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Full text of "Growth poles and growth centres in regional development: a bibliography"

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Council of Planning Librarions exchange bibliography 



April 1973 



387 



GROWTH POLES AND GROWTH CENTRES IN REGIONAL 
DEVELOPMENT: A Bibliography 



Om Prakash Mathur 

Joint Director 

Multilevel Planning Section, Planning Commission 

New Delhi 



Mrs. Mary Vance, Editor 
Post Office Box 229 
Monticello, Illinois 61856 



THEUBRARVOBIHB 
'Mft 2 8 ,973 



COUNCIL OF PLAMHTG LIBRARIANS Exchange Bibliography #387 

GROVJTH POLES AMD GROVJTH CH-ITRES IN 
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: A BBLICGRAPHY 



by 



Om Prakash Mathur 
Joint Director 
Multilevel Planning Section 
Planning Commission 
New Delhi-1 



PREFACE 
Since the publication of Perroux's paper on Economic Space, 
Theory and Applications, and the introduction of the concept of 
pole de croissance there has been an explosion of literature on 
growth poles and growth centres. Despite these concepts being 
"vague, indistinct and distressingly over-simplified" (Darwent), 
and "in need of a thorough semantic reworking" (Hansen), the con- 
tribution of literature has been immensely rich particularly in the 
understanding of the process of economic development in space. 
Originally conceived as a tool to describe and explain the anatomy 
of economic development in abstract economic space, in the course 
of the last two decades the scope of these concepts has signi- 
ficantly widened and includes the normative issues of policy- 
intervention and planning. The theory is now "viewed as a general 
theory of development in a simultaneous sectoral-temporal-spatial 
setting" (Paelinck), 

Perroux based the theory of growth poles on the observations 
of the actual process of development and in this context remarked 
that "development does not appear everywhere and all at once.... 



2. CPL Exchange Bibliography #387 

it spreads along diverse channels and has varying terminal effects 
for the whole of the economy." His prcp'^siticn that growth poles 
are independent of a spatial context and, therefore, relevant 
in abstract economic space let another school of thought emerge 
which concerned itself to a discussion of the problems of clustering 
of economic development in areas and centres as well as the overall 
spatial aspects of development. Many authors, hcvrever, consider 
this development not an extension but a break frcm Perroux's 
initial formulation. This school believes that all units have a 
location and, therefore, poles are not independent of geographical 
space . The result of this school of thought has been the ©nergence 
of the concept of growth centres which have been defined as locations 
in real space - also described as places of various hierarchies 
depending on vxhat functions do they perform or serve. This concept 
deals with the distribution of grarth, and allocatiOTi of investments, 
In real space. 

The interpretation of the concepts of growth poles and 
gra^th centres has been extended by Hirschman, J^yrdal and others 
in their expositions of unbalanced growth and balanced growth 
strategies. Hirschman has emphasized that investment strategies 
should concentrate on a few sectors rather than widely dispersed 
projects; the key sectors would be determined by measuring backward 
linkage and forvrard linkage effects in terms of input output maxima. 
Development takes place with growth being communicated from the 
leading sectors of the economy to the follo\'rers, from one firm to 
another, which is essentially the sane as embedded in the idea 
of grovrth poles. On the other hand, balanced growth strategy 
resembles with the features that are central to the growth 
centre idea. 



3. CPL Exchange Bibliography //387 

Amidst large differences of opinions on what these growth 

poles and graith centres are and what role do they play in 

regional economic development there appears to be a convergence 

of views on seme points of significance. See for instance, 

the following: 

.The growth pole is essentially a sectoral and a geo- 
graphical disturbance. The terms growth pole and growth 
centres serve for denoting geographical concentration. 

.Grovrth centre strategies have, for the most part been 
designed to promote the development of lagging regions 
by concentrating investment so as to reap scale and 
agglomeration economies. The basic idea underlying these 
concepts is the alleged superiority of decentralised 
concentration of development efforts as a strategy for 
speeding up the process of economic grcT-rth and inter- 
regional integration and equalisation. 

.GroTfTth centres have been conceived as points of 
attraction for migrants who otherwise xirould go to 
larger congested urban areas. 

Despite the relatively weak theoretical foundation as well 
as the inadequacy of empirical verification, these concepts are 
being addressed to important normative questions of regional 
economic development | and to those concerned with the regional 
allocation of investments in both time and space. These notions 
clearly imply that instead of seme vague search for balance or 
equity it is best to concentrate investments in growth centres. 

The concepts of groTrth poles and growth centres have been of 
interest to several countries. In India the t'linistry of Agriculture 
and Community Development has a major programme on area develop- 
ment through grarbh centres in 20 places aro\ind the coxmtry. In 
the United States under the sponsorship of the U.S. Economic 
Development Administration, the Universities of Kentucky and Texas 
are carrying on empirical research on the role of grcirth centres in 



I;. CPL Exchange Bibliography #387 

regional development. In Canada the biirden of a major research 
project on grovrth poles is being shoiildered by the Manorial 
University of rieirf oiindland . In many African and European countries 
similar projects are under way. The contribution of United Nations 
Research Institute for Social Development can be singled out as 
outstanding for its involvement on a major programme on regional 
development of vrhich groirth poles and grarth centres constituted 
a significant part. 

The quest for further work on grci-jth poles and grcnrth centres 
continues unabated, primarily for the increasing responsibility of 
the Nations to distribute the fruits of growth to wider areas, to 
bridge the vridening regional gap and to develop the depressed 
regions. The present attempt is the first stage of the independent 
research being carried out by the author. The seccnd phase of the 
research would include the annotation of as many references as 
possible included in this Bibliography. In the third, final stage 
it is intended to bring out a rather long reviCTr article on grcvrth 
poles and groirth centres; this would trace the development of the 
concepts in a historical perspective, examine their role in regional 
development, and describe the contributions of various disciplines 
as well as the cross-coxintry experiences. 

This Bibliography is in the follajing five parts: 

I. Theoretical Bases, Conceptual Expositions and the Role 
of GrCTjth Centres and Grcvrth Poles in Regional Econonic 
Development. 

II. Identification Process and Methods of Analyses. 

III. Qtipirical Bases and Place and Country Studies. 

rv. Background Text References, 

V. Bibliographical References and Areas of Research 
and Investigation. 



5. CPL Exchange Bibliography #387 
The divisions of the Bibliography into these parts should 
not be considered as mutually exclusive; in fact, this is only 
an arbitrary division to facilitate examination of the references. 



6. CPL Exchange Bibliography #387 

I. THEORETICAL BASES, CQICEPTUAL EXPOSITIONS AlID THE ROLE OF 
GRQiTH CEllTRES AI^ GRCVfrH POLES III RBGIQIAL ECCNOHIC 
DEVELCFiffiMT . 

Allen, A. and Tormod Hermansen. "Econcmic Growth, Regional 

Problems and Grovrth Centres," in Regicnal Policy in EFTA - 
/jn Examination of the Grorth CentFe Idea , Edinburgh^ 19fc8. 

Alonso, yilliam. Locaticn, Primacy and Regional Econcnic Develop - 
ment , Programme on Regional and Urban Economics, Cambridge: 
Harvard University, I966. 

. Industrial Location and Regional Policy in Economic 



Development , Berkeley: University of California, Institute 
of Urban and Regional Development, I968. 

. '!'Jhat are Nex<r Tcims For," Urban Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, 



Glasgox-r: University of Glasgoi-r, 1970. 

Andrade, Preston C. "The Grovrth Centre Concept," in Lalit K. 

Sen (ed.). Readings on I-iicrolevel Planning and Rural Grarth 
Centres , Hyderabad, India: National Institute of Canm\inity 
Development, 1972. 

Berry, Brian J.L. "Alternative Explanations of Urban Rank Relat- 
ionships," Annals of the Association of American Geographers , 
Washington, D.C., 1958. 

Geography of Market Centres and Retail Distribution , 



Foundation of Economic Geography Series, Engle\-xocd Cliffs: 
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1967. 

. "Hierarchical Diffusion: The Basis of Developmental 



Filtering and Spread in a System of Gra-rth Centres," in 
Niles i'i. Hansen (ed.), Grorth Centres in Regional Economic 
Development , Nevj York: The Free Press, 1972. 

Berry, Brian J.L., and W. Garrison. "Recent Developments of 

Central Place Theory, " Papc'rs and Proceedings of the Regional 
Science Association , Vol. U, Philaaelphia: University of 
Pennsylvania, 1958. 

