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STACK 

ANNEX 



S 
055 



, GUIDE FOR THE 

ZULU 
JOURT INTERPRETER 





C. }. RUDOLPH 



A GUIDE FOR THE ZULU COURT INTERPRETER 



A GUIDE FOR THE 

ZULU 
COURT INTERPRETER 



By 
C. J. RUDOLPH 




PI ETE RM ARITZ BU RG 
SHUTER & SHOOTER 



CONTENTS 
Chapter Page 

Preface . . . . . . . . . . vii 

I A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter . . 1 

II Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 

III Asking Questions . . . . . . . . 6 

IV Some of the Words and Terms used in Court . . 9 

Crimes . . . . . . . . 16 

V The Native Kraal 19 

Zulu Terms of Relationship . . . . 26 

VI Colours of Cattle . . . . 30 

Cattle diseases . . . . . . . . 36 

Colours of Horses . . . . . . . . 37 

Horse Sicknesses . . . . . . . . 38 

Colours of Goats . . . . . . . . 38 

Common ear-marks . . . . 39 

VII Common Human Diseases . . . . . . 39 

Bones of the Body 42 

Parts of the Body 44 

Internal Organs . . . . . . 46 

Injuries . . . . . . . . 47 

Fractures . . . . . . . . . . 47 

VIII Seasons in Zulu 48 

Divisions of Summer . . . . . . 48 

Phases of the Moon . . . . . . 49 

Thirteen Moons . . . . . . . . 50 

Periods of Time . . . .' . . . . 54 

IX Agricultural Terms . . . . . . . . 56 

X Glossary of Zulu Forms of Greeting and 

Salutation . . . . . . . . . . 59 

XI Useful List of Words .. 61 

2045293 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter vii 



PREFACE 

This booklet has been written with a view to supplying 
what is believed to have been a long-felt need for the Court 
Interpreter, and more especially the very junior one who has 
just entered upon the threshold of his career. 

In presenting to junior and even to more experienced 
interpreters the facts outlined within the narrow limits of 
this booklet, I wish to point out that I do not pose as a 
fully-fledged authority on the wide and complicated subject 
with which it deals. My object is, however, to render in- 
valuable assistance by placing on record such information 
as must frequently be referred to Zulu Interpreters in Courts 
of Law, and thereby to evoke a livelier interest in the study 
of Zulu terminology among those whose vocation it may be to 
become Court Interpreters. It will therefore be appreciated 
that the facts and information contained in this booklet 
should be of invaluable assistance to my fellow-interpreters. 

While endeavouring to conform to conciseness and 
clarity of content, the latter has not been sacrificed for 
brevity. It nevertheless must be admitted that no one is 
more conscious of the limitations and the apparent defi- 
ciencies of this work, than the author. I have had to omit 
much that I should have liked to include within these narrow 
limits, but the reader should garner useful and valuable 
information from the various and varied references contained 
in this booklet, which purposes to be mainly a work of 
reference. In a more direct way, it is meant to foster an 
ambition among the aspirant interpreter that will beget a 
desire for research into the intricacies of his everyday work. 
Such were the genuine motives that inspired the writer. 

The author tenders his grateful acknowledgments to 



viii A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

Mr. S. R. Dent, Chief Inspector of Native Education in 
Natal, and to the editors of the Native Teachers' Journal 
for permission to include in this work the Glossary of the 
Zulu form of Salutations and Greetings. 

With the permission of Professor C. M. Doke, and Messrs. 
Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd., and the E. P. & Commercial 
Printing Co. Ltd., some Zulu terms of relationship and 
periods of time, and- words appertaining to the Native Kraal 
have been included in this booklet. 

To other authorities and to friends for their assistance 
in other ways, my appreciation is likewise tendered. 

C.J.R. 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



CHAPTER I 

A Court Interpreter is an important official in the trial 
of cases in a Court of Law. As the pivot of the Court, he 
bears a heavy responsibility in the administration of justice, 
and upon him depends to a great degree the proper elucida- 
tion of the issues as well as the avoidance of miscarriage of 
justice. This is especially the case where the Bench, the 
Public Prosecutor and the Side Bar are not conversant with 
both the languages used in the proceedings. 

Interpreting is not the mere translation of words from 
one language into the other, but it requires the ability on 
the part of the interpreter to convey the right meaning of 
what he interprets. It follows, therefore, that for one to 
qualify as a useful and competent interpreter, he must be 
equipped with an extensive vocabulary in the languages 
required. 

In addition to the above-mentioned qualities, the closest 
study and acquisition of a sound knowledge of the people's 
manner of thought, reasoning and expression are necessary, 
in a word, their psychology and traditions. Especially is 
this desirable with the Zulu language, a language which, 
frequently, has words with two or more different meanings, 
a difference in tone being the only distinguishing feature, 
e.g., umBala (colour), umBala (shin bone) ; inyanga (native 
doctor), inyanga (moon) ; umhlaBa (earth), umhlaBa (aloe) ; 
sinda (smear), sinda (escape, recover from illness), sinda (to 
be heavy as a weight) ; shisa (burn, be hot), shisa (iron 
or press), shisa (be unbearable, severe). 

Last, but not least, an interpreter must be sympathetic. 
I say so because it will be observed that a very big percentage 
of Native witnesses when called to go into the witness-box, 
are seized or overcome by a certain amount of nervousness, 



2 A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

especially the raw type of Native who has never before beer, 
in a Court of Law. 

Under such circumstances, the interpreter must en- 
deavour to make the witness feel " at home " in the witness- 
box. This can be done by passing a few private remarks to 
the witness after the oath has been administered, and before 
the evidence is led, e.g., " Try to forget that you are in the 
witness-box and speak to me as though in an ordinary con- 
versation ; there is nothing to be afraid of, the "Mantshi 
is a good man," etc. In this way a big percentage of nervous- 
ness is expelled from the witness. 

The following is an outline of procedure in a Criminal 
action. 

Pleas by an accused person on arraignment. 

In a Criminal case the Presiding Magistrate, the Public 
Prosecutor or the Interpreter reads out the indictment to 
the accused person. This done, the accused is asked, through 
the interpreter, what he pleads, thus : 

" Are you guilty or not guilty of the charge preferred 
against you ? " 

" Uyalivuma noma uyaliphika icala oBekwe lona ? " 

This interpretation is correct, but it unfortunately 
creates a puzzle in the mind of a raw Native person for the 
following reasons : 

1. The Native's own court asks no such questions. 

2. While European Law presumes an accused person to be 
innocent until he is proved to be guilty, in Native Law 
he is presumed to be guilty until he has established his 
innocence. 

The accused Native reasons thus It is not my duty to 
declare my guilt or innocence, but it is for the court to do so 
after having heard mine and my witnesses' evidence as 
against that of the complainant and his witnesses. 

Consequently such pleas as the following are not un- 
common in the trial of Natives for criminal acts, viz. : 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 3 

1 . I am guilty, yet I am not completely guilty. 
Ngiyalivuma kodwa angilivumi kahle. 

2. Let the Court decide. 

Inkantolo ayizi6onele OR Inkosi ayiziBonele. 
3 I do not know Angazi. 

1 "I am guilty, yet I am not completely guilty," may mean 

(a) I did it through being forced, through ignorance, 
through being misled or under provocation. 

(b) I am guilty because an inmate of my kraal did it. 

(c) I know something about the crime, but I did not 
commit it. 

2. " Let the Court decide," means : 

The law presumes that I am guilty because I have been 
brought to court and charged. 

3. " I do not know," the same meaning as 2. 

As a result of the above pleas, the Courts usually record 
one of " Not Guilty." As will be shown later, a competent 
interpreter can obviate this state of affairs and succeed with 
the least difficulty in eliciting the proper plea from the 
accused person without any waste of time. 

To prevent the occurrence of the above and similar 
meaningless pleas, which doubtless reveal an ignorance of 
Court procedure on the part of the accused Native, the 
interpreter should put the question in the following manner, 
e.g. Stock Theft Case Theft of a Sheep. 

" Uyalivuma noma uyaliphika yini icala ? " , 

" Do you admit or deny the charge ? " 
OR, better still 

" UyeBile yini noma awuyeBanga imvu na ? " 

" Did you steal the sheep or did you not ? " 

The Court is now assured of getting the proper plea, 
for even if the accused Native gives the thieves' favourite 
expression of "Kuthiwa ngiyiyeBile" "It is said I have stolen 
it," that expression means, " Not guilty." 



4 A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

There are cases, too, where a miscarriage of justice may 
result, for example : 

1. A Native is charged, say, with assault by hitting " A " 
on the head with a stick. The interpreter informs 
accused that he is charged with hitting " A " on the head 
with a stick, and asks the accused, " Did you hit the 
complainant on the head with a stick ? " and accused 
will reply, " Yes." 

The interpreter informs the Court that accused pleads 
guilty to the charge, and accused is found guilty and sen- 
tenced. Very frequently in such cases, the accused, while 
admitting that he hit " A " on the head with a stick, does 
not intend to plead guilty at all, for he would like to go on 
and plead, " I did it in self-defence, after " A " had assaulted 
me," in which case, of course, the correct plea is " Not 
guilty," and the Court will thereupon try out the issue of 
" self-defence," or the circumstances of mitigation. 

2. In the same way an accused charged with deserting from 
his Master's service, is asked, " Did you leave your 
Master's service on Saturday ? " to which the accused 
will reply " I did," without meaning in any way to plead 
guilty to the charge, yet the inexperienced interpreter 
will inform the Court that the accused pleads guilty to 
the charge, whereas in reality the accused has really 
only replied correctly to the question, " Did you leave 
your Master's service on Saturday ? " 

Actually, accused did leave his Master's service on 
Saturday, not with the intention of deserting at all, and in 
circumstances not amounting to desertion. It is evident, 
therefore, that the interpreter bears a heavy responsibility, 
otherwise a gross miscarriage of justice may result. His respon- 
sibility lies in getting a correct plea from the accused, and if 
the accused qualifies his plea in any way, then the correct 
plea is, " Not guilty." 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 5 

CHAPTER II 
Evidence 

Assuming that the person charged is a Native and the 
witnesses giving evidence against the accused are also 
Natives, the interpreter should see to it, during the making 
of the declarations by the various witnesses against the 
accused, that every tittle of evidence is interpreted, to enable 
the Court to appreciate all the points mentioned by the 
witnesses. He should treat every utterance as absolutely 
necessary for interpretation, irrespective of how foolish or 
how ignorant it may appear to be, and guard against the 
witnesses speaking in low tones and thus avoid the danger 
of omitting facts which are vital to the issue. 

The interpreter should never hesitate to draw the 
attention of the Court to his own inability to interpret words, 
phrases or sentences through any misconception or ignorance. 
He should never " chance his arm," as that may be detri- 
mental to the accused's or the Crown case, and mislead the 
Court if unnoticed. The interpreter should always remember 
to 

1 . Listen carefully to what is said and be sure that he him- 
self fully understands before he attempts to translate. 

2. Speak clearly and distinctly. 

3. Keep his attention on the work in hand and avoid 
day-dreaming. 

4. Avoid loss of temper, or becoming impatient. 

5. Be prepared to learn new words in the vernacular, as 
well as in Zulu. 

As the mouth-piece of the person for whom one is 
interpreting, the interpreter should always speak in the 
First Person, thus : 

Magistrate Interpreter 

" I find you guilty." fNgiyakulahla \Ulahlwayicala. 
" I find you not guilty." \Ngiyakuthetha / Uthetwa yicala. 



6 A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

NOT, 

" Ithi iMantshi icala liyakulahla OR icala liyakuthetha" 

On the other hand again, if the witnesses in a Criminal 
action against a Native accused person are not Natives, and 
their evidence is given in a language which is not understood 
by the accused, the interpreter should see to it that every 
tittle of evidence is interpreted to the accused, to enable him 
to appreciate all the points mentioned by the witnesses. 



CHAPTER III 
Asking Questions 

This being another important part of the proceedings in 
a Criminal action, particularly where Natives are concerned, 
the interpreter should endeavour to prove his usefulness. 
Through using a literal translation of, " Have you any 
questions to ask the witness upon the evidence he has given ?" 
The time of the Court is usually wasted for obvious reasons. 
It must be remembered that the Native is a stranger to the 
procedure. If he is asked the question, he will signify his 
desire to do so, and when asked to go on, will commence 
making a statement. To prevent this, and to save time in 
Court, the interpreter should turn the statement into a 
question, thus : 

Accused Interpreter 

Uyazi ukuthi ngangisejele You know that I was in gaol 
ukweSiwa kwayo imvu. when the sheep was stolen. 

Should be interpreted as follows : 

UBungazi yini ukuthi Do you not know that when the 
ngangiBoshiwe ngisejele, sheep was stolen I was serv- 
ukwe6iwa kwayo imvu ? ing a term of imprisonment ? 

