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Full text of "The traveller's guide through the middle and northern states, and the provinces of Canada"

THIS 

TRAVELLER'S GUIDE 



THROUGH THE 



MIDDLE AND NORTHERN STATES, 



AND THE 



PROVINCES OF CANADA. 



BY O. M.^DAVISON. 



telGHTH EDITION. 



Saratoga Springs £ 

iPUBLlSHfiD BY G. M. DAVISON ; AND BY S. S. & W. WOOD, 
NEW-YORK. 

1840^ 



Enteff.d according to the act cf Congress, in the year 
1840, by G. M. Davjsox, in the Clerk's Office of the 
District Court of the Northern District of New- York. 



INDEX. 



Page> 

Introduction, 15 

From Augusta, Geo. to Charleston, S. C. 

Augusta — Hamburgh, 19 

From Savannah to Charleston. 

Savannah, 20 

Steamboat route — table of distances, 21 

Land route — table of distances, id 

Charleston, 22 

Sullivan's Island, 23 

From Charleston to New-York. 

Route by water — table of distances, 25 

From Charleston to Weldon, N. C. 

Steamboat and rail road route, 25 

Wilmington, N. C id 

From Weldon, via Norfolk, to Washington City. 

Railroad and steamboat route, 26 

Portsmouth — Norfolk — Jamestown, id 

Mount Vernon, 28 

Alexandria, 29 

From Weldon, via Richmond, to Washington City. 

Petersburgh, 30 

Richmond — Manchester — Fredericksburgh, 3 1^ 

Washington City, 32 

Georgetown — Chesapeake and Ohio canal, 38 



IT !NDEX. 

From Washington to the Virginia Springs. 

Table of distances, 40 

Monticello — Warm Springs, 41 

White Sulphur Springs, 42 

From Washington to Baltimore. 

Rail road, 42 

Baltimore, id 

Baltimore and Ohio rail road 45 

Baltiinore and Susquehannah rail road, 46 

Fro7n Baltimore to Philadelphia. 

Route by way of Frenchtown and New-Castle — 

North Point, 49 

Chesapeake and Delaware canal, 49 

Frenchtown and New-Castlc rail road, id 

New-Castle, 50 

Route by way of Havre de Grace and Wilmington, id 

Havre de Grace, . . . , id 

Elkton — Wilmington, 51 

Philadelphia 52 

Internal Improvements in Pennsylvania, 51) 

From Philadelphia to Pittsburg. 

Rail road and canal route, 62 

Columbia rail road, 63 

Lancaster — Harrisburgh, 64 

Pennsylvania canal, , , , 65 

Lewiston — passage across the Alleghany Mountains 66 

Thence to Pittsburg, 67 

Rail road and stage route to Pittsburg, 68 

Pittsburg, id 

Coal mines, 69 

From Philadelphia to the Schuylkill Coal Mines. 

Germantown, Norristown and Reading rail road,. . , 72 

German town — Norristown — Pottstown — Hamburgh 73 

Mount Carbon, 74 

Rail roads in the vicinity of the mines, « . . • id 



INDEX. V 

Route to the Lehigh Coal Mines. 

Mauch Chunk, 76 

Mauch Chunk rail road, 77 

Lehioth river, id 

The Landing — Lehighton 78 

Lehigh Water Gap, id 

Bethlehem, 79 

Easion, id 

Morris Canal — Delaware Wind Gap — Delaware 

\?ater Gap, 80 

From Easton to Schooh/s Mountain, and thence to 

New-York. 

Table of distances — Schooly's IMountain, 81 

From Philadelphia to New-York. 

Route by the Camden and Amboy rail road, 81 

Burlington — Bristol — Bordcntown, 82 

Camden and Amboy rail road, id 

Route by way of Trenton and Newark, 83 

Philadelphia and Trenton rail road, id 

Bristol — Trenton, 84 

New-Brunswick — Rahway — Elizabethtown — New- 

ark, • 85 

Jersey City — New-York, ^ 86 

Excursions, 96 

Governor's, Bedlow's and Staten Island, 97 

Patcrson — Hoboken — Long Branch, id 

Harlem rail road — Croton Aqueduct — Hurl Gate,. , 98 

Brooklyn, 99 

Brooklyn, Jamaica and Long Island rail road, , 100 

Rockaway, id 

From New.York to Albany, 

Table of distances, 101 

Weehawken — Lunatic Asylum — Palisadoes- — Fort 

Lee 102 

Fort Washington — Philipsburgh — Tappan^Bay- — 

Tarrytown, • 103 

Ad 



VI INDEX. 

Sleepy Hollow — Harverstraw Bay — The Highlands, 104 

Caldwell's Landing — Horse Race, 1 05 

West Point, 10(5 

Pollopel Island— New-Windsor, 108 

Newbiirgli, 1 09 

Miltor— Poughkccpsie, 110 

Hyde Park Laii 'ing — Catskill, Ill 

Delaware and Hudson Canal, id 

Pine Orchard 112 

Atliens — Hudson, 114 

(^)xsackie Landing 115 

Albany, 1] G 

Excursion to Saratoga Springs. 

Route by way of Schenectady, 119 

M )ha\vk and Hudson riil road, id 

Buel's Farm — Schenectady 120 

Saratoga and Schenectady rail road, 121 

Ballston Lake, id 

Pallston Spa,. 122 

Route by way of Troy to Saratoga Springs, 125 

Gen. Van Rensst-Iaer's Mansion,, id 

Macadamized read, id 

U S. Arsenal— West Troy 126 

Troy, 127 

Rensselaer and Saratoga rail road, 129 

Van Schaick's Island — Lansingburgh — Watcrford,. 133 

Cohoes Falls — The Junction 131 

Mechanicsvillc — Saratoga Springs, 132 

From Saratoga Springs to the Battle Ground. 

Saratoga Lake,.. 144 

Bemus' Heig^jits,... 145 

Freeman's Farm, J 46 

Smith House — Schuylerville, 147 

Fort Edward, 148 

From Saratoga Springs to Lake George, 

Sandy Hill— Glen's Falls, 149 

Jessup's Falls— Hadley Falls, 150 



INDEX. VII 

Bloody Pond— Caldwell — Lake George, ISl 

Fort William Henry, ' 53 

Passage of Lake George, • L'iS 

Ticonderoga 1^7 

EXCURSION TO NIAGARA FALLS. 

BY RAIL ROAD AND STAGE. 

From Saratoga Springs to Buffalo. 

Remarks, ^ 59 

Table of distance?, iCl 

Utica and Schenectady rail road, »'* 

Amsterdam, 16J 

Fondu — Johnstown, 164 

Palat inc Bridge— Fort Plain— Liule Falls, 1 65 

Herkimer, 168 

Utica, 16f) 

Trenton 1 alls, 170 

Utica and Syracuse rail road, 174 

Wh;tc?bf)ra' — Oriskany — Rome, id 

Fort Stanwix, 175 

Syracuse — Salina, 176 

Auburn and Syrufuso rail road — Auburn, 178 

Cayuga — S(>ncca Falls, 181 

Waterloo — Geneva — G neva Lake, 1 fe3 

Canandaigua, 184 

E. & W. Bloomfield — Lima — East Avon — Avon 

Spring • ^85 

Caledonia — Leroy, 186 

Batavia — Batavia to Buffalo, 187 

ERIE CANAL. 

Description of, 1°° 

From Saratoga Springs to Buffalo^ by raiLroad and 
canal. 

Table of distances, 190 

Gcddcs — Nine Mile Creek— Canton— Jordan, 191 

Weed's Port— Centre Port— Port Byron, id 

Lake Port— Clyde— Palmyra, 192 



VIII INDEX. 

Fullom's Basin — Fittsford — Rochester, 193 

Toncwanda rail road — Ridge Road, 196 

Carthage, 197 

Brockport — Hollcy — Albion, 1 ^'8 

Medina — G a sport — Lockport, 199 

From Saratoga Springs to Buffalo, by rail road, canal 
and steamboat. 

Table of distances — Fulton — Oswego, 201 

Lake Ontario, 203 

Great Sodus Bay — Charlotte — Fort Niagara, 204 

Fort George — Youngstown — Lewiston — Queenston, 205 

Battle of Queenston, id 

Brock's Monument, 206 

Ridge Road, 207 

Devil's Hole — Whirlpool — Sulphur Spring, 208 

Niagara Falls, 209 

Welland Canal — Burning Spring, 216 

Bridgcwater, or Lundy's Lane, 217 

Chippewa — Chippewa Battle Ground, 218 

Navy Island— Black Rock— Waterloo— Fort Erie,. 220 
Buffalo, , 221 

From Buffalo to Detroit. 

Tabic of distances — Dunkirk — Van Buren — Erie, . 225 

Ashtabula— Cleveland, 226 

Ohio and Eric Canal, 227 

Sandusky — Amherstburgh, 228 

Detroit, : 229 

St. Joseph, 230 

From Detroit to Chicago. 

Table of distances— Toledo, 230 

Adrien — Tecumseh — Niles — Michigan City, 231 

Chicago, 232 

From Chicago to Milwaukee, 233 

Do. to Galena, id 

Do. to the mouth of the Ohio river, .... id 



INDEX. « 

From Buffalo to Montreal, via Lake Ontario, on the 
British side. 

Tabic of distances — Toronto, 234 

Port Hope, 235 

Coburg, 236 

Ki gston, 237 

Bay of Quinte, 238 

Rideau and Ottawa Canal, 239 

Caledonia Springs, _246 

From Buffalo to Montreal, on the American side. 

Table of distances, 248 

Sacket's Harboi — Cape Vincent, 249 

Morristown — Ogdensburgh, id 

Rap ds of the Si. Lawrence, 250 

Lachinc — Montreal, 251 

From Montreal to Quebec. 

Description of the route, 253 

Varennos, 254 

William Henry, 255 

Lake St. Peter—Three Rivers 256 

Richelieu Rapids— Sillcry river— Wolfe's Cove,.... 257 

Point Levi, »<^ 

Quebec, • 258 

Plains of Abraham, 267 

MartcUojTowers, 268 

Falls of Montmorenci 269 

Lorcttc, 271 

Chaudiere Falls 272 

St. Ijawrencc river below Quebec, 274 

Saguenay river, 275 

Mouth of the St. Lawrence, 277 

From Quebec to Montreal, id 

From Montreal to Whitehall. 

Table of distances — Laprarie, 278 

St. Johns — Lake Champlain, 279 

Isle au Noix— Rouse's Point— Plattsburgh, 280 



X INDEX. 

Downie's Monument, 282 

Port Kent— Adgate's Falls, 283 

High Bridge — Burlington, 284 

Split Rock— Crown Point, 285 

Ticondcroga — Mount Independence, id 

South and East Bays— Whitehall, 286 

CHAMPLAIN CANAL. 

Description of, 287 

Canal route from Whitehall to Albany. 
Table of distances, 287 

From Whitehall to Troy and Albany, by stage and 
rail road. 

Table of distances, 288 

Fort Ann — Burgoyne's road, ». 289 

Sandy Hill— Fortville, id 

Saratoga Springs to Troy and Albany, id 

ROUTES TO BOSTON. 

Remarks relating to, 290 

From Albany to Boston, via New-Lebanon. 

Table of distances — New-Lebanon, 290 

Pittsfield, 291 

Noathampton — Farmington and Hampshire Canal, . 292 

Mount Holyoke, , id 

Hadley— Regicides, Whalley and Goffe, 293 

Belchertown — Ware Factory Village — Brookfield, . 295 

Leicester — Worcester, 296 

Boston and Worcester rail road, 297 

Worcester to Boston, 298 

From Albany to Boston, via Springfield, Mass. 

Table of distances — Canaan — West Stockbridge, , , 298 

Springfield, 299 

Springfield to Boston, 301 



INDEX. XI 

From Saratoga Springs to Boston. 

Table of distances — Schuylcrville, 301 

Union Village — Cambridge — Arlington, , . . . id 

Manchester — Chester — Bellows Falls, 302 

Walpole, 303 

Keene — Groton — Concord — Lexington, 304 

Cambridge, 306 

From Whitehall to Boston. 

Fairhaven — Castleton, 307 

Rutland— Chester, 308 

From Burlington to Boston, through Windsor, Vt, 

Table of distances — Montpelier, 309. 

Randolph — Royalton — Woodstock-^Windsor, 310 

Windsor to Boston, 311 

From Burlington to Boston, hy way of the White Moun. 
tains and Concord, N. H. 

Table of distances — Hanover, (see note) 311 

White Mountains, 312 

Conway — Fryeburgh, 319 

From Conway to Concord, 

Centre Harbor — Red Mountain — Squam Lake,.... 320 

Concord, 321 

From Concord to Boston. 

Nashua — Lowell, , 322 

Boston and Lowell rail road, 324 

Boston, 325 

East Boston — Mount Auburn, 332 

Quincy — Dorchester, 333 

Brighton — Watertown — Cambridge — Charlestown, . 334 

Breed's Hill, 335 

Bunker Hill Monument — Chelsea, , 339 

Fort Independence — Nahant, 340 

Forts around Boston erected during the revolution,. ^341 



Xa iNDEl. 

From Boston to Portland. 

Table of distances — Lynn, 349 

Salem — N cvvbiiryport, 350 

Exeter — Portsmouth, t 351 

Portland, * 352 

From Portland to Eastport. 

Table of distances— North Yarmouth, 353 

Freeport — Brunswick^ — Bath-Wiscasset-Waldoboro 354 

Warren — Thomaston — Camden — Belfast — Castinc, 355 

Machias — Eastport-^Robinstown, 356 

From Portland to Quebec. 

Table of distances — Hallowell — Augusta, . < 3o7 

Sidney-^Waterville — Norridgcwork, 358 

Remainder M the route to Quebec, ^ « id 

From Boston to Providence. 

Boston and Providence rail road, 359 

Dedham, (see note,) id 

Providence, . . , 360 

Blackstonc Canal, • 362 

S|onington and Providence rail road, o id 

From Providence to New-York, by steamboat. 

Table of distances, 363 

Pav^rtux^t — Mount Hope — Bristol, id 

Newport, • 364 

Point Judith, 365 

Thence to New- York, 366 

From Providence to New-York^ by rail road and 
steamboat. 

Table of distances — Stonington, . 366 

Thence to Ncw-York, 368 

From Stonington to New-London. 

New> London* 368 



INDEX. XIll 

From New-London to Norwich, by steamboat. 

Thames River — Mohegan, 370 

Trading Cove — Norwich, 371 

Norwich and Worcester rail road, 372 

From Norivich to Hartford. 

Table of distances, 372 

East Hartford— Hartford, 373 

Steamboats and stages from Hartford, 375 

From Hartford to Middletown. 

Wethersficld— Rocky Hill— Middletown, 37T 

Haddam — Saybrook, (see note,) 378 

From Hartford to New-Haven. 

Table of distance?, 378 

Ncw-Havcn— Yalo College, 379 

West Rock — East Rock — Farmington Canal, 381 

Steamboats from New-Haven to New- York, 382 

Stages from New-Haven, . , id 

Route from New-Haven to New-York. 
Table of distances — Sketch of the route, {see note,) 382 

Bridgeport — Rail-road — Fairfield, id 

Norwalk — Westchester co. — Horseneck — Harlsem, . 383 

From, New-Haven to Litchfield. 

Stages — Waterbury — West Rock, 383 

Watertown — Litchfield — Mount Tom, 384 

Great Pond — Mount Prospect, id 

From Litchfield to Albany. 
Stages and intervening places, 384 

From Litchfield to Hartford. 

Harwinton — Burlington, 385 

Farmington—Hartford, id 

a3 



XIV INDEX. 

Route up the Valley of the Connecticut river. 

East Windsor— Enfield— Suffield, 386 

South Hadley Falls, . 387 

Northampton — Hadley — Hatfield, id 

Muddy iJrook, 383 

Decrfield, 383 

Greenfield— Turner's Falls 391 

Vernon — Guilford — Brpttlcborough, 393 

Dummcrston — Putney — Westminster, id 

WalpoK' — Bellows Falls — Charlesfown, id 

Spv.ngfield, Wcathcrsficld — Windsor, 395 

llartland — Hartford — Hanover, id 



INTRODUCTION, 



This work is designed as a pocket manual and guide to 
travellers visiting the ?«Iicldle and Northern States and 
the Canadas. Its limits forbid elaborate descriptions or 
minute geographical details. It is therefore confined to 
subjects of more immediate interest to the tourist ; di- 
recting him in his course, and pointing out, as he passes, 
objects which most deserve his notice and regard. 

The Guide, it will be perceived, commences at Augus. 
ta, in Georgia, tho:gh a rapid glance of the country 
merely is taken until reaching Washington city. It bjing 
the object of tourists from the south, as the vt^arm season 
approaches, to accelerate their journey to the more salu= 
brious climate of the north, a description of the southern 
states would be foreign to the design of this work, and 
probably uninteresting to most of its readers. We there- 
fore briefly notice some of the prominent cities and towns 
at the south, and pass on to those sections embraced with- 
in what has been usually denominated the NoRTHER^f 
Tour. 



ERRATA. 

In p. 20, 13th line from top, instead of " northeasterly^''^ 
read northwesterly ; and in the 15th Hne, for " easterly " 
read westerly. 

In the 21st page, 14th line from top, for " northeast- 
erly" read northwesterly. 



THE TRAVELLER'S GUIDE. 



FROM AUGUSTA, GEO., TO CHARLESTON, S. C. 

136 miles. 
The intermediate distances by rail road are as fol- 
lows : 



Miles. 

Branchville, 10 

Suramersville, 40 

Woodstock, 7 

Charleston, 15 



Miles. 
Augusta to 

Aiken,.... 16 

BlakesvUle, 30 

Midway, 18 

Augusta is an incorporated city, and the capital of 
Richmond county, Geo. It is located on the Savannah 
river, 340 miles by water above Savannah, between which 
places it is navigable for boats of only 100 tons burthen. 
The city contains a court house, jail, and several churches, 
banks and other public buildings, many of which are 
creditable to the taste and munificence of the inhabitants. 
The population is about 8000. 

From Hamburgh, a village of some magnitude on the 
opposite side of the river, the Charleston and Hamburgh 
rail road commences, connecting the two places by a 
steam communication 136 miles long. It was com- 
menced in 1830 and completed in 1833. Instead of be- 
ing graded, it originally consisted mostly of trestle work — 



20 SAVANNAH TO CHARLESTON. 

the rails, in many instances, being from 12 to 15 feet 
above the surface of the ground. But the importance of 
rendering the work more permanent, soon became obvious, 
and the company have since graded the entire line, and 
rendered the foundation solid. 

From the bridge at Hamburgh, the road rises in a dis- 
tance of l6 miles, 360 feet, and from thence to Charles* 
ton it descends 510 feet. It has one inclined plain 3800 
feet long, with an ascent of ISO feet, which is overcome 
by means of stationary engines. The route from Ham- 
burgh to Charleston is performed in about 12 hours. 

From Augusta a rail road is nearly completed to 
Athens, 114 miles distant in a northeasterly direction; 
and a rail road is also finished to Greensborough, 100 
miles distant, in an easterly direction. The latter is a 
part only of a route in progress to the boundary line be- 
tween Georgia and Tennessee, a distance of 285 miles ; 
from whence a road is constructing to Knoxville, Tenn. 
97 miles farther. When completed, it will afford an un- 
interrupted line of 510 miles from Charleston to the in- 
terior. 

FROM SAVANNAH TO CHARLESTON, 

110 miles. 
Savannah, the principal city in the state of Georgia, is 
located on the southwest bank of the Savannah river, 
about 17 miles from the bar at its mouth. The city is 
built on elevated ground, and exhibits a beautiful appear- 
ance from the water; its tall spires and other public 
buildings, with the groves of trees planted along its 
streets, giving it an air of peculiar fascination. The 



SAVANNAH TO CHARLESTON. 



21 



streets are wide and regularly laid out, and the buildings, 
together with the public squares, of which there are ten, 
exhibit much taste and elegance. Of the public build- 
ings, the city contains a court house, jail, hospital, theatre, 
exchange, a public library, 3 banks, and 10 churches. 
The Presbyterian church is an elegant and spacious 
edifice of stone. The Exchange is a large building, 5 
stories high. The academy, partly of brick, and partly 
of stone, is ISO feet front, 60 feet wide, and 3 stories 
high. Savannah is by far the most important commer- 
cial town in Georgia, and is the great mart of the cotton 
planters for an extensive and well settled region of coun- 
try. A rail road between the city and Macon, 210 miles 
in a northeasterly direction, is partly finished, and the 
residue in a state of progress. 

Steamboats ply regularly between Savannah and 
Charleston, distance 111 miles, as follows: 



Miles. 

Bloodv Point, 17 

Hilton Head, 18 

Truncard's Inlet, 4 

St. Helena Sound,.... 21 
South E:isto Inlet,.., 3 

By land, the distance between the two cities is 118 
miles, as follows : 



Miles. 

Stoney Inlet, 27 

Coffin Land, 11 

Fort Moultire, 6 

Charleston, 4 



Miles. 
From Savannah to 
Beck's Ferry, on the 

Savannah river, .... 25 

Fitch's Erhan road,.. 19 

Coosauhatchie, 4 

Pocotaligo, 6 

Saltketcher Church, . , 7 



Milss. 

Thompson's Tavern, , . 9 

Pompon P. Office, .... 1 1 

Jackson Borough, .... 3 

Hick's Tavern, lO 

Green's Tavern, 10 

Ashley River, 8 

Charleston, 6 



22 CHARLESTON. 

On this route, the tourist crosses the Savannah river, 
which is navigable for steamboats to Augusta, 123 miles, 
by land, above Savannah, having its rise 150 miles north- 
west of the former place ; 

The Coosauhatchie river, which rises 47 miles north- 
west of the village of that name, and falls into the Coo- 
saw river, 6 miles southeast ; 

The Cambahee river, which rises 75 miles northwest 
of Saltketcher, and falls mto St. Helena Sound, 18 miles 
southeast from that place ; 

The Edisto river, which rises 90 miles northwest of 
Jacksonboro,' and falls into the Atlantic ocean 20 miles 
southeast ; and 

The Ashley river, which rises about 40 miles northwest 
of Charleston. 

This route is interspersed with rice and cotton planta- 
tions, and several handsome country seats of the opulent 
owners of the soil. In the spring, the whole face of the 
country assumes a richness of verdure highly picturesque 
and romantic ; which, however, becomes dried and with- 
ered during the burning heat of a summer's sun. 

CHARLESTON, 

The metropolis of South Carolina, is alike distinguished 
for the opulence and hospitahty of its inhabitants. On 
entering the city from the bay, an interesting prospect is 
presented. The glittering spires of its public edifices are 
well calculated to give animation to the scene. Some of 
its streets are extremely beautiful, and many of the 
houses are truly elegant- Orange trees, in the early part 
of the season, laden with fruit, and peach trees clothed 



Sullivan's island. 23 

with blossoms, meet the eye of the traveller, and united 
with the climate of the country at that time, render 
Charleston one of the most attractive cities in ihe union. 
The society is refined, intelligent, frank and af?able. 

The city was founded and made the seat of govern- 
ment of the state in 1680. It stands on a dead level with 
the sea, two noble rivers, the Ashley and the Cooper, en- 
closing it on a wide peninsuia, called the Neck. Most 
of the houses contain a piazza, extending from the ground 
to the top, giving to the rooms in each story a shady 
open walk. Except in the commercial parts of the town, 
the houses, which arc mostly painted white, are generally 
surrounded with gardens, trees and shrubbery, giving to 
them a peculiarly romantic and rich appearance. 

The most celebrated edifices of this city, arc 10 or 12 
in number, exclusive of 20 churches ; many of which ex- 
hibit much architectural taste and beauty. The city 
library is one of the best in the union, and contains near- 
ly 14,000 volumes. 

Though this city has been occasionally visited with yel- 
low fever, it is considered more healthy for acclimated in- 
habitants than the surrounding country. The planters 
from the low country, and many opulent strangers from the 
West Indies, come here to spend the sickly months, and 
to enjoy the elegant and enhghtened society with which 
the city abounds. 

The rail road from this place to Hamburgh, &.c. has 
already been noticed at p. 19. 

Sullivan's Island, which lays at the distance of 7 
miles from the city, at the entrance of the harbor, is a 
b2 



24 SULLIVAN'S ISLAND. 

spot consecrated as the theatre of important events dur- 
ing the revolution. On this island is Fort Moultrie, 
rendered glorious by the unyielding desperation with 
which it sustained the attack of the British fleet in the 
war of independence. The fleet consisted of about fifty 
sail ; and on the first annunciation of its approach, lay 
within six leagues of the island. 

About this period, a proclamation reached the shore, 
under the sanction of a flag, in which the British com- 
mander, Sir Henry Clinton, held out the promise of par- 
don to all who would resign their arras, and co-operate in 
the re-establishment of loyalty. But the proposition met 
with the rejection which it deserved. The militia of the 
adjacent country crowded the streets of Charleston ; the 
citizens threw down their implements of industry, and 
grasped their arms in defence of their native city. On 
the 28th June, 1776, Fort Moultrie was attacked by about 
ten ships, frigates and sloops, and was defended in a man- 
ner that would have honored the heroic veterans of Greece 
or Rome. So manfully did the garrison withstand the 
conflict, that the fleet was compelled to withdraw, leav- 
ing the inhabitants in the unmolested enjoyment of their 
rights. 

From Charleston to New-Orleans, a very common 
route is by rail road to Greensboro', (already noticed) and 
from thence by stage, twice a day, via Indian Sprmgs, 
(Geo.) Columbus, Montgomery, (Alab.) and Mobile; and 
another by steamboat to Brunswick, (Geo.) 160 miles, by 
stage to Tallahassee, (Florida) 210 miles, by rail road to 
St. Marks, 21 miles, by steamboat to Lake Wimico, (in- 
ner })assage) 85 miles, by steamboat from St. Josephs to 



CHARLESTON TO WELDON. 25 

Mobile, 215 miles, and from thence to New-Orleans, 114 
miles. 

The communication between Charleston and New- 
York, until recently, was mostly by steamboat ; but since 
the construction of the North Carolina and Vhginia rail 
roads, the inland route is generally preferred. 

The distance by water, is 670 miles, as follows : 



Miles. 

OfF Cape Fear, 120 

Cape Look Out,.. 75 
Cape Hatteras,.. . 78 
Capes of Virginia, 140 
Cape May, 120 



Miles. 
Off Barnegat Inlet, . . 70 

The Bar, 45 

Sandy Hook, 3 

The Narrows, 11 

New- York, 8 



FROM CHARLESTON TO WELDON, N. C. 

315 miles. 
The route is by steamboat and rail road, as follows 

By rail road. 



Miles. 
From Wilmington to 
Weldon, 160 



By steamboat. 

Miles. 
From Charleston to 
the mouth of Cape 

Fear River, 120 

Wilmington, ...... 35 

A steamboat leaves Charleston daily, and reaches Wil- 
mington in about 14 hours : from whence a rail road, 
passing through Waynesboro' and Enfield, to Weldon, on 
the Roanoke river, is taken, occupying about 10 hours 
more. Steamboat and rail road fare, ^15. 

Wilmington, N. C, is the capital of New-Hanover 
county. It is situated on the northeast side of Cape Fear 
river, just below a union of its branches, to which place 
the river is navigable for vessels. The town contains 



26 WELDON TO WASHINGTON CITY. 

about 3000 inhabitants, and is the greatest shipping port 
in the state. It was visited by a conflagration in 1819' 
by which 200 buildings, valued at ^1,000,000, were de- 
stroyed ; by another in 1828, in which 50 buildings were 
burned, valued at $130,000; and by another in the month 
of January, ihc present year, (1840) in which 150 build- 
ings were destroyed. 

The rail road to the Roanoke crosses, in its course, a 
rail road leading to Raleigh, the capital of the state, and 
also the Neuse and Tar rivers. 

FROM WELDO^f TO WASHINGTOiV CITY. 

There arc two routes ; one by the way of Norfolk, the 
other by liie v/ay of Richujond. A sketch of each is 
given : 

By the way of Norfolk — 277 miles. 



Miles. 
By rail road. 
From Weldon to Ports - 

moutli, 77 

By steamboat . 
Mouth of Elizabeth 

river 9 

Mouth of James river, G 
Mouth of York river. 
Old Point Comfort, 20 



Miles. 
Nev.- Point Comfort, 10 
Rappahannock river, 15 
Off Outlet St. Mary's 

river, 42 

Off Port Tobacco 38 

Mouth cf Potomac creek, 1 5 

Mount Vernon, 30 

Alexandria, 9 

Washington, 6 



Portsmouth, the terminating point of the rail road 
from the Roanoke river, is pleasantly located on the south- 
west side of Ehzabeth river. It contains a court house, 
jail, 4 or 5 churches, and about 3000 inhabitants. The 
river is here crossed to 

Norfolk, which is directly opposite, and 1 mile distant. 
It is the comiaercial capital of Virginia, and is situated 



NORFOLK. 27 

immediately below the two branches of the Elizabeth, 
and 8 miles above Hampton Roads. Its population is 
about 12,000. The town lies low, and is in some places 
marshy, tliough the principal streets are well paved. 
Among the public buildings are a theatre, 3 banks, an 
academy, marine hospital, atheneum, and 6 churches. 
The harbor, which is capacious and safe, is defended by 
several forts. One is on Craney Island, near the mouth 
of Ehzabeth river. There are also fortifications at Hamp- 
ton Roads, the principal of which is Fort Calhoun. 

The Navy Yard at Gosport, on the bank of the Eliza- 
beth river, nearly opposite Norfolk, is deserving the atten- 
tion of strangers. A superb dock has been constructed 
at this place, similar to that at Charlestown, near Boston. 
The length of the bottom, from the inner or foremost 
block, to that which is nearest the gates, is 206 feet, be- 
sides 50 feet of spare room — sufficient to hold a small 
vessel. The width of the dock, at the top, is 86 feet. 
As the tide rises and falls but 3 or 4 feet, the water 
is pumped out, when necessary, by steam engines. 

Boats ply continually between Norfolk and Baltimore, 
a distance of 197 miles ; and also between Norfolk and 
Richmond, the capital of Virginia, 117 miles.* 

* On the latter route, Jamestoicn, 24 miles from Nor- 
folk, is passed, on the James river. It was founded in 
1608, and was the first English settlement in the United 
States. The site is very beautiful, and the settlement 
itself must have been but a few steps from the river. 
On each side there is a delightful and variegated succes- 
sion of woodlands, meadows, pastures, and green fields ; 
in front appears the broad expanse of James river, with 
its multitude of white, gliding sails. The opposite hills 



28 MOUNT VEHNON. 

From Norfolk to Washington City, the route is down 
the Elizabeth river till it enters the Chesapeake Bay — 
thence up the bay to the mouth of the Potomac, which is 
entered, the boat proce ding up the river, and passing 
Mount Vernon and Alexandria. 

Mount Vernon is on the south side of the river, 30 miles 
above the mouth of the Potomac creek. To this sacred 
spot the mind of every American recurs v."ith the most 
enthusiastic devotion. He looks upon it as consecrated 
ground. Hero the immortal Washington, after having 
conducted the American armies forth to victory and in- 
dependence, retired to enjoy the rich reward of his ser- 
vices in the warm hearted gratitude of his countrymen, 
and in the peaceful seclusion f private life. 



are picturesque : some are entirely covered with woods ; 
others, partly cleared, presenting, in the proper season, 
patches of white v,'avy corn. To increase the richness of 
this scenery, here and there are distinguished the old and 
elegant mansions of the Virginia planters, like points of 
beauty in a fine picture. 

No vestige of Jamestown is now to be seen, except 
the ruins of a church steeple, about 30 feet high, and 
fringed to its summit with running ivy. Near by is a 
burying ground with its venerable tombstones, and spot- 
ted with dark green shrubbery and melancholy flowers. 
It looks like a lonely, unfrequented place, and there is 
something deeply interesting in contemplating these ves- 
tiges of an age gone by. 

The celebrated Pocahontas (daughter of the Indian 
chief Powhatan) was the tutelary guardian of this settle- 
ment ; and some of her descendants are now living in 
Virginia. The late John Randolph used to claim to be 
of the niunber. 



ALEXANDRIA. 29 

This place, till within a few years, was the residence 
of Judge Washington, the nephew of the General; but 
after his decease in 1829, the estate descended to a ne- 
phew of the Judge, John Adams Washington, who died 
in 1832 ; sinco which the estate has remained in the pos- 
session of the widow and children of the latter. The 
road to it is almost uninhabited, and difficult to trace. 
The house stands on an eminence, embracing a delightful 
view of the Potomac, with a rich and beautiful lawn ex- 
tending in front to the river. 

The Tomb of Washington is visited as an interesting 
object of contemplation. The Old Tomb, so called, in 
which the remains were originally interred, is fast going 
to decay ; but the new tomb, more remote from the riv- 
er, the construction of which was commenced by the 
General previous to his decease, and into which his re- 
mains were removed in 1830, and subsequently placed 
within a marble sarcophagus, is of solid and enduring ma- 
terials. Here slumber in peaceful silence the ashes of 
the great and patriotic Father of Liberty. No monument 
has yet been erected to his memory; and the only in- 
scription on the tomb is the following : " I am the resur- 
rection and the life." 

Alexan'TjRta, an incorporated city, 9 miles farther, on 
the west bank of the river, is a place of extensive business 
and of fashionable resort during the sittings of congress. 
It contains a court house, 6 churches and a theological 
seminary. 

The Museum at this place, among other things, con- 
tains an elegant satin robe, scarlet on one side and white 



30 RICHMOND ROUTE. 

on the other, in which Gen. Washington was baptized ; 
a penknife, with a pearl handle, given to him by his moth- 
er when he was in his twelfth year, and which he kept 
fifty-six years ; a pearl button, from the coat he wore at 
his first inauguration as President of the United States in 
the old City Hall, New- York ; a black glove, worn by 
him while in mourning for his mother ; part of the last 
stick of sealing wax which he used ; the original of the 
last letter written by him, being a polite apology, in be- 
half of himself and Mrs. Washington, for declining an 
invitation to a ball at Alexandria ; it is penned with sin- 
gular neatness, accuracy and precision, and contains this 
expression : " Alas ! our dancing days are over ;" a beau- 
tiful masonic apron, with the belt of scarlet satin and the 
white kid gloves worn by him the last time he shared in 
the social ceremonies of the " mystic tie." 

The country between this city and the capitol is but 
thinly inhabited, and the soil poor and unproductive ; 
but the road is good, and a ride to Alexandria constitutes 
one of the amusements of a winter at Washington. 

FROM WELDON, N. C- TO WASHI3VGTON CITY, 

By way of Richmond, Va. — 194 miles. 
The route is by rail road and steamboat as follows : 



Miles. 
By rail road. 
From Weldon to Peters- 
burgh, 60 

Richmond, , . 22 

Fredericksbm'gh, 64 

Belleplain, 11 



Miles. 
By steamboat. 
From Belleplain on Po- 
tomac creek to Mount 

Vernon, 32 

Alexandria, 9 

Washington City, 6 

Petersburgii, Va. is located on the south bank of the 
Appomatox, just below the Falls, 12 miles above its junc- 



RICHMOND. 3l 

tion with the James river. It is one of the most hand- 
some and flourishing towns in the state, and enjoys im- 
portant commercial and manufacturing- advantages. Its 
population is from 10 to 12,000. 

Richmond, the capital of Virginia, (22 miles farther,) 
is situated on the north bank of James river, directly at 
its lower falls, at the head of tide water, and 150 miles 
from its mouth. The town rises in an acclivity from the 
water, and presents a beautiful and highly picturesque 
appearance. A part of the town, on what is called Shoc- 
koe hill, overlooks the lower part ; and from the capitol, 
which is on the greatest eminence, a most delightful pros- 
pect is had of the river and adjacent country. Besides 
the capitol, which is a handsome edifice, the city con. 
tains an elegant court house, a penitentiary, (which cost 
^135,000,) an alms house, 2 markets, an academy of 
fine arts, a female orphan asylum, 2 banks, and 12 church- 
es ; one of which, built on the ruins of the theatre, in the 
conflagration of which 90 citizens perished, is very beau- 
tiful. The population of the city is about 18,000. 

Manchester, directly opposite, is connected with Rich- 
mond hy two substantial bridges, and is a flourishing 
place. 

Fredericksburgh (64 miles from Richmond) is situa- 
ated on the south side of the Rappahannock river, 110 
miles from its outlet into the Chesapeake Bay. It con- 
tains a court house, jail, academy, 2 banks, 5 churches, 
and about 600 dwelling houses ; and being near the head 
of navigation, and surrounded by a fertile country, it en- 
joys an extensive and advantageous trade. 



32 WASKINGTON CITY. 

Mount Vernon and Alexandria, on this Toutc, have 
already been noticed at pp. 28, 20. 

WASHINGTON CITY 

Is 6 miles from Alexandria. As the seat of govern- 
ment of the Union, it is a place of much resort during 
the session of congress in the winter ; but is mostl}' de- 
serted by strangers in the summer. It is situated on the 
Maryland side of the Potomac, and on the point of land 
formed by the junction of the Eastern Branch. The Dis- 
trict of Columbia in which the city is located, was ceded 
to the United States by Maryland and Virginia in 1790, 
and in 1800 it became the seat of the general govern- 
ment. This District is about 10 miles square, lying on 
both sides of the Potomac, and is under the immediate 
direction of congress. 

The Capitol stands on a high and lofty eminence, 
and commands a delightful prospect of the Pennsylvania 
Avenue, the President's House, Georgetown and the Po- 
tomac, the Public Offices, the Navy Yard, Greenleaf 'o 
Point, the bridge over the river, and the road to Alexan- 
dria and Mount Vernon. The capitol is built of white 
free stone, has two wings, and is a very magnificent edi- 
fice. 

The exterior exhibits a rusticated basement, of the 
height of the first story ; the two other stories are com- 
prised in a Corinthian elevation of pilasters and columns — 
the columns 30 feet in height, form a noble advancing 
portico on the east, 150 feet in extent — the centre of 
which is crowned with a pediment of 80 feet span : a re- 



WASHINOTON CITY. 



3d 



ceding loggia of 100 feet extent, distinguishes the centre 
of the west front. 

The building is surrounded by a balustrade of stone, 
and covered with a lofty dome in the centre, and a flat 
dome on each wing. 

The Chamber of the House of Representatives is in the 
second story of the south wing, and is semicircular, in the* 
form of the ancient Grecian theatre ; the chord of the 
longest dimension is 98 feet, and the height to the high- 
est point of the domical ceiling is 60 feet. This room \s 
surrounded by 24 columns of variegated native marble, 
or breccia, froni the banks of the Potomac, with capitals 
of v^hite Italian marble, carved after a specimen of the 
Corinthian order, still remaining among the ruins of 
Athens, which stand on a base of free stone, and support 
a magnificent dome painted in a very rich and splendid 
style to represent that of the Pantheon of Rome, and ex- 
ecuted by an interesting young Italian artist, named Bo. 
nani, who died a few years ago. In the centre of this 
dome is erected, to admit the light from above, a hand- 
some cupola, from which is suspended a massy bronze 
gilt chandelier of immense weight, which reaches within 
10 feet of the floor of the chamber. The speaker's chair 
is elevated and canopied, and on a level with the loggia 
or promenade for the members, consisting of columns end 
pilasters of marble and stone. Above this, and under a 
sweeping arch near the dome, is placed the model of a 
colossal figure of Liberty, and on the entablature beneath 
is sculptured an American Eagle. In front of the chair, 
and immediately over the entrance, stands a beautiful 
statue in marble, representing History recording the 



34 WASHINGTON CITY. 

events of the nation. Between the columns is suspended 
fringed drapery of crimsoned moreens, festooned near the 
gallery, to limit the sound and assist the hearing. A mag- 
nificient portrait of La Fayette, at full length, painted by 
a French artist, decorates a panel on one side the loggia. 

The Senate Chamber in the north wing, is of the same 
semicircular form, 75 feet in its greatest length, and 45 
feet high ; a screen of Ionic columns, v/ith capitals after 
those of the temple of Minerva Polias, support a gallery 
to the east, and form a loggia below, and a new gallery 
of iron pillars and railings of light and elegant structure 
projects from the circular walls : the dome ceiling is en- 
riched with square caissons of stucco. 

The walls are covered with straw colored drapery, be- 
tween small pilasters of marble in the wall. Columns of 
breccia, or Potomac marble, support the eastern gallery. 

The Rotunda comprehends the spacious area between 
the two wings of the structure, and is of a circular form. 
It is entirely of marble, (and so indeed is every perma- 
nent part of the capitol,) except the light doors covered 
with green baize that lead out of it, and the frame of the 
sky light above. The height of the dome soars beyond 
the roof, and it may well be imagined, is most imposing 
and sublime. The floor is beautifully paved, and the 
sound of a single voice, uttering words in an ordinary 
tone, reverberates aloft like the faint rmnbling of distant 
thunder. 

In the niches designedly left about fifteen feet from the 
floor, are four sculptured pieces as large as life, designed 
to commemorate the aboriginal character, and some of 
the prominent events in the early history of the country. 



WASHINGTON CITY. 35 

The scene of the first device is laid in 1773, and is de- 
signed to represent a fearful contest between Daniel Boon, 
ail early settler in one of the western states, and an In- 
dian chief. The second represents the landing of the 
pilgrims at Plymouth in 1620. The third is a represen- 
tation of William Penn and two Indian chiefs in a treaty 
in 1682, under the memorable elm on the right bank of 
the Delaware, near Philadelphia. And the fourth repre= 
sents the narrow escape in 1 606, of Capt. John Smith, 
the first successful adventurer in Virginia, from the up- 
lifted war-club of King Powhatan. The figure of Poca- 
hontas, in the attitude of supplicating the mercy of her 
father in behalf of the intended victim, is beautifully 
wrought, and the whole exhibits much elegance of design 
and workmanship. In the remaining niches^ which are 
designed to be filled with paintings, are already placed 
the following, executed by the late Col. Trumbull, one of 
the aids of Gen. Washington : The Declaration of Inde- 
pendence ; Surrender of Gen. Burgoyne ; Surrender of 
Cornwallis at Yorktown ; and the Resignation of General 
Washington at Annapolis, December 23, 1783. The fig- 
ures in these paintings are full length, and are said to be 
excellent likenesses. The designs and execution are ad- 
mirable, and exhibit the great and almost unrivalled tal- 
ent of the artist. 

The Library. — Passing from the Rotunda, westerly, 
along the gallery of the principal stairs, the library room 
door presents itself. This room is 92 feet long, 34 wide, 
and 36 high. It is divided into twelve arched alcoves, 
©rnamented with fluted pilasters, copied from the pillars 

in the celebrated octa^^on tower al Athens, 
c- 



36 WASHINGTON CITY. 

This extensive collection of books embraces at present 
about sixteen thousand volumes, in various languages. 
The library is well chosen. The classical department, 
in particular, comprises many larc books. Mr. J'-fFer- 
son's arrangement of them is still preserved, founded, 
it is presumed, on Bacon's classification of science ; and 
they are divided into chrtpters, according to the subjects 
to which they relate. 

Besides the principal rooms above mentioned, two others 
deserve notice, from the peculiarity of their architecture — 
the round apartment under the Rotunda, enclosing forty 
columns supporting ground arches, whicli form the floor 
of the Rotunda. This room is similar to the substructions 
of the European cathedrr.ls, and may take Ihe name of 
Crypt from tb'^m. The other room is used by the Su- 
preme Court of the United States, and is of the same 
style of architecture, wiih a bold and curious arched ceil- 
ing — the columns of these rooms are of mapssy Dorick, 
imitated from the temples of Paestum. T venty-five other 
rooms, of various sizes, are appropriated ti; the officers of 
the two houses of congress and of the Supreme Court, and 
45 to the useof committtt-i:, ; i'?}' are all vaulted and floor- 
ed with brick and stone. The three principal stair cases 
are spacious and varied in th.!i- form ; these, with the 
vestibules and numerous corridors or ^.c-'i^^.^es, it would 
be difficult to describe intelligibly. We will only say, 
that they are in conformity to the dignity of the building 
and style of the parts already named. 

The East Front presents th'-ee marble figures, repre- 
senting the Genius of America, Hope and Justice. ^ They 



WASHINGTON CITY. 37 

are executed with much taste and judgment, and present 
an imposing appearance. 

From ing the capitol, towards the Pennsylvania Avenue, 
and within an oblong marble vase, is a naval monument, 
originally erected at the navy yard, in memory of the 
American officers who fell in the Tripolitan war. It is 
a simple column, wrought in Italy at the expense of the 
survivors. 

The President's House, which is also constructed of 
white free stone, two stories high, with thj spacious build- 
ings near it for the accommodation of the heads of de- 
partments, make together an interesting spectacle for the 
visitant. 

Among other places of interest at and near Washing- 
ton, and which deserve the attention of visitants are the 
Navy Yard ; the Columbian College, situate on a high 
range of ground north of the city and about a mile from 
the President's House, and the National Burying Ground 
ahout a mile southeast of the capitol. 

The ground on which Washington is built is airy and 
salubrious ; and the city, from the extent of its territory, 
presents the appearance of several distinct villages. It 
contains a population of about 20,000. 

Its principal public houses are the National Hotel, the 
Indian Queen Hotel, and the Mansion Hotel. They are 
all located on the Pennsylvania Avenue. 

There is a bridge across the Potomac, opposite Wash- 
mgton, which was completed in 1835. It is one mile in 
length, including the abutments. It has draws for the 
passage of vessels, 60 feet m width ; bo that its construe- 



38 CHESAPEAKE AND OHIO CANAL. 

tion does not materially interfere with the navigation of 
the river. Its cost was about $130,000. 

Georgetown is on the same side of the Potomac with 
Washington, at the distance of 3 miles west of the capi- 
tol. It is very pleasantly situated, and is a plac^ of con- 
siderable traile. The country around i* is richly diversi- 
fied, and the location of the Catholic Monastery is very 
delightful. It stands on the borders of " the heights," 
in the northwest part of the town, and overlooks the 
body of the town below. The enclosure embraces about 
one acre. 

The Academy, or High School for Ladies, is the most 
interesting appendage of the convent. It contains a 
boarding school of upwards of one hundred pupils, and a 
free or charity school of a much larger number of day 
scholars. 

The seminary is divided into four classes. The hall of 
the first class contains an extensive cabinet of minerals, 
to which many rare and valuable specimens have been 
presented by the officers of our navy, and by catholics of 
the eastern world. It also claims to have many sacred 
relics, such as shreds or scraps from the garments of nu- 
merous saints — fragments from the chiirch and tomb of 
St. Peter, and of other saints — pieces of the wood of the 
cross, &c. &c. 

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal was commenced in 
1828, but has not been prosecuted with the vigor at 
first contemplated. It was originally designed to extend 
from Georgetown, D. C, to near Pittsburgh, Penn., where 
it was to unite with the Pennsylvania canal and the Ohio 



CHESAPEAKE AND OHIO CANAL. 3® 

river, 360 miles in extent. It has, however, been com- 
pleted only to Cumberland, 185 miles. The rugged 
country through which it passes — the solid and beautiful 
masonry of the locks and aqueducts — all conspire to im- 
press upon the traveller a liigh sense of the skill of the 
engineers and of the enterprize of the company, which 
has persevered in the work under so mauy appalling diffi- 
culties. Tho aqueducts over the Seneca and Monocacy 
creeks are perhaps not exceeded by any thing in this 
country, for beauty and lightness of design and solidity of 
construction. The wildness of the scenery around sets 
off to greater advantage these triumphs of art over nature. 
It is, however, from the Point of Rocks to Harper's 
Ferry, 12 miles, that the greatest difficulties have been 
encountered. For this distance the Baltimore and Ohio 
rail road runs parallel to, and in contact with the canal — - 
the bank of the latter forming the bed of the former. 
Both works are carried for miles under the precipitous 
crags, many hundred feet high, and whose very founda- 
tions have been cut away to form a shell for the road, 
while the canal is made to encroach on the bed of the 
river. The scenery itself is grand and imposing, and 
when viewed in connection with the monuments of hu- 
man genius and perseverance which are seen at the base 
of the cliffs, it assumes the character of sublimity. 



40 



KOUTB TO VIRGINIA SPRINGS. 



'FROM WASHINGTOIV TO THE VIRGINIA 
SPRINGS. 

The route is by post coaches, which leave daily, and 
the distances as follow : 



Miles. 
To Alexandria, . . 9 

Fairfax C. House, 15 24 

Centreville, 8 32 

Bull Run, 3 35 

Buckland Mills,., 11 46 

New Baltimore,.* 4 50 

Warrenton, 6 56 

Lee's Sulphur Sp. 6 62 

Jefferson, 3 65 

Fairfax, 12 77 

Cedar Mt 6 83 

Rapidan, 6 89 

Orange C.H 7 96 

Gordon's Ville,... 8 104 



Miles. 

Monticcllo, 16 120 

Charlottsville,.... 3 123 

York, 19 142 

Wavnesboro', 6 148 

Staunton, 12 160 

Jennings N.Mt.. 17 177 

Cloverdale, 12 189 

Green Valley,.... 11 200 

Warm Springs,.. J3 2l3 

Hot Springs,. .. . 5 218 

Jackeon River,.,. 9 227 

White Sul. Spgs. 29 256 

Sweet do do.. 28 234 

Salt do. do., 1 285 



By diverging 5 miles from this route at Orange Court 
House, the traveller can visit the former residence 
•of Mr. ->] adison at Montpelier ; and by diverging still 
farther, he can visit the Natural Bridge, on his way to 
the Warm Springs. This bridge is over Cedar creek, in 
Rockbridge county, 12 miles south west of Lexington, 
and is justly considered one of the greatest natural curi- 
osities in the world. The river at this place runs through 
a chasm in a hill. The chasm is 90 feet wide at the top, 
200 feet deep, and the sides almost perpendicular. The 
bridge is formed by a huge rock thro\\Ti completely 
across the chasm at the top. The rock forming the 
bridge is 60 feet broad in the middle, and is covered with 



MONTICELEO. 4i 

earth and' trees. It forms a sublime spectacle when ex- 
amined from the margin of the river beneath. 

MoNTiCELLO, on the regular route to the Springs, is 
distinguished as tlie former residence of Mr. Jefferson. 
The mansion is on elevated ground, and is reached by a 
circuitous road of about 2 miles in extent from Charlottes, 
ville, the seat of the University founded by Mr. J. From 
the peak on which the house stands, a grand and nearly 
illuminated view opens, of the thickly wooded hills and 
fertile vallies, which stretch out on either side. The 
University, with its dome, porticoes and colonnades, looks 
like a fairy city in the plain ; Charlottesville seems to be 
directly beneath. No spot can be imagined as combin- 
ing greater advantages of grandeur, healthfulness and se. 
elusion. The house is noble in its appearance ; two large 
columns support a portico, which extends from the wings. 
The apartments are neatly furnished and embellished with 
statues, busts, portraits and natural curiosities. At a short 
distance behind the mansion, in a quiet, shaded spot, the 
visitor sees a square enclosure, surrounded by a low un- 
mortared stone wall, which he enters by a gate. This is 
the family burial ground, containing lO or 15 graves, none 
of them marked by epitaphs, and only a few distinguished 
by any memorial. On one side of this simple cemetery, 
is the resting place of the Patriot and Philosopher. 

The Warm Springs which afford a very copious sup- 
ply of water, are used for bathing, and are at a tempera- 
ture of 97°. The Hot Springs, which are 5 miles dis- 
tant, furnish only a small stream ; but their temperature 



42 BALTIMORS. 

is much greater, being 112°. They all flow into the 
Jackson, a source of the James river. 

The White Sulphur Springs, 29 miles farther, owing 
to their medicinal qualities and the salubrious air which 
is enjoyed wilhin their locality, have become much cele- 
brated, and are annually visited by many for pleasure as 
well as for health during the summer months. 

FROM WASHINGTON TO BALTIMORE, 

40 miles. 
The route is by the Washington rail road, which com- 
mences at the north-east part of the city, and in its course 
to Baltimore, approaches within sight of Bladensburgh, 4 
miles from Washington ; crosses the Patuxent river 13 
miles farther ; crosses the Patapsco river, on a noble and 
lofty viaduct, 15 miles farther, and unites with the Balti- 
more and Ohio rail road at Elkridge Landing, which lat- 
ter road is taken for a distance of 8 miles to Baltimore. 
The road is made in a very permanent and enduring 
manner ; and though over a rough and undulatinnf coun- 
try, its acclivities do not average more than 20 feet per 
mile. Its cost was about ^1,500,000. 

BALTIMORE 

Is on the north side, and at the head of tide water on 
the Patapsco river, 14 miles above its entrance into the 
Chesapeake Bay. It has a population of about 100,000, 
and may be considered the third city in the union ; whilst 
for its various manufactories and public buildings, orna- 
mental to the city and remarkable for their costliness, taste 
and coraraodiousness, it stands undoubtedly in the first 



BALTIMORK. 43 

rank for enterprise and public spirit. Within 20 miles 
around, the water power is almost incalculable. It drives 
at present more than 70 flour mills and several manufac- 
lories of cotton, cloth, powder, paper, iron, glass, steam 
engines, extensive chemical works, &c. Many of these 
may conveniently be visited by sojourners in the city, on 
foot or by short rides in the immediate vicinity. 

The city embraces within its limits, a court house, jail, 
penitentiary, lunatic asylum, 2 theatres, an exchange, 
an observatory, 2 museums, 5 market houses, 10 banks, 
gas works, (the first in this country for lighting streets 
and houses,) a public library, a medical college, and 47 
houses of public worship. 

Most of these establishments are worthy of the atten- 
tion of tourists, but more especially the cathedral, the ex- 
change, the public fountains, of which there are four 
tastefully ornamented and giving a copious supply of pure 
spring water ; the museums, the monuments, and the rail 
roads. 

The Cathedral is built after the Grecian Ionic order. 
Its outward length is 190 feet, its width 177, and its 
height to the summit of the cross that surmounts the 
dome is 127 feet. It contains the largest organ in the 
United States, and two very splendid paintings — one the 
descent from the cross, by Paulin Guerin, a present from 
Louis XVI. — another, presented by Louis XVIL, repre- 
senting St. Louis, attended by his chaplain and armor- 
bearer, burying one of his officers slain before Tunis, a-^ an 
encouragement to his officers and soldiers, who, for fear 

D 



44 BALTIMORE. 

of contagion, would have left their comrades to be de- 
voured by beasts and birds of prey.* 

The Merchants' Exchange, built by private subscrip- 
ticn, is another monument to the public spirit of the citi- 
zens. This edifice, from Water to Second, fronting on 
Gay.street, is 255 by a depth on the two first of 141 feet, 
and is three stories high exclusive of the basement. In 
the centre is tho great hall, 86 feet by 53, lighted from 
the dome, which is 90 feet from the floor. In this hall, 
to which they have access by three entrances from the 
streets, the merchants convene daily from 1 to 2 o'clock. 

The Battle Monument, an elegant marble structure 
about 55 feet high, was commenced on the site of the 
old court house in Washington Square, in 1815, in mem- 
ory of those who, on the 12th and 13th of September in 
the preceding year, had fallen gallantly in defence of the 
city. 

The Washington Monument, built of white marble, 
ornamental to the city and honorable to its inhabitants, 
stands on an elevation a little north of the compact part 
of the city. The base is 50 feet square and 23 high, on 
which is placed another square of about half the extent 
and elevation. On this is a column 20 feet in diameter 
at the base, and 14 at the top. The colossal statue of 



* It was in this Cathedral that the funeral honors were 
paid to Charles Carroll, of CarroUton, the last surviving 
signer of the Declaration of Independence. He died in 
the city on the 13th Nov. 1832, and his remains were 
conveyed for interment to the vault on the premises of 
the family mansion, about 16 miles distant. 



BALTIMORE* 4S 

Washington, the largest one in modern ftges, is placed on 
the summit, 163 feet from the ground. 

The Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road commences a 
short distance from the Washington turnpike road on 
West Pratt street, where the company have estabhshed 
a depot. Under the authority given by the City Council, 
a line of railway has also been laid from the termination 
of the main stem of the road, at the Depot, down Pratt 
street to the Basin, whence it is constructed to the City 
Block, and runs parallel with the entire water front of 
the city, communicating with the wharves, and intersect- 
ing all the principal streets which extend northwestcily 
and southerly, as far down as the public property south 
of Jones' Falls, at which place there have been conveyed 
to the company, by the Corporation of Baltimore, two 
squares of ground, favorably situated for the convenient 
and economical transaction of an extensive commerce. 
An uninterrupted communication is thus opened along 
the whole extent of the road, between the Port of Balti- 
more and the Potomac river at Harper's Ferry, a distance 
of 67 miles ; which is extended, by means of the Win- 
Chester and Potomac rail road, 30 miles farther in a 
southwesterly direction to Winchester, Virginia. There 
is also a lateral road, 2 or 3 miles long, from Harper's 
Ferry to the city of Frederick. 

A double track has been laid most of the way to Fred- 
erick, and the travelling and transportation have thus far 
fully equalled the anticipations of the stockholders. 

A ride as far at least as EUicott's Mills, 13 miles from 
Baltimore, is considered almost a matter of course by 
strangers visiting the city. The scenery on the route, 



46 BALTIMORE. 

being mostly in the vicinity of the Patapsco river, is pic 
turcsque and interesting. Amjng the works connected 
with the road, ihe Carrollton Viaduct, over Gvvynn's 
Falls, about a mile and a half from the city, is one of the 
most magnificent pieces of architecture in America^ 
This bridge, built of granite, contains one arch of about 
80 feet span and 40 feet in height, and is 312 feet in 
length from end to end <jf the parapets. 

The Jackson Bridge, is a single arch 109 feet long. 
The Deep Cat through a high and broad ridge of land, is 
about three fourths of a mile in length, its greatest depth 
70 feet, and its width, at the summit of the ridge. 184 
feet. The Great Einbnnhneni at G idshy^s Run, 5 miles 
from Baltimore, is nearly a mile in length, its greatest 
elevation 56 feet, and its greatest width 191 feet. Gads- 
by^s Run Viaduct affords a passage to the waters of the 
run through the embankment. The arch, composed of 
dressed granite blocks, is of the extraordinary width of 
120 feet from opening to opening. The Patterson Via- 
duct is an immense structure by which the road is 
carried to the opposite bank of the Patapsco. It is built 
of granite blocks, from I to 7 tons in weight, and its entire 
length is 375 feet. It has 4 beautiful arches, the two 
centre ones each a span of 55 feet, with extensive wings 
and water walls, abutments, &c. The height from the 
water to the crown of the arches is 30 feet. Besides 
these are the embankments at Stillhouse Run, two granite 
viaducts, the rock-side cutting at Buzzard's Rock, &c. 

The Baltim jRE and Susciuehannah Rail Road, ex- 
tending from Baltimore to York Haven, on the Susque- 
hannah river, a distance of 60 miles, is also a work of 



BALTIMORE. 47 

much utility to the city, and worthy the attention of 
tourists. 

Public Houses. The City Hotel is one of the most 
splendid edifices of its kind in the union. It is centrally 
and most conveniently situated, presenting a front on 
Cal vert-street of 117 feet, and running back 183. It con- 
tains 172 apartments, and was built expressly for a hotel, 
imdcr the direction of its experienced proprietor, Mr. 
Barnum. In the basement of the building on Calvert- 
street is situated the Post Office, into which the traveller 
may deposit his letters by a conduit from the large Read- 
ing Room above. To all other conveniences combined 
in this establishment which travellers can desire, is added 
an observatory on the top of it, affording to its guests 
views of the Harbor and Fort M'Henry, the town, and 
the country seats that surround it. 

The Indian Queen, the next largest establishment, is 
well and liberally kept by Mr. Beltzhover, its obliging 
and popular tenant. 

The environs of Baltimore are generally much admired 
by visitants. A succession of elevated sites rising one 
above another, encircle it from the Philadelphia road on 
the east to the Washington turnpike on the west. From 
these eminences the stranger obtains, at a single coup 
d'ceil, a view of the town and its numerous approaches 
by land and water. 

Some of these heights are crowned with private resi- 
dences, displaying all the taste and magnificence that 
characterize the seats of European opulence and refine- 
ment. Of these, the most expensively embellished and 
conspicuous is " Green Mount," the elegant summer re- 
d2 



48 BALTIMORE TO PHILADELPIHA, 

treat of a gentleman whose taste and hospitality happily 
correspond with his ample possessions. 

FROM BALTIMORE TO PHILADELPHIA. 

There are two routes — one via Frenchtown and New- 
Castle ; and the other via Havre- de-Grace and Wilming- 
ton. We subjoin a sketch of both. 

By way of Frenchtoiim and NeicCastle — 115 miles. 
The route is by steamboat and rail road, as follows : 



Miles 
By steamboat. 
From Baltimore to Fort 

M'Henry, 3 

Sparrow's Point, 6 

NorthPoint, 4 

Miller's Island, 8 

Pool's Island, 8 

Grove Point, 16 

Turkey Point, 6 

Frenchtown, 13 



Miles. 

By rail road. 
From Frenchtown, Md- 

to New-Castle, Del.. 16 

By steamboat. 

Christiana Creek, Del.. 5 

Marcus Hook, Penn. . . 8 

Chester, 4 

Lazaretto, 5 

Fort Mifflin, 5 

Philadelphia, 8 



The course of the steamboat is down the Patapsco river 
to its entrance into the Chesapeake Bay. This Bay is 
180 miles long, and varies from 10 to 25 miles in breadth, 
dividing the states of Virginia and Maryland into two 
parts, called the eastern and western shores. It has nu- 
merous commodious harbors, and affords a safe navigation. 
Among the waters which flow into it, besides the Potaps- 
co, are the Susquehannah, Potomac, Rappahannock, York 
and James rivers. 

North Point, 13 miles from Baltimore, is the spot 
where the British troops landed in September, 1814, and 
where a battle was fought, simultaneous with a naval at- 
tack on Fort M'Henry. The engagement resulted in 



VIA NEW-CASTLE. 



49 



the defeat of the British, and the death of tlieir comman. 
der, Gen. Ross. 

From this point until reaching Turkey Point, at the 
moutli of Elk river, the Chesapeake presents a broad ex- 
panse and beautiful sheet of water, interspersed with an 
occasional island ; of which Pool's is the largest and the 
most picturesque. On approaching the mouth of Elk 
river, the broad entrance of the Susquehannah is seen at 
the left ; near which is discerned the village of Havre.de- 
Grace, which was burnt during the last war. Eight 
miles from Turkey Point, up the Elk river, the entrance 
of Back creek, connected with the Chesapeake and Del- 
aware Canal, a very expensive and magnificent work, is 
seen at the right. 

At Frcnchtown, passengers leave the steamboat (their 
baggage having been previously placed in baggage wag- 
gons) and take the carriages of the Rail Road, which ex- 
tends to New-Castle, on the Delaware, a distance of 16 
miles, being but 853 3'ards more than v/ould be a perfect- 
ly straight line drawn from one to the other. At two 
points the excavation was attended with great difficul- 
ty and expense, especially at the v/estern termination of 
the road, where the cutting was 37 feet deep, through a 
solid mass of tough red and black clay for a considerable 
distance. 

The total cost of the New Castle and French Town 
rail road, including the land for its location, wharves, 
land for depots at both ends, locomotive engines, passen- 
ger and burthen cars sufficient to put it in complete ope- 
ration, with a single track and the requisite number of 



50 BALTIMORE TO PHILADELPHIA. 

turn outs, has been estimated at about /our hundred thou- 
sand dollars. 

The ancient town of New Castle, at which the road 
terminates, still retains one of its original buildmgs, the 
date of which, in figures of iron on the gable end, shows 
that it was erected in 1667. The town was settled by 
the Swedes, many of whose descendants still continue to 
reside there, and retain the plain frank manners and think- 
ing habits of their ancestors. 

At New Castle, a steamboat is again taken, which pro- 
ceeds up the Delaware 35 miles, passing the city of Wil- 
mington, which is seen at a distance on the left, and the 
villages of Chester, Lazaretto, Fort Mifflin on an island in 
the Delaware, and Gloucester, to Philadelphia. 

From Baltimore to Philadelphia, via Havre de Grace 
and Wilmington — 94 miles. 
The route is by rail road, as follows : 



Miles. 
From Baltimore to 
Havre De Grace,., ... 32 
Port Deposit, 5 



Miles. 
Elkton, 11 

Wilmington, 18 

Philadelphia, 28 



Gunpowder river, emptying into the Chesapeake Bay, 
is crossed on a bridge 1 mile long, 11 miles from Balti- 
more ; and Bush river, 8 miles further, is crossed in a 
similar manner. 

Havre De Grace, (Md.) 32 miles from Baltimore, is 
on the west side of the Susquehannah river, at its conflu- 
ence with the Chesapeake. It contains a bank, and is a 
place of some trade. 

Between Havre De Grace and Port Deposit, located 
at the lowest falls of the Susquehannah, the river is cross- 



VIA WILMIiVaTON. 51 

ed in a steamboat, in which time and opportunity ate 
given to passengers for refreshment. 

Elicto.v, the capital of Cecil county, Md., is located at 
the forks of the Elk river, 1 3 miles above its entrance into 
the Chesapeake Bay The tide flows up to the town, 
affording a navigable intercourse with Baltimore, Nor- 
folk, &-C. 

The City of Wilmington, 18 miles farther, is a port 
of entry, and the largest town in the state of Delaware. 
It is situated between Christiana and Brandywine creeks, 
one mile above their confluence, and two miles west of 
the Delaware river. Its position is high, airy and pleas- 
ant, and its streets are laid out with much regularity and 
taste. The facilities afforded here make it an important 
manufacturing town ; it having some of the finest flour- 
ing mills and cotton factories in the union. It contains 
from 10 to 12,000 inhabitants, a spacious alms house, 3 
banks, a United States arsenal, and 9 churches. An an- 
cient building, called the old Swedish church, erected in 
1698, stands near the Christiana creek in this town ; op- 
posite to which is an ancient church yard, used by the 
first settlers of the place. It contains a few tomb stones, 
the inscriptions of which are nearly defaced by the hand 
of time. 

Within five miles of the city, in a highly romantic 
and rural country, are the Brandywine and Chalybeate 
Springs. It is a place of very considerable resort for 
health and pleasure during the warm season. 



52 PHILADELPHIA. 



PHILADELPHIA, 

The capital of Pennsylvania, is 28 miles from Wil- 
mington. It stands on the west bank of the Delaware riv- 
er, five miles from its confluence with the Schuylkill, which 
forms its western boundary. The city was founded in 
1682, and incorporated in 1701. The charter being ab- 
rogated at the revolution, it remained under a provincial 
government till 1789, when it was incorporated a second 
time. Its population in 1830, including its suburbs, was 
167,811. It is now about 220,000. The city is built on 
streets from 50 to 100 feet in width, running parallel and 
at right angles to each other. They are handsomely 
paved and are kept remarkably clean. The houses ex- 
hibit an appearance of neatness, uniformity and commo- 
diousness, and many of them are ornamented with white 
marble. Opposite the city, the Delaware, which is 90 
miles distant from the sea, is about a mile wide, and is 
navigable for ships of a large size. The most conspicu- 
ous buildings are the churches, the state house, the United 
States and Pennsylvania Banks, the Girard Bank, and 
the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. The Bank of the 
United States was established in the year 1816, with a 
capital of $35,000,000 ; but its charter not having been 
renewed at its expiration in 1836, it was incorporated by 
the state of Pennsylvania in the early part of that year. 
The banking house is a splendid structure, built on the 
plan of the Parthenon at Athens, and is situated on a 
north and south direction, fronting on Chesnut and Li- 
brary streets, having 8 gigantic fluted columns, embrac- 
ing the whole front. From each of the fronts are spa- 



PHILADELPHIA. 



53 



cious porticos. The whole length of the edifice is 161 
feet, and its breadth in front 87 feet. The main entrance 
is from Chesnut street, by a flight of marble steps. 

There are in this city 80 houses for public worship ; 16 
banks, a custom house, an exchange, and a chamber of 
commerce. 

The New Bank of Pennsylvania, in Chesnut street, 
is an extensive and elegant edifice of marble, of the Ionic 
order, and constructed after the model of the ancient 
temple of the muses, on the Ilyssus. 

The Pennsylvania Hospital, in Pine street, is one of 
the oldest and most respectable institutions of that de- 
scription in the union. 

Independence Hall, in which the continental congress 
sat, and from whence the Declaration of Independence 
issued, is still standing. It is located in Chesnut street, 
is built of brick, comprising a centre and two wings, and 
has undergone no material alteration since its first erec- 
tion. It is surmounted by a dome, having a clock, the 
dial of which being glass, is illuminated at night until 
10 or 11 o'clock, showing the hour and minutes until that 
time. The front receding some distance from the street, 
affords a space for an ample walk, which is shaded by two 
elegant rows of trees. East of the main entrance, in the 
front room, the sessions of congress were held, and the 
question of independence decided. The declaration was 
first publicly read from the balcony fronting the spacious 
park in the rear. 

The Arcade contains Peale's Museum, one of the best 
in the United States, comprieing the most complete skel- 



54 PHILADELPHIA. 

eton of the Mammoth perhaps in the world. It was 
found in Ulster county, New- York. 

The Academy of Fine Arts, in Chesnut-street, con- 
tains a large number of paintings, several of which are 
the property of Joseph Bonaparte. Among these is one, 
executed by David, representing Napoleon crossing the 
Alps. Another is a full length portrait of Joseph himself, 
as king of Spain. 

The U. S. Mint, established here, is anew and hand- 
some edifice recently constructed for that purpose. 

The City Library was first established through the 
enterprise and influence of Franklin in 1731. It is 
located in a neat and ornamental edifice on the east side 
of Fifth- street, opposite the State House Square, and 
contains about 24,000 volumes, besides the Loganian 
library of ancient classics of about ] 1,000 volumes, under 
the same roof. 

The Atheneum, on the second floor of the Philosophical 
Hall in Fifth- street, contains 5300 volumes and a variety 
of newspapers from various parts of the union. Tliere 
are also deposited here a scries of rare and valuable 
pamphlets, forming lOO volumes, which belonged to 
Doct. Franklin ; many of which arc enriched with his 
MS. notes. Strangers are admitted to this institution, 
on being introduced by a subscriber, and a register of 
their names is kept. 

The Airerican Philosophical Society was founded in 
1743, principally by the exertions of Doct. Franklin. 
The members have a large and commodious building 
on a part of the State House Square, in which they have 
deposited about 6000 volumes of valuable books, and a 



PHILADELPHIA. 55 

collection of objects of natural history, consisting princi- 
pally of minerals and fossil remains. 

The University of Pennsylvania in situated in Ninth- 
street, between Chesnut and Market streets. It was 
founded in 1750, and is in a highly prosperous and flour 
ishing condition. 

GiRARu College. This splendid edifice is situated on 
the Ridge Road, on a site owned by the late Stephen 
Girard, and devised by him for that purpose. To his 
munificence, indeed, are the public indebted for the struc- 
ture and for a fund for its maintenance. The building 
is 111 by 169 feet, 3 stories high, and is surrounded by a 
portico 2 1 feet wide, giving to the whole a neatness and 
elegance highly creditable to the taste of those who 
I had the management of its construction. 

Wills' Hospital, erected pursuant to the will of the 
late James Wills, for the reception of the lame and blind, 
is located on Race street, between Schuylkill Fourth and 
Fifth streets, and is a handsome stone edifice, 80 feet 
in front. 

The United States' Naval Asylum is situated on the 
river Schuylkill, a short distance below the junction of 
South street with Gray's ferry road. It is 385 feet in 
front, including a central building, and is an imposing 
and chaste edifice. It is designed as a place of permanent 
abode for such of the officers, seamen and marines of the 
navy as may need a home in their retirement from its ser- 
vice. It is sufficiently capacious to accommodate 400. 

The New Alms House consists of four distinct edifices 
disposed at right angles with one another, enclosing an 
interior space of 700 by 500 feet. The location of 



56 PHILADELPHTA. 

these buildings is on the west bank of the Schuylkill 
river. The grounds appended to the establishment arc 
spacious, and the arrangements such as might be antici- 
pated from the hospitality and benevolence for which the 
inhabitants of this city have become so proverbial. 

The Philadelphia Exchange is situated on a triangular 
piece of ground, bounded by Tliird, Walnut and Dock 
streets, and is one of the most beautiful specimens of 
Grecian architecture ever executed in America, repre- 
senting in its appearance the celebrated Lantern of 
Demosthenes at Athens. The basement contains the 
post office and several insurance and other offices. The 
exchange room, which is bold and effective, occupies the 
eastern end of the principal story, and is approached by 
steps on each side of the semicircular basement, and 
from the hall in ths basement story. The eastern portico 
forms an interesting promenade for those who visit the 
Exchange. From it may be seen the shipping at Wal- 
mat street wharf, the custom house, the Girard bank, 
and the Pennsylvania bank. Omnibuses can be taken 
from this poi it at all times for various parts of the city. 