Brovm, L. A. Diffusion and Gra-rth Poles; Ccnments on Recent 
Developments and Inter-Related VJork , Columbus, Chic: 
Ohio State University, Department of Geography, 1972. 

Cameron, G. C. "Grarbh Areas; Growth Centres and Regional 
Conversion," Scottish Journal of Political Fccncjny , 
Edinburgh, 1970. 

Campbell, J. "A Structural Approach to Gro^^th Pole Theory," paper 
presented at the IGU Symposium on Problems of Sla-j Growth of 
Stagnant Areas IJithin Developed Co^mtries , St. Jclin's, 
Ncv;fcv.ndland: Manorial University of Newfoundland, 1972. 



7. CPL Exchange Bibliography ?;087 

J>y, Covirtney, David S . Grovrbh Pole Theory; A Survey of Some of it s 

Geographical Characteristics ?nd Issues ;, St. John's, Keiirfctind- 
land: Memorial University of Wexjf ovLidland, 1971. 

. "Spatial Reorganisation and Groirrbh Centre Strategy 



for a Rural Problem Region: Seme Preliminary Problems," paper 
presented at the IGU Symposium on Problems of Slow G rc irth of 
St agnant Areas Within- 'DGVol o ped Countries , 'St ." J chn " s , iiovxcundland : 
Memorial University of ~N8wf oundland. 1^72 . 

_^ Darwent, David F . Grotrbh Poles and Growth Ce n tres In Region al 
Planning - A Revie -a-r, Berkeley; University of Calii'ornia, 
Institute of Urbrai and Regional Developnent, 196? j earlier 
published in Environment and Planning , Vol. 1, London, 1?69. 

Du.skin, Gerald L., and Ronald L. Moomax^. Econcmio Developm ent 
Ce ntres; A Review , Staff Paper of the Office of Economic 
Research, United States Eccncmic Development Adrainistration, 
Washington, D ,C . , 1967 . 

Ensminger, Douglas and Prodipto Roy. "Gra-rth Centres and Viable 
R\iral-Urban Communities^, " prepared for the Eleventh I^Joj^-ld 
Conference of the Society for International Developmen t, 
Ne;j Delhi, 1969. ~" 

Erickson, R. A. The Role of the Lead Fir m in GvcT-rbh Pole Theor y, 
Seattle: University of Washington, Dcp,^.rtmenb of Geogi'aohy. 
1971. 

Friedmann, John. A General Theory of Polarized Development, 

Los Angeles: University of California, School of Architecture 
and Urban Planning, 19^9 • 

Giersch, H. "The Economics of Regional Policy," The German EconoFJc 
Review, Stuttgart, West Gexraany, 196^. 

.yKl' Gokhman, V, M. and L. N. Karpov. "Growth Poles and Grarth Centres," 
■ '■ in United Nations Research Institute for Social Developm^^nt, 

A Review of the Concepts and Theories of Gr o wt.h Pole s _and 
Grotrth Centres; Collection of Papers , Prograirane IV - Regional 
Development, Geneva, 1970. 

Green, FeH.W. "Community of Interest Areas: Notes on the 

Hierarchy of Central Places and Their Hinterlands," Economic 
Geography , Vol. 3hf No. 3f Worchester, UcS*A., 19^8. 

Hansen, Niles M. "Regional Development and the Rural Poor," 
The Journal of Himian Resources , Madison: University of 
Wisconsin, 1967. 

"ToTjards a NevT Approach in Regional Economic Policy," 



Land Economics , Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1967. 
"Development Pole Theory in a Regional Context," 



Kyklos , Vol. XX, No. 3, SiTitzcrland, 19b7. 



8. CPL Exchange Biblioyaphy #38? 

The Role of Grotrth Centres in Comprehensive Regional 



Development P olicy, V/ashington, D.C: United States Department 
of Ccjranerce, 1968. 

. "Grovrth Centres and Regional Development: Sane 

Preliminary Considerations," U . S . Ec cnomic Development 
Administration Programme on the Role of Grcvrth Centres in 
Re,:icnal Uconomic Development , Lexington: University of 
Kentucky, I'JbU, 

Rural Poverty and the Urban Crisis: A Strategy for 



Regional Development , Blocmingtcn: Indiana University Press, 
1S70. 

. "Criteria for a Groirth Centre Policy," in Antoni R. 

Kuklinsky (ed.)> Grarbh Poles and Gror-rth Centres in Regional 
Planning , The Hague: Houton and Co., 1972. 

. Grarth Centres in Regional Economic Development , 

Kei-j York": The Free Press, 1972. 

Harper, R. A., T. A. Schmudde and F. H. Thomas. "Recreaticn-Based 
Economic Grarbh and the Grajth Point Concept," Land Eccnonics , 
Madison: University of V/isconsin, 1966. 

Harris, D. "The Idea of the Gra-xth Area," Official Architecture 
and Planning , Vol. 29, Mo. h, 1966. 

Harrison, Bennet. Rural Grci-Tth Centres ; A Strategy for the 

Rural Development of Low Income Countries , prepared for the 
Office of Programme and Policy Coordination, United States 
Agency for International Developnent, V'ashingtcn, D.C, 1967. 

Hermansen, Tormod. Inter-Regional Allocation of Investnent for 

Social and Economic Development: An Elementar:,*- Hcdel Approach 
to Analysis , United Nations Research Institute for Social 
Development, Geneva, 1968. 

"Service Trades and Grarth Centres , " in Regional 



Policy in EFTA - An Examination of the Grarbh Centre Idea , 
Edinburgh, 1968. 

"Development Poles and Development Centres in National 



and Regional Development - Elements of a Theoretical Framework 
for a Synthetical Approach," in United Nations Research In- 
stitute for Social Development, A Reviet-: of the Concepts and 
Theories of Grorrbh Poles and Gra/th Centres : Collection of 
Papers , Programme IV - Regional Development, Geneva, 1969. 

GrCTith Poles and Gra-Tt h Centres in National and Reg- 



ional Development , United Nations Research Institute for Social 
Development, Programme IV - Regional Development, Geneva, 1969. 



9. CPL Exchange Bibliography #307 

. "Growth Poles and Service Centres in Regional 

Planning: Some Geographical Aspects," prepared for the 
Meeting of the Expert Group on Grovrth Poles and Growth 
Centres held imder the joint auspices of the European 
Coordination Centre for Pesearch and Documentation in Social 
Sciences, ^enna and United Nations Research Institute for 
Social Development, Geneva, 1969. 

. Draft Report of the Expert Group on Growth Poles and 

Growth Centres , European Coordination Centre for Pesearch and 
Documentation in Social Sciences, Vienna and United Nations 
Research Institute for Social Development, Geneva, 1970. 

Hermansen, Tormod. "Development Poles and Related Theories: A 

Synoptical Reviex-r, " prepared for the Conference on Grovrbh Poles 
Hypotheses and Policies held under the joint auspices of the 
Nueva Universidad Autonoraa Da Madrid, Madrid and United Nations 
Research Institute for Social Development, Geneva, 1970. 

Higgins, Benjamin. Frontiers as Poles De Croissance , United 

Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Programme 
IV - Regional Development, Geneva, 1970. 

. Regional Interactions, The Frontier and Economic 



Growth , United Nations Research Institute for Social Develop- 
ment, Programme IV - Regional Development, Geneva, 1971. 

Hirschman, Albert 0. "Inter-regional and International Trans- 
mission of Econcmic Growth," in Albert 0. Hirschman, The 
Strategy of Economic Development , New Haven: Yale University 
Press, 195y. 

Hoover, Edgar M. "Some Old and New Issues in Regional Development," 
in E.A.G. Robinson (ed.). Backward Areas in Advanced Countries , 
Proceedings of a Conference held by the International Economic 
Association, Macmillan, 1969 . 

Hughes, J. T., and T. Kozlcwski. "Threshold Analysis - An 

Economic Tool for Town and Regional Planning," Urban Studies , 
Glasgow: University of Glasgow, 1968. 

Iowa State University of Science and Technology. The Role of 
Growth Centres in Regional Econcmic Development (with 
Supplements A to D), Ames, Iowa: Department of Economics, 1966. 

James, B.G.S. "The Incompatibility of Industrial and Trading 

Centres : A Critical Appraisal of the Growth Point Concept, " 
Journal of Industrial Economics , Vol. 13, 196k. 