No time of the Court can possibly be wasted, nor can 
there be any prejudice to the accused's case, if the inter- 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 7 

preter ably turns statements made unnecessarily and through 
ignorance, into questions. In doing so he should, however, 
take the greatest care not to put the words into the witness's 
mouth, or in any way suggest an answer. 

It sometimes happens that because a question is inter- 
preted literally, and the accused Native is unable to grasp 
the idea of asking questions, that when ultimately he is 
asked if he has a statement to make, will reply, " I have 
nothing further to say." Why is this ? The accused after 
cross-examining or " contradicting " a witness, is evidently 
under the -impression that his questions or "statements" 
amount to his evidence, and when eventually asked whether 
he wishes to give evidence or make a statement, he will reply 
" I have nothing further to say," whereas, in fact, nothing 
which he has previously said has been recorded. Accused is 
found guilty and sentenced. The interpreter should have 
informed the accused that his evidence or statements have 
not been recorded and that he now has the opportunity of 
telling the Court his version of the story, and that as the 
witnesses have given their evidence on oath, it is advisable 
for him to do so also, and not merely make an unsworn 
statement from the dock. 

The difference between his evidence on oath from the 
witness-box, and a mere unsworn statement from the dock 
is seldom appreciated by a Native. It is necessary to impress 
this difference upon an accused before asking him to elect 
whether he wishes to make a sworn statement from the 
witness-box or an unsworn statement from the dock, other- 
wise he will not appreciate that the Court cannot accept an 
unsworn statement in contradiction of the sworn evidence 
of a witness. 

Then again, it is common practice for Native accused 
persons, when asked if they have any questions to ask, to 
reply, " Anginawo umBuzo." " I have no question to ask." 
The Court naturally concludes, and it is justified in doing so, 



8 A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

that the accused admits the correctness of the witnesses s 
evidence, and yet in the majority of cases it is the other way 
about. This usually is made manifest by the outburst of the 
accused when asked to make a statement if he has any, thus : 

" Ngiyamphikisa usi6ani6ani kuwo wonke amazwi 
akheakalikhulumi iqiniso." 

" I contradict the whole of so-and-so's evidence, he has 
not told the truth." 

Then the Court wonders why he did not ask any 
questions when invited to do so. 

The following two ways of asking the accused person 
if he has any questions to ask the witness, are suggested : 

1. " Uyawavuma noma uyawaphika yini amazwi alandwe 
ngufakazi ngawe ? " 

" Do you admit or deny the statement made by the 

witness about you ? " 

The accused is bound to state either " I deny " or "I 
admit it." If the former, then the interpreter should proceed 
and say, " Speak to him, or argue with him." The accused 
will commence asking questions without being specifically 
told to do so. If the latter, it of course, means no questions. 

OR 

2. "Kukhona yini ufakazi akushilo ofuna ukukuphikisa, 
noma okungesilo iqiniso ?" 

" Is there anything which the witness has stated which 
you wish to contradict, or which is not true ? " 
Accused will then readily raise the necessary points, 
but, in doing so, he will generally not ask a question of the 
witness, but will state " I deny so-and-so." The interpreter 
should then put the point to the witness in the form of a 
question, " Did you do so-and-so ? " or " Did such and such 
a thing occur ? " 

It is absolutely necessary in the interests of justice that 
the interpreter should be very experienced in Court procedure 
and have some legal knowledge. Many questions cannot be 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 9 

asked in leading form by, say, a Prosecutor, and he has to 
approach the subject delicately, yet the inexperienced 
interpreter will " barge in " and put the question in a leading 
form to the witness. 



CHAPTER IV 
Some of the Words and Terms used in Court 

I will read out the indict- N gizakufundela amazwi ecala 

ment to you. oliBekiwe. 

You did wrongfully, unlaw- Wena, wonile ngoku6eka isa- 

fully and maliciously ndla ngaphandle komthe- 

assault .... tho nangokusopha .... 

By striking him on the head, Ngokumshaya ekhanda nge- 

with a stick. nduku. 

What do you plead ? Uphendula uthini ngecala ? 

Do you plead guilty or not Uyalivuma noma uyaliphika 

guilty ? icala ? 

I plead guilty. Ngiyalivuma. 

I plead not guilty. Ngiyaliphika. 

To kill and murder. Uku6ulala-nje nokuBulala nge- 

nhloso. 

Note " To murder " is also translated " ukuBulala " but 
the correct translation of the word is " ukuBulala ngenhloso." 

The following are other meanings of the verb " uku- 
Bulala " : 

1. UkuBulala. To lay some heavy weight 

upon a person's body, or 
part of it. 

2. UkuBulala. To adduce evidence against 

another. 

3. UkuBulala. To side with one's opponents. 

4. UkuBulala. To convict upon weak evi- 

dence. 



10 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



UkuBulala (ngensini}. 
UkuBulala (ngendlala). 
UkuziBulala. 
UkuziBulala. 



5. UkuBulala. To unjustifiably deprive one 

of his belongings. 

To make one laugh. 

To starve a person or animal. 

To commit suicide. 

To stint one's self food ; to 
eat too little. To act in a 
manner detrimental to 
oneself. 

To ill-treat or oppress. 

Uyavuma ukuBa icala lithe- 
thwe ngaphandle kweSa- 
maniso eliphethe amazwi 
ecala othweswe lona ? 
OR, 
Do you wish the case to be Noma ufuna ukuBa lihlehliswe 



10.. UkuBulala. 
Do you consent to a 
summary trial ? 



adjourned, a Summons 
to be handed to you, 
and you be given an 
opportunity to prepare 
your defence and collect 
your witnesses ? 

Oath of a Heathen 

Put up your right hand. 

Take the oath and say, OR 

Follow me and say the words 
I say. 

I swear that the evidence I 
am about to give in this 
case, shall be the truth, 
the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth ; 
and I know that if I 



tifakwe iSamaniso (eli- 
phethe amazwi ecala}, uni- 
kwe ithuBa lokuzivikela, 
ulethe nofakazi Bakho na ? 



Ukufungiswa kongeyilo 
Ikholwa 

Misa isandla sokudla. 

Funga uthi. 

Landela lokhu engizokiisho. 

Ngiyafunga ukuBa amazwi- 
engizakuwakhuluma kule- 
licala azokuBa iqiniso, iqi- 
niso eliphelele, iqiniso 
elilodwa ; ngiyazi okokuthi 
uma ngike ngakhuluma 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 11 

speak falsely I may be amanga ngingajeziswa 

severely punished. kanzima. 

Oath of a Christian. 

The whole of the heathen oath is to be repeated to the 
end of " elilodwa " and " ngelekelele Thixo ", be added. 
The Prosecutor withdraws Umshushisi uyalihoxisa icala 

the charge against you. kuwe. 

Your case is remanded. Icala lakho liyahlehliswa. 

Guilty. . Liyakulahla. 

Not Guilty. Liyakuvuma. 

Sentence. Isijeziso. 

Verdict. Isinqumo. 

Suspended Sentence. 

As no such sentence exists in Native Law, it is better 
explained than interpreted. The following are two examples 
of a suspended sentence : 

Example No. 1 

I fine you 20 or three Ngikuhlawulisa 20 noma, 
months imprisonment ufanele uBoshwe izinyanga 

with hard labour, sus- ezintathu nomseSenzi onzi- 

pended for 12 months, ma. Lenhlawulo izoku- 

on condition of good linda izinyanga ezi 12, 

behaviour during that utna uziphethe kahle kuso 

period. sonke lesosikhathi ; iyoSe 

ihoxisiwe. 

Example No. 2 

I fine you 20 or three Ngikuhlawulisa 20 noma, ufa- 

months imprisonment nele uBoshwe izinyanga 

with hard labour, of ezintathu nomse6enzi onzi- 

which 10 or 6 weeks is ma. Kulemali ishumi 

suspended for 12 lawopondwe noma isithu- 

months, on condition pha samasonto kuzoku- 

that you do not commit linda izinyanga ezi 12 



12 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



any crime involving 
violence during that 
period. 



Warning to Prisoner 
before he gives evidence. 

Do you desire to give evi- 
dence ? You may give 
evidence on oath or 
without taking the oath. 
If you elect to give evi- 
dence after having been 
sworn, you will be ques- 
tioned like other wit- 
nesses, and you are to 
answer all the questions 
put to you by the Prose- 
cutor and the Magis- 
trate, even if your reply 
brings out evidence that 
is against you, you must 
reply. If you give evi- 
dence without having 
been sworn, no questions 
will be asked from you, 
but the evidence you 
give without having 
been sworn will not be 
of such weight as the 
evidence which may be 
given on oath. 



kuhoxisiwe. Uma unge- 
nzanga isiphosiso soBu- 
dlwangu kuso sonke leso- 
sikhathi. 

Ukuxwayiswa kwesi- 
6oshwa singakafakazi. 

Unesifiso sokufakaza na ? Nxa 
uthanda uzofungiswa nxa 
ungathandi qha. Emva 
kwalokho uzokuBuzwa nje- 
ngofakazi aBanye, uwa- 
phendule onke amazwi 
owa6uzwa umShushisi ne- 
Mantshi, noma impendulo 
yakho iveza amazwi ala- 
hlana nawe, umelwe uku- 
phendula. Uma ulanda 
ungafungisiwe, awuyuku- 
Buzwa lutho, kodwa ama- 
zwi, owalanda ungafungi- 
siwe akayukuBa nesisindo 
njengamazwi angalandwa 
ufungisiwe. 



Do 



you desire 
evidence ? 



to give Uyafuna ukufakaza na ? 



A Guide for the Zulu Court interpreter 



Do you desire to give evi- 
dence on oath or with- 
out the oath ? 

Do you desire to give evi- 
dence in the place where 
witnesses give evidence 
or where you are stand- 
ing ? 

If you give evidence without 
being sworn no one can 
examine you, not even 
your lawyer. 

You have been found guilty 
of murder, for the 
reasons which you have 
heard, and you have 
also heard that the 
Court has been unable 
to find extenuating cir- 
cumstances which would 
have enabled it to pass 
a sentence other than 
death. Have you any- 
thing to say why the 
death sentence should 
not be passed upon you 
(have you anything to 
say why the sentence 
which I am now con- 
strained to pass should 
not be pronounced). 
The record of these pro- 
ceedings, together with 
anything you may now 
say, shall be transmitted 



Ufuna ukufakaza ufungisiwe 
noma ungafimgisiwe nal 

Ufuna ukufakaza lapho kulan- 
da khona ofakazi aBanye 
na ? Noma khona lapho 
umikhona na ? 

Uma ufakaza ungafungisiwe 
kakho ongakuBuza lutho, 
ngisho nommeli wakho. 

Ulahliwe yicala lokuBulala 
umuntu ngokungemthetho , 
umhlosile, uqondile uku- 
mBulala, ngezizathu ozi- 
zwile nawe, uzwile ngo- 
kuthi iNkantolo (ama- 
Khosi, amajaji] yahlu- 
lekile ukukuBonelela ngco- 
no kulelicala uku6a aku- 
Bekele isijeziso esinye ku- 
nokuBa unqunywe ufe. 
Izincwadi zonke zalelicala 
zizothunyelwa kuSiBalu- 
khulu kanye nokungakhu- 
lunywa nguwe manje, 
indaBa yethulwe kuye 
ukuze kuhambe ngaye 
(ngokusho kwakhe). Una- 
kho ongakusho ngokuthi 
kungani ukuBa ungaBeke- 
Iwa isijeziso sokunqu- 
nywa ? 



14 A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

to His Excellency the 
Governor-General, with 
whom the final decision 
shall lie. 



The sentence of the Court 
is that you be returned 
to lawful custody and 
there detained until a 
time to be determined 
by His Excellency the 
Governor-General, and 
that you then be taken 
to a place of execution 
and there hanged by the 
neck until you are dead. 

Preparatory examination 
Caution. 

As you have heard the evi- 
dence of the witnesses, 
do you desire to give 
your evidence now ? 
You need not if you do 
not desire ; if anything 
has been promised you, 
by reason of your giving 
evidence, or punishment 
by reason of your not 
giving evidence, don't 
pay any heed to it. 

What you state will be 
written and will be evi- 
dence on the day of 
trial. 



Isijeziso saseNkantolo singe- 
sokuthi uyophindiselwa 
ejele, ugcinwe ngomthetho 
lapho, kuze kufike isi- 
khathi esizoBonwa nguSi- 
Balukhulu, laphoke uyo- 
yiswa kwalahla6antu ufike 
uphanyekwe ngentamo 
yakho, ulenge uze ufe nya. 



Ukuxwayiswa mayelana 
nokuhlolwa kwecala. 

Njengoku6a usuwezwile ama- 
zwi awofakazi uyafuna 
ukunika oBakho uBitfakazi 
manje na ? AwuBoshiwe 
ukulanda uma ungatha- 
ndi ; uma ikhona into 
othenjiswe yona ngoku- 
landa kwakho akukho 
ngozi uma ungalandi, 
futhi awunakiijeziswa uma 
ungalandi. Konke kuBeke 
eceleni wenze okuqondwe 

nguwe luqoBo. Okukhuhi- 
mayo kolotshwa kuBe uBu- 
fakazi mhla sekuthethwa 
icala. 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



15 



I reserve my defence. 