Besides the public buildings already noticed, are the 
Orphan Asylum, in Cherry street ; the Pennsylvania In- 
stitution for the Blind, Race' street ; Orphan Asylr.m of 
St. Joseph's, Spruce street; Pennsylvania Institution for 
the Deaf and Dumb, on Broad and Pine streets ; Hall 
of the Franklin Institute, Seventh street ; Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Twelfih street ; Jefferson College, 
Tenth street ; Musical Fund Hall, Locust street ; The- 
atre, Walnut street; Theatre, Arch street; Museum, 
Eighth and Sanuom streets, &c. 



PHILADELPHIA. 



57 



Of the public works of Philadelphia, there are none of 
which its inhabitants are more justly proud than those at 
Fair Mount, by which the city is supplied with water of 
the best quality in the greatest plenty. Fair Mount is in 
tlie rear of the city, upon the bank of the Schuylkill, the 
neighborhood of which affords a variety of romantic 
scenery. The situation is such as peculiarly adapts it for 
the purpose to which it has been devoted. The reservoirs 
are situated on the top of a hill rising from the river, a 
part of it perpendicular rock, upwards of one hundred 
feet. The ascent from the river to the reservoir is by a 
flight of substantial steps, with resting places. The res- 
ervoirs, which are surrounded with a fence, outside of 
which is a gravelled walk, contain upwards of twelve mil- 
lions of gallons, supplying the city through between 15 
and 20 miles of pipes. The water is raised by machinery 
propelled by the Schuylkill. The speed of the wheels may 
be graduated to any required number of revolutions per mi- 
nute ; and if all are in motion, they will rai"" 7^000,000 
gallons in 24 hours. The whole expense of these works, 
including estimated cost of WJiks abandoned, was $1,- 
783,000. That required to keep them in operation is 
comparatively trifling. The quantity of water thus dis- 
geminated through the city, is not only sufficient for every 
family, but is used to wash the streets. It is of immense 
service in case of fire, as it is only necessay to screw the 
hose to hydrants, which are placed at convenient dis. 
tances, to secure a constant stream of sufficient force to 
reach an ordinary height. 



58 



PHILADELPHIA. 



The New Penitentiary, located on elevated ground 
near the city, is designed to carry the principle of solitary 
confinement completely into effect. Ten acres of land 
are occupied for the purpose, forming a square of 650 feet 
each way, and enclosed by massy walls of granite 35 feet 
high, with towers and battlements. The prison is in the 
centre of the square, and is admirably calculated for the 
purpose for which it was designed. The expense incurred 
in its erection was upwards of ^300,000. 

The principal Hotels in the city are the United States 
Hotel, opposite the U. S. Bank in Chesnut street ; Con- 
gress Hall, Chesnut street, near Thu-d ; Tremont House, 
between Third and Fourth streets ; City Hotel, Third 
street, between Market and Arch ; North American Ho- 
tel, Chesnut street, between Sixth and Seventh ; Mansion 
House Hotel, Third street, between Walnut and Spruce ; 
Commercial Hotel, Chesnut street; Indian Queen Ho- 
tel, Fourth street ; Washington Hotel, do. ; Philadelphia 
Hotel, Second street ; Third Street House, Third street ; 
Broad Street House, Broad street ; Philadelphia House, 
Chesnut street. 

The banks of the Schuylkill, near Philadelphia, contain 
numerous elegant country seats, and several public build- 
ings. Among the private residences, none are perhaps 
more justly admired than that of Henry Pratt, Esq. on 
Lemon Hill. The Mansion House is situated on the 
eastern bank of the river, and directly above the Fair 
Mount Water Works, about a mile from the city. Con- 
nected with the mansion are gardens of the most exten- 
sive kind, laid out in a style of much elegance and taste. 
To these gardens respectable citizens and strangers have 



PENNSYLVANIA CANALS. 59 

free access ; and a ride to them is among the various 
pleasant oxcursions in the vicinity of the city. 

The Shot Tower of Mr. Beck is also an object of 
much curiosity to strangers visiting Philadelphia. It 
stands on the cast bank of the Schuylkill, in the rear of 
the city, and is a lofty edifice, from the top of which a 
very extensive view can be had of the surrounding 
country. 

The Penn Monumfxt, commemorative of the spot 
where William Penn, the founder of the colony of Penn- 
sylvania, made a treaty with the aborigines, is near the 
intersection of Beach and Hanover streets. 

INTERJTAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

The Union Canal commences near Reading, on the 
Schuylkill river, 51 miles northwest of Philadelphia, and 
extends thence in a westerly direction to Lebanon, and 
thence along the Swatara creek to Middletown, on the 
Sucquehannah river, nine miles below Harrisburgh, the 
seat of government of the state. The length of the ca- 
nal is 79 miles ; and by the extension of a branch of about 
7 miles, and the construction of a rail road of 4 miles, a 
communication is had to the " Coal Region." 

By means of the Unlun Canal and the Schuylkill slack 
water navigation, there is also a communication from Phil- 
adelphia to the Susquehannah river ; and this communi- 
cation is greatly extended by the 

Pennsylvanlv Canal, which commences at Columbia, 

82 miles northwest of Philadelphia, the terminating point 

of the Columbia rail road from that city, and unites with 

the Union Canal at Middletown, 18 miles farther. From 

e2 



60 PENNSYLVANIA CANALS. 

thence it proceeds in a westerly direction to the Juniata — 
thence up that river to the foot of the Alleghany moun- 
tains, which arc crossed by a rail road, 37 miles long ; at 
the end of which the canal re-commences, uniting with 
the Alleghany and Ohio rivers at Pittsburg. The whole 
length of this canal, including the Columbia rail road and 
the rail road across the mountains, is 395 miles. After 
reaching the Juniata, a singularly romantic and beautiful 
stream, the canal winds along a gentle and practicable 
acclivity, following the bed of the river for nearly a hun- 
dred miles. Two mighty ranges of mountains rise from 
the limpid Juniata, like two green leaves of an immense 
opening volume. These mountains, apparently arranged 
to the course of this stream, seem to lie almost at right 
angles to the great parallel ridges. The Juniata finds a 
passage by a very equable and gentle declivity through 
all the mountains except the last ridge that parts its waters 
from those of the Ohio. More beautiful forms of moun- 
tains than those which skirt this river can no where be 
seen. Sometimes, for many miles together, they rise, 
smooth, verdant and unbroken, by equable slopes, from the 
very verge of the stream to the height of twelve hundred 
feet ; and here, apparently, when the fountains of the 
great deep were broken up, the rocky summits of the 
mountains were dismembered at the same time. For 
miles together, and in many places the whole sides of the 
grand slope, from summit to base, are strov/n with large 
fragments of smooth building stone ; and it is inconceiva- 
ble how smoothly and completely they line the sides of 
these mighty hills. Layers of these rocks cover thousands 
of acres, for a depth apparently of 40 or 50 feet ; and for 



PENNSYLVANIA CANALS. 61 

a considerable distance the road is formed by the removal 
of these layers along the sides of the mountains, the car- 
riage vinnding its way many hundred feet above the canal, 
which is perpendicularly below. 
• In other places, more recent slides of the earth and 
rocks from the summits of the mountains have cut away 
a visible and uniform path, sweeping trees and every ob- 
stacle before it, until the spoils are accumulated at the 
foot of the mountains. Indeed every foot of this route of 
a hundred miles is enriched with scenery of unexampled 
sublimity ; and we can imagine no higher treat for the 
tourist than a passage along its banks, connected with 
the crossing of the AUeghanies, and a trip to Pittsburg. 

In addition to the foregoing, the state has completed a 
canal from the mouth of the Juniata up the Susquehan- 
nah to the forks at Northumberland, 39 miles ; from 
Northumberland to Dunnstovni, 66 miles ; from North- 
umberland to Nanticoke falls, 61 miles, and a further ex- 
tension of the latter 15 miles. Also a canal from Bristol 
to Easton on the Delaware river, GO miles ; and about 74 
miles of a canal which is to extend from Pittsburg on the 
Ohio river to Erie, on the lake of that name. 

The following canals belong to private incorporations : 
The Union canal, already noticed at p. 59 : the Schuylkill 
canal, from Philadelphia up the Schuylkill river, inter- 
secting the Union canal at Reading, to the Schuylkill 
coal mines at Mount Carbon — length, including 46 miles 
of slack water in the river, 108 miles ; the Lehigh canal, 
from Easton on the Delaware, up the Lehigh river to the 
coal mines at Mauch Chunk, and from thence to Stod- 
dartsville — length 46 miles ; a part of the Hudson and 



62 



PHILADELPHIA TO PITTSBURG. 



Delaware canal, from Honesdale on the Lackawaxen to 
the mouth of that stream — about 20 miles ; Conestoga 
Navigation, an improvclaent of the Conestoga creek by 
locks and dams, from its mouth to the city of Lancaster, 
18 miles ; and the Ctsdorus Navigation, an improvement 
of ihe Codorus creek from its mouth to the borough of 
York, 11 miles. Making the total distance of canal nav- 
igation now in use in the state about 800 miles. 

The state has also constructed the Columbia, Allegha- 
ny Portage, and Norristown rail roads, which are noticed 
in subsequent pages cf this work. 



FROM PHILADELPHIA TO PITTSBURG, PA. 

By rail road and canal. — 391 miles. 
The intermediate distances are as follow : 



By rail road. 

Fair Mount, 

Via d act over 

Schuylkill, .... 2 

Buck Tavern,.* .. 8 

Spread Eagle,.., 5 

Paoli, 5 

Warren, 1 

Valley Creek,..,. 7 

Downingtown,. . . 3 

Coatesville, 8 

Gap Tavern, .... 1 1 

Mine Ridge, 1 

Mill Creek, 5 

Soudersburgh, ... 3 

Lancaster, 9 

Mountjoy, 12 

Middletown, 15 

Harrisburgh, 9 

By canal. 

Blue Mt. Gap,... 5 



Miles. 



1 

3 
11 
IG 
21 
22 
29 
32 
40 
51 
52 
57 
60 
69 
81 
96 
105 

110 





Miles. 


Port Dauphin,. .. 


3 


113 


Duncan's Island, 


9 


122 


Newport, 


10 


132 


Thompsontown,. . 


11 


143 


Mexico, 


7 


150 


Mifflintown, 


4 


154 


Lewistown, 


14 


168 


Waynesbnrgh, ... 


14 


182 


Aughwick F's,.,. 


J2 


194 


Huntingdon, 


17 


211 


Petersburg, 


7 


218 


Alexandria, 


7 


225 


Williamsburgh, . . 


12 


237 


F:ankstown, 


10 


247 


HoUidaysburg, . . . 


3 


250 


By rail road. 




Across Alleghany 






Mountains to 






Johnstown,. . . . 


37 


287 


By canal 






Laurel Hill 


7 


294 



PHILADELPHIA TO PITTSBURG. 



Miles. 

Lockport, 10 304 

Chesnut Hill,.... 5 309 

Blainsville, 8 317 

Saltzburg, 16 333 

Warrentown, .... 12 345 



Miles. 

Leechburg, 10 355 

Alleghany Aque- 
duct, 3 358 

Logan's Ferry,.. . 15 373 
Pittsburg, 18 391 



The Columbia Rail Road, which composes a part of 
this route, commences at the depot at the intersection of 
Vine and Broad streets, and extends up the valley of the 
Schuylkill through Pratt's Garden to the river, which is 
crossed 3 miles from the city, on a handsome viaduct 
1045 feet long, 41 feet wide, and 30 feet above the sur- 
face of the water. Immediately succeeding the viaduct 
is an inclined plane 2805 feet long, rising 1 foot in 15, 
which is surmounted by means of a stationary steam en- 
gine, placed at the head. The line of the road passes 
from thence over an undulating surface, requiring heavy 
excavations and embankments, through portions of Phila- 
delphia, Montgomery and Delaware counties, till it reach- 
es the viaduct of Valley creek, which is a wooden struc- 
ture about 600 feet long, supported on piers from 35 to 
55 feet high. Immediately beyond the viaduct the trav- 
eller catches the first glimpse of the Great Chester Val- 
ley, long esteemed to be one of the most beautiful and 
fertile sections of the state. At the distance of 21 miles 
from Philadelphia, the line is intersected by a branch 
road leading to Westchester, the cost of which was about 
^85,000. At 30 miles, a little to the south of Downing- 
town, the road crosses the East Brandywine by a viaduct 
465 feet long and 25 feet high. Some distance farther, 
the line crosses the Vi'^est Brand jwine by a viaduct 835 
feet long and 72 feet above the surface of the water. 



64 PHILADELPHIA TO PITTSBURQ. 

Still ascending the main valley of Chester, the line reach- 
es the samniit, which divides it from that of Lancaster. 
This place is known as the Deep Cut through Mine Hill. 
Thence descending the Lancaster valley, the road crosses 
the Pequa, by a viaduct 150 feet long and 24 feet high 
and soon after, Mill creek, by a similar construction 550 
feet long and 40 feet high. Thence it follows the gener- 
al features of the country till it reaches the immense via- 
duct over Conestoga river. The piers arc 60 feet above 
the surface of the water, and the whole length of the 
platform 1412 feet. Not long after, the road enters Lan- 
caster by a high embankment, llic inaierials of which 
were obtained from the deep rock cutting in the tov/n. 

Lancaster, 69 miles from Philadelphia, is an incorpor- 
ated city and one of the oldest towns in the state. It is 
pleasantly situaied on the side of a hill one and a half 
miles west of Conestoga creek, which falls into the Sus- 
quehanna :i 9 miles below. The city contains several 
handso;no public buildings and numerous manufactories, 
and is surrounded by a beautiful and highly cultivated 
country. Its population is between 7 and SOOO. 

The Columbia rail road is continued 13 miles from this 
place to the village of Columbia, on the Susquehannah 
river, whei3 by means of an inclined plane 1800 feet long, 
it communicates with the eastern division of the Penn- 
sj-lvania canal. 

The Lancaster and Harrisburgh rail road, however, is 
usually taken by passengers for Pittsburgh. It reaches 

HapvRisburgh in a distance of 36 miles. This village, 
which contains the capitol of the state, is regularly laid 
out on the east bank of the Susquehannah, over which a 



PHILADELPHIA TO PITTSBURG. 65 

bridge is erected, one mile long. The village contains 7 
or 8 public buildings, as many churches, and about 4500 
inhabitants. The capitol is handsomely situated on an 
eminence, commanding a fine view of the town, river and 
surrounding country. To the north the mountain scene- 
ry is imposing, and the opening or gap through which the 
fiver passes presents a beautiful appearance. 1 he build- 
ing in which the legislature meets is an extensive struc- 
ture of brick, in the centre of which is a semicircular 
portico or entrance, which is approached by a flight of 
steps. The roof of the portico :z supported by six mass- 
ive columns, rising to the height of the main building. 
From the portico there is an entrance into the rotunda or 
hall of the buildmg which separates the chambers of the 
two houses. To the right is the hall of representatives — 
to the left that of the senate. Immediately in front, as 
you enter the first hall, is the speaker's chair, elevated 
upon a rostrum above those of the clerks, which derives 
an interest from the fact that it is the same cliair in 
which John Hancock first sat Avhen he was chosen Presi- 
dent of the continental congress. 

The Pennsylvania Canal, rrh'ch is here taken, has 
already been noticed at p. 59. It passes along the bank 
of the Susquehannah to its junction with the Juniata; 
and for miles the traveller is floated between the river 
and its lofty shore, separated from the former only by the 
breadth of the tow path, which, on the side towards the 
river, is solid and massive masonry. On the other side 
of the canal runs the turnpike, and so scant is the inter- 
val between the river and the shore, that for the passage 
of these thoroughfares of trade and travel, the founda- 



66 PHILADELPHIA TO PITTSBURG. 

tions of the hills have been cut away, and the traveller 
sails along their bases, with the precipitous crags impend- 
ing many hundred feet above him. The whole number 
of locks on this canal are 111 — dams, 18 — aqueducts, 33. 

Lewistown, 53 miles from Harrisburgh, is the capital 
of Mifflin county, and is the most important village pass- 
ed on the route. It contains a population of 1500 or 2000 
inhabitants. 

On reaching HoUidaysburgh, the termination of the 
canal at the foot of the Alleghany mountains, the trav- 
eller prepares to cross the mighty division of the east and 
west — not in a lumbering coach drawn by wearied hors- 
es — but in a rail road carriage drawn by steam. The 
change from the sluggish motion of the boat to the speed 
of the car is very acceptable, and the rail road over the 
mountains proves an agreeable interlude to the monotony 
of a canal passage. 

The aggregate of ascent and descent at this point is 
2570 feet— 1398 of which is on the eastern and 1172 is 
on the western side of the mountain. The ascent is by 5 
inclined planes, of nearly a mile each in length. On the 
summit, in a solitude like that of St. Bernard upon the 
Alps, stands a fine mansion, whose spacious accommoda- 
tions and welcome cheer invite an hour's delay. Before 
commencing the descent of the mountain, the traveller 
comes to the celebrated tunnel, hewn through the solid 
rock, 870 feet long by 20 feet in height, the rumbling 
of the cars through which is like the reverberation of 
distant thunder. The descent is then effected like the 
ascent, by means of 5 inclined planes of about a mile 
each. After leaving the fourth, the road crosses a stream 



PHILADELPHIA TO PITTSBURG. 67 

upon a magnificent specimen of pontic architecture, 70 
feet above the water, which it rpans with a single arch 
of 80 feet. It is beautifully constructed of hewn stone, 
and curiously contrasts ^vith the wiidness of the sur- 
rounding scenery. The last plane being descended, the 
tourist soon finds himself at the termination of the rail 
road in the village of Johnstown, 37 miles from its com- 
m ^.'.cement. Here a packet is again taken, which enters 
the western division of the Pennsylvania canal ; which 
follows the Conemaugh river for a distance of 78 miles, 
until it intersects with +hc Alleghany, which terminates 
at Pittsburg. It is 104 miles long, has 64 locks, 10 
dams, 2 tunnels, 16 aqueducts, 94 culverts, and 152 
bridges. After leaving Johnstown, the canal passes 
through a tunnel more extensive than the one on the 
Portage rail road. The height of the hill which it per- 
forates is 250, and the length of the tunnel 917 feet. 
The traveller, indeed, passes under an improved farm, 
the well attached to which is directly over the tunnel ! 
c The time employed in reaching Pittsburg from Hoi- 
lidaysburgh is about 30 hours; and from Philadelphia 
about 4 1-2 days. Fare for the whole distance, including 
meals, about ^15. 



PxIILA DELPHI A TO PITTSBURG. 

FROM PHILADELPHIA TO PITTSBURG> 

By rail road and stage — 305 miles. 

INTERMEDIATE DISTANCES. 



Miles. 




Miles, 


By rail road. 


Bedford,H.,^>.. 


.. 31 206 


"To Harrisburgh, ii"? v^- 


Shellsburg, . . . 


... 9 215 


ticedat p. 62,.. 105 


Stoystown,. . . . 


.. 19 234 


Chambersburgh,. 5i 156 


Laughlinlown, 


.. 16 250 


By stages. 


Greensburg, . . 


...23 273 


M'Conn-lptowii, . 19 175 


Pittsburg,.... 


... 32 305 



This route is performed in about 3 1-2 days. 

Pittsburg, an incorporated city, is situated on a beau- 
tiful plain, on a broad point of land, where the confluence 
of the Alleghany and Monongahela forms the Ohio river. 
The population of the city proper is about 1 8,000, and, 
including the suburbs, about 28,000. It is compactly, 
and in some places handsomely built ; though the uni- 
versal use of pit coal for manufacturing a.nd culinary 
purposes, has so far blackened the exterior of every build- 
ing., as to give the tovn a gloomy appearance. Its posi- 
tion and advantages, however, will continue to render it 
a place of attraction for builders and capitalists ; and it 
has already been very appropriately termed the Birming- 
ham of America, there being not less that 300 manufac- 
turing establishments, many of which are very extensive. 
Independently of the immense amount of iron wrought at 
this place, boat and steamboat building have been pursued 
on a greater scale than in any other town in the western 
country. Small boats are continually departing down 
the rivt-r at all seasons, when the waters will admit. In 
moderate stages, great numbers of steamboats arrive and 



THE COAL MINES. 63 

depart. The city has also immense advantagfcs of artifi- 
cial as well as nati;r:J wati-r communications. Besides 
the Pennsylvania canal, already described, which termin- 
ates licrc, anollicr canal is in progress to connect it with 
Lake Eric through Meadville, and another proposed to 
the month of the Mohoning, where it will connect with a 
bi-anch of the Ohio and Erie canal from its summit head'. 

Among the public buildings in Pittsburg are 13 church- 
es, a university, high school, exchange, bank and museum. 

From Pittsburg, steamboats may be taken for Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, 465 miles ; to Louisville, Ky., 175 miles far- 
ihei; or to New-Orleans, 1400 miles farther. The time 
employed in reaching the latter place is about 12 days^ 
and tlie usual expenses from $40 to $60. 

THE COAL MINES. 
Since the- discovery and opening of the extensive coal 
mines in Pennsylvania, and the great internal improve^ 
msnts which liive been made in the state, providing z.n 
easy communication to them, it has become almost a 
matter of course to embrace them within the tour of the 
middle and northern states. The Lehigh and Schuylkill, 
the principal mines already explored, are located from lOO 
to 120 miles in a northeasterly direction from Philadel- 
pliia, between a chain of mountains denominated the 
Blue Ridge and the Susquehannah river. The anthracite 
district is principally occupied by mountains running par- 
allel to the Blue Ridge, often broad with table land sum- 
mits, and rising generally about 1500 feet above the 
ocean. These summits, by repeated fires, have been 
principally divested of timber, and are generally too stony 



70 THE COAL MINES. 

for tillage. The beds and veins of anthracite range from 
northeast to southwest, and may often be traced for a 
considerable distance by the compass ; but they have 
been found in the greatest quantity in sections most 
accessible by water. Extensive beds and veins range 
from the Lehigh to the Susquehannah, crossing the head 
waters of the Schylkill and Swatara about 10 miles north- 
west of 'Jie Blue Ridge. They are also found contiguous 
to the Susquehannah and Lackawana. But in no part 
•of the district does the anthracite exist in such appa- 
rently inexhaustible beds as in the vicinity of Mauch 
Chunk, a village situated on the Lehigh, 35 miles from 
Easton, and 108 by canal from Philadelphia. The coal 
is there excavated on the flat summit of a mountain that 
rises near 1500 feet above the ocean. It is disclosed for 
several miles on the summit wherever excavations have 
been ma,de, and is indicated in many places by coal slate 
in a pulverulent state, on the surface. The mountain 
rises with steep acclivity, particularly on the northwest 
side, and when penetrated at various altitudes, discloses 
coal at about the same distance from the surface. In 
the deep excavations made on the summit, no termuiation 
of the coal has been found, and it is not improbable that 
anthracite forms the nucleus of the mountain for a consid- 
erable distance. 

Next to Mauch Chunk, Mount Carbon, or Pottsville, 
situated at the head of tho Schuylkill canal, has been 
the principal source of the supply of anthracite. Many 
large veins are worked within three miles of the land- 
ing; and some have been opened seven miles to the 
northeast, in the direction of the Lehigh beds. On al- 



THE COAL MINES. 71 

most every eminence adjacent to Pottsville, indications 
of coal are disclosed. The veins generally run in a north- 
east direction, with an inclination of about 45 degrees, 
and are from 3 to 9 feet in thickness. Commencing at 
or near the surface, they penetrate to an unknown depth, 
and can often be traced on hiils for a considerable dis- 
tance by sounding in a northeast or southwest direction. 
Some veins have been wrought to a denth of 200 feet 
without a necessity for draining, the inclined slate roof 
shielding them from water. 

On the extensive tract occupied by the New- York 
company, five miles from Pottsville, there are also inex- 
haustible coal beds, in the excavating of which from 300 
to 400 handiS are employed. 

Southv/est of Pottsville the coal becomes more easily 
ignited, and that at Peter's mountain, a few miles east of 
Dansville, is said to contain bitunien. It is probable that 
the coal in that vicinity embraces, hke the Wilkesbarre, 
much more uiflamable gas than the Lehigh, which may 
have led to the supposition that it was bituminous. 

Anthracite is found on several of the streams that dis- 
charge into the Susquehannah, on its eastern side. A 
large bed exists a few miles easterly from Berwick, and 
numerous veins occur from an elevated pare of the Wilkes- 
barre mountain, to the Kingston and Shawnese moun- 
tains, that form the western border of the basin of Wyo- 
ming. Veins of coal in the vale of the latter,* about 125 



* The valley of Wyoming is rendered memorable in 

history from the bloody massacre of the white settlers by 

he Indians commanded by Col. Butler during the revo- 

tution, and immortalized in song by the beautiful poem of 

f2 



72 ROUTE TO THE SCHUYLKILL COAL MINES. 

miles northwest of Philadelphia, are not only very numer- 
ous, occurring on almost every farm, but many are of un- 
common thickness.* 

Extensive beds of coal are also found adjoining the 
head waters of Lycoming creek, which lie in horizontal 
veins, elevated considerably above the ordinary level of 
the adjacent country, and are, of course, mined with 
much less difficulty than in many other districts. These 
mines are advantageously located for supplying the city 
of New- York and the southwestern part of the state, and 
will doubtless prove of great value to a company which 
has been chartered to explore them. 

ROUTE TO THE SCHUYLKILL COAL MINES. 

96 miles. 
The Germantown, Norristown and Reading rail roads, 
extend from Philadelphia to Reading, 59 miles ; from 
whence to Pottsville, by stage or canal, is about 37 miles. 
The latter portion of the route, indeed, will soon be oc- 
cupied by the Reading rail road, which is to connect, at 
various points, with the Mount Carbon, the Dansville and 
Pottsville, the Mill Creek and Schuylkill Valley, the Mine 

Campbell. The village of Wilkesbarre, on the Susque- 
hannah river, has been built near the place of this mas- 
sacre. Solomon's creek, a tributary stream, and which 
unites with the Susqnehannah in this valley, contains 
two very romantic falls, a very short distance from 
the village. 

* For the preceding sketch of the coal region, the edi- 
tor IS mostly indebted to the Journal of Science and Arts, 
an invaluable work, published at New-Haven, Conn., by 
Professor Silliman. 



GERMANTOWN — HAMBURGH. 73 

Hill and Schuylkill Haven, and the Little Schuylkill rail 
roads — thus uniting with all the rail ways in the Schuyl- 
kill coal region. By means of a branch, it also ccnnects 
with the Columbia rail road, within five or six miles of its 
termination. 

Germantown, 7 miles from Philadelphia on this route, 
is distinguished as the spot of a sanguinary contest dur- 
ing the revolution. 

Norristown, 10 miles farther, is I ndsomely located 
on the north bank of the Schuylkill. It is the capital of 
Montgomery county, and contains a number of elegant 
dwellings. It was formerly the residence of the cele- 
brated Doct. Rittenhouse. 

PoTTSTOAVN, or PoTTSGRovE, 19 milcs abovc Norris- 
town, is a pleasant village on the east bank of the river. 

Reading, 23 miles farther, located on the east side of 
the river, is the capital of Berk's county. It is a flour- 
ishing town, regularly laid out, and is inhabited princi- 
pally by Germans. Its population is about 7000. Near 
this place the Union Canal, noticed at page 59, com- 
mences. 

Hamburgh is situated on the east side of the river, 23 
miles above Reading, near the Blue Ridge. It is a pleas- 
ant and thriving village, near which is what is called the 
Mountain Dam^ 27 feet high. The passage of the Schuyl- 
kill and canal through the Blue Ridge is interesting and 
romantic. The mountains bordering the ravine are lofty 
and precipitous, presenting ledges of old and red sand 
stone, with coarse and fine] silicious gray wacke. The 
turnpike winds on the mountain aido at a great elevation 



74 MOUNT CARBON. 

above the stream, giving to the traveller a sublime and 
varied scenery. The navigation through tho pass, or 
what is called the Schuylkill Water Gap, is effected by 
stone dams of magnitude and permanent construction ; 
and groops of locks, vi^ater falls and broad sheets of water 
are frequent. 

After passing the Water Gap, the next object of at. 
traction is the Tunnel, which has been bored tluough a 
hill 375 yards for the canal. The village of Orwisburgh 
is 3 miles farther ; from which to 

Mount Carbon or Pottsville is 8 miles. This place, 
centrally located in the coal region, has attained an as- 
tonishing growth within a few years. In 1824 it was a 
wilderness; in 1836, it contained about 600 dv\'elUngs 
and 7000 inhabitants ; several churches, a bank, 3 print- 
ing offices, and a large number of stores, shops and pub- 
lic houses, some of which are very elegant. The tov^ni is 
laid out in regular squares, and the main street, about a 
mile in length, presents on each side a compact row of 
large and substantial buildings. The principal streets 
are M'Adamized in the centre, with brick side walks, giv- 
ing a neat and durable appearance to the promenades. 

The coal in this region has been described in the pre- 
ceding pages of this work. Besides the numerous facih- 
ties afforded for its transportation by water, several rail 
roads have been ccnstructcd in the vicinity of Mount 
Carbon. Among these, are the Mount Carbon rail road, 
from Mount Carbon to Norwegian Valley, 7 miles ; the 
Schuylkill Valley rail road, from Port Carbon to Tusca- 
rora, 10 miles, and branches 15 miles more ; the Schuyl- 
kill rail road, 13 miles ; the Mill Creek rail road, from 



RAIIi ROADS. 75 

Port Carbon to the coal mines near Mill Creek, 7 miles, 
including branches ; the Mine Hill and Schuylkill Haven 
rail road, from Schuylkill Haven to the coal mines at 
Mine Hill, including branches, 20 miles ; the Pine Grove 
rail road, 4 miles ; the Little Schuylkill rail road, fron* 
Port Chnton to Tamaqua, 23 miles ; and the Lackawaxea 
rail road, from Honesdale to Carbondale, 17 miles. 

Of the numerous villages which have sprung up in the 
vicinity of these mines is Port Carbon, a short distance 
from Pottsville, containing from 250 to 300 buildings. 

Pursuing up the route of the Valley rail road, the trav- 
eller next comes to Tuscarora, Middleport, Patterson^ 
Nev/ Philadelphia, and Tuscarora again. The three for- 
mer places arc at the intersection of the large lateral road 
wliich leads up the creek tributary to the river. 

Up the Mill Creek rail road, about 2 miles, is St. Clairs- 
villc, and at its head New Castle, where the road from 
Port Carbon intersects the Centre Turnpike. Both these 
places have extensive water powers, and are admirably 
located for mills, &c. 

At the junction of the West Branch of the Schuylkill 
with the main river, SchuylkUl Haven is a beautifully sit- 
uated place, which will be a mart for all the immense coal 
region of the West and west West Branches ; this loca- 
tion is destined to be the focus of an extensive business. 
Minersville is another site on the same branch, nearly 
west of Pottsville. This, from its situation among ex- 
tensive colleries, has already become a populous place, as 
the residence of those engaged in the coal business. Fur- 
ther up on the Broad Mountain, is Carbondale, which also 
promises to be a place of some importance. 



76 MA0CH CHUNK. 



ROUTE TO THE LEHIGH COAL MINES. 

From Pottsville, a stage can be taken to Mauch Chunk, 
at the Lehigh coal mines, a distance of 32 miles in a 
northeasteily direction. This route is recommended to 
travellers from the south, designing a general visit to the 
coal regions. From the north, the most direct route is, 
to pursue the line of the Morris canal from Newark, 
New Jersey, to Easton, or the route from New- York to 
Schooley's Mountain, and from thence to Easton, pro- 
ceeding up the Lehigh to Mauch Chunk. A very com- 
mon route from Philadelphia to the Lehigh is by steam- 
boat to Bristol, 20 miles up the Delaware, and from 
thence by stage through Newton and New Hope to 
Easton, 50 miles farther. This route is mostly on the 
bank of the Delaware, and passes through a pteasant 
section of the country, affording a rich and diversified 
ecenery. 

MAUCH CHUNK. 

The village of Mauch Chunk is situated on the west- 
em bank of the Lehigh, in a deep romantic ravine, be- 
tween rocky mountains that rise in some parts precipi- 
tously to 800 or 1000 feet above the stream. Space was 
procured for dwellings by breaking down the adjacent 
rocks, and by filling a part of the ravine of the Mauch 
Chunk creek. A portion of this stream has been trans- 
ferred to an elevated rail way, and is used to propel a grist 
mill. The village contains about 250 dwellings, belong, 
ing principally to tlie Lehigh Company, who have be- 
tween 800 and 1 000 men m their employ. Mauch Chunk 



LEHIGH RIVER. 77 

E3cm3 by nature designed for a ])lace of business, but as 
there is not sufficient room, owii'g to the approach of the 
mountains to the Lehigh, for a town of much size, the 
business of the place will most likely be confined princi- 
pally to the shipment of coal. 

The Mauch Chunk Rail Road leads from near the 
coal mines on^the mountain down an inclined plane to 
the Lehigh river. It is 8 miles long, and has been in op- 
eration 9 or 10 years. The road generally passes along 
a narrow shelf, with precipices on its side not unfrequently 
of from 300 to 600 feet. At the end of the rail road, the 
cars are let down to the river on an inclined plane of 700 
feet, equal to a perpendicular descent of 000. 

The same company have also constructed a rail road 
54 miles in extent from Mauch Chunk up the Lehigh to 
a coal mine. 

The Lehigh Canal was noticed at page 61. The Le- 
high RrvER is a copious rapid stream, and rises by various 
mountain branches 40 miles northwest of Mauch Chunk, 
which unite below Stoddartsville, 25 miles above the for. 
mer place. The fall of the river between these two places 
is 845 feet. Eleven miles below Mauch Chunk, it passes 
through the Kittatinny moimtains, and in the intermedi- 
ate space falls 245 feet. From the Lehigh Water Gap, 
or passage through the Kittatinny. to its junction with 
the Delaware at Easton, 35 miles, it falls 205 feet ; 
making the entire fall from Stoddartsville 1210 feet. To 
overcome the descent from Mauch Chunk to Easton, 21 
dams and 52 locks have been found necessary. They 
are located at the head of the rapids, enabhng the navi- 
gator to command an artificial freshet, when the stream 



78 LEHIGH WATER GAP. 

from its dispersion would not otherwise admit of the pas- 
sage of boats. Water from the dam is copiously admitted 
into a rail way that extends to the foot of the i-apid. The 
gates are attached by hinges to the bottom of the lock, 
and rise by the force of water admitted from a floom, 
constructed parallel with the lock, and remain suspended, 
forming a section of the dam. If the gate of the floom is 
•closed, the water between the gates passes off", and they 
fall by their own weight and ihe press'rc , f the water 
from the dam. 

The Landing, or Lausanne, above Mauch Chunk, from 
its location at the head of the navigation, and at the com- 
mencement of the road leading to the Susquehannah, is a 
place of deposit for merchandize and produce destined to 
and from the upper country. Eight miles below Mauch 
Chunk is the pleasant village of 

Leighton. The village commands a prospect of the 
river and canal ; the valley in which the town of Weiss 
Port is located : the Blue Mountain in the distance, and 
a nearer view of the Mahoning moimtain and the Lehigh 
hills. The Mahoning creek flows at the foot of the Ma- 
honing mountain, and empties into the Lehigh within 
half a mile of the village, where has been discovered a 
mineral spring, the waters of. which have proved highly 
beneficial in many cases of disease and debility. 

The Lehigh Water Gap is 3 miles farther. The river 
is here confined within very narrow limits, being bounded 
on either side with the bold and precipitous Kittatinny 
mountains. The scenery is in a high degree wild, pic- 
turesque, and frequently sublime. Below the mountains, 
the features of nature are less magnificent, but still fol- 



BETHLEHEM — EASTON. 79 

low in a romantic succession of strongly contrasted and 
elegant landscapes. 

Bethlehe3I is 11 miles from the Water Gap. It is a 
settlement of the Moravians, or United Brethren. The 
situation is healthful and pleasant, and it is a place much 
resorted to in the summer months. The chuich belong- 
ing to the society is one of the largest in the state, though 
exhibiting in its structure much plainness. From its 
steeple a very beautiful, picturesque and cxten<ied view 
can be obtained. In one direction the scene stretches 
for upwards of 20 miles along the course of the Lehigh 
and the Water Gap, the wandering explorations of the 
eye terminating at the Blue Mountain ranr-^ 

The house where Gen. Lafayette lay during his recov- 
ciyfrom the wound he received at the battle of Brandy- 
wine, is pointed out here. His nurse on that occasion, 
who had continued to reside in the place, received a visit 
from him when he was last in this country. 

Eastox is 12 miles from Bethlehem, and is the capital 
of Northampton county, Penn. It is located on the Del- 
aware river, immediately above the entrnnce of the Le- 
high, in a valley between the Musonetcunck mountains. 
Several rude and isolated hills stand in t!ic valley, com- 
manding extensive views and giving to the place a pic- 
turesque appearance. The town is tastefully laid out, 
with an open square in the centre, and contains several 
handsome dwellings. Its public buildings arc a college, 
courthouse, jail, 4 en irijhes, a bank and an academy. A 
brid^-^ extending across the Delaware at this place cost 

350,000. There is also a chain bridge across the Lehigh. 



80 , MORRIS CANAL. 

The location of Easton is highly favorable for trade. 
Besides the great advantages here possessed for manu- 
fa cturing purposes, and the contiguity of the place to the 
Delaware and Lehigh river, it is the point at which three 
important canals, the Delaware, the Lehigh and the Mor- 
ris, concentrate. 

The Morris Canal extends from Easton to Newark, 
New Jersey, a distance of 86 miles, and from thence to 
Powles' Hook, opposite New-York, 8 miles further, lock- 
age ICOO feet, which is surmounted by inclined planes. 
From Newark to Paterson, the country through which 
the canal passes is beautiful. At the latter place a view 
of the extensive manufactories is had, located on the 
north. On the south, the canal for some distance is 
bounded by mountainous rugged cliffs, the rocky excava- 
tions through which were attended with great labor and 
expense. Four miles above Paterson is what is called 
the Grand Aqueduct across the Passaic river at the Little 
Falls. Half a mile further is an aqueduct across the 
Pompton river, a v/ork of considerable magnitude. 

From Easton to the Delaware Wind Gap, an important 
passage through the Blue Mountains, is 12 miles, in a 
northwardly direction. 

From Easton to the Delaware Water Gap, the distance 
is 23 miles. The route proceeds up the river to Rich- 
mond, 14 miles ; from thence to Wilhamsbiirgh, 4 miles ; 
and from the latter place to the Water Gap, 5 miles. 
The current of the stream is here contracted at the base 
of two lofty mountains in opposite directions, between 
which the passage is extremely narrow. It is supposed 
that here was formerly a barrier over which the river 



PHILADELPHIA TO NEW-YORK. 81 

flowed in the form of a cataract, which was subsequently 
worn away, leaving a smooth unruffled current. The 
scene is wild and highly interesting. 

From Easton to Schooley^s Mountain and thence to 
New-YorJc, the whole distance is 71 miles as follows : 



Miles. 

Morristown, 6 

Passaic river, 7 

Newark,.... 11 

New- York, 10 



Miles. 
From Easton to Phil- 

ipsburgh, 1 

Top of Schooley's 

Mountain, 24 

Mendham, 12 

Schooley's Mountain, in New-Jersey, is a place of 
fashionable resort from New- York, in the summer 
months, owing to its cool, airy and healthful situation, 
and to the extensive prospect afforded from its top ; on 
which there is an excellent public house. Within a mile 
of its summit there are mineral springs, which are usually 
resorted to by visitants at the mountain house. 

Newark, N. J., which is located on this route, is no- 
ticed in a subsequent page. 

Having thus far diverged from the usual route to the 
north, for the purpose of describing the coal region, and 
the most interesting natural and artificial objects connect- 
ed therewith, we return to Philadelphia, to resume the 
regular excursion. 

FROM PHILADELPHIA TO NEW-YORK. 

There being two prominent routes, we give a sketch 
of each for the convenience and choice of travellers. 

Route by the Camden and Amhoy Rail Road — 
85 miles. 
The intermediate distances are as follow : 



82 PHILADELPHIA TO NEW-YORK 

Miles 



By steamboat. 
From Philadelphia to 
Burhn-rton, N. J.,.. 18 

Bristol, Penn., 1 

Bordentown, N. J.,*.. 9 



Miles. 

By rail road. 

Hij^htstown, 14 

Amboy, 20 

By steamhoai. 
New- York, 23 



Burlington, the capital of the county of the sans 
Tiame, is 12 miles bclov: Tronton and 18 above Philadel- 
phia. It is delightfully situated, and contains ?cme 
handsome public and private houses. 

Bristol is one mile farther, on the opposite side of the 
Delaware, in Bucks county, Pcnnsj'lvania. Thi^' place 
contains several fine residences, and is an attractive and 
interesting country village. Some of its ftow( r gardens, 
which are unusually elegant, and located on the margin 
of the river, add much to the beauty of its appearance. 

Bordentown, 9 miles farther, and (> below Trenton, is 
noted as the residence of the Count de Surveillcrs, the 
ex-king of Spiin. His villa commands a fine view of the 
river. The soil around it is unproductive ; but by the aid 
of culture and art, his residence now exhibits an appear- 
ance of taste and munificence worthy thf> princely fortune 
and dignity of its proprietor. 

At Eordentov.'n the Camden and Amboy Rail Road is 
taken, which extends to South Amboy; froiii v\L<ince a 
steamboat is again taken, vvhi' i. lands passengers at 
Nc'v-York. Cnmden, the south-VvT^estcrn po'nt at wh'ch 
the road terminates, i3 a small viUage on the Delaware, 
opposite Philadelphia, 27 miles below Bordentown, where 
the river is about one mile in breadth. In the winter, 
passengers are generally received and landed at that 



PHILADELPHIA TO NEW-YORK. 83 

point ; but in summer, a steamboat passage between Phi- 
ladelphia and Bordentovrn is generally preferred. South 
Amboy is seated at the head of the Raritan Bay, Gl miles 
from Camden, as measured by the course of the rail road ; 
and is about 23 miles from the city of New- York, (by 
water,) making the whole distance from Camden to New- 
York 84 miles. 

South Amboy, where the road terminates at the east- 
ern end, is one of the finest harbors in the United States 
accessible at all seasons for the largest vessels from the 
sea and from New- York ; so that the communication with 
Philadelphia and foreign countries by this route is seldom 
interi'upted. 

From South Amboy a steam boat is taken for New- 
York. In proceeding up the bay, Staten, Bedlow and 
Governor's Islands are successively passed — the former 
containing several beautiful country seats, and the lat- 
ter being used exclusively as a military post. 

FROM PHILADELPHIA TO NEW-YORK, 

By way of Trenton, New-Bruusioick and Newark — 

87 miles. 
The following are the intermediate distances : 



Miles. 
By rail road. 

Bristol, 17 

Morrlsvdle, 10 

Trenton, 1 

New-Brunswick, 20 

Rahway, 13 

The FoiiLAOELPHiA AND Trenton Rail Road is taken 
at the depot in the city. This road, which is remarkably 
g2 



Miles. 

Elizabethtown, 5 

Newark, 6 

Jersey City, 8 

By steamboat. 
New- York, 1 



84 TUENTON. 

level, extends along the verdant banks of the Delaware, 
and passes through the village of Bristol to Trenton ; 
from which point there is a branch rail road to Borden- 
town, uniting with the Camden and Amboy rail road 
already noticed, and also a continuous hne of railway 
through New-Brunswick, Rahway, Ehzabethtown, and 
Newark to Jersey City opposite New- York. 

Bristol, 17 miles from Philadelphia, is the first village 
of importance on this route, and has aheady been noticed 
at p. 82. 

Trenton, 1 1 miles farther, is the capital of New- Jersey, 
and contains about 7000 inhabitants, a state house, two 
banks, and six houses of public worship. At this place 
the steamboat navigation on the Delaware terminates. 
The river here forms a considerable rapid or fall, near 
which is the bridge used by the rail road company, about 
a quarter of a mile long, neatly roofed, and the sides 
enclosed to secure it from the weather. 

It was in this section of New-Jersey, and at the 
gloomiest period of the contest, that some of the most 
important scenes of the revolution transpired. It was for 
a length of time in the possession of the English, and 
was the theatre of much carnage and bloodshed. The 
capture of a detachment of English and German troops 
in December, 177^^^ at Trenton, was the first signal vie- 
tory that crowned our arms in the revolutionary contest. 
The retreat of V/ashington with his troops from Tren- 
ton, considering the circumstances which surrounded 
him, and the secrecy with which it was accomplished, 



NEWARK. 85 

may be justly considered as one of the most successful 
movements of that eventful period. 

New-Brunswick, 26 miles from Trenton, is an incor- 
porated city. It is handsomely located on the south 
west side of the Raritan river, and contains a court house, 
jail, a cohugc, 7 churches, and between 5 and 6000 in- 
habitants. 

The Raritan and Delaware canal commences at this 
place, and extends through Trenton to Bordentown, 
uniting the Raritan with the Delaware river. Length 
43 miles. 

Rahway is a small village, 13 miles from New-Bruns- 
wick. 

Elizabethtown, 5 miles farther, is pleasantly situated 
on a creek emptying into Staten Island Sound. A 
steamboat plies between the Point and New- York. 

Newark, 6 miles farther, is one of the most elegant 
cities in the union. It is situated near the west bank of 
the Passaic river, 3 miles from its mouth, and is laid out 
in regular streets, the principal being 200 feet wide. The 
public square, near the centre, is very handsome, and is 
surrounded by a number of elegant private dwellings. 
The public buildings in the place are a court house, jail, 
four banks, an academy, and 22 churches. The popula- 
tion in 1830 was 10,705, and cannot, at the present time, 
(1840,) be less than 18 or 20,000. 

The Morris and Essex rail road, commencing at this 
place, extends in a westerly direction through the towns 
of Orange, Springfield and Chatham to Morristown, a 
distance of 22 miles. 



86 NEW-YORK. 

Between five and six miles from xi'ewark, the rail road 
unites with one leading to Patterson, noticed in a subse- 
quent pa^e. The two, passing through Bergen Hill, a 
deep and rocky excavation, are used in common for 
about two and a half miles to the terminating point at 

Jersey City ; from whence a steamboat crosses the 
bay, about one mile, to 

NBW-YORK. 

This city is situated on the point of Manhattan Island, 
at the confluence of the Hudson and East rivers, in lati- 
tude 40. It was founded by the Dutch in 1612, under 
the name of New-Amsterdam, and was incorporated by 
the British in 1696. The island on which it stands is 15 
miles long, and from 1 to 3 miles broad. The city is 
situated on the south part of the island, at the junction 
of the East and Hudson rivers, and extends from the 
Battery along each, in a northerly direction, about 3 
miles. The early settlements were commenced at and 
near the Battery, from which streets were extended with- 
out reference to order or regularity ; and this accounts 
for the seeming want of taste in laying out the streets 
towards the docks and harbor. 

The Battery is situated at the southwest point of the 
city, opposite to Governor's Island. It is handsomely 
laid out into gravel walks, and tastefully decorated with 
shrubbery and trees. It is much frequented by the citi- 
zens in the warm season, as well for the purpose of par- 
taking of the refreshing sea breeze, as for enjoying the 
prospect, which, from this place, includes the harbor with 
its various shipping. Governor's Island, Bedlow's Island, 



NEW-YORK. 87 

and Ellis' Island, on each of which are military stations, 
the uhorcs of New-Jersey and Long Island, with the 
flourishing city of Brooklyn, and the numerous country 
scats in its vicinity. 

Castle Garden, connected with the Battery by a 
bridge, is much frequented during the summer evenings. 
It has a fine promenade, and is often rendered attractive 
by a display of fire works from its enclosure, and other 
amusements, 

Broadway, the most splendid street in the city, runs 
•'irough the centre and extends 3 miles in length and 
is about 80 fept in width. It. is the great and fashiona- 
ble resoti lW- citizens and strangers, and is much crowd- 
ed during pleasant weather. In this avenue are Grace, 
Trinity and St. ViUi's, churches, the Astor House, City 
Hotel, American Hotel, Mansion House, Atlantic Hotel, 
Waverly House, Adelnhi Hotel, Atheneum Hotej, Carl- 
toii House, and a voriety of shops with elegant and ex- 
tensive assortments of merchandize of eveij description. 

Opposite Trinity church, Wall street opens, which 
contains most of the banks, together with the principal 
part of the brokers' and insurance offices. 

On. passing up Broadway still farther, is Courtlandt 
street, -/'hich leads to the Hudson river, where the stcara- 
boa^- 'art for Albany. At the foot of Courtlandt street, 
also, is the ferry ^ o Jersey City. A little further up is Fulton 
pfrcet, c^ Aie corner of which and Broadway stands St. 
haul's church. Fulton street loatls to the East river to 
one of the principal ferries to Brooklyn. At the foot of 
Barclay street, extending to the Hudson river west of 



88 NEW-YORK. 

the Park, are a part of the Albany boats, and also the 
Hoboken ferry. 

Above St, Paul's church is the Park and City Hall, 
situated in the centre of the city, the former containing 
about 11 acres, which are ornamented with much taste, 
and enclosed by a substantial iron railing. It furnishes 
a cool and fashionable resort for men of business and 
pleasure, after the fatigue and heat of a summer's day. 
On the right is the Park Theatre, and on the left Park 
Place, on the west side of which is Columbia College. 
The next street above Park Place is Murray, which 
leads to the Hoboken ferry, and also to the Providence 
steamboats. 

Of the public buildings (besides nearly 30 banks, most- 
ly located in Wall street,) the most prominent and im- 
portant is the 

City Hall, the front of which is built of white marble. 
It is 216 feet long, 10.5 feet broad, and, including the attic 
story, 65 feet high. The rooms for holding the difterent 
courts of law are fitted up in a rich and expensive style. 
The room for holding the mayor's court, contains por- 
traits of Washington, of the different governors of the 
state, and of many of the most celebrated commanders of 
the army and navy of the United States. The founc'a- 
tion stone of this building was laid in 180.S, and the whole 
finished in 1812, at an expense of ^500,000, It is one 
of the most elegant edifices in America, and reflects great 
credit on the inhabitants for their munificence and taste. 
The New City Hall, in the rear of the City Hall, is 
an extensive brick building, formerly the Alms House, 
which, vdth the buildings lately composing the Rotunda 



iVEW-YORK. 89 

and Debtors* Prison, are now occupied for the Post Office 
and other pub'ic offices. 

The Hall of Justice, on Franklin and Leonard 
streets, is a massive and superb structure of granite, built 
in the Egyptian style. 

The Meiichants' Exchange, in Wall-street, which was 
burnt during the great fire on the night of the 16th De- 
cember, 1835, was an elegant structure, 114 feet long by 
150 feet deep, and was erected at a cost of ,^230,000. 
On its ruins, however, a much more splendid and cxten- 
sive edifice is constructing, and will soon be finished. 

In the same street, on tJie corner of Nassau, and ex- 
tending through to Pine-street, a new custom house is in 
a great state of forwardness, which, when finished, will 
be one of the most substantial and elegant buildings in 
the city. It is 177 feet long and 89 feet wide, and is 
built after the model of the Parthenon at Athens. The 
fronts present splendid colonnades, with massive columns 
of the Doric order. The centre of the building is sur- 
mounted by a dome about 60 feet in diameter. The en- 
tire structure is incombustible. 

Trlmty Church, in Broadway, which, from its antique 
appearance, formerly attracted the attention of strangers, 
has been recently demolished, for the purpose of erecting 
on its site a new and costly edifice. 

The cemetery in the adjoining grounds is ancient, and 
IS enclosed by a substantial and costly iron railing. No 
interments have taken place in this cemetery for some 
years, owing to a law prohibiting sepulture within the 
populous parts of the city ; but it has been ascertained by 
authentic records kept, that more tlian one hundred and 



90 NEW-YORK. 

sixty thousand bodies have been here deposited, exclusive 
of the seven years of the revolu ionary war, when no re- 
cords were kept. Among the illustrious dead who repose 
in this hallowed spot, are the remains of Gen. Hamilton 
and Capt. Lawrence. The places of iheir interment a:c 
designated D}^ appropriate monuments. 

St. Paul's Chapel is a superb structure, further up 
Broadway, near the Park. It contains a portico of the 
Ionic Older, consisting of four pillars supporting a pcdi- 
ment, with a niche in the centre containing a statue of 
St. Paul. Under the portico is a handsome monument 
erected b}' order of Congress to the memory of Geti. 
Montgomery, who fell at the storming of Quebec, in 
1775, and whose remains were brought to New-York and 
interred beneath the monun:^nt in 1819. The spire of 
the church is 234 feet high ; and the whole building is es- 
teemed one of the best specimens of architecture in the 
city. In ihe cViUrch yard adjoining is an elegant menu- 
mcnt erected to the memory of Thomas Addis Emmet, 
an eminent counsellor at law, and brother of the unfortu- 
nate Irish orator, Robert Emmet. 

St. John's Chapel, in Varick street, opposite Hudson 
Square, is a splendid edifice, and the most expensive 
church in the city, having cost more than $200,000. Its 
spire is 540 feet in height. 

St. Patrick's Cathedral, a Roman Cathohc church, 
in Mott street, is one of the largest leligious et'ifices in 
New- York. It is built of stone, 120 f' 3t long, 80 feet 
wide, and is a conspicuous object in approaching do city 
from the east. 



NEW-YORK. 91 

There are about 150 other churches in the city, many 
of which were erected at a very considerable expense, 
and are ornaments to those sections of the city in which 
they stand. 

Columbia College, above the City Hall, was charter- 
ed in 1750, under the name of King's College. The edi- 
fice and adjoining grounds are extensive, and are advan- 
tageously and handsomely located. 

The New-York Unp'ersity is situated between Wash- 
ington-place and Waverly-place, and fronts Washington 
square towards the west. The building is of marble, 180 
feet long and 100 feet deep, exhibiting a specimen of the 
English collegiate style of architecture, and forms a no- 
ble ornament to the square and to the part of the city in 
which it stands. 

The American Academy of Fine Arts, is situated 
in Barclay street, near Broadway. It exhibits annually 
in ^Tay a fine collection of paintings, sculpture, &c. A 
part of these were received from Napoleon, whilst First 
Consul of France. 

The New-York Historical Society in Chambers 
street, corner of Broadway, has a library of 10,000 vol- 
umes, and a valuable collection of coins and minerals. 

The New- York Society Library, in Nassau street, 
was commenced in 1740, and at the commencement of 
the revolution contained 3000 volumes, which were de- 
stroyed or taken away by the British troops. It was re- 
established in 1 780, and now consists of about 30,000 vol- 
umes, many of which are rare and valuable. 

The New-York Athenaeum, corner of Broadway and 
Chambers street, for the promotion of science and litera- 

H 



92 NEW-YORK. 

ture, contains a well selected library and periodical pub- 
lications. 

The Lyceum of Natural History, 563 Broadway, 
possesses a valuable library, and a museum of natural 

history. 

The Stuyvesant Institute, for the diffusion of know- 
ledge by means of popular lectures, &c. is in a substan- 
tial granite building in Broadway, opposite Bond street. 

The Mercantile Library Association, in Clinton 
Hall, has a library of about 10,000 volumes. 

The College of Physicians and Surgeons, in a com- 
modious building in Crosby street, is in a flourishing con- 
dition. The number of students attending the lectures 
generally exceeds one hundred. 

The Park Theatre is a spacious edifice, adjoining the 
Park. It was originally built in 1798, at an expense of 
{^179,000, was destroyed by fire in 1820, and rebuilt 
the following year. It is 80 feet long, 165 deep, and 55 
high. 

The Bowery Theatre (in the Bowery) is one of the 
finest specimens of Doric architecture in the city. It is . 
75 feet long, 175 feet deep, and 58 feet high. 

The American Museum is opposite St. Paul's church 
in Broadway, and contains an immense collection of nat- 
ural and artificial curiosities. 

Peale's Museum and Gallery of the Fine Arts is 
opposite the Park, and contains specimens of natural his- 
tory, paintings, a superior cosmorama and- lecture room. 
NiBLo's Garden, corner of Broadway and Prince 
street, is one of the most fashionable places of resort in 
the city. It has been laid out with great taste, and is 



NEW-YORK. 



93 



decorated with shrubbery, flowers, &c. In the saloon* 
which is airy and elegant, theatricial and musical enter- 
tainments are frequently given. 

Of the public squares and parks, besides those already 
noticed, are the Bowling Green, located at the southern 
termination of Broadway ; Hudson SauARE, or St. John's 
Park, in the northwest part of the city, belonging to Trin- 
ity Church ; Washington Square, a mile and a half 
north of the City Hall ; Union Place, at the junction of 
Broadway and the Bowery ; and Gramency Park, two 
miles north of the City Hall. 

HOTELS. 

AsTOR House, Broadway, n^r St. Paul's church. 
This building erected by John Jacob Astor, is composed 
almost entirely of eastern granite, and presents a most 
noble and imposing appearance. It contain 390 rooms, 
and can accommodate from 3 to 400 guests. 

The City Hotel, a few doors north of Trinity church, 
Broadway, is an old and highly respectable establishment, 
containing more than 100 parlors and lodging rooms, be- 
sides an assembly room, principally used for concerts. 

The American Hotel is delightfully situated, fronting 
the Park in Broadway, and is among the most favored 
estabhshments in the city. 

The Mansion House, (Bunker's,) 39 Broadway, is a 
house of fashionable resort, with extensive and neat ac- 
commodations. 

The Waverly House, corner of Broadway and Ex- 
change Place, is a neat and commodious establishment. 
It receives, as it deserves, an extensive patronage. 



94 NEW.YORK. 

The Carlton House, comer of Broadway and Leonard 
streets, is also a beautiful establishment, and kept in a 
superior style. 

The Atlantic Hotel, 5 Broadway, near the Battery, 
is a charming location for such as are fond of partial 
retirement from the bustle incident to a crowded street. 

The U. S. Hotel, forming an allinement on thiee streets, 
the one part on AVater, another on Pearl, and its eastern 
limit facing on Fulton street, and occupying the entire 
block, is built of white marble, and is six stories high, ex- 
elusive of the basement. It is surmounted by a lofty 
quadrangular tower, around which there is an extensive 
and pleasant promenade. Above this there is a spacious 
rotunda, from the exalted summit of which a view is ob- 
tained of nearly the whole city, the East river, Brooklyn, 
part of Long Island, the entire upper bay and harbor, Staten 
Island, a very considerable extent of the Hudson river 
and the Jersey shore. 

Besides the above, the following are among the princi- 
pal public houses in the city : 

Adelphi Hotel, comer of Beaver street and Broad- 
way ; National Hotel, 112 Broadway ; Franklin 
House, comer of Dey street and Broadway ; Washing- 
TON Hotel, comer of Reed street and Broadway ; Clin- 
ton Hotel, Beekman street ; Exchange Hotel, Broad 
street ; Eastern Pearl Street House, comer of Pearl 
and Ferry streets ; Congress Hall, Broadway ; Pacific 
Hotel, 162 Greenwich street ; Globe Hotel, Broad- 
way ; Atheneum Hotel, corner of Broadway and Leon- 
ard streets. 



NEW-YORK. 95 

There are also several genteel private boarding houses, 
especially in Broadway, between the Battery and Trinity 
Church. 

The prices at these houses vary from $ I to ^2,50 per 
day, and from ^8 to ^12 per week. 

In population, this city is the first in the union. In 
1835, it contained 269,873 inhabitants ; which is probably 
now (1840) augmented to 300,000. 

Packets. — The Liverpool packets sail from New- York 
and Liverpool on the 1st, 8th, 16th and 24th of each 
month. 

The London packets sail from New- York on the 1st, 
10th, and 20th, and from London on the 7th, 17th, and 
27th of each month. 

The Havre packets sail from New- York on the 8th, 
16th and 24th, and from Havre on the 1st, 8th and l6th 
of each month. 

The STEAM PACKETS Icavc New- York and England 
semi-monthly. 

Steamboats. — For Albany. The day line leaves from 
the foot of Barclay-street, at 7 A. M. ; the night line 
from the foot of Courtlandt street, at 5 P. M. 

For Philadelphia. The boats for the route via Cam- 
den and Amboy rail road, leave from Pier No. 1, North 
river, a little above the Battery ; those for the route via 
Newark, New-Brunswick, &c. from the foot of Court- 
landt street. 

For Boston, via Providence, outer passage. The 
boats leave Pier No. 1, North river, daily (Sundays ex- 
cepted) at 5 P. M. For the inland route, via Stonington 
h2 



96 EXCURSIONS. 

rail road, they leave Pier No. 4, North river, 4th wharf 
above the Battery, at 6 P. M. 

For New-H'iven {Conn.) Boats leave daily (Sundays 
excepted) from the foot of Pike street, at 7 A. M. 

For Hartford (Conn.) A boat leaves daily at 5 P. M. 
from the foot of Fulton street, (East river side.) 

For Charleston, S. C. A boat leaves every Saturday 
at 4 P. M. 

Public Coaches. — Strangers visiting New- York are 
liable to suffer from exorbitant exactions for coach hire. 
To guard against this, the corporation have licenced an 
adequate number of hackmen, who may be found at sev- 
eral convenient stands in the city, each coach being num- 
bered. The following are the prices allowed them by 
law : For conveying a person any distance, not exceed, 
ing a mile 37 1-2 cts. ; for more than a mile and less than 
two, 50 cts. ; for every additional mile and returning, 50 
cts. ; for the use of a coach per day, $5. 

An excursion to the upper parts of the city, and to 
Greenwich, can be effected at almost any time during 
the day, in an omnibus, of which there are very great 
numbers constantly passing through Broadway and Wall 
street. The usual charge in these carriages, which have 
their regular routes, is 12 1-2 cents. 

EXCURSIONS. 

Among the numerous places of fashionable resort in 
the vicinity of New- York, are Governor's, Bedlow's and 
Staten Islands, within the harbor ; Orange Springs, near 
Newark, Paterson, the Passaic Falls, Hoboken and Wee- 
hawk, Schooley's Mountain, and Long Branch, in New 



PASSAIC FALLS. 97 

Jersey, on the west ; Manhattan Island, on the north ; 
and the tour of Long Island on the east. 

Governors and Bedlow^s Islands are usually approach, 
ed only in row boats, and are less frequented on that ac- 
count. 

Staten Island, is reached in a distance of about 6 miles 
from the city. It contains several beautiful villages and 
country seats, and is a place of great resort in the v/arm 
season. 

In an excursion to Paterson and to the Passaic Falls^ 
the Paterson rail road, whicli commences at Jersey City, 
is taken. The whole length of the road is about 15 miles, 
in a northwesterly direction from New-York, and affords 
an easy conveyance to the Passaic Falls and the thriving 
manufacturing village in their vicinity. The perpendicu- 
lar pitch is 70 feet into a narrow and rocky chasm, 
though most of the water has been diverted into a canal 
in another direction, for hydraulic purposes ; still the 
scenery is wild and imposing, and the falls are among the 
greatest natural ciuriosities of this country. The Morris 
canal, noticed at p. 80, passes near them. 

Hoboken and Weehawk are on the west side of the 
Hudson river, opposite the northern parts of New-York, 
near which is the Hoboken duelling ground, which can- 
not be easily approached, except in a row boat. 

Schooley^s Mountain, 50 miles west of New- York, was 
noticed at p. 81. 

Long Branch, is 30 miles south of New- York, on the 
eastern shore of New-Jersey, and on the immediate bank 
of the Atlantic Ocean, an extensive view of which is here 
obtained. A bathing establishment is erected, and the 



98 HURL GATE. 

bank, which is elevated to a height of 30 or 40 feet for 
several miles, affords a beautiful promenade. Sandy 
Hook and Neversink can be visited on this route, the 
heights of the latter affording an extensive view of the 
marine coast. 

The Harlaem Rail Road commences near the City 
Hall, and extends to Harlaem, 8 miles distant. The 
tunnel at Yorkville, about 6 miles from the city, through 
a solid rock of some extent, is an object of curiosity, and 
will of itself amply compensate a traveller for a trip over 
the road. In approaching Harlaem, the Asylum for the 
Insane, on very elevated ground, and the heights of Fort 
Washington, are readily distinguished. 

By extending an excursion still further north, an ex- 
amination of the Croton Aqueduct, designed to supply 
the city with pure water, may be had at several interest- 
ing points. The whole length of this aqueduct, when 
finished from New- York to the Croton river, will be 45 
miles. It is now in a state of great forwardness, and 
will probably be completed in 1 842. Its cost will not be 
less than 10 or ^12,000,000. 

In returning from Harlaem, by taking a private car- 
riage and passing down the East river side. Hurl Gate, 
the Alms House and House of Refuge may be visited. 

Hurl Gate is a narrow and apparently a dangerous 
strait in the river, 8 miles from the city, between the isl- 
ands of Manhattan and Parsell on the N. W., and Long 
Island on the S. E., in which, at low water, there are nu- 
merous whirlpools or currents, occasioned by huge masses 
of rock projecting in various places, giving to the river 
only a very contracted passage. At high water, these 



BROOKLYN. 99 

masses are more or less concealed, and the current is in 
a degree unruffled. Losses of vessels were formerly ex- 
perienced here ; but none have been known in some 
years. 

Brooklyn, (on Long Island,) directly opposite New- 
York, from which it is separated by the East river, is 
reached by steamboats, which are constantly plying at 
the ferry between Fulton street in New-Yoik and Ful- 
ton street in Brooklyri ; at the ferry from Catharine street 
in New-York to Main street in Brooklyn ; at the Jack- 
son street or Navy Yard ferry ; and at the south ferry 
between Whitehall in New- York and Atlantic street in 
Brooklyn. The growth of Brooklyn (which v^-as charter- 
ed as a city in 1834} has been almost unexampled. In 
1820, it had a population of <mly 7000; in 1835 it 
had increased to 25,000; and it is now (1840) prob- 
ably not loss than 35,000. Besides several public 
buildings, including a City Hall, the city contains 20 
churches, 5 banks, 2 insurance companies, and several 
literary institutions ; among which, the Collegiate Insti- 
tute for Young Ladies stands pre-eminent. Its contiguity 
to the metropoUs, and the facilities afforded for communi- 
eating between the tv/o places, have induced many mer- 
chants and men of business to select Brooklyn as a resi- 
dence in preference to the upper part of New- York. The 
former also contains several elegant country seats and 
public gardens. Those on the bank contiguous to the 
East river, from their elevated situation, overlooking the 
bay of New- York, and commanding a view of a great 
part of that city, are peculiarly attractive and romantic. 
Northeasterly, on a tract of land called the Wallabout, 



iOO ROCKAWAY. 

is a U. S. Navy Yard, where are erected a house for the 
commandant, several spacious warehouses, and an im- 
mense edifice, under which the largest Bhips of war are 
built. 

Brookljm is intimately connected with important events 
of the revolution, and in its vicinity are pointed out some 
remaining vestiges of fortifications and military works 
erected during that eventful period. The road to Flat- 
bush (4 miles east) crosses the ground on which the bat- 
tle of the 27th July, 1776, was fought, which resulted in 
a severe loss to the Americans and the capture of Gene- 
rals Sullivan and Sterling. The marshes in which so 
many lives were lost in retreating from the British army 
are south of this. 

The Brooklyn, Jamaica and Long Island rail road 
commences at Atlantic street or South Ferry, and passing 
through Jamaica, a pleasant village, 12 miles from Brook- 
lyn, reaches Hicksville, 15 miles farther. From thence 
it is designed, ultimately, to extend it to Grcensport, 
on the east end of Long Island, about 70 miles from 
Hicksville. 

From Jamaica to Rockaway, bordering on the Atlan- 
tic, is 9 miles. Since the erection of the Marine Pavilion, 
one of the most elegant public establishments in the union, 
this has become a place of much resort in the summer 
months. A fine view of the ocean is here obtained, 
which, from its unceasing roar and turbulence, is rendered 
Unusually sublime. 



NEW-YORK TO ALBANY. 101 
FROM NEW-YORK TO ALBANY, 

The distance, by water, is 144 miles, as follows : 

Distance from 

o 
o 

-i -^ 

New-York, 144 

Wechawken, 6 6 138 

Palisadoes, southern termination, 2 8 136 

Fort Washington, 4 12 132 

Tappan Bay, southern extremity, 12 24 120 

Sing Sing, 8 32 112 

Haverstraw Bay, 2 34 llQ 

Stony Point 5 39 105 

Verplanck's Point, 1 40 104 

Horse Race, (Highlands,) 2 42 1 02 

Anthony's Nose, , 3 45 99 

West Point, ,.... 5 50 94 

Pollopel Island, 6 56 88 

Newburgh, 4 60 84 

Milton,.. 11 71 73 

Poughkeepsie, 4 75 68 

HydePark, 5 80 63 

Rhinebeck, 10 90 53 

Redhook, lower landuig, 7 97 46 

Redhook, upper do., « 3 100 43 

Catskill, 11 111 32 

Hudson, 5 116 27 

Coxsackie,. , 8 124 19 

Kinderhook, , 2 126 18 

New-Baltimore, 4 130 13 

Schodack, 4 134 9 

Albany, 10 144 



102 PALISADOES — FORT LEE. 

Boats leave New- York for Albany at 7 o'clock A. M. 
and at 5 P. M., and the trip is usually performed in about 
12 hours— fare ^3, exclusive of meals. A morning boat 
will prove the most interesting to those who have never 
performed the route by day-light ; as it will afford an op- 
portunity of witnessing the rich scenery and numerous 
villages and country seats between the two cities. 

Weehawken, about 6 miles from the city, on the west 
side of the river, is pointed out to the traveller as the 
ground on which Gen. Hamilton fell in a duel with Col. 
Burr. 

The Lunatic Asylum is seen on elevated ground, on the 
east side of the river, about 7 miles from the city. 

The Palisadoes, which first make their appearance on 
the Hudson, about 8 miles from New- York, on the west 
side of the river, are a range of rocks from 20 to 550 feet 
in height, and extend from thence to Tappan, a distance 
of about 20 miles. In some places they rise almost per- 
pendicularly from the shore, and form, for several miles in 
extent, a solid wall of rock, diversified only by an occa- 
sional fishing hut on the beach at their base, or wood 
slides down their sides, and sometimes by an interval of a 
few acres of arable land, affording an opening for a land- 
ing place, and a steep road leading to their top. On the 
opposite side of the river, the land is varied by hill and 
dale, cultivated fields and woods, with cottages and coun- 
try seats. The land in this place, however, back from 
the river, rises in rocky hills, and becomes more precipi- 
tous as you advance into Westchester county. 

Twelve miles from New- York, the boat passes the site 
of Fort Lee, on the brow of the Palisadoes, at the height 



TAPPAN BAT — TARRYTOWN. 103 

of 300 feet above the river ; nearly opposite to which, on 
a high hill on the east side of the river, stood Fort 
Washington. In October, 1776, after the evacuation of 
New- York by the American troops, followed the battle 
of White Plains, by which name is known the high ground 
on the east, between the Hudson river and the Sound 
above Kingsbridge, whence Washington retreated to 
Peekskill. Fort Washington was then taken by the Hes- 
sians and British, and the garrison, composed of 2600 
militia and regular troops, surrendered prisoners of war. 
The surrender of Fort Lee followed soon after Washing- 
ton crossed the Hudson. 

Philipsburgh, a small but neat village, is seen on the 
east side of the river, at a distance of 17 miles from New- 
York. 

Seven miles farther, the river expands to a width 
of from two to five miles, and forms what is called 
Tappan Bay. The little village of Tappan,* a place of 
much note during Andre and Arnold's conspiracy, is situ- 
ated on its western shore, about 4 miles north of the com~. 
mencement of the Bay. The spot of Andre's grave is 
still pointed out near this village, though his remains were 
conveyed to England a few years since, by order of the 
British government. 

About 2 miles above Tappan village, on the eastern 
shore, is the village of Tarrytown, where Andre was 
captured by Paulding, Van Wart and Williams, the 
American militia-men. Paulding died some years ago, 

* This is the point at which the New- York and Erie 
rail road commences, and which it is contemplated to ex- 
tend to Lake Erie, a distance of about 470 miles. 



104 HAVERSTRAW BAY THE HIGHLANDS. 

and a monument was erected over his grave by the cor- 
poration of New- York. Van Wart died more recently, 
and. a monument to his memory has been erected by the 
citizens of Westchester county. It stands by the road 
side, in a retired valley in the town of Greenbush, about 
three miles east of Tarrytown. 

Near the northern extremity of Tappan Bay, about 9 
miles from its commencement, on the eastern shore, is 
the Sing Sing state prison. It comprises 800 dormitories 
or solitary cells, is 4 stories high, and occupies about 50 
by 500 feet of ground. From each end of the main build- 
ing, which stands parallel with the river, are carried out 
v/ings, in a westerly direction, 300 feet in extent, form- 
ing a spacious inner yard, open only to the river. The 
wings, composed of marble, are constructed for work- 
shops, a chapel, kitchen, hospital, &c. The number of 
convicts in the prison is usually from 800 to 1000. 