Jansen, A. CM. "The Value of the Growth Pole Theory for Economic 
Geography, " Tijdschrift Voor Economische en Social Geografie , 
Vol. 61(3), 197C ~~ 

Johnson, E.A.G. The Organisation of Space in Developing Countries , 
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970. 



10. CPL Exchange Bibliography #387 

Khan, Waheeduddin. "Groirth Poles and Growth Centres," in Lalit K. 
Sen (ed.)* Readings on xlicrolevel Planning and Rural Growth 
Centres , Hyderabad, India: National Institute of Ccranxinity 
Development, 1972. 

Klaassen, Leo H. "Growth Poles - An Eccncmic View," prepared for 
the Meeting of the Expert Group on Gra/th Poles and Growth 
Centres held under the joint auspices of the European Coordi- 
nation Centre for Research and Documentation in Social Sciences, 
Vienna and United Nations Research Institute for Social Develop- 
ment, Geneva, 1969. 

. "GrCT-ith Poles in Eccncmic Theory and Policy," in 



United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 
A Review of the Concepts and Theories of Grcvrth Poles and 
GrCT-rth Centres , Programme IV - Regional Development, Geneva, 
1970. 

Krueger, A. 0. "Patterns of Urban Gra-rth and Growth Nodes," in 

Rural Poverty in the United States , A Report of the President 's 
National Advisory Commission on Rural Poverty, Washington, 
D.C., 1968. 

Kiaklinsky, Antoni R . Regional Development, Regional Policies and 

Regional Planning Problems and Issues , United Nations Institute 
for Social Development, Geneva, 1969. 

Regional Inequalities, Regional DevelOFPent and 



Regional Industrialisation PolicieJ , United Nations Research 
Institute for Social Development, Geneva, 1971. 

. Local Governments in Regional and National Perspectives : 



Problems and Issues , United Nations Research Institute for Social 
Development, Geneva, 1971. 

. Grovrth Poles and Grcvrbh Centres in Regional Planning, 



The Hague: Houton and Co., 1972. 

Lasuen, J. R. "On GrOTrth Poles," Urban Studies , Vol. 6, No. 2, 
Glasgcu.;: University of Glasgow, 19t)9. 

"Urban Hierarchy Stability and Spatial Polarization," 



Urban Studies , Glasgow: University of G las gov;, 1970. 

Lasuen, J. R. "Urbanisation and Development: The Temporal Inter- 
action Between Geographical and Sectoral Cliisters," prepared 
for the Conference on Gro^jth Poles Hypotheses and Policies held 
under the joint auspices of the Nueva Universidad Autonoina 
De Madrid, Madrid and United Nations Research Institute for 
Social Developnent, Geneva, 1970. 

"A Generalisation of the Grcnrth Pole Notion," prepared 



for the International Geographical Association Meeting held at 
Vitoria, 197 iT 



11. CPL Exchange Bibliography #387 

Lewis, John P. "I'he Problem of Growth Centres," prepared for the 
Seminar on Accelerating Industrialisation in Districts held 
at the Small Industry Extension Training Institute, Hyderabad, 
also published in Siet Studies , Monsoon Issue, Small Industry 
Extension Training Institute, Hyderabad, India, I966. 

Malisz, B. "Implications of Threshold Theory for Urban and Regional 
Planning," Journal of the Town Planning Institute , Vol. $$, 
No. 3, London, 196?. 

Mathur, Cm Prakash. Backward Areas in Poor Countries; Problems 
and Perspectives of Development , Department of Urban Studies 
and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Cambridge, U.S. A., 1971. 

McKee, D. L., and W. H. Leahy. "Urbanisation, Dualism and Dis- 
parities in Regional Economic Development," Land Economics , 
Vol. XLVI, No. 1, Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1970. 

Msra, R. P. "Regional Issues, Investment Criteria and Strategies 
for Development," in R. P. I"Iisra (ed.). Regional Planning ; 
Concepts, Techniques, Policies and Case Studies , Mysore, India: 
Institute of Development Studies, 19^9. 

. "Growth Poles Hypotheses Re-examined, " in United Nations 



Research Institute for Social Development, A Review of the 
Concepts and Theories of Growth Poles and Growth Centres ; 
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Geneva, 1970. 

Morrill, R. L. On the Size and Spacing of GroTith Centres , Seattle: 
University of Washington, 1972. 

. Growth Centre; Hinterland Relations, Seattle: 



University of Washington, 1972. 

Moseley, M. J, Growth Centres - A Shibboleth ?, Centre for East 
Anglian Studies, University of East Anglia, 1972. 

j^fyrdal, Gunnar. Economic Theory and Underdeveloped Regions , 
London : Duckworth, 1957 • 

Nicholos, Vida. Growth Poles; An Investigation of Their > Potential 
As A Tool for Regional Economic Development , R. S.R.I. Dis- 
cussion Paper No. 30, Philadelphia: Regional Science Research 
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. "Grox'jth Poles: An Evaluation of their Propulsive 

Effect," Environment and Planning , Vol. 1, No. 2, London, 1969. 

Oshima, H. T. "The Strategy of Selective Growth and the Role of 
Communications," in W. Schramm and D . Lerner (eds.). 
Communications and Change in Developing Countries , Honolulu, 



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Paquet, G. "Grcvrth Centres and Urban Developnent, " presented 

to the Conference on Regional and Rural Eccnonics Adjustnent 
Policy Issues , i-Ianitoba, 1970. 

Parr, J. B. "The Nature and Function of Growth Poles in Ecoiomic 

Development, " Annals of the Association of American Geographer:'' , 
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. GrCTTth Poles, Econanie Development and Public Policy , 

Regional Science Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, 1968. 

Penouil, M. "Grcvrth Poles in Underdeveloped Regions and Ccuntries," 
prepared for the Expert Group on Grcxrth Poles and Grcvrth 
Centres held under the joint auspices of the European Coord- 
ination Centre for Research and Dociimentation in Social 
Sciences, Vienna and United Nations Research Institute for 
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Perroux, Francois, "Economic Space, Theory and Applications," 

Quarterly Journal of Economics , No. lilV, Cambridge: Harvard 
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"l^ote on the Concept of Grovrth Poles," in David L. 



McKee, Robert D. Dean and Vlilliam H. Leahy (eds.). Regional 
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published as "Note Sur la Notion de pole de croissance," in 
Econcmic Appliquee , 1955 • 

Petrella, R. "Some Notes on Grovrth Poles," in Antoni R. Kuklinsky 
and R. Petrella (eds.). Growth Poles and Regional Policies , 
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Podwin, Lloyd. "Choosing Regions in Development," Public Policy , 
No. XII, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963, also 
published in John Friedmann and William Alonso (eds.). 
Regional Development and Planning; A Reader , Cambridge: 
M.I.T. Press, 1961i. 

Nations and Cities: A Comparison of Urban Grarth 



Strategies , Boston: Houghton Mifflin and Co., 19b9. 

Rosenstein - Rodan, P.N. Reflections en Regional Development , 
Centre for International Studies, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, Cambridge, 1963 , 

Rushton, Gerard. "Some Issues in Central Place Theory Relevant 
to Regional Plan Development," in Lalit K. Sen (ed.). 
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Gro^jth Centres , Hyderabaa, India: National Institute of 
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Schmidt, C. G. Industrial Structure of Spatial Linkages and 

C-ra-jth Pole Theory , Seattle: University of VJashington, 1971. 

Steed, G.P.F. Growth Centres and Organisational Space , British 
Columbia: Simon Fraser University, 1971. 

Taylor, W. L. "Groirth Area Philosophy," Journal of Totto and 
Country Planning , Vol. 35> 196?. 

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Planning: A Sociological Interpretation," in United Nations 
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of Its Basic Concepts," in Niles M. Hansen (ed.), GroT-rth 
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Pole Theory," in Antoni R. Kuklinsky (ed.), Groiirth Poles and 
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Seattle: Department of Geography, University of IJashington, 
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ment Policy , Office of Programme Plans and Analysis, U. S. 
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Concentration , Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Regional Science 
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Ullman, Edward L. "Regional Development and the Geography of 

Concentration," in John Friedmann and William Alonso (eds.). 
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Vellas, F. "Institutional Aspects of Development Poles and Growth 
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search Institute for Social Development, Geneva, 1970. 

