts we use : N. frutescens, lilac and white ; N. gracilis, 
blue; N. gracilis picta, blue, edged white, a cross between the 
two preceding ; N. rivularis, cream ; and N. Veitchii, pale lilac, 
N. frutescens is the tallest growing plant, and, in our opinion. 
N. Veitchii is the most dwarf, but probably difference in 
cultivation may have something to do with the matter. 

254 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

LEANDER.— See "Nerium." 

Orange. — Hai-d-wooded plant. Oranges 
are very useful, botli for flowers and fruit, 
and if only for tlie sake of tlie former, are 
wortL. cultivation. Few persons who have 
not tasted a ripe Orange from the tree have the 
least conception of the delicate and refreshing 
flavour of this popular fruit, of which, if im- 
ported from abroad, it is almost devoid. A ripe sweet Orange, 
gathered in the cool of the morning, is simply delicious ; while it 
surpasses everything for quenching thirst, and also for cooling 
the system. Full directions for culture are given under the head 
of "Citrus." 

Oxalis. — Hardy, herbaceous soft-wooded plant. Grown for 
both flowers and foliage. Minimum temperature (in pots), 
36deg. These are greatly neglected now, and although they 
are very pretty, we think they should not occupy too much 
space in the house. They are dwarf-growing plants of very 
easy culture, and can be propagated freely if desired, and as 
their trifoliate foliage is of a lively green, above which are borne 
the star-like flowers, singly or in trusses, they are very interesting. 
Plenty of drainage is necessary, but the plants never do so well 
in pots as in large clumps, in a rockery or herbaceous border, 
at least during the growing part of the year. 

Many of the Oxalids are useful in the cold house, and the 
culture here is very simple. In fact, we may say that the 
whole of the Oxalids are useful in the cool houses to be 
found in most places, but as there are such a vast number — 
from fifty to nearly a hundred kinds, according to various 
botanists — we shall not give a full list of sorts here. Suffice it 
to say that in all nurseries where herbaceous plants are grown, 
and in many places where pot plants are to be had, more or 
fewer varieties are cultivated, and persons living near the metro- 
polis can see good collections at the various large nurseries; where 

Dictionary of Plaiits. 


Herbaceous plants are made a speciality, from thirty to seventy 
kinds can generally be seen growing. We give a short list below, 
and all the plants there mentioned can be grown in the cold 
house. A compost of two-thirds good mellow loam and one-third 
leaf soil and sharp sand in equal proportions will do the plants 
very well, provided plenty of water is given during the growing 
season and they are allowed all the light and air possible. 
A. season of rest must also be allowed, and as this will nearly 
approach the time of the natural one when the plants are in 
the open ground, allowance must be made accordingly. 

Propagation is effected by seeds and by division of the roots 
as growth recommences in spring. Seeds, however, are best for 
the general amateur. 

For sorts select from 0. rosea, rose ; 0. tropceoloides, yellow, 
rich brown foliage; 0. corniculata rubra, rich velvety dark 
brown foliage; 0. Smithii, pink; 0. rosea alba, white; 
arenaria, dark rosy purple; 0. lobata, yellow; 0. elegans, rich 
purple lake, dark centre ; 0. fioribunda alba, white; 0. /. rosea, 
rose ; 0. pentaphylla, pink ; and 0. jpurpurea, purple. 

^ ACH YPHYTUM. — Half-hardy succulent 
plant. Grown for its foliage. Minimum 
temperature, 38deg. It has very thick 
abruptly-pointed glaucous green leaves; 
and being of low growth, it is admirably 
suited for carpet bedding, and is also well 
worth a place in the greenhouse. The Pachy- 
phytum is well adapted to stand on the edges 
of the stages, where it is brought conspicuously 
before the eye, but if grown for bedding purposes it will 
be found necessary to have a large quantity, for although 
the plant is of much beauty, with its rich creamy colour and 
compact habit, still it is not effective in single specimens. A 
good sandy loam, or, rather, a very sandy loam, suits it as well 

256 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

as anything, if plenty of draina-^e is provided, and the plants can 
stand the hottest weather -without losing their beauty. Like 
most of the succulents, they will also bear much drought, 
but, except in winter, it is best to allow a fair amount of mois- 
ture when they are kept solely as greenhouse plants. During 
winter, however, they do not require water often, as too much 
moisture causes the foliage to rot off. The propagation is very 
simple ; by taking off the leaves, with just a small shred of the 
bark attached, and after laying them in the sun for a day or 
two to dry, placing them round the edges of propagating pans or, 
in fact, all over the surface, and nearly withholding water, 
young plants will be formed at the base of each leaf, and 
when these are large enough to handle they can be potted 
off, and with a little care will do well. The tops may also be 
taken off in autumn and inserted singly in small pots. These, 
if placed on a dry shelf near the glass in a warm greenhouse, 
will root freely if not watered to cause them to rot off, and 
in spring they will be fine plants. The old stumps will make 
small though useful stuff by May. 

Propagated from cuttings, as described. 

P. bracteosum is the sort we have referred to above. If seeds 
can be obtained fine stocks of plants can be raised from them, 
but seed is very scarce, and as, in the majority of cases, the 
plants do not bloom, there is a great difficulty in obtaining it 
at all. 

FaucratixLui. — Greenhouse soft- wooded bulbous plant. 
Grown for its flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg. The 
Pancratiums are handsome bulbous plants that are well worth 
cultivation, but the majority are really stove plants, and 
unsuited to the general greenhouse. There are, however, four 
species that are suitable for cultivation in the ordinary green- 
house, and they all produce handsome umbels of superb white 
blooms. Our favourite is P. crassifolium, which until lately 
has been somewhat scarce. It is, however, now within the 
reach of all who have a greenhouse, as the price is only from 
half-a-crown to 3s. 6d. each. The Pancratiums belong to the 
Amaryllidacece, and require much the same treatment as most 

Dictionary of Plants. 257 

of that order, but we give the treatment we have found 
successful. P. speciosum requires more heat, and produces its 
blooms towards the end of the year, while the others do so 
later in the season. 

We have found the handsome white blossoms of yery great use 
for the decoration of vases and baskets, and, in some cases, hair 
decoration; but they are more useful for the former purpose 
Like many of the amaryllids, they are extremely useful, as 
they stand well for some days after cutting, and if a good 
selection of other flowers is mixed with them, the effect is both 
elegant and grand, that is, if grandeur can be associated with 
cut flowers. The description given of some of the amaryllids 
applies for the most part to the Pancratiums. 

The way we treat them is as follows : About six or eight 
weeks after blooming, the plants are re-potted into pots of a 
size suitable to the bulbs, in a compost of two parts good 
sandy loam and one part thoroughly decayed leaf soil, to 
which, sand has been added in sufficient quantities to keep the 
compost open. Good drainage is afforded, so that, when neces- 
sary, plenty of water can be given without waterlogging the 
soil. This is an important point with all bulbous rooted plants, 
for if the soil is waterlogged they sooner or later decay, and 
consequently are lost. After potting, the plants are kept 
watered according to their requirements, and are placed in a 
light position; from the end of June until well into Sep- 
tember they are kept in a frame or pit with other greenhouse 
plants, and when brought indoors, placed well in the light, 
where they bloom in their season. After blooming, the supply 
of water is diminished to ripen the bulbs off somewhat before 
re-potting. In potting, only such roots as are dead should 
be removed, and all young bulbs should be taken off, and 
carefully potted either singly or three or four in a pot, 
according to their strength. These young bulbs, if carefully 
grown on, will, in the course of two or three years, make good 
blooming plants, and although at times they do not appear in 
large quantities, still, generally speaking, a couple of bulbs of 
each variety to start with will make a good stock in a few 
years, and superfluous bulbs are. as a rule, very saleable. 


258 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Pancratiums may also be treated in tlie same manner as 
evergreen amaryllis, and they do well so treated. 

Propagated by division of tbe bulbs, wliicli increase naturally. 

The sorts for the purposes named above are P. crassifolium, 
P. speciosum, P. maritimum (Fig. 98), and P. Illyricum (Fig. 99), 

Fig. 98. — Pancratium Maritimum 

the two latter not requiring so much heat as the fonner. In 
fact, in some places they are hardy, but in the majority of 
cases they do best as cool greenhouse bulbs. They are all 

Passiflora.-r-Half-hardy hard-wooded climber. Grown for 
both flowers and foliage. Minimum temperature, 38deg. The 

Fig. 99. -pancratium ILLYRICUM. 

8 2 

26o Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Passion Flowers belong to a class of plants that well repay 
liberal culture, but they require plenty of room in whicli to 
extend their growth. To obtain the best results they must 
grow pretty freely, and must not be starved or stunted, or an 
interminable crop of insects will take the place of bloom. Where 
care is taken of the plants, however, very little trouble will be 
experienced under this head, for a full flow of sap is adverse to 
the comfort of insect pests, slugs and snails perhaps excepted, 
but these rarely attack greenhouse roof climbers, although at 
times they make a meal of a promising young shoot at the base 
of a plant. These plants, like the Lapageria, require properly 
prepared stations, but they need neither be so large nor so deep, 
80 long as drainage is well provided for. For the different 
varieties the soil requires some little variation as regards the 
quantity of sand used, but iti other respects they will all do in 
the soil we mention. A good layer of broken bricks or potsherds 
must be placed in the bottom of the hole, which must be filled 
up with equal parts of rough fibrous peat and loam, to which 
some sand and broken charcoal have been added. This must 
be pressed moderately firm, but not trodden too hard, as the 
roots require a free run. The plants must be well watered in 
at first, and during the growing season abundance of water will 
be necessary. Training must be attended to as required, and 
the plants kept clear of insects if they chance to appear. The 
wood of the Passion Flower requires to be well ripened off by 
the admission of plenty of air, and then profuse blooming will 

Al l the varieties have somewhat similar flowers to those 
of P. ccerulea, shown in Fig. 100. 

Propagated by seeds, and by layers, but as generally seeds can 
be had pretty plentifully, they form the best method of pro- 
pagation. Sow in spring on pans of sandy loam in a warm 
greenhouse, and prick off into single pots as soon as large 

For sorts use a selection from the following: P. Bellotti, 
P. Campbellii, P. ccerulea, P. c. racemosa, P. c. racemosa rubra, 
P. fragrans, P. Comte Nesselrode, P. L'Imperatrice Eugenie^ 
P. Neiomanii, and P. palmata, all of which are good. 

262 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Pelargonium. — Half -Hardy soft-wooded plant. Grown for 
its flowers. Minimum temperature, 36deg. This is a very 
large family of plants, and includes what are generally called 
Geraniums, that is, the scarlet and bedding varieties, and the 
Cape or fancy Pelargoniums. 

The varieties amount to several hundreds, and it is much to 
be regretted that they are so multiplied, for in many cases they 
are so much alike that it is quite impossible to tell them 
apart. Scarlets, indeed, are so numerous that it is difficult to 
distinguish them by name at all, except in the case of a very 
few sorts, which are really distinct. 

In the tricolor, bicolor, and bronze sections, also, the same 
difficulties arise, and, while we have grown some 150 sorts or 
varieties to name, we have not had above thirty that are i-eally 
distinct. There are, of course, some which can be easily told 
apai-t, but, as we arranged a houseful once, no one out of the 
trade, and but few in it, could have told where one variety 
ended and the other began. Still, they were all true to 

To commence, we will take the scarlet and zonal sections. 
These, as nearly every one is aware, are the sorts which 
are chiefly used for bedding-out purposes, and are, therefore, 
always in request. They are also useful for the decoration of 
the greenhouse during part of the year, and for ornament in 
rooms, &c. In fact, generally speaking, the scarlet and other 
zonal Pelargoniums are the most useful plants we have ; certainly, 
they are most generally grown. The first consideration is 
to get good plants for bedding-out purposes, and these we 
manage to obtain as follows : In August or the first week in 
September, some 6in. or Sin. pots are got in readiness, by half 
filling them with crocks, and then filling up with a sandy com-' 
post, loam being the principal ingredient. A number of cuttings 
having been prepared, are inserted about twenty or thirty in 
each pot ; the pots are well watered and stood in the full rays 
of the sun. In a short time they become rooted, when all dead 
foliage is removed, and about the end of the month they are 
removed into the greenhouse, there to remain until the next 
March. Only just enough water to keep them alive is neces- 

Dictionary of Plants. 263 

sary, and so long as tlie house is kept fairly dry, and frost is 
well excluded, the young plants will do very well. About March 
they are potted off into large 60-sized pots, and, by affording more 
moisture and warmth, good plants are obtained in the proper 
season. A compost of maiden loam, enriched with a little 
thoroughly rotted manure and made sufficiently porous by the 
addition of some sharp sand, does the bedding varieties well. 

For plants to bloom during winter we always strike the cut- 
tings in June, and about August shift them into Gin. pots. 
They are carefully grown on until the second week in 
September, when some are removed into the greenhouse and 
others into frames. During the whole of this time they are 
not allowed to bloom, neither are they watered more than is 
necessary, as the aim is to obtain a potful of vigorous roots, 
and a comparatively dwarf sturdy head. When introduced 
into the house a temperature of about 50deg. to 55deg. is main- 
tained, and a free circulation of air is allowed, the plants 
at the same time receiving more liberal treatment. Those left 
in the frames are not housed until October, and, of course, 
receive a similar treatment to the others. As the season 
advances, the maximum temperature may be reduced 4deg. 
or 5deg., so as to maintain a kind of equilibrium with the 
outer atmosphere. It may also be found useful to give a 
small quantity of liquid manure from time to time, but if it 
can be done without, so much the better. To grow plants for 
bloom during the winter months it is necessary to have a 
light house, and to give the plants liberal treatment, at the 
same time to use every endeavour to keep the growth as stocky 
as possible, as on this very much depends. 

For summer use in pots, &c., the cuttings should be potted off 
singly into Sin. pots in August, and kept through the winter as 
before described, and then, about six weeks after Christmas, 
they should be shifted into 4in. pots, and by receiving due 
attention they will do well throughout the season. 

We now come to the bronze and golden hicolor section, as being 
next to the ordinary scarlet and zonal varieties. These are most 
suitable for pot culture, and we shall therefore treat of them as 
pot plants, as the greatest amount of beauty can be got from them 

264 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

as sucli. Of course, there are bronzes and bronzes, and in the 
majority of cases considerable management is needed to bring 
ont tlie good points of the plants — particularly tliose wliicli are 
of a very robust nature — as tbey all require a treatment suit- 
able to tlieir constitution. Moreover, a little judgment used 
in selecting the cuttings, and a little care in choosing soils, 
will save much time and anxiety in after work. Thus a very 
robust, free growing bronze, if propagated from soft free grown 
wood, will grow to an immense size, especially if the soil is rich, 
while at the same time the colour will not differ much from an 
ordinary zonal ; but if the cuttings are made from poor starved 
specimens, and the soil is not over rich, the results will generally 
be all that can be desired. We therefore advise a poor, rather 
than too rich a soil, and, as a rule, rather firm potting. 

The soil we use for bronzes and bi colors is sound yellow 
loam, passed through a lin. meshed sieve, and to this we add 
enough leaf soil and sharp sand to keep the whole open. For 
weak - growing plants a little thoroughly decomposed cow 
manure can also be advantageously joined ; but it must not 
be overdone, or strength will be obtained at the expense of 

The way we grow this class of Pelargoniums is as follows : In 
February or in August, according to circumstances, we strike 
cuttings of the sorts we intend growing on in pots. This 
we do by inserting cuttings singly in thumb or small 60-sized 
pots, filled with sandy compost, until we have about 12 per 
cent, more cuttings than we require plants, to allow for losses. 
These plants are re-potted and placed in the frames about 
the second week in April, and as soon as the pots are full of 
roots they are shifted into such sized pots as they are to per- 
manently occupy. Care must be paid to stopping, &c., and the 
plants must be kept near the glass. "Water must be given as 
necessary, and during very bright hot sun it is well to apply 
a slight shade. In this they resemble tricolors. In fact, as 
a rule, the treatment may be the same as that for tricolors, 
with some slight difference to suit the habits of the plants. 

In the tricolor or variegated foliage section, we find two 
divisions — silvei* and gold — both of which are very useful in 

Dictionary of Plants. 265 

their places. The treatment is the same for both, and although 
we may be disbelieved by many unsuccessful growers, we assert 
that there is no more real difficulty in growing tricolors than 
there is in growing the ordinary zonal varieties, tlie only 
trouble being the propagation, and in this there is but little 
if it is commenced at the proper time. We strike our main crop 
or stock in August, and plants for pot culture, to come in late, 
we strike in March, as we find that at other times, although, we 
can strike the cuttings freely, the plants are not of much, 
service, as those struck during the winter are generally too poor 
in colour, and those stmck during the summer are too large, and 
often too sappy to winter well. Besides, it rarely happens 
that tricolors retain their colour during the winter, and it is 
therefore necessary that the plants should not be incited to grow 
much during that time. We have ere now worked up a stock of 
about 500 plants from a seedling in less than twelve months ; but 
if we had desired them for our own use, about one-fourth of that 
number only would have been raised, as excessive propagation 
reduces the constitution and vigour of these plants to such an 
extent that they are too weak for any purpose, and the colour is 
reduced to a minimum. In this as in other matters, it happens 
that the more the haste the less the speed. We would there- 
fore desire our readers to remember that in no case should 
propagation be carried too far, and also that cuttings should 
only be taken from the strongest and best plants, as weak 
cuttings do not produce highly coloured plants. 

For convenience, we generally adopt the following plan : In 
August cuttings are inserted singly in small 60-sized pots, 
previously prepared by filling about one-third full of crocks 
and the remainder with sandy loam, the sand used being very 
sharp. The cuttings are then potted firmly, and after twenty- 
four hours the j)ots are carefully watered, and then stood in a 
frame facing the south, the frame being filled up with ashes 
to a convenient height. Water is not again necessary for 
about a week or ten days, when the cuttings are just emitting 
roots, and after this time water is applied with care. The 
lights are only used to exclude heavy storms, and care is taken 
that a too vigorous growth is not induced, as the more dwarf 

266 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

and hard the young plants are, the more easily are they managed 
during winter. 

In wintering both old and young plants we take great care 
to place them in a light airy position near the glass, and to 
keep the house free from an excess of atmospheric moisture, 
at the same time maintaining a temperatui'e of about 4odeg. 
Yery little water is given during the winter; in fact, only 
sufficient to keep the plants in a healthy condition, but at 
the same time excessive dryness is avoided, or they would 
be liable to damp off when watered. All dead and decaying 
foliage is kept scrupulously removed, and in fact everything 
that would tend to cause " damp " or decay is carefully 

In spring, cuttings can be taken from the old plants, and 
struck in the greenhouse, always provided that they are ex- 
posed to the full sun. For convenience, we always strike these 
in single pots, as they are then so much more readily handled, 
and, what is more, the roots do not get broken, which is a 
most important point, as tricolors never have too many roots. 

The plants struck in August should be re-potted in March, 
and the old plants from which cuttings have been taken should 
be re-potted as soon as they have broken well. Shift the young 
stuff into 48-sized pots, and the old ones into pots a size smaller 
than those which they occupy when cut back. Subsequent 
re-potting must depend on the wants and vigour of the plants, 
as no strict rule can be set in this respect. 

About the second or third week in April the plants — with 
the exception of those for bedding-out purposes — can be placed 
on a bed of ashes in a cold frame, and with a little care as 
to closing the lights early, watering, and shading, &c., the 
foliage wiU soon obtain the true colours and habit. Bronzes 
also require to stand in a cold frame if the best colour is 
desired, and mixed with the tricolors they have a very pretty 
effect. It must be remembered that both bronzes and tricolors 
are variable as to the time when they show most colour, some 
being best in spring, and others in autumn; but very few 
are at their prime during the hottest part of summer, and 
even those which are in good form are only made so by shading 

Dictionary of Plants. 267 

and other adventitious means. The soil we use for tricolors 
is composed of good maiden or fibrous yellow loam three parts, 
and one part thoroughly decomposed cow manure and leaf 
soil, or peat. To this compost is added enough sharp sand to 
maintain the whole in a proper state of porosity. 

Tricolors should be put out in beds at least a week or ten 
days later than the ordinary zonal varieties, on account of their 
being much more tender, but it is well to remark that they are 
not so effective, as a rule, as other coloured foliage plants, and 
it is far better to use them as decorative pot plants only. In 
only a very few places are tricolors or bronzes really effective 
bedded out in the open ground. 

Ivy-leaved Felargoniums require much the same treatment as 
the ordinary zonal varieties. 

The varieties with scented foliage also want similar treatment, 
the only difference being perhaps more sand in the compost, 
so that greater porosity may be maintained, as some of them 
have to be potted firmer than the ordinary zonals, on account 
of their ninning too gross if potted loose. 

The double varieties thrive with the same treatment as ordi- 
nary scarlets, but they must not have too much room for the 
roots, or the foliage will be most conspicuous. Too rich a soil 
should also be avoided. 

For the use of amateurs the varieties marked with an asterisk 
are best. Where convenience exists, doubles do best struck 
from eyes, as vines are, but there are few amateurs who 
can perform this part of a propagator's duties*; and, to say the 
least, some skill and much attention must be paid, or failure 
is certain. 

Cajpe Felargoniums are really fine plants for the decoration 
of the greenhouse and conservatory, and grown in from 6in. to 
8in. pots, form masses of bloom that cannot easily be equalled. 
The culture is most simple, and as the earliest bloom is that 
most desired, we give our plan of obtaining it, so that plenty of 
bloom is to be had from March to May, and, with a little 
management, even later than that. In the first place, we strike 
cuttings in March or April, and keep the young plants growing 
on until the middle of September, stopping back and training 

268 Greenhouse Managernent for Amateurs. 

into form as occasion may require. The plants at tliis time will 
be in Gin. or Sin. pots, according to their habits, and of good 
size, the pots not being over full of roots. Water is gradually 
diminished after September, until the plants are dormant, and 
some time in October they are placed on a light airy shelf in a 
greenhouse, where frost is excluded, but where a high tempera- 
ture is not maintained. About the beginning of February 
some of them are started into growth, and a slightly increased 
temperature is afforded, and by the end of the month part 
are in bloom. The others are not started until the end of 
February, and these take the season of blooming into May. 

Some plants struck in July, and wintered as described above, 
but re-potted in spring, will take the blooming season on until 
the end of August, that is if the plants are grown out of doors, 
or rather in cold frames. These may also be bedded out, but 
we find they do not answer well in all places. The various kinds 
have wide variations in the habit of growth, but although some 
will reach 4ft. in height, others, if care is not used, will not be 
more than 9in. or 1ft. in height. 

For soil we use maiden loam, enriched with a little leaf soil, 
and thoroughly decomposed manure, and to this is added 
enough sharp sand to keep the compost well open. The quality 
of the soil must be varied somewhat, according to the habit of 
the plant, and a little care must be taken as to the amount of 
water given, so that a too vigorous, or, in fact, a too rapid and 
weak growth is not induced. 

Although not generally treated as annuals, both Cape and 
zonal Pelargoniums are very easily grown as such ; and, if the 
seeds are only saved in a careful manner from good plants, a fair 
show can be had late in the season. "We do not advise the 
use of seedlings in preference to plants raised in the ordi- 
nary manner, as they are too late for bedding-out purposes, 
and, at the same time, there is no certainty of their pro- 
ducing flowers of the same floricultural value. There is, how- 
ever, the chance of obtaining plants of sufficient merit to keep 
and propagate, and these will, of course, be in proportion to 
the quality of the seed. Some special features may also be 
obtained, which will render the plants worth cultivation inde- 

Dictionary of Plants. 269 

pendent of their floricultural merit; thus, a very dwarf, or 
floriferous kind, may be very useful for some particular work, 
as was one we raised. This was a pink, the colour of Christine. 
The flowers were no better than the old phlox, but, as the plants 
did not exceed four inches in height, and the blooms were pro- 
duced in great profusion, it made a fine edging plant ; but no 
money value was attached to it — in fact, it was not worth a 
penny for sale. From some other seed we raised one — the only 
one of any use in over six hundi-ed plants — that sold for £'10 
to a nurseryman, who exhibited it and took a certificate of merit, 
plainly showing the incertitude of raising these plants from 
seeds. We have also raised many tricolors of much use for 
ordinary work, but not suflS,ciently good to name, and a few 
have received certificates ; but, from the trouble it requires, 
we doubt if it is a profitable speculation, unless it is the sole 
hobby of the grower. With the Cape Pelargoniums, if the seed 
is saved from good plants, there is generally enough variety 
in the seedlings to render the work profitable from an amateur's 
point of view, although there would probably have been a loss 
if the plants had been grown for sale. The best plan is to 
carefully hybridise the flowers from which the seeds are to be 
obtained, as then it is almost certain that some plants will be 
produced that are worth saving. Another point with seedlings 
of the Cape and zonal sections is that tall standard plants can 
be obtained very easily, and, even if the blooms are not models 
of perfection, still the plants render it possible to decorate large 
masses of shrubbery, &c., in a very pleasing manner. 

For the zonal varieties it is desirable to sow in the green- 
house in January, and to grow on gradually until about June, 
giving the same treatment as described above, but, as soon as 
the plants reach 4in. pots, they should not be transferred again. 
During July and August they will come into bloom, and any 
worth saving can be either re-potted or propagated ; but, unless 
a good place for their culture exists, they had better be kept 
in the 4in. pots until the succeeding spring. Such plants as 
are of no use may be destroyed ere winter comes, but they will 
make a little show for a time. Seed of tricolors and other 
variegated varieties should be sown in February, and receive 

270 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

sucli treatment as we Lave previously advised. If tte leaves 
are of good form, and when held between the eye and the sun 
the zone in the leaf appears of a dark rich chocolate or crimson, 
the plants should be saved, for, even if they do not show colour 
the first season, they will do so eventually ; and it often happens 
that those which are longest in breaking colour are the best. 
The plants of all the zonal class that are considered worth 
saving should be cut down in the following March or April, 
according to the accommodation that is at hand for their 
culture. After they have started into growth they should be 
re-potted into good soil, and treated the same as ordinary 

Cape Pelargoniums should be sown about June, or the end of 
May, if the weather is fine, and the plants should be grown on 
and treated the same as ordinary stock for spring blooming, 
with a little more sand in the soil than for those struck from 
cuttings. Saved with ordinary care, the seeds will produce 
stock worth growing ; and if saved from carefully hybrid- 
ised flowers, the results will generally be very good, although 
it is not probable that many plants worth naming will be 
obtained ; but still there is a chance of such plants being got. 
If one improved seedling is obtained in two or three hundred, 
it is very good work. We may add that a good stock of Pelar- 
goniums may easily be raised from seed, and if once this plan 
is started, the amateur will rarely leave it off willingly. 