Sleepy Hollow, the place where Washington Irving 
locates the scene of his talc bearing that name in the 
" Sketch Book," is a short distance north of Sing Sing. 

Haverstraw Bay commences 34 miles from New- York, 
and terminates at Stony and Verplanck's Points ; being 
about 6 miles in length, and from 2 to 4 in width. Hav- 
erstraw village is on the west side of this bay, 2 miles from 
its commencement. 

The Highlands, or Fishkill Mountains, which first ap- 
pear about 40 miles from New- York, will attract notice, 
not only from their grandeur and sublimity, but also from 
their association with some of the most important events 
of the revolution. This chain of mountains is about 16 



Caldwell's landing. 105 

miles in width, and extends along both sides of the Hud* 
son, to the distance of 20 miles. The height of the prin- 
cipal has been estimated at 1565 feet. According to the 
theory of the late Doctor Mitchell, this thick and sohd 
barrier seems in ancient days to have impeded the course 
of the water, and to have raised a lake high enough to 
cover all the country to Quaker Hill and the Laconick 
Mountains on the east, and to Shawangunk and the Cats= 
kill Mountains on the west ; extending to the Little 
Falls of the Mohawk, and to Hadley Falls on the Hud- 
son — but by some convulsion of nature, the mountain" 
chain has been broken, and the rushing waters found 
their way to the now New- York bay. -A.t the entrance 
of the Highlands, on the east side of the river, is the site 
of an old fort on Verplanck's Point, opposite to which 
stood the fort of Stony Point, which was taken from 
Gen. Wayne in 1778, and re-taken by him the same 
year. Between these points the frigate was stationed 
which received Gen. Arnold, after his treachery. 

Caldwell's Landing, 44 miles north of New-York, is 
the first landing made by the boats in ascending the river ; 
directly opposite to which is Peekskill, pleasantly situ- 
ated about half a rnUe from the river. 

A short distance north of Caldwell's, commences what 
is termed the Horse Race. This consists of an angle in the 
river, which, for a little more than a mile, takes an east- 
wardly direction, contracted to a very narrow space with- 
in bold and rocky mountains ; one of which, Anthony's 
Nose, is 1228 feet high, and is opposite the mouth of 
Montgomery creek, overlooking Forts Montgomery and 
CUnton. It was at this point, between the Nose and 



1106 "WEST POINT. 

Fort Montgomery, that a chain was stretched across the 
river by the Americans in 1777, to prevent the ascent of 
vessels ; but it was destroyed, and the two forts, under 
the command of Gen. Putnam, captured by the British 
troops under Sir Henry Chnton, when on his way to co- 
operate with Gen. Burgoyne ; the news of whose surren- 
4er, however, reached Sir Henry when he had proceeded 
as far as Kingston, 50 miles higher up, and changed his 
advance into a retreat. Bloody Pond, so called from its 
being the place in which the bodies of the slain were 
thrown after the defences of these forts, is ui the rear of 
-Fort Clinton, 

West Point, 50 miles from New- York, one of the 
most impregnable posts during the revolutionary war, is 
situated on the west side of the Hudson, near the en- 
trance of the Highlands on the north. It formed an im- 
portant fastness of the American army during the eight 
years contest with the British nation ; and the conse- 
quence attached to it, in a military point of view, was 
evinced by the repeated but unsuccessful efforts of the 
enemy to obtain it. It was here that Arnold conceived 
the plan of bartering his country for gold.* This con- 
spiracy, however, which aimed a death blow to liberty in 
the western hemisphere, resulted only in the universal 
contempt and ignominy of Arnold, and in the lamented 
death of the unfortunate Andre. There are here at pre- 

* The residence of Gen. Arnold was at the house and 
farm of Col. Beverly Robinson, opposite West Point, on 
the east bank of the Hudson. The house is still a con- 
spicuous object, as well as the one in which Arnold fixed 
his head-quarters. 



WEST POINT. 107 

sent a number of dwelling houses, and a military acade- 
my, built on the plain which forms the bank of the river, 
188 feet in height, to which a road ascends on the north 
side of the point. In the back ground, and elevated on 
a mass of rocks 598 feet in height, is the site of Fort 
Putnam. Silence and decay now mark the spot of this 
once formidable fortress. Its mouldering ruins, however, 
convey a pretty correct idea of the impregnable barrier 
its ramparts once presented to the enemies of freedom. 

The Military Academy here established by congress, 
was first organized in 1802. Of the number of applicants 
for admission to this institution, a preference is usually 
given, first, to the sons of officers of the revolution ; and 
secondly, to the sons of deceased officers of the last war. 
None are admitted under the age of 14 years, nor above 
the age of 22. The number of cadets is limited to 250, 
affording an annual admission of about 60. In addition 
to the various sciences which are taught here, the cadets 
are instructed in ail the practical minutiae of tactics ; 
comprehending the lowest duties of the private soldier^ 
as well as the highest duties of the officer. 

Several of the buildings at West Point are elegant, and 
among the number may be ranked a spacious and costly 
hotel, which is a prominent object from the river. Near 
the north eastern extremity of the parade grounds, at 
the abrupt bend of the river, stands a monument of white 
marble, consisting of a base and short column, on the for- 
mer of which is sunply inscribed on one side, " Koscius- 
ko," it having been erected to the memory of that dis- 
tinguished patriot, who resided here. Another monu- 
ment stands on the north west corner of the grounds near 
i2 



108 NEW-WINDSOR. 

the road from the landing to the hotel, upon a small hil- 
lock. It is a plain obelisk, about 20 feet high, erected by 
the late Gen. Brown, to the memory of Col. E. D. Wood, 
a pupil of the institution, who fell leading a charge at the 
sortie from Fort Erie, on the 17th September, 1814. 

On the bank of the Hudson, at the south eastern ex- 
tremity of the parade ground, and several yards beneath, 
is a spot called Kosciusko's garden, or Kosciusko's re- 
treat. It is the place to which the Polish patriot was ac- 
customed to retire to study, and which was cultivated by 
his own hands. Though now neglected, the marks of 
cultivation are perceptible in the regularity of the walks 
and the arrangement of the trees. A more delightful 
spot for recreation or repose cannot be imagined, nor one 
more suitable as a retreat from the cares of the great 
world, or a sanctuary for unfortunate patrii>tism or perse- 
cuted virtue. 

PoLLoPEL Island is situated at the northern entrance 
of the Highlands, 6 miles above West Point. It consists 
of a mass of rock, and rises near the centre of the river 
between Breakneck Hill on the east and Butter Hill on 
the west. The altitude of the latter is 1529 feet — that 
of the former is 1187 feet, and contains the rock called 
the Upper Anthony's Nose. 

New- Windsor. Passing the Highlands, the prospect 
changes into a very agreeable contrast. The bay of 
Newburgh with the village of the same name, New- 
Windsor, and on the opposite shore the village of Fishkill, 
with its numerous adjacent manufactories and country 
seats, together with a view of the Hudson for many miles 
above, form a prospect which cannot fail to impart much 



NEWBURGH. 109 

interest. The village of New-Windsor stands on the 
easi side of the river, 7 miles from West Point. It is 
cabulated for a pleasant place of residence, but in busi- 
ness it must yield to 

Newburgh. This is an incorporated village, situated 
01 the declivity of a hill on the west side of the Hudson, 
IJ miles north from West Point, and 84 south from 
Albany. It contains a population of about 5000 inhabit- 
ints. From its situation it commands an extensive in- 
tercourse and trade with the country on the west, and 
by means of the Hudson river, with New- York. 

The Hudson and Delaware rail road, which is to ex- 
tend from this village to a junction with the New- York 
and Erie rail road at the Delaware river, has been com- 
menced. 

Newburgh was for some time the head quarters of the 
American army during the revolutionary war ; and the 
" stone house" in which Gen. Washington quartered is 
still standing. On the opposite side of the river from 
Newburgh is Beacon Hill, one of the highest summits of 
the Fishkill mountains, where parties of pleasure fre-' 
quently resort in the summer season, to witness an ex- 
tent of prospect including a part of the territories of five 
different states. This hill is 1471 feet in height. Half 
a mile south is the New Beacon, or Grand Sachem, 1685 
feet above the level of the Hudson. They are called 
Beacon Hills, from the circumstance that beacons were 
erected on their summits during the revolutionary war. 
The continuation of this chain of mountains is lost in the 
Appalachian Range on the north east, and extends south 
as far as the eye can reach. Diminished in distance^ is 



110 POUGHKEEPSIE. \ 

seen West Point, environed by mountains, apparentlj re- 
posing on the surface of the Hudson, and bathing tkeir 
rocky summits in the clouds. 

Eight miles and a half north of Newburgh, in an Sje- 
vated position on the east side of the river, is the mansicn 
house of the former Gov. George Chnton ; two and a 
half miles from which, on the west side, is the small ri.- 
lage of 

Milton. This place is called the halfway place be- 
tween New- York and Albany, being 72 1-2 miles distant 
from each. 

PouGHKEEPsiE, 15 mUes north of Newburgh, is beau- 
tifully situated on elevated ground, and is seen for a con. 
eiderable distance on the river both above and below the 
town. It has a popi.tlation of between 9 and 10,000, ard 
is one of the most flemishing villages in the state. It 
contains a number of beautiful private residences, and 
ceveral public buildings highly creditable to the taste of 
the inhabitants. The streets, which are numerous, are 
well paved, and the side walks ample and neat. Man- 
sion Square and the neighboring hill, whose brow has 
been crowned with a beautiful temple of learning, afford 
a landscape of great extent and beauty. On the south 
they overlook the village and the beautiful district of 
country extending to the Fishkill range of mountains and 
the Highlands. On the west and north are seen in the 
distance the Shawangunk and Catskill mountains, the 
Hudson river intervening ; while on the east the prospect 
is bounded only by the mountainous regions of western 
Connecticut and Massachusetts. 



CiTSKILL. lO" 

Opposite PougEteepsie is a small villages called New 
Paltz. 

Hyde Park Landing is 5 miles north, on the east side 
of the river. Near it are a number of country seats. 
From thence, 4 miles farther, is a landing place, leading- 
to Staatsburgh, 1 mile distant, in the town of Hyde 
Park. From thence to Rhinebeck Landing (east side) 
is 5 miles* — thence to Redhook Lower Landing (same 
Bide) is 7 miles — thence to Redhook Upper Landing, (same 
side) 3 miles — thence 2 miles to the seat of the late Chan- 
cellor Livingston — thence 7 miles to the manor house of 
the late Lord Livingston (same side) — thence 1 mile to 
Oakhill — thence 1 mile to 

Catskill. This village takes its name from a large 
creek which flows through it, and empties into the Hud- 
son at that place. It is situated on the west bank of the^ 
river, 32 mLes from Albany, and contains a population of 
about 3000 inhabitants. On Catskill creek are a number 
of mills and manufactories, and the general appearance 
of the village is highly flattering, as it respects its future 
growth and prosperity. The Catskill and Canajoharie 
rail road, a few miles of which has been finished, com- 

*Near this place, on the west side of the river, is 
Kingston Landing, and the commencement of the Dela- 
ware and Hudson canal. It extends in a southwester- 
ly direction to the forks of the Dyberry on the Laxawax- 
en river, Pennsylvania, distant 103 miles, lockage 1438 
feet. It was originally intended by the company to have 
made this canal to Keen's pond, 1 3 miles from its present 
termination, but it has been abandoned and a rail road 
substituted, whi-'h extends 3 miles west of Keen's pond 
to the anthrac.te coal mines of Pennsylvania. 



112 PINE ORCHARD. 

mences at this place, and is to extend to Canajoharie, 
on the Mohawk river, distant about 70 miles. 

Catskill is in the immediate neighborhood of the Kats. 
hergs or CatsJcill mountains, which are seen for many 
miles along the Hudson, and here assume a truly majestic 
and sublime appearance. The highest elevation of this 
range of mountains is in the county of Greene, from 8 
to 12 miles distant from the river, including the Round 
Top, 3804 feet, and High Peak, 3718 feet in height. 
The village of Catskill, v.'hich was formerly visited prin- 
cipally by men of business, has more recently become 
the resort of people of fashion and pleasure, who design 
4 tour to the 

Fine Orchard, a place which, for several years past, 
has attracted the attention of all classes, and still con- 
tinues to draw to it numbers of those who are fond of 
novelty, and especially of the sublime and romantic 
scenery in which it abounds. Regular stages leave Cats- 
kill for the Pine Orchard daily in the warm season. The 
whole distance is 12 miles, computed as follows : From 
the village to Lawrence's tavern, 7 miles — from thence 
to the foot of the mountain, 2 miles — from thence to 
Pine Orchard, 3 miles. The distance is passed, in going, 
in about 4 hours — in returning, in about 2 hours. The 
country through which the road passes has nothing inter- 
esting in its appearance until it reaches the mountain, 
being generally uneven and barren, md diversified with 
but one or two comparatively small sps)ts of cultivation, 
upon which the eye can rest with satisJaction. A short 
time is usually taken up at Lawrence's, for the purpose 
of refreshment, before encountering the rugged ascent of 



PINE ORCHARD. 113 

the mountains. This part of the road is generally good, 
but circuitous, and often passes on the brink of some 
deep ravine, or at the foot of some frowning precipice, 
inspiring at times an unwelcome degree of terror. The 
rock upon which the hotel stands, forms a circular plat- 
form, of an xmeven surface, and includes about six 
acres. It is elevated above the Hudson upwards of 2200 
feet.* The Hotel is 140 feet in length, 24 feet in width, 
and 4 stories high, having piazzas in front of the whole 
length, and a wing extendinsr in the rear for lodging 
rooms. It is well furnished, and possesses every convene 
ience and accommodation requisite to the comfort and 
good cheer of its numerous guests. The prospect from 
Pine Orchard embraces a greater extent and more diver. 
sity of scenery than is to be found in any other part of 
the state, or perhaps of the United States. The vast va- 
riety of fields, farms, villages, towns and cities between 
the Green Mountains of Vermont on the north, the High- 
lands on the south, and the Taghknaick mountains on 
the east, together with the Hudson river, studded with, 
islands and vessels, some of which may be seen at even 
the distance of 60 miles, are apparent in a clear atmos- 

* Capt. Partridge, who visited the Catskill mountains 
in 1828, made the following barometrical observations : 

Altitude of the Mountain House, at the Pine Orchard, 
above the surface of the Hudson river at Catskill vil-. 
lage, 2212 feet. 

Do. of the same above the site of Lawrence's tavern, 
7 miles from Catskill, 1882 feet. 

Do. of the same above the turnpike gate at the foot of 
the mountain, 1574 feet. 

Do. of the same above Green's bridge, 947 feet. 



il4 ATHENS — HUDSON. 

phere to the naked eye ; and when the scene is ^adually 
unfolded, at the opening of the day, it assumes rather the 
appearance of enchantment than reality. It is not un- 
-common, at this place, to witness storms of snow and 
rain in their season, midway the mountain, while all is 
clear and serene on its summit. About 2 miles from the 
Hotel are the Kaaterskill Falls, which take their 
name frcwn the stream on which they are situated. This 
stream is an outlet of two small lakes, half a mile in 
the rear of the Hotel. Pursuing a westerly course of a 
mile and a half, the waters fall perpendicularly 175 feet, 
and after pausing a moment on a projection of the rock, 
plunge again down a precipice of 85 feet mo -e, making 
the whole descent of the falls 260 feet. The road to 
the falls is extremely rough ; but this objection will hard- 
ly deter the traveller from a visit to a spot so novel and 
romantic. 

Athens, (on the west side of the Hudson,) five miles 
above Catskill, is an incorporated village, and contains 
about 1500 inhabitants. Its situation on a gentle slope 
of land rising gradually from the river, gives it a favora- 
ble appearance. The vicinity of Athens to Hudson, im- 
mediately opposite, seems to forbid that importance in 
point of trade which its location might otherwise warrant. 
Athens furnishes a number of beautiful sites on the bank 
of the river ; some of which are already occupied by the 
elegant mansions of private gentlemen. 

The City of Hudson stands on the east side of the 
river, 27 miles south of Albany. The plain on which 
Hudson is situated rises abruptly from the river, by banks 



COXSACKIE LANDING. 115 

from 50 to 60 feet in height ; and terminates on the east, 
at the foot of high lands, which overlook the city at an 
elevation of some hundred feet, and furnish a prospect of 
the Hudson river and scenery for many miles in extent. 
The city contains about 6000 inhabitants. Claverack 
creek on the east, and Kinderhook creek on the north, 
afford every facility for mills and manufactories, in which 
Hudson abounds. On the opposite side of the river 
appear a number of country seats, with the farm houses 
and cultivation in the neighborhood of Athens and Cats- 
kill, bounded by the lofty Katsberghs, rising in the back 
ground and mingling their rugged summits with the clouds. 
The Hudson and Berkshire rail road, extending from 
Hudson to the village of West Stockbridge, is about 30 
miles long. From the latter point a road is to be con- 
structed to Springfield, from whence a rail road extends 
to Boston, noticed in the " Route from Albany to Bos- 
ton," post. 

CoxsACKiE Landing, where are several houses and 
stores, is on the west side of the river, 8 miles north of 
Hudson. From thence to Kinderhook Landing, on the 
east side, is 2 miles. The village of Kinderhook is 5 
miles east. Four miles further north is the village of 
New-Baltimore, (west side ;) thence to Coeymans, (same 
side,) 2 miles — thence to Schodack village (same side) 2 
miles — thence to Castleton Landing (east side) 2 miles — 
thence to Albany 8 miles. 



116 ALBANY. 

ALBANY 

Is the capital of the state of New- York, and in point 
of wealth, population, trade and resources, is the second 
city in the state, and the sixth or seventh in the union. 
It is situated on the west side of the Hudson river, and 
near the head of tide water. It was settled in 1 612 ; and 
next to Jamestown in Virginia, is the oldest settlement in 
the United States. In 1614, a small fort and trading 
house were built by the Dutch on an island half a mile 
below the site of the present city ; and soon afterwards 
Fort Orange, where the city now stands. The place was 
first called Aurania ; then Beverwyck, till 1625; then 
Fort Orange till 1647, and Williamstadt till 1664. For 
a long time after its foundation it was enclosed with pali- 
sadoes or pickets, as a defence against the Indians, who 
were then numerous and powerful in its vicinity. 

Though the first appearance of this city is not prepos- 
sessing to a stranger, still the taste which has been dis- 
played in the construction of its public and private build- 
ings — the constant din of commercial business which 
assails the ear of the traveller — the termination of the Erie 
canal and the Mohawk and Hudson rail road at this 
place, and many other attendant circimistances, render 
Albany an important and interesting spot. 

The city is divided into five wards, and contains many 
superb and elegant buildings. The principal avenues are 
Market, Pearl, and State streets. The two former run 
parallel with the river, and the latter is very spacious, 
extending from the Capitol to the Hudson, nearly east 
and west. Besides these, there are many other streets. 



ALBANY. 117 

less considerable in extent, but populous and crowded 
with shops and stores. 

The Capitol, which contains the legislative halls, the 
supreme and chancery court rooms of the state, the state 
library, and other apartments for public business, stands 
at the head of State street, on an elevation of 130 feet 
above the level of the river. It is a substantial stone ed- 
ifice, erected at an expense of ^120,000. It is 115 feet 
in length, 90 in breadth, and 50 feet high, consisting of 
two stories and a basement. 

The Public Square, fronting the Capitol, is arranged 
in the style of a park, and is surrounded by a costly iron 
railing, having several delightful walks and avenues. 

North of the capitol stands the Academy, one of the 
most elegantly constructed buildings in the city. It con- 
sists of free stone, 3 stories high, and 90 feet of front. 

The City Hall, fronting the foot of Washington street, 
and near the capitol square, is a costly edifice of white 
marble, displaying much taste in its structure, and is or- 
namental to the part of the city in which it stands. The 
dome is gilded, and is a conspicuous object at some dis- 
tance from the city. 

The new State Hall, located north of the City Hall, 
is constructing of white marble, and, when finished, will 
not be surpassed by any edifice in the city. It will con- 
tain the offices of the secretary of state, comptroller, 
treasurer, surveyor general, attorney general, register in 
chancery, and clerk of the supreme court. 

The Female Academy, in North Pearl street, a beau- 
tiful and classical edifice, commanding a view of the east- 



118 ALBANY. 

ern part of the city and opposite shore of the Hudson, 
under its popular principal, Mr. Cruttenden, receives an 
extensive patronage. 

The Baptist Church, on the same side of the street, 
and but a few doors from the Academy, is also a very 
elegant structure. The pediments of both buildings pro- 
jecting at suitable distances from each other, give a very 
fine appearance to the street, by relieving the monotony of 
the long line of dwelling-houses in the neighborhood, 
without materially obstructing the view of the whole. 

There are also 20 other houses of public worship, seve- 
ral of which exhibit much taste in their architecture, six 
banks, and one of the best museums in the country. 

The Merchant's Exchange, built of granite, is located 
on the corner of State and North Market streets. 

Hotels. — The principal hotels in Albany, are the Ea- 
gle Tavern, South Market street ; American Hotel, State 
street ; Congress Hall, Capitol Square ; Mansion House, 
City Hotel and Temperance House, North Market street. 
These are all first rate establishments, handsomely furnish- 
ed and well kept. 

On a less expensive scale, are the Fort Orange Hotel, 
Columbian Hotel, and Montgomery Hall, South Market 
street ; and the Franklin House and Rail Road Hotel, 
State street. 

During the sessions of the New- York Legislature, Al- 
bany is crowded with strangers, and contains much of 
the legal talent and learning of the state. The city is eli- 
gibly situated for trade, being a great thoroughfare for the 
northern and western sections of the country. 



EXCURSION TO THE SPRINGS. 119 

The Albany Basin, where the waters of the Erie canal 
unite with the Hudson, consists of a part of the river in- 
cluded between the shore and an artificial pier erected 80 
feet in width and 4300 feet in length. The pier contains 
about 8 acres, and is connected with the city by draw 
bridges. It is a grand and stupendous work, on which 
spacious and extensive stores have been erected, and 
where an immense quantity of lumber and other articles 
of trade are deposited. The basin covers a surface of 
32 acres. 

EXCURSION TO THE SPRINGS. 

There are two distinct routes — one by the way of 
Schenectady, the other by the way of Troy. We give a 
sketch of each. 

Route by the way of Schenectaday — 37 miles. 

The intermediate distances are as follow : 



Miles. 
From Albany to Buel's 

Farm, 3 

Schenectady, 12 



Miles. 

Ballston Lake, 10 

Ballston Spa, 5 

Saratoga Springs, .... 7 



The route is by the way of the Mohawk and Hudson 
and the Saratoga and Schenectady rail roads, the hne 
being continuous to Saratoga Springe, and a passage 
effected in about 3 1-2 hours. The carriages of the Mo- 
hawk and Hudson company start several times a day 
from the depot on the north side of State street, a little 
below the Capitol Square in Albany, and the trains on 
the Saratoga and Schenectady road are made to corres- 
pond therewith. 

k2 



120 SCHENECTADY. 

The Farm and Nursery of the late Jesse Buel, Esq. 
under a high state of cultivation, are crossed by the rail 
road, about three miles from Albany. 

At the " head of the plane," within a mile of the 
western extremity of the rail road, a beautiful view is 
obtained of the Erie canal, the Mohawk river, and the 
city of Schenectady. A double stationary engine is 
placed here, v/liich is used in letting carriages down a de- 
clivity of 115 feet, half a mile in extent. From thence 
the road extends to the city, uniting with the Saratoga 
and with the Utica rail roads, the latter of which is no- 
ticed in the route to Buffalo, post. 

SCHENECTADY, 

Ffteen miles from Albany, and 22 from Saratoga 
Springs, is situated on the Mohawk, a broad and beauti- 
ful river, which forms its northern boundary. It was 
burnt by the Indians in 1690, and suffered a considerable 
conflagration in 1819, since which event the antique ap- 
pearance of the city has been much improved by the in- 
troduction of modern architecture. 

Union College is built on an eminence, which over- 
looks the city and the Mohawk for a number of miles. 
The college consists at present of two brick edifices, but 
the plan includes a chapel and other bulidings hereafter 
to be erected, in the rear, and between those already con- 
structed. At this institution about 100 students are an- 
nually graduated. In numbers and respectabilty Unior 
College may be ranked among the most favored semina. 
ries in our country. 



BALLSTON LAKE. 121 

The city contains three banks, six churches, a spacious 
and handsome city hall, and a population of about 6000 
inhabitants. 

The Saratoga and Schenectady rail road, passing 
through the city, crosses the Mohawk river on a substan- 
tial bridge between 8 and 900 feet long, and extends in a 
northerly direction over a heavy embankment for three 
fourths of a mile to a deep cut, where the Utica road di- 
verges to the west, and the Saratoga to the northeast. 
This course is pursued until it enters the valley of the 
Eelplace creek, when it curves and maintains a northerly 
course, passing along the elegant and verdant banks of 
the Ballston Lake, and enters the eastern part of the vil. 
lage of Ballston Spa, on a curvature of considerable ex- 
tent. From this point the road passes in a northerly 
direction over the main street, on a bridge about 15 feet 
high, and by means of a heavy embankment, reaches the 
high grounds north of the village. From thence a north- 
easterly course is taken across the Kayaderosseras creek, 
and continues in nearly a straight line to Saratoga 
Springs. 

Ballston Lake, or Long Lake as it is sometimes call- 
ed, is 10 miles from Schenectady. A farm house between 
the lake and road, owned by Mr. Ehsha Curtis, was for- 
merly the residence of a man of the name of M'Donald, 
the guide of Sir William Johnson, on his first visit to the 
mineral springs at Saratoga, in 1767. Mr. M'D. was a 
native of Ireland, and on his first arrival in America, set- 
tled with his brother, in 1763, on this spot, where he con- 
tinued to reside until his decease, in 1823. Sir William 
passed some days at this house at the time of the visit 



122 BALLSTON SPA. 

above mentioned. The lake is a beautiful sheet of water 
5 miles long and 1 broad. The scenery around affords a 
pleasant landscape of cultivation and wood lands, no less 
inviting to the sportsman than the soft bosom of the lake 
and its finny inhabitants to the amateurs of the rod. 

BALLSTON SPA, 

Is 5 miles farther. The village lies in the town of 
Milton, in the county of Saratoga; and is situated in a 
low valley, through the centre of which flows a branch 
of the Kayaderosseras, with whose waters it mingles at 
the east end of the village. The natural boundaries of 
Ballston Spa are well defined by steep and lofty hills of 
sand on the north and west, and by a ridge of land which 
gradually slopes inward, and encircles the village on the 
south and east. The broad and ample Kayaderosseras 
flows on the northeast boundary of the village, and fur- 
nishes a favorite resort for the sportsman or for the loit- 
erer along its verdant banks. The village contains 
150 houses, and about 1400 inhabitants. Besides the 
court house for the county, located here, there are 4 
churches, a bank, 2 printing offices and a book-store, 
with which a reading room is connected, for the accom- 
modation of visitants. 

Ballston Spa principally derives its celebrity from the 
mineral springs which flow here and at Saratoga in equal 
abundance. The spring first discovered in the vicinity 
stands on the flat in the west part of the village. Under 
an impression that the stone curb and flaging with which 
it was formerly surrounded, had an influence, by their 
weight, in diverting a portion of the fountain from its 



BALLBTON SPA. 



123 



natural course, they were removed some years since, so 
that it is now merely surrounded with an iron railing. 

The spring flows now, probably, from the place where 
it originally issued, some feet below the surrounding sur- 
face, which has been elevated by additions of earth, for 
the purpose of improving the street in which it stands. 

Near this spring, in boring a few years since, a mineral 
fountain called the New Washington Spring, was dis- 
covered at a considerable depth beneath the surface. Its 
qualities are somewhat similar to those of the spring last 

mentioned. 

The Sans Souci Spring is situated in the rear of the 
Sans Souci, and is considered the most prominent foun- 
tain in the village. According to an analysis of Doct. 
Steel, one gallon of the water contains the following in- 
gredients : chloride of sodium, 143 2-3 grs. ; bicarbonate 
of soda 12 1-2 grs. ; bicarbonate of magnesia, 39 grs. ; 
carbonate of lime, nearly 6 grs.; hydriodate of soda, 
11-2 grs. ; silex, 1 gr. Near this fountain is a commodi- 
ous bathing house ; to which, not only the waters of this, 
but of a number of other adjacent springs, are tributary. 
Between the springs already mentioned, there was dis- 
covered in the summer of 1817, a mineral spring, called 
the Washington Fountain. It rose on the margin of the 
creek in front of the factory building, flowing through a 
curb 28 feet long, sunk to the depth of 23 feet, and was 
liberated at the top in the form of a beautiful jet cfeau ; 
but the spring disappeared in 1821. An effort to recover 
it in the summer of 1839, was partially successful ; but 
whether it can ever be restored to original purity and 
beauty, is very questionable. 



124 BALLSTON SPA. 

Low's Spring is near the Sans Souci, and is very simi- 
lar to that fountain in its properties. 

The Park Spring is m the rear of the Village Hotel, 
and was obtained by boring to a depth of 270 feet. A 
copious stream flows therefrom. The water, however, 
affords much less of the salme substances than either of 
the other springs. 

The principal ingredients of these waters consist of 
muriate of soda, carbonate of soda, carbonate of lime, 
carbonate of magnesia, and carbonate of iron ; all of 
which, in a greater or less degree, enter into the compo- 
sition of the waters, both here and at Saratoga. 

The principal boarding houses are the Sans Souci, the 
Village Hotel and Mansion House. 

The Sans Souci, with its yards and out-houses, occu- 
pies an area of some acres in the east part of the village. 
The plan of the building, with the extensive improve- 
ments around it, do much credit to the taste and libe- 
rality of its proprietor. The edifice is constructed of 
wood, three stories high, 160 feet in length, with two 
wings extending back 1^3 feet, and is calculated for the 
accommodation of 150 boarders. It is surrounded by a 
beautiful yard, ornamented with a variety of trees and 
shrubbery, which, with its extensive piazzas and spacious 
halls, render it a delightful retreat during the oppressive 
heat of summer. 

The Village Hotel is in a convenient situation, a 
few rods west of the Sans Souci. It is kept by the pro- 
prietor, Mr. Clark, and is in every respect an agreeable 
and pleasant boarding place. 



FROM ALBANY VIA TROY TO SARATOGA. 125 

The Mansion House, near the rail road bridge, is also 
well kept by Mr. Williams, its tenant. 

Mails arrrive at and depart from Ballston Spa every 
day. Besides a post office at the village, there is one in 
the town of Ballston, about three miles distant, to which 
letters are frequently missent, owing to the neglect of 
correspondents in making the proper direction. 

The reading room and library may be resorted to at all 
times, and for a moderate compensation. Papers are 
there furnished from aU parts of the Union. 

Route from Albany by the way of Troy to Saratoga 

Springs — 37 miles. 
The intermediate distances are as follow : 

By stage or steamboat. 

Miles. 
From Albany to Troy, • 6 



By rail road. 
Waterford, 4 



Miles. 

Mechanicsville, 8 

Ballston Spa, 12 

Saratoga Springs, 7 



A stage or steamboat can be taken hourly at Albany 
for Troy. By the former mode of conveyance, the first 
object which usually attracts the attention of the tourist 
is the mansion of Gen. Stephen Van Rensselaer, the 
patroon, and a son of the late patroon of the manor of 
Rensselaerwick.* It stands immediately adjoining the 
northern bounderies of Albany, and is one of the most 
elegant situations in the United States. 

The Macadamized Road between Albany and West 
Troy, commences at this place. It runs parallel with the 



* This manor comprises a great portion of the counties 
of Albany and Rensselaer — the city and several patents 
excepted. 



126 V. S. ARSENAL — WEST TROY. 

Erie canal, near its western bank, is between 5 and 6 
miles long, of a width sufficient for three carriages to 
run abreast, and is one of the best roads on the con- 
tinent. It is the property of an incorporated company, 
who have expended between ^90,000 and ^100,000 in 
its construction. 

Five miles from Albany, in the village of West Troy, 
is the United States Arsenal, consisting of handsome 
brick and stone buildings, beautifully located on the wes- 
tern bank of the Hudson. There are here a large quan. 
tity of arms and munitions of war, with workshops for 
repairing them, manufacturing locks, &c. The muskets, 
bayonets, swords and pistols are arranged with great 
taste, and kept in fine order. Among the cannon in the 
yard are four 12 pounders, one 24, and one howitzer, ta- 
ken at Saratoga ; four 12's and one howitzer, taken at 
Yorktown ; two long antique pieces and one eight inch 
mortar, taken at Stony Point ; two old French 4 poun- 
ders and 14 guns, sent by Louis XVI. to the continental 
congress in the revolution — all of brass, and most of them 
highly ornamented, with each an individual name and 
the inscription " ultima ratio regium." There are also 
three or four howitzers which were cast in New- York and 
Philadelphia in the revolution, bearing the initials U>. C. 
for United Colonies. 

The village of West Troy has rapidly increased with- 
in a few years. It contains a bank and several manu- 
facturing establishments, and is a place of much activity 
and enterprize. The river is here crossed in a ferry 
boat, to 



TROY. 127 



TROY. 

The city is bounded on the east by a range of hills 
rising abruptly from the alluvial plain on which the city 
is situated, extending to the Hudson river. In point 
of location and beautiful natural scenery, Troy is exceed- 
ed by {ew, if any, of the towns and villages on the Hud- 
son. The streets, running north and south, converge to- 
gether at the north end of the city, and are crossed at 
right angles by those running east and west. The build- 
ings are principally built of brick, and are shaded by 
rows of trees on each side of the streets, which are pre- 
served remarkably clean by additions of slate and gravel 
instead of pavements. The city contains 6 banks, 12 
churches, a court house, jail and market. The Episco- 
pal Church is a superb specimen of Gothic architecture, 
probably not exceeded in the United States. It has a 
venerable and imposing appearance, and needs nothing 
but a quantity of moss and ivy to make it the picture 
of one of those ancient abbeys so often to be met with 
in the wTitings of Sir Walter Scott. The New Presby- 
terian Church also displays great taste and hberality in 
its construction, and is highly ornamental to that part of 
the city in which it stands. 

The Court House, built of Sing Sing marble, is a 
splendid edifice after the Grecian model, perfectly chaste 
n and classic in all its parts. 

The Female Seminary, incorporated by an act of the 
; legislature, is a large three story brick building erected 
by the city corporation. The institution is under the 
government of a female principal, assisted by vice princi- 



128 TROY. 

pals and several teachers, whose exertions have given it a 
deserved celebrity over similar institutions in the state. 

PUBLIC HOUSES. 

The Troy House, near the termination of the rail road 
in River street, is a spacious and elegant establishment, 
with a court yard in the centre, and kept in a style cor- 
responding with that of the most favored establishments 
in the union. 

The Mansion House, a little farther north, is on a 
scale equally chaste and spacious, in front of which is a 
handsome square and a beautiful marble fountain or jet 
Cfeau, which diffuses a delightful coolness through the 
atmosphere, and attracts the observation of every stran^ 
ger. 

The Washington Hall, National Hotel and Amer- 
ICAN Hotel are also very neat establishments, and well 
patronized. 

The city is abundantly supplied with excellent water 
from the neighboring hills, on the Philadelphia plan, ex- 
cept, that in that city it is raised by artificial means, and 
in this by its natural head, being 75 feet above the level I 
of the city. On the corner of each street is a hydrant, 
and a hose placed on this sends the water up higher and 
with much greater force than a fire engine. From this 
source is obtained the supply for several artificial ^un- 
tains on the public squares and in private gardens. 

Troy is proverbial for its enterprise. This, with its local 
advantages, have given it a growth and prosperity equal- 
led by few and excelled by none of the cities at the north. 
Its population in 1830 was 11,605 ; in 1835, 16,959 ; and 
at the present period (1840) cannot be less than 20,000. 



* RENSSELAER AND SARATOGA RAIL ROAD. 129 

North-east of the plain upon which Troy is built, and 
about a quarter of a mile from the river, Mount Ida rises 
abruptly to the heigh !, of three or four hundred feet ; from 
whose summit there is a very extensive prospect of the 
Hudson river and the adjacent country, embracing Wa- 
terford, Lansingburgh, the locks at the junction of the 
Erie and Champlain canals, nearly the whole of Troy, 
and a part of Albany. 

About a mile above the city, a dam has been thrown 
across the river, and a lock constructed, affording a sloop 
navigation to the village of Waterford. 

The Rensselaer and Saratoga Rail Road com- 
mences in River street near the Troy House, and passes 
up that street to the northern part of the city, where it 
crosses the main channel of the Hudson river on a superb 
covered bridge, 1512 feet long, to Green Island. From 
thence it proceeds in a northerly direction to Van 
Schaick's Island, which is connected witli Green Island 
by a bridge 482 feet long over one of the sprouts of the 
Mohawk river. Another bridge over another sprout is 
then passed in reaching Hawver Island ; and from thence 
to the village of Waterford a third bridge is crossed in 
passing over the third or minor sprout. At Waterford 
the road passes through one of the principal streets, and 
from thence continues a northerly course through the rich 
valley of the Hudson, between the river and the Cham- 
plain canal, for a distance of 8 miles, to Mcchanicsville ; 
when, after crossing the canal, it curves to the north- 
west, and pursuing the valley of " the creek," so called, 
passes the Round lake, about 4 miles from Mcchanics- 
ville. The Mourning creek is reached in going 6 miles 



130 LANSINGBURGH WATERFORD. 

farther ; from whence the road runs nearly parallel with 
and in sight of the Saratoga and Schenectady rail road 
for a distance of two miles, to the village of Ballston Spa ; 
where the two roads unite, and the carnages of both 
roads, by an arrangement between the two companies, 
are taken in the same train to Saratoga Springs. 

From Green Island, a bridge extends across the west 
channel of the Hudson to West Troy. 

Van Schaick's Island is formed by the sprouts of the 
Mohawk river joining with the Hudson river, 3 miles 
north of Troy. This spot is noted for being the head 
quarters of the American army in 1777 ; from whence 
they marched, in September of the same year, to the de- 
cisive victory over Burgoyne, at Bemus' Heights. 

Lansingburgh, on the eastern bank of the Hudson, di- 
rectly opposite Van Schaick's Island, is principally built 
on a single street, running parallel with the river. A 
high hill rises abruptly behind the village, on which is seen 
the celebrated diamond rock, which at times emits a 
brilliant lustre from the reflected rays of the sun. The 
appearance of Lansingburgh by no means indicates a 
high state of prosperity, though it contains several very 
handsome private residences. The village has a bank, 
six places of public worship, and an academy. Its popu- 
lation is about 3000. 

Waterford is one mile farther. The village is situa- 
ted at the junction of the Mohawk with the Hudson, and 
derives considerable importance from the navigation of 
small vessels, which, by means of the lock and dam below, 
at most seasons of the year arrive and depart to and from 



COHOES FALLS — THE JUNCTION. 131 

its docks. The village contains a population of about 
1600 inhabitants. It enjoys many advantages for trade, 
and its importance is much increased by the Champlain 
canal, which here communicates with the Hudson river. 

A very permanent bridge crosses the Hudson at this 
place, connecting with a road leading to Laiisingburgh. 

At Waterford, if leisure will permit, the tourist will find 
it interesting to stop a day, for the purpose of visiting the 
CoHOEs Falls, and the adjoining factories on the Mo- 
hawk river, about a mile from the village. The perpen- 
dicular fall is about 40, and including the descent above, 
about 70 feet. The lofty barrier of rocks which confine 
the course of the Mohawk — the distant roar of the cata- 
ract — the dashing of the waters as they descend in rapids 
beneath you — and the striking contrast of the torrent 
with the solitude of the scenery above, contribute to 
render the whole an unusual scene of sublimity and 
grandeur. It was in taking a view of these falls, sev- 
eral years since, that the poet Moore composed one of 
his best fugitive pieces. Indeed, the scenery and every 
thing connected with this interesting spot, are calculated 
to afford ample subjects for the poet and painter. 

Between this place and Schenectady the canal is car- 
ried twice across the Mohawk. The lov/er aqueduct, as 
it is called, two and a half miles from the falls, is 1 1 88 
feet — the other, 12 miles further, is 750 feet long. 

The Junction of the Erie and Champlain canals, about 
a mile from the falls, should also be visited in the ex- 
cursion. Here, within the space of three quarters of a 
mile, are 17 locks ; and the number of boats constantly 

l2 



132 SARATOGA SPRINGS. 

passing through, present a spectacle of activity and bu- 
siness of a higlily novel character. 

Mechanicsville, 8 miles from Waterford, (pursuing 
the route of the rail road,) is a small manufacturing vil- 
lage on the bank of the Hudson. The hydraulic power, 
however, here derived, is from " the creek," the outlet 
of the Round lake, mentioned at page 129. 

Ballston Spa, 12 miles farther, has been already no- 
ticed at p. 122. 

SARATOGA SPRINGS 

Is situated seven miles northeasterly from Ballston 
Spa. The village is located on an elevated spot of ground, 
surrounded by a productive level country, and enjoys, if not 
the advantage of prospect, at least a salubrious air and 
climate, contributing much to the health and benefit of 
its numerous visitants. It contains about 200 dwellings, 
and a population of 2000 inhabitants. The springs, so 
justly celebrated for their medicinal virtues, are situated 
on the margin of a vale, bordering the village on the east, 
and are the continuation of a chain of springs discovering 
themselves about 12 miles to the south, in the town of 
Ballston, and extending easterly in the form of a crescent, 
to the Quaker village, 7 or 8 miles in an easterly direc- 
tion from Saratoga Springs. The springs in the immedi- 
ate vicinity of the latter place are lO or 12 in number, 
the principal of which are the Congress, the Iodine or 
Walton, Putnam's Congress, the Monroe, the Hamilton, 
the Flat Rock, the High Rock, the Columbian and the 
Washington. A new spring, affording a very copious 
supply and apparently very saline, was discovered in the 



SARATOGA SPRINGS. 133 

fall of 1839, a short distance south of the Flat Rock; 
but no analysis had been made at the time of the publi- 
cation of this volume, to enable us to speak particularly 
of its properties. 

About a mile northeast of the village, there are also a 
cluster of fountains, called the Ten Springs. 

The Congress Spring is situated at the south end of 
the village, and is owned by Doct. John Clarke ; to 
whose liberality the public are much indebted for the im- 
provements that have been made in the grounds adjoin- 
ing the fountain, for the purity in which its waters are 
preserved, and for an elegant colonnade erected over the 
spring, affording a convenient promenade to visitants. 

The spring was first discovered in the summer of 1792, 
issuing from a crevice in the rock, a few feet from its 
present location. Here it flowed for a number of years, 
until an attempt to improve the surface around it pro- 
duced an accidental obstruction of its waters, which af- 
terwards made their appearance at the place where they 
now flow. It is enclosed by a tube sunk into the earth 
to the distance of 12 or 14 feet, which secures it from the 
water of a stream, adjoining which it is situated. 

From an analysis made by Doct. Steel, it appears that 
a gallon of the water contains the following substances : 
chloride of sodium, 385 grs, ; hydriodate of soda, 3 1-2 
grs. ; bicarbonate of soda, nearly 9 grs. ; bicarbonate of 
magnesia, nearly 96 grs. ; carbonate of hme, a httle more 
than 98 grs. ; carbonate of iron, upwards of 5 grs. ; silex 
1 1 .2 grs. ; carbonic acid gas, 31 1 cubic inches ; atmos- 
pheric air, 7 do. 



134 SARATOGA SPRINGS. 

To this spring perhaps more than any other spot on the 
globe, are seen repairing, in the summer mornings before 
breakfast, persons of almost ever}^ grade and condition, 
from the most exalted to the most abject : the beautiful 
and the deformed — the rich and the poor — the devotee of 
pleasure and the invalid — all congregate here, for pur- 
poses as various as are their situations in life. To one 
fond of witnessing the great diversity in the human char- 
acter, this place affords an ample field for observation. 
So well, indeed, has it been improved by the little urchins 
who dip water at the fountain, that an imposing exterior 
is sure to procure for its possessor their services, while in- 
dividuals less richly attired, or whose physiognomy indi- 
cate a less liberal disposition, are often compelled to wait 
till it is more convenient to attend to their wants. 

Most persons soon become fond of the water ; but the 
effect on those who taste it for the first time is fre- 
quently unpleasant. To such the other fountains are 
generally more palatable, having a less saline taste than 
the Congress. 

The Iodine or Walton Spring, is located a few rods 
north of the High Rock, and was discovered in the au- 
tumn of 1838. It flows copiously through a tube sunk to 
a depth of 6 or 8 feet — is very pure and pungent — and 
while it contains most of the properties of the other foun- 
tains, in a greater or less degree, is remarkable for its free- 
dom from iron. According to an analysis made by Pro- 
fessor Emmons, one gallon of this water contains, muriate 
of soda, 137 grs. ; carbonate of lime, 26 grs. ; carbonate 
of iron, 1 gr. ; carbonate of magnesia, 75 grs. ; carbonate 
of soda, 2 grs. ; hydriodate of soda, or iodine, 3 1-2 grs. ; 



SARATOGA SPRINGS. 135 

carbonic acid gas, 330 cubic inches ; atmospheric air, 4 
inches. 

The approach to this fountain has been rendered easy ; 
and it is already beginning to be a place of very consid- 
erable resort. It bids fair, indeed, to become as efficacious 
and celebrated as any mineral spring yet discovered. 

The Monroe Spring, a few rods north of the Flat 
Rock, is remarkable for its sparkling and pungent quahties, 
and is justly ranked among the favored fountains of the 
village. 

Near it is a strong sulphur spring, (recently discover- 
ed,) which supplies a commodious bathing estabUshment 
on the premises. 

Putnam's Congress (deriving its name from the dis- 
coverer and owner) is a few rods north of the Hamilton 
Spring. A mineral fountain flowed from the same local- 
ity for several years, without any particular notice, and 
the present sprmg has been obtained by sinking a tube 
to a considerable depth. It is a valuable and popular 
fountai n. 

The High Rock is situated on the west side of the 
valley, skirting the east side of the village, about half a 
mile north of the Congress. The rock enclosing this 
spring is in the shape of a cone, 9 feet in diameter at its 
base, and five feet in height. It seems to have been 
formed by a concretion of particles thrown up by the 
water, which formerly flowed over its summit through 
an aperture of about 12 inches diameter, regularly di- 
verging from the top of the cone to its base- This spring 
was visited in the year 1767 by Sir William Johnson, 
but was known long before by the Indians, who were 



136 SARATOGA SPRINGS. 

first led to it either by accident or by the frequent haunts 
of beasts, attracted thither by the sahne properties of the 
water. A building was erected near the spot previous to 
the revolutionary war ; afterwards abandoned, and again 
resmned ; since whicli the usefulness of the water has, 
from time to time, occasioned frequent settlements with- 
in its vicinity. 

The water now rises within 2 feet of the summit, and 
a common notion prevails that it has found a ])assage 
through a fissure of the rock occasioned by the fall of a 
tree ; since which event it has ceased to flow over its 
bruik. This opinion, however, may be doubted. It is 
probable that the decay of the rock, which commenced 
its formation on the natural surface of the earth, may 
have yielded to the constant motion of the water, and at 
length opened a passage between its decayed base and 
the loose earth on which it was formed. This idea is 
strengthened from the external appearance of the rock 
at its eastern base, which has already been penetrated by 
the implements of curiosity a number of inches. 

Between the Iodine Spring in tlie upper village, and 
the Washington in the south part of the lower village, 
are situated most of the other mineral springs in which 
this place abounds. At four of the principal fountains, 
the Putnam's Congress, Hamilton, Monroe and Washing- 
ton, large and convenient bathing houses have been erect- 
ed, which are constantly resorted to for pleasure as well as 
health, during the warm season. 

The mineral waters both at Ballston and Saratoga are 
supposed to be the product of the same great labrato- 
ry, and they all possess nearly the same properties, va- 



SARATOGA SPRINGS. 137 

rying only as to the quantity of the different articles held 
in solution. They are denominated acidulous saline and 
acidulous chalybeate. Of the former are the Congress, 
Iodine, Monroe, Putnam's Congress, the Hamilton, and 
High Rock, at Saratoga ; and of the latter are the Co- 
lumbian, Flat Rock, and Washington, at Saratoga, and 
the Old Spring, and Sans Souci, at Ballston. The waters 
contain muriate of soda, hy driodatc of soda, carbonate of 
soda, carbonate of lime, carbonate of magnesia, oxide of 
iron, and some of them a minute quantity of sUicia and 
alumina. Large quantities of carbonic acid gas are also 
contained in the waters, giving to them a sparkling and 
lively appearance. 

The late Doct. Steel, in his geological report of the 
county of Saratoga, published a few years since, remarks, 
that " the temperature of the water in all these wells is 
about the same, rangmg from 48 to 52 degrees on Faren- 
heifs scale ; and they suffer no sensible alteration from 
any variation in the temperature of the atmosphere ; nei- 
ther do the variations of the seasons appear to have much 
effect on the quantity of water produced. 

" The waters are remarkably Hmpid, and when first 
dipped sparkle with all the life of good champaign. The 
saline waters bear bottling very well, particularly the 
Congress,* immense quantities of which are put up in this 
way, and transported to various parts of the world ; not, 
however, without a considerable loss of its gaseous prop- 
erty, which renders its taste much more insipid than 
when drank at the well. The chalybeate water is also 

* The water of the Iodine Spring is also equally favor- 
able for bottling. 



138 SARATOGA SPRINGS. 

put up in bottles for transportation, but a very trifling loss 
of its gas produces an immediate precipitation of its iron ; 
and hence this water, when it has been bottled for some 
time, frequently becomes turbid, and finally loses every 
trace of iron ; this substance fixing itself to the walls of 
the bottle. 

" The most prominent and perceptible effects of these 
waters, when taken into the stomach, are cathartic, diu. 
retic and tonic. They are much used in a great variety 
of complaints ; but the diseases in v/hich they are most 
efficacious are jaundice and bilious affections generally, 
dyspepsia, habitual costiveness, hypochondrical com- 
plaints, depraved appetite, calculous and enphritic com- 
plaints, phagedenic or ill-conditioned ulcers, cutaneous 
eruptions, chronic rheumatism, some species or states of 
gout, some species of dropsy, scrofula, paralysis, scorbutic 
affections and old scorbutic ulcers, amenorrhea, dysme- 
norrhea and clorosis. In phthisis, and indeed all other 
pulmonary affections arising from primary diseases of the 
lungs, the waters are manifestly injurious, and evidently 
tend to increase the violence of the disease. 

" Much interest has been excited on the subject of the 
source of these singular waters ; but no researches have 
as yet unfolded the mystery. The large proportion of 
common salt found among their constituent properties 
may be accounted for without much difficulty — all the 
salt springs of Europe, as v/ell as those of America, being 
found in geological situations exactly corresponding to 
these ; but the production of the unexampled quantity of 
carbonic acid gas, the medium through which the other 
articles are held in solution, is yet, and probably will re- 



SARATOGA SPRINGS, 139^ 

iriam a subject of mere speculation. The low and regu- 
lar temperature of the water seems to forbid the idea that 
it is the eifect of subterranean heat, as many have sup- 
posed, and the total absence of any mineral acid, except- 
ing the muriatic, which is combined with soda, does away 
the possibility of its being the efFect of any combination 
of that kind. Its production is therefore truly unaccount- 
able."* 

In addition to the springs already enumerated, a sul- 
phur SPRING was discovered a few years since in the vi- 

* An analysis of the waters at this place and at Ballston 
Spa was made and published by Doct. Steel some years 
since, which received the sanction of the most scientific 
men in this country and in Europe. Subsequently, and 
shortly before his death in 1838, he prepared an entire 
new work, which has since been published, embracing 
not only an analysis of the springs and directions for 
their use in the various diseases in which they have proved 
beneficial, but also a full and interesting history of their 
discovery, and of the rise and progress of the villages in 
which they are located. The literary attainments of 
Doct. S. and his great experience from a long residence 
at this place, enabled him to render this work far su- 
perior to any thing of the kind which has appeared, or 
which will probably soon appear. It ought also to be 
remarked, that no invalid should attempt the use of these 
waters without the direction of a physician well acquaint- 
ed with their properties. A contrary course, under the 
too prevalent and erroneous impression that they may be 
drank in all complaints, in any quantity, and at all hours 
of the day, has been attended in many instances with 
deleterious and sometimes with fatal consequences. 
There can be no doubt of their great efficacy in most 
complaints, when properly used ; yet ill-timed and too 
copious draughts not only fail of removing complaints, 
but frequently engender them. 



146 SARATOGA BPRINGS. 

cinity of the Hamilton Spring, in the rear of the Congress 
Hall. It rises from a depth of about 20 feet, and afFords 
an ample supply of water for the bathing house with 
which it is connected. 

The boarding establishments of the first class at Sara- 
toga Springs are the Congress Hall and Union Hall at 
the south end of the village, the Pavilion at the north, 
and the United States Hotel in a central situation be- 
tween them. Besides these, there are a number of other 
boarding houses on a less extensive scale, the most noted 
of vrhich are the American and the Adelphi in the south 
part, the Columbian Hotel and Washington Hall in the 
north part of the village, and the Rail Road House cen- 
trally located. Prospect Hall, kept by Mr, Benjamin R. 
Putnam, is on a beautiful site about one mile north-west 
of the village, and is a very respectable establishment. 
Higliland Hall, half a mile south of the Congress Spring, 
is also a pleasant house, and well patronized. 

The Congress Halt., kept by Messrs, Seaman and 
Munger, is situated within a few rods of the Congress 
Spring, to which a handsome vf alk shaded with trees has 
been constructed for the convenience of guests. The 
edifice is 200 feet in length, 3 stories high besides an at- 
tic, and has two wings extending back, one 60, and the 
other about 100 feet. In front of the hall, handsomely 
shaded with shrubbery and trees, is a spacious piazza, 
So feet in width, expending the whole length of the 
building, with a canopy from the roof, supported by 17 
columns, each of which is gracefully entwined with 
woodbine. There is also a back piazza, which opens 
upon a beautiful garden annexed to the establishment. 



SARATOGA SPRINGS, 



141 



and a small grove of pines, afFordinj^ both fragrance and 
shade to its numerous guests. The Congress Hall can 
accommodate from 250 to 300 visitants, and is justly 
ranked among the most elegant establishments in the 
union. 

The United States Hotel, kept by Messrs. Thomas 
and Marvin, with its gardens and out buildings, occupies 
a space in the centre of the village of about five acres. 
The main building is composed of brick, 186 feet long, 3& 
feet wide, and 4 stories high. It has two wings extend- 
ing westwardly — one 204 feot, and the other 163 feet 
long. Attached to the establishment are also two cotta- 
ges, contiguous to one of the wings. A broad piazza 
stretches across the main building in front, and is con- 
nected with piazzas in the rear, so as to form a continu- 
ous promenade of more than 700 feet. The interior 
arrangements are on a proportionate scale — the dining 
room being 200 feet long, and with the drawing-rooms, 
pubUc and private parlours, equalling if not surpassing, 
in extent and elegance, any similar establishment. The 
groimd in the rear is handsomely laid out into walks, and 
the whole tastefully ornamented with trees and shrubbery. 
The front is also shaded by a double row of forest trees 
extending the whole length of the building.- 1 he hotel 
is situated equi- distant from the Congress and Flat Rock 
springs, commanding a view of the whole village ; and 
from its fourth story a distinct prospect is had of the sur- 
rounding country for a number of miles. This establish- 
ment can accommodate 400 visitants, and is probably the 
largest and one of the most expensive of the kind in the 
United States. 



142 SARATOGA SPRINGS. 

The Pavilion is located in a pleasant part of the villa^, 
immediately in front of the Flat Rock spring. The 
building is constructed of wood, 136 feet long, with a 
wing extending back from the centre of the main buildmg 
80 feet, and another extending along Church street, of 
200 feet, affording numerous private parlors, communi- 
eating with lodging rooms, for the convenience of families. 
The main building is two and a half stories high, with the 
addition of an attic which, with the handsome piazza in 
front, sustained by delicate colonnades, renders it, in beau- 
ty and proportion, one of the first models of architecture 
in the country. The large rooms of the Pavilion are so 
•constructed, that by means of folding doors the whole of 
the lower apartments may be thrown into one — an advan- 
tage which gives much additional interest to the promen- 
ade and cotillion parties, which frequently assemble on 
this extensive area. Handsome walks, shaded with trees, 
are attached to the establishment, affording its guests 
ample space for a quiet and cool retreat. The Pavilion 
is calculated for the accommodation of about 250 visi- 
tants. 

The Union Hall is one of the earliest and most re- 
spectable establishments in the vicinity, and is situated 
directly opposite the Congress Hall. It presents a hand- 
some front, 120 feet long, 3 stories high, with two wings 
extending west 60 feet, and also an adjoining building, 
nearly 100 feet long, fitted up with parlors, &c. for private 
families. The Hall is ornamented in front by 10 col- 
umns, which rise to nearly the height of the building, and 
support the roof of a spacious piazza. A garden in the 
rear also contributes to the pleasantness of the establish- 



SARATOGA SPRINGS. 14? 

ment. It is kept by Messrs. R. &, W. Putnam, and 
ranks in point of elegance and respectability with ther 
most favored public houses in the vicinity. 

The American Hotel, a few doors north of the Union 
Hall, is a spacious brick building, recently erected by its 
proprietor, Mr. Wilcox, and is fitted up and kept in a 
style to ensure it a liberal patronage. 

The Adelphi Hotel, adjoining on the north, is also a 
large budding of brick, 3 stories high, and is well fur- 
nished and well kept by its proprietor, Mr. Sadler. 

The Columbian Hotel stands a few yards south of the 
Pavilion. Annexed to the establishment is a handsome 
garden, lying on three sides of the building, which adds 
much to the beauty and advantage it enjoys in point of 
natural location. 

The Washington Hall, is beautifully located at the' 
north part of the village, and is patronized by strangers 
who do not wish to mingle in the pleasvures of the larger 
establishments. 

The price of board per week at the respective houses" 
is from 4 to 12 dollars. 

The Reading Rooms and Library are in a neat build- 
ing three doors north of the U. S. Hotel. Nearly 100 
newspapers from various parts of the Union and the Can- 
adas, and about 2000 volumes of well selected books for' 
circulation, embracing the modern publications, are kept 
in these rooms. A register of the names of visitants at" 
the Springs is also open for inspection at the establish- 
ment. The names thus entered frequently number from 
10 to 12,000 in the course of the season. 



m2 



144 SARATOGA LAKE. 

At both the villages of Ballston and Saratoga Springs, 
there are always suiScient objects of amusement to ren- 
der the transient residence of their summer guests pleas- 
ant and agreeable. Those whose taste is not otherwise 
gratified can always enjoy a mental recreation at the 
reading rooms ; a ride on the rail road, carriages for 
which leave both villages several times a day ; or a short 
excursion in the neighborhood, where sufficient beauty 
and novelty of scenery are always presented to render it 
interesting. The amusements of the day are usually crown- 
ed with a ball or promenade. The respective apartments 
appropriated for these occasions are calculated to accom- 
modate from 250 to 300 guests ; but they often contain a 
much greater number. 

The spacious areas of the cotilhon rooms, when enli- 
vened by the associated beauty and gayety resorting to 
the Springs, present an unusual degree of novelty and 
fascination. 

About two miles east from Saratoga Springs there is a 
small fish pond, situated on the farm of a Mr. Barheydt. 
Parties often resort thither, as well to enjoy the amuse- 
ments of fishing as to partake of a repast on trout, the 
proprietor reserving to himself the exclusive privilege of 
serving them up. Still farther east, about 4 miles from 
the Springs, is situated the 

Saratoga Lake. This lake is 9 mUes long and 3 
broad. Sail boats are fitted up at the Lake House, for 
the accommodation of parties of pleasure, and implements 
for fishing are always in readiness for those who take 
pleasure in this fashionable diversion. The western 
shores of the lake are accessible but in a few places, in 



BEMUS' HEIGHTS. 145 

consequence of the adjacent marshes ; on the east side 
the land is more elevated, and presents a fine prospect of 
farms under good improvement. The Lake is supplied 
•with water from the Kayaderosseras creek, which, taking 
its rise about 20 miles in a northwest direction, and re- 
ceiving in its course a number of tributary streams, flows 
into the lake on the west side. Fish creek forms its out- 
let, through which the waters of the lake are communi- 
cated to the Hudson river, about 8 miles distant in an 
easterly direction. Tliis creek empties into the Hudson 
river at Schuylerville, noticed at p, 147. 

Bemus' Heights, rendered memorable as the spot on 
which the British army under Gen. Burgoyne was defeat- 
ed in the revolutionary contest, are about 8 miles in a 
south-easterly direction from the Lake House. The 
battle ground is 2 miles west of the Hudson river ; and 
though without much to attract in its location or sur- 
rounding scenery, will nevertheless prove interesting from 
its association with events which greatly contributed to 
the establishment of American independence. 

The two actions which preceded the surrender of the 
British army were fought on the 19th of September, 1777, 

; and on the 17th of October following. On the morning 
of the 8th, the American army marched into the British 
samp, which had been deserted the evening previous. 
The enemy continued to retreat till they had reached the 
height beyond the Fish creek, where they encamped on 
the 10th, Finding his retreat cut off by a party of troops, 
who had taken possession in his rear, and his advance 

i impeded by superior numbers, General Burgoyne accepted 
the terms of capitulation, proposed by General Gates, and 



146 BEMUS' HEIGHTS. 

surrendered his whole army to the American forces on 
the 17th October, 1777. The surrender took place at 
Fort Hardy, where the British stacked their arms, and 
were permitted to march out with the honors of war. 

Freeman's Farm, on which the principal actions were 
fought, is immediately east of the main road running 
north and south, a road passing directly across it to the 
Hudson river, in an eastwardly direction. In a meadow 
adjoining the first mentioned road, about ten rods south 
'of a blacksmith's shop, and near the fence, is the spot 
where Gen. Frazer fell.* A large bass wood tree marked 
the place for a time ; but having been cut down, several 
sprouts which have sprung up from the parent stock, 
now designate the spot. A few rods directly south of 
this, on a slight eminence, is shown the place where Col. 
Cilley sat astride of a brass twelve pounder, exulting 
in its capture ; and about half a mile still farther south 
is shown the house yet standing, which was used by Gen. 
Gates as his head quarters. 

In proceeding to the river, the hill on which Gen. Fra- 
zer is buried is pointed out, about a mile and a half east 
of the battle groimd, and 20 rods north of the road. His 
remains were deposited, at his request, within a redoubt 
on the top of this hill. The redoubt, which is of an ob- 
long form, from 100 to 150 feet in diameter, is still per- 
fectly visible ; and the spot of Gen. Frazer's interment s 
near the centre, though no monument of any description 



* Gen. Frazer was second in command to Gen. Bui- 
goyne, and died on the bth October, 1777, from wound' 
received in battle the day previous. 



1 



J^u 



SCHUYLER-VILLE. 14T 

Jias ever been erected to mark the place where the remains 
of this gallant warrior repose. 

Smith's House, in which Gen. Frazer died, and which 
at that time stood near the foot of this hill, has been re- 
moved about 80 rods in a northeasterly direction to the 
turnpike. It is a low old fashioned Dutch building, with 
the gable end to the river, painted yellow — the sides red,, 
and shingle roof. The entrance is towards the river, un- 
der a dilapidated portico — the whole bearing the marks of 
antiquity. The room in which Gen. Frazer died is di- 
rectly in front, and has undergone no material change 
since his death. 

Eight miles north of this, on the turnpike, is the vil- 
lage of 

Schuyler. ViLLE, noted as the residence of the late 
Gen. Schuyler, and still more so as the place where Gen. 
Burgoyne surrendered to the American army in Octobers 
1777. 

The ground on whioh the surrender took place, was in 
a vale nearly east, and in plain view of the stage house on 
the turnpike in the village, and still exhibits the re- 
mains of an entrenchment called Fort Hardy. About 
40 rod* in a southeast direction, at the mouth of Fish 
creek, is the site of Fort Schuyler. The arms of the 
British were stacked in the vale in front of Fort Hardy, 
and from thence they were marched to the high grounds 
a little west of the village, and admitted to parol as pris- 
oners of war. At the southern extremity of the vale is 
a basin for the Champlain canal, which passes through this 
place. About half a mile south of the basin stands a 



148 FORT EDWARD. 

house located on the spot where once stood the mansion 
of Gen. Schuyler, which, with other buildings, were burnt 
by the British army on theu: retreat from the battle of the 
7th October. 

The village contains 80 or 90 houses, and an extensive 
cotton factory and machine shop. 

Fort-Edward is 12 miles north of Schuyler-Ville. It 
is not on the usual route of travellers from the Springs to 
Lake George ; but being a short distance only from Sandy 
Hill, it may be easily visited. The fort, once situated 
where the village now stands, has long since been demol- 
ished ; though its former location is easily traced in the 
mounds of earth which are still visible. About 100 rods 
north of the village is a dam across the Hudson river, 27 
feet high and 900 feet long, supplying with water a feeder 
to the Champlain canal. 

A little north of this, on the west side of the road, the 
traveller is shown a large pine tree, with a spring near its 
foot, memorable as the spot where Miss M'Crea was 
murdered by the Indians during the revolutionary war. 
She was betrothed to a Mr. Jones, an American refugee, 
who was in Burgoyne's army. Anxious for a union with 
his intended bride, he despatched a party of Indians to 
escort her to the British camp. Against the remon- 
strance of her friends, she committed herself to the charge 
of these Indians. She was placed on horseback, and ac- 
companied her guides to the spring in question, where 
they were met by another party, sent on the same er- 
rand. An altercation ensued between them as to the 
promised reward, and while thus engaged, they were at- 
tacked by the whites. At the close of the conflict, the , 



SANDY HILL — GLEN's FALLS. 14S^ 

unhappy young woman was found a short distance from 
the spring, tomahawked and scalped. There is a tradition 
that her scalp was divided by the respective parties, and 
carried to her agonized lover. He is said to have sur- 
vived the shock but a short time, and to have died of a 
broken heart. The name of Miss M'Crea is inscribed on 
a tree, with the date 1777. Her remains were disinterred 
a few years since, and deposited in the church-yard at 
Sandy-HiU. 

Sandy Hill is two miles from Fort Edward, on the 
route from Saratoga Springs to Lake George. It is situ- 
ated on very elevated ground, on the margin of the Hud- 
son river, immediately above Baker's Falls, about 19 
miles from the Springs. The streets are laid out in the 
form of a triangle. In the centre is an open area, sur- 
rounded by handsomely constructed stores and dwellings. 
The village contains about 100 houses and 600 inhabi- 
tants. The courts of the county are held alternately 
here and at Salem. 

Glen's Falls, a village more populous, is 3 miles fur- 
ther up the Hudson river, on the direct route to Lake 
George. At this place are the celebrated falls from 
which the village takes its name. These are situated 
about one fourth of a mile south of the village, near a 
bridge, extending partly over the falls, and from which 
the best view of thom may be had. The falls are formed 
by the waters of the Hudson, which flow in one sheet 
over the brink of the precipice, but are immediately di- 
vided by the rocks into three channels. The height of 
the falls is ascertained, by measurement, to be 63 feet ; 



150 GliEN'S FALLS — JESSUP's FALLS. 

though the water flows in an angular descent of 4 or 500 
feet. Some rods below the falls is a long cave in the 
rocks, extending from one channel to the other. On its 
walls are inscribed a variety of names of former guests, 
who have thought proper to pay this customary tribute. 
The rocks, which are at some seasons covered with wa- 
ter, but at others entirely dry, are chequered with small 
indentations, and in many places considerable chasms 
are formed, probably by pebbles kept in motion by the 
falling water. It is very evident that these falls, like 
those of Niagara, were once a considerable distance low- 
er down the river — the banks below being composed of 
shelving rocks, from 30 to 70 feet perpendicular height, 
-On the north side of the river is a navigable feeder, com- 
municating with the Champlain canal. It commences 
nearly two miles above the falls, and, with the exception 
of about a quarter of a mile, which appears to have been 
cut out of a shelving rock, runs along a ravine east of 
Sandy Hill, and intersects the main canal some distance 
below.* 

*Jessup's Falls, which are about 10 miles above 
Glen's Falls on the Hudson, are worthy the attention of 
travellers. The whole scenery is highly lomantic and 
picturesque, and the descent of the falls, including the 
rapids a short distant above, is nearly 100 feet. Five 
miles further north are the Hadley Falls, which are a 
succession of pitches over a rocky and uneven bed. The 
whole descent, commencing at the upper fall, is between 
80 and 100 feet. Over the lower fall a permanent bridge, 
about 50 feet from the water, is erected. The river here 
is contracted to a very narrow space, within lofty rocky 
embanlanents, between which the water rushes with great 
force and wildness into the basin below, uniting with the 



CALDWELL. 151 

There are extensive quarries of black and variegated 
marble at Glen's Falls, which is here sawed into slabs 
and transported to New- York for manufacture. 

From Glen's Falls to Lake George the distance is 9 
miles over an indifferent road, affording little other varie- 
ty than mountains and forests, with here and there a rus^ 
tic hamlet. Within three and a half miles of Lake 
George on the right hand, and a short distance from the 
road, is pointed out the rock at the foot of which Col. 
Williams was massacred by the Indians, during the 
French war. At the distance of half a mile farther, on 
the same side of the road, is the " Bloody Pond," so call- 
ed from its waters having been crimsoned with the blood 
of the slain who fell in its vicinity, during a severe en, 
gagement in 1755. Three miles farther is situated the 
village of 

Caldwell, on the south-western margin of the lake. 
This village contains a number of neat little buildings, 
and about 400 inhabitants. The Lake George Coffee 
House is fitted up in good style, and can accommodate 



Sacoudaga river, a large and rapid stream, which rises 
about 60 miles at the north-west. Both of these rivers 
abound with trout and other fish, affording ample em- 
ployment for those who are fond of angling. The country 
here is extremely rugged and mountainous, and presents 
but little appearance of cultivation. 

Travellers designing to visit these places, will find it 
the most convenient to take a carriage at Saratoga 
Springs, from which to Jessup's Falls is 14 miles, and to 
Hadley Falls 5 miles further. The route is over a good 
road, and, including a visit of two or three hours, may be 
easily performed (going and returning) in a day. 



J 52 LAKE GEORGE. 

from 80 to 100 visitants. There are here, also, a post- 
office, a church, and a court house. The village is bor- 
dered on the east by a range of hills, to the highest of 
which, called Prospect Hill, a road has been made, and 
though difficult of ascent, the pedestrian is richly com- 
pensated in the diversified and extensive prospect afford- 
ed him from its summit. 

LAKE GEORGE 

Is situated but a short day's ride from the village of 
Saratoga Springs, (27 miles,) from whence an excursion 
to the Lake is considered as a matter of course. At the 
village of Caldwell it is about a mile wide, but it general- 
ly varies from three fourths of a mile to four miles. The 
waters are discharged into Lake Champlain, at Ticonde- 
roga, by an outlet which, in the distance of 2 miles, falls 
180 feet. 

Lake George is remarkable for the transparency of its 
waters. They are generally very deep, but at an ordi- 
nary depth the clean gravelly bottom is distinctly visible. 
The great variety of excellent fish which are caught here 
renders it a favorite resort for those who are fond of ang- 
ling. The lake is interspersed with a large number of 
small islands, the principal of which, Diamond Island, 
once containing a military fortification, and Tea Island, 
on which is a summer house erected for the amusement 
of parties of pleasure, are visible from the head of the 
lake. The whole number of islands is said to equal the 
number of days in a year. 

The scenery on the borders of the lake is generally 
mountainous. With the exception of some intervals, 



LAKE GEORGE. 153 

chequered with fruitful cultivation, the land recedes from 
the shores with a gentle acclivity, for a few rods, and 
then, with a bolder ascent, to an elevation of from 500 to 
1500 feet. The best view of the lake and its environs is 
had from the southern extremity, near the remains of old 
Fort George,* from whence the prospect embraces the 
village of Caldwell and the niunerous little islands rising 
from the waters, which are beautifully contrasted with 
the parallel ridges of craggy mountains, through an ex- 
tent of nearly 14 miles. Near the southern shore are the 
ruins of an old fortification, called 

Fort William Henry. Vestiges of the walls and 
out- works are still to be seen. Previous to its construc- 
tion, the site of the fort was occupied by the English 
army under the command of Sir William Johnson, who 
was making preparations for an attack upon Crown Point. 
Before any movement, however, was made by him, the 
French army, under the command of Baron Dieskau, 
marched from Ticonderoga for Fort Edward, but after- 
wards changing his purpose, he was proceeding to the 
head of the lake, when he unexpectedly fell in with a 
party of the English, who had been detached by Sir 
William for the relief of Fort Edward. A severe battle 
ensued, in which the English were defeated, and com- 
pelled hastily to retire from the field. They were pursu- 
ed into their intrenchments by the French army, who 
commenced a furious asssault upon the English camp, 

* A very good prospect is also obtained from the top 
of the Lake George House ; but one far better from Pros- 
pect Hill, previously mentioned. 



