(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A guide to the birds of Nepal"







M^r 



\\^ 



aU^2 



l>lSr: 



'<Mi 



5^\.i~ JSSKi 



laf/UX l^ '^ 






W&VvV-N 



AND 



.SEC Q; 



E D I T I 



Nepal has a powerful fascination for most 
birdwatchers. It is remarkably rich in birdlife, 
having a large number of species for its size. 

For this new edition , Carol and Tim Inskipp have 
included a wealth of new information on the 
distribution and status of Nepal's 836 bird species. 
Valuable information is given on breeding, habitat, 
behaviour and range within the Indian subcontinent 
with emphasis on the Himalayas. The 703 
distribution maps cover all but the rarer and more 
localised birds. In addition, data are presented on 
those species whose breeding behaviour is little 
known. The detailed section on identification of 
difficult species, which includes colour plates, is of 
particular value. The range and quality of the 
material covered will ensure that A Guide to the 
Birds of Nepal remains indispensable for anyone 
interested in the birds of the region . 



Front cover : Stoliczka's Tit Warbler by Steve Rooke 



A&C BLACK 




A GUIDE TO THE 

BIRDS of NEPAL 



Digitized by the Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 witin funding from 

UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge 



littp://www.arcliive.org/details/guidetobirdsofne85insk 



A G UIDE TO THE 

BIRDS of NEPAL 



Second Edition 
Carol and Tim Inskipp 

Colour illustrations by Clive Byers, Richard Grimmett, 
Craig Robson, and Steve Rooke 

Line drawings by Clive Byers, Steen Christensen, 

Dave Farrow, Richard Grimmett, Patrick Hamon, 

Dave Mills, Mike Parker, Craig Robson, Steve Rooke, 

Ray Turley, and James Wolstencroft 



V 



CHRISTOPHER HELM 

A & C Black ■ London 



© 1985 Carol and Tim Inskipp 

Second edition ©1991 

Christopher Helm (Publishers) Ltd, 

a subsidiary of A & C Black (Publishers) Ltd, 35 Bedford Row, 

London WC1R4JH 

ISBN 0-7136-8109-8 

All rights reserved. No part of this 
publication may be reproduced, stored in 
a retrieval system or transmitted, in any 
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, 
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without 
the prior pennission in writing of the publishers. 

A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. 



Laser-set by The Nature Conservation Bureau Ltd, 
36 Kingfisher Court, Newbury, Berkshire, UK. 

Printed and bound in Great Britain by the Bath Press 
on 100 per cent re -cycled paper. 



CONTENTS 



List of Illustrations 

Acknowledgments 

Introduction 

Topography, Climate and Vegetation 

Bird Distribution 

Bird Conservation 

Protected Areas 

Migration 

History of Ornithology 

Bird-watching Areas 

Identification Section 

Key to the Maps 

Species Accounts 

Key to the Colour Plates 

Bibliography 

Index to the English Names 

Index to the Scientific Names 



6 

8-9 

10-11 

12-15 

16-17 

18-19 

20 

21-23 

24 

25-30 

31-83 

84 

85-375 

192 

376-389 

390-395 

396-400 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



List of Illustrations 



Identification Drawings 



Page 



Artist 



Page 



Artist 



Gyps vultures 


33 


Dave Mills 


Wagtails 


61 


Steve Rooke, 


Accipiters 


35 


Craig Robson 






Timlnskipp 


Buzzards 


37 


Steve Rooke 


Pipits 


63,65 


Craig Robson 


Hawk-Eagles 


38 


Dave Mills 


Black Tits 


74 


Craig Robson 


Aquilas 


41,43 


Steen Christensen 


Buntings 


79 


Qive Byers 


Large falcons 


45 


Ray Turley 


Kingfishers/Barbets 


81 


Dave Farrow 


Calidris sandpipers 


47 


Ray Turley 


House-Martins 


82 


Mike Parker 


Snipe and Woodcocic 


49 


Craig Robson 


Mountain-Finches 


82 


Steve Rooke 


Gulls 


51,53 


Ray Turley 


Needletails 


83 


Craig Robson 


Owls 


55,57,58 


Richard Grimmett 


Greater Short-toed Lark 


83 


Steve Rooke 


Wagtails 


59 


Tim Inskipp, 
Ray Turley 









Vignettes 



Dave Farrow 

9, 94, 118, 164, 171, 178, 189, 200, 201, 203, 226, 242, 255, 272, 

279, 292, 306, 321, 334, 338 

Richard Grimmett 

11, 18, 26, 29, 103, 113, 120, 125, 126, 129, 130, 133, 139, 142, 
143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 157, 158, 160, 161, 163, 167, 176, 183, 
186, 187, 210, 211, 221, 223, 224, 237, 239, 240, 245, 246, 251, 
259, 266, 278, 281, 284, 288, 290, 298, 299, 304, 307, 309, 312, 
313, 331, 344, 361 



Ciaig Robson 

28, 30, 95, 96, 98, 104, 121, 123, 133, 151, 156, 166, 172, 177, 
191, 195, 199, 205, 207, 214, 222, 229, 234, 235, 238, 241, 248, 
260, 261, 268, 276, 277, 283, 285, 286, 291, 297, 300, 305, 309, 
314, 316, 317, 323, 325, 328, 329, 336, 350, 359, 364, 371 

Steve Rooke 

15, 23, 25, 28, 86, 87, 88, 92, 96, 109, 110, 125, 154, 159, 215, 
227, 234, 244, 248, 271, 279, 294, 314, 323, 324, 340, 350, 352, 
355, 367, 369, 373 



Patrick Hamon 
109, 111, 206 



Ray Turley 

85, 104, 156, 162, 360, 362 



Dave Mills 
108, 132, 138, 246, 319, 320, 343, 372 



James Wolstencroft 

17, 341, 346, 348, 349, 351, 353 



Mike Parker 

21, 87, 89, 157, 168, 197, 212, 232, 250, 287, 289, 357 



Colour Plates 




Plate 1 


Bush Warblers 


Craig Robson 


Plate 2 


Prinias 


Richard Grimmett 


Plate 3 


Acrocephalus and 






Locusiella warblers 


Richard Grimmett 


Plate 4 


Phylloscopus warblers 






with wingbars 


Richard Grimmett 


Plate 5 


Phylloscopus warblers 






without wingbars 


Richard Grimmett 


Plate 6 


Rosefinch males 


Craig Robson 


Plate 7 


Rosefinch females 


Craig Robson 


Plate 8 


Buntings 


aive Byers 



DEDICATED TO 
ARUN 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



Acknowledgements 



This book is a result of the contributions of a great 
many people. We wish we could adequately thank 
each of them. 

We are most grateful to the artists, Clive Byers, 
Steen Christensen, Dave Farrow, Richard Grimmett, 
Patrick Hamon, Dave Mills, Mike Parker, Craig Rob- 
son, Steve Rooke, Ray Turley, and James Wolsten- 
croft who generously donated their work. 

This book would not have been possible without 
the assistance of many people who provided us with 
their bird records. Special thanks go to Jack Cox 
Junior, Hari Sharan Nepali and Arend van Riessen 
for their important contributions. We also warmly 
thank the many other observers who gave us their bird 
records: Alan Adams, Per AUnd, Per Alstrom, Per 
Andell, Ulrik Andersen, Tim Andrews, Tony Baker, 
Hem Sag Baral, Ian Barber, Larry Barnes, Dave 
Barrett, Sattish Battachan, Carl-Axel Bauer, Mark 
Beaman, Staffan Bensch, Amoud van den Berg, T. 
Bergstrom, Mark Bezuijen, Rob Bijlsma, Lawrence 
Binf ord, Biswamoy Biswas, Jan Bolding, Geoff Bond, 
Chris Bowden, Paul Bradbear, Dave Brearey, Seb 
Buckton, Clive Byers, Dick Byrne, John Calladine, 
Pete Carty, Srikumar Chattopadhyay, Steen Chris- 
tensen, Andy Clements, Dave Clugston, Mark 
Cocker, Andy Collins, Pete Colston, Peter Conder, 
Simon Cook, John Cooper, Gordon Corbett, Bernard 
Couronne, Simon Cox, Kai Curry-Lindahl, Jon Cur- 
son, Adam Davison, Ian Dawson, Ridge De Witt, 
Adrian del-Nevo, Paul Deluce, Tim Dodman, Phil- 
ippe Dubois, Paul Dukes, Alan Dunkley, Dinash 
Durrai, Nick Dymond, Jon Eames, Enno Ebels, Jens 
Eggers, R.E.T. Ellen, Vernon Eve, Pete Ewins, 
Richard Fairbank, Dave Farrow, Robert Fleming Jr., 
Elizabeth Forster, Steve Gantlett, Sharifin Gardiner, 
Simon Gawn, John Brodie Good, Andy Goodwin, 
Tony Gaston, Michael Green, Alan Greensmith, 
Richard Gregory-Smith, Richard Grimmett, Gunter 
Groh, Yvonne Guinan, K.K.Gurung, Kaj Halberg, 
Jim Hall, Phil Hall, John Halliday, Patrick Hamon, 
Per Hansen, Simon Harrap, Edward Harris, Kerry 
Harrison, Andrew Harrop, Bill Harvey, Phil Heath, 
Peter and Pauline Heathcote, Mortens Heegard, Joel 
Heinen, Mogens Henriksen, Darla Hillard, Peter 
Hines, Thor Hjarsen, Goran Holmstrom, Paul Holt, 
John Hopkins, Jon Hombuckle, Michael Hornby, 
Jesper Homskov, Stuart Housden, Sir Anthony Hur- 
rell, Keith Hyatt, Rob Innes, Richard Isherwood, 
Simon Jackson, Ole Jakobsen, Bob Jarman, Paul 
Jepson, Ron Johns, Bas Jongeling, Torben Jorgensen, 
Rafi Juliusberger, Stan Justice, Mikael Kail, Pete 
Kennerley, Ben King, Niels Kjellen, Jerry Klapste, 
Jean-Christophe Kovacs, Erling Krabbe, Niels 
KJ-abbe, Andy Kratter, Lalit Lalchan, Frank Lambert, 
Roy Lancaster, Jens Larsen, Christer Larsson, Steve 



LeClerq, John Leece, Tony Lelliott, Paul Lewis, 
Svend Linderstrom, Vaughan Lister, Steve Madge, 
Jesper Madsen, Stig Toft Madsen, Soren Mailing, 
Trevor Marshall, Jochen Martens, Rod Martins, 
Sjoerd Mayer, Barry McCarthy, Chris McCarty, Gil- 
Han McKiiight, Hans Meilstrup, David Melville, 
David Millin, David Mills, Tino Mischler, Erik Mol- 
gaard, Masayuki Morita, Kathleen Munthe, David 
Murdoch, Chris Murphy, John Muston, Herbert 
Nickel, Serge NicoUe, Jan Tottrup Nielsen, Thomas 
Nilsson, Torgny Nordin, Gunnar Numme, Bill Oddie, 
William Oliver, Klaus Mailing Olsen, Urban Olsson, 
Mike Parr, David Percival, Mikael Persson, lb Pe- 
tersen, Richard Pickering, Ray Pierce, Oleg Polunin, 
Richard Porter, Peter Post, Mikael Koie Poulsen, 
Neil Powell, Anders Prieme, Dave Pritchard, Peter 
Pyle, Pol Rassel, Nigel Redman, Tim Reid, Cliff Rice, 
Gerry and Lucy Richards, James Roberts, Mike 
Roberts, Peter Roberts, Philip Robinson, Tim Robin- 
son, Craig Robson, Frank de Roder, Mike Rogers, 
Steve Rooke, Jonathon Ross, John Rossetti, Valen- 
tine Russell, Bjom Sandgren, D. Sayers, Jelle Schar- 
ringa, Richard Schofield, Linda Schrijver, Mike 
Searle, Suresh Shakya, Mahendra Shrestha, Peter 
Sieurin, Neil Simpson, Russell Slack, Stewart Smith, 
Uffe Sorensen, Graham Speight, Simon Stirrup, 
Anthony Stones, Aidan Sudbury, Werner Suter, Ra- 
jendra Suwal, Ian Taylor, Bama Bahadur Thapa, 
Jean-Marc Thiollay, Dave Thorns, Rob Tolk, Tim 
Toohig, Mick Turton, Charles Tyler, Rae Vernon, 
Christer Wahlstrom, Goran Walinder, Johan WaUan- 
der, Steve Whitehouse, Wolfgang Winkel, Jorg Wit- 
tenberg, Martin Woodcock, Brian Woolly, James 
Wolstencroft, Mark Wotham and naturalists at the 
KamaU Tented Camp and Machan Wildlife Camp. 
Many spent a great deal of time extracting informa- 
tion from their notebooks and answering our queries 
or requests for more details on particular records. 
Mortens Heegard from DAFIF, the working group of 
the Dansk Omitologisk Forening for international 
bird protection, kindly collected some useful reports 
for us. Gyamcho Wangdi provided records made by 
the naturalists of the Kamali Tented Camp. 

We are especially grateful to the British Museum 
(Natural History) and the Kathmandu Natural His- 
tory Museum for allowing access to their bird speci- 
mens and to the Chicago Field Museum for extracting 
useful data from their bird collection on our behalf. 
We also wish to thank the Bombay Natural History 
Society, Booth Museum of Natural History, Brighton; 
Cambridge University, Museum of 2^ology, Cliffe 
Castle Art Gallery and Museum; Glasgow Art Gallery 
and Museum; Hancock Museum, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne; Manchester University Museum; Merseyside 
County Museum; Oxford University Museum; 



Acknowledgements 



Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Histoire; Royal Albert 
Memorial Museum Exeter; Sheffield City Museums, 
and the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen for their 
assistance. Many useful data were extracted on our 
behalf by Erling Krabbe from the Zoological Mu- 
seum of Copenhagen and by Philip Round from the 
Thai National Reference Collection. Humayun Ab- 
dulaU, the late Con Benson, Peter Colston, Clem 
Fisher, Ian Galbraith, J. HuU, Peter Morgan, Derek 
Read, MelvinTraylor Jr., Michael Walters, and David 
WiUiard were also particularly helpful with our mu- 
seum work. 

The section on species identification was written 
with the help of many people who provided valuable 
information and criticised the text. Steen Christensen 
wrote the text and illustrated the Aquila eagles. Per 
Alstrom, Jon Eames, Richard Grimmett and Craig 
Robson provided assistance with numerous species 
and the following assisted with particular groups: 
Clive Byers (buntings), Goran Holmstrom (Phyllo- 
scopus warblers), Alan Kitson (buzzards), Steve 
Madge (buzzards and Phylloscopus warblers), 
Richard Porter (birds of prey), Goran Walinder 
(Phylloscopus warblers). Special thanks go to Richard 
Grimmett, Craig Robson and Jon Eames who exam- 
ined museum skins for information used in this sec- 
tion. Richard Fairbank, Peter Grant, Bill Oddie, 
Urban Olsson, Nick Preston, and Philip Round all 
made useful comments on the identification section. 

We are indebted to Steve Broad who generously 
gave much of his time providing computing assis- 
tance. Without his help the production of the book 
would have been much more difficult. 

We are particularly grateful to Dick Newell for his 
enormous efforts in writing and running a computer 
programme to plot the altitude and period of occur- 
rence bars on the species maps. Robary Ltd. gener- 
ously donated free computer time for production of 
these bars. We also thank Bob Tonks, Louise Cook 
and other staff at Robary for their invaluable help. 

We are grateful to Mark Beaman for making the 
publication of the first edition of this book possible, 
for his advice on its content and his constant encour- 
agement. We also thank Tim Sharrock for his encour- 
agement in the early stages. 



Thanks go to the Nature Conservation Bureau for 
setting the text, Dick FUby for letrasetting the distri- 
bution maps and Hilary Welch for drawing some of 
the maps. 

Useful criticism and advice on the introductory 
section was received from Mark Cocker, Tim Dee, 
Jon Eames, Rod Martins, Craig Robson and Helen 
Taylor. Doris Noe kindly translated some German 
papers for us. 

We both appreciated the moral support of our par- 
ents, Tom and Joyce Robinson and John and Cesca 
Inskipp, while writing the book. 

The artists wish to thank CUve Denby, Alan 
Kitson, Steve Madge, Nigel Redman, Richard Porter, 
Charlie Williams and particularly Urban Olsson for 
lending photographic material. They are also grateful 
to John Dunscombe, John Goldsmith, Jeff Haynes, 
and F.W. andM.M. Grimmett, and to the Conserva- 
tion Monitoring Centre, Exmoor National Park, the 
Polytechjiic of North London, the Norwich Castle 
Museum, for borrowing skins from the British Mu- 
seum (Natural History) on their behalf. 

We are grateful to the British Museum (Natural 
History), Royal Geographical Society and Zoological 
Society of London foruse of their libraries, and to the 
Expedition Advisory Centre for providing informa- 
tion. 

We thank Adam Stainton for the use of informa- 
tion on vegetation types from his book Forests of 
Nepal and the Centre National de la Recherche 
Scientifique who kindly gave permission to reproduce 
maps from Le Nepal, ecologie el biogeographie by 
Jean-Francois Dobremez. 




Striated Bulbul 



10 



Introduction 



INTRODUCTION 

Nepal has a great wealth of birds. A total of 834 
species have been definitely recorded, nearly one 
tenth of the world's known birds. There are 14 species 
newly recorded since the first edition of this book was 
published. However, 15 species collected in the last 
century, which were previously included, have now 
been deleted from the Nepalese list. 

The main aim of this book was to map and summa- 
rise the distribution of birds within the country. The 
information was collected from published literature, 
museum specimens, and unpublished reports and 
other records received from numerous ornithologists, 
comprising a total of over 800 references referred to 
throughout by numbers. These references constitute 
a comprehensive bibliography of Nepalese ornithol- 
ogy. TTiis second edition includes nearly 3000 addi- 
tional distributional records compared to the first 
edition of the book published in 1985. All records of 
rare species and those occurring outside their normal 
range have been carefully checked. Unpublished rec- 
ords lacking adequate supporting evidence have not 
been included. Erroneous and dubious published 
records, including those of 23 species additional to 
those on the Nepalese Ust, have been discussed in the 
species accounts. 

Scientific nomenclature follows Voous' for the se- 
quence of families and for the Palearctic species, and 
largely follows Morony, Bock and Farrand^ or King 
et.al? for Oriental species. The English names are, as 
far as possible, those likely to be adopted in a list of 
Oriental (Indomalayan) bird species currently being 
prepared by the Oriental Bird Club. The names of 
some species are different to those used in the first 
edition of the book, but in such cases the alternative 
names are hsted as synonyms. Other names used by 
various authors''^'', also AU and Ripley 1971-1983, 
Reming et al. 1984 and Ripley 1982, are given as 
synonyms where appropriate. 

A detailed and fully illustrated identification sec- 
tion covering some of the more difficult groups of 
species is also included and has been updated. Since 
1985 a substantial amount of new ornithological in- 
formation has been received, especially from the 
western half of the country and from the Arun valley 
eastwards. However, some areas of Nepal are stiU 
virtually unknown or under-recorded omithologically 
(Map 6). In general all of the country west of the Kali 
Gandaki vaUey still falls into one of these categories. 
Those areas which would be rewarding to visit include 
Api, Humla, Mugu, Dolpo, Mustang, Baitidi and 
Dandeldhura Districts, Royal Sukla Phanta Wildlife 
Reserve, Royal Bardia, Khaptad and Shey Phoksundo 
National Parks, Dang, the Tamur valley, and the far 
south-east. However, access to a few of these areas is 
at present forbidden or restricted to foreigners, and 



obtaining access, accommodation and food in others 
presents problems. 

Much work on the breeding behaviour of Nepalese 
birds remains to be done, as the details for no less 
than 70 species are either little known or completely 
undescribed. 

We are still collecting information and hope that 
this will be of use in future decisions relating to the 
conservation of Nepalese birds and their habitats. 
Data on distribution, status, altitudinal limits, breed- 
ing and migration will be welcomed and acknowl- 
edged. Please send to Carol and Tim Inskipp, Orien- 
tal Bird Club, c/o The Lodge, Sandy, Beds. SG19 
2DL, U.K. 

Finally during a visit to Nepal there are many 
species to look out for, which could occur but have not 
been recorded so far. A total of 68 species have been 
recorded within 100km of the border, 42 from the east 
(E), 21 from the south (S), 6 from the north (N) and 
6 from the west (W). Some of these are unlikely to be 
found now in Nepal: the Himalayan Quail has not 
been recorded for 100 years, and the habitat for many 
of the eastern species no longer exists. The migrant 
species (m) are perhaps the most likely ones to ap- 
pear, although some such as the Siberian Crane, have 
become much rarer in recent years:- 
Indian Cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscicollis (S,E) 
Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus (S-m) 
Little Bittern Ixobrychus minutus (W,S) 
Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifivns (S-m) 
Lesser White-fronted Goose y4. erythropus (S-m) 
Marbled Teal Marmamnetta angustimstris (S-m) 
White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala (S-m) 
Jerdon's BazaAvicedajerdoni (E) 
Manipur Bush Quail Perdicula manipurensis (E) 
Chestnut-breasted Partridge Arborophila 

mandellii (E) 
Red Spurfowl Galloperdix spadicea (S) 
Himalayan Quail Ophrysia superciliosa (W) 
Grey Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron 

bicalcamtum (E) 
Siberian Crane Gnis leucogenmus (S-m) 
Spotted Crake Porzana porzana (S-m) 
Black-tailed Crake P. bicolor (E) 
Sociable Lapwing Chettusia gregaria (S-m) 
Tibetan Sandgrouse Synhaptes tibetanus (N) 
Pale-backed Pigeon Columba eversmanni (S-m) 
Green Imperial Pigeon Ducula aenea (S,E) 
Blossom-headed Parakeet Psitiacula roseata (E) 
Oriental Bay Owl Phodilus badius (E) 
Mottled Wood-Owl Strix ocellata (S) 
Hodgson's Frogmouth Batrachostomus hodgsoni (E) 
Eurasian Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus (S-m) 
Oriental Kingfisher Ceyx erithacus (E) 
Wreathed Hombill Rhyticems undulatus (E) 



Introduction 



11 





■ 


^^^v^mii 


l^^l 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^Lv '"^ ^MUi^^nt 


^^^^H 


^^^^^^^^^At^^ ''^'n^ 




^^^^^^^^Hkk^r^^ 










^Wr^ 


^HI^^^^^^BBHP^Vvt^r^^ ' 


Tf?!^ . 



Oriental Bay Owi 

Heart-spotted Woodpecker Hemicircus canente (E) 
Singing Bushlark Mirafra cantillans (S) 
Indian Bushlark M. erythmptera (S) 
Long-bUled Lark Melanocorypha maxima (E JJ) 
Dusky Crag Martin Ptyonoprogne concolor (S) 
Blue-winged Leafbird Chloropsis cochinchinensis (S) 
Rusty-bellied Shortwing Brachypteryx hypetythra (E) 
Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos (S-m) 
Firethroat L. pectardens (N) 
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus aumreus (E-m) 
Blue-fronted Robin Cinclidium frontale (E) 
Rufous-tailed Rock-Thrush Monticola saxatilis (E-m) 
White-crowned ForktaU Enicuius leschenaulti (E) 
Rufous Prinia Prima rufescens (E) 
Dark-necked Tailorbird Orthotomus atmgularis (E) 
Mountain Tailorbird O. cuculatus (E) 
Moustached Warbler ^crocep/ia/tu 

melanopogon (W) 
White-spectacled Warbler Seicercus affinis (E) 
Eastern Crowned V/aMer Phylloscopus comnatus 

(E-m) 



Vivid Blue Flycatcher Cyomis vivida (E) 
Long-billed Wren-Babbler i?/matorma/acopfiYu5 (E) 
Wedge-billed Wren-Babbler Sphenocichla humei (E) 
Buff-chested Babbler Stachyris ambigua (E) 
Jerdon's Babbler Moupinia altimstris (E) 
Rufous-headed Parrotbill Paradoxomis ruficeps (E) 
Black-browed Parrotbill P. atrosuperciliaris (E) 
Grey-headed ParrotbUl P. gularis (E) 
Giant Babax Babax waddelli (E,N) 
Brown-cheeked Laughing-thrush Garrulax 

henrici (N) 
Yellow-throated Fulvetta /l/c/ppe cinerea (E) 
Rufous-throated Fulvettay4. rufogularis (E) 
Striated Yuhina Yuhina castaniceps (E) 
Beautiful Nuthatch Sittaformosa (E) 
Spotted Creeper Salpomis spilonotus (S) 
Black-billed Magpie Pica pica (N) 
Collared Treepie Dendmcitta fromalis (E) 
SmaU Snowfinch Montifrinplla davidiana (E-m) 
Finn's Weaver Ploceus megarhynchus (W,E) 
Pink-backed Rosefinch Carpodacus grandis (W) 
Grey-headed Bullfinch Pyrrhula erythaca (E) 
Black-and-yellow Grosbeak Mycerobas 

iclerioides (W,E). 

1 Voous, K.H. (1977) Lisl of recent Holarctic bird species, 
London: British Ornithologists' Union. 

2. Morony, J.J., Bock, WJ. and Farrand, J. (1975) Reference 
list of the birds of the world. New York: American Mu- 
seum of Natural History. 

3. King, B.F. and Dickinson, E.C. (1975) A field guide to the 
birds of Somh-East Asia. London: Collins. 

4. Heinzel, H., Fitter, R.S.R., and Parslow, J.L.F. (1972) 
The birds of Britain and Europe with NorthAfrica and the 
Middle East. London: Collins. 

5. American Ornithologists Union (1983) Check-list of 
North American birds. Sixth edition. A.O.U. 



12 



Map 2 Annual Rainfall (by permission of CNRS) 




I I - sou mm nrnrn lOOO-lMmmml 
p>xl 500-IOOOmm | ] 150(1 - :!0()0 mm| 



2000 -2500 mm I 
2500-3000 mm 



Map 3 Bioclimate (by permission of CNRS) 




Climate more variable and bixeric, winter rain, annual temperature range 




1-3 



5-7 



8-11 



High altitude - too cold for any vegetation. 
Mediterranean - two dry periods each year 
(bixeric) with winter rain an important factor. 
Internal valleys - low rainfall with a good pro- 
portion in the winter. 

Steppe - charaaerised by droughts or dry- 
ness; in 5 wind is important, in 6 and 7 also 
rainfall very low. 

Temperate monsoonal - mean temperature of 
coldest month below IS'C. 
8 slightly bixeric; 9 rainfall very high. 



>3000mm/year; 10 rainfaU 2000-2500mm; 11 
high number of days of rain, > 150/year 

12-15 Subtropical - mean temperature of coldest 
month 15-20°C. 12 always bixeric; 13 some- 
times bixeric, rainfall 1000-1500mm; 14 rain- 
fall < 1000mm; 15 high number of days of rain 

16-19 Tropical - mean temperature of coldest 
month 20-25°C. 

The rainfall and number of days of rain in- 
creases eastwards, and the climate becomes 
less variable. 



Topography, Climate and Vegetation 



13 



TOPOGRAPHY, CLIMATE AND 
VEGETATION 



Nepal is remarkable for its great beauty and visual 
variety. The country is land-locked between China to 
the north, and India to the south, east and west. It lies 
between the latitudes of 26° 20'N and 30°26'N, and 
between the longitudes of 80°15'E and SS^IO'E. Most 
of Nepal Ues in the Himalayas and forms the central 
part of the range, one third of its entire length. The 
country is small, only averaging about 870km from 
east to west and has a land area little more than 
England and Wales combined. 

The topography changes dramatically within a 
short lateral distance. There is a narrow strip of 
lowlands in the south. Further north lie the Hima- 
layan foothills and ranges, which run roughly east- 
west across the country and include eight of the 
highest peaks in the world, each over 8000m. Nepal is 
also notable for its great variety of climate and vege- 
tation. 

Climate 

The cUmate ranges from tropical in the lowlands to 
arctic in the high peaks. It is dominated by the mon- 
soon. About 90% of the rain falls during June to 
September. In addition there is a less well defined 
period of winter rain, falling between December and 
the end of March. The monsoon winds carry moist air 
from the Bay of Bengal north and west. On reaching 
the great barrier of the Himalayas the air rises, cools, 
and the moisture condenses as rain on the southern 
slopes. The air crossing the Himalayas is now dry 
resulting in rain shadow on the northern side of the 
mountains in regions such as Mustang and the Dolpo. 
The monsoon rains reach east Nepal first, resulting in 
the rainfall here being generally higher and the mon- 
soon lasting for a longer period than in the west. 
Rainfall also tends to increase with altitude until 
about 2500m by which time clouds have lost most of 
their moisture. Above this altitude rainfall tends to 
decrease. At elevations above 6100m precipitation 
falls as snow rather than rain. Aspect of slopes greatly 
affects the climate. Those facing south receive more 
rain and sunshine than north-facing slopes. In the 
tarai and dun, summer temperatures are hot, often 
greater than 38''C, and winters cold with temperatures 
down to about WC. The Kathmandu Valley has a 
pleasant and mUd climate with a summer maximum of 
about SCC and mean winter temperature of about 
lO'C. The variety of vegetation can be largely ex- 
plained by the variation in monsoon rainfall experi- 
enced in different regions of the country, both the 
total amount of rainfall and the length of the period 
overwhich it falls. Local conditions such as steepness 
of slopes, amount of sunshine and aspect are also very 



important in determining vegetation. Steeper and 
shadier slopes tend to be damper and have a more 
interesting flora. Undergrowth bums less easily in 
shady areas and so the forests are much less affected 
by fire. 

Vegetation 

Stainton' divided Nepal into nine climatic and vegeta- 
tional divisions; Dobremez^ considered that there 
were four main phytogeographical domains: west, 
north-west, central and east; eleven altitudinal vege- 
tation zones; and nineteen distinct biocUmatic types. 
The following account is mainly a summary of their 
work. The natural vegetation has been much affected 
by deforestation. 

Tami and bhabar (Tropical zone) 
The tarai is the flat narrow lowland strip 25 to 45km 
wide lying north of the Indian frontier. It is a continu- 
ation of the Gangetic plains of India and comprises 
the most fertile land in Nepal. Most of it is now highly 
cultivated and little forest remains except in the west. 
There is a steady rise from the tarai to the foothills. 
The dry bhabar zone, characterised by its highly po- 
rous gravelly soil, extends up to about 300m immedi- 
ately to the north of the tarai. Sal Shorea robusta, 
predominates over wide areas forming Ught, open 
forest. Dense evergreen forest occurs in damp shaded 
areas and mixed broadleaved forest often grows along 
rivers. 

Dun valleys and outer foothills 
Beyond the bhabar zone are the first outer Himalayan 
foothills known as the Churia or SiwaUk hills, rising to 
1220m. To the north lies the Mahabharat Lekh rising 
to 2740m, the most densely populated region in Ne- 
pal. Between the two ranges are a series of longitudi- 
nal valleys, often heavily forested and separated by 
narrow ridges called duns, from about 300m to 
1370m. In the west sal and subtropical forest occur at 
the lowest altitudes, Chir Pine Pinus roxburghii from 
610m to 1830m, and mainly oak forests, Quercus 
incana and Q. lanaia, with rhododendron higher up. 
In the east sal and tropical forests are found at lower 
altitudes, then subtropical forest and temperate 
mixed broadleaved forest at higher altitudes. 

Midlands and the southern slopes of the main Hima- 
layan ranges (Subtropical, temperate and subalpine 
zones) 

A broad complex of hills and valleys including the 
Kathmandu Valley. It is densely populated in central 
and eastern areas, where most hillsides have been 



14 



Topography, Climate and Vegetation 



cleared for grazing or terraced for agriculture. Rela- 
tively little forest remains except in the west. 

West Midlands 

The West Midlands lie west of the Kali Gandaki 
River. Chir Pine forests occur up to 1980m and the 
oaks Q. incana and Q. lanata up to 2440m. The 
Prickly-leaved Oak Q. semecarpifolia often predomi- 
nates above 2440m, although Himalayan Fir Abies 
spectabilis is widespread between 3050m and the 
treeline. 

£05/ Midlands 

The East Midlands lie east of the Arun Kosi River 
system. Subtropical wet forest is found lower down, 
and temperate mixed broadleaved forest followed by 
evergreen forest higher up. Oaks are common, and 
rhododendron species are much more numerous than 
in the west, extending from middle elevations to the 
treeline. 

Central Midlands 

The Central Midlands lie between the east and west 
Midlands and comprise complex mixtures of both 
vegetation types. 

South ofAnnapuma and the Himal Chuli 
This area has much higher rainfall than other parts of 
the central midlands because the monsoon rain from 
India has relatively low hills to cross before reaching 
it. Clulaune Schima wallichii and Chestnut Castanop- 
sis forests and subtropical semi-evergreen forests 
occur at lower altitude. Lower temperate mixed 
broadleaved forests are found higher up, on north and 
west faces; oak Q. lamellosa higher up on north and 
south faces. At higher altitudes upper temperate 
mixed broadleaved forest or rhododendrons flourish, 
rather than coniferous forests, because of the high 
rainfall. Thickets of bamboo Anmdinaria are wide- 
spread. There is a marked contrast between this area 
and the dry temperate forest west of the Kali Gandaki 
with a consequent change in the avifauna. 

Alpine zone on slopes to the south of the main ranges 
This zone lies above the treeline and receives mon- 
soon rains. It is similar to alpine zones in other regions 
of the world. Shrubs grow up to 4500m and above 
4900m there is a high altitude flora where cushion 
plants flourish. Species of Primula, Meconopsis, 
Ranunculus, Anemone, Geum and Potenlilla are com- 
mon. 

Inner valleys and dry river valleys 
Nepal's rivers cut deeply through the Himalayas pro- 
ducing impressive gorges, often in a north-south di- 
rection. The vegetation in their valleys is often differ- 



ent from that of immediate surrounding areas, and 
frequently shows sharp contrasts in habitat within a 
short distance. Strong winds usually blow upstream, 
and as a result rainfall in the centres of these valleys 
and lower valleys is much reduced. In gorges, eastern 
slopes close to the river receive little sunshine and are 
damper as a result. The usual altitudinal vegetation 
succession is often replaced by damp forest close to 
the river, coniferous forest on the dry lower and 
nuddle slopes, and broadleaved forest on the wetter 
upper slopes. The Bhote Kosi in central Nepal is a 
typical example of this type of valley. Valleys lying 
deep within the main Himalayan ranges receive sig- 
niflcantly less rainfall than those on southern sides of 
these ranges, and those in the west are drier than 
those in the east. In the east this reduction is not great 
at lower altitudes, but is much lower at and above the 
treeline. Junipers and other species more typical of 
the trans-Himalayas grow here. In west Nepal the re- 
duced rainfall is marked even at low elevations and 
affects the forest composition. Conifers predominate, 
especially Bhutan Pine Pinus wallichiana, except 
above the treeline where Himalayan Birch Betula 
utilis is common. Such valleys include Khumbu, Lang- 
tang and the upper Kali Gandaki. The upper Kali 
Gandaki is the deepest valley in the world where it 
cuts through the narrow gap between Dhaulagiri and 
Annapuma. This causes an exceptionally strong wind 
and results in an amazing change of climate and 
vegetation in a short distance. Subtropical monsoon 
flora grows below Ghasa. In a day's walk up the valley 
from here one passes through coniferous forests and 
then into typical Tibetan flora, reflecting the effects of 
strong wind and associated low rainfall beyond Mar- 
pha. Scrub grows on the lower slopes and as the 
rainfall increases is replaced by a belt of steppe forest 
of Black Juniper /u/iiperux wallichiana and dry alpine 
scrub, and above this wetter alpine flora on the upper 
slopes at about 4100m. 

Mediterranean zone (Humla-Jumla area) 
This zone lies south of the main Himalayan chain but 
is much drier than expected because it is sheltered by 
a chain of mountains to the south where much of the 
rain falls. Forests are mixed coniferous, Pinus walli- 
chiana or Morinda Spruce Picea smithiana predomi- 
nating up to 3050m, Abies spectabilis higher up, and 
Betula utilis at the treeline. 

Steppe zone 

North of Dhaulagiri and Annapuma the country is 
almost treeless with a climate and flora of Tibetan 
character. This area lies in the rain shadow of the 
Himalayas. The predominant vegetation is of shrubs, 
grasses and alpine flora. Shrubs grow up to 4900m and 
cushion plants at 5500m. 



Topography, Climate and Vegetation 



15 



High altitude zone 

The treeline is at about 4100m in the east but consid- 
erably lower in the west, generally at about 3050m. 
The snow-line and associated plant-line are greatly 
affected by local climatic conditions and vary between 
about 3655m and 5485m. Plants have been found as 
high as 5200m. 

1. Stainton, J.D A. 1972. Forests of Nepal. John Mur- 
ray, London. 

2. Dobremez, J.-F. 1976. Le Nepal, ecologie et 
biogeographie. Centre National de la Recherche 
Scientifique, Paris. 




Siberian Rubythroat 



16 



Bird Distribution 



BIRD DISTRIBUTION 

The avifauna of Nepal is exceptionally diverse and 
includes 611 species which breed or probably breed. 
There are 124 species whose breeding distributions 
are restricted to an area encompassing the Himalaya, 
north-east India, northern south-east Asia and south- 
west China, for which Nepal may hold internationally 
significant populations. The country may be espe- 
cially important for 35 of these species. They either 
have particularly restricted ranges within the general 
area considered or have been described as uncom- 
mon or rare in the Indian subcontinent (437). There is 
only one endemic species, the Spiny Babbler, but the 
world ranges of 92 species extend no further west than 
Nepal, and 15 species reach the eastenmiost limit of 
their ranges in the country. 

Nepal's species-richness can be partly attributed to 
the dramatic changes of altitude within the country, 
from the tarai at about 75m above sea level to the high 
peaks of Khumbu culminating in Sagarmatha (Mount 
Everest) only 145km distant. Species diversity de- 
creases with increase in altitude. The richest areas for 
Nepalese birdlife lie in the tropical lowlands below 
300m where over 500 species have been recorded. In 
sharp contrast only about 80 species have been found 
above 4270m in the alpine zone. Also important is 
Nepal's geographical position, a region of overlap 
between the Palearctic realm to the north and the 
Oriental (Indomalayan) realm to the south. 

The other major factor contributing to Nepal's 
species-richness is the extremely varied climate in the 
country. Nepal can be conveniently divided into east- 
em and western seaions at the Kali Gandaki valley. 
The river runs north/south through almost the 
middle of Nepal and the centre of the Himalayan 
chain. In general forests to the east of the valley are 
wetter and richer in plant species than western for- 
ests. Conifers are much more widespread in the west 
and rhododendrons in the east. The vaUey is an 
important divide for forest birds as well as plant 
species as first pointed out by Robert Fleming (243). 
Approximately 440 breeding forest bird species have 
been found west of the valley and 340 species to the 
east. The west is however poorly recorded compared 
to the east. There are 36 breeding species which have 
been located east of the KaU Gandaki and also occur 
to the west of Nepal. Assuming there is suitable 
habitat they could aU be found in west Nepal, but even 
if all of them do occur the east is still considerably 
richer. 

The apparent world ranges of 73 Nepalese breed- 
ing species lie east of the vaUey, including 32 Hima- 
layan species which reach the western limit of their 
ranges either in the valley or its watershed. These 
latter species are: Ashy Woodpigeon; Golden- 
throated Barbet; Darjeeling and Crimson-breasted 



Woodpeckers; Grey-chiivned Minivet; Striated Bul- 
bul; Rufous-breasted Bush-Robin; White-tailed 
Robin; Large Niltava; Pygmy Blue, Ferruginous, 
Slaty-backed and White-gorgetted Flycatchers; Slen- 
der-billed Scimitar-Babbler; Golden and Grey- 
throated Babblers; Brown and Fulvous ParrotbiUs, 
Grey-sided, Lesser Necklaced, Blue-winged and Scaly 
Laughing-thrushes; Fire-tailed Myzomis; Black- 
headed and Black-eared Shrike-Babblers; Rusty- 
fronted Barwing; Red-tailed Minla; Golden-breasted 
and Rufous-winged Fulvettas; Rufous-vented 
Yuhina; Black-browed Tit and Crimson-browed 
Finch. 

There are 17 other ^ecies with apparent western 
limits of their world breeding ranges in central Nepal 
(between 84° and 85° 30'E) but these may yet be found 
west to the Kali Gandaki if suitable habitats still exist. 
They include skulking species such as Blue-naped 
Pitta and Smoky Warbler, and the Hill Blue Fly- 
catcher which is rare in the subcontinent and may be 
restricted to a few disjunct populations. 

Another veiy deep river valley, the Arun in east 
Nepal also marks a change in avifauna but is less 
important than that of the Kali Gandaki. Rainfall in 
the Arun valley and eastwards is higher than in most 
of the rest of the country. There are 17 species whose 
range in Nepal is confined to this area. A few species, 
including Blue-eared Barbet, Pale-headed Wood- 
pecker and Rufous-faced Warbler are restricted to 
the few remaining lowland forests in the south-east. 
Forests to the south of Annapuma and Himal Chuli in 
central Nepal area are the wettest in the country. Four 
species are restricted to these wet forests of both 
central and eastern Nepal: Golden Babbler, Brown 
ParrotbiU, Rusty-fronted Barwing, and Golden- 
breasted Fulvetta. 

Nepal's lowland evergreen forests become scarcer 
in the west, but occur in patches at least as far as 
Butwal. There are 20 lowland breeding species whose 
western Nepal limits Ue in this zone. Of these 13 
CTrtend as far as the extensive remaining forests of 
Chitwan National Park or the recently depleted for- 
ests around Hetaura. These include White-vented 
Needletail with an apparently endemic race isolated 
from the main population to the south-east; also 
Mountain Imperial Pigeon, Vernal Hanging Parrot, 
Asian Fairy Bluebird and Little Spiderhunter which 
all have disjunct populations in south-west India. 
Eight species extend a little further west to scattered 
forests at Tamaspur, Butwal and Pokhara and include 
Black Baza, Pompadour Green Pigeon and Large 
Woodshrike which also occur in south-west India. 

A further 16 breeding species reach the western 
limits of their world ranges between the KaU Gandaki 
and the western border. 



Bird Distribution 



17 







Lanceolated Jay 

A few species which have not been recorded in 
Nepal since last century reach the western limits of 
their ranges in the country. Most of them have no 
locality details. 

The Kali Gandaki valley is a significant but less 
important eastern barrier to species occurring in the 
west. The species involved largely inhabit coniferous 
forests. The world ranges of three breeding species 
are found east to the river or its watershed; Cheer 
Pheasant, Mistle Thrush and Rufous-naped Tit. The 
Nepalese ranges of the Koklass Pheasant, Bar-tailed 
Treecreeper and Chestnut-eared Bunting cease at the 
Kali Gandaki watershed but other races of all of them 
occur much further east in China or Burma. A further 
four species: Himalayan Woodpecker, Spot-winged 
Tit, Kashmir Nuthatch and White-cheeked Nuthatch 
reach the limit of their ranges west of the Kali Gan- 
daki although the latter also occurs further east in 
China. 

There are 12 west Himalayan species whose breed- 
ing ranges apparently terminate in Nepal east of the 
Kali Gandaki watershed, although the Upland Pipit, 
Red-billed Blue Magpie and Eurasian Golden Oriole 
have populations further east. All three have been re- 



corded virtually to the eastern border and probably 
also occur in the Darjeeling area. The limit of the 
range of Stolicza's Tit- Warbler lies only a short dis- 
tance east of the Kali Gandaki. 

A total of 15 species charaaeristic of the Tibetan 
plateau occurs in Nepal: Himalayan Snowcock, Ti- 
betan Partridge, Hill Pigeon, Little Owl, Brown Ac- 
centor, Desert Wheatear, Stolicza's Tit-Warbler, 
Hume's Ground Jay, Plain-backed, Rufous-necked, 
White-rumped and Tibetan Snowfinches, Fire- 
fronted Serin, Twite and Streaked Rosefinch. Most of 
these species have so far only been recorded either in 
the upper Kali Gandaki or in the area to the north or 
north-west of the valley, the Tibetan fades extend 
into Nepal mainly in this region. However the Hima- 
layan Snowcock, Brown Accentor, Twite and Tibetan 
Snowfinch have been found in similar habitat in upper 
Langtang and the Rufous-necked and Tibetan Snow- 
finches and Streaked Rosefinch in Khumbu. All of 
these species occur further east in Tibet except Fire- 
fronted Serin; this species has been found recently 
east of the Kali Gandaki at Syabru in the Trisuli 
valley. 

The species accounts include available informa- 
tion on subspecies. Many Nepalese species exhibit 
clinal variation so their taxonomy is largely a matter of 
opinion. The nomenclature mainly follows Biswas 
(95-107). There are at least 55 species with more than 
one breeding subspecies in Nepal. The division be- 
tween subspecies is mainly east-west and often at 
either the Kali Gandaki or Anin rivers. At the former 
10 species (e.g. Pallas's Leaf Warbler) show a well- 
marked change, and it is a likely divide for a further 
eight. At the Anin valley 12 species (e.g. Indian 
Roller, Striated Laughing-thrush) show a change. 
Some species are poorly known e.g. Brown-flanked 
Bush Warbler with specimens only from the far west 
and east, and Bam Swallow with only one record ofH. 
r. guttumlis. Six species have subspecies replacing 
each other altitudinally (e.g. Hoopoe, House Spar- 
row). 



18 



Bird Conservation 



BIRD CONSERVATION 




Rufous-breasted Bush-Robin 

Nepal's major habitat-types consist of forests, wet- 
lands and grasslands. The country has few wetlands 
other than fast-flowing rivers and streams. By far the 
most important is the Kosi Barrage area, a large 
expanse of open water, marshes, grassland and scrub 
situated in the far south-eastern lowlands. It is of 
international importance for migrating wildfowl, 
gulls, terns and waders. A total of 25 wildfowl species 
has been recorded. Those regularly found include the 
Black-necked Stork which is endangered in the Indian 
subcontinent (642), and the Lesser Adjutant Stork, 
Greater Adjutant Stork, Pallas's Fish Eagle, Swamp 
Francolin, Bengal Florican and Hodgson's Bushchat, 
all of which are listed in Birds to Watch, the Interna- 
tional Council for Bird Preservation world checklist 
of threatened birds. There are small lakes scattered 
throughout the country. Those in lowlands and the 
Pokhara lakes support the richest variety of birds, 
while the lakes in the Himalayas are very species- 
poor, although they are staging posts for small num- 
bers of a wide range of wetland migrants which overfly 
the Himalayas. During a bird survey of the lowlands in 
western Nepal, Shrestha and Suwal found several 
interesting wetlands which were previously very 
poorly known omithologically, notably an unpro- 
tected lake Ghodaghodi Tal in Kailih District (750). 
With the exception of the Kosi Barrage area and 
Royal Chitwan National Park, wetlands in the eastern 
half of Nepal have been almost entirely reclaimed for 
agriculture. 

The spread of cultivation has also reduced the 
country's lowland grasslands in recent years and the 
small remaining areas are almost aU within protected 
forests. Twelve breeding grassland bird species are 
nationally threatened, notably the Bengal and Lesser 
Floricans, two of the world's most endangered bus- 
tard species. Intensive annual cutting and burning of 
the grasslands are likely to alter their species compo- 
sition, encouraging a lower variety of coarser grasses. 
The numbers of Bengal Floricans have declined in the 
Royal Chitwan National Park, possibly as a result of 



this, and it seems likely that other grassland bird 
species are also being adversely affected. 

However, Nepal is of great value for birds, mainly 
because of its forests which cover much larger areas 
than the country's wetlands or grasslands. There is a 
wide range of forests comprising tropical, subtropical, 
temperate, subalpine and alpine types, which together 
hold the high proportion of 77% of Nepal's breeding 
birds (429). Subalpine and upper temperate forests 
are the most internationally important for breeding 
birds, as they support high numbers of species which 
may have significant world populations in Nepal. 
These total over half the subalpine species and 42% of 
those in the upper temperate zone (429). 

Forest losses and deterioration are by far the 
greatest threats to Nepal's birds. Only 16% of all 
forest birds have adapted to breed in habitats heavily 
modified or created by people (429). A few species, 
such Grey Bushchat and White-cheeked Bulbul, 
which prefer open forests or scrub, must have in- 
creased as a result of forest depletion, but nearly all of 
them are common and widespread. Overall the popu- 
lations of most Nepalese forest birds are likely to have 
decreased. 

As much as 84% of the country's nationally threat- 
ened birds are dependent on forests (429). Once the 
country was extensively forested, but by 1979 an aerial 
survey showed that only 43% of Nepal was forest land, 
i.e. partially covered in trees and shrubs'. Moreover, a 
large proportion of this forest land was covered in 
forests in poor condition, with only a scattering of 
trees and shrubs. Forests are declining chiefly because 
they can no longer meet the needs of the people. The 
population is rapidly rising and the vast majority of 
Nepalis depend on forests for their essential require- 
ments of fuel, animal fodder and other basic materi- 
als. A combination of deforestation and overgrazing 
has caused rapid run-off of rain during the monsoon, 
leading to massive sou erosion. The resulting wide- 
spread flooding in the lowlands has led to enormous 
loss of human life, crops and property. 

Conservation of the country's forests is therefore 
vital, for the future of the people as well as its birds. 
There has recently been a great expansion in affores- 
tation, but the overall impact has been very small. As 
far as most birds are concerned, the new plantations 
are preferable to areas devoid of forest. However 
plantations, even of native broadleaves, can never 
replace the richness and variety of natural forests 
which may have taken hundreds of years to develop. 
Protection of some severely degraded natural forests 
has resulted in dramatic recoveries of forests well- 
stocked with native species^. Many people in Nepal 
now believe that the most important aspect of forestiy 
in the country is the improved management of the 



Bird Conservation 



19 



large existing areas of low-density forest. This has 
enormous potential and would be much more valu- 
able to forest birds than planting more trees. 

The Department of National Parks and Wildlife 
Conservation (D>fPWC) in Nepal is aiming to protect 
a representative sample of the country's ecosystems. 
Nepal already has an extensive protected area system 
which covers 7.4% of the country, comprising six 
national parks, five wildlife reserves and one hunting 
reserve. When the Aimapuma Conservation Area 
(not yet officially gazetted, but now in operation) and 
the Makalu-Barun National Park are fully estab- 
lished, this figure will increase to over 10%. While the 
majority of Nepal's habitat-types are well represented 
in the protected areas network, there are three impor- 
tant omissions. These are tropical evergreen forests, 
subtropical and lower temperate broadleaved forests 
in the far east (Mai and Tamur valleys), and subtropi- 
cal broadleaved forests further west, all of which are 
in urgent need of protection (429). The most out- 
standing gap is the lack of representation of subtropi- 
cal broadleaved forests which once covered much of 
central and east Nepal. Phulchowki mountain in the 
Kathmandu Valley is the best remaining example of 
this habitat-type (429). 

A total of 95% of Nepal's breeding bird species, 
82% of nationally threatened species and 98% of 
those for which the country may hold internationally 
significant breeding populations breed in the pro- 
tected or proposed proteaed areas (429). Strengthen- 
ing the existing protected area system can therefore 
be considered a higher priority than the designation 
of new protected areas. Protecting 10% of Nepal is a 
formidable task for the govenunent of one of the 
world's poorest countries. In addition to the lack of 
finances, other logistical problems faced by the 
DNPWC are enormous. Many of the protected areas 
are remote, accessible only by air or on foot, and lack 
roads within them. The rugged terrain of the moun- 
tain areas makes their coverage especially difficult. 
There are essential needs for additional staff, more 
staff training and the provision of resources, such as 



equipment for maintaining trails and bridges, binocu- 
lars, reference books, and warm clothing. Conserva- 
tion education for local people who may either live in 
protected areas or in their surrounding land is ur- 
gently needed as there is widespread ignorance about 
the reasons for the establishment of reserves. It is 
particularly important to justify the relevance of re- 
serves to them as providers of vital resources and as 
part of their natural heritage. 

Nepal's protected areas are attraaing more and 
more tourists and mountaineers each year. It is there- 
fore becoming increasingly important both to manage 
visitor use and to educate visitors so as to bring 
economic benefits to Nepal without damaging cul- 
tural values or adversely affecting the enviroimient of 
the reserves. 

Innovative management measures are being taken 
in some protected areas, such as the Annapuma Con- 
servation Area, which is run by the King Mahendra 
Trust for Nature Conservation, a non-profit-making, 
non-governmental organisation dedicated to conserv- 
ing natural resources in Nepal. Here the traditional 
subsistence activities of local people are being inte- 
grated into a framework of sound resource manage- 
ment and ecological development. The aim is to 
balance the needs of the local people, trekkers and 
the natural environment. A similar approach would 
be highly valuable in Nepal's other protected areas. 
To achieve this and to establish and effectively protea 
new areas, financial assistance from outside Nepal 
win be essential. 

1. Carson, B., Niel, R., Amatya and Hildreth, G. 
(1986) Land Resources Mapping Project. Renting 
Earth Sciences Ltd. Kathmandu: HMG/Govt. of 
Canada 

2. Jackson, J.K. (1987) Manual of afforestation in 
Nepal. Kathmandu: Nepal UK Forestry Project. 

Based on Inskipp, C. (1989) Bird Conservation in 
Nepal. WoHd Birdwatch 11(1). 



20 



Protected Areas 



PROTECTED AREAS 

The location of Nepal's protected areas is shown on 
the map on the book's end papers. The Royal Chi- 
twan, Langtang and Sagarmatha National Parks, and 
the Annapuma Conservation Area are well studied, 
but the other protected areas are under-recorded. 

Royal Chitwan National Park 932km2 
This park, gazetted in 1973, was the first protected 
area in Nepal and is a World Heritage site. It lies in 
south-central Nepal in a dun valley and extends into 
the Churia hills. A larger number of bird species (489 
in total) have been recorded than in any other pro- 
tected area in Nepal. 

Langtang National Park HlOkm^ 
Langtang is situated in the central Himalayas and is of 
international importance for birds, especially for 
upper temperate and subalpine forest species. 

Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park 

1148km^ 

A World Heritage site. The park contains some of the 
world's most spectacular mountain scenery including 
the highest peak, Sagarmatha. It Ues in the high 
Himalayas in Khumbu District in north-eastern Ne- 
pal and is important for some high altitude species. 

Royal Bardia National Park 968km^ 

Bardia is situated in mid-western Nepal, mainly in the 

bhabar zone and extends into the Churia hills. The 

Kamali river valley forms its western boundary. It 

supports a variety of species typical of the western 

lowlands. 

Shey-Phoksundo National Park 3555km^ 
This is Nepal's largest protected area and is probably 
the least known omithologically. It lies in Dolpo, 
Jumla and Mugu Districts in north-west Nepal. The 
park is important for species typical of the trans- 
Himalayan region. 

Khaptad National Park 225km2 
Khaptad is an isolated massif 3100m high which Ues 
south of the main Himalayan range. The park is well- 
forested and is important for some forest species 
including a few western specialities. 

Rara National Park 106km^ 

This small park is situated in the Himalayas in Mugu 
District in north-west Nepal. It includes the country's 
largest lake, Rara, situated at 3050m, and its heavily 
forested catchment area. The park supports some 
speciaUties of western Nepal forests. 



Parsa Wildlife Reserve 499km^ 
Parsa is situated in south central Nepal adjacent to the 
Royal Chitwan National Park. It holds a rich variety of 
bird species similar to those found at Chitwan. 

Kosi Tappu Wildlife Reserve 175km^ 
Kosi Tappu Ues in the Sapta-Kosi river plain in the 
south-eastern tarai. The reserve includes a wetland 
which is of international importance and by far the 
most valuable in Nepal. 

Royal Sukia Phanta Wildlife Reserve ISSkm^ 
This smaU reserve is situated in the far south-western 
tarai on the Indian border. It has the largest grassland 
area in Nepal as weU as forests and a smaU lake. Sukla 
Phanta is important for a a few grassland species. 

Sheopuri Watershed and Wildlife Reserve 145km^ 
Sheopuri Ues on the northern side of the Kathmandu 
VaUey in central Nepal. About half of the watershed 
is stiU forested and supports a good variety of forest 
birds. 

Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve 1325km^ 
The hunting reserve Ues in the Himalayas in Baglung 
Distria in west central Nepal. It holds some speciaU- 
ties of Nepal's western forests. 

Annapuma Conservation Area 2660km^ 
The Conservation Area Ues north of Pokhara in cen- 
tral Nepal, the KaU Gandaki River forming its west- 
em boundary. The Area is of international impor- 
tance for birds and over 440 species have been re- 
corded. This large number can be attributed to the 
wide range of habitat types within the Area and to its 
location roughly in the centre of the Himalayas. Spe- 
cies typical of both theeastem andwestem Himalayas 
occur. 

Makalu Barun National Park 
This is a proposed proterted area which lies to the 
east of Sagarmatha National Park and extends be- 
yond Nepal's northern border into Tibet. Its extensive 
forests support a diverse avifauna including many 
eastern Himalayan species. 



Miration 
MIGRATION 




Dusky Thrush 



Many of Nepal's resident species are seasonal altitu- 
dinal migrants. The level to which they descend in 
winter frequently depends on weather conditions. An 
example is the Red-biUed Chough which has been 
found as high as 7950m, and usually remains above 
2440m in winter, but has been noted as low as 1450m 
in cold weather (57,682). Approximately 62 species 
are summer visitors or partial migrants to the Nepal- 
ese Himalayas and include species of cuckoos, swifts, 
bee-eaters, Phylloscopus warblers, flycatchers and 
drongos. The migration routes of a number of these 
summer migrants are poorly understood or unknown, 
including those for the Asian Sooty Flycatcher, Fer- 
ruginous Flycatcher and Fork-tailed Swift. Many 
species winter further south in the subcontinent, in- 
cluding the Large Hawk-Cuckoo, Blue-tailed Bee- 
eater, Hoopoe, Bam Swallow, Greenish Warbler, 
Asian Brown Flycatcher, Asian Paradise Flycatcher, 
and Ashy Drongo. Other species such as the White- 
throated NeedletaU, Asian Emerald Cuckoo, Tick- 
ell's Warbler, and Crow-bUled Drongo move south- 
east, perhaps as far as Malaysia and Indonesia. The 
origin of these wintering birds is unknown, and it is 
possible that Nepalese individuals do not travel so far. 
The Lesser Cuckoo and Common Swift winter in 
Africa and the Pied Cuckoo may also do so. About 149 
species winter in Nepal, originating from a wide area 
to the north in the Palearctic. These include ducks, 
birds of prey, waders, gulls, terns, pipits, wagtails, 
thrushes, Acmcephalus, Locustella and Phylloscopus 
warblers, bush warblers, finches and buntings. A few 
species such as the Yellow-browed Warbler and 
Greenish Warbler are both summer and winter visi- 
tors. There is increasing evidence to suggest that some 
birds breeding in the Palearctic migrate across the 
Himalayas to winter in southern Asia. However, 
Moreau' points out that relatively few species take 



21 



this route compared to the number which migrate to 
Africa, despite that continent being considerably fur- 
ther away: 137 species from the West Palearctic (west 
of 45''E) winter in Africa and 10 in India, and 82 from 
the mid-Palearctic (45 to 90''E) in Africa compared 
with only about 50 in India. He suggested that 'the 
high elevated and ecologically inimical Tibetan pla- 
teau flanked by the gigantic Himalayas' is an effective 
barrier for migrants. Much of the current evidence for 
the north-south movement across the Himalayas is 
based on casual observations made by visiting bird- 
watchers and mountaineering expeditions. There 
have been few systematic studies of migration in these 
ranges. 

Most trans-Himalayan migrants observed have 
been non-passerines: large numbers of cranes and 
birds of prey, small flocks of ducks, geese, waders, 
gulls, terns, and also Hoopoes and Eurasian Wry- 
necks. 

Birds have been noted flying over the highest 
regions of these ranges, enabling them to shorten 
their journeys considerably. Examples include a flock 
of Bar-headed Geese seen flying as high as 9375m 
over Sagarmatha (701), and a Steppe Eagle found 
dead at 7925m on the mountain's South Col (728). 
There is an unconfirmed report of Siberian Cranes 
Grus leucogeranus migrating over the Himalayas in 
Nepal (544). A movement of small grey birds across 
the South Col has also been noted (415), and a Bam 
Swallow has been recorded in Khumbu as high as 
6400m (580), indicating that even small birds can 
migrate at such heights. In spring and autumn, a 
variety of species, mainly ducks but also waders, guUs 
and terns, are regularly recorded stopping off at 
Himalayan lakes including Phewa Tal, Begnas Tal, 
Rara, and frequently as high as 4750m at Gokyo lakes 
in Khumbu. 

However, some trans-Himalayan migrants, 
whether they are the majority is not known, have been 
observed flying along the main valleys such as those 
of the Kamali, Kali Gandaki, Dudh Kosi, and Arun 
rivers. 

The first study of trans-Himalayan migration was 
carried out as long ago as 1831 by Hodgson in the 
Kathmandu Valley (341). Other migration observa- 
tions have subsequently been made in the Valley, 
notably those of Proud (629,635). 

Recent observations show that the Kali Gandaki 
valley is a significant route taken by trans-Himalayan 
migrants. There have been three important system- 
atic studies of autumn migration in the upper section 
of the valley: by Martens in 1969 (526), Beaman in 
1973 (76) and by Thiollay in 1978 (761). The vaUey 
breaches the main Himalayan range, forming a natu- 
ral route for inigrants leaving the Tibetan Plateau. 



22 



Miration 



However to the north in Tibet the valley is bounded 
by an extensive tract of plateau, so that potential 
migrants are faced with one of the most arduous 
crossings in the region. 

All three investigations found large numbers of 
cranes flying south. A total of 31,351 Demoiselle 
Cranes were estimated between 1 and 11 October 

1969 (526). Between 29 September and 14 October 
1973, 3751 cranes, including 2220 Demoiselles were 
seen (76); and about 63,000 cranes, mainly Demoi- 
selles, between 24 September and 5 Ortober 1978 
(761). 

ThioUay counted a total of 151 birds of prey repre- 
senting 15 species, and Beaman noted roughly 18 
species totalling 404 birds. The largest species totals 
were of 254 Black Kites flying south between 14 
September and 1 October 1973, 45 Common Buz- 
zards between 31 August and 14 October 1973, and 39 
Lesser Kestrels between 24 September and 5 October 
1978. Some interesting observations of migrant birds 
of prey were made in the same area between 13 
October and 4 November 1984 by Christensen et at. 
They recorded about 130 birds comprising 12 species, 
including 56 Aquila eagles (mainly Steppe Eagles) 
(145). There are several records of smaller numbers 
of raptors migrating south down Himalayan valleys in 
autumn including 276 Steppe Eagles down the Trisuli 
valley in two and a half hours on 24 Ortober 1980 
(516). 

Only seven passerine migrant species were found 
between 1 and 11 October 1969 in the upper KaU 
Gandaki valley by Martens including TickeU's War- 
bler which was by far the most abundant species. He 
attributed this small variety of species to the advanced 
season. Beaman recorded only about 19 passerine 
migrant species in October 1973, with significant 
numbers of Greater Short-toed Larks, Hume's Short- 
toed Larks, White Wagtails, Black Redstarts, and 
TickeU's Warblers. Even after bad weather few mi- 
grants were seen, indicating that large numbers of 
passerines were probably not moving over at night. In 
another study in Khumbu in September and October 

1970 Martens found that migration was sparse. A 
total of 23 species crossed passes over 5700m above 
sea level including ten passerine species with concen- 
trations of Greater Shorter-toed and Hume's Short- 
toed Larks and Black Redstarts (526). Other observa- 
tions also indicate that only small numbers of passer- 
ines regularly cross the Tibetan plateau. Species re- 
corded include wagtails. Booted Warbler, Lesser 
Whitethroat, and Chiffchaff. 

The majority of passerines wintering in the sub- 
continent presumably skirt the Himalayas. Popula- 
tions of the Dark-throated Thrush and Paddylield, 
Blyth's Reed and Greenish Warblers mainly originate 
in the west and probably fly round the ranges from 
this direction. Species such as Siberian Rubythroat, 



Red-breasted Flycatcher, Brown Shrike, Black-faced 
Bunting and Yellow-breasted Bunting, which chiefly 
come from the east, probably skirt the eastern end of 
the Himalayas. 

Birds of prey, espeasMy Aquila eagles, have also 
been found to use the Himalayas as an east-west 
pathway in autumn, and also in larger numbers than 
hitherto recorded in Nepal. The phenomenon was 
first described by Fleming (225) who made observa- 
tions in October and November 1975 in the Kath- 
mandu Valley, and also at Dhampus, south of An- 
napuma, where at least 490 birds of three Aquila 
species were seen from 3 to 5 November 1976. Chris- 
tensen et.al. counted 1047 birds of 15 species, includ- 
ing 992 Steppe Eagles, flying west-south-west or west 
between 26 and 28 October 1984, also south of An- 
napuma, mainly between Birethante and Naudanda. 
There are several reports of similar movements in- 
volving much smaller numbers of raptors across the 
breadth of Nepal. The maximum count received is 
from the Kathmandu VaUey where 135 Steppe Eagles 
and two Greater Spotted Eagles moved west in half 
an hour on 19 November 1989 (597). Small numbers 
of Steppe Eagles have also been noted flying west 
along the Himalayan foothills in Dam District in 
extreme east Nepal in October and November 1978 
and at Bardia in the far west in November 1985 (162). 
A systematic study of this east/west migration was 
made at Khare, south of Annapuma between 20 
October and 7 November 1985 by de Roder (683). 
Nearly 9,000 raptors of some 30 species were counted 
with Steppe Eagle being the most numerous, totalling 
7,852 birds. In addition de Roder found several pas- 
serine species undergoing similar movements notably 
13,902 Red-rumped Swallows and 109 Red-throated 
Pipits at Khare in October and November 1985 (684). 
There is also evidence that Spot-winged Starlings 
undertake east-west movements along the Himalayas 
(45). It is possible that other q)ecies undergo similar 
migrations. 

Flocks of Lesser Kestrels and Amur Falcons are 
regularly recorded on passage, particularly in autumn. 
It is not clear whether they are moving north/south or 
east/west, although de Roder found 77 Lesser Kes- 
trels and 138 Amur Falcons moving west at Khare in 
October and November 1985. The largest count of 
Amur Falcons received is 328 birds near Godavari in 
the Kathmandu VaUey between 8 and 11 November 
1985 (201). A mixed flock of falcons, chiefly compris- 
ing Lesser Kestrels and Amur Falcons with much 
smaller numbers of Common Kestrels and Peregrine 
Falcons, regularly roosts near Phewa Tal in October 
and November. Over 60 falcons were still present at 
the roost as late as 11 December in 1977 (495). The 
maximum count received is of 340 birds, which were 
aU Lesser Kestrels, on 13 October 1982 (244). 

Comparatively few reports of spring migration 



Miration 



23 




Yellow-legged Gull 



have been received. These are mainly of raptors and 
include 25 Steppe Eagles in 15 minutes flying north 
over the Naudanda ridge, south of Annapuma on 10 
March 1981 (476) and 150 Steppe Eagles moving 
north over Namche Bazaar in Khumbu on 10 March 
1982 (77). SmaU flocks of Black Kites have also been 
recorded migrating in spring including 22 in the upper 
Arun vaUey in May 1981 (483). 



A valuable investigation of resident and migratory 
birds along the Rapti and Narayani Rivers in Chitwan 
National Park, was carried out by HaUiday in Novem- 
ber and December 1982 (304). He censused 57 species 
in detail, of which about 16 were migrants. His results 
showed the National Park provided secure feeding 
and resting areas for a high percentage of the local 
waders when the banks outside the park were dis- 
turbed. 

The marshes and large expanse of open water at 
Kosi Barrage provide the most important staging 
point for migratory wildfowl, gulls, terns and waders 
in Nepal. The area has been well studied by ornitholo- 
gists between January and May, when useful counts of 
bird numbers have been made. Fewer counts have 
been made in autumn, but these clearly show that the 
numbers of migrants are comparatively small. Peak 
numbers of wildfowl pass through between mid-Feb- 
ruary and mid-March. The maximum of over 50,000 
was estimated in February 1981 (559, 622). Wader 
passage has been noted from the end of February to 
early May, with most birds passing through in March 
and April. Large numbers have not been reported, 
withpeaks of about lOOOto 1500 birds. They presuma- 
bly reflect the relatively low numbers of waders cross- 
ing the Himalayas. 

1. Moieau,R.E. 1972. The Palaearcac-Aftican bird migra- 
tion systems. London: Academic Press. 



24 



History of Ornithology 



HISTORY OF ORNITHOLOGY 
IN NEPAL 



The following account summarises major contribu- 
tions to Nepalese ornithology. The first published 
observations of Nepalese birds were made by Col. 
W J. Kirkpatrick who noted a few gamebird species in 
1793 (818). However the first important work was 
done by Brian Hodgson, a remarkable man, who held 
governmental posts in the country for over 20 years 
between 1820 and 1843. This included over ten years 
as British Resident. He made two extensive collec- 
tions comprising 9500 bird skins and 1000 skins of 
mammals, reptiles and fish. These included about 665 
Nepalese bird species, over 120 of which were new to 
science. Most of the skins were acquired through 
Nepalese collectors as he was not allowed to travel 
outside the Kathmandu Valley. After leaving Nepal in 
1843 he lived in DarjeeUng in India for the next 15 
years where he made his second collection. Some 
birds are listed as coming from Nepal in Gray's pub- 
lished catalogue of this collection (277), and are 
treated as such in the first edition of this book. 
However in a recently discovered annotated copy of 
the catalogue Hodgson had deleted Nepal as a source 
of these specimens (149). It is likely that they origi- 
nated from forests in India close to Nepal's eastern 
border. Seven species from this collection have not 
been recorded in Nepal subsequently. He also trained 
a Nepalese artist. Raj Man Singh, who painted over 
1800 watercolour illustrations of Nepalese wildlife, 
mainly birds, which rival the work of other artists of 
this period. 

John Scully, who was resident surgeon in 1876 to 
1877, also made a large collection comprising nearly 
2000 specimens of about 300 species of birds. He was 
the first person to describe the status of birds in the 
Kathmandu Valley. His movements within Nepal 
were restricted, like those of Hodgson. 

During his studies of birds of the Sikkim Hima- 
layas between 1911 and 1914 Herbert Stevens visited 
the upper Mai valley in far east Nepal. He recorded 
valuable altitudinal and breeding information, and 
collected skins, still in excellent condition, and held at 
the Hancock Museum, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, U.K. 

An important collection of 2146 skins comprising 
381 species, including a number new to the country, 
was made by Lt.-Col. Frank Bailey between 1935 and 
1938 when he was British Envoy Extraordinary in 
Nepal. Lt.-Col. James Roberts has kindly pointed out 
that Bailey cannot have travelled widely throughout 
the country as stated in the first edition of this book as 
travel by foreigners within Nepal was still restricted 
highly at that time. His specimens however came from 



localities throughout Nepal. 

Between 1947 and 1949 Dr. Dillon Ripley made a 
major collection, originating in areas between the far 
west and far east of the country. He obtained 1600 
specimens representing about 300 species. 

Desiree Proud published several papers between 
1948 and 1%1 summarising valuable and comprehen- 
sive observations on birds, mainly relating to the 
Gandak-Kosi watershed and Kathmandu Valley. 

In 1952 Oleg Polunin was able to trek extensively 
throughout the western Nepalese Himalayas while 
participating in a British Museum (Natural History) 
botanical expedition. He recorded a number of spe- 
cies for the first time in Nepal, and contributed much 
to the knowledge of bird distribution in the west. 

Dr. Biswamoy Biswas and Dr Walter Koelz col- 
lected 3500 bird skins representing about 350 species, 
around Kathmandu and between there and Raxaul, in 
1947. These included a number of new species for the 
country. Between 1960 and 1968 he published a de- 
tailed account of this collection, and included a sum- 
mary of all Nepalese bird records up to that date. 

Dr. G. DiesseUiorst provided important data on 
the distribution, altitude range and breeding of Nep- 
alese birds during his ornithological expedition of 
1962. He collected 1700 specimens comprising about 
315 species. 

An enormous contribution to Nepalese ornithol- 
ogy has been made by Drs. Robert Fleming Sr. and Jr. 
They have probably travelled more widely throughout 
the country than any other ornithologists. Between 
them they built up a large collection of bird skins, 
many of which are held in the Chicago Field Museum 
of Natural History, and have published about 35 
papers and articles on Nepalese birds. They have also 
produced the only field guide to the birds of the 
country, first published in 1976. 

Hari Sharan Nepali, the leading Nepalese orni- 
thologist, has also collected a large number of bird 
skins, many of which are held at the Kathmandu 
Natural History Museum. He has trekked extensively 
within the country and has added several species to 
the Nepalese list. 

Since the early 1970s numerous visitors, ranging 
from serious ornithologists to birdwatchers on holi- 
day have recorded birds in Nepal. Although many 
have only covered the more easily accessible areas, 
the knowledge of Nepalese birds has increased 
enormously as a result of their observations; 67 spe- 
cies have been added to the Nepalese list since 1970 
and new species are found each year. 



I 



Bird-watching Areas 

BIRD-WATCHINGARE4S 

Regularly recorded specialities are listed for each 
area. 




Red-vented Bulbul 



Kathmandu Valley 

The Valley and surrounding hills are still rich in 
birdlife despite being well-cultivated and highly popu- 
lated. It is well worth spending about five days bird- 
watching based in Kathmandu. 

Phulchowki and Godavari Botanical Gardens 

Some of the few subtropical broadleaved forests 
remaining in Nepal are found on Phulchowki moun- 
tain in the south-eastern comer of the Valley above 
the village of Godavari, about 18km south-east of 
Kathmandu. These are probably the best forests for 
birds in the Valley and also support a wide variety of 
plant and insect Ufe. Unfortunately they are rapidly 
becoming depleted and degraded, but are stiU the 
most convenient place to see a number of species 
which are scarce or local elsewhere in the country. 

At least one fuU day is needed to cover the upper 
slopes. Taking a taxi from Kathmandu up the winding 
partly surfaced road to the top of the mountain 
(2760m) and walking down to Godavari (1525m) is 
recommended. However the road is very rough in 
places and can only be easily used by vehicles in good 
condition. The area can also be reached by bus, 
changing at Lagankhel for Godavari. Another day 
spent exploring the Botanical Gardens, which are 
situated at the foot of Phulchowki, and the mountain's 
lower slopes will produce some different species. The 
gardens tend to be crowded on public holidays and 
Saturdays and are best avoided then. 

Species:- Mountain Hawk-Eagle, Mountain Scops 
Owl, Golden-throated Barbet, Rufous-beUied Wood- 
pecker, Grey-chinned Minivet, Striated Bulbul, Or- 
ange-bellied Leafbird, White-tailed Robin, Long- 
billed Thrush, Black-faced Warbler, Large Niltava, 
Slaty-backed Flycatcher (Botanical Gardens), Grey- 



25 



throated Babbler, Black-throated Parrotbill, Spiny 
Babbler, Rufous-chiimed and Grey-sided Laughing- 
thrushes, Cutia, Black-eared Shrike-Babbler, Hoary 
Barwing, Nepal Fulvetta, Brown-throated 
Treecreeper, Mrs Gould's Sunbird, Yellow-bellied 
Flowerpecker, Lanceolated Jay, Tibetan Serin (Bo- 
tanical Gardens), Gold-naped Finch, Brown Bull- 
finch, Spot-winged Grosbeak. 