Vietorisz, Thomas. "Locational Choices in Planning," in Ilax 
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Vining, R. "A Description of Certain Spatial Aspects of An 

Economic System, " Eccncmic Development and Cultural Change , 
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Activity," in Essays in Urban Land Ec enemies , Los Angeles: 
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Zaremba, P. "Observations about the Synthetical Approach to 

Regional Development," in United Nations Research Institute 
for Social Development, A Revienr of the Concepts and Theories 
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Programme IV - Regional Development, Geneva, 1970. 



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II. IDENTIFICAIION PROCESS AND METHODS OF ANALYSIS 

Andrexjs, Richard B. "Economic Planning for Small Areas," Land 
Ec onomics ^ Vol. XXilDC, No. 2, Madison: University of 
f-^j-s c ons in , 1963 • 

Berry, Brian J.L. "Approaches to Regional Analysis: A Sjnathesis," 
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Bonderville, J. R. "A Survey of Recent Techniques for Regional 

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Campbell, J. The Relevance of Input-Output Analysis and Digraph 

Concepts to Growth Pole Theory , Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, 
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. Grovrth Pole Theory, Digraph Analysis and Interindustry 

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Cassetti, E., L. J. King and J. Odland. "On the Formal Identi- 
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presented at the Canadian Association of Geographers , 
Manitoba, 1970, also published as "The Formalisation and 
Testing of Concepts of Growth Poles in a Spatial Context," 
Environment and Planning , London, 1971- 

Fox, Karl A. Economic Models for Area Development Re se arch , 

Ames, loiia: loiia State University of Science and Technology, 
1963 . 

Frey, L. "Aspects of the Theory of Socio-economic Regions and its 
Applications," prepared for the Meeting of the Expert Group 
on Groirbh Poles and GroT-rth Centres held under the joint auspices 
of the European Coordination Centre for Research and Docu- 
mentation in Social Sciences, Vienna and United Nations Re- 
search Institute for Social Development, Geneva, 1969 . 

Hagget, Peter and K. A. Gionewardena . "Determination of Population 
Thresholds for Settlement Fxinctions by Keed-Muench Method, 
Professional Geographer , New York: American Geographical 
Society, 1961;. 

Hale, C. 11 . "The Mechanism of the Spread Effect in Regional 
Development," Land Economics , Vol. XLIII, No. h, Madison: 
Universitj?- of ^'isconsin, 1967. 

Harris, John R. Urban and Industrial Concentration in Developing 
Economics; A n Analytical Framework , Department of Economics, 
Paper No. 53, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 
1970. 



16. CPL Exchange Bibliography #387 

Hermansen, Tormod. "Regicnal Disaggregation of National Plans 

within the Complex of National, Sectoral and Regional Planning," 
prepared for the Infomal Heeting en Regional Disaggregation 
of National Plans , United Nations Research Institute for Social 
Development, Geneva, 1969. 

"Statistical Require.-nents for Analysing Centrality, 



Hinterland Botmdaries and Gra-rth Potential of Tcvms and 
Cities," in United Nations Research Institute for Social 
Development, Case Studies on Information Systems for Regior^l 
Development , Geneva, 1970. 

Isard, Ualter. Methods of Regional Analysis , Cambridge: The M.I.T, 
Press J Nei-T York: John VJiley and Sons, Inc., I960. 

Isard, Valter and John H. Cumberland (eds.). Regional Economic 
Planning, Techniques of Analysis for Less Developed Areas , 
Organisation for European Eccncmic Cooperation, Paris, I96I. 

Klaassen, Leo H. The Economic and Social Development - Guidelines 
for Programmes , Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperaticn 
and Development, 1965. 

. i4ethods of Selecting Industries for Depressed Areas: 



A n Introduction to Feasibility Studies , Paris: Crganisaticn 
for Econanic Cooperation and Development, 196?. 

Kristensson, Folke. People, Firms and Regions; A Structural 

Economic Analysis , Stockholm: The Economic Research Institute 
at the Stockholm School of Economics, 1967. 

Kuehn, J. A., and L. D. Bender. "An Bnpirical Identification of 
Grcirth Centres," Land Economics , Vol. kSf No. k, Madison: 
University of Tfisconsin, 1969. 

Kuklinsky, Antoni R. "Regional Disaggregation of National Policies, 
and Plans - Problems, Issues and Solutions," prepared for the 
Informal Heeting on Regional Disaggregation of National Plans , 
United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 
Geneva, 1969. 

Kuklinsky, Antoni R., and Victor Grosman. Social Factors in 
Regional Industrial Programming , United Nations Research 
Institute for Social Development, Geneva, 1970. 

LeT-ris, W. C, and J. R. Preseott. "Urban Regional Developnent 

and Grorrth Centres: .\n Econometric Study," Journal of Regional 
Science , Vol. 2, No. 1, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 
1972. 

Milne, N. D. "Selecting Grcn-rth Centres," U.S. Econcmic Developne-nt 
Administration Programme on the Pole of Grci-rth Centres in 
Rei^ional Econanic Developnent , Austin: University of Texas, 
1971. 



17. CPL Exchange Bibliography #38? 

Moore, C. TJ. Grotrbh Poles and Induatrial Linkage Development Paths; 
A Research Methodology , Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Seattle: 
University of Washington, 1971. 

Neki^asov, H. N. "A System for the Planned Development of the 

National Economic Complexes," prepared for the Conference on 
GroTjth Poles Hypotheses and Policies held under the joint 
auspices of the Nueva Universidad Autonoma De Madrid, Madrid 
and United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 
Geneva, 1970. 

Nystuen, John D., and Michael F. Dacey. "A Graph Theory Inter- 
pretation of Nodal Regions," in Papers and Proceedings of the 
Regional Science Association , Philadelphia: University of 
Pennsylvania, 1961. 

Paelinck, J. "Operational Models in Regional and Urban Analysis," 
in Torsten Hagerstrand and Antoni R. Kuklinsky (eds,), 
Information Systems for Regional Development , Sweden: The 
Royal University of Lund, 1971. 

. "Programming a Viable Minimum Investment Industrial 

Complex for a Growth Centre," in Niles M. Hansen (ed.), 
GrOT-rth Centres in Regional Economic Development , New York: 
The Free Press, 1972. 

Pal, N. M. "Regional Studies and Research for Consistent and 
Optimal Plan Formulations: The Need for a Right Kind of 
Orientation, " paper presented at the Fifth Regional Science 
S eminar , Calcutta, India, 1972. 

Philbrick, Allen K. "Principles of Areal Functional Organisation 
in Regional Economic Geography," Economic Geography , Vol. 33 » 
No. U, ¥orchester, 1957. 

Ramesh, K. S . "Application of Sane Mathematical Techniques in 
Locating Grovrth Impulses and Service Centres," in Lalit K, 
Sen (ed.). Readings on Microlevel Planning and Rural Grovrbh 
Centres , Hyderabad, India: National Institute of Community 
Development, 1972. 

Salih, K. The Grcx\rth Pole Model of Economic Developient: Pre - 
liminary Testing of Tvro Hypotheses Derived from the Model , 
Unpublished Hons. Dissertation, Department of Geography, 
Monash University, 1969. 

Spiegelman, Robert G. Revie^J of Techniques of Regional Analysis 
with Particular Emphasis on Applicability of These Techniques 
to Regional Problems , Menlo Park: Stanford Research Institute, 
1952: 

The Structure and Process of Agglomeration , prepared 



for the Economic Research Service, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, Menlo Park: Stanford Research Institute, 1965. 



18. CPL Exdiange Bibliograj^y #387 

Stanford Research Institute, School of Planning and Architecture 
and Small Industry Extension Training Institute. Costs of 
Urban Iiofrastnicture for Industry as Related to City Size in 
Developing Countries , Menlo Park (USA), New Delhi (India), and 
Hyderabad ( India ) , 1969 . 

Streit, M. E. "Spatial Associatiai and Econcmic Linkages between 
Industries," Journal of Regional Science , Philadelphia: 
University of Pennsylvania, 1969. 

Tolcsa, Hamilton C, and Thomas A. Reiner. 'The Econcinic Progranning 
of a System of Planned Poles," Economic Geography , Vol. 3, 
Forchester, USA, 1970. 

United Nations. Manual on Regional Planning; Suggested Scope and 
Content , Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, Ninth 
Session, Bangkok, 1969. 

