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Full text of "Guide to the exhibition of animals, plants and minerals mentioned in the Bible"

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

Special Guide No. 5 



GUIDE TO THE EXHIBITION 



OF 



ANIMALS, PLANTS, 



AND 



MINERALS 

MENTIONED IN THE BIBLE 




SECOND EDITION/ 



LONDON 

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES 

OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

191 1 

[Price Sixpence] 



BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
Special Guide No. 5 



GUIDE TO THE EXHIBITION 



OF 



ANIMALS, PLANTS, 



AND 



MINERALS 

MENTIONED IN THE BIBLE 



SECOND EDITION 



^ LONDON 

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES 

OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

191 1 

[//// rights reserve^/] 



LONDON : 

riilXTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 

DUSi; SCRSEr. STAMFOFD S-'REET, S.£., AJ'iJ GREi'T %.'lNLMti-L STREET, W. 






PREFACE. 



35 



It was thought by the Trustees of the British Museum that ari 
Exhibition of Animals, Plants, and Minerals mentioned in the Bible 
would form an interesting supplement to the literary and historical 
Biblical Exhibition which has been arranged at Bloomsbury for the 
Tercentenary of the Authorised Version, and instructions were given 
for its prepai-ation. The result is the collection now placed in one 
of the bays of the Central Hall of the Natural History Museum. 

The Animals and Minerals, respectively, have been selected, 
arranged, and labelled by Mr. Lydekker and Dr. Herbert Smith, 
under the general supervision of the Keepers of Zoology and 
Mineralogy ; the Plants have been selected, arranged, and labelled 
by Dr. Rendle, the Keeper of Botany. 

The zoological and botanical parts of the present guide-book 
are virtually reprints of the exhibited labels, and the information 
given on the latter has been to a considerable extent derived from 
the late Dr. H. B. Tristram's "Natural History of the Bible," the 
first edition of which was published in the year 1867. 

As regards the Biblical Minerals, scarcely any of them were found 
in Palestine itself or were brought from localities now known ; they 
are not considered in Dr. Tristram's work, and, notwithstanding all 
>j that has been written about them during many centuries, there is 
uj still great uncertainty as to the original signification of the Hebrew 
cc. and Greek names. As the subject presents much difficulty, I liave 
oci contributed to the guide-book a short essay showing how modern 
^ interpretations of the ancient names of Biblical Minerals have been 
^ deduced. 

^ L. FLETCHER, 

Director. 

British Museum (Natural History), 
December 21s/, 1911. 



365407 



TABLE OF CONTENTS, 







page 


I. 


ANIMALS 


1 


Horse. Mule. Ass .. 




2 


Unicorn .. 




3 


Cattle 




3 


Sheep 




5 


Goat 


. . 


5 


Chamois .. 




5 


Roebuck. Hart. Hind. 


Fallow Deer. " Pygarg " .. 


6 


Camel. Dromedary 




6 


Swine 




7 


Behemoth 




7 


"Coney" .. 




7 


Lion 




8 


Leopard 




8 


Cat 




8 


Dog. Greyhound. Wolf. 


Fox 


9 


Bear 




10 


HYiENA 




10 


"Ferret" 





11 


"Mole" 




11 


Elephant. Ivory 




11 


Whale. Leviathan. Dragon 


11 


"Badger" 




12 


Bat 




12 


Eagle. Osprey .. 




12 


Vulture. Kite. Glede. 


Hawk 


13 


" Gier-Eagle " .. 




13 


" Night-Hawk." Owl .. 




13 


Pelican. Cormorant .. 




14 


Stork 




14 


Bittern. Heron 




14 


Peacock 


• • 


14 


"Swan" 


.. 


15 


Ostrich 




15 



VI 



Table of Co7itents 



Partridctf:. Quail 

Turtle. Turtle-Dove. Dovk 

Crane. Swallow 

"Lapwing" 

Sparrow .. 

Raven 

Chameleon. Lizard .. 

"Tortoise" 

Snail 

Serpent. Asp. Adder. Cockatrice 

Frog 

Bee. Honey. Hornet 

Locust. Grasshopper. Cankerworm. Caterpillar. 

Worm. Moth. Palmer-AVorm 

Scorpion. Spider. Ant 

Flies. Fleas. Lice 

Horse-Leech 

Purple Dye 

Pearls 

Coral. Sponge .. 

Manna 





PAGK 


.. 


15 




15 




16 




16 




16 




16 




17 




17 




18 




18 




18 




19 


Beetle 


19 




20 




20 




21 




21 




21 




22 




22 




22 



II.— PLANTS 

Woods. 

Box-wood 

Olive-Wood, Gophcr-Wood, Almug, Ebonj- 

Cedar- Wood, Thyine-Wood, Shittim Wood 

Trees and Shrubs. 
Almond, Apple 
Bay, Chestnut-Tree, Box, Cedar .. 

Fig, Fir-Tree 

Heath, Juniper, Locust-Tree, Mulberry-Tree 

Myrtle, Oak 

Olive, Oil-Tree 

Palm, Pomegranate, Poplar 

Sycamine, Sycamore 

Shittah Tree (Shittim Wood), Terebmth or Teil Tree 

Nuts, Vine 

Wild Gourd 



Willow 



23 

23 
24 
25 



25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 



HERBACEoas Plants. 
Corn . . 
Wheat, Barley, Millet 



35 
36 



Table of Contents. 



Vll 



Herbaceous Plants — continued. 

Tares, Lentils, Eeed, Bulrush or Rush, Flax . . 

Hyssop, Rose, Lily 

Cucumber, Melon, Gourd, Mandrake 

Onion, Leek, Garlick ; Mint, Anise, Cummin, Rue ; ^ 

Manna, Mustard, Wormwood 

Perfumes. 

Spikenard, Aloes, Frankincense, Myrrh, Balm 
Cinnamon, Cassia, Saffron 

Prickly Plants. 

Bramble, Brier, Thistle, Thorns .. 



icclies 



PAGE 

37 
38 
39 
40 
41 



42 
43 



43 



III.— MINERALS 



45 



1. The Foundations of the New Jerusalem 

2. The Breastplate of the High Priest 

A. Authorised Version 

B. Septuagint Version 

C. Jewish Antiquities (Josephus) 

D. Vulgate Version 
Comparison of the above Four Descriptions 

E. Another Description of the Breastplate by Josephus 

3. The Stones on the Shoulder-Pieces of the Ephod 

4. The Ornaments of the King of Tyre .. 
Difficulties of Translation of Hebrew Technical Terms 
Translation of Hebrew into Greek and English Terms 
Another Table of Equivalence .. 

5. Other Stones mentioned in the Bible 



46 
52 
52 
53 
57 
59 
59 
61 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 



Index 



73 



GUIDE 



TO 



ANIMALS, PLANTS, AND MINEKALS 

MENTIONED IN THE BIBLE. 



I.— ANIMALS. 



Thk proper identification of the various animals mentioned in tlie 
Old Testament is in many cases a matter of extreme difficulty ; and 
this for several reasons. For in a number of instances we have 
even now no definite clue as to the real signification of the old 
Hebrew names of animals mentioned in the sacred text ; and when 
the authorised translation was made three centuries ago the difficulty 
was of course very much greater, owing to the imperfect knowledge 
of natural history at that time. Since that date important clues 
have been obtained by correlating the Hebrew words with current 
Arabic and Coptic names of ani]nals, and in this way many of the 
difficulties have been more or less satisfactorily solved, although in 
other cases little or no progress has been made ; and it seems 
probable that the signification of some of the Hebrew animal 
names will always remain an enigma. A further difficulty arises 
from the circumstance that some of the Hebrew names appear to 
refer to purely mythical creatures. 

In this country the pioneer in reseai'ch of this subject was the 
late Canon H. B. Tristram, whose work on "The Natural History 
of the Bible " was published by the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge in 1867. In the case of mammals it happened, however, 
that the author was under the impression that certain large species 
of North African antelopes, such as the bubal hartebeest, the addax, 
and the white, or sabre-horned, oryx, ranged into Syria, whereas they 
do not, as a matter of fact, occur anywhere east of the Nile. This 

B 



2 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

rendered some of the Canon's identifications of Hebrew Scriptural 
names incorrect. It may be added in this connection that it is 
still uncertain whether the Arabian Oryx {Oryx heatrix) of the 
Syrian and Arabian deserts may not be one of certain unidentified 
animals, such as the " Pygarg," mentioned in the Bible. 

Since many of the animals referred to in the Bible are of large 
bodily size, it has been found impracticable to show them in the 
present exhibition otherwise than by specimens of their heads and 
horns or by pictures. 

Before proceeding to notice the various species which can be 
more or less satisfactorily identified, a few words may be devoted 
to certain names which either cannot be identified or which are not 
worthy of special labels. Among those of the first type is " Satyr," 
which probably relates to a purely mythical animal, although it has 
been proposed to connect the name with the great dog-headed Baboons 
[Papio) of Egypt and Arabia. Again, the bird indicated by 
skahaj)]! — translated " Cuckoo " in the Authorised Version — cannot 
be identified. 

For " Weasel " the i-eader may refer to the heading Mole. The 
word rightly translated " Mouse " appears to be generally used in a 
wide sense, although in one instance it clearly refers to the 
Continental Short-tailed Field- Mouse (Microtits, or Arvieola, agrestis). 
" Hare " relates to the common Syrian species, Lepus syriacus. 

In connection with the words " Cock " and " Hen," which occur in 
the New Testament, it may be mentioned that there is no reference 
in the Old Testament to domesticated poultry, which were probably 
first introduced into Judjea after the Roman conquest. 

As regards Fishes, of which there is frequent mention in the 
Bible, there is, in most cases at any rate, no possibility of making 
any specific identification, although " Eel " doubtless refers to one 
or both of the two species found in Syrian waters. 

HORSE. MULE. ASS. 

Horses were used in Biblical times chiefly in war, and were 
then a comparatively recent introduction. No reference is made 
to Mules till the time of David ; but after that date Horses and 
Mules are often mentioned together. In some cases the word trans- 
lated " Dromedai-ies " really means Mules. The word " Ass " refers 
to the well-known domesticated animal, whose wild relative {Equus 
asinus africanus) inhabits Nubia ; but "Wild Ass" indicates a very 
difierent animal, the Syrian Onager (E. onager hemippns), which 



Mentioned in. the Bible. 3 

still inhabits Palestine, and belongs to a group of species in some 
degi'ee connecting the Horse with the Ass. The Onager is repre- 
sented in the case on the left side of the Bay by pictures. The 
"pale Horse" of Rev. 6, the translation of the Greek cldoros 
hippos, probably indicates a dun Horse, a type regarded in some 
countries as very ancient, but of bad quality ; while the " red 
Horse " of the same chapter, the translation of purrhos liippos^ 
probably denotes a chestnut. 

UNICORN. 

The Hebrew word rem, translated "Unicorn" (Job 39, 9-12), 
indicates a two-horned animal ; the proper rendering of the sentence 
"the horns of unicorns" (Deut. 33, 17) being "the horns of a 
unicorn." It is probable that the animal referred to is the extinct 
Wild Ox or Aurochs {Bos taurus primigenius), which, as indicated 
by Assyrian sculptures, of one of which an illustration is shown in 
the case, was living in Asia Minor in Biblical times. By Dr. Duerst 
the Syrian Aurochs is considered a distinct species. 

If this be correct, the " wild bull in a net " (Isa. 51, 20) must 
refer to a different animal — the Hebrew to — although the species 
cannot be determined. It may be mentioned that at the present 
day the word rim, probably the equivalent of rem, is applied by the 
Arabs to a N. African species of Gazelle ; the name having perhaps 
been transferred to that animal after the extermination of the 
Aurochs. A cast of a skull of the latter animal is shown in the 
North Hall, and a photograph of another skull is exhibited in the 
left-hand wall-case. 

CATTLE. 

Cattle, which were used in Biblical times for ploughing, 
treading-out corn, and for draught, as well as for dairy purposes, 
food, sacrifice, etc., are referred to by several names, indicative of 
sex, age, etc. Like those of ancient Egypt (Fig. 1), the Cattle of 
Palestine were derived from the Humped Ox or Zebu of India, of 
which a stuffed specimen is exhibited in the North Hall ; l)ut while 
ill some instances the hump, as shown in two of the illustrations in 
the left-hand wall-case, was retained, in other instances, as in the 
group of Oxen treading-out corn, it had been eliminated by selec- 
tion. A skull, with the horns, of the ancient Egyptian Ox is shown 
in the upper part of the case ; and below this is an illustration of 
the Indian Zebu. 

B 2 



4 Guide to /Lnimals, Plants^ and Minerals 



Fig. 1. 







Ancient Egyptian Ox. 



Fig. 2. 




Syrian Fat-tailed Sheep. 
From Murray's " Bible Dictionary.' 



• 



Mentioned m the ^zWes^ssivtHc-iTv 5 

"v Of ■ 

SHEEP. ---i-L'-^/l --- 

The oi'dinary Sheep of Palestine belong to the white fat-tailed 
breed, in which the rams carry lai-ge horns (Fig. 2). From the men- 
tion of " the fat, and the rump " (Ex. 29, 22) it seems probable, how- 
ever, that the fat-rumped breed, commonly known as the "Hedjaz 
Sheep," of which a mounted specimen is shown in the North Hall, 
was also found in Syria in Biblical times. Sheep akin to European 
breeds are stated by Tristram to occur in Syria. The earliest breed 
in Egypt appears to have become extinct before the time of the 
Pharaohs, and was a long-legged Sheep, with spiral horns, lop ears, 
a fringe on the throat of the rams, and a long tail ; the colour 
being light, light with dark blotches, or wholly dark. It was related 
to the Maned Abyssinian and Hausa Sheep, of which specimens are 
shown in the North Hall. During the Pharaonic epoch this Sheep 
was replaced by a fat-tailed breed, in which the limbs were shorter, 
the tail was thickened, and flattened, and the horns generally of 
the so-called " Ammon " type, while the coat was probably woolly. 
A skull of this Sheep, from an Egyptian tomb, is exhibited in the 
upper part of the case. 

GOAT. 

Several Hebrew words are translated " Goat," " She-Goat," or 
" Wild Goat " in the Bible. Of the local domesticated breeds, the 
Syrian, or Mambar, Goat is tall and long-limbed, with very long ears, 
and .shaggy silky black hair. Skulls of this breed from an Egyptian 
tomb are exhibited in the upper part of the case. In the Egyptian, 
or Theban, Goat the limbs are long, the horns short or wanting, the 
head small, with a convex profile, and the beard generally absent ; 
the short hair is usually reddish brown, tending to yellow on the 
limbs, but may be slaty grey or spotted. Specimens may be seen 
in the North Hall. The word ydel., translated " Wild Goat " 
(Job 39, 1), probably indicates the Beden or Sinaitic Ibex 
{Capra nubiana sinaitica) ; but it is possible that this or another 
word may in some instances refer to the Wild Goat (Capra hirrus 
spgagrus) of Mount Ararat. A picture of the Sinaitic, or Nubian, 
Ibex is exhibited in the case. 

CHAMOIS. 

The Hebrew zemer, which appears akin to the Arabic zavmr, 
indicates a mountain animal, and is translated "Chamois" in 



6 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

Deut. 14, 5, But that species is unknown east or south of the 
Taurus range, and it has been suggested that the animal referred to 
is the African Wild Sheep, or Udad {Ovis lervla, or tragelapfnis), 
which inhabits the mountains of Upper Nubia, although not ranging 
east of the Nile. Possibly it may be Gmelin's Sheep {Ovis 
orientally), which occurs in South-eastern Asia Minor, unless 
indeed the original rendering is correct. 

ROEBUCK. HART. HIND. FALLOW DEER. 
" PYGARG." 

Much confusion exists in the translation of the Hebrew words 
thus rendered. For instance <;eht, equivalent to the Arabic zebi, is 
translated "Roebuck" in Deut. 12, 15, but really signifies 
the Dorcas Gazelle {Gazdla (h>rc(ii<), which abounds on the plains of 
Syria, and perhaps also tlie Palestine Gazelle ((?. merriUi). On the 
other hand, yahmur, translated " Fallow Deer " in Deut. 14, "), 
signifies the Roebuck (Capreolus caprca), which still inhabits the 
woods of Gilead. It has been identified with the Bubal Hartebeest 
(Buhnlis hosclnjjhiis), but that species is unknown in Asia or east of 
the Nile. Ayijdl, translated "Hart" in Deut. 12, 15, 22, indicates 
the male Fallow Deer (Cervus dama), which is still found on Mount 
Tabor ; " Hind "' being the female of the same .species. The animal 
indicated by " Pygarg," the translation in Deut. 14, 5, of the 
Hebrew dishoii, is uncertain. Pygarr/m^ was used by Herodotus for 
a North African Antelope with a white rump-patch ; and if the 
Hebrew " Pygarg" really indicates a white-rumped animal, a species 
allied to the Goitred Gazelle {Gazdla suhtjiitfitrosa) of Persia might be 
referred to. Heads, horns, and antlers of some of the species men- 
tioned above are exhibited in the upper part of wall-case on the left. 

CAMEL. DROMEDARY. 

Camels of the single-humped Arabian kind (Cnmelu.t drompdnrhis) 
were employed in ancient Palestine for draught, riding, and in war, 
and their hair was woven into garments. Dromedaries are swift 
riding Camels. In some instances "Dromedary" in the Bible in- 
dicates a superior breed of Horse. Camels do not appear on the 
Egjrptian monuments, whence it has been inferred that they were 
unknown in ancient Egypt ; but they are mentioned in the Anastasi 
Papyrus (No. 1), p. 23, written about 1300 B.C. Into the rest of 
North Africa they do not appear to have been introduced till the 
third century of our era. 



Mentioned in tJie Bible. 7 

SWINE. 

As indicated by the expression " Boar out of the wood " (Psalm 
80, 13), the forest districts of Palestine sheltered droves of wild 
Swiue {Sus scrofa ferus) in Biblical times, as many of them do at 
the present day. In Gospel times domesticated Swine, although 
abhorrent to the Jews, were kept, and probably eaten, around, 
if nut in, Palestine. 

BEHEMOTH. 

Beheinoth (Job 40, 15), the Hebrew equivalent of the Coptic 
pehrmaut, meaning " Water-Ox," in many instances at any rate, 
undoubtedly denotes the Hippopotamus (Tlipijopotamus amphihius), 

Fig. 3. 




The Syrian Hyeax = The "Coney" of the Bible. 

which, although now banished to Upper Nubia, formerly inhabited 
the lower reaches of the Nile. There is, however, no record of the 
occurrence of the species in Syria or Palestine during the historical 
period. The term may also be applied to any large animal. 



« CONEY." 

Realising that the Hebrew word sMpJuin (the hider) indicated 
a small animal living in holes among rocks, the translators of the 
Bible rendered it " Coney " (Lev. 11, 5, and Psalm 104, 18), the word 
then in general use for the Rabbit (Lepm cimicalus). Since the 
word " Coney " has now dropped out of general use (surviving only in 
legal documents), it is frequently supposed to be the proper name of 
the animal referred to in the Bible. The shdjjhdn has been 



8 Guide to Animals, Pla^its, and Minerals 

identified with the Syrian Hyrax {Procavia, or Hyrax, si/riaca), 
Fig. 3, an animal which has nothing to do with the Rabbit, or 
indeed Rodents generally. On the contrary, it is a distant relative 
of the Rhinoceros and Elephant, having somewhat Rhinoceros-like 
molar teeth, and the toes terminating in broad, hoof-like nails. In 
Lev. 11^ 5, the shdphau is stated to chew the cud, and since the 
Hyrax does not do so, the identification of the latter with the 
formei- has been questioned by Dr. H. C. Chapman {Proc. PliUa- 
delphia Academy of Sriencen, vol. Ivi., p. 479, 1904). The objection, 
however, is invalid, since there is no small animal with the 
habits of a Hyrax fir Rabbit which ruminates ; the idea that .such 
animals possess this function having probal)lv arisen from the rapid 
movements of their lips. 

A stuffed .specimen and a skull of the Syrian Hyrax are 
exhibited. 

LION. 

Although Lions (Fells leo), to which there are many allusicms in 
the Bible, have been long since exterminated in Palestine, they still 
abound on the banks of the Euphrates between Bussora and Bagdad — 
where they dwell in the oak-forests, and feed largely on Wild Swine 
— as well as in the marshes of Babylonia. In Biblical times Lions 
were probably numerous throughout Palestine and Syria generally. 

LEOPARD. 

The Hebrew word ndmer, the equivalent of the Arabic nini'r, 
which is translated " Leopard " in the Bible (Jer. 5, C), probably 
indicates two distinct kinds of animals, namely, the true Leopard 
{Felis pardits), in which the black markings on the body take the 
form of rosettes, and the Hunting-Leopard (Cynxhirus jnhatus), in 
which they are solid spots. Leopards are still found in the 
Lebanon ; and Hunting-Leopards are used at the present day for 
cour.sing Gazelles in Syria. Both species are known in India as 
chiid, a name which, like ?</m'r, means " spotted." 

CAT. 

The word " Cat " occurs but once, in the Apocrypha (Baruch 6, 
22), where it is believed to indicate Wild Cats, which are represented 
in Syria by a race of the European species {Fells catus morese). 
Mention is, however, made of Cats, cathod, in the Welsh Bible 
(Isa. 34, 14). 



Mentioned in the Bible. 



DOG. GREYHOUND. WOLF. FOX. 

The Hebrew lie]c\), translated " Dog " in the Bible, refers for the 
most part to the hordes of Pariah Dogs (Fig. 4) that haunt all 
Eastern cities, where they are useful scavengers. The Hebrew zurzir 
mothnayim, signifying "girt about the loins " (Prov. 30,31), maybe 
rightly translated " Greyhound," although other renderings have been 
If so, the Slughi, or Gazelle-Hound, of the Bedouin of 



Fig. 4. 



H 


"1^ 


■*i 


^ 




mP'vl 


^|hi 


^ 












4 


/^^^H 


* 



A TUKlvlSIl I'AUIAII Dm.. 

Arabia and Syria is probably the Scriptural Greyhound (Fig. 5). 
These Dogs are often girdled by their owners in order to prevent 
them from over-eating and becoming fat. The Afghan Greyhountl 
is an allied, but more hairy, breed (Fig. 5). Wolves {Canis liqnis) 
are still common in Palestine, as ai-e Jackals (C. aureus) and Foxes 
{VuljJC's alopex niloticus). The "Foxes" (Hebrew shual) of the Old 
Testament (Judges 15, 4) are certainly Jackals, but the use of the 
former word in the New Testament, as the translation of the Greek 
alopex, is jjrobably correct. 



lO Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

BEAR. 

