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TN a recent number of a German periodical \ there i» 
-*- a paper on " The latest Antigone-Literature/' at the 
head of which appears a list of no fewer than eighteen 
works,— editions, translations, and essays — referring to 
this Play, and all, more or less, occasioned by its revival 
on «the Berlin stage. And, perhaps, this list would be 
more than doubled, if we added to it every book relat- 
ing to Sophocles which has appeared in Germany during 
the last twenty years. But although we have followed 
the example, which the good taste of the King of Prus- 
sia has induced the Germans to propose for our imita- 
tion, and though the frequenters of English and French 
theatres in the metropolis have received with applause 
the somewhat heterogeneous compound of Sophocles 
and Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, our scholars have done 
nothing that deserves to be mentioned, either for Sopho- 
cles in general, or for the AiUifone in particular, since 
the publication of Elnusley's SehoKa Bomcma in 1825, and 
the appearance of Dr. Gaisford's Edition in 1826. In 
undertaking, therefore, an original Edition of tlus 
masterpiece of the Greek Drama, I eqjoy one advan- 

Zeitichrift fur die Alterthumswissenaehaft, 1846, nr. 78 seqq. p. 617. 


tage, of which no German could boast — ^that I need not 
fear any disadvantageous comparison with the contem- 
porary labours of my own countrymen. 

Neither this Edition, nor the English Version which 
accompanies it, is the work of yesterday. For many 
years I have been preparing a critical recension of the 
seven plays of Sophocles, of which the present publica- 
tion may be taken as a specimen, and an earnest. Wil- 
lingly accepting the suggestions of other scholars, where 
I felt assured that they had discovered the truth, I 
have also emended the text in many passages where, 
without their aid, I thought I saw my way to certain 
or highly probable restorations. Unless the received 
text is obviously corrupt, no discreet editor would 
tamper with the traditionary and manuscript readings 
of a Greek poet. But, on the other hand, I am not 
one of those who would shrink from coi\jectural criti- 
cism, where it presents itself in a reasonable shape; 
and there are many cases in which I feel that no manu- 
script evidence could strengthen my confidence in an 
emendation proposed by an experienced and sagacious 
scholar. With regard to the conjectures, which are 
brought forward in these pages for the first time, it 
will be a great satisfaction to me if they meet with the 
approbation of those practised critics, to whose collec- 
tive judgment every philological labourer submits his 

The English Version was commenced in the autumn 
of 1842, at the suggestion of a friend, who is not only 


eminent as a Translator, but also known as one of the 
most profound and original writers of the present day. 
It appeared to him strange that the business of classical 
translation should be so entirely neglected in this coun« 
try, and he thought that a literal, but readable, version 
of Sophocles, woidd be a great boon to those who are 
capable|of admiring the beauty of these Plays, but have 
neither leisure nor knowledge sufficient for the careful 
study of so difficult an author. But though I com- 
menced this version some five years ago, and published 
a specimen of it in a London periodical in February 1845, 
other avocations prevented me from completing my 
work, until the leisure of last summer, and the encou- 
ragements of a (urcle of accomplished gentlemen, with 
whom I then had the happiness of spending some days 
in a country-house, furnished at once the opportunity 
and the inducements which were necessary to bring me 
back to my long-suspended employment. 

As it was a task of no ordinary difficidty, I may be 
pardoned for making a few observations on the rides 
which I laid down for myself in thus attempting to 
transfuse into English a work written by the most pro- 
found of poets, for the most ingenious of audiences^. 
O. Miiller has justly remarked, in the Preface to his 
version of the Eumenides^ that " every Translation, but 
particularly the imitation of poetical works in another 
language, is a problem which can never be completely 
solved; for the Translator, with a hundred conflicting 
' Muller, Hist. Lit, Gr., i. pp. 356, 6. 

viii PREFACE. 

duties, can attain to nothing without relinquishing some- 
tiling else." Now it appeared to me, that if Sophocles 
were to be translated at all, the work could only be 
done by some one who had made classical scholarship 
the business of his life^: and that the main object 
must be to give a full representation of the author's 
meaning. It remained only to be seen how far a Trans- 
lator; struggling to effect this object, could comply 
with the requirements of good taste, — in short, how 
far the translation could be literal without becoming 
unreadable. For myself, I make no pretension to the 
gift of poetry: and if I have succeeded in throwing a 
little spirit into my faithful copy of the original, — if 
indeed this Version is free from absolute tameness and 
languor, I shall have compassed all my own expecta- 
tions, and shall, perhaps, have done as much as could 
be rc€LSonably demanded of a professed grammarian 
and philologer. 

With regard to the form of the Translation, it was 
clearly idle to attempt what the Germans have often 
effected — ^to reproduce all the metres of the original. 

' The great difficulties of the plays of Sophocles are due rather 
to the subtlety of the poet's mind, than to the obscurity of his diction. 
One might say of Sophocles and -^schylus, what Jean Paul remarks 
oi Gothe and Klopstock (Levana, J 160. Werke, xixvin. p. 126) : 
" Klopstock is more frequently easy than Gothe — because difficulties 
of diction (Sprachschiuierigkeiten) may be -conquered by teaching and 
industry ; but difficulties of conception (Fassungschiuierigkeitm) can 
only be mastered by that mental maturity, which is the growth of 


The English language would not bear such an experi- 
ment. Nor could the Translation be made effectively 
in the conventional rhjrthm of our English prose. Even 
Landor would scarcely attempt to write a tragic dialogue 
in this style. Much of the Faust has been most ade- 
quately rendered in Mr. Hayward's prose version ♦, and 
Dr. Carlyle's forthcoming translation of the In/nmo would 
hardly gain by metrical confinement; but in formal 
Tragedy, the English ear expects the measured flow of 
dramatic blank verse ; and this style of composition is 
so easy and unconstrained, that I did not feel myself 
at liberty to relinquish it. Nor do I think, that, by 
this concession to the rules of the modem stage, I have 
unnecessarily expanded the Translation, or omitted any 
thing— even the force of a compound word — in the 
original. As there are twelve syllables, at least, in every 
Greek senarius, and only ten or eleven in the English, 
which is also hampered by articles, prepositions, and 
auxiliaries, I could not translate the Greek line for line, 
except in the gtichomythie dialogues, where an allowable 
abruptness, and a freedom from particles of connexion, 
give our language the advantage. The chorusses are 

^ Mr. Hayward, in the Preface to his prose translation of Faust, 
informs us that Mr. Charles Lamb once remarked to Mr. Gary, the 
translator of Dante, that he had derived more pleasure from the 
meagre Latin versions of the Greek Tragedians, than from any other 
versions of them with which he was acquainted. This must be under- 
stood- as a censure of the professed English translations : no man would 
take a Latin prose version as his representative of the meaning of a 
Greek poet, if his own literature fiu'nished him with any tolerable 


rendered by irregular iambic rhythms, not unlike those 
which Milton has employed in his Samsm Jgonistes ; 
but I have not arranged them in corresponding strophes. 
The anap»stic movements, however, are accurately 
imitated in the version : for this march-cadence is com- 
mon in our language, as in every other. Without en- 
deavouring to write archaic English, I have not hesi- 
tated to introduce words and expressions, which occur 
in our older dramatic writers, and, throughout, I have 
preferred a plain, straightforward, and manly expression, 
to the feeble elegances of modem versification ^ 

The notes are not intended to furnish a running 
commentary on the text. They dwell only on those 
passages in which I thought that the text was really in 
want of a fuller exegesis, or where I had an emendation 
to propose and justify. But the version itself will 
serve the same purpose as a body of notes written in 
the usual style, and I think that, with the introductory 
matter, even the young student will not require any 
further elucidation of this play. 

This mode of publishing a Greek play is supported 
by many precedents in Germany*; and although it is 

« With regard to the orthography of the Greek names, I may 
remark that I hare always written K, and not C, '^ making exception 
for such names as the English reader has been so accustomed to hear 
with the C, that they may be considered as almost Anglicized." (Grote, 
Hut. of Greece, i. p. 20.) 

< Besides the well-known translation of the Eumenides, by K O. 
Mailer, I may refer to the OreOeia of Franz, the OeftneUer Prometheus 
of Schomann, and to the translations by Bockh and others of this play. 
Even Aristotle has appeared in a critical edition with an interpagcd 
German rersion. 


probable that this will not be the only specunen of the 
kind in this country^, it may be expected, that, pro- 
ceeding as this work does from a person who has been 
for many years engaged in the business of tuition, it 
will have some reference to prospective use in the 
school or lecture-room. In my own opinion, nothing 
b wanted by the classical student who has the advan- 
tage of listening to the oral expositions of a competent 
Tutor, except a good text of the author whom he is read- 
ing : but if any one proposes to employ this volume as 
a vehicle of instruction, and asks how far it is suitable 
for such a purpose, the answer is easy. The few, who 
are capable of giving original tuition in a play of 
Sophocles, will care little whether their pupils have 
more or less assistance from the book before them. 
The many, who profess to teach Greek without the re- 
quisite appliances of learning, ought not to object, if 
their pupils enjoy, in common with themselves, the 
results of a careful study of this most difficult author. 
In any case, the use of a translation need not supersede 
that grammatical analysis which should be required 
from every student. 

' This work will be speedily followed, or even anticipated, by a 
similar publication of the Agamemnon^ which has been announced by 
a young Oxford scholar. 

King EdwartTs School^ Bury St EdmuncPs, 
22nd Feb., 1848. 


Page 76, line 770, f<yr aXX' n/yiian;^, read oKKa rrfviKavB^. 

— 83, . . . 13 Translation, /or Dirke's, read Dike's. 

— 84, . . . 854, /or Itphv Hfifu^ read Iphv Hfifia, 

— 122, . . . 1277, /or avyKtKpafuu, read ovyKtKpafuu, 


$ 1. Date of the Antigone. § 2. Position and Sentiments of Sophocles 
at this time. $ 3. General Design of the Play. § 4. The 
Dramatis Personce and their distribution among the throe actors. 
i 6. The Chorus. } 6. The Time, and $ 7. the Place of Action. 
$8. Subdiyisions of the Play. $ 9. Analysis of the Plot. $ 10. 
Bibliography of this Drama. 

§ 1. rpHE date of the Antigone has been made a subject 
-■- of discussion among Scholars. Petit, Bentley, 
Musgrave, Bockh, and Bemhardy, have referred it to Ol. 
84, 3. Seidler argues for Ol. 85, 1. With Siivem, Wex, 
Clinton, and Miiller, I believe that the first representa- 
tion took place in Ol. 84, 4, that is, in the early spring 
of 440 B. c, probably at the great Dionysia in Maphe- 
bolion, the ninth month of the Attic year. Without 
entering upon the details of this controversy, I will 
remark that, according to a well-attested and generally- 
admitted statement, Sophocles was appointed one of the 
ten strategi, or prcetors, in the Samian war, in conse- 
quence of the approbation with which this play was 
received*. Now as this must have been the great war 
in which Pericles shared his command with nine col- 
leagues, and not his preliminary expedition with forty 

1 Aristophanes of Byzantium, in his argument to the Play, p. 244. 
Gaisf. Strabo, xiv. p. 446. Suidas, v. MeXiros. Athen. xiii. p. 603, f. 
Schol. Arist. Pax. y. 696. Cic. Offlc, i. 40. J 144. Plut. Perkl c, viii. 
Plin. H. N, xxiYH. 2. VaL Max. iv. 3. 


galleys ^ and as that great war continued for about nine 
months, from the summer of 440 to the spring of 439, 
it seems more than probable that Sophocles was elected 
to the praBtorship at the annual Archoerma in Thargelion, 
the eleventh Attic months, when the popularity he had 
acquired by his Drama was fresh and efficacious. Of 
the performances of Sophocles in this war, we know 
only that he was one of the officers in command of the 
squadron which was sent to bring up reinforcements 
from Lesbos and Chios ^. 

^ 2. To the reader of the Antigone^ the date of the 
play, thus established, is chiefly interesting, from the 
light which this synchronism throws upon the general 
tone of the drama itself. At this time, the influence of 
Pericles was paramount^, and while those who were am- 
bitious of public employment would be most likely to 
attain their object by judiciously paying court to the 
great statesman, he could not but be sensible of the im- 
portance of securing the aid of the most experienced and 
popular dramatist of the day. As iEschylus some years 
before had pleaded from the tragic stage for the views 
of Aristides^ Sophocles, we may be sure, did not neglect 
the opportunities which his art afforded of recommend- 
ing, by indirect but circumstantial panegyric, the coun- 
ter policy of his friend Pericles. To what extent he 
had previously done this, we have no means of judging : 

2 See Thirlwall, Hist, of Gre^e^ Vol. in. p. 48, sqq., and Wex, 
Prolegom. c. i. 

8 Petersen, in the ZeiUchrift f. d. Altertkumawissenschcifif 1846, 
No. 75. p. 696. 

* AthenauB, xm., p. 603, p. * See Thirlwall, ra. p. 47. 

« MuUer, Evmeniden, j 38, p. 120. 


for although he was 55 years old when he produced the 
Aniiffone^ it is the earliest of his extant tragedies^. But 
there can be little difficulty in recognizing his advocacy 
of Pericles and his authority in many passages of this 
play. ^The sentiments put into the mouth of Kreon 
(w. 178, sqq.) are less suited to a tyrant, than to the 
leader of a free state, and were probably an echo of 
much that had fallen from the lips of Pericles. The 
lecture on obedience to constituted authority, and its 
connexion with martial discipline (vv. 663, sqq.), seems 
to me to have a direct and obvious reference to the 
position occupied by Pericles at this particular time. 
The frequentative construction, in v. 667®, would not be 
applicable to the case of any but an elective ruler ; and 
though the despot speaks out in the following line, the 
hyperbole is all in favour of the general rule respecting 
military discipline. But perhaps the most distinct per- 
sonal reference to Pericles is that in v. 352 sqq., where he 
speaks of man's self-taught attainments as consisting in 
eloquence, Anaxagorean philosophy, and statesmanship, 
— ^the three most prominent characteristics of the states- 
man in question — where he dwells on the architecture 
which Pericles so largely patronized, and where he 
draws a contrast between the exaltation (v. 368, vyf/i'iroXis) 
of Pericles, which was due to his popular measiu'cs, and 
the recent ostracism (v. 369, airoXis) of his rival Thucy- 
dides, the son of Melesias, who had taken up the Laco- 
^ Muller, Hist of Lit. o/Oreece, i. p. 338. 

Koi a-fJLUcpa, Koi SUaia, Koi rapavria, 
"No! when a dty constitutes a chief. 
It well befitteth all men to obey 
His great or small, just or m\just, behests." 


nian policy of Kimon^. That Sophocles afterwards, like 
most of the literary or middle-class party at Athens *•, 
joined the enemies of the old Athenian constitution, and 
was actually one of the Probuli, or committee of safety, 
who paved the way for the downfal of democracy at the 
close of the Peloponnesian war", is well known: but 
this need not prevent us from believing that he was 
attached to the popular party, and opposed to the aris- 
tocratizing facftion, in the glorious days of Pericles. 
Great changes took place in the views of cultivated 
Athenians, in the interval between the years 445 and 
413. To trace the various steps of this change from 
Sophocles and Pericles through Euripides and Thera- 
menes to Plato and Xenophon, would be to write the 
political history of Athens during the Peloponnesian 
war. It is sufficient to state here that the change did 
take place, and that the easy-minded Sophocles, who 
voted for the abolition of a popular constitution when 
there was only in his judgment a choice of evils ^^ went 
hand-in-hand with Pericles in his great plans for the 
subversion of the anti-popular government of Samos, 
and in all his schemes of domestic policy. The inter- 
course, which is said to have passed between Sophocles 
and the historian Herodotus, may be taken as an addi- 
tional illustration of the liberal opinions of the former. 

Thirlwall, m. p. 44. 

10 This view I put forth some years ago, in the continuation of 
Mulleins Hist. Lit. Or., Vol. ii. p. 127, and hare since repeated it in 
an eminent London Review. 

11 Thucyd. vra. 1. Arist. Bhet. m. 18. Pol. vi. 6, 10. Thucyd. 
vra. 67. 

13 Arist. Rhet. m. 18 1 w yap rfv ^XXa /9cXrta>. 


As I have elsewhere shown ^^ Herodotus was not only an 
admirer of Athens as administered by Pericles, but also 
a frequent visiter of the city, and, after the conquest of 
Samos, where he resided, a mekecus or foreign resident 
there, or in Lampon's Athenian colony at Thurii. That 
the metcm were generally friends of the democracy, is 
clear from the part which they took in the reaction 
under Thrasybulus; and Lysias, who was a fellow-colo- 
nist with Herodotus, was particularly remarkable for the 
strength of his popular predilections^*. The whole cha- 
racter of Herodotus favours the supposition that he was 
one of the popular party at Samos, in support of whom 
the expedition of Pericles was originally undertaken; 
and as Sophocles composed a lyric poem for him at this 
very time, he must either have joined the Athenian 
camp during the siege, or have left Samos for Athens 
before the war broke out. There is good reason for 
the inference, that Herodotus wrote his third book when 
the Antigone was fresh in his recollection ^^ 

§ 3. On the general design and leading ideas of 
this Play, it is quite unnecessary to enlarge. Every 
reader must see that it is the poet's object to represent, 
in their antagonism, the duty of obedience to the con- 
stituted authority in a state, and the duty of carrying 
out the laws of religious and family piety. Kreon, as 
a ruler, forbids the burial of Polyneikes, who had 
brought the Argive host against his native city. Anti- 
gone feels herself bound, as a sister, to pay the neces- 

^8 Transactums of the Philological Societt/, Vol. i. No. 16. 
W Vit, X, Oratorum, p. 835. 
^5 Transactions of the Philological Society y i. p. 164. 
80PH. ANT. b 


sary funeral honours to his corpse. Thus far their 
counter resolutions admit of reciprocal justification. 
Kreon's resolve to make a marked distinction between 
his treatment of Eteokles, who died valiantly fighting on 
behalf of Thebes, and of Polyneikes, who had brought 
fire and sword against that city, would be approved by 
many among the Athenian spectators, who recollected 
the attempt of Hippias some 50 years before the per- 
formance of this play. But while the pre-eminent fune- 
ral honours (see on v. 24) which he paid to Eteokles, 
were not only justifiable, but praiseworthy, the laws of 
religion did not sanction his treatment of Polyneikes ; 
and to Antigone, as a sister, it appeared not only a con- 
tempt of the laws of heaven, but a special insult to her- 
self (v. 31). Accordingly, when she is detected in her 
attempt to undo the King's ordinance, she is not con- 
tent with merely pleading the duties of religion, but 
addresses the King with a contemptuous bitterness, 
which excites his furious indignation, and leads him to 
add to the impiety of refusing interment to a corpse, the 
still greater abomination of burying a living soul. Death 
by stoning was the punishment originally set forth in 
the proclamation forbidding the sepulture of Polyneikes 
(v. 36). The fear of a conspiracy among the citizens 
first exasperates the tyrant, and leads him to form plans 
of aggravated vengeance ; and, when at last he is beard- 
ed by his excited kinswoman, he loses all self-control, 
and dooms to an unnatural death the child of his sister, 
and the bride of his son. Antigone meets with a fate, 
which, but for her ungovernable rage, might have been 
averted; and Kreon's cruel and contemptuous viola- 


tion of all that Greece held holy, is visited by the worst 
of family visitations — ^the suicidal deaths of his wife 
and only son. The double a^poavi/^ of Kreon and 
Antigone worked their double ruin ; but the impiety 
and boasting words of the former brought upon him an 
additional chastisement, as the Chorus distinctly tells us 
in its march from the orchestra, at the close of the play. 

^ 4. Before entering on an' analysis of the plot 
which gives a theatrical developement to these ideas, it 
may be advisable to say a few words about the chamaiii 
personoB^ and Chorus, and about the time and place of 
the action. 

The characters who appear on the stage, are Anti- 
gone and Ismene, the two surviving offspring of the ill- 
fated marriage of CEdipus and his mother Jocasta; 
their uncle Kreon, who after having previously exer- 
cised an authority almost regal ^^, had, on the death of 
his nephew Eteokles, been invested with the absolute 
sovranty of Thebes ; his son, Hiemon, who was betrothed 
to his cousin Antigone ; the queen, Eurydike ; Teiresias, 
the blind prophet; one of the sentinels appointed to 
watch the body of Polyneikes ; one of the King's im- 
mediate attendants, who is an eye-witness of the stiicide 
of the young prince ; and lastly, a servant of the palace, 
who makes known the closing catastrophe of the Queen. 
As, according to the rules of the Greek drama, only 
three of these personages could appear on the stage at 

i<^ It appears from the end of the CEdipus Tyrannm, and from the 
part which Kreon plays in the CEdipus ColoneuSf that after the cata- 
strophe of CEdipus and Jocasta, the government of Thebes was, accord- 
ing to the legend, mainly in the hands of Kreon. 



one time, and as, consequently, only three actors were 
provided, it may be useful to inquire how these parts 
were distributed among them. The first actor or pro- 
tagonist^ as he was called, always undertook those cha- 
racters in which the interest of the play chiefly centered; 
and as the actions and sufferings ef this person generally 
took place off the stage, the same actor was enabled to 
perform the part of the mess€Jnger, whose business it 
was, by a vivid narrative {facundia prwsensy^, to fill up 
those important details in the action of the piece, which 
the taste of the day pronounced unfit for the eyes of 
the audience. As these narratives, which originally 
constituted the whole epic element of the Greek lyrical 
drama, were to the last of great importance, it was 
necessary that they should be intrusted to a first-rate 
performer, and we are told that some of the best actors 
especially prided themselves on the manner in which they 
delivered the long speeches of the messengers*®. There 
can be little doubt, then, that the protagonist in this play 
undertook the parts of Antigone, and of the attendant 
who describes the death of Haemon. The character 
which stands second in importance, is undoubtedly that of 
Kreon. Now we learn from Demosthenes *^ that iEschi- 
nes, who did not aspire to a higher rank than that of tri- 

1'' Horat. Ars Poetica, 184. 

18 ProverMa e codice CoislinianOf 124; ^v yap NticfWparof vtto- 
Kpirrls rpayucbg iptaros, Koi ftaKiara cV rais r&v dyytktov e^ayyeXiais. 

19 Demosth. De Corond, p. 288, $ 180 : Kp€a<l>6vTrfv $ Kpwovra $ tv 
iv KoXvrr^ ttotc Olv6fAaov KOKbs kok&s v7roKpiv6fuvos iirtrpi^ai, Defalad 
Legat. p. 428. $ 274 : tan yap di/Trov rovffy ^t eV Swaai rois dpafuia-i 
Tois TpayiKois €^alp€T6v iariv atnnp yipas rois Tpirayiavurrais t6 tws 
Tvpawovs Koi Tovs ra (najirrpa txovras tla-Uvcu,, ravra roivw iv ra 
bpafiari rovr^ a-Ko^atrOt 6 Kpecsp Ala-xlvrjs ola \iytov Trtnoujrai t<^ 

VOlflTfj. K, T. X. 


tagonist, had to perform, among other Himilar parts, that 
of Kreon in the Antigone. But even though we make no 
allowance for the rhetorical exaggerations of the orator, 
it does not at all follow from this, that the part of 
Kreon in the Antigone was performed by the third actor, 
at the original representation of the play^. Consider- 
ing the importance of the character, the length of the 
part, and the special impression which the poet intended 
to produce by the speeches assigned to the Theban 
King 21, I should not hesitate to assign it to the second 
actor ; while the flimsy part of Ismene, the semi-grotes- 
que character of the Sentinel, and the few words allotted 
to Eurydike and the Exangelus, might very well be in- 
trusted to the tritagonist. This will leave to the main 
tragic actor, — besides the chief part, Antigone,— -the 
interesting character of Haemon, the solemn speeches 
of Teiresias, and the description of the catastrophe by 
the attendant of Kreon. The changes of masks and 
dresses, which this arrangement would involve, would 
be simpler than in any other distribution of the parts, 
and there would be little interruption to the unity of 
tone» which the different actors would respectively 
maintain. Thus the similarity between the male and 
female costume on the Athenian stage, would enable 
the actor to pass from Antigone to Hsemon, by merely 
changing his mask and upper robe, and by girding on 

^ That the practice mentioned by Demosthenes could not haye 
been uniyersal in the time of Sophocles, is obvious ; for the best actor 
must have undertaken the part of (Edipus Tyrannus^ of Agam&mnon^ 
&c. : see Lucian, Neayomant, 16. ApoL 5. 

21 It may be added, that by assigning a Kommos to Kreon as well 
as to Antigone, the poet has placed him in a very advanced position of 
tragic interest. 


a sword, which, as the catastrophe tells us, he must 
have worn. 

^ 5. The Chorus, consisting, as was generally the 
case in the time of Sophocles^^ of fiftem persons, repre- 
sents the privy council of aged Theban nobles, who have 
been especially summoned to receive the King's instruc- 
tions, and to carry them into effect. Although the real 
leaders of the old dithyrambic Chorus were now repre- 
sented by the actors on the stage®, the coryplweus, or 
choir-leader, still performed their functions. He mar- 
shalled the Chorus ; he recited the anapaestic systems, 
which regulated their entrance to the orchestra, and 
announced the appearance of new characters on the 
logeium; and he carried on those colloquies with the 
latter, which assisted in the developement of the lead- 
ing ideas of the drama, and explained to the audience 
the tendencies of the plot. " You are a good Chorus, 
my lord," says Ophelia to Hamlet^ ; and, in Shakspere's 
time, the coryphsBUS would have been a sort of showman 
to eke out, with direct information, the imperfect de- 
velopements of the stage. But the Chorus of Sopho- 
cles had a higher part to perform, and one which was 
especially important in the tragedy before us. And 

23 Schol. Ariit. Equ. 686: 6 di rpayiKhs x^P^^ **• ^' ^<*^^' ^^• 
} 108 : nfimnaidiKa yap ^a-av 6 x^p^^- cf. Vita 8ophocU», and Miiller 
EwrMmdefitf } i. p. 71 : who, however, seeniB to think that the Chorus 
might have consisted of twelve only in this play. Ibid. } 10. p. 79. 

^ See Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, art. Chorus; 
p. 226. c. 2. 

34 Act m. sc. 2. The common reading is, ''Tou are as good as a 
Chorus.'^ The allusion, as Hamlef s answer shows, is to the man who 
explained the motions of the puppets in a pulcinello show, or to the 
sort of Chorus which appears in Henry V. and Pericles. 


here I may remark on the happy selection which the 
poet has made, in choosing the Senators of Thebes as 
the vehicles of his by-play. As the religious element 
in the Greek drama was never forgotten, and was always 
most strongly marked in the choral portion of the 
drama, we may readily understand how a body of aged 
counsellors, tremblingly alive to their own safety, and 
constitutionally anxious for the maintenance of existing 
authority, but obliged, as a Chorus, to assert the duties 
of religion, would minister to the illustration of the 
antagonism between divine and human ordinances, on 
which the plot is made to depend. While they admire 
and applaud the sentiments of Kreon (v. 673), and have 
certainly no wish to incur the penalty of death by vio- 
lating his decree (v. 220), and while they are shocked 
by the stem and stubborn temper of Antigone (v. 469), 
they timidly suggest whether the burial of Polyneikes 
may not have been eflTected by divine intervention (v. 
278) ; they recognize the merits, while they censure the 
frowardness of the heroine ; they are horrified by their 
discovery that love has triumphed over filial duty in the 
case of Hsemon, and yet they second his arguments on 
behalf of Antigone ; they embrace with eagerness the 
King's proposal to obey Teiresias, and exult religiously 
in the hope that all the mischief will be averted ; when 
the catastrophe has taken place, they are not slow to 
point out to Kreon that he, as well as Antigone, has 
rued his own errors ; and they conclude the Play with 
a wise saw or two on the importance of self-control and 
religious reverence. They thus fulfil all the functions 
of their dramatic position ; as representing the citizens 


of Thebes, they are the advocates of loyalty and obe- 
dience ; as a Tragic Chorus, they must not abstain from 
censuring whatever verges on want of respect for reli- 
gion : " If such practices/' says the Chorus in the (Edipus 
Tyranimsy " are held in honour, what need is there for 
me to play the Chorus*^?" 

^ 6. The action is supposed to commence at day- 
break, after the night which witnessed the precipitate 
retreat of the Argive host from the gates of Thebes. 
Ismene speaks of the night as scarcely past (v. 16) ; 
the Chorus on entering greet the rising sun (v. 100) ; it 
was the ^st day-watch (v. 253) who discovered the at- 
tempt to perform funeral honours to the body of Poly- 
neikes. The events on which the action depends, had, 
therefore, taken place very recently. There is a minute 
accuracy and consistency in regard to these antecedent 
events, which may convince us that Sophocles had in his 
mind a very distinct picture of the mythical transactions 
from which he has derived his plot. For example, 
although Antigone had borne a part in the sepulture of 
Eteokles (v. 876), the cos Xeyovai of v. 23 shows that she 
had but just learnt the intention of Kreon to pay him 
posthumous honours; his funeral, therefore, must be 
conceived as having been celebrated only a short time 
before. It appears, however, from v. 410, that the 
corpse of Polyneikes was becoming putrescent. The 
duel therefore of the brothers, and their mutual fratri- 
cide, must have taken place at least a day or two before 
the retreat of the invading army. Plato says that the 

2fi vv. 896, 6. CI yap al roiatdc irpd(€is W/ztai, W dei /if x^P^^^^^ > 


body of a healthy man will escape corruption for a con- 
siderable time after death in the climate of Greece*, 
and even in Palestine four days might pass, after death 
by disease^ without decomposition^. Taking the play 
and Apollodorus together*®, we may infer that Sophocles 
conceived the following order of events*^. The first 
day's battle commenced without the gates, near the 
Ismenian hill, and after a hard fight, the Thebans were 
driven back to their walls. On the second day, the 
Argives attacked the gates, and Kapaneus had almost 
established himself on the rampart, when Jupiter struck 
him down with lightning from the top of his scaling 
ladder. Upon this, the Argives were seized with a 
panic, and retired from their immediate attack upon the 
town. The Thebans again sallied forth, and another 
pitched battle took place with varying success, till at 
last, at the request of both armies**, the two brothers 
agreed to settle the matter by a single combat. There 
can be little doubt that, according to the Epos which 
Sophocles followed, this agreement was preceded, as in 

2® PhcedOf p. 80, : t6 a-Sfia — iiri€iKm ovxv^p cirt/i^Vct xp^^^* ^^ 
fi€p rtf Koi ;^api€inrfi>f t^o^v to a-cafia rcXcvnfoT/ Koi iv roiavrrj topq. Koi 
TToyv fiaka. 

^ St. John xi. 39 : ^di; SCti, rerdfyrcuos yap eort, where see the Com- 

M Bockh thmks (Abh. i. p. 146) that Sophocles derived his mate- 
rials from the Cyclical Thebais, or from an (Edipodia, and that 
Apollodorus borrowed from the same source. 

^ The English reader will find in Mr. Grote's History of Greece, 
(i. p. 366, sqq.) an account of the Sieges of Thebes, in which all the 
authorities haye been consulted. I have, naturally, made rather more 
use, than he has, of the present play. 

^ Apollod. m. 6. $ 8> 1 : <ds dc dnrnXkyvro ttoXXoi, bo^av cicarcpois 
TOiff orparrviuuriVf ^ErfoicKfjs kqI HoXvveucrfs rrcpt rf/s ffaa-ikiias ixopofia- 
Xovo"t Koi KTiivova-iv oKKijXovs. 


the third book of the lUad, by a solemn truce between 
the armies^ and that after the undecided, because mu- 
tually fatal, duel between the two brothers, the war 
broke out afresh ; for Sophocles speaks (v. 160) not of 
a single war, but of " the tears," which had just termi- 
nated. For these proceedings, we may assign a third 
day at least. The fourth day probably comprised the 
feats of the sons of Astacus^^ And we may suppose 
that on the fifth day, after a fierce battle, which lasted 
till nightfall, the effects of the self-sacrifice of Megareus 
or Mencekeus, the son of Kreon, were felt by the Argives, 
who fled away in panic terror, preceded by the TrpoSpo" 
IJL09 linroTas, Adrastus, who was saved by the swiftness of 
his horse Arion^^ and followed by the avenging spear 
of Periclymenus^. According to this computation, the 
drama begins on the sixth day after the arrival of the 
Argive army, and three days after the death of the two 
brothers. Kreon, who had exercised previously the 
power delegated to him by Eteokles^, became, on the 
defeat of the enemy, absolute monarch of Thebes. The 
poet places his saving the state, by means of the sacri- 
fice of his son, in immediate connexion with his ele- 

81 We may assume in the old Epos a book called the *Acrra«cid<ov 
dpicmlaf just as it appears from this play that the preceding day's 
battle may have been described in a book with the title 'ET€OKKt6vs 

'3 Apollod. m. 6. $ 8. 7. "AdpaoTov dc fi6pop linros dUcrutcrev *Aptl»v, 
So the Cyclic Thebais, apud Paus, vra. 26. § 9 : eifiaro \vypa <f)€pmp, 
aify *Ap€lovi KvaifoxaiiTj, This flight is alluded to in the Parados of the 
play, where the (fwydda np6dpoixov 6(yrtp«^ x^^^V (108, 9) must refer 
to a man on horseback riding before the van : see iBschyl. Sept. e. 
Tlieb. 80 : pcT noXxfS wd* Xim np6bpofios ImrSras, 

^ Apollod. ra. 6, J 8, 6 ^ *AfKl>iapdt^ de ifitvyovri napa.irorafA6v 'Itr/ii;- 
¥6v, TTplv xmh Hfpiickvfitvov ra v&ra rpcaO^t k. r. X. 

^ Eurip. Phoen. 1602 : apxas rrjaht yfjs thtiKt fioi ^ErtoKKtrjg, 


vation to the throne^. And it is clear that this had 
only just taken place^*. I should conclude, therefore, 
in spite of Apollodorus^^, that the devotion of Mega- 
reus manifested itself on the day which preceded the 
action of the piece, and thus the aggravation of the 
Queen's distress would be all the more pressing. It 
will be remarked by the reader of this play, that it was 
mid-day when Antigone was seized by the sentinels 
(v. 413), so that time is supposed to travel more rapidly 
than the mere performance required. 

J 7. The scene represents the open space in front 
of the royal palace at Thebes : and the proscenium ex- 
hibits the outer wall of that building, probably adorned 
with the trophies of six Argive warriors. The centre 
door led to the apartments of Ejreon himself ; the left- 
hand door to that of the women, and that on the right 
to the men's apartments. On the perialttos, or chang- 
ing scene, to the left, was exhibited the city of Thebes, 
the locality of Dirke, &c. ; and as this was on the East- 
em side of the Theatre at Athens, the allusion to the 
quarter of the rising sun, in v. 105, might have greater 
propriety for the the spectator, than a description more 

^ ArUig, 1128, 9, compared with 1026. 

8« Antig, 166, sqq. 

^"^ Apollod. m. 6, $ 7, 8. It will be observed that ApoUodorus 
calls the young prince who slew himself MenoskeuSj the name which 
Sophocles gives to the father of Ereon. I cannot help thinking that, 
according to one legend, his name must have been Avrocfyovos. The 
fathers of the two leaders of the ambush which awaited Tydeus on his 
return to the Argive camp were Hsemon and Autophonus, H, rv. 394, 
395. Now Hsemon was the brother of Megareus, and every one knows 
the comiexion between legendary brotherhood and dualisms of this 


geographically correct would have had^®. On the right 
hand periaMos was depicted a tract of up-land^ — skirted 
at the foot by olive-plantations*® — which represented 
the scene of the dead body's exposure — ^perhaps the 
lower slopes of the Ismenian hill, where the Argives had 
pitched their camp, and at the foot of which the battles 
took place. With the exception of the ekkykUma in v. 
1259, there is no change of scene in this Play. 

J 8. The Antigme is remarkable for the regularity 
of its structure, and presents a good example of all the 
usual subdivisions and component parts of a Greek 
Tragedy. It has a Prologos 'of two actors, a Parados, 
four Stasima, an Emumleia or solemn tragic dance, two 
Kommiy five EjnsodHa, i. e. interludes or acts, and an 
Exodos, in which all three of the actors appear. There 
are some tragedies in which there are no Kommi or 
Emmeleia; the other parts, as Aristotle tells us, arc 
common to all tragedies *^ 

Scholars have found some difficulty in discriminating 
the Parodos and the Stasimon. Aristotle'^s definition is : 
" The Parados is the first speech of the whole Chorus ; 
the Stasimon is a song of the Chorus which is without any 
anapaest or trochee ; and the Kommos is a lamentation, in 
which the Chorus and actors take part together*^." 

38 Soc however the note on the passage. 

«9 y. 409 compared with 1078 and 1163. 

^0 Of. 418 with 1168, and the note on the latter passage. Also see 
Arnold on Thucyd. n. 75. 

*i Aristot. Poet, 12. I have given below my reasons for thinking 
that some tragedies were, strictly speaking, without a regular Parodos. 

*2 Ibid, $ 7: xopixov de nap oh as /uV fj npaTTj Xe^is Skov xopov, 
craaifiov dc fieXor xopov rh &P€V dtfanaia-Tov Ka\ rpoxaiov, k op. p. 6s dc 
Bprjvoi Koivbs x^P^^ "f^^ ^"^^ oicrjvrjs. 


This definition, though doubtless true as far as it goes, 
does not sufficiently describe the differences to a modern 
reader. Without discussing at length the opinions of 
former writers^, I will simply state the case as it 
appears to me. The stasiman, as its name denotes, is 
an ode sung by the Chorus standing at its proper place 
-^— on the thymele or stage representing the altar of Bac- 
chus in the centre of the orchestra — and unaccompanied 
by any motion beyond cheironomic gesticulation. The 
absence of anapaests and trochees**, which are the metri- 
cal accompaniments of motion, distinguishes the stasimon 
from the parodos ; the absence of any interchange of 
words with the actors distinguishes the stasimon from 
the kommos. With regard to the parodos, the statement 
that it is the first song of the whole Chorus, though it 
implies, does not convey, the full explanation of the 
facts. The name itself suggests the most accurate 
description of this ode. When the Chorus was formally 
drawn up in the orchestra, it represented the assem- 
blage of worshippers banded together in the x^P^^i ^^ 
public place of the city, from which it derived at once 
its functions and its name**. Now the wings of the 

^ Hermann EL Doctr. Metr. m. 22. K. O. Mullcr, Eummiden, 
§ 16. p. 88, note, and in Rhein, Museum for 1837. pp. 348 sqq., 
360 sqq. Bdckh, Antigone, pp. 179, 281. 

** It is scarcely necessary to add, that Aristotle, in excluding from 
the Summon the anapsest and the trochee, is not speaking of single 
feet, but of systems. 

*» See Theatre of the Greeks, p. 7, (note) ed. 4 ; New Cratylus, 
p. 301, where I have quoted u^schyl. Supph 976: \a&v h x^P^ 
Taa'<r€a3f, as confirming the the connexion of xop^^ with x<opor. Mr. 
Paley (<td loc,) expresses his surprise, and proposes to construe \a&v 
with jSaf fi. This is not the place for any discussion on the subject ; 


dramos or iter, by which the Chorus entered the orches- 
tra, were called irdpoSot, and it would be quite in accord- 
ance with analogy if we supposed that the TrapoSo^ was, 
what the name denotes, a song of the ^opd^ ev TrapdStp^ 
i.e. of the choreutas in the act of passing along the Spofios 
to the OvfieXij. Accordingly, this is the definition given 
by the Scholiast on Euripides*^ : " the parados is a song 
of the Chorus when it is moving, being sung at the 
time of its entrance." It will be observed that there 
is not, strictly speaking, a parados in every Play. Con- 
fining oiu*selves to Sophocles, I should say that in the 
(Edipm Tyra/anus the Chorus is already grouped on the 
thymele when the Play begins, and that the first Chorus 
is a stasimon, as is pretty clearly indicated by the address 
of the Priest of Jupiter, which precedes it : 

<<My children, let us take our stcmd: we came 
Hither hut to obtain what he has promised*^." 

In the CEdipus Cohnem and Phihctetes, the Chorus first 
appears on the stage, and unless the ode at v. 668 in 
the former, is to be considered as a parados (which I 
much doubt), there is no entrance-song for the Chorus 
in either Play. The first ode in the TrackinicB (v. 205 

but I will refer Mr. Paley to MuUer, Hist. Or, Lit. i. p. 297 : " The 
opposition of the Chorus and the scenic actors is generally that of the 
\ao\ and SvoKTcs," And I will remind him that the Chorus had been 
disarranged in the orchestra by the violence of the Egyptian herald, 
and that the anapsests recited by them and the king are the proper 
measure for the evolution by which they would resume their places on 
the thymele. For the thymele, as the dancing-stage of the Chorus, 
see Jahrb.f. Phil u Pildag. Vol. li. p. 3—22. 

*• Ad Phoenisa. 210 ; irapo^os de earip ^irj \opov padi{ovTos, ahoyiivri 
afia Tjj ia6i<i^. 

*^ V. 147: *Q Traidcf la-rcofica-Ba' rcavbe yap x^P*-^ 
Kal h€vp tffifjfifv ov od' cfayycXXcrai. 


sqq.) is neither a stasimon nor a parodos, but, as the 
Scholiast tells us, a little dancing-song to express the 
joy of the attendants of Deianeira**. But we may 
plainly recognize the parados in the Play before us. The 
Chorus, entering by the left hand TrdpoSo^, files away to 
the ihymeU in three parties of five each. After the first 
address to the Sun, which is sung in the irdpoSo^ by the 
Chorus at large, the coryphaeus leads the first four to 
the north side of the thymele, chanting the anapaestic 
march-tune, v. 110 — 116. Th/en, the antistrophe having 
been sung by the whole Chorus, the coryphaeus, now 
stationed on the thymeUy with two of his own arlyo^ on 
either side, marches the next five of the choreutae to 
their place, immediately to the south of his own (rri'xos, 
by chanting the second anapaestic march, v. 127 — 133. 
The second strophe follows, sung as before : and the 
coryphaeus then completes his Chorus by making the 
remaining five choreutae march to the south of the 
second rank, whUe he chants the third set of anapaests, 
V. 141 — 147. With the whole Chorus thus drawn up, 
in three arlyoi of five each facing the stage, the second 
antistrophe is sung ; and then the coryphaeus introduces 
Kreon to the audience with the closing system of ana- 
paests (v. 155, sqq.) ; and the same rhythm accompanies 
the subsequent entrances of Antigone, Ismene, and 
Haemon ; and al^o the final departure of Kreon at the 
end of the play. In the Ajax of Sophocles, the parodos 
commences with a system of anapaests recited by the 
coryphaeus ; and the same is the case in the SvppUces, 
Pers€By and Agamemnon of ^schylus. But in the Electra 

48 r^ y^p fitXv^pioif oifK eoTi ardaifxov, oXX* (mo ttjs rjdovfjs opxovvrai. 


of Sophocles, the heroine herself plays the part of leader 
to the Chorus ; and, conversely, Tecmessa, in the Aja^y 
follows up the parados with an anapaestic dialogue airo 

^ 9, The following may suffice as an analysis of the 
plot or action. 

L IlpoXoyoi. — Just before sun-rise, Antigone, to 
escape being overheard in the apartments of the women, 
leads forth her sister Ismene into the open space before 
the palace, and communicates to her Kreon's decree, 
forbidding the sepulture of Polyneikes, and her own 
resolve to violate it. Ismene vainly endeavours to dis- 
suade her, and is greeted in return with indignant 
reproaches. They part: Ismene returns by the left- 
hand door into the women's apartments, and Antigone 
descends by the right-hand steps into the* orchestra, in 
order to visit the spot, delineated on the right hand 
periaktos, where the body lay. The reader must fancy 
the actors dressed in sweeping under-garments of black, 
fringed with gold, and in upper robes of pale green, 
or bright yellow". Their masks would be expressive 
of the highest female beauty, and would be surmounted 
by the glittering frontlet which marked the woman of 
exalted rank*°. Antigone carries in her hand the pro- 
chu8, or pitcher with which she poured forth the triple 
libations around the dead body. She wears, also, the 
long linen girdle crossing over her bosom, and passing 

*9 /. Poll, IV. } 118 : rrjs d* cV avfA<t>op^t 6 fih frvprhs fieXag, t6 d* 
iiriffkruia ykavKhv tj fii^Xivov. 

w Whence the epithet XitrapafiTrv^, 


round her waist, with which she afterward destroyed 

II. ndpoSo9. — The choreutas enter the orchestra by 
the lower entrance to the left, and file away to the ihy- 
mele, as described in the previous section. They briefly 
describe the siege of Thebes, and the defeat of the 
Argive host, and express their joy and thankfulness to 
the gods. It may be necessary to remark, for the infor- 
mation of some readers, that the choreutaD, who were 
much nearer to the audience than the actors on the 
loffeium, were not exaggerated in stature or size by high 
soles or padding, but, in the case before us, appeared as 
old men of the upper class, deckt out in Bacchic cos- 
tume of the most brilliant and expensive description**. 

m. 'EweiaoSiou irpwrov. — Kreon comes forth from 
the centre door of the Proscenium with a retinue of 
attendants. He wears his crown, and royal robes, and 
bears in his right hand the long sceptre, which is seen 
in ancient works of art*^. He alludes to his throne in 

*i See note on Pind. O. vi. 31. For the figure of Antigone in the 
frontispiece I must be held responsible. It was reduced by the artist 
from a sketch, which I had composed after the best authorities. 
Although it is designed to exhibit Polus as he might be supposed to 
appear when masked for this character, I have ventured to make a few 
departures from the imgainly stifihess of the tragic attire. For instance, 
I have avoided all exaggeration in the mask, and have substituted the 
thick-Boled sandal for the clumsy cothurnus. The prochus is borne 
by a figure in a tragic scene, found at Pompeii. M. Socage, in arrang- 
ing the vme en seine for the French version of this tragedy, introduces 
Antigone with a fidl-sized amphora on her shoulder ! 

^3 See, for example, Demosth. c. Mid, pp. 519, 520, 531; and 
Antiphanes apvd Aihen, in. p. 103, f : 

c/uirca xpv<ra irapaa-x&v r^ X^P^* 
*3 I am disposed to think that the word Kparrf in yer. 173 is an 



173, and probably took his seat upon it. Addressing 
the Chorus, he states the reasons which induced him to 
forbid the burial of Polyneikes under the penalty of 
death, and while he invites them to sanction his enact- 
ment by giving no countenance to the disobedient, he 
informs them that he has already posted a watch over 
the dead body. In the mean time, Antigone has, at 
day-break, performed the necessary rites, and has then 
concealed herself in the olive-grove hard by, in order to 
watch the proceedings of the sentinels. One of them 
now makes his appearance to inform Kjreon of what had 
been done, the first day-watch having speedily disco- 
vered the attentions which had been paid to the corpse. 
This watchman, or sentinel, who, of course, approaches 
from the right, probably wore the 'xXaiva ovXtj, or outer 
cloak of thick piled wool", and the Boeotian fir-cone 
hat^ ; he would bear on his left arm the Boeotian shield, 
with indentations for the lance ^; and in his right hand 
some sort of spear. The reader will observe that Sopho- 
cles has used this character much in the same way as 
Shakspere employs his clowns — by way of contrast to 
the elevated and tragic tone of the drama. The Sentinel 
is, in the lowest sense of the term, <pav\o9, or " vulgar- 
minded*^." Antigone, as naturally eaOXii, is willing to 

alliuion to the sceptre in his hand, which was the emhlem of his power, 
and which is so constantly mentioned in connexion with the throne ; 
cf . (Ed, Col, 426 : ts pvv aicrjirTpa Koi 0p6vovs tx^i, 450 : 3p6povs Koi o-ie^Tr- 
Tpa Kpaaf€iv, 1366 : <rKfJ7rTpa koL 6p6vovs tx^v, Pind. P. rv. 162 : Koi <rKanr- 
Tov fi6vapxov, Koi Bp6vosy ^ irort Yip, eyKoBiCav iTnr^rtut tf^Bw^ Xaols bUas, 

^ That it was necessary for watchmen, &c. to have such a cloak, 
is clear from Hom. Od. ttv, 478, sqq. 

w Theophrast. Hist, PI. ra. 9. 

<^ Miiller, Ancient Art cmd its remains, p. 352. Engl. Tr. 

67 For this term, as the regular opposite to K(iK6g KoyaBhsy see 


brave all danger in the performance of her duty; but this 
man openly avows his selfish timidity, and does not face 
any danger, except as the best means of escaping some- 
thing worse. At the same time, he has all the shrewd- 
ness of the dyopa, and can chop logic with his betters. 
The sausage-seller, in the KnighU of Aristophanes, is a 
broader and coarser sketch of the same sort of person ; 
and doubtless there were many of a similar kind among 
the audience who witnessed the first performance of this 
Play. On hearing this man's tale, the coryphaeus, who, 
in his function of Chorus, is bound to maintain the 
religious view of the matter, suggests the thought, that 
the funeral honours paid to Polyneikes may have been 
due to supernatural agency. Kreon is greatly exas- 
perated by this suggestion, which he considers the 
height of folly : he attributes the deed to the watch- 
men, who, he thinks, have been bribed by a party among 
the citizens unfavomrable to his authority : and he re- 
turns to his palace uttering the direst threats against 
the Sentinel, if he does not forthwith produce the 

rV". ^raaifkov irpwrov. — ^The Chorus sings of the wit 
and the works of man, and greets the approach of Anti- 
gone with anapaests expressive of their extreme surprise 
at recognizing in her the audacious culprit. 

V. 'EireKTo^iov Sevrepov Kxeon, coming forth by 

chance from the palace, finds Antigone before the door, 

iEsch. in Ctes. p. 66. Thucyd. vi. 18. Eurip. Bacch, 431. Plato, 
JResp. IV. p. 431, c. I have allowed the dyopaia (pavKSnjs of the first 
speech delivered by the Sentinel to appear in prose, with a mere 
soupfon of Tragic rhythm in the cadences. 



and learns from the Sentinel, that, while the watchmen 
were blinded by a cloud of dust, she had returned from 
her concealment, and was caught by them in the act of 
renewing the covering of dust, which they had removed 
from the corpse. She avows and justifies what she has 
done. Kreon threatens her with death, and sends for 
Ismene, whom he considers as implicated in the crime. 
Upon this ensues a scene between the two sisters, in 
which Ismene claims a share in the destined fate of her 
sister, who, however, indignantly repudiates her as a 
partner in the deed or its consequences. Kreon sends 
them back by the left-hand door, which led to the 
prison, as well as to the women's apartments, forcibly 
expressing the thought, that imprisonment was the 
proper lot of their sex. Kreon probably remains on 
the stage, seated on his royal throne. 

VI. SraViMoi; Sevrepou. — ^The Chorus expresses, in 
somewhat oracular language, the belief in the inevitable 
transmission of ancestral misfortunes, and in the uni- 
versal dominance among men of arrj, or the principle of 
mischief. Some anapassts accompany the approach of 
Haemon, from the left-hand parascenia, or the city, where 
he has overheard the sympathizing murmurs of the 

VII. 'ETTciaoSiov rpiTov. — The young Prince, who 
may be conceived as attired in a purple chlamys, and 
who would of coiu'se wear the sword with which he sub- 
sequently destroys himself, professes obedience to his 
father, but endeavours, by representing the opinions 
which he has heard generally expressed in the city, to 


deter Kreon fipom carrying into execution the sentence 
of death which he had pronounced against Antigone. 
In ihe angry conversation which follows, Kreon loses all 
control over himself, and orders Antigone to be brought 
forth and slain on the spot before the eyes of Haemon^ 
to whom she is betrothed. Upon this the latter leaves 
the stage by the right, signifying that he will lay hands 
upon himself, if Antigone is put to death ; and after his 
departure, Kreon, although he remits, on the suggestion 
of the Chorus, the punishment he had designed for 
Ismene, announces his intention of burying Antigone 
alive in one of his treasure-tombs, instead of submitting 
her to the public stoning announced in his proclamation. 
Upon this he returns to the palace. 

VIII. ^rdatfAov rplrov. — The Chorus briefly dis- 
cusses the power of love which can so triumph over the 
obligations of filial duty; and then, in sorrowful ana- 
paests, announces the return of Antigone, on her way 
to the living sepulchre. . 

IX. * Eireiaooiou reraprov Koi kojjlijlo^ tt/owtos. — Anti- 
gone from the stage bewails her imminent and unnatu- 
ral death. The Chorus consoles her in anapaests, and 
chides her in iambico-antispastic verse. Kjreon comes 
forth, and, interrupting the kommos, bids the guards lead 
her away to the tomb-dungeon. Antigone, tiurning to 
the right, as though she had the scene of her imprison- 
ment before her eyes, addresses her grave, and justifies 
the deed which has brought her to it. A few anapaests 
are recited by Kreon, the Chorus, and Antigone, as she 
is led away by the right-hand parasomia. Kreon takes 


his seat on the throne, while the Chorus, looking after 
Antigone and still addressing her, sings the following ode. 

X. ^Taai/uLov reraprov. — ^Although the Chorus has 
fully acknowledged the guilt of Antigone in disobeying 
the King's decree, it still maintains its functions as a 
vindicator of the religious rites to which she is a 
martyr ; and in this stasimon selects three eases of per- 
sons confined in a similar way, in which there is a dis- 
tinct reference to the hope of the Chorus, that she may 
be delivered, and to their sense of Kreon's impiety. 
Danae was confined as Antigone was, but only to gain 
the greater glory. Lycurgus was similarly imprisoned, 
but he had impiously attacked religious rites. Kleo- 
patra was cruelly and wickedly immured, but she was 
liberated and avenged. There is here a gradation. 
All the city acknowledged thS glory of Antigone. The 
impiety of Kreon, like that of Lycurgus, and the cruel 
treatment of Antigone, like that of Kleopatra, must 
receive their acknowledgement also^. 

XI. 'E7r6«cro5toi/ wefAiTTov. — Teiresias, the blind pro- 
phet, led by a boy, and attired in the reticulated upper- 
garment which indicated his office^, enters from the 

*8 Bishop Thirlwall has not thought it necessary to remark that, 
according to the view which he has so ably developed in his Essay on 
the Irony of Sophocles (Philol. Mus. n. p. 483, sqq.) this stasimon 
indicates the critical position in the play. Kreon seated on his throne, 
proudly contemplating the full accomplishment of his mandates, is on 
the eve of learning the disastrous consequences to which they had led. 
He stands at this very moment iiri (vpov rvxns, ver. 963, and is about 
to bo thoroughly inyolved (ver. 1277) in a dvi; as inextricable as that 
which punished the impiety of Lycurgus. 

*® J, Polltix, IV. 116: dypijv6v t6 ^ ^v irKeyfia i^ ipla>v ^iKTv&bts 
ntpl irav rh <rapxit t Ttipto'ias int^dKKtro Ij rig SXKos pAvrig, ** Mimum 


left : for his augural throne was near the temple of For* 
tune in the city*^. The seer announces to Ejreon the 
ill omens, which he has observed, and which he attri- 
butes to the King's double offence of keeping the dead 
unburied, and burying the living. Kreon insolently 
ascribes this warning to bribery; and Teiresias there- 
upon declares the visitations which are about to come 
upon the royal house, and the vengeance of the neigh- 
bouring cities, which will be provoked by the pollution 
brought to their altars. On his departure, the King, 
terrified by his dreadful vaticinations, resolves to go in 
person, and to undo all he has done, by burning the 
corpse of Polyneikes and releasing Antigone. He 
leaves the stage by the right-hand parascenia, followed 
by a number of attendants, bearing axes to cut down 
wood for the funeral pile. 

Xn, 'OpyritTTiKov. — ^As the Senators move about on 
the thymele in a stately and solemn dance ^^ they im- 
plore Dionysus, the tutelary God of Thebes, to come 
from his favourite haunts in Phocis and Euboea, and to 

ayprfv^ ejusmodi (nisi me forte fallit) indutum non agnovit Gaylus 
Bectieil d'AntiquitSs, t m. tab. 76, p. 281, ubi Germani mastrucati 
effigiem arbitratur: similisque opinor exstat Hamilton Vas, Grcec. ed. 
Neap. 1766, t. i. tab. 59, et alibi. Diyersa tamen sententia de ayprjpf 
est Winckelmanni, Hist de Vart, Vers. GaU. a. 1802, t. i. p. 622." 
Hase, in Steph. Thes, s. y. 

«> Pansan. ii. 16, 1. 

0^ That this pair of strophes is not a stasimon, but a dancing>song, 
has been shown by Bockh, Antig, p. 280, sqq. ^ This appears," says 
he, "partly from the contents and partly from the form. The 
Chorus hopes and wishes that Dionysus will come to their aid ; this 
imparts a sort of merriment, which expresses itself very suitably in a 
tragic *Efifi€\€ia; the Bacchic allusions also lead to moyement, for 
Bacchanalian worship particularly fayours the dance." 


relieve his mother-city from the violent plague under 
which it is labouring. 

XIII. ''E^oSos Kal /co/A/Aos ^€i;r€jOos.— One of the 
King's attendants returns, axe in hand, from the right, 
and announces the occurrence of a dreadful disaster — 
the suicidal death of Haemon. The Queen, Eurydike, 
who was coming forth to pray at the temple of Pallas, 
overhears this tale and faints away; but she soon re- 
covers herself, and appearing on the stage (in her 
royal robe, with its purple stripe) ^^^ calls upon the 
attendant to tell his story at length. The reader will 
perhaps recollect something very similar in the beautiful 
scene between Thecla and the Swedish officer *3. Thus 
urged, the attendant proceeds with his dismal narrative, 
and informs the Queen that, after burning the body of 
Polyneikes, the King and his retinue had proceeded to 
the vault in which Antigone was entombed, and there 
discovered her hanging by her girdle, while Haemon 
was clinging to her body, in all the desperation of dis- 
appointed love. On Kreon's entering the tomb, and 
entreating his son to leave the scene of death, Haemon 
draws his sword, and the King flies, thinking, as he had 
thought before (v. 743), that his son meditated parri- 
cide": but the unhappy youth is bent only on self- 

•2 /. Pollux, IV. 118 : napdnrixv XtvKbu Tfj£ Paa-iKevovarjs, cf. vn. 63 : 
t6 dc naparrrixv Ifidriov ^v Tt \evK6vf irrjxw noptjyvpovv tfxov 7rapv<f)aa'' 


«8 Schiller's WaUenstein Aufzug. iv. Auftritt 10. 

^ Schol : ovx f tXice dc t6 ^l(f>os Kara rov narphst «<nr€p ftro • chrfv 
yap &va * 17 9* oZv oXcTrat, Kal Bavovv SKti riva. 6 HyyeXos dc ovt6» 
vofjLlC<^p dyyiXKti, Aristotle seems to have thought Uiat Sophocles 
intended to represent Kreon as the first object of Hsemon's rage 
(Poet. c. 14), and he is followed by Bockh and Hermann. It appears 


destruction, and stabs himself before the eyes of the 
King and his followers. Here again the reader, who 
is acquainted with the modem drama, will recollect a 
parallel. The closing scene in Borneo and Juliet has 
many points in common with this catastrophe. Eury- 
dike now leaves the stage without saying a word, and 
while the Attendant and the Chorus are indulging in 
gloomy forebodings as to her intentions, Kreon returns 
to the stage followed by his retinue, and bearing in his 
arms the dead body of his son. Before the kommos, or 
lamentation between him and the Chorus, has proceeded 
very far, a servant comes forth from the palace and 
announces the suicide of the Queen. Thereupon the 
scene opens, and, by means of the contrivance called 
ekiyklema, the dead body of Eiu'ydike is wheeled for.- 
ward, and the servant, standing by her side, holds up 
the sacrificial knife with which she had stabbed herself, 
and details her last words. This fresh stroke completes 
the misery of Kreon, and he is led from the stage into 
his palace, as the Chorus, in a few closing anapaests, 
chant the blessings which spring from prudence, reli- 
gious reverence, and government of the tongue. 