Utria, Ruben D. "Social Variables in Regional Development," 

prepared for the Regional Development Planning Co\u-se held 
at Santiago, United Nations Research Institute for Social 
Development, Geneva, 1970. 

Vietorisz, Thomas. "The Planned Inter-regional Location of In- 
dustry: Arguments in Favour of a Trade-Not-Aid-Approach, " 
prepared for the Inter-Fegional Seminar on Indvtstrial 
Location and Regional Development held at Minsk, United Nations 
Industrial Development Organisation, Vienna, 1968. 

Wanmali, Sudhir, and TJaheeduddin Khan. "Conceptual and Method- 
ological Dimensions of Central Place Theory," in Lalit K. Sen 
(ed.), Readings on Microlevel Planning and Rural Growth Centres , 
Hyderabad, India: National Institute of Community Development, 
1972. 

Ziokoijski, Janus z A. Methodological Problems in the Sociology of 
Regional Development , United Nations Research Institute for 
Social Development, Programme IV - Regional Development, 
Geneva, 1969. 



19. CPL Exchange Bibliography #38? 

III. EMPIRICAL BASES AND PLACE AND COUHTRY STUDIES 

Alonso, William. Spontaneous Grotjth Centre in Twentieth Century 
American Urbanis a tion , Berkeley: Institute of Urban and 
Regional Development, University of California, 1970. 

Andrade, Preston C. "Pilot Research Projects in Growth Centres," 

in Lalit K. Sen (ed.)} Readings on Microland Planning, and Rural 
Growth Centres , Hyderabad, India; National Institute of 
Community Development, 1972. 

Appalachian Regional Commission. "The Role of Grotfth Centres and 
GrovTth Areas in Appalachian Development," cited in Niles M. 
Hansen, Groxrbh Centre Policy in the United States , Austin: 
University of Texas, 1970. 

Beg, M.A.A. The Regional Growth Points in Economic Development; A 
Comparison of West Virginia and West Pakistan , unpublished 
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 19(>h» 

Regional Growth Points in Economic Development, with 



^ 



Special Reference to West Virginia , University Bulletin Series, 
No. 6-1, West Virginia, 1965. 

Bernard, Philippe J . "Growth Centres in Regional French Policy, " 
prepared for the Conference on Growth Poles Hypotheses and 
Policies held under the joint auspices of Nueva Universidad 
Autonoma De Madrid, Madrid and United Nations Research In- 
stitute for Social Development, Geneva, 1970. 

Berry, Brian J. L., (ed.). Growth Centres and Their Potentials in 
the Upper Great Lakes Region , Washington, D.C.: Upper Great 
Lakes Region, 1967. 

"Policy 3Jnplications of an Urban Location Model for 



the Kanpur Region," in P . B . Desai, I. M. Grossack and F. N. 
Sharma (eds . ) , Regional Perspective of Industrial and Urban 
Growth , Macmillan, 1969. 

Bhat, L. S. Central Place Hierarchy for a Developing Agricultural 
Region, Karnal Area (Haryana) as a Case Study , New Delhi; 
Indian Statistical Institute (forthcoming). 

Black, W,, and J. V. Simpson. "GroTrth Centres in Ireland," 
Irish Banking Review , Dublin, 1968. 

Boisier, Sergio. Regional Disaggregation of National Plans, A Case 
Study of Chile and Poland , United Nations Research Institute 
for Social Development, Programme IV - Regional Development, 
Geneva, 1971. 



20, CPL Exchange Bibliography i^387 

Bose, Ashish. "The Role of Small Toims in the Urbanisation Process 
of India and Pakistan," in Lalit K. Sen (ed.)> Readings on 
Microlevel Planning, and Rural Growth Centres , Hyderabad, India: 
National Institute of Ca7in\mity Developjnent, 1972. 

Bracey, H. E. "A Rural Component of Centrality, Applied to Six 

Southern Countries of the U.K.," EconcTnic Geography , Vol. 32, 
Horchester, USA, 1956. 

. "English Central Villages: Identification, Distribution 

and Functions," prepared for the Lund Symposium on Problems of 
Urban Geography , XVIV International Geographical Congress, 
I9S0: 

Bylund, Eric. "Gra-7th Centre and Administrative Area Problans 
within the Framework of the Swedish Location Policy, " in 
Antoni R. Kuklinsky (ed.), Growth Poles and Grovrth Centres in 
Regional Planning , The Hague: Houton and Co., 1972. 

Cameron, Gordon C. "The Regional Problem in the United States: 
Some Reflections on a Viable Strategy, " Regional Studies , 
New York - Oxford, 1968. 

"Grovrth Areas, Growth Centres and United Kingdan 



Regional Policy," prepared for the Conference on Grovrth Poles 
Hypotheses and Policies held iinder the joint auspices of 
Kueva Universidad Antonoma De rfedrid, Madrid and United 
Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Geneva, 
1970. 

Carol, H. Geographic Identif icaticn of Regional Grovrth Centres 
and Development Regions in Southern Cntario , A Report to the 
Ontario Department of Economics and Development, Toronto, I966. 

Chandresekhara, C. S., G. D. Mathur and K. V. Sxmdaram. The Role 
of Gronrth Focii in Regional Development Strategy , Town and 
Country Planning Organisation, Goverrjnent of Ir.dia, Ne>r Delhi, 
1970. 

Chenery, Hollis B . 'Development Policies for Southern Italy, " 
Quarterly Journal of Ecmcmics , No. 76, Cambridge: Harvard 
University Press, 1962, also published in John Friedmann and 
William Alonso (eds.). Regional Development and Planning: A 
Reader , Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press, 1961^. 

Courtney, David S . The Nevxfoundland Resettlement Programme; A 

Case Study in Spatial Fe organisation and Grovrth Centre Strategy , 
St. John's, Newfoundland: Department of Geography, Memorial 
University of Newfoundland, 1972. 

Cumberland, John H. Regional Development Experiences and Prospects 
in the USA, The Hague: Koutcn and Co., 1971. 



21. GPL Exchange Bibliography #387 

Cur ley, M. D. "Grwth Centre Strategy for South Texas," U. S, 

Economic Development Administration Programine on the Role of 
Growth Centres in Regional Economic Development , Lexington: 
University of Kentuckj'-, 1969 • 

Desai, P. B., I. M. Grossack and K. N. Sharma (eds.)- Regional 
Perspective of Industrial and Urban Groi/rth; The Case of 
Kanpur, Papers and Proceedings of the Industrial Seminar on 
Urban and Industrial Growth of Kanp\ir Region, Macmillan, I969. 

Deshmukh, CD. "On Rural Growth Centres and Area Development," 
in Lalit K. Sen (ed.). Readings on Microlevel Planning and 
Rural GroT/Tth Centres , Hyderabad, India: National Institute 
of Community Development, 1972. 

Ford Foundation and the Covmcil for Social Development. Pilot 

Projects for Integrated Area Development; Preliminary Reports , 
prepared for the Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Ccramunity 
Development and Cooperation, Government of India, New Delhi, 
1969. 

Friedmann, John. Regional Development Policy; A Case Study of 
Venezuela , Cambridge: The M.I.T, Press, 1966. 

"Poor Regions and Poor Nations : Perspectives on the 



Problem of Appalachia, " Southern Economic Journal , Vol. 32, 
Chapel Hill, I966. 

Friedmann, John and Thomas Lackington. "Hj^perurbanisation and 
National Development in Chile: Some Hypotheses," Urban 
Affairs Quarterly , Vol, II, No. i|, California: Sage 
Publications, 1967. 

Gersdorff, Ralph von. Regional Information and Regional Plarjiing 
in Africa , United Nations Research Institute for Social 
Development, Programme IV - Regional Development, Geneva, 1971. 

Grove, D,, and L. Huzur. The Tovms of Ghana; The Role of Service 
Centres in Regional Planning , Planning Research Studies No. 2, 
Accra: Ghana University Press, 1961;. 

Gruchman, Bohdan. "Groxrth Poles in the Spatial Structure of the 
Libyan Economy," in Antoni R. Kuklinsky (ed.). Growth Poles 
and Growth Centres in Regional Planning , The Hague: Mouton 
and Co., 1972. 

Hansen, Niles M. "A Preliminary Evaluation of Lexington, Kentucky 
as a Groxrth Centre for the People of Eastern Kentucky," 
EDA Programme on the Role of GroTrth Centres in Regional Economic 
Developm ent, Lexington; University of Kentucky, 1969. 