154 LAKE GEORGE. 

but were repulsed with great slaughter. The discomfited 
Baron, on his retreat from this unsuccessful attack, 
was a third time engaged by a party of Enghsh, who 
had been despatched by the garrison at Fort Edward, to 
succor Sir William, and totally defeated. These tliree 
several engagements took place on the same day, the 6th 
September, 1755, in the vicinity of Bloody Pond, into 
which the bodies of the slain were afterwards thrown. 
In 1757 Fort William Henry contained a garrison of 3000 
men, under the command of Col. Munroe. The Marquis 
de Montcalm, after three attempts to besiege the fort, 
reinforced his army to about 10,000 men, and summoned 
Col. Munroe to surrender. This summons being refused, 
Montcalm, after a furious assault, obliged the English to 
capitulate. The terms of the capitulation, though hon- 
orable to the English, were shamefully violated by the 
Indians attached to the French army, who massacred the 
whole garrison, except a small remnant who made their 
escape to Fort Edward. The fort was razed to the 
ground by Montcalm, and was never afterwards rebuilt. 
This spot was the scene of embarkation of Gen. Aber- 
crombie, who, in 1758, descended the lake with an army 
of 15,000 men, for an attack on Ticonderoga. 

About 80 rods farther south, on a commanding emi- 
nence, are situated the vestiges of old Fort George. 
This fort, though not distinguished by any event of im- 
portance, yet, in connection with the history of Lake 
George, imparts an interest which a stranger will readily 
embrace in a visit to its mouldering ruins. A part of the 
walls, which were originally built of stone, are still visi- 
ble, from 30 to 40 feet in height. It was the depot for 



LAKE GEORGE. 155 

the stores of Gen. Burgoyne, for some time during the 
revolutionary war. 

A steamboat usually performs a daily trip on Lake 
George, so as to intersect the boats running to Lake 
Champlain ; leaving Caldwell in the morning, and return- 
ing at evening. The length of the lake, on which the 
boat runs, is 36 miles. From the steamboat landing to 
Ticonderoga is a distance of 3 miles ; for which a con- 
veyance is readily obtained. Refreshments are provided 
at a tavern half a mile from the landing, after which par- 
ties usually proceed to the fort, and return to the tavern 
the same evening, from whence they may take the boat 
on its return the next day to Caldwell. 

In proceeding down the lake from Caldwell, Twelve 
Mile Island is reached in going that distance. It is of 
a circular form, containing about 20 acres, situated in 
the centre of the lake, and is elevated 30 or 40 feet above 
the water. From thence one mile, on the northwest side 
of the lake, is 

Tongue Mountain, with West Bay on its west side, 
a mile and a half wide, and extending in a northerly 
direction 6 miles. What are called the Narrows com- 
mence here, and continue for 6 or 7 miles, being three 
fourths of a mile wide, and very deep. A Ime 500 feet 
long has been used in sounding, without reaching bottom. 

Black Mountain, 18 miles from the head of the lake, 
is situated on the east side, and has been ascertained, by 
admeasurement, to be 2200 feet in height. Opposite to 
Black Mountain, near the western shore, is 

Half Way Island. A short distance north of this is 
some of the finest mountain scenery on the continent. 
n2 



156 LAKE GEORGE. 

The mountains, exhibiting an undulating appearance, are 
thickly studded with pines and firs, and interspersed with 
deep and almost impenetrable caverns. 

Sabbath Day Point, 24 miles from Caldwell, is a pro- 
jection of the main land into the lake from the west side. 
It is a place on which the English troops landed on the 
Sabbath during the French war, and is the spot on which 
a sanguinary battle was fought with the Indians. The 
Enghsh, with no chance of retreat, were all killed. From 
thence, 3 miles, is a small island called the Scotch Bon- 
net. Three miles farther, on the western shore of the 
lake, is a little hamlet called by the inhabitants the City 
of Hague, containing only two or three dwellings, and 
as many saw mills. The lake is here 4 miles wide, being 
its greatest width. From this place to 

Rogers' Slide, is 3 miles. This is celebrated as the 
spot where Col. Rogers escaped from the Indians during 
the French Avar. The descent is an angle of about 25 
degrees, over a tolerably smooth rock, 200 feet in height. 
The Colonel, who had been a great foe to the Indians, 
was nearly surrounded by them on the top of the moun- 
tain, and found no other means of escape than to slide 
down this precipice. It being winter, and having snow 
shoes on his feet, he landed safely on the ice. The In- 
dians afterwards saw him ; but supposing that no human 
being could have made the descent, and that he must of 
course be supernatural, they concluded it not only useless 
but dangerous to follow him. 

Anthony's Nose, so called from its singular shape, is a 
high rock; nearly opposite to Rogers' Slide. The shores 



LAKE GEORGE. 157 

here are bold and contracted, and exhibit massive rocks, 
which are from 50 to 100 feet in height. From thence to 
Prisoner's Island, is 2 miles, a spot where prisoners 
were confined during the French war ; and directly west 
of this is Lord Howe's Point, so called from being the 
place where Lord Howe landed immediately previous to 
the battle in which he was killed at Ticonderoga. He 
was a brother of Lord Howe, who commanded the Brit- 
ish forces at Philadelphia, during the revolutionary war. 
The water here, from a deep green, assumes a light color, 
owing to a clayey bottom. From thence to the outlet of 
the lake, which terminates the steamboat passage, is one 
mile. Three miles farther, over a circuitous and uneven 
road, in an easterly direction, is the fort and ruins of 

Ticonderoga. The point projects between the lake on 
one side, which here suddenly expands to the west, and 
the creek on the other side, which unites the waters of 
lakes George and Champlain. On the opposite side of 
the latter lake, in a south-east direction, stands Mount 
Independence. Mount Defiance, 720 feet in height, is 
situated across the creek directly west of the Fort. This 
height was occupied by the artillery of Gen. Burgoyne in 
1777, when the Americans were compelled to evacuate 
Ticonderoga. The fortress of Ticonderoga was first con- 
structed by the Frencl. in 1756. The works, which appear 
to have been very strong, arc elevated about 200 feet above 
the level of Lake Champlain, and many of the walls are 
still standing. The magazine is nearly entire. It is 35 
feet long, 15 feet wide, and 8 feet high, constructed un- 
der ground, of stone, and arched. A subterraneous pas- 
sage leads from the southwest corner of the works to the 



158 TICONDEROGA. 

lake, 20 or 30 rods in length. Through this passage CoL 
Ethan Allen passed when he took possession of the fort 
" in the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental 
Congress." The remains of another fortification, built 
during the revolutionary war, are still to be seen about 60 
rods farther south on the point adjoining the lake. The 
walls next to the lake are nearly 60 feet high. 

In 1758 Ticonderoga was attacked by General Aber- 
crombie, who was repulsed with the loss of 2000 men. 
On the approach of Gen. Amherst, in 1759, it was quietly 
abandoned by the French, as was also Crown Point. 
It continued in possession of the British until the year 
1775, when it was taken by Col. Allen. On evacuating 
the fort in 1777, Gen. St. Clair ordered a detachment to 
accompany the American stores and baggage to White- 
hall, where they were pursued by Gen. Burgoyne, and 
from thence to Fort Ann. At the latter place a smart 
skirmish ensued between the two parties, in which the 
British sustained a considerable loss. The main army re- 
tired from Ticonderoga to Hubbardton, Vt. where a party, 
consisting of about 1000 under Col. Warner, were over- 
taken by the British advanced guard, and after a severe 
action abandoned the field to superior numbers. From 
thence they joined Gen. Schuyler at Fort Edward on the 
12th July, 1777. 

From Ticonderoga, travellers designing a tour to Mon- 
treal and Quebec, may take passage in a Champlain steam 
boat, for St. Johns. The boat arrives towards evening, 
and the passage from thence to Plattsburgh, with the 
exception of about 15 miles to Crown Point, is generally 
in the night. At present the most usual arrangements of 



EXCURSION TO THE WEST. 159 

the tourist are, after visiting Lake George and Ticonde- 
roga, to return to the Springs, and from thence proceed 
by rail road to Syracuse or Auburn, and take a passage 
by canal or stage for Niagara. 

EXCURSION TO THE WEST. 

Travellers who design to visit Niagara and return with- 
out proccedmg down Lake Ontario to Montreal, will find 
an excursion the most pleasant and diversified by taking 
the rail roads as far as they are perfected, and stages in 
going and canal boats in returning, on the intermediate 
parts of the route. The stage route afibrds a better pros- 
pect of the populous parts of the country ; but is general- 
ly so far from the canal, that no opportunity is given of 
witnessing many of the thriving villages on its banks. It 
is therefore advisable so to arrange a tour that the most 
interesting parts of both routes may be seen in going and 
returning. To effect this, a rail road passage can be 
taken at Saratoga Springs for Auburn, 179 miles ; from 
whence the stage route through Geneva, Canandaigua 
and Batavia to Buffalo, 128 miles from Auburn, will be 
continuous, unless Rochester shall be visited in the excur- 
sion — in which case, the Tonawanda rail road, from that 
place to Batavia, 32 miles distant, can be taken, and the 
stage route pursued to Buffalo, 40 miles farther. In re- 
turning the tourist can take the rail road from Buffalo via 
Niagara Falls to Lockport, 42 miles ; a canal packet fi-om 
thence, via Rochester and Palmyra, to Syracuse, 162 
miles, and a rail road from thence to Saratoga Springs or 
Albany. 



160 EXCURSION TO THE WEST. 

If the tourist designs to return by the way of Montreal, 

the following route to the Falls is recommended as the 
most interesting : Rail road from Saratoga Springs to 
Auburn, (as before,) 179 miles; stage, via Seneca Falls, 
Waterloo, Geneva and Canandaigua, to Rochester, 66 
miles ; rail road to Batavia, 32 miles ; stage to Buffalo, 
40 miles ; rail road to the Falls, 22 miles ; rail road to 
Lewiston, 7 miles ; from whence (and at Queenston, on 
the opposite side of the Niagara river) the Lake Ontario 
steamboats leave for Montreal. Or, if he desires to 
visit the Falls and Buffalo merely, without regard to the 
intermediate cities and villages, the following is the most 
expeditious as well as the easiest and cheapest route : 
Rail road from Saratoga Springs to Syracuse, 1 53 miles ; 
canal packet to Oswego, 38 miles ; steamboat to Lewis- 
ton, 151 miles; rail road to the Falls, 7 mile&;2do. to 
Buffalo, 22 miles. 

The last mentioned route, from Saratoga Springs or 
from Albany to the Falls, can be accomplished in two 
days. The other routes will require about three. That 
tourists, however, may be the better enabled to gratify 
their taste as to the mode of travelling, we subjoin a 
sketch of each. 



SARATOGA SPRINGS TO BUFFALO. 



161 



FROM SARATOGA SPRINGS TO BUFFALO, 



307 miles — [Rail road and stage route.] 



Miles. 



By rail road. 

Ballston Spa, 7 

Schenectady, 15 

Amsterdam, 16 

Fonda, 10 

Palatine Bridge,.. 11 

Fort Plain, 3 

St. Johnsville,. . . . 7 

Little Falls, 10 

Herkimer, 7 

Utica, 14 100 

Whitesboro', 

Oriskany, 

Rome, 

Syracuse, 

Auburn, 

By stage. 
Cayuga, 8 187 



22 
38 

48 
59 
62 
69 
79 
86 



4 104 

3 107 

8 115 

38 153 

26 179 



Seneca Falls, 

Waterloo, , 

Geneva, 

Canandaigua, 

East Bloomfield,.. 
West Bloomfield,. 

Lima, 

East Avon, 

Avon Post Office,. 

Caledonia, 

Leroy, 

Batavia, . • 

Pembroke,...,.... 

Clarence, 

Williamsville, 

Buffalo, 



Miles. 
4 191 

4 195 

7 202 
16 218 

9 227 

5 232 

4 236 

5 241 
2 243 

8 251 

6 257 
10 267 
14 281 

8 289 

8 297 

10 307 



A passage by rail road between Saratoga Springs and 
Auburn can be effected twice a day ; though the morn- 
ing train is decidedly preferable, as it is mostly by day- 
light. The time in passing over the respective roads is 
from 12 to 14 hours— fare f 7,50. 

The Saratoga and Schenectady rail road was noticed 
at p. 121. 

The Utica and Schenectady Rail Road commences 
in State street in Schenectady, and crossing the Mohawk 
river on a permanent bridge 800 feet long, continues in a 
northerly direction in conjunction with the Saratoga road 
for about a mile, when it curves to the west and pursues 



163 UTICA AND SCHENECTADY RAIL ROAD. 

the direction of the Mohawk valley, which it reaches in 
about 8 miles. From thence it continues along the 
northern bank, and generally in view of the river, till 
within 3 or 4 miles of Utica, when it re-crosses the river, 
and the southern bank is pursued to Utica. The country 
is remarkably level, and generally favorable for a rail 
road — the acclivities, with a solitary exception, not ex- 
ceeding 15 or 16 feet per mile. At Tripe Hill, about 20 
miles from Schenectady, there is an excavation of some 
magnitude through solid rock ; after passing which, the 
valley spreads out and affords a route of several miles 
through some of the finest meadows in the state. At 
the Nose, 12 miles farther, the passage becomes con- 
tracted by bold and lofty mountains, affording, for some 
distance, a scanty width for the rail road, turnpike, river 
and canal, the latter of which is on the southern side of 
the Mohawk. After passing Palatine, Canajoharie and 
Fort Plain, embraced within a distance of 12 or 14 miles, Ij 
the valley again widens, affording a charming view of hill I 
and dale, until reaching the mountain scenery near Little - 
Falls. This is by far the most interesting part of the 
route. Within two miles of the village, the passage of i 
the river is confined within very narrow limits between f 
two lofty and precipitous mountains. To find room for ' 
the canal, it became necessary to excavate and remove 
immense masses of rock, and even to form an aqueduct 
for a portion of it in the river. Similar labor was requi- 
site on the opposite side, in finding a passage for the rail 
road. For a considerable distance, the carriages run very 
near a rocky barrier of great height, not dissimilar in ap- 
pearance to the Palisadoes between the Highlands and 



AMSTERDAM. 



163 



New- York. Passinjr this, the carriages soon cross what 
is called "the Gulf," succeeding which, are alternate 
rocky excavations and embankments of great magnitude, 
until the road passes beyond the precincts of the village. 
Seven miles farther, after crossing the West Canada 
creek, the road enters upon what are called the German 
Flats, which for richness and beauty are not surpassed 
by any lands on the continent. Beyond these, the 
country is less interesting until reaching within 3 or 4 
miles of Utica ; when the finely cultivated farms indicate 
their contiguity to a populous and flourishing town. The 
approach to Utica is peculiarly fine, — a full view of the 
city being had for some distance previous to entering it, 
together with the depot of the company, and its build- 
ings, v/hich are spacious and handsome. The whole 
route, indeed, possesses much interest, exhibiting a 
scenery unusually rich and diversified. The cost of the 
road, including fixtures, engines, &c. was ^1,900,000. 

Schenectady. (See p. 120. ) 

Amsterdam, 16 miles west of Schenectady, is the first 
village of any magnitude that is reached on the route. 
It is located on the north side of the Mohawk river, over 
which there is a substantial bridge. The village contains 
about 150 houses, and has become a place of considerable 
importance from its proximity to the river and the Erie 
canal, but more especially so from the creek which passes 
through the village, and which, within half a mile, falls 
over a number of beautiful cascades, affording admirable 
facilities for manufacturmg operations. 



164 RAIL ROAD AND STAGE ROUTE. 

About one mile from Amsterdam, on the south side 
of the rail road, is a stone building, erected by Col, Guy 
Johnson, son-in-law of Sir V'illiam Johnson, which was 
occupied by the former previous to the revolution ; and a 
mile farther, on the opposite side of the road, is a stone 
building which Vv^as occupied by Sir John, the son of Sir 
William. Three miles farther, the road passes around the 
base of Tripe Hill, affording a fine prospect of the country 
on the opposite side of the river, embracing the broad and 
beautiful valley of the Mohawk, the outlet of the Scho- 
harie creek, the dam and bridge across the same, and the 
Erie canal ; thence to Caughnawaga, an old and un- 
important village, is four and a half miles, and to the 
village of 

Fonda, the capital of Montgomery county, half a mile 
farther. It contains a handsome court house, a first rate 
public house and several other buildings.* 

* Johnstown, celebrated as the former residence of Sir 
William Johnson, is four miles north of this place, and 
is the capital of Fulton county. The court house 
and jail were built by Sir William. The Episcopal 
church, also built by him, and beneath which his remains 
were interred, was accidentally destroyed by fire in the 
autumn of 1836. The house, or what is called the 
" Hall," formerly occupied by him, is about a mile from 
the village. Attached to it is a building which was used 
by him as a fort ; into which he had occasion, at times, to 
retreat from the assaults of the Indians, The marks of 
tomahawks are still visible on the stair-case in the main 
building. 

The battle of Johnstown, October, 1781, in which the 
British and Indians were defeated, was fought on the 
"Hall" farm. The American troops, consisting of be- 
tween 4 and 500, were commanded by Col. Willet, 



FORT PLAI!^. 165 

The Nose, a rocky point originally jutting into the riv- 
er, and which was deformed to make room for the rail 
road, is six miles farther ; from whence to 

Palatine Bridge is 5 miles. A bridge here crosses 
the Mohawk river to the village of Canajoharie, from 
whence a rail road to Catskill, noticed at page 111, has 
been commenced. 

FoKT Plain, a flourishing little village, is 3 miles west 
of Palatine Bridge, on the opposite side of the river. A 
fort, from which the place derives its name, was con- 
structed here dui ing the revolutionary war ; though but 
little of its remains arc now to be seen. The place was 
originally settled by Germans, who suffered severely from 
the early Indian wars of this country. During the revo- 
lution, those who had taken refuge in the fort, wore sur- 
prised by Capt. Butler, on his return from burning Cherry 
Valley, and became a prey to similar atrocities. 

The East Canada Creek is passed by a substantial 
bridge, in going 4 miles farther ; * from which to 

Little Falls is 6 miles. This place takes its name 
from a cataract in the vicinity, which, in size, is much in- 

who died a few years since at New- York. After the 
defeat, the enemy were pursued by him to the Canada 
creek, where several v/cre killed, including Maj Butler. 
Out of ()07 of the hostile force sent on this expedition, 
but 230 returned to Canada. 

* About 3 miles west of the East Canada creek, on the 
south side of the Mohawk river and canal, a brick house 
is seen, standing on elevated ground, which was the for- 
mer residence of Gen. Herkimer. He received a vv^ound 
in a skirmish in 1777, (See p. 175) of which he died at 
his residence. His remains repose in an adjoining field. 



166 RAIL ROAD AND STAGE ROUTE. 

ferior to the celebrated Cohoes, (noticed at p. 131,) and 
has, therefore, been denominated the Little Falls of the 
Mohawk. A continuation of the chain of the Catsbergs 
crosses the river at this place, and forms a rough bed for 
the waters of the cataract, which pour over the rocky 
fragments in the wildest confusion. Approaching from 
the east, a loftly ridge of mountains, frowning in grand- 
eur on either side, conceals the course of the river and 
the falls, whose vicinity is announced only by the distant 
din and foam of its waters. For a considerable distance, 
a narrow pass only is allowed for the road, river, and ca- 
nal, with immense natural battlements of rock on either 
side, affording a subhme and interesting spectacle. 
About half a mile from the village the rail road curves to 
the left, presenting a view of the falls tumbling with irre- 
sistible violence over a gradual rocky descent of about 
eighty rods. At the termination of the ascent is situated 
the village, containing about 200 houses and 1800 inhab- 
itants. A cluster of buildings, rising betvv-een the rushing 
waters of the Mohawk on the one hand, and the rugged 
cliffs and eminences on the other ; the smooth current of 
the stream above gently gliding to the tumultuous scene 
below and beyond the distant vale of the Mohawk, diver- 
sified with fields, orchards, meadows, and farm houses, 
all contribute to set off the romantic appearance for which 
this place is so justly celebrated. This village derives 
most of its importance from the facilities for trade and 
commerce afforded by means of the Mohawk river and 
the Erie canal. Boats were formerly transported around 
the falls through a canal on the north side of the river. 
This old canal is now connected with the Erie canal on 



LITTLE FALLS. 



167 



the south side of the river by means of an aqueduct 184 
feet long. The descent of the Erie canal here, in the 
distance of one mile, is 40 feet, which is passed by five 
locks. 

The Aqueduct across the river is one of the finest spe- 
cimens of masonry on the whole hne of the canal, though 
less stupendous than the locks at Lockport, and, in ex- 
tent, falling considerably short of the aqueduct at Roches- 
ter. The river is passed on three beautiful arches of from 
40 to 50 feet in height, with flagging on either side of 
the canal, and a strong iron railing. 

The Erie canal, which is on the south side of the river, 
winds its way for some distance along the side of a bold 
and lofty mountain, the channel resting on a wall nearly 
30 feet high, constructed from the bed of the river at great 
expense. The view afforded of mountain scenery on 
either side, with a bare passage for the dashing waters of 
the Mohavvk between, is highly interesting and sublime. 
Whichever way the eye is turned, it rests on huge masses 
of granite and limestone, piled in heaps. These rocks in 
some places rise to a great height, almost perpendicular, 
presenting a bleak dark surface, unbleached by the thou- 
sand storms which have beat upon them ; others present 
a rugged and uneven face, crowned and overhung by dark 
evergreens, dipping their verdure into the foaming torrent 
below ; the fissures between others of these huge piles 
produce hickory, maple and other trees, which hang from 
them, and with their sombre shadow deepen the gloomy 
darkness of the rocks from which they spring ; whilst the 
scanty soil upon others gives life and penurious nourish. 
ttient to dwarf oaks and vegetation peculiar to similar in- 
o2 



168 RAIL ROAD AND STAGE ROUTE. 

hospitable regions. In this scene, where the rude but 
magnificent works of nature are so profusely displayed, 
the imagination is overpowered, in their sublimity, and 
the proudest works of man, and man himself, lose their 
importance. 

The road, after leaving Little Falls, follows the bank of 
the river, in full view of the rich alluvial vale called the 
Herkimer and German Flats. Tiiis region, now glowing 
in all the beauty of successful cultivation, was once the 
theatre of the most sanguinary warfare. During the 
French and revolutionary wars, it was the scene of many 
barbarous incursions of the whites as well as savages. It 
was invaded by the French after the capture of Fort Os- 
wego in 1 756, and in 1757 the settlements were desolated 
by fire and sword. In the centre of these flats is situa- 
ted the village of 

Herkimer, 7 miles from Little Falls. West Canada 
creek, on which are the celebrated Trenton Falls, noticed 
in subsequent pages, enters the Mohawk river about half 
a mile east of the village, and is passed near its mouth by 
a well constructed bridge. The village is principally built 
on two parallel streets. It contains a handsome court 
house and jail, about 130 dwelling houses, and 1000 in- 
habitants. Between Herkimer and Utica, on the south 
side of the river, is the village of Frankfort, about 5 
miles from the former and 9 from the latter place. The 
country after leaving Herkimer is quite level, and remarks 
ably fertile, though not in a high state of cultivation. 



UTICA. 169 

UTICA. 

This flourishing place is on the south bank of the Mo- 
hawk river, and occupies the site of old Fort Schuyler, 
where a garrison was kept previous to the revolution. A 
few Germans were settled here before that period ; 
but a part were captured by the Indians and the 
remnant sought a place of more security. The first 
permanent settler established himself about 4 miles west 
of Fort Schuyler in 1784. Five years afterwards a 
few families estp.bhshed themselves on the site of the 
present town. In 1798, a village charter was granted, 
and in 1832, the place was incorporated into a city, and 
contains at the present time about 10,000 inhabitants. It 
is regularly laid out, the streets of good width, and mostly 
paved. Genesee street, in particular, is peculiarly pleas- 
ant, and for the most part adorned with elegant stores 
and dwellings. 

There are numerous literary, benevolent and religious 
institutions in this place ; among which are 16 churches, 
a lyceum, an academy, a high school, Female Institute, 
museum, and an institution called the Young Men's As- 
sociation, in which there is a library and reading room, 
which are gratuilously opened for the use of strangers. 
There are also 3 banks, an insurance company, and from 
j 6 to 8 newspaper establishments. 

The principal Hotels, which are in Genesee street, are 
Bagg's, near the termination of the rail road ; the Na- 
tional Hotel, and the Canal Coffee House, near the canal ; 
and the City Hotel and Franklin House, farther south. 



170 TRENTON FALLS. 

The lands adjoining Utica are richly cultivated, pre- 
senting a succession of beautiful farms and country seats. 
There are also various objects of attraction in the viciriity, 
a visit to which may be ranked among the pleasures of art 
excursion to the west. Of these are Trenton Falls, at 
the north ; the York Mills, and Clinton Village contain. . 
ing Hamilton College, all within a few miles in a westerly 
direction. 

Trenton Falls are 15 miles from the city, and a visit 
thither generally occupies a day. They are on the West 
Canada creek, about 22 miles from its confluence with 
the Mohawk river at Herkimer. 

The creek, in its way from the summit of the highlands 
of Black river to its lower valley, crosses a ridge of lime- 
stone 4 or 5 miles in breadth, stretching through the coun- 
try from the Mohawk to the St. Lawrence. Its course 
over this ridge by its tortous bed is 6 or 7 miles, 2 1-2 of 
which are above the falls. The waters, soon after reach- 
ing the limestone, move with accelerated strides over the 
naked rocks to the head of the upper fall, where they are 
precipitated 18 or 20 feet down an abrupt ledge into a 
spacious basin. The whole descent to the head of this 
fall in the last two miles is computed at 60 feet. Here a 
deep and winding ravine begins, which extends do\<Ti the 
stream more than 2 miles. Its average depth is estima- 
ted at 100 feet, and its average breadth at the top 200. 
The sides and bottom consist of limestone disposed in 
horizontal layers, which abound witji organic remains. 
The sides are shelving, perpendicular and overhanging ; 
and some of the trees that have taken root in the fissures 
of the rocks are pendant over the abyss, where they form 



TRENTON FALLS. 171 

the most fanciful appearances imaginable. The country 
adjoining is mostly covered with forest trees, so that no 
appearance of the ravine is visible until its verge is reached. 
Of the six falls, that above the high bridge on the Black 
river road is called the Upper ; the second, a mile below, 
the Cascades ; the third, a little lower down, the Mill- 
dam ; the fourth, 40 rods farther, the High Falls ; the 
fifth, about 70 rods farther, Sherman's ; and the sixth, at 
the termination of the ravine, Conrad's. All these are 
formed by solid reefs of rocks which cross the bed of the 
stream. 

The water at the Upper Fall descends 18 or 20 feet 
perpendicularly. Below, there is a spacious basin, out of 
which the stream issues in a diminished bed into the ra- 
vine, the entrance of which is between lofty barriers of 
rocks. This fall, when viewed from the bridge, or from 
the higii ground west of the creek, has a fine appearance. 

At the Cascades, consisting of 2 pitches, with inter- 
vening rapids, the water falls 18 feet. The bed of the 
stream is here contracted, and the sides serrated, the 
banks of the ravine rising vvith abruptness almost directly 
in the rear. 

The Mill-dam Fall, which is the second within the ra- 
vine, has an abrupt descent of 1 4 feet, the stream being 
about 60 yards broad at the break. 

Of the High Falls, which are 3 in number, the first has 
a perpendicular descent of 48 feet ; in floods the water 
Covers the whole break and descends in one sheet ; but at 
Dther times, mostly in two grooves at the west side of the 
fall. The second has a descent of about 11 feet ; the 
:hird 37 feet ; and the three, including the slopes and 



173 tRENTON FALLS. 

pitches, 109 feet. In freshets and floods, the entire bed 
^t the High Falls is covered with water of a milk white 
color, and the spray which at such times ascends in pillars 
towards the sky, when acted upon by the rays of the sun, 
exhibit the rainbow in all its brilliant colors. 

Sherman's Fall descends about 33 feet when the stream 
is low, and 37 when high. In droughts, the water 
pitches down at the west side. 

The last fall, which is at Conrad's mills, at the foot of 
the ravine, is 6 feet. 

Besides the falls, there are several raceways or chutes, 
from 10 to 20 rods long, through which the waters pass 
with great rapidity. The whole depression of the stream 
from the top of the Upper Fall above tlie high bridge to 
the foot of Conrad's, is 312 feet; and if we add the de- 
scent above the Upper Fall, which is computed to be 60 
feet, and that below Conrad's fall in half a mile, which is 
estimated at 15 feet, we shall find that the entire depres- 
sion in less than 5 miles, is 387 feet. 

The falls, raceways and rapids, and indeed the whole 
bed within the ravine, exhibit very different appearances 
at different times. These are occasioned by the eleva- 
tions and depressions of the stream. In floods, the whole 
is one tremendous rapid, with four cataracts and several 
chutes. 

The best time to visit these fall's is when the streani is 
low, because then there is no inconvenience or difficulty 
in ascending the ravine from the foot of Sherman's stair- 
way to the head of the upper raceway. The lofty rocky 
barriers, which constitute the sides of this ravine, advance 
to the water's edge in many places, and could not be 



TRENTON FALJ.S. 173 

passed in safety until some of the projections were blasted 
away and chains erected. Since then, persons may go 
up the upper raceway without liazard. 

A fine hotel is kept near the falls, from whence a path- 
way leads to the stairway, which descends to the bottom 
of the ravine, and another leads up to the High Falls. 
The former is usually preferred. On reaching the strand, 
at the foot of the stairway, you proceed up the stream at 
first upon the strand, and then by a narrow winding foot 
path to Sherman's fall. From thence you advance lo the 
High Falls, a part of the wiy being overhung by large 
jutting rocks which menace you with destruction. From 
the head of the High Falls to the upper end of the race 
way above the Cascades, the way is easy when the stream 
is low, but from thence upwardly it is more difficult and 
dangerous. 

Organic remains are found enveloped in the rocks 
along the bottom and lower parts of the ravine, and are 
easily divisible. They lie flat in or between the lamina, 
their contours and component parts usually being little 
distorted from their original shape and dimensions. 
Sometimes there is a defect occasioned in the transition 
from the animal to the stony or fossil state ; but, in most 
instances, all the parts are so completely defined, that not 
only the order but tiie genera and species may be recog- 
nized. Their exterioi-s are commonly glossy, often very 
smooth, and ordinarily of a dark color, being transformed 
into stone, and constituting integral parts of the rocks 
which envelope them. From a careful examination of 
certain of these remains, and their positions, we are led 
to beheve that their prototypes lived and died on the 



174 JLJUh ROAD AND STAGE ROUTE. 

spot, and that the rocks in which they are entombed cr© 
of posterior formation. 

Ladies visiting the Falls, should be furnished with 
calfskin shoes or bootees. They not only owe it to their 
health to be thus provided, but the best pair of cloth shoes 
will be ruined by a single excursion over these rocks. 

Returning to Utica, the traveller, in pursuing a journey 
to the west, takes the ' 

Utica and Syracuse Rail Road, which is located in 
the vicinity of the canal, and for a great part of the route 
over a low, marshy, unsettled and uninteresting country. 
The road is 53 miles long, and for a considerable distance 
the rails rest on piles — the only means of obtaining a foun- 
dation. Near its western extremity is a deep excavation, 
rendered necessary in obtaining a passage beneath the 
canal. 

Whitesborough, 4 miles west of Utica, is a handsome 
village, located on a rich and fertile plain. The principal 
street, containing several handsome dwellings, with large 
court-yards and gardens, is a short distance from, and 
runs parallel with the rail road. It may be considered, 
indeed, as better adapted for a country residence than a 
place of business. 

Oriskany, 3 miles from Whitesborough, is a flourishing 
village of about 100 houses. It is situated on the Oris- 
kany creek, which enters the' canal as a feeder. The 
Oriskany Manufacturing Company have a woollen factory 
here, which is the most extensive of the kind in the state. 

Rome, 8 miles farther. This is a half shire town of the 
county of Oneida, and is situated on the north side of the 



ROME. 



175 



old canal connecting Wood creek with the Mohawk river, 
and about half a mile north of the Erie canal.* It con- 
tains a bank, court house, jail, and about 300 dwelling, 
houses, principally located on one street, running east and 
west. The ruins of Fort Stanwix, near the village be- 
tween Wood creek and the Mohawk, are still visible. 
This fort was erected in 1758 by the British, and was 
afterwards rebuilt by the Americans during the revolution, 
15 or 1800 men, including Indians, were sent from Mon- 
treal by Burgoyne, in 1777, to besiege the fort. They were 
commanded by the Baron St. Lcger. Gen. Herkimer, 
commandant (soe p. 165,) of the militia of Tryon county, 
(embracing the present counties of Montgomery, Fulton 
and Herkimer,) was sent against them with about 800 men. 
On meeting the detachment of Leger's forces, the militia 
mostly fled on the first fire. A few, however, remained 
and ibught by the side of Gen. H., who was mortally 
wounded in the road between Whitestown and Rome, 
The Americans lost 160 killed and 240 wounded. The 
fort, which was commanded by Col. Gansevoort, was af- 
terwards assaulted by Leger's army ; but they were driv- 
en off by a sortie, directed by Col. Willet, and their camp 
plundered. Subsequently the fort was summoned to sur- 
render ; but through a stratagem of Gen. Arnold, who 
sent two emissaries from the camp at Saratoga, to inform 
Leger of the approach of a powerful American army for 
the relief of the besieged, he ordered a precipitate retreat 
to the Oneida lake, leaving all his baggage behind. 



* In the improvement of the canal, it is to pass through 
the village. 



176 RAIL ROAD AND STAGE ROUTE. 

An arsenal belonging to the United States is situate 
half a mile west of the village. 

Syracuse, the capital of Onondaga county, 33 miles from 
Rome, is built on both sides of the Erij canal, and con 
tains about 800 dwellings and stores, several handsome 
churches, 2 banks, a court house and jail. The village, 
which exhibits much enterprise, owes its importance 
principally to the salt produced in its neighborhood, the 
whole adjacent country being impregnated witli it, and 
springs from which immense quantities are manufactured 
rising in various directions. A little west of Syracuse, a 
plain of 400 acres is nearly covered with vats for the 
manufacture of salt by solar evaporation. The water is 
brought in logs from the great spring at Salina, one mile 
distant, which supplies, with very little attention, the va- 
rious ranges of vats. A light roof is constructed to each 
vat, which can be shoved off or on at pleasure, to permit 
the rays of the sun to act upon the water, or to prevent 
the dampness of the atmosphere from commingling there- 
with. The salt is taken out of these vats twice or three 
times during the warm season, and removed to store 
houses ; thence it is conveyed in barrels to the canal for 
transportation. 

The Onondaga creek, affording valuable water power, 
runs through the village, over which the canal is carried 
in a stone aqueduct of 4 arches. 

Salina is a mile and a half north of Syracuse, and 
though not on the usually travelled route to the west, 
should be visited for the purpose of examining the princi- 
pal spring, and the various salt establishments connected 
therewith. 



SALINA, 17? 

The spring; at Salina was first discovered by the Indians 
many years since, by being the resort of deer and other 
animals. The first white settlers were in the habit of 
boiling the water in small vessels for domestic purposes. 
Since then the spring has been excavated to a very con- 
siderable depth, and affords the strongest saline water yet 
discovered in the world, 40 gallons yielding about a bushel 
of pure salt. The water is forced up to the top of an ad- 
joining hill by a powerful hydraulian, driven by the sur- 
plus waters of the Oswego canal, which passes through 
this place. The salt water is in this way conveyed 85 feet 
above the canal to a large reservoir, into which it is dis- 
charged at the rate of 300 gallons per minute. It is 
hence carried to the different factories in Salina and Syra- 
cuse. Of these there are within a circuit of seven miles, 
175. The works and springs all belong to the state, ta 
which imposts are payable, for the extinguishment of the 
canal debt. The water is conveyed from the reservoir to 
the different manufactories and evaporating fields, by 
means of wooden pipes. The salt is manufactured gene- 
rally by boiling and evaporation. There are, however,, 
two establishments in which it is made in large wooden 
vats, by means of hot air passing through them in large 
metallic pipes. The springs are considered inexhaust- 
iblc ; and the amount of salt manufactured at Salina, Liv- 
erpool, Syracuse and Geddes, is between two and three 
millions of bushels per annum. 

Salina is a flourishing village, but of less magnitude 
than Syracuse ; though, from the rapidly increasing 
growth of both, it is not improbable that they will in 
time become a continuous town. A fine view of the 



178 RAIL ROAD AND STAGE ROUTE. 

Onondaga Lake, about a mile distant, is had from the 
place. It is six miles long and two broad. At its north- 
western extremity is seen the pleasant village of Liver- 
pool, at which the manufacture of salt is also carried on 
to considerable extent. 

The Oswego canal, from Syracuse to Lake Ontario 
at Oswego, is 38 miles long, including 20 miles of the 
Osw^ego river, on which are several locks and dams. 

[This is embraced in the " Rail road^ canal and steam- 
boat route to Buffalo," referred to at p. 160, and more 
particularly described under its appropriate head in a sub- 
sequent part of this work.] 

Pursumg a journey still farther west, the Auburn and 
Syracuse Rail Road is taken at the latter village. It 
commences at the depot of the Utica and Syracuse road, 
and passes through the village of Gcddes, 2 miles distant, 
from which place to its termination at Auburn, 26 miles 
farther, the excavations and embankments are unusually 
heavy. At a point, ten or twelve miles from Syracuse, 
the route for three or four miles is around the side of a 
mountain of gypsum, from 50 to 60 feet above its base. 

Auburn is situated on the Owasco creek, two miles be- 
low its outlet from the lake of the same name. The vil- 
lage, which is among the most flourishing in the state, 
owes much of its importance to the numerous mills and 
manufactories for which its location is extremely eligible. 
It contains about 850 houses and 6000 inhabitants. 
Among other public buildings there are 7 churches, an 
academy, museum, 2 banks, a court house and gaol, 
and a prison erected for convicts at the expense of the 



AUBURN. 179 

state. There has also been established a theological 
seminary, which is pntronizcd exclusively by the Presby- 
terian denomination, and is at present the only one of the 
kind in the state. Many circumstances combine to ren- 
der this place an agreeable residence to the man of taste 
or busine-s. The village is handsomely built, and pos- 
sesses much wealth and enterprizc. It is situated 7 
miles from Weed's Port, on the canal, to which place 
stages run daily, for the accommodation of passengers 
wishing to take packet boats for the west. 

Principal Hotels. — The Auburn House and Mer- 
chants' Exchange, the American Hotel, and the Western 
Exchange. 

The State Prison, at Auburn, is considered one of the 
best in the Union. It was commenced in 1816, and is 
constructed upon the plan of a hollow square, enclosed 
by a wall 2000 feet in extent, being 500 feet on each side. 
The front of the prison, including the keeper's dwelling, 
is about 300 feet, and the two wings extending west, are 
240 feet each. The north wing contains solitary cells 
and a hospital, and the south wing is divided principally 
into cells. Between these is a grass plot with gravel 
walks ; to the west of which is the interior yard, sur- 
rounded with workshops, forming a continued range of 
900 feet, protected by a massive stone wall. The prison 
being erected on the bank of the Owasco, water power is 
applied in many cases, to great advantage, in propeUing 
machinery. 

The most interesting period for witnessing the prisoners 

is early in the morning, from the time they are brought 

forth to labor till after breakfast. The spectator will then 
p2 



180 RAIL ROAD AND STAGE ROUTE. 

have an opportunity of seeing some of the prominent fea- 
tures of the order, regularity and system with which 
every thing is conducted. He will admire the precision 
with which the rules are executed, without the least con- 
fusion, noise, or even command. The convicts silently 
marching to and from their rest, meals and labor, at pre- 
cise times, moving in separate corps, in single file, with a 
slow lock step, eri-ct posture, keeping exact time, with 
their faces inclined towards their keepers, (that they may 
detect conversation, of which none is ever permitted,) 
all give to the spectator somewhat similar feelings to 
those excited by a military funeral ; and to the convicts, 
impressions not entirely dissimilar to those of culprits 
when marching to the gallows. The same silence, so- 
lemnity and order, in a good degree, pervades every busi- 
ness and department. 

In addition to divine service in the chapel of the prison 
every Sabbath, a Sunday school has been established, 
superintended by the students of the theological seminary, 
which has been attended with very beneficial effects. 

So admirable has been the discipline of this prison, that 
a large proportion of the convicts discharged have be- 
come honest, industrious men, and none are known to 
have become corrupted or made worse. 

The Auburn and Rochester Rail Road, which is in 
progress, is to commence at the terminating point of the 
Auburn and Syracuse road, and pass through the villages 
of Geneva and Canandaigua to Rochester, a distance of 
60 miles. Until it is completed, however, the route will 
fae by stage as heretofore. 



CAYUGA — SENECA FALLS. 181 

Caitjga, 7 miles west of Auburn, is a small village ; 
but affords a beautiful prospect of the Cayuga lake, and 
the bridge extending across, which is one mile and eight 
rods long, and situate within 2 miles of the outlet. This 
lake is 38 miles in length, and is generally from ] to 2 
miles in breadth. The water is shallow, but of sufficient 
depth for a good sized steamboat, which plies daily be- 
tween the bridge and Ithaca, a beautiful and thriving vil- 
lage, at the head of the lake, 36 miles distant. Travel- 
lers designing to take an excursion on this lake to Ithaca» 
should pay for stage fare no farther than the Cayuga 
Bridge. From this point they can take ths steamboat at 
1 o'clock P. M. which reaches Ithaca in between three 
and four hours ; where the best of accommodations will 
be found at one of the largest public houses in the state. 
Passing the night at Ithaca, the daily stage can be taken 
the next morning, after breakfast, for Bath, at the head 
of the Seneca lake, distant about 22 miles, reaching 
the latter place in time for the steamboat which leaves at 
noon for Geneva, noticed in a subsequent page ; and thus 
the tour of both lakes be performed, and a full view of 
their rich scenery had in the short space of thirty hours. 

Seneca Falls, four miles v/est of Cayuga, is a flour- 
ishing village, located on the banks of the Seneca river, 
which here falls 46 feet, affording important manufactur- 
ing facilities. The village has attained a very rapid 
growth within a few years. It contained in 1836, 450 
dwelling houses, 5 churches, a number of flouring mills,, 
and about 4000 inhabitants. In addition to its manufac- 
turing privileges, a canal extends to the Erie canal at 
Lakeport, 20 miles distant, which, connected with th& 



182 RAIL ROAD AND STAGE ROUTE. 

river at the village, affords an uninterrupted water com- 
munication from Geneva to the western lakes and the 
ocean. Four miles farther, is the handsome village of 

Waterloo, a half shire town in Seneca county. It 
contains about 300 houses, a court house and jail. The 
village is principally situate on the northern bank of the 
Seneca outlet, which here propels several mills. Tho 
commencement of this village was in 1816 ; since which 
it has become a place of A^ery considerable importance ; 
though it is probably destined to yield in magnitude and 
business to its rival village at Seneca Falls. From Wa- 
terloo to 

Geneva, 7 miles distant, the route is delightful, cm- 
bracing (a part of the way) a charming ride around the 
north end of the Seneca lake, which is here about two 
miles wide. The village is one of the most elegant in the 
state ; and, with its beautiful scenery, cannot fail of call- 
ing forth the admiration of every visitant. It is located 
on the western margin of the lake, the bank of which be- 
ing lofty, affords an enchanting view of one of the purest 
sheets of water in America. The number of private and 
public buildings in the place is about 600, many of which 
are very handsome, and the population about 4000. 
An?ong the public buildings are a college, an academy, 8 
churches and a bank. The college is located on an em- 
inence south of the village, on the margin of the lake, in 
the vicinity of several country seats, enjoying an unusual 
richness of prospect, with an almost constant breeze from 
the water. The lake is about 35 miles long, and from 3 
to 4 miles wide. It abounds with salmon, trout and 
other fish, and is never closed with ice. A steamboat 



eENEVA LAKK, 183^ 

mns daily from Geneva to Jeffersonville, at the head of 
the lake, leaving the former place at 7 A. M., and re- 
turning at evening.* The Erie canal passes about 12; 

* A passage on the lake is peculiarly delightful and in- 
teresting. Leaving Geneva with its neat stores, and ele- 
gant dwellings, its luxuriant hanging gardens, and the 
glittering spires of its churches and college, the eye takes 
in a southern water view not surpassed in any part of this 
world of inland seas. The first village of any note on the 
eastern shore is Ovid, 18 miles from Geneva. The lofty 
eminence on which it stands, and the rich and highly cul- 
tivated farms in its vicinity, render it a most conspicuous 
and interesting object. Directly opposite to Ovid is 
Dresden, one of the most thriving villages in Yates coun- 
ty. It is situated on the outlet of Crooked Lake, and 
extends nearly a mile back of the shore. Immediately 
south of Dresden, is the farm of the late celebrated Je- 
mima Wilkinson, an enthusiast, who pretended that she 
was the Saviour of mankind. Until her death, which- 
took place some years since, she had several followers j 
and this farm, which is very beautiful, has passed by will 
into the hands of one of them. Four miles south of 
Dresden is Long Point, remarkable for a tree at its ex- 
tremity, which, by a httle aid from the imagination, puts 
on the semblance of an Elephant. Six miles south of 
Long Point is Rapelyea's ferry, near which is still stand- 
ing the frame which Jemima constructed to try the faith 
of her followers. Having approached within a few hun- 
dred yards of the lake shore, she alighted from an elegant 
carriage, and the road being strewed by her followers 
with white handkerchiefs, she walked to the platform, 
and having announced her intention of walking across 
the lake on the water, she stepped ankle deep into the 
clear element, when suddenly pausing, she addressed the 
multitude, inquiring whether or not they had faith that 
she could pass over : for if otherwise, she could not ; and 
on receiving an affirmative answer, returned to her car- 
riage, declaring that as they behoved in her power, it was 
unnecessary to display it. Six miles and a half south of 



184 RAIL ROAD AND STAGE JIOITTE. 

«niles to the north of Geneva ; with which there is a 
water communication, by means of the outlet of the 
Seneca lake and a lateral canal. 

Caxandaigua, 15 miles from Geneva. This village is 
situated near the outlet of the lake from which it takes 
its name, on a gentle ascent commanding a fine view of 
the lake at the distance of half a mile. The principal 
street extends 2 miles in length, and is handsomely dec- 
orated with trees, through which appear the delicately 
painted dwellings and court yards. In an open square, in 
the centre of the village, is the court house, prison and 
clerk's office of the county, the town house and Eagle 
Hotel. There are also four churches, a superior male 
academy and female seminary, a bank, and about 500 
dwellings. In the vicinity are a number of delightfu 
villas, surrounded with gardens and orchards, which, 
with the view of the lake stretching far to the south, 
form a rich and varied scenery seldom equalled in other 

Rapelyea's ferry, is Starkic's Point, where the shore is so 
bold that the steamboat passes within 10 feet of the ex- 
tremity of the Point. Four miles further on the west 
shore is the Big Stream Point, at which there is a mill 
seat with a fall of 136 feet. The land puts on a wilder 
aspect as the tourist approaches the head of the lake, and 
the eminences are more beetling and precipitous. The 
eastern shore also partakes more of the mountainous 
character, though cullivatcd far up the summit lands, and 
is here and there marked by ravines, through one of 
which " Hector Falls" tumble from a height of one hun- 
dred and fifty feet, and carry several valuable mills. 
These falls are distant three miles from the village of 
JefFersonville, at the head of the lake. 



WEST BLOOMFIELD AVON SPRING. i8& 

places. The principal public houses in the village are 
Blossom's Hotel and Pitt's Eag;le Tavern. 

From Canandaigua, stages can be taken for Rochester, 
(see " Rail Road and Canal Route,") 28 miles distant^ 
in a northwesterly direction, and the route continued 
thence by stage over the " Ridge Road," to the Falls, or 
by canal to Lockport, and by rail road thence to the 
Falls ; or the rail road from Rochester to Batavia, 32 
miles long, can be taken, and stages from the latter place 
to Buffalo: but if a visit to Montreal, by the way of 
Lake Ontario, is not contemplated, it is generally deemed 
a better course to proceed directly to Buffalo and the 
Falls, and return by the way of Rochester. In pursuing 
the usual route from Canandaigua to Buffalo, 

East Bloomf.eld is reached in travelling 9 miles, and 
West Bloomfield in going 5 miles farther. They are 
considered among the richest agricultural townships in 
the state ; presenting a succession of beautiful and highly 
cultivated farms. The fruit raised on these lands, par- 
ticularly apples and peaches, is not excelled in any section 
of the country. 

Lima is 4 miles from West Bloomfield, and is a contin- 
uation of the same rich and fertile soil, divided into high- 
ly improved and productive farms. 

East Avon is 5, and Avon Post Office 7 miles from 
Lima. The Genesee river passes through the town of 
Avon, and is navigable for boats to the Erie canal at 
Rochester, 20 miles distant. 

The Avon Spring is becoming a place of considerable 
resort for invalids. Its waters, which are strongly im- 



186 UAH. R0A1> AND STAGE ROUTE. 

jpregnated with sulphur and alum, are found beneficial in 
various diseases. 

Caledonia, 8 nailes from Avon Post Office, is more 
particularly celebrated as the location of a large Spring, 
than for any thing else. The stage usually stops at this 
village long enough to enable passengers to visit this nat- 
ural curiosity, which is situate a few rods north of the 
principal street. Within a small area, sufficient watei 
rises to propel a mill, (of which there are several on the 
stream below,) at all seasons of the year. The water is 
pure, and appears to rise from a rocky bottom. A stage 
runs daily from this place to Rochester, which is 20 miles 
distant — a part of the route being along the bank of the 
<jJenesee river. 

Pursuing the direct route from Caledonia to Buffalo, 
the next place of importance is the pleasant and thriving 
village of 

Leroy, which is is 6 miles west of Caledonia, and 17 
miles south of the Erie canal. Allen's creek, which 
passes through the village, affords important mill privi- 
leges, and contributes much to the value and business of 
the place. The village contams 300 dwellings, 2 large 
floinring mills, and several manufactories. At this place 
the creek has a fall of 18 feet ; a mile farther, one of 27 
feet ; and about a mile farther, one of 80 feet. Before 
reaching the latter, however, the stream is much dimin- 
ished — suppyling, as is supposed, the Caledonia spring, 
already noticed. Numerous petrifactions have been found 
in the bed of the creek, about 200 yards north of the vil- 
lage bridge ; among which are petrified turtles, weighing 
rem 10 to 300 pounds. They are composed principally 



batavia. 18? 

of dark colored bituminous limestone, which is easily 
split, and often discovers crystalline veins, together with 
yellow clay or ochre. 

Batavia is 10 miles from Leroy. It is the capital of 
Genesee county ; and assumes more the appearance of 
one of the early settled villages in New-England, than 
the more flourishing villages of the west. It is situated 
on the north side of the Tonawanda creek, on an exten- 
sive plain, and has several handsome private mansions. 
Besides the court house and jail, it contains a bank, the 
Holland Company's land office, and about 300 dwel- 
lings. The Tonawanda rail road, leading from Rochester, 
terminates at this place. 

It was at this village that the celebrated William Mor. 
gan had his residence previous to his abduction, on the 
frivolous ground of having revealed the secrets of mason- 
ry. He was conveyed by a mob to Fort Niagara, at the 
mouth of the Niagara river, from whence no trace of him 
could afterwards be discovered. 

After leaving Batavia for Buffalo, the country soon as- 
sumes a less populous appearance ; and the travelling is 
rendered unpleasant from the extensive causeways which 
intervene, consisting of logs placed transversely in the 
road. 

The intervening places between Batavia and Buffalo 
are Pembroke, 14 miles — Clarence, 8 — Williamsville, 8 — 
from which to Bujffalo, is 10 miles. [For a description of 
the latter place, see " Rail Road, Canal and Steamboat 
Route,"] 



188 ERIE CANAL. 



ERIE CANAL. 



A brief description of this work, before entering upon 
the route which embraces a portion of it, will probably 
prove acceptable to the tourist. 

Commencing at Albany, on the Hudson, the canal 
passes up the west bank of the river nearly to the mouth 
of the Mohawk ; thence along the banks of the latter to 
Schenectady, crossing the river twice by aqueducts. 
From Schenectady it follows the south bank of the Mo- 
hawk luitil it reaches Rome. In some places it encroaches 
BO near as to require embankments made up from the 
river to support it. An embankment of this description, 
at Amsterdam village, is 5 or 6 miles in extent. What is 
called the long level, being a distance of 69 1-2 miles 
without an intervening lock, commences in the town of 
Frankfort, about 8 miles east of Utica, and terminates 
three fourths of a mile east of Syracuse ; thence the 
route proceeds 35 miles to Lake Port, situated on the east 
border of the Cayuga marshes, 3 miles in extent, over 
which to the great embankment, 72 feet in height, and 
near 2 miles in length, is a distance of 52 miles ; thence 
8 1-2 miles to the commencement of the Genesee level, 
extending westward to Lockport, nearly parallel with the 
ridge road, 65 miles. Seven miles from thence to Pen- 
dleton village the canal enters Tonawanda creek, which 
it follows 12 miles, and thence following the east side of 
the Niagara river, communicates with Lake Erie at Buf- 
falo. The whole line of the canal from Albany to Buffalo 
is 363 miles in length. It is 40 feet wide at the top, 28 



ERIE CANAL. 189 

at the bottom, and 4 feet deep.* The whole rise and fall 
of lockage is 688 feet, and the height of Lake Eric above 
the Hudson 568 feet. The principal aqueducts are, one 
crossing the Genesee river at Rochester, 804 feet long ; 
one crossing the Mohawk at Little Falls, supported by 3 
arches, the centre of 70 feet, and those on each side of 50 
feet chord ; and two crossing the Moliawk river near Al- 
exander's bridge, one of which is 748 feet and the other 
1188 feet in length. To the main canal are a number of 
side cuts or lateral canals : one opposite Troy, connecting 
with the Hudson ; one at Utica to Binghampton (the 
Chenango canal) 97 miles long ; one at Syracuse, a mile 
and a half long, to Salina ; one from Syracuse to Oswego, 
38 miles long ; one at Orville ; one at Chitteningo ; one 
at Lake Port, extending to the Cayuga lake, 5 miles, and 
thence to the Seneca lake at Geneva, a distance of 
15 miles ; and one at Rochester, 2 miles long, which 
serves the double purpose of a navigable feeder and a 
mean of communication for boats between the canal and 
the Genesee river. The Chemung canal, extending from 
the head waters of the Seneca lake to the Chemung riv- 
er, 18 miles distant, with a navigable feeder of 13 miles, 
from Painted Post on the Chemung river to the summit 
level of the canal ; and the Crooked lake canal, 7 miles 



* By recent acts of the legislature, the canal commis- 
sioners have been authorized to increase the dimensions 
of the canal to a width of 60 or 70 feet, and to a depth of 
6 feet ; and to double the locks ; the cost of which will 
not be less than 12 or $15,000,000. A portion of the 
work is already commenced, especially on the eastern di- 
vision, together with a new aqueduct over the Genesee 
river at Rochester. 



190 



SARATOGA SPRINGS TO BUFFALO. 



long, connecting the Seneca and Crooked lakes, have al- 
so been constructed — thus extending the navigation, com- 
prehending the Seneca and Cajoiga lakes, 146 miles. 

FROM SARATOGA SPRINGS TO BUFFALO, 

By rail road and canal, 357 miles — Fare ^15. 



Miles. 
By rail road. 
From Saratoga Sp'gs 
to Syracuse, (see 

p. 161,) 153 

By canal. 

Geddes, 2 155 

Belisle, 4 159 

Nine-mile creek,., 1 160 

Camillus, 1 161 

Canton, 5 166 

Peru, 2 168 

Jordan, 4 172 

Cold Spring, 1 173 

Weedsport, 5 178 

Centreport, 1 179 

Port Byron, 2 181 

Montezuma, Lake- 
port, 6 187 

Lockpit, 6 193 

Clyde 5 198 

Lock Berlin, 5 203 

Lyons 4 207 

Lockvillc, 6 213 

Newark 1 214 

Port Gibson 3 217 

Palmyra, 5 222 

Macedonville, .... 4 226 
Wayneport, ( Bar. 

rager's Basin,). . 3 229 
Perrinton, (Lindel's 

Bridge,) 2 231 

Perrinton Centre,. 2 233 



Miles. 

Fairport, 1 234 

FuUam's basin,. ., 1 235 
Bushnel's basin, ... 3 238 

Pittsford, 3 241 

Billinghast's basin, 4 245 

Lock No. 3, 2 247 

Rochester, 4 251 

Brockway's, 10 261 

Spencer's basin,.,. 2 263 
Adam's basin,.... 3 266 
Coolev's basin, .... 3 269 

Brockport, 2 271 

Holley 5 276 

Scio, 4 280 

Albion, 6 286 

Gaines' basin,.... 2 289 
Eagle harbor,.... 1 289 

Long bridge, 2 291 

Knovvlcsville, 2 293 

Road culvert, 1 294 

Medina 3 297 

Shelby basin, 3 300 

Middleport, 3 303 

Reynolds' basin,.. 3 306 

Gasport, 2 308 

Lockport, 7 315 

By rail road. 
Niagara Falls,.... 20 335 
Tonawanda creek,. 10 345 

Black Rock 9 354 

Buffalo, 3 357 



GEDDES PORT BYRON. 191 

Tlie route to Syracuse has been already described. 
(See pp. 161 to 178.) 

Geddes, 2 miles by canal from Syracuse, is becoming 
a place of some importance, in consequence of the salt 
springs in its vicinity. They are mostly within a few 
rods of the canal, as well as numerous establishments for 
the manufacture of salt. A short distance west of the 
village, a fine prospect is had of the Onondaga lake and 
the villages of Liverpool and Salina. 

Nine Mile Creek, 6 miles from Geddes. It is a 
stream of some magnitude, and is crossed by the canal, 
over two arches. 

Camillus, 1 mile. 

Canton, a small village, 5 miles. 

Peru, 2 miles. 

Jordan, 4 miles. A short distance east of the village, 
the canal crosses the Jordan creek. 

Weed's Port, 6 miles. A thriving village of about 
120 houses. A stage can be taken here daily for Auburn, 
7 miles south. 

Centre Point, 1 mile. 

Port Byron, 2 miles. The canal here crosses the 
Owasco creek, a stream issuing from a lake of that name, 
two miles south of Auburn. The state prison is erected 
on the bank of this creek, the waters of which are used 
for propelling the machinery. 

Five miles farther are the Montezuma salt works, 
north of the canal, with a lateral cut leading thereto ; 
one mile from which is the small village of 

r2 



192 BAIL ROAD AND CANAL ROUTE. 

Lake Port. The western section of the canal (contra- 
distinguished from the middle and eastern sections) com- 
mences at this place. From Utica to Lake Port, the 
mean descent of the canal is 45 feet ; and there are 9 locks, 
ascending and descending. From Lake Port to Lock- 
port the ascent is 185 feet, and the number of intervening 
locks 21. The waters of the canal at the former place 
are remarkably pure and crystalline in their appearance, 
not unfrequently exhibiting large quantities of fish at their 
bottom. 

One mile from Lake Port, the canal enters the Monte- 
zuma marshes, 3 miles in extent. They are formed by 
the outlets of the Cayuga and Seneca lakes, and exhibit 
a most dreary, desolate and stagnant appearance. The 
water is generally from 4 to 8 feet deep, and the bottom 
covered with long grass, the usual growth of swamps, 
extending frequently to the surface. A long bridge is 
used for a tow-path over a part of these marshes. Shortly 
after leaving them, the canal crosses and unites with the 
outlet of the Canandaigua lake, a sluggish stream, which, 
with the outlets of Cayuga and Seneca, soon form the 
Seneca river, which enters and constitutes a considerable 
part of the Oswego river. 

Clyde, 11 miles from Lake Port, is a flourishing vil- 
lage, containing glass works. From thence to Lyons, a 
handsome village, containing a court house, jail, bank, 
and about 250 dwellings, is 9 miles ; and thence to 
LocKviLLE 6 miles, to Newark 1 mile, and to Port Gib- 
son, 3 miles. 

Palmyra, 8 miles farther, is a thriving village in Waj^e 
county. It is built chiefly on a wide street, along the 



ROCHESTER. 193 

south bank of the canal, and contains between 2 and 300 
dwelHngs. Mud creek runs eastward about 40 rods 
north of the main street, and the canal passes between 
the creek and the street. There are several factories 
and mills on this creek. Palmyra and Port Gibson are 
landing places for goods designed for Canandaigua. 

Fair Port, 11 miles. 

Fullom's Basin, 12 miles. From this place to Roch- 
ester, by canal, is 1 6 miles ; while the distance by land is 
but 7 1-2. Travellers, accordingly, who have seen the 
Great Embankment over the Irondequoit creek, frequent- 
ly take a stage, to shorten the excursion ; but those who 
have never passed over this artificial work, should con- 
tinue on the canal route. The embankment is reached in 
about 4 miles from Fullom's Basin, and is continued for 
nearly two miles, at an average height of about 70 feet. 
The novelty of a passage at so great an elevation is much 
increased in the fine prospect afforded of the surrounding 
country. Two miles from the embankment is the hand- 
some village of 

PiTTSFORD, containing about 100 houses ?nd several 
stores ; and 10 miles farther is the flourishing and impor- 
tant city of 

ROCHESTER.* 

It is situated on the east and west side of the Genesee 
river, which, at this place is 50 yards wide, and is crossed 
by two substantial bridges within the limits of the city. 
On the north side of the lower bridge, the local distinc- 



* For a description of Rochester and the surrounding 
country, the editor is principally indebted to Lyman B. 
Langworthy, Esq. of that place. 



194 RAIL ROAD AND CANAL ROUTE. 

tions of East and West Rochester have been in a meas. 
ure annihilated, by the erection of the Market and Ex- 
change buildings over the Genesee, making the twain a 
continued town. Within its limits are two of the six falls 
on the river ; the upper a small fall of 12 feet at the foot 
of the rapids, and immediately above the canal aqueduct; 
and the other, the great fall of 97 feet, about 80 rods below. 
From a po'nt of rock above the centre of these falls, at 
the foot of a small island, the celebrated Sam Patch 
made his last and fatal leap in the autumn of 1829. 

From a complete wilderness, Rochester has been re. 
deemed in the comparatively short period of about 28 
years, the first settlement having been made in 1812. Its 
situation in the immediate vicinity of the canal, and only 
7 miles from Lake Ontario, with a ship navigation within 
two miles of the town, and a rail road connected wuth 
the Erie canal at the east end of the aqueduct, enable its 
inhabitants to select a market either at New-York, Que- 
bec, or on the borders of the great western lakes ; and 
the many other natural advantages which it enjoys for 
trade and manufactures, destines it to become one of the 
most important places in the interior of the state. The 
population of Rochester in 1835, was 14,404 ; and its 
present population cannot be less than 18,000. The Erie 
canal strikes the river in the south part of the city, and 
after following the eastern bank for half a mile, crosses 
the river in the centre of the city, in an aqueduct 804 feet 
long, which cost ^80,000.* The canal is supplied by a 

* The new aqueduct, now constructing, is to be com. 
posed of limestone from the Onondaga quarries, to be 
much increased in its dimensions, and to cost about 
^500,000. 



ROCHESTER. 195 

navigable feeder from the Genesee, which it enters with- 
in the hmits of the city, and through which boats may 
enter and ascend the river from 70 to 90 miles.* The 
height of the canal at Rochester above the tide waters of 
the Hudson is 501 feet ; above Lake Ontario, 270 feet ; 
and below Lake Erie, 64 feet. 

Among the public buildings in the city, are a court 
house, 15 churches, 3 markets, 4 banks, (one of which is 
very splendid) and a museum, together with two valuable 
institutions, the Franklin Institute and Atheneum. There 
are also several extensive cotton and woollen manufacto- 
ries, together with various operations in iron and wood, 
suited to the wants of a great and growing country. The 
Globe Buildings, a majestic pile, rising from the water's 
edge, 5 stories, exclusive of attics, with between 1 30 and 
140 apartments, suitable for workshops, and several stores, 
were destroyed by fire in the winter of 1834, and rebuilt 
the following year. The principal public houses are the 
Rochester House, Clinton House, Eagle Tavern, Man- 
sion House, Arcade House, Monroe House, and City 
Hotel. There are also two daily and several weekly 
newspapers. 

Within the limits of the city are more than 20 flouring 
mills, containing nearly 100 run of stones, capable of 
manufacturing more than 5000 barrels of flour, and con- 
suming more than 20,000 bushels of wheat every 24 

* The Genessee Valley canal, now constructing, is to 
extend from Rochester to Olean Point on the Alleghany 
river, about 100 miles in a southerly direction; a con- 
siderable proportion of which will consist of slack water 
in the Genesee river, by means of locks and dams. 



196 RAIL ROAD AND CANAL ROUTE. 

hours. Some of the mills are on a scale of magnitude 
perhaps not equalled in the world. One of them contains 
more than four acres of flooring, and all are considered 
unrivalled in the perfection of their machinery. Indeed, 
so powerful and complete is the whole flouring apparatus, 
that there are several single run of stones which grind, 
and the machinery connected therewith, bolt and pack 
100 barrels of flour per day. 

The Arcade is 100 feet in front, 135 feet in depth, 
and four stories high, exclusive of the attic and basement. 
It has 6 stores in front, with a large opening for a pas- 
sage to the Arcade, where the post office, Atheneum, Ar- 
cade House, and a variety of offices are located. From 
the centre arises an observatory in the form of a Chinese 
Pagoda, which overlooks the surrounding country ; and 
in clear weather the lake can be seen like a strip of blue 
cloud in the horizon. 

The Tonawanda Rail Road, from Rochester to Ba- 
tavia, in a southwesterly direction, has already been no- 
ticed at pages 159 and 187. It is over a remarkably lev- 
el country, requiring but slight acclivities, and consists 
of a single track only, with occasional turn-outs. The 
time employed in going over the road, 32 miles in extent, 
is about two hours — fare ^1,50. 

Stages leave Rochester daily for Niagara Falls, 81 
miles distant, by way of Lewiston, pas&ing over the ridge 
road ;* and the rail road and stage line can be taken 
twice a day for Buffalo, by way of Batavia, 72 miles. 

* The ridge road commences two and a half miles 
from Rochester, over which and the rail roads, the fol- 



CARTHAGE. 



197 



Packet Boats also leave Rochester twice a day for 
Buffalo and Syracuse. 

The Lake Ontario Steam-Boats touching at Carthage, 
two miles below Rochester, can also be taken daily for 
Lewiston and Quecnston, on the Niagara river, and for 
Ogdensburgh and Prescott, on the St. Lawrence, as well 
as the intermediate ports on the lake. 

Before leaving Rochester, (unless the ridge road or 
steamboat route should be taken,) the traveller will find 
it an object of interest to visit 

Carthage, 2 miles down the Genesee river. This vil- 
lage derived its consequence from a stupendous bridge, 
which, during its existence, formed the most eligible route 
to the western part of the state. The bridge was erected 
across the river just below the basin of the falls, which 
are 70 feet. It consisted of a single arch, whose chord 
measured 300 feet. The distance from the centre to the 
river was 250 feet. This stupendous fabric stood a short 
time after its construction, but at length fell under the 
pressure of its own weight. One of the abutments is still 
standing ; and from its situation, visitants may judge of 
the former position of the bridge, and the almost impious 
presumption of man in attempting to overcome height, 
space, gravity, and the resistless fury of the elements. 
Vessels from the lake, 5 miles distant, ascend the riv- 
er to these falls, where they are laden and unladen by 

lowing are the intervening distances between that place 
and Buffalo ; Rail road — Carthage Falls 2 miles. Ridge 
road — Parma 9, Clarkson 7, Murray 7, Ridgeway 15, 
Hartland 10, Cambria 12, Lewiston 12, Rail road — Ni- 
agara Falls 7, Buffalo 22. 



198 RAIL ROAD AND CANAL ROUTE. 

means of an inclined plane — the descending weight being 
made to raise a lighter one by its superior gravity. 

A rail road from Rochester ends here, and is connected 
with the navigation of the Lake — the carriages both for 
passengers and for burthen passing up and down every 
half hour. 

The great western level on the canal commences two 
miles east of Rochester ; from which place to Lockport, a 
distance of 65 miles, there is no lock. 

Brock WAYs's Basin is 10 miles from Rochester ; 
thence to Spencer's Basin, a small village, is 2 miles. 
Adam's Basin is 3 miles farther; thence to Cooley's 
Basin is 3 miles, and to 

Brockport, 8 miles. This is a fine, thriving village, 
containing between 2 and 300 houses, and about 2500 in- 
habitants, 12 or l4 respectable stores, 3 churches, a semi- 
nary of learning, and all the other concomitants of a neat 
and industrious town. At this place are annually pur- 
chased from 4 to 500,000 bushels of wheat for the Ro- 
Chester mills. 

HoLLEY, a beautiful and thriving httle village, 5 miles. 
A short distance east of the village is the Holley Em. 
hankment and culvert, over Sandy creek, elevating the 
canal 87 feet above the level of the creek. 

Scio, 4 miles. 

Albion, 10 miles ; a pleasant and improving village, 
with a bank, court house, jail, 230 dwellings, and about 
2000 inhabitants. It has some mill privileges, and is sur- 
rounded by a fine agricultural country. Eight miles 
farther, in the town of Ridgeway, a public road passes 



MEDINA — LOCKPORT. 199 

under the canal, through a handsome arch ; one mile 
from which is the village of 

Medina, on the bank of Oak Orchard creek. It con- 
tains obout 250 dwellings and 2000 inhabitants, who de- 
rive much advantage from the water privileges afforded 
by the creek, and from the rich and fertile country in the 
vicinity. The canal here crosses the creek over the 
largest arch on the whole route. There are circular steps 
leading to the bottom; whence is a foot path passing 
underneath and leading to the village. Passengers desi- 
rous of seeing this artificial work, should go ashore before 
reaching it, and gain time by a rapid walk. They can 
be received on board again at the village, where the boat 
stops to land and receive passengers. 

MiDDLEPORT, 6 miles, 

Gasport, 5 miles. It derives its name from in inflam- 
mable spring, which rises in the canal basin at the village. 

LocKPORT, 7 miles. By far the most gigantic works 
on the whole line of the canal are at this place. After 
travelling between 60 and 70 miles on a perfect level, the 
traveller here strikes the foot of the *' Mountain Ridge," 
which is surmounted by 5 magnificent locks of 12 feet 
each, connected with 5 more of equal dimensions for de- 
scending — so that while one boat is raised to an elevation 
of 60 feet, another is seen sinking into the broad basin 
below. The locks are of the finest workmanship, with 
stone steps in the centre and on either side, guarded with 
iron railings, for the safety and convenience of passengers. 
Added to this stupendous work, an excavation is contin- 
ued through the mountain ridge, composed of rock, a 



200 LOCKPORT. 

distance of 3 miles, at an average depth of 20 feet, and 
under the enlarged plan is to be increased to a width of 
60 or 70 feet. 

The village of Lockport is partly located on the moun- 
tain ridge, immediately above the locks, and partly below ; 
and thoiigh " founded on a rock," surrounded with rocks, 
and with little or no soil, it has become a place of much 
importance. In 1821, there were but two houses in the 
place ; now there are 300, and upwards of 3000 inhabit- 
ants. The village also contains 7 churches, a bank, 
court house and jail, and several commodious public 
houses. The canal here being on the highest summit 
level, and supplied with water from Lake Erie, (distant 
30 miles,) an abundance is obtained for hydraulic pur- 
poses, affording to the village a lasting and permanent 
power for mills and manufactories of various kinds. 

A RAIL ROAD is hcrc taken, which extends to Niagara 
Falls, 20 miles ; and from thence to Buffalo, 22 miles 
farther. 

[ These places are described in subsequent pages.] 



SARATOGA SPRINGS TO BUFFALO. 



201 



PROM SARATOGA SPRINGS TO BUFFALO, 

By railroad, canal and steamboat, 369 miles — Fare {JIS. 



Miles 
By rail road. 
To Syracuse, as men 
tioned at p. 161,. . 
By canal. 
From Syracuse to 

Salina, 2 155 

Liverpool, 3 

Cold Spring, 3 

New Bridg-e, 5 

Three Rivers Pt., . 2 

Phoenix, 2 170 

Sweet's Lock,.... 3 173 
Ox creek, 3 176 



153 



158 
161 
166 

168 



Miles. 