Gokama Safari Park 

A hiU (1385m) covered in protected forest about 
8.5km east of Kathmandu, easily reached by taxi. The 
park is open to the public from early in the morning 
on payment of a small fee and can be covered in half 
a day. The forest which is open and has some mature 
trees is favoured by owls, wintering thrushes and 
flycatchers. 

Species:- Brown Fish Owl, Small Niltava, Blue- 
throated and Asian Brown Flycatchers, Plain Flower- 
pecker. 

Nagarjung 

A mountain (2105m) with protected forest on the 
edge of the Valley above Balaju. It is open to the 
public from early in the morning on payment of a 
nominal fee. The entrance gates are about Skm from 
Kathmandu centre and can be reached by taxi, or by 
public transport to Balaju, from where it is a short 
walk along the road to the entrance. Only secondary 
forest lies within easy walking distance of the en- 
trance. Much richer habitat remains on the far side of 
the mountain but this can only be covered in a long 
day's walk. 

Species:- KaUj Pheasant, Eurasian Eagle Owl, Chest- 
nut-crowned Warbler, Nepal Fulvetta, Red-billed 
Blue Magpie. 



Sheopuri Wildlife Reserve 

A forested mountain (2730m) on the north-eastern 
edge of the Valley. Although slopes facing the Valley 
are now degraded those on the north side and the 
summit area still have interesting forest. It would be 
necessary to camp on the mountain to explore the 
northern slopes. The base of Sheopuri can be reached 
by taxi or bus to BudhaniUcantha, 11km from Kath- 
mandu. A strenuous fuU day is needed to reach and 
investigate the forest slopes facing the Valley. 

Species:- Rufous-beUied Woodpecker, Golden Bush- 
Robin, Yellow-bellied Bush Warbler, Black-faced 
Warbler, Snowy-browed Flycatcher, Spiny Babbler 
(near Tokha Sanatorium), Hoary Barwing, Nepal 



26 



Bird-watching Areas 



Fulvetta, Red-tailed Minla, Scarlet Finch, Brown 
Bullfinch. 

Pashupatinath and Swayambhunath 

There are protected groves around Pashupatinath 
and Swayambhunath temples which are only a few 
kilometres from Kathmandu centre. Each supports a 
good variety of common open woodland species in- 
cluding minivets, warblers and flycatchers. 

Fields by the Bagmati and Manora Rivers 

The fields by the rivers are rapidly being reclaimed for 
building but are still a regular wintering area for 
Grey-headed Lapwing. Larks, pipits and buntings can 
also be found as well as warblers in the bushes. Both 
rivers are interesting for migrating birds, particularly 
in autumn. 

Bagmati River (near Chobar Gorge) and 
Basantgaon 

At Basantgaon about 5km south of Kathmandu, there 
are some flooded pools close to the Bagmati River. 
The pools and the adjacent stretch of river south to 
Chobar Gorge attract small numbers of a good variety 
of migrant waders and wildfowl. 

Species:- IbisbiU (in autunm), Grey-headed Lapwing. 

Royal Chitwan National Park 
The park comprises a lowland valley of sal and riv- 
erain forests interspersed with grasslands and backed 
by the forested Churia hills to the north. Over 480 bird 
species have been recorded in the park. A number of 
large mammal species can also be seen such as Tiger, 
Leopard, Indian Rhinoceros, Sloth Bear and Gaur. 
The park is readily accessible by air or bus from 
Kathmandu. Tourist accommodation is available at 
several lodges and tented camps which provide excel- 
lent opportunities for observing wildlife, including 
taking elephant rides, or canoe trips on the rivers. 
There is also basic accommodation available in vil- 




Black Baza 



lages just outside the park, mainly at Sauraha. Walk- 
ing alone in the park can be dangerous because of the 
wild mammals. An entry fee must be paid each time 
the park is entered. 

Species:- Oriental Darter, Yellow Bittern, Lesser 
Adjutant Stork, Lesser Whistling Duck, Black Baza, 
Lesser and Grey-headed Fishing Eagles, Changeable 
Hawk-Eagle, Collared Falconet, Ruddy-breasted and 
Brown Crakes, Bengal Florican, Great Stone-plover, 
Great Black-headed GuU, Orange-breasted Green 
and Pompadour Green Pigeons, Moustached Para- 
keet, Chestnut-winged and Banded Bay Cuckoos, 
Lesser Coucal, Brown Fish and Brown Hawit Owls, 
Savanna Nightjar, White-rumped and White-vented 
Needletails, Red-headed Trogon, Blue-eared King- 
fisher, Oriental Pied and Great Hombills, Himalayan 
Flameback, Hooded and Indian Pittas, Rosy Minivet, 
White-tailed Stonechat, Pale-footed and Chestnut- 
crowned Bush Warblers, Bright-capped Cisticola, 
Yellow-bellied and Grey-crowned Prinias, Large 
Grass, Yellow-beUied and Smoky Warblers, Asian 
Paradise Flycatcher, Black-naped Monarch, Chest- 
nut-capped, Yellow-eyed and Slender-billed Bab- 
blers, Rufous-necked Laughing-thrush, Crow-billed 
Drongo, Black-breasted Weaver, Red Avadavat. 

Kosi Barrage and Kosi Tappu Wildlife Reserve 

The river near Kosi barrage and the adjoining 
marshes form by far the largest wetland in Nepal. The 
barrage crosses the Kosi River in the south-eastern 
tarai. North and south of it are huge expanses of water 
with mudflats and sandbanks appearing when the 
level is low. Great bunds to the east and west contain 
the river, with borrow pits alongside containing 
reedbeds and water for most of the year. Kosi Barrage 
is easily reached by daily buses from Kathmandu 
along the east - west highway to Karkavitta on the far 
eastern border. Kosi can also be reached by taking a 
flight from Kathmandu to Birtamod and a taxi from 
there to Kosi. Basic accommodation and food are 
available in Kosi village. It is well worth spending 
about three days in the area. Many recent additions to 
the Nepalese list have been recorded at Kosi. Wild- 
fowl passage occurs mainly in February and March 
and waders pass through between February and mid- 
May. Monsoon visitors can be seen between late May 
and September. 

Species:- Spot-billed PeUcan, Yellow Bittern, Black- 
necked Stork, Black-headed Ibis, Eurasian Spoonbill, 
Lesser Whistling Duck, PaUas's Fish and White-tailed 
Eagles, Red-necked Falcon, Swamp Francolin, Bail- 
Ion's and Ruddy-breasted Crakes, Watercock, Pheas- 
ant-tailed Jacana, Great Stone-plover, Great Black- 
headed and Brown-headed Gulls, Caspian, River, 
Black-bellied and Whiskered Terns, Indian Skimmer, 



Bird-watching Areas 
Map 4. Cbitwan 



27 




Lesser Coucal, White-tailed Stonechat, Hodgson's 
Bushchat, Graceful and Yellow-bellied Prinias, Stri- 
ated Marsh and Smoky Warblers, Black-breasted 
Weaver, Red Avadavat, Black-faced Bunting. 

Hetaura 

The Rapti River near Hetaura is a regular wintering 
area for IbisbiUs. Long-billed Plover has also been 
found. A visit can easily be made to Hetaura en route 
to Kosi Barrage as Kathmandu to Karkavitta buses all 
stop there. Spending a night in the town and travelling 
on the following day is recommended. 

Royal Bardia National Park 

Much of Bardia National Park consists of lowland sal 
and riverain forests and the sal-forested Churia hills 
cover the remainder. The Kamali River forms the 
western boundary of the park. Bardia is rich in west- 
em lowland species. It can be reached by a two day 
bus journey from Kathmandu via Nepalganj or by 
flying to Nepalganj and taking a day's bus ride from 
there. There is a tourist tented camp in the park. 

Species:- Changeable Hawk-Eagle, Grey Francolin, 
Bengal Florican, Great Stone-plover, Orange- 



breasted Green Pigeon, Brown Fish and Brown Hawk 
Owls, White-rumped Needletail, Oriental Pied Horn- 
bill, Indian Pitta, White-naped, Great Slaty and 
Brown-capped Pygmy Woodpeckers, Jungle Prinia, 
Tickell's Blue Ftycatcher, Crow-biUed and Greater 
Racket-tailed Drongos and Red Avadavat. 

Trekking 

There are few roads in the Nepalese Himalayas so 
access to much of the country is only possible by 
trekking on the numerous trails through the moun- 
tains. General advice on trekking, and details on aU 
treks described below can be found in various readily 
available maps and books on the subject. 

North-west of Pokhara 

Pokhara (915m) is the starting point for several popu- 
lar treks and can easily be reached by bus or air from 
Kathmandu or by bus from the Indian border via 
Tansen. Although the Pokhara valley is heavily culti- 
vated with little remaining forest cover, it is still worth 
spending a couple of days birdwatching there. The 
lake Phewa Tal which Ues very close to the town, is 
interesting for migrants, especially waders, gulls and 
terns in spring and autumn. 



28 



Bird-watching Areas 





Cinnamon Sparrow 



Olive-backed Pipit 



Pokhara to Thakkhola - Jomosom trek 

This trek in the Annapuma Conservation Area is 
highly recommended as a larger number of species 
are likely to be seen than on any other trek in Nepal. 
About 200 species can easily be seen in about three 
weeks. This is mainly because a great variety of habi- 
tat is covered within a short distance. The trek starts 
amongst subtropical vegetation at Pokhara, climbs 
north-west through temperate oak-rhododendron 
forests followed by coniferous forests and finally dry 
semi-desert country typical of the Tibetan plateau. 
The region south of AJnnapuma has unusually high 
rainfall and supports lush forests which hold some 
eastern Himalayan species, The trek also provides 
opportunities to see species typical of both the west- 
em Himalayas and the Tibetan plateau; regions which 
are difficult to reach in Nepal. Food and accommoda- 
tion are easily available along the entire route. Octo- 
ber is a good month for migrants, particularly birds of 
prey and cranes. December to March is also an inter- 
esting period as a number of unusual wintering spe- 
cies may be seen including some erratic visitors such 
as Spectacled Finch and Pine Bunting. Snow may lie 
at times during these months, especially in forests 
near Ghorepani (2775m) and Ghandrung (2010m), 
and birds then tend to descend below the snow-line. 
The route can be shortened by flying from Pokhara to 
Jomosom, but note that flights are frequently can- 
celled due to bad weather. The route from Birethante 
(1065m) to Ghorepani via Ghandrung is recom- 
mended in at least one direction as this passes through 
one of the richest forests on the trek. Other interest- 
ing areas for birds include the forested slopes be- 
tween Chandrakot and Birethante, Birethante to 
Tirkhedhunge (1575m) (Crested Kingfisher, fork- 
tails), Ghorepani forest (pheasants, bush-robins, 
Long-billed Thrush, Great Parrotbill, Black-eared 
Shrike-Babbler, Black-browed Tit, rosefinches. Spec- 



tacled and Crimson-browed Finches, Collared Gros- 
beak), forests above Ghasa (2040m) (Koklass and 
Cheer Pheasants), Tukche to Kagbeni (2805m) and 
Muktinath (3800m) (Tibetan plateau species and 
Solitary Snipe), above Muktinath on the Thorong La 
pass (Tibetan Snowcock). Other species:- Lammer- 
geier, Himalayan Griffon Vulture, Mountain Hawk- 
Eagle, HUl Pigeon, Mountain Scops Owl, Fork-tailed 
Swift, Orange-rumped Honeyguide, Brown, Robin, 
and Altai Accentors, White-browed and Rufous- 
breasted Bush-Robins, White-throated and Gulden- 
stadt's Redstarts, Desert Wheatear, Slaty-backed 
Forktail, Black-faced Warbler, StoUczka's Tit-War- 
bler, Black-throated Parrotbill, Variegated and 
Rufous-chinned Laughing-thrushes, Fire-capped Tit, 
Fire-fronted Serin, Spot-winged, White-browed, 
Streaked and Great Rosefinches, Brown Bullfinch, 
Pine Buntmg. 

Modi Khola and Annapuma Sanctuary 

This is another trek in the Annapuma Conservation 
Area and takes about two weeks. It passes through 
moist oak/rhododendron and bamboo forests in the 
Modi Khola valley south of Annapuma. These forests 
are especially rich in birds and it is possible to see 
some eastern Himalayan species which are scarce and 
local in Nepal. The trek begins at Pokhara and goes 
north up the Modi Khola valley to the river's source, 
a basin on the south-west side of Annapuma called 
the Annapuma Sanctuary. Accommodation and food 
are available throughout the trek 

Species:- Golden-throated Barbet, Golden, White- 
browed and Rufous-breasted Bush-Robins, Slender- 
billed Scimitar-Babbler, Golden Babbler, Fulvous 
Parrotbill, Scaly Laughing-thrush, Cutia, Black- 
headed Shrike-Babbler, Golden-breasted Fulvetta, 
Yellow-bellied Flowerpecker, rosefinches. 



Bird-watching Areas 



29 



Map 5 Sunischare to Hanga Tham 




Ashy Woodswallow 

Sunischare to the upper Mai valley 

This trek offers the opportunity to see species of 
Nepal's south-eastern lowlands and of the eastern 
Himalayas. It can be conveniently combined with a 
visit to Kosi and takes about two weeks. The trek can 
be shortened by two to three days by taking a half day 
bus journey bus from Birtamod to Ham. Carrying 
camping equipment and enough food for a few days is 
advised. To reach Sunischare take a bus to Birtamod 
(either the Kathmandu to Karkavitta bus, or one east 
from Kosi Barrage). The walk from Sunischare to 
Ham takes two days but is worth spreading out over 
four and camping if necessary. 

Species between Sunischare and Ham:- Crested 
Goshawk, Collared Falconet, Barred Cuckoo-Dove, 
Blue-bearded Bee-eater, Oriental Pied Hombill, 
Long-tailed Broadbill, White-throated Bulbul, Asian 
Fairy Bluebird, Yellow-vented Warbler, Abbott's 
Babbler, Lesser Necklaced and Greater Necklaced 
Laughing-thrushes, Ruby-cheeked Sunbird, Little 
Spiderhunter, Yellow-vented Flowerpecker, Crow- 
billed Drongo, and Hill Mynah. 

It takes about half a day to walk from the small 
busy town of Ham to Jamuna (1830m). Buying food in 
Jamuna is advised as it may not be available further 
on. Another half day is needed to reach Hanga Tham 
(2135m), a good base to stay for two to three days 
while exploring the upper Mai valley. Lodging with 
local people may be possible here, but be prepared to 
camp. 

Species in the upper Mai valley:- WTiite-browed Pic- 
ulet. Maroon-backed Accentor, Rufous-breasted 
Bush-Robin, Hill Prinia, YeUow-bellied Warbler, 
Large Niltava, Sapphire Flycatcher, Rufous-throated 
Wren-Babbler, Slender-billed Scimitar-Babbler, 
Rufous-capped, Golden and Grey-throated Babblers, 




30 



Bird-watching Areas 




Red-fronted Rosefinch can be seen. Care is needed 
here as it is easy to lose the way in bad weather. The 
trail then drops to Chandanbari (3255m) and Syabru 
(2120m), which is a good area for Satyr Tragopan. 
The trek then follows the Langtang gorge where 
Orange-rumped Honeyguide has been seen, to 
Kyangjin (3750m). The gravel river bed here is a 
regular breeding site for Ibisbill. Tibetan Snowcock, 
White-bellied Redstart and Grandala can be found in 
upper Langtang. The recommended return route 
goes back down the Langtang and Trisuli valleys to 
Dhunche, from where a local bus can be taken to 
Trisuli Bazaar, and then another bus or taxi back to 
Kathmandu. 



Fire-tailed Myzomis nest 

Black-throated ParrotbiU, Scaly Laughing-thrush, 
Silver-eared Mesia, Fire-tailed Myzomis, Cutia, 
Black-eared Shrike-Babbler, Rusty-fronted Barwing, 
Red-tailed Minla, Golden-breasted Fulvetta, Yellow- 
cheeked Tit, and Brown Bullfinch. 

Langtang trek 

Trekking in Langtang National Park is highly recom- 
mended in spring, especially late May, when a wide 
variety of breeding Himalayan birds can be seen. 
About three weeks are needed for the trek. Accom- 
modation and food are available along various trails. 
One popular route starts at Sundarijal (1265m) at the 
edge of the Kathmandu Valley, goes north via Pati 
Bhanjyang (1770m) and Kutumsang (2470m) to 
Thare Pati, and then along the Gosainkund trail to 
Gapte cave (3505m). It is worth spending two to three 
days here. 

Species:- Blood Pheasant, Satyr Tragopan, Gould's 
Shortwing, White-browed and Rufous-breasted 
Bush-Robins, Long-billed Thrush, Smoky Warbler, 
Fire-tailed Myzomis, Black-browed Tit, Spot-winged 
and White-browed Rosefinches. From Gapte the trail 
crosses the Laurebina pass (4600m) to Gosainkund 
lakes (4300m) where Snow Partridge, Grandala and 



Sagarmatha National Park 

Although a relatively small number of species are 
likely to be seen compared with other treks, some high 
altitude species are more easily found in Sagarmatha 
National Park than elsewhere in Nepal. The moun- 
tain scenery is the most spectacular in the country. 
The park entrance at Jorsalle can be reached by 
taking a short flight from Kathmandu to Lukla 
(2850m) followed by a day's walk. Be prepared to wait 
a few days for a plane if necessary. All the speciaUties 
are found in the park, but a good variety of birds can 
be seen on the trail towards Kathmandu and it is well 
worth walking in one direction if time allows. It takes 
about a week to walk from Namche Bazaar (3445m) 
to Jiri (2100m) from where a bus can be taken back to 
Kathmandu. Accommodation and food are available 
along popular treks in the park. There are several 
routes available from Namche Bazaar including those 
to Kala Pattar at the foot of Sagarmatha and to Gokyo 
lakes. The lakes attract small numbers of migrants 
especially ducks and waders in spring and autumn. 

Species:- Tibetan Snowcock, Snow Partridge, Blood 
Pheasant, Himalayan Monal, Homed Lark, Robin, 
Altai and Alpine Accentors, White-throated, Gulden- 
stadt's and White-bellied Redstarts, Grandala, Black- 
headed Mountain-Finch, White-browed and Great 
Rosefinches. 



IDENTIFICATION 
SECTION 



32 



Gyps Vulture Identification 



Gyre VULTURES 

Large to medium-sized vultures which often soar for 
hours at a great height while looking out for carrion. 
Gregarious scavengers; they frequently gather in 
flocks to feed on carcasses. Wings are long and broad, 
with leading and trailing edges almost parallel. Tails 
are short and appear square-cut or rounded, depend- 
ing on abrasion. Head and neck are bare or partially 
down-covered. 



Oriental White-backed Vulture G^s bengalensis 

Wing length 535-578mm 

A medium-sized vulture. Adult can easily be identi- 
fied in flight from below by white under wing-coverts 
contrasting with black flight feathers and blackish 
body. Neck ruff is white. From above the conspicuous 
white patch on lower back and upper tail-coverts is 
diagnostic. Rest of upperparts are blackish with grey 
secondaries producing a pale patch on the upper 
wing. Immature lacks white in plumage and is coiifus- 
able with immature Eurasian Griffon and immature 
Long-biUed, both of which are often associated with 
this species. Generally paler than adult, dark brown to 
dark bufly-brown or rufous-brown with blackish- 
brown primaries. Separated from Long-biUed by 
darker, heavier appearance with relatively shorter 
wings and heavier bill; from adult and immature 
Eurasian Griffon by much smaller size and dark head. 

Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus 
Wing length 590-630mm 

In flight from below adult can be distinguished by 
combination of pale brown body and creamy under 
wing-coverts contrasting with blackish-brown flight 
feathers and dark head. Note that the latter may be 
obscured by the white ruff. The back and upper wing- 
coverts are brown and contrast with darker flight 
feathers. Adult and immature Eurasian Griffon are 
much larger and darker with paler heads and shorter, 
heavier bills. Immature Long-billed is similar to 
immature White-backed, see that species. 

Eurasian GrifTon Vulture Gypsfulvus 

Wing Length 675-747mm 

A large vulture. Usually found below 915m, at much 
lower altitudes than Himalayan Griffon, but the spe- 
cies do overlap. Noticeably smaller than that species. 
Adult has a whitish head, gingery-buff to rufous- 
brown body, and under wing-coverts contrasting with 
blackish-brown flight feathers and tail. Immature is 
similar to adult but is generally slightly darker overall 
and more rufous or cinnamon. Can be distinguished 
from adult Himalayan Griffon by darker underbody 
and under wing- coverts. Immature is similar to 
immature Himalayan but has more obvious pale 



streaking on the underside of the body and usually 
some indication of the adult's pale line on the under 
wing-coverts. See immature Long-billed and White- 
backed. 

Himalayan GrifTon Vulture Gyps himalayensis 

Wing length 755-810mm 

A huge vulture; the largest of the Gyps vultures. 
Usually occurs above 900m. Adult is easily recognised 
by its very pale buff to sandy-buff (appearing white at 
a distance) head, body and under wing-coverts, con- 
trasting with blackish flight feathers and tail. Imma- 
ture has whitish head and neck, blackish-brown pri- 
maries and tail, and rest of plumage dark brown, 
boldly streaked with buffish-white on the upperparts. 
Similar to Eurasian Griffon, see that species. 



Oriental White-backed Vulture 1 ad. Long-billed Vulture 2 
ad,, Eurasian GrifTon Vulture 3 ad^ Himalayan Griffon 
Vulture 4 ad. 



Gyps Vulture Identification 



33 



^^^W^j 







34 

ACCIPITERS 

Accipiters are small to medium-sized raptors with 
long tails and short, rounded wings. All the Nepalese 
species are forest bird-hunters. 



Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis 
Length 48-62cm 

The largest Nepalese Accipiter. Adult Slaty grey 
above; white below barred with dark brown. Imma- 
ture Brown above, buff below boldly streaked with 
brown. Some males approach the size of Northern 
Sparrowhawk or Crested Goshawk and may be con- 
fused in silhouette. However can usually be separated 
by larger size, deeper chest, proportionately shorter 
and more rounded tail, and longer wings often show- 
ing an S-shape curve on trailing edge. Adults (but not 
immatures) usually have more conspicuous white 
under tail-coverts and superdlium than Eurasian 
Sparrowhawk. Often shows a hooded appearance 
produced by dark ear-coverts. Females are almost 
size of Common Buzzard and Oriental Honey-Buz- 
zard. Separated by slightly shorter and broader wings, 
proportionately longer tail and different flight. 

Besra Accipiter virgatus 
Length 30-36cm 

A smzMAccipiter, size of Shikra, with plumage resem- 
bling that of Crested Goshawk. Adult Male is dark 
slate-grey above, female dark brown with dark grey 
crown and nape. Adult separated from all othst Ac- 
cipiter species except Crested Goshawk by broad 
blackish mesial stripe and barring on belly. Also by 
bold orange streaks on breast in male, and orange- 
brown breast spotted with white in female. Adults and 
immatures from Crested Goshawk by smaller size and 
lack of crest, and from Shikra by more heavily barred 
underwing and more prominent and broader barred 
tail. Female Shikra has central tail feathers unbarred 
or only lightly barred. Immature Grey-brown above, 
buff-white boldly streaked with dark brown below. A 
broad dark line divides throat. Separated from imma- 
ture Shikra by darker, richer brown upperparts, some- 
times with rufous tinge and broader tail bars; and 
from immature Eurasian Sparrowhawk by completely 
streaked underparts. 

Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiternisus 

Length 28-38cm 

A small to medium-sizedy4cc(p/7er. Adult Upperparts 
grey (male), or brown (female). Underparts narrowly 
barred with rufous (male), grey-brown (female). 
Adult male can be confused with Shikra but is usually 
larger and darker (although A. n. nisosimilis is only 
slightly darker). Lacks faint line down centre of throat 



Accipiter Identification 

and darker wing tips of adult Shikra. Underparts of 
Shikra are more extensively and finely barred. Imma- 
ture Dark brown above. Throat and usually upper 
breast are streaked. From other immature Accipiter 
species by barring rather than streaking on buff breast 
and belly. All ages separated from Shikra by more 
heavily barred underwing and broadly banded tail. 

Crested Goshawk Accipiter trivirgatus 
Length 40-46cm 

Separated from all other Accipiter species by crest, 
usually visible when perched. Heavier and larger than 
the other species apart from Northern Goshawk. 
Adult Similar in plumage to much smaller Besra and 
they differ from other species by combination of white 
underparts with bold rufous-brown streaks on breast 
and bars on belly. Has a black mesial streak from chin 
to breast and lacks a white superdlium. Under tail- 
coverts sometimes spotted with brown. Immature 
Similar to immature Besra and Shikra. Separated by 
larger size, crest, and thinner streaks on underparts. 
When soaring shows long, broad, well-spread tail and 
veiy rounded wings which are pinched in at base. 

Shikra Accipiter badius 
Length 30-36cm 

A small, pale, stocky Accipiter, often with particularly 
rounded wingtips. Head rather cuckoo-like. Adults 
are dove-grey (male), or grey-brown (female) above. 
Underparts are orange with extensive fine white bar- 
ring. TTie underwing is pale, usually with contrasting 
dark tips. Central tail feathers unbarred, or only 
Ughtly barred. Immature Medium or pale brown 
above with a dark crown, and narrower, less conspicu- 
ous barring on tail than immature Besra or Eurasian 
Sparrowhawk. See Besra and Eurasian Sparrowhawk. 



Northern Goshawk: 1 ad^ 2 imnb; Crested Goshawk: 3 
imnL, 4 ad^ Besra: 5 ad. male, 6 ad. female, 7 muiL; Shikra: 
8 ad., 9 imm.; Eurasian Sparrowhawk: 10 ad. male, 11 inun., 
12 ad. female; Shikra: 13 ad., 14 imm., Besra: 15 ad. male, 
16 ad. female, 17 imm^ Eurasian Sparrowhawk: 18 ad. 
male, 19 ad. female, 20 imm.; Northern Goshawk: 21 ad., 22 
imm^ Crested Goshawk 23 ad., 24 imm. 



Accipiter Identification 



35 




36 



Buzzard Identification 



BUZZARDS 

Medium-sized raptors. A particularly confusing 
group with similar structure and showing consider- 
able plumage variation. The following account is 
intended as a guide. Not all individuals can be identi- 
fied with certainty. All three species have light, nor- 
mal and dark colour phases. They have broad wings, a 
fairly short, broad taU and short thick neck. Generally 
soar on raised wings. 



Common Buzzard Buteo buteo 

Two forms occur:- 

B. b. 'refectus' 
Wing length 39.2-41.6cm 

A dark, often strongly rufous form, much larger than 
the extraUmital B. b. vulpinus, and more like Long- 
legged in some features; wings less rounded, and with 
extensive white subterminaUy on the underside; taU 
uniform or only faintly banded. Dark carpal patches 
on underwing often extensive. 

B. b. japonicus 
Wing length 36.2-40.8cm 

A smaller form, the typical phase paler than B. b. 
'refectus', tail whitish and obviously barred, and un- 
derwing with much less white and obscure dark carpal 
patches. 

Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus 

Wing length 40.5-49cm 

Slightly larger and longer winged than Common. 
Head creamy-white, usually paler than Common and 
Upland. Some birds show a dark belly and vent con- 
trasting with rest of underparts which separates them 
from all Common and most Upland Buzzards. Adult 
normal phase has unbarred cinnamon tail but in 
immatures and dark phase adults the taU is barred and 
browner. Common and Upland may show a rufous 
tinge in taU. Upperwing is more contrasting than in 
Common, showing paler coverts and often a pale 
greyish patch at base of primaries, the latter not white 
or as extensive as is normal in Upland. Large dark 
carpal patches on underwing. See Upland and Com- 
mon Buzzard. 



tarsus and feet are normaUy half feathered or less. 
TaU pattern and colour is variable, but is never com- 
pletely plain nor cinnamon, thus precluding confusion 
with adult normal phase Long-legged. The taU is pale 
brown, basally whitish with a subterminal and other 
bars often so faint that it appears nearly uniform and 
very simUar to the taUs of some immature Long- 
legged and B. b. japonicus. Upland has darker head 
than a normal phase Long-legged, pale brown with 
streaky moustachial stripes. Underpart pattern of 
normal and light phase generally elirninates Common 
Buzzard, Upland having at least 'thighs' blackish- 
brown forming a dark V on lower underparts lacking 
in Common. Many Long-legged show a simUar under- 
part pattern but birds with a dark area right across the 
belly are more likely to be Long- legged. 



Upland Buzzard Buteo hemilasius 

Wing length 42.9-5 1cm 

Largest buzzard occurring in Nepal. Usually has a 
large white patch at the primary bases on the spread 
upperwing. If present this is diagnostic because the 
other two species never show more than a smaU 
greyish patch. In a close view Upland usually has 
tarsus three-quarters feathered and is often feathered 
to the feet, whereas in Long-legged and Common the 



Upland Buzzard: Ifi 

Long-legged Buzzard: 3^ 

Conunon Buzzard: B. b. 'refecOis': 5 

B. b. japonicus: 6,7 



Buzzard Identification 



37 










38 



Hawk-Eagle Identification 



CHANGEABLE HAWK-EAGLE 

Spizaetus cinhatus 
Wing length 380-462mm 

MOUNTAIN HAWK-EAGLE Spizaetus nipalensis 

Wing length 419-508nun 

Both have veiy broad wings and long rounded tails. 
Mountain Hawk-Eagle can be separated in all ages 
when perched by its long crest feathers usually held 
vertically over its head; absent in Changeable. Pale 
phase adults can be separated by colour pattern of 
underparts. Changeable is white to buffy-brown be- 
low often irregularly streaked with dark brown; some- 
times has heavy streaks on whole of underparts. Bar- 
ring is usually absent or indistinct and only present on 
thighs and flanks. Mountain has light cinnamon or 
whitish breast with darker streaking limited to upper 
breast; rest of underparts are cinnamon brown with 
broken white barring. Changeable has a melanistic 
phase. Entire plumage is dark chocolate-brown or 
almost black and could lead to confusion with Black 
Eagle or dark phase Oriental Honey-Buzzard. Inter- 
mediates occur. Most easily separated from Black 
Eagle by underside of primaries and secondaries 
(especially primaries) much paler than wing lining 
(outer primaries tipped black), underside of tail pale 
grey. Immature Changeable and Mountain are proba- 
bly indistinguishable except when crest can be seen. 
Feathers of upperparts are edged with white; head 
and neck are white with dark brown streaking. Under- 
parts are usually white and very faintly barred with 
cinnamon. Sometimes has streaking but limited to 
breast only in Mountain. Tail with narrow dark bars, 
more numerous than in adult. 






Mountain Hawk-Eagle: 1,2 
Changeable Hawk-Eagle: 3 



Aquila Eagle Identification 

AQUILA EAGLES 

Large raptors with long broad wings and medium- 
long tail. Most easily identifiable in juvenile plumages 
but all the species are very variable and field identifi- 
cation of some individuals is likely to be impossible. 



Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca 
Wing Length 57.5-63cm 
Wing Span 190-210mm 

Heavy and large, almost size of Golden. Neck and bill 
protrude more than in oxhei Aquila species. Distin- 
guished from Golden by soaring on level more paral- 
lel-edged wings, fuller wing-tips, and often narrower- 
looking, more square-cut tail tip. From Tawny and 
Spotted Eagles also by greater size in direct compari- 
son. When soaring, wings sometimes held level, but 
usually slightly above level, tips of primaries often 
clearly upturned. Adult separated from similar-sized 
Steppe by yellowish-white rear-crown to hind-neck. 
White braces diagnostic but hard to see in the field. 
Generally has less pronounced dark barring on flight 
feathers below and is a blacker bird, with more con- 
trastingly bicoloured upper tail than adult Steppe. 
Juvenile yellower than Steppe, with dark-streaked 
wing-coverts, mantle and lower neck to breast, latter 
looking brownish in contrast to pale rear-body; 
blacker, weakly barred secondaries contrast strongly 
with pale three inner primaries, more so than in most 
young Steppe. Underwing lacks pure white greater 
covert band of juvenile Steppe but has usually larger 
creamy patch on lower back and rump merging with 
white upper tail-coverts. More streaky than young 
Tawny and lacks rufous or creamy white in plumage. 
Larger, with a longer tail and wings than the un- 
streaked/w/vejcert5 Greater Spotted; the latter is also 
unstreaked and usually lacks pale iimer primaries. 
Subadult from Steppe by brownish-yellow rear- 
crown to hind-neck; greater contrast between black- 
ish-brown breast and yellowish belly below; some- 
times by more pronounced pale inner primaries; and, 
from above, by usually bicoloured tail and less pro- 
nounced whitish patch at base of primaries; the latter 
may be absent. Lower back and rump not uniform 
dark brown. 

Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis 
Wing Length 51-65cm 
Wing Span 174-260cm 

Size as Imperial. Rather similar in shape to Tawny; 
larger size of Steppe readily apparent only when the 
two are together. The white band on greater under 
wing-coverts of young Steppe best feature to distin- 
guish the two. The first two plumages of Steppe have 
a broad white trailing edge to wings and tail, and tips 
of greater upper wing-coverts but these characters are 



39 



of no value in worn immatures. Darker brown juve- 
nile Steppe not rufous or creamy-white as Tawny. 
Most have dark brown lower back and rump (rf. 
Tawny). Sub-adult sometimes has remains of white 
band on underwing, lacking in Tawny. Generally, 
Steppe has darker primaries below, coloured more 
like secondaries, and all flight-feathers usually have 
bolder dark barring. Sub-adult Tawny often has paler 
primaries, sometimes confined to a pale wedge on 
inner three; dark barring on flight-feathers below may 
be diffuse and much thinner, denser and basally or 
absent . Sub-adult Steppe has under wing-coverts pale 
or dark brown with diffuse yellowish lines or bars, and 
the carpal patch and underbody are more or less 
uniform dark brown; sub-adult Tawny has pale rufous 
or creamy-white under wing coverts, which may have 
clear-cut dark brown lines or bars; there are no dark 
carpal patches and the underparts are either con- 
trastingly bi-coloured, or uniform pale rufous/ 
creamy-white. Adult Steppe is variably patterned dull 
medium grey-brown and dark brown on body and 
wing-coverts. Frequently, the underparts and carpal 
areas are darker brown than the under wing-coverts, 
or the latter are as dark as the body. Flight-feathers 
are usually uniform with, or paler than under wing- 
coverts; they are seldom darker. Many have boldly 
dark-barred flight and tail feathers, especially below, 
and a broader, blackish band along their trailing 
edges (cf. Imperial). Often have large rusty-yellow 
patch on rear-crown and nape. Upperwing-coverts 
either dull grey-brown as mantle, or paler grey-brown 
contrasting with mantle. There is usually a small 
whitish patch at base of lower back, and the upper tail- 
coverts are mostly brown. The grey or dark brown 
upper-tail is variably, often boldly dark-barred, with a 
broader blackish band at tip, but is sometimes in- 
distinctly patterned. Often has a largish pale patch at 
base of primaries above. Easily confused with dark 
form of adult Tawny, but has bolder dark barring on 
flight feathers below, and a bolder dark band along 
trailing edge of wings and tail; it often has a clearly 
defined pale nape-patch, and mainly dark brown 
rump to upper tail-coverts. Dark adult Tawny either 
has no pale nape patch (Uke some Steppe), or it has a 
pale rear-crown to hind-neck. Lower back and upper 
tail-coverts are often paler than in Steppe. Steppe has 
brown iris at aU ages, while Tawny has yellowish iris 
from subadult onwards. The yellow gape is slightly 
brighter and usually extends to rear edge of eye in 
Steppe, while it normally only reaches the centre of 
the eye in Tawny. 



40 



Aquila Eagle Identification 



Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax 
Wing Length (48) 50-56cm 
Wing span 172-185cm 

Same size as Greater Spotted Eagle. Plumage of 
adult more variable than that of Steppe. Two forms 
occur: dark brown resembling adult Steppe, and pale 
rufous-buff bleaching to creamy-white, the latter 
probably retained from juvenile onwards. Dark adults 
have under wing-coverts and flight feathers of ap- 
proximately same shade, but pale adults show great 
contrast between pale body/coverts and dark flight 
feathers. Primaries often paler than secondaries be- 
low, especially in pale adults; some have a pale wedge 
on inner primaries. Dark barring on fli^t and tail 
feathers poorly developed, especially on secondaries; 
when present placed at their bases as thin dense bars 
(cf typical Steppe). In some fresh adults there are 
often thin pale lines on trailing edge of wings and on 
greater upper wing-coverts, unlike adult Steppe. Ju- 
venile usually pale rufous but wears gradually to 
creamy-white before moulting into next rufous or 
dark brown plumage (ending as pale and dark adult 
respectively). Flight-feathers below roughly of same 
pattern as in pale adult. Some juveniles remain pale 
throughout their following plumages, while others 
gradually become darker; latter develop dark or 
blackish-brown throat and breast in contrast with pale 
rear-body; in some top of head to hind-neck creamy, 
in others whole head dark brown; under wing-coverts 
creamy with some dark brown bars. Most Tawny, 
irrespective of age and colour, have lower back to 
upper tail-coverts creamy (rump darkest), bleaching 
to whitish. Some birds in transitional plumage show 
streaking on underparts like young Imperial. Sub- 
adult Tawny may sometimes resemble subadult Im- 
perial, but are paler, more creamy on belly and most 
under wing-coverts, have browner rump, and uniform 
uppertail; also shorter wings and tail, less protruding 
neck and bUl, and bowed wings. Best distinguished 
from spotted eagles with similar plumage by larger 
bill, elongated nostrils and, in photographs, the usu- 
ally longer fourth primary, if not in moult. Lacks the 
whitish bars on wings and tail of well-marked juvenile 
Greater Spotted. When perched. Tawny has heavy 
baggy 'trousers' covering feathered tarsus, while in 
both Spotteds trousers are smaller, showing long thin- 
looking feathered tarsus below. Creamy-whitish 
Tawny distinguished homfulvescens Greater Spotted 
by bill, nostrils, fourth primary and, if present, a 
distinct pale wedge on inner primaries. Fresh juvenile 
fiilvescens has broad white band on greater upper 
wing-coverts, always narrower in creamy Tawny. 
Adult Tawny has yellow iris; in all ages of Spotted it is 
brownish. 



Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga 

Wing Length 48.5-56cm 
Wing Span 155-182cm 

Size as Tawny. Easily confused with some Steppe and 
Lesser Spotted, except for well-marked juveniles. 
Adult is normally dark brown all over with paler flight 
feathers below (and sometimes lacks whitish mark- 
ings on tail-coverts and at base of primaries, cf. Impe- 
rial and Steppe). Some birds have paler upper wing- 
coverts than mantle (cf. Lesser Spotted and some 
Steppe). Juvenile blacker, with more contrast be- 
tween under wing-coverts and paler, dark greyish 
flight feathers. White bars on trailing edge of wings 
and tail, and on upper wing-coverts, highly variable in 
width and size. A largish pale primary patch above, 
most obvious on iimer primaries; gradually reduced 
with age. Barring on flight and tail feathers below 
highly variable without age differences. Flight-feath- 
ers often completely unbarred, or they are thinly and 
often densely dark-barred, the dark bars usualfy not 
so well-spaced and never as broad as in adult Steppe. 
Lacks dark band along trailing edge of wings and tail 
(cf. Steppe and some Imperial). Some have small 
whitish patch at base of outer primaries below (rare in 
Steppe, Imperial and Tawny), and some have paler 
underbody than under wing-coverts, a combination 
not seen in Steppe, Imperial and Tawny. Scarce fiil- 
vescens type has very pale body and underwing. Inter- 
mediates, or forms with pale brown upper and under 
wing-coverts, difficult to distinguish from some 
Steppe, Tawny and Lesser Spotted except by study of 
pattern of flight-feathers, tail, bill, gape, nostrils and 
leg-feathering. 



a above, b below, s soaring, g slow gliding, f fast gliding 

Imperial Eagle: la ad^ 2b ad^ 3b juv^ 4b subad^ 5a juv,, 6b 
ad^ 7s,g,r head-on profiles. 

Steppe Eagle: 8a ad., 9b subad./ad., 10b juv,, lib subad., 
12a juv., 13s^f head-on profiles, 14b ad., 
15b ad. 

Tawny Eagle: 16b dark ad., 17b fresh juv., 18a moulting 
imni./subad., 19s,g,f head-on-profiles, 
20b moulting subad., 21b bleached moult- 
ing juv., 22a dark ad., 23a pale ad., 24b 
pale ad. 



Aquila Eagle Identification 



41 




42 



Aquila Eagle Identification 



Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina hastata 

Wing Length 47-50.8cm 
Wing Span 134-159cm 

Slightly smaller than Greater Spotted but size unim- 
portant in the field. Adult resembles adult of the 
nominate race; wing-coverts on both surfaces are 
grey-brown (bleaching paler), contrasting with dark 
brown flight feathers and darkish brown mantle; 
underparts as wing-coverts; a small brownish-yeUow 
primary-patch above, and usually some buffish-white 
on upper tail-coverts. The contrast between under 
wing-coverts and darker flight feathers below best 
character to distinguish it from Greater Spotted 
(exceptions occur); above, some adult Greater Spot- 
ted resemble Lesser Spotted with similar contrast, but 
usually the former is darker brown, particularly along 
foremost lesser coverts. Juvenile lacks distinct white 
bands on wing-coverts above and on tips of secondar- 
ies, and has less contrast between under wing- coverts 
and flight feathers than adults. Bill size, length of 
yellow gape, shape of nostrils, leg-feathering, length 
of fourth (descendent) primary and barred pattern on 
flight and tail feathers are similar in Lesser and 
Greater Spotted, though biU is a little smaller and 
fourth primary averages shorter in the former. Dis- 
tinction on flight-silhouette and wing-position not 
recommended though Greater Spotted on average 
has broader wings, fuller and more ample wing-tip, 
and appears slightly more bulky than Lesser Spotted. 
Confusable with sub-adult Steppe and dark adult 
Tawny. Clear remains of white band on underwing of 
some sub-adult Steppe helps separation but some 
plumages are very aliie at a distance. An eagle with 
pale brown upper and under wing-coverts, and under- 
body; with darker flight feathers and mantle; and with 
some whitish on upper tail-coverts and at base of 
primaries above, is matched by both Lesser Spotted 
and some Steppe (and by some Tawny and odd 
Greater Spotted). Compared with Steppe, the Lesser 
Spotted is relatively shorter-winged, with shorter arm 
and less ample, less deep-fingered wing-tip. Neck to 
bill does not protrude as much (bill usually clearly 
smaller). Smaller size and quicker wing-beats usualty 
apparent only when the two are together. Although 
the lowered primaries of gUding Lesser Spotted are • 
slightly more arched than that of Steppe, wing posi- 
tion is very aUke, as are length and shape of tail. 
Slightly more compact jizz of Lesser Spotted in flight 
hard to appreciate. 

Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos 

Wing Length 60-72cm 

Wing Span 204-220cm 

Large eagle. Distinguished from other Aquila species 

by soaring with wings raised to form shallow V. Wings 

usually narrower at base and tail longer. Adult rather 

uniform dark brown with red-brown rear-crown to 



hind-neck. Juvenile and immature identified by dis- 
tinctive plumage, blackish-brown with white tail base, 
and white patch on inner primaries below, lacking or 
rather smaller at base of inner primaries above. White 
markings gradually lost, Uttle remaining after four to 
five years. 



a above, b below, s soaring, g slow gliding, f fast gliding 



Greater Spotted Eagle: 



Lesser Spotted Eagle: 



Golden Eagle: 



la ad^ 2b ad^ 3a bleached ad^ 
4b juv^ 5b variant juv^ 6b well 
marked juv^ 7a heavily spotted 
juv^ 8a lightly spotted juv^ 
9s,g,f head-on profiles, 10b ad. 
fulvescens, lib variant ad. 
12b ad., 13a ad., 14b juv., 15a 
juv., 16b imm., 17s,g,f, head- 
on-profiles. 

18b ad., 19b juv., 20s,g,f head- 
on profiles. 



Aquila Eagle Identification 



43 




18b 




I9b 



80 > 





44 



Large Falcon Identification 



LARGE FALCONS 

Powerful raptors with long, narrow, broadly-based 
wings and medium length tapering tails, square- 
ended or slightly rounded at the tip. When hunting 
wing beats are fast and deep. May stoop rapidly on 
prey in the air. In normal flight wing beats are shal- 
lower and slower interrupted by short glides. 



Saker Falcon Falco cherrug 

Length 50-58cm 
Wing length 34.l-43.5cm 

The largest and heaviest falcon occurring in Nepal, 
with a long tail and particularly broad-based wings. 
The wing beats are slow in level flight. Plumage is 
mainly brown above, lacking blue or grey, and with 
darker flight feathers. The head is whitish with a dark, 
streaked, rufous crown and narrow black moustache. 
Adult is mainly whitish below with some black spots 
on belly and thighs. Wing lining is either dark brown, 
noticeably darker than flight feathers, or coverts are 
edged with brown forming diffuse band through 
centre of underwing. For differences from immature 
Peregrine see that species. From adult Laggar by its 
paler brown upperparts with feathers edged orange- 
buff; crown usually paler; entire tail barred with pale 
orange or whitish; underparts less heavily marked. 
Also lacks dark brown patch on thighs, flanks and 
axillaries of Laggar, the thighs being lightly barred or 
spotted. Immature has boldly streaked underparts. 

Laggar Falcon Falco jugger 
Length 43-46cm 
Wing length 30.5-37cm 

Usually smaller than Saker and within the same size 
range as Peregrine Falcon. Flight similar to that of 
Peregrine but heavier. Has a narrow black mous- 
tachial streak, and usually a dark, streaked, rufous 
crown. Adult separated from adult Saker by uniform 
grey-brown upperparts lacking orange-buff feather 
edgings. Tail has Ught barring on outer feathers only. 
Whitish underparts are more boldly marked and 
sometimes have heavy streaks on breast, belly and 
flanks. Flanks, thighs and axillaries are dark brown. 
Underwing pattern of both species is similar. Imma- 
ture is dark brown above, edged paler, especially on 
the crown. Chin and throat white, rest of underparts 
dark brown with pale mottling, sometimes giving the 
appearance of heavy dark streaking. For differences 
from Peregrine and Barbary see those species. 



Peregrine Falcon Fatco peregrinus 
F. p. calidus 
Length 40-48cm 
Wing length 30.5-37.8cm 
F. p. peregrinator 
Length 38-46cm 
Wing length 26.5-34.5cm 

Adults and immatures can be separated from Saker 
and Laggar by more contrasting facial pattern: a 
prominent, broad black moustachial streak and white 
cheeks. Head is darker than rest of upperparts, while 
in Saker and Laggar it is usually paler. Underwing of 
Peregrine shows little contrast while wing lining of 
other two species is often conspicuously darker than 
flight feathers. Differs from Laggar in tail barring: 
central feathers are barred in Peregrine while Laggar 
has light barring only on outer feathers. Distinguished 
from Saker by its smaller size, shorter tail, and more 
pointed wings. Plumage of adults differs from other 
two species: upperparts are slate-grey; underparts are 
pale rufous-white (F. p. calidus), or rusty-red (F. p. 
peregrinator), and heavily barred with black. Imma- 
ture is brown above with a barred tail and heavily 
streaked below. See Barbary. 

Barbary Falcon Falco pelegnnoides 

Length 38-46cm 
Wing length 27.4-34.8cm 

Similar in structure and plumage to Peregrine but is 
often smaller, less bulky and has paler plumage. Both 
adult and immature can usually be separated from 
other falcons by a characteristic, bright rufous nuchal 
collar. However Peregrine also shows this feature 
occasionally. Other features distinguishing Barbary 
from Saker and Laggar are similar to those separating 
Peregrine. Adult has pale bluish-grey upperparts. 
Underparts are unbarred or have much less heavy 
barring than Peregrine, restricted to flanks and lower 
underparts. Forehead and crown have rufous wash in 
Barbary, darker and slate-grey in Peregrine. Mous- 
tachial streak is narrower and paler than in Peregrine. 
Immature is similar to immature Peregrine but has a 
narrow moustachial and finer streaks below. 



Laggar Falcon: 
Saker Falcon: 
Peregrine Falcon: 

Barbai; Falcon: 



1 ad, 2 imnti; 

3 ad.; 

F. p. peregrinator 4 ad, 

F. p. calidus 5 ad, 6 imnL; 

7 ad- 8 imm. 



Large Falcon Identification 



45 




46 



Calidris Sandpiper Identification 



CALIDRIS SANDPIPERS 

Small squat waders with relatively short legs, white 
wing bars and white sides to the rump. 



Dunlin Calidris alpina 

Length 19cm 

Separated from other small waders except Curlew 
Sandpiper by its longish down curved bill. Summer 
adult has a diagnostic black patch on the belly. Feath- 
ers of upperparts are blackish with pale rufous and 
whitish fringes. Breast is finely streaked with black. In 
winter brownish-grey above, greyish-white below with 
greyish streaks on breast. Juvenile has black upper- 
part feathers fringed with chestnut. Breast is streaked 
and flanks coarsely spotted with brown, belly white. 
Call is a rasping "treep". See Curlew Sandpiper, San- 
derling. 

Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea 

Length 21cm 

Separated at all ages from other small waders by 
combination of white rump and downcurved bill. 
Summer adult is easily recognised by its rufous breast 
and upper belly. Adult in winter has similar plumage 
to Dunlin. Juvenile has scaly greyish-brown upper- 
parts with feathers fringed pale buff Underparts are 
buff white almost unmarked and usually suffused with 
peach buff. Call is a gentle 'chirrip'. 

Sanderling Calidris alba 

Length 20cm 

Plump and very active, runs rapidly while feeding. 
Differs from Dunlin and Curlew Sandpiper by having 
a shorter, straight bill and a more conspicuous white 
wing bar. In winter distinguished by its almost whitish 
plumage and contrasting black shoulder patch. In 
summer it is scalloped with chestnut above and chest- 
nut on breast spotted with black forming a pectoral 
band. Belly is white. 



Temminck's Stint Calidris temminckii 

Length 13-15cm 

From Little and Long-toed by its rather dull uniform 
plumage lacking pronounced scalloping and streak- 
ing; also by the white outer tail feathers. Juvenile 
lades white Vs on upperparts of other two species. 
Has a more horizontal stance when feeding and is 
usually less active. From Little also by dusky patches 
on sides of breast forming a conspicuous pectoral 
band, and call. Upperparts are brownish marked with 
black and dull rufous in summer adult, greyish-brown 
in juvenile and winter adult. Legs are usually pale 
yellowish-green or greyish-green, but rarely may be 
dark. Call is a short purring triU. 

Long-toed Stint Calidris subminuta 

Length 13- 14cm 

Has a more upright stance than Little and Tem- 
minck's, with neck and legs appearing proportion- 
ately longer. Richly coloured in all plumages. Can be 
separated at all ages from Temminck's by its grey 
brown outer tail feathers and from Little by its pale 
legs. Summer adult and juvenile have patterned 
rufous-brown upperparts with dark centres to feath- 
ers. Has a dark crown producing a capped appearance 
absent in Little and Temminck's and the supercilium 
is creamy and more pronounced than in those species. 
Ear-coverts are dark. Lacks rufous face of summer 
Little and pale face of Temminck's. Juvenile may have 
two white Vs on upperparts as Little. Breast rufous 
and finely streaked with brown and buff forming a 
pronounced pectoral band absent in Little. Wing bar 
is less distinct than in the other two species. Can be 
separated from both species by its different call, a 
grating 'priit' or a soft, liquid 'chree'. 



Stints are tiny sandpipers with straight and compara- 
tively short bills. 

Little Stint Calidris minuta 

Length 12-14cm 

Summer adult is scaly above, having blackish feathers 
with bright rufous fringes and whitish tips; a creamy V 
on the mantle; streaked rufous brown on sides of 
breast; a rufous patch on face and white belly. Winter 
adult is greyish above, white below. Juvenile is similar 
to summer adult but has more contrasting upperparts, 
usually showing two clear white Vs. Shows grey outer- 
tail feathers in flight. Legs are black. Call is a weak 
'tit'. 



Dunlin: 1 winL ad^ 2 sunun. ad^ 

Curlew Sandpiper 3 sunun. ad., 4 juv^ 

Sanderling; 5 wint.; 

Tenuninck's Stinb 6 wint. ad., 7 summ. ad.; 

Lillle Stint: 8 sunun. ad., 9 wint ad., 10 juv^ 

Long-loed Stint: 11 sunun. ad., 12 juv. 



Calidris Sandpiper Identification 



47 























as:' 





48 



Snipe and Woodcock Identification 



SNIPE AND WOODCOCK 

Snipe are medium-sized waders with long bills. They 
have cryptically patterned, mainly brown plumage 
and longitudinal stripes on head. 



Jack Snipe Lymnoayptes minimus 

Length 17-19cm 

Easily separated from other snipes by small size and 
relatively short bill (only a little longer than head). 
Unlike other snipes breast is streaked not scaly, and 
flanks are unbarred. Flushed only at close range and 
soon drops into cover. Escape flight is silent and slow 
without zigzagging. Plumage is similar to Common 
Snipe but back stripes are broader and contrast more 
with dark mantle than in other snipe. Lacks cream 
crown-stripe of Common and has a characteristic 
forked pale supercilium absent in Common. 

Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 

Length 26-27cm 

Medium-sized snipe with a very long bill. Upperparts 
are heavily patterned in brown, black and rufous, with 
cream stripes on crown and back. In flight it shows a 
broad, prominent white traUing edge to the secondar- 
ies, but the feet do not extend beyond the tail. Escape 
flight is a rapid zigzag and accompanied by a hoarse 
cry. May be confused with Pintail Snipe. See that 
species. 

Pintail Snipe Gallinago stenura 
Length 25-26cm 

Very similar in size and plumage to Common Snipe. 
Most easily separated by completely barred under 
wing-coverts and axillaries which appear dark in flight 
whereas the underwing of Common usually has a 
whitish patch. Has a narrow, inconspicuous white 
trailing edge to the secondaries, and the feet extend 
beyond the the tail in flight. The upper wing coverts 
are more heavily mottled with buff than they are in 
Common, the bars on the flanks are more extensive, 
and the back stripes usually appear less contrasting. 
When flushed it flies off with little or no zig-zagging 
usually dropping into cover more quickly than Com- 
mon. Shows some similarity to Solitary. See that 
species. 

Swinhoe's Snipe Gallinago megala 
Length 27-29cm 

Similar to Pintail Snipe in plumage but larger and 
generally longer-billed with a longer tail, beyond 
which the legs do not project in flight. Plumage is 
variable and the only consistent difference from Pin- 
tail is more white in the outer tail. Flight is slower and 



heavier with little zigzagging and it frequently rises 
silently. Slightly larger than Common Snipe and lacks 
white trailing edge to secondaries. 

Solitary Snipe Gallinago solitaria 

Length 31cm 

Differs from Common and Pintail Snipe in larger size 
and the pattern of the underparts. Generally has a 
paler face than other snipes. The throat is white, and 
the breast is brown with white streaks at sides of neck 
and breast. Rest of underparts are white with fairly 
heavy blackish bars on sides of breast and flanks 
sometimes extending right across breast and belly. 
These individuals are likely to be confused with simi- 
lar-sized Wood Snipe. Separated from Common and 
Pintail by combination of pale median wing-coverts 
and dark lesser coverts, and by different escape flight. 
Flies off zig-zagging but more heavily and slowly than 
Common and giving a harsher, louder call. 

Wood Snipe Gallinago nemoricola 

Length 31 cm 

A large snipe with broad rounded wings and slow, 
heavy, wavering flight. From all snipe except some 
Solitary by underparts pattern. Has a mottled dusky 
brown breast, and the rest of the underparts are 
normally completely barred duU buff and brown; 
rarely the centre of the belly is unbarred. From Soli- 
tary by generally darker, more scaly appearance 
above with very little rufous, and broader, more con- 
trasting buffish back stripes. Crown is darker with a 
much narrower central stripe. Usually found in forest 
habitat. More similar to Woodcock than Snipe, see 
that species. 

Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax ntsticola 
Length 33-35cm 

A snipe-hke wader with similar, cryptically patterned 
plumage. From all snipe by larger size, transverse bars 
on hindcrown, and blotched not banded scapulars. 
Most likely to be confused with Wood Snipe as both 
have broad, rounded wings, heavy slow flight and are 
likely to be found in same forest habitat. Its plumage 
is more brightly coloured with more rufous than 
Wood Snipe. 



Wood Snipe: 


1A3; 


Eurasian Woodcock: 


4A6; 


Solitaiy Snipe: 


7A9; 


Pintail Snipe: 


10,11,12; 


Common Snipe: 


13,14,15; 


Jack Snipe: 


1«,17,18. 



Snipe and Woodcock Identification 



49 




50 

GULLS 

Gulls are medium-sized to large birds with long wings, 
webbed feet and strong bills. When adult they are 
mainly grey above and white below. Immatures have 
some brown in plumage. In Nepal found by lakes, 
rivers and, on migration, over the Himalayas. 



Yellow-legged Gull 

Lams cachinnans mongoKcus 

Length c. 55cm 

Large gull. Adult White with pale grey mantle and 
wings; primary tips are black with one or two large 
mirrors. Head is white in summer, very faintly 
streaked in winter. Legs normally pink in this race, 
confounding the English name. First winter Mottled 
grey-brown above with blackish-brown wing tips. Tail 
greyish-brown with black subterminal band. BUI 
blackish with paler base. Second winter Dark streaks 
on head, pale grey on mantle and scapulars. Outer 
primaries and bar on secondaries blackish, rest of 
wing greyish-brown. Shows some white on rump, and 
tail has black band. Third winter Like winter adult but 
has more black on outer wings, lacks white spots on 
wing tips, and has faint tail band. Usually has some 
brown on uppenving. For differences from Mew, 
Lesser Black-back and Great Black-headed Gulls see 
those species. 

Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fitscus fuscus and 
L. f. heuglini 
Length 53cm 

A large gull similar to Yellow-legged Gull. Mantle of 
adult is darker, varying from slate-grey (heuglini) to 
almost blackish (fuscus). Legs yellow. First winter can 
be separated from first winter Yellow-legged by its 
more contrasting and scaly pattern on upperparts. 
Birds of the race fuscus have a uniform dark band on 
greater coverts fontiing a second wing bar which is 
absent in Yellow-legged. Has both inner and outer 
primaries blackish. Underwing is dark blackish- 
brown, pale grey-brown in Yellow-legged. Second 
and third winter birds are most easily distinguished by 
the colour of the upperparts which resemble those of 
the adult. BUI is all dark. 

Great Black-headed Gull Larus ichthyaetus 
Length 57-61cm 

The largest Nepalese guU. Differs structurally from 
other large guUs. It has a charaaeristic long sloping 
forehead, deep chest, and relatively slimmer, longer 
wings. Can be confused with smaller adult winter 
YeUow-legged, and some plumages of immature 
Yellow-legged. Adult has black head in summer, and 
a dark patch behind eye in winter. YeUow bUl has 
reddish tip and black subterminal band. Adult and 



Gull Identification 

third winter birds separated from other large gulls by 
wing pattern. Wing tips and outerwing are white, with 
broad black band across outer primaries. First winter 
has grey mantle. Differs from second winter YeUow- 
legged by dark mask through eye, brownish shawl on 
hindneck, white underparts, and more prominent 
black band across taU, contrasting with white rump. 
Much paler grey on mantle than second winter Lesser 
Black-bade. Second winter is similar to adult but has 
blade taU band (narrower than first winter), more 
extensive black on primaries, and hindneck marked 
blackish. 



YeUow-legged GuU: 1 Isl wint^ 2 2nd wint., 3 ad. 

sunuiL; 
Lesser Black-backed Gull: 41st wint^ 5 ad. heuglini, 6 ad. 

fuscus; 
Great Black-headed Gulk 7 1st wint., 8 2nd wint., 9 ad. 



Gull Identification 



51 






^: 






^^A 



52 



Gull Identification 



Common Black-headed Gull Lams ridibundus 

Length 34-37cm 

A small gull. Adult Head chocolate-brown in summer, 
white with blackish mark behind eye in winter. Sepa- 
rated from all gulls except Slender-billed by extensive 
white outer primaries visible from above and below in 
flight. Bill and legs are red. First winter differs from 
adult winter in having a brown carpal bar, and a black 
tail band; also dark primary tips and a secondary bar, 
forming a black band along entire length of rear wing. 
Bill flesh with black tip, legs orange-flesh. 

Brown-headed Gull Lams bmrmicephalus 

Length 46cm 

Medium-sized gull, rather similar to Common Black- 
headed when perched, but very distinctive in flight. 
Adult has brown head in summer, whitish head with 
dark brown patch eye in winter. Both adults and 
immatures distinguished from all other medium-sized 
and small guUs by large white patch at base of outer 
primaries. Has contrasting broad black wing-tips 
broken by white spots. Bill is red, and tipped black in 
winter. Legs are red. First winters have much darker 
wings than the winter adult, with some brown on 
upper wing-coverts, a small white area on primaries 
and dark bar on the secondaries. Bill orange-red, 
tipped black, and legs orange-red. 

Slender-billed Gull Lamsgenei 

Length 42-44cm 

A small gull, usually with an all white head (although 
may have a pale grey ear-spot in winter). Adult has 
pink flush on underparts. Legs and bill dark red in 
adult, pale orange-flesh in immature. Can be con- 
fused with Common Black-headed which has similar 
wing pattern. Distinguished by its very long elongated 
forehead, long bill and neck, and pale iris. Immature 
also differs from Common Black-headed by its paler 
legs and paler bill, which lacks a darker tip, and less 
brown mottling on upperwing. 

Mew Gull Lamscanus 

Length 40-42an 

Medium-sized gull, a little smaller than Brown- 
headed. Similar plumage to the larger Yellow-legged, 
but has a smaller biU, thinner wings, and more delicate 
appearance. Adult and second year separated from 
Yellow-legged by greenish-yellow biU and greyish 
legs. From Common Black-headed and Brown- 
headed by white on primaries confined to subterminal 
spots and different head pattern. Head is white in 
summer, streaked grey in winter. First years have a 
different wing pattern to other medium-sized and 
small gulls; they have blackish outer primaries, a dark 
bar on secondaries, and a brown carpal bar. 



Common Black-headed Gulh 1 1st wint^ 2 ad. wint, 3 ad 

summ^ 
Brown-headed Gulb 4 Isl winL, 5 ad. wint., 6 ad. 

summ.; 
Slender-billed Gull: 7 1st wint., 8 ad. wint., 9 ad. 

summ.; 
Mew Gull: 10 1st wint., 11 ad wint., 12 

ad summ. 



Gull Identification 



S3 








54 

OWLS 

Scops Owls 

Small eared owls. Nocturnal and most easily sepa- 
rated by their distinctive calls. 



Collared Scops Owl Otus bakkamoena 

Length 22.5cm 

From other scops owls by its buff nuchal collar edged 
with black, sparsely streaked underparts, lack of 
prominent white scapular spots, and larger size. Voice 
The upland race has a mellow double call, one note 
often miming into the other and descending on the 
second note. Repeated for periods of 10-15 minutes at 
a time. The lowland race has a frog-like interrogative 
(rising) Vuk?' repeated at irregular intervals, but 
most often 4-6 seconds apart. 

Oriental Scops Owl Otus simia 

Length 21cm 

Plumage is variable with both greyish-brown and 
rufousphases occurring. Has boldblack streaks below 
and fine black streaks above. From Collared Scops by 
heavily streaked underparts. Voice A four note call 
(the third note very short), repeated monotonously 
and resembling that of a barbet. 

Mountain Scops Owl Otus spilocephalus 

Length 20cm 

Similar to Oriental Scops but is smaller, has buff spots 
on crown and nape and lacks streaking of that species. 
Upperparts lack streaking, usually rufous-brown, 
mottled with white and dark brown. Underparts 
barred white and black and either rufous or brownish. 
Voice A metallic double whistle with an interval of up 
to one second between each note. 



Other small owls 

Lack ear tufts, have a squat appearance and are often 
seen in daylight. 



Owl Identification 



Jungle Owlet Glaucidium radiatum 
Length 20cm 

Similar to Asian Barred Owlet but is slightly smaller 
and more closely barred above and below. Separated 
by its bright rufous-brown barred wings contrasting 
with olive-brown upperparts. Underparts are clearly 
barred down to lower flanks and lack streaking. Voice 
A loud, slow 'kao kao kao' followed by a 'kao kuk' 
which is repeated at an increasingly faster rate for 
several seconds. 

Asian Barred Owlet Glaucidium cuculoides 

Length 22.5cm 

Upperparts and breast are uniform olive-brown, 
barred with buff. Barring on rest of underparts is 
obscure and sometimes broken, forming streaks on 
flanks and abdomen. Voice A drawn out bubbling 
whistle, harsh squawking. See Jungle Owlet. 

Brown Hawk Owl Ninox scutulata 
Length 30cm 

The only Nepalese owl which lacks a facial disc. Has a 
hawk-like appearance with broad rounded wings and 
a long tail. Brown above, white below with brown 
stripes on throat and upper breast, and spots on beUy 
and flanks. Voice A mellow double whistle, the second 
note higher-pitched than first. 

Little Owl Athene noctua 

Length 22.5cm 

The only small owl recorded above 3000m. Also 
separated by its pale plumage. It is light sandy-brown 
above, barred and spotted with white, and white 
streaked with brown below. Voice A high pitched note 
repeated every few seconds. 

Spotted Owlet Athene bnuna 
Length 20cm 

From similar-sized Jungle and Asian Barred Owlets 
by its white spotting on greyish-brown upperparts and 
white half-coUar on hindneck. Voice Varied screech- 
ing and cackling notes. 



Collared Owlet Glaucidium brodiei 
Length 17cm 

A very small owl. Recognised by its fulvous half-collar 
and black patch on each side of the nape, which 
together resemble an owl's face. Head is greyish- 
brown spotted with white. Voice A bell-like whistle 
'poop-poopoop-poop'repeated three or four times. 



Collared Scops Owt 1, 






Oriental Scops Owt 2, 


Brown Hawk Owt 


«, 


Mountain Scops Owt 3, 


Asian Barred Owleb 


7, 


Spotted Owleh 4, 


Jungle Owlet: 


8, 


Little Owt 5, 


Collared Owlet: 


9. 



Owl Identification 



55 




<|«.M>HeTT ^ TAM g^ 



56 



Owl Identification 



Large owls 

Brown Wood Owl Strix leptogrammica 

Length 53cm 

The only large owl lacking ear tufts. Has a very dark 
appearance. Upperparts chocolate brown with white- 
barred black scapulars.Its whitish eyebrows and 
broad black ring around eyes form a conspicuous 
facial pattern. Throat white. Rest of underparts buff- 
white and closely barred with dark brown. Voice A 
hollow double 'tu-hoooo', the second note prolonged. 
See Tawny Owl. 

Other large owls have ears, and are most easily iden- 
tified by their underpart pattern and distinctive calls. 

Eurasian Eagle Owl Bubo bubo 
Length 56cm 

Upperparts dark brown and mottled. White throat, 
rest of underparts pale brown with prominent dark 
brown streaks on breast and flanks, and narrow bars 
on belly and under taU-coverts. Voice A deep resonant 
'bu-boo' with emphasis on the second note which is 
prolonged. 

Spot-bellied Eagle Owl Bubo nipalensis 

Length 63cm 

Similar to Northern Eagle Owl but underparts are 

whitish with black bars on breast, the bars breakingup 

into V-shaped markings on the belly. From all other 

large eared owls by lack of streaking below. Voice A 

low deep hoot repeated at intervals of a few seconds. 

Dusky Eagle Owl Bid>o coromandus 

Length 52.5cm 

Underparts are light brownish-grey and finely 

streaked with dark brown. From other large eared 

owls by greyish plumage and lack of white on throat. 

Voice A resonant and accelerating Vo-wo-woooooo', 

gradually becomer fainter. 

Brown Fish Owl Ketupa zeylonensis 
Length 56cm 

Upperparts brownish and heavily streaked with black. 
Has a conspicuous white throat patch. Underparts are 
brownish, closely barred (difficult to see in field) with 
fine black streaks. Lacks the bold markings of Tawny 
Fish Owl, Forest Eagle Owl, and Northern Eagle Owl 
and the warm orange of Tawny Fish Owl. Voice A 
deep hollow 'boom boom' repeated at intervals. 

Tawny Fish Owl Ketupa flavipes 

Length 61cm 

From other large homed owls by its warmer coloured 

and boldly streaked plumage. Tawny above with 

broad black and rufous-buff streaks. Underparts are 



orange-rufous streaked with dark brown, and lack 
barring. Usually has a white throat. Voice A deep 
Vhoo-hoo' and a mewing cat-like call. 



Medium-sized owls 

Tawny Owl Strix aluco 
Length 45cm 

A plump, dark owl with no ear tufts. Its wings are 
short and lack contrasting dark carpal patches. Plum- 
age is mottled and streaked, varying from warm 
brown to greyish-brown. Eyes black. Nocturnal. Voice 
A series of hoots miming together 'hoo-hoo-hoo- 
hooooo', and a deep low 'hu-hoo'. Found in mountain 
forests above 2000m. 



Tawny Owk 1, 

Brawn Wood Owl: 2, 

Eurasian Eagle Owb 3, 

Tawny Fish Owt 4, 

Brown Fish Owk 5, 

Dusky Eagle Owl: 6, 

Spot-bellied Eagle OwL- 7. 



Owl Identification 



57 




fil^HA*0 C,a.mfV.«T 



58 



Long-eared Owl Asiootus 
Length 35cm 

The only medium-sized owl with long ear tufts. Simi- 
lar in size to Tawny, and also found in forests. Distin- 
guished by its longer wings and very deep wing beats, 
ear tufts, and orange-yellow eyes. From Short-eared 
by its shorter wings, longer ears, indistinct carpal 
patches on upper wing, and orange-buff patch on 
primaries. Also separated by different habitat and 
nocturnal behaviour. Voice A low sighing 'ooo' re- 
peated every few seconds and a variety of yelping, 
wailing and barking calls. 

Short-eared Owl Asio fUimmeus 

Length 38cm 

Found in open country and often diurnal. Hunts by 
quartering the ground like a harrier. Has long narrow 
wings which show dark carpal patches on upper and 
under surfaces and pale buff on primaries. It has short 
ear tufts wich are not usually visible in flight. Voice 
Silent in winter. 



Bam, Grass and Bay Owls 

Medium-sized, slim, long-legged owls with heart- 
shaped faces. Nocturnal. 

Bam Owl Tyto alba 

Length 34cm 

A very pale owl lacking ear tufts. Upperparts are a 
uniform golden-buff finely speckled with black. From 
all except Grass Owl by its unmarked white under- 
parts and heart-shaped face. Roosts in old buildings 
usually in urban areas. Voice A drawn out screech, 
hissing and snoring noises. 

Grass Owl Tyto capensis 
Length 35cm 

Similar to Bam Owl. Separated by its darker and 
much more contrasting pattern of upperparts. Dark 
brown above spotted with white. Has rufous-buff 
patches at base of primaries. Tail is whitish barred 
with black and contrasts with dark brown upper tail- 
coverts. Inhabits tall grassland. Voice Like that of 
Bam Owl. 

Oriental Bay Owl Phodilus badius 
Length 29cm 

Has short ear tufts. Chestnut above, spotted with 
black and buff; flight feathers chestnut lightly barred 
with black. Facial disc and underparts are vinous- 
pink, the latter irregularly spotted with black. Head 
has a striking shape: a wide forehead separates ob- 
long-shaped facial discs. Inhabits forests. Voice A soft 
hoot. 



Owl Identification 




Long-cared OwL 1, 

Short-cared Owk 2, 

Grass OwL 3, 

Bam Owl 4, 

Oriental Bay Owk 5. 



Wagtail Identification 



59 



WAGTAILS 

Wagtails are small, dainty, long-tailed birds, often 
associated with water in Nepal. Although most spe- 
cies are relatively easy to distinguish, the variation in 
the Yellow Wagtail, both interracial and intraracial, 
produces a confusing variety of individuals that could 
easily be taken for different species by the unwary. 
This species, and the White Wagtail, are unusual in 
that a number of races from widely divergent breed- 
ing areas, mix together in winter. The Grey Wagtail 
M. cinerea is readily identifiable and is not treated in 
this section. 



White Wagtail Motacilla alba 

Length 17-18.5cm 

Breeding adults and some non-breeding birds distin- 
guished from most other wagtails by their black, grey 
and white plumage. Individuals of black-backed races 
are distinguished from White-browed Wagtail by 
their white foreheads. Many non-breeding birds are 
basically grey and white but always have at least an 
indication of a black gorget, a feature lacking in the 
rather similar first autumn Citrine. 

Six races are recorded from Nepal. Breeding plum- 
age males can be separated by the following features:- 

Grey-backed races: 

1. M. a. dukhunensis White ear-coverts, black chin. 

2. M. a. personata Black ear-coverts. 

3. M. a. baicalensis White ear-coverts and chin. 

4. M. a. ocularis Black streak through eye 
Black-backed races: 

5. M. a. leucopsis White ear-coverts 

6. M. a. alboides Black ear-coverts. 

White-browed Wagtail Motacilla maderaspatensis 
Length 21cm 

A black and white wagtail with a black back and 
pronounced white supercilium extending from the 
lores to the nape. The black forehead distinguishes all 
plumages from black-backed White Wagtails. 

Forest Wagtail Dendronanthus indicus 
Length 17cm 

Differs from all other wagtails by having a broad black 
band across the upper breast and a broken black band 
below it. Rest of underparts creamy-white. Olive- 
brown above with a white supercilium and two broad 
yellowish-white wing bars. 





60 



Wagtail Identification 



Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava 
Length 16-17cm 

Adults have olive-green upperparts and yeUow under- 
parts with the head variously coloured depending on 
race, sex and age. Most inunatures are brownish-olive 
above with some yellow on the underparts; wing bars 
and tertial edgings are typically buff or off-white and 
fairly narrow. Immatures, of some races or aberrant 
individuals, are grey above and whitish below with 
fairly broad white wing bars and tertial edgings, thus 
looking very similar to first autumn Citrines. Nor- 
mally however there is no pale line separating the ear- 
coverts from the nape, and the forehead is uniform 
with the crown. The call is typically a loud, disyllabic 
'tswee-ip' but in some races is a harsher 'tsreep'. 

Four races are recorded from Nepal. Only breed- 
ing plumage males are readily identifiable. 