For sorts select from the following : Scarlet zonal : Lord 
Derby, Vesuvius, Charley Casbon, Cybister, Stella, Lucius, 
Julius Caesar, Dr. Livingstone, Albert Memorial, Caven Fox, 
Bonfire, John Thorpe. Plain-leaved scarlet : Punch, Tom 
Thumb, Aigburth Beauty, Amethyst, Boadicea, and Kentish 
Fire. WJiite-Jlowered : Madame Yaucher, Mrs. Sachs, Madame 
F. Hoch, Purity, and White Swan. Salmon-flowered : Presi- 
dent Thiers, Polly King, L'Aurore, Seraph, and Mr. Rendatler. 
Oculated hlooms : Alice Spencer, Bride, Madame Werle, and 
Fairy Ring. Pinh and rose coloured flowers : Rose Rendatler, 
Forget-me-not, Christine, Amaranth, Lady Louisa Egerton, 
Countess of E-osslyn, Amy Hogg, Yiolet Hill Nosegay, Madame 
Barr, Delight, and Caroline. Various colours : Monster, light 

Dictionary of Plants. 


scarlet, immense truss ; Purple Prince, bright magenta, shaded 
dark purple ; Marginata, ground colour, bright pink, with, pink 
edge on a pearly white ground, very fine if slightly shaded from 
bright sun ; "Wellington, dark maroon crimson ; Heine Blanche, 
white nosegay; Phoebe, orange cerise. Ivy-leaved section: 

Fig. 101.— Double-flowered Pelargonium, "Jewel." 

Green foliage : Innocence, pure white, dark maroon stripe on 
upper petals; Wilsii rosea, rose, very fine; Elegans, mauve; 
Peltatum elegans, bright mauve; Alice Lee, violet crimson; 
Favonier, dark purple carmine. Variegated foliage : Duke of 
Edinburgh and I'Elegante are the two best. Scented foliage : 

272 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Grandis odorata, sweet scented, like the oak -leaved variety \ 
Crispum, citron scented ; Filicifolia odorata, fern leaved ; 
Lothario, and Capitatum. These are all useful, and are scented 
to a greater or less extent, but it is not possible to describe the 
scent of either so as to be generally understood. Double- 
flowered : Scarlet : *Yictor Lemoine, Goliath, *Wilhelm Pfitzer, 
*double Tom Thumb, and Jewel (Fig. 101). Eose coloured : *Marie 
Lemoine, Crown Prince, Madame Lemoine, and *Spark Hill 
Beauty. Of whites we will not mention any, for all we have 
seen have been white in name only, the greater part of the 
blooms appearing as if they had been in a plentiful shower of 
brick dust, as far as colour went. N'o doubt good whites will 
ultimately be brought out, but for these we must wait. Tri- 
colors : Golden : Gem of Tricolors, Sunset, Mrs. Pollock, Sophia 
Dumaresque, Louisa Smith, Macbeth, Lucy Grieve, Lady 
Cullum, Sophia Cusack, Edwina Fitzpatrick, Achievement 
(Stevens's), Mrs. Dunnett, The Moonstone (Aldred's), Prince of 
Wales, Miss Goring, and Mr. Rutter. Silver : Lass o' Gowrie, 
Mrs. Col. Wilkinson, Mabel Morris, Charming Bride, Prince 
Silverwings, Velvet Cushion, Italic Unita, Silver Star, En- 
chantress, Mysterious Night, Lady Dorothy Neville, and 
Princess Beatrice. Bicolors (not bronze) : Yellow and green: 
Doctor Primrose, Golden Chain, Golden Fleece, Pillar of Gold, 
and Crystal Palace Gem. White and green : Castlemilk, Miss 
Kingsbury, Snowdrop, Daybreak, Flower of Spring, Bijou, and 
Mangle's Yariegated. Plain yelloio -leaved varieties : Robert 
Fish, Creed's Seedling, Yellow Christine, Yellow Boy, and 
Golden Beauty. Golden bronze: Pev. C. P. Peach, Black 
Douglas, Earl of Rosslyn, Mrs. John Lee, Princess of Wales, 
Black Knight, Fairy Ping, Southern Belle, Harold, Crown 
Prince, Sybil, Rev. Mr. Padclyffe, Beauty, E. G. Henderson, 
Bronze Queen, Golden Banner, Crimson-crowned Canary, and 
Champion. Cajoe Felargoniums : Admiration, Black Prince, 
Brilliant, Brigantine, Chas. Turner, Duke of Edinburgh, Envoy, 
Heroine, Joan of Arc, Maid of Honour, Mr. Passam, Pollie, 
Ajax, Danae, Hector, Midas, Pameau, Yvonne, East Lynn, 
Formosa, Leotard, Marmion, Princess Teck, Queen Yictoria, 
and various others. 

Dictionary of Plants. 273 

The full list of Pelargoniums, with descriptions, being very 
voluminous, we give only a selection of those we know to 
be good. Pelargoniums have been greatly overdone, and 
although they are the plants for amateurs, the varieties are 
so many and the forms of colouring, &c., so various, that we 
should most decidedly advise intending purchasers to trust to 
no list, but to see the plants when they are in the best form, 
and then to purchase only what suits their fancy. 

Fersica. — Hard-wooded tree. Grown for its flowers. Mini- 
mum temperature (in pots), 36deg. The double Peach in its 
red and crimson form is very handsome, and as it is suitable 
for either a large or small house, is generally useful. The 
trees resemble the almond in general appearance, but are not 
so large in stature, and the flowers are very double, like a 
double deutzia in fact, but much larger. It requires much the 
same treatment as the almond, and does well with the cultivation 
recommended for that tree. 

Propagated by grafting on stocks of the common plum. 

The varieties are — P. vulgaris fi. 2)1; double red; P. v. fl. pZ. 
alha, white ; and P. jpl. sanguinea, crimson. 

Petunia. — Half-hardy soft-wooded plant. Grown for its 
flowers. JMinimum temperature, 36deg. These are old-fashioned 
plants of much beauty, and are very easily grown. They make 
a more or less shrubby growth, and produce axillary bell-shaped 
flowers, much like those of the convolvulus in form, but of 
various colours. The ovate leaves are closely set on the stems, 
and as the blooms are freely produced the plants are very 
useful. The double varieties have the centre of the blooms 
filled with a more or less confused mass of petals, and, while 
lacking the uniformity of such flowers as camellias, yet are 
very pleasing. Given the same treatment as the verbena, they 
form magnificent plants ; and as they are not easily approached 
in colour by other subjects, they are really necessary in a 
well kept conservatory. The double kinds are very fine if well 
grown, and the single varieties are also useful for basket 
and vase decoration. Seeds raised and treated as half hardy 


2 74 Greenhouse Ma7tagement for Amateurs. 

annuals also give great satisfaction out of doors, as tlie flowers, 
being from one to two inclies in diameter and of various bright 
shades of colour, from pale rose to dark purple, produce an 
eliect not always to be obtained with other plants, especially as 
they bloom very profusely from July until frost destroys them. 

Propagated by seeds sown in spring as a half hardy annual, or 
by cuttings struck in heat in spring, or without heat in summer 
and early autumn. 

Six good doubles are, P. Bonnie Dundee, purple, deeply 
margined with white ; P. MacMahon, white-veined pink ; P. Snow- 
ball, pure white ; P. Lorraine, dark purple crimson ; P. Marie 
Yan Houtte, deep purple; P. King of Crimsons, rich purplish 
crimson. Six good singles are, P. Spitfire, intense dark purple ; 
P. Single Beauty, lavender, dark pui'pie centre and rays ; P. 
Othello, deep purple crimson, veined black ; P. Perdita, bright 
crimson, shaded light, with white rays ; P. Etoile du Nord, 
white, mottled with crimson and light purple ; and P. Maggie 
Cochrane, purplish crimson, mottled with rosy white. Seeds 
saved from these singles produce very useful border plants, and, 
at times, a plant or two worth saving. For cultural directions 
see " Yerbena." 

Phlox. — Half-hardy annual. Grown for its flowers. Minimum 
temperature 40deg. Phlox Drummondii (Fig. 102), when nicely 
grown, forms as pretty a pot or low vase plant as can be desired, 
but unless some care is taken the growth is difficult. In 
the first place, it is of the greatest importance that the soil 
used shall be both rich and fairly porous, and also that good 
drainage shall be afforded; and although the plants, which are 
prostrate in habit, and have a general appearance much like a 
verbena, will last the whole season bedded out, still, in pots, 
they will not last more than a month or so. The seed should 
be sown on a gentle heat early in the season, and when suffi- 
ciently large to handle, the plants should be potted off into 
4in. pots for single plants, or three plants in a Gin. pot. The 
soil we use is composed of two-thirds good fibrous loam and 
one part thoroughly decomposed cow manure, to which is added 
sufficient sharp sand to keep the whole open. Plenty of drainage 

Dictionary of Plants. 


must be afforded, as the plants require a fair amount of 
moistui'e when growing freely. The same after treatment as 
afforded to petunias, &c., will answer very well for these plants, 
but they must be prepared and bloomed in frames before they 
are introduced to the house. 

Fig, 102.— Phlox Drummondii. 

Propagated from seeds as described above. 

A packet of good mixed seed will produce a large variety of 
blooms, and unless it is desired to have expensive vai'ieties, will 
answer all practical purposes. "VYe, therefore, do not give a list 
here, but there are more than twenty names given in various 


276 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

catalogues, and in some cases (but not always) tlie plants come 
true to colour. 

Phormium. — Greenhouse hard-wooded plant. Grown for its 
foliage. Minimum temperature, 38deg. This is an ornamental 
plant of some beauty, and is suitable for houses where there 
is both plenty of room and plenty of height for the full 
development of the leaves. Its stately habit of growth renders 
it particularly useful for large conservatories and similar places, 
and, while in a comparatively small state, it is useful for room 
decoration to a certain extent, but, of course, other and more 
graceful plants should be associated with it if the full effect of 
its peculiar beauty is to be obtained. This plant, which is 
also known as New Zealand flax, has broad green or variegated 
flag-like leaves, from 3ft. to oft. in length, according to the 
variety, and • will with little trouble attain a height of five 
feet or more. In Lord Meath's garden, at Kilruddery, co. 
"Wicklow, Ireland, the leaves of a fine specimen {put of doors) 
attain a length of from 10ft. to 14ft., the whole forming a 
magnificent clump of foliage. But of these out-door plants we 
have nothing to say here, pot plants being at present our 

For soil we use sound fibrous maiden loam and leaf soil, in 
equal portions, and about a sixth part of coarse, sharp sand. 
Plenty of drainage is necessary, and plenty of pot room is im- 
portant. Repot each spring, giving a liberal shift, and potting 
rather firmly, keeping close for a few days, im.til the roots may 
be supposed to have recovered from the check consequent on re- 
potting. Plenty of water is necessary during the season of 
growth, and during the hot months the plants may stand out of 

Propagated by seeds raised in a gentle bottom heat in spring, 
or in a warm greenhouse in May and June. 

For sorts, P. Colensoi variegatum, P. CooTcii, P. tenax, and P. 
tenax variegatum will all be found of use, the variegated sorts, of 
course, being most effective for house decoration. 

Pimelea. — Greenhouse hard wooded plant. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature 45deg. These plants are of 

Dictionary of Plants. 277 

ratter difficult culture, and unless tlie amateur means to go in 
for gardening in its entirety, are of no value to liim ; but where 
anyone intends to grow his plants well, they amply repay all 
trouble bestowed on them. They belong to a class of statice- 
like plants that is especially liable to the attacks of red spider 
unless properly grown, and then there is little fear of trouble 
from any kind of insect. Pimeleas are not suited for houses 
where the minimum temperature is less than 45deg. in winter, 
as they are never actually at rest, as are most other hard- 
wooded plants. 

About the end of March or early in April young healthy 
plants in Gin. pots should be re-potted into some 2in. or Sin. 
larger, with a good fibrous loam chopped into lumps about the 
size of walnuts, and not sifted ; to this should be added 
about one- sixth of sharp sand ; pot the plants firmly, and stand 
in a position where they will receive no side air, for a fortnight 
or so. The stage on which the pots stand should be kept moist, 
and the plants should be gently syi'inged over every morning. 
Shade must be afforded from hot sun throughout the growing 
season, a point that is too frequently neglected. As the 
blooms of the first season will be of little worth, it is as 
well to remove them as soon as they begin to open, cutting the 
branches midway between the bloom and the place where they 
were cut in the previous year. This will prevent the branches 
becoming too long in proportion to the size of the plants. Get 
the plants to make as good growth during the summer as pos- 
sible, both by careful shading and by judicious watering, syringing 
thoroughly every day, and in such a manner that the under, 
as well as the upper, side is wetted, so that the red spider shall 
be kept down, as no amount of care serves for recovery from 
their ravages. About the end of August more air and less 
shade may be given, and the syringing may be discontinued, so 
as to harden the plants off a little, and they must be wintered 
in a light position, where the minimum temperature is not less 
than 45deg. They will require water throughout the winter, 
but not so much as during the summer. In spring repot as 
before, giving from 2in. to 4in. larger pots, according to the state 
of the roots, and treat as before, with the exception of removing 

278 Greenhouse Management for A77tateiirs. 

the blooms, unless the plants are required for exhibition. After 
the bloom is over cut back and treat as already described, and 
take great care that the water from the syringe touches 
every part of the foliage, or the spider will get in and the 
plants will be spoiled. "Very little training will be required, 
only a few sticks just to hold the branches down, so that the 
plants shall be well furnished, and perhaps a few more to hold 
the branches in their place when they get large, but these latter 
are not always wanted. 

Propagated by cuttings struck in gentle bottom heat during 
summer or autumn. 

For sorts select from P. spectahilis, P. s. rosea, P. Hendersonii, 
P. elegans, P. decussata, P. hispida, P. mirabilis, and P. Neip- 
pergiana, all of which are good. P. hispida and P. Neippergiana 
do best in good sandy, fibrous peat, but the general treatment is 
the same as for the others. 

Pittosporum. — Half-hardy hard-wooded shrub. Grown for 
both flowers and general appearance. Minimum temperature, 
36deg. This is a class of plants which is well worthy of culti- 
vation, although not very largely gi'own now. It stands well 
and is seldom sickly, while it bears its pretty fragrant flowers 
freely. The flowers, which are produced in terminal clusters, 
show well above the foliage, as shown in Fig. 103, and in good- 
sized bushes the effect is excellent. 

In the cultivation of these plants a fair amount of pot room 
must be afforded, and drainage must be well provided for. Any 
o-ood soil answers, and we have found the following compost 
sei-ve very well : Turfy loam three parts, thoroughly decomposed 
cow manure one part, and leaf soil and sand one part ; pot 
rather firm, and grow on in a cool house. The same remarks 
apply to these as to other hard-wooded plants in regard to 
training, watering, &c. The plants can stand out of doors 
from July to September, and a light situation indoors should 
be given them for the rest of the year. Re-potting should be 
done in March, and the plants kept close for a few days after. 
Some have proved hardy in Ireland, but it is dcmbtf ul if they 
would live in many parts of England without protection. 

D ictio nary of PI a n ts. 


It may not be amiss perliaps to mention that P. Tohira is gro\vn 
in tubs in some parts of the Continent, and the plants in winter 
are stored away in cellars or sheds, and there is no reason 
why this plan should not be carried out in warm places in 
England. Pittosporums should form companions to the myrtle 
where the latter is grown in tubs or large pots. 


Propagated from cuttings in the same manner as Hovea. 

For sorts we prefer P. Tohira, P. T. argenteo variegatum, 
P. undiUatum, P. eugenoides, P. Sinense (Fig. 103), P. Mayii, 
and P. crassifolium, which are all good. 

Fleroma. — Greenhouse hard-wooded plant. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg. This is a plant which 
to a degree resembles the Hovea in form, producing somewhat 
bell- shaped purple flowers, and making nice shrubs, about 18in. 
high, well furnished with foliage, but, as it has a better 
habit than that plant, and, as the bloom is brighter, it is of 
more value for pot culture. We have found the blossoms veiy 

28o Greenhouse Managefnent for Amateurs. 

useful for bouquets tliat are used during daylight, but by 
artificial light the blooms lose their brilliancy and are not 
very effective. As a conservatory plant, while it is in bloom 
it stands pre-eminent when well done, and, although nob 
suitable for a cold greenhouse, it well repays any trouble 
bestowed on it ; it will not do in a house where the temperature 
is less than 40deg. in winter, and, therefore, it is useless for an 
unheated structure. The best mode of procedure is to purchase 
plants in 6in. pots, in autumn, and to place them in a green- 
house until about March, when the roots will probably be 
sufficiently active to warrant re-potting ; use 9in. pots for 
the purpose, and, for compost, take good fibrous loam and 
about one-sixth of clean sharp sand ; allow plenty of drainage ; 
pot firmly, and stand in a close XDlace for a few days. Care 
must be taken all through their growth to protect them from 
hot sun, by shading, and it is well to protect as early as 
March. Xor must it be forgotten to keep the strongest shoots 
trained to the outsides, and the weaker ones to the middle, so 
as to equalise the growth. As the weather gets warm the 
plants should be syringed in the afternoon, and plenty of water 
must be given to the roots. About August discontinue 
syringing, and give more air and light to harden them off 
for their season's rest. The next season again re-pot, giving 
another Sin, shift, and treat as before until August, when they 
should be removed to the open air under a tall hedge or 
trees, where the sun has no power on them. Bring them in 
about the middle of September, and place near the light; 
winter as before, and be careful the sun does not injure the 
foliage, and the plants will probably bloom in spring. By 
careful stopping and training, and by keeping relays in 
readiness, there is no difficulty in maintaining a sufficient 
stock for all ordinary work. "NVithout Pleromas, a collection 
of plants would be incomplete. 

Propagated from cuttings struck in sandy compost in a cool 

Plumbago. — Greenhouse hard- wooded shrub. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 36deg. These plants are more 

Dictionary of Plants. 281 

suited for use as climbers or wall plants tlian for culture as 
buslies, but as tbey are so very ornamental wlien well-flowered, 
and as by the following mode of treatment they can be made 
to do well, we treat them here rather as bushes. It is a plant 
that has a long straggling habit of growth, with aloysia-like 
foliage, and for this reason is more suited for walls or pillars ; 
but, at the same time, where there is plenty of room, the 
Plumbago does well trained over a balloon trellis. The plants 
bloom best in a moderately warm house, bearing terminal clus- 
ters of tubular jasmine-like flowers, and it is not advisable 
to have them in any other house than one that can be kept 
comparatively warm. In the first place, plants should be 
obtained in autumn that have been stopped back to about 2in. 
from the collar, and which have five or six shoots or branches. 
A balloon trellis should be fixed in the pot and the branches 
trained over it, and by careful stopping about twice in the 
year, and training the shoots out carefully, the frame will be 
covered the first season. A moderate pruning must be given 
the next year, and the plants must be re-potted into larger 
IDots, a free open soil being provided. "We use good fibrous 
loam and sand, and a little peat, and, in some cases, a little 
thoroughly decomposed manure is admissible if the other soils 
are poor. Planted out in the borders of a warm conserva- 
tory, or in a warm greenhouse, these fonn some of the best 
plants for walls and pillars, and should be more extensively 
grown than at present. 

Propagated from the rooted shoots from the base of the 
plants, or by cuttings which root freely in a gentle bottom heat 
when nearly ripe. 

P. Cai^ensis, P. rosea, and P. Zeylanica are all good, although, 
perhaps, the preference should be given to the two former. 

Polygonatxun. — Hardy herbaceous soft - wooded plant. 
Grown for its general appearance and scented flowers. Mini- 
mum temperature (in pots), 40deg. The Solomon's Seal is a 
fragrant early blooming plant, the habit and general appear- 
ance of which is shown in Fig. 104- ; it pays well either for 
forcing or in the warm or cool greenhouse, and the culture 

282 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

is most simple. All that is necessary is to secure good clumps 
in the autumn, and to pot them in a compost similar to that 
advised for the dicentra, affording plenty of drainage, as at 
the time the plants are growing freely they require an abundance 
of moisture. The plants should be well watered after potting, 
and they can then be placed in heat or otherwise, as may be 
required, ' and as soon as they start growing they must have a 
light position near the glass, so that they shall be prevented 

from drawing up weak and 
spindly, their height being pro- 
perly about 18in. The flowers, 
which are, as a rule, produced 
in axillary clusters, are of a 
greenish-white colour, and emit 
a pleasant perfume, particularly 
in the early part of the day. 
After blooming, the plants 
should be put out in a rich 
border to have a season's rest 
and recuperate themselves. 
Plenty of water is necessary 
during the growing season, and 
even in the season of rest the 
plants — if kept in pots — must 
not become dust dry, or the 
stems, when produced in spring, 
will be of but small value. 
Propagated by division of the root stocks, which somewhat 
resemble those of the water flag. 

The varieties that are useful for pot work are : P. Japonicum, 
P. J. argenteum striatum (variegated foliage), P. midtiflorum 
(Fig. 104), P. m. flore-pleno, P. m. aureum striatum (variegated 
foliage), P. roseum, and P. verticillatum, all of which bear 
whitish-green or greenish-white flowers, with the exception of 
P. roseum, which has rose-coloured blossoms. 


Fortulacca. — Tender succulent annual. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum tempei-ature, 45deg. The Portulaccas are 

D ictiona ry of Pla n ts. 


very useful for either in-door or out-door cultivation where 
the situation is warm and dry, and where there is plenty of 
sun. The succulent nature of the plants renders them very 
useful for poor soils when used for bedding purposes, the 
colours being very bright and varied, while by keeping them 
pegged down the bed will be one mass of bloom and lively 
green foliage, and if the colours are kept separate, large masses 
of orange, purple, white, and crimson will easily be obtained. 
Planted from mixed seed, however, they will not look amiss ; 
in fact, some persons prefer this plan. Nice plants in 4in. 
or Gin. pots are very useful for various decorative purposes. 


and if large flat stages in the conservatory have to be covered, 
these form one of the best plants to use largely. The seeds 
should be sown thinly on broad-mouthed pans or boxes, in 
sandy soil. Allow plenty of drainage, but be careful that 
the soil does not become dry, or the seeds will fail. A gentle 
bottom heat is a great advantage in raising the seeds, as 
the plants in that case come up quickly and well. When 
large enough they should be potted off into smtdl pots, and be 
placed on a light shelf near the glass in a warm greenhouse. 
As soon as the pots become filled with roots, the plants should 
be shifted into the blooming pots, either 4in. or 6in., as desired. 
For soil we use a compost of good loam one part, decayed leaf 

284 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

soil one part, and coarse sand and broken sandstone or crocks 
together one part, potting the plants fairly firm, and applying 
water as may be requisite. A light, warm, but airy place will 
suit the plants well, and too much water must not be given if 
it is desired to have the finest show of bloom, but at the same 
time the supply must not be so stinted as to cause the foliage 
of the plants to turn yellow. 

Propagated by seeds, as described above. 

Various named sorts exist, but, for all ordinary purposes, a 
packet of double and single mixed will be amply sufficient. We, 
however, give some names : P. aVoa, white ; P. alha striata, white 
and scarlet ; P. aurantiaca, orange; P. aurea striata, orange and 
crimson; P. caryophylloicles, striped; P. TJiellusonii, crimson; 
P. T. sjplendens, rosy purple; and P. Thorhurnii, yellow. 

Primula (Hardy). — Hardy soft-wooded plant. Grown for 
its flowers. Minimum temperature (in jDots), 36deg. The prim- 
roses are quite a host in themselves, and where there is only a 
cold house, or a house from which the frost only is excluded, 
they fill up a great gap in the sup^^ly of bloom, as many blossom 
as early as the end of February out of doors, and under shelter 
they may reasonably be expected to bloom at least a foi-tnight 
— if not three weeks — earlier. As the family is so large, we 
cannot afford space for a description of each kind (nor is that 
at all necessary), but must be content with general remarks. 

P. Sinensis and its varieties will thrive in a light house 
where frost is excluded, as will any of the hardy varieties ; but 
it must be remembered that in all cases where plants are in 
pots it is absolutely necessary that means shall be provided 
to protect the roots from frost. The best-sized pots in which 
to grow Primulas are 4in. and 6in., according to the natural 
habit of growth of each plant, and as the plants are very 
impatient of too much root moisture, care must be taken 
that the drainage holes are sufficiently large to admit of 
the free passage of superfluous water. The plants being 
in some cases rather deep rooting, the pots should be deep, 
rather than shallow, for their size. In all cases it is neces- 
sary to supply plenty of drainage, and also, in the case 

Dictionary of Plants. 285 

of some of the alpine varieties, to place some broken sand- 
stone among tlie soil, so tliat a certain amount of coolness 
and moisture shall be maintained during the hot weather. A 
good general compost consists of two parts good mellow fibrous 
loam, not sifted, one part thoroughly decayed leaf soil, and 
sufficient sharp clean sand to insure the requisite amount of 
porosity for the free passage of the superfluous moisture. If 
possible, the house should face the north-east, as, during the 
summer, if the plants were permanent occupants, the sun 
would otherwise be too powerful ; but [ if there is plenty 
of frame room, any house would be suitable, as the plants 
could be removed to frames facing the north during the 
hot weather, or from the end of May until October, when 
they could be returned to the house. This latter would 
also be about the best plan to secure the blooms in per- 
fection. As much air as possible should be admitted at all 
seasons, or the plants will become drawn and practically 
useless. Insects — but more particularly green fly, which will 
be sure to put in an appearance — are injurious, and it will 
therefore be found necessary to fumigate as soon as the flrst 
one appears, so that no damage may be done; for, as they 
attack the tenderest parts of the foliage, they soon destroy 
the heart, and consequently the bloom — if not the whole 
— of any plant which they may attack. Slugs and snails, 
although doing more damage individually, are not so much 
trouble to discover and exterminate as the fly, for while the 
former leave a slimy trail to show their whereabouts, the latter 
work so insidiously that only close examination will discover 
their presence. 

Propagated by seeds and by division of the plants. 

