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m ^ '^ • 

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VOL. Ill • 



All right* reserved 

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f<F ^^"<^^V(^^ 

JUN 24 1955] 

^6 c-s^ijiL 

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The names of deceased writers are prittUd in italics 

F.S.A., Principal of 

R Aldrich, Esq., *New York Times' 

R Heron-Allen, Esq. 

Q. E. P. Arkwright, Esq. 

Carl Abmbrijster, Esq. 

Granville Bantock, Esq., Priucipal of the Birmingham and 

Institute School of Music 
J. R Sterndale-Bbnnett, Esq 

D. J. Blaikley, Esq. . 

Joseph C. Bridge, Esq., M.A., Mus.D., F.S.A. 
William Ghapfsll, Esq.^ F.S.A, 
Alexis Chitty, Esq. . 
M. Oust AVE Chouquet. 

W. W. COBBETT, Esq. . 
Frederick Corder, Esq. 
Major G, A. Crawford 
William H. Cummings, Esq., Mu&D., 
hall School of Music 

E, DannreutheRj Esq, 
Herr Paul David 

E. J. Dent, Esq. 

F. G. Edwards, Esq. . 
THOM.VS Eluston, Esq. 
GusTAVE Ferrari, Esq. 
W. H. Grattan Flood, Esq. 
Rev. W. H. Frere . 
H. Frederick Frost, Esq. 

G. Alan Fyffe, Esq. . 
Rev. F. W. Galpin . 
Nicholas Gattv, Esq., Mus.B. 

Ren^ Qatty, Esq., Lector in English, Prague University 
Dr. Franz Gehring . 
Sir George Grove, G.B., D.G.L. 
W. H. Hadow, Esq. . 
H. V. HAifiLTON, Esq. 

R. A. 

B. H-A. 

g.* e. p. a. 

C. A. 


G. B. 

J. R 8.-B. 

D. J. B. 

J. C. B. 

W. C. 

A. C. 

G. C. 

W. W. C. 

F. C. 

G. A. C. 

B Guild- 

W. H. C. 

E. D. 

P. D. 

E. J. D. 

V. G. B. 

T. E. 

G. P. 

W. H. G. F. 

W. H. F. 

H. F. F. 

C. A. P. 

F. W. G. 

N. G. 

R. G. 

F. G. 


W. H. H*- 

H. v. H. 

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Arthur F. Hill, Esq. 

A, J. HiPKiNS, Esq., F.S.A. . 

Edward John Hopkins, Esq., Mus,D. 

A. Hughes-Hughes, Esq. 

John Hullah, Esq., LL.D. 

Duncan Hume, Esq. . 

W. Hume, Esq. 

William H. Husk, Esq. 

F. H. Jenks, Esq., Boston, U.S. A. 

M. Adolphe Jullien . 

Frank Kidson, Esq. . 

Hermann Klein, Esq. 

H. E. Krehbiel, Esq., New York 

M. Maurice Kufferath 

James Lecky, Esq. 

Robin H. Leoge, Esq. 

H. J. Lincoln, Esq. 

Stanley Lucas, Esq. . 

Sir G. A. Macfarren, Mus.D. 

Rev. Charles Mackrson, F.RS. 

Herr A. Maczewski, Kaiserslautern 

Julian Marshali^ Esq. 

Mrs. Julian Marshall 

Russell Martineau, Esq. 

Miss Louisa M. Middleton 

Rev. J. R Milne 

Mrs. Newmarch 

Sir Herbert S. Oakeley, Mus.D. 

Sidney H. Pardon, Esq. 

Sir Walter Parratt, Mus.D., M.V.O., Master of the King's Music 

Sir C. Hubert H. Parry, Bart, Miis.D., Professsor of Music in the 

University of Oxford, Director of the Royal College of Music 
E, J. Payne, Esq., Barrister-at-law .... 
Rev. Canon Hugh Pearson 
Edward H. Pember, Esq., K.C. 
Rev. Canon T. Percy Pemberton 
Miss Phillimore 
Herr C. Ferdinand Pohl 
William Pole, Esq., F.R.S., Ahis.D. 
Victor de Pontigny, Esq. 
Ebenezer Prout, Esq., ^Ius.D., Professor of Music in the University of 

Dublin . 
Charles H. Purday, Esq. 
Miss Olga Racster 
LuiGi Ricci, Esq. . 
Signor F. Rizzeli 
W, S. Rockstro, Esq. 







E. J. 









. H 









































R. M. 

L. M. 



R. M. 

R. N. 


S. 0. 









H. P 






E. H. 














DE P. 















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T. L. s. 

W. Barclay Squire, E^q. 

W. B. S. 

Mias 6. Stainer 

c. s. 

Sir John. Staines^ Mus.D. 

J. 8. 

J. F. R Stainer, Esq. 

J. p. R 8. 

Sir Robert P. Stewart^ Mu8,D, 

R. P. S. 

William H, Stone^ Esq., M,D. 


W. H. S. 

R. A. Streatpeild, Esq. 

R. A. 8. 

Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan, 


A. S. S. 

Franklin Taylor, Esq. 

P. T. 

A. W, Thayer, Esq. . 

A. W. T. 

Miss Bertha Thomas . 

B. T. 

Ernest Walker, Esq., MusD. 

e. W. 

S. H. Walrond, Esq. . 

S. H. W. 

Henry Watson, Esq., Mus-D. 

H. W. 

H. A. Whitehead, Esq. 

H. A. W. 

C. F. Abdy Williams, Esq. . 

C. P. A. W. 

H. K Wooldridge, Esq., MA., 

Slade Profesfior of Fine Ai-t 

in the 

University of Oxford 

H. E. W. 

The Editor . 



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TIJAAS, Joseph, bom Jan. 80, 1847, at Dart- 
^^ ford ; began his career as a chorister at 
Rochester Cathedral, and was taught singing by 
J. L. Hopkins, the organist, and later by Mme. 
Bodda-Pyne. He was for some time a clerk in 
Chatham dockyard, but went to Milan in 1869, 
and studied under San Giovanni. He made his 
d^but atone of Leslie's concerts, Feb. 26, 1871, 
and sang ' Annabell Lee ' in the place of Sims 
Reeves, with great success, ' inasmuch as he was 
not only compelled by unanimous desire to repeat 
it, but there was a strong attempt to induce him 
to sing it a third time, which, however, he had 
the good sense to resist.' He played the hero 
in ' Babil and Byou ' at Covent Garden, August 
29, 1872 ; he then went to America, and played 
in Miss Kellogg's English Opera Company. He 
reappeared in England at the Adelphi under Carl 
Rosa, as Gontran on the production of Brull's 
* Golden Cross,' March 2, 1878, and was engaged 
by Rosa for three years as his principal tenor 
both at Her Majesty's and in the provinces. His 
principal parts were Rienzi on its production at 
Her Majesty's, Jan. 27, 1879 ; Raoul, Feb. 12, 

1879 ; Wilhelm Meister on the production in 
English of 'Mignon,' Jan. 12, 1880 ; Radam^ 
on the production in English of ' Ai'da,' Feb. 19, 

1880 ; also Faust, Thaddeus, Don C^sar, etc. 
He played at Her Miyesty's in Italian in 1880, 
and at Covent Garden (as Lohengrin) in 1888. 
He played under Rosa at Drury Lane in 1888- 
1885, his new parts being Edgar of Ravenswood, 
April 19, 1884, and the Chevalier des Grieuz 
on production in London of Massenet's 'Manon,' 
May 7,1886. He was very popular on the stage, 
on account of his very fine voice, which was 
said to resemble Giuglini's in character, rather 
than for his dramatic gift, since he was a very 
indifferent actor. He was equally popular in 
the concert-room, where he appeared first at the 
Sacred Harmonic, in the 'Messiah,' April 4, 1879, 
and at the Philharmonic, May 21, 1879. He 
sang at all the principal concerts, and at the 
various Handel and provincial festivals. He 
sang also in Paris at Pasdeloup's concerts, April 
6, 1884, and at Brussels at the Bach and Handel 
Festival of 1886. His last important engage- 
ment was at the Birmingham Festival of 1886, 

' where he sang in Dvorak's * Spectre's Bride,' 

VOL. ni *^ 

August 27, and Stanford's 'Three Holy Children, ' 
August 28, on the production of those works. 
At the Noru'ich Festival of the previous year he 
had introduced 'Apollo's Invocation,' a scena 
written for him by Massenet He died in London , 
Jan. 16, 1886, from a complication of disorders, 
rheumatic fever, bronchitis, and congestion of the 
lungs, brought on from a cold taken while fishing. 
He was buried in West Hampstead Cemetery. 
Maas's 'greatest triumphs were gained in the 
concert -room rather than on the stage. For 
several years he has stood in the very first rank 
of tenor singers, not only by reason of his mag- 
nificent voice, but of his thoroughly finished and 
artistic style. . . . By his amiable personal 
character the deceased artist won the esteem and 
affection of all who had the privilege of his 
friendship.'^ A 'Maas Memorial Prize' was 
established at the Royal Academy of Music, a. c. 

DER TOONKUNST. See Vereenigino Voor 
Noord-Nedeklands Muziekoeschieoenis. 

MABELLINI, Teodulo, bom at Pistoia, 
April 2, 1817, was a pupil of the Istituto 
Reale Musicale in Florence, and when he was 
only nineteen years of age, his opera, ' Matilda 
di Toledo,* was given at Florence (1836), with 
the result that the Grand Duke Leopold II. 
gave the composer funds to study under Mer- 
cadante at Novara. His second opera, 'Rolla,' 
was given at Turin in 1840 vdth. great success. 
Mabellini settled in Florence in 1848, becoming 
conductor of the Societii Filarmonica, and 
eventually court maestro di cappella and con- 
ductor at the Pergola (from 1848) ; from 1869 
to 1887 he was professor in his old school, and 
his death took place in Florence, March 10, 
1897. His other operas were : 'Ginevra degli 
Almieri* (Turin, 1841), 'II Conte di Savagna' 
(Florence, 1848), 'I Veneziani a Constantino- 
poli' (Rome, 1844), 'Maria di Francia' (Flor- 
ence, 1846), 'II Venturiero * (with L. Giordani, 
Leghorn, 1851), ' Baldassare ' (Florence, 1852), 
'Fiammetta' (Florence, 1867). Two oratorios, 
'Eudossia e Paolo' and 'L' Ultimo Giorno di 
Gerusalemme,* the cantatas, *La Caccia,' 'II 
Ritorno,' 'Elegiaca,' 'Rafaele Sanzio,* 'Lo 
Spirito di Dante,' are among his more important 

1 Athtntnim. Jan. S3. 1888. 

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works, as well as a great quantity of church 
music. (Baker and Riemann's Dictionaries.) 

MACBETH. 1. Tragedy in three acts ; words 
by Rouget de I'lsle and Hix, music by Chelard. 
Produced at the Academic, Paris, June 29, 1827, 
without success. In London, King's Theatre, 
July 4, 1882. 

2. Opera in four acts ; libretto by Piave, music 
by Verdi Produced at the Pergola, Florence, 
March 17, 1847 ; at Paris, with alterations, at 
the Theatre Lyrique, April 21, 1865. 

8. An overture for orchestra in B minor, by 
Spohr(op. 75). 

4. The first act of an opera, * Macbeth,' was 
published by von Collin in 1809 ; and sketches 
by Beethoven for the overture (D minor, 6-8) and 
first chorus therein, are given by Nottebohm 
in Miu, WochmblaU, 1879, No. 10. g. 

MACBETH, Music to. Three musicians, of 
varied eminence, have successively composed 
music for Sir William Davenant's additions to — 
rather than alterations of — Shakespeare's tragedy 
of Macbeth. Sir William designed to increase 
its attractions for the public by combining with 
it music, improved scenery, and stage-machinery. 
He died before he could bring his experiment 
into practice ; but it was carried out by his widow 
and son, at the new theatra in Dorset Gaixlen 
in 1672. Downes, who was then, and for many 
years after, the prompter of the theatre, took 
advantage of the information he acquired through 
his position, to wiite a book, called Rosdus 
AnglicanuSj or an Historical Beview of the Stage 
(12mo, 1708). In this he says : * The tragedy 
oiMachethf altered by Sir William Davenant, 
being dressed in all its finery, as new clothes, 
new scenes, machines, as flying for the witches, 
with all the singing and dancing in it, the first 
composed by Mr. Lock, the other by Mr, Chan- 
nell and Mr. Priest, it being all excellently per- 
formed, being in the nature of an Opera, it 
recompensed double the expenses ; it proves still 
a lasting play.' 

Downes is the only contemporary authority 
who refers to the authorship ; but the Hon. 
Roger North, an accomplished musician, remarks 
generally, 'in music, Matthew Locke had a 
robust vein,' a criticism peculiarly applicable 
to the music in * Macbeth. ' Immediately after 
' Macbeth,' Matthew Locke composed the instru- 
mental music for Shakespeare's *Temi)est,' pro- 
duced in 1673 ; also the vocal music for Shad- 
well's * Psyche' in Feb. 1673-74. These were 
published by him in 1675 ; but music for witches 
was not well suited for private use, and the 
Macbeth music remained in manuscript until 
after his death in 1677. These three are Locke's 
only known productions for the theatre, and they 
were all |>arodied by a contemporary, one Thomas 
Duffett. The parody uix)n * Macbeth ' is * An Epi- 
logue spoken by Heccate and the three witches, 
according to the famous Modeof Macbeth, 'printed 
with a farce called 'The Empress of Morocco,' 

4to, 1674. That upon ' The Tempest' is entitled 
' The Mock Tempest, ' 4to, 1675 ; and that upon 
' Psyche' is called' PsycheDebauch'd,'4to, 1678. 
Stage i^arodies are only written and accepted upon 
works that have been successful, and although 
the music in 'Macbeth' was ill adapted for 
private use, owing to its subject, that of Psyche ' 
had a long-continued and widely spread popu- 
larity. Two of the vocal pieces, ' The delights 
of the bottle ' and * All joy to fair Psyche,' were 
lengthened into penny ballads, to be sung in the 
streets, and several other ballads which were 
written to the tune of the first are still extant — 
such as * The Prodigal Son,' ' The Wine Cooper's 
Delight,' etc. Matthew Locke's robust vein is 
equally characterised in these airs. (See Popu- 
lar Music of the Olden Time (orig. ed.), ii. 

The only reason that can be assigned why 
modern musicians should have doubted Matthew 
Locke's authorship of the music in 'Macbeth ' is 
that a manuscript score of it exists in the hand- 
writing of Henry Purcell. His autograph seems 
to have been tolerably well ascertained. First, 
Dr. Philip Hayes recorded his judgment by 
writing on the manuscript ' Purcell 's score of 
y*' music in Macbeth, also the score from whence 
it was printed under Mat. Lock's name. ' 1 1 may 
be conceded that the score is in Purcell's hand- 
writing, and that it is the one from which Dr. 
Boyce had then printed the music for the first 
time, assigning its composition to Mat Locke. 
The present possessor of this MS. is Dr.W. H. 
Cumniings, one of the most careful of antiquaries, 
as well as one intimately acquainted with Pur- 
cell's style, and with his numerous works. The 
means of judging equally well of Locke's music 
for the theatre, are not to be had, for want of 
examples, especially if ' Macbeth ' is to be de- 
ducted from them. But there remains the 
inexorable logic of dates to prove that, although 
the manuscript be in Purcell's handwriting, he 
could not have been the composer of a work 
which was produced on the stage when he was 
only in his fourteenth year. Henry Purcell was 
born in 1668, and died in Nov. 1695, aged 
thirty-seven. A sufiicient reason for Purcell's 
having made a transcript of it is to be found in 
the fact that he was called upon to write music 
of a somewhat similar character to that in 
' Macbeth , ' for the sorceress in ' Dido and -Sneas, ' 
with ' choral responses and wild laughter of the 
infernal spirits.' There was a certain amount 
of conventionality, but not amounting to plagi- 
arism, in the treatment of demoniacal music. 
Tliis has been remarked in the music to Middle- 
ton's play of 'The Witch,' in Eccles's music 
to 'Macbeth' and in Purcell's own music to 
'Dido and iEneas.' Of the kst, G. Hogarth 
says : ' The little duet in this scene, between 
two of the witches, " But ere we this perfonn," 
is remarkable for its ingenuity of contrivance, 
and easy flow of melody ; and the full chorus 

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which follows, and concludes the scene, has the 
broad simplicity of Matthew Locke * {Memoirs 
of the Musical Draina., i. 151)^ Sir John Haw- 
kins states that Purcell wrote the music to ' Dido 
and i£neas' *at the age of nineteen,' and that 
he composed it for the Mr. Josias Priest, who 
was concerned in the production of * Macbeth * 
with Locke. But Sir John was mistaken as to 
Pui*cell's age, and as to ' Dido and ^neas ' having 
been performed at Priest's house in Leicester 
Fields. [The latest evidence is in favour of some 
date between 1688 and 1690. See Ptrcell.] 
The study of sacred and of chamber music had 
so predominated in Purcell's musical education, 
that with all his genius, when first writing for 
the stage, he would naturally desire a dramatic 
model to improve upon. This was easily to be 
obtained through Mr. Priest, whose connection 
^vith the theatre would enable him to borrow 
Locke's score to be copied. Dr. W. H. Cummings 
submitted the 'Macbeth' MS. to Mr. Netherclift, 
the well-known expert, * who came to the con- 
clusion that it had a certain boyish resemblance 
to facsimiles of Purcell's after-writings, but not 
sufficient of itself for him to form a decided 
judgment as to the identity of authorship. ' This 

* boyish resemblance' is precisely what might 
have been expected under the circumstances 
above detailed. Every young composer requires 
some model to start upon, just as the early works 
of Beethoven remind us of his model, Mozart. 

Eccles's music for * Macbeth ' is to be found 
in score in the British Museum (Add. MS. 
No. 12,219). It was brought out at Drury 
Lane Theatre in 1696. As this was the year 
after Purcell's death, the date disposes of the 
myth of Purcell's having had any hand in after- 
improving it. As Eccles's music is not the 
music of ' Macbeth,' it must stand or fall upon 
its own merits. It was much admired by W. 
Linley, who edited * Dramatic Songs ' in, or 
for, Shakespeare's plays ; but in the more trust- 
worthy judgment of Dr. Cummings, Mt abounds 
in wearisome and uninteresting imitative 
phrases ' ; and again the same authority says, 

* Eccles could not have been the author of the 
music accredited to Locke ; the former is so 
extremely laboured and diffuse, the latter so 
much more dramatic and effective in its con- 
ciseness and simplicity' {Concordia^ Nov. 27, 

(See also Musical Times, 1882, p. 259, where 
Dr. W. H. Cummings states the arguments which 
have brought him to the belief tliat the * Macbeth ' 
Music is by Purcell.) 

Of Richard Leveridge's claim, it is sufficient 
to say that he composed new music for the 2nd 
act of * Macbeth* in or about 1708. It has 
since passed completely into oblivion, and there 
is no need to say anything more about it. w. c. 

MACBETH, Allan, bom in Greenock, 
March 13, 1856, received his musical education 
chiefly in Germany, studying at the Leipzig 

Conservatorium under F. Bichter, Jadassohn, 
and Beinecke in 1875-76. In 1880 he was 
appointed conductor to the Glasgow Choral 
Union, but resigned the post in 1887. He has 
been organist of various churches in Edinburgh 
and Glasgow, being appointed to St. George's- 
in - the - Fields Established Church in 1884. 
He was appointed principal of the music school 
connected with the Glasgow Athenaeum in 1890. 
Mr. Macbeth, in spite of much occupation of 
his time in teaching (pianoforte and singing), 
has found leisure for composition, for which he 
has a decided gift He has written a number 
of pleasing pianoforte pieces, besides two or 
three orcliestnd movements played at the Choral 
Union Concerts, and since transcribed for piano. 
As a song -writer, Mr. Macbeth has generally 
been very successful, and he has besides ably 
an'anged for voices several Scots melodies, as 
well as written some original part-songs. [His 
cantata, *The Land of Glory,* won a prize 
given by the Glasgow Society of Musicians, 
and was performed in 1890. Some other 
cantatas, short orchestral pieces, and chamber 
music, are among his works, as well as in- 
cidental music to a play * Bruce (Lord of the 
Isles).'] He has an ojieretta in MS., 'The 
Duke's Doctor.' w. h*- 

MacCARTHY, Matjd, violinist, was bom 
on July 4, 1884, at Clonmel, Ireland. She 
showed musical proclivities at a very early age, 
but was not sent to a musical college, her 
parents preferring to place her under the direc- 
tion of Se&or Arbos. With him she studied 
from the age of eight to the age of fifteen, and 
made her d^but in London in 1894, after which 
followed two years of further study uninter- 
mpted by a single public ])erformance. Tims 
leisure was always allowed to her for the 
maturing of her musical gifts, and a style 
formed from which the note of feverish effort 
ia absent, and which therefore lends itself well 
to the interpretation of classical compositions. 
She plays practically the whole violin reper- 
toire, including the concertos of Beethoven, 
Brahms, and Tchaikovsky, and has performed 
frequently since 1896 at the principal orchestral 
concerts in London, at the Satuniay Concerts 
at the Crystal Palace, and (during her American 
tour) yrith the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
New York Philharmonic Society, etc Her 
hand is so small that her violins have to be 
specially mounted for her, but she shows no 
want of power or of technical mastery. She for- 
merly played upon a Peter Guaraeri violin, but 
at present uses a Nicolo Gagliano. w. w. c. 

MacCUNN, Hamish, son of James Mac- 
Cunn, shipowner, of Greenock, born there, 
March 22, 1868, showed an early aptitude for 
music, and on the opening of the Royal College 
of Music in 1883, won a scholarship for com- 
position. He was a pupil there of Sir Hubert 
Parry, and resigned his scholarship in 1886. 

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An overture (see below) was given at the Crystal 
Palace in Oct. 1885, but it was not until 1887 
that his name became widely known, from the 
success of his overture, * Land of the Mountain 
and Flood,' produced at the same place. It 
was at once evident that the young composer 
had a strongly individual note of his own, and 
in quick succession other orchestral works were 
brought fonjv'ard, for the most i>art at the Crystal 
Palace, where his first cantata, 'Lord Ullin's 
Daughter,' was given on Feb. 18, 1888. In 
that year he was commissioned to write a 
cantata for the Glasgow Choral Union ; this 
was 'The Lay of the Last Minstrel,' given at 
Glasgow, Dec. 18, 1888, and at the Crystal 
Palace, Feb. 16, 1889. * Bonny Kilmeny ' had 
been given at one of Paterson's concerts in Edin- 
burgh three days before ; and in 1888 he was 
appointed a professor at the Royal College, a 
position which he held until 1894. A series of 
orchestral concerts was given in the same year in 
the studio of John Pettie, R. A., whose daughter 
he married in 1889. In 1894 his opera, ' Jeanie 
Deans,' was produced by the Royal Carl Rosa 
Company in Edinburgh, and performed in 
London by the same company, after much 
success throughout the provinces, on Jan. 22, 
1896. He was for some years connected with 
this company as conductor, and has had much 
experience in operatic and other conducting. 
He directed the production in English of many 
of the later works of Wagner, including 'Tristan ' 
and 'Siegfried,' as well as the stock rcpertoiy. 
After the death of Sullivan, during the last 
seasons of the Savoy Theatre as a home of 
English light opera, he conducted the run of 
'Merrie England' and 'A Princess of Ken- 
sington.' Since the dispersal of the company, 
he has conducted various musical comedies 
and similar things. His compositions show a 
strongly national colouring, and certain sides 
of Scottish music, particularly those which deal 
with the more intimate and tender emotions, 
had scarcely been brought into the world of 
artistic or 'composed' music until his time. 
The following is a list of his principal works : — 

0PBBA8, etc. 

'Jeanie Deftiis ' (libretto by JoMph Beanett), In four acta. Lyoeam 
Theatre, Bdiuburgh. Nov. 18. 18M. 

'Dlarmid': Oraad opera in four act*, libretto by the Duke of 
Argyll (them Alarquia of Lome). Corent Garden Theatre, Oct. 23. 
18^. Thle i« uudentood to be part of a projected trilogy, the rest 
of which hu not yet eeen the light. 

' The Maaque of War and Peace ' (libretto by Loula N. Plarker^ 

given at a aliigle apecial performanoe for the benefit of the House- 
hold Tnwpa, UerMaJesty'B Theatre. Feb. 13. 19G0. 

'The Oolden Oirl,' moaioal comedy, written by Captain Baall 
Hood ; produood at the Prince of Walea'a Theatre, Birmingham, 
Augoat 5, 1905 (not yet performed in London). 

CANTATAS, BALLADS, etc. (for Choir and Orcheatra). 

' Lord miin'a Daughter.' CryaUl PaUoe. Feb. 18. 1888. 

'The Lay of the Laat Minatrel.' with aoli. Olaagow Choral Union, 
Dec. 18. 1888 ; CryaUl Ptilace, Feb. 16. 1889. 

'Bonny Kilmeny.' with aolt, Pateraon'a Conoerta. Edinburgh, 
Dec. 15. 1888. and at the Cryatal Palace, March 8. 1889. 

'The Cameronian'a Dream,' with baritone aolo. Pateraon'a Con* 
cert«. Edinburgh. Jan. 37. 1890; Cryatal Palace. Dec. (1, 1800. 

'Queen Hynde of Coledon.' with aoli, Olaagow Choml Union, 
Jan. 28. 189'2; Cryatal Palace. March 9. 1892. 

'The Death of Piarey Bead,' for male chorua and orohaatra, not 
yet performed. 

"The Wreck of the Heaperua.' produced with picturial iUuatta- 
tiona at the Coliaeum Theatre, Auguat 28, 1909. 


' Cior Mhor,' Cryatal Palace. Oct. 27. 1889. 

' The UkuA Ot the Mountain and Flood.' Cryatal P^aee. Nor. B. 1887. 

'The Ship o' the Fiend.' Heuachel Concert*, Feb. 21. 1888; Cmtal 
Rdaee. April 31. 1888. 

' The Dowie Dwia o' Yarrow,' Crystal Pblace. Oct IS, 1888. 

'Highland Memoriea,' three deecriptire pieoea. CtT*tal Palace, 
March 13, 1807. and at the Philharmonic on May 20 of the aame year. 

Theae overturea. etc. were frequently played at other conoerta 
boaidea thoae mentioned, and were atock piecea for aerenl yeara. 

Paalm VI II., for chonu and otgan, waa performed at the Olaagow 
BxhiblUon of 1901. 

Nine part-aonga. alz original pieoea, 'Scotch Danoea' for piano 

)lo, three pieoea for violonoello and piano, extra nuinbera for 

trioua muaical oomediaa. and about eighty aonga. are alao among 


MacCunn'a publiahed worka. 

} among 

M 'DONALD, Malcolm, a Scottish composer 
of Strathspeys of some note during the latter 
part of the 18tli century. Little is known of 
his personal history save that he was associated 
with the Gow family, and that he lived (and 
probably died) at Inver, the birthplace of Niel 
Gow. A footnote in The Beauties of Niel Oow 
states that he played the violoncello in Gow's 
band at Edinburgh. His published collections 
of Strathspey reels number four. The first in 
oblong folio was published in 1 788 ; 2nd in folio, 
circa 1789 ; 3rd folio, circa 1792 ; a 4th folio, 
circa 1797. f. K. 

M 'DONALD, Peter, a Scottish minister and 
son of one, born in the Manse of Durness in 
SutherUnd, N.B., April 22, 1729. He was 
educated at St. Andrews, and ordained minister 
of Kilmore in Argyleshire, Oct. 12, 1756. He 
remained in this position for sixty-nine years, 
and died Sept. 25, 1824. He was one of a 
musical family, and was a skilled performer on 
the violin. He is deserving of i-emembrance for 
his valuable work (the firat attempt at such a 
gathering), a ' Collection of Highland Vocal Airs, ' 
issued in Edinburgh in 1783. In his preface 
he mentions that a number of the melodies were 
noted down by his brother Joseph (born Feb. 
26, 1739, died 1762), also a clever musician, 
who left Scotland for India in 1760. Joseph 
was the author of a Treatise 07i the Theory of 
the Scots Highland Bagpipe^ which forms part 
of a work, a Collection of Bagpipe Music^ pub- 
lished in Edinburgh in 1808. F. K. 

MacDOWELL, Edward Alexander, Ameri- 
can composer and pianist, born in New York 
City, Dec. 18, 1861. He is descended from & 
Quaker family of Scotch- Irish extraction that 
emigrated to America about the middle of the 
18tli century. As a boy he studied the piano- 
forte with Juan Buitrago, a South American, and 
Pablo Desvernine, a Cuban, and for a brief space 
with Teresa Carreho, a native of Venezuela. 
The nationality of these early teachers is recorded 
to enable the curious to study or s^teculate on 
the influences which, with the varied training 
received in Europe, may have heli)ed to shape 
the artistic character of MacDowell, who, though 
entitled to rank with contemporary com})08ers 
of the higliest class irrespective of country, is yet 
specially significant as a representative of the 
best that America has produced in music. His 
European studies were varied. In 1876 he 
became a pupil of Savard in composition, and 

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Marmontel in pianoforte at the Paris Conser- 
vatoire. For three years he remained under 
French influences, then exchanged them for 
German, going first to Stuttgart to Lebert ; but 
wearying of that teacher's pedagogic methods, in 
less than a month, he went to Wiesbaden, where 
he studied with Louis Ehlert during the summer 
months of 1882. In the autumn he joined the 
pianoforte class of Earl Heymann at the Con- 
servatorium, and the class in composition under 
Joachim Raff, director of the institution. The 
admiration which he felt for Raffs music, and 
the attachment which sprang up between master 
and pupil were among the strongest influences 
which shaped his creative career, and speak out 
of much of his music, especially the first suite 
for orchestra, op. 42. On Heymann's departure 
from the Conservatorium MacDowell was a 
candidate for the position vacated by him, but 
failed of appointment, ostensibly because of his 
youthfulness, probably because of his adherence 
to the romantic ideals exemplified in Heymann's 
playing. Thereupon he went to Darmstadt as 
chief teacher at the Conservatorium there. The 
duties were onerous, and the compensation inade- 
quate. MacDowell had made up his mind to 
stay in Germany as a country more congenial to 
his artistic nature than his native land. He 
returned to Frankfort as a private teacher. In 
1882, at the instance of Raff, he %veut to Weimar 
to visit Liszt. He played his first concerto for 
that master with D'Albert at the second piano- 
forte, and was invited to take jmvt in the ap- 
proaching meeting of the Allgemeiner Deutscher 
Musikverein at Zurich. There he played his 
first Pianoforte Suite. Raff died shortly after, 
and MacDowell set up a home in Wiesbaden, 
where he devoted himself to com|x>sition for four 
years, that is, till 1887. Then he went to 
America, settled in Boston, taught and gave 
concerts, producing his two pianoforte concertos 
with the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Boston, 
and the Theodore Thomas Orchestra in New 
York. [The second concerto was played by the 
composer at the Fhilhai-monic Concert, London, 
on May 14, 1903.] In 1896 he was called to 
Columbia University in New York to fill the 
chair of music, — a new foundation. He re- 
mained professor at the institution until January 
1 904, when he resigned the post because of a dis- 
agreement with the faculty touching the proiier 
footing of music and the fine arts in the curri- 
culum. For two years he was conductor of the 
Mendelssohn GleeClub, one of the oldest and best 
male chonises in the United States. Princeton 
University and the University of Pennsylvania 
conferred on him the degree of Mus.Doc. Mr. 
MacDowell's career ended in the spring of 1905, 
when overwork and insomnia, the consequence 
of morbid worry over disagreeable experiences, 
brought on what eminent medical specialists 
pronounced to be a hopeless case of cerebral 

When Mr. MacDowell went to Boston he 
gave a healthy impulse to American composition, 
chiefly through the performances of his works 
which had been stimulated by his return to his 
native land, but also by the attitude which he 
assumed as to the proper treatment of the 
American composer by the American public and 
press. He expressed himself as opposed to their 
segregation for the ])urpose either of laudation 
or condemnation. Naturally this came some- 
what easier to him than to some of his fellows. 
He had grown artistically into man's estate in 
Germany, and had won quite as much recognition 
there as he found waiting for him in America 
when he returned thither. It deserves to be 
said that he found his position upheld by the 
majority of American musicians worthy of 
association with him. As a composer MacDowell 
is a romanticist. He believes in poetical sugges- 
tion and programmatic titles. But a musical 
cartoonist he is not. He aims at depicting the 
moods of things, and the moods awakened by 
things rather than the things themselves. He 
is fond of subjects and titles which, like those 
of his master Raff, smack of the woods ; — not 
the greenwood of the English ballads, but the 
haunted forests of Geimany, in which nymphs 
and dryads hold their revels and kobolds frolic. 
The supematuralism which is an ineradicable 
elementof German romanticism, breathesthrough 
his first suite for orchestra. In his second suite, 
entitled 'Indian,' he makes use of aboriginal 
American idioms, forming his principal themes 
out of variants of Indian melodies, — a harvest- 
song, war -song, and women's dance of the 
Iroquois, and a love -song of the lowas. A 
similar device is practised in the first of his 
* Woodland Sketches' for pianoforte, op. 61, 
which has a melody of the Brotherton Indians 
as its theme. Mr. MacDowell was contem- 
poraneous with Dvofak in thus calling attention 
to the existence of native American folk-song 
elements ca]^>able of use in a characteristio body 
of artistic music, though, unlike the composer 
of the symphony * From the New World,' he 
never permitted himself to be influenced by the 
melodic idioms of the negro slave. His * Indian ' 
suite, op. 48, first played by the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchesti-a in New York in Jan. 1896, 
was fully sketched before Dvorak's symphony 
appeared, though it was not performed till three 
years afterwards, the composer wishing to be- 
come better acquainted with what to him, as 
well as the world, was a new kind of music. As 
for the rest: great concentration, refined and 
highly emotionalised harmonisation, exalted 
poetical feeling and a spirit of breezy freshness 
are the characteristics chiefly to be found in 
Mr. MacDowell's compositions for the piano- 
forte. He withheld his first eight numbei-ed 
works from his publishers, and subsequently 
destroyed thenu His published works are as 
follows : — 

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9. Two Old Songs. 

10. Fint Modern Suite for Piuioforte. 
11 * 12. Album of fire Songs. 
IS. Prelude and Fugue for Pianoforte. 
14. Seoond Modem Suite for Pianoforte. 
18. Flnt Concerto, in A minor, for Pianoforte and Oroheetra. 

17. forte. 

18. >rte. 


21. rte, four hands. 


23. Orchestra. 


2B. hestra. 





30. aents from the 




89. Dompanlment. 


87. •. 

38. loforte. 










Eight Songs. 

Second (' Indian ') Suite for Orchestra. 

(Some dances published In a Boston Collection.) 

Second Sonata. ' Eroica,' for Pianoforte. 

'Woodland Sketches' for Pianoforte. 










60. te. 




Two Bongs from the Thirteenth Century, for Male Chorus. 
Six little Pieces after Sketches by J. S. Bach, for Pianoforte. 
Technical Exercises for the Pianoforte (Two Books). 
Colombia College Songs. 
Many Transcriptions of old harpsichord music j^^ ^^ ^^ 

[A very enthusiastic monograph on Mac- 
Dowell, by Lawrence Gilman, was published by 
John Lane in London and New York in 1906.] 

MACE, Thomas, bom at Cambridge about 
1619, was one of the clerks of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and author of a remarkable book 
published (in small folio, 272 pp. , besides 18 pp. 
of prefatory matter) in 1676, entitled 3fusick*8 
Monument ; or^ A JUmembrancer of the best Practi- 
cal Musicky both Divine and Civile that has ever 
been knoion to have been in th^ worlds the first 
part of which treats of the then condition of 
parochial psalmody and cathedral music and the 
means of improving their performance ; the 
second of the lute, including directions for 
choosing, tuning, repairing, performing on and 
composing for the instniment, with a full ex- 
planation of the tablature and numerous lessons ; 
and the third of the viol and of music generally, 
with other curious matter. The book is written 
in a quaint, familiar style, intermingled with a 
profusion of strangely compounded terms, and 
produces a striking impi*ession of the author's 
love of his art and his devout and amiable 
disposition. It was published by subscription 
at 128. per copy in sheets. A lengthy epitome 

of it is given in Hawkins's History ^ pp. 727-733, 
Novello's edition. A few scanty biographical 
particulars are culled from it, viz. that Mace 
married in or shortly after 1636 ; that before 
the marriage his wife resided in Yorkshire, he 
in Cambridge ; that in 1644 he was in York 
during the siege of the city by the Parliamentary 
army ; that in consequence of having broken 
both ai-ms he was compelled to make a shake 
upon the lute in an irregular manner ; that he 
invented a * table organ ' (described in his book, 
with an engraving) to accompany a * consort of 
viols ' ; that in consequence of partial deafness, 
rendering the soft tones of the lute inaudible to 
him, he in 1672 invented a lute of fifty strings, 
which he termed the Dyphone, or Double Lute ; 
that he had a family, and that his youngest son, 
John, learned in 1672 to play well upon the lute 
almost solely by the perusal of the MS. of his 
book [see Immyns, John] ; that the writing of 
the work was not commenced until after Christ- 
mas, 1671, and it was licensed for publication 
May 6, 1675 ; and lastly that owing to his in- 
creased deafness, which we may presume prevented 
him pursuing his profession, he was in somewhat 
straitened circumstances. Hawkins asserts that 
Mace was bom in 1613, evidently arriving at 
that conclusion from the inscription beneath the 
portrait (engraved by Faithorae after Cooke) 
prefixed to his book, * ^tat suae. 63. ' The date of 
his death is not known, but 1709 is conjectured. 
See an important advertisement in the Bagford 
Collection (Harl. MS. 6936 (384)). [Mace was 
further responsible for another quaint work, 
Profit, canveniency and pleasure to the whole 
Nation, being a short rational discourse lately 
presented to His Majesty concerning tlie High- 
ways of England, etc. 1675. A copy is in the 
British Museum. F. K.] w. h. h. 

M'EWEN, John Blackwood, bora at 
Ha%vick, April 13, 1868, educated at the Glasgow 
High School, the Glasgow University, and the 
Royal Academy of Music. He has the degree 
of M.A. of Glasgow, and is a F.R.A.M. He 
was professor and lecturer at the Glasgow 
Athenffium, in 1896-98, and has been a pro- 
fessor of harmony and composition at tlie Royal 
Academy of Music from the latter year. His 
works are numerous and important, but though 
many have been performed, only a ftw are 
published ; among these are a piano sonata in 
E minor, a string quartet in A minor, six 
Highland dances for violin and piano, and two 
sets of part-songs. His choral works include 
a * Scene from Hellas ' for female clioms and 
orchestra, *The Last Chantey' for choms and 
orchestra, and a setting of Milton's Hymn on 
the Nativity, for soprano solo, chorus and 
orchestra. For orchestra he has written two 
overtures, a suite in E, a symphony in A minor, 
a concerto for viola, and three Highland dances 
for strings. Two other string quartets, in F 
and E minor respectively, are to be mentioned, 

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as well as two compositionB, * Graih my Chree ' 
and 'Romney's Remorse/ for recitation with 
musical accompaniment, the former being laid 
outfor stringqnartet, drumand piano. M*£wen's 
music belongs to the ultra-modern school, and 
much of it is strongly tinged with Scottish 
characteristics. m. 

MACFARREN, Sir Geobgb Alexander, 
Mus.D., son of Geoige Maofarren, dramatist, was 
bom in London, March 2, 1813. In early life 
he displayed partiality for music, but did not 
regularly commence its study until 1827, when 
he became a pupil of Charles Lucas. In 1829 
he entered the Royal Academy of Music, and 
made composition his principal study, learning 
also the pianoforte and trombone ; and in 1834 
he was appointed one of its professors. On Oct. 
27, 1834, he produced at the Society of British 
Musicians his first important work, a Symphony 
in F minor, and in 1836 his fine Overture * Chevy 
Chase.' In August 1838 his 'Devil's Opera,' 
produced at the English Opera House, Lyceum, 
at once drew public attention to him. In 1840 
he produced at Drury Lane an * Emblematical 
Tribute on the Queen's Marriage, 'and also edited, 
for the Musical Antiquarian Society, Purcell's 
opera, 'Dido and ^neas.' In 1843 he became 
secretary of the Handel Society, for which he 
edited 'Belshazzar,' 'Judas Maccabaeus,' and 
' Jephthah.' In Jan. 1845 he directed the suc- 
cessful production of Mendelssohn's 'Antigone ' 
at Covent Garden Theatre. In 1846 his opera, 
'Don Quixote,' was successfully produced at 
Drury Lane, and in 1849 his opera 'Charles 
II.' was given at the Princess's. His serenata, 
' The Sleeper Awakened,' was brought out at the 
National Concerts at Her Mcgesty's Theatre in 
1851, and in the same year he composed his fine 
cantata, ' Lenora. ' His beautiful cantata, ' May 
Day,' was written for the Bradford Festival, 
1856, and his cantata, ' Christmas, ' was composed 
in 1859. He then resumed the composition of 
opera, and brought out ' Robin Hood ' at Her 
Majesty's Theatre in 1860, with great success. 
This was followed by * Freya's Gift,' masque, 
and ' Jessy Lea,' opera, 1863 ; ' She stoops to 
conquer,' * The Soldier's Legacy, ' and ' Helvellyn, ' 
operas, 1864. Several more operas remained in 
MS. and Macfarren also wrote music for a number 
of farces and melodramas. Macfarren's eyesight 
had at a comparatively early age become impaired ; 
the malady increased year by year, until it ter- 
minated in total blindness. But this calamity 
did not diminish his exertions ; and with extra- 
ordinary eneigy he continued to perform his 
duties as a professor at the Royal Academy of 
Music, and to compose, dictating his compositions 
to an amanuensis. On Oct. 23, 1873, his 
oratorio, 'St. John the Baptist,' was produced 
at the Bristol Festival with marked success. 
On March 16, 1875, he was elected Professor of 
Music at Cambridge on the death of Stemdale 
Bennett, and greatly distinguished himself by 

the manner in which he performed the duties of 
the office. In April following he accumulated 
the degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Music. 
In 1876 he was appointed Principal of the Royal 
Academy of Music. * The Resurrection, ' oratorio, 
was produced at the Birmingham Festival in 
1876 ; 'Joseph,' oratorio, at the Leeds Festival 
in 1877 ; 'The Lady of the Lake,' a cantata, at 
Glasgow, on Nov. 15, 1877 ; the music to ' Ajax' 
was performed with the play at Cambridge in 
1882 ; the oratorio < King David ' was produced 
at the Leeds Festival of 1883, and in that year 
Macfarren was knighted. Besides the before- 
mentioned works his compositions are very numer- 
ous ; they include a cathedral service, anthems, 
chants, and psalm tunes, and ' Introits for the 
Holy Days and Seasons of the English Church,' 
1 866 ; ' Songs in a Cornfield, ' 1 868 ; ' Shakspere 
Songs for 4 voices,' 1860-64 ; Songs from Lane's 
' Arabian Nights, ' and Kingsley's and Tennyson's 
poems ; very many songs (among which the 
beautiful 'Pack, clouds, away,' with clarinet 
obbligato, is perhaps the best known), duets, 
etc.; overtures to 'The Merchant of Venice,' 
'Romeo and Juliet,' *Hamlet»' 'Chevy Chase' 
(already mentioned), and ' Don Carlos ' ; sym- 
phonies, string quartets, and a quintet ; a concerto 
for violin and orchestra ; and sonatas for piano- 
forte alone and in combination with other instru- 
ments. He harmonised the airs in Chappell's 
Papular Music of the Olden Time^ and arranged 
' Moore's Irish Melodies, ' 1 859, and Scotch Songs. 
He was eminent as a writer on music and music 
critic, having produced Rudiments of Harmony j 
1860, and Six Lectures on Harmony ^ 1867 ; 
Analyses of oratorios, etc., for the Sacred Har- 
monic Society, 1853-57 ; and of orchestral works 
for the programme-books of the Philharmonic 
Society, 1869-71 ; also many articles in The 
Musical World and lives of musicians for the 
Imperial Dictionary of Universal Biography, 
He lectured at the Royal and London Institu- 
tions. His Addresses and Lectures were published 
in 1888. He died Oct 31, 1887, his last pub- 
lished work being an Andante and Rondo in E 
for violin and organ, contained in the Organist's 
Quarterly Journal for Oct. 1887. A cantata for 
female voices, 'Around the Hearth, ' was published 
posthumously. He was buried in the Hampstead 
Cemetery ; his life, by H. C. Banister, appeared 
in 1891. His industry and fertility under the 
greatest drawbacks were marvellous. His great 
kindness, and his readiness to communicate the 
stores of his capacious and retentive memory to 
all who required tliem, endeared him to a large 
circle of friends and admirers. 

Natalia Macfarren, his wife, contralto 
singer and able teacher, is well known by her 
translations of opera libretti and other works. 

Walter Cecil Macfarren, his brother, 
bom August 28, 1826, chorister of Westminster 
Abbey under James Turle from 1836 to 1841, 
and pupil of the Royal Academy of Music from 

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1842tol846, studied the pianoforte under W. 
H. Holmes, and composition under his brother, 
G. A. Macfarren, and Cipriani Potter. He was 
a professor of the pianoforte at the Academy 
from 1646 to 1903, and conductor of its concerts 
from 1873 to 1880. He was elected a dii-ector 
of the Philharmonic Society in 1868, and its 
treasurer in 1876. He composed two Chmxjh 
Services and a number of chants and hymn- 
tunes ; a symphony in B flat, produced at 
Brighton, 1880; overtures, *A Winter's Tale * 
(1844); «TamingoftheShrew'(1845); *Beppo* 
(1847); 'Pastoral' (1878); * Hero and Leander* 
(Brighton Festival, 1879) ; *Henry V.'(Norwich 
Festival, 1831) ; * Othello' (Queen's Hall, 1896) ; 
a pianoforte concerto ; sonatas for pianoforte 
alone and in combination with other instruments ; 
songs both sacred and secular ; many madrigals 
and part-songs ; and numerous pieces of all 
kinds for pianoforte. He has edited Mozart's 
pianoforte works, Beethoven's sonatas, and the 
extensive series of pianoforte pieces known as 
'Popular Classics.' [He died Sept. 2, 1905, 
and was buried at St. Pancras Cemetery, East 
Finchley, on Sept 7. A biographical article 
appeared in the MusieaZ Times for Jan. 1898, 
and a volume of Reminiscences was published 
in 1905.] w. H. H. 

M'GIBBON, William, a musician residing 
in Edinburgh in the earlier half of the 18th 
century. Little is known of his biography save 
what is related of him and of other Scottish 
musicians by William Tytler of Woodhouselee, 
who contributed to the Transactions of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland^ vol. i. 1792, 
some personal remembrances of them. He was 
born near the end of the 17 th century, and 
was the son of Matthew M 'Gibbon, who was a 
hautboy player in Edinburgh. William was 
early sent to London, and studied the violin 
under William Corbett. On his return to 
Edinburgh he was appointed leader of the 
orchestra in the Gentlemen's Concerts, and held 
the post for a long period. He was considered 
an excellent performer. In 1 740, M 'Gibbon imb- 
lished ' Six Sonatos [sic] or Solos for a German 
Flute or Violin. Edin. : K. Cooper for the author, 
1 740,' ob. folio. A copy of this now very rare 
publication was sold at the Taphouse Sale, July 
1905. Another of his compositions is ' Six 
Sonatas for two German Flutes, compos'd by 
Mr. Wm. M 'Gibbon of Edinburgh.' Lond. : 
J. Simpson, royal 8vo. His most important 
work, however, was a valuable collection of Scots 
Tunes, in three oblong folio volumes, of great 
value in the study of Scots music. These were 
issued in Edinbui^h, and originally published in 
1742, 1746, and 1755, though there are several 
later reprints. He died in Edinburgh, Oct. 8, 
1756, and was buried in Greyfriars' Churchyard, 
having bequeathed the whole of his effects to 
the Royal Infirmary. He is mentioned in a 
verse by Robert Feiguson, the poet, and a 

portrait of him occurs in the title-page of Flores 
Musicae (Edin. : J. Clark, 1773), which is re- 
produced in Glen's Early Scottish Melodies, 
1900. F. K. 

M'GLASHAN, Alexander, an Edinburgh 
musician and performer on the violoncello and 
violin during the latter half of the 18th cen- 
tury. From his stately appearance and dress 
he was nicknamed ' King M'Glashan.' He was 
in the habit of giving fashionable concerts at 
St. Cecilia's Hall, near the Cowgate, and issued 
three important books of Scottish national airs, 
of great value in tracing the history of these 
melodies, viz.: 'A Collection of Strathspey 
Reels ' (1780), ' A Collection of Scots Measures ' 
(1781), and 'A Collection of ReeU' (1786), aU 
in oblong folio, and published by Stewart of 
Edinburgh. He died May 1797, and was 
buried in Greyfriars' Churchyard. f. k. 

M'GUCKIN. Barton, bom July 28, 1852, 
at Dublin, began his career as a chorister at 
Armagh Cathedral. He received instruction 
from R. Turle, then organist there, in singing, 
organ, violin, and pianoforte. He became first 
tenor at St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, in 
1871, and was for a time a pupil of Joseph 
Robinson. He sang at one of the Philharmonio 
concerts in Dublin in 1874, and in the follow- 
ing year made his d^but at the Crystal Palace 
Concerts, July 5, 1875, after which he went to 
Milan and studied under Trevulsi. He reap- 
peared with success at the same concerts, Oct. 
28, 1876, where he first appeared as an oratorio 
singer in the *Lobgesang,' Nov. 8, 1877. He 
made his debut on the stage as Thaddeus under 
Carl Rosa at Birmingham, Sept. 10, 1880 ; at 
Dublin as Wilhelm Meister, May 9, 1881 ; in 
the same part at Her Majesty's, Jan. 20, 1882, 
and as Moro on the production in England of 
'The Painter of Antwerp,' an English version 
of Balfe's Italian opera 'Pittore e Duca,* Jan. 
28, 1882. He remained in Rosa's company 
both in London and the pro\dnces until the 
summer of 1887, and became a great favourite 
both as a singer and actor. His most important 
parts are Lohengrin, Faust, and Don Jos^ ; in 
new operas he created at Drury Lane the parts 
of Phoebus ('Esmeralda'), March 26, 1883; 
Orso ('Colomba'), April 9, 1888 ; Waldemar 
('Nadeshda'), April 16, 1885; Guillem de 
Cabestanh ('Troubadour'), June 8, 1886 ; Oscar 
('Nordisa'), May 4, 1887; at Edinburgh, 
Renzo on the production in English of Pon- 
chielli's ' Promessi Sposi,' and at Liverpool, Des 
Grieux (' Manon '), Jan. 17, 1886. He sang in 
opera in America in 1887-88, and rejoined the 
Carl Rosa Company from 1889 to 1896, adding 
to his repertory the part of Eleazar in 'La 
Juive,' and that of Thorgrim in Cowen's opera 
of that name, April 22, 1890. In 1889 he 
sang Lohengrin in Italian at Covent Garden with 
success. Mr. M'Guckin is extremely popular 
in the concert-room, and has sung at the Phil- 

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harmonic, the Crystal Palace, the Popular and 
Oratorio Concerts, and at the Handel and pro- 
vincial festivals. [After a successful tour in 
Ireland in 1903, he was appointed (in Sept. 
1 905) musical director of the Duhlin Amateur 
Operatic and Choral Society, w. h. g. f.I a. c. 

A species of ornamentation applied to Plain- 
song melodies, by means of extraneous notes 
inserted between those of the true Canto fermo, 
after the manner of what, in modern music, 
would bo calledjioritura. To the once prevalent 
custom of Maehicotage in Franco are to be attri- 
buted many of the corruptions observable in 
Gallican Office Books before the modem careful 
revisions. The Proeessumale Parisiense (Paris, 
1787) directs that the melodies shall be maehi- 
coUe by the Clergy, and continued by the Choir 
*■ 81716 niacieotaiico ' ; and in former times the 
Ecclesiastics entrusted with the duty of so 
singing them were called Maeeconiei or 
Machicots, w. s. n, 

MACIRONE, Clara Angela, bom Jan. 21, 
1821, in London, of an ancient Roman family. 
From 1889 to 1844 she studied at the Royal 
Academy of Music — the pianoforte under Cip- 
riani Potter and W. H. Holmes, composition 
under Lucas, and singing under Negri. On 
leaving the Academy the Council presented her 
with a special testimonial, and appointed her 
a Professor of the Pianoforte and an Associate. 
On June 26, 1846, she gave a concert at the 
Queen's Concert Rooms, Hanover Square, whenin 
addition to a creditable debut as a pianist, she 
appeared as the composer of a Benedictus, sung 
by Pischek, for which, in a letter dated April 8, 
1847, she received the congratulations of Men- 
delssohn. From 1872 to 1878 she was head 
music -mistress at Aske's School for Girls, 
Hatcham, and later at the High School for 
Girls, Baker Street. In addition she conducted 
a vocal society, the * Village Minstrels,' at her 
then residence. Park Village West, N."W. She 
is now living in retirement. Among her works 
may be named a Te Deum, an anthem, several 
part-songs, a suite for pf. and violin in E minor 
(played at the Musical Artists' Society, Nov. 16, 
1889, by herself and Mile. Gabrielle Vaillant), 
pianoforte pieces, and songs from the English, 
German, and Italian poets, etc. (Brown and 
Stratton, Baker, aud personal information to 
the writer.) a. c. 

MACEAY, Angus, a famous Highland piper, 
who collected and published some interesting 
pipe melodies taken down from traditionid 
sources. The book is now rare, and its title 
runs : * A Collection of Ancient Piobaireachd 
or Highland pipe music,' folio, 1888. Another 
of his w^orks is 'The Piper's Assistant.' He 
was piper to Queen Victoria, and was acci- 
dentally drowned in the Nith, near Dumfries, 
March 21, 1859. F. K. 

MACKENZIE, Sir Alexander Campbell, 

bora August 22, 1847, in Edinburgh, was the 
fourth musician of his family in direct descent. 
His great-grand father belonged to the Forfarshire 
Militia Band ; his grandfather, John Mackenzie 
(1797-1852), was a violinist in Aberdeen and 
Hklinburgh ; and his father, Alexander Mackenzie 
(1819-57), was also a violinist, pupil of Sainton 
and Lipinski. He edited the * National Dance 
Music of Scotland,' and was leader of the band 
at the Theatre Royal in Edinburgh. A. C. 
Mackenzie was educated at Hunter's School, 
and when only ten years old, was sent to study 
music at Schwarzburg-Sondershausen in G ermany 
on the recommendation of a member of GungTs 
band named Bartel. Here he was a pupil of 
K. W. Uhlrich for the violin, and for theory, 
of Eduard Stein, the conductor of the Sondei-s- 
hausen Ducal orchestra. The boy played second 
violin in the orchestra, and took part in many 
performances of the most advanced music, Liszt, 
Berlioz, and the then extant works of Wagner 
being his daily bread. In 1862 he returned to 
Edinburgh, and soon afterwards came to London 
intending to take lessons from Sainton ; but on 
his advice Mackenzie entered for the King's 
Scholarship at the Royal Academy of Music, 
and won it in December of the same year, 
remaining at the Academy till 1865. Besides 
Sainton, who taught him the violin, his masters 
were Charles Lucas for harmony and counter- 
point, and F. N. Jewson for piano. While at 
the Academy, Mackenzie played in various theatre 
orchestras, and thereby acquired experience of 
orchestral work at first hand. On the conclu- 
sion of his course at the Academy, Mackenzie 
returned to Edinburgh, where he quickly became 
known as an excellent violinist ; he also gave 
chamber concerts, at which Schumann's piano- 
forte quartet and quintet were given for the 
first time in Scotland. He was appointed con- 
ductor of the Scottish Vocal Music Association 
in 1878, and meanwhile fulfilled many teaching 
engagements, and officiated as precentor in St. 
George's Church. He found time to compose 
some chamber music, a PF. trio and string quartet 
(as yet unpublished), besides a pianoforte quartet 
in E flat, published by Kahnt of Leipzig as 
op. 11. 

Hans von Billow had seen the proof-sheets at 
the German publishers', and had made inquiries 
about the composer. When he came to Glasgow 
and Edinburgh in 1877-78, he made Mackenzie's 
personal acquaintance, and accepted his over- 
ture, * Cervantes * (performed at Sondershausen 
in 1877), for performance at Glasgow, where it 
was given on Dec. 17, 1879. As Mackenzie 
added to his other labours by playing in the 
orchestra of the Birmingham Festivals of 1864, 
1867, 1870, and 1878, it is not surprising that 
his health was afifected by the strain of his work. 
He wisely went abroad, and settled in Florence 
in order to devote himself to composition. For 
about ten years, in fact until his appointment 

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to the Royal Academy of Music, Florence was 
his residence for at least part of the year ; but 
as time went on, his importance in regard to 
music in London steadily increased, and at last 
he was obliged to live altogether in England. 
From the commencement of his residence in 
Florence dates the first of his more important 
choral works, the cantata, 'The Bride,' per- 
formed at the Worcester Festival of 1881. 
Each year after this saw some work of large 
calibre, and many festival and other com- 
missions followed rapidly. In 1885-86 Mac- 
kenzie was appointed conductor of Novello's 
Oratorio Concerts, and introduced many im- 
portant works to London audiences. It was 
primarily in order to hear his * Saint Elizabeth ' 
under Mackenzie's direction that Liszt paid his 
final visit to England in 1836, and Mackenzie 
renewed his old friendship with the composer. 
By this time, his second Scottish Rhapsody 
called * Bums,' the opera, * Colomba,' and * The 
Rose of Sharon,* an oratorio comiK)sed for the 
Norwich Festival of 1884, had raised Mackenzie 
to a high position among English composers, 
and on the death of Sir George Macfarren he 
was appointed to succeed him as principal of 
the Royal Academy of Music. He undertook the 
duties of the post on Feb. 22, 1888. He con- 
ducted the R^oyal Choral Society occasionally 
during the lifetime of Sir Joseph Barnby, on 
whose death he directed the concerts for the 
remainder of the season. In 1892 ho was ap- 
pointed conductor of the Philharmonic Society, 
and during his tenure of the post, which he 
resigned in 1899, introduced Tchaikovsky's 
Pathetic Symphony to London, as well as 
Borodin's Symphony in B minor. In 1903 he 
undertook a tour in Canada, in the course of 
which he conducted concerts of British music in 
all the most important towns of the Dominion. 
He received the Mus.D. degree from St Andrews, 
in' 1886 ; Cambridge in 1888 ; Edinburgh in 
1890 ; that of D.C.L. from Glasgow, 1901, and 
the M*Gill University in 1903 ; and that of 
LL.D. from Leeds in 1904. He received the 
gold medal for art and science from the Grand 
Duke of Hesse in 1884, and the Saxe-Coburg 
and Gotha Order for Arts and Science in 1893. 
He is a corresponding member of the Istituto 
Realo Musicale of Florence, and a member of the 
Royal Swedish Academy. In 1896 he was 
knighted. He has lectured repeatedly at the 
Royal Institution and elsewhere. 

It is peculiarly difficult in a few words to 
attempt the appreciation of Mackenzie's music. 
Like that of many other admirable composers, 
it has earned the epithet 'academic* from 
certain critics who are fond of employing that 
word as a term of indefinite abuse. But the 
work of an ' academic * musician would surely 
always reach, yet seldom or never surpass, one 
dead level of merit ; but with Mackenzie, as 
with all men of an ardent temperament, his 

best things surpass some of his others by a 
distance that is hard to estimate. He is at 
his best in dealing with subjects of a strongly 
imaginative or roniantic kind, and naturally 
his Scottish extraction makes northern themes, 
whether musical or poetical, thoroughly con- 
genial to him. In the two Scottish Rhapsodies, 
'The Cottar's Saturday Night,* the 'Pibroch' 
violin suite, some of the ' Marmion ' and ' Ravens- 
wood ' music, the violin pieces, * From the North, ' 
and the Scottish pianoforte concerto, op. 55, a 
very high poetical standard is reached ; in the 
orchestral ballad of ' La Belle Dame sans Merci,' 
the ' Story of Sayid,' and throughout the opera 
of 'Colomba, 'he shows himself a master of power- 
ful and sustained imaginative effort ; and in a 
lighter vein, the * Britannia ' overture, the comic 
opera, 'His Majesty,' and the orchestral suite, 
'London Day by Day,* tell of a genuine gift 
of distinctly musical humour, which in the case 
of the second of these works, was just a little 
too subtle for the audience for which it was 
intended. Of his larger sacred compositions, 
the highest place may possibly be claimed for 
his fine 'Veni Creator.* A complete list of 
Mackenzie's works is appended : — 


(With placM and dates ot first performanoe.) 

Trio, pf. and strings, in D (Claaslcal Chamber Conowls, Edinburgh, 

String Quartet In O (Do. 1879). 

Orerttire to a Comedy (pUyed under Julius Tkusch at DiUseldorf , 

Orerture, 'Cenrantes' (played under Max ErdmannsdOrfer, Bonders- 

hauaen. Itm, and under Bttlow. Glasgow, 1879.1. 
Boherso for orchestra (Glasgow, 1878). 



ar piano. 

irlstina Ronettl. 

1-7. Songs and pianoforte pleeea. 

8. Seven Part-Songs. 

9. Rustic Scenes for pf. 

10. Lr— »-"-—• '"Tgretto for Violoncello. 

11. Qi d strings in B flat (Claaslcal Chamber Con- 

12. So 

13. Fl 

14. Di 
1ft. Ti 
18. Tl 

17. Tl 

18. Tl 

19. Tl 
90. 81 

21. IUw|i-u<u» «^L.w-.lse. for orchestra. No. 1 (Glasgow, under 
Manns, Jan. 1880). 

22. Three Vocal Trice. 

23. • In the Scottish HighUnds,' for pf. 

24. ' Bums,' second Soottldi Rhapsody (Glasgow, under Manna, 

29. Cantata, ' The Bride ' (Worcester Festival, 1881). 
98. CanUta, ' Jason' (Bristol FesUval, 1882). 

27. Ihree Orsan Pieces. 

28. Open, 'Colomba' (Drury Lane, Carl Rosa Company, April 9. 

Opera. ' 

29. Orchestral Ballad, ' La Belle Dame sans Merol ' (Philharmonic, 

90. Oratorio. ' The Rose of Sharon ' (Norwich Festival, 18S4). 

31. Five Songs. 

32. Concerto for violin (Birmingham Festival, 1889, played by 

33. Opera, "The Troubadour' (Drury Lane, Carl Roaa Company, 
June 8. 1886). 

34. Cantata. ' The Story of Sayld ' (Leeds FesUval, 1886). 
39. Three Songs by 8hiJi:espeare. 

96. Jubilee Ode (Crystal Palace. 1887). 

37. Six Pieces for violin (Including ' Benedlctus'), (Monday Popular 
Concerts, played by L«dy HalU. 1888). 

38. Ode, 'The New Covenant' (Glasgow Exhibition, 1888). 

39. ' The Cottar's Saturday Night,' for chorus and orchestra. 

40. Overture, 'Twelfth Night' (Rlchter Concerts, 1888). 

41. Cantata. "The Dream of Jubal' (Liverpool Philharmunlc. 1889>. 

42. Suite for violin, ' Pibroch ' (Leeds Festival, played by Sarasate. 

43. Prelude. Entr'actes, and Songs for 'Marmion' (Glasgow, 1880; 
songs only published). 

44. Soring Bonn. 

49. Music to ' Ravenswood ' (Lyceum Theatre, 1890). 

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46. 'Tenl Creator/ tor cboraa, aolo qmurUt. and orohMiia (Ur- 

miusbam FMtival, lAU). 
€7. (a| Hlrhlaiid Ballad for rlolln and oreh. (WMtmlnatar OrehM* 

fetal aoeiaty. UBS). (6| Barearoll* and Villanalla for Tiolln. 
48. Two Choral Od« for BucliaBan'a ' Brlda of Lora ' (ISBSJ. 
4t». Oratorio, ' Bethlehem ' i Bojral Choral Society. lOM). 
80i Three SonneU of tthaketpeare. 

61. • Phcebe.' oomio opera bj & C. Stepheoeon (not performed). 
S2. Orertnre, 'Britannia' (Boyal Aoademy of Mneio Commemoia* 

tion Concert, Maj 17. 18MI. 
B3. ' Prom the North.' nine pieces for riolin and pf. (three of them 

were wored and played at the Philharmonic, 18B6;. 
54. Three SungB. 
80. Hootttah Concerto for pL and oroh. (Philharmonic, played by 

I'aderewekl. 1807). 
86. Coinie Opera. ' HU lfaj«i>ty ' (Saroy Theatre, Feb. 90. 1887). 

67. Overture. Bntr'aetce, and Incidental Mode to 'The Little 
Miniater ' (Haymarket Theatre. Not. 6, 1807). 

86. Thrae Preludee and Vooal Mnalc to ' Manfred ' (written fbr the 
L<foenin Theatre, but not performed). (Noa. 8 and S. ' Paatoml' 
and ' Plight of Splrita.' performed at the London Mualcal 
FwtlTal. 1880. No. 1, ' Aatarte,' performed at Arthur New- 
atMd'a Concert. Dec IS. IWL) 

09. PIve BeciUtlona with pL accompaniment. 

60. Six Bnatlc Songa. 

61. Prelndea. Entr'aetea, and Incidental Mnsio to 'Coriolanoa' 
(Lyceum Theatre, April IS, 1801). * 

08. Opera. 'The Cricket on the Hearth.' in three acta (Jnllan 

Stunia. not yet produced ; the overture waa played at the 

Fhllhannonie, July % 1808;. 
63. Coronation March. 
61 Suite for orcheatra. ' London Day by Day ' (Norwich Peettval, 

69. 'The Knigfato of the Boad,' operetU (Palaoe Theatre. Feb. 97, 


68. CanUta. 'The Wlteh'a Daughter' (Leeda PeaUna, Oct. 1904). 
67. Canadian Bhapeody for oreheatim (Philbannonic, 19QB). 

In addition to these there are many songs 
without opus numbers ; also the following : — 

Uorrla Dance and Prooeaalonal March tor orcheetra. 
' Firm in her natlra strength,' for chorna and orcheatra. 
' With wiadom, goodneaa. ginoe,' parVeong. 

* To Singera.' part^ong. 

The ' Willow Song,' from ' Othello.' 

• Indian B«Terie,' aonf (pnblldMd la i>Mfieft, Jan. 7. 1908). 


MACKINTOSH, John, bom in London, 
1767, an eminent performer on the bassoon, 
who from 1821 to 1835 held the first place in 
all the principal London and provincial or- 
chestras. He produced a full, rich, and power- 
ful, but somewhat coarse tone. [He died in 
London, March 23, 1844.] His son Alfhonso 
was a violinist. w. h. h. 

MACKINTOSH, Robert, a Scottish musi- 
cian and famous composer of Strathspey reels, 
etc., nicknamed * Red Rob.' He was from the 
Highlands (probably from the Vale of Athole), 
and was established as a musician in Skinner's 
Close, Edinburgh, in 1773. At various ad- 
dresses in the northern capital he advertised 
himself as teacher of the violin, and he organised 
concerts ; ultimately conducting the orchestra 
at the Theatre Royal. He removed to London 
in 1803, and died there in Feb. 1807. He 
was a clever violinist, and his Scottish dance 
music is of considerable merit. He published 
four books of compositions and arrangements 
as under : — 'Airs, Minuets, Gavottes, and Reels * 
(1788); 'Sixty-eight new Reels* (1792); a 
second book (1798) ; * A Third Book of Sixty- 
eight new Reels ' (1796) ; and * A Fourth Book 
of new Strathspey Reels,' circa 1804-6 ; all, 
except the last, which was published in London, 
being issued in Edinburgh, in folio. It is said 
that Mackintosh gave the first professorial 
lessons on the violin to Nathaniel Gow, on the 
latter's first coming to Edinburgh. 

Abraham Mackintosh, his son, was born 
in Edinburgh, June 16, 1769, and followed his 

father's profession. He published ' Thirty new 
Strathspey Reels,' Edinburgh, folio (1792), and 
some other works. He removed about the 
beginning of the 19th century to Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, where he was established in 1807 as 
a musician and a teacher of dancing. For 
many interesting details of the Mackintosh 
family, see the late Mr. John Glen's work, * The 
Glen Collection of Scottish Dance Music,' book 
L, 1891. F. K. 

M ACKLEAN, Charles, a violinist and com- 
poser who, living in Edinburgh in 1737, pub- 
lished in that year 'Twelve Solos or Sonatas 
for a Violin and Violoncello,' op. prima. R. 
Cooper, for the author, 1737. It is doubtful 
whether he is the same Charles M'Lean men- 
tioned on the title-page of 'A Collection of 
Favourite Scots Tunes ... by the late Mr. 
Chs. M'Lean and other eminent Masters,' ob. 
folio, circa 1772. This last-named collection 
is of some antiquarian interest. F. K. 

M'LEOD, Peter, according to Brit. Mus. 
Biog.t was bom at West Calder, Midlothian, 
May 8, 1797, and died at Bennington, near 
Edinburgh, Feb. 10, 1869. He published 
several collections of original airs to the words 
of Scottish poets, as 'Original National Melodies 
of Scotland'(1838), 'Original Scottish Melodies,' 
' New National Songs, the melodies never before 
published,' etc., and was the composer of many 
now favourite Scots songs, ' Oh ! why left I my 
hame?' being among the most famous of these. 
His collection of ' Original Scottish Melodies ' 
was published with a view to the completion of 
the Bums Monument in Edinburgh, and the 
profits of it enabled this to be effected. F. K. 

M'MURDIE, Joseph, Mus.B., bora in 1792 
in the parish of St. Bride, London, graduated 
at Oxford in 1814. He was a pupil of Crotch, 
and composed many glees (principally for the 
Concentores Sodales) and songs, and made 
numerous arrangements for the pianoforte. He 
was for some time a director of the Philhar- 
monic Society. He died at Merton, Surrey, 
Dec. 28, 1878. w. h. h. 

MAQON, LE. Op^ra-comique in three acts ; 
words by Scribe and Delavigne, music by Auber. 
Produced at the Op^ra Comique, May 3, 1826 ; in 
England at the St. James's Theatre, March 13, 
1850. a. 

MACPHERSON, Charles, born in Edin- 
burgh, May 10, 1870, the son of the burgh 
engineer and city architect. He entered the 
choir of St. Paul's Cathedral in 1879, and re- 
mained there till 1887, when he was appointed 
choirmaster under Dr. Pearce at St. Clement's, 
Eastcheap. Sir George Martin gave him organ- 
lessons during his residence in London. After 
holding the post of private organist to the late 
Sir Robert Menzies, at Weem, Perthshire, and 
Mme. de Falbe, Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire, in suc- 
cession, he was appointed in 1896 sub-organist of 
St. Paul's. He had entered the Royal Academy 

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of Music in 1890, and had won the Charles 
Lucas prize in 1892, becoming A.R.A.M. in 
1896. He is now teacher of harmony and 
counterpoint in the same institution. His 
compositions include a setting of Psalm cxxxvii. 
for choir and orchestra ; nine anthems and other 
church music ; three Gaelic melodies, accom- 
panied on strings and harp ; an overture, *Cridhe 
an Ghaidhil,' played at the Crystal Palace in 
1895; a Highland suite for orchestra; another 
suite, ' Hallowe'en ' ; a quartet for piano and 
strings in E flat ; and two movements of a 
sextet for wind instruments. His glee, * There 
sits a bird,' gained the prize given in 1893 by 
the Bristol Orpheus Glee Society. M. 

MACPHERSON, Charles Stewart, born 
at Liverpool, March 29, 1865, was educated at 
the City of London School, won the * Stemdale 
Bennett* open scholarship at the Royal Academy 
of Music, entering that institution in 1880. 
He was a pupil of Sir G. A. Macfarren for com- 
position, and of Walter Macfarren for the piano- 
forte. He gained the Balfe scholarship in 1 882, 
the Charles Lucas medal for composition in 
1884, and the Potter exhibition in 1885. At 
the conclusion of his studentship in 1887 he 
was appointed Professor of Harmony and Com- 
position, and an Associate of the institution, 
becoming a Fellow in 1892. He was appointed 
organist of Immanuel Church, Streatham Com- 
mon, in 1885, and in the same year became 
conductor of the Westminster Orchestral Society, 
a post which he held until 1902. He also 
conducted the Streatham Choral Society from 
1886 to 1904. In 1898 he was appointed 
examiner to the Associated Board of the RA.M. 
and R. C. M. , and in that capacity visited Canada, 
Australia, New Zealand, and Ceylon in 1900. 
In 1903 he succeeded Mr. Corder as Professor 
of Composition at the Royal Normal College 
for the Blind, and was appointed a member of 
the Board of Musical Studies in the University 
of London. He has lectured at the Royal 
Academy, the Normal College, and elsewhere. 
His works include a symphony in C, 1888 ; 
two overtures, and short pieces for orchestra, 
mostly written for the Westminster Orchestral 
Society. More important than these is a re- 
markably beautiful Mass in D for solo, choir, 
and orchestra, produced at St. James's Hall, 
May 1898. Many songs, pianoforte pieces, and 
services have been published ; and * Concerto 
alia fantasia' for violin and orchestra, was 
played at the Queen's Hall Promenade Concert, 
in 1904. His theoretical works are : Practical 
Harnwiiy ; 350 Exercises in Harmony^ etc. ; 
EvoliUion of MimcaJ Design ; Practical Counter- 
point, and Jiiidivicnis of Music. M. 

MACQUE, Jean de, a Flemish musician, 
pupil of Philip de Monte, who settled in Italy, 
living from 1576 to 1582 in Rome, and from 
1586 in Naples. Only in 1610 is he definitely 
named as being choirmaster to the Royal Chapel 

in Naples. His publications extend from 1576 
to 1618, and consist almost entirelyof madrigals, 
of \vhich there were two Books a 6, six a5, twoa4t, 
one a 4, five, six, and two Books entitled *Madri- 
galetti e Napolitane,' a 6. Some of these are 
now lost, and several have parts missing. A 
considerable number of his madrigals and a few 
motets were received into the various collections 
of the time. Two were adapted to English words 
in Yonge's 'Musica Transalpina' of 1588, and 
Morley's ' Italian Madrigals ' of 1598. J. K. M. 

MADIN (rede Madden), Henri, bom at 
Verdun, of Irish parents (from Eyrecourt, Co. 
Gal way), in 1698, developed a taste for music 
at an early age. His uncle, Rev. Dr. Ambrose 
Madden, of Loughrea, was advanced to the 
bishopric of Kilmacduagh (Ireland) on the 
nomination of the Pretender, James III., in 
1705. In 1730 we find Henri Madden a cleric, 
and maltre de musique in the Cathedral of 
Tours, a position which he vacated in 1737 for 
the more important one of deputy chapel-master 
to the King. He published a treatise on counter- 
point in 1742, and in 1744 was nominated 
maitre de chapelle to the King, in succession to 
Campra (see Campra, Andr6). Not only was 
he a good theorist, but he was also a successful 
choir -trainer, and composed many popular 
motets. His death occurred at Versailles in 
1748, aged fifty. w. h. g. f. 

MADRIGAL (Ital. Madrigale, Madriale, 
Mandriale). The derivation of the word has 
so hopelessly perplexed all who have attempted 
to trace it to its source that, until some new 
light shall be thrown upon the subject, further 
discussion would seem to be useless. We must, 
therefore, leave our readers to form their own 
judgment upon the four theories which have 
been most generally accepted ; namely, (1) that 
the word is derived from the Italian, niadre 
(mother), and signifies a poem addressed — as is 
said to have been the case >vith the first madri- 
gals — to Our Lady ; (2) that it comes from the 
Greek word, fidvSpa (Lat and Ital. mandra, a 
sheepfold), and was suggested by the generally 
pastoral character of the composition ; (3) that 
it is a coiTuption of the Spanish word, madru- 
gada (the dawn), and is used in Italian 
as the equivalent of Mattinata (a Morning 
Song) ; (4) that it owes its origin to the name of 
a town situated in Old Castile. On one point, 
however, all authorities are agreed ; viz. that 
the name was first given to a certain kind of 
poem, and afterwards transferred to the music 
to which it was sung — ^which music was always, 
during the best periods of art, written for three 
or more voices, in the ancient Ecclesiastical 
Modes, and without instrumental accompani- 

Our actual knowledge of the condition of the 
Madrigal before the invention of jninting is 
sadly imperfect ; but, in the absence of i)08itive 
evidence, analogy leaves us little cause to doubt 

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that its earlier phases must have corresponded, 
as closely as we know its later ones to have done, 
witli those of the Motet — for the application of 
Discant to secular melody must have suggested 
the one no less surely than its association with 
Plain -song gave birth to the other. The 
originators of this process were, in all probability, 
the Troubadours and Minnesingei-s, who so 
strongly influenced the progress of popular music 
in the Middle Ages ; and there is reason to be- 
lieve that the rarity of early MS. records is due 
to the fact that they were accustomed to sing 
their Discant extempore — or, as it was formerly 
called, alia meiUe, But long before this first 
glimmering of science resulted in the invention 
of Counterpoint the age of chivalry had passed 
away, and the minstrels, as a corporate body, 
had ceased to exist. Hence, the farther develop- 
ment of the Madrigal devolved upon the eccle- 
siastical musicians, who cherish^ it tenderly 
and brought all the resources of their art to 
bear upon it ; treating it, technically, exactly as 
they treated their compositions for the Church, 
though, in the aesthetic character of the two 
styles — founded on an instinctive perception of 
the contrast between sacred and profane poetry 
— they observed a marked difference. This we 
may readily understand from the description left 
us by Thomas Morley, who, writing in 1597, 
tells us, that, * As for the Musicke, it is next 
unto the Motet, the most artificiall and to men 
of Vnderstanding the most deligh tfuU. If there- 
fore you will compose in this Kind you must 
posscsse your selfe with an amorus humor (for in 
no exposition shall you proue admirable except 
you put on, and possesse your selfe wholy with 
that value wherein you compose) so that you 
must in your Musicke be waCering like the wind, 
sometime wanton, sometime drooping, sometime 
grade and staide, otherwhile effeminat, you may 
maintaine points and reuert them, vse triplaes, 
and shew the uttermost of your varietie, and the 
more varietie you show the better shall you 
please.' In the 16th century these directions 
were observed to the letter — so closely, that 
it would be difficult to give a more graphic 
sketch of polyphonic music in its secular dress 
than that conveyed by Morley's quaint expres- 

The most ancient specimen of secular poly- 
phonic music now known to exist is the famous 
canon, *Sumer is icumen in,' preserved, among 
the Harleian MSS. , in the British Museum. Its 
extreme antiquity is, indeed, indisputable ; but 
it can scarcely be called a Madrigal, uotwith- 
stAudiug the rustic character of its words. The 
true Madrigal is iwquestionably the offspring of 
the great Flemish schooL We hear of it, in the 
Low Countries, as early at least as the middle 
of the 16th century, when it was already well 
known to the Netherlanders in the form of a 
polyphonic song, often of very elaborate con- 
struction, and always written in strict conformity 

with the laws of the old Church Modes. These 
characteristics — which it retained to the last in 
all countries and through all scholastic changes — 
are unmistakable signs of its close relationship 
to the Motet, of which we have also ample proof, 
in the certainty that it originated in counter- 
point on a Canto fermo. As a general rule, this 
Canto fermo was naturally supplied by the melody 
of some popular Chanson ; but, just as we some- 
times find a popular melody intruding itself into 
the Mass, so in these early Madrigals we are 
occasionally startled by the apparition of some 
well-known fragment of severe Ecclesiastical 
Plain -song ; as in Agricola'a Belle tur tautes^ 
in which the lighter theme is almost profanely 
contrasted with that of Tola pulchra «, Maria 
— a combination which Ambros naively com- 
pares to the song of a pair of lovers, who 
quietly carry on their discourse in the two 
upper parts, while ^ holy monk lectures them 
in the bass. 

For the earliest published copies of these in- 
teresting works we are indebted to Ottaviano 
dei Petruoci — the inventor of the process by 
which music was first printed from movable 
types — whose three collections, entitled liar- 
monice mtmces Odhecaton. A, (Venice, 1501), 
Canti B, numero Cinquanta B, (ib, 1501), and 
Canii C, n*> cento cinquanta C, (ib, 1503), were 
long supposed to be lost, and now only exist in 
the form of unique copies of the first and second, 
preserved in the Library of the Liceo Filarmonico 
at Bologna, and a splendidly bound exemplar of 
the third in the Hofbibliothek at Vienna. In 
these precious volumes we find a copious selec- 
tion from the secular works of Busnois, Oke- 
ghem, Johannes Tinctor,Hobrecht, Regis, Caron, 
Josquin des Pr6s, Alexander Agricola, Brumel, 
Pierre de la Rue, and twenty-nine other writei-s, 
whose Chansons illustrate the first period in the 
history of the Flemish Madrigal — a period no 
less interesting than instructive to the critical 
student, for it is here that; we first find science 
and popular melody working together for a 
common end. 

The second period, though its printed records 
date only thirty-five years later, shows an im- 
mense advance in art. Its leading spirits, 
Jacques Arcadelt, Philipp Verdelot, Giaches 
de Wert, Huberto Waelrant, and some other 
writers of their school, were not only accom- 
plished contrapuntists, but had all learned the 
difficult art of resti-aining their ingenuity within 
due bounds, when simplicity of treatment was 
demanded by the character of the words they 
selected for their theme. Hence, they have left 
us works, which for purity of style and graceful 
flow of melody can scarcely be exceeded. Arca- 
delt, though a true Fleming by taste and educa- 
tion as well as by birth, spent much of his time 
in Italy, and published his First Book of Madri- 
gals at Venice in 1538, with such success, that 
within eighty years it ran through no less than 

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sixteen editions. Five other books followed 
containing, besides his own works, a number by 
other celebrated writers, among whom, however, 
he stands his ground nobly. From a copy of the 
fourth edition of the First Book, preserved in the 
British Museum, we transcribe a few bars of one 
of the loveliest Madrigals he ever wrote— i/ 
biaTico e dolce cigno — which, we should imagine, 
needs only publication in an attainable form in 
order to become a favourite with every Madrigal 
Society in England.^ 

The few concluding bars of this contain some 
imitations, the smoothness of which is perfectly 
delicious : — 

gp l>< | V .-=I7=Z . 

Dima-l*. etc 'I I , 

Though a far less prolific writer than Area- 
del t, Waelrant was a true genius and a true 

1 The only OKMlern edition with which we are acquainted is trans- 
p wed a third, and adapted to Bngllsh words in which no translation 
of the original Italian la attempted ; conacquently. the Muaic and 
the Poetry arc at crou purposes from bt^iiiuijig to end. 

disciple of the good old Flemish schooL His 
Symphonia Angelica printed at Antwerp in 
1594 contains compositions by some of the 
best of his contem|)oraries ; but none more 
beautiful than his own Vorrei •nurrire — well 
known in England and frequently sung, as 
'Hard by a fountain,' though the English 
words make no attempt to convey the meaning 
of the original Italian. Of Verdelot's numerous 
works, very few, unhappily, liave been handed 
down to us with all the |»rts complete ; we 
possess, however, quite enough of his writings 
to prove that, like his great contem|x>rary, 
Giaches de Wert, he was deeply imbued uith 
the national style ; which, from first to last, 
was clear in its construction, smooth in its 
flow of melody, euphonious in its harmonic 
combinations, and, though less rich in contra- 
puntal embroidery than the later Italian schools, 
never wanting either in interest or in anima- 
tion. The last great composer by whom this 
peculiar style was cultivated, iu northern 
Europe, was Orlando di Lasso, who, thougli his 
fame rests chiefly upon his ecclesiastical music, 
has left us many books of splendid madrigals, 
which may almost be said to form, of them- 
selves, a third period. With him, the school 
of the Netherlands came to an end. But long 
before his death the Madrigal had been ti*ans- 
planted to other countries ; and in Italy 
especially, it took firm root, and bore abundant 

The first really great Italian Madrigal- writer 
was Gostanzo Festa, whose delicious Quando 
ritrovo la mia pastorella^ printed in Arcadelt's 
Third Book, has enjoyed a greater degree of 
popularity, in England, under its familiar title, 

* Down in a flowery vale,' than any other work 
of the kind that ever was im|K>rted hither.* 
This fine composition bears evident traces of 
the Flemish manner ; as do, more or less, all 
the works belonging to what may be called the 
first Roman Period. In tlie second period 
this foreign influence was entirely destroyed, 
and the true Roman style inaugurated by the 
appearance of Palestrina's * Primo libro di Mad- 
rigali a quattro voci,' in 1666, followed by a 

* Libro secondo,' in 1586, and two books of 
'Madrigali spirituali,' in 1681, and 1594 — the 
year of the great composer's death. It may be 
well said, that iu these four volumes Palestrina 
has shown his command over all styles. The 
character of the *Madrigali spirituali' — more 
serious than that of the Chanson, but less so 
than that of the motet — shows a deep appreciation 
of the diflerence which should always subsist 
between ordinary sacred music and music 
intended to be actually used in the services of 
the church. The spirit of the secular madrigals 
changes every moment with the sense of the 
words. The second volume (that of 1586) 

* In the Enffliah edition — admirably tranalated by Thnniaa 
Oliphant— the time of the nioTmneut has been very unJiuUflablj 
changed from four minima to four crotchets in a a 

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coDtains a more than usually beautiful example 
— Alia riva del Tebro—in which the grief of a 
despairing lover is described in discords as 
hanh as any that we are accustomed to hear 
in the works of the most modem composers. 
Yet eyeiy one of these discords is prepared and 
resolyed, in accordance with the strictest laws 
of counterpoint ; and these veiy laws are used 
as yehicles for the expression of all that music 
can ever be made to express. For instance, 
the lovely cadence at the word morU, when 
sang with the necessary rUardando, tells, more 
plainly than any verbal explanation could 
possibly have done, how all such woes as those 
alluded to are healed for ever by death : — 

a;»^ j*'y-^^4^sKf^-;hjn- 

dd - ]amla»-«er4»e x» 

eg»r rr::^:^-^ -^^^ 

Such works as these naturally excited the 
emulation of contemporary composers, and led 
each one to do his best for the advancement of 
a style so new and captivating. Palestrina's 
example was worthily imitated by his successor 
in office, Felice Anerio, whose three volumes of 
' Madrigali spirituali,' printed at Rome in 1585, 
were succeeded by two books of secular madri- 
gals of exquisite beauty, and a charming set of 
Canzonette for three and four voices issued in 
1603. Francesco Anerio, and the brothers, 
Giovanni Maria and Bernardino Nanini, con- 
tributed a large store of volumes of equal 
merit. Ruggiero Giovanelli turned his genius 
to good account ; and the Roman school, now 
in its highest state of perfection, boasted many 
other madrigalists of superlative excellence. 
Foremost among these stood Luca Marenzio, 
who devoted his best energies to the advance- 
ment of secular art, producing nine books of 
madrigals for five voices between the years 
1580 and 1589, six, for six voices, within a 
very few years afterwards, and many later ones, 
all of which were so well appreciated that, even 
during his lifetime, he was honoured with the 
well-earned title of II piit dolce Cigno d* IlcUia, 

The style of this 'Sweetest Swan' was, by 
nature, a little less grave than that of Pales- 
trina ; but, like that great master, he possessed 
the happy faculty of accommodating it to all 
])ossible circumstances, and did so with such 
unvarying success, that he may be justly re- 
garded as the most satisfactory representative 
of the third Roman period. His little madrigal, 
Vezzosi augdlij scored by P. Martini, in the 
second volume of his Saggio di Contrappunto, is 
a miracle of prettiness, and contrasts strangely 
enough with the deep sadness displayed in the 
opening bars of his Ahi ! dispieUUa morte ! 

But it was not in Rome alone that the 
Madrigal was cultivated with success. It found 
an equally congenial home in Venice, where it 
was tirat introduced by Adrian Willaert, who, 
though by birth and education a Fleming, did 
so much for the city of his adoption that he is 
universally represented as the founder of the 
great Venetian school. His influence, and that 
of his countryman and faithful disciple, Ciprian 
de Rore, may be traced throughout its entire 
course, from beginning to end. Even in the 
works of Giovanni Croce it is clearly perceptible, 
notwithstanding the marked individuality which 
places the stamp of independent genius on 
everything he wrote. Andrea Gabrieli, and 
his nephew, Giovanni, Fra Costanzo Porta, and 
Orazio Vecchi, were all deeply imbued with 
the same spirit ; Hans Leo Hosier carried it to 
Nuremberg, where it wrought a good and last- 
ing work ; and Gastoldi — believed by Moriey 
to have been the inventor of the * Fa la ' — was 
really no more than the exponent of an idea 
which had already been freely used by Willaert, 

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and more than one of his immediate followers. 
It m&y, in truth, be said that Flemish art 
failed to attain its full maturity, until it was 
transplanted from the Netherlands to Venice. 
All honour. to the great republic for develop- 
ing its rich resources. It was a glorious 
trust committed to her ; and she fultiUed it 

In Florence the Madrigal attained a high 
degree of popularity — at first in the form of 
the Frottola, which, Cerone tells us, is to be 
distinguished from the true madrigal by the 
poverty of its contrapuntal artifices — afterwards, 
in the more fully developed productions of 
Francesco Cortecoiat Matteo RampolUni, Pietro 
Masacconi, and Bacoio Moschini. But its course 
here was brought to an untimely close by a 
growing passion for instrumental accompani- 
ment which entirely destroyed the old Floren- 
tine love for pure vocal music. In Naples it 
flourished brilliantly; though rather in the 
shape of the Villanella — the Neapolitan equiva- 
lent of Gastoldi's Fa la — than in a more serious 
guise. In France it was but slightly prized, not- 
withstanding the number of Chansons adapted, 
by the early Netherlanders, to well-known 
specimens of French popular poetry ; and in 
Germany it failed to supplant the national 
taste for the Volksliedy >vith which it had very 
little in common, and which, before the middle 
of the 16 th century, was itself pressed into the 
service of tiie all-absorbing Chorale. But In 
England it took root as firmly as ever it had 
done, either in Rome or in Venice, and gave 
rise to a national school which is well able to 
hold its own against any rival. The old canon, 
* Sumer is icumen in, ' has been cited as a proof 
that polyphonic music originated in England. 
This position cannot be maintained. The be- 
ginnings of Counterpoint have, hitherto, eluded 
all inquiry. But we have already shown that 
the Madrigal was invented in the Netherlands ; 
and tliat the first published fruits of its dis- 
covery were issued at Venice in 1501. The 
first polyphonic songs that appeared in England 
were printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1530, 
in a volume of the existence of which neither 
Bumey nor Hawkins seems to have been aware, 
though it contains a highly interesting collection 
of works, both sacred and secular, by Taverner 
and other English composers. No second col- 
lection ap|)eared till 1571, when a volume of 
much inferior merit was printed for Thomas 
Whythorne by John Daye. In 1588, William 
Byrd issued his first book of * Psalmes, Sonets, 
and Songs of sadnes and pietie ' : and, in the 
same year, Nicholas Youge — a merchant, who 
obtained a rich store of madrigals from his 
Italian correspondents — published, under the 
title of * Musica Transalpina,' a volume contain- 
ing more than fifty pieces, selected from the 
works of Noe Faigneant, Rinaldo del Mel, Giachcs 
de Wert, Cornelius Verdonck, Palestrina, Luea 

Marenzio, and several more of the best Flemish 
and Italian composers of the day. In the 
preface to this volume the word Madrigal is 
used (to the best of our belief) for the first 
time in England. The compositions selected 
by the worthy merchant are all adapted to 
English verses, in which, though the diction is 
sometimes sufficiently uncouth, the rhythm and 
sense of the original Italian are often carefully 
imitated ; and to the zeal of their enthusiastic 
collector, who had them constantly sung at his 
house, we are mainly indebted for the favour 
with which, from that time forth, the Madrigal 
was universally received in this country. Nine 
years later Yonge ventured upon a second col- 
lection. Meanwhile, Byrd had already published 
another volume of original compositions, under 
the title of ' Songs of sundrie natures,' in 1589 ; 
in 1590, Thomas Watson had edited a 'Sett of 
Italian Madrigalls Englished, not to the sense 
of the originall dittie, but after the affection 
of the Noate ' ; and between 1593 and 1595 
Thomas Morley had produced two books of 
Canzonets, one of 'Madrigals to foure Voyces,' 
and one of Ballets. The number of publications, 
therefore, was increasing rapidly. 

By this time the Madrid had fairly estab- 
lished itself as a national institution ; and 
English composers did all tliat in them lay to 
biing it to perfection. The most noted among 
them seemed never tired of producing new 
works. Simultaneously with Yonge'a second 
collection — that is, in 1597 — appeared two 
original sets of great importance, one by 
Thomas Weelkes, the other by George Kirbye. 
In the same year Morley issued a third and 
fourth volume of Canzonets ; and John Dowland 
delighted all Europe with his ' First Booke of 
Songes or Ayres of foui-e parts. * Wilbye's first 
book appeared in 1598, and Bonnet's in 1599. 
In 1601 Morley edited a famous volume 
entitled * The Triumphes of Oriana,' containing 
Madrigals for five and six voices, by Michael 
Este, Weelkes, Bennet, Hilton, Wilbye, and 
sixteen other comiK>ser8 besides himself. [See 
Oriana.] Michael Este published a volume of 
his own in 1604, another in 1606, and a third 
in 1610. Bateson's two books were issued in 
1604 and 1618. Dowland 's second book ap- 
peared in 1600, his third in 1603, and his 
'Pilgrimes Solace' in 1612. Thomas Ford 
printed two books of 'Musicke of sundrie 
Kindes' in 1607, and Wilbye his second book 
in 1609 ; Orlando Gibbons produced his first 
(and only) volume of * Madrigals and Motets ' 
in 1612 ; and even as late as 1630 — exactly a 
century after the publication of Wynkyn de 
Worde's curious volume — a book of * Mottects ' 
(all really Madrigals, though with instrumental 
accompaniments ad libilum) was given to the 
world by Martin Pierson. 

Rich collections of these rare old editions — 
including many volumes which we have not 

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spaoe to particularise — are preserved in the 
Libraries of the British Museum, the Sacred 
Harmonic Society, and the Universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge ; and many of the most popular 
madrigals have been reprinted in a modem form 
over and over again. ^ It is difficult to decide 
upon the comparative merits of particular works, 
where the general standard of excellence is so 
high, and the number so great An endless 
variety of styles is observable, even to the most 
superficial inquirer ; but carehil analysis proves 
this to be rather the result of individual feeling, 
than an index to the prevailing taste at any 
given epoch. The history of the school, there- 
fore, must be comprised, like our notice of the 
Venetian Madrigal, within the limits of a single 
period ; and we shall best illustrate it by 
selecting a few typical works for separate 

Byrd's madrigals are sometimes constructed 
upon a very elaborate plan, and abound in points 
of ingenious and delightful imitation, as do those 
of Weelkes, Gobbold, and Wilbye, and their con- 
temporaries, Kirbye and Bateson — witness the 
following beautiful passage from the last-named 
composer's contribution to * The Triumphes of 
Oriana ' — 

Hwran Utw O • il • k-iia, etCi 

In H«aTtn Urm, «ta 

Morley, Hilton, and Michael Este preferred a 
lighter vein, and produced some of the most 
delicious Fa las which remain to us. Among 
those who affected ' Ayres' and Canzonets, John 
Dowland incontestably holds the first place. His 
* Awake, sweet Love * and * Now, oh ! now, I 

I It la mmh to b« regretted that m few modem edlton think it 
vorth while to mention the Mniroe whence their reprints are'derf red : 
or eren to rive the original namee of Flemish or Italian Madrigals. 
Still more deeply to be deplored is the miwhieroos sTstem of trans- 
poeition, now so oonunon. which frequently destroys all trace of the 
compoeer's Intention, and always prevents the tyro from ascertain- 
ing the Mode In which a given Madrigal is written. As Madrigals 
must always be sung without accompaniment, transpoaitiou in the 
book is wholly unmeaning, and helps no one, 

VOL. Ill 

needs must part,' are gems of art — perfect iii 
their simplicity, yet no less masterly in design 
than tender in expression. Orlando Gibbons and 
a charming composer of earlier date — Richard 
Edwards — wrote like bom Netherlanders. A 
more interesting comparison than that between 
the two following examples, and the extracts 
already given from Arcadelt*s Bianco e dolee 
Oigno can scarcely be imagined. 

The Silver Svxm, 

Orlando Gibbous. 

In going to my naked bed, 

Richard Edhvardes (I5M). 

The falling p 
The fall-ing out 



nawingia of 

After the second decade of the 17th century, 
no work of any lasting reputation was produced, 
and the style soon fell into neglect. Under the 
Stuart dynasty polyphonic song lost much of 
its popularity, and the civil war crushed out 
all artistic feeling ; but art lived on, and in 
due time the Madrigal, forgotten in Flanders, 
and replaced in Italy by a new kind of chamber 
music with instrumental accompaniment, merged 
gradually in England into the Glee— a kind of 
composition cultivated in no other country, and 
of far higher (esthetic value than its German 
representative, the Part-song. The writer who 


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— no doubt unconsciously — helped, more than 
any other, to prepare the way for this great 
change was Thomas Ford, whose lovely can- 
zonets, * Since first I saw your face,' and * There 
is a Ladie sweete and kind,' hold a position 
as nearly as possible midway between the 
Madrigal and the Glee, breathing all the spirit 
of the one, while introducing progressions only 
permissible in the other. It is, however, worthy 
of remark — though the fact seems, hitherto, to 
have escaped notice — that intervals, forbidden 
by the strict laws of Counterpoint, were tolerated 
in England at an earlier period than on the 
continent Wilbye used the diminished triad 
with a boldness which would have made Anerio's 
hair stand on end. Such licenses as these once 
permitted, the substitution of modem tonalities 
for the Ecclesiastical Modes followed as a matter 
of course — and this accomplished, the change 
from the Madrigal to the Glee was complete. 
[The art of madrigal- writing, in abeyance since 
the death of Pearsall, has revived in modem 
times ; the collection printed in celebration 
of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, under 
the title of ' Choral Songs in Honour of Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria' (1899), contains thir- 
teen examples by various English composers, 
many of which are excellent specimens of the 

Having traced the history of the Madrigal 
thus far, it remains only to say a few words as 
to the manner of its performance. 

It is absolutely indispensable that it should 
be sung without any instrumental accompani- 
ment whatever ; and, unlike the Glee (which is 
always performed by solo voices), it is most 
effective when entrusted to a moderately fuU, 
but not too numerous chorus. Changes of tone, 
embracing every shade of difference between ff 
and ppp, and introduced, sometimes by the 
most delicate possible gradations, and sometimes 
in strongly marked contrast, will be continually 
demanded, both by the character of the music 
and the sense of the words ; and remembering 
how earnestly Morley insists ujwn *varietie,' 
the student will be prepared to learn that 
ritardandi and aecelerandi will be scarcely less 
frequently brought into requisition. Neverthe- 
less, strict mechanical precision must be secured 
at any cost. The slightest uncertainty, either 
of intonation or of rhythm, will suffice to ruin 
everything ; and to draw the line fairly between 
intensity of expression and technical perfection 
is not always an easy matter. There is, indeed, 
only one way of overcoming the difficulty. To 
imagine Damon regulating his love-Iora ditty 
by the tick of a metronome would be absurd. 
The place of the metronome, therefore, must be 
supplied by a conductor capable of fully sympa- 
thising either with Damon's woes or Daphne's 
fond delights, but wholly incapable of showing 
the least indulgence to his singers, who must 
learn to obey the rise and fall of his baton, 

though it move but a hair's-breadth in either 
dii^ction iv s H— 

MADEIGAL SOCIETY. Founded in 1741 
by John Immyns, a member of the Academy of 
Ancient Music, the Madrigal Society eigoys the 
distinction of being the oldest musical associa- 
tion in Europe. Its first meetings were held 
at the Twelve Bells in Bride Lane, whence it 
removed to the Anchor and Crown, Whitefriars, 
as proved by the earliest minute-book in the 
Society's library, dated 1744. In 1745 the 
Society removed to the Founders' Arms, Loth- 
bury, where rules were adopted limiting the 
number of members to sixteen, with an admis- 
sion fee of 8s. and a subscription of 3s. per 
quarter. Having returned for a time to the 
Twelve Bells, its original home, the Society 
afterwards migrated to the Queen's Arms, New- 
gate Street, in 1 748, when the rales were revised. 
One rule enacted 'That all musical performances 
shall cease at half an hour after ten o'clock, 
unless some of the members shall be cheerfully 
incited to sing catches, in which case they 
shall be indulged half an hour, and no longer.' 
Numerous fines were imposed for such offences 
as the retention of books from the Society's 
library ; and any member eating his supper, or 
a part thereof, during practice time was to 
forfeit sixpence, to be applied to buying ruled 
paper. The performance on each night was to 
be divided into two 'acts,' with an interval of 
half an hour, and in each act four madrigals 
were to be sung. Between 1750- and 1757 
additional rules were adopted, by one of which 
each member, to whose turn it came to serve as 
President, was bound to present a score and 
parts of a madrigal ready for performance, or 

* to forfeit a penny extraordinary to the plate ' 
every night until he did so. By another rule 
any gentleman who had been educated in, or 
at the time belonged to, any cathedral or choir 
was to be admitted to visit the Society at his 
pleasure ; and a similar privilege was accorded 
to any of * the gentlemen of the Academy of 
Ancient Music* Membership was confined to 
persons belonging to cathedral choirs, or those 

* vouched for by two or more members of the 
Society as being capable of singing their part 
in concert both in time and in tune/ ; and others 
proposed for election were required, by way of 
probation, to sing between the acts their projier 
parts in an ancient madrigal for three or four 
voices, or some two-part song to be sung with 
double voices. TheSociety at this time(l 749-50) 
met every Wednesday evening, and consisted 
of twenty-one members, who subscribed 4s. 6d. 
a quarter. According to Sir John Hawkins 
(who was himself a member) *niost of them 
were mechanics, some weavers from Spitalfields, 
others of various trades and occupations, who 
were well versed in the practice of Psalmody, 
and who, with a little pains and the help of 
the ordinary solmisation, which many of them 

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were very expert in, became soon able to sing 
almost at sight a part in an English or even 
an Italian madrigal. They aUo sang catches, 
rounds, and canons, though not elegantly, yet 
with a degree of correctness that did justice to 
the harmony ; and, to vary the entertainment, 
Immyns -would sometimes read, by way of 
lecture, a chapter from Zarlino, translated by 
himself. They were men not less distinguished 
by their love of vocal harmony than by the 
harmless simplicity of their tempers and by 
their friendly disposition towards each other.' 
At times they took country excursions, and the 
minutes record that on Whit -Monday, 1751, 
' the party proceeded up the river, breakfasting 
At Wandsor (Wandsworth), dining at Richmond, 
besides stopping to whet their whistles at Mort- 
lack (Mortlake).' In 1764 Mr. Immyns died. 
In 1768 the subscription was raised to 8s. a 
quarter, the number of members being about 
thirty, and it was agreed to hold an entertain- 
ment for their friends once at least every year. 
In 1769 the Society removed to the Feathers 
Tavern, Cheapside ; in 1775 to the King's Arms, 
Oornhill ; in 1778 they were at the Half Moon, 
Oheapside, and the London Tavern ; in April 
1792, at the King's Head in the Poultry ; in 
May 1792, at the Globe, Fleet Street ; and in 
1795 removed to the Grown and Anchor, when 
the charge for supper, *on account of the 
^vance in wine,' was raised to 2s. 6d. for 
members, 4s. for visitors, and 3s. for professors. 
Festival dinners were held in 1798, 1802, 1803, 
and 1809, and were continued at intervals, and 
in 1876 ladies dined at the festival for the first 
time. In 1814 the subscription was raised to 
£3, and in 1816 the charge for supper, includ- 
ing a pint of wine, was fixed at 6s. On Sept. 
27, 1821, the supper meeting, after being held 
for eighty years, gave place to a monthly dinner, 
held, successively, at the Freemasons' Tavern, 
Willis's Rooms, and the Holbom Restaurant 
during the season, which then lasted from 
October to July, but now numbers six meetings, 
commencing in November. In 1 8 1 1 was offered 
for the first time a prize of a silver cup, value 
ten guineas, ' for the best madrigal in not less 
than four nor more than six parts, the upper 
part or parts to be for one or two treble voices. 
The character of the composition to be after 
the manner of the madrigals by Bennet, Wilbye, 
Morley, Weelkes, Ward, Marenzio, and others, 
and each part to contain a certain melody either 
in figure or imitation ; therefore, a melody 
harmonised will be inadmissible.' W. Beale's 
' Awake, sweet muse,' and W. Hawes's * Philo- 
mela' were selected for a final ballot from 
fourteen compositions sent in, which included 
S. Wesley's * sing unto my roundelay,' and 
W. Linley's *Ah me, quoth Venus.* The 
j)rize was given to Beale. The earlier members 
included Immyns, the founder, by profession 
an attorney, afterwards appointed lutenist to the 

Chapel Royal and amanuensis to Dr. Pepusch ; 
Dr. John Worgan, organist and composer ; Sir 
John Hawkins, the musical historian (elected 
1752) ; Rev. G. Torriano and Jonathan Battis- 
hill, the composer (elected 1757); E. T. Warren, 
editor of the Glee Collection (1762) ; Dr. Ame 
and his son Michael, and Luffman Atterbury, 
composer of the glee *Gome, let us all a-Maying 
go' (1765); Theodore Aylward, one of the 
assistant directors at the Handel Commemora- 
tion of 1784 (1769) ; Joah Bates, the conductor 
of the Handel Commemoration (1774) ; Dr. B. 
Cooke, organist of Westminster Abbey (1778) ; 
James Bartleman (1793); J. P. Street, Librarian 
and many years Father of the Society ; R J. S. 
Stevens, the Gresham Professor, and W. Horsley, 
the glee -writer (1798); Reg. Spoflbrth, the 
glee-writer, and Robert Cooke, master of the 
Westminsterchoristers(1802) ; W. Beale(1805) ; 
Dr. Callcott (1806); W. Hawes and W. Linley 
(1809) ; G. £. Williams, organist of Westminster 
Abbey (1814) ; Sir J. L. Rogers, Bart., and 
T. Greatorex, organist of Westminster Abbey 
(1819) ; J. T. Cooper (1825) ; Jonathan Nield, 
Rev. W. J. Hall (1828) ; P. J. Salomons, 
(1829) ; Vincent Novello and Thomas Oliphant, 
afterwards secretary (1880) ; J. W. Hobbs, J. 
Calkin (1831) ; G. Cooper, deputy organist of 
St. Paul's, James Turle, organist of Westminster 
Abbey (1 832). Up to 1 820 the members presided 
in rotation, but in that year it was resolved to 
appoint Sir J. L. Rogers as permanent president. 
The office has since been fiUed by Lord Saltoun, 
1842-53; Sir George Clerk, Bt., 1853-66; 
Prince Dhuleep Singh, 1867-71 ; Thomas Oli- 
phant, 1871-73 ; Hon. and Rev. H. Legge, 
1874-77. [The Earl Beauchamp was appointed 
in 1878, and succeeded in 1892 by the Duke 
of Beaufort, on whose retirement in 1896 Mr. 
Otto Goldschmidtwas appointed. Sir A. Sullivan 
was president for the last year of his life^ 1899- 
1900. Lord Alverstone succeeded him in 1901, 
and was succeeded by Sir Frederick Bridge in 
1904. In Nov. 1905 Mr. J. Edward Street, 
the Hon. Secretary (see below), was apjwinted 
President.] The Librarians have been ; J. P. 
Street, 1792-1848; John Bishop, 1849-70; 
C. D. Budd, 1871-78 ; J. C. Meek, 1879-88, 
E. Ernest Cooper, 1888. The conductors or 
musical directors permanently appointed since 
W. Hawes, 1809-46, have been : James Turle, 
1846-49 ; James King, 1849-54 ; Cipriani Potter, 
1855-70; Otto Goldschmidt, 1871-77; Sir 
John Stainer, 1878-87 ; Sir J. F. Bridge, 1887 
to the present time. Dr. John Hullah, Sir 
J. F. Bridge, and Mr. Eaton Faning, were 
assistant conductors since 1878. Under the 
present rules the Society consists of forty 
members, elected by ballot, the subscription 
(including dinner fees) being five guineas, and 
for professional members three guineas, c. m. 
[From 1881 two prizes, Mr. T. Molineux's of 
£10 and the Society's of £5, were awarded 

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annually until 1889, and triennially from 
1891. Mr. Kellow J. Pye was treasurer until 
1893, being succeeded by Mr. Chas. T. D. 
Crews, who still holds the office. The office 
of hon. sec, held from July 1871 by Mr. J. 
Edward Street, is now filled by his son, Mr. 
Oscar W. Street] 

MAELZEL, JoHANN Nepomuk, bom Aug. 
15, 1772, at Ratisbon, son of an organ-builder. 
In 1792 he settled in Vienna, and devoted him- 
solf to teaching music, and to constructing an 
automaton instrumentof flutes, trumpets, drums, 
cymbals, triangle, and strings struck by ham- 
mers, which played music by Haydn, Mozart, 
and Grescentini, and was sold for 3000 florins. 
His next machine was the Panharmonicon, like 
the former, but with clarinets, violins, and violon- 
cellos added. It was worked by weights acting 
on cylinders, and was exhibited in Viennain 1804. 
Maelzel then bought Kempelen's Chessplayer ; 
and took it with the Panharmonicon to Paris. 
The Chessplayer he afterwards sold to Eugene 
Boanharnais. He next constructed a Trumpeter, 
which played the Austrian and French cavalry 
marches and signals, with marches and allegros 
by Weigl, Dussek, and Pleyel. In 1808 he was 
appointed court mechanician, and about that 
time made some ear tinimpets, one of which 
Beethoven used for years. In 1812 he opened 
the 'Art Cabinet,' among the attractions of 
which were the Trumpeter and a new and en- 
larged Panharmonicon ; and s«on afterwards 
made public a musical chronometer, an improve- 
ment of a machine by Stockel, for which he 
obtained certificates from Beethoven and other 
leading musicians. Maelzel and Beethoven were 
at this time on very friendly terms. They had 
arranged to visit London together, and Maelzel 
had meantime aided the great master in his 
impecuniosity by urging on him a loan of 60 
ducats in gold. In order to add to the 
attractions of the Panharmonicon, which they 
proposed to take with them, Maelzel conceived 
and sketched in detail the design^ of a piece to 
commemorate the battle of Vittoria (June 21, 
1813), which Beethoven composed for the 
instrament. While it was being arranged on 
the barrel, Maelzel further induced him to score 
it for the orchestra, with the view to obtain 
funds for the journey ; and it was accordingly 
seorod, and performed at a concert on Dec. 8, 
1813, the programme of which consisted of the 
Symphony No. 7 ; the marches of Dussek and 
Pleyel, by the automaton, and the Battle-piece. 
The concert was repeated on the 12th, and the 
two yielded a net profit of over 4000 florins. At 
this point Beethoven took offence at Maelzel's 
having announced the Battle-piece as his 
property, broke completely with him, rejected 
the Trumpeter and his marches, and held a third 
concert (Jan. 2, 1814) for his own sole benefit 
After several weeks of endeavour to arrange 

1 MoschelM, note to bis SchindJer, i. 154. 

matters, Maelzel departed to Munich with his 
Panharmonicon, including the Battle-piece, and 
also with a full orchestral score of the same, which 
he had obtained without Beethoven's concurrence 
and caused to be performed at Munich. Beet- 
hoven on this entered an action against him in 
the Vienna courts, and it is his memorandum of 
the grounds of the action, as prepared for his 
advocate, which is usually entitled his * de- 
position. '^ He further addressed a statement^ 
to the musicians of London, entreating them not 
to countenance or support Maelzel. The action 
came to nothing, and Maelzel does not appear 
to have gone to London. He stopped at 
Amsterdam, and there got from Winkel, a Dutch 
mechanic, tiie idea of employing a new form of 
pendulum as a metronome. He soon perfected 
the instrument, obtained a patent for it, and in 
1816 we find him in Paris established as & 
manufacturer of this metronome, under the style 
of *Malzl et Cie.' Winkel claimed it as his 
invention, and the claim was confirmed, after 
examination, by the Dutch. Academy of Sciences. 
A wish to repurchase Kempelen's Chessplayer 
and to push his Metronome took him back to 
Munich and Vienna in 1 8 1 7. Beethoven's good 
word was of more consequence than any one 
else's, and knowing Maelzel's cleverness, Beet- 
hoven's amenability to a good companion, and the 
fact that the performance on which the lawsuit 
was grounded having taken place out of Austria, 
the action could not lie, it need not surprise us 
to find that the suit was given up, and the costs 
divided equally. After this Maelzel travelled 
much, and even reached the United States, where 
he passed the rest of his life, except a voyage or 
two to the West Indies, exhibiting the Chess- 
player, the Conflagration of Moscow, and his 
other curious inventions.* He was found dead 
in his berth on board the American brig Otis, 
July 21, 1838. Maelzel was evidently a sharp, 
shrewd, clever man of business, with a strong 
propensity to use the ideas of others for his o^ti 

For the details of his Metronome see the 
article under that head . It was entirely different 
from the Stockel-Miilzel * Chronometer,' and it 
was upon the latter and not upon the Metro- 
nome, that Beethoven wrote the catch which is 
connected with the Allegretto of his Symphony 
No. 8. A. w. T. 

of men formed for the cultivation of singing in 
four parts — two tenors and two basses. They 
sprang from the Liedertafeln, and the most im- 
portant were founded by Dr. A. Schmid, in 
Vienna (1845), and by Franz Weber in Cologne, 
The latter visited England in the spring of 1860. 
and sang before the Queen at Windsor. The 
Cologne Choral Union also gave a set of ten 

> Bchind1«r. Thayer, Hi. 469. 
3 Thayer. Ui. 4117. 

i See Prof. O. Allen, of Philadelphia, U.S. A.. In the Book of the 
flnt American Chne Congreea. 

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concerts in St. James's Hall in June 1883. 


MASSIG. * In moderate time ' ; the German 
«quivalent of Moderato, used much by Schumann, 
as in the sixth of the fugues on the name Bach, 
and constantly throughout the Album. < Im 
massigen Tempo/ occurs in the fourth figure of 
op. 72, * Sehr miissig ' in the Lager-scene, No. 3 
of op. 76. He uses 'Massig durchaus energisch' 
as the translation of ' Moderato con energia ' in 
the second movement of the Fantasia in C, op. 
17. M. 

MAESTOSO. * With majesty, ' or in a digni- 
fied way. It is used either alone, as a direction 
of time, in which case it indicates a pace rather 
slower than andante, or, combined with other 
indications of tempo, as aguide to the expression. 
Beethoven uses it frequently in both these ways. 
It occurs alone in the Pianoforte Sonata, op. 
Ill, first movement, in the Namensfeier over- 
ture, op. 115, Quartet in Eb, op. 127, etc.; also 
in Pizanx>'s song at the end of Act I. of * Fidelio,' 

* Auf euch, auf euch, nur will ich bauen.' In 
the final chorus of that opera, * Wer ein holdes 
Weib errungen,' the direction originally stood 
Maestoso vivace, but was afterwards changed to 
Allegro ma non troppo. The first movement of 
the Choral Symphony is marked Allegro ma non 
troppo, un poco maestoso ; the passage in the 
last movement to the words ' Seid umschlungen 
Millionen ' is Andante maestoso ; and the four 
bars of 3-4 time immediately before the final 
Prestissimo are marked Maestoso simply. Men- 
delssohn uses Allegro maestoso frequently, as in 

* Elijah ' * I am he that comforteth,' and ' Be not 
afraid,' and in * St. Paul ' very often. He uses 
Moderato maestoso in * Then did El^'ah the 
prophet.' Maestoso con brio occurs as the equi- 
valent of the German ' Rauschend und festlich ' 
in Schumann's Novelette, No. 5. m. 

MAESTRO, master. This word is almost 
exclusively applied to the great classical com- 
posers, but occasionally it is used of the very 
highest class of executive musicians, though even 
in this case it may be taken as implying an 
appreciation of their compositions rather than 
of their performances. It is seldom applied to 
teachers as such, but refers almost ^ways to 
composers of note. 

Maestro di cappella is the exact Italian equi- 
valent to the German term Capellmeister, or 

Maestro dei putti (master of the boys) is an 
oflice which was founded in 1538 (not, as is 
generally supposed, in the Papacy of Julius II. 
which was much earlier), and which was first 
held by Arcadelt. Its duties are to teach sing- 
ing to the boys of St. Peter's, in Rome, and 
more or less to superintend the choir arrange- 
ments. It thus represents our * Choirmaster.' 
[See Arcadelt, vol. i. p. 101.] 

Maestro al cembalo is an officer at the Opera, 
next in importance to the conductor, and occa- 

sionally taking his place. His duties consist of 
superintending the rehearsals of the music, and 
accompanying at them. This post was held by 
Handel at Hamburg, when he was quite young 
[see Handel, vol ii. p. 280], and afterwards 
by Mattheson. M. 

MAGADA, or MAGAS (Greek), the senii- 
circular wooden bridge fixed at one or both ends 
of the monochord. The name was also applied 
to the movable bridge inserted below the string 
of the monochord to mark the harmonic inter- 
vals (Boethius, iv. 18), and generally to the 
bridge in stringed instruments (Philostratus, 
778). [See Monochord.] j. f. r< s. 

MAGADIS, an ancient Greek instrument, 
our knowledge of which is almost wholly de- 
rived from a passage in the fourteenth book of 
Athenaeus, in which the scattered references 
to it in Greek literature are brought together. 
Athenaeus died in a.d. 194. The instnmient 
had then long been obsolete, and the doubts 
which existed as to its exact form and structure 
are no nearer solution at the present day. From 
the conflicting statements of the authorities 
quoted, some of whom identify it with the 
Pectis, others with the Sambuca and others 
again with the Psaltery, it would seem that the 
msgadis was an instrument of the dulcimer 
type, provided with a bridge (magas) or bridges 
so placed that octaves could be played on 
adjoining strings. It was introduced from tlio 
East through the Lydians, and was in use in 
Greece as eai'ly as the 6th century B.C., when 
Anacreon speaks of playing on a magadis of 
twenty strings. According to Aristoxenus it 
was played without a plectrum. The character- 
istic of the instrument was the pix>duction of 
sounds in octaves, and consequently we find the 
name also applied to a species of double flute, 
also said to be of Lydian origin, on which 
octaves could be played, and a verb magadizein 
signifying to play in octaves on any instrument 
(Pseudo- Aristotle, 18). j. f. r. s. 