I desire to give evidence now. 

Do you desire to question 
him ? 

Question, do not make a 
statement. The time for 
giving evidence will 
come. 

I understand that you wish 
to make a confession. 

The statement you wish to 
make must be done 
freely and voluntarily 
without having been 
influenced thereto, and 
I must warn you that 
you are not obliged to 
make a statement, but 
any statement which 
you wish to make will 
be reduced to writing 
and may be used in 
evidence against you at 
your trial. 

The foregoing statement was 
made to me by the said 

who was then 

and there in his sound 
and sober senses, and 
after it was recorded the 
statement was read over 
and interpreted to 

and adhered 

to and signed by him 
before me. 



Ngolanda phambili. 
Ngithanda ukulanda manje. 
Uyathanda ukumBuza na ? 

Euza, ungalandi, sofika isi- 
khathi sokulanda. 



Ngizwa ukuthi uthanda uku- 
khipha isiftiBa sakho. 

Amazwi ofisa ukuwalanda ku- 
melwe uwalande ngenkulu- 
leko nangokuzithandela 
kwakho, futhi angikuyale 
ukuthi awuSophekile uku- 
landa lutho ; kodwa ama- 
zwi ofisa ukuwakhuluma 
azolotshwa phansi, futhi 
funa aphenduke uBufakazi 
o6uphikisana nawe ecaleni 



Lamazwi alandwa ngasenhla 
akhulunywe phambi kwa- 

tni nguye u.. 

uqoBo, ngalesosikhathi 
ingqondo yakhe iphelele, 
kwathi ngemuva kokuBa 
eselotshiwe atnazwi, wawa- 
fundelwa yena wavuma 
okuthi yiwona awakhe 
impela wawaBekela isa- 
ndla phambi kwami. 



16 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

LEGAL EXPRESSIONS 
(Criminal) 



Attorney-General. 

Attorney-General declines to 
prosecute. 

Attorney-General has 

decided upon indicting. 

Preparatory Examination. 

Remitted by Attorney- 
General under ordinary 
Jurisdiction. 

Case sent for review. 

Case remitted by Attorney- 
General for further 
evidence. 



umChazimthetho . 
umChazimthetho ulichithile 

icala. 
Ulidlulisel-a phambili ejajini 

umChazimthetho. 
Ukuhlolwa kwecala. 
umChazimthetho uli6uyisele 

icala ukuBa lizothethwa 

yiMantshi ilinqume. 
Lisathunyelwe ukuyohlolwa 

ijaji. 
umChazimthetho uliBuyisele 

icala ukuBa kuzogcwaliswa 

uBufakazi. 



CRIMES- 

Abortion. 

Accessory after the fact. 

Accidental Homicide. 

Agitator. 

Arson. 

Assault with intent to do 

grievous bodily harm. 
Assault with intent to rape. 

Attempted Rape. 

Attempting Suicide. 
Behave riotously. 
Bestiality. 



AM AC ALA 

tikuphum'isisu. 
ukuphathelana nesono OR 

ukuphatheka esonweni. 
ukuBulala umuntu kunga- 

qondiwe. 
idungaBantu. 
ukushis' indlu nga6omu. 
ukudlwengula kokulimaza. 

ukumdlwengula ngokulinga 

ukuphoqa. 
ukulinga ukuphoqa owesifa- 

zane. 

ukulinga ukuziBulala. 
ukwenza uBudlwangudlwangu. 
u6ulwane. 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



17 



Bigamy. 

Bribe. 

Commit a breach of the 

peace. 
Commutation of Sentence 

of Death. 
'Conspiracy. 
Conspire against. 

Conspiring to defeat the ends 

of Justice. 
Criminal injuria. 
Cruelty to animals. 

Culpable Homicide. 
Drive negligently. 



Drunkenness. 

Entice. 

Extortion. 

Fabricating evidence. 

False pretences. 

Fraudulently. 

Harbour a Criminal required 
by the law. 

Hearsay evidence. 

High Treason. 

Hindering or interfering 
with the police in the 
execution of their duty. 

Homicide. 

House-breaking. 

House-breaking and Theft. 

Ignorance of law. 



ukushadakaBili . 
ukuthenga. 
ukudunga ukuthula. 

isinciphiso sesijeziso sokufa. 

ugo6e OR isigungu. 
nkwenzela isigungu ; ukuha- 

mbela ngaphansi. 
ukuBopha ingalo yomthetho. 

ukwenzela amanyala. 

ukuphatha impahla efuyiwe 
ngonya. 

ukuBulala ingekho inhloso. 

ukushayela ngokungaqapheli, 
OR ukuhambisa ngokun- 
gaqapheli. 

ukudakwa. 

ukuwunga. 

ukuthatha imali ngoBuqili. 

ukuxova uBufakazi. 

amaceBo okuwanqa. 

ngoBuwaka. 

ukufihla isigeBengu esinecala. 

amazwi okutshelwa. 
ukugwaz'inkosi. 
ukuthikimeza amaphoyisa eku- 
qhuBeni umseBenzi wawo. 

ukuBulala ngengozi. 
ukugqekeza. 
ukugqekeza nokweBa. 
ukungawazi umthetho. 



18 A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

Illicit intercourse. ukuphinga. 

Impersonation. ukuziBiza ngomunye. 

Incest. ukulala umzalwane. 

Incite. ukuqhuqhutela. 

Indecent assault. iikudlwengula kokuphoxa. 

Insanity. ukuphamBana kwengqondo. 

Judgment is reserved. isinqumo siBekelwe amazolo. 

Justifiable homicide. ukuBulala umuntu okufanele. 

Kill accidentally. ukuBulala ngengozi. 

Kill in self-defence. ukuBulala ngokuzilamulela. 

Maliciously. ngokusopha. 

Murder. ukuBulala ngenhloso. 

Murderer. umBulali. 

Perjury. ukufunga amanga. 

Plot secretly conspire. ukuhamba ngaphansi. 

Procure abortion. ukukhip'isisu. 

Rape. ukuphoqa owesifazane. 

Ravish ; seduce. ukona ; ukumekezisa. 

Riot or faction fight. uchuku. 

Riotous behaviour or conduct. uBudlwangudlwangu. 

Riotous person. isidlwangudlwangu. 

Rob or robbery. ukuphanga. 

Set aside a judgment. ukuphengula ukunquny wa kwe- 

cala. 

Solitary confinement. ukuvalelwa wedwana. 

Subornation of Perjury. ukufungisa amanga. 

Theft by conversion. uBusela ngokuzenza umnininto. 

. Theft by false pretences. ukuthatha into ngamanga. 

Theft of stock. ukweBa impahla efuyiwe. 

Treat leniently. ukuBonelela. 

Trespass. ukona. 

Use obscene language. ukubina. 

Vagrancy. ukuzula. 

Violence. indluzula. 

Weight of evidence. indikimba yoBufakazi. 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 19 

CHAPTER V 
THE NATIVE KRAAL 

(a) Sub-divisions. 

(b) Inmates. 

(c) Appurtenances. 

Most of the information appearing in the subjoined 
statement has been obtained from R. C. Samuelson's Zulu 
King Cetywayo Dictionary, page 636, and the Native Teachers' 
Journal, Natal, (Vol. XXIII, No. 3 of April, 1944). 



iBeshu 



imBiza 
uBoko 

iBungu 
iBungwana 
isiCaBa OR isiValo 

isiCamelo 
iCansi (ucansi} 



uCelemba 
isiCongo (isiqongo] 



that part of the male's " umutsha " 
hanging behind when it consists 
of a single piece of leather. It is 
generally broad and long and is 
used for sitting on while worn. 

cooking pot also used for keeping 
beer in. 

long, thick stick, used for defence when 
fighting. 

boy 17 or 18 years of age. 

boy 15 to 16 years of age. 

door itself which is used to close the 
opening. 

wooden pillow. 

sleeping mat ("icansi" as pronounced 
up country and " ucansi " as 
pronounced in the Coast and 
Zululand.) 

Cane knife. 

projecting tuft on the centre of the 
hut-top, formed by the ends of 
the thatch of the hut being brought 
firmly together and very firmly 
tied together to prevent leakage. 



20 A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreted 

umDlela shield third in size after the " isi- 

hlangu " ; about two by one and 

a half feet. 

izinDluBu jugo-beans. 

liDondolo walking-stick. 

u Donga wall ; also a deep water- wash. 

N.B. " Iwendlu " has to follow and 

be used with udonga to express 

the wall of a house, e.g., udonga 

Iwendlu. 

izinDumba cow-peas. 

uDum6edum6e kind of Native potato. 

isiDwaba Native woman's leather kilt. 

umFana boy ; a youth. 

iGceke open ground inside or outside the kraal, 

when it is clear of grass. 
isaGila knobkerrie with a rough and natural 

head or knob, mostly used to hunt 

birds and small game. 

iGotshwa folding knife (clasp-knife). 

isiGqiki wooden stool. 

isiGubu calabash. 

iGula calabash for preparing and keeping 

" amasi " in. 
umGulugulu entrance part of the doorway ; the 

space between the doorway and 

the fireplace. 
iGuma semi-circular screen erected round the 

front of the doorway, to keep out 

winds and dust. Wind-screen. 
iHawu much smaller fighting shield, not for 

warfare, but for ordinary fighting 

with sticks. 
N.B. Some Natives call the large 

shield an " ihawu" . 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



uHlangothi lonmzi 

isiHlangu 

isijula 

uKhamba 

iKhehla 

iKhohlo (iKhohlwa) 



umKhonto 
umKhwili 

iKlwa 

izinKoBe 
inKosana 



inKosazana 



inKosikazi 



iLnwu 



side of a kraal. 

large battle shield. 

assegai for game, having a fair-sized, 
narrowish blade, and a long shaft. 

clay-pot. Earthenware pot for drinking 
beer out of. 

man of 40 years and over. 

left hand senior house of a kraal ; also 
applied to the woman herself, and 
to her hut ; she is, as a rule, the 
second married wife of a man ; 
the hut stands near the top of the 
left hand side of the kraal, judged 
by standing at the gate of the kraal 
and facing the " indlunkulu ". 

assegai. 

ground-nut ; the " izindluBu ", when 
boiled with their shells. 

large, long-bladed stabbing assegai, 
used for warfare. 

Boiled mealies. 

eldest or chief son of a man or the 
eldest son of any division of the 
kraal. 

chief daughter ; or the eldest daughter 
of each hut, or used for sake of 
respect, to refer to any young 
unmarried woman. 

chief wife of a Native or the chief 
woman of any division of the 
kraal ; also applied to any of the 
wives of a man. 

young unmarried man's hut ; also 
used by young boys and by 
visitors. 



22 A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

isiLili floor of a hut, more especially that 

part used for sleeping purposes. 
A Native hut has two sides, i.e., 
" isilili somfazi " and " isilili se- 
ndoda " . " isiLili somfazi " is 
on the left hand side of the hut 
and belongs to the woman. " isi- 
Lili sendoda " is on the right hand 
side of the hut and belongs to the 
man . A female does not sit on the 
male's side of the hut and the 
male does not sit on the female's 
side. A male will go on to the 
female's side only to fetch some- 
thing, but will not remain there. 

isaLukazi old woman. 

isiLuht large receptacle of grass, plaited and 

narrowed at the mouth and used 
for holding grain. 

iMbenge small basket. 

iNdlunkulu " great house " the chief house in a 

kraal ; from it the other houses 
take their position and with its 
affiliated houses it forms the 
" indlunkulu " section of the kraal. 

isiNene part of a male's " umutsha ", consisting 

of various pieces of skin cut into 
and twisted so as to afford a 
covering. 

iNgod^lsi young woman when she has had every- 

thing arranged for her marriage, 
and the only thing remaining to 
make her a wife being the marriage 
ceremony. 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



23 



iNjoBo 
iNkehli 

iNqoloBane (ingoBo] 

iNsaBule 
iNsika 

iNsizwa 

iNtombazana 
iNtombi 

amaNtongomane 
iNtshengula 

umNumzana 



iNxiwa 

umNyango 

uPhahla 

isiPhapha 

isiPhenama 



i Qadi 



one of the various pieces making up the 
" umutsha " all of which are fixed 
onto an " isiphenama ". 

girl who has put on the top-knot pre- 
paratory to being married, ages 
from 21 upwards. 

grain hut erected on a platform called 
" uBamba ". 

sword. 

main upright pole used in a hut to 
support its roof. 

adult male from about 20 and upward, 
until he becomes 40 years of age. 

girl. 

adult girl up to when she is married, 
when she becomes " umfazi ". 

monkey-nuts. 

small spoon made out of bone or horn 
and used for snuffing and for 
cleaning out the nostrils. 

kraalhead ; the owner of a kraal ; 
also used to apply to a person 
who has some wealth, or to a 
person of high standing. 

old as well as a new kraal site. 

door opening, i.e., the doorway. 

roof. 

broad-bladed assegai. 

roll of leather on to which the various 
parts forming the " umutsha " 
are fixed. 

right hand senior house of a kraal ; 
the hut stands on the right hand 
side of the kraal, towards the top 
thereof, as judged by standing at 



24 A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

the gate of the kraal and facing 
the " indlunkulu ". 

u Qwembe large wooden dish for holding meat. 

umSamo back part of a hut (within). 

umSele place at the back part of the kraal- 

head's side of a hut, where the 
calabashes are kept. 

umShiza thick straight stick for fighting. 

iShungu snuff-box, also called " idlelo ". 

iThala shelf at the back of the hut. Food that 

is left over from a meal is placed 
on this shelf. 

uThango fence ; a hedge (any fence grown or 

erected). 

isiTheBe article of plaited grass or fibre used as 

a platter on which to place and 
cut cooked meat and solid foods. 

uThingo long wattle, which, with many others, 

is used to form the frame-work 
of a hut. 

iThombe place at the back part of the woman's 

side of a hut, with a raised rim 
all round, and within which calves 
sleep at night. 

umuTsha the whole of the front and back of a 

male's as well as an unmarried 
woman's wearing apparel, which 
is suspended round the loins and 
hangs down to cover the privates. 

iTshitshi girl in her teens (intombazana esaphuma 

amaBele] . 

uTshumentshu sword-stick. 