Amongst the kinds that may be grown in the cold house, 
the following are very good, but as the number of Primulas 
is so great, it is far the better plan for a purchaser to go 
to a large nursery and, select such as suit his particular 
taste. The varieties of the common Primrose (P. acaulis) — 
but more particularly the double varieties — are very useful 
and pretty, and, as they can be taken up and bloomed in 
the house and then returned to the ground, they should be 

286 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

largely used for this work : P. acaulis ji.-jpl., pale yellow ; P. 
a. alba Jl.-pl., wliite ; P. a. lilacina fi.-pl., lilac ; P. a. lutea 
fl.'pl., deep yellow; P. a. purpurea fi.-pl., purple; P. a. rosea 
fi.-pL, rose ; and P. a. rubra fi.-pl., deep crimson, are the best 
doubles of the acaulis section. P. auricula (Fig. 106) contains 
many good things, especially the alpine varieties, and a dozen 
or two of good seedlings would not be a bad investment. P. 
a. nigra fi.-pL is a good double black, and P. a, lutea, and its 

Fig. 106.— Primula Auricula. 

double variety, are good yellows, while the hybrids are legion. 
P. Altaica, purplish crimson; P. Candolleana, purple; P. cor- 
tusoides and its varieties, are good tall Primulas of rather 
robust habit. P. erosa, lilac ; P. minima, rose (about the 
smallest of the family) ; and P. verticillata, yellow (Fig. 107), 
may all be grown, but they require much care to do them well, 
unless a house is devoted to them alone. 

Primula Sinensis. — HaK-hardy soft-wooded plant. Grown 
for its flowers. Minimum temperature, 3Sdeg. The double (Fig. 

Dictionary of Plants. 


109) and single (Fig. 108) varieties of P. sinensis are very useful 
for decorative pui-poses in tlie winter and spring raonths, and. 

Fig. 107.— Flower of Primula Verticillata. 

as ttey are of comparatively easy cultui-e, tliey form — or rather 
eliould — a very large part of the soft-wooded plants in bloom 

288 Greenhouse Managefuent for Amateurs. 

from October to Febi*uary. During the dull montlis of the year 
it often happens that ordinary geraniums and other miscel- 
laneous plants are very chary of blooming, and then P. sinensis 
is very handy to have among plants that bloom at that season. 
Doubles are far more trouble to grow than single varieties, 
and the treatment is different; but the singles are as easy to 
trrow as grass, if ordinary care is used. There are also semi- 

FiG. 108.— Primula Sinensis. 

double varieties that are easily raised from seeds, and they are 
as easy to do as the singles, requiring the same treatment; 
but, as we said before, doubles proper require quite a distmct 

treatment. •. • i. 

We wiU take the singles fii'st. In the first place, it is abso- 
lutely necessary that the plants should be grown on. steadily 
from the time of sowing until the time of blooming, nor dunng 
the whole period must they become pot-bound, for if they do 

Dictionary of Plants. 


tliey will most assuredly commence blooming prematurely, 
and the consequence then is tliat much of their energy 
is wasted, and, unless care be taken, the subsequent blooms 

Fig. 109.— PniiiuLA Sinensis Flore-pleno. 

will be comparatively poor. For this reason it is advisable 
to make more than one sowing, as, by doing so, a better 
succession of bloom can be maintained. Besides, by having 
two or three sowings less risk is run, for if one batch is a 


290 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

whole or partial failure otliers will not be so. And here let us 
say that it is useless to purchase cheap seed of Primulas, 
as the great cost and labom- involved in saving good 
seeds, and the comparatively small quantity produced in the 
best strains, renders them expensive, and a really good article 
is worth a good price. Those usually retailed in sixpenny- 
worths and shillingsworths are very poor, even if they are 
such as will grow, and the flowers as much resemble a good 
fimbriated strain as a buttercup resembles a first-class ranun- 
culus. Poor washy things, not so good in form as a common 
primrose, and of no decided colour, and very weedy withal, are 
produced from the seeds sold in ordinary retail trade. We 
therefore recommend the seeds in sealed packets, the lowest 
retail price of which is 2s. 6d. ; and if a 5s. packet of a 
well-known English strain be obtained of a good house, little 
fear need be entertained as to quality. 

We sow seeds in April, June, and August, on the surface 
of rather finely prepared soil, in well- drained pans, and 
cover with sheets of glass, which are thinly whitewashed 
on one side to prevent the admission of too much light. 
The pans are then placed in a pit or frame where a tem- 
perature of 60deg. to 65deg. is maintained. Here the seeds 
germinate freely, and, as the plants get on towards the third 
leaf, the whitewash is removed, and air is gradually admitted, 
but care is taken not to allow the sun to burn the plants, 
as they recover from such a check to their growth very 
slowly. Previous to sowing, the pots are well soaked with 
water, by standing them in a tub with the water reaching up 
to their rims only. By this means enough is absorbed by the 
soil to render more water unnecessary until the seeds have 
germinated. As soon as the young plants have their fourth 
leaf they are potted ofl: into Sin. pots, well drained, and with 
more sand in the compost than that mentioned further on. 
Or, if it is considered desirable, the plants are pricked off into 
pans, about lin. asunder, there to remain for a fortnight or 
three weeks. After this transplanting, they are removed to 
the pit or frame from which they were taken, and kept close 
for a few days to prevent them receiving a check, and then 

D id 10 nary of Plants. 2 g i 

air is gradually admitted. When the plants wliicli were 
placed singly have filled the pot with roots, or when those 
pricked out have attained a fair size, the former are potted on 
into 4|in. and the latter into Sin. pots, and they are then 
put in a cold frame, but kept close for a week or ten days 
to prevent them from receiving a check. "When they have 
again filled the pots with roots they are again transferred 
respectively, the one into their blooming, and the other 
into 4|in. pots, these last having to be again shifted 
when the pots are full of roots. The plants are kept in a 
cold frame until well into October, when they are removed 
into the greenhouse, where a temperatm*e of 45deg. or 50deg. 
causes them to bloom for a long time. At no time during 
their growth are they allowed to become dry at the roots, 
nor yet to become infested with insects, or failure is sure 
to result. It is also of much importance that the foliage 
be kept as short and healthy as possible, as long spindly 
leaves cause the blossoms to be hidden in a basin, as it were, 
instead of standing prominently above the foliage, as they 
should do to show to the greatest advantage. To ensure this, 
due attention must be paid to admitting air, &c., and, during 
the hottest part of the season, the plants may with advantage 
be stood in frames facing the north-west, as then the hottest 
rays of the sun will not reach them. Like most of the Primulas, 
P. sinensis (Fig. 109) and its varieties suffer much from a hot 
arid atmosphere, the majority of them requiring a somewhat 
moist condition while growing. When in the greenhouse 
during the winter season this must be nearly reversed, as then 
the fullest light must be afforded, and the house must be dry, 
or it is not at all improbable that the plants will damp off. 
Water must, of course, be given as required, but it will be 
found that less will be necessary than during the growing 

It is necessary always to supply a good amount of drainage 
to the pots, and to vary the fineness of the soil according 
to the size of the pot. Thus, in a small one the soil should 
be much finer than in a larger, and, generally speaking, moi'e 
sand will be requisite in the earlier stages of growth thyLp,- 

u2 • 

292 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

later ou. On no account should liquid manure be given, 
or the result prol^ably will be tliat the plants will rot oil' 
at tlie collars, or disease will set in and cause failure to 
a greater or less extent. For compost use about three parts 
good fibrous maiden loam, in a good mellow state, and ono 
part cow manure and leaf soil in equal parts, both of which 
must be thoroughly rotten. To this add enough sharp silver 
sand to keep the whole open. But in this preparation of 
compost a little judgment has to be used, as some soils differ 
in texture to a great extent, and therefore it is necessary 
to vary the proportions. 

We do not advise the keeping of Primulas of this section 
more than one season, as they do not repay the trouble the 
second year. 

Double Primulas of the old variety are very troublesomo 
subjects, and, unless proper accommodation for their culture 
exists, we do not advise their being taken in hand. Of course. 
for market purposes they pay a successful grower, but they 
do not pay the amateur for his trouble. The way they 
are successfully grown is as follows : The plants are broken 
up in April or May, and after each piece has been planted in a 
small liO-sized pot, they are placed in a brisk bottom heat, 
with a rather moist atmosphere. When well rooted, they 
are shifted into 4iu. pots, and put back into the place 
whence they were taken until they are well established. 
When this is accomplished, they are removed into a more 
airy position, and placed as close to the glass as possible 
without actually touching it, and a certain amount of air i& 
given to prevent them becoming too weak and spindly. 

In potting, care must be taken that the plants are set sufS- 
ciently deep, or they will rot off at the collar. They should 
be buried to the base of the lower leaves, but not deeper, and 
if other points are properly carried out success is almost 
certain. Water must be carefully and not too abundantly 
supplied until the roots have taken good hold of the soil, but 
then the soil must not get dry, although at no time should it 
be soddened. The plants may be potted on until they reach 
6in. or Sin. pots, according to their strength, in wliich sizes- 

Dictionary of Plants. 293 

they BLoiild bloom. It is also advisable to apply a slight 
shade tbi'ough the very hottest weather, Ijut this must not 
be overdone, or a great loss of strength will ensue. Dunng 
the autumn and winter the plants should stand in a light 
jiiry house, somewliat near the glass, and a temperature of 
iibout oOdeg. or 5odeg. should be maintained, combined with a 
medium treatment, the plants being neither hurried nor allowed 
to stand still. Stagnant moisture should be carefully avoided, 
and air admitted according to the weather ; but in any case a 
■close, heavy, stagnant atmosphere should be guard»,'d against, 
<is it tends to render the plants more liable to rot off. 

For compost, use three parts maiden loam, as recommended 
before, one part peat, and one or two i^arts leaf soil, with a 
liberal allowance of sharp sand. If, as sometimes happens* 
the loam is rather poor, a little decomposed cow manure may 
be added; but this is a matter that can only be decided on 
the spot. Plenty of drainage must be afforded, or the plants 
are sure to rot oft*. 

Propagated from cuttings as derjcribed above. 

Pyrethrum aurenni. — Hardy annual. Grown for its foliage. 
i.Iinimum temperature, 36deg. This plant, which is so largely 
grown for its golden foliage, and which is used so extensively in 
bedding, is best raised from seeds sown in a gentle bottom 
heat in February, and when large enough pricked off into boxes. 
Harden off in May, and plant out where it is to remain. If 
X>ref erred, the young jjlants can be put singly into pots, and 
grown on in warm frames ; but, except where large ones are 
needed, we fail to see any advantage in the plan, as those 
pricked out about two inches j:yoart in boxes will be strong 
enough for all practical pui-poses. 

Propagated by seeds as described above. 

- ■->*^;fc«^v^ — 

294 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

EINECKIA.— Greenliouse soft- wooded 
plant. Grown for its foliage. Minimum 
temperature, 38deg. Reineckia carnea va- 
riegata is a graceful little fine-foliaged green- 
liouse plant ; the ovate leaves are variegated, 
one-lialf the leaf being white and the other 
half green. The plant is of comparatively easy 
culture, and does not attain to any large size. 
We have generally grown it in the greenhouse 
for the whole year, and with the exception of keeping it well 
watered and attended as occasion required, have experienced 
no difficulty in its culture. A good compost of sandy loam 
and peat, and some sharp sand if necessary, is what we use, 
and of course a sufficiency of drainage is requisite. The 
plant is easily propagated by means of cuttings inserted in very 
sandy compost, and placed in a gentle bottom heat. When 
rooted the cuttings are potted off singly into small pots, and 
returned to the frame until the roots have taken possession of 
the soil, and then they can be hardened off somewhat, and 
placed in the greenhouse. Dui'ing winter the plant can be kept 
growing, and presents a pretty appearance. If in a cool house 
it must be treated as a perennial of doubtful hardiness, as it is 
hardy only in some parts of the United Kingdom. For general 
work it can be done well in the manner described, and doubtful 
as it may appear to many, appears to thrive with the treatment 
Propagated by cuttings as described above. 

nhodanthe. — Tender annual. Grown for its flowers. Mini- 
mum temperatui'e, 40deg. As summer decorative plants the 
Rhodanthes hold a deservedly high place, as they are light and 
elegant in habit, and of pleasing colours. The flower is what is 
termed an everlasting, and, like other plants of this class, can be 
advantageously used for winter bouquets, provided they are cut 
and di'ied in a proper manner. For various bouquets the blooms 

Dictionary of Plants. 295 

also come in useful, and in those for buttonholes nothing looks 
prettier if combined with other blossoms in a judicious manner. 
The blooms being rather tassel-like, and pendent or drooping, 
combine well with more erect subjects, and the colours also have 
the same advantage. The culture is very simple, so simple, 
indeed, that it is a matter of surprise to us that this plant 
is not more extensively grown by amateui's. With some of the 
metropolitan nurserymen, however, the case is different, as 
they find them very profitable, Mr. Mailer, of Tottenham, alone 
selling from 10,000 to 15,000 each season, according to the space 
he can devote to them. The seeds are sown in February and 
March successionally, in well- drained wide-mouthed pans with 
soil having a rich light compost, rendered porous by the 
addition of a fair quantity of sand. These pans should be 
placed in a moist gentle bottom heat, and when large enough 
the plants should be potted off five or six in a 4in. pot, in 
good, light, rich soil, and gradually inured to the greenhouse, 
which should be light and cool, or they will become drawn. 
If fair treatment is given, they will flower in May and 
June, well repaying the trouble bestowed on them. The 
ordinary treatment given to other soft wooded plants is all 
that is necessary. 

Propagated by seeds as described above. 

For sorts, use jK. Manglesii, rose ; R. atro-sanguinea, crimson ; 
A. maculata, rose and yellow; and B. maculata alba, white, all 
of which are very pretty and useful. 

Rhododendron. — Nearly hardy, hard wooded shrub. Grown 
for its flowers. Minimum temperature, 36deg. The green- 
house varieties of these plants are very beautiful, their large 
somewhat laurel-like leaves, and great terminal clusters of 
azalea-like flowers, being splendid, and, by using a little care 
in their selection, a fine and varied display can be had with 
no very great amount of labour. Of course, with all plants 
used in indoor work there is more or less trouble, but with 
rhododendrons this is small compared with the results obtained. 
In the first place, it is necessary that plenty of root room 
be afforded, for although not rooting so vigorously as many 

296 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs* 

other plants, tliese do not succeed well if mucb. cramped 
for space. The best plan, where space exists, is to plant 
them out in the borders of a conservatory, and then their 
full beauty is obtained. Good sound fibrous peat will be 
found the best soil, to which should be added enough sharp 
silver sand to keep it well open, as the soil cannot be removed 


i['im^. ] ji^fM 

"mi . '■■ " 

Fig. 110.— Rhododendron Ponticch. 

from amongst the roots, the close fibrous nature of which 
causes them to form solid balls, and of these the whole or 
partial destruction would cause the death of the plant, or loss 
of the greater part of the foliage — a great point with expensive 
varieties. As rhododendrons only require the exclusion of frost, 
a cold house is all that is necessary; but many of the sorts 
force well, and a large conservatory that it is desired to keep 

Dictionary of Plants. 297 

well furuislied "with as little fire lieat as possible is as good 
a place as any for tlie reception of these. As a rule, tliev 
should be re-potted every year, as soon as they have ceased 
blooming, not receiving more than a 2in. shift; press, or rather 
ram, the soil down hard by the side of the old soil, or the water 
will escape by the sides of the pots, and, as a consequence, the 
plants will become dry, and, if the evil is not rectified in time, 
they will soon die, or become injured irreparably. By using a 
little care in training, it is quite easy to maintain the plants 
in good form without much pruning or cutting back, which^ 
unless the plants are very straggling, should not often be 
resorted to, other than to reduce > their size should it become 
too large. At no time must the plants get dry, although the 
supply of water should be diminished in winter, but, during the 
growing season, almost unlimited supplies should be given. For 
this reason plenty of drainage should be allowed, or in many 
cases the soil will become sour and stagnant, and the plants 
necessarily suffer. 

Propagation is by grafting on stocks of some inferior kind, 
but this is quite out of reach of the general amateur. 

For sorts, the following will be found a good selection, and 
will, doubtless, please anyone choosing from it : R. Princess 
Ptoyal, rich rose ; JK. argenteiim, white, black spots ; R. 
Falconerii, creamy white ; R. Countess of Haddington, blush 
white; R. cainjjijlocarpum, primrose yellow; R. ciliatum, blush 
and white ; R. Dalhousie, blush white ; R. Dennisonii, white, 
lemon throat; R. Edgicorthii, white; R.fragrantissimum, white, 
shaded blush; R. faJgens, crimson scarlet; R. Gihsonii, blush 
white; R. jasminijioriim, white; R. Javanicum angustifolium, 
orange yellow; R. McNabii, blush ; R. Nuitallii, white; R. Ron- 
ticum, purple (Fig. 110) ; R. Prince of Wales, reddish orange ; 
R. Princess Alice, blush white ; R. Princess Helena, soft 
pink; R. Princess Mary, white; R. tuhijlorum, dark reddish 
purple; R. retusiim, reddish orange; R. Veitchianum, white, 
yellow base ; R. virgatum, white. This last is most remarkable 
from its being the only one having axillary flowers; but all the 
others are desirable either for their blooms or scent, which 
latter in some kinds is very fine. 

298 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs, 
Richardia.-See " Calla." 

Ricinus. — Half-hardy animal. Grown for its foliage. 
Minimum temperature, 40deg. The Castor Oil Plant is very 
useful in tlie sub-tropical garden, and also in the conservatory as 
a fine foliaged plant, its large palmate leaves iDeing very 
effective, especially wlien the plants are grown with one stem 
from two to four feet high, and, as it is of easy culture, there is 
no reason why it should not be grown for both purposes where 
space permits. The culture is of the simplest, as the plants 
will grow in any ordinarily good soil, and when grown in pots, 
a fairly rich free compost is all that is necessary, provided a good 
drainage is afforded. The seeds should be sown on a good 
bottom heat in March, and in the greenhouse in June, if 
plants are required late in the season for indoor use, as, for 
purposes of house decoration, they look better in a brisk 
growing state than when fully grown. We prefer to sow the 
seeds singly in small pots, and when large enough to transfer 
into 4in. pots, whence the plants can be permanently removed 
into Gin. or Sin. pots, as may be preferred, but at the same 
time they do best in the larger sizes. The earlier sown 
should be shifted into the greenhouse as soon as the first pair 
of leaves — ^not the seed leaves — are fully expanded, and can 
be grown on steadily, so as to be good plants to put out 
in June, while the second batch can be grown on in the frames, 
or outdoors until the end of September, when they can be 
taken indoors. It will be found necessary to give liberal 
supplies of water, and an occasional dose of manure in a 
liquid state. In other respects the treatment is the same as 
for the tobacco plant. 

Propagated from seeds, as described above. 

For sorts, use JS. communis major, buff' ; R. sanguineus, red ; 
R. variabilis splendens, various ; and R. viridus, green. As 
companion plants to cannas and other stately subjects, the 
Ricinus are very fine. 

Kochea. — Greenhouse succulent soft-wooded plant. Grown 
for its flowers. Minimum temperature, 38deg. R. falcata 

Dictionary of Plants. 299 

is a nice, highly ornamental succulent, producing large Leads 
of scarlet flowers, somewhat like the Kalosanthes, which the 
whole plant somewhat resembles, and it contrasts well with the 
fresh green colour of ferns, &c. As the plants can be had well in 
bloom in August, they are very useful, and if kept dwarf can be 
placed almost anywhere in decorating. It is this dwarfness 
that renders them so useful, and therefore it is necessary to 
use all possible means to obtain it. It is best done by keeping 
the plants near the glass during their growth, and this alone 
will cause them to be dwarf. "We have generally given the 
plants the same treatment as kalosanthes, and we have found 
it to answer very fairly, so we must refer our readers to that 
head for the cultural directions. Bochea falcata is also very 
useful for window garden culture, and therefore young plants 
are generally much valued. 

The mode of propagation is very easy, and in no essential 
point varies from that of pachyphytum. Of course, it is really 
necessary that only mature leaves be used for the purpose, 
and that they be perfect. The young plants should be placed 
as near the glass as possible after pottiug, and at all times 
care should be taken that they do not draw up too high, or 
all their beauty will be lost. With all succulents of this 
nature it is desirable to maintain the plants as dwarf as possible 
consistent with their habit, as bare stems are not beautiful. 

Roellia. — Hard-wooded greenhouse plant. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 45deg. Boellia ciliata, from 
its peculiar appearance both of foliage and bloom, is worthy a 
place in all collections of hard-wooded plants, and, as it is quite 
distinct from the generality of greenhouse hard-wooded stock, 
it contrasts favourably with all of them. It is not a plant 
that is inclined to make over large specimens, or to outgrow 
the space allotted to it. For decorative purposes it is 
extremely effective, its distinct purple-tipped white blooms, 
about an inch across, and much resembling those of the 
petunia in form, almost covering the surface of the plant, 
and quite hiding the rusty appearance of the ovate foliage, 
which is the chief drawback to the general beauty of the 

300 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Roellia ■u^lien out of bloom. In no case must this plant 
be subjected to cold treatment, as that simply means an 
earlier or later deatli from mildew. A minimum temperature of 
45deg. or SOdeg. must be maintained in winter without sun heat, 
and the j)l^iits must be kept near the glass, as they are 
essentially light-loving subjects, and must not be shaded at any 
time, either by shading the glass or by placing tall plants over 
them, or their great enemy, mildew, will soon j^ut in an 
appearance and cause destruction. Plenty of drainage must 
be afforded, and for soil, use good fibrous peat, with about one- 
sixth part of sand added, potting moderately firm, as it is a 
rather free-rooting subject, much more so than would be 
generally supposed from its apparently weak habit. The best 
time to commence the culture of the Roellia is about the 
Ijeginning of March. Obtain healthy plants in 6in. x^ots, make a 
shift into pots 2in. larger, and, as before mentioned, give plenty 
of drainage, and pot moderately firm. As this is a j^lant that 
requires training, a sufhciency of sticks should be j)ut round the 
edge of the pot in the new soil to avoid damaging the roots, 
and to these sticks the shoots should be trained as much as 
possible. Care must be taken to remove the blooms as soon as 
they appear, and this is about all the xDruning the plants will 
require, as they are very regular growers. Admit no side air 
for two or three weeks, and damp the stage on which the plants 
stand, but on no account must there be syringing overhead. 
Attention must also be paid to watering ; give water only 
when they require it, and then give sufficient to pass through 
the pots, for, like most of the plants from the Cape, these do 
not like an indiscriminate supply of water, too much moisture 
at the roots causing bad health. Keep the plants in an airy, 
light house, near the glass, and during the spring and early 
summer months close early in the afternoon to retain the sun 
heat as much as possible. During the summer give plenty of 
air during the daytime, and wet the stages and pots, but not the 
foliage, as the latter would tend to make the j)lants more readily 
susceptible to the attacks of mildew. About the middle of 
Aup-ust leave air on all night, and keep them quite cool until 
October, after which close the house at night or the plants will 

Dictionary of Plants. 301 

be cliillecl. E,emove all bloom buds as soon as formed, as it is 
not well to let the plants exhaust themselves in blooming the 
first season. Place tlirough the winter near the glass, in a 
house where the temperature is not less than 45deg. at night, 
and keep the plants neatly trained out and tied. This is 
necessary, as the plant, being naturally of a procumbent habit, 
soon forms an unsightly straggling mass if left to grow as it 
pleases. About March re-pot and treat as before if exhibition 
plants are required, but if they are required for decoration only, 
let them bloom, which they will do freely if permitted; after 
blooming proceed as before described, and each year repeat the 
same treatment. The E^oellia does not require to be placed out 
of doors during the summer, but rather the reverse, as cold or 
cutting winds cause a more rusty appearance, and do the plant 
no good. Mildew is the chief foe to be combated ; for its 
better prevention all dead flowers and leaves must be kept 
removed; and for a cure, flowers of sulphur must be freely 
applied on its first appearance. The only insect that will live 
on the E-oellia is brown scale, and that can be easily kept under 
by the aid of a small brush, as it does not increase very fast. 

Hose. — Hardy hard-wooded shrub. Grown for its flowers. 
Minimum temperature, 36deg. Roses are among the most 
Ijeautiful of the hardy subjects, and as they are of very easy 
culture indoors they should be well represented. Whether 
the house is heated or not, roses can be well grown in it 
if proper treatment and sufficient light be given; but it is 
not possible to bloom them well in a dark house. It is 
also almost, if not quite, impossible, to obtain any bloom 
if the plants become encrusted with insects ; and to this point 
particular attention has to be paid, as on it the chance of 
ultimate success principally depends. Of course, other points 
have to be attended to, but the destruction of insects is 
one of the most important, as, however good the other treat- 
ment may be, if this is neglected, no good results can be 

It is desirable that roses to be bloomed indoors should be well 
established in pots before they are brought in ; and, indeed, it is 

302 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

better if they have been so grown a couple of seasons before 
housing, as then they thrive the more. The method of potting 
and growing in pots will be found fully described in the E-ev. J. H. 
D'Ombrain's " Roses for Amateurs."* It is necessary in growing 
roses indoors that plenty of drainage be afforded, and also 
that a rich and porous soil be used, as the amount of water 

Fig, 111.— Crested Moss Eose. 

that has necessarily to be given is apt to turn a close soil 
sour, and to render it unfit for the use of plants. 

Roses can also be profitably employed to cover the interior 
of the roofs of conservatories or greenhouses ; and for this 

* " Roses for Amateurs : A Practical Guide to the Selection and Cultivation of the best 
Roses, both for Exhibition or mere Pleasure." By the Rev. J. Honywood D'Ombrain, 
Hon. Sec, of the National Rose Society. Illustrated, Post free. Is. (London : L. Upcott 
Gill, 170. Strand.) 

Dictionary of Plants. 


pui'pose tliey can be planted out, either in inside or outside 
borders, in the same manner as vines, or they can be grown in 
large pots or tubs. The best plan, however, is to plant them out 
in a cool house, where light and ventilation are well provided, 
and then by judicious treatment a splendid harvest of bloom 
will be obtained with but little trouble. 
Just as the plants may be required early or late so must 

Fig. 112.— Bourboji Eosk. 

the time vary for bringing them indoors, and due allowance 
must also be made for the temperature of the house. In no 
case should the plants be exposed to frost, but previous to 
bringing them in they should be kept in frames, and then they 
will be found to thrive far better. 

Carefully prune the bushes and introduce them to a house 

304 Greenhouse Management for A?7tafeiirs. 

where tlie tem_^'erature is about 45(ieg. to 50deg. ; keep the 
soil just moist until they hreak into growth, and then apply 
water according to development and to outside weather ; when 
"bright sunshine prevails, more moisture is requisite than when 
it is dull and cloudy. The breaks or shoots should be 

Fig. 113.— Noisette Eosb. 

reduced to from four to twelve of the strongest, according to the 
size of the bushes, and these should be carefully trained out so 
that both light and air are freely admitted to all parts of the 
foliage. Great care must be taken to prevent mildew, but 
should it appear, flowers of sulphur should be at once applied 
and syringed off at the end of twenty-four hours with water 
of the same temperature as the house; or Ewing's Mildew 

Dictionary of Plants. 