§ 10. One of the most recent Editors of Sophocles 
— W. Dindorf — ^properly remarks that the true read- 
to me more natural to imderstand it as the Scholiast has done. The 
verb ijfiirXaKt (v. 1200) shows that the Messenger is made to think, 
with Kreon, that the yomig Prince's anger was, in the first instance, 
directed against his father. But the etJios of the passage should con- 
vince us that Haemon would not revenge himself upon his father 
otherwise than by slaying his only son before his eyes, just as Kreon 
had threatened to execute Antigone in the presence of her lover 
(v. 752). 


ing of his Plays must be derived from three distinct 
sources, — ^the manuscript copies, the quotations in the 
old grammarians, and the Commentaries of the Greek 
Scholiasts. At the present day, therefore, we need not 
go farther back than to the time when these sources of 
information first became fully available. Now the Scho- 
lia of the best Manuscript (that generally known as the 
Codeoo Laurentianus A) were first accurately copied by 
Peter Elmsley, and his transcripts were edited by Dr. 
Gaisford in 1825 ; and Elmsley's collations of the same 
MS. and of others of less note, were first published by 
Dr. Gaisford in a variorum Edition of Sophocles, which 
appeared at Oxford in 1826, in two volumes 8vo. This 
Edition was also distinguished by a more accurate col- 
lection of citations from the Grammarians, — and the 
extracts from Suidas in particular were exhibited ac- 
cording to the readings of those MSS., of which Dr. 
Gaisford subsequently made such good use in his elabo- 
rate and splendid Edition of that Lexicographer. With 
regard, then, to the three sources from which we are 
to derive the true reading of Sophocles, we find our 
starting-point in the labours of Elmsley and Gaisford 
little more than twenty years ago. 

But if our first authentic collection of all the out- 
ward appliances of criticism is of so recent date, we 
may still more expect to find, in the publications respect- 
ing Sophocles which have subsequently appeared, the 
results of all that has been done by scholars for the 
correction and elucidation of his Dramas. And I think 
I may confidently affirm that the works in the subjoined 
list supply, either at first or at second hand, every ori- 


ginal observation respecting the Antigme^ which has 
hitherto been given to the world. At all events, if 
there is any other source of information, it is absolutely 
unknown to me. As I have wished the reader to see 
at one glance to what extent the text now before him 
differs from the MSS. hitherto known and collated, I 
have taken care to mark either with an obelus j*, or 
with an asterisk *, every word for which there is not 
manuscript authority. The former mark represents the 
emendations which are due to previous commentators, 
the latter indicates my own coiyectures. If it should 
appear to any critical reader that I have introduced a 
great number of alterations^, I must be allowed to state 
my conviction, that the corruptions of the text in this 
Play are long antecedent to any existing manuscripts, 
and that they seem to have sprung from the errors of 
some ancient copyist, who confused a faulty and illegible 
text with marginal notes written in the same hand, or 
with similar and more easily deciphered words, in the 
immediate vicinity of passages in which he found a diflS- 
culty. I think also that I can still detect the traces of 
a peculiarity in the hand- writing of his original — espe- 
cially a tendency to confuse ;^, tt, and 7. 

I. SophocUs TragcedioB Septem ; ad optimorum exempla^ 

^ The whole number of emendations by previous Scholars, 
which appear in the text of this edition of the Antigone is 80; and I 
have introduced about 30 corrections of my own. Several of them, 
however, especially of the older emendations, are merely orthogra- 
phical, and many of them do but little violence to the text. It may 
be unnecessary to mention that an Editor's judgment must be held 
responsible for the emendations which he receives from others, no less 
than for those which are originated by himself. 


rium fidem ac prcedptie codicU vetuatUsimi Fhrentini emen- 
datcB^ cum anmtatione tantum nan integra Brunckii et Schceferi 
et aliorum seUcta. Accedunt deperditarum tragoddiarum frag- 
menta. Owonii, 1826. Vol. II. 8vo. 

This is the edition, which is generally known as Dr. 
Gaisford's, and of which I have spoken above. 

II. August Bockh, uber die Antigone des Sophokles^ 
(Abh. der K. Ah d. Wiss.) Berlin, 1826, 1831. See below 
No. XIL 

m. SophocUs Antigona^ codicum MSS. omniumque ex- 
emplarium scriptv/rce discrepantia enotata integra^ cum scholiis 
vetustis, virarumqm doctarum curispresse suibnotcUis^ emendatior 
atque expUcatior edita a Fr. Carolo Wex. Lipsice, 1829, 
1831. 2 Vols. 8vo. 

This is the most complete Edition of the Antigone 
which has ever been published. The second volume 
contains Elmsley's scholia, and copious selections from 
all the commentaries published up to that time. The 
Editor, who is an enthusiastic disciple of the well-known 
Editor of the (Edipus Coloneus, Kari Beisig, is himself an 
acute and deeply-read scholar, and has thrown out many 
happy suggestions of his own. 

IV. Scphoclis Antigona ad optimorum lihrorum fidem 
recemtdi et brevihtis notis instrtixit Car. Gottlob Aug. Erfurdt, 
Ediiio^'tertia cum an/notationibus Godofredi Hermanni. 
LipsicB, 1830. 12mo. 

One of the best philological efforts of this veteran 
rival of the Porsonian school in England, and of the 
archaeological school of Berlin and Gottingen. 


V. Scphoclis TragosdicB, MecognovU ac Irevi annota- 
tione scholarum in umm imtruxit Fridericus Nevius. Lip^ 
sicB, 1831. 8vo. 

Of this work I have made but little use. 

VI. Lexicon Sophocleum adhibitis veterum expUcaHonibuSy 
grammaticorvm notationibtis, recentiorum doctorum commen- 
tariis compomit Fridericus Ellendt. Regimontii Prm^ 
sorum, 1835. 2 Vols. 8vo. 

A painstaking and useful work, written by a zealous, 
but not very able, partizan of Lobeek and Hermann. 

VII. Ad SophocUs Troffoedias annotationes Gulielmi 
DiNDORFii. Oxonii^ e typographeo Clarendoniano^ 1836. 8vo. 

This Commentary abounds in valuable suggestions, 
many of which I have adopted ; but some of the emen- 
dations are hastily conceived, and not easily justifiable ; 
and there is too great a readiness to assume the exist- 
ence of interpolations. 

Vm. SophocUs Troffoedice. Mecensuit et explanavit 
Eduardus Wunderus. Vol. /. Sect, iv. Continem Antigo- 
nam. Editio secunda multia locis emendata, Gothce^ 1840. 8vo. 

This Editor exhibits a good deal of learning and 
judgment in his interpretations. His criticism follow^ 
at the heels of Dindorf. 

IX. John's Jahrbucher /. Phil. 1842. Bd. 34, i. pp. 
66 — 86. A review of the last-named book by the late 
Dr. Adolphus Emper, reprinted in AnoXiPHi Emperii, 
Brv/nopoUiani opuscula phUohgica et historica, Amicorum stun 
dio coUecta edidU F. G. Schneidemn. GottingcB, 1847. pp. 


Of this review, the Editor of the latter collection 
asks in his preface : '' Quis negabit censuram Antigonas 
WunderianaB psene justaB editionis instar esse V* And I 
think there have been professed editions of the Play, 
which have contributed less to the correction of the 
text, and its elucidation. 

X. Metra JEschyU^ Sophoclis^ Ewripidis^ et ArUtophaniSy 
descripta a Gulielmo Dindorfio. Oxonii^ 1842. 

XI. The Antigone of SophocleSy with notes critical and 
explanatory^ and adapted to the use of Schools and Univer- 
sities, by T. Mitchell, M.A. late Fellow of Sidney- Sussex 
College, Cambridge, Oxford^ 1842. 8vo. 

Mr. Mitchell acquired considerable reputation some 
years ago by an Essay prefixed to his translation of 
Aristophanes; but his subsequent labours have not 
tended to establish his fame as a judicious or accurate 
scholar. This Edition of the Antigone is little more 
than a compilation, in which he is chiefly guided by 
Wunder and Dindorf. One thought, by which he is 
haunted, does appear to me very original — ^namely, that 
we are entitled to expect special allusions to the Sacred 
Writings in this Play, because the scene is laid in a 
country the inhabitants of which claimed a Phoenician 
descent ! (See his notes on w. 266, 682, 856.) 

XII. Des Sophokles Antigone^ Oriechisch und Deutsche 
heramgegeben von August Bockh. Nebst zwei Abhandlungen 
Uber diese Tragodie im ganzen und itber einzehe StelU d-ersd- 
ben. Berlin, 1843. 8vo. 

This is a republication, with additions, of the two 
well-known and valuable Essays cited above. No. II., 


appended to a new edition and translation of the text, 
of which it is sufficient to say, that they are worthy of 
the high reputation of their author. 

Xm. Die nefke$te Antigonditeratur von Gustav Wolff. 
{ZeiUchrift f, d. AUerthumswwemchaft, 1846, Numbers 78, 
79, 80, 93, 94.) 

An useful and intelligent review of some recent works 
respecting the Antigone. 

I think it right to add, that I have purposely ab- 
stained from even looking into any English version of 
this Play. 


























Guards and Slaves of Kreon ; Female Attendants of Eurydike. 

Scene. Before the King's Palace at Thebes. 



A. npoAoros. 


'Q koinon aifTaie\<f>ov *la/ULiivfii Koipa, 

ap otaff, 'fori Zeu^ twv air O'loiirov KaKwv 

oiroiov oifyl vtpv en l^wacuv reXei i 

ovoev yap out aXyeivov, ovr * artiv ayov, 

tf » , y tf * tf f t /)» * -^ 9 f, 

OUT auT'XfioVf OUT aTifjLOv eatf, oiroiov ou o 

Twv awv Te KafAwv ovk oirwir iyw kokwv, 

Koi vvv Ti TOUT au <paa\ wavoiifnp 'iroXei 

Kfipuyixa Oeivai Toif (TTpaTrjyov apritai ; 

eyei^ Ti, Keun^KOvca^ ; fi ere \av0dvei 

npoi T0V9 <f>i\ou9 (TT€V)(0¥Ta tcSj/ iyOpHv Kaxa; 10 

ifjLol fiev ouoei9 inuOo^y 'AvTiyopfj, (piXwv 

' yp, o, TI. * yp, an/c arep* 



Antigone and Ismene enter from the left-hand door in the Proecenium. 

Ismene, dear in very sisterhood, 
Know'^st thou that Zeus, for us while yet we live. 
Fulfils, — in what sort does he not — the evils 
That flow from OEdipus! For there is nothing 
That causes pain or tends to mischief — ^nothing 
That inly shames, or outwardly degrades. 
Of such sort, that in thine and my misfortunes 
/ have not seen it manifest. And now 
What is this herald^s message, which, they say. 
Our leader has this very mom put forth 
To all the populace who throng the city? 
Is^t known to thee, and hast thou lent an ear! 
Or, by thee all unheeded, does the malice 
Of enemies come up against thy friends? 

To me indeed, Antigone, no tale 

ANTirONH. [12—36. 

ovu fjovsy OUT aXyeivos ikct y e^ orov 
Suolv aSeX^olv earepiiOrjfiev oJo, 

/U«9 OaVOVTWV li/UL€p(jf, SiTrXtj X^P** 

€7rei Se (Jypovoo^ eaTiu * Apyeiwv arparo^ 15 

61/ vvKTi Tfj vuv, ovSev olo vireprepov 
OUT €UTU')(ouaa fjiSXXov out aTw/ULevrj, 


fiStj KaXws, Kal <T CKTOs auXeiwv wuXaiu 
TouS* *eiveK e^eirefi'Trov^ W9 /uLOvrj kXuoi^» 

Ti S* eaTi; SiyXoiy yap ti KaX^aivoucr eiro^. 20 

ou yap Ta^ou utpv to) naaiyvriTw Kpewv, 
TOP ni€u TrpoTicrasj tov o aTi/jiaaa^ e^ei ; 
'Ereo/cXea m^i/, oJs Xeyouaiy auv ciKti, 
* irpoaOel^ oiKaia, Kal vo/mfpy koto, yOovo^ 
expuyl/e, rols euepOep evTiixov vcKpoh' 25 

Tov S' dOXid)^ OavouTa TloXuveiKous veKuv 
aaroiat (paaiu CKKSKripu'^ai to firj 
TCL^tp KaXuy^aiy fitjoe KfOKUcrai Tii^a, 
eau o ajcXauTov^ aTa(J>ov, oltovo^s yXuKuv 
dfjaaupovt elaopwoTi Trpo% xapiv fiopas. .30 

ToiauTOL (paai tov dyaOov KpeovTa aoi 
Ka/iioh Xeyw yap Kafxe, Ktjpu^avT €')(eiUf 
Kal oeSpo velaOai Taura to7(ti /ulij €i86aiv 
(ra<l>ii wpoKffpu^ovra' xal to wpayfi ayeiv 
oux tv9 Trap oucev aXX os av toutwv rt op^, .>•> 
ipovov irpoKeiadai cruuLoXeucTov iv iroXei, 

yp, ovv€K , yp, '^pfiaueiK diKai^. 


Touching our friends, — be it of joy or sorrow, — 
Has come, since we two lost our brethren twain 
On the same day by a twin murder slain. 
But since the Argive host this night departed, 
I have it yet to learn if farther still 
Good luck or mischief has been active for me. 

I knew 'twas so: and therefore did I bring thee 
Without the court, that thou alone might'st listen. 

What is't? for sure some tidings stir thee thus. 

What ! has not Kreon — when our sister-love 
Might challenge equal sepulture for both 
Of our . departed brethren, — one of them 
Pre-eminently honoured, and the other 
Foully disgraced? Eteokles, they tell me. 
The dues of justice with just rites augmenting. 
And following all the usages, he buried 
Deep in the ground, invested with the honours 
Which grace the dead below: but Polyneikes, 
Who lies where he so miserably fell, — 
They say a proclamation to the people 
Forbids that any man should veil his corpse 
Within the tomb, or utter wailings for him; 
But 'orders that he lie unwept, unburied, 
A welcome store of food laid up for birds 
Whenso their greedy eyes desire a banquet. 
Such is the proclamation, which, they say, 
Good Kreon hath set forth for thee and me — 
Aye — e'*en for «w, I tell thee — and to those 
Who know it not, they say he cometh here 
Himself to make his edict clearly known. 
He holds this matter in no small account, 
But whoso doeth any one of these things. 
His death by public stoning is decreed. 

ANTirONH. [37—55. 

OVTW9 €^(€1 croi Taura, xal Sei^eii Taj(a, 

Ti , w ToKaicftpfov^ ei Tad iv rovToiSf eyw 
Xvova av tj '(pairrovcra irpoaOeifxtjv irXeov ; 40 

61 j^v/JLTTovfjcreis Kal ^vvepydaei, aKoirei, 

ircnov Ti KivSuveu/uia ; ttov yvoifxris ttot el ; 


€1 TOV V€KpOV l^ifV TjJoC K0V<j)iei9 X^p'^' 

ij yap voe79 Oawreiv <y^ 9 airoppijTov iroXei ; 

Tov yovv efiov Kal top aov^ r^v au fiti OeXtj^^ 45 

adeX(pop, ov yap oti irpoooua aXw<ro/m,ai» 

0) a-'xerXiaf Kpeopros avTeiptjKOTo^ ; 

aXX* oifSev avrtp twv e/iiwp eipyeiv fxira, 

oiyioC ^povijcroVf w KaaiyvtjTtj, iraTi^p 
(is vtpv oVej^^iJs SvcrKXeii^ t airwXeroy 50 

TTpos avTo(p<ipwv ofjiirXaKtifJLaTwv ^itrXas 
o^eis dpa^as ai/Vds avrovpytp X^p'^' 
iireira /mirijp xai yvvrj^ inrXovv eiroSf 
irXeKTalaiv apravaiai Xwfiarai (iiov' 
Tp'iToif ^ dSeX<l>w Svo fiiav Kfiff li/iiepav 55 


Thou knowest all: and thou wilt show betimes 

Whether thou hast an innate nobleness, 

Or art the base-bom child of high-bom sires. 

What — ah ! unhappy — if 'tis so, could / 
Effect for good by doing or undoing! 

Bethink thee — wilt thou share the work and toil? 

In what bold deed? tell me, I pray, thy drift. 

Wilt aid this hand of mine to lift the corpse? 

And wouldst thou bury whom the state proscribes ? 

Proscribed or not, my brother and thine too. 
Though it mislike thee. / will ne'er renounce him. 

O daring maid — when Kreon has forbidden ? 

He has no right to keep me from my brother. 

Ah me ! consider, sister, how detested 
And blasted with ill fame our father fell. 
When for his self-detected sinfulness 
He pierced his eyes with suicidal hand. 
And then his mother-wife — a double name — 
With twisted nooses made away her life. 
Thirdly, our brothers both upon one day 

10 ANTirONH. [56—80. 

aVTi>KTO¥o5vT€ T«J ToKaiWilOpa), fJLOpoV 

Kwvoy KOT^ipyatTavT "I* eTraXXi/Xoii; \epoiv, 

vvy S av fiova 017 pw XeXetfinieva, aKOTret, 

oatfi KcuciCTT oXovfieO f el vofiov fiiq. 

yf/^(Pov Tvpavvwp fj KpaTtf wape^ifiev. 60 

ctXX* evvoeiv ypri tovto /uei;, 'yi/i/alj^* on 

€(pvfX€Vy m 7r/oo9 avSpa$ ov /ua'xovfJLeva' 

€W€iTa Si\ ovycK apyoy^eaff €k KpeKraovcov 

Ktii TavT oKoveiv Kan twvo aXylova, 

iyw fi€P ovif airodcra roi/s viro "yOovo^ 65 

(Jyyvotap *la")(€tVf (is /3ia^o/iai rdoef 

Toiy €v TeXei fiefiaycri weicToiAai, to yap 

ireptcraa wpdo'aetVy ovk ej^ei uovv ovoeva, 


ovT av KeXevaaifi 9 ovt ai;, ei OeXoi? en 

irpa(T(T€iv^ e/ULOv y av i^Sew^ Spf^rjs fxera. 70 

dXX* 'iaO' f oTTOi^ aoi cokcI, kgivov o eyw 

6a\{/a). KaXov fioi tovto woiovarj Oaveiv. 

(f>iXri jULCT avTov Kciaofiaty (piXov yuera, 

ojia Travovpytjaao' ' etrei irXeiwv '^^povo^y 

ov 5el fi dp€<TK€iv To7^ KCLToOf T(vv ivOctSe* 75 

CKcl yap del Kcicrojuiai' aol 5* ei coKely 

Ta Twv Oewv evTifi aTijuLacraa ej^e. 


eye!) fiev ovk aTifia Troiovfiai' to oe 
(iiq. iroXiTwv Spt^v, €<j>uv dfjui'^avo^' 

av (JL€V Tad av irpov^^oi eyw ce orf Ta(pov 80 

** yp, €V d\\tj\oiv, ^* yp. dtrola aoi. 


Slain mutually, wretched pair ! have wrought 

A kindred death by one another'*s hands. 

Now tve are left alone : and oh ! bethink thee 

How much the worst of all (mr fate will be, 

If we, the law defying, set at nought 

The sovereign will and mandate of our ruler. 

But it were well to bear in mind that we 

Are women bom, and must not fight with men. 

And then that overruling power compels us 

To hear both these and still more grievous edicts. 

I then, beseeching my departed friend 

To pardon me, as I have not my will. 

Must yield obedience to authority. 

For to attempt without the power to do. 

Is but a poor significance of wisdom. 

No more will I exhort thee : no ! — and if 
Thou wouldst it now, it would not pleasure me 
To have thee as a partner in the deed. 
Be^what it liketh thee to be, but I 
Will bury him ; and shall esteem it honour 
To die in the attempt : dying for him. 
Loving with one who loves me I shall lie. 
After a holy deed of sin : the time 
Of the world'^s claims upon me may not mate 
With what the grave demands : for there my rest 
Will be for everlasting! If it likes thee 
Go on degrading all the Gods esteem ! 

Nay / degrade no rite: but lack the skill 
To contravene the edicts of the state. 

Then take thee that pretext: but I will go 

12 ANTirONH. [81—97. 

')(iiaov<T dSeXifytp ^iXrary Tropevtro/mai. 

oi/jLOi TaXaiurjs^ 0)9 VTrepSeSoiKoi aou. 

/uiy f *iULOV wporapfiei' top <tov i^opOov irorixov, 

aW* ovv Trpofifivvaris ye tovto fAtjoevl 
Tovpyov' Kpv(f>^ 0€ KcvOe' (Tuv o auTws eyu), 85 

otfioi* Karavca. ttoXXoi; €')(9i(av eaei 
aiyw<r\ edv ixyi waai Ktjpv^ri^ rdoe. 

OepfXYjv eiri yf/v^Qxiiai Kapciav ej^€t9. 

dW* (HO dpe(TKova\ oh naKiaff aceiv fie XP^' 

€1 Kal Svv^aei y' dXX' d/mrfxavwv ep^^. 90 

ovKovVy oray £1} /uii; (rOivw^ ireiraitrofiai, 

ap')^fiv Se Ofjp^v ov irpiirei ra/uLiiy^ava. 

ei ravra Xe^eis, eyOapei fiev ij^ efiov, 
"f^X^P^ ^^ '^V ^<^vovTi wpocKeiaei SiKfj. 
aXX^ ea fie Kal tyIv 6^ eixov SvafiovXlav 95 

TraOelv to ceivov tovto. weiaojuiai yap ou 
ToaovTov 01/061/9 (icTe fx^ ov KoXw^ Oaveiv. 
"* yp, fAtj fAov, •* yp. ex^pa* 


To heap a funeral mound for my dear brother. 

Ah me ! unhappy ! how I fear for thee. 

Fear not for me : set thine own fortunes right. 

At least to no man tell the deed beforehand, 
But keep it hid: and I will hold my peace. 

Ha ! speak it out to all : by far more hateful 
To me will be thy silence than thy blabbing. 

Thy heart is hot upon a chilling business. 

I know I please whom most I ought to please. 

Aye: if thou couldst: thy wish transcends thy power. 

When that my power has failed, the attempt is o**er. 

But why pursue the impossible at all? 

Thus speaking, thou wilt but incur my hatred: 
The dead too will regard thee as his foe. 
Then su£Per me, imprudent as I am, 
To meet this menaced evil. Come what will, 
It cannot take from me — a noble death ! 

14 ANTirONH. [98-116'. 

a\\ J €1 ooK€i aoi9 GTelye' tovto S* *t<T6\ oti 



Aktis aeXiov, to KaX- arpoipri a'. 100 

Xiarov eTTTatruXtp (j>av€v 
Offfiff Twv TTpoTepaw ^da9y 
€(pav0fi^ TTOT, w ypvaea^ 
ofiepa^ fiXe<papov9 

AtpKaicDp iirep peeOptov fioXovaa, 105 

TOP XevKaa'iriv "fApye'iov 
0(3Ta fiavra Trav<Taylq.f 
(pvydSa irpoopofxov o^vreptf) 
Kivfjcraaa ')(aXiv(pf 

ov e(p' dfierepff y^ UoXvveiKij^f (TvaTtifxa a\ 110 

dpOek V€iK€a)P i^ dfUpiXoyoDv, 

i^i^yeipev' 6 c eJs ydv, aieros WJ, 

o^ea KXd^^cou vwepeTrra, 

XevK^s ')(iovo9 irrepvyi areyavoi, 

iroXXwv fieff ottXwi;, 115 

fii/ ff iTTVOKOHiot^ KOpuOecrcTt. 

yp, 'Apyodev. "* yp, of. kX, aieros eU yav «« J. 



Go, if thou art resolved : and know, I hold thee 
Foolish indeed, but still a peerless friend ! 

{Istnene returns to the palace : Antigone goes off on the right 
by the Parascenia. The Chorus immediately enters the or- 
chestra by the lower side entrance on the 10.) 



Strophe i. 
Bbam of the sun, the fairest light 
That ever shone on Theba, seven-gated ! 
At length thou comest, eye of golden day. 
Careering o'er the fountain-streams of Dirke ! 
For thou, with bridle stiU more keenly shaken, 
Hast urged to flight before the flying van 
The Argive hero of the argent shield, 
March as he might in garniture of mail. 

(Anapasstic Movement.) 

Whom Polyneikes against our country. 

Roused by the nicest of quarrels, had mustered, 

And as an eagle terribly shrieking, 

With a soaring swoop he alighted. 

White as the snow were the pinions that clothed him ! 

Many his bucklers 

And his helmets crested with horse-hair ! 

16 ANTirONE. [117—140. 

crrd? o vwep imeXdOpwv, f^ovo)- avTiar, a» 

Xoyyai^ eirrdirvKov (rronaf 

efia, irpiv iroff ainerefrnv 120 

aiiiarwv yevvtriv 

irXfjaO^vai re, xal aT€(pavwfia irvpywv 

nevKaevO }i(j>at<TTov eXeiv, 

Toloy afx^i vwT eTaOfi 

wdrayos Apeo^, dvriwdXq) 125 

Svo")(€ip(oiuLa SpaKOVTi* 

Zew yap nieyaXfj^ yXaxrarf^ KOfiTrov^ avTiavar, d. 
vwepe'xjBalpei* xai (T<f>ai eaiSwv 
iroXXip peiyuari irpoavKraofxevovi 

"XfiViTov, * Kava')(^ ff * vwepoirXovs, 1 30 

TToXry piwrei wvpU fiaXfiiSwv 
ew aKpwv riOYi 
vIkijv opjuLWVT aXaXd^ai. 

dvTiTvirq. c iirl yq. ireae TavraXwOei^ (rrpotprj /3'. 
irvp(j}opos9 o^ Tore fxaivonevq. ^vv opuq. 135 

fiaKyevu)v etreirvei 

piwai9 eyQlaTwv avejAwv. 

€t\e c aXX(^ Ta /iaci/, 

■faXXa 5* eir dXXoi^ eirevwuia (rTv(p€Xi(fi)v 
imeya^ ''Aptj^ 

Se^iocreipo^, 1 40 

"'^ yp, (poviataiv, '** yp» Kava'^fj^ vwepowria^, 

**" yp. ra aev a\\^, ra c cw . 


Antistrophe I. 

And having taken his stand above our roofs, 
Ravening with spears eager for death 
Around the outlets of the seven portals, 
Away he went before his jaws were glutted 
With Theban blood. 
Before the flame of torches 
Had caught our circling coronet of towers- 
Such and so loud the Martial clatter 
Which pealed about him as he fled — 
No easy task to grapple with it ! 
The Dragon was his match in war. 

(AnapcBstic Movement.) 

Zeus exceedingly hateth the boastings of 

Misproud language : and soon as he saw them, 

In a swollen torrent of gold advancing, 

And proud in the rattle of armour, 

Forth flew his brandisht bolt at the foe, who, 

Scaling our ramparts. 

Was beginning the paean of conquest. 

Strophe ii. 

Thrown from our walls against the solid earth. 

Torch in hand, he fell. 

Who then with frantic impulse raging 

Hurtled in angry hurricanes against us. 

So went the war with him ! 

Elsewhere great Ares others 

Roughly entreated, on the right 

Our tug of battle aiding. 


18 ANTirONH. [141—161. 

CTTTcJ Xoy^ayol yap eCp' eirTa TrvXaiy avarrjiuLa. /3 . 
Taj^0ei/res iaoi irpos iaou^^ eXiirov 
Zfivl Tpoiraitp irayyaXKa reXij' 
7rX»)i' To7v (TTuyepdivy w irarpos evo^ 
fujrpoi T€ jULias (pvuTC, Kaff avrolv 14/5 

SiKpareis \6y)^a^ <rTj}aai/T, ej^eror; 
Koivov Oavarov juepos a/u0co. 

aWd ^dp a fieyaKiivvfjuo^ tfXOe N*/ca dur. j3 . 

T^ TToXvapfxaTtp dvTi^apelaa Qrifif^y 

€K ixev hri TToXefjiwv 150 

Twi' vvv OeaOe Xtjcrjuioavvavy 

0€wv Se vaov^ X^P^^ 

Travvv^flois irduras iireXQwfxev' o 0>//3as o €XeXi')(Owv 

■(•Baicjf/os cip')(Oi* 

dW* oSe yap S^ (iaaiXevs X^P^^ duTiavar. /3'. 155 

Kpewv 6 MevoiKew^ [f viov eiXrjx^ 

^X^'^9^ feo^Moy veapaltTi Oeciv 

ewl (jvvr v^ai^ j^o^pei, Tiva oif 

/uLiJTiv ipeacTfoVy on avyKXtirov 

TYivce yepovTwv TrpovOero Xecrj^i;*', l60 

Koivtp Kfipvyfian wefxyj/a^; 

*** yp, BaK^^cIo^. **• yp. Kp, o M. v€o')Qk6^ k.t.A. 


(Anapcestic Movement.) 

For seven at seven portals contending, 
Chief against chief, each left to his foeman 
His armour of bronze as a trophy for Zeus, 
Save those two implacable brothers, who 
Bom of one father and mother, with lances 
Equal in victory, foined till they shared 
In the fratricide's portion together. 


But now that Victory of mighty name 
Has come to Theba, rich in cars, with joyous cheer. 
Forget the wars that now no longer rage, 
And seek we all the temples of the Gods, 
With choirs that last the live-long night. 
And be the shaker of the Theban land, — 
Bacchus, — our dancers leader ! 

{Ana^oBstic Movement.) 

Lo he approaches — the King of our country, 
Kreon, the son of Menoekeus; [the vacant 
Throne he ascended e'en now, and] his rule is 
New as the fates which the Gods have provided. 
What counsel revolving summons he here 
This Senate to list to his words,— each elder 
By the voice of the herald convening? 

(While this movement is singing Kreon enters from the middle 
door uuith a long train of attendants, and having taken his 
seat on the throne, addresses the Chorus.) 


ANTirONH. [162—188. 

r. EnEl20AION nPQTON. 


"A NAPES, rd ixev Stj TroXeoy d(T((>a\a)^ deoU 

wo\\(p <Ta\(p creicai'Tey, wpOaxrau irdXtv' 

1//UCI9 o e'yw iroiJLiroia iv ex iravTwv oiya 

eareiX' 'uceaOai* tovto /uei', ra Adtov l65 

(refiovras elowg ev Opopwu del Kparrj' 

TovT avdiSf tlviK OlSiwov? ApOov TToXll/, 

Katrel ctwXeTy dfjL(j>l tovs KeivcDv en 

Traloas ixevovra^ ifjure^oi^ <f)pov^iULa(7iv. 

OT ovv CKelvot TT/oos SittX^^ fioipa? fJ^iav 170 

Kaff Yiixepav wXoi/to, iraKravre^ re kqI 

7r\rjy€VT€^ avro^eipi crvv fiiacfjiari^ 

e'yciJ Kpdrti 5i; irdvTa Kai Opdvov% €')(0) 

yevov^ Kar a'/^iCTcIa twv oXwXotwu, 

d/uLiiyavov Se Trai/ros duopo^ eKfiaOelv 175 

^v')(iiv T€ Kal ^povfifia Kal yvfo/ULfjv^ irplv av 

dp')(aig T€ kqI vofkoicnv evTpifitjs (pav^^ 

eniol yap, oaris Trutrav evOvvtov ttoXiv, 

fjLii Twv dpiaTO)v airrerai (iovXevfidrouVy 

dXX* 6/c (f>6fiov Tov yXSxraav "j* e^KXtyca? ej^ei, 180 

KdKi<TT09 etvat vvv T€ Kal wdXai Sokci' 

Kal fjLCil^ov o<TTi9 dvTi T^y avTov irdrpa^ 

(plXov vojuLi^^ei, TovTOv ovSa/uLov Xe'yo). 

e'yw yap, kttw Lev^ o iravu opwv aety 

ovT av (TKaiTYiaaiiJH rriv arrfv opS>v 

(TTti^ovcrav acrroi^ avrl r^s Gwrvipia^^ 

OVT av (piXov TTOT dvopa cvaniev^ '^(Oovo^ 

Oei/uifjv e/uavTipf tovto ytyvaxTKwv^ oti 

*"" yp, eyKXeiaa^. 




Sirs, for the vessel of the state, the Gods 
Had tossed us in a stormy surge, and now 
Have righted us again and made us safe. 
But you by messengers have I speeded here 
To secret council ; first, because I knew 
How well ye ever held in reverence 
The enthroned power of Laius; then again, 
While QBdipus maintained the city's weal, 
And after he was gone, ye still continued 
Good subjects to the children of that house. 
Well: now that they by a twin fate have fallen 
On one day, each the smiter and the stricken, 
Stained with the fratricide's blood-guiltiness, 
I all that power, I that throne possess. 
On claims of nearest kindred to the dead. 
There is no man whose soul and will and meaning 
Stand forth as outward things for all to see. 
Till he has shown himself by practice versed 
In ruling under law and making laws. 
As to myself — it is and was of old 
My fixed belief, that he is vile indeed 
Who when the general state his guidance claims 
Dares not adhere to wisest policy, 
But keeps his tongue locked up for fear of somewhat. 
Him too I reckon nowhere who esteems 
A private friend more than his father-land. 
For I, — ^may Zeus who ever seeth all things 
Witness my words, — I would not hold my peace. 
If, as the price of my peculiar safety, 
I saw my citizens unwittingly 
Exposed to onslaught from the public mischief; 

Nor would Ifer count among my friends 
My country'^s enemy : for well I know. 

22 ANTirONH. [189—214. 

ijo e<Triv tj aco^ovaaf kui raurrf^ eiri 
wXeoi/Tcs opOij^ Tou^' (j>i\ovi TroiovfieOa. IQO 

Toiolac e^co vofiotai rrivd av^w ttoXii/, 
Kul vvv ao€\<pd Twuoe Krjpv^a9 ej^w 
a(TTOi(Tif TraiSwv twv air OXoiirov ire pi. 
EreoicXea yuer, ov ttoXccws virepina'^^Siv 
o\w\e T^o-^e, TTCLVT apiarevcra^ f5o/3€i, 195 

Ta(P(t) T€ Kpv^ai^ Kai Tci iravr e^ayviaaiy 
a Tois api<TToi% ep'^erai Kara) vcKpol^* 
TOP ^ av ^vvaifxoif rovSe, TloXui/eiKtiv X^yco, 
OS yrjv trarptpav Kai 0eov9 tovs e'yyci/c??, 
(pvyas KUTeXOwv, riOeKriae fiev irvpi 200 

wptjaai KarcLKpas, riOeKriae o atfiarog 
Koivov waecurOah tovs oe covXtoaas ayeiv, 
rovTov iroXei rfj^ "feKKCKi^pvKTm Ta(f>(p 
juLtire KTcpil^eiv, fjn^re KuyKvaai nva, 
€^v i' aOawTov Kai Trpos oiwvwv Sejmas 205 

Kai irpos KvvHv eoeaTov aiKiaOevr* iSelv. 


Tifiijv Trpoe^ova oi KaKoi tmv evSiKwv. 

aXX' oaris evvovi rfide rfj woXei^ Oavwv 

Kai ^wv ofjLoiws €^ Cfiou Tififjcrerai. 210 


croi TavT ap€<TK€t, Trai MevoiKCw^ Kpeov^ 
Tov Trjoe ouavovVf Kai tov evfULevfj iroXei. 
vofjLtp Se 'x^p^aOai ^wavra'^ov fwdpeaTi aoiy 
Ka\ Twv OavovTcoVy "^diroaoi ^wnkev^ irepi. 


7/[>. lopi. *" 7p. iKK€Kfipvx0at, 

yp, rravri trou r ive<rTt, 


She is the bark that brings us safe to port; 
Sailing in her unswayed by sidelong gales 
.We make the only friends we ought to make. 
By laws like these I seek this city's welfare. 
And now the herald's voice by my command, 
In words akin to these, has told the people 
My will about the sons of CEdipus. 
For Eteokles, who as this city'^s champion 
Bore oflP the meed of prowess with his spear 
And fell for us, — not burial alone, 
But every after-ordinance which soothes 
The parted souls of the heroic dead. 
Now for the other brother — Polyneikes — 
Who, as a runagate returning home, 
Wished in the flames to bum to nothingness 
His father-land and tutelary gods. 
Who wished to glut himself with kindred blood, 
Or lead away the living as his bondmen, — 
For him the herald's voice forbids this city 
To pay or funeral rites or lamentations, 
But sternly orders that his body lie 
Unsepulchred and devoured by birds and dogs—* 
A most unsightly spectacle to view. 
Such is my will.— j 

And if it rests wixh me, the base shall never 
Forestall the rightful honours of the righteous. 
But whoso loves this city, both in death 
And life shall be alike esteemed by me. 


We hear thy will, Kreon, Menoekeus' son, 
Upon this city'^s foeman and her friend. 
It rests with thee to give the law full play, 
As for the dead, so for us all who live. 

24 ANTirONH. [215—230. 

ws av aKOTToi vvv tire twv etprifievwu, 215 


aW eicr isToifioi rod vcKpov y eiriaKOTroi. 

Ti hYJT av oKKo tovt eirei^reWoi^ en ; 

TO fxrj ' 'iri')(wp€iv rois dmarovaiv TciSe, 

ovK eariv ovrw jmwpos, os Oavelv ipq.. 220 


avopa9 TO Kepoos iroWctKis cmXeaev. 


apa^9 epw fiev ov^ ottoij Tctj^oi/s vtto 

SvaTTVov^ iKcivw Kov(pov e^apa^ Tro^a. 

TToXXds yap eaxov (ppovriSwv ewiardaei^, 225 

O0O19 kvkKwv ejuLavTov eh avaaTpo(p^v. 

"^^X^ y^P V^^^ TToXXa fxoi fivBovfjLevfj' 

ToXas, T< ywpet^y ot /uloXwv Sciaets SiKfjy ; 
tXjjjulwvj fieveli au; kcI rdo eiaerai Kpiwv 
aXXoi; Trap* dvSpo^^ ww <tu Sfjr ovk dXyvvel ; — 230 


Be watchers then to speed the words ye hear ! 

Impose this office on some yomiger man. 

Well, well, the watchers of the corpse are ready. 

What further office hast thou for another! 

See that ye countenance not the disobedient. 

Most foolish is the fool that fain would die. 


Aye, of a truth, the meed is what thou sayest. 
But backed by hope, lucre has ruined many. 

(The Sentinel enters /rom the right.) 


My liege, I cannot say that from very haste I come 
panting for breath, having stept out with nimble paces. Troth: 
I have had many half-way houses of cogitation, wheeling 
about after every fresh start as though I would return. In 
fact, my soul often addressed me with some such tale as this : 
" Why goest, simpleton, where to be come is to be punished!" 
then again : " What ! wilt not away, poor wretch ! and if 
Kreon shall learn these tidings from some one else, how 

26 ANTirONH. [231—250. 

Toiavff eXiaawp yivvtov a^oKri '\Ta')(y^, 

')(0VTa>s 680^ jSpay^ela ylyverai yxiKpa. 

T€\o9 ye fJL€v Toi oeup eviKfjaev /AoXelv 

aoi' Kcl TO firioev e^epw^ (ppdaw o/ulw^. 

rijs e\7riSo9 yap ipj^o/uLai SeSpayiievo^^ 235 

TO /uLtf iraOelv av aWo TrXtjv to jULOpaifxov. 

Ti o e(7Tti/, avff ov Ttjvd cj^cis adufxiav ; 

(ppaaai OeXw aoi TrpwTa TafiavTou, to yap 
IT pay IX out eopaa ^ ovt eioov ogtis rjv o opwv 
ouC av oiKai(v9 ey kokov irecoifjii ti, 240 

€v ye "foTeyd^ei^ '\ KaTro<f>apyvvaai kvkXw 
TO TTpayma, ctjXol^ S* cwy ti afj/mavcop veop. 

TO, oetpd yap toi irpoaTiOricr* okvov ttoXvv. 

ovKOVv epeli itot 9 elr air aXXa'^Oe 19 awei ; 

Kai Sfj Xeyu) aoi, tov veKpov T19 apTiw^ 245 

6d\{/as (iefifjKey Kairl yjpooTl oi^iav 
Koviv iraXvvas^ Ka(payiaTevtTai a XP^* 

Ti (f>ris ; tU dv^pwv fjv 6 ToXfxriGa^ Tace ; 

ovK ol^, €Ke7 yap ovt€ tov yep^co^ tjv 
wXijy/uL\ ov hiKeKXtfi eKJioXri' crri/^Xo? ^e yrj 250 
^^ yp. Ppalw, '*' 7/5. o'TO'^d^et Kdiro<ppdyvv<rai, 


then wilt thou escape the penalty ?"' WhUe thus my mind 
revolved, the speed I made was tardy in its swiftness : and 
so a short road is made long. Well ; at last coming hither 
to thee carried the day ; and though thou mayest think my 
words naught, I yet will speak. For here come I, with 
griping hold fast clinging to the hope, that I can but suffer 
what my fate demands. 


What grounds hast thou for this despondency! 

I fain would tell thee first about myself. 
The deed I neither did nor saw the doer : 
Nor were it just that I should come to mischief. 

Whatever the matter is, thou fencest well. 
And mak^st a hedge all round thee. And 'tis clear 
'Tis something disagreeable to hear. 

True: threats of danger needs must give us pause. 

Well : speak at once, and take thyself away. 

At once I tell thee. Some one has just now 
Entombed the body and is gone; that is, 
He has sprinkled thirsty dust over the corpse 
And done what else religious fear requires. 

How sayest thou? — 
What man is he who dared to do this deed? 

I know not, I : for there was neither blow 
Of any mattock, nor the earth thrown up 

ANTirONH. [251—279. 

Kat ')(€pao9y appw^ ovc einf/uia^eu/ueuf} 

Tpo'^olaiv^ aX\ aarjixo^ ovpyartj^ t«9 tju. 

oirvo^ o 6 irpwTos tjfxlv Yi/xcpoaKoiro^ 

SeiKvvaij Tract OaviJia ovay^epe^ wapfjv' 

6 fiiv yap ri<f>aviaro^ Tu/mfitjpfji fnev oi/, 255 

XeTTTi; o, ay OS (pevyovros a>%^ eTrijv kovi9, 

atjfxeia 5* ovre Oripo^y ovre tov kvvwv^ 

eXOovTOSf ou GiraaavTos ej^eipaiueTo, 

\6yoi c €v aXX^/Xoicrii/ eppoOovv KaKoty 

ijf)i;Xaf €\€y')(wu (pvXaKa* Kav eyiypcTo 260 

irXi/'yiJ reXevTwa^ oi/o o KwXvacou Trapfjv, 

eU yap Tis riv CKaaros ov^eipyaafieuo^i 

KouoeU evapyi^Sf dXX* e(p€vye fxf) elcei^ai. 

Yifxev eroifioi Kal fAVCpovs oApeiv X^poiv^ 

Koi irvp oiepireiv^ Kal Oeovs opKCDjuorelvi 265 

TO fxfire Spaaaiy fxtiTe T(p ^vveioepai 

TO wpayfia (iovXevaavTi, juLtjT elpyaafxevtt)* 

TcXos , OT ovoev rjv epevvwaiv irAeoVf 

Xeyei t«9 cfp, 09 wavras cs weoov Kapa 

veuaai (pofitp irpovTpey\f€v* ov yap €iypixev 270 

oifT avTKJxaveivi ovff otcws opwvTes KoXik 

TTpa^aifxev* rjv c o fivOos^ ft!? apoiaTeov 

<T0\ TOVpyOV €iTJ TOI/TO, KOir)(l KpVWT€OV. 

Kal TavT eviKa^ Kafie tov ovaoaiixova 

iraXos Kadaipei tovto TayaOou Xa(ieiv. 275 

Trdpeifxt 5* aKwv oiJ^ eKovaiv^ olS* oti. 

CTepyei yap oJoeis ayyeXov KaKwu kirwv. 

ai/af, eiJioi tol, fxr/ ti Kal OetjXaTou 
Tovpyov TOo\ ri l^vvvoia (iovXevei irdXai, 



By shovelling : but the ground was hard and dry : 

Unbroken and untracked by rut of wheels; 

And he who wprked had left no trace behind him. 

When the first day-watch pointed to the deed, 

On all fell wonder mixed with pain. For he 

Was out of sight — not closed within a tomb, 

But lightly over-heapt with sprinkled dust, 

As when some passer-by will shun the curse. 

Nor were there outward signs that beast or dog 

Had come and torn him. Thereupon among us 

The bandied threat sped up and down ; each guard 

Accused his fellow; and at last it seemed 

That blows would come; nor was the make-peace by.^ 

For each man stood indicted of the deed, 

And no man was convicted, but the plea 

Was ignorance of the facts. And ready were we 

The glowing steel to handle, and to walk 

Through fire, or swear us by the Gods that we 

Had neither done the deed nor had consented 

To either him who planned or him who did it. 

But when with all our probes we got no farther. 

There spoke out some one, and his words were such 

That to the ground we bowed our heads in fear. 

For we had neither skill to say him nay. 

Nor knew we doing what we should do well. 

His counsel was — to tell the whole to thee. 

And not to mask it from thee. This prevailed. 

And then the lot condemns me, hapless wight. 

To get this piece of luck. So here I come. 

Unwilling to the unwilling well I wot : 

For no one loves the bearer of bad tidings. 

To me, O King, the thought is present ever — 
This was some dispensation from the Gods. 

30 ANTirONH. [280—305. 


iradaaiy irpiv opyrj^ f ica/ jue fieaTwaaiy Xeywp, 280 

fjLij (pevpeOfi^ CLuov^ re Kai yepwv afxa* 

\eyei% yap ovk aveKrd^ oalfiova^ Xeywi/ 

irpovoiav 'ic'^eiv TovSe rov vcKpov wepi* 

TTorepou VTrepTijuLWvre^ W9 evepyerriv 

eKpvTTTov auTov, oarii d/uL^iKiovas ^S5 

vaovs irupwawv tjXOe KuvaOij/uLaTa, 

Kal yfjv CKeivcov Kal vo/ulou^ SiacrKeSwv ; 

^ TOI/y KUKOVS TlflcSuTa^ €i<T0p^9 0€OVi ; 

OVK ecTTiv, aXKa ravTa koi iraXai ttoXco)? 

avcpe^ fxdXii (pepovres eppoOovv ifxoi^ 2.90 

Kpv(pfi KCLpa aeiovres' ovo iiro X^^ytp 

X6(pov SiKaioas el\0Vy wi arepyeiv e/xe. 

€K Twvoe TOVTOV9 efeTTiaxayuai KaXw^ 

irapriyiuLevovi fuaOdiatv elpydaOai rdSe. 

ovSev yap dvOpwiroiaiv, otov apyvpo^^ 295 

KttKov vofiiafJi efiXa<TT€» tovto Kal iroXen 

TTopOel, TOO* avopa^ e^avhrtiaiv oojulwv' 

To^ eK^iSdcKei Kal TrapaXXdcaei (ppevat 

yjpriara^ irpo^ at<r)(pa irpayixaff uTTaadai (iporwv' 

iravovpyla^ o eoei^ev dvOpiawoi^ cj^^ii/, 300 

Kal Trai/Tos epyov Suaarefieiav eiSevat, 

oaoi ce fxitrOapvovvTes fivvcav raSe, 

'XP^vtp iroT e^eirpa^av cJs oovvai S'lKfjv. 

aXX* eiirep *i(T')(ei Zei/y er ef eiiov (rej3as, 

ev TovT €Trl(rTaa\ opKio^ oe aoi Xeyw, 305 

900 * ^ 

yp, Ka/ji€, 



Hold, ere your words fill me with very rage, 
Nor prove yourself foolish at once and old. 
Not to be borne the words thou say'st in saying 
That Gods keep watchful heed for this vile corpse. 
What ! was it then because his benefactions 
Had won their high esteem — was it for this 
They sought to bury kim who came to burn 
Their pillar-girded temples and their treasures, — 
To scatter to the winds their land and laws ? 
Or is it thy experience that the Gods 
Honour the base ? No ! That was not the cause ; 
But these enactments from the first misliking, 
Some of our townsmen murmured against me^ 
Shaking their heads in silence, and they kept not 
Their necks in equal poise beneath the yoke 
So as to meet my favour. Well I know 
These with their bribes have won the sentinels 
To perpetrate this deed. For there is nothing. 
Of all the coinage current in the world, 
So base as silver. This it is, nought else, 
That sacks the city; this it is, nought else, 
j^ That parts the goodman from his hearth and home ; 

This too unteaches and perverts the minds 
Of upright mortals, till they take their post 
Upon the side of ignominious actions; 
This points the way of knavery to mankind, 
And finds a school for every deed of sin. 
Yet they whom pelf has prompted to this work 
At length have all secured their punishment. 
Nay more, if Zeus upholds my sovran awe, 
Be well assured, and with an oath I say it, 

32 ANTirONH. [306—323. 

ei iULij Tov avTO'xeipa rovoe tov ratpov 

€upovT€9 eKipavelT es otpOaXfxov^ efjLov^^ 

o^X ^^^ *'A«^i;y fjLovvo^ apKcaei^ irpiv av 

^(Si/res Kpe/uLaaTol Tijvoe CfjXciarjO* vfipiv, 

*iv eloore^ to Kepoo^ evOev oiaTcov, 310 

TO XoiTTOv apird^fjTef Kal fxaQr0 ^ oti 

ovK €^ airavTo^ oei to Kepoaiveiv (piXclv' 

eK Twv yap aia'xpwv Xfjfx/maTwv roi/s wXeioya^ 

aTWfJievovi *ioois av ti aeawafieuov^. 

€i7r<?Ii' TI Sciaei^f fj <rTpa(p€h ovtw^ iw ; 315 

OVK otaOa Ka\ vvv cog aviapm Xeyei^ ; 


€1/ TolaiV (!>(t\v9 ti Vl TYJ >f/vxV ^^'^^^^ » 

KPEnN. . 
T« Se pu0/uLil^€is TYJv ifxtiv Xvirriv oirov ; 

o op(a¥ <T aviqi Ta^ Kppeva^^ Ta o (ot eyw. 

oi/ii\ o5s faXfiiia SrjXoy eKTreCpuKos el. 320 

oifKovv TO \y epyov tovto froitjaas ttotc. 

Kal TavT err dpyvp(p ye t^v \I/u')(^v TrpoooJs. 


tl ceivov ^ SoKel ye Kal >//€i/^i; SokcIv, 

** yp. \a\tiaa, "* yp, toS*. 


Unless ye find and openly produce 

Before nay eyes the man whose very hands 

Performed these obsequies, your death alone 

Shall not suffice, until, hung up alive. 

Ye have denounced the insolent offender. 

To the end that, knowing whence to get your gains, 

Ye may pursue your filching, till ye learn 

That love of pelf must somewhere find its limit; 

For by degrading lucre thou mayest see 

More men get mischief than security. 


Wilt let me speak, or must I go at once? 

Know'st not that even now thy words offend? 

Where is the pinch? i' th' ears or in the soul? 

Why mark the boundary line of my displeasure ? 

The doer plagues thy heart; I, but thine ears. 

Oh ! it is clear thou art a coxcomb bom. 

It may be so; but not who did this deed. 

Thou didst it, man, selling thy soul for silver. 

'Tis sad when one thinks good to think a lie. 


34 ANTirONH. [324r-343. 


KOfxyf/eue vvv ti^v oo^av' el oe ravra /xij 

(pavelre /moi tov^ cpwvra^^ €^€p€i9\ on 325 

TO, foeiXa K€pSf] irti^iovas epycu^erai, 


aX\' evpeOelti fxev fiakKTr ' eav he rot 

\ri(j>6ri re Kai /ai), tovto yap Tu^rj Kpivei^ 

ovK ead* OTTwy o\j/€i av Sevp' eXdovra /ue. 

Kai vvv yap €kto9 cXttioos yvcifxtj^ r i/jLYJ^ 330 

(TwOeh^ 6<f>€i\(t) Tols Oeoi^ iroWfju X^P^^' 



riOAAA rd C€ivd, Kovoev av- aTpo(f>ri a, 

dpvjirov oeivorepov irekei, 

TOVTO Kai TToXiov TTepav 

irovTov yeiimepltf) vot(^ 335 

yjMpeif irepifipv')(ioi(jiv 

irepvov €ir oiofxacriv^ 
Oewv T€ TOLV VTrepTaTav^ Tav 

a<p0iTovy aKa/maTav airoTpveTai 
iWofiepwv apoTpwv cto^ e'n CTOi^ 340 

iTTTreiy yevei iroXevwv. 


viOwv dfJLipifiaXitiv ayei^ 

•" fp. teiva. •" yp, KOV(povewv, 



Prate as thou wilt on thinking^ but unless 
Ye point me out the doers, ye shall say 
That sneaking profits only purchase pain. 


Nay, by all means I would the man were known : 
Be he caught or not^ for luck will settle this, 
Thou wilt not see me coming here again. 
E'en now preserved beyond my hope and thought, 
I owe a debt of gratitude to heaven. 



Strophe i. 

Many the things that mighty be. 

And nought is mightier than — tMan. 

For he can cross the foaming ocean, 

What time the stormy South is blowing, 

Steering amid the mantling waves that roar around him. 

And for his uses he wearieth 

Earth, the highest Deity, 

The immortal, the untiring one. 

As year by year the ploughs are drawn 

Up and down the furrow'd field. 

To and fro his harnessed teams — 

The seed of horses — driving. 

Antistrophb I. 
Man, full of ingenuity. 
Entraps in folds of woven meshes 
And leads away the tribe 
Of flighty-purpos'd birds, 


36 ANTirONH. [344—368. 

Kai Oripijov dypiwv eOvtj^ 

irovTov T eivoKiav (pvaiv 345 

aireipaiai oiKTvoKXwaroi^^ 
irepi^pao^s avtjp' 
Kparet Se fxtj'^^avai^ dypavXou 

Otlpo^ 6p€(r(Ti(idTa^ Xacriav^^eva 9 

'iirirov "j'oj^/iia^€Tai aiJi(p\ \6(pov\ '<^vywv 350 

ovpeiov T dSfi^ra ravpov. 

KOI (pOeyixa kuI riueixoev <f>p6- crrpotpfj p . 

vrffia Kai darvvoimovi op- 
yds eSiSd^aro koI SvaavXwu 
iraywv '^viralOpeia Kai S55 

SvaofJil3pa (pevyeiu /SeXrj. 

airopos eir ovoev ep'^^erai 
TO fieXXov' lAiSa ijlovov 

(pev^iv ovK €wa^€Tai' 360 

voawv 6 dfifj'xavwv (puyds 

(TO^OV Tl TO fkYI'^avoev T€J^- dvTKTT, j3'. 

vas virep eXiric e^a^v, irore 

flip KUKOV^ aXXoT eir eaOXov epwet' 365 

vo/uLovs "fyepaipwv ')(dov6s 

OeWP.T ivopKOV SlKUV, 


^^ yp. a^erai dfXipiXoipov fi/yoV. *" yp, aWpta. 

**• yp. irapeiptav. 


And the kindreds of wild beasts. 

And the ocean brood, whose home is in the waters. 

With wiles he tames 

The mountain-beast that roams the moor: 

And fastens, yoking him about the neck, 

The long-maned steed and stubborn mountain-bull. 

Strophe ii. 

Language, and lofty thought. 

And dispositions meet for order'd cities, 

These he hath taught himself; — and how to shun 

The shafts of comfortless winter, — 

Both those which smite when the sky is clear, 

And those which fall in showers ; — 

With plans for all things, 

Planless in nothing, meets he the future ! 

Of death alone the avoidance 

No foreign aid will bring. 

But from disease, that sports with skill, 

He hath gotten him means of fleeing. 


Wise in his craft of art 
Beyond the ^bounds of expectation, 
The while to good he goes, the while to evil. 
Honouring his country'^s laws and heaven's oath- 
bound right, 
High is he in the state I 

38 ANTirONH. [369-386. 

airoXis OT(f) to fitj naXov 

fi/i/ecTTi* To\fxa£ xapiv 370 

fXYiT efjLol wapearios 
yevoiTOy fJLtiT laov (ppovwvy 
OS TOO epoei. 

ey Saifiouiou Tepa9 afi<pivo(o {avarrjfxa). 

Toce, TTftJs eiSm avTiXoyijaa) 375 

Tfjvo ouK elvai waio* 'AvTiyourjv ; 
w ovaTTjvo^y 

Kal SvcTTtjvou iraTpo^ OiSnrooa, 
Ti troT ; ov otj irov ae y aTriCTOvaav 
To79 fiacriXeioi^ fairay overt vojjloi^, 380 

Kal €V a(ppoavvri KaOeXovres ; 



ilA tcTT €K€ivrj Toupyov Yi ^€ipya<riJi€vrj. 
Trjvo* eiXoiJi€v BaTTTovffav, aSXa irov Kpewp ; 

oo €K oo/ULWV ayj/oppos ei^ o€OV Trepqt. 

t/ 5* €<TTi ; iroitjf, ^ufxiJiCTpo^ irpovfirjv rv'^tf ; 385 

at^a^f l3poTo7aiv ovSev iar dirdjuLorov. 

3R0 *r 

yp. ayova-iv. 


But cityless is he with whom inherent baseness dwells; 
When boldness dares so much, 
No seat by me at festive hearth, 
No seat by me in sect or party. 
For him that sinneth! 

(Sentinel re-enters with Antigone, guarded.) 


{AnapoBstic Movement.) 

Gazing with doubt and wonder I look on this 

Strangest of sights ! how dare I belie my 

Knowledge that this is the maid Antigone! 

Hapless princess ! 

Child of a hapless sire, (Edipodes ! 

Tell us — ah surely they are not bringing thee 

Hither, defiant of royal commandments, 

In the act of foolishness taken ! 



'Tis she who did the deed. We took her paying 
The funeral obsequies. But where is Kreon? 

See, in good time, he cometh forth again. 

{Enter Kreon.) 
What hap holds sortance with my coming forth ? 

My liege, a man should never swear he will not ; 

40 ANTirONH. [387-407. 

yj/euoei ycip ri 'irivoia ti]u yuwfiiju' eirel 

a^oXfj 7ro6' ^^€iv Sevp av efi/J^oi/i/ €7Ci5, 

rals trals aweiXai^y ah e^ei/maaOi^v totc. 

d\\\ ri yap ckto^ Kal Trap' eXTrioa^ X^P^ ^^^ 

€oiK€v aWrj yLviKOi ouoev 97001;^, 

IjKa), Si opKwv Kaiirep Jav airdiioTO^, 

Koptju aycov rrivc ^ ri KaOeupeOrj raKpov 

Koa/uLOvaa. K\fipo9 evQdd ovk CTraXXero, 

aXX* eo'T eiAov Ooupfiaiov, ovk aXXot;, roSe. 395 

Kal vvp^ ava^, tj/i/^ oiJrdy, m fleXets, Xafiwv^ 

KOI Kplve KCL^eXey)^' eyw 5* eXeuOepos 

oUaios eifii Twvc dTniXXd')(0ai KaKwv. 

ayeii oe Ti]Poe Tqi rpdirtp iroOev Xafitav ; 

avrri rov dvSp' edairre. irdvT eTriaTaaai. 400 

1; Kai ^vvlrii Kal Xeyets opOcoi a (prjs ; 

ravrrjv y f J^cii; OdirTovaav ou cv top veKpov 
dweiTra^. ap* ivdrjXa Kal aa(pfi Xeyw ; 

Kal TTcSs* opdraif /caTrfXi/Trros f ripeOij ; 


ToiovTov rjv TO irpay/ii\ ottw? yap ^kojulcv^ 405 

TT/ooy troJ; rd 5eii/' €K€iv eTrrjTreiXrjfjLepoiy 
iraaav koviv <Tt)pavTe^, ij /caTelj^e tov 

""* 7p. X6ov, ^'^ yp» evpidtj. 


For second thoughts belie the intention. Thus, 

When that thy storm of threats had greeted me, 

I boldly said my coming here again 

Would, if I came at all, be long and slow. 

But still in spite of oaths behold me here — 

For joy, which hopes surprises and transcends, 

Is like no other pleasure in extent — 

Bringing this maid, who was detected paying 

The funeral honours: here no lot was drawn. 

But this is mine, none other'*s lucky find. 

And now, my liege, just take her as it likes thee, 

And test and question: right it is that I 

Should be well quit and free from all these troubles. 