M. f. beema Head pale bluish-grey with a complete, 
distinct white supercilium and usually a white sub- 
moustachial stripe. Ear-coverts grey or brown, often 
with white feathers. Chin white. 
M.f. kucocephala Whole head to the nape white with 
a faint grey shadow on the ear-coverts and back of 
crown. Chin white. 

M. f. thunbergi Crown and nape slate-grey, occasion- 
ally blackish. Lores and ear coverts blackish. Supercil- 
ium usually lacking, but occasionally a white streak 
behind the eye. Chin usually yellow, but sometimes 
white. May have white sub-moustachial stripe. 
M. f. melanogrisea Whole head black. No supercil- 
ium. White chin and sub-moustachial stripe. 

Three other races have not been recorded but 
could be expected to occur:- 

M.f. lutea Head yellow-green; forehead and complete 
supercilium yellow. 

M. f. zaissanensis Crown and nape dark blue-grey. 
Narrow white supercilium. Lores and ear-coverts 
varying from dark grey to black. 
M. f. plexa Crown and nape dark grey. Lores and ear- 
coverts blackish. Narrow white supercilium. Chin 
white. 

M. f. taivana Differs from all other races by having the 
crown olive-green, the same colour as the mantle. A 
complete broad yellow supercilium. Lores and ear- 
coverts blackish. Chin yellow. 

Citrine Wagtail Motacilla citreola 
Length 16-17cm 

Breeding males are distinguished from other wagtails 
by the complete yellow head and underparts with 
either a grey or a black back, and usually a black 
collar. Adult non-breeding males and adult females 
have crown, nape and upperparts grey, often with an 
oUve or brown tinge; the forehead, supercilium and 



underparts are dull yellow. Young birds in early au- 
tumn are greyer than the young of most races of 
Yellow Wagtail, lacking oUve in the upperparts and 
yellow on the underparts. They can be separated from 
grey and white Yellow Wagtails by a combination of 
charaaers: the pale grey ear-coverts are dark-bor- 
dered, but the lores are contrastingly grey; a complete 
pale ear-covert surround divides this area from the 
grey of the nape; the forehead is buffy or whitish, 
contrasting with crown; the wingbars and tertial edg- 
ings are usually broad and white; the call is typically a 
harsh 'trrzzeet'. By early November young Citrines 
acquire a yellow tinge to the supercilium, forehead 
and chin. 

Three races are recorded fromNepal. Breedingplum- 
age males can be separated by the following features:- 

M. c. citreola Mantle medium grey; flanks grey. 

M. c. werue Mantle pale grey; flanks whitish; black 

collar sometimes reduced or lacking. 

M. c. calcarata Mantle black; flanks olive-grey. 



Yellow Wagtaik 



Citrine Wagtaik 



1 ad. male M. f. tiuaibergi, 

2 ad. male M. f. beema, 

3 ad. male M. f. taivana, 

4 ad. male M. / teucocephala, 

5 ad. male M. f. melanogrisea, 

6 ad. male M / zaissanensis, 

7 imm. M. f. beema. 

8 imm., 9 ad. male M. c. calcarata. 



Wagtail Identification 



61 







62 

PIPITS 

Small sUm terrestrial birds. Mainly brown and 
streaked. Most species have whitish outer tail feath- 
ers. Sexes are alike. They run or walk quickly, have an 
undulating flight and aerial song flight. Can often be 
distinguished by their calls. 



Olive-backed Pipit Anthus hodgsoni 

Length 15cm 

Dark oUve-green above with darker streaking which is 
indistinct inA.h. yunnanensis but can be prominent in 
A. h. hodgsoni. Buff-white below with bold black 
streaks on breast and flanks. From all except Rosy in 
autumn by olive-green in upperparts. Has a distinc- 
tive face pattern with a prominent black-bordered 
supercilium which is buffish in front and whitish 
behind eye; and usually has a white drop-shaped mark 
at rear end of ear coverts with a small black patch 
below it. Voice A loud 'tseep' or 'pseep', similar to that 
of Red-throated but shorter and more abrupt. Found 
in wooded areas. Often perches in trees and vigor- 
ously wags its taU. 

Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis 
Length 15cm 

Resembles Olive-backed in plumage and call. Sepa- 
rated by paler, brown upperparts lacking olive-green. 
Superdlium is less prominent, and lacks small black 
and white patches at rear of ear coverts. Often found 
in more open areas. 

Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus 
Length 15cm 

A dark pipit with boldly streaked upperparts. Distin- 
guished by call; a distinctive thin 'psss' starting loud 
and trailing off. Rather like that of Tree but higher 
pitched, more drawn out and thinner. However, also 
has a less distinctive, sharp 'chup'. Male in summer is 
separated from all pipits by brick-red or cinnamon on 
throat, often extending to superdlium and breast. 
Female in summer may have colour only on throat, 
and this is usually pinkish. In winter the underparts 
are heavily streaked and throat is usually whitish; the 
males may have pinkish-red on throat. Can be con- 
fused with Tree Pipit in autumn. Separated by call, 
generally darker appearance, and more heavily 
streaked flanks. See Buff-bellied Pipit. 

Rosy Pipit Anthus mseatus 

Length 15cm 

At all ages from other pipits except Red-throated by 
heavily streaked upperparts. In summer separated 
from all except Water by the pink colour of the 
superdlium and chin to the lower breast. In winter 
similar to Red-throated, and most easily separated by 



Pipit Identification 

call; also by the grey tinged upjjerparts and olive- 
green edges to wings and tinge to mantle. Has a thin 
'sip' call reminiscent of Water Pipit but less strident. 
Legs brownish-flesh. Frequents streams and pools in 
winter and on migration. 

Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta 
Length 15cm 

Upperparts brown in autumn and grey in summer, 
with streaking sparse or absent. Much less heavily 
streaked above than other pipits except Long-bUled 
and Tawny. Separated from these spedes by its 
smaller size, shorter tail, more prominent white su- 
percihum, and different caU: a sharp 'pit', 'chip it', or 
'pi pi pit'and different habitat: usually in wet fields 
and marshy areas. In winter similar to Rosy Pipit but 
much less heavily streaked below and lacks olive- 
green edges to wings. In summer separated from all 
except Red-throated and Rosy by the pink tinge to the 
underparts which may be lightly streaked or un- 
streaked. At all ages has black legs. See Buff-bellied 
Pipit. 

BufT-bellied Pipit Anthus rubescens 

Length 15cm 

SUghtly smaller and shorter-tailed than Water Pipit. 
Upperparts dark grey-brown in autumn and oUve- 
grey in summer, unstreaked or only faintly so. The 
underparts are tinged orange-buff in summer with the 
breast lightly spottted and the flanks heavily streaked. 
In winter the breast is heavily spotted or streaked 
black and the flanks are streaked blackish-brown. 
Legs yellowish to reddish-brown. Call is a short 'tsipp' 
or 'tsiit', lacking the shrill quality of the call of Water 
Pipit. 

Long-billed Pipit Anthus similis 
Length 20cm 

The largest Nepalese pipit. Pale brown, tinged grey- 
brown, and Ughtly streaked above; whitish throat; rest 
of underparts are rich buff or pale orange, sometimes 
Ughtly streaked. Separated from other pipits by its 
particularly heavy build and long tail of rather uni- 
form coloration. The outer feathers are buff, but the 
colour is not easy to discern in the field. From all 
except Richard's and Blyth's by its much larger size. 
Differs from these two spedes by its lightly streaked 
upperparts and different call; a deep 'chup' rather 
like the call of Richard's but lacking the harsh quality 
of the latter spedes. 

Olive-backed Pipib A. h. hodgsoni I, A. h. yunnanensis 2, 

Red-(hroated Pipib 3 wint^ 4 sum. 

Tree Pipib 5. 

Rosy Pipib 6 winl., 7 sum. 

BufT-bellied Pipib 8 winL, 10 sum; 

Water Pipib 9 wint., 11 sum. 



Pipit Identification 



63 








64 



Pipit Identification 



Upland Pipit Anthus sylvanus 
Length 17cm 

A large pipit, distinguished from other species by its 
short, heavy bill and pointed tail feathers. Light pink- 
ish-brown above, heavily streaked with dark brown. 
Supercilium white. Buff-white below, finely streaked 
on lower breast, flanks and belly. Call is a sparrow-like 
'chirp'. Its song is atypical for a pipit. Repeats two 
long drawn out notes with emphasis on the first 
syllable Svee-chee.....wee-chee'. Inhabits steep grassy 
slopes, often perching on boulders. May bob its tail 
when feeding. 

Richard's Pipit 

Two distinct races occur differing in size, plumage and 
call. Both may be confused with Tawny. Head pattern 
is usually different. Lores, most of the ear coverts and 
a broad area around eye are pale. Tawny has rather 
dark ear coverts, a thin pale eyering, and a dark line 
across lores. 

Anthus novaeseelandiae richardi 
Length 17cm 

A large pipit. Has an erect posture, long legs, long (12- 
19mm), comparatively weak, and usually straight, 
hind claw and long tail. Brown above, streaked 
darker, usually prominently. Median wing-coverts 
dark-centred but not greatly contrasting with upper- 
parts; edges usually buff but sometimes white. Buff 
below and usually boldly streaked on breast. The 
flanks of Richard's are generally washed buff, pale 
rufous or orange-buff, whereas those of Tawny are 
pale creamy. Generally more heavily streaked below 
than Tawny. The tail length is 75-88% of the wing 
length. Wing/tarsus ratio is 2.9-3J. Bill length 16- 
19mm, quite broad and deep. White on inner web of 
penultimate tail feather usually in the form of a 
narrow streak up more than half the shaft, sometimes 
reduced to a short streak near, or at, the tip. Has a 
harsh 'tchreep' call. See Blyth's and Long-billed. 

Paddyfield Pipit A. n. rujulus 
Length 15cm 

Smaller, shorter-legged and with a less erect carriage 
and paler more lightly streaked plumage than 
richardi. Similar in structure to richardi but the tail is 
relatively shorter (about 70% of the wing length); bill 
sUghtly shorter (15.5-17mm) and not as heavy; hind 
claw slightly shorter (10-18mm). Has a high pitched 
'tseep tseep' or 'chip chip' call. Song is a weak triU. 
Can be confused with Tawny, particularly with juve- 
niles. Separated by smaller size, darker greyish-brown 
colour, different call, and shorter tail. From adult 
Tawny also by hght streaking across breast and indis- 
tinct spots on median coverts. Does not wag tail like 
Tawny. 



Blyth's Pipit Anthus godlewskii 
Length 16.5cm 

Very difficult to separate from Richard'sy4. n. richardi 
and Tawny Pipits. Intermediate in size but most simi- 
lar to richardi in plumage. Often has orange on the 
underparts, particularly on the under tail-coverts, but 
this feature is also shown by some Richard's Pipits, 
particularly the small, dark race A. n. sinensis, which 
may occur in Nepal. The most distinaive feature is the 
shape of the dark centres of the new adult or first- 
winter median wing-coverts. The centres are broader 
and more square, less triangular, at the tips, and more 
clear-cut on the sides than on Richard's. Hind claw 
medium length (10.5-14mm) and comparatively 
weak. The tail length is 68-81% of the wing length. 
Wing/tarsus ratio is 3.2-3.8. Bill length 14.5-17mm, 
not as heavy as inA. n. richardi. White on inner web of 
penultimate tail feather usually in the form of a 
triangle, broad at the tip and tapering to a point close 
to the shaft and 15-30nun from the tip. Has two 
distina flight caUs: one similarto that of Richard'sbut 
slightly shriller and higher pitched, but also less harsh; 
the other is a diagnostic short, hard 'chap', similar to 
one of the calls of Tawny Pipit. 

Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris 
Length 16cm 

A pale long-tailed pipit resembling a wagtail. Hind 
claw short (7.5-llmm), curved and moderately 
strong. The tail length is 75-83% of the wing length. 
Wing/tarsus ratio is 33-3.8. Bill length 14-17mm, not 
as heavy as in A. n. richardi. Tail pattern similar to 
Richard's. Sandy brown and only lightly streaked 
above. A pronounced buff supercilium. Median wing- 
coverts dark-centred and contrasting prominently 
with upperparts; edges buff. Underparts pale sandy, 
and in adults virtually unstreaked. Juveniles have 
streaked breasts and distinct spots on upperparts. Call 
is either a drawn out 'tseep' resembling YeUow Wag- 
tail or a sparrow-like 'chir-rup'. May be confused with 
Paddyfield and Blyth's Pipits. 



Upland Pipifc 


1. 


Paddyfield Pipit: 


2. 


TavtTiy Pipit: 


3. 


Blyth's Pipit: 


4. ad. 


Richard's Pipit: 


5. ad. 


Long-billed Pipit: 


6. 



Pipit Identification 



65 




Ok. 



-^^^ 



66 



Bush Warbler Identification 



BUSH WARBLERS 

Medium-sized very skulking warblers inhabiting 
marshes, grassland and forest undergrowth. Most are 
altitudinal migrants. Several species winter in the 
lowlands and breed at high altitudes. Plumage is dull 
and brownish. Wings and tail are rounded. Some of 
the Cettia warblers can be identified by their distinc- 
tive loud, melodious songs. 



Aberrant Bush Warbler Cettia Jlavolivacea 
Plate 1 No. 6 
Length 12cm 

Can be identified by its yellowish or yellowish-oUve 
underparts and supercilium. Also by its uniform olive- 
green upperparts and olive flanks. Amount of yellow 
on under parts varies. Care is needed to separate duU 
birds from Brown-flanked. Song is a short, grating, 
high-pitched phrase. Call is a sharp 'tsick'. Recorded 
between 75m and 2745m. 



Pale-footed Bush Warbler Cettia pallidipes 

Plate 1 No. 2 
Length 11cm 

Separated from other bush warblers by its relatively 
short, square tail and paler, whitish legs. Also by its 
cleaner, whitish underparts, especially throat, which 
contrast more sharply with buff-brown flanks and 
cold oUve-brown upperparts. Superdhum is greyish- 
white. Song is a loud explosive 'zip...zip-tschuk-o- 
tschuk'. Call is 'chik chik'. Inhabits the lowlands. 

Brown-flanked Bush Warbler Cettia fortipes 

Plate 1 No. 4,5 
Length 12cm 

Often holds its tail cocked. Two races occur, differing 
mainly in colour of upperparts and caU. Eastern race 
C / fortipes is warm olive-brown above, western race 
C.f.pallidus is plain olive-brown. Throat and belly are 
off-white, cheeks and sides of breast greyish. Shows 
less contrast between upper and underparts than 
Pale-footed. Supercilium is buff. Lacks any yeUow 
tinge in underparts and supercilium. Legs are dull 
brownish. Song is sustained rising whistle Sveeee' 
followed by an explosive 'chiwiyou'. Eastern race has 
'chuk' and loud 'tyit tyu-tyu' calls, western race makes 
a single harsh 'tchuk'. Recorded between 1800m and 
2500m. 

Chestnut-crowned Bush Warbler Cettia major 
Plate 1 No. 3 
Length 13cm 

From similar Grey-sided by its larger size, more ro- 
bust build, and longer stouter bill. Also separated by 
its rufous lores, broad yellowish-white supericiUum 
from eye to nape, curving up slightly at rear, and 
whiter underparts, particularly on throat, contrasting 
more with upperparts. Usually has more extensive 
chestnut on crown, and extending onto nape, al- 
though individuals cannot be reliably separated using 
only this feature. CaU is a sharp 'tzip'. Recorded 
between 75m and 4100m. 



Yellow-bellied Bush Warbler Cettia acanthizoides 

Plate 1 No. 1 
Length 9.5cm 

A small bush warbler. Distinguished by its greyish- 
white throat and breast contrasting with yellowish 
belly. Also by its olive-brown upperparts and notice- 
able rufous patch in wing. Pale greyish on forehead, 
ear-coverts and sides of neck produces a hooded 
appearance which contrasts with rest of upperparts. 
Supercilium is off-white. Flanks are warm buff. Im- 
matures are yellower below. Has an extraordinary 
song; a series of 3 or 4 thin, drawn-out whistles each 
lasting about 2 seconds, and followed by several fast, 
repeated 'chee chee' notes. Calls are a short 'brrr' and 
'tik tik tik'. Recorded between 2600m and 3660m. 

Grey-sided Bush Warbler Cettia brunnifrons 
Plate 1 No. 7 
Length 10cm 

A small bush warbler similar to Chestnut-crowned. 
Has chestnut on both forehead and crown, although 
less intensely coloured at rear. Upperparts are oUve 
brown. Whitish below with grey sides to throat, breast 
and upper flanks merging into brown on lower flanks 
and undertail coverts. Has a prominent whitish- buff 
supercilium from lores to back of ear-coverts. CaU is 
similar to Chestnut-crowned, a sharp 'tzip'. Song is a 
loud 'sip ti ti sip' repeated continuaUy. Recorded 
between 75m and 3660m. 



The foUowing 3 species are similar in shape and 
plumage. AU have barred undertaU coverts. They 
winter in marshy habitats and breed at high altitudes. 



Spotted Bush Warbler Bradypterus thoracicus 
Plate 1 No. 11,12 
Length 13cm 

Shorter taUed than the other Bradypterus. Resembles 
Lanceolated warbler in shape. Upperparts are dark 
olive-brown. SuperciUum is greyish-white. Chin and 
upper throat are white, sides of throat and breast are 
grey. UsuaUy has dark greyish-brown spots or 
blotches on lower throat and upper breast. Has a 



Bush Warbler Identification 



67 



distinctive undertail covert pattern. Feathers are 
brown with prominent white tips, forming bold dark 
chevrons. Song is a persistent, repeated 'see see'. 

Chinese Bush Warbler Bradypterus tacsanowsldus 

Plate 1 No. 9,10 
Length 14cm 

Plumage is similar to that of Brown Bush Warbler but 
lacks its rufous tones. Upperparts are dull oUve- 
brown, flanks buffy-brown. Supercihum is whitish to 
yellowish-white. Lacks grey on underparts. Breast is 
brownish-buff, rest of underparts buff-white, some- 
times suUied with yellow. Undertail coverts lack the 
bold pattern of Spotted and are paler brown with 
broader whitish tips to feathers. Call is a 'chirr chirr' 
similar to Lanceolated Warbler. Has an insect-like 
song resembling that of Grasshopper Warbler. 

Brown Bush Warbler Bradypterus luteoventns 
Plate 1 No. 8 
Length 13.5cm 

Generally warmer coloured than other two 
Bradypterus. Upperparts are olive-brown with a 
rufous tinge. Short superciUum is buffish. Underparts 
lack any grey and are either warm buff or pale rufous- 
brown on breast, and rich brown or warm buff on 
flanks. Less contrast between brown bases and off- 
white tips to feathers of undertail coverts than in 
Spotted. 



LOCUSTELLA WARBLERS 

Very skulking medium-sized warblers with rounded 
tails. Frequent marsh vegetation. Often creep on the 
ground. Plumage is dull brownish. Nepalese species 
differ from Spotted, Chinese and Brown Bush War- 
blers, which behave similarly and may be found in 
similar habitat in winter, by noticeable streaking on 
upperparts. 



Pallas's Warbler Locustella certhiola 

Plate 3 No. 13 
Length 13cm 

Resembles Grasshopper Warbler but is larger and 
has a proportionately shorter tail. Darker and more 
rufous-brown above, particularly on crown. Most 
easily separated by contrast between dark tail and 
warm brown upper tail-coverts and rump. The rump is 
lightly streaked and often appears rufous in adults. 
Tail feathers have whitish tips, but these are usually 
only visible at close range. SuperciUum is either dis- 
tinct and buff contrasting with dark crown, or indis- 
tinct, the variation probably associated with age. Dif- 
fers from other two species also by virtually un- 
streaked brownish-buff under tail-coverts. Call is a 
'pit pit' like that of Zitting Cisticola. Song is a series of 
musical phrases. 

Lanceolated Warbler Locustella lanceolata 

Plate 3 No. 12 
Length 113cm 

Slightly smaller than Grasshopper Warbler with a 
proportionately shorter tail. Usually has distinct, 
dark, parallel streaking forming a gorget across breast 
and down flanks, but some individuals are indistinctly 
streaked and, conversely some Grasshopper War- 
blers have extensive streaking. From Grasshopper 
Warbler by heavier streaking on mantle. Often shows 
prominent streaking on upper tail-coverts which is 
rarely present in Grasshopper. Under tail-coverts are 
usually lightly spotted. Call is a metallic repeated 'pit' 
and short Acrocephalus-Mke 'teck'. Song resembles 
that of Grasshopper Warbler. 

Grasshopper Warbler Locustella naevia 
Plate 3 Nos. 10,11 
Length 12.5cm 

Upperparts are pale oUve-brown with bold, dark 
streaks, tinged grey in breeding plumage. Has an 
indistinct yellowish-white supercilium. Underparts 
whitish or yellowish with Ught streaking on upper 
breast. Flanks are usually unstreaked. Under tail- 
coverts are pale brown and heavily spotted. Call is a 
short 'tchick'. Has a distinctive song, a high pitched 
insect-like trill continuing for long periods. 



68 



Acrocephalus Warbler Identification 



ACROCEPHALUS WARBLERS 

Medium-sized to large warblers usually having 
rounded tails. Plumage of Nepalese species is gener- 
ally rather uniform brown. Most inhabit marshy habi- 
tats. Skulking. Song is harsh and often monotonous. 



Black-browed Reed Warbler 

Acrocephalus bistrigfceps 
Plate 3 No. 4 
Length 13.5cm. 

A small Acrocephalus recognised by its distinct head 
pattern. Has a long buffish-white supercilium, with a 
broad black band above it, and a dark line below it 
through eye. Olive-brown above with dark mottling 
on head and hindcrown. Sides of breast and flanks 
buff, rest of underparts yellowish-white. Call is 'chrrr' 
or a clucking note. 

Blunt-winged Warbler Acrocephalus condnens 
Plate 3 No. 5 
Length 13cm 

Paddyfield Warbler Acrocephalus agricola 
Plate 3 No. 6 
Length 13cm. 

Difficult to distinguish in field. Both species are 
rufous on rump and have fairly rounded heads. Pad- 
dyfield is bright rufous above, tawny below in fresh 
plumage; grey-brown above, whitish below when 
worn. Blunt-winged Warbler is less rufous than Pad- 
dyfield, and is dark olive-brown above, brownish-buff 
below. Paddyfield has a creamy-white and conspicu- 
ous supercilium, extending to well behind eye and 
bordered by a dark line above it. Blunt-winged has a 
less distinct and shorter supercilium, resembling that 
of Blyth's Reed and is not bordered by a dark line. 
Blunt-winged has a longer, stouter bill, shorter wings 
and longer tail than Paddyfield. Call is a harsh re- 
peated 'chr chuck'. See Blyth's Reed. 

Blyth's Reed Warbler Acrocephalus dumetomm 
Plate 3 Nos. 8,9 
Length 14cm 

A &m?M Acrocephalus. Adults are greyish-olive above 
in spring, greyish-brown in autumn. From similar 
Paddyfield Warbler and Blunt-winged Warbler by 
generally cold grey not warm rufous tinge to upper- 
parts including rump. This colour difference is how- 
ever not a reliable feature in autumn. Immature 
Blyth's Reed often shows a rusty tinge above and 
worn adult Paddyfield and Blunt-winged can lose 
their rufous tones and appear cold grey-brown. Un- 
derparts are duller. Throat is whitish-buff, rest of 
underparts buff. Tip of lower mandible is on average 
paler and less well defined in Blyth's Reed than in 



Paddyfield and Blunt-winged. Supercilium is usually 
indistinct, only ever reaching to just behind eye, and 
often only discernible in front of eye. Supercilium of 
Paddyfield is more prominent and usualfy has a dark 
line above it which is lacking in Blyth's Reed and 
Blunt- winged. Paddyfield (but not Blunt-winged) has 
more sharply marked tertials and alula with dark 
centres and pale fringes to feathers, but this is not a 
useful character in autumn as some immature Blyth's 
Reeds also show this. Bill is longer and stouter than 
that of Paddyfield. Head is slightly angular. Has a 
characteristic loud 'chick chick' call. Found in drier 
habitats than most oX'iieT Acrocephalus, sometimes in 
trees. 

Clamorous Reed Warbler Acrocephalus stentoreus 

Plate 3 No. 7 
Length 19cm 

Difficult to distinguish from Great Reed Warbler in 
field. In a close view can be separated by absence of 
streaking on underparts. Supercilium is less distinct 
and shorter behind eye, giving it a gentle facial expres- 
sion. Lower mandible is dark towards tip producing a 
dagger-like appearance. Calls are similar to those of 
Great Reed Warbler. Song is higher pitched, with 
more broken rhythm, a repeated 'go go cheek'. 

Oriental Reed ViaihXeT Acrocephalus orientalis 

Plate 3 Nos. 23 
Length 19cm 

A \aige Acrocephalus with a rather angular head and 
heavy bill. Olive-brown above with a prominent buff 
supercilium and dusky lores. Buff-white below with 
characteristic faint narrow streaks on lower throat 
and upper breast. Flanks tawny. Some birds show 
buff-white tips to outer tail, particularly in fresh plum- 
age, a feature which is absent in Clamorous. Makes a 
harsh, loud 'chak' and deep churring croak. Song is a 
series of loud grating phrases, interrupted by shrill 
notes: 'kawa kawa kawa gurk gurk eek gurk kawa'. See 
Clamorous Reed Warbler. 

Thick-billed Warbler Acrocephalus aedon 

Plate 3 No. 1 
Length 19cm 

A large Acrocephalus with a rounded head. Can be 
identified by its lack of supercilium and whitish lores. 
Also has more rounded wings and a longer graduated 
tail than other Acrocephalus. Has a shorter bill than 
the other two large Acrocephalus. Olive-brown above, 
buff white below. Generally tinged fulvous. Calls 
include a loud harsh repeated 'tschok tschok' and a 
sharp metallic 'clik clik'. Found in scrub, grassland, 
and bushes in dry habitats. 



Prinia Identification 



69 



PRINIAS 

Small wren-like warblers, with long graduated tails 
and rounded wings. A confusing genus. Difficulties in 
separating species are increased by differences in 
both plumages and tail lengths of summer and winter 
adults; the plumages of inunatures are also different. 
Tail length is up to 3cm longer in winter. Undertail 
feathers of most species have pale tips and dark 
subterminal spots producing cross barring. Mainly 
frequent grasses and bushes in the open or on forest 
edges. 



Graceful Prinia Prinia gracilis 
Plate 2 No. 6 

Tail length 5-6.25cm. Body length 6.25cm 
A small streaked prinia found in the lowlands. Plum- 
age similar in summer and winter: fulvous-brown 
streaked with dark brown above, buff-white below. 
From all prinias except Striated by streaked upper- 
parts. Much smaller than Striated, with a smaller bill 
and found at a different altitude. The call is a nasal, 
buzzing 'bzreep', and the song is a fast, wheezy 
warble: 'ze(r) witze(r) wit'. 

Plain Prinia Prinia inomata 

Plate 2 Nos. 8,9 

Tail length 5.8-8.8cm. Body length 7.5cm 
Nondescript and brownish. Adult Upperparts earthy 
brown in summer, fulvous-brown in winter with a 
rufous tinge to wings and taU. Pale buff below. Imma- 
ture Like adult winter but mor rufous above and 
richer buff below. From similar Jungle Prinia by 
noticeably smaller size. Has an obvious buffish-white 
supercilium, a feature which Jungle usually lacks. In 
summer has white on tail confined to the outermost 
pair of feathers. The calls include a plaintive 'tee-tee- 
tee' and a nasal 'beep'. The song is a repeated, rapid 
wheezy trill reminiscent of a grasshopper: 'tlick tUck 
tlick'. May also be confused with winter and immature 
Rufous and Grey-breasted Prinias. See those species. 

Ashy Prinia Prinia socialis 

Plate 2 No. 14 

Tail length 5-7.5cm. Body length 7.5cm 
Adult Summer: Crown, nape and mantle dark grey, 
wings and tail rufous. Winter: Grey on head is tinged 
with rufous. Back and rump are rufous-brown. Has a 
short white supercilium over lores, which is some- 
times retained in summer. Adult may be confused 
with Grey-crowned and summer Rufous. From all 
other prinias by colour of underparts: cheeks and 
throat are buff-white, and the rest of the underparts 
are tinged pale rufous, especially on flanks and lower 
belly. In summer dark grey back of adult is diagnostic. 
Immature Similar to Yellow-bellied as both are olive- 



green on mantle and yellowish on lower underparts. 
The call is a sharp, nasal 'tee-tee-tee', and the song is 
a wheezy 'jimmy-jimmy-jimmy' repeated five or six 
times. 

Rufous Prinia Prinia nifescens 

Plate 2 Nos. 3,4 

TaU length 3.75-5cm. Body length 7.5cm 
A small prinia. Adult In summer from most prinias by 
combination of grey-brown head, rufous-brown up- 
perparts and buff underparts. Grey-crowned is simi- 
lar, and most easily distinguished by the appearance 
of the supercilium: broad, whitish and curves round 
eye in Rufous; long, narrow buffish-orange in front of 
eye, and whitish behind eye in Grey-crowned. Crown 
is paler grey and mantle duUer rufous than in Grey- 
crowned, forming less contrasting upperparts. The 
song is a repeated series of squeaky notes: 'chewp 
chewp chewp'. Can also be confused with Ashy Prinia. 
See that species. Winter adults and immatures have a 
rufous-brown head almost the same colour as mantle. 
Immature is like winter adult but is tinged yellow 
below. Easily separated by lack of grey on head. May 
be confused with Plain but separated by much shorter 
taU. See also Grey-breasted Prinia. 

Grey-crowned Prinia Prinia cinereocapilla 

Plate 2 No. 5 

Tail length 5.5-6.0cm. Body length 5.8cm 
Similar to Rufous Prinia in summer plumage. Retains 
grey on head throughout the year. From all prinias 
except adult summer Rufous l^ combination of dark 
grey on head, rich rufous-brown upperparts and 
fulvous underparts. The song is a rising trill ending in 
long drawn out 'swe-ee-e-chor'. May also be confused 
with winter Ashy Prinia. See those two species. Found 
in dense jungle and secondary growh, and is more 
arboreal than other prinias. Song is a squeezed out 
'cheeeeesum-zip-zip-zip', and a repeated 'tzit'. 

Grey-breasted Prinia Prinia hod^onii 

Plate 2 Nos. 1,2 

Tail length 5-6.25cm. Body length 6.25cm 
A small prinia, ashy-grey above in summer, rufous- 
brown in winter. In summer adult usually has a diag- 
nostic grey breastband contrasting with white under- 
parts. In winter white below, sometimes with grey 
patches on breast. Immature is like adult, but tinged 
yellow below. Winter adults and immatures are diffi- 
cult to distinguish from winter Rufous, and also show 
some similarities to Plain. Most easily separated from 
both species by smaller, and much finer bill, and 
different song. The call is a 'chew-chew-chew*, and the 
song is a loud, squeaky 'chiwee-chiwee-chiwi-chip- 
chip-chip'. Bill of Rufous is stouter and paler, particu- 
larly on lower mandible. Plain also has a stouter bill 
which is black in summer, brown in winter. Grey- 



70 



Prinia Identification 



breasted has an all dark bill. Can also be separated 
from winter Rufous by less rufous upperparts, par- 
ticularly tail and wing edgings. From Plain also by 
slightly smaller size. Has different colour of under- 
parts: buff with rich buff flanks in Rufous, and pale 
buff in Plain. 



species by the above-mentioned features and un- 
streaked upperparts. Song is rather similar to that of 
Striated Prinia: a raspy repeated 'tze-tze'. 



Yellow-bellied Prinia Prinia flaviventris 

Plate 2 No. 7 

Tail length 8-8.8cm. Body length 5cm 
Adult Dark grey head, rest of upperparts olive-green. 
Throat and breast creamy white contrasting with yel- 
low belly. Sometimes has a short whitish supercilium. 
Immature Yellowish-brown above, pale yellow be- 
low. Can be confused with immatures of other species 
that may be tinged yellow below, especially Ashy. 
However Yellow-bellied is richer yeUow below than 
other prinias, and in adults the yellow contrasts more 
with the rest of the underparts. It is found in wetter 
habitats than other prinias: marshy areas or grassland 
near water. The call is an incessant 'chink-chink' or 
'tzetze-tze' and the song is a sharp chirp followed by a 
triU of five notes. 

Striated Prinia Prinia criniger 

Plate 2 No. 10 

Taa length 7.5- 10cm. Body length 8.8cm 

A large prinia, with streaked upperparts, found in the 

hills. Similar to Graceful but much larger, and with 

underparts pale fulvous, flecked with black on throat 

and breast. Flanks olive-brown. Has a stout black bill 

and flesh-pink legs. The song is a repeated wheezy 

squeaking 'tzirt-tzirt'. See Hill Prinia. 

Jungle Prinia Prinia sylvatica 

Plate 2 No. 11 

Tail length 6.25-7.5cm. Body length 8.8cm 

Large, brownish prinia, usually lacking an obvious 

supercilium, and with three outer pairs of tail feathers 

whitish in summer. The song is a repeated loud 'pit 

pretty", the first note only heard at close range. See 

Plain Prinia. 



Hill Prinia Prinia atrvgularis 
Plate 2 Nos. 12,13 

Tail length 11.25cm. Body length 6.25cm 
A large prinia, with a very long tail, found in the hills. 
Adult In summer black throat and black and white 
spotted breast are diagnostic. Head and nape are grey 
and contrast with upperparts, black chin and throat 
are bordered by white moustachial stripe. No super- 
cilium. In winter upperparts are dark oUve-brown, 
and the breast is indistinctly striped black. Has a long 
white supercilium. Immature Rich brown above with 
some black streaks on head, fulvous below. Most 
likely to be confused with similar-sized Striated which 
can be found in the same habitat. Separated from this 



Phylloscopus Warbler Identification 

PHYLLOSCOPUS WARBLERS 

Small, fast moving, greenish or brownish warblers. 
Often referred to as leaf warblers. Useful identifica- 
tion features are voice; strength of superdlium; col- 
our of underparts, rump, bill, and legs; and presence 
of wingbars, coronal bands or white in the tail. Col- 
ouration of upper and underparts and presence of 
wingbars are affected by wear. Here the species are 
divided into two groups; those with wingbars and 
those without. 



Leaf warblers lacking wingbars 

Note that some individuals of these species, especially 
Chiff chaffs, may show one faint wingbar. 

Slender-billed Warbler Phylloscopus tytleri 
Plate 5 Nos. 1,2 
Length 11 cm 

Can be recognised by its very long, thin biU, reminis- 
cent of that of a TaUorbird. Juveniles have shorter 
bUls. Upperparts are greyish-olive, and the under- 
parts are whitish with faint yellow streaking in fresh 
plumage. Call is a single squeaky feeble note or 
double Y-it'. Has a distinaive song 'pi-tsi-pi-tsu', 
repeated at regular intervals. May be confused with 
worn Greenish apparently lacking a wingbar, and 
possibly with Tickell's. Most easily separated by its 
more slender and all darkish bill, and different call. 
Tickell's also has yellower underparts. 

Tickell's Warbler Phylloscopus affinis 

Plate 5 Nos. 3,4 
Length 11 cm 

Combination of uniform olive-brown upperparts and 
yellow underparts (bright yellow on throat and breast 
and pale yellow on belly and under-tail coverts) are 
diagnostic. Has a long, prominent yellow superdlium. 
The race P. a. arcanus has yellowish-buff upperparts 
and superdlium. Usually feeds near the ground. In- 
habits alpine scrub in summer, cultivation or scrub in 
lowlands or foothills in winter. Song is a 'tchip-tsi-tsi- 
tsi-tsi-tsi-tsi'. Call is a repeated 'tret tret'. See Slender- 
billed, Chiffchaff, Sulphur-bellied. 

Sulphur-bellied Warbler Phylloscopus griseolus 
Plate 5 No. 8 
Length 11cm 

Can be identified by combination of its grey-brown 
upperparts, oUy yellow underparts washed brownish- 
buff on the flanks, and prominent yellow supercihum. 
Also has a characteristic habit of creeping over stones 
and up tree trunks. Frequently flicks wings and tail. 
Call is a soft 'quip'. May be confused with Tickell's but 
lacks green and oUve in plumage and has a duller 
superdlium and underparts, and a different call. 



71 



Smoky Warbler Phylloscopus fiiligiventer 

Plate 5 No. 5 
Length Ucm 

Easily recognised by its very dark appearance and 
smaU size. Dark sooty-brown above, with a greenish 
tinge in fresh plumage. Very dusky below, grey with 
yellowish-olive tinge on throat, breast and belly. Sides 
washed with dark olive. Has an indistinct yeUowish- 
ohve superdlium. Call is a 'tzik' or 'tsrr" rather like 
Red-breasted Flycatcher, or a soft 'stup' like Radde's. 
In winter often found in waterside vegetation in low- 
lands. 

ChifTchafT Phylloscopus collybita 

Plate 5 No. 6 
Length 11cm 

Brown or greyish-brown above. From all other leaf 
warblers by its short inconspicuous buff superdlium 
and black legs. From all leaf warblers without wing- 
bars, except Dusky, by its dull buff-white underparts 
lackingyellow or green. Maybe confused with Green- 
ish, espedally birds showing a faint wingbar. Most 
easily separated by its call, the very thin, usually dark, 
bill and less obvious superdlium. Call is a 'peep' or 
sharp 'chvit'. Song is either a repeated 'chiff-chaff, or 
a rapid repetition of 'chi-vit' run together by the 
introduction of a few more musical notes. These 
differences may indicate that two separate popula- 
tions are involved, although all specimens have been 
referred to P. c. tristis. Often arboreal, feeding well 
above the ground. See Dusky. 

Dusky Warbler Phyllscopus fuscatus 

Plate 5 No. 7 
Length 11cm 

A skulking warbler, found in scrub and low vegeta- 
tion. Dark brown above, greyish-white below, flanks 
fulvous. Lacks yellow and green in plumage. Sepa- 
rated fromChiffchaff by its distinctive hard 'tack tack' 
call, its conspicuous long buff superdlium, rich buff 
vent, yeUowish-brown legs, and secretive behaviour. 
Often also found in different habitat. See Radde's. 

Radde's Warbler Phylloscopus schward 

Plate 5 Nos. 9,10 
Length 12cm 

A large, skulkingfAy/oico^jiis. Upperparts and flanks 
are brownish-oUve. Can be confused with Dusky, 
particularly with worn plumage. Bigger and heavier, 
with a thicker biU and longer tail. Undertail coverts 
are rufous. Supercihum is creamy, and usually longer 
and more conspicuous, reaching hindcrown. Dark 
line through the eye is more prominent. Has yellowish 
tinge to underparts, and black line above supercihum, 
lacking in Dusky. Legs are reddish or yeUowish-flesh. 
Call is a soft 'stup' similar to that of Smoky. 



72 



Phylloscopus Warbler Identification 



Leaf warblers with wingbars 
All species are very active and constantly on the move. 
Note The presence or absence of wingbars as a field 
character for separating species should be treated 
with caution. In worn plumage birds normally show- 
ing two bars may show only one, and birds normally 
showing one bar may appear to lack this altogether. 

Yellow-vented Warbler Phylloscopus cantator 
Plate 4 No. 6 
Length 10cm 

A small leaf warbler, recognised by the distinctive 
colour of underparts. Throat, upper breast and under 
tail coverts are bright yellow, contrasting with white 
lower breast and belly. Flanks greyish. Has a striking 
head pattern: a well-defined yellow superdUum, sides 
of head yellow; black lateral stripes, and a median 
yeUowish-green stripe on the crown. Has two yellow 
wing-bars, the upper indisttnrt. Call is loud continu- 
ous 'pio pio'. 

Grey-faced Leaf Warbler 
Phylloscopus maculipennis 
Plate 4 No. 1 
Length 10cm 

Small. The only leaf warbler with a grey head and 
throat. Rest of underparts yellowish. Olive-green 
above with a yellow rump, two yellowish-white wing- 
bars, and white on the inner webs of the outer three 
pairs of tail feathers. Has a whitish median crown 
stripe and long distinrt whitish supercilium. Call is a 
short 'zit'. See Orange-barred, Pallas's. 

Grange-barred Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus pulcher 

Plate 4 No. 5 
Length 10cm 

Sirmlar to Grey-faced in fresh plumage, but throat 
off-white. Upperparts rather dark brownish-olive, 
darker on crown, and with a grey tinge. Has a faint 
yellowish-green crown stripe and yellowish supercil- 
ium. Underparts greyish-yellow. Has two orange-buff 
wingbars but the upper bar may not be visible, and the 
colour is often difficult to determine. Call is a short 
repeated 'tsip'. Song is a high-pitched thin twitter, 
preceded by, or ending with, a drawn out triU. See 
Pallas's. 

Pallas's Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus 

Plate 4 No. 2 

Length 9cm 

A small leaf warbler, similar to Blyth's Crowned but 

smaller, and has a yellow rump. Grey-green above and 

whitish below. The prominent median crown stripe, 

supercilium and two wingbars are all yellowish-white. 

From Orange-barred and Grey-faced by lack of white 



in tail and more conspicuous crown stripe. Call is a 
sharp 'tsip' or a quiet 'chwee'. Song is a short twitter- 
ing Vai-a-wai-a-wai' rapidly repeated. 

Blyth's Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus reguloides 

Plate 4 No. 7 
Length 11cm 

Has a well marked head pattern: a yeUowish-white 
median crown stripe, particularly prominent in sum- 
mer; broad, dark oUve lateral crown stripes; and a 
long, yellow supercilium. The mantle is greyish-green, 
and the lower back is brighter green. Has two yellow 
wingbars, and the greater coverts are usually darker 
than the rest of the wing, forming a contrasting band. 
Underparts yellowish-white. Call is a constantly re- 
peated 'kee-kew-i'. Song is a trill of nine to ten notes 
'ch-ti-ch-ti-ch-ti-chi-chi-ti-chee'. See Pallas's, West- 
em Crowned. 

Western Crowned Warbler Phylloscopus occipitalis 

Plate 4 No. 8 
Length 13cm 

A large leaf warbler, very similar to Blyth's Leaf. Can 
be separated by combination of the following fea- 
tures: larger size; noticeably longer bill; greyish-white 
supercilium; coronal bands generally paler grey, 
forming a less contrasting head pattern; Ughter, duller 
green upperparts; whitish underparts sullied with 
grey; yellowish-white wingbars; and greater coverts 
are not contrastingly dark. Call is 'stic' or 'stic-swick'. 
Song is 'stic-swee-swee-swee-swe-swee-swa', often 
omitting final 'swa'. 

Greenish Warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides 

Plate 4 Nos. 9,10,11 
Length 10-llcm 

Extremely variable in size and colouration. Two races 
occur. Appearance in fresh plumage is quite different. 
P. t. trochiloides is dark olive to oUve-green above, 
whitish below heavily marked with grey, sometimes 
yellowish-white on breast and belly. Has prominent 
yellowish-white superdUum, and usually one yel- 
lowish-white wingbar. Sometimes shows a faint sec- 
ond bar. P. t viridanus differs in having brighter green 
upperparts with no olive tinge, whitish underparts, 
and a yellowish supercilium. Wears to a dull greyish 
above. Both races lack yellow on rump, dark coronal 
bands and white in tail. Bill colour is variable but base 
of lower mandible is always pale pinkish or orange. 
Calls ar similar, a loud piercing 'che-wee' or 'chis- 
weet'. The song is based on the call: P. t. viridanus a 
loud, repeated vehement 'chi-chi-chi-chiwee-chiwee', 
and P. t trochiloides a more regular tit-like 'chis-weet 
chis-weet'. See Green, Large-billed, Yellow-browed, 
Chiffchaff. 



Phylloscopus Warbler Identification 73 

Green Warbler Phylloscopus nitidus 

Plate 4 Nos. 12,13 
Length Ucm 

Similar to Greenish but upperparts are brighter leaf- 
green, and the supercihum, cheeks and wingbar are 
noticeably yellow. Underparts have a much stronger 
suffusion of yellow, sometimes reaching undertail 
coverts, but birds in worn plumage may have much 
less yellow. The bill is stouter, and often paler. Call is 
very similar to Greenish but may be more clearly 
disyllabic and louder. The song is more complex than 
that of the Greenish and often includes brief trilling 
notes. 

Large-billed Leaf Warbler 
Phylloscopus magnirostris 
Plate 4 No. 14 
Length 13cm 

A large leaf warbler with plumage similar to nominate 
Greenish, but usually appearing noticeably larger. In 
fresh plumage it is brighter oUve green than Greenish, 
with a more prominent dark line through the eye, and 
a longer yellowish-white supercilium extending to 
rear of ear-coverts. The sides of the breast and flanks 
are olive-brown. Has one and a half yellowish-white 
wingbars, but the upper one is usually not visible. 
Most easily separated by its different voice. Call 'dir- 
tee', the second syllable half an octave higher than the 
first. The song is a sweet musical 'see sisi sisi' on three 
descending notes. Bill is heavier and dark with only a 
restricted pale orange or brown area at the base of the 
lower mandible. 

Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inomatus 
Plate 4 Nos. 3,4 
Length 10cm 

A small leaf warbler. P. i. humei (the commonest race) 
is greyish-olive above, creamy below, with a long 
broad superciUura, and one and a half whitish wing- 
bars. P. i. inomatus has brighter greenish-olive upper- 
parts, and yellower supercilium and wingbars, and 
yellowish-white underparts. P. i. humei is confusable 
with Greenish because it often appears to have only 
one wingbar. It is most easily separated by its smaller, 
virtually aU dark bill. The call is a very similar disyl- 
labic 'tiss-yip'. See Greenish. P. i. inomatus is sepa- 
rated from Greenish by the presence of two promi- 
nent wingbars, white tips to the tertials, and the call, a 
loud plaintive Veest'. Both races are generally 
smaller than Greenish. 



74 

BLACK TITS 

Small crested tits. All have crown, crest, sides of neck 
and throat black. Cheeks and nuchal patch white. 
Separated by colour of underparts and presence of 
wingbars. Inhabit broadleaved and coniferous forests 
between 2100m and 4000m. 



Black Tit Identification 



Rufous-naped Tit Parus rufonuchaiis 

Length 13cm 

A large and dark black tit. Distinguished by extensive 
black on underparts covering breast and upper belly. 
Lower belly dark grey. Rufous only on undertail 
coverts and small patch on flanks. Has rich rufous 
tinge at back of white nuchal patch. Upperparts dark 
olive-grey. No wing spots. 

Rufous-vented Tit 

Length 10cm 

Western race 

Parus rubidiventris rubidiventris 

Separated by rufous breast and belly. Flanks pale grey 

with a small rufous patch. Has pale rufous tinge at 

back of white nuchal patch. Upperparts grey slightly 

tinged olive. Under tail-coverts rufous. No wing spots. 

Eastern race 

Pants rubidiventris beavani 

Like P. r rubidiventris but breast and beUy medium 

grey. Flanks medium grey with a small rufous patch. 

Lacks rufous tinge on white nuchal patch. 

Spot-winged Tit Parus melanolophus 
Length 11cm Dark grey upperparts. From other spe- 
cies except Coal by two rows of rusty-white spots 
forming wing bars. From Coal by dark grey breast and 
belly, small rufous patch on flanks and rufous under 
tail-coverts. 

Coal Tit Parus ater 

Length 10cm 

The smallest black tit. Grey above. Separated from 
other black tits by beige breast and belly and lack of 
both rufous patch on flanks and rufous under tail- 
coverts. From Rufous-naped and Rufous-vented by 
two rows of white spots forming wing bars. Hybrids 
between the last two species occur in a zone of 
introgression. The hybrids differ strikingly from both 
parents in having a cinnamon patch on the lower 
breast and beUy, thus resembling P. r. rubidiventris.. 




Rosefinch Identification 

ROSEFINCHES 

Males have pinkish plumage and, in most species, a 
pink rump. Females and immatures are streaked 
brown and are often difficult to identify. All breed at 
high altitudes, and all except Conunon Rosefinch 
winter above 1000m. 



Blanford's Rosefinch Carpodacus rubescens 

Plate 6 No. 2, Plate 7 No. 2 
Length 15cm 

Male is similar to Common but has uniform pinkish- 
red underparts, a thinner and more pointed bill, 
orange-crimson rump and lacks a dark eyestripe. 
Female can be separated from Dark-breasted by its 
paler underparts, and much plainer upperparts with 
rufescent edges to feathers, especially on rump. 

Dark-breasted Rosefinch Carpodacus nipalensis 
Plate 6 No. 1, Plate 7 No. 1 
Length 15.5cm 

Has a dark appearance. From other rosefinches by 
longer and thiiiner bill. Male separated from all ex- 
cept Dark-rumped by lack of pink or red on rump. 
Male has a characteristic dusky crimson breast band, 
contrasting with rosy-pink throat and belly. Fore- 
crown and forehead are rosy-red; supercUium is 
broad rosy-pink, contrasting with dark rear crown and 
dark line through eye. Female is dark olive-brown 
above with heavy blackish streaks. Has two distinct 
orange-brown wingbars in fresh plumage. No eye- 
brow. Separated from all rosefinches except female 
Blanford's by unstreaked olive-brown underparts. 
See that species. 

Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus 
Plate 6 No. 4, Plate 7 No. 4 
Length 15cm 

Male of subspecies roseatus has head, rump and 
breast rosy-red. Lacks an eye-brow. Rest of upper- 
parts rosy-red tinged brown, and unstreaked. Rest of 
underparts pale rose. Subspecies erythrinus is paler 
red. Female of subspecies roseatus is olive-brown 
above with light streaking. Has two pale buff wingbars 
which wear to whitish. Lacks an eyebrow. Throat and 
breast are pale buff, lightly streaked with brown, and 
the belly is whitish. Female erythrinus is similar to 
roseatus but is paler, and has grey-brown upperparts. 
Immatures of both races are similar to female rosea- 
tus, but have rich buff, boldly streaked upperparts, 
and are more heavily streaked on the breast. Lower 
belly and under tail-coverts whitish, lacking streaks. 
See Beautiful. 



75 



Beautiful Rosefinch Carpodacus pulcherrimus 
Plate 6 No. 6, Plate 7 No. 6 
Length 15cm 

Identifiable by generally pale colouration, and by 
heavy dark brown streaks above and below. Supercil- 
ium is broad and pale pink in male, whitish and 
indistinct in female. Male is ashy brown above, heavily 
streaked darker, including crown, lower belly whitish, 
and rest of underparts pale pink, with streaks on sides 
of lower breast and flanks. Rump is pale pink and 
unstreaked. Female is nondescript, pale buffy brown 
above, heavily streaked dark brown, and greyer on 
crown. Has broad pale buffish fringes to coverts and 
tertials. Cheeks and underparts are whitish, heavily 
marked throughout with narrow dark streaks. Has 
more extensive streaking than Pink-browed, a pale 
crown and ear coverts, and is whitish below. From 
Great and Streaked by smaller size and smaller bill. 
See Common, Pink-browed. 

Pink-browed Rosefinch Carpodacus rhodochrous 

Plate 6 No. 3, Plate 7 No. 3 
Length 14.5cm 

Male is distinguished by combination of prominent 
pink supercilium, and warm brown mantle with 
darker streaks. Rump and underparts are rosy pink 
and unstreaked. Crown and line through the eye are 
crimson-brown and unstreaked. Male and female can 
have pale tertial tips as in Vinaceous. Female is warm 
brown with darker streaks above, and with olive tinge 
to mantle. Underparts are warm buffy-brown, paler 
on throat, and with dark brown streaks on throat, 
breast, upper belly and flanks. Rather similar to fe- 
male Dark-rumped, but has a prominent broad buff 
supercilium, broad warm buffish fringes to wing 
coverts and tertials, and is smaller. 

Vinaceous Rosefinch Carpodacus vinaceus 
Plate 6 No. 8, Plate 7 No. 8 
Length 13.5cm 

A small, dark rosefinch. Male is deep crimson with 
rosy-red rump, prominent pink superdUum, and dark 
brown wings and tail. Lacks strealdng. Has two pink- 
ish-white spots on tertials. Female is olive-brown 
above, warmer brown below, with indistinct dark 
streaks above and below, and lacks a contrasting 
supercilium. Rather similar to female Dark-breasted 
and Blanford's but separated by streaked underparts, 
more olive colouration, lack of wing bars, and smaller 
size. 



76 



Rosefinch Identification 



Dark-nimped Rosefinch Carpodacus edwardsii 

Plate 6 No. 5, Plate 7 No. 5 
Length 16cm 

A dark rosefinch. Male has pink forehead and super- 
cilium contrasting with dark crown and line through 
eye. Breast is dark pinkish-brown and remaining 
underparts paler. Upperparts are deep pinkish-brown 
streaked darker. Separated from all except Dark- 
breasted by lack of pink or red in rump. Female is 
olive-brown above with broad dark streaks and paler, 
slightly buffy-brown fringes to wing coverts and ter- 
tials. Has a narrow buffish supercilium. Buff below, 
whiter on throat and more oUve on breast, and 
streaked darker on throat and breast. Both sexes 
resemble Spot-winged - see that species. 

Spot-winged Rosefinch Ca/podacus rhodopeplus 
Plate 6 No. 7, Plate 7 No. 7 
Length 17cm 

Male has a narrow pink rump and prominent pink 
supercihum. Rest of upperparts are crimson-brown, 
streaked pink on lower back, with pink edgings to 
scapulars and tertials. Deep pink below mottled with 
brown. Female is olive-brown, streaked darker above, 
with pale buff tips to greater coverts and tertials. Has 
a very broad, pale buff supercilium, contrasting with 
dark brown ear coverts. Buffy below, whiter on throat, 
and heavily streaked on breast and throat. Similar to 
Dark-rumped. Male and female can be separated by 
more pronounced supercihum; male also by pink 
rump, generally brighter and more contrasting plum- 
age, double wing bar, and dark breastband present in 
Dark-rumped. Female can also be separated by heav- 
ier streaks below. 

White-browed Rosefinch Carpodacus Ihum 
Plate 6 No. 9, Plate 7 No. 9 
Length 17.5cm 

Male is distinguished by combination of glistening 
pink and white forehead, pinkish-white superdlium, 
and double wingbar. Upperparts, including crown, 
are brown and streaked darker. Flanks ohve-brown; 
lower belly white; rest of underparts and rump are 
rosy-pink. Throat has white shaft streaks. Female has 
diagnostic orange-brown rump. Olive-brown, 
streaked blackish above, with a very broad whitish 
supercihum contrasting with blackish ear coverts, and 
a thin white wingbar. Orange-brown on throat and 
breast, rest of underparts buffy-white. Has blackish 
streaks below, heavier than in all other rosefinches. 

Streaked Rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilloides 

Plate 6 No. 10, Plate 7 No. 10 

Length 19cm 

Male is similar to Great, but is darker, and has heavy 

dark brown streaks on upperparts, and the whole of 

the head and breast are crimson with narrower white 

spots. Female has dull ashy-brown upperparts, and 



whitish underparts tinged buff on breast and flanks. 
Streaked above and below much more heavily than 
Great. Resembles female Red-fronted but lacks 
greenish tinge to rump, has a more swollen bill, and is 
much paler, especially on underparts. 

Great Rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilla 
Plate 6 No. 12, Plate 7 No. 12 
Length 19cm 

A large, high altitude rosefinch. Distinguished by its 
very pale appearance. Male is almost uniform sandy- 
grey, tinged pink above, and with a pale pink rump. 
Forehead, crown, cheeks, throat and upper breast are 
crimson spotted with white, ear coverts are pink and 
lack spots. Rest of underparts are pale pink mottled 
with white. Female is very pale ashy brown above with 
Ught streaking, more prominent on crown than on 
mantle, and whitish-buff below with hght streaking 
more obvious on throat. Similar to female Streaked - 
see that species. 

Red-fronted Rosefinch Carpodacus puniceus 
Plate6No. ll,Plate7No. 11 
Length 20cm 

A large rosefinch, found above 2745m, with a long, 
heavy bill and short-tailed appearance. Male can be 
separated from aU other rosefinches by bright red 
forehead and supercilium, bright red throat and up- 
per breast mottled with white, and lower breast pink- 
ish-brown. Rump rosy red. Upperparts are dull grey- 
brown and broadly streaked darker. Female is nonde- 
script. Dark oUve grey-brown above, broadly streaked 
with blackish, and a dull greenish tinge to rump. 
Throat whitish-buff; rest of underparts dull buff, all 
heavily streaked with dark brown. Vent olive-brown. 
See female Streaked. 



Bunting Identification 

BUNTINGS 

Mainly terrestrial. Frequent grassland or weedy and 
bushy areas in open country. Seed eaters with short 
conical bills. Most species have white outer tail feath- 
ers. Females and immatures are mainly brown, often 
streaked and sometimes difficult to identify. Winter 
males and immatures usually resemble females. 



Black-faced Bunting Emberiza spodocephala 

Plate 8 Nos. 13,14 
Length 15cm 

A small bunting with a large bill. Male has diagnostic 
olive-grey head, neck, throat and upper breast con- 
trasting with black round base of bill, lores and eyes. 
Rest of upperparts brownish-oLive with darker 
streaks. Female lacks black face and grey throat of 
male. Crown and upperparts olive grey-brown 
streaked blackish. Heavily streaked black on lower 
mantle. Submoustachial stripe, supercilium and 
underparts are very pale yellow or buffy white. 
Streaked on breast and flanks. Has a dark malar 
stripe. Females and immatures are most easily distin- 
guished from female Chestnut, Yellowhammer and 
Reed by olive rump; from female Reed also by lack of 
dark edges to ear-coverts, smaller size, generally more 
oUve appearance. Reed lacks yellowish tinge in 
underparts sometimes present in Black-faced. Call is 
a 'tsik'. 

Pine Bunting Emberiza leucocephalos 
Plate 8 Nos. 1,2 
Length 16-17cm 

A large greyish-brown bunting with a chestnut rump. 
Male can be distinguished by head pattern although 
this is obscured by buffish-brown and black tips in 
winter. Throat and supercilium are chestnut. In 
breeding plumage crown and cheeks are white edged 
with black. Male has chestnut upperparts streaked 
dark brown. Upper breast and beUy white; lower 
breast and flanks chestnut with white tips to some 
feathers and black streaks on flanks. Female is much 
less chestnut than male. Has a brownish-grey streaked 
head; ear-coverts have obvious pale patch at rear 
edged with brown. Upperparts as male but paler. 
Underparts whitish with coarse brown streaks on 
throat becoming rufous on breast and flanks; belly 
white. The species is closely related to Yellowhammer 
but lacks yellow on head, edges to primaries and 
underparts. It also lacks streaks on belly present in 
Yellowhammer. Call is very similar to Yellowham- 
mer; a single sharp 'twick'. Winters above 900m. See 
female Yellowhammer, Reed, White-capped, Black- 
faced. 



77 



Yellowfaammer Emberiza citrinella 

Length 16-17cm 

Has chestnut rump and call like Pine. Male can be 
separated from all other buntings by mainly yellow 
head. Underparts are yellow streaked with chestnut 
on breast and flanks. Upperparts are like Pine but 
have a yellowish-olive tinge lacking in that species. 
Female and immature are duller, less yellow and have 
more dark markings on head. Resemble female Pine 
but have yellow edges to the primaries, some streaks 
on the belly which is never white; also usually have 
yellowish wash on head and underparts. See female 
Reed, Black-faced, Chestnut, Pine. 

White-capped Bunting Emberiza stewarti 

Plate 8 Nos. 3,4 
Length 15cm 

Has a chestnut rump which is darker and richer than 
that of Pine. Summer male has distinaive head pat- 
tern. Greyish-white crown and ear-coverts with broad 
black eyestripe from lores to nape. Chin and throat 
black. Underparts white with broad chestnut breast 
band. Winter male is generally duller and the chestnut 
is less extensive below. Wing-coverts and mantle are 
greyish-brown streaked dark brown and rufous. 
Female nondescript. Upperparts ashy-brown with 
dark streaks; two fulvous wing bars; underparts 
fulvous streaked with brown, often streaked rufous in 
a band across lower breast and on flanks. Immature is 
similar to female but usually lacks rufous below; more 
obviously streaked above and below and has paler 
creamy wingbars. From Pine and Yellowhammer by 
indistinct head pattern with a poorly marked malar 
stripe; more extensive streaking on underparts and 
noticeably smaller size. Lacks white belly of Pine and 
yellowish wash on head and underparts of Yellow- 
hammer. Call is a sharp 'tit'. See Black-faced, Reed, 
Chestnut-eared, Little, Pine, Reed. 

Rock Bunting Emberiza cia 

Plate 8 Nos. 7,8 
Length 15-16.5cm 

Summer male has pale blue-grey head and throat with 
black lateral crown stripes and black malar stripe 
extending back round ear-coverts to join black 
eyestripe. Rest of underparts and rump chestnut. 
Winter male paler with less distinct head pattern. 
Female duller. Immature has brownish head with 
dark streaks on crown. Throat and upper breast buff- 
grey; breast and flanks streaked. Call is a thin re- 
peated squeak 'swip'. See Chestnut-eared, White- 
capped. Recorded above 2135m. 



78 



Bunting Identification 



Chestout-eared Bunting Embeiiza fucata 
Plate 8 Nos. 5,6 
Length 16an 

Slim and long-tailed with distinctive plumage. Identi- 
fied by combination of chestnut ear-coverts, lesser 
coverts and scapulars and gorget of black streaks or 
blotches on breast most prominent in male. Upper- 
parts are chestnut with heavy black streaks on mantle. 
Rump is rufous brown. Crown and nape are oUve-grey 
in male, grey brown in female with dark streaks. 
Lower breast, flanks fuWous, belly fulvous white. 
Summer male has a narrow chestnut breastband, 
indistinct in winter. Female and immature male are 
generally paler and duller than adult male. Call simi- 
lar to that of Rustic. See Little, Reed, Pine, Black- 
faced, White-capped. 

Rustic Bunting Emberiza mstica 
Plate 8 No. 10 
Length 14-15cm 

A small bunting. Separated from other buntings by a 
combination of white stripe behind eye and white 
throat; chestnut blotches across breast and chestnut 
streaks on flanks; white belly. Upperparts including 
rump are chestnut streaked darker on mantle with 
pale edges to feathers (grey in male, brown in female) . 
Sunmier male has black crown and cheeks. Female, 
immature and winter male are generally duUer and 
less chestnut and have dark brown streaks replacing 
black on head. Often raises crown feathers. Call is a 
repeated high hard 'tsip'. See Reed, Pine, Little. 

Little Buntiag Emberiza pusilla 

Plate 8 No. 9 
Length 12.5-14cm 

The smallest Nepalese bunting. Has a short tail and 
compact appearance. Identified by combination of 
chestnut ear-coverts with black lower edge not reach- 
ing bill; obvious pale eye-ring and wing-bars; brown 
lesser coverts and pinkish-brown legs. The adult in 
summer has a chestnut crown stripe; a band on side of 
crown, malar stripe and edge of ear-coverts black; 
supercilium is buffy-rufous in front of eye; upperparts 
brown streaked darker; lacks a chestnut rump. Whit- 
ish below finely streaked black on breast and flanks. 
Immatures and some adult females are much duller. 
Call is sharp 'tzik' or quieter 'tip'. See Reed, Rustic, 
Black-faced. 

Chestnut Bunting Emberiza mtila 
Length 13.5-14.5cm 

Small and squat with a short tail. Summer male has 
distinctive chestnut head, throat, upper breast and 
upperparts contrasting with yellow belly and under 
tail-coverts. Streaked grey on flanks. Winter male 
sometimes has chestnut tinge to head, throat and 
upper breast. Female identified by combination of 



chestnut rump; buff throat; duU yellow underparts 
indistinctly streaked grey-green on breast and flanks; 
and lack of noticeable white in tail. Often shows rich 
dark chestnut edges to tertials. Immature is similar to 
female but is more distinctly and finely streaked with 
blackish across breast and flanks; also more distinctly 
streaked with black on crown and mantle. Immature 
male usually shows chestnut tinge to crown and 
breast. Call is a thin high 'teseep'. See female Black- 
faced, Yellowhammer. 

Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola 

Plate 8 Nos. 11,12 
Length 13.5-15cm 

Male can be identified by narrow chestnut band on 
upper breast and large white patch on median wing 
coverts. YeUow underparts, streaked blackish on 
flanks. In summer has black face, dark chestnut up- 
perparts including rump and nape. Black and chestnut 
are obscured by buff scales in winter. Female and 
immature are brown streaked darker above, the latter 
usually showing sandy braces on mantle, rump may be 
tinged chestnut. Both are pale buff yellow below, 
streaked black on flanks. From other buntings by 
combination of two diffuse whitish wing bars; broad 
creamy or buff supercilium; pale crown stripe; only a 
little white in tail. Call is a 'zip' or soft 'trssit'. See 
female Chestnut, Yellowhammer, Red-headed and 
Black-headed. 



Adull male buntings 



Yellowhammer: 


1, 


Pine Bunting; 


2, 


White-capped Bunting; 


3, 


Rustic Bunting 


4, 


Reed Bunting; 


5, 


Yellow-breasled Bunting: 


«, 


Little Bunting; 


7, 


Rock Bunting; 


8, 


Black-headed Bunting: 


9, 


Black-faced Bunting; 


10, 


Chestnut-eared Bunting; 


11, 


Red-headed Bunting: 


12, 


Chestnut Bunting; 


U 



Bunting Identification 



79 




80 



Bunting Identification 



Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus 

Length 14-16cm 

Summer male can be recognised by combination of 
black head and throat, white sub-moustachial stripe 
and collar. Pale rufous-buff above with heavy black 
steaks. Whitish below rather coarsely streaked darker 
on breast and flanks. Rump grey-brown. In winter 
head pattern is obscured by brown mottling. Female 
and immature lack black head and throat of adult 
male. Have well marked black malar and white sub- 
moustachial streaks and grey-brown rump. Similar to 
immature Little but larger; bill much larger; ear- 
coverts usually browner and with the black lower edge 
reaching bill; indistinct eye-ring and wing-bars; bri^t 
chestnut lesser coverts; and dark brown legs. Lacks 
chestnut rump of Pine and Rustic and also chestnut 
on underparts of latter. A variety of calls include a 
loud 'tseek', a plaintive 'tsew*, a metallic 'tsing", and a 
quieter 'tsip'. See Rustic, Little, Pine, Black-faced. 

Red-headed Bunting Emberiza bruniceps 

Length 17cm 

Lacks noticeable white in tail. Male can be recognised 
by chestnut head and throat and yellow nape contrast- 
ing with greenish streaked mantle. Underparts are 
yellow and unstreaked. Female is very similar to 
female Black-headed. Differs in smaller size; wing 
bars are usually buff (though may wear to whitish); 
rump is usually yellowish, often tinged olive; under 
tail-coverts less yellow. Lacks rufous on mantle or 
rump usually present in Black-headed. Call is thinner 
'twip'. 



Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala 
Length 16-18cm 

A large bunting. Lacks conspicuous white outer tail 
feathers. From all except Red-headed by usually un- 
streaked underparts which are yellow in male, yel- 
lowish-white in female. Summer plumage male has 
diagnostic combination of blackish-brown head with 
yellow collar and grey-chestnut back. Rump is or- 
ange-chestnut sometimes tinged yellow. Duller in 
winter with brown head. Female is duU brown finely 
streaked darker brown with sandy-beige or chestnut- 
beige rump and yellow tinge to under tail-coverts. 
Underparts sometimes finely streaked on breast. Has 
two whitish wing bars. Usually shows rufous tinge to 
upperparts. Very similar to female Red-headed. Call 
is a musical 'tchup'. 

Crested Bunting Melophus lathami 

Length 15-16cm 

Long pointed crest is diagnostic. Summer male is 

black with chestnut wings and tail. Browner in winter. 

Female is ohve brown, edges of wings and outer tail 

rufous. Dark buff brown below. Call is a repeated 'tip' 

or 'pink'. 



ISngpshers/Barbets Identification 



81 



BLUE-EARED KINGFISHER AUxdo meninting 
Length 16cm 

EURASLVN KINGFISHER Alcedo atthis 
Length 18cm 

Small brilliantly coloured kingfishers, generally bright 
blue above and rufous below with bright red bill, legs 
and feet. Blue-eared is slightly smaller and generally 
richer coloured than Eurasian. It has deep purplish- 
blue upperparts with a darkerpurplish-blue line down 
the centre which is conspicuous in flight. It has blue 
ear-coverts and is a dark rich rufous below. Eurasian 
is bright bluish-green above with a bright turquoise- 
blue line down the centre. It has rufous ear-coverts 
and is rufous below. The species are found in different 
habitats: Blue-eared frequents streams in shady for- 
ests of the lowlands; Eurasian is found by streams, 
rivers and lakes, and ponds in open areas from the 
lowlands up to at least 1800m. 





BROWN-HEADED BARBET Megalaima zeylanica 

Length 27cm 

LINEATED BARBET Megalaima lineata 
Length 28cm 

Stocky, stout-bUled green birds with short tails. Arbo- 
real andfrugivorous. Both species have a conspicuous 
naked yellowish patch around the eye; it is large and 
invariably extends to the bill in Brown-headed, and 
often smaller and separated by a line of feathers from 
the bill in Lineated. Head and upper breast of Brown- 
headed are duU brown with narrow pale shaft streaks; 
streaks more obvious on nape; mantle to tail bright 
green with sparse pale shaft streaks on mantle; pale 
spots on wing coverts; lower breast and belly paler, 
unstreaked. Lineated has a whitish chin and un- 
streaked greyish crown; rest of the head, nape and 
most of the underparts brown with prominent whitish 
spots; no spots on wing-coverts. The repetitious calls 
are very similar but Lineated has a mellower, softer 
'kotur* compared with Brown-headed's 'kutroo'. 





82 



House-Martins/Mountain-Finches Identification 



ASIAN HOUSE-MARTIN Delichon dasypus 
Length 12.5cm 

COMMON HOUSE-MARTIN Delichon wbica 

Length 13.5cm 

Small martins. Upperparts are blue-black with white 
rump. Immatures are tinged brown above. Whole of 
upper tail-coverts are white in Common. Longest 
upper tail-coverts are steel-blue in Asian forming a 
noticeably less extensive white area than in the for- 
mer. Underparts are pure white in Common; white 
tinged grey-brown, especially on breast, in Asian. Tail 
is distinctly forked in Common, but only sUghtly in 
Asian. 



BLACK-HEADED MOUNTAIN-FINCH 

Leucosticte bnmdti 
Length 18cm 

PLAIN MOUNTAIN-FINCH 

Leucosticte nemoricola 
Length 15cm 

Both species have a slim, sparrow-like appearance 
with forked tails. Gregarious. Often occur in large 
flocks of 200 or more in winter and smaller parties in 
summer. Feed on stony ground. Breed above treeline. 
Black-headed is generally found at higher elevations 
than Plain; usually above 4200m in summer but in 
winter especially in severe weather their altitudinal 
ranges overlap. Black-headed is grey-brown scalloped 
with sandy above; pale grey below with no streaking; 
slightly larger and with overall paler plumage than 
Plain. Can be separated by lack of supercilium, dark 
brown face, forehead and crown contrasting with 
paler underparts. Tail is black with white outer feath- 
ers. Has a large whitish patch on wing, pale shoulder 
and brownish-pink rump absent in Plain. Plain is 
brown streaked darker brown above, pale grey-brown 
below with sides of breast streaked. Lacks contrasting 
dark head pattern of Black-headed. Has a rufous 
tinge to face and an indistinct supercilium. Brown tail 
with pale outer feathers. Sometimes shows two ob- 
scure buff wing bars. Rump is grey. 






Swifts/Larks Identification 



83 



WHITE-THROATED NEEDLETAH. 

Hinmdapus caudacutus 
Length 20cm 

WHITE-VENTED NEEDLETAIL 

Hinmdapus cochinchinensis 
Length 20cm 

Large swifts with long narrow pointed wings and 
square, short, unforked tails. Flight is very fast. Both 
species are blacldsh-brown with pale brown backs, 
and white under tail-coverts and patch on flanks. The 
species can be separated by the colour of chin and 
throat, dirty brownish-white merging with the pale 
brown underparts in White-vented Needletail, and 
clear-cut white sharply contrasting with dark brown 
underparts in White-throated. If the upperparts are 
seen well. White-throated has some white on the 
tertials, but this is lacking in White-vented. In Nepal 
White-vented Needletail occurs mainly in the low- 
lands whereas White-throated is more frequently 
seen at higher altitudes. However there is consider- 
able overlap in distribution. 





HUME'S SHORT-TOED LARK 

Calandrella acutirostris 
Length 15cm 

GREATER SHORT-TOED LARK 

Calandrella bmchydactyla dukhunensis 
Length 16cm 

Both species can be separated from bush-larks by 
their long tails and lack of rufous in the wing; from 
Oriental Skylark by smaller size, no crest, paler plum- 
age and shorter stubby bills. Greater Short-toed has 
tawny upperparts lightly streaked blackish. Under- 
parts are buffish with rufous-buff flanks, unstreaked 
in adult, streaked on breast in immature. Hume's 
Short-toed is slightly smaller and paler with less dis- 
tinct streaking. Has a greyish appearance and lacks 
fulvous of Greater Short-toed. Brownish-grey above 
with darker streaks and greyish-buff below. Often 
shows rufous-pink rump and pinkish-buff tertials, 
flight feathers and coverts. TTiese latter features 
would help to distinguish Hume's from a grey race of 
Greater Short-toed C. b. longipennis that may occur in 
Nepal. 




84 



Key to the Distribution Maps 



SPECIES ACCOUNTS 



KEY TO THE DISTRIBUTION MAPS 



The country has been divided up into squares (based 
on geographical coordinates for ease of reference, 
each one being half a degree square (i.e. about 
56km^). Each square is designated by the coordinates 
of the left hand bottom comer. 



Symbols used 




T 


specimen 


o 


recorded 


• 


recorded in breeding season 


O 


possible breeding 


• 


proved breeding 


A A 


breeding season 



Possible breeding records 

Birds copulating, nest-building, or trapped or col- 
lected in breeding condition. 

Proved breeding records 

Nest with eggs or young, adults feeding young, or 
carrying food, juveniles of sedentary species. 



Range of each species is given for the Indian subcon- 
tinent only. 



Localities which are mentioned infrequently in the 
text are given square coordinates. All other localities 
are shown on Map 1 (see end papers). Langtang 
refers to Langtang National Park and Kosi to both 
Kosi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and the Kosi Barrage 
area. 

References are referred to by numbers (see the bibli- 
ography), and are included for the first record for 
each species in Nepal, breeding information and all 
unusual reports. Only the person who initially re- 
corded the species is included, other names are omit- 
ted due to lack of space. 

Period of occurrence bars. Shaded areas indicate 
when species have been recorded. The bar is divided 
into quarter months. 

Altitude bars. Each line or shaded area on the bars 
indicates an altitude at which the species has been 
recorded. 

First descriptions of a total of 116 species were made 
from specimens obtained in Nepal. These are given in 
the text. AH records from B. Hodgson refer to speci- 
mens. Unfortunately nearly all of these lack locaUty 
data. 



Status of species is given as abundant, common, fairly 
common, occasional, uncommon, rare, scarce and 
vagrant. 