Composition should be applied. G-reen fly must also be removed 
as soon as it appears, and tliis is best effected by the use of a 
small brush, say a stifE camel-hair pencil. Plenty of light is 
an absolute necessity, and air should be given more or less at 
every favourable opportunity. 

"When the plants cease blooming they should be removed to 
the frames until such time as they can be safely plunged 

Fig, 114.— Tea Rose. 

outdoors, and great care must be taken throughout the growing 
season to cause them to make fine ripe wood, as on this the next 
year's bloom depends. In all cases it is absolutely necessary 
to remove insects, to keep the plants regularly and uniformly 
supplied with a sufficiency of moisture, and to treat as recom- 
mended above. Roses are essentially hardy plants, and must be 
60 managred. 


Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

Propagated by budding or grafting on stocks of tlie "wild 
briar, or on 'Rosa manetti. Full directions for tbis process are 
given in the book just referred to, also on raising young plants 
from cuttings. 

The chief types of roses are: The Moss, Bourbon, Noisette, and 
Tea; and of these we give illustrations (Figs. Ill, 112, 113, 114). 

Amongst the sorts that are of most service in the house are — 
Marechal Kiel, bright yellow; Celine Forestier, deep canary 
yellow ; Devoniensis, creamy white ; Gloire de Dijon, buff, 
orange centre ; Niphetos, white, pale straw yellow centre, buds 
very useful ; Saf rano, bright apricot, like the last, very fine in 
the bud ; Souvenir de la Malmaison, blush, flesh centre ; Yictor 
Yerdier, deep carmine; Senateur Yaisse, dazzling red; Prince 
Camille de Rohan, deep lurid crimson ; Madame Yictor Yerdier, 
cherry rose ; Madame Gustave Bonnet, pure white, shaded 
carmine ; Jules Margottin, glossy pink ; Geant des Batailles, 
crimson ; Baronne de Maynard, pure white ; and Madame 
Plantier, pure white, which are all useful for the above purpose, 
and, as we have grown them ourselves, we can recommend them 
with confidence. The fairy roses also are very useful, and re- 
quire practically the same treatment. 

'ALVIA. — Half-hardy, soft-wooded, plant. 
Grown for its flowers. Minimum tem- 
perature, 36deg. Salvias are plants which, 
from their beauty and easy culture, are 
well suited to the wants of the amateur, 
and, as most of them are grown as easily 
as a chrysanthemum, there is no excuse for 
not cultivating them. Some of the colours are 
very bright and attractive, and the scarlet /S. 
coccinea and blue S. i:)atens are very fine if grown well. Indeed, 
we believe that there is no blue flower to excel 8. patens (which 
is shown in Fig. 115), for either purity or brightness. S. Roe- 

Dictionary of Plants. 307 

meriana is a nice dwarf crimson variety, rarely exceeding 6in. 
in lieiglit, and, when well bloomed, the plants are very pretty. 
Salvias can be raised from seeds very easily, but, when a good 
vaiiety is at hand, it is the more politic course to propagate 
by cuttings, as then the plants are certain to bloom as well as 
the parent, whereas with seedlings this cannot certainly be 
depended on, as in nearly all cases some variation from the 
parent plant ensues, and, although this may be of some 
advantage in perhaps a few plants, it is more generally a 
disadvantage, as some trifling defect, such as taller growth, 
duller colour, or perhaps not quite so floriferous a habit, will 
quite spoil the effectiveness of a lot of seedlings. 

For decorative purposes Salvias come in very useful, as their 
spikes of sage-like blooms, when cut, can be worked in for many 
purposes, and the plants, when well grown in pots, are very 
effective for table and room decoration, but more XDarticularly 
the latter. The objection to them for this purpose is that they 
exhale a disagi'eeable perfume if they are in the least crushed. 
As bedding plants, too, they are very useful if the soil is of the 
right sort, but in some soils the sage-like foliage will be more 
conspicuous than the flowers, and this is not very desirable in 
bedding plants. 

The propagation by seeds is a very simple affair, so long as 
the seeds are good, but, if too old, very few will germinate, and 
the result will be a comparative failure. In fact, we have more 
than once suffered disappointment from this cause, and should 
therefore advise readers to save their own seed, or to purchase 
only of good firms. "We have always found it the easiest plan, 
when raising plants from seeds, to sow them on sandy soil in 
well-drained pots, and to place these pots in a gentle bottom 
heat, keeping the soil uniformly moist, but not soddened with 
wet. As soon as the plants are in rough leaf they should be 
potted off into small pots and returned to the bed, and, as soon 
as the roots have t^ken possession of the soil, the plants should 
be gradually hardened off, and afterwards treated as rooted 

Cuttings should be made in March, and inserted in pots of 
sandy soil, having plenty of drainage ; these pots should then 


3o8 Greenhouse Management for A mateurs. 

hP Placed in a gentle bottom heat, and if the ordinary rules for 
^rltfclLL of tMs class he carefully attended to, they will 

striking cuttings 

Fig. 115.— Salvia Patens. 

nearly all do .eU^ Of ^^:^^X^Z pXnt! 
;:::r;~--"'---^-^ ^ .r^er percentage 

Dictionary of Plants. 309 

may be fairly expected. When tlie cuttings are rooted they 
should be potted off into small pots, in a light sandy loam, and 
when the plants are established in their new quarters they 
should have treatment suited to their requirements. We do not 
recommend striking cuttings late in the season for winter work, 
for which purpose we prefer to treat the plants as described 
further on. 

Plants for bedding purposes should be got into 48-sized pots 
as soon as the roots kiss the sides of the small ones, and the 
compost used should be a rich sandy loam, to which has been 
added some leaf soil or thoroughly decayed manure. They 
should be kept in a genial growing atmosphere, and such an 
amount of water applied as may be found necessary for their 
steady growth. Such plants as are inclined to run up too 
spindly should be stopped, to induce them to break freely and 
form bushy specimens, about 2ft. high, as these are most useful 
for bedding purposes. They should be gradually hardened off 
somewhat before planting outdoors, which should be done at the 
usual time. 

Such plants as are to remain in pots for the season should be 
placed in a cold frame in May, and, as soon as necessary, re- 
potted into Gin. or Sin. pots, and kept close for a day or two. Heed 
must be given to stopping and training, so as to cause the plants 
to assume a nice pyramidal form, and also to prevent them from 
blooming ; and the best j)reventive for this is not to allow the 
plants to become pot-bound or dry at the roots. About August 
they should be re-potted into Sin. or lOin. pots, as may be 
necessary, and pinching the points of the shoots must still be 
adhered to to prevent the formation of bloom, but about the 
third week in the month this should be discontinued, or the 
object of obtaining bloom during the winter will be frustrated. 
About the middle of September the bloom buds will commence 
aiDpearing, that is, if the plants are sufficiently potbound, and 
then it is advisable that liquid manure — preferably sulphate of 
ammonia — should be given once a week. About the end of 
September the plants should be removed to their winter 
quarters in a light airy greenhouse, where a temperature of 
about 45deg. can be maintained, and by watering with liquid 

310 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

manure from once to three or four times a week, according to 
the season, large quantities of bloom will be obtained. In 
growing plants in pots it is necessary to plunge them in a bed 
of ashes outdoors, from the end of June to the end of August, 
and it is needless to add that it is necessary to supply water in 
abundance during the hot weather. Frequent syi'ingings will 
also be found necessary to keep down red spider, and the foliage 
must be wetted underneath as well as on the top. Although the 
foregoing is a good plan, we do not think that the plants do so 
well as when treated as described below. 

Good thrifty plants should be chosen about the first week of 
June, and these should be planted out 3ft. or 4ft. asunder in rich 
soil in the kitchen garden, and care must be taken to get them 
in good form by pinching and training, as described above. A 
pyi-amidal form is the best, as it causes a greater display of 
bloom, and as a rule exposes the whole surface of the plant to 
light, a matter of much importance to plants of this description 
which are required to bloom in winter. During the season the 
soil should be often cut down at a distance of about Sin. from 
the stem of the plant to sever the roots, and so cause the pro- 
duction of a ball of fil^rous roots, a point of the greatest import- 
ance. Plenty of water is necessary during the hot weather, and 
syringing must not be forgotten, or in sandy poor soil red spider 
will be very abimdant. The last pinching should be given about 
the first week in August, and early in September the plants 
should be carefully taken up and placed in well-drained pots, 
boxes, or tubs, so that the roots are disturbed or reduced as 
little as possible. The interstices should be fimily filled in with 
good sandy soil, and the plants well watered to settle the roots. 
They should then be placed in a frame and kept close for a few 
days, and then removed to the house where they are to bloom. 
Old plants from the beds, if showing plenty of unexpanded 
buds, can also be treated in the same way. Old plants should be 
cut down, potted, and wintered in a shed, or any place where 
frost cannot reach, and if started in the greenhouse in February 
will afford plenty of cuttings. When they break again they 
can be divided, and then make good border plants. 

Propagated by seeds or cuttings as described above. 

Dictionary of Plants. 31 1 

For sorts, S. patens, blue; S. coccinea, scarlet; S. c. pumila, 
scarlet; S. splendens, scarlet; S. BoUviensis verticulata, 
scarlet; and S. Heerii, scarlet, are best suited for house 
decoration in winter; and S. hicolor, blue and wiiite; S. 
Boemenana, scarlet; and S. fulgens, dull scarlet, for bedding 
purposes ; but, at the same time, some of the hardy kinds are 
very useful. 

Sarracenia. — Greenhouse soft-wooded plant. Grown for 
its foliage. Minimum temperature, -lOdeg. Amongst the so- 
called carnivorous plants, the Sarracenise hold a prominent 
position, and as some of them are of easy culture, we give 
them a place. The peculiar pitcher-like form of the leaves of 
these plants is the inducement to grow them, and this is 
well represented with the flower in Fig. 116, but the form 
of the pitchers varies with different kinds. The flowers are 
somewhat poppy-shapped, as shown, and are not unhandsome. 
One or two plants are very good in the greenhouse, as their 
presence tends to increase the interest in the place. As with 
a good many other things, it is, however, possible to have 
too many of them, and therefore it is as well to restrict the 
number to a few only, unless indeed they are grown to give 
away. Most growers give too much heat, and from our ex- 
perience of plants grown in the following manner, we rather 
incline to a cool treatment. We have found a temperature of 
40deg. to 45deg. through the winter, rising to about TOdeg. 
in summer, to be quite enough to produce fine plants. S. 
purpurea is quite hardy; in fact, we might truthfully say that 
it is one of the hardiest exotic plants we have, standing in a 
cold exposed wet bog all the year through, and luxuriating in 
a position which would kill hundreds of our native plants. 
At Glasnevin it usually stands outdoors in frost and snow, 
and, according to some folks, seems to like the severe weather, 
but, as with all other hardy plants, if grown indoors, care must 
be taken that the pots do not become frozen, or the damage 
done to the roots, which are, as a rule, just inside the pot, 
and not protected by the soil around, will be very great. As 
one of the so-called carnivorous plants, this Sarracenia is well 

312 GreenJiouse Management for Afnafeurs. 

wortL. growing. Of coiu'se, S. jou7'purea (Fig. 116) must be 
omitted from the following cultural remarks. 

Fig. 116.— Sarkacenia Purpurea. 

The best compost is the following : Good fibrous peat, from 
which the soil has been taken, and chopped sphagnum in about 

Dictionary of Plants. 313 

equal parts, to ■wliich should be added a fair amount of crocks 
and charcoal, broken rather small, and a liberal sprinkling of 
sand. In potting, use either Matthews' orchid pots or pots about 
half filled with crocks, so that plenty of drainage may be 
afforded, as these plants require large quantities of water to 
grow them well. "With the exception of Q. Drummondii alba 
and 8. D, rubra, which should be re-potted in July, all the 
plants should be re-potted in February, the old soil being 
carefully removed. Pot moderately firm in such a manner that 
the creeping growths are just above the compost. Water 
must be api^lied daily as the plants come into full growth, 
sufficient to soak the soil being given at each watering. The 
plants should be stood on a shelf near the glass on the south 
side of the house, and the shelf should be covered with about 
an inch of charcoal or other absorbent substance. This layer 
should be soaked with water once or twice a day to maintain 
a somewhat humid atmosphere around the plants, as it is not 
advisable to syringe them. As the growth is ripening, less 
water should be given ; and, during the time they are at rest 
water applied twice a week is ample. S. ^purpurea can be 
successfully grown in a cool house, or in a house not heated, 
but where frost is excluded; and the same general treatment, 
except temperature, may be given as for the others. The 
plants of this species can also be syringed with advantage; 
in fact, it is almost an aquatic. 

Scale is the chief insect enemy that affects Sarracenias, and 
great care must be taken that they are destroyed as soon as 
they appear, or most disastrous results are almost sure to 
follow. A sharp watch must also be kept for other insects, 
thrips in particular, as they do much harm. 

S. Drummondii alba, white; S. Drummondii rubra, I'ed; 8. 
psittacina, pinkish lilac ; and 8. purpurea, purple, are all good 
and interesting, and are, perhaps, as easy to grow as any. 
For the amateur, these plants are well suited, as they are 
both curious and beautiful. 

Saxifraga. — Hardy, herbaceous, soft-wooded plant. Grown 
for both foliage and flowers. Minimum temperature (in pots), 

314 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

3odeg. One of the Saxifrages, iS. sartnentosa, is very pretty as a 
hanging basket plant, and is, moreover, very easy to grow, its 
almost round, hairy, reddish veined leaves, and spikes of nearly 
white flowers, being very effective when the plant is suspended in 
a basket. The chief point is to keep it well supplied with water 
while it is in full growth, and to use a compost of about two- 
thirds sandy loam and one-third leaf soil and sharp sand 
mixed. A good sprinkling of broken sandstone or brick should 
be added to the compost, and plenty of drainage should be 
afforded. Provided the plants are kept well supplied with 
water, and have an occasional dose of liquid manure when in 
active growth, they will make fine specimens in a very short 
time. Re-iDotting once a year as soon as they have bloomed 
will keep them in good fettle for many years. They are 
easily propagated from the numerous offsets, pegging them 
down on a pot of soil being sufficient. The colour of the 
flower is rosy white, or its general appearance favours that 

Propagated by division of the rooted runners, as with straw- 

Schizanthus. — Half-hardy annual. Grown for its flowers. 
Minimum temperature, 45deg. This is a handsome half-hardy 
annual of easy culture, suitable alike for both outdoor and 
greenhouse decoration, bearing an abundance of bloom (Fig. 
117), and of bright colour and rather tall habit, rendering the 
plants very useful in their season. When well grown, either 
singly in 4in. pots, or, what is better, three in a 6in. pot, 
they are very effective, and the colours being very showy, they 
form very noticeable subjects. The seeds should be sown on 
a gentle bottom heat or in the greenhouse about March, or 
even the middle of Febniary, but we have found March 
early enough for all practical purposes, although, to suit 
special places, the earlier time of sowing might be useful. 
The seeds should be sown on fairly rich light soil, rendered 
sufficiently porous by the addition of such a quantity of sharp 
sand as may be necessary for the purpose. As soon as the 
plants are large enough to handle they should be pricked 

Dictionary of Plants. 


off singly into small pots, and gradually hardened off, so that 
they can be removed to the cold frame about the end of April. 
When these pots are filled with roots 
the plants should be shifted into 
their blooming pots, and care taken 
that they have sufficient drainage, 
and that the soil is rich enough to 
sustain them in good foliage. As 
soon as the weather admits, they 
should have full exposure, and should 
be treated as other pot plants; as 
the pots become filled with roots, 
weak liquid manure should be applied 
each alternate watering, and when 
the bloom buds show colour, the 
plants can be removed into a cool 
light conservatory to bloom. Seeds 
may be- saved on the best plants, but 
it prolongs the bloom to keep the 
seed vessels picked off, as the effort 
used in producing seeds soon ex- 
hausts the vigour of the plants. 

Propagated by seeds, as described 

For sorts, select from S. Grahami 
(Fig. 117), scarlet and orange ; S. 
grandiflorus oculatis, purple and rose ; 

S. oculatis pyramidalis, violet; S. innnatus, rosy purple; S. re- 
tusus, rose and orange ; S. alb us, white and orange ; and S. 
papilionaceus, spotted. 



Scilla. — Hardy, soft- wooded, bulbous plant. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature (in pots), 36deg. Squills do 
very nicely for cold-house work where early bloom is required, 
and they can also be used in the warm greenhouse, but as 
they do not thrive so well in the latter as in the former, it is 
perhaps the better plan to devote them to the former class 
of house only. The culture is of the simplest : potting the 

3i6 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

bulbs tbe same as crocuses, and using the same kind of soil, 
and, in fact, treating in the same manner as recommended 
for those plants. Their hyacinth-like habit and pleasing hues 
render them very useful as small decorative plants, and if the 
blooms are wired and mounted like those of the hyacinth, they 
work in well for table decorations and for bouquets, but more 
particularly for buttonhole bouquets. 

Fig. 118. — Scilla Campanulata Alba. 

Propagated by division of the bulbs, which increase naturally. 

S. bifolia, dark blue ; 8. campanulata alba, white (Fig. 118) ; 
S. bifolia rosea, rose ; S. nivalis, pale blue ; S. Siberica, blue ; 8. 
Peruviana, blue; 8. P. alba, white; 8. verna, blue; and 8. 
nutans rosea, rose, are all gems for the cold house. 

Sericographis. — Greenhouse hard-wooded shrub. Grown 

D ictio na ry of Pla nts. 317 

for its foliage. Minimum temperature, 45cleg. SericogQ-apliis 
Ghieshreghtii is a plant tliat is suited to a wann conservatory 
or greenhouse only ; but as it can be done very well with some 
of the plants we have ali'eady mentioned, and as it is very 
useful from a decorative point of view, we give the cultural 
directions for it. Its fine feathery scarlet flowers are set off 
to great advantage by the bright green shining leaves, and 
from its comparatively easy culture it will be found very useful 
where a little convenience exists to meet its requirements. In 
the first place, it is necessary to get the growth on early, 
that good useful plants shall be made during the summer, 
and that they may have time to mature ere winter sets in. 
As a general rule, late-struck plants do badly ; for as they do 
not get thoroughly matured, they, as a matter of coui-se, do 
not bloom at all, or, if they do, it is very poorly. 

As soon as the plants have ceased blooming they should be 
placed in a brisk and moist bottom heat for a week or two to get 
them into free growth, when the tips of the shoots will strike 
freely if properly treated. Cutting pots should be prepared by 
half filling them with crocks on which a little coarse fibrous peat 
should be laid, and then the pots should be nearly filled with 
sharp propagating sand. The cuttings should be inserted about 
an inch or so apart, round the sides of the pots, which should 
have been thoroughly watered and drained previously to in- 
serting the cuttings. These pots must be placed in a close 
moist heat, when the cuttings will strike freely, after which 
they should be potted off singly into small pots, and nursed 
gently on in a moderate moist heat. We have done this 
part of the process in an ordinary cucumber frame, where the 
bed had become sweet, and the plants throve very well; but, 
if a propagating frame exists in the greenhouse, it is best 
to strike all cuttings therein. When well rooted the points 
should be pinched out to induce a bushy growth, and, when 
this has been attained, or, rather, when the young plants 
have broken freely, they should be placed on a light, airy 
sheK until the middle or end of May, when they should be 
re-potted into 4in. pots, and gradually hardened off pre- 
paratory to placing outdoors in a cold frame. The time 

3i8 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

for putting tliem out would depend on tlie state of the 
weather; well on into June will do if the season is hot, 
but if cold the plants may remain for another week or so in 
the house. When placed in the frames, the pots should be 
plunged in half-spent leaves, and the plants should be sji-inged 
once or twice daily, according to the weather. If treated 
thus, and the frame is closed early, the plants can be finally 
shifted into 6in. pots about the end of July. During September 
the syringing should be gradually discontinued, and the frames 
should be drawn off every fine day to harden off the plants 
and induce a good supply of bloom. About the last week in 
September they should be removed to a warm greenhouse, 
and they will soon commence to bloom well. During winter 
a temperature of 50deg. to 55deg. should be kept up. For soil, 
use peat and loam in equal parts, with enough sand to keep 
it open. 
Propagated by cuttings struck in heat, as described above. 

Snowdrop. — See " Galanthus." 

Solanuni. — Half-hardy, soft-wooded plant. Grown for its 
berries and flowers. Minimum temperature, 38deg. The 
hybrids of this are very interesting, and, as they are best 
treated as soft-wooded plants, or, at least, like seedling stocks, 
we give our method of treatment. About June we sow seeds in 
•sandy soil, placing the pans in a cold frame. The seeds are 
eown thinly and evenly over the surface of the soil, and the 
pans are well drained, as the seed is often a long time in 
germinating, and, consequently, it is necessary to prevent the 
soil becoming water -logged, and thus destroying the seeds. As 
soon as the plants are in rough leaf we pot them off into 
thumbs, and, as the roots kiss the sides, we shift into large 
sixties, where they stand the winter. For soil, we use two parts 
loam, one part leaf soil, and one part rotten cow manure and 
sharp sand, mixed. 

The plants are taken in in the early part of the winter and 
placed on a shelf near the glass, no more water being given than 
really necessary, and being kept dormant. In spring, when they 

Dictionary of Plants. 319 

break, tliey are cut back closely, so as to make good busliy plants, 
and in May tbey are put out into a ricb open spot in tbe kitcben 
garden. Plenty of water is afforded if necessary, and tbe plants 
are pincbed back in June and July, so as to cause tbem to make 
a good busby growtb. Wben tbe berries begin to colour, or 
about September, tbe plants are taken up, witbout injury to tbe 
roots, and placed in pots of sufficient size to bold tbem properly. 
Tbey are tben well watered, and kept close for a few days in a 
sbaded — but not dark — frame, and tbence are removed to tbe 
greenbouse, wbere tbey are very ornamental until growtb re- 
commences. Sucb is about tbe easiest mode of culture, and 
anyone baving a bouse from wbicb tbe frost is just excluded 
can grow tbem well. 

Anotber plan is to put in cuttings in April or May on a sligbt 
bottom beat, and, as soon as rooted, to transfer tbem to Sin. 
pots. As soon as tbe roots kiss tbe sides tbe plants sbould be 
sbifted into 6in. pots, wbere tbey are to fruit. Tbey sbould 
remain in frames at a temperature of about 60deg., and sbould 
not want for water. In June tbe plants sbould be pincbed 
back, so tbat tbey sball be of good sbape, and, if required, a 
little training may be aitorded, but it is advisable to dispense 
witb sticks and ties as mucb as possible, as tbe plants look far 
better if grown in a natural manner. During tbe blooming 
period plenty of air sbould be admitted, and every means sbould 
be taken to prevent a cbeck. As soon as tbe berries are of good 
size some of tbe plants sbould be taken indoors, and about 
September tbe wbole of tbe stock sbould be boused, wben, if 
properly cared for and in a ligbt sunny place, tbey will ripen 
and retain tbeir berries for a long time. 

Tbe soil we use is good sandy loam, to wbicb some tborougbly 
rotted manure bas been added, togetber witb sufficient sbarp 
sand to ensure porosity. Good drainage is, of course, necessary, 
but tbese plants do not require so mucb as some otbers. Fumi- 
gation will often be necessary to keep down fly, and outdoor 
plants must be syringed witb some insecticide once or twice 
in tbe season. 

Propagated by seeds and cuttings as described above. 

Tbe sorts we prefer are /S. capsicastrum or cerasiformis, S. c. 

320 Greenhouse M anagement for Amateurs. 

variegatu7n, Wetlierill's hybrids, and Henderson's Conical-fruited 
Solanum, all of whicli are really good and useful. We may add 
tliat in some parts of tlie country these Solanums are hardy, or 
require only slight protection in winter, and they have a very 
cheerful appearance until the berries fall. 

8. jasminijlorum and S. j. variegatum are two very good 
climbers for walls or trellises, and are interesting in appearance. 
The culture is not very difficult, and although these plants do 
best in the borders, still they can be done very well in pots. In 
any case, plenty of di-ainage must be afforded, and a pretty fair 
amount of root room. The soil should be loam and leaf soil in 
about equal parts, and a good dash of sharp sand to keep the 
whole open and sweet. Water should be given freely in the 
growing season, and during the time when the plants are at 
rest the soil should be allowed to become moderately (but not 
dust) dry. Insects of all kinds must be kept under as pre- 
viously directed. These species are best propagated from 
cuttings as described above, and of course are not placed 
outdoors as are the berry-bearing section such as S. cerasi- 
forme and others of a like nature. 

Solomon's Seal. — See " Polygonatum." 

Sparniaunia. — Half-hardy hard-wooded shrub. Grown for * 
its flowers. Minimum temperature, 36deg. This is a really 
good cool-house shrub, that is nearly always in bloom. It, 
however, attains a pretty good size, and therefore requires a 
fairly high house to grow in. The blooms are produced in rich 
masses, and are wliite in colour, the general appearance of both 
flower and foliage being well shown in Fig. 119, therefore it is a 
very valuable plant for use in large places; but comparatively 
small plants give very good results. The best plan is to 
stnke cuttings under bell glasses in a moist bottom heat in 
February or March, and as soon as rooted to shift into small 
pots, keeping in a warm light position until rooted well, when 
they should be got into 4in. pots. When the plants are 
about Sin. high take out the points so as to induce a bushy 
growth. About June shift into Gin. or Sin. pots, and when rooted 

Dictionary of Plants. 


into the new soil, place in frames out of doors, gradually harden- 
ing off. Bring in early in September and place in a light 
position, and with care they will bloom well. Re-pot again in 
March, using a mixture of peat and loam for the purpose, 
adding just enough sand to keep the soil well open. Pruning 
must be resorted to to obtain bushy plants. These shrubs also 

Fig. 119.— Sparmannta Africana. 

look well as standards, and well repay any trouble that may be 
afforded them. The usual means must be taken to keep down 
insects, which, however, are not very troublesome if the plants 
are well managed. After the third or fourth potting the plants 
should be allowed to get slightly potbound, and liquid manure 
should be applied during the season of growth — a practice that 


322 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

tends to encourage tlie formation of blooming wood. As a con- 
tinuous blooming, cool house, or conservatory plant, this cannot 
easily be surpassed. 
Propagated from cuttings as described above. 

Spiraea. — Hardy, herbaceous, soft-wooded plant. Grown for 
its flowers. Minimum temperature (in pots), 38deg. Spircea 
japonica is one of those plants which, although hardy, or nearly 
so, yet require special treatment if grown indoors. Its great 
beauty and decorative value render it almost a necessity where 
plants are required for table or window decoration, and there- 
fore we give it a place as a greenhouse plant. The light 
feathery spray of which the truss, or rather spike of blooms, is 
composed, is also very useful for mixing in bouquets, for 
button-holes, and for the decoration of vases and epergnes. 
The entire plant, when well furnished with bloom, forms a 
magnificent object for the dinner table, or for a specimen for 
a solitary stand, as mil be seen in Fig. 120, while amongst 
other plants the pearly whiteness of the feathery blooms and 
the fresh green foliage -contrast well with darker and more 
gorgeous neighbours. 