(inTshumentshu) 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



25 



iVovo (ihluzo) 



iWisa 

iXhegu 

iXhiSa 



isiZa 
isiZenze 
iZiko 
isiZinda 



strainer for straining off liquids from 
solids ; strainer for straining and 
preparing beer. 

knobkerrie, specially cut and made. 

an old man over 70 years of age. 

roughly made hut for cooking, or for 
keeping small animals in, or one 
built among garden crops from 
which to watch and scare away 
birds and animals from the crops 
while they are ripening ; store-hut. 

hut site. 

battle-axe. 

fireplace. 

ancestral kraal or the name applied to 
the chief woman or the chief son 
of the chief woman of such kraal, 
or the woman appointed as head 
of such kraal. 

N.B. Among men of substance, a 
certain one of the wives of the man 
is specially appointed to bear the 
heir to and represent a man's 
father's or grandfather's kraal, 
and to inherit the estate of that 
kraal to the exclusion of all other 
sons ; the heir of this kraal is 
looked upon as the father of the 
other sons, and matters of impor- 
tance are referred to him first 
before they are dealt with. He 
can only inherit this kraal's estate, 
and has no right to the estate, in 
the indlunkulu, ikhohlo or iqadi 



26 A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

until after all the heirs of those 
houses have died out. 
In his Text- Book of Zulu Grammar (4th Edition), from 

page 373, Professor C. M. Doke, gives the following valuable 

statement of Zulu terms of Relationship : 

A. Blood Relationship 

Third Ascending Generation : 

The term ukoko or ukhokho is applied to the great- 
grandparents on both sides, and to all their brothers and 
sisters. 

Second Ascending Generation : 

The term ugogo is applied to the grandparents on both 
sides and to the brothers and sisters of these. 

Possessive terms, u6a6amkhulu (my, our grandfather), 
uyihlomkhulu (thy, your grandfather), and uyisemkhulu (his, 
her, their grandfather), are used for the father's father and 
mother's father with their brothers, the father's mother's 
brothers and the mother's mother's brothers. 

ukhulu is used for the father's mother and the mother's 
mother with their sisters, and for the father's father's sisters 
and mother's father's sisters. Special possessive terms 
corresponding to ukhulu are : 

umakhulu (my, our grandmother) 
unyokokhulu (thy, your grandmother) and 
uninakhulu (his, her, their grandmother). 

First Ascending Generation : 

Possessive terms, u6aBa (my, our father), uyihlo (thy, 
your father), and uyise (his, her, their father), are used to 
indicate the father, the father's brothers, the husbands of 
the mother's sisters, the sons of the father's father's brothers 
and of the father's mother's brothers. The adjectives 
omkhulu and omncane may be added to these terms to indi- 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 27 

cate elder and younger respectively, e.g., u6aBa omkhulu 
(my father's elder brother). 

Possessive terms, uma or umame (my, our mother), 
unyoko (thy, your mother), and unina (his, her, their mother) 
are used to indicate the mother, the mother's sisters, the 
wives of the father and of the father's brothers, and the 
daughters of the mother's mother's sisters and of the mother's 
father's sisters. 

The mother's sisters may also be called by the possessive 
terms : umamekazi, unyokokazi, and uninakazi. The 
adjectives omkhulu and omncane may be added to the above 
terms to indicate elder and younger respectively, e.g., 
unyoko omncane or unyokokazi omncane (thy mother's 
younger sister). The father's sister (and sometimes the 
father's brother) is indicated by the possessive terms 
u6a6ekazi, uyihlokazi, and uyisekazi with the distinctions for 
elder and younger. 

The possessive terms uBaBa, etc., are also sometimes, 
though rarely, used in this connection. 

The mother's brother and his wife, and also her 
" cousins " of all types, are indicated by the possessive terms 
umalume, unyokolume, and uninalume. 

For stepfather the possessive terms uBaBa wesiBili, etc., 
or uBaBana, etc., are used ; and for stepmother the possessive 
terms umame wesiBili, etc. 

Contemporary Generation : 

The children of the father, of the father's brothers and 
of the mother's sisters, in fact, of all those called uBaBa, etc., 
or umame, are called umfowethu (my brother), umfowenu (thy 
brother), and umfowaBo (his, her brother) ; or udadewethu 
(my sister), udadewenu (thy sister), and udadewaBo (his, her 
sister). The terms omkhulu and omncane may be added to 
distinguish in all cases. An elder brother, child of the same 
mother or father or both, may be distinguished as umune. 



28 A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

The children of the mother's sisters or cousins may be indi- 
cated by the term okanina. Brothers and sisters may be 
termed umnawe, or possessively, umnawami, etc. 

The children of the father's sisters and of all called 
uBaBekazi, etc., and the children of the mother's brothers and 
of all called umalume, etc., are indicated by the term umzala. 

The children of one mother are indicated by the .plural 
term izelamani. 

First Descending Generation : 

The general term applied to children is umntwana. This 
term is applied to one's own children and to the children of 
one's brothers and sisters. Possessive terms are also used, 
e.g., umntanami (my child), umntanakho (thy child), etc., 
plural a6anta6ami, etc. 

To distinguish sex, the term indodana is used for a boy, 
and indodakazi for a girl. 

A man may call his brother's child by the descriptive 
terms, umntanomfowethu, etc., and his sister's child by the 
descriptive terms, umntakadadewethu, etc. 

Umntwanakazi is used loosely instead of umntwana, but 
should strictly be used only by umamekazi, etc. (the mother's 
sister), to indicate nephew or niece. 

The eldest son or heir is called inkosana or indlalifa. 
This is generally the eldest son of the inkosikazi, the son of 
the ikhohlo being distinguished by the term inkosana yase- 
khohlo. If, however, a man has only one wife, the eldest son 
is the inkosana, while the youngest son acts as ikhohlo in the 
home and is himself called ikhoUo. 

The first-born of the family is called iziBulo or owamazi- 
Bulo. The last-born is called uthunjana or owamagcino. 
Second Descending Generation : 

The children of any indodana or indodakazi are termed 
possessively umntanomntanami (child of my child), etc., 
with fuller forms umntwana womntanami or umntwana 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 29 

womntwana wami. In the plurals, a6anta6a6antaBami 
(children of my children) etc., and a6anta6omntanami 
(children of my child), etc. may be made special distinctions 
of relationship. 

All the grandchildren, children of brothers, are called 
umndeni, e.g., umndeni kaNtengo, where uNtengo is the name 
of the grandfather. 

Third Descending Generation : 

The great-grandchildren are indicated by the terms 
umzukulu, umzukulwana, or umzukulwane. 

B. Relatives by Marriage 

The grandparents of a wife or of a husband become the 
grandparents of the spouse in each case. 

The father of a man's wife is his umukhwe. 

The mother of a man's wife is his iimkhwekazi. 

The parents of a woman's husband are indicated by the 
possessive terms iimamezala, unyokozala, and uninazala. 

Parents of two married persons call one another by the 
term umlingane or umkhozi. 

A spouse, i.e., wife or husband, is indicated by the 
possessive terms umkami, etc., or owakwami, etc. 

A husband is umyeni or indoda. 

A wife is umfazi ; but the wives of a polygamist are 
distinguished as follows : (i) principal wife, inkosikazi, 
(ii) wife of the left hand, ikhohlo, and (iii) third wife, inqadi. 
A man's bride is umakoti or umloBokazi. She is also so called 
by all in his kraal, and this term may also be applied to his 
brother's wife. 

A man's wife's brother, sister and cousins, and his 
brother's wife's brother and sister are designated by the 
term umlamu. 

A woman's husband's brother is untfowethu, etc., as 
also all whom he calls umfowethu, etc. 



30 A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

A woman's husband's cousin is umzala, as also all whom 
he calls umzala. 

A woman's husband's sister is udadewethu, etc., as also 
all whom he calls udadewethu. 

A man's wife's sister's husband is designated by the 
possessive terms umnakwethu, etc. 

A sister's husband or father's sister's husband is desig- 
nated by the possessive terms umkhwenya wethu, etc., or by 
umkhwenyana with wakwethu, etc., added if needed. 

A fellow-wife or husband's brother's wife or husband's 
cousin's wife is designated by the possessive terms uzakwethu, 
etc. The terms for seniority and juniority may be added. 

A woman's brother's wife is umakoti womufo, or umakoti 
womune. 

A person's brother's bride is designated by the possessive 
terms umakoti wakwethu, etc., or umkethu, etc. 

A son's wife or bride is umalokazana, or the possessive 
terms umakoti wakwami, etc., or umlo6okazi wakwami, etc., 
are used in this connection. 

A daughter's husband is umkwenyana ; the possessives 
wakwami, etc., may be added if needed. 

Any member of the husband's family calls any contem- 
porary member of the wife's family umlanda ; thus his 
parents use the term of her parents, and his brothers of her 
brothers, etc. 



CHAPTER VI 
COLOURS OF CATTLE 

Samuelson, in his Zulu Dictionary, from page 568, gives 
a valuable statement of colours of cattle, and the beast 
itself having that particular colour ; also particular denomi- 
nations of cattle, as known to the Zulus. From this statement 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



31 



and other works, I have selected and compiled the sub- 
joined list. 
NOTE This list is by no means exhaustive. 

With regard to the colours of cattle it will be observed 
that I have used the forms with Noun prefixes, e.g., UmduBu, 
umhlophe, impunga, etc. Relative concords are used with 
these words to make them qualify a noun or noun understood, 
e.g., inkomo emdu6u ; inkomazi empunga, etc. 

Feminine English 

ibanqulekazi black or red beast, 
elimnyama with white belly, 
or eliBomvu. the white streaks 
meeting on the 
back at the hips. 

eBomvu red beast without 

spots. 

uBuBendekazi liver-coloured beast. 

ufiphakazi dust-coloured beast. 

ihhemukazi a black, red, brown 
or yellow beast 
with white on one 
side or both. 

ihungqukazi brindle-coloured 
beast. 

ihwanqakazi white and black, 
brown and white 
or white and red 
beast. 

Feminine English 

ukholokazi yellow, sandy- 
coloured beast ; 
dark yellow. 

iklilakazi, beast with white on 



Masculine 

iBanqule elimnyama 
or eliBomvu. 



eEomvu 

uEuBende 

uFipha 

iHhemu 



iHungqu 
iHwanqa 



Masculine 

uKholo 



iKlila, iKlilathi 



iklilathikazi the throat. 



32 A 

iLunga 

eMavovo 



uMdaka 
iiMduBu 



iMfezi t 



uMhlophe 
uMlaza 



iMpemvu 

iMpofu 

iMpunga 
uMsheko 



Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 
ilungakazi 



umdakakazi 
umdiiBukazi 

imfezikazi 



umhlophekazi 
umlazakazi 



impemvukazi 

impofukazi 

impungakazi 
umshekokazi 



uMthuku 



umtlwkukazi 



black beast, with 
white patches over 
stomach, legs and 
back. 

skimmel or straw- 
berry coloured 
beast. 

dun-coloured beast. 

yellow, sandy- 
coloured beast; 
dark yellow. 

beast with a white 
stripe, or white 
collar round its 
throat. 

white beast. 

whitish beast, with 
thin, scattered, 
black streaks over 
the body. 

beast, black, yellow, 
red or brown, with 
white face. 

pale, red- yellow 
beast. 

grey beast. 

black beast with a 
dash of white on 
the side and on- 
ward to the shoul- 
der. 

mouse - coloured 
beast. 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



33 



eMvuSomaSele 

Masculine 

iNala 

iNco 



iNhlamvu 
uNhlekwane 

iNkone 



iNkone elele umuntu 
esiswini 

iNsasa 



skimmel or straw- 
berry coloured 
beast. 