Whence and how taken bringest thou this damsel? 

She tried to bury him — thou knowest all. 

Dost understand and speak''st thy words discreetly? 


Yes, for I saw her burying the corpse 

By thee denounced. Are my words plain and clear? 

How was she seen and taken in the fact? 

The circumstance was thus. When we returned, 
Urged by such fearful menaces from thee, 
We swept clean off the dust which covered him, . 

42 ANTirONH. [408—4.^6. 

vcKUVf fjivowv T€ (Twyia yu/JLVviaavTcs €i/, 

KaOrifieff aKpwv €k irdywu uwrfueaoi, 

oanriv air avTov fxi^ /3a\oc, Trecpevyores, 4^10 

eyepri kipwv avSp' avrjp eirippoOoi^ 

KaKolcTiVy ei t<s tovo aKpei^rjaoi wovov. 

')(p6vov rdo tjv TocovToVy es t iv aiOepi 

fxeo'tp KaTecTYi Xainirpo^ rfXiou kukXo^, 

Kat Kav/x eOaXwe' kqI tot i^ai(pvrj^ yOovo% 415 

Tvcpio^ delpa^ gkyitttov, ovpaviov ci\o^'i 

7rijuLTr\ri<Ti weSiov^ iraaav aiKiQiov (pofit^v 

i/\>7S ireSiado^' iv 5' e/mecTTciOri jmeyas 

alOtjp' fiu(mvT€9 5* €i')(oiJL€v Oeiav vocov. 

KOI TovS' aTraWayevTO^ iv xpovip fjiaKptp^ 420 

tj TToii OpOLTaiy KCLVaKiOKVei TTiKpas 

opviOos ol^vv (pOoyyoVf w? OTav Kevff^ 

evvlj^ veoacwv 6p(()av6v fiXeyj/rj Xej^o?' 

ovTU) o€ j^ai;T>7, \f/i\6v ftJs op^ vckvv^ 

yooiGiv i^tpfiw^evy e/c 5* dpd^ /ca/cas- 425 

ripaTo ToiGi Tovpyov ej^eipyaafievot?, 

Kai xepalv evOv^ Si\f/iav (f>ep€i koviv^ 

CK T evKpoTfiTov ^aX/cea9 dpotjv irpo^ov 

'Xoalai TpicnrovSoiai tov vckvv <rTi(f>ei. 

j^jj/iiel? i^oi/re? MineaOa^ avv oi viv 430 

Orjpcifxeff ev6u9 ovSev iKireirXriyinivriv' 

Koi Ttts Te irpodQev ras Te vvv rfKey^ofxev 

TTpd^eis' dirapvo^ o ovoevo^ KaOiaTaTo 

"fa/uL ijoew? ejuLoiye KoKyeivai^ dnia, 

TO fJLev ydp avTov e/c KaKviv ireCpevy ivai, 4f35 

^KTTov' €s KaKov o€ T0V9 (fflXovs ayciVi 


And baring thoroughly the clammy corpse, 

We sat so far beneath the hill-top that 

The wind blew o''er our heads, lest peradventure 

Some evil odour from the corse should reach us, 

And each man stirred his fellow, rousing him 

With bandied threats, if any, carelessly. 

This work neglected. So it was until 

The sun'^s refulgent orb stood now midway 

In the clear sky, and the heat began to bum. 

Then suddenly a rushing mighty wind 

Raised from the ground a circling cloud of dust, 

A heaven-sent trouble ! and it filled the plain. 

Marring with ugly rack the tress-like foliage 

Of all the olive-groves that fringed the meadow; 

And e*en the lofty sky was choked with it. 

With eyes set fast, we bore this god-sent plague ; 

And when at length it cleared away, this damsel 

Was straightv^ay seen. In loud and treble tones 

She lifted up her voice, like some sad bird 

Which finds her young torn from her emptied nest. 

So she, when she beheld the corpse uncovered. 

With groans bewailed herself, and bitter curses 

She called down upon those who did the deed. 

Without delay in both her hands she bears 

The thirsty dust, and raising in the air 

The well-wrought pitcher made of hammered bronze. 

She poured around the corpse the threefold streams. 

Soon as we saw this deed we rushed upon her. 

And all together brought the game to bay. 

Not terrified was she ; and when we charged her 

With both the former and the present deeds. 

She nought disowned, so as to gladden me 

And grieve me too. For though most sweet it is 

Oneself to escape from trouble, yet to bring 

44 ANTirONH. . [437—457. 

aXyeii^ov* aWd iravTa Tauff fiaaw \a(ie7v 
efjLOi treKpvKe t^s €fitjs awrijpiav. 


ae Off, ae rrjv vevovaav es ireSov Kapa, 

0JIS jy Karapvei /jli^ oedpaKeuai rdSe ; 440 

Kui (ptifil opaaaif kovk airapvovinai to fitj, 


<Tu fiev KO/uLi(^oi9 dv aeauTov^ vf OeXeiSy 

€^0) (iapeia^ airia^ eXeuOepou. 

(TV S* elire fioij jmi^ firJKo^y dXXd avvrofia^ 

lyojys Tce Kripw^Oevraj fxt) irpdaaeiv rdSe ; 445 

i^Sij* Ti o ouK €fjL€XXov; €iJi<pau^ ydp iji/. 

Kal S^T eroXjuLa^ tov<t^* v-repfialveiv vofiou^ ; 

01/ yap Ti, iioi Levi r^v o Krjpv^as Taoe, 

OV^ fj ^VV0lK09 TWV KUTW 060)1/ ^tKTJf 

ol Tovah* €v dvOpdiroiGiv wpiaav fofiou^. 450 

ovSe aOeveiv togovtov (pofiffv ra <ra 

Kripvyfka6\ oxtt aypairTa KaatpaXfj 0ewv 

vofAi/ma SvuaoOai OvriTov ovff vrrepSpafxelv^ 

ov ydp Ti vvv T6- KdyOe^y aXX aei iroTe 

ti} TaDra, KouoeU oloev ef otou <f)dvrj, 455 

TouTwv eyw om e/meXXovy avopo9 oi/oei/os 

(ppovrj/xa Selaaay ev Oeoiai Trjv oiKtiv 


A friend into misfortune is most sad. 

But these and such like thoughts, as '*tis my nature, 

I set aside my safety to ensure. 

Ho! thou that sinkest to the ground thine eyes, 
Sayest thou or dost deny this deed was thine. 

I say I did it : I deny it not. 

Now, sirrah, take thee wheresoever thou wilt. 
Free from this heavy charge. (Exit Sentinel.) 

But tell me, thou, 
And not at large, but briefly, didst thou know 
The proclamation which forbade this deed? 

I knew it — wherefore not? twas plain enough. 

And durst thou natheless overstep these laws? 

It was not Zeus who heralded these words, 
Nor Justice, help-meet of the Gods below. 
""Twas they who ratified those other laws. 
And set their record in the human heart. 
Nor did I deem thy heraldings so mighty, 
That thou, a mortal man, couWst trample on 
The unwritten and unchanging laws of heaven. 
They are not of to-day or yesterday; 
But ever live, and no one knows their birth-tide. 
These, for the dread of any human anger, 
I was not minded to annul, and so 
Incur the punishment which heaven exacts. 

46 ANTirONH. [458—482. 

Seiaeiv, Oavoufxevrj yap ef ijoj;, ti ^ ou ; 

Kcl juL^ av 7rpovK^pu^a9» ei oe tou yjpovov 

irpoaOev Oavovixat, Kepoos ar/r e'yw Xeyw, 460 

o(7Tt9 yap €v iroKKoiaiVy ws eyd^ KaKOis 

^p, TToJs o5* ovyjL KarOavwv Kepoos (pepei ; 

ouTcos e/ULoiye tovoc tou fiopov Tv^eiv 

Trap ovoev a\yo% aW ai/, ei tov e^ e/mtj^ 

jULfjTpo^ OavovT aOaiTTov rjpa")(OfAi]v veKvv^ 465 

Keivois au tjXyovv' roio'Se 5* ovk aXyuvofiai, 

(Toi c €1 oo/c(S i/JJi; lULwpa opwaa Tvy^^aveiv^ 

a'xeoov Ti Hid pip fxwpiav oipXiaKciifw, 


SriXoi TO yevvrifk wfiov ef uf/mou iraTpos 

T^9 Traioos" eiKGiv 6 ovk eiriaTaTai kukoI^* 470 


a\A la^t TO* Ta cicKrip ayai' (ppovi^fiaTa 

TTiiTTeiv fiaXiaTa' Kai tov eyKparecTaTov 

aioripov otttov €k irvpo^ TrepiaKeXij 

6pav(T0€VTa Kai payevTa wXeiaT av ela loots. 

a/JiiKptp ')^aXivtp 5* oloa toi)? Ovfiov/iAevovs 475 

iTTTToi/s KaTapTuOevTas. ov yap cKireXei 

(ppovelv iJL€y o<TTi9 ooiJXos ecTTt Twv TreXa?. 

avTi; ufipl^etv jmev tot e^tfTria'TaTo^ 

vo/uLOVs VTrepfiaivovca toi/s npOKcifjievovs* 

u(ipt9 5*, eVei oeopaKeVf ijoe oevTepa^ 480 

Toi/TOis €7ravy(€LVy Kai o€opaKv7av yeX^v, 

ri vvv eyta [lev ovk avfjp, avTtj o av^py 


I knew — ^liow should I not? that I must die, 

Without thy proclamations to foredoom it. 

And if my time is shortened, this to me 

Is gain indeed. For whoso lives, as I live. 

Beset with many sorrows, how does he 

Not win by dying? Hence, to me at least. 

Thus to have met with death is not a grief. 

Which I can count or reckon. Had I suffered 

My mother^s dear dead child to He unburied, 

Then grief would vex my heart ; but now I grieve not. 

For thee — if this my deed seems foolishness. 

The fool has caught the foolish in her folly. 


How the stern father speaks in his stern child ! 
She knows not, she, to bow beneath the storm. 


Be well assured the stubborn temper still 
Is bent the soonest, and the hardest iron, 
When forged to brittleness, is oftenest seen 
To crack and splinter. So I know that steeds 
Of a high mettle yield to a small bit* 
For whosoever owns a master's will, 
Him the proud stomach ill beseems. This damsel 
First learned the knack of insolent offence, 
When she transgressed the promulgated laws. 
That done, her second insolence was this— 
To boast her evil deed and revel in it. 
Then, marry, I'm no maw, but she is one, 

48 ANTirONH. [483—505. 

€1 TauT dvarl rrjce KciacTai k parti. 

aW* eiT a^€\(f>fj^9 etff ofiaiiuioveaTepa^ 

rod iravTos ^ll^^v Z^rjvo^ EpKciou KVpely 485 

auTfj T€ ^rj ^uvai/UL09 ovk dXvj^eTov 

uopov KaKiarov. Kal yap ouu KCivriv iaov 

€7raiTi(0fiai rovoe fiovXeuaai Tcicpou. 

Kai viv KaXelr. eaw yap elSov apriws 

Xvaawaav avTi^p^ ovo* eirrifioXov (ppeviov, 490 

(piXei o o 0ujuLO^ TrpoaOev i^prja0ai KXowev^ 

Twv /ULijcev opOvi^ iv GKortp Tej^i/CD/uei/coi'. 

imaw ye /mevToi y^wTau ev KaKoial t«s 

aXov% eireira rouro KaXXvveiv 0eXri. 

OeXea ti /ixel^oi; rj KaraKTelvai fi eXwvi 495 

eyw jULCv ouoev' tout ej^wf, airavT ej^o). 


Ti ^rJTa fxeXXei^ ; a)? ifioi tUv aHv Xoywv 

dpecTov ovcevy ixrjc dpeaOelrj irore' 

ouTO) oe Kai aoi Tan a(pavoavovT e(pv* 

KalToi TToOev KXio^ y av emXeecTcpov 500 

KaT€a")(0V9 ^ Tov avTao€X<pov ev Tciiptp 

TiOelaa ; tovtois touto Traaiv dvSdveiu 

XeyoiT aVi ei fii^ yXHacav '^eynXrioi (pojioi' 

dXX' YJ TvpavvU iroXXd t a\\' evSaifiovei^ 

Ku^€(TTiv auTtj opaVf Xeyeiu 0\ a fiovXcTai. 505 


yp, eyKXeitrot. 


If she unscathed shall flout my sovranty. 

But be she sister^s child, or bom of one 

Of nearer kindred to my blood than all 

Who worship Zeus at our domestic altar, 

She and her sister shall not fend away 

A death most dire. For her, in equal sort, 

I charge with framing plans for this interment. 

And summon her. I saw her even now 

Within the palace raving, and unable 

To rule her thoughts. And so it is — the mind 

Is first detected in its knavery, 

When dark devices aim at wickedness. 

Howbeit, to me it is no less abhorrent. 

When, caught in criminality, the culprit 

Seeks with fine words to beautify his deed. 

Wouldst thou aught more than thus to take and slay me? 

Nought else — this done, my every wish is sated. 


Why loiter then! the words which thou hast spoken 
Displease me, all, and ne'^er may such words please me! 
And it is meet that thou shouldst mislike mine. 
And yet from whence might I have earned a glory 
More glorious than by placing in the tomb 
My own dear brother! Every man of these 
Would say he liked the deed, did not his fear 
Bar up his utterance: but absolute power. 
With many other happy privileges. 
May speak and do whatever the wish suggests. 


50 ANTirONH. [506—518. 

au TOVTo fxovvfi Twvoe Kao/iieicov 6p^s> 


OpSxTi ')(0VT0l9 (Tol S' VTriWoVO'l (TTOfJia, 

<7i) 5* ovK ewaiSeif TwuSe xwpis el (ppoveh ; 

ovoev yap auryjpov tov9 ouLotnrXayj^ovs aejieiv, 

ovKOVv ojmaifKK X^ Karavriov Oavciv; 510 

ofxai/ULO^ €K juiias re, icai TavTov iraTpo^, 


ov jULaprvpiiaei ^raura ^d Kara yOovo^* 


ov yap Ti SovXos, a\\* dS€\(l>6s wXero, 515 

iropOtav ye Tiivoe y^v' 6 5* avrio'Ta^ virep. 

ojULOfi o y "AtSiys Tovs v6juLOV9 laovf irodei, 

*" yp, n-avd* 6 KarOavwv ucKv^t, 


Of all Kadmeans thou alone seest this. 

These see it too, but thou hast made them mum. 

Art not ashamed to stand apart from these! 

To reverence kith and kin is nothing shameful. 

Was not he, too, who died for us, thy kin? 

He was my kin by sire and mother both. 

Then why this duty, impious to him ? 

The fallen foe will not attest thy words. 

Yes — ^if the impious shares thy equal love. 

It was no slave that fell — ^it was my brother. 

Seeking thy country's hurt — but he fought for us. 

The laws which death exacts are equal laws. 

Not for the good and bad in equal measure. 

E 2 

52 ANTirONH. [519—537. 


ouToi TToff ou)(0p699 OI/5* oTov Oduri, <f)l\o^. 520 

ovToi (Tvve')^9eiV9 aXKa aufi(()i\eiv ecf^vv. 

KUTw vvv e\9ova 9 el (piXrfreoVy (piXei 
Keipovs' ifiov Se ^cSvto^ ouk ap^ei yvvi^. 

Kal fii]v irpo irv\(t)v ijc 'lafirjvrj (ai/ari/zua.) 

0iXa^e\0a /caroi SuKpu eifiotieprjf 525 

v€(j)€\ii S' 6(f>pv(a>v iirep al/uaroei' 
pe6o9 aia')(yveiy 
reyyova euZwa irapeiav, 

(TV o, fj KUT olKovSf ct)9 €^101^ 9 vCpcifJievrj 
\tj6ov<Ta fx e^eirives, ovS^ ijuidvOavov 5S0 

Tpe<l>wv Cu ara, KaTrapaardaeis Opovwv, 
(pep\ eiire otj fioiy kuI (Tv tovoc tov Td(f>ov 
(Pviaeii /uL€Taa')(€iv, }j '^o/mel to /ixj) eioevai ; 

SeSpaKa roupyov, eiirep IjSi ofioppoOel, 
Kal ^u/uLfAeTia^^a) Kal (f>€pw t^s atrias. 535 

aXX* ovK edaei touto y ri oUrj tr*, eirel 
OUT rfiiXriaa^i out eyw Koivaxra/uLrfv, 

*" yp. Karoo crtv. 


Who knows, if strifes like these still live below? 

The foe is ne'er a friend — not e'en in death. 

My heart is love'^s co-mate, not hatred's partner, 

Down then, and love them if they must be loved : 
But while I live, no woman shall hold sway. 

(Anapasstic Movement.) 
Lo! from the gates Ismene approaches, 
Shedding the tears of sisterly sorrow. 
And the cloud o'*er the brow the bloom of the cheek with 
Blushes has mantled. 
Her beautiful features bedewing. 


Thou that within the palace snake-like gliding 
Didst suck my blood, — nor knew I that I nurtured 
Two fiends for the subversion of my throne — 
Come, tell me now, wilt thou too claim a share 
In this exploit, or swear thou knewest nothing! 


I did the deed, if she says aye to that. 
And claim and bear a share in all the blame. 


Justice forbid thee that ! thou didst not will it. 
Nor did I give thee art or part in it. 

64 ANTirONH. [538—553. 

aW' €v KCUC019 TOI9 (Tolcriv ovK aia")(yvo/u,ai 
^u/ulttXovu efiauTijv tov iraBov^ 7roioi//uei/i;, 

wv Toupyovy ''AiCri^ ')(oi kcltw ^vulcTTopes' 540 

Xoyois o eyci (piXovaav ov (TTepyw (l)i\riv. 

HAfj TOh KacriyvfjTdjy /jl ari/iidarfi to /mtf ov 
Oaveiv re avv (rot, tov OavovTa ff dyviaai. 

ixf\ fkoi uavri^ <tv Koiva^ /nrjc a fid] uiye^ 
TTOiou ceavTfj^. apKetna Ovrj(rKou(r iyw, 545 

Kal Tii ^ios jULOif (Tou XeXei/uLfieurif <piXos ; 

KpeovT epwTa. Tovoe yap au KtjSefuiv. 

Ti TauT dvi^i iJL, ovSeu wipeXouiievri ; 

dXyovtra fiev o^t\ ei yeXwT ev (ToI y€\w, 

Ti ofJT av dXXd vSv a ex w(I)€Xo7/ul' eya> ; 550 

(Twaov aeavTtjv. ov (pOovw tr vTr€K(bvyeiv* 

oifioi TaXaiva^ Kd/inrXaKW tov (tov /xopov ; 

aif juL€v yap eiXov ^rjp' €70) Se KaTQa^eiv. 


Yet, in thy troubles, I am not ashamed 
To mount the sinking vessel of thy fortunes. 

Death and the dead know well whose was the deed. 
I scout the friend whose friendship is but words. 

Nay, sister, shame me not, but let me die 
With thee, and with thee reverence the dead. 


Die not with me, nor claim a share in deeds 
That were not thine — ^my death will be enough. 

What life is dear to me when thou art gone! 

Ask Kreon — all thy care is set on him. 

How canst thou utter taunts which nought avail thee ! 

I laugh in sorrow, if I laugh at thee. 

Tell me, how I can serve thee even now? 

Preserve thyself — I grudge not thy escape. 

Ah ! woe is me — and may I not die with thee ! 

No ! for thy choice was life, but mine was death. 

56 ANTirONH. [554—568. 

a\\' ovK eir appviToi^ ye toi^ ejuLcii^ Xoyois* 

KoXw^ (TV jmev roi^, rols o eyw 'ookovv (ppoveiv* 555 

Kat juLtiv *i<Tri v(pv €(tt\v ri ^^afAaprla. 

Odpaei* (TV fxev ^^s' V ^ ^M»7 ^^X^ TraXai 
Te9vfiK€V9 w(TTe To79 Oavov(Tiv (iXpeXeiV' 

to) TToice (ptiixl ToJ^e, rrfv fxev (xpTi(i)s 
avow 7r€<p(iv0aiy Ttjv 5* d0' ov rd 'irpwT €(pv. 560 

ov yap ttot', wi/af, ovo 09 av ^fi\(XGTri fievei 
vov^ Tols KaKW9 irpaaaovaiv, dXX* e^iVraTa*. 

(ToJ 'yovi', 06^ 6t\oi/ fi)i/ /ca/coiy irpdaaeiv KaKci, 


dXX* HAE /mevToi /jl^ Xey, ov yap €(Tt en, 565 

dWd /cTei/€(S vvix<p€ia rod aavrov tckvov ; 

dpdtTiyiOi yap j^are/owi; €i<nV ^y^^** 

oi;;^ m y €KeiV(p rriSe t tjv lipiuLoafxeva ; . 


Not where my secret words remained unspoken. 

Some will applaud thy wisdom— others mine. 

Nay, but our absolute error was the same. 

So be it. Thou still livest ; but my soul 
Is dead the while, e'en since I served the dead. 

Of these two maids, it seems that one just now 
Has lost the wits the other never had. 

Yes, sire, when sorrow comes, what sense there was 
Abides no longer there, but flees away. 

True, when thou sought'st to sufler with the guilty. 

For what is life to me deprived of her ? 

Speak not of her; for she exists no longer. 

What! wilt thou slay thine own son's bridal hopes? 

The glebes of other women may be ploughed. 

Where else the troth which he has plighted her? 

58 ANTirONH. [56&— .584 

KQKa^ eyw yvvaiKa^ vieaiv arvyw. 

w (piKraff AijuLWi^, w% <t UTifjia^ei irarvip, 570 

ayav ye XuTrei^y Kal ci/, Kai to <tov Xej^oy. 

tl yap (TTepiiaeii r^Se tov craurov yovov ; 

*lAioi;s o TToiawv TovaSe rovi yifiou^ i<pv» 

ceSoyjuL€v\ m eoiKe, TiivSe KarOaveiv, 

Koi aoi ye Ka/xoL lAtj rpifia^ €t, aWa viv 575 

KojuLi^er e*i<Tw^ S/mwe^' e/c oe rouce '^vj 
yvvaiKas elvai ToaSe /tirfd dveifxeva^* 
(pevyovai yap roi )(oi Opaaels, orav TreXay 
^otj TOV ''Aiorjv eiaopwai tov fitov. 

Eyaaimones, olai KaKtop ayevdTo^ a\(av, <TTp. a. 580 
oh yap av aeicrOri OeoOev So/ULO^y aras 
ouoev eXXeiTrei, yeveas eiri 7r\ij9o9 epwov* 

OfXoloP OHTTe "j* TTOI/TiaiS 

old /ma Sv(T'7r,u6ois orav 


No worthless woman shall espouse my son. 

Dear Hsemon, how thy father disallows thee ! 

Enough, enough of thee and of thy marriage. 

And wilt thou tear thy child from his betrothed? 

The grave is destined to forbid these banns. 

So then thou thinkest to ensue her death! 

I think to do e^en as thou think'^st I will. 
No more delay, but take them in, ye slaves. 
From henceforth it were fitting that these maidens 
Should be as women are, and not at large. 
For e'en the boldest fly when they behold 
The grave too near a neighbour to their life. 



Strophe i. 
Blessed are they whose race has 'scaped 
The first taste of disaster ! 
For those, whose house from heaven 
Has once received a shock, 
Down to the very fulness of their race 
Shall nothing lack of mischief. 
Just so, when Thracian blasts are blowing 

60 ANTirONH. [585—607 

Qp^aariaiu epefio^ vipaXov eTriSpctfxri Tn/oals, KuXivSei 5S5 
fivaaoOev KcXaivav 
07 va Kal ovcrdvefxov^ 
(TTovtp fipe/ULOvcTi o avTi7r\^ye9 aKTai, 

ap')(aia tu AaficaKiSav oikwv opw/mai uvtktt, a, 

TTTiJULaTa "fcpOirHv cttI Trrjuaai ttitttovt' 590 

ovc diraWdo'aei yevedv yevo^y dXX epeiwei 

OeCOV TlSy OV^ €')(€l \V(TIV, 

vvv yap eay^ciTa^ virep 
pi(^ai o Teraro (pao^ ev Oioiirov SofxoiSy Kar av viv 

(poivia Oetov rwv 5^5 

vepTCpdov ofiqL Kovi^y 
\oyov T avoiOy Kal (ppevtov *Epiuv9. 

redi/, ZcD, ovvaaiv rty avopwv arp, j8'. 

virepfiaala Kardaxoi, 
Tav ovff VTTVOi aipei ttoO' 6 ^TrayKpari^i out 600 

cucafxaToi *0eovT€9 
jui^P€9' dyriptp 0€ Xpovtp SwdaTas KaT€')(€ii 'OXv/a'tov 

juLapimapoeacTav aiyXav. 

TO T eweiTa^ Kal to fieXXoVf 

Kal TO irplv eirapKeaei 605 

vofioi ©5* *[dvopo^ alcrov] 
* OvaTciv ftioTtp Tro/iTToXis *6l<rii/ irra. 

yp, <l>difi€V(ov, *** XciTrei o, 

yp, TravToyffpia^, *"*' yp. 0€uv, 

yp, ovoev epiret, yp, €ktok aTa^, 


Strong from the sea-ward, 

The undulations rushing o'^er 

The darkness submarine, 

Roll downwards, wave on wave, until they stir 

From lowest depths 

The gloom-encompassM, storm-defying shingle: 

Loud roar the breakers on the counter-cliffs! 


From old beginnings spring the ills 

Of the Labdakid race, 

Which now descending I behold 

On iUs heapt up before for those 

Who moulder in the grave. The sire 

Quits not his children. 

Some God still works their ruin, 

And none unties the knot of fate ! 

For now what light had beamed 

O'er the last root 

Within the house of (Edipus, again 

The deathful dust of Gods that reign below 

Is levell'd o'er it. 

By foolish speech and frantic indignation. 

Strophe ii. 
Thy power, O Zeus, what sin of men can touch ! 
That power, which neither sleep, all-conquering, can 

Nor months unwearied in their ceaseless race. 
But thou — a potentate through time which grows not 

Rulest the glittering splendours of Olympus. 
For the present and the future and the past. 
This law will meetly tell man's destiny: 
"In all the life of mortals 
" Mischief in every state her franchise claims.'' 

I ANTirONH. [608— 629. 

a yap ^rj TroXvTrXayKTos eXirU dirr, fi\ 

TToWoIs o CLTraTa Kov(povowv epwTvop' 61O 

eiooTi o ovoev epirei^ 
irplv TTVpt 0€ptx(p TToSa Tii TTpoaavari, (Tofpiq, ycip ck tov 

KXeivov eTToy Tre(pavTac 

*'To KaKov SoKslv TTOT €a9x6v 

T(po €fjLiA€u, oTtp <ppevas 615 

decs ayei wpoi arav' 
wpaaaei 5* oXiyoarou y^ovov c/ctos ^aXyovsy 

oSe iJL^v AlfAwv, Traiowv tcov <twv {(Tva-rtjfia) 

vearov yevvrj/x ' ap a'xyvfxepo^ 

rdXiSo^ ijKei fxopov 'Avnyovmi ^20 

aTTOToy Xe^eiav vwepaXyaiv; 



TaX' eiaofieaOa ^lavTewv vweprepov. 

0) 7ra7, TeXeiav >|/$0oi/ apa fitj kXu(ov 

Ttf^ /u,€XXovviJL(J)oVf irarpl Xvaaaivaw wapei ; 

ff (Tot fxev rinei^ Trai'Taj^^ Spoivre^ (piXoi ; 625 

TTorepi aoi etfu' Kal au jmoi yvaoimas c'ywv 
jfprfa-Ta^ airopOoiSf ah eywy 60e>|/o/iAat. 
eixol yap ovoeU d^iw^ ecrrai yajmo^ 
lULci^wif (j}ep€<T0ai^ gov KaXw^ nyovjmevov, 

"' yp, ara^, °** yp. t^? fxeWoydfjiov rdXiho^. 



In truth to many men, hope, though deceivmg many, 

Turns to advantage; yet to many more 

'Tis but the mockery of love's flighty purpose. 

Nothing knows he, to whom this disappointment cometh. 

Until his foot hath touched the glowing flame. 

Wisely by some one is this strain set forth: 

^'Evil seems ever good to him whose mind 

"Grod leadeth on to mischief. 

"Short is the time which sees him free from anguish.**' 

(AnapcBstie Movement,) 

Lo to thee, Hsemon,— of all thy children 
Alone he survives : and cometh he vexed 
By the destined fate of his bride Antigone, 
For the loss of his nuptials grieving! 



Soon shall we know better than seers could tell us. 
Thou com'st not, boy, incensed against thy father, 
On tidings of the doom of thy betrothed one ? 
Howso we act, thou, if thou only, lov'st us? 


Father, I am thine only: and if thou 

Resolvest wisely, thou provid'st for me 

An even rule of life which I will follow. 

For, as right reason dictates, never shall 

A wife bear in my eyes a higher price 

Than thou, while wisdom marks thy guidance of me. 

«4 ANTirONH. [6'30— 656'. 



ovTw ydfjf w Tratf ypti did GTepvwv ej^cif, 630 

yvwfirj^ waTptpa^ ttuvt owiaOev earavai. 

TouTou yap *€ii/eic opope^ ci/j^oi/rai yovdi 

KaTfiKoovi (pvaavre^ kv SojtAOs^ ^X^'"' 

0)9 KOI Tov eyOpov avrafxvvtavTai KOKoiiy 

Kal TOV <l>i\ov Ti/uLwaiv e^ iaov irarpL 635 

OGTis 5* dvaXJjeXrjTa (pirvei TCKva, 

tI tovc dv eiiroii aWo ttXiJi/ avT^ 'j'TreSay 

(l)daaif TToXuv C€ rolaiv eyQpoiaiv yeKwp ; 

fxYi pvv iroT\ ft) Trai, rd^ (ppepa^ f tt^oos i/Ooi^^s, 

yuvaiKOi ^eivcKf €KlidXrf9, eiSwi on 6*40 

y^/vy^pov irapayKoXtafia tovto ylyverai^ 

yvvYi Kanfi l^vvevvoi ev oo/uloh. ti ydp 

yevoiT dv e\KO% iiel^ov tj <pi\o9 Kcucdi ; 

dWd TTTvcra^ waei tc ovafievfjf fxeOe^ 

TYiv iraic ev ''Aioou Tijvce vvfx<pev€iv Tivt. 645 

errei yap avTr^v etXov e/mipavaii eyw 

TToXewi diriarriaaaav €k irdaifi yudvriVi 

yf/euSij y ifiavrov ov Karaarijaw woXet^ 

dXXd KT€vw» TTpoi TavT eipufiveiTw /!^ia 

SvvaijULOv^ ei ydp oi] fxa y eyy evrj (puaei 650 

CLKoaixa Opeyj/dOf Kapra tovs efcu yevom, 

€v To7i yap oiKeioKTiv ogti^ ear dvfjp 

'Xpr/aTOi, (pavelrai Kdv woXet otKaios civ. 

oari^ Si* VTre pfids tj vofxov^ (iid^eraif 

tj TovTTiTcuTaeiv Tols '^Kparvvovaiv voely 655 

ovK €(TT ewaivov tovtov ef ejmov rvyeiv, 

083 •' * 637 f 

fp, OVVCK , yp. fTOVOV^, 

010 * * J.* 040 •' • 

"** yp, y v<p. yp. ovv€K, 

650 ' * 6A5 o t <« 

yp, ra r , yp, Kparovatv ewoet. 



Such thoughts, my son, should rule thy bosom ever : 

A son in all his acts should yield the lead 

To what his sire resolves. It is for this 

That men beseech the Gods to give the children, 

Whom they beget and keep at home, a spirit 

Of dutiful obedience, that so 

They may requite with ill their father's foe, 

And honour whom their father loves to honour. 

But when a man's own children help him not, 

What shall we say he has begotten but 

Clogs for himself and laughter for his foes? 

Then be it far from thee, my son, for lust 

And for a woman's love, to make a shipwreck 

Of all thy understanding, knowing that 

Cold mocks the warmth of thy embraces when 

A vile companion of thy bed holds sway 

Within thy house and home. For who could probe 

A wound more festering than a faithless friend? 

Then spurn this maid, and cast her off as one 

Whose heart is hostile to thee, so that she 

May seek some spouse within the realm of Hades. 

For now that I have caught her openly 

Alone of all the city disobedient, 

I will not place myself before the state 

As one whose words are naught: but she shall die. 

Then let her weary with repeated prayers 

Zeus, who protects the ties of blood relations. 

For if I rear obedient to no rule 

Those who are bom within my family, 

How shall I govern those without the pale! 

For whose in his household acts discreetly. 

In public also will approve himself 

A righteous man. But whoso wantonly 

Or strains the laws or sets about dictating 

To those who rule, it is not possible 

That such a one should ever earn my praise. 


66 ANTirONH. [657—680. 

aXX* ou itoXk {m/crei^, rovSe ')(pri K\v€iVt 

Kal {TfiiKpa^ Kal Sixaia^ Kai Tavavria. 

Koi TOVTOV av Tov avopa Oapaoiijv eyw 

KoXw^ liev apyeiVy ev o av apjfeaOai OeXeit^' 660 

oopo^ T av iv ')(eifiwvi wpaaTCTayfievov 

fxeveip SiKcuov KoyaOop irapaaTaTfju. 

avapyia^ oe fiel^ov ovk eariv kcikov. 

avTti TToXcis T oKKvGiVy iiS avaarcLTov^ 

diKovs TiOriaiVj tf^e avv lULaxp ^^P^ ^^ 

Tpoira^ KaTappriyvvaC twv S opOovjmivwv 

ad^ei TO, TToXXd craofiaff jJ ireiOapyfia, 

ovTODS a/xvirre e<rrl toI^ Koafiov/uLevoK, 

KovToi yvvaiKos ovca/tiws tiaaijTea. 

Kpelcraop yap, eiirep 06?, tt/w avSpos eKweaelv' 67O 

KovK av yvvaiKwv ijaaovei KaXoi^ieff a v. 


rilMV iUi€V, €1 fAI] Tft) "XpOVtli K€K\€/UL/ULe9ay 

Xc'yeiv (l>povovvTa)9 wv Xe^y/pis Sokcis irepi* 


ircLTep^ 0€oi (j}vov<riv avOptoTrois (ppevai^ 

iravTwvj oa ecrri, KTti/tidrwv vrrepraTov. 675 

eyw 5* 07ra)9 <tv /lw; Xeyei^ opOw^ TaSe^ 

ovT av Svvai/JLfiVf junir ewiaTaifi^v Xc'yeii'' 

yevoiTo jmevrav yfareptp KaXw^ ^X^^' 

GOV 6 ovv '7re(f>vKa Travra irpo<TKOir€iVy oaa 

Xcyct Tiy, fj Trpcuraei T19, tj y\feyeiv eyfei* 6S0 


No ! when a city constitutes a chief. 

It well befitteth all men to obey 

His great or small, just or unjust, behests. 

And I should confidently trust that he, 

Whose law is such, would from fixed habitude 

Both wisely rule and loyally obey. 

He too, when posted in the battled line, 

Amid the storm of fight, would keep his ground. 

Brave and unswerving by his comrade's side. 

There is no greater ill than disobedience. 

^Tis this which ruins cities : this it is 

Which works the downfall of the noble house. 

And when, in battle, spear is locked with spear, 

^Tis this again which breaks and routs the phalanx. 

But when men keep the line, their discipline 

For the most part ensures their safety. Thus, 

It is our duty still to aid the laws. 

And power must ne'er be yielded to a woman. 

For if we must succumb, 'twere better far 

To crouch before a man; and thus at least 

No one could taunt us with a woman's rule. 

To us at least, unless old age misleads us, 
Thou seemest to say wisely all thou say'st. 

The Gods, my father, nourish in the soul 
The growth of wisdom, best of all possessions. 
But I should lack the power, and may I ne'er 
Be skilled to tax with error these thy words. 
Howbeit that task might well beseem another. 
And, as thy son, it is my natural office 
To watch, on thy behalf, the sayings, doings. 
And grievances of every citizen. 

08 ANTirONH. [681—710. 

TO yap (Tov ojuLfxa oeivov ai^cpi crj/noTti^ 
\oyoi9 TotouToi99 oh <Tu fiff Tep>\fti kXuwv 


T^v iralSa TavTtjv of oSvpercu iroXiv^ 

iraawv yvvaiKWv ci aua^iwTaTrj 6S5 

KOKKTT air epywp evKXeeaTaTwv (f)6iv€i* 

jyriy Tov auTfj^ auTaceX<f)ov ep (poval^ 

weTTTWT aOawTov, ^r^ff vir wiJujaTtov kvvwv 

eia<T oXeaOah y^^ff ^'t' oiwvwv rivos' 

o^X ^^^ XP^^'^ ^^'^ TifjL^i Xa^eli/ ; 690 

ToiaS epefxvtj diy iirepxeTm (parii. 

eyuol Sif (TOV irpaaaoPTos evrux^^ Trare/o, 

ouK eariv ovSev Krfffia Tiixiwrepov. 

Ti yap irarpoi OaXXovro^ evKXeia^ tckvoi^ 

ayaXfia /mei^ov, ^ ti irpo^ TraiSwv waTpi; 695 

fxYi vvv €v i]0oi fJLOUvov €v <TayT(p (popeiy 

Q)$ 0179 <TVf KouSev aXXoj toSt 6p9w9 e^eii/. 

oans yap ai/roy tj (ppoyelv yuovo^ SoKei, 

17 yXwaaav, tjv ovk aXXo^j ti '^vx^^ ex^iUy 

ouToi htaTTTVxPevTe^i £(p9Tj(Tav kcvoL 700 

aXX* avSpa Kei ris 1? ao(l>os, to fxav9av€iv 

TToAA 9 aiaxpou oi/oei/, xat to ijhj Tetvetv ayav, 

6p^9 irapa peiOpoiai ^6t/A^p/>oi9 oaa 

SevSpwv vTreiKet, KXSvai ok CKacil^eTai' 

TO 5* avTiTcivovT auTowpejUiv diroXXvTai, 705 

avTws oe i/aos ocmy eyKpaTrj iroSa 

Tcivas, vireiKei /utt/oei/, vwTioi9 kcltw 

aTpeyj/a^ to Xoittov aiXfiaaiv vauTtXXeTai. 

aXX' etKC QviJLOv koi fieToaTocTiv SiSou, 

yvdfAti yap ei T19 Kciir ifiou vewTcpou 710 


Thine eye might well deter the common burgees 

From speeches which would grate upon thine ear. 

But / can hear the covert lamentations 

Wherewith the city grieveth for this maiden — 

How of all women most unworthy she 

Meets basest death for deeds most glorious. 

" For %hs^'' say they, " who, when her very brother 

Had fallen in bloodshed and unburied lay, 

Would not permit him to be rent and torn 

By carrion-eating dogs and greedy birds — 

Doth %he not merit golden recompensed 

Such the dark rumour that in silence spreads. 

But, O my father, thy prosperity 

In worth transcends all other goods beside. 

For where can children find a greater sheen 

Of glory than their father^s high estate! 

Or where a father, than his children's bliss! 

Then cleave not solely to this principle-^ 

Thy words, no other man's, are free from error. 

For whoso thinks that he alone is wise, 

That his discourse and reason are unmatched, 

He, when unwrapt, displays his emptiness. 

But that a man, how wise soe'er, should learn 

In many things and slack his stubborn will, 

This is no derogation. When the streams 

Are swollen by mountain-torrents, thou hast seen 

That all the trees which bend them to the flood 

Preserve their branches from the angry current. 

While those which stem it perish root and branch. 

So too the pilot, when he keeps the sheet 

Taught and ne^er slacks it, overturns his bark, 

And sails, what else he sails, with thwarts reversed. 

Then stoop from anger and ensue a change 

Of will and purpose: for, if grounded maxims 

70 ANTirONH. [711—727. 

Kpvvai Tov avSpa wdirr ewitTTi^ixfis 7r\€u>v' 

€1 5* ouv, ^cXel yap tovto fxij Tavrri peirciVf 

Kal T(c!i/ XeyovTwv ev koXov to fxavOaveiv. 

aval^f <T€ T 6CIC099 €1 Ti Kaipiov Xeyeij 715 

jmadelv, <r€ t av tov^' eZ yap eiptfTai oiirXi}. 

o! TtiKiKoihe Ka\ SiSa^ofxeada ^97 
<f)pov€lv TTpo^ avSpo^ TfjXiKovSe Tfjv (l>u<Tiv'y 


»\ » \ ^1 . » 5^ * * ' 
/uLfloev TO fxfi oiKatov ei o 6^01 veo^, 

ov TOV ^(povov j^»j /uiaXXoi' tf ra/o'ya (TKowelv, 720 

epyov yap €<tti tous aKOtr/uLovvTa^ aefietv ; 

01/^ ai' iceXeJcrac/u' euaefieiv ei^ toi)9 icaicoi^\ 

oiJjf ^^6 Y^p Toi^^ eweiXri'TrTai voartf); 

o!/ ^i/ai 0iy/3os T^a^* o/ui07rroXi9 Xecws. 

TToXiS yap fifilv ofie 'xprj Taaaeiv e/oel; 725 

o^f 9 TOO ws elptiKa^ 0)9 a'yai/ 1^609 ; 

aAA^ 'yap >; /uoi ^ptf ^ wi Ttjao ap^eiv '^(povos \ 


May find their utterance e'^en in me your son, 
I dare be bold to say 'tis better far 
That understanding should be bom in man : 
But if this may not be : — and, to say sooth, 
The common scale inclines not thus, — ^^tis well 
To learn from any one who reasons soundly. 

Sire, thou shouldst learn where he has hit the mark: 
Thou too from him: for both have spoken well. 

And shall we, in our riper age, receive 
Lessons in prudence from his youthful mind! 

In nought but what is just. If I am young, 
'Tis meet to scan my purpose, not my years. 

Is^t this — ^to pay respect to the unruly? 

Not to the base, though ^twere to please the Gods. 

And is not she caught in this malady ? 

The folk who throng this city answer. No! 

What ! does the city^s pleasure guide my mandates ! 

Seest thou what childish words thou utterest? 

Why, who but I should in this country rule? 

72 ANTirONH. [728—741. 

TToXiff yap ovK eaff, ^tis avcpo^ iaO' cWy. 


Ka\w9 ipviuiffi y av ad yiji apyoi^ julovos. 730 

o^f W9 (BOiK€f rp yuvcuKt (rvfifia^ei. 

^irep yvinj au' <tov yap ovp wpoKiioofiai. 

w wayKaKKTTe, Sid oiKfii' ioiv iraTpL 

ov yap i'lKaia a e^afiaprdvouff opS. 

djULaprdvw yap ras 6/tuis apjfa^ trefiwy; 735 

01/ 'yci/o aifieKi Tifias ye ros dewi; iraTWP* 

w fxiapov idiK, Kal yvvcuKo^ varepov. 

foi/ray eXois ^aaw iul€ twi^ aiajfpwv irore. 

o 'y®*'*' \c/705 <roi ttS? i/we/j Keivf)^ oSe. 

icai aoi; <ye Kafiov Kal Oewv rw veprepwv* 740 

TavTffv WOT OVK ccff oJff 6TI ^(Strai/ yafieli. 

''*' 7/J. OWK ^i/. 


That is no city which belongs to one. 

Is not the city called of him who governs? 

Well wouldst thou rule alone an empty land I 

Here we have one who fights a woman's battle. 

If thou art woman — for I sue for thee. 

Vile boy, to take thy father'^s suit in hand. 

Yes, for thy errors are unsuitable. 


And suits it not mine office to respect? 

When that thou spumst the Oods thou nought respectest. 

O paltry character.— a woman's slave ! 

Slave to dishonour thou shalt never find me. 

Thy whole discourse but advocates her cause. 

And thine and mine, and of the Oods below. 

Living this maid shall never be thy bride. 

74 ANTirONH. [742—758. 

lyi* ouv daveiTcu^ kqI davova 6\ei nva. 

VI KOLirairciKwv wo iirej^ify^ei 6pa<TU9 ; 

TI5 c ear aireiKii wpos Kevd^ yvtifms Xe^eii' ; 

icXoioiy ^p€vw<Tet9i iov <l>p€vwv avTO^ Kevo^, 745 

ec /till} iraTfip t^aff^ etwov av a ovk eu (f)pov€lv. 

yvvaiK09 wv oovXev/uia, fxij icaircXXe fie. 

fiovKei \iyeiv t«, icaJ X67ft>i' pLti^ev K\veiv\ 


aXi^de?; oXX* ou, tov^ ''OXu/ulwov^ iaff on 
yaipwv eirl y\f6youri S^vvdaei^ ifii. 750 

ayere to fiiao^f w icor' ofi/maT avrUa 
TrapoPTi 0vvi<TKrf ^rXf/tria Ttp wjUL(f>i(()» 


oif SfJT ifjioiySf TovTo m^ 5of>7? irore, 

oiff ^ iiKeirai irkrialaf <tv t ovSafxa 

TovjULOV wpoaoyl/ei Kpdr ev o<^0aX/uoi9 opwVf 755 

ttis ToTs 6e\ov(Ti Twv <f>iKiav iialvri ^vvwv, 

w)i;s y i(TTi TviKiKovroii oKyriaa^ fiapvf. 


Dies she, her death shall work the death of some one. 

And dares thy boldness vent itself in threats ? 

What threats, to speak against an empty meaning! 

Unschooled thyself, beware of schooling me. 

Wert not my father, I had callM thee simple. 

Away with thy small wit, thou woman's serf! 

Wouldst speak, and speaking never hear an answer! 

And is it so indeed! Nay, by Olympus, 
Thou shalt not thus unscathed vituperate. 
Bring forth the hateful minx, that, on the spot, 
Before his very eyes she meet her doom. 
And die, her 'fianced bridegroom standing by her. 


She dies not in my presence — ^never think it — 

And thou shalt never see my face again 

With real vision. If it liketh any 

Among thy friends — ^let them thy madness share. 

Eceit Hcemon, 

The prince, my liege, is gone in anger hasty — 
Deep is the pain that pangs the youthful mind. 

76 ANTirONH. [759—777. 

ipdrw^ (f>poveiTw /uei^oi^, tj KOrr ayop\ Uov' 
TO. ^ ovv Kopa ToS ouK aTTaXXo^ci imopov, 760 

afAifHo yap avrd Kal KaTaicreivcu poel^; 

ov Tijv ye jULfj Qiyovcav* ev yap ovv Xeyei^. 

fiopifi Se iroup Kai (T(f>e (iouXeuei KTaveiv ; 


aynDv epfiiuLOS evO av tj fipoTWP CTifioSf 

Kpvy\f(i) TreTpwSei ^waav ey KaTwpv^i^ 765 

(l>opfifjs ToaovTov, wi ay OS fiovov, irpoOeis^ 

OTTWS fiiatTjULa iraa uireK^uyti '7roXi9. 

KOKcl TOP '^A.torjy, ov /jlovov aifiet Oewv, 

aiToufxevri ttoi/, T6i/f«Tai to /uj; Oavelvj 

vi yv(i<T€Tai yovv aW TtivucavOf on 770 

novos Treptaads can Tav *'Atoou <Tefieiv> 



Epos aviKare luij^av, aTpo(f>^, 

EpwSi OS €1^ KT^/maai ttiVtcis, 05 ev imaXaKals irapel- 

w veaviSo9 evvv^e vets' 
(f>oiT^s 5* virepirovTioSf ev t ay povofiots avXals* 775 
Kai <t' ovt dOavaTwv (pvj^iixos ovSels^ 
ovff ojtiepiwv in avOpwwwv* o Si e')(WVj imefitjvev. 


Be then his thoughts and actions more than mortal. 
He shall not quit from death these maidens two. 

And hast thou doomed them both to instant death! 

Not her who touched him not. — Thou sayest well. 

And for the other, what the mode of death? 

Where mortal feet have never stept I'll take her, 
And there entomb her in a rocky chamber, 
Alive, with so much food before her set 
As may suffice to expiate the curse, 
That so the general city ^scape pollution. 
And there, beseeching Hades, whom alone 
Of all the Oods she worships, let her gain, 
If gain she can, a license not to die : 
Or, come what will, she then at least will learn 
'Tis wasted toil to reverence the dead. 



Love ! in the fight invincible : 
Love ! whose attacks at once enslave : 
Who on the young maid's delicate cheeks thy nightly 

vigils keepest : 
Who roamest o'er the main and mid the rustic cots ! 
None can escape thee, — ^neither Oods immortal, 
Nor men whose lives are fleeting as the day: 
He raves whom thou possessest. 

78 ANTirONH. [778—797. 

<Tu Kal ciKaiwv dSUov^ avnar 

(f>peva^ irapcuTitq.^ ewl Xtifiqi' <tu Kal ToSe pcIko^ av- 

opSiv ^vpai/iAov 6')(€ii Tapa^as' 780 

viKq. evapiyfi^ (i\€(J>dpwv iniepo^ evXexTpov 
vviJL<f>aiy rwv /meyaXwy *iraiSi Tvapehpoi 
Oeafuov' a/uLa')(os yap ifx'rrai^ei Oeos 'A(f)poSiTa. 

pv¥ 6 fioti *y<i KavTO£ Oeaficiv (TvcTTrma. 

e^to <l>€poixai ra^ opHv, iay^eiv 5* 785 

ovK €Ti iTfiyds Suvafiai SaKpuwVy 
Tov irayKoirav off opw OdXaimov 
Tjyi/o 'AvTiyovfjv avvTovaav. 



'Opat; €/u*, w yas Trarpias TroXirai, arp, a . 

rdv vedrav ooov 790 

<7Teij(oi/aoi/, vearov oe <f}€yyoi 

Xevaaovaav deXiovy kou wot avdii* dXXa in o way- 


''AiSai (^waav dyei 

rdv A'xepovTo^ 

dKrdv^ ovff vjmevalwv 795 

eyxXfipovy out fcTrii'i/M^tw irw /ue ti^ v/avo^ 
vfjLVfiaeVf d\X' A'xlpovTi vvfKpevaw. 

''■• yp. ficy. irdpehpo^ iv apyah, ^'^ yp, eirtwfAipihov. 



Thou too the upright mind to wrong pervertest, 

Till mischief comes. 

Thou too hast stirred this strife of kindred men. 

Love, that was learned in the lustrous eyes 

Of her whose bridal bed he, coveted, 

A son constrains, 

Benching for him, with equal voice, 

Beside the holiest laws : for there resistless 

The goddess Aphrodite holds her revels. 

(Antigone is led forth by the guards,) 

^ {Ana^pOMtic Movement,) 

I, even I, from the bondage of laws am 
Carried away, as this spectacle greets me ! 
Fountains of tears no longer I check when I 
See Antigone bound for the chamber where 
All men are destined to slumber. 



Sjsb me, ye citizens of my father-land. 

Treading the last of paths, — ^the latest sun-light 

Beholding now, and ne^er again. But Hades, 

Who lays all men to rest, leads me still living 

To the banks of Acheron; 

The Hymenseal strain denied me. 

Nor hath any bridal hymn 

Hymned me as yet; but Acheron will wed me. 

80 ANTirONH. [798— 8I9. 

ovKOVP Kkeivrj Kal eiratvov ej^ova 
€9 roS) airepj(€i Kcvdos veKvwv^ 

ovre ^diyaariv TrXtiyeiaa voaois, 800 

ovT€ ^i(l>€a)v ewl'xetpa \a')(ov<T ' 
aXX' avTovofios, ^cStra, (lovff Sij 
Ovarwvj 'AiSav Karafiijaei. 

ffKoucra cij \vypoTaTav oXJaOai dvTi(TT» a. 

Tov ^pvylav ^euav 805 

TavTaXov, ^tTrvXtp wpoi axptp' 

rdi/, Kurao^ co^ drci/ijy, ir^Tpaia (iXaara Safia<T€v' 
Kal viv 

fofifipoi TaKO/JL€VaV, 

wi (fxiTt^ dvopwyj 

yiiiv T ovcaixd Xelireif 810 

Teyyet 'fc vir o(f)pu<ri wayKXavrots Seipdoa^' ^ yu€ 
SaiiuLWP oikOiOTarav Karevvcu^ei, 


aXXd deos toi Kai Oeoyevvti^' 
i^/ULeii Se fiporol Kal Ovrjroyeveh' 
Kai TOi (l>0itiev(p Tcii^ iaodeoi^ 815 

eyiCXvipa Xa')(eiv fxiy aKovaai* 

oijULOi yeXwfuu. r'l /me, wpo^ Oewv TraTptpwvy crrp, /3'. 
OVK ^oiXoiJiivav vfipi^et^j 
dXX* hriKpavTov ; 

•*• yp, Ofji/3pif. •" yp, riyyei ff. 

•«». 8i« ^^ ^^'y (iKOva-ai roU \<rod, iyKXtipa Xa^eiv, 
•*• yp, oKofnivav. 



Nay, but renowned and freighted with praises, 
To the dark recess of the dead thou departest. 
Wasting disease has not smitten thy form, 
Nor the meed of the sword thy portion has been. 
Self-controlled and alive thou wilt go. 
Thou only of mortals, to Hades ! 


Erewhile I heard how piteously perished 

That Phrygian dame, who came to rule among us, 

The child of Tantalus, 

Whom, clinging to her as the ivy clings, 

A sprouting rock controlled, 

And as she wastes away, the legend tells us. 

She lacks nor rain nor snow. 

But still, beneath her ever-weeping brows, 

Bedeweth she her bosom : 

Likest to her, fate leads me to my rest ! 


A Goddess was she, and Gods were her fathers : 
We are but mortals, and mortal our sires: 
Bethink thee how great for a perishing soul. 
To challenge the fame of the Godlike ! 


Ah ! I am laughed to scorn ! why by my father's Gods 
Dost so deride me ere my death, 
While yet the sun beholds me? 


ANTirONH. [820-843. 

ft) iroXiSy ft) 7ro\6ftis 820 

woXvKTi^lJLOves avopes' 

iw Ai/oicaiai Kpfjvaif Otjiiasi r 
euapfxarou a\<ro9, ejmwa^ 
^vfJL/uiapTVpa^ vfijUL* eTriKTWfAaiy 

oia (f>l\a}v aKKavro^, dioi^ vofioti 825 

Trpos "fepfia rvfifioy^warov epy^o/mai Td(pov iroraiviov, 

ift) CV(TTaVO^^ 
OUT €V "fTOiaiV €T, OVT€ TOlCTiV 
flCTOlKOS^ OV ^ftHTII/, OU 0aVOV(TlVy 


7rpo(ia<T €ir €(T')(aTov Opaaovsy 830 

vyl/rjXov is AiKas fidOpov 
irpoaeweae^^ w tckvov^ ttoXi;. 
iraTptpov o *e/cT6X6iy tip dOXov. 


eyj/avaa^ aXyetvorarm e/uLOi fxeplfxvaSf olvtigt , ft' » 
irarpo^ TpnroXi<rTov •J'oTtoi/, S35 

Tov T€ irpoiravTos 


10) fiuTptpai \€KTp(M)v arai, 
KoijuLtiimaTa r avToyevvrjr 840 

diA(p war pi ova/JLOpov fxarpos, 
ouov cyw ^00 a TaXai<J)pa}v eCpvV 
irpos 0S9 dpai099 dyafios^ dS* eyw /merotKO^ ep^^OfAm. 

7p. epy/Jia. yp /jporoia-tv ovr eu veKpoi<Ti, 

"^■* yp. ficT€ii/eK. "^* yp. oIktou. 


City, and citizens of high estate, 

Ah ! and ye streams of Dirke, and thou grove 

Of Thebe car-renowned, 

You at least I gain 

For me as fellow-witnesses, 

How by my friends unwept, by laws how cruel, 

I go to the tomb-heapt mound of a strange sepulture. 

Ah woe is me ! 

Neither with these nor those a settler I; 

The living deny and the dead disown me. 


To the height of boldness soaring 

On Dirke's lofty throne, my child, 

Full rudely hast thou stumbled. 

Tis some ancestral task thou art fulfilling. 


Most painful are the thoughts which thou hast harped- 

My father's thrice-renowned tale of sorrow, 

Which touches too the lot of all of us — 

The famed Labdakidae. 

Woe ! woe ! the curse of the maternal bed — 

The incestuous nuptials of my ill-starred mother. 

With her own son my father ! 

Ah ! what a match was that 

To which I owe my birth, unhappy me ! 

To them, under the curse, unblest by marriage, 

I go an emigrant from life to death ! 


84 ANTirONH. [844—865. 


KacriyvrfTe yafiwv Kvpfjaa^f 845 

Oavwv €T ovaav Kanjvapii pie. 


TapafiaTov ovoafxii TreXei. 
ae ^ avToyvwT09 wXea opyd. 850 


*a Ta\Qi(ppwv ayofiai 

Tapo eroifxav ocov> 
ovK €Ti fkoi ToSe Xafiirdoo^ "f'lepov ofijuia 

deyui9 op^v ToXaivff. ' 855 

TOP d €/JLOV iroTnov doaKpvTov 

ovoeh ^iXwv arevdl^ei. 


Ap icT ^ dotcd^ Kai yoovs 'Tpo tov Oavelv 

coy ovo av eh iravaatr dvf ei XP^^^ Xeyeiv ; 

OVK d^eff wy rdy^iaraf Kal KarripeCpei 860 

Tviui(i(p irepiirTv^avre^^ oJy elptjK e'yo), 

a0€T€ fxovfjv eptj/ULov, eire '\xP^ Oavetvy 

6iT 61/ ToiavTYi ^(5(70 TVfjifieieiv (TTeyri' 

i^fiels yap dypol Touirl T171/06 rtjp Koptjv' 

/meTOiKias o* ovv rtf^ avvo aTepijcTeTai. 865 

•** Xeiir, a. '** yp. lepov. "** yp, XP'^* 


Ah ! brother mine, 

Thy marriage too has brought no good — 

Dying, thou hast destroyed me living still. 


All reverence good reverence is : 

But might, when might is rightly held, 

May on no plea be overstept; 

Thy self-willed temper hath destroyed thee ! 


Unwept, unfriended, and unwedded, I, 

A weary-hearted maid, 

Am led along this road of imminent death. 

No longer may I see 

This luminary^s sacred eye, unhappy ! 

All unbemoaned by friends, 

My fate calls forth no tear! 


{Advancing from the Palace.) 

Enow ye that no man e'^er would make an end 
If it might serve his purpose to defer 
With groans and dirges the approach of death ! 
Away with her at once, and close her round 
With the o'erarching tomb, as I commanded. 
There leave her to herself, whether she wills 
To die or live entombed in such a house : 
We wash our hands of her, and take no sin 
Whatever befals; but of a settlement 
In upper air we doom her alienate. 

{Retires again.) 

86 ANTirONH. [866— 891. 


u) TVfifio9, w vvfJi<peioUy w KarcurKa^^s 

oiKYiai^ aeicppovpo^f ol wopevofiai 

npof rovs itiaurrnj wv apiOfioy iv vexpols 

irXelarou ^SexTai WepaeifHUKT oKwXorwv* 

wp \ou70ia 'yw Kal KctKicra cri fiaxptp 870 

KCLTeifiif irpiv lAOi fiolpav i^iixciv fiiov. 

ikOovaa fievroi^ Kapr ev eXiridiv Tpe(pu) 

(piXfj ixey ^^eiv iraTpl, TrpoaCpiXtj^ Se croJ, 

firjrepf (piXfj Se <Totf Kaaiyvfirov xapa' 

€7r€i Oavovra^ auroyfeip u/ulcl^ eyto 875 

Xoas eSwKa' pvv Se, HoXvveiKei^ to <tov 

^e/ua^ irepuTTeXXovaaf Toido apvvixcu. 

Ka'iTOi a iytt) Tififjaa roi^ cPpovovaiv ev. 

ov yap iroT out iv^ ei tckvwv jatjTijp €0i;r, 88(1 

OUT €1 TTOcnv fioi KarOapwv ertiKero, 

(ii<f, iroXiTwv rou^ av ^pofitfv irovov. 