MAGGINI, Gio. Paolo, a celebrated Italian 
violin -maker, bom in Brescia in 1581 ; died 
in the same place about 1628. According to 
information culled from the Brescian State Ar- 
chives, Maggini's family came originally from 
Botticino, a village in the neighbouring hills of 
Brescia. His grandfather, Bartolommeo de Mag- 
gini, lived and died at Botticino, but after his 
death his son Zovan or Giovanni, migrated with 
his wife Giulia, to Brescia, where Paolo, their 
second son, was born. The Brescian Income Tax 
papers for 1568 state that Gio. Paolo's elder 
brother was a shoemaker, but no mention is made 
of his father following any profession or trade. 
In all probability he was a retired farmer with 
private means. Nothing is known of Gio. Paolo's 
childhood, or what caused him to adopt the pro- 
fession of violin-making, but a legal document, 
signed by him in 1602, proves two things clearly : 
first, that his signature is that of a person of 

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scanty education, and, secondly, that at the ago 
of twenty-one he was working in Brescia as an 
apprentice under Gasparo da Sal6. On Jan. 20, 
1615, he married Maddalena Anna, daughter of 
Messer Faust Forrestio, and after his marriage he 
and hifl wife settled in a house in the (}ontrada 
del Palazzo Yecohio del Podesta. In this home, 
with the assistance of his apprentice, Jaoopo de 
Lanfranchini, Maggini built up a very successful 
business in the manufacture of citharas, violon- 
cellos, violas, and violins. In 1626 he prospered 
still more, and acquired a second house and shop 
in the Contrada deUe Bombasaire, whither he 
removed with his wifo and family. He also 
purchased property in the hills and plains 
surrounding Brescia, and a residential farm-house 
and land, which abutted upon the grandfather's 
old home near the village of Botticino. The date 
of his death is conjectural. After 1626 the 
Brescian Income Tax papers cease to mention his 
name, and in 1632 he was undoubtedly dead, 
as, in a schedule presented in that year by his 
son Carlo, he uses the formula * Filius quondam 
Johannis Pauli.* Although documentary evi- 
dence proves that Maggini's wife died on 
Nov. 24, 1651, and was buried In the church 
of St. Agatha, all research for the certificate 
of her husband's death and burial has been in 
vain. The only reasonable inference is that as 
the town of Brescia was ravaged by an excess- 
ively severe plague in 1632, Maggini was one of 
its victims, and being taken to one of the 'pest- 
houses ' which were organised for the sick, at the 
public expense, died away from home, without 
any note of his death or burial being made. 

As a maker, Maggini's name is associated with 
many progressive innovations in the construction 
of the violin, and especially in the method of 
cutting the wood. In his earliest work these 
alterations are not discernible, as he was still 
under the influence of Gasparo da Sal6, whose 
inaccuracy of modelling, rough workmanship, 
and dark brown varnish he at first copied. But 
when he once cast aside the methods of his 
veteran master, and of the old school of viol 
makers, Maggini created an era in the history of 
violin -making, which has deservedly immortal- 
ised his name. He was among the first makers 
who discarded the then customary method of 
cutting the soft pine-wood used for the bellies of 
violins in what is termed *slab fashion,* i.«. 
parallel with the upward growth of the tree, and 
instead, adopted the practice of using the wood 
the straight way of the grain, brought about by 
cutting it wedge- ways out of the tree from the 
bark inwards to the core (see Violin-making). 
He was almost, if not quite the earliest maker 
to use corner blocks and linings such as are 
now employed, and he modulated his thick- 
nesses with far more intention and accuracy 
than any of his predecessors. Maggini's purfling 
is beautifully executed. His instruments are 
mostly ornamentally or double purfled, but there 

are some violins of his bearing the single line. 
Three of these, and one viola are known to exist. 
Many of his violins bear a purfled or painted 
conventional design upon the back, but as his 
violin model advanced in originality and per- 
fection, so he gradually discarded the customary 
ornamentation so dear to the ancient viol-makers, 
probably having discovered that this practice 
only served to muffle the tone of his instra- 
ments. His violins are large in size, and are 
made of the best materials. The model is quite 
original, and bears no resemblance to the Amati 
pattern ; the varnish on his best instruments is 
orange-yellow, the j^T holes are clearly cut, the 
lower circles, in contradistinction to those of 
Stradivarius, being always smaller than the 
upper ones, a feature peculiar to Maggini. The 
scroll is well cut, but shorter than that of other 
makers, and for this reason appears to be wider 
than it really is. The labels are placed close to 
the centre of his instruments ; they are in bkick 
roman type, and, like those of his master da 
Sal6, are undated, 

Maggini was not a prolific maker, the result of 
his life's work, as represented by extant instru- 
ments, numbering about fifty violins and under 
two dozen tenors and violoncellos. For this 
reason authentic specimens of his work are 
scarce. Some of his finest fiddles have been in 
the hands of Ole Bull, Leonard, Vieuxtemps, and 
de B^riot, who possessed two fine examples, one 
of which he picked up in an old curiosity shop 
in Paris for 16 francs. This instrument now 
belongs to the Prince Caraman de Chimay, and 
is considered of high value. An excellent 
summary of Maggini's contributions to the 
development of violins, violas, and violoncellos 
is given in Lady Huggins's Gio, Paolo Maggini, 
published by the firm of Hill & Sons. 

No authentic pupils of Maggini have come to 
light. None of his seven children followed their 
father's profession ; his only surviving son. Carlo 
Francesco, became a silk merchant, but the 
Maggini influence can be clearly traced both in 
the Guarnerius and the * Long Strad * models. 
In modem times few makers have been more 
copied, both honestly and dishonestly. Fine 
copies were made by Bernard Simon Fendt and 
Remy (two French makers who settled in Lon- 
don); by Darches, and N. F. Vuillaume in 
Belgium ; by Gand (p^re), Bemadel, Chanot, and 
Vuillaume in Paris, and at Mirecourt, where it 
is one of the favourite models. 

BMioffraphjf :—Gio. Paolo Maggini, \it W« and Work, compiled 
and edited from material collected and oontriboted bjr William 
Bbaworth Hill and hii aona. WillUm. Arthur, and Alfred mu. by 
Margaret L. Hoggine (London, 18i>2). Th» rioUn and iU Fanwm 
Makert and Imitaton, hf George Hart (London. 1875). Sittorp of 
th« VioUn, hf William Bandyi and Simon Andrew Forater (London. 
1864). Old rioUfu and their MaJom, Jamee M. Fleming (liOndon, 
1883). La lMthtirio«tt«$ Luthien. A. Vidal (Paris. 1880). 2> rioUm. 
A. Borer (Farie. 1886). Magini (Jean Paul). Biog. Univ. dn 
Mtuiclem, F. J. F^ia. iMthemenographit Bittoriqw ft Raimmnit. 
Le Prince N. Yonaonpoff (Paria. 18S6). / Uutai antiehi « mod^mi. 
Q. de Picolellia (Florence. 1885). / mi«t viMni. M. Villa iSavi- 
gnano. 1888). M Giovanni Paolo Maggini eolebrt Liutaio Br»$eiano. 
D. Angelo Berenai (Breaeia. 1890). La Patria di Otomnni Paolo 
Maggini, D. Anceto Berenii (Cremona, 1891). Mo rioHnonnd ihn 
Mtister, Ton J. V. Wasielewalci (Ulpslg. 188S). ^ -fl-K 

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MA06I0BE. This word, the Italian 
equivalent of our 'major/ is used as a supple- 
mentary guide in passages of music where a 
change is made from the minor to the major 
mode, generally to the tonio, not the relative 
major, since in that change a careless reader 
might disregard the correction of the minor 
signature. Such a change as that from G minor 
to C major, even when the three naturals 
are used to annul the previous three flats, 
might conceivably be overlooked, were it not for 
the warning 'maggiore.' But such external 
aids to the reading of music are of rather doubt- 
ful utility. M. 

MAGIC FLUTE. See Zaubbrflote. 
C^|j^| MAGNARD, Lucibn Denis Gabriel Al- 
^''l BfeRic, bom in Paris, June 9, 1866, was edu- 
<?. iJc cated at the Lycee Condorcet for a legal career. 
' After passing the grade of 'licenci^,' he dis- 
covered that his musical faculty was too strong 
to be resisted, and entered the Conservatoire, 
under Dubois and Massenet, gaining the first 
prize for harmony in 1888. On leaving the 
Conservatoire he pursued his studies with 
Vincent d'Indy, and has since become one of 
the most remarkable of modem French com- 
posers, distinguished for his boldness and 
sincerity. He has written the following for 
orchestra: three symphonies, opp. 4, 6, 11 ; 
a suite in ancient style, op. 2 ; a * chant fun^bre,' 
op. 9 ; an overture, op. 10 ; ' Hymne ^ la 
Justice,' op. 14; * Hymne k V^nus,' op. 17. 
Among his works for chamber music are a 
quintet for piano and wind, op. 8 ; a violin 
sonata, op. 13 ; a string quartet, op. 16 ; and a 
trio for piano and strings, op. 18. His dramatic 
works are : ' Yolande,' op. 5, one-act, Brassels, 
1892 ; 'Guercoeur,' op. 12, in three acts, not 
yet given. The libretti of both are by the 
composer himself. G. F. 

MAGNIFICAT. The ' Song of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary' has been used as the Vesper 
Canticle of the Church from time immemorial ; 
and the Evening Office has always been so con- 
stracted as to lead up to it as its chief point of 

In Plain-song services it is sung to the same 
Tones as the Psalms, but to a different form, 
with more elaborate intonations and mediations 
(see Psalmody). 

After the invention of Discant a custom 
arose of singing Magnificat in alternate verses 
of Plain-song and Favx Bourdon. Sometimes 
the Fawa Bov/rdon was simply a harmonised 
psalm-tone, with the melody in the tenor, as 
in the following example of a very beautiful 

Magnificat, Primi Toni. 

* Use ' which has long been traditional in French 

Sometimes the Plain -song was contrasted 
with an original FaiLx Bourdon^ written in the 
required Mode, but not, like the former example, 
on the actual melody of the psalm-tone. Dr. 
Bumey, during his visit to Rome, met with an 
exceedingly interesting MS. collection of Fmix 
Bourdons of this description, by some of the 
greatest masters of the 16th century. From 
his autograph transcription of this volume — 
now preserved under the name of Studij di 
Palestrina, in the Library of the British Museum 
— we extract the following beautiful example 
by Giovanni Maria Nanini.' 

Ton. IV. 

A^A'J: A J. 


Tliese two methods of singing Magnificat are 
so wonderfully effective that it is difficult to 
choose between them ; and, happily, they are 
both so easy that no choir need fear to attempt 
them. But the development of the idea did 
not rest here. It is scarcely possible to name 
any great church oompbser who has not illus- 
trated the text of the ccmticle with original 
music over and over again. Palestrina pub- 
lished a volume, in 1591, containing two set- 
tings in each of the first eight Modes, and has 
left nearly as many more in MS. His favourite 
plan was to treat the alternate verses, only, in 
complex imitation and closely-interwoven fugal 
points, leaving sometimes the even and some- 
times the odd verses to be sung in unisonous 
Plain-song, in the manner already described. 
The following extract from one of the finest 
compositions in the series will serve to exem- 
plify his usual mode of treatment. 

1 It wIU be seen ttut Maninl hu ended hie Chant with the 
harmony of the Domtnant, inatead of that proper to the Final of 
the Mode. A aimilar peculiarity ia ohaervable In many other Faux 
Bourdont adapted by the old maetera to alternate veraea of Cantidea 
and Paalma. The reaaon of thla ia aelf-evldent. One or other of 
the anbaldlary eadencea of the Mode la employed. In order that Ita 
true Fina« (^ence may be reaerred for the condoaion of the 
Antlphon which ia to follow. The Slatine MUerere may be cited 
aa the exception whidi proTea the mle. It enda with the proper 
Final Cadence, beeauae. in the ofltoe of Tmebnw, it ia always sting 
without an Antlphon Tace Awriraovl. 

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MagnifiecU, Ootavi Toni. 

jL Si. 


This method was also adopted hy Francesco 
Suriano, Orlando di Lasso, and many other 
writers ; but Felice Anerio, Luca Marenzio, 
Giovanni Gabrieli, and some of the most noted 
of their contemporaries, treated the canticle 
in polyphony throughout, frequently disposing 
their voices in two or more antiphonal choirs. 
A fine example of this later style is preserved 
in Gabrieli*8 eight-part Magnificat in the First 

Afagnificatf Primi TonL 
Chorus Primui, 

^^ Zz ^r— 

The fathers of English Cathedral Music treated 
Magnificat in a manner peculiarly their own — 
clear in design, pure, solemn, and richly har- 
monious, but differing in no wise from their 
rendering of the other canticles, and demand- 
ing no slower pace than the rest Tlie finest of 
these, which may well bear comparison with 
the works of the great Flemish and Italian 

Schools, are to be found in the ' Servioes ' of 
Tallis, Byrd, Farrant, Tomkins, Bevin, Batten, 
and Orlando Gibbons. Their number is com- 
paratively small.; but it is to be feared that 
many invaluable compositions of the £liza> 
bethan era have been lost to us, through the 
spoliation of Cathedral libraries, during the 
civil wars. After the Restoration the style 
rapidly deteriorated ; and, notwithstanding the 
efforts of a few talented composers — especially 
Creyghton and Croft — who conscientiously fol- 
lowed the precepts of the earlier school, it sank, 
eventually, so low that even the platitudes of 
Kent and Jackson fail to represent its latest 
stages of degradation. HappUy the number of 
fine examples still remaining is quite sufficient 
for all practical purposes, and all are now pub- 
lished in cheap and easily accessible forms. 

The text of Magnificat has also been grandly 
illustrated by Bach, Mendelssohn, and other 
com|)08ers of the modem school in the Oratorio 
style, with full orchestral accompaniments. For 
some particulan respecting the history of a 
Magnificat of this description, which has given 
rise to discussions of more than ordinary in- 
terest, see Erba (vol. i. p. 787) ; Handel (vol. 
ii. p. 286) ; and Israel in Egypt (voL ii. 
p. 514). w. 8. B. 

In 1886 and 1886 Mr. (now Sir) Alfred Scott 
Gatty collected a small choir to sing choruses 
and glees at the concerts which the then 
Viscountess Folkestone (now Helen Countess of 
Radnor) was giving for charitable purposes. 
These practices proved so popular that in 
November 1886 a society was founded under 
the name of * The Magpie Minstrels,' its object 
being, to quote the Society's minutes — ' to 
give Concerts for charitable purposes, the nature 
of which shall be left tQ the discretion and 
selection of the Committee.' 

Mr. Lionel Benson was then and still is 
conductor, and the numbers which in the first 
instance were limited to 80, rose by rapid 
degrees to nearly 200. In 1889 H.RH. 
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll (then 
Marchioness of Lome) honoured the Society by 
becoming its President, attending the practices, 
and taking part in the Concerts. In 1889 the 
first Invitation Concert was given, and since 
then one Charity Concert and one Invitation 
Concert have been given annually. Upwards 
of £3500 has been handed over to various 
Charitable Institutions. At first *The Mag- 
pies' were associated at their concerts with 
* The Wandering Minstrels' Amateur Orchestral 
Society ' also conducted by Mr. Lionel Benson. 
The name of the society was altered from * The 
Magpie Minstrels' to 'The Magpie Madrigal 
Society ' in 1896. In order to encourage good 
vocal part- writing ' a cappella ' the society has, 
from time to time, given prizes for competition 
among the students of the Royal College of 

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Muflie, and Royal Academy, with, on the whole, 
satisfactory results, and the prize works have 
always been performed at the Invitation Con- 
certs. Many of the best known Madrigals have 
been included in the programmes, but a special 
feature has been the introduction, for the first 
time, of many fine works of all schools, hitherto 
unknown in this country, which have probably 
rested in oblivion, as fai* as England is concerned, 
since the 16 th and I7th centuries, the period in 
which they were written. Most of them have 
been unearthed and edited specially for the use 
of the choir by its conductor. Among them may 
be mentioned numerous Madrigals, Motets, Chan- 
sons, Yillanelle, etc, by Orlando di Lasso, J. P. 
Sweelinck, Josquin des Pr^, Claude Lejeune, 
Francis Regnart, Orazio Yeochi, Luca Marenzio, 
Quintiani, Yittoria, Arcadelt, Yerdelot, Wil- 
laert, Clemens, Claudin, Certon, Franck, Haas- 
ler, Jannequin, Ciprian de Rore, Crequillon, 
Goudimel, Giovanelli, Qarnier, Headin, Coste- 
ley, Tessier ; — nearly all of which were sung 
with the original French, German, Italian, and 
Latin words to which they were written. 
Among modem composers prominence has been 
given to the unaccompanied choral works of 
Brahms, very nearly all of which have been 
performed by the society at one time or another ; 
and some of the unaccompanied choral works 
of Peter Cornelius were introduced to tlie Eng- 
lish public for the first time by this choir. 

Many compositions of great merit have been 
specially written for the society by Sir Hubert 
Parry (who was elected President of the Society 
in 1906), Sir Charles Stanford, Dr. C. H. Lloyd, 
Dr. Alan (jray, Mr. Henschel, Mr. R. Yaughan- 
Williams, Dr. Eaton Faning, Miss Maude 
White, Dr. Arthur Somervell, and Mr. J. 
Blumenthal. s. H. w. 

MAGYAR (Hungarian) MUSIC. The most 
important part of the national music of Hungary 
is so called because it proceeds from the Magyar 
portion of the inhabitants. * The so-called Hun- 
garian style of music,' says the writer of two 
excellent articles on this subject in the Monthly 
Musical Record for February and March 1877, 
' as it has come to be recognised, cannot by any 
means be regarded as indigenous, but may most 
properly be briefly defined as the product of a 
commixture of several races. More than one- 
fourth^ of the population of Hungary proper (i.e. 
Transleithan Hungary, as it has come to be 
called since its union with the Austrian empire 
in 1869) consists of Magyars, the descendants of 
the ancient Scythians of the Tartar-Mongolian 
stock, who, after wandering from the Ural 
mountains to the Caspian Sea, and thence to 
Kiev, established themselves in Hungary in the 
9th century. The remainder of the population 
is made up of Slavs, Germans, Wallachians, 
Jews, and Gipsies. Of this mixed population, 
the Magyars, as tlie dominant lords of the soil, 

> The proportlun sppein to be more like one half th«u % quarter. 

and the Gipsies, as the privileged musicians of 
the country, are in the main to be regarded as 
the joint originators of the national style.' 

The union of these two latter races resulted 
in the combination of their musical cliaracteristics. 
That of the Magyar music is the peculiarity of 
its rhythms, and that of the Gipsy music is the 
presence of turns, embellishments, and * grace- 
notes ' added to and built uix)n the melody, and 
eventually becoming a most important feature 
in it. [See an essay by Carl Engel, on The 
Musio of the Gipsies in the Musical Times for 
1880, pp. 219, 274, 332, 389.] 

This latter peculiarity, together with the scale 
which is characteristic of the music of Hungary 
in common with many other nations of Eastern 
Europe — a scale with two 8Ui)erfluous seconds, 
or the harmonic minor with a sharp fourth — 

seem to indicate an Asiatic oiigin. (The or- 
dinary European scales ai-e also in use.) These 
two chiefcharacteristics will be examined in order. 
I. The rhythms, of Magyar origin. — ^The great 
distinctive feature of the bar-rhythms is sy^tcopa- 
turn, generally consisting of the accentuation of 
the second quaver in the bar of 2-4 time (the 
rhythm known as (iUa zoppa, * in a limping way'), 
but sometimes extending over larger spaces, as in 
No. 2 of the 'Ungarische Tanze' of Brahms, bars 
1-2, 5-6, etc., where the syncopation extends 
over two bars. Even where the melody is with- 
out syncopation, the accompaniment almost 
always has it. Ilie phrase-rhythms are not con- 
fined to strains of 4 and 8 bars, but phrases of 
8, 5, 6, 7, and 8 bars are not unfrequently to be 
met with. As examples of 3- and 6-bar rhythms 
may be cited the third and first of Brahms's 
'Ungarische Tanxe,' and of 7-bar rhythm, the 
first part of the following melody : — 

3-4 time, and consequently 6-8, is almost un- 
known in genuine Magyar music, altliough some 
modern Hungarian composers have introduced it 
in slow movements. The following very fine 
*Hallgat6' is referred to triple time by the 
best authorities ; it is a * Lass^ ' or slow move- 
ment, but is not intended for the dance — 

#j^^^te^ ^^M 

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In the *hBasti* the actual value of the notes 
depends far more upon the accentuation of the 
words sung, than is the case in the quicker 
movements. A very beautiful rhythm of seven 
in a bar (written, for greater clearness, as a bar 
of 3-4 followed by a bar of common time) 
occurs in the * Hungarian Song ' on which 
Brahms has written variations, op. 21, No. 2. 
II. The turns and embellishments added to the 
melody, of Gipsy, and hence Oriental, origin. — 
This peculiarity has been observed by travellers 
in India, who say that in the performance of 
the natives any embellishments and * fioriture * 
are permitted to be introduced at the will of 
the performer, provided only that the time of 
the melody remains intact. The following is a 
list of the most characteristic turns and * grace- 
notes ' used in Hungarian music, given by the 
writer above mentioned : — 

and the double cadence 

«(") I ». (12) 4_ 

But the importance of Hungarian music lies 
not so much in its intrinsic beauty or interest, 
as in the use made of it by the great classical 
masters, and the influence which it exercises on 
their works. The first composer of note who 
embodies the Hungarian peculiarities is Haydn. 
The most obvious instance of course is the well- 
known * Rondo all' Ongarese,* or 'Gipsy Rondo,* 
in the Trio No. 1 in G major ; but besides this 
avowedly Hungarian composition there are many 
passages in his works which show that the years 
during which he held the post of conductor of 
Prince Esterhazy's private (and almost entirely 
Hungarian) band, were not without their effect. 
Instances of this may be found in many of the 
* Salomon symphonies ' (the Symphony in Bb, 
No. 9), etc. (see further, A Croaiian Composer^ 
by W. H. Hadow, 1897). The composer 
who has made the greatest use of Hungarian 
characteristics is Schubert. Constantly through- 
out his works we come upon a peculiarity which 
at once tells us of its nationality. The G major 

Symphony (No. 9) for instance, the A minor 
string quartet, and the Fantasia in C major, 
op. 15, are full of Hungarian feeling and char- 
acter, while almost all the peculiarities of the 
Hungarian style are present in the splendid 
* Divertissement & la hongroise ' (op. 54). 

In the work of three men, belonging to two 
very different schools, Hungarian characteristics 
are most commonly and m6st skilfully used. It 
is enough to cite the names of Liszt, Brahms, 
and Joachim, to bring to the mind of every 
reader the use made by each of them of Hunga- 
rian forms and themes. "We may think it only 
natural that the first and the last of these should, 
being natives of Hungary, have a natural love 
for their national music, as we see in the * Legend 
of St. Elizabeth, ' the symphonic poem * Hungaria, ' 
the fourteen * Rhapsodies Hongroises,' by Liszt, 
and the noble Hungarian violin concerto of 
Joachim, which is a splendid instance of the 
combination of national characteristics with the 
classical forms. In the case of Brahms, however, 
there is no national prejudice to which the 
partiality for the Hungarian element might be 
ascribed, and yet here we meet with many Magyar 
characteristics,notonly in the 'UngarischeTanze, ' 
which are nothing more than transcriptions for 
the piano of the wild performance of the Hun- 
garian bands (according to the best authorities 
on this subject), but also in the Sextets for strings, 
the G minor quartet for pianoforte and strings, 
the pianoforte variations, etc. 

The following are some of the most important 
Magyar compositions. 

Dances. — The Csdrdas (the naifie derived 
from Csdrda, an inn on the Puszta (plain), where 
this dance was fi^rst performed). It was intro- 
duced into Hungary from Bohemia by Csermdk, 
and was very quickly adopted as a national 
dance. Every Csardds consists of two move- 
ments, — a *lAss<i,' or slow movement, andante 
maestoso, and a *Friss,' or 'quickstep,' allegro 
vivace. These two alternate at the will of the 
dancers, a sign being given to the musicians 
when a change is wished. 

The * Kor-tancz,' or Society-Dance, of which 
a part consists of a Tdborzo, or Recruiting 
dance. A great number of these were arranged 
or composed by Lavotta. 

The * Kanasz-tancz,' or Swineherd's Dance, is 
danced by the lower classes only. 

Operas. — Among national Magyar operas — 
i,e, operas of which the libretti are founded on 
national historic events, and the music is char- 
acterised by Magyar rhythms, etc. — may be 
mentioned *Hunyady Ldszlo,' *Bdthori Maria,' 
'Bdnk Ban,' and ' Brankovics,* by Franz Erkel, 
and the comic opera * Ilka,' by Doppler. Besides 
these two composers, the names of Mocsonyi, 
Csasz^, Fay, and Bartha, may be given as 
examples of ox)eratic writers. 

Songs. — Many collections of N^pdal, or popu- 
lar songs, have been published. The best col- 

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lection is that of Gynla Kaldy, containing songs 
of the first part of the 19th century ; the seven 
volumes of Bartalus, and the collection made 
in the middle of the 18th century by Ad^ 
Horvath, are of value. Panna Czinka's collec- 
tion of gipsy melodies may also be mentioned. 
One tune, 'RepUy Fecskem,* has been made 
widely known by Remenyi's adaptation of it 
for the violin. 

The famous national tune, the 'Rakoczy 
March/ was, in its original form, a lament for 
the hero Rdkoczy, played on the tarogat6— an 
instrument resembling a cor anglais — about the 
end of the 18th century. It was arranged as 
a march early in the 19th century by Scholl, 
the conductor of a military band at Nagyv4rad, 
and was heard in this form by Berlioz, who 
introduced it into his ' Damnation de Faust,' 
with the result that it made a furore all over 

The National Hymn of Hungary is called 
*Sz6zat,* or 'Appeal.* 

Many of the best of the national songs of 
Hungary have become widely popular in England 
since the publication of Mr. F. Eorbay's admir- 
able arrangement of them with English words. 

That the Magyars know how to value their 
own national music may be shown by the exist- 
ence at Budapest of a National Conservatorium, 
and of the Royal Academy of Music, of which 
Liszt was the first Director; there are two 
national theatres, one for opera and the other 
for drama, besides the * Nepszinhdz,' or People's 
Theatre. The interest in folk-song has borne 
excellent fruit in Hungary, where phonographic 
records have been made of many thousands of 
traditional tunes, and preserved in the National 
Museum at Budapest. 

The chief musical periodical of Hungary is 
the ZenevUdg, edited and carried on by PongrAc 
Kacsoh. (Information from Messrs. Arthur 
Di63y, B^a Bart6k, etc.) m. 

MAHILLON, Charles, & Co., wind-instru- 
ment makers. This firm was founded at 
Brassels by 0. Mahillon (born 1813, died 1887), 
in 1886. Three of his sons entered the busi- 
ness, Victor (see below), Joseph, who conducts 
the Brussels business, and Fernand, manager 
of the London branch established in 1884, in 
Leicester Square, and removed in 1887 to 
Oxford Street. 

Mahillon, Victor, of the firm of wind- 
instrument makers, above mentioned, a writer 
of important works on acoustics and musical in- 
struments, and the honorary and zealous custo- 
dian of the Museum of the Brussels Conservatoire, 
was bom in that city, March 10, 1841. After 
studying music under some of the best professors 
there, he applied himself to the practical study 
of wind-instrument manufacture, and was taken 
into his father's business in 1865. He started 
a musical journal Vtcho Musical in 1869, and 
continued it until 1886, when his time became 

too much occupied to attend to its direction. 
In 1876 he became the honorary curator of the 
museum of the Conservatoire, which, begun 
with F6tis's collection of 78 instruments, was, 
through his special knowledge and untiring 
energy, increased (1888) to upwards of 1600 ! 
An important contribution to it, of Indian 
instruments, has been a division of the fine 
collection of the Ri^ah Sir Souriudro Mohun 
Tagore, between the Brussels Conservatoire and 
the Royal College of Music, London. M. Victor 
Mahillon has published two very important 
works, besides three synoptical tables of har- 
mony, voices and instruments. The first is Les 
jSl^rrumts d'Acoustique miLsicale et instrumentale, 
an octavo volume published in 1874, which 
gained for him at Paris in 1878 the distinction 
of a silver medaL The other is the catalogue 
of the Conservatoire, which appeared in volumes 
annually from 1877, and is of the highest 
interest. As well as these noteworthy works he 
contributed to the ninth edition of the Encyclo- 
pcsdia BrUannica several historical and technical 
articles of great value upon wind instruments, 
both wood and brass. As soon as M. Victor 
Mahillon could introduce a workshop into the 
Conservatoire he did so, and he had repro- 
ductions made of many rare instruments which, 
through their antiquity, or the neglect of former 
owners, had become too much deteriorated for 
purposes of study. Among these reproductions 
the Roman Lituus and Buccina in the Music 
Loan Collection at Kensington, in 1885, will 
be remembered as prominent objects of interest 
in the fine selection contributed under M. 
Mahillon's auspices by the Brussels Conservatoire. 
He has reproduced from authentic sources the 
complete families of wind instruments that were 
in use in the 16th and 17th centuries. 

M. Victor Mahillon's services to the Inven- 
tions Exhibition of 1885, in the above-named 
contribution of instruments to the Loan Collec- 
tion, and the historical concerts under his 
direction performed by professors and students 
of the Brussels Conservatoire, at which several 
rare instruments were actually played upon in 
contemporary compositions, were so highly 
appreciated by the Executive Council of that 
Exhibition that a gold medal was awarded to 
him. A. J. H. 

MAHLER, GusTAv, bom July 7, 1860, at 
Kalischt in Bohemia, was educated at the 
Gymnasium at Iglau, at Prague, and at the 
University of Vienna, where he was also a pupil 
of the Conservatorium, from 1877. From 1880 
he conducted in various theatres in different 
towns of Austria, and in 1883 was appointed 
second capellmeister at Cassel, becoming first 
capellmeister at Prague as Seidl's successor two 
years afterwards. It was in the latter capacity 
that he became intimately acquainted with the 
classical masterpieces and with the advanced 
modem compositions. In 1886 he went to- 

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Leipzig as coa(^ator to Nikiach, in whose stead 
he condacted the opera for six months. In 
1888 he undertook the direction of the opera 
At Pesth, and raised the standard of the per- 
formances to a high level. In 1891 he was 
appointed first capelhneister in the Stadttheater 
of Hamburg, and remained there until in May 
1897 he was appointed Hofcapellmeister, and 
in October was called to succeed Wilhelm Jahns 
AS director of the Hofoper in Vienna, and 
Richter as director of the Philharmonic Concerts. 
From 1898 to 1900 he also conducted the 
Oesellschafte • Concerte. He conducted the 
German opera at Co vent Garden in 1892. He 
is one of the most distinguished of living con- 
ductors, excelling especially in the . music of 
Wagner. The possessor of a strong will and 
wonderful energy, he imposes his own will upon 
the performers under him, and obtains very 
remarkable results. As a composer he is highly 
esteemed, although both his operatic experi- 
ments, 'Die Argonauten,' and ' Riibezahl,' 
belong to his earlier period, and have not made 
their mark. His six symphonies are in D, 
1891 ; C, 1895 ; F, 1896 ; the fourth, 1901 ; 
the fifth, in D minor, called the 'Riesensym- 
phonie,' 1904 ; and a sixth, 1906. The first 
symphony was played at the Promenade Con- 
cert of Oct. 21, 1903 ; and the fourth, a curious 
amalgam of extreme simplicity of theme with 
elaborate workmanship, ending with a soprano 
solo in the finale, at the Promenade Concert 
of Oct. 25, 1905. A set of ' Humoresken,' for 
orchestra, and a cantata, * Das klagende Lied,' 
are among Mahler's most important composi- 
tions ; they are published under the .auspioes 
of the * GesoUschafb zur Forderung deutscher 
Wissenschaft, Litteratur und Kunst in Bohmen.' 
He also finished Weber's operatic fragment, * Die 
drei Pintos' (produced in 1888 at Leipzig). 
Mahler's career is the subject of a pamphlet 
by Ludwig Schiedermair (Leipzig, Seemann's 
Nachfolger), from which much of the above 
information is taken. H. 

MAHOON, Joseph (or MOHOON), a London 
harpsichord and spinet-maker near Uie middle 
of the 1 8th century. His name is present on the 
harpsichord figured in Hogarth's i^iA^'s Progress, 
Plate II. 1735. In Rider's C<mH Register for 
1759 he is entered as, 'Joseph Mohoon, harpsi- 
chord maker to the king.' f. k. 

MAHU, Stephan, a German composer, who 
flourished in the earlier part of the 16th 
century, is said to have been a singer in the 
chapel of the Archduke Ferdinand at Vienna, 
though this is only a coivjecture from the fact 
of some of his compositions being received into 
Joanelli's Thesaurus of 1568. His works 
appeared only in collections. Ambros and 
others speak highly of a set of lamentations 
a 4-6, which appeared in Joanelli, and have 
since been republished by Commer. Mahu's 
other works consist chiefly of a few contrapuntal 

settings a 4 and 5 of German songs, sacred and 
secular, in Ott, Rhaw, and Foster's collections. 
His secular songs, Eiitner as well as Ambros 
judges very favourably. The former describes 
a setting of * Ach hilf mich Leid imd sehnlich 
Klag,' a 5, as excellent both in technique and 
expression (see MontUshefie fur MusikgeschichU, 
xxvL 57). He also gives in shortened notes a 
characteristic setting of an old Tanzlied in triple 
time, ' £s ging ein wolbezogner Knecht.' Ott s 
lAederbuch of 1544 reprinted in 1872, contains 
four songs by Mahu, three sacred and one 
secular. From the text of one of the sacred 
songs, ' Lobt Gottihr Christen all,' being a fierce 
diatribe against Roman abuses, as well as from 
the fact of Mahu having contributed a setting 
a 5 of Luther's '£in' feste Burg' to Rhaw's 
OeisUiche Qesange, 1544, we may conclude 
that Mahu was more Lutheran in his sympathies 
than Roman. J. K. M. 

MAICHELBECK, Franz Anton, was bom 
in 1702 at Reichenau near Constance, and was 
sent by some generous patrons to Rome to 
complete his musical training. He is afterwards 
described as being Professor of the Italian 
language and Praesentiarius of the Minster at 
Freiburg-im-Breisgau. By Praesentiarius would 
appear to be meant a prebendary or beneficed 
priest on the staff of a collegiate or cathedral 
church. Fetis took it to mean a ' beadle,' and 
mistakenly described Maichelbeck as * bedeau 
de la cathMrale de Freyberg ' ; and unfortunately 
Eitner, in his QueUen- Lexikon, has adopted 
F^tis's mistake, though it was corrected, and 
the word itself sufficiently explained, in an 
article by K von Werra in Haberl's Kirchen- 
mtbsikalisches JahrJmch, 1897, pp. 28-30. The 
whole staff of a collegiate church was denomin- 
ated Praesentia. Maichelbeck's works are of 
some importance in the history of clavier-music. 
He cultivated the lighter Italian homophonic 
style, which influenced the earlier development 
of the clavier sonata. His opus 1 is entitled 
' Die auf dem Clavier spielende und das Gehor 
vergniigende Cacilia, das ist viii Sonaten, so 
nach der jetzigen welschen Art, Regel- und 
Gehor -massig ausgearbeitet ' . . . Augsburg 
1786. These eight sonatas are partly suites, 
having dance movements intermingled with 
adagios, allegros, capriccios, and toccatas. The 
whole work shows the study of Italian models. 
For some illustrative quotations see Seiffert, 
OeschichU der Claviennusik, Bd. L pp. 332-34. 
The only other known published wodc of 
Maichelbeck is his opus 2 entitled 'Die auf 
dem Clavier lehrende Cacilia ' . . . Augsburg, 
1737. The first two parts of this work are 
theoretical, but the third part consists of 
preludes, fugues, and versetts on the eight 
church tones, which, however, are treated not in 
any proper organ style, but in the lighter and 
more florid clavier style. Maichelbeck died 
June 14, 1750. J. R. M. 

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MAID OF ARTOIS, THE. A grand opera 
in three acts ; words by Bunn, music by Balfe. 
Produced at Drury Lane, May 27, 1886. o. 

MAID OF HONOUR, THE A comic opera 
in three acts ; words by Fitzball, music by Balfe. 
Produced at Drury Lane, Deo. 20, 1847. g. 

M AILLARD, Jean, a French composer of the 
earlier part of the sixteenth century, is said to 
have been a pupil of Josquin des Px^. Several 
Masses by him were published separately by Le 
Roy and Ballard of Paris from 1667 to 1559, 
one of which, entitled ' Je suis desherit^e,' has 
a peculiar history, and is of interest because of 
its connection with a work of Palestrina. It 
was republished by the same French firm, and 
almost about the same time^ as being the work 
of another French composer, Nicholas de Marie, 
and there might thus have been considerable 
doubt as to its authorship, but it was also 
copied, probably at some earlier date, into the 
Choir-books of the Sistine Chapel at Rome, and 
there ascribed to Maylard. It thus became 
known to Palestrina, who adopted the themes 
of Maillard's Mass for a Mass of his own, which 
was afterwards published as No. 8 * sine nomine,' 
of the sixth book of his Masses 1692 (see 
Haberl's Preface to vol. xv. of Palestrina's 
Works, complete edition of Breitkopf & Hartel, 
also his Catalogue of the Music of the Sistine 
Chapel, p. 28). ' Je suis desherit^e ' was in fact 
a popular French song, on which many musicians, 
including Lassus and Gombert, but especially 
French writers, composed Masses, and this may 
account for the confusion between Marie and 
Maillard, as Marie may also have composed a 
Mass on it which was confused with that of 
Maillard. The song itself, as set for four voices 
by Pierre Cad^ac, may be seen in Eitner's 
Selection of Chansons, 1899, No. 11 ; and a 
comparison of this with Palestrina's Mass will 
show that the tune, as given by Cad^ partly in 
the Tenor, but even more completely in the 
Descant, reappears in all the leading themes of 
Palestrina's work, and is given complete to start 
with, in the three divisions of the Kyrie. 
Palestrina's Mass should thus, equally with that 
of Maillard, be denominated ' Je suis desheritee,' 
though Palestrina himself left it without a 
name, out of deference, no doubt, to the later 
ecclesiastical scruples against the use of secular 
names and tunes for works intended for the 
Church. But there is nothing really secular 
about the tune, and it is just worth notice that 
the opening strain of both song and mass is 
identical with the opening strain of the oldest 
known German Choral tune, ' Christ ist erstan- 
den. * Other works by Maillard1)esides the three 
Masses, a 4-6, and a Patrem for eight voices, are 
magnificats, motets,and chansons which appeared 
in the various collections of the time. Ambros 
describes hia motets as characterised by a noble 
and expressive melodious elegance, and reckons 
him generally as one of the better masters of the 

French School A chanson by Maillard which 
has all this characteristic of melodious elegance, 
may be seen in Eitner's Selection of Chansons, 
No. 89. J. R. M. 

MAILLART, Louis (called AiMig), bom at 
Paris, March 24, 1817, was a pupil of the 
Conservatoire, where he studied composition 
with Hal^vy and Lebome, and the violin with 
Gu^rin. He won the Grand Prix de Rome in 
1841, with his ' Lionel Foscari,' and the first of 
his six operas, 'Gastibelza' (three acts), was 
successfully produced in 1847. His 'Moulin 
des Tilleuls ' was given at the Op^ra-Comique 
in 1849, and < La Croix de Marie ' in 1862, but 
the work which has kept his name before the 
public of those countries in which opera-comique 
still flourishes is ' Les Dragons de Yillars,' pro- 
duced at the Op^ra Comique in Paris in 1866. 
His later operas, 'Les P^heurs de Catane' 
(1860), and * Lara ' (1864), were less successful. 
Maillart also wrote some cantatas, such asr ' La 
Voie sacrte' (1869), *Le 15 aoAt' (1860), 
etc. ; he died at MouUns in the department of 
Alliers, May 26, 1871. o. f. 

MAINZER, Joseph, LL.D., was bom in 
1801 ^ at Treves, where his father was a butcher. 
He was educated in the Mattrise of Tr6ve» 
Cathedral, learnt to play several instruments, 
and developed considerable musical gifts, then 
spent some time in the coal mines near Saar- 
bruck, with the view of being an engineer, and 
at length embraced the ecclesiastical profession, 
was ordained priest in 1826, and afterwards 
became Abb^. His first practical introduction 
to music was as singing-master to the seminary 
at Treves, for which he published a Singsehule 
or Method (Treves, 1831). His political ten- 
dencies obliged him to leave Germany, and we 
find him in 1833 at Brussels writing an opera 
(* Triomphe de la Pologne ') and editing the 
musical portion of L* Artiste, His next destina- 
tion, at the end of 1834, was Paris, where he 
opened workmen's classes for music and singing, 
joined the staff of the Oazette MusiccUe and wrote 
the musical feuilletons for the NaiionaL Be- 
tween 1836 and 1841 he published several 
educational works on music, chiefly for very * 
young beginners, as well as other works, and 
an opera, ' La Jacquerie,' which was damned on 
October 10, 1839. He came to England in June 
1841, competed for the musical professorship at 
Edinburgh in 1844, lived in Edinburgh in 1 842- 
1847, and finally established himself at Man- 
chester. In February of that year Hullah had 
started his classes on Wilhem's system, and 
Maiuzer attempted to follow suit in the north, 
and with considerable success. His Singing for 
the Million^ (1842), was at that time well known, 
and went through many editions. He over- 
worked himself in this cause, and died, much 

I Thii date ia MtablUhed bf the epitaph at Mancheater. Dr. 
Rlemazin ?!▼«■ May 7. 1807. aa the date of birth. 

s M. F^tla amaalngly infera from thia title that Mainzor expected 
to number a million puplla. 

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30 maItre de chapelle, le 


esteemed and regretted, at Manchester, Nov. 10, 
1851. He was buried at Rosholme Road Ceme- 
tery, Manchester. A periodical started by him 
in July 1842, and entitled Mainaer's Musical 
Times, was the predecessor and basis of the 
present Musuxd Times, See the Musical Herald 
for June 1895, and an extended notice in Cham- 
hers's Jourrval, Feb. 14, 1852. o. 

oomique in two acts, by Ferdinando Paer. 
Produced at the Th^sLtre Feydeau, Paris, March 
29, 1821. It was afterwards reduced to one 
act, and has enjoyed great success in France and 
Germany in this form. An English version 
was given at the Prince of Wales's Theatre, Feb. 
16, 1897. 

MAITRISE, a term formerly applied in 
France both to the quarters assigned in cathe- 
drals and collegiate churches to the choristers 
and their master, and to the institution itself, 
which originally included a complete education, 
lay and ecclesiasticaL These schools turned out 
many great men, several rising to be bishops 
and popes ; among the latter Pope Urban lY., 
a cobbler's son, whose early years were passed 
in the * Psallette ' at Troyes. Some centuries 
later, when the Maitrises had undergone great 
changes, they were still the only establishments 
in which even secular musicians could obtain 
their training. From the Maitrises the Church 
obtained choristers, organists, and mattres de 
chapelle, and the world its favourite composers. 
Here also, although instrumental music was 
neglected, and dramatic music positively for- 
bidden, the regimental bands found their 
bassoon players, and the lyric theatres their 
' clavecinistes - accompagnateurs, ' violoncellists, 
and singers. 

A complete account of the Maitrises would 
involve a review of the whole history of music 
anterior to the French Revolution, so we must 
be content with specifying a few of the masters, 
composers, choristers, and organists who have 
reflected honour on these ancient institutions. 
They were real schools of music, the pupils 
being maintained at the cost of the chapters. 
• Indeed they much resembled the Conservatorios 
of Italy, both in their mode of administration, 
and in the course of instruction given. They 
were not, however, all organised alike, but 
varied with local circumstances. Thus in some 
the boys, the master, and the priests, lived in 
common, in others separately ; in some the 
maintenance of the children was in the hands 
of the master, in others there was a regular 
purveyor. But in all, the main end was the 
study of music. Before the Revolution there 
were in France 400 Maitrises and choirs, with 
as many maitres de chapelle, maintained either 
by the chapters of cathedrals and collegiate 
churches, the cur^, or the monasteries. Each 
Maitrise contained, on an average, from 25 to 
30 persons, and the musicians thus diffused 

throughout the country numbered in all about 
10,000, of whom 4000 were pupils or choristers. 
There was naturally much rivalry among the 
different establishments, which was of great 
benefit to music To show how great and 
widely spread was their influence we may name 
a few of the principal musicians and composers 
who owed their education and their very varied 
styles to this one capacious source, before the 
establishment of opera in France: — Eustache 
du Caurroy, Intermet, and Claudin (Claude de 
Sermisy), who flourished under Henri IV. ; 
Yeillot, maitre of Notre Dame ; Hautcousteau, 
maitre of the Sainte Chapelle ; P^hon, maitre 
of St. Germain ; Fremart, Cosset, Gobert, 
Boesset, Moulinier, and Michel Lambert, all 
contemporaries of Chanoine Annibal Gantez, 
whose Enlretien des musidens (Auxerre, 1643, 
small 12mo, very scarce) contains curious and 
not very edifying details of the lives of the 
maitres de ohapeUe of his day. Then, with 
the use of opera, came Cambert, Campra, and 
Gilles, a pupil of Poitevin, and composer of a 
celebrated ' messe des morts ' performed at the 
funeral of Rameau, Bemier, a learned contra- 
puntist, Rameau himself, Gauzargues, and 
others of less note. Among organists — Mar- 
ohand, the Couperins, Daquin, who threatened 
to be a formidable rival to Handel and Rameau, 
Balb&tre, Charpentier, S^jan, and Boely. 
Among composers — Lalande, Mont^clair, Blan- 
chard, Mondonville, Floquet, Philidor, Gossec, 
Gr^try, Champein, M^hul, Lesueur, Gaveaux, 
Boieldieu, and Felicien David. Among singers — 
Jdlyotte, LegroB, Larriv^e, Lays, and Rousseau, 
whose voices were first heard in the service of 
the Church, afterwards delighted the habitues 
of the opera. 

The Maitrises, though suppressed in 1791, 
were afterwards reconstituted, on a different 
footing. The Conservatoire national de musique 
is now the great nursery of French musicians, 
but many a church has still its Mattrise, where 
the choristers — boys and men — are trained by 
a maitre de chapelle in everything necessary 
to ensure a good execution of plain-song and 
sacred music. We have already spoken of 
Choron's school of music (Choron), still in 
existence as the * Ecole Niedermeyer.' Nieder- 
meyer and D'Ortigue also founded a periodical 
called La Maitrise^ specially devoted to sacred 
music. It survived only four years, but to it 
we refer the reader for further details. Besides 
Gantez's work already mentioned, another 
book, also published in 1643 by Jean de Bor- 
denave, a Canon of B^n, VEsLai des ^lises 
eolUgiales et caMdrales, contains much informa- 
tion, though impaired by its want of method 
and arrangement. g. c. 

MAJESTATISCH. * Majestic ' ; in a digni- 
fied manner. This is used as the equivalent of 
Maestoso by Beethoven in No. 5 of the 6 Lieder 
von Gellert, ' Die Ehre Gottes in der Natur.' 

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The whole direction is ' MigestiaLtisch und 
erhaben' (majestic and sublime). The word 
also occurs as a direction in a song of Schu- 
bert's called 'liedesend.' M. 

MAJO, GiAN Francesco di, bom at Naples 
about 1740, was the son of Giuseppe de Majo 
(1698-1772), who was maestro di cappella to 
the King of the Two Sicilies in the early part 
of the 18th century, and wrote various church 
and chamber compositions ; the son was a pupil 
of Padre Martini, and first appeared as an opera 
composer in 1759, with * Riccimero ' at Naples ; 
this was followed at short intervals by many 
others, written either by himself alone or in 
collaboration. 'Gajo Fabrido' was given at 
Naples in 1760, and the same year saw the 
production of * Astrea placata ' ; in 1761 * L'Al- 
meria' was given at Leghorn ; in 1762 ' Arta- 
serse'; *Ipermestra' in 1768; and in 1764 
' Aldde negli Orti Esperidi ' in Vienna ; ' Ad- 
riano in Siria ' was given in Rome about 1766 ; 

* Ifigenia in Tauride ' is of uncertain date ; and 
his last, * Eumene,' of which he only finished 
one act, was completed by Insanguine, and 
produced at Naples in 1771. Among the 
operas that have music by di Majo in them 
are 'Agamenmon,* 'Cleofide,* 'Demofoonte,* 
and 'Ezio.' Two arias by him are quoted in 
Marx's Glti^ und die Oper. Many cantatas 
and church music are mentioned in the QueUenr- 
LexUcon, The composer died at Rome, Jan. 18, 
1771. M. 

MAJOR. When intervals have two forms 
which are alike consonant or alike dissonant, 
these are distinguished as major and minor, the 
former being always a semitone greater than the 
latter. Thus thirds and sixths have two forms, 
which are both consonant, and are respectively 
called major and minor. Seconds, sevenths, and 
ninths have each two forms, which are dissonant, 
and are similarly distinguished as major and 
minor. The mcyor, however, is not always the 
greatest form of an interval, for, under certain 
circumstances, some intervals are capable of 
further extension, and are then described as 

* augmented' or 'superfluous,' as augmented 
seconds or augmented or superfluous sixths. 
The major forms of concords are such as con- 
tain a major third from the root note, and these 
are both more harmonious and better defined 
than the minor concords ; for, in the first place, 
the major third agrees with the fourth harmonic 
of the fundamental tone, and, in the second, the 
combinational tones of the chord for the most 
part only double notes already existing in the 
chord. Whereas in the minor concords the minor 
third does not correspond with any of the really 
perceptible harmonics of the root note, and the 
triad cannot in any position be free from false 
combinational tones. It is mainly for these 
reasons that the major chord is so often found 
at the conclusion of a piece of music in a minor 
mode in the works of the earlier masters, from 

Josquin des Pr^s up to Mozart. [See Harmony, 
vol ii p. 807 ; Tiercb de Picardie.] 

The most important and best defined scale of 
modem music is called ' migor,' because it has a 
major third from the tonic in the ascending series; 
whence in former times it was common to dis- 
tinguish the scale or mode by the terms * greater ' 
or * lesser ' third, as, * in the key of 6 with the 
greater third.' where one would now say *6 
major.' This magor scale is the natural diatonic 
series of modem music, represented by the series 
starting trom C. It is fundamentally the most 
perfect for harmonic purposes, as it presents 
the greatest number of concords, and the larger 
proportion of these in their most harmonious 
form ; and it also provides most perfectly and 
simply the means of making the tonal relation- 
ship intelligible ; since, as Helmholtz points 
out, * the tones (of the scale) are constituents of 
the compound tone of the tonic, or the fifth 
above or the fifth below it. By which means 
all the relations of tones are reduced to the 
simplest and closest relationship existing in any 
musical system — that of the fifth.' This scale 
corresponds to the Greek Lydian and the Ecclesi- 
astical Ionian Mode. 

The term * mijor ' is also used in a theoretical 
sense of tones, to distinguish the interval of a 
tone which has the ratio 9 : 8 from that which 
has the ratio 10:9, which is called a minor tone. 
For example, in the key of C, C-D is a major 
tone and D-E a minor tone, and the difierence 
between them is a comma. c. u. H. p. 

MAJORANO. See Caffarelli. 

of this celebrated French song, and the names 
of the authors of both words and music, are 
doubtful ; but there is reason to believe that 
the couplets called * Mort et convoi de I'invin- 
cible Malbrougli ' were improvised on the night 
after the battle of Malpkquet (Sept. 11, 1709), 
in the bivouac of Marshal de Yillars, at 
Quesnoy, three miles from the field of battle. 
The name of the soldier, who perhaps satirised 
the English general as a relief to his hunger, 
has not been preserved, but in all probability he 
was well acquainted with the lament on the 
death of the Duke of Guise, published in 1566. ' 
In fact, the idea, the construction, and many 
details in the two songs are very similar, though 
the rhythm and position of the rhymes ai-e 
different, and they cannot be sung to the same 
music The following is the air, admirably 
adapted to the words : — 

tAl • ne; Kalbrongh n'eurtk-i-tai gncrrB, Ne Mlt qoMid ravlen- 
Fine. D.C. 

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Chateaubriand, hearing the tune snng by 
Arabs in Palestine, suggested that it had been 
oarried there by the Crusaders, either in the 
time of Godfrey de Bouillon, or in that of 
Louis IX. and Joinville *, but no musician can 
entertain this idea for a moment. The breadth 
of the phrasing, the major mode, and the close 
on the dominant, are as characteristic of the 
popular tunes of the time of Louis XIV. as 
they are unlike the unrhythmical melodies of 
the Middle Ages. 

It is not surprising that neither words nor 
music are to be found in the many collections 
of both ; nowadays the merest trifles appear in 
print, but formerly all songs were sung from 
memory. It would probably have died out had 
not Madame Poitrine used it as a lullaby for 
the infant danphin in 1781. Marie Antoinette 
took a fancy to her baby's cradle -song, and 
sang it herself, and * Malbrough s'en va-t-en 
guerre ' was soon heard in Versailles, Paris, and 
at length throughout France. Beaumarchais 
introduced it into his Afariage de Figaro (1784), 
which still further contributed to its popularity. 
It then became a favourite air for couplets in 
French vaudevilles ; and Beethoven brings it 
into his 'Battle Symphony* (1813) as the 
symbol of the French army. The air is now 
equally popular on both sides of the Channel. 
Many an Englishman, who would be puzzled to 
I'ecognise Marlborough under the guise of Mal- 
brook, is familiar with the tune to the convivial 
words, * We won't go home till morning ' and 
* For he's a jolly good fellow.' 

The piece was made the subject of an op^ra- 
bouffe in four acts, words by Siraudin and Bus- 
nach, music by Bizet, Jonas, Legouix, and 
Delibes, brought out at the Ath^n^e, Dec. 13, 
1867. [The first English use of the air which 
the present writer can trace is a setting of it to 
a satirical song relative to the siege of Gibraltar, 
mentioning the incidents of the defeat of the 
combined Spanish and French forces on Sept 
13, 1782. The song was undoubtedly written 
about that date, and the tune selected in a 
spirit of derision. Its title runs, 'D'Artois' 
return from Gibraltar, translated from the French 
and adapted to the Malbro' air.' The first 
verse, out of many, is : — 

D'Artols returns from Spain, 
O what a rare campaign (bis). 
We thought that with a look 
He would the place have took, 
But the thunder of his wrath 
Was not a cracknr worth, etc., etc. 

It was published first as a half sheet by Preston, 
and afterwards included in a folio work issued 
by that publisher. The Beauties of Music and 
Poetry, circa 1790. 

From this period the air quickly gained 
popularity in England, mostly, however, as an 
instrumental piece for the flute or violin. It 
is found in Aird's Selection, vol. iii. [1788], and 
Bi most violin and flute collections of shortly 

before the close of the 18 th century. It was 
also frequent as a harpsichord lesson with 
variations ; and Charles Dibdin, in his Musical 
T<mr, 1788, speaks of young ladies ' hammering 
Malbrouk out of tune. ' About 1 7 90 an English 
song, * The Maid of Primrose Hill, ' was adapted 
to the air, and after this time numerous others 
now forgotten. About 1880, 'We won't go 
home till morning,' the second verse of which 
is *For he's a jolly good fellow,* turned the 
delicate and rather melancholy French air into 
a convivial channel, and with this song it is now 
always associated in England.] o. c. ; with 
additions by f. k. 

MALCOLM, Alexander, bominEdinbui^h, 
1687, was author of A Treatise of Mvsick\ 
SpeeukUive, JPradical and Historical, 8vo, 
Edinburgh, 1721 ; second edition, 8vo, London, 
1780; a well -executed work. An ill -made 
abridgement by an * eminent musician, * appeared 
in London, 1776. In 1721 one Mitchell pub- 
lished ' An Ode on the Power of Musick,* dedi- 
cated to Malcolm, the greater part of which 
is prefixed to the two editions of the Treatise, 
w. H. H. His work is the first iinportant 
treatise on the theory of music issued in 
Scotland. Prior to it are, the few leaves of 
general instructions in the Abeixleen Gantus 
(1662, 1666, 1682), and a thin folio volume 
entitled An Ititrodudion to the Knowledge and 
Practice of Musick, by A. B., 1717. The ©opy, 
probably unique, was sold at the Taphouse 
sale in 1905, and had bound up with it a 
contemporary manuscript essay on The Institu- 
tions of Miuick wherein are sett forth the praeti- 
call principles of Musicall Composition. Another 
manuscript treatise is of the 16th century, and 
written in the Scottish dialect. It is mentioned 
by Hawkins and belonged to him ; it is now in 
the British Museum. 

Malcolm's work is in octavo, and the first 
edition contains 608 pp. with engraved musical 
examples ; it was issued at ' Edinburgh, printed 
for the author, 1721.' 

Hawkins and later writers speak in the 
highest terms of its merits. The book was dedi- 
cated to the * directors of the Eoyal Academy 
of musick' (i.e, the manager of the Italian 
Opera), who are named individually. 

It is advertised as just issued, in the Edinburgh 
Evening Courant of Nov. 6, 1721, and from 
this advertisement we learn that the author 
then lived *in the Cowgate, opposite Burnet's 
Close.' P. K. 

MALEK ADEL. An opera seria in three 
acts ; words by Count Pepoli, music by Michael 
Costa. Produced at the Th^Atre Italien, Paris, 
Jan. 14, 1887, and in London at Her Majesty's, 
May 18, 1837. o. 

MALHERBE, Charles Theodore, bom in 
Paris, April 21, 1868, on the completion of his 
literary and legal studies (having reached the 
grade of * licenci^ ') took up music and studied 

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various branches of composition, with Danhauser, 
Wormser, and Massenet. From 1881 he con< 
tributed to various musical publications, and 
in 1896 was appointed * archiviste-adjoint ' to 
the Paris Op4ra, and in 1899 succeeded Nuitter 
as archiviste. His private collection of musical 
autographs is one of the richest in the world, 
after those of the public libraries of Berlin, 
Vienna, London, and Paris. The following 
may be mentioned among Malherbe's works on 
music: Notices of * Esclarmonde ' (1889) and 
* Ascanio' (1890) ; the CatcUogue hibliographique 
des ofuvres de Donizetti (1897). In colla- 
boration with M. A. Soubies : VCEuvre drama- 
tiqut de R, Wagner (1886); Precis d^histoire 
de rOp^a-Comique (1887) ; MHangea sur R, 
fVagner (1891); Histoire de la seconde ScUle 
Favart (two vols., 1892 and 1893, crowned by 
the Institut), etc. He has composed several 
op^ras-comiques and incidental music for ' Les 
yeuxclos'(0d6on, J1896), orchestral and chamber 
music, as well as numerous transcriptions, o. f. 

MALIBRAN, Maria Felicita, one of the 
most distinguished singers the world has ever 
seen, was born March 24, 1808, at Paris, where 
her fiEtther, Manuel Garcia, had arrived only 
two months before. When three years old she 
was taken to Italy, and at the age of five played 
a child's part in Paer's ' Agnese,' at the 'Fioren- 
tini,' Naples. So precocious was she that, after 
a few nights of this opera, she actually began 
to sing the part of ^ Agnese ' in the duet of the 
second Act, a piece of audacity which was ap- 
plauded by the public. Two years later, she 
studied solfeggi with Panseron, at Naples ; and 
Herold, happening to arrive about the same 
time, gave her her first instruction on the piano. 
In 1816 Garcia took her to Paris with the rest 
of his family, and thence to London in the 
autumn of 1817. Already speaking fluently 
Spanish, Italian, and French, Maria picked up 
a tolerable knowledge of English in the two and 
a half years she spent in London. Not long 
after, she learned German with the same facility. 
Here, too, she had good teaching on the piano, 
and made such rapid progress that, on her 
return to Paris in 1819, she was able to play 
J. S. Bach's clavier -works, which were great 
favourites with her father. In this way she 
acquired sound taste in music. 

At the early age of fifteen she was made by 
her father to learn singing under his own direc- 
tion ; and, in spite of the fear which his violent 
temper inspired, she soon showed the individu- 
ality and originality of her genius. Two years 
had barely elapsed when (1824) Garcia allowed 
her to appear for the first time before a musical 
club which he had just established. There 
she produced a great sensation, and her future 
success was confidently predicted. Two months 
later, Garcia returned to London, where he was 
engaged as principal tenor ; and here he set on 
foot a singing-class, in which the education of 
VOL. in 

Maria was continued, if not completed. F^tis 
says that it was in consequence of a sudden 
indisposition of Mme. Pasta, that the first 
public appearance of Maria was unexpectedly 
made ; but this account Ib not the same as that 
given by Ebers or by Lord Mount- Edgcumbe. 
The latter relates that, shortly after the repair 
of the King's Theatre, *the great favourite 
Pasta arrived for a limited number of nights. 
About the same time ... it became neces- 
sary to engage a young singer, the daughter 
of the tenor Garcia, who had sung here for 
several seasons. She was as yet a mere girl, 
and had never appeared on any public stage ; 
but from the first moment of her appearance 
she showed evident talents for it both as singer 
and actress. Her extreme youth, her prettiness, 
her pleasing voice, and sprightly easy action, 
as Rosina in "II Barbiere di Siviglia," in which 
part she made her d^but, gained her general 
favour ; but she was too highly extolled, and 
injudiciously put forward as a prirnia donna, 
when she was only a very promising debutante, 
who in time, by study and practice, would in all 
probability, under the tuition of her father, a 
good musician, but (to my ears at least) a most 
disagreeable singer, rise to eminence in her pro- 
fession. Ebers says, < her voice was a contralto, 
and managed with great taste.' Her d^but took 
place June 7, 1825. She was immediately 
afterwards engaged for the remainder of the 
season (about six weeks) at £500. On July 23, 
she sang Felicia in the first performance of 
Meyerbeer's *Crociato.' At the end of the 
season, Garcia went, with his daughter, to the 
provincial festivals, and then embarked for 
New York. In this new sphere Maria rapidly 
improved, and acquired confidence, experience, 
and the habit of the stage. She appeared in 
* Otello,' * Romeo,' * Don Giovanni,' * Tancredi,' 
*Cenerentola,* and in two operas written for 
her by her father, ' L' amante astuto,' and * La 
Figlia dell' aria.' She had scarcely made her 
d^but when the enthusiasm of the public knew 
no bounds ; and, in the midst of her popularity, 
Garcia gave her in marriage to M. Malibran, an 
elderly and seemingly wealthy French merchant, 
in spite of her repugnance to the union. This 
marriage, celebrated March 25, 1826, was as 
unhappy as it was ill-assorted ; a year had hardly 
elapsed before the young wife found herself, on 
MaJibran's bankruptcy, free to leave him, and 
she at once seized the opportunity. In September 
1827 she had returned to France. Preceded 
by a bright reputation, she began by reaping a 
harvest of applause in private concerts, followed 
in January 1828 by a great and genuine success, 
at Gain's benefit, in 'Semiramide.' Her genius 
for dramatic singing was at once recognised, 
though her style was marred by a questionable 
taste in her choice of ornament. This she had, 
in Paris, the best opportunity of correcting, 
both by the advice of kindly critics and the 


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example of accomplished singers. Engaged for 
the season at the Italian opera, she made her 
d^bnt, April 8. The public, at first doubting, 
soon welcomed her as a really great singer, and 
were particularly struck with wonder and delight 
at the novelty and originality of her style. In 
the season of 1829 Malibran made her reappear- 
ance in London, where she shared the applause 
of the public with Sontag, and the same result 
followed her singing with that artist at Paris in 
the autumn. She was principal soprano at the 
Gloucester Festival of 1829, and when engaged 
again at the Italian Opera in Paris in January 
1880, she was paid firs. 1075 for each representa- 
tion. This was less than she had received from 
Laporte in London, for he had given her frs. 
13,333*33 a month, an odd sum, unless it meant 
frs. 40,000 for three months ; and she stipulated 
only to appear twice a week, making each of 
those appearances cost frs. 1666*66, or about 
£66. Though she certainly continued to draw 
no higher salary at the Paris Opera in 1830 
and 1831, and her charge for singing at private 
concerts in London, 1829, was only twenty-five 
guineas, yet Alfred Bunn engaged her, soon 
after, for nineteen nights at £125 per night, 
payable in advance, 

Sontag, marrying and retiring from the stage 
early in 1830, left Malibran mistress of the field, 
and henceforth she had no rival, but continued 
to sing each season in London and Paris with 
ever-increased 4olat. In 1830 an attachment 
sprang up between her and Charles de B^riot 
the violinist ; and this ended only with her 
life. They built in 1831 a handsome viQa at 
Ixelles, a suburb of Brussels, to which they 
returned after every operatic campaign. In the 
summer of 1832 a sudden inspiration took this 
impulsive artist to Italy in the company of 
Lablache, who happened to pass through Brussels ; 
and an Italian tour was improvised, which was 
a sort of triumphal progress. Milan, Rome, 
Naples, and Bologna were visited with equal 

Malibran retired to Brussels in Dec. 1882, 
and her son, Charles Wilfrid, was bom Feb. 
12, 1833. In the following spi*ing she came to 
London, and sang at Drury Lane, in English 
Opera, receiving frs. 80,000 for forty representa- 
tions, with two benefits which produced not 
less than firs. 50,000. The prices offered to her 
increased each year to an unprecedented extent. 
She received at the Opera in London, during 
May and June 1835, £2776 for twenty- four 
appearances. Sums, the like of which had not 
been heard of before in such cases, were paid to 
her at the provincial festivals in England, and 
her last engagement at Naples was for fn, 
80,000 for forty nights, with 2 J benefits, while 
that which she had accepted at Milan from 
the Duke Visoonti, the director of La Scala, was, 
exclusively of some other profitable conditions, 
frs. 450,000 for 185 performances, viz. seventy- 

five in 1835-36, seventy-five in 1836-37, and 
thirty-five in the autumn of 1838. 

Having played here in English versions of 
' Sonnambula' and ' Fidelio,' Malibran returned 
to Naples, where she remained until May 1834, 
proceeding then to Bologna, and thence to 
Milan. She soon came back, however, to London 
for a flying visit ; and was singing at Sinigaglia 
in July. On the 11th of the next month she 
went to Lucca, where her horses were taken 
from her carriage, which was drawn to her hotel 
by enthusiastic admirera after her last appear- 
ance. She next went to Milan, where she 
signed the above-mentioned conti-act, and thence 
to Naples where she sang at the Foudo in *Otello,' 
and at the San Carlo, Dec. 4, 1834, in Rossi's 
* Amelia.' Persiani's * Ines de Castro ' was pro- 
duced at the San Carlo for her in the same 
winter. Here she met with an accident, her 
caniage being upset at the corner of a street ; 
and she sufiered injuries which prevented her 
from appearing in public for a fortnight. Even 
then, she made her firat appearance with her 
arm in a sling, which added to the interest of 
the occasion. Fi-om Naples she went, in the 
same triumphant manner, to Venice, her arrival 
being announced by fan fares of trumpets. There 
she was besieged with fresh enthusiasm, which 
followed her in her return to Paris and London. 
She returned in August to Lucca. 

At this juncture her marriage was annulled 
by the Courts at Paris, and on March 26, 1836, 
she married de B^riot, with whom she returned 
immediately to Brussels. 

In the following April, once more in London, 
Mme. Malibran de B^riot had a fall from her 
horse. She was dragged some distance along 
the road, and received serious injuries to her 
head, fi*om which she never entirely recovered ; 
but her wonderful energy enabled her for a 
time to disregard the consequences of this acci- 
dent. She returned to Brussels, from whence 
she went to Aix-la-Chapelle, and gave two con- 
certs there with de B^riot. In September she 
had come to England again, for the Manchester 
Festival, — at which her short, brilliant life 
came to an end. She had arrived, with her 
husband, after a rapid journey from Paris, on 
Sunday, Sept. 11, 1836. On the following 
evening she sang in no less than fourteen pieces. 
On the Tuesday, though weak and ill, she insisted 
on singing both morning and evening. On 
Wednesday, the 14th, her state was still more 
critical, but she contrived to sing the last sacred 
music in which she ever took part, ' Sing ye to 
the Lord,' with thrilling effect ; but that same 
evening her last notes in public were heard, in 
the duet, with Mme. Caradori Allan, * Vanne se 
alberghi in petto,' from * Androuico.' This was 
received with immense enthusiasm, the last 
movement was encored, and Malibran actually 
accomplished the task of repeating it. It was 
her last effort While the concert-room still 

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rang with applause, she was fainting in the anns 
of her friends ; and, a few moments later, she 
was conveyed to her hotel [the Morley Arms, 
Matlock.] Here she died, after nine days of 
nervous fever, in the prostration which naturally 
followed upon the serious injuries her brain hJsd 
received from the accident which had befallen 
her in the midst of a life of perpetual excitement. 
She died on Friday, Sept. 28, 1886, about twenty 
minutes before midnight, under the care of her 
own doctor, a homoeopath, Belluomini, who had 
declined to act with the two regular physicians 
who had at first attended her. Two hours after 
her death de Beriot was, with Belluomini, in a 
carriage on his way to Brussels, to secure the 
iiroj^rty of his late wife. She was buried on 

Oct 1, in the south aisle of the collegiate chiutjh, 
Manchester. She was but twenty-eight years 
of age when she died. Her remains were, soon 
afterwards, removed to Brussels, where they were 
reinterred in the cemetery of Laekcn, where a 
mausoleum was erected by de B^iot, contain- 
ing a bust of the great singer by the celebrated 
sculptor Geefs. 

It is difficult to appreciate the charm of a 
singer whom one has never heard. In the case 
of Maria MaUbran it is exceptionally difficult, 
for the charm seems to have consisted chiefly in 
the peculiarity of timbre and unusual extent of 
her voice, in her excitable temperament which 
prompted her to improvise passages of strange 
audacity upon the stage, and on her strong 
musical feeling which kept those improvisations 
nearly, but not quite, always within the bounds 
of good taste. That her Toice was not faultless, 
either in quaUty or uniformity, seems certain. 
It was a contralto, having much of the soprano 
register superadded, and -with an interval of 
dead notes intervening, to conceal which she 
used great ingenuity, with almost perfect success. 
It was, after all, her mindtthat helped to enslave 

her audience ; without that mental originality 
her defective vocal organ would have failed to 
please where, in fact, it provoked raptures. 

Many portraits of Malibran have appeared, 
none very good. A large one, after Hayter, re- 
presenting her with a harp, as ' Desdemona,' is 
usually accounted the best ; but it is only indif- 
ferent Another, by R. J. Lane, A. B. A. , showing 
her made up as * Fidalma,' and then, afterwards, 
in a stage-box, in her usual dress, is much better. 
It is this latter portrait which we have engraved. 

Several biographies have a(>peared of this 
extraordinary person, with anecdotes of whom 
it would be easy to fill a volume ; that which was 
written by the Comtesse Merlin is little better 
than a romance. Malibran composed and pub- 
lished many nocturnes, songs, and chansonnettes ; 
some of the unpublished pieces were collected 
and published by Troupenas at Paris under the 
name of ' Demieres Pens^es musicales de Maiie- 
F^licit^ Garcia de Beriot,' in 4 to. J. M. ; with 
corrections from R Heron- Allen's ContribtUunu 
touHirds an accurate biography of De Biriot and 
Malibran (De Fidic Opuscula^ op. vi.) 

MALINCONIA, LA. The name attached by 
Beethoven to a very romantic intermezzo or in- 
troduction, of forty- four bars' length, between 
the Scherzo and the Finale of his String Quartet 
in Bb, op. 18, No. 6. The time is Adagio, and 
the direction given is 'Questo pezzo si deve 
trattare colla piii gran delicatezza.' The theme 
of the Malinconia appears twice in the Finale, 
much in the same way that the Andante does in 
that of the Quintet, op. 29. g. 

MALLINGER, Mathilpe, bom Feb. 17, 
1847, at Agram, Croatia, was first taught sing- 
ing there by her father, a professor of music, and 
Professor Lichtenegger, later by Gordigiani and 
Yogi at the Prague Conservatorium from 1868 
to 1866, and finally by Richard Lewy at Vienna. 
On the recommendation of Franz Lachner 
she was engaged at Munich, where she made 
her d^but as Norma, Oct. 4, 1866. She was the 
original Eva in the *Meistersinger,' June 21, 
1868. She made her debuts at Berlin as Elsa, 
April 6, and Norma, April 9, 1869. She was 
an excellent actress and a great favourite, mar- 
ried the Baron Schimmelpfennig von der Oye at 
Berlin, and remained there during her whole 
musical career until 1882. On leave of absence 
she played with success at Vienna, Munich, etc., 
and in Italian opera at St. Petersburg and 
Moscow, but with indifferent success. Her parts 
included Donna Anna, Fidelio, Jessonda, Valen- 
tine, Leonora (' Trovatore '), Iphigenia, £ury- 
anthe, Susanna, Zerlina, Mrs. Ford, etc. About 
1871 a certain section of the Berlin public tried 
to establish her claim as leading singer as against 
Pauline Lucca, the then reigning favourite. 
Endless quarrels ensued on their account, which 
culminated at a performance of the * Nozze,' Jan. 
27, 1872, where they were both playing. On 
Lucca's entry as Cherubino she was hissed — Iq 

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consequence of which she broke her contract in 
the following autumn and left for America. In 
1890 Mme. Mallinger became professor of sing- 
ing in the Conservatorium of Prague, and in 
1895 returned to Berlin to teach in the Eichel- 
bcrg Conservatorium. a. c. 

MALTEN (properly MOLLER), ThArIssb, 
bom at Insterburg, Eastern Prussia, June 21, 
1855, was taught singing by Gustav Engel of 
Berlin. She made her d^but as Pamina and 
Agatha at Dresden in 1873, where she remained 
for thirty years as principal soprano, retiring 
At last on a pension. Her parts include Ar- 
mida, Iphigenia, Fidelio, Jessonda, Qenoveva, 
Leonora ('Trovatore'), Margaret ; the heroines 
of Wagner ; the Queen of Sheba in Goldmark's 
opera of that name ; the Princess Marie in 
Kretschmer's ' Folkunger ' on its production in 
1874 ; Fulvia on the production of Hofmann's 
* Arminius ' in 1877, etc. On leave of absence 
she has played in London, Berlin, Vienna, etc. 
In August 1882 she appeared at Bayreuth as 
Kundry, at the instance of Wagner, who had a 
very high opinion of her ability, again in 1884, 
and at Munich, where she played the same part 
in private before King Ludwig, from whom she 
received the gold medal of Arts and Science. 

She made a great impression on her d^but at 
Drury Lane under Richter as Fidelio, May 24, 
1882, and during the season as Elsa, May 27 ; 
Elizabeth, June 3, and Eva, June 7. She re- 
apx>eared in England at the Albert Hall on the 
production of ' Parsifal,* Nov. 10 and 15, 1884 ; 
at a Richter Concert in 1886 ; and at' the 
Bristol Festival of 1896. 

She possesses a voice of extraordinary com- 
pass, with deep and powerful notes in the lower 
register. She is an admirable actress, being 
especially successful in Wagner's operas. She 
was appointed chamber singer to the King of 
Saxony in 1880, and was also chosen by Wagner 
to play Isolde at Bayreuth in 1883, though the 
performance did not take place owing to the 
death of the composer. She has practically 
retired from the exercise of her art for some 
years. A. c. 

MALVEZZI, Cristofano, bom at Lucca 
(June 27, 1547, according to Riemann), was in 
1571 a canon at the church of San Lorenzo in 
Florence, and on the death of Francesco Cor- 
teccia succeeded him as maestro di cappella to 
the Grand Duke of Tuscany. He is chiefly 
known as the editor of a collection of dramatic 
intermezzi which were performed on the occasion 
of the marriage of the Grand Duke Ferdinand 
with Christina of Lorraine in 1589. The work 
was published in fourteen part-books for voices 
and instruments under the title, Intermedii et 
concertij fatti per la catnmedia rappresentcUa in 
Firenze nelle nozze del . . . Ferdinando Medici 
e Mddama Cristiana di Lorena . . . Venice, 
1591. It is remarkable as a foreshadowing of 
the attempts made, a few years later, towiu*ds 

tlie creation of a proper dramatic music by 
means of vocal monody iiiith instrumental 
accompaniment. It is only a foreshadowing, 
however, as the pieces are all written in a simple 
madrigal style for 3, 4, 6, 6, 8 voices witli 
dialoghi for 6 to 15 voices. The instruments 
employed are chiefly lutes and viols of different 
kinds with trombones and organ. Only in the 
larger pieces are all the instruments employed 
with the voices. Besides the editor liimself 
the composers represented are Luca Marenzio, 
Jacopo Peri, Emilio de' Cavalieri, and Giovanni 
Bardi, the three latter becoming aftem^ards the 
creators of the later Monodio style. The piece 
composed by Luca Marenzio is entitled * II Com- 
battimento dApolline col Serpente.' From this 
a madrigal choms for four voices, ' O valoroso 
Dio,'is reprinted by Kiesewetter in his Sekieksale 
und Beschaffenheit des weltlichen OesangeSf 1841, 
who also gives three other pieces by Peri, 
Cavalieri, and Archilei, which, though written in 
the simplest four-part counterpoint, were sung 
by one voice with one or two instruments play- 
ing the other parts. Other works by Malvezzi 
are a book of madrigals a 5, Venice, 1583, and 
one a 6, Venice, 1584, also a book of Ricercari 
a 4, 1577. A canzona by him transcribed from 
Schmid's organ-tablature book, 1607, is given in 
Ritter's Oeschichte des OrgelspielSf No. 9. See 
also Ritter, p. 27. J. R. M. 

MANCHESTER. Of the musical associations 
in Manchester, by far the oldest, and, for its 
past influence upon the progress of music in the 
city, by far the most important, is that of the 
Gentlemen's Concerts. The date of the forma- 
tion of these concerts is uncertain ; but the 
overture to Handel's 'Julius Caesar,' taken from 
a programme of the year 1745, held a com- 
memorative place at the opening concert given 
in 1903. [The concerts, in their early days, 
were a meeting -place of Jacobites; see the 
MoTiihly Hevieio for Dec. 1905, art. * Under- 
ground Jacobitism,' by R E. Francillon, p. 
21.] The orchestra appears to have had an 
amateur origin; and it maintained a partially 
amateur constitution till the conductorship of 
it fell to Sir (then Mr.) Charles Hall^, in 
February 1850. Previous to this appointment 
the first violin filled the double position of leader 
and conductor. For special performances of 
choral and other larger works, the sernces of 
special conductors were secured ; and in that 
position the names of Mazas, Schira, Julius 
Benedict, and, more frequently, Sir George Smart 
preceded that of Mr. Halle. 

For quite a century the concerts were the 
means of introducing the best contemporary art 
and artists to the town. They were also chiefly 
concerned in initiating and carrying out the 
great Musical Festival of the year 1828 ; and 
the still more memorable Festival of the year 
1836 — the last of its kind ever held in Man- 
chester, and the one upon which the death of 

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Malibran conferred a pathetic interest. When 
the Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition of the 
year 1857 was inaugurated, its directors found 
in Mr. Charles Hall^, and the orchestra of the 
Gentlemen's Concerts, a ready means of con- 
stituting a band worthy of its fine surroundings. 
Lfocal zeal saved this band from dispersal when 
the Exhibition closed. A permanent organisa- 
tion was created ; a series of winter concerts 
was arranged ; and the Hall^ orchestra and the 
Hall^ concerts are thus accounted for. In the 
year 1830 the subscribers took possession of 
their new building, known as the Gentlemen's 
Concert Hall. Here the society's concerts were 
continuously held till the site was absorbed in 
that of the Midland Hotel. Under the terms 
of the sale a large hall, capable of seating 900 
persons, was constructed — with a separate en- 
trance — witliin the hotel. In this hall the 
concerts were resumed in the season 1903-4, 
having been held in the interval of the building, 
in the Manchester Town Halh Eight concerts 
are given during the season. Since the establish- 
ment of the Hall^ orchestra, the band has been 
constituted from that source, with the same 
conductor, and the same leader. Dr. Hans 
Richter consequently succeeded Sir Charles 
Hall6 in the former position. The concerts are 
less strenuous and exploring than those of the 
Hall^ concerts, and choral works are not per- 
formed ; but the assemblies have a socially 
intimate character from the limitations of the 
subscription list. 

The Hall£ Concerts, it has been said, were 
established in the year 1857. From that date 
they were conducted with remarkable energy 
and worthiness of aim by Sir Charles Halle, 
till his death in 1895, one break in the sequence 
occurring in the year 1860 (no concerts were 
given from April 18, 1860, to October 17, 1861). 
On the death of Sir Charles, the concerts for the 
season were conducted by Sir Arthur Sullivan, 
Sir C. Yilliers Stanford, Sir Joseph Bamby, Dr. 
F. H. Cowen, Sir A. C. Mackenzie, Dr. Brodsky, 
Mr. George Henschel, and Mr. R. H. Wilson 
the chorus -master. Dr. Cowen conducted 
through the following season of 1896-97. Since 
that date the conductorship has been permanently 
in the hands of Dr. Richter. In the meantime 
a society of guarantors had been formed to 
continue the concerts ; and under this adminis- 
tration, and Dr. Richter's direction, the concerts 
have sustained and enhanced their own fame 
and the city's musical reputation. The orchestra 
consists of 1 00 performers. The chorus numbers 
400. Twenty concerts are given each season 
in the large Free Trade Hall ; and the band 
also fulfils engagements in Leeds, Bradford, 
Sheffield, Huddersfield, Newcastle, Burnley, 
and other towns in the North. 

Many efforts have from time to time been 
made in behalf of chamber music in Manchester, 
but all — including those of Sir Charles Hall^ 

himself — failed of sustained support. Thb 
Brodskt Quartet, however, established by Dr. 
Brodsky in 1896, has won appreciation, and the 
annual concerts, six in number, and exclusively 
instrumental, are amongst the most artistically 
and popularly successful given during the 
musical season. The balance of the receipts 
is devoted to the assistance of the students of 
the Royal Manchester College of Music, of 
which institution Dr. Brodsky is the Principal, 
in succession to Sir Charles HaUe. The college 
was founded in 1898 by an equal display of 
generosity and energy on the part of wealthy 
citizens. Her Mcgesty the Queen is the patroness 
of the institution, which possesses a charter. 
Manchester and neighbouring towns contribute 
to its funds, both directly, and by means of 
scholarships. The college is in close affiliation 
with the Manchester University. Several of 
the teachers of the former hold lectureships in 
the latter ; and the college students pass to the 
Bachelor's and Doctor's degrees in music, at the 
University. The fees are £80 per annum, in 
three terms ; and a full course of study is obli- 
gatory upon each student. 

The place once occupied by the Hargreaves 
Choral Society, and the Manchester Choral 
Society, both founded in 1840, may be said to 
be filled, now, by the Manchester Philhar- 
monic Choral Society, established by Mr. G. 
Brand Lane in 1880, and trained and conducted 
by him. The society has a singing membership 
of 600. From these, a chorus is selected which 
takes part in Mr. Lane's subscription concerts. 
Sixof these concerts are given each season. On 
choral evenings the band is furnished from the 
Hall^ orchestra. 

The Manchester Vocal Society was formed 
in 1867, largely on the initiative of the late 
J. St J. B. Joule, and the late Henry Wilson 
its first director — for conductor in the ordinary 
sense of the term, the society has never had. 
Mr. Wilson was succeeded in 1885 by Dr. Henry 
Watson, who still directs. The choir consists 
of some fifty selected voices, and includes some 
of the best vocal talent, amateur and professional, 
in the district. It gives four public concerts 
during the season, and in its accumulated reper- 
tory are a large number of important works, 
old and new, which through its concerts have 
been heard for the first time in Manchester. 
A special feature of the society's work is its 
unaccompanied part-singing. ^ 

The Gentlemen's Glee Club, an offshoot 
from the Gentlemen's Concerts, was established 
in 1880. Its constitution was modelled on 
that of the London Glee Club. Six meetings 
are held during the session, in October to March 
inclusive. To commemorate the seventy-fifth 
year of its existence, a brief history of the 
Club has been published. 

The series of public concerts at the Schillbr 
Anstalt, four in number, are often made 

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•peoially important by the new chamber music 
they introduce, and by the representative char- 
acter of the artists and composers who appear 
at them. 

Manchester possesses two specially line organs 
— one by Cavaille-Col, in the Town Hall, and 
one by Messrs. Henry Willis & Son, at the 
Whitworth Hall of the Manchester University. 
Dr. J. Kendrick Pyne, the city organist, gives 
occasional recitals on the latter, and regular 
Saturday evening recitals on the former. For 
the Henry Watson Music Library, see Libraries, 
vol. ii. p. 708. H. w. 

MANCHICOURT, Pierre de, French- 
Flemish composer of the earlier part of the 
16th century, was bom at B^thune in Artois. 
In 1589 he is described as Phonascus or choir- 
master of Toumai Cathedral, and some time 
before 1556 received a canonry at Arras. He is 
said to have lived afterwards at Antwerp. His 
compositions, fairly numerous, chiefly motets 
and chansons with a few masses, mostly appeared 
in the miscellaneous collections of the time. 
Some volumes, however, contain works ex- 
clusively or almost exclusively by Manchiconrt ; 
a book of motets, nineteen in all, a 4-6, was 
published by Attaignant in 1539, another book 
of motets containing 14 a 5-6, was published 
by Phalese at Lou vain in 1554. This latter 
volume was dedicated by Manchicourt to 
Antoine Perrenot, Bishop of Arras, known 
afterwards as Cardinal Granvelle, and prob- 
ably it was to him that the composer owed 
his canonry at Arras. In 1545 Tylman Susato 
of Antwerp published a book of twenty-nine 
chansons by Manchicourt. One of these 
chansons, 'Sortez mes pleurs,' has been reprinted 
in Commer's CollecttOy torn. xii. Eitner, in the 
Qicelleji-Lexikon, speaks in the highest terms of 
a motet, ' Vidi Speciosam, ' a 8, taken from the 
Thesaurus of Montanus and Neuber, 1564 ; but 
none of Manchicourt's motets have yet been 
reprinted in modem score. J. R. m. 

MANCINELLI, Lttigi, bom at Orvieto, 
Feb. 5, 1848. He was six years old when he 
began to study the piano under the direction 
of his father, a distinguished amateur. At the 
age of twelve he went to Florence to be a 
pupil of Professor Sbolci, one of the most talented 
Italian violoncellists. The boy showed great 
aptitude for the violoncello, and his progress 
was very rapid. While studying with Sbolci, 
he Jiad a short course in harmony and counter- 
point from Mabellini. These were the only 
lessons he ever had ; he has acquired his 
knowledge of composition from the study of the 
works of the great masters without any guide. 

Mancinelli's professional career began in 
Florence, where he was for a time one of the 
first violoncello players in the orchestra of La 
Pergola. He was engaged in the same capacity 
at the Apollo in Rome in 1874, when this 
theatre, by imexpected circumstances, was left 

without a conductor. The impresario Jacovaoci, 
a popular and energetic manager, in order not 
to stop the performances, thought of trying 
the ability of his first violoncellist, of whom 
he had heard favourable reports ; and so Manci- 
nelli was suddenly raised from the ranks to 
api)ear as a conductor. 'Aida' was the first 
oi)era conducted by him, and, as everything 
went off satisfactorily, from that performance 
there was a new conductor in Italy. 

Thanks to his first successful attempt, in the 
following year Mancinelli was engaged to be 
the musical director at Jesi during the flutes of 
Spontini's centenary. On this occasion he re- 
vived Spontini's * La Vestale,' and the admirable 
execution of this grand work reflected on the 
conductor, who was re-engaged for the direction 
of the orchestra of the Apollo. In 1876 Manci- 
nelli had his first success as a composer with 
his Intermezzi to ' Messalina,' a drama by Pietro 
Cossa. The following year he wrote Intermezzi 
to the * Cleopatra ' of the same author. 

Mancinelli left Rome in 1881 for Bologna, 
where he was engaged to be the Principal of 
the Liceo Musicale, and at the same time the 
conductor of the Teatro Oomunale, and the 
Maestro di Cappella of San Petronio, the old 
basilica of the famous university town. During 
his stay there he composed two Masses and 
many other sacred pieces, introduced several im- 
provements in the Liceo, organised a symphony 
and quartet society, and was the first to acquaint 
the Bolognese with vocal and instrumental music 
by foreign composers. In 1884 he gave the 
first performance of his opera, * Isoradi Provenza,* 
which was received with great applause. 

After five years he left Bologna, attracted, 
perhaps, to other countries by the prospect of 
pecuniary improvement in his position. During 
the season of 1886 he visited London, and gave 
a concert, in which he conducted classical works 
and some of his own compositions. The success 
of this concert brought him an invitation to 
write an oratorio for the next Norwich Festival, 
and the engagement to conduct the Italian 
Opera during the Jubilee season at Dmry Lane. 
His powers as a conductor received full recogni- 
tion ; and his oratorio ' Isaias,' executed at 
Norwich in October 1887, was unanimously 
praised. He was re-engaged by Harris as 
conductor for the season of 1888 at Covent 
Garden, and has revisited London annually 
almost ever since. His opera, *Ero e Leandro,* 
first performed in concert-form at the Norwich 
Festival of 1896, was presented on the stage at 
Madrid, Nov. 30, 1897, and at Covent Garden 
on July 11, 1898. From 1888 to 1895 Man- 
cinelli held the place of musical director and 
conductor at the Theatre Royal of Madrid. He 
was conductor of the operatic enterprises carried 
on by Harris at the Metropolitan Opera, New 
York. His oratorio, * Saint Agnes,* was given 
at the Norwich Festival of 1905. f. rz. 

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MANCINI, Fkakcesgo, an Italian composer, 
bom at Naples in 1674. At first a pnpil 
at the Gonservatorio di San Loreto he, in 1728, 
became principal master. He wrote at least 
twenty operas for performance in Naples, bnt 
his opera, * Hydaspes ' {q, r. ) or * 1' Idaspe Fedele, ' 
produced in London, May 23, 1710, makes his 
name best known to English musicians. He 
also composed some oratorios, and his reputation 
in Italy was very high. He died at Naples in 
1789. The Dictionary of Musicians, 1827, 
gives the date of his birth as 1691, but this is 
probably incorrect. F. K. 

MANCINUS, Thomas, bom 1 560 at Schwerin, 
in Mecklenburg, was cantor at the Dom*Schulo 
(Cathedral School) at Schwerin from 1572 to 
1578 ; in 1584 became a member of the chapel 
of the Duke of Brunswick at Wolfenbiittel, and 
in 1587 was appointed capellmeister. He was 
afterwards employed as librarian to the Duke, 
and died at Wolfenbiittel about 1620 (Kade 
gives the date 1612). He is the author of two 
simple settings of the Passion according to St. 
Matthew and St. John, first published in 1620, 
and since reprinted in Schoberlein's Sc?uUz des 
liturgisehen Oesanges, With the exception of 
a book of German secular songs a 4 and 5, his 
other works are mostly occasional compositions 
for weddings and frmerals, in the form of motets 
and madrigals, with Latin or German texts. 
See Quellen-Lexikon. j. R. M. 

MANDOLINE (Ital. Mandolino) is a small 
and very beautifully formed stringed instrument 
of the lute kind, with deeper convexity of back 
than the lute. It is, as its name implies, less 
in size than the Mand6la or Mand6ra, a much 
scarcer instrament Mdndola, or Mdndorla, sig- 
nifies ' almond,' and it has been supposed that 
the shape of the instrament has given it the 
name. But this cannot be accepted, since the 
almost universal use of the syllable ' Man ' un- 
changed, or changed by phonetic variation to 
'Ban,' 'Pan,' *Tan,* etc., for the first syllable 
of names of lute instraments from East to West, 
removes it to a wider etymological field. 

There are two varieties of Mandoline, the 
Neapolitan and the Milanese ; the former having 
four pairs of strings, the latter usually five. 
The Milanese * Mandurina ' is tuned 

There is one at South Kensington with six 
pairs, tuned 

The Milanese variety, however, is rare in 
comparison with the Neapolitan, the tuning of 
which is like that of the violin, in fifths. The 
lowest pair of strings is of gut, spun over with 
silver or copper, like a guitar first string ; the 

next of steel also spun over ; the second and first 
pairs are of steel only. Mahillon, in the Cata- 
logue of the Musical Instruments in the Brussels 
Conservatoire, p. 245, says that the lowest pair 
is of gut, the third pair of steel, the second 
pair of copper, and the first pair of gut. Berlioz 
recommends that the G strings should be of gut 
spun with wire, the D strings of brass, the A, of 
steel, and the £, of thin gut. The Mandoline is 

played with a plectrum of tortoiseshell, whale- 
bone, hom, or ostrich-quill, more or less flexible, 
which is held in the right hand, the left being 
employed to stop the strings, for which purpose 
there are seventeen frets across the finger-board. 
The scale of the instrument is three octaves and 
one note, from the G below the treble stave to 
the octave of A above it. The Serenade in 
Mozart's *Don Giovanni,' *Deh vieni,' was 
written to be accompanied by the Mandoline, 
and Gr^try wrote a charming accompaniment 
for it in the serenade in 'L'amant jaloux.' 
There is a song with mandoline accompaniment 
in Michael Arae's * Almena' (1764). 

In the former song the pizzicato of the violins 
is of a different colour of tone, and offers but a 
poor substitute. 

The Mandoline is not, however, the correct 
instrament Don Juan would have played a 
Bandurria, a kind of half guitar and truly 
national Spanish instrament, sometimes incor- 
rectly called a Mandoline. The back of the 
bandurria is flat ; it has only in common with 
the Mandoline that it is played with a plectram 
of tortoiseshell, called in Spanish 'pua,' and 
that it is the practice to insert a plate of the 
same substance in the belly below the sound-hole 
to prevent the plectram scratching. The ban- 
durria has twelve strings tuned in pairs, the 
higher three notes of catgut, the lower of silk 
overspun with metal. It is tuned much more 
deeply than the Mandoline. The compass is in 
all tlu'ee octaves. 

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Our illustration is from an instrument formerly 
in the possession of Carl Engel. 

Beethoven's friend Erumpholz was a virtuoso 
on the Mandoline, and this probably explains 
the fact of Beethoven's having written a piece 
for the instrument (Thayer, IL 49). The auto- 
graph is to be found in the volume of MS. 
sketches and fragments preserved in the British 
Museum, Add. MS. 29,801. Though entitled 
' Sonatina per il Mandolina (sic), Composta da 


L. V. Beethoven,' it is only in one movement, 
and was probably printed for the first time in 
the first edition of this Dictionary. Together 
with an adagio in E fiat for mandoline and 
harpsichord, it is contained in the supplementary 
volume of Beethoven's works in Breitkopf & 
Hartel's complete edition. It will be observed 
that the phrase with which the Trio (G migor) 
begins is the same which Beethoven afterwards 
useid in the Allegretto of op. 14, No. 1. 


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MANERIA. A term applied in the early 
Middle Ages to certain systematic arrangements 
of the scale, analogous to the Mixed Modes of 
a somewhat later period. The roots of the 
several systems comprised in the series corre- 
sponded with the finals of the Modes ; each 
system comprehending one Authentic and one 
Plagal Mode ; consequently, the number of the 
Maneria was only half that of the Modes them- 
selves. They were named and numbered in a 
barbarous mixture of Greek and Latin, thus : — 
Modes I. and II. were called Authentus et 
Plaga, Proti ; III. and IV., Authentus et Plaga, 
Deuteri ; V. and VI., Authentus et Plaga, Triti ; 
and VII. and VIII. , Authentus et Plaga, Tetarti : 
i.e, the Authentic and Plagal of the First, 
Second, Third, and Fourth Maneria. When 
the number of Modes was increased the pedantic 
faction affected to regard the Maneria of A and C 
as duplicates of the First and Second at a differ- 
ent pitch ; and hence originated the confusion 
mentioned in Dodecachordon. Afterwards, 
the necessary existence of six Maneria for the 
Twelve Modes was freely acknowledged, w. s. E. 

MANIER (Ger.), lit. * manner' ; derived, like 
our word * manner,* through the French manUref 
'a manner,' and manier, ' to handle,' from the 
Latin manus, * a hand.' It hsts two entirely dis- 
tinct meanings, one dealing with the {esthetics 
of music, the other with its technicalities. In 
the first of these connections the word signifies 
'mannerism,' or the faulty adherence to some 
peculiarity in style, bringing such peculiarity 
into undue prominence. It is the abuse of indi- 
viduality, without which quality no great thing 
can be accomplished in any art. 

The second meaning of the word is the same 
as the French agrim&n^j ornaments introduced 
into, and built upon, the melody, whether 
indicated by small notes, or marks, or added at 
the will of the performer. [See Aor^mens, voL i. 
p. 52, where the subject is fully treated.] J. M. 

MANN, Arthur Henry, Mus.D., was bom 
at Norwich, May 16, 1850, and was a chorister 
in the cathedral under Dr. Buck. He was a 
Fellow of the College of Organists in 1871, and 
took the Mus.B. degree at Oxford in 1874 and 
that of Mus.D. in 1882. He held the post of 
organist at St. Peter's, Wolverhampton, from 
1870 ; atTettenhall Parish Church from 1871 ; 
and was appointed to Beverley Minster in 1875. 

In the following year he was elected organist 
and director of the choir at King's College, 
Cambridge. Here his work as a choir-trainer 
has borne good fruit. His more ambitious 
compositions include an oratorio, * Ecce Homo, ' 
1882 ; and a * Te Deum,' 1887, besides services, 
anthems, etc. He has written numerous hymn- 
tunes, which have become widely known, and 
has edited several successful hymn-books, as 
well as bringing out an edition of Tallis's famous 
'Forty- part Song' (1888). He is an earnest 
student of the work of Handel, and made a 
minute study of the sketches, etc., in the 
Fitzwilliam Museum, contributing an important 
section on them to the CcUaZogue of Musie, 
published in 1893. In 1894 the discovery of 
the original wind parts of the ' Messiah ' in the 
Foundling Hospital — in which he was partly 
concerned — was followed by a performance of 
the oratorio with a reconstructed score, in 
King's College Chapel. He was appointed 
choirmaster of the Norwich Festival in 1902. 
(Brit. Mus, Biog.) m. 

MANNERS, Charles (real name Southcote 
Mansergh), was bom Dec. 27, 1857, in London, 
the son of Colonel Mansergh, R.H.A. and J. P. 
for Cork and Tipperary. He was taught singing 
at the Academies of Music in Dublin and London, 
at the latter for a short time by Shakespeare, 
and later in Italy. In 1881 he began liis 
career as a choms- singer, and joined Carte's 
travelling company. On Nov. 25, 1882, he 
made a successful d^but as Private Willis on 
the production of ' lolanthe ' at the Savoy 
Theatre. He next sang in the provinces with the 
Carl Rosa Company, and appeared in 1890 at 
Covent Garden as Bertram in 'Roberto.* On 
Oct. 17, 1892, he sang the part of Prince 
Gremin on the production in England of 
Tchaikovsky's ' Eugene Oniegin ' under Lago at 
the Olympic Theatre, and later as the King in 
'Lohengrin.' In 1898 he sang in America. 
From 1894 to 1896 he was engs^^ by Harris 
both for English and Italian opera, also by 
Hedmondt in the autumn of 1895, notably as 
the King in 'Maritana,' Mephistopheles, etc. 
His voice is a basso earUante of remarkably fine 
quality. In 1896-97 he undertook a successful 
English opera tour in South Africa. On his 
return he established the Moody-Manners Opera 
Company, and has made extensive tours in the 

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provinoes, with three separate companies, the 
principal company being 1 16 in number, with 
a repertory of thirty operas. In 1 902 and 1903, 
he gave two seasons at Covent Garden, and in 
1904 a longer one at Drnry Lane. In the latter 
year and in 1906, with characteristic generosity, 
ho gave an operatic festival, without personal 
profit, at Sheffield, in aid of funds for the 
foundation of a uniyersity in that town. By 
giving piizes for the best operas produced by 
British composers, and by giving opportunities 
to provincial amateurs of seeing great operas, 
the Moody-Manners Company has already had 
tk good influence on contemporary music. 

His wife, n^ Fanny Moody, was bom Nov. 
28, 1866, at Redruth, Cornwall. She was 
taught singing by Mme. Sainton-Dolby at her 
private Academy. On April 25, 1885, she 
sang the principal soprano music in her mistress's 
last composition, 'Florimel,' a cantata for female 
voices, at a Memorial Concert at Prince's Hall, 
under Sainton. In February 1887 she made 
her debut as Arline in the * Bohemian Girl ' at 
Liverpool with the Carl Rosa Company, and on 
April 30 appeared very successfully as Micaela 
at Drury Lane. After singing in the provinces 
with that company for three years she re- 
appeared at Drury Lane in 1890 as Mignon, 
Margaret, etc. She was married to Mr. Manners 
on July 5, 1890, and in October sang in Italian 
as Margaret and Alice. In 1892 she was the 
original English Tatiana in Tchaikovsky's opera 
above mentioned. She has accompanied her 
husband on all his tours, and has sung in his 
London seasons, in addition to parts mentioned, 
Elizabeth, Elsa, Briinnhilde in 'Siegfried, 'Juliet ; 
Sept. 26, 1902, the heroine on the production 
t>f Pizzi's ' Rosalba ' at Covent Garden ; Sept. 22, 
1903, Militza on the production at Covent 
Garden of M'Alpin's ' Crescent and the Cross,' 
founded on Coppee's * Pour la Couronne,' which 
won the £250 prize offered by the artists ; on 
June 17, 1904, she sang the part of Senta in 
the revival of * The Flying Dutchman,' at Drury 
Lane, etc The possessor of a pleasant light 
aoprano voice, an actress and singer of great 
charm, Madame Fanny Moody excels in the 
poetic and pathetic parts associated with 
Christine Nilsson. A. c. 

,1/1 y, I 'T^ MANNS, Sir August, bom of poor parents 
T r lAATU/V^ ^t stolzenburg, near Stettin, in North Germany, 
[CJq*j March 12, 1825. His first teacher was the 
I / Tillage-musician at the neighbouring village of 
Torgelow, from whom he learnt the violin, 
clarinet, and flute. His next instruction was 
received from Urban, the town -musician of 
Elbing, near which his parents had removed, 
and to whom he was apprenticed. Here he 
had regular practice in an orchestra, especially 
that of the Dantzig opera company during its 
annual visits to Elbing ; and this led to his 
entering one of the regimental bands of Dantzig 
as first clarinet, while he played among the first 


violins at the theatre. He now began to arrange 
and compose for the band, and generally to take 
a prominent part in the music of the place. In 
1848 the regiment was transferred to Posen, 
and here Manns was noticed by Wieprecht, and 
through his assistance transferred himself from 
the military band to Gung'l's orchestra in Beriin, 
and was at length advanced to the post of con- 
ductor and solo- violin player at KroU's Garden 
— the Crystal Palace of Berlin. Here, under 
Gyer, he worked hard at harmony and comx)osi- 
tion, and produced much dance music and other 
pieces which were very popular. After the 
destniction of KroU's establishment by fire in 
1851, Mr. Manns was chosen by Herr von 
Roon (the well-known war-minister), then in 
command of a crack infantry regiment at 
Konigsberg, to be his bandmaster. Colonel 
von Roon, though not himself a musician, was 
very anxious that the band of his regiment 
should shine in the service. He accordingly 
gave his bandmaster every opportunity of dis- 
play. At his instance Beethoven's Symphonies 
(not at that time so universally known as they 
are now) were arranged for the band, and in 
other ways the music of the regiment was made 
very prominent. It was soon afterwards moved 
from Konigsbeig to Cologne, and there enjoyed 
a still greater reputation. Manns, however, 
longed for a wider field, and wisely leaving to 
others the department of composition, in which 
his abilities were quite sufficient to have ensured 
him considerable success, he fortunately accepted, 
in the spring of 1854, an engagement as sub- 
conductor in the band of the Ciystal Palace, 
then a wind band only, under Herr Schallehn. 
This position he gave up in October, and after 
following his profession at Leamington and 
Edinburgh (in Mr. Wood's opera band) he 
became conductor of the summer concerts at 
Amsterdam in 1855, and finally, in the autumn 
of that year, was engaged as conductor of the 
Crystal Palace band, a post upon which he 
entered on Oct. 14, 1855. The music at the 
Crystal Palace was at that time in a very inchoate 
condition, the band was still a wind band, and 
the open Centre Transept was the only place 
for its performances. Under the eflbrts of the 
new conductor things soon began to mend. 
He conducted a * Saturday Concert' in the 
* Bohemian Glass Court ' the week after his 
arrival ; through the enlightened liberality of 
the directors the band was changed to a full 
orchestra, a better spot was found for the 
music, adjoining the Queen's rooms (since 
burnt) at the north-east end, and at length, 
through the exertions of Robert Bowley, then 
General Manager, the concert- room was en- 
closed and roofed in, and thid famous Saturday 
Concerts began, and were continued with a 
constant advance, both in the value and variety 
of the selections and the delicacy and spirit of 
the performances, until 1901. Manns's duties 

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as condnctor, both of the daily music and of 
the Sataiday concerts, as well as of the namerons 
fUes and extra perfonnances, where music had 
to be arranged for laige combined masses of 
wind and string, were naturally very arduous. 
Mendelssohn (in a letter from Leipzig dated 
Feb. 27, 1841) says, * I have conducted fifteen 
public performances since Jan. 1 ; enough to 
knock up any man.' What would he have 
said if he had had to do this with all the 
added difficulties caused by the calls of the 
London season on his musicians, and with two 
band-performances to arrange and conduct every 
day as well ! Manns has therefore only rarely 
taken engagements outside the Crystal Palace. 
In 1859 he conducted the Promenade Concerts 
at Drury Lane, and the Winter Series at Glasgow 
in 1879 and following years. In 1883 he re- 
placed Sir Michael Costa as conductor of the 
Handel Festival, and conducted the subsequent 
festivals until 1 900. He conducted the Sheffield 
Festivals of 1896 and 1899. [He was knighted 
in 1908.] 

In a remarkable article in the Times of 
April 28, 1847, it is said that 'the German 
conductor makes the orchestra express all the 
modifications of feeling that an imaginative 
soloist would give voice to on a single instru- 
ment.' It is to this power of wielding his band 
that Manns accustomed his audience during 
the years of his conductorship. In addition 
to the many qualities necessary to produce 
this result he is gifted with an industry which 
finds no pains too great, and with a devotion 
which not only makes him strictly loyal to the 
indications of the composer, but has enabled 
him to transcend the limits of a mere conductor, 
and to urge on his audience music which, 
though at first received with enthusiasm only 
by a few, has in time amply justified his fore- 
sight by becoming a public necessity. It is 
not too much to say that his persistent perform- 
ance of the works of Schumann — to name but 
one composer out of several — in the early part 
of his career at Sydenham, has made the London 
public acquainted with them years before they 
would otherwise have become so. [The younger 
English composers, from Sullivan downwards, 
had good reason to be grateful to Manns, who 
brought forward English works at a time when 
the regular English conductors were too timid 
to venture on them.] g. 

MANON LESCAUT. The Abb4 Provost's 
famous romance has attracted many opera- 

1. Ballet in three acts, by Halevy. Pro- 
duced at the Op^ra, Paris, May 8, 1830. 

2. Opera, by Balfe. Produced in Paris, 1886. 
8. Op^ra-comique, in three acts, by Auber, 

libretto by Scribe. Produced at the Op^ra 
Comique, Paris, Feb. 23, 1866. 

4. Manon. . Opera in three acts, libretto by 
Meilhac & Gille, music by Massenet. Produced 

at the Op^ra-Gomique, Paris, Jan. 19, 1884, 
and in English by the Carl Rosa Company, at 
Liverpool, Jan. 17, 1885, and at Dnuy Lane 
Theatre, May 7, 1885. In French at Covent 
Garden, May 19, 1891. 

5. Manon Lescaut. Opera in four acts, li- 
bretto anonymous, music by Giaoomo PuooinL 
Produced at Turin, Feb. 1, 1898, and at Covent 
Garden, May 14, 1894. 

MANTIUS, Eduakd, a tenor singer of great 
reputation in Northern Germany, was bom 
at Schwerin, Jan. 18, 1806. He studied law, 
first in 1825, at the university of Rostock, and 
afterwards at Leipzig. It was at the latter 
place that his fine voice attracted general 
attention and that he began to study singing 
under Pohlenz. After having sung with great 
success at a festival at Halle, conducted by 
Spontini, he went to Berlin, and by his inter- 
pretation of the tenor parts in Handel's oratorioB 
(Samson, Judas, etc.), soon became the declared 
favourite of the Berlin public. How much his 
talent was appreciated in the house of the 
Mendelssohn family may be gathered from 
many passages in the publish^ letters and 
other books relating to Mendelssohn. It was 
Mantius who sang the principal tenor part in 
the Liederspiel, 'Die Heimkehr aus der Fremde' 
('Son and Stranger'), at the celebration of 
the silver wedding of the elder Mendelssohns 
(Devrient, p. 89). In 1830 he made his first 
appearance on the stage at BerUn as Tamino in 
the ' Zauberflbte.' In 1857 he gave his farewell 
performance as Florestan in ' Fidelio. ' During^ 
twenty-seven years he had appeared in no less 
than 152 characters. After quitting the stage he 
devoted himself with much success to teaching, 
and he died at Ilmenau, in Thuringia, July 4, 
1874. Mantius not only had an exceptionally 
fine voice, which he knew how to use in a truly 
artistic and musical manner, but was also s 
remarkablygoodactor. His representations of the 
tenor parts in Mozart's and Gluck's oi)eras were 
justly regarded as models of their kind. p. D. 

MANTUA. The earliest Academy in Mantua 
for poetry and music was that of the ' Invaghiti,' 
founded in 1568 by Cesare Gonzaga, Duke of 
Mantua, and Signer di Guastalla. It always 
remained under royal patronage, and was one 
of the lai^st and most flourishing in Italy. 
In 1494, previous to the founding of this 
Academy, there was a magnificent theatre in 
Mantua, in which was represented one of the 
earliest Italian dramas — the ' Orfeo ' of Angelo 
Poliziano. This pastorale was composed in 
two days at the instance of Francesco Gonzaga, 
Duke of Mantua. In the 17th century, says 
Muratori, music, and more especially theatrical 
music, was held in high esteem ; the attention 
of every one was directed to gorgeous musical 
entertainments, and more especially the courts 
of Modena and Mantua tried to outshine each 
other in magnificence. Their respective Dukes, 

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Ferdinando Gonzaga and Francesco d'£ste, vied 
in obtaining the best musicians and most highly 
prized singers for their court. It was the 
custom to pay a sum of not less than 800 scudi 
to the best actors, and there was no stint of 
expenditure on orchestra, costumes, or scenery 
and lighting (Annali d* Italia, 1690). c. M. p. 

MANUAL (from manuSf * a hand '), a clavier, 
or set of keys, to be played by the hands. 
The term is used chiefly in reference to the 
organ, where the keyboards for the hands and 
the keyboard for the feet have, for convenience, 
to be distinguished by some brief and suggestive 
name. Clavier (from clavis, a key) simply 
moans a keyboard, '\\ithout reference to the 
members of the body with which it is to be 
played. E. J. H. 

MANUALITER. A direction of fairly frequent 
occurrence in the organ works of Bach and his 
contemporaries, indicating that the passage or 
piece so inscribed is to be played upon the 
manuals alone, the direction 'pedaliter' being 
used at the entry of tlie pedaL 

MANZUOLI, Giovanni, was bom at Florence 
about 1725. Having acquired a reputation in 
Italy, he repaired, in 1753, to Madrid, where 
he was engaged at a high salary by Farinelli. 
In 1764 and 1765 he came to London, and, by 
his performance, ' the serious opera acquired a 
degree of favour to which it had seldom mounted 
since its first establishment in this country' 
(Burney). His voice was the most powerful 
soprano that had been heard on our stage since 
the time of Farinelli, and his style was full of 
taste and dignity. The applause he earned was 
hearty and unequivocal ; * it was a universal 
thunder.' Other singers had more art and feel- 
ing ; none possessed a sweeter or fuller organ. 
As to execution, he had none ; but he was a 
good actor, though unwieldy in figure, and ill- 
made. Nor was he young ; but the sensation 
he excited seems to have been irresistible. 
All the composers struggled to have the honour 
of writing for him ; even Dr. Ame composed 
his unsuccessful 'Olimpiade' for the popular 
singer. Manzuoli, however, left England at the 
end of the season, and did not return. In the 
same year he was at Vienna, and he shortly 
afterwards retired to his native place, with the 
title of ' Singer to the Court of the Grand Duke 
of Tuscany.' 

In a letter of Mozart's,^ his first after starting 
on his Italian tour, Jan. 7, 1770, he says of a 
singer whom he heard, * canta un poco Manzuo- 
lisch ed a una bellissima voce forte ed h gik 
vecchio,' etc. Burney heard him again, in 
September of that year, taking part in a service 
in a convent near Florence, and was delighted, 
though the voice seemed less powerful, even in 
a small church, than when he was in England. 
His name occurs once more, in one of the elder 
Mozart's letters, written in the following August, 

I In the oolleetlon of the prewnt wzltar. 

* Manzuoli often visits us ' ; and he is included 
among ' the singers, not only celebrated in their 
profession, butgood-hearted and sensible people. ' 
He took part in the ^Serenata' composed by the 
young Mozart in honour of the nuptials of the 
Archduke Ferdinand, at Milan, Oct. 17, I77l» 
and was encored in one of his songs. Mozart 
writes again, Nov. 24, 1771: * Herr ManzuoU, 
the musicOf who has always been considered and 
esteemed as the best of his class, has in his old 
age given a proof of his folly and arroganoe. 
He was engaged at the Opera for the sum of 
500 gigliati (ducats), but as no mention was 
made of the ^S^er^noto in the contract, hedemanded 
500 ducats more for singing in it, making 1000. 
The court only sent him 700 and a gold box 
(and enough too, I think), but he returned the 
700 ducats and the box, and went away without 
anything. I don't know what the result of this 
history will be, — a bad one, I fear ! ' A good 
portrait of Manzuoli was engraved by G. B. 
Betti, after a design by L. Betti. Among his 
pupils was the celebrated Coltellini. J. M. 

MAOMETTO SECONDO. Opera by Rossini. 
Produced at San Carlo, Naples, during the 
Carnaval of 1820 ; adapted and extended as 


MAPLESON, James Hekry, a well-known 
London impresario. He was a student at the 
Boyal Academy, appeared in public as a singer, 
and for some time played among the violas in 
the orchestra. Later he was assistant to Mr. 
E. T. Smith at Her Majesty's Theatre, and when 
Mr. Smith announced, in 1861, his intention 
of abandoning Italian Opera, Mr. Mapleson took 
the Lyceum, and commenced his career as a 
manager. He oi)ened there on June 5, 1861 ; 
and on the 15 th produced Verdi's *Ballo in 
Maschera ' for the first time in England. His 
first season at Her Majesty's was 1862, when 
Trebelli made her d^but in England ; the burn- 
ing of Her Majesty's drove him to Drury 
Lane in 1868. He joined Mr. Gye in 1869 ; 
the coalition lasted two seasons, and in 1871 he 
returned to Drury Lane. On April 28, 1877, 
he reopened Her Majesty's Theatre, and had a 
few seasons there with varying success. * Colonel ' 
Mapleson, as he was called, was in the habit of 
taking his company to the United States in the 
intervals of the London season. Hie Mapleson 
Mffinoirsy an amusing volume of reminiscences, 
appeared in 1888, and Mapleson died Nov. 14, 
1901, in London. g. 

MARA, Gertrude Elisabeth, one of the 
greatest singers of the 18 th century, was born at 
Cassel, Feb. 23, 1749. Her mother died soon 
after tiie birth of this child, and her father, a 
poor musician, named Schmeling, is said to have 
adopted the plan of securing his little daughter 
in an arm-chair, while he attended to his afikirs. 
From this cause, it appears, she fell into a rickety 
state, from which it was long ere she recovered, 
if indeed she ever recovered entirely. Schmeling 

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contrived to .increase his income by mending 
niusical instruments, and the little Gertrude one 
day got hold of a violin, and began to draw musi- 
cal sounds from it, being then only four years 
old. For this she was punished by her father ; 
but the temptation was too strong to be resisted, 
and she seized every opportunity of practising 
on such instruments as she could find, whenever 
Schmeling's back was turned. He found her, 
however, before long, to his astonishment, play- 
ing on a violin, on which she had mastered a 
scale. Struck with her genius, he gave her a 
few lessons, and found her so apt a pupil that, 
not long afterwards, he was able to play duets 
with her before a few amateurs. But even now, 
in her fifth year, the poor child could not stand 
without support, and her father was obliged to 
carry her to the place where she was to play. 
By favour of an amateur, Schmeling and his 
child were enabled to visit the fair at Frankfort, 
where the little girl's performance excited great 
wonder. A subscription was set on foot, a 
better education was given to her, and when she 
had reached the age of nine her health had im- 
proved, and she was able to proceed to Vienna 
with her father, and there give some concerts. 
The English ambassador advised Schmeling to 
take the child to England, advice on which the 
poor musician, furnished with letters of intro- 
duction by the ambassador, gladly acted. He 
soon obtained the patronage of many noble and 
influential persons, including the Queen, for his 
wonderful child. The little girl, petted and 
admired by all the great ladies, was, however, 
persuaded by them to give up the violin, which 
they thought an unfeminine instrument, and 
was encouraged to sing. Her voice was already 
resonant and clear, but she had, of course, had 
no instruction. Schmeling, by the help of her 
protectresses, placed the young Gertrude under 
the tuition of the mtisico Paradies. She made 
rapid progress, but it soon became necessary to 
remove her from the power of her profligate 

Returning to Cassel, Schmeling found it im- 
possible to get an engagement for his daughter, 
as he had hoped, at the Court ; for the King 
would not hear of any but Italian singers. Hiller 
now received her into his music-school, at Leip- 
zig, where she remained for five years. In 1771 
she came out from this academy, with a voice 
remarkable for its extent and beauty, a great 
knowledge of music, and a brilliant style of 
singing. She was the first great singer that 
Germany had produced. Her education had 
been formed on the music of Hasse, Graun, 
Benda, Jommelli, Pergolesi, Porpora, and Sac- 
chini ; but Hasse, with his vocal passages and 
facile style, was her favourite master. Her 
voice extended from the g^ to «'". She made 
her d^but in an opera of Hasse's at Dresden, and 
was successful. With difficulty, the King, 
Frederick II., was persuaded to hear her ; and, 

though strongly prejudiced against her on 
account of her nationality, he was immediately 
converted by her singing an air of Graun's at 
sight and finally enga^B^ed her for life to sing at 
Court, with a salary of fr. 11,250. Here she 
profited by the hints of Concialini and Porporino, 
and perfected her singing of slow and legato 

In was at this juncture that, in spite of all 
advice, and although the King twice refused 
his consent, she married the violoncellist, Mara. 
She soon discovered her folly, and regretted it 
when too late. This part of her life was ex- 
tremely unhappy ; she was made miserable on 
the one hand by the excesses of a debauched and 
dissipated husband, and on the other by the 
tyranny of a king who allowed her no liberty or 
indulgence. On one occasion, she was actually 
bi*ought from her bed, by his orders, transmitted 
through an officer and guard of soldiers, and 
forced to sing at the Opera, though complain- 
ing, truly or untruly, of indisposition. She at 
length succeeded in escaping to Dresden, where 
she was detained by the Prussian ambassador. 
Frederick, however, who had lost some front 
teeth, and could no longer play the flute, cared 
now but little for music, and gave her a tardy 
permission to annul her engagement. Mme. 
Mara, free at last, arrived in 1780 at Vienna, 
where Storace was playing in 02)era bvffa, for 
which the Emperor had a great liking. This 
was not Mara's line, and she was coldly received. 
Provided, however, with a letter to Marie- 
Antoinette from the Empress, she passed through 
Germany, Holland, and Belgium, singing at 
various places on her way. At Munich Mozart 
heard her, but was not favourably impressed. 
He wrote, Nov. 13, 1780, *Mara has not the 
good fortune to please me. She does too little 
to be compared to a Bastardella (yet this is her 
peculiar style), and too much to touch the heart 
like a Weber [Aloysia], or any judicious singer.' 
He tells a story of her and her husband a few 
days later (letter of Nov. 24), which shows both 
of them in a very unpleasant light, as behaving 
with foolish effrontery and pretension. She 
was again at Vienna in March 1781, and Mozart 
mentions her as giving a concert there. She 
reached Paris in 1782. Here she found the 
celebrated Todi, and a rivalry immediately 
sprang up between these two singers, which 
divided society into factions, as when Handel 
and Buononcini, or Gluck and Piccinni, were 
opposed to each other by amateurs incapable of 
admiring both. Many anecdotes are told of the 
Mara and Todi dispute, among which one has 
become famous. At a concert where both 
singers appeared, an amateur asked his neigh- 
bour, * Quelle ^tait la meilleure ' : to which the 
other replied, * C'est Mara.' * C*est bien Todi ' 
(bientdt dit) was the punning answer. 