Fulton, 4 180 

Braddock's Rapid, 4 184 
Tiffany's Landing, 4 188 

HighiDam, 1 189 

Oswego, 2 191 

By steamboat. 
Great Sodus Bay,. 28 219 
Genesee river,. ... 35 254 
Fort Niagara,.... 74 328 
Lewiston, 7 335 

By rail road. 

Niagara Falls, 7 342 

Buffalo, 22 369 



For a description of the route to SyracusSJ see pp. 161 
to 178. 

A packet boat leaves Syracuse twice a day for Oswego, 
reaching the latter place in about 10 hours. The villages 
of Salina and Liverpool, through which the canal 
passes, were noticed at pp. 176, 177 and 178. 

Fulton, 20 miles from Liverpool, is a flourishing place, 
containing a number of mills, for which an extensive wa- 
ter power is afforded in a fall of the Oswego river. 

Oswego, 11 miles farther, is beautifully situated on 
both sides of the Oswego river at its entrance into Lake 
Ontario, which is here 60 miles wide. A bridge connects 
the two parts of the village, and the streets which are 
wide and laid out at right angles, extend in a parallel line 
from one side of the river to the other. The village owes 
much of its importance, not only to the numerous mills 



202 RAIL ROAD, CANAL AND STEAMBOAT ROUTE. 

and manufactories for which its location is extremely eli- 
gible, being unsurpassed by any place in the country for 
hydraulic power, but also to the extensive commercial in- 
tercourse, by means of the lake, which it has with the 
Canadas and the west. 

The surplus waters of the canal, by an arrangement 
with the state, belong to the Oswego Canal Company, 
who, by a subsidiary canal, on the east side of the river, 
have conveyed them to the village, where they have a fall 
of 19 feet, and propel a great number of mills. Mr. Abra- 
ham Varick, the owner of an extensive property at this 
place, has also constructed, at great expense, a canal on 
the west side of the river, affording a similar fall, and 
equally important facilities for mills and manufactories. 
At the mouth of the river, jutting into the lake, the 
U. S. government have erected a pier or mole at the ex- 
pensc of {$200,000, rendering the harbor the safest and 
best on the American shore. 

Among the public buildings in the village, are a court 
house, 6 churches, 2 banks, and an academy. The pop- 
ulation is about 6000. 

The Welland House is one of the largest and best 
public establishments in the state. From its upper story 
an extensive and uninterrupted view is had of the lake, 
which is here 60 miles broad. The Oswego Hotel is also 
a large and respectable establishment. 

There is still pointed out to the tourist, the remains of 
two forts erected during the French war, which were be- 
sieged by Gen. Montcalm in 1756, and also one built 
during the revolution. 



LAKE ONTARIO. 



203 



The STEAMBOATS which ply between Oswego and the 
Falls, are of the best class, fitted up in superior style, and 
afford to passengers every desirable comfort and conven- 
ience. They leave the port soon after the arrival of the 
canal packets, and reach Lewiston in about 12 hours ; 
whence rail road carriages are taken for Niagara Falls, 7 
miles distant, and for Buffalo, 22 miles farther. 

LAKE ONTARIO, 

On which the boat enters, after leaving the Oswego 
river, is 171 miles long, and 167 in circumference. In 
many places its depth has not been ascertained. In the 
middle a line of 350 fathoms has been let down without 
finding bottom. Of the many islands which this lake 
contains, the principal is Grand Isle, in a northeast direc- 
tion from Oswego, and opposite Kingston. At this place 
the lake is about 10 miles in width, and thence easterly, 
it gradually contracts until it reaches Brockville, a dis- 
tance of about 50 miles, where its width is not over 2 
miles. About 40 miles of this distance is filled with a 
continued cluster of small islands, which, from their num- 
ber, have been distinguished by the name of the Thousand 
Islands. 

Though inferior in extent to the remaining four great 
western lakes, Ontario is far from being the least inter- 
esting. The northeast shore consists principally of low 
land, and is in many places marshy. On the north and 
northwest it is more elevated, and gradually subsides to- 
wards the south. The margin of the lake is generally 
bordered by thick forests, through which are occasionally 
seen little settlements surrounded with rich fields of culti- 
s2 



204 RAIL ROAD, CANAL AND STEAMBOAT ROUTE. 

vation, terminated by lofty ridges of land here and there 
assuming- the character of mountains. Some of the high- 
est elevations of land are the cliiFs of Toronto, the Devil's 
Nose, and the Fifty Mile Hill. The principal rivers 
which empty into the lake on the south, are the Genesee 
and Oswego. York, (now Toronto,) Kingston and Sack- 
ett's Harbor, all situated on its borders, are well known 
in connection with the hist'-ry of the last war. 

Great Sodus Bay, 28 miles from Oswego, embraces 
East Port and Little Sodus Bays, and has three islands 
of considerable size. The whole circumference of the 
bay, with its coves and points, is about 15 miles. 

Charlotte, at the mouth of the Genesee river, 35 miles 
farther, is a port of entry, where there is a light house, 
and the commencement of extensive piers building bj the 
United States, for improving the navigation. The river 
is navigable to the Carthage falls, 4 miles ; thence to 
Rochester is 2 miles ; to which place passengers can al- 
ways be conveyed by rail road carriages in readiness on 
the arrival of the boat. (See pp. 193 to 198.) 

Fort Nl\gara,* 74 miles farther, is located on the east 
or American shore of the Niagara river, at its entrance 
into Lake Ontario. It was built by the French in 1725, 
passed into British hands by the conquest of Canada, and 
was surrendered to the United States in 1796. It was 
taken by tlie British by surprise during the last war, and 
abandoned on the restoration of peace. The works are 
now in a state of decay. 

* This is the place where the celebrated William Mor- 
gan was confined after his abduction. 



LEWISTON — aUEENSTON. 205 

Fort George, or Newark, is directly opposite. The 
village was burnt during the last war ; which event was 
followed by the burning of several frontier villages on the 
American shore, as retaliatory. Fort George, near the 
village, is the most prominent, and perhaps the only ob- 
ject of interest presented. It is in a state of tolerable 
preservation, and has generally since the war been occu- 
pied as a garrison by a small number of soldiers. 

YouNGSTOWN, a small Village, is one mile south of Fort 
Nugara, on the American side ; from which to 

Lewiston, the terminating point of the steamboat pas- 
sage, is 6 miles farther. With the other frontier villages, 
it was laid in ruins during the last war, and was deserted 
by its inhabitants, from December, 1813, to April, 1815 ; 
but it is now in a flourishing condition, and its buildings 
exhibit much taste and neatness. A ferry is established 
between this place and Queenston, in crossing which, the 
boat is carried down for a considerable distance with much 
rapidity, but without danger. Every appearance con- 
firms the supposition, that at this place the falls once 
poured their immense volumes of water, but by a constant 
abrasion of the cataract, have receded to their present po- 
sition, 7 miles distant. 

Queenston contains 50 or 60 dwellings, but has little 
in its appearance indicating a prosperous thriving village. 

The Battle of Queenston, which was fought at this 
place, occurred on the 13th of October, 1812. Gen. Van 
Rensselaer, who had command of the American troops at 
Lewiston, determined on crossing over and taking posses- 
sioii of Queenston heights. The crossing was effected 



206 brock's monument. 

before day light ; and the ascent, which was up a precip- 
itous ravine, rising near 300 feet above the river, was ac- 
complished amid the fire of the enemy from his breast- 
works on the heights. As the Americans approached, 
the British retreated to the village below ; where their 
commandant, Gen. Brock, in forming his lines to reascend 
the heights, was mortally wounded by a random shot. 
His aid, Col. M'Donald, then took command and ascend, 
ed the heights, where he was also wounded mortally. 
The Americans continued in possession but a few hours', 
when they recrossed the river. The pickets and breast- 
works, though in a state of decay, are still visible. 

The spot on which Brock fell is pointed out to stran- 
gers. It was in a vacant lot in the village, since called 
Brock's lot. 

brock's monument 

Is on the heights, one fourth of a mile southwest of the 
village. It is composed of free stone ; and, excepting the 
base, is of a spiral form. It is a fine specimen of archi- 
tecture, and from its elevation, is seen for many miles 
around. Its height is 126 feet ; and the heights on which 
it is erected are 270 feet above the level of the Niagara 
river. The ascent to the top of the monument is by 
means of winding steps, 170 in number. It is extremely 
fatiguing; but the prospect afforded of the surrounding 
country, for 50 miles in extent, will richly repay the tour- 
ist for the time and trouble in visiting this pinnacle. The 
following inscription appears on the monument : 

" The Legislature of Upper Canada has dedicated this 
monument to the many civil and military services of the 



RIDGE ROAD. 307 

late Sir Isaac Brock, Knight, Commander of the most 
honorable Order of the Bath, Provincial Lieut. Governor 
and Major General, commanding his Majesty's forces 
therein. He fell in action on the 13th of October, 
1812, honored and beloved by those whom he governed, 
and deplored by his Sovereign, to whose services his life 
had been devoted. His remains are deposited in this 
vault, as also his aid-de-camp, Lieut. Col. John M'Don- 
ALD, who died of his wounds the 14th of October, 1812, 
received the day before in action." 

Stages leave Lewiston every morning for Rochester, 
distant 80 miles, passing on the Ridge Road, or alluvial 
way,* and reach Rochester at evening. A rail road is 
also constructed to the Falls ; but owing to the ascent to 
be overcome in the first two miles, horse power only can 
be appUed in drawing the carriages. 

*This ridge extends along the south shore of Lake 
Ontario, from the Niagara to the Genesee river, a dis- 
tance of about 80 miles. The road is handsomely arched 
in the centre, and is generally from 4 to 8 rods wide. In 
some places it is elevated 120 or 130 feet above the level 
of the lake, from which it is distant from 6 to 10 miles. 
The first 40 miles from Lewiston, of this natural high- 
way, is broken for a considerable extent, by log roads or 
causeways, bordered by impervious forests, occasionally 
relieved by the temporary huts of the recent settlers ; but 
the remaining distance is unusually level ; and, with some 
intermissions, bordered by a lino of cultivation. It is 
generally believed that this was once the southern boun- 
dary of the lake, and that the ridge was occasioned by 
the action of the water. The gravel and smooth stones 
of which the ridge is composed, intermingled with a great 
variety of shells, leave little room to doubt the correct- 
ness of this opinion. 



208 devil's hole — whirlpool. 

In pursuing the route from Lewiston to the Falls, the 
rail road soon commences ascending the heights, describ- 
ing the difference of altitude between Lakes Ontario and 
Erie. At the distance of two miles, the top is gained, 
and affords an imposing prospect of the almost intermin- 
able expanse below. The course of the mighty Niagara 
is easily traced to its outlet ; wiiere, from their promi- 
nence, are distinctly seen, Forts Niagara and George. 
The waters of the distant lake and the surrounding plains 
are so charmingly picturesque, that the traveller proceeds 
reluctantly, even to participate in the enjoyment of scenes 
more sublime. Three and a half miles from Lewiston is 
what is called the 

Devil's Hole, a most temfic gulf, formed by a chasm 
in the eastern bank of the Niagara, 150 or 200 feet deep. 
An angle of this gulf is within a few feet of the stage 
road ; affording to the passing traveller, without alighting, 
an opportunity of looking into the yawning abyss beneath. 
During the French war, a detachment of the British ar- 
my, whilst retreating from Schlosser (about 5 miles south) 
in the night, before a superior force of French and In- 
dians, were destroyed at this place. Officers, soldiers, 
women and children, with their horses, waggons, baggage, 
&c., were all precipitated down the gulph. Those who 
were not destroyed in the river, were dashed in pieces on 
the naked rocks ! 

The Whirlpool is one mile farther. It is formed by 
a short turn in the river, and can be seen on either side ; 
though the best view, connected with the rapids, is on the 
American shore. One mile farther, is a 

Sulphur Spring, used principally for bathing. 



r^IAGARA FALLS. 309 

NIAGARA FALLS 

Are a mile and a half farther. They are situated on 
the Niagara river, which unites the waters of the Upper 
Lakes and Lake Erie with Lake Ontario and the St. 
Lawrence river. Lake Superior, the first and western- 
most of these inland seas, lies between 46 and 49 deg. 
of north latitude, and between 84 and 93 deg. west longi- 
tude from London. Its length is 459, and its average 
width 109 miles. About 40 small and 3 large rivers en- 
ter into this lake, on one of which, just before its entrance, 
are perpendicular falls of more than 600 {eet. The outlet 
of the lake is called the river St. Marie, which is 90 miles 
long, its waters flowing into Lake Huron. This lake is 
on the boundary between the United States and Canada, 
218 miles long from east to west, and 180 broad. Besides 
the waters of Lake Superior, it receives the waters of 
Lake Michigan, which is 300 miles long and about 50 
miles wide. At its northwest corner a large inlet opens, 
called Green Bay, about 100 miles long, and from 15 to 
20 broad, into which Fox river empties. Beside the Fox, 
the St. Joseph and Grand, two very important rivers, and 
innumerable smaller streams are also tributary. The wa- 
ters of these lakes thus congregated, enter the St. Clair 
river, 40 miles long, to the St. Clair Lake, which is about 
90 miles in circumference. From this lake they enter 
the Detroit river, on which the city of Detroit stands, 9 
miles below the lake, and communicate with Lake Erie, 
19 miles from Detroit. Lake Erie is on the boundary 
line between the United States and Upper Canada. It 
is 290 miles long from southwest to northeast, and in the 



210 NIAGARA FALLS. 

widest part, 63 bread. Besides the waters of the upper 
lakes, it receives the Cuyahoga river and several tributa. 
ry streams. 

Such are the sources of tlie Niagara ; a river inferior 
in splendor to none, perhaps, in the world. It is 35 miles 
long, and from half a mile to 5 or 6 miles wide. The 
banks vary in their height above the Falls, from 4 to 100 
feet. Immediately below tlie Falls, the precipice is not 
less than 300 feet, and thence to Lake Ontario it gradu- 
ally diminishes to the height of 25 or 30 feet. The Ni- 
agara river contains z number of islands, the principal of 
which is Grand Island, which was ceded to the state of 
New-York by the Seneca nation of Indians, in 1815. It 
is 12 miles long, and from 2 to 7 broad. 

The Falls are situated below Grand Island, about 20 
miles distant from Lake Erie, and 14 from Lake Ontario. 
At Chippewa creek, on the Canada side, 2 miles above 
the Falls, the width of the river is nearly 2 miles, and its 
current extremely rapid. Thence to the Falls it gradually 
narrows to about 1 mile. The descent of the rapids has 
been estimated at 58 feet. The coiu-se of the river above 
the Falls is north- westwardly, and below it turns abruptly 
to the northeast, flowing about a mile and a half, when it 
assumes a northern direction to Lake Ontario. The 
sheet of water above the Falls is separated by Goat Island, 
leaving the grand fall on the Canadian side about 600 
yards wide, and the high fall on the American side about 
300. The latter drops almost perpendicularly to the dis- 
tance of 164 feet. The grand or horse-shoe fall, on the 
Canada side, descends to the river below in the form of a 
curve, 158 feet, projecting about 50 feet from the base. 



NIAGARA FALLS. 21 1 

The whole height, including the descent of the rapide 
above, is 216 feet. 

On the American side, 
A flight of stairs has been constructed from the bank a 
few rods below the falls to the bottom. In consequence 
of a rocky barrier in front of the falling sheet, it can be 
approached to within a few feet ; though not without en- 
countering a plentiful shower uf the spray. About a 
quarter of a mile above the fall a bridge has been con- 
structed from the shore to Bath Island ; which is con- 
nected by means of another bridge with Goat Island. 
The sensation in crossing these bridges, and particularly 
the first,* over the tremendous rapids beneath, is calcula- 
ed to alarm the traveller for his safety, and hasten him in 
his excursion to the Island. On Bath Island, mills have 

* Gen. Peter B. Porter, to whom the public are indebted 
for the construction of this bridge, informed me that its 
erection was not effected without considerable danger. 
Two large trees, hewed to correspond with their shape, 
were first constructed into a temporary bridge, the buts 
fastened to the shore, with the lightest ends projecting 
over the rapids. At the extremity of the projection, a 
small pier of stone was first placed in the river, and when 
this became secure, logs were sunk around it, locked in 
such a manner as to form a frame, which was filled with 
stone. A bridge was then made to this pier, the tempo- 
rary bridge shoved forward, and another pier formed, un- 
til the whole was completed. One man fell into the 
rapids during the xvork. At first, owing to the velocity 
with which he was carried forward, he was unable to hold 
upon the projecting rocks ; but through great bodily ex- 
ertions to lessen the motion, by swimming against the 
current, he was enabled to seize upon a rock, from which 
he was taken by means of a rope. 

T 



S12 NIAGARA FALLS. 

been erected, contiguous to what is termed the race-way, 
\rhich divides Bath from Goat Island. The latter, which 
is 330 3'ards broad, is principally a wilderness. On the 
southern and western banks an extensive view is had of 
the rapids above and of the grand fall on the Canada 
side. But the best view of the latter is obtained from 
The Toicer, a stone building erected between-Goat Island 
and the Terrapin rocks. A bridge, 300 feet long, once 
extended to these rocks and even to the verge of the 
*' Crescent or Horse-shoe Fall ;" but is now only kept in 
repair to the Tower. The summit of the latter is reached 
by means of a spiral stair case in the interior. The view 
from this elevation is indescribably grand and overpower- 
ing. The rapids above, the mist below, enriched by a 
brilliant solar arch, together with the roar of the immense 
body of falling water, fill the mind with reverential awe 
and dread. 

At the foot of Iris Island (adjoining Goat Island) is 
what is called the Biddle stair-way, erected by N. Bid- 
DLE, Esq. late president of the U. S. Bank. This affords 
a safe and easy passage to another favorable position for 
viewing this stupendous work of nature. The elevation 
of the island above the margin of the river or basin below, 
is 185 feet. The descent of the first 40 feet is effected 
by a flight of steps, commencing in the interior of the 
island, and descending in a rapid dechvity to the brow of 
the perpendicular work, through a dugway walled on 
both sides ; the second flight is by a spiral stair way of 88 
steps, down a perpendicular building in the shape of a 
hexicon, resting on a firm foundation — the whole hand- 
somely enclosed. From the foot of this building to the 



NIAGARA FALLS. 213 

river below, (about 80 feet,) are three paths formed of 
stone steps, and leading to the water in different direc- 
tions.* 

The amount of water which passes over the respective 
falls has been estimated by Dr. Dwight at more than 100- 
millions of tons an hour ! No method can be devised for 
ascertaining the depth at the principal fall ; but it is not 
improbable that it may be 6 or 800 feet ; as the depth oi' 
the stream half a mile below is from 250 to 260 feet. 

To a stranger who shall examine the rapids above the 
falls, it will seem incredible that Goat Island should ever 
have been visited previous to the construction of a 
bridge. Yet as early as 1765,t several French officers 
were conveyed to it by Indians in canoes, carefully drop- 
ping down the river ; and it is but a few years since Gen. 
Porter, of Black Rock, with some other gentlemen, also 
made a trip to the Island in a boat. They found but lit- 
tie trouble in descending ; but their return was difficult 
and hazardous. It was effected by shoving the boat with 
setting poles up the most shallow part of the current, for 
half a mile, before making for the shore. 

Falling into the current within a mile of the falls, is 
considered fatal. Several accidents of this kind have 
happened ; and no one (save in the instance mentioned 
in a preceding page) has ever reached the shore. Many 

* It was from ladders erected at this place that the 
celebrated Sam Patch made a descent of 118 feet into the 
water below, a short time previous to his fatal leap at 
Rochester, in the fall of 1829. 

t Trees marked 1765 and 1769, are still to be seen on 
the island. 



^14 NIAGARA FAI.LS. 

bodies feave been found below the falls — those that have 
fallen in the centre of the stream, without any external 
marks of injury ; and those that have fallen near the 
shore, much lacerated and disfigured. The latter has 
probably been occasioned by coming in contact with 
rocks in shallow water, before reaching the cataract. It 
is but a few years since an Indian, partially intoxicated, 
in attempting to cross the river near Chippewa, was forc- 
ed near the rapids ; when, finding f-11 efforts to regain tho 
shore unavailing, he lay down in his canoe, and was soon 
plunged into the tremendous vortex below. He was nev- 
er seen afterwards. 

There are two respectable boarding establishments on 
the American side, in what is called the village of Man- 
jchester ; and a third, on a much larger scale, was com- 
menced a few years since, but very little beyond the 
foundation has been perfected. The village was burnt 
by the British in 1813; but it has been rebuilt, and 
though small, is larger than it was previous to that event. 

Row boats continually cross the river from the foot of 
the stair w^ay on the American side to the road leading 
to the Clifton House," 

On the Canadian side. 

The view from the table rock about half a mile south 
■of the landing, has been generally considered preferable 
to any other ; but this point must be decided by the differ- 
net tastes of visitors. The table rock projects about 50 
feet, and between it and the Falls an irregular arch is 
formed, which extends under the pitch almost without in- 
terruption, to Iris island. The descent from the rock is 
by means of a spiral stairway, which is enclosed. Visi- 



NIAGARA FALLS. 215 

tants desirous of passing in the rear of the great sheet of 
water, are supplied by the keeper of the stairs with dress- 
es for that purpose, and with a guide. On reaching the 
bottom a rough path winds along the foot of the precipice 
and leads under the excavated bank, which, in one place, 
overhangs about 40 feet. The entrance into the tremen- 
dous cavern behind the falling sheet, should never be at- 
tempted by persons of weak nerves. The humidity of 
the atmosphere, which, at times, almost prevents respira- 
tion ; the deafening roar of the foaming torrent, and the 
sombre appearance of surrounding objects, is oftentimes 
calculated to unnerve the stoutest frame. The farthest 
distance that can be approached, is to what is called 
Termination Rock, 153 feet from the commencement of 
the volume of water at Table Rock. Few, however, 
have the courage to proceed that distance, and seldom go 
fartlier than 100 feet. 

A large crack in the table rock, which has increased 
annually for some years, renders it very certain that a 
considerable proportion will ere long fall into the abyss 
below. The part thus cracked is nearly 50 feet in width, 
and might bo blasted off without difficulty. The height 
of this rock has been ascertained to be 163 feet; while 
that of the Falls, measuring from the bridge near the 
terrapin rocks, has proved to be 153 feet 4 inches. 

The Pavilion, on the Canada side, is on a lofty emi- 
nence above the Falls ; affording from its piazzas and 
roof a beautiful prospect of the surrounding scenery. It 
is a handsomely constructed building, and can accommo- 
date from 100 to 150 guests. Connected with the estab- 
lishment is a platform along what is called the upper 
t2 



216 BURNING SPRING. 

bank, between the house and river, giving an easy de- 
scent to the Table Rock. This with the stair case from 
the rock to the bank below, affords a pleasant and safe 
means of obtaining one of the best views of the Falls. 

While on the Canadian side, tourists will find it 
interesting to visit the Deep Cut of the Welland Ca- 
NAL, eight miles west of the Falls. This canal, which 
unites the waters of Lakes Erie and Ontario, and which 
is constructed for sloops of 125 tons burthen, commences 
at Port Maitland, at the mouth of the Grand river on 
Lake Erie, 40 miles west of Buffalo, and follows the 
channel of thai stream nearly a mile and a half, and 
thence up Broad creek nearly a mile, where the artificial 
channel commences by a cut of 10 miles through a 
marsh. It then proceeds down Mill creek 2 1-2 miles 
until it intersects the Welland river ; soon after which the 
deep cut commences, averaging 44 feet for a mile, through 
a tenacious clay. Beyond this, for a distance of 4 miles, 
the canal preserves an elevation corresponding with the 
cut ; when, in 4 miles farther, it descends, by means of 
32 locks, 322 feet. Thence to Lake Ontario, a dis- 
tance of 5 miles, it is mostly in the bed of the Twelve 
Mile creek. The whole length of the canal, including 
19 miles of slack water navigation, is about 44 miles. 

Burning Spring. — About half a mile south of the Falls, 
(on the Canadian side) and within a few feet of the 
Niagara river, is a Burning Spring. The water is wann 
and surcharged with sulphuretted hydrogen gas. The 
water rises in a barrel, which is covered, and the gas es- 
capes through a tube. On applying a candle to the tube, 
the gas takes fire, and burns with a brilliant flame until 



BATTLE OF BRIDGEWATER. 217 

blown out ; and on closing the building for a short time in 
which the spring is contained, and afterwards entering it 
with a lighted candle, an explosion may be produced. A 
small Ice for the exliibition is required by the keeper of 
the spring. 

Bridge WATER, or Lundy's Lane, is half a mile further. 
It is celebrated as the ground on which an important 
battle was fought between the British and Americans in 
July, 1814. In the afternoon, the British advanced 
towards Chippewa with a powerful force. At 6 o'clock, 
Gen. Scott was ordered to advance with his brigade and 
attack them. He was soon reinforced by General Rip- 
ley's brigade ; they met the British below the falls. They 
had selected their ground for the night, intending to at- 
tack the American camp before day-light. The action 
began just before 7, and an uninterrupted stream of mus- 
ketry continued till half past 8, when there was some 
cessation, the British falling back. It soon began again 
with some artillery, which, with slight interruptions, con- 
tinued till half past 10, when there was a charge, and a 
tremendous stream of fire closed the conflict. Both ar- 
mies fought with a desperation bordering on madness ;, 
neither would yield the palm, but each retired a short dis- 
tance, wearied out with fatigue. For two hours the two 
hostile lines were within 20 yards of each other, and so 
frequently intermingled, that often an officer would order 
an enemy's platoon. The moon shone bright ; but part 
of the Americans being dressed like the Glengarian regi- 
ment caused the deception. 

The British loss in killed, wounded and prisoners was 
878, and the American loss 860. 



218 BATTLE OF CHIPPEWA. 

The road from the Falls passes directly over the hill 
where the British artillery was posted at the time Scott's 
brigade commenced the action ; and the houses in the 
village of Bridgewater — the trees and fences in the vicin- 
ity, still retain marks of the combat. Many graves are 
seen upon the hill ; among others that of Capt. Hull, son 
of the late Gen. Hull, who distinguished himself and fell 
in this action. Most of the slain were collected and 
burned upon the battle ground. 

Chippewa Village is one mile south of the battle 
ground. It contains a small cluster of buildings and a 
few mills situate on the Chippewa creek, which runs 
through the village. One mile farther is 

The Chippewa Battle Ground. The battle of Chip- 
pewa was fought on the 5th of July, 1814, and has been 
described as one of the most brilliant spectacles that 
could well be conceived. The day (says a writer) was 
clear and bright ; and the plain such as might have been 
selected for a parade or a tournament ; the troops on both 
sides, though not numerous, admirably disciplined ; the 
generals leading on their columns in person ; the glitter 
of the arms in the sun, and the precision and distinctness 
of every movement, were all calculated to carry the mind 
back to the scenes of ancient story or poetry — to the 
plains of Latiura or of Troy, and all those recollections 
which fill the imagination with images of personal hero- 
ism and romantic valor. 

After some skirmishing, the British Indians were dis- 
covered in the rear of the American camp. Gen. Porter, 
with his volunteers and Indians, were directed to scour in 



BATTLE OF CHIPPEWA, 219 

tke adjoining forest. This force had nearly debouched 
from the woods opposite Chippewa, when it was ascer- 
tained that the whole British force, under Gen. Riall, had' 
crossed the Chippewa bridge. Gen. Brown gave imme- 
diate orders to Gen. Scott to advance with his brigade,, 
and to Gen. Ripley to be in readiness to support. In a 
few minutes, the British line was discovered formed and 
rapidly advancing, their right on the woods, and their left 
on the river. Their object was to gain the bridge across 
a small creek in front of the American encampment,, 
which, if done, would have compelled the Americans to 
retire. The bridge, however, was soon gained by Gen. 
Scott and crossed, under a tremendous fire of the British 
artillery, and his line formed. The British orders were to 
give one volley at a distance, and immediately charge^ 
But such was the warmth of the American musquetry 
that they could not withstand it, and were obliged to re- 
treat before the appearance of Ripley's brigade, which 
had been directed to make a movement through the 
woods upon the British right flank. The British recross» 
ed the Chippewa bridge, which they broke down on their 
retreat, having suffered a loss in killed, wounded and 
.missing, of 514. The American loss was 328. 

Returning to the American side of the Falls, a passage 
is taken in the rail road cars for Buffalo. Two and a half 
miles from the Falls is the site of old Fort Schlosser oa 
the bank of the river, rendered somewhat noted in mod- 
em times, as the spot at which the Caroline steamer lay 
moored at the time of her capture by an armed British 
force in the winter of 1838. She was detached from her 
moorings, set on tire, ana sent adrift over the Falls, 



220 NAVY ISLAND WATERLOO. 

Ono man is known to have been killed, who was standing 
on the sliore at the time of the conflict, and it is generally 
believed that some were lost in the burning vessel ; but 
no positive proof has ever been adduced on the subject. 

Navy Island, between which and the American shore 
the Caroline plied several times previous to her destruc- 
tion, lies nearly opposite Fort Schlosser. It is at the 
foot of Grand Island, and contains about 300 acres. It 
was in the possession of a band of Canadian refugees and 
American volunteers at the time of the burning of the 
Caroline, and was not evacuated by them, until all sup- 
plies were cut off from the American as well as Canadian 
shore. 

Black Rock, about J 6 miles south of Schlosser, is a 
village of considerable magnitude on the east bank of the 
Niagara river. It was burnt by the British in 1811 ; but 
has been rebuilt, and is much increased from its former 
size. A pier in the river, about 2 miles long, affords a 
harbor to the village, and is used as a part of the Erie 
canal. The dam, however, has been found insufficient to 
withstand the force of the current. Repeated injuries are 
sustained, and vessels now seldom enter the harbor. 
Opposite Black Rock, on the Canada side, is the small 
village of 

Waterloo ; a little north of which stand the ruins of 
Fort Erie, rendered memorable as the theatre of several 
engagements during the late war. The last and most 
decisive battle fought at this place, was on the night of the 
15th of August, 1814. The fort was occupied by the 
Americans ; and its possession was considered an object 
of importance to the British. Taking advantage of the 



BUFFALO. 221 

darkness of the night, they made repeated and furious 
assaults, and were as often repulsed ; until, at length, 
they succeeded, by superior force, in gaining a bastion. 
After maintaining it for a short time, at the expense of 
many lives, accident placed it again in the hands of the 
Americans. Several cartridges vsrhich had been placed 
in a stone building adjoining exploded, producing tremen- 
dous slaughter and death among the British. They soon 
retreated, leaving on the field 221 killed, among whom 
v/ere Cols. Scott and Drummond, 174 wounded, and 186 
prisoners. The American loss was 17 killed, 56 wound- 
ed, and 11 missing. 

This action was followed by a splendid sortie near the 
fort on the 17th of the following month, which resulted 
in a loss to the British of near 1000, including 385 pris- 
oners, and to the Americans of 511 killed, wounded and 
missing. 

BUFFALO, 

Situated at the outlet of Lake Erie, is 3 miles from 
Black Rock. It is a beautiful and thriving city, and with 
the advantages of both a natural and artificial navigation, 
is destined to become one of the most important places in 
the state. Its present population is estimated at about 
20,000, and the number of buildings at 2500. The Erie 
canal commences in this city, near the outlet of the Buf- 
falo creek, and passes through an extensive and perfectly 
level plot, equidistant from the shore of the lake and the 
high grounds called the Terrace. From the canal are 
cut, at very suitable distances, lateral canals and basins, 
rendering the whole of what has heretofore been termed the 



522 BUFFALO. 

lower town, contiguous to water communication. Stoixs 
and warehouses are so constructed as to receive the boats 
along side. In its location, Bufialo is in the midst of the 
<enterprize and business of this new world. All the man- 
ufactures and migrating population from the north and 
east here find a resting place, and the agricultural pro- 
ducts of the west, coming from the long extended lakes, 
here seek a new avenue to the Atlantic. At the Terrace, 
ivhich was formerly the dividing line between the upper 
and lower towns, but which are now rendered continuous, 
a gentle and equal rise of ground commences, continuing 
nearly and perhaps quite two miles, and then falls away 
to a perfect level as far as the eye can reach, bounded on- 
ly by the horizon. Upon this elevated ground there is a 
charming view of the lake, Niagara river, the canal with 
its branches, the Buffalo creek, the town itself, and the 
Canada shore ; a prospect from which every one parts 
with reluctance. The streets are very broad, and passing 
from the high grounds, over the Terrace to the water, are 
intersected with cross streets. There are three public 
squares of some extent, which add much to the beauty of 
■the city. Tlae public buildings are a court house, situated 
on the highest part of Main street, well proportioned and 
handsomely ornamented, with a large park in front, en- 
closed and set round with forest trees; 16 churches, a 
college, a literary and scientific academy, a lyceum, a fe- 
male seminary and 3 banks. The Presbyterian meeting 
house, standing near the Episcopal church upon a semi- 
circular common on Main street, is an edifice of very 
commanding appearance ; and several of the churches are 



BUFFALO. 223 

beautiful specimens of architecture, and would do credit 
to any city in America. 

There are several spacious public houses ; among which, 
the American Hotel is probably not surpassed by any in 
the United States, either as to size, furniture, or the style 
in which it is kept. The Eagle Tavern, Buffalo 
House and City Hotel are also extensive and highly re- 
spectable establishments, and share liberally in the public 
patronage. 

The place (then a village) was burnt by the British in 
1814, when there was but one house left standing. This 
is still pointed out in the upper part of the city. It was 
not until considerable time had elapsed after this, that 
Buffalo began to be rebuilt, nor imtil the canal was loca- 
ted, did it rise with much promise. In 1822 it was in- 
corporated as a city, and is rapidly rising into importance. 
A ship canal, 80 feet wide and 13 deep, extends across 
from the harbor, near the outlet of Buffalo creek to the 
canal, a distance of about 700 yards ; and a boat canal 
from the Big Buffalo creek to the Little Buffalo creek, a 
distance of 1600 feet. Between 40 and 50 steamboats 
ply between the city and various places on the lake. A 
morning and evening boat leave the harbor daily for De- 
troit, and additional boats are building which will even 
increase the facilities of communication. 

As this place was the theatre of important events 
during the last war, the writer had expected to find in the 
city church yards some monuments to the memory of the 
brave who fell during that period ; but he discovered only 
one ; it contained the following inscription : " To the 
memory of Maj. Wm. Howe Cuyler, who was killed at 
u 



224 BUFFALO. 

Black Rock by a shot from the enemy, on the night of the 
9th October, 1812, while humanely administering to the 
relief of the wounded soldiers, who intrepidly crossed to 
the British shore, and brought over the Adams frigate, 
that had been surrendered by Gen. Hull, and the Cale- 
donia ship belonging to the enemy. He was in the 35th 
year of his age, and son of the late Henry Cuyler, Esq. of 
Greenbush in this state." 

The Seneca Village, settled by about 900 Indians, 
principally Senecas, with some Onondagas and Cayugas 
dwelling among them, is from 3 to 4 miles southeast of 
Buffalo. They own 49,000 acres, reaching to the very 
bounds of the city, a greater part of which is luxuriantly 
fertile. A mission is established on the reservation, and 
a school kept for the instruction of Indian children. 
Near the Seneca Village is a sulphur spring, which is 
much resorted to during the summer season. 

Buffalo being the point at which travellers embark on 
a tour through the lakes or to the western states, a brief 
description of the prominent routes is subjoined, before 
proceeding in the excursion through Lake Ontario to 
Montreal, &.c. The following are the charges for fare to 
the most prominent places : 

By steamboat, from Buffalo to Cleveland, Ohio, $6 ; 
from Buffalo to Detroit, $8 ; from do. to Mackinaw and 
Sault St. Marie, $12 ; from do. to Chicago, Green Bay, 
and St. Josephs, ^20. By stage, from Cleveland to Pitts- 
burg, Penn., ^6 ; from Cleveland or Sandusky to Cincin- 
nati, $12; from Pittsburg to Wheeling, $3; thence by 
steamboat to Cincinnati, $10, or by stage $14. By steam- 



BUFFALO TO DETROIT. 225 

boat, from Cincinnati to Louisville, $4 ; from do. to St. 
Louis, $16; from do. to New-Orleans, ^25. 

FROM BUFFALO TO DETROIT, 

311 miles. 

Steamboats leave Buffalo twice a day for Detroit, occu- 
pying about 36 hours in the passage. The intermediate 
places of prominence and the distances are as follow : 



Miles. 
From Buffalo to Stur- 
geonPt., N.Y.. 10 

Cattaraugus, 10 20 

Dunkirk 13 33 

Van Buren, 2 35 

Portland, 16 51 

Burgett's Town, P. 18 69 

Erie, 17 86 

Fairview, 11 97 

Ashtabula, Ohio,.. 28 125 



Miles. 

Fairport, 32 157 

Cleveland, 30 187 

Sandusky, 54 241 

Cunningham's Isl., 12 253 
North Bass Island, 10 263 
Middle Sister do. 10 273 
Amherstburgh, U. 

Canada 20 293 

Fighting Island,.. 6 299 
Detroit, Mich.,... 12 311 



Dunkirk, N. Y., is at present a small village ; but its 
fine harbor, which is frequently clear of ice much earlier 
in the season than the Buffalo harbor, together with the 
termination of the proposed New- York and Erie rail road 
within its precincts, will hereafter render it a place of 
much commerce and importance. 

Van Buren, 2 miles farther, is a new and flourishing 
village, handsomely laid out, and is destined to be a place 
of considerable trade. 

Portland, 16 miles. 
Burgett's Town, Penn. 18 miles. 
Erie, 17 miles farther, contains a court house, 2 banks, 
5 churches, and about 2500 inhabitants, and in its local 



226 CLEVELAND. 

advantages is equalled by few towns in the interior. Be- 
sides a water communication with all the towns on the 
western lakes, it is the terminating point of the Pennsyl- 
vania canal, which connects Philadelphia and Pittsburgh 
with Lake Erie. The village is distant from Pittsburgh 
120 miles, and from Philadelphia 380. 

Fairview, 11 miles. 

Ashtabula, Ohio, 28 miles. It has a good harbor and 
is a tluriving village. 

Fairport, 32 miles, is located at the junction of Grand 
river with the lake. 

Cleveland, 30 miles. It is the capital of Cuyahoga 
county, and is handsomely situated at the mouth of a 
creek of that name. From a small village, it has within 
a few years attained an extraordinary growth, and is now 
one of the most prominent towns in the state. This may 
be attributed, in a great measvure, to the termination of 
the Ohio and Erie canal at this place — thus rendering it 
not only a point of great commerce with the lake, but 
also with the Ohio river. 

The entire length of this canal is 307 miles. Com- 
mencing at the mouth of the Cuyahoga, 568 feet above 
the Ohio river, it follows the bank of that river 37 miles ; 
whence it crosses Portage summit to the Tuscarawas 
river, along the banks of which it descends to theTomoka 
creek. Ascending this creek for a short distance, it 
crosses over to the Licking river, a branch of the Muskin- 
gum, which it ascends to a point on the South Fork, a 
few miles south of Newark ; thence it crosses over to 
Walnut creek, a small stream which falls into the Scioto ; 



CLEVELAND TO CINCINNATI. 



227 



after reaching that river, it descends along the eastern 
bank to Circle ville, and there crosses over to the west 
bank, along which it descends, passing Chillicothe, to the 
mouth of the Scioto at Portsmouth. The dimensions are 
similar to those of the New- York and Erie canal. Lock- 
age 1185 feet. Packets run daily on the canal, reaching 
Portsmouth in about 3 1-2 days ; where steamboats are 
taken for Cincinnati, Louisville and New-Orleans.* 



* To travellers who design an excursion to Cincinnati, 
or to Columbus, the seat of government of the state, the 
following table of distances on this canal will be useful : 



Miles. 
From Cleveland to the 
Cuyahoga aqueduct, 22 

Old Portage, 12 

Akron, 4 

New Portage, 5 

Clinton, 11 

Mazillow, 11 

Bethlehem, 6 

Bolivar, 8 

Zoar, 3 

Dover, 7 

N. Philadelphia, 4 

New-Comer's Town, . . 22 
Coshocton, 17 



Miles. 

Irville, 26 

Newark, 13 

Hebron, 10 

Licking Summit, 5 

Lancaster Canaan, .... 11 

Columbus, (side cut) . . 18 

Bloomfield, .......... 8 

CiRCLEVILLE, 9 

Chillicothe, 23 

Piketon, 25 

Lucasville, 14 

Portsmouth, (Ohio riv- 
er,) 13 



From Portsmouth, the distance by steamboat to Cin- 
cinnati is 113 miles, as follows : Vanceburgh, Ken. 20 — 
Manchester, Ohio, 16 — Maysville, Ken. 11 — Charleston, 
Ken. 4 — Ripley, Ohio, 6 — Augusta, Ken. 8 — Neville, 
Ohio, 7 — Moscow, Ohio, 7 — Point Pleasant, Ohio, 4 — 
New Richmond, Ohio, 7 — Columbia, Ohio, 15 — Fulton, 
Ohio, 6 — Cincinnati, Ohio, 2. From the latter place to 
Louisville, Ken,, the distance is 143 miles ; thence to 
the junction of the Ohio with the Mississippi river, 366; 
and thence to New-Orleans, 1284 miles. 

u2 



228 AMHERSTBURGH. 

From Cleveland to Sandusky, by steamboat, the dis- 
tance is 54 miles. The village is handsomely located on 
the south shore of Sandusky Bay, 3 miles from its en- 
trance, and is a flourishing town. A rail road is con- 
structing from this place to Dayton, on the Miami canal. 
It will be 153 miles long, and when completed, will form 
a rail road and water communication between Lake Erie 
and the Ohio river. 

Amherstburgh, Upper Canada, (mouth of the Detroit 
river,) 52 miles. It was more particularly known during 
the last war between the United States and Great Britain 
as a locality of some importance by the name of Maiden. 
On the opposite side of the river is shown the battle 
ground of Brownstown, where the Americans, mider dis- 
advantageous circumstances, and with a slight loss, rout- 
ed the British force. The former were on their way to 
relieve the fort at Frenchtown, a short distance below ; 
and in a narrow pass, where escape was impossible, the 
British were posted to receive them. The artillery of the 
latter was stationed directly in front on a rise command- 
ing the road ; on the right flank were the regulars, and 
on the left the Indians, secreted in the woods. The 
Americans, under Gen. Miller, approached and were al- 
most entrapped, when the enemy was discovered. With 
the rapidity of thought, the regulars were charged, and 
soon driven on to the cannon — the cannoniers, afraid to 
apply the match against their own friends, threw away 
their linestocks and fled. The Indian opponents were 
soon dispersed, and confusion and total flight ensued. 
The Americans collected the spoil, and pursued their 
way ; but they came too late. The massacre at French- 



DETROIT. 229 

towA had been perpetrated ; and the bones of seven hun- 
dred of the noblest sons of Kentucky lay bleaching- on 
the earth, the victims of the most wanton perfidy. Their 
fate, however, was soon afterwards avenged at the battle 
of the Thames. 

Detroit is 18 miles from Amherstburgh. In natural 
beauty and advantages of locaHty, it is surpassed by few 
cities at the west. The greater part of the town is situa- 
ted on a bluff terminating a few feet from the water, in 
a very extensive and beautiful plain. As the boat ap- 
proaches the city, the shores display a succession of hand- 
some country seats, and the town exhibits an imposing 
appearance. Jefferson Avenue, extending along the river 
about a mile and a half, with its neat buildings, shaded 
with forest trees, its bustle, life and gay equipages, is 
justly the pride of every inhabitant. There are few 
streets, indeed, in any city of equal beauty, or possessing 
greater interest. Formerly, it was principally lined with 
low French dwellings ; but these have given place to 
those of modern style and improved architecture. The 
business and population of the city, and the value of real 
estate have greatly increased within a few years. Its 
present population is from 12,000 to 14,000. 

A rail road has been constructed from Detroit to Ypsi- 
lanti, 33 miles ; whence stages are taken for Saint 
Joseph, on Lake Michigan, 169 miles; and thence to 
Chicago, Illinois, by steamboat, 92 miles farther. The 
route, by stage, is over what is termed the government 
road, and passes through the village of Jonesville, 68 
miles from Ypsilanti; Coldwater, 20 miles; Sturge's 
Prairie, 25 miles ; Mottville, 17 miles ; thence to the 



230 FROM DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 

mouth of the St. Joseph is 40 miles. Most of the villages 
are new, but flourishing ; and the forests are daily giving 
place to cultivation. 

The town of St. Joseph, located at the mouth of the 
river, (which is navigable for steamboats for 50 miles) is 
rapidly increasing in population, and will soon become a 
place of much importance. Its harbor is good, and it has 
been selected as the terminating point of the public im- 
provements which are to extend from Detroit across the 
peninsula. 

Steamboats also leave Detroit once a fortnight, by way 
of Lake Hiu-on, for Chicago, touching on the route at the 
mouth of St. Clair river, 40 miles. Palmer 17, Fort 
Gratiot J4, White rock 40, Thunder Island 70, Middle 
Island 25, Presque Isle 65, Mackinaw 58, Isle Brule 75, 
Fort Howard (Wisconsin Territory) 100, and Milwaukee 
(W. T.) 310 miles ; whence to Chicago is 90 miles. 

But the more common route, and especially for those 
who are desirous of visiting Detroit as well as Chicago, is 
to take a steamboat for Toledo, and thence complete the 
excursion by rail road, stage and steamboat, as follows : 

FROM DETROIT TO CHICAGO, 

Via Toledo — 309 miles. 



Miles. 
By steamboat. 

Detroit to Toledo, 71 

By rail road. 

Adrian, 33 

By stage. 
Tecumseh, , 10 



Miles. 
Niles, 100 

Michigan City, (Ind.) 40 

By steamboat. 
Chicago, (Illinois,)... 55 



Toledo, 71 miles from Detroit, is the terminating 
point of the steamboat passage. It is located on the 



ADRIAN MICHIGAN CITY. 231 

Maumee river, nine miles from its junction with Lake 
Erie, and is within what has heretofore been termed the 
disputed territory between Ohio and Michigan. In 1834, 
the space now occupied for the village, with a slight ex- 
ception, was a dense forest. Now it numbers between 
three and four thousand inhabitants. From its location, 
it cannot be otherwise than a place of much importance. 

Adrian, 33 miles, is the present termination of the rail 
road. 

Tecumseh, 10 miles farther, is a flourishing village of 
between two and three thousand inhabitants. Between 
Tecumseh and 

NiLES, which is 100 miles, there are very few villages 
of importance. The country, however, is rapidly improv- 
ing, and will ere long be settled with an extensive popu- 
lation. The village of Niles is located on the St. Joseph's 
river, and contains a poulation of about 1500 inhabitants. 

Michigan City (Indiana) is 40 miles farther, and is 
the termination of the stage route, (unless the traveller 
prefers passing around the southern extremity of the 
lake.) The town is situated on the south-eastern comer 
of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of Trail creek, in a glen, 
surrounded by sand hills. It is the only point where any 
stream of magnitude from Indiana communicates with 
the Lake, and consequently the only spot where, by any 
possibility, she can build a city. In 1834, the place con- 
tained only a solitary family ; now it has a population 0£ 
1500, and its business operations are quite extensive. It 
is the commercial depot for the entire north of Indiana — 
her emporium — and the great mart for her produce. A 



232 



CHICAGO. 



canal from this place, to unite with the Wabash and Erie 
canal at Fort Wayne, on the Maumec, is in progress. 
From Michigan city to 

Chicago, (Illinois,) the distance across the lake is 55 
miles. It is located on the Chicago river, at its junction 
with the lake, at that precise point on the great chain of 
northern lakes which is most nearly approached by the 
Mississippi river. The Illinois river, through one of its 
branches, approaches within 10 miles of Chicago. Tlurough 
its whole course, from near the junction of the two 
streams, by which it is formed to its mouth, navigation is 
unimpeded ; and when connected with the waters of the 
great chain of lakes by the Illinois and Michigan canal, 
whose commencement was celebrated on the 4th of July, 
1836, a line of internal communication between the wa- 
ters of the Atlantic and Mississippi will be completed, 
which must be the vehicle of a vast commerce, bearing 
the mineral and agricultural resources of one of the most 
fertile regions of the Union to an eastern market, and re- 
compensing the producer of the west with the comforts 
and luxuries of other and distant climes. Chicago must 
of necessity be the thoroughfare of this commercial inter- 
course ; and to this calculation, though but recently made, 
may be attributed its unparalleled growth. In 1833, there 
were but a few scattering tenements hi the place, and on- 
ly four or five arrivals from the lower lakes. In 1836, the 
number amounted to 456, the buildings to more than 
1000, and the population to nearly 5000. It already con- 
tains 7 or 8 churches, a bank, and a marine and fire in- 
surance company ; and its stores, warehouses and public 
buildings are continually augmenting. 



CHICAGO. 233 

Steamboats leave Chicago daily for various ports on the 
lake ; a visit to none of which, for a short excursion, will 
prove more interesting than that of Milwaukee, (Wis- 
consin Territory,) 90 miles in a northerly direction. It 
is the largest town in the territory, though, like most of 
the western villages, its origin is very recent. In 1835, it 
was scarcely known. During the following year, it num- 
bered 1300 inhabitants. It is situated at the mouth of 
Milwaukee river, and must, in time, in consequence of 
the fertility of the soil by which it is surrounded, and the 
advantages which it possesses of a fine natural harbor, be 
one of the most important cities of the west. 

Stages leave Chicago daily for Galena, (the locality of 
the celebrated lead mines,) 100 miles west, on the Missis- 
sippi river, to which a rail road is contemplated. 

Stages also leave daily in a S. W. direction, for Peru, the 
head of steamboat navigation on the lUinois river, passing 
through Juliette, a flourishing village, 30 miles distant ; 
Ottawa, at the junction of the Fox river with the IlUnoia, 
53 miles farther ; whence to Peru is 17 miles. This is to 
be the terminating point of a canal from Chicago, and 
also of what is termed the central rail road, commencing 
near the junction of the Ohio with the Mississippi river, 
and must become an important town. From Peru, steam- 
boats are taken for Peoria, 60 miles distant ; also for Al- 
ton, on the Mississippi, (3 miles above the mouth of the 
Missouri,) 149 miles farther ; whence to St. Louis is 21 
miles. At Alton a stage can be taken dail}^, for Vandalia, 
50 miles, in an easterly direction. From Vandalia, down 
the Kaskaskia river, to the village of that name, is 95 
miles ; thence to the junction of the Kaskaskia with the 



234 



BUFFALO TO MONTREAL. 



Mississippi is U miles ; and thence to the mouth of the 
Ohio river, 100 miles. 



FROM BUFFALO TO MONTREAL, 

Via Lake Ontario, on the British side, 451 miles- 
Fare $19,50. 

INTERMEDIATE DISTANCES. 

Miles 



Miles. 
Dickinson's Land- 
ing, 38 349 

By stage. 

Cornwall, 12 361 

By steamboat. 

Coteau du Lac, . . 41 402 

By stage. 

Cascades, 16 418 

By steamboat. 

Laehine, 24 443 

By stage. 
Montreal, 9 451 



By rail road. 
From Buffalo to Nia- 
gara Falls, 22 

Lewiston, 7 29 

By steamboat. 
Fort George, .... 7 36 

Toronto, .... 30 66 

Port Hope, 65 131 

Coburg 7 138 

Kingston, 105 243 

Gananoque, ..... 24 267 

BrockviUe, 32 299 

Prescott, 12 311 

The route from Buffalo to Fort George has already 
been described. (See p. 205.) 

Lake Ontario. (See p. 203.) 

Toronto, 30 miles from Fort George, is the capital 
and chief city of Upper Canada, and is situated in the 
west riding of York, in the Home district, on an arm of 
Lake Ontario, 36 miles in a northeasterly direction from 
Niagara, and 177 miles southwesterly from Kingston. 
The city has a commanding view of the harbor, which is 
formed by a long narrow peninsula, 3 miles in extent, 
and frequently so narrow as scarcely to admit a carriage ; 
striking the traveller as an artificial breakwater, for which 



TORONTO — PORT HOPE. 235 

it is frequently mistaken. It is perhaps one of the finest 
harbors in the world — perfectly safe at all times, and so 
capacious that a thousand ships of the line may ride at 
anchor within it. The population of Toronto is 12,500. 
The buildings are principally of brick, and the city gen- 
erally has the appearance of enterprise and prosperity. 
It is an important military post, two regiments of regular 
troops being usually stationed there. The public build- 
ings, including the residence of the Lieut. Governor, Par- 
liament House, &c., are very handsome specimens of 
modern architecture, and worthy the attention of the 
tourist. There are several good hotels, the principal of 
which is the North American, kept by Mr. Campbell. 
Daily lines of steamboats cross the head of the lake to 
Niagara and Queenston, and down the lake to Kingston, 
touching at the intermediate ports.* Taking the steamer 
down the lake, the first landing is 

Port Hope, a srdall town, beautifully situated on ei- 
ther side of the river of the same name. It has a popu- 
lation of 1500 inhabitants, dispersed upon a number of hills, 
giving it an irregular but highly picturesque appearance. 

I— ^ __ 

* While at Niagara, the tourist will be at liberty either 
to cross the Lake direct to Toronto, or take a steamer by 
the head of Burlington Bay, touching at Hamilton and 
Dundas, and thence to Toronto. This latter route will 
nearly double the distance, but he will be amply compen- 
sated by the beauty of the scenery on both sides of the 
bay ; besides being enabled to add to his Sketch Book, 
" Hamilton and Dundas," the former of which is the re- 
sidence of Sir Allan McNab, the present Speaker of the 
Upper Canada Parliament, and is a town of unsurpassing 
beauty, containing some 1200 inhabitants. 



236 COBURG. 

Here are five churches and several hotels. Of the latter 
httle can be said in their praise — the Royal Hotel, for- 
merly a very good house, having been changed to a pri- 
vate residence. 

Port Hope river is a small rapid stream, which affords 
great facilities for hydraulic works, which are improved to 
a considerable extent. A survey for a canal and slack- 
water navigation up this river to Rice Lake has been 
made, and the work will probably be constructed. A com- 
pany called the " Port Hope Harbor Company," recently 
engaged in constructing wharv^es, and deepening the 
mouth of the river, have succeeded in making it one of 
the best harbors on the lake, admitting ships of the lar- 
gest class. Seven miles further, the boat reaches 

CoBURG, a pretty provincial town, and the seat of jus- 
tice for New-Castle district, situated on a plain slightly 
elevated above the lake ; the buildings chiefly of wood, 
painted white, and looking any thing but like a seaport. 
Indeed, it can hardly be called such, as there is no natu- 
ral harbor, and the piers or wharves stretching into the 
lake are continually being demolished by the violence of 
the waves, so that vessels unlading at Coburg frequently 
seek shelter in Port Hope harbor in case of threatened 
storms. It has a population of 2000 ; but which is not 
rapidly augmenting. Here are several excellent hotels — 
the Albion and North American being considered the 
best. The village also contains a respectable seminary, 
a Methodist college, and a court house and jail. The 
latter is built of heVn stone, with a collonade front, and 
has altogether an imposing appearance. 



KINGSTON. 237 

A steamer runs 3 times a week from Toronto to the 
mouth of Genesee river, on the American side, touching 
at Port Hope and Coburg. The distance here across is 
80 miles, being the widest part of the lake. A new line 
of steamers is in contemplation from Oswego direct to 
Toronto, making Coburg and Port Hope on the way. 
This would be a very desirable arrangement for travellers 
who do not wish to go to Kingston. 

Leaving Coburg, and travelling 105 miles in a north- 
easterly direction, the boat arrives at 

TviNGSTON, the oldest port and the second town in point 
of population in Upper Canada, containing about 7000 
inhabitants. The buildings are principally of blue, un- 
dressed limestone, of which there are inexhaustible quar- 
ries in the immediate vicinity. Kingston is the great 
military and naval depot of the Upper Province. It is 
situated on the northerly shore of Lake Ontario, near its 
outlet, in the county of Frontenac, in the Midland dis- 
trict. The harbor is formed by a promontory running in- 
to the lake opposite the city, which is called Point Fred- 
erick, upon which is the navy yard and extensive ware- 
houses for public stores, &c. Between this and Point 
Henry, (the main land) is another harbor, called Navy 
Harbor. The fort, which is built of massive blocks of 
stone, hammer-dressed, is on this last mentioned point — a 
little removed from the shore, and so elevated as not only 
to command the entrance to both the harbors, but also 
the navy yard, and all approach to the city by land. Next 
to Quebec, it is undoubtedly the most impregnable fortress 
in America. 



238 BELLVILLE — BAY OF QUINTE. 

The fort and navy yard on the points, and the mess 
house and barracks on the northeast side of the town, are 
worth the attention of the tourist, and may be seen by 
procuring an order from the sheriiF of the district or the 
commandant of the station. 

The British American Hotel and the Lambton House 
are among the best hotels which the place affords. 

The Commercial Bank of Kingston, the court house 
and jail, the Catholic chapel, and many private residences 
built of native limestone, are not only substantial but el- 
egant buildings. 

Kingston is a port of entry, and its natural location is 
such as to render it the commercial capital of Upper Can- 
ada.* Steamers leave the port daily for Coburg, Port 
Hope, Toronto, &c. up the lake, and for Brockville and 
Prescott, down the St. Lawrence. There is also a tri- 
weekly line to Oswego, by the way of Sackett's Harbor, 
and a line thence twice a week directly across the lake, a 
distance of 60 miles. (Fare ^2,50, by either route.) 

A boat likewise leaves every day for Bellville, up the 
Bay of Quinte.t The traveller, who can devote the 

* The present pohtical changes going on in Canada, in- 
dicate a consolidation of the two Provinces, in which 
event a more central point for the seat of government 
than either of the present capitals would be desirable, and 
it is not improbable that Kingston, at no remote period, 
may become the capital of the United Provinces. 

t The Bay of Quinte, so called, is in fact rather the 
mouth of the river Trent, or Otonibee, than a bay of Lake 
Ontario ; as it has a perceptible current, and no commu- 
nication with the lake for many miles after it widens mto 
a bay. The River Trent, or Otonibee, is the outlet of a 



RIDEAU AND OTTAWA CANAL. 239 

time, cannot do better than make a trip to Bellville. The 
distance by , land is 59 miles — by water, somewhat fur- 

! ther. The latter route seems to be preferred on account 
of its ever-varying scenery. Now the silvery bay ex- 
pands to the dimensions of a broad lake ; anon it becomes 
so narrow that you fancy your progress intercepted by 

; the proximity of the shores and the impenetrable gloom 
of the eternal forest. Here on the left you see the plains 
of Prince Edward, stretching away in " dizziness of 
distance," and there on the right, the 

[ " Woods and cornfields, and the abodes of men, 
; " Scattered at intervals," 

\ 

of the fine agricultural counties of Hastings and Fronte- 
i nac. In a few hours you reach Bellville, a pleasant town, 
situated on the north side of the bay, and near the mouth 
of the River Moira, containing about 250 dwelling houses, 
and from 1000 to 1500 inhabitants. You can return to 
Kingston by boat, the following day. 

While enumerating the advantages, natural and artifi- 
cial, possessed by Kingston, wq should not overlook the 

RiDEAU AND Ottawa Canal. This stupendous work, 
which was constructed at the expense of the home gov- 
ernment, forms an inland communication between King. 
Ion and Montreal for vessels of 125 tons burthen. One 
object of its construction, was to secure the transporta- 
tion in time of war, of arms and mihtary stores to and 
frc:n these important points, by a route far rerhoved from 



long chain of lakes in the norlheast country, towards 
Lake Huron, and which falls into Lake Ontario, near 
Kingston. 

v2 



240 RIDEAU ANJ> OTTAWA CANAL. 

the hostile frontier. The entire length of the canal from 
Kingston to Bytown, where it enters the Ottawa river, is 
160 miles. The Rideau Lake and River are used alter- 
nately as found practicable, so that not to exceed one 
fourth of the entire distance, is an actual excavation. 
From the junction of the canal with the Ottawa river at 
Bytown to Montreal, the distance is 120 miles. The Ot- 
tawa or Grand river is the outlet of a vast extent of coun- 
try (watered by numerous lakes and smaller streams,) 
having its source far towards Hudson's Bay, and whose 
embauchere is divided into two branches by the Island of 
Montreal, where it enters the St. Lawrence. The dis- 
charge of the Rideau into the Ottawa, is marked by an 
extensive cove on the right bank of the latter river, in a 
gulley existing between the falls of the Chaudiere and 
Rideau. This point appears to have been reserved by na- 
ture for the purpose to which it is adapted ; and, indeed, 
bears every characteristic, both as to its banks and valley, 
of having been formerly the bed of the Rideau. The ele- 
vation of the mouth of the canal above the level of the 
sea is estimated at 110 feet, while it is considered to be 
283 feet below the summit level on " Rideau Lake," and 
129 below the level of Lake Ontario, at Kingston. 

Directly above the mouth of the canal, may be seen the 
beautiful and magnificent cataract of the Chaudiere. It 
consists of a series of falls, more or less extensive, and 
amounting in all to 31 1-2 feet perpendicular. But that 
which stands most prominent to view, and gives an ap- 
pearance of grandeur to the whole, is at the broadest 
channel of the river, and known by the name of the 
Grande Chaudiere, or Big Kettle, from the peculiar for- 



RIDEAU AND OTTAWA CANAL. 241 

mation of the cauldron into which the waters faU. This 
formation consists of a hard laminated lime-stone, in hori- 
zontal strata, and worn into its present horse-shoe shape 
by the constant abrasion of the rolling water over its sur- 
face. The depth of the cauldron is said to be over three 
hundred feet — at least, a sounding line of that length 
could not be made to touch bottom. 

Next in interest to these may be mentioned the cata- 
ract of the Rideau, situated at the mouth of the river, 
where its dark green waters fall from an eminence of 37 
feet, in a single unbroken sheet. The river finds its 
source in the Rideau Lake, 85 miles from the Ottawa, 
but is not occupied as the bed of the canal till about 6 
miles above its entrance, it having been found more ex- 
pedient to make use of the natural valley and bay already 
alluded to. 

At this point it became necessary, in consequence of 
tlie rugged and precipitate nature of the banks of the Ot- 
tawa, to overcome the difference of level between the 
river and canal by the construction of a series of locks, 
eight in number, and each rising ten feet, giving an ag- 
gregate of eighty feet perpendicular rise ; constructed in 
a liberal workmanlike manner, and presenting an elegant 
and commanding appearance. The estimated cost was 
£45,700. In the vicinity of the locks are two spacious 
basins for the reception of boats ; over one of which there 
is a stone arch, connecting Upper and Lower Bytown. 

About seventy miles of the route passes through either 
extensive lakes with bold and rocky shores, or soft 
swampy meadows, where good foundations were unat- 
tainable, save at great additional expense. Hence it be- 



242 RIDEAU AND_'OTTAWA CANAL. 

came necessary to do away with the ordinary towing 
path, and enlarge the canal to a surface of 43 feet, with 
a depth of 5 feet throughout, to admit the passage of 
steamboats from one extremity to the other. 

The towns of Upper and Lower By, so named after the 
commandant of engineers, Lieut. Col. John By, under 
whose superintendence the works were constructed, have 
already assumed a character and importance which, 
when their brief existence is taken into consideration, is 
truly marvellous. The towns already contain, in addi- 
tion to their numerous dwehing-houses, two large store- 
houses for the use of the Ordnance and Commissariat 
Departments ; three substantial buildings for the accom- 
modation of the troops, erected on the highest eminence, 
so as to command both the river and canal ; and at a 
short distance an excellent military hospital. 

In the vicinity may also be seen, in the '• Union 
Bridge," the execution of one of the most daring plans 
ever conceived. It connects Upper with Lower Cana- 
da, and is thrown directly over the falls of the Chaudiere, 
taking advantage of the numerous rocky islands embrac- 
ed by the diverging branches of the river at this place ; 
and forming altogether a most magnificent and imposing 
specimen of civil architecture. The bridge is composed 
of six distinct arches, two of stone and four of wood, 
stretching from island to island with various spans, as cir- 
cumstances required ; and forming an aggregate length 
of bridge- way of 781 feet. Taking leave of Bytown and 
its vicinity, and proceeding along the line until it strikes 
the river, little of interest occurs saving a singular break 
in an interesting ridge of land, extending for several miles 



RIDEAU AND OTTAWA CANAL. 243 

at an average deptli of about thirty-five feet. It is 
known under the name of the " Notch in the Mountain," 
and affords an opportune passage for the canal, which 
would otherwise, in order to pass it, have had to encoun- 
ter a heavy excavation. 

At the point where the canal enters the channel of the 
river, are found strong rapids, confined on one side by a 
high clay bank, and on the other by a rocky shore. To 
overcome the fall existing here, which is about 30 feet, it 
was necessary to drown the rapids by the erection of a 
large dam, and surmount the elevation by three locks. 
This dam backs the water as far as the " Black Rapids" 
— to which point, and indeed thence all the way to its 
source in the " Rideau Lake," the channel of the river 
continues to be used. The Rideau, like other rivers in 
Canada, is a combination of rapids and long sheets of still 
water, alternately intervening, and to overcome which it 
is ever necessary to have recourse to locks and dams. 
There are fourteen rapids between Bytown and the 
Rideau Lake, which are destroyed by as many dams, and 
20 locks of various lifts, amounting in all to 283 feet. 

The " Rideau Lake," which is the proper summit of 
the canal, is a beautiful expanse of clear green water, 30 
miles long and 12 broad, surrounded on all sides by bold, 
rorky and precipitous banks. The only interruptions 
which the navigation encounters across this lake are at 
" Oliver's Ferry" and the " Rideau Narrows,' ' where 
considerable extra expense was incurred to overcome the 
i currents there created by the contraction of the waters. 
Continuing the use of the Rideau waters for the space 
of 45 miles on the summit level of the route, its course 



244 RIDEAU AND OTTAWA CANAL. 

finally bends towards the " Cataraqui River," which has 
an outlet in Lake Ontario near Kingston. An excavation 
of ] feet for the distance of a mile and a half across the 
isthmus, existing between the " Rideau" and " Mud" 
lakes, was necessary to effect this object. The latter 
lake is 3 1-2 feet below the level of the Rideau, and has 
a length of 12 miles, with an average breadth of 10, stud- 
ded all over with innumerable small islands, which give it 
quite a picturesque appearance. It is intended eventually 
to raise the waters to the level of the summit lake. 

Leaving this lake, the canal enters the " Indian," and 
thence, instead of making the long detour of the river, 
encounters a shallow cut, by which, in a more direct line, 
the distance is considerably shortened. Thence following 
the course of the " Cataraqui" to within 55 miles of King, 
ston, a dam is met with, backing the waters as far as the 
last mentioned lake. The rapids connecting this with 
" Davis' Lake," on the right side of the river, are svur- 
mounted by dams and locks, so that the navigation, which 
was before hazardous, is now perfectly safe. 

Again, following the course of the " Cataraqui river" 
for the further distance of eight miles, and successively 
passing " Davis" and " Opinicon" lakes, together with 
their intervening rapids, surmounted as usual by a dam 
and lock, the tourist arrives at a point called "Jones' 
Falls," 35 miles from Kingston. These falls descend 61 
feet within the mile, and connect " Opinicon Lake" with 
" Cranberry Marsh," where the river holds its course 
through a narrow rocky ravine. This fall is overcome 
by a dam and six locks. Thence, passing three more 
smaller rapids, with their customary works, the line at 



RIDEAU AND OTTAWA CANAL. 245 

length reaches " Kingston Mills," where the Cataraqui 
empties itself into the Kingston Bay, a part of Lake On- 
tario, and five miles distant from Kingston. This is the 
upper extremity of the canal on the Canada side, and is 
terminated at its junction with Lake Ontario by the erec- 
tion of four locks of nine feet each. 

The entire cost of this canal, which with the Welland 
canal (heretofore noticed) forms a chain of internal com- 
munication between Halifax and Ihe Gulf of Mexico, was 
rising of £600,000. 

The direct route from Kingston to Montreal, down the 
St. Lawrence, has been so often described as scarcely to 
require a passing notice beyond a mere sketch of places 
and distances; still the route is not barren of interest 
to one who travels it for the first time. The alter- 
nating between steamers and stage coaches, render- 
ed necessary by the frequent rapids in the St. Law- 
rence, relieves the tedium occasioned by the continuation 
of either. The roads, in such parts of the route as are 
over land, are generally good ; most of the country lying 
along the river being improved farms, many of which are 
j( in a high state of cultivation. The scenery in several 
I places is exceedingly beautiful, commanding for the most 
* part a view of the St. Lawrence with its rapids, which 
, are not only remarkable for their number but also for 
their extent. Some of them are several miles long, and 
tlie current at the rate of 30 knots an hour ; the water 
foaming and tmnbling over its rocky bed, and to use a 
simile of Mrs. Jameson, very hke a herd of young tigers at 
play. 



246 CALEDONIA SPRINGS. 

The only places of note between Kingston and Montreal 
are Gananoque, Brockville, Prescott, Williamsburg, Corn- 
wall, Lancaster, Coteau du Lac and Lachine ; all small 
provincial towns, of which Brockville and Prescott* are 
the most important, with a mixed population, the trades- 
men and artisans being mostly English, Irish or Scotch, 
and the poorer classes native hahitans or Canadians. 

The traveller, whether in pursuit of pleasure or health, 
while on his way from Kingston to Montreal or vice versa, 
whether he take the route by the Rideau and Ottawa 
canal, or the more direct one by the St. Lawrence, will 
do well to visit the 

Caledonia Springs, which are located near the Grand 
river, in the Ottawa district, 70 miles westerly of Mon- 
treal, and 125, in a northeasterly direction, from Kingston. 
They may be approached from Cornwall, on the St. Law- 

* It was at Prescott, on the 12th Nov. 1838, (the year 
following the rebellion of the French population in the 
lower province,) that a band of brigands, chiefly Ameri- 
cans, about 180 in number, commanded by a refugee Pole 
named Van Shultz, crossed the St. Lawrence and effect- 
ed a landing, under cover of the night, at the Windmill, 
a stone edifice just below the town, of which they took 
possession. They were here kept in check by the provin- 
cial militia, until despatches could be sent to Brockville 
for troops and heavy artillery. On the morning of the 
13th, a simultaneous attack, by land and water, was made 
upon the brigands m the wind mill, which resulted in the 
capture of all who survived the conflict. Van Shultz 
and his comrades were taken to Kingston, where himself 
and 5 of his officers were tried and executed, several were 
transported for life, and the remainder, through the clem- 
ency of the government, were pardoned and sent back to 
the United States. 



CALEDONIA SPRINGS. 247 

lence, or by way of Grand river, on the Rideau and Ot- 
tawa canal route. The springs were only known to a few 
hunters and trappers until the year 1835, when the first 
attempt was made to clear the forest in which they were 
situated, and erect houses for the accommodation of vis- 
itants. By the enterprise of Mr. William Barker, the 
proprietor, a hotel is now erected of sufficient extent for 
the comfortable accommodation of parties of pleasure as 
well as invalids. 

The principal Springs are the White Sulphur, the 
Saline, and the Gas Spring. The waters of each have 
undergone a chemical analysis by Dr. Chilton, a celebra- 
ted chemist of the city of New- York; since which the 
celebrity of these fountains as a watering place is rapidly 
extending. Invahds are flocking thither from all parts of 
the Canadas, from Great Britain and from the U. States. 
The waters are bottled* and forwarded to agents for sale 
in Toronto, Montreal, Quebec, New-York and elsewhere. 
The White Sulphur Spring possesses qualities very 
similar to the White Sulphur Springs of Virginia. The 
iodine found in one of these springs promises to be of 
great benefit in all diseases where that powerful remedial 
agent is efficacious. These waters are chiefly beneficial, 
and their medical effects most obviously displayed, in 

* The process of bottling these waters is different from 
that observed by the writer at other places. Ordinarilv 
the bottles are thrust below the surface, where thev fill and 
are drawn out and corked at the leisure of the person em- 
ployed m the business ; but here the whole process is per- 
formed underneath the surface, and in a manner which 
preserves the gases and all the medicinal virtues of the 
waters ununpaired. 



^2148 



BUFFALO TO MONTREAL. 



cases of dyspepsia, rheumatism, and in cutaneous diseases ; 
but the traveller is shown certificates* of extraordinary 
cures performed by them in diseases of the kidney and 
liver, in jaundice, dropsy, &c. It is proper to remark, 
however, that pulmonary diseases are not benefitted by 
these waters. 

FROM BUFFALO TO MONTREAL, 

Via Lake Ontario, on the American side, 436 miles — 
Fare, ^17,50. 

INTERMEDIATE DISTANCES. 



Miles. 


Miles. 


By rail road. 


Cross St. La-wTence 


From Buffalo to Ni- 


toPrescott,U.C. 1 296 


agara Falls,. ... 22 


Dickinson's Land'g 38 334 


Lewiston, 7 29 


By stage. 


By steamboat. 


Cornwall, 12 346 


Fort Niagara, .... 7 36 


By steamboat. 