Tiuoi po/uiou ^fj Tovra 7rpo9 xapiv Xeyw ; 

wocTis fxev av haoi, KarOavoyro^^ aXXo^ tfp, 

Kal iral^ air oKKov (pwTOi^ fi tov^ lifAirXaKOP' 885 

/uLfjTpoi c ev '^Aicou Kal warpoi k€K€v96toiv, 

ouK ecTT doeX(f>o9 6(tti9 av ftXaaroi irori* 

Toiipoe jmevToi <r eKirpoTi/ULiiaaa eyw 

vofxipf KpeovTi TavT eSo^' afxaprdveiv^ 

Kal oeivd toX/ul^v^ to Kaaiyvtirov Kapa* 890 

Kal vvv ayei fie did \epwv ovtw Xafidv^ 



tomb, O bridal chamber, O thou dwelling, 
Dug in the solid rock, and ever guarded! 
Whither I go to join my kindred dead. 
Dead are they — few remain — and Persephassa 
Has taken them to herself. And I the last, 
And far most miserably, shall now descend 
Before my term of life has reached the close 
Allotted me by fate. Yet, going thither, 

1 cherish it among my fondest hopes, 

I shall be welcomed with my father^s love, 

With thy affection, mother, and thy love, 

O brother mine; because, when that ye died. 

With mine own hands I bathed and deckt you all, 

And poured around your sepulchres libations 

Due to the tomb : but now, O Polyneikes, 

Such is my meed for honouring thy corse. 

Yet did I well to honour thee, if those 

Who judge aright will judge the deed. For never 

Or had I lost the children I had borne, 

Or had my husband pined away in death, 

Would I have taken up this toil, defying 

The public will. And wherefore say I this? 

What rule of right is there ^ — My husband dead. 

Another husband might have filled his place. 

And if I lost my child, another mate 

Might have begotten me another son. 

But now that Hades veils from mortal eyes 

Father and mother both, there is no root 

From which a brother's life could bloom again. 

Guided by such a rule, I thought it meet 

To seek thy honour, and neglect all else : 

But Kreon deems it sin and dire transgression, 

O brother mine ! And now he leads me forth 

By force of hand, unbedded and unwedded, 

ANTirONH. [892—913. 

aXcKTpoi/y duufxeuaiou, ovre tov ya/mou 

HAcpo^ \a')(ou<rav^ ovre traioeiou Tpofpiji' 

d\\' (iS* eprfjjLo^ 7rpo9 (f>iKiM)p i; ovo'fjiopo^f 

^wa eiy QavovTwv €p')(Ofxai KaraaKaCpd^. 895 

troiav irape^eXOovo'a oai/uLOvwu oiKfjv ; 

T« J^piy fA€ Tl)v OVCTflVOV €9 OcOV^ €Tl 

fiXeweiv ; tip av^^v ^uixiuid')(wv ; eTrei ye oij 

rriu Suaaefieiav evaefiova CKTrjadfJLijv* 

dW\ el fx€v oup Ta5* icrlv eu Oeoh icaXa, 900 

7rad6vT€9 CLv ^vyyvolfxei; tj/maprffKOTCs' 

61 5' oi^ d/uapTdvovcTi^ fxtj irXeiw koku 

irdOoiev^ ^ kqi opHav eKoiKws e/Lie. 


€Ti Tc5i; avTwy dvcfiwu "f aural 

>//i;j^ijs piwal Tiivoe y €')(Ov<Tiu» 905 

Toiydp TovTtav Toiaiv ayovaiu 
(ipa^vTYiTo^ virep KXaufiaff virap^ei. 


oi/uLoi9 Qavdrov tout eyyuTaTta 
Tou7ro9 dtplKTai* 

Oapaeiv ouiev irapafiuOoufxai 910 

/tAiJ ou TaSe TauTYi KaTaKUpouaOai. 

o) ytj^ Orffirfs aoTu Trarpuiovy 
Kal 0€ol 7rpoy€V€i9f 


. avTut, 


The promised nuptial tie denied to me, 

And the sweet care of children. Ill-starred maid ! 

Thus reft of friends I go, while yet alive, 

Down to the cavernous chambers of the dead I 

In what sort have I wronged the laws of heaven? 

Ah ! why, unhappy, must I still regard 

The Gods — what aid invoke? when now I earn 

The name of impious by my piety. 

Then be it so — if heaven approves these deeds. 

My punishment shall prove to me my guilt; 

But if the sin is theirs, may they not suffer 

More sorrow than they wrongly wreak on me ! 

(Kreon comes forward again.) 
(Anapcestic Movement.) 


Blowing still from the self-same quarter the 
Storm of the soul this maiden possesseth. 


For this, and for loitering thus by the way, 
With weeping and wailing these guards shall atone. 

Ah me ! this announcement has come to mine ears, 
The near neighbour of death ! 


No comfort I give for the confident hope 
That this sentence will lack its fulfilment. 


Land of my fathers ! city of Thebe ! 
Gods of my lineage ! 

90 ANTirONH. [914-^35. 

ayofiai oij, kouk in fieWo). 
Xevaaere, Otjfifi^ f^ri^v KoipaviSwv gi5 

flOUVYIV XoiTTiyi/, 
oXa irpos oui)v avcpwv iracj^w^ 



Etaa Kai Aavaas ovpaviov (pW9 arp, a. 

aWd^ai SenAas €v y^aXKoSerois auXaU' 920 

KpuTTTOfieva S* €1/ TviJL^Yipei 9a\aiuL(p ^arc^ci/j^^i;. 
KuiToi •j'/cat yeve^ ritjuo^^ w ircuy irai, 

Koi Xrivos TafxieveaKe yovas 'XpuaopvTous. 
aXX* a fjioipiVia riy ovvaais oeim' 
OUT av viv f o\/3o9, ovT Apti^^ 925 

ov irvpyoSy ouj(^ aXiKTuiroi KeXai^ai 
m€S €K(pvyoi€v, 

^€V')(9ff 5' f 6]^v')(oXq9 TToIs o A/oi/ai/To^9 OLPT, a. 

'H^covwv fiaaiXev^, KepToimiois opyais, 

€K Aiovvaou Trerpwoei KaTa<papKT09 ev oea/uLtfi. 930 
ovTw Tcis /uiavia^ Seiuov aTroara^ei 

avdvipov T€ fx€vo£ Kelvo^' eireyyo) '\oe ^ovai^ 
yf/avvov tov' Oeop ev KeprofAioi^ *yX(ocrcra«s. 
Traveo'Ke fiev yap €P0€ou^ 
yvvaiKas, ev'iov re trvp, ^iXauXoi/v t 9^5 

*'* yp. ol KOipavi6ai rrji/ f3a<n\iha. '" AeiV, koi, 

'^* yp, ofxftpo^, **" yp, ofu;^oAw«?. ^^^ yp, fxaviai^. 


They seize me — no longer I tarry ! 

See me, the only surviving branch of the 

Princes of Thebe, 

See what a doom, and from whom, is upon me, 

Because I the holy have hallowed ! 

{Antigone is led awayj) 



Strophe i. 

E'en Danae's form endured to lose 

In brass-clampt halls the light of heaven. 

Concealed and pent was she in tomb-like chamber; 

And yet, my child, my child. 

From lineage high she came, 

And husbanded the seed of Zeus, 

Flowing in golden streams. 

The power of destiny is mighty still ! 

Nor wealth nor war. 

Nor tower on land, nor the black ships, sea-stricken. 

Can escape it. 

Antistropub I. 
He too, so keen in wrath, the son of Dryas, 
Edonia'^s King, received the yoke, 
Thanks to his taunting mood. 
By Dionysus closed around with rocky bonds. 
So mighty and so vigorous the strength 
Of madness which distilled from him. 
But sorrow taught him 

It was a God his jeering tongue had mocked. 
For he sought to let and hinder 
The dames possessed by God, 
And the Bacchanalian torches; 

92 ANTirONH. [936—955. 

lipeOi^e Mot/eras. 

irapd ^e Kvauewv ireXayewv oiou/uiai aXo^y arp. p . 
OKToi Boairopiai, lo* o QpriKuyv f [afei/05] 

oixraoiai ^iveioais 94?0 

eloev aparov cXko^^ 
Tv(p\w6ev cf ayplas cafxapro^y 
oKaov aXaaropoKriv ofifiarwu kvkXoi^ apayQev^ 

'Xeipeao'i Kal KCpKiSwu aK/uiaiai' 9^5 

Kard o€ TaKOfievoi /uiXeoi yjekiav irdOav dvTiaT. )8'. 
kXoIov fiarpos^ ejfovre^ dvv/m(f)€vrov yoi/av' 
d 06 (mepiuLa fieu dp'^moyovwv 
'\avoa<T ' Ep€')(j9€iSdv9 

TriKeiropois S ev dvrpoi^ 950 

Tpa(pij dveWfiaiu ev warptpai^ 
Bo|0€a$ afxiiTTro^ opOoirooo^ virep irdyov Oewv irais* 
aWa Kair eKeivq. 

MxHpai fiaKpaicove^ ecrj^oi/, w ttoi. 


Ohbhs ai/aicr699 ^KO/uev koiv^v dSou 955 

•" XeiV. d^evo^, ^^ yp. dy^iiroXi^, 

•** yp, iy-^, v^* alfxartipaT^, *** avra<r\ 


And much provoked the Muses of the flute. 

Strophe ii. 

By the Cyanean shoals, where two seas meet, 

Are the Bosporian cliffs, and Salmydesus, 

Where Thracians dwell, unkind to voyagers. 

There Mars, the neighbour, saw the accursed wound, 

Inflicted, blindness-bringing, 

On the two sons of Phineus, 

By his savage wife ; 

A wound sight-leasing to the ghostly eye-balls, 

Stabbed without spears 

By violent hands and with the shuttle^s point. 


Wasting away their mother's piteous sufferings. 

Full piteously they bewailed, 

Sprung as they were from one 

In marriage most unblest. 

But she, by line maternal, challenged her share 

In the old honours of the Erechtheidae. 

And, Boreas>daughter, she was reared amid paternal 

In the deep-grottoed caverns ; 
Swift as the steed she clomb the precipices — 
Child of the deities was she. 
But yet the everlasting Fates 
0'*ertook e'*en her, my child. 

(Teiresias enters led hi/ a hoy.) 


Nobles of Thebes, behold us here consorted, 

94 ANTirONtt. [956-973. 

ou cf ei/ov (Skiirovre. T019 Tv(p\o7iJi yap 
avTfj KeXevOoi bk Trpot/ytfTov iriXei. 


T« eariy^ w yepaii Teipeaia^ veoif ; 

eyw Si^dj^w Kal au Tfp /mdirrei iridov. 

ovKOvv Trdpoi ye aij^ awecTTarovv 0/oei/o9. 9^0 

Toiydp Si opOti^ TiivSe vavKKripels irokiv. 

€j^(o irewovOo)^ /maprvpeiv ovtidifxa* 

(Ppovei fiefiwi av vvv em ^vpou rv^iji. 

Ti c eariv ; m eyw to aov (l)plaaw trroyxi. 

yvaxrei^ Teyyi^ arifiela TfJ9 e/mij^ kXvwi/. 9^5 

els yap iraXaiov QaKOv opviOoaKOwov 
'i^fvVf <i/* fjv luoi navTos oivovou Xifitjv, 
ayvwT aKOuo) (pOoyyov opvi0a)Vf xaKtp 
KXd^ovra^ oiarptp Kal fiefiapfiapiofieytf), 
Kal a^wpras ev ')(rjXa7<Tiv aXXrlXovt <f>qvou% 970 

eyuwv' TTTepHv yap pcilfioo^ ovk aariiJLO^ yiv. 
eJ9v9 Se Seiaa^f iixirvpiav eyeuofiiju 
(iwyioici waui<l>X€KToi<nif' ex Se dvfiarwv 


Yokefellows of the road, and one for both 
Doth spy the way : for thus it is, the blind 
Must stay at home, unless his guide go with him. 


old Teiresias, say, what hath befallen? 

That shalt thou learn : do thou the seer obey. 

Never as yet have I thy counsel scorned. 

Therefore thou steer'^st the state unswerved by storms. 


1 own the profit that I owe to thee. 

Once more thou standest on the edge of fate. 

What is't? I shudder as I hear thy words. 

The tokens of my art will tell thee. Listen ! 
I sat upon mine old augurial throne, 
Where was my haven for each fowl of the air. 
And lo ! I hear an unknown voice of birds. 
Clamouring with fierce and inarticulate rage. 
And clawing one another to the death. 
Thus much I knew: for their wings' whizzing sound 
Told a plain tale. And forthwith in my fear 
I sent to try the ignispicious signs 
Amid the blaze of the enkindled altars. 
There from the victim no clear flame arose. 

96 ANTirONH. [974_-iooi. 

''H^aicTToy ouK eXa/uLTrev, aW* eirl arroSfp 

fxvowo'a KfiKi9 fifiplwv erriKCTo^ 975 

KaTv<f>ei KaveiTTve' Kal ficTafxrioi 

XoXal oieaTreipovTOf Kai Karappveii 

/ULrfpol KoXviTTfji e^€K€lVTO TTi/UlcX^S. 

ToiavTa 7ra«do9 tovSi' eniavQavop irdpa, 

(pQivovT aaripiWV op*yivDv jmauTeviuLaTa. 980 

e/ULol yap ourog tjyefjLwv, aXXoi; o* eyw. 

Kal ravra Ttjs (rfj^ €k ^pevov voael w6\i9. 

fiw/uLol yap ritJiiv ea^xapai re wavreXeli 

irXiipeii VTT oiwvwu re Kal kvvwv (iopas 

Tou ou(TfAOpov TreTTTcSroy Oidiwov yovou. 985 

K<JLT ov dej^oi/rai uvaraoa^ Airas en 

9eol Trap* ijju(0V9 ovoe fxripiwv (pXoya^ 

ov^ opvi9 €var}tuiovs airoppoi^oei fiod^^ 

avopo(f>66pou fiefipioTes aifiaros Xcttos. 

TavT 0UV9 TCKVov^ (f>povYi(Tov, avOpwTTOiai yap 990 

Tciis irdai koivov ecrri Tou^a/uLapTciveiv' 

eirel o dfxdpTij^ Kcit^o^ ovk ct ear dvrjp 

djiovXos ovS* avoXfius, oari^ €9 KaKov 

treo'cop a/cetrai, /urio aKiPtjTo^ TreXct. 

avOaSia roi (TKaiortiT ofpXiaKavei' 995 

dXX' cIkc T(p QavovTi^ fxvio oXwXoTa 

K€VT€i, Ti'y oXki] tqv OavovT €TriKTav€iv\ 

ev aoi (Ppovr^aa^ ev Xeyw' to fxaOdveiv 5* 

tioiarop ev Xeyovrosy el KepSo^ Xeyoi. 


o) irpeafivy Troi/re?, w(TTe ro^orai CKoirov, 1000 

To^eveT dvopos toJoc, KOuSe /uavriK^^ 


But in the ashes h'quefyiiig grease 

From off the bones did ooze and smoke and sputter. 

High in the air the vesicles were scattered : 

And from the soHd fat, which covered them, 

The thighs fell out, and lay all bare below. 

Such bafHed signs of omens indistinct 

This boy made known to me. For; as to others 

I serve as guide, he serves as guide to me. 

Thy will has brought this sickness on the state. 

Our altars, high and low, of every sort, 

Have taken infection from the birds and dogs 

Which feed upon the son of (Edipus, 

Fallen by such a dismal- fatal end. 

Therefore the Gods no longer take our proffers 

Of sacrificial prayers and thigh-bone flames; 

Nor do the birds with flapping wings give out 

Sounds of good omen, for they all have eaten 

The fattening blood of man in battle slain. 

Then take these things to heart, my son : for error 

Is as the universal lot of man ; 

But whensoe'*er he errs, that man no longer 

Is witless or unblest, who, having fallen 

Into misfortune, seeks to mend his ways 

And is not obstinate : the stifftieckt temper 

Must oft plead guilty to the charge of folly. 

Then yield thee to the dead, nor further stab 

The fallen foe : what bravery is this. 

To kill the dead again? With good intentions 

I give thee now good counsel, and to learn 

Is sweetest when good counsel counsels gain. 


Old man, ye all, like bowmen at the butts, 
Are aiming at me; e'en with prophet's lore 


ANTirONH. [1002—1021 

airpcucTos vfiiv eifil, twv * vir , apyvpovy 
€^rffjL'7ro\rjim,ai KaKTreKpopncfiat TraXac. 
icepoalueTi e/uLiroXaTe tov irpos ^ApSetov 

riXcKTpOUf €1 ^Ou\€(r0€y Kai TOV *lvSlKOV 1005 

yjpwTov' Td(p(p 5* CKcluov ouy^i Kpu\f/€Te^ 

ouo €1 OeXoua o\ Ziypo? aieTol (iopdv 

(pepeiv vw apirdj^ovTC^ es i^io^ dpovov^, 

ovS (OS jmlaafxa tovto lAtj Tpeaa^ cYftJ 

QcLTTTeiv irapviaw Keivov* ev yap old on 1010 

Oeovi fxtaiveiv ovtis avOpcoTrwif aOevei* 

TTtTTTovai 5*, w yepaie Teipcaia, fipoTwv 

yoi TToWd Seivoi TTTti/uiaT ai<T'Xp9 orav \6yov9 

aia")Q}0V9 /caXois XeyoKTi rod Kepcovs X^P^^' 




dp olSev dvOpwirwv ns, dpa (l>pd^€Tai — 

t/ xprifxa ; TTolou tovto irayKoivov Xeyei^* 

oaw KpaTiaTov ktyihiutvov eufiouXia; 

oa'(f)7r€p9 olfxaif fxrf (f>povetv irXeia'Tfj (iXdjiri* 


TQVTflS <TV fxivTOl Tfj^ VOdOV wXlipfJS €(f>Vi . 1020 

oi; (iovXofiai top ixavTiv avTCiirelv kukw^. 

loos «• 5» » % / 

yp. Ttav vrrfxl yevovt. 


I am bartered for by you, by whom, for silver, 

This long while have I been both bought and sold. 

Well ! make your gains : earn, as ye will, by traffick 

The Lydian amber-gold and Indian gold: 

But natheless ye shall never bury him; — 

Not though Jove^s eagles take him as their food. 

And bear him to the God's supernal throne. 

Not by the dread of this pollution moved 

Will I give him to burial: for I know 

Tis not in man to foul heaven's purity. 

But, old Teiresias, e'en the ablest mortals 

Fall shamefully, when, for the sake of gain. 

They utter shameful speeches speciously. 


What man is there that knows? who that considers — 

In what? thou askest comprehensive questions. 

How far the best of goods good counsel is? 

As far as folly is the greatest loss. 

Well, thou at least hast caught that grievous ailment. 


I will not bandy insults with a prophet* 

H 2 

100 ANTirONH. [1022—1036. 

Kal lULi^y XeyeiSf yf/evoij /u€ Oeawil^eiy Xeyoiw, 

TO imavTiKov yap way (ptXapyupov yevo^, 

TO o €K Tvpavvwv, ai<j'^oK€p^eiav (pCKei, 

ap otaOa rayovs opraSi av Xeyvf^^ Xc'ywi^; 1025 

olo • ef kfiov yap tv/vo €J(€«9 aeiaas ttoXiv. 


<To<p6ii (TV fidvTi^y dWd rdSiKelp 0cXa>f. 

opaeis fi€ TaKivriTa did <Pp€veiu (ppdaai ; 

Kiveif fjLOvov Se ixtj Vi Kcpoeaiy Xc'ya)!/. 

ovTw ydp tiorj Kal ookq), to (Tov ixepo^y 1050 

ftk M^ * iJiiro\Yi<Tfav *i(T0t Tfjv ifxriv <Pp€va. 


aXX' €i; 'ye to« KartcrOi ikrj ttoXXoi/s en 

Tpo')(Ovs afxtWrfT^pas HXiov TeXwy, 

ey oTat Twy <tSv avT09 €k GirKay^vwy eva 

V€KVV veKpwv d/ULOifiov avTioov^ eaei' 1035 

dyff (ov €^€cs fJL€v T(oy duw (iaXwv Kara), 


Nay but thou dost, belying my predictions. 

The race of seers is wholly given to pelf. 

The tyrant-race is given to filthy lucre. 

Know'^st thou it is thy King thou greetest thus! 

Thou ruFst the state my aid preserved for thee. 

A wise seer art thou, but unrighteous ever^ 


Must I awake the secrets of my soul ! 

Awake them : only speak no more for gain, 

And thinkest thou I am seeking gain from thee? 

Know this — thou shalt not traffick in my will. 

And know thou this — the next few revolutions 
Of the sunn's wheels in rival circles rolling 
Scarce shalt thou compass, ere thou hast exchanged. 
Dead for the dead a recompense, a child 
In whom thy hearts blood flows ; because that thou 
Hast cast below one who should be above, 

102 ANTirONH. [1037—1063. 

€j^€i9 oe TaJf KarwOev ivdac av dewv 
afJLOtpoVf aKT€pt(TToVy avoaiov v€kvv» 

0)1/ OVT€ cot IJL€T€GTIV OVT€ TOIJ afO) 1040 

Oeolatv, dXX* e/c coiJ /3ia^oi/Ta« ra^e. 

TovTwv are Xw/S^yr^pey va'Tepo(f>06poi 

Xo^oHTii; '^i^oi; icat deoii/ 'E/Oii/i't/c^) 

€1/ rolcTiv avToi^ Toiaoc \i](f>0rjvat ica^ols. 

ico£ TavT aOprjaov el Karrfpyvpwfievos 1045 

Xeyw, (pave! yap ov niaKpov '^(povov Tpifirj 

auSpaivj yvvaiKcov, ao7^ oo/ixoi^ KWKVfxaTa. 

iyQpal ce ircurai ^vvTapdcraovrai ttoXcis, 

oawv (nrapayimaT 17 Kvves jf KaOtjyicraVf 

ri QfjpeSf fi Tiy Trriyi/os omvos^ (pepwv 1050 

avoaiev 6a/iAffv ecrrioDj^oi/ €9 ttoXiv, 

Toiavra aoVf XvTreis ydp^ ware to^otyi^ 

d(f>riKa OvfAtp KapSias ro^evfiara 

fiefiata^ rwv crv OdXiros oiJj^ uireKSpa/iAe'i. 

(2 Tral, (TV o tj/uLcis diraye irpos So/ulov^, iva 1055 

Tov Ou/uLOU 0VT09 es v€ti)T€pov9 dfpfjj 

Kal yvtp Tp€(f>€iv T171; yXwaaav tiav^wTepav^ 

TOV vovv T a/neivw rwy (ppevaiv, 17 vuv (pepei* 


dvi^p, Ava^, fiejiriKe Setvd Oecrwiaa^. 

eirKTrdnieaQa o, ef otov Xevurjv eyw^ IO6O 

TYivo €K /meXaivi]^ dfJi(l>i(idXXofiai Tply^a^ 

fxfj TToJ nor avTov yj/evSos €v 'jtoXiv XuKelv. 

eyvwKa Kavro^f kqI Tapdao-o/mai (f>peva$. 


And, stript of franchise in the land of life, 
Hast sent a soul to settle in the grave. 
And, on the other part, detainest here. 
From Oods infernal excommunicate, 
An unentombed and unanel^d corpse. 
Thou hast not art or part in him, nor have 
The Gods above, but thou constrainest them. 
Therefore, with dreadful thoughts of future mischief. 
The avenging Sprites of Hades and of Heaven 
Lay wait to take thee in the self-same evils. 
Look to it now, if I say this for silver. 
For, yet a little while, and thou shalt hear 
The wails of men and women in thy palace ; 
And all the states are stirred in rage together. 
Whose mangled citizens have found a tomb 
In hungry maw of dogs and beasts of prey,. 
Or where some winged fowl of the air has borne 
Unholy odours to their hearth and home. 
Such arrows in mine anger, for thou galFst me, 
I, as an archer, shoot against thy heart. 
Well-aimed, and thou wilt not escape their sting. 
Boy, lead me home again that he may vent 
His rage on younger men, and learn to keep 
His tongue more quiet, and to train his mind 
To wiser thoughts than those which guide him now. 

(Teiresias retires.) 

Sire, he is gone, after dread prophecies. 
And since the hoary hairs which crown my head 
Were raven locks, I never knew him speak 
Falsely in what concerns the common weal. 

I know it too : my mind is ill at ease. 

104 ANTirONH. [1064—1080. 

TO T etKciOeii/ yap Seipoi^' avTicrravra oe 

arrj Trara^ai OvfJiov, iv oeivi^ irapa. 1065 


T« hrira \pri ^pqv ; (ppd}^€* ireiaofxai c iyw. 

eXOcivf Koptjv fiev €k KaTwpv^^o^ areyris 
av€i' KTicTov Se T<j5 irpoKei/uiei^tf) rd(pov. 

Kul ravT ewaivel^i Kai SoKets irapeiKodeiv ; 1070 

ocov y\ ava)^9 roj^iorra. avvTefiPOuai yap 
0€wv 7roS(iK€ii TOV9 KaKotppopa^ (i\a(iai, 


olfJLOi* fJLoKii fxeVf Kapciai o e^iaTa/mat 
TO cpqiv' dvayKtj 5* oi/^J Sv<riuLa')(riTeou, 

Spa vvv rao' ekOwv, fJLti^ ew aWoiaiv rpiire* 1075 

coo COS ^X^ arel'xoi/uL av «t «t, owaove^, 
oi T ovre^, oi r aTroi/re?, dj^iva^ X^P^*" 
opixaaff eXoi/res eis eiroyj/iov tottov, 
e^y^iJ ^*> e7r€«5i; oo^a rijo €W€a'Tpd(f>fiy 
avTO^ T eSijcay koi irapwv eKXvaofiai. 1080 


For if to yield is painful, opposition, 

Where mischief smites our wrath, is painful too. 

Advise thee well, Kreon, Menoekeus' son. 

What must I do ? Speak ; I will heed thy words. 


Qo, free the damsel from the cavem'd chamber, 
And make a tomb for the neglected corse. 

Is this thy counsel, and must I give way! 


At once, O King ! The hindrances of heaven 
Swiftly, by cross-ways, overtake our folly, 

Ah me ! 

'Tis hard, but still my heart must yield to do it; 
For he who fights with fate must fight in vain. 

Then go and do it. Leave it not to others. 


Forth from this spot* I go : up, up, my servants, 
Present and absent, hasten, axe in hand, 
To the high downs which rise before our eyes. 
And I, since that my mind has ta'en this turn. 
Myself will free her whom I bound myself. 

106 ANTirONH. [1081—1104. 

SeSoiKQ yap fiii Toi)y KaOearwra^ vovov^ 
apKTTov fi (Tfi^ovTa rot/ fiiop TeXelf. 

noATQNTME, KaS/uLcias vvfAtpa^ ayaX/ma, aTpo<piii a. 
Koi Acov (iapvfip€jui€Ta 

y€V099 fXi/Tcif oy aiuL(j>€7r€i9 1085 

'IraX/ai/, fxeoei^ oe 
TrayKOtvoK EXevaivw 
AiyoSy €v /coXttoi?, 

•(•o "f/ixarpoTroXiv Otifiav IO9O 

"f uaierwvy Trap vypwv 
'Icr/uiijvov jf peiOpo)!^ aypiou r 
67r2 airopq, SpaKovros' 

ae o virep '\ii\6<f>oio ireTpa^ CTipoyj/ 

OTToyire avTicTT, a . 

Xiyvvs^ €v9a KwpvKiai 1095 

KacrraXia? ^6 va/uLa' 

Kai ere ^vaaiwv opevov 

KKTatipeis ojfOat, 

^Xwpa T aKTo, 1 1 00 

'7ro\uaTa(pv\os Tre/uLwei^ 

afxfipoT(a)v eirewv 

€va(pvTwv^ Qfffiatai 

€iri(TKoirovvT ayvia^' 

*"** yp, c3 BaK^ev. ^*'** yp. fArjTpdiroXtv, ***** 7^. valtav, 

"*' 7^. pcedpuv. '^"^ 7/>. 3<Ao0ov. *^ 7/5. <rT€i;^oy<ri. 


For now I greatly fear 'tis best to pass 
Through life observant of the established laws. 

{Hastens off the stage, followed by his guards,) 



Strophe i. 

Thou of the many names, 

Whom Kadmus' daughter loves with a mother s pride, 

Whom Jove the awful thunderer begot; 

Guardian of far-famed Italy, and King 

In dales of Eleusinian Deo, votary-thronged, 

Baecheus, the Bacchante's mother-city, 

Thebe inhabiting, 

By the Ismenus' ever-flowing streams, 

Where the grim dragon^s teeth were sown. 

Antistrophb I. 

Thee o'er the double-crested rock 

The illumined smoke beholds, 

Whither ascend Korycian nymphs in Bacchanalian chorus: 

Thee too beholds Kastalia's fount: and thee 

The ivy-mantled slopes of Nysa's hills, 

And that green headland, where thick clusters hang. 

Send, when religious voices hymn thy name, 

A visitant to our Thebaean streets. 

lOe ANTirONH. [1105—1126. 

Tav j'eifTra'yXo ti/ul^^ CTpo^^ (i\ 1105 

vwep "firacrav iroXewv 

/txaTpi avv Mpavviq,' 

Koi vvvj (is (iiaias 

e^erai irdvorjiuos fafxd iroXis eiri voaov, 

/ULoXelv KaOapaiif) ttoSi Tlapvija'lav 1110 

uTrep kXitvv 

ri GTOVoevra iropOfnov* 

\w irvp irveovTwv avri(TTpo(b^ (X , 

X^P^y ocrrpcoi/, i/i;j^«ft)i/ 

(pOeyfiaTwv CTrtcr^oTre, 1115 

"Tral fZrivos yeveOXoVf 

"f Trpo<pdvfi0 ft) tia^iais crais a/ixa wepiiroXoif 

"fQuiaiaiv^ ai ere imatvofievai iravvvxpi 


Tov ra/iAtav laK^pV' 1120 

ir. ES0A02. 


Kaamot irdpoiKoi Kal So/txwv 'Afi^iopof, 

ovK iad' oTTolop oTdvT av dudpayirov piov 

ovT aiveaaifi ai/, oure fiefAyf/aifxtjv wore. 

Tv^V ydp opOoi Kal Ti/j^iy Karappeitei 

TOV evTv^pvPTa, top T€ ov(ttv)(ovvt f dei* 1125 

Kal fJidvTis ovSeU twv KaQeGTwrwv fiporols. 

"*•• * yp, €K wacdv riixjl^ vvepTarav, ""* Xeiir, dfxd, 

•"* yp. Ka\ vv-xiwv. '"• yp. Aio?. "'^ XciVci «. 

*^** yp* 6vta<rtv, 


Strophe ii. 

Her of all cities chief thou honourest, 

Thou and thy mother, lightning-blasted! 

And now that all the city-folk are vexed 

With violent distemper, come to us 

With cleansing foot, o'er the Pamasian height. 

Or 'cross the roaring strait. 


What ho ! choir-leader of fire-breathing stars, 
That listenest still to nightly acclamations, 
Begotten child of Zeus, appear before us, 
With all thy Naxian revel-rout around thee. 
Who with mad choirs from sun-down to sun-rise 
Honour thee, giver of all good, lacchus ! 


Enter a messenger: then Eurydike: hxstly Kreon, 
and to him one of the slaves of his household. 

(Enters on the right by the Parascema, as from the country. ) 

O YE who dwell as neighbours by the palace 
Of Kadmus and Amphion, howso stands 
The life of any man, I ne'er would venture 
To speak of it with only praise or blame. 
For be our present fortune good or bad. 
Our fortune'^s scale is ever on the turn, 
And prophets ne'er predict stability. 

no ANTirONH. [1127—1145. 

Kpecow yap rjv ^i;Xft)Tos> ws e/ioU Trore^ 

(Twaas fJi€v eyQpQv Ttivoe KaO/ue/ai/ "^opay 

Xafiwv T€ 'Xfipai Trai/rfX^ inovap'^^iav 

evOvvny daWiav evyevel T€KVwy anop^' 1130 

Kal vvv d^elrai iravra. ra^ yap ff^pw 

orav TrpooHaiv avope^, ov riOtipL eyto 

^^i; TOVTOV9 dXX' €iky\fV^ov riyoufiat vcKpov. 

7r\ovT€i T€ yap KaT otKoVy e'l jSoi/Xei, fJ^eya, 

Kal ^fj Tvpavvov (T'^^riti €)(<vv' edv S* aTrfj 1135 

TOVTuw TO -^alpeiv^ tolSX eyw Kairvov aKia^ 

ovK av TTpuiiiuLj^ au^pl vpos ti/j/ 9/^oi^j^r. 

T£ av TOO a')(do^ (iaaiKewv ifKets ipepow ; 

TeOmcrtV 01 oe ^cSi/res a'lrioi daveiv* 

Ka\ Tis (povevei; ti^ Si 6 Kei/uevoi ; Xeye. 1140 

Ai/uLoyp oXwXei^f avro'^eip S* alfuiacreTai. 

TTOTcpa TraTp<f)a99 rj irpo^ oiKcia^ yj^po^ ; 

avTo^ wpog auToVf irarpl fAvjpi(ra^ (pouov. 

w fxavTiy Toviro^ o)9 ap 6p9ov tiwaai. 

ws wS* e-^^ovTwvy ToXXa fiovXeveiv irapa* 1145 


Thus Kreon's lot erewhile provoked my envy, 
When that he saved this country from its foes, 
And ruled in absolute sovranty the land 
Of Kadmus, blest with noble progeny. 
Now — all is gone. For him I reckon but 
An animate corpse, and not a living man, 
Whose life's delights are cast away. Thy house, 
I grant thee, may be richly stored with wealth ; 
And thou may'^st live in royal pomp: but if 
Joy is not there the while, and I must lose 
All happiness thereby, I would not give 
Smokers shadow as the price of all the rest. 

What royal sorrow hast thou here to tell? 

Dead are they ! and the living own their death. 

Who is the slayer! who hath fallen? Speak. 

(Eurydike opens the doors.) 

Hsemon is dead ! no stranger shed hi& blood. 

Was it his father's, or his own hand slew him? 

His own — ^his father's deed of death incensed him. 

O seer, how soothfast thou hast made thy words ! 

This done, the rest demands your best advice. 

{Eurydike comes from the p&lace gates attended.) 

112 ANTirONH. [1146— 11 6&. 


Kai fJLrjv opw ToXaiyau EupvdlKfjy ofioi 
Sa/uiapTa riji; Kpeoi/ros* €k Se SwfjLarwu 
Yiroi KKvovaa iraiio^ fj TV')(fi wdpa* 


w wavrei cujtoi^ tUv Xoywu eirparOofitiv 

irpoi iJ^oiov a'T€i'xouaa^ TlaWacos Oea^ 1150 

owwi iKoifxtii* euy/uLaTwp wpoaijyopa^, 

Kal Tuy')(auw re KXfjOp avaairacTTov irv\rfi 

^oXcScra) Kai fie (pOoyyos oiKciov kukov 

(iaXkei Oi wtwv' virria Se KXivoimat 

Selaacra irpos S/uLwaicrt, KaTroirXrlaao/uLai. 1155 

aXX* ocTTis tiv o fjLuOos, av9i^ etware. 

KUKwv yap ovK aireipo^ ova aKOVcofiai, 


eyWf (piXfi oeawoivaf Kal iraptiv epw^ 

Kovoev iraptjcrta) r^s aXridcia^ eiro^. 

Ti yap ae fxaXdacTCoiiii av, wv i% varepov ll60 

yj/evcTai (f>avovix€ff ; opdov aXijOei aei, 

kyw oe atp irooayo^ eaironriv iroaei 

ireotov €7r aKpov ti/U CKCiro vrjXee^' 

KWoajrapaKTov aw/ixa UoXvueiKov^ en' 

Kal Tov fievy alTii<TavT€9 ivoSiav Oeou, ll65 

UXovTwva T 9 opya9 ev/uevel^ ifaracxj^cfleii;, 

Xovaapres ceyvov Xovrpov, ev veoairdci 

OaXXoi^ b otj XeXeiTTTo crvyKarrfOo/uLev, 

Kal TVfiL^ov opdoKpavov oUela^ yOovo^ 



Ah ! poor Eurydike, I see her come, 
Consort of Kreon: she has left the palace, 
Hearing her son's disaster, or by chance. 


all ye citizens, I heard the tidings 

As I was coming forth to bear my greeting 

Of supplication to the goddess Pallas. 

Just as I loosed the bolt of the closed door, 

Tidings of mine own sorrow pierced my ears, 

And, horrified, I fell into the arms 

Of these my followers, and my senses fled. 

Whate'^er the story was, tell it again. 

To hear of sorrow is not new to me. 


I, dear my Queen, — for I was there — will speak, 
And nought extenuate the truth'^s disclosures. 
Why should I smooth with words, when after-hours 
Would prove me false ? The truth stands fast in all things. 

1 waited on my Lord, to guide his steps 

To the high upland mead, where still was lying. 

Most piteously rent and torn by dogs. 

The corse of Polyneikes. Him, with prayers 

To Pluto and the Goddess of the Way, 

That they would change their wrath to graciousness. 

We washed with pure lavations, and with boughs 

Tom from the living olive, all together 

We joined in burning what remained of him; 

And heaping high for him a funeral mound 


114 ANTirONH. [1170—1196. 

')(wo'airr€i9 avOi^ irpo^ \i06<rrpwTOU Koptfi 1170 

vufx<p€iov ''Aicov KoiXov €'uT€ ^ipofjLev , 
(fkovij^ ^ anwOev opdlwp KWKVfiaTwv 
k\v€i t«s oKTepuTTov dpL(f>\ waaTo^, 
Kal ieairoTti Kpeopri ctiniaipei fioXtov' 
T(p o dOXlai aafjfjia irept^iyet (iopj^ 1175 

epwoyri juloKKov curaot^, oifiwj^ai , eiroi 
ifiai cyaOptjprf'^ov' Q rdXa^ iywf 
ap ei/uLi fJLavTi^ ; apa ouarTuj^eaTaTfjv 
KcXevOou epiro) tUv irapeXOovawv oiwv ; 
7raico( /ie aaivet <p96yyoi. aXXd^ TrpoairoXoiy 1180 
Jfr aaaov wKeiSy koI wapacrTdirrei Ta^>cpi, 
oBpfjaaff dpfwv '^^iiyxiTo^ XiOoanaS^y 
SvvT€9 irpoi avTo aTo/miov^ el rov Aijulovos 
<p96yyov ^vvifijui , tj Oeolat KXeirToimat.^— 
TCLo €^ ddvjuiov SearroTou KeXeva/uLaaiv 1185 

rfipovnev' iv 5e Xoitrdup TUfifievfjiaTi 
Tfjv imev, KpefxaGTYJy aiJj^ei/os, KarciSoiueu 
fipo^tp fAirdoei crivdovos KaOfiiULfxivvjv' 
rov o , aiJL<f>\ fieacTtf irepiireTri irpoarKei/uLevoi^y 
evvij^i aTroi/uLW^ovTa Ttjg Kara) (pOopdu, II90 

Kal irarpo^ ^pyo-i koi to ovamjvov Xe^os. 
o o 0)9 opq ^(pej (TTvyvov ol/uiti^ai, eaco 
yoDpei TTpos avrov^ KavaKooKuaa^ KaXel' 
Q rXijfAOVy oJov epyov eipyaaai ; riva 
vovv ea^es \ ev ry j^u^<popdi Sie^Odpti^ ; 1195 

efeXSe, t€kvov' Ikccios ae Xiaao/uiai. — 


Of natal earth, straightway from thence we sought 
The vaulted chamber paved with blocks of stone, 
Where Death had wooed the maiden as his bride. 
And while ifc still was distant, some one hears 
The voice of lamentations, treble>toned. 
Peal from the porch of that unhallowed cell. 
And bears the tale right hastily to Kreon. 
But as the King drew near there floated round him, 
In accents indistinct, the wail of woe. 
Then he, his words by weeping interrupted. 
Exclaimed, " Ah me ! unhappy that I am ! 
And was my soul prophetic ? Is this road 
Which now I tread most fraught with wretchedness 
Of all my paths ? 'Tis my son's voice that greets me ! 
Quick then, ye slaves, draw nearer to the tomb. 
And, standing hard beside it, 'drag away 
The closely-fitting stones which block the passage; 
Then, creeping to the very mouth, discover 
Whether 'tis Haemon's voice I recognize. 
Or heaven has robbed my senses of themselves."'* 
We did as our despondinq^ Lord enjoined, 
And, in the farthest comer of the tomb. 
We saw her hanging by the neck, fast bound 
With noose of linen finely-spun, and him 
With arms enfolded clinging to her form, 
Bemoaning his lost bride, his father's deeds. 
And his ill-starred betrothal. When the sire 
Espied his son, he raised a piteous cry. 
And entering the tomb approached him there : 
Then lifting up his voice he wept, and said: 
"O my poor boy, what hast thou done? what thoughts 
Possessed fchee ! what ill fate has wrought thy ruin ? 
Come forth, my son, — a suppliant, I entreat thee." 


116 ANTirONH. [1197—1220. 

Tov c dypioi9 ocraoiai ttottti; i;a9 6 Trais, 

iTTuaai TrpofTWTTWf Kovoev dvTetwtvv^ ^t(j>ou^ 

€\k€i SnrXovs Kvoioovra^' €k o opjJLWfxei/ou 

iraTpos <pvyai(XiVy finxtrXaK' eW* 6 Sua/mopo^ 1200 

avTtp j^oXwOeUy wGirep elj^ , eiravTaOeU 

tipeicre wXevpai^ /xeacrov iy\o^y is o vypov 

ayKWv €T €fi(ppwv irapOevw irpoairTvaaeTai' 

Kal (pvGuov o^eiav cKJidXXei irvorjv 

XevKfj irapeiq. (poivlov aTaXdyfAaros, 1205 

KCirai oe vcKpos irepl veKpip^ rd wii^tKa 

TeXfj Xa'xcov SeiXaios "fev y *'AiZov So/uois, 

Sei^as ev dvOpdiroiai tyjv dfiovXiaVy 

oatp fieytarov ducpl TrpowKciTat KaKov. 

Ti TovT av cl^acrciay ; »} yvvrj iraXiv 1210 

(ppovorjf irplv elireiv eaQXov tj KaKov Xoyov. 

KaifTos TcOdjUifiriK ' eXiriaiv Se jioaKOfiai^ 
dyvi TCKuov KXvovaa,v^ 69 TToXiv yoou9 
ovK a^iwaeiv, dXX' vtto crreyris eaw 
ofAcoals irpodtiaeiv irevOos oiKelov areveiv* 1215 

•yi/o5/ui/v ydp OVK aireipos^ (jog0 dfULapraveiv, 

OVK old cfioiy ovv tj t ayav cnyrj papv 
8oK€i irpoaeivai^ ')(i\ /udTrju ttoXXjJ fioii, 

dXX' eicofxecrOa, iiri ri Koi KaTda'x^rov 
Kpv(f>^ KaXvTTTet KapSlqi Ov/ULOVfxevriy 1220 

'^ Xeiir. 7 . 


With fierce regards the stripling glared on him — 
His looks spoke hatred though he answered not. 
Then forth he pulled his double-hilted sword, 
And, as his father Vaped the blow by flight, 
On this, poor wretch, in choler with himself. 
He leant upon his blade, and fixed it deep 
Between his ribs; and then with languid arm 
He claspt the maid in his last consciousness, 
And in his sharp expiring gasp he threw 
A purple drop upon her pallid cheek. 
Dead by the dead, he finds, unhappy youth, 
His marriage rites consummate in the grave, 
And shews to all the world that ill advice 
Is far the worst of ills that fall on man. 

(Euvydike rushes into the palace.) 

What wouWst thou say of this? the Queen is gone, 
''Ere she a word, or good or bad, has spoken ! 

I shudder at it too: but still the hope 
Sustains me, that these tidings having heard 
Of her son's sad mishap, she may not deign 
To let the city look into her moan. 
But will, within, impose upon her menials 
This office of domestic lamentation. 
She is not strange to sense that she should err. 

I wot not, I : meseems that over-silence 
Threatens no less than waiUng uncontrolled. 

Entering the palace we shall soon discover 
Whether she veils within her storm-tost heart 

118 ANTirONH. [1221—1239. 

oo/ioi/9 irapaaTei'^ovTe^. ev yaff ovv Ac'ycis 
Kal rijs ayav yap etTTi trov aiyrjs fiapoi* 

Koi. fXYiv 06 ava^ avro^ e^i^Kei 

€1 Oefxis eiireiVf ovk aWorpiav 1225 

arrjUi aXV avTos ofiapTtov, 



(f>p€piov ov<T<pp6v(M)v OfiapTtjfiara aTpo(p;^ a. 

arepea^ OavaraevT, 
w KTavovra^ re Kai 
Oavovra^ (iXiirovres iyL^vklovs. 1230 

wfkoi e/ULMv avoXfia (iovXeufiaTtov. 
Iw 9rac9 If €09 vitp ^uu fiopip 
aiac, acac, 
e6ap€9^ aireXvdfj^^ 
€1110199 ovoe aaitrt SvafiovXiaK' 1235 


Ol/llf a)s €0lKa9 0\j/€ TYJV OlKfJV io€iu* 


6j(ft) fiaOwv SeiXaio^' €v o einp Kapq. 
Qeos TOT apa Tore iJieya (iapos fx e')(wv 


Something she may not speak. Thou say'st it well : 
There is a sort of threat in overnsilence. 

(Kreon enters from the rights hearing the body of his son, 
and followed by a retinue of attenda/nts.) 

(AviapoBstic Movement.) 


Lo ! he approaches, the monarch himself, and he 
Bears in his arms a sign too distinct ; if the 
Truth may be spoken, he rues his own error, 
Not a mischief inflicted by others. 



Strophe i. 

Alas, alas ! the sins of senseless minds — 

Saddening, deadening — 

Ah ! ye that see us both of kindred Mood — 

The slain beside his slayer. 

My ill-starrM counsels ! — out upon them I 

O my son, my son. 

In years not yet mature, by a fate premature — 

— ^Ah ! woe, woe ! — 

Thou art dead, thou art gone ! 

'Twas not thy folly, 'twas mine own! 

Alas ! — too late meseems the right thou seest. 

Ah me ! 

Sorrow hath taught me ! then, oh then descending 
With heavy tread upon my head — the God 

120 ANTirONH. [1240—1259. 

cTraicTei/, ev c iaeifrev dypiaK 000I9, 1240 

ot/uoh XaKirdrtfTou avrpeircou )(apdv. 
(pevy (f)€Vy (o itovoi jipoTwv ovairovoi. 


(!) beatroO , ctfs c^wi' re Kut KeKTviixevo^i 

TOL /uev irpo ')(eipwv TciSe (pepcoi/y to. 5* ev oofioK 

eoiKa^ YIK€iv Kai Ta)(^ o^eaOai Kaxa. 1245 

Ti o cartu av KaKiovy fj kqkwv in ; 


yvvii TeOvffKe, rovce Truyi^riTwp vcKpov^ 
ovaTrjvas, apri veoTOfioitri irX^y/uLaaiv. 



ifo ovoKaOapTo^ Aioov Xi/mtiv* clvtktt, a'. 1250 

Tc /Li apa^ TI /i 6\eK€i^ ; 
w KOKayyeXra fioi 
IT poire [jL^^a^ ciX^^ '^^^^ Opoeii \6yov ; 
at, al, oKwKoT auop' eirel^eipyaaw* 
Tt 0ps ; Tiva Xeyei^ viov fjLOi ^vetp, 1255 

aiatf aialf 
a<l>ayiov ev oXeOptp 
yvvaiKeiov dii<^iK€laOai fiopop ; 

opqv TrapeaTiv, ov yap ev /uvy^ois en. 

1356 / . / 

yp, v€Ov fioi \oyov. 


Spumed me and cast me on my cruel ways. 
— Ah me ! 

He overturned and trampled on my joy. 
Fie, fie ! — the toilsome toils of mortal men. 


{From the Aoum.) 

O sire, as having both in hand and store, 
Thou bringest home this sorrow in thine arms; 
But other sorrow soon will greet thee here. 

What greater, or what other grief is that? 


The Queen, with wounds fresh-gaping, lieth dead, 
Hapless ! in life and death her son's true mother. 

KREON. Antistboph. .. 

Alas, alas ! insatiate gulf of Hades, 
Why, ah why destroy me thus! 
O thou who hast companioned 
These woes of evil tidings. 
What are the words thou speakest! 
Woe, ah woe I 

Already dead, thou hast again undone me. 
What say'st thou? What is this thou tellest, 
(Ah woo, woe !) 

That a new bloody death — ^my wife's — is added to 
This desolation still too new? 

That may'st thou see — the wall no longer hides her. 

(The scene opens, cmd the body of Ewrydike is discovered lying on a 
couch, with a sacrificial knife just fallen from her hand, — The 
slaves stand around her.) 

122 ANTirONH. [1260—1280. 

oi/uLoi' 1260 

KaKOV TOO aWo oevrepov pkeirw rdXa^' 
tU apay Tis fie ttot/ulos en irepifievei ; 
€j^a) fjicp ev ')(€ipeaaiv apriw^ tckvov^ 
ToXtKy Tov o ivavTa trpoafiXeTru) vcKpotf. 
(f>€Vf (p€v /uLarep dffKia, (pev tckvov. 1265 


1; 5' o^i;0i;icTO9 ^oe jiwfxla firTepv^ 

\v€i KeXaivd fi\e(f>apa^ [* Tr^ocTTriTrTci 5* eicel 

G^ayiov oiru)^ /So^/uoTai,] KWKvaaaa fiiv 

Tov irpiv OavovTOi Mey apeco? kXcii/ov •j'Xaj^oy, 

avOi^ ^ TovScy XoiaOiav Se arol Kaxa^ 1270 

wpdj^is e<f)vfivri(ra(Ta rtp TraiSoKTovtf). 


(TTpo(fni (i\ 


dveirrav 0o/3aj. ri fk ovK dvTaiav 
eiraiaev T19 a/KpidviKTw ^i(f^i ; 

SelXcuoi ey<Oy 1275 

(pevy <p€V9 
SeiXaiij^ 0€ atr/KeKpafiai SvqL, 


ws atTiau ye Twvoe Kciicetuwv eytav 

wpo^ T^s OavovGYis Tfjad eirecTKriTrTov fxopu)v, 

TTOi^ oe KdireXvtraT ev ^ovals Tpomp ; 1280 

yp. irepi^. "*^ AeiV. nrpoiriiTTeif k.t.X. ^^^ yp, Ac^o?. 


Ah me ! 

I do indeed behold this second woe. 
What — ah ! what destiny awaits me still ! 
While yet my arms enfold my child, unhappy ! 
I see before mine eyes that bleeding corse ! 
Alas, ill-fated mother ! O my son ! 


(Standing by EurydVse, aaid taking up the knife which hat 
fallen from her hand. ) 

'Twas this sharp sacrificial altar-knife 

That closed her eyes in darkness, and she fell, 

As falls the victim at the altar-steps: 

But first she wailed the glorious destiny 

Of Megareus, dead before; and then his fate; 

(Pointing to the body of Hasmon.) 

And, last of all, repeated imprecations 

She heaped on thee — ^the murderer of thy sons. 


Strophe ii. 
Alas, Alas ! 

Fear thrills me : wherefore hath not one of you 
Thrust me straight to my heart, 
With falchion double*edged ? 
Ah ! pity me, a piteous bondage 
On every side surrounds me. 


She charged thee, dying, as the guilty cause 
Of both the present and the former death. 

Say — by what mode of bloodshed did she die! 

124 ANTirONH. [1281— ISOl. 

7raiara(T v(p r/nap avroyeip avTi^v, oirwi 
iraioos too' rfoOer d^vK(iKVTOv Trades. 

wfjLOi fioii Tad ovK €7r aWoi/ fipoTwv 
efjLcii apiJLoaei ttot €^ alrias. 

eyw yap a eyw f cr eKavov^ w /ueXeos* 1285 

6«ycu' 0aM' eTVfxov. iw irpocrirokoi, 
ay€T€ III oTi fraj^icTT* aycTe fi eKTroSwi^, 
Tov OVK ovTa fULoXKov fj /mrjoeva, 

KcpSij irapaiveiif €i ti Kcp^o^ ev KaKol^' 
/Jpaj^icrra yap KpaTiaTa Tav ttoctiu Kaxd. 1290 

*aiai, aiai, dvTiaT, (i\ 

(papfiTO) fiopuiV o KaWiGT efiaiv, 
e/uoi Tcpfjiiav aywv rnxepav 
uiraTos' iTtt)^ 'iTU), 

*(pev9 (pev, 1295 

oirwi IxYiKeT afxap aAA eKTtoa). 

fjLcWouTa TavTa. twu irpOKei/ievwv ti "^ri 
wpdo'creiu' jJieXei yap Tuivc otokti yjpti neXeiv. 

dW* d>v 'fepwuxeu, raDra avyKaTriv^afitfi/. 

yui; i/vu 7rpoaev')(OU fxtjoev' ct's TreirpwiULevrf^ 1300 

OVK ecTTi OvriTo1% ^v/n(l>opa^ arraWayij, 

*■•* AciV. <t>cv, (fyev. "•' yp. epta /ueV. 

iroa, iTio, 



(Examining the corpse.) 
On the right side below the bosom — here — 

Her own hand smote her, after she had heard 

Her son's mishap — fit source of bitter wailing ! 

Ah me, me ! Of other mortals none 
Can fit his steps into these guilty ways, 
And set me free 

Twas I, 'twas I that killed thee. 
Wretched ! 'twas I ! 

Ah 'tis too true. Ye ministering slaves, 
Lead me with all speed. 
Lead me far away — 
For I am nothing now — 
More than nothingness. 

Thou biddest well, if ill has any well : 
For present ills are always best when shortest. 

KREON. Antistrophe ii. 

Alas, alas ! appear of fates to me 
The fairest, the last — 
That bringest a closing day. 

come, O come. 

And let me ne'er behold to-morrow'^s light. 

All this will be : the present needs our care : 
Those whom it most behoves will rule the future. 


1 joined in prayers for that which we desire. 

Pray not at all ! — when fate has fixed it so, 
'Tis not in mortals to escape disaster. 

126 ANTirONH. [1302—1313. 


ayoiT av /marcuov avop eKiroonov^ 

o9, o) Tral, ore t ovj( eKwv ^[KaTeKavov, 

OTra 0(a> *7rpoT€pov' *ia)* iravra yap 1305 

Xe^ia rdi/ "^^epolv^ to, Si* iirt KpuTi fioi 



TToWq^ TO (ppoueiv evoaiiuLOvias 

irpwTov V7rap')^€i ' y^prj c 69 "f ra Qewv 

fxrioev a<T€7rT€iv' jmeyaXoi Se \6yoi 1310 

imeyaXa^ irXtfya^ twv virepav^^wv 

yiiptjf' TO <ppoP€LV coioa^ai/. 

1303 ' 1S04 t^ ' * t \ 1/ 

yp» KaTCKTUvov. yp, o« <r€ t avrai^ tafioi, 

1305 »' ^' »/^' "^^/l* 

oira irpoK irorepov tdo). wo koi t7o». 


Remove from all eyes a man weak and guilty, 
Who slew thee, my son i and thee, too, my wife ! 
It was not my will ! 
Wretched me ! I know not 
Whither first to turn my steps. 
Alas ! in my hands all here is out of joint, 
And there hath leapt on my head 
A fate whose heavy tread 
Is a load all too weary. 

(Eacit Kreon, supported by his attendants.) 

(Final anapcestic Movement.) 

Wisdom is first of the gifts of good fortune : 
Tis a duty, be sure, the rites of the Gods 
Duly to honour: but words without measure, the 
Fruit of vain-glory, in woes without number their 
Recompense finding. 
Have lessonM the aged in wisdom. 





1. Q Koivov avTdc€\(pov 'la/j.iivris icapa.] The version: 
** Ismene, dear in very sisterhood," conveys the full force of 
this periphrastic greeting, so far as the English language can 
express it without straining. It is well known to scholars 
that K01V09 is frequently used to signify consanguinity^ ; the 
Scholiast on Eurip. Phcen. 1565 renders it avyyeviKos^ and 
it is employed in the same sense in other passages of this 
play. I have pointed out an extension of this use of the 
word in a note on Pind. 0. II. 49, 50. For its combina- 
tion here with avrdSeXcpo^^ (lit. " from the self-same womb,**' 
i. e. of the same mother, N. Crat, p. 236,) commentators 
have aptly compared iEsch. Eum. 89 : av S avrd^ekipov 
aifia Kal koivov irarpo^ ^pi*-V* T^^^ circumlocution lafxif- 
i/tis KCLpa (KualyvYiTov Kapa infr. 874, 890, similarly Sefxa^t) 
is very common in Greek, and is not without its parallel in 
other languages. Perhaps our nearest approach to it in Eng- 
lish is our old-fashioned address " dear life," and our com- 
binations "no-body,'' " some-body f' compare also the fre- 
quent use of Up (leib) in the Nibelungen Liedy and the word 
poll^ " an individual,'' in polUng^ catch-^poU^ &c. The termi- 
nation hood in sisterhood^ is originally " head ;" but of course 

1 Properly speaking, koivos implied any sort of society or com- 
munion, but relationship implied communion in the highest degree : 
€<m 8* db€\<l>ois fi€V Kal iraipois ndinra KOivdy irepois Se d(f)a)pi(rfi€va. 
Arist. Eth, Nic. IX. 9, 10. 


132 NOTES. [1-S. 

the compound is not used here for the purpose of expressing 
the Greek periphrasis. 

2, 3. ap olaff on — reXel;] This reading is now esta- 
blished in the favour of critics. Hermann, Bockh, Wunder, 
and Dindorf, have all adopted it, and there appears to be 
little reason to doubt that it is better than the old o, ti. 
The sentiment is that which is expressed in Eurip. Troad, 
792: TI yap ovk e^o/uci^, r/i/oy eudeo/mev /n^ ou iraaavoia 
yaypeiv oXeOpov Sia iravro^ ; In the passages quoted in sup- 
port of the construction, we have r l KaKov ov'^l Traa'xpifTwv 
(Dexn, Ue Corondy p. 241); Tiva ov irpodfrefmovrwif (id. 
Emrg. et Mnesib, p. 1152, 12); tip ov Spwu^ irola 5* ou 
Xeywv eiTYi (Eurip. Phcen, 892) ; t^ ri^ ovk evl kyiKis kukwv 
^vvoiKo^\ (Soph. (Ed. Col, 1135); otrov tis opvis ovy^i 
liXayyuivei (Fr. apud Strab. XV. 687) : and this is the 
natural form of the exclamation. But Heindorf has pointed 
out instances in which the correlatives 6irw9 and oirorepo^ are 
substituted for irm and irorepos (ad Plat. Lys. p. 212, c. 
J 21); and oirolov is here put for irolov by a sort of anti- 
cipative attraction to the owolov of v. 6. Emper suggests 
the following explanation of the construction : ap** otaO o, ri 
[roiovTov e<TTi] oiro'iov^ k t.X. No doubt the transition 
from the interrogative to the correlative presumes some sort 
of antecedent, but we do not mend the matter by merely 
stating this : for ap'* olaO' o^ti equally presumes ap'* olaOa 


8. pu)v €Ti ^(v(Taiv,] Schiifer, Seidler, Wex, Dindorf, 
Wunder, and Bockh, consider these words as genitives : Her- 
mann, following the Scholiast, takes them as datives depend- 
ent on TfXeT. The addition of en shows that the poet is 
speaking here emphatically of the accomplishment of all these 
misfortunes in the life-time of the two sisters, and not of the 
limitation of their effects to the sisters themselves : so in the 
passage which the commentators quote. Soph. Track. 805 : 
M^/S* €i T« cpaaei^ TtjaSi ye (^ciarjs en. At the same time 
it is clear that Antigone is made to speak of these mis- 
fortunes as particularly belonging to herself and her sister, 

3-^6.2 NOTES. 133 

(v. 6 : Twv crc5i; re Kafiwv KaKwv) and that which takes place in 
our life-time does take place, in a certain sense, for us. 
Accordingly, as reKelv is properly construed with the dative, 
(cf. (Ed, Col. 1437: rah* ei reXclre /noh) I agree with Her- 
mann and the Scholiast that vipv is dative here. Bockh has 
introduced una into his version, as a dativtis incommodi '* auf 
welcher kein starker Ton fallt." This is all that is required, 
but this is inconsistent with the position that Sophocles has 
not used the dative here. 