Two years later, in the spring of 1784, Mara 
made her first appearance in London, where her 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



greatest successes awaited her. She was engaged 
to sing six nights at the Pantheon. Owing to 
the general election, she sang to small audiences, 
and her merits were not recognised until she 
sang at Westminster Abbey, in the Handel 
Commemoration, when she was heard with 
delight by nearly 8000 people. She sang in 
the repeated Commemoration in 1785, and in 
1786 made her first appearance on the London 
stage in a serious pasticcio, *Didone Abban- 
donata,' the success of which was due entirely 
to her singing. In March 1787 Handel's opera 
of * Giulio Cesare ' was revived for a benefit, and 
Mara played in it the part of Cleopatra, which 
Cuzzoni had sung in 1724. It was so success- 
ful that it was constantly repeated during the 
season. Mara again took a leading part in the 
Festival in Westminster Abbey in 1787, and 
she remained connected with the opera in 
London till 1791, after which, though she sang 
occasionally on the stage, and even in English 
ballad operas, she was more frequently heard in 
concerts and oratorios. For these she was better 
suited, as her figure was not good enough for 
the theatre, nor was she a good actress. It is, 
indeed, not impossible that her stage-presence 
was still to some extent spoiled by the disease 
which crippled her as a child ; and there is a 
.caricature in which she is shown, singing at a 
* Wapping Concert ' seaUd (Feb. 28, 1786), with 
the following apology below : — 

Madam Mary . . . begfl her Polite Audience will 
excuse lier sitting during the Performance. 83 she con- 
tracted in her infancy a Disorder callea Le Qenoue 
Inflexible, or (Stiff Knee) which prevents her standing, 
even in the most Sacred Pieces of Music— her Enemies 
call it Pride, but it must appear only malice, when she 
conld not rise before their Majesties ; or at the Sacred 
Name of Jehovah. 

There is, again, a letter of Mara's extant,^ in 
which she apologises for not being able even to 
sit on a platform throughout a concert, a thing 
she had never been able to do, owing to the heat 
and fatigue, which she could not bear. Her 
health was, in fact, never strong. She had, 
however, the advantage of knowing our lan- 
guage, which she had learnt in childhood, 
during her first visit to England ; and she is 
said to have gained large sums here by her 

In 1788 she was singing in the Carnival at 
Turin, and the following year at Venice. She 
returned to London in 1790, and went to Venice 
again in 1791. Coming once more to London 
in the next season, she remained here for ten 
years. After this time, she found her voice 
losing strength, and she quitted England in 
1802, after eigoying a splendid benefit of over 
£1000 at her farewell concert. She sang with- 
out efiect at Paris, where she had the misfortune 
to come after Grassini ; and then, after passing 
through Germany, Mara retired to Moscow, 
where she bought a house. 

1 In the collection ol the preNot writer. 


Her worthless husband, and her namerous 
lovera, — among whom the last was a flute player 
named Florio, — ^liad helped her to spend the 
immense sums which she had earned, until she 
found herself without means, and compelled to 
support herself by teaching. By following thia 
occupation, she acquired a small competence, 
which was again lost to her (1812) in the fire 
of Moscow, which destroyed the merchant's 
house in which she had placed it Forced to 
begin once more to seek a means of subsistence^ 
when almost sixty -four years old, Mara travelled 
in Livonia, where she was kindly received, and 
settled in BeveL She now sup^wrted herself 
again for about four years by teaching, and 
then formed the strange desire to revisit London, 
the scene of her former glory. Here she arrived 
in 1819 (according to Fetis), though Lord 
Mount -Edgcumbe puts her visit before the 
burning of Moscow. In any case, the poor old 
woman, announced in a mysterious manner by 
Messrs. Knyvett as 'a most celebrated singer 
whom they were not at liberty to name,' ap- 
peared at the King's Theatre, when it pras 
discovered that not a shred of her voice re- 
mained, — and never appeared again. She 
returned to Livonia, and died at Bevel, Jan. 
20, 1833, at the advanced age of eighty-four, 
soon after receiving from Goethe a poem for 
her birthday, * Sangreich war dein Ehrenweg ' 
(Weimar, 1831). 

A life of Mara, by G. C. Grosheim, was pub- 
lished at Cassel in 1823, and a more interesting 
one by Rochlitz in his Filr Frcunde der To7i- 
kunstf vol. i. The best portrait of her was 
engraved (oval) by J. Collyer, after P. Jean, 
1794. J. M. 

MABAIS, Marin (1656-1728), was bom at 
Paris, March 81, 1656. At an early age he 
entered the choir of the Sainte-Chapelle, where 
he was a pupil of Chaperon. He learnt the bass 
viol from Hottemann (or Hautmann) and his 
pupil Sainte-Colombe. After studying six 
months with the latter his master dismissed him, 
saying that he could teach him nothing further. 
In 1685 he entered the Royal Band as a soloist ; 
he was also a member of the orchestra of the 
Academic Boyale de Musique, where he studied 
composition under LuUy, sharing with Colasse 
the direction of the orchestra. In 1686 he 
published his first book of * Pieces de Viole ' ; he 
was then living in the Rue du Jour, near St. 
Eustache.- In the same year he produced at 
court, before the Dauphiness, an * Idylle Dra- 
matique.' In April 1693, he brought out at 
the Academic de Musique a setting of A. Houdai-t 
de la Motte's ' Alcide,' in which he collaborated 
with Louis de LuUy. The work was revived in 
1706, 1716, and 1744. With the same colla- 
borator he wrote a * Pantomime des Pages,' part 
of the score of which is preserved at Berlin. His 
other writings for the stage were 'Ariane et 
Bacchus'(woids by Saint-Jean), produced in 1696; 


Oigitized by 





* Alcione' (words by Houdart de la Motte), 1706 ; 
and < Semele' (words by the same poet), 1709. 
The most suocessful of his operas was * Alcione/ 
a representation of a storm in which was long 
luuch admired. In 1692 he published a set of 
' Pieces en Trio pour les Fldtes, Violon et Dessus 
de Yiole.' A second book of ' Pi^es de Viole' 
api>eared in 1701 ; a third in 1711 (when he 
was living in the Rue de la Harpe) ; a foui-th in 
1717 and a fifth in 1725. Reprints of some of 
these exist. In 1723 he x^ublished a set of 
* Siiifonies ' for violin, viol, and harpsichord, 
entitled 'La Gamme.' About 1725 Marais 
retired to his house in the Rue de Lourcine, 
where he occupied himself with horticulture. He 
still, however, gave lessons two or three times a 
week at a room in the Rue du Battoir. He died 
Aug. 15, 1728, and was buried in the Church 
of St. Hippolyte in the Quartier Saint-Marcel. 
The parish was suppressed in 1791, and shortly 
afterwards the church was destroyed. No trace 
of it now remains, but the name is preserved in 
the Rue Saint-Hippolyte. At his death Marais 
left in MS. a * Te Deum ' (written and performed 
on the convalescence of the Dauphiness) and 
some Concertos for violin and bass viol, written 
for the elector of Bavaiia. At an early age Marais 
married Catherine Damicourt, who survived 
him. By her he had nineteen children, four of 
whom (three sons and a daughter) were also 
violists. On one occasion he presented his three 
musician sons to Louis XIV., before, whom the 
children and their father gave a concert, while 
a fourth boy turned over the leaves of the music 
One of his daughters married a musician named 
Bemier. Marais improved the bass viol by 
adding a seventh string, and by increasing the 
sonority of the three lower strings by covering 
or twisting them. There is a painting of ' M. 
Marais, musicien,' in the museum at Blois, and 
there also exists a mezzotint of Marin Marais, 
painted and engraved by A. Bouys and published 
in 1704. In this he is represented seated, full 
length, with his bass viol across his knees. The 
seven strings and the covering of the lower 
strings of the instrument have evidently been 
emphasised by the artist. Of his musician sons, 
the name of Jean Louis Marais occurs in the 
imprint of the fourth and fifth books of ' Pieces de 
Yioles,' together with that of Roland Marais, the 
only one who attained any distinction. He pub- 
lished (in 1 7 1 1 ) a Nouvelle Mithode de Musique, 
and in 1725 became a solo violist in the Royal 
Band, probably succeeding to his father's post. 
Quantz heard him in 1726, and praises him as a 
great performer. .He published (in 1735 and 
1738) two books of * Pieces de Viole,' but nothing 
is known as to his biography. w. b. s. 

MARBECK, or MERBECKE, John, bom 
1523, lay clerk, and afterwards (from 1541) 
organist of St. George's Chapel, Windsor ; was 
arrested [in March 1 542-48], together with three 
other inhabitants of the town, on a charge of 

heresy, i,e, favouring the principles of the 
Reformation. Their papers were seized, and 
notes on the Bible and an English Concordance 
in Marbeck's handwriting were found, and he 
was, moreover, charged with having copied an 
epistle of Calvin against the Mass. He and 
his three fellows were tried [on July 26, 1544] 
and condemned to the stake, but, whilst the 
sentence was immediately carried into execution 
against the others, Marbeck, owing to the favour 
of Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, and the 
interposition of Sir Humphrey Foster, one of 
the Commissioners, obtained a pardon. [Owing 
to a curious mistake, the fact of his paidon 
was omitted in Foxe's Acts and Monuments.^ 
He indulged his opinions in secret until the 
death of Henry YIII., but afterwards avowed 
them, and in 1550 published his Concordance, 
and also the work by which he is best known, 
The Boke of Common Prater noUd, being an 
adaptation of the plain chant of the earlier 
rituals to the first liturgy of Edward VI. In 
the same year he took the degree of Mus.D. 
at Oxford. He was still organist in 1565. 
Marbeck escaped the Marian persecution, and 
afterwards published Hie Lives of Holy SaiTiets, 
etc, 1574 ; The Holie Hiatorie of King Dauidf 
etc., 1579 ; The Hipping up of the Pope's Fardel^ 
1581 ; A Booke of Notes and Co^JVinonplaceSj etc. , 
1581 ; Examples drawn out of Holy Scriptures^ 
etc., 1582 ; A DicUogue between Youth and Olds 
Age, 1584. He died at Windsor about 1585, 
His Boke of Common Praier noted, was reprinted 
in facsimile by Whittingham for Pickering in 
1844 ; an edition by Rimbault was issued in 
1845, and a reprint was included in voL ii of 
Dr. Jebb's Choral Hesponses and Litanies, 1857. 
A hymn for three voices by Marbeck is given 
in Hawkins's History, and portions of a mass 
for five voices by him, ' Per arma justitiae,' are 
contained in vol. vL of Bumey's Musical Extraoti 
(Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 11,586.) Additions from 
Diet. ofNoL Biog. ; West's Cath, Org. ; C. F. A 
Williams's Degrees in Music, etc. w. H. H. 

MARCATO (Ital.). < In a marked, decisive 
manner.' The principal use of this direction is 
to draw the attention to the melody or subject 
when it is in such a position that it might be 
overlooked, as for instance, * II basso ben mar- 
cato,' in Chopin's Krakowiak, op. 11 ; or when 
there are two subjects both of which are to be 
brought prominently forward, as in the Ninth 
Symphony of Beethoven (last movement) where 
the two subjects come together in 6-4 time, the 
words being *Freude, schbner Gotterfunken,' 
and 'Seid umschlungen,' etc. ; and in the 
Etudes Symphoniques of Schumann, No. 2, 
< Marcato il canto ' and * Marcato il tema.' 
Beethoven also uses * Quests note ben marcato ' 
(sic) in the string quartet, op. 18, No. 6, slow 
movement, and * Melodia marcata,' in the Trio, 
op. 9, No. 2. 

' Marcatissimo ' is used by Chopin, £tude, 

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op. 25, No. 11, at the end, by Schumann in the 
last movement of the Sonata in F$ minor, op. 
11, and in No. 8 of the Etudes Symphoniques. 
The latter composer is the only one of note who 
uses this direction at the beginning of a move- 
ment, to denote the character of the whole. 
This he does frequently, as 'Allegro marcato,* 
in the third of the Intermezzi, op. 4 ; and 
'Ben marcato,' in Nos. 1 and 3 of the 
Romances, op. 28. As a rule Marcato is coupled 
with a certain degree of force, as in Schumann's 
first Novelette, 'Marcato con forza (Markirt 
und kraftig) ' ; but in the Sonata, op. 14 (last 
movement), we find 'Leggiero marcato,' and 
near the end, ' Leggierissimo marcando.' The 
sign which is equivalent to Marcato is < 
over the separate notes, but this refers to the 
notes themselves, and Marcato to the whole 
passage. M. 

MABCELLO, Benedetto, eminent com- 
poser, a Venetian of noble birth, son of Agostino 
Marcello and Paola Capello, bom July 31, or 
August 1, 1686. He was highly educated, and 
had great natural gifts for music, and was a 
pupil of Lotti and Gasparini. The violin was 
his first instrument, but he soon gave his whole 
attention to singing and composition. His 
father, objecting to the time thus occupied, sent 
him from home to study law, but on his death 
Benedetto returned to Venice, and contrived to 
combine the practice of music with his profes- 
sional avocations. He held important govern- 
ment posts, was a member of the Council of 
Forty in 1711, and aftenvards Provveditore of 
Pola (1730). Here he remained eight years, 
when his health having been ruined by the 
climate he became Camerlengo at Brescia, and 
there died July 24, 1739. His monument in 
the church of S. Giuseppe states his age to have 
been fifty -two years, eleven months, and 
twenty-three days.* He was elected Cavaliere 
of the Filarmonici of Bologna in 1812, and was 
also a member of the Pastori Arcadi of Rome. 
In his youth he was wild, but sobered down in 
middle life. His great work, in eight volumes, 
folio, 'Estro poetico-armonico, Parafrasi sopra 
i primi 50 Psalmi, Poesia di Giroiamo Gius- 
tiniani,' appeared in two parts of twenty- five 
Psalms each (Venice, 1724-27). They are 
composed for one, two, three, and four voices, 
with figured basses, and occasionally with two 
violins and violoncello obbligati ; and for 
expression far surpass any other work of the 
kind. Dr. Bumey, in his notice of Marcello 
(ffisL iv. 543), considers that they have been 
overpraised, and that even in the composer's 
day his airs and themes were neither new nor 
original. In spite, however, of this judgment 
it is not too much to say that, as a whole, they 
constitute one of the finest productions of 
musical literature. An English edition, edited 

1 Both Ettoerand Rlenunn orerlook thia definite lUtomant, and 
fire the date of birth, like that of death, aa Julj S4. 

by Avison and Garth, was published in London 
in 1757 in 8 vols. ; a second in Italian soon 
after (Venice) ; and a third by Valle (1803-8). 
Marcello also composed instrumental concertos 
(1701), and 'Canzoni madrigaleschi ' (Bologna, 
1717); besides 'Calista in Orsa,' pastoral 
(libretto printed in 1725, music unpub.) ; ' La 
Fede riconosciuta,' opera (Vicenza, 1702) ; 
'Arianna,' cantata; and 'Giuditta,' oratorio, 
all to his own words. As a poet he was above 
the average, and furnished the libretto for 
Ruggieri's 'Arato in Sparta' (Venice, 1709). 
In 1720 he published a satirical pamphlet, // 
TecUro allaModa, reprinted in 1727, 1733, 1738 
(Venice), and 1741 (Florence). The Library of 
St. Mark in Venice contains a MS. Teoria 
Musicale ; the Royal Library of Dresden ancient 
copies of two cantatas, 'Timotheus,' to his own 
Italian translation of Dryden's poem, and 
' Cassandra' ; the Court Library of Vienna many 
autographs and other works, including the 
cantatas * La Morte d' Adone,' * Clori e Daliso/ 
and ' La Stravaganza ' ; and the Royal Library 
of Brussels 'II Trionfo della musica nel cele- 
brarsi la morte di Maria Vergine,' an oratorio 
for six voices and chorus. This score was once 
in the possession of F^tis, who speaks highly 
of its expression, pathos, and effective instru- 
mentation. Rossini has borrowed one of the 
most prominent themes in his overture to the 
* Siege of Corinth ' note for note from Marcello's 
21st Psalm. For Marcello's Lettera Famigliare, 
see Lotti. [A full catalogue of his works is in 
the AfmuUshefte fiir Musikgesch. vol. 23 (1891), 
pp. 187-197, supplemented in the Quellea- 
Lexikan.'l f. g. 

MARCH (Ger. 3far8ch ; Fr. Marehe ; Ital. 
Marcia\ a form originally associated with mili- 
tary movements, and afterwards imported into 
the music of the stage, the orchestra, the 
chamber, and the oratorio. In ancient times 
the sound of instruments was used as a means 
of stimulating the action of large numbers of 
people, whether in processes of labour requiring 
consentaneous effort, or as a means of exciting 
ardour in armies advancing to battle by the 
tones of 'the shrill trump, the spirit-stirring 
drum, the ear-piercing fife' — equally familiar 
being Milton's reference to the effect of the 
sound * of trumpets loud and clarions,' and the 
influence on a mighty host of ' Sonorous metal 
blowing martial sounds.' Like most forms, 
however, in instrumental music, the development 
of the March followed that of vocal music. We 
find Marches in the early operas, in the stage 
works of LuUy, and later in those of Handel 
and Rameau. In harpsichord music, too, it 
appears at a comparatively early date, the 
'Suites des Pieces' of the French composer 
Couperin offering examples. 

Of the Military March as now understood, 
as a strictly rhythmical and harmonised com- 
position, written for a band Of wind instruments, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 




and intended not only to stimulate courage but 
also to ensure the orderly advance of troops, it 
does not appear that any examples are extant 
earlier than about the middle of the 17 th 
century, and these seem to have originated 
during the Thirty Years' War, and are to be 
traced to the form of the Volkslied ; war-songs, 
in which patriotic and military ardour was 
expressed lyrically, having iong preceded the 
exclusive use of instruments for that purpose. 
A good speohnen of the old German military 
inarch is that which Meyerbeer introduced in 
his * Ein Feldlager in Schlesien,' and afterwards, 
with other portions of that work, in his ' L'^toile 
du Nord,' in the camp scene of which the fine 
old *De8sauer March' stands prominently out 
from the elaborations with which the composer 
has surrounded it. 

The earliest instance of the march form in 
regular rhythmical phrasing seems to be the 
well-known and beautiful Welsh tune, the 
national Cambrian war -song, 'The March of 
the Men of Harlech. ' This melody [which seems 
to have appeared first in print in Jones's JRelicks 
of the Welsh Bards, 1794, and bears many 
marks of dating from no earlier than the 18th 
century] is stated by Llwyd, the *Bard of 
Snowdon,' to have originated during the siege 
of Harlech Castle in 1468. If this be so, 
Dr. Crotch was justified in saying (in his 
Specimens of DiffereftU Kinds of Music) *the 
military music of the Welsh is superior to that 
of any other nation ' — i.e. reading the remark 
with reference to the war-songs of the period. 

In England the Military March would seem 
to have been of later development. Sir John 
Hawkins, however, in his History of Music, 
says : * It seems that the old English march 
of the foot was formerly in high estimation, as 
well abroad as with us ; its characteristic is 
dignity and gravity, in which respect it ditfers 
greatly from the French, which, as it is given 
by Mersennus, is brisk and alert.' On this 
subject Sir John quotes a hon fjwt of Sir Roger 
Williams, a soldier of Queen Elizabeth's time, 
in answer to the French Marshal Biron's remark 
that 'the English march being beaten by the 
drum was slow, heavy, and sluggish ' ; the 
reply being, *That may be true, but, slow as 
it is, it has traversed your master's country 
from one end to the other.' Hawkins (writing 
in 1776) speaks of 'the many late alterations 
in the discipline and exercise of our troops, 
and the introduction of fifes and other instru- 
ments into our martial music ' ; and, in reference 
to an earlier condition thereof, quotes, from 
Walpole's Catalogue of Royal and Noble Av^thors, 
a warrant of Charles I. to the following effect : — 
* Whereas the ancient custome of nations hath 
ever bene to use one certaine and constant 
forme of March in the warres, whereby to be 
distinguished one from another. And the March 
of this our nation, so famous in all the honour- 
VOL. Ill 

able atchievements and glorious warres of this 
our kingdom in forraigne parts (being by the 
approbation of strangers themselves oonfest and 
acknowledged the best of all marches) was 
through Uie negligence and carelessness of 
drummers, and by long discontinuance so altered 
and changed from the ancient gravity and 
majestic thereof, as it was in danger utterly to 
have bene lost and forgotten. It pleased our 
late deare brother prince Henry to revive and 
rectifie the same by ordayning an establishment 
of one certaine measure, which was beaten in 
his presence at Greenwich, anno 1610. In 
confirmation whereof wee are graciously pleased, 
at the instance and humble sute of our right 
trusty and right well-beloved cousin and coun- 
sellor Edward Viscount Wimbledon, to set down 
and ordaine this present establishment here- 
under expressed. WUling and commanding all 
drummers within our kingdoms of England and 
principalitie of Wales exactly and precisely to 
observe the same, as well in this our kingdome, 
as abroad in the service of any forraigne prince 
or state, without any addition or alteration 
whatsoever. To the end that so ancient, famous, 
and commendable a custome may be preserved 
as a patteme and precedent to all posteritie,' 
etc. etc. — This document also contains the 
following notation * — 

Voluntary before the March. 

Pon ton poa ton pov B pou tou pou poa ton poa B poonc 

The March. 


Pou too pou tou poung 

iSCzd-Jl^ -'E^zzL: 

Pou ton poa B poung 



B pou ton B pouof 


B B pou B poDDg 

' T' « n A B ^ *^- .wvM « *yin .win V iMiin 

B B poa ton B poa toa poa B toa pou B poung 


B B B pou B B poa tuu pou B toa pou B poung potang 

subscribed 'Arundell and Surrey. This is a 
true copy of the original, signed by his Majestie. 
Ed. Norgate, Windsor.' 

The primary (indeed abeolute) importance of 
the drum in the early form of the March is 
very evident Rousseau, in his Dictionnaire de 
Musique, in his article on that subject, thus 
defines it : — ' Marche : Air militaire qui se joue 
par des instrumens de guerre, et marque le m^tre 
et la cadence des Tambours, laquelle est propre- 
ment la Marche.' The same author, writing 
towards the close of the 18th century, speaks 

1 Th« notes an lonnge-chaped in th« origlnaL 

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of the superiority of the German military music, 
and says that the French troops had few military 
instruments for the infantry excepting fifes 
and drums ; and very few marches, most of 
which were * trka malfaites.' Rousseau gives — 
as follows — the first part of the March of the 
• Musketeers of the King of France, as illustrating 
* L'acoord de Tair et de la Marche.' 

Hautbois. tr. 



In its earlier instrumental form the German 
March had two reprises, each of eight, twelve, 
or even sixteen bars, and its melodic origin 
would seem to have been infiuenced by the 
national dance called the * AUemande, ' in 2-4 
time. The modem March is now usually in 
common time — four crotchets in a bar — consist- 
ing of reprises of four, eight, or even sixteen 
bars, with a subsidiary movement entitled a 
'Trio' (generally in the dominant or sub- 
dominant key), which occupies a similar place 
to that of the Trio associated with the Minuet 
or Scherzo of a symphony ; that is, following 
the March, which is repeated after it. With 
the ordinary (Parade) March, about seventy-five 
steps go to the minute ; with the Quick March 
(Germ. Gesehwind Marsch ; Fr. Pas redoubt^ 
about 108 ; while the Stoi-ming March (Germ. 
Sturm Marsch ; Fr. Pas de charge) implies about 
120 stej)s per minute, these being measured by 
rapid beats of the drum. 

Military Marches, intended of course to 
stimulate hopeful enthusiasm, are generally 
written in a bright major key, trumpets, drums, 
and other instruments of percussion being 
prominently used ; and Funeral Marches in a 
solemn minor one — a remarkable exception to 
the latter rule being offered by the Dead March 
in * Saul,* the key of which is C major. *The 
stormy music of the drum ' is still an important 
element in all the pieces used at the parade or 
on the battle-field ; as it exercises a command- 
ing influence on rhythmical precision, as already 
indicated. Formerly, as above indicated, that 
instrument was the all-essential feature in the 
March, instead of being, as aftenvards, sub- 
sidiary in a musical sense. [Want of space 
prevents the full discussion of the later develop- 
ment of the march -form by later composers, 
from Beethoven to Wagner ; the * Marcia 
Funebre' in the former's Eroica Symphony, 
and the 'Kaisermarsch,* * Huldigungsmarsch,' 

etc., of the latter will occur to every reader's 

The Mai-ch usually begins with a crotchet 
before the commencing phrase, as in Handel's 
Marches in 'Rinaldo' (1711), in *Scipio,' the 
Occasional Overture, etc. There are, however, 
numerous instances to the contrary, as in Gluck's 
March in * Alceste,' that in Mozart's ' Die Zau- 
berflote,' and Mendelssohn's Wedding March, 
wliich latter presents the unusual example of 
beginning on a chord remote from the key of the 
piece. A March of almost equal beauty is that 
in Spohr's Symphony, *Die Weihe der Tone, 'and 
here (as also in the March just referred to) we 
have an example of a feature found in some of 
the older Marches — the preliminary flourish of 
trumpets, or Fanfare [see vol. ii. pp. 6, 6], 

There is also, as already said, a description of 
march in half time — 2-4 (two crotchets in a 
bar), called with us the Quick March — Pas re- 
doubUf Oeschvnnd Marsch, Good specimens of 
this rhythm are the two Marches (Pianoforte 
duets) by Schubert, No. 3, op. 40, and No. 1, 
op. 51, in the latter of which we have also the 
preliminary fanfare. The march form in piano- 
forte music has indeed been used by several 
modem composers ; by Beethoven in his three 
Marches for two performers (op. 46) ; and the 
Funeral March in his Sonata, op. 26 ; and, to a 
much greater extent, by Franz Schubert in his 
many exquisite pieces of the kind for four hands, 
among them being two (op. 1 21) ma tempo (6-8), 
sometimes, but not often, employed in the march 
style ; another such si)ecimen being the * Rogues' 
March,* associated for more than a century 
(probably much longer) with army desertion. 
This is also in the style of the Quick March, the 
tune being identical with that of a song once 
popular, entitled *The tight little Island' — it 
having, indeed, been similarly employed in other 
instances. The following is the first part of this 
March, whose name is better known than its 
melody : — 

Quick March. 

Besides the March forms already referred to, 
there is the Torch -dance [see Fackeltanz, vol. 
ii. p. 3a], which, however, is only associated with 
pageants and festivities. These and military 
marches being intended for use in the open air, 
are of course written entirely for wind instru- 
ments, and those of percussion ; and in the 
performance of these pieces many regimental 
bands, British and foreign, have anived at a 
high degree of excellence. [Among modem 
English marches, that in Parry's music to 
*The Birds' of Aristophanes (sometimes used 
as a wedding -march), and the two entitled 

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' Pomp and Circumstance ' by Elgar, deserve 
mention.] H. J. l. 

MARCHAND, Louis, a personage whose 
chief claim to our notice is his encounter with 
Bach, and, as might be imagined, his signal 
defeat. He was bom at Lyons, Feb. 2, 1669.1 
He went to Paris at an early age, became 
renowned there for his organ-playing, and ulti- 
mately became court oi-ganist at Versailles. A 
confusion between him and Jean Louis Marchand 
of Auxerre (b. 1679) has led to much un- 
certainty as to the tenure of various posts as 
organist (see the Quellen-Lexikon), By his 
recklessness and dissipated habits he got into 
trouble and was exiled in 1 7 1 7. The story goes, 
that the king, taking pity on Marchand's un- 
fortunate wife, caused half his salary to be witli- 
held from him, and devoted to her sustenance. 
Soon after this arrangement, Marchand coolly 
got up and went away in the middle of a mass 
which he was playing, and when remonstrated 
with by the king, replied, * Sire, if my wife gets 
half my salary, she may play half the service. ' 
On account of this he was exiled, on which he 
went to Dresden, and there managed to get 
again into royal favour. The King of Poland 
otfered him the place of court organist, and 
thereby enraged Volumier, his capellmeister, 
who was also at Dresden, and who, in order 
to crush his rival, secretly invited Bach to come 
over from Weimar. At a royal concert. Bach 
being incognito among the audience, Marchand 
played a French air with brilliant variations of 
his own, and with much applause, after which 
Volumier invited Bach to take his seat at the 
harpsichord. Bachrepeated allMarchand'sshowy 
variations, and improvised twelve new ones of 
great beauty and difficulty. He then, having 
written a theme in pencil, handed it to Marchand, 
challenging him to an organ competition on the 
given subject. Marchand accepted the challenge, 
but when the day came it was foimd that he 
had precipitately fled from Dresden, and, the 
order of his banishment having been withdrawn, 
had retunied to Paris, where his talents met 
with more appreciation, and where he became 
organist of St. Honore. He now set up as a 
teacher of music, and soon became the fashion, 
charging the then unheard-of sum of a louis 
d'or a lesson. In spite of this, however, his 
expensive habits brought him at last to extreme 
poverty, and he died in great misery, Feb. 17, 
1732. His works comprise 2 vols, of pieces for the 
harpsichord, and one for the organ, and an opera, 
*Pyramus et Thisbe,' which was never performed. 

His ideas, says F^tis, are trivial, and his har- 
monies poor and incorrect. There is a curious 
criticism of him by Rameau, quoted in La Borde, 
Essai sur la musique (vol. iii.), in which he 

1 SpltU, in hia W 4/ Aocft, giToa the dAt« 1671, aa an inference 
from on old engraving. But Me TH\a (a. v.) who quotes an article 
in the Mag€uln Ene^dopidigue, 1812. toni. iT. p. 341, where this 
point ia thorottghlj inveetigated, and a register of Marchand's birth 

says that * no one could compare to Marchand 
in his 'manner of handling a fugue ' ; but, as 
F^tis shows, this may be explain^ by the fact 
that Rameau had never heard any great German 
or Italian organist. M. 

MARCHAND, Marguerite. See Danzi, 
vol. i. p. 662, 

MARCHESI, LuiGi, or Lodovico, sometimes 
called Marchesini, was bom at Milan, 1755. 
His father, who played the horn in the orchestra 
at Modena, was his first teacher ; but his 
wonderful aptitude for music and his beautiful 
voice soon attracted the attention of some 
amateurs, who persuaded the elder Marchesi to 
have the boy prepared for the career of a 
sopranist. This was done at Bergamo, and 
young Marchesi was placed under the evirato, 
Caironi, and Albujo, the tenor, for singing ; 
while his musical education was completed by 
the Maestro di Cappella, Fioroni, at Milan. 

Marchesi made his d^but on the stage at 
Rome in 1774, in a female character, the usual 
introduction of a young and promising singer 
with a soprano voice and beautiful person. 
Towards the close of 1775 the Elector of 
Bavaria engaged Marchesi for his chapel, but 
his sudden death, two years after, put an end 
to this engagement, and the young singer went 
to Milan, where he performed the part of 
' second man,' with Pacchierotti as first, and to 
Venice, where he played second to Millico. He 
was advanced in that same year to first honours 
at Treviso. In the next and following years 
he sang as ''first man' at Munich, Padua, and 
Florence, where he created a furore by his 
exquisite singing of *Mia speranza, io pur 
vorrei,' a rondo in Sarti's *Achille in Scire* 
In 1778 he had worked his way to the great 
theatre of San Carlo, and continued there 
during two seasons. He was now looked upon 
as the first singer in Italy, and was fought for 
by rival impresarj. Once more in Milan (1780), 
he sang in Mysliweczek's * Armida,' in which 
he introduced the famous rondo of Sarti, which 
all Italy had been humming and whistling 
since he sang it at Florence, and also an air by 
Bianchi, almost as successful, * Se piangi e peni.' 
His portrait was engraved at Pisa, and the 
impressions were quickly bought up. He now 
sang in turn at Turin, Rome, Lucca, Vienna, 
and Berlin, always with renewed ^clat ; and he 
went in 1786 to St. Petersburg with Sarti and 
Mme. Todi. Tlie rigorous climate of Russia, 
however, filled him with alarm for his voice, 
and he fled rapidly back to Vienna, where he 
sang in Sarti's * Giulio Sabino. ' 

We next find him (1788) in London, singing 
in the same opera by Sarti, having just com- 
pleted an engagement at Turin. His style of 
singing now seemed (to Bumey) 'not only 
elegant and refined to an uncommon degree, 
but often grand and full of dignity, particularly 
in the recitatives and occasional low notes. 

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Many of his graces were new, elegant, and of 
his own invention ; and he must haye 'studied 
with intense application to enable himself to 
execute the divisions and running shakes from 
the bottom of his compass to the top, even in 
a rapid series of semitones. But beside his 
vocal powers, his performance on the stage was 
extremely embellished by the beauty of his 
person and the grace and propriety of his 
gestures. From this time till 1 790 he continued 
to delight the English, appearing meanwhile at 
short intervals in the various capitals and chief 
cities of Europe. In 1794 he sang at Milan in 
the *Demofoonte' of Portogallo, and was de- 
scribed in the cast as 'all' attnal servizio di 
S. M. il Re di Sardegna.' This memorable 
occasion was thatof thed6butofMme. Grassini. 
He continued to sing at Milan down to the 
spring of 1806, when he left the stage, and 
passed the remainder of his life in his native 
place, honoured and loved. He composed some 
songs, published in London (Clementi), at 
Vienna (Cappi), and at Bonn (Simrock). An 
air, written by him, *■ In seno quest' alma,' was 
also printed. 

A beautiful portrait of Marchesi was engraved 
(June 1790) by L. Schiavonetti, after R. Cos- 
way ; and a curious caricature (now rare) was 
published under the name of * A Bravura at the 
Hanover Square Concert,* by J. Npxon], 1789, 
in which he is represented as a conceited cox- 
comb, bedizened with jewels, singing to the 
King, Prince of Wales, and courtiers. 

Marchesi died at Milan, his native place, 
Dec. 18, 1829. J. M. 

MARCHESI, Mathilde de Castroxe, nit 
Graumann, born March 26, 1826, atFrankfort- 
on-the-Main. The daughter of a wealthy mer- 
chant, she was very highly educated, but in 1843, 
her father having lost his fortune, she adopted 
the musical profession. She studied singing at 
Vienna with Nicolai ; but in 1845 went to Paris 
to learn from Garcia. Here she took lessons in 
declamation from Samson, Rachel's master, and 
had the advantage of hearing all the first singers 
of the age — Persiani, Grisi, Alboni, Duprez, 
Tamburini, Lablache. Her own aptitude for 
teaching was already so remarkable that Garcia, 
whilst prevented by the effects of an accident 
from giving his lessons, handed over his whole 
clientele for the time to his young pupil. In 
1849 Mile. Graumann removed to London, 
where she obtained a high standing as a concert 
singer. Her voice was a mezzo-soprano, and her 
excellent style never failed to please. She has 
sung successfully in Germany, Belgium, Holland, 
Switzerland, France and the United Kingdom. 
She married Signer Salvatore Marchesi (see 
below), in 1862, and in 1854 accepted the post 
of professor of singing at the Vienna Conserva- 
toire, the vocal department of which was then 
in its infancy. But she soon won high distinc- 
tion for it and herself. Among her pupils at 

this period were Miles. lima de Murska, Fricci, 
Kraus, and others who have since become famous. 
She resigned her appointment in 1861, and 
removed with her husband to Paris, where 
pupils came to her from far and wide. At this 
time appeared her ' Ecole de Chant.' Rossini, 
in acknowledging the dedication of a volume of 
' Vocalizzi,' extols her method as an exposition 
of the true art of the Italian school of singing, 
inclusive of the dramatic element ; and speci- 
ally valuable when, he complains, the tendency 
is to treat the vocal art as though it were a 
question of the capture of barricades ! In 1865 
she accepted a professorship at the Cologne Con- 
servatoire, but resigned it in 1868 to return to 
Vienna to resume her post as teacher of singing 
at the Conservatoire, which she held for ten 
years. Among her famous scholars there, were 
Miles. d'Angeri and Smeroschi, Mme. Schuch- 
Proska, and Etelka Gerster. She resigned her 
appointment at the Conservatoire in 1878, but 
continued for some time to reside and teach in 
Vienna, where her services to art have met with 
full recognition. A pupil of hers having created 
9k furore at a concert, the public, after applaud- 
ing the singer, raised a call for Mme. Marchesi, 
who had to appear and share the honours. 
From the Emperor of Austria she received the 
Cross of Merit of the first class, a distinction 
rarely accorded to ladies ; and she holds decora- 
tions and medals from the King of Saxony, the 
Grand Duke of Saxe Weimar, the Emperor of 
Germany, and the King of Italy. She is & 
member of the St. Cecilia Society in Rome, and 
of the Academy of Florence. In 1881 she 
returned to Paris, where she has prepared many 
of the greatest singers of the younger generation 
for the public career, notably Mme. Melha. 
She has published a grand practical Method of 
singing, and twenty-four books of vocal exer- 
cises. Her reminiscences were published in 
1897, as Marchesi and Music-, B. T. [Her 
daughter, Blanche, to whom the book is dedi- 
cated, was at first trained as a violinist, but 
from 1881 devoted herself to singing, and, 
until her marriage with Baron A. Caccamisi, 
assisted her mother in teaching. In 1895 she 
appeared at Berlin and Brussels, and on June 
19, 1896, gave a vocal recital in the small 
Queen's Hall, London. Since then she has 
lived in England and has eigoyed great success 
as a concert-singer. She made an operatic debut 
at Prague in 1900 as Briinnhilde in *Die Wal- 
kiire,' and has occasionally appeared on the stage 
with the Moody-Manners Company. a. c] 

MARCHESI, Salvatore, Cavaliere de 
Castrone, Marchess della Rajata, husband 
of Mme. M. Marchesi, a baritone singer and 
teacher, was bom at Palermo, Jan. 15, 1822. His 
family belonged to the nobility, and his father 
was four years Governor-General of Sicily. In 
1838 he entered the Neapolitan Guard, but, 
for political reasons, resigned his commission in 

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1840. Whilst studying law and philosophy at 
Palermo, he took lessons in singing and com- 
position from Raimondi ; and he continued his 
musical studies at Milan, under Lamperti and 
Fontana. Having participated in the revolu- 
tionary movement of 1848, he was forced to 
seek shelter in America, where he made his 
debut, as an operatic singer, in 'Emani/ He 
returned to Europe to take instruction from 
Garcia, and settled in London, where, for 
several seasons, he was favourably known as a 
concert-singer. He married Mile. Graumann in 
1852, and with her made numerous concert 
tours in England, Germany, and Belgium, ap- 
pearing also in opera ^ith success, both in Eng- 
land and on the continent He has held posts 
as teacher of singing at the Conservatoires of 
Vienna and Cologne, and was appointed chamber 
singer to the court of Saxe Weimar, 1862. From 
the King of Italy he has received the orders of 
the Knights of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus. 
Signer Marchesi is known also as the composer 
of several German and Italian songs, and as the 
Italian translator of many French and German 
libretti — 'Medea,* 'La Vestale,' 'Iphigenia,' 
'Tannhauser,' 'Lohengrin,' etc. He has pub- 
lished various writings on music, and some 
books of vocal exercises. B. T. 

MARCHESINI. [See Lucchesixa and Mar- 
chesi, LUIGI.] 

MARCHETTI, Filippo, was bom at Bolog- 
nola in the province of Macerata on Feb. 26, 
1831. The date of his birth has been incorrectly 
stated in several books of reference, but the 
publication of his birth certificate in the 
Oazzetta Mimcale of Feb. 6, 1902, has set the 
question finally at rest. He showed no special 
devotion to the art of music in his earliest years, 
but at the age of twelve he began to study with 
a master named Bindi, and in his fifteenth year 
he determined to make music his profession. 
In 1850 his parents sent him to Naples, where 
he was admitted as a paying student at the Real 
CoUegio di San Pietro a Majella. His principal 
instnictor there was Carlo Conti, with whom 
he studied counterpoint and composition. In 
1854 Marchetti left Naples and returned home, 
where he devoted himself to the composition of 
an opera, 'Gentile da Verano,' the libretto of 
which was written by his brother Raffaele. 
This work was produced at the Teatro Nazionale, 
Turin, in February 1856, with so much success 
that the impresario of the theatre hastened to 
secure the performing rights of a second opera, 
* La Demente,' upon which Marchetti was then 
engaged. ' La Demente ' was produced at the 
Teatro Carignano, Turin, on Nov. 27, 1856, 
and in the following year it was revived at Rome 
and at Jesi. It was well received at both places, 
but Marchetti was still far from having estab- 
lished his position in the world of music, and 
he found it impossible to persuade any impresario 
to produce his next opera, ' II Paria,' which in 

fact has never been performed or published. 
Marchetti fell back upon the composition of 
ballads and romances, of which he wrote many 
at this period of his career, though even these 
he found much difficulty in recommending to 
the good graces of publishers. Several years 
passed in fruitless struggles to obtain a hearing, 
and the composer began to despair of ever attain- 
ing the wished-for success. In the year 1862 
he was recommended by his brother to move his 
quarters from Rome to Milan, which was the 
real centre of musical life in Italy, and where 
opportunities for distinction were more fre- 
quently presented to struggling genius. In 
Milan Marchetti made the acquaintance of a 
young poet named Marcelliano Marcello, who 
persuaded him to undertake the composition of 
a new version of 'Romeo and Juliet,' the libretto 
of whidh he had himself arranged from Shake- 
speare's tragedy. Marchetti hesitated to attack 
a subject which had already been treated by 
Bellini and many other composers, and his 
diffidence would probably have been. augmented 
had he known that Gounod was at the same 
time hard at work upon an opera founded upon 
the same subject. Marcello, however, succeeded 
in overcoming Marchetti's scruples, and the new 
' Romeo e Giulietta ' was produced at Trieste on 
Oct. 24, 1865. Its success at first was only 
moderate, but when it was revived two years 
later at the Teatro Carcano at Milan it was very 
favourably received, in spite of the formid- 
able rivalry of Gounod's 'Romeo et Juliette,' 
which was being given at La Scala at the same 
time. With ' Ruy Bias, ' his next work, which was 
produced at La Scala, Milan, on April 3, 1869» 
Marchetti reached the zenith of his achievement. 
'Ruy Bias,* written to a libretto taken by 
D'Ormeville from Victor Hugo's drama, speedily 
became popular in Italy, and in process of time 
carried the composer's fame across the Alps. 
It was performed with no little success at 
Her Majesty's Theatre, under the management 
of Mapleson, on Nov. 24, 1877, Mile. Salla 
appearing as the Queen, Mile, de Belocca as 
Casilda, Mme. Lablache as Donna de la Cueva, 
Signer Fancelli as Ruy Bias, and Signer Galassi 
as Don Sallustio. After ' Ruy Bias ' Marchetti 
never succeeded in winning the popular suffrages. 
His two remaining works, 'Gustavo Wasa' 
(Scala, Milan, Feb. 7, 1875), and ' Don Giovanni 
d' Austria' (Teatro Regio, Turin, March 11, 
1880), made little impression. After 1880 
Marchetti wrote no more for thb stage, but 
devoted his energies entirely to teaching. In 
1881 he was appointed President of the Reale 
Accademia di Santa Cecilia in Rome, and in 
1885 he undertook the onerous duties of 
Director of the Liceo Musicale in the same city, 
a post which he held until his death on Jan. 18, 
1901. Marchetti's fame as a composer was 
short-lived. Changes in musical taste soon 
made 'Ruy Bias' seem old-fashioned, and in his 

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later works the composer showed no power of 
adapting his style to the requirements of modem 
aadiences. He may be described as a typical 
Italian composer of the second rank. In his 
music the influence of Verdi is not unnaturally 
supreme, but unfortunately it is the Verdi of 
earlier days, not the composer of 'Aida' and the 
Manzoni Requiem, who served as Marchetti's 
model. Marchetti's capacity for sheer musical 
invention was limited ; but in ' Ruy Bias, ' his 
most careful and most meritorious work, the 
musicianship is often admirable, the orchestra- 
tion effective without vulgarity, while the com- 
poser displays a commendable feeling for 
characterisation, notably exemplified in the music 
allotted to the three female characters, n. a. s. 
MARCHETTUS of Padua, a musical theorist 
of the early part of the 14th century. Of his 
life nothing is known except that he was in the 
service of Rainier, Prince of Monaco, and that 
some of his works were written at Cesena and 
Verona. He was the author of two treatises, 
the Lucidarium in arte musicac planae and the 
Pomerium artis musical TtiensiirabiliSj both of 
which are printed in the third volume of 
Gerbert's Soriptores, The dedications of these 
two books point to their having been completed 
later than 1309, though the Milan manuscript 
of the Lucidarium is said to be dated 1274 and 
the Vatican manuscript of the PoTtierium, 1283. 
The Lucidarium is remarkable for the chromati- 
cism employed and for the division of the whole 
tone either into three -fifths and two -fifths 
(diatonic and enharmonic semitones) or into 
four -fifths and one -fifth (chromatic semitone 
and diesis). The Pomerium is of great interest 
as marking the transition from the Franconian 
system of notation, in which the shortest musical 
note admitted was the semibreve, equal to one- 
third of a breve, to the * ars nova ' of Philip de 
Vitry and his successors, in which the minim 
and semiminim were differentiated and brought 
into the scheme of perfection and imperfection. 
Marchettus meets the growing need for notes 
of smaller value by reckoning any number of 
semibreves from two to twelve to the breve, 
and distinguishes their values by the addition 
or omission of tails above or below : see Wolf, 
•Gesehiehte der Mensural- Notaiionj 1904, p. 30. 
He also points out the differences between Italian 
and French notation. An epitome of tlie 
Pomerium entitled Brevis Compilatio Magistri 
MarcheUi Musici de Padtia in arte musice 
msnsurate pro rudilrus et mMerrvis is printed in 
the third volume of Coussemaker's Scriptores 
from a 14th-century manuscript at St. Die, 
which also contains the Lucidarium^ the Ars 
MensuraMlis Musice of Franco, and other musical 
treatises. F^tis's manuscript containing the 
Lucidarium^ the Pomerium^ and the Brevis 
Compilatio, is now in the Royal Library at 
Brussels. Other manuscripts are at Florence, 
at Pisa, and in the monastery of Einsiedeln. 

Marchettus deserves credit for his attempt to 
amplify the means of musical expression, but 
his system of notation was too complex to 
become of practical utility, and was soon dis- 
placed by the bolder and simpler methods of 
the *ars nova.' He suffered the penalty of 
failure, and met with much abuse at the hands 
of some of his successors. In 1 4 1 Prosdocimus 
de Beldemandis wrote an Ojmsculum contra 
theoricam partem sive speculativam Luddarii 
Marcheti Paiavini, of which there is a manuscript 
copy at Bologna. In it he asserts that 
Marchettus was altogether ignorant of theory, 
and scoffs at his presumption in posing as a 
scientific musician. Joannes Carthusiensis wrote 
that Marchettus deserved a schoolboy's whip- 
ping ; and in the Musices Opu-sculum of Nicolaus 
Burtius (Bologna, 1487) the worst that the 
author can say of his opponent, Ramis de Pareia, 
is that he 'imitated the crass stupidity and 
fatuity of Marchettus.' J. F. R. 8. 

MARCHISIO, The Sisters, both bom at 
Turin — Barbara, Dec. 12, 1834, Carlotta, Dec. 
6, 1836 — were taught singing there by Luigi 
Fabbrica, and both made their debuts as Adal- 
gisa, the elder (who afterwards became a con- 
tralto) at Vienna in 1856, the younger at 
Madrid. They played at Turin in 1857-58, 
and made great success there as Arsace and 
Semiramide ; also on a tour through Italy, and 
at the Paris Oi^era on the production of * Semi- 
ramis,' July 9, 1860. They first appeared in 
England with great success at Mr. Land's 
concerts, St. James's Hall, Jan. 2 and 4, 1862, 
in duets of Rossini and Gabussi, and made a 
concert tour through the provinces with Mr. 
Willert Beale, They also made a success in 
* Semiramide' at Her Majesty's, May 1, 1860, 
on account of their excellent duet singing, 
though separately their voices were coarse and 
harsh, their appearance Insignificant, and they 
were indifferent actresses. Carlotta played the 
same season Isabella in ' Robert,' June 14, and 
Donna Anna, July 9. They sang also at the 
Crystal Palace, twice at the New Philharmonic, 
at the Monday Popular, etc. They sang together 
for some time abroad. Carlotta married a 
Viennese singer, Eugen Kuhn (1836-75), who 
sang with her in concerts, and at Her Majesty's 
in 1862 under the name of Coselli, and who 
afterwards became a pianoforte manufacturer at 
Venice. She died at Turin, June 28, 1872. 
Barbara, we believe, retired from public life on 
her marriage. a. c. 

MARiSCHAL, Charles Henri, born in Paris, 
Jan. 22, 1842, worked at first at solfege with 
A. Cheve and £. Batiste, studied the piano 
with Chollet, and harmony with B. Laurent ; 
finally, at the Conservatoire, studied the organ 
with Benoist, counterpoint with Chauvet, and 
composition with Victor Masse. In 1870 he 
obtained the Grand Prix de Rome with the 
cantata, * Le jugement de Dieu.' He was 

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chorus-master* at the The&tre Lyrique in 1867, 
and was appointed in 1896 inspector of musical 
education. His first important composition was 
a sacred piece, * La Nativity,' in 1875, but he 
afterwards devoted himself entirely to the 
theatre, for which he wrote the following : 
' Les Amours de Catherine ' (one act, Op^ra- 
Comique, 1876); *La Taveme des Trabans' 
(three acts, gained the Prix Monbinne in 1876, 
produced Op^ra - Comique, 1881); *L']6toile' 
(one act, 1881) ; * D^idamie' (two acts. Opera, 
1893); * Calendar (four acts, Rouen. 1894); 

* Ping-Sin ' (1895) ; * Daphnis et Chloe ' (three 
acts, The&tre Lyrique, 1899) ; incidental music 
for *LAmi Fritz' (Com^die Fran9aise, 1876), 

* Les Rantzau,' ' Smilis,' * Crime et Chatiment,' 
etc. For the concert-room he has written * Les 
Vivants et les Morta,* for vocal quartet with 
orchestra (1886) ; * Le Miracle de Naim,' sacred 
drama (1887) ; * Esquisses v^nitiennea * (1894), 
and *Antar' (1897), both for orchestra. He 
has also published many choral and instru- 
mental compositions. o. F. 

MARENZIO, LucA. The oldest account we 
can find of this great Italian composer is given 
by 0. Rossi, 1 in 1 620. It tells us of Marenzio's 
birth at Coccaglia, a small town on the road 
between Brescia and Bergamo, of the pastoral 
beauty of his early surroundings, and the effect 
they may have had in forming the taste of the 
future madrigal composer, of the patronage 
accorded him by great princes, of his valuable 
post at the court of Poland, worth 1000 scudi 
a year, of the delicate health which made his 
return to a more genial climate necessary, of the 
kind treatment he received from Cardinal Cintio 
Aldobrandino at Rome, of his early death in 
that city, and burial at S. Lorenzo in Lucina. 
The same author gives an account of Giovanni 
Contini, organist^ of the cathedral at Brescia, 
and later in the service of the Duke of Mantua, 
under whose direction Marenzio completed his 
studies, having for his fellow-pupil Lelio Ber- 
tani,2 who afterwards served the Duke of 
Ferrara for 1500 scudi a year, and was even 
asked to become the Emperor's chapel-master. 

Donato Calvi, writing m 1664,^ anxious to 
claim Marenzio as a native of Bergamo, traces 
his descent from the noble family of Marenzi, 
and finds in their pedigree a Luca Marenzo. He 
adds further details to Rossi's account, how the 
King of Poland knighted the composer on his 
departure, how warmly he was welcomed by the 
court of Rome on his return, how Cardinal C. 
Aldobrandino behaved like a servant rather than 
a patron to him. "We also learn that he died 
August 22, 1599, being then a singer in the 
Papal chapel, and that there was a grand 
musical service at his funeral. 

In the next account Brescia again puts in a 

1 Elogt BUtorici di Bretciani muttri di OtUvIo RomI. (Brewia. 
Fontana. 1920.) 9 For list of vorks Me the quelltn-Lexikon. 

> 8o»na JMttrarIa de gli tcHttori Bergama*d%i. Donato Calvi. 
j Bergamo. 1064.) 

claim, and Leonardo Cozzando^ asserts that 
Marenzio was bom at Cocaglio, that his parents 
were poor, and that the whole expense of his 
living and education was defrayed by Andrea 
Maaetto, the village priest. To Cozzando we 
are also indebted for a special article on 
Marenzio's great merits as a singer, and after 
reading of him under the head of Brescian com- 
posers, we find him further mentioned under 

A fourth account, quite independent of these, 
and one of the earliest of all, is that given by 
Henry Peachara, published in 1622.<» Of the 
composers of his time, Byrd is his favourite, 
Victoria and Lassus coming next. Then of 
Marenzio he says : — 

For delicious Aire and sweete Invention in Madri- 
gals, Luea Marenzio excelleth all other whosoever, 
having published more Sets than any Authour else who- 
soever : and to say truth, hath not an ill Song, though 
sometime an oversight (which might be the Printer's 
fault) of two eights otA/Is escape him ; as betweene the 
Tenor and Base in the last close, of, / must depart aU hap- 
lease : ending according to the nature of the Dittie most 
artificially, with a Minim rest. His first, second, and 
third parts of Thyrais^ Veggo dolce mio ben du fee hoggi 
mio Sole Cantava^ or sweete singing AmaryUiSfT Songs, 
the Muses themselves might not have beene ashamed 
to have bad composed. Of stature and complexion, hee 
was a little and blacke man : he was Organist in the 
Popes Chappell at Rome a good while, afterward hee 
went into Poland, being in displeasure with the Pope for 
overmuch familiaritie with a kinswoman of his (whom 
the Queene of Poland, sent for by Luca Marenzio after- 
ward, she being one of the rarest women in Europe, for 
her voyce and the Lute :) but returning, he found the 
affection of the Pope so estranged from him, that here- 
upon hee tooke a conceipt and died. 

The above accounts agree in all important 
points, and even the descent from a noble Berga- 
mese family is not inconsistent with the ^mrents' 
poverty and their residence at Coccaglia. Maren - 
zio certainly died at a comparatively early age, in 
1599, and we may, therefore, place his birth about 
1560, though not later, for he began to publish in 
1581. On the 10th of April in that year he 
was in Venice, dedicating his first book of madri- 
gals (« 6) to Alfonso d'Este, Duke of Ferrara. 
He was in Rome, Dec. 1, 1582,^ on April 24,» 
and Dec. 15,^^ 1584, was chapel-master to the 
Cardinal d'Este in the same year,^^ and was still 
in the same city on July 15, 1585.'* 

"VVe do not think he went to Poland just yet, 
but we have no more publications for some years. 
Marenzio probably received his appointment 
soon after the accession of Sigismund III. (1 587), 

(BrMda, RizsardI, 

* Idbreria Bretetana. Leonardo Conuido. 

3 Vaao e eurtoBo riitnUo, etc., delF Bittoria Bre$ciana. 
uatdo Coxzando. (BreKla. Rlxzardi. 1094.) 

« The Compleat Qentltman. by Henry Peacham, M*"- of Arts. 


>a DedleaUoD of ' Hadr. a 4 di L. M.' 
dono. 1903.) 

n in the above confused 
rir Tolea (a 6i ' ; ' Veggo 
le (a 5) ' : and ' Cantava 
ete Singing Amaiyllis' 

demicians of Verona of 
ine, 1982.) 

Rome, Gardano. 1984.) 
Irigali a 6.' (Vinegia. 

6.' (Venice, Qardano, 

Lib. primo. (Venetia, Gar- 

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and is said to have kept it for two yean, either 
from 1688 to 1590, or from 1591 to 1593. 

He was back in Rome in 1595, writing to 
Dowland, July 13,^ and to Don Diego de 
Campo, Oct 20,' and in the same year is said 
to have been appointed to the Papal chapel.^ It 
was now that he lived on such familiar terms 
with Cardinal Aldobrandino, the Pope's nephew, 
and taking this into account Peacham's tale may 
have some truth in it, and Marenzio may have 
fallen in love with a lady belonging to his 
patron's family. If, however, he died of a 
broken heart, as is suggested, it must have 
been caused simply by the Pope's refusal to 
allow a marriage. 

Marenzio's principal works are : — 9 books of 
madrigals (a 5), 6 books (a 6), each book con- 
taining from 13 to 20 nos., and 1 book (a 4) con- 
taining 21 nos. ; 5 books of * Villanelle e Arie 
alia Napolitana,' containing 113 nos. (a 3) and 
1 (a 4) ; 2 books of four-part motets, many of 
which have been printed in modem notation by 
Proske ; * 1 mass (a 8), and many other pieces 
for church use. [See the list in the Qudlen- 
Lexikon,] The first five books of madrigals 
a 5 were printed * in uno corpo ridotto,' in 1593, 
and a similar edition of those a 6 in 1594. 
These books, containing 78 and 76 pieces 
respectively, are both in the British Museum. 
Marenzio's works were introduced into England 
in 1588, in the collection entitled 'Musica 
Transalpina' (1588); and two years after- 
wards a similar book was printed, to which he 
contributed 23 out of 28 numbers.^ His 
reputation here was soon established, for in 
1595 John Dowland, the lutenist, *not being 
able to dissemble the great content he had 
found in the profered amity of the most famous 
Luca Marenzio,' thought the mere advertise- 
ment of their correspondence would add to the 
chance of his own works being well received. 
Bumey does not hesitate to say that the 
madrigal style was brought to the highest 
degree of perfection by Marenzio's superior 
genius, and that the publication of the ' Musica 
Transalpina' gave birth to that passion for 
madrigals which became so prevalent among us 
when our own composers so happily contributed 
to gratify it.® 

Thus it came to pass that Luca Marenzio be- 
came bound up in our own musical history, and 
few foreign musicians of the 16th century have 
been kept so constantly before the English public. 
The Madrigal Society became a home for his 
works more than 150 years ago, and they are 
continually sung by much younger societies, 
* To guard faithfully and lovingly the beautiful 

I ' lit books of Song! or Ayras of 4 parta by John DowLmd.' 

(Short. Bred St. Hill. 1907.) 
3 • Di L. H. 11 7mo lib. dl Madr. a B.' (Veuatla. Gardano. IMS.) 
9 We cannot find any old aothoiity for the dat« of appointment, 

and Bttner (OiMB«n-I«ctt9n| doabt* It. 
« ' Mudea Dlvina,' et& Carl Proeke. toI. il. (Ratiebon. 18SS.) 
> 'let part of Italian Madrifale Bncliehed.' etc. Publiahed by 

Thomae Wataon (ISMf. 
" OeM. Biit. c/ Mtuie, to!. ilL pp^ 901. 119. 

things, and to reverence the great masters, of 
olden times, is quite a part of the English 
character, and one of its most beautiful 
traits.' 7 J. R. 8.-B. 

MARESCHALL, Saaixtel, bom at Toumay, 
in May 1554, was town and university organist 
at Basle from 1577 to his death some time after 
1640. In 1606 he published at Basle a choral- 
buch for four voices, containing Lobwasser's 
German versified translation of the Psalter with 
the original French tunes as in Goudimel, the 
melody, however, in the soprano, also some 
additional German hymns and tunes. Some 
of his settings are given in Winterfeld and 
Schbberlein. In MS. there exist a large 
number of his organ arrangements of some of 
these French psalm tunes, and other French and 
Gorman songs. See QueUen-LexUcon, J. B. M. 

MARGHERITA. [See Epine, vol. i. p. 784.] 

PURGIS), electress of Saxony, daughter of the 
elector of Bavaria, afterwards the Emjieror 
Charles VII. bom July 18, 1724, at Munich, 
learnt music from Giovanni Ferrandini, Porix)ra, 
and finally Hasse. She was a member of the 
Arcadian Academy in Rome, and the initials 
of her academical name, * Emelinda Talia 
Pastorella Arcada' were used by her to sign 
her compositions. The most important of these 
were two operas, *I1 trionfo della fedeltii,' 
performed at Potsdam in 1753 before Frederick 
the Great, and furnished with additional numbers 
by him, Hasse, Graun, and Benda ; and 'Talestri 
Regina dell' Amazone,' performed in 1763. 
Both were published by Breitkopf k Hartel, 
the former in 1756 being one of the first 
printed with their newly invented types, and 
the latter appearing in 1765. The electress 
died at Dresden, April 23, 1780. (Quellen- 
Lexikon.) See also the MoncUshefte filr Muaik- 
gesch. vol. xi. p. 167. M. 

MARIA DI ROHAN. Opera in three acts ; 
music by Donizetti. Produced at Vienna, 
June 5, 1843; at the Th^tre Italien, Paris, 
Nov. 20, 1843, and in London, Covent Garden, 
May 8, 1847. o. 

MARIANI, Angelo, bom at Ravenna, Oct. 
11, 1822, began to study the violin when quite 
young, under Pietro Casolini ; later on he had 
instruction in harmony and composition from 
a monk named Levrini, of Rimini, who was a 
celebrated contrapuntist. He was still in his 
teens when he left home to see the world, and 
for a certain time he continued to appear, as a 
soloist in concerts and as a first violin player in 
orchestras. He was at the Liceo Filarmonico 
at Bologna, where he had instraction from 
Rossini. It was in 1844, at Messina, that he 
assumed the baton, — which after all was only 
the bow of his violin, for at that time the 
conductor of an Italian orchestra was named 
Ptimo Viclino direitore ddV orchestra, 

f AmbroB. Otaehicktt der Murik. ill. 480. 

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After Beveral engagements in different theatres 
in Italy, Mariani was appointed, in 1847, con- 
ductor of the Court Theatre at Copenhagen. 
While there he wrote a Requiem Mass for the 
funeral of Christian YIII. At the beginning 
of 1848 he left Denmark and went to Italy to 
fight in the ranks of the volunteers for the 
freedom of his country. At the end of the 
war he was called to Constantinople, where his 
ability won him the admiration of the Sultan, 
who made him many valuable presents ; and 
Mariani, as a mark of gratitude, composed a 
hymn which he dedicated to him. In Con- 
stantinople also he wrote two grand cantatas, 
'La Fidanzata del guerriero' and '61i Esuli,' 
both works reflecting the aspirations and attempts' 
of the Italian movement. He returned to Italy 
in 1852, landing at Genoa, where he was at once 
invited to be the conductor of the Carlo Felice. 
In a short time he reorganised that orchestra 
so as to make it the first in Italy. His fame 
soon filled the country and spread abroad ; he 
had offers of engagements from London, St. 
Petersburg, and Paris, but he would never accept 
them ; he had fixed his headquarters in Genoa, 
and only absented himself for short periods at 
a time, to conduct at Bologna, at Venice, and 
other important Italian towns. Mariani exer- 
cised an extraordinary personal fascination on 
all those who were under his direction. He 
was esteemed and loved by all who knew him. 
For him, no matter the name of the composer, 
the music he conducted at the moment was 
always the most beautiful, and he threw him- 
self into it with all his soul. Great masters as 
well as young composers were happy to receive 
his advice, and he gave it in the interest of 
art and for the improvement of the work. At 
rehearsal nothing escaped him in the orchestra 
or on the stage. 

In 1864 Mariani was the director of the 
grand fetes celebrated at Pesaro in honour of 
Rossini, and was himself greeted enthusiastically 
by the public, which was in great part composed 
of the most eminent musicians of the world. 
On Nov. 1, 1871, he introduced * Lohengrin' at 
the Comunale of Bologna, and, thanks to his 
efforts, the opera was such a success that it was 
performed through the season several times a 
week — and he had only nine orchestral rehearsals 
for it ! On this occasion Richard Wagner sent 
him a large photograph of himself, under which 
he wrote JEwiva Mariani, 

A cruel illness terminated the life of this great 
musician on Oct. 13, 1873, at Genoa, the town 
which had seen the first dawn of his world-wide 
celebrity. The day of Mariani's funeral was a 
day of mourning for the whole of Genoa. His 
body was transported to Ravenna at the request 
of the latter city. The Genoese municipality 
ordered a bust of him to be placed in the 
vestibule of the Carlo Felice ; all the letters 
written to him by the leading composers and 

literary men of the day to be preserved in the 
town library ; the portrait sent by Wagner 
hung in one of the rooms of the Palazzo Civico ; 
and his last baton placed by the side of Paganini's 
violin in the civic museum. 

Besides the works already named, and other 
orchestral pieces, he published several collections 
of songs, all of which are charmingly melodious : 
— *Rimembranze del Bosforo,' *I1 Trovatore 
nella Liguria,' 'Liete e tristi rimembranze,' 

* Otto pezzi vocali,' ' Nuovo Album vocale.' 

Mariani was the prince of Italian conductors ; 
out of Italy he might have found his equal, 
but not his superior. f. rz. 

MARIMBA, THE, a curious instrument (said 
to possess great musical capabilities) in use in 
the southern parts of Mexico. In type it is of 
the wooden harmonica species, but is much 
larger, of more extended range, and has a 
sound-box to each note. Its compass is five 
octaves extending upwards from A. A large 
table-like frame, five or six feet in length, on 
legs supports a graduated series of strips of 
hard and well-seasoned wood. Below each of 
these is fixed an oblong cedar box equally 
graduated in size. The box, which serves as a 
resonator, is entirely closed except at the top, 
but has a small hole covered with thin bladder 
at the lower end. The wooden note being 
struck with a drumstick has its vibrations in- 
creased by the resonator with the addition of a 
peculiar buzzing sound. The instrument, which 
also bears another name, ' Zapotecano,' is to be 
played by four performers, each armed with a 
pair of drumsticks varying in size and weight, 
the heads generally of soft crude indiarubber. 
A description, with illustrations from photo- 
graphs, is to be seen in the Musical Times for 
May 1901. 

The marimba is also known in Africa, where 
it is formed in a similar, but rather more 
primitive fashion, gourds taking the place of 
the wooden sound -boxes. F. K. 

MARIMON, Makib, bom about 1886 in 
Paris {Grande Encydopidie\ was taught singing 
by Duprez, and made her d^but at the Lyrique 
as Hel^ne on the production of Semet's 'De- 
moiselle d'Honneur,' Dec. 30, 1867 ; as Zora in 

* La Perle du Br^sil,* and Fatima in * Abu 
Hassan,' May 11, 1869. She next played at 
the Opera-Comique, Catarina in ' Les Diamans 
de la Couronne,' July 30, 1860 ; Maima in 
Offenbach's unsuccessful *Barkouf,' Dec. 24, 
1860 ; Zerline in * La Sirfene ' with Roger, Nov. 
4, 1861, and Gimlda in 1862. She retui-ned to 
the Lyrique, and afterwards played at Brussels. 
On her return to Paris in 1869 she made a very 
great success at the Ath^n^e in French versions 
of Ricci's *Follia a Roma' and *Crispino,' and 
Verdi's 'Masnadieri, ' Feb. 3, 1870. She played 
at Drury Lane in Italian in 1871-72, and at 
Covent Garden, in the autumn of the first year, 
Amina, wherein she made her debut ; May 4, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 




1871, Maria (' La Figlia '), Roaina, Norina, and 
Astrifiammante. She made at first a great 
success solely on account of her beautiful voice, 
her brilliant execution and certainty of in- 
tonation. She did not maintain the hopes 
excited at her debut, since it was discovered 
that she was a very mechanical actress, and 
totally devoid of charm. The only part she 
really played well was Maria. Nevertheless 
she became a very useful singer at Covent 
Garden, 1874-77, in all the above parts, Donna 
Elvira, Margaret of Valois, etc. ; at Her 
Majesty's in 1878 and 1880, in Dinorah, etc. ; 
at the Lyceum in 1881. She sang with success 
in the English provinces, Holland, Russia, 
America, and elsewhere. She reappeared in 
Paris at the Lyriqueas Giralda, Oct. 21, 1876 ; 
as Suzanne in Gautier's unsuccessful ' La Cl^ 
d'Or,' Sept 14, 1877, and Martha, and at the 
Italian Opera in the last part Jan. 3,1884. Soon 
afterwards she retired and settled in Paris as a 
teacher of singing, where she now resides. A. c. 
MARINI, B I AGIO, born at Brescia, was 
employed as a violinist in Venice in 1617, was 
director of the music at Saut' Eufemia in Brescia 
in 1620 ; in 1622 he entered the service of 
Ferdinand Gonzaga at Parma, and in 1626 was 
maestro della musica to the Duke of Bavaria. 
He was at Diisseldorf about 1640, and in 1653 
was maestro to the Accademia della Morte at 
Ferrara, and in the following year to Santa 
Maria della Scala at Milan. He is said by 
F^tis to have died at Padua, where he was a 
member of the Academy of the Occulti ; the 
date of his death is given in Cozzando's Libreria 
Bresciana as 1660. He was the earliest of 
those Italian violinists who wrote music, and 
his works are considered as being among the 
earliest concerted instrumental compositions in 
existence. The following is a list of the most 
important : — 


1. AiTotti muticall. . . . Sjmfonlo, Canson. Sonata. Balletti, Arte, 

Bnindl, Ga^ltarde e Corenti, a 1, 2, S (for TioUna, oornoU, and 
other aorta of liiitraiuents). VcniM. 1617. 

2. Madrigale et Symfonte. a 1, 2. S. 4. 5. Venice. 1618. 

3. Arte, Madrigall et Corentl. a 1. 2. S. Venice, 1620. (Th«M two 

booka contain vocal aa well aa inatnimental pieoea.) 
B. Seheni e Canxonette a 1 e 2 voci. Parma, 1622. 

6. Le lAgrlme d' Brininia in atile rvcitatlvo. Parma. 1623. 

7. Canto per 1« moaiche di camera coueerti, a 4-6 tocI. ed Inatro- 

menti. Venice, 16.34. 
a Sonata Symphonie Canioni Paaa' emeni, Balettl, Corentl, Gagll- 

arde, e Ritornelli a 1-6 Toci, per ognl aorta d' inatramenti . . . 

con altro carloae e modeme Inventloni. Venlco, 1626. 
9. Madrtgalettl, a 1-4 vocl. Venice^ 163S. (The only known oopias 

of thia and of 7 are in the Chrlat Church Library, Oxford.) 
13. Compoaitlonl varla per moaica dl camera, a 2-5 tocI. Venice, 


15. Corona melodiea ex direraia aaeraa mnaicaa floribua oondnnata, 

2-6 TOO. ao Inatnimentia. Antwerp, 1644. 

16. Concerto teno dello moaiche da camera a 3-6 e plft vooi. Milan, 

18. Salmi per totti le aolannltji deir anno . . .ad.l<3Toel. Vanioe, 

20. Veaprl par tatta le featiritA deU' anno, a 4 voci. Venice. 1654. 

21. lAcrime di Davide aparae nel Miaarere concartato In diTcni 

modi a 2-4 a piA Toci. Venice, 1655. 

22. Per ogni aorta d' iatromanto muaioale diverai generl di Sonata 

da chlaaa a da camera, a 2^ Venice. 1655. 

{Quellen-Lexikon, etc.) M. 

MARINO FALIERO. Opera seria, in two 
acts ; music by Donizetti. Produced at the 
The&tre Italien, in 1835 ; in London, King's 
Theatre, May 14, 1835. o. 

MARIO, Oavalikee di CANDIA, the 
greatest operatic tenor of his generation, was of 
an old and noble family. [Authorities differ as 
to the place and date of birth, but while Cagliari 
is generally accepted for the former (as against 
Genoa and Turin), the latter must be considered 
unsettled as yet. The earliest date, 1808, is 
supported in Riemann's Lexikon ; the latest, 
1812, appeared in the original edition of this 
work ; and as Baker's Biog, Did. o/Afusicians is 
the only book that gives the day, Oct. 17, the 
year there given, 1810, seems likely to be correct.] 
His father had been a general in the Piedmon- 
tese army ; and he himself [after ten years in 
the Turin Military Academy] was an officer in 
the Piedmontese Guard, when he first came to 
Paris in 1836, and immediately became a great 
favourite in society. Never was youth more 
richly gifted for the operatic stage ; beauty of 
voice, face, and figure, with the most winning 
grace of Italian manner, were all his. But he 
was then only an amateur, and as yet all unfitted 
for public singing, which his friends constantly 
suggested to him, even if he could reconcile his 
pride with the taking of such a step. Tempted 
as he was by the offers made to him by Du- 
ponchel, the director of the Opera, — which are 
said to have reached the sum of frs. 1600 a 
month, a large sum for a beginning, — and 
pressed by the embarrassments created by ex- 
pensive tastes, he still hesitated to sign his 
father's name to such a contract ; but was 
finally persuaded to do so at the house of the 
Comtesse de Merlin, where he was dining one 
evening with Prince Belgiojoso and other well- 
known amateurs ; and he compromised the 
matter iiith his family pride by signing only the 
Christian name, under which he became after- 
wards so famous, — Mario. 

He is said to have spent some time in study, 
directed by the advice of Michelet, Ponchard, 
and the great singing-master, Bordogni ; but it 
cannot have been very long nor the study very 
deep, for there is no doubt that he was a very 
incomplete singer when he made his first ap{)ear- 
ance. This was on Nov. 30, 1838, in the r61e 
of 'Robert le Diable.' Notwithstanding his 
lack of preparation and want of habit of the 
stage, his success was assured from the first 
moment when his delicious voice and graceful 
figure were first presented to the French public. 
Mario remained at the Academie during that 
year, but in 1840 he passed to the Italian 
Opera, for which his native tongue and manner 
better fitted him. 

In the meantime, he had made his first appear- 
ance in London, where he continued to sing 
through many years of along and brilliant career. 
His dJbut here was in * Lucrezia Borgia, ' June 6, 
1839 : but, as a critic of the time observed, ' the 
vocal command which he afterwards gained was 
unthought of ; his acting did not then get beyond 
that of a southern man with a strong feeling for 

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the stage. But physical beauty and geniality, 
such as have been bestowed on few, a certain 
artistic taste, a certain distinction, — not ex- 
clusively belonging to gentle birth, but some- 
times associated with it, — made it clear, from 
Signer Mario's first hour of stage -life, that a 
course of no common order of fascination was 

Mario sang, after this, in each season at Paris 
and in London, improving steadily both in acting 
and singing, though it fell to his lot to * create ' 
but few new characters, — scarcely another beside 
that of the * walking lover ' in * Don Pasquale,* 
a part which consisted of little more than the 
singing of the serenade * Com* h gen til. ' In other 
parts he only followed his predecessors, though 
\vith a grace and charm which were peculiar to 
him, and which may possibly remain for ever 
unequalled. * It was not,' says the same critic 
quoted above (Mr. Chorley), * till the season of 
1846 that he took the place of which no wear 
and tear of time had been able to deprive him.' 
He had then played Almaviva, Gennaro, Raoul, 
and had sho^vn himself undoubtedly the most 
perfect stage-lover ever seen, whatever may have 
been his other qualities or defects. His singing 
in the duet of the fourth Act of the * Ugonotti,' 
raised him again above this ; and in ' La 
Favorita ' he achieved, perhaps, his highest point 
of attainment as a dramatic singer. 

Like Garcia and Kourrit, Mario attempted 
' Don Giovanni, ' and with similarly small success. 
The violence done to Mozart's music partly 
accounts for the failure of tenors to appropriate 
this great character ; Mario was unfitted for it 
by nature. The reckless profligate found no 
counterpart in the easy grace of his love- 
making ; he was too amiable in the eyes of the 
public to realise for them the idea of the * Disso- 
lute Punito.' 

As a singer of ' romances ' Mario has never 
been surpassed. The native elegance of his 
demeanour contributed not a little to his vocal 
success in the drawing-room ; for refinements 
of accent and pronunciation create effects there 
which would be inappreciable in the larger space 
of a theatre. Mario was not often heard in 
oratorio, but he sang * Then shall the righteous,' 
in * Elijah,' at the Birmingham Festival of 1849, 
and *If with all your hearts,' in the same oratorio, 
at Hereford, in 1 856. For the stage he was bom, 
and to the stage he remained faithful during his 
artistic life. To the brilliance of his success in 
opera he brought one great helping quality, the 
eye for colour and all the important details of 
costume. His figure on the stage looked as if it 
had stepped out of the canvas of Titian, Veronese, 
or Tintoretto. Never was an actor more har- 
moniously and beautifully dressed for the 
characters he impersonated, — no mean advan- 
tage, and no slight indication of the complete 
artistic temperament. 

For five -and -twenty years Mario remained 

before the public of Paris, London, and St. 
Petersburg, constantly associated with Mme. 
Grisi. In the earlier years (1843-46) of that 
brilliant quarter of a century, he took the place 
of Rubini in the famous quartet, with Tam- 
burini and Lablache ; this, however, did not 
last long ; and he soon remained alone with the 
sole remaining star of the original constellation, 
Mme. Grisi. To this gifted prima donna Mario 
was united, after the dissolution of her former 
marriage ; and by her he had three daughters. 
He left the stage in 1867, and retired to Paris, 
and then to Rome, where he died, Dec. 11, 1883. 
About 1880 it became known that he was in 
reduced circumstances, and his friends got up a 
concert in London for his benefit. J. M. 

MARIONETTE -THEATRE, a small stage 
on which puppets, moved by wires and strings, 
act operas, plays, and ballets, the songs or dia- 
logue being sung or spoken behind the scenes. 
The repertoires included both serious and comic 
pieces, but mock-heroic and satii-ic dramas were 
the most effective. Puppet-plays,^ in England 
and Italy called 'fantoccini,' oiice popular with 
all classes, go back as far as the 15 th century. 
From that period to the end of the 17th century 
Punch was so popular as to inspire Addison 
with a Latin poem, *Machinae gesticulantes.' 
In 1 71 3 a certain Powell erected a Punch theatre 
under the arcade of Covent Garden, w^here pieces 
founded on nursery rhymes, such as the * Babes 
in the Wood,' * Robin Hood,' and 'Mother 
Goose,' were performed ; later on they even 
reached Shakespeare and opera. About the same 
period Marionette-theatres were erected in the 
open spaces at Vienna, and these have reappeared 
from time to time ever since.* Prince Esterhazy, 
at his summer residence, Esterhaz, had a fantas- 
tically decorated grotto for his puppet-plays, 
with a staff of skilled machinists, scene-painters, 
play -Wrights, and above all a composer, his 
capellmeister Haydn, whose love of humour 
bund ample scope in these performances. His 
opera * Philemon und Baucis ' so delighted the 
Empress Maria Teresa, that by her desire Prince 
Esterhazy had the whole apparatus sent to 
Vienna for the anmsement of the Court. In 
London, fantoccini were playing between the 
years 1770 and 1780 at Hickford's large Rooms 
in Panton Street, Haymarket, Marylebone 
Gardens, and in Piccadilly. In Nov. 1791 
Haydn was present at one of these performances' 
in the elegant little theatre called Vari^t^ 
Amusantes, belonging to Lord Barrymore, in 
Savile Row. He was much interested, and 
wrote in his diary, *The puppets were well- 
managed, the singers bad, but the orchestra 
tolerably good.' The playbill may be quoted 
as a specimen. 

1 Bee Strati's Bportt and Pattimt* <^f thg PeopU ef England, 
London. 1830. 

S In 1877 BaupMh's MtOltr und aetn Kind, and the Mnff dea 
NibHungm were performed there and elsewhere by poppets. 

* See Pohrs Haydn in London, p. 108. 

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Dancing and music. 

Overtuie, Haydn. 
A comedy in one act, 
' Arlequin valet' 
Overture, PiocinL 
The flivourlte oi>era(5th 
'La buona Figliuola,' 
the music by PIccini, Gior- 
dan! and Sarti. 

Leader of the band 
First' hautboy 

Spanish Fandango. 

Goncertante, Fleyel. 

▲ comedy in one act, 

' Les Petits Riens.' 

the music by Sacchinf and 

To conclude with a Pas de 

deux 4-la-mode 
de Vestris and HillisbeiK* 
Mr. MountaiXL 
Sgr. Patria. 

To begin at 8 ; the doors open at 7 o'clock. 

The theatre is well aired and illuminated with wax. 

Refreshments to be had at the Rooms 

of the theatre. Boxes, 6/. Pit, 8/. 

A critic in The Gazetteer says :— 'So well did the motion 

of the puppets agree with the voice and tone of the 

prompters, that, after the eye had been accustomed to 

them for a few minutes, it was difficult to remember 

that they were puppets.' 

Fantoccini are by no means to be despised 
even in these days. They give opportunity 
for * many a true word to be spoken in jest ' ; 
they show up the bad habits of actors, and 
form a mirror in which adults may see a picture 
of life none the less true for a little distortion. 

iThe vogue of the marionette -theatre lasted 
onger in Italy (where it was generally managed 
by English performers) than elsewhere ; they 
are occasionally still to be seen there and else- 
where, but the performances of regular plays is 
now rarer than exhibitions of single dancing 
dolls. At the 'Th^&tre Guignol' the same 
kind of entertainment maintained its popu- 
larity for many years in the Champs Elys^es, 
Paris.] c. f. p. 

MARITANA Opera in three acts, founded 
on Don Cesar de Bazan ; words by Fitzball, 
music by W. V. Wallace. Produced at Drury 
Lane by Bunn, Nov. 15, 1845. g. 

MARKNEUKIRCHEN. A small town in 
the kingdom of Saxony, which like Mittenwald 
in Bavaria, and Mirecourt in Lorraine, la one 
of the principal centres for the manufacture of 
cheap modern bow and other instruments. The 
corner-stone of the present flourishing trade 
was laid by the foi'mation of a Guild, or Incor- 
jwrated Society of Violin-makers in 1677, which 
was on a par, in its exdusiveness and discipline, 
with the ancient ' Meistersingei-s ' and their 
prototypes the 'Minnesingers.' Just as the 
foundation of the Mittenwald industry was laid 
by Mathias Klotz in 1684, so the renown and 
prosperity which characterise the Markneu- 
kirchen of to-day have undoubtedly sprung from 
this old Guild. A record of the names of the 
original 'Masters' of the art together with 
those subsequently admitted, is to be found in 
The Arts and Crafts book of the Worshipful 
Guild of Violinmakers of Markneukirchen which 
extends from 1677 to 1772, and has been 
translated into English. It opens with the 
words : * In the name of the Holy Trinity, 
Amen I ' and then proceeds to give the twelve 
names of the religious exiles, principally from 

Graslitz, who, rather than renounce their worship 
of God in the reformed Lutheran manner, left 
their homes and the perplexities of sectarian 
bigotry, and as * Fundatores,' or Pioneers, 
settled in Markneukirchen, * under the direction 
and inspiration of God.' The list opens with 
the name of Christian Reichel, whose family 
boasted more * Master- workers ' in the space of 
100 years than any other. In the present day 
this name appears less prominently than 
formerly, a circumstance due to tlie great lire 
of 1840, which drove the principal branches of 
the family to remove themselves and their 
capital to other lands. But though far from 
home, they still preserved a faithful attach- 
ment to their fellow-countrymen, and were 
instrumental in enlarging the trade connection 
of their native town vnth. foreign countries. 
In 1851 the brothers Reichel won the gold 
medal in Tilsit for their gut strings manufactured 
tliere, and exhibited in London at the tirst 
International Exhibition. Besides Christian 
Reichel the 'Fundatores' were his brother 
Johann Caspar Reichel, and Caspar Schonfelder, 
Caspar Hopf, Johann Gottfried Bopel, Johann 
Adam Bopel, David Rudest, Johann Georg 
Poller, Johann Schonfelder, Johann Adam 
Kurzendorffer, Johann Georg Schbnfeld, and 
David Schbnfeld. The two Reichels, H. G. 
Poller, C. Schonfelder, and C. Hopf acted as 
Head Masters of the Guild. 

After this follow records of admissions down 
to 1772 of some seventy ' Masters ' belonging to 
some thirty -one families, among whom one 
notices Adam Yoigt in 1699, Christoph Adam 
Richterin 1708, ten Reichels, eight Schonfelders 
and so on. A Master was bound to own a 
house, in which his banquet, given on his 
admission to the Guild, took place at which all 
existing Masters and their wives were present. 
The records are often quaint. On the admis- 
sion of Johann Adam Nurnberger in 1761, it is 
recorded that 'he had half a mind to marry 
the youngest daughter of Master Johann Reichel 
the elder. On this consideration the fees on 
admission to mastership were reduced to 10 
thalers, 16 groschen. In the event of his 
neither marrying the lady under consideration, 
nor any other Master's daughter, the sum of 31 
thalers was assessed upon him as a deferred 
payment' Vested interests were uppermost in 
the considerations of this patriarchal Guild. 

The earliest instruments made by the Guild 
were constructed according to the fundamentary 
rules which had been laid do^'n by Tieffen- 
brugger, or DuifFoprugcar, who flourished in 
the year 1510. But later, as the Society grew 
in wealth and power, and the apprentices could 
travel and see the chief centres of instrument 
manufacture in Italy, new methods and ideas 
were brought to the home workmen, who 
gathered them up and used them to strengthen 
each his own individuality. They became 

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possessed of valuable Italian instruments which, 
once recognised and used as models, became 
accessible to all the Arts and Craftsmen in the 
town, and beyond this, by reason of their rule 
of exacting a diploma work from every new 
candidate for membership, a certain standard of 
artistic excellence was maintained by the Guild. 
This traditional spirit of original art makes 
itself felt to this day in the studios of Mark- 
neukirchen, where violins of genuine German 
make are constructed, and sold at high prices, 
while in the other factories are turned out mere 
imitations of the most celebrated Italian 

B. Baehnuum: BertdU Hbtr dU FiatktehuU fOr /fufrvfiMiKfii* 
bauer in Jtarkntukirdkm (Murkueukirehea, 1883). Tk* Artt and 
Cro/t* Book of the WorMpfui Guild qf rtoHn-maken of Markmmi- 
kirehtn. From the year 1677 to the year 1778. Bztncted and 
aiutlyeed by Dr. Rlehud Petong. Tniukted and edited by Edward 
aad Marlanna Heron -Allen. (London. 1804.) OM rioUm. Be v. 
H. B. Haweli. (London. UOB.) ^^ H-A. 

MARKULL, Friedbich Wilhelm, bom 
Feb. 17, 1816, at Reichenbach near £lbing, 
Prussia. He studied composition and orgau- 
playing under Friedrich Schneider, at Dessau ; 
became in 1836 principal organist at the Marien- 
kirche at Danzig, and conductor of the *Ge- 
sangverein' there. MarkuU eigoyed a high 
reputation as a pianist, and gave excellent 
concerts of chamber music, besides acting as 
critic for the Danziger Zeitung, [His composi- 
tions include three operas, 'Maja und Alpino,' 
or *Die bezauberte Rose' (1843); * Der Konig 
von Zion ' (1848) ; * Das Walpurgisfest ' (1855) ; 
two oratorios, ' Johannes der Tiiufer ' and ' Das 
Gedachtniss der Entschlafenen,' produced by 
Spohr at Cassel in 1856, the 86th Psalm, 
several symphonies, numerous works for organ, 
voice, and piano, a 'Choralbuch' (1845), and 
arrangements.] H. s. o. 

MARPURG, Friedrich Wilhelm, eminent 
writer on music, bom Nov. 21, 1718, at Mar- 
purgshof, near Seehausen, in Brandenburg. [The 
date of birth was discovered in the registers of 
Seehof in Wendemark by Dr. W. Thamhayn 
(see the Quellefi-Lexikon),] Little is known of 
his musical education, as Gerber gives no details, 
although Marpurg furnished him with the 
history of his life. Spazier (Leipzig musik. 
ZeituTig, ii. 553) says that in 1746 he was 
secretary to General Rothenburg [or Bodenberg] 
in Paris, and there associated with Voltaire, 
Maupertuis, D'Alembert, and Rameau ; and 
Eberhard remarks that his acquaintance with 
good society would account for his refined 
manners and his tact in criticism. The absence 
in his works of personality and of fine writing, 
then so common with musical authors, is the 
more striking as he had great command of 
language and thoroughly enjoyed discussion. 
His active pen was exercised in almost all 
branches of music — composition, theory, criti- 
cism, and history. Of his theoretical works 
the most celebrated are — the Handhuch hey dem 
Oeneralbcuse und der Composition^ founded on 

Rameau's system (3 parts, 1755-62, Berlin) ; 
Der critisehe Muneua an der <S'pr«« (Berlin, 1 750), 
containing, on p. 129, a lucid explanation of the 
old Church Modes ; the Anleiiung zur Singe- 
composition (Berlin, 1758), and the AnUitung 
zur Musik (Berlin, 1763), both still popular : 
the Kunst das Clavier zu spielen (1750) ; the 
Versuch iiber die musikcUisehe Temperaiur 
(Breslau, 1776), a controversial pamphlet in- 
tended to prove that Eimberger's so-called 
fundamental bass was merely an interpolated 
bass ; and the Ahhandlung von der Fugty 62 
plates (Berlin, 1753-54 ; 2nd edition, 1806 ; 
French, Berlin, 1756), a masterly summary of 
the whole science of counterpoint at that period, 
with the solitary defect that it is illustrated by 
a few short examples, instead of being treated 
in connection with composition. This Marpurg 
intended to remedy by publishing a collection 
of fugues by well-known authors, with analyses, 
but he only issued the iirst part (Berlin, 1758). 
Of his critical works the most important is the 
Historiseh-krUische Beytrdge^ 5 vols. (Berlin, 
1754-78). Among the historical may be specified 
a MS. Entvmrf einer Oesckichte der Orgely of 
which Gerber gives the table of contents ; and 
the KrUiscke Einleitung in die Oesckichte der 
. . . Musik (Berlin, 1759). A Jeu d! esprit. 
Legends einiger Musikheiligen von Simeon 
Metaphrastes dem Jungeren (Cologne, 1786), 
appeared under a pseudonym. Of compositions 
he published, besides collections of contemporary 
music, ' 6 Sonaten fiir das Cembalo ' (Nuremberg, 
1756) ; * Fughe e capricci * (Berlin, 1777) ; and 
* Versuch in figurirten Chorilen,' vols. 1 and 2 ; 
' Musikalisches Archiv,' an elucidation of the 
Historisch-kritische Beytrdge, was announced, 
but did not appear. [Other works and editions 
are given in the Quellen-Lexikon,] 

Marpurg died May 22, 1795, in Berlin, where 
he had been director of the government lottery 
from 1763. f. g. 

Di Figaro. 

MARSCHALL, Samuel. See Mareschall. 

MARSCHNER, Heinrich August, cele- 
brated German opera -composer, bom August 
16, 1795, at Zittau in Saxony. He began to 
compose sonatas, Lieder, dances, and even 
orchestral music, with no further help than a 
few hints from various musicians with whom 
his beautiful soprano voice and his pianoforte- 
playing brought him into contact. As he grew 
up he obtained more systematic instmction from 
Schicht of Leipzig, whither he went in 1813 to 
study law. Here also he made the acquaintance 
of Rochlitz, who induced him to adopt music 
as a profession. In 1816 he travelled with 
Count Thaddaus von Amadee, a Hungarian, to 
Pressburg and Vienna, where he made the 
acquaintance of Kozeluch and of Beethoven, 
who is said to have advised him to compose 
sonatas, symphonies, eta, for practice. In 

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Pressburg he composed *Der Eyfihauserberg/ 

* Saidor,' ' Heinrich IV. und Aubign^.' Weber 
produced the last at Dresden, July 19, 1820, 
and Marschner was in consequence appointed 
in 1823 joint -capellmeister with Weber and 
Morlacchi of the German and Italian Opera 
there. He was apxx)inted musikdirector in 
1824, but resigned on Weber's death in 1826, 
and after travelling for some time, settled 
in 1827 at Leipzig as capellmeister of the 
theatre. Here he produced * Der Vampyr ' 
(March 28, 1828), his first romantic opera, to a 
libretto by his brother-in-law Wohlbriick, the 
success of which was enormous in spite of its 
repulsive subject. In London it was produced, 
August 25, 1829, in English, at the Lyceum, 
and ran for sixty nights, and Marschner had 
accepted an invitation to compose an English 
opera, when Covent Garden Theatre was burnt 
down. His success here doubtless led to his 
dedicating his opera *Dea Falkner's Braut' to 
King William IV., in return for which he re- 
ceived a gracious letter and a golden box in 
1838. His attention having been turned to 
English literature, his next opera, * Der Templer 
nnd die Jiidin ' (produced at Leipzig, Dec. 1829), 
was composed to a libretto constructed by him- 
self and Wohlbriick from *Ivanhoe.' The 
freshness and melody of the music ensured its 
success at the time, but the libretto, disjointed 
and overloaded with purely epic passages which 
merely serve to hinder the action, killed the 
music. In 1831 Marschner was appointed 
Court Capellmeister at Hanover, where he pro- 
duced 'Hans Heiling' (May 24, 1833) to a 
libretto by Eduard Devrient, which had been 
urged upon Mendelssohn in 1827 (Devrient's 
EecollectionSf p. 40). This opera is Marschner's 
masterpiece. Its success was instantaneous and 
universal, and it retains to this day an honour- 
able place at all the principal theatres of 
Germany. In 1836 it was performed under his 
own direction at Copenhagen with marked 
success, and he was offered the post of General- 
musikdirector in Denmark, an honour which 
the warmth of his reception on his return to 
Hanover induced him to decline. After * Hans 
Heiling * — owing chiefly to differences with the 
management of the theatre — Marschner com- 
posed little for the stage, and that little has 
not survived. He was t)ensioned, with the title 
of Generalmusikdirector, in 1859, and died at 
Hanover, Dec. 14, 1861. A monument was 
erected to him at Hanover in 1877. Besides 
the operas already mentioned he composed 
*Schi)n Eir (incidental music) (1822); * Der 
Holzdieb ' (Dresden, 1825) ; * Lucretia ' (Danzig, 
1826); 'Des Falkner's Braut ' (Leipzig, 1832 ; 
Berlin, 1838); * Der Babu' (Hanover, 1837); 
^Das Schloss am Aetna' (Berlin, 1838): 

* Adolf von Nassau ' (Hanover, 1843) ; * Austin ' 
(1851). He also composed incidental music 
for von Kleist's play 'Die Hermannsschlacht,' 

and published over 180 works of all kinds and 
descriptions ; but principally Lieder for one and 
more voices, still popular ; and choruses for 
men's voices, many of which are excellent and 
great favourites. An overture, embodying 
'God save the King,' is mentioned as being 
performed in London at a concert on the 
occasion of the baptism of the Prince of Wales 
(now King Edward VII.), Jan. 25, 1842. 

As a dramatic composer of the Romantic 
school, Marschner ranks next to Weber and 
Sjiohr, but it is with the former that his name 
is most intimately connected, though he was 
never a pupil of Weber's. The strong similarity 
between their dispositions and gifts, the harmo- 
nious way in which they worked together, and 
the cordial affection they felt for each other, 
are interesting facts in the history of music. 
Marschner's favourite subjects were ghosts and 
demons, whose uncanny revels he delineated 
with extraordinary power, but this gloomy side 
of his character was relieved by a real love of 
nature and out-door life, especially in its lighter 
and more humorous characteristics. He worked 
with extreme rapidity, which is the more 
remarkable as his scores abound in enharmonic 
modulations, and his orchestration is unusually 
brilliant and elaborate. Such facility argues 
an inexhaustible store of melody, and a perfect 
mastery of the technical part of composi- 
tion. A. M. 

MARSEILLAISE, LA. The words and music 
of this popular French hymn are the composition 
of Claude Joseph Roug£t de Lisle, a captain 
of engineers, who was quartered at Strasburg 
when the volunteers of the Bas Rhin received 
orders to join Luckner's army. Dietrich, the 
Mayor of Strasburg, having, in the course of a 
discussion on the war, regretted that the young 
soldiers had no patriotic song to sing as they 
marched out. Rouge t de Lisle, who was of the 
party, returned to his lodgings,^ and in a fit of 
enthusiasm composed, during the night of April 
24, 1 792, the words and music of the song which 
has immortalised his name. With his violin 
he picked out the first strains of this inspiriting 
and truly martial melody ; but being only an 
amateur, he unfortunately added a symphony 
which jars strangely with the vigorous character 
of the hymn itself. The following copy of tlie 
original edition, printed by Dannbach of Stras- 
burg under the title 'Chant de guerre pour 
I'arm^e du Rhin, dedi^ au Mar^chal Lukner' 
{sic\ will be interesting from its containing the 
symphony, which has been since suppressed, 
and from an obvious typographical error, the 
crotchet marked ♦ being evidently intended for 
a quaver. 

The 'Chant de Guerre' was sung in Diet- 
rich's house on April 25, copied and arranged 
for a military band on the following day, and 
performed by the band of the Garde Nationale 

1 Id th« Xalaon BOekd. No. IS; Onnd* Rm 

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Temps de mardu animi. 

Al-lona en-fauU del»pa>tri-'-e Le Jour dc 


glolre wt ar-ri - vi. Con-tn uotu de 1* ty-i»n-ni • « L'H«n* 


Vitea ' dart Miiglant Mt M- 

dart Mnglant est le • 

Kn-ten-des-Totudaiueee cain-paiinei 


gireee f6-n> • oaa lol-data. Ilarien-nentjaMioedaTUToe 

^E^^ g^^ j^^3-:^,^g 

at a review on Sunday, the 29th. On June 
25 a singer named Mireur sang it at a civic 
banquet at Marseilles with so much effect that it 
was immediately printed, and distributed to the 
volunteers of the battalion just starting for 
Paris. They entered Paris on July 30, sing- 
ing their new hymn ; and with it on their 
lips they marched to the attack on the Tuileries 
on August 10, 1792. From that day the 
* Chant de guerre pour I'arm^e du Rhin ' was 
called * Chanson ' or * Chant des Marseillais, ' and, 
finally, * La Marseillaise.' The people, shouting 
it in the streets, probably altered a note or two ; 
the musicians, Edelmann, Gretry, and most of all 
Gossec, in their accompaniments for pianoforte 
and orchestra, greatly enriched the harmonies, 
and soon the * Marseillaise,' in the form we have 
it now (which need hardly be quoted), was 
known from one end of France to the other. 

The original edition contained only six coup- 
lets ; the seventh was added when it was drama- 
tised for the FSte of the F^ddration, in order to 
complete the characters — an old man, a soldier, 
a wife, and a child — among whom the verses 

were distributed. Rouget de Lisle had been 
cashiered for expressing disapproval of the events 
of August 10, and was then in prison, from 
which he was only released after the fall of 
Robespierre, on the ninth Thermidor (July 28), 
1794. The following fine stanza for the child 
was accordingly supplied by Dubois, editor of 
the Journal de LUUraiure : — 

Nous entrerons dans la carri6re, 
Quand dob afnte n'y seront plus ; 
NouA 7 trouverons leur poussi^ 
Et la trace de leurs vertus. 
Bien moina Jaloux de leur survivre 
Que de partager leur cercuell, 
Nous aurons le sublime orgueil 
De les venger ou de les suivre. 

Dubois also proposed to alter the concluding lines 
of the sixth stanza : — 


Q%i£ tes ennemis expixants 

Voieni ton triomphe et notre glolre 

Dans tea ennemis explnints 
Vols ton triomphe et notre glolre. 

These are minute details, but no fact connected 
with this most celebrated of Fi*ench national 
airs is uninteresting. 

That Rouget de Lisle was the author of the 
words of the . ' Marseillaise ' has never been 
doubted — indeed Louis Philip|ie conferred a 
pension upon him ; but it has been denied over 
and over again that he composed the music. 
Strange to say, Castil-Blaze (see J/b/i^e musicien^ 
vol. ii. pp. 452-454), who should have recognised 
the vigour and dash so characteristic of the 
French, declared it to have been taken from a 
German hymn. 

In F. K. Meyer's Versailler Briefe (Berlin, 
1872) there is an article upon the origin of the 
'Marseillaise,' in which it is stated that the tune 
is the same as that to which the Yolkslied 
* Stand ich auf hohen Bergen ' is sung in Upper 
Bavaria. The author of the article heard it 
sung in 1842 by an old woman of seventy, who 
informed him that it was a very old tune, and 
that she had learnt it from her mother and 
grandmother. The tune is also said to exist in 
the Credo of a MS. Mass composed by Holtz- 
mann in 1776, which is preserved in the i)arish 
church of Meersburg. (See the Gartenlaube for 
1861, p. 256.) Subsequent inquiry (August 
1879) on the spot from the curate of Meersburg 
has proved that there is no truth in this story. 

F^tis, in 1863, asserted that the music was 
the work of a composer named Navoigille, and 
reinforces his statement in the second edition of 
his Biographxe Universelle. Georges Kastner 
(Hevue et Gazette Mv^icale, Paris, 1848) and 
several other writers, including the author of this 
article (see Chouquet's L'Art Musical^ Sept. 8, 
1864-March 9, 1865), have clearly disproved 
these allegations ; and the point was finally 
settled by a pamphlet, La ViriU sur lapatemiU 
de la Marseillaise (Paris, 1865), written by A. 
Rouget de Lisle, nephew of the composer, which 
contains precise information and documentary 

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evidence, establishing Bouget de Lisle's claim 
beyond a doubt. The controversy is examined 
at length by Loquin in Les nUlodies populaires 
de la France, Paris, 1879. The ' Marseillaise ' 
has been often made use of by composers. Of 
these, two may be cited — Salieri, in the opening 
chorus of his opera, 'Palmira' (1795), and 
Grison, in the introduction to the oratorio 

* Esther* (still in MS.), both evidently inten- 
tional. Schumann slyly alludes to it in the 

* Faschingsschwank aus Wien,' uses it in his 
song of the Two Grenadiers with magnificent 
effect, and also introduces it in his Overture 
to * Hermann und Dorothea.' 

A picture by Pils, representing Rouget de Lisle 
singing the * Marseillaise,' is well known from 
the engraving. [The best account of the song 
is to be found in Tiersot's Chansoji PopiUaire, 
pp. 281-286.] o. 0. 

MARSH, Alphonso, son of Robert Marsli, 
one of the musicians in ordinary to Charles I., 
was baptized at St. Margaret's, Westminster, 
Jan. 28, 1627. He was appointed a Gentleman 
of the Chapel Royal in 1660. Songs composed 
by him appear in *The Treasury of Musick' 
(1669), * Choice Ayres and Dialpgues* (1676), 
and other publications of the time. He died 
April 9,1681. His son Al phonso was admitted 
a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, April 25, 1676. 
Songs by him are contained in * The Theater of 
Music* (1685-87), *The Banquet of Musick' 
(1688-92), and other publications. He died 
April 5, 1692, and was buried April 9, in the 
west cloister of Westminster Abbey, w. H. H. 

MARSH, John, born at Dorking, 1762, a 
distinguished amateur composer and performer 
[was articled to a solicitor at Romsey in 1768], 
resided at Salisbury (1776-81), Canterbury 
(1781-86), and Chichester (1787-1828), in each 
of which places he led the band at the subscrip- 
tion concerts and occasionally officiated for the 
cathedral and church organists. He composed 
two services, many anthems, chants, and psalm 
tunes, glees, songs, symphonies, overtures, 
quartets, etc., and organ and pianoforte music, 
besides treatises on harmony, thorough-bass, 
etc He died in 1 8 2 8. A fully detailed account 
of his career is given in the Dictionary of 
Musicians^ 1 824, but it does not possess sufficient 
interest to be repeated here. w. h. h. 

MARSHALL, William, a Scottish musician, 
born at Fochabers in Banffshire, Dec. 27, 1748. 
As a boy he entered the service of the Duke of 
Gordon, rising, during a thirty years' residence 
in the family, to the posts of butler, house- 
steward, and factor. He tauglit himself the 
violin, and became the best amateur performer 
of his day. His compositions, which are Strath- 
speys and a similar class of Scottish violin 
music, have been held in much favour, the best 
known being *The Marquis of Huntley's,' and 
'Miss Admiral Gordon's ' Strathspeys ; the latter 
being the air to which Burns wrote * Of a' the 

airts the wind can blaw.' He married in 1778, 
and had a family, dying in his 85th year at 
Dandaleith, May 29, 1833. A number of his 
compositions appear in the Gow publications, 
but Stewart of Edinburgh issued a couple of 
small collections of his Strathspeys in 1781. A 
third and much fuller collection was published 
in 1822 and a later one, after his death, in 1847. 
An excellent portrait of Marshall is extant, en- 
graved by Tunier ; it is reproduced in Tke Olen 
Collection of Scottish Dance Music, book ii., 1895, 
where there is also much interesting information 
concerning him. f. k. 

MARSHALL, William, Mus.D., son of 
William Marshall of Oxford, music-seller, bom 
there 1806, was a chorister of the Chapel Royal 
under John Stafford Smith and William Hawes. 
He was appointed organist of Christ Church 
Cathedral and St. John's College, Oxford, in 
1825, and was also organist of All Saints' 
Church from 1839. He graduated as Mus.6. 
Dec. 7, 1826, and Mus.D. Jan. 14, 1840. He 
resigned his Oxford appointments in 1846, and 
afterwards became organist of St. Mary's Church, 
Kidderminster. He was author of The Art of 
Reading Church Music (1842), the composer of 
some church music and songs, and editor (jointly 
with Alfred Bennett) of a collection of chants, 
1829, and also editor of a book of words of 
anthems, 1840, fourth edition, 1862. He died 
at Handsworth, August 17, 1876. 

His younger brother, Charles Ward Mar- 
shall, bom 1808, about 1885 appeared, under 
the assumed name of Manvers, on the London 
stage as a tenor singer, with success. In 1842 
he quitted the theatre for concert and oratorio 
singing, in which he met with greater success. 
After 1847 he withdrew from public life. He- 
died at Islington, Feb. 22, 1874. w. h. h. 

MARSICK, Martin Pierre Joseph, violin- 
ist, was bom on March 9, 1848, at Jupille, 
near Liege. At the age of eight he entered 
the Li^ge Conservatoire, studying under Desir6 
Heynberg, and gaining, two years later, the first 
prize in the preparatory class. In 1864 he 
secured the gold medal of the institution for 
* exceptional merit.' In the following year and 
until 1867 he was pupil of Leonard (violin) and 
Kufferath (composition), and in 1868-69 of 
Massart at the Paris Conservatoire, the expense 
of his musical training being defrayed by a 
music-loving lady of distinction. In 1870-71 
he was the recipient of a stipend from the 
Belgian government, and was enabled to proceed 
to Berlin to study under Joachim. Thus ex- 
ceptionally equipped, he made a successful 
d^but, in 1873, at the ' Concerts populaires' in 
Paris, travelled a good deal in various European 
countries, founded a Quartet at Paris in 1877 
with R^my, Von Waefelghem, and Delsart, and 
in 1892 was appointed violin professor at the 
Conservatoire in succession to Massart. In 
1895-96 he toured in the United States, and 

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has occasionally yisited England, but without 
achieving in either country a great popular 
success. The possessor of a faultless technique, 
a good all-round musician, and by no means 
lacking in fire, his playing does not indicate a 
passion for beauty such as one marks in a great 
genius of the violin. His compositions include 
three concertos and a number of smaller pieces 
for the violin, w. w. c. 

MARSON, George, called Mus.B. (although 
no trace of his degree is to be found), con- 
tributed to 'The Triumphes of Oriana,' 1601, 
the five-part madrigal * The nimphes and shep- 
beards.' He composed services and anthems, 
some of which are still extant in MS. w. h. h. 

MARTEAU, Henri, Professor of the Violin 
at the Geneva Conservatoire, bom at Rhoims, 
March 31, 1874. His father was an amateur 
violinist and President of the Philharmonic 
Society of Rheims ; his mother, an accomplished 
pianist, a pupil of Madame Schumann. Sivori 
first discovered Henri Marteau's talent, and pre- 
sented him with a violin, at the same time 
persuading his parents to allow him to study 
it as a profession. His first master was Bunzl, 
a pupil of Molique, his second, L^nard. In 
1884, when only ten years of age, he appeared 
under Richter at the Vienna Philharmonic 
Society, and elsewhere in Germany and Switzer- 
land ; in the year following he was chosen by 
Gounod to play the violin obbligato of a piece 
composed for the Joan of Arc Centenary cele- 
bration at Rheims. In July 1888 he appeared 
at a Richter concert in London. In 1892 he 
gained the first prize at the Paris Conservatoire, 
and Massenet wrote a concerto expressly for him. 
He toured in America with success in 1893 
and 1898, and in Russia in 1897-99. Having 
studied composition with Theodore Dubois, he 
brought out a cantata, 'La voix de Jeanne 
d'Arc,' for soprano, chorus, and orchestra, in 
1896. Baker's Biog, IHct. of Musicians ; Henry 
C. Lahee's Famous Violinists of To-day and 
Yesterday, Boston, U.S.A., 1899. E. ha. 

MARTELfi, and MARTELLATO (Ital.), 
from marteler and martellare, to ' hammer ' ; said 
of notes struck or sung with especial force, and 
left before the expiration of the time due to them. 
Notes dashed, dotted, or emphasised by > or/z., 
are Martel^s or Martellate in execution. The 
term Martellenient is sometimes employed for 
acciaccatiira. J. H. 

In violin, violoncello, and viola music this 
sign is used to indicate a detached hammered 
style of bowing. The effect is usually produced 
by a series of short quick up and down strokes 
at the point of the bow, without allowing the 
bow to leave the strings. The stick is held 
firmly, and the thumb pressed in the direction 
of the index finger, as each note is played. 
The arm should remain quite loose, and care 
should be taken to give a stronger pressure to 
the up bow than the down bow, or else the 
VOL. Ill 

Martel^ will become uneven. C. Schroeder's 
Catechism of Violin Playing (Leipzig, 1889 ; 
London, 1895) ; Carl Courvoisier's Techniqtie of 
Violin Playing (Cologne, 1878 ; London, 1880) ; 
H. W. and G. Gresswell's How to Play the Fiddle 
(London, 1886). o. r. 

MARTHA. Opera in three acts ; music by 
Flotow. Produced at Vienna, Nov. 25, 1847. 
It was an extension of Lady Henriette, in 
which Flotow had only a third share. The 
alterations in the book are said to have been 
made by St. Georges, and translated into German 
by Friedrich. It was produced in Italian at 
Covent Garden, as 'Marta,' July 1, 1858 ; in 
English at Drury Lane, Oct. 11, 1858, and in 
French at the Th^tre Lyrique, Doc. 16, 1865. 
The air of 'The Last Rose of Summer* is a 
prominent motif in this opera. o. 

MARTIN, Sir George Clement, bom Sept. 
11, 1844, at Lamboume, Berks, received instruc- 
tion in organ-playing from Mr. J. Pearson and 
Sir John (then Dr.) Stainer, also in composition 
from the latter during the time he was organist 
there at the parish church. He was appointed 
private organist to the Duke of Buccleuch, at 
Dalkeith, in 1871 ; Master of the Choristers, St. 
Paul's Cathedral, in 1874, deputy organist at 
the same on the death of George Cooper in 1876, 
and organist on the resignation of Stainer in 
1888. He received the degrees of Mus. B. , Oxon. , 
in 1868, Fellow of the College of Organists in 
1875, and Mus.D. (degree conferred by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury) in 1883, and was 
appointed the same year teacher of the organ 
at the Royal College of Music, which post he 
has since resigned. His compositions include 
Morning and Evening Communion and Evening 
Service in C for voices and orchestra ; Com- 
munion Service in A, Magnificat and Nunc 
Dimittis in A, for the same ; the same in B^ 
for voices, organ, and military band ; the same 
in G for voices and orchestra ; 7 anthems ; also a 
variety of compositions for parochial use ; songs, 
part-songs, etc. His most important work is the 
* Te Deum ' sung on the steps of St. Paul's at the 
Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria, 1897, shortly 
after which event he received the honour of 
knighthood. (See Musical Times for July 
1897, p. 441.) A. 0. 

MARTIN, George William, bom March 8, 
1828, received his early musical education in the 
choir of St. Paul's Cathedral under William 
Hawes. He was professor of music at the 
Normal College for Army Schoolmasters ; music 
master at St. John's Training College, Battersea 
(1845-53), and organist of Christ Church, 
Battersea, in 1849. He composed many glees, 
madrigals, and part-songs, for some of which 
he was awarded prizes, and edited and pub- 
lished cheap arrangements of the popular 
oratorios and other works of Handel, Haydn, 
and others. For some years he directed per- 
formances given under the name of the National 


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Choral Society, which was begun in 1860. He 
had an aptitude for training choirs of school 
children, and conducted many public perform- 
ances by them. He edited the Jour/uU of Fart 
Music in 1861-62, and did much to make good 
music popular. He died in great poverty at 
Bolingbroke House Hospital, Wandsworth, April 
16, 1881. w. H. H. 

MARTIN, Jonathan, bom 1715, was a 
chorister of the Chapel Royal under Dr. Croft. 
On quitting the choir he was placed under Thomas 
Roseingrave for instruction on the organ, and 
soon attained such proficiency as to be able to act 
as deputy for his master at St George's, Hanover 
Square, and for Weldon at the Chapel Royal. 
On June 21, 1736, he was admitted organist of 
the Chapel Royal on the death of Weldon, and 
promised 'to compose anthems or services for 
the use of His Majesty's Chapel, whenever re- 
quired by the Subdean for the time being.' 
Probably he was never called upon to fulfil his 
promise, as his only known composition is a song 
in Rowe's tragedy, 'Tamerlane,' 'To thee, O 
gentle sleep. ' He died of consumption, April 4, 
1787, and was buried April 9, in the west cloister 
of Westminster Abbey. w. h. h. 

MARTIN Y SOLAR, Vicente, bom at 
Valencia about 1754 (whence he was known in 
Italy as ' Lo Spagnuolo '), was a choir-boy in 
the cathedral of his native town, and afterwards 
organist at Alicante. On the advice of an 
Italian singer, named Giuglietti, he went to 
Florence, where he was commissioned to write an 
opera for the next Carnival. His ' Ifigenia in 
Aulide' was accordingly brought out in 1781. 
Soon after this he produced a new opera, 
< Astartea,' in Lucca, as well as a ballet, 'La 
Regina di Golconda.' In 1783 'La Donna fes- 
teggiata ' and ' L'accorta cameriera ' were brought 
out at Turin, and in the following year * Iper- 
mestra ' at Rome. In 1785 he went to Vienna, 
where he became acquainted with Da Ponte, 
who wrote for him the libretto of ' II burbero di 
buon cuore,' produced Jan. 4, 1786. Here as 
elsewhere he speedily became the fashion, his 
operas, ' La capricciosa corretta,' ' L* arbore di 
Diana, ' and ' Una cosa rara ' following one another 
in quick succession. This last work, produced 
Nov. 11, 1786, for a time threw 'Figaro' 
(produced six months before) into the shade. 
[See Mozart.] In the autumn of the follow- 
ing year ' Don Juan ' appeared, and Martin 
unwittingly obtained immortality at the hands 
of his rival, since a theme from ' Una cosa rara ' 
makes its ap|)earance in the second finale of 
Mozart's masterpiece. (See also Kochcl's Cata- 
logue, pp. 682, 683.) In 1788 Martin was 
appointed director of the Italian Opera at St 
Petersburg, where he brought out ' Gli sposi in 
contrasto,' and a cantata 'II sogno.' In 1801 
the fashion for Italian opera pasiied away for a 
time, and a French opera took its ])lace. Martin, 
thus deprived of his post, employed the rest 

of his life in teaching. He died in May 1810.^ 
A mass, a 'Domine salvum fac,' and another 
opera 'L'tle de Tamour,' are mentioned in the 
QwUen-Lexikon^ and the latter is stated to have 
been produced in Florence about 1784. m. 

daughter of the master of the ceremonies to the 
Pope's Nuncio, bom May 4, 1744, at Vienna. 
Metastasio, a great friend of her father's, lived 
for nearly half a century with the family, and 
undertook her education. Haydn, then young, 
poor, and unknown, occupied a wretched garret 
in the same house, and taught her the harpsi- 
chord, while Porpora gave her lessons in singing 
and composition, her general cultivation being 
under Metastasio's own care. Of these advan- 
tages she made good use. Bumey, who knew 
her in 1772,^ speaks of her in the highest terms, 
specially praising her singing ; and she also 
won the admiration of both Hasse and Gerbert. 
After the death of the parents, and of Meta- 
stasio, who left them well off, she and her sister 
gave evening parties, which were frequented by 
all the principal artists. On one of these 
occasions Kelly ^ heard Marianne play a 4 -hand 
sonata of Mozart's with the composer. Latterly 
Marianne devoted herself to teaching talented 
pupils. In 1773 she was made a member of 
the Musical Academy of Bologna. In 1782, 
the Tonkiinstler Societat performed her oratorio 
' Isacco,' to Metastasio's words. She also com- 
posed another oratorio, 'Santa Elena al Calvario,' 
a mass, and other sacred music ; Psalm, to 
Metastasio's Italian translation, for four and 
eight voices ; solo-motets, arias, and cantatas, 
concertos, overtures, and symphonies, and 
harpsichord sonatas, two of which were reprinted 
by £. Pauer. The Gesellschaft der Musik- 
freunde possesses the autographs of many of 
these works. Marianne expired on Dec. 13, 
1812, a few days after the death of her younger 
sister Antonie. c. f. f. 

MARTINI, Giovanni Battista, or Giam- 
BATTiSTA, commonly called Padre Martini, one 
of the most important scientific musicians of 
the 18th century, born at Bologna, April 24, 
1706 ; was first taught music by his father 
Antonio Maria, member of a musical society 
called 'I FratelU.' Having become an expert 
violinist, he learned to sing and play the harpsi- 
chord from Padre Predieri, and counterpoint 
from Antonio Riccieri, a castrate of Vicenza, 
and composer of merit. At the same time he 
studied philosophy and theology with the 
monks of San Filippo Neri. Having passed 

1 The article In Hendel'e Lextkon conUf ne MTenU cnwa mUtakea, 
»ueh M the atateroeot that ' Don Junn ' wu brought uut before ' Un» 
con imra ' (iu which cue it would have been difficult for Mocart to 
have ueed one of the themee from the latter opera in the former IK 
and the Incluaion, among worlu bjr him. of the book of canone with 
pianoforte nccom pin i meat, published bjr Birchall in London, and 
edited by Cianchettini. The«e ore by Padre Martini. 