"Groirbh Centre Theory and Policy in the United States," 



prepared for the Conference on Grox-jth Poles Hypotheses and 
Policies held under the Joint auspices of Nueva Universidad 
Autonoma De Madrid, Madrid and United Nations Research In- 
stitute for Social Developnent, Geneva, 1970. 



22. CPL iachan^e Bibliography #38? 

. Intermediate Size Cities as Growth Centres ; Applicaticr^ 
lor Kentucky, The Piedr^.cnt Crescent, The Ozarks and Texas , 
Hew York: Praeger Publishers, 1971. 

. "Migration Centres and the Regional Coroniss icns : An 

Analysis of Expected Future Lifetime Inccme Gains to Migrants 
from Lagging Regions," U. S. Eccncmic Development Administration 
Programme on the Role of Grcvrth Centres in Regional Econonic 
Development , Austin: University of Texas, 1971. 

. ''Gra/th Centre Policy in the United States," in Niles :■'. 

Hansen (ed.)* Grctrbh Centres in Regional Econcnic Development , 
Nerj York: The Free Press, 1972. 

Haynes, Kingsley E. "GrCTrth Poles and the Hierarchy of Cities: 

Some Reflections to Malaysia," prepared for the Urban Develop - 
ment Panel, Southeast Asia Development Advisory Group of the 
Asia Society, New York, 1970. 

Higgins, Benjamin. "Issues in Canadian Regional Development Policy," 
prepared for the Conference on Grorrth Poles Hypotheses and 
Policies held xinder the joint auspices of Hueva Universidad 
Autonoma De Madrid, Madrid and United Nations Research In- 
stitute for Social Development, Geneva, 1971. 

Hodge, G. Identification of Grcvrth Poles in East Ontario , A 

Report to Ontario Department of Econonics and Development, 
Toronto, 1966. 

Humphreys, G. "Services in Growth Centres and Their Implications 
for Regional Planning with reference to South Wales," 
Advancement in Science , Vol. 22, IIo. 97, London, 1965. 

Jakobson, Leo and Ved Prakash. "Urbanisation and Regional 

Planning in India," Urban Affairs Quarterly , Vol. II, No. 3» 
California: Sage Publications, 1967. 

Johnson, E.A.G. Market Tcvjns and Spatial Development in India , 
published by the National Council of Applied Econanic Re- 
search, NeiT Delhi, 1965- 

, 'The Integration of Industrial and Agrarian Develop- 



ments in Regional Planning," in P. B. Desai, I. M. Grossack 
and K. N. Sharma (eds.). Regional Perspective of Industrial 
and Urban Grarth: The Case of Kanpur , Macraillan, 1969. 

Kabaya, Ryoichi. Development of Poor Regions: General Considerations 
and the Case of Japan , Berkeley: Institute of Urban and Regional 
Development, University of California, 1971. 

Kawalec, '..'. Statistical Information Systems in Regional Development 
and Planning in Poland , United Nations Research Institute for 
Social Development, Programme IV - Regional Development, Geneva, 
1969. 

"Problems of Gra-rth Pole Policy in Poland," prepared for 



the Conference on Growth Poles H3rpotheses and Policies held under 
the joint auspices of the Nueva Universidad Autoncma De Madrid, 
Madrid and United Nations Research Institute for Social Develop- 
ment, Geneva, 1970. 



23. CPL Exchange Bibliography //387 

Klein, S. H. "A Comparative Factor Analysis Between Southern 

Regional Growth Centre and Urban Centre Manufacturing Plants," 
EDA Programme on the Role of Growth Centres in Regional Econcmic 
D evelopment , Lexington? University of Kentucky, 1971. 

Koszegi, Laszlo. "Growth Poles, Groxrth Centres and Development 

Policy in Hungry, " prepared for the Conference on Groxrth Poles 
Hypotheses and Policies held under the joint auspices of the 
Nueva Universidad Autonoma Dq Madrid, Madrid and United Nations 
Research Institute for Social Development, Geneva, 1970. 

Kudiabor, C.D.K. "Growth Poles and Growth Centres in Regional 
Development Planning in Ghana," prepared for the Conference 
on Grox'jth Poles Hypotheses and Policies held under the joint 
auspices of the Nueva Universidad Autonoma De Madrid, Madrid 
and United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 
Geneva, 1970. 

Lawrence, B , "Grox-rth Centre Determination for Del Rio, " EDA 

Programme on the Role of Groijth Centres in Regional Economic 
Development , Austin: University of Texas, 1970. 

Lefeber, Louis. "Regional Allocation of Resources in India," in 

John Friedmann and William Alonso (eds.). Regional Developmen t 
and Planning; A Reader , Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press, 19tk- 

Lefeber, Louis and Mrinal Datta .Chaudhuri. Regional Development 
E^qaeriences and Pro s pects in South and Southeast Asia , The 
Hague : Mout on and "Co . , 197 1 . 

Lewis, John P. Quiet Crisis in India; Economic Development and 

American Policy , Washington, D.C: Brookings Institution, 1962. 

Luttrell, W. F. "Industrial Complexes and Regional Econcmic 

Developnent in Canada," in Antoni R. Kuklinsky (ed.). Growth 
Poles and Grox-rth Centres in Regional Planning , The Hague: 
Mout on and Co., 1972. 

Madden, J. L. "Metropolitan Growth Centres in Historical Per- 
spective: Patterns in Economic Growth in Selected Cities in 
the United States, 1899-196U, " EDA Programme on the Hole of 
Groxrth Centres in Regional Economic Development , Austin: 
University of Texas, 1971. 

Mathur, On Prakash. "Urban Grox-rth Policy for India: A Brief 

Statement of Issues," prepared for a Sym posixm on Urbanisation 
held imder the auspices of SPURS, Cambridge: Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, 1971. 

>Iayfield, Robert C. "A Central Place System in Northern India," 
prepared for the Urban Development Panel, Southeast Asia 
Development Advisory Group of the Asia Society, New York, 1970. 



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Milne, N. D. "Urban Grci-rth and Growth Centres in Texas," EDA 

Progranme on the Role of Grovrth Centres in Regicnal Econccdc 
Development , Austin: University of Texas, 1971. 

Misra, R. P. "Grarth Poles and GrOT-rth Centres in the Context of 

India's Urban and Peg,ional Development Problems," in Antoni R. 
Kuklinsky (ed.)> GrOTrth Poles ar^ Grcr-rbh Centres in Regicaial 
Planning , The Hague: Mcuton and Co., 1972. 

Misra, '"J. P., V.L.S. Prakasa Rao and K. V. Sunderam. GrCTrth Poles 

and GrOT-rth Centres in Regional Planning, and Development in India 
(3 Vols), United Nations Research Institute for DevelopmenFJ 
Programme IV - Regional Development, Geneva, 1970-71. 

Mitra, Asok. "A Functional Classification of Indian Tcvns," in 
Ashish Bose (ed.). Pattern of Populaticn Change in India 
1951-61, Bombay: Allied Publishers, 1967. 

Moseley, M. J. The Spatial Impact of Grmrbh Centres; Case Studies 
in Brittany and East Anglian , unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, 
University of Reading, 1972. 

National Council of Applied Econanic Research. Market Tarns ar^ 

Spatial Development , Proceedings of a Seminar, NCAER, Ne;; Delhi, 
1972. 

Nosari, E. J. "The Ozarks : A Growth Centre Strategy/' >DA Prograinne 
on the Role of Growth Centres in Regional Econcraic Development , 
Lexington: University of Kentucky, 1967. 

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Planning. The Regional 

Factor in Economic Development; Policies in Fifteen Industrial - 
ised OECD Countries , Paris, 1970. 

Penouil, II, "An Appraisal of Regional Development Policy in the 
Acquitaine Region," in E.A.G. Robinson (ed.). Backward Areas 
in Advanced Countries , Proceedings of a Conference held by the 
International Econanic Association, Macmillan, 1969. 

Perloff , Harvey S., E. S. Dunn, Jr., E. E. Lampard and R. F. Muth. 
Regions, Resources and Economic Grcn-rbh , Baltimore: The Johns 
Hopkins Press , I960 . 

Perloff, Harvey S., and Vera IJ. Woods. Hot; a Region Grct;s: Area 
Development in the U. S. Economy , Committee of Econanic 
Development, New York, 19o3 . 