4 — 6. ovhev yap kokwu.^ We have here the main 

difficulty of this introductory speech. Hermann, Gaisford^ 
Bockh, and Dindorf, think that the difficulty may be sur- 
mounted by a liberal interpretation of the accumulated nega- 
tives. I cannot permit myself to doubt that artj^ arep is 
corrupt. Schafer, Wunder, and Emper, acquiesce in Coray'*s 
emendation of ayrj9 for arri^ ; but it appears to me that the 
proper opposition is between the 0X709 and the artf. The 
former is the inward pain of the individual, the latter is the 
principle of mischief which makes his misfortunes objective. 
There is the same antithesis between the alaxpou and the 
art/uLov in the next line : the former implies the sense of 
shame which results from disgraceful conduct (aJo'xvi'jy), the 
latter is the outward degradation, the humiliation in the eyes 
of the world, the loss of civic franchise and social privilege, 
which is another and concomitant effect of the same cause 
{arifiia). We have abundant exemplifications of these anti- 
theses in the play before us. Not to go farther than Ismene'^s 
answer : she has had no fivOo^i whether ^Svs or aXy^ivo^ (v. 
1 2) : she does not know that she is more evrvxpuaa or aTtu- 
lievri (v. 17), where she gives the contraries as well as the 
synonyms of the adjectives in v. 4. It seems to me, there- 
fore, that Person came near to the truth, when he surmised 
that arep arose from the gloss aTtip"^ for drtipov, written over 
the words in the text as an explanation of some periphrase with 
aTYji only I do not agree with him that the lost reading 
was aTYi^ €^ov9 which I should have some difficulty in ex- 
plaining. Supposing that the word, which was used with 
arrj^ in some degree resembled the gloss arrip^ — and this is 

134 NOTES. [6—17. 

a reasonable supposition — it remains to discover some such 
word, which would at the same time suit the meaning re- 
quired. The emendation ATHS for ATH2 is based on the 
resemblance between AT and AT, and I think that the true 
reading is AFOh for ATeP. The verb 07 w, which with 
the preposition eU or irpos signifies to lead into or tend to 
something, may be used with the same word, in the accusa- 
tive without the preposition, to signify much the same thing : 
thus we may have ayeiv efe, or -mpo^ aTt}v^ '* to lead into or 
towards mischief,^** and also ayeiv arnv, " to bring or cause 
mischief,"" the former being predicated more especially of the 
person who is led into mischief, and the latter being a more 
general expression of the tendency. Compare infra 434 : es 
KOKov Toui (f)l\ov^ ayew with Fr. 323 Dind. : ortp i* oXe- 
Opop Seipov a\i]0€i ayei. Accordingly, as we have, infra 616 : 
OT(p (ppevas deo9 ayci irpos arav^ we may be allowed to 
expect here aTtjv ayov, and we have another example in 
Sophocles of the same participle used in conjunction with 
adjectives: cf. the well-known Fragment on love (Fr. 678 
Dind.) V. 6 : ev Kcivp to ttclv^ awovoalov, tinv^cuov^ ey Qiav 
a you. The abundance of negatives in this passage need 
create no difficulty. It has been sufficiently illustrated by 
grammarians and commentators. 

10. (TTei-xpvra.] The word is similarly used here and in 
V. 185 : Ttjv cLTYiv arei'^ovaav darois' According to its etymo- 
logy, arei^^ft) should signify '* to go up C cf. Sanscr. Stiffhndmi^ 
Russ. Stignu^ Lith. Staigios^ Germ. Steigen. The Hebrew 

ii7}f " to go up,"' is also used to signify a hostile attack, as 

- T 

in 1 Beg, xxii. 12. 

17. ovT evTv^ovcra — ovt drw^iei'i;.] In Ajax 262, 
araoOai is a synonym of voaelv, below, 314, it is opposed 
to adl^eoOai ; and here to evrv-^^elv* The ari; referred to 
by Ismene is the death of her two brothers, the evrvxla is 
the defeat and departure of the enemy. When arri is 
regarded as a cause, it stands naturally in opposition to the 
hai/jLwv Tv^tj^, The translation implies that it is to be 

17—20.] NOTES. 135 

taken here in its causative sense. In general, I have trans- 
lated arri, wherever it occurs in this play, by our word " mis- 
chief/** which seems to be its exact counterpart. Whether 
aTfj is personified or not, it is, as Hamlet says, " miching 
mal'hecho; it means mischief^ {Ad III. Sc. 2). South has 
given its full force in his use of the verb ^^ mischdeve :'^'' 
'' generally in Scripture, Temptation denotes not only a bare 
trial, but such an one as is attended with a design to hurt 
or mischieve the people so tried." It has not, I think, been 
generally observed that the concluding petition of the Lord's 
Prayer involves this distinction; Matth, VI. 13 : /hi} eicre- 
veyKrj^ ry/ixa? ek ircipacr/uLoVy aWa pvaai r]iia^ atro tov irovrr 
pov. That this is only one petition is clear from the 
opposition between /x>J and dWd ; indeed, the latter clause 
is omitted in the best MSS. of Luke X. 4. It is also clear 
that rod irovripov is masculine {Matth, XIII. 9, 38. JE^h. 
VI. 16. 2 Thm. III. 3). 

19. ef eVe/mTToi;. ] The Scholiast, and after him, the 
commentators, understand this as equivalent to /uLereTre/uL- 
TTOfjit]!', I believe, that, as ir poire inrtM) means to accompany 
a man forth on his journey — to conduct him forwards — to 
bring him on his way, so eKweiinrw here signifies to accom- 
pany a person out of doors — to bring him out with you. 
In the passages which the commentators quote (infra v. 161, 
(Ed, Col, 1461), the simple TrejuLTrw bears its ordinary mean- 
ing. For the alteration of ovuena into ^W/ca, see New Cror 
tylus^ p. 358. 

20. KoK-^aivovd €7ros.] Of the three interpretations 
proposed by the Scholiasts for this use of the verb kolKt 
j^aii/ft), which properly signifies "to look a dark purple 
colour" (/caXx*/' ^«*^^» " the purple fish,") the first is the 
most accurate: KaXy^aivovaa*. avrl xoC, '7rop(pvpovaa Kal 
T€Tapayti€PW^ (ppovri^ovaa. Similarly Hesychius: icaX- 
Xaii/€«, Tapdcraei [1. TapaGcreraiy Photiu&: e/c (iaOov^ Ta- 
pd(T(T€Tai vel omitte ; vide infra], wopipvpeiy arevei^ (ppov- 
Ti^ei^ a-^OcTaii KVKq^ €k j3v9ov rapaaaerai. The use of the 
synonym iroptpupei^ which Hesychius here quotes in expla- 

136 NOTES. [20. 

nation of Ka\'xah<»^^ shows how the latter might pass from 
its original sense to that which it bears in the passage before 
us. Homer uses iropcpvpo) in speaking of the sea, when 
the dead unbroken swell presages a storm, and this too in 
a simile, in order to describe a mind in a state of doubt or 
suspense — ^the to oft/uLaivetv', II. XIV. 16 sqq. : 

W9 3* ore woptpvpfi weXayo^ fxeya Kv^iari Kw<f>rp, 
oaaofievov Xiyewu avcficov \ai\l/fjpa KcXeuOu 
ai/rcof, oi55* apa re irpoKukivcerai oiSereptDae^ 
irpiv Tiva K^Kpifievov Karaftri^evai €k Aioff ovpov' 
f09 o yepoDV Apuaive^ cdi^otxevo^ Kara Ovfxou 
Sf^fOdSi' ^ fxeO' ofjiiXov *ioi ^avaaiu Taj^i;7ra5\a>i/ 
ije fieT 'ATpelcrjv 'Ay a/me /mpova irotimeva Xaccif'. 

From this simile or comparison arose a metaphorical use of 
the word iropKpvpw by itself, as a synonym of opuaivw^ to 
represent the same fluctuating and disturbed state of mind ; 
compare II, XXI. 551 : 

aurap 6 y m evorjcrev 'Aj^iXX^a irroXiirooOov, 
eartji iroXXa Se o\ Kpaolri Tr6p<f>vpe ixevovn^ 

with Od. VII. 82 : 

TToXXd oe o\ Kijp (vp JUL a I If* [aTafievtp : 

and so in other passages. Although the synonym /caX^^acVof 
does not occur in Homer, yet the participial name of the seer 
Kalchas indicates an equally early employment of this verb, or 
of its primitive form, koXxwi^ {cf.fiaivw with e/Bi/i; as from fifjfii^ 
and (palvw with (prj/uLi), For if the name of KaX^a? (-ir-s) 
is significant, like that of other old seers (Polyidus^ Melam- 
pu8^ &c.), it can only refer to the deep, perturbed, anxious 
pondering which preceded the interpretation of a portent : cf. 
Pind. O. VIIL 41: avnov opfiaivwu repa%. O, XIII. 73: 
irapKeinevov cuXXafiwv repav, v. 84: 6pfXQiva)v iXe <f)ap* 
juLQKov, That in the time of the Tragedians KaXy^aivto was 
a synonym of opfialvw or 7rop<l>upw^ is clear from Eurip. 
Ileracl. 40 : eyw /miv afi(pi Tolcroe KaX')(aiva) T€kvoi9. It 
is certain then that KaXxaii/o) is not a transitive verb : so 
that KaX'x^uit'ovcrd ri erro^ can only mean " profoundly 
stirred by ineditation on some eTroy." Now I cannot think, 

20—24,] NOTES. 137 

with Wex, that cttos is used here, like the Hebrew 13*7, 

to signify aliguid or res. The word often means " news," 
"tidings," "intelligence;" infr. 277, 1159. (Ed. Col 302: 
T«v 5' eaO* o K€iv(p TovTo ToifTTos ayyeXwv', Eurip. Hec. 
217 • P€OP Ti Trpos (T€ arjfxavwv ewoSf whence Kareiireiv rii/oy 
"to tell news of any one," i.e. "to inform against hini," as 
distinguished from Karriyopelvy which implies a more public 
accusation. And I think it is clear that Antigone is here 
represented as deeply moved by the intelligence which she 
is about to communicate to Ismene respecting the indig- 
nities offered to their brother's coi-pse. 

21. ou yap rdtpov /c.r.X.] It may seem hardly neces- 
sary to remark that ratpov is dependent on both irpoTiaa^ 
and drifidcra^f and is the genitive of relation. Properly 
speaking, there had been no Ta0os in the case of Poly- 
neikes, but the Greeks did not need to be told that in the 
world of sense abnegations are merely relative. The oppo- 
sition between the treatment of the two brothers is here 
emphatically set forth — the extra-honours paid to the one 
being contrasted with the non-burial of the other. The 
commentators seem to have no difficulty in believing that 
v^v is dative here. I have been obliged to use a para- 
phrase to give its full force. The collocation rto KaaiyvijTw 
Tov fiev — TOP Se — ^is as common as those with the genitive. 

24. irpoaOek SiKaia,'] Various attempts have been 
made to explain the vulgate '^^riadeh ^iKai(^^ but, as it 
appears to me, without the least success. Hermann would 
write y^priaOek in the sense of TrapayyeXOel^^ as if the 
reference were to the request of Eteokles that Kreon would 
bury him and leave his brother unburied (Triclinius : * Et€o- 
kX^s ore TTpos iroXe/nov e^fiei TraptfyyetXeu Kpiovri avTou 
liiev OdiTTeiVy WoXvveiKtiv S oi. cf. Eurip. Phceniss. 1660). 
But Antigone would hardly call this a just request. In 
fact, she expressly contradicts the supposition that Kreon's 
edict would have been agreeable to the wishes of Eteokles ; 
infra 515. Wunder and Dindorf get over the difficulty by 
omitting the line as spurious. But Emper will not relin- 

138 NOTES. [24—29. 

quish the hope that the corrupt words 'xpriaOeU SiKaiqL, may 
be set right by emendation. Now the emendation in the 
text appears to me to be not only so true but so easy, that 
I wonder it has never been suggested before : especially as 
more than one of the commentators has quoted from the 
Electra 47 : a^'yeXXc opKip TrpoariQei^^ in illustration of the 
supposed construction of these words. In the case of 
Eteokles, Kreon had not been content with observing the 
ordinary Iikyi and 1/0V09— he had made additions to the con- 
ventional usages, but they were righteous and justifiable 
additions — they did not, at all events, contravene any ^ac- 
fxovwv ^Uri. If instead of burying Eteokles with the cus- 
tomary rites, he had pre-eminently honoured him (tt/oo- 
T«cra<:, V. 22), it was merely by bestowing upon him those 
additional obsequies, which were due to one who had 
gained the apiarela in fighting for his father-land (see infra 
194 — 197) — it was an augmentation to him, but no depre- 
ciation to any one else ; and Antigone herself had willingly 
joined in the splendid ceremony (infra 875, 6). It seems 
to me therefore most natural, that Antigone should be made 
to speak of the funeral of Eteokles, as the corrected text 
makes her speak. That TrpofTTidrini may be properly used 
of additional honours paid to a tomb is clear from the 
Electra 933 : 

ol/ixai /uLaXicTT eycoye tou rr/OvrfKOTos 
/uLVtifieV 'Op€(TTov Tovra TrpoaOelvai rii/a. 

With regard to the interchange of the letters, I am con- 
vinced that many a true reading lies hid under a confusion 
between yp^ j^, and wp (written ^, /|^, and <Z2^), and even 
between r, ;^, and tt : thus we shall see below that irapeipwy 
has been written for yepaipwv, v. 366, and y uir for 7r/oo9, 
V. 640 ; and I can hardly doubt that in iEsch. Suppl. 877, 
where we have tjirpoya at/Xacr/ceis, the true reading is *aypia 
*yo,p av Xd(rK€i9. It may be added, that the aJy Xeyouai in 
V. 23 is quite unintelligible, unless there were some addition to 
the usual honours in the case of Eteokles : that he had been 
buried, was well known to Antigone. But she was not neces- 
sarily cognizant of the further distinctions decreed by Kreon. 

29—44.] NOTES. 139 

29. oiwvoh — /3o/c^as.] Bockh has remarked, that eia- 
opav here means ^^ to look with greediness.''^ I have explained 
and illustrated the phrase tt/oos x^P^^ (iopas in the New 
Cratylus^ pp. 359, 360. That Or/aavpo^ here means "a 
store of food," and not epimaiov^ as the Scholiast renders the 
word, appears to me quite clear. Pollux distinguishes be- 
tween the Orjaaupo^ as a receptacle of money and the rafueiov 
as the granary for com {Qnomast. IX. J 44) ; and Plato 
perhaps intends the same distinction, {Besp, VIII. p. 548, a.) ; 
but it is well known that Orjaaupo^ was also used in the 
latter sense ; see Aristot. (Econ, II. ^ 39. 

35, 36. aXX' os av — €p TroXe*.] There is the same 
mixture of the oratio ohliqua and directa in the recital of the 
edict of Xerxes, in iEsch. Pers. 364 — 373 : waGiv irpocpcovel 
TovSe vavapxpi^ Xoyov' €Vt av (pXeywu iiXio^ Xi;^>7...Tafas 
vewv ar7(poi k.t.X. cd? ei fiopov (f)€v^oiaO EWrfves /c.r.X. 
TTciaiv GTepeKydai Kparos rjv TrpoKeifxevov. roaavr eXe^e. 

38. eir evyevrj^ iret^vKa^^ eir eaOXwu ica/fi;.] This 
apparent confusion in terms is well illustrated by Eurip. 
Ekctr, 367, sqq. : 


ovK €(TT aKpifie^ ovoev €i9 evavoplap' 

expvoi yap Tapay/ULov a\ (f>va€i^ jiporHv ' 

tfoij yap elootf avopa yevvalov iraTpo^ 

TO iJLYihev oi/ra, j^/oi/o'Ta t* gk KaKwv rcKva, k.t.X' 

40. Xi;oi;<7* av tj '(pdirTovaa,^ Bockh has explained 
this proverbial expression by a reference to AJaas 1304 : el 
ikYi ^vydyf/wv dXXd auXXvawv irdpei. It is doubtful, however, 
whether there is the precise double reference which he sug- 
gests ; namely, that the Xvovaa refers to an interruption of 
Kreon's proceedings, and the ecpa-n-Touaa to the el ^vfnro- 
vYiaei^ Koi, ^vvepydaei of the following verse. I should be 
rather disposed to understand it generally, as I have express- 
ed it in the translation. 

44. diroppriTov.] That this adjective is masculine, 
appears from the next line, and from 404 : ov au tov vcKpou 

140 NOTES. 146—6^^ 

46. dS€\(p6v' — ctXcocroAiac.] Wunder, following Didy- 
mus, omits this line, which interrupts the ariy^o/mvOid. I do 
not agree with him. 

48. Twv efioiv,] This genitive is masculine. Cf. (Ed. 
Col. 830, Ulectr. 536, quoted by Wunder, and infra 1040, 
cited by Wex. The u added by Brunck is quite unneces- 
sary ; it is fully implied in the construction. 

50. cv(rK\€ii^.'\ Cf. (Ed. Col. 305 : iroXv ydoj to yepov^ 
TO (Tov ovofxa onjK€i Tra^ras. 

66, 57. avTOKTovovvre — €7raXXiy\o«' X^f'^*"'] ^^^ 
avToKTovvT€ = aWrjXoKTovouvTe^ and €7raXXi;Xoy « aXXi^Xo- 
(povo^^ see New Cratylits, pp. 220, 221. For the latter, which 
is due to Hermann, who has substituted it for the vulgate 
eir dXXiyXoii', Boissonade reads vw aXXryXo/i/^ and Emper, 
vir' aXXiJXo)!/. I think Hermann's is the only change required. 
For KOivov fjiopoVf see above ad v. 1. 

63, 64, eTTcira Se — dXylova.^ The commentators are 
not agreed as to the construction of this passage. Wex, 
and after him Wunder, would understand ovvcKa here in 
its causative sense, and supply ^ei or ;^>;, with clkovciv. I 
take ovv€Ka as a synonym for ort^ a sense in which Sophocles 
often uses the word : e. g. Phihct. 232 : aXX', w fei;*, iaOt 
TovTo TTpwTovy ovv€Ka \LWr)V€s ec/uLcv, And the construc- 
tion is aXX €vvo€iv '^prj tovto fiev on eipvfxev yvvoLiKe^ cwy, 
^.t'.X. eTreira ce ovvcKa («=ori) dp'^ofieaOa [ftHTTe] aKouetv. 
For the apposition of the infinitive without afare, I find a 
reason in the peculiar signification of the verbs e(f>viJLev and 
dpxo/meaOa, which naturally reject the aid of ware, a particle 
only required to strengthen a comparison. Hermann sup- 
poses that a line has fallen out between Kpetaaovwv and Kai — 
such as — war ovSev av yevoiro v^)v olkos to fii^ ov. — This 
would be more necessary if aKoveiv meant "to obey.'' I 
conceive it bears its ordinary meaning : the 0X705 of the edict 
primarily afiected the ears (infr. 319) : and as for the neces- 
sity of their obedience, that is asserted by Ismene in v. 62, 

70—94.] NOTES. 141 

70. cfiov y av ij^itos ^/oy^ys /mera.^ Dindorf finds fault 
with Brunck's version : Itiiens te utar adjutrice^ and prefers 
the rendering lubens mecum fades. This seems to me to 
make nonsense of the passage. As ri^ew^ is constantly used 
with av and the opt. in the sense of hibenter^ it might have 
been better if Sophocles had written ifioiye^ as in 436 : 
iySea)9 e/jLoiye KciXyeivcis ufia. But it is clear that this is 
the meaning : ouk av e/uoiye iJSea;s jner €/ulov 5pr^i;s. 

71. *ifcr0' oTTo/^ aoi SokcI.] The majority of the commen- 
tators read ottoTo, and understand ladi as the imperative of 
olSa. I have followed Hermann, because I think that the 
reference is to v. 38. 

83. fiii *fxov.] I think the emphatical antithesis of tou 
aov TroT/uiov renders this reading necessary. 

86, 87. TToXXov €')^Oiwv eaei aiy(va\ edi* fiij Traa** Krj- 
pvl^in TaSe.] This epexegesis, (which in the present case is 
equivalent to exOlwv (riyaxra fj Kr/pu^aaa,) is found not only 
in negative appositions, as here and (Ed. Tyr. 57: eprffio^ 
dvcpwv firi ^vvoiKouvTcov ecro), but also where the explanation 
is positive, as in iEsch. Ckoeph. 742: ^ ^ kXvwv ckcIvos 
€u(ppav€i vooVf evT av TrvOr/Tai fxvOov. 

88. Oepn^v — e;^e«s.] "iTuxpo^ here refers to the chill 
of fear; cf. iEsch. Sept. c. Theb, 816: kukov fxe KapSiav n 
'TrepiTTiTvei Kpvo^. Eumen, 165: irape<TTi fmaaTiKTopo^ oaiov 
oa^iiov (iapv ti wepifiapv Kpvo^ ej^eii^. Prom, 692 : ovS^ cSSe 
SucOeara Kai ovaotcrTa irYip^ara^ XiJ/uara, oeittara diu(p^K€i 
Kevrpw y\fvy€iv yj/vxav cfxav. See also Hom. Tl. IX. 2, XIII. 
48. Find. P. IV. 73. /. I. 37. 

94. e^Op^ — SiKTj.'] We agree with Emper in accept- 
ing ihe emendation which he attributes to Lehrs. As he 
rightly observes, SiKrf by itself is an awkward and languid 
termination to the line, and exOpd SUri is jus inimicorum, so 
that the meaning iBJure inimicorum apudmortuum eris. And 
he compares 8q>t. c. Theb. 397 : oIkti o ojxaliiwv Kapra vtv 




.96. TO oeivov TovTo.] Sophoclefi uses Stivos, and its 
derivative Sevvd^w of threatening language : cf. Ajax. 650, 
(for which see my note on Find. 0. VI. 82), 312 ; infra 760 
compared with 743, 744. Eurip. HeracL 642 : e^oi yap 
ijXOei oeiif a ir e iXij a oji^ infj, 

100 — 101. Parodos. The following scheme will explain 
the metres of this ode. 


J_ ^ 

1 KJ 

a'Tpo(pri a. 

<j ^ 

J. KJ - 

II -^ ^ I - 

J- ^ KJ U JL KJ 

- - I -^ II 

KJ \\ J. \J \J 

KJ ^ KJ 
t II 

— KJ 
\ yj KJ KJ 




± KJ KJ \ ± 

J. KJ KJ \ ± 

(TvaTYifxa a. 

Three anapaestic dimeters and a paroemiac ; followed by 
a dimeter, a basis, and a paroemiac. 

(TTpo<f>ri /3'. 

1. Lkjkj\Lkjkj\J-kjkj\\Lkj\-.^ 

2. 1kjkj\Lkj\j\1^kj^L\j\^^ 

3. - - II i w V I ^ II 

4. _ _ II 1 C II 1 vv. II 1 II 

5. 1 . I - II ^ w I - .|| 

7. -i w ^ I X _ II 

101 — 106.] NOTES. 143 

(TvcrTfjfjLa /3'. 

Seven anapaestic dimeters followed by a paroemiac. 

I have explained elsewhere the principles which I con- 
sider applicable to the scansion of the Chorusses of Sophocles, 
and also some of my objections to the system of compound 
feet, as they are called ( Varronianus, pp. 175, 176; 275, 276). 
Whether we divide the lines as I have done, and consider 
the first two as one line, the rhythm will remain the same, — 
namely, a basis, and a dactyl followed by a cretic, considered 
as the ultimate form of a trochaic dipodia. The first syllable 
of ')^pv(T€as is made short ; see Bockh, de Metris Pindaric 
p. 289 ; Hermann, Dial. Pind. p. ix. ; and El. Doctr. Metr. 
p. 44.; Elmsley, ad Med. 618. 2r^. a. 10, j3'. 1, /3'. 7, 
are special metres, called the Pherecrateus^ Praxillem^ and 
Adonius, On the antispast in a 4, as expressing the rising 
of the sun, and the sudden departure of the Argive host, see 
note on the op-^^ricrriKov infra v. 1111.; and for the trochcei 
semanti in a 6, 6, )3' 4, see Hermann EL Doctr, Metr, p. 660. 

106. ^ipKaiow virep peeOpcov fioXovaa.j As the Dirke, 
a little river, flowing from several fountains, ran to the west 
of Thebes (see the passages quoted by Miiller, Orchom. p. 
487), Sophocles has made an error in taking it as the pna- 
mon of sun-rise, unless we understand him as speaking rather 
of the sun's course than of his point of rising. Cf. Xen. 
Mem. III. 8, J 9: ovkovv iv toIs tt/oos fieariikfipiav fiXeirov 
<7a»9 oiKiais ToS /ueV '^ei/iiaivos 6 tjXios ei? rds TracrraSas vtto- 
XdiuLTreif Tov oe Oepov^ virep v^kSv avTwv Kal twv aTeywv tto- 
peuojuievos cTKiav irape'^^ei. See, however, the Introduction, J 7. 

106. *Apyi'iov,^ I have adopted Bockh's reading as 
the best of the means proposed for completing the measure 
of this line. Brunck suggested ef 'ApyoOev^ which does not 
mend the metre, Erfurdt, dir 'ApyoOevj and Hermann, whom 
Dindorf follows, ^Apyodev ck scil. eKfiavra. The reading 
'ApyoOev is perhaps due to some scholiast who did not under- 
stand the participle jSai/ra, which, being placed without the 
article, cannot be descriptive, but must be a secondary pre- 
dicate, connected in the construction with iravcay'uf, only: 

144 NOTES. [100— 110. 

cf. infra 127 — 130. Ho speaks of "the Argive waw/** in- 
stead of the " Argive host/^ on account of the simile of the 
eagle which immediately follows; and also with a special 
reference to the flight of Adrastus on his horse Jrion, as 
described in the Cyclic Thebais : hence the (f>vyd^a irp6~ 
Spofiov o^. x^X/ffli). See the Introduction note (32). For 
(pmy in the sense of " brave man,*" or " warrior,^ see Hom. 
//. IV. 194; XXI. 546; and Od. XXI. 26, where it is 
applied to Hercules. In Pers, 90, peufxa (pooTcop means " a 
stream of warriors.'^ 

109, 110. o^vrepip Kwrjaaaa x^Xm^u.] I have suffi- 
ciently illustrated this metaphor in the New Cratyltis^ p. 225. 
Emper has seen the full force of the comparative o^vTepo). 
He says, " the defeated Argives marched off during the 
night. The rays of the rising sun, which the Chorus here 
addresses, drive the Argives to a more rapid flight, i. e. more 
rapid than their former flight during the night ; for the 
danger of being pursued became more imminent after day- 

110 sqq. ov €<p* afnerepq, yq, <f . r. X.] The accusa- 
tive ovy without any verb to account for it, and the loss of a 
dipodia in the anapaestic system, shew that there is a lacuna 
in these lines. Dindorf indeed would get over the former 
difficulty by assuming an anacolwthon. In his opinion, the 
poet wrote ov as if riyaye had followed, but substituted for 
this verb the fuller description apOe\% — aieros es yav vwep- 
eirra. Wunder, who sets at nought the metrical difficulty, 
would read os and WoXweiKov^^ with Scaliger and others: 
he interprets apQeh by the phrase aipetv aroKov. I think 
that in this parodos the equilibrium of the anapaestic systems 
must be strictly maintained, for the reasons given in the Intro- 
duction, § 8 ; and I agree with Erfurdt and Wex that a verb 
is required : for although the participles suggested by Her^ 
mann and Bockh would obviate the difficulty occasioned by 
the accusative oi;, it seems to me that, as they would refer 
the image of the white-winged eagle to Polyneikes, and not 
to the white-shielded host of the Argives, which is undoubt- 

no.] NOTES. 145 

edly the ground of the comparison, they would only introduce 
a partial correction into the passage before us. The fol^ 
lowing are the readings proposed : 

Erfurdt : [ewopevae ' 6ow^ 5*] o^ia icXa^coi;. 

Hermann : w^ [awayeipa^^ virepeirTa. 

Bockh : [ayaywy Ooupio^^ o^c^a kXo^wv. 

Wex : Uiyeipeif' 6 o] aieros els ydv wy. 

With a slight change in the order of words I have received 
the last of these. Wex has derived the verb, which, in 
common with Hermann, he has selected as that proper to the 
passage, from the words of the Scholiast, supported by an 
apt quotation from Homer. The Scholiast writes: ouriva 
arrparov Apyeicov e^ d/uL(pt\oywv veiKecov dpOeh fiyayev o 
IIoXt;i/6<fct/s; and Wex suggests that 'Apyemv is a corrup- 
tion of dyeipojv^ so that the Scholiast was explaining the 
tjyeipev of the text by the periphrasis ayeipwv rjyaye^ 
Thus Homer Jl. IV. 377 : 

feii/oy djuL avriOetp TloXvveiKei Xaov ayelpwv 

oi pa TOT ecTTpaTowvO* iepa irpo^ rcij^ea GiyjSi/v. • 

of. (Ed. Col. 1306: 

o7ra)9 Tov eTTTaXoy^ov €9 Qtjlia^ <tt6Xov 
^vv To7a^ dyelpag k.t.X* 

where Polyneikes is speaking. As there does not appear 
to be any particular reason for departing from the usual 
practice of keeping the dipodise separate, and as the Scho- 
liast recognizes the position of the cSs after aieros, I have 
written : 

tfyetpev' o o eis ycivy aleTO^- a»9, 

6^ea'KXd(^wv virepeirTa. 

The paroemiac, which I have thus introduced here and in 
the corresponding verse of the antisystem, seems to me to 
be quite in accordance with the usual practice in the case of 
the parodus. The pauses in the march-time are similarly 
indicated in the parodus of the Ajaa^ the SuppUces of 
iGschylus, the Persce^ and the Jffamemnan. It is scarcely 


146 NOTES. [114—116. 

necesBary to mention that I have endeavoured to exprefls 
in the version the play of words in the original. 

114. XeuKfji 'x^Lovos irrepuyi (TT€yav6^J\ This con- 
struction of the genitive has been fiilly illustrated by gram- 
marians and commentators : see Matthia, G. Gr. j[ 316 f. 
and the note on Pind. P. XI. 33, 34. The philological 
explanation of the idiom is given in the New Cratylus^ 
p. 379. The poet may have had various reasons' for com- 
paring the Argive host to a snow-white eagle. The white 
shields of the Argives are mentioned by iEschylus {Sept. c. 
Theh, 90) and Euripides {Phcen. 1115); the great acTrcs 
covering the whole body would suggest the broad wing of 
the eagle, when let down, as it is constantly seen in archaic 
art : and the image of the eagle itself would be derived from 
the almost proverbial hostiUty of the aiero^ and the SpaKwv 
(see the passages quoted by Wunder on v. 124, and by 
Orelli on Horace, IV. Carm. 4, 11,) combined with the legend- 
ary origin of the Thebans. Moreover, I would venture to 
suggest that the white Argive eagle and the argent shield 
of the Argive warriors may have had some reference to the 
name of the people — namely, that they were dpyavrei 
because 'Apyeloi. At any rate, the two eagles which repre- 
sented the brother kings of Lacedsemon and Argos are 
described by ^Eschylus Agam, 114 as o /ceXaiyos o t e^oiriv 
apya%. That the Atreidse bore a Satumian sceptre is 
stated in the tradition (Homer //. II. 102 sqq.), and the 
Satumian sceptre was surmounted by an eagle (Pind. P. 
I. 6). There is an obvious reason for the black shield 
assigned to Menelaus by iEschylus. But the Spartans 
might have been distinctively fxeXayxkaivoi^ like the Scy- 
thians so called. 

116, 116. 7ro\Xa!i^ lULcff oirXwv ^vv ff liriroKOfion Kopi^ 
06<7o-ii/.] As Sophocles might have said iroWols l^vv ottXok 
as well as l^vv 'nnroKoiuLoi^ KopvOeacrip^ (cf. Pind. N. I. 61 : 
Kaofxeiwv dyoi ^aXic€oi9 adpooi crvv oirXois eSpafxov,) and 
as there was no metrical reason to prevent hhn from doing 
80, we must suppose that there was some cause which induced 

116, 117.] NOTES. 147 

this subtle and accurate writer to employ two different pre- 
positions in the present passage. Although /lera and ^vv 
both signify connexion or conjunction, and although uerd 
with the genitive is often used in a signification which cor- 
responds, in part at least, to that of ^vu with the dative, 
the force of these prepositions in composition with verbs 
may show us that /uerd implies rather juxtaposition, or 
placing side by side, in company or participation, (and this 
is, in fact, the force of the genitive case with which it is 
combined in this signification,) and that ^vv denotes a closer 
union and a more complete conjunction. I believe then 
that Sophocles, in reference to' the wings of the eagle, uses 
ottXov here in the proper and original sense — namely, to 
signify the oo-ttxs only. And this is implied in the etymo- 
logy of the word : for the ottXoj/, or " thing moved about in 
defence'^ (cttco), and the poir-aXovy or " thing brought down 
heavily to strike" (pena)), would form the two arms offensive 
and defensive of the primitive warrior. As then he had 
spoken before of the wavaayla or rravoTrXia of this warrior- 
host, he here takes its two principal parts, the shield and 
helmet, and says that the Argives came with many shields 
by their sides and with many helmets, as a part of them, on 
their heads. The student of ancient art is aware that the 
heavy-armed combatants on the iEginetan pediment have 
only the large shield and helmet, while the bowmen are in 
mail. See Miiller's Denkmdler, I. no. 28. The spears are 
mentioned immediately afterwards in v. 119. .^schylus 
expresses the whole equipment of a Greek hoplite in the 
words : €y')(fi ara^aia Kal (pepdairioes aayai. 

117. crras — (povdaaiaiv.] The ara^ virep ixekdQpiov 
probably refers to the position of the Argive camp on the 
Ismenian hill. Struve did not think of this when he proposed 
to read irras. The conjecture, of (povaxiaiatv for <f>oviai<TiVy 
which is claimed by both Bockh and Hermann, is undoubtedly 
required by the sense and the metre, and appears to have 
existed in the text as read by one of the Scholiasts, who 
writes : rai^ rwv (poptvv epwaroua Xo^x^ts ; for (povav is de- 


148 NOTES. [124—130. 

fined by the gloBsographers as equivalent to (poi/ov eirSufxeip^ 
or eToi/uiw^ 7rf}os ro (poveveiv e'^eip, 

124 — 126. Tolos — ^poLKovTi.^ It seems to me very 
surprising that any doubt should be entertained about the 
meaning of these words. The construction obviously is : 
Toloy irarayo^ Apeos aiUL(f>i vwra [roi; aieTov^ avTiirdXtfi 
SpdhOVTi Suaxeipiv/uLa irdOri. The clatter of the pursuing 
host was prolonged in the rear of the flying Argives : and as 
these were represented by the eagle, so the Thebans are 
described as the dragon or serpent, which had proved his 
match in the fight. Now this war-clatter, or the onset of a 
pursuing host which had shown itself avritraXo^ in the battle, 
was a Sva^eipw/ua to the defeated army, for the very same 
reason that made a defeated army itself ei'xelpwTOi (iEsch. 
Pers. 468). The word ^va^eipwixa^ therefore, which is pre- 
dicated secondarily, or through irdOri^ is well placed before 
the causative case Spdhoi^ri^ and after the epithet ai/riTrcxX^, 
which contributes so much to its meaning* For ai^nVaXos 
cf. iEschyl. Sept c. Theb. 417 : tov d/uov vvv cu^tittoXuv 
evTv^eiv Oeol odlev, 

130. y^pvaoUf Kavay^ri ff vTr€p6ir\ou^S\ In the two 
passages in the Persce of iEschylus, in which we find pevfxa 
used to signify the advance of an army, it is coupled with a 
genitive explanatory of the metaphor : thus, v. 90 : SoKi/ioi 
C ouTii vrrocTTa^ /u€ya\(p peufian (pwTwv, and v. 414: rd 
irpwTa mev cyj pevfia UlepatKod arparov. And although 
this assistance is less necessary in the case before us, I think 
it makes the metaphor more picturesque, if we take the 
genitive ^pvaody which stands so awkwardly in this line, 
as a complement of the noWtp pevfiuTi^ which precedes. 
The epithet itoWtp merely refers to the common collocation 
iroKvi pel: so in the more direct expression of the metaphor 
before us in iEschyl. Sept c. Theh. 80 : fm woXvs coSe Xewi 
npoSpo/iAos liTTTOTas, where the nature of the stream is clearly 
stated. I believe that the xpvaos refers to the helmets 
which were adorned with this metal ; for while the breast- 

130—133.] NOTES. 149 

plate was chiefly of bronze (whence the epithet ^aXfcojui/T/oiys), 
and the greaves of tin, the helmet often had a gold or 
gilded crest (cf. Horn. //. XVIII. 612), whence the epithet 
'X^pua-eoTTTJXrf^. Now as the helmets, and their crests waving 
backwards and forwards, gave the idea of the fluctuating 
surface of a stream when an army was advancing in order 
of battle, it seems to me neither forced nor unpoetical to say, 
that an advancing army iroXvs pel xpi/trfp, or, what is the 
same thing, TrpoaviaaeTai noWep peiikaTi y^ucrov : cf. Strabo, 
p. 625 : pel o o UaKToAo^ awo rod T/txwXov Karacpepov to 
TToXaiop yjpvGov y^riyfxa ttoXv. On the other hand, I think 
that Kava^ri refers to the heavy tramp of the armed multi^ 
tude, coupled with the clang of their hollow shields against 
each other: cf. //. XVI. 794, with Od. VI. 82. The emen- 
dation virepoirkov^ seems to me required by the sense. All 
the MSS. have vwepoirTias^ over which the correction 
uirepoTTTas is written in the oldest Laurentian MS. I con- 
sider these corruptions as having been suggested by vwepewTa 
in the corresponding verse of the antisystema. We have other 
instances in this play of corruptions which have arisen in 
precisely the same manner. See below v. 606, and elsewhere. 
Hermann and some others adopt the Laurentian correction 
i/Trepo-TTxay; Brunck proposed i;7r€/>07rXla«s ; Emper suggests 
i/Tre^ooTrX^i'Tay ; and Bockh has substituted vweponreias, 

131. fiaXfiiSwv.] Hermann justly remarks, that )3aX- 
fliSwv " de extreme loco in quo quis consistit, et hic quidem 
de summa parte muri dicitur." The prep, eirl here bears 
its proper sense with the gen. — i.e. it denotes parallelism at 
a certain height from the ground. 

133. opfxwvTa.'\ Wunder's translation, aliquem qui 
parabat, may be added to the numberless instances of inac- 
curate syntactical knowledge on the part of professed scholars 
in Germany. The participle thus placed without the article 
can never signify aUqtiem qui parabat, but must mean quum 
pararety scil. he 09 to re eireirvei. The antecedent is omitted 
because the story of Kapan^s was well known : the participle 
itself merely indicates the moment at which the bolt struck him. 

150 NOTES. [133—140. 

133. aAaXaf ai.] Schol. : wauavio'cu. 

134. dvriTvirq.] I agree with Neue, Wunder, and 
Dindorf, in adopting Porson'^s correction of the common 
reading avTirvTra^ which other commentators attempt to de- 

135. 7rvp<l)6po9y] I can see no reason for removing 
the conmia after thk word. As a secondary predicate it 
may as well be referred to weae^ as to eireiri/et- See some 
good remarks in K. O. Muller^s Kleine Deutsche Schri/tetif I. 
p. 310. The reference is to the yv/mvov avSpa Trvpcpopor on 
the shield of Kapaneus (^sch. Sept. c. Theb. 417), and 
perhaps to the name of this mythological warrior {Kairavev^j 
Kaw-vo^i iraFcu, Kci^ipo^) ; and the meaning is, that irvpfpo^ 
poi as he was, down he went before the mightier fire of Zeus. 

136— 137, OS— ai'e/uwi;.] For piwal avefiwv^ see be- 
low on v. 904. I think we have here another allusion to the 
name Kanavevs ; cf. iEsch. Sept. c. Theb, 340 : aSXa^ ^ 
aWov ayet rd oe kuI wvpcbopel' tcairv^ ')(^paiv€Tcu iro- 
\i<r/uL airav. fiatv6/uL€vo9 c eirtrrvel AaoSdfiag fuaivwv 
evaefieiau ''Aptjs. 

139, 140. et')(€ o a\X<f xa /ui«i^— — oe^iocrefpo?.] I have 
not scrupled to adopt Bockh^s emendation, and I think with 
him that the rd Se must be considered as a marginal gloss on 
aWof which has crept into the text. The meaning appears 
to be : ^' some things happened in one way,^ i.e. Kapaneus 
was destroyed by Zeus, as the chorus has just mentioned : 
^' but mighty Ares, acting as an additional horse on the right, 
where his aid was most required, bestowed other things, in the 
way of a rough handling, on others," i. e. our warriors, with 
the assistance of the god of war, gained the victory in other 
parts of the field. I cannot agree with some of the com- 
mentators in thinking that el^e is here used in the sense of 
cVcix^* It appears to me to be merely the verb of relation, 
as in Msch. Sept. e. Theb. 799 : KuXok e-xjBi to TrXelar iv 
ef TTvXw/uLaaiv' ray ^ efiSofxa^ k.t,\. For the phrase aWp 

140—143.] NOTES. 151 

€j^e«, cf. Philoct, 22 sq. : aij/xaiy eiT ej^ei "^wpop irpo^ 
avTov Tovoe y eiT aWri Kupei — ^for aijfiaive eire ovro)^ ej^ct 
eire aWri. 

2Ti;<^eXx^ft), from aTu(f>€\6^^ or aTv(p\6^ (a synonym 
for ')(€p<ro99 Tpa')(ySy aKXrfpos^ ^^aAcTroj, Sckol, ApolL Shod. 
II. 1007. cf. infra, v. 250), is used by Homer to signify 
the infliction of hard blows with stones, spears, or other 
weapons, (//. V. 437; VII. 261 ; XII. 405 ; XVI. 774.) 
Whence aTvcpeXo^ is an epithet of a warrior : iEsch. Pers. 
80 : 6y(upo7ai ireTrotOaj^ arvcpeXols efperais* 

Backh, and after him Wander, understand the first part 
of the compound oef xooreijoos, as referring to oe^io^ "A^j/y, 
Mars adjutor, I think this unnecessary. The Greeks used 
to place the strongest horse on the right side, and as an out- 
rigger, because in the SpojULo^ the gallop went to the left 
about (see Hermann Opmcula^ Vol. I. p. 69). And as 
<T€ipa(p6po^ signifies " an assistant ^^ in general (iEsch. J^, 
850), Se^ioaetpo? would mean "an assistant on the right 
hand, where he was most needed."*' Now the Greeks in 
battle were always anxious to be covered on the right side 
(see Thucyd. V. 71). Consequently, there is a double pro- 
priety in the metaphor. See below on w. 291, 662. 

The person who stood on the right hand of the chorus 
was called Se^ioardTtjSy (cf. Pollux, Onom. II. 161 ; IV. 106). 
As there was an intimate connexion between the arrange- 
ments of the chorus and the phalanx, it is by no means im- 
probable that this name, as well as Tra/oao-raTi;?, was applied 
to soldiers in battle. If so, the full force of the compound 
Se^iocreipoi would at once be felt by any one of the original 

141. eiTTa Xo^ayol] It would aeem from thip that 
Sophocles did not reckon Eapaneus among the seven. But 
see Wunder on (Ed. Col 1308 sq. 

143. Zi;i/2 — reXiy.] Bockh rightly remarks, that we 
must not understand weapons hung up as an ofiering in the 
temple, but iravoTrXiai arranged as trophies, as appears from 
the phrase Zrivl TpoiraKf. I would venture to suggest that 
they decorated the scene in this Tragedy. 

152 NOTES. [144—161. 

144. ttXiJi/ Toil/ (TTvyepoiuJ] As each was victorious, 
there was no one to offer up the trophy to Zeus. This shows 
the true force of the SiKpareh Xoyx'^^^ which Brunck rightly 
translated utrinque matrices. Passow makes a strange blun- 
der, when he supposes that the reference is to large spears 
hurled with both hands. As we shall see directly, they did 
not throw, but thrust at one another. 

146. Kuff ai/roli;.] Above on v. 66. 

146. Xo7xav aTiicravre.] It will be observed that the 
poet makes his combatants thrust at one another with their 
lances, according to the fashion of soldiers in his own time, 
and according to the plan recommended by Nestor to his 
chariot-warriors, IL IV. 306, 7. Similarly, Virgil departs 
from the Homeric type in many respects. The word foinej 
which I have introduced in the translation, was commonly 
employed in our language to express the push of the pike or 
spear, at a time when these weapons were in constant use : 
e.g. Bemer's Froissart^ Vol. II. c. 317: "they began to 
fcnne with spears, and strike with axes and swords.'' Chaucer, 
KnigMs Tale, v. 1656: 

^And after that with sharpe speares strong, 
They /oinden eche at other wonder long." 

Mart cT Arthur, Part I. c. 134 : "they went to battle again, 
tracing, racing, Bxid/oininff, as two boars.^ 

147. Koiuov Oavarov.] Above v. 1. 

149. dpTixapeiaa.] " Sharing in her joy and congra- 
tulating her upon her success.'^ Schol. : *iaou avrrj 'xapelacu 
On the personification of places, see cut Find. 0, III. 9, 
VI. 84 ; and Bockh on the latter passage for the epithet 

163. €\€\l'xj9wv.'\ i.e. with dancing, as the Scholiast 
rightly explains it. 

155 — 161.] Kpewp — awrvx^iaig*^ As I believe with 
Bockh that this antisystem should agree in number of lines 

155—160.] NOTES. 153 

with the last system of anapaests, and as I think the sup- 
plement which he has introduced is as likely as any other 
to convey the intended meaning of the poet, I have allowed 
it to appear in the text, and have expressed it in the trans- 
lation. On the synizesis in Kpewvy the student may con- 
sult Dindorf arf (Ed. Col 1073. 

158. Tiva Sfj fxijTiv epeacrcav.^ With. Hermann, I 
prefer the interrogative here. That Ereon had some plan 
was clear from his convocation of the Oerusia. For epear- 
awvy see below on v. 231. 

159, 160. oTi (TvyKXtjTov Tijvde yepovTwv irpovOero 
Xecrxnv.] The Prytanes at Athens were said wpoOelvai 
eKKXfjdiau^ not irpoOeaOai. But Kreon, as a sovran ruler, 
could call a meeting, not to hear their suggestions, but to 
communicate his will, and therefore would naturally use the 
middle voice with that distinction of meaning, which is well 
known in the opposition between Oelvai and OeaOai vomov. 
In Lucian^s Necyomantia^ c. 19,_wefind the following obvious 
discrimination of irpodelvai and irpoOeaOai : ov yap olS' 
07ra>9, irepi tovtov Xeyeiv TrpoOefievo^^ ira/uLTroXu aTreTrXai^i}- 
Ofjv ccTTO Tov Xoyou' oiarpifiovTo^ y^P f^^^ 'trap' a(/TO<s, 
irpoiOeaav o\ irpvraveis eKKXrjalau irepl tcSi; koivyi autKpe" 
povTwv. Hemsterhuis concludes an excellent note on these 
words by a reference to the passage in the text. " Nunc 
liquido patet unde duxerit Sophocles in Antig, 165 : on 
(TvyKXtiTov — ^€/A>|/as* solemne est ingeniosissimo poetae 
phrases a suae gentis moribus derivatas aliorsum apte tra- 
ducere : cui, praeter illud irpoOeaOai Xeaxv^^ hisce lectis non 
statim eKKXtfala cuyKXtjTo^ in memoriam venit i neque ob- 
scurum est perito linguae Oraecae, quare cum in superioribus 
exemplis irpoQeivai conspiciatur, ipse medium usurparit.'' 
The commentat<9k*s ought to have remarked, that, by using 
Xeo-x*?, instead of j3oi;Xi;, the poet has told us that this was 
a private conference, and not a public convocation. The 
inconsiderable number of persons in the chorus partly implied 
this : it is expressly stated below, in v. 1 64, that this was 
a very select council ; and it appears from v. 821 that they 

154 NOTES. [160--174. 

were the wealthy men of Thebes — the avoKres^ as they are 
termed in v. 955. The Koivtp Ktjpvyixan Tre/myf/a^ is ex- 
plained by the irofXTrols eaTeiXa 'iKecrOai of v. 164, and 
implies that a message was sent to each of them. Cf. for 
m/uLTros, (Ed. T. 289, (Ed. Col 70, and for koivo^, PkU. 
1130, (Ed. Col. 61. By Ktlpuyiia, he does not mean a 
public proclamation in the market-place, but the herald's 
summons at the house of each of the elders. Similarly, the 
members of the Roman curicp were summoned by the thirty 
lictors of the curicB^ and the condtia ouriata were thence 
termed the comitia calata^ ** the called or summoned assem- 
bly,'* in contradistinction to the comitia centuriata, which 
were convened by the sound of trumpet. In general^ it is 
to be observed that Ki^pvl^ and Ktipuaaw refer to a call by 
the voice (cf. ytjpv^, Kpa^w, Kpavyijy &c.), as distinguished 
from any other means of summoning. It is worthy of 
remark, that in the passage in the book of Daniel j in which 
the Greek is seen through a very transparent covering, the 
borrowed term p*l5 Mpu^) is placed by the side of the 

genuine Semitic X'lp (III. 4), with which it has an un- 
doubted afiSnity. The aphel verb which occurs in Dan. 
V. 29, is clearly nothing more than a derivation from this 
foreign root. If there were no other Greek words in Dan. 
III. 4, we might compare the Sanscrit Krus and the Zend 
Khrem, which are adduced by Gesenius. 

162. iroWi^ craXy— -TraXii;.] The phrase (xdXtff ael' 
aavT€s is well illustrated by (Ed. T. 22 ; Plut. Phoc. c. III. 
Fab. Max. c. XXVII., which are cited by Wex'. The verb 
6p66(M) here and v. 166, and the secondary predicate opO^^ 
in V. 190, are borrowed from the same reference to a ship, 
which is called 6p9n when it does not heel over to either 
side. With the Greek rowing-galleys, no less than with our 
steamers, it was very desirable to maintain the proper trim. 

174. y€vou9 KOT ay^^KTTcla.ll The more common 
ayx^^Teia is thus explained by the author of the Xe^eiy 
priropiKai {Bekker. Anecd. p. 413): ay j^^iarelai crvyyeveia. 
Kal a-y^icrTely oi dwo dSeXtpwv Kal dv€\l/i<Sif Kai Oeiwif 

174—190.] NOTES. 155 

Kara irarepa Koi fxtfrepa eyyvrdrw rov reXei/TiJcrai/To?. 
oi Se efw TovTcou avyyevel^ fxovov. oi oe kut eiriyafjilav 
/uLt^OevTCi Tois oiKois oiK€^oi XeyovTai, And yet Thu- 
cydides says (I. 9) Kara to oIkcIov of the very relationship 
referred to in the text — that between Atreus and Eurystheus. 
In Pindar (P. IX. 64), and iEschylus (Jffom, 237), ayxtcr- 
Tos signifies merely *' nearest at hand to protect," like the 
prcBsem numen of the Romans : cf. CEid. T. 919. In this 
sense I have introduced the word in v. 939 infra. 

176. ^vyj]v re koi (j>p6vr)ijia Kai yvcifxijUf^ It would 
be an injustice to Sophocles to suppose that he used these 
three words as idle synonyms. The connexion by means of 
T€ Kai shows an intimate union; but there is still a dif- 
ference, which it was important to mark. By \{/vx^ is 
meant the fabric of a man's mind and character; by (ppovrjjua, 
that mind as it manifests itself in the general tenour of his 
outward actions, especially in relation to politics ; and by 
yvtijuifiy the dogmatical expression of the meaning in words ; 
so that (f>povYifxa and yvdy^ri are distinct and successive 
manifestations of the v//i;x^ — ^^ former being the Trpoaipeai^ 
or willy a unity of which contributes to the formation of a 
political party, and which by itself regulates the enactments 
of a ruler : and the latter being the meaning or sentiment^ 
which expresses in words, or justifies to the reason, that 
which is already felt to be a sufficient motive for the will 
and choice. See above, v. 169, below, v. 207, for (f>povriiJia. 
The whole speech, as an exposition of the <f>p6vriiixa which 
springs from the >|/i/x»; of Kreon, is his yvw/mfj. For cKfiap- 
Oavo) cf. Eurip. Med, 220: ocns, irplu dvcpo^ (nrXdyy- 
vov cKfiaOelv aa(pcis GTvyel deoopKti^. 

178. eVoJ ydp^^ The particle ydp^ and in prose 701/1/, 
are frequently used thus at the beginning of a narrative or 
exposition: see below, w. 238, 405, 983. The English particle 
" for" is rarely an adequate representative of yap. Our phrases 
" in fact," " the fact is," " in point of fact," " if you come to 
that," &c., are much better equivalents in very many cases. 

185 — 190. ovT av aKOTniaaijULi — Troiovfxeda.^ There 

156 NOTES. [190—208. 

is a parallelism in this passage, which has not, I think, been 
sufficiently noticed : Kreon says that he would not purchase 
his own mfety by winking at that which would bring mis- 
chief on his people : and that he would not select a friend 
from among the enemies of his country : for that our safetf 
depends on the security of our country, and tha,t friends are 
naught, except when our native land is in prosperity. Emper 
has pointed out the proper interpretation of dvTi r^f (raynf 
pla^. For although there is nothing in the words them* 
selves to prevent us from referring the awTtipla to the same 
object as the firri (cf. infra v. 314, 439), it is clear that 
Kreon is here opposing the individual avDrripia to the public 
aT97, and is arguing for the fact that no individual is really 
safe unless his country is so likewise : for viS cgtIv i? 
acil^ovaa. The article, in ti^v aTtiv and rovi <pi\ou^^ must 
not be neglected. By rrjv arriv is meant the mischief which 
always comes upon the citizens of a free state, when a man, 
through fear of his eraipoi, or intimate associates, acquiesces 
in their corrupt or seditious designs: and to 1/9 (piKov^ 
implies that those are not friends, in any true sense of 
the term, whose friendship tends to an interference with the 
state'*s equilibrium. For the nautical sense of aw^w, awrti- 
pia^ I may refer to my note on Find. 0. VIII. 20 — 27. 

196. ecpayvlaai.] This is, no doubt, the true read- 
ing. I believe the word refers to honours paid at the tomb 
subsequently to the regular sepulture — those spayiafiara twv 
KaToi')(oiiA€vwv which Pindar calls aifxaKoupiai^ 0. I. 90. See 
above on v. 25. 

205, 206. eSv S' adanTov — ihlv.] There is no good 
reason for the alteration aiKiarov x , or for the reading 
aiKiaOev r\ The construction is, aiKiaOevra iSclv Scfia^ 
irpoi oiwvwv Koi irpos kvvwv eoeoTOv. 

208, Trpoe^oua ] Hermann proposes npo^e^oua'^ with 
what signification it is difficult to see. The hiatus may be 
excused by the aspirate : cf. auroevrti^. Sophocles makes 
Kreon represent any honour paid to Polyneikes as a dimi- 
nution of those due to Eteokles : below v. 512. 

212—215.] NOTES. 15? 

212. Tov. — TToXci.] Dindorf proposes /cas rov eu/ueui], 
I agree with Hermann, Wex, and Bockh, that no altera- 
tion is necessary. 

213. vojuLtp — aoi.^ Bockh thinks that the omission of 
either ttou or ye will be detrimental to the ethos of this pas- 
sage. He conceives that the Chorus is intended to express 
dissatisfaction coupled with a sort of gentle irony. It appears 
to me, that this is quite inconsistent with the tenour of the 
play, so far as the Chorus is concerned. From first to last 
the elders not only admit, but maintain, the authority of the 
king. The vulgate iravTi irov t is obviously corrupt. Her- 
mann writes iravrl iravT\ which is harsh. Erfurdt suggests 
irov y\ which is not a Greek collocation. I agree with 
Dindorf, that t eveari should be changed into Trdpeari ; 
and I have ventured upon a further change of irayri irov into 
iravTayov* In the first place, the collocation irapecm \pft 
aOat vofjLtp, without the addition of iravrly appears to me 
most in accordance with the spirit of the Greek language : 
cf. Track, 60 : w<tt el tI aoi irpo^ Kaipov eweireiv ^okw, 
irapeari -^^pijaOai rdvopl toTs t c/uloi^ Xoyoi^, Then, in 
an admission of Kreon's authority, the adverb navTay^ov or 
iravTaxri is strictly in its place. In v. 626 infra, we have 
in this sense : tj aol fiev tjiiels Trai/raj^^ Spcoure^ (piXoi ; In 
the passage before us, the reading irov points to an ori^al 
iravTa'^ov. In the AjaXy 1348 : ws av iroirjaris irayra'^^ov 
y^pri<TTo^ y eaeij we find the various reading iravra'x^. In 
the following we find only Travraxov; Ajax 1252: dXX' o\ 
^povovure^ ev Kparovai irafxaj^ot/. Phil, 1041 : viKciv ye 
fxevToi wauTa'x^od xpri'^ov e(puv. And there can be no 
doubt that although Traira^y} miffht be used in the same, or 
a very similar sense, Travraxov is strictly the more appro- 
priate adverb. 

215. vws ai; (tkottoi vvv ^/re] I am surprised that any 
scholars should be found to whom DindorFs emendation 7rai9 
av (TKOTTOI vvv cItc ; could appear even probable. That such 
a strong expression of a wish should proceed from the sovran 
ruler, is quite inconsistent with the general accuracy of this 

158 NOTES. [215 — 222. 

poet. The collocation cd^ av with the subjunctive is by no 
means uncommon, and though there is a good deal of syn- 
tactical refinement in its usage, every Greek scholar is aware 
that in a final sentence it indicates an eventual conclusion — 
one in which an additional hypothesis is virtually contained : 
e. g. iEschyl. Prom. 670—672 : H^eKde irpo^ Aepy^ fiaQuv 
Xeifiwva^ K.T.\. ws av to ^7ou oiuLjua \a}<j>iia'ri iroOou, "in 
order that the eye of Jove may, cu in that case it mlly be 
freed from passion."" Soph. Electr. 1495, 6 : \wpei S evOa 
irep KaT€KTav€9 iraTcpa tov afxov, ft>y av ev Tavrtp Oavtf^^ 
^^in order that you may, as by going there you tcill^ die in 
the very place where you murdered him."' (Hermann"s note 
on this passage seems to me very surprising.) Now the only 
difference in the case before us is, that the main verb is 
omitted. If the Chorus had asked Ereon : 

Ti o eo'TiUf avu ov tovo avriKaxra^ \oyov ; 

the answer in the text would be quite in accordance with 
the common usages of the language: "in order that you 
may, as by having heard my words you will, be careful to 
see to their observance by others."' But this or a similar 
basis for the sentence being fully implied in the tenour of what 
has preceded, its omission need not offend here any more 
than in iEsch. Choeph, .981 : m av irapfi /moi juLcipTVi ev SUff 
irore, where I think there is, properly speaking, an onussion 
of the antecedent clause. Cf Thucyd. VI. 91. On the whole, 
I conceive that there are only three modes of dealing with 
this passage, in which a scholar can acquiesce: (1.) the sup- 
position that a line has fallen out, in which the Chorus asked 
why they had been summoned ; (2.) the supposition that 
Kreon is interrupted by the Chorus, who mistake his use of 
the word a-Kowoi ; (3.) the supposition that the subjunctive 
with m av has here an imperative force, the antecedent 
clause being implied. As I consider this the most reasonable 
supposition, I have merely changed vvv into wv, a change 
which the second supposition would also demand. 