Feminine English 

inalakazi red or black beast 

with small white 
spots about the 
legs and sides. 

incokazi red beast, speckled 

with white spots, 
that is, white 
patches here and 
there. 

inhlamvukazi red beast without 
spots. 

unhlekwanekazi black beast with 
white stripes run- 
ing from the shoul- 
ders to the sides. 

inkonekazi beast of any colour, 
i.e., black, red, 
yellow, brown, 
with white 
speckles down the 
ridge of the back. 
OR a white beast 
with large red 
spots on stomach, 
white beast with 
large black spots 
on stomach. 



inkonekazi 
elele umuntu 
esiswini 

insasakazi 



skimmel or straw- 
berry coloured 
beast. 



34 

iNsundu 

iNtenjane 

iNtulo 

iNtusi 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



Masculine 

iNyaluthi 

iNzima 
iNzotha 



ePhuzingweBu 
i Qola 



uThuthu 
iWaBa, iWasa 



insundukazi 
intenjanekazi 

intulokazi 
intusikazi 



Feminine 

inyaluthikazi 

inzimakazi 
inzothakazi 



iqolakazi 



uthuthukazi 

iwaBakazi, 
iwasakazi 



dark brown-coloured 
beast; d u n - 
coloured beast. 

lightish-yellow beast 
with white patch 
running up one or 
both hind legs. 

beast, black or red, 
with a white head. 

red-coloured beast, 
with a small white 
spot on the side, 
in front of one or 
both of the hind 
legs. 
English 

dark yellow, almost 

brown beast, 
black beast. 

red or white beast, 
generally with 
white and brown 
spots on side ; also 
red brown and 
white. 

beast with a white 
snout. 

black or red beast 
with white from 
small of the back, 
downwards. 

dust-coloured beast. 

black or red beast 
with white belly. 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



35 



iBeka 



isiCengeza 

umDlovu 
uluGelekeqe 

isiGqala 
isiGudwa 
isiHleza 
iMbedula 

iMpothane, iMpothela 
iMpoxela 

iMpoxeyana 

iNdlezane 



iNgcungu 
iNgquthu 



one of the cattle given as part 
of Io6olo. Each of these cattle 
is called " ibeka, " the plural 
is " amabeka ". 

beast with widely spread horns, 
curving in and forming the 
shape of the sides of a basin. 

ox with horns turned downwards 
or round the face. 

beast with horns pointing back- 
wards. 

cow with very little milk. 

cow milked without calf. 

beast with a broken horn. 

beast with horns pointing back- 
wards. 

beast with twisted horns. 

beast with sharply pointed and 
erect horns. 

beast with horns of about two 
inches. 

cow with calf, within a week or 
two since with calf. NOTE 
" umdlezane " is a woman 
with an infant at breast. 

beast with horns curving so as 
to almost meet. 

beast given to a mother-in-law 
by a son-in-law, in connection 
with her daughter whom he 
has married or deflowered. 
N.B. This beast is solely the 
property of the mother of the 
girl impregnated, and she may 
do anything she likes with it. 



36 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



iNkom'cchophe ngomsila 

iNkom'egqizile 

iNkom'emahlawe 

iNkomo yesondlo 

iNqudulu (ingudulu) 

iNsizwakazi 

iNxahi 

iNyumbakazi 
uPhishilili 

um Qholiso 



umThantazana 

umThantikazi 

isiThokazana 

isiThokazi 

isiThole 

iZi6ulekazana 



beast with a white brush of the 
tail. 

beast with a sock, or white on 
one or all the legs. 

beast with horns that are short, 
curved, and hang down on 
the surface of the skin. 

beast paid for having nourished 
and brought up a child. 

poly beast (hornless). 

poly cow (hornless). 

bull that has been castrated 
when full-grown. 

queen cow, sterile cow. 

beast with tall horns sloping and 
pointing backward. 

beast slaughtered by an in- 
tended bridegroom in honour 
of his fiancee on her betrothal 
visit to his kraal. 

young or small heifer. 

full-grown heifer. 

young or small heifer. 

full-grown heifer. 

heifer. 

heifer that has had only the 
first calf. 



Cattle Diseases in English and Zulu 



English 

Abscess 
Actinomycosis Lumpy 

jaw 
Anthrax 



Zulu 

ithumba 
umadilwana 

umBendeni 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



37 



Black quarter Spons- 

siekte 
Constipation droegal- 

siekte 
Diarrhoea 
East Coast Fever 

Foot and Mouth Disease 

Gall sickness 

Heartwater 

Lumpy Skin Disease 

Lungsickness 

Mange 

Nagana 

Pneumonia 

Red Water 

Ringworm 

Stiffsickness (thrce-day- 

stiff sickness). 
Tuberculosis 



uphezukomkforto ; umanyongana 
ukuqumba 

ukusheka ; ukuhuda ; isihudo 
umanyonyoBa ; ukufa (kwezi- 

nkomo) ; kwamakhizane 
ukufa komlomo 
inyongo ; isashu 
ukufa kwenhliziyo 
umakluikhumesana 
umahagane 
utwayi 
uNakane 
isidlanga 
isikhuBa 
umBandamu 
uthathamela 

isifuBa 



Colours of Horses 



English 

Bay 

Black 

Blue-dun 

Brown 

Chestnut 

Cream 

Grey 

Piebald Black and 

white 
Skewbald Red and 

white 
Star (with any colour) 



Zulu Masculine Zulu Feminine 

eliBomvu inhlamvukazi 

elimnyama inzimakazi 

elimdaka, umdaka umdakakazi 
elinsundu ensundukazi 

ifosi ifosikazi 

ulaza ulazakazi 

elimpunga impungakazi 

ilunga ilungakazi 



inco 



indonya 



incokazi 



indonyakazi 



38 A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

White elimhlophe umhlophektzi 

Yellow-dun elimdaka, umdaka umdakakazi 



Horse Sicknesses 



Brokenwind 

Horse-sickness 

Mange 

Nagana 

Saddle-sore 

Worms 



iphika 

isimoliya 

utwayi 

unakane 

isilonda, isikofu 

amapapisi 



English 

Black 

Black and White 

Black and White 

spotted 
Blackish-grey 



Brownish-grey 



Colours of Goats 

Zulu Masculine 

emnyama 
ilunga, ibanqule 

emafahlafahla 

umzondo (or 
ingwevu ngoku- 
mnyama) 

ingwevu ngokun- 
sundu 

emdaka 

insundu 



Dark-brown 
Light-brown 
Light-red with yellow insele 

muzzle 

White emhlophe 

Yellow empofu 



Zulu Feminine 

inzimakazi 
ilungakazi, ibanqu- 

lekazi 
emafahlafahlakazi 

umzondokazi (or 
ingwevukazi ngo- 
kumnyama) 

ingwevukazi ngo- 
kunsundu 

umdakakazi 

insundukazi 

inselekazi 

emhlophekazi 
empofukazi 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



39 



Common ear- marks placed on 
Cattle, horses, sheep and goats 

Description 
English of ear -mark 

Half-moon portion so cut off that the 

remaining mark re- 
sembles a half-moon 

Hole hole through any part of 

any ear 

Skey (skei) portion so cut off that the 
remaining mark re- 
sembles the nick of a 
skey, into which the 
strop is hooked 

Slit a straight cut through 

middle of ear near the 
tip 

Square one side of the slit cut 

(winkelhaak) away 

Stump tip of ear cut off 

Swallow-tail tip so cut away that the 
end of ear resembles 
end of tail of a swallow 



Zulu 

ugegeBu 

imboBo 
isikeyi 



indleBe edatshuli- 
weyo 

isikwde 

isihunu 
inkonjane 



CHAPTER VII 
Common Human Diseases 

For some of the terms I am indebted to The Native 
Teachers' Journal (Vol. XXIII, No. 3 of April, 1944, and 
Vol. XVIII, No. 2 of January, 1939). 



English 

Appendicitis 



Zulu 

ukuvuthwa kwetunjana elilenga ku- 
bobobo 



40 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



Asthma 

Blister 

Boil 

Bronchitis 

Bulla 

Cancer in Abdomen 

Chicken-pox 

Cold 

Colic 

Constipation 

Consumption 

Diarrhoea 

Dropsy 

Duodenal ulcer 
Dysentery 

Eczema 

Enteric 

Epidemic outbreak 

Gastric Ulcer 

Gonorrhoea 

Heart Disease 

Indigestion 

Influenza 

Leprosy 

Malaria fever 

Measles 

Meningitis 

Miners' Phthisis 

Mumps 

Palpitation 



umBefu (ufuBa) ; isifuBa somoya 

ishashaza 

intumbane (ithumba) 

isishiso semithambo yomoya 

ibanyaza 

ixhwala esiswini 

inqiiBukinjwana 

umkhuhlane 

isisu esisikayo 

ukusongeleka 

ixhwala (isifuBa) 

ukusheka ; ukuhuda 

umzimba ogcwele amanzi ; (isikhu- 

hlukhuhlu) 
isilonda ethunjini 
isihudo samatheketheke ; (isihudo esi- 

negazi) 
ukuquBuka okuvuzamanzi (umsasa- 

ndla) ; (umuna) 
imbo yesihudo segazi 
ubadane (imbo) 
isilonda esiswini 
iBuBa, ugcunsula 
isifo senhliziyo 
isilungulela 
imfuluyeza 
uchoko 

uhlonzane (umalaleveva) 
isimungumungwane 
isifo esivuvukisa imithambo yentamo 

nomhlandla 
isifuBa sasemgodini 
uzagiga (uqilaza) 
.ukushaya kwenhliziyo (ukugquma) 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



41 



Papillonia or Wart 

Pimple (on face) 

Pleurisy 

Pneumonia 

Rheumatic Fever 

Ringworm 

Scabies 

Smallpox 

Syphilis 

T.B. of the lungs 

Typhus 

Whooping-cough 

Miscellaneous 

Abscess 

Apoplexy 

Birthmark 

Cataract 

Collapse 



Concussion 
Conjunctivitis 

eyes) 
Convulsions 



(sore 



Deformity 

Discharging ear 

Dizziness 

Ear-wax 

Faint 

Fit (epileptic) 

Germ 

Gland 

Heat and Sunstroke 

Hysteria 



insiimpa 

induna eBusweni 

ihlaBa ; isiboBo 

isishiso samaphaphu (isidlanga) 

umkhuhlane wekhunkulo 

umBandamu 

ukhwekhwe 

ingxoBongo ; iiPokisi 

isipatsholo 

isifuBa se-T.B. 

imbo yezintwala 

wnpe Iwezingane 

izinhlo6onhlo6o 

ithumba 

ukutheleka kwegazi eBuchosheni 

umkhangu 

umlanga ehlweni (phakathi) 

ukuphela amandla ; ukufumbeka 

phansi 

ukungquBuzeka 
amehlo aBomvu 

ukudlala, ukuthuthumela komzimba 

kwenziwa isifo 
ixhwala 

indleBe ephumubovu 
isinxi (inzululwane) 
isigonogono 
ukuquleka 
isithuthwane 

igciwane (lesifo] ; (inungunungwana) 
indlala 

isifiithafutha sokmhiswa yilanga 
umhayizo or ihaBiya 



42 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



Insanity 
Lumbago 
Miscarriage 
Mucus from lungs 
Navel-cord 
Neuritis 

Obstructed labour 
Paralysis 

Pass loose stools 

Placenta (after-birth) 

Pus 

Rash 

Scurvy 

Sputum 

Sterility (of female) 

Still-birth 

Stupor 

Swelling 

Tapeworm 

Threadworms 

T.B. of spine 

Tumour 

Varicose veins 

Worm 



ukuhlanya 

iqolo (umnyuka waseqolo) 

ukuphuphuma kwesisu 

isikhwehlela 

inkaBa 

uBuhlungu Bemizwa 

ukiixakela 

ukuqedwa amandla nokuzwa ; 

kwemithambo (ukoma] 
huda 

umzanyana 
uBovu 
umquBuko 
umsheshaphansi 
isikhwehlela 
uBunyumba 

uphumefile (umphunzo) 
isihlwathi 
ukuvuvuka 
isilo esimhlophe 

oshobishobi Bezilo (izimpethwane) 
i-T.B. yomhlandla 
ihlumela (isimila] 
ikhunkulo lemithambo 
isilo 



Bones of the Body 
Amathambo omzimba 



English 

Ankle 

Anterior frontenalle 

Atlas (root of back of 

neck first cervical 

vertebra) 
Calf bone (Fibula) 



Zulu 

iqakala 

ukhakhayi 

isahlulampisi 



isithumbu 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



43 



Canine (side tooth 2) 
Cervical Vertebrae 
Cheek-bone (Zygomatic 

bone) 
Chin 

Coccyx (tail) 
Collar bone (clavicle) 
External acoustic meatus 
External occipital Pro- 
tuberance 
False Rib 