Map 6 Number of species recorded per square 




Note that squares with low totals may either be under-recorded or species poor. 



Grebes/Cormorants 



85 



LITTLE GREBE Tachybaptus ruficollis 
(Podiceps ruficollis) 

Subspecies capensis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A fairly common resi- 
dent, winter visitor and passage migrant. 
Occurs mainly between 75m and 1370m. 
Reported from 3050m at Rara Lake on 1 
April 1976 (127). The unusuaUy large 
number of 60 was seen on passage in April 
1976 at Kosi Barrage (293). Frequents 
lakes and ponds. Range Throughout the 
subcontinent. 




GREAT CRESTED GREBE Podiceps cristatus 

Subspecies cristatus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A locally frequent winter 
visitor, possibly breeds. Often seen at 
Kosi Barrage, PhewaTal, BegnasTal and 
Rara Lake. One was reported on the Kali 
Gandaki River (H4) at 2660m on 9 March 
1987 (594). Favours large areas of deep 
open water. Range Breeds Baluchistan, 
Ladakh, Gujarat. Winters n. India. 




r ^ A M^j ' r^A 3 .^ ■ 



BLACK-NECKED GREBE Podiceps nigricollis 

Eared Grebe (Podiceps caspicus) 

Subspecies nigricollis. First recorded by 
R.L. Fleming Sr. at Phewa Tal in Decem- 
ber 1949 (647). A scarce visitor mainly 
occurring in winter. Reported from Rara 
Lake, Phewa Tal and Begnas Tal. The 
exceptionally high number of about 40 
was seen at Begnas Tal on 6 January 1982 
(411). One summer record of two first 
year birds on Rara Lake on 25 June 1979 
(626). Range Breeds Baluchistan. Win- 
ters Baluchistan to Nepal and south to 
Maharashtra. 




GREAT CORMORANT Phalacrvcomx carbo 
Large Cormorant, Cormorant 

Subspecies sinensis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A fairly common resident 
but no definite evidence of breeding. 
Frequents lakes and large rivers. Often 
moves up rivers to about 1000m. Three 



were seen flying over Phortse (P6) at 3960m (244). Congre- 
gations of several hundred have been regularly reported 
from Kosi Barrage and roosting at Chitwan. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 



86 



Connorants /Pelicans 



GREAT CORMORANT, cont'd . 





LITTLE CORMORANT Phalacrocorax niger 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Mainly a winter visitor and passage mi- 
grant. Common at Kosi but uncommon ^ 
elsewhere. Found on lakes, ponds and ' 
forested streams. Usually solitary when 
on small ponds and streams but up to 100 
have been recorded together at Kosi. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 




ORIENTAL DARTER Anhinga melanogaster 
Darter {Anhinga rufa) 

Subspecies melanogaster. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (388). Mainly an uncom- 
mon resident and non-breeding visitor re- 
stricted to below 300m. Common at Chi- 
twan where it is a resident breeder (296) 
and occasionally seen at Kosi. One was 
seen soaring over the Kathmandu Valley 
after a severe dust storm in April (635). 
Found on slow-moving rivers, ponds and 
lakes. Range Throughout the subconti- 
nent. 




GREAT WHITE PELICAN Pelecanus onocrotalus 
Eastern White Pelican, White PeUcan 

Vagrant. The first record was of a pair 
flying over the Kathmandu Valley seen by 
J.V. Coapman in 1971 (243). In 1976 de- 
scribed as an uncommon visitor to Kosi 
Barrage in the species's non-breeding 



season between May and January (293), but only two other 
records from there: in March 1988 (418) and a flock of 52 
birds on 14 and 15 February 1981 (65,559,622). Range 
Winters Pakistan and n. India. 



Pelicans/Bitterns 



87 



SPOT-BILLED PELICAN Pelecanus philippensis 
Grey Pelican 

A local and uncommon non-breeding 
visitor. First recorded by B. Hodgson who 
obtained one from the Kathmandu Valley 
in April (336388). All other reports are 
from Kosi. Regularly seen there between 
early March and May in flocks of up to 12 
birds; also recorded in June and July. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 




TT^fT 



GREAT BITTERN Botaurus stellaris 
Bittern, Eurasian Bittern 

• 

Subspecies stellaris. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (277). A scarce winter visitor 
and passage migrant. Mainly found in the 
tarai. Singles regularly seen at Kosi. Two 
autumn records from higher altitudes: in 
the Kathmandu VaUey at 1370m (591) 
and at Rara Lake at 3050m (627). Inhab- 
its dense reedbeds. Skulking and solitary, 
not often seen in the daytime. Range 
Winters Sind east to Bangladesh; south to 
Tamil Nadu. 




ZIS2 



J'FMA'MJ J ' A i N ' 



[LITTLE BITTERN Lxobrychus minutus 

Although mentioned by some authors 
(51,664) as occurring in Nepal, no records 
have been traced.] 



YELLOW BITTERN lxobrychus sinensis 

A local summer visitor, mainly reported 
from May to October with a few records 
between mid-February and April. Confu- 
sion with Cinnamon Bittern resulted in it 
being wron^ listed as obtained by B. 
Hodgson (277). First recorded by R.C. 
Gregory-Smith on 11 May 1975 at Kosi 
Barrage. Occasionally seen there during 
the monsoon with a maximum of 10 birds 
in June 1975 (293). An uncommon breed- 
ing visitor to Chitwan (296). The only 
other record received is of three at Bela- 
tari (G6) on 21 June 1988 (750). Breeds 
June to September. Frequents reedbeds 
and marshes of the tarai. Mainly crepus- 
cular and nocturnal. Range Throughout 
the subcontinent south and east from the 
Indus valley. 




88 



Bitterns/Herons 



CINNAMON BIITERN Ixobrychus dimamomeus 
Chestnut Bittern 



First recorded by B. Hodgson although 
wrongly listed as Yellow Bittern 
(277^88). Occasional. Mainly a summer 
visitor to the lowlands. Part of the popula- 
tion is resident at Chitwan and Sukla 
Phanta. Breeds at Chitwan (296) and has 
bred in the Kathmandu Valley (639). In 
the Valley chiefly occurs during the mon- 
soon when it frequents paddy-fields. Else- 
where it is also found in reed beds. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 




BLACK BITTERN Dupetor flavicollis 
(Ixobrychus flavicollis) 

Subspecies flavicollis. Scarce; possibly 
resident. First recorded at Bilauri (A4) on 
5 February 1938 by FM. Bailey (62). 
Subsequently it has twice been reported 
from nearby Sukla Phanta and described 
as a rare resident there (432,700). The 



only other reports are of singles at Chitwan on 30 April 1980 
(440), and at Kosi Barrage on 19 May 1987 (792) and 29 
February 1988 (328). Inhabits forest pools, marshes and 
reed-edged lakes of the tarai. Breeds June to September. 
Range Sind east to Bangladesh; south to Kerala and Sri 
Lanka. 



MALAY NIGHT HERON Gorsachws melanolophus 
Tiger Bittern 

Subspecies melanolophus. Vagrant. One 
was flushed near Dharan on 2 and 28 May 
1976 by R.C. Gregory-Smith (293). Fre- 
quents wet areas in dense forest. Mainly 
nocturnal and very secretive. Range S.w. 
India, n.e. India and n. Bangladesh. 




BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT HERON Nycticorax nycticorax 
Night Heron f 



Subspecies nycticorax. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Locally common at 
Kosi, Chitwan and in the Kathmandu 
Valley. Proved breeding in the latter two 
areas (296^36,559). Mainly a summer 
visitor but resident in the Kathmandu 
Valley and some birds at Chitwan all year. 
Regularly feeds at Rani Pokhari, a pool 
by a busy street in Kathmandu. Crepuscu- 
lar and nocturnal. Occurs on ponds, lakes 
and reedy pools. Range Throughout the 
subcontinent. 




Herons/Egrets 



89 



STRIATED HERON Butorides striatus 

Little Heron, Green-backed Heron, (Ardeola striatus) 

Little Green Heron 



Subspecies chloriceps. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A fairly common resi- 
dent and summer visitor. Breeding con- 
firmed at Chitwan (296). Found by lakes 
and ponds edged with dense foliage and 
weU-wooded streams. Secretive and usu- 
ally crepuscular or nocturnal. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 




INDIAN POND HERON Ardeola gruyii 

Subspecies gmyii. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common resident 
throughout the tarai and up to 1525m in 
central Nepal. A straggler was seen at the 
unusually high altitude of 2745m on 22 
May 1975 north of Jomosom (302). Re- 
ported breeding at Gularia (B4) (432), 
Chitwan (296) and also in the Kathmandu 
VaUey (629). Inhabits paddy-fields, 
marshes, streams, ponds and ditches. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 




■T— r 



Tooo» ^^^^^iS^^^^^^A^^^^ 



CATTLE EGRET Bubulcus ibis 





Subspecies coromandus. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson. He found it breeding in 
the same trees as Black-crowned Night 
Herons in the Kathmandu Valley 
(336388). There is still a colony in Kath- 
mandu. Also proved breeding north-west 



of Pokhara (499) and outside the national park at Chitwan 
(296). Common throughout up to 1525m. Mainly resident 
although most leave the Kathmandu Valley for lower levels 
in winter. Frequents wet fields, pools and marshes. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 



90 



Egrets 



LITTLE EGRET Egretta ganxtta 

Subspecies ^o/zeffa. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A fairly common and 
widespread resident up to 1525m. Breed- 
ing colonies have been located near 
Godavari (629) and at Chitwan (296). 
Frequents wet fields, pools and marshes. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 



INTERMEDLVTE EGRET Egretta intermedia 

Plumed Egret, Smaller Egret, Yellow-bUled Egret 



Subspecies intermedia. Although no 
Hodgson specimens can be traced, the 
species was recorded from the Kath- 
mandu Valley in his illustrations (336). A 
specimen of Great Egret collected by 
Scully in 1876 (708) has been wrongly 
attributed to this species (95). Reported 
without details by Ripley (659). The first 
definite record was a specimen taken by 
R.L. Fleming on 24 August 1964 at Chi- 
twan (247). Mainly resident. Occasionally 
seen throughout up to 915m. Locally 
common at Kosi and also Chitwan where 
proved breeding (296). Two reports from 
the Kathmandu Valley, both in February 
1979 (486,652,418). Frequents wet fields, 
pools and marshes. Range Throughout 
the subcontinent. 





GREAT EGRET Egretta alba 

Large Egret {Casmerodius albus, Ardea alba) 

Great White Egret 

Subspecies modesta. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A resident, seen occa- 
sionally throughout the lowlands up to 
300m. A fairly common breeding resident 
at Chitwan (296). Common at Kosi. Rare 
at higher altitudes. The only recent report 
from the Kathmandu Valley is of one seen 
in February and March 1981 at Rani 
Pokhari. Two were found at the particu- 
larly high altitude of 3050m at Rara Lake 
on 15 October 1982 (627). Frequents wet 
fields, pools and marshes. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 




Herons/Storks 



91 



GREY HERON Ardeacinerea 

Subspecies cinerea. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). Chiefly a winter visitor, 
seen occasionally throughout the tarai 
and foothills up to 915m. Common at 
Chitwan and Kosi Barrage where some 
birds are resident. One was seen at the 
unusually high altitude of 3050m at Rara 
Lake from 28 February to 2 March 1983 
(627). Inhabits large rivers and lakes. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 



IMPERIAL HERON Ardea imperialis 
Great White-bellied Heron (/Irdea insignis) 
White-bellied Heron 

Recorded only by B. Hodgson who ob- 
tained at least two specimens on 5 April 
and 10 November from the lower hills, 



.V--^. 




imp 



including one from Hetaura. He described the species as 
shy and rare (336, 388). Frequents rivers miming through 
forest and marshes. Range Nepal east to Bangladesh. 



PURPLE HERON Ardea purpurea 

Subspecies manilensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson from the Kathmandu Valley 
(336,388). Only one later report from 
there (733). Mainly a resident occurring 
in the lowlands up to 300m. Common at 
Kosi all year. There is also a large influx 
there at the start of the monsoon (293). 
Fairly common at Chitwan; occasionally 
seen at Sukla Phanta and Bardia but only 
single records from elsewhere. Inhabits 
dense reedbeds, lakes and marshes. Shy 
and crepuscular, easily overlooked. 
Range Throughout the plains in the sub- 
continent. 




PAINTED STORK Mycteria leucocephala 
(Ibis leucocephalus) 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Mainly a scarce summer visitor, only a few 
winter reports. Chiefly occurs at Chitwan 
from May to October (296). Occasionally 
seen in summer at Kosi Barrage (293). 
Single records from elsewhere. The maxi- 
mum of 57 was found at Gaidhawa Tal on 
29 December 1979 (777). One to three 
birds found in wetlands in the west in 
June 1988: by Dunduwa stream and 
Kamdi Ghat, Banke District (D5), 
Badhaiya Tal (C5) and near Bhairawa 
(G6) (750). Found in large marshes. 
Range Throughout the plains of the sub- 
continent. 




92 



Storks 



ASIAN OPENBILL STORK Anastomus oscitans 
Openbill Stork 



Obtained by B. Hodgson in his later col- 
lection (276) but the specimen may have 
originated in India. Reported from the 
tarai without details by Ripley (659). First 
definitely recorded by R.L. Fleming in 
Novembier 1964/65 at Kuriya Mahan, 
Chitwan (J6) (247). Resident and passage 
migrant. Common at Chitwan, where 
proved breeding (296), and in the eastern 
tarai. Occasionally reported from else- 
where. Frequents lakes and marshes. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 



,-^\ 




BLACK STORK Ciconia nigra 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Occasional. A winter visitor from the ta- 
rai up to 1000m and a passage migrant. 
Sometimes seen in the hills on migration. 
Reported near Dhorpatan (G5) at the 
unusually high altitude of 2925m on 22 
and 23 May 1981 (499). Found by rivers 
and in marshes. Range Winters Pakistan 
and n. India. 



WOOLLY-NECKED STORK Ciconia episcopus 
White-necked Stork 




J F ^'. A ■ M J J A a « ■ D 



Subspecies episcopus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A fairly common resi- 
dent and summer visitor up to 915m. 



Occasionally observed up to ISOOra especially in summer. 
Inhabits flooded flelds, marshes and lakes. Range Through- 
out the subcontinent. 




Storks 



93 



WHITE STORK Ciconia dconia 

Subspecies ciconia? First recorded by P. 
Alden near Chitwan in winter (243). 
Single birds were seen at Jagdishpur 
Reservoir (G6) on 5 March 1978 (155), 
east of Pokhara (J5) on 20 Februaiy 1986 
(55) and at Chitwan on 15 February 1989 
(506). The only other record is of 50 seen 
flying east near Dharan on 6 November 
1989 (597). Occurs in wet grassland and 
ploughed flelds. Range Winters in Paki- 
stan and n.w. India east to west Bengal. 




""Sb- •* ' ^*' Ia'm'j Ij'a^s^o n"^ 



BLACK-NECKED STORK 

(Xenorhynchus asiaticus) 



Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus 



Subspecies asiaticus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A scarce resident and 
passage migrant, restricted to the tarai. 
Regularly reported from Chitwan (J6,K6) 
and the Kosi marshes. Adults feeding 
flying young seen at Kosi Barrage in April 
1982 (294), and with recently fledged 
young at Kosi Tappu in February 1988 
(481). Over 16 noted at Kosi on 3 April 
1986, but only three there the next day 
(321). Found at Bardia (731). Single rec- 
ords from elsewhere. Frequents large riv- 
ers and marshes. Range Throughout the 
subcontinent. 




'A- " 



GREATER ADJUTANT STORK Leptoptilos dubius 
Adjutant Stork 



First recorded by B. Hodgson in Kath- 
mandu (336,379). No later reports from 
the Valley. A scarce visitor. Singles regu- 
larly recorded on the Kosi marshes be- 
tween February and November. Several 
recent reports of a lone bird at Chitwan 
(J6,K6) between November and January, 
and in April. Recorded from the south- 
eastern tarai (P9,Q9) in summer 1976 
(293). A pair was noted circling near 
Chainpur (Q7) on 16 June 1954 at 1500m 
(109). Inhabits marshes and open fields. 
Range Sind east through n. India and 
Nepal to Bangladesh. 



-S"^, 




94 



Storks/Ibises 



LESSER ADJUTANT STORK LeptoptUosjavanicus 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (379) who 
found it a scarce visitor to the Kathmandu 
Valley (336). No further records from 
there. Occasional. Chiefly a resident in 
the tarai. Proved breeding at Chitwan 
(296,734,256) and in the south-east (P8) 
(481), (Q8) (748), (R8) (518), where it is 
seen most regularly. Found in flooded 
fields, marshes and pools. Range Kutch 
south to Tamil Nadu and east to Bangla- 
desh. 




33-^ 



GLOSSY IBIS Plegadis falcinellus 

Subspecies falcinellus'! Recorded by B. 
Hodgson who obtained a specimen from 
the Kathmandu Valley on 12 September. 
He described it as a migrant through the 
Valley remaining in the hills for a few days 



(336^88). The only other records are of one seen at Kosi 
Barrage on 14 April 1981 (559) and two at Kosi Tappu on 20 
April 1987 (327), and three found at Chitwan on 3 March 
1988 (262). Frequents lakes and marshes. Range Sind east 
to Bangladesh; south to the Deccan. 





|i~^, 



RED-NAPED IBIS Pseudibis papillosa 
Black Ibis 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
resident, found occasionally, chiefly up to 
275m. Locally common at Chitwan where 
proved breeding (296) and in the south- 
east (293). Fairly common at 760m at 
Surkhet (D4) in June 1979 (626). Inhabits 
edges of river banks and open fields. 
Sometimes found in quite dry areas of 
cultivation. Range Sind east to Bangla- 
desh; south to Kamataka. 



.V -'" 




Ibis/Whistling Ducks 



95 



BLACK-HEADED IBIS Thresldomis melanocephalus 
Oriental White Ibis (7. aelhiopica) 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Chiefly a summer visitor, occasionally 
seen in the south-eastern tarai. Some 
birds may be resident as there are a 
number of winter reports. Tends to in- 
habit wetter areas than the Red-naped 
Ibis. Found in flooded fields, marshes, 
rivers and pools. Range Throughout the 
subcontinent. 



EURASIAN SPOONBILL Platalea Uucorodia 
Spoonbill, White Spoonbill 

Subspecies leucomdia. First recorded by 
B.Hodgson (388). A passage migrant and a 
winter visitor. Occasionally seen on the 
Kosi marshes where flocks of up to 70 ' 

birds are regularly recorded. The excep- 
tionally high number of 288 was found 
there on 18 December 1979 (206). Single 
reports from elsewhere. Range Through- 
out the subcontinent. 





K- 



GREATER FLAMINGO Phoenicoptenis ruber 
Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) 

Subspecies roseus. Vagrant. Noted by B. 
Hodgson as a transient visitor to the 
Kathmandu Valley (341) although no 
specimen records can be traced. The only 



other record is of a small group from Kosi Barrage in winter 
1973 (243). Frequents lakes and areas of shallow water. 
Range Sind; throughout the rest of the subcontinent. 



FULVOUS WHISTLING DUCK Dendwcygna bicolor 
Large Whistling Teal, Fulvous Treeduck 

A specimen obtained by B. Hodgson was 
listed for Nepal in the British Museum 
(Natural History) collection (697), but 
the bird possibly originated in India. First 
recorded by F. Lambert el al. who saw one 
with a flock of about 1500 Lesser Whis- 
tling Duck at Kosi Barrage on 12 Febru- 
aiy 1979 (486,651,652). The only other 
record is also from the Barrage, on 16 
March 1987 (327). Range Pakistan, n. 
India south to the Deccan and east to 
Manipur. 




96 



Whistling Ducks/Geese 



LESSER WHISTLING DUCK Dendmcygnajavanica 
Lesser Whistling Teal, Lesser Treeduck 




First recorded by B. Hodgson (388) who 
found it in the Kathmandu Valley (336). 
Only two later records from there, both of 
sin^e birds (436,256). Mainly recorded 
between 75m and 305m. A common win- 
ter visitor and passage migrant at Kosi 
Barrage; some birds remain all year .The 
largest numbers occur in mid-February. 




A maximum of 7000 was estimated on 17 February 1981 
(180). A common breeding resident at Chitwan (296). Oc- 
casionally seen on passage at Phewa Tal at 915m. Chiefly 
single records from elsewhere. Range Throughout the sub- 
continent. 



TUNDRA SWAN Cygnus columbicmus 
Bewick's Swan (C. bewicldi) 

Vagrant. The only record is of one seen 
on 23 February 1978 on the Narayani 
River at Chitwan by J. Gooders (263). It 
occurred during an exceptionally severe 
winter. Range Vagrant to Pakistan and n. 
India. 




.£3 



WHOOPERSWAN Cyffius cygnus 

Subspecies cygnus. Vagrant. Only re- 
corded by B. Hodgson who obtained one 
specimen in January 1829 from the Kath- 
mandu Valley (336^41). Range Rare visi- 
tor to Pakistan and n.w. India. 



BEAN GOOSE Anser fabalis 

Subspecies rossicusl Vagrant. One was seen with Ruddy 
Shelduck by the Rapti River, Sauraha (J6) at about 250m. 
First recorded on 28 November 1985 by K. Halberg (298) 
and later seen on 3 and 7 December (726) and 12 December 
1985 (677). Range Vagrant to Assam. 



Geese/Ducks 



97 



GREYLAG GOOSE Anseranser 

Subspecies rubrirostris. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). An uncommon pas- 
sage migrant and winter visitor mainly 
seen in February and March at Kosi Bar- 
rage. Also reported from Rara Lake, 
Bardia, Kathmandu Valley, and Chitwan. 
Usually occurs in flocks of less than ten. 
The particularly high number of about 
125 was observed at Kosi Barrage on 8 
February 1974 (518). Range Winters from 
Pakistan to Manipur, and south to Orissa. 




j'FM'a'MJJ'A'S'O NU 



BAR-HEADED GOOSE Anserindicus 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common passage migrant. Also 
winters occasionally at Chitwan and Kosi 
Barrage. Migrant flocks fly over the main 
river valleys of the Kamali, Dudh Kosi, 
Kali Gandaki and Arun, and the Kath- 
mandu Valley chiefly in March, April, 
October and November. About 1500 flew 
north over the Kamali at Bardia between 
29 March and 14 April 1987 (672) and 963 
between 24 March and 5 April 1988 (673). 
One flock was seen at the exceptionalty 
high altitude of 9375m over Mt. Everest 
(701). There is a late record of three birds 
on Begnas Tal from 27 May to 4 June 1979 
(668). Range Breeds Ladakh. Winters 
from Pakistan and Kashmir east through 
n. India to Bangladesh. 




|i HI , i| 1. 1 . , ,11. I 



j'f'mam'j'j'a'S'ond 



RUDDY SHELDUCK Tadoma fermginea 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common winter visitor throughout the 
lowlands up to 305m. Breeds in the Hima- 
layas; also a passage migrant. Maximum 
numbers of up to 4000 have been seen at 
Kosi Barrage in mid-Februaiy. Present at 
Chitwan from September to May (296). 
Some birds remain all year in the low- 
lands at Bardia (192) and Sukla Phanta 
(700). Ducklings were found in Mustang 
(J3) in June 1977(587). A pair with newly 
hatched young was seen on 27 May 1980 
at Gosainkund at 4300m (651,652). Regu- 
larly noted on Gokyo Lakes at 4800m 
(558), and also flying up the KaU Gandaki 
valley especially in March. Range Breeds 
Ladakh and Nepal. Winters through most 
of the subcontinent. 




98 



Ducks 



COMMON SHELDUCK Tadoma ladoma 
Eurasian Shelduck, Northern Shelduck 

First recorded by B. Hodgson from the 
Kathmandu Valley (336^88). A rare win- 
ter visitor and spring passage migrant. 
There a few recent reports from Kosi 
Barrage in March, April and November. 



A maximum of five was seen there on 12 April 1981 (559). 
Single birds have been recorded at Chitwan (J6) in Novem- 
ber and December 1982 (304), December 1986 (306), and 
January 1989 (707). Range Winters in Pakistan and India 
south to the Deccan and Orissa. 



COMB DUCK 

Nakta 



SaHddiomis melanotos 



Subspecies melanotos. First recorded by 
R.L. Fleming Sr. near Dhangarhi in De- 
cember 1952 (647). Lx)cal and uncom- 
mon. Later reported again from Dhan- 
garhi (247). Other localities in the west- 
em tarai are Sukla Phanta where it is 
resident (700), Bardia (418,750), 
Baidhaiya Tal (C5) (750), Nepalganj 
(432) and Gaidhawa Tal (G6) (777). In 
the east it is a winter visitor in small flocks 
to Kosi and has also been noted west of 
Kosi R. (P9) (301). Favours pools in 
wooded areas. Range Sind and Nepal east 
to Bangladesh, and south to Kamataka. 



J^^ 




COTTON PYGMY GOOSE Nettapus coromandelianus 
Cotton Teal 



Subspecies coromandelianus. First re- 
corded by B. Hodgson (388). Mainly a 
resident and summer visitor seen occa- 
sionally in the lowlands. A fairly common 
resident at Sukla Phanta (700). Chiefly 
occurs from April to August at Kosi and 
possibly breeds there (174,293). Has bred 
at Begnas Tal (674). Only an uncommon 



winter visitor to Chitwan, remaining from November to 
May (296). Rarely visits the Kathmandu Valley. Mainly 
single records from elsewhere. Reports from the exception- 
ally high altitudes of 3050m in May 1977 near Pisang (J4) 
and 2135m in November 1977 near Dunai (F3) (243,302) 
listed in the first edition of this book (435) are now consid- 
ered doubtful. Found on vegetation-covered pools. Range 
Throughout most of the subcontinent. 



,5--^ 




Ducks 

MANDARIN DUCK Aix galericulata 

Vagrant. A male was photographed by S. 
Gardiner on the lower Arun river Ikm 



99 



below Khatike Ghat bridge (Q7) on 21 January 1990 
(256,257). Range Vagrant to Assam and Manipur. 



EURASIAN WIGEON Anaspenelope 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
winter visitor and passage migrant. Com- 
mon at Kosi Barrage in winter where 
largest numbers occur in February and 
March. The maximum recorded is about 
2000 seen in mid-March 1982 (770). An 
uncommon passage migrant to Chitwan 
in March and April. A few records from 
Khumbu in May with a peak of 35 at 
4750m on Gokyo Lakes in 1977 (679). 
Occasionally seen elsewhere. Range 
Winters from Pakistan east to Bangla- 
desh and south to Orissa. 




J'FMAMJJASOHD 



FALCATED DUCK Anasfalcata 

Falcated Teal 

First recorded by R.C. Lawrence in 1870 
who obtained an immature male from an 
unknown locahty (422). An uncommon, 
but regular winter visitor between No- 
vember and April to Kosi Barrage where 
largest numbers occur in early to mid- 
February. A maximum of 80 was noted on 
7 February 1974 (518). There are a few 
winter records from Begnas Tal, Sukla 
Phanta, Phewa Tal, and Chitwan. Range 
Winters in n. India and Nepal. 




GAD WALL Anasstrepera 

Subspecies strepera. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common winter visitor 
and passage migrant to Kosi Barrage. The 
maximum number reported is 2000 esti- 
mated in mid-February 1981 (559) and 
early March 1989 (172). Regularly re- 
corded at Chitwan and Phewa Tal. De- 
scribed last century as a spring and au- 
tumn migrant to the Kathmandu Valley 
(708) but few recent records. Passage 
birds have been seen in the Himalayas: 
recorded flying north up the upper Kali 
Gandkaki valley in March (476), on Rara 
Lake at 3050m in March (137), on Gokyo 
Lakes at 4750m in April (131) and near 
Pisang (J4) at 2900m in November (553). 
Range Winters throughout the subconti- 
nent. 




100 

BAIKAL TEAL Anasformosa 

Vagrant. First recorded by S. Christensen 
et al. who found two resting by the Kali 
Gandald rivernear Larjung (H4) at about 
2560m on 16 October 1984 (145). Single 



Ducks 



adult males were seen at Kosi Barrage on 23 February 1987 
(205) and 9 Februaiy 1989 (468). Range Vagrant to Paki- 
stan and n. India. 



COMMON TEAL Anascrecca 
Green-winged Teal 

Subspecies crecca. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common winter visitor 
and passage migrant. Regularly winters 
up to 915m; possibly also as high as 3050m 
at Rara Lake. Present at Chitwan from 
September to April (296). At Kosi Bar- 
rage peak numbers of up to 2000 occur in 
mid-February. Small migrant flocks flew 
south down the upper KaU Gandaki val- 
ley between 26 September and 10 Octo- 
ber 1973 (76). Has been recorded in the 
Himalayas in spring, presumably also on 
passage: in March from the Kali Gandaki 
valley (476,559), and in May near Jumla 
(620) and Gosainkund Lakes at 4300m 
(440). Range Winters throughout the 
subcontinent. 




I I 1 1,1 1 . I I ,1 , , , , I 



J'F'M'A'M'J'J'ASO'N'D 



MALLARD Anas platyrhynchos 

Subspecies platyritynchos. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (388). Mainly a winter 
visitor and passage migrant; also breeds. 
Fairly common at Rara Lake, Phewa Tal, 
Begnas Tal, and Kosi Barrage where a 
maximum of 450 was reported in early 
February 1987 (647). Uncommon at Chi- 
twan and rare in the Kathmandu Valley. 
Proved breeding on Titi Lake, upper Kali 
Gandaki valley (H4) at 2620m in 1970 
(527) and 1977 (667). Seen on passage: a 
few birds flew north up the KaU Gandaki 
valley in October 1973 (76) and seen at 
Manang (J4) in November 1984 (142). 
There is a monsoon record of 11 at Beg- 
nas Tal on 5 July 1978 (688). Mainly single 
reports from elsewhere. Range Breeds 
Kashmir and Nepal. Winters from Paki- 
stan east to Bangladesh and south to Ma- 
harashtra. 



,-v-^ 




P l I, . I I) I 



J 



Ducks 



101 



SPOT-BILLED DUCK Anas poedlorhyncha 
SpotbiU 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Occasional. A resident and winter visitor. 
Two subspecies ocair. poedlorhyncha (p) 
has been collected in the Kathmandu 
Valley (245) and zonorhyncha (z) at Kosi 
Barrage (671). A maximum of about 200 
was seen at Kosi in early March 1986 
(197). An irregular winter visitor to Chi- 
twan (296). Several records from Phewa 
Tal, but mainly single reports from else- 
where. One seen at Pisang (J4) at 3290m 
in November 1984 was presumably a 
migrant (142). Range Throughout the 
subcontinent south to Kamataka. 




NORTHERN PINTAIL Anas acuta 
Pintail 

Subspecies acuta. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). Winter visitor and pas- 
sage migrant. Occurs in far greater num- 
bers than other duck species at Kosi. A 
flock of over 5000 has often been seen in 
February and March. On 16 February 
1981 the exceptionally high number of at 
least 50,000 was estimated (559). A fairly 
common winter visitor to Phewa Tal. 
Occasionally seen elsewhere. A winter 
visitor to Chitwan from October to April. 
Recorded in October in the Manang val- 
ley (J4) (658) and at Jomosom (76). Sev- 




eral May reports from lakes in Khumbu at 4570m and 
4650m. There is a monsoon record of one on 5 July 1978 at 
BegnasTal (688). Range Winters throughout the subconti- 
nent. 



GARGANEY Anas querquedula 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Mainly a passage migrant. Common at 
Kosi Barrage where a few birds also win- 
ter. Greatest numbers occur in mid-Feb- 
ruaiy. A peak of 800 was noted on 16 
February 1981 (559). Formerly a common 
passage migrant in the Kathmandu Valley 
(635), but only a few recent reports from 
there (589,418,256). Occasionally re- 
ported elsewhere between March and 
May. Three were found on Gokyo Lakes 
at 4570m on 1 May 1984 (764). In autumn 
small flocks flew south down the upper 
Kali Gandaki valley from late September 
to mid-Oaober 1973 (76). Seen at 




Manang (J4) in October (658). A few autumn records from 
other areas. A pair was seen at Begnas Tal on 5 July 1978 
(688). Range Winters throughout the subcontinent. 



102 



Ducks 



NORTHERN SHOVELER Anasclypeata 
Shoveler 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Mainly a passage migrant. Occurs in 
spring between March and May. Com- 
mon at Kosi Barrage where a peak of over 
1500 was estimated on 5 March 1986 
(197). Only occasionally seen elsewhere. 
Found as high as 4570m at Gokyo Lakes 
in May 1981 (559). Reported in autumn 
from Jomosom in October (76) and at 
Chitwan and Kathmandu valley in No- 
vember. There are also a few winter rec- 
ords from Kosi Barrage, Phewa Tal, Beg- 
nas Tal and the Kathmandu Valley. A 




pair was noted on 5 July 1978 at Begnas Tal (688). Range 
Winters throughout the subcontinent. 



PINK-HEADED DUCK Rhodonessa caryophyllacea 



Only recorded by B. Hodgson who ob- 
tained a specimen from the Kathmandu 
Valley on 15 September. He described it 



as shy and residing in remote large jheels (336,388). Range 
Probably now extinct, formerly found in n.e. India and 
Nepal. 



RED-CRESTED POCHARD Netta rufina 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Occasional. A winter visitor and passage 
migrant. At Kosi most birds are seen in 
March and April. A peak of about 80 was 
noted there in early March 1986 (197). 
Noted throughout the winter at Kara 
Lake and mainly in spring at Phewa Tal. 
Uncommon at Chitwan and found there 
between November and April. Only a few 
records from elsewhere. Range Winters 
mainly in Pakistan and n.w. India. 




COMMON POCHARD Aythyaferina 

A Hodgson specimen was listed for Nepal 
by Salvadori (697), but it may have come 
from India. First definitely recorded by D. 
Proud at Bhaktapur, ICathmandu Valley 
on 8 January 1948 at about 1320m (629). 
A winter visitor and passage migrant. 
Fairly common at Kosi. Occasionally seen 
at Begnas Tal and also Phewa Tal where 
the maximum of 500 was noted on 5 
March 1986 (55). Uncommon at Chitwan 
and reported there between November 
and April (296). There are a few spring 
and autumn records from the Himalayas, 
presumably of passage birds. Seen in 
spring in Khumbu at 3965m and 4570m 




J'J'A'S'ON'D- 



(243,250). Two reports from Rara Lake in October (691) 
and one from Pisang (J4) at 2900m in November (553). 
Range Winters mainly in Pakistan and n.w. India. 



Ducks 



103 



BAER'S POCHARD Aythyabaai 

First recorded by R.F. Grimmett et al. 
who saw two males and one female at 
Kosi Barrage on 12 February 1979 
(486,651,652). A scarce passage migrant. 
Regularly reported from Kosi Barrage in 
small numbers between February and 
early March. A maximum of 20 was 
counted there on 20 February 1979 
(486,651,652). The only other record is of 
two at Phewa Tal on 29 October 1984 
(145). Range Winters mainly in n.e. India 
and Bangladesh. 




FERRUGINOUS DUCK Aythyanyroca 
White-eyed Pochard 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Occasional. Mainly a passage migrant; 
also a winter visitor. Greatest numbers 
occur in February and March; a maxi- 
mum of 150 was reported at Kosi on 13 
February 1981 (622). Several records 
from Phewa Tal and Begnas Tal. There 
are a number of reports of migrants from 
the Himalayas: on Kara Lake in February 
(137), lower Gokyo Lake at 4575m in May 
(243), in the upper Kali Gandaki valley at 
2560m (76,553) and Marsyangdi valley at 
Bagerchap (J4) at 2160m (553) in Octo- 
ber and November, and a few records 
from the Kathmandu Valley. Range 
Breeds in Kashmir and Ladakh. Winters 
mainly in Pakistan and n.w. India. 




TUFTED DUCK Aythya fuligula 
Tufted Pochard 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Mainly a winter visitor and passage mi- 
grant although some birds occur through- 
out the year. Reported more frequently 
than other ducks on high altitude lakes. 
Resident in small numbers at Kosi Bar- 
rage where a maximum of 100 was esti- 
mated in mid-February 1979 and 1981 
(622,652). Occasionally found elsewhere 
in winter and spring, especially on Phewa 
Tal and Begnas Tal. Several May records 
from lakes in Khumbu between 4650m 
and 4900m. Fewer records in autumn 
including four birds on a small lake on 
Ama Dablam (P6) at 41 15m in November 
(314). Summer reports from Gosainkund 




|l 1,1 . II JIM, , , . I 



JFMA'MJJ'A'SO N D 



lakes at 4300m in June (543) and Rani Pokhari (L6) in July 
(639). Range Winters mainly from Pakistan east to 
Manipur. 



104 



Ducks 



GREATER SCAUP Aylhya mania 
Scaup 

Vagrant. Although Gray and Gray (277) 
listed this species for Nepal, Hodgson 
apparently considered the bird in ques- 
tion to be a Ferruginous Dude (388). The 
specimen collected on 21 October in the 
Kathmandu Valley has not been traced. A 



drawing of the bird (336) cannot be positively identified but 
is almost certainly not a Greater Scaup. First definitely 
recorded by T. Andrews on 8 February 1985 at Phewa Tal 
(59). The only other record is of a pair on 9 February 1989 
at Kosi Barrage (468). Range Winter straggler from Paki- 
stan east to Bangladesh. 



LONG-TAILED DUCK Clangula kyemalis 
Oldsquaw 

Vagrant. An immature male was re- 
corded by T.P. and C. Inskipp from 13 to 
15 March 1980 at Kosi Barrage (440). The 
only other record was also at the Barrage: 
a pair noted in February and March 1982 
(682,770,804). Range Winter straggler to 
Pakistan and n. India. 




COMMON GOLDENEYE Bucephala dangida 
Goldeneye 



Subspecies clangula. First recorded at 
Phewa Tal on 4 January 1971 by T.P. 
Inskipp et at. (444). An uncommon winter 
visitor and passage migrant. At least six 
wintered at Begnas Tal from January to 
February 1977 (243). There are several 
winter records from Rara Lake, Phewa 
Tal, Begnas Tal, Chitwan and Kosi Bar- 
rage. The only other report is from 
Khumbu at about 3050m (178). Range 
Winters n. India and Nepal. 




■J'F'MA'M'J'J'AS'D'N'D' 



SMEW Mergus albellus 

Vagrant. First recorded by FM. Bailey 
who collected a specimen at Bilauri (A4) 
at about 160m on 22 January 1937 
(62,108). Single birds were seen later on 
15 and 16 January 1981 at Kosi Barrage 
(300) and at Chitwan on 1 February 1983 
(296,687). Range Winters from Pakistan 
east to Assam; south to Gujarat and 
Orissa. 




Ducks/Birds of Prey 



105 



RED-BREASTED MERGANSER Mergfa serrator 

Vagrant. First recorded by V. Eve and G. 
Hibberd who found a first winter male on 
24 and 25 February 1987 at Kosi Barrage 



(205). The only other record was also from the Barrage: two 
females or immatures on 9 February 1989 (468). Range 
Vagrant to Pakistan and West Bengal. 



GOOSANDER Mergfts merganser 
Common Merganser 

Subspecies comatus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A fairly common winter 
visitor throughout up to 3000m. Occurs 
on lakes and both fast-flowing and slow- 
moving rivers. Range Breeds in Ladakh. 
Winters in Pakistan and n. India. 



.^-'-^ 




BLACK BAZA Aviceda leuphotes 
Black-crested Baza 

Subspecies syama. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (350). A scarce and local sum- 
mer visitor. Breeds at Chitwan where it 
usually occurs from March to June (296). 
Three birds seen at the late date of 13 No- 
vember 1989 (597). A pair displaying near 
a nest in the Dharan area on 1 May 1986 
(321). Several reports from both locali- 
ties, also north of Sunischare. The only 
other record is of a pair near Butwal on 23 
July 1978 (155). Frequents lightly wooded 
low foothills and forest edges. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from Nepal east 
to Arunachal Pradesh, and in Kerala. 
Birds recorded elsewhere in India pre- 
sumably migrants. 



piii|i , III 



^s--^"', ^ "^ 



'J'F'M'AM'J'J'A'S'OND 




ORIENTAL HONEY-BUZZARD Pemis ptilorhyncus 
Crested Honey Buzzard, Honey Kite {P. apivorus) 



Subspecies ruficollis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (385). A fairly common resident 
and passage migrant. Regularly reported 
throughout the year up to 1700m. Noted 
up to 3050m in spring and autumn, pre- 
sumably on migration. In the upper KaU 
Gandaki valley 13 birds, presumably mi- 
grants, flew south between 13 September 
and 2 October 1973 (76) and in mid-May 
1981 three flew north up the Arun valley 
(Q6) (483). Frequents weU-wooded ar- 
eas, usually of broadleaved trees. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 




106 



Birds of Prey 



BLACK-SHOULDERED KITE 

Black-winged Kite 



Elanus caeruleus 



Subspecies caeruleus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (376). A fairly common resi- 
dent, mainly occurring in the tarai. Regu- 
larly reported from the Kathmandu Val- 
ley at about 1370m, especially in summer, 
and rarely up to 1550m. Found in areas of 
cultivation, grassland and open scrub 
country. Range Throughout the subconti- 
nent. 



BLACK KITE Milvus migrans 

Dark Kite, Pariah Kite, Black-eared Kite 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (385). A 
common resident and passage migrant. 
Two subspecies occur. M. m. govinda (g) 
is found down to 75m in winter and up to 
2300m in summer. M. m. lineatus (1) 
winters from 75m to 2135m and summers 
up to 4900m. Proved breeding in the 
Kathmandu Valley (243^21). Autumn 
migrants observed flying south down the 
upper Kali Gandaki valley: 254 between 
14 September and 1 Oaober 1973 (76) 
and 32 between 24 September and 5 Oc- 
tober 1978 (761). A total of 97 migrated 
west at Khare (H5) between 20 October 
and 6 November 1985 (683). In the upper 
Aran valley 22 flew north in May 1981 




(483). In Khumbu four were seen in September and Octo- 
ber 1970 (526) and a flock of nine flew south between Ding- 
boche and Tengboche (P6) at 4400m on 15 March 1986 
(546). Occurs most frequently in towns and villages. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 



RED KITE Milvus milvus 

Vagrant. One was observed 2km south of 
Jomosom at about 2690m on 3 March 



1987 by M. Rogers after a week of exceptionally severe 
weather (685). Range Vagrant to n. India. 



BRAHMINYKITE Haliastur Indus 



Subspecies indus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (365). Mainly an uncommon 
resident subject to some local seasonal 
movements governed by water condi- 
tions. Occurs most frequently in the east- 
em lowlands especially on Kosi marshes. 
Usually found in the lowlands up to about 
360m; sometimes at higher altitudes in- 
cluding the Kathmandu Valley and 
Pokhara, especially in summer. Fre- 
quents the vicinity of water. Range 
Throughout most of the subcontinent. 




1^ M J ■ J « ■ s ■ n^^ 



Birds of Prey 



107 



PALLAS'S nSH EAGLE Haliaeetus leucoryphus 

Ring-taUed Fishing Eagle 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (361). 
Mainly a winter visitor and passage mi- 
grant between September and mid-May; 
possibly breeds. Resident at Sukla Phanta 
(700). Reported annually at Kosi in re- 
cent years where a maximum of four birds 
was seen on 4 March 1988 (465). A rare 
winter visitor to Chitwan. No records this 
century from the Kathmandu Valley. 
Noted on passage in the upper Kali Gan- 
daki valley: seven flew south between 4 
September and 1 October 1973 (76). 
Single birds seen on 17 April 1981 at Hans 
Pokhari (S8) (559) and on 4 April 1986 
over the upper Mai valley (R8) (321) were 




H^ST 



probably also migrants. Frequents large rivers and lakes. 
Range Pakistan and Kashmir east through n. India to Bang- 
ladesh. 



WHITE-TAILED EAGLE Haliaeetus albidlla 

White-tailed Sea Eagle 

First recorded by T.P.Inskipp on 21 De- 
cember 1970 at Begnas Tal (444). A win- 
ter visitor. Recorded annually at Kosi 
Barrage from 1979 to 1990 with a maxi- 
mum of four seen in February 1989 (468). 
Rare at Phewa Tal, Begnas Tal, Chitwan 
and Kathmandu Valley. Mainly single 
records from elsewhere. In 1979 seven 
birds were seen at four localities 
(486,652). Normally frequents the coast 
but in Nepal seen by large rivers and 
lakes. Range Winters in Pakistan, n.w. 
India and Nepal. 



-■-V^ 




j'fm'a^m'j'J'a'S'o'nd 



LESSER FISHING EAGLE Ichthyophaga humilis 
Himalayan Grey-headed Fishing Eagle {Ichthyophaga nana) 



Subspecies plumbea. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (372). A scarce and local resi- 
dent which has apparently declined dur- 
ing the last 40 years. A rare breeder at 
Chitwan (296). Its scarcity and that of 
other fish-eating raptors in the park has 
been attributed to overfishing (759). Only 
a few recent records from elsewhere: 
Sukla Phanta, Bardia, Phewa Tal, Begnas 
Tal, near Barlabas (G6) and the eastern 
tarai (R8). Frequents forested rivers and 
lakes chiefly in the tarai, although it has 
been recorded at 3500m and 4250m in 
Khumbu in May 1954 (109). Range Hima- 
layas from Kashmir east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




108 



Birds of Prey 



GREY-HEADED FISHING EAGLE Ichlhyophaga ichthyaetus 



Subspecies ichthyaetus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (372). A scarce and local 
resident in the lowlands. Breeds at Chi- 
twan (296) where it is seen more often 
than Lesser Fishing Eagle. Mainly single 
reports from elsewhere: Sukla Phanta 




(432), Ghodaghodi Tal (B4) (792,750), Phewa Tal 
(551,154), BegnasTal (687) and Kosi Barrage (408). Found 
near slow-moving rivers and streams or lakes in wooded 
country. Range India from Delhi and the Himalayan tarai 
east to Bangladesh and south to Kerala. 




JE^^K^ 



EGYPTIAN VULTURE Neophron percnoptenis 
Scavenger Vulture 



Subspecies gingiViio/iMx. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A fairly common resi- 
dent up to 915m, also a passage migrant. 
Some birds migrate altitudinally. Fre- 
quently noted up to 2000m in spring and 
summer and up to 3050m at Khaptad (C3) 
(657,428). The maximum altitude re- 
ported is 3810m at Muktinath in May 
1984 (158). Only a winter visitor to Chi- 
twan, occurring from October to May 
(296). A total of 74 migrated west at 
Khare (H5) between 20 October and 6 
November 1985 (683). Proved breeding in 
the KaU Gandaki valley (H6) (563). A 




scavenger frequenting the neighbourhood of towns and 
villages. Range Pakistan east to West Bengal and south to s. 
India. 



LAMMERGEIER Gypaetus barbatus 

Bearded Vulture 

Subspecies aureus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (343). A common resident 
throughout the Himalayas. Usually oc- 
curs between 1200m and 4100m but occa- 
sionally seen much higher. Observed 
soaring from 7200m to 7500m in Khumbu 



by the Sagarmatha expeditions (51). Noted as low as 305m 
at Mugling (K6) (244). Proved breeding in Khumbu in Feb- 
ruary and April (109) and above Jharkot (H4) in November 
(306). Scavenges around villages. Frequentty seen gliding 
majestically across cuff faces and valleys. Range Mountains 
of Pakistan and the Himalayas east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



Birds of Prey 
LAMMERGEffiR, cont'd ... 



109 




'-**>*^ -^j**/*^ >jiV^^ 



ORIENTAL WHITE-BACKED VULTURE Gyps bengalensis 




First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). Resi- 
dent. The commonest vulture up to about 
1000m, and in the Kathmandu Valley at 
1370m; less frequent up to 1800m. Re- 
ported as high as 2440m and 3100m in the 
far east (S7) in March (735), and up to 




3050m at Khaptad (C3) in April and May (428). Birds in the 
hills including some from the VaUey, descend in winter. 
Found breeding in the Kathmandu Valley (336,629,708) 
and at Chitwan (296,480,734). Frequents the outskirts of 
towns and villages. Range Throughout the subcontinent. 



LONG-BILLED VULTURE Gypsindicus 

Subspecies tenuirostris. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A fairly common resi- 
dent and partial altitudinal migrant up to 
1525m. Proved breeding at Bardia (202) 
and Chitwan (296). Probably overlooked 
as it is similar in appearance and habits to 
Oriental White-backed Vulture with 
which it often associates. Range Through- 
out most of the subcontinent. 




J ' rA" '«'m'jJ»'^ "A"— 



no 



Birds of Prey 



HIMALAYAN GRIFFON VULTURE Gyps himalayensis 




A Hodgson specimen was listed for Nepal 
by Sharpe (711), but it may have origi- 
nated in India. First definitely recorded 
by J. Scully in 1877 who found it in small 
numbers in the Kathmandu Valley in 
winter (708). Resident throughout the 
mountains. Common along the well-used 
trade routes in the Kali Gandaki and 
Langtang valleys. Presumably benefits by 



scavenging on the carcasses of dead pack animals. Fairly 
common elsewhere. Usually found between 900m and 
4000m but may wander as higji as 6100m. Occurs in the tarai 
as a straggler: a specimen was taken at 75m at 
Raghunathpur (N8) in January 1954 (647). Proved breeding 
near Marpha (H4) in March (111) and in Marsyangdi valley 
(J5) in April (484). Range Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to 
Bhutan and possibly Arunachal Pradesh. 



EURASUN GRIFFON VULTURE Gypsjulvus 
Indian Griffon Vulture 

Subspecies fulvescens. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Occasional. A resident 
found mainty between 75m and 915m. 
Tends to replace the Himalayan Griffon 
at lower levels although the two species 
do overlap altitudinally. Common up to 
3050m at Khaptad (C3) in April and May 
(428). Few records from elsewhere above 
915m. A specimen was taken at 1980m at 
Bigu (N6) in November 1960 (246). 
Range Breeds in the mountains of Paki- 
stan, Kashmir and possibly Nepal. Win- 
ters south to n.w. India and Nepal. 




RED-HEADED VULTURE Sarcogyps calvus 
Indian Black Vulture, King Vulture (Torgos calvus) 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common resident throughout; fre- 
quent near Pokhara. Normally occurs up 
to 2000m but has been reported as high as 
3050m on the Milke Danda (Q7) in Oao- 
ber (302) and at Khaptad (C3) in April 
and May (428). Some birds descend in 
winter. Only a winter visitor to Chitwan 
between September and April (296). 
Found in open country near habitation. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 




pivnpi]: 



Birds of Prey 



111 



CINEREOUS VULTURE Aegypius monachus 

Eurasian Black Vulture 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Mainly an unconunon winter visitor most 
frequently seen in central Nepal and east- 
wards. Reported during the breeding 
season although no evidence of nesting 
has been found. Fairly common at Kosi 
(327), and at Pokhara and northwards 
along the Kali Gandaki valley. There are 
two monsoon records: on 6 August 1973 
north-west of Pokhara (H5) (814) and on 
25 August 1986 in the Arun vaUey (590). 
Range Breeds in Baluchistan, Assam and 
probably w. Himalayas. Winters in n. 
India and Nepal. 




}\n, iMi 



^J F M A ■ M^J JA'S'ONU 



SHORT-TOED SNAKE-EAGLE Circaetus gallicus 
Short-toed Eagle 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Scarce. Most often seen in the tarai, but 
recorded as high as 2130m over Kakani 
ridge (L6) in mid-April 1960 (639). Status 
uncertain; possibly a passage migrant, but 
may also breed. A pair noted displaying 
on 16 February 1981 at Biratnagar (S8) 
(622). Several records from Kosi marshes 
and a few from Chitwan. Single reports 
from elsewhere. Found in open country. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 




|i , I I.I 



Woo. T^^S ^ 'j'jAS'o ^hmL 



CRESTED SERPENT EAGLE Spilomis cheela 





Subspecies cheela. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (340). A common resident sub- 
ject to some altitudinal movements. Usu- 
ally seen up to about 2100m in summer 
although has been recorded up to 3350m 



on Machapuchare in October (Q7) (244). Normally winters 
below 915m. Some birds remain in the lowlands all year. 
Proved breeding at Chitwan (296) and in the Kathmandu 
VaUey (95). Frequents wooded areas. Range Throughout 
the subcontinent. 



112 



Birds of Prey 



EURASIAN MARSH HARRIER Circus aempnosus 



Subspecies aeruginosus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A fairly common win- 
ter visitor and passage migrant. Usually 
winters up to 915m. Mainly occurs be- 
tween Oaober and April but has been 
seen as early as 5 September in the Kath- 
mandu Valley (629), and up to the end of 
May at Kosi (682). Noted on passage in 
the upper Kali Gandaki valley: ten flew 
south between 6 September and 3 Octo- 
ber 1973 (76). The maximum altitude 
recorded is of two single birds at 3050m at 
Khaptad (C3) in April 1988 (428), pre- 
sumably migrants. Prefers marshes, but 
also occurs over riceflelds and grasslands. 
Range Winters throughout the subconti- 
nent. 




M J ■ J A ■ S ' ■ N D ■ 



HENHARRIER Circus cyaneus 

Subspecies cyaneus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A fairly common winter 
visitor and passage migrant. The most 
common harrier over 1400m. Often seen 
up to 3000m in winter and at much higher 
altitudes on migration. The maximum 
height recorded is of one flying high over 
the Thorang La (H4) at 5400m on 4 
March 1986 (260). A total of 66 migrated 
west at Khare (H5) between 20 October 
and 7 November 1985 (683). Frequents 
open country, grassland and cultivation. 
Range Winters from Pakistan east to As- 
sam and south to Maharashtra. 




JF'MA'M'JJ'AS'O'N'D' 



PALLID HARRIER 

Pale Harrier 



Circus macrourus 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). An 
uncommon winter visitor and passage 
migrant. Mainly seen up to 2200m but 
found at 3350m above Thare Pati (L5) on 
19 November 1970 (444). Most birds are 
reported between September and April. 
An unusually late male was photographed 
at Surkhet (D4) on 4 June 1979 (626). 
Noted on passage: three flew south down 
the upper Kali Gandaki valley in Septem- 
ber 1973 (76) and two flew west at Khare 
(H5) on 22 Oaober 1985 (683). Several 
reports from Pokhara, Begnas Tal, Kath- 
mandu Valley, Chitwan and Kosi Bar- 




rage. Mainly single records from elsewhere. Range Winters 
throughout the subcontinent. 



Birds of Prey 



113 



MONTAGU'S HARRIER Circus pygargus 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
scarce winter visitor and passage migrant. 
There are a few winter reports of lone 
birds from Chitwan and Kosi Tappu. 
Single winter records from elsewhere. 
Noted on migration in the upper Kali 
Gandaki valley where two flew south on 
17 and 19 September 1973 (76) and at 
Khare (HS) where three flew west be- 
tween 21 October and 7 November 1985 
(683). Migrants also seen in the Kath- 
mandu Valley in April and November 
(629), and at Chitwan in March, April and 
November (296,432). Winters in culti- 
vated areas. Range Winters throughout 
the subcontinent. 



..V-n 




jfm"mjj'a'so 



PIED HARRIER Circus melanoleucus 




jii,jSmftil^ttu^\ 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Mainly an uncommon winter visitor, al- 
though fairly often reported from Chi- 
twan and Kosi Barrage. A male noted at 




the unusually high altitude of 3810m at Muktinath on 26 
March 1984 (624), was presumably on passage. Frequents 
fields and open grassy areas. Range Winters mainly in the 
east of the subcontinent. 



NORTHERN GOSHAWK Accipiter gentilis 

Subspecies schvedowi. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Occasional; presuma- 
bly resident. Chiefly reported between 
1370m and 4880m and most frequently 
above 2400m. Regularly recorded north- 
west of Pokhara, Langtang, Kathmandu 
valley and Khumbu. A rare winter visitor 
between October and April to Chitwan 
(296). Usually inhabits oak forest. Some- 
times seen above the treeline especially in 
Khumbu. Range Breeds in the w. Hima- 
layas east possibly to Nepal. Winters from 
Kashmir east to Arunachal Pradesh. 




114 



Birds of Prey 



BESRA Accipitervir^atus 
Besra Sparrowhawk 

Subspecies affinis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (365). An uncommon resident. 
Localities include Pokhara, lower Arun 
valley and Mai valleys. Chiefly summers 
between 1350m and 2800m. A few reports 
from higher altitudes, including singles at 
3350m at Gapte (L5) in May 1980 (440) 
and at 3440m at Namche Bazaar (P6) in 
May 1982 (207). Some birds descend to 
the foothills in winter, usually to a lower 
limit of 250m; rarely to the tarai. A pair 
often breeds at Godavari (243). Usually 
frequents forested hillsides although also 



.v---^ 




found in more open country in the foothills and lowlands in 
winter. Range Himalayas from Kashmir east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India; Western Ghats. 



EURASIAN SPARROWHAWK Accipiter nisus 
Northern Sparrowhawk 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (385). 
Fairly common. Two subspecies occur, 
the resident A. n. melaschistos (m) and ' 
winteringy4. n. nisosimilis (n). The former ' 

mainly summers between 2440m and 
3965m. It moves to the foothills and tarai 
in winter. However the extent of its range 
there is unclear because of possible con- 
fusion with A. n. nisosimilis which has 
been recorded between 250m and 1450m. 
The species has rarely been reported 
from the tarai. The maximum height re- 
corded is 5180m on 20 May 1982 at Gokyo 
(540). Migrants flew south down the 
upper Kali Gandaki valley. 14 between 6 




September and 5 October 1973 (76) and 23 between 24 Sep- 
tember and 5 October 1978 (761). Inhabits well-wooded 
areas. Range Baluchistan and entire Himalayas. 



CRESTED GOSHAWK Accipiter trivirgatus 

Subspecies indicus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (365). Uncommon; presumably 
resident. Areas include Pokhara, Kath- 
mandu Valley, Chitwan, north of Sunis- 
chare and Morang District (08). Only 
one record from the west; at Mahendran- 
agar (A4) (247). Mainly single reports 
from elsewhere, including two in Decem- 
ber 1983 at the particularly high altitudes 
of 2100m above UUeri (H5) (177) and 
2000m near Ghasa (315). Frequents open 
broadleaved forests often near streams. 
Range Himalayas from Garwhal east to 
Sikkim and possibly Bhutan; s.w. and n.e. 
India; Bangladesh. 



,,5- 




Birds of Prey 



115 



SHIKRA Accipiterbadius 

Subspecies dussumieri. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (365). A fairly common resi- 
dent usually found up to 1370m. One was 
seen at the exceptionally high altitude of 
2250m at Khaptad (C3) on 6 May 1988 
(428). Proved breeding at Chitwan (296) 
and in the Kathmandu Valley (792). Oc- 
curs in open wooded country in the tarai 
and hiUs. Range Throughout the subcon- 
tinent. 



WHITE-EYED BUZZARD Butastur leesa 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (385). A 
fairly common, sedentary resident mainly 
found in the lowlands up to 300m. Several 
records from 1200m to 1500m in Mechi 
Zone (R7) (658) and observed up to 
1200m in the lower Arun valley (483). 
Proved breeding at Chitwan (296). Fre- 
quents cultivation and open dry decidu- 
ous and coniferous forests. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 



COMMON BUZZARD 

Desert Buzzard 



Buieo buteo 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common winter visitor and passage 
migrant; probably breeds. Two races 
occur: B. b. japonicus (j) (245,482,647) 
and 5. b. 'refectus' (r) (647,791), but only 
specimen records of these are named on 
the distribution map because the intras- 
pecific variation is veiy poorly under- 
stood. Chiefly recorded above 1000m. A 
pair was seen nest-building at Go- 
sainkund on 24 April 1984 (624) and 
summering birds were seen between 
3400m and 3800m in the upper Madi 
Khola valley (J5) from 16 to 19 June and 
at 3000m above Ghasa on 28 July 1977 
(758). Migrants noted flying south in the 
upper Kali Gandaki valley: 45 between 31 
August and 14 October 1973 (76) and 12 
between 24 September and 5 Oaober 
1978 (761). A total of 32 migrated west at 
Khare (H5) between 20 October and 7 
November 1985 (683). Found in open 
country. Range Breeds in Gilgit and 
Nepal? Winters in the Himalayan foot- 
hills, n.e. India and the peninsula. 






116 



Birds of Prey 



LONG-LEGGED BUZZARD Buteorufmus 

Subspecies nifinus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (365). Occasional. A winter visi- 
tor and passage migrant. Seen regularly 
north-west of Pokhara(H4,H5) and in the 
Kathmandu Valley, especially between 
October and March. Several records from 
Chitwan and the Anin valley. Recorded 
in Langtang (L5), presumably on migra- 
tion, almost daily between 21 October 
and 2 November with a maximum of five 
on 29 October 1980 (516). Migrants noted 
flying south down the upper Kali Gandaki 
valley: 15 between 5 September and 12 
October 1973 (76) and five between 24 
September and 5 October 1978 (761). A 
total of 16 migrated west at Khare (H5) 
between 20 October and 6 November 




1985 (683). One, presumably a migrant, seen as high as 
4800m in the Barun vaUey on 28 November 1988 (596). 
Several reports from elsewhere. Inhabits open country. 
Range Breeds in Pakistan, Kashmir and Garwhal. Winters 
in Pakistan and the Himalayas south to Tamil Nadu. 



UPLAND BUZZARD Buteo hemilasius 

First recorded by B. Hodgson who ob- 
tained at least one specimen from the 
central hills (336,388). Status uncertain. 
The species is difficult to separate from 
eastern races of Common Buzzard and 
Long-legged Buzzard. The only other 
specimen records are six birds colleaed 
t^ G.B. Gurung from the Kathmandu 
Valley (243). Localities of sight records 
include Khaptad (C3), north-west of 
Pokhara (H4,H5), Langtang, Kathmandu 
Valley and the Singhalila ridge (S8). One 
was seen at 250m at Sauraha (J6) in Feb- 
ruary 1988 (465). A pair of buzzards, 
probably of this species, was observed 
attending a nest on 21 June 1977 at 4050m 
in Manang and one was seen carrying 




prey to a nest containing at least two young, at 3900m near 
Braga (J4) on 15 July 1977 (758). Occurs in open country. 
Range Possibly breeds in Nepal; winters in the Himalayas 
from Kashmir east to Sikkim. 



BLACK EAGLE Ictinaetus maiayensis 

Subspecies pe/niger. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (361). A fairly common resident 
from west-central areas eastwards, occa- 
sionally seen in the west. Usually found 
between 1000m and 3100m. The maxi- 
mum altitude reported is 4000m in the 
upper Arun valley in May 1981 (483). The 
only low altitude reports are from Chi- 
twan where it is a rare winter visitor (296), 
and Kosi Tappu on 16 April 1987 (327). 
Inhabits broadleaved forested slopes. 
Range Himalayas from Rawalpindi Dis- 
tria east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India 
and Bangladesh; hills of the peninsula. 




I I ^■■'■ " I ■ ■ ^^,.. 5^^^^^ 



Birds of Prey 



117 



LESSER SPOTTED EAGLE Aquila pomarina 



Subspecies hastata. A Hodgson specimen 
was listed from Nepal by Sharpe (711), 
but may have originated in India. First 
definitely recorded by R.L. Fleming Sr. 
who collected a specimen on 26 Decem- 
ber 1952 at Dhangarhi at 275m (245). A 
veiy uncommon resident. Records of 
migrating birds are unacceptable as the 
species is known only as a resident in the 
subcontinent (51,664). Several reports 
from Pokhara, Hetaura, Kosi and also 
Chitwan where observed nest-building 
(750). Chiefly single records from else- 
where. Usually found in wooded areas in 
the lowlands. Range Mainly n. India, 
Nepal and Bangladesh. 




GREATER SPOTTED EAGLE Aquila clanga 
Spotted Eagle 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). An 
uncommon winter visitor and passage 
migrant. No evidence of breeding, contra 
AM and Ripley (51). Regularly reported 
north-west of Pokhara (H5), Chitwan, 
Kathmandu Valley, Kosi Barrage and 
north of Sunischare. Mainly single re- 
ports from elsewhere. Winters in the 
lowlands. Shows a preference for wooded 
areas near water. Birds at higher altitudes 
are probably on passage. Maximum 
height recorded is 3840m over the 
Pangsang Pass (L5) on 29 October 1980 
(516). Range Pakistan, n. India, Nepal 
and Bangladesh. 




II , II , I I . I I 



J ' f MAA ' M ■ JA-" ' A ' S ' ■ N ■ D ■ 



STEPPE EAGLE Aquila nipalensis 
(Aquila rapax nipalensis) 

Subspecies nipalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (340). A common winter visi- 
tor and passage migrant. Seen most fre- 
quently between 1000m and 2200m. May 
reach very high altitudes on migration: 
one was found dead at 7925m on Mt. 
Everest on 23 May 1960 (728). Large 
numbers use the Himalayas as an east- 
west pathway in autumn and have been 
reported across the breadth of Nepal. 
Largest counts have been made south of 



Annapuma (H5) including 992 birds between 26 and 28 
October 1984 (145) and 7852 between 20 October and 7 No- 
vember 1985 (683). Several records of smaller numbers 
migrating south down Himalayan valleys in autumn includ- 
ing 276 down the Trisuli valley (L5) in two and a half hours 
on 24 October 1980 (516). Fewer reports of spring migra- 
tion including 25 flying north in 15 minutes over the Nau- 
danda ridge (H5) on 10 March 1981 (476) and 150 moving 
north over Namche Bazaar (P6) on 10 March 1982 (77). 
Range Winters Pakistan, n. India, Nepal, and possibly 
Bangladesh. 



118 

STEPPE EAGLE, cont'd ... 



Birds of Prey 





ppiqc 



J'F'MAMJJ'ASOND 



TAWNY EAGLE Aquilarapax 

Subspecies vindhiana. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Veiy uncommon, 
presumably resident. Localities include 
Sukla Phanta, Bardia, Chitwan and Kosi 
marshes. Frequents open wooded coun- 
try and cultivation in the tarai. Range 
Pakistan east to Bangladesh; south to 
Tamil Nadu. 



IMPERLVL EAGLE Aquila heliaca 

Subspecies heliaca. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). Uncommon. Chiefly a 
passage migrant from March to early May 
and late September to November. Re- 
ported several times in these months from 
the Pokhara and Kali Gandaki valleys, 
Chitwan and Kosi Barrage. Nine mi- 
grated west at Khare (H5) between 20 
October and 4 November 1985 (683). 
One recorded at the maximum altitude of 
3900m on 10 and 11 May 1981 at Dole 
(P6) (559). A few winter records from 
Chitwan, Kathmandu Valley and Kosi 
Barrage. Mainly single reports from 
elsewhere. Range Winters from n.w. In- 
dia and Pakistan east to Bangladesh. 




;ff 



M ^ M ' 



n^Sfl^ 




Birds of Prey 



119 



GOLDEN EAGLE Aquila chrysaetos 

Subspecies daphanea. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A thinly distributed 
resident of the high Himalayas mainly 
occurring above 2745m. Two nests found 
in upper Langtang (M5) in March (484) 
and in May (771). The maximum height 
recorded is 6190m in Khumbu in May 
1975 (605). Two seen as low as 75m at 
Kosi Barrage in February 1990 (256). 
Inhabits rocky, high mountains, usually 
well above the treeUne. Range Baluchis- 
tan and the Himalayas east to Arunachal 
Pradesh. 




I , II IIWII"!' 



■ J A ' S ■ » D 



BOOTED EAGLE Hieraaetus pennatus 
Booted Hawk-Eagle 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Mainly an uncommon winter visitor and 
passage migrant, also a rare resident. 
Several March records from north-west 
of Pokhara (H4,H5) could have been 
migrants. A total of 16 flew south down 
the upper Kali GandakivaUey between 24 
September and 5 October 1978 (761). Six 
birds soaring over the Trisuli valley (L6) 
on 24 October 1980 were possibly mi- 
grants or a family party (516). A nest was 
found near Braga, Manang valley (J4) at 
the unusually high altitude of 3850m on 
15 July 1977 (758). Regularly recorded 
from the J^athmandu Valley and Chi- 
twan. Few reports from elsewhere. Win- 
ters in weU-wooded country. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from N.W.F.P. 
east to Nepal. Winters throughout the 
subcontinent. 




ir TirfT- 



■ , . r 



J ' F^M ■ k' -A J^J A 5 ■ N ' 



BONELLI'S EAGLE Hieraaetus fasciatus 
Bonelli's Hawk-Eagle 

Subspecies /orc/o/uj. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (361). A local resident reported 
occasionally between 1400m and 2600m. 
Regularly seen north-west of Pokhara on 
the Jomosom trail north to Kalopani 
(H4,H5), Nagarjung (L6), and the Trisuli 
valley (L5). A few records from east of 
Pokhara (J5); chiefly single reports from 
elsewhere. Inhabits well-wooded areas. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent, 
except the extreme north-west. 




120 



Birds of Prey 



RUFOUS-BELLIED EAGLE Hiemaetus Idenerii 
Rufous-bellied Hawk-Eagle (LophoOiorchis Idenerii) 



;> ■ -'la 





■7 


»- z t 


7 






ir • //: 


{ 


^-^ 




'X 


'-t l'»VV.C*!- 




f?f^r^ 



Subspecies Idenerii. Scarce, presumably 
resident. First recorded by T.P. Inskipp et 
al. by the Rapti River (K7) on 10 Novem- 
ber 1970 (444). Subsequently singles 
noted at Chitwan in October 1978 (762) 
and November 1979 (170), Arung Khola 
(H6) inMarch 1982 (606), near Dharan in 
April 1986 (546), Kosi Tappu in October 



1987 (328), and two at Bardia in February 1988 (731). 
Breeding behaviour of the northern population is little 
known. In Nepal found only in forested areas between 200m 
and 300m. In the Indian eastern Himalayas seen in moist 
forests up to about 1500m and could also occur in similar 
habitat in e. Nepal. Range Himalayas from Corbett east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh; Western 
Ghats. 



CHANGEABLE HAWK-EAGLE Spizaetus cirrhatus 



Subspecies limnaeetus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (372). A very uncommon 
resident usually seen up to 360m but occa- 
sionally up to 1050m. Regularly reported 
from Chitwan where it breeds (296). 
Mainly single records from elsewhere. 
Inhabits forests. Range Himalayas from 
Garhwal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh; Indian peninsula. 



MOUNTAIN HAWK-EAGLE Spizaetus nipatensis 
Hodgson's Hawk-eagle 

Subspecies nipatensis. The species was 
recorded from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(361,797). A locally frequent resident and 
partial altitudinal migrant. Regularly 
seen in the hills bordering the Kath- 
mandu Valley, on the Jomosom trail up to 
Ghorepani, and Trisuli (L5) and Mai val- 
leys (R8). In the breeding season usually 
found between 1500m and 2835m. Some 
birds descend as low as the tarai in winter: 
reported from the far eastern tarai 
(N8,Q8) (293,647) and as a scarce visitor 
to Chitwan between October and April 
(296). Occurs in forests. Range Hima- 
layas from Pakistan east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; s.w. and n.e. India. 




^J ' F ' M ' /.^M JJA'SON D 



-V^ 




■^Om T^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



Birds of Prey 



121 



OSPREY Pandion haliaetits 

Subspecies haliaetus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (385). A fairly common winter 
visitor and resident up to 915m. Occa- 
sionally reported on passage. Migrants 
flew south down the upper Kali Gandaki 
valley: singles on 4 and 27 September 
1973 (76), in late September/early Octo- 
ber 1978 (761), and on 1 April 1984 (421). 
The maximum altitude recorded is 3965m 
at Pangboche (P6) in November 1987 
(558); presumably also a migrant. Fre- 
quents large rivers, lakes and large pools. 
Range Breeds in the Himalayas from 




Ladakh east to Kumaon and in Assam. Winters throughout 
the subcontinent. 



COLLARED FALCONET Micmhiena caemlescens 
Red-breasted Falconet, Red-thighed Falconet 




Subspecies caemlescens. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (385). An uncommon resi- 
dent in the tarai and foothills up to 915m. 
Regularly recorded in the Pokhara valley, 
lower Arun valley, Dharan, north of Su- 




nischare and Chitwan, where a pair observed mating on 19 
February (480). Breeding behaviour is little known. Inhab- 
its forest edges and clearings. Range Himalayan foothills 
from Kumaon east to Arunachal Pradesh; Assam. 



LESSER KESTREL Falco naumanni 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Mainly an uncommon passage migrant in 
October and November when often seen 
in flocks. Regularly found roosting near 
Phewa Tal in autumn with a maximum 
count of 340 on 31 October 1982 (244), 
and up to 25 until 26 December 1989 
(729). A total of 77 migrated west at 
Khare (H5) between 20 October and 7 
November 1985 (683). Only two spring 
records: sev^n flew north over the Kath- 
mandu Valley on 28 April 1981 (483) and 
one near Santapur (R8) on 22 March 1989 
(549). Several winter reports from the 
Kali Gandaki valley. Seen there at the 




PP 



J ' F ' M ' A ■ M J 



particularly high altitude of 3700m on 18 February 1982 
(770). Range Winters in the Himalayas from Gilgit east to 
Nepal, in n.e. India, and south to Tamil Nadu. 



122 



Birds of Prey 



COMMON KESTREL Falco tinnunculus 

Eurasian Kestrel 

First recorded by' B. Hodgson (385). 
Common throughout up to 5200m. Two 
races occur: F. I. tinnunculus (t) is a 
winter visitor and passage migrant; F. t. 
interstinctus (i) is a resident, winter visitor 
and passage migrant. Proved breeding in 
the Kathmandu (755) and upper Kali 
Gandaki valleys (811^21). Passage birds 
flew south down the upper Kali Gandaki 
valley: 11 between 6 September and 6 
October 1973 (76) and 39 between 24 
September and 5 October 1978 (761). 
Range Breeds in the Himalayas from 
Ladakh east to Nepal and probably in 
Manipur; Western Ghats. Winters 
throughout the subcontinent. 




J ■ F ^A- "■ 'A^ * i N D 



RED-NECKED FALCON Falco chicqueru 
Red-headed MerUn 

Subspecies chicquera. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (385). A scarce resident. 
Numbers have apparently declined. De- 
scribed in 1877 as a very common breed- 
ing resident in the Kathmandu Valley 
(708) and not uncommon there in 1947 
(95). Only three later records from the 
Valley. Nowadays only regularly seen at 
Kosi Barrage where it is uncommon. 
Mainly single reports from elsewhere in 
recent years: Phewa Tal (804), Chitwan 
(296), TrisuU vaUey (L6) (516), Bu- 
ludanda (N6) (207), upper Arun valley 
(574,588), Biratnagar (180) and eastern 
tarai (Q8) (293). Inhabits cultivation in- 
terspersed with groves. Range Through- 
out the subcontinent. 