222. TO «e/o5os.] For the agency here attributed to 
KepSas, " the love of lucre,"" cf. Find. P. III. 54, N. IX. 83. 

225—235.] NOTES. 159 

225. (ppovTiSwy eTricxTao-eiy.] Cf. Plutarch, de Prefect 
Virt, Sent* 76, c : ovtws av T19 ev (f>iKo<To<f>lq, to ei/oeXe^ev 
Kol TO ai/i/ej^es t^9 iropeias Kai /mtj TroXXas did fieaov 
iroiovpi€vov eiriOTTaaei^y cIt avOis opfxd^ kui eTriTriyoiJ- 
cre IS9 aWa^ k.t,\. TeK/ULtjpiov eavTtp TroiijcraiTo irpoKOTrtj^, 
Plato Beq). VI. p. 511, b: to? vwoOeaeis Troiovfxevo^ ovk 
a/op^ay aXXa rtp ovn i;7ro0e<j6is, ofov ctt ijidaeis Te Kal 
d/o/uas. The plural o5ois, which follows, shews that he is 
speaking of a number of fresh starts, or recommencements of 
one and the same journey. 

231. Toiavff eXiaawv — Tax^s-] This emendation, which 
Erfurdt and Hermann have derived from the Scholiast, seems 
to me necessary. The common reading, /3/oa5cJs, is obviously 
a marginal gloss. It may be perhaps as well to remark, that 
eXlacrwv refers to the thoughts, and not to the turns, which 
the Sentinel took on his journey ; compare AjaXj 351 : aXioi^ 
«X/o'o'Ctfi' TrXaToi/, with v. 158 supra: tii/o Sij fiffTtv 

233, 234. T€\o9 ye fxevroi — o/xwy*] For eifiKtiaev 
(sc. jj ypoiufi) see below v. 274. El, 245. The words which 
follow have not found favour in the eyes of some of the cri- 
tics. Wunder would read (toi t ei, or kcI aoi. Emper pro- 
poses W9, Kei TO fxtjoev e^epw, (f)pd(rwv 6fA(os> I think that 
the vuIgate is genuine, and that it is sufficiently supported by 
the passage which Erfurdt quotes from the (Ed. T. 545, 6 : 
Xeyeiv (tu Setvos ' fxavOdveiv 5* eyw KaKos crov, Svafxev^ ydp 
Kal (iapvv a evptjK 6/ii0£. The terror of the Sentinel, and the 
anger of CEdipus, justify this emphatic position of the per- 
sonal pronoun. Cf. infra v. 681 : to ydp aov ofifxa Seivov 
dvopi oriiJLOTri Xo'yois to£Oi/tois oh a v ixt) T€py\f€i kKvwv. 

235. ^eSjoa^/uieVos.] One MS. has Treirpayinevo^ : others, 
ir€(ppayiA€i^os9 for which Dindorf has substituted the Attic 
form 7re(f)apyjjL€Pos. The Scholiast obviously read SeSpay/u^yo^j 
a strong metaphorical word, well adapted to the character of 
the speaker. The later writers seem to use the word in very 
much the same signification, and it must have extended its 

160 NOTES. 1255—260. 

applications in the ordinary language of Athens, in which 
the commonest coin, the Spd^fitj^ was so called because it 
was a handful of Kcpnaraj i, e. o)3oXoc. Cf. Herod. III. 13 : 
ravTWi (rds fivea^) cpaaaofiepoi avToj^apip oieaireipe Tfj 

241. €v ye — ici^icX^.J I have adopted the correc* 
tion aTeyd([€tf which Emper has suggested, of the Yulgate 
aTo^al^ei. The latter has no signification which suits the 
context: the former, which means "you roof yourself in," 
or " cover yourself over-head,"" is the proper correlative to 
dwoKpdpyvvaat KVKXtp^ " you surround yourself with a hedge.'" 
In the next line, I have given veov its common euphemistic 
force. ^ 

253. o TTpwToi — tfuepcHTKoiros-] This is a note of 
time. The day-watches had just conunenced, for it was 
shortly after sun-rise. 

269, 260. \oyoi — 0i/\a#ca.] The participial sentence 
is a secondary predication, or explanatory apposition to the 
main verb. It is, in fact, equivalent to an adverb. Cf. 
iEsch. Prom. 200. Eurip. Bacch. 1084, where see Elmsley. 

260. Kav eyiyvcTo.'] The imperfect is used here in- 
stead of the aorist, because, in the eagerness of his narrative, 
the Sentinel reproduces the scene, and represents it as going 
on. Consequently, he has used the imperfect or present 
throughout, instead of the aorist, which is the regular his- 
torical tense. Similarly, in a shorter clause, (Ed. Col, 272 
(cf. 952) : 

Kai Toi 7rc5s eyo) koko^ (puaiy, 

OGTis iraOwv fxev dvre^pwv^ war ei (bpovwy 

eirpaacovy ovo av u)d eyiyvoiAriv kuko^. 

The other passages which Neue quotes {ad (Ed. Tyr. 125), 
and which present an aorist in the apodosis, are not to the 
point. He might have found one precisely similar in Thucyd. 
I. 75 : Ka\ ydp ay a\ diroaTaaeis irpos jJ/ixas eyiyvovro. 

263-2890 NOTES. 161 

263. dX\* ecpeuye uij ciSei/ai.] The common reading 
inserts to before yui;. This is not required by the sense, and 
spoils the metre. As it is clear that the imperfect must 
stand, it seems much better to omit the article, than to sub- 
stitute the aorist. The poet has here used (f>€vywj which 
commonly signifies " to be defendant in a suit,'** as opposed 
to SiooKw, in the sense of dpvovna^^ or '' to put in a plea.**^ 
In the same sense the word is used by JSschyl. Suppl. 393 : 

del Toi <Te <f>€vy€iv Kara v6/ulov9 tou^ oiKoOev 
ftJv ovK e\ov(Ti Kvpo% ovceif afjL<p\ aou. 

Demosth. adv. Aph. p. 813, ^ 1 : eireioti o ouro^ tov^ fiev 
Ga<f>m eidora^ tcl rinerepa et^vye imfjoev Stayviovat irepi av^ 
Tail'. These passages, which are quoted by Wex, sufficiently 
justify the construction, and although the repetition of eh 
Ti9, through oi/SeiV, may seem a little harsh, it is not with- 
out precedent ; and there certainly does not appear to be 
any necessity for the emendations t'<^\€7€ for e^evye^ or 
eirevKTo for ecpevye to, proposed by Hermann and Bergk, 
or for Dindorf 's insertion of ttSs before eKpevye^ and his 
omission of elSevai at the end of the line. 

269, 270. €9 ireSov Kapa i/eJ/trai.] Not that they threw 
themselves on the ground like Oriental mourners, but merely 
that they hung their heads — a sign of embarrassment, which 
has been ingeniously expressed by Tennyson in his new poem. 
The Princess, p. 26 ; 

** At those high words, we, conscious of ourselves. 
Perused the matting" 

See below, v. 439. 

280, irplv opyfj^ Kai /mc.'] With many of the commen- 
tators, I have adopted Seidler^s correction of the common 
reading Ka/me. The kuI throws an emphasis on opyfj^, 

289. dXXd TovTa — e/Lie,] In these lines there are 
several points which previous Editors have overlooked. In 
the first place, the Kal irakai has seemed to one of them 
inconsistent with the short duration of time which had elapsed 


162 NOTES. [289—320. 

since Kreon came to the throne. But irdXai does not imply 
of necessity any particular lapse of time. The Chorus had 
just used the same adverb to express a short cogitation (above 
V. 275). The aucpes ttoAccds are the darol, otjimorai^ or 
lower citizens : see below v. 681 , and of. Pind. P. I. 84 : acrroiv 
ciKod Kpvtpiov OvfAOV (iapvuet^. P. XI. 30 : 6 Se ^a/miyXa 
irveayp a(pavTov (ipcfiei. The adverb oiKaia>s is used here 
in a sense which has escaped the commentators, but which I 
have expressed in the version, and have explained in the New 
Cratylm (p. 371). Lastly, cJk (rrepyciv e/uc, does not refer 
to the filial affection of the people for their King, but to 
Kreon's approbation of the sentiments and conduct of the 
lower orders. For the meaning of the verb, see above v. 
273, and PkU, 456 : tovtov^ eyw tovs avSpa^ ov aTep^u) 
iroT€ ; and for the post-position of the subject etie^ see Eurip. 
Hecub. 730 : av Se trj^oXa^eij aJtrrc Oav/mdu^eiv e/xe. ifisch. 
Pers, 513 : a5s (rreveiv iroXiu Tlepatov iroOovaav (piXTdTrjv 
ijl^tjv yOovo^, Any other way of construing these words 
seems to me impossible. Kreon merely says that he would 
have liked them to be implicitly obedient ; for their love he 
cared nothing : oderint^ dum mettuint, is the tyrant^s motto. 
For the force of w^ c. infin. vide infra v. 303, and the pas- 
sage quoted above from the Persce. 

303. XP^^^ '""^'^^ — ^iKiyi;.] The King says that 
they have at last brought their dislike to an overt act, which 
will ensure their punishment. The xpovt^ irore belongs there- 
fore to e^ewpa^aVf of which the effect is co? oovvai oiKtiv, 

318. pv6/uLi(^€i^,'] For this use of the word, see BIcmu- 
field's Glossar. in Pram. 249. 

320. aXtjfxa.] With most of the Editors, I have adopted 

1 The poet means : " not only is prolixity tiresome in all matters, 
but it is especially so when another's glory is being proclaimed in the 
hearing of his fellow-citizens of the lower orders." I cannot but think 
that darav here is goTemed by Kpv(f)iov Ovfidv : for the qkoci is clearly 
the glory of Hiero (cf. v. 90), and darol are the lower citizens (cf. 
P. III. 71), who were generally enyious (cf. O. VI. 7.) 

320-r332.] NOTES. 163 

Schneider^s suggestion, that Sophocles wrote aXrifia here, as m 
the AjaXy 381, 389, and not the vulgate XdXtjfxa. The 
Scholiast translates the word in this passage just as he trans- 
lates aXrifjia in the JJasD^ and the context requires it. 

324. icd/ui\//6i;6.] Ruhnken has sufficiently illustrated the 
use of this word {ad Tim. p. 154), which here refers to the 
Sentinel's punning refinements on SoKelf ooKclvf and SoKfjai^. 
An English writer, who was celebrated for to, Ko/myj/a Tai/ra, 
eiT6 Xriprnxara y^pri (pavai clvai elre (pXuaplaSy has used the 
verb *' to prate," as their best description : '' he would be 
bold with himself, and say, when he preached twice a day at 
St. Giles\ he prated once.**' Buckeridge's Fwneral Sermon on 
Bishop Andrewes^ p. 295. Lib, Angl, Cath, Theology. And 
with reference to the aXrifia of v. 320, this verb very appro- 
priately expresses the egotistical vulgarity of the special-plead- 
ing coxcomb. So in the Pursuits of Literatwre^ the notorious 
egotism of Lord Erskine is similarly described : 

Octcwim. This of yourself? 

Author, 'Tis so. 

Oct, You're tum'd plain fool, 

A Tain, pert prater of tiie Erskine school. 

$32 — 373. First Stasimon, The metres are as follows : 

arpoKprj a. 

2. _ _ II 1 . . II H _ II 

3. 1 Kj \\ 1 ^ ^ \\ L ^ \ - \\ 

4. _ _ II 1 . . I 1 . 1 _ II 

5. - II 1 V. II Z . . I 1 _ Ij 

6. . 11 1 . I _ . I 1 jl 

7. w II ^ . I _ . I H _ _ II 

8. ly^y\l\j^\l^^\lKJ^\\ 

9. lKJ\^\l^Kj\lKJKj\lKJKy\\ 


164 NOTES. CM2- 

a^Tpo<f}rj /3'. 

I. _ II i w w I -!. w .. II i b=; II 

2. Z w ^ I i W O II ^ i:i II 

3. J.Kj^\l^^\\^^\ II 

4. . II i w I - II ^ w I - II 
6. . II 1 w 1 - II 1 ^ I - II 

6. 1 ^ ^ \ ^ \\ 

7. v^ II 6 ^ w I _ w I -L .> I _ II 

8. . II 1 w I _ II 1 w I - II 

9. 1 w I _ ^ I ^ ^ I _ II 

10. ^ II -i ^ I - w I 1 ^ I _ II 

II. ^ - I - - II 

The whole of this ode should be scanned as dactylico- 
trochidc. It seems to me most unreasonable to suppose that 
iambic rhythms should find a place in such a scheme : and 
instead of imagining, with Dindorf, iambic verses mixed up 
with cretics, trochees, and Bacchei, I have merely marked 
the anacrusis in arp. a. 5, 6, 7. arp. /3'. 4, 5, 7, 8, 10. 
That universal metre, the Satumian, may teach us that the 
anacrusis is most properly in its place at the beginnmg of 
trochaic rhythms (see Varronianus^ p. 173 sqq.), 2t/9. a. 8, 
9, 10, may be considered as a dactylic octameter resting on 
a spondee, and followed by a trochaic tripodia. 

S32. TToWa ra ^€ii/a.] Some years ago I suggested 
(ad Pind. O. I. 28), that it would be as well to make TroXXa 
the subject here, as it is in the passage of Pindar, because it 
seemed more natural that Seivd should be the subject as 
ieivorepop is. In this conjecture, I now see, I had been 
anticipated by Neue, who is confidently followed by Wunder. 
I should not have thought it worth while to alter the text, 
even if there were any great force in the reasons mentioned 

332—340.] NOTES. 166 

above. But there seems to be truth m what Emper says, 
that if we translate kuI by tmd dock, " and yet,"' the inversion 
of the propositions will give greater emphasis to the passage. 
For the meaning of Seii/oy here, the student may compare 
infra 1013 : fiporwv ')^oi TroXXa Setvoiy with the definition in 
Aristotle, mh. Nic. VI. 12. J 9 : ean h] tis livafii^ tjv 
KoKovai ceiPOTtjTa ic.t.X. av hacv ouv 6 aK07ro9 ^ fcaXos, 

340. i\\ofji€P(M)v aporpwv.^ The Aldine and one of the 
MSS. have iraWofxepwvy which appears to me unintelligible. 
I am unable to see any difficulty in the text according to the 
above reading, which I consider indisputably genuine. The 
sense is suggested by the word iroKevwv which follows, and 
the words before us must mean, *^as the ploughs are being 
moved backwards and forwards in a zig-zag course,'" alluding, 
naturally, to the continuance from furrow to furrow ; from 
which the Greeks derived their phrase, "to write as the 
oxen turn**** (fiovcrTpoKpijSov ypa<f>€iv i.e. eTrdi* oiioiw^ to7^ 
dpoTptaiai fiovai Ta9 avriaTpo^d^ woirj ti5. Hesych.). That 
iXXo) may be used in this sense, is clear from the line in 
Nicander quoted by Buttmann, {Lexil. II. 166): (pevye 5* 
aei (TKoXirjp t€ kqI ov lAiav aTpawov JXXwi/, with which we 
might compare Virgil'^s description of the flight of Tumus, 
JEneid XII. 742, 743 : 

Ergo aniens diversa fiiga petit sequora Tumus, 
Et nunc hue, inde hue, incertos implicat orbes. 

And another passage, (Ibid. XII. 482) : 

Haud minus ^neas tortos legit obyius orbes 
Vestigatque virum, et disjecta per agmina magna 
Voce vocatp— 

might boused to eicplain Xenophon^s phrase, {Venat VI 16): 
ai oe [ifvi/cs] viro ya/oas Kal ftxevov^ irpoldcriv e^iWovaai to, 
i'Xytft ttJs ireCpUKC^ OiTrXa, TpnrXd, frpoKpopovfxevai irapa tol 
owra, 5«a twv ai/xoii' eirrfSXayfkiva^ k.t.X. Buttmann's 
opinion seems to have coincided with this : but he speaks 
doubtfully, and quotes nothing in support of his suggestion, 
except the line from Nicander. 

166 NOTES. 1340—34,9. 

340. iTTweitp yepei iroKfvuyp,^ I prefer iroXevwv^ the 
constructio ad sensum^ to TroXedov^ which agrees more strictlj 
with TovTo. Immediately afterwards we have aiui<pi^Xwi/. 
By the iTTTrc/y 7ei/et the SchoUast rightly understands not 
horses, which were rarely used with the plough, but mules, 
which were preferred for that employment in very ancient 
times; he says: \w7rei(p ye vet TroXei/coi;' rals rj/uLiovoi^ 

at yap T€ fio(ov irpofpepeaTepai €1(tiv 
eXKefievai veio7o (SaOeitj^ ttj/ictoi; apoTpou. 

{IL X. 352). He adds ni/cy oe Kal iiriroi^. y^pwvrcu €19 
dpoTpia<TMOf ; but the training of the horse for the yoke is 
not mentioned till afterwards, v. 350. In the same way as 
Sophocles has here shrunk from mentioning the mule, Simon- 
ides addressed the victorious mules of Leophron as ^'the 
daughters of storm-footed steeds " (xai/cwr deWoiroSwv 0uy€ir 
T/D€v ifTTTwv. Fvagm. 13. Bergk.). 

342. Kov(povoiJdv,'\ The credit of this certain emenda* 
tion is due to Brunck. We have below, v. 610, anrdra 
Kou(povou)v epwTwv. The reader of the PhcBdrus does not 
need to be told, that, in the language of Sophocles and Plato, 
words referring to the use of wings are employed to 
denote the purpose of the mind, especially in regard to the 
fluctuating emotions of love (See New Cratyhis^ p. 68). 
Here we have the converse metaphor ; or rather that, which 
gave occasion to the metaphor in the other case, is here used 
in the reversed application : wings expressed the light-mind- 
edness of man, therefore light-mindedness is made an epithet 
of the winged birds. See Aristoph. A'ces^ 168 — 170 : 

o TeXeas ipei raSi' 
avOp<o7ro9 opvi9 acrraO/uLrjTo^ ireTonkvo^j 
dreK/uLapTo^, ouoev ovoeiroT iv TavTfp fievwv. 

With which compare the Ftmeral Service: ^^hejleeth as it 
were a shadow, and never continueth in one stay.*' The com- 
pound ** flighty-purposed,'** by which I have rendered kov^ 
(povovi is derived from Shakspere, Macbeth^ Act IV. 
Sc. 1: 

342—352.] NOTES. 167 

" The fiigkty purpose never is o'ertook 
Unless the deed go with it." 

The words (f>v\ov and iQvo^ are used here with a covert 
reference to their employment as political terms, denoting 
classes in a state. 

343. eripiiv—%evri.'] Cf. Aristot. Eth. Nic, VIII. 1, 
J 3 : To7s ttX. twv ^(owv Kai Tois ofxoeOveai irpo^ aWrjXa. 

350. oj^/ma^erai — t^f^Jf^v.] This emendation, which 
Franz sent to Bockh, is referred by Wolff (in the Zeitschri/t 
fur Alterthumswissmschaft^ 1846, p. 746,) to Schone (Allg. 
Schulztff, 1833, II. p. 948); and I- agree with Emper in 
thinking it by far the most probable of those which have 
been proposed. Phavorin. p. 1406: Kvpiw^ Se eaTiv oyjxdaai 
TO iTTTTOv VTfo -^oXipov ayayclv i/ viro o'^fjua. So Eurip. JSl. 
817 : ocTij Tavpov apTaniei kq\w%' iinrovs t oyjiaC^ei* The 
middle here has its proper force. Antholog. Palat, IX. No. 
19 : vvv hXaitf) oeipriv ireireorjfAevos, ota ^aXii/(^ Kapirov eXq. 
^rjovs OKpioevTi Xi6({). 

352. Kai (pOeyixa Kal fjve/moev (ppoutj/ma Kal aarvvo- 
Mov^ opyds.'] Most students of Sophocles have sought in 
vain for a precise and consistent explanation of these words. 
Without discussing the opinions of previous commentators, 
whether I partially agree with, or wholly differ from, their 
views, I will state what appears to me the meaning of the 
poet. In speaking of the SeivoTti^ or power of man, he 
enumerates the foUowing exemplifications of it : (1) navi- 
gation : (2) agriculture : (3) fowling, hunting, and fishing : 
(4) domestication of wild cattle, and taming and training 
the ox and the horse: (5) the three particulars in the 
verses before us : (6) architecture : (7) medical skill. In 
such a complete specification, it seems scarcely possible that 
a highly educated Athenian would omit : (a) language ap- 
plied to poetry and oratory : (i) speculative reasoning or 
philosophy : and {c) political science. And I believe that 
these are the three particulars here mentioned as (pOeyfxay 
rfve/uLoev (f>povi]fxay and aaruvofioi opyai. The first word, 

168 NOTES. [352. 

<p0€y/uLa, has no epithet, and as it cannot mean that man 
taught himself (eSiSa^^aTo) mere utterance, it must imply lan- 
guage in its higher sense, or as applied to oratory and poetry. 
The other words, {ppourjfia and opyai^ are defined by their 
epithets. In themselves, they are general terms referring, 
the one to that mixture of intellect and will which was 
placed by the Greeks in the breast {(pptiv) of man, and 
which formed the basis of his political predilections and of 
his philosophical bias (see above, v. 176) ; the other, to 
that complex of longings and likings, which, regulated by 
the mind, constituted the distinctive character or disposition 
of an individual (see below, v. 850, 929). How (pportinia 
and 0/1/717 differ, and at the same time how far they agree, 
may be seen by a comparison of the following passages; 
above, v. 169: fieuovTu^ etnreoois ^povrjiuLaaiv. Ajaa 640: 
ovKCTi avt'Tpo<poi% opyais efirreco^. What then are the 
rjve/uioev ippov^fia and the aarwofioi opyal which man 
has tauffht himself (eSiSa^aro) i With regajrd to the former, 
it is to be observed that we have twice in this play the 
phrase (ppnvelv diod<TK€GOaiy or cioaaKeiv to (ppoveivy (infra 
vv. 717, 1313), where (ppoveiv means "wisdom'" considered 
as a sort of experience (f/uLTreipia)^ and the opyaU which a 
man teaches himself, can only be regarded as habitudes, or 
6^6/?, which he acquires by practice. Accordingly, the very 
idea, which must be attached to the word (ppovrifia in this 
passage, is inconsistent with one of the versions proposed 
for the epithet tjuenoei^^ namely, "swift as the wind:**' for 
(f>povr|^a must here be considered as something fixed and 
stable, not as something fleeting and changeable. Moreover, 
it does not appear that rjienoei^ is used in this sense by 
the more ancient poets : we have aeXKahe^ imroi in (Ed. T. 
463, and conversely, Bopeds afinnro^^ infra v. 962 : but the 
passages quoted by Erfurdt are all of them from later 
poets. With regard to the animorum incredihUea motus 
cderttasqus ingmiorum of Cicero (pro Archia^ VIII. J 17), 
this does not settle the meaning of Sophocles in this pas- 
sage, but only shows what he might have said. The piiral 
€')^Bi(TTa)v avemjovy supra v. 137, and the twv avrwv dviy^wv 
avrai y\fv\ris piiraly infra v. 904, obviously refer to passion, 

352.] NOTES. 169 

and not to intellect. We must have recourse therefore to 
the other and more ancient sense of rjvemioeis^ i.e. ^^ventoims 
ea significatione qua dicuntur loca ventosa'* (H. Steph. in v.). 
By a very natural application of the word in this sense it 
means "lofty'' — (cf. luft, lift, luff, &c.) "up in the air/' 
"exposed to the winds:" thus Pindar calls Minak Ittof dve- 
ixoeaaav Ti^^aJi/ov. If therefore (fyOeyfxa refers to poetry, 
as by implication and in part it does, there is the same 
juxtaposition, that we find here, in Eurip. Jlcest. 962 : eyw 
Kai Sia fiovaa^ kuI nicTapaio^ ti^a (where for the verb 
cf. Hecub. V. 31). The epithet aarwojuLo^ is not to bo ex- 
plained by a mere reference to the phrase aaTrj v€/jl€iv, urbes 
inoolere. For although this is no doubt the origin of the 
xsompound, it had established itself in the time of Sophocles 
as an independent word, which conveyed a special significa- 
tion. It referred, namely, to the internal care and manage- 
ment of a town — the repair of houses, the police and 
cleansing of the streets, and the superintendence of the foun- 
tains, harbours, &c. The performance of these duties was 
called d(TTvvo/uLia (Arist. Pol. VI. 8. J 6) ; and in order to its 
proper performance at Athens, there was a board of officers 
called daruvoiuLOi, five for the city and five for the Piraeus 
(Aristot. apud Harpocr. s. v.). Plato thought, that, in pro- 
portion as his citizens were properly educated, they would 
the less need regulations of this kind {Besp. IV. p. 425, d.) — 
that is, they, would of themselves be sufficiently under the 
influence of daTwomoi opyal; — but in his Laws (VI. p. 
763, c), he is careful to appoint a board of three darwdfioi 
and five dyopauofxat* If, from the legal use of the word 
in the prose writers, we turn to its tropical use in the 
poets, we shall find, as here, a direct reference to the primary 
application. Thus, Pindar prays on behalf of the city of 
Mtusk, that Jupiter will bestow upon the inhabitants /mdipau 
cui^ofxov, dyXaiaKTiv o daTvyofjLoi^ 67rt/iti^at Xaov {N, IX. 31)« 
And iEschylus distinguishes between the Gods as da-rvvo- 
/uioh iiraroi, ydovioiy ovpavioi, and dyopcuoi (Agam. 88). 
I think therefore that this adjective and its converse dypo- 
vofiov ((Ed. T. 1103. infra 775. iEschyl. Agam. 140) ought 
to be paroxytone, like the word denoting the offices of town 

170 NOTEa 1352—35^ 

and country police. In conclusion, I will remark that i( 
as is probably the case, Sophocles is referring here by covert 
allusion to his friend Pericles, the connexion between the 
i^ve/uLoey (Ppoprnxa and the aaTvuofuH ofryai will be parti- 
cularly emphatic ; for there was nothing better known abont 
this great statesman, than that he combined with his aaTv- 
vofjLia the fierewpoXoyia which he got from Anaxagoras; 
cf. Plato, Phcsdrus^ p. 270, a. (where to vyf/riXdvoui^ is the 
prose version of rjvefioev (ppovriua)^ with Cic. Orator. 84, 
^ 1 19, who says, ^^ quem etiam quo grandior sit et quodam- 
modo eoDceUior (ut de Pericle supra dixi) ne physicorum 
quidem ignarum esse volo. Omnia profecto, quum se a 
ccelestibus rebus referet ad humanas, exeebiuB magnificentius- 
que et dicet et sentiei.'^ 

354. SvaavXwv.] As the poet is here speaking of 
architectural contrivances as a shelter against the inclemency 
of the weather, it is obvious that this epithet must be taken 
in its most pregnant meaning, namely, ^^ frosts which make 
a mere hut, or any thing except a walled house, very com- 
fortless.*^ Although auXii is used poetically to signify a 
complete house (Track. 897), and even a treasure-house 
entirely walled in (infra v. 920), its proper meaning was 
"a partial shelter" — such as a court-yard or cattle-pen 
without a roof, or a hut without side waUs. According to 
Athenseus (V. p. 189, b), it was essential to the proper 
definition of the term, that the place to which it was applied 
left a free access for the wind: en toIwv ouS j| avX^ 
apfioTTei CTTi Tov oixoVf o yap oia'jrveoiAevoi rorro^ avX^ 
Xiyerai* Kai SiavXwvl^eiv <f>ayuev to Sey^oimevov e^ ixctr 
Tepou wifeufia '^eipiov, in Se avXo9 fiev to opyavov ^ 
Siep'xerat to irvevna k.t.X* As people who lived in the 
country, watching the flocks and herds, were obliged to trust 
to their clothing for a defence against the weather, and had 
only avXai to retire to, we read of their aypopo/uoi avXai 
(infra 775). Electra sends word to her brother olois iv 
nreirXoii ai)\i^o/uia< (Eurip. JElectr. 304), and her rustic 
husband speaks similarly of his own cottage : tii/os Si cKan 
TCLfrS iir aypavXovi wuXas TrpoafjXOoi/ {ib. 342) ; in- 

354—358.] NOTES. 171 

deed, so completely was this phraseology'adopted by the 
Athenians, that their rustic deity, whom they worshipped in 
the spring as a daughter of Kehrops^ was called Agraulm^ 
or Aglaurus^ vide Photius, s.v. KaXAiyvr^'pa, p. 127, Porson. 
By a not unnatural transition, the wild animals are called 
ayfjoi^o/jiai (iEsch. Agam, 140), or aypavXoi (supra v. 348); 
and the poor shelter of the soldier'^s bivotuio is termed his 
SvaavXla (iEsch. Agam, 541). With so many implied 
references, it is obvious that the epithet ^vaavko^ is best 
rendered by the converse of the English word '* comfort- 
able," which is almost equally comprehensive, and equally 
untranslatable. The idea, which Sophocles wished to convey, 
is partly expressed by the sparso triste oubile gelu of Pro- 
pertius. Lib. III. El. 13. v. 26. 

355, 6, iraywv uwaiOpeia Kai hvconx^pa (pevyciv jSe'Xiy.] 
The metre indicated a corruption in the old reading ; with 
Dindorf, I have introduced Bockh's emendation ; cf. iEsch. 
Agam. 355; and, for the lengthening of the penultima, such 
forms as enivvjuLKpeio^i 67rii/iK6ios» k.t.X. For the force of this 
epithet of the frost, see Soph. TV. 162 : irdyov (payevro^ 
aiOpiov ; and cf. Herat. III. Carm. 10, 8 : " positas ut glaciet 
nives pure numine Jupiter/** For the application of (ieXrj to 

the frost, see Psalm CXLVII. 17 : imj5 T^TB^fi. 

867, 8. airopo^ iw ovhev e/o^^erac to /meXXoi'.] Her- 
mann, whom most of the commentators repeat, connects the 
words €7r* ov^ev with to /meXXoi/, remarking : " Non recte 
Scholiasta explicat, eir oifhev twv /ulcWovtwv. Aliud est 
enim eir ovSev juieXXoi/, ad nullam rem futuram, infinite 
dictum, quam finite, ad eorum, quae futura mwt^ nihil. Quorum 
alterum est, ad nihil^ si quid futurum est ; alteram, ad nihU^ 
quod est futurum.'* With all submission to this veteran 
scholar, I must beg to doubt whether the Greek syntax 
would bear such a construction as eir ouSev to ^eWov. 
The passage referred to by Wunder is not at all parallel : 
infra v. 719 : /m^Sev to m ^iicaiov. This is, of course, to 
be explained by what precedes, and Hsemon means fjLTj^eu 
^i^dfTKov TO juLTf SiKaiovy " bc not in any respect instracted 

172 NOTES. 135S—37S. 

by me in what is not just." In the passage before us» as 
I have elsewhere stated (New CraityJ/us^ p. 385), I take 
TO yukWov as a sort of adverb, analogous to to trpiv^ to 
vvvy &c. In V. 605 infra, it is undoubtedly used in this 
way ; and the construction of this passage requires a similar 
usage : to mcXXoi;, airopoi epyerai eir oi/^ei/, " in regard 
to the future, he comes to nothing without resources.*^ 

860. (peu^iv eTrafcrm.] Here ewdyo/uiai bears its 
common sense " of calling in succours" (Thuoyd. I. 3) ; with 
which is coupled the notion of getting aid of any kind ; see 
Plato, Menex. p. 238, b : a/o^oi/ra? Kal Si^aaKoXovi avTwv 
eTnjyayeTo [ij 'y^], Thucyd. I. 81 : tSu Jeoi/rai, ewd^ovTCu, 
There is no need, therefore, for Heindorf's correction iirev' 
^eTai (in his note on Plato, Sophist, p. 235, c : ov — fujiroTe 
CKCpvyov eTreu^fjTai t^v — /uLeOoSov), 

362. <TO(f>6v Tl 6^0)1/,] i.e. to JULfJ')(aV0€V Ttjs T6Y- 

vffi <To(f>ov 6^^'^ ^<^holiast. The reference is of course to 
the use of the verbs tJiYi^avu^nai and Te-^vw/naif and not to 
mechanical art in its modem sense : cf. iJLrj'xayoppd<l)o9 (Ed, 
T. 387. T6 xi'wa Phil 916. 

366. yepalpwv.^ With EUendt, I have received the 
old conjecture of Reiske and Musgrave, which seems to me 
far more probable than any of the more recent emendations. 
For the palaeographical considerations, see on v. 24, supra. 

37O9 3. ToX)ua$ xapiv — e/o^ei.] As the pause in the 
strophe is at to /meWov^ I have placed a similar stop at 
^vv€<TTh especially as the position of the words ToXimat 
\apiv is very awkward, if they are to be referred to what 
precedes. It seems much more reasonable to suppose that 
they furnish a sort of preface to the deprecation which 
follows. For the use of ToX/mri, cf. Trachin. 682 : 

KaKOLi Se TO X 14 a 5 /ULiiT €7ri<TTai/uLtjv eyeOf 
fjLi^T eKfiaOoi/uLis Ta9 re ToXyniaas aTuyw. 

Pind. P. II« 83 : ou 01 /ucTe^o; Opdaeos. For the use of 

373—388.] NOTES. 173 

X^f^^*^ i^ th^ collocation, see (Ed. T, 883 sqq : ei Se ris 
virepoTfTa y^cpalv rj \6y(() iropeveraiy Ai«co9 aKbofirjTo^^ 
oi/oe oaiiAOifWi^ eo^ aejiwv^ Kcucd viv e\ono fAoipa oi/ct^ot- 
fiov ^a/oii; x^^^^^f ^^ f^^ K.T.A. For the general idea 
cf. JEschyl. jB't^m^. 344 : Zev^ — i6vo9 ro^e AeVxa? as airrf- 
^uoaaTo. For laov (ppovwp, see above on 176, and com- 
pare Horn. II, IV. 361 : to, yap (ppopeets a t eyd irep. 
That epSu) is often used in a bad sense, is well known : see 
especially PAU. 684. 

374. Saifxoviov Tc/OQs.] The adjective Saiimoviw^ which 
refers to the influences of an intermediate deity (Saifiwv)^ 
often expresses that which is more than would be expected 
without such intervention : hence it means ^^ strange,**^ ^^ sur- 
prising,**^ ^^ wonderful" — and this is the signification which it 
bears in the compellation co haiyuovie : see ad Find. O. VI. 

378. airdyovGul I have adopted the emendation of 
Bockh : for this reference to the airaytoyti^ while it might 
easily perplex a scribe, would be very much in its place 

385. ava^ — a-TraJ/tAorov.] Probably a tacit reference 
to Archilochus, Fr. 69, 1. Bergk : xptifkarajv deXiri-ov ovhev 
eariu ovS* airdfAOTov. cf. below 390. The same fragment 
seems to have been in his memory when he wrote (Ed. Col. 

388. e^tivxovv.'] Unless we ought to read e^tfvx^^^^y 
as in Phil. 851 , we must explain this imperfect by the com- 
mon use of the same tense with oi;, and without av ; so that 
the construction suggested by Matthia, § 598, a, is the true 
one; axoXti ttoO' tj^eiv Sedp' av e^rjvxovv being equivalent 
to ovK e^nvx^^^ ti^eiv. One of the MSS. and the margin of 
Tumebus give a^oXfJ y O'V for cr^oX^ Tro6\ and this is adopted, 
after Erfurdt and Hermann, by most of the critics. Pre- 
cisely the same construction is found in (Ed, Tyr, 434, where, 
however, we have the aorist eareiXd/uirjv; and if e^fivxnaa 

174 NOTES. [388—450. 

were read here, I should prefer axo^ti y av after eireL In 
nearly all the passages quoted by Blomiield (Gloss. Pram. 
710), we have ou wore with the imperfect of ai/;^£a> or e^- 
av\€W9 and he tacitly introduces the same tense into the 
line from the PhUoctetes. In Agam, 508 (470), the herald 
says oif yap vot tfuy^ovif — p,e9€^eiv\ and if any one wishes to 
have the same construction here, he might read axoXfj woff 
ri^eiif o€vp' du €^iju')^ovv eyw. It must be remarked that 
the Sentinel is more likely to be made to refer to what he 
cUdssky (supra v. 329), than to what he toould have said. 

395. OcvpuLaiov.] I have been obliged to tender this 
word by an English phrase, which is more expressive than 
elegant. The word Godsend is used with a different applica- 
tion, and the exclamations ^' a prize, a prize !'^ or '^ fonnd, 
found i^' could not be introduced in a descriptive passage, 
although the latter is the best representative of the Greek 
evpYiKaj which has become a descriptive word in the proper 
name Hwrreekee^ still given to a place on the Indus, where 
Alexander's Indian conquests ceased, and where our dominion 
was consummated. 

429. )(^oaiai t^/o-ttoi/^okti.] i. e. milk, wine, and honey. 
Hom. Od. xi. 26. The verb aT€<l>€i perhaps refers to the 
libations being poured round the body: the Scholiast sayts 
aT€<j}€i' KoatAeif Trepippaivet, For the full force of 
aph^v in the preceding line, and for the shape of the prod^^ 
see the figure of Victory in Miiller's Denkmdler der aX/tm 
Ktmsty Heft I. Taf. 13. No. 47. 

434. afi.] I have adopted Dmdorf's AM for AAA. 

448 — 450, ou yap rt — i/oVoi/s.] The third of these 
lines has caused a good deal of perplexity to the Edi- 
tors : scmie propose to emend it by writing ij for ot, or rol- 
ovarS' for Of rouaot and changing wpiaav into wpiaep. And 
Dindorf, who is followed by Wunder and Emper, adopts the 
favourite expedient of omitting the line altogethB*. It ap- 
pears to me that the intention of the poet has not been 

450—507.] NOTES. 175 

understood. Kreon asks Antigone if she knew the proclama- 
tion {to, Krjpv')(0€VTa\ and then expresses his surprise that 
she should venture to transgress these laws {roiaSe p6/ulov^)^ 
meaning, of course, his own enactments. She replies, that 
she did not consider his proclamations as emanating from 
Zeus, the supreme God, or from that justice which regulated 
the rights of the dead, who, she says, have established these 
latvs^ namely, the laws of sepulture, which do not need any 
enactment, but have their 6poi set up in the human heart; 
"and I did not," she continues, "think your KtipuyfxaTa 
superior to vo/mifxay which had the Gods for their authors."*^ 
The whole Play turns upon the opposition between his laws 
and those which she thought it right to obey. And this 
speech in particular is entirely upon that text. The last 
words, aoi o* el Sokw — ocpXifTKaiKo^ are another expression of 
the same antagonism. " If my obedience to the laws of 
heaven in defiance of the laws of man, seems to you foolish, 
I consider your opposition to the laws of heaven, on behalf of 
your own ordinances, equally void of sense.**' The signifi- 
cation of TovaSe i/o/uou? in v. 460 is partly suggested by the 
ij ^vuoiK09 T(ov KCLTvo 0€c3i; which precedes, and partly by the 
wpiaav €v avOpwTTots which follows. The laws, which infer- 
nal justice regulated, and which had their opoi^ not as out- 
ward marks, but as records in the heart, could need no further 
description in their opposition to the Ktjpvyfxara of Kreon. 
It is because they are so implicitly defined, that the atticle 
which Bockh would place before aypawra is unnecessary, 
and has been omitted by the poet. Moreover, it will be 
remembered that SUrj and vono^^ in their relation to funeral 
rites, have a natural title to stand in juxtaposition : cf. above 
v. 23, 24. I think, therefore, that the proposal to reject 
line 450, must be considered as one proof, among many, of 
the necessity of general exegesis to sound criticism. 

507. (Toi S viriWovcFi (XTo/iia.] The Scholiast has cor^ 
rectly explained these words : yiyuwaKouai Kai outoi ' Sta. 
o€ ae TO aTOfxa avtrxeWovcri koi xntBTrSxriif, XiriWto applies 
to that action of the mouth in resolute silence, which is pro- 
duced by the pronunciation of the word mum^ and I have 

176 NOTES. [507—558. 

used the word in the transkition as it is employed by 
Shakspere, Richard III. Act III. Sc. 7 : 

" Now, by the Holy Mother of our Lord, 
The citizens are mum, say not one word." 

509. Tovs ono<nr\a'y')^vovi'>^ See 1034 infra. 

513. ov fiapTvp^crei — j^0oi/o's.] The common reading 
is, Tavff o KarOavwu v€kvs\ In one MS. and in the margin 
of Tumebus, we have 6 Kara j^Oovos veKv^^ which Brunck 
adopted, without a due regard to the metre. I believe that 
I have restored the true reading, which was lost partly by 
the copyists looking back to v. 510, ^iw KaT[dvTiov] davdv^ 
where also we have the various reading Kara ^doi/os, and 
partly by some confused reference to w. 24 and 26, where 
Eteokles is described as Kara 'x9ovo^, and his brother spoken 
of as Tov d9\i(9>^ Oavovra YloXuvetKov^ v€kvv. I think 
also that the kqI was required here as in v. 510, and that 
the reference to Eteokles would not be sufficiently distinct if 
the old reading were retained. 

519. Tty ol^ei/ — evayij rdSe,^ Scholiast: rts oloei', ei 
Kaff "AtSoe; a\\»;Xots SiaWaaaoyreg ijyoivTai evaejirj i-aoe ; 
cf. (Ed. Tyr, 921 : ottcos Xvaw tip rjfiiv evay ij iroprj^, Ka- 
Twdev for Kara) '(ftiv^ is suggested by the Scholiast, from 
whom Dindorf has borrowed it. 

554. aXX* ovK — ^Xoyocs.] Matthia's explanation of 
these words (586 7.) appears to me inadmissible. He trans- 
lates them, ^^not without my having spoken,'^ and quotes 
Eurip. Ion, 237 : eirl 5* a<j(f>dKToi^ fjLYfKoiffi Sofiwv m»7 irdpir 
€f fiuxov. But the omission of the article in the latter pas- 
sage makes a great difference, and it seems impossible to 
translate the line before us, without considering dppijToi^ as 
a secondary predicate, or adjective used adverbially. The 
construction is the same as the tt^jo; la-x^vovTa^ roc/s €^0pov^ 
of Thucyd. I. 36, which is explained in New Cr(U. p. 384. 

557, 8. Odpau — w^eXeti/.] Wunder entertains a 

558—5770 NOTES. 177 

strange notion as to the meaning of these words : he says, 
^^ nemo non perspexisset sensum hujus loci^ si scripsisset poeta: 
wa-T€ Toh ^0)0*1 firiKer dtpeXelvy ita ut vims nihil Jam utilig 
sim. Idem significavit iis verbis quae posuit. Nam mortuis 
necessario incipit utilis esse, qui .vivis esse desierit." The 
sense in which I understand the passage is very different 
from this. Ismene had said : " Nay, our sin is equal ; for 
if you were the agent, I was privy before the fact,'* (Scholiast: 
on (TV /ui€v cwpc^as eyd oe avvriSeiu, cf. Hec, 857: avviaOi — 
avvSpaaris Se fx^). To which Antigone replies: " Never mind 
— ^you live ; that is the difference, — and my life has been long 
ago sacrificed in my attempt to help (i. e. bury) the dead.**' 
The idea which attached itself to the phrase drpcXelu to7^ 
Qavovaiy may be derived from a comparison of iEsch. Pers, 
842 : cws Toh Oavovcri ttXoi/tov ovSev ^(peXei, with Eurip. 
AlcesL 56 : Kav ypavs oXrjrai TrXoi/cricos TafpYicreTai. 

663. i,vv KaKois Trpdaaeiv KaKci.] Although it is clear 
from the toI? KaKw^ irpacraovaiu of the preceding verse, and 
from the word fiiwaijuLou in the answer of Ismene, that the 
reference is to suffering rather than to sin, Bockh has trans- 
lated these words, als Bases du mit Bosen thatst, 

570. w (piKTaff — irarrip,'] I subscribe to the opi- 
nion of Bockh and Suvern, who, following the old Editions, 
have restored this verse to Antigone. I have also adopted 
Bockh'^s suggestion that 572, 574, should be assigned to the 
Chorus, and not to Ismene. 

573. *'Ai^ti^ — 601;.] As I believe that the phrase " to 
forbid the banns,'' however connected with our Church usages, 
is derived from the signification of the words themselves, I 
have not hesitated to imitate Ford in this reference to " the 
churchman's part." 

575. KOL (Tol ye /ca/ioi.] The poet is again playmg 
with the different usages of SokcIu* He means e/mol SeSoKTaty 
tis KOi (TOi SoK€7, scil. TtjvSe KaT0av€lv. 

576, 7. €K Se TovSe — aveifieva^-] Dindorf, who is fol- 


178 XOTE& [577—580. 

lowed by Wonder, thinkB this reftdiiig inadmifliiUe, and pro* 
po0e0 instead, ev ii Toaie ')(pii yuycuKas eiXat m^ aveifiiimt 
ia¥. His argaments have failed to oonYince me that this 
emendation is either necessary or in good taste. Aigrperson 
who will take the trouble to compare Ajax 286 : 6 ^ elm 
irpii /uLe ^i' act S v/nwovfi€paf yvpai, ywcu^t Koa-fAOP ij 
aiyti fpepei : TV. 61 : aXXwi re xat loipfi t€ xapyeia yevov, 
ids Koa/AOi fi criyri tc koi to. iravp imi, with Ele€ir. 516 : 
aveifiiwfi fievy tii €oara?, av trrpe^i. ov yap irapear Aiyi" 
otfoy, Of a iwelj^ aet^ /iii toi Ovpaiay y ouaaw aur)(iw€iv 0«- 
Xow : sapra 61 : yvvcu\ itpvfiev^ 484 : ly pvr iym fihf oin ayjip, 
avTti X atnipf and the passages qnoted by P(^po cm Thuoyd. 
II. 45 fin., will see that the emphatic use of ywcuxat in this 
passage, as a predicate opposed to avci/u^vas, is quite in ac- 
cordance with the spirit of the Greeks, and of their language. 

580 — 617. I^eeond SUuimon. The metres are as fol- 

GTpo^fl a. 

1. . II 1 ^ ^ I J. w ^ I 1 v^ II J. w I - - II 

2. JL ^ II - _ II J. w w I 1 ^ ^ I 2 . II 

3. ^v^|._||lw^|JLww||Z^|-.|| 

4. . II 1 w I - . I 1 w I _ II 

5. ^ . I - w I ^ . I « II 

9. ^ 

<TTpo(f>rj /3'. 

1. u - 


2. ^ (I i. ^ u II -1 w I _ _ 

3. ^ II i w w I 1 II 1 u ^ I 

4. l.^^\\J.^\-0 

580.2 NOTES. 179 

5. -iw.|l||lwwj|l^|.||Zuw||l^j-«|j 

6. 2 . . II 1 . 1 _ . II 

7. ^ w II i. w I ^ ^ I 1 ^ II 

8. . II ^ .^1 Z w| . II 

9. 6 w w I - o I 1 - II 

In my judgment, the previous arrangements of this ode 
have been altogether unsatisfactory. The critics have not 
shrunk from a medley of iambics, trochees^ and antispasts ; 
and even a senarius, with unequally resolved arsis, has been 
allowed to appear. It is nothing but dactylico-trochaic verse, 
the trochaic rhythm appearing chiefly as dipodia and ithy* 
phallicus. There is a trochceus sematUm (vide Herm. EL 
Doctr. Metr. p. 660) in aTp. a 1, which makes an incim in 
the line. 'S.rp. a' 6 is the metre which I have restored in 
V. 943 infra, namely, two trochaic dipodice cum anacrusi fol- 
lowed by an itAyphaUicus^ which is repeated in the following 
line, and follows a single dipodia cum anacruai in the last 
line of the Strophe. 

580. accJi/.] Sophocles opposes to ycvea, considered 
as representing the whole series of generations which make 
up the existence of a family, the alaov here, or yevo^ v. 591, 
i. e. the existing generation for the time being. If mischief 
(ari;) once gets into a family, no single generation (aidy, 
76V09) can exhaust it, but it must have its play ; just as the 
waves, which the wind raises on the surface of a narrow sea 
or bay, such as that between Eubosa and Attica, must affect 
the whole mass of water until they reach the shingle at the 
bottom. The Chorus in the AJaw 629 holds to a different 
opinion. He speaks of a father^s hearing 7ratSo£ hvacpopov 
ciTav, av ovTTW ns eOpe^j/ev aiwv Aicucioav arepde Tovoe. 
The inherited evils of the Labdakidse are the leading idea in 
the one case ; the exception, which A jax furnished to the 
general prosperity of his race, is prominently brought forward 
in the other passage. See Pind. P. III. 86 : aiiov S' aa<pa\t)s 


180 NOTES. [580—587- 

OVK eyevT oir AiaKioq, vapd HiyXel ovre Trap ai/riOeq) KdS- 
lULtp, Schiller has fully caught the spirit of Greek tragedy in 
his Piccolamini (Act II. Sc. 7, of Coleridge's version ; III. 
Sc. 9 9 of the original) : ^' Es geht ein finstrer Geist durch 
unser Haus,^ u. s. w. ^' There ''s a dark spirit walking in our 
house/^ &c. See a Greek version of the passage in Hermann's 
Opuscula, V. p. 856. 

586, 7. fivaaoOev KcXaivdv fftva Kal hvaaveixov,^ The 
commentators have, strangely as it appears to me, mistaken 
the meaning of this passage. Wunder adopts the explanation 
of the Scholiast : *' nomen Svadvefxov recte explicat Scho- 
liasta: ti^v ifKo avefiwv Tapaydeia-av* Similiter, supra 356, 
SuaofjL^pa dictum est.*" Jacobs, who is followed by Erfurdt, 
proposes Svaave/atfy scil. arovtp. EUendt, who retains Sva-- 
aveimov^ would join the word adverbially to fipe/msiv. It 
seems to me that the context leads to a very obvious inter- 
pretation. When mischief begins in a family, it goes on 
€irt mXijOo^ yeved^ : similarly, when the wind in the Euripus 
blows hard upon the surface for a given time, the undn- 
latory motion continues till the shingle at the bottom is 
stirred ; now this shingle being in the ipejioi v((>a\ov — i. e., 
as Jacobs explains it, to fieXav r^s OaXdaai^ fidOo^ — ^is 
itself black and gloomy for want of light {KeXaivd) ; and 
being covered by a bulk of water, it is also ivadvefiosy or 
not easily affected by the wind. I should therefore ex- 
plain Sua-dvefioi in the same way as the adjectives Suatjvio^^ 
SvadaXirii^i SvaOepaTrevTo^^ ^vaQvipaTo^^ &c. &c., which all 
signify a defiance of that which is expressed by the main 
part of the compound. Accordingly, the poet is not here 
speaking of the alluvial mud cast up along the shore, which 
Aristotle calls 6 0k o /meXas, but of the general deposits 
at the bottom of the sea : thus also Aristoph. Veyp. 696 : 
Ti Xeyeisi ^ P^ov top fflva rapdaarei^f on which the 
Schol. : €K (ivOov fie Kivels, Hesych. : 01y* to Kara) (idQoi 
Ttji OaXdaafj^. Pind. P. VI. 12 — 14 : oir avejuLoi 65 
fAV')(^ov9 dXo^ ai^oiai TrajuL^optp j^^epdSi rvnTOikevov. In 
general, we may compare with this metaphor that which has 
been explained above, v. 20. 

588—597.] NOTES. 181 

588. avTi'irX^yes aKTaiJi The poet speaks as an 
Athenian, who had taken his stand on the East Coast of 
Attica, and looked towards Euboea while a violent gale was 
blowing from the North-East. It would first touch the 
surface of the sea, but at length would so affect the whole 
mass of water, that the windward coast of Euboea, no less 
than the lee shore of Attica, would be lashed by the waves. 
That cLKTi] is particularly applied to the sea-coast of Attica, 
which derived its name from this use (ATTiKtj^'AKTiKii)^ is 
well known. See Suidas s.v.; Anecd. Bekkeri, p. 370, 8; 
Strabo (quoting Sophocles) IX. p. 392. And that the term 
was also applied to Euboea, is clear from v. 1100 infra, and 
from Track. 236 : clktvi ti? iar EvjioiU. 

589, 90. ap^aia — TrtTrroi/r.] For the construction 
see the New Cratylus, p. 385. The necessary emendation 
(j>0LTwv is due to Hermann. Dindorf has pointed out a 
similar corruption in Eurip. Alcest, 100. 

593 — 597. yvv yap — 'Epivv9.] Hermann's insertion of 
o before reTaTo is required by the metre, and recognized 
by the Scholiast. He subsequently adopted a more exten- 
sive change, writing oirep for virep^ and ereraTo : but the 
preposition seems necessary, and, as well as the relative, was 
read by the Scholiast. For the phrase o Teraro ^o9j I 
have elsewhere compared Phil, 817 sq. : ofXfAaai 5' ovriV^^ois 
rdi/S' aiyXav a Terarai Tavuv* For the sense of the 
word pi^a the student may refer to Aj(ix 935 ; Pind, 0. II. 
4 ; ^sch. Suppl. 105; St. Paul, Eom. XV. 12; Arist. 
JSth. Nic. VIII. 14. J 3 : oOev (paal ravrov aXfia nai pi(^av 
Kal ToiavTa. The phrase icoi/t? Karafiq. pi^au may be 
partly illustrated by Ajax 1167: yevov^ awavTo^ P^^t'^^ 
.€^rjfjLrjiJL€vo^, I have justified the common reading k6vi9 
against the emendation KOTci^i in the Neu) Croitylus^ p. 294. 

597. \oyov T avoia Koi (ppevwv Eptvvs.^ It is 
clear that this is predicated of Antigone, whose inconsider- 
ate language to Kreon, coupled with her feeling of resent- 
ment at the violation of religious ordinances in the case of 

182 NOTES. [597—602. 

PoIyneike«9 had led to her condemnation. This k the 
proper force of the word eptvvf^ which, as Miiller says 
(Eumenid. § 77), denotes '^ the feeling of deep offence^ of 
litter diipleasure^ when sacred rights belonging to us are im- 
piously violated by persons who ought most to have respected 

598, 9. reavf ZcJJ — Kardaxoi.] Some years ago I 
pointed out the sense of this passage, which had been 
generally misunderstood. I will repeat here what I wrote in 
1836. ^^The connexion of ideas in this passage is as fol- 
lows : * What mortal transgression or sin is Jupiter liable to, 
Jupiter the sleepless and everlasting God ? But mortal men 
know nothing of the future till it comes upon them.' We 
should certainly read iirep^acia in the nominative case« IV; 
iirepfiaaia Kari'^ei rcdv Suvaaivi is equivalent to Ted 
ivvaai^ Kori'j^ei ovriva virepfiacTiav'^ (see above on v. 4). 
'^ Compare Theognis 743 — 6, which Sophocles had in his 

Kal tovt\ ddavcLTOdv (iaaiXev, ww^ can SUaiou 

epywv ooTTii avrjp ckto^ ewv dSiKwy^ 
fjLfj Tiv vwep^aarirfv icutcj^wi; /ulvjS' opKOV dXiTpou, 

dWd oiKaio^ €(ov jm^ rd SUaia irdOtj ; 

Theatre of the Greeks, Ed. 4, p. 81.*' 

600 — 602. rdv ovff iirvo^ — /Li^ve?.] These words 
do not balance the corresponding words in the antistrophe, 
and various attempts have been made to mend the corrup- 
tion thus indicated. Moreover, the word navToyiipa>s has 
been with justice objected to on its own account. Schneider, 
in his Lexicon, pronounced it a word of doubtflil authority. 
Emper says, that this epithet is totally inapplicable to re- 
freshing sleep, and that as the gods were supposed to be 
liable to sleep, they must have been considered liable to 
grow old, if that was the effect of sleep. He suggests, 
therefore, that we have in this word an old error of the 
copyist, whose eye lighted on dyijpw^^ written as a various 
reading by the side of dyijptp, and that Sophocles probably 
wrote TrapToSfxdrwpy as in Homer IL XXIV. 5. Od. IX. 

602—607.] NOTES. 183 

373, we have the phrase vwv(k ripei irai/Sa/uLdrcop, I un- 
derstand that Bamberger (in Schneidewin's Philologm I. 4> 
p. 604), propoBes iravroOtipo^ or TravroOtjpwi, It appears 
to me, that the true reading is irayKpaTti^^ which occurs as 
an epithet of virvo^ in the Ajax 660, and which appears 
as an epithet of xpovoi in a passage in which Sophocles was 
obviously influenced by his recollections of what he bad 
written in this chorus : (Ed, Col, 607 sqq : 

o) (piXTQT Aiyea)^ irai^ fiovots ov ylyverai 

Qedlai yfjpa^y ovSc KarOaveiu ttotc, 

rd 5* dXXa (rvyxjei iravff 6 TrayKpartj^ ')(p6vo^. 