The Syrian Bear (Ursus arcfus syriacus), which is a grey phase of 
the typical Brown Bear of Europe, still inhabits the mountains of 
Palestine, and in Biblical times, as is evident from 2 Kings 2, 24, 
was doubtless distributed over the greater pai-t of the country. 

Fig. 5. 




Slughi (A) AND Afghan Greyhoukd (B). 



HY^NA. 

The Valley of Zeboim (1 8am. 13, 18) is still called by Arabs 
.Shukh-ed-Dubba = the Gorge of the Hyajna, and is thus believed to 
refer to the Striped Hytena {Hyaena .^tri(ita), which is now common 
throughout Syria. The Hebrew word rdbila , which, with the word 
'ayit preceding it, is rendered (Jer. 12, 9) a " speckled bird " in the 
Authorised Version, may indicate the Hysena ; and the same may 
be the case with the " doleful creatures " (ohirn) of Isa. 13, 21. 



Mentioned in the Bible. 1 1 

" FERRET." 

" Ferret," the rendering in Lev. 11, .30, of the Hebrew undqdh, is 
one of the most unfortunate translations in the Bible, as the 
animal referred to is probably one of the group of Lizard-like 
Reptiles known as Geckos, such as the Fan-footed Gecko (Ptyo- 
(lactylus lohaius) and the Common Gecko (Tarentola manrltank-a), 
which frequent the walls and ceilings of houses in Palestine and 
Egypt. " Hedgehog " and " Toad " have also been suggested as 
proper renderings. tSpecimens of Geckos are .shown. 

" MOLE." 

Two words are translated " Mole " in the Bible, but since thei'e 
are no true Moles in Palestine, it is evident that in neither instance 
is the rendering correct. The first word, tinaJiemetli (Lev. 11, .30), 
probably indicates the Chamseleon ; but the second, liapliur-peruili or 
hdjjhor peroth (Isa. 2, 20), seems to refer to a species of INIole-Rat 
allied to the Spcdax typJdus of Eastern Europe and Egypt. These 
animals have somewhat the habits of Moles, but feed on roots 
instead of worms, and belong to the Rodent order of Mammals. The 
'• Weasel" of Lev. 11, 29, may also be the Mole-Rat. 

ELEPHANT. IVORY. 

Indian Elephants (Elephas maximu.'i) were first brought to 
Palestine by Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, by whom they 
were employed in war. Possibly these Elephants came from 
Mesopotamia, as there is historical evidence that the Indian species 
inhabited that country in Assyrian times. On the other hand, 
ivory, which was supplied either by the caravans of Dedan, or 
brought, together with Apes and Peacocks, by the navy of Tar- 
shish (1 Kings 10, 22), was probably the product of Elephas 
africanus. Egyptian merchants traded for ivory to Barygaza, the 
port to which were carried the products of India from Ozone. As 
to the locality of Tarshish see Peacock (p. 15). 

WHALE. LEVIATHAN. DRAGON. 

The Hebrew tannin, translated indifferently as "Dragon," 
" Sea-Monster," " Serpent," or " Whale," seems, in one instance at 
any rate (Lam. 4, 3), to indicate a member of the Cetacean order. 



12 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

" Leviathan" also appears in one passage (Psalm 104, 26) to indicate 
a Whale. Jonah's Whale is rendered in the New Testament as lii'ios, 
the Greek term for any Whale, but in the Ethiopic Bible appeals as 
anhar, the Arabic name for ambergris, and thus for the Sperm-Whale 
{Physeter macrocephalus), by which it is produced. Evidence has 
been adduced by Dr. Paul Haupt (Proc. Amer. Pliil. Soc, 1907, 
vol. xlvi., p. 151) to show that Jonah's Whale was a Sperm-Whale. 

It may be of interest to mention that the material first called 
amber was the perfume now termed ambergris ; at a later period 
the name amber was transferred to the fossil resin which now goes 
by that designation, and the substance first termed amber was 
distinguished as ambergris {i.e. grey amber). 

On the other hand, in Job 41, 1, "Leviathan" signifies the 
Tinisa, or Nile Crocodile {Crocodllus n'doticns), which, at least at one 
time, irdiabited Syria as vvell as Egypt ; and the word tannin, trans- 
lated " l)iagon," also refers in several instances t(j the same reptile. 

" BADGEll." 
The Plebrew word tdlinsli, which is translated "Badger" in 
Exod. 26, 14, indicates an animal of which the skin was employed 
for the outer roof of the tabernacle, ark, etc. It seems to be 
equivalent to the Arabic tachash, which denotes the Porpoises, 
Dolphins, and Dugongs of the Red Sea. The largest of these is the 
lied Sea Dugong {Halicorc tahernncuJI), the skin of which was almost 
certainly employed for the purpose indicated.* Dugongs and Mana- 
tees (which gave rise to the fable of Mermaids) are quite distinct 
from Whales, Porpoises, and Dolphins, representing another order 
— the Sirenia — of which the few living members are herbivorous. 

BAT. 

The Hebrew word 'dtalleph, ti'anslated in the Bible usually as 
" Bat" (Lev. 11, 19), but in one case occurring among the list of 
unclean Birds, certainly indicates the foi-mer animal ; the ancients 
regarding Bats as akin to Birds. Among the common members 
of the group in Palestine is the Syrian Tomb-Bat (Taphozoiis 
nuilivcniris) ; but an allied Egyptian species is shown in the wall- 
case on the left side of the bay. 

EAGLE. OSPREY. 

The Hebrew nesher (coming from a root meaning to tear with the 
beak) is translated " Eagle," but seems to be the equivalent of the 

* Mr. S. M. Perlmann has suggested {Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. xii., p. 256, 

1908) that the Okapi is the animal indicated hy tahash. 



Mentioned in the Bible. 13 

Arabic n/ssr, the name of the Griffon Vulture (Giqjs fiilviift), and 
thus indicates that bird. " Vulture " would in many passages of the 
Old Testament suit the context much better than "Eagle"; and 
the same is the case with regard to «eYos, which in the New Testa- 
ment is translated " Eagle." Nisroch, the Vulture-god of the 
Assyrian sculptures, is a deification of the Griffon Vulture. 

" Osprey " may indicate not only the bird {Pandion haliaetus) 
properly so called, but likewise others of the smaller members of 
the Eagle group, such as the Short-toed Eagle (Circaefus gaUicuti), 
which is not uncommon in Palestine. 

VULTURE. KITE GLEDE. HAWK. 

Dayyah and ayydli are both translated in some cases as " Vulture,'' 
although the former is the equivalent of h'dayah, the Arabic name 
of the Black Kite (Mihnis atcr or 3T. Jcorschun), while the latter 
probably indicates the typical or Red Kite (31. ictinus), and is in 
certain instances thus rendered in the Bible. "Glede" (Deut. 14, 
13), an old name for the Kite, is the translation of the Hebrew rnnlt, 
which may indicate the Buzzard (Buteo vulgaris). "Hawk" (Job 
39, 26), the translation of the Hebrew ne(;, probably indicates 
several of the smaller Birds-of-prey, such as the Kestrel (Falco 
[or Cerchneis\ tinnunculus), HobVjy (F. subhuteo), etc. 

" GIER-EAGLE." 

This translation of the Hebrew rdhdm (Lev. 11, 18) really 
indicates the black and white Egyptian Scavenger-Vulture, or 
" Pharaoh's Hen " (Neophron percnoptcrus), which is common 
throughout the East, where it is of great value in sanitation. Its 
Arabic title is racham or rachma. 

" NIGHT-HAWK." OWL. 

In rendering the Hebrew tahuds as " Night-Hawk " (Lev. 11, 
16) the translators probably had in mind the Night-jar (Caprimulgns 
yeuro2)3eus), but the word apparently signifies a Bird-of-prcy, and may 
be intended for the Barn Owl (Strix Jfammea), or some other kind 
of Owl. "Owl," or "Little Owl" (Lev. 11, 17), is probably the 
correct translation of Zos, and may refer to the species known as the 
Southern Little Owl (Athene glaux). Qippoz, rendered the "Great 



14 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

Owl" (Isa. 34, 15), indicates another member of tlie group that 
cannot be definitely identified. On the other hand, yansliuph, which 
is also rendered "Owl" (Isa. 34, 11), apparently indicates the 
Sacred Ihis [Ibis rcligiosa). In certain passages "Owl" appears to 
stand for Ostrich (q.v.)- 

PELICAN. CORMORANT. 

The Hebrew word qddth, coming from a root meaning to vomit or 
disgorge, is rightly translated " Pelican " (Psalm 102, 6), the name 
referring to the manner in which those birds feed their young by 
disgorging fish. Two species, Pelecamis onocrotalus and P. crispus, 
occur in Syria, the latter distinguished by curled feathers on the head. 
In the expi'ession, "Pelican of the wilderness," the final word refers 
to any kind of uninhabited place, just as in India "jungle " may 
denote a desert. ShdldJcJi is also translated " Cormorant " (Lev. 11, 17), 
as is likewise qddth (Isa. 34, 1 1 ; Zeph. 2, 14) ; in the former instance 
the rendering may be correct. Two species of Cormorants, Phala- 
crocorax carbo and P. desmaresti, are found in the Mediterranean. 

STORK. 

The Stork {Ciconia alba), mentioned in Jer. 8, 7, is undouljtedly 
the bird denoted by the Hebrew hdsuJdh, which means "the kind 
one." Storks abound during summer in all Eastern cities, where they 
nest on the houses, and are protected by the inhabitants on account 
of their value as scavengers. The Black Stork (C. nigra), which is 
also a native of Palestine, does not frequent liuman dwellings. 

BITTERN. HERON. 

The Hebrew qipjiSd, which occurs in several passages, and is 
translated " Bittern " (Isa. 14, 23), probably indicates that bird 
(Botaurus stellaris), which haunts marshy situations, such as may 
occur in the neighbourhood of ruins, and utters a loud booming cry. 
Whether the " Henm " of the Bible (Lev. 11, 19), the translation of 
the Hebrew dndphdh, really indicates one oi' inore of the members of 
the family Ardcidsc, is doubtful. 

PEACOCK. 

The word rendered " Peacock" in 1 Kings 10, 22, is inMl, which 
it has been suggested is equivalent to togei, or tohei, the Tamil name 



Mentioned in tJic Bible. 15 

of that bird. Peacocks (Pavo cristatus) are mentioned as having 
been brought to Syria from Tarshish together with apes and ivory ; 
whence it has been assumed that Tarshish was either in India or 
Ceylon. It, may, however, have been a port on the east coast of 
Africa to which Indian products were carried. It has also been 
suggested by Dr. P. Haupt, in the article cited on p. 12, that 
Tarshish indicates the Cinnabar Mines of Spain. The " Apes " 
cannot be identified. 

" SWAN." 

The rendering of the Hebrew tinsJiemeth as " Swan " in Lev. 11, 18, 
is almost certainly wrong ; and it has been suggested that the bird 
indicated by that word is really the Purple Waterhen (Porj)]iyrio 
cseruleus), which is a common species in the Mediterranean countries. 
The Hebrew word almost certainly denotes a Water-Bird ; and in 
the Septuagint it is translated Porphurion, but in another version 
Ibis. 

OSTRICH. 

Although for the most part otherwise translated, there is little 
doubt that the Hebrew words hath-licujya'anah, yd' en, and rendnim(?) 
indicate the Ostrich (Struthio canielus), the range of which extends 
from Barbary to Syria, Arabia, and even Mesopotamia, although 
it does not now include Egypt. The Ostrich is mentioned in 
Lam. 4, 3; but the Ostricli of Jol) 39, 13, is the rendering of 
the Hebrew n6(;dh (i.e. feathers). 

PARTRIDGE. QUAIL. 

Two kinds of Partridge, the red-legged Chukar Partridge 
(Caccahis chuJcar) and Hey's Sisi Partridge (Ammojjerdix heyi), 
abound in Syria, and both may be indicated by the Hebrew qSre, 
which signifies " the caller," and is translated " Partridge" (Jer. 17, 
11 ; 1 Sam. 26, 20). This word, like the Hindustani chulcar, is 
derived from the bird's note, 

Seldio, the Hebrew equivalent of saliva, the Arabic name of the 
Quail (Coturni.ic communis), is rightly taken to indicate that ))ird. 

TURTLE. TURTLE-DOVE. DOVE. 

The Hebrew name tor, like the English " Turtle," is derived 
from the coo of the Turtle-Dove {Turtur communis), a species that, 
together with the Palm-Dove (T. senegalemis), visits Palestine in 



1 6 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

large flocks every summer. The word is rightly translated '' Turtle- 
Dove" in Gen. 15, 9, and Lev. 1, 14. 

The "Dove" of Scripture (Isa. 38, 14), the rendering of the 
Hebrew yonah, is the Rock-Dove, or Blue Rock-Pigeon {CoJiimha 
livia), the parent-stock of the numerous domesticated breeds of 
Pigeons. 

CRANE. SWALLOW. 

In the two passages, " Like a Crane or a Swallow, so did I 
chatter" (Isa. 38, 14), and "The Crane and the Swallow observe 
the time of theii* coming " (Jer. 8, 7), the translators have practi- 
cally identified the two species intended, but have rendered sus or sis, 
which properly indicates the Swift (Ci/pselus op?«s), and is equivalent 
to the Arabic sits, as " Crane," while 'ngur, which really means the 
Ci'ane, is ti-anslated '' Swallow." 

The word rJeror is probably riglitly translated " Swallow " 
(Hinuido rustica), although it may also include other birds of rapid 
flight. 

" LAPWING." 

The Hebrew dnldpliaili, rendered " Lapwing" in the Authorised 
Version (Lev. 11, 19), probably indicates the Hoopoe {U]^)upa epops), 
as it is very similar to the Coptic and Syriac names of that bird, 
which abounds in Palestine. 

SPARROW. 

In our version the Hebrew (•ippor, signifying to chirp or twitter, 
and the Greek stroutJilon are rendered " Sparrow," and may refer 
to any of the smaller perching birds, many of which are now, 
as formerly, used for food in Syria. The " Sparrow alone 
upon the house top," referred to in P.salm 102, 7, is, however, very 
probably the Blue Rock-Thrush (Monticula cyanits), which is 
habitually a solitary species. 

RAVEN. 

The Hebrew 'orehh must be taken in a wide sense, so as to include 
not only the Raven (Corvns corax), but likewise the Crow (C. corone). 
Rook (C frugllegus), and other members of the same group. The 
Raven of Prov. 30, 17, is the correct rendering of 'orehh ; but it has 
been suggested that the Ravens, 'd/-e/J/n?i, that fed Elijah (1 Kings 
17, 6) were the people of Orbo, a small town near the Cherith Valley. 



Mentioned in the Bible. 



17 



CHAMiELEON. LIZARD. 

The translation of the Hebrew lioali, as " Chameleon " in Lev. 
11, 30, appears incorrect ; and it has been suggested that one of the 
large Lizards known as " Monitors," such as the Egyptian Varamis 
ailoticits or V. griseus, is the animal referred to. On the other 
hand, the word finshemeth, in the same passage, which is translated 
" Mole," may indicate the Chamteleon (see Mole, p. 11). The reason 

Fig. 6. 




(Fioni 



The Chameleon. 

' The Cambridge Natural History.") 



for the latter opinion is that finsliemeth comes from a root meaning 
to breathe, thus suggesting tlie Chamaeleon, which was believed to 
live by swallowing air. " Lizard," the translation of the Hcl)rew 
letddh, cannot be identified with any particular species, although it 
doubtless indicates Lizard-like Reptiles. 

" TORTOISE." 

The Hebrew word rab, translated "Tortoise" in the Authorised 
Version (Lev. 11, 29), but amended to " Great Lizard " in the Revised 



1 8 Guide to Animals, Plants^ and Minerals 

Version, which occurs only in Lev. 11, 29, appears to be the 
equivalent of dah, the Arabic name of the Spiny-tailed Lizards of 
the genus Uromasfix. These Lizards, of which U. sj^inij^es is the 
typical species, grow to a length of about 2 feet, and are common in 
the desert districts of Syria, Arabia, and N. Africa, as well as 
India, where they live in holes. They take their name from the 
rings of stout spines girdling the tail. 

SNAIL. 

Of two words rendered " Snail " in our Bible, the translation is 
probably correct in the case of shabhil (Psalm 58, 8) ; the slimy 
ti'ack of Snails probably giving rise to the idea that the body is 
wasting. Hornet (Lev. 11, 30), on the other hand, which appears 
related to the Arabic chomctan (I.e. sand), may indicate desert Lizards 
of the Skink group, such as Scincus officinalis. 

SERPENT. ASP. ADDER. COCKATRICE. 

The ancient Hebrews were probably acquainted with about 
half-a-dozen kinds of poisonous Serpents, for which they had several 
names. Pethen, rendered " Asjd " (Isa. 11, 8), was a species used by 
snake-charmers, and probably therefore the Egyptian Cobra {Naia 
liaie), which ranges into Syria. " Adder " (Psalm 58, 4), or sometimes 
" Cockatrice " (Isa. 11, 8), stands for any Snake of the Viper group, 
and is used for several Hebrew wards. Of these, sMpltiphon prol)- 
ably indicates either Cleopatra's Asjj (Cerastes vipcra) or the Horned 
Viper (C. cornutus), while 'akhshubh may be the Sand-Viper (Echis 
carinatus). "Fiery flying serpent" (Isa. 14, 29) is apparently a 
mythical expression; but the "fiery serpent" (Numb. 21, G) may 
possibly have been the veiy large Guinea- worm (Dranunculus 
inedincnsis). 

FROG. 

The word " Frog," which is at least an approximately correct 
translation, occurs several times in the Old (e.g., Exod. 8, 2) and 
once in the New Testament (Rev. 16, 13). Tristram stated that 
the only species inhabiting Egypt is the Edible Frog (liana escnlcnta) 
of Europe, Asia, and North Africa ; but that species is rare in 
Egypt, where the oi-dinary Frog is Rana mascaricnsis of Africa. 
This may have been the Frog of the Plagues : but there is a possi- 
bility that Toads constituted the visitation, some support to this 
being attbrded by the fact that Bitfu rerjularis makes its appearance 
in Egypt at certain seasons, or after rain, in numbers. 



Mentioned in the Bible. 



19 



BEE. HONEY. HORNET. 

Palestine, like India, abounds with Bees of various kinds, which 
often dwell in immense swarms, and are thus dangerous to 
travellers. The Palestine Honey-Bee {^p/s fasciata) is nearly allied 
to the European species. In Hebrew the Bee is called deborali and 
honey debash ; the latter word also indicating a decoction of grape- 
juice. The translation of the Hebrew rir'dh as " Hornet " is correct. 



Fig. 7. 




■jrU^iT 



"TT'r'y'l'- 



The Indian Cobra, a Speciks allied to the Afkican Cohha. 
(From "The C'ainliridge Natural History.") 



LOCUST. GRASSHOPPER. CANKERWORM. 
CATERPILLAR. BEETLE. 

Several Hebrew words are rendered " Locust " and " Grasshopper " 
(Lev. 11, 22) in the Bible ; but it is probable that arhch, the Locust 
of the Plagues (Exod. 10, 4-6), indicates the North African Locu.st 
{Acrldhuii jiererjrinnm), which, like the Migratory Locust (Parlnityhoi 
cinerasrcns), ranges into Palestine. Yeleq and hdsil, both of which 

c 2 



20 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Alincrals 

appear to mean " the licker-up," and are translated indiflercntly 
"Caterpillar" (Psalm 78, 46) and " Cankerworm " (Joel 1, 4), 
probably indicate the immature, non-flying stages of the Locust, 
the " voetgangers " of the Dutch in South Africa. " Beetle " (Lev. 
llj 22) apparently also indicates some kind or phase of Locust ; 
it is the rendering of the Hebrew Jiargol ; the same is the case 
with " Bald Locust" (Lev. 11, 22), See also Worm. 

WOR]\[. MOTH. PALMER-WORM. 

" Worm " occurs in many passages (e.g., Isa, 51, 8) as the trans- 
lation of the Hebrew sds, rimmdh, and tole'dh. Of these, sos, which 
is found in Isaiah, denotes the lar\a of a species of Clothes-Moth 
{Tinea pellionclla), characterised by eating cloth in such a manner 
as to make it appear worn ; and the same is the case with 'ash, 
rightly translated " Moth." Rimmdli and tole'dh denote Caterpillars 
and Grubs of various Insects, and lesg commonly Earth- Worms. The 
reference in Jonah 4, 7, to a gourd being withered by the attack of 
a worm (tole'dh) suggests the larva of a large Beetle or Moth. The 
passage in Job 27, 18, " He buildeth his house as a moth, and as a 
booth that the keeper maketh," probably refers to the large rough 
larval case of small twigs made by the bigger Psychid Moths. The 
Greek sZ;d/r'a:, in the New Testament, translated "Worm," is ecjuiva- 
lent to tole'dh. " Palmer- Worm " (Joel 1, 4), the rendering of the 
Hebrew gdzdm, is almost certainly a Caterpillar, but ma}' also include 
one or more of the immature stages of the Locust (see Cankerworm). 

SCORPION. SPIDER. ANT. 

Several kinds of Scorpion are common in Palestine, especially in 
the deserts, and the word 'aqrdb is no doubt rightly translated 
(Deut, 8, 15) in this sense. Two words, 'akkdbish (Isa. 59, 5) and 
semdmith (Pr. 30, 28), are rendered " Spider " ; and in the case of the 
first, at any i-ate, the translation is correct. The second word may, 
however, indicate a Gecko, although it has been suggested that the 
movements of a running Spider may justify the application of the term 
" hands " to its limbs. " Ant," the rendering of the Hebrew nemdldh, 
occurs twice in Proverbs (6, 6-8 ; 30, 25), and is no doubt rightly 
rendered. Numerous kinds of Ants, some of the genus Formica 
and others of Myrvilca, inhabit Palestine, and difl'er from those of 
northern countries in their habit of storing up grain in the time of 
harvest. 



Mentioned in the Bible. 21 



FLIES. FLEAS. LICE. 