The culture is, comparatively speaking, easy, and, unless it is 
desired to have the plants in bloom very early, forcing need not 
be resorted to. The way we bloom the imported clumps is as 
follows : As soon as ripe clumps can be got, they are potted into 
Sin. and 6in. pots, while any that are extra large, and that have 
the largest number of blooming crowns, are potted off into 
7in. or Sin. pots, according as they promise to cover them with 
foliage. A good depth of drainage is allowed, from one to 
three inches, according to the size of the pots. The clumps are 
potted fairly firm in a compost of fibrous loam two parts, leaf 
soil one part, and thoroughly decayed manui-e one part, with a 
sufficient quantity of sharp silver sand to keep the whole 
thoroughly permeable to water, as large supplies are neces- 
sary during growth. As soon as potted, the plants are 
put in a cold frame, and about the end of November they 
are placed in a house at a temperature of 45deg. They 
are well watered, and as soon as growth commences, stood 

Dictionary of Plants, 


near tlie glass, and water given as required. Plenty of light 
is afforded, and care is taken to keep down insects. A 
temperature of about 50deg. may be maintained when tbe 
plants are in full foliage, and in this they will bloom. Other 
batches should be brought in at intervals of three weeks or 
a month until the end of March, and after that they can be 
bloomed in a frame. 

When the plants have ceased blooming, they should still be 

Fig. 120.— SpiEiEA Japonica. 

attended to with water, &c., and in April they should be care- 
fully planted out on a rich border facing the south, well 
watered to settle the soil around the roots, and in dry weather 
subjected to liberal supplies of liquid manure and water. 
About the end of August watering should be gradually dis- 
continued, and when the plants have thoroughly ripened off in a 
natural manner, they should be taken up and potted as we have 

Y 2 

324 Greenhouse Manac^ement for Amateurs. 

Where only a cold house exists, the plants should be kept in 
a cold frame until February, and then they may be brought into 
the house. With care in watering, &c., such as the natural 
wants of the Spiraea require, very good results can be obtained, 
although the bloom will be late. We have, however, had the 
blooms finer in a cold house than where they have been forced ; 
but, of course, the clumps used were really good. As a matter 
of fact, there is no more trouble in growing Spiraeas than in 
blooming a hyacinth ; and, indeed, we would rather grow 
Spiraeas than geraniums, although the former are now far from 
profitable in a marketable point of view. Several of the hardy 
Spiraeas bloom very well in a cold house or frame ; but they are 
not desirable plants in a dwelling-house, as thrips and green 
fly are so very partial to them. 

Propagated by division of the crowns or clumps. 

Statice. — Greenhouse hard-woooded plant. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg. The Statices are pre- 
eminently suited for greenhouse culture or for exhibition, as 
they combine a good habit with comparative ease of cultiva- 
tion, although, like several other plants, 45deg. is quite as low 
a temperature as they should be subjected to in winter, or no 
great success will be attained. On no account must the plants 
be rested, in the ordinary acceptation of the word, but must be 
kept growing all the winter, or the results will be far from 
desirable. Statices bear large heads of flowers of a papery 
texture, which may nearly be classed with the everlastings, but, 
strictly speaking, cannot be so considered. The calyx varies 
from lilac to blue in different plants, and the corolla (which 
soon drops off) is white ; the leaves, which are leathery in some of 
the varieties, are 4in. or Sin. wide, and from Sin. to 12in. long. 
The season of blooming varies, but with the following sorts, if 
treated as we direct, the principal flowering stems will be 
thrown up in spring, and a succession of side blooms will be 
continued until autumn. At no time is it advisable to place 
the plants out of doors, or to give full exposure to the sun; 
they like a rather closer atmosphere than the generality of 
hard-wooded plants; but they must not be kept too close 

Dictionary of Plants. 


or too far from the light, or success will not be attained. 
S. profusa is about the best of its class, and the treatment for 
this one applies to the whole family. Plants should be selected 
in autumn which have been stopped at Sin. or 4in. from 
the soil, and which have not been cramped up in small 
pots, as these rarely do well. The reason of this is that 

Fig. 121.— Statice Peofusa. 

the Statices being very free rooting, get stunted if kept in 
small pots for too long a time, and when this occurs they never 
afterwards grow satisfactorily. During winter they should be on 
a shelf near the light, and kept at a night temperature of about 
45deg., by wliich means the roots will be kept active throughout 
the time, a matter of much importance. They must not, of 

326 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

course, be grown on at the same rate as they are in summer ; but 
still growtb must not stop entirely if good results are desii-ed. 
Early in March, the plants should be put into 9in. pots, in 
good turfy yellow loam, with enough sharp sand to keep it open. 
The soil must not be broken too fine, and the plants must be 
potted firmly. Plenty of water must be given, and, consequently, 
good drainage must be afforded, or the pots will get waterlogged, 
and the plants will suffer in consequence. For a week or two 
after potting, keep the plants rather close, and do not over- water; 
and afterwards place in the light, near the glass, but away from 
cold currents of air. Shade must be given to protect them 
from hot sun, but it should not be kept on longer than needful. 
Thoughout the summer syringe in the afternoon, being careful 
to wet underneath the leaves, to keep down red spider, which 
soon does inseparable mischief. During the first season it is 
advisable to pick off the flower stems, which will be thrown up 
all through the summer ; but the second season the first crop of 
bloom may remain. In the hot sunny weather a bed of coal 
ashes is preferable to a dry stage, for, in this latter case, 
the large leaves afford so great a surface for evaporation that 
the plants would frequently suffer from dryness. As autumn 
approaches, discontinue the use of the syi'inge, and give more 
air. Winter as before, and remove all bloom that may appear 
before spring. In March give another shift as before, and let 
them be similarly treated, but allow the blooms to open ; while 
in bloom syringing should be discontinued, or the flowers will 
damp off. The plants should not be out of the growing house 
long, neither should the successional blooms be allowed to open 
that year, but should be removed as they appear. The side 
shoots should be carefully tied down, so as to form a nice base 
to the plant, and care must be used not to split the shoots out, 
as they are very brittle. Treat in the same manner each year 
until the plants get into 24in. pots, when they may be kept in 
good order for years by the use of liquid manure. After the 
second year, unless they are intended for exhibition, they 
may be allowed to bloom for their full season, but for show 
purposes they should not bloom fully until in 18in. pots. 
These plants are subject to red spider, thrip, and aphides. For 

Dictionary of Plants. 327 

tlie first the cold water cure should be applied, while, for the 
two latter, fumigation is the only remedy. 

Propagated from cuttings struck in sandy soil during the 
warm months of the year in the greenhouse. 

For sorts, select from the following, always having the first 
two in a collection : Statice profusa (Fig. 121), 8. imhricata, 
S. hrassiccefolia, 8. Solfordii, 8. macrophylla, 8. macroptera, 
8. propinqua, 8. Rattrayana, and 8. sinuata. All are good and 
useful, but the first two are the best for general work. 

Stocks. — Half-hardy annuals. Grown for their flowers. 
Minimum temperature, 40deg. Stocks, both Intermediate and 
Ten-week, are almost necessities in the greenhouse during 
the early part of the year, on account of their perfume, and, 
as the blooms of the double varieties can be mounted with but 
little trouble, they scent a bouquet vei*y nicely at any time 
without causing any unpleasant after-effects, as is the case 
with some other flowers. The culture is much the same, 
whether the Ten-week or Intermediate varieties are chosen, 
except that the former are sown in spring and the latter in 
autumn. Ten-week Stocks should be sown in gentle heat in 
January, and successionally until the end of April, and as soon 
as the plants have their rough leaves they should be potted off ; 
then, when the weather becomes sufficiently mild, they may be 
transferred to the cold frames. When the pots get fairly filled 
with roots, a shift into 4in. pots should be made, and any of 
the plants which show single flowers may be destroyed at once, 
unless the strain is very prolific of double flowers. Care must 
be taken to keep the plants as close to the lights as possible, 
to prevent their becoming drawn, or the beauty will be wholly 
destroyed. Where they are to be used for bedding out only, 
they should be turned out of the small pots and planted rather 
thickly about the end of April, or early in May, if the weather 
is sufficiently mild; a nice open spot should be chosen for the 
bed and rich soil provided. 

The best Ten-week Stocks are those supplied in collections 
from Geitnany, but at times it is possible to obtain a good strain 
of home-grown plants. As, however, there is no actual certainty 

328 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

of their turning out good wlien obtained from this source, it 
is by far tbe better plan to go in for German seed at once. 

Intermediate Stocks have to stand the winter to obtain the 
best results from them, and the treatment is, of course, some- 
what different to that given to the Ten-week varieties, in so 
far as the winter treatment is concerned. The seeds should 
be sown in the latter end of August, and, as soon as the plants 
are large enough, they should be potted off singly into Sin. 
pots. Here they will remain for the winter until about the 
end of February, when they should be transferred into 4in. or 
Gin. pots. The plants must be wintered in cold frames, from 
which frost is excluded, but to which air is admitted at all 
favourable opportunities. During this time they must be 
kept as dry as can be consistently allowed, and the frame in 
which they are kept must also be dry, or they will rot off, 
and the whole labour will be lost. As the plants commence 
growth in spring, water must be applied as required, and they 
should be turned round occasionally to keep the growth level. 
Plenty of room must also be given to allow them to develop 
fully, or they will have an appearance the reverse of elegant. 
For soil we find that in the earlier stages of growth a good 
maiden loam passed through a fin.-mesh sieve, and enough 
sand added to render the whole freely porous, answers well; 
and for the blooming pots nothing answers better than three 
parts maiden loam and one part thoroughly decayed manure, 
to which is added enough sand to render the soil permeable 
to the water that is given. The soil for the blooming pots 
should be passed through a lin.-mesh sieve only, as too close 
a soil is not good for the plants ; but, of course, it is at the 
same time necessary to use a suflB.cient quantity of finer soil 
to fill the interstices, as the roots will not run in the larger 
portions alone. 

Yarious strains of intermediate Stocks exist, some being 
good and some very inferior, and therefore it is desirable 
that only the best shall be used. The colours are scarlet, 
white and purple, which should be very clear and pure, but 
at times a dull-coloured strain finds its way into the market. 
The East Lothian varieties are a fine selection if obtained 

Dictionary of Plants. 


true, but risk always attends the purchase of seed unless a 
good firm is dealt with. 

Propagated by seeds, as described above. 

The colours and shades of colour in the Ten-week varieties 
are very varied, but the best are scarlet, crimson and purple, 
the others, unless the strain is exceptionally good, being very 
dingy. It is judicious, therefore, to purchase only of a first- 
class seedsman. 

IACSONIA. — Half-hardy hard-wooded 
climber. Grown for its flowers. Minimum 
temperature, 40deg. Tacsonias, which, in 
flower, foliage, and habit, are closely al- 
lied to the passion flowers, do well with 
same general treatment, both as to culture and 
training, &c. Of course, with these, as with 
their congeners, variations will have to be made 
in some minor details, but these will be readily seen. The 
flowers of some of the Tacsonias are very beautiful, and will 
commend themselves to the attention of most cultivators, where 
they have plenty of roof room, such as a large warm conser- 
vatory or a light greenhouse, and we should advise their use 
amongst passion flowers. 

Propagated by seeds, &c., in the same manner as passi- 

For sorts, select from the following : T. Buchananii, T. ignea, 
T. manicata, T. mollisima, T. sanguinea, and T. Van Volxemii. 

Tagetes. — Half-hardy annual. Grown for its flowers. Mini- 
mum temperature, 40deg. T. signata pumila takes the place 
of the yellow calceolaria on soils where the latter will not 
grow well, and we therefore give it a place here. It should 
be sown on a gentle heat in March, and when large enough 

330 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

potted off singly into small pots, and gradually hardened off to 
plant out at tlie ordinary bedding season. "We cannot say 
much for the plants when grown in pots, but in beds or 
borders they answer their purpose very well. The colour is 
bright yellow. 

Propagated by seeds, as described above. 

Tecoma. — Half-hardy hard- wooded climber. Grown for its 
foliage principally. Minimum temperature, 38deg. This is 
a plant that requires plenty of head room, and a large amount 
of border in which to extend its roots. It is practically useless 
in a small place, but where it has plenty of room it is an acqui- 
sition. For soil use good fibrous peat, three parts, and sound 
fibrous loam, one part, with a good admixture of sand. Plenty 
of drainage must be afforded, as during the season liberal 
supplies of water must be applied. The young shoots should 
ramble at will, and not be trained to any foiTual pattern. 
For the domes of large conservatories, and similar positions, 
the Tecomas are very useful, bearing their trumpet- shaped 
flowers in drooping bunches, which are freely borne amongst 
the handsome foliage ; but, as we said before, they are of little 
use for small places. 

Propagated by seeds or layers, but as only a very few speci- 
mens of this plant are needed, it is, as a rule, the better plan 
to purchase from a nursery. 

For sorts, the following are good : T. Capensis, T. jasminoides, 
T. j. alba magna, T. j. rosea, and T. j. splendens. 

Thalictrum. — Hardy, herbaceous, soft -wooded perennial. 
Grown for its foliage. Minimum temperature (in pots), 36deg. 
Of the rather large variety of Thalictrums one is very useful 
in either the hot or cold house. T. minus is a plant having 
foliage resembling to a great extent the maidenhair fern. 
In the plant we more particularly desire to introduce to our 
readers — T. adiantoides — this resemblance is still greater, and 
where ferns cannot be done well it is extremely useful, as the 
foliage is well adapted for the same uses as those to which 
the fronds of the fems are put. The flowers of T. adiantoides 

Dictionary of Plants. 331 

are white, and those of T. minus are pale yellow ; but tlie 
flowers are of no value compared with the foliage. The plants 
should be potted up as soon as the foliage is ripe, and 
may be kept in a cold frame during the winter if desired, or 
they can be taken into the cold house at once. In the warm 
greenhouse, if the plants are introduced during the season of 
rest, they should first occupy a cool shelf near the glass, and as 
growth commences they should be removed to a warmer part 
of the house, but they should be kept as near the glass as 
possible. The object to be attained being the production of 
fine, healthy, hard foliage, due attention must be paid to such 
little details as will be found necessary in practice ; and, above 
all things, some amount of air must be allowed on all favourable 
occasions, both to harden the foliage and to obtain a good 
colour. Water must be given as may be found necessary from 
the state of the plants; for while they are in an almost 
dormant state very little moisture is required, whereas when 
in active growth they require more liberal supplies of water. 
A compost of sandy loam and leaf soil, rendered sufficiently 
porous by the addition of some sharp sand, is necessary. In 
all cases good drainage must be afforded, as the plants do not 
thrive in soil that is water-logged. In the cold house the 
treatment is practically the same as the preceding, except 
that the plants, coming into growth but a short time before 
their natural season, require only the ordinary treatment for 
hardy subjects. 

Propagated by division of the roots when the plants are at rest. 
The most suitable sorts for pot culture are : T. adiantoides or 
adiantifolium, white ; and T. mimis, pale yellow. 

Thea. — Greenhouse hard- wooded shrub. G-rown for its flowers 
and foliage. Minimum temperature, 40deg. Thea, or Tea, is a 
plant that from its economical value is of much interest, besides 
having a good appearance and pretty blooms. It is also of com- 
paratively easy culture, and does not require excessive heat; a 
house where the temperature does not fall below 40deg. in 
winter suiting it very well. It is quite a different plant from 
the "tea tree" (so called) of the outdoor garden, which is in 

332 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

reality Lycium harharum, being much like the orange in ap- 
pearance. Whether the Thea -will produce leaves in England 
of any value economically, is a doubtful question, but still, 
in a collection of plants, it is very interesting. The plants 
should be re-potted every spring in a compost of three parts 
yellow loam, one part thoroughly decomposed manure or leaf 
soil, and enough sand to keep the compost open. Plenty of 
drainage must be afforded, or the soil will become sour. 
Dui'ing the summer liquid manure should be occasionally 
supplied, and the plants must at no time get thoroughly dry. 
The Thea should be placed in frames during the summer, and 
treated much the same as camellias or oranges, the wood being 
well ripened before bringing into the house, where they should 
have a light airy position afforded them, and be further treated 
as oranges. 

The sorts are : Thea Assamensis, T. Bohea, T. viridis, T. v. 
variegata. The first is the hardiest, though the second, in our 
opinion, is one of the best. 

Tobacco. — See " Nicotiana." 

Tradescantia. — Greenhouse soft-wooded plant. Grown for 
its foliage. Minimum temperature, 40deg. T. zehrina is of very 
easy culture for the warm greenhouse, bearing trailing stems 
closely set with ovate leaves, coloured reddish-purple and green, 
and well worthy of a place in any collection. The green variety 
is useful to form a drooping mass of foliage, but is not so con- 
spicuous as the preceding. Cuttings will strike freely in sandy 
soil in spring and during the summer, and by a little attention 
in watering and pinching back, they forni good plants in a short 
time. "We place six or seven cuttings in a 4in. or 6in. pot, 
affording plenty of drainage, and filling the pot with a compost 
of fairly rich light sandy soil. As soon as they are rooted and 
start growth, the points are pinched out, and this operation is 
repeated until the plants are of sufficient size. Plenty of water 
is necessary. A few plants are always useful, as they form one 
of the gems of the house. 

Propagated by cuttings, as described above. 

Dictionary of Plants. 


Tropaeolnm. — Half-hardy soft-wooded plant. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature, 40deg. Among these will be 
found very useful plants, useful either as climbers — or, more 
correctly, trailers — and dwarfs, very useful indeed both for in 
and out door use. For spring blooming they are unrivalled, 
and, if sufficient heat is obtainable, combined with a light posi- 
tion, the culture is of the simplest, for even if there is not 

Fig. 122.— Trop^olum Tuberosum. 

sufficient means at hand for early work, still a good display 
can be made both in and out doors. Although the blooms 
are like the ordinary nasturtium, the plants are vastly different 
from them, both in habit and profuseness of bloom, and a 
few plants are very useful in every house. Yases and hanging 
baskets can be embellished with them most advantageously, 
and, in the season, they can be used most successfully outdoors 
for the same purpose. They stand heat well, provided it is not 

334 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

of too arid a nature, and, with, a little care, they always look 

In tlie first place, they are propagated from cuttings, and 
this is the most difficult part of their culture. For winter 
blooming, the cuttings should be struck in the early part of 
July, healthy shoots being selected, about an inch to two 
inches long. These should be planted singly in small pots 
of weU-di'ained, very sandy soil, and then placed in bottom 
heat to strike. As soon as the roots kiss the sides of the pots 
the plants should be hardened (M somewhat, and then shifted 
into Gin. pots, and, when these pots are fairly filled with roots, 
the plants should be removed into 9in. or lOin. pots, in which 
they will stand thi-ough the winter. Until the end of September 
the ordinary cool house will be all that is necessary, but, after 
that date, a temperature of from 50deg. to 55deg. must be kept 
up, and, even if it rises as high as 60deg., no harm will be done. 
The plants should be stopped when about three feet high, and 
again when about double that height. After the final potting, 
they should be trained over the roof or from pillar to pillar in 
the house, and the shoots allowed to hang somewhat loosely, as 
more bloom is obtained thus than when the plants are trained 
too strictly. Thorough drainage is necessary, and about three 
inches of crocks should be placed in the 9in. pots, as it is 
necessary to give liberal, although not too abundant, supplies 
of water throughout the season. Plants for summer decoration 
should be struck in early spring, and then will come in most 
usefully for the various purposes for which they are generally 

The best soil is a compost of good turfy loam, free from grubs 
and wire worm, to which is added about one-third part of leaf 
soil and sharp sand. This, in fact, is the best compost for 
all the Tropseolums. 

Among the sorts useful for cut blooms in the above section, 
and which are also very ornamental as plants, are : T. Cooperi, 
scarlet; T. Lohhii, orange scarlet; and Boule de Feu, which 
is one of the best scarlets we have. In fact, with the above 
three, one might well be content. 

Dwarf plants require much the same treatment if to bloom in 

Dictionary of Plants. 335 

winter, but for outdoor work they should be struck in spring, 
and the following are good plants for the purpose : Yellow 
Dwarf, fine yellow ; Lustrous, bright crimson ; The Moor, 
dark maroon; Minnie "Warren, richly variegated foliage, the 
variegation being pale cream; and T. comp actum coccineum, 
rich orange scarlet. The following trailing kinds are also very 
useful for bedding purposes and for house decoration, if treated 
as recommended above : Attraction, citron yellow, blotched 
on each lobe with bright scarlet; Mrs. Tredwell, very fine 
brilliant red ; Perfection (Dean), brilliant scarlet ; and Coronet, 

Propagated from cuttings, as described above. 

T. iricolorum is one of the prettiest of the species, and is of 
very easy culture. It is a tuberous-rooted variety, having roots 
somewhat resembling potatoes, and bears a profusion of rich 
orange-scarlet flowers, which contrast extremely well with the 
fine green foliage. About November a compost of sandy turfy 
loam and peat should be prepared, and to this should be added 
a little sharp sand. The pots must also be well drained, and 
this drainage should be covered with a little moss or fibrous 
turf, to prevent the soil washing down amongst the drainage 
and so choking it. The tubers should be planted in 9in. pots, 
and if they are small several may occupy each pot ; but if large, 
from one to three are sufficient. Place in a position in the 
greenhouse where they will not be disturbed, and the only care 
necessary will be to prevent them becoming dust dry. About 
April the young shoots will appear, and then more water may be 
given, and the supplies increased as the plants grow. A bundle 
of birch twigs inserted around the edge of the pot, or a young 
fir tree clear of its leaves, forms an excellent support for the 
foliage, and the only care necessary in training the plants is to 
see that they do not i-un into knots, but that each shoot travels 
fairly. About midsummer the foliage will begin to fade, and 
water must be gradually discontinued until the plants ripen, 
when the foliage should be removed, and the pots laid on their 
sides in a cool place until the next potting time. 

There are several other varieties of Tropseolum, and among 
them the nearly hardy T. tuherosum (Fig. 122). 

33^ Greenhouse Management for A?7iateurs. 

Tulip. — Hardy, bulbous, soft-wooded plant. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature (in pots), 36deg. The Tulip is 
one of tbose bulbs wbicb, like tbe byacintb, is of universal 
cultivation, and is also of universal use. To a certain extent 
the culture is very easy, provided the plants are not started 
too early in the season. As most persons are aware, the bloom 
of the Tulip starts from the interior of the bulb, which, at 
the same time, divides into a number of young bulbs. Unlike 
the hyacinth, the bloom of the Tulip derives the greater part 

Fig. 123.— Tulip Geskeeiaka 
(VAE. Flamasde). 

■-i-;>jw .-:>-7-^-^ J 

Fig. 124.— Tulip Gesneriana 

of its nourishment direct from the soil, consequently a rich 
compost must be provided. As the bulbs are very cheap, it 
is scarcely worth the trouble to save them over for the 
second season, and therefore it is only necessary to provide 
a soil for the present. We have successfully used a com- 
post of two-thirds good mellow loam and one-third rotten 
cow manure, to which has been added enough sharp sand to 
render the soil freely porous. Plenty of drainage must be 
afforded, and a little crushed animal charcoal mixed with the 

Dictionary of Plants. 


soil will intensify the colour of red and scarlet flowers. The 
bulbs should be put in in batches from the end of August 
until about the middle of November, about five in a 4in. pot, 
and treated in the same manner as hyacinths, so far as regards 
covering for a few weeks, to induce the production of roots. 
The plants should — when taken from the bed — be gradually 
brought forward to the light, a temperature of from 45deg. 


/■z-^,' -^ 

Fio. 125.— Tulip Gesneriana 
(Grand Pied). 


Fig. 126.— Tulip Ttjecica. 

to 60deg. afforded, and the supply of root moisture regulated 
according to the growth. I'lenty of light is absolutely 
necessary, and a somewhat moist atmosphere is an advan- 
tage, as dryness conduces to the more rapid production of 
the green fly, which is particularly partial to these plants. 
The several batches must be introduced at different times, so 
as to obtain a continuance of bloom. Great care must be 

338 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

taken to destroy — or rather to prevent — fly, and we have 
found Fowler's Insecticide more advantageous to nse than 
tobacco or fumigation. Another very good plan is to prepare 
some boxes in the same manner as the pots, and to place the 
bulbs in them about a couple of inches asunder, just covering 
■with soil. These boxes, placed in a warm house close to the 
glass, and kept well supplied with water, give a large quantity 
cf dwarf plants for various decorative purposes, especially for 
vase decoration and for the ornamentation of the dinner table. 

In the cold house the cultivation of the Tulip is very simple : 
Pot the bulbs, and stand them back till they commence growth, 
when they should have the full benefit of both light and air, and 
the same rules as to watering, as given above, should be applied. 

For very full instructions for Tulip growing we would refer 
our readers to Mr. Fish's book on " Bulbs and Bulb Culture." * 

Propagated by division of the bulbs, which increase 

There are many species of the Tulipa, but T. Gesneriana is 
the fruitful parent of most of our garden varieties, of which 
Figs. 123, 124, and 125 show choice examples. The Parrot 
Tulip {T. Turcica, Fig. 126) is a remarkable species, with large 
and curious flowers composed of irregular wavy petals from 
Sin. to Sin. long. 

For sorts for pot culture the following are most suitable ; 
their earliness is given approximately, in the order in which 
they stand : Singles : Due Yan Thol, cinnabar red, orange 
border ; Due Yan Thol, in varieties of rose blush, scarlet, white 
and yellow ; Artis, bronze, crimson ; Alida Maria, tipped and 
flaked cerise, white ground ; Canary Bird, rich yellow ; Bride of 
Haarlem, white, bordered with crimson ; Feu d' Angers, scarlet ; 

* " Bulbs and Bulb Culture : being Descriptions both Historical and Botanical 
of the Principal Bulbs and Bulbous Plants Grown in this Country and their Cliief 
Varieties ; with Full and Practical Instructions for their Successful Cultivation 
both In and Out of Doors." By D. T. Fish. Part I.— Snowdrop, Bulbocodium, 
Sternbergia, Crocus, Colchicum, Tulip, and Hyacinth. Part 11. — Anemone, Nar- 
cissus, and the Lily. Part III. — Gladiolus, Lachenalia, Cyclamen, Kanunculus, 
nnd Scilla or Squill (Star Hyacinth). Part IV. — Ixias, Sparaxis, Tritonias, and 
Babianas; Iris, Tiger Iris; Schizostylis Coccinea; and the Dahlia. Part V. — 
Gloxinias, Pancratium, Tuberose, Fritillaria, Alstrcemerias, Triteleia Uniflora, 
Agapanthus Umbellatus, Muscari (Musk or Grape Hyacinth), Paeonia, Oxalis, and 
Amaryllis. Price Is. each, London : L. Upcott Gill, 170, Strand, W.C. 