Femur (thigh-bone) 
Floating Rib 
Foramen Magnum 
Front tooth (incisor) 
Frontal bone 
Frontal eminence 
Funny-bone (elbow) 
Hip-bone 

Humerus (upper arm bone) 
Inner bone of Forearm 

(ulna) 

Knee-cap (patella) 
Lower jaw (mandible) 
Lumbar Vertebra 
Molar 

Nape of neck 
Nasal bone (nose-root) 
Nasal Cavity 
Nose-bridge 
Occipital bone 
Outer bone of Forearm 

(radius) 

Phalanges of Foot (or toes) 
Phalanges of hand 



elenja 

isizunguzungu 

isidindi 

isilevu 

umsinsila 

ingqwa6a6a 

isiqhoma 

incengela (umantshasa) 

uBambo olunqumunqumu 

elenyonga, or inyongd 

umpethwane 

isikhonkosi 

elingaphambili 

iBunzi, isiphongo, isimongo 

ihlonhlo 

indololwane 

itheBe, igeBe 

elifuphi (lengalo) 

ithambo logalo 

ivi 

umhlathi 

ungceshana 

elomhlathi 

isijungujungu 

imvelelo 

amankanka 

umBombo 

isiphundu 

imbilathi 

amathambo ezinzwane 
amathambo eminwe 



44 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



Prominent part of the 
face, just above the 
eye, on which the eye- 
brow grows 

Rib 

Seat-bone (Ischium) 

Shin-bone (Tibia) 

Shoulder-blade (scapula) 

Side of head or Parietal 
bone 

Skeleton 

Small of back 

Spine 

Sternum (breast-bone) 

Temporal bone 

Tooth 

True Rib 

Wedge (sacred) bone 
(sacrum) 

Wisdom tooth 

Wrist 

Xiphoid process of 
sternum 

Zygoma 



ithundit 



uBambo 
isitiUli 
umondlo 
isiphanga 
ucezu Iwekhanda 

ukhehle 
idanda ; iqolo 
umhlandla 
uvalo 

isikhala soBuso 
izinyo 
uBambo 
ihoho 

eloBambo 
isihlakala 
ucaBanga, uvalo 

inhlafuno 



Parts of the Body 
Okomzimba 



Adam's apple 
Arm-pit (axilla) 
Back of shoulders 
Biceps or arm muscles 
Big toe 
Blood-vessel 
Buttock 
Calf of the leg 



igilo 

ikhwapha 

amagxalaBa 

izinkonyane 

uqukula 

umthambo 

isinqe 

isithumbanja 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



Cheek 

Clitoris .. 

Double Chin 

Ear drum 

Epidermis (outer skin) 

Eyebrow 

Eyelash 

Eye pupil 

Female breast 

Female mons veneris 

Groin 

Gums 

Hard Palate 

Head of Glans Penis 

Heel 

Hip 

Index finger 

Knuckle 

Labia majora (folds of 

the vulva feminae) 
Lap 

Leg (leg of a person) 
Leg (lower foreleg) 
Little tongue (uvula) 
Lobule of the ear 
Lower lip 
Male public region 
Man's breast 
Nape of neck 
Navel 
Neck (i.e., the whole 

trunk lying between 

the head and collar 

bones) 



isihlathi 

umsunu 

iBilo 

iso lendleBe 

imveBu 

ishiya 

likhophe 

inhlamvu ycso 

iBele 

isidumbu 

imbilapho 

izinsini 

ulwanga 

inkanda 

isithende 

inqulu 

unkomba 

iqupha 

amaleBe 

ithanga 

umlenze 

ugalo, intungwa, isilho, umBala 

ugovana 

isicuBu sendleBe 

udeBe 

uBumbu 

isiBele 

isijingo 

inkaBa 

intamo 



46 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 
isitshako 



Opening between front 

teeth 
Penis 

Rectum (Anus) 
Shin 
Shoulder 
Side of head 
Small finger 
Small Toe 
Spinal cord 
Testicle 
Thigh (all that part of 

the leg between knee 

and hip) 
Thumb 
Tip of tongue 
Toe 

Tongue 
Tonsil 

Upper limb (forearm) 
Upper lip 
Vulva 
Waist 
Wind-pipe 



umphambili, umthondo 

ingquza, ididi, igolo 

umBala 

ihlombe 

ucezu Iwekhanda 

ucikicane 

uzwani oluncane 

umnqonqo 

isende 

ithanga 



isithupha 

inkotha 

uzwani 

ulimi 

ilaka (uvula] 

umkhono 

udevu 

inhlunu 

ukhalo (iguma] 

uqhoqhoqho 



Internal Organs 
IziBilini 



Bile 

Bladder 
Brain 
Colon 

Diaphragm (outer cover- 
ing of the bowels) 
Duodenum 



^nyongo 

isinye 

uBuchopho 

inanzi 

untu 

ithumbu lenanzi 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



47 



Gall-bladder 

Heart 

Intestines 

Kidney 

Large intestine 

Liver 

Lung 

Marrow of bone 

Pericardium 

Small intestine 

Spleen 

Stomach 

Injuries 

English 

Abrasion 
Contused wound 
Contusion 
Haemorrhage 
Incised wound 
Lacerated wound 
Punctured wound 
Weal (caused by a blow 

from a stick or strap) 
Wound (on head) 
Wound (a wound caused 

by a sharp instrument 

on any part of the 

body) 

Fractures 
Ukwaphuka kwamathambo 

Comminuted fracture uvithithambo 

Complicated fracture umchachathambo 

Compound fracture uthambokhoxe 



isikhwama senyongo 

inhliziyo 

amathumbu 

inso 

ithumbu likapopopo 

isi6indi 

iphaphu 

umkantsha 

ulwambesi 

usinyaka 

uBende 

isisu 

Ukulimala 

Zulu 

isihuzu 

iphuphusi 

ithuBulela 

ukopha 

inxe6a elisaluhlanga 

inxeda eliqhaqhaBulekile 

inxeBa elichambuzekile 

umvimbo 



tngozi 
inxeBa 



48 



. A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



Depressed fracture 
Green-stick fracture 
Impacted fracture 
Simple fracture 



umfehlezathambo 
ufecethambo 
umqwalathambo 
uthambophoqo 



CHAPTER VIII 
Seasons in Zulu 

intwasahloBo spring ; beginning of summer 

isilimela the ploughing season ; ALSO, a 

group of stars which may be 
observed in the early morning 
during the month of August. 
They are so called because 
they appear at a time when 
ploughing begins 
the green-mealie season 
summer .(generally) 
midsummer 
winter (generally) 
midwinter 

Summer 

In his Zulu English Dictionary (1905), page 251, 
Bryant gives the following valuable statement of the divi- 
sions of summer, as known to the Zulus. 



ukwindla 

ihloBo 

ihloB' elikhulu 

uBusika 

u6usika oBumpofu OR 

uSusika oBukhulu 



1 . lethwese ihloBo 



2. sekululiBo OR sckuyi- 
sikhathi soliBo 



the summer has come round, i.e., 
at the time of the first rains, 
when the new grass begins to 
cover the land. 

it is now the time of the first 
fruits, when green pumpkins, 
gourds, and the like are eaten 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



49 



3. sckusekwindla OR se- 
kuyisikhathi sokwi- 
ndla 



4. sekulihloBo elikhulu ; 
sekuphakathi kokwi 
ndla 



5. sekuphele ukwindla ; 
sekuphele ihloBo 



sekungena u6usika ; 
sekuyisikhathi soku- 



it is now the time of the new 
food, when the new mealies 
(not amaBele} are eaten, when 
the amaBele are just commen- 
cing to produce ears and the 
birds to give trouble 

it is now great or midsummer, 

it is now the middle of ukwindla- 
time, i.e., when the amaBele 
are in full ear and the mealies 
ripening 

the ukwindla-time is now at an 
end, the summer season is now 
finished, i.e., when the ama- 
Bele and mealies are already 
ripe and are drying on the 
stalk 

the winter-season is now coming 
in ; it is now harvesting time 



vuna 



Phases of the Moon 



The periods of the reign of a moon as known to the Zulus, 
are set forth, in the subjoined statement, which I quote from 
page 465 of Bryant's Zulu English Dictionary (1905). 

Faye has made two minor additions to this statement, 
which are shown in brackets vide page 57 of his book en- 
titled Zulu References. 

the moon is just appearing, as 

on the day of the new moon 
it has appeared, as a new moon 

in the -first day or two 
it is in the first quarter 
it is now full moon 



inyanga iyethwasa 



ithwese 



isilucezu 

isihlangene or isidilingene 
(or isigcwele] 



50 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



isihlephukile or isilucezu 
isifulathele ezansi or isi- 
phethele ezansi 



isilibamuza 



it is in the last quarter 
it is towards the end of the last 
quarter when the crescent gets 
to lean down flat towards the 
east, not standing vertically 
as before 

it is the last day before dis- 
appearance, or sometimes also 
it is already full 
it has gone or disappeared 
it is the black or very dark day 
today, i.e., the one immediate- 
ly following the moon's dis- 
appearance, and with the 
Native, a day of solemn 
retreat, abstinence from work 
and pleasure-seeking 
it is a white or brighter day 
today, i.e., the second after 
disappearance of moon and 
one immediately preceding its 
reappearance, upon which the 
Natives are free again to work 
it is coming in or appearing 
it is laughed at by the (chatter- 
ing) birds, i.e., when setting 
just before sunrise 
it is now overtaken by dawn, 
i.e., sets during daylight, after 
full moon 

Many an apparent discrepancy may be conveyed by 
interpreting chronological sequence of events in the exact 
calculation of calendar months, whereas a perfectly honest 
and truthful, illiterate, Native witness may be giving evidence 
and basing his calculations of time in accordance with truly 



ngolumhlope namuhla 



isiyethwasa 
isihlekwa yizinyoni 



(isiyaselwa) 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



51 



Native custom, on the lunar months which can only approxi- 
mately be made to synchronise with the calendar months 
of the year. 

Even when these lunar months are used with their 
Native names, there are, today, not many Natives who will 
agree with the exactitude, demanded by a court of law, on 
the names of the months in their correct sequence in order 
to ensure accuracy of date when an event occurred. 

It stands to reason, therefore, that infinite caution must 
be exercised in interpreting chronological order of events as 
given by 'an illiterate witness, in order to avoid discounten- 
ancing his evidence on the grounds of discrepancy. For 
example, if a witness is thinking in terms of lunar months, 
his statement " Ngenyanga efile " and " Ngokuthwasa 
kwenyanga " may stand for " During the last lunar month " 
and " At the commencement of the new moon" respectively, 
and should not be interpreted as " Last month " and " Next 
month " at the risk of conveying a false impression to the 
Court. 

This point may best be illustrated by giving the following 
lists of lunar months taken from lists given by men who 
might claim to be experts in the matter : 



A. 

(Prof. Doke's Text- 
Book of Zulu Gram- 
mar, page 370) 



1. uncwaBa 

(also called 
Unhloyile, the 
month when 
kites appear), 
the month 



B. 

(A. I. Molefe & 
T. Z. Masondo 
EzomdaBu We- 
zizwe ZaBansu- 
ndu, page 191) 

uncwaBa 
(June) 



C. 

(P. Lamula, Isa- 
Belo sikaZulu, 
page 139) 



uncwaBa 
(August) 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



when the grass 
is green, starts 
about the 
middle of July 

2. umandulo (used 

as " hlonipha " 
for Umpandu, 
also called Iso- 
kanqangi), the 
month when 
the first gar- 
dens appear 
starts towards 
the middle of 
August 

3. umfumfu 

the month 
when the new 
shoots show 
starts early in 
September 

4 . tdwezi 

the month 
when the grass- 
hopper larvae 
appears on the 
grass starts 
early in 
October 

5. uziBandlela 

the month 
when the paths 
are overgrown 
(also called 
Udlolo), starts 



umandulo 

(July) 



timandulo 
(September) 



uziBandlela 
(September) 



umfumfu 
(October) 



ulwezi 
(November) 



umasingana 
(October) 



uziBandlela 
(December) 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



53 



10. 



very early in 
November 

umasingana 
(also called 
Ungcela), the 
month for 
looking after 
the pumpkins 
starts at the 
beginning of 
December 

unhlolanja 

the month of 
the mating of 
dogs starts at 
the beginning 
of January 

undasa 

the month of 
the abundance 
of new mealies 
starts at the 
very beginning 
of February 

umBasa 

(also called 
Um6aso), the 
winter fires are 
first lit, starts 
at the end of 
February 

ungulaziBuya 
( als o called 
Undida), starts 



ulwezi 



umasingana 



(November) (January) 



ungcela 
(December) 



undasa 
(January) 



utnBaso 
(February) 



unhlolanja 
(February) 



undasa 
(March) 



um6aso 
(April) 



unhlaSa 
(May) 



54 



11 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



towards the 
end of March 



unhlangula 
(April) 



unhlangula 
(Unhlangulana) 
(June) 



umaquBa 
(May) 



untulikazi, ( Uma- 
quBa, Unhlangu- 
la}. (July) 



unhlaSa 

the month of 
the aloe flowers 
starts late in 
April 

12. unhlangulana 

(also called 
Uluthudlana or 
U m a, q u 6 a 
omncane), the 
month of the 
early winds 
starts about 
the middle of 
May 

13. umaquSa 

(also called 
Untulini, Umpo- 
fu, Untulikazi, 
Uluthuli, Unhla- 
ngula), the month 
of dust blowing 
starts in mid- 
June 

The natural conclusion is that no interpretation of time 
can possibly give the accuracy reflected by a Police report 
such as " at 6.15, on the morning of August the 17th, 1946." 
and the witness' evidence cannot be dismissed as contra- 
dictory merely on the time or date factor. 