Zebuh and 'aroh are both translated "Fly" or "Flies" (Exod. 8, 
21-32; Psalm 78, 45; Eccles. 10, 1), the former, which is the 
equivalent of the Arabic athebah, apparently signifying some kind of 
biting Fly, such as a Horse, or Gad, Fly (Tahanus), although in some 
instances used in a more general sense. The serious torment that 
Flies constitute in the East is testified by the cult of the Phoenician 
idol Baalzebub, the Lord of Flies. 'Arob, which is the term employed 
for the Flies of the Plagues, indicates the House-Fly {Musca domestica). 
"Flea" is mentioned twice in 1 Samuel (24, 14; 26, 20), and, 
like "Lice," the rendering of hinnim (Exod. 8, 16), is correctly 
translated. Lice are common among the desert Bedouin, but would 
be repugnant to the cleanly Egyptians of Biblical times. 

HORSE-LEECH. 

The word " Horseleach " occurs in Prov. 30, 15, as the trans- 
lation of the Hebrew 'aluqdh, which is the equivalent of the Arabic 
'alaq, the name of the Horse-Leech [Rsemopis sanguisuga), and 
perhaps of other kinds of blood-sucking Leeches. The expression 
" two daughters " is generally considered to be figurative, and to 
refer to the blood-sucking habits of Leeches. The ordinary 
Medicinal Leech represents another genus, Hirndo. A specimen of 
the Horse-Leech is exhibited. 



PURPLE DYE. 

" Purple " was a colour held in high estimation among the 
ancients, and was obtained by using as a dye the secretion of certain 
Whelk-like Molluscs of the genera Piirjmm and 3Iurex ; the former 
of which takes its name from producing this dye. The dye, which 
is the product of a gland situated near the gills, is yellowish when 
first extracted, and turns purple only when exposed to sunlight. 
The dye was in use in Minorca at least till 1858 ; but even in early 
times became very scarce. The species most used as a source oi 
supply was Murex trunculus, of which a shell, together with one of 
M. brandaris — a species also used as a source of the dye — is shown 
in the case. The ancient " purple " was pi'obably more the colour 
of the flower of the Crown Imperial, or Giant Fritillary. 



2 2 Guide to Animals, Plants, a7id Minerals 

PEARLS*. 

Pearls are referred to in Job 28, 18 ; " No mention shall be made 
of coral, or of pearls." In this passage the word is the translation 
of the Hebrew gdhish, meaning ice, and the reference would there- 
fore seem to be to rock-crystal. C)n the otlier hand, the margaritni 
of the New Testament (e.g., Matt. 13, 45) are undoubtedly true 
Pearls, which are largely the product of the Pearl-Oyster {Mar- 
(jaritlfera margaritifera), and are secreted by those Molluscs around 
the larvie of parasitic worms. A moderately large kind of Pearl- 
Oyster (Jli. w. erytlirseae), of which a specimen is exhibited, occurs in 
the Red Sea, and a rather smaller kind {M. m. persica) in the 
Persian Gulf ; and it was doubtless from one or both of these that 
Palestine ol)tained its iiearls. The small Lingah Pearl-Oyster (^M. 
viilgaris), of the Persian Gulf, is lished (mly for its shell. 

CORALf. SPONGE. 

Coral, Hebrew rdmotli (meaning that which grows tall, or is 
tree-like), is mentioned in Job 28, 18, and in Ezek. 27, 16. The 
Coral of Scripture, which was brought to T\'re either from the Red 
Sea or the Persian Gulf, was probably the precious Red Coral 
(Gorallium ruhrmn), of which a specimen preserved in spirit, so as to 
show the Polyps, is exhibited. Coral was broken off from submarine 
rocks and drawn up to the surface by cords ; and it has been stated 
that in the pas.sage in Job, the words " the piice of wisdom " 
might be better rendered " the drawing up of wisdom," and thus 
refer to the coral-fishery. Coral of all kinds is the calcareous skeleton- 
like secretion of Polyps near akin to Sea-Anemones. 

Sponge, of which several kinds are abundant in the Mediter- 
ranean, is mentioned only in the New Testament {e.g., Matt. 27, 48), 
as the translation of the Greek spongos. 

MANNA. 

An Insect of the genus Coccus, nearly allied to the Cochineal 
Insect (C. cacti), infests the leaves of Tamarisk (Tamarix mnnnifera) 
on Sinai, piercing them with its proboscis, and thereby causing an 
exudation of a sweet gummy secretion. This hardens and drops 
from the boughs, when it is collected by the natives, who regard it 
as the Manna of the Israelites (Exod. 16, 15), although, as mentioned 
on p. 41, this has a quite different source. 

* Sec also p. 71. t See also p. 70. 



Mentioned in the Bible. 23 



IL— PLANTS. 

Tt has been estimated that 1 20 plants are mentioned in the Bible, 
but, as in the case of the animals, it is often difficult or impossible 
to associate the Hebrew name with a specific plant. It must 
also be remembered that botany as a science was in a very crude 
state at the date of the preparation of the Authorised Version, and 
the rendering adojjted is often misleading from the point of view of 
modern terminology. In some instances the translators have not 
attempted to find an English equivalent for the Hebrew, as in the 
case of the timber of which Noah built the ai'k, where gopher is 
simply a transliteration of the Hebrew word. In many cases they 
have used English words that a knowledge of the flora of Palestine 
shows to be inappropriate {see, for instance, under Apple, Chestnut, 
Rose), and in others the same name does duty for more than one 
plant ; oak, for instance, includes the terebinth. Some words ai'e 
of a very general application, such as those indicating spiny or 
thorny plants, which are a characteristic feature of the drier, hotter 
parts of Palestine and the desert countries adjoining ; or the term 
" ])itter herbs," in reference to which Canon Tristram remarks : 
" There are not many of the Crucifcrae or CompoHihe families of 
plants which Orientals do not employ for their varied bitter salads." 
In the present exhibition a certain general arrangement has 
been followed. The front end of the case is occupied with specimens 
of useful woods so far as these can be identified. Following round 
to the right are trees and shrubs, finishing with the vine in the back 
end of the case. The left side deals with herbs, mainly food-plants 
— very few flowers arc mentioned in the Bible— with the plants from 
which perfumes were derived, and finally a few of the characteristic 
thorns and thistles, 

WOODS. 

BOX-WOOD. 

In the passage m Ezekiel (27, 6), " The company of the Ashurites 
have made thy benches of ivory," the word rendered " Ashurites " 
should probably be translated " Box-wood," and the passage should 



24 Guide to Animals, Plants^ and Minerals 

read, "The benches of the rowers have they made of box- wood 
inlaid with ivory." 

The Box-tree of Palestine, Buxns longifolia, is closely allied to 
B. semper vir ens, the species native and commonly grown in England, 
a specimen of the wood of which is shown here. It is hard, close- 
grained, and remarkably homogeneous and durable. 

OLIVE-WOOD. See Olive. 

GOPHER-WOOD. 

The Hebrew j70j>7?er, which occurs once only (Gen. 6, 14, "Make 
thee an ark of gopher-wood "), has been variously explained. 
Perhaps the most probable interpretation is that it is the same as 
cojjher, the Cypress {Cupressus sempervirens), a tree that grows in 
great abundance in Chaldea and Armenia, and from its toughness 
and close texture is well adapted for ship-building. 

ALMUG OR ALGUM TREE. 

Almug or Algum trees were imported from Ophir (probably 
India) by Hiram of Tyre for Solomon, who used the wood for pillars 
in the Temple and the king's house and for musical instruments 
(1 Kings 10, 12). It was evidently a very precious wood, and must 
have been hard and close-grained. It has been identified with the 
Red Sandal-wood, or Sanders-wood, of India, which is very heavy, 
fine-grained, and of a brilliant red colour, and is still used in the 
East for making musical instruments. 

The plant referred to has been identified also with the well- 
known Sandal-wood {Santaliim album) of India, a very hard, close- 
grained, fragrant wood, used for carving and cabinet work. 

Specimens of both of these woods are shown. 

EBONY. 

Ebony (Hebrew, hohnhn) is mentioned by Ezekiel (27, 15) as 
a precious article brought to Tyre by the merchants of Dedan — the 
inhabitants of the Persian Gulf. It is the heart-wood of a tree, 
Diospyros El>eninn, a native of Southern India and Ce}'l()ii ; the 
outer wood is white and valueless. 



Mentioned in the Bible. 25 

CEDAR-WOOD. See Cedar. 

A small specimen of the wood and bark in cross-section is shown ; 
also a fragment of a Cedar beam brought from the palace at ancient 
Nineveh by Layard, the Assyrian explorer. 

THYINE WOOD. 

Thyine wood, mentioned in Rev. 18, 12, is the wood of a small 
tree (Callitris quadrivalvis), of very slow growth, allied to the 
Cypress, and a native of the Atlas Mountains in North Africa. 
The wood, which is dark brown in colour, very heavy, close-grained, 
and fragrant, was much prized in the days of the Roman Empire 
for inlaid work, and is still used for a similar purpose in Algeria at 
the present day. 

SHITTIM WOOD. See Shittah Tree. 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 

ALMOND. 

The Almond (AmygdahiH communis) is frequently mentioned in 
the Bible, and is one of the native fruits of Palestine^. Its flowers 
appear before the leaves, and it is the earliest of all the trees to put 
forth blossom, whence its Hebrew name shdqed, hasten. (Compare 
the play on the word in Jer. 1, 11, 12.) Aaron's rod that budded 
(Numb. 17, 8) yielded almonds, and almonds were among the presents 
taken down to Egypt by Jacob's sons. The fruit was the model for 
the ornaments of the candlesticks in the tabernacle. The word luz, 
translated " Hazel " in Gen. 30, 37, is supposed to refer to the 
Almond. 

APPLE. 

The Hebrew tai)})uah, translated "Apple," occurs in tlie Song of 
Solomon (2, 3 and 5 ; 7, 8 ; 8, 5), also in Prov. 25, 11—" A word 
fitly spoken is like apples of gold in pictures of silver "— and elsewhere. 
This does not refer to our Apple, wliicli is not native, nor does it 
thrive under cultivation in Palestine. The Quince and Citron have 
been suggested among others as the fruit indicated, but from the 
passages in which the tree is mentioned it is evident that it must 



26 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

have supplied a grateful shade, and that the fruit must have been 
sweet to the taste and beautiful to see. Canon Tristram suggests 
the Apricot (Armeniacn vulga7-is:) as the only likely fruit that com- 
bines those characters. Though not a native of Palestine, the 
Apricot was early introduced from Armenia, and is now conimon 
everywhere. 

BAY. 

The Hebrew ezrdh is once translated " Bay-tree " (Ps. 37, 35), 
and the Psalmist may possibly have intended the Sweet Bay {Laurna 
nohilis), a native of Palestine and a plant w'ell known in our shrul> 
beries. As the word is elsewhere translated " native," as opposed 
to a stranger or foreigner, it has been suggested that the term 
applies merely to a tree grown in its native soil, ;ind not to any 
particular tree. 

CHESTNUT-TREE. 

The Hebrew 'arnion, which occurs twice in the Old Testament 
(Gen. 30, 37 ; Ezek. 31, 8), is translated " Chestnut-tree " in the 
Authorised Version, but the Chestnut is not a native of Palestine. 
The Revised Version, following the Septuagint, is probably correct 
in its rendering " Plane-tree " (Platanus orientalis), which is frequent 
by the sides of sti'eams. This tree is well known as planted in 
parks and open spaces in England. 

BOX. 

The Box-tree is mentioned by Isaiali (41, 19, and 60, 13) as 
associated with the Fir-tree and the Pine. The native Box-tree of 
Palestine is Bhxhh longlfolia, a small evergi'een tree about 20 feet 
high, slightly diffciing from the species commonly grown in England. 
A piece of the wood is shown in the front end of the case. 

CEDAR. 

The Hebrew ercz is applied in the Bible generally to trees of the 
Pine family, but more frecjuently to the Cedar of Lebanon {Cedruft 
libani), which forms extensive forests on the Mountains of Lebanon, 
and is also plentiful on the Taurus range. The tree is from .50 to 
80 feet in height, with numerous large horizontal branches, and 
is quoted as a type of grandeur and lofty stature. The wood was 
largely used by Solomon in the erection of the Temple and of his 



Mentioned in the Bible. 27 

own palace. Specimens of the wood are shown in the front end of 
the case. The Cedar-wood mentioned in Lev. 14, 4, and Nuinl). 
19, G, was probably derived from a fragrant species of Junipei'. 

FIG. 

The Fig {Flciis Caricn) is the first known tree mentioned in the 
Bible (Gen. 3, 7), and there are frequent references to the tree and 
its fruit both in the Old and New Testaments. It is a native of 
Palestine, and is also generally cultivated there ; the land was de- 
scribed as " a land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and 
pomegranates " (Deut. 8, S). It reaches a considerable size, the stem 
being often 3 feet thick ; the wide-spreading branches bear a dfuise 
foliage of large tough palmate leaves, aff'ording a grateful shade : 
" they shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig tree " 
(Micah 4, 4). The fruits, especially when dried, form an important 
article of everyday food ; when dried they were pressed into cakes 
(Hebrew, debelah) (see 1 Sam. 25, 18 ; 30, 12). 

The first ripe figs (Hebrew hiJcMrdh) appeared in spring before 
the leaves expanded ; the green or unripe figs were called in 
Aramaic pagyd, a word found in Bethphage, literally "the house of 
unripe figs." 

FIR-TREE. 

The Hebrew herosh and heroth, generally translated " Fir tree " in 
our version, refer probably to the Aleppo Pine (Pinus hahyenKis), a 
native of the mountainous parts of Palestine, and common on the 
Lebanon range. It is associated with cedars in respect of its 
noble growth (Ezek. 31, 8 ; Isa. 37, 24). The Fir-tree as well as 
the Cedar was supplied by Hiram from Lebanon for the building of 
Solomon's Temple. It was also used for rafters (Cant. 1, 17), for 
the decks of ships (Ezek. 27, 5), and for musical instruments (2 Sam. 
6, 5). The tree has been very largely destroyed for fuel or timber. 
Some commentators believe that the tree alluded to is the Cypress 
(Capres.'^ns sempervirens), which is extensively planted in the neigh- 
l)Ourhood of towns, but apparently is not wild in Palestine. The 
Hebrew tirzdh, translated in our version "Cypress" (Isa. 44, 14), 
refers to some hard-grained wood, and may or may not be Cypress. 
In the Septuagint and Vulgate it is translated as equivalent to 
" Oak," and others render it " Holly." 

The Gopher-wood from which Noah built the ark (Gen. 6, 14) 



28 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

has been regarded as identical with copher, the Cypress, which, from 
its tough and close-grained wood, is well adapted for ship-building, 
and is abundant in Armenia [see Gopher-wood). 

HEATH. 

The Hebrew 'ar'dr, 'aro'er, the Heath of the desert or wilderness 
(Jer. 17, 6 ; 48, G), is a dwarf Juniper [Jimijjerus macrocarpa), closely 
allied to the Savin, which grows in the most barren and rocky parts 
of the desert. It bears dark pui-ple berries. A branch of the plant 
is shown. 

JUNIPER. 

The Hebrew roihem, translated "Juniper" in several passages, is 
the same as the Arabic ret em, and refers, not to a Juniper, but to 
a species of Broom {Ituetauia roetam). It is a desert shrub, very 
common in the ravines, growing to a height of 10 or 12 feet, and 
affording a grateful shade (1 Kings 19, 4, .5). It is described as the 
largest and most conspicuous of all the plants of the desert. The 
thick roots are converted into charcoal by the Arabs ; this explains 
the reference (Psalm 120, 4) to " coals of juniper." Job (30, i) 
speaks of outcasts from Edoni using Juniper roots as food in their 
extremity. Rithmah, one of the camps of the Israelites in the 
wilderness, implies " the place of rothem." Specimens of branches 
in Hower and fruit are shown. 

LOCUST-TREE. 

The " husks that the swine did eat," referred to in the parable 
of the Prodigal Son (Luke 15, 10), wei-e the bean-like fruits of the 
Locust or Carob tree {CeraUmia Siliqna). The tree is very common 
in Palestine, and forms with its dense deep green foliage a con- 
spicuous and attractive object. It blossoms at the end of February, 
and pods are produced in great qua!\tity in April and May ; the 
Greek name {hernt'm, little horns) refers to their honi-like shape. 
The pods are chiefly used for feeding cattle and horses. 

MULBERRY-TREE. 

The Hebrew heknim is thus translated in 2 Sam. 5, 23, 24. 
It probably refers to a species of Poplar [Populns euphratica) re- 
sembling the Aspen, and the characteristic trembling of the leaves 
is probably alluded to in the expressicm, "the sound of a going in 



Mentioned in the Bible. 29 

the tops of the mulberry-trees." The true Mulberry {3Ioras nigra) 
is mentioned in the New Testament under the name of " Sycamine" 
(Luke 17, 6), which see (p. 32). 

MYRTLE. 

The Myrtle {Myrtns communis), several times mentioned in the 
Old Testament, is an abundant plant in the south of Europe, and 
common on hillsides in Palestine. It no longer grows on the Mount 
of Olives, where its occurrence is mentioned by Nehemiah (8, 15) 
after the return from Babylon. It is always referred to as a 
favourite tree, thus : "Instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle 
tree" (Isa. 55, 13); "I will plant in the wilderness the cedar 
. . . and the myrtle" (Isa. 41, 19). The Hebrew is hadas, from 
which is foi'racd the name Hadassah, the Hebrew form of Esther. 

OAK. 

Six Hebrew words from the same root are rendered " Oak " in 
the Authorised Version. One of these, elcih, is properly the 
Terebinth or Teil tree (which see). The other five names, el, elon, 
'dan, alldh, allon, appear to be interchangeable ; Tristram suggests 
that allon stands for the evergreen Oak, and elon for the deciduous 
sorts. The most common Oak in Palestine is an evergreen species, 
Quercus jiseudocorrifera, resembling in general appearance tlie Holm 
Oak {Q. Ilex). To this species belongs the so-called Abraham's Oak 
near Hebron, which has for several centuries taken the place of the 
famous terebinth that marked the site of Mamre (Gen. 18, 1). 
It is described as the noblest tree in southern Palestine, with a 
trunk 23 feet in girth, and a spreading crown covering an area 
93 feet in diameter. 

A picture of this oak is shown, also some acorns from it. 

The Valonian Oak (Q. ^gilops) is deciduous, and ^■ery like our 
common Oak in appearance. The large acorns, which are eaten by 
the Arabs, are borne in very large cups densely covered with long 
recurving teeth. The cups are rich in tannic acid, and extensively 
used l)y tanners. Q. JEyilops is common in Galilee, and is also 
abundant across the Jordan in IJashan, whei-e it grows to a 
magnificent size, and is no doubt the Oak of Bashan (Isa. 2, 13 ; 
Zech. 11, 2). 

A third species, the Gall Oak (Q. Insrrlifera), is a deciduous tree 
from 20 to 30 feet high, with leaves very white on the under face. 



30 Guide io Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

It is less conimoii than the other two species, but is seen occasionally 
in Samaria, Galilee, and on the Lebanon range. 

OLIVE. 

The Olive (Olea europsea) is the characteristic tree of Palest ne. 
The Promised Land was a land of olive trees, oliveyards, md 
oil ohve (Deut. 6, 11; 8, 8; Joshua 24, 13). The ;ree 
figures prominently in the first recorded parable (Judges 9, 8), 
where it is invited to be king over the trees. It was used by 
the Prophets as a type of beauty and luxuriance (Jer. 11, 16 ; 
Hosea 14, 6). The Olives in the Garden of Gethsemane on the 
Mount of Olives are among the oldest in the country, and tradition 
takes them back to the time of Christ. 

The tree grows to a height of about 20 feet, and is evergreen, 
with narrow bluish-green leaves, and bears numerous clusters of 
small whitish fragrant flowers, a large number of which fall in the 
spring, frequently covering the ground with a white carpet {cf. 
Job 15, 33). The fruit, which is produced in great abundance, is 
like a small plum, violet in colour when ripe ; the fleshy layers 
contain the oil, to which reference is made as an article of food 
(2 Chron. 2, 10), as an unguent (Psalm 23, 5; Matt. 6, 17), 
and for burning (Exod. 27, 20; Matt. 25, 3). The wood is 
yellowish, hard, and fine-grained, and suitable for cabinet work. 
The fruits are gathered by beating and shaking the branches 
(Deut. 24, 20 ; Isa. 17, G). 

The Olive requires to be grafted, the fruit developed from 
seedlings or suckers being small and worthless ; hence the contrast 
between the wild and good Olive (Rom. 11, 17-24). 

OIL-TREE. 

The Hebrew 'ei; shemm, translated "Oil-tree" (Isa. 41, 19), is 
probaldy the Oleaster {Elea(jiti(.s aufjatififolia), a small tree resembling 
the Olive in general appearance, with narrow bluish leaves, silvery 
white beneath, small white fragrant fl(jwers, and a very bitter green 
berry which yields an inferior oil. It has a fine hard wood, from 
which the two cherubim in )Solomon's Temple were made (1 Kings 6, 
23, where the rendering is erroneously "olive-tree"). In Neli. 8, 
15, the same word is translated "pine-branches." The tree is 
abundant in every part of Palestine above the Jordan Valley. 



Mentioned in the Bible. 



PALM. 

The Palm of Scripture is the Date-Palm (PJuxnix dacfi/Iifera) ; 
Heb., tdmdr ; Gr., plio'mix. Its intimate association with Palestine 
is indicated in the name Phoenicia, by which the country was 
known to the Greeks and Romans. It was doubtless formerly 
more common than at the present time, and it is probable that in 
ancient times the whole valley of the Jordan was stocked with 
Palms. Jericho was the city of Palm-trees (Deut. 34, 3), and 
the Palm-Gardens of Jericho were famous in the time of the Herods ; 
but owing to neglect the trees have been completely replaced by 
thorn and other wild trees. The Palm was also plentiful on the 
Mount of Olives (Neh. 8, 15), but no longer exists there. The 
Palm "branches" referred to (John 12, 13) are the huge leaves that 
crown the tall pillar-like stem. Fi'om its grace and beauty the 
tree was often taken as a woman's name, Tamar (Gen. 38, 6 ; 
2 Sam. 13, 1 ; 14, 27), and was a favourite ornament in archi- 
tecture, as, e.g., in Solomon's temple (2 Chron. 3, 5 ; 1 Kings 6, 
29-35). The fruits are produced in huge clusters, and are an 
important food, but there is no undisputed reference to them in 
the Bible, though in Cant. 7, 7, " Thy stature is like to a palm-tree, 
and thy breasts to clusters of grapes," " dates " has been suggested 
as a preferable reading for " grapes." 