Genesee river,.... 74 110 


Coteau du Lac, ... 41 387 


Great Sodiis Bay,. 35 145 


By stage. 


Oswego, 28 173 


Cascades, 16 403 


Sacket's Harbor,.. 40 213 


By steamboat. 


Cape Vincent,.... 20 233 
Morristown, 50 282 


Lachine, 24 427 


By stage. 


Ogdensburgh, 12 295 


Montreal, 9 436 


The route from Buffalo to 


Oswego has already been de- 


scribed. (Seep. 201 to 221. 


) 



* Dr. Robertson, a scientific man and an eminent phy- 
sician of Montreal, whose opinions being founded upon 
experimental knowledge are entitled to very great respect, 
has given his most unqualified assent to the efficacy and 
beneficial effects of these waters in dyspepsia, rheuma- 
tism, chlorosis, affections of the liver, the urinary organs, 
and some cutaneous diseases ; as well as their renovating 
powers in invigorating the system enfeebled by the long 
protracted and injudicious use of mercury. 



1 



SACKET'S harbor — OGDENSBURGH. 249 

Sacket's Harbor, 40 miles from Oswego. This was 
an important military and naval station during the last 
war. The Barracks are situate about 400 yards north- 
easterly of the village, on the shore. They are a solid 
range of stone buildings, and add much to the appearance 
of the place. Two forts erected during the war are now 
in ruins. On Navy Point, which forms the harbor, there 
is a large ship of war on the stocks ; but which, probably^ 
will never be finished. 

Cape Vincent, 20 miles. Kingston, in Upper Canada, 
is on the opposite side of the lake, 11 miles distant, with 
Grand Island intervening. 

MoRRisTOWN, 50 miles. The river here is but a mile 
and a quarter wide, on the opposite side of which is the 
village of Brockville. 

Ogdensburgh, which terminates the passage of the 
steamboat, is 12 miles farther, and is situated on the east 
side of the Oswegatchie river, at its confluence with the 
St. Lawrence. This is a thriving village, containing 
about 300 houses, and a population of about 3000 inhabi- 
tants. A mihtary fortification, consisting of two stone 
buildings and a number of wooden barracks, was formerly 
erected here by the British government, but was ceded to 
the United States in 1796. 

Stages leave Ogdensburgh daily for Plattsburgh j 
whence a steamboat can be taken on Lake Champlain for 
St. John's or Whitehall. 

Boats also leave Ogdensburgh frequently and descend' 
the river as far as La Chine, 9 miles above Montreal, in 3, 
days. They are usually furnished with every necessary 



250 RIVER ST. LAWRENCE. 

implement for their good management, and with skilful 
pilots. The latter are more particularly requisite, as the 
current of the St. Lawrence is generally very rapid, and 
obstructed by numerous shoals and islands, which, by an 
inexperienced navigator, could not without difficulty be 
avoided. The principal rapids are three in number — the 
Longue Sault, the Rapids of the Cedars* and the Cas- 
cades of St. Louis. The first of these are 9 miles in length, 
and are usually passed in 20 minutes, which is at the rate 
of 27 miles an horn". The Rapids of the Cedars terminate 
about 3 miles from the Cascades, which, after a broken 
course of about 2 miles, pour their foaming waters into 
Lake St. Louis. Lake St. Francis, on the St. Lawrence, 
is 25 miles long, and its greatest breadth 15. The bor- 
ders of the lake are so low that they can scarcely be dia- 
tinguished in passing along its centre. At the northwn 
extremity of Lake St. Francis is situated the Indian vil- 
lage of St. Regis, through which passes the boundary Une 
between the Canadas and the United States. 

The usual route, however, is to cross the river at Og- 
densburgh to Prescott ; whence the excursion to Montreal 
is by steamboat and stage alternately, as noticed in the 
table of distances at p. 248. 



* It was at this place that Gen. Amherst's brigade of 
300 men, coming to attack Canada, were lost. The 
French at Montreal received the first intelligence of the 
invasion, by the dead bodies floating past the towm. Th» 
pilot who conducted the first batteaux committed an er- 
ror by running into the wu-ong channel, and the other bat- 
teau following close, all were involved in the same de- 
struction. 



J 



MONTREAL. 251 

Lachine, 9 miles from Montreal, is connected with the 
city by means of a canal. The stage route affords a fine 
Ticw of the rapids between the two places, Nuns and He- 
ron Islands, and the Indian village of Caughnawaga. 

MOIVTREAL. 

Is situated on the south side of the island of the same 
name, the length of which is 30 miles, its mean breadth 7, 
and its circumference about 70. The city extends along 
the St. Lawrence, about 2 miles in length and about half 
a mile in width. The buildings are mostly constructed of 
stone, and arranged on regularly disposed but narrow 
streets. A stone wall formerly encircled the city, which^ 
by the sanction of the government, was some years ago 
totally demolished. Montreal is divided into the upper 
and lower towns. The latter of these contains the Hotel 
Dieu, founded in 1644, and under a superior and thirty 
nuns, whose occupation is to administer relief to the sick, 
who are received into that hospital. The French gov- 
ernment formerly contributed to the support of this insti- 
tution; but since the revolution, which occasioned the 
loss of its principal funds, then vested in Paris, its re- 
sources have been confined to the avails of some property 
in land. The upper town contains the Cathedral, the 
English Church, the Seminary, the Convent of RecoUets, 
and that of the Sisters of Notre Dame. The general 
hospital, or Convent of Gray Sisters, is situated on the 
banks of the St. Lawrence, a Uttle distance from the 
town, from which it is separated by a small rivulet. This 
institution was established m 1753, and is under the man- 
agement of a superior and 19 nuns, 
w2 



252 MONTREAL. 

Some of the public buildings are beautiful. Among 
these, the new Catholic Church, in grandeur, capacious- 
ness, style and decoration, is probably not exceeded by 
any edifice in America. It is 255 feet long and 34 feet 
wide, and is sufficiently capacious to hold 10,000 persons. 

Nelsoii's Monument, near the Market place, is an object 
also meriting an accurate survey. 

The Museum, belonging to the Society of Natural His. 
tory, contains a numerous assemblage of indigenous and 
exotic specimens, an examination of which will prove 
highly interesting to visitors of taste and science. 

A visit to the Nunneries can generally be effected with- 
out difficulty ; though a trifling purchase of some of the 
manufactures of the nuns is generally expected. 

The College is a large stone edifice, 3 stories high, and 
has a spacious yard on the south, adjoining to which is 
a beautiful garden. Connected with the college there is 
also a preparatory school, under excellent regulations. 

The Parade is a beautiful public ground, on which the 
troops are usually drilled. 

The prevailing religion here, as well as at Quebec, is 
the Roman Catholic. The clergy derive a revenue from 
grants of land made to them mider the ancient regime, 
and from contributions ordained by the church. Besides 
these, a principal source of revenue is from the fines for 
alienation, which amount to about 8 per cent., paid by 
the purchaser of real estate, every time the same is sold, 
and which extends to sales of all real estates in the seign- 
ory or island of Montreal. 

The city, including its suburbs, contains rising of 40,000 
inhabitants. 



iMONTREAL TO QUEBEC. 253 

The Mountain of Montreal, from which the city takes 
its name, rises about 2 1-2 miles distant. It is elevated 
700 feet above the surface of the river, and extends from 
north to south 2 miles. This spot has already been se- 
lected for the residence of some private gentlemen, whose 
elegant white mansions appear beautiful in contrast 
with the surrounding foliage. The island of St. Helena, 
immediately opposite the city, is a delightful httle spot, 
whence is had a fine view of Montreal, with its lofty 
mountain in the back ground, the settlement of Longueil, 
St. Lambert and La Prairie de la Madelaine, on the south 
>ide of the river, and the waters of the St. Lawrence dash- 
ing over the rocks of Lachine, and sweeping their course 
around a variety of islands. 

The principal public houses in the city are, Masonic 
Hall, in the north part ; Goodenough's, St. Paul street ; 
and Mansion House, do. 

FROM MONTREAL TO QUEBEC — 180 mileS 

The following are the intermediate distances : 



Miles, 

Varennes, J 5 

L' Assumption, 6 21 

Berthier, 24 45 

Rivere du Loup,.. . , 24 69 
Forte St. Francis,.. 15 84 



Miles. 

Three Rivers, 6 90 

St. Anne, 30 120 

Porte Neuf, 25 145 

Cape Sante, 5 1 50 

Quebec, 30 180 



The St. Lawrence from Montreal to Quebec is navi- 
gated by a number of excellent steamboats, and the pas- 
sage between the two cities is dehghtful. A large major- 
ity of the inhabitants of Lower Canada are crowded to- 
gether near the shores of the St. Lawrence, and few in- 
terruptions of forest land intervene in the whole distance 



254 VARENNES. 

between the two principal cities. The dwelhngs and 
cultivated grounds are so frequent and continuous that 
each side of the river, in fact, becomes almost an un- 
broken street, with groups of houses in the vicinity of 
the several churches, which are erected generally in sight 
of the passing steamboat, except on Lake St. Peter. The 
churches are from six to nine miles distant from each 
other, and upwards of twenty in number, forming, many 
of them, prominent objects to give embellishment and 
charm to the novel and otherwise very attractive scenery. 
All travellers sleep one night at least on board the steam- 
boat while journeying between the two cities ; and it is 
recommended that they should arrange the hour of de- 
parture from Quebec, (which is always at low water,) so 
that they may view by day light that part of the river 
which had been before passed in the night. A journey to 
Quebec and back again, which a few years since was the 
labor of some weeks, may now be accomphshed, by means 
of steamboats, in less than three days. The distance be- 
tween the two cities is 180 miles — fare $4. 

From Montreal, the boat first passes near the Fort on 
St. Helen's Island, and soon enters the rapids of St. Mary ; 
in returning up which, steamboats are often draAvn 
by cattle. Proceeding down the river, the villages of 
Longueil, Longue Pointe, and Vercheres, are successively 
passed before reaching 

Varennes, on the south side of the St. Lawrence, 15 miles 
from the city, which has become a place of very consid- 
erable resort, in consequence of the mineral springs in its 
vicinity. From the Varennes Springs Hotel, located in 
the village, is one of the most interesting views in North 



WILLIAM HENRY. 255 

America, commanding in front the mountainous land on 
the north shore of the St. Lawrence ; to the west, the 
city and island of Montreal, the island and fortification of 
St. Helen's, and the winding course of the river ; and on 
the east a most picturesque group of islands, with their 
varied channels ; while the rear presents the most fertile 
and highly cultivated district in Lower Canada, with the 
magnificent mountains of Chambly and Beloil in the dis- 
tance. The Hotel, as a building, is capacious and fur- 
nislied in a style of superior neatness and elegance. 

The Springs are one mile from the village, and are ap- 
proached by a road on the bank of the St. Lawrence, 
forming a delightful promenade, where an extensive and 
commodious bath house has been erected. By an analy. 
SIS of the waters, they prove to be possessed of valuable 
medicinal qualities, and are free from substances which 
can be deemed deleterious. Varennes and its vicinity, 
therefore, present to those travelling in pursuit of health 
and pleasure, many attractions. 

Leaving Varennes, the boat passes the villages of Point 
aux Trembles, Contrecoeur, Repentigny, St. Sulpice, La 
iMorage, Berthier and Machiche, before reaching the 
tov»'n of 

William Henry, which is 40 miles from Montreal. It 
stands on the site of an old fort, built in 1665, on the right 
bank of the river Sorel, at its confluence with the St. 
Lawrence. The present town was commenced in 1785. 
It is regularly laid out with streets, crossing each other at 
right angles, leaving a space in the centre about 500 
feet square. The number of dwellings does not exceed 
200, and its population 2000. Near the town is a seat 



256 LAKE ST. PETER — THREE RIVERS. 

which was formerly the residence of the Governor Gene- 
ral of Canada, during the summer months. Opposite the 
town, the river Sorel is 250 yards broad, and is navigable 
for vessels of 150 tons, for twelve or fourteen miles. On 
the river, which unites the waters of Lake Champlain 
with the St. Lawrence, are two considerable forts, the 
one at St. Johns and the other at Chambly. Sorel was 
occupied in May, 1776, by a party of the American army, 
under General Thomas, on their retreat from Quebec. 

Lake St. Peter, some miles below the town of Sorel, 
is formed by an expansion of the river St. Lawrence to 15 
or 20 miles in width, and is 21 in length. The waters of 
the lake have but little current, and are from 8 to 11 feet 
deep. At the upper end of the lake a variety of small 
islands are interposed, which are the only ones that oc- 
cur in the St. Lawrence till you reach the island of Or- 
leans, a distance of 117 miles. On the north side of this 
lake is the town of 

Three Rivers, at the mouth of the St. Maurice, which 
is divided by two small islands into three branches. This 
town was formerly the seat of the Colonial Government, 
and is now considered the third in importance in the 
Province. It contains about 400 houses, including a Ro- 
man Catholic and an Episcopal church, and a Convent 
of Ursulines — also the barracks formerly occupied by the 
governor, during the French regime. The number of in- 
habitants is estimated at 3000. Some miles up the St. 
Maurice are the celebrated falls of Shawinnegame, a 
beautiful cataract of about 100 feet descent. 



i 



RICHELIEU RAPIDS. 



257 



Seven miles below Three Rivers, the Richelieu rapids 
commence. The river is compressed within less than 
half a mile in width, and the water moves with great ve- 
locity for three or four miles ; but being deep and the cur- 
rent unbroken, except at the shores, the descent is made 
by steamboats without danger, except in the night, when 
a descent is never attempted. 

The scenery of the St. Lawrence is occasionally reliev- 
ed by the prospect of the distant mountains, the highest 
of which does not exceed 1000 feet, but rising in the back 
gromid of the cultivated vales along the borders of the 
river, give an additional degree of beauty and novelty to 
many of its landscapes. The alternate variety of the 
waters of the St. Lawrence, now reposing in stillness on 
the bosom of an expanded lake, and now rushing with the 
rapidity of a cataract, added to the pleasing effect of the 
landscape scenery, afford an agreeable repast to the tour- 
isi,, until he reaches the classic scenes of Quebec. Soon 
after leaving Cape Rouge, and the little village of St. 
Nicholas, near the mouth of the Chaudiere river, the tow- 
ers and citadel of this famous city open to view, situated 
on a rock of 345 feet in height, called Cape Diamond, 
from the gem-like quality of the chrystals which are found 
intermingled with the granite beneath its surface. In ap- 
proaching the city, you pass Sillery River and Cove, and 
Wolfe's Cove, where he landed his army to gain the 
heights of Abraham, about one and a half miles from 
Quebec. Point Levi appears on the right, a rocky preci- 
pice, covered with white dwellings, and commanding the 
citadel of Quebec from the opposite shore. 



258 



QUEBEC. 



QUEBEC* 

Is situated upon a high peninsular point of land, at the 
confluence of the rivers St. Lawrence and St. Charles, 
the junction of which forms a capacious and beautiful bay 
and harbor. 

From the New Exchange at the extremity of the point 
on the northeast, the limits of the city jurisdiction ex. 
tend in a direct line about northwest to a bend in the 
St. Charles river, near the General Hospital. On the St. 
Lawrence river the southwest point of the Banlieu is 
about equi-distant from the Exchange, the w^hole plat ap- 
proximating to a triangle, the longest side of which passes 
a short distance to the west of the Martello Towers, 
measuring one mile and five furlongs or 2860 yards from 
the St. Charles to the St. Lawrence. 

A straight line drawn from one river to the other, at 
the Barrier on the south and west, is rather more than a 
mile in length, and the whole wall is two miles and three 
quarters in circuit ; but including the Citadel, the Esplan- 
ade, the different large gardens, and other vacant spaces, 
a considerable proportion of the interior area within the 
fortification remains unoccupied for buildings. 

The city and environs are thus subdivided : That part 
which is within the walls is called the Upper Town, and 
can be approached solely by five gates. On the eastern 
side of the Cape towards the St. Lawrence, there is only 
one avenue to enter it, by a circuitous steep hill, through 

* For a description of this place, the writer is princi- 
that^cU ^"^ ^^'^ " ^'''^'^® °^ Quebec," published in 



QUEBEC. 259 

Prescott Gate, which is the chief thoroughfare for all the 
commercial business of the port, especially during the 
navigable season ; and then Mountain street, as this route 
is named, presents the appearance of a crowded and ac- 
tive population. On the north of the city, and where the 
promontory has considerably declined in height, there are 
two entrances — Hope Gate, not far from the eastern ex- 
tremity of the rampart, and Palace Gate adjoining the 
Armory and the Artillery Barracks. These gates are on 
that side of the city which is washed by the St. Charles. 
From the land there are two avenues to the interior of the 
fortifications : that to the east is known as the St. Louis 
Gate, which conducts by a beautiful road to the Plains of 
Abraham ; the other is at the end of St. John street, and 
thence denominated St. John's Gate. This is the route 
through which the chief part of the country trade passes. 
The long street from the termination of the Banlieu on 
the south-west, upon the St. Lawrence, skirting the Cape 
round to the Wood Yard belonging to the government, 
including Mountain street to the Prescott Gate, and all 
the other shorter streets below the hill and the river, are 
generally denominated the Lower Town. The portion 
between the road outside of the Gate of St. Louis and 
that of St. John street, to the line of the Banlieu, is call- 
ed the suburbs of St. Louis. From St. John street 
northerly to the Cote St. Genevieve, and returning to the 
end of the Banlieu, all the buildings are included in the 
St. John suburbs ; and the large district extending from 
the Wood Yard along by the foot of the hill to the wes- 
tern extremity of the Banlieu, and bounded on the north- 



260 QUEBEC. 

west by the St. Charles river, bears the appellation of the 
suburbs of St. Roch. 

As travellers are generally restricted to time, they have 
often failed to gratify their curiosity for want of a direc- 
tory or guide, by which they might with the greatest fa- 
cility view the most important objects, and also from not 
having previously obtained a letter of introduction to some 
respectable citizen who would accompany them in their 
explorations. To remove these obstacles, the .following 
methodical plan of an excursion through the city and the 
accompanying descriptions are given. They will be 
found to be accurate, and will save the tourist from in- 
numerable perplexities, to which he would otherwise be 
subject. 

Taking the Upper Town Market-House as the place 
of departure, the observer has on the west the ancient 
Monastery of the Jesuits, now used as the Barracks for 
the troops of the garrison. It is a capacious quadrangular 
edifice of 75 yards by 67, encircled by a wall which 
measures on the north the whole length of Fabrique 
street, and more than 200 yards on Anne street. The 
area enclosed, and which now is appropriated for the 
parades and exercise of the troops, was formerly an ele- 
gant garden. Fronting on the east side of Market-Place 
is the principal 

Roman Catholic Church, which is open nearly the 
whole hours of day-light. It is a massive unornaraented 
and spacious stone building. From the vestibule, the 
body of the interior is subdivided into equal proportions. 
At the termination of the nave is the grand altar in the 
middle of the ellipse constituting the sanctum, the walls 



QUEBEC. 261 

of which are ornamented with representations and fig- 
ures, commingled with various other graphical emblems. 
Among the pictures are the Conception — the Apostle Paul 
in his cxtatic vision — the Saviour ministered unto by an- 
gels — the flight of Joseph and Mary — the Redeemer and 
the cross — the nativity of Christ — the Saviour under the 
contumelious outrages of the soldiers — the day of Pente- 
cost — and the Holy Family. During the siege of Que- 
bec, in 1759, this church was set on fire by shells dis- 
charged from a battery on Point Levi, and all the paint- 
ings and ornaments consumed except the first above 
mentioned, which was afterwards found among the ruins. 
The avenue north of the church conducts the tourist to 

The Seminary, a capacious superstructure of stone, in 
the form of a parallelogram. It is encircled by a large 
garden, walled in, measuring in the whole about seven 
acres. This institution was established in 1663, and was 
originally designed for the education of ecclesiastics ; but 
this exclusive system was long since abandoned, and it is 
now open for the reception of all who comply with its 
regulations. Attached to the Seminary is a museum of 
natiu-al curiosities ; and on the left of the grand entrance 
from Market-Place is the vestibule of the chapel, in which 
are a great variety of sacred paintings. From this the 
tourist can proceed to the church ; and thence to the 

Place d'Armes, where, on the east of the Pentagon, 
stood the Castle of St. Lewis, the former residence of 
the Governor, and which was destroyed by fire in the 
winter of 1834. On the south side, and nearly adjoin- 
ing, is the 



Q62 QUEBEC. 

Court House, a plain neat building of stone, about 140 
feet long, and as many broad. It stands where once 
stood a church belonging to the order of the RecoUets, 
which was burnt in 1796. 

On the comer of Fort street, south of the site of the 
Castle of St. Lewis, is a large building used for public 
offices, the front room of which on the first story, con- 
tains the Museum of the " Society for promoting Liter- 
ature, Science, Arts and Historical Research in Upper 
Canada." A visit to it will prove extremely interesting. 
Crossing the Place d'Armes to Des Carrieres street, the 
visitor will next inspect the 

Monument, erected in memory of Wolf and Montcalm. 
This consists of a base and a pillar, surmounted by a vig= 
nette of graphic delineation. The base is about 5 by 6 
feet, and the whole height of the monument is 65 feet. 
It contains two Latin inscriptions. After viewnng from 
the promenade at the exterior of the Governor's quarters 
the beauteous landscape diverging to the northeast, the 
visitor will return to St. Lewis street, where, after pass- 
ing the office of the Commissariat, he will turn by Parloir 
street, to the 

Ursuline Nunnery and Church. This nunnery and the 
land adjoining it occupy a space of about 7 acres, which 
is surrounded by a high barrier of stone. This institution 
was founded in 1639, and the edifice, which is of stone, 
is 2 stories high, 114 feet long, and about 40 broad. At 
the east projection^is the chapel, about 100 feet long and 
50 in breadth, the interior of which is highly decorated. 
The convent is neat and includes a superior, 42 assistants 
and 7 novices, the chief employment of whom is the tui- 



QUEBEC. 



263 



tion of a large number of girls in common knowledge and 
other qualifications. They are more rigid and retired 
than the inmates of any other conventual institution in 
Canada. Persons of distinction only are permitted to ex- 
amine the domestic departments ; but the Chaplain, 
whose apartments are on the right of the entrance, per- 
mits strangers to examine the church on application to 
him. Among the paintings there exhibited, are the por- 
traits of some of the Popes — the Birth of Immanucl— the 
Saviour exhibiting his heart to the Religieuses — the Sa- 
viour taken down from the cross — a cargo of Christians 
captured by the Algerines— Louis XIII. of France— and 
several devices taken from the scriptures. The altars are 
highly ornamented and imposing. 

Leaving the nunnery, the visitor will next proceed by 
Anne street, with the south wing of the barracks on his 
right, to the Presbyterian church. Passing its front he 
will leave the jail on the right, where he pursues his 
course to the 

Esplanade. If he has no citizen as a companion, and 
no other mode of visiting the fortification, he should turn 
up St. Ursule to St. Louis street, and at the military of- 
fices request from the adjutant general a card of admis- 
sion to walk round the interior of the 

Citadel. This stupendous fortress circumscribes the 
whole area on the highest part of Cape Diamond, and not 
only accommodates the garrison as a residence, parade, 
&c. but also includes all the materials of war. It per- 
fectly commands the city and river St. Lawrence ; and is 
one of the best specimens of mihtary architecture on the 
American continent. 

x2 ^^ 



264 QWEBEC. 

Having entered the grand western gate, where the vis- 
itor leaves his ticket with a soldier on guard, and examin- 
ed the edifice, he will first proceed round the course of 
the citadel to the flag staff" and telegraph ; thence south- 
erly by the parapet bordering on the river to the machinery 
at the head of the rail- way, or inclined plane, which is 500 
feet long, extending from the wharf to the cape, where its 
perpendicular elevation is 345 feet above the stream. 
This rail-way is used by the government alone, to convey 
stones and other articles of great weight and bulk, for the 
erection of the fortress. 

Having surveyed from the highest point the majestic 
scene in every diversified aspect of hill and dale, land and 
water, the visitor will follow the course of the wall on his 
left hand, until he returns to the same gate, and pursue his 
walk by it, over St. Louis gate along the Esplanade, until 
he arrives opposite the church of the Congreganistes, im- 
mediately below which is the national school house. 

Proceeding along St. John street, he will turn north of 
St. Stanislaus street, on the east side of which stands 
Trinity chapel, whence crossing Carleton street, he ar- 
rives at the artillery barracks and the armory — the latter 
of which may be inspected, if a resident of the city be in 
company. 

Opposite the armory is the anatomical room of the med- 
ical society. Thence walking up Palace street, on the 
right hand is St. Helen street, where is Mr. Chasseur's 
natural museum. Returning into Palace street, the vis- 
itor crosses obliquely above to Collins' Lane, in which 
stands on the left, the 



QUEBEC. 265 

Chapel of the Hotel Dieu. These premises include a 
large proportion of the northern part of the interior of the 
city — commencing from the gate of the burial ground on 
Couillard street and extending to Palace street, with a 
wall on the north parallel to the fortifications ; the whole 
space occupying about 12 acres. The institution was 
commenced in 1637, under the auspices of the Duchess 
of Aiguillon, and was consecrated to the reception and 
care of the sick, who are indigent and distressed. It is a 
capacious edifice, the longest portion of which extends 
nearly 130 yards by 17 in depth, and 3 stories high. On 
the northwest side from the centre, a range is erected 2 
stories high, 50 yards in length, and nearly as many feet 
broad, plain and unadorned. This wing is appropriated 
for the patients ; the upper story of which is occupied by 
females. All proper attendance both from the nuns and 
physicians, is gratuitously administered. 

In the convent the sisterhood reside, who now include 
the superieure, 33 religeuses professes, two novices and 1 
postulants. The regularity, neatness and purity with 
which the establishment is conducted, and the solace of 
the wretched who find refuge in this hospitable domain, 
are highly exemplary. 

The church of the Hotel Dieu externally is perfectly 
plain, and the interior is little adorned. The paintings 
may be examined upon application to the chaplain. 

Having completed an examination of the Hotel Dieu, 
with the surrounding garden, the visitor may next follow 
Couillard, St. Joachin and St. George's streets to the 
Chrand Battery and the ancient palace of the Catholic 
bishop, now used by the provincial parliament ; or he can 



266 QUEBEC. 

return to Palace street, and continue his progress to the 
gate, where, by passing the guard house and pursuing his 
walk easterly, he may accurately understand the nature 
of the defence which the city can make against external 
assault. 

The first house at which he arrives is distinguished as 
the former residence of the renowned Montcalm. There 
he may turn to the right, which will lead him to Couillard 
street, or he can continue his walk passing Hope Gate, 
until he arrives at the Look-out from the northeast plat- 
form of the battery. 

In the lower town, the only objects which merit notice, 
besides the inclined plane or rail-way to the Citadel, are 
the Exchange Reading Room, and the Quebec Library, 
which are always open for the admission of strangers, if 
regularly introduced, and are worthy of inspection. 

About 100 yards from the lower end of the rail- way, 
General MoiNTGOMERY and his aids with other men were 
killed on the morning of December 31, 1775, when pro- 
ceeding to the assault of Quebec. The place may be 
easily recognized, notwithstanding the alterations which 
have occurred. At that period a narrow path only was 
made between the foot of the hill and the river, so that 
vessels were fastened to the rock by large iron bolts, one 
of which still remains near the spot where the American 
General and his advanced party were discomfited. The 
wharves, houses, &c. all have been long since construct- 
ed. At the top of the small ascent on the street immedi- 
ately below, the small battery had been erected, near the 
plot where the southerly forge is now stationed. As 
Montgomery led on the attack, the British retreated be 



ClUEBEC. 267 

fore him. In parsing round Cape Diamond, the ice and 
projecting rocks rendered it necessary for the Americans 
to press forward in a narrow file, until they arrived at the 
block house and picket. The General was himself in 
front, and assisted with his own hands to cut down and 
pull up the picket. The roughness of the way had so 
lengthened his line of march, that he was obliged to wait 
for a force to come up before he could proceed. Having 
re-assembled about 200 men, he advanced boldly and rap- 
idly at their head to force the barrier. One or two of the 
enemy had by this time ventured to return to the battery, 
and seeing a match standing by one of the guns, touched 
it off, when the American force was within 40 paces of it. 
This single and accidental fire struck down Gen. Mont- 
gomery and his aids, Captain M'Pherson and Captain 
Cheesman. 

The remains of Montgomery were interred by a soldier 
of the name of Thompson within a wall that surrounded 
a powder magazine near the ramparts bounding on St. 
Lewis' gate ; and in 1818 were removed to New- York, 
where they were deposited beneath a monument in front 
of St. Paul's church. 

The Plains of Abraham lie south and west of Quebec. 
The visitor, on leaving St. Louis gate, should turn up the 
stairs of the Glacis, continue his course under the citadel, 
and pursue a path to the right. At the termination of the 
enclosure, the bank is ascended to the Plains of Abraham, 
near the spot where Wolfe died. The large house at a 
distance in the front is erected on the site of a French re- 
doubt, which defended the ascent from Wolfe's cove, am 
was the primary object of assault and capture, after th* 



268 auEBEc. 

top of the hill had been gained by the British troops. The 
precipice at the cove, from 150 to 200 feet in height, and 
full of projections of rocks and trees, seemed to be ren- 
dered almost impassable. General Wolfe, however, with 
miparalleled fortitude, led the way in the night, (Sept. 12, 
1759,) through a narrow path winding obliquely up the 
hill, w^hich, with the assistance of boughs and stumps, 
enabled him and his troops to gain the summit. Here, 
by day-light the next morning, they were formed in line 
of battle, in readiness to meet the enemy. 

General Montcalm, on receiving information that the 
British had possession of the heights, broke up his camp 
atj Beaufort, crossed the St. Charles river, and at about 
10 o'clock in the morning commenced the attack. After 
a desperate struggle of about two hours, in which both 
commanders had been mortally wounded, the French 
gave way and left the field in possession of the victors. 

Wolfe fell at the critical moment that decided the vic- 
tory. He was wounded in the early part of the engage- 
ment by a bullet in his wrist — soon after by a ball which 
passed through his groin — and it was not until a third had 
pierced his breast, that he suffered himself to be carried 
from the field. " I die happy," was his exclamation, 
when in the arms of death he heard the joyful shouts 
of victory. 

The Martello Towers, consisting of four circular forts, 
are situated at the northern extremity of the Plains of 
Abraham, about half a mile in advance of the exterior 
grand wall of the fortifications. They are numbered from 
the river St. Lawrence to the General Hospital, and 
guard the approaches to the city on the south and west. 



i 



FALLS OF MONTMORENCl. 269 

They arc nearly 40 feet in height, with a base diameter 
ahnost equal ; and the exterior wall is of ample strength 
to resist a cannonade. 

The Falls of Montmorenci are situated about 8 miles 
northeast of Quebec, on the river of the same name, near 
its junction with the St. Lawrence. These falls pour 
over a perpendicular precipice 240 feet in height, and 
may almost compare in beauty and grandeur with the 
cataract of Niagara. 

The effect from the summit of the cliff is awfully grand 
and sublime. The prodigious depth of the descent of the 
waters of this surprising fall ; the brightness and volubili- 
ty of their course ; the swiftness of their movement 
through the air ; and the loud and hollow noise emitted 
from the basin, swelhng with incessant agitation from the 
weiglit of the dashing waters, forcibly combine to attract 
the attention, and to impress the mind of the spectator 
with sentiments of grandeur and elevation. The breadth 
of the fall is 100 feet ; and the basin, which is bounded 
by steep cliffs, forms an angle of forty-five degrees. 
When viewed from the beach, the cataract is seen, with 
resplendent beauty, to flow down the gloomy precipice, 
the summit of which is crowded with woods. The diffu- 
sion of the stream, to the breadth of 1 ,500 feet, and the 
various small cascades produced by the inequalities of its 
rocky bed, on its way to the St. Lawrence, display a 
very singular and pleasing combination. 

Remains of entrenchments and fortifications erected 
during the French war are still to be seen near the falls. 
A battery occupied by Gen. Wolfe, in June, 1759, on the 
precipice north-east of the falls, is yet visible. The 



270 FALLS OF MONTMORENCI. 

French occupied the opposite bank ; and Wolfe attempt- 
ed to storm their works by fording the river below the 
falls and ascending the heights. Without forming in a 
regular manner, and without waiting for additional rein- 
forcements which were on their way from Point Levi, 
Wolfe's men rashly ascended the hill, eager for the onset, 
and were cut down by the French artillery and musquet- 
ry, and obliged to retreat. The Enghsh loss was about 
500 ; while that of the French was trifling. A storm 
coming on, further attempts to dislodge the French were 
abandoned. The British afterwards ascended the river, ' 
and the action on the Plains of Abraham, which has 
already been noticed, took place in the month of Septem- 
ber following. 

There are three points which afford the best views of 
the Falls. 1. From the upper window of the mill, 
whence the projecting leap is safely seen. 2. Having 
crossed the bridge, the visitor proceeds along the brow of 
the hill until he arrives nearly in front of the whole cat- 
aract ; from this summit, the view, with the concomitant 
circmnstances, inspire commingled emotions of awe, ter- 
ror and astonishment. From the same spot there is a 
lucid and beauteous prospect of Quebec, with its encir- 
cling scenery ; and with an ordinary magnifying glass, 
the observer can discern all the prominent objects — the 
steeples, towers, fortifications, principal edifices, the ship- 
ping, the course of the St. Lawrence, until it is lost 
among the hills — Point Levi and its vicinity — the north 
side of the island of Orleans — the point of Angel Garden 
— and the shores of the river as far as Cape Tourment. 
3. Hence the visitor descends the hill, and pursuing its 



LORETTE. 271 

course to the right, he may ordinarily advance to the 
rock which interrupts the turbulence of the stream when 
discharged into the chasm. In the view from below, the 
most vivid impressions of this gorgeous cascade are pro- 
duced; and travellers who do not thus survey the falls, 
can form only a faint and incorrect idea of its apparently 
changing ciFect. 

At a considerable distance above the Falls, the chan. 
nel of the river is contracted between high vertical rocks, 
and the water rushes with proportionate velocity. In 
one part, at about half a mile from the bridge, cascades 
of three or four yards in depth are adjacent to two fine 
geological curiosities, familiarly denominated the Natural 
Steps, which appear to have been formed by the attrition 
of the stream, occasioned by the melting of the snows and 
the augmented rapidity of the flood. Many of these 
steps arc so regular, that they almost develope the pro- 
cess of human art. The perpendicular attitude of the 
rocks on the east side — the tree-crowned summit — the 
uniformity of appearance, resembling an ancient castle 
wall in ruins — the precipices on the western bank — and 
the foaming noisy current, pourtray a romantic wildness, 
which is highly attractive. Observers are amply remu- 
nerated for their walk, as conjoined with this interesting 
object, they witness the continuous descent and the ac- 
celerating force and celerity with which the river is pro- 
pelled to the point, whence it is precipitated into the St. 
Lawrence. 

LoKETTE, an Indian village, about 8 miles from the 
city, can be taken in the route to or from the falls of 
Montmorenci. It is built upon an elevated situation, 

Y 



272 CHAUDIERE FALLS. 

whence there is an extensively varied and agreeable land- 
scape, in many points similar to that from Cape Diamond, 
but also including some interesting novelties of outline. 
It exhibits a bold and beautiful view of Quebec and its 
suburbs, and in its extent it is bounded solely by the dis- 
tant southern mountains. The Indian inhabitants of the 
village retain many of the prominent characteristics of the 
aboriginal roamers of the forest, combined with vicious 
habits contracted by their proximity to a large sea-port, 
and their mtercourse with its migratory population. At 
this village is a very charming view of the river St. 
Charles, tumbling and foaming over the rocks and ledges 
to a great depth. The rugged and perpendicularly ele- 
vated woody cliffs, in connection with the impetuous rush 
of the waters, although circumscribed in extent, and 
therefore affording no expanded prospect in immediate 
front, yet, as seen from the Saw-Mill, and from the bank 
and the bridge at the head of the dell, in its different po- 
sitions and aspects, constitute an object which, when 
contrasted with the more majestic cataracts of Montmo- 
renci and the Chaudiere, or recollected in combination 
with them, furnishes in memorial an addition to the va- 
rieties which those stupendous natural curiosities embody. 

The Chaudiere Falls can be approached by land or 
water. The former is generally preferred, the distance 
to the mouth of the Chaudiere being nine miles from 
Quebec. Thence visitors can cross at the ferry and take 
an indirect path to the west bank of the river, or diverge 
from the St. Lawrence some distance north of the Chau- 
diere, and arrive within a short walk of the falls on the 
eastern bank. The river at the cascade is much com- 



CHAUDIERE FALLS. 273 

pressed, being only about 400 feet across ; and the depth 
into the Pot, as it is usually termed, is about 135 feet. 
Many rocks divide the stream, precisely at the fall, into 
three chief currents, of which the westerly is the largest 
— these partially reunite before their broken and agitated 
waves are received into the basin ; where each dashing 
against the other maintains a turbulent whirlpool. The 
form of the rocks forces a part of the waters into an ob- 
liqiie direction, advancing them beyond the line of the 
precipice, while the cavities in the rocks increase the 
foaming fury of the revolving waters in their descent, dis- 
playing globular figures of brilliant whiteness, which are 
richly contrasted with the encircling, dark and gloomy 
clifFs, while the ascending spray developes all the variety 
of the coloured cloudy arch, and enlivens the beauty of 
the landscape : the wild diversity of rocks, the foliage of 
the overhanging woods, the rapid motion, effulgent 
brightness and the deeply solemn sound of the cataracts, 
all combining to present a rich assemblage of objects 
highly attractive, especially when the visitor, emerging 
from the wood, is instantaneously surprised by the de- 
lightful scene. Below, the view is greatly changed, and 
the falls produce an additional strong and vivid impres- 
sion. If strangers only view the falls from one side of 
the river, the prospect from the eastern shore is recom- 
mended as preferable. 

Tlie Montmorenci and Chaudierc Falls, the village of 
Lorette and Lake St. Charles, together with the scenery 
of Orleans, a beautiful island six miles down the St. Law- 
rence, Beaufort and Point Levi, will always afford inter- 
esting excursions to the tourist at Quebec. 



274 ST. LAWRENCE RIVER. 

The St. Lawrence below Quebec. — Those who have 
not seen this part of this greatest of the navigable rivers 
in the world, can form but a very imperfect idea of its 
grandeur, and the magnificence of its scenery. Above 
the island of Orleans, the St. Lawrence is comparatively 
confined to a narrow channel passing through a level 
country, offering much sameness on the south shore, with 
the mountains on the north, too distant to produce much 
effect. The views on the great Lakes of the St. Law- 
rence in the Upper Province, stretching out of sight of 
land, differ little from those on any extended sea coast 
studded with islands, and bordered with towns and hab- 
itations. 

The St. Lawrence below the Island of Orleans, from 
many points on its northern banks, lays open to the view 
a hundred miles of a river varying from twenty to twenty, 
five miles in width, the whole course and coast of which, 
in this clear atmosphere, can be distinctly discerned. 
Beautiful islands covered with neat dwellings and culti- 
vated fields, contrast with those that are of bare rock, or 
covered with wood ; the crowded settlements, the villages 
and distant, highlands on the south shore, are opposed to 
the bold and lofty mountains of the north, crowned with 
the native forests, and impending over the margin of the 
river, while the valleys formed by the streams and tor- 
rents of these mountain regions, leave openings in which 
the village gpires are discernible in front of the bare, rug- 
ged and stupendous ranges in the interior. Li other pla- 
ces the settlements extend nearly to the tops of the 
mountains, presenting to the view neat dwellings, luxuri- 
ant harvests, and green fields, etched out on the face of 



SAGUENAY RIVER. 275 

the wildest of nature's domains. Along the main chan- 
nel of the river, numbers of the thousands of vessels which 
frequent Quebec during the season of navigation, are 
continually passing up or down under crowded sails, or 
quietly anchored, waiting the tides or winds, and from 
behind every cape and promontory, among the islands, 
and in every bay and creek, the smaller vessels and boats 
are constantly plying in the industrious pursuits of the in- 
habitants, or on excursions of social intercourse. It is a 
scene which elevates the mind to devout contemplation, 
and a just appreciation of the benefits of peaceful industry. 

The inhabitants of this part of the St. Lawrence are 
estimated at about 100,000. 

The Saguenay, which enters the St. Lawrence on its 
northern shore, about 100 miles below Quebec, is one of 
the most extraordinary rivers in the world. It is the 
grand outlet of the waters from the Saguenay country 
into the St. Lawrence, and although only a tributary 
stream, has the appearance of a long mountain lake, in 
an extent of fifty miles, rather than that of a river. The 
scenery is of the most wild and magnificent description. 
The river varies from about a mile to two miles in breadth, 
and follows its impetuous course in a south-east direction, 
through a deep valley formed by mountains of gneiss and 
sicnitic granite, which in some places rise vertically from 
the water side to an elevation of two thousand feet. 

There is a feature attending this river, which renders 

it a natural curiosity, and is probably the only instance 

of the kind. The St. Lawrence is about eighteen miles 

wide at their confluence, and has a depth of about two 

hundred and fortv feet. A ridge of rocks below the sur- 
y2 



276 SAGUENAY RIVER. 

face of the water, through which there is a channel about 
one hundred and twenty feet deep, lies across the mouth 
of the Saguenay, within which tlie depth increases to 
eight hundred and forty feet, so that the bed of the 
Saguenay is absolutely six hundred feet below that of the 
St. Lawrence into which ilf falls, a depth w^hich is pre- 
served many miles up the river. So extraordinary a fea- 
ture could only occur inai-ccky country, such as is found 
in some parts of Canada, where the beauties of nature 
are displayed in their wildest form. The course of the 
tide, meeting with resistance from the rocks at the mouth 
of the Saguenay, occasions a violent rippling or surf, 
which is much increased and exceedingly dangerous to 
boats during the ebb tide. The extraordinary depth of 
the river, and the total want of information concerning it, 
has given rise to an idea among the credulous fishermen, 
of its being in many part^^ unfathomable. This effect is 
admissible on uninformed minds, for there is always an 
appearance of mystery about a river vrhen its water is 
even discoloured so as to prevent the bed from being 
seen, and the delusion is here powerfully assisted by the 
lofty overshadowing precipices of either shore. 

Following the course of tlie river upwards, it preserves 
a westerly direction to the distance of 60 miles, in some 
parts about half a mile broad, in others expanding into 
small lakes, about two miles across to their borders, being 
interspersed with a few low islands. In the narrow parts 
of the river, the depth at the distance of a few yards from 
the precipice forming the bank is six hundred feet, and in 
the middle of the river it increases to nearly nine hundred. 
Here the navigation is suddenly terminated by a succes- 



QUEBEC TO MONTREAL. 277 

sion of falls and rapids, near which is situated the trading 
port of Chicotimy. At this place there is an old church, 
built about two centuries ago by the Jesuits, who were 
active in civilizing the native Indians. The church is 
still kept in decent repair by the Indians, and is annu- 
ally visited by a missionary priest. These people are few 
in number and are not to be met with between this tra- 
dmg post and the mouth of the river. A fine tract of 
country commences here, intersected by several rivers 
issuing from Lake St. John, distant about sixty-seven 
miles farther to the westward. The little communication 
which is carried on with this lake is, by means of these 
rivers, in bark canoes and batteaux and flat bottomed 
boats of the country ; but it is subject to much interrup- 
tion from the portage or carrying places necessary to avoid 
the numerous falls in them. The tide of emigration is 
directed in this quarter. 

It was in this river that the ships of the French squad- 
ron found a secure retreat, at the memorable siege of 
Quebec under Gen. Wolfe. 

At the mouth of the St. Lavn-ence, 360 miles below 
Quebec, the river is 100 miles wide. It here connects 
with the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 350 miles long and ] 50 
wide, which commxmicates with the Atlantic by three 
different passages. 

FROM QUEBEC TO MONTREAL,. 

In returning to Montreal, the traveller (as before re- 
marked) should, if practicable, take a boat at such an 
hour, as to give him a chance of viewing by day-light on 



278 



MONTREAL TO WHITEHALL. 



the river the scenery which, in descending, was passed in 
the night. 

The approach to Montreal in ascending the river is 
extremely beautiful. The mount behind the city clothed 
in a rich and unbroken foliage, the numerous adjacent 
country seats, the spires and edifices of the city, and the 
beautiful woody island in front, all conspire in presenting 
a rich and truly diversified landscape, and one that will not 
be easily effaced from the memory. [For a description of 
Montreal, see p. 251.] 



FROM MONTREAL* TO WHITEHALL 

Is 178 miles, and the intervening distances are as fol- 
lows : 



Miles. 

By steamboat. 
From Montreal to 
La Prairie, 7 

By rail road. 
St. Johns, 17 24 

By stea?nboat. 

Isle AuxNoix, 14 38 

Rouse's Point, 10 48 

Chazy, 12 60 



Miles. 

Plattsburgh, 15 75 

Port Kent, 15 90 

Burlington, 11 101 

Split Rock, 12 113 

Essex, 2 115 

Basin Harbor,.... 12 127 

Crown Point, 12 139 

Ticonderoga, 12 154 

Whitehall, 15 178 



La Prairie, 7 miles from Montreal, is reached by 
steamboat. It is a village of between two and three hun- 

* At Montreal a stage can be taken for Danville, Vt. 
distant 100 miles; thence to the I^otch in the White 
Mountains, 28 miles; thence to Concord, N. H., 'i5 
miles ; and thence to Boston, 68 miles. The whole 
route is performed in four days. [For a description 
of the White Mountains^ see " Route from Burling- 
ton to Boston."] 



i 



LAKK CHAMPLAIN. 279 

dred houses, and is the grand thoroughfare of trade be- 
tween Montreal and St. Jolms. 

The La Prairie and St. Johns Rail Road commences 
at this place and extends to St. Johns, the terminating 
point of steamboat navigation on Lake Champlain. The 
road, which is 17 miles long, is very straight, and over a 
remarkably level country ; and the time usually employed 
in passing over it by steam is one hour. 

St. Johns, 17 miles. This place was an important 
post during the French and Revolutionary wars. In the 
latter it was taken after a gallant defence, by General 
Montgomery, as was also Chambly. It contains, at 
present, 150 houses and 1000 inhabitants. Though a 
place of considerable business, it possesses nothing in 
its appearance or accommodations inviting to a stran- 
ger. Steamboats leave St. Johns daily for Whitehall, 
and touch at all the intermediate places on the lake. 
Fare through, ^5. 

LAKE CHAMPLAIN 

Forms part of the boundary line between the states of 
New- York and Vermont. Its length is 140 miles, and 
the greatest breadth 14. A great proportion of the lands 
on the margin of the lake are still unredeemed from a 
state of nature, and in some places, particularly at the 
north end, are low and marshy. After entering the terri- 
tories cf the United States, the country is more popu- 
lous, and under a better state of improvement. The vil- 
lages seen from the lake all exhibit a cheerful and thriving 
appearance. The lake properly terminates at Mount In- 
dependence ; w^hence to Whitehall, a distance of 23 



280 PLATTSBURGH. 

miles, it assumes the appearance of a river, in which httle 
more than room is left at any point to turn the boat. 
The history of Champlain involves many interesting 
events associated with the French and Revolutionary 
wars. Durmg those periods several fortifications were 
constructed, which have since undergone some repairs, 
but are now in a state of decay. The ruins of the ancient 
fortress at Ticonderoga and Crown Point are still visible. 

Isle Aux Noix, 1 4 miles from St. Johns. This is a 
strong mihtary and naval post possessed by the English. 
The works are generally in good preservation ; and are 
occupied by a small military corps. In the expedition 
against Canada in 1775, the troops under Generals Schuy- 
ler and Montgomery went down the lake in rafts and 
landed at this island, whence they proceeded to St. 
Johns. The other detachment, under General Arnold, 
marched by land through the present state of Maine (then 
a wilderness) to Quebec. 

Rouse's Point, at the outlet of Lake Champlain, and 
10 miles from the Isle Aux Noix, contains strong stone 
fortifications, erected by the United States, but which by 
the decision of the commissioners appointed to settle the 
boundary line between the American and British govern- 
ments, fell within the territories of the latter. 

The village of Plattsburgh, 27 miles further, is hand- 
somely located at the mouth of the Saranac river, on the 
west side of Lake Champlain. It contains about 350 
dwellings, besides the court house and prison for the 
county, a bank and several churches. The number of 
inhabitants is about 3000. This place is rendered cele. 



PLATTSBDRGH. 283 

brated by the brilliant victory of M'Donough and Ma- 
comb, over the British land and naval forces under Sir 
George Provost and Commodore Downie. The naval 
engagement took place in front of the village, which 
overlooks the extensive Bay of Plattsburgh for several 
miles. Here the American Commodore waited at anchor 
the arrival of the British fleet, which appeared passing 
Cumberland Head, about 8 in the morning of the 11th 
September, 1814. The first gun from the fleet was the 
signal for commencing the attack on land. Sir George 
Provost, with about 14,000 men, furiously assaulted the 
defences of the town, whilst the battle raged with in- 
creasing ardor between the fleets, then contending in full 
view of the respective armies. General Macomb, with 
his gallant little army, consisting of about 3000 men, 
mostly undisciplined, foiled the repeated assaults of the 
enemy, until the capture of the British fleet, after an ac- 
tion of two hours, obliged him to retire, with the loss of 
2500 meU; together with considerable baggage and am- 
munition. The American force on the lake consisted of 
86 guns and 820 . men ; and was opposed to a force of 
95 guns and 1050 men. Thus ended the affair at Platts- 
hurgh, no less honorable to American valor than disas- 
trous to the British arms. Commodore Downie was 
killed in the engagement. He was represented as a brave 
and skilful officer ; but was opposed to the method of at- 
tack on the American flotilla. 

A monument erected to the memory of Commodore 
Downie, in the church yard at Plattsburgh, contains the 
following inscription : 



S82 PLATTSBURGB. 

" Sacred to the memory of George Downie, Esq. & 
Post Captain in the Royal British Navy, who gloriously 
fell on board his B. M. S. the Confiance, while leading 
the vessels tmder his command to the attack of the Amer- 
ican flotilla at anchor in Cumberland Bay, off Plattsburgh, 
on the 11th September, 1814. To mark the spot where 
the remains of a gallant officer and sincere friend were 
honorably interred, this stone has been erected by his af> 
fectionate sister-in-lay Mary Downie." 

The remains of a number of officers of both armies, 
who fell in the engagement, repose near the Commodore, 
with no monument to inform the stranger, and with no 
record but tradition to denote the spot of their interment. 
East of Downie are five graves, occurring in the follow- 
ing order: commencing south — Captain Copeland, an 
American officer — Lieut. Stansbury, of the American na- 
vy — Lieut. Runk, of the American army — Lieut. Gam- 
ble, of the American navy — and a British Sergeant. On 
the north side of Downie are the remains of the British 
Lt. Col. Wellington— on the south two British Lieuten- 
ants — on the west, Captain Purchase and four other offi- 
cers, three of whom were British. 

The traveller will find many objects of interest at 
Plattsburgh, which will warrant his continuance there 
for one or two days. A short distance from the village 
are the cantonment and breast works occupied by General 
Macomb and his troops during the last war. A mile north 
is shown the house possessed by Gen. Prevost as his head 
quarters during the siege in 1814; between which and 
the village, the marks of cannon shot on trees and other 
objects, are still visible. Farther onward, about 5 miles, 



PORT KENT^ — ADGATE'S FALLS. 283- 

on a hill overlooking the village of Beekmantown, is shown 
the spot where a sanguinary engagement took place be- 
tween the American and British troops, which resulted in 
the death of the British Col. Wellington, and several men 
of both armies. Col. W. was killed in the centre of the 
road, about equidistant from the sunjmit and foot of the 
hill. 

McDonougJi's Farm, granted by the legislature of Ver- 
mont, lies on Cumberland Head, nearly east of Platts- 
burgh; a ride to which, around the baj^ in the warm 
season, is refreshing and dehghtful. 

Port Kent, 15 miles southerly from Plattsburgh by 
■water, and 15 by land. It contains a few buildings and a- 
wharf, at which passengers are landed from the steam 
boat. From this place may be seen, on the north, the 
Isle la Mott, 26 miles distant. Grand Island, the Two 
Sisters, Point la Roche, Cumberland Head, and Belcore 
and Macomb Islands ; on the east, Stave, Providence 
and Hog Islands, Colchester Point, and the Green Moun- 
tains of Vermont ; on the south, the village of Burlington, 
about 11 miles distant, with the high peak called the 
Camel's Rump ; the whole forming a most delightful and 
pleasant landscape not excelled at any other point of the 
lake passage. Three miles west from Port Kent, are the 
celebrated 

Adgate's Falls. They are situated on the river Au. 
Sable, and take their name from a person residing there, 
who is the proprietor of some valuable mills in the vicinity. 
The water pours over a precipice about 80 foet in height, 
into a narrow channel of the river, the banks of which 



284 BURLINGTON. 

consist of rock, rising perpendicularly to the height of 
from GO to 100 feet. At what is called the 

High Bridge, about half a mile below the falls, the 
channel is narrowed to 27 feet. The height of the rocks 
here, which are perpendicular, is 93 feet, and the water 
35 feet deep. Over this chasm a bridge was once erected, 
by tlirowing timbers across ; but it has since decayed. 
The sensations produced on looking into this gulf are ter- 
rific, and the stoutest heart involuntarily shrinks from the 
contemplation. There is an indifferent road from the 
falls to the High Bridge, but, with this exception, the 
spot is yet a wilderness. 

About 4 miles in a westerly direction from this, is the 
thriving village of Keeseville, which contains several 
manufactories, a bank, and a number of handsome resi- 
dences. It is a place of much enterprise, and is destined 
to become a large town. 

Burlington* is situated on the east side of Lake Cham- 
plain, about 24 miles southeast of Plattsburgli. This is 
one of those beautiful villages which so often attract the 
notice of a stranger in the New-England states. The 
ground rises with a moderate ascent from the lake, and 
presents a slope covered with handsome houses and trees. 
On the highest part of the eminence, which is 330 feet 
above the level of the lake, stands the University of Ver- 
mont. This summit commands a noble view of the lake 
and the adjacent country, for many miles. There are 

* Travellers designing to visit Boston, frequently take 
a stage at this place, on a route which is noticed in a sub- 
sequent part of this work. 



SPLIT ROCK CROWN POINT. 285 

here about 350 houses and stores, two banks, a court 
house, jail, and several churches. About 12 miles from 
Burlington, in the town of Willsborough, (N. Y.) is what 
is called the 

Split Rock. This curiosity is a prrt of a rocky prom- 
ontory projecting into the lake, on the west side, about 
150 feet, and elevated above the level of the water about 
12 feet. The part broken off contains about half an acre, 
covered with trees, and is separated from the main rock 
about 20 feet. The opposite sides exactly fit each other — 
the prominences in the one coiTcsponding with the cavi- 
ties in the other. Through this fissure a hne has been 
let down to the depth of 500 feet without finding bottom. 

Crown Point is situated 36 miles from Burlington, on 
the west side of Lake Champlain. It is formed by an ex- 
tensive deep bay on the west, skirted by a steep moun- 
tain, and on the north and east by the body of the lake. 
The elevated plain was first occupied by the French, in 
1731, as a military position, and abandoned by them in 
1759, when Gen. Amherst took possession of it, and built 
Fort Frederick. The ruins of this fort may still be traced, 
being situated directly opposite to Chimney Point on the 
south side of the bay. After the peace of 1763, it was 
occupied by a subaltern and a mere safe-guard, until it 
was burnt by accident some time previous to the Ameri- 
can revolution. In 1775 it fell into the hands of the 
Americans, and was afterwards evacuated by them, on 
the advance of Burgoyne, in 1776. A few years since a 
number of British guineas were found here, from the ac- 
cidental crumbling of the earth from the banks where 
they had been deposited. 



fi'i., , 



286 TICONDEROGA — ^WHITEHALL. 

TicoNDEROGA, which has already been noticed, (see p. 
157,) is situated 15 miles south of Crown Point, and 24 
miles north of Whitehall. 

One mile from Ticonderoga is Mount Independence, 
on the east side of the lake ; near the foot of which the 
remains of a small battery are still to be seen. What 
was called the Horse-Shoe battery was on an elevation 
about a quarter of a mile in the rear. 

Nine miles farther, the lake is contracted into four 
narrow channels, boimded on the west and east by lofty 
mountains. 

South and East Bays are soon reached, each of about 
5 miles in extent. The former was taken by Gen. Dies- 
kau and his army, in their route towards Fort Edward in 
1755. From the latter bay to Whitehall, the passage is 
extremely narrow and of a serpentine course, and cannot 
be pursued in safety during a dark night. 

Whitehall,* terminates the steamboat navigation of 
Lake Champlain. It is an incorporated village situated 
on the west bank of Wood creek at its entrance into 
tlie lake, 73 miles north of Albany, and contains about 
250 dwellings and stores, and 2000 inhabitants. The sit- 
uation of this place is lovv" and unpleasant. It derives its 
principal consequence from the navigation of the lake, 
which is passable for sloops of 80 tons burthen, and from 
the Champlain canal, which here enters the lake. Bur- 
goyne occupied this place for a short time, preparatory to 

* A route from this place to Boston is noticed post, 
p. 306. 



CHAMPLAIN CANAL. 



287 



his march to Saratoga; and on the heights, over the 
harbor, are the remains of a battery and block house. 

THE CHAMPLAIN CANAL, 

Commencing at Whitehall, proceeds south 5 1-2 miles, 
when it enters Wood creek, a narrow sluggish stream, av- 
eraging 15 feet in depth. The crock is connected with 
the canal, and is rendered navigable for boats for about 
6 1-2 miles to Fort Ann village. Thence the canal pro- 
ceeds through Fort Ann, Kingsbury and Fort Edward, to 
Fort Miller falls, below which the canal enters the Hudson 
river, which is made navigable 3 miles to Saratoga falls, 
where the canal is taken out of the river on the west 
side, and proceeds through Saratoga, Stillwater and Half- 
moon to Waterford, where it enters the Hudson, and by 
a branch canal enters the Mohawk, which it crosses by a 
dam and continuing 3-4 of a mile, joins the Erie canal 
in the town of Watervliet. The whole length of the 
Cham plain canal is 63 miles. The cost to the state, ex- 
clusive of the feeder from Glen's Falls, was $875,000. 

The intervening distances on the canal between White- 
hall and Albany are as follows : 



Miles. 

Fort Ann, 12 

Sandy Kill, 8 20 

Fort Edward, 2 22 

Fort Miller Falls, . . 8 30 
Saratoga Falls, .... 333 

Schuylerville, 2 35 

Bemus' Heights,... 12 47 



Miles. 

Stillwater V 3 50 

Mechanicsville,,. .. 3 53 

Waterford, 8 61 

Watervliet, 2 63 

Gibbonsville, 2 65 

Albany, 6 71 



z2 



288 FORT ANN. 

FROM WHITEHALL TO TROY AND ALBANY. 

BY STAGE AND RAIL ROAD. 

Stages leave Whitehall every morning on the arrival 
of the Champlain steamboats, and reach Saratoga Springs 
in time to dine ; whence the rail road is taken for Troy or 
Albany immediately after dinner. The whole distance to 
the former place is 70 miles — to the latter 76, and the 
intermediate distances as follow : 



Miles. 
By rail road. 

Ballston Spa,* 7 46 

Ballston Lake, .... 5 51 

Schenectady, ...... 10 61, 

Buel'sfarm, 12 73 

Albany, 3 76 



Miles. 
By stage. 
From Whitehall to 

Fort Ann, 11 

Sandy Hill, 10 21 

Fortville, 7 23 

Wilton, 4 32 

Saratoga Springs, . . 7 39 

The route is in a southern direction near the lino of 
the canal, until reaching Fort Ann ; half a mile north of 
which place, at an elbow made by Wood creek, leaving 
barely room between the creek and a precipitors hill for 
the road, a severe engagement took place in 1777, be- 
tween a detachment of Burgoyne's troops and a party of 
Americans, under the command of Col. Sterry, who were 
on their retreat from Ticonderoga. The Americans v;ere 
on the plain south of the hill, which served as a cover to 
the British. Their fire on Sterry's forces below was de- 
structive, and compelled him to abandon his position. 

The village of Fort Ann, 11 miles from Whitehall, 
contains 70 or 80 houses, and is loacated on the site of 

* For a description of the rail road route to Troy, see 
p. 127 to 132. 



FORTVILLE. 289 

the old fort erected during the French war. It was at 
the north part of the village on the bank of the creek. 

Burgoyne's road, commencing about 2 miles south of 
the village, and pursuing nearly the course of the present 
road, is still visible. It was a causeway, formed by logs 
laid trans v'erscly, a labor which became necessary in con- 
veying his cannon and baggage waggons to Saratoga. 

Sandy Hill, 10 miles farther. {See p. 149.) 
FoRTViLLE, a small village in the town of Moreau, is 7 
miles farther. About half a mile west of the village, 
there is a large spring, which ebbs and flows regularly 
with the tide. It rises through a body of beautiful fine 
sand, containing yellow particles of a metalic substance, 
and has been found to answer every purpose of the purest 
emery. It partakes, also, so much of the character of 
quick sand, that every weighty substance placed in the 
spring, even the longest sticks of timber, are soon drawn 
beneath the suface. Falling, or even stepping into the 
fountain, therefore, is considered extremely dangerous. 
At low water, the surface is nearly dry ; but at high tide, 
the water is seen boiling up at several points, covering an 
area of near a quarter of an acre. 

About a mile south of Fortville, the stage passes over 
an eminence, which affords a beautiful view of the Green 
Mountains of Vermont at the east and the intermediate 
country ; three miles from which is Wilton church ; 
whence to Saratoga Springs is 7 miles. [For a descrip- 
Hon of the latter place, together with the routes by rail 
road to Troy and Albany, seep. 119 to 144.] 



290 NEW LEBANON. 

ROUTES TO EOSTOK. 

These arc so various, that the traveller may always be 
governed by his own taste and judgment in a selection. 
The route from Albany has been chosen by many on ac- 
count of enjoying in the excursion a visit to the Lebanon 
Springs, and several of the populous and wealthy towns in 
the interior of Massachusetts ; while others have prefer- 
red a course which should embrace the rich mountain 
scenery of Vermont and New-Hampshire, commencing 
their excursions either at Saratoga Springs, Whitehall or 
Burlington. We therefore subjoin a description of the 
different routes. 

FROM ALBANY TO BOSTON, 

Via New Lebanon — 167 miles. 

The intermediate distances are as follow : 

Miles 
By stage. 



Miles. 

Hadley, 2 79 

Belchertown, 10 89 

Ware, 9 98 

Brookfield, 8 106 

Spencer, 7 113 

Leicester, 5 118 

Worcester, 6 124 

By rail road. 
Boston, 43 167 



Schodack, 5 

Nassau, 12 17 

New Lebanon,. ... 8 25 

Pittsfield, 9 34 

Dalton, 6 40 

Peru, 7 47 

Worthington, 8 55 

Chesterfield, 9 64 

Northampton, .... 13 77 

Albany, {see p. 116.) 

• New Lebanon, is a pleasant village in the town of 
Canaan, N. Y. bordering on Pittsfield, Mass. and is 25 
miles from Albany. It contains a mineral spring of con- 
siderable importance, which is much frequented in the 
summer months by invalids. It is principally used for 



emsFmuf. 99T. 

the pnrppse of bathing ; but is much inferior to the Sara . 
toga waters either as a medicine or beverage. The foun- 
tain issues from the side of a high hill, in great abundance^ 
discharging at the rate of 18 barrels per minute ; and is 
used as a feeder for several mills. The water is remark- 
ably pure and soft, and is perfectly tasteless and inodor- 
ous. Gas, in considerable quantities, escapes from the 
pebbles and sand, and keeps the water in constant mo- 
tion. It contains small quantities of muriate of lime, mu- 
riate of soda, sulphate of lime, and carbonate of lime ; 
and its temperature is 73 degrees of Fahrenheit. 

Convenient bathing houses are kept in readiness at all 
times for the accommodation of strangers ; and there are 
a number of boarding establishments which, at different 
rates, afford proportionate fare. Among these, the Nav- 
arino Hotel is a spacious and well furnished establishmentj 
calculated to accommodate from 100 to 150 guests. 

Near the spring is what is called the Shakers' Village,, 
containing a number of neat plain buildings, generally 
painted yellow. The property of this society is held in 
common ; and they are said to possess nearly 3000 acres 
of fertile land. Besides agricultural pursuits, they carry 
on several branches of manufactures, which are distin- 
guished by excellence of workmanship. The singular 
regulations and ceremonies of these people, constitute an 
object of attention to tourists. Nine miles from New 
Lebanon is the village of 

PiTTSFiELD, rendered elegant from its local situation, 
and from the neatness of its buildings. The village con- 
tains from 150 to 200 houses, a bank, a medical college 



S92 NORTHAMPTON — MOUNT HOLYOKE. ^ 

containing one of the best anatomical museums in the U. 
States, an academy and several stores. Here are annual- 
ly held the cattle show and fair of the celebrated Berk- 
shire Agricultural Society, \^hich has been incorporated 
by act of the legislature ; and which has done more to- 
wards improving the condition of agi-iculture than any 
other institution of the kind in the union. The show and 
fair, which occupy tvv'O days, never fail to impart an unu- 
sual degree of interest, and arc always attended by im- 
mense crowds of citizens. 

Northampton is 43 miles from Pittsfield, and is one of 
the finest towns in New-England. It is situated a mile 
and a half west of Connecticut river, and was settled as 
early as the year 1654. It contains 2 academies, several 
churches, a bank, court house, jail, and 350 dwellings, 
some of which are very elegant. Here are also several 
manufactories, and the place exhibits an unusual degree 
of enterprise and wealth. The Farmington and Hamp- 
shire canal commences at this place, and extends to New- 
Haven, Conn. 87 miles. Over the Connecticut river, 
there is a substantial bridge, 1080 feet long, resting on 6 
stone piers. 

Mount Holyoke, in the vicinity of Northampton, is 
much frequented by tourists. It is on the cast side of the 
river, nearly opposite the town. The height of the moun- 
tain above the level of the river is 1070 feet. In conse- 
quence of the resort to this place, which has not been less 
than from 2000 to 5000 annually, two buildings have 
been erected on its summit for the purpose of accommo- 
dating visitors with refreshments. The beautiful and ex- 
tensive prospect afforded from the top of the mountain, 



HADLEY. 293^ 

will amply compensate the labor and difficulty of the as- 
cent. The view embraces eminences 160 miles apart,, 
with several beautiful villages and a rich and fertile 
country intervening, and is said to be unrivalled in the 
eastern states. 

Hadley, 2 miles from Northampton, is one of the oldest 
towns in the state. It was the head quarters of the army 
employed for the defence of the towns on the Connecticut 
river, in the war with Philip in 1675-6 ; and was, for a 
long time, the place of residence of the two regicides or 
judges, Whallcy and GofFc, in the time of Charles II. On 
the town being attacked by the Indians during this war, 
a stranger, venerable in appearance, and differing in his 
apparel from the rest of the inhabitants, suddenly pre- 
sented himself at the head of the colonial troops, and en- 
couraged fhem by his advice and example to perseverance 
in defending the place. To his experience in military 
tactics and courage, in a great measure, was a defeat of 
the Indians attributable. When they retreated, the 
stranger disappeared ; and in those times of superstition 
it was verily believed by many that he was the guardian 
angel of the place. But he was no other than Col. GofFe, 
who seeing the village in danger, left his concealment to 
unite with its inhabitants in a vigorous defence. 

In connection with the history of this place, the follow- 
ing biographical sketch of Goffe, Whaley and Dixwell 
will prove interesting : 

On the restoration of the English monarch, Charles II. 
in 1660, several of the judges who sat on the trial of 
Charles I. were seized, condemned and executed. Others, 
foreseeing de result, escaped. Whalley and GofFe, two 



•294 HADLE1. 

■of the number, came to Boston ; where, for a time, they 
received the hospitality due to their rank. But on learn- 
ing that several of the regicides had been executed, and 
.that Whalley andGofFe had not been included in the act 
of pardon, the people who had harbored them began to 
be alarmed ; and the two judges abruptly departed for 
-Connecticut. Subsequently, the King's proclamation 
was received, requiring their apprehension. Tliey, how- 
ever, eluded the vigilance of their pursuers, by secreting 
themselves in a cave and other secret places at New- 
Haven, where they continu';d between 3 and 4 years, un- 
til their retreat was discovered by the Indians. Tiiiding 
that they could no longer remain at New- Haven in safety, 
and that a vigilant search for them was still continued, 
they resolved to remove into a more secluded part of the 
country. A friend had succeeded in inducing the Rev. 
Mr. Russell, of Hadley, to receive them ; and after a toil- 
some journey by night, they reached his house in October, 
1664. In a chamber of this house, (which was situate 
on the east side, and near the centre of the present main 
street,) having a secret passage to the cellar, they re. 
mained undiscovered for 15 or 16 years. During this 
period GofFe held a correspondence with his wife in Eng- 
land, under an assumed name ; and in a letter of April, 
1679, it is stated that Whalley had died some time pre- 
vious, at Mr. Russell's. His bones were discovered not 
many years since in a sort of tomb adjoining the cellar 
wall of Mr. Russell's house. 

Not long after GofFe and Whalley arrived at Hadley, 
they were joined by Col. John Dixwell, another of the 
judges. After remaining some time, he went to New- 



BROOKFIELD. 295 

Haven, assumed the name of Davids, was married, had 
several children, and his real name was not known until 
his death in 1689. He was buried in the church-yard at 
that place ; where a coarse stone still marks the spot of 
his interment, with this inscription: "J. D. Esq. de- 
ceased, March 18, in the 82d year of his age — 1688-9." 

After the death of Whalley, GofTe travelled to the 
south, and no certain information relative to his fate has 
ever been obtained. 

From Hadley to Belchertown, a pleasant village, is 
10 miles, and thence to 

Ware Factory Village, is 9 miles farther. This 
place, located on the Ware river, has attained an as- 
tonishing growth within 6 or 8 years. There are few 
places in the country exhibiting so barren and rugged a 
soil as the site and lands adjacent to this flourishing little 
city in miniature. As you approach from the west or 
east, it bursts upon the view with its long range of manu- 
factories, its neat white houses, and glittering spires, pro- 
ducing the same sensation in the bosom, as the prospect 
of a beautiful garden in the midst of a desert. It con- 
tains several public buildings which would be an orna- 
ment to our most flourishing inland towns of more ancient 
date. 

Brookfield, 8 miles from Ware, is a handsome town, 
though very little improved by any recent additions of 
buildings. This place was burnt by the Indians in 1675o 
On the first alarm, the inhabitants, in all about 70, re- 
paired to a house slightly fortified externally with logs, 
and internally lined with feather beds, to check the force 



296 WORCESTER. 

of musketry. This spot was soon surrounded by the en- 
emy, and a constant fire poured upon it in all directions. 
But the well directed shots of the besieged kept the In- 
dians at a considerable distance. Various devices were 
used by the latter for burning the building ; but their 
plans were thwarted by the whites, aided by a plentiful 
shower of rain. The attack continued for three days ; 
when the appearance of a body of troops from Lancaster 
induced the Indians to seek their own safety in a precipi- 
tate retreat. All the buildings in the vilage except the 
one fortified, were destroyed. Only one of the inhabit- 
ants, however, was killed ; whUe the loss of the Indians 
was 80. 

Leicester, 12 miles. The village contains an acad- 
emy, 3 churches and about 80 dwellings. The principal 
employment of the inhabitants is the manufacture of cot- 
ton and woollen cards ; of which a very large amount is 
annually made. 

Worcester, (6 miles,) is one of the oldest and most 
important towns in the state. It contains from four to 
five hundred houses, generally well built, a bank, a court 
house, jail, and several public buildings. A newspaper 
which was commenced by Isaiah Thomas some time pre- 
vious to the revolutionary war, is still published here, and 
is one of the oldest papers in the Union. Mr. Thomas 
was the author of an elaborate history of the art of print- 
ing, and continued to reside here until his decease, a few 
years since. He erected in the idllage, at a very consid- 
erable expense, ft, handsome building, for the reception of 
the library and cabinet of the American Antiquarian So- 
ciety, of which he waa president. The library consists 



BOSTON AND WORCESTER RAIL ROAD. 297 

of about 6000 volumes, many of them of great antiquity, 
and the cabinet is also very valuable. 

The Blackstone Canal commences at this place, and 
extends to Providence, R. I. Length, 45 miles — expense 
rising of ,<g500,000. 

A rail road also extends from this place to Norwich, 
Conn, on the Thames river, noticed hereafter, — length 
59 miles. 