Professor Doke sets forth the terms used to indicate 
various Periods of Time during the Day and Night, as known 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 65 

to the Zulus, in the subjoined statement, which I quote from 
page 372 of his Text-Book of Zulu Grammar (4th edition). 

ngokukhala kwezinkuku zokuqala (1st cockcrow) 

fngokukhala kwezinkuku zesi6ili (2nd cockcrow) 
\ngokuphuma kwekhwezi (at the appearing of the morning 

star) 

fngokukhala kwezinkuku zesithathu (3rd cockcrow) 
\ngokuphuma kwendosa (at the appearing of Jupiter) 

fngokwehla kwezinkuku (at the descent of the fowls) 
\^kumpondozankomo (very early morning) 

fngovivi ~\ 
\kusasa J (at early dawn) 

Cngokuphuma kwenhlamvu (at sunrise) 
< ngokuphuma kwelanga 
[ekuseni kakhulu (in the early morning) 

ekuseni (in the morning) 

ngokufudumala kwelanga (when the sun is hot) 

f ngenhlanzane (at milking time) 
\ekuseni kwasemini (mid-morning) 

femini (at midday) 
\ukuqopha kwelanga (sun in zenith) 

emini yantambama (early afternoon) 

ntambama (in the afternoon) 

selimathunzi (at time of mountain shadows) 

Cseli6antu6ahle \ (sun at the base of the trees) 
\selikhalazemithi J 3i 



56 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



fngokushona kwenhlamvu\ 
\jigokushona kwelanga j (at sunset) 

ngokuqundeka kwamehlo (at the time of the blunting of the 

eyes, at dusk) 
ngokuhwelela (evening) 
kusihlwa (late evening) 
eBusuku (at night) 
phakathi kwama6ili (midnight, between the two nights) 



CHAPTER IX 
AGRICULTURAL TERMS 



Agriculture 

Arrest floods 
Agricultural Officer 
Bare hill 
Betterment area 
Clayey-soil 
Clayey-loam 
Cultivated lands 
Crop rotation 

Crop-growing 

Cultivation of soil 

Carrying capacity 

Culling 

Contour 

Contour System 

Despoiled land 

Dry land (i.e., land 

not under irrigation) 
Eroded land 
Expert advice 



UkuseBenzisa umhlaBathi 

ukuthiya izikhukhula 

inyanga yokulima 

inkalo eqothukile 

isigodi esihlengiwe OR esizohlengwa 

isidaka 

isidakangxuBe 

izindawo ezilinyiweyo amasimu 

ukulandelisana izinhloBo zokudla OR 

ukuphambanisa izilimo ensimini 
ukulima ukudla 
ukulima 

amandla amadlelo okondla imfuyo 
ukuhhmga 
imiBundu 
isu lemiBundu 
amasimu asonakele 

amasimu angekho enkaseni 
umhlaBathi osugugudekile 
iseluleko sezingcweti 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



57 



Fertility of soil 
Fertiliser 
Furrows 
Floods 
Forest 
Garden 
Gravel 
Germination 
Grazing lands 
Grass-clad hill 
Grazing Camp 
paddock 

Grass preservation 
Humus 

Ill-treating of the land 
Irrigated land 

Irrigation 

Kraal manure 

Loam 

Moist land 

Moisture 

Newly-burnt veldt 
(both when no new 
grass has grown 
and when young 
grass has commen- 
ced to grow) 

Natural forest 

Overstocking 



Reclamation of land 
Rehabilitation of land 



ukuvunda komhlaBathi 

umanyolo 

imisele 

izikhukhula imibidli 

ihlathi 

isivande, isife 

ukhethe, umguBane, uhlalu 

ukufeca kwenhlamvu etshaliwe 

amadlelo 

inkalo yotshani 

inkambu yamadlelo 

ukonga amadlelo 

umBolelaBiBi 

ukuphatha umhlaBathi kaBi 

amasimu asenkaseni OR amasimu 

anenkasa 
inkasa 
umquBa 

umhlaBathingxuBe 

umhlaBathi onomswakama OR ifenya 
umswakama 
ihlungu 



ihlathi lemvelo 

(a) ukukhinyaBeza amadlelo nge- 

mfuyo 

(b) ukusindwa kwamadlelo yimfuyo 

(c) ukugajwa kwamadlelo yimfuyo 
ukuvusa umhlaBathi 
ukuhlengwa komhlaBathi 



58 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



Rotational grazing 

Reduction of stock 

Rivers and spruits 

Soil 

Soil-clay 

Sand 

Sandy loam 

Sand soil 

Sub-soil 

Sowing 

Seed 

Soil Erosion 

Sweet grasses 

Stock limitation 



Stock 

Stock of better value 

Top-soil 

Tramping of 

land by stock 
Virgin soil 
Veldt-burning 

(general) 
Veldt-burning 

(firebreaks) 
Weeding 



Black-jack 
Burr-weed 

Cockle-burr 
Hemp (Dagga) 



ukuphumuza amadlelo 
ukuphungula imfuyo 
imifula nemifudlana 
umhla6athi 
udaka 
isihlaBathi 
isihla6athingxu6e 
inhlaBathi 
ugwadule 
ukutshala 
imbewu 

ukugugudeka komhlaBathi 
utshani oBumnandi, e.g., insinde, 
uBaBe 

(a) ukufuya ngokulinganisela 

(b) ukwaBela amadlelo ngamanana 
afaneleyo 

imfuyo 

imfuyo engcono 
umhlaBathi wokudla 

ukubuduzeka kwezwe yimfuyo 

ingqatho 

ukushisa amadlelo 

ukuBaBela 
ukuhlakula ukhula 

Weeds 

uqadolo 

umanqokodo, ugudhithukela, uma- 

ngqamfana 
igcuma 
insangu 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 50 

Iris indlolothi 

Khaki ugawulaqhele, unukani 

Senecio umphenjane 

Witch-weed isona 

Trees 

Fig umkhiwane 

Gum indlulamithi, ungamuthilini 

Lemon ulamula (the fruit ilamula OR inhluze) 

Mimosa isanqawe, umunga, umtholo 

Oak umegela 

Orange iwolintshi 

Peach umpetshisi (the fruit ipetshisi} 

Wattle umtholo, uwatela 



CHAPTER X 
Glossary of Zulu Forms of Greeting and Salutation 

With the kind permission of the Native Teachers' 
Journal, Vol. XXIII, No. 1 of October, 1943). 

Forms of Greeting 

1 . Zulu \ (Never ma-Zulu) Zulus / 

2. Nina BakwaZulu \ Zulus ! 

3. Nina BakaMjokwana ka- Zulus ! 

NdaBa 

4. Nina BakaPhunga Zulus ! 

noMageBa 

5. Muzi kaZulu \ Zulus ! 

Valedictory Words 

6. Okumhlophe Zulu \ Farewell Zulus / 

7. Amehlo amhlophe Nina Farewell Zulus / 

8. Kungakhoke Muzi ka So it is Zulus / au 



60 

9. 
10. 



11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 

21. 
22. 

23. 
24. 
25. 

26. 



Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

So it is Zulus / 

I wish you good journey 



Angekhoke \ 

Indlela emhlophe Zulu \ 



Designations 



Isizwe 

UMBuso (Not uHulumeni] 
U LusiBalukhulu 
UMkhandlu woMBuso 
IPalamende 
Ilunga lePalamende 
Indlu yezigele zoMBuso 
Isigele soMBuso 
UNdunankulu woMBuso 
Isandla sikaNdunankulu 

woMBuso 
UNdunankulu wezindaBa- 

zaBantu 
UNdaBandaBazaBantu 

(NOT umbali] 
UNdaBazaBantu omkhulu 
UNdaBazaBantu 
INkosi yeNkantolo 
IBandla laBakhulumeli 



27. Umkhulumeli waBantu 

28. Ingonyama 

29. Isiphakanyiswa (NOT 

iNkosi) 

30. UMnumzana (NOT 

iNkosi} 



The State 

Government 

Governor-General 

Cabinet 

Parliament 

Member of Parliament 

Senate 

Senator 

Prime Minister 

Deputy Prime Minister 

Minister of Native Affairs 
Secretary for Native Affairs 

Chief Native Commissioner 

Native Commissioner 

Magistrate 

Native Representative 
Council 

Member of Native Repre- 
sentative Council 

Paramount Chief 

Appointed Chief 

Tribal Chief 



Salutations 

31. To Governor-General (Thrice) Eayede! Eayede! Eayede! 

32. To Prime Minister (Twice) Eayede ! Eayede ! 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interprets* 61 

33. To Cabinet Minister (Once} Eayede ! 

34. To Secretary for 

Native Affairs (Once] Bayede ! 

35. To Chief Native 

Commissioner (Once] Eayede ! 

36. To Magistrate and 

Native Com- 
missioner Nkosi (NOT Eayede /) 

37. To Paramount Chief Eayede ! Eayede ! UyiZulu ! 

OR Wena weNdlovu ! 

,, Wena weNkosi I 

,, NdaBezitha ! 

,, MageSa ! 

Sithuli ! 

Zulu ! 

Silo ! 

Nda6a ! 

Nkonyane ! 

, , Nkonyane yeNkosi ! 

Zulu eliphezulu ! 

38. To Tribal and ap- 

pointed Chiefs Their surnames, e.g., NgcoBo, 
Zondi, etc. (NEVER Eayede ! 
or any of the Paramount 
Chiefs' appellations as is often 
done) 



CHAPTER XI 
Useful List of Words 

A 

ABaBomvana- (aBayeni] red ants (large) 

isAmbane anteater (ant-bear) 



isAngquma (isiChotho] 
isAziso 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Inter fireief 

hail 

announcement ; notification 



isiBakabaka 

iBansi 

uBaqa 

uBejane 

imBeleko 



umBoBe 
isiBono 

iBosho 

uBova 

imBovane (isandundiindu] 

iBuBesi (ingonyama) 

umBukwane 

iBungezi 

isiBuqo 

imBuya 



isiEankwa 

isiEonkolo 

iEululu 

iEuzi (igundane] 



B 

sky ; firmament 

greyhound 

light-house 

rhinoceros 

skin used by Native women to 

carry their babies on their 

backs 
buttermilk 
abnormal protuberance of the 

navel 
a cartridge 
bulldog 
weevil 
lion 

korhan bird 
beetle 
harrow 
pig-weed 

B 

lizard 

ant, black (small) 

puff-adder 

rat 



umCaBa 

isiCaBucaBu 
umChachazo 
uChakide 



ground-up boiled corn used with 



amasi 



hairy caterpillar 

stream 

weasel 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



63 



isiChelegwana 

iChiBi 

iChide 



idci 

idmbi 

udngo lomoya 

isiCoco 

isiCongco 

isiCupho 

iDada 

iDayimani 

iDiye 

isiDleke 

indlu yeNyoni 

iDlelo 

iDoloba 

iDuBe 

isiDuli 

Dunga 



Ela 
Endle 
Enyuka 
Ewuka 



stonechat 

lake ; pond 

one-eyed person ; person who 

has lost the use of one of his 

eyes 
ear-ring 
caterpillar 
wireless 
head-ring 
summit 
snare 

D 

duck 

diamond 

locust much eaten by boys out 

herding cattle 
nest (any bird's or fowl's nest ; 

a hornet's nest ; bee's nest) 
bird's nest 
grazing land 
town 
zebra 
ant-heap 
disturb by stirring up ; upset 

the quiet of people or things ; 

disturb the mud at the bottom 

of a pool or stream and so 

dirty the water 

E 

winnow 
in the veld 

go up ; tend upward ; ascend 
go or move downward, in a 
downward course. Move lower 