AMUR FALCON Falco amurensis 

Eastern Red-legged Falcon 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Mainly a passage migrant occurring in 
October and November. Several large 
flocks reported, sometimes mixed with 
Lesser Kestrels. The largest count re- 
ceived is 328 birds (all Amurs) from near 
Godavari (L6) between 8 and 11 Novem- 
ber 1985 (201). A total of 138 migrated 
west at Khare (H5) between 20 October 
and 4 November 1985 (683). In autumn a 



flock regularly roosts near Phewa Tal. The maximum num- 
ber of birds estimated was 220 on 24 and 25 October 1986 
(306,590). Only four spring records all of lone birds in April 
and May in the Trisuli valley (L6) (440), upper Arun valley 
(483), on ChankeU Lekh (136) and at Sauraha (J6) (730). 
Two singles in summer in the Dolpo at 4420m in June 1971 
(224) and above Jomosom at 3660m in July 1973 (243). A 
winter record of one at Sauraha in January 1984 (815). 
Range Passage migrant to most of the subcontinent but not 
Pakistan. 



Birds of Prey 

AMUR FALCON, cont'd . 



123 





MERLIN Faico columbarius 

Subspecies i>Mign«? First recorded by the 
Manora River in the Kathmandu Valley 
on 11 November 1970 by T.P. Inskipp et 
al. (444). Scarce; a winter visitor and pos- 
sibly also a passage migrant found from 
the tarai up to 4000m. Other records are 
from the Namlang valley (F2) (undated) 
(447); singles at Kagbeni in December 
1979 (681), Chandrakot (H5) in March 
1981 (610), and Surkya (P6) in April 1981 
(159); two at Kosi Barrage in November 
1981 (255) and singles at Tashinga (P6) in 
April 1982 (207), Muktinath in February 
1983 (748) and Ghasa in February 1987 
(205). Frequents open country. Range 
Winters in Pakistan, n. India and Nepal. 




l=;iX 



— I I ■ m HI 

"Woo. ' J " ' m' ■ ' n ' J ' J « s » ' u 



EURASLVN HOBBY Fatco subbuteo 

Subspecies xufcfcuteo. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). Occasional. A resident, 
passage migrant and winter visitor found 
up to 3050m. Proved breeding in the 
Kathmandu (792) and upper Kali Gan- 
daki valleys (76). Present in a communal 
roost of falcons near Phewa Tal: at least 
12 between 10 and 23 November 1977 
(495) and over 10 on 24 October 1986 
(436). A rare visitor to Chitwan from 
October to April (296). Inhabits open 
wooded country and semi-deserts. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from N.W.F.P. 
east to Nepal. Winters throughout most 
of the subcontinent. 




124 



Birds of Prey 



ORIENTAL HOBBY Falcoseverus 

Subspecies rufipedoides. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (389). Scarce; status un- 
certain. Formerly bred in the Kathmandu 
Valley (587,629). A few recent reports of 
lone birds from the Valley in January 
(748), April (770) and in summer (417). A 
rare winter visitor to Chitwan from Octo- 
ber to April (296). Single reports from 
elsewhere. Frequents wooded hills in the 
breeding season. Range Breeds in the 
Himalayas from Pakistan east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 
Winters south to Kerala. 




LAGGAR FALCON Falcojugger 
(Falco biamticus jugger) 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (385). 
Scarce; possibly resident. A few records 
from Chitwan and Kathmandu Valley. 
Scattered, mainly single reports from 
other areas including Taulihawa (F6) 
(157), Pokhara (758), lower Arun valley 
(Q7) (587) and the eastern tarai 
(N8,P8,Q8). Most frequently seen in ar- 
eas of cultivation in the tarai. Noted at 
the unusually high altitude of 1980m over 
Nagarjung (L6) (301). Range Through- 
out the subcontinent. 




,J ' F ' M ' aA' ' J ' J " ■ S ■ ^1^? 



SAKER FALCON Falco chemtg 

{Falco biamticus cherrug) 

Subspecies milvipes. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson from the Kathmandu Valley 
(336385). A scarce winter visitor. Onty 
two later records from the Valley: a bird 
taken in Kathmandu on 7 December 1957 
(482) and one seen on 4 November 1984 
(145). Reported in the upper Kali Gan- 



daki valley: at least two seen between Marpha and Mukti- 
nath, between 2590m and 3795m, in February and March in 
1981, 1983 and 1990, and one at Ghasa at 2040m in February 
1986 (403). Singles migrated west at Khare (H5) on 20 and 
25 Oaober and 5 November 1985 (683). Found in semi- 
desert and open diy scrubby areas. Range Winters in Paki- 
stan, n.w. India and Nepal. 



PEREGRINE FALCON Falco pengfinus 

Shaheen Falcon 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (385). Two 
races occur. Shaheen F. p. pcregrinator (p) 
is a fairly common resident. A partial 
altitudinal migrant. Usually occurs be- 
tween 1500m and 3000m in the breeding 
season. One recorded as high as 4200m in 
Khumbu in April 1986 (75). Uncommon 



in the tarai in winter. Proved breeding on Nagarjung (L6) 
(4). Frequents mountain areas in the breeding season and 
nests on steep crags. F. p. calidus (c) is a winter visitor. 
Status uncertain; records received from Kathmandu Valley 
(708), Kosi Barrage (652) and Kosi Tappu (327). Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 



Birds of Prey/Gamebirds 
PEREGRINE FALCON, cont'd ... 



125 





BARBARY FALCON Falco peleffinoides 
Red-capped Falcon 

Subspecies babylonicus. Vagrant. Listed 
as collected in Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(388). Several birds were observed at 
Kagbeni and Tangbe (H4) from 3000 to 
3200m in late July 1977 and in September 



and early October 1978 (758). Singles flew west at Khare 
(H5) on 26 October and 4 November 1985 (683) and seen at 
Tengboche (P6) at 3865m in November 1987 (558). Range 
Breeds in s. Paldstan. Winters in Pakistan and n.w. India. 



SNOW PARTRIDGE Lerwalerwa 




Subspecies lerwa. The species was de- 
scribed by B. Hodgson from Nepal 
(339,797). A fairly common high altitude 
resident mainly occurring above 4000m in 
summer. Moves down to about 3050m in 



-A^^ 




winter, although it has been reported at 4880m in Decem- 
ber 1954 (109). Breeding confirmed in the Barun valley 
(Q6) (167). Inhabits alpine meadows and open, rocky 
hillsides. Range Himalayas from N.W.F.P. to Arunachal 
Pradesh. 



TIBETAN SNOWCOCK TetmogaUus tibetanus 

Subspecies aquilonifer. First recorded by 
R.L. Fleming Sr. above Tukche at 4875m 
in December 1949 (647) . A fairly common 
resident at high elevations. Usually sum- 
mers above 4500m. Descends in winter 



down to 3650m. Fledglings were collected at Gokyo in 
August (190) and at Nam La (G4) in June (589). Also 
proved breeding in the Langu valley (F2) (330). Frequents 
alpine pastures, stony ridges and steep hillsides. Range 
Himalayas from Lad£^ east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



126 



Gamebirds 



TIBETAN SNOWCOCK, cont'd . 





HIMALAYAN SNOWCOCK Tetmogallus himalayensis 



Subspecies himalayensis. A Hodgson 
specimen was described as originating in 
the snowy regions of Nepal (277) but was 
later listed as coming from Kumaon 
(602). First definitely recorded by R.L. 
Fleming Sr. above Tukche, at 4875m in 
December 1949. He saw 70 to 80 birds 
between 4875m and 5180m (647). A resi- 
dent of uncertain status. Areas include 
Rara (127), Namlang and Langu valleys 
(F2) (447330), Thorang La (H4), and 
Dolpo (G3). Two found on 15 April 1984 
at 4400m near Kyangjin (M5) (624), the 
eastern limit of the species's range. 
Proved breeding in the Langu valley 
(330), and in June in Dolpo (620). Some- 
times found in the same areas as Tibetan 
Snowcock, although usually at slightly 
higher altitudes (244). Range Himalayas 
from Chitral east to Nepal. 




CHUKAR PARTRIDGE Alectoris chukar 
(A. graecd) 

Subspecies chukar. First recorded by W J. 
JUrkpatrick in 1793 (818). In the last cen- 
tury found breeding in the hills surround- 
ing the Kathmandu Valley (414,708), but 
only one report from the Valley this cen- 
tury (639). A fairly common resident in 
the western hills, usually occurring be- 
tween 2100m and 3960m. Only a few rec- 
ords east of Manang, mainly from Hel- 
ambu (L5) and upper Langtang (M5). 
Found as far east as Jiri (N6), the eastern 
limit of the species's range, in December 
1960 (246). Proved breeding in Mugu 




I ,i',i^ni'. I 



(E2,F2) (330). Frequents scrub-covered hillsides and grassy 
slopes. Range Baluchistan, Sind, and the Himalayas from 
Chitral east to Nepal. 



Gamebirds 



127 



BLACK FRANCOLIN Fnmcolinus francolinus 
Black Partridge 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Common in the lowlands and central dun 
throughout the year. In summer some 
birds move into the hUIs and are quite 
common up to about 2000m. Two subspe- 
cies occur: F.f. asiae (a) (16,482,647) and 
F. f. melanonotus (m) (95,245). Proved 
breeding at Fircape (L6) (589). Inhabits 
cultivation and areas of tall grass and 
scrub, especially near rivers. Range Paki- 
stan and n. India east through the Hima- 
layan foothUls to n.e. India and Bangla- 
desh. 




J F MAA ■ M ' J ' J/V ■ S ■ N D 



GREY FRANCOLIN Francolinus pondicerianus 
Grey Partridge 



Subspecies interpositus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Resident in the low- 
lands. Status uncertain. Found to be 
common at Kohalpur (D5) (792). Also 
reported from Bardia (128,192,432), 
Kauriala Ghat (C5) (659), Butwal (G6) 
(647), SonauU (G7) (230) and as far east 
as near Mugling (J6) (439). An adult with 
young was seen near Tilaurakot (G6) in 
June (157). Found in dry grassy and 
scrubby areas near cultivation. Range 
Pakistan east to Bangladesh and south 
through the peninsula. 




J ^r mAA ' " ' J J ■ a ■ S^O ■ N ■ D ' 



SWAMP FRANCOUN Fnmcolinus gutaris 

Swamp Partridge 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
local resident. Common at Kosi Tappu 
since 1986; a maximum of 28 birds was 
counted there in November 1989 (597). 
Only one earlier report from there, of two 
birds in February 1984 (408). J. Roberts 
suggests that changes in the course of the 
Kosi River during 1986 moved a popula- 
tion of the species into the reserve (674). 
Up to three birds occasionally seen at 
Kosi Barrage since 1981. Several reports 
from the south-west tarai (A4,B4,C4) 
including recent sightings at Sukla Phanta 
(238,432) and Bardia (674), and one 
specimen taken from Tribeni (H7) in 
1935 (62). Frequents tall grasses, swamps 




and other wet areas in the lowlands. Range Nepal and Uttar 
Pradesh east across n. India to Bangladesh. 



128 



Gamebirds 



TIBETAN PARTRIDGE Penlix hodgsoniae 

Sabspedes hodgsoaiae. First recorded by 
O. Polunin on 20 June 1952 at Simen- 
gaon, Dolpo (G3) at 4880m (620). A resi- 
dent of uncertain status. Noted between 
3700m and 4100m in winter and up to 
5000m in summer. Found in Tibetan pla- 
teau country. Several reports from above 
Muktinath; also from the Namlang valley 
(F2) (447), Dolpo (G3), Sangda (G4) 
(301), Khangsar (H4) (512), and north of 
Jomosom (647). Occurs on rocky slopes 
with scattered bushes. Range Extends 
marginally from Tibet into Nepal, Sikkim 
and possibly Arunachal Pradesh. 




1=^ 



Tm r 



M" .AM ' f ' .L 



F ■ fT A^l 



PO 



COMMON QUAIL 

Grey Quail 



Cotumix cotumix 



Subspecies cotumix. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (368). In the Kathmandu Valley 
it was abundant last century in winter and 
on passage (708), but only one later re- 
port from there (62) . Now scarce in winter 
from the tarai up to 915m, and on pas- 
sage, but possibly resident and fairly 
common at Chitwan (296). However only 
two dated records from there, in April 
1982 (432) and January 1987 (702). In 
May and June 1982 two heard at Syabru 
(L5) at 2100m (199,294,682). Inhabits 
standing crops and grasslands. Range 
Resident from Pakistan east through n. 
India to Bangladesh. Winter visitor 
throughout the subcontinent. 




RAIN QUAIL Cotumix coromandelica 
Black-breasted Quail 



Vagrant. Recorded by B. Hodgson who 
obtained at least six specimens from the 
Kathmandu Valley in April, May and 
August including a female in breeding 
condition (336,368). Only two other rec- 



ords, both from the Valley: one taken at Bhaktapur on 25 
July 1956 (245) and another by New Road, Kathmandu on 
11 April 1959 (482). Occurs in cultivation, grass and scrub 
jungle. Range Locally throughout the subcontinent. 



Gamebirds 



129 



BLUE-BREASTED QUAIL Cotumix chinensis 



Subspecies chinensis. Recorded by B. 
Hodgson who took at least five specimens 
in April and May including one in breed- 
ing condition from the Kathmandu Valley 
(336388). Scarce; status uncertain. Possi- 
bly resident at Chitwan. Three records 
from there: singles in November 1979 
(813) and April 1980 (440), and two in 
March 1987 (552). Also recorded from 
the tarai: at BQauri (A4), Kosi River (P8) 
and Haraincha (Q8) in February and 
March 1936 to 1938 (62). The only recent 
record is of one from the Kathmandu 
Valley in June 1963 (247). Inhabits wet 
grassland, field edges and scrub. Range 
The subcontinent east and south of a line 
from Bombay to Simla. 




' J F 'mSa "AJ J 



A S ' ' N ■ D ■ 



JUNGLE BUSH QUAIL Perdicula asiatica 

Only collected by B. Hodgson (277) who 
found it chiefly in the sub-Himalayan val- 
leys, and as a migrant (368). Range 
Throughout most of India. 



HILL PARTRIDGE AHtomphila torqueola 
Common ffill Partridge 




pFT^^rrrj£A^s^o^rD^ 



Subspecies torqueola. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (377). A fairly common resi- 
dent usually found from 1830m to 3200m. 
Inhabits ravines and slopes in damp, 



dense forests of oak and other broadleaved, evergreen 
trees. Feeds amongst humus on the forest floor. Range 
Himalayas from Chamba east to Arunachal Pradesh and 
n.e. India. 



130 



Gamebirds 



RUFOUS-THROATED PARTRIDGE AibomphUa rufogulans 

Rufous-throated Hill Partridge 



Subspecies nifopdaris. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A scarce resident, for- 
merly reported more frequently. Once 
occasionally found on Phulchowld's lower 
slopes, but only three records from there 
in 1980s: in January and May 1982 (682) 
and January 1986 (321). The only other 
recent records are from Pokhara in 1971 
(551) and south of Annapuma (H5) in 
1977 (762). Chicks seen in May at Godav- 
ari, Kathmandu Valley in 1954 (647) and 
Hetaura in 1947 (9^. A record from 
Ghasa listed in the first edition of this 
book (435) has been withdrawn. Inhabits 
dense secondary growth and understorey 
of broadleaved, evergreen forests. Usu- 
ally occurs at lower ^titudes than Com- 




mon Hill Partridge. Favours a zone of 1450m to 1830m. 
Range Himalayas from Kumaon east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



[RED SPURFOWL Gcdloperdix spadicea 

Although described as inhabiting the 
Nepal tarai (63,579,664), no definite evi- 
dence of its occurrence has been found. 
Possibly inhabits the western tarai. Range 
India.1 



[PAINTED SPURFOWL Gallopenlix lunulata 

A specimen is listed as originating in Nepal by Ogilvie- 
Grant (602). However it seems likely that the skin was 
mislabelled as the species only occurs south of the Gangetic 
Plain (664). Range India.] 



BLOOD PHEASANT Ithagmis cruentus 




.'.A 




J F mAa ' flAJ JAS'OND 



Subspecies emeritus. The species was 
described by T. Hardwicke from a speci- 
men collected in Nepal by E. Gardner. 
(311,797). Although previously recorded 
only as far west as Dhaulagiri (G5) (243), 
there are recent reports west to Rara and 
Jumla areas (127,464,627). A locally fairly 
common resident, mainly found between 



3200m and 4400m. May withdraw from higher levels in cold 
weather. Chicks found at 3200m in June 1981 at Pipar (H5) 
(496,499,505). Inhabits dense bamboo clumps, open forests 
or scrub of rhododendron and birch or juniper. Usually 
tame and gregarious; often found in coveys of about ten 
birds. Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh. 



Gamebirds 



131 



SATYR TRAGOPAN Tmgopansatym 
Crimson Homed Pheasant 

First recorded by WJ. Kirkpatrick in 
1793 (818). Resident, subject to vertical 
movements which are not fully under- 
stood in Nepal. Mainly reported from 
2590m to 3800m in surruner and down to 
2100m in winter. Reports received sug- 
gest it is uncommon, although it is per- 
haps under-recorded due to its shy and 
wary nature. Found west to Khaptad (C3) 
(428,68). Regularly recorded south of An- 
napuma (HS), at Ghasa, Langtang and 
Khumbu. Breeding behaviour is little 
known. A female with young at 2640m on 
31 May and a nest and eggs at 3760m in 
June 1979 were found south of An- 
napuma (H5) (496,499,505). A female 




with young was seen on 26 May 1985 above Syabru (L5) 
(313). Inhabits damp oak and rhododendron forest with 
dense undergrowth and bamboo patches. Favours steep 
slopes. Range Himalayas from Garhwal east to w. Arun- 
achal Pradesh. 



[WESTERN TRAGOPAN Tmgppan melanocephalus 
Western Homed Pheasant 



A Hodgson specimen is listed as originat- 
ing in Nepal by Gray and Gray (277). The 
subsequent British Museum catalogue 
(602) included a Hodgson specimen from 



the "N.W. Himalayas'. There is also a Hodgson specimen la- 
belled "Nepal India' in Exeter Museum (133). Range W. 
Himalayas from Swat east to Garwhal and possibly 
Kumaon.] 



KOKLASS PHEASANT Pucrasia macmlopha 

Subspecies nipalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (385). A locaUy fairly com- 
mon resident, chiefly reported from 
2680m to 3200m in summer, and down to 
2135m in winter. The maximum altitude 
recorded is 3500m at Bung Lagna (E3) in 
May 1985 (160). Few specimens collected 
(647,708). Birds in the far west may be P. 
m. macmlopha. Found as far east as the 
Modi Khola (H5) and possibly to the 
Marsyangdi Khola (H5) (669). Localities 
include Khaptad (C3), above Ghasa, at 
Ghorepani and in the upper Dhorpatan 
valley (G4). Breeding behaviour of this 
race is poorly known. A female with 
chicks photographed at Pipar (H5) on 14 
May 1985 (800,616). Chicks found on 2 
June (244). Frequents forests of conifers, 
oaks and rhododendron. Favours steep 
ravines. Range Himalayas from Chitral 
east to Nepal. 




132 



Gamebirds 



HIMALAYAN MONAL 

Impeyan Pheasant 



Lop/wphoms impejanus 



5-^\ 




n^fM^^A ' ^ ' J JAA ' s " ^ 



The national bird of Nepal. First re- 
corded by WJ. Kirkpatrick in 1793 (818). 
A common resident subject to altitudinal 
movements. Chiefly summers from 
3300m to 4570m, and winters down to 
2500m. At Khaptad (C3) found at 2500m 
on 20 April and on several dates in May at 



3050m (428). Breeding confirmed at Thare Pati in May 
(199,294,682), Gapte (321), upper Langtang (M5) (621) and 
Khumbu (190). Frequents steep grassy slopes above the 
treeline in summer and rhododendron forests in winter. 
Range Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal 
Pradesh. 



RED JUNGLEFOWL Gallus gaUus 

Subspecies murghi. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A locally common resi- 
dent, usually found up to 915m. Localities 
include Sukla Phanta, Bardia, Chitwan 
and Kosi Tappu. Introduced to Gokama, 
Kathmandu Valley. Few records from 
elsewhere. Numbers seem to have de- 
clined in recent years. Local farmers 
claim many have been shot out (155). 
Breeding reported in 1979 at Begnas Tal 
where it has been introduced (670), and 
also at Chitwan (296). Inhabits forest 
edges and scrub jungle interspersed with 
patches of grassland or cultivation. Range 
Himalayas from Punjab east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n., n.e. and s.w. India and 
Bangladesh. 




KALIJ PHEASANT Lophum leucomelana 

The species was described by J. Latham 
(493) without precise locality; later given 
as Nepal by Baker (63). First definitely 
recorded 1^ WJ. Kirkpatrick in 1793 
(818). A fairly common resident from 
245m to 3050m. Withdraws from higher 
levels in cold weather. The maximum alti- 
tude recorded is 3700m in Khumbu in 



May 1986 (75). Three intergrading races occur: L. I. hamil- 
tonii (h), the endemic L. I. leucomelana (1) and L. I. mela- 
nota (m). L. /. hamiltoni is given in error as occurring at 
Baglung, west-central Nepal (52). Breeding confirmed at 
Chitwan (296) and in the Kathmandu Valley (336,632). 
Frequents forests of all types with dense undergrowth. 
Range Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



Gamebirds 

KALU PHEASANT, cont'd ... 



133 




l^j'AS'O'N'D 



CHEER PHEASANT Catmis wallichi 
Chir Pheasant 



v^ 




First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
resident of uncertain status, occurring 
east to the upper Kali Gandaki valley 
(669). Reported between 1800m and 
3050m, with apparently little altitudinal 
movement. In the Dhorpatan valley (G5) 
50 to 100 birds were estimated in 1981 



(500). Regularly seen above Ghasa, but locals claim it is 
declining there because of hunting pressure (260). Veiy few 
records from elsewhere. Inhabits steep, craggy hillsides sup- 
porting scrub and stunted trees. In the Dhorpatan valley 
also found in burnt, felled and cut over areas with secondary 
growth in pine/juniper/fir/rhododendron forest (500). 
Range Himalayas from Hazara east to Nepal. 



BLUE PEAFOWL Pavo cristatus 
Indian Peafowl, Common Peafowl 

Inexplicably not reported by B. Hodgson. 
First recorded by J. Scully from the cen- 
tral bhabar in 1877 (708). A locally com- 
mon resident mainly found up to 300m. 
Localities include Sukia Phanta, Bardia, 
Chitwan, Kosi Tappu and north of Sunis- 
chare. Proved breeding at Chitivan (296), 
Hetaura (95) and Kosi Tappu (432). 
Occurs at 1280m in Gokama, Kathmandu 
Valley where it has been introduced. 
Inhabits dense riverine vegetation, tall 
grassland and open sal forest. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent east of the 
Indus. 




TrT fTA MAJ 



134 



Gamebirds/Rails and Crakes 



SMALL BinrONQUAIL Tumix sylvatica 
Little Bustard-Quail, Andalusian Hemipode 
Striped Buttonquail 

Subspecies dussumier. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Scarce, presumabfy 
resident. One was taken at Bilauri (A4) at 
250m on 15 February 1937 (62). The only 



other reports are from tall grasslands at Chitwan where it 
has been noted several times since 1982 (296,432,517). 
Range Throughout the subcontinent south and east of the 
Punjab. 



YELLOW-LEGGED BUTTONQUAIL Tumix tanh 
Button-Quail 



Subspecies lanki. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson who found it breeding in corn- 
fields in the Kathmandu VaUey (336^88). 
Only one later record from the Valley 
(589). Resident. Fairly common at Chi- 
twan (334,432,152), but scarce elsewhere. 
Other localities are Bardia (796), 
Jayamnii (L5) (636), Hetaura (95,245), 
the eastern foothills (Q8) (293,561) and 
eastern tarai (Q8) (62). Inhabits grass- 
land, scrub and cultivation. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent east of 
Kohat and Sind. 




BARRED BUTTONQUAIL Tumix suscitator 
Common Bustard-Quail, Northern Bustard-Quail 



Subspecies plumbipes. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (368). A fairly common resi- 
dent chiefly occurring up to about 300m. 
The maximum height reported is 2050m 
on 23 May 1970 at Jamuna (R7) (441). 
Occasionally seen at Bardia (C4) (192) 
and common at Chitwan (296). Not found 
in the JCathmandu Valley this century. 
Frequents grassland, also scrub and 
weedy patches at the edges of villages and 
cultivation. Range Throughout much of 
the subcontinent. 




SLATY-LEGGED CRAKE Rallina eurizonoides 
Indian Banded Crake 

Subspecies amauroptera. Vagrant. First 
recorded by B. Hodgson from the tarai 
(336388). Only one other record: three 
seen west of Hetaura at 375m on 14 June 
1957 (234,245). In India inhabits wooded 
and well-watered areas up to 1600m (52). 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 



WATER RAIL RaUus aquancus 

Vagrant. First colleaed by B. Hodgson from the Kath- 
mandu Valley in October (336,721). Two races recorded. R. 
a. indicus was taken in the tarai at Bilauri (A4) on 27 
January 1937, and at Haraincha (Q8) on 16 February 1938 
(62). One was found dead at Tribhuvan University, Kath- 
mandu in October 1973 (243). A q)ecimen of R a. korejewi 
was obtained at Bilauri on the same date as that of ^ a. 
indicus (62). Inhabits marshes, reedbeds and wet fields. 
Range Breeds in Kashmir and possibly Ladakh. Winters in 
Pakistan, n. India and Bangladesh. 



i 



Rails/Crakes 



135 



SLATY-BREASTED RAIL Rallus striatus 
Blue-breasted Banded Rail 



Subspecies albiventer. Vagrant; possibly 
resident. The first record is of one col- 
lected on 16 February 1938 in the tarai at 
Haraincha (Q8) by VM. Bailey (62,108). 
The only other reports are of singles at 



Chitwan on 27 May 1985 (418) and on 6 March 1987 (463). 
Frequents reedy swamps and wet paddyfields in India (52). 
Range From Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Nepal south 
and east through most of the subcontinent. 



BAILLON'S CRAKE Porzana pusilla 

Subspecies pusilla. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). Mainly a scarce winter 
visitor and passage migrant; possibly 
breeds. Several reports from Chitwan 
between October and April, Kosi Barrage 
from January to April and the Kath- 
mandu Valley in spring and autumn. 
Single records from elsewhere. Occurs in 
reedy lake edges, swamps and wet fields. 
Range Breeds in Kashmir and Uttar 
Pradesh. Winters throughout the subcon- 
tinent. 




RUDDY-BREASTED CRAKE Porzana fusca 
Ruddy Crake 





Subspecies Jusca. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A locally distributed resi- 
dent in the lowlands up to 370m. Fairly 
common at Chitwan (296). Regularly 
reported from Kosi Barrage. Other locali- 
ties include Sukla Phanta, Hetaura, and 



north of Sunischare. An uncommon visitor to the Kath- 
mandu Valley, breeding in ricefields (591). Frequents 
reedy lake edges, grassland, marshes and wet fields. Range 
N. Pakistan from Kohat east through Himalayan foothills 
and n. India to Assam and Bangladesh. 



[BLACK-TAILED CRAKE Potzana bicolor 

Elwes's Crake (Amauromis bicolor) 

Status uncertain. Specimens collected by 
B. Hodgson (721) were overlooked due to 
confusion with Brown Crake, but may 
have originated in India (443). H. Stevens 
had three live birds brought to him on 22 



May 1912 and was told they were caught on the Nepal/ 
Darjeeling border (S7) between 3660m and 3960m, but he 
was doubtful of the claim (741,443). Found in dense grass 
and jungle near streams and ponds in foothills up to 2800m 
(52,664). Range Himalayas from Nepal? east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India.] 



136 



Rails/Crakes 



BROWN CRAKE Amauromis akool 

Subspecies akool. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (276,721), 
but the specimen may have originated in 
India. First definitely recorded by B. 
Biswas from Hetaura on 7 June 1947 (96). 
A common breeding resident at Chitwan 
(296) . A few rej>orts from Kosi and mainly 
single records from elsewhere. One was 
collected at the unusually high altitude of 
3290m at Ongre (J4) on 10 September 
1984 (589). Inhabits reedbeds and vegeta- 
tion along watercourses. Range India 
from Kashmir east to Bangladesh; south 
in the peninsula to Kamataka in the west 
and Raipur in the east. 




WHITE-BREASTED WATERHEN Amaummis phoenicurus 



Subspecies phoenicurus. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (388). A fairly common 
resident from the tarai up to 915m. 
Proved breeding at Bagarkot (A3) (657) 
and Chitwan (296). A few records from 
the Kathmandu Valley. Occurs in marsh 
and scrub vegetation at the edges of 
ponds, lakes and ditches. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 




COMMON MOORHEN Galllnula chloropus 
Indian Gallinule 

Subspecies chloropus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A locally common resi- 
dent and winter visitor, chiefly found in 
the tarai. Localities include Sukla Phanta, 
Kosi marshes, and also Chitwan where it 
occurs from October to May (296). Noted 
as high as 4575m (243), presumably on 
passage. Other records, probably of mi- 
grants, at Jomosom (76), Ongre (J4) 
(589) and Taudha lake (L6) (639,589) in 
September and October. Inhabits 
marshes and reed-edged pools with emer- 
gent vegetation. Range Throughout the 
subcontinent. 




Rails/Crakes 



137 



PURPLE SWAMPHEN Porphyria porphyrio 
Purple Moorhen, Purple Gallinule 

Subspecies poliocephalus. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (388). Chiefly a winter 
visitor and passage migrant up to about 
915m; also breeds. Locally fairly common 
at Chitwan, Kosi Barrage, also Sukla 
Phanta and Ghodaghodi Tal (B4). Proved 
breeding at the latter site and at Belatari 
(G6) (750). Only one record this centuiy 
from the Kathmandu Valley, presumably 
amigrant: on2May 1980 at Chobar(440). 
Single reports from elsewhere. Frequents 
dense reedbeds at pool edges and 
marshes. Range Resident through the 
subcontinent. 




WATERCOCK Gallicrex dnerea 

Subspecies cinerea. Scarce monsoon visi- 
tor, although possibly under-recorded. 
First seen by R. Gregory-Smith and F. 
Batson on 15 June 1975 on Kosi marshes 
(293). There are a few later reports from 
Kosi. One was noted at Begnas Tal on 4 
and 5 July 1978. The only other records 
are from the Kathmandu Valley: three by 
the Bagmati River on 3 August 1978, four 
in paddyfields at Gokama on 4 August 
1978 (688) and two there on 27 June 1987 
(792). Males at the latter areas were 'sing- 
ing" in paddyfields. Found in reedy 
swamps and ditches and flooded flelds. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent east 
of the Indus. 




EURASLUV COOT Fulica atm 
Common Coot 

Subspecies atm. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). Mainly an uncommon 
winter visitor and passage migrant. Regu- 
larly reported from Rara Lake, Phewa 
Tal, Chitwan, Kathmandu Valley and 
Kosi Barrage. Migrants have also been 
noted in March at Jomosom (476) and 
Syang (H4) (480), in June at Manang (J4) 
(464), in November at Tukche (647), and 
at the exceptionally high altitude of 
5000m at Gokyo lakes in May 1977 (679). 
Occurs in reed-edged open expanses of 
water. Range Resident and winter visitor 
throughout the subcontinent. 




138 



Cranes 



COMMON CRANE Grus^us 

Subspecies lilfordi. Recorded by B. 
Hodgson (276) in his later collection, but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded in 1877 by J. 
Scully who found it common in winter in 
the tarai and Hetaura dun, and to pass 
over the Kathmandu Valley on migration 
(708). Now chiefly a scarce winter visitor 
and passage migrant. Only one later rec- 
ord from the Valley (243). Small flocks at 
Chitwan in most winters (244). Large 
numbers are also reported to fly over 
there in October/November and March/ 
April (296). A total of 37 flew south down 
the upper Kali Gandaki valley on 8 Octo- 
ber and three on 12 October 1973 (76). 




Only three other records: from Kauriala Ghat (C5) (659) 
and Kosi marshes (319,597). Range Winters Pakistan and n. 
India. 



BLACK-NECKED CRANE Grus nigricollis 

Vagrant. A presumed adult was photo- 
graphed at Begnas Tal on 4 and 5 July 
1978 by J.B.O. Rossetti (688,689). Range 
Breeds Ladakh. Winters in e. Bhutan and 
Arunachal Pradesh. 



SARUS CRANE Grusantigone 

Subspecies antigone. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (276), but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded in 1877 by J. 
Scully who found it common in the central 
tarai (708). A sedentary resident in the 
tarai. Only a few recent reports from Chi- 
twan (296). A 1988 survey carried out 
throughout the western and west-central 
lowlands west of the Narayani River 
found the species to be uncommon (751). 
Local people considered that is was de- 
clining, mainly because of wetland losses 
and hunting (751). Proved breeding in 
Rupandehi District (G7) and in Kapil- 
vastu District (G6) (751). Forages in 
grassland and cultivation and roosts in 
wetlands (751). Range Pakistan, n. India, 
Nepal and Bangladesh. 




Cranes /Bustards 



139 



DEMOISELLE CRANE Anthmpoides virgp 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common passage migrant in April/ 
May and October/November. Passes 
over Nepal in large flocks. Greatest num- 
bers reported flying south down the upper 
Kali Gandaki valley in autumn: 31^51 
were estimated between 1 and 1 1 October 
1969 (526), about 6,000 cranes including 
at least 2,220 Demoiselles between 29 
September and 10 October 1973 (76), and 
63,000 cranes considered to be mainly 
Demoiselles between 24 September and 5 
October 1978 (761). Described last cen- 
tury as common in the central tarai and 
Hetaura dun in winter (708). Now uncom- 
mon on passage at Chitwan, some birds 
remaining to winter (296). A few records 
from the Kathmandu Valley and only 
single reports from elsewhere. Two noted 
at 2805m at Kagbeni in January 1990 
(176). Range Winters from Pakistan 
through n. India to Bangladesh and As- 
sam; south to Kamataka. 




Il l 1,11 , I, ) |i I I I 



ICC 



3P= 



[GREAT INDIAN BUSTARD Ardeotis nigriceps 
{Chorions nigriceps) 

B. Hodgson reported a pair from the 
■North West' (388). However the record 
may have been from an area south of the 
present Nepalese border. Range Mainly 
in Rajasthan, Gujarat and the Deccan 
south to Kamataka.] 



BENGAL FLORICAN Houbampsis bengalensis 
(Eupodotis bengalensis) 





140 



Bustards /J acanas/ 



BENGAL FLORICAN, cont'd ... 

Subspecies bengalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Local and unconunon; 
probably resident. Inhabits the tarai. 
Regularly observed at Sukla Phanta, 
Bardia and Chitwan (J6,K6). Several rec- 
ords from Kosi Barrage in the early 1980s, 
but none received since 1986. Described 
as a resident, seen occasionally at Kosi 
Tappu in 1976 (174) but very few later 



sightings. The only other records are of specimens taken in 
Morang District (Q8) in 1936 and 1938 (62). A Nepalese 
population of only 56 to 82 was estimated in 1982 (431,433). 
Mainly occurs in grasslands with tall grass clumps inter- 
spersed with scattered bushes but sometimes in cultivation. 
Its grassland habitat in the east has now been almost 
entirely converted to cultivation. Range Mainly Assam and 
Nepal; also Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Arunachal 
Pradesh, Bhutan? and Bangladesh? 



LESSER FLORICAN Sypheotides indica 
Likh 

First recorded by B. Hodgson from the 
Kathmandu Valley (336^88). Chiefly a 
scarce summer visitor although probably 
under-recorded. On 26 July 1960 three 
were seen and a specimen taken in the 
Kathmandu Valley (245). Singles were 
found in the Rapti dun (J6) in March and 
April 1962 (190); at Bardia in February 
1980, May 1982 (433) and June 1988 
(750), Chitwan (K6) in May 1982 (433), 
March 1986 (154) and May 1987 (298), 
and Sukla Phanta (undated) (327). Fre- 
quents grasslands with scattered bushes 
and cultivation. Range Mainly Pakistan 
and India from the Makran coast, Punjab 
and Rajasthan south to Kamataka and 
Tamil Nadu. 




p:;]= 



' J ' F ' M 'a ' "j J *AS ' ' « ' D ' 



PHEASANT-TAILED JACANA Hydrophasianus chirurgus 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Mainly a summer visitor although has 
been reported throughout the year. Fairly 
common on the Kosi marshes and proved 
breeding there (256). A resident seen 
occasionally at Sukla Phanta (700). Rare 
at PhewaTal, BegnasTal and at Chitwan 
between March and October (296). A few 
records from the Kathmandu Valley, in- 
cluding a family party seen in summer 
1959 (245). The maximum of 85 was seen 
at Jagdishpur Tal (G6) on 15 June 1988 
(750). One was found at the high altitude 
of 3050m at Rara Lake in October 1982 
(190). Frequents lakes and pools with 
floating vegetation. Range lliroughout 
the subcontinent. 




J ' F M ' A /t1 J jSa 



Jacanas/Waders 



141 



BRONZE-WINGED JACANA MeU^idius indicus 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common resident throughout the 
tarai; several records from 915m at Beg- 
nas Tal and Phewa Tal. Proved breeding 
at Belatari (G6) (750) and Kosi Tappu 
(597). Found on marshes, pools and lakes 
with floating vegetation. Range Nepal to 
s. India and Bangladesh. 




GREATER PAINTEDSNIPE Rostmtula benghalensis 
Painted Snipe 



Subspecies benghalensis. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (388). An uncommon resi- 
dent mainly found in the lowlands. Areas 
include Sukla Phanta (432), Dhangarhi 
(246), Begnas Tal (656), Taulihawa (G6) 
(157), Kosi Barrage, Chitwan, Hetaura, 
Tamaspur, and the Kathmandu Valley. 
The maximum of 40 was noted at Chitwan 
(undated) (244). An adult and half-grown 
young one were seen in the Kathmandu 
Valley on 19 February 1988 (734). Feeds 
in muddy areas in marshes and along 
stream banks. Range Throughout the 
subcontinent. 




EURASIAN OYSTERCATCHER Haematopus ostralegus 
Common Oystercatcher 



Subspecies oscidans''. Vagrant. Only re- 
corded by B. Hodgson (388) who found it 
was 'a passage migrant in the hills'. He 



obtained at least one specimen from the Kathmandu Val- 
ley, on 8 October. Range Winters on the coasts of Pakistan 
and India. Has bred in the Sunderbans. 



IBISBILL Ibidorhyncha struthersii 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (344). Fre- 
quently seen at Kyangjin, upper Lang- 
tang, 3800m (M5), between April and 
September; a maximum of 18 pairs was 
reported in April 1984 (624). Proved 
breeding there (812) and by the Imja 
Khola (P6) (75). Regularly observed in 



winter on the Rapti River at Hetaura, between late Novem- 
ber and mid-March; the largest number counted there was 
12 on 17 February 1981 (656). Several records from the 
lower Arun (Q7) in winter; mainly single winter reports 
from elsewhere. Occurs on shingle flats in large river beds. 
Range Himalayas from Gilgit east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



142 

miSBILL, cont'd ... 



Waders 





BLACK-WINGED STILT Himantopus himantopus 



Subspecies himantopus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). An uncommon spring 
and autumn passage migrant. Flocks of 
up to ten regularly seen at Kosi Barrage 
between February and May. A few rec- 
ords from Chitwan between January and 
April, and from the Kathmandu Valley in 
August and September. Mainly single 
sightings from elsewhere. The only high 
altitude record is from Muktinath at 
3355m on 22 August 1977 (243). Found in 
marshes and lakes. Range Throughout 
the subcontinent. 




J ' J^~ S ' ' N ■ D ■ 



PIEDAVOCET Recurvimstm avosetta 
Avocet 

First recorded by B. Hodgson in the Kath- 
mandu Valley in October and November 
(336^388). A rare passage migrant. A few 
reports from Kosi Barrage in March and 
April. The only other records are from 



Chitwan: in December 1984 (150), November 1989 (597) 
and November 1982 when a maximum of seven was seen 
(304). Inhabits marshes, lagoons and mudflats. Range 
Breeds in n. Baluchistan and Kutch. Winters in Pakistan 
east to n.e. India and south to Tamil Nadu. 



EURASLVN THICK-KNEE Burhinus oedicnemus 
Stone-curlew, Northern Stone-curlew 



Subspecies indicus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A resident, seen occa- 
sionally throughout the tarai and lower 
hills up to 915m. Breeding confirmed at 
Kosi Barrage (652) and at Chitwan (296). 
Several August records from the Kath- 
mandu Valley, presumably of birds un- 
dergoing local movements. Frequents 
sandy or stony river beds and open dry 
fields. Range Throughout the subconti- 
nent. 




' jAf ' m ' a ' m 



Waders 



143 



GREAT STONE-PLOVER Esacus recurviwstris 
Great Thick-Knee 




The species was descnbed by C. Cuvier 
without locality (173); later given as Ne- 
pal by Baker (63). First definitely re- 
corded by B. Hodgson who found it in the 
Kathmandu Valley (349). Only one later 
report from there: on 5 November 1985 
(546). A local resident and winter visitor 



to the tarai. Occasionally seen at Chitwan (J6,K6) where 
proved breeding (296,480). Fairly common at Kosi Barrage 
and Bardia. A few other reports from the eastern tarai 
(Q8,R8), where the population is augmented by migrants 
from November to February (293). Occurs on wide rocky or 
shingle riverbeds. Range TTirou^out the subcontinent. 



INDIAN COURSER Cursorius coromandelicus 

First recorded by B. Hodgson from the 
tarai (336^88). Scarce, presumably resi- 
dent. Regularly reported in the early 
1980s from the old river bed south of Kosi 
Barrage; a maximum of six including a 



chick was seen there on 29 May 1982 (432), but no records 
received since 1986. The only other record is of a specimen 
taken in December 1952 at Dhangarhi at 275m (647). 
Frequents stony ground and dry open areas of scattered 
scrub. Range Locally throughout the subcontinent. 



ORIENTAL PRATINCOLE Glareola maldivarum 
Collared Pratincole (G. pratincola maldivarum) 



First reported by B. Hodgson in the Kath- 
mandu Valley on 10 June (336^88). A 
scarce passage migrant. Although de- 
scribed in 1976 as a common local mi- 
grant in the Kosi Barrage area (293), only 
four other records received from there, 
mainly singles in April and May. The 
maximum of 25 was seen at Badhaiya Tal 
(C5) on 13 June 1988 (750). Other reports 
are from the Kathmandu VaUey in Sep- 
tember 1973 and October 1983 (243,589), 
Phewa Tal in April 1977 (563), Tumling- 
tar (Q7) (483) in May 1981, and Chitwan 
(undated) (293). Range Breeds in Paki- 
stan, n. India and Bangladesh. Winters 
throughout the peninsula. 







144 



Waders 



LITTLE PRATINCOLE Glanola lactea 

Small Pratincole 




Yi' ... .^'^ 



First recorded by B. Hodgson from the 
Kathmandu Valley on 24 June but no 
later reports from there (336,388). A resi- 
dent and local migrant up to 750m. Com- 
mon over the Kamah River at Bardia, the 
Arung Khola at Tamaspur, Rapti and 
Narayani Rivers at Chitwan and at Kosi 



Barrage. A few reports from elsewhere. Local movements 
noted at Chitwan, where concentrations were found be- 
tween November and January, including a flock of 2000 
near MeghauU on 5 January 1983 (304). Proved breeding at 
Chitwan (296) and Kosi Barrage (483). Occurs on rivers 
with sandbars or stony beds. Range Throughout the sub- 
continent east of the Indus River. 



LnTLE RINGED PLOVER Chamdnus dubius 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). Sub- 
spedesjenloni is a common resident up to 
1500m. Numbers are augmented in win- 
ter, presumably by the migratory subspe- 
cies cumnicus, although there is only one 
definite specimen record of the latter 
race: from Kosi in November (244). 
Proved breeding at Phewa Tal (166), Kosi 
Tappu (481) and in February at Chitwan 
(J6,K6) (296,481). Found on shingle and 
mudbanks of rivers, pools and lakes. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 




LONG-BILLED PLOVER Charadrius placidus 
Long-billed Ringed Plover 

This species was described from a 
Hodgson specimen by J.E. Gray (276,797) 
but it may have originated in India. First 
definitely recorded by J. Scully in Novem- 
ber 1877 in Nawakot District (L6) (708). 
A rare winter visitor and passage migrant. 
Seen several times in the Kathmandu 



Valley in April, May and in winter, and on the Rapti River 
at Hetaura between November and February. There are a 
few reports from the Yamdi Khola (H5) (206,254,150), and 
single records from elsewhere. Frequents shingle beds of 
large rivers. Range Winters Bangladesh, Nepal, n. and n.e. 
India. 



Waders 

LONG-BILLED PLOVER, cont'd . 



145 





cnic;: 



J'F'M'A'M'J'J'A'S'O'N'D' 



KENTISH PLOVER Chamdrius alexandrinus 
Snowy Plover 

Subspecies alexandrinus. A Hodgson 
specimen was listed for Nepal by Sharpe 
(722) but it may have originated in India. 
First definitely recorded by R.L. Fleming 
Sr. at Raghunathpur (N8) at 275m in De- 
cember 1953 (647). A locally common 
winter visitor and passage migrant; possi- 
bly breeds. Regularly seen in the Kath- 
mandu Valley, at Kosi Barrage, and be- 
tween October and late April at Chitwan 
(296). The maximum of over 250 was seen 
at Kosi on 27 February 1986 (514). Fre- 
quents shingle and sandy riverbeds. 
Range Breeds in Pakistan and n. and s. 
India. Winters throughout the subconti- 
nent. 




LESSER SAND PLOVER Chamdrius mongfAus 
Mongolian Plover 



Subspecies atrifrons. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson from the Kathmandu Valley in 
May (336,388). No later reports until 
1981, although possibly overlooked. A 
rare winter visitor and spring migrant, 
probably only stopping for short periods. 
Several sightings from Kosi Barrage be- 
tween mid-March and late May, and from 
Chitwan between November and May. 
The maximum of 43 was photographed by 
Phewa Tal on 21 May 1985 (800). The 
only other records are from the Bagmati 
River, Kathmandu Valley in February 
1981 (180) and Rara Lake in May 1985 
(160). Range Breeds in the Himalayas in 
Ladakh, Lahul and Sikkim. Winters on 
the coasts of the subcontinent. 




Ill U , I 



F M ' A M 



;5F=I 



S ' O N D 



146 



Waders 



GREATER SAND PLOVER Chamdrius leschenaultii 
Large Sand Plover 



Subspecies leschenaultii. Vagrant. First 
recorded by B. Hodgson on 10 June in the 
Kathmandu VaUey (336^88). The only 



other record is of one seen at Kosi Barrage on 11 February 
1987 (463). Range Winters on the coasts of the subconti- 
nent. 



PACIFIC GOLDEN PLOVER Pluvialis fulva 
Eastern Golden Plover (P. dominica) 
Lesser Golden Plover 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
winter visitor and passage migrant. Com- 
mon at Kosi Barrage where flocks of over 
50 are frequently recorded; a maximum of 
1000 was estimated on 11 April 1982 
(207,561). Scarce elsewhere. Several 
spring and autumn records from the 
Kathmandu VaUey and Chitwan; single 
records from elsewhere. One was noted in 
the upper Kali Gandaki valley at about 
2590m on 24 September 1973 (76). Found 
on ploughed fields and muddy riverbanks. 
Range Winters locally throughout the 
subcontinent. 




j'fuam'jj'a'S'o'K'D' 



GREY PLOVER Pluvialis squatamla 
Black-bellied Plover 



Vagrant. First recorded by B. Hodgson 
from the Kathmandu Valley on 2 January 
and 2 October (336^88). The only other 
records are of singles seen on the Rapti 
River, Chitwan in November 1979 (170) 



and from December 1988 to February 1989 (67); also from 
Kosi Barrage where a flock of at least 20 in breeding 
plumage was observed on 30 April 1982 (244), one on 2 May 
1986(321), and 15 on 15 April 1987(327). Range Winters on 
the coasts of the subcontinent. 



RIVER LAPWING Hoploptems duvaucelii 

Spur-winged Lapwing (Vanellus spinosus duvaucelii) 
River Plover 



-C" 





Waders 

RIVER LAPWING, cont'd ... 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common resident in the tarai and foothills 
up to 915m. Occasionally seen in the 
Kathmandu Valley, especially in summer, 
and proved breeding there in the last 



147 



century (708). Breeding also confirmed at Chitwan 
(296,432) and Bardia (C5) (432). Inhabits stony beds and 
sand bars of rivers. Range India from Haiyana east through 
the Himalayan foothills to Bangladesh; south to the Godav- 
eri River. 



YELLOW-WATTLED LAPWING Hoploplerus malabcaicus 
Yellow-wattled Plover (Vanellus maJabaricus) 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Mainly a rare winter visitor although re- 
ported in all months. A resident occasion- 
ally seen at Sukla Phanta (432,700). A 
scarce winter visitor to Chitwan, noted in 
open areas at the park edges (296). A 
breeding record from Kosi Barrage (281), 
listed in the first edition of this book 
(435), is now considered unacceptable. 
An infrequent monsoon visitor to the 
ICathmandu VaUey in 1949 (629), but 
there are no other records. Rare at Kosi 
Barrage and only single reports from else- 
where. Found in dry fields, open country 
and river beds in the lowlands. Range 
Sind; India from Haiyana and W. Bengal 
southwards; w. Bangladesh. 




GREY-HEADED LAPWING Hoplopterus cinemts 
Grey-headed Plover (Vanellus cinereus) 




First recorded by V3A. Bailey on 6 April 
1937 from Gaucher, Kathmandu Valley 
(62,108). In 1961 discovered to be a regu- 
lar and quite common visitor from the 
end of September to the end of March in 
the Valley (638); mainly seen by the 
Manora River. Regularly reported there 



since with a maximum of 56 in November 1985 (201). The 
Valley is the westernmost regular wintering area for the 
species. Irregularly recorded from Kosi Barrage, twice 
found at Phewa Tal (325,152), and single reports from 
elsewhere. Winters on river banks and in wet fields. Range 
Winters in n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



148 



Waders 



RED-WATTLED LAPWING Hoplopterus indicus 
Red-wattled Plover (Vanellus indicus) 



Subspecies indicus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common resident from 
the tarai up to 1050m. Breeding con- 
firmed in Banke District (D5) (750), at 
Chitwan (153,296), north-west of 
Pokhara (420) and at Hetaura (%). Very 
common during the monsoon in the Kath- 
mandu Valley and occurs in small num- 
bers all year (629). Frequents fields and 
open areas near water. Range Through- 
out the subcontinent. 




WHITE-TAILED LAPWING Chettusia leucura 
White-tailed Plover (Vaneltus leucurus) 

First recorded in December 1952 at Bi- 
lauri (A4) at 250m by R.L. Fleming Sr. 
(647). Another was obtained there a 
month later, and one was seen at Dhan- 
garhi in December 1952 (647). The only 
reports received are from Nepalganj on 1 
January 1977 (464), and by the Babai 
River near Ghurai (E6) from 7 to 10 
January 1981 (576). Inhabits marshes, 
reedy pools and river edges. Range Win- 
ters in Pakistan, n. India and Bangladesh. 




^ F'M'A'M'J'J'A'S'O'ND 



NORTHERN LAPWING Vanellus vanellus 
Eurasian Lapwing, Peewit 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). An 
uncommon winter visitor, mainly seen at 
Phewa Tal, the Kathmandu Valley, and 
Kosi Barrage, with a few sightings from 
Begnas Tal and Chitwan. Singles noted 
twice in the upper Kali Gandaki valley at 
about 2700m (243, 658). A maximum of 
about 300 was seen in early February 1987 
at Kosi Barrage (518). Occurs in wet 
marshes, fields and cultivation. Range 
Winters in Pakistan and n.w. India east to 
Nepal; erratically to n.e. India and Bang- 
ladesh. 




SANDERLING Caiidrisalba 



The only record is of one seen on 11 
February 1979 at Kosi Barrage by F. 
Lambert et al. (486,651,652); it accompa- 
nied a flock of 50 Little Stints and nine 



Dunlin. The flock could not be relocated the next day. This 
is apparently the first inland record of SanderUng for the 
Indian subcontinent. Range Winters on the coasts of the 
subcontinent. 



Waders 



149 



LITTLE STINT Calidris minuta 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). An 
uncommon winter visitor and passage 
migrant mainly recorded from Chitwan, 
the Kathmandu Valley and Kosi Barrage. 
Single reports from elsewhere. Two seen 
by Rara Lake at 3050m in October 1982 
(627). An exceptional flock of about 50 
was seen on 11 February 1979 at Kosi 
Barrage (486,651,652). Frequents muddy 
edges of lakes, streams and rivers. Range 
Winters mainly on the coasts of the sub- 
continent. 




J'FMA'M'J'J'A'SO'ND 



TEMMINCK'S STINT Calidris temminckii 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common winter visitor and passage mi- 
grant from the tarai up to 915m and at 
about 1370m in the Kathmandu Valley. 
Noted on passage in the Himalayas: a 
total of 39 counted at Tukche between 6 
and 14 Oaober 1973 (76) and 13 seen by 
Gokyo Lake at 4710m on 2 May 1984 
(764). A maximum of 65 was estimated on 
20 March 1986 at Sauraha (J6) (403). 
Frequents marshes, paddyfields, mud and 
santty edges of rivers and lakes. Range 
Winters throughout the subcontinent. 




LONG-TOED STINT Calidris subminuta 

First recorded by R.L. Fleming Sr. on 11 
May 1960: two or three accompanied a 
flock of Temminck's Stints on mudflats of 
the Bagmati River, Kathmandu Valley 



(245). The only other other record is of four on 4 May 1982 
at Rani Tal, Sukla Phanta (432). Range Winters in n.e. India 
and Bangladesh. 



CURLEW SANDPIPER Calidris ferruginea 
(Calidris testacea) 

First recorded by N. Krabbe et dl. who 
saw one in full breeding plumage at Kosi 
Barrage on 22 April 1981 (483). A scarce 
spring and autumn passage migrant. The 
only other records are of two seen by the 



Bagmati River, Kathmandu on 25 Oaober 1982 (305) and 
up to four along the Rapti River, Chitwan, between 8 No- 
vember and 28 December 1982 (304,299). Occurs on mud 
and sandy river banks. Range Winters on the coasts of the 
subcontinent. Small numbers inland. 



150 



Waders 



DUNLIN Calidris alpina 

Subspecies alpina. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson from the Kathmandu Valley 
(336^88). A scarce winter visitor and 
passage migrant. There are several winter 
sightings from Kosi Barrage, with a maxi- 
mum of over 30 on 27 February 1986 
(514). Small flocks noted at Chitwan in 
late March 1981 (476) and December 
1982 (304). The onty other records are of 
one collected from the Bagmati River, 
Kathmandu Valley on 1 January 1967 
(586,587) and two seen at Begnas Tal on 
29 March 1984 (764). Occurs on mud and 
sand banks of rivers. Range Winters 
mainly on the coasts of Pakistan and n.w. 
India south to Bombay, also the Gangetic 
river system. 



J^^. 




RUFF Philomachus pugnax 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
very uncommon passage migrant. There 
are several reports from the Kathmandu 
Valley in September and October, and 
from Kosi Barrage between February and 
April where a maximum of 47 was noted 
on 12 February 1979 (486,652). Twice 
found at Chitwan and single records from 
elsewhere. Found in marshes, wet fields 
and mudbanks of rivers and lakes. Range 
Winters throughout the subcontinent. 




pj: 



=?„. ^=^^^¥^^¥P^m^ 



JACK SNIPE Lymnocryptes minimus 
(Gallinago minima) 

First recorded by B. Hodgson from the 
Kathmandu Valley (336,388). A scarce 
winter visitor and passage migrant. In the 
last century found between early Septem- 
ber and end of April, with largest num- 
bers occurring on passage in October, 
November and March (708). Described in 
1949 as a scarce passage migrant; a few 
probably staying all winter (629). In 1950 
the numbers of Jack, Common and Pin- 
tail Snipe in the Valley were reported to 
be severely reduced compared to 20 years 
before (659), and only three recent rec- 
ords of this species have been traced, all 
of lone birds, two in winter (155,217), and 
one in October (589). The only other 
records are of one or two at Phewa Tal in 




Februaiy 1981 (622), Kosi Barrage in March 1982 (794), 
and Chitwan (J6,K6) in April 1985 (59) and February 1988 
(481). Inhabits swampy areas and wet flelds. Range Winters 
throughout the subcontinent. 



Waders 



151 



COMMON SNIPE Galllnago gaUinago 
Fantail Snipe 

Subspecies^a///«flgo. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson, who noted that some birds 
remained in the Kathmandu Valley all 
year (338). Now a winter visitor and pas- 
sage migrant; possibly breeds. Locally 
fairly common at Phewa Tal, Chitwan, 
Kathmandu Valley and Kosi Barrage; 
occasionally reported from elsewhere. 
Mainly found up to 1500m. Noted in the 
Himalayas, presumably on passage: at 
4700m at Gokyo in April 1972 (131,243), 
at 2650m in the upper Kali Gandaki valley 
in March 1985 (313) and at 3050m at 
Khaptad (C3) in September 1989 (68). 
Frequents marshes, wet fields and muddy 




edges of rivers and ponds. Range Breeds in the Himalayas 
from Kashmir to Garhwal. Winters throughout the subcon- 
tinent. 



PINTAIL SNIPE GalUnago stenura 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (338). A 
winter visitor and passage migrant occa- 
sionally seen up to 1370m. Sometimes 
found with Common Snipe, although of- 
ten in drier habitats than that species. The 
largest number reported is ten at Kosi 
Barrage on 16 March 1982 (682). Found 
in harvested paddyfields with scattered 
pools, marshy pool edges and dry grass 
and scrub areas. 



SWINHOE'S SNIPE Ga/linago megala 

Vagrant. The only record is of one seen 
with Pintail Snipe and Common Snipe by 
S.C. Madge et al. on 6 March 1987 in 




damp rice fields between Biratnagar and Itahari (Q8) (515). 
Range Scattered winter records throughout India; also Sri 
Lanka and Maldives. 



SOLITARY SNIPE GalUnago solilana 




152 



Waders 



SOLITARY SNIPE, cont'd ... 

Subspecies solitaria. The qiedes was de- 
scribed by B. Hodgson from Nepal 
(338,797). An uncommon and local win- 
ter visitor and passage migrant; probably 
also resident. Mainly occurs over 2135m 
but found at 915m at Phewa Tal on 18 
December 1970 (444). Last century de- 
scribed as not uncommon in the Kath- 
mandu Valley from October to April 
(338,708), although there are very few 
recent records. Regularly reported in 
winter near Muktinath at 3795m. A maxi- 



mum of 11 was seen there on 1 February 1984 (815). 
Described as not uncommon in the upper Arun valley (Q6) 
in December 1979 (574,587) and found there in August 
1986 (590). Uncommon at Khaptad in April and May 1988 
(428) and still present in the summer of that year (754). 
Other records are from the upper Kali Gandald valley, 
Manang (J4), Langtang and the Singhalila ridge (ST). 
Breeding behaviour is poorly known. Frequents marshy 
edges and beds of mountain streams. Range Summers in 
the Himalayas from Ladakh east to Arunachal Pradesh. 
Winters in the Himalayas. Resident in n.e. India. 



WOOD SNIPE Gallinago nemoricola 

The species was described by B. Hodgson 
from Nepal (364,797). Scarce; possibly a 
resident that migrates altitudinally. In the 
Kathmandu Valley Hodgson found it not 
uncommon in winter, staying until 11 
May. Two specimens contained eggs 
(336,338). It was apparently rare by 1877 
(708), and last recorded from there in 
1950, when one or two were shot each 
year (659). Collected from the Singhalila 
ridge (S7) at 3050m in January 1912 (735) 
and from Sundar Gundar (Q8) on 3 Feb- 
ruary 1938 (62). Proved breeding in the 
Barun vaUey (Q6) in 1973 (167,243). The 
only other records are of one seen at 
Khangma (Q6) at 3800m in May 1981 
(483), two displaying at Pipar (H5) be- 




f=:^ 



^ 



~ F ' M ' aAmAJ ■ J " 



3P 



tween 11 and 16 May 1985 (800) and one seen at Jolbari 
(R7) on 19 January 1989 (307). Inhabits swampy areas in 
woods. Range Breeds in the Himalayas from Kulu east to 
Arunachal Pradesh and n.e. India. Winters at lower eleva- 
tions and in the hills of s. India. 



EURASIAN WOODCOCK Scolopax rusticola 
Woodcock 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (338). A 
fairly common resident locally, and an 
altitudinal migrant. Usually summers 
between 1980m and 3900m. Descends to 
about 1350m in winter but a few reports 
down to 100m at Chitwan (180,481,810) 
and found as high as 1900m at Pothana in 
December (58). Seen roding at Khaptad 
(C3) (428), in the Dhorpatan vaUey 
(F4,Q5) (499), Marsyangdi vaUey (J4) 
(512), Langtang (440,639), and Khumbu 
(109). Breeding confirmed in the Gan- 
dak-Kosi watershed (L5) (639). Occurs in 
swampy dense undergrowth in rhododen- 
dron and fir forests. Range Breeds in the 




Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal Pradesh. 
Winters at lower elevations in the Himalayas, and the hills 
of n.e. and s. India. 



Waders 

BLACK-TAILED GODWIT Limosa limosa 

Subspecies limosa. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A scarce and local pas- 
sage migrant. Found last century in the 
Kathmandu Valley in April and from 
mid-August to Oaober, and described as 
not common (336,708). Only three later 



153 



records from the Valley: singles in August, in 1978 (243), 
1981 (587,244) and 1989 (256). Irregularly reported since 
1979 in April and early May at Kosi Barrage. The maximum 
of 55 was noted in April 1981 (483) and 1983 (56). Occurs in 
shallow water and mudbanks of rivers and lakes. Range 
Winters mainly in Pakistan, n. and n.e. India. 



WHIMBREL Numenius phaeopus 

Snhspcdesphaeopus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson from the Kathmandu Valley in 
August and September (336^88). A 
scarce passsage migrant; mainly reported 
in spring. One was seen at Kosi Barrage 
between February and April 1981, and 12 
on 14 March 1982 (794). The onty other 
records are from Phewa Tal in April 1981 
(811), Bagmati Pools, Kathmandu Valley 
in September 1989 (256) and at Chitwan 
where it is described as a rare passage 
migrant from April to September (296), 
with a maximum of 22 on 10 May 1984 




^OOOr. JF'MA'M'J'J ASON D"^ 

(421). Found on mudflats and grassy areas. Range Winters 
on the coasts of the subcontinent. 



EURASIAN CURLEW Numenius arquata 

Curlew 

Subspecies orientalis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common winter visitor 
and passage migrant to Kosi Barrage, 
mainly reported there from September to 
April, with singles also noted on 13 July 
and 10 August 1975 (293). The maximum 
of 700 was noted on 16 March 1982 
(682,770). A scarce passage migrant else- 
where: small groups at Chitwan in Sep- 
tember and April (296), a few reports 
from the Kathmandu Valley, but only 
single sightings from elsewhere. Two 
were seen at 3050m at Khaptad (C3) on 8 
September 1989 (68). Occurs on mudflats 




J'F'M'A'MJ'JASO'N D 



and grassy fields. Range Winters throughout the subconti- 
nent, mainly on the coast. 



SPOTTED REDSHANK Tiinga erythropus 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
local winter visitor and passage migrant. 
Occasionally reported from Chitwan and 
Kosi Barrage between February and May. 
Seen three times at Phewa Tal 
(486,811,764). Single sightings from other 



areas. Only one record from the Kathmandu Valley since 
Hodgson's time (486). A maximum of eight was seen on 30 
April 1982 at Sukla Phanta (432). Frequents muddy banks 
and shallow water of rivers and lakes. Range Winters in 
Pakistan, India and Nepal. 



154 



Waders 



SPOTTED REDSHANK, cont'd ... 





COMMON REDSHANK Tiinga totanus 

Subspecies eurhinus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A local winter visitor and 
passage migrant. Occasionally reported 
from Kosi Barrage. Uncommon in the 
Kathmandu Valley, at Phewa Tal and at 
Chitwan where it is recorded from Sep- 
tember to April (296). Evidence of move- 
ment there in December 1982 when 
flocks of up to 20 birds were noted (304). 
Noted on passage in the Himalayas: twice 
found by Gokyo Lakes at 4700m in May 
(243,764), seen by Rara Lake in May 
(160) and in the Langu vaUey (F2) (330). 
Single reports from elsewhere. Found in 
marshes, rivers and lakes. Range Breeds 
in Kashmir and Ladakh. Winters 
throughout the subcontinent. 




MARSH SANDPIPER Tringa stagnatilis 

A Hodgson specimen was listed for Nepal 
by Sharpe (722), but it may have origi- 
nated in India. First definitely recorded 
by G. DiesseUiorst in the Rapti Dun (K6) 
on 9 April 1962 (190). An uncommon 
passage migrant and winter visitor to 
Chitwan (J6,K6) and Kosi Barrage. Only 
single reports from elsewhere. The maxi- 
mum of 11 was seen on 15 March 1982 at 
Kosi Barrage (794). Frequents marshes 
and mud banks of rivers and lakes. Range 
Winters throughout the subcontinent. 




jTTTa^M ■ J J ■ a S N D 



Waders 



155 



COMMON GREENSHANK Tringa nebulana 

Greenshank 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Common. Mainly a winter visitor and 
passage migrant between mid-August 
and May. Chiefly winters up to 370m, with 
a maximum of over 150 at Kosi Barrage 
on 8 February 1974 (518). A few birds 
remain there during the summer (293). 
The most abundant migrant wader at 
Chitwan; roosting flocks of up to 102 
birds counted in December 1982 (304). In 
the Kathmandu Valley most often seen 
from mid-August to mid-September 
(635). Singles noted on passage in 
Khumbu at 4800m on 30 August 1962 




(190), at Tukche in early Oaober 1973 (76) and by Kara 
Lake (127). Inhabits marshes, river banks and lakes. Range 
Winters throughout the subcontinent. 



GREEN SANDPIPER Tringa ocJtmpus 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common passage migrant and fairly com- 
mon in winter up to about 370m. Noted at 
Chitwan from September to early April 
(296,304). In the Kathmandu Valley most 
seen on passage in September, but small 
numbers regularly winter (629). Ob- 
served on passage: several reports be- 
tween February and May from the upper 
Kali Gandaki valley, also noted in April at 
Chitwan (432) and Kosi Barrage (483). 
Flocks seen in September and October in 
the upper Kali Gandaki valley (76) and 
other autumn records from Rara Lake 
(627), Manang (J4) (295,512), and at 




4250m at Pheriche (P6) (190). Frequents marshes, streams, 
lakes and rivers. Range Breeds in Chitral. Winters through- 
out the subcontinent. 



WOOD SANDPIPER Tringa glareola 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). An 
uncommon winter visitor but observed 
more frequently on passage, mainly in 
April, May and September. Regularly 
seen at Phewa Tal, Chitwan, Kosi Barrage 
and in the Kathmandu Valley. Noted on 
passage at Jomosom, where 14 were 
counted between 10 September and 9 
October 1973 (76), and one was seen at 
Muktinath at 3780m on 4 April 1984 
(421). Migrants have also been noted by 
Rara Lake in February 1977 (464), Octo- 
ber 1982 (627) and May 1985 (160). 
Mainly single records from other areas. 
The maximum reported is 40 at Kosi 




Barrage on 14 April 1981 (559). Found on marshes and 
banks of rivers and lakes. Range Winters throughout the 
subcontinent. 



156 

TEREK SANDPIPER Xenus cinenus 

(Tringa terek) 

Vagrant. First recorded by R.F. Grim- 
mett and J. Eames at Kosi Barrage on 18 
April 1982 (199^94). The only other rec- 
ords are from Gokyo Lake at about 
4710m: two were seen on 2 May 1984 and 
one photographed the next day (764). 
Range Winters on the coasts of the sub- 
continent. 



Waders 




COMMON SANDPIPER Actios hypoleucos 
(Tringa hypoleucos) 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common winter visitor from the tarai up 
to 1370m, mainly occurring between early 
August and the end of April. Numbers are 
increased by passage birds in spring and 
autumn. Occasionally reported from the 
Himalayas, presumably on passage. 
Noted several times in the upper Kali 
Gandaki valley in February, 50 to 52 were 
counted there between 7 September and 
9 October 1973 (76). Other high altitude 
records are from Rara Lake (83,464,785), 
Pheriche at 4250m (190), and as high as 
5400m at Gorak Shep Lake (P6) (679). 
Frequents marshes and banks of streams, 
rivers and lakes. Range Breeds from 
Kashmir east to Garhwal. Winters 
throughout the subcontinent. 




RUDDY TURNSTONE Arenana interprvs 
Turnstone 

Subspecies interpres. Vagrant. The only 
record is of one photographed on the 
gravel flats at Tukche on 14 September 
1973 by M. Beaman (76). Range Winters 
on the coasts of the subcontinent. 




Waders/Gulls 

RED-NECKED PHALAROPE Phalaropus lobatus 

Vagrant. One was recorded on Rara Lake 
shore on 16 October 1982 by D. Brearey 
and D. Pritchard (627). Range Winters 
off the Pakistan and Gujarat coasts. 



157 




GREAT BLACK-HEADED GULL Lams ichthyaetus 




First recorded by F.M. Bailey from the 
Kosi River on 9 February 1938 (62). A 
locally fairly common winter visitor and 
passage migrant. Several reports of up to 
20 birds. Most often seen at Tamaspur, 
Chitwan and Kosi, and occasionally at 
Bardia. Also recorded in winter from 
Rara Lake (137) and the Kathmandu 



Valley (154,506). Several spring and autumn sightings from 
elsewhere, presumably of passage birds. Found in March 
and April at Rara Lake (137), Phewa Tal (811,812), Kath- 
mandu Valley (243), Hetaura (476) and the lower Arun 
valley (546). Seen in the lower Arun valley in August (590), 
and at Rara Lake in October and November (83,627,691). 
Frequents large rivers of the lowlands. Range Winters on 
the coasts and rivers of the subcontinent. 



COMMON BLACK-HEADED GULL Lams ridibundus 
Black-headed GuU 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388,698). 
A winter visitor and passage migrant. 
Fairly common at Kosi Barrage from No- 
vember to May. The maximum of about 
150 was seen in February in 1974 (518) 
and 1984 (650). Occasionally found at 
Phewa Tal. Uncommon at Chitwan; re- 
corded there from September to April 
(296). Reported from the Himalayas at 
Rara Lake (127), in the upper Dudh Kosi 
valley (P6) at over 5490m in May 1977 
(243) and on Gokyo lakes at 4700m in 
November 1988 (453). Mainly single rec- 




j'fMA'M'JJ'ASONU 



ords from elsewhere. Occurs on lakes and large rivers. 
Range Winters mainly on the coasts of the subcontinent. 



158 



Gulls 



BROWN-HEADED GULL Lams brunnicephalus 






A Hodgson specimen was listed for Nepal 
by Saunders (698) but may have origi- 
nated in India. First definitely recorded 
by R.L. Fleming on the Bagmati River at 
Patan (L6) at 1280m on 24 October 1963. 
A winter visitor and passage migrant. 
Fairly common at Kosi Barrage and un- 
common at Chitwan. Also found in winter 
at Bardia (128,192), Kara Lake (785), and 
Kapilvastu (F6) (658). Numbers increase 



at Kosi in spring; a peak of 35 was reported in April 1979 
(486,559,652). Several spring and autumn reports from else- 
where, presumably of migrants. Noted in March at Phewa 
Tal (598,154), Begnas Tal (111) and the lower Arun valley 
(546), and in April at Kagbeni (812) and Hetaura (332). 
Seen in October at Rara Lake (244) and in the Kathmandu 
Valley (247). A party of 19 with one Black-headed Gull flew 
over the upper Dudh Kosi valley (P6) at 5490m in May 1977 
(243). Inhabits rivers and lakes. Range Breeds in Ladakh. 
Winters throughout the subcontinent. 



SLENDER-BILLED GULL Larusgenei 

First recorded by PA. Dukes el al. on 7 
February 1974 at Kosi Barrage. The fol- 
lowing day an immature was seen (518). A 
scarce and irregular winter visitor and 
passage migrant only seen at the barrage 
between January and mid-March and in 
November. The only other records are of 
one to two birds in February in 1975 
(293), 1979 (486,652), and 1981 (65,559), 
in January 1985 (142), in March 1987 
(744,769) and November 1989 (597). 
Range Breeds in Baluchistan. Winters in 
Sind and n.w. India. 



MEW GULL Lotus canus 
Common Gull 

Subspecies Acmei? Vagrant. A first year bird was recorded 
at Kosi Barrage on 12 February 1979 by R. Filby et al. It was 
still present on 21 February (486,651,652). Subsequently 
single adults have been recorded both from Phewa Tal, on 
21 January 1981 (180), and on 28 February 1983 (593). 
Range These are the first published records for the subcon- 
tinent. 



LESSER BLACK-BACKED AND YELLOW-LEGGED GULLS Larusjuscus and L cachinnans 



The status of these two species is unclear 
at present because of nomenclatural 
confusion; heuglini is considered to be a 
race of Herring Gull L. argentatus by 
some authors (e.g. 47,243), but is here 
treated as a race of Lesser Black-backed 
Gull. Most records received have not 
been identified subspecifically and are 
treated here as Yellow-legged/Lesser 
Black-backed Gulls. Winter visitor and 



passage migrant. Uncommon at Kosi Barrage: a maximum 
of six noted on 14 February 1981 (622). Several other 
reports, mainly in spring and autumn, presumably of pas- 
sage migrants. Noted at Phewa Tal in March and April 
(811,519,166) and September (141), Manang in October 
(658), and the Kathmandu Valley during the monsoon 
(243,418) and in October (256). One flew over Pheriche 
(P6) at 4725m on 8 November 1978 (314). Also recorded at 
Rara Lake (243) and Chitwan (296,746,408). 



Gulls/Terns 

LESSER BLACK-BACKED AND YELLOW-LEGGED GULLS, cont'd ... 



159 





I I I , I 



j'fMA'M'J'J'A'S'0'N'D 



LESSER BLACK-BACKED GULL Larusjuscus YELLOW-LEGGED GULL Lams cachimums 



A first year specimen, probably L. / heug- 
lini was collected from the Bagmati River, 
Kathmandu in November 1961 by R.L. 
Fleming Sr. (234,247). Only three other 
definite reports received, all from Kosi 
Barrage: an adult of the race L. f. fuscus 
was noted on 14 April 1981 (559), another 
adult of the race L. f. heuglini on 14 
February 1984 (650), and a juvenile on 5 
November 1989 (597). Range Winters on 
the coasts of Pakistan and w. India. 



First definitely recorded by R.F. Grimmett who saw one, 
probably of the race mongolicus, at Kosi Barrage on 1 1 Feb- 
ruary 1979 (486,652). Singles, probably of the same race, 
were also seen there on 15 February 1984 (650), 18 Novem- 
ber 1988 (596) and from 8 to 9 February 1989 (468). The 
only other record is of one at Phewa Tal on 9 March 1986 
(403). Range Winters on the coasts of Pakistan and India; 
also on the Ganges River. 