3 8ee Pretent State of Music in Oermanif. 1. 311-13, 3B2. S54. 962. 

3 Kelly'e mietakes of detail are innumerable. He gives the name 
' Martini,' and imagining Marianne to bo the eister of her father — 
' a very old man ' and ' nearly his own age '— epeaka of her aa ' In 
the Tale of veara.' though still ' iiuoMsaing the g»iety and vivacity 
of a girl.' She w.-u barely forty. 

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his noviciate at the Franciacan convent at 
LagOy he was ordained on Sept 11, 1722, and 
I'etarning to Bologna in 1725 became maestro 
di cappella of the church of San Francesco. 
Giaoomo Perti held a similar post at San 
Petronio, and from him Martini received valuable 
advice on composing church-music, at the same 
time laying a scientific foundation for the 
whole theory of music by a conscientious study 
of mathematics with Zanotti, a well-known 
physician and mathematician. He thus gradu- 
ally acquired an extraordinary and compre- 
hensive mass of knowledge, with an amount 
of literary information far in advance of his 
contemporaries. His library was unusually 
complete for the time,^ partly because scientific 
men of all countries took a pleasure in sending 
him books, Bumey, whose own library was 
very extensive, expressed his astonishment at 
that of Martini, which he estimates to contain 
17,000 vols. (Present State of Mime in France 
and Italy, p. 195). After his death a portion 
found its way to the court library at Vienna ; 
the rest remained at Bologna in the Lioeo 
Filarmonioo. His reputation as a teacher was 
European, and scholars flocked to him from 
all parts, among the most celebrated being 
Paolucd, Ruttini, Sarti, Ottani, and Stanislao 
Mattei, afterwards joint founder of the Liceo 
Filarmonico. These he educated in the tradi- 
tions of the old Roman school, the main 
characteristic of which was the melodious move- 
ment of the separate parts. Martini was also 
frequently called upon to recommend a new maes- 
tro di cappella or to act as umpire in disputed 
questions. He was himself occasionally involved 
in musical controversy ; the best-known instance 
being his dispute with Redi about the solution 
of a puzzle-canon by Giovanni Animucoia, which 
he solved by employing two keys in the third 
]>art This, though approved by Pitoui, was 
declared by Redi to be ui\justifiable. To prove 
this point Martini, therefore, wrote a treatise 
maintaining that puzzle-canons had not unfre- 
quently been solved in that manner, and quot- 
ing examples. Another important controversy 
was that held with Eximeneo [see vol. i. p. 797]. 
In spite of these differences of opinion his con- 
temporaries describe him as a man of great 
mildness, modesty, and good nature, always 
ready to answer questions, and give explanations. 
It is difficult to think without emotion of j;he 
warm welcome which he, the most learned and 
one of the oldest musicians of his country, 
bestowed on Mozart when he visited Bologna in 
1770 as a boy of fourteen, or to resist viewing 
it as a symbol of the readiness of Italy to open 
to Germany that vast domain of music and 
tradition which had hitherto been exclusively 
her own. His courtesy and affability brought 
the Bolognese monk into friendly relations 
ivith many exalted personages, Frederick the 

i He hiul tan oopiv of Goldo d'Arezio's Jticrologut. 

Great and Frederick William II. of Prussia, 
Princess Maria Antonie of Saxony, and Pope 
Clement XIV. among the number. He suffered 
much towards the close of his life from asthma, 
a disease of the bladder, and a painful wound 
in the leg ; but his cheerfulness never deserted 
him, and he worked at the fourth volume of 
his History of Music up to his death, which 
took place in 1784 — on October 8, according to 
Moreschi, Gandolfi, and Delia Valle ; on August 
4, according to Fantuzzi. His favourite pupil 
Mattei stayed with him to the last Zanotti's 
requiem was sung at his funeral, and on 
Dec. 2, the Accademia Filarmonica held a 
grand function, at which a funeral mass, the 
joint composition of thirteen maestri di cappella, 
was performed, and an ' Elogio ' pronounced by 
Lionardo Volpi. All Italy mourned for him, 
and a medallion to his memory was struck by 
Tadolini. He was a member of two Accademie, 
the ' Filarmonici' of Bologna, and the 'Arcadici' 
of Rome, his assumed name in the latter being 
Aristoxenus Amphion. 

Martini's two great works are the Storia delta 
Musica (8 vols. Bologna, 1757, 1770, 1781), 
and the Esemplare ossia Saggio , , , di contrap- 
panto (2 vols., Bologna, 1774, 1775). The 
first is a most learned work ; each chapter 
begins and ends with a puzzle-canon, the whole 
of which were solved and published by Cheru- 
bini. The three volumes all treat of ancient 
music ; the music of the Middle Ages down to 
the 11th century was to have been the subject of 
the fourth volume, which he did not live to finish. 
A report having sprung up that the completed 
MS. was in the Minorite convent at Bologna, 
F^tis obtained access to the library through 
Rossini, but found only materials, of which no 
use has yet been made. The Saggio is a most 
important collection of examples from the best 
masters of the ancient Italian and Spanish 
schools, and a model of its kind. Besides a 
number of small treatises and controversial 
writings (for list see F^tis) Martini left masses 
and other church music in the style of the time. 
The following were printed : — * Litaniae,' op. 1 
^784); 'XII Senate d'intavolatura,' op. 2 
(Amsterdam, Le G^ne, 1741), excellent and 
fiill of originality ; * VI Senate per organo e 
cembalo ' (Bologna, 1 747). * Duetti da Camera ' 
(Bologna, 1763). The Liceo of Bologna, pos- 
sesses the MSS. of a mass, a requiem, etc., three 
oratorios, ' San Retro ' (two separate composi- 
tions), ' II sagrifizio d' Abramo,' and * V Assun- 
zione di Salomone al trono d' Israello' ; a farsetta 
' La Dirindina ' ; and three Intermezzi, * L' Im- 
presario delle Canarie,' 'Don Chisciotto,' and 
*I1 Maestro di Musica.' A requiem (108 
sheets), and other church compositions are in 
Vienna. Pauer, in his *Alte Klaviermusik,' 
gives a gavotte and ballet of Martini's. Farrenc 
has published twelve sonatas in the *Tr^sor 
musical,' and other works are given by Liick, 

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Eorner, Ricordi, etc [see the Quellen-Lexikon], 
The best of many books on his life and works 
is the Elogio of Pietro Delia Yalle (Bologna, 
1784). F. G. 

MARTINI IL TEDESCO ('the German'), 
the name by which the musicians of his time 
knew JoHANN Paul Aeoidius Schwartzen- 
DORF, bom Sept. 1, 1741, at Freistadt, in the 
Upper Palatinate, who was organist of the 
Jesuit seminary at Neustadt, on the Danube, 
when he was ten years old. From 1758 he 
studied at Freiburg, and played the organ at 
the Franciscan convent there. When he re- 
turned to his native place, he found a step- 
mother installed at home, and set forth to seek 
his fortune in France, notwithstanding his com- 
plete ignorance of the language. At Nancy he 
was befriended, when in a penniless condition, 
by the organ-builder Dupont, on whose advice 
he adopted the name by which he is known. 
From 1761 to 1764 he was in the household of 
King Stanislaus, who was then living at Nancy. 
After his patron's death Martini went to Paris, 
and immediately obtained a certain amount 
of fame by successfully competing for a prize 
offered for the best march for the Swiss Guard. 
At this time he wrote much military music, 
as well as symphonies and other instrumental 
works. In 1771 his first opera, *L'amoureux 
de quinze ans,' was performed with very great 
success, and after holding various appointments 
as musical director to noblemen, he was ap- 
pointed conductor at the Th^dtre Feydeau, 
when that establishment was opened under the 
name of Th^tre de Monsieur for the j^erform- 
ance of light French and Italian operas. Having 
lost all his emoluments by the decree of Aug. 
10, 1792, he went to live at Lyons, where he 
published his Melopte modernCy a treatise on 
singing. In 1794 he returned to Paris for the 
production of his opera *Sapho,' and in 1798 
was made inspector of the Conservatoire. From 
this post he was ejected in 1802, by the agency, 
as he suspected, of Mehul and Catel. At the 
restoration of 1814 he received the appointment 
of superintendent of the Court music, and wrote 
a Requiem for Louis XVI., which was performed 
at St. Denis, Jan. 21, 1816. Very shortly 
afterwards, on Feb. 10 of the same year, he 
died. Besides the operas mentioned above 
ho wrote *Le rendez-vous nocturne' (1773); 
* Henri IV.' (1774); *Le droit du Seigneur' 
(1783); *L'amant sylphe' (1795); 'Annette 
et Lubin* (1789); *Camille ou le sou terrain' 
(1796) ; and 'Zimeo' (1800). In the depart- 
ment of church music he wrote several masses, 
psalms, requiems, etc. [see the Quellen-Lexikon], 
A cantata written for the marriage of Napoleon 
with Marie Louise exists, besides much chamber 
music, but Martini's best- known composi- 
tion is probably the charming song, *Plaisir 
d'amour.' M. 

MARTUCCI, Giuseppe, pianist, orchestral 

conductor and comjioser, was bom at Capua, 
Jan. 6, 1856. He was taught the elements of 
music by his father, a military bandmaster, 
and made, as a child, some stir in Naples by 
his clever performances on the piano. At the age 
of eleven he was admitted to the R. Conserva- 
torio in that city. Here he devoted five years 
to the study of the pianoforte under Beniamino 
Cesi, whose training was supplemented by 
lessons in theory and composition with Carlo 
Costa, Paolo Serrao, and Lauro Rossi. He left 
the Conservatorio in 1872 ; but after two years 
passed in teaching and playing in public he 
returned to it as professor, gaining the post by 
competition. Having appeared with remarkable 
success at concerts in Rome and Milan, Martucci 
undertook, in 1875, a tour through France, 
Germany, and England. In London, where he 
played at Arditi's Concert, St. Geoi^'s Hall, 
June 14, the character of his reception warranted 
a stay of four months ; he also played in Dublin. 
On the occasion of a second visit to Paris in 
1878 he was heard by Rubinstein, who not only 
expressed the highest opinion of his executive 
talent, but honoured Martucci as a comjioser by 
directing a performance of his Concerto in Bb 
minor with Cesi at the piano. The work was 
also played in after years by Eugen dAlbert at 
the Berlin Philharmonic. Martucci's progress 
at home was marked by his association with the 
Quartette Napoletano, whose performances ho 
directed during eight years, and still further by 
his appointment as conductor of the orchestral 
concerts instituted by the Prince d'Ardore, a 
choice fully justified by his enterprise in intro- 
ducing classical and modem masterpieces before 
unheard in Naples. He also took his orchestra 
from Naples to Turin, where he gave a series of 
performances during the exhibition of 1884. 
Nominated director of the Liceo Mnsicale at 
Bologna in 1886, Martucci continued his concerts 
in other towns. His programmes, broadly 
eclectic, sometimes included the works of Hubert 
Parry, Stanford, and other English composers, 
for whom he professes a sincere admiration. 
During his residence in Bologna he made his 
only appearance as orchestral conductor in a 
theatre to direct the first performance in Italy 
of Richard Wagner's 'Tristan und Isolde' 
(1888). After an absence of sixteen years he 
was once more recalled to the scene of his early 
labours, having been named director of the R. 
Conservatorio in Naples, March 5, 1902. He 
is a member of the Accademia Reale of Naples, 
Commendatore della Corona d' Italia and 
Cavaliere dei S.S. Maurizio e Lazzaro. Martucci 
occupies a place in the front rank of pianoforte 
virtuosi. As an author his style has been formed 
on the best classical models. His works are 
remarkable for their finish, and often display con- 
siderable originality. In writing for the piano- 
forte his intimate knowledge of its resources 
produces effects of a quite exceptional kind. 

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His very numerous compositions include : — 

Sjupboiij No. 1 in D miuor (op. 76) pUi7«d »t th« RoyKl Coll«g« 
of Music. London. Haxch 18. U88. A detallad analysU U in JZi*. 
Mum. Hal., ili. 126. 

ajmptaoQT No. 2 in F maJor (op. 81). 

Conocrto in B flat minor for piano and orchaitra (op. 08). 

Pour piecoli peisi tor orehflstm. 

Poem«tto lirloo, 'La Caniona dd Rioordi,' for Toioe and 

(juiutot for piano, two violins, viola, and violoncello lop. 4A). 

Trio No. 1 in C for piano, violin, and violoncello (op. 66|. 

Trio No. 8 in B flat for piano, vlolhi, and violoncello (op^ 82) 
splayed at one of HalM's Couoerta, St. James's Hall. May 17, 1880). 

(tonata lor violoncello and piano (op. 92). 

Three pieces for violoncello and piano (op. 60). 

Doe Romanae for violoncello (op. 72). 

Three pieces for violin and piano (op. 67). 

Momento Mnaieale e Minnetto for two violins, viola, and violon- 

' PS(ine Sparse,' melodies for voice and piano (opi 88). 

' Doe So^ii.' for voice and piano (op. 68 bis). 

Six volumes of couiposltions for pianoforte. 

Variations for two pianofortes. 

Fantasia for two pianofortes top. 39). 

Two pleoes for pianoforte : ' Oaptiocio' and ' Toccata' (op. 77). 
Three pieces for piano solo " ' 

Two pieces for piano : 
' Trftne a quatre fenilles ' (oi». 74). 
Three little pieces for pianoforte solo 

'Notturno.' and 

and 'Gavotta' (op. 73). 

'Serenata,' 'Minuetto,' 
Prelndio.' ' 

Csprlcclo ' (op. 78). 

Three little pieces for pianoforte solo : 

Due Caprieci fbr pianoforte (op. 80). 

Unpublished compoaltl<ms :— 

Oratorio. 'Samuel.' 

Concerto for piano and orebeetra in D minor. 

Sonata for organ. 

Numerous pianoforte transcriptions of daasloal works, and 
Raocolta of sixteen pieces for piano by classical authors tranacribed 
for violoncello and pianoforte. „ . ... 

U* A* » • 

MARTY, Eugene Georges, bom in Paris, 
March 16, 1860, was a pupil of the Conserva- 
toire, where he obtained the first prize in 
solf^e in 1875, the first in harmony in 1878, 
and the Grand Prix de Rome in 1882 with his 
cantata, 'Edith.' In 1892 he was appointed 
chorus-master at the Theatre Eden, and in the 
same year was made director of the vocal 
ensemble classes at the Conservatoire, a post he 
resigned in 1904 ; he was chorus-master at the 
Opera in 1893, and conducted theOp^ra-Comique 
in 1900. From June 12, 1901, he has been 
conductor at the Conservatoire. Marty has 
written much, and has been much influenced 
bv his master, Massenet We may mention: 
*Balla<ie d'Hiver* (1885); 'Balthazar* over- 
ture (1887) ; a suite, ' Les Saisons' (1888) ; a 
symphonic poem, 'Merlin enchant^,' all for 
orchestra ; ' Lysic, ' a one-act pantomime (1888); 
' Le Due de Ferrare,' three-act opera, Theatre 
Lyrique (1899) ; * Daria,' two-act opera (Op^a, 
Jan. 27, 1905); songs, and pianoforte pieces, 
etc. o. F. 

MARTYRS, LES. Opera in four acts ; words 
by Scribe, music by Donizetti. Produced at 
the Academic, April 10, 1840 ; at the Royal 
Italian Opera, London, as ' I Martin,' April 20, 
1 852. The work was an adaptation of ' Poliuto, ' 
a former Italian opera of Donizetti's. g. 

MARX, Adolph Bernhard, learned musi- 
cian and author, bom May 15, 1799 (or 1795, 
according to Riemann), at Halle, son of a 
])hy8ician, learned harmony from Tiirk, studied 
law, and held a legal post at Naumburg. His 
love of music led him to Berlin, where he soon 
gave up the law, and in 1824 he founded, with 
Schlesiiiger the publisher, the Berliner Allge- 
rneim MimkaZische ZeUung, This periodical. 

which only existed seven years, did important 
service in creating a juster appreciation of 
Beethoven's works in North Germany, a service 
to which Beethoven characteristically refers in 
a letter 1 to Schlesinger, Sept. 25, 1825. His 
book on the same subject, however, Bed- 
Jioven's Leben und Schaffen (Berlin, 1859 ; 
2nd ed., 1865 ; 5th, 1901), is a fantastic critique, 
too full of mere conjecture and misty aestheti- 
cism. In 1827 he received his doctor's diploma 
from the university of Marburg, and was made 
' Decent,' or tutor, in the history and theory of 
music, at the univeraity of Berlin. He became 
Professor in 1830, and in 1832 Musikdirector 
of the university choir. In 1850 he founded 
with Kullak and Stem the 'Berliner Musik- 
schule,' afterwards the 'Berliner Conserva- 
torium,' and now the 'Sternsche Conserva- 
torium' but withdrew in 1856 (Kullak having 
resigned in 1855), and henceforth devoted 
himself to his private pupils and to his work 
at the University. He dicJi in Berlin, May 17, 
1866. His numerous works are of unequal 
merit, the most important being the Lehre von 
der musikaZiachen Composition^ four vols. (Breit- 
kopf & Hiirtel, 1887, 1838, 1847). His Oluek 
und die Oper (Berlin, two vols. 1863) contains 
many ingenious observations, but is of no 
historical value. The others are Vher McUeni 
in der Tonkunst (1828), Uber die Oeltung 
ffandelachen Sologeadnge, etc. (1829), Allgemeine 
Musiklehre (1889), Die aUe Mu8iklehre (1842), 
Die Musik des 19. JahrkundeH, etc. (1855), 
Afdeiiung zum Vortrag Beet?iovenschen Klavier^ 
werke(lSQ3)f Erinnerungen (1865), and a post- 
humous work. Das IdecUe und die Gegenwart 
(1867). Besides what he did for Beethoven's 
music, Marx deserves credit for bringing to light 
many little-known works of Bach and Handel. 
His com|)ositions are not remarkable ; neither 
his oratorios 'Johannes der Tiiufer,' 'Moses,' 
and 'Nahid und Omar,' nor his instrumental 
music, obtaining more than a 'succ^d'estinie.' 
His opera, ' Jery und Bately,' was performed at 
Berlin in 1827, and a melodram^ 'Die Rache 
wartet, ' in 1 829. Nevertheless some particulars 
given in his Erinnerungen (Berlin, 1865) as 
to his manner of composing are well worth 
reading, as indeed is the whole book for its 
interesting picture of the state of music in Berlin 
between 1830 and 1860. With Mendelssohn 
he was at one time extremely intimate, and no 
doubt was in many respects useful to him ; but 
his influence diminished as Mendelssohn grew 
older and more independent. F. G. 

MARXSEN, Eduard, born July 23, 1806, at 
Nienstadteur near Altona, where his father was 
organist. He was intended for the church, but 
devoted himself to music, which he studied at 
home and with Clasing of Hamburg. He then 
assisted his father till the death of the latter in 
1830, when he went to Vienna, and took lessons 

1 Nobl. Brl^€, No. 368. 

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in counterpoint from Seyfried, and the pianoforte 
from Booklet. He also compoBed industrioosly, 
and on his return to Hamburg gave a concert 
(Oct 15, 1834) at which he played eighteen 
pieces of his own composition. He subsequently 
lived at Hamburg in great request as a teacher. 
Brahms was his most illustrious pupil. Of his 
sixty or seventy compositions, one for full or- 
chestra called ' Beethoven's Schatten ' was per- 
formed in 1844 and 1845 at concerts in Ham- 
burg. He died at Altona, Nov. 18, 1887. F. o. 
celebrated place of entertainment was situated at 
the back of and appurtenant to a tavern called 
*The Rose of Normandy' (or briefly 'The 
Rose '), which stood on the east side of High 
Street, Marylebone, and was erected about the 
middle of the 1 7th century. The earliest notice 
of it is in Memoirs by Samuel Sainthillj 1659, 
printed in The GfentUman's MagazvM, voL 83, 
p. 524, where the garden is thus described : 
* The outside a square brick wall, set with fruit 
trees, gravel walks, 204 paces long, seven broad ; 
the circular walk 485 paces, six broad, the centre 
square, a Bowling Green, 112 paces one way, 
88 another ; all except the first double set 
with quickset hedges, full grown and kept in 
excellent order, and indented like town walls.' 
It is next mentioned by Pepys, May 7, 1668 : 
'Then we abroad to Marrowbone and there 
walked in the garden, the first time I ever was 
there, and a pretty place it is.' Long's bowling 
green at the Rose at Marylebone, half a mile 
distant from London, is mentioned in the London 
Gazette, Jan. 11, 1691-92. Count de Tallard, 
the French ambassador, gave a splendid enter- 
tainment before leaving England to the Marquis 
of Normanby (afterwards Duke of Buckingham- 
shire) and other persons of note * at the great 
Bowling Green at Marylebone,' in June 1699. 
About that time the house became noted as a 
gaming-house much frequented by persons of 
rank ; Sheffield, Duke of Buckinghamshire, was 
a constant attendant, and, as Quin told Pen- 
nant, gave, every spring, a dinner to the chief 
frequenters of the place, at which his parting 
toast was * May as many of us as remain un- 
changed next spring meet here again.' It was 
he who was alluded to in Lady Mary Wortley 
Montagu's oft -quoted line, *Some dukes at 
Marybone bowl time away.* Gay, in his 'Beg- 
gar's Opera,' 1727, makes Marylebone one of 
Macheath's haunts, and mentions the 'deep 
play' there. Prior to 1737 admission to the 
gardens was gratuitous, but in that year Daniel 
Gough, the proprietor, charged Is. each for 
admission, giving in return a ticket which was 
taken back in payment for refreshments to that 
amount. In 1788 Gough erected an orchestra 
and engaged a band of music ' from the opera 
and both theatres,' which performed from 6 to 
10 o'clock, during which time they played 
eighteen pieces. In August 'two Grand or ' 

Double Bassoons, made by Mr. Stanesby, junior, 
the greatness of whose sound surpass that of 
any other bass instrument whatsoever ; never 
performed with before,' were introduced. In 
1740 an organ was erected by Bridge. In 1746 
robberies had become so frequent and the robbers 
so daring that the proprietor was compelled to 
have a guard of soldiers to protect the visitors 
from and to town. In 1747 Miss Falkner 
appeared as principal singer (a post she retained 
for some years), and the admission to the concert 
was raised to 2s. In 1748 an addition was 
made to the number of lamps, and Defesch was 
engaged as first violin, and about the same 
time fireworks were introduced. In 1751 John 
Trusler became proprietor ; * Master (Michael) 
Ame ' appeared as a singer, bsdls and masquerades 
were occasionally given, the doors were opened 
at 7, the fireworks were discharged at 11, 
and ' a guard was appointed to be in the house 
and gardens, and to oblige all persons misbehav- 
ing to quit the place.' In 1752 the price of 
admission was reduced to 6d., although the 
expense was said to be £8 per night more than 
the preceding year. In 1753 the bowling green 
was added to the garden, and the fireworks were 
on a larger scale than before. In 1758 the 
first burletta performed in the gardens was 
given ; it was an adaptation, by Trusler junior 
and the elder Storace, of Pergolesi's ' La Serva 
Padrona,' and for years was a great favourite. 
The gardens were opened in the morning for 
breakfasting, and Miss Trusler made cakes which 
long enjoyed a great vogue. In 1762 the 
gardens were opened in the morning gratis, 
and an organ performance given from 5 to 8 
o'clock. In 1763 the pla^ passed into the 
hands of Thomas (familiarly called Tommy) 
Lowe, the popular tenor singer, the admission 
was raised to Is. and Miss Catley was among 
the singers engaged. In the next year the 
opening of the gardens on Sunday evenings for 
tea-drinking was prohibited ; and in October a 
morning performance, under the name of a re- 
hearsal, was given, when a collection was made 
in aid of the sufferers by destructive fires at 
Montreal, Canada, and Honiton, Devonshire. 
Lowe's management continued until 1768, when 
he retired, having met with heavy losses. In 

1769 Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Arnold became pro- 
prietor, and engaged Mrs. Pinto (formerly Miss 
Brent), Master Brown, and others as vocalists, 
Pinto as leader. Hook as organist and music 
director, and Dr. Ame to compose an ode. In 

1770 Barth^lemon became leader, and Mrs. Bar- 
th^lemon, Bannister and Reinhold were among 
the singers. A burletta by Barth^emon, called 
'The Noble Pedlar,' was very successful. In 

1771 Miss Harper (afterwards Mrs. John Ban- 
nister) appeared, Miss Catley reappeared, and 
several new burlettas were produced. In 1772 
Torr^, an eminent Italian pyrotechnist, was 
engaged, and the fireworks became a more 

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prominent featare in the entertainments, to 
the great alann of the neighbouring inhabitants, 
who applied to the magistrates to prohibit their 
exhibition, fearing danger to their houses from 
them. Torre, however, continued to exhibit 
during that and the next two seasons. But 
the ^irdens were losing their popularity ; in 

1775 there appear to have been no entertain- 
ments of the usual kind, but occasional per- 
formanoes of Baddeley's entertainment, * The 
Modem Magic Lantern,' deliveries of George 
Saville Carey's 'Lecture upon Mimicry,' or 
exhibitions of fireworks by a Signer Gaillot. In 

1776 entertainments of a similar description 
were given, amongst which was a representation 
of the Boulevards of Paris. The geutlens closed 
on Sept. 28, and were not afterwards regularly 
opened. In or about 1778 the site was let to 
builders, and is now occupied by Beaumont 
Street, Devonshire Street, and part of Devon- 
shire Place. The tavern, with a piece of ground 
at the back, used as a skittle alley, continued 
to exist in nearly its pristine state until 1855, 
when it was taken down, and rebuilt on its own 
site and that of an adjoining house, and on the 
ground behind it was erected the Marylebone 
Music Hall. [A list of names of artists who 
appeared at Marylebone Gardens is given, with 
dates, in J. T. Smith's Book for a Bainy 
Dayf\ w. H. H. 

MASANIELLO. The name in England of 
Auber's opera. La Mubttb dk Portici. Opera in 
five acts ; words by Scribe and Delavigne, music 
by Auber. Produced at the Academic, Feb. 29, 
1828, and performed there 471 times up to 
Oct. 28, 1873. In England it was first per- 
formed, under the name of 'Masaniello,' at 
Drury Lane, in English (three acts), May 4, 
1 829 ; in Italian, at Covent Garden (three acts). 
March 15, 1849 ; at Her Majesty's, April 10, 
1851, as ' La Muta di Portici.' o. [An earlier 
opera on the same subject was based on a con- 
temporary account of the rebellion at Naples 
under Tommaso Annello; D'Urfey was the 
author, and Samuel Ackeroyde (or Akeroyde) 
the principal composer. It was printed in 1 700, 
with the title, ' llie famous history of the rise 
and fall of Massaniello, in two parts.' The 
songs remained in favour through the early 
jmrt of the 18th century.] 

MASCAGNI, PiETKO, was bom at Leghorn 
Dec. 7, 1863. His father, who was a baker, 
intended his son to be a lawyer, and discouraged 
his attempts to learn the rudiments of music 
The budding composer, compelled to prosecute 
his musical studies by stealth, entered himself 
surreptitiously as a pupil at the Istituto Luigi 
Cherabini, where his principal instractor was 
Alfredo Soffredini. In due course Mascagni's 
father found out how his son was spending his 
leisure time, and the musical career of the future 
composer of 'Cavalleria Rusticana' would 
thereupon have come to an untimely close, had 

it not been for the intervention of an amiable 
uncle, who came forward and offered to adopt 
the young musician. Transferred to his uncle's 
house Masoagni devoted himself in earnest to 
music, and the firstfraits of his labours appeared 
in the shape of a symphony in C minor for small 
orchestra, and a Kyrie written to celebrate the 
birthday of Cherabini, both of which were per- 
formed at the Istituto In 1879. These were fol- 
lowed after two years by 'In Filanda,' a cantata 
for solo voices and orchestra, which was favour- 
ably mentioned in a prize-competition instituted 
by the International Exhibition of Music at 
Milan. These successes reconciled Mascagni's 
father to the idea of making his son a musician ; 
and at the death of his uncle in 1881 the boy 
returned to his father's house, when he was 
allowed to pursue his musical studies in peace. 
His next composition was a setting of a trans- 
lation of Schiller's * Ode to Joy,' which was per- 
formed at the Teatro degli Avvalorati with so 
much success that Count Florestano de Larderel, 
a wealthy amateur, offered on the spot to pay 
for the composer's education at the Milan Con- 
servatoire. Mascagni's career at Milan was not 
a success. In spite of the sympathy and en- 
couragement of his teachers, among whom were 
Amilcare Ponchielli and Michele Saladino, he 
found the course of regular study insupportable. 
For some time he chafed silently against the 
trivial round of counterpoint and fugue, and 
eventually took French leave of his professors, 
joined a travelling operatic company in the 
capacity of conductor, and tumed his back upon 
Milan to seek his fortune elsewhere. For many 
years he led a life of obscurity and privation, 
travelling through the length and breadth of 
Italy with one company after another. He had 
no spare time for composition, but doubtless 
gained much valuable experience in practical 
orchestration. After many wanderings Mascagni 
married and settled at Cerignola near Foggia, 
where he managed to make a meagre livelihood 
by giving pianoforte lessons and managing the 
municipal school of music. From this obscurity 
he was suddenly rescued by the success of his 
one-act opera ' Cavalleria Rusticana,' which won 
the first prize in a competition instituted in 
1889 by the publisher Sonzogno, and was pro- 
duced at the Costanzi Theatre in Rome, May 18, 
1890. The libretto was founded by Signori 
Menasci and Targioni-Tozzetti upon a well- 
known story of Sicilian village life by Giovanni 
Yerga. The opera was received at its first per- 
formance with tumultuous applause, and the next 
day Mascagni awoke to find himself famous. 
Italy lost her head over ' Cavalleria. ' Mascagni 
was greeted as the successor of Verdi. Medals 
were strack in his honour. He was welcomed 
back to his native Leghorn with illuminations 
and torchlight processions, and the King of 
Italy presented him with the order of the Crown 
of Italy, an honour not accorded to Verdi until 

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he had reached middle life. ' Gavalleria ' at 
once made the tour of Italy, and speedily crossed 
the Alps. It was produced in Berlin in the 
summer of 1890, and in London, at the Shaftes- 
bury Theatre, under the management of Signor 
Lago in October 1891. It was first performed 
in Paris at the Opera-Oomique, Jan. 19, 1892. 
Everywhere its success was unquestionable. 
The public, tired, perhaps, of long-winded imita- 
tions of Wagner, welcomed the crisp action and 
direct emotional appeal of the little work, and, 
for the moment the vulgarity of the music was 
condoned for the sake of the admirably con- 
structed libretto. 'Gavalleria' became the 
fashion, and was responsible for a mushroom crop 
of one-act melodramas, each one more squalid 
in subject than the last, which bore a tolerably 
close resemblance to the shilling ' shocker ' of 
ephemeral literature, and boasted a corresponding 
artistic value. Since the days of * Cayalleria * 
Mascagni's fame has steadily declined. His next 
work, * L'Amico Fritz ' (Teatro Costanzi, Rome, 
Oct. 31, 1891), an adaptation of Erckmann- 
Ghatrian's well-known novel, made by Signor 
Daspuro under the anagram of P. Suardon, had 
more refinement than ' Gavalleria,' and was more 
carefully written, but the composer scarcely 
attempted to fit his grandiose Italian manner to 
the exigencies of an Alsatian idyll, and the 
woefully undramatic character of the libretto 
prevented the opera from winning more than a 
suec^cTestime. 'I Rantzau' (Teatrodella Pergola, 
Florence, Nov. 10, 1892), another adaptation 
from Erckmann-Ohatiian, by Signori Menasci 
and Targioni-Tozzetti, was even less successful 
than ' L'Amico Fritz,' thedulness of the libretto 
and the absurdly inflated style of the music 
being equally responsible for its failure. 
' Guglielmo Ratoliif ' (Scala, Milan, Feb. 1895) 
was a work of the composer's student days, 
subsequently revised and rewritten. The com- 
poser had conceived the extraordinary notion of 
setting to music a literal and unabbreviated 
translation of Heine's gloomy tragedy, which 
was alone sufiicient to doom the work to failure, 
and his music did little to relieve the tedium of 
the libretto. No less decisive was the failure 
of 'Silvano' (Scala, Milan, March 1895), a 
feeble and half-hearted bid for popularity in 
the composer's most hackneyed * Gavalleria* 
manner. Meanwhile (1895) Mascagni had been 
appointed director of the Gonservatoire at 
Pesaro, where his next opera, *Zanetto,' was 
produced March 2,1896. ' Zanetto ' is an operatic 
version of Francois Gopp^e's famous one-act play 
*Le Passant.' It is slight in structure, being 
scored only for strings and harp, but has con- 
siderably more refinement of thought and 
expression than is customary in Mascagni'swork. 
' Iris' (Teatro Gostanzi, Rome, Nov. 22, 1898), 
an opera on a Japanese subject, is handicapped 
by a singularly unpleasant libretto, but never- 
theless has won more favour than any of the 

composer's works since * Gavalleria.' It shows 
much skill in the handling of the orchestra, and 
is in many ways the most artistio of Mascagni's 
operas ; but its lack of original invention is 
conspicuous, and though it has won considerable 
success in Italy, it could hardly prove acceptable 
to audiences capable of recognising its glaring 
plagiarisms from the works of Wagner. What- 
ever may be thought of Mascagni as a composer, 
he is admittedly a master of the art of r^damey 
and his idea of producing his next work, * Le 
Maschere' (Jan. 17,1901), simultaneously in 
seven different cities, was a piece of audacious 
impertinence, probably unparaUeledin thehistory 
of the stage. Unfortunately no amount of 
advertisement could galvanise *Le Maschere' 
into a success. At Milan, Venice, Verona, 
Naples, and Turin it was soundly hissed, while 
at Genoa the audience would not even allow the 
performance to be finished. Only at Rome was 
it received with any degree of favour, and even 
there it soon passed into oblivion. Mascagni's 
latest work ' Amica ' (Monte Garlo, March 1 905), 
though produced in more modest fashion, shared 
the same fate as its predecessor. Apart from his 
operas and the youthful works already men- 
tioned Mascagni has written a cantata for the 
Leopardi centenary, which was performed at 
Recanati in 1898, and incidental music for Mr. 
Hall Gaine's play The Eternal City, which 'was 
produced at His Mcgesty's Theatre in October 

Of late years Mascagni has won some fame as 
a conductor, chiefly owing to repeated tours with 
a specially chosen orchestra through the cities 
of Europe and America. A protracted tour in 
the United States in 1903 cost him his place at 
Pesaro. The authorities of that institution, 
after repeated endeavours to recall their errant 
director to his duties, not unnaturally determined 
to replace him by a musician who set the fulfil- 
ment of his official engagements above the 
fascinations of self-advertisement. 

Mascagni's reputation rests almost entirely 
upon ' Gavalleria Rusticana,' which still holds 
the stage in spite of fifteen years of uninter- 
rupted popularity, and the rivalry of a host of 
imitations. As has already been said, it owes 
much to its direct if somewhat brutal libretto, 
but the music undeniably shows a natural in- 
stinct for theatrical effect, and it boasts plenty of 
catchy, commonplace tunes. Nevertheless it is 
easy to trace in it the germs of what in Mascagni's 
later works developed into intolerable manner- 
isms, his pompous, inflated and melodramatic 
manner of treating simple situations, his vulgar 
love of mere noise, and his lack of real rhythmic 
and melodic fertility, ill disguised by attempted 
excursions upon new paths of expression. The 
speedy exhaustion of a shallow vein of musical 
invention, together with the carelessness en- 
gendered by a dangerously sudden success, and 
fostered by the foolish adulation of partisans, is 

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responsible for the oomplete collapse of what at 
one time seemed a talent of bright promise for 
the future of Italian music. r. a. s. 

MASCHERONI, Edoardo, was bom at 
Milan on Sept 4, 1857 (not 1865, as has been 
erroneously stated in previous sketches of his 
career). As a boy he showed no special aptitude 
for music, and was sent to the liceo Beccaria, 
where he distinguished himself particularly in 
mathematics. As he grew up he developed a 
marked taste for the study of literature, and 
joined the little band of enthusiasts, among 
whom were De Marchi, Pozza, 6. Mazzucato, 
and Borghi, who founded the journal. La vita 
nuovat to which he contributed numerous articles 
on literary subjects. But with manhood came 
the consciousness that music was to be his career, 
and he placed himself under Boucheron, a 
composer and teacher well known in Milan at 
the time, with whom he worked assiduously for 
several years. In his younger days Mascheroni 
composed much music of various kinds, but as 
time went on he became persuaded that his real 
vocation lay in conducting. He made his first 
serious essay in this branch of his art in 1888, 
when he was engaged as conductor at the Teatro 
Goldoni at Leghorn. From Leghorn Mascheroni 
moved to Rome, where he had been appointed 
conductor of the Teatro Apollo. Here he 
remained seven years, gaining each year in 
experience and reputation, so that at last he 
might fairly claim to be considered the leading 
Italian conductor of his day, a claim which was 
tacitly recognised in 1893 by his being chosen 
to produce and conduct Verdi's * Falstatf ' at La 
Scala. Mascheroni is still a conductor, but of 
late he has won fresh laurels as a composer. 
During his Roman period he wrote a good deal 
of chamber music, which was performed with 
much applause, and an Album for pianoforte of 
his won a prize in a Concorso at Palermo. But 
his masterpiece at that time was the Requiem 
for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra, which he 
wrote in memory of the death of Victor Emmanuel. 
So profound an impression did this work create, 
that the composer was commissioned by the 
royal family to write another Requiem for voices 
only, for exclusive performance in the royal 
chapel, where it was at once performed. In 
spite of his success in conducting other men's 
music, Mascheroni did not himself tempt fortune 
on the stage until his * Lorenza ' was produced 
at the Teatro Costanzi, Rome, on April 13, 
1901. The success of this work was very great, 
and since its initial triumph it has been produced 
at Brescia, Barcelona, Valencia, Buenos Ayres, 
and other towns, and has always won conspicu- 
ous favour. ' Loreuza ' may be described as a 
Oalabrian version of the story of Judith and 
Holofemes, though in this case the Judith, so 
far from slaying her brigand Holofemes, falls in 
love with him, and ends by disguising herself in 
his cloak, and by being shot in his j)lace by the 

soldiers who come to capture the bandit chief. 
Mascheroni's score overflows with thoroughly 
Italian melody, and shows considerable know- 
ledge of dramatic effect, which from a conductor 
of his experience was only to be expected. He is 
now (Feb. 1906) putting the finishing touches to 
a new opera, entitled ' La Pemgina.' B. A. s. 

MASINI, Angelo, bom at Forli in 1845, 
is perhaps the only Italian tenor who has ever 
won a very high position without having ap- 
peared on the operatic stage in England. He 
came to this country in 1875 as a member of 
the famous quartet, which, under the composer's 
own direction, sang at the Albert Hall in 
Verdi's Requiem Mass, the other singers being 
Mme. Stoltz, Mme. Waldmann, and Signer 
Medini. At that time Masini was looked upon 
as the first of the younger tenors of Italy, and 
in 1876 he sang the part of Rhadam^ when, 
with Verdi himself conducting, 'Aida' was 
produced for the first time in Paris. This 
performance added greatly to his reputation, 
and in 1879 Mapleson engaged him to sing at 
Her Majesty's Theatre. A stupid contretemps, 
however, for which Masini was himself solely 
responsible, prevented his appearance. The 
story is fully set forth in tlie Mapleson Memoirs* 
It was arranged that Masini should make his 
d^but as Faust in company with Nilsson, 
Trebelli, and Faure, but, owing to a misunder- 
standing he missed a rehearsal, and then 
hurriedly left London. This blunder proved 
a bar to his future career in England, as Maple- 
son had an ii\junction against him for breach 
of contract — compromised at last by the pay- 
ment of £200. In Madrid, Buenos Ayres, and 
elsewhere, however, Masini sang with the utmost 
success, and gained both fame and fortune. He 
was for many seasons the leading tenor at the 
Italian Opera at St. Petersburg, resigning his 
position at last for the reason l^at he could no 
longer withstand the severe climate. At St. 
Petersburg, late in his career, he sang Lohen- 
grin to the Elsa of Sigrid Arnoldson. That 
Masini at his best was a tenor of exceptional 
gifts cannot be doubted. Distinguished singers, 
who appeared with him at St. Petersburg, have 
spoken of him in enthusiastic terms. His voice 
— very high in range — was rather light in 
quality, but on the testimony of Manuel Gomez, 
the well-known clarinet player, who heard him 
in his prime at Madrid, it was quite equal to 
the requirements of exacting dramatic parts. 
Mr. Gomez also speaks of the extreme charm 
with which he sang the Duke's music in ' Rigo- 
letto. ' It was stated at the time that before the 
production of 'Falstaff' in Milan, Verdi ofiered 
to write a romance for Masini if he would under- 
take the part of Fenton. However nothing came 
of the proposal. Possibly Masini thought that, 
even with a song thrown in, it was a poor 
compliment to offer him a small part, and no set- 
off against the distinction Verdi had conferred 

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on his great rival, Tamagao, by selecting 
him for Otello, and writing the music of that 
character specially for his voice. Masini is still 
living. 8. H. p. 

MASNADIERI, l,^i.e. The Brigands,— an 
opera in four acts ; libretto by Maffei, from 
Schiller's *Die Rauber,' music by VerdL Pro- 
duced at Her Majesty's Theatre, London, July 
22, 1847, Verdi conducting, and Jenny Lind 
acting. An experiment had been made by 
Mercadante eleven years before on a libretto 
adapted from the same play, under the title 
of ' I Briganti,' produced at the Italiens, Paris, 
March 22, 1836. o. 

MASON, John, Mus.B., was admitted clerk 
of Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1508, graduated 
Feb. 12, 1509, and was in the same year ap- 
pointed instructor of the choristers and chaplain 
of Magdalen College. Wood says he was in 
much esteem in his profession. He was collated 
prebendary of Pratum minus, July 21, and of 
Putston minor, July 22, 1525, and treasurer of 
Hereford Cathedral, May 28, 1545. He is 
mentioned by Morley in his Introdtietion as 
one of those whose works he had consulted. 
He died in 1547 [or 1543. See Degrees in 
Music, p. 65.] w. H. H. 

MASON, Lowell, Mus.D., bom atMedfield, 
Massachusetts, Jan. 24, 1792, died at Orange, 
New Jersey, August 11, 1872. He was self- 
taught, and in his own words 'spent twenty 
years of his life in doing nothing save playing 
on all manner of musical instruments that came 
within his reach.' At sixteen he was leader of 
the choir in the village church, and a teacher 
of singing classes. At twenty he went to 
Savannah in Georgia, as clerk in a bank, and 
there continued to practise, lead, and teach. 
In the course of these labours he formed, with 
the help of F. L. Abel, a collection of psalm 
tunes based on Gardiner's ' Sacred Melodies ' — 
itself adapted to tunes extracted from the 
works of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. [See 
Gardiner, vol. ii. 1446.] This collection was 
published by the Handel and Haydn Society of 
Boston in 1822 under the title of * the Handel 
and Haydn Society's collection of Church 
Music,' Mason's name being almost entirely 
suppressed. The book sold well ; it enabled 
the Society to tide over the period of its youth, 
and establish itself as one of the characteristic 
institutions of Boston, it initiated a purer and 
healthier taste for music in New England, and 
it led to Mason's removal to Boston and to his 
taking ' a general charge of music in the churches 
there,' in 1827. He then became president of 
the society ; but as his object was not so much 
the cultivation of high -class music as the 
introduction of music as an essential element 
of education in the common schools, he soon 
left it and established (with G. J. Webb) the 
Boston Academy of Music in 1 832. He founded 
classes on the system of Pestalozzi, and at 

length in 1838 obtained power to teach in all 
the schools of Boston. At the same time he 
founded periodical conventions of music teachers, 
which have been found very useful, and are 
now established in many parts of the States. 
He also published a large number of manuals 
and collections which have sold enormously and 
produced him a handsome fortune. He visited 
Europe first in 1837 with the view of examining 
the methods of teaching in Germany, and 
embodied the results in a volume entitled 
MimealLeUers/roni Abroad (New York, 1858). 
He was for long closely connected with the 
Public Board of Education of Massachusetts, 
his kindness and generosity were notorious, and 
he was universally admired and esteemed. His 
degree of Doctor in Music, the first of the kind 
conferred by an American college, was granted 
by the New York University in 1835. The 
last years of his life were spent at Orange in 
New Jersey, the residence of two of his sons. 
He formed a very fine library, which he collected 
far and wide, n^;ardle8S of expense. [The list 
of his popular collections of secular and sacred 
music is given in Baker's ^io^. Diet, o/Musicians.^ 

Of his sons, William, bom at Boston, Jan. 
24, 1829, received a liberal education in music, 
and after a successful d^but at Boston in 1846, 
and a period of study at Leipzig in 1849, under 
Moscheles, Hauptmann, and Richter, and at 
Weimar, under Liszt, was long recognised as 
a leading pianist in New York. He founded 
chamber-music concerts with Theodore Thomas 
and others in 1854, and received the degree of 
Mus.D. from Yale University in 1872. Many 
graceful compositions and valuable instruction- 
books for the piano are of his authorship ; 
special interest attaches to his Memories of a 
MustcaX Life (New York, 1901), which contains 
a valuable account of the Weimar circle in 
1853. A. w. T. 

MASON, Mathias, groom of the chamber to 
James I., is mentioned in Dowland's 'Varietie 
of Lute Lessons '(1610) as having invented three 
frets for the lute. 

MASON, Rrv. William, son of a clergyman, 
bom at Hull, 1724, graduated at Cambridge, 
B.A. 1745, M.A. 1749; took orders 1755, 
became rector of Aston, Yorkshire, in 1754, 
and afterwards prebendary (1756), canon resi- 
dentiary and precentor (1763) of York Minster. 
He was appointed chaplain to Lord Holdemess 
in 1754 and to the king in 1757. In 1782 he 
published a book of words of anthems, to which 
he prefixed a Critical and Historical Essay on 
Cathedral Music (another edition, 1794). He 
also wrote essays On InstruTnemidl Church Music, 
On Parochial Psalmody y and On the Causes of the 
Present imperfect Alliance between Music and 
Poetry. He composed some church music, the 
best known of which is the short anthem ' Lord 
of all power and might.' He was author of 
several poems, and of two tragedies, < Elfrida ' 

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and 'Caraotactts,' and was the friend and bio- 
grapher of the poet Gray. He also invented 
an instrament called the ' Gelestina/ He died 
at Aston, April 5, 1797. w. h. h. 

MASQU£. The precursor of the opera : a 
dramatic entertainment, usually upon an alle- 
gorical or mythological subject, and combining 
|)oetry, vocal and instrumental music, scenery, 
dancing, elaborate machinery, and splendid 
costumes and decorations — which was performed 
at Court or at noblemen's houses on festive 
occasions, the perfonners being usually persons 
of rank. Masques were frequently exhibited 
at the courts of James I. and Charles I., and 
vast sums were lavished upon their production. 
The Masque of the Inner Temple and Gray's 
Inn, presented in Feb. 1612-13, on the marriage 
of the Princess Elizabeth to the Elector Palatine 
of theRhine, cost £1086: 8: ll.* Theprincipal 
author of those masques was Ben Jonson, whose 
genius was peculiarly fitted to a style of com- 
position which afforded him ample opportunity 
of displaying his erudition. Beaumont, Chap- 
man, Samuel Daniel, Campion, Shirley, Hey- 
wood, and Carew, also employed their talents 
upon masques, as did a greater than they, 
Milton, whose * Comas* was represented at 
Ludlow Castle in 1684. Inigo Jones devised 
the machinery and designed the costumes for 
the Court masques ; ' Laniere and others painted 
the scenery ; and Ferraboeco, Campion, H. and 
W. Lawes, Ives, Laniere, Locke, C. Gibbons, and 
others composed the music. Two of Ben 
Jonson's masques — 'The Masque of Queens,' 
1610, and 'The Twelfth Night's Revels,' 1606, 
were printed from his autograph MSS. in the 
British Museum by the Shakespeare Society at 
the end of Cunningham's Life of Inigo Jones, 
After the Restoration what were called masques 
were occasionally given at Court, but tiiey 
appear to have been rather masked or fancy 
dress balls than dramatic entertainments. An 
exception was Crowne's masque, ' Calisto ; or, 
the Chaste Nymph,' performed at court by the 
princesses and courtiers, Dec. 15 and 22, 1675. 
In the 18th century masques were not unfre- 
quently to be seen on the public stage. The 
'pantomimes' produced by Rich (for most of 
which Galliard composed the music) were really 
masques with harlequinade scenes interspersed. 
More recently masques have been performed 
on occasion of royal weddings ; thus * Peleus 
and Thetis,* a masque, formed the second act 
of the opera 'Windsor Castle,' by William 
Pearce, music by J. P. Salomon, performed at 
Covent Garden on the marriage of the Prince 
of Wales, 1795, and 'Freya's Gift,* masque 
by John Oxenford, music by G. A. Maofarren, 
was produced at the same house on the marriage 
of the present King, 1863. Soon after the 

I In KSKTtlfnc th«M fl^rea \h% difliBrsnoo In the Talna of mooar 
then and now mnat be home in mind. 

< Many of his altetoliea for thia parpoae are in the powaaion of 
the Duke of Deronahire. 

death of Sir Walter Scott in 1832, ' The Vision 
of the Bard,* masque by James Sheridan Knowlesi 
was produced at Covent Garden. [In 1887, 
in honour of Queen Victoria's Jubilee, 'The 
Masque of Flowers ' was revived at Gray's Inn, 
and was again performed in 1897 for the 
Diamond Jubilee. A masque by Campion was 
given at the Guildhall School of Music under 
the title of ' The Golden Tree,' by the Worship- 
ful Company of Musicians, June 2d, 1905. See 
Musical Times for 1900, p. 248.] w. H. H. 

MASS (Lat. Missa ; from the words, ' lU^ 
missa est ' — * Depart ! the assembly is dismissed ' 
— sung, by the Deacon, immediately before the 
conclusion of the Service. Ital. Messa ; Fr. Messe; 
Germ. Die Messe), The custom of singing cer- 
tain parts of the Mass to music of a peculiarly 
solemn and impressive character has prevailed, 
in the Roman Church, from time immemorial. 

The old plain-song has been already described 
under Gregorian Music (see vol. ii. p. 235) ; 
but before coming to harmonised music there 
are some late plain -song Masses to take into 
account. For the so-called ' Missa de Angelis ' 
see below. 

After the invention of Counterpoint com- 
posers delighted in weaving these and other old 
Plain -song melodies into polyphonic Masses, 
for two, four, six, eight, twelve, or even forty 
voices ; and thus arose those marvellous schools 
of ecclesiastical music, which, gradually ad- 
vancing in excellence, exhibited, during the 
latter half of the 16th century, a development 
of art, the sesthetio perfection of which has 
never since been equalled. The portions of the 
Service selected for this method of treatment 
were the Kyrie, the Gloria, the Cfredo, the 
Sandus, the Benedietus, and the Agnus Dei; 
which six movements constituted — and still 
constitute — the musical composition usually 
called the ' Mass.* A single Plain-song melody 
— in technical language a Canto fermo — served, 
for the most part, as a common theme for the 
whole ; and from this the entire work gener- 
ally derived its name — as Missa ' Veni sponsa 
Christi' ; Missa ' Tu es Petrus' \ Missa * Iste 
confessor,* The CarUo fermo, however, was not 
always a sacred one. Sometimes — though not 
very often during the best periods of art — it 
was taken from the refrain of some popular 
song; as in the case of the famous Missae 
* L*Homm£ arm^/ founded upon an old French 
love-song — a subject which Josquin des Pr&, 
Palestrina, and many other great composers have 
treated with wonderful ingenuity. More rarely 
an original theme was selected ; and the work 
was then called Missa sine nomine, or Missae 
breviSf or Missa ad Fugam, or ad Canones, as 
the case might be ; or named after the Mode 
in which it was composed, Missa Primi Toni, 
Missa Quarti Toni, Missa Octavi Toni ; or even, 
from the number of voices employed, as Missa 
Quattior Voeum, In some few instances — > 

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generally very fine ones — an entire Mass was 
based upon the six sounds of the Hexachord, 
and entitled Missa lUy re, mi, fa, sol, la, or Misaa 
super Voces MvskdUs, 

Among the earliest Masses of this description, 
of which perfect and intelligible copies have 
been preserved to us, are those by Du Fay, 
Dunstable, Binchoys, and certain contempor- 
aneous writers, whose works characterise the 
First Epoch of really practical importance in 
the history of Figured Music — an epoch 
intensely interesting to the critic, as already 
exhibiting the firm establishment of an entirely 
new style, confessedly founded upon novel 
principles, yet depending for its materials upon 
the oldest subjects in existence, and itself 
destined to pass through two centuries and a 
half of gradual, but perfectly legitimate develop- 
ment Dufay, who may fairly be regarded as 
the typical composer of this primitive School, 
was a tenor singer in the Pontifical Chapel, 
between the years 1428 and 1437. His Masses, 
and those of the best of his contemporaries, 
though hard and unmelodious, are full of earnest 
purpose, and exhibit much contrapuntal skill, 
combined, sometimes, with ingenious fugal 
treatment. Written exclusively in the ancient 
ecclesiastical modes, they manifest a marked 
preference for Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, and 
Mixolydian forms, with a very sparing use of 
their ^olian and Ionian congeners. These 
Modes are used, sometimes at their true pitch ; 
sometimes transposed a fourth higher — or fifth 
lower — by means of a 6^ at the signature ; 
but never under any other form of transposi- 
tion, or with any other signatures than those 
corresponding with the modern keys of G or F 
— a restriction which remained in full force as 
late as the first half of the I7th century, and 
was even respected by Handel, when he wrote, 
as he sometimes did with amazing power, in 
the older scales. So far as the treatment of the 
CarUo fermo was concerned, no departure from 
the strict rule of the Mode was held to be, under 
any circumstances, admissible ; but a little 
less rigour was exacted with regard to the 
coimterpoint. Composers had long since learned 
to recognise the demand for what we should 
now call a Leading -note, in the formation of 
the Clausula vera or True Cadence — a species 
of Close invested with functions analogous to 
those of the Perfect Cadence in modem music. 
[See vol. i. pp. 434, 436.] To meet this require- 
ment they freely admitted the use of an 
accidental semitone in all Modes (except the 
Phrygian) in which the seventh was naturally 
minor. But in order that, to the eye, at least, 
their counterpoint might appear no less strict 
than the Canto fermo, they refrained, as far as 
possible, from indicating the presence of such 
semitones in their written music, and, except 
when they occurred in very unexpected places, 
left the singers to introduce them, wherever 

they might be required, at the moment of 
performance. Music so treated was called 
Cantusfictiis ; and the education of no chorister 
was considered complete until he was able, 
while singing it, to supply the necessary semi- 
tones correctly, in accordance with cei*tain 
fixed laws, a summary of which will be found 
in the article Musica Ficta. For the rest, 
we are able to detect but little attempt at 
expression ; and very slight regard for the 
distinction between long and short syllables. 
The verbal text, indeed, was given in a very 
incomplete form ; the word Kyrie or Sanctiis, 
written at the beginning of a movement, being 
generally regarded as a sufficient indication of 
the composer's meaning. In this, and other 
kindred matters, the confidence reposed in the 
singer's intelligence was unbounded — a not 
unnatural circumstance, perhaps, in an age in 
which the composer himself was almost always 
a singer in the choir for which he wrote. 

Even at this remote period, the several move- 
ments of the Mass b^^an gradually to mould 
themselves into certain definite forms, which 
were long in reaching perfection, but, having 
once obtained general acceptance, remained, for 
more than a century and a half, substantially 
unchanged. The usual plan of the JT^rie has 
already been fully described. [See Kyrie.] 
The Gloria, distinguished by a more modest 
display of fugal ingenuity, and a more cursive 
rendering of the words, was generally divided 
into two parts, the Qui tollis being treated as 
a separate movement. The Credo, written in 
a similar style, was also subjected to the same 
method of subdivision, a second movement being 
usually introduced at the words, ' Ei incarruUus 
est,* or ' Crucifixus,* and, frequently, a third, 
at * Ei in SpirUum Sanctum.* The design of 
the ISanctus, though more highly developed, 
was not unlike that of the KyrU ; the ' Pleni 
sunt coeli* being sometimes, and the Osanna 
almost always, treated separately. The Bene- 
dictus was allotted, in most cases, to two, three, 
or four solo voices ; and frequently assumed the 
form of a Canon, followed by a choral Osanna. 
In the Agnus Dei — generally divided into two 
distinct movements — the composer loved to 
exhibit the utmost resources of his skill ; hence, 
in the great majority of instances, the second 
movement was written, either in Canon or in 
very complex Fugue, and, not unfrequently, 
for a greater number of voices than the rest of 
the Mass. 

The best -known composers of the Second 
Epoch were Okeghem, Obrecht, Caron, Caspar, 
the brothers De Fevin, and some others of tiieir 
school, most of whom flourished between the 
years 1430 and 1480. As a general rule, these 
writers laboured less zealously for the cultivation 
of a pure and melodious style, than for the ad- 
vancement of contrapuntal ingenuity. For tlie 
sober fugal periods of their predecessors, they 

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substitnted the leas elastic kind of imitation, 
which was then called Strict or Perpetual Fugne, 
but afterwards obtained the name of Canon ; 
carrying their passion for this style of composi- 
tion to such extravagant lengths, that too many 
of their works descended to the level of mere 
learned enigmas. Okeghem, especially, was 
devoted to this particulu* phase of art, for the 
sake of which he was ready to sacrifice much 
excellence of a far more substantial kind. Pro- 
vided he could succeed in inventing a Canon, 
sufficiently complex to puzzle his brethren, and 
admit of an indefinite number of solutions, he 
cared little whether it was melodious or the 
reverse. To such canons he did not scruple to 
set the most solemn words of the Mass. Yet his 
genius was certainly of a very high order ; and, 
when he eared to lay aside these extravagances, 
he proved himself capable of producing works 
far superior to those of any contemporary writer. 
The Third Epoch was rendered remarkable 
by the appearance of a master, whose fame was 
destined to eclipse that of all his predecessors, 
and even to cast the reputation of his teacher, 
Okeghem, into the shade. Josquin des Pres, a 
singer in the Pontifical Chapel from 1471 to 
1484 and afterwards Maitre de Chapelle to 
Louis XII., was, undoubtedly, for very many 
years, the most popular composer, as well as 
the greatest and most learned musician in 
Christendom. And his honours were fairly 
earned. The wealth of ingenuity and con- 
trivance displayed in some of his Masses is 
truly wonderful ; and is rendered none the leas 
80 by its association with a vivacity peculiarly 
his own, and an intelligence and freedom of 
manner far in advance of the age in which he 
lived. Unhappily, these high qualities are 
marred by a want of reverence which would 
seem to have been the witty genius's besetting 
sin. When free from this defect, his style is 
admirable. On examining his Masses one is 
alternately surprised by passages full of unex- 
pected dignity, and conceits of almost incon- 
ceivable quaintness — flashes of humour, the 
presence of which, in a volume of Church 
Music, cannot be too deeply regretted, though 
they are really no more than passing indications 
of the genial temper of a man whose greatness 
was far too real to be affected, either one way 
or the other, by a natural light -heartedness 
which would not always submit to control. As a 
specimen of his best and most devotional style, 
we can scarcely do better than quote a few bars 
from the Osanna of his Mass, Faymns regris ^ — 

C') (») 

> Th* aodilcotaU In thto and ib* following 0xaniplM, an all 
•appllad In aeeonteaca vlth tba law* of CantruMtiu. 

The religious character of this movement is 
apparent from the very first bar ; and the in- 
genuity with which the strict Canon is carried 
on, between the Bass and Alto, simultaneously 
with the Fugue between the Tenor and Treble, 
is quite forgotten in the unexpected beauty of 
the resulting harmonies. Perhaps some portion 
of the beauty of our next example — the Bene- 
didus from the Misaa ^L* Homme armd* — may 
be forgotten in its ingenuity. It is a strict 
Canon, in the Unison, by Diminution ; and, 
though intended to be sung by two voices, is 
printed in one part only, the singer being left 
to find out the secret of its constraction as best 
he can — 

Duo in Unwn. 

A hint at the solution of this enigma is given 
to the initiated by the double Time-signature 
at the beginning. [See Inscription.] The 
intention is, that it should be sung by two bass 
voices in unison, both beginning at the same 
time, but one singing the notes twice as quickly 
as the other ; thus — 


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This diversity of Rhythm is, however, a very 
simple matter compared with many other com- 
plications in the same Mass, and still more, in 
the JUissa * Didadi,* which abounds in strange 
proportions of Time, Mood, and Prolation, the 
clue whereto is afforded by the numbers shown 
on the faces of a pair of dice t Copious extracts 
from these curious Masses, as well as from others 
by Gombert, Clemens nonPapa, Mouton, Brumel, 
and other celebrated composers, both of this 
and the preceding epoch, will be found in the 
Dodecachordon of Glareanus (Basle, 1547), a 
work which throws more light than almost any 
other on the mysteries of ancient counterpoint. 

Of the numerous composers who flourished 
during the Fourth Epoch — that is to say, during 
the first half of the 16th century — a large pro- 
portion aimed at nothing higher than a servile 
imitation of the still idolised Josquin ; and, as 
is usual under such circumstances, succeeded in 
reproducing his faults much more frequently 
than his virtues. There were, however, many 
honourable exceptions. The Masses of Carpen- 
trasso, Morales, Ciprianodi Rore, YincenzoRuffo, 
Claude Goudimel, Adriano Willaert, and, not- 
ably, Costanzo Festa, are unquestionably written 
in a far purer and more flowing style than those 
of their predecessors ; and even the great army 
of Madrigal writers, headed by Arcadelt and 
Verdelot, helped on the good cause bravely, in 
the face of a host of charlatans whose caprices 
tended only to bring their art into disrepute. 
Not content with inventing enigmas *Ad onmem 
tonunif' or * Ung demiUm jilus bos* — with colour- 
ing their notes green, when they sang of grass, 
or red, when allusion was made to blood — these 
corrupters of taste prided themselves upon adapt- 
ing, to the several voice- parts for which they 
wrote, different sets of words totally unconnected 
with each other ; and this evil custom spread so 
widely that Morales himself did not scruple to 
mix together the text of the Liturgy and that 
of the *Ave Maria* ; while a Mass is still extant 
in which the Tenor is made to sing * Alleluia ' 
incessantly from beginning to end. When the 
text was left intact, the rhythm was involved 
in complications which rendered the sense of the 
words utterly unintelligible. Profane melodies, 
and even the verses belonging to them, were 
shamelessly introduced into the most solemn 
compositions for the Church. All the vain con- 

ceits affected by the earlier writers were revived 
with tenfold extravagance. Canons were tor- 
tured into forms of ineffable absurdity, and 
esteemed only in proportion to the difficulty of 
their solution. By a miserable fatality, the 
Mass came to be regarded as the most fitting 
possible vehicle for the display of these strange 
monstrosities, which are far less frequently met 
with in the Motet or the Madrigal. Men of 
real genius fostered the wildest abuses. Even 
Pien*e de la Rue — ^who seems to have made it 
a point of conscience to eclipse, if possible, the 
fame of Josquin's ingenuity — wrote his Missa, 
' salutaris HosLia* in one line throughout ; 
leaving three out of the four voices to follow the 
single part in strict Canon. In the Kyrie of this 
Mass — which we reprint in modem notation 
from the version preserved by Glareanus ^ — the 
solution of the enigma is indicated by the letters 
placed above and below the notes. C shows the 
place at which the Contra-tenor is to begin, in 
the interval of a Fifth below the Superius. T 
indicates the entrance of the Tenor, an Octave 
below tlie Superius ; B, that of l^e Bass, a 
Fifth below the Tenor. The same letters, with 
pauses over them, mark the notes on which the 
several parts are to end. The reader who will 
take the trouble to score the movement, in 
accordance with these directions, will find the 
harmony perfectly correct, in spite of some 
harshly dissonant passing-notes ; but it is doubt- 
ful whether the most indulgent critic would 
venture to praise it for its devotional character. 



It is easy to imagine the depths of inanity 
accessible to an ambitious composer in his 
attempts to construct such a Canon as this, 
without a spark of Pierre de la Rue's genius to 
guide him on his way. Such attempts wei*e 
made every day ; and, had it not been that 
good men and true were at work, beneath the 
surface, conscientiously preparing the way for 
a better state of things, art would soon have 
been in a sorry plight. As it was, not>vith- 
standing all these extravagances, it was making 
real progress. The dawn of a brighter day 
was very near at hand ; and the excesses of 
the unwise only served to hasten its appearance. 

The Fifth Epoch, extending from the year 

1 Dodecaekordpn, p. 44S. ed. 1647. 

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1565 to the second decade of the following 
century, and justly called * The Golden Age of 
Ecclesiastical Music/ owes its celebrity entirely 
to the influence of one grave, earnest-minded 
man, whose transcendent genius, always devoted 
to the noblest purposes, and always guided by 
sound and reasonable principles, has won for 
him a place, not only on the highest pinnacle 
of fame but also in the inmost hearts of all 
true lovers of the truest art. 

The abuses to which we have just alluded 
became, in process of time, so intolerable, that 
the Council of Trent found it necessary to 
condemn them in no measured terms. In the 
year 1564 Pope Pius IV. commissioned eight 
Cardinals to see that certain decrees of the 
Council were duly carried out. After much 
careful deliberation the members of this Com- 
mission had almost determined to forbid the use 
of any polyphonic music whatever in the services 
of the Church ; but, chiefly through the influence 
of Card. Yitellozzo Vitellozzi, and S. Carlo 
Borromeo, they were induced to suspend their 
judgment until Palestrina, then Maestro di 
Cappella of S. Maria Maggiore, should have 
proved, if he could, the possibility of producing 
music of a more devotional character, and better 
adapted to the words of the Mass, and the 
true purposes of religion, than that then in 
general use. In answer to this challenge, the 
great composer submitted to the Commissioners 
three Masses, upon one of which — first sung in 
the Sistine Chapel, on the 19th of June 1565, 
and since known as the Misaa Papae Marcdli^ — 
the Cardinals immediately fixed, as embodying 
the style in which all future Church music 
should be composed. It would be difiicult to 
conceive a more perfect modeL In depth of 
thought, intensity of expression, and all the 
higher qualities which distinguish the work of 
the Master from that of the pedant, the Miasa 
Papae Mareelli is universally admitted to be 
unapproachable ; while, even when regarded as 
a monument of mere mechaniccd skill, it stands 
absolutely unrivalled. Yet, except in the em- 
ployment of the Hypoionian Mode ^ — a tonality 
generally avoided by the older composers — it 
depends for its effect upon the introduction of 
no new element whatever, either of construc- 
tion or of form. Avoiding all show of empty 
pedantry, and carefully concealing the con- 
summate art with which the involutions of its 
periods are conducted, it freely uses all the 
old contrivances of Fugue, and, in the second 
Agnus Bet, of closely interwoven Canon ; but 

1 It ia dlfflcalt to andentand why Falotrina should hare given 
It this name, ton jean after the death of P6pe Haroellus II. The 
reader will find the whole subject exhaastlvely discnaaed in the 
pages of Baioi (torn. 1. sea. 2. cap. 1 et Mt>q) [hat see vol. ii. p. 690, 
where grave donbta are caat on the account given above, on Baini'a 

3 The preface to a certain German edition of the MUta Papas 
Jfarcelli erroneoualy deacrlbea the work aa written in the Mixo- 
lydian Mode. The OrueiJUna and Benetliet^u are nndoubtedly 
Mlzolydian : but the Maaa itself la, beyond all queation. written 
in the Fourteenth, or Hypoionian Mode, to the tonality, compasa, 
and cadences of which it confumis throughout. 

always as means towards the attainment of a 
certain end — never in place of the end itself. 
And this entire subjugation of artistic power 
to the demands of expression is, perhaps, its 
most prominent characteristic. It pervades it 
throughout, from the first note to the last. 
Take, for instance, the ChriaU eUisony in which 
each voice, as it enters, seems to plead more 
earnestly than its predecessor for mercy — 

Christ* delaon. 

It is impossible, while listeningto these touch- 
ingly beautiful harmonies, to bestow even a pass- 
ing thought upon the texture of the parts by 
which they are produced ; yet the quiet grace 
of the theme at (a), and the closeness of tlie imi- 
tation to which it is subjected, evince a command 
of technical resources which Handel alone could 
have hidden, with equal success, beneath the 
appearance of such extreme simplicity. Handel 
has indeed submitted a similar subject to closely 
analogous treatment — though in quick time and 
with a very diflerent expression — in the opening 
TifUi of his Organ Concerto in O ; and it is in- 
teresting to note that the exquisitely moulded 
close at (6), so expressive, when sung with the 
necessary rUardamdo, of the confidence of hope, 
has been used by Mendelssohn, interval for 
interval, in the Chorale, ' Sleepers wake ! ' 
from 'Saint Paul,' to express the confidence of 
1 expectation. 

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WadMt Mif I mft nu dto 

We have selected this particular passage for 
our illustration principally for the sake of call- 
ing attention to these instructive coincidences ; 
but in truth every bar of the Mass conceals a 
miracle of art Its subjects, all original, and 
all of extreme simplicity, are treated with an in- 
exhaustible variety of feeling which shows them, 
every moment, in some new and beautiful 
light. Its six voices — Soprano, Alto, two Tenors 
of exactly equal compass, and two Basses matched 
with similar nicety — are so artfully grouped as 
constantly to produce the effect of two or more 
antiphonal choirs. Its style is solemn and devo« 
tional throughout ; but by no means deficient 
in fire, when the sense of the words demands it. 
Baini truly calls the Kyrie devout ; the Gloria 
animated ; the Credo majestic ; the Sanctus an- 
gelic ; and the Agnus Dei prayerful. Palestrina 
wrote many more Masses, of the highest degree 
of excellence ; but none, not even Aasumpta 
est Maria, so nearly approaching perfection in 
every respect as this. He is known to have 
produced, at the least, ninety- five ; of which 
forty -three were printed during his lifetime ; 
and thirty-nine more within seven years after 
his death ; while thirteen are preserved in manu- 
script^ among the archives of the Pontifical 
Chapel, and in the Vatican Library. The effect 
produced by these great works upon the prevail- 
ing style was all that could be desired. Vittoria 
and Anerio in the great Roman School, Gabrieli 
and Croce in the Venetian, Orlando di Lasso 
in the Flemish, and innumerable other Masters, 
brought forward compositions of unfadinginterest 
and beauty. Not the least interesting of these 
is a Mass for five voices, in the transposed 
.£olianMode, composed by our own great William 
Byrd, probably about 1588. This valuable work 
was edited, in 1841, for the Musical Antiquarian 
Society, by Dr. Rimbault, from a copy, believed 
to be unique, and now safely lodged in the 
Library of the British Museum. It may fairly 
lay claim to be classed as a production of the 
* Golden Age ' ; it is entirely free from the vices 
of the Fourth Epoch, and, notwithstanding a 
oertain irregularity in the formation of some of 
the Cadences, exhibits unmistakable traces of 
the Roman style ; a style, the beauties of which 
were speedily recognised from one end of Europe 
to the other, exercising more or less influence 
over the productions of all other schools, and 
thereby bringing the music of the Mass, during 

1 One of thcte. Tu «■ Fttrus^ wm printed, for th« flnt tlm*. 18IB. 
in Bchranu's oontlQaatlonof ProcWt MuHea DiHna (Ratisboo. Fr. 


the latter half of the 16th century, to a degree 
of perfection beyond which it has never since 

The Sixth Epoch was one of universal decad- 
ence. In obedience to the exigencies of a law 
with the operation of which the art-historian is 
only too familiar, the glories of the * Golden 
Age ' had no sooner reached their full maturity 
than they began to show signs of incipient decay. 
The bold unprepared disoords of Monteverde, 
and the rapid rise of instrumental Music, wore 
alike fatal to the progress of the polyphonic 
schools. Monteverde, it is true, only employed 
his newly invented harmonies in secular music ; 
but what revolutionist ever yet succeeded in con- 
trolling the course of the stone he had once set 
in motion ! Other composers soon dragged the 
unwonted dissonances into the service of the 
Church ; and, beyond all doubt, the unprepared 
seventh sounded tiie death-knell of the polyphonic 
Mass. The barrier between the tried and the 
untried, once broken down, the laws of counter- 
point were no longer held sacred. The old paths 
were forsaken ; and those who essayed to walk 
in the new wandered vaguely, hither and thither 
in search of an ideal, as yet but very imperfectly 
conceived, in pursuit of which they laboured on, 
through many weary years, cheered by very 
inadequate results and little dreaming of the 
effect their work was fated to exercise upon gene- 
rations of musicians then unborn. A long and 
dreary period succeeded, during which no work 
of any lasting reputation was produced ; for 
the Masses of Carissimi, Golonna, and the best 
of their contemporaries, though written in solemn 
earnest, and interesting enough when regarded 
as attempts at a new style, bear no comj^wkrison 
with the compositions of the preceding epoch ; 
while those arranged by Benevoli (1602-72) and 
the admirers of his school, for combinations of 
four, six, eight, and even twelve distinct choirs, 
were forgotten, with the occasions for which 
they were called into existence. Art was pass- 
ing through a transitional phase, which must 
needs be left to work out its own destiny in its 
own way. The few faithful souls who still 
clung to the traditions of the past were unable 
to uphold its honours ; and with Gregorio 
Allegri, in 1652, the * School of Palestrina' 
died out. Yet not without hope of revival. 
The laws which regulated the composition of 
the polyphonic Mass are as intelligible to-day 
as they were three hundred years ago ; and it 
needs but the fire of living genius to bring them 
once more into active operation, reinforced by 
all the additional authority with which the 
advancement of modem science has from time 
to time invested them. 

Before quitting this part of our subject for the 
consideration of the later schools it is necessary 
that we should offer a few remarks upon the true 
manner of singing Masses, such as those of which 
we have brieflysketched the history ; and, thanks 

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to the traditions handed down from generation 
to generation by the Pontifical Choir, we are 
able to do 80 with as little danger of misinter- 
preting the ideas of Paleetrina or Anerio, as we 
should incur in dealing with those of Mendels- 
sohn or Stemdale Bennett 

In the first place it is a mistake to suppose 
that a very large body of voices is absolutely in- 
dispensable to the successful rendering, even of 
very great works. On ordinary occasions no 
more than thirty-two singers are present in the 
Sistine Chapel — eight Sopranos, and an equal 
number of Altos, Tenors, and Bassos ; though, 
on yery high festivals, their number is some- 
times nearly doubled. The vocal strength must, 
of course, be proportioned to the size of the 
building in which it is to be exercised ; but 
whether it be great or small, it must on no 
account be supplemented by any kind of instru- 
mental accompaniment whatever. Every pos- 
sible gradation of tone, from the softest imagin- 
able whisper, to the loudest forU attainable 
without straining the voice, will be brought 
into constant requisition. Though written 
always, either with a plain signature, or with 
a single flat after the clef, the music may be 
sung at any pitch most convenient to the choir. 
The time should be beaten in minims ; except 
in the case of 3-1, in which three semibreves 
must be counted in each bar. The Tvnvpo — of 
which no indication is ever given, in the old 
part-books — will vary, in dilTerent movements, 
from about p= 60 to p= 120. On this point, 
as well as on the subject of piamM and fortes^ 
and the assignment of certain passages to solo 
voices, or semi-chorus, the leader must trust 
entirely to the dictates of his own judgment 
He wiU, however, find the few simple rules to 
which we are about to direct his attention 
capable of almost universal application ; based, 
as they are, upon the important relation borne 
by the music of the Mass to the respective offices 
of the Priest, the Choir, and the Congregation. 
To the uninitiated, this relation is not always 
very clearly intelligible. In order to make it 
so, and to illustrate, at the same time, the 
principles by which the old masters were guided, 
' we shall accompany our promised hints by a few 
words explanatory of the functions performed 
by the Celebrant and his ministers during the 
time occupied by the choir in singing the prin- 
cipal movements of the Mass — fimctions, the 
right understanding of which is indispensable 
to the correct interpretation of the music. 

High Mass — ^preceded, on Sundays, by the 
Plain-song, Asperges me — begins, on the part of 
the celebrant and ministers, by the recitation, 
in a low voice, of the Psalm, Judica me Deus, 
and the Confiteor ; on that of the choir, by the 
chaunting, from the Gradual, of the Introit 
appointed for the day. [See Introit.] 

From the Plain-song Introit, the choir pro- 
ceed at once to the Kijrie ; and this transition 
vol.. m 

from the severity of the Gregorian melody to the 
pure harmoniccombinations of polyphonic music 
is one of the most beautiful that can be imagined. 
The K'lfvie is always sung slowly and devoutly 
(p= 56-66), with the tenderest possible grada- 
tions of light and shade. The Christe, also a 
slow movement, may often be entrusted, with 
good effect, to solo voices. The second Kyrie is 
generally a little more animated than the first, 
and should be taken in a quicker time (p = 96- 
1 1 2). The Kiprie of Palestrina's Misaa brevia is 
one of the most beautiful in existence, and by 
no means difficult to sing, since the true positions 
of the creactndi and diminuendi can scarcely be 
mistaken. [See Kyrie.] 

While the choir are singing these three move- 
ments, the Celebrant, attended by the Deacon 
and Subdeaoon, ascends to the Altar, and, having 
incensed it, repeats the words of the Introit and 
Kyrie, in a voice audible to himself and his 
Ministers alone. On the cessation of the music, 
he intones, in a loud voice, the words, Gloria in 
exeelsis Deo, to a short Plain-song melody, vary- 
ing with the nature of the different festivals, 
and given, in full, both in the Missal and the 
Gradual. [See Intonation.] This Intonation, 
which may be taken at any pitch conformable to 
that of the Mass, is not repeated by the Choir, 
which takes up the strain at Et in terra pax. 

The first movement of the Oloria is, in most 
cases, a very jubilant one (p^s 100 - 120) ; but 
the words adoramus te, and Jesu Chriate, must 
always be sung slowly, and softly (p= 60-60) ; 
and sometimes the Oratias agimus, as far as 
gloriam tuam, is taken a shade slower than the 
general time, in accordance with the spirit of the 
rubric which directs that, at these several 
points, the Celebrant and Ministers shall uncover 
their heads, in token of adoration. After the 
word PairiSy a pause is made. The Qui tollis 
is then sung. Adagio (p= 56-66) ; with rUar- 
dandi at miserere nobis and niacipe depreccUionem 
nostram. At the Quoniam tu solus, the original 
quick time is resumed, and carried on, with ever- 
increasing spirit, to the end of the movement ; 
except that the words Jesu Christe are again 
delivered slowly and softly as before. The pro- 
vision made, in the Missa Papae Mareelli, for 
the introduction of these characteristic changes 
of tempo is very striking, and points clearly to 
the antiquity of the custom. 

The Celebrant now recites the collects for the 
day ; the Subdeaoon sings the Epistle, in a kind 
of monotone, with certain fixed Inflexions ; the 
choir sings the Plain-song Gradual, followed by 
the Tract, or Sequence, according to the nature 
of the Festival ; and the Deacon sings the Gospel, 
to its own peculiar Tone. [See Gradual ; 
Tract ; Sequence ; Inflexion.] If there be 
a sermon, it follows next in order ; if not, the 
Gospel is immediately followed by the Creed. 

The words Credo in unum Deum are intoned 
by the Celebrant, to a few simple notes of Plain- 


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song, which never vary — except in pitch — and 
which are to be found both in the Gradual and 
the Missal. [See Intonation.] The Choir 
continue, FcUrem omnipotenUnif in a moderate 
Allegro, more stately than that of the Gl&ria 
(fs>z=: 96-1 12), and marked by the closest possible 
attention to the spirit of the text. A ritardando 
takes place at Et in unum Dominum ; and the 
words Jemm Christum are sung as slowly and 
as softly as in the Gl(yrUi (p?= 60-60). The 
quicker time is resumed at FUium Dei ; and a 
grand /orte may generally be introduced, with 
advantage, at Deum de Deo, and continued as far 
&s facta sunt — as in 'PtkleBtrinsJaMissa^Assutnpta 
est Mwnay and many others. After the words 
de coeliSf a long pause takes place, while the 
congregation kneeL The Et incamatus est then 
follows, in the form of a soft and solemn Adagio 
(f^= 64-63), interrupted, after foetus esty by 
another pause, long enough to enable the people 
to rise from their knees in silence. The Cruci- 
fixus is also a slow movement ; the return to the 
original Allegro being deferred until the M 
resurrexiL In the Missa Papae Marcelli, and 
many other very fine ones, this part of the 
Credo ia written for four solo voices ; but the 
necessity for an acceleration of the time at the Et 
resurrexit is very strongly marked. In the 
beautiful Missa brevis already mentioned, the 
Basses lead off the Et resurrexity in quick time, 
while the Soprano and Alto are still engaged 
in finishing a ritardando — a very difficult, 
though by no means uncommon point, which 
can only be overcome by very careful practice. 

- pal - - tiu «t. 

.-A 1 &^l 1 — 1— 

-1 n 

fa^--e=* ==-— — sH ^ 


' et ra • sur-re - 

■ xlt 

re • siir - ra - - xit ter - 

Another change of time is sometimes de- 
manded, at Et in Spiritum Sanctum ; but more 
generally the Allegro continues to the end of 
the movement ; interrupted only at the words 
simul adoralur, which are always sung Adagio, 
and pianissim/}^ while the Celebrant and 
Ministers uncover their heads. 

The Credo is immediately followed by the 
Plain -song Offertorium for the day. But as 
this is too short to fill up the time occupied by 
the Celebrant in incensing the Oblations, and 
saying, secreto, certain appointed prayers, it is 
usually supplemented, either by a motet or a 
grand voluntary on the Organ. [See Mot£t ; 
Offertorium. ] This ia followed by the Versicle 
and Response called the Sursum corda, and the 
Proper Preface, at the end of which a bell is 
rung and the Sanetus is taken up by the choir. 

The Sanetus is invariably a Largo, of peculiar 
solemnity {^ = 56-72). Sometimes, as in Pales- 

trina's very early Mass, Virtute magna, the 
Fleni sunt coeli is set for solo voices. Sometimes 
it is sung in chorus, but in a quicker movement, 
as in the same composer's Missa Papae Marcelli, 
and Aetema Ckristi munera — involving, in the 
last-named Mass, a difficulty of the same kind as 
that which we have already pointed out in the 
Et reswrrexit of the Missa Brevis. The Osanna, 
though frequently spirited, must never be a noisy 
movement. In the Missa Brevis, so often quoted, 
it is continuous with the rest of the Sanetus, and 
clearly intended to be sojig pianissimo — an ex- 
tremely beautiful idea, in perfect accordance with 
the character of this part of the Service, during 
which the Celebrant is proceeding, secreto, with 
the prayers which immediately precede the 
Consecration of the Host. After the Elevation, 
which takes place in silence, the choir begin 
the Benedictus in soft, low tones, almost always 
entrusted to solo voices. The Osanna, which 
concludes the movement, is, in the great majority 
of cases, identical with that which follows the 
Sanetus. The Paternoster is sung by the Cele- 
brant to a Plain -song melody contained in 
the MissaL After its conclusion the choir sings 
the last movement of the Mass — the Agnus Dei 
— while the Celebrant is receiving the Host. 
The first division of the Agnus Dei may be veiy 
effectively sung by solo voices, and the second, 
in subdued chorus (rs>=: 50-72), with gentle 
gradations of pian>o and pianissimo, as in the 
Kyrie, When there is only one movement it 
must be sung twice ; the words dona nobis paoem 
being substituted, the second time, for miserere 
nobis. The Agnus Dei of Josquin's Misaa 
*L Homme arm6' is in tliree distinct movements. 

The Choir next sings the Plain -song Co7n- 
munio, as given in the Gradual. The Celebrant 
recites the prayer called the Post-Communion. 
The Deacon sings the words, *Ite, missa est,* from 
which the service derives its name. And the 
rite concludes with the Domine salvmnfoA, and 
prayer for the reigning sovereign. 

The ceremonies we have described are those 
peculiar to High or Solemn Mass. When the 
service is sung by the Celebrant and choir, with- 
out the assistance of a Deacon and Subdeaoon, and 
without the use of incense, it is called a Missa 
cantata or Sung Mass. Low Mass is said by 
the Celebrant alone, attended by a single server. 
According to strict usage no music whatever is 
admissible at Low Mass ; but in French and 
German village churches, and even in those of 
Italy, it is not unusual to hear the congregations 
sing hymns or litanies appropriate to the occasion, 
though not forming part of the service. Under 
no circumstances can the duties proper to the 
choir, at High Mass, be transferi*ed to the 
genend congregation. 

It is scarcely necessary to say that the music 
of every Mass worth singing will naturally de- 
mand a style of treatment peculiar to itself ; 
especially with regard to the ^er/i^'of its different 

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movements. A modem editor tells na that more 
than four bars of Palestrina should never be sung, 
continuously, in the same time.^ This is, of 
course, an exaggeration. Nevertheless, immense 
variety of expression is indispensable. Every- 
thing depends upon it ; and though the leader 
will not always find it easy to decide U2X)n the 
best method, a little careful attention to the 
points we have mentioned will, in most cases, 
enable him to produce results very different from 
any that are attainable by the hard dry manner 
which is too often supposed to be inseparable 
from the performance of ancient figured music. 

Our narrative was interrupted, at a transitional 
period, when the grand old medieval style was 
gradually dying out, and a newer one courage- 
ously struggling into existence, in the face of 
difficulties which sometimes seemed insur- 
mountable. We resume it, after the death of 
the last representative of the old regime, Gregorio 
Allegri, in the year 1 652. 

The most remarkable composers of the period 
which we shall designate as the Seventh Epoch 
in the history of the vocal Mass — comprising 
the latter part of the 17 th century and the 
earlier years of the 18th — were Alessandro 
Scarlatti, Leo, and Durante ; men whose position 
in the chronicles of art is rendered somewhat 
anomalous, though none the less honourable, by 
the indisputable fact that they all entertained 
a sincere affection for the older school, while 
labouring with all their might for the advance- 
ment of the newer. It was, undoubtedly, to 
tlieir love for the masters of the 16th century 
tliat they owed the dignity of style which con- 
stitutes the chief merit of their compositions 
for the Church ; but their real work lay in 
the direction of instrumental accompaniment, 
for which Durante especially did more than any 
other writer of the jieriod. His genius was, 
indeed, a very exceptional one. While others 
were content with cautiously feeling their way, 
in some new and untried direction, he boldly 
started off with a style of his own, which gave 
an extraordiiiary impulse to the progress of art, 
and impressed its character so strongly upon 
the productions of his followers that he has been 
not unfrequently regarded as the founder of the 
modem Italian school. Whatever opinion may 
be entertained on that point it is certain that 
the Bim))licity of his melodies tended, in no 
small degree, to the encouragement of those 
graces which now seem inseparable from Italian 
art ; while it is equally undeniable that the style 
of the Cantata, which he, no less than Alessandro 
Scarlatti, held in the highest estimation, exer- 
cised an irresistible influence over the future of 
the Mass. 

The Eighth Epoch is represented by one single 

1 The only other eompoaer, aneimt or modem, with regard to 
-whoee work* soeh a remark ooold have been haxarded. te Chopin— 
the anfettered expoDent of the wildeet dreama of modem ramanti- 
ciam. So etraagely doea experience prove that 'there li nothiof 
Tiew imder the sun I ' 

work, of such gigantic proportions and so 
exceptional a character that it is impossible 
either to class it with any other or to trace its 
pedigree through any of the schools of which we 
have hitherto spoken. The artistic status of John 
Sebastian Bach's Mass in B minor — produced in 
the years 1733-38 — only becomes intelligible 
when we consider it as the natural result of prin- 
ciples, inherited through a long line of masters, 
who bequeathed their musical acquirements, from 
father to son, as other men bequeath their riches ; 
principles upon which rest the very foundations 
of the later Cerman schools. Bearing this in 
mind, we are not surprised at finding it free from 
all trace of the older ecclesiastical traditions. To 
compare it with Palestrina's MismFapae Marcelli 
— even were such a perversion of criticism 
possible — would be as unfair to either side as an 
attempt to judge the masterpieces of Rembrandt 
by the standard of Fra Angelico. The two works 
are not even coincident in intention ; for it is 
almost impossible to believe that the one we are 
now considering can ever have been seriously 
intended for use as a church service. Unfitted 
for that pur|x>se, as much by its excessive length 
as by the exuberant elaboration of its style, and 
the overwhelming difficulty of its execution, it 
can only be consistently regarded as an Oratorio ; 
so regarded, it may be safely trusted to hold 
its own, side by side with the greatest works 
of the kind that have ever been produced in 
any country or in any age. Its masterly and 
exhaustively developed fugues ; its dignified 
choruses, relieved by airs and duets of infinite 
grace and beauty ; the richness of its instm- 
mentation, achieved by means which most modem 
composers would reject as utterly inadequate to 
the least ambitious of their requirements ; above 
all, the colossal proi)ortions of its designs — these, 
and a hundred other characteristics into which 
we have not space to enter, entitle it to rank 
as one of the finest works, if not the very finest, 
that the great cantor of the Thomasschule has 
left, as memorials of a genius as vast as it was 
original. Whether we criticise it as a work of 
art, of learning, or of imagination, we find it 
equally worthy of our respect. It is, moreover, 
extremely interesting as an historical monument, 
from the fact that, in the opening of its Credo^ 
it exhibits one of the most remarkable examples 
on record of the treatment of an ancient Cajdo 
fermo with modem harmonies, and an elaborate 
orchestral accompaniment. [See Intonation.] 
Bach often showed but little sympathy with the 
traditions of the past. But in this, as in 
innumerable other instances, he proved his 
power of compelling everything he touched to 
obey the dictates of his indomitable will. 

While the great German composer was thus 
patiently working out his hereditary trast, the 
disciples of the Italian school were entering upon 
a Ninth Epoch — the last which it will be our 
duty to consider, since its creative energy is 

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probably not yet exhausted — under very different 
oonditions, and influenced by principles which 
led to very different results. If we have found 
it necessary to criticise Bach's wonderful pro- 
duction as an Oratorio, still more necessary is 
it that we should describe the Masses of this 
later period as Sacred Cantatas. Originating 
beyond all doubt with Durante, treated with 
infinite tenderness by Pergolesi and Jommelli, 
endowed with a wealth of graces by the genius 
of Haydn and Mozart, and still further intensi- 
fied by the imaginative power of Beethoven and 
Cherubini, their style has steadily kept pace, 
step by step, with the progress of modem music ; 
borrowing elasticity from the freedom of its 
melodies, and richness from the variety of its 
instrumentation ; clothing itself in new and 
unexpected forms of beauty, at every turn ; yet 
never aiming at the expression of a higher kind 
of beauty than that pertaining to earthly things, 
or venturing to utter the language of devotion 
in preference to that of passion. In the Masses 
of this era we first find the individuality of 
the composer entirely dominating that of the 
school — if, indeed, a school can he said to exist 
at all in an age in which every composer is left 
free to follow the dictates of his own unfettered 
taste. It is impossible to avoid recognising, in 
Haydn's Masses, the well-kno^vn features of 
the * Creation ' and the ' Seasons ' ; or in those 
of Mozart the characteristic features of his most 
delightful operas. Who, but the composer of 
'Dove sono i bei momenti,' or the finales to 
*Don Giovanni,' and the 'Flauto Magico,' could 
ever have imagined the Agnus Dei of the first 
Mass, or the Gloria of the second ? Still more 
striking is the identity of thought which assimi- 
lates Beethoven's Misaa solemnis to some of the 
greatest of his secular works, notwithstanding 
their singular freedom from all trace of man- 
nerism. Mozart makes himself known by 
the refinement of his delicious phrases ; Beet- 
hoven by the depth of his dramatic instinct — 
a talent which he never turned to such good 
account as when working in the absence of stage 
accessories. We are all familiar with that 
touching episode in the 'Battle Symphony,' 
wherein the one solitary fifer strives to rally 
his scattered comrades by playing McUbrouk s'en 
va-t-en giiem — a feat, which, by reason of the 
thirst and exhaustion consequent upon his wound, 
he can only accomplish in a minor key. No 
less touching, though infinitely more terrible, 
is that wonderful passage of drums and trumpets 
in the Dtrna iwbia pacem of the Mass in D, in- 
tended to bring the blessings of peace into the 
strongest possible relief, by contrasting them 
with the horrors of war. 

Whether or not the peace to which our atten- 
tion is thus forcibly directed be really that 
alluded to in the text, in no wise affects the 
power of the passage. All that Beethoven in- 
tended to express was his own interpretation of 

Allegro assai. 

B«bU. timidamente. ftngttlich. 
Alto solo. .^zTi^.jL. . ^•^^■••JL 



the words ; and it is in his own strong language, 
and not in that of the schools, that he expresses 
it. Cherubini makes equal use of the dramatic 
element ; more especially in his magnificent 
Requiem Mass in D minor [see Requiem], his 
grand Mass, in the same key, and his famous 
Mass in A, written for the Coronation of 
Charles X. ; but, always in a way so peculiarly 
his own, that the touch of his master hand 
stands everywhere confessed. In all these 
great works, and innumerable others by Weber, 
Schubert, Hummel, Niedermeyer, Rossini, and 
Gounod, we find the dramatic form of expression 
entirely superseding the devotional ; uncom- 
promising realism triumphing over the idealism 
of the older schools ; the personal feelings and 
experiences of the masters over-riding the ab- 
stract sense of the text. This circumstance 
makes it extremely difficult to assign to these 
creations of genius a true lesthetic position in 
the world of art. Church services in name, 
they have certainly failed, notwithstanding 

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their universally -acknowledged beauties, in 
securing for themselyes a lasting home in the 
Church. That their use has been tolerated, 
rather than encouraged, in Rome itself is proved 
by the significant fact that not one single note 
of any one of them has ever once been heai-d 
within the walls of the Sistine Chapel. And 
the reason U obvious. They cast Ecclesiastical 
tradition to the winds ; and, substituting for it 
the ever- varying sentiment of individual minds, 
present no firm basis for the elaboration of a 
definite Church style, which, like that of the 
16th century, shall prove its excellence by its 
stability. Yet, in the midst of the diversity 
which naturally ensues from this want of a 
common ideal, it is instructive to notice one 
bond of union between the older masters and 
the new, so strongly marked that it cannot 
possibly be the result of an accidental coincidence. 
Their agreement in the general distribution of 
their movements is most remarkable. We still 
constantly find ttkeKyrie presented to us in thi-ee 
separate divisions. The Qui toUis and Et 
incanuUiLS eat are constantly introduced in the 
form of solemn Adagios. The same Oaarvna is 
almost always made to serve, as in the Afissa 
Papae Mareelli, as a conclusion both to the 
SanUiu and the Benedictus, And in this 
vitality of typical form we find a convincing 
proof — if one be necessary — that the broad 
esthetic principles of Art are immutable and 
calculated to survive, through an indefinite 
period, the vicissitudes of technical treatment 
in widely differing Schools. [It is curious to 
note that the concluding remarks of the above 
article are in complete sympathy with the reform 
in church music which found expression in the 
famous *motu proprio* of Pope Pius X. in 

It will be convenient to classify certain 
recognised kinds of Masses in this place, thus : — 

MissA Brevis is a Mass of moderate length, 
intended rather for use on ordinary occasions, 
than on festivals of very great solemnity. 

The subjects of the Missa Brevis are almost 
always original ; as in the charming example 
by Andrea Gabrieli, printed, on the authority 
of a valuable MS. copy, in the first volume of 
Proske's Afusica Divina, This rule, however, 
is not universaL Palestrina's Misaa Brevis — a 
work of unapproachable beauty, and perfectly 
complete in all its parts, notwithstanding the 
comparatively short time it occupies in perform- 
ance — is founded upon Canti/ermi derived from 
the melody of Audifiliay a Plain-song TmUus, 
which has also been very finely treated in a Mass 
of earlier date by Claude Goudimel. 

Missa de Angelis. The name generally 
given to a very beautiful Plain-song Mass, in 
Mode XIIL, prescribed in the Ratisbon Gradual, 
for use 'In Festis Solemnibus,' and appended 
to the Mechlin Gradual, as a Afissa ad libitum. 
Judging from the internal evidence afforded by 

the freedom of its phrasing, and the Mode in 
which it is written, the Missa de Angelis would 
seem to be by no means the oldest Mass of this 
class now in use [it has its roots back in the 
15th century, though in its usual form it ex- 
hibits all the degradation of the 1 7 th or 18th] ; 
its antiquity is, however, great enough to have 
obliterated all trace of its history, and even of 
the origin of the name by which it is now gener- 
ally designated, and under which it is perha|)6 
more frequently sung than any other Mass of its 
kind, both in its original form, and in the Eng- 
lish translation used at St. Alban's, Holbom, St 
Mary's, Paddington, and other London churches 
in which Gregorian services are encouraged. 

The number of the older Masses to which 
allusion has been made is very small. The 
Ordinarium Missae in the Batisbon Gradual, 
published under the authority of the Congrega- 
tion of Rites, contains : the Missa in Tettipore 
Paschali in Modes YII. and YIII. ; a very fine 
Missa in Dicplieibus, beginning in Mode I., 
and another in Mode YIII. ; a Missa Beatas 
Mariae beginning in Mode I., and another in 
Mode YIII. ; the Missa in Dominicis in Modes 
I. and II. ; the Missae in Festis Semiduplid* 
bus and In Festis Simplicibus, both beginning 
in Mode YIII. ; the well-known Missa pro 
De/wndis, beginning in Mode I., and including 
the famous Dies irae in Modes I. and II. ; and 
some smaller Masses sung in Advent and Lent, 
during Octaves and on Ferial Days. The 
Mechlin Gradual also gives another Missa ad 
libitum in Mode XIIL, and yet another in 
Modes YII. and YIIL 

Some editions of the Paris Gradual add to 
these a spurious Missa Begia, professedly in 
Mode I., but really in the modem key of D minor, 
composed by Dumont, Maltre de Chapelle to 
Louis XI Y., in acknowledged imitation of the 
older unisonous Masses, but in utter ignorance 
of the principles upon which tliey are con- 
structed, and without a trace of appreciation of 
their true style or sentiment. This Mass was 
once very popular in France, and much sung in 
the Paris churches ; but since the revival of the 
taste for pure ecclesiastical music it has wisely 
been discarded in favour of the older Masses 
which it was intended to displace. 

Missa Sine Nomine. A Mass, composed 
upon original subjects, in place of a Plain-song 
Canto fermo. Examples will be found among 
the works of Josquin des Pr^s, Palestrina, and 
other composers of the 15th and 16th cen- 

Missa Super Yoces Musicales (Missa Do, 
Be, Mi, Fa, Sol, La). A Mass in which the 
six sounds of the Hexachord are used as a 
Canto fermo. [See Hexachord.] Splendid 
specimens of the style are extant, by Josquin des 
Pres, Palestrina, and Francesco Suriano. w. s. B. 

MASS ART, Joseph Lambert, a famous 
violin teacher, professor at the Paris Con- 

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servatoire, born at Liege, Jtily 19, 1811, died 
iu Paris, Feb. 13, 1892. Massart received 
his first instruction in violin-playing from an 
amateur named Delavau, who was so impressed 
with the talent displayed by his pupil, that he 
persuaded the municipal authorities of Liege 
to grant him a scholarship which would enable 
him to study in Paris. On his arrival in the 
city Massart sought admission, as a student, to 
the Conservatoire, but was refused by the then 
director, Oherubini, on account of his being a 
foreigner. Notwithstanding this first rebuff, 
Massart's gifts were soon recognised by Rudolph 
Kreutzer, who willingly undertook the task of 
developing the young artist's talents. Although 
Massart became a fine executant under Kreutzer's 
tuition, yet, on account of his excessive shyness 
he never attained much fame as a public player. 
An instance of his modesty is related by Sir 
Charles Halle in his Autobiography: Massart 
and Liszt were bracketed together to play the 
* Kreutzer Sonata ' at a concert. Scarcely had 
they played a couple of bars, when a voice in 
the Hall shouted * Robert le Diable ! * referring 
to Liszt's recently composed and successful 
Fantasia on airs from that Opera. The request 
was repeated by other members of the audience 
until the sonata was drowned in the tumult. 
Liszt rose and said : * I am always the humble 
servant of the public, will you hear the Fantasia 
before, or after the Sonata ? ' Renewed cries of 
' Robert ! * greeted his speech, upon which Liszt 
half turned to Massart and with a wave of his 
hand dismissed him from the platform, without 
apology. The Fantasia roused the audience to 
such a pitch of frenzy, that when Massart upon its 
completion dutifully returned to the platform 
his performance of the * Kreutzer Sonata ' fell 
entirely flat. In 1843 the Paris Conservatoire 
appointed him professor of the violin, and in 
this position his energy and thoroughness gained 
for him a world-wide renown. Among his 
many famous pupils were : Henri Wieniawski, 
Lotto, Pablo de Sarasate, Martin Marsiok, and 
Teresina Tua. Massart was an excellent quartet 
player, and together with his wife Louise Aglae 
Marson, — who succeeded Farrenc as professor 
of piano at the Paris Conservatoire — ^gave many 
delightful Chamber music concerts. 

aiVHograpky ."—PHmmu TieHnUtt a/To-dap and Tetttrdajf, Henry 
C. Lahee. (Boston. 1899.) Biog. Unit, dm MuaieUna, F. J. F^tii. 
Biog. Diet. t^Muttciamt. T. Baker. 

MASS6, Felix Marie (known as Victor), 
bom at Lorient, March 7, 1822 ; entered the 
Conservatoire at twelve, obtained the first prizes 
for piano, harmony, and fugue, and in 1844, 
after some years' study with Halevy, the * Grand 
prix de Rome' for composition. His cantata 
'Le R^n^gat' was given three times at the 
Op^ra (Feb. 1845), a rare event. During his 
stay in Rome he composed a * Messe Solennelle, * 
performed at the church of St. Louis des 
Fran9ais (May 1, 1846), a careful and clever 

work, though wanting in religious sentiment — 
never Mass^'s strong point. The unpublished 
score is in the library of the Conservatoire. 
After his two years in Rome he travelled through 
Italy and Germany, and returned to Paris, 
where he was much appreciated in society. 
Publishers readily accepted his ' Melodies ' and 

* Romances,' and he gained access to the stage 
with little delay. 'La Chambre gothique' 
(Op^ra-Comique, 1849), and *La Chanteuse 
voil^e,' one act (Op^ra-Comique, Nov. 26, 1850), 
were followed by *Galathee,' two acts (April 
14, 1852), and * Les Noces de Jeannette ' (Feb. 
4, 1853), a charming lyric comedy in one act. 
These early successes justified the hope that in 
Mass^ the French stage had found a composer 
as fruitful and melodious, if not as original, as 
Auber ; but his later efforts were less fortunate. 

* La Reine Topaze ' (Dec. 27, 1866) indeed suc- 
ceeded completely, and has kept the boards, but 

* La Fiancee du Diable' (June 3, 1854), *Miss 
Fauvette' (Feb. 13, 1855), * Les Saisons ' (Dec. 
22, 1856), *Le8 Chaises a porteurs' (April 28, 
1868), 'La Fee Carabosse' (March 7, 1859), 
'Mariette la Promise' (1862), 'La Mule de 
Pedro ' (March 6, 1863), ' Fior d' Aliza ' (Feb. 5, 
1866), and *Le Fils du Brigadier' (Feb. 25, 
1867), though fairly received, soon disappeared. 
Some, however, contain good music, especially 
' Les Saisons ' and ' Fior d'Aliza.' In 1860 he 
became chorus -master to the Acad^mie de 
Musique, and in 1866 succeeded Lebome as 
professor of composition at the Conservatoire — 
gratifying appointments, as showing the esteem 
of his brother artists, although the work they 
entailed left him little time for composition. 
On June 20, 1872, he was elected to the In- 
stitnt as successor to Auber. 

After a long period of silence Mass^ produced 
'Paul et Virginie,' three acts (Nov. 15, 1876 ; 
given in Italian at Coven t Garden Opera-house, 
June 1, 1878). In spite of its success and its 
evident ambition, this opera seems less original 
and less homogeneous in style than ' Galath^ ' 
or * Les Noces de Jeannette,' and its best parts, 
as in all his operas, are the short pieces and the 
simple romances. 

To complete the list of his operas we may 
mention 'La Favorita e la Schiava' (Venice, 
1855), and 'Le Cousin Marivaux' (Baden, 1867) ; 
also two drawing-room operettas 'Le Prix de 
Famille * and ' Une loi Somptuaire ' (published 
in 1879). He published three sets of twenty 
songs each, selected from his numerous romances. 
Many of these are charming little pieces. In 
1877 he was made an officer of the Legion of 
Honour. o. c. 

A painful illness compelled him to resign his 
post at the Academic in 1876, and rendered 
him totally incapable of active work. During 
seven years of suffering his only consolation lay 
in composition, and in this way his opera, ' La 
Mort de Cleopatre,' intended for the Op^ra, was 

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written. After his death, which took place in 
Paris on July 5, 1884, a representation of the 
work took place at the Op^ra-Coroique in the 
composer's honour (April 25, 1885), though the 
reception of *Paul et Virginie' did not hold 
out much hope of success for a work evidently 
written in the same style and aiming too high. 
Although the composer's death was sufficiently 
recent to secure a favourable reception for this 
misnamed * grand opera,' yet the composition 
was an evident failure, consisting as it did of 
misplaced pretension, and an ambitious imita- 
tion of Gounod's methods, in which Masse had 
lost what little remained to him of his original 
grace and charm. In spite of this change in 
his style, and though he must rank as a musician 
of the second order, there is at times in some of 
his songs a personal charm, a sober gaiety, and 
a gentle emotion. It was when he composed a 
song without having in view any particular 
interpretation, and when nothing more was 
required of him, that he could write most freely 
and could give the exact relation between the 
music and the words, a quality in which he 
originally excelled, and in which he resembled 
the school of Gr^try. His ideal, which was on 
the whole a just one, did not exceed the limits 
of an exact feeling for prosody, and it is by those 
compositions of his in which the laws of metre are 
most faithfully observed that he is most likely 
to be for a short time remembered. A. J. 

MASSENET, Jules Fr£d£ric Emile, bom 
at Montaud, near St. Etienne, May 12, 1842, 
was educated at the Paris Conservatoire, where 
he won the first piano prize in 1859 ; the second 
prize for fugue in 1862 ; the first prize for 
fugue, and the * Prix de Rome ' in 1868, with 

* David Rizzio.' On his return from Italy, 
through the influence of Ambroise Thomas, his 

* La Grand'tante ' was produced at the Op^ra- 
Oomique (April 8, 1867). Even in this first 
attempt Massenet showed himself a skilled and 
graceful musician. Some 'Suites d'orchestre' 
performed at the ' Concerts populaires ' attracted 
attention for their new and ingenious effects. 
It was only, however, after the Franco-German 
war that he rose to the first rank among young 
French composers by the production of *Don 
C^sar de Bazan,' op^ra-comique in three acts and 
four tableaux (Nov. 30, 1872) ; incidental 
music to the tragedy ' Les Erinnyes ' (Jan. 6, 
1878); and an oratorio 'Marie Magdeleine ' 
^April 11, 1873). He next composed 'Eve* 
(March 18, 1875), an oratorio something in the 
style of Gounod's * Gallia * ; more ' Suites d'or- 
chestre'; an 'Ouverture de Concert,' and the 
overture to 'PhMre* ; a 'sayn^te,' 'Berangftre 
et Anatole ' (1876) ; a number of melodies for 
one and two voices ; pianoforte music for two 
and four hands ; choruses for four equal voices ; 
* Le Roi de Lahore' (April 27, 1877), opera in 
four acts and six tableaux ; and 'Narcisse,' a 
cantata with orchestral accompaniment. On 

May 22, 1880, he conducted his oratorio, 'La 
Yierge,' at the first historical concert at the 
Op^ra. He produced at Brussels his religious 
opera 'H^rodiade,' Dec. 19, 1881, which suc- 
ceeded for one season only in that city, and 
failed in Paris, where it was represented at the 
Op^ra Italien (Th^tre des Nations, Feb. 1, 
1884), after being partly rewritten by the com- 
poser. It enjoyed more favour many years 
afterwards at the Th^tre de la Gaite, and even 
penetrated into England, being given in a 
somewhat garbled version, at Covent Garden, as 
' Salome,' July 6, 1904. On Jan. 19, 1884, the 
opera 'Manon' was produced at the Op6ra- 
Comique, and on Nov. 30, 1885, 'Le Cid' at 
the Op^ra. In the former the composer tried 
the experiment of connecting the numbers of 
an op^ra-comique by a slightly orchestrated 
accompaniment to the dialogue, which was not 
sung, as in the case oirecitalivo secco, but spoken 
as usual. To the works of this period are to be 
added three new Orchestral Suites, Nos. 6-7, 
Scenes Napolitaines, Scenes Alsaciennes, and 
Scenes de Faerie (Concerts du Ch&telet, 1880, 
1882, 1883) ; incidental music to Sardou's 
' Theodora 'and *Le Crocodile' (Porte St. Martin, 
1884 and 1886) ; a short work for voice and 
orchestra, ' Biblis ' ; and various ' Po^mes ' for 
voice and piano. In October 1878, Massenet 
replaced Bazin as professor of advanced com- 
position at the Conservatoire, holding the posi- 
tion until 1896. In 1876 he was decorated 
with the Legion d'Honneur, becoming an officer 
in 1888, and in 1878 was elected a member of 
the Academic des Beaux-Arts in placeof Bazin,and 
to the exclusion of Saint-Saens, who was gener- 
ally expected to be the new member, as he was 
introduced in the first rank by the musical 
section. This was one of the rare occasions on 
which the entire Acad^mie has not observed the 
order of presentation established by the section 
to which the new member is to belong. Mas. 
senet was only thirty-six at the time, and was 
the youngest member ever elected to the 
Academic des Beaux- Arts, for Hal^vy, who was 
the most remarkable previous example of what 
may be called * Academic precocity,' was thirty- 
seven when he entered the Institute in 1836. 

The dramatic works of Massenet's later life 
are as follows : — * Esclarmonde,* lyric drama in 
four acts (Op^ra-Comique, May 15, 1889) ; * Le 
Mage,' opera in five acts (Op^ra, March 16, 
1891) ; ' Werther,* opera in three acts (Vienna, 
Feb. 16, 1892); 'Le Carillon,' one-act ballet 
(Vienna, Feb. 21, 1892) ; * Thais,' lyric comedy 
in three acts (Op^ra, 1894); 'Le Portrait de 
Manon,' op^ra - comique in one act (Op^ra- 
Comique, May 8, 1894) ; * La Navarraise,' lyric 
drama in two acts (London, Covent Garden, 
June 20, 1894, Brussels later in the same year, 
and Paris, 1895); 'Sapho,' lyric play in five 
acts (Op^ra- Comique, Nov. 27, 1897); *Cen- 
drillon,' fairy tale in four acts (Op^ra-Comique, 

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May 1899); 'Gris^lidis/ in three acts and a 
prologue (Op4ra-Comique, Nov. 20, 1901); 
Incidental music to * PhMre ' (Th. Sarah-Bern- 
hard t, 1901); *Le Jongleur de Notre-Dame/ 

* miracle' in three acts (Monte Carlo, Feb. 
18, 1902 ; Covent Garden, June 14, 1906) ; 
'Ch^rubin,' 'com^e chant^e,' in three acts 
(Opera-Comique, Feb. 14, 1905) ; and * Ariane* 

^ » in five acts (in preparation, 1906). ' La Terre 
X Promise ' in three acts, is to be added to the 
number of his oratorios (produced in the church 
of St. Eustache, Paris*, March 15, 1900) ; and 
a concerto for piano and orchestra was given 
at the Concerts du Conservatoire, Feb. 8, 1908, 
with M. Dimmer in the solo part. 

Massenet's prolonged and widespread success 
is one of the puzzling phenomena of modem 
musical history ; he has been always careful to 
choose subjects for his operas which conformed 
strictly to the taste of the Parisian public for 
the moment, and has succeeded to a considerable 
extent in imparting different characters to his 
successive works, in spite of the undoubted fact 
that his own weak and sugary style remains 
unmistakable in one and alL While those who 
look a little below the surface find his music 
inexpressibly monotonous, casual hearers are 
surprised by his superficial versatility, and he 
has won for himself a remarkable position 
among French composers which he can hardly 
be held to deserve, considering the number 
of more original and powerful composers who 
could be named among his countrymen. When 

* Manon ' and * Le Cid ' were new, M. Adolphe 
Jullien, writing in the appendix to the original 
edition of this Dictionary, said that 'Neither 
had left a very permanent mark ' ; but even at 
this distance of time both operas keep their 
place in the repertories of the theatres to which 
they respectively belong ; and the former has 
become in some sort a classic. The writer 
already quoted goes on to say, 'The only 
music that can endure is that in which are 
displayed strong convictions and a firm re- 
solution not to yield to public caprice ; while 
Massenet's works, especially liis later com- 
positions, which are written without any fixed 
ideal, and in view of immediate success, scarcely 
survive the day of their birth, nor do they 
deserve to survive it.' Whether or no we agree 
as to their deserts, the fact remains that they 
have survived, by a very considerable interval of 
time, the day of their birth ; but few of the 
real lovers of music will expect any of them to 
remain among the compositions that keep their 
popularity after the death of the author, and it 
is probable that, as in the case of Gounod, and 
some others of exceptional success in their own 
day, the enormous vogue of Massenet's music 
will not outlast his own life. (The above is 
mainly based on the articles contributed to 
vol. ii. and the appendix, of the original edition 
of this Dictionary, by MM. Gustave Chouquet 

and Adolphe Jullien respectively ; and upon 
information from o. F.) h. 

MASSOL, Jean Etiennb Augusts, bom 
1802 at Lod^ve, H($rault, was taught singing at 
the Paris Conservatoire in 1828-25, and gained 
a first prize there. He made his d^but at the 
Opera as Licinius ('Vestale'), Nov. 17, 1825, 
and remained there until Oct. 8, 1845. He 
first played second tenor parts in several new 
operas— Rodolphe ( ' Tell ') ; Herald ( * Robert ') ; 
Kalaf (in Chenibini's ' All Baba ') ; Tavannes 
(' Huguenots ') ; Quasimodo (in Louise Bertin's 
* Esmeralda') ; Forte Braccio (in Hal^vy's 'Guido 
et Ginevra') ; Mocenigo (*Reine de Chypre') ; 
and the baritone parts of Tell and Jolicoeur 
('Philtre'), etc. He played for a time in 
Brussels, London, etc., and returned as prin- 
cipal baritone to the Opera in 1850, where he 
remained until his farewell benefit, Jan. 14, 
1858. The Emperor was present on that 
occasion, immediately after the attempt made 
on his life by Orsini on his arrival at the 
theatre. His best new parts were Reuben 
(Auber's ' Enfant Prodigue '), Dec 6, 1850, and 
Ahasuerus (Halevy 's * Juif Errant '), April 23, 
1852. He was a good singer, admirably suited 
for heroic drama, having the proper figure and 
height, and a splendid voice. ' In secondaiy 
characters no one was Massol's superior, and 
when he played the principal parts he did so 
with the happiest results. Thus he made the 
success of the Juif Errant. . . . His Quasimodo 
did him the greatest honour. . . .' (Jules Janin 
in the DSboUs,) He became for a time Director 
of the Royal Theatres at Brussels ; he subse- 
quently went into business, and, retiring, resided 
at Versailles, and finally in Paris, where he died 
Oct 80, 1887. 

While a member of the Brussels Company he 
made his d^but at Drary Lane in 1846, as De 
Nevers, July 17, as Jolicoeur, August 10, etc 
He sang at concerts in 1848, and appeared once 
at Covent Garden as Alphonso XL, July 4. 
Roger, in his 'Camet d'un t4nor,' has recorded 
that Massol did not understand Italian, and 
uttered the most horrible jargon. He sang his 
first air too low, but otherwise obtained a 
success, which was partly due to the way in 
which he had paid court to the journalists and 
other influential persons, and to his knowledge 
of artistic cookery. He played there in 1849- 
1850 Pietro ('Masaniello'), De Nevers, Kilian 
(' Freischiitz *), etc. ; at Her Mjyesty's in 1851, 
Reuben, on the production of 'L'Enfant Pro- 
digue,' June 12 ; the Baron de Beaumanoir 
(Balfe's 'Quatre Fils A3rmon'), August 11, etc. 
According to the AtheTUcunif June 14, his Reuben 
had a patriarchal dignity and pathos, and he sang 
better in that opera than in any other. A. c. 

MASSON, Elizabeth, bom 1806, was taught 
singing by Mrs. Henry Smart, sen., and in Italy 
by Mme. Pasta. She made her first appearance 
in public at Ella's second subscription concert, 

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in the Argyll Roozhb, March 11, 1881, and sang 
afterwards at the Antient Concerts, March 16, 
1831, and at the Philharmonic, March 11, 
1883 ; she sang frequently at those Societies' 
concerts during a public career of about twelve 
years, and revived there forgotten airs of Handel, 
Purcell, Pergolesi, Gluck, Mozart, etc. She was 
in great request at private concerts, since she 
lx)S8essed, apart from her musical attainments, 
great talents and accomplishments, and was an 
excellent linguist. She sang occasionally in 
oratorio, viz. at the festival in Westminster 
Abbey, 1834, and at .the Sacred Harmonic 
Society where she took the parts of Solomon, 
Nov. 22, 1839, and Storge on the revival of 
'Jephtha,' April 7, 1841. She afterwards 
devoted herself to teaching and composition. 
She wrote many songs to the words of Scott, 
Byron, Adelaide Procter, etc, and edited a 
series of < Original Jacobite Songs' (Lonsdale, 
1839), and < Songs for the Classical Vocalist' 
(Leader k Cock, first series of twelye songs, 
1845 ; a second series, 1860), which ex^'oyed a 
well-deserved popularity. She founded the 
Royal Society of Female Musicians in 1889, and 
was its hon. treasurer until her death, Jan. 9, 
1865. On its amalgamation with the Royal 
Society of Musicians in 1866, F. J. Masson, 
her brother, gave a donation of 200 guineas 
to the latter society in remembrance of her. 
'As a singer this lady was never rated as 
high as she deserved to be, because her voice, 
which was a mezzo-soprano, had no remarkable 
power nor charm. But it had been thoroughly 
trained under the^ example and influence of 
Madame Pasta, and its owner's reading of 
music, intelligence, expression, and finish, were 
thoroughly appreciated by all those select con- 
noisseurs who valued style arid understanding 
beyond greater natural powers than hers turned 
to poor account As a professor Miss Masson 
was widely and deservedly in request. Apart 
from her profession, she was at once conscien- 
tious, energetic, and refined, and had withal 
that racy originality of character which will 
make her long remembered and missed. In 
brief, she was a good artist, in part because she 
was a good woman and a gentlewoman. ' ^ A. c. 
— also called Bonffbns—a dance of men in 
armour, popular in France during tlie 16th and 
1 7th centuries. It was probably derived from the 
ancient Pyrrhic dance, although the name has 
been traced to an Arabic root. Jehan Tabourot 
in his OreMaoffraphie (Langres, 1588) gives a 
long and interesting account of this dance, with 
six illustrations of the different positions, of the 
dancers, *qui sont vestus de petits corcelets, 
auec fimbries ia espaules, et soubs la ceinture, 
une pente de taffetats soubz icelles, le morion 
de papier dor^, les bras nuds, les sonnettes aux 
xambes, I'espee au poing droit, le bouclier au 

i.Atkmuntm, Ju. 14. 1868. 

poing gaulche.' The Matassins were four in 
number, generally all men, but sometimes two 
men and two women. They danced several 
distinct figures, between which they performed 
mimic fights with one a|iother. Moli^re has 
introduced Matassins into his commie-ballet of 
'M. de Pourceaugnac,' and the dance is said 
to have been common at Bordeaux, Marseilles, 
and Strasburg as late as 1735. The following, 
according to Tabourot, is the air which usually 
accompanied the dance. 