Dictionary of Plants. 339 

Golden Prince, golden yellow; La Belle Alliance, bronze scarlet; 
Queen Victoria, pure white; Silver Standard, white striped 
cerise-crimson ; Yemiilion Brilliant, scarlet. Doubles : Tonr- 
nesol, scarlet and yellow, and the yellow variety ; Due Yan 
Thol, red, edged pale yellow; Gloria Solis, bronze crimson, 
orange border ; La Candeur, good clear white ; Rex Rubrorum, 
bright scarlet ; and Agnes, a bright scarlet dwarf. 

Tussilago. — Hardy, herbaceous, soft-wooded plant. Grown 
for its foliage. Minimum temperature (in pots), 36deg. The 
variegated Coltsfoot {T. Farfara foliis variegatis) is handsome, 
producing fine roundish leaves, beautifully margined with a band 
of rich creamy white. The flowers are yellow, and of no parti- 
cular beauty or interest, and, in fact, are not nearly so ornamental 
as the dandelion. The leaves, which are from four to six inches 
in diameter, lie flat on the surface of the pot or soil, and do not 
often rise more than from four to six inches above the level. As 
a low plant for the front of stages, or of a group of plants, this 
is one of the best, as it is both conspicuous and ornamental. 
The cultui'e is very easy; pot each crown in a well-drained 
4in. pot, using a rich sandy compost, and treat in the manner 
described for polygonatum. If the plants are not required to 
remain in the house throughout the whole season, they may be 
used outdoors, either as an edging plant, for which purpose 
they are well suited, or for placing in clumps of three or 
four in the borders. The other Tussilagos are practically 
useless for all but a botanical collection. 

Propagated by division in spring, as the plant commences to 
make fresh growth. 

340 Greenhouse Managejnent for Amateurs. 

ERBEXyTA. — Greenlioiise soft-wooded plant. 
Grown for its flowers. Minimum tempera- 
tui'e, 40deg. Verbenas are very useful 
both for bedding out and as pot plants, 
and it is doubtful if there are any others 
which will serve the same purposes. For 
ordinary border use, those raised from seed are 
as good as any, but, for pot culture, they are not of 
much value, unless, indeed, an unusually good strain 
is obtained. The raising of Verbenas from seeds is a very easy 
matter — in fact, as easy as raising any half-hardy annual; but, as 
we said before, those raised in this manner will not do for pot work. 
To obtain plants from seeds, these should be sown in pots 
of fairly rich sandy soil, and but slightly covered. As soon 
as large enough, the plants should be shifted into small 60-sized 
pots, in which they may remain until planting time, if necessary, 
but, where time and space allow, they may be transferred to 3ia. 
pots with advantage, and, with one pinching, will become very 
useful for bedding. It is, of course, quite possible that some- 
thing good may be obtained by this method, although the 
probability is but small, but, if a good plant be produced, it 
should of course be saved and propagated. 

In raising Verbenas from cuttings no trouble need be 
experienced, but, as it is necessary to have good plants from 
which to take the cuttings, we will give the culture from the 
commencement. In August a few cuttings should be struck 
and planted on a border facing the south, and, at the end of 
September, these should be carefally taken up and potted. 
About the second week in October the plants should be stored 
away in a dry pit or frame from which frost is excluded, and 
care should be taken that they be kept dormant, and as dry 
as can be allowed consistently with keeping them alive. If 
mildew should appear, then they should be liberally dusted 
over with flowers of sulphur; but, if care be taken, this will 
not be necessary. About February these old plants should be 
placed in heat to afford cuttings, and, as soon as good shoots are- 

Dictionary of Plants, 341 

formed, they sliould be taken off and inserted thickly in ^vell- 
di*ained pans of very sandy soil, which should be kept rather 
moist and in a brisk bottom heat. 

Another good plan to strike soft-wooded cuttings of this 
description is to half fill some pots with fine crocks, and on 
these place a thin layer of fibrous material to prevent the soil 
washing down amongst the drainage. Then fill the pots to 
within an inch of the top rich sandy soil, and on this 
place half-an-inch of clean-washed sharp silver sand. The pots 
should then be well watered through a fine-rosed watering can, 
and, as soon as the superfluous water has drained off, the 
cuttings should be inserted, with just a sprinkle of water to fix 
them in position. The pots should then be stood in a brisk 
bottom heat, and, in a fortnight, they will be ready to pot off. 

In potting Yerbenas, a compost of three parts rich fibrous 
maiden loam, one part leaf soil, and one part rotten cow manure 
and sharp sand, should be used, and the soil should be in good 
working order. Pot moderately fiiTQ, and replace the plants 
in heat for a fortnight, when they may be gradually hardened 
off; and should there be time they may be transferred to 
Sin. i^ots as soon as the roots kiss the sides. If the plants 
are for pot work they should be put into Sin. pots when well 
rooted, but only the strongest plants chosen for the purpose. 
These should be treated as above until slightly hardened, and 
should then be transferred to a position near the glass in a 
light airy gi'eenhouse. As soon as the pots are fairly filled 
with roots transfer the plants to Gin. pote, well drained and 
clean, and neatly stake them out. The shoots should be five 
or six in number, unless cut bloom for exhibition is required, 
and then three will be plenty. As the pots become filled with 
roots, apply weak liquid manure about twice a week, but in no 
case should sulphate of ammonia be used, or the foliage will 
suffer. "When the trusses show colour remove the plants to 
a cooler position, as they will then last a long while, more 
especially if a little shade from bright hot sun be given. A 
dry (but not arid) atmosphere must also be maintained. These 
pot plants come in excellently well for table decoration, and, in 
fact, are as useful as any dwarf flowering plant grown. 

342 Greenhouse Manageynent for Amateurs. 

Should fly or spider put in an appearance — and the latter 
will not come if the plants are properly grown — fumigation 
must at once be resorted to. Generally about three fumi- 
gations are required during the season. Mildew, if it does 
appear, should be kept under by di'edgings of flowers of 

F. venosa, which is hardy on most fairly light soils, should 
be raised from either seeds or cuttings, but preferably from 

Propagated by cuttings, as described above. 

The following are good bedding varieties : Crimson King, 
dense brilliant crimson; Snowflake, pure white; Purple King, 
purple ; Lord Raglan, magenta, scarlet ; Scarlet Defiance, scar- 
let; Geant des Batailles, lurid crimson, maroon eye; Firefly, 
pink, crimson eye; La Grande Boule de Neige, fine white; 
Ladybird, flesh, purple eye; Jupiter, rich plum; Rev. S. R. 
Hole, pale lilac, tinted crimson. For pots, the following are 
good, but to secure good plants for exhibition it is necessary 
to select from a good stock when in bloom, as fresh varieties 
are continually being added : Apollo, blush ; King of Lilacs, 
lavender blue ; Geant des Batailles, lui-id crimson, maroon eye ; 
Foxhunter, scarlet, white eye ; Rev. S. R. Hole, pale lilac, tinted 
crimson ; Princess of Wales, pink and white striped ; Prince of 
Wales, scarlet; Richard Dean, purple, fine white eye; Thomas 
Harris, mulberry, white eye; Carnation, white and crimson 
striped ; Bismarck, dark maroon, white eye ; Blue Boy, blue ; 
Anatole Leovy, dark purple, shaded maroon, white eye; aoid 
Basilisk, scarlet. 

Veronica. — Half-hardy hard-wooded shrub. Grown for 
its flowers. Minimum temperature, 35deg. The shrubby 
Veronicas, though not actually greenhouse plants, are yet 
very ornamental, and in the North of England and on cold 
wet soils well repay house room. But some of the varieties 
are not hardy even so far south as London; and they con- 
sequently require indoor shelter, and only stand out during 
the summer. We have usually grown these in a compost of 
two-thirds loam and one part leaf soil, with enough shai-p 

Dictionary of Plants. 343 

sand to maintain tlie necessary porosity of tlie soil. The 
flowers, produced from small bushes, take the form of axillary 
spikes, from lin. to 4in. in length, and as the colours vary 
from white through pink to blue, they are very ornamental. 
The leaves are generally ovate, opposite, and closely cover the 
erect stems, and being from lin. to 2in. in length, allow the 
spikes of bloom to show well. Cuttings should be struck in 
January and planted out in the open in May. Pinch them 
back once or twice to rhake them bushy, and in October take 
them up with a good ball of earth attached, and pot them 
carefully. The old plants may be cut back and planted out of 
doors, and afterwards treated the same as young ones. 

Propagated from cuttings struck in a warm greenhouse in 
spring, or in a cold frame in August and September. 

For sorts select from Y. Andersonii, blue ; V. A. fol. var., 
intense blue, attractive foliage; V. atropurpurea, rosy purple; V. 
angustifolia alba, pure white ; V. decussata, dwarf blue ; V. d. 
albtty dwai-f white ; Gloire de Lyon, bright red ; V. imperialis^ 
amaranth red ; V. lobeliodes, fine blue ; V. multijloruin, rosy 
carmine ; F. speciosa, blue, cream coloured variegation ; Mile. 
Claudine Yillermoz, indigo blue; Creme et violet, flesh pink, 
stamens violet; Blue Gem, light blue, very dwarf and free; 
Marie Antoinette, pink ; and V. rosea alba, rose. 

Vibnrnuin. — Hardy hard -wooded shrub. Grown for its 
flowers. Minimum temperature (in pots), 36deg. Viburnum 
tinus (Fig. 127) — the Laurestinus — is good if treated in the 
proper manner. The best plan is to take up plants thickly 
set with bloom buds, about the end of September or early in 
October, pot carefully in sandy loam, and after watermg 
thoroughly, place in a cold frame or vinery at rest where 
air can be freely admitted, and they will bloom freely at 
least a fortnight earlier than those outdoors. A temperature 
of about 46deg. will forward them somewhat, but a forcing heat 
should be avoided. Treat the same as rhododendrons after 

Propagated by cuttings inserted in sandy soil in cold frames 
as soon as the wood is ripe, or by layers. It is, however, not 

344 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

expedient to propagate this shrub, as it needs much ground to 
get good blooming plants, and they can be purchased very cheaply. 

Violet. — Hardy soft-wooded plant. Grown for its flowers. 
Minimum temperature (in pots), 36deg. In contradistinction to 
the bedding Yiolas, the Sweet-scented Yiolet (F. odorata, vars.) 
is most useful on account of its scent. When properly grown 
the plants are but little trouble, but they are less trouble 

Fig. 127.— Viburnum Tinus, 

in the cold house than when kept in the ordinary green- 
house. In the first place, it is necessary to select stout firm 
runners in April or May, but preferably in April, and to place 
them under handlights on a moist shady border. Wiry runners, 
or those produced from pot plants, are practically useless, and 
therefore much care is necessary in the selection of the plants 
that supply the runners, as also in that of the runners 
themselves. When the plants are rooted they should be placed 

Dictionary of Plants. 345 

out about six or eiglit inclies asunder, according to the habit 
of growth. Take care that the soil of which the border is 
composed be of a rich light character, and that it face noi-th 
or north-east, and be kept moist. In preparing the border, deep 
digging is of great importance, as a deeply-dug soil conduces 
greatly to the well-being of the plants. Careful attention as 
regards watering, &c., is also necessary, and by the end of Sep- 
tember fine plants for potting will be obtained. These should 
be carefully taken up with a good ball of earth adhering to. 
the roots, and potted into 4in. or Gin. pots, according to the 
size of the plants, and plenty of di-ainage should be afforded. 
The pots should receive a good soaking of water, and be placed in 
a shaded frame facing the north for a few days, until the plants 
have recovered from the check they received when shifted. 
Thence the plants may be removed to a light airy shelf in a 
greenhouse, kept at a temperature of about 45deg., where, if 
due attention be paid to watering, aeration, and the destruction 
of insects, they will bloom nearly the whole winter and spring. 

In the cold house, all that will be found necessary is to prevent 
the pots becoming frozen, and to pay attention to the above 
points of culture, of course preparing the plants as previously 
described. As a rule, the single varieties are best for pot culture, 
but if massive blooms are. desired the double kinds are preferable. 

Propagated by rooted runners as described above. 

Of sorts, the common White Yiolet, Viola odorata alba, is 
perhaps the sweetest ; and The Czar, a fine long-stemmed blue, 
is the best scented blue, but the whole of the following are 
good: V. odorata, \)\\1Q\ V. odorata alba, v^hite; V. 0. a. fl. pi., 
double white ; V. suavis (Russian), blue ; V. s. alba, white ; 
V. s. fi. pL, blue; and the varieties of V. suavis — Devoniensis, 
blue ; The King, blue ; The Queen, white ; and Marie Louise, 
white. V. 0. Neapolitana, pale blue, is good ; and probably the 
new double white Belle de Chatenay will be useful for the 
same purpose as the above, and, from blooms we have seen, we 
consider it to be one of the best of Violets, provided it be 
of a sufficiently floriferous habit. 

Violet, Dog's Tooth.— See "Erythronium." 

34^ Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

'EIGELIA. — Hardy tar d - wooded slirub. 
Grown for its flowers. Minimiim tem- 
perature, 36deg. W. 
rosea (Fig. 128) is a 
very useful plant for 
tlie cold house, either 
as a bush or climber, but it 
does better planted out than 
as a pot plant. It does well 

in a compost of sandy loam slightly en- 
riched with either leaf soil or thoroughly 

decayed manure. The plants should be 

grown out of doors during the summer, 

and as soon as frost comes should be 

housed, and with ordinary attention will 

bloom well in April and May. The blooms 

are very useful for both bouquets and 

table decoration, the purity of the colour 

being such as to render them very con- 
spicuous. The plants do not force well 

or thrive in a high temperature, but they 

do excellently well in a cool or cold house. 

If rather cramped at the roots, so much 

the better do they bloom, and either in 

pots or borders this should not be lost 

sight of. The same general treatment 

applies as to other hardy deciduous plants, 

aeration, &c., having to be seen to in the 

ordinary manner. 

Propagated by division of the rooted 

shoots or suckers from the base, by layers, 

and by cuttings inserted in cold frames 

in autumn. -Fw. 128.— Weigelia Eosea. 

Dictionary of Plants. 


ANTHOCERAS. — HaK - hardy hard- 
wooded shrub. Grown for its flowers. 
Minimum temperature, 36deg. Xanthoceras 
Sorhifolia is of recent introduction, and 
will probably prove what it is stated to 
be — hardy; but at the same time we 
doubt if it be hardy throughout the whole of 
England and Scotland. The flowers are white, 
with a flesh tint, and are produced at the same 
time that the leaves unfold ; they are disposed in racemes, 
which attain a length of from Tin. to Sin. For soil, use fibrous 
loam and sand, and treat the same as nearly hardy subjects 
— veronicas, for instance. 


vii.-IHonthly (Calendar. 

S perhaps many o£ our readers •will find a 
calendar of operations useful, we give 
it for one year, so tliat this book may 
be complete in respect of managing a 
greenhouse such as we generally find 
in the hands of amateurs. We com- 
mence with August, as that month 
perhaps marks the commencement of 
general greenhouse work, and autumn 
is certainly the most convenient season 
for starting a greenhouse. Propagat- 
ing soft-wooded plants of various 
kinds, the completion of the hardening- 
ofE process on hard-wooded plants, 
and various other circumstances, combine to 
make it the commencement of the season, 
as it were, so that by starting with August 
we shall keep the calendar in its proper order. 
We shall endeavour to make the hints we give 
here applicable to all houses that come under the head of 
greenhouses; but, of course, stove and forcing houses will be 
excluded, as they do not come within the scope of our present 

As, however, it is not possible to give directions for every 
greenhouse, whatever its shape or position, our readers will have 

Monthly Calendar. 349 

to adapt the directions as to management in such a manner as 
may meet their particular requirements ; and therefore we only 
give genera] descriptions of management here. The selection of 
subjects must also be left to the individual tastes of the owners, 
as the same plants do not suit everyone alike. One word of 
advice we will, however, give, and that is, do not have too large 
an assortment of plants, and do not try to grow such as 
require much heat in a house not suited to them. It is far 
preferable to grow a few suitable plants well, and have a good 
display from them, than to attempt too much and fail with 
the whole. 

August. — The first point to be considered this month is the 
propagation of bedding plants of various descriptions, as the 
season has advanced quite far enough for the purpose. The modes 
of propagation having been before described, it is not necessary 
to enter into the matter further here, but we will give a few 
general hints that may be useful. For the majority of plants 
the best pots in which to strike cuttings are those that are 
rather flat for their height, and which are about six inches in 
diameter ; when filled one-third or half full of crocks, these are 
the most useful so far as size is concerned. We prefer round 
pots in the ordinary greenhouse, although, as a matter of course, 
some space is lost by their use ; but the advantages gained more 
than counterbalance the loss of space sustained, as the freer 
circulation of air and the more equable temperature obtained 
by this method well repay the loss of numbers in the plants, 
for they prevent loss through damping or fogging, as it is 
called. Of course, so far as the saving of room is concerned, 
square seed pans, or boxes made for the purpose of wintering 
cuttings, are best ; but, in the hands of the amateiu*, these tend 
to embarrass rather than assist, as the quantity of plants lost 
by fogging is great. The method of heating is also a great 
consideration, as, in the majority of houses erected, the hot 
water or other heating apparatus is not fitted to be used with 
a large quantity of plants growing in boxes. 

Cuttings of the majority of half-hardy bedding plants will 
root freely in the open air ; but if a frame or two are empty, it 

35*^ Greenhouse Manage?nent for Amateurs. 

is a good plan to stand tlie pots in these, as tlien shelter from 
excessive rains can be provided. In no case is it wise to allow 
too great a quantity of water in striking cuttings intended to 
stand througli the dull, damp days of winter, as plants that 
are full of sappy growth are very liable to fog off ; it is, however, 
necessary that suffi^cient moisture be allowed, or the cuttings 
will shrivel up instead of rooting. 

The soil in which cuttings are placed should also have some 
share of attention, lest some undesirable results should foUow. 
Great care must be taken that worms, woodlice, and maggots, 
&c., are most conspicuously absent, and that there are no 
chips of wood, half -rotten leaves, or other rubbish present 
that may be likely to cause fungoid growth. For this reason, 
claret and other boxes made of poplar are most unsuitable for 
storing cuttings for the winter, because, as a rule, fungi of a 
most objectionable character, or rather the mycelium of the 
fungi, put in an appearance and destroy the cuttings. At 
least 25 per cent, more cuttings should be put in than the 
number of plants required, to allow for possible accidents. 

This month is a good time to thoroughly clean all houses 
intended for the reception of plants, and also to mend the 
glass, and re-putty, and, in many instances, re-paint the roofs, 
as drip will do more harm than cold. When dry, the paint 
should have a glossy or shiny appearance, but it should 
not be put on too thickly ; two thin coats are better than 
one thick one. The cleaning process should embrace all parts 
of the house, the stages should be washed down thoroughly, 
walls limewhited, flues cleaned out, water pipes freed from dirt 
and rust, valves and air pipes cleaned and put in thorough 
working order, and the furnace and boiler repaired. Another, 
•and important point, is to see that ventilators and sash 
lines are in really good order, and if the least doubt exists 
as to their strength, they should be at once replaced with new 
ones. In fact, it is necessary that the place be put in 
thorough repair in all parts, as a sash line breaking, or a pipe or 
flue fouling on a frosty night, will often destroy the majority of 
the plants in the house ; and, at the same time, a dirty house will 
produce such hosts of insects as to cause really serious damage. 

Monthly Calendar. 351 

Some of the earlier azaleas and camellias may now be got in, 
care being taken tbat tlie foliage is dry and that the pots are 
clear of sings and otlier obnoxious insects; but all the later 
stock must be kept out, with such protection from heavy rains 
as may be necessary. All hard-wooded stock must have as 
much air and exposure as their habit requires, but heavy rains 
must be kept off. The x>elargoniums cut down last month 
should now be shaken out, and re-potted into smaller pots. 
Chrysanthemums should be placed in their blooming pots, and 
should receive sufficient supplies of liquid manui'e. Cine- 
rarias should be divided and potted in small pots, and the 
young plants should have a shift, if required ; some seed may 
also be sown. Roman hyacinths and some other bulbs should 
be potted up, and all bulbs for early blooming should be kept in 
the dark for a few weeks, so that the roots may obtain firm 
hold of the soil ere the foliage starts. Annuals may in many 
cases be sown to stand the winter for early work, and a sandy 
friable soil should be chosen for the seed beds. They must also 
be transplanted before they become too large. 

Where vines or other roof climbers exist great care must be 
taken to keep them in a sound, healthy state, and free from 
insects and mildew, or the results will be serious to the plants 
that will soon have to be introduced into the house. In short, 
every means must be taken te keep the place in the most perfect 
order and the plants in the best condition, all details of tying, 
removing dead flowers, and other little items being most par- 
ticularly carried out. 

September. — This month is generally a very busy one so far 
as the greenhouse is concerned, as all arrears of work have to be 
got up, and a vast amount of fresh work to be done. Among 
other things is the continued propagation of bedding plants, and 
this must be carried out as briskly as possible, for if left until 
too late much trouble and risk will be incurred. As it is, some 
things will root more readily by having a gentle bottom heat 
applied to them. In fact, it is a good plan where soft-wooded 
plants only are grown, to put the tire on for a few nights when 
the plants are first put in ; but if there are vines or hard- wooded 

352 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

plants in the liouse, this cannot be done with impunity. In all 
cases a plentiful circulation of air must be maintained, and 
water must be given as found necessary; but it is especially 
necessary that too much be not given, or the plants will become 
sappy and unfit to stand the winter. The same rule applies to 
hard- wooded plants; enough water should be given, and no 
more, and the circulation" of air should be fully attended to. 
Great care must be taken that the drainage of the pots is 
perfect, and that both plants and pots are free from noxious 

The whole of the hard- wooded stock must be got into their 
winter quarters before the end of the month, the state of the 
weather being considered in determining when they shall be 
taken indoors. Great care must be taken that there are no 
worms in the pots, and that the drainage is perfect, or results 
the reverse of pleasant will ensue. Nor is it to be forgotten 
that the green slimy growth on the pots, which is not 
infrequently found in the case of pots not plunged in ashes, 
should be washed off carefully, and the pots allowed to dry ere 
being taken into the house. All plants liable to the attacks of 
scale should be carefully looked over to see that they are quite 
clear from this pest, and particular attention must be paid to 
searching for slugs, snails, and caterpillars, as they often do 
much damage. 

This is about the best time to purchase a stock of hard-wooded 
plants, where such purchase is required, and here some little 
skill will be found necessary. In the first place, it is requisite 
that the plants shall be well-grown young stock, and that they 
have been grown on in a proper manner without check, or they 
will not be of very much service. They should also be quite free 
from insects, and therefore a close examination is needed. 
If, however, the plants are bought at a good nursery, and a fair 
price paid, but little trouble need be anticipated on this account. 

In the general work much has to be done, and unless done at 
the proper time it will not be good for the plants. Primulas, 
calceolarias, and cinerarias require especial attention at this 
season, as also do other plants of a like nature. Particular 
attention is also necessary with those plants which are being 

Monthly Calendar. 353 

prepared for winter blooming, as a day's neglect often ruins 
the plants for the purpose for which they are intended. Any 
late Cape pelargoniums should be ripened off if the bloom is 
over, and then headed down. A good batch of cuttings should 
also be got in for use in summer, to succeed those potted off. 
Chrysanthemums may still be shifted into larger pots where it 
is considered necessary, or liquid manure may be applied regu- 
larly ; and in places where the room is limited this latter plan is 
best. Mignonette may be sown to stand the winter, but for this 
pui'pose it does best in frames. A batch of Dutch bulbs should 
be got in, and plants in pots, such as weigelas, which ought 
to have ceased growth, should be induced to ripen by partially 
withholding water, but enough should be given to keep them 
in proper condition. 

The aim of the gardener at this season should be to obtain a 
compact sturdy growth in all plants that are intended for 
winter blooming, and to avoid such treatment as will tend to 
have a reverse effect. Nothing is more injurious than to draw 
up the plants in a weak attenuated habit, as in such cases the 
bloom obtained is of the poorest, deficient both in quantity and 
substance, and should it be cut for bouquets or table decoration, 
it soon falls to pieces, and even if gummed, withers and becomes 
useless. Where good results are desired, a slow, steady, healthy 
growth should be maintained. 

Grapes should be ripened off as soon as possible, and cut and 
stored in a dry fruit room, or the moisture from the plants will 
soon make them decay. 

October. — It is advisable to continue introducing such soft- 
wooded plants as it may be desired to save during winter, 
and cuttings of geraniums and the like must be got in as 
soon as practicable, if m<jre of them are to be struck at this 
season. As a rule it will be found requisite to use a little bottom 
heat in striking these late cuttings, yet in many cases it 
pays to do them even as late as next month, but the early- 
struck plants where they are possible are best, as they cost 
less in striking, stand better through the winter, and bloom 
longer and form more useful plants in spring. Where very 

A A 

354 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

large quantities are required, and labour is limited, it frequently 
happens that time does not allow of a sufficient number being 
got in in due season, and therefore extraordinary methods will 
have to be adopted to obtain adequate stock. Old plants of 
zonal pelargoniums may be taken up, and cut in closely, as 
many as can be got in being put into 6in. pots, and these old 
stools will make a good lot of plants in the early part of 
the year, besides affording a good batch of , cuttings, which 
will strike readily in March. The tops which are cut off 
now will also afford good cuttings, which, as we mentioned 
before, will strike readily with a little bottom heat. All the 
bedding plants which it is desired to save should be taken 
up before they are injured by frost, and care should be taken 
that they are not kept too wet after potting. Cuttings of 
shrubby calceolarias may also be put in now, as well as next 
month, care being taken that they are not frosted or infested 
with green fly. Before these are put in, the frames should be 
carefully examined to see that they are free from slugs or 
snails. Where, from the dampness of the climate, or the 
severity of the weather, it is found that annuals do not 
stand the winter well out doors, they should now be pricked out 
in frames, and while air is freely given, too much moisture must 
be excluded. 

Hard-wooded plants should now be in a proper condition to 
stand the winter, and care must be taken not to get the pots 
water-logged, or the damage will be very great. Insects should 
be carefully looked for, and in no case should their presence on 
these subjects be passed by lightly. 