GULL-BILLED TERN Gelochelidon mlotica 

Subspecies affmisl First recorded at Kosi 
Barrage by S.C. Madge et at. on 25 Janu- 
ary 1974 (518). Winter visitor and passage 
migrant. Fairly common at Kosi Barrage 
where up to ten birds are often reported 
in winter. Peak numbers have been noted 
in spring; a maximum of about 60 was 
seen in late April 1981 (483). Only a few 
spring and autumn records from else- 
where, presumably of passage birds. Ob- 
served at Chitwan in April (56), Phewa 
Tal in May (563,811), Manang (J4) in 
August (587), the Kathmandu Valley in 
September (587), and Rara Lake (127). 
Frequents large rivers and lakes. Range 
Breeds locally in Pakistan, West Bengal 
and Bangladesh. Winters throughout the 
subcontinent. 




160 

CASPIAN TERN Sterna caspia 

Subspecies caspia. First recorded at Kosi 
Barrage on 7 and 8 February 1974 by S.C. 
Madge et al. (518). A winter visitor and 
passage migrant. Fairly common at Kosi 
where twenty birds have been reported in 
February and March. Numbers increase 



Tents 



in ^ring; maxima of about 20 were noted in mid-March 
1982 (770) and in 1989 (172). The only other reports are 
from Bardia where one was seen on 8 November 1985 (162) 
and from Chitwan where it is a rare winter visitor and 
passage migrant (2%). Range Breeds locally in Baluchistan 
and Sri Lanka. Winters throughout the subcontinent. 



RIVER TERN Sterna aunmtia 



1 r 

I 



^..r- 



1. 1- 



">jr 




First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
locally common resident and partial mi- 
grant mainly recorded up to 610m. Regu- 
larly reported from the Kamali River at 
Bardia, rivers at Chitwan, and at Kosi. An 



influx of up to 50 was noted at Kosi during the monsoon 
(293), but the maximum of 450 was estimated there in late 
November 1984 (58). An adult was observed feeding young 
at Kosi in May (432). Frequents marshes, streams and 
rivers. Range Throughout the subcontinent. 



COMMON TERN Sterna hinmdo 

First recorded by D. Proud on the 
Manora River, Kathmandu Valley: a ju- 
venile taken on 8 August 1953 was of the 
race tibetana (628,635). Several other 
autumn records from the Valley, chiefly 
from the Bagmati and Manora Rivers 
between August and October. Uncom- 
mon at Kosi and found there in February, 
April, May, September and November 
with a maximum of 30 in two flocks seen 
in late April 1981 (483). An adult ob- 
served at the Barrage on 16 April 1982 
was apparently of the race tongipennis 
(294). Also noted at Chitwan (296), at 
Phewa Tal in April (82), May (811,800), 
and in July and August (688). Seen as high 
as 4000m at Tengboche (P6) in May 1975 
(580). Range Breeds Ladakh. Winters 
locally throughout the subcontinent. 




Terns 



161 



BLACK-BELLIED TERN Sterna acuticauda 




A Hodgson specimen was listed for Nepal 
by Saunders (698), but it may have origi- 
nated in India. First definitely recorded 
by FM. Bailey from Tribeni (H7) at 75m 
on 12 January 1936 (62). A common resi- 




S ■ fi D 



dent and partial summer visitor. Found on marshes and 
rivers of the tarai and foothills up to about 730m. Numbers 
generally increase at Kosi Barrage during spring, but the 
peak of about 60 was noted on 15 February 1984 (650). 
Range Throughout the subcontinent east of the Indus 
River. 



LUTLETERN Sterna albifions 

Subspecies albifions. Noted without de- 
tails from the Kamali and Kosi Rivers by 
S.D. Ripley during 1947 to 1949 (659). 
The first detailed record was of one seen 
by General Sushil Rana and R.L. Reming 
in September 1973 on the Bagmati River, 
Kathmandu (243). A fairly common sum- 
mer visitor to Chitwan and Kosi Barrage. 
The maximum of 100 has been noted at 
Kosi in May 1987 (792). Adults with 
young were found in May on the Kamali 
River at Bardia (432) and at Kosi Barrage 
(792). Single reports from elsewhere. 




ICX 



r « AA« A J 



Occurs on rivers and lakes. Range Breeds Pakistan, n. India 
and locally throughout the subcontinent. 



WHISKERED TERN Chlidonias hybridus 

Subspecies indicus. First recorded by H.S. 
Nepali who collected a specimen in Sh- 
ishawabit-Sapti District (P8) at 190m on 
13 February 1971 (589). An irregular and 
uncommon winter visitor and spring pas- 
sage migrant to Kosi Barrage. By far the 
largest number reported is over 400 on 30 
April 1982 (561). The only other records 
are of migrants in March at the Chatra 
Canal (Q8) (243) and Kosi Tappu (193); 
in March, April and May at Chitwan 
(703,205,730) and in May at Phewa Tal 
(483). Range Breeds in Kashmir, n. and 
n.e. India and Bangladesh. Winters 
throughout the subcontinent. 




162 



Tems/Sandgrouse 



WHITE-WINGED TERN Chlidonias leucoptenis 
White-winged Black Tern 




The first confirmed record is one seen at 
Phewa Tal by N. Krabbe et al. on 4 May 
1981. They also reported a sighting t^ 
another observer at Begnas Tal the previ- 
ous day (483). A rare spring passage mi- 
grant. Small numbers were noted at Kosi 



Barrage from 30 April to 2 May 1982 (199,294,561), and 
four there on 19 May 1987 (792,484). The only other 
sightings are of singles near Sauraha (J6) on 8 May 1982 
(703) and in the Kathmandu Valley on 26 April 1985 (418). 
Range Winters in Assam, Bangladesh, and irregularly 
throughout the rest of the subcontinent. 



INDIAN SKIMMER Rynchops albicollis 

Obtained by B. Hodgson in his later col- 
lection (276), but the specimen may have 
originated in India. First definitely re- 
corded by R.L. Fleming and H. Gilston at 
Kosi Barrage on U April 1975 (243). 
Subsequently reported from Kosi Bar- 
rage where it is an irregular and uncom- 
mon visitor recorded from February to 



July. A maximum of seven was noted in February and 
March 1981 (180,442). A pair repeatedly chased other birds 
from a sandbank in the river in late May 1979, apparently 
defending territory (509). The only other known locality is 
the Kamali River close to the Indian border (C5), where 
two were seen on 30 March 1986 (418). Range Large rivers 
of n. and e. India and Pakistan. 



[PAINTED SANDGROUSE 

Pterocles indicus 

Range Pakistan and India east to Bengal 
and south to Tamil Nadu.] 



[BLACK-BELLIED SANDGROUSE PterocUs onentalis 

Imperial Sandgrouse 

Subspecies onentalis. Range Breeds in Pakistan. Winters to 
n.w. India.] 



[CHESTNUT-BELLIED SANDGROUSE 

PlenxJes exustus 

Indian Sandgrouse 

Subspecies ertangeri. Range Baluchistan and India.] 



All three sandgrouse species have only been recorded by B. Hodgson (388). The specimens were obtained from 
the plains and it is possible they originated from an area which nowadays lies in India south of the Nepal border. 



Pigeons/Doves 



163 



ROCK PIGEON ColumbaUvia 
Rock Dove, Blue Rock Pigeon 

Subspecies intermedia. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). An abundant resident 
subject to altitudinal movements. Sum- 
mers from the tarai up to 4270m and 
winters up to at least 2810m. Breeding 
confirmed in the Kathmandu Valley 
(659). May nest throughout the year but 
mainly May to July in the higher Hima- 
layas (53). Inhabits towns and villages, 
rocky cliffs and gorges. In urban localities 
the birds are seim-feral interbreeding 
with domestic varieties. Range Through- 
out the subcontinent. 




HILL PIGEON Columba ntpestris 
Turkestan Hill Pigeon 

Subspecies turkestanica. First recorded 
on 19 December 1963 at Jharkot (H4) at 
3350m by R.L. Fleming Jr. (212). A resi- 
dent usually occurring above 3000m in 
summer. May move south and to lower 
elevations in winter after severe weather. 
Common in the Tibetan plateau region. 
Found breeding at Shey Gompa (F3) 
(243). Noted as far south as Macchermo 
(P6) at 4465m in November 1987 (558), 
Landrung CH5) at 1650m in March 1989 
(166), and Kodari (M6) at 2000m (un- 
dated) (243). Frequents rocky cliffs, 
gorges, villages and old buildings. Range 
Himalayas from Gilgit east to Sikkim. 




SNOW PIGEON Columba Uuconota 




164 

SNOW PIGEON, cont'd ... 

Subspecies leuconota. The species was 
first described by Vigors, from a specimen 
from the Himalayas (788); later given as 
Nepal by Baker (63). First definitely re- 
corded by B. Hodgson (388). A common 



Pigeons/Doves 



resident of the Himalayas subject to altitudinal movements. 
Inhabits alpine areas in summer, generally over 3600m. 
Regularly descends as low as 1500m in winter. Found 
breeding in the upper Arun (167), and at Khumjung (P6) 
(190). Occurs on rocky cliffs and gorges. Range Himalayas 
from N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



COMMON WOODPIGEON Columba patumbus 
Woodpigeon 



Subspecies casiotis. A specimen was listed 
for Nepal by Salvadori (696), but it may 
have originated in India. First definitely 
recorded by R.L. Fleming Sr. on 9 Febru- 
ary 1957 at Tin Pani Bhangjang forest, 
Kathmandu VaUey at 2275m (234,245). 
No further reports until the 1980s. Now 
an erratic winter visitor occu rring in large 
flocks in some years, but absent in others. 
Several records from north-west of 
Pokhara (H5) and the Kathmandu Valley 
and single reports from Jumla (244) and 
nearCharikot (M6) (748). The maximum 
of more than 4000 was recorded near 
Dhampus (H5) at 1800m on 5 March 1983 
(66). Range Breeds in the Himalayas 
from N.W.F.P. to Kashmir; east to Nepal 
in winter. 




F^nrj^ 



''m^j "1 J ' a"* s ' o" N^ o 



SPECKLED WOODPIGEON Columba hodgsonii 




>--A 




This species was described by Vigors from 
the Himalayas (789); later given as Nepal 
by Baker(63). First definitely recorded by 
B. Hodgson (346). A resident subject to 
irregular movements appearing wher- 
ever its favoured trees have ripe fruit. 
Over 1000 were estimated near Dhampus 



(H5) on 21 January 1985 (150). Occasionally seen in the 
Kathmandu Valley, Khaptad (C3), north-west of Pokhara 
and in Langtang. Mainly single reports received from 
elsewhere. Found in dense broadleaved forests but may 
also feed on weed seeds and grain. Range Himalayas from 
Gilgit east to Arunachal Pradesh and n.e. India. 



Pigeons/Doves 



165 



ASHYWOODPIGEON Colwnba pulchricollis 



This species was described by E. Blyth 
probably from specimens taken by 
Hodgson in Nepal (116 ,797). First defi- 
nitely recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Resident; chiefly occurring above 1100m. 
Like the Speckled Woodpigeon wanders 
in search of available fruiting trees. Regu- 
larly seen in the Kathmandu Valley and 
found breeding there in Chapagaon for- 
est (243). Occasionally reported from the 
upper Mai valley (R7,S7) and from the 
upper Kali Gandaki valley north to Lete 
(H4); the western limit of the species's 
range. Breeding behaviour is little known. 
Few records from other areas. Frequents 
dense broadleaved evergreen forests. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 




EURASIAN COLLARED DOVE Streptopelia decaocto 
Indian Ring Dove, Collared Dove 



Subspecies decaocto. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A fairly common resident 
throughout the tarai and duns mainly 
found up to 400m; subject to altitudinai 
movements depending on food supply. 
Recorded as high as 2440m at Jumla in 
mid-winter (243). Proved breeding at 
Chitwan (296). Reported feeding on rip- 
ening rice in the Kathmandu Valley (635). 
Found in dry open cultivation with 
groves. Range Throughout the subconti- 
nent. 




J ■ F -1 AA'1 1 A J 



RED TURTLE DOVE Streptopelia tranquebarica 
Red Collared Dove 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common resident throughout the 
lowlands up to 300m. Two races occur S. 
t. tranquebarica (t) and S. t. humilis (h). 
Found breeding at Sukla Phanta (432) 
and Chitwan (296,432). Mainly a summer 
visitor at higher altitudes. The maximum 
height reported is at 1370m in the Kath- 
mandu Valley where it is an uncommon 
summer visitor from April to September. 
Occurs in cultivation and open scrub 
country with scattered broadleaved trees. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 




166 



Pigeons/Doves 



ORIENTAL TURTLE DOVE Streptopelia orientalis 
Rufous Turtle Dove 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Common. Chiefly a resident and winter 
visitor subject to seasonal movements. 
Reported from about 365m up to 4570m 
in summer. Proved breeding at Jharkot 
(H4) (811), the Kathmandu Valley (%), 
Hetaura (%) and the upper Mai Valley 
(742). In winter mainly occurs below 
1370m, occasionally up to 2000m. Some 
birds may move south into India. Two 
resident races occur S. o. meena (m) 
(512,647) and S. o. agricola (a) 
(109,247,659) and intermediates (am) 
(96,659,708). Only one record of the 
northern race S. o. orientalis (o): a pair 




taken on 29 October 1957 at Kapel (L6) (245). Inhabits 
open broadleaved forests particularly near cultivation. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent except the arid north- 
west. 



LAUGHING DOVE Streptopelia senegalensis 
Palm Dove, Little Brown Dove 



V"'. 




Subspecies cambayensis. First recorded 
on 2 December 1967 at Balaju (L6) at 
1340m by H.S. NepaU (589). Scarce, 
status and movements are uncertain. 
Reported to winter around Jumla at 
2440m (243). A few sightings from Chi- 



twan in February, May and November (198,703,813). The 
only other records are from Bardia (809), Trisuli River 
(243) and Kosi Tappu (327). Breeds chiefly between Janu- 
ary and October. Frequents dry cultivation, villages and 
open scrub country. Range Throughout the subcontinent, 
except for n.e. India. 



SPOTTED DOVE Streptopelia chinensis 

Subspecies suratensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). An abundant resident 
from the tarai up to 1500m. In summer 
occasionally reported up to 2000m and 
rarely to 4000m. Proved breeding at 
Khaptad(C3) (428), Chirwan (296) and in 
the Kathmandu Valley (336,414,756). 
Frequents cultivation, gardens and habi- 
tation. Generally found in wetter and 
more wooded areas than Collared and 
Laughing Doves. Range Throughout the 
subcontinent. 




Pigeons/Doves 



167 



BARRED CUCKOO-DOVE Macropygia unchall 
Long-tailed Cuckoo-Dove, Bar-tailed Cuckoo-Dove 



^^^. 





Subspecies tusalia. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). Mainly a scarce resident. 
The only place where it is regularly re- 
ported is between Sukhani and Garuwa 
(R8) where flocks of up to seven have 



been seen (518,559). A few records from Kathmandu Valley 
forests, particularly on Phulchowici, and near Pokhara. Only 
single records from elsewhere. Inhabits dense, 
broadleaved, evergreen forests. Range Himalayas from Ka- 
shmir to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



EMERALD DOVE Chalcophaps indica 
Green-winged Pigeon, Common Emerald Dove 

Subspecies indica. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A sedentary and locally 
common resident, mainly found up to 
about 365m. Rarefy reported from higher 
altitudes. Areas include Sukla Phanta, 
Bardia, Hetaura, north of Sunischare and 
also Chitwan, where proved breeding 
(296). Only one record from the Kath- 
mandu Valley: a pair at Gokama in De- 
cember 1978 (486). Frequents moist 
broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas 
from Kashmir east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
south to Bangladesh and s. India. 




ORANGE-BREASTED GREEN PIGEON Trenm bicincta 



Subspecies bicincta. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (276), but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by R.L. 
Fleming Sr. from Butwal at 275m in Janu- 
ary 1950 (647). Locally distributed in the 
lowlands. A common breeding resident at 
Chitwan (296). Fairly common at Kosi 
Tappu (327). Mainly single records from 
elsewhere. Occurs in sal and riverine 
forests. Range Himalayas from Uttar 
Pradesh to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India, 
Bangladesh and hills of e. and s.w. India. 




J fA^ ' a ' M ' J J a ^£^0 H IT 



168 



Pigeons/Doves 



POMPADOUR GREEN PIGEON Troon pompadom 
Grey-fronted Green Pigeon 



The apparently endemic subspecies 
co/iove/i was first described by R.L. Flem- 
ing Sr. from a specimen taken from But- 
wal at 275m on 25 January 1950 (645,647). 
A fairly common and locally distributed 
resident at Chitwan (296,432). Uncom- 
mon at Tamaspur, Kosi Tappu and north 
of Sunischare. Single reports from else- 
where. Sight records from east Nepal at 
Chatra (518) and Kosi Tappu (174) may 
refer to conoveri or to the eastern 
subspecies p/iay/t). Frequents sal and riv- 
erine forests. Range Himalayas from 




Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India, Bangladesh 
and the hills of s.w. India. 



THICK-BILLED GREEN PIGEON Treron cwvimstm 



M? 




,^""\ 




Subspecies nipalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (355). A scarce and local 
readent in lowland forests. Several reports 
from Chitwan (J6,K6). Described as 'oc- 
casional' in the eastern tarai (P8,Q8,R8) 
in 1976 (293) but only six other records re- 



ceived: between Garuwa and Sukhani (R8) (207,559, 
561^21,183) and Dharan (561). Found 2 to 3km west of Ta- 
maspur (H6) on 26 April 1978 (159), the westernmost 
locaUty for the species. Occurs in sal and riverine forests. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



YELLOW-FOOTED GREEN PIGEON Tremn phoenicoptem 
Bengal Green Pigeon, Green Pigeon 



Subspecies p/ioe«icop(era. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (388). A resident through- 
out the lowlands and foothills. Fairly 
common at Bardia (192) and Chitwan 
(296), occasionally seen elsewhere up to 
250m and uncommon up to 1400m. Noted 
as high as 1480m in Mechi Zone (658) in 
January 1989 (658). Occurs in 
broadleaved forests and groves. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 




Pigeons /Doves 



169 



PIN-TAILED GREEN PIGEON Treron apicauda 



Subspecies apicauda . First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A scarce resident in the 
lowlands. Several sightings from forests 
north of Sunischare. Only single records 
from elsewhere. Noted at Kaneri (B4) 
(246), Bardia (162), near Pokhara (762), 
Chitwan (296,762), Tamaspur (486,652), 
Betrawati (L6) (516) and Hetaura (%). 
Found in sal and riverine forests. Range 
Himalayas from Kumaon east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




J F ^A* ■' A- >■ -■ O O " 



WEDGE-TAILED GREEN PIGEON Treron sphenum 



Subspecies 5p/ienura. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A locally fairly common 
resident subjea to seasonal movements, 
most often seen between 1525m and 
2000m. Two seen at 2800m at Chumo 
(N6) in April 1986 (75). Regularly found 
in the Kathmandu Valley and Langtang. 
Occasionally reported north-west of 
Pokhara and in the Arun and Mai valleys. 
Mainly single records from elsewhere. 
Only one record from Chitwan: in the 
Churia hills (J6) in May 1989 (67). Inhab- 
its mixed broadleaved forests. Range 
Himalayas from Kashmir east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




J^F MAA "^ JAJ 'AS N D^ 



MOUNTAIN IMPERIAL PIGEON Ducula badia 

Imperial Pigeon, Maroon-backed Imperial Pigeon 

Subspecies insignis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson who obtained a specimen in 
breeding condition on 24 June from the 
lower hills (336,355). Scarce, probably 
resident. Described as possibly occurring 
in the west (53) but no records have been 
traced. Three specimens were collected 
from Walung Forest, Iswa-Arun valley 
(Q6) between 1150m and 1250m in Feb- 
ruary 1959 (482). The only other reports 
are from Chitwan (J6,K6) in October/ 
November 1978 (296,759,762), March 
1982 (770) and February 1988 (481), and 
in the Rapti dun (L7) (undated) (223). 
Inhabits den^e broadleaved forests. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India, Bangla- 
desh and hills of s.w. India. 



-^"\ 




W=X: 



^~mo- J ' fAm' am' jAj ' A s ' o 



170 



Pigeons/Parrots 



[GREEN IMPERIAL PIGEON Ducula aenea 

A specimen was listed as doubtfully from 
Nepal by Salvadori (6%), and others have 
also included Nepal in the range of the 
species (46,63). No definite records have 
been traced. Range From e. Uttar 
Pradesh east to n.e. India and south to s. 
India.] 



VERNAL HANGING PARROT 

Indian Lorikeet 



Loriculns vemalis 



Subspecies vemalis. Scarce, probably resident. First re- 
corded by B. Hodgson from the tarai on 20 June (336^58). 
Only three other reports: noted as rare at Chitwan (296); 
found in the eastern tarai at Jhapa (R9) (undated) (247); 
and at Chisapani (N8) at 275m on 23 June 1%5 (247). Nests 
January to April. Frequents humid forests. Range Hima- 
layas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and 
Bangladesh; s. and e. India. 



ALEXANDRINE PARAKEET Psittacula eupatria 
Large Parakeet 



Subspecies nipalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (358). A common resident in 
the tarai and lower hills up to about 365m; 
rare at higher altitudes. Proved breeding 
at Chitwan (296). Inhabits sal and riverine 
forests. Range Throughout the subconti- 
nent. 




ROSE-RINGED PARAKEET 

Ring-necked Parakeet 



Psittacula krameri 



Subspecies borealis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). An abundant resident up 
to 365m. Only occasionally seen at higher 
altitudes with the exception of the Kath- 
mandu Valley. It has been frequently 
reported from there since 1979, but the 
population may have originated from 
escaped cage birds. Discovered breeding 
in Kathmandu in April 1982 (517); also 
proved breeding at Sukla Phanta (432) 
and Chitwan (296). Frequents 
broadleaved forests, secondary growth, 
gardens, cultivation and villages. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 




SLATY-HEADED PARAKEET Psittacula himalayana 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (358). Resi- 
dent. The only parrot commonly found 
above 1350m. Usually summers up to 
2000m and winters down to 1000m. Seen 
at the unusually high altitude of 3260m on 
Machapuchare (244). Infrequently found 



at lower altitudes in winter. Common north-west of 
Pokhara (H5) and fairly common on hills surrounding the 
Kathmandu Valley. Only occasionally seen elsewhere. Fre- 
quents broadleaved forests and favours flowering silk cot- 
ton trees. Range Himalayas from Pakistan east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh. 



Parrots/Cuckoos 

SLATY-HEADED PARAKEET, cont'd . 



171 





y^-- y^' ^- 



PLPII ,1 



PLUM-HEADED PARAKEET Psittacula cyanocephala 
Blossom-headed Parakeet 



Subspecies bengalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A fairly common resi- 
dent throughout the tarai and lower hills 
up to 500m; occasionally reported up to 
1525m. Proved breeding at Chitwan 
(296). Described in 1949 as moderately 
common in the Kathmandu Valley and 
surrounding hiUs (629), but there are very 
few later records. Occurs in well-wooded 
areas. Range Pakistan, India east to Bhu- 
tan duars and Nepal. 




MOUSTACHED PARAKEET 

Rose-breasted Parakeet 



Psittacula alexandri 



Subspecies /arc/a/a. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (336,358). A locally fairly com- 
mon resident, rarely found above 365m. 
Areas include north of Sunischare and 
also Chitwan where proved breeding 
(296). Described as a common local mi- 
grant from January to June in Morang 
District (Q8) (293). Recorded from the 
Kathmandu Valley last century (336,708), 
but no later records. Frequents open 
broadleaved forests and groves. Range 
Himalayas from Kumaon east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




PIED CUCKOO Clamatorjacobinus 
Pied Crested Cuckoo, Jacobin Cuckoo 

Subspecies serratus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A summer visitor mainly 
occurring up to 365m, but one noted as 
high as 3660m in Khumbu (243). Most 
reports are during the monsoon. Uncom- 
mon at Chitwan and scarce elsewhere. 



Localities include Sukla Phanta (700), Dipayal (B3) (68), 
Hetaura (96,245, 601), the Kathmandu Valley, Kosi Tappu 
(174,432,597) and elsewhere in the east (P8,Q8) (293). One 
was collected in the Kathmandu Valley on 11 January 1962 
(190), the only winter record for the Indian subcontinent. 
Inhabits broadleaved forests. Range Throughout the sub- 
continent. 



172 

PIED CUCKOO, cont'd . 



Cuckoos 




CHESTNUT-WINGED CUCKOO Clamator commandus 
Red-winged Crested Cuckoo 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
very local summer visitor, mainly occur- 
ring from 250m to 365m. Fairly common 
at Chitwan where proved breeding (2%). 
A few have been seen passing through the 
Kathmandu Valley from April to June 
(243), in August (68) and October (589). 
Fairly common in the Hetaura duns in 
May and June 1947 (96), but no later 
records. The only other reports are from 
near Pokhara in 1977 (762) and near 
Dharan in April 1986 (763,546). Fre- 
quents both dense and light broadleaved 
forests, also thorny undergrowth and 
scrub. Range Breeds in the Himalayas 
from Garhwal east to Arunachal Pradesh, 
and in n.e. India. Winters in s. India. 




HODGSON'S HAWK-CUCKOO HierococcyxfUgax 

(Cuculus fugax) 

Subspecies nisicolor. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson who obtained at least one speci- 
men from the lower hills in April 
(336,388). The only other record is of one 
seen at Kosi Tappu on 11 March 1988 
(328). Found in broadleaved wooded 
country (53). Range Himalayas from 
Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh. 




Cuckoos 



173 



COMMON HAWK-CUCKOO Hienxoccyx varius 

(Cuculus varius) 



Subspecies varius. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common resident from 
the tarai up to 1000m; rarely found 
higher. Reported to breed in small num- 
bers in the Kathmandu Valley last century 
(708), but there are few later records. 
Proved breeding at Chitwan (296). Like 
other cuckoos it is silent for much of the 
non-breeding season and is then easily 
overlooked. Occurs in lightly-wooded 
areas including gardens, cultivation and 
groves. Range Throughout the subconti- 
nent. 




LARGE HAWK-CUCKOO Hienxoccyx sparverioides 
(Cuculus sparverioides) 



Subspecies sparverioides. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (388). Mainly a fairly 
common summer visitor between 1830m 
and 3000m. Found breeding in the east- 
em hiUs (Q8) (293). Most birds move 
south to the Indian peninsula but there 
are a few winter records: noted at 1800m 
and 2460m (780), and one was also taken 
at 1830m in Nawakot District in January 
(647). One, presumably on passage, was 
seen at Chitwan on 29 April 1980 (440). 
Found in broadleaved forests, especially 
in oaks. Range Breeds in the Himalayas 
from Pakistan east to Arunachal Pradesh 
and in n.e. India. Winters south to s. 
India. 




ASIAN EMERALD CUCKOO Chrysococcyx maculatus 
Emerald Cuckoo (Chalcites maculatus) 



First recorded by B. Hodgson from the 
Kathmandu Valley and Bhimpedi, in 
June, August and September (336^88). A 
scarce summer visitor. There are three 
reports from the Kathmandu Valley: a 
small party seen on 7 September in the 
early 1950s (635); a specimen taken in 
May 1959 by the Vishnumati River (247); 



and one found in August 1978 at Gokama (688). The only 
other records are of singles found in April at Chitwan in 
1982 (296,432), and at 1830m near Pokhara (250), and one 
at Malunga (H6) in September 1988 (575). Nests mid-April 
to July. Occurs in evergreen, broadleaved forests. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from Garhwal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh, and in n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



174 



Cuckoos 



GREY-BELLIED PLAINTIVE CUCKOO Cacomantis passerinus 

Grey-bellied Cuckoo, Indian Plaintive Cuckoo 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Occasional. A summer visitor mainty 
reported between late April and August 
from the tarai up to 1400m; rare up to 
2135m. Probably overlooked because of 
its resemblance to Black-winged Cuckoo- 
Shrike, and its silence after breeding. 
Localities include Dandeldhura and Doti 
Districts (B3,C3) (657), Chitwan, Kath- 
mandu Valley, upper Arun valley (483), 
Mechi Zone (R7,R8) (658) and Kosi 
Tappu. Frequents groves and open 
forests. Range Summers in n. Pakistan 
and n. India from Kashmir and Mt. Abu 
east to Bhutan and Meghalaya. Winters 
south to s. India. 




RUFOUS-BELLIED PLAINTIVE CUCKOO Cacomantis merulinus 
Plaintive Cuckoo 



Subspecies querulus. A Hodgson speci- 
men was listed for Nepal by Shelley (724), 
but it may have originated in India. First 
definitely recorded by A. Goodwin and S. 
Gawn who saw one at Chitwan on 21 
February 1986 (264,260). The only other 



record is of one at Kosi Barrage on 9 February 1989 (468). 
Sometimes considered conspecific with Grey-bellied Plain- 
tive Cuckoo (243). Occurs in weU-wooded country (53). 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



BANDED BAY CUCKOO Cacomantis sonnemtii 



Subspecies sonneratii. A Hodgson speci- 
men was Usted for Nepal by Shelley (724), 
but it may have originated in India. First 
defmitely recorded by F.M. Bailey from 
Tribeni (H7) at 75m on 29 December 
1935 (62). An uncommon visitor to Chi- 
twan from February to October (296). 
Mainly single reports from elsewhere. 
Recently found north of Sunischare (R8) 
(518,307), Tamaspur (682), lower Arun 
valley (590), Dharan (561,307,597). In- 
habits dense broadleaved forests in the 
lowlands. Range Himalayas from 
Kumaon east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
south to Bangladesh and s. India. 




Tfi^^ 



Cuckoos 



175 



INDIAN CUCKOO Cuculus microplems 
Short-winged Cuckoo 

Subspecies micropterus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Mainly a summer visi- 
tor, although reported to be resident in 
the eastern tarai (P8,Q8) (174,293). 
Common in spring and summer from 
April onwards from the tarai up to 2100m. 
Occasionally moves above this altitude. 
Occurs at Chitwan (J6,K5) between Feb- 
ruaiy and September and arrives in the 
Kathmandu Valley in early April. Proved 
breeding in both areas (296,629). Fre- 
quents forests, well-wooded country and 
groves. Range Throughout the subconti- 
nent except the arid north-west. 




EURASIAN CUCKOO Cuculus cattoms 
Common Cuckoo 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common summer visitor from 915m to 
3800m; uncommon up to 915m from 
March to September. Two intergrading 
races occur, C. c. canorus (c) (96,647,708) 
and C. c. bakeri (b) (22). The species 
occurs in the Kathmandu Valley between 
early April and early Oaober (629,708). 
Many seen passing through in September 
and October (629). Breeding confirmed 
at Manangbhot (J4) (512), in the Kath- 
mandu Valley (708), and the upper Mai 
valley (ST) (735). Inhabits open wooded 
country and secondary growth. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from N.W.F.P. 
to Arunachal Pradesh, and in n.e. India. 
Winters south to s. India. 




wn 



J ' F^^^^^^^^^^^J^ 



ORIENTAL CUCKOO 

Himalayan Cuckoo 



Cuculus saturatus 



Subspecies saturatus. The species was 
described by E. Blyth from Hodgson 
specimens taken in Nepal (114,797). Pos- 
sibly resident in the Himalayas (53), and 
reported to descend to lower altitudes in 
the foothills and plains in winter (243). 
However Nepalese records received are 
from the end of March to September. 
Common between 1525m and 3050m in 
spring and summer from April onwards. 
Proved breeding at Godavari (96, 432). 
Occurs in open wooded country. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from N.W.F.P. 
east to Arunachal Pradesh, and n.e. India. 




176 



Cuckoos 



LESSER CUCKOO Cuadus poKocephahis 
Little Cudcoo, Small Cuckoo 

A Hodgson specimen was listed for Nepal 
by Shelley (724), but it may have origi- 
nated in India. First definitely recorded 
by H. Stevens from the upper Mai valley 
(S7) at about 2135m on 25 May 1912 
(741). A summer visitor chiefly occurring 
between 1500m and 3660m. Common on 
Sheopuri in sprii^g (243), fairly common 
at Khaptad (C3) (428), in the middle hills 
(L5,L6,P6) (559), in Langtang and in the 
upper Arun vaUey. Single reports from 
elsewhere. Possibly under-recorded be- 
cause of its late arrival in spring. Inhabits 
dense broadleaved forests. Range Breeds 




in the Himalayas from Pakistan east to Arunachal Pradesh 
and n.e. India. Migrates through Bangladesh and the Indian 
peninsula. 



DRONGO-CUCKOO Sumiculus lugubris 




Subspecies dicruroides. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (382). A local summer visitor 
mainly occurring up to 1500m. Noted at 
2000m at Gopetar (R7) in May (658). A 
common breeder at Chitwan, where it is 
reported from April to early November 



(296,597). Fairly common in the Kathmandu Valley in 
spring (243,635). Mainly single reports from elsewhere. 
Other localities include Khaptad (C3) (428), Bardia, Kosi 
Tappu, Dharan, and Sukhani to Garuwa (R8). Frequents 
edges and clearings of forests and groves. Range Through- 
out the subcontinent, except the arid north-west. 



COMMON KOEL Eudynamys scolopacea 
Koel Cuckoo, Asian Koel 



Subspecies scolopacea. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Common throughout 
up to 1370m. Noted between 1700m and 
1800m in the east at Taplejung (R7) (658) 
and in Dhankuta District (Q7) (613). 
Reported to be resident at Bardia (192) 
and in the eastern tarai and foothills 



(P8,Q8) (174,293); possibly resident at Sukla Phanta (700). 
A summer visitor to the Kathmandu VaUey chiefly occur- 
ring from March to October (417). Uncommon at Chitwan 
(J6,K6) and only found there from March to September. 
Occurs in gardens, groves, cultivation and villages. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 



Cuckoos 



177 



COMMON KOEL, cont'd . 




GREEN-BILLED MALKOHA Phaenicophaeus tristis 

Large Green-billed Malkoha (Rhopodytes tristis) 



Subspecies tristis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). Fairly common up to 
about 700m; uncommon at higher alti- 
tudes. Resident at Bardia (192), Chitwan 
(296), and near Dharan (293). A summer 
visitor to the Kathmandu Valley where it 
is chiefly reported from April to Septem- 
ber. Breeding confirmed at Chitwan 
(296). Inhabits dense thickets in forests. 
Range Himalayas from Garhwal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh, extending south to e. 
Madhya Pradesh and Bangladesh. 




SIRKEER MALKOHA Phaenicophaeus leschenaultU 
Sirkeer Cuckoo {Taccocua leschenaultii) 



Subspecies infuscatus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Resident up to about 
365m. Occasionally seen in the far west at 
Sukla Phanta and Bardia; uncommon 
further east. Found in scrub, thorny 
bushes and acacia trees in dry stony areas. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 




178 



Cuckoos/Owls 



GREATER COUCAL Centmpus snaias 

Large Coucal, Common Crow-Pheasant 

Subspecies sinensis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common and sedentary 
resident mainly found up to about 365m. 
Up to three seen in June 1988 at the 
unusually high altitude of 850m to 900m 
in Ham District (R8), including a mating 
pair (658). Proved breeding at Chitwan 
(296). Occurs in taU grasslands and thick- 
ets near cultivation, gardens and villages. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 




LESSER COUCAL Centropus bengalensis 
Small Coucal (Centropus loulou) 



.-^'A 




Subspecies bengalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A local resident and 
possibly also a summer migrant, chiefly 
reported up to 365m. Seen several times 
between 750m and 1400m at Jitpur and 
Siddhithumka, Ham Distria (R8) on 26 
June 1988 (658). Fairly common at Chi- 



twan where proved breeding. Numbers are noted to in- 
crease there in summer (296). Occasionally reported from 
elsewhere. Found in large expanses of tall grassland and 
reedbeds in the lowlands, and in Salima grass with bamboo 
clumps and scattered trees and bushes (658). Range Hima- 
layas from Dehra Dun east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India 
and Bangladesh south to Orissa; also s.w. India. 



BARN OWL Tytoalba 
Common Bam Owl 

Subspecies stertens. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (385). A local resident. Uncom- 
mon in the Kathmandu Valley where it 
roosts in the roofs of old buildings. Sev- 
eral recent sightings from Durbar Square, 
Kathmandu. A family group was ob- 
served on the roof of Kalimati Durbar in 
January (247). The only other report is 
from south of Annapuma in 1977 (762). 
Crepuscular and nocturnal. Breeds prac- 
tically all year (53). Range Throughout 
the subcontinent. 



GRASS OWL Tyto capensis 

Subspecies longimembris. First reported by R.L. Fleming 
Sr. who purchased an owlet taken by Tharus, west of the 
Narayani River, Chitwan in November 1964 (247). Rare 
and local. Resident at Chitwan (J6,K6) at 225m, where it 
breeds (296,244); possibly resident at Sukla Phanta (700). 
Breeds from October to March. Occurs only in tall grass- 
lands. Crepuscular and nocturnal. Range Himalayas from 
Dehra Dun to West Bengal; Assam and Meghalaya; e. and 
s.w. India. 



Owls 

[ORIENTAL BAY OWL Phodilus badius 

Subspecies jomraftis. Only recorded by B. 
Hodgson who obtained a skin from a shop 
near Kathmandu (336^88). It is possible 



179 



the bird may not have originated in Nepal. Range Hima- 
layas from Nepal?, Sikkim and Bhutan?; n.e. and s.w. 
India.1 



COLLARED SCOPS OWL Otus bakkamoena 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (357). A 
local resident of uncertain status, found 
between 185m and 1525m. Like other 
scops owls it is probably under-recorded 
as it is strictly nocturnal and usually only 
located by its characteristic calls. Re- 
ported as common in the central dun (L7) 
in 1947 (98), but only one subsequent 
record ( 190). Described as common in the 
Kathmandu Valley in 1949 (635), seen 
there occasionally in 1970 (240) but with 
few later records. Proved breeding at 
Chitwan (296), in Kathmandu in 1986 and 
1987 (418) and at Hetaura (98). Two races 
have been recorded: O. b. lettia (1) 
(98,190) and O. b. gangeticus (g) 
(23,247,807) and it has recently been pro- 
posed to treat these as races of two differ- 
ent species (678) on the basis of different 
calls. However, the situation in the west- 
em Himalayas is not resolved and some 
authorities regard the variation in calls as 
intraspecific (790). Inhabits mixed forest 
and groves near cultivation and villages. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 




J^T 'ma mAJ J ' a S on' D 



ORIENTAL SCOPS OWL Otussunia 
Scops Owl {Otus scops) 

Subspecies sunia. The species was de- 
scribed from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(357,797). Mainly a fairly common resi- 
dent ofthetarai and lower hillsbut occurs 
up to 1525m (247). Found to be common 
between Dhangarhi and Nepalganj in 
March and April 1988 (792). A vagrant 
taken at Jomosom at 2745m in December 
(243) is perhaps more likely referable to 
the Eurasian Scops Owl O. scops turani- 
cus. Confirmed breeding at Chitwan 
(296). Found in forests, secondary growth 
and groves. Range Himalayas from Paki- 
stan east to Arunachal Pradesh; south to 
s. India. 




S ■ ■ N D 



180 



Owls 



MOUNTAIN SCOPS OWL Otus spUocephalus 
Spotted Scops Owl 



First recorded by B. Hodgson who found 
it breeding in the Kathmandu Valley 
(336^88). Resident, mainly found be- 
tween 1830m and 2590m. Fairly common 
north-west of Pokhara (H5) and on hills 
surrounding the Kathmandu Valley. It is 
likely that two intergrading races occur. 
Specimens from central Nepal (L6) 
showed features between O. s. huttoni 
and O. s. spUocephalus (98,647). Mainly 
single records from elsewhere. Inhabits 
dense evergreen, broadleaved forests. 
Range Himalayas from Pakistan east to 
Aninachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bang- 
ladesh. 




EURASIAN EAGLE OWL Bubo bubo 
Northern Eagle Owl, Great Homed Owl 

Subspecies bengalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson who found it breeding on 
Sheopuri (336,357). A local resident occa- 
sionally reported from around Pokhara 
and in the Kathmandu Valley, especially 
on Nagaijung. Single records from else- 
where. Found as high as 3415m on Ma- 
chapuchare (244). Frequents wooded 
country with cliffs or rocl^ ravines where 
it roosts during the day. Range Through- 
out the subcontinent. 




SPOT-BELLIED EAGLE OWL Bubo nipalensis 
Forest Eagle Owl 



Subspecies nipalensis. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(357,797). Rare and local. Resident at 
Chitwan (J6,K6) where it breeds (296). 
Seen a few times on cliffs at Nagaijung 
(L6). A nestling was taken on 14 April 
1912 in the Mai Khola VaUey (742). The 
only other reports are from south of 
Annapuma in 1977 (762), the Barun val- 
ley (Q6) (588) and Gokama (L6) (418) in 
1984, and Bardia (C4) in 1986 (796). 
Occurs in dense evergreen forests. 
Nocturnal. Range Himalayas from 
Kumaon to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. and 
s.w. India, and Bangladesh. 




Owls 



181 



DUSKY EAGLE OWL 

Dusky Homed Owl 



Bubo coromandus 



Subspecies coromandus. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson from the tarai and lower 
hills (336^72). In 1976 found to be a 
breeding resident, occasionally seen at 
Kosi Tappu (174,175), but no later re- 
ports from there. A few records from 



Chitwan (J6) between 1984 and 1988 (771,562,792), includ- 
ing an adult photographed with young in February 1984 
(196). Breeds December to January. Inhabits wooded areas 
near water in the lowlands. Semi-diurnal. Range Locally 
throughout the subcontinent. 



BROWN nSH OWL Ketupa zeylonensis 
(Bubo zeylonensis) 

Subspecies leschenaull. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (363). Mainly a resident 
found occasionally from the tarai up to 
1525m. Breeding confirmed at Hetaura 
(98) and Gokama (635). Like other fish- 
eating birds of prey it is uncommon at 
Chitwan (296,759). Frequents densely 
wooded areas near water. Semi-diurnal. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 



TAWNY nSH OWL Ketupa flavipes 
{Bubo flavipes) 

The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson who obtained at least six 
specimens from the lower hills 
(336,363,797). Very rare, presumably 
resident. Only three other reports: a bird 
was obtained at Bhugwada (location 
unknown) on 30 November 1920 (23). An 




AJ ' FAM AMJJ'ASO N^ 



adult and two juveniles were taken at Hetaura on 18 May 
and 2 June 1947 (98). Seen at Chitwan in October/Novem- 
ber 1978 (759,762). Breeding behaviour is little known, 
probably December to Februafy. Found in forested ravines 
near water. Crepuscular and semi-diurnal. Range Hima- 
layas from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and 
Bangladesh. 



COLLARED OWLET Glaucidium brodUi 
Collared Pygmy Owlet 

Subspecies brodiei. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (357). A fairly common, locally 
distributed resident mainly seen between 
1350m and 2900m. Areas include north- 
west of Pokhara, Langtang, hiUs sur- 
rounding the Kathmandu Valley and the 
upper Arun and Mai valleys. Inhabits 
mixed oak forests. Diurnal and calls 
persistently. Range Himalayas from Chi- 
tral east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India 
and Bangladesh. 




fA» » ' " jAj * ^ " " " 



182 



Owls 



JUNGLE OWLET GlauddUon mdiatum 
Barred Jungle Owlet 

Subspecies radiatum . First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (372). A common resident, 
mainly occurring from the tarai up to 
915m. A few records from north-west of 
Bokhara (H5) between 1430m and 1600m 
(451,436,152). Apparently recently ex- 
tended its range to the Kathmandu Val- 
ley; present at Rani Bari all year in 1987 
(792). Proved breeding at Chitwan (2%) 
and Hetaura (98). Found in open forests 
and secondary jungle. Mainly 
crepuscular. Range Himalayas from 
Himachal Pradesh to Bhutan; south 
through India to Sri Lanka. 




J FA" * MA' ' J 



ASIAN BARRED OWLET Glaucidium cuculoides 
Barred Owlet 



Subspecies cuculoides. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (372). A common resident, 
mainly occurring between 245m and 
2440m. Proved breeding at Pokhara 
(326), Chitwan (296) and Hetaura (98). 
Its altitudinal zone overlaps with that of 
Jungle Owlet between 160m and 915m. 
Both species not only breed in the same 
forests but are also common there 
(98,296). Frequents open forests. 
Diurnal. Range Himalayas from Murree 
east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and 
Bangladesh. 




J ■ F MAA HAJ J^ 



BROWN HAWK OWL Ninax scutulata 
Brown Boobook 

Subspecies lugubris. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (370). Resident. Fairly common 
at Chitwan (296) and occasionally found 
elsewhere. Breeding behaviour of this 
race is little known. Three family parties 
with flying young between 24 July and 
mid-August in the Kathmandu Valley 
(792). One in breeding condition was 
taken at Hetaura on 27 March (190). 
Inhabits forests and weU-wooded areas 
often near water. Crepuscular and noc- 
turnal. Range Himalayas from Dehra 
Dun east to Arunachal Pradesh; south to 
s. India and Bangladesh. 




Owb 



183 



LmXEOWL Athene noctua 
Tibet Owlet, Northern Little Owl 

Subspecies ludlowi. First recorded by O. 
Polunin at Terengaon (G4) at 4115m on 
12 June 1952 (620). Scarce, presumably 
resident. Occurs in the Tibetan plateau 
region between 2715m and 4155m. 
Singles were taken at Terco Phijar (F3) 



on 8 July and at Tnku, Do Trap (F3) on 23 July 1978 (587). 
AH other records are from Thakkhola (H4): several reports 
of one or two birds from January to April between 1979 and 
1987. Found on stone walls of old buildings and rocky cliffs. 
Mainly crepuscular and nocturnal. Range Baluchistan; 
Himalayas in N.W.F.P., Baltistan, Ladakh and Nepal. 



SPOTTED OWLET Athene brama 
Spotted Little Owl 

Subspecies indica. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (357). A common resident from 
the tarai up to 1525m. Breeding con- 
firmed at Majhagaon (A4) (432), north- 
west of Pokhara(811), Kathmandu (417), 
Chitwan (296) and Dharan (281). A strag- 
gler was collected at 2745m at Khangjung 
(L5) on 4 September 1949 (619,621). 
Inhabits villages, towns, ruins and cultiva- 
tion. Mainly crepuscular and nocturnal. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 



,-5-^ 




BROWN WOOD OWL Strix leptogmmmica 





l^m, 1 



Aj f M aAm 



aAm 



Subspecies newarensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (357). Found between 760m 
and 2700m. A resident reported occasion- 
ally from the Kathmandu Valley. A pair 
was seen feeding young in May at Rani 
Bagh (629). Status elsewhere is uncertain; 
probably under-recorded. Found in west- 
central Nepal (F5) in 1977 (563), Mai 



Pokhari (R7) in April 1982 (561), Barun vaUey (Q6) in 
November 1984 (588) and at Khaptad (C3) in May 1988 
(428). Frequents dense broadleaved forests. Usually noc- 
turnal although a pair was observed feeding young in 
daylight (629). One flew over Kathmandu chased by a large 
crow flock in April 1976 (82). Range Himalayas from 
Pakistan east to Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh?; south 
through the peninsula. 



184 



Owls/Nightjars 



TAVWYOWL Stnxaluco 
Tawny Wood Owl 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). Two 
races possibly occur. S. a. nivicola is an 
uncommon resident. A pair possibly of 
the race biddulphi was seen at Lete (H4) 
at 2440m on 4 January 1974 (518). This 
race previously only reported as far east 
as north of Mussoorie (53). Areas where 
the species has been recorded include 
Khaptad (C3), north-west of Pokhara, 
Langtang, Khumbu and the Arun valley. 
Probably under-recorded as it is noctur- 
nal and more often heard than seen. Fre- 
quents oak, rhododendron and conifer- 

LONG-EARED OWL Asiootus 

Subspecies otus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson from the Kathmandu Valley on 
20 November (336^72). The only other 
report is of one taken on the Kakani hills 




ous forests. Range N. Baluchistan and Himalayas from 
Chitral east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



(L6) at 2000m on 11 November 1962 (190). Nocturnal. 
Range Single breeding records from Baluchistan and Ka- 
shmir. Occurs elsewhere in Pakistan and n.w. India. 



SHORT-EARED OWL Asia jlammeus 

Subspecies flammeus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (372). An uncommon winter 
visitor and passage migrant. Described 
last centuiy by Hodgson as the common 
field owl of the Kathmandu Valley (336) 
but there is just one later record (98). 
Several reports from Chitwan and also 
Kosi Barrage, with a maximum of seven at 
the latter site on 4 November 1989 (597). 
A few records from north-west of 
Pokhara. Singles found on Machapu- 
chare at 3320m on 10 April 1979 and 
3260m on 1 October 1979 (244). Found in 




grassland and open scrub country. Diurnal and crepuscular. 
Range Winter visitor throughout the subcontinent. 



SAVANNA NIGHTJAR 
Franklin's Nightjar 



Caprimulgus affinis 



Subspecies monticolus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Mainly occurs up to 
915m. Movements are unclear. Only two 
winter records: singles collected at Simery 
(L7) in January (589) and seen at Chitwan 
(K6) in February (481).The lack of winter 
records may be attributed to the species's 
silence during the non-breeding season. 
Fairly common at Chitwan (J6,K6) and 
confirmed breeding there (296). Occa- 
sionally seen at Sukla Phanta (700) and a 
common resident at Bardia (192). Found 
in small numbers in the central bhabar 
and dun (K7,L7) (98). Only single records 




from elsewhere. Inhabits scrubby hillsides and open forest. 
Crepuscular and nocturnal like other nightjars. Range 
From Punjab and Gujarat east through the subcontinent. 



Nightjars 



185 



INDIAN NIGHTJAR Caprimulgus asiaticus 

Little Nightjar, Common Indian Nightjar 

Subspecies asiaticus. First recorded on 22 
March 1961 at Simra Airport (K7) at 
105m by R.L. Fleming (234,246). Scarce. 
Movements are uncertain. Probably un- 
der-recorded as its call is not veiy obvi- 
ous. Described as resident at Sukla 
Phanta (700). A few spring records from 
Chitwan (2%,800,172). The only other 
reports are from Bardia (128,432,202), 
near Gorsinge (F6) (157), Tilaurakot 
(G6) (157), and the eastern tarai near 
Chatra (281,293), Dharan (652) and Kosi 
Tappu (432). Occurs in open scrub and 
cultivation in the tarai. Range The whole 
subcontinent east of the Indus Valley. 




; . . . ,i ,. q ^Hf^M'.'. ' . . s^T-T^- 



LARGE-TAILED NIGHTJAR 

Long-tailed Nightjar 

Subspecies a/feo«oW/us. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Fairly common in 
forests of the tarai and foothills up to 
915m. Movements uncertain. Found at 
Chitwan (J6,K6) from February/March 
to October /November. Proved breeding 
there (296). Reported as resident at Sukla 
Phanta (700), Bardia (192), Kosi Tappu 
(174) and elsewhere in the east (P8,Q8) 
(293). A summer visitor, seen occasion- 
ally in theKathmandu Valley (240); heard 
as early as 13 March (629) and one col- 
lected there on 31 January (589). Hunts in 
forest clearings. Range Himalayas from 
Kangra to Arunachal Pradesh; south to 
Bangladesh and s. India, but absent from 
much of the north-west. 



Caprimulgus macrunis 




A S M D ■ 



JUNGLE NIGHTJAR Caprimulgus indicus 

Grey Nightjar 

Subspecies hazarae. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A fairly common resident 
and partial altitudinal migrant. Regularly 
found up to 2895m in summer. First heard 
calling on hills surrounding the Kath- 
mandu Valley in mid-March and proba- 
bly resident there (632). In winter mainly 
reported from 180m up to 915m. Birds at 
Chitwan considered possibly on passage 
(296). Frequents forest clearings and 
scrub-covered hillsides. Range Himalayas 
from Hazara to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh; south through 
Rajasthan to s. India. 




186 



Swifts 



HIMALAYAN SWIFTLET Collocalia brevimstris 
(Aervdmmus brevimstris) 



Subspecies brevirostris. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have oiiginated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by J. Scully 
from the Kathmandu Valley on 20 August 
1877 (708). A fairly common resident 
subject to altitudinal movements. Sum- 
mers up to 4575m. Usually winters be- 
tween 915m and 2745m and occasionally 
in the lowlands. Two records from the 
tarai: in the east (Q8) on 29 June 1975 
(293) and at Majhagaon (A4) on 13 May 
1982 after storms (432). Gregarious; 2000 
estimated over Phewa Tal on 14 January 




ILLLBII 



1989 (152). Range Himalayas from Himachal Pradesh east 
to Arunachal Pradesh, and n.e. India. 



WHITE-RUMPED NEEDLETAIL Zoonavena sylvatica 
White-rumped SpinetaU Swift (Chaetum sylvatica) 




t 



{ 



f 




'*^^v^^. :t 



J'J'AS'OND' 



First recorded by R.L. Fleming Jr. on 16 
March 1972 from Mahendra Rajmatj (J6) 
(243). Local and uncommon, possibly 
resident. Regularly seen at Chitwan. 
Other reports are from Sukla Phanta 
(432), Bardia (432,162), Nepalganj (627), 
Majhagaon (A4) (811), Butwal (178), 



Tamaspur (206,486,652) and north of Sunischare (59). 
Movements are poorly known. Noted in winter at Ta- 
maspur and at Chitwan. Breeding habits of the northern 
population are unknown. Seen at nesthole at Mahendran- 
agar (A4) on 5 March 1981 (811). Hawks insects over 
lowland forests. Range Himalayas in Garhwal, Nepal and 
Sikkim; Meghalaya and Bangladesh; locally to s.w. India. 



WHITE-THROATED NEEDLETAIL Hirundapus caudaculus 

White-throated Spinetail Swift {Chaetum caudacuta) 



Subspecies nudipes. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (352). Status and movements 
are uncertain. Like other swifts it is possi- 
bly under-recorded as it often feeds at 
high altitude. Some reports received 
probably refer to White-vented Needle- 
taUs as the two forms have often been 
regarded as conspecific (54,243). Areas 
where reliably seen include Phewa Tal, 



Chitwan, Langtang, Kathmandu Valley, Jamuna (R7), 
Dharan and north of Sunischare. Breeding behaviour is 
poorly known. Only two winter records: on 31 January 1981 
at Hetaura (476) and 11 January 1989 at Birethante (H5) 
(152), but this subspecies is often considered to be resident. 
The maximum altitude recorded is 3100m at Khaptad (C3); 
several reports in April, May and June (657,428). Range 
Himalayas from Hazara to Arunachal Pradesh and n.e. 
India. 



Swifts 



WHITE-THROATED NEEDLETAIL, cont'd . 



187 







nnroT;'! , ^ 



"f'MA'M'J'JASON'D 



WHITE-VE^JTED NEEDLETAIL Hinmdapus cochinchinaisis 

White-vented Spinetail Swift (Chaetum cochinchinensis) 



The apparently endemic subspecies 
rupchandi was described by B. Biswas. He 
observed flocks of about a dozen birds 
and took specimens on 24 June and 6 July 
1947 at Hetaura (98). Its status and move- 
ments are poorly known. Probably over- 
looked because of confusion with White- 
throated Needletail. Later found near 
Hetaura in April in 1959 (245) and 1985 
(332). Described as rare and possibly resi- 
dent at Chitwan (296) but several reports 
received from there with a maximum of 
16 seen on 26 April 1982 (432). Four 
noted flying over Phulchowki at 2440m on 
4 May 1980 (440). The only other record is 
from north of Sunischare in late March 



COMMON SWIFT Apusapus 
Black Swift 

Subspecies peldnensis. First recorded by 
R.L. Fleming Jr. in Dolpo (H3) at 3355m 
in June 1971 (243). A local summervisitor 
mainly seen from mid-March to July and 
in September between 2000m and 3795m. 
Common in summer north of Annapuma 
(H4) and fairly common north of Dhaula- 
giri (G4). The only other records are of 
four near Syabru (L5) on 16 April 1984 
(624), singles over Kathmandu on 31 
March 1988 (730) and Kakani (L6) on 13 
April 1988 (326), and ten at Chitwan on 
18 February 1989 (506). Breeding behav- 
iour is Uttle known. The season is proba- 
bly May and June in Pakistan and 
Kashmir. Range Summer visitor to Balu- 
chistan, and the Himalayas from Chitral 
east to Nepal. 




.1 PI ■ ,~ 

mI A m' J 1 J A 



1985 (59). Breeding details are unknown. Range Nepal, 
Meghalaya and Manipur. 




188 



Swifts 



[DARK-RUMPED SWIFT Apus acuticauda 
Khasi Hills Swift, Dark-backed Swift 

The species was described from Nepal by 
T.C. Jerdon from a Hodgson qjecimen 
(458,457). However, it is possible that this 



q)ecimen originated in India. There are no later records. 
Range Breeds in Meghalaya and probably Mizoram.] 



FORK-TAILED SWIFT Apus pacipcus 
Pacific Swift, Large White-rumped Swift 

Subspecies leuconyx. First recorded by B. 
Biswas near Everest Base Camp at 3600m 
to 3800m in April 1953 (109). Fairly com- 
mon, possibly resident. Movements are 
not fully understood. Winter records re- 
ceived are mainly between 75m and 365m, 
but noted at 915m at Pokhara in January 
1990 (138). In spring and summer seen up 
to 3800m. Found breeding near Syabru 
(L5) (612,682, 321,298). On 14 May 1982 
after storms about 60 were observed in 
the tarai at Majhagaon (A4) and 10 at 
Dhangarhi (432). Range Breeds in the 
Himalayas from Murree east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh, and n.e. India. Winters 
south to s.w. India. 



^V^ 




mnr 



ALPINE SWIFT Apusmelba 

Subspecies nubijuga. First recorded by 
F.M. Bailey at Ramdhuni, Morang Dis- 
trict (08) on 29 January 1938 (62). Fairly 
common, probably resident. Movements 
are little known. Subject to seasonal alti- 
tudinal migration and also wanders errat- 
ically over long distances when feeding. In 
summer reported up to 3700m but is 
mainly found from 75m to 2200m. Most 
winter records are from the tarai and 
foothills up to 915m. Possibly resident at 
Chitwan (296). Hundreds were observed 
flying round a cliff face by the Rapti River 
north of Hetaura in February (518). Seen 
entering cracks in cliff faces at Birethante 
(H5) in February and near Butwal in June 
(159). These could have been nesting 
colonies although the breeding season 
has been given as May and June (54). 
Breeding details are poorly known. 
Range Locally throughout the subconti- 
nent. 




inms- 



Swifts 



189 



HOUSE SWIFT Apusaffinis 
Little Swift 

Subspecies nipalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (352). A common resident 
seen from 75m to 2100m. Occurs up to 
915m throughout the year but withdraws 
from higher levels in winter. Remains in 
the Kathmandu Valley from mid-March 
to mid-November (201). Breeds in the 
Valley during this period (629,659), but 
earlier at lower altitudes. Noted entering 
nests as early as 12 January at Pokhara 
and 10 February at Hetaura (518). Also 
proved breeding at Silgadi-Doti (B3) 
(68), Surkhet (626), Dhangarhi (432), Ka- 
pilvastu District (F6) (157), Syabru (L5) 
(321), north of Pati Bhanjyang (L6) (321), 
and east of Pokhara (J5) and at Ham 
(442). Inhabits towns and villages. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent except the 
s.e. peninsula. 




ASIAN PALM SWIFT 

(C parvus) 



Cypsiums balasiensis 



-V^. 





Subspecies balasiensis. The flrst dated 
record is of five on 7 October 1970, seen 
byT.P. Inskippera/. at Simra (K7) at 75m 
(444). An uncommon resident in the ta- 
rai, mainly found close to the Indian bor- 
der. Areas include Birganj (K7), Kosi 



Barrage, Janakpur (M8), Dharan, Birthamore (R8) and 
Biratnagar. Occurs as far west as Chitwan where it is a rare 
visitor (460,813). About 60 seen at Sunischare in February 
1987 (463). Inhabits open country and cultivation with 
scattered palmyra palms. Range From Uttar Pradesh and 
Gujarat east through the whole subcontinent. 



190 



Swifts/Kingfishers 



CRESTED TREE SWIFT Hemipmcne comnata 
Crested Swift (H. longipennis) 



First recorded by B. Biswas at Hetaura on 
1 May 1947 (98). A locally common resi- 
dent usually occurring up to 365m, but 
one at Gokama at 1280m on 22 July 1973 
(814) and seen at 760m at Surkhet in 
winter (244). Regularly reported from 
Dharan, north of Sunischare, Tamaspur, 
Simra, Chatra, and also Chitwan where it 
breeds (296,432). Uncommon in the west. 
Frequents forests. Range From Uttar 
Pradesh and Gujarat east through the 
whole subcontinent. 




REO-HEADED TROGON Harpactes erythmcephalus 



Subspecies /ioa[g5oniV. First recorded by J. 
Gould (269) described presumably from a 
specimen coUeaed by B. Hodgson. A 
local and very uncommon resident which 
has declined recently, probably as a result 
of habitat loss. Described as not uncom- 
mon in the central dun (K7,L7) in 1947 
(98), and eight were seen there (L7) in 
December 1970 (444). Found breeding at 
Godavari at 1830m in 1955 (635). No later 
records from these areas. Since 1970 re- 
corded from south of Annapuma (H5) 
(762,594), Chitwan (J6,K6), Arun vaUey 
(483,590), Fatehpur (P8) (293), north of 
Sunischare and in the lower Mai valley 
(S7) (658,307). Inhabits dense, 
broadleaved evergreen forests. Range 
Himalayas from Kumaon east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




RUDDY KINGFISHER Halcyon commanda 

Subspecies commanda. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson from the lower hills 
(336,388). Scarce and local, probably resi- 
dent. Recently recorded at Chitwan 
(J6,K6) where singles have been seen in 
April and May by streams of the Churia 
hills (11,67). The only other reports are 



from near Hetaura: in May and June 1947 (98) and in 
November 1977 (507). Inhabits streams and pools in 
shaded, dense, evergreen jungle of the tarai and lower hills. 
Probably suffered as a result of habitat loss. Likely to be 
overlooked as it is very shy. Breeds March and April. Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh. 



Kingfishers 



191 



WHITE-THROATED KINGFISHER Halcyon smymensis 

White-breasted Kingfisher 



Subspecies fusca. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common resident 
throughout up to 1000m. Rarely seen 
above 1800m but one was noted at 3050m 
in the Langu valley area (F2) in October 
(330). Most birds at higher altitudes de- 
scend in winter. Breeding confirmed at 
Chitwan (296) and in the Kathmandu 
Valley (629). Inhabits streams, rivers and 
pools. Found in a variety of habitats often 
far from water, such as cultivation, forest 
edges and gardens. Range Throughout 
the subcontinent. 




BLACK-CAPPED KINGnSHER Halcyon pileata 

Vagrant. First recorded by R.L. Fleming 
Jr. in late September 1974 by the Reu 
River at Chitwan (218,296). The onfy 



other report is from the Mai Khola (R8) at about 300m on 
20 April 1981 (559). Mainly occurs near water in coastal 
areas. Range Coasts of Bangladesh and India west to 
Bombay, locally inland in India. 



STORK-BILLED KINGFISHER Pelargopsis capensis 
Brown-headed Stork-billed Kingfisher (Halcyon capensis) 




Subspecies capensis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A local resident occasion- 
ally found up to 760m. Regularly reported 
from Sukla Phanta, Bardia, Hetaura, 
Kosi and also Chitwan where proved 



breeding (296). Seen at the unusually high altitude of 1830m 
at Godavari on 17 February 1978 (676). Inhabits deeply 
shaded lakes, slow-moving rivers and streams. Range From 
Dehra Dun and Gujarat east through the whole subconti- 
nent. 



[ORIENTAL KINGFISHER Ceyxerithacus 
Three-toed Kingfisher, Three-toed Forest Kingfisher 
Black-backed Kingfisher 



Subspecies erithacus. The only record is a 
specimen included in the later collection 
of B. Hodgson (409), but this may have 



originated in India. Range Himalayas from Nepal(?) east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh; s.w. India.] 



192 



KEY TO THE COLOUR PLATES 



PIATE 1 BUSH WARBLERS 

1 YeUow-bellieiJ Bush Wartsler Cettia acanthizoides 

2 Pale-footed Bush Warbler C. paUidipes 

3 Chest out -crowned Bush Warbler C. major 

4 Brown-flanked Bush Waibler C. fortipes fortipes 

5 Brown-flanked Bush waibler C. f. paUidus 

6 Aberrant Bush Waibler C. flavotivacea 

7 Grq^-sided Bush Waibler C. brunn^rons 

8 Brown Bush Waibler Bradypterus tuteovemris 

9 Chinese Bush Waibler B. taczanowsfdus 

10 Chinese Bush Waibler, May 

11 ^wtted Bush Waibler B. thoracicia 

12 Spotted Bush Waibler 

PLATE 2 PRINTS 

1 Grey-breasted Prinia Prinia hod^ni winter 

2 Grey-breasted Prinia summer 

3 Rufous Prinia /*. rufescens winter 

4 Rufous Prinia summer 

5 Grey-crowned Prinia P. cinereocapiUa 

6 Graceful Prinia P. ^aciiis 

7 Yellow-bellied Prinia P. paviventris 

8 Plain Prinia P. inomata summer 

9 Plain Prinia winter 

10 Striated Prinia P. criniger 

11 Jungle Prinia/'. ^h-ortco 

12 Hill Prinia P. oftogMtoir winter 

13 Hill Prinia summer 

14 Ashy Prinia P. sociatis 

PLATE 3 LOCUSTELLAXNDACROCEPHALUS 
WARBLERS 



Thick-billed V/ajiiler Acnxephalus aedon 
Oriental Reed Waibler /4. onentaUs -worn 
Oriental Reed Warbler fresh 
Bladt-browed Reed Warbler A bistriffceps 
Blunt -winged Waibler /i. concinens 
Paddyficld Waibler A agricoia 
Clamorous Reed Waibler A steruoreus 
Btyth's Reed Waibler A dumetorum fresh spring 
Blyth's Reed Waibler worn winter 
Grasshopper Waibler LocusteUa naevia 
Grasshopper Warbler, streaked 
Lanceolated Waibler L. lanceolata 
PaUas's Waibler L. certhiola 



PLATE 5 PHYLLOSCOPUS WARBLERS 
WITHOUT WINGBARS 

1 Slender-bUled Waibler P. lytleri Ist winter 

2 Slender-billed Waibler worn winter 

3 Tit^U's Waibler (Buff-bellied Waibler) P. e^inis arcanus 

4 Tickell's Waibler P. a. c^ifiis fresh autumn 

5 Smoky Waibler P. fuligiveraer 

6 Cbiffchaff /*. coOybaa fresh autumn 

7 DusI^ Waibler P. fuscana 

8 Sulphur-bellied Waibler P. ffiseotus 

9 Radde's Waibler P. schwam 1st winter 

10 Radde's Waibler worn winter 

PLATES 6 and 7 ROSEFINCHES 

1 Daik-breasled Rosefinch Carpodacus nipalensis 

2 Blanford's Rosefinch C. rubacens 

3 Pink-browed Rosefinch C. rhodochrous 

4 Common Rosefinch C. e/ythrinus 

5 Darit-rumped Rosefinch C. edwardsi 

6 Beautiful Rosefinch C. pulcherrimus 

7 Spot-winged Rosefinch C. rhodopeplus 

8 Vinaceous Rosefinch C. vinaceus 

9 White-browed Rosefinch C. thura 

10 Streaked Rosefinch C. rubictUoides 

1 1 Red-fronted Rosefinch C. purUceus 

12 Great Rosefinch C. rubicUla 

PLATE 8 BUNTINGS 

1. Pine Bunting Emberiza leucoceptuHos male 

2. Pine Bunting female 

3. White-c^ped Bunting £ stewarti male 

4. While-capped Bunting female 

5. Chestnut -<ared Bunting E. fucata female 

6. Chest nut -eared Bunting male 

7. Rode Bunting £. da female 

8 Rock Bunting male 

9 Little Bunting E. pusiOa 

10 Rustic Bunting £. rustica male 

11 Yellow-breasted Bunting E. aureola male 

12 Yellow-breasted Bunting female 

13 Black-faced Bunting E spodocephaia female 

14 Black-faoed Bunting male 



PIATE 4 PHYLLOSCOPUS WARBLERS 
WITH WINGBARS 

1 Grey-Eaced Leaf Waibler PhyUoscopus macuUpennis 

2 Pallas's Leaf Waibler P. proregutus 

3 Yellow-browed Warbler P. inomatta ifwmatus 

4 Yellow-browed Waibler P. L humei 

5 Orange-barred Leaf Waibler P. pulcher 

6 Yellow-vented Leaf Warbler P. caniator 

7 Blyth's Leaf Waibler P. reguloida 

8 Western Crowned Waibler P. occipiiaiis 

9 Greenish Waibler P. trochiloides viridanus worn 

10 Greenish Waibler P. t. viridanus fresh 

11 Greenish Warbler P. t. trochiioides 

12 Green Warbler P. nitidus worn 

13 Green Waibler fresh 

14 Large-billed Leaf Waibler P. magnirosms 



Plate 1 




CfAig Robsoh'84^ 



Plate 2 




Plate 3 







7 




y 



Ri'/iOrJ 'i''i'»>MtU , 8<f. 




^y>*- 



z-;^^^ 






Plate 4 




Rji-*»* tjii*-ieTT, tif. 



Plate 5 




*.Jt)(*«e £,4W<M«TT Nov, * 



Plate 6 




Plate? 




Plate 8 




f^-?^^"^ 



Kingfishers 



193 



BLYTH'S KINGFISHER Alcedo heraiUs 
Great Blue Kingfisher 

Scarce. The only record is of one seen by 
T. Nordin and J. Wallander beside the 
Sabbhaya Khola south of Tumlingtar 
(Q7) at about 250m on 14 April 1982 



(599). Frequents streams in dense lowland forests. Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh. 



EURASIAN KINGFISHER Alcedo atthis 
Common Kingfisher, Small Blue Kingfisher 

Subspecies bengalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A fairly common resi- 
dent up to 1000m; occasionally seen up to 
1800m; rare at higher altitudes. The maxi- 
mum altitude recorded is 3050m at Khap- 
tad (C3) on 24 April 1988 (428). Breeding 
confirmed at Chitwan (296). Found by 
streams, rivers, ditches, ponds and lakes 
in open country. Avoids shady forest. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 




BLUE-EARED KINGFISHER Alcedo meninting 
Deep-blue Kingfisher 



Subspecies coltarti. First recorded by B. 
Biswas who obtained several specimens 
between 12 and 19 June 1947 at Hetaura 
(98). Scarce, presumably resident. Very 
uncommon at Chitwan (296). Only four 
other confirmed reports: one in Jhapa 
District (R8) on 17 February 1965 (247) 
two in Kosi District (P8) on 11 April 1975 
(293), one in the lower Arun watershed 
(Q7) (589), and in Kanchanpur Distria 
(A4) in 1985 (470). Occurs by streams in 
dense shady forest. Range Himalayan 
foothills from Nepal to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India south to Orissa; s.w. 
India. 




■"J F ■ MA^ M ' J J ■ A^S ' N ' D 



PIED KINGFISHER Ceiylerudis 
Small Pied Kingfisher 
Indian Pied Kingfisher 

Subspecies leucomelanura. First re- 
corded by B. Hodgson (388). A common 
resident in the tarai and lower hiUs up to 
915m. Breeding confirmed at Chitwan 
(296). Frequents slow-moving streams, 
rivers, ponds and lakes in open country. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 




194 



ISngpshers/Bee-eaters 



CRESTED KINGFISHER Cayle lugubris 

Large Pied Kingfisher (Megaceryle lugubris) 
Himalayan Pied Kingfisher 

Subspecies continentalis. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (388). A sedentary resi- 
dent occasionally found between 250m 
and 1800m. Reported at the unusually 
high altitude of about 3000m in October 
1981 in the Dhorpatan valley (573). 
Found by rocky, fast-flowing streams in 
weU-wooded areas; rarely by lakes. Range 
Himalayas from Kashmjr east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




J ' FAM ' AAM JJ'A'SO'ND' 



BLUE-BEARDED BEE-EATER Nyctyoims athertoni 

Subspecies athertoni. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(362). An uncommon resident up to 
365m, but in the Kathmandu Valley and 
surrounding hills it occurs between 
1525m and 1980m. Rare at such altitudes 
elsewhere. Other areas include Bardia 
(192,432), Tamaspur (10,682), Chitwan 
(J6,K6), Rapti dun (K7) (486), Dharan 
and north of Sunischare. Frequents forest 
margins and open forests. Range Hima- 
layan foothills from Himachal Pradesh 
east to Bhutan; n.e. India and Bangla- 
desh; s.w. India. 




J ■ J ■ A^S ■ ■ N D 



GREEN BEE-EATER Memps orientalis 
Small Green Bee-eater, Little Green Bee-eater 

Subspecies orientalis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common resident and 
summer visitor throughout the tarai, 
fairly common in the lower hiUs up to 
620m and uncommon up to 1280m. Birds 
noted at 2135m at Ghasa on 23 and 24 
April 1982 (207,703) were presumably 
migrants. Proved breeding at Chitwan 
(296). Inhabits open country with scat- 
tered trees and cultivation. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 



>-^ 




jSTtTT^m ' jAj a s ' " ■ u 



Bee-eaters/Roller 



195 



BLUE-TAILED BEE-EATER Merops phUippinus 

(M. superciliosus) 



Subspecies phUippinus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A locally, fairly com- 
mon summer visitor to the tarai. A winter 
record of one at Chitwan on 19 February 
1988 (465). Regularly seen at Sukla 
Phanta, Chitwan, Tamaspur, Bardia, and 
Kosi marshes. Occasionally reported up 
to about 300m and rarely up to 1525m. A 
large colony was discovered in a gorge 
where the Bagmati River runs down to 
the tarai (L7) (245). On 29 March 1978 a 
flock of 500 to 1000 migrants was seen in 
n.w. Kapilvastu (F6) (155,157). Favours 




areas near water. Range Breeds in n. Pakistan, n. and c. 
India, and Bangladesh. Winters south to s. India. 



CHESTNUT-HEADED BEE-EATER Memps Uschenauld 





'I ^ . .^ 



Subspecies leschenaulti. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Fairly common up to 
680m. Mainly a summer visitor although 
some birds are resident. Chiefly occurs at 
Chitwan between February and October 
and proved breeding there (296). A sum- 



mer visitor to the Kathmandu Valley arriving in early 
March. Flocks are regularly seen in Gaucher forest and at 
Gokama. Inhabits open broadleaved forests often near 
water. Range Himalayas from Dehra Dun to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh; s.w. India. 