Air des Bouffons. 

Hui>< | ?^ ^Bifl 



W. R 8. 

MATELOTTE, a Dutch sailors' dance some- 
what similar to the English hornpipe. The 
dancers wore wooden shoes, and their arms were 
interlaced behind their backs. The music of 
the Matelotte consists of two parts in 2-4 time, 
and is remarkable for its short decided rhythm* 
There Ib a sabot dance in Lortzing's ' Czaar und 
Zimmemiann, ' but it is not atnie Matelotte, being 
written in waltz time. The following example 
is quoted by Schubert, Die Tammusik (Leipzig, 
1867) : it is there attributed to the 17th cen- 
tury, but no information is given as to whether 
it is a genuine dance tune or merely an adapta- 
tion. We quote the first strain only : — 

W. B. 8. 

MATERNA, Amalie (Fbau Friedrich), s 
distinguished prima donna in German opera, 
was bom July 10, 1845, at St. Georgen, Styria, 
where her &ther was a schoolmaster. Her first 
stage appearances were made at the Thalia- 
Theater, Gratz, about 1864. She married soon 
afterwards Karl Friedrich, a popular German 
actor, and together with him was engaged at 
the suburban Karlstheater, Vienna, where she 
sang for some time in operetta. But her quali- 
fications for the higher lyrical walks could not 
long remain undiscovered, and in 1869 she made 
her d^but at the Imperial Opera House as Selika 
in the * Afncaine,' with signal success, at once 
winning for herself the high position she has 
since maintained among opera-singers of the 
German school. With a soprano voice of unusual 
volume, compass, and sustaining power, a fine 

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stage presence, and much mnsical and dramatic 
intelligence, Frau Matema left nothing to be 
desired in certain rdles, such as the great Wagner 
parts, and the Qneen i|i Goldmark's * Konigin von 
Saba.' At the Wagner Festival at Bayreuth, 
1876, she may be said to have earned a world- 
wide reputation by her really magnificent imper- 
sonation of Briinnhilde in the Nibelungen 
Trilogy, an exceptional part for which she was 
exceptionally qualified. She sang in England 
with great success at the Wagner concerts at the 
Albert Hall in 1 87 7. She was the first exponent 
of the part of Kundry in * Parsifal,* on July 28, 
1882, at Bayreuth, and she retired on April 23, 
1897. B. T. 

MATHER, Samuel, son of William Mather 
(bom 1756, organist of St. Paul's church, 
Sheffield, from 1788 to his death in 1808), was 
bom in 1 783. In 1799 he was appointed organist 
of St. James's church, Sheffield, and in 1808 
succeeded his father at St. Paul's. In 1805 he 
was chosen bandmaster of the Sheffield Volun- 
teers. In 1806 he was engaged in establishing 
the Yorkshire Amateur Concerts, which were for 
many years given triennially at that town, Leeds 
and York alternately, and in 1814 established 
the Yorkshire Choral Concert. He composed 
both sacred and secular music, and edited a book 
of psalm and hymn tunes. He died at Edin- 
burgh, May 26, 1824. w. H. H. 

MATHIEU, Emilk, bora at Lille, Oct. 16, 
1844, was the son of musical parents, his father 
having been eminent as a singer and as director 
of the theatre at Antwerp, while his mother 
was a professor of singing in the Academic des 
Beaux- Arts at Louvain. Emile Mathieu began 
his studies very early at the Bnissels Conser- 
vatoire, and in 1869 obtained the second 'prix 
de Rome ' ^vith his cantata, * La Mort du Tasse,' 
which was performed four years afterwards in 
Brussels. In 1881 he was appointed director 
of the Academic de Musique at Louvain, and in 
1891 moved from there to Ghent, where he 
succeeded Adolphe Samuel as director of the 
Conservatoire Royal. His compositions include 
a Te Deum for soli, chorus, and orchestra ; six 
Ballads from Ooethe for voice and piano ; three 
descriptive poems, * Le Hoyoux,* * Freyir,' and 
<Le Sorbier,' for soli, chorus, and orchestra. 
For the stage he has composed a series of 
dramatic works, of which, for the most li&Tt, 
he has written the words himself: *Richilde,' 
in four acts (the leading part created by Mme. 
Rose Caron at the Theatre de la Monnaie in 
1888); 'L'Enfance de Roland' (1889); and 
three op^ras-comique, dating from his earlier 
years — * Georges Dandin ' (after Molifere), given 
at Brussels in 1879; *L']^hange' (Li^ge, 
1863); and 'Le Bemoise' (Brassels, 1885) to 
a poem by M. Lucien Solvay. M. K. 

in three acts ; the music by Rossini. Produced 
at the Apollo Theatre, Rome, in the Carnival 

of 1821, and at the The&tre Italien, Paris, 
1857 ; in London at the King's Theatre, July 
3, 1828. G. 

opera in three acts ; libretto by Alfred Bunn, 
music by W. Vincent Wallace. Produced at 
Drury Lane, Feb. 22, 1847. 

MATINS (Lat. MattUinae ; Officium mcUii- 
iinum). The first division of the Canonical 

The office of Matins, as set forth in the 
Roman Breviary, opens with the series of Versi- 
cles and Responses begijining with the *Domine, 
labia mea aperies, ' followed by the Psalm * Venite, 
exultemus,' with its proper Invitatorium, and 
the hymn appointed for the day. The remainder 
of the service is divided into portions called 
Nocturns, of which three are generally sung, 
on Sundays and festivals, and one only on 
ferial days. 

The First Noctum consists either of three 
or twelve Psalms, sung with three proper Anti- 
phons, which on certain festivals are doubled 
— that is to say sung entire both before and 
after the Psalm. On ferial days and festivals 
of minor solemnity, each Antiphon is sung 
entire after the Psalm, but the first few words 
of it only at the beginning. The Psalms are 
followed by the Paternoster, Absolution, and 
Benediction ; and these by the First, Second, 
and Third Lessons for the day, each succeeded 
by its proper Responsorium or Respond. 

Three Psalms, with their proper Antiphons, 
are sung, in like manner, in the Second Noctum ; 
which concludes with the Fourth, Fifth, and 
Sixth Proper Lessons and Responds. 

In the Third Noctum three more Psalms are 
followed by the Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth 
Lessons and Responds ; the place of the ninth 
Responsory being generally, but not always, 
supplied by the Hymn, ' Te Deum Laudamus. ' 

The Third Noctum is immediately followed 
by the Office of Lauds ; which, indeed, may 
be regarded as the natural corollary of the 
Service. In ancient times, the First Noctum 
was sung soon after midnight ; but the whole 
office is now generally sung * by anticipation ' — 
that is to say, on the afternoon or evening of 
the day before that for which it is appointed. 
The Plain -song Music used, both at Matins 
and Lauds, will be found in the Antiphonal and 
the * Directorium Chori.' [See Lauds ; Anti- 
phon ; Invitatorium.] 

In the First Prayer-Book of King Edward VI. , 
the name of * Mattins ' is given to the Service 
now called 'The Order for Morning Prayer,' 
which is derived, in about equal degrees, from 
the Latin Offices of Matins and Lauds, w. s. R. 

buffa in two acts ; libretto by Bertatti, adapted 
from Colman's * Clandestine Marriage,' music 
by Cimarosa. Produced at Vienna in 1792 ; 
in Paris, May 10, 1801 ; in London, King's 

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Theatre, Jan. 25, 1803. In English at Govent 
Garden, Nov. 1, 1842, and with new translation 
by W. Grist, at the Crystal Palace, Dec. 13, 
1877. G. 

MATTEI, FiLiPPO (commonly known as 
*Pipo ' ), a violoncellist in London, and performer 
at the operas given by the Royal Academy of 
Musick in the theatres in the Haymarket in 
the early 18th century. His claim to remem- 
brance is based exclusively on Handel's MS. 
conducting score of the opera ' Muzio Scevola * 
(in the possession of Dr. W. H. Cummings) in 
which * Pipo ' is mentioned as the composer of 
the first act, usually, and with more probability, 
assigned to Attilio Ariosti, the second and 
third being by Buononcini and Handel re- 
spectively. See Chrysander's O, F. ffdjidelf 
vol. ii. p. 56, where the opera, ^Arsace, overo 
Amore e MaesUi,' is attributed to him. m. 

MATTEI, Stanislao, Abbatb, pupil of 
Martini, and master of Rossini, bom at Bologna, 
Feb. 10, 1750. Though of humble parentage 
(his father was a locksmith) he was sent to the 
Latin schooL Having been present accidentally 
at a service in the Minorite Convent, he was 
so enchanted with the music that he became a 
constant attendant, and thus attracted the notice 
of Padre Martini, by whose advice he entered 
upon his noviciate. Master and pupil became 
tenderly attached, and as soon as Mattel had 
been ordained he became the Padre's confessor, 
and remained with him till his death. He 
acted as Martini's deputy from 1770, and suc- 
ceeded him as maestro di cappella. From 1776 
his compositions were produced in the service. 
On the suppression of the monasteries in 1798, 
he went to live with his aged mother, and 
began an active career as a teacher. From 
this time he was known as the Abbate Mattel. 
Later he became maestro di cappella of San 
Petronio, and professor of counterpoint at the 
Liceo from its foundation in 1804. Among 
his pupils were Rossini, Morlacchi, Donizetti, 
Perotti, Robuschi, Palmerini, Bertolotti, Tado- 
lini, Tesei, and Pilotti, who succeeded him at 
San Petronio. He lived in complete retirement, 
accessible only to his pupils, and died May 12, 
1825. He was president of the ' Filarmonici ' 
in 1790 and 1794, and was a member of the 
Subalpine Acaddmie, and of the * Institut de 
France' (Jan. 24, 1824). He had a thorough 
practical acquaintance with the old traditions, 
as may be seen by his FrcUtica d' accompagna- 
mento sopra hassi numercUi, three vols. (Bologna, 
1788, 1829, 1830), which consists mainly of 
well-chosen examples, with a few rules. In his 
explanations to his pupils he does not seem to 
have been very clear ; at least Rossini complained 
to F^tis in 1841 that he had one stereotyped 
answer when asked to explain a rule in harmony 
or counterpoint, *It is always written thus.' 
Of his music three masses only are generally 
known. The libraries of San Giorgio and the 

Minorite convent in Bologna contain most of 
his compositions, including eight masses, much 
church music, and the scores of an intermezzo 
* La Bottega del Libraio ' and of a ' Passion ' 
performed in 1792. Full particulars of his 
life are given in the Vita di Stanislao Mattei 
by Filippo Canuti (Bologna, 1829, with por- 
trait). F. o. 

MATTEIS, Nicola, an eminent Italian vio- 
linist, came to England about 1672. Nothing 
whatever is known of his antecedents. The 
earliest notice of him is found in Evelyn's Diary 
under date of Nov. 19, 1674: 'I heard that 
stupendous violin, Signor Nicholao (with other 
rare musicians), whom I never heard mortal man 
exceed on that instrument He had a stroke so 
sweet, and made it speak like the voice of a man, 
and, when he pleased, like a concert of several 
instruments. He did wonders upon a note, and 
was an excellent composer. Here was also that 
rare lutanist, Dr. Wallgrave, but nothing ap- 
proached the violin in Nicholao's hand. He 
played such ravishing things as astonished us 
all.' Roger North also (Memmra of Musick) 
speaks very highly of his abilities. [See note on 
p. 122 of Rimbault's edition.] When he first 
came to England he exhibited many singularities 
of conduct which he afterwards abandoned. He 
published here, without date (about 1688) 
< Arie, Prelud\j, Alemande, Sarabande, etc., per 
il Violino. Libro Primo. Altre Arie, etc., piu 
difficile e studiose per il Violino. Libro Se- 
cond©' ; also *Ayres for the Violin, to wit. 
Preludes, Fuges, Alemands, Sarabands, Cou- 
rants, Gigues, Fancies, Divisions, and likewise 
other Passages, Introductions, and Fugues for 
Single and Double stops with divisions somewhat 
more artificial for the Emproving of the Hand 
upon the Basse- Viol or Harpsichord. The Third 
and Fourth Books.' [This has the date 1685 
concealed in the ornamentations of the title* 
page ; other books of the series are dated 1687. 
The books are in oblong octavo, engraved on 
copper-plates by T. Greenhill. A set was sold at 
the Taphouse sale in 1905.] He was likewise 
author of ' The False Consonances of Musick, or. 
Instructions for playing a true Base upon the 
Guittarre, with Choice Examples and clear Direc- 
tions to enable any man in a short time to play 
all Musicall Ayres. A great help likewise to 
those that would play exactly upon the Harpsi- 
chord, Lute, or Base-Viol, shewing the delicacy 
of all Accords, and how to apply them in their 
proper places. In four parts,' — which even in 
North's time had become scarce, and is now 
excessively rare. In 1696 Matteis composed an 
Ode on St. Cecilia's Day for the then annual 
celebration in London, and was also one of the 
stewards of a Cecilian celebration at Oxford. 
[Another and lesser known work by the same 
composer is * A Collection of New Songs set by 
Mons. Nicola Matteis, made purposely for the 
use of his Scholars : Fairly engraven on Copper 

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plates/ two books, 1696, folio, Walsh and Hare. 
A copy of this was sold at Dr. Rimbault's sale. 
With * Symphonies for two flutes by a person of 
quality, fairly engraved on copper plates,* these 
songs by Matteis are advertised by Walsh and 
Hare in the Londmi Gazette for May 11, 1696.] 
A song by him is included in a collection of 
'Twelve New Songs,' published in 1699. Ac- 
cording to North ' he fell into such credit and 
imployment that he took a great hous, and after 
the manner of his country lived luxuriously, 
which brought diseases upon him of which he 
dyed. ' The date of his death is unknown. He 
is said to have been the Inventor of the half-shift, 
but it is claimed also for others. 

His son, Nicholas, was taught the violin by 
his father, and became an excellent player. He 
went to Germany and resided for some time at 
Vienna, [being a member of the court orchestra 
there from 1700,] but in 1737 returned to 
England and settled at Shrewsbuiy as a teacher 
of languages, as well as of the violin, where 
Burney learned French and the violin of him. 
He died there about 1 749. [For a fuller account 
of the Matteis, father and son, see Roger 
North's Memoirs of Afusick, p. 125, and Burney's 
Hiatory, iil. p. 615, etc.] w. h. h.; with fl^ddi- 
tions in square brackets by F. k. 

MATTHESON, JoHiiNK, German musician 
and writer, born Sept. 28, 1681, at Hamburg, 
son of a clerk of excise ; as a child showed 
striking symptoms of versatility, which -his 
parents carefully cultivated. Besides the 
ordinary education he studied music, and at 
nine years could play the harpsichord and 
organ, sing and compose. His ability and 
versatility were truly extraordinary. A good 
classical scholar and a proficient in modem 
languages, a student of law and political science, 
a fine player both on harpsichord and organ, 
and thoroughly skilled in theory, an elegant 
dancer, a master of fence, and a cultivated man 
of the world. The first step in his changeful 
career was his appearance in 1696 as a singer 
(of female parts) in the Hamburg opera, then 
in its most flourishing condition. In 1699 he 
produced his first opera, ' Die Pleyaden ' ; in 
another, * Cleopatra ' (1704), he took the part of 
Antony, and after singing his part on the stage, 
was in the habit of sitting down at the harpsi- 
chord to conduct the orchestra. To this period 
belongs his acquaintance, and the famous duel, 
with Handel, who came to Hamburg in 1708. 
Mattheson tells us that he recognised Handel's 
genius immediately, that they became at once 
attached, and that their friendship continued, 
with occasional breaks caused by Mattheson's 
vanity, during the whole time of Handel's stay in 
Hambui>g (1709) [see Handel, vol. iL p. 280]. 
He claims to have done Handel an important 
service by introducing him to the musical world 
of Hamburg, at that time very celebrated ; but 
he acknowledges that he picked up from him 

many a * contrapuntal device. ' Handel's ' Nero ' 
(1705) was the last opera in which Mattheson 
appeared ; he then ratired from the stage, and 
declined more than one organist's post which 
was offered to him. He became tutor to the 
son of the English envoy, and in 1706 was 
made secretary of legation. His post was one 
of labour and responsibility, but he still con- 
tinued to teach, conduct, compose, and write on 
musical subjects. In 1715 he was appointed 
Cantor and Canon of the cathedral ; and took 
an active part in the development of the Church- 
cantata, so soon after carried to its highest 
pitch by J. S. Bach [see Kirchencantaten]. 
This was the result of an attempt, made more 
particularly by the Hamburg composers, to 
vary the monotony of congregational singing by 
the introduction of airs, duets, choruses, etc., 
and was considered by the orthodox an impious 
and sacrilegious innovation. Mattheson sup- 
ported this * adapted dramatic ' style, as it was 
called, both as a composer and as a pamphleteer ; 
and even ventured on a further innovation, by 
introducing female singers into church. 

In 1719 he received from the Duke of Holstein 
the title of Court-Capellmcister. In 1728 he 
was attacked with deafness, which obliged 
him to resign his post at the cathedral. Thence- 
forward he occupied himself chiefly with writing, 
and died at an advanced age, April 17, 1764. 
He is said to have resolved to publish a work 
for every year of his life, and this aim he more 
than accomplished, for when he died at eighty- 
three, his printed works amounted to eighty- 
eight, besides a still larger number of completed 

None of his compositions have survived. With 
all his cleverness and knowledge he had no real 
genius ; his vocal music was overburdened with 
declamatory passages — ^a fault easily explained 
by his own experience on the stage, but one 
which is often detrimental and must have been 
very incongruous in church music. He com- 
posed twenty-four oratorios and cantatas ; eight 
operas ; sonatas for flute and violin ; suites for 
clavier ; arias ; pUeea dedrconstance for weddings, 
funerals, etc. [see the Quellefi-Lexikon for list]. 
A ' Ptosions-Cantate ' to words by Brookes de- 
serves attention, not for its intrinsic value, but 
because the poem was set by nearly all the great 
composers of the day, including Keiser, Tele- 
mann, and Handel. 

His books are of far greater value than his 
compositions. In these, notwithstanding a 
peculiar self-satisfied loquacity, he shows himself 
a ready and skilful champion for earnestness 
and dignity in art, for progress, and for solidity 
of attainment in the practical part of music. 
In both branches, theoretical and practical, he 
attacked and demolished much that was anti- 
quated, furnishing at the same time a great 
deal that was new and instructive, and be- 
queathing to posterity a mine of historical 

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material. He aUo found time for much other 
literary work, especially translations (chiefly 
from English workson politics and jurisprudence), 
and even translated a small treatise on tobacco. 
This extraordinary versatility, and his untiring 
industry, go far to redeem the vanity which 
animated his character and actions, and con- 
tinually shows itself in his writings. His 
autobiography in the Ehrenpforte contains an 
amusingly egotistical description of his manifold 
labours. His more important books are scarce, 
and much valued, especially the historical ones, 
which are the standard sources of information 
on the state of music at that period, especially 
in Hamburg. These are Das neu erbffneU 
Orchester (1713), followed by Das besehvtzU 
and Das/orschende Orchester (1717 and 1721); 
Oritica Musioa (1722-25) ; Der musikdlische 
Patriot (1728) ; and the Ghrundlage einer Ehren- 
pforte (1 740), a collection of biographies of con- 
temporary musicians. The last two ore the 
most important His theoretical works are the 
Exemplarische Organisten Probe (1719), repub- 
lished in 1781 as the Gh^osse GeneraZbasssch'uJe ; 
the KUine OeneralbasssehtUe (1785) ; the Kern 
melodiseher Wissenscha/l (1787^ ; and finally 
the Vollkommene Capellmeister (1789), perhaps 
his most valuable work. As a controversial 
writer he was wanting in temper ; his ' Ephorus 
Gottingensis ' (1727), directed against Professor 
Joachim Meyer of Gottingen on the Church- 
cantata question, is the only work of that class 
^e need specify. [The complete list of his 
^Titings is given in the QueUen-LexikoTul a. m. 
MATTHIAS, Hermann. See Wbrre- 


M AUCOTEL, Adolphe, French violin maker, 
bom at Mirecourt, Lorraine, 1820 ; died 1858. 
Worked under J. B. Vuillaume in Paris from 
1889 to 1844, and then opened a workshop of 
his own in the Galerie Yivionne. Later he 
removed to the Bue Groix-des-Petits-Champs, 
and lastly settled in the Rue Princesse. His 
instruments are greatly esteemed for their tone, 
their durability, and their excellent workman- 
ship. He copied the Stradivarius model very 
succejisfully, and but for his untimely end 
should have ranked among the foremost French 
makers. He committed suicide at the age of 
thirty-eight, by cutting his throat whilst in a 
state of feverish delirium. The Paris Conser- 
vatoii© owns a violoncello by this maker, which 
is considered to be the finest instrument he 
ever produced. His brother, Charles Mau- 
COTEL, was also an excellent violin maker ; 
bom at Mirecourt, 1807 ; died 1860. Pupil of 
Bloise Mast, of Mirecourt. He went to Paris 
in 1834 and studied under Gand, after which, 
in 1850, he established himself in London. 
Willibald Freiherm von Lutgendorfl"s 'Die 
Geigen und Lautenmacher,' Frankfort A/M, 
1904; H. R. Haweia's Old Violins, London, 
1898. E. h-a. 

MAUDUIT, Jacques, French lute player 
and composer, was bom at Paris, Sept 16, 
1557. He succeeded his father as ' greffier dee 
requites,' registrar in the courts of justice at 
Paris, but his talent and reputation as a musician 
acquired for him in France the title of P^re de 
la Musique. In 1581 he obtained the first prize 
at the musical competition, which took place 
yearly at Evreux in Normandy, for the best 
motets and chansons. A requiem a 5 by 
Mauduit, written for the funeral of the poet 
Ronsard, was published by the P^re Mersenne 
in the seventh book of his Jffarmonie Universelle, 
1686. Ambros speaks slightingly of this work, 
describing it as a simple Fauxbourdon without 
any particular merit. In 1570 the poet Antoine 
Baif received permission from Charles IX. to 
found the Acad^mie Fran9oise de Musique et de 
Po^ie, the original object of which was to bring 
about a closer union between music and poetry, 
by making musical rhythm entirely subordinate 
to the metrical rhythm of prosody. Mauduit 
would appear to have associated himself with 
the efforts Which Biuf made in this direction, 
and to have taken part in the concerts which 
were held in Baif s house. M. Henry Expert, 
in his collection entitled Les MaUres-musiciens 
de la Renaissance Frangaise, has recently re- 
published the * Chansonnettes M^sur^ de Jan^ 
Antoine de Baif mises en musique k quatre 
parties par Jacques Mauduit,' Paris, 1586, in 
which Mauduit has endeavoured to carry out the 
classical theories of Baif. They are slight com- 
positions, but graceful enough. After Baifs 
death in 1590, the concerts continued to be 
carried on by Mauduit, but as Brenet says, 
* The equilibrium jealously maintained by Baif, 
between poetry and music, was broken to the 
advantage of the latter,' and more freedom was 
gained for the independent development of mnsic 
by the greater prominence given to instrumental 
music (see Michel Brenet, Les Concerts en France 
sous Vancien rSgime, 1900, p. 87). Mauduit 
died August 21, 1627. For the story of his 
saving Claude Le Jeune's manuscripts from the 
flames, see Le Jeitne, vol. ii. p. 671. J. R. m. 

' MAUGARS, C^Ubre Joueur de Viole, Musi- 
cien du Cardinal de Richelieu, Conseiller, 
Secretaire, Interpr^te du Roi en langue Anglaise, 
Traducteur de F. Bacon, Prieur de Saint- Pierre 
Eynac.' This, the commencement of the title 
of the charming monograph written by Antoine 
Ernest Roquet under his pseudonym of *£. 
Thoinan ' (Paris, Claudiny 1865), is almost a 
condensed biography of Andr^ Maugars (not 
Aude, as Fetis, for some unexplained reason, 
has it), who ranks with Lully {q.v.) as a 
politician-musician at the court of France. The 
place and date of his birth are unknown, but it 
may be ooi^'ectnred that he was bom in the 
latter years of the 16th century. About 1620 
he spent four years in England playing the viol 
at the Court of James I., and the first- fruit of 

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his sojourn was a translation of Bacon's Advance- 
ment of Learning J which was published in Paris 
in 1624 (P. Billaine), under the title Le Progrez 
et Avaneeineivt aiix Sciences divines et humaines, 
dedicated to de Lomenie. Soon after this he 
became a creature of Cardinal Richelieu, useful 
to that prelate in the cai)acity of Secretary-Inter- 
preter, in which capacity he served likewise in 
the Court of Louis XIII. , and became a favourite 
butt of the courtier-wit Bois-Robert, whom he 
distinguished by a hatred which, though im- 
potent, has passed into history. His political 
satires, etc., and the story of his various 
quarrels, may be read in the authorities referred 
to below. All that we know of his death is the 
record of Tallemant to the effect that he 
' i*eturned to France and died a few years later. 
On his death -bed he sent to ask forgiveness of 
his old enemy Bois- Robert.* To this period 
belongs his pamphlet, reprinted by M. Thoinan, 
Response faiU d un curicux sur le sentiment de 
la Musique cClUUiey escrite d Jtome le premier 
Oetobre 1639. 

As a violist he was classed by Mersennus 
with Hottman (De Instr. Harm, lib. 1. prop. 
30), and his eulogy is similarly expressed by 
Jean Rousseau in his TraiU de la Viole, His 
compositions, which must have been significant, 
appear wholly lost to posterity, but he himself 
lauds their excellence with no uncertain voice. 
P. Saint -Glas, Divers Traitez d^Histoire de 
Morale et d'Eloquence (Paris, 1672). LAbb6 
Bordelon's Les Malades de Belle Humeur ou 
lettres divertissanteSy etc. (Paris, 1697), reprinted 
in vol. viii. of Diversitez Carieuses (Paris, 1700). 
Tallemant des R^aux, Les ffistoriettes pour servir 
A Vhistoire du XVII siicle. The notice in 
F^tis (Biog, des Mus,) is inaccurate and 
incomplete. e. h-a. 

MAUREL, Victor, born at Marseilles, June 
17, 1848, received instruction at the Paris Con- 
servatoire in singing from Yauthrot, and in 
opera from Duvemoy, and gained the first prizes 
in both subjects, co-equal with Gailhard, in 
1867. He made his debuts at the Opera as De 
Nevers and Conte di Luna in 1868. He was 
next in Italy, where he played the Cacique on 
the production of Gomes's ' Guarany ' at Milan, 
March 19, 1870. He made his ddbut at the 
Royal Italian Opera, London, as Renato, April 
21, 1873, made a great success, and was eng^ed 
there every year until 1879 inclusive. His ])arts 
comprised Don Giovanni, Tell, Almaviva, Hoel, 
Peter the Great, Valentine, Hamlet, the Cacique ; 
in operas new to England, Telramund, May 8, 
1875 ; Wolfram, May 6, 1876 ; the Flying 
Dutchman, June 16, 1877, and Domingo in 
Mass^'s *Paul et Virginie,' June 1, 1878. He 
reappeared at the French Op^ra as Hamlet, 
Nov. 28, 1879, and also played Amonasro on 
the production in Paris of *Aida,' March 22, 
1880. After a tour in Spain, he undertook, in 
1883, the management with Corti of the Italian 

Opera at the Theatre des Nations (now the 
Theatre Sarah-Bernhardt), with disastrous finan- 
cial results, in spite of a company including 
Mesdames Marimon, Adler-Devries, Nevada, 
and Tremelli, Gayarr^, the brothers De Reszke, 
and himself, and the successful production of 
Massenet's 'H^rodiade,' Feb. 1, 1884. He 
played at the Op^ra - Comique, Peter, Oct. 6, 

1885, Falstatf in Thomas's 'Songe d'une Nuit 
d'^t^,' and Zampa, Jan. 19, 1886, with great 
success. He played again at Covent Garden in 

1886, and at Drury Lane for the first time in 
1887 in favourite parts. Between tliese engage- 
ments he created, with the greatest success, 
lago in Verdi's *Otello,' Milan, Feb. 5, 1887, 
and showed himself the best acting baritone on 
the Italian stage since Faure. [He introduced 
this fine impersonation to the English public at 
the Lyceum Theatre on July 5, 1889, and on 
Feb. 9, 1893, created the part of Falstaff in 
Verdi's last opera at Milan. Both these parts 
were sung by him for the first time in Paris in 

1894, the latter first in London on June 10, 

1895. In 1896 he returned to the Op^ra-Comique, 
where he created thepartof Mathiasin Erlanger's 
*Juif Polonais,* April 11, 1900. For a short 
time after that he appeared as an actor at non- 
musical theatres, but returned to the operatic 
stage and reappeared in London in the part of 
Rigoletto on Nov. 15, 1904. His Dix ans de 
earrikre (1897) was translated into German by 
Mme. Lilli Lehmann.] a. c. 

MAURER, LuDWiG Wilhelm, distinguished 
violinist, bom Feb. 8, 1789, in Potsdam, pupil 
of Haak, Concertmeister to Frederick the Great. 
At tliirteen he appeared with great success at a 
concert given in Berlin by Mara, and was in 
consequence admitted to the royal chapel as a 
probationer. After the battle of Jena (1806) 
the chapel was dismissed, and Maurer travelled, 
first to Konigsberg and Riga, where he made 
the acquaintance of Rode and Baillot, and then 
to Mittau and St. Petersburg, his playing being 
everywhere appreciated. At Moscow he again 
met Baillot, through whose good offices he became 
capellmeister to the Chancellor Wsowologsky, 
who had a private orchestra. Here he remained 
till 1817, when he made another successful tour, 
being particularly well received in Berlin and 
Paris. In 1832 he returned to Wsowologsky, 
and stayed till 1845, when after another tour 
he settled finally in Dresden. The best known 
of his compositions are a Symphonic concertante 
for four violins and orchestra, first played in 
Paris by himself, Spohr, Miiller, and Wich in 
1838 ; and three Russian aii*s with variations 
(op. 14). Of his operas *Alonzo* (c. 1830), 
< Aloise ' (1838), * Der entdeckte Diebstahl,' and 
*Der neue Paris,* the overtures only have been 
printed. He also published several concertos — 
one of which was at one time very often played 
at the Philharmonic Concerts in London — and 
two collections of quartets (opp. 1 7 and 26). He 

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died at St. Petersbux^, Oct 25, 1878. His 
two sons WsEVOLOD, a violinist, and Alexis, a 
violoncellist, were good musicians who settled 
in Russia. F. o. 

MAXWELL, Faancis Kellt (sometimes 
called John), D.D., chaplain of the Asylum, 
Edinburgh, published anonymously An Essay 
upon TwMy being an attempt to free the seaZe of 
music and the time of instruments from imperfec- 
tion (Edinburgh, 1781 ; London, 1794) ;— an 
able work. He died in 1782. w. H. H. 

MAY, Edward CoLLETr, born Oct. 29, 1806, 
at Greenwich, where his father was a shipbuilder. 
His first teacher was his brother Henry, an 
amateur musician and composer of considerable 
ability. When about fifteen years of age, Thomas 
Adams, then organist of St. Paul's, Deptford, 
and an intimate friend of the May family, struck 
by the promise and intelligence of Edward, 
oifered to take him as a pupiL Subsequently 
he became a pupil of Cipriani Potter for the 
pianoforte, and of Crivelli for singing. In 1837 
he was appointed organist of Greenwich Hospital, 
an office he held till the abolition of the institu- 
tion in 1869. From 1841 to his death he 
devoted himself enthusiastically and exclusively 
to the musical teaching of the masses ; and it 
may be safely asserted that to few individuals, 
of any age or country, have so many persons of 
all ages and of both sexes been indebted for 
their musical skill. At one institution alone, the 
National Society's Central School, more than 
a thousand teachers and many more children 
were instructed by him. At Exeter Hall, 
the Apollonicon Rooms, and subsequently St. 
Martin's Hall, several thousand adults passed 
through his classes ; while for many years he 
was the sole musical instructor at the Training 
Schools, Batteraea, St. Mark's, Whitelands, 
Home and Colonial, and Hockerill ; institutions 
from which upwards of 250 teachers are annually 
sent forth to elementary schools. After many 
years' connection with the Institution, May was 
appointed in 1880 Professor of Vocal Music in 
Queen's College, London. [He died Jan. 2, 

His daughter, Florence May, is known in 
London as a pianoforte player of considerable 
cultivation and power, and a successful teacher. 
[She had the great advantage of being a pupil of 
Johannes Brahms, and has distinguished herself 
as an interpreter of his music, playing many of 
his pianoforte works for the first time in Eng- 
land. She has recently completed a biography 
of the master, two vols., 1905.] J. H. 

MAY-QUEEN, THE, a Pastoral ; words 
by H. F. Chorley, music by W. Stemdale 
Bennett, written for a festival at Leeds, and 
produced there Sept. 8, 1858. The overture 
was composed before the year 1844, and was 
originally entitled * Marie du Bois.' It was 
first performed June 24, 1845, at the composer's 
own concert at the Hanover Square Rooms* o. 

MAYER, Charles, celebrated pianist, bom 
March 21, 1799, at Konigsberg. His father, a 
clarinet player, went soon after the boy's birth 
to St. Petersburg, and four years after to Moscow, 
where he settled with his family. Charles first 
learned from his mother, a good pianoforte 
teacher, and later became a pupil of Field. After 
the burning of Moscow in 1812 the family fled 
to St. Petersburg, where the mother became 
pianoforte teacher, and where the lessons with 
Field were resumed. The pupil played so exactly 
like his master that connoisseurs were unable 
to tell which was at the piano if a screen was 
interposed. In 1814 Mayer accompanied his 
father to Paris, where he was well received. He 
first played his concert- variations on * God save 
the King ' in Amsterdam. In 1819 he returned 
to St. Petersburg, where he worked hard and 
successfully at teaching, and formed as many as 
800 pupils. In 1845 he travelled to Stockholm, 
Copenhagen, Hamburg, Leipzig, and Vienna, 
but this was his last tour. In 1850 he settled 
in Dresden, where he taught, gave concerts, and 
composed up to his death, which took place on 
July 2, 1862. His pieces reach the astonishing 
number of 900. Mayer's playing was distin- 
guished by great purity of style and expression, 
and his compositions are eminently suited to 
the instrument. They include a concerto with 
orchestra in D, op. 70 ; a concerto symphonique, 
op. 89 ; and variations and fantasias on opera 
airs. His 'Polka Boh^mienne' in A, was at 
one time immensely popular. A Mazurka by 
him in Ftf major was for some time considered 
to be by Chopin, and as such was included in 
the first issue of Klindworth's edition. It has 
been removed from later issues. f. o. 

MAYNARD, John, a lutenist, published in 
1611* The XII Wonders of the World, Set and 
composed for the VioU de Gambo, the Lute and 
the Voyce to sing the Verse, all three jointly 
and none severall ; also Lessons for the Lute 
and Base Violl to play alone ; \dth some Lessons 
to play Lyra-waye alone, or if you will to fill 
up the parts with another Violl set Lute-way.' 
The work contains twelve songs severally de- 
scribing the characters of a Courtier, Divine, 
Soldier, Lawyer, Physician, Merchant, Country 
Gentleman, Bachelor, Married Man, Wife, 
Widow, and Maid ; and twelve pavans and 
galliards for the lute. A curious canon, ' Eight 
parts in one upon the Plaine Song,' is on the 
title-page. The composer described himself as 
* Lutenist at the most famous Schools of St. 
Julian's in Hartfordshire,' and dedicated his 
work * To his ever-honoured Lady and Mistris 
the Lady Joane Thynne, of Cause Castle in 
Shropshire. ' Some organ pieces by one Maynard 
(presumably the same) are contained in a 
MS. in the library of the Sacred Harmonic 
Society. w. h. h. 

MAYR, JoHANN Simon (also called Simons 
Mayer), esteemed opera composer in the 

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boginning of the 19th century, born June 14, 
1763, at Mendorf in Bavaria; early showed talent 
for music, which he iirst learned from his lather 
the village schoolmaster and organist. When 
about ten he entered the Jesuit seminary at 
Ingolstadt, but did not neglect his music, 
either then, or when, after the banishment of 
the Jesuits, he studied law in Ingolstadt. 
Having made the acquaintance of a nobleman, 
Thomas de Bessus of the Griaons, he lived in 
the house as music master, and was afterwards 
sent by his patron to Bergamo, to study with 
Lenzi, maestro di cappella there. Mayr found, 
however, that his master knew little more than 
himself, and was on the point of returning to 
Germany, when Count Presenti, a canon of 
Bergamo, provided him with the means of 
going to F. Bertoni in Venice. Here again his 
expectations were deceived, but he picked up 
some practical hints and a few rules from 
Bertoni, and hard work and the study of good 
books djd the rest. He had already published 
some songs in Ratisbon ; and in Bergamo and 
Venice he composed masses and vespers. After 
the success of his oratorio 'Jacob a Labano 
fugiens,' composed in 1791 for the Gonservatorio 
dei Mendicanti, and performed before a distin- 
guished audience, he was commissioned to 
compose three more oratorios for Venice ( * David, ' 
'Tobiae matrimonium* and 'Sisara'). For 
Forll he wrote ' Jephte ' and a Passion. Thrown 
on his own resources by the sudden death of 
his patron, he was urged by Piccinni to try the 
stage, and his first opera 'Saffo, ossia i riti 
d' Apollo Leucadio ' was so well received at the 
Fenice in Venice (1794) that he was immediately 
overwhelmed with commissions, and between 
that date and 1814 composed no less than 
seventy-seven operas. Indeed it was not till 
Bossini's success that his fame declined. Many 
of his melodies were sung about the streets, 
such as the pretty cavatina * (juanto 1' anima ' 
firom 'Lauso e Lidia.' In 1802 he became 
maestro di cappella of Santa Maria Maggiore 
in Bergamo, and was so much attached to 
his work there, that he declined not only in- 
vitations to London, Paris, Lisbon, and Dresden, 
but also the post of Censor to the Gonservatorio 
of Milan, his appointment to which had been 
signed by the Viceroy of Italy in 1807. As 
professor of composition in the Musical Institute 
of Bergamo, — founded in 1805, reox^nised in 
1811 — he exercised great and good influence ; 
Donizetti was one of his pupils there. He was 
the founder of two institutions for decayed 
musicians and their widows, the ' Scuola carita- 
tevole di Musica,* and the 'Pio Istituto di 
Bergamo.' [From 1816 onwards he wrote only 
church music, such as masses, psalms, motets, 
etc. 8ee Qiiellen-LexikoTu] He had been blind 
for some years before his death, which took 
place on Deo. 2, 1845. The city of Bergamo 
erected a monument to him in 1852, and in 

1875 his remains and those of Donizetti were 
removed with much ceremony to the church of 
Santa Maria Maggiore. The most celebrated of 
his operas are 'Lodoiska* (1800), 'Ginevra di 
Scozia' (1801), < Medea' (1813), and <Bosa 
bianca e Rosa rosea' (1814). [28 operas are 
mentioned in the QuelUn-Lexikon as still ex- 
tant.] He is said to have been the first to in- 
troduce the crescendo of the orchestra to which 
Rossini owes so much of his fame. He wrote a 
small book on Haydn (1809), a biography of 
Gapuzzi the violinist, and poems on his death in 
1818 ; also La DoUrina degli dementi tnusieali, 
still in MS. in Bergamo. [See the Zeiischr. of 
the IrU, Mu8. Oes, vii. 224, and Ze Ckiide Musical, 
March 11, 1906.] f. g. 

MAYSEDER, Joseph, violinist and composer, 
son of a poor painter, bom in Vienna, Oct. 26, 
1789. Beginning at eight, he learnt the violin 
from Suche and Wranitzky. Schuppanzigh 
took a great interest in the lad, and entrusted 
him with the second violin in his quartet. 
In 1800 he gave his first concert in the Augarten 
with brilliant success. He rapidly nuule his 
way with the court and nobility, and among 
musicians. In 1816 he entered the court 
chapel, in 1820 became solo- violin at the court 
theatre, and in 1835 was appointed chamber- 
violinist to the Emperor. The municipality 
awarded him the large gold ' Salvator Medal ' 
in 1811, and presented him with the freedom 
of the city in 1817. In 1862 the Emperor 
bestowed on him the order of Franz -Joseph. 
In 1815 he gave, with Hummel (afterwards 
replaced by Moscheles) and Giuliani, the so- 
called ^Dukaten-concerte.' He also gave con- 
certs with Merk the violoncellist, but after 
1837 he never appeared in public. He never 
played abroad ; even on his visit to Paris in 
1820, he would only play before a select circle 
of artists, including Kreutzer, Baudiot, Cheru- 
bini, Habeneck, Lafont, and Viotti. He took 
a great interest in the string -quartet party 
which met at Baron Zmeskall's house (where 
Beethoven was often present), and afterwards 
in that at Prince Constantine Czartoryski's 
(from 1843 to 1856). His many pupils spread 
his name far and wide. His tone was peculiarly 
fascinating, and his execution had great breadth 
and elevation of style. With the exception of 
a grand mass he composed only chamber music 
of a style similar to his playing. He published 
sixty-three works, including concertos, polon- 
aises, variations, five quintets and eight quartets 
for strings, Etudes and duets for violin, four 
trios, sonatas, etc. for PF., trio for violin, harp, 
and horn, etc. Mayseder died, universally 
respected, Nov. 21, 1863. c. f. h. 

MAZAS, Jacqubs-FArAol, French violinist 
and composer, was bom Sept. 23, 1782, at 
Beziers. He entered the Paris Conservatoire 
in 1802, and after having studied for three 
years under Baillot, obtained the first prize 

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for violin -playing. He had great sacoeas at 
Paris, especially with his performance of a 
violin -concerto, written for him by Auber, at 
the Conservatoire. He travelled through a 
very large part of Europe, and returned in 1829 
to Paris, without, however, gaining his former 
sucoess. In 1837 he left Paris again, and 
accepted the directorship of a music-school at 
Cambrai, remaining there till 1841. He died 
at B^ziers in 1849. 

Mazas wrote a large number of brilliant violin 
pieces, quartets, trios, and duets for stringed 
instruments (the latter still much valued for 
teaching purposes), an instruction-book for the 
violin, and one for the viola. F^tis mentions 
also two operas (one, 'Le Kiosque,' performed 
in Paris in 1842), two violin-concertos, and an 
overture. p. d. 

MAZEPPA. (i.) Opera in three acts, libretto 
from FouBhk\n*8 Poltava, by Bonrenin and others, 
music by Tchaikovsky. Produced at Moscow 
and St. Petersburg, almost simultaneously, in 
1888 ; given at the Alexandra Theatre, Liver- 
pool ; Comedy Theatre, Manchester ; and Grand 
Theatre, Birmingham, in August and Sept. 
1888, by the Russian National Opera Company, 
and promised for performance in London at 
what is now the Great Queen Street Theatre, 
but the enterprise came to an untimely end 
before the opera could be given. 

(ii.) The sixth of Liszt's symphonic poems 
for orchestra. Originally designed as a piano- 
forte ^tude, it was revised and scored for 
orchestra in 1858. 

MAZUBKA, Mazourea, Masurek, or Ma- 
SURB, a national Polish dance, deriving its 
name from the ancient Palatinate of Masovia. 
Mazurkas were known as early as the 16th 
century ; they originated in national songs ^ 
accompanied with dancing. They were intro- 
duced into Germany by Augustus III., Elector 
of Saxony and King of Poland (1733-63), and 
after becoming fashionable in Paris, reached 
England towards 1845. The Mazurka was 
naturalised in Russia after the subjugation of 
Poland, but the Russian dance differs from the 
Polish in being performed by an indefinite 
number, while the latter is usually danced by 
four or eight couples. The Mazurka is remark- 
able for the variety and liberty allowed in its 
figures, and for the peculiar steps necessary to 
its performance. Indeed, the whole dance 
partakes of the character of an improvisation, 
even the invention of new steps and figures 
being allowable. The music (in 3-4 or 3-8 
time) consists usually of two or four parts of 
eight bars, each part being repeated. In the 
earliest Mazurkas the bass was invariably on 
one note, usually the tonic. There is generally 
a strong accent on the third beat of the bar. 

I 7*hia tetixre It haa retained. Chopin, in a letter of Axtgnst 
20. ISSS, mj», 'The thought fortunately straek Macleloirskl to 
■vrrlte four stanzas for a Maiurka, and I set them to music ' 
(Karmaowski, i. 80). 

VOL. Ill 

The tune should also end on the second beat of 
the bar, but in old Mazurkas there is often no 
definite conclusion, and the repeats are made 
ad libitum. The Tempo is much slower than that 
of the ordinary waltz. Chopin treated the dance 
in a new and characteristic manner. He extended 
its original forms, eliminated all vulgarity, 
introduced all sorts of Polish airs, and thus 
retained little more than the intensely national 
character of the original simple dance tune. 
(See Karasowski's Life of Chopin^ chap. vii. ; 
and also the somewhat rhapsodical but still 
interesting remarks of Liszt in his Chopin.) 
No less than fourteen sets of his Mazurkas 
have been published, containing fifty -two in 
aU(opp. 6, 7, 17, 24, 80, 33, 41, 50, 66, 59, 
63, 67, 68, and one without opus number). 
Weber gives the title ' Masurik ' to the fourth 
of his six pieces for the PF. k quatre mains 
(op. 10). 

The following example is a simple Mazurka 
popular in the neighbourhood of Warsaw. The 
first part of the melody has a vocal accompani- 
ment : — 

w. B. 8. 
MAZZINGHI, Joseph, of an ancient Corsican 
family, bom in London, Dec. 25, 1765, was a 
pupil of John Christian Bach, under whom he 
made such progress that, on the death of his 
father, in 1775, he was, although but ten years 
of age, appointed organist of the Portuguese 
Chapel. He then studied under Bertolini, 
Sacchini, and Anfossi. In 1784 he became 
musical director and composer at the King's 
Theatre, and produced the operas of ' 11 Tesoro ' 
and 'La Belle Arsene,' brides many songs, 
duets, etc., for introduction into other operas, 
and the music for several ballets. The score of 
Paiaiello's opera 'La Locanda' having been 
consumed in the fire of the Opera House in 
June 1789, Mazzinghi rescored the work so 
faithfully as to admit of its continued perform- 
ance. For the English theatre he set the 
following pieces: — *A Day in Turkey,' 1791 ; 
*The Magician no Conjuror,' 1792; *Ramah 
Droog,' 1798; *The Turnpike Gate,' 1799; 
*Paul and Virginia,' 1800 ; * The Blind Girl,' 
1801 ; 'Chains of the Heart,' 1802 (the last 
five in collaboration with Reeve) ; ' The Wife 
of two Husbands,' 1803 ; *The Exile,' 1808 ; 
and * The Free Knights,' 1810. The last piece 
contained the duet, 'When a little farm we 

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keep/ which for nearly half a century was 
highly popular and oonstantly introduced into 
other pieces. 

Mazzinghi was music-master to the Princess 
of Wales, afterwards Queen Caroline, and had 
an extensive practice as a teacher of the piano- 
forte, for which instrument he composed nearly 
seventy sonatas and arranged a multitude of 
pieces, besides writing an ' Introduction ' to it. 
His glees, trios, harmonised airs, songs, and 
other vocal pieces, were legion. His pastoral 
glee, * The Wreath * (* Tell me, shepherds '), was 
long in favour. He likewise composed a mass 
for three voices, and six hymns. Having about 
1830 attained the rank of Count he retired to 
Bath, where he died, Jan. 15, 1844. [C. F. 
Pohl, in his Mozart and Haydn in Londony vol. 
ii. p. 370, states that Joseph Mazzinghi died 
in 1839, and that the Mazzinghi who died in 
1844 was Thomas, or Toromaso, who was en- 
nobled in 1834. The father of one or both was 
probably the author of * Six solos for the violin,* 
published as op. 1 in London about 1763. See 
the Qudlen-Lexikon,'] w. h. h. 

MAZZOCCHI, DoMENico, bom at Veja, near 
Civita Castellana, about the end of the 16th 
century. He was a pupil of Nanini, and 
published an opera, 'La Catena d'Adone,* in 
1626, a book of five-part madrigals, a set of 
'Dialoghi e Sonetti* in 1638, and a volume of 
'Musiche sacre' in 1640. In the dedication 
of this last he states that he has been for 
twenty years in the ser\'ice of the family of 
Aldobrandini Borghese. His claim to notice 
is mainly for the reason that he seems to have 
been the first to use the sign — =^ =*" for a 
crescendo and diminuendo, or a 'swell.' His 
brother, Virgilio Mazzocchi, was from 1628 
to 1629 maestro di cappella at St. John Lateran 
in Rome, and in the latter year was appointed 
to a similar place in St. Peter's. He held this 
post until his death in October 1646. In 1640 
he published, as op. 1, 'Sacrae Acres' for two, 
three, and four voices, and in 1648, a set of 
psalms for double chorus was issued (^ueZ/enr- 

MEAN (Old Eng. Meane, Mme ; Lat. 
Medius), 1. An old name for a middle Voice- 
part, whether Alto or Tenor. 

2. A name given to the second instrument 





in a Concert of Viols, as in Orlando Gibbons*8 
* Fantasies in three parts, for Viols,' reprinted 
by the Musical Antiquarian Society. 

3. The name of the second and third strings 
of the viol — the former being called the Small, 
and the latter the Great Meane. 

4. The title of an ingenious Fugue for the 
Organ composed by William Blitheman, and 
printed by Hawkins in the Appendix to voL v. 
of his History (see above). w. s. B. 

MEANTONE. See Temperament. 

MEARES, Richard, father and son with 
the same Christian name. The father was a 
skilled maker of viols, lutes, and other instru- 
ments, and as his labels inform us, lived ' With- 
out Bishop -gate, near to Sr. Paul Pinder's, 
London.' The earliest of these labels of which 
the present writer has knowledge is dated 
1669 ; others 1677, etc. Hawkins, who gives 
an account of father and son (misspelling the 
name ' Mears '), says that his shop was opposite 
the Catherine Wheel Inn, without Bishopgate, 
and that he was advertising in 1688, Mutes, 
and viols fretted according to Mr. Salmon's 

Richard Meares the son is mentioned by 
Hawkins as a 'whimsical man,' bred up to 
his father's business, who, ' seeing the slovenly 
manner in which music was published by 
Walsh h Hare, and being desirous to participate 
in so gainful a trade, became their rival.' 

A card in the Bagford collection (BHL Mus.) 
indicates that the younger Meares was first 
established in Leadenhall Street at the sign of 
the Golden Viol, but that he is then removed 
from thence to the north side of St Paul's 
Churchyard at the Golden Viol and Hautboy, 
where he sells all sorts of musical instruments, 
books and songs ' as also ye best sort of cutlery 

Meares's first publication is stated to be 
Mattheson's ' Pieces de Clavecin,' which is dated 
from St Paul's Churchyard, 1714. After this 
he became the publisher selected by Handel, 
during his periodical squabbles with Walsh, 
to issue his works, partly in conjunction with 
J. C. Smith. 'Radamisto' is 'printed and 
sold by K Meares and C. Smith not to be sold 
anywhere else in England.' ' Suites de Pieces ' 
and the additional airs in 'Floridant' are others 
by Handel having Meares's imprint He pub- 
lished also Corelli's 'Sonatas' and 'Concertos,' 
Ariosto's 'Coriolanus,' and Dr. Croft's 'Musicus 
Apparatus Academicus.' One of his late issues 
is Introdticlion to Psalmody , J. Church, 1728, 
8vo. According to Hawkins he was not very 
successful, and in due course removed to Birchin 
Lane, and finally to London -house Yard, where 
he died about 1743. He must not be confused 
with a typographical music-printer named H. 
Meere, who printed one or two works for Walsh 
in 1716 and 1718. F. K. 

MEASURE (i.) originally denoted any dance 

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remarkable for its well-defined rhythm, but in 
time the name was applied to a solemn and 
stately dance, of the nature of a Pavan or a 
Minuet. The dignified character of the dance 
is proved by the use of the expression ' to tread 
a measure ' ; a phrase of frequent occurrence in 
the works of the Elizabethan dramatists. In 
the reigns of Elizabeth and James I., Measures 
were danced at court, and at the public enter- 
tainments periodically given by the Societies of 
Law and Equity. On these occasions the great 
legal and state dignitaries took part in them, 
but the custom seems rapidly to have died out 
under Charles I, It is somewhat remarkable 
that no trace can be found of any special music 
to which Measures were danoed ; this circum- 
stance seems to prove that there was no definite 
form of dance tune for them, but that any 
stately and rhythmical air was used for the 
purpose. w. B. s. 

(ii.) In relation to music pure and simple, 
apart from the dance, the word means the group 
of beats or main rhythms which are contained 
between two bar-lines. This is the measure of 
time, and defines the number of pulsations, such 
as 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, or other aggregate which is to be 
taken as the determinate standard or unit by 
which the multifarious complications of rhythms 
in an extended piece of music are to be ultimately 
regulated. [Most American, and some European 
writers, use the word 'measure' as the equi- 
valent of * bar ' for the notes contained between 
two bar-lines.] c. H. H. p. 

from Moli^re by Barbier and Can*^, music by 
M. Gounod. Rtxiuoed at the The&tre Lyrique, 
Jan. 15, 1858. In English, as <The Mock 
Doctor,' at Covent Garden, Feb. 27, 1865. o. 

Henry Fielding made a ballad opera, 'The 
Mock Doctor, or the Dumb Lady cured,' acted 
at Drury Lane in 1732, and often revived after- 
wards. It was published with the airs of the 
songs^ by J. Watts in 1732. f. k. 

MED&E. Opera in three acts'; words by 
Hoffmann, music by Cherubinl Produced at 
the Th^tre Feydeau, March 13, 1797 ; in 
London, at Her M^esty's Theatre, in Italian, 
with recitatives by Arditi, June 6, 1865. o. 

MEDESIMO TEMPO, * in the same time,' is 
occasionally used in the same way as L'Istesso 
Tempo, and has the same meaning. M. 

MEDIAL CADENCE. See Cadencs, vol. I 
p. 4415. 

MEDIANT (from the Lat.if«iiti«, 'middle'). 
I. One of the three most significant Regular 
Modulations of the Ecclesiastical Modes, ranking 
next in importance to the Dominant or Recit- 
ing-Note. [See Initials, Absolutb, vol. ii. 
p. 469 ; Modes, the Ecclesiastical ; Modu- 
jiATioNs, Regular and Conceded.] 

The normal position of the Mediant in the 
Authentic Modes lies as nearly as possible mid- 
way between the Final and the Dominant. 

In the Plagal Modes the position of the 
Mediant is governed rather by the necessity for 
securing a convenient note for the Modulation 
than by any fixed law. 

The following table exhibits, at one view, the 
Mediants of all the Modes in general use, both 
Authentic and Plagal : — 

Model., F. Mode v., A. Mode IX., C. 

Mode II., B. Mode VI., D. Mode X.. B. 

Mode III., G. Mode VII., G. Mode XIII., B. 

Mode IV., G. Mode VIII., F. Mode XIV., A. 

II. In modem music the term Mediant is 
always applied to the Third of the scale, by 
reason of its intermediate position, between the 
Tonic and the Dominant 

The oflBce of this note is exti-emely important, 
inasmuch as it determines whether the tonality 
of the scale Ib Major or Minor. >v. s. r. 

MEDIATION (Latiferfia/w). [The inflexion 
which occurs half-way through a psalm-tone 
before the point of division mai'ked in the words 
by a colon. (See Inflexion.)] Each Tone has, 
in reality, only one Mediation ; though that one 
exhibits itself, in most cases, in at least three 
different forms — one used for the Psalms, one for 
the Introits, and a third commonly called the 
' Festal Form, ' for the Canticles. Moreover, Tones 
II., IV., v., VI., and VIIL have each a special 
form of Mediation, used only when the first 
half of the verse to which it is sung ends with 
a monosyllable or Hebrew proper name. For 
examples of these diflei-ent forms, see Tones, 
the Gregorian, under which heading will also 
be found a detaUed account of the connection of 
the Mediation with the other members of the 

In addition to these recognised forms of the 
Mediation certain others have attained, from 
time to time, a considerable amount of local 
popularity, in consequence of the claim put forth 
by particular Dioceses — especially in France — to 
a peculiar * Use ' of their own. The utter abolition 
of such Diocesan Uses — almost all of which can 
be proved to have originated in a corrupt method 
of chanting — was one of theobjects contemplated 
by the compilers of the Ratisbon Office-books, 
as revised by the Sacred Congregation of Rites, 
and formally sanctioned by the authority of the 
Holy See. [This object was attained, and a 
fixed standard was adopted for many years ; but 
the recognition of the Solesmes chant as more 
authoritative than any other, a recognition ex- 
pressed in the ' motu proprio ' of Pope Pius X., 
has destroyed the monopoly of the Ratisbon 
Office-books.] [SeeMAOicoTATicuM.] w. 8.R.; 
with additions by w. h. f. 

FAHRT, i.e. Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage, 
a poem by Goethe, which has been set to music 
by two great masters. 

1. By Beethoven, for chorus and orchestra. 
Composed in 1815, first performed at the Great 
Redoutensaal in Vienna on Christmas Day of 

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that year, and published Feb. 28, 1823, by 
Bteiuer. It is dedicated 'to the immortid 
Goethe/ The reverse of the title-page oontains 
three lines from Voss's translation of the 
Odyssey (viii. 479), thus rendered by Lang 
and Butcher : — 

For from all men on earth minstrels get their meed 
of honour and worship ; inasmuch as the muse teacheth 
them the paths of song, and loveth the tribe of minatrela. 

A letter from Beethoven to the publisher, 
dated June 12, and apparently belonging to the 
year 1824, calls it a cantata, and asks for the 
loan of the score, that he * might write a kind 
of overture to it.' This intention does not 
appear to have been carried out. 

2. By Mendelssohn, for orchestra only. 
Written in the summer of 1828, first performed 
at Berlin, Dec. 1, 1832, remodelled and 'made 
thirty times as good as before,' and published 
as op. 27 and No. 3 of his Concert Overtures 
in 1834. We learn from a passage in his 
sister's diary ^ that Mendelssohn wished to 
avoid the form of an introduction and over- 
ture, and to throw his work into two companion 
pictures. o. 

MEERTS, Lambert Joseph, distinguished 
violinist and composer for his instrument, 
born at Brussels, Jan. 6, 1800 ; died there. 
May 12, 1863. Pupil of Lafont, Habeneck, 
and Baillot At the age of sixteen he became 
a member of the theatre orchestra in Antwerp. 
After completing his studies in Paris, he re- 
turned to Brussels and established himself as 
a teacher and performer. In 1835 he was ap- 
pointed professor of the violin at the Brussels 
Conservatoire. He wrote several instructive 
works for the violin, including a series of duets 
for two violins, each study being founded on a 
particular rhythm extracted from one of Beet- 
hoven's symphonies. (A. MasonClnrke' a Fitldlers 
Ancient and Modern^ London, 1896.) B. H-A. 

MEFISTOFELE See Faust (iii.), voL iL 
p. 16. 

MEHLIG, Anna, a distinguishod pianist, 
was born at Stuttgart, July 11, 1846. She re- 
ceived her musical education at the Conserva- 
torium of her native town, and aftcrMnrds sj^ent 
a year at Weimar studying under Liszt. In 1 866 
she made her first appearance in England, play- 
ing Hummel's Concerto in B Minor at the Phil- 
harmonic on April 30. She revisited England 
each year till 1869 inclusive, playing regularly 
at the Philharmonic and CrystAl Palace and 
other concerts. She then took a long tour in 
America, where she met with great success. 
In 1875 she reappeared in England, playing 
Chopin's E minor Concerto at the Crystal 
Palace on Oct. 9, and paid annual visits to 
London for many years. Her repertoire is large, 
her i)owcr of execution remarkable, and her style 
is full of refinement and poetry. Since her 

1 Heniera i>»* Fantau MenJtIttokn. L IM. 

marriage with Herr Falk of Antwerp she has 
lived in that dty. o. 

M^UL, ^TiBNNS Henri (or ^xnne- 
Nicolas), bom June 22, 1768, at Givet in the 
Ardennes, son of a cook, who was too poor to 
give him much education. Even in childhood 
he showed a passion for mosic, and a remarkable 
perseverance in OYerooming obstacles, and at ten 
was appointed organist to the convent of the 
lUcollets at Givet Having learned all that his 
master, a poor blind ox^nist, oould teach him, 
he was thrown on his own resources, until the 
arrival, at the neighbouring convent of La- 
yaldieu, of a new organist, Wilhelm Hauser, 
whose playing had attracted the attention of the 
Abbot Lissoir, when visiting the Abbey of 
Scheussenried in Swabia. The monks of Laval- 
dieu, wishing to make music a special feature in 
their services, had a good organ, and the playing 
of Hauser, who was a sound and good musician, 
caused quite an excitement in that secluded 
corner of the Ardennes. Lavaldieu was several 
leagues from Givet, but Mehul often walked over 
to hear him ; and at length, with the consent 
of his father, was admitted into the convent, and 
became the most diligent, as he was the most 
gifted, of the eight pupils under Hauser's train- 
ing. At fourteen he became deputy-organist ; 
and a distinguished amateur who heard him play 
was so struck by his evident power of imagina- 
tion, that he determined to take him to Paris, 
and in 1778 M^hul bade farewell to the flowers 
he loved to cultivate, and the instructor who had 
put him in the way to become a great musician. 
On his arrival in Paris he at once went to Edel- 
mann for instruction in pianoforte-playing and 
composition. To earn his bread he gave lessons, 
and composed two sonatas (1781) which bear no' 
traces of a master mind ; but this was not the 
line in which he was destined to distinction. 
In 1779 he was present at the first performance 
of * Iphigenie en Tauridc,' and the effect pro- 
duced on one with his cultivated intellect, his 
love of the 'beautiful, and passionate though 
reserved nature, was immense. He expressed 
his admiration to Gluck himself, who received 
the young enthusiast graciously, gave him valu- 
able advice, and undertook his instruction in 
the philosophical and poetical parts of music. 
Encouraged by the success of a cantata with 
orchestra composed to one of Rousseau's sacred 
odos, and produced at the Concert Spirituel in 
March 1782, he might have gone on writing 
church music, had not Gluck shown him his 
true vocation, and directed his attention to the 
stage. Solely for practice, he composed , one after 
another, three operas, * Psyche et 1* Amour,* a 
pastoral by Voisenon previously set by Saint 
Amans ; * Anacreon,' the third act of a ballet 
by Bernard and Rameau, produced in 1757 as 
*Les Surprises de 1' Amour'; and 'Lausus et 
Lydie,' three acts, to a libretto adapted by 
Valadier from Marmontel. These unpublished 

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scores are lost, no trace of them being diacoYer- 
able in any of the public libraries of Paris. 

K^hul now felt himself in a position to appear 
before the public, and Valadier having furnished 
him with the libretto of ' Cora et Alonzo,' four 
acts, also taken from Marmontel, the score was 
soon ready, and accepted by the Academic, but 
there the matter ended. Tired of waiting, he 
resolved to try his fortune at another theatre, 
and having made the acquaintance of Hoffmann 
he obtained from him the libretto of 'Euphrosine 
et Coradin, ou le Tyran oorrig^,' three acts (Sept. 
4, 1790). In this op^ra-comique the public 
recognised at once a force, a sincerity of accent, 
a dnimatic truth, and a gift of accurately ex- 
pressing the meaning of the words, which were 
throughout the main characteristics of Maul's 
mature genius. Its success was instantaneous ; 
and the duet 'Gardez-vous de la jalousie,' the 
close of which contains a modulation as un- 
expected as it is effective, speedily became 
a favourite throughout France. Henceforth 
M^hul had ample op|K>rtunitie8 of satisfying 
his productive instinct, and he brought out 
successively : — 





Astonishing as it may seem, these twenty-four 
opera3 wero not the only works M6hul produced 
within seventeen years. He composed and 
published in addition many patriotic songs and 
cantatas, among others the ' Chant national du 
14 Juillet,' the * Chant du Depart,* the 'Chant 
du Retour,' the 'Chanson de Roland,' and 
choruses to 'Timol^n' (1794), a tragedy by 
Joseph Ch^nier ; two ballets, ' La Dansomanie ' 
(1800) and ' Daphnis et Pandrose ' ; several 
operettas, and other ' morceaux de droonstance,' 
such as ' Le Pont de Lodi,' etc., all unpublished 
except the * Chant lyrique ' for the inauguration 
of the statue voted to Napoleon by the Institut. 

tA mass, written for the coronation of Napoleon, 
lut not performed then, was published in Paris 
in 1879.J 

The epoch at which he composed ' Uthal ' and 
< Joseph ' was the culminating point of M^hul's 
career. He was already a member of the Institut 
(1795^ and a chevalier of the Legion of Honour 
(1802), and had been inspector of instruction at 
the Conservatoire from its foundation. His 
pupils looked up to him and he was a favourite 
in the best society, but such homage did not 
blind him to the fact that in science his col- 
leagues Cherubini and Catel were his superiors, 
owing to his want of early systematic training. 
This accounts for his laborious efforts to change 
his style, and excel in more than one department 

of music. His symphonies, though performed 
at the Conservatoire, cannot rank with those of 
Haydn and Mozart ; indeed none of his other 
orchestral works rise to the level of his overtures. 
Of his ballets ' Le Betour d'Ulysse ' (1807}, and 
' Persee et Androni^e ' (1810) in which he in- 
troduced many pieces from *Ariodant,' were 
well received, but * Les Amazones, ou la fonda* 
tion de Thebes' (1811) disappeared after nine 
performances. An op^ra-comique in one act, 
'Le Prince Troubadour' (1813), was not more 
successful, [and in 1814 he collaborated with 
Paer, Berton, and Kreutzer, in ' L'Oriflamme ' ;] 
his last work, 'La Joum^e aux Aventures, 
three acts (Nov. 16, 1816), kept the boards for 
some time. Its success was partly due to its 
being known at the time that M^hul was dying 
of consumption. Two months after its produc- 
tion he was sent to Provence, but the change 
came too late ; he returned to Paris, and died 
there Oct. 18, 1817, aged fifty-four. Besides six 
unpublished operas composed between 1787 and 
1797, he left the unfinished score of ' Yalentinede 
Milan,' a three-act op^-comique, completed by 
his nephew and pupil Daussoigne-M^hul (bom 
at Givet, June 10, 1790, died at Li^, March 
10, 1875), and produced Nov. 28, 1822. 

The most conspicuous quality of Mehul's 
work as a whole is its absolute passion. Tliis 
is exemplified most strikingly in 'Stratonlce' 
and ' Ariodant.' Not less obvious are the traces 
of the various influences under which he passed. 
Between 'Ariodant' and 'Joseph' must be 
placed all those repeated attempts to vary his 
style, and convince his detractors that he could 
compose light and graceful airs as well as grand, 
pathetic, and sustained melodies, which cannot 
be considered as anything but failures, although 
the ignorant amateurs of the day pronounced 
' L'Irato ' to be true Italian music ' Joseph,' 
which dates frt>m the midst of the Revolution, 
before the Empire, belongs to a different epoch, 
and to a different class of ideas. Mehul's noble 
character, his refined sentiment, and religious 
tendencies, the traces of his early education, in 
his perfect acquaintance, with the church modes 
and plain-song, and his power of writing excel- 
lent church music, are all apparent in this 
powerful work, the simplicity, grandeur, and 
dramatic truth of which will always command 
the admiration of impartial musicians. 

M^hul was not so fortunate as Gr^try in 
finding a poet whose creative faculties harmon- 
ised thoroughly with his own ; and he was 
fascinated by any subject — antique, chivalrous, 
Ossianic, Spanish, patriarchal, or biblical — so 
long as it afforded him opportunities for local 
colouring, the importance of which he often 
exaggerated. His overtures to ' Lo Jeime Henri, ' 
'Horatius Cocl^,' 'Timol^on,' and 'Les deux 
Aveugles de Tol^de ' are, however, incomparably 
superior to anything of the kind which preceded 
them ; and most striking are such passages aa 

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the introduction to *Ariodant,* where three 
violoncellos and a trombone hold a kind of 
dialogue, and that in 'M^lidore et Phrosine,' 
where four horns which have a complete part 
throughout the score, accompany the voice of a 
dying man with a kind of smothered rattle. In 
'Uthal' the violins are entirely absent, their 
places being taken by the violas, in order to 
produce a soft and misty effect. Gretry was 
shocked at this innovation, and so wearied by 
its monotony, that he cried on leaving the 
theatre after the first performance, * Six francs 
for a chanterelle (E-string) ! ' 

Though M^hul's new and ingenious combina- 
tions were not always successful, and though his 
melodies were often wanting in that life and 
dash which rouse an audience, it must be 

acknowledged that with all his faults his work 
bears the stamp of a very individual mind and 
character, and the impress of that mighty race 
of 1789, with whom to will was to do, but 
amongst whose many gifts that of grace was 
too often wanting. Had he but poss^sed this 
fascinating quality, M^hul might have been the 
Mozart of France. As it is, we cannot withhold 
our admiration from the man who carried on 
Gluck's work with even more than Gluck's 
musical skill, regenerated op4ra-comique, and 
placed himself at the head of the composers of 
his own time and nation. 

The portrait of M6hul which we engrave is 
taken from a remarkable print by Quenedey, 
1808. Quatre-m^re de Quincy pronounced his 
eulogium at the Institut in Oct. 1818, and 
Vieillard, one of his intimate friends, published 
an interesting Notice of him (Paris, 1859). 
The library of the Conservatoire contains many 
of his autographs, several being fragments of 
unpublished operas. The writer of this article 
discovered among them * La Naissance d'Oscar 
Leclerc,' not elsewhere mentioned, an op^ra- 
oomique *La Taupe,* and an *Ouverture bur- 

lesque ' for piano, violin, and reeds, interesting 
merely as musicid curiosities. o. c. 

MEIBOM (in Latin MEIBOMIUS), Marcus, 
learned historian of music, bom early in the 17th 
century at Toenningen in Schleswig-Holstein. 
Nothing is known of his studies ; but his great 
work, ArUiquae musicae auctores septem graece 
et IcUine (Amsterdam, Elzevir), was published 
in 1652, and as in those days eminence was 
rarely attained in early youth, the date of his 
birth can hardly have been either 1626 or 1630 
as commonly stated. The work was dedicated 
to Queen Christina of Sweden, at whose court 
he resided for some time. On one occasion, 
however, while singing at the Queen's request 
his version of an ancient Greek melody, the 
whole court burst out laughing, and Meibom, 
imagining that the Queen's physician Bourdelot 
was the instigator of this unseemly mirth, gave 
him a box on the ear, and was in consequence 
dismissed. He took refuge with Frederick III. 
of Denmark, who gave him a professorship at 
Upsala, but he soon returned to Holland. 
Having endeavoured in vain to find a capitalist 
who would carry into execution his plan of 
restoring the ancient triremes, he came to Eng- 
land in 1674 with the view of making arrange- 
ments for a new edition of the Old Testament. 
This project also failed, and returning to Hol- 
land, he died at Utrecht in 1711. The book 
already mentioned is one of the most valuable 
sources of information on ancient music, and may 
be considered a precursor of Gerber and Cousse- 
maker. [Its usefulness is much enhanced in 
the modem reprints, the latest of which is by 
Karl von Jais (1895). ] For his numerous works 
on music and geometry the reader is referred to 
F^tis. F. o. 

MEILAND, Jacob, bom about 1542 at 
Senftenberg in Saxony, was brought up as a 
chorister in the Saxon Court Chapel, at Dresden. 
After attending the University of Leipzig, and 
spending some time in travelling, he was ap- 
pointed capellmeister to the Margrave of Ans- 
pach, till the dissolution of this chapel in 1574. 
The rest of his life, to his early death in 1577, 
Meiland spent chiefly as an invalid at Frankfort- 
on-the-Main, though busy to the last in bring- 
ing out his fairly numerous publications. He 
was highly thought of in his time as a composer 
of Latin and German Motets, and considered even 
the equal of Orlando Lassus. His harmonies are 
often ragged, after the manner of Orlando. In 
the composition of German secular songs he was 
one of the first to introduce into Germany the 
Italian Villanella style, paying more attention 
to the rh3rthmical declamation of the words than 
to the artifices of counterpoint His works are : — 

1. CanUoDM Smfm), 1B64. 17 No*, a S and S. 

2. Neae aoMrlewne teutwhe Liedlein. I56B, 15 Ko*. a 4 and S. 

5. SelectM CuaUonw. 1B72. 17 Noa. a 6 and 6. 

i. Baerae aliquot oantionea latlnae et gammnlflaa. lff<8, SS No*. 
a 4 and S. 
fi. Neue auserleaene Ttntaohe CkriEng. 1878, 18 No*. 4 and 5. 

6. Cantionea noraa, ato.. 1S78. 19 Noa. a 8. 

7. CTgnaaa oantlonea latlnaeet germanloaa. IBOO, SS No*, a 4 and 6. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 




Other works, including three settings of the 
Passion, are preserved in MS. Three Latin motets 
were republished in Commer's Mvsica Saera^ and 
two German sacred songs a 4 are contained 
in Schuberlein. j. R. m. 

MEINARDUS, Ludwio Siegfried, bom 
Sept. 17, 1827, at Hooksiel (Oldenbnrg), was at 
first educated at the Gymnasium at Jever, where 
his father held an official post. He was intended 
to study theology, but his musical inclinations 
could not be resisted, and he was at length 
allowed to devote himself to the art, his 
parents imposing the curious condition that he 
was to become a public performer on some in- 
strument. To this end he took up the violon- 
cello, learning what he could from the Stadt- 
musikus of the place, who was a violinist. A fter 
making himself ill with excessive practice, he 
returned to school, and it was not till he had 
finished his studies there that he finally deter- 
mined, on the advice of Schumann, who had seen 
some of his compositions, to embrace the profes- 
sion of a composer. At Christmas, in 1846, he 
entered the Leipzig Conservatorium, but after 
half a year, finding that private instruction from 
Biccius would be more to his advantage, he 
accordingly remained with him for two years. 
In 1850 he went to Berlin in order to study 
with A. B. Marx, but for some reason or other 
he fell under the suspicions of the police, and 
was not allowed to remain. He betook himself 
to Liszt at Weimar, where he stayed some 
months, after which he went to Erfurt as 
conductor of a small theatrical company, and 
subsequently in a similar capacity to Nordhausen. 
At last he was provided with better credentials, 
and succeeded in remaining in Berlin. In 
1858, having finished his education with Marx, 
he was appointed conductor of the Singakademie 
at Glogau, where he remained until, in obedience 
to a call from Julius Kietz, he went to the 
Dresden Conservatorium as a teacher in 1865. 
In 1874 he settled in Hamburg, where he was 
for many years continuously active as a composer 
and as critic of the Havnbwrger KorresponderU. 
In 1887 he moved to Bielefeld, to take up a 
post as organist, and died there July 12, 1896. 
His most prominent compositions are the ora- 
torios 'Simon Petrus,' 'Gideon,* 'KonigSalomo,' 

* Luther in Worms,' *Odrun'; two operas, 
'Bahnesa' (three acts, finished 1881) and 

* Doktor Sassafras ' (neither of them performed) ; 
four ballads for chorus, ' Roland's Schwanenlied, * 

* Frau Hitt,' * Die Nonne,' * Jung Baldurs Sieg ' ; 
two symphonies, and many chamber composi- 
tions. A memoir of Mattheson, an autobio- 
graphical sketch, and collected criticisms, are his 
most important contributions to literature. M. 

MEISTER, ALTK A collection of forty PF. 
pieces of the 17th and 18 th centuries, edited by 
E. Pauer, published by Breitkopf & Hartel : — 

Bameaii. aaTotteandVarUtl<nis|KJrnberg«r. Fogtw (S parte) in 
Id a minor. | D minor. 

Klnib*ri*r. Fogu* (t parts) in 

Marparg. Capricclo In F. 
H«liul. Sonata tn A. 
J. Ch. Bach. Sonata In O minor. 
C. P. B. Bach. Allegro In A. 
W. Ft. Bach. Pogua in C minor. 
Kuhnau. Sonata in D. 
Pad. Martini. Preloda, Fugue. 

and Allagro in B minor., 
J. L. Kraba. PartiU in Bb. 
Do., Do. B9. 

Matthe«>n. 4Giguea. 
Couperin._ La Bandoline. Lea 


ate, Sara- 

ito in F. 
D minor. 

Holla. Sonata in Eb. 
Handal. Capricclo in O. 
Rameau. La Ltrrl. L'Agacanta. 

La Timtde 
Loatllr. Suite in O minor. 
Roesi. Andantinoand Allegro In 

F. Turlni. Prealo in O minor and 

Sonata in Db. 

C. P. B. Bach. La Xcnophone. 
Slbjlle. La Complaitante. Lea 
Langueura tend res. 

Graun. Gigue in Bb minor. 
Matielli. Oigua. Adagio, and 

Sarti. Allegro in G. 
Graxioli. BonaU in O. 

D. Scarlatti. 9 Sonatas. 
Mattheeon. Suite in minor. 
Couperin. La Bertan, L'Ausoni- 

•nne. Lea Charues. Le Barolet 

Scbobert. Minuet and Allegro 
in Eb. 

motto ii 
Muflkt. Gigue in E 
splrltoao in D. 

> and Allegro 

MEISTERSINGER (Germ. Master-singers). 
The name given to the guilds of poet-musicians 
which flourished in the 14th-16th centuries 
in various towns of Germany. The founder of 
the first guild is supposed to have been Heinrich 
von Meissen, called Frauenlob, who instituted a 
company at Mainz in 1311. As to the original 
signification of the name, authorities are divided, 
but it seems fairly certain that as in other crafts 
the grades of apprentice, journeyman, and 
master were differentiated, so the members of 
theseguilds passed successively through the stages 
of Schiller, Schulfreund, Sanger, Dichter, and 
Meister. For a list of famous meistersingers, the 
chief of whom was Hans Sachs, see Song. The 
guild was a kind of counterpart, in what would 
now be called the middle classes of German 
society, to the Minnesinger, who were ex- 
clusively of noble birth. Various books on the 
history of both bodies have been written, but 
there is none which gives so vivid and accurate 
a picture of the craft as is to be seen in Wagner's 
comedy in music (see below). m. 

DIE An opera in three acts ; words and music 
by Richard Wagner, completed in Oct 1867, 
and first performed at Munich, June 21, 1868, 
under the direction of Von Biilow. [The overture 
was first performed at Leipzig, Nov. 1, 1862. 
The first performance in England took place 
under Richter, at Drury Lane, May 30, 1882 ; 
it was given at Covent Garden, in an Italian ver- 
sion, by G. Mazzucato, July 13, 1889, and by the 
Carl Rosa Company at Manchester in an English 
version, April 16, 1896. In 1888 it was given 
for the first time at Bayreuth, where it has oc- 
casionally figured in the festival programmes 
since, as in 1892 and 1899. See Weissheimer's 
Erleimisse mit Richard Wagner,'] g. 

MEL, RiNALDO DEL, ' Gentilhuomo Fiamen- 
go,* and distinguished composer of the 16th 
century. The date of his birth is not known, 
but his nationality is assured, not only by the 
above title, which appears on more' than one of 
his works, but by his own words, ' la natione 
nostra Fiammengo.' [In the ' Sacrae Cantiones ' 
of 1589, he implies that Schlettstadt in Lorraine 

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was his birthplace. 1 He is not to be confused 
with Gaadio Mell, a name which Adami,' 
Liberati,^ and Martini ' give to Goudimel. [See 
Yol. ii. p. 206.] Having served Sebastian, 
King of Portugal, and his successor, Cardinal 
don Henriquez, as Chapelmaster, he arrived in 
Rome in 1580. ThiB change in his career may 
be accounted for by the annexation of Portugal 
to Spain in that year. If Philip II. was un- 
willing to keep up a useless retinue in Lisbon, he 
would certainly make no exception in favour of 
' Flemish gentlemen,' who indeed were never to 
his liking. [At Bome, Mel entered the service 
of Cardinal Paleotto. j He presented himself 
without loss of time to ralestrina, but soon found 
himself out of his depth on musical subjects, and 
confessed tliatRinaldo's questions could not keep 
pace with Pierluigi's answers. So the ex-Chapel- 
master set himAelf down to school tasks again, 
ambitious to become a worthy disciple of that 
Boman school which he declared was the greatest 
in Europe.* His diploma was soon obtained, 
for his publications began in 1581, with a first 
book of motets, a 4-8, and between that year 
and 1595 he published five books of motets and 
fifteen books of madrigals, besidescontributingto 
▼arious collections which carried his name from 
Rome to Venice, Nuremberg, Antwerp, and 
Munich. [See the QudUn-LexUcon,'] 

Up to 1590 he probably lived chiefly in Rome, 
though we find him at Li^ in 1587,^ where 
some of his family were in the service of Ernest, 
Duke of Bavaria, [in whose employ we find the 
composer in the following year.] In 1591 he 
was again in the service of Cardinal Gabriel 
Paleotto, archbiBhop of Bologna, who had him- 
self some knowledge of music." When the 
diocese of Sabina was placed under Paleotto's 
charge in 1591 he founded a college, improved 
the cathedral at Magliano, and made many 
changes in the internal government. The 
appointment of a new maestro di cappella agrees 
well enough with these facts, and it is in the 
year 1591 that we hear of Mel's appointment to 
the cathedral and the new college. He dates 
from Calvi, a little town near Magliano, March 
20, 1593, and from Magliano ^ itself, 1595. 
From this time his publications cease, and we 
have no further record of him. He is said to 
have been already well advanced in life when he 
left Portugal, and by this time was probably an 
old man. So we may assume that the end of 
life was near, and that he did not long survive 

Proske prints a Litany in the Musica 
JXvina, Ann. II., vol. iii. (Ratisbon, 1869), and 

1 O amrv t uto ntptrbtnrtffolar* Oapdla pomtj/. (Boma. 1711). (BriL 
Mas. C. 30 a) 

B Letura in riapotta ad una dti Big. Ptn, (BrtL Mas. BM e. 8.) 

9 atudieUt di ApoUo bonnd up with third Tolame of Jfutini'i 
Aorta data Muatea. (Brit. Mas. 087 eq.) 

« Balnl it rMponalble for thU storr. Bm MemoHs di PaUitHna. 

9 Madrivall % (Anm, 1888). See alao FMto. JNopnopU*. ander 
* Helle, Benant de.' 

• Sm Futnsii, JfatitU dttti BerittoH Botogneat (Bologna. 178S). 

f Bm dediatUon of ' Ubar 5<» moteotoram ' ( Venica, 168S). 

Commer's Musiea Sacra contains seven motets 
and a litany ; the Motet Society published 
an anthem, <0 praise the Lord,' adapted 
by Dr. Aldrich from a work of Mel's, in vol. iii. 
p. 128. J. B. S.-B. 

MELBA, Madame (Nellie Porter Arm- 
STROKo), one of the most celebrated prime 
donne of our time, was born May 19, 1859,* at 
Burnley on the * Yarra Braes,' near Melbourne. 
Her father, David Mitchell, a Scotch contractor, 
had settled in Australia some years. He was 
proud of his child's precocious musical talent, 
and allowed her to sing at a concert in the 
Richmond (Melbourne) Town Hall when only 
six years old. She also received instruction 
in piano, harmony, and composition, and fre- 
quently played the organ at the local church. 
Mr. Mitchell objected, however, to her adopting 
music as a profession, and when she gave her 
first public concert he marked his displeasure 
by closing his house and extinguishing the 
lights at an early hour. It was only after her 
marriage in 1882 to Captain Charles Armstrong 
(son of Sir Archibald Armstrong of King's 
Co., Ireland) that the young soprano finally 
determined to follow a musical career ; nor did 
she come to Europe until the spring of 1886, 
when, after a solitary appearance at Prince's 
Hall, London (June 1), she went to Paris to 
study under Madame Marchesl 

Her period of tutelage was rapid and brilliant, 
for after twelve months' work her teacher pro- 
nounced her ready for the stage, and on Oct 
12, 1887, she made her d^but as Gilda at the 
Th64tre de la Monnaie, Brussels, under the 
name of 'Melba,' obviously derived from that 
of her native city, Melbourne. She achieved 
instantaneous success, and was soon afterwards 
engaged by Sir Augustus Harris for his first 
season of Italian Opera at Covent Garden in 
1888, where the new prima donna duly made 
her appearance as Lucia on May 24. 

From the outset the London public was 
rapturous in ite warmth. Calmer critics readily 
perceived what was still lacking to the equip- 
ment of a really great and finished artist ; but 
none could gainsay the uncommon character 
of Madame Melba's endowmente — the extra- 
ordinary beauty of her sUvery tone, ite bright, 
'girlish' quality and remarkable evenness 
throughout a compass of two and a half octeves 
(h fiat to f")i and above all the excellence of a 
method that plainly owed as much to nature as 
it did to art. In her brilliant execution of the 
most difficult fiorUure nothing impressed more 
than the wonderful flexibility of the oi^gan, 
unless it was the unfailing ease and perfect 
sense of restraint with which the singer accom- 
plished her tours deforce. This rare faculty for 
using her tone within rather than beyond its 
true limit of resonant power has remained one 
of the most striking and beneficial features of 

• BrU. Mu*. Btog. 

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Mme. MelWs method Onoe, in America, she 
was 80 ill-advised as to essay the part of Briinn- 
hilde in ' Die Walkure.* But it was for a single 
night only. Fortunately she perceived that 
disaster must ensue, and took care never to 
repeat her error. 

In the spring of 1889 Mme. Melba made her 
d^but at tiie Paris Op^ra, and sang Oph^lie 
with great success to the Hamlet of M. Las- 
salle. She also prepared the rdles of Marguerite 
and Juliette under the personal instruction of 
Gounod, and later in the year undertook both at 
Ck>vent Garden, where ' Rom^ et Juliette ' was 
then performed in French for the first time. 
In conjunction with MM. Jean and Edouard de 
Beszke she shared a memorable triumph in 
these operas, while her vocal and dramatic 
resources alike manifested a marked advance. 
Thenceforward she took part regularly in every 
Govent Garden season without missing a single 
summer. In 1890 Mme. Melba added to her 
repertoire the parts of Elsa (' Lohengrin *) and 
Esmeralda (in the French revival of Goring 
Thomas's charming opera) ; subsequently Yio- 
letta in *La Traviata,' Michaela in 'Carmen,' 
Rosina in ' II Barbiere,' and the Queen in ' Les 
Huguenots.' In 1894 she created here the rdle 
of Nedda in * Pagliaoci,' and ten years later 
that of * H^Une ' in the opera so named, written 
for her by Gamille Saint-Saens. 

Meanwhile, the accomplished artist had ex- 
tended her renown through many lands. In 
1891 she accompanied the De Beszkes to St. 
Petersburg, by special command of the Czar, 
and was welcomed there with extraordinary 
warmth. In 1892 she sang at La Scala, Milan, 
and followed up her triumphs there with a 
brilliant tour through Italy. Next year she 
fulfilled the first of many successful engage- 
ments in the United States, making her d^but 
with the De Beszkes at Chicago during the 
* World's Fair.' In 1894 she sang for the first 
time at the Handel Festival (Selection Day). 
In 1902, after an absence of sixteen years, 
Mme. Melba revisited Australia, making her 
reappearance in Melbourne on Sept 27, and 
subsequently giving concerts at Sydney, Bris- 
bane, Adelaide and many other towns. Her 
proud fellow-countrymen loaded her with 
honours of every kind, and altogether the 
prima donna's return to the land of her birth 
constituted a veritable 'royal progress.' 

At the time this article is penned Mme. 
Melba continues to hold undisputed sway as the 
head of her profession. Intelligence, industry, 
and perseverance, allied to vocal gifts of the 
highest order, have combined to elevate her to 
this exalted position ; and she is the first 
singer of British birth who has ever attained 
it upon the lyric stage as well as the conceit 
platform. h. k. 

MELGOUNOV, Julius Nicholaevich, 
pianist and musical writer, bom August 30 

(Sept 12), 1846, at Yetlouga in the Govern- 
ment of Kostroma, died at Moscow, March 
19/81, 1898. In his schooldays he took 
pianoforte lessons with Dreyschock, and at 
eighteen made his debut in St Petersburg as a 
pianist He studied theory with Laroche, and 
wss for a time a student of the Moscow Con* 
servatoire ; but he soon left this institution, 
determined to work out his musical education 
for himself. About 1876 Melgouuov became 
acquainted with Rudolph Westphal, then pro- 
fessor in the Katkov Lyo^ at Moscow. "West- 
phal had made a special study of musical 
rhythm, and was the author of several treatises 
on this subject Melgounov was attracted to 
Westphal's theories, and co-operated with him 
in bringing out ten of Bach's fugues in a special 
edition, with a preface entitled : ' The rhythmic 
execution of Biach's Fugues.' When, shortly 
afterwards, Westphal gave a series of sixty 
concerts in Germany, in order to propagate his 
views upon musical rhythm, Melgounov accom- 
panied him as pianist He aJso toured in 
Russia with the violinist Laub and the violon- 
cellist Carl Davidov. Melgounov's most import- 
ant work was the elaboration of a more accurate 
method of noting down the folk-songs. The 
results of his researches in popular music are 
published under the following title : * Russian 
Songs, written down directly from the singing 
of the people, transcribed for pianoforte with 
text ; Part I. with the co-operation of Klenovsky, 
Moscow, 1879 ; Part II. with the co-operation 
of Blaramberg, St. Petersburg, 1885.' His 
leading ideas are »a follows : that the folk-songs 
are based upon two diatonic scales, the nugor 
and natural minor, and that the intervals of the 
latter are exactly the same as those of the 
,f« d c h a a ft 

m%)Or reversed \ y^ jm ,rn y^ ^m jm ,m , 

that they are sung ' polyphonically,' not, as 
was once erroneously supposed, in unison ; that 
their harmony is formed by working out the 
principal melody in independent contrapuntal 
parts (podgoloski), and unison is only found at 
the close of the songs, or in their rhythmic 
sections ; that the rhythm is inseparably con- 
nected with the text and conforms to the 
rhythmic principles of the Greeks. Melgounov 
finds no cliromatic or enharmonic changes in 
the folk-songs, and the perfect fifth is of rare 
occurrence. By writing down all the secondary 
parts, Melgounov revealed the entire structure 
of the songs. As these 'podgoloski' are 
generally free improvisations, and to write them 
all down from ear at once is practically impos- 
sible, it often happens in Melgounov's songs 
that all his secondary parts do not harmonise 
with the principal melody. In the course of the 
last few years Mme. Eugenie Liniev has carried 
Melgounov's work much farther, and by the 
help of the phonograph has obtained some very 
accurate records of the peasant part-songs, just 

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as they are sung by the people. Besides the 
above publication, Melgounov left the following 
treatises on this subject : ' On Russian National 
Music' (Rus8. Ethnographical Heview, v. vi.), 
' A Correct Method of Writing Down the Folk- 
songs/ 'The Rhythm of the Slavonic Folk-songs,' 
etc. R. N. 

MELISMA (Gr. KiXiff/M, a *Song'). Any 
kind of air or melody, as opposed to recita- 
tive or other music of a purely declamatory 
character. Thus Mendelssohn employs the 
term^ in order to distinguish the Mediation 
and Ending of a Gregorian Tone from the 
Dominant or Reciting Note. It is more gener- 
ally, if less correctly, used in the sense of 
FiorUura or even CadeTusa, 

A work by Thomas Ravenscroft, entitled 
'Melismata ; Musical Phansies fitting the Court, 
citie, and country humours' (London, 1611), is 
much prized by collectors. w. s. r. 

MELL, Davis, familiarly called Davie Moll. 
An eminent violinist and clockmaker, bom at 
Wilton, near Salisbury, Nov. 15, 1604, resident 
in London about the middle of the 17th century 
and honourably mentioned by Aubrey and 
Anthony Wood. In the year 1657 he visited 
Oxford, where, as we learn from Wood's Diary^ 
' Peter Pett, Will. Bull, Ken. Digby, and others 
of Allsoules, as also A W. did give him a very 
handsome entertainment in the Taveme cal'd 
"The Salutation" in 8. Marie's Parish. . . . 
The Company did look upon Mr. Mell to have a 
prodigious hand on the Violin, & they thought 
that no person, as all in London did, could goe 
beyond him. But, when Tho. Baltzar, an 
Outlander, came to Oxon. in the next yearo, 
they had other thoughts of Mr. Mell, who, tho 
he play'd farr sweeter than Baltzar, yet Baltzar's 
hand was more quick, & could run it insensibly 
to the end of the Finger-board.' He succeeded 
Laniere as Master of the King's Band at the 
Restoration, and was followed, at the close of 
1661, by Thomas Baltzar {q.v,). Pieces by 
him are in Christopher Simpson's ' Division 
Violin,' 1684. 

Aubrey * tells a curious story of a child of 
Mell's, who was cured of a crooked back by the 
touch of a dead hand. w. s. r. 

MELLON, Alfred, bom in London, April 
17, 1821, lived at first at Birmingham, became a 
violinist in the opera and other orehestras, and 
afterwards leader of the ballet at the Royal 
Italian Opera, Covent Garden. He was next 
director of the music at the Haymarket and 
Adelphi theatres, and subsequently conductor of 
the Pyne and Harrison English Opera Company, 
which in 1869 produced his opera, * Victorine,' 
at Covent Garden ; he was conductor of the 
Musical Society, and of the Promenade Concerts 
which for several seasons were given under his 
name at Covent Garden, begun in the Floral 

1 See hiB letter to Zelter. dated Borne. June 18, 1881. 
* MUetUaniet, under the article ' Mlnmda.' 

Hall, in August 1860. He was a conductor of 
exceptional attainments ; in Sept. 1866 he was 
chosen conductor of the Liverpool Philharmonic 
Society. He married Miss Woolgar, the well- 
known actress. He died Mareh 27, 1867, and 
was buried in Brompton Cemetery, w. H. h. 

MELODISTS' CLUB, THK A society at 
one time of much promise, founded in 1825, by 
admirers of Charles Dibdin, ' for the promotion 
of ballad composition and melody.' In 1 827 and 
1828 a library was formed, and prizes offered for 
songs ; and the prize songs were afterwards pub- 
lished in a volume. In 1888 two prizes oT ten 
guineas were offered for songs in the style of Ame, 
Shield, or Dibdin, and gained by Blewitt and 
Hobbs. In 1837 prizes of five guineas for words 
and ten guineas for music of a song ; which were 
gained by Wilson and Hobbs for the song * Send 
round the wine. ' The object of the Club is well de- 
scribed in the following words of Sir H. Bishop 
in presenting some music to the Library in 1840 : 
' It is from my perfect conviction that good and 
appropriate melody is the chief attribute of ex- 
cellence in mnsic of every style, from the simple . 
ballad to the most elaborate composition, that 
I hail the establishment of the Melodists' Club, 
from its patronage of native genius, and its 
encouragement of melody, as essentially calcn- 
lated to aid the cause of the musical art in this 
country.* The entrance -fee was five guineas, 
and the subscription eight guineas. Its pro- 
fessional members included Sir George Smart, 
Braham, Balfe, T. Cooke, Hawes, Stemdale 
Bennett, and other eminent English musicians. 
Among the artists who took part in the music 
in its earlier day were J. B. Cramer, Moscheles, 
Hummel, Field, Benedict, Lipinski, and many 
more players of the highest distinction. T. Cooke 
was musical director, and John Parry hon. sec- 
retary. After 1866 it must have ceased to 
exist. o. M. 

MELODRAMA (Fr. Melodrame), I. A play 
— generally of the Romantic School — in whidi 
the dialogue is frequently relieved by music, 
sometimes of an incidental and sometimes of a 
purely dramatic character. 

Such a play was the * Pygmalion' of Jean 
Jacques Rousseau, who has been credited, on the 
strength of it, with having invented the style. 
The so-called English Operas of the older school 
— * The Beggar's Opera,' ' The Iron Chest,' * Tho 
Castle of Andalusia, ' * The Quaker, ' * The English 
Fleet, ' * No Songno Supper,' * Guy Mannering, 'and 
a hundred others — are allreally melodramas. [See 
English Opera, vol. i. p. 782.] It is difiScult» 
indeed, in the case of English and German pieces 
with spoken dialogue, to say exactly where Melo- 
drama ends and Opera begins. The line must 
be drawn somewhere ; but unless we adopt the 
substitution of recitative for dialogue as a final 
test, its exact position must always remain more 
or less doubtful. On the other hand, were we 
to accept this distinction we should be compelled 

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to class at least half of the best German Operas 
as Melodramas — an indignity which was once 
actually inflicted npon ' Der Freischiitz.' 

Perhaps we may be justified in giving the 
name of Opera to those pieces in which the 
music is the chief attraction, and that of Melo- 
drama to those in which the predominating 
interest is centred in the dialogue. 

IL A peculiar kind of dramatic composition 
in which the actor recites his part in an ordinary 
speaking voice, while the orchestra plays a more 
or less elaborate accompaniment, appropriate to 
the situation, and calculated to bring its salient 
points into the highest possible relief. [See 
Declamation, voL i. p. 677.] 

That the true Melodrama originated in Ger- 
many is certain ; and there can be equally little 
doubt that the merit of its invention rests — not- 
withstanding all the arguments that can be 
adduced in favour of rival claimants — with Georg 
Benda, who first used it with striking effect in 
his * Ariadne anf Naxos,' produced at Gotha in 
the year 1774. Since that time it has been em- 
ployed to far greater advantage in the German 
schools of composition than in any others, and 
found more favour with German composers than 
with those of any other country. The finest 
examples produced since the beginning of the 
19th century are, the Grave-digging scene in 

* Fidelio * ; the Ih-eam in * foment ' ; the In- 
cantation scene in ' Der FreischUtz ' ; some 
scenes in Mendelssohn's * Midsummer Night's 
Dream ' ; Schumann's ballads for declamation, 
etc. Unhappily the performance of these finely 
conceived movements is not often very satis- 
factory. The difficulty of modulating the voice 
judiciously, in music of this description, ia in- 
deed almost insuperable. The general tempta- 
tion is to let it glide, insensibly, into some 
note sounded by the Orchestra ; in which case 
the effectproduced resembles that of a Recitative, 
sung hideously out of tune — a perversion of the 
composer's meaning, which is simply intolerable. 

Few artists seem to think this great difficulty 
worth the trouble of special study. More than 
one great German singer has, however, succeeded 
in overcoming it perfectly, and in winning rich 
laurels by his perseverance ; notably Herr 
Staudigl, whose rendering of the great scene in 

* Der Freischiitz ' was a triumph of melodramatic 
art. w. 8. R. 

MELODY is the general term vaguely used 
to denote successions of single notes which are 
musically effective. It is sometimes used as if 
synonymous with Tune or Air, but in point of 
fact many several portions of either Tunes or 
Airs may be accurately characterised as 'melody' 
which could not reasonably be made to carry 
the name of the whole of which they form only 
a part Tunes and airs are for the most part 
constructively and definitely complete, and by 
following certain laws in the distribution of the 
phrases and the balanceof the groups of rhythms. 

convey a total impression to the hearer ; but 
melody has a more indefinite signification, and 
need not be a distinct artistic whole according to 
the accepted laws of art, though it is obvious 
that to be artistic it must conform to such laws 
as lie within its range. For example, the term 
'melody' is often with justice applied to the inner 
parts of fine contrapuntal writing, and examples 
will occur to every one in numerous choruses, 
symphonic movements, and other instrumental 
works, where it is so perfectly woven into the sub- 
stance of the work that it cannot be singled out 
as a complete tune or air, though it nevertheless 
stands out from the rest by reason of its greater 

Melody probably originated in declamation 
through recitative, to which it has the closest 
relationship. In early stages of musical art 
vocal music must hdve been almost exclusively 
in the form of recitative, which in some cases 
was evidently brought to a very high pitch of 
expressive perfection, and no doubt merged into 
melody at times, much as prose in passages of 
strong feeling occasionally merges into poetry. 
The lowest forms of recitative ai-e merely ap- 
proximations to musical sounds and intervals 
imitating the inflexions of the voice in speaking ; 
from this there is a gradual rise to the accom- 
panied recitative, of which we have an example 
of the highest melodious and artistic beauty in 
the ' Am Abend da es kiihle war,' near the end 
of Bach's * Matthew Passion.' In some cases an 
intermediate form between recitative and tunes 
or airs is distinguished as an Arioso, of which 
we have very beautiful examples in Bach's 
* John Passion ' and in several of his Cantatas, 
and in Mendelssohn's 'Elijah.' Moreover, we 
have opportunities of comparing mere declam^ 
atory recitative and melody in juxtaposition, 
as both Bach and Mendelssohn adopted the 
device of breaking into melody in especially 
solemn parts of recitative ; as in No. 17 of the 
'Matthew Passion' to the words 'Nehmet, esset,' 
etc, and in Nos. 41 and 44 in 'St. Paul,' near 
the end of each. 

It appears then that^recitative and melody 
overlap. The former, in proportion as it approxi^ 
mates to speech in simple narration or descrip- 
tion, tends to be disjointed and unsystematised ; 
and in proportion as it tends, on the other hand, 
towards being musically expressive in relation 
to things which are fit to be musically embodied, 
it becomes melody. In fact the growth of melody 
out of recitative is by assuming greater regularity 
and continuity and more appreciable systemati- 
sation of groups of rhythms and intervals. 

The elements of effect in melody are extremely 
various and complicated. In the present case 
it will only be possible to indicate in the slightest 
manner some of the outlines. In the matter 
of rhythm there are two things which play a 
part — the rhythmic qualities of language, and 
dance rhythms. For example, a language which 

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presents marked contrasts of emphasis in syllables 
which lie close together will infallibly produce 
corresponding rhythms in the national music ; 
and though these may often be considerably 
smoothed out by civilisation and contact wit^ 
other peoples, no small quantity pass into and 
are absorbed in the mass of general music, as 
characteristic Hungarian rhythms have done 
through the intervention of Haydn, Schubert, 
Brahms, and other distinguished composers. 
[See Magyar Music, ante, p. 26.1 

Dance-rhythms play an equally important 
part, and those rhythms and motions of sound 
which represent or are the musical counterpart 
of the more dignified gestures and motions of 
the body whi(^ accompany certain states of 
feeling, which, with the ancients and some 
mediaeval peoples, formed a beautiful element 
in dancing, and are still travestied in modem 
ballets. [SeeDANCS Rhythm, voL ipp. 667-660.] 

In the distribution of the intervals which 
separate the successive sounds, harmony and 
harmonic devices appear to have very powerful 
influence. Even in the times before harmony 
was a recognised power in music we are often 
surprised to meet with devices which appear to 
show a perception of the elements of tonal 
relationship, which may indicate that a sense 
of harmony was developing for a great length 
of time in the human mind before it was definitely 
recognised by musicians. However, in tunes 
of barbaric people who have no notion of harmony 
whatever, passages of melody also occur whidi 
to a modem eye look exceedingly like arpeggios 
or analyses of familiar harmonies ; and as it is 
next to impossible for those who are saturated 
with the simpler harmonic successions to realise 
the feelings of people who knew of nothing 
beyond homophonio or single- toned music, we 
must conclude that the authors of these tanes 
had a feeling for the relations of notes to one 
another, pure and simple, which produced inter- 
vals similar to those which we derive from 
familiar harmonic combinations. Thus we are 
driven to express their melody in terms of 
harmony, and to analyse it on that basis ; and 
we are, moreover, often unavoidably deceived in 
this, for transcribers of national and ancient 
tunes, being so habituated to harmonic music 
and to the scales which have been adopted for 
the purposes of harmony, give garbled versions 
of the originals without being fully aware of 
it, or possibly thinking that the tunes were 
wrong and that they were setting them right 
And in some cases the tunes are unmercifally 
twisted into forms of melody to which an 
harmonic accompaniment may be adjusted, and 
thereby their value and interest both to the 
philosopher and to every musician who hears 
with understanding ears is considerably im- 
paired. [See Irish Music] 

Modem melody is almost invariably either 
actually derived from, or representative of 

harmony, and is dependent for a great deal of 
its effect thereupon. In the first place it is 
immediately representative in one of two ways : 
either as the upper outline of a series of different 
chords, and therefore representing changing 
harmonies ; or else by being constructed of 
different notes taken from the same chord, 
and therefore representing different phases of 
permanent harmony. Examples of either of 
these forms being kept up for any length of 
time are not very common ; of the first the 
largest number will be found among hymn 
tunes and other forms of simple note-against- 
note harmony ; — the first phrase of * Batti batti * 
approaches it very nearly, and the second subject 
of the first movement in Beethoven's Waldstein 
Sonata, or the first four bars of ' Selig sind die 
Todten ' in Spohr's ' Die letzten Dinge ' are an 
exact illustration. Of the second form the 
first subject of Weber's Sonata in Ab is a re- 
markable example : — 

since in this no notes foreign to the chord of 
Ab are interposed till the penultimate of alL 
The first subject of the £i*oica Symphony in 
like manner repi'esents the chord of Ebi and 
its perfectiy unadomed simplicity adds force 
to the unexpected OS, when it appears, and to 
its yet more unexpected resolution ; the first 
subject of Brahms's Violin Concerto is a yet 
further example to the point : — 

The simplest variation of these forms is 
arrived at by the interposition of |)a8sing notes 
between notes which are part of the essential 
chord or chords, as in the following from ' Get 
asile aimable,' in G luck's * Orph^ ' : — 

The notes with asterisks may all be regarded 
as passing notes between the notes which re- 
present the harmonies. 

This often produces successions of notes which 
are next to each other in the scale ; in other 
words, progression by single degrees, of which 
we have magnificent examples in some of the 
versions of tiie great subject of the latter part 
of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, in the second 
subject of the first movement of his Violin 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



Concerto, and in the last choras of Baoh's 
' Matthew Passion.' When these passing notes 
fall on the strong beats of the bar they lead 
to a new element of melodic effect, both by 
deferring the essential note of the chord and 
by lessening the obviousness of its appearance, 
and by affording one of the many means, with 
suspensions, appoggiaturas, and the like, of 
obtaining the slurred group of two notes which 
is alike characteristic of Bach, Oluck, Mozart, 
and other great inventon of melody, as in the 
following example from Mozart's Quartet in 
D migor : — 

The use of chromatic preparatory passing notes 
pushes the harmonic substratum still further 
out of sight, and gives more zest and interest 
to the melodic outline ; as an example may be 
taken the following from the second Act of 
* Tristan und Isolde ' :— 

Along with these elements of variety there 
are devices of turns and such embellishments, 
such as in the beginning of the celebrated tune 
in * Der Freischiitz,' which Agatha sings in the 
second scene of the second Act : — 


SQasent - - iQcktent • - go • - geu Ihm. 

Sequences also, and imitations and anticipations, 
and all the most elaborate devices of resolution, 
come into play, such as interpolation of notes 
between the discordant note and its resolution. 
Further, there are endless refinements of group- 
ing of phrases, and repetition of rhythms and 
groups of intervals in condensed forms and in 

different parts of the scale, which introduce an 
intellectiml element even into the department of 
pure melody. 

Lastly, it may be pointed out that the order 
and character of the successions of harmony 
which any special form of melody represents has 
a great deal to do with its importance. Common- 
place tunes represent commonplace and trite 
successions of harmony in a commonplace way, 
while melody of a higher order usually repre- 
sents successions which are in themselves more 
significant and more freely distributed. The 
giants of art have produced tunes the melody of 
which may represent the simplest harmonic 
successions, but they do it in their own way, 
and the result is proportionate to their powers 
and judgment Unfortunately, the material of 
the simpler order of melody tends to be exhausted, 
and a large proportion of new melody has to be 
constracted on a more complicated basis. To 
take simple forms is often only to make use of 
what the great masters rejected ; and indeed 
the old forms by which tunes are constructively 
defined are growing so hackneyed that their 
introduction in many cases is a matter for great 
tact and consideration. More subtle means of 
defining the outlines of these forms are possible, 
as well as more subtle construction in the 
periods themselves. The result in both cases 
will be to give melody an appearance of greater 
expansion and continuity, which it may perfectly 
have without being either diffuse or chaotic, 
except to those who have not sufficient musical 
gift or cultivation to realise it. In instrumental 
music there is more need for distinctness in the 
outline of the subjects than in the music of the 
drama ; but even in that case it may be sug- 
gested that a thing may stand out by reason of 
its own proper individuality quite as well and 
more artistically than if it is only to be dis- 
tinguished from its surroundings by having a 
heavy blank line round it. Melody will always 
be one of the most important factors in the 
musical art, but it has gone through different 
phases, and will go through more. Some 
insight into its direction may be gained by 
examination of existing examples, and com- 
parison of average characters at different periods 
of the history of music, but every fresh great 
composer who comes is sure to be ahead of our 
calculations, and if he rings true will tell us 
things^ that are not dreamed of in our philo- 
sophy/ c. H. H. p. 

blished 1887, 'for the practice of the most 
classical specimens of choral and other music,' 
by band and choir, under the management of 
J. H. Griesbach, H. Westrop, J. Surman, and 
H. J. Banister. The first performance, on 
Nov. 23, 1887, at Wornum's Music Hall, Store 
Street, was the 'Creation,' followed during the 
season by Beethoven's Mass in C, Romberg's 
Ode 'The Transient and the Eternal,' 'Judas 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 




Maccabaeus, ' and ' St. Paul. ' In subsequent years 
the programmes comprised works of smaller 
dimensions, including Beethoven's Choral Fan- 
tasia, c. M. 

MELOPIANO. A grand piano with a sosti- 
TurUe attachment, the invention of Signor Caldera, 
applied in England by Messrs. Kirkman k Son, 
who secured the sole right to use it here, and 
made several instruments with it. The principle 
is original, the apparently sustained sounds 
being produced by reiterated blows of small 
hammers placed nearer the wrestplank bridge 
than the striking-place of the ordinary hammers, 
and suspended by a bar above and crossing the 
strings. The bar is kept in tremulous motion 
by means of a fly-wheel and pedal which the 
player has to keep going. These additional 
hammers would cause a continuous sound were 
it not for the dampers of the ordinary action 
which govern by simple string communication 
the checks that keep them still. On pressing 
down the keys the dampers rise and the checks 
are withdrawn. A crescendo to the sostinente 
is obtained by a knee movement which raises 
the transverse bar, directs the little hammers 
into closer proximity with the strings, and 
strengthens their blow. The quick repetition 
deceives and at the same time flatters the ear 
by a peculiar charm of timbre inherent in steel 
wire when the sounds can be prolonged. The 
ordinary hammers are controlled by the per- 
former as usual, and may be accompanied by 
the attachment, or the damper pedal may be 
used, for which due provision is made. It will 
be observed that the Melopiano has a special 
expression for which special music might be 
written ; but although it has been introduced 
for many years, it has not come into general use. 
The cost of the application of this ingenious 
invention is about thirty guineas. [See also 
Piano- Violin and Sostinente Piano.] a. j. h. 

MELUSINE. * To the legend of the lovely 
Melusine ' is the title of an overture of Mendels- 
sohn's for orchestra, completed at Diisseldorf, 
Nov. 14, 1883, first performed there in the 
following July, and published as op. 32, the 
fourth of the Concert Overtures. In the auto- 
graph Mendelssohn spells the name with an a 
— *MeIusina.' G. 

MENDEL, Hermann, editor of the largest 
and most comprehensive dictionary of music 
that has yet appeared, bom at Halle, August 
6, 1834. He studied music with energy in 
Leipzig and Berlin. From 1862 to 1868 he 
carried on a music business in the latter city, 
and at the same time wrote in various musical 
periodicals and took an active part in music gener- 
ally. His lives of Meyerbeer (1868) and Otto 
Nicolai have been published separately. In 1 8 70 
Mendel started the work already mentioned — 
Muaikalisches Conversations- Lexikon — with the 
help of a large and distinguished staff of writers. 
He died at Beriin on Oct. 26, 1876, and the 

Lexicon has been since completed in 11 vols, 
under the editorship of Dr. August Reissmann, 
who brought out the twelfth, supplementary, 
volume in 1883. g. 

MENDELSSOHN.! Jakob Ludwio Felix 
Mbndelssohn-Bartholdy was born on Friday, 
Feb. 3, 1809, at Hamburg, in a house in the 
thoroughfare now called the Grosse Michaelis- 
strasse, and at the present time (1906) num- 
bered 54. '"^ The family was already well known 
from Moses Mendelssohn, the grandfather of 
Felix, *The Modern Plato,' whose *Phadon,* 
a dialogue upon the immortality of the soul, 
based on the *Phaedo' of Plato, was trans- 
lated, long before the birth of his illustrious 
grandson, into almost every European (and at 
least one Asiatic) language. ^ Moses was the sou 
of Mendel, a poor Jewish schoolmaster of Dessau, 
on the Elbe, and was bom there Sept. 6, 1729. 
The name Mendelssohn, i,e. 'son of Mendel, 'is 
the ordinary Jewish, oriental way of forming a 
name. Moses migrated at fourteen years old to 
Berlin, settled there in 1762, married Fromet, 
daughter of Abraham Gugenheim, of Hamburg, 
had many children, of whom six attained matu- 
rity, three sons and three daughters, published 
his * Phadon ' at Berlin in 1767, and died there 
Jan. 4, 1786. He was a small, humpbacked 
man, with a keen, eager face, bright eyes, and a 
humorous mouth. The first peculiarity was 

1 The following abbrerlatlona are tiaed tar the w f erwice i in tUa 

P. M.-=DU FamUU M«nda$$ohn, 17»-I8a. Ton S. BenMl. Berlin. 
1870, Engllah inna. London. 1882. The referanoea are to the flret 
German edition in 8 vols. The eecond and reviaed German edition 
(from which the Engliah trana. waa made) la in 2 vola., and was 
pubUehed in 1880. 


C.^Renry FMherfftU Charley, Autobiography, etc., by Hemy O. 
Hewlett. London. 187S. 

P.=R«miniteeneM qf FHix MtndMttohn. Bartholdy. By Bliae 
Polko. Bngliah trana. by Lady Wallace. London, 18BB. 

Sdi.^Reminaetncet qf MendMuokn. By J. Schubring. MuHenl 
Worid, May 12 and 19. 1868. Trana. from Dahetm, (Leipcig), 1806. 
No. 26. N.B. the referenoea are to the Engliak Teraiou. 

O.K.ff.^ReminUamcu of MendeHmohn. By Charlae Edward 
Horaley. 7%« Choir, Jan. 11 and 26, Feb. 8 and 16. 1873. 

DomsRteoUeetiom qf PVix MmdeUtohn and Mi FrUndM, By 
Dr. Dom, TempU Bar, Feb. 1872. 

A.M.M.=AUffem0tn« muHkaUidU) geUung. (Lelptig.) 

N.M.M.=lf«ue mutikaUtdlu ttUwug. (Ldpaig.) Bobart Scha- 
mann'e paper. 

aogarlh=Th9 PWlkarmonio SocMy tf London. ... By QeoKV» 
Hogarth. London. 1889. 

Lampadiua^Hfe of PMx MmuUlt$ottn-Bartholdw. From tlM 
German of W. A. I^mpedina. London. 1876. For the Gennan titla 
of the original edition, lee p. 178a. 

* Ferdinand Darid. deetined to become ao great a friend of 
If endelaaohn'a, waa bom in the aaroe houae the year after. The boaae 
ia at the comer of the Bmnnenatraaae. and ia now (1006), at tbe in- 
atlgation of Hr. and Madame Otto Goldachmidt, decorated witli 
a memorial tablet over the front door. 

9 Dutch (Hague. 1780); French, 2Ter8iona (Paria. 1772 ; Berlin. 1772); 
Italian, 2 do. (Chur. 1773 ; Parma. 1800) ; Daniah (Copenhagen. 1779) ; 
Hebrew (Berlin, 1786) ; Engllah (London. 1788) ; alao Buaaian, Ftolialx. 
and Hungarian. It laa eorloua evidence of the alowneaa with whieli 
mneio penetrated into literary drelea in England, that theexeellent 
article on Moeea Mendelaaohn in the Penfiy Cyetopmdta. tbooftb 
publiahed in 1838, makea no mention of Felix, who had then be«n 
five timea in thia oountrv. The * Phtdon ' attracted the notice of no 
leaa a person than Mirabeau.— Smt if. Mntd^Miohn, etc. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



M BVDSi, or DaMAU 

Moan llBiiDBLHOBVsFiotnet Oofanheini 

DorotlMft=yeit (Aftsrwrnrdi 
I Sehkgcl) 



JohaOD Abrahiun Philip 

I Meyer 

Benjamin Alex»tuier 



I lUig 

Arnold Ottilia Wj 


Akb^saii (MraDBUHoair.BAKTBOLDT)=Lea Salomou 



FUiny CKdliesWilhelm Henaal Jakob Lcswio F<ux=Cfcile JaMinnaiid RebeckasDlrlchlet, Junr. PaalsAlbertiiM Heine 

SebaaUan (Hensel) 

Carl WoUnng Paul 

Marie PanUne H^Itoe 

(Mra. C. V. Beneeke) 


Paal Felix Abrmham 

Felix Aofiiat Kdnanl 
d.inL ' 

traceable in his grandchild Fanny, and the 
bright eyes were one of Felix's most noticeable 
characteristics. After the death of Moses his 
widow left Berlin with Joseph, the eldest son, 
and returned to her native city. 