Other commentators have sought to mend the metre by 
altering the following Hue. Hermann originally proposed 
oire OevStf aKfjLijTOh which Emper adopts with the dialectical 
change aK/muToi* Dindorf writes: out ukowoi deiv viv, 
Bockh : aKaiiaTot dewv ov. It appears to me that the cor- 
ruption lies in O^wv. What are '^ the months of the Gods V 
The Aio9 fjieydXov eviavroU of Homer {H. II. 134), are 
by no means a parallel. Although the word Oiia does not 
occur elsewhere in ^schylus or Sophocles, there is no 
reason why he should not have used it, as I believe he did 
here, uid in v. 1305 infra: and I have vmtten with the 
greatest confidence oLKaiJiaToi deovre^, which suits the metre, 
and perfectly coincides in construction with Electra 164: ow 
eytay aKajuLara (vulg. aKcifiaTa) irpocTixevova' areKyoi* The 
use of this adjective, as a secondary predicate or adverb, has 
been mentioned by Suidas, 8,v, aKUfiaTa or aKafidra, avrl 
aKajuLdray^, Kal dSiaXei'n'Tw^ fj ov KeK/txrjKOTw^. For the months 
as a measure of time, we may compare Catullus XXXIV, 18 : 
** Tu cursu, dea, menstruo, Metiens iter annuum,^ and for 
the rapidity of their course (deoi/rcf), cf. Hor. IV, Carm. 
VI. 39 : " celeremque pronos volvere menses.*** Id. IV. 
Carm. VII. 13 : ^^ damna tamen celeres reparant coelestia 

604 — 607. TO T iireira — ara.] Of the various me- 
thods which have been proposed for correcting this manifestly 
corrupt passage, the only one which I can accept as par- 

184 NOTES. [607. 

tially true, is that which regards the terminations of vv. 606 
and 607» as wanting — ^the words oviiv epirei and cKi-of ara^ 
having been transferred from w. 611 and 617- Supposing 
then that we have a lacuna, amounting in each case to a 
trochaic dipodia, at the end of each line, the question is—, 
how can we, without any aid from the MSS., restore the 
missing words! With regard to v. 606, I think it may be 
safely concluded: (1) that we have here lost some word 
governed by eirapKeaei ; for although the absolute use of 
this verb is not unprecedented, as we shall presently see, yet 
it seems absolutely necessary to connect the law, here men- 
tioned, with the destiny of man, otherwise the immunity of 
Zeus from mortal transgression will be without its proper 
antithesis : (2) that the lost words must have borne some 
palseographical resemblance to what precedes or follows, 
otherwise their absorption would be hardly explicable. With 
regard to v. 607, the meaning obviously intended comes so 
close to that of the intrusive words, that I think we may 
safely regard them as a marginal illustration of something 
which stood in the text. To begin then with this second 
line : I consider the words oi^ev eprrei as the remains of a 
gloss on the dative fiiortp^ which was placed on the left- 
hand margin of this line. The Scholiast wished to illustrate 
the use of a verb of motion with the dative, and therefore 
quoted the phrase [eiSorc 5*] ovUv epwet from v. 611. And 
I regard the words e/cros ara^ as the remains of a gloss 
upon the whole line, which having been originally [oi/^e<V 
€1/ TiaaaK tois noXeaiu irpaaaei tov (ilov awavra], cktos 
arasf where the illustration was partly borrowed from the 
phraseology of w. 616, 617, has ultimately coalesced with 
the gloss on /Storqtf, so that there remained in the margin 
only the words ovSev epirei cKroi aras, which have been 
equally divided between the two lines in the text. Now the 
evidence in a case like this is of cumulative probability ; and 
before we can restore v. 607, we must return to the former 
line. The poet says, that although Zeus is free from sin, 
as he is a sleepless and everlasting potentate, yet that for 
the present, the' future, and the past, (cf. Eurip. jph. T. 
1263), the law, which he is about to mention, will sufficiently 


607.] NOTES. 185 

describe (eirapKeaei) — what? — of course, the destiny of man. 
The common use of the verb eirapKeto is well known. It 
signifies "to ward oflT' — hence, "to helper aid'' — Whence, 
" to supply or furnish." In the first sense it governs the 
dative of the person and the accusative of the thing — in 
the second, the dative or accusative of the person — in the 
third, the genitive of the person and the accusative of the 
thing, or the dative of the thing only. But besides this 
common use, there are passages in which ewapKeo) seems to 
approximate in meaning to airapKeo) " to be suflScient,'' (see 
(Ed. Col. 1766 : ravr av airapKoi). Thus Solon writes 
{Fr. 14, Bach. 4, Bergk) : 

oriiktp fiiv ycip eowKa Tocrov Kparos oiaov eirapKelf 
TijuLf]9 ovT aCpeXivv out eirope^a/Aepos, 

which shows that the same verb is intended in iEsch. Agam. 
370 : €(TTia 5* aTTYifiapTov ware KairapKelv eu TrpaniStov 
Xayovra, for this seems to be an imitation of the former 
passage. It is true that Coraes would read airapKel in the 
fragment of Solon, and that some understand the same 
verb in the Agamemnon. But as Blomfield justly remarks : 
" airapKciu de rebus dicitur quarum satis est, eirapK^lv potius 
de personis" — meaning, I presume, that dirapKcw is used 
only intransitively, but that eirapKew always implies an 
active satisfying of some want, law, or condition ; which is 
the case. Now, I believe that, in this sense, kirapKeta would 
properly govern the accusative of the person or thing, whose 
requirements were adequately met and answered, just as 
e^ia-Ta/ixat, which, properly and according to the construction 
of its preposition, would govern the genitive, is used with 
the accusative when it denotes avoidance from fear, as in 
the phrase eKarffvai kIvSvvov (see Lobeck, cui AJacem, v. 82). 
It is easy to see the origin of these changes of construction. 
If e^laTafxai means, " I get out of the way'' of a thing, 
it might first be used absolutely, to signify "I fear," and 
then if the object of alarm were expressed, this would natu- 
rally be expressed in the accusative. Similarly, if errapKewy 
which signifies to lend our aid in warding off danger, got 
the accessary meaning of being a sufficient aid or help-mate, 
and from that passed on to the signification, to be adequate 

186 NOTES. [607. 

to all the requirementB of an object, it might be used abflo« 
lutely, as in the passage from Solon, — where, however, tov 
Sijfiov is immediately supplied by the thoughts of the readers, 
-—or if the object were necessarily expressed, it would stand 
in the accusative, as in the passage from the Jpamemnan. 
Now, as I have already said, the expression of the object 
is necessary here, and the metre and sense suggest the 
words avSpo^ ataav as the necessary supplement ; see Pind. 
P. III. 69, 60 : 

'^ptj TO, eoiKora irdp oaifxovwv /mao'TeveiuLev OuaTois 

yvovra rd Trap iroooi^ oia^ elfiev a 10*09* 

Let us now see if this meets the palaeographical test which 
has been suggested — that is, whether these words are 
sufficiently like what followed to make their absorption pro- 
bable. We come then to the other lacuna. If the mean- 
ing of V. 607 was given in the gloss which we have assumed, 
— and enough is left of the line to make this nearly cer- 
tain — the remaining words must have been ara and a 
verb of motion. Whether we agree or not with Hermann 
{Opmcul, II. 326), that el/Ai may be used as a present 
tense, I think no one will doubt that it might with pro- 
priety be employed here in a general apophthegmatic sen- 
tence, dependent on the future verb eirapKearei : cf. Soph. 
Fr. Incert, 813, Dindorf : ritn^ 5* avwdev elaiv aifiarop- 
p6<po9, iEsch. Sept, c, Theb. 682 : fxeXavaiyU 5* ovk ela* 
Sofiov 'Eptvv^f OUT av CK xepwv 6eoi Ovalav Ss'xwvtcu. 
Svppl, 168, 172: ')(aK€irov yap e/c irvev/uLaroi etat ')(€iiulwv. 
If then etatv ara were the original reading here, we see 
how the resemblances between the terminations of the five 
successive lines produced the absorption or loss in two of 
the intermediate verses. For if the endings were, 

ewapK — eaei 
dvopo^ — alaav 
etaiv ara 

ay'KT09 iXirk 

ou — aai£ dvopuivf 

we may perfectly well understand how a blundering copyist, 

607—613.] NOTES. 18? 

assisted in his error by confused marginal glosses \ may have 
made the omisrions, which I have thus endeavoured to sup- 
ply. I may add, that, as the epithet ttoVttoXis, like a7roX<9, 
v\f/i7r6\i9, SiKaiowoXt^, &o. impUes a person or personifica- 
tion, this is an additional reason for concluding that art/ 
was here mentioned in the nominative case. 

608 — 612. a yap oi} — irpoaauati.'^ It will be re- 
marked that ovaai9 and awara are both predicates. By 
a-nrarti epwroju, he means the frustration of a man'*s longings : 
so infra 623 : dwarfi Xc'xetvv '^ the disappointment of his 
expectations in regard to marriage.^^ Alciphron . (III. 5) 
speaks of eXTriSes dTraTtjXai The nominative to epirei is 
not ovSev, which is the accusative after eiSon^ but, as 
Wunder has remarked, jy iXirU airaTti yevofievrj. On the 
form irpoaav<Tfi9 it may be sufficient to quote Lobeck, ad 
Ajacem^ p. 358 : '^ Ex quo colligi licet, aveiv illud, quo de 
agimus, idem valere quod aipeiVy verumque esse quod in 
Soph. Antiff. 616, plerique libri exhibent, tt/oiV irvpl Oepn^ 
woSa Tis irpoaavartj^ id est, irpoaapri^ ut in glossa exponitur, 
sive irpocrapiJLOGYi.'^ Id, Vtiy^ariKov^ p. 12 note : " cum So- 
phoclis illo irpiv — Trpoa'avarrj^ si quis contulerit ApoUinar. 
Ps, XC. 24 : fxYiiroTe aov iroSa Xai ifa0a\|/»y9, non dubium 
habebit hujusmodi locis grammaticos inductos esse, ut avaai 
et a\j/cur0ai synonyma dicerent." For the general meaning, 
the reader will find an exact parallel to this passage in 
Pindar, O. XII. 6—9. Cf. also Proverbs XIII. 12. 

612, 613. (r<Kpi(^ — irecpavTai.] The parallel passages 
for this adage are fully given by Ruhnken on Velleius Pater- 
culus II. 67 (266, 266), and by Wyttenbach on Plutarch, de 
audiendispoetis, p. 17, b (pp. 190, 191). The Latin adage, which 
is still in colloquial use, quern tuU dem perire^ dementat prius^ 
is probably an abridged translation of orav ^ o Saiiitov avSpl 
TTopavvri /ca/ca, rov vovv €)3Xa>|^€ irpwTotf y povXevercu. 

1 By a singular coincidence, (which shows the probability of such 
corruptions,) in the first proof of page 60, the words kot av viv, 
which I had written in the margin after Olblirov b6yMis, were inserted 
between ovd' cxci and \wtiv in y. 592. 

188 NOTES. l6l7'-637. 

617. wpaaaet — 0X701/5.] I have here written aXyom 
instead of aT09> because I think it scarcely possible that 
Sophocles should have repeated this word without any em- 
phasis, and because the parallelism of the actual aXyov and 
the tendency to arri seems to me to be required here no less 
than in v. 4 supra. I think the corruption arose from a 
former Scholiast having written in the margin of y. 607 
supra, ovSek ev vaaaK r. ir. irpaacei eirro^ arai^ as an 
explanation to the 7ra^i9roXt9 elaitf ara which he found there. 
The proper explanation of oXiyoarou yjpovov here may be 
derived from the converse iroWoar^ XP^^V Aristoph. P€Uf^ 
559 : on which see New Craiyhu, p. 206. Upaaaei is used 
with 6/CT09 aXyovsy as it is with the adverbs ^cSf, €?, kcucw^. 

620. Ta\i^o9-] I agree with Dindorf, that the words 
Trji fieWoyafiov vvn^tj^^ which appear in the MSS., are a 
marginal gloss on raXiSov, and ought to be expunged. The 

resemblance between raXcy and the ToKiOa (Kfl^TlD) of 
Mark V. 41, is merely accidental. The latter is simply a 
Syriac derivative from iTTD " a young lamb,'* or ** a new- 
bom gazelle." 

627, 628. Koi (TV fioi — i<p€\l/ofjLai.] Haemon promises 
only a conditional obedience. ^^ If you have for me yveifia^ 
)(pija'Ta^ — and not otherwise — ^you are my ruler and guide.'' 
I consider airopOow^ as nearly as possible, a synonym of 
airevOivw^ cf. ad 666 : cf. Plato, Legg. V I. 757, b : atropOodv 
Tov xXfipov wpo^ TO SiKaioTUTov, with id, ibid* p. 757>.b: 
KXfjp(p awevOuvcov ei^ Tcii Siavojua^ avTfjv. Consequently, the 
words to be supplied here are /me yvdjuaK^ cf. Plato, Legg. XII. 
946, D : Kara tjJi; twv evOvvwv yvdjuLrjv : and for the use of 
direvOvvo) in Sophocles, see (Ed. T. 104, Jjax 72, and cf. 
supra 178. The same conditional obedience is promised in 
the aou xaXw^ riyovix€voVf which follows. 

637. 7re^a9'] This reading is introduced by Wunder 
on the authority of the Scholiast. 

639—667.] NOTES. 189 

639. TT/oos ti^ovij^'] The common reading y v(j} 
ilhovri^ is not sanctioned by the best MSB., and the ye is 
quite out of place. I have therefore adopted the reading 
proposed by Hermann (see above on v. 24, and for the con- 
struction, cf. v. 51). 

654 — 658. o<rT«9 ^ virepfias — rduauriaJ] With Bockh 
and Dindorf, I have adopted Hermann's original suggestion 
respecting the transposition of these lines. They were for- 
merly placed after line 662. 

655. KpaTwovcTiv voei*^ Dindorf has extracted this 
correction from the best MS. 

660. €v 6 au ap')^€G9ai OeXeiu*^ This second ai; is, 
like the former, to be referred to Oapaoltjv, and OeXeiu 
governs ap'xeiv as well as ap'^eaOai. This is another of 
those instances, in which it has not been generally observed, 
that OeXeiv is used to signify habitual conduct. Compare 
Pmdar, 0. XIII. 9 : eOeXovn ^ aXe^eiv "Xfipiv. ^schyl. 
FeruB^ 176: wi/ av Svva/uLi^ liyeiaQat OeX^i. 

662. irapaa-TdTfjv.] See note on v. 140 supra, and 
cf. Aristot. PoL III. 4. J 6 : wairep ovSe twv '^(opevTwu 
Kopv(f>alou Kal irapaaraTov* 

666. op9ovnev(M}p.'\ Although opOo^ properly signifies 
" vertical,''' and €vQv%^ *' horizontal," they are both used to 
denote a straight unbroken line, whether horizontal or ver- 
tical. Thus, we have seen diropOow employed as a synonym 
for dnevOvvvt) (supra v. 627, 628) ; and we have opOovuwoXiv^ 
V. 167, as well as eCOiifeiv ttoXii;, v. 178. Here opOovfievoi 
does not mean qui erecti stant, as Wunder takes it, nor qui se 
regi pcsiiuntury as Emper translates it, but qui rectam aciem 

667. aft5^ei.] Hom. IL V. 631 : ai^oyiivwv S dvSpwv 
irXioves aooi ije TteKpauTat, and the other passages quoted 
in the New CratyhSy p. 406. 

190 NOTES. [668—689. 

668. T0C9 KoafjtovfieuwJ] Wunder and Emper rightly 
understand thia participle as neater. For the use of tco^fun, 
SB implying government and military discipline, see Theatre 
o/Os Greeks, Ed. 4. p. 8. 

678, 679. yeioiTo — TrpoaKoirelv.^ I cannot see the 
necessity for any /iteration here. The sense is made clear 
by the particles '^hioh the poet has used : ^^ although I could 
not, and do not wish, to arraign the justice of yo^ur senti- 
ments, nevertheless (/mivToi) it miffht come to pass, that this 
censure would proceed with propriety from another," (i. e. 
yivoiro icaXc?$ — €j(oi; Koi ereptp Xeyeiv oirw^ <ru k>t*\. 
where kqI performs that office of emphasis, which is best 
expressed in English by a stress on the auxiliary). ^' At all 
events {ovv), whether such censure were right or wrong, it 
is my natural office as your son (W0i//ca), to keep an eye 
on your behalf,'' {irpo-aKoireiv, cf. infra 732 : aov yap ovu 
wpo-KiiSofxai), ^^ to all words, thoughts, and censures, which 
have reference to your conduct.'' I think, therefore, that 
Wunder's correction yevoiro is quite unnecessary, and that 
Hermann's readings '^arepw^ and <tv h* oi iretpvKa^ are detri- 
mental to the sense. 

687 — 689. ijTi9 — Tivo^.'] There is some little difficulty 
in this passage from the use of fi^ where we should have ex- 
pected ov. Wunder takes this negative with the infinitives, 
and explains the use of the prohibitive by referring to the 
fact— -^^ impedimento fuisse Antigonam, ne insepultus jaceret 
Polynices, quum sepultures honore ipsa cum omaret." Emper 
'' finds the justification of the /xii in the transition from a 
particular to a general reference : ^tk refers indeed to Anti- 
gone, but by means of the second apodosis (for we have here 
the figure protasis inter dupUcem ojpodosin), the thought 
receives a general application, ov'^ ^Se, &c." This is the 
more correct view of the case. I consider that the special 
reference to Antigone terminates at (pOipch <^d that the 
words which follow contain a general sentiment in explana- 
tion of the epithet euKXeecTTdrwv — " her deeds were most 
glorious : for, if a woman, when her brother lies unburied, 

689—714.] NOTES. 191 

braves every danger to guard hia corpse from insult, is she 
not worthy of the highest glory T This appears from the 
use of ^Tii instead of tj. Sophocles must have been parti- 
cularly anxious to show that his reference here was general, 
for the verb edu) would have justified the use of oi;, even in 
a conditional clause: see Jjax 1131 : el tov9 Oavovra^ ovk 
€$9 Oairreiv irdpcov* 

709. aXS! €iK€ — S/5oj;.] I prefer the old reading 
Ou/xou to the dative, which has been substituted by many of 
the Editors. The word Ou/nov, on which the rhetorical ac- 
cent falls, is so placed as to qualify the whole sentence: 
*' with regard to your Ov/md^^ elxe kuI fierdo'Taaiv SlSov scil. 
fxerdcTTaaiv ai/rov." That elice Ov/txov in itself would be good 
Greek, is clear from Hom. U. IV. 509 : opwaff WiroSafMoi 
Tpw€99 f^vl^ e'lKere jfap/mijs 'Apyeiots. It would be impossible 
to understand el/ce Oufjup otherwise than as equivalent to the 
phrase SiSdvai Tdirov r^ dpyrf. Plutarch, De cohibendd ird^ 
p. *623. Bom. XII. 19. Casaubon ad Afhen. XIV. p. 662. 

711 — 714. (pii/x iyurye — /iiavOdveiv.'] For the sen- 
timent see Hesiod. Op. et dies 291, sqq., and cf. Aristot. 
Mh. Nk, I. 4, J 5 — 7. According to the ancients, true 
(To<pia was e/jiipvTov rt^ — hence the ^vvai tov dpSpa €7ri- 
(TTYiiJLffi. -TrXecoi;, or <c6i txs ri ao^os^ above 701 ; and thus Pin- 
dar teaches, 0. IX. 28 : dyaOol ce koi aotpol Kara Saifxov 
avSpes. It is worthy of remark, — indeed, the proper under- 
standing of an important epoch in Athenian history depends 
upon it — that although the nobles were by birth dyaOol Kal 
aotpoU aad though KaXoKayaOdg expressed a mixture of good 
qualities and mental culture, which was generally found in 
the nobles (see the New Cratylm^ p. 408), yet in the time of 
Pindar and Sophocles the KcCkoly as a class, were beginning 
to separate themselves from the nobles or KoKoKayaQoiy and 
a middle class was springing up, especially at Athens, who 
called themselves o\ xaXoI, as distinct from the hrjiio^ on the 
one hand, and from the aristocrats on the other. Sophocles 
could say, as here, kclKw to fiavQuveiVy or to fiavOdveiv iroXX! 
auTXpov oiSev (above v. 701), and the educated Athenians 

192 NOTES. i:714—72«. 

thougfat with him, but Pindar delights in invectives directed 
against the koKoi and fiaOoyrev. And this reminds me that 
all the commentators on Pindar P. II. 72, — ^mysdf indaded 
— have missed the meaning of that passage. I can scarcely 
doubt, after all, that the tme punctoation is : 

yevoi ofos ead' iiaOiiv KciXoi toi iriOtav irapa ircuaivy cuei 

It seems most probable that the sentence would be completed 
in the first three words, which contain an intelligible idea, 
and are in accordance with the Homeric phrase, and with 
the passage in Thucyd. III. 14 : ylyveade Se avipe^ oiovairep 
vfia^ oi T« "EAXiyi^? aj^iovai Kat to tjfAerepop cea^ fiouXercLu 
With regard to the second clause, wherein the men of accom- 
plishment (jcaXoi), who have acquired their learning {fmOop- 
T€9)9 Ai^ opposed to those whose abilities are the gift of 
heaven, it is sufficient to quote 0. II. 86 : cro^os o ^roXXa 
eictis (pu^' fiaOovTe^ oe Xdfipoi •KoyyXwaaiq. Kopcucet ws^ 
ic.T.X. Cf. Eurip. Hippol. 79. 

719, 20. /ii^dci;-— o'icoTreii'.] Scil. /iri^if iiSaaKou o fitj 
iiKuiov icTTi, Wunder has rightly explained Tapya — ^^opera 
sua quum spectanda dicit, significat id, quod faciendum 
suaserit oratione ilia, qua patrem de sententia sua demovere 
studuerit. Non dissimiliter dictum Phil, 99 : 9*vif ^ eU 
eXeyjfOv e^iciv opw fiporoi^ riji; yXwaaap, oiyi Tapya 
iravff ^yovfjLevrjy, ubi r^u yXtvaaavy ovx* rapya nobis est, 
das Bederiy nicht das Thm^ 

722. oi^ av — /coicoi/s.] The meaning of this line has 
been overlooked. The emphasis falls on the first syllable of 
vvGc^lv. Kreon asks, '^ Is it the result of your counsels 
that one should pay respect to — ^treat with consideration 
(aefieiv) — ^those who oppose themselves to the laws f The 
son answers : ^^ I would not even bid you to pay religious 
reverence (euaefielu), when the base were the objects of it.^ 
And then Kreon asks whether Antigone was not in this pre- 
dicament — whether she had not, in her anxiety to perform 
the duties of evaefiia (infra 899, 918), taken the enemies of 
the state as the objects of her undue reverence. There is 

725—750.] NOTES. 193 

the same allusion to the two applications ot aefio) in vv. 735, 
736, where ou yap aefiei^^curtfieis yap, 

72*7 » XP^ '^' Tfja^ apx^iv 'xOopo^-^ Most scholars 
will agree with Wunder in rejecting the ye of the vul- 
gate. It appears to me that Sophocles must have written 
the line as I have given it : ap'^eiv is used absolutely, as it 
generally is, and the collocation eirl TtjaSe ydovo^ is very 
common in Sophocles (cf. (Ed. Col 569, 1258, 1705). The 
interchange of 7 and tt has been referred to above on v. 24. 
The corruption has crept in from the yrjs ap')^ois of v. 730. 
The use of the dative after yjprj is referred to by Thom. M., 
and is justified by other examples. 

729. ov Tov KparouvTos — i/o/xi^crai ;] Cf. Phil. 386, 
(Ed. Col. 38, and see Arist. Eth. Nic. IX. 8, $ 6 : wawep 
Kai TToXis TO KvpiwTarov ixa\i<TT elvcu SokcI Kai ttoi; aXXo 

747. yvvaiKo^ — /Ai) KooTiXXe /xe.^ The verb KwriXXw 
seems to be properly applied to the idle small-talk of women : 
cf. Hesiod. Op* et 2). 371 : /ujyoe ywij ore voov irvyoaToXins 
e^airaTaro) aifivXa KtariXXovaa. Theocr. Id, XV. 87 : 
iravaacrffy w cuaravoh avrivvTa K(i>TiXXoi(Tai. The King 
here treats Hsemon as a wapOevowiwns, who could not 
speak like a man, with reference to his saying ovic eu (ppo- 
velv^ when he meant irapaKppovelv, 

750. '^alptiyv — oei/i/acrei^ €/ui€.] Bockh takes eTrl y^oyoiai 
with 'xaipwv. Wunder would translate the words reprehenden- 
doy aecusando. Emper proposes to read in for kiri I think 
that, as ievvw^iuD signifies to use hard words, threats, and the 
like, and as Haemon begins with y\foyo% (above 680), and is 
at last supposed by his father to threaten (above 743), the 
meaning must be, "you shall not, after all your censures, 
come to threats and abusive language with impunity." I 
cannot think, with Emper, that this meaning is here out of 
its place : it seems to me that after the bandying of words 
in w. 745, sqq., it is eminently appropriate here. 


IM NOTES. [765—775. 

766. irerptoSei — Kardpvxi'] It ia clear from the 
deBcription here and elsewhere, that the place of Antigone^s 
confinement was one of those partially-subterraneous OoKaiJLoi 
or ovSoi, with dome-shaped top, which the Oreeks used as 
secret chambers, treasure-houses, store-rooms, and prisons: 
see Miiller's AndeiU Art and its remainsy § 48. pp. 22, 23, 
English Translation. Emper refers to a paper by Col. Mure in 
the BAein. Mm. 1839, Heft. II. p. 265. See below on v. 1173. 

772 — ^783. Third Stasinwn. The following is the scheme 
of the metres. 

1. . II 1 w I . II 1 . . I ^ II 

2. Kj\\lKj\^\\lKJ,j\JL\\lKj\\LKjyu\\LKJ^\\ 

3. 1 u II 1 u u II 1 w I - « II 

4. . II lu. II lu.| l||iuu|l||Z_|| 
6. . ^ II 1 . u I 1 II 1 u u p . II 

6. . II 1 u w II 2 w I - - II 1 .. V. j| 1 v^ -. G. 

It is customary to scan this pair of strophes with iambic 
dipodise, Bacchei, and other irregularities, inimical to the 
rhythm, which is simply dactylico-trochaic. The second 
and third lines are, in efiect, one, as appears not only from the 
metre, but still more so from the repeated "Epm^, which, 
according to the laws of good style, ought to stand in close 
rhetorical connexion with the two relatives which follow. 

773. ''E^iws, OS ev ktyiixouti TTiTrrcis.] Most of the 
commentators understand by Knifxara, "the wealthy and 
powerful,'^ and Propertius is quoted in explanation ; I. El. 
14, 15 : 

Nam quis divitiis adyerso gaudet amore? 

Nulla mihi tristi prsemia sint Venere. 
nia potest magnas heroum infringere Tires: 

Ilia etiam duris mentibas esse dolor. 

Klotz thinks that by KT^fiara we must understand ** slaves.^ 
Emper regards the passage as corrupt. Now the use of 

7730 NOTES. 195 

efJuriTrra), with the dative, to signify the access of an emotion 
or passion, is exceedingly common, and epa)^ efjuriirrei rwl 
is a phrase of constant occurrence, e. g. iEschyl. Ag. 322 : 
epw^ C€ /lliJtis Tporepov einriiTTvi aTpar^ iropdelv a fxij yjpfj 
Kepoeaiv viKcoiJiivov^* Plato, Mesp, VI. p. 499, o: irplv av 
Tois <PiKo<To(f}oi^ Toi/To«s..-€«c Tivo^ Octa^ eTriTTVoias dXtjOivrjs 
(f>i\o(To<l>ias aXffiivos ipws e^ireafi. Whether this phrase is 
borrowed from the language of the wrestling school or not 
(see note on Pindar, P. VIII. 81), it is sufficiently expres- 
sive and intelligible. What then is the meaning of epu)^ e/x- 
wiTTTei KTijfiaaii It does not appear to me to be explicable 
otherwise than by a reference to the dictum of Plato, that 
men are the KTrnnaTa of the Gods ; see Phcedo^ p. 62, b : ov 
imevToi aWd roSe ye fxoi doicel, (3 Kefiij^^ ev XiyeoQai^ to 
Oeov^ etvai rifxwv roi/s eirifxeXoiuLeifovs kuI ijfxa^ tov9 dvOpdwqus 
€p t£p KTrf/jLaTCDv toIj Oeol^ elvcu* Ibid. p. 62, d, L^ff. X. 
p. 902, B, 906, A : ^i/Vm^X^^ ^^ ^f^^^ ^^^^ '^^ ^^^ '^^^ ^ai/uoi/e^, 
fjM-el^ o av KTij/xara Oeeov Kat ocujjlovwv. If the reader 
will compare these passages with that in the Critias, p. 109, 
B, he will see that the mind of man is regarded as influenced 
by the Deity, in the same way as the flock is guided by its 
shepherd: oTov vojuifjs irolfjivia KTtjfjiaTa Kal OpefiimaTa eau- 
Tcov tifkos €Tp€<pov wX^p OV (rcijuLCUTi aoDjULaTa (Sial^ofievoii 
KaOairep iroi/uLeves KTtjptj TrXiyyj} V€iulovt€s, aXX ti (laXiaTa 
ev(TTpo<f)ov ^^ov €K wpv/uLvrjs airevQivovres otov oiaKi ireidoi 
"^v^^ e^aTTTo/ievoi Kara Tijv avrwv Siapoiav^ ovT(t>s ayovTC^ 
TO Opyitop irav cKvfiepvwv. That the poets were in the habit 
of speaking of the regulated functions of the mind, in phrase- 
ology borrowed from that which described the shepherd'*s 
office, is clear from the metaphors (iovKoXelv (ppovTiai ti 
(iEsch. Agam. 669), or fiovKoXelaOai ti {Evmen. 78) ; and 
<pp€vos oiofiwTti^ (Soph. AjcLx 607). I am convinced, there- 
fore, that Sophocles here speaks of love as making men his 
KTYifiaTa^ by his triumphant victories over those whom he 
attacks ; so that KT^fiaTa is here used proleptically. And I 
think that this interpretation is supported by the context. 
First, the poet addresses Eros as invincible ; then he states 
that he is not only victor when he combats, but that by 
attacking he at once enslaves — makes the objects of his 


196 NOTES. C7T3— 783. 

Miiwck hk jrnf^iara, the herd which he gindes and goTems. 
Ab the wrestler, who merdy threw his mdTemrj, might gain 
enly an ineomi^ete Tictory, while he who fdl open him would 
■ecare his triumph, so love not only conqnarB, hot he falls 
with his yietim undermost, who thencdbrth becomes entirely 
his own. He then expresses the throne of love's supremacy, 
and the umyersality of his influence. Of all the commoita- 
tors on Sophodes, Reisig has, in my opinion, made by far 
the nearest approximation to the truth. He says {Emarrai. 
in (Ed. Col. 315) : ^^ KTrnAara sunt ilK, qui amore sunt capti. 
Amor, qui in eos irruis quos habes, qui tibi sunt mancipati, 
KTiffAcun crdis.'^ Only, it will be observed, that he does not 
quite see the force of efiwiirTeoj and takes imifAaai¥ as a 
descriptive phrase, whereas it must be a proleptio word or 
secondary predicate, so that the phrase may be rendered : 
JmoTy quif incidendo jacevUUmSj dMUaU>$ tibi quatijure man- 
dpi tindicoi. 

777. o ^ €x<t^v fACfifiyev.] It is in accordance with the 
idiom of the Greek language to say not only ipw^ e^ei tivo, 
but also i'xei res epwra. Thus we have seen above, that 
the objects of Love's influence are his KTrifiara. Pindar 
says (/. VII. 29), ipw^ yap c^ei/. Plato, on the contrary, 
as here, dui^p i'^wv iptara {Phcedr. p. 239, b), and, o'^Epeus 
ev waarf avap'^iq, koI avofiitf, ^cuy, are avT09 wv /Aovapy^os, 
TOP €)(ovTa — avTov wanep iroXiv a^ei ctti iraaay ToXfxav 
{Sesp, IX. p. 675, a). We have the same inversions in cU 
arriv ayeiv and artiv ayeiv (supra ad v. 4), Kare^eiv vwep- 
ficuTiav and virepfiacria Kareypi (supra ad 598, 9), &c. 

778. ahiKov^.^ Schol. : av kqI SiKalom iiatpOeipei^^ 
w<TT€ Ta^ (Ppeva9 avTZv doiKovi yeueaOat, 

781. epapy^^ fiXecfxipujv 'ifxepo^.l For the idea, see 
New CratyluSy p. 583. I need hardly say that my version 
was suggested by Shakspere ; Love's Labotir's Losty Act IV. 
Sc. 3: 

" But love, first learned in a lady's eyes. 
Lives not alone immured in the brain, &c.'^ 

782, 8. T<Sy imeyaXwv — Oeafiiv.'] Dindorf, who is fol- 

783—789.] NOTES. 197 

lowed as usual by Wunder, alters the vulgate by inserting 
oiJj^J before irdpeopo^^ and omitting the words ei/ apj^als 
before Oea/unSv. I agree with him so far as to think that the 
metre is faulty, and that ev apxal^ is a marginal gloss ; but 
I think his insertion of ovxt utterly tasteless. The abnega- 
tion of a metaphor, which it was not necessary for the poet 
to use, seems to me at variance with all established rules of 
good style, and suitable only for the lowest comedy. Din- 
dorf thinks that his view is confirmed by the words which 
follow: vuv ^ ffSri 'yd k air 69 Oeayiwv efco (pepo/mat. It 
appears to me that these words point to a very different 
remedy for the corruption of the text : they tell us that the 
preceding words must have spoken of the power of love as 
having equal power with the mighty laws of filial piety, in the 
case of a particular person ; for this is the opposition implied 
in the vvu ffStj eyoa xal avros* Now as they are speaking of 
the particular case of Kreon and Haemon (roSe vcikos dv 
Spiov ^vvai/uLov), and as the victory gained by love referred 
only to Haemon, I have not hesitated to insert iraiSl before 
wdpeSpos. I think that the resemblance of the first two 
syllables of the latter word has caused the confusion between 
them and the word which originally preceded. There is 
perhaps a play upon this last word in the e/nwail^ei which 
follows. For the application of this verb, cf. Aristoph. Thesm. 
975: *'Hpav t»}i/ TcXeiay, fj iraai roTs ')(opoi(Tiv e/Airail^ei 
re Kal KXtjSas ydfjLov (pvXdaaei. Love and filial duty 
take their seats on the bench together, and the vote of love 
carries the day, because Aphrodite is irresistible in her sport. 
For the meaning of the ixeyaKol Oeafxoh s©© Pindar P. VI. 
19 — 27. For viK^s see above 274, and cf. jEschyl. Eumen. 
915 : viKq, S* dyadwu epis Yumerepa oid wavros : and for the 
phraseology of the version, see Kinff Lear^ Act III. Sc. 6 : 

** Thou robed man of justice, take thy place ;— 
And thou, his yoke-fellow of equity, 
Bench hy his side : — Tou are of the commission. 
Sit you too." 

789 — 857. First Kammos. The metres are as fol- 
lows : — 

198 NOTES. [789—857. 

fXT po<pfi a. 

1. - II -^ - - II -^ - - II -^ - - II 

2. 1 V. w II 1 w - 11 

3. _ O II 1 u ^ II i ^ ) - - II 


«• - - II - - - I - II 

6. ^ ^ v^ I 1 _ II 

7. - - II 1 V. . I 1 _ II 

8. _ II 1 u II Z . . I ^ _ II 1 . . I Z _ II 

9. - II - - II - - - II - - - II -^ - II 

1. _ II i v^ _ II 1 u u II i ^ _ V. 1 - II 

2. _ II ^ . . II 1 . I _ _ II 

3. i ^ ^ I Z _ II 

4. i ^ ^ II J. v^ _ II 
6. V, - II ^ ^ w I ^ - II 

6. - 1 -I _ 1 -I- ^ - II 

7. - II ^ - - II -^ - I - - II 

8. . II Z ,. u II 1 V. _ II 1 - II 

9. _ II X . _ . II ^ V. . II X . _ II 

11. V. 1 I 1 v^ I 1 II 

12. w - II X ^ ^ II 1 ^ I - - II 

13. ^ II 1 v.; _ II 1 w _ u i - II 

The chorus adds three iambic dimeters and a dimeter 

792—815.] NOTES. 199 

1. - II 1 w^ I ^ w v^ I vi- vj u I - ^ jl 

2. J. w - II 1 w u I J. II 

3. 1 w - I JL w - II 

4. — w>»v^|-iw\^|JLwv^||-l<^«v^|| 

5. ^ w ^ I _ o I 1 _ II 

6. 1 u _ II Z ^ w I ^ II Z _ II 

7. - II 1 . I _ u I 1 _ II 

792 — 797.] aWa /i* o irayKoiTas — vufjL^evaw.^ See 
Shakspere, ^ow2^ and Jtdiety Act IV. Sc. 5 : 

" O son, the night before thy wedding-day 
Hath death lain with thy wife: — There she lies. 
Flower as she was, deflowered by him. 
Death is my son-in-law, death is my heir; 
My daughter he hath wedded! I wiU die, 
And leave him aU; life leaving, all is death's." 

801. «rix«/oa.] See New CratyluSy p. 223. 

805. ^61/ai;.] The Theban Chorus is made to use this 
designation of Niobe, because she married Amphion, king of 
Thebes. On the epithet <bpvyiav applied to her, see Strabo 
XII. p. 671. 

811.] reyyei 5^.] I agree with Wunder and Emper 
in accepting Bothe'^s emendation of the vulgate reyyei 6\ 
and I have also, in v. 808, adopted Musgrave^s change of 
i/uL^ptp into ofjifipoi. As Emper justly remarks, there is a 
confusion here between the person and the thing in the 
metamorphosis — o0/ou9 and ^eipas being applicable to the 
rock as well as to Niobe. 

815.] Tol^ ftcrodeoi^O Emper has remarked with truth, 
that this refers to a nominative ra laoOea^ and not to a 
lower synonym of Oeo^ and Oeoyevviis, applied to Niobe. 

200 NOTES. ZSI&—S33. 

818. ovK ovXofievav.'] With Bockh, I have restored 
the Homeric form of the common reading o\ofjue¥au. It 
Beems to me inconceivable that Sophocles should make Anti- 
gone, on the road to the grave, speak of herself as auic 
oWufievav. The passages quoted by Erfurdt and Wander, 
from Euripides, prove nothing. 

823, 4. cMTray — etriKTWfxai.'] Wunder would read 
eiravSHfjicu, which is quite unnecessary. Emper prpperly 
remarks that ejuwa^ explains eiriKTw/iai : " you, at all events, 
even though I can obtain nothing else.'^ 

828. OUT — rolo-ii;.] I have adopted Emper^s emen- 
dation of this passage. The common reading— -oi/t ev ftpo- 
Toiaiv ovT €v veKpolaiPf — has obviously crept into the text 
from a marginal gloss. 

833. irarp^ov — adXov.'] The common reading is e/cr/- 
1/61$. The best Laurentian MS. has eKrelvei^^ which, by the 
mere omission of a connecting line, becomes e/creXec?. And 
I think there can be little doubt that this is the true read- 
ing. For although there is an apparent justification of the 
phrase, eKrlveis irarptpov a9\oy^ in ^schyl. Agam. 1564: 
')^epoi iraTpwa^ cKTivovra iJLfj')(avaSf it must be recollected 
that this is only apparent; Agamemnon might be said to 
atone to iGgistheus for the crime of Atreus, but this mode 
of speaking could not be applied to the case of Antigone, 
against whom no one entertained inherited animosity. On 
the other hand, the phrase eKreXelv aOXov is established 
in common usage : see Hom. Od. XXII. 5 : ovra^ iiev di} 
aeOXos aaaro^ eKTereXeaToij (cf. Theon apud Plutarch, p. 
1087, A. Vol. V. Pars n. p. 440, Wyttenb.) Od. XXL 
135: eKTcXewfxev aeOXov. Soph. Track. 1177: to XexTov 
epyov eKTeXwv ; and especially Hom. Od. XL 279, 280 : ry 
aXyca KaXXiir owictgw iroXXd juloX', oaaa Te ixrirpo^ ' E|t>i- 
1/1/69 eKTeXeowTiVy where the misfortunes of this very family 
are referred to. So above, v. 2, 3 : ap olaOa on oiroioih^^ 
ovyl Twif air OiSiwov kukHv ZcCy TcXel; Pind. P. IV. 
165 : TovTov aeOXov eKwv reXeaov. 

834—873.] NOTES. 201 

834 — 838. €\l/avaa9 — Aafi^aKiSaiaiv.^ If yf/avwy in 
its translated sense of touching upon in words, can be used 
with the accusative (and this is clear from y. 933 : yl/auwy 
Tov Oeov ; cf. supra 644, 6 : /mt/c a /liij ''Oiye^ ttoiov creai/r^s), 
there seems to be no reason for making a difficulty here. 
Mepijuivas will then be the accusative, and as a train of 
thoughts rather than a single recollection is awakened by 
the word irarpfpov (cf. above, 582), the plural is almost 
required. With Dindorf, I have received Brunck'^s emenda- 
tion of oiTov for diKTov- Bockh has justified the use of 
TpiTToKiarov in the sense of TpiirokriTov^ cf. Pind. N, VII. 
fin. Soph. PhU, 1238. The construction rimeTepov Aafi^aKi- 
Sataiu TTOT/uLov is explained by Matthia (G. Gr. § 589 g. 8). 
For the phraseology of the translation, the reader may com- 
pare Macbeth^ Act IV. Sc. 1 : 

" Whate'er thou art, for thy good caution thanks ; 
Thou hast harp*d my fear aright.'' 

The epithet "thrice-renowned"' is also Shaksperian {Richard 
III. Act IV. Sc. 2. So thrice-famid. Hmry VI. Part II. 
Act III. Sc. 2.). 

852. a TaXal^pwv.] I have introduced d from v. 842, 
on account of the cretic rhythm. In v. 854, I have written 
\pov for lepoy^ with Wunder and Dindorf. 

856. dSoLKpvTou.^i Triclinius : to aSaKpvToy aa(j>tf 
via/uLO^ can rod ovScls crrei/a^et' to yap irap' ovSevos crre- 
ya}^6fi€vov a^aKpvTov iariv^ i.e. acaKpvToy is a secondary 
predicate, equivalent to ware ov Saxpiovaiv avrov. Cf. (Ed. 
Col. 1602: Twv <Twv dSepKTCov ofx/uidToov rijTWfxevoi. 

862, 3. a^€T€ — eire j^j} — ^waa rvi^fieveiv areyri.'] 
These corrections, which are partly due to the MSS., and . 
partly to Dindorf, have been most properly received by 
Wunder. The use of ;^^ for OeXei or xPjf^ei, is supported 
by Hesychius and Suidas, and by quotations from Euripides 
(apud Cic. ad Att. VIII. 1. et Suidam^ s.v. iraXafiaaOai)^ 
and Cratinus {apud Suidam^ 8.v. XP^)' 

873. (I>i\fi — TT/ooo-^cX^ Se croi.] Cf. Eurip. ffeouha 

202 NOTES- [878—903. 

982,3: ipiXfj fxev el trv, irpoatpiXei Si fioi t6^ (rrpor 

884 — 887. TTOdii $i€v — fiXaarm wore.] In the Trans- 
actions of the FhUdoffieal Society, Vol. I. pp. 168, 164, I 
have stated my reasons for believing that Herodotus (III. 
119) has imitated Sophocles in this passage. G. Wolff, who 
gives the priority to Herodotus, considers this passage as 
an interpolation by the frigid lophon (Zeitschr. /. d. Alter- 
thumsto. 1846, p. 629 sqq.). 

899. Tijy Svaaefielav,'] So above, v. 186 : Ttjif art/y : 
below, V. 918 : riji; evaefiiav. The article impUes that 
which is, in the particular case, a mischief, an impiety, an 
act of religion. The Chorus says above, v. 847 : aifieiv inev 
evaefieia tis, meaning that in the conflict between human 
and divine laws, that which is evaefieia, considered under 
one aspect, may be regarded from another point of view as 
an act of Svcraefieia ; and thus the translation given by Din- 
dorf and Wunder in this passage — impietatis crimen — truly 
expresses the force of the construction. It was a charge of 
impiety^it appeared an impiety to the accuser who judged 
from his own principles, — ^but it was not so in itself. 

900 — 903.] a\X' 6< — cfcSiVwj cVe.] If we read this 
passage under the influence of those habits of thought which 
we derive from Christianity, we may be disposed to under- 
stand it as spoken in a spirit of self-abasement and charity. 
But this is very far from the poet's meaning. Antigone 
says : '^ If I have done wrong, if the gods, in fact, approve of 
the conduct of Kreon, by suffering I shall become conscious 
of my error ; the fact of my suffering will prove to me that 
the award of Heaven is against me : but if Kreon is wrong, 
I pray that he may not escape an equal amount of anguish.'*' 
The first two lines have been properly explained by the 
Schol. : ei Tavra to7^ Oedis apeaxeiy iraOovre^ ti)i; t«/iio- 
piav, \jjvy]yvoivifi€v [av] riji; afxapriav. Only we must 
be careful to remember, what Wex has pointed out, that 
(ruyyiyv(0(TKw here appears in its original sense, as a corre- 

905—919.] NOTES. 203 

lative of avvoiSai cf. Herod. V, 91 : avyy lyvdaxofxeif aJ- 
Tolai rifxiv ou TToiijoraai opQm, The two latter lines are 
properly explained by Wex, in the Appendix to a translation 
of the Antigone^ which I have not seen. His explanation 
is thus given by G. Wolff {Zeitschrift f. d. Jlterthumsw. 1846, 
p. 628). Wex supposes that the indicative el txev olv rdS' 
€<TTtv ev O.K. suggests a subtle irony: "if these things 
really are as they think:'' referring to Plato, Apol. p. 37, c. 
p. 30, B. p. 25, B. Protag. 340, b. Thcetet. 171, b ; to which 
Wolff adds (Ed. Tyr. 895. He thinks also that the koX in 
V. 903, indicates the wish on the part of Antigone that 
Kreon might meet with equal sufferings ; and he compares, . 
for the negative periphrase which gives bitterness to this wish, 
iSsch. Prom. 104: av9aSia,.,auTijv Kaff avTfjv ovSevo^ tjiei" 
(^oif (ppovei (Teuffel, Rhdn. Mus. 1844, 621, quotes Dem. 01. 
II. 6, p. 23: ovhevdDv eial (ieXr lovely i.e. "as bad as any 
one"). Aristoph. EqvMes 1262 : ifXcTrriyy li-ev ovk av /laXAoi^, 

905. Tfji'^e 7*.] "The 76 gives the following turn 
to the thought: ^she at least is still the same (though 
perhaps Kreon has altered his mind).' This view is nulli- 
fied by Ereon's words, and then at length the Chorus gives 
up all hope." Emper. 

915. TJ71; KOipaviS(vv.'] The reading in the text is 
due to Emper, who has seen that KoipaviSai could not apply 
to the Chorus, and that fiacriXlSa must be a marginal gloss. 

919 — 954. Fowih Stamnon. The following scheme 
will exhibit the very simple metres of these stanzas. 

<TTp. d. 

1. ±-\\j-^^\ j.\\±^^\^\\ 

2. l^\\L^^\±\\l^^\J.\\±-\\ 
4. i-||Zv.u|2||Xu^|l||-i-|| 

a04 NOTE& [919—920. 

7. -||z.|..;|iv.|_|| 

9. 1 ^ I « ^ I 2 y II 

<7Tp. /y. 

2. _ - II -i w o I 2 v^ o I 2 _ II 2 ^ _ jl 

4. -||2v.-||Z_|| 

5. JL w ^ II J. ^ _ »=^ 11 

6. Ol|L^|_||-Lo|_v.|Zy|| 

7. V II vi w «-» I _ «-- II i. v-- 1 cru ^li jL^|_w|2 _|| 

8. 1^|-.|1-|| 

9. _ I ^ w _ II 1 ^ I - o I 2 - II 

The long etyllables which occasionally interrupt the regu- 
lar progreisB of the dactylico-trochaic verse in this, and other 
odes of the same kind (especially the Dancing 8<mg^ infra), 
are due to a peculiarity in the music, and indicate distinct 
successive bars in the accompaniment. In Pindar P. V., 
Hermann, whom I have followed, assigns to the seventh line 
of the strophes a single word of three long syllables, or a dis- 
syllable followed by an enclitic, remarking (jOpuse. VII. p. 
152): ^^evanescit omnis difficultas, si incisionis constantia 
moniti illas tres syllabas credimus, similiter ut troohseum 
semantum, multo tardiore ductu cantatas singularem vocem 

920. ev 'xaXKoSerois ai/Xai(.] i. e. in a chamber lined 
with plates of bronze fixed to the walls by nails of the same 
metal: see above on v. 364, and cf. Pausan. II. 23. § 7, with 

920—933.] NOTES. 205 

Leake Morea II. p. 382, and Dodwell's Cyclopean Remains^ 
pi. 10. 

922. Kat Toi fcat.] I have adopted Hermann^s inser- 
tion of the KaU for the article cannot be omitted in the cor- 
responding verso of the antistrophe. 

925. oX/3o9.] This is Erfurdt's undoubtedly true 
emendation : cf. Bacchylides Fr. 34 Bergk : Qvarotat S* ovk 
avOaipcTot OUT oX/3o9 ovt ayvauLirTo^ ''Aptj^. The vulg. 
ojiifipo^ is quite unintelligible in this collocation. 

928. ofi;xo\os.] The MSS. have ofi/xoXwy. I have 
adopted Scaliger's conjecture: the adjective is here a se- 
condary predicate, like irvp(f>opo% above v. J 35, and SuaTrfvo^ 
in Track, 936 : KavTav&* 6 iroii^ ovaTfjvo^ ovt oSvp/tiaTtov 
eXetireT ovSev : ^^ the boy, like a miserable creature as he 
was :" (^Construct. 6r. Prcecepfa^ 51, a). 

931 — 933. ovTw—yXdaaats.] The article tq^ before 
fxavia^ is to be explained as in the passages cited above on 
V. 899. And for this reason, among others, I agree with 
Emper, that the sentence ends after, not before, kcivos; which 
is emphatically placed last, to mark the parallel between this 
case and that of Antigone. Ske too had exhibited her mad- 
ness in violent words: above v. 597: \6yov t avoia Kal 
^p€v£v *Epivvs ; and when the parallel comes, the emphasis 
naturally falls on iccli/os* I also agree with Emper that the 
repetition of fiavlai^ is intolerable, and I would gladly adopt 
his emendation eweyvoD ^ dviats, if I could believe that Sopho- 
cles would make an anapaest of the last word. It appears 
to me that the proper word for the context is Siais^ and that 
iniyvw Se Svais was first corrupted by the omission of Se 
before £i^, and afterwards by the insertion into the text of 
the marginal gloss ai^iacv, which was corrupted into fiavlaiS', 
in consequence of the copyist's eye having rested on the word 
fiavia9 in the previous line (see above on v. 606). That 
Svai^ is the word, which Sophocles would have used here 
with the strictest propriety, is easily shown. Ai/i; means 

206 NOTES. i:9SS-«36. 

the pain or suffering which results from constnunt, and is, 
therefore, a word of cognate signification with avdyKtj, Sua^ 
cTrfvo^ (aT€vo99 orreii'os), necessitaSy &c. The Etym. M. 
derives it from iiw, ''to bind;*^ and though Blomfield {Gl. 
Prom. 186) says ^^prate^^ I have no doubt that the Oram- 
marian is right : (compare the analogies of ivw^ &c., New 
CratyhiSy p. 188). Now iEschylus employs the word in a 
sense and application very similar to that before us. Prom. 
179 : TTiKpaii Suaiaip ovSiy 67ri^aX^9» where the Choros is 
addressing the fettered Titan. Again, Prometheus says of 
himself, {ibid, 511) : fivpiaif Se irtifiovai^ Svat^ re Ko^itfiOeU 
a>Se Seajuid <f)uyydv(o' Te'xyri 5* dvdyKtis daOevearepa 
/jLcucptp. And again (ibid, 523) : ropSe yap adl^wv eyw 
oea/uLOv? deiKcls Kal ovas €K<pvyydvw, As Lycnrgus 
^€ux^V i^ SeaiJL^, what would be more in accordance with 
this phraseology than the mention of the ^Jai, which taught 
him his error ! And if, as I believe (see the note on this pas- 
sage in the Introduction), the Chorus is here referring to 
Kreon'^s impiety, he is afterwards made to confess SeiXaiq 
<TvyK€Kpafiai hvq, (v. 1276). It is probable that iweyvw, as 
well as \j/ava)if, should be considered as governing the accu- 
sative Tou Qeov, He recognized the God, and at the same 
time discovered his error in meddling with him. The Emperor 
Julian probably had this passage in his mind when he wrote 
{Anthol Pal, IX. 368) : 

Tis ; TToOev eh Atoi/i/ae ; fid ydp rov dXtjOea Baic^^oi;, 
of a eiriyiyvaxxKO}' tov Aios alba yiovov. 

That \j/avu)V9 at any rate, is placed in close connexion with 
its verb, is clear from the very similar passage in Pind. P. 
VIII. 12: xdp (sc. 'Aav^^iap) ovoe Vlopipvpiwv fidOev wap 
dtaav €^€pe9i(^ojv^ which may have been in the recollection of 
Sophocles, when he wrote this strophe: the construction 
here, and the use of lipeOi^e immediately after, seem to 
point to this. 

935, 6. (f)iXav\ovs — r lipeOi^e MovVa^.] Cf. 
Arist. Niibes 811 : 

€VK€\dScov re \opoiv epeOiafAara 
Koi Mot) or a (iapv(ipo/jLo9 auXwv. 

937—939.3 NOTES. 207 

937. ira'pa he — Tre\ayi(avJ\ Although irapa^ with the 
genitive, undoubtedly means '^from the side of a thing," 
and not "by its side,^' it is dear that the meaning here is 
juxtaposition, and not removal. So also infra v. 1091. The 
reason for the irregularity appears to be this. When an 
aspect or direction is considered rather than mere proximity, 
although the idea of the one nearly anticipates what is pre- 
sumed in the other, it is allowable to use irapa^ with the 
case denoting removal, instead of the same preposition or eV, 
with the case of close or immediate'position. Thus to irapa 
TTo^os (vide Pind. P. III. 60 : yvovra to irap iroSo^. P. X. 
62 : <f>povTiha tuv irdp iro^^) may be equivalent to to iv 
iroai (vide Pind. P. VIII. 32: to ev iroai fiot Tpa'^ov xto)), 
or TO irapa iroSi (cf. 0. I. 74), or to irpo W0S69 (/. VII. 
13). In Homer II. IV. 468 : wap dairiSos clearly implies 
that Elephenor was wounded in the left side, which he exposed 
as he leant forward to drag away the corpse of Echepolus, 
i. e. 'Trap* ao-iri^os, " where the shield had been, but was no 
longer.''^ The mixture of aspect and position is best seen in 
the following passage, where the four points of the compass 
are described {(Ed. Col. 1245) : aTai — ai fieu air deXiou 
cvafidu (the west), ai o dvaTcWovTog (the east), a\ c* dvd 
juLeaaav d/cTii/a (the south), ai o€ i/i/j^iai/ cctto piirdv (the 
north), where in three instances the place from which the 
mischiefs proceed is defined ; in the other — dvd /leaaav dx* 
tIvu — their locality is intimated. 

938. i^ — a^€i/o$.] The first word is due to a Dresden 
Ms. Bockh has suggested the necessary supplement a^€i/o9. 

939. ayxtaTo^.] The metre points to some defect in 
the word dy^i'^oXtg, which I consider to have been a mar- 
ginal synonym (derived perhaps from iEsch. Sqjt. e. Theb. 
603) for a7x<o-T09, a word used by Sophocles {(Ed. T. 929) 
and Pindar {P. IX. 64), with the same application to a 
deity. Vide supra on v. 174. Dindorf suggests ay^ovpo^^ 
but would prefer to alter the antistrophe. Some read €17- 
X«VtoX«9, but if the word is to be changed, why not adopt 
an emendation which will square with the antistrophic metre I 

208 NOTES. 1:948—944.. 

942. Tu<p\(i}0€v.'] See the passages compared with 
this, by Matthia Gr. Gr. 409. 5, obs. 1. 

943. aXaaTopourivJ] Welcker properly explains this 
as referring to the spirits of vengeance, which cried aloud in 
the sightless eyeballs of the Phineidae. 

943, 944. apayQevy ey-^ewv arc/ode] At one time I 
was disposed to agree with Bclckh and Dindorf in preferring 
Lachmann^s apayQevrwi to Hermann'^s well-known emenda- 
tion, arepO' eyxewv. On further consideration, I am con- 
vinced that the true reading is what I have given, — ^namely, 
iyxeoiv arepOe — ^which comes to the same thing in meaning 
with Hermann'^s arepff eyxetoVf And is equally derivable from 
the Scholiast ; but which I do not substitute for apayBev^ — 
a word which appears to me peculiarly in its place — but for 
1^' aifAarripal^f which I consider to be interpolated. So 
that my emendation becomes a new correction, by virtue of 
the new grounds on which it rests, and the different change 
which it introduces into the text. My reasons are as fol- 
lows : I feel convinced that in the strophe, as in the antl* 
strophe, there must be a pause between the Ithyphallicus 
which follows the two trochaic dipodisa in v. 943, and that 
which stands by itself in v. 944, before the anacrusis and 
cretic which preface the final Ithjrphallicus of the stanza. 
The incision, therefore, in apayOev — twi/, would be very 
objectionable. Moreover, I think that the yicuriio^ in Tv<f>^ 
XcoOev — odjuLaproif aXaoi/— — d^^deV, assisted as it is by the 
pauses of the rhythm, must have proceeded from Sophocles. 
So far too we have the MSS. with us, and they also give 
us the word iy-^^eayv which follows, and which is recognized 
by the Scholiast. After this word, the metre found in the 
antistrophe (and it is the metre which we should infer here) 
is deformed by a redundancy of syllables. This must have 
been borrowed from some marginal Scholium on the text. 
The SchoUa Lanrentiana are as follows: apa^x^Oev am-l 
rod Tv<p\(i)9iv. Again : dpa-^^Oev eyyJwv* dpaj(0€v 
ai/maTfjpais xelpeaaiv vw ey\eo)v koi KepKicwv aKimali, tov^ 
Tea-Ti yumuceiai^. It is obvious that these words are griev* 

. 943, 944.] NOTES. 209 

ously corrupt, and Hermann has attempted the following 
correction of the whole Scholium; rvtpXwO^v' dvrl rod 
apa'^devy ai/maTijpal^ y^eipeacri^ kqi ov^^ vir ey^^ewp^ kqI 
KepKiooov CLKixalci TovreaTi yvt^aiKeiois opyavocs. My 
view of the remedy is very different. With regard to the 
former gloss, I think the true reading is apa'x^Oeu' dvrl 
Tov Tv(f>Qev, Triclinius paraphrases it dpayOev koi TrXriyev^ 
and eXicos TucpiOev would readily occur to the Scholiast, if 
be were acquainted with Homer, as he most probably was : 
cf. II. XXIV. 421 : avv Si* eXKca iravTU fjLefxvKev^ oircr 
irvirij. The second gloss should, I think, be corrected 
thus: apa\6ep c^^eoii; [are pOev]' [di'Tx toD] aifxarripw^ 
[ri/^^er,] [oiJ;^] vir ey^^etnv [aXXa] 'x^eipeaai Ka\ KepKi- 
o<vp aKjULalSf TovTcari yvvcuKelai9 [x^/^^**3 ^^® adverb 
aifxarijpmf as applied to the explanation of ofx/uLdrwv kvkXois 
dpa)(6€P, would be suggested by a comparison of v. 52 supra: 
o\l/ei£ dpd^ai avTo^ aurovpytp x^p'^^ with (Ed. Col. 552 : 
xds aifiaTripd^ otJLfxdrwv Sia<p9opd9. Indeed the epithet 
seems to have been applicable to minor affections of the eye : 
see Eurip. Iph. A. 370: ri Seivd (pva^^ alfxarifpoy ojul/ul* 
e^fov, where it refers merely to blood-shot eyes. It is, at 
any rate, a strange epithet for x^ipeaai in the text ; as if 
the use of a less deadly weapon made the hands emphatically 
aifiaTfjpai i The conclusipn of the Scholium shows that the 
j^ei/octrat Kal KcpKiowv dK/malcri of the text were cited to- 
gether ; for the feminine epithet yvvmK€iai<$ can only refer to 
the former word yeipeaai, and the meaning of the Scholiast 
must be, that the poet, by adding KepK. uKfi. to the word 
'Xeipeaat, implied that the deed was done by a woman's 
hand, the shuttle being the woman's tool in those days. I 
c<mclude, therefore, that the v(j> in the text has come fix)m 
the vw kyx^uDv of the Scholiast, and the epithet Q\fxaTripal^ 
from the adverb aifiartjpcig used by him. The secondary 
cause for the intrusion of the former may have been a fa- 
miliarity with the phrases vtto X^P^*" ^^^f^V^^h vwo oovpl 
Tvrr^vaiy and the hke (which, however, would be no justifi- 
cation of a similar usage here, where the sense required is 
that which is expressed by the instrumental dative alone), 
and the secondary cause for the displacement of arepOe by 


210 NOTES. [944—947. 

ai/tA-aT)7pai99 mfty be sought in the resemblance between 
the adverb and the last three syllables of the adjeotive. 
The use of 'xeipeaai, without an epithet, by the side of the 
words which signify the instrument employed, is justified by 
Trackin. 617 : tot iju x^/^*> 5" ^^ to^oov Trarayo^. Sopho- 
cles employs this word to express nakedly feats of strength 
and violence; see e.g. El. 37: ^oXokti irXe^/^ac ^eipo^ 
evSiKov^ a^>aya£. AjaWy 27: KarrivapiaitAeva^ €k y^eipoi. 
115: ')^pw X^^P'^' 0^'^^<^ /uLfjSip wvwep evvoei^* As distin- 
guished from the 67x0$, the proper weapon of a man, even 
the bow appeared effeminate to the Greeks of the age of 
Sophocles : ov (leTafieXei, fioi tovtov o t« awoOavovfiai, says 
the Spartan, aXX' on vwo yvviSo^ to^otov. Whence their 
contemptuous use of arpaKTo^, to signify an arrow. Thucyd. 
IV. 40. Most readers will recollect that the contempt of 
the Hoplite Goliath for David is grounded on his being 
\lri\6s- In a precisely similar case of female vengeance, 
Euripides makes his Chorus address Polymestor thus : otto- 
Xifitp x^^P^^ Xeiyj/eii fiiov {Hee. 1034); which is an exact 
parallel to eyx^oop arepOe x^i/oecci, k. t. \. 