Pelargoniums must be induced to become dormant by Christ- 
mas, and plants requiring much the same treatment must occupy 
a similar position. As regards the care bestowed on them, it 
simplifies matters to a great extent to have plants requiring 
similar treatment close together, and also allows of a better dis- 
position of the plants in bloom in the house. Chrysanthemums 
will be thejpiece de resistance for the next six weeks or two months, 
and therefore it is desirable to arrange them to the greatest 
advantage, and also to pay as much attention as possible to pro- 
longing the time of blooming. Scarlet geraniums, and othej 

Monthly Calendar. 355 

plants, will, of coui'se, be making some sliow, but not to tbe 
extent of that afforded by tlie cliiysantliemums. Some of tbe 
bardy plants will assist in the display, and mignonette sliould 
be well in bloom, if the three varieties are properly grown. 
In a short time some of the earlier primulas and cinerarias will 
follow, and, if time and care is bestowed in the right direction, 
a fair amount of interesting blooming plants will now put forth 
their beauty. 

Successional batches of Dutch bulbs should be got in, and 
these should be kept in a dark place for a few weeks, as 
previously recommended. Where large plants are required 
primulas and cinerarias may have another shift ; but, after 4in. 
or 6in. pots are reached, unless the house is large, it is not well 
to pot on, as the plants do not show well in a small house if 
the pots are too large, and large pots cannot well be hidden 
on too upright a stage. Some more seeds of cineraria and 
calceolaria may be sown if very late plants are desired and 
the house is suitable for the purpose. 

Great care must be taken to keep down insects, and to 
remove all mildewed or rotten vegetable matter, as these evils 
cause much trouble during the damp winter months. A free 
circulation of air must be maintained, and a temperatui'e 
of about 45deg. kept up; but rain or thick fog must not be 
admitted into the house. 

"Where vines are ripe enough, they should be pruned, and 
the rods tied along the front plate of the house, so that as 
much light as possible may be admitted. Cleanliness also 
should be the order of the day. 

November. — This and the two succeeding months will be 
found the dullest part of the year for gardening matters, 
and therefore it is necessary that the greatest pains be taken 
with the glass structures in the garden. The good arrangement 
of the plants occupies a foremost place in the necessary work, 
for the plants should be re-arranged frequently, so that the 
interest in the house may be maintained. Fresh arrangement, 
and the introduction of all new subjects to prominent notice, 
tends to keep up the interest in the house or houses to a far 

AA 2 

356 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

greater extent tlian is often supposed, and therefore particular 
attention should be paid to this point. Cleanliness also is an 
important part of the work in this department. The destruction 
of insects and mildew, and the removal of all dead foliage and 
other matters which tend to cause fungoid growth, or disease 
to the plants, should be rigidly attended to, and, in short, the 
house should be kept clear from all that is not of legitimate 
use. No empty pots, heaps of paper, tying material, flower 
sticks or dthris, of any kind should ever be found about the 

Ventilation must be closely attended to, but in damp 
weather some caution is requisite in admitting air, as, unless 
there is enough fire heat to dry the atmosphere, many of 
the plants will damp off, and therefore much attention 
must be paid to this point. In thick fogs it is not advisable 
to open the house at all, particularly if there are plants 
in bloom inside, as fog exercises a most deleterious effect 
on the blooms, and with some subjects causes the petals to 
fall off. Too great a fire heat must not be kept up for the 
next two months, or the plants will draw, and become too 
weak and sappy; but enough heat must be maintained to 
keep the place sufficiently dry. This result is best attained 
by abundant ventilation and warmth enough for a tempera- 
ture of 40deg. to 45deg.; but, of course, consideration will 
have to be given to the class of plants grown and their 

The majority of plants will be at rest, but some will be bloom- 
ing pretty freely, chrysanthemums being in strong force. Some 
re-potting will be found needful, but except where really 
necessary it is not desirable to shift plants at this season. The 
last batch of Dutch bulbs should be got in, as well as some of the 
hardy plants that we have mentioned previously, but discretion 
must be used in the choice of subjects. In fact, this is the 
slackest time of the year, and, as a i-ule, it is not advisable to do 
more than is absolutely necessary. 

In some cases a root or two of rhubarb and a few pots of sea- 
kale can be brought in, and placed under the stage, and a very 
agreeable dish or two will be obtained with little trouble or 

Monthly Calendar. 357 

expense ; but too large a quantity should not be grown, as it 
tends to increase the dampness of the house. 

Hardy plants in the frames should have as much air as pos- 
sible, and be treated as hardy ; but frost and excessive rain must 
be excluded, as plants of all kinds can stand more cold when in 
a comparatively dry state than when saturated with moisture and 
making too sappy a growth. Yines in the house should be 
pruned as soon as ripe, and all the foliage, dead bark, and 
prunings should be burnt up out of the way. 

December.— Except in such cases as are mentioned under 
the separate heads in the Dictionary of Plants, the work this 
month is practically the same as last ; cleanliness and freedom 
from insects being most required. Care in ventilation and 
applying fire heat is also needed, but the rules have been given 
before. A further batch of hardy plants may be introduced. 
Practically, however, to the amateur work is at the minimum ; 
all that is necessary should have been done last month. 

January. — During the greater part of this month very little 
has to be done beyond the ordinary care of the plants; but 
towards the end of it propagation of soft-wooded subjects will 
demand attention, and the earlier the season the sooner will work 
in this direction commence. Before referring further to this 
matter we will take the earlier part of the month first. In the 
first place, it is necessary that due attention be paid to the 
individual plants composing the collection. All those which 
are showing bloom should be brought forward into the lightest 
and most prominent positions, while others may occupy posi- 
tions not so conspicuous, each plant, at the same time, being 
allowed as nearly as possible the position most suitable to 
it. The previous directions as to cleanliness about the plants 
and house still hold good; and in the case of the destruc- 
tion of insects, our remarks must be carefully attended to> as 
generally with the advent of the new year and brighter weather, 
the increase of these is very rapid, particularly of aphides, and 
perhaps they are the worst pests there are to contend with. 
How to destroy them has been previously described. Great 

358 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

care is also necessary in watering, as too little or too mucli 
water is not calculated to keep the plants in the greatest 
health. A happy medium will have to be chosen, and this 
can only be learned by careful attention to the requirements 
and natui'e of the plants, and no amount of book knowledge 
will ever teach this part of the work of the greenhouse. The 
heat of the house should also be kept at some point between 
40deg. and SOdeg., according to the class of plants grown, but 
the temperature should not be such as to induce them to 
make premature and weakly growth. "Ventilation must also 
be carefully attended to, as before explained, but, of course, 
in no case may a current of frosty air be carried over tender 
plants or plants in bloom. Hardy subjects require the same 
treatment as previously described, and, except in cases 
mentioned further back, they should not be induced to make 
any active growth yet. 

In bad weather the preparation of the various soils and 
composts, getting ready a good store of crocks and labels, 
pot washing, and other necessary work, should be attended 
to, and everything got in readiness for active work so soon 
as it commences, it being sheer waste of time to have these 
things to attend to when they are actually required. Good 
heaps of compost, as well as the other necessary articles for 
potting, should be kept under cover, and then they are always 
to hand when wanted. Tools of all kinds should be looked over, 
and all other odd work about the place should be done. 

Towards the end of the month, old plants of fuchsias, 
heliotropes, lobelias, lantanas, verbenas, &c., should be put 
into a gentle bottom heat to induce them to throw up cuttings, 
for which, again, a gentle bottom heat should be used to 
make them strike freely. Some seeds can be sown towards 
the end of the month, but of course due attention will 
have to be paid to the season, as the earlier this is the 
earlier will growth commence. Some cinerarias may be once 
again repotted, if extra large plants are required, and the 
young stuff must be brought forward as found necessary, but 
information on such points has been given in its proper place. 
More hardy ' plants and shinibs may be brought in to ensure 

Monthly Calendar. 359 

a further supply of bloom, and hyacinths, &c., showing bloom 
should have a warm light position. 

PelDniary. — This month is generally a very busy one in 
the greenhouse, and, in fact, it will be found difficult to keep 
pace with the work where large quantities of bedding plants 
have to be grown. Foremost comes the preparation of the 
means for supplying bottom heat, and unless regular pro- 
pagating frames are at hand, it is well to use a good 
steady hotbed. The heat required is not very high, but at 
the same time should be lasting. We give our method of 
making beds for this purpose. 

Let there be a sufficient supply of leaves from hard-wooded 
trees or plants, and good horse manure that has been shaken 
out to a moderate shortness. These materials can either be 
shaken together or kept separate, but, if well made, the bed 
will be practically as lasting whichever process is followed. 
Tuni and shake the materials about twice, so that a proper 
state of moisture shall be attained, and should the materials 
appear too dry apply some water, but it is important that they 
should not be too wet, or a sudden violent heat will result, 
and the bed will be cold in a few days. Let the bed be 
about 3ft. wider and longer than the frame to cover it, and 
put it together in small forkfuls, well shaking it about, and 
treading firmly as the work proceeds. When finished, the 
bed should be about 2^ft. high in front and 6in. or 9in. higher 
at the back, and should be 18in. wider than, the frame on all 
sides; but if in a brick pit of course this will not be the 
case. Instead of having the materials mixed together, a 
layer of manure and a layer of leaves alternately may be 
used, in which case the leaves should be in layers about Sin. 
thick, and the manure treble the thickness, care being taken 
that the bottom layer is manure and the top one leaves. When 
the frame is put on, put inside about a couple of inches of 
soil, ashes, or sawdust to keep down any rank steam or gases 
that may be emitted by the heating materials, and cover the 
outsides of the frame, or rather the material that projects 
beyond the frame, with boards, long litter, or other medium 

360 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

to keep off rain, as to get the outsides soaked witli wet means 
a great diminution of tlie lieat, besides the removal of a large 
quantity of the manurial value after the "bed is cold. After 
about three days the bed "will be in good fettle for the purposes 
desired, and the pots of cuttings may be placed in it ; but it is 
necessary that just a chink, say of the thickness of a penny 
piece, at the back of the frame be left open, so that superfluous 
steam may escape, or it will condense on the foliage of the 
plants, and cause them to fog off. Great care must be taken 
that the covering of ashes or other material is not broken, as, 
should it be, the rank steam from the bed will escape, and 
cause very undesirable results. As well as for striking 
cuttings of the various bedding plants, this bed will be 
found useful for many purposes, starting seeds of lobelia, 
perilla, and other subjects, starting dahlia roots, and work 
of a like nature, together with many things that we have 
not space to enumerate. As to the varieties of plants to 
be struck now, we must refer our readers to the various 
articles on the subjects in view. "Where cuttings are not 
sufficiently numerous the old plants should be placed in heat 
as advised last month, and as a rule this will have the desired 

Soft -wooded plants generally will require attention, but 
there is not so much to be done in the way of re-potting, 
&c., as there wiU be next month, especially if the season is 
late, as the dull weather rather retards the plants, and it is 
not advisable to act too much against Nature. It is, however, 
a good plan to select a few of the best fuchsias, petunias, 
zonal pelargoniums, &c., and give them a good shift, so as 
to obtain large plants for the various uses for which they 
are so often required. Cape pelargoniums should be trained, 
and in some instances re-potted, and care must be taken that 
the foliage is dry before the sun reaches it, or the leaves will 
be scalded or spotted. A good batch of cuttings should be got 
in for autumn blooming. Continue to re-pot calceolarias as 
they fill their pots with roots. If necessary, more seed may 
be sown; but of course this must be left to the judgment of 
the grower. 

Monthly Calendar. 361 

Most of tlie hard-wooded plants are now making growth 
rapidly — that is, if the season is early — necessitating careful 
looking over, and, in some cases, top-dressing ; and young plants 
that are growing forward for specimens should be re-potted 
where necessary. These latter must also be very carefully 
attended to in point of training, &c., as the futui*e appear- 
ance of the plants is dependent on receiving this while 
young. The foliage must also be kept clean, and a rigid 
destruction of all insects must be carried out. As the house 
will now be getting gay with the display of bloom from the 
various subjects, it will be found more difficult to keep insects 
under, and fumigation will have to be done outside in a 
place provided for the purpose, as inside the smoke would 
destroy the bloom. 

More hardy subjects can be introduced from time to time, 
to keep up a good display, and nothing more will be necessary 
than to give the ordinary treatment afforded to the other 
occupants of the house. Hardy annuals, such as nemophila, 
collinsia, and similar subjects, shoTild be potted off carefully 
in 4in. or Gin. pots, according to their various habits, and 
should be replaced in the frame, care being taken that insects 
are kept under. 

Great care must also be taken to afford good ventilation 
to the house, and that the foliage of the plants is dry before 
the sun reaches it, or burnt or scalded leaves will result. 

March. — If anything, the work this month is even more 
important than last, and the same amount of care must be 
given ; but the results will be more marked, and the show of 
bloom will be largely increased. It is also very probable that 
the stock of green fly will be continually increased, and as 
the difficulties attending fumigation at this season are very 
great, recourse must be had to some insecticide, such as 
Fowler's, or Pooley's tobacco powder, either of which is very 
effective if properly applied. Slugs and snails must also be 
sharply looked after, as should also woodlice, as these do 
much harm, especially among ferns and other plants of a 
similar nature. Staking and tying out the various plants, 

362 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

and removing dead leaves, must now be closely looked to, 
and it is also desirable that dead blooms should be removed 
ere they become too much decayed, as it is easier to intro- 
duce the genns of mildew into the house than it is to get 
rid of them. Ventilation, too, should be carefully attended 
to, especially where a fire is kept going, as a close, moist 
atmosphere at this season means plenty of mildew and insects. 
A free circulation of air is absolutely necessary, and must 
be varied according to the temperature outside, so that no 
blasts of cold air pass over the plants, especially in frosty 
weather. At the same time, air must be admitted sufficiently 
early to dry the foliage, for the reasons stated in last month's 

The propagation of bedding plants of all kinds should be 
vigorously proceeded with, and as soon as rooted the plants 
should be shifted into small pots, and carefully hardened 
ofE to a certain extent to fit them for the greenhouse. All 
the autumn stores should be at once potted off if not already 
done, and, in fact, the work of propagating and preparing 
soft-wooded stock should be pushed on as quickly as possible. 
And here let us point out a wi-inkle in growing young soft- 
wooded stuff : always use plenty of sharp silver sand, and do not 
pot too firmly, as the roots, being very tender, do not push 
very freely in heavy soil, and hard potting tends to break them 
off. It is also a good plan to retain as much soil as possible 
round the roots, as it protects them during potting, and also 
affords a means of the plants obtaining the necessary moisture 
and nourishment without receiving a violent check. Cuttings 
of dahlias and similar plants should be struck forthwith, and 
when rooted, potted off and placed in heat until the roots have 
taken firm hold of their new quarters. Where room is scarce, 
towards the end of the month, such things as scarlet pelar- 
goniums, &c., can be placed in pits outside, provided frost and 
damp can be kept at bay. Many things that are nearly hardy 
can also be transferred to the frames at this season, and the 
space they occupied in the house may be profitably used for 
other subjects. 
Hard-wooded plants will require increased attention, and 

Monthly Calendar^ 363 

all yoiing stock will liave to be frequently looked to in respect 
of training and the like. As, however, this matter has 
been fully treated, no further remark is necessary, except 
that the plants should be kept quite free, both from dirt and 

In the cold frames things will be requiring attention 
generally, and ^^erhaps the most important is the proper treat- 
ment of the plants. Watering, ventilation, and the destruction 
of insects are all important matters, and after these comes the 
re-potting of those plants which require it. Many plants will 
have to be shifted into their blooming pots ; and calceolarias, 
picotees, carnations, &c., all require this to be done now. 
Training the various plants as found necessary, and potting off 
cuttings, will also fonn pai-t of the work. Nor must the sowing 
of the various half-hardy annuals, &c., be forgotten, as they 
make a grand display if treated properly. Indeed, at this 
time the greatest efforts have to be made to supply the plants 
that are required for the decoration of both flower garden and 
greenhouse at a later season. 

April. — Arrears of work in the preparation of bedding 
plants must be made up forthwith, or, in many cases, they 
will not be large enough for any really decorative use. There 
is no reason for repeating our directions about this part of the 
work, as it is practically the same as that in previous months, 
except that a very great many of the plants can be propa- 
gated without fire heat, although those thus obtained will be 
late. The whole of the stock of zonal pelargoniums, and 
other nearly hardy plants of a like nature, should be in 
the frames, and, where necessary, should be re-potted; but 
unless extra large growths are required, or they are to 
stand in pots, Sin. pots are large enough for the ordinary 
run of bedding plants. Great care must be taken in destroy- 
ing insects, as they do a greater amount of mischief as the 
weather becomes warmer, particularly in the case of slugs 
and snails, which, if left unmolested, will soon defoliate the 
whole of the plants in a large frame, especially those of a soft, 
succulent nature. Where red spider or thrips are prevalent 

364 G^'eenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

in the season, care should be taken that they are destroyed 
as soon as they appear, for " a stitch in time saves nine." 

Hard-wooded and other plants will now be in full bloom, and 
great care must be taken that no drip falls on the flowers, 
neither must too damp an atmosphere be maintained, so that 
water condenses on the blossoms or foliage. This would do 
much harm to the appearance of the plants, but more par- 
ticularly if the sun reached them ere the damp was dispelled, 
as in such case they become spotted and scalded, and very 
unsightly. To this end it is advisable to open the top lights 
of the house early in the morning, not later than seven 
o'clock, and to give a thorough current of air a little later 
according to the weather, and whether fire heat is or is not 
employed. Anyway, it is necessary that the foliage be dry 
before the sun reaches it. 

The arrangement of the plants and training of roof climbers, 
&c., are in themselves very important portions of the work in 
this department, and must have especial attention paid them. 
On the manner in which these are done very much depends, 
the appearance of the house at this season being one of its chief 
attractions ; and it is generally admitted that, however fine the 
specimens may be individually, unless they be well arranged, 
the effect they produce is but small. 

In the frames there is still plenty to be done, many plants 
requiring to be re-potted, and many things to be trained out 
in the way they should go, rather tban tbat which they desire. 
Various subjects will require liquid manure, and others top 
dressing, but for these items we must refer our readers to past 
directions. Cuttings of various plants must be got in, and in 
potting these a goodly quantity of sand must be used, both 
before and after they are rooted. Plenty of air must now be 
given, and insects must be kept at bay by the use of insecticides. 

Yines must have great attention paid them where they are 
used instead of other roof plants ; and it is scarcely needful to 
remark that they must not obstruct too much light, or the other 
plants will suffer.* 

• For treatment of vines see " Vine Culture for Amateurs." London : L. Upcott 
Gill, 170, Strand; price Is. 

Monthly Calendar. 365 

May. — All tlie bedding plants should now be out of doors, 
and tlie house should be occupied by such as are to be 
employed for its decoration only. The propagation of those 
for outside work should have been finished, and only that 
of subjects for indoor decoration should be in hand. The 
stock of bedding plants should be thoroughly hardened off, 
and, to afford room for the more tender subjects, calceolarias 
and other nearly hardy stock and hardy annuals should be 
got into the beds and borders early in the month, if not 
done in April ; and at the end of it zonal pelargoniums, and 
other plants of a like degree of hardiness, should be got 
into their summer quarters. Some of the best of these, 
however, should be put by and potted on for varioas decora- 
tive purposes in pots; and these reserved plants should be 
carefully tended, as they come in very usefully for many 
places which would otherwise be bare. The more tender 
varieties may remain until next month, and the space that is 
obtained by placing the hardier kinds out can be occupied 
by them. 

The remarks already made about the destruction of insects, 
and the general cleanliness of both plants and the places 
they occupy, need not be repeated this month ; but, as a rule, 
these are just the points that the amateur neglects, and conse- 
quently he has more or less ill success with some of his 
plants, if not with all. 

Where it is desired that a few cucumbers should occupy the 
house or frames after the bedding plants are got out of the way, 
they should be sown at once on a brisk heat. Choose such as 
RoUison's Telegraph or Masters' Prolific, both of which are good 
and free bearers ; or, if preferred, plants may be purchased and 
put out at once. 

As during the next two months the greater part of the present 
occupants of the house will be got into the frames, it is desirable 
that the plants that are to occupy their places should be pushed 
forward ; and to this end fuchsias, balsams, celosias, begonias, 
lobelias, &c., should be got on so as to render the place as gay 
as possible during the time the other plants are out, although 
where there is a good garden the bareness of the house will not 

366 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs, 

mucli matter. At the same time, a well-furnished conservatory 
is a nice place to spend a* short time in dm*ing rain, or after the 
heat of the day is over. 

Besides such plants as we have mentioned, there are plenty 
of subjects which can be prepared in the frames, and brought 
into the conservatory to bloom, and these will, of necessity, 
occupy some time. Seeds of primula, cineraria, and a few 
other plants will have to be sown for early work ; and various 
other items only noted by the owner attended to. Training 
and re-potting various plants, and the application of liquid 
manure where necessary, will also occupy time, and altogether 
this is a busy month, although not so much so as the previous 

Yentilation must be carefully seen to, and while it is not 
altogether advisable to admit too much air on frosty mornings, 
still it is absolutely necessary that the foliage and bloom of the 
plants shall be quite diy ere the sun reaches them, or burnt and 
scalded foliage will greet the eyes, and in some cases the nose, 
of the amateur who allows this state of things to come about 
through neglect of the necessary precautions. 

Yines being now in full bloom should be gently tapped or 
shaken a little before noon each day, so that the pollen shall be 
well diffused and a good crop of fruit set, as it is a comparatively 
easy matter to thin out superfluous berries, while it is an 
impossibility to place in fresh ones where they may be deficient. 
The proper training of all roof climbers should be well attended 
to, and a good look-out kept for scale and other insects 
which often infest them. Red spider and thrips must be 
particularly looked after, as they spread very raj^idly in a 
dry atmosphere, but if care is taken they will not gain much 

June. — Early in the month, if the weather is at all propitious, 
the whole of the bedding plants will be got out, and the space 
thus left vacant will be required for the hard-wooded stock, 
which should now be transfeiTed to the frames. Some of the 
hard-wooded plants require to be kept in the house for the whole 
season, but such things as oranges, camellias, azaleas, &c., are 

Monthly Calendar. 367 

best out for part of the year. Tlie best plan is to prepare beds 
of coal ashes in wliicli to plunge tlie pots, as tbey are tben not so 
liable to suffer from di-ought, or sudden changes, as when stood 
on the ground, and, besides, worms will not penetrate through 
the sharp ashes. Under the hole in each pot a piece of slate or 
tile should be laid, as an additional safe- guard against the 
ingress of worms, as they do a vast amount of harm to the 
plants which they honour by their presence. Where it is 
necessary, plants should be re-potted, and some will be benefited 
by the application of clear liquid manure, but it is for the 
grower to decide which plants do, or do not, require artificial 
aid. In fact, its good or ill effects is an open question; and 
although we use it in many cases, still we consider that with 
hard- wooded plants it is far better to re-pot than to apply stimu- 
lants, as the effects produced by the latter are not really lasting. 
With large specimens the case is somewhat different, as it may 
not be desirable to give larger pots, and therefore stimulating 
manui-es are necessary to keep the plants in full vigour for some 
time ; but this artificial stimulus tells on the constitution of the 
plants, and sooner or later they are sure to die off. The plants 
must be protected from heavy rains, but should have all the 
exposure possible consistent with their well being. Due atten- 
tion will have to be paid to watering and keeping clear of insects, 
and also to training the young stock, and each plant should have 
sufiicient room in which to develop itself. 

In the house some care is requisite to keep the plants that 
occupy the places of the hard-wooded stock in good order, 
.and plenty of light is of primary importance to all things 
but ferns. Care must be taken that the foliage is not 
splashed when watering in mid-day, which will be necessary 
with some subjects which make a very gross growth. Ven- 
tilation must also be carefully attended to, the house being 
opened at six or half -past six every morning; in fact, air 
should be admitted all night, unless special reasons exist 
for the contrary. The necessity of staking the plants, keep- 
ing down insects, &c., is too evident to need more than a 
passing note. Permanent trees and climbers will, of course, 
require due attention in respect of watering, keeping clear 

368 Greenhouse Management for Amateurs. 

of insects, and other matters that will be readily seen, and, 
where requisite, the grosser shoots should be pinched back, 
so that the growth is equalised. 

The various plants that are coming on for autumn decoration 
must be re-potted and trained as may be necessary, and some 
cuttings of zonale pelargoniums and a few other subjects 
should be put in, so that in winter some good blooming 
plants shall be at hand. Primulas should be potted off, and 
more seeds sown. 

Yines and climbers must have a fair share of attention, 
not only in respect of training and the destruction of 
insects, but also as to a sufficiency of moisture, and in too 
many cases this latter point is neglected. Thinning grapes, 
where there are any, is also an important point at this time, 
and much skill and judgment are required in the operation, 
it being necessary that the berries should be left just thin 
enough to form a good bunch, but not over-thinned, as in 
the latter case the bunches will have by no means a pleasing 
appearance when placed on the table. 

July. — Propagation in many cases will now be commenced, 
choice geraniums and other good plants of coui'se taking 
precedence of others of less value ; but as many that are 
difficxdt to strike later on now strike readily, choice should also 
be made of these. Seeds of various plants may yet be sown, 
and those seedlings which are of sufficient size should be 
potted off, and older plants shifted on. The various plants 
which are being grown on for autumn and winter use should, 
also be shifted on as necessary, nor should any neglect be 
allowed to befall them. "Watering is a matter that needs 
especial attention, and previous remarks on this subject should 
be attended to. 

The plants for decorative purposes in the house must not 
be overlooked, and great care in watering, ventilation, &c., must 
be taken, especially with fine-foliaged kinds. Previous remarks 
as to drip and watering the foliage must be carefully attended 
to, and full ventilation must be given by seven o'clock in the 
morning at the latest, as after this hour any condensed 

Monthly Calejtdar. 369 

moisture on tlie foliage will not liave time to get away ere the 
STin may come on the plants with too severe force, and so 
cause serious disfiguration. In fact, some ventilation should 
be given through the night. The destruction of insects must 
be attended to with unremitting care, and the house must 
be kept in a generally clean and tidy condition, both for the 
sake of the plants and the comfort of the visitors. Where 
necessary liquid manure should be applied, but, as before ex- 
plained, its use should be chiefly on short-lived subjects, and 
not on those of more pei*manent natui-e. 

Hard-wooded plants should receive all necessary care and 
attention; but the work is very similar to that of last month, 
and need not, therefore, be detailed. The less so, because the 
treatment for individual plants has been already described. 
It should be such as will tend to cause a good sturdy growth 
of a floriferous nature, and to this end as much exposure as 
possible should be given consistent with the habit. The earlier 
forced plants should be ripened off without loss of time, so 
as to be ready to come into the house early next month. 
Care must be taken to keep all insects cleared off as soon as 
they appear, especially those which attack the foliage, as they 
detract so very much from the appearance. 