Abraham, the second son, bom Deo. 11, 1776, 
went to Paris, and in 1808 was cashier in 
Fould's bank there. In 1804 he resigned this 
post and went into partnership with his elder 
brother Joseph ; married, Dec. 26, 1804, Lea 
Salomon (born March 26, 1777), of a Jewish 
family in Berlin, and settled in Hamburg, 
carrying on his business at the house above 
mentioned, and having also a house out of town 
tolled 'Marten's MUhle.' He remained in 
Hamburg till 1811, and there were bom to him 
Fanny Cacilie (Nov. 14, 1805), Jakob Ludwig 
Felix (Feb. 8, 1809), and Bebecka (April 11, 
1811). During the French occupation of Ham- 
burg, life became intolerable, and shortly after 
Bebecka's birth the whole fitmily escaped in 
disguise to Berlin, where they started the 
eminent banking-house, and lived in a large 
house on the Neue Promenade, in the N.E. 
quarter of the town, a broad open street or place 
between the Spree and the Haacksche Markt, 
with houses on one side only, the other side 
lying open to a canal with trees, a sufficiently 
retired spot as late as 1820 for Felix and his 
friends to play in front of it. ^ There, eleven days 
after the battle of Leipzig, Abraham's second 
son and youngest child, Paul, was born (Oct 
30, 1818). The daughters of Moses Mendels- 
sohn, Dorothea and Henriette, became Roman 
Catholics. Dorothea married Friedrich von Schic- 
kel, and Henriette was govemess to Fanny, the 
only daughter of Qeneral Sebastiani, afterwards 
(1 847) so unfortimate as theDuchesse de Praslin. 
The sons remained Jews ; but at length Abraham 
saw that the change was inevitable, and decided' 
to have his children baptized and brought up as 
Protestant Christians. This decision was taken 
on the advice and example of his wife's brother 
Salomon Bartholdy, to whom also is due the 
adoption of the name Bartholdy, * after the 
former proprietor of the garden belonging to the 
family. ' He himself had taken it, and he urged 
it on his brother-in-law as a means of distinction 

Elixabcth Fanny Henriette 
rLili.'Mrs. Waeh) 

1 Z>»r. p. 2. 

a r.M. i. 8S. 

from the rest of the family. Salomon was a man 
of mark. He resided in Rome for some time 
as Pmssian Gonsul-General ; had his villa on 
Monte Pincio (Gasa Bartholdy) decorated with 
frescoes, 3 by Veit, Schadow, Cornelius, Overbeck, 
and Schnorr, collected objects of art, and died 
there in 1827, leaving his fortune to his sister 
Lea. He was cast oif by his mother for his 
conversion, and was only reconciled long after, 
at the entreaty of Fanny. ^ At a later date 
Abraham and Lea were received into the 
Christian Church at Frankfort, and Lea took 
the additional names of Felicia Paulina, from 
her sons. 

Abraham Mendelssohn was accustomed to 
describe his position in life by saying * formerly^ 
I was the son of my father, now I am the father 
of my son.' ^ But though not so prominent as 
either, he was a man of strong character, wise 
judgment, and very remarkable ability. These 
qualities are strikingly obvious in the success 
of his method for the education of his children, 
and in the few of his letters^ which are published ; 
and they are testified to in a very remarkable 
manner by his son in many passages of his 
letters, and in the thorough deference which he 
always pays to the judgment of his lather, not 
only on matters relating to the conduct of life, 
but on points of art Though not, like Leopold 
Mozart, a technical musician, and apparently 
having no acquaintance with the art, he had 
yet an insight into it which many musicians 
might envy. <I am often,' says his son, * quite 
unable to understand how it is possible to have 
so accurate a judgment about music without 
being a techniod musician, and if I could only 
say what I feel in the same clear and intelligent 
manner that you always do, I would certainly 
never make another confused speech as long as 
I live. '8 Or again, this time after his death, 
*not only my father, but ... my teacher both 
in art and in life.'^ 

s L. Borne. Feb. 1, 1881 ; Aumy'a letter in F.Jt. U. 127. 

• J'.M. i. 8S. 

• ' Frtther war idi dar Sobn meinea Vatera. Jetst bin leh der Vater 
meinea Sobnea' {f.M. L 77). Said Talleyrand •—• Non. monaienr 
I'ao diaait. il 7 a donae ana, que M. de Saint-Anlalre 4toit bean-ptee 
de H. de Cacea : I'oa dit inaintenant que M. de Caaaa eat sendra de 
If . de Saint'Anlain.'— a. O. Travelyan'a I4f* and Utten of Lord 
MacmUaw (1876), i. S82. 

• Blaewbere be deacribca blmaelf aa a mere daab. a Gedanktitttridi 
(— ) between fatber and eon. (F.M. 1. 907.) 

I L. Not. 2S, ISSi. and Mareb 10. 18U : F.M. i. 84. 87, 91 ; S47-88S. 
S L. MaKb 2S. 183B. » L. to Paatoi B^M^Dti ». 18». 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





Though apparefitly cold in his mannerSi and 
gomewhat stern in his tone, and towards the 
end perhaps unduly irritable, Abraham Mendels- 
sohn was greatly beloved by his wife and children. 
Felix, in particular, is described as 'enthusi- 
astically, almost fanatically, fond of him,'^ 
and the letters show how close was the con- 
fidence which existed between them. Hardly 
less remarkable was the mother. She was 
one of tliose rare persons whose influence seems 
to be almost in proportion to the absence of 
any attempt to exert it. Hiller when a boy 
saw her once, and the impression made upon 
him by the power of her quiet kindness and 
gentleness remained fresh in his mind after 
more than half a century.* When her house 
was thronged with the intellect and wit of 
Berlin, she was the centre of the circle and the 
leader of the conyersation.' Her letters, of 
which large numbers exist in manuscript, are 
full of cleverness and character. Her practical 
sense of the value of money comes out in her 
letters to Ferdinand David.* The education of 
her children was her great object in life. She 
was strict — we may now think over strict*; 
but no one who looks at the result in the 
character of her children can say that her method 
was not a wise one. They loved her dearly to 
the end, and the last letters which Felix wrote 
to her are full of an overflowing tenderness and 
a natural confidential intimacy which nothing 
can surpass. Calm and reserved like her husband, 
she was full of feeling, and had on occasion 
bursts of paasion. Felix's intention to leave 
Berlin affected her to a 'terrible' degree — a 
degree which surprised him. He confesses that 
his yielding to the wishes of the King, after 
having made up his mind to retire, was due 
solely to her. *You think that in my official 
position I could do nothing else. It was not 
that. It was my mother. ' ® 

How far she was herself a pianoforte player we 
are not told, but the remark which she made 
after Fanny's birth, 'that the child had got 
Bach-fugue fingers,' shows that she knew a good 
deal about the matter. "We learn also that 
she herself for some time taught the two eldest 
children masic, beginning with lessons five 
minutes long, and gradually increasing the time 
until they went through a regular course of 
instruction. 7 For many years Felix and Fanny 
never practised or played without the mother 
sitting by them, knitting in hand. 

Felix was scarcely three when his family 
escaped to Berlin. The first definite event of 
which we hear after this is a visit to Paris by 
Joseph and Abraham in 1816, for the liquida- 
tion of the indemnity to be paid by France to 
Prussia on account of the war. Abraham took 

1 F.Sf. 1. 4S4. Compara p. 340. * ffOler. p. S. 3 /)ev. p. 38. 
4 S«e Ferdinand DavM und dis FamOie MendOuohit-Bartholdf. 
Ton Julina Bckhardt (I888I. pp. 43 and 49. 
> DeTrient glvea an instance or tvo of It ; see pp. 8. and -97 note. 
* L. to Klingemann, Jan. 3, 1813 ; and to hi* moUter, Nov. 4. 1834. 
» A p. 8. 

his family with him, and Felix and Fanny, then 
seven and eleven respectively, were taught the 
piano by Madame Bigot, a remarkable musician, 
and apparently an excellent teacher. She was 
the daughter of a Madame Ei^n^, and in 1816 
was thirty years old. Miniatures of the four 
children were taken during this visit, which 
are still in existence.^ Soon after their return 
from Paris to the grandmother's house at the 
Neue Promenade, where the family still lived, 
the children's education seems to have begun 
systematically. Heyse^ was their tutor for 
general subjects, Ludwig Beiger for the piano, 
Zelter for thorough-bass and composition, Hen- 
ning for the violin, and Rosel for landscape. 
Felix learned Greek with Bebecka, two years 
his junior, and advanced as far as .Aschylus.'^ 

On Oct. 28, 1818, he made his first appearance 
in public at a concert given by a certain Herr 
Gugel, in which he played the pianoforte part 
of a Trio for pianoforte and two horns by Woelfl, . 
and was much applauded." The children were 
kept very closely to their lessons, and Felix is 
remembered in after-life to have said how much 
they enjoyed their Sundays, because then they 
were not forced to get up at 5 o'clock to work. 
Early in his eleventh year, on April 11, 1819, 
he entered the singing-class of the Singakadcmie 
as an alto, for the Friday practisings. There 
and elsewhere 'he took his place,' saysDevrient,^^ 
'amongst the g^wn-up people in his child's 
dress, a tight -fitting jacket, cut very low at 
the neck, over which the wide trousers were 
buttoned, into the slanting pockets of these 
the little fellow liked to thrust his hands, rock- 
ing his curly head [he had long brown curls] 
from side to side, and shifting restlessly from 
one foot to the other.' 

With 1820, that is to say with his twelfth 
year, Felix seems to have begun systematically 
to compose ; at least with that year begins the 
invaluable series of forty-four volumes, in which 
Mendelssohn's methodical habits have preserved 
a collection of autographs or copies of a great 
part of his works, published and unpublished, 
down to the time of his death, the minority 
carefully inscribed with both date and place — 
which are now deposited in the Royal Library 
at Berlin. 

To the year 1820 are attributable between 
fifty and sixty movements, including amongst 
them a Trio forpf. and strings (three movements) ; 
a Sonata in F for pf. and violin (three do.) ; 
two movements in D minor for the same ; two 
full Sonatas for pf. solo ; the beginning of a 
third in G minor, finished the next year, and 
published in 1868 (as op. 106) ; six pieces for 
pf. solo ; three pieces for the same instrument, 
four hands ; four pieces for organ ; three songs ; 
two part-songs for men's voices ; a cantata, ' In 

> [Photographs of the miniature* of Fanny and Felix were repro- 
duced in the Mutienl Tlmn of November 1897. p. 791.] 
» Father of Paul Hefse the noveliit. 'o Sch. p. 301o. 

U A.M.Z. 1818, p. Wl. '5 Dev. p. a. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





riihrend feierlichen Tonen * ; and a Lustspiel, 
or little comedy, for yoicee and pf. in three 
scenes, beginning 'Ich J. Mendelssohn.' The 
earliest date is that to the cantata— Jan. 18, 
1820. The extraordinary neatness and finish, 
which characterise Mendelssohn's MSS. to the 
end, are obeerrableinthe earliest of these childish 
productions, and the mysterioua letters L. v. g. G. , 
or H. d. m., so familiar to those who know his 
latest scores, are usually at the head of each. 

Among the pieces for 1821 are five sinfonies 
for string quartet, each in three movements ; 
nine fugues for ditto ; the completion of the 
G minor pf. sonata (op. 106) ; motets for four 
voices ; a couple of songs ; a couple of Etudes 
for pf. solo ; two one-act operas, ' Soldatenlieb- 
schaft' and 'Die beiden Pcfdagogen'^; and half 
a third opera, 'Die wandernden Gomddianten.' 
1821 was the year of his acquaintance with 
Weber, then in Berlin for the production of *Der 
Freischiitz,' and of an enthusiasm on the part of 
the boy for that romantic composer which he 
never lost.' This, too, was the year of his first 
visit to Goethe. Zelter took his pupil to Weimar 
in November, and they passed sixteen days under 
the old poet's roof.^ • 

In 1822 Felix made a second appearance in 
public of a more serious nature than before, viz. 
on March 31, at a concert of Aloys Schmitt's, 
in which he played with Schmitt a duet of 
Dussek's for two pianos. In the summer the 
whole family made a tour in Switzerland. 
Starting on July 6, they went by Cassel (for 
Spohr), Frankfort, Darmstadt, Schaffhausen, 
Amsteg, Interlaken, Yevey, and Chamounix ; a 
large and merry party of ten, besides servants. 
The toun was taken at great leisure, and on the 
return two important halts were made — first at 
Frankfort, to make the acquaintance of Schelble, 
the conductor of the famous Cacilien-Verein, 
whom Felix astonished by extemporising on 
Bach's motets ; and at Weimar, for a second 
visit to Goethe.* 

At Secheron, near Geneva, two songs were 
written (Sept 18, 1822) ; and the Pianoforte 
quartet in C minor, afterwards published as 
op. 1, was begun to be put on paper (the autograph 
being marked 'Begun at Secheron, Sept. 20, 
1 822 '), and was finished after the return home. 
Besides this, the records of these two years 
(1822 and 1823) contain six more symphonies, 
Kos. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 ; six detached pieces 
for strings ; five concertos for solo instruments 
with quartet accompaniment, viz. one for violin 
solo, one for pf. solo, one for pf. and violin, and 
two for twopfs. ; two quartets forpf. and strings, 
viz. in C minor (op. 1) and in F minor (op. 2) ; 
sonata for pf. and violin (op. 4) and for pf. and 
viola (MS.) ; a fantasia and three other pieces 
for the organ ; a fugue and fantasia for pf. ; a 

1 Wonb by Dr. CMpur (Dmt. p. 5). < J7: p. 32. 

3 See details In Oottka and MendeUiohn. See also RellaUb, Aug 
mminmn Ltb^n, 11. 136 ; and Lobe's XteolUetUmt of Mendtiuahn, In 
Onem a Week, May 11. 1867. « 0. « jr. p. 33. 

VOL. Ill 

Kyrie for two choirs ; a psalm, three songs, a 
piece for contralto solo and strings, in three move- 
ments, to Italian text ; two songs for men's voices, 
and the completion of the fourth opera, ' Die 
beiden Nefien, ' or ' Der Onkel ana Boston, 'which . 
was a full-grown piece in three acts. The sym- 
phonies show a similar advance. They are in 
four movements instead of three, as before, and 
the length of the movements increases. No. 8, 
inD, written between Nov. 6 and Nov. 27(1822), 
after the return from Switzerland, has an Adagio 
e grave before the opening Allegro, The slow 
movement is for three violas and bass, and the 
finale has a prominent part for the violoncello. 
This symphony must have pleased the composer 
or some of his audience in whose judgment he be- 
lieved, since within a month he began to re-score 
it for full orchestra. He wrote a new trio for the 
minuet, and in this form it became Symphony 
No. 9. The three last of the six are for quintet, 
and the scherzos of Nos. 10 and 12 are founded 
on Swiss tunes, in No. 12 with the addition of 
triangles, cymbals, and drums. The independent 
violoncello part is conspicuous throughout. This 
advance in his music is inkeeping with the change 
going on in Felix himself. He was now nearly 
fourteen, was growing fast, ^ his features and his 
expression were altering and maturing, his hair 
was cut short,^ and he was put into jackets and 
trousers. His extemporising — which he had 
begun to practise early in 1821 ^ — was already 
remarkable,^ and there was a dash of audacity 
in it hardly characteristic of the mature man. 
Thus Goethe wished to hear a certain fugue of 
Bach's, and as Felix could not remember it all, 
he developed it himself at great length, which 
he would hardly have done later. ^ Aftei his 
return home, on Dec. 6, 1822, he appeared at a 
concert given by Madame Anna Milder, when he 
played a pianoforte concerto of his own, probably 
that in A minor with quintet accompaniment.^^ 
The same incessant and varied production of 
previous years marks those of 1822 and 1828. 
It must not be supposed that the symphonies, 
operas, quartets, concertos, and other works 
mentioned were written as exercises only. It 
had been the custom in the Mendelssohn house 
for some time past to have musical parties on 
alternate Sunday mornings, with a small or- 
chestra, in the large dining-room of the house, 
and the programmes included one or more of 
Felix's compositions. As a rule the pianoforte 
part was taken by himself or Fanny, or both, 
whOe Rebecka sang, and Paul played the violon- 
cello. But Felix always conducted, even when 
so small as to have to stand on a stool to be 
seen ; thus he eiyoyed the benefit not only of 
hearing his compositions played (a benefit for 
which less fortunate composers — Schubert, for 
example — ^have sighed in vain) but of the 
practice in conducting and in playing before an 

• Zelter. in 0. A jr. p. 35. • P.M. i. 130 ; Dm. p. 10. 
f F.M. i. lOa 8 Dew. p. 11. » F.Ji. 1. 1». 
U> A.M.S. 18S2. p. 273 ; 1823. p. 05. 

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audience.^ The size of the room was not suf- 
ficient for a large audience, but on these occasions 
it was always full, and few musicians of note 
passed through Berlin without being present.^ 
Jin performing the operettas and operas, no 
attempt was made to act them. The characters 
were distributed as far as the music went, but 
the dialogue was read out from the piano, and 
the chorus sat round the dining-table. Zelter, 
in strong contrast to his usual habit of impartial 
neglect of his pupils, was not only regularly 
there, but would criticise the piece at the close 
of the performance, and if he often praised 
would sometimes blame. The comments of his 
hearers, however, were received by Felix with 
perfect simplicity. Devrient has well described 
how entirely the music itself was his aim,^ and 
how completely subordinated were self-conscious- 
ness and vanity to the desire of learning, testing, 
and progressing in his art. These Sunday per- 
formances, however, were only one feature of 
the artistic and intellectual life of the house. 
Music went on every evening more or less, 
theatricals, impromptu or studied, were often 
got up, and there was a constant flux and reflux 
of young, clever, distinguished people, who made 
the suppers delightfully gay and noisy, and 
among whom Felix was the favourite. 

In August 1823 Abraham Mendelssohn and 
his two sons, Felix and Paul, made a journey to 
Silesia. Felix, aged fourteen, was announced to 
play at a charity concert at Beinerz, in a piano- 
forte concerto by Mozart, but the amateur 
orchestra of the town played so abominably out 
of time and tune at the rehearsal, that the boy- 
performer made the schoolmaster announce at 
the concert that he (Felix) would extemporise 
instead of playing the concerto : this he did 
with great success, selecting his themes from 
Mozart and Weber.* 

The full rehearsal of his fourth opera, * Die 
beiden Neffen,' on his fifteenth birthday, Feb. 8, 
1824, was an event in the boy's life. At supper, 
after the conclusion of the work, Zelter, adopting 
freemason phraseology, raised him from the 
grade of 'apprentice,* and pronounced him an 
'assistant,' 'in the name of Mozart, and of 
Haydn, and of old Bach.'* A great incentive 
to his progress had been given shortly before 
this in the score of Bach's Passion, copied by 
Zelter's express permission from the MS. tran- 
script in the Singakademie, and given him by 
his grandmother at Christmas, 1823. The copy 
was made by Eduard Rietz,® who had succeeded 
Henning as his violin teacher, and to whom he 
was deeply attached. His confirmation took 

> It seema that he ftccompanled the qoartet symphoniei on the 
piano. Dorii. in hi* XeeoUtetiotu, expressly says so. and the alow 
iiiu vement of the Symphony No. ]0 contains a note in Mendelssohn's 
own writing, 'Daa Klavier mit dem Baaae,' which seems to prove it. 
The practice, therefore, did not end with the 18th century, as has 
been supposed (Prol K. Front. ' On the Orowth of the Modem Or- 
chestra,' Proctrdingt o/tfu Musical AM$od<Uion. 1878-79. p. 87). 

2 F.X. i. IW. > Dev. p. 4. 

* F.M. 1. ISa > IMd. p. 140 ; Dom. p. 399. 

" Or Rita, as Mendelssohn always spells it He seems to have been 
on the whole Felix's most intimate early friend. 

place about this date, under Wilmsen, a well- 
known clergyman of Berlin. Preparation for 
confirmation in Germany is often a long and 
severe process, and though it may not ^ in Felix's 
case have led to any increase in church-going, 
as it probably would in that of an English lad 
similarly situated, yet we may be sure that it 
deepened that natural religious feeling which 
was so strong an element in the foundation of 
his character. 

In the compositions of 1824 there is a great 
advance. The Symphony in C minor (op. 1 1) — 
which we now know as *No. 1,' but which on 
the autograph in the library of the Philharmonic 
Society is marked 'No. XIIL' — was com^iosed 
between March 3 and 31. The Sestet for pf. 
and strings (op. 110), the pianofoi'te quartet in 
B minor ^ (op. 3), a fantasia for four hands (pf.), 
and a motet in five numbers are all amongst the 
works of this year. An important event in the 
summer of 1824 was a visit of the father, Felix, 
and Bebecka, to Dobberan, a bathing-place on 
the shores of the Baltic near Rostock. For the 
wind-band at the bath-establishment at Dob- 
beran Felix wrote an overture which he after- 
wards scored for a full military band and pub- 
lished as op. 24. But the chief result of the 
visit was that he there for the first time saw 
the sea, and received those impressions and 
images which afterwards found their tangible 
shape in the Meeresstille Overture. 

Among the great artists who came into con- 
tact with Felix at this time was Moscheles, then 
on his way from Vienna to Paris and London. 
He was already famous as a player, and Frau 
Mendelssohn calls him 'the prince of pianists.' 
He remained in Berlin for six weeks in November 
and December 1824, and was almost daily at the 
Mendelssohns' ; and after a time, at the urgent 
request of the parents, and with great hesita- 
tion on his own part, gave Felix regular lessons 
on the pianoforte every other day. Moscheles 
was then thirty. It is pleasant to read of 
his unfeigned love and admiration for Felix 
and his home — ' a family such as I have never 
known before ; Felix a mature artist, and yet 
but fifteen ; Fanny extraordinarily gifted, play- 
ing Bach's fugues by heart and with astonishing 
coiTectness — in fact, a thorough musician. The 
parents gave me the impression of people of the 
highest cultivation. They are very far from 
being over-proud of their children ; indeed, they 
are in anxiety about Felix's future, whether his 
gifts are lasting, and will lead to a solid, perma- 
nent future, or whether he may not suddenly 
collapse, like so many other gifted children.' 
' He has no need of lessons ; if he wishes to 
take a hint from me as to anything new to him, 
he can easily do so.' Such remarks as these do 
honour to all concerned, and it is delightful to 
find Mendelssohn years afterwards, in the full 
glory of his great fame, referring to these very 

'• 8ch. p. 318a. 

B Last movement dated Jan. 18, 18SS. 

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lessons as having fanned the sacred fire within 
him and urged him on to enthusiasm.^ 

Moscheles has preserved two of the Sunday 
morning programmes : — 

' Nov. 28. (Sunday) Morning music at the 
Mendelssohn's : — Felix's C minor quartet ; his 
D major symphony ; Concerto by Baih (Fanny) ; 
Duet for two pianos in D minor, Arnold.' 

* Dec. 1 2. Sunday music at Mendelssohn's : — 
Felix's F minor quartet. I played my Duet in 
G for two pianos. Little Schilling played 
Hummel's Trio in G.' 

Moscheles was followed by Spohr, who came 
to superintend the first performance at Berlin 
of his opera * Jessonda' (Feb. 14, 1825). He 
was often at the house, and on very intimate 
terms, though he does not mention the fact in 
his Autobiography. 2 

One or two accounts by competent judges of 
Felix's style of playing at this time have been 
preserved. Hiller was with him in Frankfort 
in the spring of 1825, and speaks both of his 
extemporising and of his playing the music of 
others.3 With the latter he delighted both 
Hiller and Andr^ (who relished neither his face, 
his ideas, nor his manners) by playing the 
Allegretto of Beethoven's Seventh Symphony in 
such a * powerful orchestral style ' as fairly to 
stop Andre's mouth. With the former he carried 
Hiller away by extemporising on Handera 
choruses in 'Judas,' as he had done Schelble, 
in the same room three years before, on subjects 
from Bach's motets. This time his playing was 
quite in the vein of his subject ; * the figures 
which he used were thoroughly Handelian, and 
the power and clearness of his passages in thirds, 
sixths, and octaves were really grand, and yet 
it all belonged to the subject-matter, thoroughly 
true, genuine, living music, with no trace of 
display.' Dom is more explicit as to his 
accompanying — the duet in *Fidelio.* 'He 
astonished me in the passage, ** Du wieder nun 
in meinen Armen !" by the way in which he 
represented the violoncello and the bass parts 
on the piano, playing them two octaves apart. 
I asked him why he chose that striking way of 
rendering the passage, and he explained it all 
to me in the kindest manner. How many 
times since,' says Dom, 'has that duet been 
sung in Berlin to the pianoforte, but how rarely 
has it been accompanied in such a manner ! ' ^ 
He rarely played from book, either at this or 
any other time of his life. Even works like 
Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, and the sonata 
in B flat (op. 106), he knew by heart* One 
of the grounds of Spontini's enmity to him is 
said to have been a performance of the Ninth 
Symphony by Felix, without book, before Spon- 
tini himself had even heard it, and it is known 
on the best authority that he played the 

I Mo$, i. 90 ; ii. 161. 
1 BiUtr, vp. ft, 6. 

» Marx. JSVrffwrunaen. ii. ir. . , 

Meinlngcn. Tkubcrt, SdUsiDits. Klengel, J. W. Daviaon. and othen. 

« F.M. 1. 144. 
4 Bom, p. 886. 
oonllnned to me by the Dake of 

symphony through by heart only a few months 
befoi-e his death. Here we may say that he had 
a passion for Beethoven's latest works, his 
acquaintance with which dated from their 
publication, Beethoven's last years (1820-27) 
exactly corresponding with his own growth to 
maturity. It was almost the only subject on 
which he disagreed with his father.^ On the 
other hand, the devotion of such very conserva- 
tive artists as David, Rietz, and Stemdale 
Bennett, to those works, is most probably due 
to Mendelssohn's influence. Marx^ challenges 
his reading of Beethoven ; but this is to fly in 
the face of the judgment of all other critics. 

In 1825 the elder Mendelssohn made a 
journey to Paris, for the purpose of fetching 
his sister Henriette back to Germany, and took 
Felix with him. They arrived on March 22. 
One of the first things he mentions is the 
astonishment of his relatives at finding him 
no longer a child. ^ He plunged at once into 
musical society. Hummel, Onslow, Boucher, 
Herz, Hal^vy, Ealkbrenner, Moscheles (on his 
way back from Hamburg to London, with his 
bride), Pixis, Rode, Baillot, Kreutzer, Rossini, 
Paer, Meyerbeer, Plantade, and many more, 
were there, and all glad to make acquaintance 
with the wonderful boy. At Madame Ki^n^'s — 
Madame Bigot's mother — he played his new 
pianoforte quartet (in B minor) with Baillot 
and others, and with the greatest success. 

The French musicians, however, made but a 
bad impression on him. Partly, no doubt, this 
is exaggerated in his letters, as in his criticism 
on Auber's * L^ocadie * ® ; but the ignorance of 
German music — even Onslow, ^'^ for example, 
had never heard a note of * Fidelio * — and the 
insults to some of its masterpieces (such as the 
transformation of ' Der Freischiitz ' into ' Robin 
des Bois,' ^^ and the comparison of a passage in 
Bach's A minor organ prelude to a favourite 
duet of Monsigny), and ^e general devotion to 
effect and outside glitter — these were just the 
things to enrage the lad at that enthusiastic 
age. With Cherubini their intercourse was 
very satisfactory. The old Florentine was more 
than civil to Felix, and his expressions of 
satisfi^^tion (so very rare in his mouth) must 
have given the father the encouragement which 
he was so slow to take in the great .future of 
his boy.^^ Felix describes him in a few words as 
' an extinct volcano, now and then blazing up, 
but all covered with ashes and stones.' He 
wrote a Kyrie *a 5 voci and grandissimo or- 
chestra* at the instance of Cherubini, ^^ which he 
describes as ' bigger than anything he had yet 

7 XrHn, ii. 139. « P.M. L 146. 

10 F.M. 1. 148, and MS. letter. 

* L, Not. 93; 1890. 

• 6. <ft jr. p. 43. 

n 0. « jr. p. 48. 

» Marx [Errin. ii. 118, 114) wys that the father't hesitation m to 
bis ion's future was so great, that, even to a late date, he constantly 
urged him to go into business. He believed that his son had no 

Enius for music, and that it was all the happier for htm that he 
A. not. 

U BrUfiatdtMl twUchm Gotthe und Xelttr in dm Jahrtn 179e bit 
1838 (Berlin, 1834) ; ir. 39 ; 0. A Jr. p. 49. 

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done.'^ The Kyrie seems to have been lost. 
Through all this the letters home are as many 
as ever, full of musio, descriptions, and jokes — 
often very bad ones. Here, for instance, is a 
good professional query : * Ask Rltz if he knows 
what Fes moll is.' 

On May 19, 1825, the father and son left 
Paris with Henriette (' Tante Jette '), who had 
retired from her post at General Sebastiani's 
with an ample pension, and thenceforward 
resided at Berlin. On the road home they 
paid a short visit (the third) to Goethe, at 
Weimar. Felix played the B minor pianoforte 
quartet (op. 3), and delighted the poet by 
dedicating it to him.' It is a marvellous work 
for a boy of sixteen, and an enormous advance 
on either of its two predecessors ; but probably 
no one — not even the comjKJser — suspected that 
the Scherzo (in F sharp minor, 3-8) was to be 
the first of a * family of scherzi which, if he had 
produced nothing else, would stamp him as an 
inventor in the most emphatic signification of 
the word.' It must be admitted that Goethe 
made him a very poor return for his charming 
music. Anything more stiff and ungraceful 
than the verses which he wrote for him, and 
which are given in Ooethe and Mendelssohn^ it 
would be difficult to find, unless it be another 
stanza, also addressed to Felix, and printed in 
vol. L p. 477 of the poet's works (Stuttgart, 
i860) :— 

W«nn dM T»l«nt rentModig wal- 

Wirkaama Tngmd nie renlUt. 
War Manarhau grllndlidi koont' 

Dat darf aich vor dar Zait nlcht 

'icbean ; 
Und mOebtct ihr ihm Beifall 

So geM ibn qds. dia wlr Oin 

friach balaben. 

If Talant ralfoa viih Wiadom 

Virtae la narer oat of datCL 
Ha vbo can glra lu plaaaore tma 
Naad navar fear what tima can 

A nd wUl 70a Talant yoar approrml 

Than g{T« It ua who maka har 

navly Itva. 

They were at home before the end of May. The 
fiery Capriccio in F sharp minor for pf. (after- 
wards published as op. 5), so full of the spirit 
of Bach, is dated July 23 of this year, and the 
score of 'Camacho's Wedding* — an opera in two 
acts by Klingemann, founded on an episode in 
*Don Quixote'— is dated August 10. The 
Capriccio was a great favourite with him, and 
he called it uns ahsurdiU. 

The Mendelssohn-Bartholdy family w|s be- 
ginning to outgrow the accommodation afforded 
by the grandmother's roof, and at the end of 
the summer of 1826 they removed from No. 7 
Neue Promenade to a large house and grounds 
which had formerly belonged to the noble 
family of Reck, namely to No. 3 of the Leipziger 
Strasse, the address so familiar to all readers 
of Felix's subsequent letters. If we were 
writing the life of an ancient prophet or poet, 
we should take the name of the * Leipzig Road ' 
as a prediction of his ultimate establishment in 
that town ; but no token of such an event was 
visible at the time. The new residence lay in 

1 • An Dickigkalt allaa Qbartrlflt.' 
9 For tha datalla aetO.^M. p. SO. 

a part of Berlin which was then very remote, 
close to the Potsdam Gate, on the edge of the 
old Thiergarten, or deer park, of Frederick the 
Great, so far firom all the accustomed haants 
of their friends, that at first the laments were 
loud. The house was of a dignified, old- 
fashioned kind, with spacious and lofty rooms ; 
behind it a large court with offices, and behind 
that again a 4)eautiful stretch of ground, half 
park, half garden, with noble trees, lilacs, and 
other flowering shrubs, turf, alleys, walks, 
banks, summer-houses, and seats — the whole 
running far back, covering about ten acres, and 
being virtually in the country. Its advantsges 
for music were great. The house itself contained 
a room precisely fitted for large music parties 
or private theatricals ; and at the back of the 
court, and dividing it from the garden, there 
was a separate building called the * Gartenhaus,' 
the middle of which formed a hall capable of 
containing several hundred persons, with glass 
doors opening right on to the lawns and alleys 
— in short, a perfect place for the Sunday music. ^ 
Though not without its drawbacks in winter 
— reminding one of Hensel's almost pathetic 
description of the normal condition of too many 
an English house — it was an ides! summer 
home, and * 3, Leipziger Strasse ' is in Mendels- 
sohn's mouth a personality, to which he always 
turned with longing, and which he loved as 
much as he hated the rest of Berlin. It was 
identified with the Mendelssohn -Bartholdys 
till his death, after which it was sold to the 
state ; and the Herrenhaus, or House of Lords 
of the German government, now stands on the 
site of the former court and Gartenhaus.^ 

Devrient takes the completion of * Camacho ' 
and the leaving the grandmother's house ass 
the last acts of Felix's musical minority ; and 
he is hardly wrong, for the next composition 
was a wonderful leap into maturity.* It was 
no other than the Octet for strings (afterwards 
published as op. 20), which he finished towards 
the end of October 1825, and dedicated to 
Eduard Ritz as a birthday gifL It is the first 
of his works which can be said to have fully 
maintained its ground on its own merits, and 
is a truly astonishing composition for a boy 
half-way through his seventeenth year. There 
is a radiance, a freedom, and an individuality 
in the style which are far ahead of the 18th 
Symphony, or any other of the previous instru- 
mental works, and it is steeped throughout in 
that inexpressible captivating charm which is 
so remarkable in all Mendelssohn's best com- 
positions. The Scherzo especially (G minor, 
2-4) is a movement of extraordinary lightness 
and grace, and the Finale, besides being a 
masterly piece of counterpoint (it is a fugue), 

a F.Jf. 1. 142. 

* Tha larga yaw-traa whleh atood oloaa outalde tha Oartenhaua 
and waa andangarad by tha axtenalon of the naw bnilding, w»a 
praae r rad by tha apadal order of tha Bmparor. and althongh trans- 
planted to another part ot tha garden, ia atlU Tlgorona, and mm 
gloomy aa a yew ahovld be. s Dn. p. U. 

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containa in the introduction of the subject of 
the scherzo a very early instance of * transforma- 
tion of themes.' Felix had confided to Fanny ^ 
that his motto for the scheno was the following 
stanza in the Intermezzo of ' Faust ' : — 

WoUccDsng and N«bdflor ' noatlng dond mihI tnJlbig anlit 

ErhttlloD deh too oben : > Brlght'nJng o'«r m hover ; 

Loft im Laub, nnd Wind ImiAin rtir tti« brak*. the rnahei 
Btdir. ahake— 

Und Allea lat santoben. I And all their pomp ia orer. 

and never was a motto more perfectly carried 
out in execution. The whole of the last part, 
so light and airy — and the end, in particular, 
where the fiddles run softly up to the high G, 
accompanied only with staccato choixls — ^is a 
perfect illustration of ' Alles ist zerstoben. ' He 
afterwards instrumented it for full orchestra, 
but it is hard to say if it is improved by the 
process.* The so-called Trumpet Overture, in 
C (op. 101), was almost certainly composed 
this autumn, and was first heard at a concert 
given by Maurer, in Berlin, on Nov. 2, at 
which Felix played the pianoforte part of 
Beethoven's Choral Fantasia.^ This overture 
was a special favourite of Abraham Mendels- 
sohn's, who said that he should like to hear it 
while he died. It long remained in MS. in the 
hands of the Philhamonic Society, and was 
not published until many years after the death 
of the composer. 1826 opens with the string 
quintet in A (op. 18),^ which, if not perhaps so 
great as the octet, is certainly on the same side 
of the line, and the scherzo of which, in fugue- 
form, is a worthy companion to its predecessors. 
The pianoforte sonata in E (op. 6) is of this 
year (March 22, 1826). So is an interesting- 
looking Andante and Allegro (June 27), written 
for the wind-band of a Beer-garden which he 
used to pass on his way to bathe ; the MS. is 
safe in the hands of Dr. Paul Mendelssohn- 
Bartholdy's widow at Berlin. 

But all these were surpassed by the Overture 
to 'A Midsummer Night's Dream,' which was 
composed during the peculiarly fine summer of 
1826, under the charming conditions of life in 
the new garden,^ and the score of which is signed 
'Berlin, August 6, 1826.' It appears to have 
been the immediate^^ult of a closer acquaint- 
ance with Shakespeare, through the medium of 
Schlegel and Tieck's version, which he and his 
sisters read this year for the first time. Marx 
claims to have been much consulted during its 
progress, and even to have suggested essential 
modifications.® Fanny also no doubt was in 
this, as in other instances, her brother's con- 

» r.M. I. 164. 

s Ma in the poaaeaalon of the Philbarmonic Society (London). 

3 A.M.g. 18SC p. 8SS. The autograph waa once in poueaaion of 
Mr. Sdileinita. From him it want into the omniTorona maw of 
Jullua Rietz : it ia now in the Ttoytd library at Berlin. The MS. 
in our Philfaannooie libnary ia a copy with eorreetiona made by 

« Zdter'a letter to Goethe of June 6. 1828. Thia Ma. too^ aeema 
to hare diaappaared. 

s The flrat letter that I hare found dated from the Lelpalgvr 
Straaae, 'am 7 July 1896, Im Garten,' aaya. 'toKlay or t<^moRow I 
•hall begin to draam the Midauramer night'a dream.* 

* Dev. p. 38. Marx. Errin. it SSI -233. 

fidante, but the result must have exceeded even 
the fondest wishes of those who knew him 
best. It is asserted by one who has the best 
right to judge, and is not prone to exaggera- 
tion,^ * that no one piece of music contains so 
many points of harmony and orchestration that 
had never been written before as does this, and 
they have none of them the air of experiment, 
but seem all to have been written with certainty 
of their success.' In this wonderful overture, 
as in the Octet and Quintet, the airy fairy 
lightness, and the peculiar youthful grace, are 
not less remarkable than the strength of con- 
struction and solidity of workmanship which 
underlie and support them. Not the least 
singular thing about it is the exact manner in 
which it is found to fit into the music for the 
whole play when that music was composed 
seventeen years later. The motives of the over- 
ture all turn out to have their native places in 
the drama.^ After many a performance as a 
duet on the piano, the overture was played by 
an orchestra in the Mendelssohns' garden-house, 
to a crowded audience, and its first production 
in public seems to have been at Stettin, in Feb. 
1827, whither Felix went in very severe weather 
to conduct it.^ With the composition of this 
work he may be said to have taken his final 
musical degree, and his lessons with Zelter were 

' Gamacho ' had been submitted to Spontini 
as General-Music- Director in the preceding year 
by Felix himself. Spontini was tlien, by an 
odd freak of fortune, living in a house which 
had for some time been occupied by the Mendels- 
sohns in the early part of their residence in 
Berlin, viz. 28, Markgrafen Strasse, opposite the 
Catholic church. Taking the young composer 
by the arm, Spontini led him to the window, 
and pointing to the dome across the street, said, 
* Mon ami, il vous faut des id^es grandes comme 
cette coupole.' *<* This from a man of fifty-two, 
in the highest position, to a boy of seventeen, 
could haHly have been meant for anything but 
kindly, though pompous, advice. But it was 
not so taken. The Mendelssohns and Spontini 
were not only of radically different natures, but 
they belonged to opposite parties in music, and 
there wns considerable friction in their inter- 
course. At length, early in 1827, after various 
obstructions on Spontini's part, ' Gamacho ' was 
given out for rehearsal and study, and on April 
29 was produced. The house — not the Opera- 
house, but the smaller theatre — was crowded with 
friends, and the applause vehement ; at the end 
the composer was loudly called for, but he had 
left the theatre, and Devrient had to appear in 
his stead. Owing to the illness of Blum, the 
tenor, the second performance was postponedi 

' G. A. Macfarran, Fhilharmonie programme-book, April 30, 1877. 

(* Auguat Reiaaraann's FVix afrndtlmAn-Barthoidv, 1807, p. Oi. 

P.M. i. 104. Fellx'a Ma letter from Stettin. Feb. 17, 1827, la th« 
flrat In which hla father Xm addreaaed aa ' Herr Stadttath.' 

>« ' My friend, your ideaa moat be giand— grand aa that dome.' 
Marx, Xrrin. I. S47. 

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and the piece was never again brought forward. 
Partly from the many curioiu obstructions which 
arose in the course of the rehearsals, and the 
personal criticisms which followed it, partly 
perhaps from a just feeling that the libretto was 
poor and his music somewhat exaggerated, but 
mainly no doubt from the fact that during two 
such progressive years as had passed since he 
wrote the piece he had outgrown his work,^ 
Felix seems to have so far lost interest in it as 
not to press for another performance. The music 
was published complete in pianoforte score by 
Laue, of Berlin, in 1828. 

A nature so keenly sensitive as his could 
hardly be expected to pass with impunity through 
such worries as attended the production of the 
opera. He was so sincere and honest that the 
sneers of the press irritated him unduly. A 
year before (in 1826) he had vented his feelings 
in some lines which will be new to most 
readers : — 

Scbrelbt der KomponMe emat, 

SchUitert w not ehi ; 
Sehrelbt der Komponiato froh, 

1st «r in gemeln ; 

Scbrelbt der Komponlste lAng, 
lit ea sum Erbarinan ; 

Scbretbt eln Koinponlate knri, 
Kann man nlchl erwarmen. 

Behreibt ein Komponiat* Uat, 
lat'e ein aLrmer Tropf ; 

Scbrelbt dn Komponlat* tlef 
Bappalt'a ihm Im Kopf. 

Bebrelb' er also wle er will. 

Kelnem ateht ea an. 
Daram achrelb' eln Komponist 

Wla er will nnd kaan.r 

If tbe arUat grarely wrltea. 
To Bleep it win beguile. 

If tbe artlat gaily wrltea. 
It la a rulgar atyle. 

If tbe artlat wrltea at length. 

How aad hla hearera' lot ! 
If the artlat briefly writea. 

Ko man will oare one Jot. 

If an artlat alroply wrltea. 

A fool he'a aaid to be. 
If an artlat deeply writea. 

He 'a maa ; 'tla plain to aee. 

In whataoerer way he wrltea 
He oan't pleaae erery man ; 

Therefore let an artlat write 
How he Ukea and can. 

But on the present occasion the annoyance was 
too deep to be thrown off by a joke. It did in 
fact for a time seriously affect his health and 
spirits, and probably laid the foundation for 
that dislike of the officialism and pretension, 
the artists and institutions, the very soil and 
situation of Berlin, which so curiously pervades 
his letters whenever he touches on that city.^ 
His depression was increased by the death of an 
old friend, named Hanstein, who was carried off 
this spring, and beside whose deathbed Felix 
composed the well-known Fugue in £ minor for 
pianoforte (op. 85, No. 1). The chorale in the 
major, which forms the climax of the fugue, is 
intended, as we are told on good authority, to 
express his friend's release.^ But Felix was too 
young and healthy, and his nature too eager, 
to allow him to remain in despondency. A 
sonata in B flat for pf. (afterwards published 
as op. 106) is dated May 31, 1827 ; and on 
Wliitsunday, June 8, we find him at Sakrow, 
near Potsdam, the property of his friend Magnus, 
composing the charming Lied, ' 1st es wahr ? ' 
which within a few months he employed to 

t ' For Ood'a aaka, do not let my old ain of Camacho'a Wedding be 
stirred op again!' (Letter to Wm. Bartholomew. July 17, 1843. 
Potto, 817.) In the aame manner in 1835 he protaata to Mra. Voigt 
agninat the performance of bia C minor Symphony— at least wlthont 
the explanation that it was written by a bOT of barely fifteen. 
iAeht BH^e, eon mi* M^mMtiokn-BaHhotdp. Laipsig. 1871. p. 20.) 

s Written for his mother'a Urtbday. March 15. 18SIIL Sea Ueber 
land und Meer. 1873. No. 38. p. 703. 

« Bee the two lettara to Verkenioa. Augaat 14 and 83. 1841 ; alao 
one to Miller. If arch 29. 1843 (//. p. 207), and far more strongly In 
many an nnpubllabed letter. * aeh. p. 318a. 

advantage in his string quartet in A minor 
(op. 13). Meantime— on May 2, 1826— he 
had entered the university of Berlin, where his 
tutor Heyse was now a professor. For his 
matriculation essay he sent in a translation in 
verse of the Andria of Terence, which primarily 
served as a birthday present to his mother 
(March 1 5).^ This translation was published in 
a volume, with a preface and essay, and a 
version of the ninth Satire of Horace, by Heyse.* 
Mendelssohn's translation has been examined 
by an eminent English scholar, who reports 
that as a version it is precise and faithful, 
exceedingly literal, and corresponding closely 
with the original both in rhythm and metre, 
while its language, as far as an Englishman 
may judge of German, is quite worthy of repre- 
senting the limpid lAtin of Terence. Professor 
Munro also points out that as this was the first 
attempt in Germany to render Terence in his 
own metres, it may be presumed to have set 
the example to the scholars who have since that 
date, as a rule, translated Plautus and Terence 
and other kindred Greek and Latin classics in 
the original metres. It was by no means his 
first attempt at verse ; for a long mock-heroic 
of the year 1820 has been preserved, called the 
* Paphleis,' in three cantos, occupied with the 
adventures of his brother Paul (Paphlos), full 
of slang and humour, and in hexameters. 

Whether Felix went through the regular 
university course or not, does not appear, but 
no doubt the proceeding was a systematic 
one, and he certainly attended several classes, 
amongst them those of Hegel, ^ and took especial 
pleasure in the lectures of the great Carl Ritter 
on geography. Of his notes of these, two folio 
volumes, closely written in a hand like copper- 
plate and dated 1827 and 1828, still exist. 
Italian he was probably familiar with before 
be went to Italy ; and in later years he knew it 
so thoroughly as to be able to translate into 
German verse the very crabbed sonnets of Dante, 
Boccaccio, Cecco Angiolieri, and Cino, for his 
uncle Joseph in 1840.^ Landscape drawing, in 
which he was ultimately to excel so greatly, he 
had already worked at for several years. For 
mathematics he had neithqr taste nor capacity, 
and Schubring pathetically describes the im- 
possibility of making him comprehend how the 
pole-star could be a guide in travelling. 

The change into the new house was a great 
event in the family life. Felix began gymnastics, 
and became a very great proficient in them. He 
also learned to ride, and to swim, and with him 
learning a thing meant practising it to the 

> 5cA. p. 3024. 

" 'Oaa Mttdchen ron Androe. eine KomOdie dea Terentiaa, la den 
Veramaaaen dee Originala ilberaeUt ron F*—. Hit Elnleltunc und 
Anmerkungen hcranagegeben von K. W. L. Heyae. AngehKnit iat 
die 9te Satire dea Horatlua. Oberaetct von dem Henoageber. Berlin. 
1828. Bel Ferdinand Dttmmler.' The preface la dated ' Berlin, ink 
Juli. 1886.' 

7 One eourae of theae waa nn Mnaic. Zelter, in (7. 4 Jf . p. 64. 

* They are given in their place in the later edltlona of the Germain 
reraion of the Letter*. 

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utmosti and getting all the enjoyment and 
advantage that could be extracted from it. He 
was a great dancer, now and for many years 
after. Billiards he played brilliantly. Skating 
was the one outdoor exercise which he did not 
succeed in — he could not stand the cold. The 
garden was a vast attraction to their friends, 
and Bocda (a kind of bowls) was the favourite 
game under the old chestnut-trees which over- 
shadowed the central alloy. The lai^e rooms 
also gave a great impetus to the music and to 
the mixed society which now flocked to the 
house more than ever. We hear of Rahei and 
Yarnhagen, Bettina, Heine, Holtei, Lindblad, 
Steffens, Gans, Marx, Kugler, Droysen ; of 
Humboldt, W. Miiller,* Hegel (for whom alone 
a card-table was provided), and other intellectual 
and artistic persons, famous, or to be famous 
afterwards. Young people, too, there were in 
troops ; the life was free, and it must have been 
a delightful, wholesome, and thoroughly enjoy- 
able time. Among the features of the garden 
life was a newspaper, which in summer was 
called Gfarte?i-2«i^M7igF(* The Garden Times'); in 
winter Thee- und SchfieezeUung (*Tea and Snow 
Times '). It appears to have been edited by Felix 
and Marx, but all comers were free to contribute, 
for which purpose pens, ink, and paper lay in 
one of the summer-houses. Nor was it confined 
to the younger part of the society, but grave 
personages, like Humboldt and Zelter even, did 
not disdain to add their morsel of fun or satire. 
In all this brilliant interchange of art, science, 
and literature, Felix, even at this early date, 
was the prominent figure. It was now as it 
was all through his life. When he entered the 
room every one was anxious to speak to him. 
Women of double his age made love to him, 
and men, years afterwards, recollected the even- 
ings they had spent with him, and treasured 
every word that fell from his lips.* One who 
knew him well at this time, but afterwards broke 
with him, speaks of the separation as *a draught 
of wormwood, the bitter taste of which remained 
for years.* 8 

The latter half of August and the whole of 
September (1827) were passed in a tour with 
Magnus and Heydemann^ through the Harz 
mountains to Baden-Baden (where his amusing 
adventures must be read in his letters in F.M.\ 
and thence by Heidelberg, where he made 
the acquaintance of Thibaut ^ and his old Italian 
music, to Frankfort. At Frankfort he saw 
Schelble and Hiller, and delighted them with 
his new A minor string quartet (op. 13) — ^not 
then fully written down ; and also with the 

1 Father of Max MQller, and anihor 
* For Instaooes of thto sm Dorn. 
3 Marz. Srrin. II. 138. 

of Schubert'a 'SchOne 

4 Louis Hajrdamann wm a rurj eocentric ] 


: person. 
many MS8. of XendelMobn't— amongit othen the pianoforte 
•onata in E (op. 7) and the Tloloneello Titriationa (op. 17). Theee— 
ten in nmnber. dating from 1824 to 1899— are now (1906) all in the 
poes cw ion of Dr. Paul Xendelaaohn-Bartholdy'e widow at Berlin. 
« P.M. 1. 164-166. 

' Midsummer Night's Dream ' overture, which 
although a year old was still new to the world. 

The annoyance about 'Gamacho' had vanished 
with the tour, and Felix could now treat the 
story as a joke, and take off the principal persons 
concerned. The A minor quartet (op. 13) was 
completed directly after his return home, and 
is dated * Berlin, Oct. 26, 1827.' Of further 
compositions this year we know only of the 
beautiful fugue in £ flat for strings (on his 
favourite old ecclesiastical subject), which after 
his death was published as the last movement 
of op. 81. It is dated ' Berlin, Nov. 1, 1827.' 
Also a * Tu es Petrus ' for choir and orchestra, 
written for Fanny's birthday (Nov. 14), an(i 
published as op. 111. A very comic * Kinder- 
symphonie' for the Christmas home party, 
scored for the same orchestra as Haydn's, and 
a motet for four voices and small orchestra on 
the chorale * Christe du Lamm Gottes,' are 
named by Fanny in a letter.® Soon after this 
their circle sustained a loss in the departure of 
Klingemann, one of the cleverest and most 
genial of the set, to London as Secretary to the 
Hanoverian Legation. 

During the winter of 1827 Felix — incited 
thereto by a complaint of Schubring's, that 
Bach always seemed to him like an arith- 
metical exercise — formed a select choir of sixteen 
voices, who met at his house on Saturday even- 
ings, and at once began to practise the Matthew 
Passion. 7 This was the seed which blossomed 
in the public performance of that great work a 
year later, and that again in the formation of 
the Bachgesellschaft, and the publication of the 
B minor Mass and all the Church Cantatas and 
other works which have proved such mines of 
wealth. Long and complicated as the Passion 
is, he must have known it by heart even at that 
early date ; for among other anecdotes proving 
as much, Schubring, who may be implicitly 
believed, relates that one evening after accom- 
panying one of the choruses at the piano 
without book, he said, *at the twenty-third 
bar the sopranos have C and not C sharp ' ! 

March, 1828, was occupied by the composition 
of a long lyric poem (lyrische Dichtung) to words 
by Levezow, for the Tercentenary Festival of 
Albert Dlirer, at the Singakademie at Berlin, 
on April 18.^ It was undertaken at the request 
of the Akademie der bildenden Eiinste und dem 
Kiinstlervereine, and is written for solo voices, 
chorus, and orchestra, and contains fifteen 
numbers. The 'Trumpet Overture' preceded 
it in performance. Felix was not in love with his 
task, but as the work grew into shape and the 
rehearsals progressed, he became reconciled to it ; 
the performance was good, and Fanny's sisterly 
verdict is that * she never remembers to have 
spent a pleasanter hour.' ® The work remains 
in MS. at the Singakademie and the Royal 

« P.M. 1. 180. 181. 
» A.M.*. 1828. p. 364. 

7 Rek. p. 318«. 
» F.M. 1. 189. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





Library at Berlin, and has probably the ianlts of 
almost all such compositions. Even Beethoyen 
failed when he had to write to order. Fate, 
however, had a second task of the same kind in 
store for Felix, with some curious variations. 
This time the cantata was for a meeting (or, as 
we should now call it, a * congress ') of physicians 
and investigators of natural science, to whom a 
festival was given by A. von Humboldt as pre- 
sident Bellstab wrote the words, and Felix 
was invited to compose the music. It contains 
seven numbers for solo and chorus. Owing to 
a whim of Humboldt's the chorus was confined 
to men's voices, and the orchestra to clarinets, 
horns, trumpets violoncellos, and basses. The 
thing came ofif in September ; but no ladies — 
not even Fanny — were admitted, no report is 
given in the musical paper ; and as there is no 
mention of it in the KS. Catalogue the autograph 
has probably vanished. Chopin was present 
at the sitting of the congress, and saw Mendels- 
sohn with Spontini and Zelter ; but his 
modesty kept him from introducing himself, 
and their acquaintance was put off to a later 
date. I 

Felix had, however, during the summer been 
occupied in a more congenial task than such 
pUcea d! occasion as these, viz. in the composition 
of the Overture to Goethe's 'Calm sea and 
prosperous voyage,' on which we find him em- 
ployed in June (1828). Fanny gives us the in- 
teresting information that he especially avoided 
the form of an Overture with Introduction, and 
wished his work to stand as two companion 
pictures. ' She mentions also his having written 
pianoforte pieces at this time, including some 
*Lieder ohne Worte' (a title not destined to 
come before the world for some years) and a 
great Antiphona and Responsorinm for four 
choirs, 'Hora est,' etc., which still remains 
in MS. 

For Christmas he wrote a second Kinder- 
symphonie, which delighted every one so much 
that it had to be repeated on the spot^ He 
also re-soored Handel's 'Acis and Galatea,' and 
the ' Dettingon Te Deum,' at Zelter's desire, for 
the use of the Singakademie.^ They have 
since been published, but are not satisfactory 
specimens of such work. He also wrote the 
Variations in D for pf. and violoncello (op. 17), 
dated 'Jan. 80, 1829,' and dedicated to his 
brother Paul, who was more than a fair violon- 
cello player. The *Calm sea and prosperous 
voyage' was finished, or finished as nearly as 
any score of Mendelssohn's can be said to have 
been finished, before it was publicly per- 
formed and had received those innumerable 
corrections and alterations and afterthoughts, 
which he always gave his works, and which in 
some instances caused the delay of their appear- 
ance for years — which in fact prevented the 

1 KannwdLi'B tAf* tf Chopiti, ohApi It. s i. 194. 

3 IHd, p. in. « Ibid., eompiirad vith D^mimU. p. 181. 

appearance of the Italian Symphony till his 
removal made any further revision impossible. 
We have already seen that the basis of the 
work was furnished by the visit to Dobberan. 
A MS. letter from that place to Fanny (July 
27, 1824) gives her an account of the sea in 
the two conditions in which it is depicted in 
the overture.* 

Felix's little choir had steadily continued 
their practice of the Passion, and the better 
they knew the mighty work the more urgent 
became their desire for a public performance 
by the Singakademie (300 to 400 voices) under 
Felix's own care. Apart from the difficulties 
of the music, with its double choruses and 
double orchestra, two main obstacles appeared 
to lie in the way — the opposition of Zelter as 
head of the Akademie, and the apathy of the 
public. Felix, for one, ' utterly disbelieved ' in 
the possibility of overcoming either,* and with 
him were his parents and Marx, whose in- 
fluence in the house was great. Against him, in 
this opinion, were Devrient, Schubring, Bauer, 
and one or two other enthusiasts. At length 
Devrient and Felix determined to go and beard 
Zelter in his den. They encountered a few rough 
words, but their enthusiasm gained the day. 
Zelter yielded, and allowed Felix to conduct the 
rehearsals of the Singakademie.^ The principal 
solo singers of the C^ra at once gave in their 
adhesion ; the rehearsals began ; Felix's tact, 
skill, and intimate knowledge of the music 
carried everything before them, and the public 
flocked to the rehearsals. On Wednesday, 
March 11, 1829, the first performance of the 
Passion took place since the death of Bach ; 
every ticket was taken, and a thousand people 
were turned awayfrom the doors. Thus in Felix's 
own words (for once and once only alluding to 
his descent) 4t was an actor and a Jew who 
restored thisgreat Christian work to the people. '^ 
There was a second performance under Felix on 
Bach's birthday, March 21. It is probable that 
these successes did not add to Felix's popularity 
with the musicians of Berlin. Whether it was 
his age, his manner, his birth, the position held 
by his family, or whatever else, certain it is that 
he was at this time in some way under a cloud. 
He had so far quarrelled with the Royal Orchestra 
that they refused to be conducted by him, and 
concerts at which his works were given were 
badly attended.^ 

Paganini made his first appearance in Berlin 
this month (March), gave four concerts, and 
bewitched the Berliners as he did every one 
else.^<> He very soon found his way to the 
Leipziger Strasse.^^ It would be interesting to 
know if he heard the Passion, and if, like 

* 'SometlmcB it llw m smooUi aa m mirror, wltboat «»t«i, 
broakan. or noiaa . . . aoinetimca it ia ao vild and f mloaa that Z 
dare not go in.' 

a />«v. p.46. 

7 Th«y bafBin aboat tha and of Janoary lUB- ^-M. i. XM. 

>;)«*. p. irr. • 8c« bU lett«r te I^npold G»ns. io 0. « M. p. 186. 

i« A.M.Z. 18S9. p^ SS6. " Uara. Errin. it. 7S. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





Bosdni, some yean later, he professed himself 
a conyeort to Bach. 

Whistling's Mandbuch shows that by the end 
of this year (1829) Felix had published his three 
pf. quartets ; the Sonata for pf. and vn. ; the 
Capriocio for pf. (op. 5) ; the Sonata for pf. 
solo ; the ' Wedding of Caxnacho * ; and the first 
two books of Songs. The dedications of these 
throw an interesting light on some things. The 
pf. quartets are inscribed respectively to Prinoe 
A. Radzivil (a friend of the family, who was 
present at the first performance of * Die Beiden 
Padagogen' at the Neue Promenade), Zelter, 
and Goethe ; theiriolin sonata (op. i) to Eduard 
Ritz, Felix's favourite violin player ; and the 
seven Characteristic pf. pieces (op. 7) to Lud- 
wig Betger, his pianoforte teacher. The rest 
have no dedications. 

The engagement of Fanny Mendelssohn to 
William Hensel the painter, of Berlin, took 
place on Jan. 22, 1829, in the middle of the 
excitement about the Passion ; and on April 10 
Felix started for England. He was now 
twenty. His age, the termination of his liability 
to military service,^ the friction just alluded to 
between himself and the musical world of Berlin 
— all things invited him to travel, and Zelter ^ 
was not wrong in saying that it was good for 
-him to leave home for a time. Hitherto also 
he had worked without fee or reward. He was 
now to prove that he could make his living 
by music' But more than this was involved. 
His visit to England was the first section of a 
long journey,^ planned by the care and sagacity 
of his father, and destined to occupy the next 
three years of his life. In this journey he was 
* closely to examine the various countries, and 
-to fix on one in which to live and work ; to 
make his name and abilities known, so that 
where he settled he should not be received as a 
stranger ; and lastly to employ his good fortune 
in life, and the liberality of his father, in pre- 
paring the ground for future eflforts.'* The 
journey was thus to be to him what the artistic 
tour of other musicians had been to them ; but 
with the important difference, resulting from 
his fortunate position in life, that the establish- 
ment of his musical reputation was not the 
exclusive object, but that his journey was to 
give him a knowledge of the world, and form 
his character and manners. Music had not 
been adopted as a profession for Felix without 
much hesitation, and resistance on the part of 
some of his relations, and his father was wisely 
resolved that in so doing nothing should be 
sacrificed in the general culture and elevation 
of his son. The reason alleged to have been 
given by a young Scotch student for going to 
Oxford, 'To improve myself, and to make 

1 y.X. L188. 

s Zelter'i Oorre$pondemc0 wrfA «k>«Ck«. latter 641. March », 1889. 

' A. to SehlBintts. April 16, 1636. 

« ■ Hr arott Joaracy ' he wlU it, O. A J/, pp. 100, 187. 

» L. Feb. 21. 1882. 

friends,' was Mendelssohn's motto, not only 
during his grand tour but throughout his career. 

It was their first serious parting. His fiither 
and Bebecka accompanied him to Hamburg. 
The boat (the Atttoood) left on the Saturday 
evening before Easter Sunday, April 18, and it 
was not till noon on Tuesday, the 21st, that 
he reached the Custom House, London. The 
passage was a very bad one, the engines broke 
down, and Mendelssohn lay insensible for the 
whole of Sunday and Monday. He was welcomed 
on landing by Elingemann and Moscheles, and 
lodged at tiie house then numbered 108, 
Great Portland Street, where his landlord was 
Heinke, a German ironmonger.* 

It was the middle of the musical season, and 
on the night of his arrival Malibran made 
her first reappearance at the Opera, as Desde- 
mona. His account of her, with other letters 
describing this period, will be found in Lie 
Familie Mendelssohn (i. 214-294), in Devrient's 
Heeolleeiians, [and in Letters of Felix Mendels- 
sohn to Igjuu and Charlotte Moscheles (1888)]. 
Other singers in London at that time were 
Sontag, Pisaroni, Mme. Stockhausen, and Don- 
zelli ; also Yelluti, the castrate, a strange survival 
of the ancient world, whom it is difficult to 
think of in connection with Felix Mendelssohn- 
Bartholdy. De B^ot and Madame Dulcken 
were among the players. F^tis, too, was in 
London with the ol^eot of delivering his lectures 
(of which only one was given) on ' La musique 
k la port4e de tout le monde,' in French, to 
English audiences. Felix was much with Mr. 
and Mrs. Moscheles, and there met Neukomm, 
with whom, in everything but his music, he 
sympathised warmly. 

His first appearance before an English audience 
was at the Philharmonic Concert (then held in 
the Argyll Rooms, at the upper end of Regent 
Street, where No. 246 now stands), on Monday 
evening. May 25, when he conducted his 
Symphony in C minor. Old John Cramer * led 
him to the piano, as if he were a young lady.' ^ 
The applause was immense, and the Scherzo 
(scored by him from his Octet for this occasion, 
in place of the original Minuet and Trio) was 
obstinately encored against his wish.^ How 
deeply he felt the warmth of his reception may 
be seen from his letter to the Society.' He 
published the symphony with a dedication to the 
Philharmonic, i<* and they on their part elected 
him an honorary member of the Society on 
Nov. 29, 1829. It was thus an English body 
which gave him his first recognition as a 
composer. ^^ The simple applause of London had 

< The oorner of Bidlnghonee Street, now and einoe 189B nnmhered 
79. [The houM wm rebuilt In 1904 ; » pbotngmph of It, taken before 
the rebutldiiig, will be found in MtuUal HmmU in Lortdon, tar 
F. O. BdwardM (18BB). p. 4SL See alio the JfuHeal Ttm$t, Dec 1800, 
p. sag. and Sept. 1604. p. 581.] 

7 r.M. i. 2S6. • IbU. 

' nogartk, p. 51. The letter i» in French. 

19 The autograph of the Sj'niphoDy— in the green cloth board! §0 
familiar to thOie who know hie US. eoorw— i« now in the Soeletjr't 

" Bee the statement to thie eflTect in the A.M.S. for 1886, p. 8S7. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





wiped out the sneers and misunderstandings of 
Berlin. This he never forgot : it recurs through- 
out his correspondence, and animates his account 
of his latest visits to us. Near the close of his 
life he spoke of it as * having lifted a stone from 
his heart' ^ The English had much to learn, 
and he could laugh heartily at them ; hut at 
least they loved him and his music, and were 
quite in earnest in their appreciation.* Five 
days afterwards, on the 30th, at 2 p.m., he 
appeared again in the Argyll Booms at what 
is vaguely called in thfe Times of June 1, * The 
fourth grand concert.' He played the Ooncert- 
stiick of Weber — as the same journal informs 
us — *with no music before him.' A charming 
letter,^ equal to any in the whole collection 
for its gaiety and bright humour, describes his 
coming to the rooms early to try the piano — 
a new Clementi — and his losing himself in ex- 
temporising till he was recalled by finding that 
the audience were taking their seats. Two 
other concerts must be mentioned : — one by 
Drouet, the flute-player, on Midsummer Night, 
at which, most appropriately, the Overture to 
the * Midsummer Night's Dream ' was given, for 
the first time in England, and he himself played 
the £ flat Concerto of Beethoven. After the 
concert the score of the overture was left in the 
hackney coach by Attwood, and lost.* On 
Mendelssohn's hearing of it, he said, 'Never 
mind, I will make another.' He did, and on 
comparing it with the parts no variations were 
found. The other concert on July 18 was for 
the benefit of the sufferers from the floods in 
Silesia.^ At this the Overture was repeated, 
and Felix and Moscheles played (for the first 
and only time in England) a Concerto by the 
former for two Pianofortes and Orchestra, in E.** 
All this was a brilliant beginning, as far as 
compositions went ; it placed him in the best 
possible position before the musical society of 
London, but it did not do much to solve the 
question of livelihood, since the only commission 
which we hear of his receiving, and which 
delighted him hugely, he was compelled for 
obvious reasons to decline, viz. a festival hymn 
for Ceylon for the anniversary of the emancipa- 
tion of the natives ! — an idea so comical that he 
says it had kept him laughing inwardly for two 
days. 7 A MS. letter of this time (dated June 
7) is signed * Composer to the Island of Ceylon.' 
But he found time for other things besides 
music ; for the House of Commons, and picture 
galleries, and balls at Devonshire House and 
Lansdowne House, and so many other parties, 
that the good people at home took fright and 

1 Letter to M me. Jennjr Lind-Ooldschmldt. 

* See f. jr. i. 31R. and fiep. pp. 81. 82. 
» F.Jf. 1. 227. dated June 7. 1929. 

« On the aathorltr of Mr. W. H. Hnak. 

* This waa enggeeted by Mendeliaohn'e uncle Kathan. who lived 
in Siletia, to hii brother Afarahaoi, and by him communicated to 
FeUx {F.M. i. 238). 

" Bee Felix's letters deaeriMnff this. July 10. 16. and 17 (/*..¥. i. 
2X1-240) : alw) Mot. i. 237. The autograph of the Concerto is dated 
Oct 17.1823. ' r.M.i.'29l). 

thought he was giving up music for society, and 
would become a drawing-room ornament.^ The 
charm of his manner and his entire simplicity 
took people captive, and he laid a good founda- 
tion this year for the time to come. 

An amusing little picture of himself and his 
friends Rosen and Miihlenfeld, coming home 
late from a state dinner given by the Prussian 
Ambassador, buying three German sausages, and 
then finding a quiet street in which to devour 
them, with a three -part song and peals of 
laughter between the mouthfuls, shows how 
gaily life went on outside the concert-room.* 

At length the musical season was over. Felix 
and Klingemann left London about July 21, and 
stopping at York (23rd) and Durham (24th), w 
were in Edinburgh by the 28 th." On the 29th 
they were present at the annual competition of 
Highland Pipers in the Theatre RoyaL 12 Qn the 
80th, before leaving * the grey metropolis of the 
north,' they went over Holyrood Palace, saw the 
traditional scene of the murder of Rizzio, and 
the chapel, with the altar at which Mary was 
crowned standing ' open to the sky, and surrounded 
with grass and ivy, and everything ruined and 
decayed ' : ' and I think,' he continues, * that I 
found there the beginning of my Scotch Sym- 
phony.' The passage which he then wrote 
down was the first sixteen bars of the Introduc- 
tion, which recurs at the end of the first move- 
ment, and thus forms, as it were, the motto of 
the work,*^ 

From EdinbuTgh they went to Abbotsford, 
and thence by Stirling, Perth, and Dunkeld, to 
Blair- Atholl ; then on foot by Fort- William to 
Tobermory, sketching and writing enormous 
lettere at every step. On the way they visited 
Fingal's Cave, and Felix, writing 'auf einer 
Hebride ' — *on one of the Hebrides ' — August 7, 
gives twenty bars of music, * to show how extra- 
ordinarily the place affected hie. ' These twenty 
bars,^^ an actual inspiration, are virtually 
identical with the opening of the wonderful 
Overture which bears the name of * Hebrides * 
or * Fingal's Cave.' Then came Glasgow, and 
then Liverpool. At Liverpool they went over 
a new American liner called the NapoleoUj and 
Felix, finding a Broadwood piano in the saloon, 
sat down to it and played for himself and hia 
friend the first movement of Fanny's * Easter- 
Sonata ' — ^whatever that may have been. Home 
was always in his thoughts. Then to Holyhead 
for Ireland, but the weather was dreadful. He 
says : * Yesterday was a good day, for I was 
only wet through three times.* So he turned 
back to Liverpool, there said good-bye to Klinge- 
mann, and went on by Chester to the house of 
Mr. John Taylor, a mining engineer, at Coed-du 
near Holywell. Here he remained for some days, 

•/)«». p. 78. • F.M. i. 8S5. 

10 Their Journey can be traced by Felix's sketcbea. " F.if. 1. 240. 

»« /bid. ; Nogarth. p. 77. 
John Olen of Bdlnburgh. 

I owe the date to the klndn 
M F.M. 1. 244. 

>« Ten of the present score, as he afterwards diminished the Dot»> 
tion by one halt. A faeslTolIe is given in F.M. L 2ST. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





seeing a very pleasant side of English country 
life, and making an indelible impression on his 
hosts ; and here he composed the three piano- 
forte pieces which form op. 16, the first of which 
in key, tempo, and melody, closely resembles 
the introduction to the Scotch Symphony. ^ The 
following letter, written after his death by 
a member of the Taylor family,' gives a good 
idea of the clever, genial, gay, and yet serious, 
nature of the man at this happy time of life : — 

It was in the year 1829 that we first became acquainted 
uith Mr. Mendelssohn. He was introduced to us by my 
aunt, Mrs. Austin, who had well known his cousin 
Professor Mendelssohn, at Bonn. He visited us early 
iti the season in Bedford Row, but our real friendship 
began at Goed^du, which was a house near Mold in Flint- 
shire, rented for many years by my father, Mr. John 

Mr. Mendelssohn came down there to spend a little 
time with us, in the course of a tour in England and 
Scotland. My father and mother received him kindly, 
a.s they did everybody, but his arrival created no parti- 
cular sensation, as many strangers came to our house to 
see the mines under my father's management, and 
foreigners were often welcomed there. Soon, however, 
we began to find that a most accomplished mind had 
come among us, quick to observe, delicate to distinguish. 
There was a little shyness about him, great modesty. 
We knew little about his music, but the wonder of it 
grew upon us ; and I remember one night when my 
two sisters and I went to our rooms how we began saying 
to each other ' Surely this must be a man of genius. . . . 
We can't be mistaken about the music ; never did we 
hear any one play so before. Tet we know the best 
London musicians. Surely bv and by we shall hear 
that Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy is a great name in the 

My father's birthday happened while Mr. Mendelssohn 
was with us. There was a grand expedition to a distant 
mine, up among the hills ; a tent carried up there, a 
dinner to the miners. We had speeches and health- 
drinkings, and Mendelssohn threw himself into the 
whole thing, aa if he had been one of us. He interested 
himself in hearing about the condition and wav of life 
of the Welsh miners. Nothing was lost upon nim. A 
letter that he wrote to mv brother John just after he 
left Coed-du, charmingly describes the imbressions he 
carried away of that country. Sometimes ne would eo 
out sketching with us girls, sitting down very seriously 
to draw, but making the greatest fun of attempts which 
he considered to be unsuccessful. One figure of a Welsh 
girl he imagined to be like a camel, and she was called 
the camel accordingly. Though he scorned his own 
drawings, he had the gennine artist-feeling, and great 
love for pictures. I need not say how deeply he entered 
into the Deauty of the hills and the woods. His way of 
representing them was not with the pencil ; but in the 
evenings his improvised music would show what he had 
observed or felt in the past day. The piece called ' The 
Rivulet,' which he wrote at that time for my sister Susan 
will show what I mean ; it was a recollection of a real 
actual rivulets 

Wa observed how natural ol^ects seemed to suggest 
music to him. There was in my sister Honora's garden 
a pretty creeping plant, new at that time, covered with 
little trumpet-like flowers. * He was struck with it, and 
played for ner the music which (he said) the fkiries might 
play on those trumpets. When he wrote out the piece 
(called a Capricoio in B minor) he drew a little branch 
of that flower all up the marain of the paper. 

The piece ^an Andante and Allegro) which Mr. Mendels- 
sohn wrote for me, was sugxested by the sight of a bunch 
of carnations and ros^.^ The carnations that year were 

^ Both AUagrM are Id S^ and the Andante in repeated at the end 
of each. The piece la dated ' Coed-dn, Sept. 4.' [18»]. 

s MiM Anne TajXor, afterwarda Mn. woralej. 

3 Thia piece was Ions a faToarite of hie. A water-ooloar drawing 
by Bohirmer, inspired 1»7 Pelix'e playing of it. ia itlll in the po e eee 
■ioQ of the family {Dn. p. 175). The MB. ia headed 'Am Bach,' and 
the tradition of the "raylon ia that it depiete the actoal stream. 
Its watarfalla. broad ahallowa. and other features, that flows near 
CoM-da. * Eeer«moeantu. 

*( The aoeoant giren abore of the origin and intention of theee 
three pleoee (op. 16) is oonflrmed by a letter of his own printed in 

very fine with us. He liked them best of all the flowers, 
and would have one often in his button-hole.^ We found 
he Intended the arpeggio passages in that composition 
aa a reminder of the sweet scent of the flower rising up. 

Mr. Mendelssohn was not a bit 'sentimental,' though 
he had so much sentiment. Nobody ei^joyed fun more 
than he, and his laughing was the moat joyous that could 
be. One evening in hot summer we staid in the wood 
above our house later than usual. We had been building 
a house of flr branches in Susan's garden up in the wood. 
We made a fire, a little way oflTit, in a thicket amons the 
trees, Mendelssohn helping with the utmost zeal, lag- 
ging up more and more wood ; we tired ourselves with our 
merry work ; we sat down round our fire, the smoke 
went off, the ashes were glowing, it began to get dark, 
but we did not like to leave our bonfire. * If we had 
but some music.' Mendelssohn said ; ' could any one get 
something to play on?' Then my brother recollected 
that we were near the gardener's cottage, and that the 
gardener had a fiddle. Off rushed our bovs to set the 
fiddle. When it came, it was the wretchedest thing in 
the world, and it had but one strins. Mendelssohn took 
the instrument into his hands, and nil into fits of laughter 
over it when he heard the sounds it made. His laughter 
was very catching, he put us all into peals of merriment. 
But he somehow afterwards brought beautiftil music 
out of the poor old fiddle, and we sat listening to one 
strain after another till the darkness sent us home. 

My cousin, John Edward Taylor,? was staying with us 
at that time. He had composed an imitation Welsh 
air, and before breakfast he was plajring this over, all 
unconscious that Mr. Mendelssohn ^whose bed-room was 
next the drawing-room) overheard every note. That 
night, when we had music as usual, Mr. Mendelssohn 
sat down to play. After an elegant prelude, and with 
all possible advantage, John Edward heard his poor 
little air Introduced aa the subject of the evening. And 
having dwelt upon it, and adorned it in every graceful 
manner, Mendelssohn in his pretty, playftQ way, bowing 
to the eomposeTt gave all the praise to him. 

I suppose some of the charm of his speech might lie in 
the unusual choice of words which he as a German 
made in speaking English. He lisped a little. He used 
an action of nodding his head quickly till the long 
locks of hair would (Ul over his high forehead with the 
vehemence of his assent to anything he liked. 

Sometimes he used to talk very seriously with my 
mother. Seeing that we brothers and sisters lived 
lovingly together and with our parents, he spoke about 
this to my mother, told her how he had known fiiimilies 
where it was not so ; and used the words ' You know not 
how happy you are.' 

He was so fkr from any sort of pretension, or ttom 
making a fkvour of giving his music to us, that one 
evening when the family from a neighbouring house 
came to dinner, and we had dancing afterwards, ne took 
his turn in playing quadrilles and waltzes with the 
others. He was the first person who taught us gallop- 
ades, and he first played us Weber's last waltz. He 
ei\joyed dancing like any other young man of his age. 
He was then t wentv years old. He had written his 'Mid • 
summer Night's Dream' [Overture] before that time. 
I well remember his playing it. He left Coed-du early 
in September 1829. 

We saw Mr. Mendelssohn whenever he came to 
England, but the visits he made to us in London have 
not left so much Impression upon me aa that one at 
Coed-du did. I can, however, call to mind a party at my 
fkther's house in Bedford Row where he was present. Sir 
Qeozg» Smart was there also : when the latter was asked 
to play he said to my mother. ' No, no, don't call upon 
the old post-horse, when you nave a high-mettled young 
racer at hand.' The end of it was a duet played by Sir 
George and Mr. Mendelssohn together. Our dear old 
master, Mr. Attwood, often met him at ourhouse. Once 
he went with us to a ball at Mr. Att wood's at Norwood. 
Returning by daylight I remember how Mr. Mendels- 
sohn admired the view of St. Paul's in the early dawn 
which we got from Blackfriars Bridge.^ But the happiest 
visit to us was that one when he first brought his 
sweet young wife to see my mother. Madame Felix 

F.M. L ST9. The autograph of No. 1 is hesded ' Nelken and Boeea 
in Menge '—Carnations and Roses in plenty. 

• Compere JfM.i.S97. 

f A son of Bdward Taylor. Oresham Profeseor of Music. 183849. 

> [A facsimile reproduction of a pencil^raving by him of St. 
Paul's Cathedral, etc. as seen from Blackfriars Bridge, forms (hS 
frontispiece of Jfutieal Sauntt in London.} 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





Mendelssohn was a bride then, and we all of us said he 
ooald not have foand one more worthy of himself. And 
with the delightful remembrance of his happiuess then, 
J will end theae finagments. 

His head was at this time full of music— the 
E flat Violin Quartet (op. 12)^ ; an organ piece for 
Fanny's wedding ^ ; the Reformation Symphony, 
the Scotch Symphony, the Hebrides Overture, 
as well as vocal music, * df which he will say 
nothing. * Other subjects, however, occupied even 
more of his letters than music. Such were a 
private plan for a journey to Italy in comjiany 
with his parents and Bebecka, for which he 
enters into a little conspiracy with his sister ; 
and a scheme for the celebration of his parents' 
silver wedding (Dec. 26, 1829), by the perform- 
ance of three operettas (liederspiel), his own 
' SoldatenUebschaft,' a second to be written by 
Hensel and composed by Fanny, and the third 
an ' Idyll ' by Klingemann and himself, which 
when once it entered his head rapidly took shape, 
and by the end of October appears to have been 
virtuadly complete.' 

By Sept. 10 he was again in London, this 
time at 35 Bury Street, St. James's, Klinge- 
mann's lodgings * ; on the 14th he finished and 
signed the £ flat Quartet, and on the 17th was 
thrown fromagig and hurt his knee, which forced 
him to keep his bed for nearly two months, and 
thus to miss not only a tour through Holland 
and Belgium with his father, but Fanny's 
wedding. Confinement to bed, however, does 
not prevent his writing home with the greatest 
regularity. On Sept. 22 he ends his letter with 
the first phrase of the Hebrides Overture — * aber 
zum Wiedersehen, 

On Oct. 23 he informs them that he is beginning 
again to compose — and so on. He was nursed 
by Klingemann, and well cared for by Sir Lewis 
and Lady MoUer, by Attwood and Hawes (the 
musicians), the Goschens, and others. His firat 
drive was on Nov. 6, when he found London 
'indescribably beautiful.' A week later he 
went to Norwood to the Attwoods,^ then back 
to town for * the fourteen happiest days he had 
ever known,' and on Nov. 29 was at Hdtel 
Quillacq, Calais, on his road home. He reached 
Berlin to find the Hensels and the Devrients 
inhabiting rooms in the garden-house. His 
lameness still obliged him to walk with a stick ; 
but this did not impede the mounting of his 

1 /'.JIf.ppL276.S79,280. The autognph of the Qaartet, in the pos- 
■anion ox Mr. Sadorf, is dated ' London, Sept. 14, 1889.' Though 
pablUhed M No. 1, it is thus realljr his second string qnurtet. See 
above, pi 11& The quartet was dedicated to 'Bititty'i ITlstor] ' ; but 
after her engagenient to Budorf, Mendelssohn requested David to 
alter the initials (' durch einen klelnen Federschwanz '| to ' B. R.' 
(see Eckardt's AnUnaiul Daeid, p. 35). In the same letter he calls 
- ■''nartetansS.' 

nnj herself wrote the piece which was actually nlayed at the 
wedding, Oct. S. ]8» (F.M. L 296). Felix's piece, howeve] 

it ' Quartet ansS.' 

« Fannj 
finished and written out (£. to Fanny, July 29. 1844). 

9 F.M. L 302-9M: £ -' . - - - — 

B Opw 10. No. 2. Is d 

9 F.M. L 302-9M: />»«. p. 88. 
B Opw 10. No. 2. Is dated 'Norwood, Suxrwr, 2 
M 8. letter from the same addrssa. Nor. 15. The house was on Beulah 

« F.M. i. 801. 

', Not. 18.' There is a 

Bill. [A photograph of it Is given in Mutieal BaunU in London, 

piece for the silver wedding,^ which came off 
with the greatest success on Dec. 26, and dis- 
played an amount of dramatic ability which 
excited the desire of his Mends that he should 
again write for the stage. ^ The Liedenpiel, how. 
ever, was not enough to occupy him, and during 
this winter he composed a Symphony for the 
tercentenary festival of the Augsburg Confes- 
sion, which was in preparation for June 25, 
1880. This work, in the key of D, is that 
which we shall often again refer to as the ' Re- 
formation Symphony.' ^ He also wrote the fine 
Fantasia in F sharp minor (op. 28) for pfl , which 
he called his 'Scotch Sonata ' ^ — apiece too little 
played. A Chair of Music was founded in tlie 
Berlin university this winter expressly with a 
view to its being filled by Mendelssohn. But 
on the offer being made he declined it, and at 
his instance Marx was appointed in his stead. ^^ 
There can be no doubt that he was right 
Nothing probably could have entirely kept down 
Mendelssohn's ardour for composition ; but it 
is certain that to have exchanged the career 
of a composer for that of a university teacher 
would have added a serious burden to the many 
occupations which already beset him, besides 
forcing him to exchange a pursuit which he 
loved and succeeded in, for one for which he had 
no turn — for teaching was not his/orfe." 

The winter was over, his leg was well, and 
he was on the point of resuming his 'great 
journey ' in its southern portion, when, at the 
end of March 1880, both Rebecka and he were 
taken ill with measles. This involved a delay 
of a month, and it was not till May 18 that 
he was able to start. ^^ His father accompanied 
him as far as Dessau, the original seat of the 
family, where he remained for a few days with 
his friend Schubring. 

He travelled through Leipzig, Weissenfels, 
and Naumburg, and reached Weimar on the 
20th. There he remained a fortnight in the 
enjoyment of the closest intercourse with Goethe 
and his family, playing and leading what he 
calls a mad life — Heidenleben.^^ There his 
portrait was taken, which, though like, ' made 
him look very sulky,* and a copy of the score 
of the Reformation Symphony was made and 
sent to Fanny. On June 8 he took leave of 
Goethe for the last time," and went by Nurem- 
berg to Munich, which he reached on June 6.^5 
At Munich he made a long halt, remaining till 
the end of the month ; made the acquaintance of 
Josephine Lang, Delphine Schauroth, and other 

9 * Heimkehr aus der Fremde ' (The Return from Abroad). It was 
translated hy Chorley as ' Bon and Stranger/ and jnrodnced at the 
Haymarket Theatre, July 7. 1881. rom. p. M. 

For some curious details regarding this see Dev. p. 80. Schu- 
bring (30261 tells the same story of the Trumpet Overture. 

f nie MS., formerly in Mr. Schleinltx's poasesslon, i» entitled 

merly in Mr. Schleinltx s poasesslon, is entitled 
,' and dated ' Berlin. Jan. 29, 18SS* ; but he played 
ly 94. 1890 (A. May 85. 1890.) lo A». pu 9& 

it at Goethe's, May 94, 1890 (A. May 95. 1890.) lo ner.p.t. 

11 See a remark in Hauptmann's LtUmn to BauMor (L 187) in. 
reference to a similar attempt in 1838. 

1* F.M. i. 818 (iiiaoeurately August, but eorreeted in th« eecosMl 
edition, from which the English translation 

» L. May 25. 1830. See also letters in ' ' 

»4 0. * J^. IJ. 70. 

u L. June 6, 1830. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





interesting persons, and was feted to an extra- 
ordinary extent ^ — 'several parties every evening, 
and more pianoforte playing than I ever reooUect ' 
—all which must be read in the letter of Marx, 
and in his own delightful pages.' On June 14, 
he sends Fanny a little Song without Words 
(Lied) in A, and on the 26th * on the birth of 
her son, ' a much longer one in B flat minor, which 
he afterwards altered, and published as op. SO, 
No. 2.3 Both here and at Vienna he is disgusted 
at the ignorance on the part of the best players — 
Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven utterly ignored, 
Hummel, Field, and Kalkbrenner accepted as 
classics. He himself played the best music, 
and with the best effect, and his visit must have 
marked an epoch in the taste of both places.^ 

From Munich he went through the Salzkam- 
mergut, by Salzburg, Ischl, and the Traunsee, 
to Linz, and thence to Vienna, August 13. 
Here he passed more than a month of the gayest 
life ^ with Hauser the singer,^ Merk the violon- 
cellist, the Pereiras, the Eskeles, and others, but 
not so gay as to interfere with serious composi- 
tion— ^witness a cantata or anthem on '0 Haupt 
voll Blut und Wunden* (MS.),^ and an *Ave 
Maiia' for tenor solo and eight -part chorus 
(op. 23, No. 2), both of this date. On Sept. 28 
we find him at Pressburg, ^vitnessing the porona- 
tion of the Grown Prince Ferdinand as King of 
Hungary ^ ; then at Lilienfeld ; and by Gratz, 
Udine, etc., he reached Venice on October 9. 

His stay in Italy, and his journey through 
Switzerland back to Munich, are so fully depicted 
in the volume of his Letters from Italy and 
Suntzerland, that it is only necessary to allude 
to the chief points. He went from Venice by 
Bologna to Florence, reaching it on Oct 22, 
and remaining there for a week. He arrived in 
Rome on Nov. 1 — the same day as Goethe had 
done, as he is careful to remark — and he lived 
there till April 10, 1831, at No. 5, Piazza di 
Siiagna. The latter half of April and the whole 
of May were devoted to Naples (Sti. Combi, 
Sta. Lucia, No. 13, on the 3rd floor) and the Bay 
— Sorrento, Ischia, Amalfi, etc. Here he met 
Benedict, and renewed the acquaintance which 
they had begim as boys in Berlin in 1821, when 
Benedict was Weber's pupil.* By June 6 he 
was b£U!k in Rome, and after a fortnight's interval 
set out on his homeward journey by Florence 
(June 24), Genoa, Milan (July 7-16), Lago 
Maggiore and the Islands, the Simplon, Mar- 
tigny, and the Gol de Balme, to Chamouni and 
Geneva. Thence on foot across the mountains 
to Interlaken ; and thence by Grindelwald and 
the Furka to Lucerne, August 27 and 28. At 
Interlaken, besides sketching, and writing both 
letters and songs, he composed the only waltzes 

« F.M. t ZISJOJ. 
M, he hu altered the noUtlon 

1 A. to ZdUr. Oct 16. 1830. 
3 In thU, M in mt«i»1 oth«r 
from quftTsn to MmlqtWTen. 

* L.U> Zelter, Jmie 22 (not Included In the Bngllah tmne.). and 
Oct. 16. 1830. •/>«*. PL lOS. 

** Af terwanla Director of the Munich CoDeerratorlam and Spohr's 
oorrwpondent. '' Aw. p. 106. 

• A. to Pfenl. Sept. 27. 1830. • B.p.7. 

of which — strange as it seems in one so madly 
fond of dancing— any trace survives. ^^ At Lucerne 
he wrote his last letter to Goethe,i^ and no doubt 
mentioned his beingengaged in thecomposition of 
the * Walpurgisnacht,' which must have brought 
out from the poet the explanation of the aim of 
his poem which is printed at the beginning of. 
Mendelssohn's music, with the date Sept 9, 
1831. Then, still on foot, he went by WaUen- 
stadt and St. Gall to Augsburg, and returned to 
Munich early in September. 

Into both the Nature and the Art of this 
extended and varied tract he entered with 
enthusiasm. The engravings with which his 
father's house was richly furnished, and Hensel's 
copies of the Italian masters, had prepared him 
for many of the great pictures ; but to see them 
on the sport was to give them new life, and it is 
delightful to read his rapturous comments on 
the Titians of Venice and Rome, the gems in 
the Tribune of Florence, Guide's 'Aurora,' and 
other masterpieces. His remarks are instructive 
and to the point ; no vague generalities or 
raptures, but real criticism into the eflect or 
meaning or treatment of the work ; and yet 
rather from the point of view of an intelligent 
amateur than with any assumption of technical 
knowledge, and always with sympathy and 
kindness.'^ Nor is his eye for nature less keen, 
or his enthusiasm less abundant His descrip- 
tions of the scenery of Switzerland during the 
extraordinarily stormy season of his journey 
there are worthy of the greatest painters or 
letter-writers. Some of his expressions rise to 

* It was a day,' he says, describing his walk 
over the Wengem Alp, * as if made on purpose. 
The sky was flecked with white clouds floating 
far above the highest snow-peaks, no mists below 
on any of the mountains, and all their summits 
glittering brightly in the morning air, every un- 
dulation and the face of every hill dear and 
distinct. ... I remembered the mountains 
before only as huge peaks. It was their height 
that formerly took such possession of me. Now 
it was their boundless extent that I particularly 
felt, their huge broad masses, the close connec- 
tion of all these enormous fortresses, which 
seemed to be crowding togetherand stretching out 
their hands to each other. Then, too, recollect 
that every glacier, every snowy plateau, every 
rocky summit was dazzling with light and glory, 
and that the more distant summits of the further 
ranges seemed to stretch over and peer in upon 
us. I do believe that such are the thoughts of 
God Himself. Those who do not know Him 
may here find Him and the nature which He 
has created, brought strongly before their eyes.' '^ 
Other expressions are very happy: — *The moun- 
tains are acknowledged to be finest after rain, 
and to-day looked as fresh as if they had just 

10 L, August 11. 18SI. 
X« A Oct. 25, 1880; Ju_ 
U A August 14. 1881. 

U O. A M. p. 80. 

» L. Oct. 25. 1830 ; June SB. 1881 : Sept. 14. 1830. 

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burst the shelL ' ^ Again, in approaching Naples 
— *To me the finest object in nature is and 
always will be the sea. I love it almost more 
than the sky. I always feel happy when 1 see 
before me the wide expanse of waters.' 

In Rome he devoted all the time that he 
could spare from work to the methodical 
examination of the place and the people. But 
his music stood first, and surely no one before 
or since was ever so self-denying on a first visit 
to the Eternal City. Not even for the scirocco 
would he give up work in the prescribed hours. ^ 
His plan was to compose or practise till noon, 
and then spend the whole of the rest of the 
daylight in the open air. He enters into 
everything with enthusiasm — it is ' a delightful 
existence. ' Rome in all its vast dimensions lies 
before him like an interesting problem, and he 
goes deliberately to work, daily selecting some 
different object — the ruins of the ancient city, 
the Borghese Gallery, the Capitol, St Peter's, 
or the Vatican. 'Each day is thus made 
memorable, and, as I take my time, each object 
becomes indelibly impressed upon me. . . . 
When I have fairly imprinted an object on my 
mind, and each day a fresh one, twilight has 
usually arrived, and the day is over.' Into 
society he enters with keen zest, giving and 
receiving pleasure wherever hegoes, and 'amusing 
himself thoroughly and divinely.' * His look- 
ing-glass is stuck full of visitin|D;-cards, and he 
spends every evening with a fresh acquaintance.'' 
His visits to Horace Yemet and Thorwaldsen, 
Santini's visits to him ; the ball at Torlonia's, 
where he first saw the young English beauty, 
and that at the Palazzo Albani, where he danced 
with her ; the mad frolics of the Carnival, the 
monks in the street (on whom he ' will one day 
write a special treatise'), the peasants in the 
rain, the very air and sunshine — all delight him 
in the most simple, healthy, and natural manner. 
' Oh 1 if I could but send you in this letter one 
quarter of an hour of all this pleasure, or tell 
you how life actually flies in Rome, every minute 
bringing its own memorable delights.'^ On 
the other hand, he has no mercy on anjrthing 
like affectation or conceit. He lashes the German 
painters for their hats, their beards, their dogs, 
their discontent, and their incompetence, just 
as he does one or two German musicians for 
their empty pretension. The few words which 
he devotes to Berlioz (who although always his 
good friend is antagonistic to him on every 
point) and his companion Montfort, are strongly 
tinged with the same feeling.* On the other 
hand, nothing can be more genuinely and good- 
naturedly comic than his account of the attempt 
to sing Marcello's psalms by a company of 
dilettanti assisted by a Papal singer.^ 

» L. Augwt M. « Berliox. royo^ Mxuioal, I. T8. 

> L. from Rome. Not. 2, 1830 to April 4. 1831. 
4 L. Petk 8. 18S1. 

s L. Uarch 29. 1831. It la ctiriotu to compare Berllox'e aoeoimt 
Joyagt Mut, 1. 73) of McndelMohn with the above. 
• i, March 1. 18S1. 

This sound and healthy habit of mind it is, 
perhaps, which excludes the sentimental — we 
might almost say the devotional — feeling which 
is so markedly absent from his letters. Strange 
that an artist who so epjoyed the remains of 
ancient Italy should have had no love of antiquity 
as such. At sight of Nisida he recalls the fact 
that it was the refuge of Brutus, and that Cicero 
visited him there. *■ The sea lay between the 
islands, and the rocks, covered with vegetation, 
bent over it then just as they do now. ThASt 
are the antiquities that interest me, and are 
much more suggestive than crumbling mason- 
work. ' ' The outlines of the Alban hills remain 
unchanged. There they can scribble no names 
and compose no inscriptions . . . and to these 
I cling.' In reference to music the same spirit 
shows itself still more strongly in his indignation 
at the ancient Gregorian music to the Passion 
in the Holy Week services. * It does irritate 
me to hear such sacred and touching words 
sung to such insignificant dull music They 
say it is canto fermOy Gregorian, etc. No matter. 
If at that period there was neither the feeling 
nor the capacity to write in a different style, 
at all events we have now the power to do so ' ; 
and he goes on to suggest two alternative plans 
for altering and reforming the service. Religious 
he is, deeply and strongly religious ; every letter 
shows it It is the unconscious, healthy, happy 
confidence of a sound mind in a sound body, of 
a man to whom the sense of God and Duty are 
as natural as the air he breathes, or the tunes 
which come into his head, and to whom a 
wrong action is an impossibility. But of devo- 
tional sentiment, of that yearning dependence, 
which dictated the 180th Psalm, or the feeling 
which animates Beethoven's passionate prayers 
and confessions,^ we find hardly a trace, in his 
letters or in his music 

He was very fortunate in the time of his visit 
to Rome Pope Pius YIII. died while he was 
there, and he came in for all the ceremonies of 
Gregory XVI. 's installation, in addition to the 
services of Holy Week, etc. These latter he 
has described in the fullest manner, not only 
as to their picturesque and general effect, but 
down to the smallest details of the music, in 
regard to which he rivalled Mozart's famous 
feat [See Miserere.] They form the subject 
of two long letters to Zelter, dated Dec. 1, 
1830,^ and June 16, 1831 ; and as all the 
particulars had to be caught while he listened, 
they testify in the strongest manner to the 
sharpness of his ear and the retentiveness of 
his memory. Indeed it is impossible not to 
feel that in such letters as these he is on his 
own ground, and that intense as was his enjoy- 
ment of nature, painting, society, and life, he 
belonged really to none of these things — waa 
' neither a politician nor a dancer, nor an actor, 

7 8«« Tol. L p. S516. 

' Thli waa added to the Rtiwbrief* Id a eabeeqaent edition, and 
!■ not Included In the Bngliah traualation. 

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HOT a bel esprit^ but a musician.'^ And so it 
proved in fact. For with all these distractions 
his Italian journey was fruitful in work. The 
' Walpurgisnacht,' the result of his last visit 
to Weimar, was finished, in its first form, at 
Milan (the MS. is dated 'Mailand, July 15, 
1831 ') ; the * Hebrides,' also in its first form, 
is signed * Rome, Dec. 16, 1830.' > The Italian 
and Scotch Symphonies were begun and far 
advanced before he left Italy. Several smaller 
works belong to this period — the Psalm * Non 
Nobis* (Nov. 16, 1830); the three church 
pieces which form op. 23 ; a Christmas Cantata, 
still in MS. (Jan. 28, 1831) ; the Hymn * Verleih* 
uns Frieden' (Feb. 10); the three motets for 
the nuns of the Trinitli de' Monti at Rome ; 
and although few of these minor pieces can be 
really said to live, yet they embody much labour 
and devotion, and were admirable stepping- 
stones to the great vocal works of his later life. 
In fact then, as always, he was what Berlioz 
calls him, 'un producteur infatigable,'^ and thus 
obtained that facility which few composers have 
possessed in greater degree than Mozart and 
himself. He sought the society of musicians. 
Besides Berlioz, Montfort, and Benedict, we 
find frequent mention of Baini, Donizetti, Coccia, 
and Madame Fodor. At Milan his encounter 
with Madame Ertmann, the intimate friend of 
Beethoven, was a happy accident, and turned 
to the happiest account. There, too, he met the 
son of Mozart, and delighted him with his 
father's Overtures to 'Don Juan ' and the * Magic 
Flute,' played in his own 'splendid orchestral 
style' on the piano. Not the least pleasant 
portions of his letters from Switzerland are 
those describing his organ-playing at the little 
remote Swiss churches at Engelberg, Wallen- 
stadt, Sargans, and Lindau — from which we 
would gladly quote if space allowed. 

Nor was his drawing-book idle. Between 
May 16 and August 24, 1831, thirty -five 
sketches are in the hands of one of his daughters 
alone, implying a corresponding number for the 
other portions of the tour. How characteristic 
of his enormous enjoyment of life is the follow- 
ing passage in a letter written at Sai^us, Sept. 
3 : ' Besides organ-playing I have much to finish 
in my new drawing -book (I filled another 
completely at Engelberg) ; then I must dine, 
and eat like a whole regiment ; then after 
dinner the organ again, and so forget my rainy 

The great event of his second visit to Munich 
was the production (and no doubt the composi- 
tion) of«lu8 G minor concerto, ' a thing rapidly 
thrown off,'* which he played on Oct. 17, 
1831, at a concert which also comprised his 
Symphony in C minor, his Overture to the 
' Midsummer Night's Dream,* and an extempore 
performance. Before leaving he received a 

1 L. tu Fvony. T>ee. 28, IBRl. 

* (Tb« date of the ravlwd vvratoti U ' London. June ao, 1882.'] 

> riff age MuMieal, L 78. « £. to hie father, Dec. 28, 1833. 

commission to compose an opera for the 
Munich Theatre.^ From Munich he travelled 
by Stuttgart (Nov. 7) and Heidelberg to Frank- 
fort, and thence to Dosseldorf (Nov. 27), to 
consult Immermann as to the libretto for the 
Munich opera, and arrange with him for one 
founded on 'The Tempest'^ The artistic life 
of Diisseldorf pleased him extremely, and no 
doubt this visit laid the foundation for his 
future connection with that town. 

He arrived in Paris about the middle of 
December, and found, of his German friends, 
Hiller and Franck settled there. He renewed 
his acquaintance with the Parisian musicians 
who had known him as a boy in 1825, especially 
with Baillot ; and made many new friends, 
Habeneck, Franchomme, Cuvillon, and others. 
Chopin, Meyerbeer, Herz, Liszt, Ealkbrenner, 
Ole Bull, were all there, and Mendelssohn 
seems to have been very much with them. He 
went a great deal into society and played 
frequently, was constantly at the theatre, and 
as constantly at the Louvre, eivjoyed life 
thoroughly, saw everything, according to his 
wont, including the political scenes which 
were then more than ever interesting in Paris ; 
knew everybody ; and in fact, as he expresses 
it, 'oast himself thoroughly into the vortex.'^ 
His overture ' Midsummer Night's Dream ' 
was performed at the Soci^t^ des Concerts 
(Conservatoire) on Feb. 19, 1832, and he him- 
self played the Concerto in 6 of Beethoven at 
the concert of March 18. His Reformation 
Symphony was rehearsed, but the orchestra 
thought it too learned, and it never reached 
performance.^ His Octet was played in church 
at a mass commemorative of Beethoven, and 
several times in private ; so was his Quintet 
(with a new Adagio^) and his Quartets, both 
for strings and for piano. The pupils of the 
Conservatoire, he writes, are working their 
fingers off to play ' 1st es wahr )' ^^ His playing 
was applauded as much as heart could wish, 
and his reception in all circles was of the very 

On the other hand, there were drawbacks. 
Eduard Ritz, his great friend, died (Jan. 23) 
while he was there ; the news reached him on 
his birthday. Goethe, too, died (March 22). 
The rejection of his Reformation Symphony, 
the centre of so many hopes, ^^ was a disappoint- 
ment which must have thrown a deep shadow 
over everything ; and no doubt after so much 
gaiety there was a reaction, and his old dislike 
to the French character — traces of which are 
not wanting in a letter to Immermann dated 
Jan. 11, 1832 — returned. In addition to this 
his health had not latterly been good, and in 

B L. to hie father, Dee. 19. 18S1. 
« L. Dec. 19. 1831 ; J«n. 11, 1832. 

7 L. Dec. 28. 1831 ; Jan. 11. ]8»2. • H. p. SI. 

> Written in memory of Bdiiard Rltx, and replacing a Minuet 
in F iharp minor, with Trio in double Canon. 
>o The Lied embodied in the A minor Quartet. Bee above, p. ua 
" *. p. 22. 

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March he had an attack of cholera.^ Though 
he alludes to it in joke, he probably felt the 
truth of a remark in the Figaro that ' Paris is 
the tomb of all reputations.' ' Brilliantly and 
cordially as he was received, he left no lasting 
mark there ; his name does not reappear in the 
programmes of the Consenratoire for eleven 
years, and it was not till the establishment of 
the Concerts Populaires in 1861 that his music 
became at all &miliar to the Parisians.^ He 
himself never again set foot in Paris. 

On April 23, 1832, he was once more in his 
beloved London, and at his old quarters, in 
Great Portland Street (see p. 121). 'That 
smoky nest,' he exclaims, amid the sunshine of 
the Naples summer, ' is fated to be now and 
ever my favourite residence ; my heart swells 
when I think of it.'^ And here he was back 
in it again ! It was warm, the lilacs were in 
bloom, his old friends were as cordial as if 
they had never parted, he was warmly welcomed 
everywhere, and felt his health return in full 
measure. His letters of this date are full of a 
genuine heartfelt satisfaction. He plunged at 
once into musical life. The Hebrides Overture 
was played from MS. parts by the Philharmonic 
on May 14, and he performed his O minor Ck)n- 
oerto, on an Erard piano, at the concerts of May 
28 and June 18. He gave a MS. score of his 
overture to the society, and they presented him 
with a piece of plate. During his stay in London 
he wrote his Capriccio brillant in B (op. 22), and 
played it at a concert of Mori's on May 25.^ 
On Sunday, June 10, he played the organ at 
St. Paul's Cathedral.^ He also published a 
four -hand arrangement ^ of the 'Midsummer 
Night's Dream' Overture with Cramer, and 
the first Book of the Songs without Words 
with Novello,^ and played at many concerts. A 
more important thing still was the revision of 
the Hebrides Overture, to which he appears to 
have put the final touches on June 20 (five 
weeks after its performance at the Philharmonic), 
that being the date on the autograph score in 
possession of the family of Sterndale Bennett, 
which agrees in all essentials with the printed 
copy. [In an English letter, written from 
Attwood's house at Norwood, to Sir George 
Smart, and dated 'June 6, 1832,' he offers to 
the Philharmonic Society 'the score of my 
Overture to the " Isles of Fingal," as a sign of 
my deep and heartfelt gratitude for the indulg- 
ence and kindness they have shown to me 
during my second visit in this country.' (Brit 

I /r. p. 83. Lettw to BKrmann. FftrU. April 16. IHtt. In Uit»rt nf 
JHatifurui'^ed Jtuiielana, p. 406. 

> F«tit It inaecunte in citing this m Maodelnohn'a own 0X< 
pcvMlon. See L, March 31. 1832. 

I This want of aympathy, combined with an aatoniahing amount 
of ignorance, is amosingly displayed in the following deMription 
from the cntalogoe of a well-known French autograph eoilector :— 
' Mendelstohn Bortholdy (Felix) romaiqnable IntelllgeDce. mats 
emar egoTste at froid ; oni n'ayaut pu grarir d'un pas sur In 
sommets de Vart, s'est refugi^ daos la mosiqne de ehambre.' Can 
ignorance and confldenoe go further f 

4 £. to his Misters, May 28. 1831. 

» Mm. i. an. • Ibid. p. 272. ' rhH. 

• Under the title of 'Origiiwl Melodies for the PUnoforte' 

Mus. Add. MS. 33,965, fol. 251> The MS. 
does not, however, appear to be in the Society's 

On May 15, Zelter died, and he received the 
news of tiie loss of his old friend and teacher 
at Attwood's house at Norwood. The vision of 
a possible offer of Zelter's post at the Sing- 
akademie crossed his mind, and is discussed 
with his father ; but it was not destined to be 
fulfilled. Among the friends whom he made 
during this visit, never to lose till death, were 
the Horsleys, a family living in the country at 
Kensington. William Horsley was one of our 
most eminent glee-writers, his daughters were 
unusually musical, one of the sons, John Calcott 
Horsley, became an R.A., and another, Charles 
Edward Horsley, was for many years a bright 
ornament to English music. The circle was not 
altogether unlike his Berlin home, and in his 
own words ^ he seldom spent a day without 
meeting one or other of the family. [It was 
during this visit (in 1882) to London that he 
played to Vincent Novello Bach's little E minor 
prelude and fugue for the organ, a circumstance 
which led to its being published in England (by 
Novello) before it appeared in any other country, 
including Germany.*®] 

In July 1882 he returned to Berlin, to find 
the charm of the summer life in the garden as 
great as before. His darling sister Rebecka had 
been married to Professor Dirichlet in May. 
Another change was that the Devrients had 
migrated to another place, and Hensel's studios 
now occupied all the spare space in the garden- 
house. Immermann's promised libretto was 
waiting for him on his return, but from the 
terms in which he asks for Devrient's opinion 
on it, it is evident that it disappointed him, 
and we hear no more of the subject " * St Paul ' 
was beginning to occupy his mind (of which 
more anon), and he had not long been back 
when the election of the conductor for the 
Singakademie in Zelter's place came on the 
tapis. The details may be read elsewhere *^ ; 
it is enough to say here that chiefly through 
the extra zeal and want of tact of his friend 
Devrient, though with the best intentions, 
Mendelssohn, for no fault of his own, was 
dragged before the public as an opponent of 
Rungenhagen ; and at length, on Jan. 22, 1833, 
was defeated by 60 votes out of 236. The 
defeat was aggravated by a sad want of judg- 
ment on the part of the family, who not only 
were annoyed, but showed their annoyance by 
withdrawing from the Singakademie, and thus 
making an open hostility. Felix himself said 
little, but he felt it deeply. He ^^ describes it 
as a time of uncertainty, anxiety, and suspense, 
which was as bad as a serious illness ; and no 
doubt it widened the breach in his liking for 
V a* .if. p. w. 

10 [See ■ Bach's Music in Bng1jind.'.Vu«<ni{ Timu, Nov. 1896, n. 721.] 
W Dm, p. 142. 13 See especially />e». p^ 1«-15«. 

" L. to Pastor BauOT, March 4. 1833. 

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Berlin, which had been began by the rejec- 
tion of 'Gamacho.' He doubtless found some 
consolation in a grand piano which was for- 
warded to him in August by Pierre Erard of 

His musical activity was at all events not 
impaired. Besides occupying himself with the 
Sunday music at home, Felix, during this 
winter, gave three public concerts at the room 
of the Singakademie in Nov. and Dec. 1832, 
and Jan. 1833,^ at which he brought forward his 

* Walpurgisnacht,' his Reformation Symphony, 
his Overtures to the * Midsummer Night's Dream, ' 
' Meeresstille,' and * Hebrides,' his G minor Con- 
certo and his Capriccio in B minor for pf. ; 
besides playing Beethoven's pf. sonatas (opp. 27 
and 53) and his 6 major Concerto, also a Con- 
certo of Bach in D minor — all, be it remembered, 
novelties at that time even to many experienced 
musicians. In addition to this he was working 
seriously at the Italicm Symphony. The Phil- 
harmonic Society of London had passed a 
resolution on Nov. 5, 1832, asking him to 
compose 'a symphony, an overture, and a 
vocal piece, for the Society, ' and oflfering him 
a hundred guineas for the exclusive right of 
performance during two years. ^ Of these the 
Italian Symphony was to be one, and the MS. 
score of the work accordingly bears the date 
'Berlin, March 18, 1833.' On April 27 he 
wrote to the Society offering them the symphony 
with *two new overtures, finished since last 
year ' (doubtless the * Fingal's Cave ' and the 
Trumpet Overtures), the extra one being intended 

* as a sign of my gratitude for the pleasure and 
honour they have again conferred upon me.' 
Graceful and apparently spontaneous as it is, 
the symphony had not been an easy task. 
Mendelssohn was not exempt from the lot of 
most artists who attempt a great poem or a 
great composition ; on the contrary, ' the 
bitterest moments he ever endured or could 
have imagined, ' were those which he experienced 
during the autumn when the work was in 
progress, and up to the last he had his doubts 
and misgivings as to the result. Now, how- 
ever, when it was finished, he found that it 
'pleased him and showed progress'' — a very 
modest expression for a work so full of original 
thought, masterly expression, consummate 
execution, and sunny beauty, as the Italian 
Symphony, and, moreover, such a prodigious 
advance on his last work of the same kind ! * 

On Feb. 8, 1833, a son was bom to the 
Moscheleses, and one of the first letters written 
was to Mendelssohn, asking him to be godfather 
to the child. He sent a capital letter in reply, 
with an elaborate sketch,^ and later on he trans- 

1 A.M.1. 1833, pp. 22. 68. 12S. The dates are not given of all the 
concert*, bat the second took place on Dee. 1. 1832 

* See the Beralntlon and his answer in Bogarth, pp. BA, 60. 

* L.XO Putor Bauer. April 0, 183N. 

4 It baa been said that the leap from MendeLaohn's C minor to 
his A major Symphony is as great as that from Beethoven's No. 2 
to the Broica ; and relatively this is probably not exaggerated. 

* A facsimile wlU be found in Mot. L 984. 

VOL. Ill 

I mitted a cradle song — published as op. 47, No. 6 
— for his godchild, Felix Moscheles. Early in 
April he left Berlin for Diisseldorf, to arrange 
for conducting the Lower Rhine Festival which 
took place May 26-28. As soon as the details 
had been completed, he went on to London 
for the christening of his godchild, and also to 
conduct the Philharmonic Concert of May 13, 
when his Italian Symphony was performed for 
the first time, and he liimself played Mozart's 
D minor piano concerto. This was his third 
visit. He was there by April 26 — again at his 
old lodgings in Oreat Portland Street— and on 
May 1 he played at Moscheles's anniial concert 
a brilliant set of four-hand variations on the 
Gipsy March in * Preciosa,' which the two had 
composed together. ^^ 

On or after May 16he leftLondon and returned 
to Dusseldorf, in ample time for the rehearsal 
of the Festival, which began on Whitsunday, 
May 26, and was an immense success. * Israel 
in Egypt '^ was thej;>t^ de resistance f and among 
the other works were Beethoven's Pastoral Sym- 
phony and Overture to * Leonora, 'and Felix's own 
Trumpet Overture. Abraham Mendelssohn had 
come from Berlin for the Festival, and an 
excellent account of it will be found in his 
letters,^ admirable letters, ftdl of point and 
wisdom, and showing better than anything else 
could the deep affection and perfect understand- 
ing which existed between father and son. The 
brilliant success of the Festival and the personal 
fascination of Mendelssohn led to an offer from 
the authorities of Diisseldorf that he should 
undertake the charge of the entire musical 
arrangements of the town, embracing the direc- 
tion of the church music and of two associations, 
for three years, from Oct. 1, 1833, at a yearly 
salary of 600 thalers (£90).* He had been 
much attracted by the ai^tive artistic life of the 
place when he visited Immermann at the close 
of his Italian journey, and there appears to have 
been no hesitation in his acceptance of the offer. 
This important agreement concluded, Felix re- 
turned to London for the fourth time, taking 
his father with him. They arrived about June 5, 
and went into the old lodgings in Great Portland 
Street. It is the father's first visit, and his 
letters are full of little hits at the fog, the 
absence of the sun, the Sundays, and other 
English peculiarities, and at his son's enthusiasm 
for it all. As far as the elder Mendelssohn was 
concerned, the first month was perfectly success- 
ful, but in the course of July he was laid up 
with an accident to his shin, which confined 
him to his room for three weeks, and although 
it gave him an excellent idea of English hos- 
pitality, it naturally threw a damp over the 

* Mo$. 1. 290. [The duet was published by Cramer.1 

1 It had been performed by the Singakademie of Berlin, Dec. 6. 

1831. but probably with re-instrumentatton. It was now done as 

Handel wrote it 

8 r.Jt. I. 847-964. 

9 I oaniiot disoover his exact itatut or title at DOsaeldorf. In his 
own sketch of his life (see next page) he styles himself Music-director 
of the Association for the Promotion of Huslo in Diisseldorf. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





latter part of the visit. His blindness, too, seems 
to have begun to show itself. ^ 

His son, however, experienced no such draw- 
backs. To his father he was everything. ' I 
cannot express,' says the grateful old man, 
* what he has been to me, what a treasure of 
love, patience, endurance, thoughtfulness, and 
tender care he has lavished on me ; and much 
as 1 owe him indirectly for a thousand kindnesses 
and attentions from others, I owe him far more 
for what he has done for me himself.' ^ Only 
a few letters by Felix of this date have been 
printed,.^ but enough information can be picked 
up to show that he fully enjoyed himself. His 
limpet Overture was played at the Philhar- 
monic on June 10, 1833. He played the organ 
at St. Paul's (June 23), Elingemann and other 
friends at the bellows, and the church empty — 
Introduction and fugue, extempore ; Attwood's 
Coronation Anthem, four hands, with Attwood ; 
and three pieces of Bach's.^ He also evidently 
played a great deal in society, and his father's 
account of a mad evening with Malibran will 
stand as a type of many such. ^ The Mosoheleses, 
Attwoods [see his letters to Attwood, printed 
in the Musical Times, Dec. 1900, pp. 792 and 
800], Horsleys, and Alexanders are among the 
most prominent English names in the diaries and 
letters.^ Besides Malibran, Schroder-Devrient, 
Herz, and Hummel were among the foreign 
artists in London. On August 4 the two left 
for Berlin, 7 Abraham having announced that 
he was bringing home ' a young painter named 
Alphonse Lovie,' who, of course, was no other 
than Felix himself.^ They reached Berlin in 
due course, and by Sept. 27, 1833, Felix was 
at his new post. 

Diisseldorf was the beginning of a new period 
in his career — of settled life away from the 
influences of home, which had hitherto formed 
so important an element in his existence. At 
Berlin both success cmd non-success were lai^ly 
biassed by personal considerations ; here he was 
to start afresh, and to be entirely dependent on 
himself. He began his new career with vigour. 
He first attacked the church music, and as ' not 
one tolerable mass ' was to be found, scoured the 
country as far as Elberfeld, Cologne, and Bonn, 
and returned with a carriage-load of Palestrina, 
Lasso, and Lotti. ' Israel in Egypt, ' the 'Messiah, ' 
'Alexander's Feast,' and 'Egmont' are among 
the music which we hear of at the concerts. At 
the theatre, after a temporaiy disturbance, 
owing to a rise in prices, and a little over- 
eagerness, he was well received and successful ; 
and at first all was cotUeur de rose — 'a more 
agreeable position I cannot wish for.'* But 
he soon found that the theatre did not suit 
him ; he had too little sympathy with theatrical 

idk«lM. ppl 70-74, 1 

*/:jf.p.37t • /»«. p. 977. 

• >.ir. LMt 

life, and the responsibility was too irksome. 
He therefore, after a few months' trial, in 
March 1834,^^ relinquished his salary as fkr as 
the theatre was concerned, and held himself 
free, as a sort of ' Honorary Intendant.' " His 
influence, however, made itself felt 'Don 
Juan,' 'Figaro,' Cherubini's 'Deux Joumdes,' 
were amongst the operas given in the first four 
months ; and in the church we hear of masses 
by Beethoven and Cherubini, motets of Pales- 
trina's, and cantatas of Bach's, the Dettingen 
Te Deum, 'and on the whole as much good 
music as could be expected during my first 
winter.'^ He lived on the ground floor of 
Schadow's house, ^^ a,nd was very much in the 
artistic circle, and always ready to make an 
excursion, to have a swim, to eat, to ride (for 
he kept a horse ^^ ), to dance, or to sleep ; was 
working hard at water-colour drawing, under 
Schirmer's tuition, and was the life and soul 
of every company he entered.** May 18-20 was 
the Lower Rhine Festival at Aix-la-Ghapelle, 
conducted by Ferdinand Bies ; there he met 
Hiller,*^ and also Chopin, whose acquaintance 
he had already made in Paris, '^ and who 
returned with him to Dusseldorf. During the 
spring of 1834 he was made a member of the 
Berlin Academy of the Fine Arts.*® 

Meantime, through all these labours and dis- 
tractions, of pleasure or business alike, he was 
composing busily and well. The overture to 
'Melusina' was finished Nov. 14, 1838, and 
tried ; the Rondo Brillant for piano and 
orchestra in E flat (op. 29) on Jan. 29, 1834 ; 
' Infelioe,' for soprano and orchestra, for the 
Philharmonie Society (in its first shape),** is 
dated April 3, and the fine Capriccio for piano- 
forte in A minor (op. 33, No. 1), April 9, 
1834. He had also rewritten and g^atly im- 
proved the 'Meeresstille' Overture ^ for its pub- 
lication by Breitkopfs with the 'Midsummer 
Night's Dream ' and < Hebrides ' overtures. A 
symphony which he mentions as on the road 
appears to have been superseded by a still more 
important work. In one of his letters from 
Paris (Dec. 19, 1831), complaining of the low 
morale of the opera librettos, he says that if 
that style is indispensable he 'will forsake 
opera and wrUe oratorios,* The words had 

w £. to hU fcther. Much 28. 18S4. " ^ to Sehubrinff. Aofost 6L 
M £. to hia father. Msreh 28. u IT. p. 9& 

14 The aoquidtion of thla hone gfrei a good idea of hi* dutiful 
attttndetoimtUhistathw. ^ to hie father. March SB, 18S4. 
U/>nci>.174. M £. to his mother. Maj as. 1834; ir.p^SL 

17 Karaeowki'a lAfB qf Clkopin, ehap. xlv. 

M ^ to hie fkther, Dec. 28. 1833. and to Fumy. April 7. 1814. On 

lie oocaeion he eent in the following * M einorandam of mj bio- 

gFKphy and art^ooation.' ' I wai bom Feb. 3. 1800. at Hambmqf ; 

3 [Bee LMen ofF. M. to I. S C. MctekM«$, pp^ 70-74. and the amwlng 
fkesimileaof eketehee therein. * r.M.p.m. ^ Ibt' ~ -— 
« Mm. i. 998; Abiaham H. in P.M. 1. 368. 880. 382. etc. 