64 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



imFe 
isiFe 

umFelwa 

umFelwakazi 

uFezela 

uFudu 

umFula 

isiFunda 

iFusi 



sweet-reed 

small garden plot planted early 

in season 
widower 
widow 
scorpion 
tortoise 
river 
district 
field once cultivated but lying 

idle 



umGankla 

iGatsha 

isiGcawu 



iGeBe 



iGeja 
uGi6e 



iGoBongo (iGoSolondo) 
umGodi 



koodoo 

branch of a tree 

spot where cattle stand about 
outside their kraal to avoid 
mud, or place where men meet 
for discussion of matters or 
the trying of cases 

snare for game which consists 
of a large pit dug in places 
where the game are known to 
go, and covered with light 
branches and grass 

hoe, plough 

snare for game made of rope 
with a noose, the rope being 
tied to the top of a young, 
strong bending tree and the 
loop (noose) laid across the 
path of the game 

empty cartridge case ; shell 

mine ; pit ; hole 



isiGodi 

iGolide 

isiGqizo 

iGquma 

iGqunyana 

uGu 

iGudu 

iGundane 

iGwaBaBa 

uGwadule 

umGwaqo 

umGxala 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 

valley 

gold 

bangle 

hillock 

kopje 

coast 

smoking-horn 

mouse 

crow (white-necked) 

desert 

road 

crowbar 



65 



iHhala 
amaHewu 

umHlaBa 

umHlaBa 

umHlaBathi 

isiHla6athi 

umHlahlo 



iHlaka (umThuBi] 



uBuHlalu 
isiHlambi 

umHlandlothi (uSolo) 
iHlanze 

iHlathi 

iHlathi lemvelo 
isiHlava 



H 

harrow 

drink made of thinned porridge 
fermented 

world ; earth ; land 

aloe, with large thick leaves 

soil 

sand such as is found near rivers 

assembly of men and witch- 
doctors, met for the purpose 
of finding out an evildoer 

beestings, milk of a cow during 
the first two or three days 
after she has calved 

beads 

shower 

flat-crown tree 

thorn country ; bush country ; 
bushveld 

forest 

natural forest 

mealie-grub 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



iHlengethwa 

iHleza 

isiHleza 

iHlokohloko 

umuHlwa 

umHlwenga 

iHobe 

Hosha 



isiHosha 
Hu6a 



porpoise 

mealie-cob without any grain on 

beast with a broken-off horn or 
horns 

yellow finch 

termite (white-ant) 

mane (of horse, lion, etc.) 

turtle-dove 

pull out anything from among 
others, such as grass from a 
thatch, pole from a stack. 
Hosha phansi drag or pull 
along the ground 

narrow valley ; ravine 

move along by the stomach, as a 
snake ; utter a sound like the 
roaring and hissing of the sea, 
like water when it is about to 
boil, as a large number of 
people singing together, as 
the sound of hail falling at a 
distance, or the singing of a 
war song. iHu6o tempi (war 
song) 



ujantshi 

ujojo 

ijoka 

uju 

iJuBa 



iKati 
isiKebe 



railway line 

black, long-tailed kaf fir-finch 

yoke 

honey 

dove 

K 

cat 
boat 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



67 



iKhade 
isiKhala 
uKhalo 
isiKhatha 

umKhathizwe 

umKhaza 

uKhethe 

iKhetho 

iKhizane 

umKhombe 

umKhomo 

umKhongi 



isiKhonkwane 
isiKhonyane (iziNkumbi) 
Khothoza 

isiKhova 

uKhozi 

isiKhukukazi 

umKhumbi 

isiKhundla 



uBuKhuphe 
isiKhuza 



water-melon 

pass 

ridge 

hair-ball, found in the stomach 
of cattle 

horizon 

tick 

zinc 

bridegroom's party 

biggish brown tick 

white rhinoceros 

whale 

bridegroom's man who is a go- 
between the bridegroom and 
future father-in-law ; he ar- 
ranges the marriage, but his 
special duty is to take the 
iloBolo to the father-in-law or 
guardian of the bride and ask 
for the hand of the bride- 
elect 

peg of any kind, or beacon 

locusts 

glean ; gather in the remnants 
of corn or any crop 

owl 

hawk 

hen (domestic) 

ship 

situation ; place ; temporary 
place of wild animal where it 
has been lying and pressed 
down the grass 

fowl- vermin ; fowl-lice 

slave ; menial 



68 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



Khuza isaga 

isiKhwe6u 

uKhwekhwe Iwezinyawo 

uKUBe 

iKlolodo 



iLangaBi 
uLaza 
umLaza 
uSuLongwe 

iLongwe 



give a war-cry ; raise difficulties 
mealie cob and the corn thereon 
scale (on feet) 
eagle 

large mongoose with a white 
bushy tail and grey skin 

L 

flame 

cream 

whey of thick, sour-milk 

dung of large animals, such as 

cow, ox, buffalo, etc. 
piece of dry dung used for fuel 



iLulwane (isihlwithandleSe) bat 



uLwandle 
uLembu 



uMahambanendlwana 

umMango 

uMakhelwane 

iMaphti 

iMbaBala 

umMbankwa (uqhothetshe- 

ni, isiBankwa 
iMbodla 
iMbongolo 
iMbungulu 
iMbuzi 
iMfene 
iMfengwane (some Natives 

call it " impempe " or 

" inDweBa ") 
uMiyane 



sea 
spiderweb 

M 

bagworm 

steep incline ; steep slope 

neighbour 

map 

female bush-buck 

lizard 

wild-cat 

ass 

bug 

goat 

baboon 

police whistle 



mosquito 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



69 



isiMo somhlaba 

uModa 

uMoyawezwe 

iMpala 

iMpartgele 

iMpisi 

iMpofu 

iMpongo 

iMpumalanga 

iMpumputhe 

iMpungushe 

iMpunzi 



iMvu 

iMvu yamanzi 



isiNana 

iNcwadi yamaMaphu 

iNcwadi yocingo 

iNdiBilishi 

iNdima 



iNdlela 

iNdlovu 

iN dlovundwane (iNdlovu- 

dayana) 
iN dlulamithi 
iNdluzule 
iNdwa 
umNenke 
isiNgamoya 
umNgenda 



geography 

sugar-cane 

climate 

gazelle ; impala ; antelope 

guinea-fowl 

hyena 

eland 

billy-goat 

east 

blind person 

fox or jackal 

duiker 

meal of any kind 

sheep 

seal 

N 

plat ana toad 

atlas 

telegram 

copper ; penny 

middle-sized plot of ground for 
cultivation ; a portion of 
work set for anyone to per- 
form 

route ; foot or bridle-path 

elephant 

wart-hog ; long-tusked bush - 
swine 

giraffe 

hartebeest 

blue crane 

snail 

breeze 

tributary 



70 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



iNgide 

umNgoma 

uNgqoqwane (isiThwathwa) 

iNgulule 

iNgungumbane 

iNgwaBaBana 

iNgwe 

iNhlangano 

iNhlangwane 

iNhlanzi 

iNhlwaBusi (inkulungwane) 

iNhlwathi (imvundama) 

iNingizimu 

iNja 

iNjundu 

iNkaBazwe 

iNkalankala 

iNkangala 

iNkasa 
iNkatha 



iNkawu 
umNkenke 

iNkontazi 

iNkonjane 

uNkonka 

iNkonkoni 

iNkonyane 

iNkuku 

iNkulamandla 



padlock 

witch-doctor 

frost 

cheetah 

porcupine 

crow (ordinary) 

leopard 

junction 

night-adder 

fish 

winged termite 

python 

south-west 

dog 

blunt knife 

equator 

crab 

open elevated country, 
where there are no trees 

young hoppers ; young locusts 

coil ; pad made of grass or 
other soft substance, circular 
in shape, used for the purpose 
of placing on the head to 
support what one carries 

monkey 

crack, as is often found in the 
soles of the feet of Natives 

cow 

swallow 

male bush-buck 

wildebeeste 

calf 

fowl (domestic) 

slug 



i.e., 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



iNkume 
iNkundla 



iNkungu 

iNkunzi 

iNkunzi yenGuluBe 

isiNkwa 

isiNkwe 

uNogolantethe 

uNogwaja 

uNohhemu 

uNomtheBe (uqumbu) 

iNqama 

iNqe 

iNqola 

iNsele 

iNsephe 

iNswempe 

iNtaBa 

iNtandane 

iNtenesha 

iNtethe 

iNtinginono 

iNtonldolo 

iNtothoviyane 

iNtshe 

iNtshonalanga 

iNtuthwane 

iNtwala 

uNwaBu 

iNxala 



centipede 

spot where men meet for dis- 
cussion of matters or the 
trying of cases 

mist 

bull 

boar 

bread 

bush-baby 

stork 

hare 

crested crane 

termite queen 

ram (sheep) 

vulture 

wagon 

ratel ; an animal that eats 
honey 

springbok 

partridge 

mountain 

orphan 

hare (red) 

grasshopper 

secretary bird 

kapater ; castrated goat ; 
wether (sheep or goat) 

large, greenish-yellow, nasty- 
smelling locust 

ostrich 

west 

ant (red, small) (generic term) 

louse 

chameleon 

rhebuck 



72 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



iNxemu 

iNxiwa 

iNyakatho 

iNyamazane 

iNyandezulu 

iNyathi 

iNyoka 

iNyosi 

umNyovu 



uPhapke 

iPhela 

uPhenyane 

isiPhepho 

iPigogo 

iPhithi 

iPhiva 

isiPhunzi 

iPhuphu 

imPophoma 



squint-eyed person 

kraal-site 

north-east 

antelope 

pure green 

buffalo 

snake 

bee 

hornet ; wasp 

P 

feather 

cockroach 

head sores of fowl 

storm 

peacock 

blue-buck 

water-buck 

stump of a tree 

young of birds 

waterfall 



imamba " snake 



i Qanda 
i Qaqa 
Qatha 

Qatha 
Qhatha 



i Qhina 
isi Qhingi 
i Qhude 



egg 

polecat 

stout, strong, substantial ; stout 

in make, such as a stout stick 
break up new soil in ploughing 

or hoeing 
set one against another ; to set 

on one person or animal to 

fight another 
steenbuck 
island 
cock 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



i Qhwa elikhitikile 
isi Qinti 
isi Qophamuthi 
isi Qunga 



snow 

plot ; piece of land 

woodpecker 

tambootie-grass 



73 



iSaka6uli 

uSeBe 

iShantshihhovisi 

isiShimeyana 

uShoBishoBi 

iShisandlu 

amaSi 

iSiliva 

iSilo 

inSimu 

iShongololo (isongololo) 

umSundu 

uSungulo 



black long-tailed kaffir-finch, 

widow-bird 
shore 

charge office 
very strong intoxicating drink, 

made of treacle 
tadpole 
north-west 
sour-milk 
silver 
leopard 

garden ; cultivated land 
millipede 
cut-grub 
awl 



iThafa 

umThakathi 

iThanga 

iThanga 

iziThekeliso 

imiThekelo 

iziThelo 

iTheku 

iThendele 

uThekwane 



plain ; flat country ; open 

country 
wizard, witch 
thigh 
pumpkin 
exports 
imports 
fruits 

seaport, bay, harbour 
partridge 
mudlark ; the hammer-kop or 

hammer-head bird 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



umThimba 

uThingo Iwenkosazana 

uThingo Iwenkosikazi 

iThini 

umThini 

umThofu 

imiThombo 

iThusi 

Thutha 

isiThwalambiza 

iThweBa 

iTitihhoye 

iTsheketshe 

iTshwele (itswele) 



bridal party 
rainbow 

tin 

otter 

lead 

malt ; sprouted kaffircorn for 

making beer 
brass 
transport 
mantis 
bay 
plover 
red ant 
young chicken, fledgling 



isi Vande 

u Vemvane 
urn Vemve 
i Vondwe 
ama Vovo 

i Vovo 
i Viikuthu 

im Vukuzane (i Vukusi] 
im VuBu 

isiWa 

amaWele 

iWisa 

iWuBa 

iWula 



small mealie garden planted 
early in season 

butterfly 

wagtail (bird) 

cane-rat 

sediment remains of beer, beer 
strainings 

beer-strainer 

large speckled pigeon or rock- 
pigeon 

mole 

hippopotamus 

W 

precipice 
twins 

knobkerrie 
hill side ; slope 
oribi 



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 



75 



uXamu 

iXhaphozi 

iXhwele 



iXoxo (iDwi) 
isiXulamasele 



iguana, monitor lizard 

swamp 

person who is much given to 
and is a slave to anything, 
such as a great snuffer, 
smoker, etc. 

frog 

stilt heron 



iZa 

isiZa 

isiZalo 

uZankosi 

iZeze (iZenze) 

isiZiBa 

iZiBuko 

umZiki 

utnZila 

iZinyane 

amaZolo 

iZulu 

iZwamoya 

iZwe 

iZwekazi 



yellow rhebuck 

building-site ; kraal-site 

mouth of a river 

handcuff 

flea 

pond ; deep pool of water 

ford, drift, or harbour 

reedbuck (rietbok) 

broad track, such as might be 

made by game or cattle 
young of an animal of the 

smaller class, as the goat 
dew 

weather 
barometer 
country 
continent 



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