INDUN ROLLER Coracias benghalensis 
'Blue Jay* 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common resident from the tarai up to 
1050m. Rare at higher altitudes. A strag- 
gler to the Kathmandu Valley (240). 
Noted as high as 3655m on 5 August 1950 
at Manangbhot (J4) (512). Proved breed- 
ing at Chitwan (296). Two races occur: C. 
b. benghalensis (b) (512,647,708), C. b. 
ajfinis (a) (62,246) and intermediates (ab) 
(98,482). Frequents cultivation, gardens, 
groves and open broadleaved forest. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 




196 



Dollaibird/Hombills 



DOLLARBIRD Ewyslomus orientalis 
Broad-billed Roller, Dark Roller 

Subspecies cyanicoUis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A local summer visitor 
mainly found up to 365m. Common at 
Chitwan where it breeds (2%). Uncom- 
mon elsewhere. Areas include Sukla 
Phanta (432), Bardia (128,192,432), 
Dharan (561,763,546) and north of Sunis- 
chare. Only two reports from the Kath- 
mandu Valley this century (243,444). 
Inhabits forests and clearings with scat- 
tered trees. Range Himalayas from Am- 
bala east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India 
and Bangladesh; s.w. India. 




HOOPOE Upupaepops 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Fairly common. TTiree subspecies occur. 
U. e. ceylonensis (c) is resident up to about 
1500m. Birds breeding at Chitwan (296) 
and in the Kathmandu Valley (243) are 
probably this race. U. e. epops (e) has 
been recorded in the Valley, presumably 
on passage. V. e. saturata (s) mainly sum- 
mers between 1700m and 4400m and 
descends to the lowlands in winter. Re- 
ported on passage: a number were pres- 
ent on Muktinath Himal in September 
1954 (419), at Tukche 342 were counted 
between 5 September and 14 October 
1973 (76) and up to 15 a day seen in 
October in the eastern lowlands and foot- 
hills (P8,Q8) (293). Singles in Khumbu in 




May at 5900m in 1954 (109) and 5200m in 1976 (582), and 
five between 3800m and 5000m in September and October 
1970 (526) were presumably migrants. Frequents open 
country, lightly wooded areas, cultivation and villages. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 



INDIAN GREY HORNBILL TocJais bimstns 
Common Grey Hombill (Ocycems bimstns) 

Subspecies pergriseus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Occasional. A local 
resident mainly occurring in the tarai. 
Found up to 760m in the Surkhet valley 
(244). Subject to local movements de- 
pending on fruiting seasons. Areas in- 
clude Sukla Phanta, Bardia, Kosi Tappu 
and Ham District (R8). Rare at Chitwan 
(296). Inhabits open broadleaved forests, 
groves, gardens and cultivation wherever 
fig trees occur. Range Most of the sub- 
continent, but absent from the north-west 
and the north-east. 




J ' F^M AM' J^J AS ' N ' D 



Hombills 

RUFOUS-NECKED HORNBILL Aceros nipalensis 

The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson who found it in the lower hiUs 
(336^37). There are no later records. 
Formerly presumably resident inhabiting 



197 



tall, broadleaved, evergreen forest in the foothills. Little if 
any suitable habitat remains and the species is probably ex- 
tinct in Nepal. Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



ORIENTAL PIED HORNBILL Anthracocems albimstris 
Indian Pied Hombill {A. malabaricus, A. coronatus) 



Subspecies albimstris. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A local resident mov- 
ing seasonally according to supply, of 
fruiting trees and small animals. Fairly 
common at Bardia, north of Sunischare 
and also Chitwan where proved breeding 
(296). Occasionally seen at Sukla Phanta 
and Dharan. Single reports from most 
other areas. Inhabits broadleaved forests 
of the lowlands and foothills. It is proba- 
bly declining due to deforestation. Range 
Throughout most of the subcontinent. 




GREAT HORNBILL Buceros bicomis 
Giant Hombill, Great Pied Hombill 




JA'SO'N'D' 



Subspecies homrai. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (342). A local resident in thidc 
forest of the tarai and duns, subject to 
seasonal movements. Uncommon at Chi- 
twan (J6,K6) where breeding has been 
confirmed (296). Only a few recent re- 
ports from elsewhere: Bardia (7%,750), 



Tamaspur, near Dharan (484) and north of Sunischare. Ob- 
served more frequently in the past: in 1964 and 1965 it was 
seen 19 times in five localities from Sunischare west to 
Chitwan (210). Its decline is mainly due to deforestation. 
Range Himalayas from Kumaon east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh; s.w. India. 



198 



Barbels 



GREAT BARBET Megalaima virens 
Great Hill Barbet, Great Himalayan Barbet 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common resident mainly occurring be- 
tween 900m and 2200m. Subjea to altitu- 
dinal movements. Mainly summers above 
1000m. Proved breeding in the hills of the 
Kathmandu Valley last century (414). 
Two races occur: A/, v. marshallorum (m) 
(245), M. V. magnijica (ma) (13,482, 
647,659) and intermediates (mma) (98). 
Chiefly inhabits temperate forests. Range 
Himalayas from Murree east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



'V-^. 




BROWN-HEADED BARBET Megalaima zeylanica 
Green Barbet 



Subspecies caniceps. Status and distribu- 
tion are unclear because of confusion 
with Lineated Barbet. First recorded at 
Bilauri (A4) at 275m on 5 February 1937 
by FM. Bailey (62). A fairly common 
resident at Sukla Phanta (700), and 
Bardia (192). Seen at Surkhet (297). 
Specimens have been obtained from 
Dhangarhi (647), Tikapur (C5) (659), 
Gularia (C5) (441), and nearXrisuli (L6) 
(589). Proved breeding at Birganj (K7) in 
April 1987 (792). It has also been re- 
ported from Chitwan (11,166) and the 
eastern tarai and foothills (P8,Q8) (293), 
but further confirmation of its occurrence 
there is desirable. Frequents lowland for- 



-VA 




ests and wooded areas near habitation. Range Himalayan 
foothUls from Kangra east to Nepal. N. India fromHaiyana 
east to W. Bengal, and south to s. India. 



LINEATED BARBET Megalaima lineata 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common resident. In some localities oc- 
curs with Brown-headed Barbet: at 
Dhangarhi (647), Surkhet (297) and 
Bardia (432). Two races occur. M. I. 
hodgsoni (h) is reported below 365m. M. I. 
rana (r) is found up to 915m, and replaces 
hodgsoni at higher altitudes in west-cen- 
tral areas (G6) (647). Proved breeding at 
Chitwan (296) and in the Trisuli valley 
(L6) (517). Occurs in sal forests of the 
lowlands and lower foothills. Range 
Himalayan foothills from Kumaon east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bang- 
ladesh. 



,%-- 




{ 



Barbels 



199 



GOLDEN-THROATED BARBET Megalaima franktirui 



Subspecies fttmldinii. First recorded by E. 
Blyth from a Hodgson specimen (114). A 
local resident, seen occasionally between 
1500m and 2400m. Formerly recorded 
more frequently on the hiUs surrounding 
the Kathmandu Valley. Proved breeding 
there last century (336). Described as 
common in 1947 (98) and in 1970 (240), 
but recently only reported occasionally 
from Phulchowki and Sheopuri. Other 
localities include north-west of Pokhara 
(H5), Begnas Tal, Langtang, the upper 
Arun and the upper Kali Gandaki valley, 
the westernmost limit of the species' 
range (76). Only single records from else- 
where. Inhabits moist, broadleaved 
forests. Range Himalayas from Nepal 
east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and 
Bangladesh. 




BLUE-THROATED BARBET Megalaima asiadca 



Subspecies asiatica. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common resident from 
the tarai up to about ISOOm. Occasionally 
seen at higher elevations. In general it is 
found over a lower altitudinal range than 
Golden-throated Barbet. Breeding con- 
firmed at Surkhet (626), in the Kath- 
mandu Valley (629), and at Chitwan 
(296). Frequents open forest, groves near 
habitation and gardens. Range Hima- 
layas from Rawalpindi District east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bang- 
ladesh. 




J F^M A ■ M J JA* 



S ' ' N ■ D 



BLUE-EARED BARBET Megalaima australis 

Subspecies cyanotis. First recorded by 
R.L. Fleming Sr. who obtained specimens 
north of Bhadrapur (S8) on 7 February 
1965 (247). Scarce. Occurs in the far east- 
em tarai between 120m and 305m. Pre- 
sumably resident. Only four other re- 
ports: from Mechi District (S8), undated 
(178), one in Kosi District (Q8) on 11 
April 1975 (293), four near Sukhani (R8) 
on 24 March 1981 (442) and one or two 
near Dharan on 5 April 1986 (546). In- 
habits dense tarai forests. Breeds from 
April to mid-June. Range Himalayan 
foothills from e. Nepal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




200 



Barbets/Honeyguide 



COPPERSMITH BARBET Megalaima haemacephala 
Crimson-breasted Barbet 



Subspecies indica. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by J. Scully 
who obtained specimens on 19 June 1877 
in the Kathmandu Valley (708). A com- 
mon resident throughout, up to 915m. 
Occasionally recorded up to 1830m. 
Breeding confirmed at Pokhara (442) and 
in the Kathmandu Valley (243,771), 
where it is a summer visitor (240,629). 
Occurs in groves, open wooded areas 
near villages, cultivation and in gardens. 
Range The whole subcontinent east of 
the Indus River. 




ORANGE-RUMPED HONEYGUIDE Indicator xanthonotus 
Himalayan Honeyguide, Yellow-rumped Honeyguide 



Subspecies xanthonotus. First recorded 
by R.L. Fleming Sr. above Bigu (N6) at 
1830m on 24 November 1960 (234,246). 
Locally distributed. Status uncertain; 
probably an uncommon resident. Likely 
to be overlooked because of its drab 
appearance and slow-moving or inactive 
behaviour. Mainly reported between 
1800m and 3195m. Occurs in the upper 
Arun valley: near Shunin Oral (483) and 
fairly common by the Kasuwa Khola 



(169). Regularly reported from Ghorepani, between Tato- 
pani and Ghasa (H4) and in the upper Langtang Gorge east 
to Chongdong (L5). Single reports received from else- 
where. Breeding details are poorly known. A female taken 
on 7 May 1%2 at Ting Sang La at 3300m, had laid eggs 
(190). Noted copulating between 22 April and 19 May 1973 
by the Kasuwa Khola at 2195m (169). Frequents steep rocky 
cliffs above streams and rivers; also dense mixed 
broadleaved and coniferous forests nearby. Found in the 
vicinity of bees' nests. Range Himalayas from Hazara east 
to Arunachal Pradesh and n.e. India. 





'JHlliii)l_ 



Woodpeckers 



201 



EXJRASIAN WRYNECK JywclorqidUa 
Wryneck 

First obtained by B. Hodgson in his later 
collection (409) but the specimen may 
have originated in India. First definitety 
recorded by R.L. Fleming Sr. who col- 
lected a specimen at Malakheti (B4) at 
290m in December 1952 (647). Occa- 
sional. A winter visitor up to 915m and 
passage migrant. Noted in the Kath- 
mandu Valley in March, April, Septem- 
ber, October and December 
(240,635,418). Reported on passage in the 
upper Kali Gandaki valley: on 2 April 
1971 two were noted at Jomosom (450), 
and 36 at Tukche between 8 September 
and 6 October 1973 (296). One was found 
at the unusually high altitude of 3445m on 
Machapuchare on 1 May 1980 (244). Two 
races have previously been recognised as 
occurring (54), but the Eurasian popula- 
tions are now considered monotypic. 
Inhabits secondary growth, scrub, edges 
of cultivation and marshes. Range Breeds 
in the n.w. Himalayas from Pakistan to 
Himachal Pradesh. Winters throughout 
the subcontinent. 




SPECKLED PICULET Picumnus innominatus 
Spotted Piculet 




Subspecies innominatus. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (367). A resident, mainly 
occurring from 915m to 1830m. Fairly 
common at Phulchowki, Nagarjung, and 
Gokama in the Kathmandu Valley. Occa- 
sionally seen north-west of Pokhara 



(H4,H5), and north of Sunischare. Rare at Chitwan (296). 
Mainly single reports received from elsewhere. Unobtru- 
sive and probably under-recorded. Inhabits broadleaved 
forests. Range Himalayas from Punjab east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; hills of s.w., e. and n.e. India, and Bangladesh. 



202 



Woodpeckers 



WHITE-BROWED PICULET Sasia ochmcea 

Rufous Piculet 

Subspecies ochmcea. The q>ecies was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(351,797). Uncommon, presumably resi- 
dent. Reported from Tamaspur 
(486,652), Chitwan, Hetaura (98), upper 
Arun valley (10,482), Dharan, upper Mai 
valley, and Dam District (R8). Found as 
high as 2135m at Mai Pokhari (R7) 
(561,687). Breeding behaviour is little 
known. Frequents broadleaved forests, 
with a preference for bamboo. Range 
Himalayas from Garhwal east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




RUFOUS WOODPECKER Celeus bmchyunis 
Brown Woodpecker (Micmptemus bmchyunis) 

Subspecies phaioceps. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A resident, recorded 
up to 1525m but mainly found below 
305m. Occasionally seen at Sukla Phanta 
(700) and Bardia (192), and uncommon at 
Chitwan and the eastern tarai (P8,Q8). A 
rare visitor to the Kathmandu Valley. 
Single reports received from most other 
areas. Proved breeding at Chitwan (296) 
and Hetaura (99). Birds in the west are 
possibly subspecies humei. Inhabits 
broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas 
from Garhwal and Kumaon east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India, and south 
through the peninsula. 




LESSER YELLOW-NAPED WOODPECKER Pkus chlomlophus 

Small YeUow-naped Woodpecker, Lesser YeUownape 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
resident, fairly common up to 1750m and 
rare up to 2135m. Breeding confirmed at 
Hetaura (98) and in the Kathmandu Val- 
ley (708). Two races occur: P. c. simlae (s) 
(647), P. c. chlomlophus (c) (98), and 
intermediates (cs) (98). Found in 
broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas 
from Haiyana east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; hills of s.w., e. and n.e. India, and 
Bangladesh. 




J ' F ■ >iA« ^AJ J » 



Woodpeckers 



203 



GREATER YELLOW-NAPED WOODPECKER Picus flavinucha 
Large Yellow-naped Woodpecker, Greater Yellownape , 





Subspecies /7avi>)Mc/ia. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (367). A resident, fairly com- 
mon between 305m and 1450m and un- 
common up to 2135m. Proved breeding at 



Bhimpedi (L6) and Hetaura (98). Birds in the west are 
possibly subspecies kwnaonensis (54,664). Frequents 
broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas from Garhwal east 
to Arunachal Pradesh, n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



GREY-HEADED WOODPECKER Picus canus 

Black-naped Green Woodpecker 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common resident, chiefly occurring be- 
low 2000m. Breeding confirmed at Chi- 
twan (296) and in the Kathmandu Valley 
(190,708). Two races occur: P. c. sanguin- 
iceps (s) (245), P. c. hessei (h) (482) and 
intermediates (hs) (98,647). Inhabits 
broadleaved forests and favours oaks. 
Range Himalayas from Murree east to 
Arunachal Pradesh, n.e. and e. India, and 
Bangladesh. 




STREAK-THROATED WOODPECKER Picus xanthopygaeus 

SmaU Scaly-bellied Woodpecker {Picas myrmecophoneus) 
Streak-throated Green Woodpecker 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
resident, occasionally seen in the tarai 
and lower hills up to 465m. Fairly com- 
mon at Chitwan. Proved breeding at 
Hetaura (98). There is only one record at 
a higher altitude: at Begnas Tal at 915m in 
December 1970 (444). Occurs in secon- 
dary growth, open broadleaved forests. 
Range The whole of India from Haiyana, 
central Rajasthan and Gujarat east to 
Bangladesh. 




fA^ ' «A' 



204 



Woodpeckers 



SCALY-BELLIED WOODPECKER Picus squamatus 

Large Scaly-bellied Woodpecker, Scaly-bellied Green Woodpecker 



Subspecies squamatus. A specimen la- 
belled 'Nepal' and presented to the Brit- 
ish Museum by E. Hargitt was possibly 
collected by B. Hodgson. First defmitely 
recorded l^ F.M. Bailey on 10 Oaober 
1935 at Laura Bina (L5) (62). A locally 
fairly common resident between 1850m 
and 3700m. Areas include Ghorepani, 
Ghasa, upper Langtang and Khaptad 
(C3) where proved breeding (657,428). 
Scarce east of the Langtang valley. Inhab- 
its coniferous or mixed oak/coniferous 
forests. Range N. Baluchistan and the 
Himalayas from Chitral east to Daijee- 
ling. 




HIMALAYAN FLAMEBACK Dinopium shorii 

Three-toed Golden-backed Woodpecker, Himalayan Goldenback, 

Himalayan Golden-backed Woodpecker 

Subspecies shorii. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A local resident found up 
to 275m. Common at Tamaspur, Chitwan 
and in the central bhabar and dun 
(K7,L7). Occasionally seen north of Su- 
nischare, at Sukla Phanta, Bardia and 
Dharan. Chiefly single reports received 
from elsewhere. Breeding behaviour is 
little known. Proved breeding at Chitwan 
(296,321), and Hetaura (98). Frequents 
mature lowland forests. Range Himalayas 
from Haryana east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India and Bangladesh; also locally in 
the hills of the peninsula. 




J ' FAM ■ A ' H^J J'A'SO'N'D' 



BLACK-RUMPED FLAMEBACK Dinopium benghalense 
Golden-backed Woodpecker, Black-rumped Goldenback, 
Lesser Golden-backed Woodpecker 



Subspecies benghalense. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (367). A resident occa- 
sionally seen throughout the tarai and 
dun, below 365m. Fairly common at Sukla 
Phanta (700), and Bardia (192). Found in 
groves around villages, open wooded 
areas, sal forests, and cultivation. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 




) ' J^A ' S ' ' N ' D 



Woodpeckers 



205 



GREATER FLAMEBACK Chrysocolaptes luddus 

Greater Goldenback, Greater Golden-backed Woodpecker ^ 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (367). A 
resident, occasionally seen up to 915m, 
but fairly common at Chitwan and scarce 
at higher altitudes. Only two records from 
the Kathmandu Valley (495,612). Proved 
breeding at Chitwan (296), Simra (98), 
and Chatra (659). Two races occur C. /. 
sultaneus (s) (190), C. /. guttacristatus (g) 
(482,574,659), and intermediates (gs) 
(98). Inhabits forests. Range Himalayas 
from Garhwal east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
Sri Lanka and the hills of s.w., e. and n.e. 
India. 




nor 



J^F ' M ' A ■ M^I J A ■ S ■ N U 



WHITE-NAPED WOODPECKER Chrysocolaptes festivus 

Black-backed Woodpecker 



Subspecies festivus. First recorded by 
R.L. Fleming Sr. at Dhangarhi at 245m on 
18 March 1965 (247). An uncommon resi- 
dent found in the western tarai east to the 
eastern bank of the Kamali River 
(432,162). Also reported from Bilauri 
(A4) (247), Sukla Phanta (432,700) and 
Bardia (192,432,162). Occurs in light 
broadleaved forests. Range India from 
Dehra Dun, Rajasthan and Gujarat east 
to Bengal and from the Oudh tarai, Nepal 
and Bihar south to Kerala. 




PALE-HEADED WOODPECKER Gednulus puntia 

Subspecies gnmtia. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
this specimen may have originated in 
India. Scarce, probably a resident. First 
definitely recorded by S.C. Madge et al. 
who found singles between Garuwa and 
Sunischare (R8) at 275m on 1 and 3 Feb- 
ruary 1974 (518). Up to three were seen in 
the same area on 21 and 22 April 1981 
(559). This is the western limit of the 
species's range. Breeds from March to 
May. Found in bamboo jungle. Range 
Himalayas from e. Nepal east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh, n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




206 



Woodpeckers 



BAY WOODPECKER Blythipicus pynhotis 
Red-eared Rufous Woodpecker 

Subspecies pynhotis. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(367,797). A local and uncommon resi- 
dent, mainly found between 1525m and 
2500m. Areas include north-west of 
Pokhara (H5), hills surrounding the 
Kathmandu Valley, Langtang and the 
upper Mai valley. Single sightings from 
other areas. The only low altitude records 
are of singles at about 150m at Bardia in 
early February 1990 (202) and at 75m at 
Sukla Phanta on 12 May 1982 (432), the 
westernmost record of the species. 
Proved breeding in the Markhu valley 




(L6) (99). Possibly overlooked as it inhabits dense forests 
and thick undergrowth. Range Himalayas from Nepal east 
to Arunachal Pradesh, n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



GREAT SLATY WOODPECKER Mulleripicus pulverulentus 




e^ -^\ 




Subspecies mohun. First recorded by 
R.L. Fleming Sr. at Butwal at 275m in 
February 1952 (647). A local resident; 
chiefly occurring up to 245m. Occasion- 
ally seen at Sukla Phanta (700), Bardia 



(192), and Tamaspur. Rare at Chitwan and only three 
records from elsewhere. Inhabits mature sal forests. Range 
Himalajras from Simla east to Arunachal Pradesh, n.e. India 
and Bangladesh. 



HIMALAYAN WOODPECKER Dendmcopos himalayensis 
Himalayan Pied Woodpecker (Picoides himalayensis) 



Subspecies himalayensis. First recorded 
in southern Doti District (B3) in Decem- 
ber 1952 by R.L. Fleming Sr. (245). A 
fairly common resident, subject to altitu- 
dinal movements; mainly seen above 
2000m. Found east to the Dhorpatan val- 
ley (153,499). Proved breeding at Khap- 
tad (C3) in April and May (428). Fre- 
quents coniferous and oak/rhododen- 
dron forests. Range W. Himalayas from 
Safed Koh east to Nepal. 




Woodpeckers 



207 



DARJEELING WOODPECKER Datdmcopos darjellensis 
Daijeeling Pied Woodpecker (Picoides darjellensis) 



Subspecies darjellensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A fairly common resi- 
dent, chiefly occurring between 1830m 
and 3500m. Regularly reported in the 
upper Kali Gandaki valley, the western- 
most limit of the species' range. Found 
breeding in the upper Mai valley 
(741,193). Occurs in coniferous and oak/ 
rhododendron forests. Range Himalayas 
from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh, 
and n.e. India. 




CRIMSON-BREASTED WOODPECKER Dendrocopos cathpharius 
Crimson-breasted Pied Woodpecker (Picoides cathpharius) 



Subspecies cathpharius. First recorded by 
E. Bfyth from a Hodgson specimen (114). 
Resident, mainly seen between 1500m 
and 2750m. Generally found at lower 
elevations than Daijeeling Woodpecker 
although their altitudinal ranges overlap. 
Several reports from the upper Kali 
Gandaki valley, the westernmost limit of 
the species's range. Occasionally seen 
north-west of Pokhara (H4,H5) and in 
Langtang; uncoinmon in the Kathmandu 
and upper Mai valleys. Single records 
received from most other areas. Found in 
oak/rhododendron forests. Range Hima- 




layas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh, and n.e. India. 



RUFOUS-BELLIED WOODPECKER Dendrocopos hyperythrus 
Rufous-beUied Sapsucker (Hypopicus hyperythrus) 
Rufous-bellied Pied Woodpecker 





J ' F M^A ' M^J J A S N U 



Subspecies hyperythrus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A locally fairly com- 
mon resident, mainly found between 
2135m and 3050m. Regularly seen at 



Phulchowki, Ghorepani and also Khaptad (03) where 
proved breeding (428). Inhabits oak/rhododendron and 
coniferous forests. Range Himalayas from Hazara east to 
Arunachal Pradesh, n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



208 

YELLOW-CROWNED WOODPECKER Dendmcopos mahmttensis 

Yellow-fronted Pied Woodpecker {Picoides mahmttensis) 
Mahratta Woodpedcer, Yellow-crowned Pied Woodpecker 



Subspecies mahmttensis. First collected 
by B. Hodgson (312). An uncommon resi- 
dent, mainly occurring up to 275m, al- 
though found in the eastern tarai and 
foothills (P8,Q8) to 1500m (293). Noted 
at the unusually high altitude of 1700m in 
the upper Arun valley in November 1979 
(574). A rare breeding bird at Chitwan 
(296). Occurs in open wooded areas. 
Range The whole subcontinent east of 
the Indus River. 



Woodpeckers 




BROWN-FRONTED WOODPECKER Dendmcopos auriceps 
Brown-fronted Pied Woodpecker (Picoides auriceps) 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common resident, found between 
1065m and 2440m. Proved breeding at 
Khaptad (C3) (428) and in the Markhu 
valley (L6) (98). Two intergrading races 
occur: D. a. auriceps (a) (646,661) and the 
endemic D. a. incognitus (i) (190). Inhab- 
its coniferous and dry broadleaved 
forests. Range N. Baluchistan north to 
Chitral east through to Nepal. 




FULVOUS-BREASTED WOODPECKER Dendnxopos maca 

Fulvous-breasted Pied Woodpecker (Picoides macei) 

Subspecies macei. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common resident from 
the Modi Khola (H5) eastwards. Occa- 
sionally reported from further west. Most 
frequently seen up to 1830m. Noted at the 
particularly high altitude of 2745m in the 
Gandak Kosi watershed (L5) on 23 
March 1951 (631). Proved breeding at 
Chitwan (296). Inhabits broadleaved and 
broadleaved/coniferous forests and open 
wooded country. Range Himalayas from 
Murree east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
and e. India and Bangladesh. 




Woodpeckers/Broadbills 



209 



GREY-CAPPED PYGMY WOODPECKER Dendrocopos catucapUlus 

Grey-crowned Pygmy Woodpecker, (Picoides canicapillus) 
Grey-capped Woodpecker 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
resident, mainly found up to 365m. Fairly 
common from Butwal eastwards. Rarely 
seen further west. Common at Chitwan 
and proved breeding there (296326). An 
uncommon summer visitor to the Kath- 
mandu Valley (240). Two intergrading 
races occur: D. c. mitchelU (m) (62,247) 
and D. c. semicomnatus (s) (62,247). In- 
habits open broadleaved forests. Range 
Himalayas from Murree east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh, n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




J^F MA M^ J J 



SO N D 



BROWN-CAPPED PYGMY WOODPECKER Dendmcopos nanus 

Brown-crowned Pygmy Woodpecker, Brown-capped Woodpecker 
(Picoides nanus, Dendrocopos moluccensis) 



Subspecies nanus. First recorded by S.D. 
Ripley from Chisapani (C4) at 225m, and 
Tikapur (05) at 150m in January 1949 
(659). A resident, most frequent in the 
west. Fairly common at Sukla Phanta 
(700), and occasionally seen at Bardia 
(192). Rare from Chitwan eastwards. 
Noted in Tilaurakot woods (G6) at 150m 
in the same area as Grey-capped Pygmy 
Woodpecker (157). Occurs in light for- 
ests, and trees near cultivation in the 
tarai. Range N. India from Haiyana, 
Rajasthan and Gujarat east to Bangla- 
desh, and south through the peninsula. 




SILVER-BREASTED BROADBILL Serilophus lunatus 
Hodgson's Broadbill, Collared Broadbill 



Subspecies wfc/ispy^uj. Only recorded by 
B. Hodgson (380). One of his specimens 
was obtained from the lower hills on 10 



January (336). Inhabits evergreen and semi-evergreen 
jungle up to 1700m. Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



LONG-TAILED BROADBILL Psarisomus dalhousiae 



Subspecies dalhousiae. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (336,388). Probably resident. 
Possibly declined; fairly common north of 
Sunischare but is now scarce and local 
elsewhere. The only other reports re- 
ceived since 1974 are from south of An- 
napuma (H5) (762), Phewa Tal, Chitwan, 
lower Arun watershed (596), Chatra 



(518) and Hans Pokhari (S8) (193). Described as common 
in dense forests of the central duns(L6,L7) in 1947(99), but 
only one later record from the area: in December 1970 
(444). A pair nest-building, and three old nests, found at 
Bogaytcha north of Sunischare on 29 April 1986 (321). 
Frequents broadleaved forests of the foothills. Range 
Himalayas from Garhwal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh. 



210 



Bmadbills/Pittas 



LONG-TAILED BROADBILL, cont'd ... 




BLUE-NAPED PITTA Pitta nipalensis 

Subspecies nipalensis. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(371,798). His specimens came from the 
lower hills and the Kathmandu Valley 
(336). Scarce and local; probably resi- 
dent. AH later records are from the Val- 
ley. Chiefly seen at Godavari at about 




1525m. The most recent reports received are from Godav- 
ari in January 1983 (402) and Nagarjung in November 
1989(675). Breeds from April to August. Occurs in damp 
gullies in subtropical forests with dense undergrowth. 
Skulking and easily overlooked, like other pittas. Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh. 



HOODED PnTA Pitta sordida 

Green-breasted Pitta 

Subspecies c«c«//aM. First recorded by E. 
BIyth from a Hodgson specimen (114). 
Very locaUy distributed up to 305m. De- 
scribed as chiefly resident in the subconti- 
nent (54,664), but only reported from 
Nepal in summer. Common at Chitwan 
(J6,K6) from April to October, and 
proved breeding there (296). The only 
other reports are from Hetaura in May 
and June 1947 (99) and in June 1957 
(245), Simeiy (L7) in April 1973 (587), 
Dharan in May 1976 (293), and south of 
Annapuma (H5) in 1977 (762). Inhabits 
damp tropical and subtropical forest with 
thick undergrowth. Range Himalayas 
from Simla east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




INDIAN PITTA Pitta brachyum 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
local summer visitor to the lowlands. 
Common at Chitwan, and proved breed- 
ing there (296). Rare at Sukla Phanta 
(700), and Bardia (128,192,750). The only 
other report is from the eastern tarai and 



foothills (08), where it is an uncommon passage migrant in 
May (281,285,293). Inhabits tropical forests with dense 
undergrowth. Range Breeds in the Himalayas from Simla 
east to Arunachal Pradesh, and south to Rajasthan, Kanara 
and Bangladesh. Winters in s. India. 



Pittas/Larks 

DTOIAN PITTA, cont'd ... 



211 





RUFOUS-WINGED BUSHLARK Mirufiu assamica 
Bush Lark, Bengal Bushlark 

Subspsciss assamica. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common resident 
throughout the tarai. Frequents short 
grassland, ploughed flelds and other dry 
cultivation. Proved breeding at Chitwan 
(2%). Range North-central India from 
Haryana east to Assam and Bangladesh, 
and south to s. India. 



ASHY-CROWNED FINCH LARK Emnopterix grisea 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common resident throughout the 
tarai and up to 730m in the Surkhet vaUey 
(244). Occurs in open dry areas including 
cultivation, stony scrub and ploughed 
flelds. The breeding season is irregular. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 



GREATER SHORT-TOED LARK CaUmdrella bmcMydactyla 
Short-toed Lark (C. cinema) 




J AA^ ■ N ■ ' 



^-'A 




First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Specimens identifled to subspecies have 
all been C. b. dukhunensis, but C. b. longi- 
pennis possibly occurs. Occasional. 
Mainly a passage migrant; also a winter 
visitor. Found with Hume's Short-toed 
Larks in flocks of up to 1000 in the upper 
Kali Gandaki valley between 27 Septem- 
ber and 14 October 1973 (76). Also seen 
in mixed flocks in April 1981 at Tukche, 
Jomosom, and Kagbeni (811). Several 



records from the Kathmandu VaUey, mainly in March, 
April and October. Also noted in the Kosi marshes in 
March, April and November, including a flock of about 400 
in early March 1989 (172). Noted in winter at Phewa Tal 
(180), Begnas Tal (325), Chitwan (702), Kalopani (H4) 
(687), and in the Kathmandu Valley (300). There are two 
monsoon specimen records: one collected at 5000m at 
Lobuche (P6) on 17 August 1%2 (190) and one in Mustang 
District (H3) on 11 June 1977 (589). Frequents ploughed 
flelds, open stony, and short grass areas. Range Winter 
visitor throughout the subcontinent. 



212 



Larks 



GREATER SHORT-TOED LARK, cont'd ... 




n U.I . , 1 1 ^^„. ? PW-» ' ., ' r^ 



HUME'S SHORT-TOED LARK CalandtvUa acutimstris 



Subspecies tibetana. A Hodgson speci- 
men was listed for Nepal by Sharpe (719), 
but it may have originated from outside 
Nepal. First definitely recorded by B. 
Biswas at Phalong Karpo (P6) on 6 May 
1954 (109). Common in summer; uncom- 
mon in winter and on passage. Reported 
in spring and autumn from the upper KaU 
Gandaki valley, in flocks with Greater 
Short-toed Larks (76,762,811). A few 
reports of passage migrants in Khumbu 
(109,558), and in March and April at Kosi 
Barrage where a maximum of 300 was 
found in early March 1988 (465). Com- 
mon in the Dolpo (G3) in summer, and 
possibly breeds there (224). Also re- 
corded in winter in the Namlang valley 




(F2) (447), Khumbu (558) and Kosi Barrage (262). Inhabits 
open dry stony areas. Range Summervisitor to Baluchistan, 
and the Himalayas from Chitral to Bhutan. Winters from 
Pakistan east to Bangladesh. 



SAND LARK Catandnlla mytal 
Indian Sandlark 

Subspecies raylal. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (315), but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by J. ScuUy 
in the lowlands in December 1877 (708). 
A locally common resident. Regularly 
seen at Tamaspur, Kosi Barrage, and also 
Chitwan where breeding has been proved 
(296). Occasionally observed elsewhere. 
Found on sandy river banks and islands of 
large rivers in the tarai. Range Pakistan, 
n. India and Bangladesh. 



,-^-^ 




J^F ' M ■ A ' M^J 'J'A'S'O'N'D' 



Larks 



213 



CRESTED LARK Galerida aistata 

Subspecies chendoola. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A fairly common resi- 
dent east toNepalganj; rare further east. 
Found in dry fields of the tarai just north 
of the Indian border. Range Pakistan; n. 
India east to Bihar, and south to Madhya 
Pradesh. 




T^S"^^^ 



aSs^ 



ORIENTAL SKYLARK Alauda gulgula 

Little Skylark, Small Skylark, Eastern Skylark 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common winter visitor and resident. 
Three subspecies occur.y4.g. gulgula (g) is 
found to 150m and is probably resident 
(245,246,247). A. g inopinata (i) (99, 
240,574,708) and^. g Ihamamm (1) (234, 
245,659) have been mainly collected in 
winter between 1280m and 1700m but 
possibly also breed. The latter race is 
probably much less common. Birds not 
subspecifically identified but probably.^. 
g. inopinata have been found in summer 
in the Tibetan plateau region (509,587) 
and in the Dhorpatan valley (G5) 
(243,499). A fairly common winter visitor 
to the Kathmandu Valley. Frequents 
grassy hillsides, ploughed fields and other 
cultivation. Range Throughout the sub- 
continent. 




[EURASIAN SKYLARK Alauda arvensis 

Described as a winter visitor to central 
Nepal (664) but no definite evidence of its 
occurrence has been traced. Likely to be 



confused with the large race of Oriental Skylark^, gulgula 
Ihamamm. Range Winters in n. Pakistan and n. India east to 
Uttar Pradesh.] 



HORNED LARK Eremophila alpestris 
Shore Lark 

Subspecies elwesi. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
this specimen may have originated from 
outside Nepal. First definitely recorded 
by J.O.M. Roberts who collected one at 
Khangsar (H4) at 4575m on 5 August 
1950 (512). Resident and partial altitudi- 



nal migrant. Mainly reported between 3965m and 5490m, 
although one noted at 5900m in summer (620), and one col- 
lected in winter as low as 2600m at Mali Dala Jiri (G4) on 2 
April 1973 (589). Fairly common in the Dolpo (F3,G3,H3) 
and in Khumbu. Proved breeding at Khangsar (H4) (512) 
and at Gokyo (190). Found on barren stony hillsides. Range 
Himalayas from Hazara east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



214 

HORNED LARK, cont'd ... 



Martins/Swallows 




lOOOo J F M A^M J J ^ 5 N D 



PLAIN MARTIN Riparia paludicola 

Sand Martin, Grey-throated Sand Martin, Plain Sand Martin, 

Brown-throated Sand Martin 



Subspecies chinensis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (352). A common resident up to 
1500m, subject to local movements. One 
was seen at the unusually high altitude of 
2990m near Kagbeni (244). Found breed- 
ing at Chitwan (J6,K6) (296,518,481), in 
the Kathmandu Valley (518,635), near 
Trisuli (L6) (612), and at Kosi Barrage 
(442). The breeding season is given as 
October to March in the Indian subconti- 
nent (45), but in Nepal it is from February 
to November. Frequents rivers and 
streams and nests in sandy banks. Range 
Most of the subcontinent south to 18°N. 




SAND MARTIN Riparia ripana 
Collared Sand Martin, Bank Swallow 

A scarce passage migrant. Most reports 
are from 1980 onwards; probably over- 
looked before this. First collected at Sun- 
dar Gundar (Q8) on 15 February 1938 by 
F.M. Bailey (62), a bird of the race R. r. 
ijimae. A flock of 10 to 20 probably of the 
race R r. diluta was observed at Kosi 
Tappu (08) on 20 April 1982 (199,294) 
and 2 May 1982 (561). The species has 



been reported in April and May from Kagbeni, Jomosom 
and Naudanda (811), Chitwan (561), the Kathmandu Val- 
ley (440) and Kosi Barrage (483). Recorded between late 
September and early November from Rara Lake (68), 
Jomosom (76) and Kosi Barrage (327). Only a few other 
winter records; from Kosi Barrage (327) and Chitwan (402). 
Range Breeds in the Himalayas from N.W.F.P. to Garhwal, 
also Bhutan, n.e. India and Bangladesh. Winters south to 
Madhya Pradesh. 



Martins/Swallows 
SAND MARTIN, cont'd . 



215 





II , i i . II 



F M ■ A ■ « J ■ J 



»I ' „ . J 



NORTHERN CRAG MARTIN Ptyonoprogne lupestris 

Crag Martin {Hirundo rupestris) 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (352). 
Probably resident, subject to altitudinal 
movements. The population may also be 
augmented by winter visitors. Usually 
found below 2135m in winter, and may 
occur as high as 4575m in summer. Fairly 
common north-west of Pokhara (H4,H5). 
Found breeding in cliffs by the Seti Khola 
at Pokhara (419), near Ghasa (295), and 
in walls of houses around Muktinath at 
3500m to 3600m (757). A straggler to the 
Kathmandu Valley, and occasionally re- 
ported from elsewhere. Hawks insects 
near rocky cliffs. Range Breeds in the 
Himalayas from Chitral east to Nepal. 
Winters south to s. India. 




BARN SWALLOW Hinmdo mstica 

Swallow 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (352). A 
common resident and summer visitor, 
mainly occurring up to 1830m. A straggler 
was noted in Khumbu at 6400m on 16 
May 1975 (580). Chiefly a summer visitor 
to the Himalayas. Two races occur: H. r. 
mstica (r) (99,482, 647,708) and H. r. gut- 
turalis (g), but there is only one record of 
the latter (99). Proved breeding in 
Bajhang District (C2) (657), Dan- 
deldhura and Doti Districts (A3,B3,C3) 
(657, 428,68), Kathmandu streets, north- 
west of Pokhara (H4,H5) (811), and at 
Ham (518). Reported on passage: a total 
of 321 flew west at Khare (H5) between 
20 October and 7 November 1985 (684) 




and nearly 500 were seen at 3660m on Machapuchare (244). 
Range Breeds in the Himalayas from Chitral east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh. Winters throughout the subcontinent. 



216 



Martins/Swallows 



WIRE-TAILED SWALLOW Hinmdo smithu 

Subspecies filifera. A Hodgson specimen 
is listed for Nepal by Sharpe (717) but it 
may have originated in India. First defi- 
nitely recorded by R.L. Fleming Sr. near 
Bhairawa in March 1959 (230). Uncom- 
mon and local; possibly resident. Re- 
ported from Nepalganj (432,691,811), 
and Kapilvastu District (F6,G6) 
(157,792). The only other record is from 
Mahendranagar (A4) (811). Proved 
breeding at Nepalganj in March (811). 
Usually found near water. Range 
Throughout most of the subcontinent. 




hnS" 



jl, I, 



J ' J ' A '_sAo 'no' 



RED-RUMPED SWALLOW 

Striated Swallow 



Hinmdo daurica 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (352). 
Three races occur. H. d. nipalensis (n) is a 
common resident subjea to altitudinal 
movements. It nests up to 1770m in Dan- 
deldhura and Doti Districts (A3,B3) 
(657,428,68), at Malunga (H6) (575), 
Surkhet (626), between Pokhara and 
Lumsum (G4,H5) (419), Pati Bhanjyang 
(L6) (440,633), Chitlang (L6) (99), Kath- 
mandu VaUey (99,629,708) and Tumling- 
tar (Q7) (484). In winter descends to be- 
tween 915m and the tarai. Noted on pas- 
sage in the Kathmandu Valley in Novem- 
ber (436,418) and at Khare (H5) where 
13,902 flew west between 20 and 30 Octo- 




ber 1985 (684). There are only single winter records ofH. d. 
daurica (d) (659) and H. d. japonica (j) (247). Frequents 
cultivated open scrub country and upland pastures. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 



STREAK-THROATED SWALLOW HUimdo fluvicola 

Indian Cliff Swallow 



First recorded by R.L. Fleming and H. 
Gilston, on 11 April 1975 at Kosi Barrage 
(243,293). A scarce visitor, reported sev- 
eral times in January: up to 10 were seen 
at Begnas Tal in 1979 (486,651), three by 
the Tadi River, Nawakot District in 1980 
(L6) (587), and singles at Phewa Tal in 
1981 (180), Chobar in 1982 (L6) (73), and 
Hetaura in 1984 (143). Only three other 
records: one at Birganj (K7) on 20 August 
1973 (77), five at Kosi Barrage on 10 
February 1984 (408), and one at Kosi 
Tappu (Q8) on 22 April 1982 (199,294), 
the easternmost record of the species. 
Usually seen with flocks of hirundines 




fitn 



' ri^»'T'»- i^s t. s- V u 



over rivers or lakes. Range N. Pakistan, and India east to 
Madhya Pradesh and e. Nepal. 



Martins/Swallows 



217 



NEPAL HOUSE-MARTIN Delichon nipalensis 



Subspecies nipalensis. The species was 
described from Nepal by F. Moore from a 
Hodgson specimen (409,798) but it may 
have originated in India. First defmitety 
recorded by H. Stevens from the upper 
Mai vaUey (S7) on 28 April 1912 (740). A 
fairly common resident subject to local 
altitudinal movements. Usually found up 
to 3500m in summer but one noted at 
3865m at Tengboche (P6) in May (75). 
Regularly reported in winter between 
915m and 2135m, but rare in the low- 
lands: noted at the particularly low alti- 
tude of 160m at Sukla Phanta (700). Oc- 
casionally seen on passage in the Kath- 
mandu Valley. Proved breeding near 
Syabru (L5) (612) and Nundhaki (Q7) 
(793). Frequents mountain river valleys, 
grassy ridges and slopes. Range Hima- 
layas from Garhwal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




mnHpofii; 



ASIAN HOUSE-MARTIN Delichon dasypus 
COMMON HOUSE-MARTIN D.urbica 



The status and distribution of both spe- 
cies is uncertain as they are often consid- 
ered conspecific (45,243,664). Birds not 
specifically identified have been reported 
between 305m and 4575m. Regularly seen 
north-west of Pokhara, in Langtang and 



Khumbu. Proved breeding near Jumla in July (620). On 20 
June 1954 "an almost endless stream" was observed passing 
east over Lumsum (G4) at 1980m, including a flock of 200 
birds (419). Many were also seen flying south near Pokhara 
from 2 td 8 November 1954 (419). 



ASIAN HOUSE-MARTIN Delichon dasypus 

Subspecies cashmeriensis. Probably resi- 
dent, subject to altitudinal movements. 
First recorded by G. Diesselhorst at Pher- , 
iche (P6) at 4250m on 27 August 1962 
(190). A nesting colony was found under a 
huge boulder at Gapte (L5) at 3500m in 
May (440). Other confirmed records are 
from Bajhang (C2) (657), north-west of 
Pokhara (H4,H5), Chitwan (K6) (325), 
Helambu (L6) (444), Langtang (L5>15), 
near Lukla (P6) (769) and Ham District 
(442,307). Occurs over grassy slopes and 
mountain valleys. Range Breeds in the 
Himalayas from Chitral east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh. Winters at lower levels, 
and occasional records in the plains of 
n.e. India. 




218 



Martins /Pipits 



COMMON HOUSE-MARTIN 

House Martin 



Delichon urbica 



Subspecies urbica. Only four definite rec- 
ords, probably of passage migrants. One 
was taken by R.L. Fleming near Dhan- 
garhi at 460m on 26 April 1965 (234,247). 
The other reports are of ten birds at 
Majhagaon (A4) at 150m on 13 May 1982 
(432), three over Arung Khola (H6) at 
150m inmid-Februaiy 1986 (321) and two 
between Khare and Suikhet (H5) at about 
1470m on 13 February 1989 (506). Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from Gilgit east 
to Spiti. Winters south to s. India. 




pu; 



l .>. ^ ..,.M„ 



lAMJ IJ^A'S'O'N'O 



RICHARD'S PIPIT 

Paddyfield Pipit 



Anthus novaeseelandiae 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). Two 
races occur. A. n. richardi is a winter 
visitor and passage migrant, seen occa- 
sionally. Regularly reported from Phewa 
Tal and Begnas Tal where flocks of up to 
35 have been seen. Uncommon at Chi- 
twan, and also in the Kathmandu Valley 
where it has been found as early as 19 
September (629). 




J'FM'AM'J'J'A'SON'D' 



Paddyfield Pipity4. n. rufulus is a common 
resident up to 1830m, and has been re- 
ported up to 2440m in summer (626). 
Proved breeding in the Kathmandu Val- 
ley (629), at Chitwan (229) and Kosi 
(313). The species frequents open grassy 
areas and dry cultivation. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 



--V^ 




J F^M A ■ M ■ J J ■ A ' S^O ■ N ■ D ■ 



Pipits 



219 



BLYTH'S PIPIT Anthus godlewshi 

First coUected by B. Hodgson (388). A 
passage migrant of uncertain status and 
distribution. Only specimen records have 
been accepted because until recently no 
reliable field identification criteria had 
been established to separate this species 
from Richard's Pipit or Tawny Pipit. Has 
been obtained in March and April at 
Kathmandu, and at Haraincha (Q8) at 
75m (62). Collected in September from 
Gumtang (L6) and Kodari (M6) (62); 
Langtang at 411Sm (621); and Khumbu 
between 3800m and 4250m (190). Taken 
at Sukipatal (Q6) in October (690) and at 
Kathmandu in November (62,190). There 
are sight records from Khumbu 
(526,559,560), Tukche (811) and several 
from Kosi Barrage. Range Winters locally 
in n.e. India, Bangladesh, and much of the 
peninsula south to Kerala. Passage mi- 
grant in the e. Himalayas. 




I I , ' , , I ." 



' j ' r'M '' ' H' J ' J ' » ^ s. ' f 'M^'' 



TAWNY PIPIT Anthus campestris 

Vagrant. First recorded at Chitwan (J6) 
on 28 March 1977 by G. Groh (6,634). 
Another, probably of this species, was 
seen at Sukla Phanta in February 1977 
(6,238). The only other records are singles 
migrating west at Khare (H5) on 20 and 
21 October 1985 (684) and one at Chi- 
twan (K6) on 15 February 1989 (506). 
Range Local winter visitor to Pakistan, 
India (except the n.e.), and Bangladesh. 




P?^f^ 



A M J ' J 



LONG-BILLED PIPIT Anthus similis 
Brown Rock Pipit 

Subspecies jerdoni. First coUected at 
Banbassa (A4) at 150m on 7 January 1937 
by FJyI. Bailey (62). Scarce, possibty resi- 
dent. Specimens were also taken at Bi- 
lauri (A4) at 275m in December 1952, and 
Barmdeo Mandi (A3) at 290m in January 
1953 (647). Proved breeding at Silgadi 



Doti (B3) at about 1700m; singles noted carrying food at 
two sites on 29 May 1988 (438). Seen in song flight at 
Dipayal (B3) at 800m on 30 May 1988 (438). Frequents dry 
cultivation and grassy and rocky slopes. Breeds from April 
to August. Range Breeds in the hiUs of Pakistan, the 
Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Nepal, and in s.w. India. 
Winters east to Bangladesh. 



220 



Pipits 



OUVE-BACKED PIPIT Anthus hodg^oni 
Hodgson's Pipit, Olive Tree-Pipit, Indian Tree Pipit 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). Two 
races occur. A. h. hodgsoni (h) is a com- 
mon resident subject to altitudinal move- 
ments. Mainly summers between 2900m 
and 4000m, occasionally down to 2440m; 
and winters from about 1980m to 2560m. 
Confirmed breeding on the Mamche 
Danda (L6) (640). Birds breeding in the 
Dhorpatan valley (F4), in June, presuma- 
bly belonged to this race (499). A speci- 
men was taken at 30Sm at Amlekhganj 
(K7) on 7 March 1947 (99). A. h. yun- 
nanensis (y) is a common winter visitor up 
to 2560m. Found on grassy slopes in open 
forests, and scrub or cultivation with scat- 




tered trees. Range Breeds in the Himalayas from 
Dharmsala east to Arunachal Pradesh. Winters south to s. 
India, and east to Bangladesh. 



TREE PIPIT Anthus trivialis 
Brown Tree-Pipit 

Subspecies trivialis. The first record is a 
specimen taken at Thankot (L6) on 11 
April 1947 by B. Biswas (99). A winter 
visitor and passage migrant. Mainly re- 
corded since 1979; possibly overlooked 
before this. Uncommon at Chitwan and 
Kosi Barrage. Mainly single reports from 
elsewhere. Frequents cultivation, or open 
country with scattered trees. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas fromChitral east 
to Lahul. Winters throughout the subcon- 
tinent. 




J'F'M'A'MJ^J ■ A '"S ' * N ' D " 



RED-THROATED PIPIT Anthus cervinus 

First recorded by B. Hodgson in the Kath- 
mandu Valley (336,388). An uncommon 
winter visitor and passage migrant. 
Mainly found between October and Feb- 
ruary, with several reports between 
March and June, presumably of spring 
migrants. A few records from fields by 
Phewa Tal with a maximum of 35 in mid- 
January 1981 (180). Mainly single reports 
from elsewhere. A total of 109 migrated 
west at Khare (H5) between 20 October 
and 7 November 1985 (684). The maxi- 
mum altitude recorded is 5180m, above 
Tukche in December 1949 (647). Winters 
in wet grassy areas and stubble fields. 
Range Local and uncommon migrant in 
Pakistan, n.w. India, and Manipur. 




J ■ F ^M " ' M "^j^T^A "" b^O ■ N" D 



Pipits 



221 



ROSY PIPIT Anthus roseatus 
Rosy-breasted Pipit {Anthus pelopus) 
Vinaceous-breasted Pipit 



V-'A 




^, c^«. At 



J F ' M A '^' J ■ J A^S * N ■ D ■ 



The species was described from Nepal by 
E. Blyth from a Hodgson specimen (121). 
A fairly common resident subject to alti- 
tudinal movements, and a passage mi- 
grant. Mainly summers between 3355m 
and 5050m, and winters from 760m to 
1500m, occasionally down to the tarai. 
Proved breeding in the upper Kali Gan- 



daki vaUey (811), and at Pheriche (P6) (190). Flocks of up to 
50 seen flying up the Kali Gandaki valley on 27 March 1982 
(294). A total of 530 was noted at Kosi Tappu in early 
February 1984, presumably migrants (408). Occurs in sum- 
mer above the treeUne on stony slopes and in alpine mead- 
ows. Winters in marshes and cultivation. Range Breeds in 
the Himalayas from SafedKoh east to Arunachal Pradesh. 
Winters in n. Pakistan, n. India, and Bangladesh. 



WATER PIPIT Anthus spinoletta 
BUFF-BELLIED PIPIT A. rubescens 

The status and distribution of both spe- 
cies is uncertain as, until recently they 
were usually considered as conspecific. 
Birds not specifically identified have been 
reported between 75m and 2700m in 
winter and on passage. Several records 
from Phewa Tal; mainly single reports 
from elsewhere. Both species inhabit 
marshes and damp cultivation in winter. 



WATER PIPIT Anthus spinoletta 

Subspecies blaJdstoni. Probably a scarce winter visitor and 
passage migrant. First definitely recorded by R.L. Fleming 
Sr. who collected a ^ecimen at Pokhara on 31 December 
1963 (247). The only other confirmed records are of singles 
seen by Phewa Tal on 25 March 1989 (166) and at Kosi 
Barrage from 3 to 5 February 1990 (256). Range Winters 
locally in Pakistan and n.w. India. 



BUFF-BELLIED PIPIT Anthus rubescens 

Siberian Water Pipit, American Pipit 

Subspecies ;apo/i/cMs. Probably a scarce 
winter visitor and passage migrant. A 
Hodgson specimen was listed for Nepal 
by Sharpe (717), but it may have origi- 
nated in India. First definitely recorded 
by P. Holt at Jomosom at 2715m on 3 and 
5 March 1986 (403). The only other con- 
firmed records are of 50 on 23 January by 
Manora River, Kathmandu Valley (L6); 
20 at Phewa Tal on 13 January, about 10 
in the Pokhara valley on 14 January and 
six at Chitwan (K6) on 17 January 1989 
(152). Range Winters locally in Pakistan; 
recorded from Darjeeling and Manipur. 




11 II I 



;=! icn 



J ' F^M' A'M'J'J'A'S'0'N'O^ 



222 



Pipits/Wagtails 



UPLAND PIPIT Anthus sylvanus 





The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (391,798). He found it breed- 
ing in the Kathmandu Valley (336,414). A 
locally fairly conunon resident and partial 
altitudinal migrant. Recorded between 
1830m and 2900m in summer, and 1350m 



to 2000m in winter. Found at Mai Pokhari (R7) on 22 April 
1982 (561), the eastern limit of the species's range in the 
Himalayas. Proved breeding at Pipar (H5) (800). Inhabits 
steep rocky and grassy slopes. Range Himalayas from Paki- 
stan east to e. Nepal. 



FOREST WAGTAIL Dendmnanthus indicus 

(Motacilla indica) 

Vagrant. First recorded by K. Curry- 
Lindahl who saw one by the Rapti River, 
Chitwan on 30 November 1979(171). The 
only other records are of singles seen on 4 
April 1984 at Chitwan (624), by Bagmati 



Bridge, Kathmandu on 4 April 1986 (403) and at Chatra 
(Q8) on 4 October 1987 (792). UsuaUy frequents clearings 
in broadleaved forest and bamboo jungle. Range Winters 
locally in s.w. and n.e. India, and Bangladesh. 



YELLOW WAGTAIL Motacilla flava 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Occasional. Mainly a winter visitor seen 
up to 1350m, and a passage migrant. 
Fairly common at Chitwan (296), where 
over 2000 Yellow and Citrine Wagtails 
were seen flying to roost in January 1980 
(180). Five races have been recorded, but 
their distribution and movements are 
poorly known, and birds subspecifically 
identified have mainly been spring males. 
M. f. beema (b) occurs on passage and in 
winter, and is more frequently reported 
than other races. There are several rec- 
ords of M.f. thunber^ (t) in April and May 
(295,432,440,442,635), single reports of 
M.f. melanogrisea (m) (647), and three of 
M. f. leucocephala (1) (199,294,321). One 
M. f. laivana (a) which is scarce in the 
subcontinent, was found at Kosi Barrage 
on 14 March 1981 (442). M. f. lutea is 




likely to occur. A specimen record of M. s. simillima (482) 
listed in the first edition of this book (435) has been omitted 
because it is considered unlikely that this far eastern race 
occurs so far west . The species frequents marshes and damp 
fields, especially near grazing animals. Range Breeds in 
Ladakh and possibly n. Kashmir. Winters throughout the 
subcontinent. 



Wagtails 



223 



CITRINE WAGTAIL MotacUla dtreola 
Yellow-headed Wagtail 





First recorded by B. Hodgson (360). Oc- 
casional. Mainly a winter visitor to the 
lowlands and a passage migrant. Fairly 
common at Chitwan (296) and Kosi, with 
a maximum of 60 estimated at the latter 
place on 2 May 1986 (321). Three races 
occur. M. c. calcamta (a) (62^94,432, 



647,428) and M. c. citKola (i) (62,432,442,587,647) have 
been reported on passage and in winter. Only a few records 
of M. c. werae (w), from March to May (294,442,321). 
Inhabits marshes and wet fields. Prefers wetter areas than 
YeUow Wagtail. Range Breeds in Baluchistan, and in the 
Himalayas from Chitral east to Spiti. Winters throughout 
the subcontinent. 



GREY WAGTAIL 

(M caspica) 



Motadlla cinerea 



Subspecies cinerea. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common resident sub- 
ject to altitudinal movements. Mainly 
summers between 2315m and 41 15m, and 
winters below 365m, but occasionally to 
1550m. Proved breeding near Jumla 
(620), in Langu vaUey (F2) (330) and 
along the Marsyangdi and Kali Gandaki 
Rivers (H4,H5,J5) (757). Migrants noted 
in the upper Kali Gandaki valley: up to 10 
daily between 14 September and 6 Octo- 
ber 1973 (76). Occurs by fast-flowing, 
rocky streams in summer, and slower 




streams in winter. Range Breeds in Baluchistan, and the 
Himalayas from Chitral to Nepal. Winters throughout the 
subcontinent. 



WHITE WAGTAIL Motadlla alba 
Pied Wagtail 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (360). A 
commmon passage migrant and winter 
visitor, with one race remaining to breed. 
Proved breeding in Langu valley (F2) 
(330). Mainly winters below 1500m. At 
Sauraha (J6) over 8000 were estimated 
flying to roost in January 1981 (180). Oc- 
casionally reported flying up river valleys 
on passage. In early November 1954 large 
numbers passed south over Pokhara daily 
(419). Migrants noted as high as 5000m at 
Gorak Shep (P6) (526). Six races occur. 



All have been found in the Kathmandu Valley (x) where 
their status has been studied (635). M. a. dukhunensis (d), 
M. a. leucopsis (1), M. a. personata, M. a. baicalensis axiAM. 
a. alboides (a) are regularly seen. The last is also a summer 
visitor found between 3600m and 4800m (109,190,512). M. 
a. ocularis has only been reported from the Kathmandu 
Valley on passage (99,240,245,635,708). The species winters 
in open country near water marshes, rivers, streams, lakes 
and wet flelds, and summers in the alpine zone. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from Gilgit to Arunachal Pradesh. 
Winters throughout the subcontinent. 



224 

WHITE WAGTAIL, cont'd . 



Wagtails/fVoodshrikes 





WHITE-BROWED WAGTAIL Motacilla maderaspatensis 
Large Pied Wagtail 



Obtained by B. Hodgson in his later col- 
lection (409) but the specimen may have 
originated in India. First definitely re- 
corded by B. Biswas at Thankot (L6) on 
10 April 1947 (101). A fairly common 
resident throughout the tarai and lower 
hills mainly below 915m, and uncom- 
monly up to 1700m. Mainly occurs in the 
Kathmandu Valley in summer; scarce in 
winter. Proved breeding at Pokhara 
(480), Chitwan (296), and in the Kath- 
mandu Valley (629,316). Frequents 
banks of rivers, pools and lakes. Range 
Locally throughout the subcontinent. 




COMMON WOODSHRIKE Tephrodomis pondicaianus 
Lesser Wood-Shrike, Indian Wood-Shrike 



Snhspede&pondicerianus. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (375). A locally, fairly 
common resident found up to about 
455m. Areas include Bardia, Chitwan, the 
central dun (K7,L7) and the eastern low- 
lands (08,R8). Proved breeding at Chi- 
twan (296), and Hetaura (99). Inhabits 
dry scrub and lightly wooded areas. 
Range Throughout most of the subconti- 
nent. 




Woodshrikes/Cuckoo-shrikes 



225 



LARGE WOODSHRIKE Tephrodomis gularis 
(T. virgatus) 

Subspecies pelvica. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (375). A locally fairly common 
resident up to 365m. Areas include Ta- 
maspur, Chitwan, and north of Sunis- 
chare. A straggler to the Kathmandu 
Valley. Occurs in broadleaved forests and 
well-wooded country, but prefers wetter 
areas than the Common Woodshrike. 
Range Himalayan foothills from Nepal 
east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and 
Bangladesh; s.w. India. 




BAR-WINGED FLYCATCHER-SHRIKE 

Pied Wood-shrike 

Subspecies capilalis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common resident up to 
1830m subject to some altitudinal move- 
ments. Chiefly a summer visitor to the 
Kathmandu Valley. Breeding confirmed 
at Chitwan (440). Frequents open 
broadleaved forests. Range Himalayan 
foothills from Simla east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; south to s. India and Bangla- 
desh. 



Hemipus picatus 




■ J ■ FA" 



BLACK-HEADED CUCKOO-SHRIKE Coracina melanoptem 



Subspecies sykesi. First recorded by B. 
Biswas at Hetaura on 21 May 1947 (99). 
Scarce. Subject to seasonal movements; 
mainly seen in spring and summer in the 
lowlands, but is possibly under-recorded. 
As breeding does not start until June 
most birds probably do not arrive until 
late spring. A few reports from Chitwan 
between March and the monsoon 
(772,730,562,810); also in December 1989 
(138). Single records from elsewhere: 
Birganj (K7) in 1973 (587), Chapagaon 
forest (L6) at 1430m in February 1978 
(301), Simra in February 1979 (486), 
Bardia and Kosi Tappu in May 1982 
(432), north of Sunischare in January 
1985 (142) and Dharan in November 1989 
(597). A male was seen carrying nesting 
material on 15 April 1977 at Birtamod 




^^W^^fl^F^: 



A^S 



(R8) (243). Occurs in open broadleaved forests and secon- 
dary growth. Range Himalayan foothiUs from Himachal 
Pradesh east to West Bengal, and south to Kutch and 
Bangladesh. 



226 



Cuckoo-shrikes/Minivets 



BLACK-WINGED CUCKOO-SHRIKE Comdna melaschistos 
Dark Cuckoo-Shrike, Dark Grey Cuckoo-Shrike 




Subspecies me/ojc/iiitos. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(374,798). A resident subject to altitudi- 
nal movements. Occasionally found up to 
915m throughout the year, and up to 



2200m in summer. Seen between February and mid-Octo- 
ber in the Kathmandu Valley (635), and proved breeding 
there (635, 659). Occurs in open forests and groves. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from Murree to Arunachal 
Pradesh, and in n.e. India. Winters south to Kamataka and 
Bangladesh. 



LARGE CUCKOO-SHRIKE Comdna macei 
Black-faced Cuckoo-shrike (C. novaehollandiae) 



Subspecies nipalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (374,798). A common resi- 
dent up to 2135m. Generally descends 
from higher elevations in winter, al- 
though it has been found at 1525m. In- 
habits secondary growth and open 
wooded country. Range Himalayan foot- 
hills from Rawalpindi east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; south to s. India and Bangla- 
desh. 




SCARLET MINIVET Pericmcotus flammeus 

Subspecies 5pec(05ux. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common resident up to 
2200m, possibly subject to altitudinal 
movements. Breeding confirmed at Chi- 



twan (296). Frequents broadleaved and coniferous forests. 
Range Himalayas from Murree to Arunachal Pradesh; also 
locally south in the hills to s. India. 



Minivets 
SCARLET MIMVET, cont'd . 



227 





SHORT-BILLED MINIVET Pericrocotus brevirostris 



Subspecies brevirostris. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Scarce, probably resi- 
dent. Found between 1005m and 2745m. 
Veiy similar to the Long-tailed Minivet; 
the two species were long confused in the 
literature and not separated until 1914. 
Collected in the Langtang valley (L5) 
(619,621), at Deorali, (L6) (99), Jiri (N6) 
(190,196), near Jamuna (S7) (246), and in 
the upper Arun vaUey (10). Other con- 
firmed localities include south of An- 
napuma (J5), the Kathmandu Valley, 
Sangure ridge (Q8) and Dharan. The only 
published breeding information for the 
species is of one taken in breeding condi- 
tion at Deorali at 1495m on 29 April 1947 
(99), and a pair nest-building above 




Hanga Tham at about 2140m on 27 April 1986 (321,323). 
Inhabits open broadleaved forests and forest edges. Range 
Himalayas from Naini Tal east to Arunachal Pradesh, and 
n.e. India. 



LONG-TAILED MINIVET Pericrocotus elhologus 



The species was first collected by B. 
Hodgson; this was confirmed by the re- 
cent location of specimens in the British 
Museum (Natural History). A common 
resident subject to altitudinal move- 
ments. Most frequent in summer between 
1200m and 2400m, and in winter between 
245m and 2135m. Recorded at 3965m at 
Khangsar in August (512). Found breed- 
ing at Rara Lake (62i6) and in the Kath- 
mandu VaUey (440,629,659,708). Two 
races occur: P. e. laetus (1) (247), P. e. 
favillaceus (T) (512,647), and intermedi- 
ates (fl) (99,109,647,659). Frequents for- 
ests, trees at edges of cultivation and 
groves. Range Breeds in the Himalayas 




|i 1 ^ mp 



from N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and 
Bangladesh. Winters south to Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. 



228 



Minivets 



GREY-CmNNED MINIVET Pericmcotus solans 

Yellow-throated Minivet 



Subspecies solans. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). Scarce, presumably resi- 
dent and found between 250m and 
2075m. Occasionally seen on the lower 
slopes of Phulchowki. Other records are 
from north-west of Pokhara (223309), 
Chitwan (K6) (11), Chapagaon forest 
(L6) (243), Deorali (L6) (99), Num (06) 
(587), Trisuh valley (L6) (794), north of 
Sunischare (142) and the far eastern hiUs 
(Q8,R8) (223). Noted at Ulleri (H5) in 
March 1982 (207,561); the most westerly 
records for the species. Occurs in damp 
broadleaved forests. Its breeding behav- 



-V^, 




"TST 



iour is little known. Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh, and n.e. India. 



SMALL MINIVET Pericmcotus dnnamomeus 



A Hodgson specimen was listed for Nepal 
by Sharpe (714), but it may have origi- 
nated in India. First definitely recorded 
by FM. Bailey from Tribeni (H7) at 75m 
on 8 February 1936 (62). A resident, occa- 
sionally seen throughout the lowlands up 
to 290m. Breeding confirmed at Chitwan 
(296). The eastern race P. c. vividus has 
been collected in the far western tarai 
(A4,B4) (647), but Ripley considered his 
western specimens were intermediates 
between this race and P. c. peregrinus (46, 
659,664). Frequents more open wooded 
areas than other minivets. Range 
Throughout most of the subcontinent. 




ROSY MINIVET Pencmcotus mseus 

Subspecies mseus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). Locally distributed. 
Status uncertain, possibly resident. Seen 
in winter at Bardia (192), Chitwan 
(180,460) and at Dharan (597), but aU 
other records are from March to May. 
Occasionally seen at Chitwan and a few 
sightings from Tamaspur. Only single re- 
ports received from elsewhere: at 
Barmdeo Mandi (A3) (247), Kanchanpur 
District (A4) (470), Bardia (192), south of 
Annapuma (J5) (762), Hetaura (190), 
Kosi District (P8) (293), Dharan (597), 
Kosi Tappu (328), and north of Sunis- 
chare (442). Inhabits broadleaved forest 
and open wooded country. Range Breeds 




in the Himalayas from N.W.F.P. to Arunachal Pradesh, and 
in n.e. India. Winters south to Maharashtra. 



Bulbuls 



229 



STRIATED BULBUL Pycnonotus striatus 
Striated Green Bulbul 

Subspecies striatus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A local resident, with 
some altitudinal movements, found be- 
tween 1500m and 2650m. Reported at 
UUeri (H5) on 22 July 1978 (688), the 
most westerly record of the species. Occa- 
sionally seen between Dhampus and Lan- 
drung (H5), on Phulchowki, and in the 
Trisuli (L5), Arun and Mai valleys. 
Breeding behaviour is Uttle known. 
Taken in breeding condition on 6 May 
1947 at Bhimpedi at 1220m (99). Fre- 
quents damp, broadleaved, evergreen 
forests. Range Himalayas from Nepal 
east to Arunachal Pradesh, and n.e. India. 




BLACK-CRESTED BULBUL Pycnonotus melanicterus 
Black-headed Yellow Bulbul 



Subspecies /?avive«/m. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Resident. Common 
up to 800m in Mechi Zone (R7,R8) (658). 
Elsewhere occasionally seen up to 365m, 
uncommon up to 915m and rare to 
1525m. Breeding confirmed at Chitwan 
(296) and Hetaura (99). Inhabits moist 
forests with dense undergrowth and thick 
secondary jungle. Range Himalayas from 
Simla east to Arunachal Pradesh, and e. 
and s.w. India. 




RED-WHISKERED BULBUL Pycnonotus jocosus 





J ' FA« A ■ H ■ J ■ 



Subspecies pynhotis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A locally common and 
sedentary resident, reported up to 455m. 
An abundant breeding bird at Chitwan 
(296), and also found breeding at Bardia 



(432) and Hetaura (99). Occurs in scrub jungle and open 
forest. Prefers damp habitats. Range Lowlands below the 
Himalayas from Punjab east to Arunachal Pradesh; also 
most of India, except the north-west, and Bangladesh. 



230 



Bulbuls 



WHITE-CHEEKED BULBUL Pyatonotus leucogaiys 



Subspecies leucogenys. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Mainly a common resi- 
dent between 350m and 2400m. Abun- 
dant in some areas up to 1830m. Occa- 
sionally found down to 2S0m and up to 
3050m. Confirmed to breed at Chitwan 
(296), in the Kathmandu VaUey (708), 
and at Hetaura (99). Frequents secondary 
growth, scrub jungle, and cultivation. 
Range Himalayan foothills from Chitral 
east to Arunachal Pradesh; Pakistan and 
n.w. India. 




J ' F^M A M ■ JAJ *■ ' S ^^ " " 



RED-VENTED BULBUL Pyatonotus cafer 

Subspecies bengalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A common resident 
from the tarai up to 1500m, occasionally 
seen up to 2135m. Abundant in some 
areas. Found breeding at Dipayal (B3) 
(68), in the Kathmandu Valley 
(336,629,708), at Chitwan (296) and 
Hetaura (99). Frequents gardens, secon- 
dary scrub and light broadleaved forests. 
Range Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; south throughout the 
subcontinent. 




JF^S« ■^ ' ' "Ai " 



WHITE-THROATED BULBUL Crinigerjlaveolus 



Subspecies flaveolus. The species was 
described by J. Gould (783), the locality 
of the type later given as Nepal (479). It 
was collected by B. Hodgson (388). Lo- 
cally distributed, probably resident, up to 
455m. Fairly common north of Sunis- 
chare. A few records from Hetaura, but 
none since 1970. Found rarely at Chitwan 
(J6,K6) (296,481), the westernmost local- 
ity for the species. The only other reports 
are from Amlekhganj (K7) in 1947 (101), 
the eastern tarai (P8) in 1975 (293) and 
Hans Pokhari Danda (S8) in 1989 (193). 
Inhabits undergrowth in dense, 
broadleaved, evergreen forests. Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




Bulbuls 



231 



MOUNTAIN BULBUL Hypsipetes mcclellandU 
Rufous-bellied Bulbul (//. virescens) 

Subspecies mcclellandU. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (388). A fairly common 
resident subject to altitudinal move- 
ments, most frequently seen between 
1830m and 2135m. Proved breeding at 
Bhimpedi (99), and in the Kathmandu 
Valley (336,708). Inhabits forests and 
secondary growth. Range Himalayas 
from Mussoorie east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




TTf mAa m J j/^A ' i TrTi D 



ASHY BULBUL Hypsipetes flavalus 
Brown-eared Bulbul 

Subspecies /?ava/uj. The species was de- 
scribed from Nepal by E. Blyth from a 
Hodgson specimen (798,118), but it may 
have originated in India. First definitely 
recorded by B. Biswas at Hetaura on 3 
May 1947 (99). A resident, occasionally 
seen between 305m and 1525m. Rare in 
the Kathmandu Valley. Occurs in forests 
and dense secondary growth. Range 
Himalayan foothills from between Simla 
and Mussoorie east to Arunachal 
Pradesh. 




BLACK BULBUL Hypsipetes leucocephalus 
Grey Bulbul (H. madagascariensis) 



Subspeciespioroirfej. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common resident be- 
tween 305m and 2600m, most frequent 
between 1830m and 2135m. Abundant in 
some areas. Some birds apparently de- 
scend to the foothills in winter, but also 
found at 2700m on hills surrounding the 
Kathmandu Valley (629). Occasionally 
seen at Chitwan and confirmed to breed 
there (296). Frequents forests. Range 
Himalayas; also s.w. India, n.e. India and 
Bangladesh. 




sS^^^D 



232 



lora/Lettfbirds 



COMMON lORA Ae^thina tiphia 
lora 

Subspecies tiphia. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). Common up to 365m, oc- 
casionally seen up to 1900m. A summer 
visitor to the Kathmandu Valley. Breed- 
ing confirmed at Chitwan (2%), Gaucher 
forest (L6) (243), Hetaura (96) and near 
Dhankuta (Q7) (446). Inhabits open 
broadleaved forests and scrub jungle. 
Range Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; also all of India ex- 
cept for the north-west; Bangladesh. 



-y^. 




GOLDEN-FRONTED LEAFBIRD Chlompsis aurifions 





Subspecies aurifmns. First collected by B. 
Hodgson (114). A fairly common resident 
up to 365m; uncommon up to 915m, and 
rare above this altitude. Subject to altitu- 
dinal movements. Scarce in the Kath- 
mandu Valley, but sometimes seen on the 



western slopes of Nagarjung (243) and noted on Phul- 
chowki in January 1984 (418). Breeding confirmed at 
Chitwan (2%). Occurs in broadleaved forests. Range 
Himalayas from Garhwal east to Arunachal Pradesh; also 
south to Bangladesh, e. and s.w. India. 



ORANGE-BELUED LEAFBIRD Chlompsis hardwichi 



Subspecies hardwickii. The species was 
described from Nepal by Jardine and 
Selby (449). Resident, subjea to some al- 
titudinal movements, and mainly re- 
corded between 1300m and 2135m. Oc- 
curs over a higher altitudinal zone than 
Golden-fronted Leafbird. Fairly common 
on Phulchowki and occasionally reported 
from other areas. Favours broadleaved 
evergreen forests. Range Himalayas from 
Simla east to Arunachal Pradesh; south to 
Bangladesh. 




Fairy Bluebird/Dippers 



233 



ASIAN FAIRY BLUEBIRD IrenapueUa 

Subspecies sikhmensis. First recorded 
north-west of Sunischare at 335m on 1 
Januaiy 1965 by R.L. Fleming Sr. (247). 
Local, presumably resident. Mainly found 
in dense, moist forest near water up to 
365m. Fairly common north of Sunis- 
chare. Described as an uncommon resi- 
dent in Morang District (Q8) in 1976 
(293). Found at Hetaura in December 
1971 (405) and March 1978 (507). The 
only other record is from Hans Pokhari 
Danda (S8) in May 1989. Its overall nest- 
ing season is from January to June. Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh, and south to Bangladesh; also 
s.w. India. 