POMEGRANATE. 

The Pomegranate (^Panica Granatum) is a small evergreen tree or 
large shrub widely cultivated for its fruit in warm countries, 
especially in those bordering on the Mediterranean Sea. Reference 
to its cultivation in Egypt occurs in Numb. 20, 5, and the 
Promised Land was described as one of " vines, and fig trees, and 
pomegranates " (Deut. 8, 8 ; Numb. 13, 23). Its Hebrew name, 
rimmou, was given to several towns and villages in Palestine. The 
fruit and the flower supplied models f(jr ornan)erital carving, as on 
the capitals of the pillars in the Temjdc, and for emljroidery, as on 
the High Priest's robe. 

POPLAR. 

The Hebrew Ubnch (white) occurs twice in the Old Testament, 
and is translated "Poplar" (Uen. 30, 37; Hosea 4, 13). The 
reference may be to the White Poplar (Pojmlus alba), which is 



32 Guide to Animals, Plants^ and Minerals 

common in damp places, the white down that covers the under 
face of the leaves justifying the application of the name. 

It has also been suggested that the reference is to the Storax- 
tree (Sfyrax officinalis), which grows abundantly on the lower hills of 
Palestine and in Armenia, and has white flowers resembling those 
of the Orange, and pale leaves with a white down on the under face. 
It yields a gum, which is probably the Stacie referred to in 
Exod. 30, 34, as one of the ingredients of the holy incense ; but 
the plants are shrubs or small trees, and hardly conform to the 
reference in Hosea as one of the trees under which idolatrous Israel 
sacrificed. The Mulberry (which see) referred to in 2 Sam. 5, 23, 24, 
was probably a species of Poplar, Popitlus ciqihrtiticd. 

SYCAMINE. 

The Greek suhaminus, translated " Sycamine tree " (Luke 17, 6), is 
the Black Mulberry (Morus nigra), which is still known in Greece as 
suhaminea. Both "White and Black Mulberry trees are common in 
Palestine, where they are cultivated for the leaves, which are used 
as food for silk-worms, and also for the fruit. The Mulberry -tree 
{q.v.) of Scripture was probably a Poplar. 

SYCAMORE. 

The Sycamore (Heb., shikmrm, shihiioth ; Gr., mlomorea) is a 
species of Fig {Ficiis Sijcomorus). The Greek name is derived from 
nukon, fig, and moron, mulberry, from the resemblance of the leaf to 
that of a Mulberry. It is a large evergreen tree with low, spreading 
branches, bearing the fruit on short leafless twigs on the trunk or 
older branches; the fruit is much smaller than that of the common 
Fig, and but poor eating ; to render it palatable it must be cut at the 
top before it is quite ripe to allow the acrid juice to escape. The 
prophet Amos (7, 14) refers to himself as a gatherer of (literally 
"one who scraped or cut") Sycomore fruit. It is a common wayside 
tree, and, with its short trunk, easy to climb (Luke 19, 4). It is 
very susceptible of cold, and occurs in Palestine in the mild climate 
of the maritime ])lains and in the hot Jordan Valley. The last- 
named locality is referred to (1 Kings 10, 27 ; 2 Chron. 1, 15 ; 9, 27) 
where it is stated that Solomon made cedars to be " as the sycomore 
trees that are in the low plains in abundance." Its wood is very light 
and porous, but of great durability, and was used by the Egyptians 
for making their mummy cases and for articles of furniture. 



Mentioned in the Bible. 33 

SHITTAH TREE. SHITTIM WOOD. 

The tree itself is mentioned once only (Isa. 41, 19), but its wood 
is repeatedly referred to as the principal timber used in the con- 
struction of the Tabernacle in the wilderness (Exod. 25, 26, 27, 30). 
It is a species of Acacia, A. Seyal, a gnarled and thorny tree which 
flourishes in the driest situations in the Arabian desert. The 
timber is hard, close-grained, and of a fine orange-brown colour. It 
is of great commercial value as yielding gum arabic, which exudes 
from the bark. Several places were named from the Acacia, as 
"the Valley of Shittim " (Joel 3, 18), and the plains of Shittim — 
the last camping place of the children of Israel before crossing the 
Jordan (Numb. 25, 1). 

TEREBINTH or TEIL TREE. 

The Hebrew eldli, denoting a strong, hardy tree, occurs in several 
places in the Bible, and is variously rendered "Teil tree" (Isa. 6, 13), 
"Elm" (Hosea4, 13), "Oak"(Gen. 35,4; Judges6,ll; 2Sam.l8, 
9, 10): in Gen. 18, 1, the plural eUn is translated "plains." 
The Septuagint rightly renders it " Terebinth tree " (Pistacia Tere- 
hinthus), known in the Greek islands as the " Turpentine tree," from 
the quantity of turpentine which exudes on tapping the trunk. 
In general ap2Jearance it resembles the Oak, especially when it sheds 
its leaves at the beginning of winter. It is very common in the 
southern and eastern parts of Palestine, occurring generally in places 
too warm or dry for the Oak. 

WILLOW. 

The two Hebrew words 'ardbim and <;aphqdphdh are rendered 
"Willow," indicating trees that flourished by water-courses. Several 
species of Willow (Salix) occur in Palestine, including the Weeping 
Willow (Salix hahylonica), which has been associated with the tree 
of the Captivity (Psalm 137, 2). The Araljic safmf, one of the 
vernacular names for Willow, is no doubt identical with the second 
Hebrew name mentioned. 

Canon Tristram suggests that the Willow by the water-courses, of 
Scripture, is applicable rather to the Oleander (Nerium Oleander), a 
yverj characteristic plant of Palestine, forming a fringe along the 
whole Upper Jordan, and marking the course of streams by a line 
of deep gi-een, or in the flowering season, burning red. It is a 
shrub with long, narrow, willow-like leaves, but sometimes attains 
tree-like proportions. 

D 



34 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

NUTS. 

The Hebrew egoz, rendered " nuts " in Cant. 6, 11, "I went down 
into the garden of nuts to see the fruits of the valley," refers to the 
Walnut-tree (Arabic, ghaus). The Walnut (Juglans regia), a native 
of Persia, was early spread through Western Asia and Europe. It 
is cultivated everywhere in Palestine, and its grateful shade, noble 
spreading growth, and the fragrance of the leaves must have 
rendered it a favourite tree in the gardens of Solomon. 

The Hebrew hotntm, also translated " nuts " (Gen. 43, 11), refers, 
doubtless, to the Pistachio nut (Ai'abic, hatum), the product of 
Pistacia vera, a ti'ee allied to the Terebinth, which at a distance it 
closely resembles. It bears a large crop of nuts shaped like an 
almond, but rounder and glossy ; the edible kernel is bright green, 
with the flavour of a walnut. It is widely cultivated in Palestine 
for the sake of its fruits, and as it was not found in Egypt the fruit 
was an appropriate present, together with the balm, honey, etc., 
sent by Jacob to his son Joseph. 

VINE. 

Frequent reference is made in the Bible to the Vine, its fruit, and 
the wine made from it. The plant, which is probably a native of 
some part of Western Asia, has been cultivated from the earliest 
times. Noah is recorded as planting a vineyard after the Deluge, 
and as making wine from the grapes (Gen. 9, 20, 21). Reference 
to its cultivation in Egypt occurs in Gen. 40, 9-11, and there are 
many representations of the plant on the Egyptian and Assyrian 
monuments (a photograph of one of the latter is shown). The Land of 
Promise was pre-eminent for its vines and the quality of the wine ; and 
vineyards were abundant before the Israelites came into possession. 
The spies sent by Moses brought back a huge bunch of grapes from 
the vale of Eschol {i.e., " cluster of grapes "); and this valley, a little 
to the south of Hebron, still produces the finest grapes in Palestine. 
The climate of Palestine is admirably suited to the Vine, and the 
land was once clad on every hill with terraced vineyards, traces of 
which are left in the wine presses and vats hewn in the rocks ; but 
the cultivation has diminished, partly from the desolation of the 
land and partly from wine being prohibited to the Moslems. The 
latter, however, still plant the Vine for the sake of its fruit, and for 
raisins. References to raisins, or grapes dried in the sun, as articles 
of food, occur in the Old Testament (1 Sam. 25, 18; 30, 12; 



Mentioned in the Bible. 35 

1 Chron. 12, 40). Various qualities both of vines and wine are 
referred to in Scripture. The thin sour wine used by the poorer 
classes is often translated " vinegar " (Ruth 2, 14), and such was 
probably the vinegar offered to Christ on the Cross. " Wine on 
the lees" (Isa. 25, 6) was wine kept on the lees or dregs without 
straining, for the purpose of increasing its body. The juice was 
expressed by treading ; it was hard work, and the men encouraged 
one another by shouting (Jer. 25, 30) ; their feet and legs were bare, 
but as they leaped upon the grapes their clothes became dyed with 
the juice (see Gen. 49, 11 ; Isa. 63, 2, 3). 

The "Wild "Vine bears a small black grape which is very acid and 
astringent, and used only for verjuice or vinegar (Isa. 5, 2). 

WILD GOURD. 

The Wild Gourds (Heb., jKiqqiVdth) that were shred into the pot 
of pottage (2 Kings 4, 38-40) ar« described as the fruit of a wild 
vine, and were probably the fruit of the Colocynth {Citrullus 
ColocyntMs), a member of the Cucumber family with vine-shaped 
leaves and tendrils. The fruit is tempting in appearance, but has 
an extremely nauseous bitter pulp, which dries rapidly when ripe, 
and is used medicinally as an active purgative. It grows 
abundantly on the barren sands near Gilgal, and all round the 
Dead Sea, 

An alternative suggestion is the Squirting Cucumber (Echallium 
Elaterium), the fruit of which bursts when ripe, expelling the seeds, 
and also affords a drastic purgative. 

Canon Tristram suggests that the Vine of Sodom (Deut. 32, 32) 
also refers to the Colocynth. 



HERBACEOUS PLANTS. 

CORN. 

There are many distinct words in Hebrew relating to corn 
• generally, such as ddgdn, in such expressions as " corn and wine " 
qdmdh, standing corn (as in Judges 15, 5) ; bar, clean Avinnowed 
corn (Gen. 41, 49) ; shibboleth, an ear of corn (Gen. 41, 5 ; 
Ruth 2, 2). The cereals referred to in the Bible are Wheat, Spelt 
(translated '• Rie " and " Fitches "), Barley, and Millet. 

D 2 



36 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minei'als 

WHEAT. 

Wheat has been cultivated from prehistoric times, and is not 
known in the wild state. It was one of the blessings of the 
Promised Land (Deut. 8, 8), and the time of wheat harvest is named 
repeatedly (Gen. 30, 14 ; 1 Sam. 12, 17) as one of the epochs 
of the year ; it was usually in May, about a month after barley 
harvest. There are numerous varieties of wheat ; the reference in 
Pharaoh's dream (Gen. 41, 5) to the seven ears on one stalk appears 
to be to the form which is still commonly cultivated in Egypt, and 
known as " Mummy Wheat" (Triticum compos it urn). The form now 
most generally grown in Palestine is Spelt (Triticum Sjjelta), mention 
of which occurs in the Old Testament as the Hebrew Jcussemeth, trans- 
lated " rie " (Exod. 9, 32 ; Isa. 28, 25) and " fitches" (Ezek. 4, 9). 
The wheat is sown in November or December, immediately after 
the barley. When reaped it is threshed, either by oxen treading 
out the corn on the hard threshing-floor (cf. Deut. 25, 4), or by a 
heavy wooden wheel or roller, or by a flail ((/. Isa. 28, 27). From 
the time of Solomon, Palestine was a corn-exporting country 
(1 Kings 5, 11; 2 Chron. 2, 10, 15). Parched corn, which is 
repeatedly mentioned in Scripture, was wheat scorched, generally 
while fresh, and was eaten without further preparation. 

BARLEY. 

Barley is genei-ally grown in Palestine. It will thrive in a much 
lighter soil than wheat, and arrives earlier at maturity. It is 
usually sown about the same time as wheat, but the barley harvest 
is over three weeks or a month before wheat harvest begins ; the 
barley was generally got in at the time of the Passover. The 
barley being in the ear was destroyed in Egypt by the plague of 
hail, while the wheat escaped, for it was not gi-own up (Exod. 9, 
31, 32). Barley is the universal food in Palestine of horses and 
asses, and sometimes also of draught oxen ; it is also largely used as 
food for man, but is held in much less esteem than wheat. 

MILLET. 

Millet (Heb., dohan) is one of the ingredients from which 
Ezekiel was ordered to make bread : " Take thou also unto thee 
wheat, and barley, and beans, and lentiles, and millet, and fitches 
[margin, spelt], and . . . mak(^ thee bread thereof " (Ezek. 4, 9). 



Mentioned in the Bible. 37 

The two specimens shown, Panlcum miliaceum and Sorghum vulrjare 
(the North Africa Dourrha), may both be included here, as both 
are cultivated in the Holy Land, and the meal that they yield is 
used for food. 

TARES. 

The Tares ((xr., zizania) of the Pai-able of the Wheat and the 
Tares (Matt. 13, 24-30) are the Darnel (LoUum fcmiihntnm), a 
grass that is abundant in the countries around the Mediterranean 
Sea, and is peculiar in that its seeds are poisonous. It is a common 
weed in the cornfields, and in early stages would be indistinguish- 
able from the wheat. 

LENTILS. 

Lentils (Hel)., 'adashnn) are the seeds of a vetch-like plant 
that is much cultivated on the poorer soils in Palestine. The 
red pottage for which Esau sold his birthright was of lentils 
(Gen. 25, 29-34). Lentils, beans, and parched pulse were among 
the supplies brought to David in Gilead when he fled from Absalom 
(2 Sam. 17, 28). It is generally used as a pottage, but is also 
mixed with wheat, barley, beans, etc., for bread (cf. Ezek. 4, 9). 

REED. 

The Reed of Egypt and Palestine is Ariindo Donax, the slender 
yielding stem of which reaches 12 feet in height, and bears at the 
top a magnificent cluster of blossom. It is doubtless the "reed 
shaken with the wind " of the wilderness (Matt. 11, 7). 

BULRUSH. RUSH. 

The Hebrew gome, translated " bulrush " (as in Exod. 2, 3) and 
"rush" (as in Isa. 35, 7), is without doubt the Papyrus (Cyperus 
Papyrus), which formerly abounded on the Nile, flourishing in the 
mire, as described in Job (8, 11), but is now wholly extinct in 
Egypt. The stem is 10 or more feet high, and ends in a many- 
rayed broom-like head of minute flowers. From the white pith, cut 
lengthwise into thin slices, was made the earliest known paper. 

FLAX {Linum sativum). 

The use of linen was univei-sal in Egypt, as it was the exclusive 
textile fabric. The importance of the crop is indicated by its 
mention in the plague of hail (Exod. 9, 31), which occurred at the 



3G5407 



38 Guide io Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

time when " tlie flax was boiled " — i.e., forming the seed-pod. Flax 
was iu cultivation in Canaan before the entrance of the Israelites : 
Joshua's spies were hidden on the roof of the house at Jericho with 
the stalks of flax which were spread to dry in the sun (Joshua 2, 6), 
as is the custom at the present day. Its use for lamp- wicks is referred 
to in the quotation, " The smoking flax shall he not quench " 
(Tsa. 42, 3 ; Matt. 12, -20). 

HYSSOP. 

There has been jnuch discussion as to the identity of the plant 
that was used for sprinkling the door-posts with the blood of the 
paschal lamb (Exod. 12, 22), and also as a sprinkler in the 
purification of lepers and leprous houses (Lev. 14, 4, 6, 51), and in 
the sin-offering (Numlx 19, 6, IS). The Caper (Capjjarin ftj^iinosa) 
is perhaps the most likely suggestion ; it is a bright green creeper, 
the long stems of which hang from the fissures of the rocks in the 
desert, and is plentiful in Egypt and the desert of Sinai. Another 
suggestion is Satiircia Thi/mhrn, a plant something like the mint ; 
and still another, the marjoram, Origanum vnhjarc : bunches of 
either of these would form an efficient sprinkler. 

Few references to Flowers occur in the Bible. The Rose and 
Lily are both mentioned in the English version, but it is very doubt- 
ful what specific flowers are referred to. 

ROSE. 

Two references to the Rose occur in Scripture : " I am the Rose 
of Sharon" (Cant. 2, 1), and " The desert shaU rejoice and blossom 
as the rose " (Lsa. 35, 1). The Hebrew word h/iha^eleth, which 
has been translated " rose," indicates a bulbous plant, and may refer 
to the sweet-scented Narcissus {Nnrrinniis Tazctta), a native of 
Palestine, and at the present day a great favourite with the in- 
haljitants. The plant known to us as the rose is not a native of 
Palestine, except in the mountainous country in the north. 

LILY. 

The Hebrew .s7<as7ni and shosanudh, translated "lily," occur in 
several passages in the Song of Solomon and elsewhere in the Old 
Testament. In the Sermon on the Mount the lilies of the field 



Mentioned in the Bible. 39 

(Greek, kr'ind) are uientioned for their beauty. There has been 
much discussion as to what particular flower may have been intended. 
The Arabs apply the same word, susan, to any brilliantly flowered 
herb, as the tulip, anemone, or ranunculus. The true Lily is not a 
native of Palestine. One of the most conspicuous and wide-spread 
of the spring flowers is Anemone corouaria, which forms a brilliant 
carpet on the plains, and is plentiful by the shores of the Lake of 
Galilee. It meets all the recjuirements of the various allusions, and 
may well have been the flower indicated. 

CUCUMBER. MELON. 

Cucumbers and Melons are referred to in Numb. 11, 5, when 
the Israelites regretted the good things they had left in Egypt. 

The common Cucumber (Curumis safivus) is extensively grown in 
Egypt and Palestine, and forms an important item, in the summer 
food of the poor. " The lodge in a garden of cucumbers " 
(Isa. 1, 8) was the rude booth erected to protect the field from 
destructive wild animals, such as jackals. 

The Melon (Cucuviis Mela) and the Water Melon (CitruUus 
vulgaris) are both largely cultivated in Palestine and Egypt. 

GOURD. 

The only reference occurs in Jonah (4, 6-10), and there has 
been much discussion as to the meaning of the Hebrew Idhayon 
there used. It has been identified on etymological grounds with 
the Castor-oil tree [Riciims), which, however, is not an arbour plant, 
and the original rendering is probably the correct one, as the Gourd 
{Cucurhita Pepo) is a rapidly growing climber that would quickly 
cover a booth and afford grateful shade. It also withers very 
quickly if the stem is injured. 

MANDRAKE. 

The fruit of the Mandrake (Mandrcujora offiriiKinim) (Heb., 
duddhn, love-plants) is still valued by the natives of Palestine, as it 
was in the time of Rachel and Leah (Gen. 30, 14). It resembles 
a large round yellow plum, and has a peculiar smell (see Cant. 7, 13) 
and a pleasant sweet taste. Many strange superstitions have been 
associated with the plant ; it was supposed to resemble the shape of 
a man, and to shriek when dug up. 



40 Guide to Animals^ Plants, and Minerals 

ONION. LEEK. GARLICK. 

Mention of these occurs in one passage (Numb. 11, 5) among the 
good things that the IsraeUtes had enjoyed in Egypt, and were 
no longer able to procure in the wilderness. Herodotus refers to 
the Onion (Allium Cepa) as an article of food in Egj^pt, and in its 
raw state it is much used by Orientals when on a journey, as 
a preservative against tliirst. 

The Leek (Allium Porrum) is the rendering of the Hebrew 
Jicicir, which elsewhere in the Old Testament is rendei'ed " herbs " 
or " grass," doubtless rightly, as it is derived from a root signifying 
to be green. The grass-like leaf and green colour of the leek render 
the word appropriate. 

Garlic (Heb., slnhii) is another species of Allium (A. sativum), 
akin to the onion, and much cultivated in Egypt and Syria. 

MINT. ANISE. CUMMIN. RUE. 

These four herbs are referred to as subjects of tithe by the 
scrupulous Jews (Matt. 23, 23 ; Luke 11, 42). 

Mint was commonly used with their meat by the Jews, and is 
said to be one of the bitter herbs eaten with the paschal lamb. The 
common wild mint of the country is Mentha sylvestris. 

Anise or Dill (Anetlmm graveolens) is a herb resembling the 
Caraway in appearance, and is cultivated in the East for its seeds, 
which are used as a carminative and for seasoning dishes. To the 
same family (Umbelliferje) belongs Cummin (Cuminum sativum), 
also cultivated for its seeds, which are often used as a spice in the 
East. Isaiah alludes to the mode in which the seeds are beaten out 
(28, 27). 

Hue (liuta (jravcolens), a herb with a powerful distinctive odour, 
was highly prized by the ancients for its medicinal properties, and 
was long regarded as eflBcacious in warding off contagion. 

FITCHES. 

Two words are translated "fitches" in the Authorised Version. 
One, the Hebrew knssemcih (Ezek. 4, 9), is elsewhere translated 
" rie " (see Wheat). The other is the Hebrew qe^ah — " the 
fitches are beaten out with a staff" (Isa. 28, 27). This refers 
to a small annual, Nigcllti. sativa, closely allied to the plant known 
in gardens as Love-iu-a-niist ; it is cultivated in Egypt and Syria 
for its black seeds, which are used as a condiment. 



I 



Mentioned in the Bible. 41 

MANNA. 

A species of Lichen {Lecanora esculenta), found in North Africa 
and Eastern deserts and mountains, supplies the inhabitants with 
food that they regard as sent from heaven. Great quantities are 
sometimes carried by the wind into the valleys, whei-e it is then 
collected ; it forms small greyish or whitish lumps from the size of 
a pea to that of a hazel-nut. 

The sweet substance now known as Manna is an exudation from 
the bark of the Manna Ash {Frax'mus Ornus) ; a similar exudation 
occurs on other trees, including the Tamarisk, which grows in the 
Sinai peninsula, but it is collected only in small quantities. 

A Lichen (Boccella tinctoria) has also been suggested as one of 
the sources of the blue or purple dyes referred to in Scripture. It 
has long been used in the East for this purpose. 

MUSTARD. 