7 JToc 1. 290. ■ — 

•A. to I. Fttnt. JQ17 90. 1834. 

in my 8th year began to leam mude, and woe taught thoroaiiL- 
baai and oompoeltion by Profeasor Zelter, and the Pianoforte, firat 
by my mother and then by Mr. Lndwig Beigar. In the year 1899 
I left Berlin. tiaTelled thningh England and Scotland. Bavth, 
Germany. Italy, Switierland, and Fraooe ; Tiaited England twlos 
more in the eprlnc of 1832 and 1838, wai there made Honorary 
Member of the PhlUunnonie Society, and ainoe October 1833, har* 
been Mnaio^irector of the Aaaodatlon for the Promotion of Mnalo 
in DQaeeldorf.' Thia ia preeerred in the arehivea of the ▲oadamy, 
and I am Indebted for it to the kindneea of Dr. Joachim. 

t* The Toeal piece of hia contract with the Society. It wmm 
flnt anng by Mme. Caradori at the PhOharmonio Coooert «i< 
Mar 19. 1834. with Tlolin obbligato by Henry Blasrovb 

» X. to Sehnbrlag, Angnat 6, 1834. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





hardly left bis pen when he was invited by the 
Cacilien-Verein of Frankfort to compose an 
oratorio on St. Paul.^ The general plan of the 
work, and such details as the exclusive use 
of the Bible and Choral-book, and the intro- 
duction of chorales, are stated by him at the 
very outset. On his return to Berlin he and 
Marx made a compact by which each was to 
write an oratorio-book for the other ; Mendels- 
sohn was to write * Moses ' for Marx, and Marx 
'St. Paul' for Mendelssohn.^ Mendelssohn 
executed his task at once, and the full libretto, 
entitled * Moses, an Oratorio, composed by 
A. B. M.,' and signed *F. M. B., 21 Aug. 1832,' 
i3 now in the possession of the family.^ Marx, 
on the other hand, not only rejected Mendels- 
sohn's book for < Moses,' but threw up that of 
'St Paul,' on the ground that chorales were 
an anachronism. In fact, this singular man's 
function in life seems to have been to differ 
with everybody. For the text of *St Paul,' 
Mendelssohn was indebted to his own selection, 
and to the aid of his friends Fiirst and 
Schubring.^ Like Handel, he knew his Bible 
well ; in his oratorios he followed it implicitly, 
and the three books of ' St Paul,' * Eliyah,' and 
the * Lobgesang ' are a proof (if any proof were 
needed after the * Messiah ' and ' Israel in Egypt ' ) 
that, in his own words, ' the Bible is always 
the best of all.' ^ He began upon the music in 
March 1834, not anticipating that it would 
occupy him long^ ; but it dragged on, and was 
not completed till the beginning of 1836. 

Though only Honorary Intendant at the 
Diisseldorf theatre, he busied himself with 
the approaching winter season, and before leav- 
ing for his holiday corresponded much with 
Devrient as to the engagement of singers. ^ 
September 1834 he spent in Berlin,^ and was 
back at Diisseldorf for the first concert on 
Oct 23,® calling on his way at Cassel, and 
making the acquaintance of Hauptmann,^® with 
whom he was destined in later life to be closely 
connected. The new theatre opened on Nov. 1. 
He and Immermann quarrelled as to pre- 
-cedence, or as to the distribution of the duties. 
The selection of singers and musicians, the 
bargaining with them, and all the countless 
worries which beset a manager, and which, by 
a new agreement he had to undertake, proved a 
most uncongenial and, moreover, a most wasteful 
task ; so uncongenial that at last, the day after 
the opening of the theatre, he suddenly ' made 
a salto mcrtale,* and threw up all connection ^^ 
with it, not without considerable irritability 
and inconsistency.^' After this he continued 

I L. to DeTiient. pp. 137. 138. • Mam. U. 188. etc 

' It ahowa bow folly MendelaM>hn reaUaed the ootinectlon of the 
Old and New Teetamente that hie oondtiding choma, after the 
giving of the Law, Is 'ThU !• the love of God, that we keep Hie 
•commandments.'— 1 John v. 3. < See Seft. ; and ZeCten, voL IL 

6 X. to Schnbring. July 16, 18S4. 

« JbUL Sept 6, 188S. etc. T Dev.VP- 177-188. 

• /hid. pp. 188. 184. N.M. MtUung. 

10 Hanptmann's letters to Hanser, i. 180. 

" L. to his mother. Kov. 4 : to Rebeoka, Nov. 28, 1884. 

IS lliia la brought out in his lather*! letter, piinted on p. 57 of 

to do lus other duties, and to conduct occasional 
operas, Julius Rietz being his assistant With 
the opening of 1836 he received an invitation 
from Leipzig through Schleinitz, which resulted 
in his taking the post of Conductor of tlie 
Gewandhaus Concerts there. His answers ^ to 
the invitation show not only how very careful 
he was not to infringe on the rights of others, 
but also how clearly and practically he looked 
at all the bearings of a question before he made 
up his mind upon it Before the change, 
however, several things happened. He con- 
ducted the Lower Rhine Festival of 1836 at 
Cologne (Juiie 7-9). The principal works were 
Handel's * Solomon ' — for which he had written 
an organ part in Italy ; Beethoven's Symphony 
No. 8, and Overture op. 124, a 'religious 
march' and hymn of Oherubini's, and the 
Morning Hymn of his &kVourite J. F. Beich- 
ardt The Festival was made more than 
ordinarily delightful to him by a present of 
Arnold's edition of Handel in thirty >two vols, 
from the committee. His father, mother, and 
sisters were all there. The parents then went 
back with him to Diisseldorf ; there his mother 
had a severe attack of illness, which prevented 
Ms taking them home to Berlin till the latter 
part of July. 14 At Cassel the father, too, fell ill, 
and Felix's energies were fully taxed on the 
road.^ He remained with them at Berlin till 
the end of August, and then left for Leipzig to 
make the necessary preparations for beginning 
the subscription concerts in the Gewandhaus on 
Oct 4. His house at Leipzig was in Beichel's 
garden, off the Promenade. Chopin visited 
him during the interval, and Felix had the 
pleasure of introducing him to Clara Wieck, 
then a girl of sixteen. His first introduction 
to Schumann is said to have taken place at 
Wieck's house on Oct 3, the day before the 
Gewandhaus Concert at which Clara played 
Beethoven's B flat trio (Moscheles* Ltfe, i. 
301). Later came his old Berlin friend Ferdi- 
nand David from Russia to lead the orchestra, i<^ 
and Moscheles from London for a lengthened 
visit. Mendelssohn's new engagement began 
with the best auspices. The relief from the 
worries and responsibilities of Diisseldorf was 
immense, 17 and years afterwards he refers to it 
as ' when I first came to Leipzig and thought I 
was in Paradise. ' i® He was warmly welcomed on 
taking his seat, and the first concert led off 
with his ' Meeresstille ' Overture. 

Rebecka passed through Leipzig on Oct 14 
(1835) on her way from Belgium, and Felix 
and Moscheles accompanied her to Berlin for a 
visit of two days, returning to Leipzig for the 

Letttnfrom f839-X7. Bee also Felix's letter to his mother of Nov. 
4, 1884 u Z. to Sohleinitx, Jan. S8 and April 10. 18SS. 

M £. to Mrs. Volgt, DIleseldoTf . Joly 17, 1885. 

U £. to F. W. von Schadow. Berlin. August 9. 183S. in Patko, 
p. 19a 

IS He Joined deflnitdy Feb. SB. 1838. after Matthai's death 
{A.M.X. Iffi^ p. 133). 

17 £. to midebrandt, Leipdg. Oet 81, 1886. In Poiko, pi 191 ; also 
SUttTt p. i7. » £• to Fanny, Jane 18, 18S9. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





next concert Short as the visit was, it was 
more than usually gay. The house was full 
every evening, and by playing alternately, by 
playing four hands, and by the comical 
extempore tricks of which the two friends were 
so fond, and which they cairied on to such 
perfection, the parents, especially the father, 
now quite blind, were greatly mystified and 
amused.^ And well that it was so, for it was 
Felix's last opportunity of gratifying the father 
he BO tenderly loved and so deeply reverenced. 
At half-past 10 A.M. on Nov. 19, 1885, Abraham 
Mendel^hn was dead. He died the death 
of the just, passing away, as his father had 
done, without warning, but also without pain. 
He turned over in his bed, saying that he would 
sleep a little ; and in half an hour he was gone. 
Hensel started at once for Leipzig, and by 
Sunday morning, the 22nd, Felix was in the 
arms of his mother. How deeply he felt under 
this peculiarly heavy blow the reader must 
gather from his own letters. It fell on him 
with special force, because he was not only away 
from the family circle, but had no home of his 
own, as Fanny and Rebecka had, to mitigate 
the loss. He went back to Leipzig stunned, 
but determined to do his duty with all his 
might, finish 'St. Paul,' and thus most perfectly 
fulfil his father's wishes. He had completed 
the revision of his ' Melusina' Overture on Nov. 
17, only three days before the fatal news 
reached him, and there was nothing to hinder 
him from finishing the oratorio. He had played 
in Bach's concerto in D minor for three piano- 
fortes with Clara Wieck and Bakemann at the 
Gewandhaus Concert on Nov. 9, 1835. 

The business of the day, however, had to go 
on. One of the chief events in this series of 
concerts was a performance of the Ninth Sym- 
phony of Beethoven, Feb. 11, 1836.2 Another 
was Mendelssohn's performance of Mozart's D 
minor Concerto * as written ' (for it seems to have 
been always hitherto played after some adapta- 
tion),3 on Jan. 29, with cadenzas which electri- 
fied his audience. Leipzig was particularly con- 
genial to Mendelssohn. He was the idol of the 
town, had an orchestra full of enthusiasm and 
devotion, a first-rate coadjutor in David, who 
took much of the mechanical work of the orches- 
tra off his shoulders ; and, moreover, he was 
relieved of all business arrangements, which 
were transacted by the committee, especially 
by Herr Schleinitz. Another point in which he 
could not but contrast his present position 
favourably with that at Diisseldorf was the 
absence of all rivalry or jealousy. The labour 
of the season, however, was severe, and he con- 
fesses that the first two months had taken more 
out of him than two years' composing would 
do.* The University of Leipzig showed its 
appreciation of his presence by conferring on 

> r.M. L 423. 

« A.M.X, 1836. p. 073. 
« £. to Hi'.lM-, D6C. 10. 1837. 

3 IhM. p. 101 

him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in 

Meantime Schelble's illness had cancelled the 
arrangement for producing' St. Paul 'at Frankfort, 
and it had been secured for the Lower Rhine 
Festival at Diisseldorf (May 22-24, 1886). The 
programmes included, besides the new oratorio, 
the two overtures to * Leonore, ' both in C, * No. 1 ' 

Sthen unknown) and ' No. 8 ' : one of Handel's 
^handofi anthems, the ' Davidde penitente ' of 
Mozart, and the Ninth Symphony. * St Paul ' 
was executed with the greatest enthusiasm, and 
produced a deep sensation. It was performed on 
the 22nd, not in the present large music hall 
(Kaisersaal), bat in the long low room which 
lies outside of that and below it, known as the 
Rittersaal, a too confined space for the purpose. 
For the details of the performance, including an 
escapade of one of the false witnesses, in which 
the coolness and skill of Fanny alone prevented 
a break-down, we must refer the reader to the 
contemporary accounts of Elingemann, Hiller, 
and Polko.* To English readers the interest of 
the occasion is increased by the fact that Stem- 
dale Bennett, then twenty years old, and fresh 
from the Royal Academy of Music, was present. 
[The earliest known reference to the oratorio 
of 'Elijah' is of this year. In a letter to 
Klingemann, dated *The Hague, August 12, 
1886,* he says: *If you would only give all 
the care and thought you bestow now upon St. 
Paul to an El^ah, or a St. Peter, or even an 
Ogof Bashan!'7] 

Schelble's illness induced Mendelssohn to take 
the direction of the famous Cacilien-Verein at 
Frankfort. Leipzig had no claims on him after 
the concerts were over, and he was thus able to 
spend six weeks at Frankfort practising the 
choir in Bach's 'GottesZeit,' Handel's 'Samson,' 
and other works, and improved and inspired 
them greatly. He resided in Schelble's house at 
the comer of the * Schone Aussicht,' with a view 
up and down the Main. Hiller was then living in 
Frankfort ; Lindblad was there for a time ; and 
Rossini remained for a few days on his passage 
through, in constant intercourse with Felix. ^ 

Mendelssohn's visit to Frankfort was, however, 
fraught with deeper results than these. It was 
indeed quite providential, since here he met his 
future wife, C^cile Charlotte Sophie Jeanrenaud, 
a young lady of great beauty, nearly ten years 
younger than himself, the second daughter of a 
clei^jrman of the French Reformed Church, who 
had died many years before, leaving his ^ife (a 
Souchay by family) and children amongst the 
aristocracy of the town. The house was close 
to the Fahrthor, on the quay of the Main.^ 
Madame Jeanrenaud was still young and good- 

B A.M.*. Marcli SO. 1836. p. 218. 

" See MutUsta World. June 17. 1836. and A. pp. 27. 28 ; ^. p. 51 ; 
and PoOto. p. 43 ; [alio MuHcal rinust, March 18BI. p. 137). 

7 rSee n» nutoty «/ Mendelnohn't * JOifah: hj F. O. Bdvards 
(1886), p. 3. ee teq.] 

f /T. p. 99. et $»q. 

• ApcDdl-drawlngof the Main and the Fahrthor. with the ' 8ch<lD« 
AoMicht' in the dfatanoe. taken from the Jeanrenaudi' windows. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





looking, and it was a joke in the family that 
she herself was at first supposed to be the object 
of Mendelssohn's frequent visits. But though 
so reserved, he was not the less furiously in love, 
and those who were in the secret have told us 
how entirely absorbed he was by his passion, 
though without any sentimentality. He had 
already had many a passing attachment. Indeed 
being at onoe so warm-hei^ted and so peculiarly 
attractive to women — and also, it should be said 
so much sought by them — it is astrong tribute to 
his self-control that he was never before seriously 
or permanently involved. On no former occa- 
sion, however, is there a trace of any feeling 
that was not due entirely, or mainly, to some 
quality or accomplishment of the lady, and not 
to her actual personality. In the present case 
there could be no doubt either of the seriousness 
of his love or of the fact that it centred in Mile. 
Jeanrenaud herself, and not in any of her tastes 
or pursuits. And yet, in order to test the reality 
of his feelings, he left Frankfort, at the very 
height of his passion, for a month's bathing 
at Scheveningen near the Hague. ^ His friend 
F. W. Schadow, the painter, accompanied him, 
and the restlessstate of his mind may begathered 
from hia letters to Hiller.^ His love stood the 
test of absence triumphantly. Very shortly 
after his return, on Sept. 9, the betrothid 
took place, at Kronberg, near Frankfort^ ; three 
weeks of bliss followed, and on Oct. 2 he was in 
his seat in the Gewandhaus, at the first concert 
of the season. Five days later (Oct. 7), in the 
distant city of Liverpool, ' St. Paul ' was per- 
formed for the first time in England, under the 
direction of Sir George Smart The season at 
Leipzig was a good one ; Stemdale Bennett, who 
had comeover at Mendelssohn's invitation, made 
his first public appearance in his own pianoforte 
concerto in O minor, and the series closed with 
the Choral Symphony. 

His engagement soon became known far and 
wide, and it is characteristic of Germany, and 
of Mendelssohn's intimate relation to all con- 
cerned in the Gewandhaos, that at one of the 
concerts, the Finale to * Fidelio,* ' Wer ein holdes 
Weib errungen,' should have been put into the 
programme by thedirectors with special reference 
to him, and that he should have been forced 
into extemporising on that suggestive theme, 
amid the shouts and enthusiasm of his audience. 
The rehearsals for the concerts, the concerts 
themselves, his pupils, friends passing through, 
visits to his fianc^ an increasing correspondence, 
kept him more than busy. Stemdale Bennett 
was living in Leipzig, and the two friends were 
much together. In addition to the subscription 
series and to the regular chamber concerts, there 
were performances of * Israel in Egypt,' with a 

liaa the following hMerlptioD :— ' Vendn k Mcodelnobn an nrlx d« 
J'«aieeatlon d*aii nomfara indotormin^ de Fngues de J. B. Bach. «t dc 
]» Coplo d'vB Bondo da m<m« If attra. LAvncva k Montpalliar.' 

1 H. eh. It. p. SlaCMf.; r.M. U. 90 ; /)ct. p. 196. 

S J7. pp^ O-TSl 

' JL tohia moUMTln F.M. IL S7; PoUto,p.9i. 

new organ part by him, on Nov. 7, and ' St. 
Paul, ' on March 1 6, 1 837. The oompositions of 
this winter are few, and all of one kind, namely 
preludes and fugues for pianoforte.^ The wed- 
ding took place on March 28, 1887, at tha 
Walloon French Reformed Church, Frankfort 
For the wedding tour they wont to Freibui^ 
and into the Palatinate, and by the 15th of May 
had returned to Frankfort^ A journal which 
they kept together during the honeymoon is full 
of dcetches and droll things of all kinds. In 
July they were at Bingen, Horchheim, Coblenz, 
and Diisseldorf for some weeks. At Bingen, 
while swimming across to Assmannshausen, he 
had an attack of cramp which nearly cost him 
his life, and from which he was only saved by 
the boatman. The musical results of these few 
months were very important, and include the 
42nd Ptalm, the String Quartet in £ minor, 
(op. 44, No. 2) an Andante and Allegro for 
pianoforte in E, published posthumously as a 
Capriccio (op. 118), the second pianoforte Con- 
certo, in D miuor, and the three Preludes 
for the Organ (op. 87) ; [the fugues appear to have 
been composed later]. He was also in earnest 
correspondenoe with Schubring* as to a second 
oratorio, on the subject of St Peter. 

It must have been hard to tear himself away 
so soon from his lovely young wife— and indeed 
he grumbles about it lustily ^ — but he had been 
engaged to conduct ' St. Pftul,' and to play the 
organ and his new Pianoforte Concerto, at the 
Birmingham FestivaL Accordingly on August 
24, he left Diisseldorf for Rotterdam, crossed to 
Mai^te in the Aitwoodf the same boat which 
had taken him over in 1829, and on the 27th 
is in London, on his fifth visit, at Elingemann's 
house, as cross as a man can well be.^ But 
this did not prevent his setting to work with 
Klingemann at the plan of an oratorio on 
Elijah, over which they had two mornings' con- 
sultation.* Before leaving London for Birming- 
ham, he played the organ at St Paul's — on 
Sunday afternoon. Sept 10 — and at Christ 
Church, Newgate Street, on Tuesday morning, 
the 12th. It was on the former of these two 
occasions that the vergers, finding that the 
congregation would not leave the Cathedral^ 
withdrew the organ-blower, and let the wind out 
of the oi^n during Bach's Prelude and Fugue 
in A minor 1® — *near the end of the fugue, ** 
before the subject comes in on the Pedals.'^ 
At Christ Church he was evidently in a good 
vein. He played 'ax extempore fantasias,' 
one on a fugue subject given by old Wesley at 
the moment, and the Bach Fugue just mentioned 
and Bach's Toccata. Samuel Wesley— our own 

4 Pabliahedaaop.8B. SMtheCatalogiiaattlMendof thlaarttda. 

«/>«*. p. 90a £. to Schnbring. July 14. 1887. 

' /".jr. 11. 61. •E.p.A 

• nia priTRta loaraal. He menttonad it to Mr. John C. Hontof , 
&.A.. during tbb rlait. [Bae alw) BiM. qf MUfnh, p. &1 

M For a vary fntareating acoonnt of thaaa two paitenDaaoM bf 
Dr. GaanUett. aaa ItutkxJ WoHd, Sapt. IS, 1897. p. B. 

" HU prlvata JoumaL 

» (Baa a lattar from Dr. Gaontlatt to Sir Oaoiga Grove In MusUat 
Tims$, Fab. IMS. p. M.] 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





ancient hero, though seventy-one years old — 
was present and played. It was literally his 
Kunc dimittis: he died on Oct 11, 1837, a 
nionth from that date. Mendelssohn's organ- 
playing on these occasions was eagerly watched. 
He was the greatest of the few great German 
organ-players who had visited this country, and 
the English organists, some of them no mean 
proficients, learned more than one lesson from 
him. * It was not,' wrote Dr. Gauntlett, ' that 
he played Bach for the first time here, — several 
of us had done that. But he taught us how to 
play the slow fugue, for Adams and others had 
played them too fast His words were, ** Your 
organists think that Bach did not write a slow 
fugue for the organ." Also he brought out a 
number of pedal-fugues which were not known 
here. We had played a few, but he was the 
first to play the D m^jor, the G minor, the 
£ major, the C minor, the short £ minor,' etc^ 
Even in those that were known he threw out 
points unsuspected before, as in the A minor 
fugue, where he took the episode on the Swell, 
returning to the Great Organ when the pedal 
re-enters, but transferring the £ in the treble 
to the Great Organ a bar before the entry of 
the other parts, with very fine effect* One 
thing which particularly struck our organists 
was the contrast between his massive effects and 
the lightness of his touch in rapid passages. 
The touch of the Christ Church organ was both 
deep and heavy, yet he threw off arpeggios as 
if he were at a piano. His command of the 
pedal clavier was also a subject of much remark.^ 
But we must hasten on. 

On the evening of the Tuesday, Sept 12, 
he attended a peiformanoe of his oratorio ' St 
Paul' by the Sacred Harmonic Society at Exeter 
HalL He had conducted three rehearsals, but 
could not conduct the performance itself, owing 
to the prohibition of the Birmingham committee. 
It was the first time he had heard *St Paul' 
as a mere listener, and his private journal says 
that he found it * very interesting. ' His opinion 
of English amateurs may be gathered from his 
letter to the Society, with which his journal 
fully agrees. ^ ' I can hardly express the gratifica- 
tion I felt in hearing my work performed in so 
beautiful a manner, — indeed, I shall never wish 
to hear some parts of it better executed than 
they were on that night. The power of the 
choruses — this large body of good and musical 
voices — and the style in which they sang the 
whole of my music, gave me the highest and 
most heartfelt treat ; while I thought on the 
immense improvement which such a number of 
real amateurs must necessarily produce in the 
country which may boast of it' 

On the Wednesday he went to Birmingham, 

1 He bftd lMtfn«d Omm ainoe hit Swla Journey. See L. Sept S, 
1S31. * Dr. B. J. Hopkine'a reooUecUon. 

3 Mr. H. O. Unooln'e recoUeotlon. 

« I have to tbank Mr. Hnak and the Committee of the Saisred 
Hamioale Society for tbla ami other Taloable infonnation. 

and remained there, rehearsing and arranging, 
till the Festival began, Tuesday, Sept 1 9. At the 
evening concert of that day he extemporised on 
the organ, taking the subjects of his ^gne from 
'Your harps and cymbals sound'(* Solomon '),and 
the first movement of Mozart's Symphony in D, 
both of which had been performed earlier in the 
day ; he also conducted his ' Midsummer Night's 
Dream ' overture. On Wednesday he conducted 
' St Paul,' on Thursday evening played his new 
pianoforte concerto in D minor, and on Friday 
morning, the 22nd, Bach's Prelude and Fugue 
(' St Ajine's'') on the organ.^ The applause 
throughout was prodigious ; but it did not turn 
his head, or prevent indignant reflections on 
the treatment to which Neukomm had been 
subjected, reflections which do him honour. 
Moreover, the applause was not empty. Mori 
and Kovello were keen competitors for the 
D minor pianoforte concerto, and it became the 
prize of the latter, at what we should now con- 
sider a very moderate figure, before its composer 
left Birmingham. He travelled up by coach, 
reaching London at midnight, and was inter- 
cepted at the coach-office by the committee of 
the Sacred Harmonic Society, who presented 
him with a large silver snuff-box, adorned 
with an inscription.^ He then went straight 
through, arrived in Frankfort on the 27th, and 
was at Leipzig at 2 p.m. of the day of the first 
concert, Sunday, Oct. 1. His house was in 
Lurgenstein's Garden, off the Promenade, the 
first house on the left, on the second floor.^ 
On Oct 12, 1837, he writes to thank the 
GeseUschaft der Musikfreunde of Vienna for its 
diploma of membership. The letter is in the 
Society's archives. 

The next few years were given chiefly to 
Leipzig. He devoted all his heart and soul to 
the Gewandhaus Concerts, and was well repaid 
by the increasing excellence of the performance 
and the enthusiasm of the audiences. The 
principal feature of the series 1837-38 was the 
appearance of Clara Novello for the first time 
in Germany — a fruit of his English experiences. 
She sang first at the concert of Nov. 2, 1837, 
and remained till the middle of January, creat- 
ing an extraordinary excitement But the 
programmes had other features to recommend 
them. In Feb. and March 1838, there were 
four historical concerts (1. Bach, Handel, Gluck, 
Viotti ; 2. Haydn, Cimarosa, Naumann, Righini ; 
3. Mozart, Salieri, M^hul, Romberg ; 4. Yogler, 
Beethoven, Weber), which excited great interest 
Mendelssohn and David played the solo pieces, 
and it is easy to imagine what a treat they 
must have been. In the programmes of other 
concerts we find Beethoven's * Glorreiche Augen- 
blick, ' and Mendelssohn's own 42nd Psalm. His 
Serenade and Allegro giojoso (op. 43) — ^like his 

• For theee deUila aee MiuUmI ITorM. Sept. S3 and ». 1837. ppu 
84-40. He had reaolred on the Prelude and Fogue two montba 
before. See A to hie mother. July 13. 1837. 

• £. to hia mother, Oot. 4. 1897. H. p. 148i 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





' Buy Bias ' Overture, a veritable impromptn — 
was produced on April 2,^ and his String Quartet 
in £ flat (op. 44, No. 8) on the following day. 

His domestic life during the spring of 1888 
was not without anxiety. On Feb. 7 his first 
son was bom, afterwards named Carl Wolfgang 
Paul, and his wife had a very dangerous illness.^ 
This year he conducted the Lower Festival at 
Cologne (June 3-6). He had induced the 
committee to include a cantata of Bach's,' then 
an entire novelty, in the programme, which 
also contained a selection from Handel's ' Joshua. ' 
A silver cup (Pokal) was presented to him at 
the close of the Festival.^ [The Bach novelty 
appears to have been a garbled version of the 
Himmelfahrts cantata, 'Gott fahret auf mit 
Jauchzen,' though Mendelssohn probably found 
it in that state. The double chorus — to which 
he refers in his letter to J. A. Novello as being 
alone worth the journey fh>m London to Cologne 
to hear — ^was * Nun ist das Heil, und die Kraft. ' 
This information, though not so complete as 
could be desired, is obtained from a word-book 
of the festival. See Musical Times, June 1906, 
p. 887, for further details.] 

The summer was spent at Berlin, in the lovely 
garden of the Leipadger Strasse, and was his 
wife's first introduction to her husband's family.^ 
To FeUz it was a time of great enjoyment and 
much productiveness. Even in the early part 
of the year he had not allowed the work of the 
concerts to keep him from composition. The 
String Quartet in £ flat just mentioned, the 
Violoncello Sonata in B flat (op. 45), the 95th 
Psalm, and the Serenade and Allegro giojoso are 
all dated during the hard work of the first four 
months of 1888. The actual result of the 
summer was another String Quartet (in D ; op. 
44, No. 1\ dated July 24, 1838,» and the 
Andante Cantabile and Presto Agitato in B 
(Berlin, June 22, 1888). The intended result 
is a s3rmphony in B flat which occupied him 
much, which he mentions more than once as 
complete in his head, but of which no trace on 
paper has yet been found.' He alludes to it in 
a letter to the Philharmonic Society (Jan. 19, 
1839)— answering their request for a symphony 
— as 'begun last year,' though it is doubtful if 
his occupations will allow him to finish it in 
time for the 1889 season. So near were we to 
the possession of an additional companion to the 
Italian and Scotch symphonies! The Violin 
concerto was also begun in this holiday,^ and 
he speaks of a Psalm • (probably the noble one 
for eight voices, *When Israel out of Egypt 
came '), a Sonata for pianoforte and violin (in 
F, dated 'Berlin, June 18, 1888,' still in MS.), 
and other things. He was now, too, in the 

> CkmoelT«d and eompoMd In two dsTt for Mme. Botfonchaek's 
eonoert. Sm L. April 8. 1838. 
< H. p. IIA. 

3 £. Co J. A. Novello. Lelpsig, April 7. 1838, in O. * M. 9- 192- 
« A.M.M. 1838. p. 439. » F.Jt. ii. 07. 68. 

* Aatofraph in po w w i lon of the StemdAle-Bennetts. 
^ L. toP. DaTld. July 30. 1838 : to Fkany. Jnne 18. 1830 : H. p. 198. 
■ Ii, to P. D»Tid. Jnly SO, 1838. » /T. p. 12& 

midst of the tiresome correspondence with J. R. 
Planch^, ^^ on the subject of the opera which that 
gentleman had agreed to write, but which, like 
Mendelssohn's other negotiations on the subject 
of operas, came to nothing ; and there is the 
usual large number of long and carefully written 
letters. He returned to Leipzig in September, 
but was again attacked with measles, ^^ on the 
eve of a performance of 'St. Paul,' on Sept. 15. 
The attack was sufficient to prevent his conduct- 
ing the first of the Gewandhaus Concerts (Sept. 
30), at which David was his substitute. On 
Oct 7 he was again at his post.'' The star of 
this series was Mrs. Alfred Shaw, whose singing 
had pleased him very much when last in 
England. Its one remarkable novelty was 
Schubert's great Symphony in C, which had 
been brought from Vienna by Schumann, and 
was first played in MS. on March 21, 1889, at 
the last concert of the series. [He was very 
anxious that the Philharmonic Society (London) 
should perform Schubert's symphony, and, 
indeed, he sent the parts to Ix>ndon, but 
without any practical result. See his letters to 
the Secretary of the Society, W. Watts, in the 
concert programme -book of Feb. 5, 1880.] 
During the autumn of 1889 he received from 
Erard the grand piano which became so well 
known to his friends and pupils, and the prospect 
of which he celebrates in a remarkable letter 
now in the possession of that firm. 

'Elyah' is now fiiirly under way. After 
discussing with his friends Bauer and Schubring 
the subject of St. Peter,'' in terms which show 
how completely the requirements of an oratorio 
book were within his grasp, and another subject 
not very clearly indicated, but apparently 
approaching that which he afterwards began to 
treat as Christus '* — ^he was led to the contempla- 
tion of that most picturesque and startling of 
the prophets of the Old Testament, who, strange 
to say, does not appear to have been previously 
treated by any known composer. Hiller '* tells 
us that the subject was suggested by the passage'* 
(1 Kings zix. 11), * Behold, the Lord passed by.' 
We may accept the fact more certainly than ^e 
date (1840) at which Hiller places it. Such a 
thing could not but fix itself in the memory, 
though the date might easily be confused. We 
have already seen that he was at work on the 
subject in the summer of 1887, and the cor- 
respondence printed in the History of ' Elijah ' 
shows that much consultation had already taken 
place upon it between Mendelssohn and himself, 
and also with Elingemann, and that considerable 
progress had been made in the construction of 
the book of the oratorio. Mendelssohn had 

M For the whole of this tee J. B. PlaoflU't RteoOteHona and R^fUe- 
rionf, 1873. voL 1. p. 379, H teq. Mr. PUncM'e eaiutie deductions 
may veil be pejdoned him even by thoee who meet dearly aee their 
want of force. 

11 A.M.1. 1838. p. MS. » nid. p. eB8L 

M £. to Schuhrlng. Jnly 14. 1837. 

i« £. to Paator Baner. Jan. 12. ]8»9. ^ W. p. 171. 

1* He liked a central point for hie work. In ' St. Peter ' It would 
have been the Gift of Tonguee ; see /.. to Schnbrlng. July 14, 1817* 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





drawn up a number of passages and scenes in 
order, and had given them to Sohubring for 
consideration. His ideas are dramatic enough 
for the stage ! A month later ^ the matter has 
made further progress, and his judicious dramatic 
ideas are even more confirmed ; but the music 
does not seem to be yet touched. During the 
spring of 1889 he finished the 114th Psalm, 
and wrote the overture to *Ruy Bias.' This, 
though one of the most brilliantly effective of 
his works, was, with a chorus for female voices, 
literally conceived and executed d rimprovisU 
between a Tuesday evening and a Friday morn- 
ing — a great part of both Wednesday and 
Thursday being otherwise occupied — and in 
the teeth of an absolute aversion to the play.^ 
The performance took place at the theatre on 
March 11. A letter to Hiller, written a month ' 
after this (Leipzig, April 15), gives a pleasant 
picture of his care for his friends. A great 
part of it is occupied with the arrangements 
for doing Hiller's oratorio in the next series 
of Gewandhaus Concerts, and with his pleasure 
at the appearance of a favourable article on him 
in Schumann's paper, Neuemusikaluehe ZeUung, 
from which he passes to lament over the news 
of the suicide of Nourrit, who had been one of 
his circle in Paris in 1831. 

In May (1889) he is at Diisseldorf, conducting 
the Lower Rhine Musical Festival (May 19-21) 
— the 'Messiah,' Beethoven's Mass in 0, his own 
42nd Psalm, the Eroioa Symphony, etc. From 
there he went to Frankfort, to the wedding of 
his wife's sister Julie to Mr. Schunok of Leipzig, 
and there he wrote the D minor Trio ^ ; then 
to Horohheim, and then back to Fraxikfort. 
On August 21 ^ they were at home again in 
Leipzig, and were visited by the Hensels, who 
remained with them till Sept. 4, and then de- 
parted for Italy. Felix followed them with a 
long letter ^ of hints and instructions for their 
guidance on the journey, not the least character- 
istic part of which is the closing ii^'unction to 
be sure to eat a salad of broooli and ham at 
Naples, and to write to tell him if it was not 

The summer of 1889 had been an unusually 
fine one ; the visit to Frankfort and the Rhine 
had been perfectly successful ; he had enjoyed 
it with that peculiar capacity for enjoyment 
which he possessed, and he felt 'thoroughly 
refreshed.' ^ He went a great deal into society, 
but found none so charming as that of his wife. 
A delightful picture of part of his life at Frank- 
fort is given in a letter to Klingemann of August 
1, and still more so in one to his mother on 
July 8, 1839. Nor was it only delightful. It 

1 X, fo Sdmbringt Dtc %, 18S8. 

* £. to his mother, Mar^ 18. ISSS. In fnot It wm onlj written 
at all booauM the prooeada of Uie conoert ware to go to the Widows' 
Fund of the oreheatni. He Inalsted on oalllng It 'The Orerfcore to 
the DtamaUe Fund.' > iT. ik US. 

4 The antograph Is dated— lat Horement, Frankfort, June 6 ; 
Finale, Frankfort, Jnly 18 PSSB]. 

« P.M. li. SB. • £. to Fanny. Sept K 1818. 

f L.Ut Klinfamaan. Avinstl. 18S8. 

urged him to the composition of part-songs for 
the open air, a kind of piece which he made his 
own, and wrote to absolute perfection. The 
impulse lasted till the end of the winter, and 
many of his best part-songs — including ' Love 
and Wine,' 'The Hunter's Farewell,' 'The 
Lark' — date from this time. In addition to 
these the summer produced the D minor piano- 
forte trio already mentioned, the completion of 
the 114th Psalm, and three fugues for the organ, 
one of which was worked into the organ sonata 
No. 2, while the others remain in MS. [except 
the fugue in F minor. No. 8 of the set, which 
was published by Stajiley Lucas k Co., London, 
in 1885.] 

[He conducted a Musical Festival at Bruns- 
wick (Sept. 6-8), where he first made the ac- 
quaintance of H. F. Chorley. Beethoven's sym- 
phonies in C minor and A, and Mendelssohn's 
*St Paul,' D minor pf. concerto, and Sere- 
nade (pf.) were performed.^] On Oct. 2 his 
second child, Marie, was bom. Then came the 
christening, with a visit from his mother and 
Paul, and then Hiller arrived. He had very 
recently lost his mother, and nothing would 
satisfy Mendelssohn but that his friend should 
come and pay him a long visit,* partly to 
dissipate his thoughts, and partly to super- 
intend the rehearsals of his oratorio of 'Jeremiah 
the Prophet,' which had been bespoken for the 
next series of Gewandhaus Ooncerts.^^ Hiller 
arrived early in December, and we recommend 
his description of Mendelssohn's home life to 
any one who wishes to know how simply and 
happily a great and busy man can live. Leiprig 
was proud of him, his wife was very popiUar, 
and this was perhaps the happiest period of his 
life. His love of amusement was as great as 
ever, and his friends long recollected his childish 
delight in the Cirque Lajarre and Paul Cousin 
the clown. 

The concert season of 1889-40 was a brilliant 
one. For novelties there were symphonies 
by Lindblad, Kalliwoda, Eittl, Schneider, and 
Vogler. Schubert's ninth symphony (in C) 
was played no less than three times,'^ and one 
concert'^ (Jan. 9, 1840) was rendered memorable 
by a performance of Beethoven's four Overtures 
to Leonora ('Fidelio'). Mendelssohn's own 
114th Psalm was first performed 'sehr glorios'" 
on New Year's Day, and the new Trio in D minor 
on Feb. 10. The Quartet Concerts were also 
unusually brilliant At one of them Mendels- 
sohn's Octet was given, he and Kalliwoda 
playing the two violas ; at another he aooom- 
panied >* David in Bach's 'Chaoonne,' then quite 
unknown. Hiller's oratorio was produced on 

* [For a fall and graphic aooonnt by Chorley of this FsstivBl. see 
his Modtm Q^mwn Mutie, toL 1. p. 1, •< se?. ; and AM.M. 1888. 
p. TBI.] 

• H. p. 147. W tHi. p. 184. 

•I Dee. 19, 18S8. and March IS. The second performance was 
iDtarfored with by a flxe in the town. 

n £. to Fknuy, Jan. 4. 1840. la ihUL. 

M Probably extempore; the pnbllshsd Tsnlon is dated aooM 
years later. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





April 2 with great success. Ernst, and, above 
all, Liszt, were among the virtuosos of this 
season ; and for the latter of these two great 
players Mendelssohn arranged a soir^ at the 
Gewandhaus, which he thus epitomises: '350 
people, orchestra, chorus, punch, pastry, Meeres- 
stille, Psalm, Bach's Triple Concerto, choruses 
from St. Paul, Fantasia on Lucia, the Erl King, 
the devil and his grandmother ' ^ ; and which 
had the effect of somewhat allaying the annoy- 
ance which had been caused by the extra prices 
charged at Liszt's concerts. 

How, in the middle of all this exciting and 
fiatiguing work (of which we have given but a 
poor idea), he found time for composition, and 
for his large correspondence, it is impossible to 
tell, but he neglected nothing. On the contrary, 
it is precisely during this winter that he trans- 
lates for his uncle Joseph, lus father's elder 
brother — a man not only of remarkable business 
power but with considerable literary ability — 
a number of difficult early Italian poems into 
German verse. They consist of three sonnets 
by Boccaccio, one by Dante, one by Cino, one 
by Cecco Angiolieri, an epigram of Dante's, and 
another of Gianni Al&ni's. They are printed 
in the later editions of the letters (German 
version only), and are accompanied by a letter 
to his uncle Joseph, dated Feb. 20, 1840, 
describing half- humorously, half- pathetically, 
the difficulty which the obscurities of the 
originals had given him amid all his professional 
labours. Witii irrepressible energy he embraced 
the first moment of an approach to leisure, after 
what he describes as a 'really overpowering 
turmoil,' ^ to write a long and carefully-studied 
official communication to the Ereis-Director, or 
Home Minister of Saxony, urging that a legacy 
recently left by a certain Herr Bliimner should 
be applied to the formation of a solid music 
academy at Leipzig. ^ This was business ; but» 
in addition, during all these months there are 
long letters to Hiller, Chorley, his mother, 
Fanny, Paul, and Fiirst (and remember that 
only a small part of those which he wrote has 
been brought within our reach) ; and yet he 
managed to compose both the ' Lobgesang ' and 
the 'Festgesang' for the Festival in commemora- 
tion of the invention of Printing, which was 
held in Leipzig on June 25, the former of which 
is as characteristio and important a work as any 
in the whole series of his compositions. The 
music for both these was written at the express 
request of the Town Council, acting through a 
committee whose chairman was Dr. Raymond 
Hartel, and the first communication with 
Mendelssohn on the subject was made about 
the end of the previous July. We know from 
Mendelssohn himself^ that the title 'Symphonic 
Cantata ' is due to Elingemann, but the words 
are probably Mendelssohn's own selection, no 

I £. to bla mother, Maroh 30. 1840. * IWL 

a L. April 8. 1840. « Z,. to KlingonuD, Nov. 16. 1840. 

trace of any communication with Schubringi 
Bauer, or Fiirst being preserved in the published 
letters or recollections, and the draft of the 
words having vanished. 

The Festival extended over two days, Wednes- 
day and Thursday, June 24 and 25, 1840. On 
Tuesday eveningtiierewasa'yorfeier 'in theshape 
of an opera by Lortzing, ' Hans Sachs,' composed 
for the occasion. At 8 a.m. on Wednesday 
was a service in the church with a cantata by 
Richter (of Zittau), followed by the unveiling 
of the printing-press and statue of Gutenberg, 
and by a performance in the open market-place 
of Mendelssohn's ' Festgesang ' ^ for two chou's 
and brass instruments, he conducting the one 
chorus and David the other. On Thursday 
afternoon a concert was held in St. Thomas's 
Church, consisting of Weber's Jubilee Overture, 
Handel's Dettingen Te Deum, and MendeLssohn's 

Hi^ly was this over when he went to 
Schwerin with his wife, to conduct ' St Paul ' 
and other large works, at a Festival there 
(July 8-10). On the way back they stopped 
in Berlin for * three very pleasant days.' ® An- 
other matter into whic^ at this time he threw 
all his devotion was the erection of a monument 
to Sebastian Bach in front of his old habitat 
at the 'Thomas School' The scheme was his 
own, and he urged it with characteristic hearti- 
ness. ^ But dear as the name and fame of Bach 
were to him, he would not consent to move till 
he had obtained (from the town council) an 
increase to the pay of the orchestra of the 
Gewandhaus Concerts. For this latter object 
he obtained 500 thalers,^ and on Aug. 6, gave 
an organ performance solissimo in St. Thomas's 
church, by which he realised 800 thalers.^ Even 
this he would not do without doing his very 
best, and he describes to his mother how he 
had practised so hard for a week before ' that 
he could hardly stand on his feet, and the mere 
walking down the street was like playing a 
pedal passage. '^^ After such a six months no 
wonder that his health was not good, and that 
his 'physician wanted to send him to some 
Brunnen instead of a Musical Festival.' ^' To 
a Festival, however, he went. The ' Lobgesang' 
had not escaped the attention of the energetic 
Mr. Moore, who managed the music in Birming- 
ham, and some time before its first perfsrmance 
he had written to Mendelssohn with the view 
of securing it for the autumn meeting. On 
July 21, Mendelssohn writes in answer, agreeing 
to come, and making his stipulations as to the 

ft The words of this w«i« by Prof. Pr«lM of Freiberg {Jf.Jl.M. IBM, 
il. 7). The ' itatne ' whldi is mentioned in the Moonnte wu probftblj 
■omethlng merely temporary. The Moood number of the FestgeHUig. 
adapted by Dr. W. H. Cmnminp to the words, * Hark, the henld 

angels sliig,' Is a very faTonrite hymn-tune in England. [Inak — 
to his Bnglish publisher. Mr. B. Buxton (Ewer it Co.). Mendelseoltt 
says that the tune 'will neper do to eacred words'! See Mudoat 
Time$, Dee. 1887. p. 810.] 
e C. 1. 820. f N.31.M. 184S, 1. 144. 

• £. to Paul. Feb. 7. 1840. 

• [For further details, see Muntcal TimM, Jan. 1908. p. SL] 
1» JL to his mother. Aug. 10. 1840. 

II Letter in C. i. S14 ; /V*o, p. 2»1. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





other works to be performed.^ It was his sixth 
Tisit to England. 

There was a preliminary rehearsal of the work 
in London under Moscheles's care. Mendelssohn 
arrived on Sept 18,^ visited all his London 
friends, including the Alexanders, Horsleys, 
Moscheles, and Klingemann (with whom he 
stayed, at 4 Hobart Place, Pimlioo), went down 
to Birmingham with Moscheles on Sunday the 
20th and stayed with Mr. Moore. On Tuesday 
he played a fugue on the organ ; on Wednesday, 
the 23rd, conducted the * Lobgesang,' and after 
it was over, and the public had left the hall, 
played for three-quarters of an hour on the 
organ. ^ The same day he played his O minor 
Concerto at the evening concert in the theatre. 
On Thursday, after a selection from Handel's 
' Jephthah,' he again extemporised on the organ, 
this time in public. The selection had closed 
with a chorus, the subjects of which he took 
for his improvisation,^ combining 'Theme 
sublime' with 'Ever fiiithful' in a masterly 
manner. On his return to town he played on 
the organ at St. Peter's, Comhill, on Sept 30, 
Bach's noble Prelude and Fngue in E minor, 
his own in C minor (op. 37, No. 1) and F minor,^ 


and other pieces, concluding with Bach's Passa- 
caglia. Of this last he wrote a few bars as a 
memento, which still ornament the vestry of 
the church.® He had intended to give a 
Charity Concert during his stay in London, ^ 
after the Festival, but it was too late in the 
season for this, and he travelled from London 
with Chorley ^ and Moscheles in the mail-coach 
to Dover ; thenan eight-hours' passage to Ostend, 
and by Lifege and Aix-la-Chapelle to Leipzig. 
It was Moscheles's first introduction to C^cile. 

The concerts had already begun, on Oct 4, 
but he took his place at the second. The ' Lob- 
gesang ' played a great part in the musical life 
of Leipzig this winter. It was performed at 
the special command of the King of Saxony at 
an extra concert in October.^ Then Mendels- 
sohn set to work to make the alterations and 
additions which the previous performances had 
suggested to him, including the scene of the 
watchman, preparatory to a benefit performance 
on Dec 3 ; and lastly it was performed at the 

> P6a», p. 251. 

* JTm. U. 91, irb«r« tlie date la wronfly glran us the 8th. 
s Mot. U. ?0. 

* Fkom the reooUections of Mr. Tnrle and Mr. Bowlej. 

s I owe this to MlH Bliabeth Moanaey, then or^miit of the 

* [Sm Mtuteal Timet, ISonr. 1906. p. 718, for detaUa of thia and hla 
•ahMquent rlsit to the church in 1842.1 

7 See bis letter of July SI. 1840 in C. i. 319. 

* Mot. IL 71. » ^ to hU mother, Oct. 27. 1840. 

ninth Gewandhans Concert, on Dec. 16, when 
both it and the Kreutzer Sonata were commanded 
by the King and the Crown Prince of Saxony. 
The alterations were so serious and so universal 
as to compel the sacrifice of the whole of the 
plates engraved for the performance at Birming- 
ham. Now, however, they were final, and the 
work was published by Breitkopf k Hartel 
early in the following year. Before leaving 
this we may say that the scene of the watchman 
was suggested to him during a sleepless night, 
in which the words ' WUl the night soon pass ? ' 
incessantly recurred to his mind. Next morn- 
ing he told Schleinitz that he had got a new idea 
for the 'Lobgesang.' 

With 1841 we arrive at a period of Mendels- 
sohn's life when, for the first time, a disturb- 
ing antagonistic element beyond his own control 
was introduced into it, depriving him of that 
freedom of action on which he laid such great 
stress, reducing him to do much that he was 
disinclined to, and to leave undone much that 
he loved, and producing by degrees a decidedly 
unhappy effect on his life and peace. From 
1841 began the worries and troubles which, when 
added to the prodigious amount of his legitimate 
work, gradually robbed him of the serene happi- 
ness and satis&otion which he had for long en- 
joyed, and in the end, there can be little doubt, 
contributed to his prematnre death. Frederick 
William lY., to whom, as Crown Prince, Mendels- 
sohn dedicated his three Concert-overtures in 
1834, had succeeded to the throne of Pmssia on 
June 7, 1840 ; and being a man of much taste 
and cultivation, one of his first desires was to 
found an Academy of Arts in his capital, to be 
divided into the four classes of Painting, Sculp- 
ture, Architecture, and Music, each clara to have 
its Director, who should in turn be Superinten- 
dent of the whole Academy. In music it was 
proposed to connect the class with the existing 
establishments for musical education, and with 
others to be formed in the future, all under the 
control of the Director, who was also to carry 
out a certain number of concerts every year, at 
which large vocal and instrumental works were 
to be performed by the Royal orchestra and the 
Opera company. Such was the scheme which 
was communicated to Mendelssohn by Herr von 
Massow, on Dec. 11, 1840, with an offer of the 
post of Director of the musical class, at a salary 
of 3000 thalers (£450). Though much gratified 
by the offer, Mendelssohn declined to accept it 
without detailed information as to the duties 
involved. That information, however, could 
only be afforded by theGovemment Departments 
of Science, Instruction, and Medicine, within 
whose regulation the Academy lay, and on 
accountof the necessary changesand adjostments 
would obviously require much consideration. 
Many letters on the subject passed between 
Mendelssohn, his brother Paul, Herr von Mas- 
sow, Herr Eiohhom the Minister, Klingemann, 

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the President Yerkenius, from which it ia not 
difficult to see that his hesitation arose from his 
distrust of Berlin and of the official world which 
predominated there, and with whom he would in 
his directorship be thrown into contact at every 
turn. He contrasts, somewhat captiously perhaps, 
his freedom at Leipzig with the trammels at 
Berlin ; the devoted, excellent, vigorous orches- 
tra of the one with the careless perfunctory, execu- 
tion of the other. His radical, rotttrier spirit 
revolted against the officialism and etiquette of 
a great and formal Court, and he denounces in 
distinct terms ' the mongrel doings of the capital 
— ^vast projects and poor performances ; the keen 
criticism and the slovenly playing ; the liberal 
ideas and the shoals of subservient courtiers ; 
the Museum and Academy, and the sand.' 

To leave a place where his sphere of action 
was so definite, and the results so unmistakably 
good, as they were at Leipzig, for one in which 
the programme was vague and the results at 
best problematical, was to him more than diffi- 
cult. His fixed belief was that Leipzig was one 
of the most influential and Berlin one of the 
least influential places in Germany in the matter 
of music ; and this being his conviction (rightly 
or wrongly) we cannot wonder at his hesitation 
to forsake the one for the other. However, the 
commands of a king are not easily set aside, 
and the result was that by the end of May 1841 
he was living in Berlin, in the old home of his 
family — to his great delight. 

His life at Leipzigduringthe winter of 1 840-41 
had been unusually laborious. The interest of 
the concerts was fully maintained ; four very 
interesting programmes, occupied entirely l^ 
Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, 
and involving a world of consideration and 
minute trouble, were given. He himself played 
frequently ; several very important new works 
by contemporaries — including symphonies by 
Spohr, Maurer, and Kalliwoda, and the Choral 
Symphony, then nearly as good as new — were 
produced, after extra careful rehearsals ^ ; and 
the season wound up with Bach's Passion. In 
a letter to Chorley ^ of March 15, 1841, he says 
his spring campaign ' was more troublesome and 
vexatious than ever . . . nineteen concerts 
since then [Jan. 1], and seven more to come in 
the next three weeks, not to speak of rehearsals, 
of which we always had cU least three in a week. ' 
The amount of general business and correspond- 
ence, due to the constant rise in his fame and 
position, was also alarmingly on the increase. 
In a letter to his mother, Jan. 25, 1841, he tells 
of thirty-five letters written in two days, and 
of other severe demands on his time, temper, 
and judgment. And when we remember what 
his letters often are — the large quarto sheet of 
'Bath paper,' covered at least on three sides, 

I It was at thia perf omuuice of the Choral Symphony that Sehn- 
mann for the flnt timo haard the D In th« BaM Trombona which 
giT«a 10 mneh life to the beginning of the Trio. Bee hla wordi in 
Jf.M.X. 1841. i. 88. S C. 1. 334. 

often over the flaps of the fourth, the dose 
straight lines, the regular, extraordinarily neat 
writing, the air of accuracy and precision that 
pervades the whole down to the careful signature 
and the tiny seal — we shall not wonder that with 
all this, added to the Berlin worries, he composed 
little or nothing. 'I have neither read nor 
written in the course of this music-mad winter,' 
says he,^ and accordingly, with one exception, 
we find no composition with a date earlier than 
the latter part of April 1841. The exception 
was a pianoforte duet in A, which he wrote ex- 
pressly to play with his friend Madame Schu- 
mann, at her concert on March 31. It is dated 
Leipzig, March 23, 1841, and was published 
after bis death as op. 92. As the pressure lessens, 
however, and the summer advances, he breaks 
out with some songs, with and without words, 
and then with the '17 Variations S^rieuses' 
(June 4), going on, as his way was, in the same 
rut, with Uie Variations in E flat (June 25) and 
in B flat^ It was known before he left Leipzig 
that it was his intention to accept the Berlin post 
for a year only, and therefore it seemed natural 
that the * Auf Wiedersehen ' in his Volkslied, 
' £s ist bestimmt,' should be rapturously cheered 
when sung ^ by Schroder- Devrient to his own 
accompaniment, and that when serenaded at his 
departure with the same song he should himself 
join heartily in its closing words.^ He took his 
farewell, as we have said, with a performance of 
Bach's Passion, in St. Thomas's church, on Palm 
Sunday, April 4, and the appointment of capell- 
meister to the King of Saxony followed him to 

For some time after his arrival there matters 
did not look promising. But he had bound 
himself for a year. Many conferences were 
held, at which little was done but to irritate 
him. He handed in his plan for the Musical 
Academy,* received the title of Capellmeister ' 
to the King of Prussia, the life in the lovely 
garden at the Leipziger Strasse reasserted its 
old power over him, and his hope and spirits 
gradually returned. He was back in Leipzig 
for a few weeks in July, as we find from his 
letters, and from an Organ prelude in minor, 
a perfectly strict composition of thirty-eight 
bars, written 'this morning' (July 9), on 
purpose for the album of Henry E. Dibdin of 
Edinburgh. ^0 Dibdin had asked him to compose 
a psalm-tune. 'I do not know what *'a long 
measure psalm -tune" means,' Mendelssohn 
writes, in English, ' and there is nobody in this 
place [Leipzig] at present to whom I could 
apply for an explanation. Excuse me, therefore, 
if you receive something else than what yoU 
wished.' He then began work in Berlin. The 
King's desire was to revive some of the ancient 

*C.LSSi. 4X.toKIlngeniann, JnIyU,1841,and]IS.Ca^ 

s Schumann In iV^.jr.^. 1841. L 118. • />ev. p. 11& 

7 A.M.X. Jnlj 14. 1841. p. S60. 

8 •Memorandum'; dated Berlin. May 1841. p. 218 of UUen, 
fasS'4r. > A.M.M. Oat. 20. 1841. p. 8M. 

^v Bee Catalogue at end of thia artlele. 

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Greek tragedies. He communicated hie idea to 
Tieok, the poet, one of the new Directors ; the 
choice fell on the ' Antigone ' of Sophocles, in 
Donner's new translation ; and by Sept. 9 ^ 
Mendelssohn was in considtation with Tieck on 
the subject. He was greatly interested with 
the plan, and with the no7el task of setting a 
Greek drama, and worked at it w^ith the greatest 
enthusiasm. By the 28th of the same month 
he had made up his mind on the questions of 
imison, melodrama, etc. The first full stage 
rehearsal took place on Oct. 22, and the per- 
formance itself at the Neue Palais at Potsdam 
on Oct. 28, with a repetition on Nov. 6. Mean- 
time he had taken a house of his own opposite 
the family residence. A temporary arrangement 
had been made for the Gewandhaus Concerts of 
this winter to be conducted by David, and they 
began for the season on that footing. Mendels- 
sohn, however, ran over for a short time, after 
the second performance of * Antigone,' and con- 
ducted two of the series, and the concert for 
the benefit of the orchestra, returning to Berlin 
for Christmas. 

On Jan. 10, 1842, he began a series of con- 
certs by command of the Khig, with a perform- 
ance of ' St Paul ' in the concert-room of the 
theatre ; but, if we may believe Devrient, there 
was no cordial understanding between him and 
the band ; the Berlin audiences were cold, and 
he was uncomfortable. *A prophet hath no 
honour in his own country.' It must, however, 
have been satisfactory to see the hold which 
his * Antigone ' was taking both in Leipzig and 
Berlin,^ in each of which it was played over and 
over again to crowded houses. During the 
winter he completed the Scotch Symphony, 
which is dated Jan. 20, 1842. His sister's 
Sunday concerts were extraordinarily brilliant 
this season, on account not only of the music 
performed, but of the very distinguished persons 
who frequented them ; Cornelius, Thorwaldsen, 
Ernst (a constant visitor), Pasta, Madame 
Ungher-Sabatier, Liszt, Bockh, Lepsius, Mrs. 
Austin, are specimens of the various kinds of 
people who were attracted, partly no doubt by 
the music and the pleasant r^nioTt, partly by 
the fact that Mendelssohn was there. He made 
his escape to his beloved Leipzig for the produc- 
tion of the Scotch Symphony, on March 8,^ 
but though it was repeated a week later, he 
appears to have returned to Berlin. For the 
sixth time he directed the Lower Rhine Festival 
at Diisseldorf (May 15-17) ; and passing on to 
London, for his seventh visit, with his wife, 
conducted his Scotch Symphony at the Phil- 
harmonic, amid extraordinary applause and 
enthusiasm, on June 13, and played his D minor 
concerto there on the 27th, and conducted the 
' Hebrides ' overture, which was encored. [For 
an amusing and anagrammatic criticism of the 

1 DOT.P.23S. 

I FintperfonnaDoa In Laipdc. Xanh 6; in Berlin, April U. 1842. 

» Jt.M.M. ists, L loa 

latter concert, written by Mr. J. W. Davison, 
afterwards musical critic of the TimeSf see the 
Musical Examiner of June 17, 1848, reprinted 
in Mwical Times, May 1906, p. 322.] The 
Philharmonic season wound up with a fish 
dinner at Greenwich, given him by the directors. 

On June 12 he revisited St Peter's, Comhill. 
It was Sunday, and as he arrived the congrega- 
tion were singing a hymn to Haydn's well- 
known tune. This he took for the subject of 
his voluntary, and varied and treated it for 
some time extempore in the happiest and most 
scientific manner. On the 16th he paid a 
third visit to Christ Church, Newgate Street, 
and it was possibly on that occasion that he 
played an extempore fantasia on ' Israel in £!gypt ' 
which positively electrified those who heard it. 
He also again treated Haydn's hymn, but this 
time as a fantasia and fugue, entirely distinct 
from his performance of four days previous.^ 
On the 17th, at a concert of the Sacred 
Harmonic Society at Exeter Hall, mostly con- 
sisting of English Anthems, he played the organ 
twice ; first, Bach's so-called 'St Aiine's' Fugue, 
with the great Prelude in E flat, and, secondly, 
an extempore introduction and variations on 
the < Harmonious Blacksmith,' ending with a 
fugue on the same theme. ^ After this he and 
his wife paid a visit to their cousins in Manchester, 
with the intention of going on to Dublin, but 
were deterred by the prospect of the crossing. 
During the London portion of this visit they 
resided with his wife's relations, the Beneckes, 
on Denmark Hill, Camberwell. [Here he com- 
posed Nos. 30 and 43 of the Songs without Words, 
also the Kinderstiicke, op. 72, known in England 
as Christmas pieces. <^] He was very much in 
society, where he always eiyoyed himself ex- 
tremely, and where his wife was much admired ; 
and amongst other incidents described in his 
letters to his mother 7. are two visits to Bucking- 
ham Palace, the first in the evening of June 20, 
and the second on the afternoon of July 9, which 
show how thoroughly Queen Victoria and the 
Prince Consort appreciated him. On the latter 
occasion he obtained Her Majesty's permission 
to dedicate the Scotch Symphony to her.^ 

They left London on July 12, and by the 
middle of the month were safe at Frankfort, in 
the midst of their relatives, 'well and happy,' 
and looking back on the past month as a 
* delightful journey.' ^ August was devoted to 
a tour in Switzerland, he and Paul, with their 
wives. Montreux, Interlaken, the Oberland, 
the Furka, Meiringen, the Grimsel, are all 
mentioned. He walked, composed, and ' sketched 
furiously ' ; visited the old scenes, found the 
old landladies and old guides, always glad to 

« On the authority of MIm Elisabeth MoanMy. Dr. E. J. Hopkins, 
and the Atkemmm, Jone 18. 1842. 

• Atla* newspaper. Juno 18; and MutteaX World, June 83. 1842: 

• [Bee MuHealTlmu, August 1882. p. 406. and Dec. 1901. p. 80T.1 

f L. U> hi* mother, June 21. 1842: and spedally the letter to 
his mother of July 19, 1843, printed in G. « JT. p. 141. 
6. « jr. p. 14& • Hid. p. 141. 

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see him ; his health was perfect, his mood gay, 
and all was bright and happy, save when the 
spectre of a possible prolonged residence in 
Berlin intruded its unwelcome form.^ On 
Sept. 8 they were at Zurich,^ on the 5th, 6th, 
and 7th at the Rigi and Lucerne.' While at 
Zurich he visited the Blind Institution, spent 
two hours in examining the compositions of 
the pupils, praised and encouraged them, and 
finished by extemporising on the piano at great 
length.^ On his return, he stayed for a gay 
fortnight at Frankfort Hiller, Charles Hall^, 
and their wives were there, and there was much 
music made, and a great open-air fSte at the 
Sandhof, with part-songs, tableaux vivants, etc. 
etc^ A very characteristic and beautiful letter 
to Simrock, the music-publisher, urging him to 
accept some of Hiller's compositions (an appeal 
promptly responded to by that excellent person- 
age), dates from this time.* So well was the 
secret kept that Hiller never knew of it till the 
publication of the letter in 1863. 

An anecdote of this period may be new to 
some of our readers. During the summer the 
King of Prussia had conferred on Mendelssohn, 
in company with Liszt, Meyerbeer, and Rossini, 
the great honour of the < Ordre pour le Merite,' ^ 
and the Order itself reached him at Frankfort. 
He set no store by such distinctions, nor perhaps 
was its Berlin origin likely to increase the value 
of this particular one. Shortly after it arrived 
ho was taking a walk with a party of friends 
across the bridge at Offenbach. One of them 
(Mr. Speyer) stayed behind to pay the toll for 
the rest. 'Is not that,' said the toll-keeper, 
* the Mr. Mendelssohn whose music we sing at 
OUT society f *It is.* *Then, if you please, 
I should like to pay the toll for him myself.' 
On rejoining the party, Mr. Speyer told 
Mendelssohn what had happened. He was 
enormously pleased. *Hm,' said he, *I like 
that better than the Order.' ® 

He took Leipzig on his way to Berlin, and 
conducted the opening concert of the Gewand- 
haus series on Oct. 2 (1842), amid the greatest 
enthusiasm of his old friends. A week later 
and he was in Berlin, and if anything could 
show how uncongenial the place and the pro- 
spect were, it is to be found in his letter to 
Hiller, and even in the Italian jeu cCesprit to 
HiUer's wife.® It is as if his very teeth were set 
on edge by everything he sees and hears there. 
Nor were matters more promising when he 
came to close quarters. A proposition was 
made to him by the minister immediately after 
his arrival that he should act as superintendent 

1 L. to bis mother. Angiut 18, 1849L 

« IHA. Sept. a. 1»42. . . ^^ .^„.^ , 

3 Diu>7 of Mr. EllA. The aboTe d»t« preclude the poMlhfllty of 
hit hiiTing attended the Monurt FestlTftl at ftUsbun on Sept. 4 and 
5. There is no trace of his having been invited, and the full report 
in the A.M.Z. (1842, pp. 780, 806), while giving the names of sereral 
musicians piesent. does not allude to him. * A.M.M. 1842, p. 907. 

i H.n.m. • £. to Slmrnck, Sept. 21, 18«2 ; H. p. 188. 

t A.M.M. 18IS. p. 8S4. . ^ 

• Told to the writer by Mr. Edward Speyer. son of Mr. Speyer. 

• Oct. 8 ; H. p. 194. 

of the music of the Protestant Church of 
Prussia, a post at once vague and vast, and 
unsuited to him. At the same time it was now 
evident that the plans for the organisation of 
the Academy had £Ekiled, and that there was no 
present hope of any building being erected for 
the music schooL Under these circumstances, 
anxious more on his mother's account than on 
his own not to leave Berlin in disgrace, in fact 
ready to do anything which should keep him in 
connection with the place where she was,^^ he 
asked and obtained a long private interview 
with the King, in which His Majesty expressed 
his intention of forming a choir of about thirty 
first-rate singers, with a small picked orchestra, 
to be available for church music on Sundays 
and Festivals, and to form the nucleus of a 
large body for the execution of grand musical 
works. Of this, when formed, he desired 
Mendelssohn to take the command, and to 
write the music for it ; meantime he was to be 
at liberty to live where he chose, and — his own 
stipulation — to receive half the salary previously 
granted. The King evidently had the matter 
very closely at heart. He was, says Mendels- 
sohn, quite flushed with pleasure, could hardly 
contain himself, and kept repeating * You can 
scarcely think fwuo of going away.' When 
kings ask in this style it is not for subjects to 
refuse them. Moreover Mendelssohn was as 
much attracted by the King as he was repelled 
by the official etiquette of his ministers, and it 
is not surprising that he acceded to the request. 
The interview was followed up by a letter from 
His Majesty dated Nov. 22,^^ containing an 
order constituting the Domchor or Cathedral 
choir, conferring on Mendelssohn the title of 
General- Music-Director, with a salary of 1500 
thalers, and giving him the superintendence 
and direction of the church and sacred music as 
his special province. This involved his giving 
up acting as Capellmeister to the King of Saxony, 
and for that pui-pose he had an interview with 
that monarch at Dresden, ini which he obtained 
the King's consent to the application of the 
Bliimner legacy to his darling scheme of a 
Conservatorium at Leipzig.^ 

Thus then 'this long, tedious, Berlin business ' 
was at length apparently brought to an end, and 
Mendelssohn was back in his beloved Leipzig, 
and with a definite sphere of duty before him 
in Berlin, for he had learnt in the meantime 
that he was at once to supply the King with 
music to Racine's 'Athalie,' the 'Midsummer 
Night's Dream,' *The Tempest,' and *(Edipus 
Coloneus. ' ^3 Th\B, with the proofs of the Scotch 
Symphony and * Antigone' to correct, with the 
• Walpurgisnacht ' to complete for performance, 
the new Conservatorium to organise, the concerts, 
regular and irregular, to rehearse and conduct, 
and a vast and increasing correspondence to be 

10 £. to Klingemann. Nov. SS, 1842. 
u ^ to Klingemann, Nov. 88. 

" L. to Pftul. Dea 5. 1843, 
U /Md. Not. 28. 

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kept up, was enough for even his deft and untir- 
ing pair of hands. He is cheerful enough under 
it, and although he complains in one letter that 
composition is impossible, yet in the next letter 
* Athalie/ ' OSdipus/ the * Midsummer Night's 
Dream,' the ' Walpurgisnacht,' and the new 
violoncello Sonata (in D) are beginning again to 
fill his brain, and he finds time to be pleasant over 
old Madame Schroder, and to urge the claims of 
his old Meiringen guide to a place in Murray's 
Handbook,^ In the midst of all this whirl he 
lost his mother, who died in the same rapid 
and peaceful manner that his &ther had done. 
She was taken ill on the Sunday evening — her 
husband's birthday — and died before noon on 
Monday, Dec 12 — so quickly that her son's 
letter of the 11th could not have reached her.^ 
The loss affected him less violently than that of 
his father had done, perhaps because he was now 
older and too hard worked, and also because of 
the home-life and ties by which he was sur- 
rounded. But it caused him keen suffering, 
from which he did not soon recover. It brings 
into strong relief his love of the family bond, 
and lus fear lest the disappearance of the point 
of union should at all separate the brothers and 
sisters ; and he proposes, a touching offer for one 
whose pen was already so incessantly occupied, 
that he should write to one of the three every 
week, and the communication be thus main- 
tained with certainty.' 

The house now became his, but the hesitation 
with which he accepts his brother's proposal to 
that effect, lest it should not be acceptable to 
his sisters or their husbands, is eminently charac- 
teristic of lus delicate and unselfish generosily.^ 
He admits that lus mother's death has been a 
severe trial, and then he drops an expression 
which shows how heavily the turmoil of so busy 
a life was beginning to press upon him. — * In 
fact, everything that I do and carry on is a 
burden to me, unless it be mere passive exist- 
ence.' This may have been the mere complaint 
of the moment, but it is unlike the former 
buoyant Mendelssohn* He was suffering, too, 
from what appears to have been a serious cough. 
But work came to his relief ; he had some scor- 
ing and copying to do which, though of the 
nature of 

The Md mechanic exercise, 

Like doll narcotics, numbing pain, 

yet had its own charm — 'the pleasant inter- 
course with the old familiar oboes and violas 
and the rest, who live so much longer than we 
do, and are such faithful friends,'^ and thus 
kept him from dwelling on his sorrow. And 
there was always so much in the concerts to 
interest and absorb him. He still clung, though 
as fastidiously as ever, to the hope of getting an 
opera -book. A long letter in French to M. 

1 L. Not. 88 and SS; eompan with lettar of Sopt. 3. 

s £. to hia mothw. Dec. 11. 

* Pftal. Dee. 22. 184S. « Ibid. 

A !» to KTIngemMin, Jan. IS, UI9L 

Charles Duveyrier, dated Jan. 4, 1843,^ discusses 
the merits of the story of Jeanne d'Arc for the 
purpose, and decides that Schiller's play has 
preoccupied the ground. At this time he re- 
wrote * Infelice,' Sie second published version of 
which is dated ' Leipzig, Jan. 16, 1843.' 

At theconcertof Feb. 2, 1843, the * Walpurgis- 
nacht ' was produced in a very different condition 
from that in which it had been performed at Ber- 
lin just ten years before, in Jan« 1833. He had 
re- written the score ' from A to Z, ' amongst other 
alterations had added two fresh airs, and had at 
length brought it into the condition in which it 
is now so well known. On Jan. 12 a Symphony 
in C minor, by Niels Gade, of Copenhagen, was 
rehearsed. It interested Mendelssohn extremely, 
and gave him an opportunity to write a letter ^ 
full of sympathy and encouragement to the dis- 
tant and unknown composer, one of those letters 
which were native to him, but which are too 
seldom written, and for more of which the 
world would be all the better. The work was 
produced on March 2, amid extraordinary ap- 

Berlioz visited Leipzig at this time, and gave 
a concert of his compositions. Mendelssohn and 
he had not met since they were both at Rome, 
and Berlioz was foolish enough to suppose that 
some raillery of his might be lurking in Mendels- 
sohn's memory, and prevent his being cordially 
welcomed. But he was soon undeceived. Men- 
delssohn wrote at once offering him the room 
and the orchestra of the Gewandhaus, on the 
most favourable terms, and asking him to allow 
one of his works to be played at the approaching 
concert (Feb. 22) for the Benefit of the Orchestra. ^ 
An account of the whole, with copious souvenirs 
of their Roman acquaintance (not wholly un- 
coloured), will be found in Berlioz's Voyage 
Musical, in the letter to Heller.^ It is enough 
here to say that the two composer-conductors 
exchanged batons, and that if Berlioz did not 
convert Leipzig, it was not for want of an ami- 
able reception by Mendelssohn and David. [See 
voL L p. 206.] On March 9 an interesting extra 
concert was given under Mendelssohn's direction, 
to commemorate the first subscription concert, 
in 1743.^® The first part of the programme 
contained compositions by former Cantors, or 
Directors of the Concerts — ^Doles, Bach, J. A. 
Hiller, and Schicht, and by David, Hauptmann, 
and Mendelssohn (114th Psalm). The second 
part consisted of the Choral Symphony. 

Under the modest title of the Music School, 
the prospectus of the Conservatorium was issued 
on Jan. 16, 1843, with the names of Mendels- 
sohn, Hauptmann, David, Schumann, Pohlenz, 
and C. F. Becker as the teachers ; the first 
trial was held on March 27, and on April 3 it 

• I Am lD<Ubted for this to Mr. J. H<ieent.h>l 
TL-to KUnfenumn. Jan. 13. 1843. 

• Jul 9ft. letter now In Brit. Mm 

MS. 88.988. In 

printing it Berlloi hae ahortcned it by one half, and eadly oarUed 
it by c •— -—^-•— «--•- « <- "^ •^ 

/ oorrectlnic Mendelnohn't French. 
• And in BerUoat Mimoirti. 

> jir.jr.j.ia4S,LBe. 

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WM opened in the buildings of the Gewandhaus.^ 
Thus one of Mendelasohn's most cherished 
wishes was at last accomplished. A letter on 
the subject to Moscheles, dated April 80, is 
worth notice as showing how practical his ideas 
were on business matters, and how sound his 
judgment. On Sunday, April 23, he had the 
satisfaction of conducting the concert at the 
unreiling of the monument to Sebastian Bach, 
which he had originated, and for which he had 
worked so eamestiy. ^ The programme consisted 
entirely of Bach's music, in which Mendelssohn 
himself played a concerto. Then the monu- 
ment was unveiled, and the proceedings ended 
with Bach's eight -part motet * Singet dem 
Herm.' Such good services were appropriately 
acknowledged by the Town Council with the 
honorary freedom of the city (Ehrenbiirger- 
recht).' In the spring of 1843 he made the 
acquaintance of Joseph Joachim, who came to 
Leipzig from Vienna as a boy of twelve, attracted 
by the fame of the new music school, and there 
began a friendship which grew day by day, and 
only ended with Mendelssohn's deaUi. [Men- 
delssohn called Joachim 'der Posaunenengel.' 
See A. Moeer's Lift of Joachim.] 

On May 1 his fourth child, Feliz, was bom. 
On account no doubt partly of his wife's health, 
partly also of his own — for it is mentioned that 
he was seriously unwell at the dedication of the 
Bach monument — but chiefly perhaps for the 
sake of the Conservatorium, he took no journey 
this year, and, excepting a visit to Dfe^en to 
conduct ' St Paul,' remained in Leipzig for the 
whole summer. How much his holiday was 
interfered with by the tedious, everlasting 
affair of Berlin — oidors and counter-orders, and 
counter-counter-orders — ^may be seen from his 
letters,^ though it is not necessary to do more 
than allude to them. [For the unveiling of 
the statue of Friedrich August I. of Saxony at 
Dresden on June 7, 1843, he and Wagner each 
contributed a composition. Wagner, then capell- 
meister at Dresden, confirms the opinion, which 
he says was formed, that ' his simple, heartfelt 
composition had entirely edipeed the complex 
artificialities of Mendelssohn ' ! Wagner's piece, 
for male voices only, was published at Berlin 
in 1906 : Mendelssohn's Tstill in MS.) is for 
two choirs of men's voices (tenor and bass) with 
accompaniment of brass instruments. ' Its com- 
plex artificialities' (as Wagner was pleased to 
call them) consist in the singing of the Saxon 
national anthem (our ' God save the King ') by 
the second choir as a counter theme to, and 
concurrently with, the singing of Mendelssohn's 
original music by the first choir. For further 
details see MusiccU Timea, June 1906, p. 885 ; 
Life of Richard fFagner by William Ashton 

1 Jf.M^. ISffi. i. 102. HAvptnuum, letter to Spohr. Vth. «. 1843. 
njs, *0w mti«lfr«ehool Is to b«Kin In April, but not on tho Ist, 
llcndolaohn thoni^t that nnlocky.* 

2 am LamptMtu, p. Ill ; ir.M.X. IMS, L lU. 

3 AJI.M. 184S. pi 334 

« L, July 81, 96; AnffUitaS: 8«pt IS. IftlS. 

Ellis, voL ii p. 26 ; and Athenavm^ April 
14, 1906, p. 459.] By the middle of July 
he had completed the 'Midsummer Night's 
Dream' music,'* had written the choruses to 
'Athalie,' and made more than a start with the 
music to <(£dipus,' and some progress with 
a new Symphony ^ ; had at the last moment, 
under a pressing order from Court, arranged 
the chorale *Herr Gott, dich loben wir' (Te 
Deum) for the celebration of the 1000th anni- 
versary of the empire, ' the longest chorale and 
the most tedious job he had ever had,' and had 
also, a still harder task, answered a long official 
letter on the matter of his post, which appeared 
to contradict all that had gone before, and cost 
him (in his own words) ^ four thoroughly nasty, 
wasted, disagreeable days.' 

He therefore went to Berlin early in August 
(1843), and on the 6th conducted the music of 
the anniversary ; returned to Leipzig in time 
to join his friend Madame Schumann in her 
husband's Andante and Variations for two 
pianofortes at Madame Yiardot's concert on 
August 19,7 uid on August 25 was pursued 
thither by orders for a performance of 'Antigone, ' 
and the production of the < Midsummer Night's 
Dream ' and ' Athalie ' in the latter half of 
September. At that time none of the scores of 
these works had received his final touches ; 
< Athalie ' indeed was not yet scored at all, nor 
was a note of the overture written. Then the 
performances are postponed, and then imme- 
diately resumed, at the former dates ; and in the 
end 'Antigone' was given on Sept 19, in the 
None Palais at Potsdun,* and the ' Midsummer 
Night's Dream ' at the same place — after eleven 
rehearsals^ — on Oct. 18th, and on the 19th, 
20th, and 21st, ><> at the King's Theatre in 
Berlin. The music met with enthusiastic 
applause each time ; but the play was for long 
a subject of wonder to the Berliners. Some 
disputed whether Tieck or Shakespeare were the 
author ; others believed that Shakespeare had 
translated it from Grerman into English. Some, 
in that refined atmosphere, were shocked by the 
scenes with the downs, and annoyed that the 
King should have patronised so low a piece ; 
and a very distinguished personage ^^ expressed 
to Mendelssohn himself his regret that such 
lovely music should have been wasted on so 
poor a play — a little scene which he was very 
fond of mimicking. ^> ' Antigone ' procured him 
the honour of membership of the Philologen- 
Yersammlung of CasseL^ 

Mendelssohn's position at Berlin had now 
apparently become so permanent that it was 

s L. Jnlj 81. 184S. • F.M. ill. 20—' manehlrt luigHm.' 

7 N.M.X. 1843, IL 08; and LampadUa. JoMhlm. then tw«lT6 
yean old, made hla first appcaranoa In Lelpslg at thla oonoait. 

" D«o. p. aiB. 

B JT. p. 818. The band vas amall— <mlj alz flxst and alx aeoond 
fiddles ; bat * the rery piok of the onfaestBa ' (Joachim). 

10 On the 18th Menddasohn was called for, but did not appear: 
F.M. lU. 61. 

11 F.M. ML It. These eonrt-people ware only rspsatlng what the 
Italian Tlllagers had said to hbn in 18SL Bee L. inly S4. ISSl. 

M Mr. Bartorls's rsooUeetlon. u A.MJ. 1848^ p. 804. 

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necessary to make proper provision for filling 
his place at the Leipzig concerts, and accord- 
ingly Ferdinand Hiller was engaged to conduct 
them during his absence.^ The first of the 
series was on Oct. 1. Hiller conducted, and 
Felix supported his friend by playing his own 
minor concerto. Two days afterwards, on 
Oct. 8, he writes a long communication to the 
town council of Leipzig, praying for an increase 
in the salaries of the town-orchestra for their 
services at the theatre. On Oct. 30 he joined 
Mme. Schumann and Hiller in the triple 
concerto of Bach ; on Nov. 18 there was a 
special farewell concert at which he played his 
new violoncello sonata (op. 58), and which 
closed with his Octet, he and Gade taking the 
two viola parts ; and by Nov. 25 he had left 
Leipzig ' with wife and children, and chairs and 
tables, and piano and everything,' > and was in 
Berlin, settled in the old family house, now 
his own. On Nov. 80 he conducted the first 
of the weekly subscription concerts, which he 
and Taubert directed alternately and at which 
he often played. With all his aversion to the 
Berlin musicians he was obliged to acknowledge 
that, in some respects at least, the orchestra 
was good. 'What pleases me most,' he says 
to his old friend and confidant David, * are the 
basses, because they are what I am not so much 
accustomed to. The eight violoncellos and 
four good double-basses give me sometimes great 
satisfaction with their big tone.'^ Then came 
performances of the * Midsummer Night's Dream ' 
music, of 'Israel in Egypt,' entertainments 
and dinners — which amused him notwithstand- 
ing all his dislike to aristocrats — and Fanny's 
Sunday performances. Once immersed in Ufe 
and music, and freed from official correspondence 
and worries, he was quite himself. 'He is,' 
says his sister, ' indescribably dear, in the best 
of tempers, and quite splendid, as you know he 
can be in his best times. Every day he aston- 
ishes me, because such quiet intercourse as we 
are having is a novelty to me now, and he is so 
versatile, and so original and interesting on 
every subject, that one can never cease to 
wonder at it.' * His favourite resort during his 
later Berlin life was the house of Professor 
Wichmann the sculptor, in the Hasenjager 
(now Feilner) Strasse. Wichmann's wife was 
a peculiarly pleasant artistic person, and their 
circle included Magnus the painter, Taubert, 
Werder, Count Redem, and other distinguished 
people, many of them old friends of Mendels- 
sohn's. There, in 1844, he first met Jenny 
Lind. The freedom of the life in this truly 
artistic set, the many excursions and other 
pleasures, delighted and soothed him greatly. 

Christmas was kept royally at his house ; he 
was lavish with presents, of which he gives 

1 ir. p. 210 : y.M.X. ISiS. IL ISB. 
I To O. A. Macterren. B.MM.p. 160. 

9 £. to OaTld. Dm. 19. ISIS, prtntad In Eekardt'a t^rdinand 
AwM. p. 198. « F.M. ill. 89. 

Rebecka (then in Italy) a list.* A very charac- 
teristic Christmas gift to a distant friend was 
the testimonial, dated Berlin, Dec. 17, 1843,*^ 
which he sent to Stemdale Bennett for use in 
his contest for the professorship of music at 
Edinburgh University, and which, as it does 
credit to both these great artists, and has never 
been published in any permanent form, we take 
leave to print entire, in his own English. ^ 

Berun, Dee. 17, 1848. 

Mt Dbab Friuid, 

I hear that jroa proclaimed yourself a Candidate for 
the moaical ProfesBorship at Bdinbiirgh. and that a 
testimonial which I might send coold possibly be of use 
to yoQ with the Authorities at the University. Now 
while I think of writing such a testimonial for tou I feel 
proud and ashamed at the same time— proud, beatuse I 
think of all the honour you have done to your art, your 
country, and yourself, and because it is on such a 
brother-artist that 1 am to give an opinion— and ashamed, 
because I have always fofiowed your career, your com* 

rjsitions. your successes, with so true an interest, that 
feel as if it was my own cause, and as if I was myself 
the Candidate for such a place. But there is one point 
of view flnom which I might be excused in venturing to 
give still an opinion, while all good and true musicians 
are unanimous about the sutiject : perhaps the Council 
of the University might like to know what we German 
people think of you, bow we consider you. And then, I 
may tell them, that if the preiJudice which formerly 
prevailed in this country against the musical talent of 
your Country has now suraided, it is chiefly owing to 
yon, to your compositions, to your personal residence in 
Germany. Your Overtures, your Concertos, your vocal 
as well as ia^trumental Compositions, are reckoned by 
our best and severest authorities amongst the first 
standard works of the present musical period. The 
public feel never tired in listening to, while the 
musicians feel never tired in performing, your Composi- 
tions ; and since they took root in the minds of the true 
amateurs, my countrymen became aware that music is 
the same In England as in Germany, aseverywhere ; and so 
byyoursuccesseshereyou destroyed that pn^udice which 
nobody could ever have destroyed but a true Genius. 
This is a service you have done to English as well as 
German musicians, and I am sure that your countrymen 
will not acknowledge it less readily than mine have 
already done. 

Shall I still add, that the Science In your works is as 
great as their thoughts are elegant and fiinciful— that we 
consider your pcrfonnance on the Piano as masterly as 
your Conducting of an Orchestra? that all this is the 
general Judgment of the best musicians here, as well as 
my own personal sincere opinion ? Let me only add that 
I wish you success from my whole heart, and that I shall 
be truly happy to hear that you have met with it 
Always yours, sincerely and tnily, 

Frlix MBNDEuasoHN Bartholot. 

To W. Stkrndale Bennett, Esq. 

His exertions for his friend did not stop at this 
testimonial, but led him to write several long 
letters pressing his claims in the strongest terms, 
the drafts of which will be found in the * green 
books' at Leipzig. The Edinburgh professor- 
ship, however, was not bestowed on Bennett 

The compositions of the winter were chiefly 
for the Cathedral, and include the fine setting 
of the 98th Psalm (op. 91) for eight-part choir 
and orchestra, for New Year's Day, 1844 ; the 
2nd Psalm, for Christmas, with chorales and 
'Spriiche,' and pieces 'before the AUeluja*; 
also the 100th Psalm, the 4drd ditto, and the 
22nd, for Good Friday, for eight voices, each 

S F. V. liL 01. • It roMlMd him on the 2Srd. 

7 I am indebted to Mr. J. R. S. Benueit for an esaet copy of thi* 

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with its * Spruch ' or anthem — and seven psalm- 
tanes or chorales with trombones. At these 
great functions the church was so full ^ that not 
even Fanny Hensel could get a place. The lovely 
solo and chorus, * Hear my prayer,' for soprano 
solo, ohoru8,and organ, belongs to this time. It is 
dated Jan. 25, 1844, and was written for William 
Bartholomew, the careful and laborious trans- 
lator of his works into English, and sent to him 
in a letter dated Jan. 81.> [This letter and 
the autograph score of the music are now at the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensing- 
ton.] Also the duets * Maiglockchen,' ' Volks- 
lied,^ and * Herbstlied ' (op. 63, Nos. 6, 5, and 
4), and many songs, with and without words. 
The concerts finished with a magnificent perform- 
ance of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony on March 

27, and on Palm Sunday (March 81) ' Israel in 
£!gypt ' was sung in St. Peter's church. The 
rehearsals for these two difficult works, new to 
Berlin, had been extremely troublesome and 

At the end of February he received a letter 
from the Philharmonic Society of London, offer- 
ing him an engagement as conductor of the last 
six concerts of the season. He looked forward 
with delight to an artistic position ' of such tre- 
mendous distinction,'^ and one which promised 
him the opportunity of doing a service to a 
Society to which he felt personally indebted ^ ; 
and on March 4 he writes * with a feeling of true 
gratitude ' accepting for five concerts.^ Mean- 
time the old annoyances and heartburnings at 
Berlin had returned. Felix had been requested 
by the King to compose music to the 'Eumenides' 
of iEschylus, and had replied that the difficulties 
were immense, and perhaps insuperable, but 
that he would try ; and in conversation with 
Tieck he had arranged that as the work could 
only be given in the large new opera-house, 
which would not be opened till Dec. 15, it would 
be time enough for him to write his music and 
decide after his return from England whether 
it was worthy of performance. Notwithstand- 
ing this, he received, as a parting gift, on April 

28, a long, solemn, almost scolding, letter from 
Bunsen,^ based on the assumption that he had 
refused to undertake the task, and expressing 
the great disappointment and annoyance of the 
King. No wonder that Mendelssohn's reply, 
though dignified, was more than warm. It 
appeared to him that some person or persons 
about the Court disbelieved in the possibility of 
his writing the music, and had pressed their own 
views on the King as his, and he was naturally 
and justifiably angry. A dispute with the sub- 
scribers to the Symphony Concerts, where he 
had made an innovation on ancient custom by 

1 FJf. ui. w. 

s PDfiko.jkSaOL It WMorl|iii&ll7 written with Ml onftnaocompanl- 
ment. bat ll«iid«laM>hn MtarwKrds toorad It at tfi« instanoe of 
Joaaph Bobinaon, of DabUn. [For an aooount of tha dadleation of 
' Hear mT Prayar ' to Tanbart. Ma mix MenddtmOm md WWMm 
TaubeH in DmtUdk* Rtmu. Jan. 189S. p. 87.] 

* F.M. IIL 99. 4 £. to Paul. July 19. 1844. • Hogarth, 9. 82. 

• L. (from BvDMn) AprU 98. 1844. 

introducing solos, did not tend to increase hii 
affection for Berlin.^ 

His presence was necessaiy on Easter Day 
(April 7) in the Cathedral, but by the end of the 
month he had left Berlin with his family. On 
May 4 they were all at Frankfort, and by the 
10th or 11th he himself was settled in London 
at Klingemann's house, 4 Hobart Place, [Eaton 
Square, opposite St. Peter's Church, on the 
south side]. This was his eighth visit He 
conducted the Philharmonic Concert of May 13, 
and each of the others to the end of the series, 
introducing, besides works already known, his 

* Midsummer Night's Dream' music and the 

* Walpuigisnacht,' as well as Beethoven's Over- 
ture to Leonora, No. 1, the Ruins of Athens, 
Bach's Suite in D, Schubert's Overture to 
Fierrabras, and pla3ring Beethoven's Concerto in 
6 (June 24), then almost a novelty to an English 
audience. He had brought with him Schubert's 
Symphony in C, Gade's in C minor, and his 
own Overture to * Buy JBlas.' But the reception 
of the fintt two at the trial by the band was so 
cold, not to say insulting, as to incense him 
beyond measure. ^ With amagnanimity in which 
he stands alone among composers, he declined to 
produce his own Overture, and it was not pub- 
licly played in England till after his death.^ 

With the directors of the Philharmonic his 
intercourse was most harmonious. ' He attended 
their meetings, gave them his advice and 
assistance in their arrangements, and showed the 
warmest interest in the success of the concerts 
and the welfiire of the Society.'*® By the band 
he was received with 'rapture and enthusiasm.'** 
And if during the earlier concerts one or two 
of the players acted in exception to this, the 
occurrence only gave Mendelssohn the oppor- 
tunity of showing how completely free he was 
from rancour or personal feeling.*^ No wonder 
that the band liked him. The band always likes 
a conductor who knows what he is about. His 
beat, though very quiet, was certain, and his 
face was always full of feeling, and as expressive 
as his baton. No one perhaps ever possessed 
so completely as he the nameless ma^c art of 
inspiring the band with his own feeling ; and 
this power was only equalled by his tact and 
good nature. He always touched his hat on 
entering the orchestra for rehearsal. He was 
sometimes hasty, but he always made up for it 
afterwards. He would run up and down to a 
distant desk over and over again till he had made 
the meaning of a difficult passage clear to a 
player. If this good nature failed, or he had 
to deal with obstinacy, as a last resource he 
would try irony — sometimes very severe. Such 
pains and tact as this are never thrown away. 

7 LamptuUnu, p. 118. 

* Few thing* are more emione than tba term* In which Sehnbart't 
iplandid worka wareerltlolaad at thia data in London, oom pared with 
the cnthnalann which thejr now excita. 

• At Mre. Andeiaon'i Concert. Hanorer Soure Boome. Mar 89. 
1849. M iroffarth, p. 8S. 

" Moi. 11. 118. ^ L.lo Moaehelea. June S. ISIS. 

VOL. in 

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The band played as if under a new influence. 
The season was most successful in a pecuniary 
sense ; Hanover Square Booms had never been 
so crammed ; as much as 120 guineas were taken 
on single nights in excess of the usual receipts ; 
and whereas in 1842 the loss had been £300, 
in 1844, with the interest on capital, etc., nearly 
£400 were added to the reserve fund.^ Among 
the events which combined to render this series 
of concerts historical were the iirst appearances 
at the Society's Ck)ncerts of Ernst (April 15), 
Joachim (May 27),2 and Piatti (June 24). His 
playing of the Beethoven G major Concerto on 
June 24 was memorable, not only for the mag- 
nificence of the performance, but for some 
circumstances attending the rehearsal on the 
previous Saturday. He had not seen the music 
of the concerto for two or three years, and * did 
not think it respectful to the Philharmonic Society 
to play it without first looking through it ' — 
those were his words. He accordingly called at 
Stemdale Bennett's on the Friday night to obtain 
a copy, but not succeeding, got one from Miss 
Horsley after the rehearsal on the Saturday. At 
the rehearsal itself, owing to some difficulty in 
the band coming in at the end of his cadenza in 
the first movement, he played it three times 
over, each time quite extempore, and each time 
new, and at the performance on the Monday it 
was again different.^ 

In addition to the Philharmonic, Mendelssohn 
tobk part in many other public concerts — con- 
ducted 'St. Paul' for the Sacred Harmonic Society 
on June 28 and July 5, extemporised at the 
British Musicians, played his own D minor Trio, 
and his Duet variations (op. 83a), and took part 
twice in Bach's Triple Concerto — once (June 1) 
with Moscheles andThalberg, when he electrified 
the room with his sudden improvisation in the 
cadenza,^ and again (July 6) with Moscheles and 
Dohler. He also finished a scena for bass voice 
and orchestra, to words from Ossian — 'On Lena's 
gloomy heath,' which he undertook at the 
request of Henry Phillips in 1842, and which 
was sung by that gentleman at the Philharmonic, 
March 15, 1847. On June 12, he and Dickens 
met for the first time. On June 18 he is at 
Manchester, writing to Mr. Hawes, M. P., to secure 
a ticket for the House of Commons.* Piatti 
he met for the first time during this visit, at 
Moscheles's house, and played with him his 
new Duo in D. No one had a quicker eye for 
a great artist, and he at once became attached 
to that noble player. One of his latest words on 
leaving England for the last time was, * I must 
write a concerto for Piatti.' In fact, he had 
already composed the first movement. 

The enthusiasm for him in London was greater 

1 Musical World, August 1. 1844. 

^ The bearer of a letter of introduction from Heiideleaohn to 
Klingemaim, for which eee Polko, p. 157. 

> I owe thia to the reooUectlon of Mr. Kellow Pye Mid Mr. J. W. 

4 Bee an aocoant of this (eomewhat exaggerated) by C. E. Hordey 
in the Choir, Feb. 8, 1S7S. p. 81. 

• [Letter In Brit. MuMom. Add. M& 38.085.] 

than ever, and all the more welcome after thQ 
irritations of Berlin* He was more widely known 
at each visit, and every acquaintance became a 
friend. He never enjoyed himself more than 
when in the midst of society, music, fun, and 
excitement. 'We have the best news firom Felix, ' 
says Fanny during this visit, ^ * and when I tell 
you that he has ordered a large Baum-Kuehen [a 
peculiar Berlin cake, looking like a piece of the 
trunk of a tree] to be sent to London for him, 
you will know that that is the best possible 
sign. ' * A mad, most extraordinarily mad time, ' 
says he ; ' I never had so severe a time before — 
never in bed till lialf-past one ; for three w^eeks 
together not a single hour to myself'in any one 
day, ' ^ etc. ' My visit was glorious. I was never 
received anywhere with such universal kindness, 
and have made more music in these two months 
than I do elsewhere in two years.' ^ But even 
by all this he was not to be kept from work. 
He laboured at his edition of ' Israel in Egypt ' 
for the Handel Society ; and on ofiicial pressure 
from Berlin — which turned out to be mere vex- 
ation, as the work was not performed for more 
than a year — actually, in the midst of all the 
turmoil, wrote (in London) the Overture to 
' Athalie,' the autograph of which is dated June 
18, 1844. Very trying ! and very imprudent, 
as we now see ! but also very difficult to avoid. 
And his power of recovery after fatigue was as 
great as his power of enjoyment, so great as often 
no doubt to tempt him to try himself. Three 
things were in his fiivour — his splendid constitu- 
tion ; an extraordinary power of sleep, which he 
possessed in common with many other great men, 
and of being lazy when there was nothing to do ; 
and most of all that, though excitable to any 
amount, he was never dissipated. The only 
stimulants he indulged in were those of music, 
society, and boundless good spirits. 

On July 10 he left London, and on the 18th 
was in the arms of his wife and children at 
Soden, near Frankfort During his absence they 
had been seriously ill, but his wife had kept the 
news from him, and when he returned he found 
them all well, brown, and hearty. For the life 
of happy idleness which he passed there in the 
next two months — 'eating and sleeping, vnthoiU 
dress coat, wUhotU piano, without visiting-cards, 
without carriage and horses; but with donkeys, 
with wild flowers, with music-paper and sketch- 
book, with C^cile and the children ' ^ — inter- 
rupted only by the Festival which he conducted 
at Zweibriicken on July 81 and August 1, the 
reader must be referred to his ouii charming 
letters. ^<* * Idleness' does not mean ceasing to 
compose, so much as composing only when he 
had a mind to it. And that was often : he had 
no piano, but he completed the violin Concerto 
on Sept. 16, after a long and minute correspon- 
dence with David, and many of the movements 

• IIL 188. 7 /Wtf. p. 17C 8 i. to Paul. July 19. 1844. 

B F.M. IIL 177. 10 L, (from Soden) July 17. 19. 26, AnguetlS, 1844. 

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of the six organ sonatas appear in the MS. 
Catalogue, with dates ranging from July 22 to 
Sept. 10.^ Doubtless, too, he was working at the 
book of * Christus,' a new oratorio, the first draft 
of which he had received from Bnnsen on Easter 
Monday of this year. At this time also he edited 
a collection of organ pieces by Bach commissioned 
by the firm of Coventry k Hollier,* by whom 
they were published in London in the spring of 

The pleasure in his simple home life which 
crops out now and then in these Frankfort 
letters, is very genuine and delightful. Now, 
Marie is learning the scale of C, and he has 
actually forgotten how to play it, and has taught 
her to pass her thumb under the wrong finger ! 
Now, Paul tumbles about so as to crack their 
skulls as well as his own. Another time he is 
dragged off from his letter to see a great tower 
which the children have built, and on which 
they have ranged all their slices of bread and jam 
— *A good idea for an architect.' At ten Carl 
comes to him for reading and sums, and at five 
for spelling and geography — and so on. * And, ' 
to sum up, * the best part of every pleasure is 
gone if C^ile is not there.' ^ His wife is always 
somewhere in the picture.^ 

But the time arrived for resuming his duties 
at Berlin, and, leaving his family behind him 
at Frankfort, he arrived there on Sept. 30, alone, 
and took up his quarters with the Hensels. We 
are told that before leaving in the spring he had 
firmly resolved not to return for a permanence ; 
and the extraordinary warmth and brilliance of 
his subsequent reception in England, both in 
public and in social circles, and the delights of 
freedom in Frankfort, when compared with the 
constraint and petty annoyances of Berlin — the 
difficulty of steering through those troubled 
offieial waters, the constant collisions with the 
Singakademie, with the managers of the theatre, 
the clergy, the King, and the Ministers ; the 
want of independence, the coldness of the press, 
the way in which his best efforts appeared to be 
misunderstood and misrepresented, and above 
all the consciousness that he was at the head of 
a public musical institution of which he did not 
approve^ — all these things combined to bring 
about the crisis. His dislike to the place and 
the way in which it haunts him beforehand, is 
really quite plaintive in its persistence — * If I 
<could only go on living for half a year as I have 
lived the last fortnight (Soden, August 15) what 
might I not get through ? But the constant 
arrangement and direction of the concerts, and 
the exertion of it all, is no pleasure to me, and 
comes to nothing after all.' ® So he once more 
communicated with the King, praying to be freed 
from all definite duties, and from all such com- 

1 [See Mmdduoim'i Organ Sonatat by F. G. Ediv»rdi, in Procttd- 
$ o/tkeJiutieal AuoeUUion, 18M-95. p. 1.] 
Bee the letters In PoUco, p. 1S45. etc. > P.M. iiL 151. 

inMo/tkeJiutieal AuoeUUion, 18M-95. p. 1.] 

^Beethelettentn/V>tto. P.1S45. etc. 

* [A tablet hu been pieced npon the home at Soden in vhich he 

lived in 1644. See Mutieal Timm, Aoguat 1886. p. 62&] 
» F.M. ilL aOB. • L. to Panny. Angnat 15, 1844. 

missions as would oblige him to reside in Berliiu^ 
To this the King good-naturedly assented ; his 
salary was fixed at 1000 thalers, and he was free 
to live where he liked. It is easy to understand 
what a blow this was to his sister,^ but it was 
evidently the only possible arrangement for the 
comfort of the chief person concerned. 'The 
first step out of Berlin ' was to him ' the first 
step towards happiness. ' ^ He remained till the 
end of November, at the special wish of the 
King, toconduct a few concerts and a performance 
of *St Paul' (Nov. 25), and the time was taken 
advantage of by Lvov to commission Hensel to 
paint a portrait of him, which has been engraved 
by Caspar, but ccm hardly be called a favourable 
likeness. On the 80th he left Berlin amid regret 
and good wishes, but the coldness of the ordinary 
musical circles towards him was but too evi- 
dent. «> 

Very early in December he was in Frankfort, 
where he found his youngest boy Felix danger- 
ously ill ; the child recovered, but only after 
being in great danger for many weeks. It 
was probably a relief in the very midst of his 
trouble to write a long letter to G. A. Macfarren 
(Dec. 8, 1844),^^ giving him minute direction^ 
as to the performance of ' Antigone ' at Covent 
Garden. His own health began to give him 
anxiety, and his resolution was to remain in 
Frankfort for the whole year and to have a 
thorough rest. He had always good spirits at 
command, looked well, and would rarely confess 
to any uneasiness. But when hard pressed by 
those with whom he was really intimate, he con- 
fessed that his head had for some months past 
been in constant pain and confusion. ' I myself 
am what you know me to be ; but what you do 
not know is that I have for some time felt the 
necessity for complete rest — not travelling, not 
conducting, not performing — so keenly that I 
am compelled to yield to it, and hope to be 
able to order my life accordingly for the whole 
year. It is therefore my wish to stay here 
quietly through winter, spring, and summer, 
sans journeys, sans festivals, sans everything. '" 
This resolve he was able to carry out for some 
months of 1845,^' even to resisting a visit to 
Leipzig when his Violin Concerto was first 
played by David, on March 18 ; and his letters 
to his sisters show how thoroughly he enjoyed 
the rest. [At the end of 1844, or the beginning 
of 1845, he was much gratified at receiving an 
invitation to conduct a musical festival at New 
York in 1845 ; his letter declining the invita- 
tion and other information relating to the pro- 
posal is given by Mr. H. E. Krehbiel in the 
New York Daily Tribune of Oct. 29, 1905.] 

* Ajitigone' was brought out at Covent Garaen 
on January 2, 1845, under the management 
of M. Laurent, the orchestra conducted by 

7 /.. Sept. 80. in r.M. iU. ISl. e F.M. Hi. 192. 

* J)€v. p. 292. Hie own words. 

^0 Recollection of Flatti, who wu there at the time. 

u 9. * M. p. 165. 19 F.M. iil 204. » /Md. p. 219. cf feg. 

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G. A. Macfarren. Musically its success was not 
at first greats owing to the inadequate way in 
which the chorus was put on the stage. Writ- 
ing to his sister at Rome on March 25,^ 
Mendelssohn says, 'See if you cannot find 
Punch, for Jan. 18. It contains an account of 
'* Antigone " at Go vent Garden, with illustrations, 
especie^ly a view of the chorus which has made 
me laugh for three days. The chorus-master, 
with his plaid trousers shewing underneath, is 
a masterpiece, and so is the whole thing, and 
most amusing. I hear wonderful things of the 
performance, particularly of the chorus. Only 
fancy, that during the Bacchus chorus there is 
a regular ballet with all the ballet-girls ! ' A 
woodcut which made Mendelssohn laugh for 
three days has ipso fcuAo become classical, and 
needs no apology for its reproduction.^ 

out the commission to his own satisfaction.* 
The ' (Edipus Coloneus,' the * (Edipus Rex,' and 
the ' Athalie,' were, however, finished, and at His 
Majesty's disposal. The editing of ' Israel in 
Egypt' had given him considerable trouble, 
owing apparently to the wish of the council of 
the Handel Society to print Mendelssohn's marks 
of expression as if they were Handel's, and 
also to the incorrect way in which the engraving 
was executed. These letters are worth looking 
at,^ as evidence how strictly accurate and con- 
scientious he was in these matters, and also how 
gratuitously his precious time was often taken 

Gade had conducted the Gewandhaus Concerts 
for 1844-45 ; but having got rid of the necessity 
of residing in Berlin, and having enjoyed the 
long rest which he heid proposed, it was natural 

The play improved after a short time, and 
the fact that it ran for forty-five nights (Jan. 2- 
Feb. 1, Feb. 8-21), and that the management 
applied to him for his ' (Edipus,'^ proves that it 
was appreciated. His letters show how much 
work he was doing at this time. By April 20 
the six Organ Sonatas (op. 65) were in the hands 
of the copyist, the C minor Trio was finished — 
*a trifle nasty (eklig) to play, but not really 
difficult — seek and ye shall find ' ^ ; and the 
splendid String Quintet in B flat (dated July 8). 
The sixth book of Songs without Words was 
shortly to be published, and dedicated to Klinge- 
mann's fiancee ; a symphony was well in hand 
(oh that we had got it !), nor had the desire to 
write an opera by any means left him, * if only 
the right material could be found. ' ^ He had 
not forgotten his promise to consider the possi- 
bility of setting the choruses of the ' Euraenides ' 
of ^chylus with effect, and a correspondence 
had taken place between him and the Geheim- 
cabinetsrath Miiller, in which, in reply to some- 
thing very like an ofiiansive innuendo, Mendels- 
sohn stated that in spite of strenuous efforts 
he had utterly failed to see any way of carrying 

1 F.M. ill. 221. 

s I owe thto to the kindneea of Mr. Tom Tbylor. M Editor oi Punch. 

3 F.M. lil. 221. 4 iMd. p. tn. 

* lUd. pi 221 : ZW. pp. 258. 209. 282. 

that Mendelssohn should return to his beloved 
Leipzig. But in addition to this he had received 
an intimation from Von Falkenstein as early as 
June 5, 1845, that the King of Saxony wished 
him to return to his former position. He ac- 
cordingly once more took up his residence at 
Leipzig early in September (this time at No. 3 
Konigsstrasse, on the first floor) ^ and his re- 
appearance in the conductor's place at the open- 
ing concert in the Gewandhaus on Oct 5 was 
the signal for the old applause, and for hearty 
recognition from the audience and the press. 
The season was rendered peculiarly brilliant by 
the presence of Madame Schumann, and of 
Jenny Lind, who made her first ap})earance in 
Leipzig at the subscription concert of Dec. 4. 
Miss Dolby also made her first appearance Oct. 
23, sang frequently, and becameagreat favourite. 
Among the more important orchestral items of 
the season 1845-46 were Schumann's Symphony 
in B flat, and Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto 
(David), brought forward together on Oct. 28, 
1845. [The book of * Ely ah,' too, was progress- 
ing fast, and his remarks on it show how 

« L. March 12. 1845. 

' There are teveii of tham, and they are glTen In the Appeodiz to- 
ff. « JT. p. ifia 

» The hooM has elnce heen renmnbared, and ia now 21. A bronB» 
tablet on the front etotea that he died there 

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anxious he was to make it as dramatic as 
possible.^ On June 11, 1845, the CJommittee 
of the Birmingham Musical Festiyal invited him 
to conduct all the performances, and to ' provide 
a new oratorio, or other music for the occasion.' 
He declined to conduct the Festival, and added 
in an Elnglish letter: 'Since some time 1 
have b^gun an oratorio, and hope I shall be 
able to bring it out for the first time at your 
Festival. ' This proved to be < £1^ ah. ' >] 

After the first concert he left for Berlin to 
produce his * (Edipus Coloneus,' which was first 
performedat Potsdam onNov. 1, andhis * Athalie' 
at Charlottenburg, both beingrepeated at Berlin. 
He returned to Leipzig on Dec 8, bringing 
Jenny Lind with him (Bockstro's information)! 
and remained there till the close of the season, 
taking an active part in all that went on, 
including her farewell concert on April 12, 
1846 — the last occasion of his playing in public 
in Leipzig. At the end of 1845 a formal offer 
was made to Moscheles, at that time the fashion- 
able pianoforte teacher in London, to settle in 
Leipzig as Professor of the pianoforte in the 
Conservatorium. He took time to consider so 
important an offer, and on Jan. 25, 1846, with 
a sacrifice of income and position which does 
his artistic feeling the highest honour, decided 
in its favour. Mendelssohn's connection with 
the school was no sinecure. He had at this 
time two classes — pianoforte and composition.^ 
The former numbered about half-a-dozen pupils, 
and had two lessons a week of two hours each. 
The lessons were given collectively, and among 
the wcnrks studied during the term were Hummel's 
' Septuor ' ; three of Beethoven's Sonatas ; Pre- 
ludes and Fugues of Bach ; Weber's Conoertstiick 
and Sonata in C ; Chopin's Studies. The composi- 
tion class had one lesson a week of the same 
length. The pupils wrote compositions of all 
kinds, which he looked over and heard and 
criticised in their presence. He would some- 
times play a whole movement on the same 
subjects, to show how they might have been 
better developed. Occasionally he would make 
them modulate from one key to another at the 
piano, or extemporise on given themes, and 
then would himself treat the same themes. He 
was often extremely irritable: — 'Toiler Kerl, 
so spielen die Eatzen ! ' or (in English, to an 
English pupil) ' Very ungentlemanlike modula- 
tions!' etc. But he was always perfectly 
naturaL A favourite exercise of his was to 
write a theme on the blackboard, and then 
make each pupil add a counterpoint ; the task 
of course increasing in difficulty with each addi- 
tion. On one occasion the last of the pupils 
found it impossible to add a single note, and 
after long consideration shook his head and gave 
in. *You can't tell where to place the next 

1 L. to Sehnlirinf . Dec 18. 1845. wraogly datod 1849 In the pab- 
lUhed rolnme of lotten. l [BUt. </' Wfak: p. SI •( m?.] 

> Thl* Infonnation I ow« to Mr. Otto OoMiohiDidt ud Mr. W. S. 
Book«tn>, vho belonced to both of his rlnwM 

note 1 ' said Mendelssohn. * Ko.' * I am glad of 
that,' was the reply, ' for neither can I.' But 
in addition to the work of his classes, a great 
deal of miscellaneous work fell upon him at 
virtual head of the SchooL Minute lists of the 
attendance and conduct of the pupils, drawn up 
by him, still remain to attest the thorough way 
in which he did his duty, and we haveMoecheles's 
express testimony^ that duringtheoverwhelming 
work of this summer he never neglected his 
pupils.^ But it was another ounce added to 
his load. The fixed labour, the stated hours, 
when combined with his composition, his corre- 
spondence, his hospitality, and all his other 
pursuits, were too much, and to his intimate 
friends he complained bitterly of the strain, and 
expressed his earnest wish to give up all work 
and worry, and devote himself entii*ely to his 
Art — ^in his own words, to shut himself into his 
room and write music till he was tired, and 
then walk out in the fresh air.^ 

Meantime 'El^ah' was fast becoming a 
realised fact : by May 28, 1846,^ the first Part 
was quite finished, and six or eight numbers of 
the second part written, and a large portion 
despatched to London to be translated by 
Bartholomew. * ' I am jumping about my room 
for joy,* he writes to a very dear friend • on the 
completion of Part I. ' If it only turns out half 
as good as I fancy it is, how pleased I shall be ! ' 
And yet, much as the oratorio engrossed him, 
he was corresponding with Mme. Birch-Pfeiffer 
about an opera, and writes to the same friend 
as if the long- desired libretto were virtually 
within his grasp. At this date he interrupted 
his work for three weeks to conduct a succes* 
sion of performances on the Rhine — ^at Aix-la- 
Ohapelle (the Lower Ehine Festival, May 81- 
June 2) for the seventh and last time ; ^^ at 
Diisseldorf, a soiree ; at Li^ge, on Corpus 
Christi day, June 11, his hymn *Lauda Sion,* 
composed expressly for that occasion, and dated 
Feb. 10, 1846 ; and at Cologne the first festival 
of the German -Flemish association, for which 
he had composed a Festgesang on Schiller's 
poem ' An die Kunstler * (op. 68). His recep- 
tion throughout this tour was rapturous, and 
delighted him. The three weeks were one 
continued scene of excitement. Every moment 
not taken up in rehearsing or performing made 
some demand on lus strength. He was in the 
highest spirits all the time, but the strain must 
have been great, and was sure to be felt sooner 
or later. It will all be found in a delightftd 
letter to Fanny of June 27, 1846.^^ On June 

« JAM. ii. 182. 

« Tho Bnglitb pvpUa for 1844 and 1840 ambnoad the iuudm of 
EllU. Weill. Huker. Aaoher. and Soolutra. 

> £. to Jenny Llnd. 

"> L.\o Schobrlnr. lUy 98. 1848. 

• I^ to Moore ; PUko, p. Ml. 9 Jmny Llnd. 

10 On this oooMlon he dlacoTend the two redundant ban in th« 
Trio of Beethoren'e C minor Symphony, which had nmalned 
nneonreeted. notwlthrtanding BeethoTen'iproteet to the inihllthen 
hi 1810. [Bee MMtteal Worid, Kay 88. 1880. p. 838 : aleo Sir Gemm 

I Armpkent 

ley's Modem German i/iMie, ii. 

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26 he is again at Leipzig, writing to Moscfaeles 
to protest against the exclusion from the l>and 
at Birmingham of. some players who had been 
impertinent to him at the Philharmonic in 
1 844. ^ The snmmer was unnsually hot, and his 
friends well remember how exhausted he often 
became over his close work. But he kept his 
time. The remainder of the Oratorio was in 
Bartholomew's hands by the latter part of July ;* 
the instrumental parts were copied in Leipzig, 
and rehearsed by Mendelssohn there on August 
5. One of the last things he did before leaving 
was to give his consent to the publication of 
some of Fanny's compositions, which, owing to 
his 'tremendous reverence for print,' he had 
always opposed,^ and now only agreed to 
reluctantly.* He arrived in London, for the 
ninth time, on the evening of August 17 or 18, 
had a trial rehearsal with piano at Moscheles's 
house, two band-rehearsals at Hanover Square 
Rooms, went to Birmingham on Sunday the 
23rd, had full rehearsals on Monday morning 
and Tuesday evening, and the Oratorio was per- 
formed on the morning of Wednesday, Aug. 26. 
The Town Hall was densely crowded, and it was 
observed that the sun burst forth and lit up 
the scene as Mendelssohn took his place,^ amid 
a deafening roar of applause from band, chorus, 
and audience. Staudigl was the Elijah, and 
Charles Lockey sang the air 'Then shall the 
righteous' in a manner which called forth 
Mendelssohn's warmest praise.^ ' No work of 
mine' — says he in the long letter which he 
wrote his brother the same evening — * no work 
of mine ever went so admirably at the first 
performance, or was received with such enthu- 
siasm both by musicians and the public, as this.' 
* I never in my life heard a better performance — 
no nor so good, and almost doubt if 1 can ever 
hear one like it again.' ^ No less than four 
choruses and four airs were encored.^ The 
applause at the conclusion of both first and 
second parts was enormous — almost grotesquely 
so ; and an old member ^ of the band well 
remembered the eagerness with which Mendels- 
sohn shook hands with all who could get near 
him in the artists' room, thanking them warmly 
for the performance. He returned to London 
with Mr. and Mrs. Moscheles, * on purpose for 
a fish dinner at Lovegrove's,' spent four days at 
Ramsgate with the Beneckes *to eat crali,'*^ 
and on Sept 6 recrossed the Channel with 
Staudigl. His visit this time had been one of 
intense hard work, as any one who knows what 
it is to achieve the first performance of a great 
work for solos, chorus, and orchestra, will 
readily understand. And the strain was unre- 

1 L. to MtMchelw, June 28. IMS. 

s [The long and minute correspondenoe (entirely in Engllah) with 
Bartholomew, toffether with an important letter in tecslmile, will 
be found in the Hitt. nf'^ijah: efaapten ill. and r.] 

3 ^ to hie mother. Jane 2. 1837. « P.M. ill. 234. > A p. 51. 

• J^ to Panl. dated ' Birmingham. August 26. 1M6/ the day of 
the performance. 

1 Ibid. • Mr*. Mowhelee nyi 11 pi#M ; Mot. 11. 197. 

» Mr. J. T. Willy. »• r.If. ill. 2«4. 

mitting, for, owing partly to Moscheles's illness, 
he had no relaxation, or next to none. In 
consequence he was so tired as to be compelled 
to rest three times between Ostend and Leip- 
zig. ^^ It is a sad contrast to the buoyancy of the 
similar journey ten years before. ^^ 

But notwithstanding the success of the Ora- 
torio the reader will hardly believe that he 
himself was satisfied with his work. Quite the 
contrary. His letter to Elingemann of Dec. 6 
shows the eagerness with which he went about 
his corrections.^' 

The oratorio was then engraved, and published 
by Simrock of Berlin, and Ewer k Co., London, 
in June 1847. Meantime Mendelssohn had 
been again reminded of his duties at Berlin by 
an urgent command from the King to set the 
German Liturgy to music This (still in MS.), 
and an anthem or motet (published as op. 79, 
No. 6), both for double choir, are respectively 
dated Oct. 28 and Oct. 5, 1846. A song for 
the Germans in Lyons ^^— -dear to him as the 
birthplace of his wife — and a Psalm-tune for 
the French Reformed Church in Frankfort, are 
dated the 8th and 9th of the same month. On 
Oct. 21 the Moscheleses arrive at Leipzig, and 
Moscheles begins his duties as Professor of piano- 
forte-playing and composition. Gade again con - 
ducted the Gewandhaus Concerts for this season. 
A trace of Mendelssohn's interest in them remains 
in a pianoforte accompaniment to the £ megor 
Violin Prelude of Bach,^* which he evidently 
wrote for David's performance at the Concert of 
Nov. 12, 1846. The MS. isdated the day before, 
and is amongst David's papers. ^^ During October 
and November he was very much occupied with 
the illness of his faithful servant Johann Krebs, 
to whom he was deeply attached — * mein braver 
guter Diener, ' as he calls him — and whose death, 
on Nov. 23, distressed him much. It was 
another link in the chain of losses which was 
ultimately to drag him down. Fortunately he 
had again, as at the time of his mother's death, 
some mechanical work to which he could turn. 
This time it was the comparison of the original 
autograph parts of Bach's B minor mass with his 
(Mendelssohn's)score of the same work. ^^ As time 
went on, however, he was able to apply himself 
to more independent tasks, and by Dec. 6 was 
again hard at work on the alterations of 
* Elijah.' 18 Since the middle of October he 
had been in communication with Mr. Lumley,^^ 
then lessee of Her Majesty's Theatre, London, 

" P.M. 111. 944 » £. to bit mother. Oct. 4. 1837. 

u For a detailed examination by Mr. Joseph Bennett, of the 
alteratlona in the oratorio, eee Mutieal Tivut from Oct. 1882 to 
April 188S induaiTei Alio Firt. qf ' EUjah.' A MS. copy of the 
original full acore. In a oopjriet'a hand, ia in the poeaeeelon of 
Meeen. Norello. 