Pioro, Zygmvint. "Grcnrth Poles and Grorrth Centres Theory As App3j.ed 
to Settlement Development in Tanzania," in Antcni R. Kuklinsky 
(ed.) , Grcn-jth Poles and Grctrth Centres in Regional Planning , 
The Hague: Mouton and Co., 1972. 

Pocock, D.CJ). "The Grcurth Points in the East Midlands: Scunthrcpe 
and Coi-by, " East Midland Geographer , Vol. J4(2), Nottingham, 1966, 



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Regulaski, J. "Some Remarks on Development Poles Theory and Its ^■' 
Application in Poland," in United Nations Research Institute 
for Social Tevelopment, A Review of the Concepts and Theories 
of Grgjth Poles and Gro^^^th Centres , Collection of Papers, 
Programme IV - Regional Development, Geneva, 1970. 

Rivkin, Malcolm D , Area Development for National Growth; The 
Turkish Precedent , New Yorks Praeger Publishers, 196^. 

Robinson, EJl.G. (ed.). Backward Areas in Advanced Countries , 

Proceedings of a Conference held by the International Economic 
Association, Macmillan, 1969. 

Robock, Stefen H. "Regional Aspects of Economic Development x^ith J^ 
Reference to Recent Ejqjeriences in North-east Brazil, " Papers ! 
and Proceedings of the Regional Science Association , Phil- 
adelphia : University of Pennsylvania, 1956. 

Rodwin, Lloj^d. The British Net^ Toims Policy , Cambridge: Harvard 
University Press, 1956. 

Rodwin, Lloyd and Associates (eds.). Planning Urban GroT^rth and 

Regional Development; The Experience of the Guayana Programme 
of Venezuela , Cambridge; The M.I .T. Press, 19^9. 

Ryan, B . "The Criteria for Selecting Growth Centres in Appalachia, " 

Papers and Proceedings of the Association of American Geographers, 
Vol. 2, 1970. 

Samuels, Han^yn S. "The Urban Hierarchy and Related Systems in 
Southeast Asia," prepared for the Urban Development Panel , 
Southeast Asia Development Advisory Group of the Asia Society , 
New York, 1970. 

Saraceno, Pasquale. "Development Policy in An Overpopulated Area; 
Italy's Experience," in E.A.G. Robinson (ed.), Backt\rard Areas 
i n Advanced Countries , Proceedings of a Conference held by the 
Hiiternational Economic Association, Macmillan, 1969. 

Scott, Peter. "The Hierarchy of Central Places in Tasmania," 
The Australian Geographer , No. 9, Sydney, 196U. 

Sen, Lalit K. "A New Strategy for Community Development: Planning 
for Integrated Area Development and Rural Growth Centres," 
Coimnunity Development and Panchayati Raj Digest , CD. Week 
Special Number, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1970. 

. "Grarth Centres and Rural Unemployment," Community 



Development and Panchayati Raj Digest , CD. Week Special, Vol. 
3, No. 2, 1971. 

"The Need for Microlevel Planning in India," in Lalit 



K. Sen (ed.). Readings on Micro-Level Planning and Rural Grcg^rbh 
Centres , Hyderabad, India: National Institute of Ccmmiinity 
Development, 1972. 



26. CPL Exchange Bibliograpl^ #387 

Sen, Lalit K., Siidhir T'Janmali, S. Bose, and Girish K. I-Iisra, and 
K. S. Ramesh. Planning R\iral GrCT-rth Centres for Inte^ated 
Area Development; A Study of MiryalfeTiaa lal'-ik , Hyderabad, 
India: National Institute of Caranunity Development, 1971. 

Shackelford, J. "On Thresholds, Takeoffs and Spurts: A Place for 
SlffiA's in Gra/th Centre Strategy," EDA PrograrrTne on the P.cle of 
GrOTfth Centres in Regional Economic Development , Lexing,ton: 
University of Kentucky, 1970. 

Shah, S. II. "Development Through Groirth Centres," Kurukshetra , 
Journal of Community Development and Village Democracy, 
Vol. 20, No. 3, New Delhi, 1971. 

Shibli, K. National Planning and Grcvrbh Pole Policies in Pakistan , 
United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 
Programme IV - Regional Development, Geneva, 1971. 

Siddle, D. J. "A New National GrOT;th Pole for Zambia," Geography , 
Vol. 56, No. k, London, 1971. 

Sovani, N. V, Urbanisation and Urban India , New York: Asia 
Publishing House, 1966. 

Stepanek, J. E., R. P. Lynton and B. S. Venkata Rao. "Indus- 
trialisation Beyond the Metropolis : Current Developments in 
India, " Papers and Proceedings of the First Far East Con - 
ference of the Regional Science Association , University of 
Tokyo Press, 1965. 

Turner, Roy (ed.). India's Urban Future ; Papers and Proceedings 
of a Seminar on Urbanisation in India held at the University 
of California, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962. 

Ullman, Edirard L. 'Trade Centres and Tributary Areas of the 

Philippines," Geographical Review , Vol. 50, Nctj York, I960. 

United Nations. "Urban Rural Population Distribution and Settlement 
Patterns in Asia: Their Relation to Development Policies," 
prepared for the Inter -Regional Seminar on Development Policies 
and Planning in Relation to Urbanisation , organised by the 
U.K. Bureau of Technical Assistance Operations and the Bureau 
of Social Affairs in Cooperation with the Government of the 
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United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. Case 
Studies on Information Systems for Regional Development , 
prepared by Tormod Hermansen (Vol. 1) and Sergio Boisier 
(Vol. 2), Geneva, 1970. 

United States Department of Commerce. Area Development Policies 
in Britain and the Cotintries of Common Market , ^'achingtcn, 
D.C., 1965. 



27. CPL Exchange Bibliography B87 

Vito Francesco. "Problems of the Under -developed Regions of 

Italy," in E.A.G. Robinson (ed.)> Backvjard Areas in Ad-'/anced 
Countries , Proceedings of a Conference held by the International 
Economic Association, Macmillan, 1969. 

Wanmali, Sudhir. "Location of Ejcisting and Potential Growth 
Centres," in Lalit K. Sen (ed.)> Readings on Microlevel 
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Withington, ¥. A, "The Jiitermediate City in the Developing World 
of Southeast Asia," prepared for the Urban Development Panel , 
Southeast Asia Development Advisory Group of the Asia Society , 
New York, 1970. 



28. CPL Exchange Bibliography #38? 

IV. BACia^F.OWJD TECT REFERENCES 

Alonso, I'illiam. Equity and Its Relation to Efficiency in Urban - 
isation , Berkeley: Institute of Urban and Regional Development, 
University of California, 1968. 

. 'Urban and Regional ninbalances in Econanic Developnent," 



EconOTfiic Development and Cultural Change , Chicago: University 
of Chicago Press, 1969. 

. The Question of City Size and National Policy , 



Berkeley: Institute of Urban and Regional Developnent, 
University of California, 1970. 

. The Economics of Urban Size, Berkeley: Institute of 



Urban and Regional Developnent, University of California, 1970. 

Bos, Hendricus Cornells. Spatial Dispersion of Eccncnic Activity , 
Rotterdam: Universitaire Pers, 1965. 

Boudeville, J. F. . Problems of Regional Economic Planning , Edinburgh: 
Edinburgh University Press, 1966. 

Boventer, Eduin von. "Spatial Organisation Theory as a Basis for 
Regional Planning, " Journal of the American Institute of 
Planners , Vol. IHl, No. 2, Washington, 196U. 

Chenery, Hollis B. "Comparative Advantage and Developnent Policy," 
American Economic Reviev; , Providence: Bram University, I96I. 

Chinitz, Benjamin. "Appropriate Goals for Regional Econcmic Policy," 
Urban Studies , Vol. 3} No. 1, GlasgCT/: University of Glasgci^, 

Dunham, David il. and Jos. G. M. Hilhorst (eds.). Issues in Regional 
Planning , The Hague: Institute of Social Studies, 1971. 

Friedmann, Jolm. "Locational Aspects of Econcmic Development," 
Land Economics, Madison: University of V'isconsin, 1956. 

"The Urban -Regional Frame for National Development," 



International Development Revie\r , !Jashington, D.C., 19C36, 

Friedmann, John and Uilliam Alonso. Regional Developnent and Planning : 
A Reader , Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press, 196U. 

Greenhut, lielvin L. "Size of Markets vs Transport Costs in 

Industrial Location Svirveys and Theory," Journal of Industrial 
Economics , Oxford, I960. 