The small size of the Mustard seed — " a grain of mustard seed" — 
is used by Christ as an example on three occasions ; in one case 
also it is compared with the size of the plant when grown — " the 
greatest among herbs," becoming " a ti'ce" (Matt. 13, 31, 32). The 
Common Mustard of Palestine is the same species as our own 
mustard, Sinapis nigra, but grows to a much greater size in 
Palestine, especially in the richer soils of the Jordan Valley ; plants 
as tall as a horse and its rider are mentioned by travellers. 

WORMWOOD. 

Wormwood (Heb., la'andh) is frequently used metaphorically 
as something bitter. It is the common name of plants of the genus 
Artemisia, well known for their bitter taste. Several species grow 
in Palestine ; the one shown, Artemisia monosperma, occurs along 
the coast. 



• 



PERFUMES. 

Many of the perfumes mentioned in the Bible are derived from 
plants that were not native of Palestine. The product was im- 
ported, as in the case of Spikenard or Aloes from Northei-n India, 
or Frankincense and Myrrh from Arabia. 



42 Guide to Animals, Plants^ and Minerals 

SPIKENARD. 

Spikenard is procured from a Himalayan plant, Nnrdostnchys 
Jatamansi, the young spike-like shoots of which are picked and dried. 
It was known in Palestine in Old Testament times (sec Cant. 1, 12 ; 
4, 13, 14), and in the New Testament is referred to as an ingredient 
of the costly ointment used by Mary to anoint the feet of Jesus 
(John 12, 3). 

ALOES. 

The Aloes mentioned in various passages in connection with 
other foreign spices — "myrrh, and aloes, and cassia" (Psalm 45, 8), 
" a mixture of myrrh and aloes " (John 19, 39) — is probably the 
product of a Northern Indian tree, Aqiiilaria Agallochum, from the 
wood of which is extracted a sweet-scented resin. 

This is quite distinct froni the resin known as Bitter Aloes — the 
product of a species of Aloe. It has, however, been suggested that 
the latter is the substance referred to, which was used, not for the 
sake of its OAvn scent, but for retaining the scent of the other 
ingredients. 

FRANKINCENSE. 

Frankincense is a fragrant gum-resin (ollbannm) which exudes 
as a milky juice from the stem and also the leaves and flowers of a 
small tree, Boswellia Carteri, the Frankincense or Luban tree, a 
native of tropical Arabia and Somaliland. It was an essential 
ingredient of the incense used by the Jews, and is similarly used at 
the present day. 

MYRRH. 

Myrrh is another gum-resinous exudation, the product of a bush 
orsmall tree, Balsnmodendron Myrrha, with short spine-like branchlets. 
The gum oozes from the bark as a viscid white licjuid, which rapidly 
hardens on exposure to air. The tree is a native of Southern 
Arabia and Somaliland. Frequent mention of Myrrh occurs both 
in the Old and in the New Testaments. It was an important 
ingredient of the holy anointing oil of the Tabernacle (Exod. 30, 
23), and was used also as a perfume (Psalm 45, 8 ; Pro v. 7, 17), and 
for embalming (John 19, 39). 

BALM. 

The most precious Balm, that of Gilead, was probably derived 
from Bahamodendron gileadense, a shrub or small tree, native of 



Mentioned in the Bible. 43 

Arabia and the opposite coast of Africa. It was formerly cultivated 
in the plains of Jericho, where it was planted, according to Jewish 
tradition, by Solomon, who received a root from the Queen of 
8heba. The word, which is a translation of the Hebrew ^'e/v', was 
perhaps applied to medicinal gum or oil prepared from trees of 
different species. 

CINNAMON. CASSIA. 

Cinnamon (Hel)., qiunnmoii) was one of the principal ingredients 
of the precious ointment of the Tabernacle (Exod. 30, 23), and is also 
referred to as a perfume (Prov. 7, 17 ;■ Cant. 4, 14). It is derived 
from the bark of a tree native in Ceylon and known as Ginnamomum 
zeylaniciim. Cassia, which was another ingredient of the holy 
ointment, is similarly derived from a closely allied species, Cinna- 
momiim Cassia, a native of India and China. 



SAFFRON. 

Saffron, which is once referred to (Cant. 4, 14) in connection 
with spikenard, is of high repute as a perfume and condiment in 
the East. It consists of the orange-red stigmas of a species of 
Crocus (C. sativus), which are dried in the sun and pounded, or 
pressed into small cakes. 



PRICKLY PLANTS. 

BRAMBLE. BRIER. THISTLE. THORNS. 

At least eighteen Hebrew words are used in the Bible for 
prickly plants. These are indifferently rendered "bramble," "brier," 
" thorn," or " thistle," arid there is very little to help towards their 
identification. 

The combined heat and dryness of the climate of Palestine 
favour the development of thorn-bearing plants. A few of these 
are shown below, and an attempt has been made to associate them 
with the Hebrew terms of Scripture. 

At/ul, translated " bramble " in Jotham's parable of the trees 
(Judges 9, 14), and "thorns" (Psalm 58, 9), has been referred to 
Lyclum curopseum, a plant with numerous erect branches and stiff 



44 Guide to AniuialSy Plants, and Minerals 

sharp spines which is very common in all parts of Palestine, and is 
often used for hedges. 

Dardar, translated "thistles" (Gen. 3, 18 ; Hosea 10, 8), is 
rendered triholos in the Septuagint ; and the same word occurs in 
the New Testament — " Do men gather , . . figs of thistles?" (Matt. 
7, 16), and in Heb. 6, 8, where it is translated "briers." The 
plant referred to is generally admitted to be the Star-Thistle, 
Ceniaurea Caldtrapa, a troublesome weed in cornfields in Southern 
Europe and Western Asia. 

The Hebrew hoah is also often rendered " thistles " (2 Kings 14, 9 ; 
Job 31,40); also "thorns" — e.g., "as the lily among thorns " (Cant. 
2, 2). Two common thistles in the cornfields are Notobasis syriaca 
and Scohjnuis maculata. 

A species of Zizyphus (Z. sjnna-Chrisii), a bush or tree with 
flexible branches bearing long sharp thorns, is supposed to have 
supplied the material for the crown of thorns (Matt. 27, 29). It is 
called nithlc by the Arabs, and is often used as material for fences. 
The thorns of the wilderness with which Gideon " taught the men 
of Succoth" (Judges 8, 7, 16) may have referred to this tree, which 
is very plentiful in the Jordan Valley. 

A characteristic spine-bearing plant of Palestine is a species of 
Acanthus {A. syriacus) ; the margin of the leaves bears stiff spines, 
and the thick flower-spike is also remarkably spiny. 



Mentioned in the Bible. 45 



III.— MINERA.LS. 

Whereas a Icnowledge of the animals and plants now found in 
Palestine is of great help to us in the recognition of the animals and 
plants mentioned under Hebrew or Greek names in the Bible, a 
knowledge of the minerals now found in that country is comparatively 
useless for a similar purpose, since the minerals mentioned in the 
Bible are mostly precious stones, which, presumably, had been 
carried into Palestine from other lands. 

There are definite references in the Bible to mineral-bearing 
regions outside Palestine; for instance, the "land of Havilah, 
where there is gold ; and the gold of that land is good : there is 
bdellium and the onyx stone " (Gen. 2, 11, 12), the " gold of Parvaim" 
(2 Chron. 3, 6), the " gold of Ophir " (Job 28, 16), and the " topaz 
of Ethiopia" (Job 28, 19). The precious stones that were mounted 
in the Breastplate of the High Priest may have been acquired by 
the Israelites in Egypt, and have been taken thither as merchandise 
by travellers from distant countries. 

In the time of the prophet Ezekiel (about B.C. 600), Tyre, the 
famed city of the Phoenicians, the greatest sea-faring traders of 
ancient days, was a centre of distribution of the produce of many 
lands : " And say unto Tyrus, O thou that art situate at the entry 
of the sea, which art a merchant of the pfojAe for many isles " (Ezek. 
27, 3). That part of the merchandise sold at Tyre was of a mineral 
character is shown by the following passages from the same 
chapter : — 

" Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all 
kind of riches ; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy 
fairs. Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, they were thy merchants : 
they traded the persons of men and vessels of hrass in thy market. 
. . . Syria was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of the wares 
of thy making : they occupied in thy fairs with emeralds, ])urple, 
and broidered work, and fine linen, and coral, and agate. . . . Dan 
also and Javan going to and fro occupied in thy fairs : bright iron, 
cassia, and calamus, were in thy market. . . . The merchants of 
Sheba and Kaamah, they Avere thy merchants : they occupied in thy 
fairs with chief of all spices, and with all precious stones, and gold." 

Groat difficulty is found in translating the Hebrew and Greek 



46 Guide to Animals, Plants, aiid Minerals 

names of iwiuerals mentioned in the Bible into names that would 
be used for the same minerals in a particular country at the present 
day. For it is only within the last century, through the develop- 
ment of the sciences of chemistry and crystallography, that it has 
become possible to define mineral species with any considerable 
approach to precision. For the diflerentiation of minerals in 
ancient Greek and Roman times stress could be laid only on density, 
or on characters less capable of precise determination and state- 
ment, such as colour, transparency, hardness, tenacity, fusibility, 
combustibility, action on other materials, and so on. Hence, various 
minerals were then brought together into a single kind, and indicated 
by a single name, that are now distributed into different kinds 
and mentioned under different names. For example, the Latin 
term carbunculus included in Roman times hard, transparent, red 
stones which would now be assigned to different species and given 
different names, as Oriental ruby (corundum), Balas ruby (spinel), 
Almandine and Pyrope (garnet) ; for they are entirely different 
from one another in characters more important than either trans- 
parency or colour from a classificatory point of view. And con- 
versely, some minerals then distributed into different kinds and 
mentioned under different names are now included in a single kind 
and designated by a single name ; for, though differing in some 
obvious character — for instance, colour — they are identical in per- 
centage chemical composition and in crystalline form. 

1. THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE NEW JERUSALEM. 

For reasons that will ])ecome manifest later, it will diminish 
the risk of confusion if we consider first the minerals mentioned in 
the New Testament, more especially the remarkable list of precious 
stones given in Rev. 21, 19, 20, Authorised Version : — 

" And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished 
with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper 
(Greek, vasp/Vs) ; the second, sapphire (Greek, sappheiros) ; the third, 
a chalcedony (Greek, rhalkedon) ; the fourth, an emerald (Greek, 
smaragdos) ; the fifth, sardonyx (Greek, sardonux) ; the sixth, 
sardius (Greek, sardion) ; the seventh, chrysolyte (Greek, chritsolithos) ; 
the eighth, beryl (Greek, heridlioii) ; the ninth, a topaz (Greek, 
topazion) ; the tenth, a chrysoprasus (Greek, chrusoprasos) ; the 
eleventh, a jacinth (Greek, huakinthos) ; the twelfth, an amethyst 
(Greek, amethtistos)." 



Mentioned in (he Bible. 47 

Only four of these stones are mentioned elsewhere in the New 
Testament, also in the Book of Revelation, namely : jasper 
(Rev. 4, 3 ; 21, 1<S), emerald (Rev. 4, 3), sardine stone (Rev. 4, 3), 
jacinth (Rev. 9, 17). 

It will be remarked, in the first place, that the English names 
used in the Authorised A-^ersion for the above stones are mere 
adaptations of the original Greek names ; the original names, though 
given an English form, are really little changed. But it will be 
found on investigation that some of these English names, though 
mere adaptations of the Greek (through the Latin), are now used 
to designate stones quite difierent from those formerly designated 
by the Greek names from which they have been derived. For 
instance, according to Pliny, the topazion of New Testament times 
was a green stone yielding to the action of a file, and said to be 
brought from an island in the Red Sea, off the coast of Arabia. On 
the other hand, the topaz of the present day is not a green stone, does 
not yield to the action of a file, and is not brought from an island 
in the Red Sea. The account given by Pliny with respect to the 
topazion of his day is thus not appropriate to the topaz of our day ; 
it is appropriate to another kind of stone, the one now named 
peridot. 

For the purpose of interpretation of the Bible, it is thus 
necessary to ascertain, not to what stones the English names in the 
Book of Revelation are applied now or were applied at the epoch of 
the authorised translation (a.d. 1611), but to what stones the Greek 
names were applied at the time when the Book was written. 

St. John, the writer of the Book of Revelation, lived for some 
time in exile at Patmos, an island in the JEgean Sea, and died 
about A.D. 100 at Ephesus, capital of Ionia, in Asia Minor. He 
is thought by some to have committed the book to writing about 
A.D. 68-70 ; by others the writing is assigned to the close of 
Domitian's reign, about thirty years later. The character of the 
Greek itself has been described as rugged, and as suggesting that 
St. John, though wM-iting in that language, thought really in 
Hebrew. St. John was thus a contemporary of Pliny the 
Naturalist, who was born in a.d. 23 and perished in a.d. 79 near 
Vesuvius during the great eruption that destroyed Herculaneum 
and Pompeii. Pliny's great work on Natural History, published in 
A.D. 77, only two years before his death, tells us what was known 
about minerals by naturalists at the time when St. John himself 
was living:. 



48 Guide to Aninmls, Plants, and Minerals 

The following are statements made by Pliny relative to the 
stones mentioned by St. John as foundations of the New Jerusalem ; 
they are arranged, for convenience of reference, in the alphabetical 
order of the transliterated Greek names : — 

Amethustos (Latin, amethijstm) : twelfth foundation. 

Four vai'ieties were recognised as precious, all of them 
transparent, and of purple colour or of tints derived from 
purple. 

One of the varieties was doubtless the amethyst of the 
present day. 

Berullion (Latin, heryUus) : ninth foundation. 

There were eight varieties of beryllus, a mineral which, 
according to Pliny, was already thought by some to be " of 
the same nature as the smnragdm, or at least closely analogous. 
India produces them, and they are rarely to be found else- 
where. The lapidaries cut all beryls of an hexagonal form ; 
because the colour, which is deadened by a dull uniformity of 
surface, is heightened by the reflections i-esulting from the 
angles. If they are cut in any other way, these stones have 
no brilliancy whatever. The most esteemed beryls are tho.se 
which in colour resemble the pure green of the sea. Some are 
of opinion that lieryls are naturally angular." 

Probably the sea-green beryl of Pliny's time was the sea-green 
beryl of the present day. 

CJialkedon : third foundation. 

Though the name Chalcedon (Latin form) occurs in Pliny, it 
is not as the name of a mineral ; it is used as the name of a free 
town that was standing on the southern side of the Bosphorus, 
probably close to the site on which Scutari has since been 
built. Chalcedon had once been noted for its copper mines ; 
but the latter, when Pliny wrote, had been so far exhausted 
that they were no longer worked. Plitiy refers to a kind of 
smaragdus (a green stone) as having been found near Chalcedon, 
but adds that the stones were of very small size and value. 
They were " brittle, and of a colour far from distinctly pro- 
nounced ; they resembled in their tints the feathers that are 
seen in the tail of the peacock or on the neck of the pigeon. 
More or less brilliant, too, according to the angle at which 
they were viewed, they presented an appearance like that of 



Mentioned in the Bible. 49 

veins and scales." In another place he refers to a stone from 
Chalcedon or Calchedon (another reading) as being an iaspis 
of turbid hue. It is possible that at Patmos or Ephesus, where 
St. John was living when he wrote the Book of Revelation, 
the word rhalkedoH was used to specify the particidar kind of 
smnragdas which had been found near the town of that name. 
The signification novv attached to the name " chalcedony " 
cannot be traced farther back than the fifteenth century. 

In the Vulgate Version the word is Latinised as calcedoniua. 

Chrusolithos (Latin, chrysoUthus) : seventh foundation. 

The chrijsolithus was a "transparent stone, with a refulgence 
like that of gold." Those were most valued which, " when 
placed by tlie side of gold, impart to it a sort of whitish hue, 
and so give it the appearance of silver." 

It may perhaps have included the yellow sapphire, the yellow 
quartz (citrine), and the yellow jargoon (zircon) of the pi'esent 
day. The term " chrysolite " is now applied to a difl'erent 
mineral, namely, to a yellow variety of olivine, a species which 
includes the green mineral peridot as another of its varieties. 

Chrusojrrasos (Latin, rlirysoprasus) : tenth foundation. 

The chrysoprasus was regarded by some naturalists of the 
time of Pliny as a variety of heryllus. The first variety of 
herylluH and the most esteemed was, as already stated, of a 
pure sea-green colour ; the second was paler, and approached 
a golden tint ; the third, allied to the second in brilliancy, but 
more pallid, was the clirysoprasus. The latter was thought by 
other naturalists to belong to an independent genus of stone. 
In another place Pliny describes the colour as like that of the 
leek, but as varying in tint between the green topazion of his 
day (our peridot) and gold. 

The stone may have been a yellowish green plasma (chalce- 
dony) or, as suggested by King, a pale chrysoberyl ; it is not 
the chrysoprase of the present day. 

Hunkinthos (Latin, hyacinthvs) : eleventh foundation. 

Pliny describes the hyacinthus as being very different from 
'' amethystus, " though partaking of a colour that closely borders 

upon it," and as being of a more diluted violet. 

It may have been the pale blue sapphire of the present day ; 
the modern hyacinth or jacinth is a brownish to reddish zircon, 
a quite different stone. 

B 



50 G^iicie to Animals^ Plants, and Minerals 

laspis : first foundation. 

Pliny recognises fourteen varieties of iaspis, and describes it 
as being generally green and often transparent. He adds that 
"many countries produce this stone: that of India is like 
smaragdus in colour ; that of Cyprus is hard and of a full sea- 
green ; and that of Persia is sky-blue. Similar to the last is 
the Caspian iasjjis. On the banks of the river Thermodon the 
tasjyis is of an azure colour ; in Phrygia it is purple ; and in 
Cappadocia of an azure-purple, sombre and not refulgent. The 
best kind is that which has a shade of purple, the next best 
being the rose-coloured, and the next the stone with the green 
colour of the i^maragdus" etc., etc. 

The term "jasper" is now restricted to opaque stones ; the 
transparent green iaspis may have been identical with the 
stone that is called " plasma " in the present day. 

Sapplieiros (Latin, sap^'ltirits) : second foundation. 

Pliny describes it as " refulgent with spots like gold. It is 
also of an azure colour, though sometimes, but rarely, it is 
purple ; the best kind being that which comes from Media. 
In no case, however, is this stone transparent." 

These characters correspond to the lapis lazuli, not the 
sapphire, of the present day. 

Sardion (Latin, xarda) : sixth foundation. 

The surda was much used by the seal-engravers. There 
were three Indian varieties, all of them transparent, one of 
them red in colour ; there was then no precious stone in more 
common use ; those of honey-colour were less valued. 

It probably included the sard and carnelian of the present day. 

Sardonux (Latin, sardonyx) : tifth foundation. 

According to Pliny, the name sardonyx was at first given to 
an Indian (red) sarda with a layer of white in it, both being 
transparent. Pliny says that later three colours were con- 
sidered essential, but that they might be repeated indefinitely. 
The Arabian sardonyx was " characterised by several diflferent 
colours, black or azure for the base, and vermilion surrounded 
with a line of rich white for the upper part, not without a 
certain glimpse of purple as the white passes into the red." 

It is included in the sardonyx of the present day. 



Mentioned in the Bible. 51 

Smaragdos (Latin, smarcKjdus) : fourth foundation. 

Pliny i-ecognises no fewer than twelve kinds of smaragdus : 
the colour was intensely green. 

One of these kinds was the emerald of the present day. 

Topazion : eighth foundation. 

The topazion of Pliny's time was " held in very high 
estimation for its green tints : when it was first discovered it 
was preferred to every other kind of precious stone." It was 
said to be brought from an island in the Red Sea, off the coast 
of Arabia. It was the only stone of high value that yielded to 
the action of the file. 

It is termed peridot in the present day. 

All the names of precious stones mentioned by St. John in his 
description of the foundations of the New Jerusalem, with the sole 
exception of chalhedon, were thus in his time commonly used by 
naturalists. Further, nearly all the stones then regarded as 
precious are included in the twelve mentioned by St. John. 

The more important stones i-ecorded by Pliny, but not mentioned 
by St. John as foundations, are : — 

Grystallum and Adamas ; both of them colourless. 

Onyx ; remarkable rather for structure than colour. 

Electrum (amber) ; a soft material. 

Carbunculus ; fiery red. 

Callaina ; a pale green stone, probably the green turquoise of 

the present day. 
Cyanus ; of dark blue colour. 
Opalus (opal) ; with its play of colours, it ranked in Pliny's 

time immediately after smaragdus in value. 

Achates (agate) is also absent from the list of foundations ; but 
achates, though previously held in very high esteem, by Pliny's 
time had ceased to be regarded as precious. Also, it is attractive 
for the beauty of its structure, whereas the foundations are remark- 
able for the splendour of their colours. 

There is nothing to suggest that the name chalkedOn was ever 
applied to any of these stones. 

The colours of the foundations were : — 

1st, (probably) Green; 2nd, Intense Blue; 3rd, Chalkedon ; 
4th, Intense Green ; Dth, Red : 6th, Red ; 7th, Yellow ; 

E 2 



52 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

8th, Sea-Green ; 9th, Olive-Green ; lOtb, Pale Green ; 
nth, Palo Purple ; 12th, Purple. 

From the arraiii^ement of the colours it would therefore appear 
likely that the chtilhPddn was either a blue or a green stone, and 
that it might therefore be, as already suggested, the variety of 
miarafjdm said by Pliny to have once been brought from a mountain 
near the free town called Chalcedon. 

2. THE BREASTPLATE OF THE HIGH PRIEST. 

Before discussing the other minerals mentioned in the New 
Testament, it will be best to consider the precious stones mentioned 
in the Old Testament, more especially those mounted in the Bi-east- 
plate of the High Pi-iest. 

A. AuTnoRisED Version. 
Exodus 28 (17-21), Authorised Version: — 

" The first row shall be 
a sardius (Hebrew, oclcm), a topaz (Hebrew, pitduh), and a car- 
buncle (Hebrew, hareqeth) : this shall be the first row. 

And the second row shall be 
an emerald (Hebrew, nophek), a sapphiie (Hebrew, sapjnr), and 
a diamond (Hebrew, ynhnlum). 

And the third row 
a ligure (Hebrew, leslievi). an agate (Hebrew, shebo), and an 
amethyst (Hel)rew, ahhhiiah). 