The Boston and Worcester Rail Road, after leaving 
Worcester, crosses the Blackstone river, through the val- 
ley of which it passes for some distance, until strikino- a 
ridge of slate rock, the cut through which is 37 feet deep 
for a distance of 1500 feet ; thence descending at the rate 
of 30 feet to the mile over a rough country, it enters the 
valley of Long Pond, which is passed on a high embank- 
ment, until reaching Cutler's Peak ; whence the valley 
of Elizabeth river is pursued to the town of Westborough ; 
where, passing the Westborough Swamp, the head of the 
Concord river, the valley of the latter stream is taken 
until reaching the direction of Natic Pond, the south end 
of which is doubled by a strong curve. Ascending at the 
rate of 30 feet to the mile, the line soon enters Natic, 
which it leaves by a rock excavation of 20 feet, and pas- 
ses the south end of Morse's Pond on an embankment 
47 feet high and 700 feet long. Following for some dis- 
tance a parallel line with the central turnpike, the road 
crosses the Worcester turnpike and reaches a pond half a 
mile long, the waters of which were originally 7 feet 
above the grade line. From this point there is an exca- 
vation through granite 31 feet deep and 500 feet long. 
Passmg the town of Needham, there is a succession of 



298 FROM ALBANY TO BOSTON. 

heavy embankments and excavations, until reaching 
Charles river, which is crossed on a bridge 120 feet long, 
composed of a single span. Proceeding down the valley 
of the river, the line passes Newtown in going two miles, 
and reaches Boston in going 8 miles farther — terminating 
not far from the foot of the common. 

Worcester is 456 feet above Boston, but the greatest 
descent in any one place is 30 feet to the mile. The en- 
tire length of the road is 43 1-4 miles, and the time em- 
ployed in passing from one place to the other by steam, is 
from 2 1-2 to 3 hours. 

Boston. {See subsequent pages.) 

FROM ALBANY TO BOSTON, 

Via Springfield, Mass. — 177 miles. 

INTERMEDIATE DISTANCES. 



Miles. 
By stage. 

Greenbush, 1 

Nassau, 11 12 

Canaan, 11 33 

Stockbridge, 10 43 

Lee, 4 47 

Becket, 10 57 

Westficld, 20 77 

Springfield, 13 80 



Miles. 
By rail road. 

Wilbraham, 7 87 

Palmer, 8 95 

Warren, 11 106 

W. Brookficld,... 3 109 

S. Brookfield,.... 3 112 

Charlton, 9 121 

S. Leicester, 4 125 

Worcester, 9 134 

Boston, 43 177 

Canaan, N. Y. 33 miles from Albany, is a small vil- 
lage, containing a shaker settlement. 

West Stockbridge, Mass. lO miles farther, is a pleas- 
ant village on the banks of the Housatonic river, which af- 
fords facilities for several manufacturing establishments ; 
among which are a number for the dressing of marble, of 
which the town contains an abundant supply. The vil- 



Sl'RLNGFIELD. 299 

lage is the terminating point of the Hudson and Berk- 
shire rail road, noticed at p. 115. A rail road is also in 
progress from Springfield to the state line near this place, 
and one from Bridgeport, Conn, on the Long Island 
Sound, to connect with the Hudson and Berkshire road, 
already noticed. 

The remaining part of the stage route is through an 
agricultural district, until reaching 

West Springfield, a pleasant village on the west 
bank of the Coxmecticut river, over which a bridge is 
constructed, cormecting the place with 

Springfield, on the opposite side. This is a large, 
flourishing and handsome village. The houses are prin- 
cipally located at the foot of a hill ; on the west side of 
which are several elegant residences, and on the summit 
a U. S. arsenal. The village contains a court house, jail, 
bank, five churches, and several manufactories. 

The buildings ccniposing the arsenal on the heights, 
occupy a large square, and arc surrounded by a high wall. 
They are mostly built of brick and present a magnificent 
appearance. About 16,000 muskets are ma.nufactured 
here annually. The water works employed for the pur- 
pose are on Mill river, a mile south of the arsenal. 

Chicapee, an important manufacturing village, con- 
taining 1400 inhabitants, is within the precincts of the 
town. 

Springfield became the theatre of savage barbarity dur- 
ing Philip's war in 1675. The towns still further up the 
river had, for some time previous, suffered severely from 
repeated Indian incursions. But the Springfield tribe had 

■ ' ■ ~ ""^ """nained quiet ; and it was not till the month of 
aa2 



300 SPRINGFIELD. 

October of this year, that Philip could succeed by his ar- 
tifices to enlist them in his favor. On the night of the 
4th, it was ascertained by means of a friendly Indian, 
that 300 of the tribe had suddenly and secretly assembled 
at a fort on Long Hill, about a mile below the village. 
This intelligence produced much consternation among 
the inhabitants ; and they immediately repau-ed to their 
fortified houses. No disturbance, however, occurring in 
the night, hopes were entertained that hostilities were 
not intended on the part of the Indians. Lieut. Cooper, 
the commandant of the place, and another, accordingly 
resolved on repairing to the fort, for the purpose of dis- 
sipating the fears that still existed among the inhabitants. 
Having reached the small stream at the lower part of the 
village. Cooper and his companions were shot by Indians 
who were concealed in the woods. This seemed to be a 
signal for attack ; as the whole body immediately rushed 
into the town with a horrid yell, and set fire to the unfor- 
tified dwellings and barns. The whole were soon enve- 
loped in flames and consumed. During this period, a 
fire was kept up from the fortified houses upon the In- 
dians, and several killed ; but it was not till they had de- 
stroyed 32 dwellings and nearly as many barns, and 
plundered every thing v;ithin their reach, that they with- 
drew. A brick house standing at the tune of this catas- 
trophe, is still in tolerable preservation. 

During the rebellion of Shays, in 1786, the armory at 
this place was attacked by him ; but he was repulsed 
with the loss of a few men, and his followers subsequently 
dispersed. 



SARATOGA SPRINGS TO BOSTOxV. 



301 



From Springfield, a rail road is taken to Worcester, 54 
miles distant, passing through the towns noticed at p. 298. 

Worcester, and the rail road to Boston were noticed 
at pp. 296 to 298. 

FROfll SARATOGA SPRINGS TO BOSTON. 

186 miles. Intermediate distances as follow : 



Miles. 

JefFrev 5 120 

New Ipsvdch,.... 10 130 

Townsend, 12 142 

Peppercl, 6 148 

Groton, 3 151 

Littleton, 8 159 

Acton, 3 1G2 

Concord, 7 169 

Lexington, 7 176 

Cambridge, 7 183 

Boston, 3 186 



Miles. 

Schuylerville, 12 

Union Village,. .. . 5 17 

Cambridge, 8 25 

Arlington, 15 40 

Manchester, 8 48 

Landgrove, 14 62 

Chester, 16 78 

Bellows Falls,.... 14 92 

Walpole, 4 96 

Kecne, 14 110 

Marlborough, 5 115 

A stage leaves Saratoga Springs every morning (Sun- 
days excepted) at 5 o'clock, reaching Boston the third 
day at noon. 

ScHUYLERviLLE, 12 miles. (See p.l'fl.) Passing across 
the vale where the surrender of Burgoyne took place to 
the river, (on the bank of which in a field adjoining the 
road on the north, are seen the remains of an intrench- 
ment,) the stage crosses it in a horse boat. 

Union Village, 5 miles. The Battenkill river passes 
through the village, on the banks of which are several 
mills and factories. There are about 200 houses in the 
place, and there is an exhibition of considerable enterprise. 

Cambridge and Arlington are good agricultural town- 
ships. In the latter place, the route, for a considerable 



30^ MANCHESTER CHESTER BELLOWS FALLS. 

distance, is on the bank of the Battenkill, near which are 
several valuable and extensive quarries of v/hite marble. 

Manchester, 8 miles from Arlington, is a neat village, 
located near the foot of the Green Mountains, which are 
seen stretching to the south and north as far as the eye can 
extend. Leaving the village, the stage soon commences 
ascending the great natural barrier which separates the 
eastern and western sections of Vermont. No exertions 
have been spared to improve the road ; and it may be 
considered by far the best of any which crosses the 
mountain. The ascent, which is not precipitous, con- 
tinues, with occasional descents, for 10 or 12 miles be- 
fore the summit is reached. During the first 6 miles, a 
most extensive and variegated prospect at the west is en- 
joyed ; and after attaining the greatest elevation, this is 
suddenly exchanged for a prospect nearly co-extensive at 
the east. 

Chester, 30 miles from Manchester, is a pleasant vil- 
lage, situated on aHiandsome plain, and contains 2 church- 
es, an excellent s cademy, and about 60 dwellings and 
stores. 

Bellows Falls, 14 miles, lies on the western bank of 
the Connecticut river. The village is flourishing, con- 
tains some very pleasant houses, a number of manufac- 
turing establisliments, and a beautiful church, which 
stands on an eminence, and is seen for some miles distant. 

A canal, having 9 locks and affording water for a num- 
ber of mills, has been constructed around the falls. It is 
about half a mile in length. The whole descent of the 
river for this distance is fifty feet, and assumes the appear- 



WALPOLE. 303 

ance of rapids rather than a cataract. Over the greatest 
descent, where the water is compressed by ledges of 
rocks to a very narrow space, a handsome toll bridge is 
erected, fifty feet in height, from which the water is 
seen rushing through the pass with great rapidity, and 
dashing upon the rocks in the wildest disorder — present- 
ing a scene truly sublime and interesting. 

A short distance below the falls are two rocks contain- 
ing specimens of Indian workmanship. On one of the 
rocks are the indistinct traces of a number of human fa- 
ces, represented by marks in the stone, and probably in- 
tended as a memorial of their deceased friends or chief- 
tains. That this place was once the haunt of our savage 
predecessors, is evident from the arrow points and bits of 
their earthen pots and fragments of other utensils which 
maybe found in a short walk over the adjacent fields.* 

On the New-Hampshire side is a chain of lofty moun- 
tains, which leave but a narrow passage between their 
base and the river. Around one of these impending bar- 
riers the road winds its course to the pleasant village of 

Walpole, which contains about 100 houses, including 
some very handsome mansions. This place was the scene 
of many savage incursions during the French war. It 
was once in the entire possession of the Indians, and re- 
taken from them by Col. Bellows, who made the first 

* From Bellows Falls, stages can be taken every day 
for Concord, N. H. and for Hartford, Conn. On the lat- 
ter route, the course is generally near tJie bank of the 
Connecticut river, and through a most delightful country, 
interspersed with several elegant villages and country 
seats. 



304 KEENE GROTON — CONCORD— LEXINGTON. 

settlement in this part of the country. The scenery in 
this vicinity is remarkably striking and romantic. Fom-- 
teen miles farther is the flourishing village of 

Keene. This is one of the handsomest villages in 
New-England. It contains about 300 dwellings, a 
bank, a court house and jail, 3 churches, and a popula- 
tion of about 3000. For a distance of 40 miles from this 
place, no vUlage of importance interve«es, though many 
handsome dwellings and rich farms are discovered on the 
route. 

Groton, 41 miles from Keene, is a pleasant village, 
containing about 100 houses and an academy ; eighteen 
miles from which is the town of 

Concord, rendered memorable as the place where the 
first efficient opposition was made to the British troops, 
in 1775. It is a large town, and contains many hand- 
some dwellings. Seven miles farther is the town of 

Lexington, containing a few plain houses ; but cele- 
brated in history as the spot where the first American 
blood was shed in the struggle for independence. This 
occurred on the 19th April, 1775. A quantity of military 
stores had been collected at Concord, which the British 
General Gage proposed to destroy. Though secret in his 
operations, and though precaution had been taken the 
evening previous to scour the roads and secure such citi- 
zens as the British officers fell in with, yet the plan was 
discovered by Doct. Warren, of Boston, who sent out 
messengers to alarm the inhabitants and prepare them for 
resistance. On the arrival the next morning at Lexing- 



LEXINGTON. 305 

ton of the British troops, 8 or 900 strong, it was found 
that the miHtia of the town, to the number of 70, were in 
arms. Major Pitcaim, who led the British van, ordered 
the " rebels" to disperse. Some scattering guns were 
fired, which were followed by a general discharge, and 
contmued till the militia disappeared. Eight men were 
killed and several wounded.* 

The detachment then proceeded to Concord, a part of 
which took possession of two bridges beyond the town, 
while the remainder destroyed the military stores. A 
number of militia, who had collected in the vicinity, but 
with orders not to give the first fire, attempted to pass 
one of the bridges in the character of travellers. They 
were fired on, and two men killed. The fire was return- 
ed and a skirmish ensued, which resulted in the discom- 
fiture of the regulars, and a precipitate retreat. Skirmish, 
ing continued during the day, and though the British re- 
ceived reinforcements, they were harrassed in their re- 
treat to Bunker's Hill, where they remained secure under 
the protection of their ships of war. 

The loss of the British, during this day, in killed, 
wounded and prisoners, was 273 ; while that of the pro- 
vincialists did not exceed 90. 

The blow thus struck was the precursor of more im- 
portant events, and was soon followed by the battle of 
Breed's or (as it is generally denominated) Bunker's Hill ; 
which is noticed in subsequent pages. 



* A handsome monument now marks the spot where 
this action was fought, beneath which are interred the 
remains of the Americans who were slain. 



306 CAMBRIDGE. 

Cambribge is 7 miles from Lexington. It is a larg6 
and handsome town, but derives its importance from Har- 
vard University, which is located here, and is one of the 
oldest and most celebrated literary institutions in the 
United States. It takes its name from the Rev. John 
Harvard, who died in 1638, leaving to the institution a 
legacy of 779Z. 175. 2d. sterling. The edifices belonging 
to the University are Harvard, Massachusetts, Hollis, 
Stoughton, Holworthy and University Halls, Holden 
Chapel, a stone building and 3 College houses, besides 
that for the President. These buildings are all situated 
in a spacious square, and are handsomely shaded with a 
variety of trees. The amount of property belonging to 
the institution, it is said, falls little short of .^600,0U0. It 
contains an extensive philosophical apparatus, and a libra- 
ry of about 25,000 volumes. Cambridge contains three 
handsome villages, a court house, jail, state arsenal, sev- 
eral houses for public worship, and about 5000 inhabitants. 

Two miles from Cambridge is the city of Boston. The 
two places are connected by a bridge 3846 feet long and 
40 wide, with a causeway of 3344 feet. The cost of the 
whole was $76,700. [For a description of Boston, see 
subsequent pages,] 



WHITEHALL TO nOSTON. 307 

FROM WHITEHALL TO BOSTON — 178 miles. 

A stage leaves Whitehall daily, (Sundays excepted,) 
passing through the villages of Castleton and Rutland, 
connecting at Chester with the route from Saratoga 
Springs, and reaches Boston the third day. 

Fairiiaven, 9 miles from Whitehall, contains several 
mills and manufactories of iron, and about 50 houses. 

Castletox, 5 miles farther, is a handsome village of 
about 120 houses, and contains a medical college and 
classical seminary, the latter located on an eminence 
south of the village, and commanding an extensive view 
of a rich and beautiful country. It is 160 feet in length 
and 40 in breadth, with projections in the centre and ends 
of 46 and 55 feet, and is 3 stories high, exclusive of a 
basement. To the building is attached a play ground of 
about 6 acres, a part of which is to be devoted to a gar- 
den. The course of instruction in this institution, which 
is liberally patronized, corresponds with that of the most 
favored seminaries of learning in the country. 

About half a mile north of the village, at the junction 
of the Hubbardlon with the main road, are slight remains 
of a fort and breast work, which were occupied during 
the revolutionary war; two miles north of which the 
Hubbardton road passes over the ground where a severe 
action was fought between a detachment of Burgoyne's 
army and a body of American troops. The latter com- 
posed the rear guard of the Americans which evacuated 
Ticonderoga in July, ] 777, and were commanded by Col. 
Warner. They were about 1000 strong, and were over- 
taken by a force of nearly the same number under Gen. 

BB 



308 RUTLAND CHESTER. 

Frazer. A long, severe and obstinate conflict ensued ; 
when the arrival of Gen. Reidsell, with his division of 
Germans, compelled the Americans to give way in all di- 
rections. The British loss was stated by Gen. Burgoyne 
at 35 killed and 144 wounded ; and the American loss 
was estimated by Gen. St. Glair at 50 killed and wound- 
ed. It is generally supposed that the loss of both armies 
was much greater. 

The Americans retreated to the south, and took part 
in the Bennington battle on the 16th of August, and 
in the capture of Burgoyne at Saratoga in October fol- 
lowing. 

Rutland, 10 miles from Castleton, is the capital of 
Rutland county. It is situated 3 miles west of the Green 
Mountains, in view of Killington Peake, and for beauty 
of local situation is not surpassed by any village in the 
northern states. It contains about 200 houses, three 
churches, a bank, court house and jail. 

Ten miles from Rutland, in the town of Shrewsbury, 
the road reaches the foot of the Green Mountains, which 
are crossed in travelling 12 miles farther. No part of the 
passage is precipitous ; though the road is less pleasant 
than that leading from Manchester. {See p. 302.) 

Chester is 40 miles from Rutland, whence the route 
to Boston is the same as that noticed at page 302. 



BURLINGTON TO BOSTON. 



309 



FROM BURLINGTON TO BOSTON, 

{through Windsor, Vt.) 

From Burlington, Vt. where the Champlain steam- 
boats touch in the passage up and down the lake, stages 
depart for Boston daily, passing through Montpelier and 
Windsor, Vt., Claremont and Amherst, N. H., Billerica 
and Medford, Mass., and reach Boston on the third day. 



Distance 206 miles — fare ^i 
are as follow : 

Miles. 

WiUiston, 8 

Richmond, 9 17 

Bolton, 2 19 

Waterbury, 8 27 

Moretown, 4 31 

Montpelier, 7 38 

V^illiamstown, 10 48 

Brookfield, 8 56 

Randolph, 12 63 

Royalton, 3 71 

Barnard, 6 77 

Woodstock, 8 85 

Windsor, 14 99 

103 



The intervening distances 

Miles. 

Lempster, 12 120 

Washington 7 127 

Hillsborough, 9 136 

Francistown, 9 145 

Mount Vernon,... 9 154 

Amherst, 6 160 

Merrimack, 3 163 

Dunstable, 7 170 

Tyngsborough,.. . . 6 176 

Chelmsford, 7 183 

Billerica, 4 187 

Woburn, 9 196 

Boston, 10 206 



Claremont, 9 

Burlington. {See p. 284.) 

Montpelier is situated on the Onion river, a little 
north of the centre of the state, 38 miles from Burling- 
ton. It is the seat of government, and has a new and 
elegant state house, a court house, jail and 3 houses of 
public worship, besides a number of manufacturing estab- 
lishments. It contains about 2000 inhabitants. 

With the exception of a narrow vale, through which 
the river passes, the village is surrounded by lofty hills 



310 RANDOLPH ROYALTON WOODSTOCK WINDSOR. 

and mountains, which give it the appearance of seclusion 
from the rest of the world. The road for several miles 
previous to reaching the village, and after leaving it, is on 
the bank of the river, and the mountain scenery is unusu- 
ally romantic. 

In passing from Montpelier to Randolph, the route is 
on what is termed the gulf road. This gulf is 6 miles in 
extent, between lofty mountains, with barely a sufficient 
space for a road and the White river, a beautifully trans- 
parent stream, exhibiting, in most instances, a bottom of 
white gravel. 

Randolpfi, 30 miles from Montpelier, is on a lofty ridge 
of land affording some of the finest farms in the state. 
The village is small, but much admired for its location 
and neatness. 

RoYALTox, 3 miles. A pleasant village. 

Woodstock, 14 miles, the capital of Windsor county, 
is a place of considerable business. The principal village 
called Woodstock Green, is on the bank of the Queechy 
river, and contains a bank, court house, jail, five chm'ches, 
a medical institution and a woollen factory. 

Windsor, 14 miles, is a beautiful town on the west 
bank of the Connecticut river. The houses exhibit a very 
neat and handsome appearance, and stand in a fertile 
and richly cultivated tract of country. It contains 3 
churches, a court house and the Vermont Penitentiary. 
The bridge built across the Connecticut at this place, is 
one of the handsomest on the river. Ascutney, a mountain 
in the southwest part of the town, is 1732 feet in height, 
and is well worthy the attention of those who take delight 



BURLINGTON TO BOSTON. 



311 



in the rich and diversified prospects afforded from moun- 
tain summits. 

At Windsor the route crosses the Connecticut river 
into New-Hampshire, and proceeds through a handsome 
country, occasionally interspersed with a pleasant village, 
to Boston. 



FROM BURLINGTON TO BOSTON, 

(By way of the White Mountains and Concord, New- 
Hampshire — 275 miles.* 

The intermediate distances on this route are as follow : 



Miles. 
By stage. 

Montpelier, 38 

Littleton, N. H... 40 78 

E. A. Crawford's.. 18 96 
Notch of the White 

Mountains, .... 5 101 

Notch House, 2 103 

Crawford's Farm,. 6 109 

Bartlett, 7 IIG 

Conwaj'^, 10 126 

Six Mile Pond,.... 11 137 

Centre Harbor,.... 24 161 

Guildford 13 174 



Miles. 

Union Bridge, 7 181 

Winnepiseogee 

Bridge, 4 185 

Concord 17 202 

Hookset, 8 210 

Amoskcag, 7 217 

Piscataqua, 2 219 

Merrimack, 10 229 

By rail road. 

Nashua, 6 235 

Tyngsborough,.. .. 8 243 

Lowell, 7 250 

Boston, 25 275 



* Strangers designing to proceed directly to Boston 
from Burlington, via Concord, N. H. without visiting the 
White Mountains, continue on the route from Montpelier 
to Randolph, as noticed at p. 309, and thence to Han- 
over, 25 miles, and to Concord 55 miles farther. (The 
route from the latter place to Boston is noticed at p. 322.) 
Hanover is located on a handsome plain, half a mile from 
the Connecticut river, and contains the buildings of Dart- 
mouth college and about 100 houses. The college de- 
rives its name from William, Earl of Dartmouth, one of 
its principal benefactors. It was founded in 1769, by the 
bb2 



312 WHITE MOUNTAINS. 

A stage can be taken at Burlington daily for Montpe- 
lier, Vt., distant 38 miles, where it is recommended to 
travellers to proceed to Littleton, N. H. 40 miles east of 
Montpelier, whence a stage passes three times a week 
through the Notch of the White Mountains to Conway ; 
and thence to Portland, (Maine,) three times a week. 
From Littleton to Ethan A. Crawford's at the foot of the 
mountains, 18 miles, about half the distance is through a 
cultivated country ; but the remaining part is through an 
extensive, and, but for the road, an impenetrable forest. 

The first view of the White Mountains, as distinguish- 
ed from the multitude of peaks and summits which meet 
the eye in every direction, is obtained a short distance 
from Littleton ; but Mount Washington is not seen till 
arriving near Crawford's. The first view of these moun- 
tains ii5 magnificent, and as they are approached, they be- 
come more and more so, until the bare bleak summit of 
Mount Washington, rising far above the immense piles 
v,'hich surround it, strike the traveller with awe and as- 
tonishmcnt. But the emotions which one receives from 
the grand and majestic scenery wliich surrounds him 
here, arc utterly' beyond the pov/er of description. There 
is no single object upon wliich the eye rests and which 
the raind may grasp ; but the vast and multiplied features 
of the landscape actually bewilder while they delight. 

These mountains are the loftiest in North America east 



late Doct. Eleazer Wheelock, and is in a prosperous con- 
dition. A medical institution is connected with the col- 
lege, and is accommodated with a brick edifice, contain, 
ing besides rooms for students, a laboratory, anatomical 
museum, mineralogical cabinet, library and lecture rooms. 



WHITE MOUNTAINS. 313 

of the Rocky Mountains; and their heights above the 
Connecticut river have been estimated as follows : Wash- 
ington, 5350 ft. ; Jefferson, 5261; Adams, 5383; Madi- 
son, 5039 ; Monroe, 4932 ; Quincy, 4470. From the 
summit of Mount Washington, the Atlantic ocean is seen 
at Portland, 65 miles S. E.; the Katahdin Mountains to 
the N. E. near the sources of the Penobscot river ; the 
Green Mountains of Vermont on the west ; Mount Mo- 
nadnock, 120 miles to the S. W. ; and numerous lakes, 
rivers, «fcc. within a less circumference. The Notch or 
Gap is on the west side of the mountains, and is a deep 
and narrow defile, in one place only 22 feet wide. A road 
passes through, which crosses the river Saco ; into which 
several tributary streams enter from the mountain heights, 
forming many beautiful cascades. Lafayette Mountain 
is situated in the northeast part of the township of Fran- 
conia, nearly equidistant from Mount Washington at the 
northeast, and Moose Hillock at the southwest, being 
about 20 miles from each ; and it is obviously more ele- 
vated than any other summit in sight except the White 
Mountains. 

At the Franconia Notch, near the road leading from 
Franconia to Plymouth, and about 3 miles south of Mount 
Lafayette, a foot path has been cleared out from the road 
to the top of the mountain. The point where the path 
commences is 6 miles from the Franconia iron works, and 
the length of it from the road to the summit is 3 miles ; 
and throughout this distance it is almost uniformly steep. 
The ascent for the distance of about 2 miles is through a 
thick forest of hemlock, spruce, &c. Higher up, the 
mountain is encompassed with a zone, about half a mile 



314 WHITE MOUNTAINS. 

in width, covered with stinted trees, chiefly hemlock and 
spruce. Above the upper edo^e of this zone, which is 
about half a mile from the top, trees and shrubs disappear. 
The summit is composed chiefly of bare rocks, partly in 
large masses, and partly broken into small pieces. 

The view from the top is exceedingly picturesque and 
magnificent. Although it is not so extensive as that from 
the summit of Mount Washington, yet owing to the 
more advantageous situation of Lafayette, being more 
central as it respects this mountainous region, it is not in- 
ferior to either in beauty or grandeur. The view to the 
northeast, east, south and southwest, is one grand pano- 
rama of mountain scenery, presenting more than 50 sum- 
mits, which when viewed from this elevation do not ap- 
pear to differ greatly in height. Some of these moun- 
tains are covered with verdure to the top, while the sum- 
mits of others are composed of naked rocks ; and down 
the sides of many of them may be seen slides or avalanches 
of earth, rocks and trees, more or less extensive, which 
serve to diversify the scene. The only appearance of 
cultivation in this whole compass is confined to a few 
farms seen in a direction west of south, on the road to 
Plymouth, extending along the Pemigewasset branch of 
the Merrimack, To the west is seen the territory wa- 
tered by the Connecticut and the Ammonoosuck. 

At a place in the road through the Franconia Notch 
where the path up the mountain commences, is exhibited 
to the view of the traveller, on the mountain opposite to 
Lafayette, the Profile or the Old Man of the Mountain, a 
singular lusus naturtB, and a remarkable curiosity. It is 
situated on the brow of the peak or precipice, which rises 



WHITE MOUNTAINS. 315 

almost perpendicularly from the surface of a small lake, 
directly in front to the height (as estimated) of from 600 
to 1000 feet. The front of this precipice is formed of 
solid rock, but as viewed from the point where the profile 
is seen, the whole of it appears to be covered with trees 
and vegetation, except about space enough for a side 
view of the Old Man's bust. All the principal features 
of the human face, as seen in a profile, are formed with 
surprising exactness. The httle lake at the bottom of the 
precipice, is about half a mile in length, and is one of the 
sources of the Pemigewasset river. Half a mile to the 
north of this there is another lake, surrounded with ro- 
mantic scenery, nearly a mile in length, and more than 
half a mile in breadth. This is one of the sources of the 
southern branch of the Ammonoosuck, which flows into 
the Connecticut. These lakes are both situated in the 
Notch, very near the road, and near the point where the 
steep ascent of Mount Lafayette commences. The 
northern lake is 900 feet above the site of the Franconia 
iron works, and the highest point in the road through the 
Notch is 1028 feet above the same level. Other curiosi- 
ties in this vicinity are the Basin and the Pulpit. 

A portion of the Gap, including the Notch in the White 
Mountains, which is the most sublime and interesting, is 
about 5 or 6 miles in length. It is composed of a double 
barrier of mountains, rising very abruptly from both sides 
of the wild roaring river Saco, which frequently washes 
the feet of both barriers. Sometimes there is not room 
for a single carriage to pass between the stream and the 
mountains, and the road is cut into the mountain itself. 
This double barrier rises on each side to the height of 



316 WHITE MOUNTAINS. 

nearly half a mile in perpendicular altitude, and is capped 
here and there by proud castellated turrets, standing high 
above the continued ridges. These are not straight, but 
are formed into numerous zigzag turns, which frequently 
cut off the view and seem to imprison the traveller in the 
vast, gloomy gulf. The sides of the mountains are deeply 
furrowed and scarred by the tremendous effects of the 
memorable deluge and avalanches of 1826. No tradition 
existed of any slide in former times, and such as are now 
observed to have formerly happened, had been completely 
veiled by forest growth and shrubs. At length, on the 
28th of June, two months before the fatal avalanche, 
there was one not far from the Willey house, which so far 
alarmed the family, that they erected an encampment a 
little distance from their dwelling, intending it as a place 
of refuge. On the fatal night, it was impenetrably dark 
and frightfully tempestuous ; the lonely family had retired 
to rest, in their humble dwelling, 6 miles from the nearest 
human creature. The avalanches descended in every 
part of the gulf, for a distance of 2 miles ; and a very 
heavy one began on the mountain top, immediately above 
the house, and descended in a direct hne towards it ; the 
sweeping torrent, a river from the clouds, and a river full 
of tree^, earth, stone and rocks, rushed to the house and 
marvellously divided within six feet of it, and just behind 
it, and passed on either side, sweeping away the stable 
and horses, and completely encircling the dwelling, but 
leaving it untouched. At this time, probably towards 
midnight, (as the state of the beds, apparel, &c. showed 
that the family had retired to rest,) the family issued 
from the house and were swept away by the torrent. 



WHITK MOUNTAINS. 317 

Search, for two or three days, was made in vain for 
the bodies, when they were at length found. They were 
evidently floated along by the torrent and covered by tlio 
drift wood. A pole, with a board nailed across it, like a 
guide post, now indicates the spot where the bodies were 
found. Had the family remained in the house they would 
have been entirely safe. Even the little green in front 
and east of the house was undisturbed, and a flock of 
sheep, (a part of the possession of the family,) remained 
on this small spot of ground, and were found there the 
next morning in safety — although the torrent dividing 
just above the house, and forming a curve on both sides, 
had swept completely around them, again united below, 
and covered the meadows and orchard with ruins, which 
remain there to this day. Nine persons were destroyed 
by this catastrophe, and the story of their virtues and 
their fate is often told to the traveller by the scattered 
population of these mountain vallies, in a style of simple 
pathos and minuteness of detail, which has all the inter- 
est of truth and incident of romance in its recital. The 
scene of this disaster was about 7 miles from Ethan A. 
Crawford's, and 2 miles from the commencement of the 
Notch. 

The number of visitors to the White Mountains has 
been considerably increased, on account of the interest 
excited by these avalanches. The most sublime views of 
them, (several of which are nearly equal to the memora- 
ble one which swept away the unfortunate Willey family,) 
may be seen all along for several miles, in passing 
through the Notch. They are also observed from vari- 
ous points in the country around, extending down the 



318 WHITE MOUNTAINS. 

sides of many of the elevated mountains ; and the aston- 
ishing effects of this extraordinary inundation are also 
witnessed in the great enlargement of the channels of the 
streams which rise in these clusters of mountains. This 
is the fact especially with regard to the channel of the 
principal branch of the Ammonoosuck, which rises near 
the summit of Mount Washington. 

The camp which was built by Mr. Crawford for the 
accommodation of visitors over night, two miles and a 
quarter from the summit of Mount Washington was sit- 
uated near this branch, and was carried away by the 
swelling of the stream. A small camp has been erected 
in its place, but it is of little use, and affords no accom- 
modations for lodging visitors over night. 

The distance from Crawford's house to the summit of 
Mount Washington, is nine miles. Through a part of 
this distance a carriage road is now made, leaving only 4 
or 5 miles to be ascended on foot. The time usually oc- 
cupied in ascending the mountain, reckoning from the 
time of leaving Crawford's house to the time of returning 
to it again, is from ten to fourteen hours ; and the short- 
est time in which the enterprise has been performed is 
about eight hours. 

Continuing the route through the Notch, the first house 
reached is the elder Crawford's, six miles from the " Notch 
house," as that once occupied by the unfortunate Willey 
is called. Thence to Bartlett is seven miles. From this 
place to Conway, which is ten miles, there are more ap- 
pearances of cultivation, particularly in the little valley 
through which the road passes. The country around, 
however, is still wild and unimproved, displaying a sue- 



FRYEBURGH. 319 

cession of bold and lofty mountain scenery. The pros- 
pect at the village of Conway is bounded on the north and 
west by high mountains, and the several summits of the 
White Mountains, rising at 30 miles distance, are more 
easily distinguished than at any point near them. 

Fryeburgh, in Maine, is 10 miles from Conway, and is 
generally taken in the route to the White Mountains 
from the east. It is a considerable village, built upon a 
wide plain upon two broad streets, and has a respectable 
academy. It is chiefly interesting as being associated 
with the early history of our country. About a mile from 
the village is Lovell's pond, the scene of the bloody fight 
in 1725 between a gallant band of Americans under Capt. 
Lovell, and the remnant of the Pequawket tribe under 
the renowned Chief Paugas. From Fryeburgh to Port- 
land, distant 52 miles, the road is over a dull and unin- 
teresting country ; but travellers designing to visit that 
place in connection with the White Mountains will find 
it the most direct route. [For a description of Portland, 
see the route from Boston to that place in subsequent 
pages.] 



CO 



320 CONWAY TO CONCORD. 

PROM CONWAY TO CONCORD, N. H. — 76 Hliles. 

Returning to Conway, and proceeding on the route to 
Concord, Six Mile Pond is passed in going 11 miles, and 
Centre Harbor is reached in going 24 miles farther. The 
road for 20 or 30 miles, is through a valley bordered with 
iofty mountains, exhibiting only an occasional settlement. 

Centre Harbop. is on Lake Winnipiseogee, the largest 
lake in the state. It is 23 miles long, and from 6 to 14 
broad, and is remarkable for its beautiful and sublime 
scenery. It discharges its waters through the Winni- 
piseogee river into the Merrimack, 232 feet below the 
lake. From the top of Red Mountain, in Centre Harbor, 
1,500 feet high, and which is accessible for about two 
thirds of the way in a carriage, there is an extensive pros- 
pect. At the distance of 70 miles to the southwest may 
be seen Mount Monadnock ; at the west, Kyarsage and 
Simson mountains; at the northwest, the Moose Hil- 
lock ; at the north, the Sandwich mountains, with the 
Squani lake intervening ; at the southeast, the Winni- 
piseogee lake, with its numerous islands, bays, and the 
mountains w^hich rise from its borders, including Ossip- 
pee on the northeast, Gunstock on the south, and a 
serai-circular mountain on the termination of the lake at 
the southeast ; the whole forming a vast billowy ocean cf 
iofty mountains, with their grand intersecting curves, ex- 
hibiting a complete panorama of the sublimest mountain 
scenery. 

SdUAM Lake, which lies west of the mountain, is 10 
miles lorg and 5 wide, and like the Winnipiseogee, is 
sprinkled with numerous small and beautiful islands. 



CONCORD. 



321 



The finest of trout are caught in these lakes, and their 
shores abound with an abundance of game, affording to 
the angler and fowler ample means of employment as 
well as amusement. 

The route from Centre Harbor to Concord,* 41 miles, 
passes through an interesting country, affording a view of 
several flourishing villages. 

Concord is the capital of New-Hampshire. The vil- 
lage is principally composed of two streets on the 
west bank of the Merrimack river, and contains a state 
house, state prison, town house, bank, several churches, 
4 or 5 printing ofiices, and about 300 dwelling houses. 
The state house, located near the centre of the village, is 
an elegant building of hewn granite, 100 feet long, with 
a large hall on the first floor, and the senate and repre- 
sentatives' chamber on the second. The building is sur- 
rounded by a spacious yard, which is enclosed by a hand- 
some wall. The state prison, a strong building, is a short 
distance from the state house. 

The Merrimack river is navigable for large boats from 
Concord to Chelmsford ; whence to Boston the commu- 
nication is continued in the Middlesex canal, 28 miles long. 

* Another route from Centre Harbor, and which will 
be preferred by those who do not wish to visit Concord, 
is to take the steamboat which crosses the lake, (which 
is here 25 miles wide,) 3 times a week to Alton Bay ; 
whence stages are taken to Dover, N. H., 40 m'lcs dis- 
tant ; and thence stages and railroads to Boston, through 
Portsmouth, N. H., Nevvbaryport and Salem, Mass., 60 
miles farther. By this route, passengers leaving Conway 
in the morning, reach Dover the same evening, and Bos- 
ton the next day at noon. 



322 CONCORD TO BOSTON. 

FROM CONCORD TO BOSTON 73 milcS. 

Stages leave Concord every day, passing through Hook- 
set, Amoskeag, Piscataqua, and Merrimack to Nashua, 
whence a rail road is taken to Boston. Tlie route is 
mostly along the bank of the Merrimack river ; which, 
owing to its rapid descent, affords many important manu- 
facturing facilities. 

Nashua, 33 miles from Concord, is the most important 
village between that place and Lowell. It is connected 
with the Merrimack river by means of a canal a mile and 
a half long, and contains several manufactories and about 
3000 inhabitants. 

The Nashua and Lowell Rail Road, commencing at 
this place, extends to Lowell, 15 miles distant. It is 
over a favorable country, and its cost was about ^280,000. 
Carriages pass between Nashua and Boston three times 
a day. 

Lowell is an incorporated city, and the largest man- 
ufacturing town in the United States. It is located on 
the Merrimack river and the Middlesex canal leading to 
Boston. The falls of the river at this place are 30 feet, 
and afford the most ample means for extensive operations 
by water power. The first dwelling and factory were 
commenced in 1813, and the place now assumes the 
character of a large bustling city, laid into streets with 
much taste and elegance, and the whole appearance of 
the place is rendered peculiarly interesting from the mag- 
nificent and numerous factories and public buildings with 
which it is adorned. Its population at the census in 
1835 was 12,363, and at present (1840) is estimated at 



LOWELL. 323 

20,000. This place has been not inaptly termed the 
" Manchester of America." The whole amount of capi- 
tal invested is about $8,000,000, and the number of large 
mills in operation, 24. These mills are each about 157 
feet longf and 45 broad — of brick, 5 stories high, eachsto- 
ry averaging from 10 to 13 feet high, thus giving opportu- 
nity for a free circulation of air. The aggregate number 
of spindles used is 90,000 — looms, 3500. The whole num. 
ber of operatives employed is about 5000, of which 1200 are 
males, and 3800 females. The quantity of raw cotton used 
in these mills per annum exceeds 80,000,000 pounds or 
20,000 bales. The number of yards of cotton goods of 
various qualities manufactured annually is about 27,000,- 
000. Were the diiFerent pieces united, they would reach 
to the distance of 15,300 miles! In this estimate is in- 
cluded about 2,000,000 yards of coarse mixed cotton and 
woollen negro clothing, in the manufacture of which 
about 80,000 pounds of v/ool are used per annum. 

The quantity of wool manufactured annually in cassi- 
meres is about 150,000 pounds, making about 150,000 
yards. 

The Lowell Carpet Manufactory is in itself a curiosity. 
Sixty-eight looms are kept in operalion by hand labor, viz. 
50 for ingrained or Kidderminster carpeting, 1 for Brus- 
sels, and 8 for rugs of various kinds. One hundred and 
forty thousand pounds of wool in the course of a year are 
manufactured into rich and beautiful carpets, the colors 
of which will vie with any imported. The number of 
yards of carpeting made per annum is upwards of 120,000, 
besides rugs. The operatives at present employed in all 
cc2 



324 BOSTON AND LOWELL RAIL ROAD. 

these mills receive for their labor about $1,200,000 per 
annum. 

The edifice in which all the machinery employed in the 
mills is manufactured, is termed the ' Machine Shop,' be- 
longing to the Locks and Canal Company, and is proba- 
bly the largest ' shop' in the country, being built of brick, 
4 stories high, 220 feet in length and 45 in width. 

The great water power is produced by a canal a mile 
and a half long, 60 feet wide, and 8 feet deep from its 
commencement above the head of Pawtucket falls on the 
Merrimack, to its termination in Concord river. The en- 
tire fall is 32 feet. The water is taken from this canal 
by smaller canals, and conveyed to the factories, and 
thence into the Merrimack. There are room and water 
power sufficient for 50 additional factories. 

The Boston and Lowell Rail Road commences at 
the basin of the canal in Lowell, and after passing through 
a heavy excavation of rock, proceeds over an undulating 
country to the Charles river at Boston, which is crossed 
by a wooden viaduct on the west side of the Warren 
bridge. The length of the road is 25 miles, and the in- 
clination in no part of the route exceeds 10 feet in a mile. 
At first a single track only was constructed, but a second 
has since been completed. The materials employed are 
principally stone and iron, and the workmanship is highly 
creditable to the company and to the individuals engaged 
in the construction. The cost of the road, thus far, has 
been §1, 500,000; and the receipts have exceeded the 
original estimates. At Wilmington, a branch 7 1-2 miles 
long, extends to Andovcr. 



BOSTON. 325 

THE CITY OF BOSTON,* 

The metropolis of New-England, is pleasantly situated 
at the bottom of Massachusetts Bay, on a peninsula of an 
uneven surface, two miles long, and in the widest part about 
one mile broad. The town owes its origin to a spirit of 
civil and rehgious liberty, which was excited to action by 
the persecutions that prevailed in England during the 
reigns of Queen Elizabeth and Kings James and Charles I. 
Most of those who can properly be considered a.s first set- 
tlers arrived prior to the year 1643. The place was first 
called Trimountain, in consequence of three hills which 
were on the peninsula. It was afterwards called Boston, 
in honor of the Rev. Mr. Cotton, a minister of the first 
church in the town, whose native place was Boston in 
England. 

The harbor is one of the best in the United States. It 
has a sufficient depth of water for the largest vessels at 
all times of tide, and is accessible at all seasons of the 
year. It is safe from every wind, and so capacious that 
it will allow 500 vessels to ride at anchor, while the en- 
trance is so narrow as scarcely to admit two ships abreast. 
It contains about 75 square miles, within which are up- 
wards of 100 islands or rocks ; and receives within its bo- 
som the waters of the Mystic, Charles, Neponset and 
Manatticut rivers, besides several streams of less magni- 
tude. 

Boston is very extensively engaged in commerce, and 
there are probably few cities in the world where there is 

* Bowen's Picture of Boston will prove a valuable guide 
to strangers visiting that city andjts environs. 



326 BOSTON. 

so much wealth in proportion to the population. The 
trade, too, received from an extensive inland country, is 
very great, the facilities for approaching the city being 
rendered easy by means of excellent roads. 

The appearance of Boston is much admired by stran- 
gers, particularly when approaching from the sea. Its 
streets do not exhibit so great a regularity as some other 
cities ; but its beautiful location and elegant public and 
private buildings, together with its richly ornamental 
grounds for promenading, render it altogether a peculiarly 
delightful and attractive place. 

The city is divided into five local districts, called North 
Boston, East Boston, West Boston, South End and South 
Boston ; and its population is between 80 and 90,000. 
From Copp's Hill, in North Boston, which is partly occu- 
pied for a church yard, the British cannonaded the town 
of Charlesto wn in 1775, during the battle of Bunker Hill, 
when the village was mostly destroyed by conflagration. 

In the southwestern part of the city, and in front of the 
state house, is the celebrated Common, presenting an area 
of about 50 acres, enclosed by an elegant iron fence, and 
containing the Mall, a very beautiful public walk, adorn- 
ed with rows of trees. This is a delightful promenade 
during the summer months, and a place of general resort. 
In the centre of the Common is an eminence still exhib- 
iting marks of the fortification erected by the British 
during the revolution ; north of which is the Crescent 
Pond, a beautiful sheet of water, surrounded with trees. 
Near the Mall, in Mason street, is the Medical college, 
an edifice belonging to Harvard University, surmounted 
by a dome v/ith a sky-light and balustrade. 



BOSTON. 327 

The Boston Athcneum is located near the head of Pearl 
street, and is a very spacious building, containing appro- 
priate rooms. The number of volumes attached to the 
institution is about 35,000. It also contains nearly 14,000 
medals and coins, some of which are very rare and inter- 
esting. The rooms are open from 8 A. M. to 9 P. M. and 
can be visited by strangers introduced by subscribers. 

The Gallery of Fine Arts is a handsomo structure in 
the rear of the Atheneum, and is appropriated for scien- 
tific lectures, the Academy of Arts and Sciences, the 
Massachusetts Medical Library, a philosophical apparatus 
of the Mechanic Institution, and for paintings ; the latter 
of which are exhibited in the upper story, and are gene- 
rally very elegant. 

Among the other literary institutions in the city are the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, who have an extensive 
library in a spacious apartment over the arch in Franklin 
street ; the Bosto7i Library Society, who have a collec- 
tion of 8000 volumes ; and the Columbian Library, which 
contains about 4500 volumes. There are also numerous 
other libraries of less note. Among the benevolent insti- 
tutions are the House of Industry at South Boston, of 
rough dimension stone, 220 feet long, and 43 wide ; the 
Massachusetts General Hospital, founded in 1818, which 
has been richly endowed by the slate and individuals ; 
the Eye and Ear Infirmary ; a Hospital for the Insane, 
the buildings for which are at Charlestown ; the New- 
England Institute for the Education of the Blind, situa- 
ted in Pearl street, and richly endowed by Col. Perkins 
and the munificence of the state ; and the Farm School 
for boys, on Thompson's Island. 



328 BOSTON. 

The first houses built in the city were plain, and the 
streets narrow and crooked ; but a few years have 
wrought a striking and almost incredible change ; new 
streets have been laid out, old ones straightened and im- 
proved, and neat brick and granite dwellings have been 
substituted for the ill-shapen and decaying houses of 
wood. The private buildings, and many of the stores are 
more splendid than in any other city of the United States. 
Among the public buildings are the State House, which 
is built on elevated ground, commanding a fine view of 
the surrounding coimtry, and containing an elegant stat- 
ue of Washington ; the County Court House, built of 
stone, at an expense of ^92,000 ; the Municipal Court 
House ; a stone Jail ; Fanueil Hall, where all public 
meetings of the citizens are held ; the Fanueil Hall 
Market, one of the most expensive and beautiful build- 
ings of the kind in the world ; 3 Theatres, one of which 
(the Tremont) cost about $120,000, being 135 feet in 
length and about 80 in breadth, the front of Hallowell and 
Quincy granite, in imitation of the Ionic order, with four 
pilasters supporting an entablature and pediment, and 
elevated on a basement of 17 feet; the Custom House, 
City Hall, Masonic Temple, Boylston Market and Boyl- 
ston Hall ; Congress, Amory, Artist's Gallery, Concert, 
Corinthian, Pantheon, Washington and Chauncey Halls. 
Bridges. — There are seven bridges connecting Boston 
with the adjacent towns. Charles River bridge, which 
connects it with Charlestown on the North, 1503 feet 
long ; Warren free bridge, nearly parallel with the for- 
mer, and also running to Charlestown, 1420 feet long, on 
piers and Macadamized ; West Boston bridge, connect- 



BOSTON. 



329 



jng it with Cambridge Port on the west, 7810 feet long ; 
Cragie's Canal bridge, between the last two, connecting 
it with Lechmcre Point, 2796 feet long ; and two free 
bridges uniting it to South Boston. The other avenue is 
a mill dam, nearly 2 miles long and 50 feet wide, across 
the bay on the southwest side of the city ; which not 
only furnishes a bridge, but puts in operation extensive 
tide-mills and other water works. This dam cost up- 
wards of f 600,000. There is a branch from Cragie's 
bridge also, which runs to Charlestown Point, near the 
Massachusetts state prison. 

Churches. — There are rising of 50 churches in Boston, 
many of which have been built at great expense, and are 
very elegant. On one of the quoins at the southwest 
corner of the Brattle street church, of which Gov. Han- 
cock was a benefactor, his name had been inscribed ; but 
it was effaced by the British soldiery during the revolu- 
tion, and the stone has been permitted to remain as they 
left it. A shot from the Americans on the night previ- 
ous to the evacuation of Boston by the British, still re- 
mains in the tower where it originally struck. In St. 
Paul's church, in Tremont street, there is an elegant 
monument to the memory of Gen. Warren, who was slain 
on Bunker Hill, and whose remains are entombed in the 
cemetry beneath this church. 

Burial Grounds.— In the Chapel burial ground, north 
of the stone chapel, there arc several ancient monuments ; 
and among others that of Gov. Winthrop, who died in 
1649. In the Copfs Hill ground similar mementes of 
antiquity are found. In the Granary ground, the ceno- 
taph erected to the memory of Doct. Franklin stands 



330 



BOSTON. 



over the tomb, in which repose the remains of both his 
parents. The tombs of Governors Bellingham, Sumner 
and Sullivan are also in this ground. 

The New.England Museum, in Court street, is prob- 
ably the best in the United States, containing 60,000 
curiosities, and should be visited by every stranger before 
leaving the city. 

Hotels— Tvemont House is the most superb hotel in 
Boston, and not inferior to any in the Union. It is three 
stories high in front and four on the wings, exclusive of 
the basement. The front and two circular ends facing 
Beacon street, and the open ground south of the building, 
are of Quincy granite, and surmounted by an entablature, 
supported by antes at each extremity. The portico, 
which is of the same material, is 37 feet long by 7 feet in 
width, and 25 feet high. Four fluted columns support 
the roof of the portico, the proportions of which are copied 
from those of the Doric Portico at Athens, with the ex- 
ception that the portico of the Tremont House di-triglyph, 
the inter columniations being nearly equal. The whole 
number of rooms is one hundred and eighty ; and the 
principal entrance is nearly opposite the Tremont Theatre. 
From the top of this structure, an extensive and beautiful 
landscape, comprising a view of the harbor and the amphi- 
theatre of hills to the west, and of the towns of Charles- 
town and Chelsea to the north, presents itself. 

The next hotel in extent is the American House, in 
Hanover street, beautifully fitted up in the most modern 
style. It is lighted throughout with gas, and in point of 
reputation will compare with any house in the country. 
Besides these, the following are well managed and pop. 



BOSTON. 331 

iiiai' establishments : the New-England Coffee House, 
the Pearl street House, the Exchange Coffee House, 
Bromfield House, Lafayette Hotel, Marlboro' Hotel, 
Franklin House, Hanover House, Commercial Coffee 
House, City Tavern, Blackstone House, National House, 
the Maverick House at East Boston and the Mount 
Washington House at South Boston. The Shawmut 
House, in Hanover street, conducted on the European 
plan, is a very elegant establishment. 

The Hancock House, the former residence of Governor 
Hancock, is still in good preservation in Beacon street, 
near the state house. There are also several ancient 
buildings in the vicinity of Ann street and Market square y 
in one of which, opposite the Golden Key, a relative of 
Doct. Franklin formerly resided, to whom he was in the 
habit of paying frequent visits. 

For the benefit of public houses and travellers, a Stage 
Register is published, once in two months, by Messrs. 
Badger &l Porter, at the office of the American Traveller, 
No. 47 Court street, containing an account of the princi- 
pal lines of stages, steamboats, rail roads and canal pack- 
ets in New -England and New- York. 

The country around Boston is the admiration of every 
traveller of taste. The view from the dome of the state 
house surpasses any thing of the kind in this country, and 
is not excelled by that from the castle hill of Edinburgh, or 
that of the Bay of Naples from the castle of St. Elmo. 
Here may be seen at one view, the shipping, the harbor, 
variegated with islands and alive with business ; Charles 
river and its beautiful country, ornamented with elegant 
private mansions ; and more than twenty flourishing 

DD 



332 EAST BOSTON — MOUNT AUBURN. 

towns. The hills are finely cultivated, and rounded by 
the hand of nature with singular felicity. 

East Boston is a new part of the city, built on what 
was formerly called Noddle's Island, a tract nearly as 
large as the peninsula of Boston. The island, like " Win- 
nisiment," in Chelsea, has grown up under the manage- 
ment of an incorporated company. In 1830 there was 
but one house on the island ; since which it has been laid 
out into lots and streets ; many handsome dwellings have 
been erected, and the place now contains several hundred 
inhabitants. There are three steamboats on the ferry 
connecting it with the city, which ply constantly from 
morning till midnight. The Maverick House, located 
here, is a large and well conducted hotel. 

Mount Auburn. Every traveller of taste should visit 
the new cemetry at Mount Auburn, in Cambridge, 5 miles 
from Boston. It is the pere la chaise of this country, 
and is situated in one of the most delightful spots ever 
selected for the repose of the dead. The grounds are 
very extensive, comprising every variety of hill and dale, 
covered with trees and shrubbery of almost every kind. 
There are numerous " avenues" for carriages, and " paths" 
for pedestrians, designated by botanical names. The in- 
terments as yet have not been nmnerous ; though the 
lots are all laid out, and many of them finished. Miss 
Hannah Adams, the historian of the Jews, was the first 
tenant of Mount Auburn. She died in December, 1831, 
Nature made this retreat romantic — art has rendered it 
beautiful — the Creator formed it lovely — man has made 
it sacred. 



1 



dUINCY — DORCHESTHR. 333 

QuiNCY, which is distinguished for having furnished 
two Presidents of the United States, is 10 nfiiles from 
Boston, in a southerly direction. About half a mile north- 
west of the village is the mansion of ihe late John Ad- 
ams, the second president. His remains and those of his 
wife repose beneath the new church at Quincy, within 
which a handsome monument to their memory has been 
erected by his son, John Quincy Adams, with a suitable 
inscription. 

The southwest part of the town is mostly composed of 
inexhaustible beds of granite, for the transportation of 
which a rail road is used from the beds to tide water, 3 
miles long. This was the first rail road made in the 
country. For a great part of the distance it is on an in- 
clination of one and a half inch to the rod, and the ordi- 
nary load drawn by a horse is between 8 and 9 tons. 

Dorchester, is an ancient town, about 4 1.2 miles 
south of Boston, having been settled in 1 630, soon after 
Plymouth and Salem. The roads are numerous and 
crooked, but mostly level and kept in good repair. Many 
fine country seats and substantial farm houses are thickly 
arranged on their sides. They have a town house, three 
congregational churches, and one for methodists. The 
population is about 4000. The peninsula, called Dorches- 
ter Neck, borders on Boston harbor, and a part of it is 
incorporated with the town of Boston. Savin Hill, in this 
town, is a place of considerable resort, and the peninsula 
of Squantum is famous for its yearly feast of shells. On 
the 4th of March, 1776, 1200 men, sent by Gen. Wash- 
ington, threw up works on Dorchester heights in the night, 



334 BRIGHTON CHARLESTOWN. 

which commanded Boston harbor and drove the British 
army away. Traces of these works still remain. 

Brighton, 5 miles west of Boston, was formerly a part 
of Cambridge, and lies between that place and Brookline. 
Here is held the famous Cattle Fair and mart, which 
was commenced during the revolutionary war, and has 
been increasing in importance ever since. Most of the 
cattle for the supply of the Boston market are brought in 
droves to this place ; often from 2 to 3000 a week ; every 
Monday is the fair day, when the dealers resort thither to 
make their purchases. 

Watertow^n is on Charles river, 7 miles northwest 
from Boston, and is the seat of several extensive manu- 
facturing establishments. The provincial congress sat 
here in 1775, and were in session during the battle of 
Bunker Hill. The United States have an Arsenal estab- 
lished in this town. Fresh Pond, one of the most en. 
chanting retreats in the vicinity of the metropolis, Hes 
partly in this town and partly in Cambridge. 

Cambridge, 2 miles west from Boston. (See p. 306.) 

Charlestown is a place of singular shape, extending 
in a northwesterly direction from Boston harbor, about 9 
miles in length, and not averaging a breadth of one mile, 
and in some parts it is not a quarter of a mile wide. The 
compact part of the town is situated on the peninsula 
next to Boston, and is laid out in regular streets. Charles, 
town contains a population of near 9000. It has 5 houses 
for public worship, 3 banks, a spacious alms house, and a 
handsome town hall and market house. Besides Charles 
river, Warren and Prison Point bridges, which connect 



breed's hill. 335 

this town with Boston, there is Chelsea bridge on the 
Salem turnpike, and Maiden bridge, both over the Mystic 
river. Breed's Hill and Bunker's Hill both lie within 
this peninsula ; the former is 62 feet in height, the latter 
110 feet. The U. S. Navy Yard, in this town, consists 
of about 60 acres of land, on which are built a large brick 
ware house, several arsenals, magazines for various kinds 
of stores, a ropewalk, and a large brick mansion house for 
the superintending officer. The Dry Dock in this yard, 
is the finest in the United States. Its cost has been 
about half a million of dollars. The State Prison, at the 
west end of the town, is built of granite, and is a mas- 
sive and imposing structure. The Massachusetts Insane 
Hospital is delightfully situated upon Pleasant Hill, on the 
west side of the town. On x\Iount Benedict, about 2 1-2 
miles from Boston, commanding one of the most rich and 
variegated prospects in the United States, are to be seen 
the ruins of the Ursuline Convent, burnt in the night by 
a mob in 1835. 

Breed's Hill is situated one fourth of a mile north- 
east of the village of Charlcstown, and aiFords a pleasant 
prospect of Boston, (2 miles distant,) the harbor. Cam- 
bride and its colleges, and of an extensive and highly cul- 
tivated country. 

In the month of May, after the battle of Lexington, it 
was conjectured from the movements of the British army 
that Gen. Gage intended to penetrate into the country. 
It was accordingly decided by the provincial congress to 
attempt a defence of Dorchester Neck, and to occupy 
Bunker's Hill, just within the Peninsula on which Charles- 
town stands. A detachment of 1000 men, under Col. 
dd2 



336 breed's hill. 

Prescott, proceeded to execute these orders ; but by some 
mistake, Breed's Hill, situated on the farther part of the 
peninsula, was selected for the proposed entrenchments. 

The party under Col. Prescott proceeded in their work 
with so much dilig-ence and secrecy, that by the dawn of 
day, they had thrown up a square redoubt of about 40 
yards on each side. Day light discovered this new work 
to the British, and a heavy canonnade was commenced 
upon it from the shipping in the river. The fire was 
borne with firmness by the Americans, and did not pre- 
vent them from soon constructing a breast work, which 
extended from the redoubt to the bottom of the hill. 

" As this eminence overlooked Boston, General Gage 
thought it necessary to drive the provincials from it. To 
effect this object, he detached Major General Howe and 
Brigadier General Pigot, at the head of ten companies of 
grenadiers and the same number of light infantry, with a 
proper proportion of field artillery. These troops landed 
at Moreton's Point, where they immediately formed ; but 
perceiving the Americans to wait for them with firmness, 
they remained on their ground until the success of the 
enterprize should be rendered secure by the arrival of a 
reinforcement from Boston, for which General Howe had 
apphed. During this interval the Americans also were 
reinforced by a body of their countrymen, led by Generals 
Warren and Pomeroy ; and they availed themselves of 
this delay to increase their security, by pulling up some 
adjoining post and rail fences, and arranging them in two 
parallel lines at a small distance from each other ; the 
space betv/een which they filled up with hay, so as to 
form a complete cover from the musketry of the enemy. 



breed's hill. 337 

" On being joined by their second detachment, the 
British troops, who were formed in two hnes, advanced 
slowly under cover of a very heavy discharge of cannon 
and howitzers, frequently halting in order to allow their 
artillery time to demolish the works. While they were 
advancing, orders were given to set fire to Charlestown, 
a handsome village containing about 500 houses, which 
flanked their line of march. The buildings were chiefly 
of wood, and the flames were quickly communicated so 
extensively, that almost the whole tovvm was in one great 
blaze. 

" It is not easy to conceive a more grand and more 
awful spectacle than was now exhibited ; nor a moment 
of more anxious expectation than that which was now pre- 
sented. The scene of action was in full view of the 
heights of Boston and of its neiehborhood, which were 
covered with spectators taking deep and opposite inter- 
ests in the events passing before them. The soldiers of 
the two hostile armies not on duty, the citizens of Boston 
and the inhabitants of the adjacent country, all feeling 
emotions which set description at defiance, were wit- 
nesses of the majestic and tremendous scene. 

" The provincials permitted the enemy to approach un- 
molested within less than one hundred yards of their 
works, when they poured in upon them so deadly a fire of 
small arms, that the British line was totally broken, and 
fell back with precipitation towards the landing place. 
By the very great exertions of their oflScers, they were 
rallied and brought up to the charge, but were again 
driven back in confusion by the heavy and incessant fire 
from the works. General Howe is said to have been 



33d breed's hill. 

left at one time almost alone, and it is certain that very . I 
few officers about his person escaped unhurt. 

" The impression to be made by victory or defeat, in 
this early stage of the war, was deemed of the utmost 
consequence ; and therefore very extraordinary exertions 
were made once more to rally the English. With great 
difficulty, they were a third time led up to the works. 
The redoubt was now attacked on three sides at once, 
while some pieces of artillery which had been brought to 
bear on the breast vv'ork, raked it from end to end. The 
cross fire too, from the ships and floating batteries, not 
only annoyed the v.^orks on Breed's Hill, but deterred any 
considerable reinforcements from passing into the penin- 
sula and coming to their assistance. The ammunition of 
the Americans was now so nearly exhausted, that they 
were no longer able to keep up the same incessant stream 
of fire, which had twice repulsed the enemy ; and on this 
third attempt, the redoubt, the walls of which the English 
mounted with ease, was carried at the point of the bayo- 
net. Yet the Americans, many of whom were without 
bayonets, are said to have maintained the contest with 
clubbed muskets, until the redoubt was half filled vrith 
the king's troops. 

" The redoubt being lost, the breast work which had 
been defended witji equal courage and obstinacy, was ne- 
cessarily abandoned ; and the very hazardous operation 
undertaken of retreating in the face of a victorious ene- 
my, over Charlestown Neck ; where they were exposed to 
the same cross fire from the Glasgow man of war and two 
floating batteries, which had deterred the reinforcements 
ordered to their aid from coming to their assistance, and 



CHELSEA. 



339 



had probably prevented their receiving proper supplies of 
ammunition." 

The number of British troops engaged in this action 
was about 3000, and their loss in killed and wounded was 
1050. The American force has been variously stated 
from 1500 to 4000 ; and their loss, in killed, wounded 
and missing, amounted to 450. General Warren was 
among the number of the slain, and a handsome monu- 
ment now marks the spot where he fell. 

The corner stone of the Bunker Hill Monument, on 
Breed's Hill, was laid on the 15th of June, 1825: on 
which occasion the Marquis Lafayette was present. The 
depth, however, proving insufficient, the foundation was 
subsequently relaid ; and the work has since progressed 
about 80 feet from the foundation. The Quincy granite 
is used for its structure. Its base is 50 feet in diameter, 
and its height is to be 220 feet. 

Chelsea, is situated about 3 miles northeast of Boston, 
at the mouth of Mystic river. The surface of the town 
is broken into several beautiful eminences, the highest of 
which is Richmond Hill, known in the period of the rev- 
olution as Powder House Hill ; its height is 220 feet 
above the sea. Mount Bellinghara is another eminence 
of gradual slope ; it is laid out into streets, and affords 
delightful building lots over its whole surface. Chelsea 
is one of the most ancient towns in the vicinity of Bos- 
ton ; and is now the only one which remains connected 
with the city to form the county of Suffolk. The princi- 
pal communication with the city is by the Chelsea bridge, 
through Charlestown, and by the Winnissimmet ferry, 
which usually has three steam boats constantly plying. 



340 



NAHANT. 



At the ferry landing, Winnissimmet village is the most I 
thickly settled part of the town. Here are situated the 
U. S. Marine Hospital and the U. S. Navy Hospital. 
Chelsea Beach is a great attraction to strangers during 
the summer season. 

Fort Independence is situated on an island at the 
outlet of Boston harbor, 3 miles distant ; opposite to 
vs^hich is Governor's Island, containing a fort erected dur- 
ing the late war. These two forts command the en- 
trance into the harbor of Boston. Seven or eight miles 
below is the light house, at the north-east extremity of 
the channel, where vessels enter the Atlantic. 

NAHAIVT, 

Is a peninsula running three or four miles into the sea, 
and is situated fifteen miles northeasterly from Boston. 
It is approached from the town of Lynn over a beautiful 
beach of a mile and a half in length. At the extremity 
of this beach commences the peninsula, which is about 
2 miles in length, and in some parts half a mile broad, 
although its shores are extremely irregular, and indented 
with small bays worn into the rocks by the unceasing ac- 
tion of the waves. 

The surface is uneven, rising in some pk-ces to the ele- 
vation of 60 or 70 feet above the level of the sea. The 
shore is very bold, and presents, on all sides, a grand em- 
bankment of broken massy rocks. At several points 
these rocks are worn into fantastic shapes, and at the 
time of high tide, or a swell of the sea, the roar and foam 
of the waters among them presents a most interesting 
spectacle, which is contemplated by the quiet observer, 



NAHANT. 341 

seated on the summit above, with awe and admiration. 
The whole expanse of the ocean spreads out towards the 
east, and after a storm, the rolHng waves come pouring 
in their immense burden upon these rocks, with such a 
power, subhmity and uproar of contending elements, as 
can hardly be conceived by any one who has not witness- 
ed the scene. And again, when the sea is tranquil, it 
may be seen covered with shipping of all sizes, as far as 
the eye can extend, moving in different directions up and 
down the coast, and exhibiting an animating picture of 
the industry and activity of commerce. 

Besides a view of the ocean, Nahant presents a great 
variety of other interesting prospects. On one side is 
seen the village of Lynn, Swanscut, Phillips' Beach, 
Marblehead, Egg Rock, Baker's Island, and the north 
shore as far as the highland of Cape Ann ; on the other, 
Charlestown, Boston, the islands in Boston harbor, part 
of Dorchester, Braintree, Nantucket and Scituate, with 
the hght-houses of Boston, Scituate and Baker's Island, 
forming together a panorama hardly to be equalled in 
beauty or variety. 

The peninsula extends farther into the sea than any 
other head land in the bay. It is distant from the near- 
est island in Boston harbor, to the south, 7 miles — from 
the nearest point of the south shore, about 12 miles — from 
the north shore between 2 and 3 miles. It is on this side 
connected with the main land by a beach a few rods 
wide. Thus insulated and surrounded by water, Nahant 
enjoys a climate and temperature very cool, and, com- 
paratively, very equable — a circumstance of much im- 
portance to the invalid, and which will determine the 



342 NAttANT. 

choice of a great portion of those who annually leave the 
city for the purpose of health or amusement. 

A spacious and elegant Hotel stands near the extremity 
of the peninsula, in a very commanding and pleasant sit- 
uation. It is surrounded by piazzas, which afford a most 
delightful prospect in every direction, and receive thd 
cool and refreshing breezes every part of the day. In a 
small village, a quarter of a mile from the Hotel, are sev- 
eral private boarding houses, for invalids and those who 
seek retirement. Numerous cottages, too, have been 
erected by several individuals for the purpose of affording 
more extensive and elegant accommodations to those who 
may pass the summer in this delightful place of residence. 

Nahant has many amusements. Angling with the rod 
may be enjoyed as a pleasant recreation, standing on the 
rocks ; and those who would try their skill in decoying 
larger prey, may go out in boats, which are always in 
readiness, and furnished with suitable apparatus. Game, 
too, is abundant in the vicinity. But there are few 
amusements or pleasures superior to that of riding, at 
suitable hours of the day, on the beach. 

On the whole, the proximity of Nahant to Boston — its 
facility of access — the beauty and grandeur of its scene- 
ry — and above all, the singular local advantages it affords 
for invigorating the constitution, the salubrity and bracing 
tone of its atmosphere, and the excellent accommodations 
it offers to visitors — 'will always make it a place of exten- 
sive resort during the summer months. 



FORTS AROUND BOSTON. 343 

FORTS AROUND BOSTON, ERECTED DURING THE REVOLUTION. 

The fortifications which were thrown up around Bos. 
ton, which held a British army besieged during eleven 
months of the revolution, and which finally compelled 
them to carry their arms and warfare into other lands, 
will always be regarded as objects of interest by every 
stranger visiting that section of country. Many of these 
works are still in fine preservation, while others have be- 
come defaced by the hand of time, or have been removed 
to give place to modern improvements. The following 
description of those remaining is extracted from Silli. 
• man's Journal, and will prove a guide to strangers in de. 
L termining their localities. 

i; At Breed's Hill, that blood-stained field, the redoubt 

' thrown up by the Americans is nearly effaced ; scarcely 

i i the slightest trace of it remains ; but the entrenchment, 

which extended from the redoubt to the marsh, is still 

marked by a slight elevation of the ground. The redoubt 

thrown up by the British on the summit of the hill, may 

; be easily distinguished. 

[j Bunker Hill.— The remains of the British fort are visi- 
ble ; the works must have been very strong, and occu- 
i pied a large extent of ground — they are on the summit 
i and slope of the hill looking towards the peninsula. 

Ploughed Hill. — The works npon this hill were com- 
' menced by the Americans on the night of August 26th, 
1775, and received more fire from the British than any 
of the other forts ; in a few days, more than three hun- 
dred shells were fired at these fortifications. A small 
part of the rampart remains, but the whole hill is sur. 

EE 



344 FORTS AROUND BOSTON. 

rounded by the mounds and fosse of the ancient fort, 
which has been nearly obliterated. 

Cobble or BavreVs Hill was fortified, and occupied as 
a strong post, in the war of the revolution, by General 
Putnam, and, in consequence of its strength, was called 
Putnam's impregnable fortress. It was commenced on 
the night of November 22d ; and the activity of its fire is 
well known to those who have studied the details of the 
siege of Boston. This fort has been destroyed ; but the 
position is easily identified. 

Lechmere Point Redouht, one hundred yards from 
West Boston bridge, displays more science in its con- 
struction, and has a wider and deeper fosse than most of 
the other fortifications. It was commenced on Dec. 
11th, 1775, and it was several days before it was com- 
pleted, during which time it was much exposed to the 
fire of the English in Boston. Two or three soldiers of 
the revolutionary army were killed at this redoubt, and 
the Prnnus Virginiana, with its red berries, marks the 
spot where they were probably interred. Upon one an- 
gle of the fort, where the cannon were pointed with most 
destructive effect, a church is now erected. 

A causeway made across the marsh, the covered vray 
which crosses the brow of the hill, and the lines which 
flanked Willis' creek, are still perfect, and may be traced 
with great facility. 

Winter Hill Fort appears to have been the most ex- 
tensive, and the entrenchments more numerous, than 
anv of the other positions of the American army. The 
fort on the hill is almost entirely destroyed ; only a small 
part of the rampart still remains perfect. 



FORTS AROUND BOSTON. 



345 



A redoubt situated upon Ten Hill Farm, which com- 
mar;ded the navigation of the Mystic river, is complete, 
as are also some slight entrenchments near. 

A redoubt, situated between Winter and Prospect 
hills, has been completely carried away, and a quarry 
has been opened on the spot. In the general orders, 
issued at Cambridge, guards were directed to be stationed 
at White House Redoubt, and this it is believed was the 
post intended. General Lee is said to have had his head 
quarters in a farm house immediately in the rear of this 
redoubt. 

Prospect Hill has two eminences, both of which were 
strongly fortified, and connected by a rampart and fosse ; 
about two hundred yards are quite entire ; they are or- 
namented with the aster, solidago, rosa, &c. ; and those 
who feel any curiosity about these lines, will be much 
gratified by the view here aftbrded. Tlie forts on these 
hills were destroyed only a few years ago, but their size 
can be distinctly seen. On the southern eminence a part 
of the fort is still entire, and the south-west face of the 
hill is divided into several platforms. There are also evi- 
dent marks of the dwellings of the soldiers. The exten- 
sive view from this hill, the walk on the ancient ram- 
parts, and the sight of the various stations occupied for . 
the American army, will render this spot, at a future pe- 
riod, a favorite resort. 

The Cambridge Lines, situated upon Butler's Hill, 
appear to have consisted of six regular forts, connected 
by a strong entrenchment. The most northerly of 
these forts is perfect. With the exception of one of its 
angles destroyed by the road, it appears as if just quit- 



346 FORTS AROUND BOSTON. 

ted by the anny of America ; its bastions are entire, 
the outline is perfect, and it seems a chief d'oeuvre of the 
mihtary art. 

A square fort may be seen near the southern extremity 
of these hnes, in fine preservation ; it is in a field within 
two hundred yards of the road to Cambridge. The east- 
ern rampart is lower than the others, and the gateway 
with its bank of earth still remains. 

The Second Line of Defence may be traced on the 
college green at Cambridge, but its proximity to the pub- 
lic halls may have produced some inconvenience, and 
it has been carefully destroyed. 