Hansen, Niles M. "How Regional Policy can Benefit frcm Econanic 
Theorj"-," Gra ^th and Change , Vol. 1, No. 1, Lexington: 
University of Kentucky, 1970. 



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Harvey, Leiberstein. Economic Backi-Tardness and Economic Grctrbh ; 
Studies in the Theory of Econcmic Development , New York: 
Jolin TJiley, 1957. 

Haperstrand, T. Innovation Diffusion in a Spatial Process , Chicago, 
1967. 

Hermansen, Tormod. Spatial Organisation and Economic Development ; 

The Scope and Task of Spatial Planning , United Nations Research 
Institute for Social Development, Programme IV - Regional 
Development, Geneva, 1969. 

Hirshman, Albert 0. The Strategy of Economic Development , New Haven: 
Yale University Press, 1958* " 

Hoselitz, Bert F. (ed.). The Progress of Underdeveloped Areas , 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952. 

Isard, IJalter. Location and Space Economy/- - A General Theory Re - 
lating to Industrial Location, Market Areas, Land Use Trade 
and Urban Structure, Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press and New York: 
John ¥iley and Sons, 1956. 

. Methods of Regional Analysis , Cambridge: The M.I.T <, 

Press and New York: John Wiley and Sons, I960. 

Kain, John F. National Priorities for Regional Development , 

prepared for the Programme on Regional and Urban Economics, 
Cambridge: Harvard University, 1970. 

IQaassen, Leo H. The Role of Social Equipment and Environment in 

Regional Econcmic Growth , United Nations Research Jiistitute for 
Social Development, Rotterdam - Geneva, 1971. 

Kiilclinsky, Antoni R. Goals in Regional Policies and Objectives in 
Regional Planning , United Nations Research Institute for Social 
Development, Geneva, 1970. 

. Macro Regional Planning in the Developed Countries, 



United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 
Programme IV - Regional Development, Geneva, 1971. 

(ed.). Regional Information and Regional Planning , 

The Hague: Mouton and Co., (forthcoming). 

Leven, Charles L. "Establishing Goals for Regional Economic 

Development, " Journal of the American Institute of Planners , 
Vol. XX:{, No. 2, Washington, D.C., 196U. 

Losch, August. The Economics of Location , translated frcm the Second 
Revised Edition by William H. Woglom with the assistance of 
Wolfgang F. Stopler, New Haven, Connecticut; Yale University 
Press, 195U. 



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Mennes, L., J. Tinbergen and J. G. Uardenburg. I he Element of 
Space in Development Planning, Amsterdam: North-Holland 
Publishing, Company, 1965. 

Meyer, J. R. "Regional Ec enemies : A Survey," American Eccnonic 
Revieu, Vol. 53* Part 1, Providence: Brcvm University, 1>63, 
also published in L. Needleman (ed.). Regional Economics , 
Penguin Modern Economic Readings, 1968. 

Nelson, Joan. "Urban Gra-rth and Policies in Developing Nations," 
in Barbara Ward, J. D. Runnals and Lenore Dl Anjou (eds.). 
The Widening Gap, A Report of the Columbia Conference on 
International Economic Development, Columbia University Press, 
1971. 

Richardson, H. IJ. Regional Economics , New York: Praeger Publishers, 
1969. 

Rivkin, Malcolm D. "Urbanisation and National Development: Some 
Approaches to the Dilemma," prepared for the Inter-Regional 
Seminar on Development Policies and Planning in Relation to 
Urbanisation , Pittsburgh; University of Pittsburgh, 1966. 

Robinson, E^,1.G. "Location Theory, Regional Economics and Backvrard 
Areas , " in E .A .G . Robins on (ed . ) , Bactarard jVreas in Advanced 
Countries , Proceedings of a Conference held by the International 
Economic Association, Macmillan, 1969. 

Robock, Stefan H. "Strategies for Regional Economic Development," 
Papers and Proceedings of the Regional Science Association , 
Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania, 1965. 

Thompson, IJilbur R. A Preface to Urban Ec enemie s, prepared for 
the Resources for the Futxire, Inc^ Baltimore: The Johns 
Hopkins Press, 1965. 

United Nations . Seminar on Regional Planning , organised by the 
Technical Assistance Administration, The Bccncsnic Comraissicn 
for Asia and the Far East and the Bureau of Social Affairs, 
Nei/ York, 1958. 

. "Economic Aspects of Urbanisation, " prepared for the 

Inter-Regional Seminar on Development Policies and Planning in 
Relation to Urbanisation , organised by the United Nations Bureau 
of Technical Assistance Operations and the Bureau of Social 
Affairs in Cooperation with the Government of the United States 
of America, University of Pittsbiirgh, Pittsburgh, 1966. 

Concepts and Methods of Area Programming for Community 



Development , U. N. Economic Bulletin for Latin America, Vol. 
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31. CPL Exchange Bibliography #38? 

V. BIBLICGRAFHICAL REFERENCES AND AREAS OF RESEARCH MD 
INVESTIGATION 

Berry, Brian J.L., and Fred Allan. Central Place Studies; A 
Bibliography of Theory and Application , Regional Science 
Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 
1965. 

Ford Foundation. "Documentation for Pilot Research Projects in 
Grot'jth Centres," prepared for use in the programme of Pilot 
Research Projects in Growth Centres , initiated by the Ministry 
of Food, Agriculture, Community Development and Cooperation, 
Government of India, New Delhi, 1970. 

Friedly, Philip H. Urban Growth and Population Distribution ; 
Research for Future Policy Development , prepared for the 
United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, 
Washington, D.C., 1971. 

Friedmann, John. "Regional Planning and Nation-Building - An Agenda 
for International Research," Economic Development and Cultural 
Change , Vol. l6. No. 1, Chicago; University of Chicago Press, 
1967. 

Kuklinsky, Antoni R. "International Research on Regional Developnsnt 
and Implications for Regional Statistics," prepared for the 
United Nations European Seminar on Regional Statistics , 
Statistical Commission and Economic Commission for Europe, 
I'Jarsaw, 1969. 

. Research on Re g ional Development within the Framework: 



of_UNRISD, United Nations Research Institute for Development, 
Geneva, 1971. 

Leven, Charles L. The Role of Regional Data' Banks In the Context 
of a System of National and Local Data Banks , Institute of 
Urban and Regional Studies, Washington University, St. Louis. 

Mabogunje, Akin L. "Draft Proposal for Research on the Development 
of Growth Poles," prepared for the Conference on Growth Poles 
Hypotheses and Policies held under the joint auspices of Nueva 
Universidad Autonoma De Madrid, Madrid and United Nations 
Research Institute for Social Development, Geneva, 1970. 

Pal, Manindra Nath. Information System and Regional Development 
in India , United Nations Research Institute for Social 
Development, Geneva, 1970. 

Resources for the Future, Inc. Design for a Worldwide Study of 
Regional Development , A Report to the United Nations on a 
Proposed Research-Training Programme, Baltimore: The Johns 
Hopkins Press, 1966. 



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Rodvrin, Lloyd. First Stage Research Prospectus on the Eccnanics 

of Urbanisation , prepared for the Centre for Housing, Building 
and Planning, United Nations, New York, 1970. 

Storey, Keith J . Grci-rbh Poles and GroTrth Centres ; A Selected 

Biblio^.raphy , Department of Geogjraphy, Memorial University of 

Herrfounciland, Canada, 1972. 

United Nations Industrial Development Organisation. "Industrial 
Location, Re£;,ional Development and Related Subjects - A 
Partial Annotated Bibliography," prepared for the Inter-Re^ioial 
Seminar on Industrial Location and Regional Development , 
Minsk, 196b. 

United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. Training 
in Comprehensive Regional Development and Planning , Material 
for Discussion, Prograrane IV - Regional Development, Geneva, 
1969. 

. "Relationships Between Users and Data Banks," 



Final Report of the Group for the International Expert Meeting 
on Data Banks for Developmx^nt, Geneva, 1971. 



COUNCIL OF PLAIWBIG LIBRARIANS Exchange Bibliography #367 

GRCTITH POLES AMD GRCT\TH CENTRES IN REGICNAL DEVELOPMENT: 
A BIBLICGRAPHY. 

Additional copies available from: 

Council of Planning Librarians 
Post Office Box 229 
Monticello, Illinois, 61856 

for $3.00.