And the fourth row 
a beryl (Hebrew, tarnhish), and an onyx (Hebrew, alioliom), and 
a jasper (Hebrew, ydshepheli) : 

they shall be set in gold in their inclosings. And the stones 
shall be with the names of the children of Israel, twelve, 
according to their names, like the engravings of a signet ; every 
one with his name shall they be according to the twelve tribes." 

The long Captivity of the Jews in Babylon (about B.C. 606 to 
R.c. 534) had for result a change in the language spoken by the 
people ; after the return to Palestine the vernacular ceased to be 
Hebrew, and l)ecame a mixture of Hebrew and Chaldee. The old 
Hebrew ceased to be easily understood by the people (Neh. 8, 8). 
Hence there is now much difficulty in ascertaining the true meaning 
of words that occur but raiely in tlie Bible or elsewhere and have 
a technical signification, as in the case of precious stones. 



Mentioned in the Bible. 53 

Of the above twelve English names of the stones mounted in 
the Breastplate, we have already seen that seven occur in the 
Authorised Version of the New Testament as names of founda- 
tions of the New Jerusalem — sardius, topaz, emerald, sapphire, 
amethyst, beryl, and jasper ; and it has been remarked that in 
giving these names the translators were merely giving in English 
form the Greek words sardion, topazion, smaragdos, sappheiros, 
amethustos, herullion, and iaspis, that are used in the original text. 

The remaining five English names — agate, diamond, ligure, 
onyx, and carbuncle — though not mentioned in the New Testament, 
also have similar verbal equivalents in the Greek langviage. 

Agate, diamond, ligure, and onyx are the verbal equivalents of 
the Greek names achates, adamas, ligurion, and onuchion : carbuncle 
is the English equivalent of the Latin carbun cuius, diminutive of 
carbo, (glowing) coal ; and the Greek equivalent of carbo is anthrax. 

Hence, if the English names of the stones in the Breastplate be 
re-translated into Greek names and arranged in the order of 
the English alphabet, the list will be as follows : — achates, adamas, 
amethustos, anthrax, berullion, iaspis, ligurion, onuchion, sapphciros, 
sardion, smaragdos, and topazion. 

B. Septuagint Version. 

The Septuagint translation of the Old Testament into Greek, 
which was begun about B.C. 270 or 280, gives the above as the 
stones in the Breastplate, with one omission (adamas) and one 
addition (chrusoUthos) ; the Greek and English translators of the 
Old Testament must, therefore, either have had a different Hebrew 
word in the manuscripts used by them, or have translated one or 
more Hebrew words differently. 

In any case, the translation of a Hebi-ew name for a stone of the 
Breastplate into the English word " diamond " is certainly wrong, for 
the stone had a name engraved on it, and the method of engraving 
a diamond was not invented till two or three thousand years after 
the Breastplate was made ; nor were diamonds, if known at all, 
then known so large as to be comparable in respect of size with the 
other stones of the Breastplate. 
' It is of interest to enquire into the correctness of the Septuagint 
translation of the various Hebrew names. 

It should be remembered that, whereas the Breastplate had 
ceased to be known to be in existence long before the English trans- 
lation was made, there was one in ceremonial use at Jerusalem till 



54 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

the destruction of the city by Titus in the year a.d. 70, more than 
three hundred years after the Greek translation was completed. 
Even if the original Breastplate really vanished from history when 
Jerusalem was captured by 8hishak, king of Egypt, about B.C. 973 
(I Kings 14, 25, 26 ; 2 Chron. 12, 9), or Nebuchadnezzar, king of 
Babylon, about B.C. 586 (2 Kings 24, 13; 25, 15 ; 2 Chron. 36, 
18 ; Jer. 39, 8 ; 52, 13, 19 ; Dan. 1, 2), or Ptolemy Soter, king of 
Egypt, about B.C. 320, the one that had taken its place and was 
in use in the time of the Septuagint translators would presumably 
have been made to accord with the text of the Hebrew Scriptures ; 
on the other hand, it is very probable that during the Babylonian 
Captivity the knowledge of the characters of the stones of the 
vanished Breastplate, and of the meanings of the Hebrew names of 
the stones, had not been carefully passed down from one generation 
to another, and also that stones like those of the original Breastplate 
were not at the time available. Although the Septuagint translation 
was made at Alexandria, and direct comparison of the text with the 
Breastplate during the process of translation was therefore impossible, 
the version was afterwards in common use by the Jews at Jerusalem 
itself; in fact, it eventually almost superseded the Hebrew text, 
for most of the quotations from the Old Testament given in the 
New are taken directly from the Septuagint. If the names given 
in that version for the stones of the Breastplate had not corre- 
sponded with the stones of the Breastplate then in use, the dis- 
crepancy would not have escaped the criticism of those Jews, 
perhaps few in number, who were familiar with the Greek names of 
the precious stones and could examine the Breastplate at Jerusalem. 
The names and arrangement of the stones in the Breastplate as 
stated in the Septuagint Vei'sion liave for these reasons some claim 
to be treated as correct ; they are : — 





No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


Ist Row 


Sardion . 


Topazion . 


Smaragdos 


2nd Row 


Anthrax . 


Sapplieiros 


lasjyis 


3rd Row 


Ligurion . 


Achates 


Ameihustos 


4th Row 


Clirusolitlios 


BcrulUon . 


Onuchion 



It thus becomes important to ascertain what these Greek names 
indicated at the time the Septuagint translation was made, and for 
this purpose the Greek work of Theophrastus on Stones, though 
brief, is very useful. It is the earliest work on Minerals that has 
come down to us from ancient times. The author lived about 
B.C. 370-287, and therefore, though his book was probably completed 



Mentioned in the Bible. '55 

before the Septuagint translation was begun (b.c. 270 or 280), he 
must have been a contemporaiy of the translators themselves. 

Of the above twelve names given in the Septuagint Version, only 
nine are mentioned in the book of Theophrastus, namely, achates, 
amethnstos (in the form amethuson), anthrax, iaspis, ligurion (in the 
form lughiirion), onuchion, aapphciros, sardion, smnragdos. 

The three not mentioned in the work of Theophrastus are henUliuii, 
chrusolithos, and topazion. It may be that the manuscript that 
has come down to us is incomplete, or that these three stones, 
though known to the Septuagint translators, were not known to 
Theophrastus, although their contemporary ; or again, which is 
more likely, that they were known to Theophrastus, but under 
other names. He may, for instance, have regarded the green stones 
herullion and topazion as belonging to the genus smaragdos mentioned 
by him, and have called them only by the latter name. Tiie 
chrusolithos, as already stated, was later mentioned by St. John as 
one of the foundations of the New Jerusalem, and described by 
Pliny in his Natural History. Further, all the more important stones 
regarded as precious in the time of Theophrastus are included in the 
Breastplate stones mentioned in the Septuagint Version. 

Achates. — The achates of Theophrastus, said by him to have been 
called after a Sicilian river of that name, was in his day sold 
at a great price. By the time of Pliny it had ceased to be 
regarded as precious (p. 51). 

Achates included certain stones having banded structures, the 
agates of the present day. 

Amethnstos. — The amethuson (sic) of Theophrastus was a transparent 
stone " resembling wine in colour," used by the gem engravei's. 
It doubtless is included in the amethyst of the present day (p. 48). 

Anthrax. — The anthrax of Theophrastus included different kinds of 
hard, red stone used by the gem engravers. It is the cnrhuncnhis 
of Pliny's time, and probably included the Oriental ruby 
(corundum), the Balas ruby (spinel), and the Almandine and 
Pyrope (garnet) of the present day. 

^ Berullion. — This name is not mentioned by Theophrastus ; herullion, 
in his time, may have been one of the green stones included in 
the genus smaragdos (p. 48). 

Chrusolithos. — This name also is not mentioned by Theophrastus. 
The description given later by Pliny has been cited above (p. 49). 



56 Guide to Anivials, Plants, and Minerals 
t 

laspis. — The iaspis of Theophrastus was a hard stone used by the 
gem engravers. He makes no statement as to the colour, his 
descriptions of the precious stones being always very brief ; it 
was probably a green stone, for he mentions a mineral specimen 
which was laspis in one part and smaragdos in another, and 
states that in the opinion of some persons smaragdos is produced 
by the alteration of iaspis (p. 50). 

Ligurion. — The ligurion of the Septuagint is probably identical with 
the lughurion of Theophrastus : this was a yellow to yellowish 
red stune used by seal engravers, transparent, diflBcult to polish. 
The yellow ligurion may be the yellow jargoon (zii'con) of 
the present day, a stone Avhich was much used by the ancient 
Greek and Roman engra\ ers ; but as the jargoon of the present 
day has not been found among ancient Egyptian work, it has 
been suggested that the ligure of the Breastplate may have 
been a yellow quartz (citrine) or agate : the yellowish red 
ligurion may be one of the stones to which the name jacinth 
(zircon) is now applied. 

Onncliion. — The onuchion of Theophrastus was a hard, translucent 
stone used by the seal engravers ; it consisted of white and 
dusky layers in alternation. 

The onyx of Roman times was an opaque stone of white and 
black layers. 

SapphciroH. — The sappheiros of Theophrastus was a hard stone used 
by the gem engravers ; he describes it as being " spotted as it 
were with gold." 

This description was used later by Pliny in the description 
of the sappliirus of his day (p. 50), and doubtless the stones are 
identical with each other and with the lapis lazuli of present times. 

Sardion. — The sardion of Theophrastus was a small, scarce stone 
used by the gem engravers. 

It was probably included later in the sarda of Pliny (p. 50). 

Smaragdos. — The smaragdos of Theophrastus was a small, scarce 
stone used by the gem engravers. As already mentioned under 
iaspis, that stone and smaragdos were probably both of them 
green. The genus might later include the green felspar (amazon 
stone) ; the latter was engraved in very early times, and is the 
material from which the signet of Sennacherib (about B.C. 700), 
preserved in the British Museum, was made (p. 51). 



Mentioned in the Bible. 57 

Tojjazion. — The name topazion is not mentioned by Theophrastus, 
and the green stone afterwards called by that name may, if 
known to him, have been included by him in smaragdos. 
Pliny's description has already been given (p. 51). 

C. Jewish Antiquities (Josepiius). 

A description of the Breastplate of the High Priest was published 
by Josephus in the first century of our era, and the description is 
of great importance from the fact that Josephus, having been a 
priest in the temple of Jerusalem, must have had frequent oppor- 
tunities of closely inspecting the stones themselves. But it must be 
remembered that the Breastplate seen by Josephus may not have 
been identical with the one belonging to the time of the Septuagint 
translators : during the intervening three centuries the city of 
Jerusalem had been again, and more than once, in the hands of its 
enemies. In b.c. 198 the city was captured by Antiochus the 
Great; in B.C. 170 it was stormed, and its Temple plundered, by 
Antiochus Epiphanes (1 Maccalj. 1, 20-24) ; in B.C. 54 the Temple 
was desecrated by Crass us. 

Josephus M^as born in the first year of the reign of the Emperor 
Caius Caligula (a.d. 37) ; though the precise year of his death is 
unknown, he was still living near the end of the century ; he was 
thus a contemporary both of St. John and Pliny, and Greek or 
Latin names then used for precious stones would have the same 
signification for all three writers. During the earlier Roman attacks 
on Palestine Josephus had been made Governor of Galilee by his 
countrymen, had been defeated, captured, put into irons and taken 
to Rome. After a time he was givi^n his liberty, and, later, was 
allowed to accompany Titus, son of the Emperor Vespasian, to the 
siege of Jerusalem ; Josephus was eventually an eye-witness of the 
destruction of the city (a.d. 70). One of the incidents of the 
destruction, recorded by him, is that a priest of the Temple was 
granted his life by Titus as a reward for delivering to the Romans 
" the precious stones and a great number of other precious vessels 
that belonged to their sacred worship." Josephus himself, towards 
whom Titus was very friendly, was allowed l)y that general to take 
possession of the Holy Books of the Temple. Later, he returned 
with Titus to Rome, and records that the spoils of the Temple, after 
being paraded in the Triumph, were placed by Vespasian in the 
Temple of Peace. If the Breastplate, as is possible, was part of the 
spoil, it could thus be inspected later by Josephus when writing 



58 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

(a.d. 93) his account of the Antiquities of the Jews ; though, if 
that ornament of the High Priest had actually passed with the other 
precious stones into the hands of the Roman general, a definite record 
would probably have been made. In any case he could compare his 
own description of the stones of the Breastplate (Book III, Chap. 7, 
par. 5) with that given in the Holy Books formerly preserved in 
the Temple of Jerusalem. Josephus was so great a favourite of 
Vespasian that he was given apartments in a house of that emperor. 
He wrote his account of Jewish Antiquities in Greek, and gave great 
attention to the study of the language, so that the literary style of 
his work might be worthy of its subject. Considerable accuracy 
can thus be claimed for the Greek names assigned by him to the 
stones of the Breastplate, which, according to his account, weie 
extraordinary in largeness and beauty, and were an ornament not 
to be pui'chased by men because of their immense value. His list 
of the stones and that given in the Septuagint Version, if alpha- 
betically arranged, are identical, except that aardonnx in the foi-mei- 
takes the place of sard ion in the latter. 

Tlie term nardouux does not occur in the work of Theophrastus, 
and may have been invented after the time when the Septuagint 
translation was made. Pliny, whose description of sardonyx has 
been quoted above, says that, according to Demostratus, the first 
Roman to wear a sardonyx was the elder Africanus (about 200 B.C.), 
and that afterwards the stone was held in very high esteem at 
Rome. Doubtless the stone was known before the time of the elder 
Africanus, but was then included either in the sard or in the onyx. 

This substitution by Josephus of the term sardonux for the 
sardion of the Septuagint is itself sufficient to suggest that he was 
writing from actual knowledge of the Breastplate ; at any rate, he 
would not have been justified in using the new term sardonux instead 
of the old Septuagint term sardion for the first stone of the first 
row, unless he knew from direct observation that the stone belonged 
to that particular kind of sardion which has a white streak in it and 
is more dcfinitoly indicated by the newer term. 

The arrangement of the stones in the Breastplate, according to 
the Jewish Anticjuities of Josephus, was the following : — • 





No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


Lst Row ... 


Sardonux 


Topazion 


Smaragdos 


2nd Row ... 


Anthrax 


laspis 


Sappheiros 


3rd Row ... 


Ligurion 


Amethustos 


Achates 


4th Row ... 


ChrusolitJios 


Onucliion 


BeruUion 



Mentioned in the Bible. 



59 



D. Vulgate Version. 

The account of the Breastplate given in the Latin version of 
the Bible known as the Vulgate is also of importance. This trans- 
lation was made about a.d. 400 by Eusebius Hieronymus, better 
known as St. Jerome, and is valuable as a help in the criticism of 
the present Hebrew text ; for it is probable that St. Jerome, who 
lived many years at Bethlehem for the purpose of making a transla- 
tion direct from the Hebrew, had access to Hebrew manuscripts 
which have by this time ceased to exist : the earliest dated Hebrew 
manuscript known to us was not written till five hundred years 
after his day. The version of St. Jerome became corrupted in the 
course of centuries, and in a.d. 1590 a revised text was given to the 
world by Pope Sixtus V., the present Standard Edition being issued 
three years later by Pope Clement VIII. In this edition of the 
Vulgate, the alphabetical list of the names of the stones, if they 
are literally re-translated into Greek, is again identical with that of 
the Septuagint Version ; but the arrangement of the stones is given 
as the following : — 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 

1st Row Sardion Topazion Smaragdos 

2nd Row Anthrax Sappheiros laspis 

3i"d Row LigurioH Achates Amethustos 

4th Row Chrusolithos Onuchion BeriiUion 



Comparison of the above Four Descriptions. 

The arrangement of the stones in the Breastplate, according to 
the Authorised Version (A.V.), the Septuagint Version (S.V.), the 
Jewish Antiquities of Josephus (J. A.), and the Vulgate Version 
(V.V.), respectively, is therefore as follows : — 



1st Row 



2nd Row 



No. 1. 

rA.V. Sardion 

S.V. Sardion 

J. A. Sardonux 

V.V. Sardion 



it 



A.V. Smaragdos 
S.V. Anthrax 
J. A. Anthrax 
V.V. Anthrax 



No. 2. 
A.V. Topazion 
S.V. Topazion 
J. A. Topazion 
V.V. Topazion 

A.V. Sappheiros 
S.V. Sappheiros 
J. A. laspis 
V.V. Sajtphciros 



No 3. 
A.V. Anthrax 
S.V. Smaragdos 
J. A. Smaragdos 
V.V. Smaragdos 

A.V. Adamas 
S.V. laspis 
J. A. Sappheiros 
V.V. laspis 



6o Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 



3rd Row 



4th Row 



No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 

A.V. Ligiirum A.V. Achates A.V. Amethustos 

S.V. Ligurion S.V. Achates S.V. Amethustos 

\J.A. Lif/urion J. A. Amethustos J. A. Achates 

V.V. Llgiirion V.V. Achates V.V. Amethustos 

'A.V. BcrnUion A.V. Onnchion A.V. lasp'is 

S.V. Chrusolithos S.V. BerulUon S.V. Onuchion 

J. A, Chrusolithos J. A. Onuchion J. A. BerulUon 

V.V. Chrusolithos V.V. Onuchion V.V. BerulUon 



Thus each of the four descriptions differs from the other three 
in the statement of the arrangement ; but the Septuagint, the 
Antiquities of Josephus, and the Vulgate agree in the alphabetical 
list of the stones (except that sardonux is substituted by Josephus 
for sardion), and the Authorised Version differs from the other 
three, as already stated, through the inclusion of " diamond " and 
the omission of chrusolithos. 

If the different arrangements of the stones of the Breast- 
plate, as given in the various versions, are compared, it will 
be seen that the Septuagint, the Jewish Antiquities of Josephus, 
and the Vulgate are in accord as regards the three stones of the 
first row (if sardion be taken to include sardonux), namely, sardion, 
topazion, and smaragdos ; further, all three accord as regards the 
four stones of the first column, namely, sardion, anthrax, ligurion, 
and chrusolithos. 

As regards the remaining six .stones, the Vulgate is most nearly 
in accord with the Septuagint, the two arrangements being — 
Septuagint. 
No. 2. No. 3. 

Second Row ... Sappheiros laspis 
Third Row ... Achates Amethustos 

Fourth Row ... Brrullion Onuchion 
there being a mere interchange of brrullion and onuchion. 

For these six stones the arrangement given in the Jewish An- 
tiquities of Josej)hus differs from that given in the Septuagint 
simply through the interchange of columns ; the arrangement 
according to Josephus being — 

No. 2. No. 3. 

Second Row ... laspis Sappheiros 

Third Row ... Amethustos Achates 

Fourth Row ... Onuchion BerulUon 



Vulgate. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


Sappheiros 


laspis 


Achates 


Amethustos 


Onuchion 


Brrullion 



Mentioned in the Bible. 6i 

A Hebrew writer, in describing the arrangement of the stones, 
would begin with the stone on his right and describe them in the 
order right to left. A Western writer, on the other hand, would 
begin with the stone on his left and describe them in the order left 
to right. In translating from the Hebrew, a Western writer might 
translate either literally, adopting the Hebrew order, or more 
completely, adopting the Western order. But the above differences 
of statement of the arrangement are not such as would result in 
this way— for Hr/nrlon is the first stone of the third row according 
to all the above versions ; reversal of the direction of reading would 
have made Uguriou the last stone of its row. 

It must therefore be inferred either that the descriptions corre- 
spond really to different Breastplates, the one in use at the time of 
the 8eptuagint translation, and the one in use in the time of 
Josephus, having been inexact reproductions of the destroyed 
original, or that the several versions given above were made from 
discordant Hebrew manuscripts, or that the translators have given 
different translations of the same Hebrew words, or that, in the 
description of the Breastplate, the original manuscripts of the 
Septuagint and Vulgate Versions and the Works of Josephus are 
not verbally identical with the printed editions of later times. 

E. Another Description op the Breastplate by Josephus. 

It remains to be mentioned that Josephus described the Breast- 
plate, not only in his book on the Jewish Antiquities, but also in 
that on the Jewish Wars, and that these two descriptions, as they 
have come down to us, although made by the same writer, are not 
in evident accord with each other. It is desirable to trace, if 
possible, the origin of their differences, and to ascertain which of 
the two descriptions is the more likely to be correct. 

The account of the Jewish Antiquities was written last, namely 
in A.D. 93. It deals with the history of the Jews from the earliest 
times down to the twelfth year of the reign of Nero. It was 
published only in Gi-eek and for the information of the Gentiles. 
The work was written at greater leisure than the one dealing with 
the Jewish Wars, and the author had thus more time for the 
consultation of old manuscripts. Speaking generally, the later 
book, as would be expected, is more accurate as regards the history 
of the times before Josephus, of which he could have no direct 
knowledge, than the earlier work. The description that it gives 



62 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minej'als 

of the Breastplate is precise in respect of both the stones and their 
arrangement, and is therefore one to which great weight niust 
be given. 

The account of the Jewish Wars was written hui'riedly, eighteen 
years earher ; it was written by Josephus in his native tongue for 
the information of those Jews in distant parts who wished to 
become acquainted with the events which had culminated in the 
destruction of Jerusalem. It was afterwards translated by the 
author into Greek, and published for the information of the Western 
nations. It deals chiefly with the time of Josephus himself, Ijut is 
prefaced by a sketch of the history of the Jews from the capture of 
Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes in B.C. 170. Its description of 
the Breastplate (Book V, Chap. 5, par. 7) is much less precise than 
the one in the Antiquities ; translated into English, but with the 
above names for the stones, it is as follows : — ■ 

" On the other jjart there hung twelve stones, three in a row 
one way and four in the other : sardiun, topazlon, smaragdos, anthrax, 
iaspis, sdpjihciros, achotes, amefhustos, li<jurion, onuchion, herullion, 
chrUHolithos." 

Attention may be called to sevei'al points in this brief de- 
scription. 

1. Josephus uses the term sard Ion for the stone that in the 
Antiquities he calls sardonux. 

This is not a real inconsistency : in the time of Josephus a red 
stone having a white streak in it would be rightly called sardonux 
or sardion, according as stress was, or was not, laid on the presence 
of the streak. 

2. Josephus does not definitely state that the order of the 
names in the list is identical with the order of the stones in the 
Breastplate. 

It is quite possible that he relied on his memory when writing 
the paragraph, and did not refer to documents. It would be much 
more difficult, even for a man who had often seen the Breastplate, 
to remember the order of the stones than their names. The object 
he had in view at the moment was merely to give a rough idea of 
the Jewish religious ceremonies, and in this respect the actual 
arrangement of the stones in the Breastplate had little or no 
importance. 