946, 7. /xeXcof ^leXeai^ iraQav kKcuov fuxT^os,] I have 
restored the old punctuation. All the Editors since Erfurdt 
have placed the comma after /cXaloi;, and have taken the 
words, /jLarpo^ exovre^ avv/mcpeurov yovdv^ together, as sig- 
nifying ex mfau9to matria cotmubio nati. This, no doubt, is 
allowable, and would not be harsher than the ^vvaifiov velxo^ 
avSpoov^ above v. 780. But it seems to me, that unless there 
were some reference here to a similarity between the fate of 
the mother of the Phineidse and that of Antigone, the whole 
passage, and especially the end of this antistrophe, would 
lose its chief point. The fact that the Phineidse themselves 
were blinded by their step-mother, and that they bewailed 
their own wretched lot, in being sprung from a mother un- 
happy in her marriage, would not sufficiently connect their 
case with the catastrophe of this drama. The legend referred 
to is as follows : Phineus, King of Salmydesus in Thrace, 
had, by his wife Cleopatra, the daughter of Boreas and Orei- 
thyia, who was the daughter of Erechtheus, two sons, called 

947—965.] NOTES. 211 

Plexippus and Pandion. Now Phineus having fallen madly 
in love with Idaea, a Scythian princess^ not only incarcerated 
his divorced wife Cleopatra in a treasure-chamber or dun- 
geon similar to that in which Antigone was confined, but 
was induced by the step-mother to put out the eyes of his 
two sons, who seem to have been described as attempting her 
rescue (see Diodorus Sic. IV, 43, 44). Consequently, the 
imprisonment of Cleopatra, rather than the bUndness of his 
sons, was the point of the story as far as Sophocles was in- 
terested in it, and this reference, to the fieXea iraOa nxarpos^ 
is the natural transition from the mention of the disast^ 
which befel them, to the more direct allusion to a tradi- 
tionary imprisonment, with which the Athenians were per- 
fectly familiar, because it was connected with their own 
national mythology. 

949. avSaa.~] Although I have adopted Dindorf's 
correction of the inexplicable avraae, I cannot agree with 
him in thinking that it is necessary to substitute ap\aio- 
yovoio 'Epe'xOei^a for the plural genitives which appear in 
the text. With regard to the metre, the substitution of 
a'yj^iaro? for dy)(i7ro\isy in the strophe, will set that right ; 
and as Cleopatra was the daughter of the daughter of Erech- 
theus, I do not see how the poet could speak of her as 
claiming the seed of an Ereotheides. On the contrary, I 
think the plural both more accurate and more poetical. The 
verb avSdoo with this reference is more frequently found in 
the passive, as in Phil. 240 : av^w/mai Se ttoi^ A^iXXeoi? : cf. 
Track. 1096. So ^ Tiva AaTciSa K€K\fifJL€vov^ Find. P. 
III. 67. 

965. ypdaei — /cXvwp.] The translation implies, "if 
you listen, you will know." So EUctr. 878 : iaQi tout 
eikov KXvovaa. It has not been sufficiently observed, that 
when k\vw is discriminated from oKovwy it presumes the 
continuous act of listening, whereas aKovo) signifies to hear 
and understand, which, as an act of comprehension, is single. 
Thus we often find kXvco in the present tense by the side 
of aKOjio) in the imperfect, aorist, or perfect : cf. iEschyl. 


212 NOTES. [965-1003. 

Prom. 466 : k\vovt€% ovk iJKovop. Choeph. 5 : K\v€iv, okov- 
(Toi. Earip. SuppL 1061 : opfi^v Xafioi^ av — kXvwp, axod- 
aai S^ oi <r« fiouXofiai, warep. Soph. PAtf. 63 ; ffv ti 
KatPov^ wv irplv ovk aKr/Koa^y tiXvffi. 

985. Svafiopov.'] The compoand dismal-fatal^ in the 
translation, is borrowed from Macbeth^ Act II. Sc. 5 : 

I'm for the air: this night Til spend 
Unto a dimcU-fatal end. 

1001 — 1003. Koi^e /rnvriK^^ — waXai.'] That the words 
TcSi; 5* vwal yevovs are corrupt, seems to me sufficiently 
obvious; and that the interpretation iwo rSv yevovs for 
viro Twv 677€i/a!i/ is inadmissible, has been already seen by 
Wunder and Emper. The change which I have introduced 
is very slight, and appears to me not only justified, but required 
by the context. In the first place, as the whole passage is 
an address in the second person plural from 1000 to 1006, 
it seems unnatural that a merely demonstrative sentence 
should be introduced. I think then, that roll/ is a relative 
explaining the word atrpaKTos v/uuv. Then, it is impossible 
to take TcSv vTral y€vov9 for wv tou yeuov^ viro ; and some- 
thing is wanted to give both the word airpaKro^^ and the 
verbs which follow, a definitive value. Now with regard to 
the former, the force of the adjective is suggested by Tr/oacr- 
aofxai in CEd. T, 124 : e*i n fitj ^uu apyvpw eirpacraeT 
ivBevhe : and the same supplement is required here ; I have 
therefore introduced apyupov^ to be construed like yjpvaov in 
Eurip. Med. 963, or Qavaroio in Pind. P. VI. 39 ; — ^namely, 
as a genitive of price or value. And I conceive, that 
although the construction t&v vTr\ apyvpov^ is faultless, 
the abruptness of the two genitives, the resemblance between 
TQNYnAirENOYS and TQNYnAPrYPOY, and the 
old trick of anticipating, — in this case, the to fiavriKov yap 
Trap (piXapyvpov yevo^ of v. 1023 infra — ^which seems 
to have beset this copyist, have led to the corruption which 
has hitherto remained in the text. Cf. also 1045 : koi ravr 
aOptfaop €1 KaTvipyvpo>ix€voi Xeyw. 

1004, 5.] NOTE& 213 

1004, 5. roy tt/dov 'SApSetov i^XeKTpoy.^ I^ ^ clear 
that Sophocles is here referring to the pale amber-coloured 
mixture of f of gold with i of silver (Plin. H.N. XXXIII. 
23). There is a climax here, if the emendation which I have 
just proposed gives the true reading. Kreon says he has 
been sold for silver : but that if they bid for him gold mixed 
with silver, or even the pure gold of India, they would not 
efiect their object. That the word i^XeKrpov originally and 
properly designates the substance "amber,'' and not the 
metallic admixture of gold and silver, has been fully proved 
by Buttmann, in an elaborate and admirable essay on the 
subject in the Mytholoffus, Vol. II. pp. 337 — 363. His dis- 
sertation on the etymology of the word is so instructive, that 
I may take this opportunity of placing it within the reach 
of the English student {ibid, p. 355 sqq.) : 

" I hope to have no difficulty in convincing the philologer, that 
the word tjXeKTpov, comes from c\k€iv 'to draw^.' In an object 
which so frequently grew warm from contact with the human 
body, the attractive power would not only of necessity manifest 
itself on the earliest acquaintance, but would also at once engage 
especial attention. Accordingly, we not only find this circum- 
stance mentioned by the Grammarians (see the Etym, M. quoted iH 
the note below, and Eustath. ad Dionys. PeriegeL 294: cf ov Ka\ 
Xdfiai fxa-^aipat^ yiyvovrai d'^vpoiv i<p€\Kv<rrtKai, «? t] fxayvfJTn o-iBi/- 
pov) ; but it had also attracted the observation of the most ancient 
philosophers. The passage in Plato's Timceus (p. 80 c : kcX ra 
6avfAa^6iJi€va tjXcKTpwv ir€p\ t^c cAf cm? koi rwv *}lpaK\€iwv XiOwVf trdu^ 
rtav TovTtav oXKt] fxeu ovk eariv ovhevi wore,) is especially important, 
because the phrase rd 6aviJ,a^6fA€va shows the impression produced 
by these phenomena on simple men, and because the words eAfw 

* **In yemnicti's Dictumaiy of Natural History » 8. v. 8uccinum=electrum, 
after a reference to the derivation from Elector by Pliny, we find the following 
quotation : * in other writers, quod confrictum, calefactum, ad se trahat paleas 
aliasque res minutas,* I know not whence these Latin words are taken, and 
Nemnich does not appear to have been aware of any corresponding derivation of 
the word electrum : for he adds no remark to the quotation. One would think it 
referred to the derivation from (iXxeLv here proposed. As, however, I do not find 
this elsewhere, I conjecture that we have here an incomplete citation, originating 
with the words in the Etym, M,, in which the inadmissible derivation, irapd t6 
eXetv Ta ?icto«, is there maintained : Tpifiofievov yap dpira^ei ra ireXoJovTa 

214 NOTES. [1004, 6. 

and 6\Kti exhibit the verb i\K€iv as the proper term to denote this 
effect We have^ besides^ a very ancient historical proof of thia 
physical observation^ in the notice which Diogenes Laertius (1. 24) 
has preserved us from Aristotle— namely^ that Thales, induced 
by the magnet and amber^ attributed a soul even to inanimate ob- 

I recognize^ therefore^ in ^KcKTpov, according to the termina- 
tion, a verbal from ekKciv, which, though quite in accordance with 
analogy, would be more exactly represented by the harsher form 
SXKTpov, 'the drawer,' or 'drawing-stone.' The change of 
breathing, so far from appearing strange, is shown to be perfectly 
analogous' by a comparison of n^to^, f/6\iof, ny^ipa, rjfiapy and a 
number of other words, especially in the case of an old word, which 
must have come immediately from Ionia into Greece, along with 
the substance. As for the intrusion of the e, I might, in accord- 
ance with the usual procedure in grammars, content myself 
with remarking, that the harshness produced by the concurrence 
of many consonants is thus avoided : but it is more satisfactory 
to appeal to an analogy, more definite and pervading a number 
of cases. I have already laid this down elsewhere'; but I will 
take this opportunity of confirming my position by further 

[In the present state of comparative Philology, it is unne- 
cessary to repeat this exposition, which occupies the next para* 
graph in the original essay .^ 

That this may not be treated as mere speculation, I will 
point out the same conformation in two other derivatives from 
€\k(o. If the Greek word, which signifies a Furrow, occurred 
only in the form wX^, it would have presented itself at once 
as a derivative from cXkw, and we should merely have noticed 
the mutability of the breathing, as in many other instances. As 
it is, this appears as a contraction of the forms w\a^, d\o^^ which 
are known to be old accessory forms of the common word 
ouXof . According to my view, however, w\f, wXaf, aXo^, have 
all arisen by vowel-changes (^Umlaut) from the same root cXku, 
with and without an insertion o£ vowels*. 

* *' Compare, in addition to the analogies which follow ydXKaia, 'a tail,* ftovn 
the same root, instead of 6XKala, which is likewise used.*' 

3 ** Lexil. 16, 2. 28, 2. Gr. Gr. § 99, 12, 1." 

^ **I have made it probable {Lexil, 59, 4) that the form avXa}^ has arisen 
from the digamma.*' [See also New Cratylus, p.. 130, 664.] 

1004, 5.] NOTES. 215 

The other word is n^aKaTri, But in regard to this also^ we 
must^ in the first place> examine some ordinary expositions. We 
frequently find this word used for the Spindle, and yet the Lexica 
and the explanations of the Grammarians, where they speak 
clearly, suppose the Distaff. And thus the word is confused 
with the word uTpaKTo^, which, so far as I know, is never under- 
stood otherwise than o£ the Spindle. In addition to this, we have 
a poetical use of both words. Namely, arpaKro^ is very often 
used to signify an arrow ; the same is assumed of tjXaKaTtj; and 
thus we explain the Homeric epithet of Artemis, ;^pw<nj\aicaTo«. 
It is ceitain that rjXaKdTtj is also used for a reed and a stalk: see 
Hesychius and Schneider. On this is founded a conception, for 
which^ it seems, a good deal may be said ; namely, that both words 
properly signify a reed, then that which was made of reed, name- 
ly, the arrow, and the spindle or distaff. From this statement we 
must nevertheless detach what has no plausibility. It was very 
natural that the epithet of Artemis, especially in its usual con- 
nexion, ;;^pi;<rf;AaKaT09 KeAaBeii/i/, should be, by preference, under- 
stood of the arrows : yet it is remarkable that, with this excep- 
tion, tiXaKarti is never used in the more ancient poetry to signify 
arrows; and it is more than remarkable that Homer, who uses 
the simple word so often and so constantly of spinning, should 
wish us to understand him as speaking of arrows when he uses 
this compound. We should also well consider Pindar's usage, 
who gives the same epithet to Amphitrite, the Nereids, and 
liCto. Pindar does not belong to the age and to the class of 
poets, whose expressions are so easily explicable as awkward 
misconceptions of Homer's words. It is also quite clear, that 
'X^pvfrriXdKaTo^ was in general an epithet of Goddesses; and sup- 
posing it derived from ^XaKdrri, in its ordinary signification, 
it must have denoted female excellence, pretty much in the 
same way as aKvjirTovxo^ indicates manly worth. That in Homer, 
however, Artemis alone has this epithet, which is common to all 
Goddesses, (and yet she has it only three times,) is sufficiently 
explained, as is the same circumstance in regard to several other 
Homeric epithets, from the structure of the verse, and from the 
example of old current popular lays, by means of which such 
adjectives gradually became, even without any intrinsic necessity, 
constant epithets. At all events, the passage in the Odyssey I, 122 
foil, appears to me to be no contemptible voucher for this explana- 
tion of the epithet '^(pva'riXdKaTo^, There we find that Helena 

216 NOTES. ClOM' ^- 

came oat of her chamber ^ApreiuU -xf^miXauidTtf dmd, and we are 
immediately told how her female-sUves brought to her her spin- 
ning^apparatua, with the express mention that she got it as a 
present from the Queen of Thebes, namely : X/nhte^ t vXan/Tify 
TaXap^p 9 vwotamkop. On the other hand, there is no trace that 
oTpaicTo^ ever signified the reed, and it means an arrow only in 
certain passages, which are altogether of a poetical, tragical, or 
lyrical tULtdre *, which are therefore sufficiently accounted for only 
by an old tranntion from one object, thin, long, and thicker at 
both hands, to another of the same kind. HAaacaTif, however, is 
actually used of the reed and the stalk ; — this the old Lexico- 
graphers state quite definitely ; — and indeed of sedge and corn- 
stalks in particular ; although they confirm it only with a passage 
of .£schylu8, who used woKwiXaKaTo^ as an epithet of the bank 
o£ a river (Schol. Victor ad IL ir^ 183. ap. Hej^. p. 7S4. Hesych, 
in the second gloss 'HXaKciTti) ; but it is also found in this sense 
in TkeophrasL Hist. pi. 2, 2., where the shafts of the reeds be- 
tween the knots are called ijXaKdrai. 

Nevertheless, several doubts arise in my mind about the opi- 
nions, founded upon this, that the spinning-apparatus had its 
name from the reed; and of these doubts the most important is 
the usage of. Homer. In his writings there are two forms ti f|\a- 
KUTrj and ra tiKaKara, which we must consider more accurately. 
The former is clearly described as the distaff, Od. 3, 135: avrdp 
iir* avT(f (namely, the basket,) 'HXaKcirrj reTawaro io3i/€069 eJpoi 
ex^tvaa, Voss, however, understands this of a horizontal spindle, 
which was stretched across the basket Among the proofs for our 
view of the case, I will, in the first place, adduce as the most ob- 
vious^ the transition to a furniture of an altogether different nature; 
namely, to mast- and sail- work. Here also Pollux and others have 
mentioned an drpaKro^ or spindle, and an fjAaKarii, both being 
situated upon and above the sail-yard ; indeed, we find in an author 
cited by Atheneeus xi. p. 475. a, that it was the part of the mast 
which overtopped the OupaKioVf eU vyj/o^ dvtJKOv<ra Koi o^tTd yiyvo- 
fxevri : and so also the Scholiast on Apollonius i. $65, quotes from 
Eratosthenes: rjXaKdrri hi XiycTai to XeirroTarov Ka\ aKpOTUTow 
fxipo^ Tov lo-Tov: a description which throughout reminds us of 
nothing but a perfectly-straight distaff: and this was consequently 
laid straight across the spinning-basket of Helena. If we compare 

• [Buttmann forgets Thucyd. iv. 40; and the modern Greek, dipaKro^y 
« tn arrow." See above on v. 943, 4. p. 210.} 

1004, 5.] NOTES. 217 

with this the passage of Plato in the tenth book of the Republic 
(p. 6l6), where he Is describing his symbolical spindle of neces- 
sity or o£ the universe, we shall find that he calls this, dnrpaKTo^, 
and distinguishes from it (but as constituent parts of it,) the f|\a- 
KaTfj, and the whirl, o-0oi/BvAo9 ; as follows : €k Be twi/ aKpwv rera" 
fxevov AvayKri<: arpaKTOv — , ov rrju fxev »J\oKaT»ji/ re koi to ayKiCTpov 
elvat ef aBa/jiai/TO?, tov Ze <np6vZv\ov puKTOv ck Be tovtov koli aWwv 
yevav: which means, 'the spindle reaching from above ; of which 
the tjXaKciTri together with the hook were made of indestructible 
metal, but the whirl, of this and other materials mixed.' In what 
follows, then, he describes the peculiar mechanism of his whirl, 
which was distinguished from the actual one by this, that the actual 
one is simple, whereas his consists of eight whirls joined together. 
The more accurate description of this does not belong to the pre- 
sent question; as, however, he joins all with one another in a 
direction upwards, (for he says that each whirl has the hollow, in 
which the following one was inserted, on the upper side) ; and as 
he makes the whole of it a sort of spire about the li^aKdrrij we 
see clearly that this image is taken from the perpendicular spindle, 
the under part of which rested upon a whirl, upon, and, with 
this whirl, around, one and the same axis or cylinder. The con- 
tinuation of such cylinders upwards formed, therefore, the distaff: 
so that in the Scholion on the //. tt. 183, it is correctly stated: 
i^KaKaTrjv yap Ka\ov<riv — to yvvaiKcTov epyaXeiov cf ov to i/^yma €\KO\h- 
<nv. From this statement, then, is explained the apparent inter- 
change, which actually occurs here and there, of the tjXaKdrri with 
the spindle, since it is an essential part of that implement, and, as 
a cylinder combined with the wheels which revolve around it, 
actually forms a spindle ; there is, on the contrary, no passage 
in which aTpaKro^ occurred in such a manner that it could be 
taken for the distaff. But each of the two names might, no doubt, 
stand equally well for the whole spinning-apparatus, since the 
whole in its leading features represented a spindle. And so, in 
fact, we have seen that, in the Homeric passage, the f/XaicaTi/ alone 
is named ; and it is to be taken precisely so in the well-known poem 
of Theocritus y the subject of which it would be wrong to call * a 
distaff,' since it is rather a prettily-manufactured spinning-machine, 
which we could only call ' spindle,' if we wished to denote it by 
one English word. In Plato, on the contrary, and in Pollux (4. 
chap. 28), we find drpaKTo^ as a general name for the whole. In 
other passages we find both words connected as the two leading 

218 NOTES- QlOM, 5. 

parU. Leomid. Tar. 78 (AnthoL CephaL 7, 726): koi -re irpo« 
fjAaxarfiv xa) roi/ trvpepiOow aTpatcTov'^turetf* 

The other Homeric form is ra ifXaicaTcu This has been fre- 
quently taken for a thing of the same kind as the former. Others, 
on the contrary, (v. Hesych.) took liXaicaTfi for the distaff*, but to 
liXaKanra for the spindle, because, in fiu;t, the latter form is con- 
stantly connected with the verb irrptK^^w^ ^rrpoipaXi^etw. The phi- 
lologer feels of himself that this is not tenable, and is at the same 
time sensible of the correctness of the explanation, whidi is un- 
doubtedly also the received one at the present day, and which 
clearly results from the epithet Xeirra. — Od. p, ffjf: Xe^-r iJXaicara 
a"rpM<p£a'a — namely, that ttXaKora signifies ihe threads, that which 
is spun, which is certainly rolled round the spindle. But the opi- 
nion, that nXaKarti originally signified the reed, is quite irrecon- 
cileable with this. For then, for the idea of spinning, tiXaKarn 
would necessarily have been the root- word, and rd ^XaKaTu would 
have been derived from it, which every one who has any taste for 
analogy must feel to be impossible. Rather, it is certain that 
neither of these two words can be derived from the other, but 
that these are both to be deduced from one common root. And 
this, according to the analogy set forth above, is given us by the 
verb iXKu ; for the distaff* is, as we have seen above, the imple- 
ment cf oZ TO vfjijia eXKovatv, and the threads are rd eXKOfxeva, It 
is very usual, however, for natural objects to be named according 
to their resemblance to the objects of domestic life ; and thus it is 
very natural for the part of a stalk situated between two knots, to 
be compared, even in very ancient times, with a spindle or cylin- 
der, and called after it*. 

If then we put together all the etymological deductions which 
we have m^de up to this point, it would, according to the usual 
form of the verb cXku and its significations, be perfectly in accord- 
ance with the strictest analogy, if a Furrow should be called oAf , 
spun threads €Akto, the spindle iXKTtj, and amber cXkt pov: it is 
certainly no insignificant confirmation of our opinion, that the 
forms, which have taken their places, furnish again an equally 
strong analogy among themselves: for instead of oXf we find 
among other words w\af : instead of eXKrd and iXKrtj, ifXaKara and 
i/AaKaTfj', and instead ofeXKrpov, rjXeKTpov, 

* " Compare the similar case in the German Spule, Federspule.** 
^ '^According to another pronunciation, even without change of vowtl, *}XcicaVi}: 
vide Hesych." 

1005—1034.] NOTES. 219 

I remark^ in conclusion^ that this naming of amber from the 
phenomenon of attraction^ frequently appears in other languages 
also. The vulgar French name at the present day, tire-paiUe, 
Sacy has already compared with the Oriental Kdh-rubd, which in 
Persian means literally the Stratv^stealer, The second part of the 
name, ruba * robber' railber, agrees, like so many other Persian 
words, with German roots of similar signification ; and hence it is 
very probable that the name rpf, rav, which amber bears in the 
North-german languages, also belongs to the root raffen, rauben, 
'rob,' with which again we should compare the Oriental notice 
in Pliny 37, 2, where Niceas relates of amber : — in Syria quoque 
Jceminas verticiUos indefacereet vocare harpaga, quia folia et paleas 
vestiumque Jimbrias trahit, — For the German Bernstein^ I know 
no other derivation than the one most usually received from beren^ 
bernen, i. e. brennen (Ho burn'); but I take this opportunity of 
directing the attention of my readers, as Gesner has done before 
me, to the correspondence between this name and the later Greek 
name for the same material, — ^namely, fiepoviKti, /SepviKrif and /StipuX- 
\o9, which last genuine Greek name of a known jewel, from the 
similarity of sound as pronounced by the common people, has 
obtained this additional signification. See Eustath. ad Horn. Od, 
B, 73, and Salmas. ad Solin. p. 1106. It is possible that the name 
was brought into Greece by the German Franks : but we have 
still to wish for something more certain ^" 

1034. airXay^^ywvJ] It is perhaps scarcely necessary 
to mention that the airXdyx^a^ or viscera majora (i.e. the 
h^art, the liver, and the lungs), were considered by the 
Greeks the seat of the affections: cf. Ajax^ v. 995, Eurip. 
Hij>p. 117. The word is probably connected with a7rXi;i;, 
i.e. aTr\vv-X'^^^' ^^^ *^® ^®® here, see v. 509. 

7 '< If this is correct, perhaps there is truth in the derivation of the Italian 
vernicef French vemis, Firnis, from this ^epviKti, and consequently from Bern- 
stein, Adelung has fallen into a ludicrous error, when he supposes that Fimis 
comes from the '* Latin*' vemix ; for this new Latin word is much more likely to 
have heen coined from the Franco-Italian." [The evidence supplied by the 
researches of Mr. Eastlake, ( Materials for a History of Oil Painting, pp. 230 
sqq. ) has made it abundantly clear that the modem word vemice, *"*• varnish/' must 
be a lineal descendant of the Greek BepovUti-, as referring either to the famous 
golden hair of the Egyptian Princess, or to the city Berenice, where the amber- 
coloured nitre was found. If it is true that the name of Veronica, the patron saint 
of painters, is derived from this designation of the substance which they used, 
we have here a curious example of a return to personification in the use of a word.] 

220 NOTES. ^ [1037—1051. 

1036, 7. avff wv 6;^€is — iieroiKKra^J] Here again, 
as it appears to me, the copyist has made his usual confusion 
between the true reading and something like it in the same 
page. In the first place, one of the MSS. gives KarpiKiaa^f 
and this is better than jcar^/acras, for as the ej^ei^ fiev of 
v. 1036 answers to the e^eis Si of v. 1038, the inser- 
tion of an independent verb is scarcely allowable. I have 
no doubt, however, that KartfKiaa^ is an older reading than 
KaroiKiaa^^ and that the latter was introduced by some one 
who perceived the construction, though he could not restore 
the text. The original copyist, whom we have to thank for 
so many blunders of the same kind, allowed Kara}- to take 
the place of /uLeroi-^ because he saw it just above in the 
preceding line. But the context, no less than the ofiensive 
jingle between Karw and KartpKida^ at the ends of two 
successive lines, requires the substitution which I have made. 
In fact, the adverb ari/uiw? itself suggests a loss of franchise 
by exsiliwrn — a deprivation of the political rights of the 
living, efiected by this unnatural banishment to the grave, 
(cf. V. 26 : TOi^ evcpOei/ evrifiov i/e/c/oo??), and the poli- 
tical allusion to the fieroiKo^ has occurred twice before in 
this play with the same reference : cf. 828 : ovr ev toIciv 
€T ovre Tolaiv /neToiKos, ov ^waiv ou Ouvuvai. 865: 
fxeroiKia^ o ovv r^s avw areptJaeTai. 

1048—1051. €')(9pai — TToXii/.] Wunder, whose opinion 
is adopted by Dindorf, and in part by Emper also, main- 
tains that these four lines are a spurious interpolation. I 
have not seen any sufficient reasons for this view of the 
case. On the contrary, it appears to me that the oracular 
obscurity of the passage is quite in keeping with the lines 
which precede. In any case, Bockh's interpretation is in- 
admissible, though I am not aware that any of the com- 
mentators have remarked, that the most insuperable objection 
to it is furnished by the poet's use of the epithet ea-riovxo^. 
Bockh thinks that these lines contain a general sentiment : 
that the prophet is made to state the general consequences 
of a corpse remaining unburied. ^' All cities, in which 
birds and wild beasts carry fragments of corpses to the altars, 

1051—1053.3 NOTES. 221 

are roused to animosity,'' — consequently, Thebes is so. Now 
it appears to me impossible to understand the words in 
this sense, if for no other reason, because the phrase eaTiov- 
Xov es TToXiv impKes that the bodies in question lay un- 
buried in some foreign land: cf. iEschyl. Pers. 513 : 

oaot oe XoiTTol KaTV)(oi^ (rwrripias 
QpriKYiv TrepaaavTe^ fxoXi^ TroXXtp rrovip 
tjKOvcriv €K(f>uyovT€S ou m-oXXoi Tivesy 
€0* eaTiov'x^ov yalav. 

So also S6fiov9 €(f>€(rTiou9 " native abodes," Sept. c. Theb. 73. 
Moreover, the compound (yvvrapaccovrai expresses a con- 
junction of cities in the act of hostility : cf. supra v. 430 : 
cri/v 5e viv OripdfxeQa. There cannot, I think, be any doubt 
that the allusion is to the expedition by which the Argives, 
aided by Theseus, exacted the burial of their dead, and not 
to the Epigoni, who came ten years afterwards. In other 
respects, the meaning has been rightly given by Bockh. 
'E-)(9pal is of course a secondary predicate = ware yeveaOai 
e^Opai : and KaQriyicrav is quite justified by the passages 
which Bockh has cited : namely, Gorgias, apvd Longin, 
III. 2 : yvire^ e/uLyj/vxoi Ta(poi (cf. Hermogenes irepl iSccSi; 
I. Vol. III. p. 226, ed. Walz.) ; Ennius, apud Priscian. VI. 
p. 683, Putsch : 

Vulturis in sylvis miserum mandobat homonem, 
Heu, quam crudelei condebat membra sepulcro. 

Strabo XI. p. 517: ^wyTas irapafiaXXeaOai rpetpoiievoi^ 
Kvalv ejriTfjSc^ '7rpo9 tovto^ ous €VTa(f>ia<TTas KaXovai 
Tfi TrarpipqL yXa)TTrf. Soflh. Electra 1480 : rrpoOei* xa (pev- 
(TiVy wu Toi'S* elicos €<TTi Tvy')(av€iv I to which may be 
added, Lucretius V. 991 : 

Viva videns vivo sepeliri corpora busto. 

And Mr. Ford, in his Hand-Book for Travellers in Spain, 
p. 567, speaks of the " bleaching bones, left to the national 
tmdertaker the vulture.^'' See also, ^id, p. 349. 

1053. KapSia^ rofeiz/iara.] See above, v. 1000, and cf. 
iEschyl. Ewmen. 103 : opa he irXriyas raaSe xaphias (xeOev, 

222 NOTES. [1058—1120. 

1058. Toy vouy — 0e/O6i.] I am disposed to think, with 
Wunder, that the words tov vouv twv (ppevwu are to be 
taken together, as in Homer, II. XVIII. 419 : rffi ev fiev 
V009 ecTTi fJLCTa ^p€<Tiv, €v oe Kai avorj. 

1064. ec/cadfii;.] Elmsley, Wunder, Ellendt, and others 
would write eiKaQelv. I have given my reasons for a con- 
trary opinion in the New Cratylm^ p. 470. 

1071, 2. avvTCjULVovai — jSXajSai,] i.e. awTeyivovai rrju 
o^ov ek Tovi KaKocppova^ " overtake them by a short cut.:" 
of. iEschyl. Evmen, 346 : /uctXa yap olv aXofieva dvcKaOeu 
ftapuireafj Kara^epo) ttooo^ aKfiav <r0aXe/o* avvcpo/uLOi^ KwXat 
Sv(T(f>pov arav (according to the readings of Ahrens, de 
dialect. Dor. p. 546), For the word /3Xa/3a«, here used with 
distinct reference to its primitive meaning, see New Craiyhis^ 
p. 649. 

1077 — 1080. a^lvm — eKkvaoyLai.^ Hermann, whose 
opinion is adopted by Dindorf and Wunder, thinks it neces- 
sary to suppose a loss of some few verses,'"describing more 
accurately the place referred to, and also speaking more dis- 
tinctly of Antigone, and they accordingly indicate a lacuna 
between w. 1078, 79. This may be so. But we must re- 
collect, on the other hand, that the King is represented as 
speaking in great haste and trepidation ; and it may be 
asked whether the mention of hatchets to cut down timber 
for the funeral pile, coupled with a reference to the eiroyj/io^ 
TOTTo^ — the high meadow-land where Polyneikes lay, which 
has been already mentioned (supra v. 409 : cucpwv ex iraywv: 
cf. infra 1 1 63 : ireSiov eir aKpov)^ and which was probably 
depicted on the right-hand ireplaKTo^ — would not suffice as a 
hurried description of his first purpose, while the antithesis in 
V. 1080, might seem to point to an intentional brevity in 
describing his proposed liberation of Antigone. 

1083 — 1120. Tragic Dancing-song. The following 
scheme represents the metres: 

1083—1120.] NOTES. 223 

aTpo<f>fi o. 

3. ^ II i V. I _ V. I ± ^ I _ II 

4. 1 v^ ^ II 1 v^ I _ v^ II 

5. _ - II -L o II 2 V. . I / II 

6. - I 2 _ I Z _ II 

7. -^ - M - II 

8. ^ II X ^ ^ I 1 II 1 _ II 

9. i v^ II 1 v^ ^ I 1 II 

10. 2 - II 1 - II X V. . I 1 II 

11. ^ II J. c. _ vj i. w II 

CTpo(pij p. 

1. 3 - II ^ - I - - II 

2. . II - _ II 1 . V. I X II 

3. i. w 1 _ v^ I 1 v^ _ II 

4. - - II 1 u I _ - II 

5. V .^ II - - II 1 .^ I _ II i o ^ II 6 V w _ II 

6. w||l.|_.|!2u.|i||l.|_|| 

7. w -i -i ^ II 

8. 1 ^ ^ II 1 V. I _ o II 

The long syllables which appear in this song are to be 
explained as in the Fourth Statimon, and were perhaps intro- 
duced here to accompany the slow solemn steps of the 
Emmeleia. For the quantity 'EKevcivia^ Bockh quotes Horn. 

224 NOTES. [1083—1114. 

Hymn, ad Cer. 105, 266. Antimachus, Fragm. 55. Schel- 
lenburg, Eratosth. Fragm. Merc. XV. 16. p. 144, Bemh. 
Antipater Tbessal. Epigr. 57; and on the antispasts virep 
k\itvv9 -^optvovffiy he remarks, that the former expresses in 
a charming manner the act of climbing the hill, while the 
latter beautifully imitates the lifting of the foot in the 

1083. ayaXiJia.^ Cf. above, v. 695, where the pros- 
perity of a father is called an ayaXfia eiz/cXeia? to his 
children. In the same sense the deified Bacchus is here 
called the ayoKua of Semele. ^^''\ya\iia^ says F. A. Wolf, ad 
Horn. II. IV. 144, "is a hijou^ that which rejoices the heart 
(cf. Ruhnk. Tim. s. v.), a work of art in which we take plea- 
sure. Schol. D : K-aXXwTTiO'MCi) T^av e(f> y ri% ayaXKeTai koi 
j^ai^ei, 01 OG fxeff "^OfxYipov Troifjral aya\/uLa cIttov to ^oavoi/.'" 

1091. i/aieTftli/.] Dindorf's conjecture. 

1094 — 1101.] 0-6 5* {fn-ep — irefiwei.^ The first three 
lines describe Bacchus as haunting Parnassus ; the last three, 
as frequenting Euboea, to which both Nysa and aKra refer, 
(above on v. 589). There is the same reference in 1111, 

1105, 6. Tav €K7ray\a rtiuL^% vwip iraaav TroXeo)!'.] 
This emendation of Dindorf 's appears to me not only inge- 
nious, but convincing. 

1113, 1114. i(jD TTvp TTi/eovTwv 'XPp^y cuTTpwv.^ Lobock 
has failed to persuade me that we have here no TAeocrasia, 
or confusion between the attributes of Bacchus and the 
Sun-god. He wishes to explain this passage by a reference 
to the practice of poets, who make nature participate in 
the emotions caused by the advent of deity {Aglaophamm^ 
p. 218). It appears to me, on the contrary, not only 
that such an explanation would be inapplicable here, but 
also that the whole of this JEmmeleia^ which speaks in a 
mystic or Eleusinian strain, clearly identifies the functions of 
lacchus with those of Phoebus, as' Sun-god and as the deity 

1114r— 1173.] NOTES. 225 

who presided over healing and moral purity: compare the 
very similar chorus in the (Ed. Tyr, v. 151 sqq. and see the 
passages which I have quoted in the Theatre of the Greeks^ 
(ed. 4 or 5), pp. 14, 15. Nay more, I beUeve that the 
dithyrambic or circular chorus itself, which was peculiar 
to Bacchus, was intended to represent the apparent course 
of the sun : see the author itepi XvpiKtouy Boissonade^ Anecd. 
Gr. IV. p. 468. Bhemisch. Mm. 1833, p. 169: kUXyitqi 
oe ^ ti€V (TTpo(f>vif Kada (f>rfai TlToXefiaio^ ev tw ire pi (TTa-^ 
TiKYis TTOitjaew^^ did tous qLOuvra^ KUKXtp KiuelaOai irepi 
Tov fico/uLOv^ (Ttf/uLaiuovTa^ rt/u tov liXlov Kiutjaiv. Even 
the epithet iroXvdwiio^ at the beginning of this ode is a 
sufficient proof of the Theoorasia in it. 

1152. ai/aa"iraaTov iruXtjs.] The Greek doors opened 
into the street ; therefore, a drawn-back door is a closed door. 

1168. eaXXoIs.] "Of olive," Demosth. c. Macart. 
p. 1074, 22, quoted by Bockh. 

1173. Trao-raSa.] The meaning of this word in refer- 
ence to its present application is best furnished by Hero- 
dotus, who uses it in speaking of the stone chambers in the 
great Egyptian Labyrinth (II. 148), which he distinguishes 
from the ai^Xai, the aTeyai^ and the oiKvifjiaTa of the same 
building. We have seen above (on v. 356), that avXi^ was 
a place which left a free access to the wind ; we know that 
areyti was a roofed chamber; that oiKtifku was a single 
detached room ; and that Trao-ray, contracted from irapa- 
(TTa% (there is a similar apocope in compounds with Kard^ 
was an open porch standing out from a wall or from 
some other building : see the following passages : Xenoph. 
Mem. III. 8, J 9 : rod fiei/ 'xei/txwpo^ 6 tiXios eU tcis Tra- 
aTcioas VTroXd/txTrei^ tov oe Oepov^ virep rifxwv aprwv Kai 
Twu (TTeywv Tropevo/uevos (TKiai; Tra^e j^6i, with which compare 
Pollux, VII. 122 : Kparlvo^ 5' ev ^lovvaaXe^avSpfp irapa- 
GTCLoas Koi irpoOvpa jiouXei iroiKiXa* Tracrraoas oe SeuoKpwVf 
a? oi vvv e^eSpaf (cf. Hermann Ojmsc. V. p. 220). For 
e^eSpa^ see Eurip. Orest. 1449 : eKXfjae ^' dXXov dXXoae 


226 NOTES. [1173—1184. 

ariytfif toi/s laev iv araOfxoiaiv iTTWiKoii^ rov^ 5* ev cf- 
eSpauri. Herod. 11.169: iraardi XiOiini i^aKfi/Aeyn (ttv- 
Xoidi Koi Tfj akXfi Sawdi/fif with which compare Heeych. 
irapa(TTd^€9' o\ irpo^ tois To/j^oi9 Terpa/Afjiivoi Kiove^, 
Plutarch, Brut. c. 55, uses Trao-rcis as a synonym of arodj 
and there can be no doubt that it was the same as the 
Homeric aWovaa. The name agrees in signification with 
vestibulum (from ve-itare, like pr(h9tibul%m from pro-stare, 
Becker, GaUua, p. 189 Engl. Tr., for irapa-CTa^ -> ^e-stibulum, 
just as 7rapd'(f>pwu = ve-cars.) It is clear, then, that Hero- 
dotus, in speaking of the multitudinous chambers of the 
Labyrinth, considered some of them as avXal or " thorough- 
fares,'^ some as areyai or ^' roofed apartments,'" some as 
oiKfj/uLara or " detached rooms,'' and some as TracTa^cs or 
*^ projections from the main wall." Thus discriminated, 
iraard^ is properly applied here to a descending o-iri/Xaioi;, 
or rock-grave, built out and completed artificially with a rude 
portico of unhewn stones. If the excavation, whether na- 
tural or artificial, extended itself into a series of compart- 
ments, it would be a Xavpeiov or XafivpivOos — one of those 
airtjXaia Kai iv avroi^ oiKooofitfTol XafivpivQoi mentioned 
by Strabo, VIII. pp. 369, 373. That the Traaros, in the 
case before us, was made up of rough unhewn stones fitted 
together, is clear from the description of the opening in 
V. 1182, as dpfio^ XiOoawaSt]^ x'^l^^'^^^' ^^^ I "^^* remark, 
that the first word is partly technical; for the ^Xiii is 
defined by Hesychius as ly Trapaard^ t^j Ovpai^ and the 
same lexicographer tells us that the dpjuLoaTtjpei were a part 
of the^Xii;: 8,v. dp/moaTtj^' — kuI Xl6o^ ovo wpo^ ry uvtm 
Tfjg (f)Xiai TtOefiefoi dpfioar^pei Xeyovrm^ where Heinsius 
proposes tt/oos ry oiJ^y, and Toup (V. p. 448) wpo% Toixfp 
T^9 (pXids. Comp. Pausanias' use of dpjuLovia, Bc&ot. c. 38, 
on which see Leake, Morea II. p. 379. Specimens of rude 
door-ways may be seen in Dodwell's Cyclopian Bemains, pi. 
4, 8, 11, 40, &c. 

1184. i] Oeotai KXeirrofiai,] Milton, Comus: 

Yet they in pleasing slumber lull'd the sense. 
And in sweet madness robb'd it of itself. 

119*— 1227.] NOTES. 227 

1194, 5. Tiva voiv €(7x^5.] Cf. Plato Resp. VI. 492, 
c : TO XeyoyLGVov^ Tiva oiei Kapoiav *l(T\€iv ; which shows 
that there was something colloquial in these phrases, as in 
our "what possessed you to do it?" From the phrase in 
the text came the later compound vovv€')(ris, 

1199. onrXov^ KvwoovTa^.^ The Kvoiooyres were pro- 
perly the cross-bars in swords and hunting-spears; in the 
Ajax 1004 : ttcSs (t airoaira^Tw TriKpou tovo aioXou KutoooV" 
T09t the epithet aloXov points to the hilt, while iriKpov 
*' piercing*" rather belongs to the blade« See Lobeck^s note 
on the passage. And for ^lttXov^ in this passage, cf. Eurip. 
Hec, 573: djUL(l>iy^pvaov (f>dayavoy Kwirti^ Xafiwv e^elXfce 

1213, 14. es iroXiv yoovs ovk d^iciaeiv.^ Sc. areveiu. 
For the phraseology of the Translation, see Shakspere, 
Sonnet LXXI. 13 : 

Lest the wise world should look into y<mr moauy 
And mock you with me after I am gone. 

1227, sqq. Second Komrms. The metre of this lamen- 
tation, like that of many others in the Greek Tragedies, is 
chiefly dochmiac. 

<rTpo(J)ff a, 

1. - _ II 

2. KJ 1 1 KJ -. \\ KJ 1 1' ^ ^ \\ 

4. -L V. _ II ^ v^ _ II 

6. -iwu||-ivj_||w-iZ>j_ 

7. v^ 1 1 w _ II 

8. - ^ I ^ - II 

9. «^ v^ w v!/ v^ v^ 
10. yj 1 J. ^ - W 


228 NOTES. [1227—1241 

1. - - II 

2. Senariufi. 

^ Kj \^ kj<j\\^\!j^ — ^ 

4. Senariufi. 

5. w 1 -1 w - II w 


1. - - I ^ - II 

2. ^22v^-||wl-LO-|| 

3. wJ.l^-.||w-Llv^^|| 
4^ w O O^O v^ w — II 

5. - - II 

6. - 1 1 ^ - II w 1 1 ^ - 11 

1. gj:.j:.^-||v^ij:.w-|| 

2. wl-L^-||wll^-.|| 

3. wi.-iv^ — ||«^v3«^ — *<-' 0~w II 

4. wi.—uv^v^|'w— -i w — II 

6. v^OwOv^v^«.||wvi'v^i.*w^ — 11 

I think these dirges should be arranged in two pairs of 
strophes, the former pair containing the King's first lament 
for Haemon, the second, his aggravation of grief after he has 
seen the dead body of his wife, and learned the nature of 
her death, in v. 1 266, sqq. 

1241. Xa/cTTOTiyroi/.] Hermann and others prefer the 
Aldine reading, XeuyiraTYirov, The reading which I have 
retained appears to me to stand in more emphatic connexion 
with what has preceded, especially to the ixeya (idpos ix 
i'^wv iiraiae, which requires some mention of the feet or heels. 

1241—1255,] NOTES, 229 

to show that the heavy tramp of an avenging deity is refer- 
red to; cf. below 1316 : 67rJ Kpari /uloi ttot/ulo^ eiariXaro 
iSsch. Evmen. 343: (iapvireafi Karatpepw ^0069 aKimdv. 
Pers, 537: w ovcnrovYjTe oai/txov aJs ayav fiapv^ -jTtoooIv 
€ifi]Wov iravrl UepaiKtp yevei. Agam, 1691: cJ ^€ rot 
fioy^Owv yevoiTo twvo *a/fos, oe'^^oifieff' ai/, oai/novas X^^^ 
fiapeitjf, Svarvxj^i wewXtjytievoh where I have introduced 
my own conjecture axos for the aXis of the MSS. Cf. Eum. 
615 : €(7T« To?S* a/co9. Pers. 623 : ei yap n kokoov clko^ 
otoe -TrXeof. 

1243 — 1245. ^Q Uawoff, — /ca«a.] Wex has a long 
note upon this passage, in which he collects other instwces 
of the juxtaposition of iyeiv and KCKTriaOai, habere et pomdere. 
The meaning of the passage appears to me to be sufficiently 
clear from whiit follows : the construction is, dk i^yyv re Kal 
K€KTiiiJL€vos\ "as one who both has and possesses," rd /xei; 
" the one class of things'' (a €;^eis), rdSe Kaicd i. e. " these 
sorrows" ^/ce*? (f>€pwv irpo x^ipdv "you have brought with 
you in your arms/' rd Se eu So/jlois kuku " but the other class*' 
(a KCKTrfaai), " namely, the store of evils laid up for you at 
home," eoiKa9 Kai rd^ ox//ecr0ai riKeiv " you seem to have 
come with a prospect of speedily seeing.'' The phrase e^eiv 
T€ Kai KCKTrjaOai^ is the counterpart of our " to have and to 
hold;" the one verb expresses possession, and the other 
ownership. This, as Miiller rightly shews, (History of Lite- 
rature of Greece, II. p. 97 of my translation), is the mean- 
ing of the KTY\ixa €S aeJ of Thucyd. I. 22: "it does not 
mean an everlasting memorial or monument. Thucydides 
opposes his work, which people were to keep by them and 
read over and over again, to a composition which was de- 
signed to gratify an audience on one occasion only." The 
word KT^fia expresses that previous existence and readiness 
for use which is also conveyed by the adjective eToiimosy and 
the verb v'n-dp)(w^ as opposed to ylyvoixai : cf. Aristot. Eth. 
Nic. IX. 9, § 6 : ly ^e evepyeia SrjXov on yiyverai Kal ovx 
virapx^i wCTrep KTrj/ma t«. 

1255. Ti (f>Yi^ — i/ey.] The vulg. ri (^jjy, w ttoI; riva 

230 NOTES. [1255—1268. 

X67619 fjiot viov \6yov ; labours under a double interpolation. 
It is impossible that the allocution w wai should refer to the 
slave who is addressed here, and it would be quite out of 
place to transfer the address from him to the corpse of 
Haemon, as Emper does, by reading : rl (pps ; (S Tral, rlva 
\iyei aoi veov, k.t,\. It is obvious to me that the words w 
iraif which fit neither the metre nor the sense, cannot have 
proceeded from Sophocles here. Again, the word \6yov at 
the end of the line interrupts the construction, and is a 
grievous tautology after the occurrence of the same word at 
the end of the last line but one, from which the copyist bor- 
rowed it with his usual carelessness. The insertion of co Tral 
is due to the corresponding line of the strophe, which was 
probably written in the margin by a Scholiast, who wished 
to explain the construction of the repeated adjective ¥€09. If 
Sophocles, as I believe, wrote here : ^ 

Ti (f)rjs; TLva \e7e1s veov fkoi i/e^; 

a commentator might very well quote 

id Tral i/€09 vetp ^vu /moptp, 

as a parallel passage. 

1266 — 8. »; 5* o^vdfjKTos — KWKvaaaa*^ As o^vOrjKro^ 
is not a proper epithet for a person, as Xvei would not be the 
right voice, when her otim eyes were spoken of as affected by 
her arjon action (cf. infra 1280), unless rd ai/r^s were added, 
as in Trachm. 926; as the question of hotc she killed herself 
is answered afterwards (1281 sqq.) ; and as the anacolution 
in KODKvaaaa would be intolerable here; I have accepted Her- 
mann'*s suggestion, that for irepi^ we should read Trrepv^^ 
but I have placed the lacuna after )3Xe0apa, and not, with 
him, at the end of the first line. The supplement, which I 
have inserted, is placed here merely exemfU pratid^ until 
something better shall be suggested. It rests upon the 
words of the Scholium : w9 lepelov rrapd tou (iwixov eatpdytj 
irapd TOU fiwfiop TrpoireTijs'f made up with the help of 
Track. 906 : ^fipv^dro juei/ fitv/uLolai irpoairlTTTovaa ; and I 
think that the repetition of fiwfxolcri, in the same place as 
(iw/uiia in the last line but one, gave occasion for the omission. 

1268—1291.] NOTES. 231 

just as, conversely, interpolations have been made by this 
copyist, from a similar wandering of the eye. With regard 
to e/cel, I have added this, because I think it clear that the 
body is seen toithin the proscenium, and that the Ewangelm 
though he stands by the side of Ekkyklema, is not within it, 
but has come forward to the stage with the sacrificial knife 
in his hand, just as Orestes, in the GhoephorcB, brings forth 
the fatal robe. This is also shown by his use of rov^e 
(v. 1270) in speaking of Haemon. 

1275,r^6. he'iXaio^ cyw, (pev, 061/.] As I think it quite 
impossible to make these words, without the addition of 
(f>€v (f}€v in the antistrophe, correspond to the t/Traros irw 
iTcu which appears there, I have not scrupled to add these 
otherwise useless interjections, in the latter case. If any one 
prefers to omit them here, and so to avoid adding them in 
the antistrophe, I can have no objection. With regard to 
the quantity of the second syllable of SeiXaios^ supposing it 
to be susceptible of variation, which I do not deny, it seems 
to me inconceivable that Sophocles should not have pronounced 
in the same way this word, and its emphatic repetition in 
the following line. 

1277. avyKCKpaiiai Su(j^,~] '* I am mixed up with — 
entirely encompassed by — an inextricable calamity f' see 
A JcMS S9 5 I oiKT(j^ (TvyKeKpafxevtiv. Electra \4iSb : avv KaKolg 
fiefiiyjULevov* St. Paul, Bom, VII. 24: nV /me pvaerai €k 
Tov awfiaro^ tov OavaTov Tovrov\ Plotin. IV. 3, 12: 
Zei)? Se irarrip eXeiyaa? irovoviieva^^ Ovtjra avroov to. SeajuLci 
iroiwv^ /c.T.X. And for the sense of Si/iy, see note on v. 932 

1 290. ^payjL<TTa — fca/ca.] See other instances of this 
mode of secondary predication, in the note on Find. 0. IX. 

129 J. aial atai.] As I observe that the interjec- 
tions recur in corresponding places, I have substituted these 

232 NOTES. [1291—1306. 

cries for the Jrw, frco, which are more in their place lower 

1299. epw/uLCP.'] I prefer Bothers reading to the vulg. 
epw fi€i'^ or to the correction eptS firfVy which is worse still. 
The compound auyKaTtfuj^d/uirjv shows that the reference is 

1305. o'Tra — irdvra yap,^ The corrections which I 
have introduced into this line, appear to me more probable 
than the mere omission of irq. Kn\ dw, which Hermann and 
others have adopted. It seems to me pretty clear that irpo^ 
TTOTcpop is a gloss upon owfu that owa Qui got corrupted into 
Kai 9wf and this into ^a or wa iSw, which was further sug- 
gested by ift$, and that irpoTepou was omitted after worepou 
had got into the text. With regard to the interjection which 
I have introduced, it is scarcely necessary to repeat the 
remark, that the interjections in these ko/jl/uloI regularly recur 
in the same metrical situations. For 9ew in Sophocles, see 
note on v. 601 supra. 

1306. Xex/o'ci'] This adjective, which is connected 
with Xej^-oy, Xo^oSy XiK^piCpisy Xi<c-/ooy, Xiy-orjv, Uqutis^ oh- 
liqtms, liegm, legen^ &c., is the opposite to opOo^^ and refers 
to lying down, or assuming a bent position, as contrasted 
with that of a man who is standing: cf. (Ed. Ool, 196: 
Xe^^/Dios 'y' eir axpov Xaou jipa'xy^ oicXa<ras. I have there- 
fore ventured to make use of the strong metaphor in Hamlet^ 
Act I. Sc. 5 : 

The time is out of joint; — cursed spite! 
That ever I was bom to set it right, 

Cf. Eurip. Hec. 1026 : aXl/uLevov n? m ej avrXov irecwv 


[The Roman numerals indicate the pages of the Introdiiciiony the Arabic 
figures refer to the verses iUustrcUed in the Notes,] 

A, a. 

iEschylus Supplices 877, emend- 
ed, 24—29: A^am. 1591, 
emended, 1241: Suppl. 976, 
explained, xxix. 

Archaeresia, at what time held? 


Antigone, when acted, xiii. 
Article, force o£. 185, 899, et 

ayaXfia, 1083. 

ayeiv, 4—6. 

dyeifjeiv arpaTov. 110. 

aypavXo^, 354. 

dyprfvov. xxxviii. 

dyxjurro^y dyx^rreia. 174, QSQ. 

alfxaTfipo^, 943, 4. 

auro-o). 352. 

altav, 580. 

dKafxaro^!, 600 — 2. 

dKTti, of Attica and Euboea. 

d\a\d(ai. 133. 
aXf/jua. 320. 
a i/T*^ap€?<r a. 1 49» 
direvdvvw, diropdoto, 627. 
dpaacw, 943- 
dphriv, 429- 
dp/jiovia, 1173* 
rtVToi. 289. 

dcTwofjio*!. 352. 

ari; and oAyo?. 4, 6l7» 

ari/i^ dyeiVy eU aTi/v dyeiv. 4—6. 

drpaKTo^. 943, 4. 1004, 5. (p. 

aJ^ao>> of parentage. 9^9* 
auAi;. 354, 1173. 
av« = atpM. 6 12. 

B, y3. 
/3e\»;, of frost and snow. 355. 

Chorus, its functions in the Au" 
tigone. xxii. 

Costume of Antigone, xxxii, iii. 
(see frontispiece) : o£ Chorus, 
xxxiii: of Kreon, xxxiii: of 
Sentinel, xxxiv: of Haemon, 
xxxvi : of Teiresias, xxxix : of 
Eurydike, xl: of the Mes- 
senger, XL. 

Kai, emphatic. 280a 

KaXo^i and fxavQdveiv* 711-^714. 

KaXyaivtOf 20. 

Kai/a^i;. 130. 

KaTravcJ?. 135. 

Kapa, in periphrasis. 1. 

Kapa v€v<rai,. 269* 

Kare^^w. 599* 



Kff>»f 160. 
•cAvMy ctKOvm. ^5- 
KVmCOWT€^, 1199- 

KoiKoc, of consanguinity. 1. 

KOfiylr€vm. 324. 

KOiTfio^, TO Ko<rfiovfi€»a. 668. 

K0vif>0¥0v^. 342. 

Kparif, ** sceptre." xxxiii. 

1243— 5. 
KTrifiaTa, 772. 
K«TiAX«. 747. 
X» */» ^> XP* 7f>» ^P* confused. 

^aAKoScTCK avAfi. 9^0. 
yapiv, 370. 

;^€<p, of violent actions. 943, 4. 
\opo*i, ')^wpo^. xxix. 
;^J = ^€A€i. 862. 

D, S. 

Dirke. 105. 

dismal-fatal. 985. 

Saf/jioi/io9. 372. 

Seii/o?, of threats, 96: of power, 

le^ioceipo^, 140. 
SiKOioic. 292. 
ItKrj e'xOpd. 9 4«. 
Ipa'XJJ^tj, 235. 
BJ»;. 931 — 3. xxxviii. 
3v(rai/€/uio9. 586. 
Suo-auAo?. 354. 
Zvir^eipiafAa. 124 — 6. 

E, €, i;. 

Editions of the Antigone, xLiii, 

Ekkyklema. xLi, 1267- 
e^i/o? of lower animals. 344. 
eiKciBeiv, not €<Ko0€ri/. 1064. 

€UCM. r. ^^m- 709- 

etfii, present. 607* 

crycKO. 19. 

eKpcuSawm. I76. 

ixirefiwm, I9. 

CKTcAcur, CKTiycur a^Aov. 833. 

ifiwai^m. 782. 

c/iviirrci ''EptK. 772. 

€^¥X*i. 388. 

ffcBpa. 1173. 

iwayofiai, 360. 

€xaAAf|Aof. 57> 58. 

€wapK€m 605. 

€iri ^0owo^ ap^etv, 727- 

iwiyiypmiFKm, 9^1 -*-3. 

eiricTTacrrt. 225. 

€ir<K. 20. 

€>eai^». 936. (add Eurip. ^accA. 

€pt<T<rt»^ ixiafrm. 158, 231. 
'Epiw?. 597. 
Hpfxatov, 395. 
cVtiou^^o?. 1048^51. 
€^€11/ epMTtt. 777- 
f/AttKari;, i/AaVara. 1004, 5. 
rj\€KTpov, 1004, 5. 
ifve/jLoct^. 352. 

i^oimn^, of spears. 146. 

G, 7. 
Genitive of price or value, 

1001—3: for epithet, 114. 
7» 'T, x» yP9 '^pt XP* confused, 

yap. 178. 
yevedy and yevo^. 580. 

Herodotus and Sophocles, xvi, 


I. .. 

Ismenian hill, xxv, 117* 

IWw. 340. 

iTTireiov y€¥<Kf " mules," 340. 

L, \, 

\a/3vpivdo^y \avp€iO¥. 1173. 
\€<rxri* l60. 
Xexp^o^y Xo^o^, 1306. 
Xikiv /3\€<t>apa. 1267. 

St. Matth. vi. 13, explained. 17. 
Menoekeus^ Megareus, and Au- 

tophonus. xxvii^ note. 
mum* 507. 
/A€Ta, and fwV. 115, 11 6. 

N, I/. 

Naval metaphors. l62, 189. 
Nominative absolute. 260. 
i/€o?, euphemistic. 242. 

O, o, », 

otrXoVf and poiraXov, 115, ll6. 

opyi^, 352. 

opdo^f opdooo, 162. 

opdo^, €U0J?. 666. 

opfAaivta* 20. 

o^ot^ opij^eiv vojxom, 450. 

d^/Att^ft). 350. 

ou and /*»;. 687 — 689- 

ok av, 215. 

P, TT, ^, \^. 

Pericles, xv, 352. 

Pindar, P. i. 84, explained, 289 : 

P, II. 72, explained, 711 — 

Pleonasm. 2, 3 ; 86, 87. 

Prolepsis. 135, 772, 778, 856, 

928, et passim. 
Protagonist, as messenger, xx. 
irayKpaTtj^ vttvo^, 6OO. 
wd\at, of a ^ort interval. 279. 
Trd/jiTroXi^, 607. 
wapct, c. gen* 987- 
mapdirtiyy, XL, 
Trapaa-TaTri^, 662. 
vdpehpo^, 782. 
ira/3oB(K. xxviii. sqq. 
•n-ao-Ta?. 1 1 73. 
wiK^oc, "piercing." 1199. 
'n-op<l>vp(o, 20. 
nrpoQeivaiy Trpodeadai €KK\ri<riap, 


irpoa-Tidrifxif of additional obse- 
quies. 24 — 29. 

wTc/jyf. 1267. 

^avXo?. xxxiv. 

061/70). 263. 

(piXo^f wpo<r<piKf]<i^ 873. 

<povdvf 117. 

(ppdvrjfAa, 176, 352. 

0ft)?, of a warrior. 107. 

y}/av(o, 834. 

y\/vxpd^i of fear. 88. 

R, ^. 
pevfxa^ peTvy of a crowd. 129- 

^iTT,;. 137, 937. 

povaXov, 115, 6. 

Samian war, date of. xiv. 
Sophocles, ffi</. C. 1245, sqq. 

explained, 937: (Ed. T. 147 

explained, xxx. 
<r€^ft). 721, 899. 
(TirXdy^i/oi/. 1034. 
aTaa-ifXov, xxix, xxx. 



arei'x^etv, 10. 

arepyw, 289. 

iTTVfpXo^f CTVipeXi^tOf 139. 

avyytyvu<rKu, QOl. 

cvyKeKpafxevo^f ^efiiyiJi€v<K KUKoTi, 

cti^w, auTrjpia, 186. 

T, T, d. 

Thebais, how it described the 

battles. XXV, xxvL 
Theocrasia. 1113, 14. 
Thucydides, son of Melesias. 


Thymele. xxx. 
Tritagonist xx. 

' ToXic. 620. 
TciwWf of sound and light. 124, 

TO fieWov, adverbial. 357. 
roXfAfj. 370. 

TpivoXiaTo^ = TptTToXriTo^, 835. 
dim, in Sophocles. 600, 1305. 
dfl<ravp6^, 29. 

U, V, V. 

Varnish, Veronica. 1004, 5. 
ve-cors, ve^ftUmlum. 1173. 
Vulture, '^the national under- 
taker." 1048—51. 
vvepovXo^, 130. 
wViA\«. 507. 


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