Yines and roof climbers will still require some attention 
in respect of training, &c. The final thinning should be given 
to grapes, and they should, after stoning, be well fed with 
liquid manure to cause them to grow apace, and become fine 
in the berry. 

Repairs should be done at this season, and the outsides of 
the houses, frames, &c., should receive a good coat of paint, 
as this saves both the woodwork and putty, besides keeping 
the place watertight. 

B B 

viii.-ITloNTHLY List of Plants in Bloom 
IN THE Greenhouse. 

be incomplete witliout a list of plants 
arranged according to their blooming 
periods; for, although the times at 
which the various kinds come into 
flower vary with the treatment given, 
yet, as a rule, they are sufficiently ap- 
proximate to aft'ord a pretty accurate 
idea as to the subjects needed for main- 
taining a continued display. Forced 
plants are necessary during some part 
of the year to keep up a full and 
proper show of colour ; but in Novem- 
ber and December the variety of flowers 
is smallest, and in these two months it is very difficult to get 
forced things well into bloom. Of course, some plants may 
be made to bloom out of season, and others will be noticeable 
for their foliage, and so the interest may be kept up; but, if 
there be only one kind, as, for instance, Chrysanthemums, in 
a house they grate on the sense of sightliness and beauty, for, 
excellent as they may be, they are too much alike to furnish a 
house well. In all conservatories variety, both of form and 
colour, is an absolute necessity if the greatest effect is to be 

Monthly List of Plants in Bloom. 371 

produced, and althongb a large quantity of flowers in bloom is 
not needed, yet some should be present, or the effect will be 
■dull and heavy. Always, if possible, bave some plants in 
bloom, even if only a scarlet pelargonium or two, as tbey show 
up the others to much greater advantage. We pass over ar- 
rangement here, as this must depend on individual taste, and 
our readers must make the best of their plants according to 
their fancy. 

January. — Abutilon, Amaryllis, Begonia, Bouvardia, Calla, 
■Camellia, Carnation, Chrysanthemum, Crocus, Cyclamen, Epi- 
phyllum. Fuchsia, Galanthus, Heliotrope, Hyacinth, Jasmine, 
Luculia, Laurestinus, Mignonette, Pelargonium zonale, Primula, 
■Salvia, Solanum (berries), K-ose (in a few cases). 

February. — Abutilon, Amaryllis, Am3^gdalus, Azalea, An- 
nuals (if autumn sown), Begonia, Bouvardia, Calla, Camellia, 
Carnation, Cerasus, Chrysanthemum, Cineraria, Crocus, Cycla- 
men, Cytisus, Daphne, Deutzia, Epiphyllum, Fuchsia, Galanthus, 
Heliotrope, Hyacinth, Jasmine, Lily of the Yalley, Luculia, 
Lachenalia, Laurestinus, Mignonette, Pelargonium zonale, Per- 
«ica, Polygonatum, Primula, Primrose, Rose, Scilla, Solanum 
(berries), Spiraea, Tulip, Yiolet. 

March. — Abutilon, Acacia, Amaryllis, Amygdalus, Arum, 
Azalea, Annuals, Begonia, Bouvardia, Calla, Camellia, Cam- 
panula, Carnation, Cerasus, Chimonanthus, Chorizema, Cine- 
raria, Citrus, Coronilla, Crocus, Cyclamen, Cytisus, Daphne, 
Deutzia, Dielytra, Dodecatheon, Epiphyllum, Erythronium, 
Epacris, Fuchsia, Fritillaria, Galanthus, Habrothamnus, Helio- 
trope, Hyacinth, Imantophyllum, Iris, Jasmine, Kerria, Lily of 
the Yalley, Leucojum, Lachenalia, Laurestinus, Mignonette, 
Muscari, Myosotis, Narcissus, Pelargonium (both Cape and 
zonale), Persica, Petunia, Polygonatum, Primula, Primrose, 
Rose, Scilla, Solanum (berries), Spirsea, Stock, Tropseolum, 
Tulip, Yiolet. 

April. — Abutilon, Abelia, Acacia, Amaryllis, Amygdalus, 
Arum, Azalea, Annuals, Begonia, Bouvardia, Calampelis, Cal- 

B e2 

372 Greenhouse Manageinent for Amateurs. 

ceolaria, Calla, Camellia, Campanula, Carnation, Cassia, Cerasus, 
Chimonantlins, Chorizema, Cineraria, Citrus, Clematis, Coronilla,. 
Cyclamen, Cytisus, Dapline, Deutzia, Dielytra, Dodecatlieon, 
Epipliyllum, Erytlironium, Epacris, Fuchsia, Fritillaria, Ha- 
brothamnns, Hj^acintli, Hydrangea, Imantopliyllum, Iris, Jas- 
mine, Kalmia, Kerria, Lily of tlie Yalley, Leucojum, Lobelia^ 
Laclienalia, Laurestinus, Muscari, Myosotis, Narcissus, Oxalis, 
Pelargonium (Cape, zonale, and double), Persica, Petunia 
Polygonatum, Primula, Primrose, Rbodantlie, Pliododen- 
dron, Rose, Scilla, Spirsea, Stock, Tropseolum, Tulip, Yiolet, 

May. — Abutilon, Abelia, Acacia, Ageratum, Amaryllis,. 
Amygdalus, Antbericum, Arum, Azalea, Annuals, Begonia, 
Boronia, Calampelis, Calceolaria, Calla, Camellia, Campanula^ 
Carnation, Cassia, Cerasus, Cbimonanthus, Cborizema, Cine- 
raria, Citrus, Clematis, Coronilla, Cupbea, Cyclamen, Cytisus,. 
Dapbne, Deutzia, Dielytra, Dodecatbeon, Epipbyllum, Erytbro- 
nium, Epacris, Fritillaria, Habrotbamnus, Heliotrope, Hoya, 
Hyacintb, Hydrangea, Imantopbyllum, Iris, Jasmine, Kalmia,. 
Kerria, Lantana, Lily of tbe Yalley, Leucojum, Lobelia,. 
Lacbenalia, Mignonette, Mimulus, Musk, Muscari, Myosotis, 
Narcissus, Oxalis, Pelargonium (Cape, zonale, and double)^ 
Persica, Petunia, Polygonatum, Primula, Primrose, Rbodantbe,, 
Rbododendron, Pose, Spirsea, Stock, Tropseolum, Yerbena^ 
Yiolet, Weigelia, Xantboceras. 

June. — Abutilon, Abelia, Acacia, Ageratum, Amaryllis, Ana- 
gallis, Azalea, Annuals, Begonia, Boronia, Bougainvillea, 
Bouvardia, Brugmansia, Calampelis, Calceolaria, Campanula, 
-Carnation, Cassia, Cbimonanthus, Chorizema, Cineraria, Citrus,. 
Clematis, Cobaea, Cupbea, Cyclamen, Cytisus, Crassula, Deut- 
zia, Dielytra, Dodecatbeon, Epipbyllum, Erytbronium, Epacris, 
Fuchsia, Gazania, Habrotbamnus, Heliotrope, Hibbertia, Hoya, 
Humea, Hydrangea, Iris, Jasmine, Kalmia, Kennedya, Lantana, 
Lily of the Yalley, Lobelia, Mignonette, Mimulus, Musk, Myrtle, 
Nierembergia, Nerium, Oxalis, Passiflora, Pelargonium, Petunia, 
Phlox, Plumbago, Portulacca, E-hodanthe, Rhododendron, Rose, 

Monthly List of Plants in Bloom. 373 

Saxifraga, Spiraea, Stocks, Tropseolum, Yeroiiica, Yerbena, 

Jtily. — Abutilon, Agapantlms, Ageratum, Azalea, Annuals, 
Balsam, Begonia, Boronia, Bougainvillea, Bonvardia, Bnig- 
mansia, Calampelis, Calceolaria, Campanula, Carnation, Cassia, 
Celosia, Cockscomb, Cborizema, Citrus, Clematis, Cobaea, 
Cupbea, Crassula, Epipliyllum, Epacris, Fuchsia, Funkia, Ga- 
zania, Habrotbamnus, Hedychium, Heliotrope, Hibbertia, Hoya, 
Humea, Hydrangea, Ipomoea, Iris, Jasmine, Kennedya, Lantana, 
Lilium, Lobelia, Mignonette, Mimulus, Musk, Myrtle, Nierem- 
bergia, Nerium, Oxalis, Passiflora, Pelargonium, Petunia, Phlox, 
Plumbago, Portulacca, Rhodanthe, Rhododendron, Rose, Saxi- 
fraga, Schizanthus, Statice, Stock, Tacsonia, Tagetes, Tropseo- 
lum, Yeronica, Yerbena. 

August. — Agapanthus, Ageratum, Anagallis, Annuals, Bal- 
sam, Begonia, Bougainvillea, Bouvardia, Brugmansia, Calam- 
pelis, Campanula, Carnation, Cassia, Celosia, Cockscomb, 
Chorizema, Clematis, Cobaea, Cuphea, Crassula, Epacris, 
Fuchsia, Funkia, Habrothamnus, Gazania, Hedychium, Hib- 
bertia, Hoya, Humea, Hydrangea, Heliotrope, Ipomoea, Iris, 
Kennedya, Lantana, Lapageria, Lilium, Lobelia, Mignonette, 
Mimulus, Musk, Nicotiana, Nierembergia, Xerium, Oxalis, 
Passiflora, Pelargonium, Petunia, Phlox, Pittosi^orum, Plum- 
bago, Portulacca, Rhodanthe, Rose, Saxifraga, Schizanthus, 
Statice, Stocks, Tacsonia, Tagetes, Tropseolum, Yeronica, 

September. — Agapanthus, Ageratum, Anagallis, Asters, 
Annuals, Balsam, Begonia, Bougainvillea, Bouvardia, Brug- 
mansia, Calampelis, Calla, Campanula, Carnation, Celosia, 
Cockscomb, Chrysanthemum, Clematis, Cuphea, Cobaea, Cras- 
sula, Fuchsia, Funkia, Gazania, Habrothamnus, Hedychium, 
Heliotrope, Hoya, Humea, Hydrangea, IpomcEa, Lantana, La- 
pageria, Lilium, Lobelia, Mignonette, Musk, Nicotiana, Nierem- 
bergia, Nerium, Oxalis, Passiflora, Pelargonium, Petunia, Phlox, 
Pittosporum, Plumbago, Portulacca, Rhodanthe, Rose, Salvia, 

374 Grcenlioiise Management for Amateurs. 

ScMzantliiis, Solaniim (berries), Statice, Stock, Tacsonia, Ta- 
getes, Tropseoliim, Yeronica, Yerbena. 

October. — Ageratum, Asters, Annuals, Balsam, Begonia, 
Bougainvillea, Bouvardia, Brugmansia, Calla, Camellia, Cam- 
panula, Carnation, Celosia, Cockscomb, Cbrysantbemum, Cle- 
matis, Cupliea, Cyclamen, Fucbsia, Gazania, Habrothamnus, 
Heliotrope, Hoya, Ipomcea, Lantana, Lapageria, Lobelia, 
Mignonette, Musk, Nicotiana, Passiflora, Pelargonium, Petunia, 
Phlox, Pittosporum, Plumbago, Portulacca, Rhodantlie, Hose, 
Salvia, Scbizantlius, Solanum (berries), Statice, Stock, Tagetes, 
Yeronica, Yerbena. 

November. — Ageratum, Asters, Annuals, Begonia, Bouvar- 
dia, Camellia, Carnation, Celosia, Clirysantliemum, Cyclamen, 
Epiphyllum, Fuchsia, Gazania, Habrothamnus, Heliotrope, 
Hoya, Ipomcea, Lantana, Laurustinus, Mignonette, Nicotiana, 
Pelargonium, Plumbago, Primula, Rhodanthe, Salvia, Sclii- 
zanthus, Solanum (berries). Stock, Tagetes, Yeronica. 

December. — Amaryllis, Begonia, Bouvardia, Calla, Camellia, 
Carnation, Ej)iphyllum, Fuchsia, Heliotrope, Lantana, Laurus- 
tinus, Mignonette, Pelargonium, Salvia, Solanum (ben-ies), 
Yeronica, and perhaps Roman Hyacinths. 

It must be remembered that differences in the weather, and 
in the treatment given to the various plants, will cause varia- 
tions in the time at which particular plants come into bloom, 
and while one year they bloom early, at others they will be late, 
and vice versa. We have omitted some things from the above 
list, and particularly such as are noticeable for their foliage 
only, as these come in at various seasons, according to the 
treatment given them, and not at fixed periods. 



Abelia, 62 
Abutilon, G3 
Acacia, 64 
Acers, GG 
Agapantbus. G7 
Agave, 68 
Ageratum, 70 
Alonsoa, 71 
Aloysia, 71 
Amaryllis, 73 
Amygdalus, 74 
Anagallis, 75 
Aniseed tree, 76 
Annuals, 50 

Half-hardy, 53 

Hardy, 51 

Tender, 55 
Anthericum, 76 
Ants, 38 
Aphides, 40 
April, plants in bloom, 371 

Work for, 3G3 
Aralia, 77 
Araucaria, 79 
Arum, 79 
Asparagus, 81 
Aspidistia, 82 
Asters, 82 
Astilbe, 83 
Aucuba, 83 
August, plants in bloom, 373 

Work for, 349 
Azalea, 86 


Balsam, 90 
Bambusa, 92 
Begonia, 93 

Bignonia, 96 
Boiler, conical, 31 

Gas, 26 

Saddle, 33 
Boronia, 97 
Bougainvillea, 98 
Bourbon rose, 303 
Bouvardia, 100 
Brugmansia, 103 


Calampelis, 104 
Calceolaria, herbaceous, 104 

Shrubby, 167 
Calendar of work, 348 

January, 357 

February. 359 

March, 361 

April, 363 

May, 365 

June, 366 

July, 368 

August, 349 

September, 351 

October, 353 

November, 355 

December, 357 
Calla, 109 
Calorigen stove, 24 
Camellia, 111 

Flowered balsam, 91 

Japonica, 112 
Campanula, 115 
Canna, 117 
Carnation, 120 
Cassia, 122 
Caterpillars. 42 
Celosia, 123 



Centanrea, 124 
Cerasus, 124 

Chilian monkey puzzle, 79 
Chimonanthus, 125 
Chorizema, 125 
Chrysanthemum, 126 

Anemone -flowered pompone, 

Chinaman, 127 

Japanese, 128 

Pompone, Model of Perfec- 
tion, 131 
Cineraria, 132 
Citron, 135 
Citrus, 135 
Clemafis, 139 
Clianthus, 140 
Clivia, 143, 207 
Cobsea, 143 
Cocks'.^omb, 143 
Coleus, 146 
Coltsfoot, 339 
Conical boiler, 26 
Convallaria, 148 
Coprosma, 148 
Cordylioe, 149 

Indivisa, 1G8 
Coronilla, 149 
Corraea, 149 
Crassula, 151 
Crocus, 151 
Cucumbers, 3G5 
Cultural directions, general, 50 
Cuphea, 152 
Curved roof house, 13 
Cuttings, treatment of, 58 
Cyclamen, 153 
Cyperus, 156 
Cjtisus, 157 


Dactylis, 158 

Daphne, 159 

Darlingtonia, 161 

December, plants in bloom, 374 

Work for, 357 
Deutzia, 162 
Dicentra, 163 
Dictionary of plants, 62 

Dielytra, 163 
Dionaea, 166 
Dodecitheon, 166 
Dog's-tooth violet, 177 
Double camellia, 114 
Dracaena, 168 


Echeveria, 170 
Epacris, 172 
Epiphyllum, 173 
Eriobotrya, 174 
Erythrina, 176 
Erythronium, 177 
Eurya, 179 


Febrnary, plants in bloom, 371 

Work for, 359 
Ficus, 180 
Flax, 276 

Flues for heating, 35 
Frames, 6, 17 
Fritillaria, 181 
Fuchsia, 182 
Fael, 30, 34 
Funkia, 188 


Galanthus, 188 
Garden fuchsia, 185 
Gas boiler, 26 

For heating, 20 
Gazania, 189 
General remarks, 1 
Genista, 157, 190 
George's Calorigen stove, 21 
Geranium, 191 

Golden-rayed lily of Japan, 223 
Grevillea, 191 
Guernsey lily, 192 


Habrothamnus, 192 
Htemanthus, 193 
Half-hardy annuals, 53 
Half-span house, 14 
Hardenbergia, 218 



Hardy annuals, 51 
Heating, 18 

By hot water, 27 

With flues, 35 

With gas, 23 

With hot air stoves, 21 

With mineral oils, 19 
Hedychium, 193 
Heliotropium, 194 
Herbaceous calceolaria, 104 
Hibbertia, 197 
Hot air stoves for heating, 21 

Water for heating, 27 
Hovea, 197 
Hoya, 199 
Humea, 200 
Hyacinth, 201 
Hydrangea, 204 


Ice plant, 20B 

Illicium, 207 

Imantophyllum, 207 

Indian garland flower, 193, 208 

Indiambber plant, 208 

Insecticide, Fowler's, 47 

Insects, 37 

Ants, 38 

Aphides, 40 

Caterpillar.-^, 42 

Maggots, 43 

Red spider, 43 

Scale, 45 

Snails and slugs, 44 

Spider, 43 

Thripa, 46 

Weevils, 47 

Wireworm, 47 

Woodlice, 48 
Ipomoea, 208 
Iresine, 209 
Iris, 211 
laolepis, 213 


January, plants in bloom, 371 

Work for, 357 
Japanese chrysanthemum, 128 

Medlar, 174 

Jasminum, 214 

July, plants in bloom, 373 

Work for, 368 
June, plants in bloom, 372 

Work for, 366 


Kalmia, 216 
Kalosanthes, 216 
Kennnedya, 118 
Kerria, 219 


Lachenalia, 220 
Lantana, 221 
Lapageria, 223 
Lasiandra., 225 
Laurustinus, 227 
Layering, 59 
Leaf mould, 4 
Lean-to house, 7 
Lemon, 135 

Verbena. 71 
Leucojum, 227 
Leucophyta, 227 
Lilium, 228 
Lily, golden- rayed, 228 

Guernsey, 192 

Of the valley, 230 
List of plants in bloom, monthly, 

Loam soils, 3 
Lobelia, 233 
Luculia, 236 
Lux Calor stove, 25 


Maggots, 43 

Maiden loam soils, 3 

Manures. 4 

Maples, 67 

March, plants in bloom, 371 

Work for, 361 
May, plants in bloom, 372 

Work for, 365 
Mesembryanthemum, 237 
Mignonette, 239 
Mildew, 49 
Mimulus, 240 



Mineral oils for heating, 19 

Monkey pozzle, 79 

Monthly calendar of work, 348 

List of plants in bloom, 370 
Moss rose, 302 
Muscari, 242 
Musk, 243 
Myosotis, 244 
Myrsiphylluoi, 245 
Myrtle, 246 


Nircissus, 247 
Nerine, 249 
Nerium, 250 
Nesv Zealand flax, 276 
Nicotiana, 251 
Nierembergia, 252 
Noisette rose, 304 
November, plants in bloom, 374 
Work for, 355 


October, plants in bloom, 374 

Work for, 353 
Oleander, 250 
Orange, 135, 254 
Oxalis, 254 


Pachyphytum, 255 

Pancratium, 256 

Paragon boiler, for mineral oil, 20 

Passiflora, 258 

Passion flower, 258 

Peach, double, 273 

Peat, 4 

Pelargonium, 262 

Persica, 273 

Petunia, 273 

Phlox Drummondii, 274 

Phormium, 276 

Pimelea, 276 

Pittosporura, 278 

Plants in flower in 

January, 371 

February. 371 

March, 371 

Plants in flower in 

April, 371 

May, 372 

June, 372 

July, 373 

August, 373 

September, 373 

October, 374 

November, 374 

December, 374 
Pleroma, 279 
Plumbago, 280 
Polygonatum, 281 
Pompone, chrysanthemum, 131 
Portulacca, 232 
Pots and sands, 2 
Prices of greenhoixses, 8 
Primula, double, 292 

Hardy, 23 i 

Sinensis, 286 
Propagation, 57 
Pyrethrum aureum, 293 


Raising seeds, 55 

E.9d spider, 43 

Eeineckia, 294 

Repairing greenhouse, 369 

Rtodanthe, 294 

Rhododendron, 295 

Richardia, 298 

Ricinus, 298 

Ritchie's Lax Calor stove, 25 

Rochea, 298 

Roellia, 299 

Rose, 301 

Bourbon, 303 

Moss, 302 

Noisette. 304 

Tea, 305 


Saddle boiler, 33 
Salvia, 306 
Sand and pots, 2 
Sarracenia, 311 
Saxifra°:a, 313 
Scale, 45 



Schizanthus, 314 
Scilla, 315 
Seeds, 50 

Watering, 56 
September, plants in bloom, 373 

Work for, 351 
Sericographi'a, 316 
Silver sand, 4 
Siphon for heating, 35 
Snails and slags, 44 
Snowdrop, 188, 318 
Soils for seeds, 57 
Leaf, 4 

Maiden loam, 3 
Peat, 4 

Yellow loam, 3 
Solanum, 318 
Solomon's seal, 281 
Span roof house, 15 
Sparmannia, 320 
Spider, 43 
Spiraea, 322 
Squills, 315 
Statice, 324 
Stock, 2 
Stocks, 327 
Stoves, Calorigen, 24 

Lux Calor, 24 
Sundries, 4 


Tacsonia, 329 
Tagetes, 329 
Tapping vines, 366 
Tea plant, 331 

Rose, 305 
Tecoma, 330 

Temperature for cuttings, 60 
Tender annuals, 55 
Thalictrum, 330 
Thea, 331 
Tbrips, 46 
Tobacco plant, 251 

Powder for destroying insects, 

Tradescantia, 332 
Treatment of vines, 364 
Tropaeolum, 333 
Tulip, 336 
Tussilago, 339 


Ventilation. 2 
Verbena, 340 

Lemon, 71 
Veronica, 342 
Viburnum, 342 
Vines, tapping, 366 

Treatment of, 364 
Violet, 344 


Watering seeds, 56 

Weevils, 47 

Weigelia, 346 

Wireworm, 47 

Wood lice, 48 

Work in January, 357 
February, 359 
March, 361 
April, 363 
May, 365 
June, 366 
July, 368 
August, 349 
September, 351 
October, 353 
November, 355 
December, 357 


Xanthoceras, 347 


Tellow loam soils, 3 


Zychia, 218 







&C., &C.9 




ITbe J6a$aar, 

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1 1 lu si rated Articles on the Various 
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requirements of Amateurs, are fre- 
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PIG-KEEPING, PRACTICAL: A Manual for Amateurs, based on 
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PIGEONS, FANCY. Containing Full Directions for the Breeding and 
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RABBIT, BOOK OP THE. A Complete Work on Breeding and 
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STAMPS, POSTAGE, and their Collection. A Practical Handbook 
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TURKEY, THE. A Handy Manual for both the Amateur and Pro- 
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TURNING POR AMATEURS : Being Descriptions of the Lathe and 
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VENTRILOQUISM, PRACTICAL. A thoroughly reliable Guide to 
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Crown 4to, full gilt, fancy cloth, 478 pages Letterpress and 735 Engravings, price 7/6. 





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Complete in One large Vol., demy 8vo, cloth, containing 700 pp. and 1420 Illustrations. 

Fourth Edition, 6/- or half-bound, French morocco, 7/6. 

Contents : 

Mechanical Drawing; Casting and Founding in Iron, Brass, Bronze, and other Alloys; 
Forging and Finishing Iron ; Sheet Metal Working ; Soldering, Brazing, and Burning ; 
Carpentry and Joinery, embracing descriptions of some 400 -woods; over 200 Illustrations of 
Tools and their lT?es: Explanations (with Diagrams) of 116 Joints and Hinges, and Details of 
Construction of Workshop AppUance* ; Bough Fm-nitiire, Garden and Yard Erections, and 
House-Building; Cabinet-making and Veneering; Carving and Fret-cutting; Upholstery; 
Painting, Graining and Marbling; Staining Furniture, Woods, Floors and Fittings; Gilding, 
Dead and Bright, on various Grounds; Polishing Marble, Metals and Wood; Varnishing; 
Mechanical Movements, illustrating contrivances for transmitting Motion ; Turning in Wood 
and Metals; Masonry, embracing Stonework, Brickwork, Terra-cotta, and Concrete; Roofing 
with Thatch, Tiles, Slates, Felt, Zinc, &c. ; Glazing with and without Putty, and Lead Glazing ; 
Plastering and Whitewashing; Paper-hanging; Gas-fitting; Bell-hanging, Ordinary and 
Electric Systems ; Lighting; Warming; Ventilating; Boads, Pavements and Bridges ; Hedges, 
Ditches and Drains; Water Supply and Sanitation; Hints on House Construction suited to 
New Countries. 





Demy 8vo, cloth, containing 975 pp. and 250 Illustrations, price 7/6; or half-bound, 

French morocco, 9/- 

JPrincipal Contents : 

Hints for selecting a good House ; Sanitation ; Water Supply ; Ventilation and Warming ; 
Lighting; Furniture and Decoration; Thieves and Fire; The Larder; Curing Foods for 
lengthened Preservation; The Dairy; The Cellar; The Pantry; The Kitchen; Receipts for 
Dishes; The Housewife's Room; Housekeeping, Marketing ; The Dining-room ; The Drawing- 
room ; The Bed-room ; The Nursery ; The Sick-room ; The Bath-room ; The Laundry ; The 
School-room ; The Playground ; The "Work-room ; The Library ; The Garden ; The Farmyard ; 
Small Motors ; Household Law. 

London : E. & F. N. SPON, 125, Strand. 
New York: SPON & CHAMBERLAIN, 12, Cortlandt Street. 


For the HAIR, COMPLEXION, & TEETH, are the 


An antiseptic, preservative, and aromatic den- 
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contains no mineral acids, no gritty matter or 
injurious astringents, keeps the mouth, gums, 
and teeth free from the unhealthy action of 
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Is'the'best preserver and beautifier of the hair of children and adults ; prevents 
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it really is most economical for general use ; is also sold in a golden colour for 
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A most cooling, soothing, healing, and refreshing preparation for the Skin and 
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effectually dyes red or grey hair a permanent brown or black. 4s. 


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Ask Chemists for ROWLANDS' ARTICLES, of 20, HATTON 

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_. O^pyndrvt-.. 
^.n.Tjtls Pcxitnl Xf '.