3. Josephus does not arrange the names of the stones in threes 
or fours ; the original manuscript, like others of that time, pre- 
sumably had no punctuation at all. 



Mentioned in the Bible. 6 



o 



If, however, we ourselves, attempting to discover how he came 
to adopt this order for the names, break up the list into successive 
triads, it will be seen that the first three triads, namely : — 

sardion topazion smaragdos 

anthrax iaspis sappheiros 

achates amethustos ligiirion 

are the first three triads according to the Antiquities, but that in 
the third triad the order of the names is precisely reversed. 
The fourth triad, namely : — 

onuchion herullion chrusolitJws 

differs from that of the Antiquities in that clirusolithos is placed 
after, instead of before, onuchion and herullion : the order is thus 
only partially reversed : complete reversal would have given the 
order — herullion, onuchion, chrusolithos. 

Josephus, having put the ligurion, the first stone of the third 
row, at the right-hand end of the row, may have placed the 
chrusolithos, the first stone of the fourth row, on the same side, 
remembering that he had seen the chrusolithos immediately below 
the ligurion in the Breastplate, but forgetting the order of the 
other two stones. 

Or, again, this triad is identical with the fourth row of the 
Septuagint Version, but the order is precisely reversed. Josephus 
may thus have had the Septuagint Version in mind and have 
described the row in the Jewish fashion ; having been accustomed 
from childhood to reading lines in the direction from riglit to left, 
he would be liable all through life to confusion of direction when 
expressing himself in a Western language. 

Further, if Josephus, at the time of writing the account of the 
Jewish "Wars, had attached any importance at all to the arrange- 
ment of the stones in the Breastplate, he would have refreshed his 
memory by reference either to the Holy Books of the Temple, which 
were then in his possession, or to the Septuagint Version with 
which he was familiar. The fact that eighteen years latei-, when 
giving a precise account of the Breastplate in the Jewish Antiquities, 
he adopted an order of the names which differs not merely from the 
order adopted by him in his history of the Jewish Wars, but from 
the orders given in the Holy Books and the Septuagint, at least 
as they are known to us, suggests either that the manuscripts 
accessible to him differed in this respect from those copies which 



64 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

are preserved in our day, or that the stones of the Breastplate were 
different in his time from the stones which were in the Breastphite 
at the time the Septuagint translation was made. On the other 
hand, it is possible that our t(!xt of tlie Works of Josephus itself 
differs from the original. 

3. THE STONES ON THE SHOULDER-PIECES 
OF THE EPHOD. 

On each shoulder-j^iece of the Ephod, the vestment to which the 
Breastplate was attached, was a gold button having a precious 
stone set in it. The stones must have been of considerable size, for 
upon each of them were engraved the names of six tribes (Ex. 28, 
9 : A.V. Ex. 39, 6, or S.V. Ex. 36, 13). 

The name of the stone in the Hebrew text as known to us is 
alioliam. According to the Septuagint translators, who may not 
have seen the Ephod, for the character of their Greek indicates 
that they had long lived at Alexandria, the stone was sniaragdos, 
and therefore green. According to Josephus, who had seen the 
Ephod, the stone was sardonux, and therefore red (with a streak 
of white in it). 

The complete difference of colour suggests that these are not 
mere mis-descriptions of the same stones, but that the stones were 
smaragdos at the time when the Se^ituagint translation was made, 
and sardonux in the time of Josephus— a new Ephod having replaced 
the older one, perhaps after the capture of Jerusalem in u.c. 198 or 
B.C. 170. 

The name of the middle stone in the fourth row of the Breast- 
plate in our Hebrew text is likewise xhoham, and this word is 
throughout the Authorised Version translated onyx. 

The middle stone of the fourth row of the Breastplate, according 
to the Septuagint Version was heruUiori (not onuchion), and it is 
probably for this reason that the Revised Version gives beryl as an 
alternative rendering to onyx for the stone having that position. 
As already stated, h?ruUion was not mentioned by Theophrastus, 
and may have been regarded by him as a variety of smaragdos (p. 55). 
In such case, the name of the stone set in the buttons and in the 
middle of the fourth row of the Breastplate may also have been 
shdhaia in the Hebrew text used by the Septuagint translators. 

Professors Maskelyne and Sayce, accepting green as the colour 
of the shoham, have expressed the opinion that the stone known by 
that name in Septuagint and pre-Septuagint times was the stone 



Mentioned in the Bible. 65 

called 'siamu by the Assyrians, and therefore the green turquoise of 
the present day ; that stone may have been regarded by the more 
ancient Greeks and Romans, and therefore by the Septuagint 
translators, as a variety of smaragdos and as a kind of heruUion ; 
later, in Pliny's time, it was probably included in callaina. 

One more difficulty of interpretation may be mentioned. 

The following phrase : — 

" onyx stones, and stones to be set in [or for) the Ephod, 
and in (or for) the Breastplate " 
occurs in three places in the Authorised Version (Ex. 25, 7 ; 
35, 9; 35, 27). 

It is clear that only one kind of stone was in the mind of the 
^vriter of the Book of Exodus at the time of writing the word in 
these three passages which has been translated onyx ; and in fact, 
in our Hebrew text, the word is in each case slwliam. The only 
apparent reason for special mention of shoham in these passages is 
that the shoham stone was set both in the buttons of the Ephod 
and in the Breastplate ; the other kinds of stone were set only in 
the latter. It is to be inferred from each of these passages that 
the stones set in the buttons were shoham, as definitely stated in the 
other verses mentioned. Yet in the corresponding passages in the 
Septuagint Version not one Greek Avord but two are used ; the stone 
is called sardion in two places (S.V, Ex. 25, 7 ; S.V. Ex. 35, 8) 
and smaraijdos in the third (S.V. Ex. 35, 27). Either the same 
Hebrew word was translated both sardion and smaragdos, or there 
were two Hebrew words in these passages of their Hebrew text ; in 
the latter case it seems certain, from the sense of the passages, that 
one of the Hebrew words had been a result of mis-copying. 

4. THE ORNAMENTS OF THE KING OF TYRE. 

That the Hebrew manuscripts used by the several translators did 
actually differ from each other is very clear from the account of the 
Ornaments of the King of Tyre given in Ezek. 28, 13 : "Every 
precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the 
diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the 
emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold." For, whereas the Authorised 
Version just quoted names only nine stones, places gold at the end, 
and makes no mention of silver, the Septuagint Version gives 
twelve stones, mentions both gold and silver, and places these two 
metals in the middle of the list. 

F 



66 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

The nine stones mentioned in the Authorised Version are all 
inchided in the twelve previously mentioned in the description of the 
Breastplate, namely: — adamas, anthrax, herullion, iaspls, onucldoii, 
sapplu'iros, sardion, smaragdos, topaziun ; the three omitted being 
achates, amethustos, ligurion, the three stones in the third row of 
the Breastplate according to the Authorised Version, the Septuagint 
Version, the Vulgate Version, and the two descriptions by Josephus. 
This suggests that in the copying of the manuscript of Ezekiel the 
three stones that formed the third row of the Breastplate as 
described in the Book of Exodus had been accidentally omitted. 

In the Authorised and the Vulgate Versions the order C)f 
mention of the stones in the description of the Ornaments of the 
King of Tyi-e is different ; the two arrangements being as follows : — 

Authorised Version. Vulgate Version. 

Sardion Sardion 

Topazion Topazion 

[Adamas] laspis 

BrrulUon [Chrusolithos] 

Ontichion Onnchion 

laspis Berullion 

Sappheiros Sappheiros 

Sniaragdos Anthrax 

Anthrax. Smaragdos. 

And in neither of these versions is the order of the nine stones 
of the Ornaments of the King of Tyre identical with any of the 
orders which have been assigned to the same stones in the various 
descriptions of the Breastplate of the High Priest. 

On the other hand, in the Septuagint Version, not merelv the 
names but also the orders of the names are identical in the descrip- 
tions of the Breastplate of the High Priest and the Ornaments of 
the King of Tyre ; namely, sardion, topazion, smaragdos, anthrax, 
sappheiros, iaspis, (silver, gold), ligurion, achates, amethustos, 
chrusolithos, h>;rulHon, onnchion. 

DiFFicuLTiKS op Translation of Hebrew Technical Terms. 

Not only did the Hebrew manuscripts used by the Septuagint 
and English translators differ from each other, but the Septuagint 
translators met with difficulty in translating the Hebrew technical 
terms, as will be clear from a particular instance. 



Mentioned in tJie Bible. 



67 



In the Hebrew text corresponding to the Authorised Version, 
the word sholiam, designating one of the stones of the Breastplate, 
occurs in several places where there is no reference to other stones, 
and where accidental interchange of technical terms by the copyist 
could not occur ; in the Authorised Version, as already stated, 
the word is always translated onyx. On the other hand, in the 
Septuagint Version of 1 Cliron. 29, 2, the word is translated as 
iioam stones, indicating that the Greek technical term for a shoham 
stone was unknown to the translator, and that he merely trans- 
literated the name: in Exod. 28, 9; 35, 27; 39, 6 (or S.V. 
36, 13), the word is translated smaragdos stones ; in Gen. 2, 12, 
as ijradnos {i.e. leek-green) stone ; (the jjrasites of Theophrastus 
was a precious stone of a verdigris-green colour, and the name 
prasinus was used in still later times to signify a particular variety 
of smaragdos, namely, the true emerald) : in Exod. 25, 7, and 
35, 9 (or S.V. 35, 8), it is translated as sardion stones : in 
Job 28, 16, as onux. Assuming that the word in all these places is 
likely to have been sMliam in the Hebrew original of the Septuagint 
Version, as in the Hebrew original of the Authorised Version, these 
differences suggest that there were different translators even for 
different parts of the Book of Exodus, and that little care was taken 
to arrive at consistency in the translation of the technical terms. 



Translation of Hebrew into Greek and English Terms. 

In the preparation of their text, the translators of the Authorised 
Version have regarded the Hebrew, Greek, and English technical 
terms in the first three columns below as equivalent ; the fourth 
column contains the English names that, according to the above, 
would now indicate stones to Avhich the corresponding Greek names 
in the second column would probably have been given when the 
Septuagint translation was being made, or, still later, when the Book 
of Revelation was being written ; the Hebrew names may have had 
other significations in pre-Septuagint times. 

English 



Hebrew. 
Ahldmdh 

Bareqeth 



Greek. 
Amcthustos 

Anthrax 



(A.V. IGll). 
Amethyst 

Carbuncle 



English 
(I'Jll). 

Amethyst 
Oriental ruby 
Balas ruby 

I Almandine 

I Pyrope 

F 2 



68 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 







English 


English 


Hebrew. 


Greek. 


(A.V. 1611). 


(1911). 
Jargoon (yellow) 


Leshem 


Liijurion 


Ligure 


Jacinth 

Quartz or Agate 
(yellow) 


Nophel- 


Smaragdos 


Emerald 


f Emerald 
(Amazon stone 


Odem 


Sard ion 


Sardius 


(Sard 
^Carnelian 


Pitddh 


Topazion 


Topaz 


Peridot 


Sappir 


Sappheiros 


Sapphire 


Lapis lazuli 


Shamir 


Adamas 


f Adamant 
( Diamond 


( Diamond 
(^Corundum 


Shebo 


Achates 


Agate 


Agate 


Shoham 


Onuchion 


Onyx 


Onyx 


Tarshish 


Bcrull'iGn 


Beryl 


(Beryl 
(Amazon stone 


Yahaloia 


Adamas 


Diamond 


1 


Ydsheplieh 


laspis 


Jasper 


Plasma 



In the Authorised Version both yahdlom (Ex. 28, 18 ; Ezek. 28, 
13) and shdmir (Jer. 17, 1) have been translated diamond, and shdmfr 
also twice as adamant (Ezek. 3, 9: Zech. 7, 12); as already 
stated, yahaJom cannot hQ rightly translated diamond ; shdmir may 
have been either diamond or corundum* in the times of Jeremiali, 
Ezekiel, and Zechariah (about B.C. 628-510). 

Possibly some of the differences between the Septuagint Version 
and the Authorised Version are due, not to the differences of the 
Hebrew texts, but to the different meanings assigned by the different 
translators to the same Hebrew words : it has been suggested, for 
instance, that bdreqeih and nophek ought to interchange meanings, 
and again that nophek may be the equivalent, neither of smaragdos 
nor of anthrax, but of chritsnJithos ; ijahl'ddm the equivalent, not of 
adamas, but of onuchion ; tarshish the equivalent, not of bcriillion, but 
of anthrax. 



Anothkk Table of Equivalenck. 

Having regard to the improbal>ility that the Breastplate con- 
tinued in existence, and was unaltered, from the time of Moses to 
that of Josephus, notwithstanding the many disasters that befel 
the Jewish nation during so long an interval, and tf) the certainty 



Mentioned in the Bible. 69 

that the Septuagint translators found great difficulty in the assigna- 
tion of Greek names to the stones mentioned in the Hebrew text 
accessible to them, the late Professor N. S. Maskelyne, F.R.8., 
formerly (1857-80) Keeper of Minerals in the British Museum, held 
that no weight at all should be attached to the Septuagint names or 
to those given by Josephus, and sought to disco\er the old meanings 
of the Hebrew words in another way — namely, by comparison of 
the names that have been given to stones in various Oriental 
languages and by determination of the species of the minerals found 
among Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities. 

After much study, Mr. Maskelyne suggested (1888), though only 
tentatively and with much hesitation, the following as a list of pro- 
bable equivalents of the Hebrew names of the Breastplate stones : — 

Hebhew, English. 

Ahldmdh Onyx (?) or Amethyst. 

Bdreqcth Almandine ; Amethyst (?) or Emerald. 

LesJiem Yellow Jasper (?) or Amazon stone. 

Noplieh Blue Turquoise. 

Ode}n lied Carnelian or Red Jasper. 

Pltddh Garnet or Peridot. 

Sapjjir Lapis lazuli. 

Shebo Black-and-White Agate (?). 

Shoham Amazon stone or Green Tur(iuoise. 

TarshUli Green Jasper or Citrine. 

Yahnlom Glass or Blue Chalcedony or Beryl (?). 

Ydshepheh Plasma. 

5. OTHER ST0NE8 MENTIONED IN THE BIBLE. 

(«) Other stones m(;ntioned by name in the Bible are Alabaster 
and Crystal, and three which have had an organic origin, Amber, 
Coral, and Pearl. 

Alabaster. — The alctbaHtriten of Theophrastus was an onyx-marble 
(calcium carbonate) obtained in large masses from the neigh- 
bourhood of Thebes in Egypt. 

In Pliny's tmw the most esteemed was of a honey-yellow 
colour " covered Avith spots curling in whirls and not trans- 
parent " : it was considered defective when of a white or horn 
colour, or approaching glass in appearance. It was much 



70 Guide to Animals, Plants, and Minerals 

used for the preservation of precious ointments (Matt. 26, 7). 
The name alabaster is now generally given to a different 
compound of calcium, a sulphate (g^-psura), a softer material. 

Crystal. — The word occurs in the Authorised Version in Job 28, 
17, and Ezek. 1, 22, and also three times in Revelation 
(4, 6; 21, 11; 22, 1). The Hebrew words in Job and 
Ezekiel are different, and are rendered in the Septuagint by 
the Greek words hnalos and hn(stallo.<>, respectively ; krustalJo-^ 
is the Greek word used in Revelation. 

The Jcriistallos of Theophrastus was one of the hard, pellucid 
stones used by the seal engravers, and doubtless, like the 
crystaUum of Pliny, was identical with the "rock-crystal"' of 
the present time. Among the localities cited for crystaUvm 
by Pliny are " the crags of the Alps, so difficult of access that 
it is usually found necessar}' to be suspended by ropes in order 
to extract it." 

The word " glass " occurs several times in the New Testament 
as a translation of the Greek word Jiualos : the name hualos was 
at first given to an)?^ clear, transparent stone, but in later times 
was restricted to glass. In the Authorised Version of the Old 
Testament, "looking glasses" are mentioned in Exod. 38, 8, 
Job 37, 18, and Ecclesiasticus 12, 11. 

Amber.— The Greek name elehtron occurs in the Septuagint 
(Ezek. 1, 4 ; 1, 27 ; 8, 2) as a translation of the Hebrew 
word hashmal ; the elektron of the time of Theophrastus 
and the Septuagint translators is the amber of the Authorised 
Version and of the present day. In Pliny's time amber was 
an object of luxur}-, and ranked next to crystal. 

Coral*. — The name occurs twice in the Authorised Version, both 
times in the Old Testament (Job 28, 18, and Ezek. 27, 16), 
and as a translation of the Hebrew word ramoth, but the 
correctness of the translation is doubtful. 

Red coral has been highly esteemed since very ancient times. 
Korallion is described by Theophrastus as being red, cylindrical, 
resembling a root, and growing in the sea. In Pliny's time it 
was especially prized by the people of India, the reddest and 
most branched being most valued. 

* See also p. 22. 



Mentioned in the Bible. 71 

Pearl.* — The name " pearl " occurs in the Authorised Version in Job 
28, 18, and also seven times in the New Testament. In the 
Revised Yei'sion the Hebrew word (gdhish) in Job 28, 18, 
is translated "crystal," not "pearl." The margarites (New 
Testament) is mentioned by Theophrastus as being one of 
the precious stones, but not pellucid, as produced both in a 
kind of oyster and in the pinna, and as brought from the Indies 
and the shores of certain islands in the Red Sea, 

(h) The meanings of the four Hebrew terms heclolah, eqdah, 
JcadJcod, and pemnha have not been determined with certainty. 
.J The first, hedSIah, occurs twice (Gen. 2, 12; Numb. 11, 7), 
and is translated " bdellium " in the Authorised Version. Some com- 
mentators think that the name is that of the gum of an Arabian 
tree ; others interpret it to be an " excellent, selected pearl." 

The second, eqddh, occurs once (Isa. 54, 12) ; in the 
Authorised Version it is translated as " carbuncle," and in the 
Septuagint as Jcnistallofi. 

The third, kadkod, occurs twice (Isa. 54, 12 ; Ezek. 27, 16), 
and in the Authorised Version is translated, like the Hebrew word 
sJieho, as " agate." The true interpretation is very doubtful ; ruby, 
zircon, garnet, and tourmaline have all been suggested. 

The fourth, penmha, occux's in Job 28, 18 ; Pi'ov. 3, 15 ; 
8, 11 ; 20, 15; 31, 10; Lam. 4, 7. In the Authorised Version 
it is translated " rubies " ; but in the Septuagint it is translated 
as being equivalent to " precious stones." It has also been sug- 
gested that the word may mean " red coral," as it has some likeness 
to an Arabic word meaning " branch '' ; it has also been thought 
that the word means " pearls." 

{(•) Of the remaining materials mentioned in the text or marginal 
references of the Bible, the following are so well known that descrip- 
tion is unnecessary : — - 

1. The Metals:— 

Gold. 

Silver. 

Brass : really the material signified was generally bronze, 
i.e., copper alloyed with tin ; but sometimes, possibly, it 
may have been true brass, i.e., copper alloyed with zinc. 

Tin. 

Lead. 

Iron. 

* Sec also p. 22. 



72 Guide to Anwials, &c.. Mentioned in the Bible. 

The word translated " steel " in the Authorised Version is 
translated clialhos {i.e., bronze) in the Septuagint. 

2. The Inflammables : — 

Coal. 

Bitumen, Pitch (Slime). 

Naptha (Naphtha). 

Brimstone. 

3. The Salts : — Common salt and nitre ; the latter being the nitron 
of former times, which was a carbonate of sodium, not the nitre of 
the present day. 

The others are very indefinite in charactei", or of common 
occurrence, namely — 

Clay, Mire, Ashes, Dust, Earth ; 

and Rock, Stone (with Chalkstone, Gravelstone, Headstone, 

Millstone), Sand, Flint, Porphyry (Porphyre), Marbh^ 

and Lime. 



INDEX. 



Abraham's oak, 29 
Acacia, 33 
Acacia Seyal, 33 
Acanthus, 44 
Acanthus syriacus, 44 
Achates, agate, 45, 51, 52, 

53, 55, 63, 66, 68, 69, 71 
Acridium peregrinum, 19 
Adamant, adamas, 51, 53, 
^66, 68 
'Addshim, 37 
Adder, 18 
Agate V. Achates. 
'Agilr, 16 

Ahldmdh, 52, 67, 69 
•Akhshilbh, 18 
'Akkdbish, 20 
Alabaster, 69 
•Alaq, 21 
Aleppo pine, 27 
Algum tree, 24 
Alldh, 29 
Allium Cepa, 40 
A. Pmrum, 40 
A. sativum, 40 
AllCn, 29 

Almandine, 46, 55, 67, 69 
Almond, 25 
Almug, 24 
Aloes, 42 
'Alilqdh, 21 

Amazon stone, 56, 68, 69 
Amber, 12, 51, 70 
Ambergris, 12 
Amcthuson, amethustos, 

amethyst, amethystus, 

46, 48, 49, 52, 53, 55, 

63, 67, 69 
Ammon, 5 

Ammoperdix heyi, 15 
.yAmygdahts communis, 25 
AndpJulh, 14 
Andquh, 11 
Anbnr, 12 
Anemone, 39 
Anemone coronaria, 39 
Ancthum graveolens, 40 
Anise, 40 



Ant, 20 

Anthrax, 53, 55, 58, 63, 

66,67 
Ape, 11 

Apis fasciata, 19 
Apple, 25 
Apricot, 26 
'Aqrdb, 20 

Aquilaria AgallocJium, 42 
Arabian camel, 6 
'Ardbim, 33 
'Ar'dr, 28 
Arbeh, 19 

Armeniaca vulgaris, 26 
'Arm&n, 26 
'Arub, 21 
'Aruer, 28 
Artemisia, 41 
Arundo Donax, 37 
'Ash, 20 
Ashes, 72 
Asp, 18 
Ass, 2 
Atdd, 43 
'ItaW'ph, 12 
Athebab, 21 
Athene glaux, 13 
Aurochs, 3 
Ayydh, 13 
^i/?/<ii, 6 

Baboons, 2 
Badger, 12 
Balm, 42 
Balsamodendron gilca- 

dense, 42 
B. Myrrha, 42 
Bar, 35 

Bdriqeth, 52, 67, 68, 69 
Barley, 36 
Barn owl, 13 
Bat, 12 
Bat am, 34 

Bath-hayya'undh, 15 
" Bay-tree," 26 
Bdellium, 45, 71 
Bear, 10 
Beden, 5 



Bedulah, 45, 71 

Bee, 19 

Beetle, 19 

Behemuth, 7 

Bekdim, 28 

Berush, Beruth, 27 

Berullion, beryl, beryllus, 

46, 48, 49, 52, 53, 55, 

63, 64, 66 
Bikktlrdh, 27 
Bittern, 14 
Bitumen, 72 
Black kite, 13 
Black mulberry, 32 
Black stork, 14 
Blue rock-thrush, 16 
Bos taurus primigenius, 3 
Bostvellia Carteri, 42 
Botaurus stcUaris, 14 
Botnim, 34 
Box, 26 

Box-tree, 24, 26 
Box-wood, 23 
Bramble, 43 
Brass, 45, 71 
Brier, 43 
Brimstone, 72 
Bronze, 71, 72 
Broom, 28 
Brown bear, 10 
Bubal hartebeest, 6 
Bubalis boselaphus, 6 
Bufo regularis, 18 
Bull, wild, 3 
Bulrush, 37 
Buteo vulgaris, 13 
Biixus longifolia, 24, 26 
Buzzard, 13 

Qdb, 17 
Cdbila', 10 
Caccabis chukar, 15 
Calccdonius, 49 
Calchedon, 49 
Callaina, 51, 65 
Gallitris quadrivalvis, 25 
Camel, 6 



74 



Index. 