•« Op. 7C No. S. 

u Dttrfferi Tht>maH»6h«$ TenetdknUa der ItutrvimtntalwnlM von 
J. 8. Bach, No. 634. The Prelude ia well known in London through 
Juaohim'a plajlug of it. 

i« * An F. Darld sur nnd ana der Brlnnening nlederyeachriehen. 
F. M. B. Lelpclf d. lite Not. 1848.' ThU (which with many other 
thlnsa in thla article I owe to my friend Mr. Panl Darid) looka aa If 
the aoeompaniment had been originally extemporieed. 
KllBgemann, Dec. 8. 1848. >• IHd. 

i Lumley'a i 

(emann, Dec. 6. 1848. 
Bem^nfoeaneM, p. 166. 

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as to an opera to be founded by Scribe on 
'The Tempeet,* abeady tried by Immermann 
(see p. 1276) ; and a long correspondence 
between himself, Soribe, and Lumley appears to 
have taken place, no doubt exhaustive on his 
part. It came to nothing, from his dissatisfac- 
tion with the libretto,^ but it was accompanied 
by extremeand long-continued annoyance, owing 
to his belief that the opera was announced in 
London as if he were under a contract to com- 
plete it, and that for the season of 1847.' He 
was at this moment more or less committed to 
the subject of * Loreley,' on which he had com- 
municated with Geibel the poet as early as thepre- 
ceding April.' Oeibel, a friend of Mendelssohn's 
and a warm admirer of his wife's, was at work 
on the book and completed it at the beginning 
of 1847. Mendelssohn occasionally conducted 
the later Gewandhaus concerts of this season, and 
some of the programmes were of special interest, 
such as two historical concerts on Feb. 1 8 and 26, 
1847. One of these gave him the opportunity 
to write a charming letter to the daughter of 
Reichardt,^a composer for whom he always had 
a special fondness, and whose Morning Hymn 
(from Milton) had been performed at the Festi- 
val at Cologne in 1835 at his instance. 

This was not on the whole a satisfactory 
autumn. After the extra hard work of the spring 
and summer, especially the tremendous struggle 
against time in finishing * Elijah,' he ought to 
have had a long and complete rest, like that 
which so revived him in 1844 ; whereas the 
autumn was spent at Leipzig, a less congenial 
spot than Frankfort, and, as we have shown, in 
the midst of grave anxiety and perpetual busi- 
ness, involving a correspondence which those 
only can appreciate who have seen its extent, and 
the length of the letters, and the care and neat- 
ness with which the whole is regLstered and 
arranged by his own hands. Knowing what 
ultimately happened, it is obvious that tlus want 
of rest, coming after so much stress, must have 
told seriously upon him. He himself appears 
to have felt the necessity of lessening his labours, 
for we are told that he had plans for giving up 
all stated and uncongenial duty, and doing only 
what he felt disposed to do; for building a 
house in Frankfort,^ so as to pass the summer 
there, and the winter in Berlin with his sisters, 
and thus in some measure revive the old family 
life to which he so strongly urges his brother- 
in-law in a remarkable letter of this time.* 
Nothing, however, could stop the current of his 
musical power. He was at work on ' Christus,' 
the new oratorio.^ As capellmeister to the 
King of Saxony he had to arrange and conduct 
the Court Concerts at Dresden ; and he took a 
large part in the management of the Gewandhaus 

1 TaxboUj'* JbiMniaMnee*. p. 188. 

• Long latten to Inflneiitlal London fH«nda an in •xltUmm, fall 
of Uttar eompbJnte— meet jusUy foandcd. If his Information waa 

• JJn.p,V9. * L. Feb. 1847, p. 388, XngUA «d. 

• JJn. p. Sn. • £. to Diriahlat. Jan. 4, 1847. ? i)M. p. 990. 

Obnoerts this seaaofi, though suffering much from 
his head, and being all the time under the care 
of his doctor.* How minutely, too, he did his 
duty at this time as chief of ths Conservatorium 
is shown by a MS. memorandum, dated Jan. 
10, 1847, containing a long list of students, 
with ftdl notes of their faults, and of the recom- 
mendations to be made to their professors. His 
enjoyment of life is still very keen, and his 
birthday was celebrated with animmenseamount 
of fun. His wife, and her sister, Mrs. Schunck 
— a special favourite of Mendelssohn's — ^gave a 
comic scene in the Frankfort dialect; and 
Joachim (as Paganini), Moscheles (as a cook), and 
Mrs. Moscheles, acted an impromptu charade on 
the word ' (Gewandhaus.* Happily no presenti- 
ment disturbed them ; and the master of the 
house was as uproarious as if he had fifty birth- 
days before him. On Good Friday (April 2) 
he conducted 'St. Paul' at Leipzig, and shortly 
afterwards — for the tenth, and alas ! the last 
time — was once more in England, where he 
had an engagement with the Sacred Harmonic 
Society to conduct three (subsequently increased 
to four) performances of ' Eiyah ' in its revised 

One of those kindnesses which endeared 
him so peculiarly to his friends belongs to this 
time. Madame Frege had a son dangerously 
ill, and was unable to hear the performance of 
'St. Paul.' 'Na nun,' said he, * don't distress 
yourself ; when he gets out of danger I'll come 
with C^ile and play to you all night.' And 
he went, began with Beethoven's Moonlight 
Sonata, and played on for three hours, ending 
with his own Variations s^rieuses. A day or 
two afkerwards, he left, travelled to London 
with Joachim, ^^ and reached the Klingemanns' 
house on Monday evening, April 12. The per- 
formances of ' M^ah ' [the first in the revised 
form of the oratorio] took place at Exeter Hall 
on the 16th, 23rd, 28th, with a fourth on the 
30th. The Queen and Prince Albert were 
present on the 23rd, and it was on that occasion 
that the Prince wrote the note in his programme 
book, addressing Mendelssohn as a second Elijah, 
faithful to the worship of true Art though en- 
compassed by the idolaters of Baal, which has 
often been printed. ^^ In the interval Mendels- 
sohn paid a visit to Manchester for a performance 
of *El\jah'" [by the Hargreaves Choral Society,] 
on the 20th, and another to Birmingham, where 
he rehearsed and conducted the oratorio at the 
Town Hall on the 27th [for the benefit of Mr. 
Stimpson, the organist]. He conducted his 

* LampaOhu, p. ISl. 

* Tha engagament forona perf6nnanoa bad baan tandarad as early 
aa SapL 14 ; aaa MendalaKtbn'a reply of Oct 7. 1848. to tha letter of 
the leeretary to the Society (Thoinaa Brewer) of that date, in Ptlko, 
p. 2S7. The other two were propoeed Jan. 96, andananged for between 
thatidate and March 10. 1847 ; eea the letter of that date to Bar- 
tbolomaw, Fclka, p. XB. The fovrth waa an aftarthoncht. 

!• Mwteal WaHd, April 17, 1847. 

11 £. to Faol. Sir Theodore Martin's Z4/^ ^ CIW PHnvt Ovnwvrt, 

M Letter to Moore, dated 'ManobaaUr, AprU S. 1847.' In />M»e. 
p. 244. 

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' Midsummer Night's Dream ' music and Scotch 
Symphony at the Philhannonic on April 26, 
and played Beethoven's G migor Concerto with 
even more than his usual brilliancy and delicacy. 
He probably never played that beautiful concerto 
^-<my old cheval de batailUf* as he called it 
years before — more splendidly than he did on 
this occasion. To a friend ^ who told him so 
after the performance he replied : * I was desirous 
to play welly for there were two ladies present 
whom I particularly wished to please, and they 
were the Queen and Jenny Lind.' A little trait 
remembered by more than one who heard the 
performance, is that during the cadenza to the 
first movement — a long and elaborate one, and, 
as before (see p. 146&), entirely extempore, Costa 
who conducted, raised his baton, thinking that 
it was coming to an end, on which Mendelssohn 
looked up, and held up one of his hands, as much 
as to say, * Not yet' 

On May 1 he lunched at the Prussian embassy 
and played, and also played for more than two 
hours at Buckingham Palace in the presence of 
the Queen and I^ce Albert only. On the 4th, 
at the Beethoven Quartet Society, he played 
Beethoven's thirty -two Variations, without 
book, his own C minor Trio, and a Song without 
Words ; and the same evening was at the opera 
at Jenny Lind's d^but, . On the evening of the 
5th at the Antient Concert he played on the 
organ a prelude and fugue on the name of Bach. 
The morning of the 6th he spent at Lord Elles- 
mere's picture-gallery, and in the afternoon 
played to his friends the Bunsens and a dis- 
tinguished company, including Mr. and Mrs. 
Gladstone, at the Prussian embassy. He left 
the room in great emotion, and without the 
power of saying farewell.^ The same day he 
wrote a Song without Words in the album of 
Lady Caroline Cavendish, and another in that 
of the Hon. Miss Cavendish, since published as 
op. 102, No. 2, and op. 85, No. 5, respectively. 
Chi the 8th he took leave of the Queen and Prince 
Albert at Buckingham Palace, and left London 
the same evening, much exhausted, with the 
Klingemanns. He had indeed, to use his own 
words, * stayed too long here already.' * It was 
observed at this time by one* who evidently 
knew him well, that though in the evening and 
when excited by playing, he looked as he had 
done on former visits, yet that by daylight his 
face showed sad traces of wear and a look of 
premature old age. He crossed on Sunday, 
the 9th, to Calais, drove to Ostend, and on the 
11th was at Cologne.^ At Herbesthal, through 
the extra zeal of a police official, who mistook 
him for a Dr. Mendelssohn of whom the police 
were in search, he was stopped on his road, 
seriously annoyed, and compelled to write a 
long statement which must have cost him as 
much time and labour as to compose an overture. 

1 William Bartholomtw. < Li/It o/BunMen, 11. 1». 130. 

s A p. 66. 4 FMun't Jlagagtn*, Deo. 1847. p. 79?. 

9 Mn. KIlngcnuuiD. 

He had been only a day or two in Frankfort 
when he received the news of the sudden death 
of his sister Fanny at Berlin on May 14. It 
was broken to him too abruptly, and acting on 
his enfeebled frame completely overcame him. 
With a shriek he fell to the ground, and remained 
insensible for some time. It was the third blow 
of the kind that he had received, a blow perhaps 
harder to bear than either of the others, inas- 
much as Fanny was his sister, more of his own 
age, and he himself was older, more worn, and 
less able in the then weak state of his nerves to 
sustain the shock. In his own words, * a great 
chapter was ended, and neither title nor be- 
ginning of the next were written. ' * 

Early in June, as soon as he had sufficiently 
recovered to move, the whole family (with Frl. 
Jung as governess, and Dr. Elengel as tutor) 
went to Baden-Baden where they were joined by 
Paul and Honsel ; thence by Schalfhausen to 
Lucerne, Thun, and Interlaken, in and about 
which they made some stay. To Felix the relief 
was long in coming. On July 7, though well, 
and often even cheerful, he was still unable to 
do any musical work, write a proper letter, or 
recover a consistent frame of mind. He worked 
at his drawing with more than usual assiduity 
at this time. Thirteen large water-colour 
pictures illustrate the journey, beginning with 
two views of the Falls of Schaffhausen (June 27 
and 29), and ending with one of Interlaken 
(Sept 4). Many of them are very highly 
finished, and aU are works which no artist need 
hesitate to sign. They are on a larger scale 
than any of his previous sketches, and there is 
a certainty about the drawing, and a solidity in 
the perspective, which show how well he under- 
stood what he was about. The same love of 
form that shines so conspicuously in his great 
symphonies is there, and the details are put in, 
like the oboe and clarinet phrases in his scores, 
as if he loved every stroke. They are really 
beautiful works. In addition to these finished 
drawings, he sketched a good deal in Indian 

In the middle of the month Paul and Hensel 
returned home, but Felix and his family remained 
till September.^ Meantime the world was going 
on, regardless of private troubles ; friends visited 
him, and plans for music began to crowd round 
him. Among the former were Professor Graves • 
and his wife, Mr. Grote the historian — old 
friends, the last of whom had taken a long 
journey on purpose to see him^<^ — andChorley the 
musical critic. He had received a request from 
the Philharmonic Society for a Symphony for 
1848 ; an application to write a piece for the 
opening of the Philharmonic Hall, Liverpool ^* ; 
had a new Cantata in view for Frankfort, and 

" £. to BebflokA, July 7. 1847. f L. to Fliiil. Aug. S. 1847. 

• Chorley'a JfodtrH Otrman Mu*to, 11. 884. 

* AfierwartU Biahop of Limerick. 
» Penonal IAf9 ofQ. Orot€. p. 176. 

" L. to Chorley. July 19. 1847. In C. 11. 67 : [Me alM Mmieal World, 
Jan. 8, 1848. p. 87J. 

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something for the inauguration of Cologne 
CathedraL * Elijah ' was to be given nnder his 
baton both at Berlin (Nov. 3) and Vienna — at 
the latter with Jenny Lind — and the long- 
cherished opera exercised its old charm over him. 
But his nerves were still too weak to bear any 
noise, and he suffered much from headache and 
weariness ; his piano was ' not for playing, but 
for trying a chord/ * it was the very worst he 
had ever touched in his life/ ^ and he shrank 
from the organ at Fribourg when proposed to 
him.' The organ in the village church of Bing- 
genbeig, on the lake of Brienz, was his only 
resource, and it was there that for the last time 
in his life he touched the organ keys. He put 
aside the music for Liverpool, 'for the present.' 
and declined the request of the Philharmonic,' 
on the ground that a work for the Society 
ought not to bear the least trace of the huny 
and bustle in which he would have to live for 
the rest of the year. At the same time he was 
much agitated at the state of home politics, 
which were very threatening, and looked with 
apprehension on the future of Germany. For 
himself he returned strongly to the plans already 
alluded to at the end of 1846, of giving up 
playing and concert-giving, and other exciting 
and exacting business, and taking life more 
easily, and more entirely as he liked.^ 

At length the power of application came, and 
he began to write music. We shall not be far 
wrong in taking the intensely mournful and 
agitated String Quartet in F minor (op. 80) as 
the first distinct utterance of his distress. This 
over, he arrived by degrees at a happier and 
more even mentid condition, though with 
paroxysms of intense grief and distress. The con- 
trast between the gaiety and spirit of his former 
letters and the sombre, apathetic tone of those 
which are preserved from this time, is most 
remarkable, and impossible to be overlooked. 
It is as if the man were brokeny^ and accepted 
his lot without an idea of resistance. He 
continually recurred to the idea of retirement 
from all active life but composition. 

Of the music which is due to this, time we 
find, besides the Quartet just mentioned, an 
Andante and Scherzo in £ major and A minor, 
which form the first movements of op. 81 ; the 
fragments of * Loreley ' and of * Christus * ; a 
Te Deum, Jubilate, Magnificat, andNunc dimittis 
for four voices (op. 69), which he began before 
going to London, and finished in Baden-Baden 
on June 12, and a few songs, such as 'Ich 
wandre fort' (op. 71, No. 6). [Mendelssohn 
appears to have composed the Te Deum fifteen 
years earlier, though he may have rewritten it 

1 Ptrmmal Uf vfO. OroU. p. 1^. 

a Mod. eerm. JUvtie. II. 104. 

s Letter to Fhillmrmonle Booietj. 'Interlaken. Aug. S7. 1847.' 
[printed in the prognmme-book of the ooooert given Feb. e, 18801 

* Med. flrerm. Muite, U. MS; Dm. p. STS. 

s Tbla ezBreeeion vm need to the writer hy Dr. Slenfel, the 
tator of hie boje. who wm oonetuitly with htm during the laat two 
or three jtmn of hie life, and knew him intimately. Dr. Klengd 
hM Joined the meeter he to dearly loved. He died In Not. isn. 

in 1847. See his letter (in English) of Aug. 22, 
1882, in Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 11,780, fol. 129 ; 
printed in Mutieal Times, Oct 1908, p. 652.] 

With the close of the simimer the party 
returned homewards, and on Sept. 17 were 
again in Leipzig.* He found there a new 
Broadwood grand piano which had been for- 
warded by the firm during his absence in Switzer- 
land, and is said to have played upon it for 
several hours. Those who knew him best found 
him ' unaltered in mind, and when at the piano 
or talking about music still all life and fire.'^ 
During these days he played to Dr. Schleinitz 
a new string quartet, complete except the slow 
movement, which was to be a set of Variations 
— but not yet put on paper. He took leave of 
Mr. Buxton (Ewer k Co.), one of his English 
publishers, with the words 'You shall have 
plenty of music from me ; I will give you no 
cause to complain.'^ But such moments of 
vivacity would be followed by great depression, 
in which he could not bear to speak or to be 
spoken to even by old friends. He was much 
changed in look, and he who before was never 
at rest, and whose hands were always in motion, 
now often sat dull and listiess, without moving 
a finger. ' He had aged, looked pale and weary, 
walked less quickly than before, and was more 
intensely affected by every passing thing than 
he used to be.' Also he complained of the 
oppressive air of the town.^ And yet, not even 
those most near him appear to have realised the 
radical and alarming change for the worse which 
had taken place in his strength. 

The Qewandhaus concerts began on Oct, 8, 
but he took no part in them, and left the 
conducting to his old colleague Rietz. A friend 
recollects his saying how happy he was — 'as 
cheerful as a set of organ-passages' — that he 
had not to make out the programmes. He 
dreaded all public music, and complained much, 
though blaming himself as not deserving the 
happiness he had in his 'dear C^le' and in 
the recovery of his boy Felix. He had been to 
Berlin for a week, very shortiy after his return, 
and the sight of his sister's rooms, exactly as 
she left them, had agitated him extremely, ^^ 
'and almost neutralised the benefits of hii 
Swiss retirement.' ^^ He had definitely given up 
the performance of ' El^ah ' at Berlin, but was 
bent on undertaking that at Vienna on Nov. 14,^ 
where he was to hear his friend Jenny Lind in 
the music which he had written for her voice. 
On the morning of Oct. 9, he called on the 
Moecheleses and walked with them to the 
Rosenthal. He was at first much depressed, 
but it went off, and he became for the moment 

• JToL 11. 177. 7 ihid. p. 177. 

B [For extraota from hit long and pfeaaant oorreipondence with 
Mr. Buxton (Bwer * Ca). tee MuiUal Ttmt* of Jan. and March 1900. 
pp. 20, 167. A memorial window, Jointly to oommemorate Mendds- 
aohu and Buxton, hit English publiaher, haa been placed in th« 
chancel of Cntnford Chorch, Middleeex.] 

• Lampadhu, pp. 134. 161. Vt jfne. Frege ; Mot. IL 181. " B. p. 87. 
IB The laat letter itock into the laat (the 99th) of hie green rolnme* 

la from Fiaohhoffof Vienna on thii anbjeot, and la dated Oct. 29. I8 
mnat hare been received too late to hare been read bj him. 

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almost gay. After this he went to Madame 
Frege*8 houaei and here his depression returned, 
and worse than before. His object was to consolt 
her as to the selection and order of the songs 
in op. 71,^ which he was about to publish — 
one of the minute matters in which he was so 
fastidious and difficult to satisfy. She sang 
them to him several times, they settled the 
order, and then he said he must hear them once 
more, and after that they would study * Elgah ' ; 
she left the room for lights, and on her return 
found him on the sofa shiyering, his hands cold 
and stiff, his head in violent pain. He then 
went home, and the attack continued ; leeches 
were applied, and by the 15th he had reoovered 
so far as to listen with interest to the details 
of the reception of Hiller's new opera at Dresden, 
and actuiJly to make plans for his Vienna 
journey. On the 25th he writes to his brother 
in the old affectionate vein. He is taking tonics, 
but Paul's face would do him more good than 
the bitterest medicine. He was not, however, 
destined to speak to him again. On the 28th 
he was so much better as to take a walk with 
his wife, but it was too much, and shortly 
afterwards he had a second attack, and on 
Nov. 3 another, which last deprived him of 
consciousness. He lingered through the next 
day, fortunately without pain, and expired at 
9.24 P.M. on Thursday, Nov. 4, 1847, in the 
presence of his wife, his brother, Schleinitz, 
David, and Moscheles. During the illness, the 
public feeling was intense. Bulletins were issued, 
and the house was besieged by inquirers. After 
his death it was as if every one in the town 
had received a blow and sustained a personal 
loss. ' It is lovely weather here,' writes a 
young English student^ to the York CovrarUf 
' but an awful stillness prevails ; we feel as if 
the king were dead. Clusters of people are seen 
speaking together in the streets.' The streets 
were placaided at the comers with official 
announcements of his death, as if he had been 
a great officer of state. 

On the Friday and Saturday the public were 
allowed to see the dead body. On Sunday the 
7th it was taken to the Pauliner Church at 
Leipzig. A band preceded the hearse, playing 
the Song without Words in E minor (Book 5, 
No. 3), instrumented by Moscheles ; and after 
this came a student' of the Conservatorium 
with a cushion, on which lay a silver crown 
formerly presented to Mendelssohn by his pupils, 
and his Order * pour le m^rite.' 'Die pall was 
borne by Moscheles, David, Hauptmann, and 
Gade ; the professors and pupils of the Con- 
servatorium, the members of the Gewandhaus 
orchestra, the chief functionaries of the Corpora- 

1 Of th« Mven Mmgi which h« brought, Ute ' AltdcatichM Frtth- 
llngsli«d/ ihoiiKh put on iMipw on Oct. 7, -wilb oompoMd In th« 
rammer. The ' Naditlied ' vm compoeed and written for Schlelnlts'e 
birthday, Oct. 1, and ie therefore rtriually Mendelaaohn's lut oom> 
poeitlon. * An odd birthday preaent.' eaid he to Mme. Frege, 'but 
1 like it much, for I feel ao dreary.' 

* Mr. Thomas Slmpion Camidge, ion of Dr. Gamldge, onanist of 
York Minster. ' Mr. de Sentis. 

tion and the University, and several guilds 
and societies accompanied the coffin, and Paul 
Mendelssohn was chief mourner. In the church 
the chorale 'To thee, O Lord,' and the chorus 
* Happy and blest,' from * St Paul,* were sung, 
a sermon or oration was delivered by Herr 
Howard, the pastor of the Reformed Congrega- 
tion, and the service closed with the concluding 
chorus of Bach's St. Matthew Passion. At 1 p. m. 
the coffin was conveyed to the Leipzig station 
and transported by rail to Berlin. On the road, 
during the night, it was met at Cothen by the 
choir of the place, under Thile their director, 
and at Dessau by Friedrioh Schneider, who 
wiped away the recollection of early antagonisms 
by a farewell part-song, composed for the 
occasion, and sung by his choir at the station. 
The coffin arrived at Berlin at 7 A.M., and, after 
more funeral ceremonies, was deposited in the 
enclosed burial-place of the family in the Alte 
Dreifaltigkeits Kirchhof, close outside the Halle- 
thor. His tombstone is a cross. He rests be- 
tween his boy Felix and his sister Fanny. His 
father und mother are a short distance behind. 











4 Not. 

The fifth Gewandhaus concert, which, it was 
piously observed, would naturally have ended 
at the very moment of his death, was post- 
poned till Nov. 11, when, excepting the E^ica 
Symphony, which formed the second part of 
the programme, it was entirely made up of the 
compositions of the departed master. Among 
them were the NachUied of Eichendorf (op. 
71, No. 6), sung by Madame Frege. 

In London the feeling, though naturally not 
so deep or so universal as in his native place, 
was yet both deep and wide. His visits had of 
late been so frequent, and the last one was so 
recent, and there was such a vivid personality 
about him, such force and fire, and such a 
general tone of health and spirits, that no 
wonder we were startled by the news of his 
death. The tone of the press was more that of 
regret for a dear relation than of eulogy for a 

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public character. Each writer spoke as if he 
intimately knew and loyed the departed. This 
is eepeciaUy conspicuous in the long notices of 
the Times and Athenceum^ which are full not 
only of keen appreciation, but of deep personal 
sorrow. From his private friends I shall only 
permit myself two quotations. Mrs. Grote, 
writing nearly thirty years afterwards, names 
four friends whose deaths had occasioned her 
the most poignant sorrow of her life ; and among 
these are Felix Mendelssohn, Alexis de Tocque- 
yille, and John Stuart Mill. Mrs. Austin, the 
aunt of his early friends the Taylors, and her- 
self one of his most intimate allies, in a tribute 
to his memory as beautiful as it is short, says — 

His is one of the rare characters which cannot be 
known too intimately. Of him there is nothing to tell 
that is not honourable to his memorr, consoling to his 
friends, profitable to all men. ... If I admired him as 
an artist, I was no less struck by his childlike simplicity 

and sportiveness, his deference to age, his readiness to 
I his genius to ' ' - ..^- ^ i^.- -^^ 

„ rant ; the vivacity 
everything good and great, his cultivated intellect, 

bend his genius to give pleasure to the humble and 
ignorant ; the vivacity and fervour of his admiration for 

refined tastes, and noble sentiments.^ 

Nor was the public regret out of proportion 
to that of his intimate friends. We are not 
perhaps prone to be very demonstrative over 
artists, especially over musicians ; but this was 
a man who had wound himself into our feelings 
as no other musician had done since Handel. 
What Handel's songs, the * Harmonious Black- 
smith, ' and other harpsichord pieces, had done for 
the English public in 1740, that Mendelssohn's 
Songs without Words, and Part-songs, had 
done in 1840, and they had already made his 
name a beloved household word in many a 
family circle both in town and country. He 
had been for long looked upon as half an 
Englishman. He spoke English well, he wrote 
letters and familiar notes in our tongue freely ; 
he showed himself in the provinces ; his first 
important work was founded on Shakespeare, his 
last was brought out in England, at so peculiarly 
English a town as Birmingham ; and his 'Scotch 
Symphony* and 'Hebrides Overture' showed 
how deeply the scenery of Britain had influenced 
him. And, perhaps more than this, there were 
in the singular purity of his Ufe, in his known 
devotion to his wife and family, and his general 
high and unselfish character, the things most 
essential to procure him both the esteem and 
affection of the English people. 

The Sacred Harmonic Society, the only Society 
in London having concerts at that period of the 
year, performed 'Elgah' on Nov. 17, preceded 
by the Dead March in 'Saul,' and with the 
band and chorus all dressed in black. At 
Manchester and Birmingham similar honours 
were paid to the departed composer. In Germany 
commemorative concerts (Todten/eier)yreTe given 
at Berlin, Vienna, Frankfort, Hamburg, and 
many other places. His bust was set up in the 
Theatre at Berlin, and his profile in the Gewand- 

1 Fraatr't MagoMint, April 1048. p. 496. 

haus at Leipzig. The first Concert of the 
Conservatoire at Paris, on Jan. 9, 1848, was 
entitled ' JL la memoire de F. Mendelssohn- 
Bartholdy,'and comprised the Scotch Symphony 
and Hebrides Overture, the Violin Concerto, and 
airs from ' St. Paul.' Among the veiy numerous 
letters of condolence addressed to his widow we 
will only mention those from Queen Victoria, 
the King of Prussia, and the King of Saxony. 

Two works were in the printers' hands at the 
time of Mendelssohn's death — the Six Songs 
(op. 71) and the Six Kinderstucke (op. 72), 
known in England as 'Christmas pieces.' 
These were quickly published. Then there was 
a pause, and at length, as he had left no will, 
Madame Mendelssohn confided to a kind of 
committee, composed of her husband's most 
intimate musical friends, the task of deciding 
which pieces out of the immense mass of MS. 
music should be published, and of supervising 
the publication. These gentlemen were Dr. 
Schleinitz, the acting member of the council of 
the Conservatorium, David, Moscheles, and 
Hauptmann, all resident in Leipzig, with Paul 
Mendelssohn in Berlin, and Julius Rietz in 
Dresden. The instrumental works then ^1847) 
in MS. embraced the Trumpet Overture (1825) 
and Reformation Symphony (1830), the Italian 
Symphony (1888), the Overture to *Ruy Bias' 
(1839), two sets of pianoforte variations (1841), 
the Quintet in B flat (1845), the Quartet in F 
minor (1847), and fragments of another Quartet 
in E, Songs without Words, and other pianoforte 
pieces. The Vocal works comprised the Lieder- 
spiel 'Heimkehr aus der Fremde' (1829), the 
Concert-aria 'Infelice' (1843), the Music to 
' Athalie' and to '(Edipus Coloneus' (both 1845), 
'Lauda Sion' (1846), fragments of the opera 
'Loreley,' and of the oratorio 'Christus,' on 
which he had been at work not long before his 
death, Psalms and Spruche for voices with and 
without accompaniment. Songs, and Part-songs. 

The work of publication began with ' Lauda 
Sion,' which appeared as op. 73, in Feb. 1848. 
This was followed by * Athalie,' and by other 
works, down to the four Part-songs which form 
op. 100, and No. 29 of the posthumous works, 
which came out in Jan. 1852. Here a pause 
took place. In the meantime, borne down by 
her great loss, and also by the death of her 
third boy, Felix, in 1851, Madame Mendelssohn 
herself died on Sept. 25, 1853. The manu- 
scripts then came into the hands of Dr. Carl 
Mendelssohn, the eldest son, and after some 
years publication re -commenced with the 
Trumpet Overture, which appeared in 1867, and 
continued at intervals down to the 'Responsorium 
et Hymnus ' (op. 121), and other works without 
opus numbers. 

Many of the pieces referred to in the above 
enumeration are included in the series of MS. 
volumes already mentioned. Forty -four of 

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these ▼olomes are iiow deposited in the Imperial 
Library at Berlin, in pursuance of an arrange- 
ment dated Dec. 28, 1877, by whioh, in ex- 
change for the possession of them, the German 
goyemment agreed with the Mendelssohn- Bar- 
tholdy family to found two perpetual scholarships 
of 1500 marks (X75) per annum each, tenable 
for four years, for the education of students of 
music elected by competition from the music 
schools of Germany. The Trustees of the Fund 
are three — the Director of the High School of 
Music at Berlin, a second nominated by the 
goyemment, and a third by the family. The 
first election took place on Oct 1, 1879, and 
the successful candidates were Engelbert Hum- 
perdinck of Siegburg, and Josef Kotek of 
Podolia. In addition, Ernst Seyfitardt of 
Crefeld, and Johann Secundus Kruse of Mel- 
bourne, Australia, received allowances of 750 
marks each out of the arrears of the Fund. 

Long before the foundation of the Berlin 
Scholarships, however, practical steps in the 
same direction had been taken in England. In 
Nov. 1847 a resolution was passed by the Sacred 
Harmonic Society of London for the erection 
of a public memorial in honour of Mendelssohn. 
£50 was subscribed thereto by Queen Victoria 
and '.Prince Albert, and like sums by the Sacred 
Harmonic and Philharmonic Societies. Other 
subscriptions were raised amounting in the 
whole to over £600. In April 1859, after many 
negotiations, a model of a statue by Mr. C. 
Bacon was approved by the subscribers ; it was 
cast in bronze in the following November, and 
on May 4, 1860, was set up on the Terrace of 
the Crystal Palace at Sydenham. 

A more appropriate memorial was the Men- 
delssohn Scholarship, originated by Madame 
Jenny lind-Goldschmidt in the year 1850, 
which will be found described under its own 
heading. [See Mendelssohn Scholabship.] 

In person Mendelssohn was short, ^ not so 
much as 5 ft 7 ins. high, and slight of build ; 
in figure lithe, and very light and mercurial. 
His look was dark and very Jewish ; the face 
unusually mobile, and ever varying in expres- 
sion, full of brightness and animation, and with 
a most unmistakable look of genius. After a 
breakfast with him at B. Hawes's, Thackeray 
told Richard Doyle (who told the writer), * His 
face is the most beautiful face I ever saw, like 
what I imagine our Saviour's to have been.' 
Sir Frederick Pollock {Reminiscences, i. 215) 
' was much struck by his fine face and figure, 
and the excellence of his conversation.' His 
complexion was fresh, and showed a good deal 
of colour. His hair was black, thick, and 
abundant, but very fine, with a natural wave in 
it, and was kept back from his forehead, which 
was high and much developed. By the end of 

1 He irac Bborter than Sterndal* Bennett, trbo «aa B ft 7. 

his life, however, it showed a good deal of grey, 
and he began to be bald. His mouth was 
unusually delicate and expressive, and had 
generally a pleasant smile at the comers. His 
whiskers were very dark, and his dosely-shaven 
chin and upper lip were blue from the strength 
of his beard. His teeth were beautifully white 
and regular ; but the most striking })art of his 
face were the large dark-brown eyes. When 
at rest he often lowered the eyelids as if he were 
slightly short-sighted — which indeed he was ; 
but when animated they gave an extraordinaiy 
brightness and fire to his face and 'were as 
expressive a pair of eyes as were ever set in a 
human being's head/ They could also sparkle 
with rage like a tiger's (Moackeles's Life, i, 
324). When he was playing extempore, or 
was otherwise much excited, they would dilate 
and become nearly twice their ordinary size, the 
brown pupil changing to a vivid black. His 
laugh was hearty and frequent; and when 
especially amused he would quite double up 
with laughter and shake his hand from tlie 
wrist to emphasise his merriment. He would 
nod his head violently when thoroughly agree- 
ing, so that the hair came down over his face. 
In fact his body was almost as expressive as his 
face. His hands were small, with taper 
fingers.^ On the keys they behaved almost like 
* living and intelligent creatures, full of life 
and sympathy.' ^ His action at the piano was 
as free from affectation as everything else that 
he did, and very interesting. At times, especi- 
ally at the organ, he leant very much over the 
keys, as if watching for the strains which came 
out of his finger tips. He sometimes swayed 
from side to side, but usually his whole per- 
formance was quiet and absorbed.^ 

He refused more than once, from motives 
of modesty, to have his likeness taken. ^ But a 
great number of portraits were painted and 
drawn at difl'erent times of his life. The best of 
these, in the opinion of those most capable of 
judging, is that painted by his friend Frofeaaor 
Edwaid Magnus at Berlin in the year 1844, 
and although deficient in that lively speaking 
expression which all admit to have been so 
characteristic of him, it may be accepted as a 
good representation.^ It is very superior to 
the various replicas and copies in existence, 
which are distinguished by a hopeless meek 
solemnity of look, absolutely impossible in the 
original, and which, therefore, convey an entirely 
wrong idea of the face. Madame Goldschmidt 
with great kindness allowed the portrait to be 
photographed, and it was the desire of the 
writer to give a wood engraving of it ; but after 

< A plaster cut of hie hand can b« bought. 

9 The late Dr. Charlee GravM, Bishop of Limerick. 

* I owe the above description of Mendelssohn's looks chiefly to 
Mr. John C. Horsley, R.A. Few knew him better, or are more 
qualified to describe him. 

> L. Dec 90, 1831 ; April 3, May 18. 1836. 

" [ThiM portrait was presented by Masnus himself to Madame 
Jenny lind-Ooldschmldt, who bequeathed it to . 

elder daughter, the late Mrs. C. V. Benecke, in whose family It sUU 

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two attempts to obtain satisfactory reproduo- 
tions, he was reluctantly compelled to abandon 
the intention. fBy the kindness of the present 
owner, Mr. G. V. Beneoke (see note 6, p. 156), 
the picture has been photographed again, and 

the marked improvement in the art of repro- 
ducing pictures has enabled us to fulfil Sir 
George Grove's natural wish to present readers 
of the Dictionary with the best portrait of the 

Other portraits worth notice are (1) a pencil 
sketch taken in 1820, in possession of Mr. C. V. 
Benecke, lithographed mGodheandMendelssohn, 
(2) A half-length taken by Begas in 1821, in 
the possession of the Paul Mendelssohn-Bar- 
tholdy family at Berlin. This is very poorly 
engraved, both as to resemblance and execution, 
in Ooethe and Mendelssohn, The original is 
probably much idealised, but it is a striking 
picture. (8) A three-quarter-length, in a cloak, 
painted by Hildebrand, and engraved as the 
frontispiece to * Elijah ' ; in possession of Herr 
Killmann of Bonn. (4) A whole length, sitting, 
and looking to the side, taken by Hensel in 
1844, and now in the possession of the Paul 
M.-B. family. This, though clever as a picture, 
can hardly convey the man. The hand is 
perhaps the most remarkable thing in it, and 
must be a portrait (6) A profile taken after 
death by Hensel, and now in possession of 
Mr. C. V. Benecke. This, which is said by 
many to be the best representation of him, is 
fairly engraved as the frontispiece to Liady 
AValUce's translation of the letters. 

A portrait of him in crayons was taken at 

Weimar for Goethe,^ which he describes as 
< very like, but rather sulky ' ; another was 
painted at Rome by Horace Yemet,* and an- 
other by a painter named Schramm. ^ [Vemet's 
portrait, painted in return for an extempore 
fantasia on 'Don Juan,' was reproduced as a 
supplemant to the MusiecU Times of March 
1905 ; (see also Eckardt's Ferdituind David , 
p. 89). The Schramm portrait was reproduced 
as frontispiece to F. G. Edwards's History of 
'Elijah* (1896). Another portrait, drawn by 
Edward Novello (a son of Vincent Novello), was 
reproduced as a supplement to the AfusiceU Times 
of November 1897.] The sketch by his brother- 
in-law, taken in 1840, and given as frontispiece 
to vol. ii of the Familie Mendelssohn must 
surely be too young-looking for that date. 
Miniatures of the four children were taken in 
Paris in 1816, and are now (1906) in the 
possession of Herr Ernst von Mendelssohn- 
Bartholdy, Berlin, nephew of the composer. 

The bust by Rietschel (engraved as frontis- 
piece to Devrient) and the profiles by Enauer 
and Kietz are all said to be good. [There is a 
bust by Peter HoUins (1800-86), a Birmingham 
artist, now in the City of Birmingham Museum 
and Art Gallery.] 

Not less remarkable than his face was his 
way and manner. It is described by those who 
knew him as peculiarly winning and engaging ; 
to those whom he loved, coaxing. The slight 
lisp or drawl which remained with him to the 
end made the endearing words and pet expres- 
sions, which he was fond of applying to his 
own immediate circle, all the more affectionate. 
But outside this immediate circle also he was 
very fascinating, and it is probable that, 
devotedly as he was loved at home, few men 
had fewer enemies abroad. The strong admira- 
tion expressed towards him by men of such 
very different natures as Schumann* and 
Berlioz,* both of whom knew him well, shows 
what a depth of solid goodness there was in 
his attractiveness. * His gentleness and soft- 
ness,' says one of his English friends, 'had 
none of the bad side so often found with those 
qualities ; nothing effeminate or morbid. There 
was a great deal of manliness packed into his 
little body,' as all readers of the early part of 
this sketch must be aware. Indeed he had a 
great capacity for being angry. Anything like 
meanness or deceit, or unworthy conduct of 
any kind, roused his wrath at once. ' He had 
a way,' says a very old friend, *of suddenly 
firing up on such occasions, and turning on 

1 L. Weimar. Htmj 25. 1890. 

3 L. Jan. 17 and Harch IB, 1831. Bee Belwcka's letter in Edumlt's 
Frrditumd DaHd, p. M. 

9 Poadbljtaken in 1840: ainoe in Bmat Mradelaaobn-BartboldTa 
po m w i on is the autograph of three Souga imcribed. ' Dem Maler 
Bchnunm xn freundllchem Andenken und mit beetem Dank. 
F. M. B. Leipaig, d. 4 Nor. 1840.' 

< lif* 9f Robert Schumann, bj ron Waaielewaki. Bng. tnuw. 
p. S21 : [eee also aercral referencee in The Life <^f Robert Sdtumann. 
told in kU letten. tnuialated by May Herbert. 9 rolai, London. I890I 

» LettM- tnm Berling to Hlller. Borne. Sept. 17. 18SI. Berlioi'* 
CorreepondtuttminMUe (Parla. 1879). p. 88 : Vopaoe Mueleat, Letter 
4 in roL i. 71 «( w?. 

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his heel, in a style which was quite unmistak- 
able,' and astonishing to those who only knew 
his smoother side. Towards thoughtlessness, 
negligence, or obstinate stupidity he was very 
intolerant, and under such provocation said 
things the sting of which must have remained 
for long after, and which he himsetf deeply 
regretted.^ But these were rare instances, and 
as a rule his personal fascination secured him 
friends and kept them firm to him. And to 
those to whom he was really attached — outside 
his own family, of which we are not speaking — 
there could hardly be a better friend. The 
published letters to General yon Webem, to 
Yerkenius, Klingemann, Schubring, Uiller, 
Moscheles, are charged with an amount of real 
affection rarely met with, which yet never 
leads him to sink his own individual opinion 
on any point which he thought material, as 
may be seen in many cases. Talent and 
perseverance he was always ready to encourage, 
and the cases of Taubert, Eckert, Gade, Joachim, 
Rietz, Naumann, Sterndale Bennett, Hiller, 
and the anonymous student whose cause he 
pleads so earnestly to the Eing,^ show how 
eager he always was to promote the best 
interests of those whom he believed to be 
worthy. His warm reception of Berlioz, Liszt, 
and Thalberg, has been already mentioned, but 
must be again referred to as an instance of the 
absence of jealousy or rivalry in his nature, and 
of his simple wish to give everybody fair play. 
The relations of Mendelssohn and Schumann 
were thoroughly good on both sides. There is 
a remarkable absence of Schumann's name in 
Mendelssohn's published letters ; but this may 
have arisen from considerations which influenced 
the editors, and would possibly be reversed if 
the letters had been fully given, and if others 
which remain in MS. were printed. The two 
men were always good friends. They differed 
much on some matters of music. Mendelssohn 
had his strong settled principles, which nothing 
could induce him to give up. He thought that 
everything should be made as clear as a composer 
couldmakeit, and that rough orawkward passages 
were blemishes, which should be modified and 
made to sound well. On the other hand, 
Schumann was equally fixed in the necessity of 
retaining what he had written down as repre- 
senting his intention. But such differences of 
opinion never affected their intercourse ; they 
were always friendly, and even affectionate, and 
loved to be together. More than one person 
living remembers the strong interest which 
Mendelssohn took in ' Paradise and the Peri ' on 
its first appearance, and how anxious he was 
that his friends should hear it. [See Mendels- 
sohn's letter to Buxton (Ewer k Co.), suggest- 
ing the publication in England of 'Paradise 

1 He oompUined btttarly to th« l»te Dr. Charlei OrsTM, Blahop 
of Limerick, In 1M7 of his short temper at rehearaals or with hie 

* L. Berlin, p. SU of LM/anfrum 18SS'47, Engllih ed. 

and the Peri,' quoted in the letter from Sir 
George Grove in the Times of Sept 11, 1894 ; 
also printed in the Musical Times, Nov. 1905, 
p. 71^] Of Schumann's string quartets he 
records that they * pleased him extremely' ; and 
it is surely allowable to infer that it was the 
expression of his pleasure that made Schumann 
dedicate them to him. He had a particular 
love for some of Schumann's songs, and as this 
feeling was not shared by all the members of 
his family he would sometimes ask for the 
* forbidden fruit,' as a kind of synonym for 
something peculiarly pleasant. The fact that 
he placed Schumann among his colleagues at the 
starting of the Leipzig Conservatorium of itself 
shows how much he valued him. 

On the other hand, Schumann is never warmer 
or more in earnest than when he is praising 
Mendelssohn's compositions, as may be seen by 
many an article in his Cfesammelte Schriflen, 
He dedicated his string quartets to him, as we 
have said. He defended him with ardour when 
attacked ; during his last sad years Mendels- 
sohn's name was constantly in his mouth as that 
of his best friend, and his last clearly expressed 
wish was that his youngest boy should be called 
after him. A proof of his affectionate feeling is 
to be found in the No. 28 of his ' Album fiir 
die Jugend ' (op. 68), which is inscribed ' Erin- 
nerung (Nov. 4, 1847),' and therefore expresses 
his feelings at the death of his friend. It is not 
necessary to discover that definite direct meaning 
in. this touching little piece which Mendelssohn 
found in all music, in order to recognise sadness 
tempered by a deep sense of grace and sweetness ; 
the result showing how beautiful was the image 
which Mendelssohn left in the mind of one so 
completely able to appreciate him as Schumann. 

Nowhere is Mendelssohn's naturalness and 
naivete more evident than in his constant refer- 
ence to his own foibles. The hearty way in 
which he enjoys idleness, and boasts of it,^ the 
constant references to eating and drinking, are 
delightful in a man who got through so much 
work, who was singularly temperate, and whose 
only weakness for the products of the kitchen 
was for rice milk and cheny pie. In this, as in 
everything else, he was perfectly simple and 
natural. * I do not in the least concern myself 
as to what people wish or praise or pay for ; but 
solely as to what I myself consider good.' ^ No 
doubt he was very fortunate in being able to 
disregard 'what people paid for,' but that he 
did so is a part of his character. 

His fun and drollery were more the result of 
his high spirits than of any real turn for wit. 
Unlike Beethoven, he rarely indulges in plays 
on words, and his best efforts in that direction 
are the elaborately illustrated programmes and 
jeux cC esprit which are preserved in the albums 
of some of his friends, and in which caricatures, 

> L. July 14, 1836, und in many others. 
4 JL to hie mother. Oct. 4, 1837. 

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versos, pons, and jokes, are mixed up in a very 
droll fashion. There is mnch humour in some 
of his scherzos, but especially in the faneral 
march for Pyramus and Thisbe in the 'Mid- 
summer Night's Dream ' pieces, one of the most 
comical things in all music. It is much to be 
regretted that he has left no other specimen of 
his remarkable power in this direction. Prob- 
ably he indulged in a good deal of such fun 
which has not been preserved, since both he 
and his sister refer to that march as a specimen 
of a style in which he often extemporised. ^ In 
mimicry he was great, not only in music but in 
taking off speech and manner. The most 
humorous passage that I have met with in his 
letters is still in MS. — * Dass jenseits auch 
Musik gemacht werden konne, das glauben Sie 
ja^ und haben mirs oft gesagt. Dann wird's 
wohl kein schlechtes Instrument geben, wie 
bei Geyer, und keine dumme Flote pustet da, 
und keine Posaune schleppt nach, und nirgends 
fehlt es, und wankt es, uAd eilt es, das glaube 
ich wohl.'* 

No musician— unless perhaps it were Lionardo 
da Vinci, and he was only a musician in a b'mited 
sense — certainly no great composer, ever had so 
many pursuits as Mendelssohn. Mozart drew, 
and wrote capital letters, Berlioz and Weber 
also both wrote good letters, Beethoven was 
a great walker and intense lover of nature, 
Gherubini was a botanist and a passionate card- 
player, but none of them approach Mendelssohn 
in the number and variety of his occupations. 
Both billiards and chess he played with ardour 
to the end of his life, and in both he excelled. 
When a lad he was devoted to gymnastics ; later 
on he rode much, swam more, and danced 
whenever he had the opportunity. Cards and 
skating were almost the only diversions he did 
not care for. But then these were diversions. 
There were two pursuits which almost deserve 
to rank as work — drawing and letter-writing. 
Drawing with him was more like a professional 
avocation than an amusement. The quantity 
of his sketches and drawings preserved is very 
large. They begin with the Swiss journey in 
1822, on which he took twenty-seven large ones, 
all very carefully finished, and all dated, some- 
times two in one day. The Scotch and Italian 
tours are both fully illustrated ; and so they go 
on year by year till his last journey into Switzer- 
land in 1847, of which, as already said, fourteen 
large highly finished water-colour drawings 
remain, besides slighter sketches. At first they 
are rude and childish, though with each succes- 
sive set the improvement is perceptible. But 
even with the esxliest ones there is no mistaking 
that the drawing was a serious business. The 

>,U. [A'BKi«Dtaiu'l«(lMcribediniria.nfMv,Atig. 

> ' That there mfty be rnvde in the next world I know jon bellere, 
for 70a hare often told me eo ; but there will eettainl j be no bed 
pUnoe there like Oeyer"*. no atopid pafflng flatee, no dragging 
trombunee, no stopping, or wavering, or harrjing— of that I am 
qnlte etue.' MS. letter. 

subjects are not what are called * bits,' but are 
Qsually large comprehensive views, and it ia 
impossible to doubt that the child threw his 
whole mind into it, did his very best, and 
shirked nothing. He already felt the force of 
the motto which fronted his conductor's chair 
in the Gewandhaus — *Bes severa est verum 
gaudium.' Every little cottage or gate is put 
in with as much care as the main features. 
Every tree has its character. Everytliing stands 
well on its legs, and the whole has that archi- 
tectonic style which is so characteristic of his 
music. [Coloured facsimiles of two of his 
water-colour sketches* formed supplements to 
the Musical Times of December 1897, which 
also contains one of his humorous pen-and-ink 
sketches, as does the issue of November 1900, 
p. 728.] 

Next to his drawing should be placed his 
correspondence, and this is even more remark- 
able. During the last years of his life there 
can have been but few eminent men in Europe 
who wrote more letters than he did. Many 
even who take no interest in music are familiar 
with the nature of his letters — the happy mixture 
of seriousness, fun, and affection, the life-like 
descriptions, the happy hits, the nuvet^ which 
no baldness of translation can extinguish, the 
wise counsels, the practical views, the delight in 
the successes of his friends, the self-abnegation, 
the bursts of wrath at anything mean or nasty. 
We all remember, too, the length to which 
they run. Tsking the printed volumes, and 
comparing the letters with those of Scott or 
Arnold, they are on the average very consider- 
ably longer than either. But the published letters 
bear only a small proportion to those still in MS.' 
In fact the abundance of material for the bio- 
grapher of Mendelssohn is quite bewildering. 
That, however, is not the point. The remarkable 
fact is that so many letters of such length and 
such intrinsic excellence should have been written 
by a man who was aU the time engaged in an 
engrossingocoupation, producing greatquantities 
of music, conducting, arranging, and otherwise 
occupied in a profession which more than any 
demands the surrender of the entire man. For 
these letters are no hurried productions, but 
are distinguished, like the drawings, for the 
neatness and finish which pervade them. An 
autograph letter of Mendelssohn's is a work of 
art ; the lines are all straight and close, the 
letters perfectly and elegantly formed, with a 
peculiar luxuriance of tails, and an illegible 
word can hardly be found. Down to the fold- 
ing and the sealing everything is perfect It 
seems impossible that this can have been done 
quickly. It must have absorbed an enormous 
deal of time. While speaking of his correspond- 
ence, we may mention the neatness and order 

' In the hands of hie fkznily, of Mr. Bob! Ton Mandelewthn (Berlin). 
Mr. Felix Moeehelee, Plrofaaeor Paul Bchubrlng (Berlin), Mr. Paul 
David. Mr. Otto Ooldaohuiidt. Mies Prenaser. Mr. Eoler of Diissei- 
dotf , the Stemdale Bennetts, and others. 

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with whioh he registered and kept everything. 
The forty- four volumes of MS. music, in which 
he did for himself what Mozart's iather so care- 
ftilly did for his son, have been mentioned. 
But it is not generally known that he preserved 
all letters that he received, and stuck them with 
his own hands into books. Twenty-seven large 
thick green volumes exi8t,^containing apparently 
all the letters and memorandums, business and 
private, which he received from Oct. 29, 1821, 
to Oct. 29, 1847, together with the drafts of 
his oratorio books, and of the long official com- 
munications which, duripg his latter life, cost 
him so many unprofitable hours. He seems to 
have found time for everything. Hiller tells 
us how, during a very busy season, he revised 
and copied out the libretto of his oratorio for 
him.^ One of his dearest Leipzig friends has a 
complete copy of the fiiU score of 'Antigone,' 
including the whole ofths words of the melodrama^ 
written for her with his own hand ; a perfect 
piece of caligraphy, without spot or erasure 1 
and the family archives contain a long minute 
list of the contents of all the cupboards in the 
house, filling several pages of foolscap, in his 
usual neat writing, and made about the year 
1842. We road of Charles Dickens that 'no 
matter was considered too trivial to claim his 
care and attention. He would take as much 
pains about the hanging of a picture, the choos- 
ing of furniture, the superintending of any little 
improvement in the house, as he would about 
the more serious business of his life ; thus carry- 
ing out to the very letter his favourite motto 
that, What is worth doing at all is worth doing 
well.' 3 No words could better describe the side 
of Mendelssohn's character to which we are 
alluding, nor could any motto more emphatically 
express the principle on which he acted through- 
out life in idl his work. 

His taste and efficiency in such minor matters 
are well shown in the albums which he made 
for his wife, beautiful specimens of arrangement, 
the most charming things in which are the 
drawings and pieces of music from his own hands. 
His private account-books and diaries are kept 
with the same quaint neatness. If he had a 
word to alter in a letter, it was done with a 
grace which turned the blemish into a beauty. 
The same care came out in everything — in 
making out the programmes for the Gewandhaus 
concerts, where he would arrange and re-arrange 
the pieces to suit some inner idea of sjrmmetry 
or order ; or in settling his sets of songs for 
publication as to the succession of keys, connec- 
tion, or contrast of words, etc. In fact he had 
a passion for neatness, and a repugnance to 
anything clumsy. Possibly this may have been 
one reason why he appears so rarely to have 
sketched his music. He made it in his head, 
and had settled the minutest points there before 

> In the hand* of Mn. Wach (UU Mmdelnohn-BurthoUj). Two 
other* Mem to be mlHiiig. > ir. p. 107. 

> Preface to VkM UUmrt vf CKarlM Diekmu. 1879. 

he put it on paper, thus avoiding the litter and 
disorder of a sketch. Connected with this neat- 
ness is a certain quaintness in his proceedings 
which perhaps strikes an Englishman more 
forcibly than it would a German. He used the 
old-fashioned C clef for the treble voices in 
his scores to the last ; the long flourish with 
which he ornaments the double bar at the end 
of a piece never varied. A score of Haydn's 
Military Symphony which he wrote for his wife 
bears the words ' Possessor C^ile.' In writing 
to Mrs. Moscheles of her little girls, whose 
singing had pleased him, he begs to be remem- 
berod to the 'drei kleine Diricantisten.' A 
note to David, sent by a child, is inscribed 
'Kinderpost,' and so on. Certain French words 
occur over and over again, and are evidently 
favourites. Such are plainr and troubUj 
Apropos, en gros, and others. The word hiibseh, 
answering to our 'nice,' was a special favourite,^ 
and neU was one of lus highest commendations. 

But to return for a moment to his engrossing 
pursuits. Add to those just mentioned the 
many concerts, to be arranged, rehearsed, con- 
ducted ; the firequent negotiations attending on 
Berlin ; the long official protocols ; the hospi- 
tality and genial intercourse, where he was 
equally excellent as host or as guest ; the claims 
of his family ; the long holidays, real holidays, 
spent in travelling, and not, like Beethoven's, 
devoted to composition — and we may almost 
be pardoned for wondering how he can have 
found time to write any music at all. But on 
the contrary, with him all this business does 
not appear to have militated against comi)osition 
in the slightest degree. It often drove him 
almost to distraction ; it probably shortened his 
life ; but it never seems to have prevented his 
doing whatever music came before him, either 
spontaneously or at the call of his two posts at 
Berlin and Dresden. He composed 'Antigone' 
in a fortnight, he resisted writing the music to 
'Ruy Bias,' he grumbled over the long chorale 
for the thousandth anniversary of the German 
Empire, and over the overture to ' Athalie ' in 
the midst of his London pleasures ; but still he 
did them, and in the cases of 'Antigone' and the 
two overtures it is difficult to see how he could 
have done them better. He was never driven 
into a comer. 

The power by which he got through all this 
labour so much of it self-imposed, was the 
power of order and concentration, the practical 
business habit of doing one thing at a time, and 
doing it well. This, no doubt, was the talent 
which his father recognised in him so strongly 
as to make him doubt whether business was not 
his real vocation. It was this which made 
him sympathise with Schiller in his power of 
' supplying ' great tragedies as they were wanted. ^ 
In one way his will was weak, for he always 
found it hud to say 'No' ; but having accepted 

« Mot. ii. p. 16S. • L. Bu|«lberv. Aogiut St. ISSl. 

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the ttfk it became a duty, and towards duty 
hifl will was the iron will of a man of business. 
Such a gift is vouohsafed to reiy few artists. 
Handel possessed it in some degree ; but with 
that one exception Mendelssohn seems to stand 

Of his method of composing, little or nothing 
is known. He appears to haTe made few 
sketches, and to have arranged his music in his 
head at first, much as Mozart did. Probably 
this arose from his early training under Zelter, 
for the volumes for 1 821 . 1 822, 1 828, of the MS. 
series now in the Royal Library at Berlin appear 
to contain his first drafts and raroly show any 
corrections, and what there are are not so much 
sketches as erasures and substitutions. Devrient 
and Sohubring tell of their having seen him 
composing a scoro bar by bar from top to bottom ; 
but this was probably only an experiment or tour 
deforce. The fragment of the first movement 
of a symphony which is given on p. 168, is a 
good average example of the shape in whidi his 
Meas first came on to the paper. 

Alterations in a work after it was completed 
are quite another thing, and in these he was 
lavish. He complains of his not discovering the 
necessity for them till poet festuvu^ We have 
seen instances of this in the * Walpurgisnacht,' 
'St Paul,' 'Lobgesang,' * Elijah,' and some of 
the Concert-overtures. Another instance is the 
Italian Symphony, which he retained in MS. 
for fourteen years, till his death, with the in- 
tention of altering and improving the Finale. 
Another, equally to the point, is the D minor 
Trio, of wMch thero are two editions in actual 
circulation, containing several important and 
extensive differences.^ This ia carrying fastidi- 
ousness even farther than Beethoven, whose 
alterations were endless, but ceased with publi- 
cation. The autographs of many of Mendeh- 
sohn's pieces are dateid years before they were 
printed, and in most, if not all, cases, they 
received material alterations before being issued. 

Of his pianoforte playing in his earlier days 
we have already spoken. What it was in his 
great time, at such displays as his performances 
in London at the Philharmonic in 1842, 1844, 
and 1847 ; at Ernst's Concert in 1844, in the 
Bach Concerto with Moscheles and Thalbei^; 
at the Society of British Musicians in 1844 ; 
and the Beethoven Quartet Society in 1847 ; at 
the Leipzig Concerls on the occasion already 
mentioned in 1836 ; at Jenny Lind's Concert, 
Dec 6, 1845, and at many a private reunion 
at Vincent Novello's, the Horaleys*, or the Mo- 
scheles' in London, or the houses of his favourite 
friends in Leipzig, Berlin, or Frankfort — there 
are still those remaining well able to judge, and 
in whose minds the impression survives as clear 

I JL to KUngmnann. Dm. S. 1846. 

* The parte of the ' HebritiM ' Overture are not in exact aocordanoe 
with the ■eon of ' Fingale HShle.' The pianoforte arnuuemeut of 
the ' Uidannmer Ntebt'e Ih-eam ' Oretture pnbliihed in London la 
glren in notes of half the value of thoee in the eoore, publlehed after 
it in Ldpalg ; [but the dlflhrrace ham la only apparent]. 

VOL. Ill 

as ever. Of the various recollections with which 
1 have been favoured, 1 cannot do better than 
give entire those of Madame Schumann and 
Ferdinand Hiller. In reading them it should 
be remembered that Mendelssohn was fond of 
speaking of himself as a player en gros, who 
did not claim (however great his right) to be a 
virtuoso, and that there are instances of his 
having refused to play before great virtuosi 

1. ' My recollections of Mendelssohn's play- 
ing,' says Madame Schumann, ' are among the 
most delightful tilings in my artistic life. It 
was to me a shining ideal, full of genius and 
life, united with technical perfection. He 
would sometimes take the tempi very quick, 
but never to the prejudice of the music It 
never occurred to me to compare him with 
virtuosi. Of mere effects of performance he 
knew nothing — he was always the great musi- 
cian, and in hearing him one forgot the player, 
and only revelled in the full enjoyment of the 
music. He could carry one with him in the 
most incredible manner, and his playing was 
always stamped with beauty and nobility. In 
his early days he had acquired perfection of 
technique ; but latterly, as he often told me, he 
hardly ever practised, and yet he surpassed every 
one. I have heard him in Bach, and Beethoven, 
and in his own compositions, and shall never 
forget the impression he made upon me.' 

2. 'Mendelssohn's playing,' says Ferdinand 
Hiller, 'was to him what flying is to a bird. 
No one wonders why a lark flies, it is inconceiv- 
able without that power. In the same way 
Mendelssohn played the piano because it was 
his nature. He possessed great skill, certainty, 
power, and rapidity of execution, a lovely full 
tone — all in fact that a virtuoso could desire ; 
but these qualities were forgotten while he was 
playing, and one almost overlooked even those 
more spiritual gifts which we call fire, invention, 
soul, apprehension, etc. When he sat down to 
the instrument music streamed from him with 
all the fulness of his inborn genius, — ^he was a 
oentaur, and his horse was the piano. What 
he played, how he played it, and that he was 
the player — all were equally riveting, and it 
was impossible to separate the execution, the 
music, and the executant. This was absolutely 
the case in his improvisations, so poetical, 
artistic, and finished ; and almost as much so 
in his execution of the music of Bach, Mozart, 
Beethoven, or himself. Into those three masters 
he had grown, and they had become his spiritual 
property. The music of other composers he 
knew, but could not produce it as he did theira. 
I do not think, for instance, that his execution 
of Chopin was at all to be compared to his 
execution of the mastera just mentioned ; he 
did not care particularly for it, though when 
alone he played everything good with interest. 
In playing at sight his skill and rapidity of 
comprehension were astonishing, and that not 


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with pianoforte musio only, but with the most 
complicated compositions. He never practised, 
though he once told me that in his Leipzig time 
he had played a shake (I think with the second 
and third fingers) several minutes every day for 
some months, till he was perfect in it/ 

'His staccato,' says Dr. Joachim, 'was the 
most extraordinary thing possible for life and 
crispness. In the Friihlingslied (Songs with- 
out Words, No. 80), for instance, it was quite 
electric, and though I have heard that song 
played by many of the greatest players, I never 
experienced the same effect. His playing was 
extraordinarily full of fire, which could hardly 
be controlled, and yet was controlled, and 
combined with the greatest delicacy. * * Though 
lightness of touch, and a delicious liquid pearli- 
ness of tone,* says another of his pupils,^ * were 
prominent characteristics, yet his power in 
forUi was immense. In the passage in his G 
minor concerto where the whole orchestra makes 
a erescendOf the climax of which is a 6>4 chord 
on D (pianoforte alone), it seemed as if the band 
had quite enough to do to work up to the chord 
he played.' As an instance of the fulness of 
his tone, the same gentleman mentioned the five 
bars of piano which begin Beethoven's G major 
Concerto, and which, though he played them 
perfectly softly, filled the whole room. 

' His mechanism,' says another of his Leipzig 
pupils, 2 *was extremely subtle, and developed 
with the lightest of wrists (never from the arm) ; 
he therefore never strained the instrument or 
hammered. His chord-playing was beautiful, 
and based on a special theory of his own. His 
use of the pedal was very sparing, clearly 
defined, and therefore effective ; his phrasing 
beautifully clear. The performances in which 
I derived the most lasting impressions from him 
were the Thirty-two variations and last Sonata 
(op. Ill) of Beethoven, in which latter the 
variations of the final movement came out more 
clearly in their structure and beauty than I 
have ever heard before or since.* Of his play- 
ing of the Thirty -two variations, Macfarren 
remarks that ' to each one, or each pair, where 
they go in pairs, he gave a character different 
from all the others. In playing at sight from 
a MS. score he characterised every incident by 
the peculiar tone by which he represented the 
instrument for which it was written.*' In 
describing his playing of the Ninth Symphony, 
Schleinitz testified to the same singular power 
of representing the different instruments. A 
still stronger testimony is that of Berlioz, who, 
speaking of thecolour of the * Hebrides ' Overture, 
says that Mendelssohn * succeeded in giving him 
an accurate idea of it, such is his extraordinary 
power of rendering the most complicated scores 
on the piano. * * 

His adherence to his author's meaning, and 

1 Mr. W. 8. Rockatro. * Mr. Otto Ooldaefamidt. 

' Bee Dom. p. 398. 

« ropag« Musical, Letter 4 (vol. L 71. ef teq.). 

to the indications given in the music, was 
absolute. Strict time was one of his hobbies. 
He alludes to it, with an eye to the sins of 
Hiller and Chopin, in a letter of May 23, 1834, 
and somewhere else speaks of 'nice strict tempo' 
as something peculiarly pleasant. After intro- 
ducing some ritardandos in conducting the 
Introduction to Beethoven's Second Symphony, 
he excused himself by saying that ' one could 
not always be good,'^ and that he had felt the 
inclination too strongly to resist it. In play- 
ing, however, he never himself interpolated a 
rUardandOf or suffered it in any one else.® It 
especially enraged him when done at the end of 
a song or other piece. ' Es steht nicht da ! ' he 
would say ; ' if it were intended it would be 
written in — they think it expression, but it is 
sheer affectation.* ^ But though in playing he 
never varied the tempo when once taken, he did 
not always take a movement at the same pace, 
but changed it as his mood was at the time. 
We have seen in the case of Bach's A minor 
Fugue (p. 134a) that he could on occasion intro- 
duce an individual reading ; and his treatment 
of the arpeggios in the Chromatic Fantasia 
shows that, there at least, he allowed himself 
great latitude.^ Still, in intimating this it should 
be remembered how thoroughly he knew these 
great masters, and how perfect his sympathy 
with them was. In conducting, as we have 
just seen, he was more elastic, though even 
there his variations would now be condemned as 
moderate by some conductors. Before he con- 
ducted at the Philharmonic it had been the 
tradition in the coda of the Overture to * E)gmont ' 
to return to 9k piano after the crescendo ; but this 
he would not suffer, and maintained the fortis- 
simo to the end — a practice now always followed. 
He very rarely played from book, and his 
prodigious memory was also often shown in his 
sudden recollection of out-of-the-way pieces. 
Hiller has given two instances of this.® His 
power of retaining things casually heard was also 
shown in his extempore playing, where he would 
recollect the themes of compositions which he 
heard then and there for the first time, and 
would combine them in the happiest manner. 
An instance of this is mentioned by his father,*® 
in which, after Malibran had sung five songs of 
different nations, he was dragged to the piano, 
and improvised upon them all. He himself 
describes another occasion, a 'field day* at 
Baillot's, when he took three themes from the 
Bach sonatas and worked them up to the delight 
and astonishment of an audience worth delight- 
ing. ** At the matinee of the Society of British 
Musicians in 1844, he took his themes from two 
compositions by C. E. Horsley and G. A. Mac- 
farren which he had just heard, probably for the 
first time — and other instances could be given. 

» Mr. Kellow Pye. « Hans Ton Bttlow. 

7 Mrs. Mo«chele« And Mr. W. S. Rockstro. 

P /.. to Fanny, Nov. 14, IMO. •• H. pp. ». 20. 

>o F.H. 1. 877. » iL to RebeckA. ParU, Dec. 90. 18S1. 

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HiB extemporising was, however, marked by 
other traitB than that of memory. * It was/ 
says Mac&rren, ' as flaent and as well planned 
as a written work,' and the themes, whether 
borrowed or invented, were not merely brought 
together but contrapuntally worked. Instances 
of this have been mentioned at Birmingham and 
elsewhere. His tact in these things was pro- 
digious. At the concert given by Jenny Lind 
and himself on Dec. 5, 1845, he played two 
Songs without Words — No. 81, in E flat, and 
No. SO in A major, and he modulated from 
the key of one to that of the other by means of 
a regularly constructed intermezzo, in which the 
semiquavers of the first song merged into the 
arpeggios of the second with the most consum- 
mate art, and with magical effect. ^ But great as 
were his public displays, it would seem that, as 
with Mozart, it was in the small circle of intimate 
friends that his improvisation was most splendid 
and happy. Those only who had the good for- 
tune to find themselves (as rarely happened) 
alone with him at one of his Sunday afternoons 
are perhaps aware of what he could really do in 
this direction,' and he ' never improvised better ' 
or pleased himself more than when Uted tile 
wiUi Queen Victoria and Prince Albert A 
singular fact is mentioned by Hiller,^ which is 
confirmed by another friend of his : that in 
playing his own music he did it with a certain 
reticence, as if not desiring that the work would 
derive any advantage from his execution. The 
explanation is very much in consonance with 
his modesty, but whether correct or not, there 
is no reason to doubt the fact. 

His immense early practice in counterpoint 
under Zelter — like Mozart's under his father — 
had given him so complete a command over all 
the resources of counterpoint, and such a habit 
of looking at themes contrapuntally, that the 
combinations just spoken of came more or less 
naturally to him. In some of his youthful 
compositions he brings his science into promi- 
nence, as in the Fugue in A (op. 7, No. 5) ; the 
Finale of the £ flat string quartet (1828) ; the 
original Minuet and Trio of the string quintet 
in A (op. 18), a double canon of great ingenuity ; 
the Chorus in * St. Paul,' * But our God,* con- 
structed on the chorale ' Wir glauben all ' ; but 
with his maturity he mostly drops such displays, 
and 'Elijah,' as is well known, 'contains no 
fugues.' In extemporising, however, it was at 
his fingers' ends to the last. 

He was also fond of throwing off ingenious 
canons, of which that in the following column, 
written on the moment for Joachim, on March 
11, 1844, is a good example. A somewhat 
similar canon, written in the album of John 
Parry in 1846, is printed in the Musical 
World for August 19, 1848. Another for 
two violas — * Viola 1, Sir G. Smart ; Viola 2, 

> B«oolleoiloiu of Joachim and Roekiiiro. 

* Dr. Klengvl and Stamdala Bennett one« Had this good fortune, 
and it waa a thing ncTcr to ha forgotten. * £r. i>. 18. 

Xttufe/or one iKoIin, or Ccmonfor two vMiiu. 

F. M. B.' — ^is given in Sir Frederick Bridge's 
Primer of Double Counterpoint and Canon, [Yet 
another canon, written in the album of Miss 
Eliza Wesley (daughter of Samuel Wesley) will 
be found in the Musical Times of Feb. and 
April 1896, pp. 89 and 238.] 

Of his organ-playing we have already spoken. 
It should be added that he settled upon his 
combinations of stops before starting, and 
steadily adhered to the plan on which he set 
out ^ ; if he started in three parts he continued 
in three, and the same with four or five. He 
took extraordinary delight in the organ ; some 
describe him as even more at home there than 
on the pianoforte, though this must be taken 
with caution. But it is certain that he loved 
the organ, and was always greatly excited when 
playing it. 

He was fond of playing the viola, and on more 
than one occasion took the first viola part of his 
own Octet in public. The violin he learned 
when young, but neglected it in later life. He 
however played occasionally, and it was amusing 
to see him bending over the desk, and struggling 
with his part just as if he were a boy. His 
practical knowledge of the instrument is evident 
from his violin music, in which there are few 
difficulties which an ordinarily good player can- 
not surmount. But this is characteristic of the 
care and thoughtfnlness of the man. As a rule, 
in his scores he gives each instrument the 
passages which suit it. A few instances of the 
reverse are quoted under Clarinet (vol. i. 
p. 545a), but they are quite the exception. He 
appears to have felt somewhat of the same 
natural dislike to brass instruments that Mozart 
did. At any rate in his early scores he uses 
them with great moderation,^ and somewhere 
makes the just remark that the trombone is * too 
sacred an instrument ' to be used freely. 

The few of Mendelssohn's very early works 
which he published himself, or which have been 
issued since his death, show in certain points 
the traces of his predecessors — of Bacli. Mozart, 
Beethoven, and Weber. But this is only saying 
what can be said of the early works of all com- 
posers, including Beethoven himself. Men- 
delssohn is not more but less amenable to this 
law of nature than most of his compeers. Tlie 
traces of Bach are the most permanent, and they 
linger on in the vocal works even as late as ' St. 

« JtMteea World, Feb. 16. 1838. p. 102. 

' Neither of hie three Concert Orertnrea. nor the Italian and 
Scotch Bfmphonica. hare trombones. As to ' St. PatU.' eee his letter 
to Mr. J. C. Hordey, R.A.. August 23. 1831, in O.^M.f. IUl 

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Paul.' Indeed, Baoh may be tracked still later 
in the solid construction and architectonic ar- 
rangement of the choruses, even of the ' Lob- 
gesang/ the grand Psalms, the 'Walpurgisnacht,' 
and 'El^ah,' works in aU respects emphatically 
Mendelssohn's own, not less than in the reli- 
gious feeling, the union of noble sentiment 
with tender expression, and the utter absence 
of commonness or vulgarity which pervade aU 
his music alike. 

In the instrumental works, however, the year 
1826 broke the spell of all external influence, 
and the Octet, the Quintet in A, and, above 
all, tlie ' Midsummer Night's Dream ' Overture, 
launched him upon the world at seventeen as 
a thoroughly original composer. The Concert- 
overtures, the two great Symphonies, the two 
PF. Concertos, and the Violin Concerto, fully 
maintain this originality, and in thought, style, 
phrase, and clearness of expression, no less than 
in their symmetrical structure and exquisite 
orchestration, are eminently independent and 
individual works. The advance between the 
Symphony in C minor (1824), — which we call 
* No. I.,' though it is really * No. XIII.'~and 
the Italian Symphony (Rome, 1881), is im- 
mense. The former is laid out quite on the 
Mozart plan, and the working throughout re- 
calls the old world. But the latter has no 
model. The melodies and the treatment are 
Mendelssohn's alone, and while in gaiety and 
freshness it is quite unrivalled, it is not too 
much to say that the slow movement is as 
great a novelty as that of Beethoven's piano 
Concerto in G. The Scotch Symphony is as 
original as the Italian, and on a much lai^r 
and grander scale. The opening andante, the 
scherzo, and the finale are especially splendid 
and individual. The Concert-overtures are in 
all essential respects as original as if Beethoven 
had not preceded them by writing * Coriolan ' 
— as true a representative of his genius as the 
' Hebrides ' is of Mendelssohn's. That to the 
'Midsummer Night's Dream,* which brought 
the fairies into the orchestra and fixed them 
there, and which will always remain a monu- 
ment of the fresh feeling of youth ; the * Heb- 
rides ' with its intensely sombre and melancholy 
sentiment, and the 'Melusina* with its pas- 
sionate pathos, have no predecessors in senti- 
ment, treatment, or orchestration. *Ruy 
Bias ' is as brilliant and as full of fire as the 
others are of sentiment, and does not fall a 
step behind them for individuality. 

In these works there is little attempt at any 
modification of the established forms. Innova- 
tion was not Mendelssohn's habit of mind, and 
he rarely attempts it The Scotch Symphony 
is directed to be played through without pause, 
and it has an extra movement in form of a long 
Coda, which appears to be a novelty in pieces of 
this class. There are unimportant variations in 
the form of the concertos, chiefly in the direc- 

tion of compression. But with Mendelssohn, no 
more than with Schubert, do these things force 
themselves on the attention. He has so much 
to say, and says it so well, the music is so good 
and so agreeable, that it never occurs to the 
hearer to inquire if he has altered the external 
proportions of his discourse. 

His Scherzos are still more peculiarly his own 
offspring, and really have no prototypes. That 
in a movement bearing the same name as one 
of Beethoven's most individual creations, and 
occupying the same place in the piece, he should 
have been able to strike out so entirely different 
a path as he did, is a wonderful tribute to his 
originality. Not less remarkable is the variety 
of the many scherzos he has left. They are 
written for orchestra and chamber, concerted 
and solo alike, in double and triple time in- 
differently ; they have no fixed rhythm, and 
notwithstanding a strong family likeness — the 
impress of the gay and delicate mind of their 
composer — are aU independent of each other. 
In his orchestral works Mendelssohn's scoring 
is remarkable not more for its graoe and beauti- 
ful effect than for its clearness and practical 
efficiency. It gives the conductor no difficulty. 
What the composer wishes to express comes out 
naturally, and, as already remarked, each in- 
stmment has with rare exceptions the passages 
best suited to it. 

Mendelssohn's love of 'Programme' is obvious 
throughout the foregoing works. The exquisite 
imitation of Goethe's picture in the Scherzo of 
the Octet (p. 1 1 8a) is the earliest instance of it ; 
the overture founded on his 'Calm sea and 
prosperous voyage' isanother ; and as we advance 
each overture and each symphony has its title. 
He once said, in conversation with Friedrich 
Schneider on the subject, that since Beethoven 
had taken the step he did in the Pastoral 
Symphony, every one was at liberty to follow. ^ 
But the way in which he resented Schumann's 
attempt ^ to discover ' red coral, sea monsters, 
magic castles, and ocean caves' in his ' Melusina' 
overture shows that his view of Programme was 
a broad one, that he did not intend to depict 
scenes or events, but held fast by Beethoven's 
canon, that such music should be ' more expres- 
sion of emotion than painting ' — mehr Ausdruck 
der Empfindung als Malerei. Thus he quotes 
the first few bars of the ' Hebrides ' Overture (see 
p. 124a) not as his recollection of the sound 
of the winds and the waves, but * to show how 
extraordinarily Fingal's cave had affected him ' 
— wie aeltsam mir auf den Hebriden snt Afuih^ 
geworden isb. True, in the 'Midsummer Night's 
Dream ' Overture we are said to hear the bray of 
Bottom in the low G of the ophicleide ; and in 
the three North Wales pieces for pianoforte 
(op. 16) we are told of even more minute touches 

» Sehubrtncr. p. 3475, note. 

^ Fanny, Jan. SO, 1836. The reference is to an article In the 
N.H.X. When aaked what he meant by thU orerture he onoerepUed 
*Hm, une inteiUlance.' 

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of imitation (see p. 128a) ; but tlieee, if not 
imagiDary, are at best hut jeuxcCeaprit. 

Connected with this tendency to Programme 
is a curious point, namely, his belief in the 
absolute and obvioua * meaning' of music 
'Notes,' says he, 'have as definite a meaning 
as words, perhaps even a more definite one,'^ 
and he devotee a whole letter to reiterating that 
music is not too indefinite to be put into words, 
but too definite ; that words are susceptible of 
a variety of meanings, while music has only 
one.' This is not the place to discuss so strange 
a doctrine, which, though true to him, is 
certainly not true to the minority of men, and 
which obviously rests on the predse force of the 
word ' to mean ' (fuissen) ; but it is necessary 
to call attention to it e» paaaaU.^ 

His great works in chamber music are on a 
par wi& those for the orchestra. The octet, 
the quintets, and the six quartets are thoroughly 
individual and interesting, nothing far-fetcSied, 
no striving after effiKt, no emptine8s,no padding, 
but plenty of matter given in a manner at once 
Iresh and varied. Every bar is his own, and 
every bar is well said. The accusation which 
is sometimes brought against them, that they 
are more fitted for the orchestra than the 
chamber, is probably tosomeeztent well founded. 
Indeed Mendelssohn virtually anticipates this 
charge in his preface to the parts of the octet, 
which he desires may be played in a symphonic 
style ; and in that noble piece, as well as in 
parts of the quintet in B fiat and of the quartets 
in D and F minor, many players have felt that 
the compoeer has placed his work in too small 
a frame, that the proper balance cannot always 
be maintained between the leading violin and 
the other instruments, and that to produce all 
the effect of the composer's ideas they should 
be heard in an orchestra of strings rather than 
in a quartet of solo instruments. On the other 
hand, the pianoforte quartet in B minor and 
the two pianoforte trios in D minor and G minor 
have been criticised, probably with some justice, 
as not sufilciently concertante, that is as giving 
too prominent a part to the piano. Suchcriticism 
may detract from the pieces ina technical respect, 
but it leaves the ideas and sentiments of the 
music, the nobility of the style, and the clearness 
of the structure, untouched. 

His additions to the technique of the piano- 
forte are not important. Hiller tells a story 
which shows that Mendelssohn cared little for 
the rich passages of the modem school ; his 
own were quite sufficient for him.^ But this is 
consistent with what we have just said. It was 
the music of which he thought, and as long as 

> £. to Fima TOD Psnink OencM, July 1831. 

* JL to Btmohaj, Oct. 15^ IMS, and oompu* that written to FrtM 
▼on Ptnim, Ctenoa. J11I7 1831. 

* Iba. Anatln (.Awmt** Mag., April 1848. p. 4m) rolatca that be 
eald to her on one ocoaelon * I am solng to plMj aometbing of Beet- 
hoTonti. bat yon murt tell them what It le abont. What Is the 
uee of nndc. If pcofde do not know what it means?' She might 
aoivly have zeplied, * Wbat« then, ie the nee of the imAgiiiationt' 

« J7. PXI. IH IH. 

that expressed his feelings it satisfied him, and 
he was indifferent to the special form into which 
it was thrown. Of his pianoforte works the 
most remarkable is the set of seventeen Varia- 
tions S^rieuses ; but the Fantasia in F sharp 
minor (op. 28), the three great Gapriccios (op. 
88), the Preludes and Fugues, and several of 
the smaller pieces, are splendid works too well 
known to need further mention. The Sougs 
without Words stand by themselves, and are 
especially interesting to Englishmen on account 
of their very great popularity in this country. 
Mendelssohn's orchestral and chamber works are 
greatly played and much enjoyed here, but it 
is to his oratorios, songs, Songs without Words, 
and part-songs, that he owes his firm hold on 
the mass of the English people. It was some 
time (see vol. iL p. 7276) before the Songs with- 
out Words reached the public ; but when once 
they became known, the taste for them quickly 
spread, and probably no pieces ever were so much 
and so permanently beloved in the country. The 
piece, like the name, is virtually his own inven- 
tion. Not a few of Beethoven's movements — 
such as the adagio of the Senate path^tique, or 
the minuet of op. 10, No. 8 — might be classed 
as songs without words, and so might Field's 
nocturnes ; but the former of these are portions 
of larger works, not easily separable, and the 
latter were little known ; and neither of them 
possess that grace and finish, that intimate 
charm, and above all that domestic character, 
which have ensured the success of Mendelssohn's 
Songs without Words in many an English Jamily . 
They soon became identified with his name as 
it grew more and more familiar in England ; 
some of them were composed here, othen had 
names or stories attached to their origin ^ : there 
was a piquancy about the very title — and all 
helped their popularity. Hisown feeling towards 
them was by no means so indulgent It is 
perhaps impossible for a composer to be quite 
impartial towards pieces which make him so 
very popular, but he distinctly says, after the 
issue of Book 8, 'that he does not mean to 
write any more at that time, and that if such 
animalcules are multiplied too much, no one 
will care for them, ' etc • It is difficult to believe 
that so stem a critic of his own productions 
should not have felt the weakness of some of 
them, and the strong mannerism which, with 
a few remarkable exceptions, pervades the whole 
collection. We should not forget, too, that he 
is not answerable for the last two books, which 
were published after his death, without the great 
alterations which he habitujedly made before 
publication. One drawback to the excessive 
popularity of the Songs without Words is, not 

B Such u the well-known one in A (So. 90). which, though in Oer- 
maiiy known •« FrUblingalied. waa in England for a lutig time ealled 
' Oajiiberwell Oreen,' from the fact of its having been eompoeed 
during hit vlelt to the Beneekee, who raeided at Denmark Hill, 
near OunberweU Oreen. The Duet (No. 18) xepreeonte a conTena- 
tion between the compoeer and bla flanote^ 

« £. to Sinuook, Uarch 4. 183B. 

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that they exist — for we might as well quarrel 
with Goethe for the * Wandrers Nachtlied ' or 
the ' Haidenroslein ' — nor yet the number of 
imitations they produced, but that in the minds 
of thousands these graceful trifles, many of which 
were thrown off at a single sitting, are indis- 
criminately accepted as the most characteristic 
representatives of the genius of the composer 
of the violin concerto and the 'Hebrides* over- 

His songs may be said to have introduced 
the German Lied to England, and to have led 
the way for the deeper strains of Schumann, 
Schubert, and Brahms, in English houses and 
concert-rooms. No doubt the songs of those 
composers do touch lower depths of the heart 
than Mendelssohn's do ; but the clearness and 
directness of his music, the spontaneity of his 
melody, and a certain pure charm pervading 
the whole, have given a place with the great 
public to some of his songs, such as ' Anf Flugeln 
des Gesanges,' which they will probably retain 
for a long time to come. Others, such as the 
Nachtlied, the Volkslied ('Es ist bestimmt*), 
and the Schilflied, are deeply pathetic ; others, 
as the 'Lieblingsplatzchen,' are at the same time 
extremely original ; others, as 'O Jugend,' the 
' Jagdlied,' and *An die Entfemte,' the soul of 
gaiety. He was very fastidious in his choice of 
words, and often marks his sense of the climax 
by varying the last stanza in accompaniment or 
otherwise, a practice which he was perhaps the 
first to adopt. One of his last commissions to his 
friend Professor Graves, before leaving Interlaken 
in 1847, was to select words from the English 
poets for him to set to music 

His part-songs gave the majority of English 
amateurs a sudden and delightful introduction 
to a class of music which had long existed fer 
Germans, but which till about 1840 was little 
known here. Many can still recollect the 
utterly new and strange feeling which was then 
awakened in their minds by the new spirit, the 
delicacy, the pure style, the delicious harmonies, 
of these enchanting little compositions 1 

Ever since Handel's time, oratorios have been 
the favourite public music here. Mendelssohn's 
works of this class, *St. Paul,* 'Ely ah,* the 
' Lobgesang,* soon became well known. They 
did not come as strangers, but as the younger 
brothers of the ' Messiah * and 'Judas Maocabaeus, * 
and we liked them at once. Nor only liked 
them ; we were proud of them , as having been pro- 
duced or very early performed in England ; they 
appealed to our national love for the Bible, and 
there is no doubt that to them is largely owing 
the position next to Handel which Mendelssohn 
occupies in England. ' Elyah * at once took its 
place, and it is now on a level with the 'Messiah ' 
in public favour. Apart from the intrinsic quali- 
ties of the music of his large vocal works, the 
melody, clearness, spirit, and symmetry which 
they exhibit, in common with his instrumental 

compositions ; there is one thing which remark- 
ably distinguishes them, and in which they are 
far in advance of their predecessors — a simple 
and direct attempt to set the subject forth as it 
was, to think first of the story and next of the 
music which depicted it. It is the same thing 
that we formerly attempted to bring out in 
Beethoven's case, 'the thoughts and emotions 
are the first things, and the forms of expression 
second and subordinate * (vol. i. p. 2686). We 
may call this 'dramatic,' inasmuch as the 
books of oratorios are more or less dramas ; and 
Mendelssohn's letters to Schubring in reference 
to 'Elijah,* his demand for more 'questions 
and answers, replies and rejoinders, sudden 
interruptions,' etc., show how thin was the line 
which in his opinion divided the platform from 
the stage, and how keenly he wished the person- 
ages of his oratorios to be alive and acting, ' not 
mere musical images, but inhabitants of a 
definite active world. *^ But yet it was not so 
much dramatic in any conscious sense as a desire 
to set things forth as they were. Hauptmann * 
has stated this well with regard to the three 
noble Psalms, 'Judge me, O God,' 'Why rage 
fiercely the heathen ? * and ' My God, why hast 
thou forsaken me f ' He says that it is not 
so much any musical or technical ability that 
places them so far above other similar com- 
positionsof ourtime, as the fact that Mendelssohn 
has 'just put the Psalm itself before him ; not 
Bach, or Handel, or Palestrina, or any other style 
or composer, but the words of the Psalmist ; and 
the result is not anything that can be classed as 
new or old, but the Psalm itself in thoroughly 
fine musical effect ; the music not pretending to 
be scientific, or anything on its own account, 
but just throwing life and feeling into the dry 
words.' Any one who knows these psalms wiU 
recognise the truth of this description. It is 
almost more true in reference to the 1 1 4th Psalm, 
' When Israel out of Egypt came. ' The Jewish 
blood of Mendelssohn must surely for once have 
beat fiercely over this picture of the great triumph 
of his forefathers, and it is only the plain truth 
to say that in directness and force his music is 
a perfect match for the splendid words of the 
uxjcnown Psalmist. It is true of his oratorios 
also, but they have other great qualities as welL 
' St. Paul ' with all its great beauties is an early 
work, the book of which, or rather perhaps the 
nature of the subject, does not whoUy lend itself 
to forcible treatment, and it is an open question 
whether it can fully vie with either the * Lobge- 
sang, ' or ' Athalie, ' or still more ' Ely ah. ' These 
splendid compositions have that air of distinction 
which stamps a great work in every art, and 
which a great master alone can confer. As 
instances of this, take the scene of the Watch- 
man and the concluding^chorus in the 'Lobgesang' 
— ' Ye nations * ; or in ' Ely ah ' the two double 

. 1 £. to Sohnbrinf . Nor. S. Dm. «. 1838. 

* Savptnuan *• letUr to HaoNr. Jan. 18, 1880. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



Quartets ; the arioso, ' Woe onto them/ which 
might be the wail of a pitying archangel ; the 
choruses, ' Thanks be to God,' * Be not afraid/ 
* He watching over Israel/ ' Behold ! Qod the 
Lord passed by ' ; the great piece of declamation 
for soprano which opens the second part ; the 
unaccompanied trio < Lift thine eyes/ the tenor 
air 'Then shall the righteous/ These are not 
only fine as music, but are animated by that 
lofty and truly dramatic character which makes 
one forget the vehicle, and live only in the 
noble sentiment of the scene as it passes. 

' Lauda Sion/ though owing to circumstances 
less known, has the same great qualities, and is 
a worthy setting of the truly inspired hymn in 
which St. Thomas Aquinas was enabled to rise 
so high above the metaphysical subtleties of his 
day. This piece of Roman Catholic music — 
Mendelssohn's only important one — shows what 
he might have done had he written a Mass, as 
he once threatened to do.^ It would have been 
written *with a constant recollection of its sacred 
purpose ' ; and remembering how solemn a thing 
religion was to him, and how much he was 
affected by fine words, we may well regret that 
h^ did not accomplish the suggestion. 

'Antigone' and 'CEdipus,' owing to the re- 
moteness of the dramas, both in subject and 
treatment, necessarily address themselves to a 
limited audience, though to that audience they 
will always be profoundly interesting, not only 
for the lofty character of the music, but for the 
able and thoroughly natural manner in which 
Mendelssohn carried out a task full of difficulties 
and of temptations to absurdity, by simply 
'creating music for the choruses in the good 
and scientific style of the present day, to ex- 
press and animate their meaning. '> 

The ' Midsummer Night's Dream ' music is a 
perfect illustration of Shakespeare's romantic 
play, and will be loved as long as beauty, senti- 
ment, humour, and exquisite workmanship are 
honoured in the world. 

How far Mendelssohn would have succeeded 
with an opera, had he met with a libretto 
entirely to his mind — which that of ' Loreley ' 
was not — it is difficult to say. Fastidious he 
certainly was, though hardly more, so than 
Beethoven (see vol. i p. 2545), and probably 
for much the same reasons. Times had changed 
since the lively intrigues and thinly veiled 
immoralities of Da Ponte were sufficient to 
animate the pen of the divine Mozart ; and the 
secret of the fastidiousness of Beethoven and 
Mendelssohn was that they wanted librettists of 
their own lofty level in genius and morality, a 
want in which they were many generations too 
early. Opera will not take its proper place in 
the world till subjects shall be found of modem 
times, with which every one can sympathise, 
treated by the poet, before they come into the 

1 L. to PMtor Bauer. Jan. IS, 18S8. 
< L. to Mttller. Maroh IS. 1840. 

hands of the composer, in a thoroughly pure, 
lofty, and inspiriting manner. 

' Camaoho ' is too juvenile a composition, on 
too poor a libretto, to enable any inference to be 
drawn from it as to Mendelssohn's competence 
for the stage. But, judging from the dramatic 
power present in his other works, from the 
stage -instinct displayed in the 'Midsummer 
Night's Dream ' music, and still more from the 
very successful treatment of the finale to the 
first act of 'Loreley' — the only part of the 
book which he is said really to have cared for — 
we may anticipate that his opera, when he had 
found the book he liked, would have been a very 
fine work. At any rate we may be certain that 
of all its critics he would have been the most 
severe, and that he would not have suffered it 
to be put on the stage till he was quite satisfied 
with his treatment. 

We must now close this long and yet imper- 
fect attempt to set Mendelssohn forth as he was. 
Few instances can be found in history of a man 
so amply gifted with every good quality pf mind 
and heart; so carefully brought up amongst 
good influences ; endowed with every circum- 
stance that would make him happy ; and so 
thoroughly fulfilling his mission. Never per- 
haps could any man be found in whose life there 
were so few things to conceal and to regret. 

Is there any drawback to this % or, in other 
words, does his music suffer at all from what 
he calls his ' habitual cheerfulness ' ? It seems 
as if there was a drawback, and that arising 
more or less directly from those very points 
which we have named as his best characteristics 
— his happy healthy heart, his single mind, his 
unfailing good spirits, his simple trust in God, 
his unaffected directness of purpose. It is not 
that he had not genius. The great works enu- 
merated prove that he had it in large measure. 
No man could have called up the new emotions 
of the 'Midsummer Night's Dream' overture, 
the wonderful pictures of the Hebrides, or the 
pathetic distress of the lovely Melusina, without 
genius of the highest order. But his genius 
had not been subjected to those fiery trials 
which seem neoessary to ensure its abiding pos- 
session of the depths of the human heart. ' My 
music,' says Schubert, 'is the product of my 
genius and my misery ; and that which I have 
written in my greatest distress is that which 
the world seems to like best. ' Now Mendelssohn 
was never more than temporarily unhappy. He 
did not know distress as he knew happiness. 
Perhaps there was even something in the con- 
stitution of his mind which forbade his harbour- 
ing it, or being permanently affected by it. 
He was so practical, that as a m^Ar of duty 
he would have thrown it off. Ii^bis as in 
most other things he was always unddk control. 
At any rate he was never tried by poverty, 
or disappointment, or ill -health, or a morbid 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



temper, or neglect, or the perfidy of friends, orany 
of the other great ills which crowded so thickly 
around BeethoTen, Schubert^ or Schumann. Who 
can wish that he had been f that that bright, 
pure, aspiring spirit should have been dulled by 
distress or torn with agony? It might haye 
lent a deeper undertone to lus songs, or have 
enabled his adagios to draw tears where now 
they only give a saddened pleasure. But let us 
take the man as we have him. Surely there is 

enough of conflict and violence in life and in art 
When we want to be made imhappy we can turn 
to others. It is well in these agitated modem 
days to be able to point to one perfectly balanced 
nature, in whose life, whose letters, and whoso 
music alike, all is at once manly and refined, 
clever and pure, brilliant and solid. For the 
exgoyment of such shining heights of goodness 
we may well forego for once the depths of 
misery and sorrow. 

The following opening of the first movement of a symphony was foimd among the loose papers 
of MendolBBohn which belonged to his elder daughter, the late Mrs. 0. Victor Benecke, and is here 
2>rinted by her kind permission. The MS. is in full score, and has been compressed for this 
occasion by Mr, Franklin Taylor, so as accurately to represent the scoring of the original. No 
clue to its date has yet been discovered. 

fcLJ,- r IJ.^ 

r^ ^ i j^ r pfi i 


Ob. col. Viol 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


1 ^ nj j,j Ml ml r a ^rr a i^ia^r!^!!^^ 

_ -^-v -0^^ ^^_ Tiif+i Strings. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



List of Mendelssohn's Published Works taken from the Thematic Catalogue published hj 
Messrs. Breitkopf k Hiirtel in 1882, with additions and corrections from other sources. The 
dates of composition are also given, when discoverable, together with the names of the persons 
to whom the works were dedicated, [and the original English and German publishers, so far 
as they can be traced.] 

I>at9 €^f OompoMiOH. 

EHgMtk PttUUktr. 

Qokitat In C minor. No. 1, pC 

Da In F minor. No. JL 
Da In B minor, Ka S. 

SonJkU, In F minor, pf. and tb. 

AfwiOTt Sflcnoron. B6pVk 90. 

fsna-Mmisd. BvUb. Oct. 

Not. 19 and SO : Dm. I. ISSS. 
Oet.7. ISM; JMi.S.iaa»- 

at ml. Jan. iB. 18B. 

Anton. Count Badii- 



BohlMingar. Berlin. 

Latw, Berlin. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 






O^rmoH PubUak0r. 


Oftprioelo. In F ibarp minor. pL 

Berlin. July 83. 1886. 




Sonate. in K. pL 

Berlin. March 22. 1896. 

Ewer k Co. 

Laue. Berlin. 


B«r«n ehMmetarirtie piecM. pL 





12 Song! (No. IS da«t;. /f.B.— 
Not. S. 8. and 13 an by Fknny 

IS Sonn (Part L. Tht Youth : 
PartTl-.TheMalden). iV.A- 




No. 8. BerUn, April 8. 




Noa. 7. 10. and ISanby FMiny 


•The Wcddlnc of Camaeho.' 

At the *nd, Berlin. August 


Wessel (overtun). 


oomie open In S tusU. 


U 1 Symphony in C minor. No. 1. 
•Slnfoal* ziU in C.' orch. 

March 8. 9. 81. 1821 

The Philharmonic 

Cnmer (pf. arrt. 


Society. London. 

4 hands). 


Qoartct in B flat. Mo. 1. strlngi. 

London. Sept. 14. 1929. 



Da in A. No. S. 

Berlin. Oct. 26. 1827. 


Bnitkopf * HKrtel. 


Rondo oapricdo in B. pL Onthelrlah 


Mecbettl. Vienna. 




air. 'The Laat Som of 8nra- 


8 l^tadaa (or Caprlon) in A 

Mo. 1. Coed-du. North 

Miss (Anne) Taylor (of 



Wales. Sept 4. 1829. 
•Boeen und Nelken in 
Menge': No. 9. Norwood. 
Sumy, Nov. 13. 1829: 

Miss Honorla Taylor. 

Mo. 8. Cued-du. SepU 5. 
BerUn. Jan. 80, 1888. 

Miss Susan Ikylor. 


Paul M.-B. (brother of 



pt and riolonoello. 



Qalnt«t in A. atringa. 

Sept. 28. 1831. 



6 Songs, voice and pf. 


Breitkopf & HKrteL 


6 Songt without words. BooIk I.. 
Original Bngltsh UUe : • Malo- 

Mo. 6. 'Auf'iiner Oondel.' 
Venice. Oct. 16. 1880. 




Octet in B flat, strings. 

E. Bits (or Riets). 

Bnitkopf A HKrUl. 

BerUn. Aug^' 6. 1886. 

Crown Prince of Prus- 


C^priodo brillante In B minor. 

it. and orch. 
8 Ptoees of Church musle. solo. 



Mori * Lavenu. 



Ewer A Ca 


chorus, and organ :— 

Na 1. Ana tlefer Noih (' In 

Vo. S. Are Maria (8 roioas). 

Na 8. Mitten wlr (8 voiosel. 


Orertun in C. Wind band. • fOr 

Cnmer (pf. arrt). 
(4 hands, and called 



Concerto in O minor, pL and 
orch.. Mo. 1. 


•Military duet'). 
Mori * Lavenu. 

Breitkopf *HKrtel. 


•The Hebrides.' or 'Flngal's 
Cave,' Concert overtnn in B 

First form. Borne, Dec 16. 

Crown Prince of Prus- 



1830: revised form. Lon- 


(pf. 4 hands). 

minor. Mo. 2. orch. 

don. June 90. 1882. 


voyage.' Concert overture, in 
D, Mo. 8. orch. 
riantaaie In F sharp minor. 


(pf. 4 hands). 



Beriln. Jan. 29. 1888. 

Ignax Moscheles. 





Bondo (or Capriccio) briUante 
in B flat. pf. and oreh. 

6 Songs without words, pf.. 
Book IL. English Uties: 
•Six Melodies' and 'Six 

DBaaeldorf . Jan. 29. 1884 



Bnitkopf * HKrteL 


Mo. 4, Jan. sa 1888 (T) 

FriKoleln Ellsa von 



No. 5, Deo. 12. 1888w 




Psalm lis. solo, chorus and 
orch.. ' Mot unto us. Lord.' 

Nov. 16. 1880. 




*To the story of the lovely 
Melnslna.' Concert ovartun 
in P. No. 4. orch. 

flat minor, pt 
6 Songs, voice and pf. 

DOaseldort Nov. 14. 1888. 

Crown Prince of Prus- 


Breitkopf * HKrteL 


(pf. eolo). 


N« >.3. 

Cart Klingemann. 

Mori * Lavenu. 



N< 'll. 

Frilulein Julie Jean- 






6 Pnlndes and Fugues. pL 

N< >eo. 

( rue. 

] 82: 

; nt, 



1 >ec. 
J »ip- 
J tue. 

Fart"i.."Lii^. April 8. 
1838; ,P»rtjT., Lelptig. 

Mori * Lavenu. 







8 Pnlndes and Fugues, organ. 

M- pril 
. 1. 

Thomas Attwood. 


Breitkopf & HKrteL 


6 Songs without words, pf.. 

N( B7; 

FrKulein Rosa von 



Book III. 




8 Motets, femala voices and 
organ (or pf.). * FQr die Stira- 

Trinlt4 da' Monti.' 

Ai !ur. 

1 ded 

. i» 

i ,14. 





CoDOPrto In D minarw pf. and 
onh.. Mo. 1 


Bnitkopf A Hlrt^. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 






EftfflUh PuUUlftr. 


6 Put -longs. 8.A.T.B.. 'for 
•inglng In the open air.' lit 
■et. The earlieit appear- 

No. 4, DUsseldorf , Jan. 22. 


Brritkopf * HKrteL 

part lougs in England was 
In No. 08 of Ewer * Co.'i 

Orpheoi ooUeoUoo, which 

began in 1838. 


Plalm 48. loli, ohomi. and 
orch.. 'As the hart panta' 




Bervnade and Allegro glojoeo 

In B minor, pf. and orch. 
S Qoartete in D. B minor. E 

April 11. 1838. 




Na 8. Berlin. July 94. 

TlMFtinoe of Sweden. 

Breitkopf * HXrteL 

flat, itringi. Nos. S, 4, and 6. 

1838; No. 4. June 18. 
1837; No. 0, Feb. 8. 


Sonata In B flat, pf. and 

Leipaig, Oct. 13. 1838. 


F. Kistner. Leipstg. 


FMlm 90. tenor lolo. ehorui. 

Final chorus (In E flat), 
Leipslg. April 11. 18S9L 



and orch., '0 oome let ni 
8 Bongs, Toioe and pf . 


No. 8, Leipdg. April 17. 

Frau Constause 

Breitkopf *HKrteL 

1838; No. 4, April 18. 
1838; No. 6. Luodon. 




8 Fart-eongs, 8.A.T.B., Snd set. 

No. ] ►. 8, 

L« BO; 

Nc »]; 

Ne No. 

8. 10. 
AtUt e8. 

Dr. MarUn and Dr. 



THo in D minor, pf.. vloUn 



and TiolonceUo. 

189 ort, 
Ju slp- 

nS led.' 

Die Uedertafel, Lslp- 



wl Uli- 


184O:No.0, Dea7.1830; 
No. i, Jan. 8. 1840. 


Pialm 114, 8-part chonis and 
orch., 'When Iiraal out of 

J. W. Bchirmer (the 




Lobgeeang (Hymn of Pralee). 

No. 0. April 30. 1841; No. 

Fx«deric Augustus. 




8 Bongs i^thout words, pf.. 

17 TarUUons eirienMe in D 

Duke of Saxony. 
Miss Sophy Horsley. 





Mecbettl. Vieuiia. 

minor, pf. 


Antigone of Bophocles; mnilc 
to, male voloee and oroh. 

Bertin. Oct 10. 1841. 

King of Prussia. 




Bootch/No. 8, owh. 

Berlin. Jan. 90, 1813. 

Queen Victoria. 


Breitkopf AHKrteL 


No. 2. April 90. 1888 (</. 
on. 88, No. 8): No. 6. 
•Rendea-vous.' Berlin. 




Oct. 17. 1843; No. 8. 

'Frische Fshrt,' April 


Bonata in D. pf. and violon- 

Oount Mathlas Wiel- 




oello. No. 2. 
8 Fari^ongs, B.A.T.B., 3rd set. 

No. 1. Ldprig. Nov. 98. 
1887; No. 2. Jan. 17. 

Maroh 4.^1843: No. 4. 

Fra!?%^ette Ben- 


Breitkopf *Bibrt«L 

Lcipriff. June 10. 1843; 

No. 0, March 4. 1843; 

1st version. Milan. July 10. 
1831. and Faris, Feb. IS, 


Flnt Walpnivls night. Mnsie 
to Goethe's 'Ballad, ehoms 






•A Midsummer Nights Drwun.' 
Music to. solo, chorus, and 
orch. (exclusive of oTerture, 
for which see op. 911. 

8 Bongs without words, pi. 

Helnrich Conzad 


Breitkopf * HJirteL 


No. 1, Jan. 6 and 12,1844; 

Frau Clam Schu- 




No. 2. July 29. 1843; No. 
6. Denmark Hill. June 1. 




6 Duets, voices and pf. 

No. 1. Frsnkfort, Dec 
1838: No. 4 originally for 
pt duet; No. 6. BerUn. 
OcL17,1849; No. 6, Jan. 

Bept. 16. 1844. 



Concerto in E, vn. and oroh. 


Brdtko^ HiirteL 

£5 , 6 Booatas. organ. [Fbr the hle- 

Bon. 1 : No. 1. Frankfort. 

Coventry ib Hollier. 

tory of these organ sonatas. 

Dec. 98. 1844; No. 2, Dec 

see Muncat Timet. 1901. p. 

19. 1844; No. 4, Aug. 18. 

794, and 1908, p. 96.] 

Bon. 9: No. 1. Frankfort. 
Dec 21, 1844; No. 3 
(Fugue), July 14. 1839. 


and Dec 19. 1844. 

Bon. 3t No. 1, August 9. 
1844; No. 2, August 17. 

Bon. 4 : Nos. 1 and 2. Frank- 
fort, Jan. 2. 1840. 

Bon.0: Nos. 2 and 3, Bept. 
9 1844. 

Bon. 6: Na 1. Frankfort, 
Jan. 26. 1840; Na 4 

(Fugue). Frankfort, Jan. 


Digitized by CjOOQIC 





German PuiUa^. 

Trio In minor, pC. m.. Md 



Br«ltkopf k HKrtal. 

Nal.JnneS9.184S: NaS. 

FrluUin Sophia 



Ftanklort. May t. 1840; 

Bomb. Jan. 5 and IS, 1844. 

•An <U« KOnsUer' ("To th* 



ions of art). SchlUer'apoun. 
FflctcMang. M»ltToioMMMi 

flnt German -nemiah Tooal 

• f«>ttTalatColoaie.JiUMl84S. 
t BngUah CbnrSTplaoet, wlo 

No. 1. Badn-Badan. Jona 



Tolow and chomaHD Nnne 

IS. 1847; No. S, Lalpala. 
April 5, 1817; NdTs. 

dimitti*: (2) JubUata; (S) 


Aulen-Badan. Jona 18. 

•Elijah.' oratorio. 

At LOg. 



6 Songa. roloe and pL 

N< SS. 


. 8. 


N< No. 


Breitkopf A HlrteL 

6 Kindantfleke. pC. Known 

No.1. LOU BMiaeka; 



in England aa 'Chriatmas 
pleow,'^ and compoaad at 
DnmMrk HIU. London. 

No. S. Bdward Ban- 


lAoda Slon, cantata, ehonu 
and orch. For St. Martin's 
ehnrch, Litga. 

•Athalia.' Moalc to Badna's, 
■oil, ohorua, and orch. 

-i Part-aonga, male roioea. 

4 Part-aonga. male Toioea. 

3 dueta, Toicea and pf. Na 3 
is from ' Boy Bias. 

3 Ftelma— the Sod. 49rd. and 
SSnd. sulo and choms. For 
the Domchor, Berlin. 

6 Anthems. 8-part choms. For 
the Domchor, Berlin. 

Quartet in F minor, strings. 

Andante in B. Bchersn in A 
minor. Capriocio in R minor, 
Fugne in E flat, strings. 

Variations in E flat. pf. 

Variations in B flat, pf. 

Variations arranged for 4 

8 Songs for a low Toloe and pf . 

e Songs without words, pf., 

6 Songs, voice and pf. 

Quintet in B flat, strings. 

6 FWrt-songs, 8.A.T.B. (4th set). 

Heimkehr ana d( 
('Son and Stranger'). Sing- 
spiel in 1 Act. 

The ' Italian Sjrmphony,' Sym- 
phony in A, orcn. 

Psalm 96. 'Sing to the Lord.' 
8-part chorus and orch. For 
the Festival Service in Ber- 
lin Cathedral on New Year's 
Day. 1844. 

AUe«ro brillant in A. pf.. 4 

(Edipus in Colonoeby Sophorle*. 
Music to, male voices and 

Infelice!' Concert -air in B 
flat, soprano solo and orch. 

95 ' Buy Bias,' Overture, orch. 

Feb. 10. 1848w 






Na S. 
1843; Na 4, Feb. 14, 
1844: Nafi. Oet.6.1840; 
Na 6, Febw 18. 1844. 

Interlaken, Sept. 1847. 

Lalpaig. July SB, 1841. 

No. 1, DOsseldorf. Dec. 6. 

1831; No. 3. Feb. S6. 

1839; Na 3, May SS, 

Na S. DOsseldorf. Jme 9. 

1834; No. 4. Frankfort. 

May 3 and 6, 1840; Na fi. 

Frankfort, May 7. 1845 ; 

Na 6, May 1. 1841. 
No. 3. Unterseen. August 

10. 1831 ; Na 6. Oct. 7. 

Soden. July 8. 1845. 
Na 1. August 8. 1844; No. 

3. Leipaig. June SO. 1813 : 

Na 8, April 20. 1839; 

Na 4, Leipaig. Jane 19. 

184S; Na 6. Leipzig. 

Mansh 10, 1840. 

Berlin. March 13. 1833. 
Dec. 27. 1843. 

Leipzig. March S3, 1841. 
Frankfort, Feb. 26. IftiS. 

let version, with vn. obbl., 
April 3. 1834; 2nd ver- 
sion. Leipzig. Jan. 15. 

liCipsig. March 8. 1839. 




Breitkopf k Hiirtel. 


Da; Na 3, Crana. 

Breitkopf k Hiirtel. 



Breitkopf * HUrteL 







Breitkopf A Hiirtel 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 





guglUh PuUtiher. 

etrman PuhUdtsr. 


Hymn, alto aolo. cbonu and Ldptlg. Dm. 14, 1840 : Jan. 
orch. CoinpoMd for Mr. 6. 1843 (final chonu). 



[Or.]C. Broadley. 

Autograph in British 
Museum (Add. MS. 


Recitativet and chonuM. ' 




(1) Loreley, uuflnished opera, 
■olo. chorua. and orch. Fi- 
nale to 1st act. 




(2) Lorelej. Ave Maria, 1010 
and chonu of female Toicee. 



(3) Loreley, Vintage chorua. 
male voices and orch. 




6 Bongs, voice and pf. 

1841; No. 4. Junes. 1841; 
No. 6. Leipcig. Dee. 22. 

No. l.Augast 8. 1844: No. 
2. June 20. 1843; No. 4. 


Breitkopf * BXrUL 


4 Fart-tongs, 8.A.T.a 



Fimnkfort. June 14. 1839. 


Overture in C (• Trumpet over- . 
tore '), orvh. | 
6 Songs without words, pf.. No. I.London. June 1.1842; 






Book VIIL 

No. 2. Fiaukfort, Mmy 11, 
1845. Pflngsten; Noe. 3 
12, 1845. 


Trauer-Marscb in A minor. 


J. Rleter-Biedcrinann. 

orch. For funeral of Korbert 


3 Frelude. and 3 Studies, pf. 


Bk. 1, No. 1. Leipzig. Dec. 

8. 1836; No. 2. Oct. 12. 

1836; No. 3. Nov. 27. 

Bk. 2. No. 1. June 9. 1836; 

No. 2. DOseeldorf. April 

21. 1884. 


Bartholf SenfL 


Sonata in O minor, pf. 

Aa^un, June 16. 1890. Prato, 

August 18. 1821. 
Berlin. Mmy 31. IST. 


J. Rieter-BledenuaoD. 


Sonato in B flat. pf. 




' The BeformaUon Symphony ' 

in 0. No. 6, orch. 
March in D. orch. For the 





< in 


So: D. 

Mile. Lisa CristUal. 


Bartholf SenlL 


Se; as. 

April and May 1824. 




Tu rus 

Nov. 1827. 




'j fii 




\ S aet 

No. 1. Berlin. Jan. 19, 1883. 

Heinrieh BiLrmann. 


J. AndnS (OUtabaoh). 


I P'- 

Benr., and 

I" ad 

Carl Biirmann. Jnnr. 

2g «s. 



Fu Soden. July 8, 184fi. 





All )ut 
words in E minor, pf. 




Capriceio in E. pf. 

Blngen. July 11. 1837. 




PerpetQum mobile in C, pf. 




4 I'art-songs, male voices. 

No. 2, Leipzig. Feb. 90. 1847. 




male voices, with acoompt. of 
Tiolonoello and bass <orgau). 

F. E. C. Leuckart 


Etnde in F minor, pf. For the 
• M^thode des Mdthodes.' 

Rcheno in B minor, pf. 

Scherao and Capriceio In F sharp 
minor, pf. For the Pianists 

2 Romances of Lord Byron's, voice 
and pf . : ' There be none of 
beauty's daughters,' and ' Sun of 
the sleeplen.^ 

• Verlelh* uns Frieden ' ; ' Grant us 
Thy peace.' Prayer, chorus and 

Andante eantabile and Presto agi- 
tato in B, pf. For the Album 
of 1839. 

The Gitrland, voice and pf.. poem 
by Thomas Moore. 

Ersatz fUr Uubeataud. part-song, 
male voices, poem by BQckert. 
For Tauchnitz's Mnsen-almanach. 

Festgesang, male churns and 
orch. Composed for thn Guten- 
berg Festival at Leipsig. held in 
1840, in celebration of the inven- 
tion of printing. [No. 2 is asaoci- 
Hied in England with the words 
of Charles Wesley's Christmas 
hymn ' Hark ! the hentld angels 
Ring.' to which it was adapted by 
Dr. W. H. Cnniminga 

Leipaig. March 13, 1836. 

No. 2. DflMrldorf, Dec. 31. 

Rome. Feb. 10. 1831. 

Berlin. Jane 22. 1838. 

London. May 24, 1829. 
Nov. 22. 1839. 

Preaident Vcrkenitis. 


Mori * Lavenu. 




Breitkopf k Hiirtel. 



Bpehr. Brunswick. 

Breitkopf * HiirteL 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





EngtUh J^UMer. 

OermMi PuUWur. 

Lelpaig. Feb. 6. 1837. 


P. W. Arnold 



S Volkalladar. S TotoM and pf. 



• Lord, li*T« inocr upon xu ' (Kyrle). 
'For •▼•nlng Mrric..' Voloes 

Berlin. Maxdi' 94. uas. 



only. 'ForMr.Attwood.' In the 

• Album fttr Gmuk.' Flzst pub- 

lJ«h«l In Knidand In Bwu^'i 
Orph«a«, BookXH. 


Frelude and fnrat In B minor, 
pf. For the Album Notre temps. 

Prelude. Leipdg. July 18. 


1841; Fugue. June 16. 

3 Sacred ehonucs. forming part 


of opL 90. 

'Hear my prayer.' hymn, aopnuo 
■olo. ohoma, and oraau; after- 

Jan. 3S. 1844. 



E. Bote t O. Bock. 

Orcheatrsl Score, 


la only publlahed in England, not 
in Germany. 
Wamung Tor dem Bheln, poem by 


C. Slmrock. voice and pL 

8 Bonp, Toloe and pf. 

No. 1. BerUn. August 17, 

No. 1. April 90. 1841. 

F. W. Arnold. 

S Song*. Toioe and pf. 


9 CUvleretaeke. In B flat and 
minor, pf. 

Mori ftLavenu. 


Printed in 'Apollo's 


Hoffhiann ▼. FhUenUben. Toice 

011t.orTlie Musi- 


oal Sonvenlr,' for 
1831. p. 96 (Chap- 

Berlin. Jan. Ifi. ISO. 

C. F. Kahnt (LolF>ig). 


•chart der Freunde In Berlin. 

Jan. 1843.' 

Dee Mtfdcheiu Klage. Bomanoe, 

Schuberth k Co. 

Toloe andpf. 


Xyrle Bleieon. mixed Toices. doable 


E. Bote & O. Book. 

dionia (DeutKhe Litnrgle). 

Ehre eel Qott In der HOhe ; Helllg: 


PMlm 100. Three eacred pleece. 

Noe. 1 and 2. double choir ; No. S. 

4Toloee,from 'Muslea Sacra.' Band 

7. Noc 17 and 18. Band 8, Na 10. 

Te Deum in A (BngUah Chunh 


(Not published io 


(Not^Sfilfed in 

' The Evening Bell.' for harp and pf. 
The • beir waa that of Attwood'e 

Norwood, Nov. 1899. 



gate. BtiMuthstaHaumU in Lon- 
don, ^h. 
Fugue in F minor, organ. 

Frankfort. July 18. 1838. 

Stanley Lucas * Co. 

(Not pnUlshed in 


(Not published in 

Two pieces, organ. 

Novello (1886). 

(1 ) Andante with varlatlanein D. 

July 9S. 18441" 


IS) Allegro in B flat 

Deo. SI. 1844. 

Duo ooncertant, variatione upon 

Mme. U Baitnme 0. 



the March In Weber's Predosa. 


pf.. 4 hands. Jointly compoaed by 
Mendelssohn and Ignas Mo- 


[Hymn-tune. Psalm zxxi., 'Defend 
me. Lord, from shame.' Com- 
posed for the ' National Psalmist ' 
(1830). edited by Charles Danvers 

Praeludi am in C minor for the organ. 
Composed for Mr. Henry K Dib- 

Additional (final) ohonu to Psalm 
96 (op. 46). 

String quartet in E ilat. Auto- 
graph in British Museum (Add. 
MS. 30.900). 

Feb. 27. 1838. 

Lelpsig. July 9. 1841. 

Leipcig. April 11. 1838. 
March 5^. 1823. 

Patetaon & Co. 

(Not published in 

(Not poblished In 


Brier (Berlin). 


Handel's ' Dettingen Te Deum,' with additional aceompaniiueutSL 
Score and parts. (Klstner.) 

Handel's ' Ads and Galatea.' with additional aooompanimenta. 

[HHndel's ' Israel in Egypt,' edited for the London Haudel S<K:lety ; 
Mendelaaohn wrote a spedsJ organ part, and the edition wiw pub- 
lished by Cramer * Co. in June 1846. For the interesting corre- 

spondence with G. A. Macfarren on the subject of thu edition, see 

OoethM and iTetuMMoAn. Snd edition. 1874. p. 168 «(