A semicircular battery, with three embrasures, on the 
northern shore of Charles river, near its entrance into 
the bay, is in a perfect state of preservation. It is rath- 
er above the level of the marsh, and those who would 
wish to see it, should pass on the road to Cambridge until 
they arrive at a cross road which leads to the bank of the 
river ; by following the course of the stream, they may 
arrive at this battery without crossing the marsh, which 
is its northern boundary, and difficult to pass. 

Brookline Fort, or, as it is called in the annals of the 
revolution, the fort on Sewell's Point, was very exten- 
sive, and would still be perfect, were it not for the road 
which divides it into two nearly equal parts. With 
this exception, the rampart and an irregular bastion, 
which commanded the entrance of Charles river, are 
entire. The fort was nearly quadrangular, and the forti- 
fications stronger than many of the other positions of the 
American army. 



FORTS AROUND BOSTON. 347 

A battery, on the southern shore of Muddy river, with 
three embrasures, is only slightly injured. 

Forts at Roxhury. — The lower fort at Roxb iry ap. 
pears to have been the earliest erected, and by its eleva- 
tion commanded the avenue to Boston over the pe- 
ninsula, and prevented the advance of the English 
troops in that direction. It is of the most irregular form, 
the interior occupies about two acres of ground, and as 
the hill is bare of soil, the places may still be seen whence 
the earth was taken to form the ramparts. This fortifi- 
cation has not been at all injured, and the embrasures 
may still be noticed where the cannon were placed which 
fired upon the advanced lines of the enemy. 

On a higher eminence of the same hill is situated a 
quadrangular fort, built on the summit of a rock, and be- 
ing perhaps their first attempt at regular fortification, it 
was considered by the militia of unparalleled strength, 
and excited great confidence in that wing of the army 
stationed at Roxbury. 

The Roxbury Lines, about three quarters of a mile in 
advance of the forts, and two hundred yards north of the 
town, are still to be seen on the eastern side of the penin- 
sula, and may be distinguished by any person going the 
nearest road to Dorchester, over Lamb's dam. 

At this period it may be proper to mention the Brit- 
ish fortifications. The lines situated upon the Neck 
may be seen to great advantage on the western side of 
the isthmus, about a quarter of a mile south of the green 
stores. There appear to have been two lines of en- 
trenchments carried quite across the peninsula, and 
the fosse, which was filled at high Vv'ater, converted 

££2 



348 FORTS AROUND BOSTON. 

Boston into an island. The mounds, ramparts and 
wide ditches which remain, attest the strength of the 
original works. The small battery on the common, erec- 
ted by the British, may perhaps remain for a long period 
of years, as a memorial of ancient times. 

The Dorchester Lines. — Of these some very slight tra- 
ces may be distinguished. 

Forts on Dorchester Heights. — We now hasten to the 
last forts, the erection of which terminated the contest 
in this portion of the eastern states of America. It is to 
be regretted that the entrenchments thrown up by tho 
army of the revolution, on the heights of Dorchester, are 
almost entirely obliterated by the erection of two new 
forts in the late war. But some traces of tlic ancient 
works may be seen on both hills ; the old forts were con- 
structed with more skill and display more science than 
the recent works, the ramparts of which are even now 
faUing down ; and we would gladly see them destroyed, 
if from their ruins the ancient works could re-appear. 

A noble octagonal fort and two batteries, which may 
be seen in perfect preservation upon the promontory, 
were erected after the departure of the English from 
Boston. The fort is situated at the point ; one battery 
is in the rear of the House of Industry, whose inmates 
will probably soon destroy it, and the other upon a rising 
ground immediately below the heights of Dorchester. 

At Nook Hill, near South Boston bridge, may be seen 
the last breast-work which was thrown up by the for- 
ces of America during this arduous contest. Its appear- 
ance on the morning of March 17, 1776, induced the 
departure of the British troops from Boston in a few 



FROM BOSTON TO PORTLAND. 



349 



hours, and thus placed the seal to the independence of 
the New-England states. But those who would wish to 
see this entrenchment must visit it soon. The enemy 
have attacked it on three sides, and are proceeding by 
sap and by mine ; part of the fosse is already destroyed, 
and the rampart nods to its fall. 

FROM BOSTON TO PORTLAND (Me.) 128 milcS.* 

The rail road and stage route is as follows : 



By rail road. 

Miles 

Lynn, (Mass.) 10 

Salem, 5 

Beverly, 2 

Rowley, 13 

Newburyport, . . . . 3 
East Kingston, (N, 
H.) 11 



15 
17 
30 
33 



44 



By stage. 

Miles. 

Exeter, 4 48 

Portsmouth, 14 62 

York, (Maine) ... 9 71 

Wells, 15 96 

Kennebunk Pt.... 6 102 

Saco, 10 112 

Portland, 16 128 



The rail road, which commences at the depot of the 
Lowell road, will ultimately be rendered continuous. At 
present, however, it is completed no farther than East 
Kingston, near Dover, N. H., 44 miles in extent. 

Lynn, 10 miles from Boston, is a large township, with 
a population of 10,000. It contains 8 or 10 churches, 
and many large manufacturing establishments for ladies' 



* The distance by steamboat is 126 miles, as follows : 



Miles. 

Point Shirley, .... 4 

Nahant, 6 10 

Marblehead, 6 16 

Salem Harbor, ... 3 19 

Gloucester Harbor, 8 27 

Cape Ann 10 37 

Newbury Harbor,. 16 53 



Miles. 

Boar's Head, 7 60 

Portsmouth Harbor 12 72 

York Harbor, .... 5 77 

Kennebunk Harb'r 12 89 

Fletcher's Neck,.. 12 101 

Cape Elizabeth, .. 13 114 

Portland 10 124 



350 SAI-EM NEWBURYPORT. 

shoes, which are sent to the southern states and the West 
Indies. The Lynn Beach connects the peninsula of Na- 
hant with the main land, and is a favorite resort in sum- 
mer. 

Salem, which is entered by the rail road through a 
tunnel, is considered the second town in New England 
in commerce, wealth and population. It is located on a 
peninsula formed by two inlets of the sea, called North 
and South rivers. On the opposite side of North river is 
the town of Beverly, to which a bridge leads, 1500 feet 
in length. Marblehead is on the opposite side of South 
river, which forms the harbor, defended by two forts. 
Salera contains a court hou e, 3 banks, an atheneum, a 
museum, an orphan asylum, and 13 churches. The 
Square, near the centre of the town, is a beautiful tract 
of ground, and is surrounded by numerous elegant pri. 
vate dwellings. 

Salem was settled as early as 1626. Its Indian name 
was Naunikeag. In 1692, and for some time afterwards, 
several of its inhabitants became a prey to the greatest 
credulity and bigotry. Its prison was crowded with per- 
sons accused of witchcraft, many of whom paid their life 
as a forfeit for their supposed crimes. The present pop- 
ulation of the town is from 1:2 to 15,000. 

Newburvport is handsomely situated on the south 
bank of the Merrimack river, three miles from its mouth, 
rising on a gradual acclivity from the water. The streets 
are wide, and intersect each other at right angles ; and 
many of the houses are elegant. The court house, 
standing at the head of one of the principal streets lead- 



EXETER — PORTSMOUTH. 351 

ing from the river, adds much to the beauty of the place. 
The village contains 2 banks, 7 churches, and 7000 in- 
habitants, and is a place of considerable trade ; though it 
suffered much during the restrictive system, previous to 
the late war. 

Exeter is handsomely located at the head of tide wa- 
ter, on the Exeter river, which is ravigable for vessels of 
500 tons burthen. The village exhibits considerable en- 
terprise, and is the locahty of several manufacturing es- 
tabhshments. The academy at this place is one of the 
most opulent and extensive in the Union. 

Portsmouth is the largest town and only seaport in 
New-Hampshire. It is located on the south side of the 
Piscataqua river, 2 miles from its mouth. The town con- 
tains 5 banks, an atheneum, an asylum for females, an 
alms house^ custom house and 7 churches. A bridge, 
2371 feet long, crosses the river at this place to Kittery, 
Me., on the opposite side. On an island between the 
two places, is a navy yard. The town is handsome in its 
appearance, is a place of considerable trade, and contains 
a population of about 8000. 

In 1 695 this place was assaulted by a party of Indians, 
and 14 of its inhabitants killed, 1 scalped, who recovered, 
and 4 taken prisoners. After burning several houses, the 
Indians retreated through what is called the great swamp. 
They were, however, overtaken the next morning by a 
company of militia, dispersed, and the prisoners retaken. 

After leaving Portsmouth, the villages of York, Welles, 
Kennebunk and Saco, arc successively passed before 
reaching Portland ; affording yery little to interest, if w« 



352 PORTLAND. 

except an old fort about three miles and a half northeast 
of Welles, and the falls at Saco, on the river of that 
name, which rises in the White Mountains of New- 
Hampshire. These falls are about 30 feet, and afford la- 
cilities for extensive manufacturing operations. 

Portland, the capital of Maine, and a port of entry, 
is a beautiful town, located on a peninsula projecting into 
Casco bay. This peninsula has two prominences, on 
one of wh.ch stands several elegant dwelling houses, 
and on the other an observatory. The harbor is safe, 
well defended, and has a light-house at its entrance. 
Among the public buildings in the town are an elegant 
court house, a jail, custom house, 2 banks, an academy, 
atheneum, and 10 churches. Population about 15,000. 
From the observatory, an extensive prospect is had of the 
ocean and of the country at the northwest, terminated 
by the White Mountains. On Bang's and House Islands, 
at the entrance of the harbor, are Forts Preble and 
Scammel, At the east, 32 miles distant, is seen the 
light-house at the mouth of the Kennebec river, with a 
great variety of islands intervening. West of the ob- 
servatory, is Fort Sumner, on a hill, with several intrench- 
ments made during the revolutionary war. 

Portland (then called Falmouth) was nearly laid in 
ruins in October, 1775. The inhabitants were required 
by Capt. Mowatt, of the British sloop of war Canceau, 
to surrender their arms ; and on a refusal, he commenced 
a bombardment of the town, which lasted nine hours, 
resulting in a destruction of 130 houses, three-fourths of 
the whole number. 



PORTLAND TO EASTPOR.T. 353 

Stao-es leave Portland daily for the White Mountains, 
in New Hampdiire, {see pp. 312 to 319) passing through 
Wcslbrook, Gorham, Standish, Baldwin, Hiram, Browns, 
field and Frycburgh to Conway, which they reach at 
evening. Distance 62 miles — fare ^3. From Conway, 
stages pass through Bartlett, Hart's Location, over the 
Avalanches at the Notch of the White Mountains, thro' 
Narh and Swain's Location, Britton Woods and Bethle- 
hem, to Littleton, on the Connecticut river. Distance 
48 miles — fare $3. [LittleUm is 17 miles below Lancas- 
ter, 100 miles north of Concord, N. H , and is located at 
the mouth and falls of the Amanoosuc river. See p. 312.] 

FROM PORTLAND TO EASTPORT — 231 mileS. 

Miles. 

Castine (by water) 9 118 

Bluehill, 10 128 

Elsworth, 14 142 

Franklin, 12 154 

Cherryfield, 20 174 

Columbia, 12 186 

Machias, 15 201 

Whiting, 15 216 

Eastport, 15 231 



Miles. 

North Yarmouth,. 32 

Freeport, 6 18 

Brunswick, 9 27 

Bath, 7 34 

Wiscassct, 15 49 

Waldoboro', 18 67 

Warren, 9 76 

Thomaston, 4 80 

Camden, 11 91 

Belfast, 18 109 

The route is near the coast, and embraces an extent of 
highly interesting and romantic country. 

North Yarmouth, 12 miles north of Portland, is lo- 
cated on Casco Bay, about 35 miles from the ocean, and 
is a village of some magnitude, containing 4 churches, 
an academy, and about 4000 inhabitants. The bay af- 
fords fine anchorage for vessels, and the surrounding 
country is picliiresque and interesting. 



354 FREEPORT — WALDOBORO'. 

Freeport, 6 miles farther, is at the head of Caseo bay^ 
and contains a population of about 2500 inhabitants. 

Brunswick, 9 miles. The village, which is peculiarly 
pleasant, is situated on the southwest bank of the An- 
droscoggin river, at the falls, which furnish valuable seats 
for mills and manufactories. Bowdoin College, at this 
place, is located on an elevated and beautiful plain, enjoy- 
ing a rich and diversified view of the river and surround- 
ing country. The college originally received a donation 
of $10,000 from the late James D. Bowdoin, Esq., and 
five townships of land from the state. It also receives 
$3000 annually from the latter. From 130 to 150 stu- 
dents are yearly educated at this institution. 

Bath, 7 miles farther, is a port of entry, on the west 
side of the Kennebec river, 15 miles from its mouth. 
The river is here a mile wide, and the town is built on an 
acclivity for a mile and a half in extent, and assumes a 
very handsome appearance from the water. It is a place 
of extensive business, and contains two banks, an acade- 
my, 5 churches, and a population of nearly 5000 inhabi- 
tants. 

WiscAssET, 15 miles, is a port of entry, located on the 
west side of Sheepscot river, with an excellent harbor. 
The place contains a court house, jail, bank, insurance 
office, and some other public buildings, and a population 
of about 2500. 

Waldoboro', 18 miles, is a port of entry, and a place 
of considerable trade, containing a population of about 
3000 inhabitants. 



WARREN — CASTINK. 355* 

Warren, 9 miles, is located on St. George's river,, 
which is navigable to this place for sloops. 

Thomaston, 4 miles, is a place of extr;nsive businessy 
situated on the west side of Penobscot bay, and on St.. 
George's river, 12, miles from its mouth. The state prison 
of Maine is at this place, and is in a lot of 10 acres, en- 
closed by a solid wall, within which is an extensive quar- 
ry of hmestone. There are also in the vicinity of the 
town inexhaustible quarries of lime and marble, of which 
large quantities are annually exported- The village con- 
tains a bank, and a population of about 3000 inhabitants. 
About a mile from the village is the ancient residence of 
the late Gen. Knox, now in a state of decay. 

Camden, 11 miles, and Lincolnville, 7 miles farther,, 
are both situated on the west side of the Penobscot bay. 

Belfast, 11 miles from Lincolnville, is on the same 
side of the bay, and is a flourishing village. 

Castine, 9 miles, is situated on a promontoij, near the- 
head of the east sids of Penobscot bay, with a beautiful 
harbor stretching out before the town. Castine can be 
easily defended from assault ; as the narrowness of the 
isthmus whicli connects it with the main land could be 
insulated with comparatively a small expense ; added to 
which, strong batteries would enable it to resist any force 
which would probably be brought against it- This would 
be the more important in time of war, as an enemy in 
possession of the place would have command of the in- 
termediate country from Penobscot to St. Croix. The 
place was taken during the last war, and the British en- 
trenchments on a hill above the town, are still visible. 



356 MACHIAS — ROBINSTOWN. 

Blue Hill, Elsworth, Franklin, Cherryfield and Colum- 
bia are successively passed in travelling from Castine to 

Machias, a port of entry, and capital of Washington 
county, Me. The town conta.ns two villages — one situ- 
atcd at the falls of the cast branch vi the Machias river, 
and the other at the falls of the west branch of the same 
stream. Between the two villages, a bridge is erected 
across Middle river, which, with the causeway, is 1900 
feet lo: g. Machias contains a court house, jail, four 
churches, a very flourishing academy, and is a thriving 
place. 

Eastport is a port of entry on Moose island, in Pas- 
samaquoddy bay. The island is 4 miles long, with a 
bold shore, the tide ordinarily rising here 25 feet. The 
town is principally built on the southern part of the is- 
land, and contains a bank, 4 churches, and about 3000 
inhabitants. There are also fortifications in the vicinity, 
which were constructed during the last war. The view 
from the heights on the island is very extensive and ro- 
mantic, takiiig in the bay with its numerous islands and 
the adjacent coast. Between Eastport and the town of 
Perry, on the main land, a bridge has been constructed 
rising of 1200 feet long. A line of steam boats is estab- 
lished between this place and Boston, touching at Port- 
land, so that travellers can take either a water or a land 
route to that city. 

RoBiN'STOvvN, 13 miles north-west of Eastport, located 
at the mouth of the St. Croix river at its entrance into 
the Fassamaquoddy bay, is on the boundary line between 
the United States and the British Province of New-Bruns- 
wick, and is opposite St. Andrews. 



PORTLAND TO aUEBEC. 



351 



FROM PORTLA^^D TO QUEBEC 258 niilcs. 

The road from Portland to Quebec is principally over 
the route pursued by Gen. Arnold and his troops in 1775, 
previous to the assault of that place by Gen. Montgom- 
ery. The intermediate distances are as follow : 



Miles. 

North Yarmouth, . 12 

Frccport, 6 18 

Brunswick, 9 27 

Bowdoinliam, .... 13 40 

Gardner, 11 51 

Hallowcll, 4 55 

Au'j-usta, 3 58 

Siancy 12 70 

Waterville, 5 75 



Miles, 
Norrigdcwork, .... 16 91 

Solon 20 111 

Moscow, 13 124 

Ferry over Kene- 

bcc river, 17 141 

Momunet, 48 1^9 

St. Joseph, 54 213 

St. Henrv, 28 271 

Quebec,.' 12 283 



North Yarmouth, Freeport, Brunsv.'ick and Bath have 
already been noticed. 

Hallowell, 55 miles from Portland, is a very flour- 
ishing village, on the Kennebec river, at the head of 
tide water. It contains an academy, a bank, three 
churches, between 2 and 300 dwelling houses, some of 
which are very elegant, and about 3000 inhabitants. 
Granite is here obtained, which is considered equal to any 
ever discovered in the Union.^ Vessels of 150 tons bur- 
then ascend the river as far as this place. 

Augusta, 3 miles, is the seat of government of the 
state, and is located on both sides of the Kennebec riv- 
er, over which is a substantial bridge. A part of the vil- 
lage is on a very elevated plain above the river, and a 
part of it on its banks. Many of the dwellings exhibit 
much taste and elegance in their structure, and the 



-358 WATERVIiLE — NORRIDGEWORK. 

whole appearance of the place is peculiarly inviting and 
pleasant. 

The State House, located here, is an ornament 
to the town, and highly creditable to the munificence 
of the state. 

Sidney, 12 miles farther, is a pleasant village on the 
Kennebec river. 

Waterville, 5 miles, on the same river, is a place of 
■considerable magnitude, containing a bank. At Tecon- 
ick Falls in this town, at the head of boat navigation, 
there are several manufactories, and a flourishing village 
is springing up. Walerville College, under the direction 
of the Baptist denomination, is located in this tov/n. It 
was commenced in 1818, and educates between 50 and 
€0 students annually for the ministry. 

NoRRiBGEWoRK, 16 milcs, is situated on both banks of 
the Kennebec river. It is the capital of Somerset coun- 
ty, and contains a court house and jail. The village is 
centrally located for tlie trade of a fertile back country, 
and is a flourishing place, containing a population of about 
2000 inhabitants. 

The route to Quebec continues through a less popu. 
lous country for about 50 miles ; when, for the remaining 
^distance, it passes through extensive forests, with an oc- 
casional settlement only. These forests, however, are 
giving way to the arts of husbandry, and in a few years 
will doubtless be succeeded by a succession of settlements 
and cultivated farms. 



BOSTON TO PROVIDENCE. 359 

FROM BOSTO^" TO PROVIDENCE, R. I. — 40 ITlileS. 

The route is over the Boston and Providence Rail 
Road, wliich was begun in 1831, and completed in 1835. 
The road commences in Boston, near the south-west 
corner of the common, and crossing the Boston and Wor- 
cester rail road, it proceeds in a south-westerly direction 
through Roxbury, Canton, Sharon, Mansfield and Attle- 
borough. The greatest elevation is at Sharon, 23 miles 
from Boston, the ascent in reaching which, for a distance 
of five miles, is at the rate of 37 feet per mile. The de- 
scent from this ridge towards Providence averages from 
10 to 12 feet per mile. Between Roxbury and Canton a 
branch, two miles long, has been constructed to the vil- 
lage of Dedham ;* and from Mansfield, a branch, eleven 
miles long, has also been constructed to the village of 
Taunton. The main road and branches are each laid 
with a single track, but of the most permanent materials. 
The viaduct at Canton is a work of magnitude, and as an 
object of curiosity, is one of the most interesting on this 
road. It is 450 feet long and from 40 to 5^ feet above 
the natural surface, built entirely of granite, in the most 
permanent manner. 

Two trains of carriages for passengers pass daily (Sun- 



*This is a large and beautiful town, containing a court 
house, jail, 6 churches and between 2 and 3JU0 inhabi- 
tants. CJiarles and Ncponsct rivers run through the 
place and afford numerous sites for mills and mannfac- 
turing establishmenis. Silk is reeled and throwstcd here 
on a small scale — the first experiment of throwsting in 
the U. S. 

ff2 



360 PROVIDENCE. 

days excepted) from and to Boston and Stonington, Conn, 
via Provideiice, connecting with the steamboats running 
between New- York and the two latter places — so that 
the time employed in a journey from Boston to New-York 
does not generally exceed 12 or 14 hours. 

PROVIDENCE 

Is situated at the head of tide waters on Narraganset 
bay, just above the mouth of the Seekonk river, and about 
33 or 34 miles from the sea. The tov/n is built on both 
sides of the river which bears its name, on the declivity 
of a hill that commands an extensive view of the surroun- 
ding country, and of the beautiful bay that lies below. 
It received a charter of incorporation and became a city 
in 1832. Its situation is not favorable to extensive com- 
merce. Its wealth and enterprise are on this account 
principally devoted to manufactures, for which the nu- 
merous streams in its neighborhood afford abundant fa. 
cilities. It contains a number of attractive public build- 
ings — among which deserve to be mentioned, a court 
house, market, an arcade, a hotel near the depot of the 
Boston and Providence rail road, and especially several 
of the houses for public worship, which are built with un- 
usual taste and elegance. It is also well supplied with 
institutions of charity and learning. In addition to near- 
ly 20 houses of public \vorship, it has an asylum for the 
poor, a number of academies and a college. For the 
healthiness of its situation and the morals of its people, 
Providence stands among the first cities in the Union. 
Its population is about 18,000. 



PROVIDENCE. 361 

BrotDn University, established in this citv, was incor- 
porated in 1764, and has always held a respectable rank 
among the colleges of New-England. Since 1827 the 
Ilcv. Francis Wayland, D. D. has been its President. 
Under the able and well sustained administration of this 
distinguished gentleman, its character has been very 
much elevated, and ils means of instruction greatly en- 
larged. A full and elegant philosophical apparatus was 
a fe'v years since present'jJ to the institution by a late 
munificent merchant of Providence, and still more re- 
cently a fund of 25,000 dollars has been raised for the in- 
crease of its library. The college edifices are situated on 
a commanding eminence, a little to the east of the city, 
in the midst of a spacious inclosure, adorned with trees 
and approached through a beautiful street, lined on either 
side by over-haroing elms. The buildings are three in 
number — University Hall, Hope College and Manning 
Hall. The latter is a beautiful model of chaste and sim- 
pie architecture. It is devoted to the purposes of a chap- 
el and library. The faculty consists of 6 professors be- 
sides the president, who is also professor of moral and in- 
tellectual philosophy, 3 tutors, and an instructor in mod- 
ern languages. The number of its students is not far 
from 200. 

About half a mile north-east of the university is a large 
building called the Quaker College. It was built by the 
society of Friends, and is occupied as a boarding school 
for that denomination. The building, which is of plain 
brick, and the spacious grounds around it, are made at- 
tractive by the appearance of neatness and good order 
that pervades them. A little to the south of this and of 



362 BLACKSTONE CANA.L. 

corresponding dimensions, but richer architecture, stands 
the Dexter Asylum, a noble edifice, erected by the town 
from the avails of a legacy left by a late munificent citi. 
zen, whose name it bears. 

The city abounds with the most delightful private 
residences. The new town on the west side of the river, 
has more the appearance of a flourishing commercial city 
than the old. It also contains many spacious dwellings, 
which impart to it an air of superiority. The Hill, or 
East Providence, as it is called, is occupied by gentle, 
men's private mansions, or country seats, all advantage, 
ously located, with fine court yards in front, thickly plan- 
ted with shrubbery, while highly cultivated and beautiful 
gardens adorn the rear, and add immeasurably to their 
comfort. The charming residence of Messrs. Brown, 
Ives and Governor Fenner are entitled to particular no- 
tice. It was on the present domains of Governor Fen- 
ner that Roger Williams, the founder of Providence, first 
planted himself. 

The Blackstoxe Canal terminates at this place. It 
commences in the Blackstone river at Worcester, Mass. 
45 miles distant, and pursues the valley of the river to 
Woonsokett falls, near the Massachusetts line ; whence 
there is an excavation to Providence. 

The Stonington and Providence Rail Road, before 
noticed, also terminates at this place. It is about 49 
miles loner. 





Miles. 


Southport, 


5 14a 


Oldwell, 


8 151 


Stamford, 


8 15i> 


West Grcenwi li, . 


8 167 


Ncw-Rochelle, , .. 


11 178 


Frog's Point, .... 


8 186 


Flushing Bay, . . . . 


3 189 


Hurl-Gate, 


4 193 


New-York, 


8 2U1 



?KOVrDENCE TO NEW-TORE. 36S^ 



FROM PROVIDENCE TO NEW-YORK. 

By Steamboat, 211 miles. 

The following are intermediate distances : 

Miles. 

Pawtuxet, 5 

Mount Hope, .... 8 13 

Bristol, ,. 2 15 

Newport, 10 25 

Point Judith, 14 39 

N. London Harbor, 35 74 

Connecticut river,. 14 88 

Falkner's Island, . 19 107 

N. Haven Harbor, 12 119 

Black Rock, ..... 19 138 

Pawtuxet, 5 miles from Providence, is located at the 
mouth of the Pawtuxet river, and is a flourishing village 
of considerable trade. 

Mount Hope, 8 miles farther, is on the west shore of 
Mount Hope Bay. It is of a conical form, with an acute 
and nearly pointed apex, and rises about 390 feet above 
the water's edge. It is more particularly celebrated as 
the former residence of King Philip, a chief of the Nar- 
raganset tribe of Indians, possessed of uncommon intel- 
lect and military prowess. He was a great foe to the 
whites ; and after many sanguinary conflicts, was finally 
killed near this place by a renegado Indian of his own 
nation. 

Bristol, 2 miles farther, is a pleasant town, with a 
population of about 1500 inhabitants. The village is lo- 
cated on the east shore of the Narraganset bay, affording 
an excellent harbor for vessels of the largest dimensions. 
About two miles from the ferry there is an extensive 



364 BRISTOL— NEWPORT. 

mine of anthracite coal, from which very considerable 
quantities are annually taken. 

After leaving Bristol, the boat successively passes Pa- 
tience and Prudence Islands, and reaches 

Newport in a distance of 8 miles from the latter. It 
is a large town, with an extcinsivc harbor, which is defen- 
ded by Forts Adams and Dumplings at its entrance, and 
by Fort Wolcott on Goit Island, opposite the town. 
There is also a small battery a mile above the town, 
called Fort Green. The village is about a xn-lc in 
length, and rises in a gentle acclivity from the harbor, 
giving it a fine appearance when approached from the 
water. It contains a state house, theatre, five banks, 
twelve churches, several manufactories, and a population 
of about 8000. 

Nevvport was possessed by the British for a considera- 
ble time during the revolutionary war. In 1778, under 
an expectation of aid from the French fleet, which had 
sailed into the harbor, an American force, of about 
10,000 strong, connnandcd by Gen. SulHvan, and 
aided by Gen. Lafayette, made preparations for at- 
tacking the place. On the approach of the Americans, 
the Br'lish abandoned their outposts and retreated 
to their works within the town. These posts were im- 
mediately possessed by the Americans ; and the most 
flattering prospects existed, that the allied forces would 
be enabled to capture the entire British army. But the 
French admiral took offence at some of the movements 
of Gen. Si^livan, and refused a co-operation. While an 
attempt at reconciliation was going forward, a British 
fleet suddenly appeared off Newport, which induced the 



NEWPORT — POINT JUDITH, 



365- 



French admiral, as a precautionary measure, to sail out 
of the harbor. A severe storm coming on, prevented a 
naval engagement ; and both fleets, being left in a shat- 
tered condition at the close of the tempest, retired— the 
British to New- York, and the French to Newport. Dur- 
ing this time, Gen. Sullivaii had laid siege to the town ; 
and though interrupted by the storm, in which his army 
suffered considerably, he had succeeded in annoying the 
enemy and keeping him within the lines of the village. 
On the return of the French fleet, another effort was 
made to induce the admiral to co-operate with the Ameri- 
cans ; but his ships had received so much injury in the 
gale, that he considered it necessary to repair to Boston,, 
pursuant to previous instructions from his government. 
Under these circumstances, Sullivan determined on rais- 
ing the seige. A retreat was effected in the night ; but 
on its being discovered the next morning, the Americans 
were pursued by the British to Quaker Ilili, v/hcre a 
sharp contest ensued, which resulted in the lo-s of be- 
tween 2 and 300 of each army. Sullivan aucrwards re- 
treated to Massachusetts. 

From its elegant and healthy situation, its proximity to 
the ocean, and the salubrity of its climate, Newport, for 
several years, has been a place of considerable resort in 
the summer months for invalids and parties of pleasure. 

Point Judith, 14 miles from Newport, a cape on the 
west side of the Narraganset bay, is generally passed 
with less pleasure than any other part of the route. The 
boat here frequently encounters the full swell of the ocean 
wave, subjecting passengers to sea-sickness and its kin» 



^^6 PROVIDENCE TO NEW-YORK. 

dred evils; and to avoid tirs, the inland route, by the 
way of New-London, is generally preferred. 

Watch Hill Light House is passed in going 9 miles 
farther; whence to New-London Harbor is 26 miles. 
This is 4 miles from the city, noticed at p. 368. The mouth 
of the Connecticut river is 14 miles farther ; whence to 
the New-Haven harbor, 4 miles from the city (see p. 379) 
is 31 miles. 

Black Rock, a small village, is 19 miles farther; 
whence to Southport, is 5 miles ; thence to Oldwell, 8 ; 
thence to Stamford, 8 ; thence to West Greenwich, 8 ; 
thence to New Rochelle, 11 ; thence to Frog's Point, 8 ; 
thence to Flushing Bay, 3 ; thence to Hurl-Gate, (see p! 
98,) 4 ; thence to New- York, (see pp.86 to 100) 8 miles. 

FROM PROVIDENCE TO JVEW-YORK. 

By rail rond and steamboat — 188 miles. 

INTERMEDIATE DISTANCES. 

By rail road. j^^^^^ 

Miles Thence to New. 

Stonington, 49 York, as in ta. 

By steamboat. ble of distan- 

N. London Harbor 12 61 ces, p. 363,.... 127 188 

The rail-road mentioned at p. 360, is taken to 

Stonington, 49 miles. The village is incorporated ; 

contains a United States arsenal, several factories, a bank, 

an academy, 4 churches, and a population of about 4000. 

It has a good harbor, and is a place of considerable trade. 

The settlement of the place commenced as early as 

1649. It had previously been a part of the territory of 

the Pequots, a powerful and warlike tribe of Indians. 

The early Enghsh settlers, in difFerent parts of Connecti- 



8T0NINGT0N. 367 

cut, had been frequently annoyed by this tribe ; and, in 
1637, it became necessary to take efficient steps for their 
expulsion. An expedition was entrusted to Capt. Mason, 
who, with about 90 colonists and 200 Mohegan and Nar- 
raganset Indians, encamped on the night of the 26th of 
May, at a place call', d Porter's rocks, a short distance 
from the present village of Stonington, and about three 
miles from one of the principal forts of the Pequots, 
which was situated on the summit of a hill. Two hours 
before day, the little army was in motion ; and on ap. 
proaching the fort, it was found that the enemy, about 
700 strong, were in a profound sleep, without their usual 
watch, having spent a portion of the previous night in 
singing, dancing, insulting the Enghsh, &.C., because 
their ships had passed by the harbor a few days previous. 
On a close approximation of Mason's men, a dog within 
the fort commenced barking, which awakened one of the 
Pequots ; who, perceiving the approach of the assailants, 
aroused his comrades from their slumbers. Mason im- 
mediately advanced, and through the apertures of the 
palisades poured in a fire, and then rushed in through a 
part of the fort slightly barricaded. Notwithstanding 
their confusion, the Pequots defended themselves with 
bravery ; but having but few other weapons than bows 
and anows, they were unable to withstand the assailants, 
who cut them down without mercy with their swords and 
bayonets. To render the victory complete. Mason or- 
dered their wigmans to be fired. The blaze soon spread 
in all directions, compelling the besieged to ascend the 
palisades ; from whence more than one hundred were 
shot down by the assailants who had then surrounded the 

GG 



368 STONINGTON TO NEW-LONDON. 

fort. Others, attempting to break through the lines of 
the troops, were either shot or cut down, and several per- 
ished in tlie flames. The scene continued about an hour, 
when it was found that seventy wigwams had been de- 
stroycd, and that the ground was strewed with the bodies 
of between five and six hundred of the slain. Mason's 
loss was only two men killed and sixteen wounded. 

In August, 1814, a bombardment of Stonington took 
place from a British 74, a frigate, a sloop of war and an 
armed brig ; but with the aid of two 18 pounders and 
a four pounder, the inhabitants defended the place, pre- 
vented the landing of troops from barges, and finally 
.compelled the enemy to haul off, with his brig considera- 
bly shattered. 

For a notice of the residue of the route, see p. 366. 

FROM STONINGTON TO NEW-LONDON. 

12 miles. 
The route is by stage, in a westerly direction, over a 
pleasant and handsomely cultivated country. 

New-Lo\do.\, located on the west bank of Thames 
river, within 3 miles of its mouth, is a city and port of en- 
try. It has the best harbor in Connecticut, and is de- 
fended by Forts Trumbull and Griswold. It contains a 
court house, two banks, six churches, and a population of 
about 4.')00 inhabitants. Many of the houses on the 
heights, back of the town, and a few in the city, are hand- 
some ; but the general appearance of the place is uninter- 
esting. 

New-London, like Stonington, was once within the 
territory of the Pequot Indians, and was settled at the 



NEW-LONDON. 369 

same time. About 4 miles east of the city, on what is 
called Fort Hill, this nation had their strongest fortress. 
But slight remains of it, however, are now to be seen. 

In September, 1781, after the treason of Arnold, an ex- 
pedition was entrusted to his care against New-London. 
A strong detachment landed on both sides of the harbor 
at the mouth of the river. Arnold, who commanded in 
person the troops which landed on the west side, immedi- 
ately advanced against Fort Trumbull, an adjoining re- 
doubt, and New-London. These posts being untenable, 
were abandoned on his approach. Col. Eyerc, who com- 
manded the detachment which landed on the eastern side, 
proceeded to storm Fort Griswold, situate on Groton 
HUl. It was occupied by a garrison of 160 men, com- 
manded by Col. Lcdyavd, a part of whom had just evacu- 
ated the works on the opposite side of the river. Led- 
yard defended the fort until the British succeeded in en- 
tering the embrasures with charged bayonets. Further 
resistance being useless, Ledyard surrendered his sword 
to the British colonel ; who, in defiance of every rule of 
civilized warfare, plunged it into the bosom of the con- 
quered officer, and continued the carnage until the great- 
er part of the garrison was destroyed. Eyere, however, 
lost his own life in the affair, and 200 of his men were 
either killed or wounded. New-London was, at the same 
time, set on fire by the direction of Arnold, and most of 
its buildings and all the public stores deposited in the 
place consumed in the conflagration. 

Forts Griswold and Trumbull are still in tolerable pre- 
servation ; and were garrisoned by the government dur- 
ing the late war with Great Britain. 



370 NEW-LONDON TO NORWICH. 

A steam boat leaves Norwich and New-London daily 
for New- York, and runs in conjunction with the Nor- 
wich and Worcester rail road, noticed at p. 372. 

Stages also leave New London at 8 A. M. and arrive 
at Hartford at 5 P. M. passing through Waterville, 
Montville, Salem, Colchester, Hebron, Marlborough, 
Glastenbury and East Hartford. Distance 47 miles — 
fare ^2. This is the most direct route ; but the traveller 
will find it interesting to take a trip up the Thames to 
Norwich ; whence a conveyance may be had to Hartford. 
as noticed hereafter. 

FROM NEW-LONDON TO NORWICH, 

By steamhoaf — 14 miles. 
Previous to the settlement of New-London, in 1648, 
the Thames was called the Pequot river ; but at that pe- 
riod it received its present name. It rises in the Massa- 
paeug pond in Union, 3. miles N. E, of Hartford, pasrss 
into Massachusetts, re-enters Connecticut, and pursues 
a southerly course till it falls into Long Island Sound. 
It is navigable for large vessels no farther than Norwich. 
During the late war, while New-London was blockaded, 
the U. S. ships Macedonian, United States and Hornet, 
were moored in a cove above Massapeaug Point, and a 
small battery erected for their protection. 

MoHEGAN is on the west bank of the Thames, four 
miles south of Norwich, and is the residence of about 300 
Mohegan Indians, the only remnant of that once power- 
ful tribe, who formerly ov/ned this section of country. 
On Hortofi's Hill, not far from this place, the lines of an 
old Indian fort can still be traced. 



NORWICH. 371 

Trading Cove, about 1 mile farther, is a bay extend- 
ing a short distance into what was once the Indian coun- 
try, and derived its name from the traffic which was here 
carried on between the colonists and the Mohegans. 
The residence of Uncas, their sachem, and early friend 
of the whites, was near this cove, now the centre of the 
Indian reservation. 

NORWICH 

Is an incorporated city. It contains three compact 
settlements; of which Chelsea Landing, situate at the 
point of land between the Shetucket and Yantic rivers, 
is the principal. Its location is peculiarly romantic ; and 
it is a place of much enterprise and business. What is 
called the Town is 2 miles northwest of Chelsea, contain- 
ing the court house and some other public buildings ; 
and a third settlement is Bean Hill, in the western part 
of Norwich. The city contains a bank, 4 or 5 churches, 
and several manufacturing establishments. The Yantic 
Falls, i mile from Chelsea, are handsome, and afford fa- 
cilities for mills and manufactories. From a rock 70 or 
80 feet in height, which overhangs the stream, tradition 
says a number of Narragansets once precipitated them- 
selves when pursued by the Mohegans, 

Settlements were commenced at Norwich as early as 
1660. A part of the town was first conveyed to Thomas 
Leffingwell, a colonial militia officer, by the sachem Un- 
cas, in consideration of services rendered him in a war 
with a neighboring tribe. 

On an elevated bank north of what is called the Cove, 
and near the Yantic falls, is the burying ground of the 
gg2 



372 NORWICH TO HARTFORD. 

royal family of the Mohegans, commonly called " the 
burying ground of the Uncases." Many of their graves 
are still designated by coarse stones, on some of which 
are English inscriptions. Uncas was buried here and 
many of his descendants ; but his family is now nearly or 
quite extinct. 

The Plain near the burying ground was the summer 
residence of the Mohegans, and is a most delightful spot. 

The Norwich and AVorcester Rail Road commen- 
ces at Norwich and extends to Worcester, Mass. distant 
59 miles, (see p. 297,) affording to the inhabitants on 
the line a rapid and easy communication by steam with 
Boston or New-York. The traveller, indeed, who is de- 
sirous of seeing the interior of Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut, as well as the most important towns in either 
state, may, in a few hours reach Worcester ; from which 
point, if he has already visited Boston, he may proceed by 
rail road to Springfield on the Connecticut river, noticed 
at p. 299 ; thence proceed to Hartford by steamboat ; 
thence to New-Haven by rail road ; and thence to New- 
York by steamboat. Pursuing, however, the systematic 
route contemplated in these pages, we next subjoin that 

FROM NORWICH TO HARTFORD. 

Stages leave Norwich in the morning, and arrive at 
Hartford in the afternoon. Distance, 39 miles — fare 
^2,50. The intermediate distances and places are as 
follow : 



Miles. 

Bozrah, 5 

Lebanon, 4 9 

Coventry, 12 21 



Miles. 

Bolton, 4 25 

East Hartford, 13 38 

Hartford, 1 39 



HARTFORD. 373 

East Hartford is located on the east bank of the 
Connecticut river, directly opposite Hartford, with which 
it is connected by an elegant bridge, which, including the 
causeway, is nearly a mile long. 

HARTFORD. 

A settlement was commenced by the English at this 
place in 1634. The Dutch, from New-Netherlands, had 
previously established a trading house and a port at the 
place, for the purpose of carrying on a commerce with 
the Indians, and were disposed to prevent the English 
from participating in the traffic. But finding that this 
could not be effected, without a bloody contest, they 
abandoned the design. 

The charter which was originally granted to the col- 
onists of Connecticut, having been demanded by the 
English monarch in 1686, through the medium of an 
agent, it was regularly surrendered by the colonial legis- 
lature. This took place in an evening ; and while it re- 
mained on a table in a room where an agent and several 
British officers had assembled, the windows being open, 
on a preconcerted signal, the candles were extinguished 
by persons in the street, and the charter seized by a citi- 
zen in the room, and conveyed to a tree ; in the cavity of 
which it remained for several years. This tree is still 
standing ; and is known by the name of the Charter Oak. 
It is located in the lower part of the town, in the street 
running east from the south church, and is directly in 
front of the ancient mansion of the Wyllis family. The 
charter is still preserved in the office of the secretary of 
state. 



374 HARTFORD. 

Hartford is located on the west bank of the Connectl- 
cut river, at the head of sloop navigation, and 50 miles 
from its rnouth. The city is handsomely laid out, and 1 
contains a number of elegant buildings and private resi- 
dences. Among its public buildings, are a state house, 
arsenal, 5 banks, an academy, a female seminary, besides 
several select schools of an academical character, all of 
which are well conducted ; a college, an asylum for the 
deaf and dumb, a retreat for the insane, and 12 churches. 
It also contains a jail, on the modern penitentiary system, , 
which is already considered a model and may challenge ; 
coinparison with any in the United States. The popula- • 
lion of the city is about 12,000. 

Washington College is in Main street, in the south part 
of the city. It consists of two edifices ; one of which is 
150 feet long and 4 stories high, and contains the rooms ■> 
of Ihe students. In the other is the chapel, recitation i 
rooms and library. It is in a prosperous condition. 

The Deaf and Dumb Asylum is on Lord's Hill, one ; 
mile wc;^t of the city ; and was the first institution of the 
kind estabiirhed in the United States. The permanent 
fund of the institution, including a donation of land by 
congress, amounts to ^215,539, of which sum $80,000 i 
are available. The number of pupils is generally about 
70, many of whom are supported by public and private 
charities. 

The Exchange Buildings, on the corner of Main and 
State streets, are deserving of notice as a specimen of 
good taste, and as ornamental to the city. 

The City Hall, at the corner of Temple and Market 
streets, just east of Main street, is a substantial and con- 



HARTFORD. 375 

vcuient structure, and creditable to the munificence of 
llie inhabitants. It contains the Centre Market. 

The New Episcopal Church and the Orphan Asylum, 
in Washington street, occupy a prominent place. The 
latter is delightfully situated on a commanding eminence, 
and ranks in spaciousness, beauty and excellent manage- 
ment, with the most favored establishments of the kind 
in other cities. The Episcopal Church is a monument of 
Lberal public spirit guided by good taste, and is surpassed 
in design and execution by fev/, if any similar buildings in 
our country. 

The Hospital for the Insane, is a stone building, 150 
feet long and 50 v/ide, 4 stories high, with wings of 3 
stories. It is located a little south of the city. 

Hartford has undergone a sur|)rising change within a 
few years. Its streets have been greatly improved ; many 
of its old buildings have given place to new and elegant 
dwellings, and the whole appearance of the city exhibits 
an unusual degree of enterprise and prosperity. 

STEAMBOATS. 

A steamboat leaves Hartford for New- York daily, 
(Sundays excepted,) at 2 P. M. reaching New- York ear- 
ly the next morning ; and leaves New- York daily at 4 
P. M. reaching Hartford tlie next morning before break- 
fast—fare ^a. 

Steamboats also pass daily between Hartford and 
Spnngfield, on the Connecticut river, distant 28 miles 
(noticed hereafter.) 



376 HARTFORD. 



STAGES. 

To Boston. — Stages leave daily for Boston, passing 
through Ellington, Tolland, Willington, Ashford, Thomp- 
son, Douglass, Mendon, Medway, Dover and Brooklyne. 
Distance 110 miles. 

To Litchfield Ct., and Poughkeepsie, N. Y. — A stage 
leaves Hartford daily (Sundays excepted) at 11 A. M. 
and arrives at Litchfield the same afternoon, and Pough- 
keepsie the next day. 

To Hanover, N. H. (up Connecticut river.) — A stage 
leaves Hartford daily, (except Sundays) arrives at Brat- 
tleborough, Vt., the first day, and Hanover, N. H., the 
second — passing through East Windsor, Ct., Springfield, 
Northampton, Deerfield and Greenfield, Mass., Brattle, 
borough and Westminister, Vt., W^alpoleand Charlestown, 
N. H., Windsor and Hartford, Vt., to Hanover. [This 
line intersects the rail road line from Springfield to Bos- 
ton, and the daily stage for Saratoga Springs at Charles- 
town.] Distance from Hartford to Hanover, 152 miles — 
fare $7,25. 

To New-London. — A stage leaves Hartford at 7 A. M. 
and reaches New-London at 2 P. M. — Distance 47 miles — 
fare ^2. 

To Albany. — A stage leaves Hartford daily (Sundays 
excepted) at 10 P. M. and arrives at Albany the next af- 
ternoon. — Distance 96 miles — fare ^5. 



HARTFORD TO MIDDLETOWN. 377 

FROM HARTFORD TO MIDDLETOWN — 15mileS. 

The route is by stage through Wethersfield and Rocky 
„ Hill. 

I Wethersfield is located on the west bank of the 
Connecticut river, 4 miles below Hartford. The soil, 
ri which is of the finest order, is principally devoted to the 
culture of onions ; of which large quantities are exported 
annually. The labor is principally performed by women 
and children. The penitentiary of the state is at this 
' place. 

Rocky Hill, 3 miles ; a parish in the town of Wcth- 
[j ersfield, containing a lofty eminence, from which a rich 
and variegated prospect of the surrounding countrj^ is en- 
joyed. Six miles farther is a village, called Middletown 
Upper Houses ; from which place to the city of Middle- 
town is 2 miles. 

MIDDLETOWN 
Is a port of entry, and is handsomely located on the 
west bank of the Connecticut river, 31 miles from its 
I mouth. Among its public buildings are a court house, 
jail, alms-house, 2 banks, 7 churches and a university sus- 
tained by the Methodists. There are also several exten- 
sive manufactories of rifles, swords, buttons, ivory combs, 
v;oollen and cotton goods, &c. The population of the 
city is about SOOO. 

The V/csleyan University, founded in 1831, is an insti- 
tution of great promise, under the patronage of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church. Its buildings are eligibly situa- 
ted, on a hill adjacent to the city, and command a fine 
view of the surrounding country. It possesses a valua- 



378 HARTFORD TO NEW-HAVEN. 

ble library, cabinet of minerals, chemical and philosophical 
apparatus, &c. 

On the east bank of the Connecticut, opposite to Mid. 
dlelown, are several quarries of free stone, used for build- 
ing. Immediately below the city, the river turns abruptly 
to the south-east ; and passes between two lofty hills, 
forming what arc called the Narrows. Within these 
Narrows, on the south bank of the river, is a lead mine, 
which was used during the revolutionary war. It can 
be approached only in boats or by means of a foot path.* 

FROM HARTFORD TO NEW-HAVEN 34 llliles. 

The route is by rail road as follovrs : 



Miles. 

Newington, 4 

Worthington, .... 7 11 
Meriden, 6 17 



Miles. 

Wallingford, 4 21 

North-Haven, 6 27 

New-Haven, 7 34 



The villages in the respective towns through which 
the I'oad passes being on elevated ground, while the val. 
leys and low grounds have necessarily been selected for 
the site of the road, no important settlements are seen 
until reaching 

*Cor tinning a course down the river, the steamboat 
successively passes Middle Haddam, Haddam, East 
Haddam, Essex or Pettipaug, and Saybrook, where the 
river enters Long Island Sound. The shores arc gencr- 
ally bold and rocky, and present but few objects of inter- 
est. Saybrouk was the first town settled on the river ; 
at which time (1635) a small fort was erected at the 
place. The town was originally granted to Lord Say 
and Seal, Lord Brook and others, and derived its name 
from these proprietors, Ya;e college was located here for 
a time, and afterwards removed to New-Haven. 



HEW-HAVEN. 379 



NEW-HAVEN. 

This city, which is usually pronounced by travellers to 
be one of the handsomest towns in the Union, is located 
around a harbor which sets up about 4 miles from Long 
Island Sound, and is the semi-capital of the state. It is 
built on a large plain, encircled on all sides except those 
occupied by the water, by hills and lofty mountains, and 
is divided into two parts, called the old and new town- 
ships, in each of which is an open square. The houses 
are generally neat, and some arc very elegant. To each 
dwelling there is generally attached a garden, and fre- 
quently a beautiful yard in front. Added to which sev- 
eral of the streets are adorned with lofty trees, giving the 
whole a rural and most delightful appearance. Among 
the public buildings arc a state house, the college edifices, 

; 6 churches, a court house, jail, 2 banks, a custom house 
and 3 or 4 academies. The population is between 12 
and 14,000. 

The Public Square or Green, near the centre of the 
city, is an elegant spot, containing several acres, and is 
surrounded by stately elms. In the centre are three 
churches and the state house ; on the west side, the col- 
lege buildings ; and on the east side, fronting the state 
house, the Tontine Coffee House. 

Yale College was founded in 1701, and was named af- 
ter its early benefactor, Elihu Yale, governor of the East 
India Company. It was originally located at Killing. 

.worth; afterwards removed to Saybrook, {see p. 378;) 
and thence, in 1717, to New-Haven. The faculty is 
composed of a president, 10 professors, a librarian and 8 

HH 



380 NEW- HAVEN. 

tutors. The library consists of about 10,000 volumes; 
and the literary societies among the students have libra- 
ries amounting, collectively, to 5000 more. The cabinet 
of minerals is very extensive, and by far the most valua^ 
ble of any in the Union. The college buildings consist 
of four ^spacious edifices, each 4 stories high, 104 feet 
long and 40 wide, and each containing 32 rooms for stu- 
dents; two chapels, one containing a philosophical cham- 
ber ; a Lyceum, containing the library and recitation 
rooms ; and a handsome dining hall in the rear of the 
other buildings. Seven of these buildings stand in a line 
fronting the green, the Lycum occupying a central posi- 
tion ; and the whole, with the charming scenery around, 
form a most enchanting and elegant landscape. The 
medical institution fronting College street is connected 
with the college, and has a valuable anatomical museum. 
The number of students at Yale is generally from 450 to 
500. 

The Burying Ground, containing several acres, is 
divided into parallelograms, which are subdivided for 
families. The ground is planted with trees, mostly wil- 
lows; and the white monuments, several of which are 
obelisks, seen through the foliage, with the taste and uni- 
formit}' every where discovered, give to the whole a most 
impressive and solemn appearance. 

The Tontine Coffee House is one of the best establish- 
ments of the kind in the U. S. It is located directly in 
front cf the stale house and college edifices, the public 
square intervening, commanding from its upper or fourth 
story a beautiful and extensive view of the city and the 
surrounding country. 



WEST ROCK — FARMINGTON CANAL. 381 

West Rock is 2 miles north-west of New-Haven. It 
is the southern extremity of the east ridge of the Green 
Mountains, and is a perpendicular bluff fronting the 
south, 400 feet in height. The village of Hotchkisstovvn 
is at its foot. The cave in which the regicide judges, 
Whalley & Goffe, secreted themselves for three or four 
years, {see p. 293,) is on the summit of tlie rock, about a 
mile north of the bluff, 'i he cave is formed by the crev- 
ices between several large rocks, apparently thrown to- 
gether by some convulsion, and is entirely above ground. 
Near the top of one of the rocks is this inscription : " Op- 
position to tyrants is obedience to God." During the 
continuance of the regicides at this place, they were fur- 
nished daily with food by a family who resided near the 
foot of the mountain. 

East Rock is 2 miles north-east of New-Haven, and is 
the southern termination of the Mount Tom range of 
mountains- It is 370 feet high, and from its top a fine 
view is had of New-Haven, its harbor, the Sound and 
Long-Island. 

The Farmington Canal, which was originally com- 
menced at the north line of the state, terminates at New- 
Haven — distance 58 miles, lockage 218 feet. This canal 
has since been extended to Northampton, Mass. between 
20 and 30 miles farther ; and a branch lias been con- 
structed from Farmington up the Farmington river, to 
New-Hartford, 15 miles. 

The towns bordering on the Sound, near New-Haven, 
are visited in the summer months by numerous invalids 
for the benefit of the sea breeze and a salubrious climate. 
Among these towns, Guilford, 15 miles east of New- 



382 BRIDGEPORT FAIRFIELD. 

Haven, is generally preferred. It has two harbors, is a 
place of considerable trade, and is constantly supplied 
with the best of oysters, lobsters and fish, taken in and 
near the harbors. 

Steamboats ply between New-Haven and New- York 
daily, and the passage is generally performed in 8 or 9 
hours. Fare $2. 

Stages leave New-Haven daily for Boston, Albany and 
New- York. Distance to Boston, 136 miles ; to Albany, 
110 miles ; to New- York, 86 miles.* 

*This route is usually performed in 12 or 14 hours, 
and the intervening places and distances are as follow ; 



Miles. 

Stratford, 13 

Bridgeport, 3 16 

Fairfield, 5 21 

Norwalk, 10 31 



Miles. 

Stamford, 1 1 42 

Greenwich, 6 48 

Harisem, 30 78 

New- York, 8 86 



Bridgeport is handsomely situated on both banks of 
the Pughquonnuck river, which here empties into the 
Bridgeport harbor, communicating with Long-Island 
Sound, 3 miles below. The village contains a population 
of between 2 and 3000, and is destined by means of a 
rail road which is now in progress to West Stockbridgc, 
Mass. {see p. 299,) to become a place of importance. 
When finished, this road will afford a winter communi- 
cation, by steam, between NeM'-York and the city of Hud. 
son, 1:8 miles below Albany; and on the completion of 
the road from West Stockbridge to Springfield, a like 
communication in the interior to Boston. 

Fairfield 5 miles from Bridgeport, is a port of entry 
on Long Island Sound, containing a court house, acade- 
my, several churches, and a population of about 2000. It 
was on a low level piece of ground, which is seen on the 
left side of the road, about a mile and a half after leaving 
the village, that the remnant of the Pequot tribe of Indi- 
ans, after the destruction of their fort by Capt. Mason at 
Mystic, {see p. 366,) were either killed or captured. The 
battle was severe and bloodv, and some rehcs of arms 



NEW-HAVEN TO LITCHFIELD. 383 



FROM NEW-HAVEN TO LITCHFIELD. 

A stage leaves New-Haven daily for Litchfield, pass- 
ing through Waterbury and Watertown — distance 38 
miles. 

Passing West Rock, {see p. 381,) and proceeding 
thence for a considerable distance in a northerly direction, 
through a beautiful valley, having on its right a lofty 
rocky barrier, with rude perpendicular precipices. Beacon 
Mountain is reached in travelhng 14 miles from New- 
Haven. This mountain is a ridge of almost naked rocks 
stretching to the southwest. " The road, which is form- 
ed in the natural gap of the mountain, here winds through 
a bold gulf or defile, so narrow, that at one place only a 
single carriage can pass at once. On both sides, the cliffs 
are lofty, particularly on the left ; and on the riglit, a 
little distance from the road, they overhang in a frightful 
manner." Beyond this gap, the road turns more to the 



used in the contest are at this day occasionally found by 
the inhabilanis. 

Nor WALK is on the Sound, and is a pleasant village, 
containing an academy and 3 churches. 

West Chester. County, which is entered in a few 
miles after leaving Greenwich, and which was " neu- 
tral ground" during the revolutionary war, was selected 
bv Mr. Cooper, the novelist, as the principal scene of his 
'•"Spy." 

At HoRSENF.cK, 33 miles from N. York, the traveller 
is shown the steep, down which Gen. Putnam descended 
on horse-back during the revolution. 

At Harl.em, 8 miles from New-York, the road passes 
near the East river, affording the traveller a view of 
HcRL Gate. [See p. 98.) 

hh2 



384 HTCIIFIELD. 

left, running along a rivulet ; and after three or four 
miles, on rising an eminence, the Naugatuck, a branch 
of the Housatonic river, is discovered. It runs through a 
deep and narrow gulf, which is seen from the road. 

Watertown, 26 miles from Neu^-Haven, is on a com- 
manding hill, and is a beautiful little village, containing 
two churches. 

Litchfield is on a handsome eminence, and is consid- 
ered one of the most pleasant villages in the state. The 
principal street extends more than a mile in length, and 
contains a collection of neat houses, adorned with gar- 
dens and court-yards. Among the public buildings are a 
court-house, ^ail, bank and two churches. 

Mount Tojn, near the south-west corner of this town, 
is 700 feet above the river at its base, and affords from its 
top an extensive prospect. 

The Great Pond in Litchfield, comprises an area of 
about 909 acres, is the largest in the state, and is a beau- 
tiful sheet of water, affording at its outlet a number of 
valuable mill sites. 

Mount Prospect, is a rocky, wood clad, elevated ridge, 
of two miles extent. From its summit an interesting and 
diversified view is presented of villages and lakes, and of 
a well cultivated, healthy country. 

From Litchfield, a stage may be taken daily, passing 
through East Goshen, Norfolk, Canaan, Sheffield, Great 
Barrington, West Stockbridge, Chatham, Nassau, Scho- 
dack and Greenbush to Albany, and reaching the latter 
place in about 24 hours. Distance 72 miles — fare $4. This 
is the most direct route, also, from Litchfield to Saratoga 



LITCHFIELD TO HARTFORD. 385 

Springs ; but, to make the tour of Ncw^England more 
complete, it is recommended to proceed from Litchfield 
to Hartford, and thence up the beautiful valley of the 
Connecticut river, which is variegated with villages and 
country seats, and presents some of the finest scenery on 
the continent. 

FROM LITCHFIELD TO HARTFORD. 

A stage may be taken at Litchfield daily, except Sun- 
days, passing through Harwinton, Burlington and Farm- 
ington, and reaching Hartford in about 7 hours. Distance 
30 miles— fare ^2. 

Harwinton is a small village, 7 miles from Litchfield, 
on the Naugatuck river. 

Burlington, 7 miles, 

Farmington, 6 miles. This is a pleasant village, loca- 
ted on the Farmington river, which, after leaving the vil- 
lage, takes a northerly course for 15 miles, where it is 
joined by the Salmon river. It then turns to the south- 
east, passing between lofty mountauis, and descends a 
cataract of 150 feet ; after which it is called the Wind- 
sor river, and joins the Connecticut 4 miles above Hart- 
ford. Farmington contains 3 churches and a population 
of between 2 and 3009. [For a notice of the Farming- 
ton canal, which passes through this place, see p. 381.] 

Hartford, 10 miles. {See p. 373.) 



386 EAST WINDSOR — SUFFIELD. 



ROUTE UP THE VALLEY OF THE CONNECTI- 
CUT RIVER. 

Steamboats run daily up the Connecticut river as far 
as Springfield, 28 miles from Hartford. In the stage 
route, on the east side of the river, the first village reach- 
cd is 

East Windsor, 8 miles from Hartford. Settlements 
were commenced at this place as well as at Hartford, in 
1633. At East Windsor Hill, one of the most delightful 
localities in the whole valley of the Connecticut, the trav- 
eller passes the handsome buildings of the East Windsor 
Theological Seminary. This institution, which has been 
recently founded, is under the presidency of the Rev. 
Doct. Tyler, assisted by several professors, and is in a 
flourishing condition. 

Enfield, 10 miles farther. A canal has been construc- 
ted around the falls at this place, of sufficient dimensions 
to receive the largest class of canal boats. Its depth va- 
ries from four to twenty feet ; the average width, at the 
surface of the water, is about seventy feet, and its length 
five and a half miles. 

SuFFiELD, 1 mile from Enfield, on the west bank of the 
river, is a beautiful town. The village, which is on an 
eminence about a mile west of the river road, is compos, 
ed principally of one street, half a mile in extent. The 
houses, with their handsome gardens and yards, present 
a picturesque and elegant appearance. A sulphur spring, 
a mile or two southwest of the village, is a place of some 
resort by invalids. 



SOUTH HADLET FALLS — HATFIELD. 387 

Springfield, 9 miles farther. {See p. 299.) 

South Hadley Falls, are 12 miles from Springfield. 
The river here descends in the distance of two and a half 
miles, 52 feet ; and on the cast side, commencing at 
South Hadley village, a canal has been constructed, cor- 
responding in extent with these falls, through which lum- 
her and the largest boats pass. 

Previous to reaching Northampton, the river, passes 
between Mount Tom on the south, and Mount Holyoke 
{see p. 292) on the north. North of the latter mountain, 
a most charming and extensive plain is presented, em, 
bracing many elegant villages and country seats. 

Northampton, 5 miles from South Hadley. {See p, 
292.) 

Hadley, 2 miles east of Northampton. {See p. 293.) 

Hatfield, 5 miles north of Northampton, on the west 
side of the river, is a neat and venerable town, having 
been settled as esrly as 1658. In October, 1675, after 
the burning of Springfield, (.we ^. 299,) the Indians un- 
der Philip, flushed with their repeated successes, made 
an attack on Hatfield ; which was then defended by two 
companies, aided by a third, which came to their relief 
during the conflict. The Indians were about 700 strong, 
and made a furious assault upon the town in various di- 
rections, pillaging and burning several of the houses. But 
they were defeated, and compelled to seek safety in a 
precipitate flight. 

On the 30th of May of the following year, another at- 
tack was made upon Hatfield by 600 Indians. Twelve 



388 MUDDY BROOK. 

unfortified buildings were immediately burnt ; but the 
others, which were pallisaded were defended by a few in- 
habitants. Part of the Indians then repaired to the fields, 
and attacked the men at their labor ; but 25 young men 
crossed the river from Hadley, and rushing upon the en- 
emy, killed several, and finally, with the aid of the inhab- 
itants, dispersed them. 

Muddy Brook, 9 miles from Hatfield, is a small vil- 
lage, deriving its name from a stream which passes 
through the place, bordered by a narrow morass. The 
place in 1675, and for some time subsequent, was called 
Bloody Brooh, in consequence of a battle which was 
fought with the Indians on the 18th of September of that 
year. Capt. Lothrop, who had been despatched with 80 
men and several teams, to secure a quantity of wheat in 
Deerficld, two or three miles farther north, was surprised 
on his return through this place, by a party of 700 Indi- 
ans, who had secretly watched his movements, and who 
lay in ambush awaiting his arrival. He had no sooner 
crossed the small stream above mentioned, than they 
rushed upon him, pouring in such a deadly fire as to pro- 
duce complete discomfiture. Lothrop and his men fled ; 
but being pursued and overtaken at all points, they re- 
solved to sell their lives in a vigorous struggle. They ac- 
cordingly posted themselves behind the neighboring trees ; 
when tlic conflict became a trial of skill in sharp shoot- 
ing. At length the struggle terminated in the annihila- 
tion of nearly the whole of the English. Lothrop was 
killed in the early part of the action ; and his loss, inclu- 
ding teamsters, amounted to ninety. The troops at Deer- 
field, under Captain Moseley, hearing the musketry, has- 



MUDDY BROOK — DEERFIELO. 389 

tened to the scene of combat, and arrived soon after its 
clcse. They found the Indians stripping the slain. Mose- 
ly improving the favorable opportunity, rushed upon them 
and cut them down in all directions, driving the remain- 
der into the adjacent swamps. The next morning it 
was found tliat a few Indians had returned to the field of 
battle for the purpose of plunder ; but they were soon dis- 
persed. 

Though the loss of the enemy on the previous day was 
estimated at about 100, the engagement was, neverthe- 
less, more disastrous in its consequences to the English. 
The destruction of ninety valuable men, the flower of a 
thinly scattered population, was calculated to produce 
much despondency, and occasion the most serious appre- 
hensions for the safety of the remaining colonists. 

The place where this battle was fought is near the 
centre of the village, about 30 rods south of the church. 
The bridge over the stream is located at the place where 
Lothrop crossed. 

Deerfield, 3 miles from Muddy Brook, and 17 miles 
north of Northampton, is a handsome village on the west 
bank of the Connecticut river. It is in the midst of a 
very fertile and beautiful comjtry, presenting a succession 
of rich and highly cultivated farms. The town was 
among the early settlements on the river ; and, more 
than any other place, was the theatre of Indian warfare. 
In September, 1675, an attack was made on the place, 
one man killed, and several houses reduced to ashes. For 
about 20 years subseo^uent to this, owing to repeated in- 
cursions of the savages, the inhabitants were often com- 



B90 DEERFIELO. 

pellcd to abandon their dwellings and seek a temporary 
as3dum in the neighboring towns. During the French 
wars under William and Anne, however, they maintained 
their ground until 1704 ; made many improvements and 
enclosed the centre of the village by an extensive but 
imperfect pallisaded work. This fortification was attack- 
ed by about 350 French and Indians, in the month of 
February of that year. They had secretly taken a po- 
sition two miles north of the village on the evening of the 
9lh ; whence they cautiously proceeded to the fort the 
next morning before day. There being no sentinels 
posted, the fortification was easily entered, and the work 
of destruction commenced ere the inliabitants had arous- 
ed from their slumbers. A feeble resistance, only, could 
be made. All the houses, except one, within the pali- 
sades, were burnt ; between 40 and 50 of the inhabitants 
were killed, and 112, including women and children, 
made prisoners. In the drear of winter, with a scanty 
supply of provisions, and v;ith little clothing, the unfortu- 
nate captives were compelled to take up their line of 
march for Canada. Mr. Williams, the clergyman of the 
place, and his family, were of the number. His wife* 
was murdered in two or three days after commencing the 
excursion ; and sixteen others either died or were massa- 
cred before reaching the Province. Most of those w^ho 
survived, after remaining in captivity for some time, were 



* She was afterwards with her husband, interred in the 
church-yard at Deerfield, and marble slabs placed over 
their graves. 



DEERFIELD — TURNER^S FALLS. 391 

rpdeemed. A daughter of Mr. Williams, however, who 
.1 married an Indian chief, refused to return. She cs. 
.^ lined the habiliment of a savage, and died in Canada 
some years afterwards. Several of her descendants are 
still living there. 

The house which survived the confla fixation at Deer- 
field is still standing. It is in a tolerable state of preser- 
vation, and exhibits to this day the perforation made in 
the door by tomahawks, as well as the marks of balls in 
the interior. One of these marks is ?hown as having 
been made by a ball which killed a female in the house ; 
and in one of the timbers a bullet is seen, which has nev- 
er been extracted. 

Greenfield, 4 miles from Deerfield, is a large and 
pleasant village, on the west side of the river ; from which 
it is distant 2 miles. It contains a courthouse, jail, bank 
and 3 churches. It is a ccntril position for the trade of 
t'lr- surrounding country, and is a place of wealth and en- 
frrprisc. 

Turner's Falls, on the Connecticut river, are 3 miles 
from Greenfield, in a north-easterly direction. The road 
taken in visiting them is east of the ordinary stage route ; 
and it is customary therefore, after an excursion to the 
falls, to return to Greenfield. The route is principally 
over the ground taken by Capt. Turner, in his attack on 
the Indians in 1676. The fall is between forty and fifty 
feet ; but by the erection of a dam for the accommodation 
of a canal, the cataract has lost much of its original wild- 
ness. 

The Indians, amounting to several himdreds, having 
taken a position on elevated ground, on the west bank of 
II 



392 turner's falls. 

the river at the head of the fall, it was deemed important 
to dislodge them. This service was undertaken by Capt. 
Turner, at the head of about 160 mounted troops. He 
left Hatfield on the 17th of May, 1676, and reached 
within half a mile of the Indian encampment before day 
the next morning without discovery. Here his men left 
their horses, and by a rapid march, reached the camp be- 
fore the Indians awoke from their slumbers. A deadly 
and destructive fire was immediately commenced. Be- 
lieving it to proceed from their ancient and powerful ene- 
my the Mohawks, many of the Indians fled to the river, 
and leaped into their canoes ; but, in attempting to cross, 
they were mostly shot or precipitated over the cataract. 
Others fled to the rocks of the river bank, where they 
were cut down without resistance ; and few escaped the 
victorious arms of the assailants. One hundred were left 
dead on the field ; one hundred and forty were seen to 
descend the cataract ; and their whole loss was after- 
wards ascertained to have been 300. Turner lost but 
one man. 

In his retreat he was less fortunate. He was attacked 
by other parties of Indians on the route — his men divi- 
ded — himself killed ; and the Joss of his party, before 
they reached Hatfield, amounted to between 30 and 40. 
Capt. T. is supposed to have fallen in what is called 
Greenfield Meadow, at the mouth of a small stream, on 
which a mill now stands ; as his body was afterwards 
found at that place by a scouting party of the English. 

Bernardstown, 5 miles north of Greenfield. 



VERNON— CHARLESTOWN. 393 

Vernon, 6 miles ; the first town reached in entering 
the state of Vermont. Fort Dummer, built to protect the 
inhabitants against the Indians, was located at this place. 

Guilford, 5 miles. Here are two slate quarries and 
several mills and manufactories. 

Brattleborough, 6 miles, a flourishing village, is lo- 
cated on the west bank of the Connecticut river ; over 
which their is a permanent bridge. White stone creek 
also passes through the place, affording a number of good 
mill sites. The village contains a bank, the most exten- 
siue printing establishment in the state, and several man- 
ufactories. Stages pass daily between this place and. 
Boston, Hartford, Albany and Hanover. 

Dummerston, 5 miles. 

Putney, 5 miles. 

Westminster, 5 miles. The first newspaper printed 
in Vermont was issued from a press at this place ; though 
it was discontinued several years since for want of pat- 
ronage. The village is located on a beautiful plain on the 
west bank of the Connecticut ; but it has not improved 
much within the last twenty years. 

Walpole, N. H. to which a bridge leads, is on the op- 
posite side of the river, and is noticed at page 303. 

Bellows Falls, on the Vermont side, 4 miles from 
Walpole. {See p. 302.) Proceeding up the river over a 
beautiful plain, 

Charlestown, N. H. is reached in travelling 8 miles 
from Bellows Falls. It is handsomely located on the 
east side of the river, and is a neat village, containing a 
coUrt house, jail and bank. 



394 CHARLESTOWN. 

A fort was built for the defence of this place in 1743, 
on rising ground south of tlic church, oi-or which the pre- 
sent street passes. In March, 1747, while the fort was 
occupied by Capt. Stevens and tliirty men, a fuiious as- 
sault was made upon it by a large body of Frc:ich and 
Indians, under the command of M. Debeline. The fort 
being composed of materials which were combustible, the 
enemy attempted its destruction by setting a log house 
and the fences to the windward on fire. To guard 
against a conflagration, the besieged, through great ex- 
ertions, succeeded in making several subterranean pas- 
sages under the parapet, with an opening at the top of 
each. From tl:cse passages, vvhich were deep enough to 
protect the men from the enemy's shot, water, taken from 
a well within the fort, was thrown upon the parapet, and 
the plan of the enemy frustrated. A sort of mantelet^ 
loaded with dry faggots, set on fire, was then forced to- 
wards the fort, accompanied with flaming arrows ; but all 
to no purpose. Stevens maintained his position, continu. 
ed a fire upon the enemy whenever he presented himself, 
and refused all propositions of a surrender. After an as- 
sault of three days, and suffering severely in the loss of 
his men, Debeline withdrew from the siege. None of Ste- 
vens' men were killed, and but two wounded. 

Fortius bravo defence. Sir Charles Knowles, comman- 
dant of a naval force then in Boston harbor, sent Captain 
Stevens an elegant sword. The town was subsequently 
namod in honor of Sir Charles. 

From Charlestown a stage may be taken daily for Sar- 
atoga Springs, passing through Chester, Manchester, &.c.; 



SPRINGFIELD HANOVER. 395 

or for Boston, passing through Walpole, Keene, &e. {See 
l>. 30 i to 305.) 

Springfield, Vt. on the west side of the river, 5 miles 
from CJiarlestown. 

Weathersfield, 6 miles ; a fine agricultural town- 
ship. Jarvis' farm, at what is termed Weathersfield Bow 
(a turn in the river) is considered one of the best in Ver= 
mont. 

Windsor, 7 miles. (See p. 310.) 

Hartland, 7 miles. 

IIartfoud, 7 miles. There arc two handsome villages 
in this town ; one near the junction of the While river, 
and the other near the junction of the Queechy river 
with the Connecticut, In both there are several mills 
and manufactories. From Hartford the river is crossed lo 

Hanover, (noticed at p. 311,) from which place a stage 
may be taken daily for Burlington, Vt. or Boston. 



FI ft'IS. 



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J 928