Camelns dromcdarius, 6 
Canis aiirens, 9 
Canis liijms, 9 
Cankerworm, 19 
Caper, 38 
Qaplu;dphdh, 33 
Capparis spinosa, 38 
Gapra hircus xgagrus, 5 
Capra nuhiana sinaitica,5 
Capriimilgus ctiropiviis, 13 
Carbo, carbuncle, carbiin- 

culus, 46, 51, 52, 53, 55, 

67,71 
Caraelian, 50, 68, 69 
Carob tree, 28 
Cassia, 43 
Castor-oil tree, 39 
Cat, 8 

Caterpillar, 19 
Cattle, 3 
Ccbi, 6 

Cedar of Lebanon, 26 
Cedar-wood, 25 
Cedrus libani, 20 
Centaurea Calcitrapa, 44 
Cerastes corniitus, 18 
Cerastes vipera, 18 
Ccratonia Siliij^iia, 28 
gcrl, 43 
Chalcedony, chnlkr^don, 

46, 48, 49, 51, 52, 69 
Chalkos, 72 
Chalkstone, 72 
Chamteloon, 17 
Chamois, 5 
" Chestnut-tree," 20 
Chita, 8 

Chloros hippos, 3 
Chomctan, 18 
Chrusolithos, 46, 49, 53, 

55, 68 
Chrusoprasos, 46, 49 
Chrysoberyl, 49 
Chrysolite, 49 
Chrijsolitlius, chrysolyte, 

V. Chrusolithos. 
Chrysoprrasus v. Chriiso- 

2)rasos. 
Chitkar, 15 
Ciconia alba, 14 
Ciconia nigra, 14 
Cinnainomuin Cassia, 43 
C. zeylanicum, 43 
Cinnamon, 43 
Qippor, 16 
gir'dh, 19 
Citrine, 56, 09 
Citron, 25 
Citrullus Colocynthis, 35 



Citrtdlus vulgaris, 39 

Clay, 72 

Cleopatra's asp, IS 

Clothes-moth, 20 

Coal, 72 

Cobra, 18 

Coccus cacti, 22 

Cochineal insect, 22 

Cock, 2 

Cockatrice, 18 

Colocynth, 35 

Coney, 7 

Coplier, 24 

Coral, 22, 45, 70, 71 

Corallitivi rubrum, 22 

Cormorant, 14 

Corn, 35 

Corundum, 46, 55, 68 

Corviis corax, 16 

Coo'vus corone, 16 

Corvus frjigilegus, 16 

Cotiirnix communis, 15 

Crane, 16 

Crocodile, 12 

Crocus, 43 

Crocus sativiis, 43 

Crow, 16 

Crystal, crystallum, 22, 

51, 70 
Cuckoo, 2 
Cucumber, 39 
Cucuonis Melo, 39 
C. sativHs, 39 
Cucurbita Pepo, 39 
Cuminum sativum, 40 
Cummin, 40 
Cujyresstis sempervirens, 

24,27 
Cyanus, 51 
Cynielunis jubatus, 8 
Cyperus Papyrus, 37 
Cypress, 24, 27 
Cypselus ajnis, 10 

Z)n6, 18 
Ddgdn, 35 
Dardar, 44 
Darnel, 37 
Date-palm, 31 
Dayydh, 13 
Dcbash, 19 
Dcbi'ldh, 27 
Debdrdh, 19 
Deer, fallow, 6 
/)«u;-, 16 

Diamond. 52, 53, OS 
Dill, 40 

Diospyros Ebeiuim, 24 
DishOn, 6 



Dog, 9 

Dog, pariah, 9 
Z)o/ia7i, 36 

Doleful creatures, 10 
' Dolphin, 12 
Dorcas gazelle, 6 
Dourrha, 37 
Dove, 15 
Dove, rock, 16 
Dove, turtle, 15 
Dragon, 11 
Dranunculns mcdincnsis, 

18 
Dromedary, 6 
Duddim, 39 
Dugong, 12 
Dtlklphath, 16 
Dust, 72 

! Eagle, 12 
\ Earth, 72 

Ebony, 24 

Ecballium Eluteriiim, 35 

' Eq shimen, 30 

£g62, 34 

Egj'ptian ox, 3 

Egyptian vulture, lo 

il, 29 

Eldh, 29, 33 

Eleagmis angustifolia, 30 

Electrum, elcktron, 51, 70 

Elephant, 11 

Elephas africaniis, 11 

Elcphas maximus, 11 

Elm, 33 

El6n, 29, 33 

Emerald v. Smaragdos. 

Eqddh, 71 

Equus asinus afncanus, 2 

Equus onager hemippus, 2 

£rc7., 26 

AV'ra/i, 26 

Falco subhuteo, 13 

Falco tinnunculus, 13 

Fallow deer, 

Fan-footed gecko, 11 

Felis cat us morav, 8 

Felis leo, 8 
. Felis pardus, 8 

Ferret, 11 

Ficus Carica, 27 

i^. Sycomorus, 32 

Field-mouse, 2 

Fig, 27, 32 

Fir-tree, 27 

Fishes, 2 

Fitches, 36, 40 
j Flax, 37 



Index. 



75 



Flea, 21 
Flies, 21 
Flint, 72 
Flowers, 38 
Formica, 20 
Fox, 9 

Frankincense, 42 
Fraxinus Ornus, 41 
Frog, 18 

Gdbish, 22, 71 
Gad-fly, 21 
Gall Oak, 29 
Garlick, 40 
Garnet, 40, 55, G9, 71 
Gdzdm, 20 
Oazella dorcas, C 
Ga.zclla mcrrilli, G 
Gazella subgiittiiruaa, G 
Gazelle, dorcas, G 
Gazelle, goitred, G 
Gazelle-hound, 9 
Gecko, 11 
Ghaus, 34 
Gier-eagle, 13 
Glass, G9, 70 
Glede, 13 
Gmelin's sheep, 
Goat, 5 
Goat, wild, 5 
Goitred gazelle, G 
Gold, 45, 71 
G6me, 37 
Gopher, 24 
Gopher-wood, 24 
Gourd, 89 
Grapes, 34 
Grasshopper, 19 
Gravelstone, 72 
Great lizard, 17 
Great owl, 13 
Greyhound, 9 
Griffon-vulture, 13 
Guinea-worm, 18 
Gyps fulvus, 13 

Hribcu-Hcth, 38 

Hdrlr, 40 

JJadas, 29 

H;i mvpis sangiiisu(ia, 21 

Halicore tabcrnaciili, 12 

ildpJidr jyeruth, 11 

Hare, 2 

Hargdl, 20. 

Hart, 6 

Hartebeest, bubal, 6 

Husiddh, 14 

ildsil, 19 



Haslimal, 70 
Hawk, 13 
" Hazel," 25 
ITdayah, 13 
Headstone, 72 
Heath, 28 
Hedjaz sheep, 5 
Hen, 2 
Heron, 14 
Hind, 6 

Hippopotamus, 7 
Hippopotamus umphibius, 

7 
Hiriido, 21 
Hirundo rustica, IG 
H<')ah, 44 
Hobby, 13 
Hobnim, 24 
Holly. 27 
Hmnet, 18 
Honey, 19 
Hoopoe, IG 
Hornet, 19 
Horse, 2 
Horse-leech, 21 
House-fly, 21 
HuaJiinthos, jacinth, 40, 

47, 49, 5G, GS 
Hualos, 70 
Humped ox, 3 
Hunting-leopard, 8 
llyacinthns v. Hiialdn- 

tJios. 
Hya?na, 10 
Hyivna striata, 10 
Hyrax, 8 
Hyssop, 38 

laspis, jasper, 46, 47, 49, 

50, 52, 53, 56, G8, GO 
Ibex, Sinaitic, 5 
Ibis, 14 

Ibis rcligiosa, 14 
tldn, 29 
Iron, 45, 71 
Ivory, 11 

Jacinth v. Ilualcinthos. 
Jackal, 9 

Jargoon, 49, 5G, GS 
Jasper v. laspis. 
Jonah's whale, 12 
Jiiglans regia, 34 
Juniper, 28 
Juniperus macrocarpa, 28 

Kadkud, 71 
Kelcb, 9 
Kestrel, 13 



Ketos, 12 
Kikayon, 39 
Kiimim, 21 
Kite, 13 
Eualj, 17 
K&rallioii, 70 
Kos, 13 
Krina, 39 
Krustallos, 70, 71 
KussAmeth, 3G, 40 

La'anaJi, 41 

Lapis lazuli, 50, G8, G9 

Lapwing, IG 

Latirus nobilis, 2G 

Lead, 45, 71 

Lecanoi-a esculenta, 41 

Leech, 21 

Leek, 40 

Lentils, 37 

Leopard, 8 

Leopard, hunting, 8 

Lepus cuniculus, 7 

Lepus syriacns, 2 

L^shcm, 52, G8, G9 

Tjctddli, 17 

Leviathan, 11 

Libneli, 31 

Lichen, 41 

Lice, 21 

Ligiire, ligurion, 52, 53, 

56, GS 
Lily, 38 
Lime, 72 

Linum sativum, 37 
Lion, 8 
Little owl, 13 
Lizard, 17 
Lizard, great, 17 
Locust, 19 
Locust-tree, 28 
Lolium temulcntxnn, 37 
Luban tree, 42 
Liigkurion v. Ligurion. 
Luz, 25 
Lycium curopD'iim, 43 

Manatee, 12 
Mandragora officinaram, 

39 
Mandrake, 39 
Manna, 22, 41 
Manna ash, 41 
Marble, 72 
Margaritai, 22 
Margaritcs, 71 
Margaritifera , 22 
Marjoram, 38 
IMelon, 39 



76 



Index. 



Mentha syluestris, 40 
Migratory locust, 19 
Millet, 3G 
Millstone, 72 
Milvus ater, 13 
Milvus ictimis, 13 
Mint, 40 
Mire, 72 
Mole, 11, 17 
Mole-rat, 11 
Monitor, 17 
Monticola cijunus, IG 
Morus nigra, 32 
Moth, 20 
Mulberry-tree, 28 
Mule, 2 

Mummy wheat, 36 
Murcx brandnris, 21 
Murex trunctdus, 21 
Musca dunicstica, 21 
Mustard, 41 
My r mica, 20 
Myrrh, 42 
Myrtle, 29 
Myrtus communis, 29 

Naia haic, 18 

Ndnu'r, 8 

Naphtha, naptha, 72 

Narcissus, 38 

Narcissus Tazctta, 38 

Nardostachys jatamansi, 

42 
mc„ 13 
Nevuxldh, 20 
Nerium Oleander, 33 
Nisher, 12 
Nigclla. sativa, 40 
Night-hawk, 13 
Night-jar, 13 
Nile crocodile, 12 
iVim'r, 8 
Nisroch, 13 
Nissr, 13 
Nitron, 72 
^Vi.'ft/t, 15 
Nophck, 52, 08, 09 
Notobasis syriaca, 14 
iV;<6/.-, 44 
Nuts, 34 

Oak, 27, 29, 33 
Oak of Bashan, 29 
(5dem, 52, 68, 69 
dhim, 10 
Oil-tree, 30 
Okapi, 12 
Olea europxa, 30 
Oleander; 33 



Oleaster, 30 

Olibanum, 42 

Olive, 30 

Olive-wood, 24 

Olivine, 49 

Onager, 2 

Onion, 40 

Onuchion, onyx, 45, 51, 

52, 53, 56, 68, 69 
Onyx-marble, 09 
Opal, opalns, 51 
Ophir, 24, 45 
'Orcbh, 16 

Origanum vulgarc, 38 
Osprey, 12 
Ostrich, 15 
Ovis lervia, 6 
Ovis orientalis, 6 
Ovis tragelaphus, G 
Owl, 13 
Owl, barn, 13 
Owl, great, 13 
Owl, little, 13 
Ox, Egj^ptian, 3 
Ox, humped, 3 
Ox, water, 7 
Ox, wild, 3 

Pacliytylus cincrasccns, 19 
Paggd, 27 
Pale horse, 3 
Palm, 31 
Palmer-worm, 2U 
Pandion haliae'tus, 18 
Panicum i)illiaccu)n, 37 
Papio, 2 
Papyrus, 37 
Paqqu'vth, 35 
Pariah dog, 9 
Partridge, 15 
Partridge, Hey's, 15 
Parvaim, 45 
Pavo cristatus, 15 
Peacock, 14 
Pearl-oyster, 22 
Pearls, 22, 71 
I'chonaut, 7 
Pclccanus crisjnis, 14 
Pelccanus onocrotalus, 14 
Pelican, 14 
Pc)Lintm, 71 
Pkufumes, 41 
Peridot, 49, 51, 68, 69 
JVthcn, 18 

PJialacrocorax carlo, 14 
Phalacrocorax dcsmarcsti, 

14 
Pharaoh's hen, 13 
Pliccnix dactylifcra, 31 



Phoinix, 31 

Physcter macroccpJialus, 

12 
Pine-branches, 30 
Pinus lialcpensis, 27 
Pistachio nut, 34 
Pistacia Terebinthus, 33 
P. vera, 34 
Pitch, 72 
Pitdah, 52, GS, 69 
Plane-tree, 26 
Plasma, 49, 50, 68, 69 
Platanus orientally, 26 
Pomegxanate, 31 
Poplar, 28, 31 
Populus alba, 31 
P. cuphratica, 28 
Porphyre, porphyry, 72 
Porphyrio atnuleus, 15 
Porpoise, 12 
Pkickly Plants, 43 
Procavia syriaca, 8 
Ptyodactylus lobatus, 11 
Punica Granatum, 31 
Purple dye, 21 
Purple waterheu, 15 
Purpura, 21 
Purrhos 7ttjyx)s, 3 
Pygarg, 6 
Pygargus, 6 
Pyrope, 46, 55, 67 

Qddth, 14 

Qdmdli, 35 

Qi'cuh, 40 

Qinndmon, 43 

Qippod, 14 

Qippdz, 13 

Qure, 15 

Quail, 15 

Quercus ^gilops, 29 

Q. insectifera, 29 

Q. pseudococcifera, 29 

Quince, 25 

Rddli, 13 

Rabbit, 7 

Bachma, 13 

Rdhdm, 13 

Ram, 5 

Rdmuth, 22, 70 

Puina esculenta,, 18 

liana mascariensis, 18 

Raven, 16 

Red coral, 22, 70 

Red horse, 3 

Red kite, 13 

Red sandal-wood, 24 

Reed, 37 



Index. 



Rem, 3 

Rcndntm, 15 

Retem, 28 

Ricinus, 39 

Rim, 3 

Rimmdh, 20 

Rimmon, 31 

Roccclla tincturia, 41 

Rock, 72 

Rock crystal, 22, 51, 70 

Rock-dove, 16 

Rock-thrush, IG 

Roehuck, G 

Rcctama rcetam, 2S 

Rook, 16 

Rose, 38 

nrdhcm, 28 

Rubies, ruby, 46, 55, 67, 71 

Rue, 40 

Rush, 37 

Ruta graveolois, 40 

Rye, 36 

Sacred ibis, 14 
SaHi-ou, 43 
Safsaf, 33 
Scilix babylonica, 33 
Salt, 72 
Salwd, 15 
Sand, 72 
Saudal-wood, 24 
Sanders-wood, 24 
Saiitnlum album, 24 
Sappheiros, sapphire, sap- 
2)hirus, 46, 40, 50, 52, 
53, 56, 63 
Sappir, 52, 68, 69 
Sard, sarda, sardine stone, 
sardion, sardius, 50, 52, 
53. 56, 58, 68 

Sardonux, sardonyx, 46, 
50, 58, 62, 64 

Sds, 20 

Satnrcia Thymbra, 38 

Scincus officinalis, IS 

Scoli/mus maculnta, 44 

Scorpion, 20 

Sea-monster, 11 

Seldiu, 15 

Snndmith, 20 

Serpent, 11, 18 

Shablill, 18 

SliaJiaph, 2 

Shdldkh, 14 

Shdnilr, 68 

Shdphdn, 7 

Shdqed, 25 

Shcbo, 52, 68, 69 

Sheep, 5 



Sheep, Cxmelin's, 6 
Sheep, Hedjaz, 5 
Sheep, wild, 6 
She-goat, 5 
Shcphlphon, IS 
Shibbuk'th, 35 
Hhikmim, 32 
Shikmuth, 32 
Shittah tree, 33 
Shittim wood, 25, 33 
Shoham, 52, 64, 65, 67, 

68, 69 
Shusdn, 38 
Shusa)indh, 38 
ShrVdl, 9 
SJulm, 40 
' Siamu, 05 
Silver, 45, 71 
Sinaitic ibex, 5 
Sinapis nigra, 41 
Sis, 16 

Sisi partridge, 15 
Skink, 18 
Skdlt'X, 20 
Slime, 72 
Slughi, 9 

Smaragdos, smaragdus, 
emerald, 45, 46, 47, 48, 
49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 
56, 57, 64, 66, 67, 68 

Snail, 18 

Soam, 67 

Sorghtun vidgare, 37 

Spalax typhlus, 11 

Sparrow, 16 

Spelt, 36 

Sperm-whale, 12 
i Spider, 20 

Spikenard, 42 

Sponge, 22 

Spoiigos, 22 

Squirting cucumber, 35 
I Stacte, 32 
1 Star-thistle, 44 

Stone, 72 

Storax-tree, 32 
i Stork, 14 
1 Stork, black, 14 

Striped hyaena, 10 
I Strix flammca, 13 

Strutiiio camclas, 15 

Styrax officinalis, 32 

Sds, 16 

Susan, 39 

Sus scrofa ferns, 7 

Swallow, IG 

Swan, 15 

Swift, 16 
Swine, 7 



Sycamine-tree, 32 
Sycamore, 32 
Syrian bear, 10 

Tabanus, 21 

Tahash, 12 

Tahmds, 13 

Tdhidr, 31 

Tamarisk, 41 

Tannin, 11, 12 

Taphozous nndivcntris, 12 

Tappnah, 25 

Tarentola matiritanica, 11 

Tares 37 

Tarshish, 15, 45, 52, 68, 69 

Teil tree, 33 

Terebinth, 29, 33 

Thistle, 43 

Thorns, 43 

Thyine wood, 25 

Timsa, 12 

Tin, 45, 71 

Tinea pellionella, 20 

TinsMmeth, 11, 15, 17 

Tirzdh, 27 

To, 3 

Toad, 18 

Togei, 14 

Tdle'dh, 20 

Tomb-bat, 12 

To])&z, topazion , topazium, 
45, 46, 47, 49, 51, 52, 
53, 57, 66 

T6r, 15 

Tortoise, 17 

Tourmaline, 71 

Trees and Shrubs, 25 

Tribolos, 44 

Triticum compositum, 36 

Triticum Spelta, 36 

Tuchash, 12 

Tukk'i, 14 

Turpentine tre^, 33 

Turquoise, 65, 69 

Turtle-dove, 15 

Turhir communis, 15 
Tartur senegalensis, 15 

Udad, 6 

Unicorn, 3 
Upupa ejwps, 16 
Uromastix sjji»tj-)fs, 18 
Ursus arctus syriacus, 10 

Valonian oak, 29 
Vai-aiius grisetis, 17 
Vara)ius niloticus, 17 
Vine, 34 
Vine of Sodom, 35 



78 



Index. 



Vulpcs alopcx niloticus, 'J 
Vulture, 13 
Vulture, Egyptian, 13 
Vulture, griffon, 13 
Vulture, scavenger, 13 

Walnut-tree, 34 
Waterhen, 15 
Water melon, 39 
Water-ox, 7 
Weasel, :2, 11 
Weeping willow, 33 
Whale, 11 
Whale, sperm, 12 
Wheat, 36 
White poplar, 31 



Wild ass, '2 
Wild bull, 3 
Wila cat, 8 
Wild goat, 5 
Wild gourds, 35 
Wild ox, 3 
Wild sheep, G 
Wild vine, 35 
Willow, 33 
Wine, 35 
Wolf, 9 
Woods, 23 
Worm, 20 
Wormwood, 41 

Ya'cl, 5 



Yacii, 15 

Yaluilom, 52, 6S, G9 
Yahmilr, 6 
Yanshilph, 14 
YdsMpheh, b'2, 03, G'J 
Yiilcq, 19 
Yvndh, 16 

Zanuir, 5 

Zarzir moUtiuiijiin, 9 

Zebu, 3 

Zcbilb, 21 

Zi'nicr, 5 

Zircon, 56, 71 

Zizania, 37 

Zizyphus, 44 



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The above-mentioned Catalogues may be purchased of Messrs. Longmans & Co., 
89, Paterivoster Row ; Mr. B. Quaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street ; 
and Jlessrs. Dni.AU & Co., Ltd., 37, Solio Square; or at the Natueal 
History Museum, Croniioell Road, London, S.W. A more detailed list may 
be obtained on application to the Director of the Museum. 



UNRERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 
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By Order of the Trustees, 

L. FLETCHER, 

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