BOHEMIAN WAXWING Bombycilla gamUus 

Subspecies ganulus. First recorded by 
R.L. Fleming Jr. who saw a party of four 
atThare Pati, Helambu (L5) at 3660m on 
16 December 1967 (211). The only other 



record is of five seen together below Pisang (J4) at 3050m 
on 17 March 1985 (332). Range Irregular vagrant to the 
Himalayas and Pakistan. 



WHITE-BREASTED DIPPER Cinclus cinclus 
Dipper, White-throated Dipper 

Subspecies cashmeriensis. First recorded 
by O. Polunin in upper Langtang (MS), 
between 3355m and 3660m, in summer 
1949 (621). A resident between 3500m 
and 4800m. Subject to some altitudinal 
movements. Fairly common in the Ti- 
betan plateau region, also reported from 
Langtang (L5,M5) (195,621,656), 
Khumbu (P6) (299), Taplejung District 
(S6) (194), Topke Gola (R6) (487), and 
also the upper Ladka Khola valley (R6) 
(537) and Tak Do Trap (F3) (587) where 
proved breeding. Seen at the particularly 
low altitude of 2590m at Tukche in March 




1982 (598). Frequents rocky, fast-flowing waters. Range 
Himalayas from the Kagan valley east to Bhutan and proba- 
bly Arunachal Pradesh. 



BROWN DIPPER Cinclus pallasii 

Subspecies tenuimstris. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A common resident 
between 915m and 3100m, occasionally 
seen up to 4960m in summer. Usualty 
found at lower elevations than White- 
breasted Dipper, although the two spe- 
cies have been seen in the same localities 
where their altitudinal ranges overlap. 



Confirmed to breed between 1525m and 3600m at Khaptad 
(C3) (428), Kawa (D2) and Barikot (E4) (620), Chankeli 
(626), Dhorpatan (G5) (153), Langtang (517,771), north- 
west of Pokhara (H4,Hy) (82,811,812,480,111), Sundarijal 
(L6) (635), Naubise (L6) (321,734) and Mai vaUey (R8,S7) 
(740307). Occurs on mountain streams. Range Himalayas 
from Ladakh east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



234 

BROWN DIPPER, cont'd . 



Dippers/Accentor 



^■^ 




NORTHERN WREN Troglodytes troglodytes 

Wren, Winter Wren 

Subspecies nipalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A fairly common resi- 
dent subject to altitudinal movements. 
Chiefly occurs between 2500m and 
4700m, but noted at 5300m in Khumbu 
(314), and at 2135m at Ghasa (H4) in 
February 1982 (770). Regularly winters 
up to 3050m and probably occurs higher. 
Found among rocks and dwarf scrub; also 
on rocky slopes above the treeline. Range 
Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh. 




I___j.^ipmr 



MAROON-BACKED ACCENTOR Prunella immaculata 





ofi.. 



J ■ F ■ M ■ A^M ■ J ■ JA^ ' 



The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (391,798). A winter visitor, 
mainly occurring between 1830m and 
2700m. Found west to Ghasa (H4), the 
westernmost locality for the species. 
Regularly reported from the upper Mai 



and upper Kali Gandaki valleys, and occasionally from 
Ghorepani and the Arun valley. Several records from the 
hills surrounding the Kathmandu Valley, Langtang, and 
Tamur valley. Mainly single reports from elsewhere. Occurs 
in damp forests and forest clearings. Range Himalayas from 
Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



i 



Accentors 



235 



RUFOUS-BREASTED ACCENTOR Prunella strophiala 



The species was described from Nepal 
from a Hodgson specimen (114). A fairly 
common resident subject to altitudinal 
movements. Chiefly summers above 
3500m; found as high as 4930m in 
Khumbu. Mainly winters between 1600m 
and at least 3650m. Two races occur: P. a. 
strophiata (s) and P. s. jerdoni (j) (647). 
Found in upland pastures with scattered 
bushes in winter; rhododendron and 
dwarf juniper scrub near the treeline in 
summer. Range Himalayas from Pakistan 
to Arunachal Pradesh. 




BROWN ACCENTOR Prunella fulvescens 

Subspecies sushldni. First recorded by 
R.L. Fleming Sr. from Jomosom in De- 
cember 1949 (647). An altitudinal mi- 
grant, common in the Tibetan plateau re- 
gion. Summers up to 4880m, and seen 
nest-building in June at 4270m (243). 
Winters from 2300m up to at least 3800m. 
Fairly common in winter in Thakkhola 
(H4). The unusually high number of 103 
was counted there between Kalopani and 
Muktinath in December 1984 (58). 
Found in low scrub on dry rocky hillsides. 
Range Himalayas from Hunza to Sikkim. 




AA^ ■ o ■ 



BLACK-THROATED ACCENTOR Prunella atrogidaris 



(X. 





' A ' M ■ J ' J ' A ' b 



JWh} 



Subspecies huttoni. The first documented 
record is of a specimen collected near 
Jumla on 26 January 1971 at 2440m by 
R.L. Fleming (9). A fairly common winter 
visitor to the far north-west. Three sight- 
ings from the upper Kali Gandaki valley: 



from Jomosom in March 1981 (559), Kalopani in October 
1984 (145) andMarpha in November 1985 (298), the most 
easterly records in the Himalayas. Occurs among bushes in 
cultivation. Range Winters in the Himalayas from Hunza to 
Nepal. 



236 



Accentors 



ROBIN ACCE^JTOR PnmeUa rubecuUndes 

The species was described from Nepal by 
F. Moore from a Hodgson specimen 
(409,798) and listed for Nepal in 
Hodgson's later collection (276), but the 
specimens may have originated in India. 
First definitely recorded by R.L. Fleming 
Sr. from Jomosom at 2805m in December 
1949 (647). A fairly common altitudinal 
migrant between 2655m and 5000m. Sum- 
mers at higher altitudes than other accen- 
tors, mainly over 4500m. Confirmed to 
breed at Gokyo at 4800m (190). Seen as 
high as Everest base camp at 5485m in 
May 1976 (582). Fairly common in winter 
between Marpha at 2655m and Mukti- 
nath at 3795m. Reported at 3960m in 
Khumbu in February 1954 (86), and 
found to be common there up to 4880m in 




November 1987 (558). May occur higher in winter. In 
summer inhabits dwarf willows and Caragana scrub near 
streams or pools. Winters in dry, stony areas. Range Hima- 
layas from Baltistan and Ladakh east to Bhutan, and proba- 
bty Arunachal Pradesh. 



ALTAI ACCENTOR Prunella himalayana 
Rufous-streaked Accentor 

Obtained by B. Hodgson in his later col- 
lection (409) but the specimen may have 
originated in India. First definitely re- 
corded by R.L. Fleming Sr. from Jomo- 
som at 2805m in December 1949 (647). A 
fairly common winter visitor, chiefly oc- 
curring between 2135m and 4270m. 
Noted as low as 1340m at Rukum (loca- 
tion unknown) on 25 March 1982 (244). A 
late record in mid-May from Gosainkund, 
at 4300m (243,440). Feeds on grassy 
hillsides. Range Winter visitor to the 
Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh. 




ALPINE ACCENTOR Prunella collaris 

Subspecies nipalensis. First collected by 
B. Hodgson (114). Occasional. A resi- 
dent subject to altitudinal movements. 
Chiefly summers over 4200m; noted as 
high as 7900m on Mt Everest (49). Con- 
firmed to breed in Khumbu from 4900m 
to 5000m (190). Winters between 2440m 
and 3795m, and probably higher. Noted 
in Khumbu at 4930m in November (453). 
Inhabits rocky alpine pastures and scree 
slopes, and also occurs in winter near 
villages. Range Himalayas from N.W.F.P. 
to Arunachal Pradesh. 




Chats/Thrushes 

GOULD'S SHORTWING Brachypteryx stellata 



237 




Subspecies stellata. The species was de- 
scribed by J. Gould (272) from a specimen 
collected by C.V. Eccles. This is labelled 
"Nepal, 10,000'" (798), but it is often 
ascribed to Sikkim (664,716). First defi- 
nitely recorded in the upper Mai Valley 
(S7) at 2135m on 8 April 1912 by H. 
Stevens (740). Scarce and very locally 
distributed; probably a resident, subject 
to altitudinal movements. Summers near 
Gapte cave at 3505m where the maximum 



of seven was seen on 22 May 1982 (199,682). Found breed- 
ing in the upper Arun valley in late June 1973 (167), but 
there are no other published breeding records for the 
species (48). The only other reports received are from the 
upper Mai valley in March 1961 (246), upper Arun valley in 
July and October 1973 (10), south of Armapuma (H5,J5) in 
May 1974 (259) and 1977 (762), and in Gaucher forest (L6) 
in July 1977 (301). Inhabits rhododendron and juniper 
shrubberies. Range Himalayas from Kumaon east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh. 



[RUSTV-BELLIED SHORTWING Brachypteryx hyperythm 

A specimen in the Hancock Museum, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, U.K. is labelled 
solely "Nepal', but no further details are 
known (322).] 



WHITE-BROWED SHORTWING BmcJiypleryx monlana 



Subspecies cniralis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A very uncommon resi- 
dent subject to altitudinal movements. 
Summers from 2560m to 3660m at locali- 
ties including Pipar (H5) (475,499), the 
Gosainkund trail (L5) (633,652), the 
upper Arun (483) and upper Mai valleys 
(440,561,264,321), and the hills surround- 
ing the Kathmandu Valley. Reported in 
the non-breeding season between 245m 
and 2375m from areas including Phewa 
Tal (622,403), south-west of Annapuma 
(H5) (746,702), Phulchowki (152), Arung 
Khola (H6) (486,652), Chitwan (759) and 
Barun valley (588). Frequents damp oak 
and rhododendron forests with dense 
undergrowth near streams. Range Hima- 
layas from Garhwal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh. 




238 



Chats/Thrushes 



LESSER SHORTWING Brachyptayx leucophrys 




Subspecies nipalensis. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409,798) 
but the specimen may have originated in 
India. First definitely recorded by H. Ste- 
vens from the upper Mai Valley (S7) at 
2135m on 3 and 8 April 1912 (740). 
Scarce, presumably a resident, subject to 
altitudinal movements. Recorded from 
250m to 2135m between January and 



April: from Ham District (R8) (undated) (223), Tarahara 
(08) in February 1971 (589), north of Sunischare in April 
1986 (264), the upper Arun valley in March 1987 (769), 
Simery (L7) in February 1988 (589), east of Ham bazaar 
(R8) in January and March 1988 (658) and Hanga Tham in 
March 1988 (465). Inhabits thick undergrowth in damp 
forests, and secondary jungle often near streams. Range 
Himalayas from Garhwal and east Nepal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh. 



SIBERIAN RUBYniROAT Luscinia calliope 

Eurasian Rubythroat (Erithacus calliope) 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
winter visitor and passage migrant, found 
occasionally up to 1370m. Probably over- 
looked because of its skulking behaviour. 
Inhabits thick undergrowth, wet ravines 
and long grass often near water. Range 
Winters in the Himalayas from Nepal east 
to Arunachal Pradesh; south to Rajast- 
han, Andhra Pradesh and Bangladesh. 




BLUETHROAT Luscinia svecica 
{Erithacus svecicus) 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Mainly a fairly common winter visitor and 
passage migrant up to 915m. Noted on 
passage at about 3445m on 28 September 
1972 in Khumbu (474), at Tukche be- 
tween 14 September and 10 October 1973 
(76) and at Khaptad (C3) on 1 May 1988 
(428). Two specimens from the eastern 
tarai (Q8) were L. s. pallidogularis (62), 
but no others have been subspecificalty 
identified. Skulks in damp ravines, scrub, 
reeds, tall grass and cultivation near 
water. Range Winters throughout the 
subcontinent. 




Chats /Thrushes 



239 



WHITE-TAILED RUBVTHROAT Lusdnia pectomlis 

Himalayan Rubythroat {Erithacus pectomlis) 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Occasional. Three races occur. L. p. pec- 
tomlis (p) is a resident subject to altitudi- 
nal movements. Summers in west and 
central areas. Breeding confirmed at 
Manangbhot (H4) between 3960m and 
4570m (512), and at 3300m at Thare Pati 
(L5) (48). A few winter records from 
275m to 1340m east to Jhapa District (S8) 
(247). L. p. confusa (c) is a resident sub- 
ject to altitudinal movements. Found 
breeding in Khumbu between 4200m and 
4800m (190) and wintering in the foothills 
(62). Only two records of L. p. tschebaiewi 
(t): in winter and on passage (246). Inhab- 
its dwarf rhododendron and juniper 




shrubberies and Caragana scrub above the treeline in 
summer; dense scrub in winter. Range Himalayas from 
Baltistan east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



INDIAN BLUE ROBIN Lusdnia bnmnea 
Blue Chat {Erithacus bnmneus) 





Subspecies bnmnea. The species was de- 
scribed from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(371,798). Mainly a fairly common sum- 
mer visitor, arriving in April. Common at 
Khaptad (C3) (657,428). Breeds above 
2135m, most frequently between 2440m 
and 3355m. Proved breeding on Sheopuri 
(243,635) and in the Mai valley (740). 



Occasionally seen in the lowlands on passage in spring. A 
male on 5 March 1982 at Chitwan (77) was possibly an early 
migrant. Found in winter at Thare Pati (15) in November 
1970, and the Rapti dun (L7) in December 1970 (444). 
Skulks in dense undergrowth in damp forests. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from Pakistan to Arunachal 
Pradesh. Winters in s. India and occasionally in the Hima- 
layan foothills. 



SIBERIAN BLUE ROBIN Lusdnia cyane 

(Erithacus cyane) 



Vagrant. The only record is of an adult 
male seen on 29 November 1985 at 
Nagarjung, Kathmandu Valley, at about 
1450m by R. Roberts (677). Range Strag- 
gler to W. Bengal and Manipur. 



240 



Chats/Thrushes 



ORANGE-FLANKED BUSH-ROBIN Tarsigercyanurus 

Red-flanked Bluetail {Erithacus cyanurus) 



Subspecies rufilatus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (391,798). A common resident 
subject to altitudinal movements. Mainly 
summers between 3000m and 4000m, and 
winters from 1370m to 2745m. Proved 
breeding at Dori Lekh (E3) (626), 
Khumjung (P6) (190) and in the 
Dhorpatan valley (G5) (499). Inhabits the 
understorey and bushes at clearing edges 
in broadleaved and coniferous forests. 
Range Breeds in the Himalayas from 
N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal Pradesh. 
Winters south to n.e. India. 




J ■ F ' « AA" J JA« J ' ' " ■ " 



GOLDEN BUSH-ROBIN Tarsiger chrysaeus 

{Erithacus chrysaeus) 




Subspecies chrysaeus. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(391,798). A resident subject to altitudi- 
nal movements: most frequent in summer 
between 3500m and 4200m, and in winter 
from 1700m and 2800m. Fairly common 
north-west of Pokhara (H5), Langtang 
(L5,M5) and in the Arun and upper Mai 



valleys; occasionally seen elsewhere. Confirmed breeding 
south of Annapuma (H5) (499) and in the Gandak-Kosi wa- 
tershed (L5) (633). Frequents dense shrubberies of birch, 
rhododendron and juniper above the treeUne, and rocky 
slopes with scattered shrubs in summer; thick undergrowth 
in evergreen forests, or secondary scrub, in winter. Range 
Himalayas from Hazara east to Arunachal Pradesh, and n.e. 
India. 



WHITE-BROWED BUSH-ROBIN Tarsiger indicus 
(Erithacus indicus) 

Subspecies indicus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A resident subject to alti- 
tudinal movements. Occasionally seen in 
summer between 3000m and 4000m, and 
in winter from 2100m to 3050m. Noted at 
the unusually low altitude of 915m at 



Phewa Tal in February 1988 (262). Found breeding south of 
Annapuma (H5) (499). Occurs in dense shrubberies of fir, 
birch, rhododendron and juniper, and in bushes at forest 
edges. Range Himalayas from Garhwal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh, and n.e. India. 



Chats/TTinishes 

WHITE-BROWED BUSH-ROBIN, cont'd ... 



241 




}/^J A J ' N D 



RUFOUS-BREASTED BUSH-ROBIN Taniger hyperythnts 

Rufous-bellied Bush Robin {Erithacus hyperythrus) , 



First colleaed by B. Hodgson (388). An 
altitudinal migrant, presumably resident. 
Occasionally found in summer between 
3200m and 4200m, and in winter from 
2135m to3050m. Described asvery scarce 
in the Himalayas in 1973 (48) and there 
were only four Nepalese records up to 
1978, but its population has apparentfy in- 
creased recently. Regularly found in 
spring near Gapte cave at about 3505m 
since 1979 (L5) with a maximum of ten 
birds on 30 May 1982 (207). Pairs were 
seen feeding young there in May in 1979 
(651,652), 1980 (440) and 1982 (207). 
Young just able to fly were seen on 3 June 
at 3200m in Helambu (244). The nest and 
eggs are undescribed (48). Regularly re- 
ported in winter from north-west of 
Pokhara, especially from Ghorepani 




(H5). Chiefly single records from elsewhere. Found at 
Kabre (H4) at about 1500m in January 1983, the western 
limit of the q)ecies's range. Inhabits edges and clearings of 
dwarf birch and rhododendron forest, especially near 
streams. Range Breeds in the Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh. Winters south to n.e. India. 



ASIAN MAGPIE-ROBIN Copsychus saularis 
Magpie Robin, Robin Dayal 

Subspecies saularis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (360). A commmon resident up 
to 1525m and occasionally found up to 
2000m. Subject to some local movements. 
Occurs in the Kathmandu Valley 
throughout the year, but surprisingly only 
reported at Chitwan from March to Octo- 
ber (296). Proved breeding in these areas 
and at Hetaura (100). A female with a 
brood patch was mist-netted as high as 
3050m at Chankheli on 7 July 1979 (626). 
Inhabits villages, towns, gardens, groves, 
open dry broadleaved forests, and secon- 
dary growth. Range Most of the subconti- 
nent, except parts of the arid north-west. 




242 



Chats/Thrushes 



WHITE-RUMPED SHAMA Copsychus malabaricus 
Shama 



Subspecies indicus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A resident, mainly occur- 
ring up to 365m. The maximum altitude 
reported is 500m in Ham District (R8) in 
April (658). Common at Chitwan where 
proved breeding (2%); fairly common 
near Dharan and north of Sunischare; oc- 
casionally seen elsewhere. Frequents 
undergrowth in broadleaved forests. 
Range Himalayan foothills from Kumaon 
east to Arunachal Pradesh, and south to 
e. Madhya Pradesh and the Eastern 
Ghats; also in w. and s.w. India. 




RUFOUS-BACKED REDSTART Phoenicums erythronotus 

Eversmann's Redstart 



First recorded at Jomosom at 2805m in 
December 1949 by R.L. Fleming Sr. 
(647). A winter visitor. Fairly common at 
Rara Lake in February (243), occasion- 
ally seen at Jumla and regularly seen but 
uncommon in the upper Kali Gandaki 
valley. Noted at Pisang (J4) at 3300m on 
15 November 1981 (553), the most east- 
erly record of the species in the Hima- 
layas. Found amongst scrub and on stone 
waUs bordering fields in dry habitats. 
Range Winters in n. Baluchistan, and the 
Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Nepal. 




-ipr 



TX 



M'JJ'A'b'O 



BLUE-CAPPED REDSTART Phoenicums caeruleocephalus 

Blue-headed Redstart 




i 



Chats/Thrushes 



243 



BLUE-CAPPED REDSTART, cont'd ... 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
resident subject to altitudinal move- 
ments. Fairly common in the breeding 
season in the north-west, from the upper 
Kali Gandaki valley (H4) westwards. 
Occasionally seen further east to the 
Kathmandu Valley and Langtang, and 



scarce in east Nepal. Mainly summers between 2900m to 
4270m, and winters between 1370m and 2900m. Noted at 
the unusually low altitude of 800m at Dipayal (B3) in 
February 1988 (68). Proved breeding at Rara Lake (620). 
Summers on rocky ground in juniper and open conifer 
forests and winters in open forests and scrub. Range 
Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Bhutan. 



BLACK REDSTART Phoeniamts ochnaos 

Subspecies rufiventris. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). An altitudinal migrant. 
Common in summer in the Tibetan 
steppe region between 2560m and 5700m. 
Mainly winters in the tarai and foothills 
up to about 700m. Proved breeding at 
Chharkabhotagaon (G3) (620), in 
Khumbu (190), and in the upper Kali 
Gandaki valley (811). Migrants were 
noted in the upper Kali Gandaki valley in 
September and Oaober 1973: a peak of 
about 100 occurred on 10 October (76). 
Inhabits grasslands above the treeline in 
summer; stony areas, thin scrub, and cul- 
tivation in winter. Range Breeds in the 
Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Sikkim. 
Winters south throughout the subconti- 
nent. 




HODGSON'S REDSTART Phoenicurus hodgsoni 



The species was first collected by B. 
Hodgson from the Kathmandu Valley 
(336388) and described by F. Moore 
(409,798). A winter visitor seen occasion- 
ally, mainly from 760m to 2800m, but 
common in the Kathmandu and upper 
KaU Gandaki valleys. Noted at 150m in 
south-east Nepal (302). Late migrants 
seen at Ghora Tabela (L5) on 30 April 
and 1 May 1981 (517), above Muktinath 
at 5030m in May 1978 (301), and at Pher- 
iche (P6) at 4240m on 23 April 1982 (207). 
Frequents grass areas interspersed with 
bushes, dry cultivation, and open forests. 
Range Winters in the Himalayas from 
Naini Tal east to Arunachal Pradesh; and 
n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




244 



Chats/Thrushes 



BLUE-FRONTED REDSTART Phoenicums frontalis 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common altitudinal migrant. Chiefly 
summers between 3350m and 4900m, and 
winters between 1000m and 3050m, but 
noted as low as 455m in the south-east 
(302). Proved breeding in Khumbu, at 
Kyangjin (M5) (199), in the Dolpo (G3) 
(243) and north-west of Pokhara (300). 
Inhabits open rhododendron, birch and 
juniper shrubberies and stony slopes 
above the treeline in summer. Winters in 
fields and open forest. Range Breeds in 
the Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to 
Arunachal Pradesh. Winters south to n.e. 
India and Bangladesh. 




WHITE-THROATED REDSTART Phoenicums schisticeps 





The species was described from Nepal by 
J.E. and G.R. Gray from a Hodgson 
specimen (277,798). A high altitude resi- 
dent subject to relatively small altitudinal 
movements. Occasionally seen in summer 
between 3050m and 4200m and in winter 
between 2500m and 3050m, but noted at 



3965m in January on Gosainkund ridge (244). Recorded at 
Khaptad (C3) on 16 March 1989 (68), the western limit of 
the species's range. Common between Kalopani and Jomo- 
som in winter. Its breeding behaviour is little known. Fre- 
quents open shrubberies on rocky slopes. Range Himalayas 
from w. Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



GULDENSTADPS REDSTART Phoenicums erythmgaster 
White-winged Redstart 



Subspecies gmndis. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by R.L. 
Fleming Sr. from Jomosom at 2805m in 
December 1949 (647). An altitudinal 
migrant occurring at high elevations. 
Found between 2650m and 3965m in 



winter and probably higher; in summer mainly between 
4900m and 5600m. Fairly common between Tukche and 
Muktinath in winter, uncommon elsewhere. Other locali- 
ties include Jumla, Manang, Langtang and also Khumbu, 
where proved breeding (190). Inhabits the dry alpine zone 
in summer; stony pastures, rocky moraines and scrubby 
areas in winter. Range Himalayas from Chitral east to 
Arunachal Pradesh. 



Chats/Thrushes 

GULDENSTADTS REDSTART, cont'd ... 



245 




PLUMBEOUS REDSTART Rhyacomis fuliginosus 



Subspecies fuliginosus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A common resident 
subject to altitudinal movements. Win- 
ters between 75m and 2560m; most fre- 
quently between 1000m and 1800m. 
Summers mainly between 1525m and 
375Dm; uncommonly up to 4420m. 
Proved breeding in the Kathmandu Val- 
ley (629) and at Sukipatal (Q6) (12). Fre- 
quents fast-flowing rocky streams. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from N.W.F.P. 
east to Arunachal Pradesh, and in n.e. 
India. Winters south to Bangladesh. 




piiipp^ipp .11 



WHITE-BELLIED REDSTART Hodgsonius phoenicumules 

Hodgson's Shortwing f 

Subspecies phoenicuroides. The species 
was described from Nepal by J.E. and 
G.R. Gray from a Hodgson specimen 
(277,798). A summer visitor, occasionally 
seen between 2900m and 4270m. Breed- 
ing confirmed in the Dhorpatan valley 
(05) (499), and in upper Manang (H4) 
(757). A scarce winter visitor to the foot- 
hills, with only two records received: from 
Bardia (192) and Marek (G6) at 915m 
(247). Summers in birch, rhododendron 
and juniper shrubberies near the treeline; 
winters in thick undergrowth and forest 
edges. Range Himalayas from the Indus 
River east to Arunachal Pradesh. 




246 



Chats/Thrushes 



WHITE-TAILED ROBIN Cinclidium leucurum 
White-tailed Blue Robin 




"TA 




The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (391). A local and uncom- 
mon resident subject to altitudinal move- 
ments. Summers between 1900m and 
2745m, and mainly winters below 915m. 
Seen near Lete (H4) at 2440m on 16 
November 1979, the westernmost record 
of the species (206). Summers on Phul- 



chowki and also Sheopuri, where proved breeding (635). A 
rare winter visitor to Chitwan and Phewa Tal. Single rec- 
ords received from most other areas. Probably overlooked 
because of its secretive behaviour. Frequents undergrowth 
in dense, damp forest, often near streams. Range Hima- 
layas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and 
Bangladesh. 



[BLUE-FRONTED ROBIN Cinclidium frontale 
Blue-fronted Long-tailed Robin 

Subspecies frontale. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. The only other report is of a bird. 



probably of this species, singing at Phulchowki on 28 and 30 
April 1979 (474). Inhabits wet subtropical forest. Range 
Himalayas in Nepal?, Sikkim and DaijeeUng.] 



GRANDALA Grandala coelicolor 
Hodgson's Grandala 





Chats/Thrushes 



247 



GRANDMA, cont'd ... 



The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (386,798). A locally fairty 
common, high altitude resident, subject 
to altitudinal movements. Summers be- 
tween 3900m and 5500m. Winters mainly 
between 3000m and 3960m, occasionally 



descending in bad weather: recorded as low as 1950m near 
Ghandning (H5) on 18 March 1989 (166). Regularly re- 
ported from Gosainkund, Kyangjin (M5), Dole to Gokyo 
(P6) and, in severe winters, from the upper KaU Gandaki 
valley. Proved breeding in Khumbu (190). Frequents rocky 
slopes and stony alpine meadows. Range Himalayas from 
Kashmir east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



PURPLE COCHOA Cochoa purpurea 

The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (347). He found it in the 
lower hills, and also in breeding condition 
in the northern hiUs on 20 May (336). 
Scarce, presumably resident. The only 
recent reports are from Sukipatal, upper 
Arun valley (Q6) at 2135m on 6 Novem- 
ber 1973 (12) and the Mai valley: found 
near Hanga Tham at 2255m on 14 May 
1970 (9) and on 20 September 1978 (301), 
and near Ham (R8), also in 1978 (178). 
Only three other records of singles: on 
Sheopuri ridge on 21 May 1921 (423), at 
2135m in the same area between 1942 and 
1945 (733), and at Bhimpedi on 10 May 




I II ,11 , 



' A^^ J ' 



^A 5 ' O N 



1947 (100). Breeds from early May to mid-June. Inhabits 
damp, dense broadleaved, evergreen forests of the tropical 
and lower temperate zones. Range Himalayas from 
Kumaon east to Arunachal Pradesh, and n.e. India. 



GREEN COCHOA Cochoa viridis 

The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (347,798). He obtained at 
least four specimens from the lower hills 
in June (336). There are no later records. 
In India frequents undergrowth in damp, 
dense broadleaved evergreen forests in 
tropical and subtropical zones. Range 
Himalayas in Kumaon, Nepal, DarjeeUng 
and Siljdm; possibly Bhutan and Arun- 
achal Pradesh; and n.e. India. 



BROWN ROCK CHAT Cervomelafiisca 

Scarce. First recorded by R.L. Fleming who collected a 
specimen at Kosi Barrage on 12 March 1969 (244). The only 
other confirmed record is of a pair breeding at Hariaun, 
Sarlahi District (L7); the parents were feeding young in 
August 1989 and four or five individuals were seen after- 
wards (494). There is also an undated sighting from 
Bhairawa that possibly relates to this species (244). Found 
amongst buildings in open country. Range Resident in n.e. 
Pakistan; n.w. and central India. 



COMMON STONECHAT Swdcola tonfuata 
Collared Bushchat, Stonechat 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Common. Three races occur. Their status 
and distribution are not fully understood. 
S. t. maura (m) is a winter visitor of uncer- 
tain status (62,619,682). S. t. przevalsldi 
(p) is mainly a common winter visitor up 
to 1500m and a passage migrant. It also 
breeds in the Tibetan plateau region 
above 2745m (243,620). S. t. indica (i) is a 
common resident subject to altitudinal 
movements. It summers between 365m 
and 2895m. This subspecies proved 



breeding in the Kathmandu Valley (659), and at Hetaura 
(100). The species has also been confirmed to breed in Doti 
District (B3,C3) (428) and at Pokhara (326). Thousands of 
birds not subspecifically identified were noted passing 
through the V^ey between 5 and 14 April 1948, but no 
large scale return migration was observed in autumn (629). 
Common in the upper Kali Gandaki valley in September 
and October (76), and very common at Kosi Barrage in 
winter and early spring, presumably on passage. Frequents 
open country and cultivation with scattered bushes. Range 
Breeds in n. Baluchistan, and the Himalayas from Chitral 
east to Arunachal Pradesh. Winters south throughout the 
subcontinent. 



248 



Chats/Thrushes 



COMMON STONECHAT, cont'd . 





J ^ ' M ' A ■ M J JA" 



WHITE-TAILED STONECHAT Saxicda leucum 

White-taUed Bushchat 



First recorded at Bilauri (A4) at 275m on 
28 January 1937 by FM. Bailey (62). A 
local resident of the lowlands. Fairly 
common at Sukla Phanta, Chitwan, and 
Kosi Barrage. Proved breeding at Chi- 
twan (56,296,111) and north of Kosi Bar- 
rage (294), and at Sukla Phanta (432). 
Single reports from elsewhere. There are 
two doubtful records from the Kath- 
mandu Valley in April (243); the species 
has not been recorded above 700m else- 
where in its range. Inhabits reeds and tall 
grassland often in wet areas. Range Paki- 
stan and n. India east to n.e. India and 
Bangladesh. 




HODGSON'S BUSHCHAT Swdcola insignis 

White-necked Bushchat 





Chats/Thrushes 



249 



HODGSON'S BUSHCHAT, cont'd ... 

A Hodgson specimen was listed for Nepal 
by J.E. and G.R. Gray (277,798) but this 
apparently originated in India (413). First 
definitely recorded by R.L. Fleming south 
of Kosi Barrage on 11 April 1975 
(186,293). It is an uncommon winter visi- 
tor there, observed between November 



and late April. Only single reports fi'om two other localities; 
two immature males collected along the Manora River (L6) 
at 1380m on 9 October 1982 (589), and one seen at 
Meghauli (J6) on 23 March 1986 (403). The maximum of 
over 10 was recorded at the Barrage on 17 and 18 March 
1982 (541). Found in tall grasses, tamarisk, and reeds by the 
river. Range Winters in n. India from Ambala east to As- 
sam. 



PIED BUSHCHAT Saidcola capnaa 

Subspecies bicolor. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). Common from the tarai 
up to 915m; fairly common to 1400m, and 
occasionally seen up to 2440m in summer 
but noted at 2665m at Marpha (H4) in 
March (111). Most birds occurring above 
1400m descend to the foothills in winter. 
Proved breeding at Chitwan (296), Sukla 
Phanta (432,750), and also in the Kath- 
mandu Valley (756). Nest-building has 
been observed as early as 1 February at 
Chitwan (180). Frequents cultivation and 
open country with sparse scrub. Range 
TTiroughout the subcontinent. 




JERDON'S BUSHCHAT Saxicola jerdoni 

Vagrant. The only records are of a male 
on 11 May 1975, and another male with a 



possible juvenile on 19 June 1976, seen by R.C. Gregory- 
Smith at Kosi Barrage (293). Found in reedbeds. Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh, and 
south to e. Bihar and Bangladesh. 



GREY BUSHCHAT Saxicola fema 
Dark-grey Bush Chat 

Subspecies ferrea. The species was de- 
scribed from Nepal by J.E. and G.R. Gray 
from a Hodgson specimen (277,798). A 
fairly common altitudinal migrant. Sum- 
mers between 1500m and 3355m, most 
frequently above 1800m. Chiefly winters 
between 915m and 2125m. It is a rare 
winter visitor to the tarai. Breeding con- 
firmed on Sheopuri (635) and in Doti 
Distria (C3) (438). Inhabits secondary 
growth, forest edges, and scrub-covered 
hillsides. Range Breeds in the Himalayas 
from N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal 
Pradesh, and in n.e. India. Winters south 
to the plains of n. India and Bangladesh. 




JAr " * "/: 



250 



Chats/Thrushes 



ISABELLINE WHEATEAR Oenaitihe isabelUna 

First recorded by the Manora River, 
Kathmandu Valley at 1280m on 16 No- 
vember 1968 (9), and twice seen in the 
same area in April byR.L. Fleming (243). 
A scarce passage migrant. One was ob- 
served by New Road, Kathmandu at 



1370m on 13 March 1982 (811). The only other records are 
from the upper Kali Gandaki valley in March 1982, between 
2440m and 2590m: singles were rqwrted from Tukche on 
18 March (207,561), and on 27 March at Lete (294) and Ka- 
lopani (199). Found in diy cultivation. Range Breeds in n. 
Baluchistan, and in the Himalayas in N.W.F.F. Winters in 
Pakistan and n.w. India. 



NORTHERN WHEATEAR Oenanthe oenanthe 

Wheatear 

Subspecies oenanthe! Vagrant. The only 
record is of an adult male seen on 1 April 
1983 at Meghauli (J6) by C. Byers and A. 
Adams (140). Another record of an Oe- 
nanthe species seen at Kyangjin (M5) on 
18 April 1984 (624) was previously incor- 
rectly ascribed to this species in the first 
edition of this book (435). Range Vagrant 
to Pakistan, n.w. India and Nepal. 




PIED WHEATEAR Oenanthe pleschanka 

Vagrant. The only record is of one, proba- 
bly a first year male, seen at Tukche at 



2590m on 11 January 1985 by T. Andrews (59). Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Lahul; 
migrant in n. Baluchistan; vagrant elsewhere in the subcon- 
tinent. 



DESERT WHEATEAR Oenanthe deserti 

Subspecies oreophila. A scarce but regu- 
lar summer visitor and passage migrant. 
First recorded by R. Jarman and W. 
Howard at Tukche on 1 April 1971 (450). 
Subsequently reported several times in 
the upper Kali Gandaki valley between 
Marpha and Jomosom, between 2650m 
and 2715m, from mid-March to mid- June. 
Collected in the Dolpo (G3,H3) in June 
(243,587) and seen at Rara Lake (127). 
The only other reports are of singles, 
presumably on passage, at Chitwan in 
April 1981 (296), in the Yamdi Khola 
valley (H5) in March 1985, and at Khap- 
tad (C3) in May 1988 (428,68). Inhabits 
dry semi-desert country. Range Breeds in 
n. Baluchistan, and the Himalayas from 
Kashmir east to c. Nepal. Winters south 
through Pakistan and n. India. 




Chats/Thrushes 



251 



VARIABLE WHEATEAR Oemmihe picata 
Eastern Pied Wheatear 

Scarce. First recorded by P. Hagen at 
Birendranagar, Surkhet valley (D4) at 
760m on 3 December 1979; it remained 



until Februaiy 1980 and the species was seen in the same 
area in subsequent winters (244). The only other record is of 
one seen at Chisapani Gorge, Bardia (C4) on 13 February 
1988 (731). Range Breeds in n. Baluchistan and north to 
Gilgit. Winters in Pakistan and n.w. India. 



WHITE-CAPPED REDSTART Chaimanomis Uucocephalus 

White-capped River Chat (Thamnolaea leucocephala) f 

River Chat 




First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common altitudinal migrant. Mainly 
summers between 1830m and 5100m. 
Proved breeding in Khumbu (190). Win- 




ters most frequently between915m and 1525m; occasionally 
up to 2590m, and in the foothills from 245m to 915m. 
Occurs on rocks in rushing streams. Often found at consid- 
erable distances from water in summer in the alpine zone. 
Range Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal 
Pradesh, and n.e. India. 



INDIAN ROBIN Saxicoloides fulicata 
Indian Chat 




,6--^ 



Subspecies cambaiensis. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (388). A local resident 
reported up to 760m and most often from 




J F^M Tn\ J J A^i ■ N D 



the west. Uncommon at €ukla Phanta, Bardia and Nepal- 
ganj, and rare at Chitwan (J6,K6). Mainly single reports re- 
ceived from other areas. Inhabits ^arse scrub in dry stony 
areas and edges of cultivation. Range Throughout the sul>- 
continent. 



252 



Chats/Thrushes 



BLUE-CAPPED ROCK-THRUSH 

Blue-headed Rock-Thrush 



Monticola cinclorhyncha 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
summer visitor, occasionally seen be- 
tween early April and early October from 
1200m up to 2135m. Proved breeding at 
SUgadi Doti (B3) (438), in the Trisuli 
valley (L5,L6) (440,517), and Ham Dis- 
trict (R8) (658). Inhabits coniferous for- 
ests and rocky slopes with scattered trees. 
Range Breeds in the Himalayas from 
N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal Pradesh, and 
in n.e. India. Winters mainly in s.w. India 
and Assam. 




CHESTNUT-BELLIED ROCK-THRUSH Monticola mflventris 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common resident subject to some 
altitudinal movements. Mainly summers 
between 1800m and 3400m, but recorded 
up to 4460m at Gosainkund (543). Win- 
ters between 915m and 2380m, but is most 
frequent between 1800m and 2135m. 
Found breeding in the upper Mai valley 
(740). Frequents coniferous and 
broadleaved forests. Range Breeds in the 
Himalayas from Murree east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh, and in n.e. India. Winters 
south to Bangladesh, and rarely in the 
plains of n. India. 




I III ip^llilljl 



BLUE ROCK-THRUSH Monticola solitanus 

Subspecies pandoo. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). An altitudinal migrant. 
Occasionally seen in summer in the , 
Trans-Himalayan region between 2590m ' 
and 4880m and in winter from the tarai up 
to 1400m. Confirmed to breed at Manang 
(757), andin Dolpo District (G3) (243). A 
male near Naudanda (H5) on 22 Decem- 
ber 1973, showing characters of the race 
M. s. philippensis (518), forms the first 
record of the race for the subcontinent. 
However, birds showing features inter- 
mediate between M. s. pandoo and M. s. 
philippensis have been recorded from 
Assam and Meghalaya (49). Summers in 
open rocky areas or on steep cliffs and 




winters along streams or amongst old buildings. Range 
Breeds in n. Baluchistan, and in the Himalayas from 
N.W.F.P. east to west-central Nepal. Winters throughout 
the subcontinent. 



Chats/Thrushes 



253 



BLUE WHISTLING THRUSH Myiophoneus caeniUus 
Whistling Thrush (Myiophonus caeruleus) 



Subspecies temmincldi. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A common resident 
subject to vertical movements. Chiefly 
summers between 1500m and 3100m, but 
noted at 4800m in Khumbu on 15 May 
1954 (109); winters from the tarai up to 
2745m. Found breeding in the Dhorpatan 
vaUey (499), Solu (P6) (109) and the 
Trisuli valley (L5) (771). Occurs along 
streams and rivers in forested areas. Fa- 
vours gorges and ravines. The upper limit 
of its summer range usually coincides with 
the treeline. Range Breeds in n. Baluchis- 
tan, the Himalayas from Chitral east to 
Arunachal Pradesh, and in n.e. India and 
Bangladesh. Winters in the foothills and 
rarely in the adjacent plains. 




PLAIN-BACKED MOUNTAIN THRUSH Zoolhem mollissima 

Plain-backed Thrush f 



Subspecies mollissima. First recorded by 
E. Blyth from a Hodgson specimen (114). 
A fairly common altitudinal migrant, 
wintering between 1500m and 2400m. 
Chiefly summers between 3000m and 
4000m. Juveniles were taken on 28 and 29 
July 1964 between 3900m and 3930m near 
Tarke Gyang (M5) (247). Its breeding be- 
haviour is poorly known. Inhabits fir for- 
ests and open grassy slopes near the 
treeline in summer; broadleaved and 
coniferous forests in winter. Range Hima- 
layas from Hazara east to Arunachal 
Pradesh, and n.e. India. 




LONG-TAILED MOUNTAIN THRUSH Zoolhem dixoni 

Long-tailed Thrush 

First recorded by B. Hodgson breeding at 
Jahar Powah, Kathmandu Valley (336). 
An altitudinal migrant, occasionally seen 
in winter between 1500m and 2700m, and 
in summer from 2100m to 4250m. Breed- 
ing also confirmed near Jumla (620), 
Tarke Gyang (MS) (247) and at Chandab- 
ari (L5) (321). Occurs in forests of birch, 
fir or juniper near the treeline in summer; 
thick forests, often near streams in winter. 
Range Himalayas from the Sutlej River 
east to Arunachal Pradesh, and n.e. India. 




254 



Chats/Thrushes 



SCALY THRUSH Zoothera dauma 
Speckled Mountain Thrush, White's Thrush, 
Golden Mountain Thrush 

Subspecies dauma. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A partial migrant. Fairly 
common in summer between 2320m and 
3540m. Found breeding in Langtang 
(199), on Sheopuri (243), and at 
Chankheli (627). Common between 275m 
and 1500m in winter, when numbers are 
augmented by migrants from elsewhere. 
Inhabits thick forests with dense under- 
growth, often near streams. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from Murree 
east to Arunachal Pradesh, and in n.e. and 
s.w. India. Winters south to Madhya 
Pradesh and Bangladesh. 




jf na"-'A«'*°"'' 



LONG-BILLED THRUSH Zoothera monticola 
Large Long-billed Thrush, Large Brown Thrush 



Subspecies monticola. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A resident subjea to 
altitudinal movements. Occasionally seen 
in winter between 915m and 2500ra; 
rarely at lower altitudes. Reported in 
summer between 2285m and 3850m. 
Proved breeding in Langtang (264). In- 
habits the forest floor in dense, damp 
forests, usually near streams. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from Kulu east 
to Arunachal Pradesh, and in n.e. India. 
Winters south to Bangladesh. 




■miiiii 



aA^ J ■ JA*^ ^ ^ N D 



DARK-SIDED THRUSH Zoothera marginata 
Lesser Long-billed Thrush, Lesser Brown Thrush 



Scarce. First collected by B. Biswas on 8 
March 1947 at AmIekhganj (K7) at 305m. 
He also obtained two on 5 and 10 May 
1947 at Bhimpedi (100). A specimen 
taken at Barmdeo Mandi (A3) at 290m in 
January 1953 (647) is the westernmost 
record of the species. The only other rec- 
ord is of one at Shyaksila Toten, Barun 
vaUey (Q6) at 2195m on 22 November 
1984 (588). Frequents the forest floor in 
damp forests near streams. Range Hima- 
layas from Nepal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




pr^-jE^-; 



J F JyffAnw'jij'A's'o N D 



Chats /Thrushes 



255 



PIED GROUND THRUSH Zoothem wardU 
Pied Thrush 

First recorded by B. Hodgson, who found 
it breeding in the Kathmandu Valley 
(388,414). An uncommon sunwner visitor, 
mainly found between 1500m and 2400m. 
One seen at Ghasa at about 2040m at the 
early date of 26 February(403). Regularly 
seen in the Trisuli valley between 
Ramche and Dhunche (L5). Other locali- 
ties include Khaptad (C3), between 
Surkhet and Dailekh (D4), north-west of 
Pokhara (H4,H5), Phulchowki and the 
lower Aran valley. Found breeding near 
Bokejunda, Trisuli valley (L5) (440,652), 
Khaptad (C3) (68) and near Syabm (L5) 
(294). Single reports from most other 
areas. Occurs in open forests and in thick 
undergrowth along streams. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from the Kulu 
valley east to Arunachal Pradesh, and in 
n.e. India. Migrates through India to 
winter in Sri Lanka. 




M ' J ' J^A ■ S ' N ■ D 



ORANGE-HEADED GROUND THRUSH Zoothem citrina 

Orange-headed Thrush 



VA 




Subspecies citrina. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A fairly common partial 
migrant. Mainly a summer visitor occur- 
ring from mid-April to early October, 
between 250m and 1830m. Found breed- 



ing at Chitwan (296) and at Rani Bagh (L6) (629). Some 
birds winter in the tarai and dun. Noted at 915m at Pokhara 
in January 1990 (138). Found in damp forests, often in wet 
ravines. Range Breeds in the Himalayas from Chamba east 
to Arunachal Pradesh, and in Bangladesh, and n.e., e., and 
s. India. Winters throughout e. India and Bangladesh. 



256 



Chats/Thrushes 



TICKELL'S THRUSH Turdus unicolor 
Indian Grey Thrush 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Mainly a fairly common summer visitor 
occurring between April and the end of 
October from 1500m to 2450m. Con- 
firmed breeding at Gaucher forest (L6) 
(629) and in the lower Arun valley (Q7) 
(446). Several winter reports from the 
lowlands at Chitwan and Sukla Phanta 
(700). One seen north-west of Pokhara 
(H5) on 5 January (152). In summer in- 
habits open broadleaved forests with 
little undergrowth. Range Breeds in the 
Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Nepal 
and probably Sikkim. Winters east to 
Arunachal Pradesh, and south to Andhra 
Pradesh and Bangladesh; and also in n. 
Baluchistan. 




WHITE-COLLARED BLACKBIRD Turdus albocmctus 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common resident subject to altitu- 
dinal movements. Winters between 
1525m and 3000m, mainly above 2100m 
but singles noted at about 250m near 
Dharan on 24 January 1981 (180) and at 
Chitwan (J6) on 5 March 1989 (810). 
Chiefly summers between 2400m and 
3445m. Found breeding in the Dhorpatan 
valley (499). Frequents broadleaved and 
coniferous forests, especially edges and 
clearings. Range Himalayas from 
Chamba east to Arunachal Pradesh, and 
n.e. India. 




GREY-WINGED BLACKBIRD Turdus boulboul 



First recorded by B. Hodgson who found 
it breeding at Jahar Powah (L6) 
(336^88). A common altitudinal migrant. 
Chiefly summers between 2100m and 
2745m, but found at 3300m at Bigu on 16 
May 1962 (190). Breeding confirmed in 
the Hongu valley (P6) (109) and on 
Sheopuri (243). Mainly winters between 
1400m and 1980m, occasionally descend- 
ing as far as the tarai. Summers in damp 
broadleaved forests, preferring thicker 
habitat than White-collared Blackbird. 
Winters in open, wooded country. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from Murree 




east to Arunachal Pradesh, and n.e. India. Winters down to 
the adjacent plains, rarely further south. 



Chats/Thrushes 



257 



EURASIAN BLACKBIRD Turdusmemla 
Common Blackbird, Blackbird 

Subspecies mcodmus. First recorded in 
Jumla District on 11 August 1952 by O. 
Polunin (620). Mainly an erratic visitor in 
winter and spring. Chiefly observed be- 
tween 3305m and 4800m, although also 
found in the tarai in January (243). An 
invasion occurred in April and May 1978, 
when described as fairly common in Sa- 
garmatha National Park (243), and also 
seen at Jumla and Langtang (M5) (243). 
There are also several records from 
Thakkhola (H4), Langtang (L5JkI5) and 
Khumbu. Mainly single reports from else- 
where. Favours juniper shrubberies 
above the treeline. Range Himalayas 
from N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; hiUs of peninsular India. 




CHESTNUT THRUSH 

Grey-headed Thrush 



Tardus rubrocanus 



The species was described from Nepal by 
J.E. and G.R. Gray from a Hodgson 
specimen (277,798). An uncommon and 
erratic winter visitor; possibly breeds. 
Most records received are from Decem- 
ber to March between 2000m and 2745m. 
Mainly seen north-west of Pokhara, on 
the hills surrounding the Kathmandu 
Valley and upper Arun and upper Mai 
valleys. Chiefly single reports from other 
areas. Two races recorded, T. r. rubro- 
canus (r), and one record of T. r. gouldii 
(63). Found in winter in open wooded 
country on fruiting trees. Range Breeds in 
the Himalayas from Safed Koh east to 
Sikkim. Winters south to n.e. India. 




TfEinj: 



jn; 



KESSLER'S THRUSH Tardus kesslen 

White-backed Thrush 



A scarce and erratic winter visitor. First 
recorded by T. Robinson who saw a male 
on 26 January 1986 above Namche Ba- 
zaar (P6) at about 3445m (680). Three 
later sightings in Khumbu (P6) during the 
same winter (680,558). Several records 
from Khumbu (P6) between 17 Novem- 



ber and 31 December 1988, including over 20 on 21 Novem- 
ber at Tongaba Phortse Dangbe (453,456) and over 15 at 
Shomare on 19 December (596). The only other report 
received is of 35 to 40 on 16 February 1989 at Kyangjin (M5) 
at about 3600m (70). Found in mixed birch and rhododen- 
dron forest, juniper and Berberis shrubberies, and in potato 
flelds. Range Vagrant to Sikkim and Nepal. 



258 



Chats /Thrushes 



EYE-BROWED THRUSH 

Dark Thrush 



Tardus obscurus 



A Hodgson specimen was listed from 
Nepal by Seebohm (710) but it may have 
originated in India. First definitely re- 
corded by E. Cronin who netted one in 
1973 in the Arun valley (exact location 
unknown) (243). A scarce winter visitor 
found between 1500m and 2300m. One to 
two also seen at Danda Bazaar (Q8) on 6 
October 1978 (155), Gokama on 20 De- 
cember 1978 (486,651,652), Hanga Tham 
on 22 December 1979 (206) and on 28 
April 1986 (321), above Syabru (L5) on 23 
April 1985, two sightings in the lower 
Arun valley in January 1990 (256), and 
one at Basantpur (Q7) in March 1990 
(256). There is also a record from 2300m 
on 18 May (locaUty and year unknown) 
(49). Range Winters in n.e. India and 
Bangladesh. 




J F M^^AMj'j A S* O^ N D 



DUSKY THRUSH Turdus nawnanni 

Subspecies eu«om(«. First collected by B. 
Hodgson from the Kathmandu Valley on 
10 and 29 January (113,336). A scarce 
winter visitor found between 915m and 
2850m. Reported from Gokama on 4 
February 1979 (486,651,652), and on 26 
April 1982 (157). The large numbers re- 
ported in spring 1948 at Nagarjung (629) 
have not been repeated and are open to 
doubt. Singles showing intermediate fea- 
tures of T. n. eimomus and T. n. nau- 
manni were found near Jomosom from 27 
March to 1 April 1983 (56) and at Jolbari 
(R7) on 19 January 1989 (307). Recorded 
from the upper Kali Gandaki valley at 
Lete on 22 to 24 January 1979 (486, 
651,652), Marpha on 27 April 1981 (811), 
Kalopani on 10 and 11 March 1982 




I=13)U^ 



»,^.'\.-..V' 



(207,561) and at Jomosom on 6 March 1986 (403). The only 
other reports are from Phewa Tal on 5 March 1986 (55) and 
above Ghorepani on 27 April 1987 (484). Records are 
mainly of single birds. Frequents forest edges and scrub. 
Range Winters in n.e. India. 



DARK-THROATED THRUSH Turdus ruficoUis 

Black-throated Thrush, Red-throated Thrush 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common winter visitor. Two subspecies 
occur: Black-throated Thrush T. r atmgu- 
laris from the tarai up to 4200m, and Red- 
throated Thrush T. r. ruficoUis mainly at 
higher altitudes from 2400m to 3900m. 
Arrives in the Himalayas in October and 
descends to lower altitudes during the 



winter. Noted in the Kathmandu Valley by mid-November, 
but not usually seen at Chitwan and the eastern foothills 
(Q8) until February (293). Most birds leave Nepal by the 
end of April. Frequents grassy slopes, forest edges and 
forests. Range Winters in the Himalayas from N.W.F.P. 
east to Arunachal Pradesh, and south to Sind, Madhya 
Pradesh, and Bangladesh. 



Chats /Thrushes 

DARK-THROATED THRUSH, cont'd . 



259 




J'F'M'A'M'J'J' 



MISTLE THRUSH Turdus visdvoms 

Subspecies bonapartei. A Hodgson speci- 
men was listed for Nepal by Seebohm 
(710) but it may have originated in India. 
First definitely recorded by R.L. Fleming 
Sr. who collected a specimen east of 
Rupal (A3) at 2225m on 9 April 1965 
(247). A fairly common resident subject 
to altitudinal movements, and reported 
east to Machapuchare (244). Mainly 
summers between 2400m and 3800m, and 
winters between 2135m and 3050m. In- 
habits coniferous and broadleaved forests 
in summer, and open grassy slopes and 
forest edges in winter. Range N. Baluchis- 
tan, and the Himalayas from N.W.F.P. 
east to Nepal. 




f;b=w^^ 



LITTLE FORKTAIL Enicums scouleri 

Subspecies scouleri. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A fairly common resident 
subject to some altitudinal movements. 
Summers chiefly between 1830m and 
4000m, and winters between 900m and 
1830m. Found breeding in the upper Kali 
Gandaki valley (811) and in Jumla Dis- 
trict (620). Frequents rushing rocky 
streams, often near waterfalls, and in 
winter also on slower moving waters. 
Range Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bang- 
ladesh. 




260 



Chats/Thrushes 



BLACK-BACKED FORKTAIL Enicums immaaJatus 



The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (360). A resident occasion- 
ally found up to 1370m from west-central 
areas eastwards; few records from the 
west. Fairly common and confirmed to 
breed at Chitwan (296); also found breed- 
ing at Hetaura (100). Occurs on fast-flow- 
ing streams in damp broadleaved forest. 
Range Himalayas from Garhwal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bang- 
ladesh. 




pm 



F a » -"A 



SLATV-BACKED FORKTAIL Enicums schistaceus 





The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (360,798). Mainly an uncom- 
mon resident between 900m and 1675m. 
Fairly common on the Modi Khola and 
Bhurungdi Khola near Birethante. Other 



localities include the lower Arun and upper Mai valleys, and 
north of Sunischare. Mainly single reports from elsewhere. 
Frequents large fast-flowing rocky streams and lakes. 
Range Himalayas from Kumaon east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



SPOTTED FORKTAIL Enicums maculatus 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (360). A 
fairly common resident, mainly summer- 
ing between 1370m and 3100m. Some 
birds descend from higher elevations in 
winter but others remain up to at least 
2745m. Proved breeding at Hetaura 
(100). Two races occur: E. m. maculatus 
(m) (100,109,190,647), and E. m. guttatus 
(g) (246,736). Inhabits rocky streams in 
forests,and shady ravines, avoiding rivers 
and lakes. Range Himalayas from 
N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh. 




fpup^n 



^T^^ M J JA* ' S N D 



Warblers 



261 



CHESTNUT-HEADED TESIA Tenia castaneocomnata 
Chestnut-headed Ground Warbler 





Subspecies castaneocoronata. The spe- 
cies was described by E. Burton, probably 
from Nepal (139). First definitely re- 
corded by B. Hodgson (371). A fairly 
common resident subject to altitudinal 
movements. Summers between 2135m 



and 4000m, most frequently from 2440m to 3300m. Mainly 
winters between 800m and 1830m, but descends to lower al- 
titudes at Chitwan, where it is a rare visitor (296). Proved 
breeding at Phulchowki (771). Frequents thick under- 
growth in broadleaved forest. Range Himalayas from Kulu 
east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



GREY-BELLIED TESU Tesia cyaniventer 

Dull Slaty-bellied Ground Warbler, Slaty-bellied Ground Warbler 



The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (371,798). Occasional. An 
altitudinal migrant. Summers mainly be- 
tween 1525m and 2440m, and winters 
from 1830m down to the foothills, and 
rarely to the tarai. Found breeding in 
Langtang Gorge (L5) (682). Occurs in 
tangled undergrowth in thick forest near 
small streams; favours ravines in summer, 
and shady broadleaved forest in winter. 
Range Himalayas from Garhwal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bang- 
ladesh. 




SLATY-BELLIED TESIA Tesia olivea 

Scarce, probably resident. The species 
was discovered in Nepal by H.S. Nepali in 
the Arun valley (Q6,Q7) between 1000m 
and 1700m. First recorded at Hururu on 
30 August 1986 and later seen on 31 



August at Num and on 21 September at Khandbari (590). 
Frequents dense undergrowth in damp, broadleaved, ever- 
green forest. Range Himalayas from e. Nepal east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India. 



262 



Warblers 



PALE-FOOTED BUSH WARBLER Cettia palMipes 
Blanford's Bush Warbler 



Subspecies paJlidipes. First definitely re- 
corded at Simra on 4 March 1947 by B. 
Biswas (102). A local resident. Fairly 
common at Chitwan (J6,K6). Chiefty 
single reports from elsewhere. It is shy 
and skulking as are other bush warblers, 
and is probably overlooked as it is more 
often heard than seen. Inhabits tall 
grasses and bushes at forest edges. Range 
Himalayas from Dehra Dun east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh, and n.e. India. 




BROWN-FLANKED BUSH WARBLER Celtia fortipes 
Strong-footed Bush Warbler (C. montand) 



The species was described from Nepal by 

B. Hodgson (391,798). An altitudinal 
migrant whose seasonal movements are 
uncertain. Found between about 1400m 
and 2135m in December (307) and be- 
tween 1800m and 3200m in summer. 
Reported to be fairly common in spring in 
the upper Aran valley (483); several rec- 
ords from the upper Mai valley (R7,R8) 
and near Ham (R8) (246,658,307); also 
reported from Hans Pokhari (S8) (183). It 
is rare further west: single records from 
Dandeldhura District (A3) (247), south 
of Annapuma (J5) (762), and the 
Dhorpatan valley (499). Two races occur: 

C. / fortipes (0 (246), and C. / pallida (p) 




.nil, I 



n r~¥ 



AA" 



^ J^A ■ S * * N ■ D 



(247). Frequents dense undergrowth in forest and favours 
damp ravines. Range Himalayas from Kashmir east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



CHESTNUT-CROWNED BUSH WARBLER Cettia major 
Large Bush Warbler 



Subspecies major. The species was de- 
scribed from Nepal by T. Horsfield and F. 
Moore from a specimen included in 
Hodgson's later collection (409,798) but 
this may have originated in India. The 
first dated records are of several pairs 
found breeding by J Jvl. ThioUay between 
3550m and 3680m on Lamjung Himal 
(J5) on 16 and 18 June 1977 (762). A 
scarce altitudinal migrant. Its breeding 
behaviour is poorly known. Found on 
Machapuchare (H5) at 3415m on 13 Oc- 
tober 1979 (499). A scarce winter visitor 
to the lowlands: at Chitwan (J6,K6) from 
October to April, also two trapped near 
Kosi Barrage in March (243), and noted 




at Tamaspur in December 1979 (681). Summers in thorny 
scrob at rhododendron forest edges, and winters in 
reedbeds. Range Himalayas from Garhwal east to Aran- 
achal Pradesh, and n.e. India. 



Warblers 



263 



ABERRANT BUSH WARBLER Cettia flavoUvacea 



Subspecies flavolivacea. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(798,118). A common resident subject to 
altitudinal movements. Mainly summers 
between 2440ra and 3600m, and winters 
between 915m and 1830m. A rare winter 
visitor, recorded at lower altitudes at 
Tamaspur and Chitwan. Frequents 
shrubberies and also bushes at forest 
edges and in clearings. Range Himalayas 
from Garhwal east to Arunachal Pradesh, 
and n.e. India. 




1 1 y.i iiiM 



YELLOW-BELLIED BUSH WARBLER Cettia acanthizoides 
Hume's Bush Warbler, Verreaux's Bush Warbler 



Subspecies brunnescens. Colleaed by B. 
Hodgson who confused it with Brown- 
flanked Bush Warbler, the specimens 
have now been correctly identified in the 
British Museum (Natural History). 
Scarce, probably resident. All other rec- 
ords are from spring and sunmier be- 
tween 2000m and 3660m. Collected on 
the Singalila Ridge (ST) at 3050m on 29 
April 1912 (738), on Walung ridge (Q6) at 
2000m on 12 March 1959 (482), and on 
the northern slopes of Sheopuri at 2590m 
on 30 March 1969 (9). Two singing males 
were found in July 1973 above Tukche 
between 3150m and 3250m (529). Fairly 
common at Khaptad (C3): at least 11 
singing birds found between 21 and 27 
May 1988 at about 2700m (428). One seen 




Trrr 



^ yr - W^« * .^.- 



in Annapuma Sanctuary (H5) on 3 April 1987 (463). Noted 
near Sheopuri summit: in May 1986 (578) and on 16 April 
1988 (438). Inhabits ringal bamboo but also found in scrub 
above Tukche (529). Range Himalayas from Garhwal east 
to Arunachal Pradesh. 



GREY-SIDED BUSH WARBLER Cettia brunnifmns 

Rufous-capped Bush Warbler 



Subspecies brunnifmns. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(391,798). A common altitudinal migrant. 
Summers chiefly between 2745m and 
4000m, and winters between 915m and 
2135m, uncommon at lower altitudes 
down to 215m. Noted as low as 75m on 16 
January 1989 at Kosi Tappu (596). Found 
breeding on the hills north of the Kath- 
mandu Valley (635), and at Khumjung 
(P6) (190). Occurs in rhododendron and 
barberries at forest edges in summer, and 
in tall grass and dense undergrowth in 
winter. Range Breeds in the Himalayas 



-V-^, 




from the Pir Panjal range east to Arunachal Pradesh. 
Winters down to the foothills, and the plains of n.e. India. 



264 



Warblers 



SPOTTED BUSH WARBLER Bmdypterus thoraacus 



Subspecies thomcicus. The species was 
described from Nepal by E. Blyth, from a 
Hodgson specimen (1 18). A scarce altitu- 
dinal migrant. Only two summer records. 
A nest with eggs was found at 3850m on 
Lamjung Himal (J5) on 22 July 1977 
(541). Noted to be common in June up to 
3350m on the ridge west of M ardi valley, 
Machapuchare (H5) and proved breed- 
ing there (499,244). One seen near Tato- 
pani (H4) at 1220m on 15 April 1977 was 
presumably a migrant (243). All other 
reports are from the lowlands in winter or 
spring: rare at Kosi Barrage and Chitwan 
(J6,K6), and single records from San 
Pakwa (Q8) on 2 March 1938 (62), Bhorli 
(N8) in December 1953 (647), and Sukla 
Phanta on 4 and 5 May 1982 (432). Inhab- 




n 



F ' M A^M J ' JA* ■ S ■ ■ N ' D ' 

its rhododendron and juniper shrubberies above the 
treeUne in summer, reedbeds and tall grass in winter. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from Kashmir east to Arunachal 
Pradesh. Winters down to the foothills, and the plains of 
n.e. India. 



CHINESE BUSH WARBLER 

Bradypterus tacsanowsldus 

Subspecies tacsanowsldus. Vagrant. First 
recorded on 20 February 1938 at 
Haraincha (Q8) by F.M. BaUey (62). 
Subsequently single birds were found 
north of Sunischare on 25 February 1961 
(234,246), and at Kosi Barrage on 13 
March 1981 (442). Winters in reedbeds. 
Range Rare winter visitor to Nepal and 
Bhutan. 



BROWN BUSH WARBLER Bmdypterus luUoventris 

S\x\>spede&luteoventris. Vagrant. The species was described 
from Nepal by B. Hodgson (391,798). He obtained speci- 
mens from the northern hills (336). The other records from 
Sukla Phanta (432), listed in the first edition of this book 
(435), are now considered unacceptable. Range Himalayas 
from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh, and n.e. India. 



BRIGHT-CAPPED CISTICOLA Cisticola exilis 
Golden-headed Cisticola, Golden-headed Fantail Warbler 



Subspecies fyf/en. First recorded at Dhan- 
garhi in December 1952 by R.L. Fleming 
Sr. (647). Very local, probably resident. 
Fairly common at Sukla Phanta 
(432,700), and at Sukebhar, Chitwan. 
Four were seen near Damak (R8) in 
December 1978 (134). Several records 
from Kosi Barrage including a maximum 
of six on 4 March 1988 (465). The only 
other record is of four seen at Biratnagar 
airport in December 1989 (256). Inhabits 
tall grassland in the tarai. Range Kumaon 
and the Nepal tarai east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. and s.w. India, and Bangla- 
desh. 




F ' M^A M'J'J'A^S'O'H'd' 



Warblers 



265 



ZnriNG CISTICOIA Cisticola junadis 
Fan-tailed Warbler, Fantail Cisticola, 
Streaked Fantail Warbler 

Subspecies cursitans. First colleaed by B. 
Hodgson (115). A fairly common resident 
and summer visitor up to 1350m, locally 
up to 1900m. Found in the Kathmandu 
Valley from March to Oaober (244). 
Proved breeding there (629) and at Chi- 
twan (770). A common summer visitor to 
the eastern tarai from March to October 
(293). Frequents paddyfields, tall grass 
and reedbeds. Range Throughout the 
subcontinent. 




|ii 11,11 1 1. 



^^^^2^^^^^^^^^^^£^^ 



GRACEFUL PRINIA Prinia gracilis 

Fulvous-streaked Prinia, Streaked Wren- Warbler 



First definitely recorded at Tribeni (H7) 
at 75m on 19 January 1936 by FM. Bailey 
(62). A very local resident in the tarai. 
Fairly common along the Kamali River 
(C4) (192,243) and south of Kosi Barrage, 
where several pairs were proved breeding 
(321). Rare at Chitwan (296). Also re- 
corded from Bilauri (A4) (62), Haraincha 
(Q8) (62), Bardia District (D5) (162), 
Kosi Tappu (327) and Chatra (245). The 
last record is referable toP.g. stevensi but 
the race involved in all other records is 
unknown. Found in tall grass along sandy 
river beds in the tarai. Range Pakistan 
and n. India east to Bangladesh. 




j^^^^^^^^ AS' o^rJ ■ D 



PLAIN PRINIA Prinia inomata 
Plain Wren-Warbler {P. subflavd) 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (391). A 
resident seen occasionally throughout the 
tarai. Two subspecies occur: P. i. fusca (f) 
(647) and P. i. terricolor (t) (659). Like 
other prinias it is probably under-re- 
corded because of field identification dif- 
ficulties. Inhabits tall grass and reedbeds 
at edges of cultivation and sal forests. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 




^^^J^w^^^^^^^^^^oS^^^ 



266 



Wwblers 



ASHY PRIMA Priniasodalis 
Ashy Wren- Warbler 




Subspecies steward. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by F.M. 
Bailey at Bilauri (A4) on 9 February 1937 



(62). A resident, occasionally seen throughout the tarai. 
Frequents tall grass and reedbeds at the edges of cultiva- 
tion, sal forests and rivers. Prefers wetter habitats than 
Plain Prinia. Range Throughout most of the subcontinent. 



[RUFOUS PRI^aA Prinia mfescens 
Rufescent Prinia, Beavan's Wren- Warbler 

A Hodgson specimen was listed for Nepal 
by Sharpe (716), but it may have origi- 
nated in India. Reported from Chitwan 
(315,703), but further confirmation is 



needed. Occurs in tall grassland or light grass patches under 
groves of broadleaved trees (48). Range Himalayas from 
Darjeeling east to Arunachal Pradesh; Orissa, n.e. India 
and Bangladesh.] 



GREY-CROWNED PRINIA Prinia dnereocapilla 
Hodgson's Wren- Warbler, Grey-capped Prinia 



The species was described from Nepal by 
F. Moore from a specimen in Hodgson's 
later collection (409,798) but it may have 
originated in India. First definitely re- 
corded by R.L. Fleming Sr. at Badamachli 
(B4) at 460m in December 1952 (647). A 
local resident, mainly found between 75m 
and 1065m, but noted as high as 1600m in 
the eastern hills (Q8) (293). Fairly com- 
mon and confirmed breeding at Chitwan 
(J6,K6) (296). Described as common in 
the central dun (L7) in 1947 (102) but just 
one later record from there. Only a few 
reports from other areas, including 
Bardia (C4) (162), Tamaspur (206,681), 
Trisuli (L6) (180), and Ham Distria 
(681,794). Little is known of its breeding 
habits. Frequents bushes in forest clear- 
ings and secondary growth; more arbo- 
real than other prinias. Range Himalayan 
foothills from Kumaon east to Bhutan; 
Assam in n. Cachar. 




Warblers 



267 



GREY-BREASTED PRINIA Prinia hodgsonii 
Hodgson's Prinia, Ashy Wren- Warbler, 
Franklin's Wren- Warbler 

Subspecies rujula. First collected by B. 
Hodgson (115). A fairly common resident 
in the tarai, bhabar and dun up to 400m, 
occasionally seen up to 1200m, and locally 
up to 1750m. Proved breeding at Chitwan 
(296). Found in bushes at the edges of 
forest and cultivation. Range Throughout 
the subcontinent. 




YEIXOW-BELLIED PRINIA Prinia flaviventris 

Yellow-bellied Wren- Warbler 



Subspecies flaviventris. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by ¥M. 
Bailey at Bilauri (A4) on 5 February 1937 
(62). A local resident. Fairly common at 
Sukla Phanta, Kosi marshes, Tamaspur, 
and also Chitwan (J6,K6), where found 
breeding (296). Single records from else- 
where. Occurs in tall grassland along riv- 
erbeds, and in reedbeds. Range Pakistan 
and n.w. India; foothills of the Himalayas 
from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




STRIATED PRINIA Prinia criniger 
Brown Hill Prinia, Brown HiU Warbler 

Subspecies criniger. The species was de- 
scribed from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(359,798). A common resident. Summers 
chiefly between 1220m and 2300m, and 
winters between 915m and 2135m. Noted 
as low as 75m at Kosi Tappu on 3 March 
1988 (327). Confirmed breeding at 
Nagarjung (635). Inhabits hillsides 
amongst scrub and grass, also terraced 
cultivation. Range The hiUs of Pakistan; 
Himalayas from Murree east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




F ■ M *^M 



268 



Warblers 



JUNGLE PRIMA Prinia sylvatica 
White-taaed Prinia, Jungle Wren- Warbler 

Subspecies gangetica. First definitely re- 
corded at Banbassa (A4) at about 75m on 
11 January 1937 by FJvl. BaUey (62). A 
resident, occurring in the far western ta- 
rai. Occasionally seen at Sukla Phanta 
(432,700), Dhangarhi (647) and Bardia 
(192,432). Reported from Chitwan 
(296,762), but its occurrence there re- 
quires further confirmation. Inhabits 
scrub and tall grass in open dry areas. 
Range Himalayan foothills from Jammu 
east to W. Bengal; south to Bangladesh 
and s. India. 




HILL PRINIA Prinia atmgularis 

Black-throated Hill Prinia, Black-throated Hill Warbler 



Subspecies atrogularis. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by H. Ste- 
vens from the Mai valley (ST) in April 
1912 (738). A resident, seen occasionally 
in the far east. Regularly reported from 
the Mai valley (R7,S7), several records 
from Ilam District (R8) and Hans 
Pokhari (S8); also noted by the Mewa 
Khola, Taplejung District (R7) (243). 
One was recorded between Mure and 
Hurure, Anin valley (Q6) on 13 June 1988 
(537), the western Unlit of the species's 
range. Found in scrub and grass on hill- 




sides, and terraced cultivation between 1400m and 2500m. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



LARGE GRASS WARBLER Graminicola bengalensis 



First recorded at Bilauri (A4) at 270m on 
2 February 1937 by FJM. Bailey (62); also 
collected there in December 1952 and 
January 1953 (647). A very local resident. 
Occasionally seen, and possibly breeds at 
Chitwan (296). The record from Kosi 
Barrage listed in the first edition of this 
book (435) has been withdrawn, but the 
species has been reported from there in 
November 1989 (597). The only other 
report is of two at Sukla Phanta on 4 May 
1982 (432), the western limit of the spe- 
cies's range. Found in tall grass and reeds 
in the tarai. Skulking jmd probably 
overlooked. Range Nepal, n.e. India and 
Bangladesh. 




\ 



Warblers 



269 



COMMON TAILORBIRD Orlhotomus sutorius 
Tailor Bird 



Subspecies patia. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A conunon resident from 
75m to 1830m. Confirmed to breed at 
Chitwan (296) and in the Kathmandu 
Valley (629,708). Inhabits gardens and 
bushes at the edges of cultivation, and 
broadleaved forests. Range Throughout 
the subcontinent. 




[MOUNTAIN TAILORBIRD 

Orthotomus cuculatus 
Golden-headed Tailorbird 

Subspecies coronatus. A specimen has 
been listed as originating in Nepal, but no 
other details are known (716). Described 
as obtained by B. Hodgson (48) but not 
included in the catalogues of his collec- 
tions (276,277,388). Range Himalayas 
from Daijeeling east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh.] 



PALLAS'S WARBLER Locustella certhiola 
Pallas's Grasshopper Warbler 

Subspecies rubescens. Vagrant. First recorded by F.M. 
Bailey who collected a specimen by the Kosi River in the 
tarai on 12 February 1937 (62,108). One was also seen there 
on 17 March 1982 (606) and two on 7 April 1986 (403). The 
only other record is of one seen by the Bagmati pools, 
Kathmandu Valley on 26 Oaober 1989 (256). Winters in 
reedbeds. All Locustella warblers are very skulking, espe- 
cially in winter, and are probably overlooked. Range Win- 
ters in n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



LANCEOLATED WARBLER Locustella lanceolata 
Streaked Grasshopper Warbler 



Vagrant. First recorded by FJvI. Bailey 
who collected a specimen from the east- 
em tarai at San Pakwa (Q8) on 23 Febru- 
ary 1938 (62,108). The only other records 
are of singles seen at Sukla Phanta on 2, 4 
and 5 May 1982 (432), Chitwan on 19 
April 1983 (56) and on 4 March 1986 
(514), and Kosi Barrage in late January 
1987 (594). A specimen from the Babai 
River, originally identified as this species 
(243), has been redetermined as a Grass- 
hopper Warbler by the Chicago Field 
Museum (9). Found in tall grassland in 




n. 



M ' A M J ' 



A S ' O N D 



Nepal; also inhabits low vegetation in paddy stubbles (664). 
Range Winters in n. and n.e. India, and Bangladesh. 



GRASSHOPPER WARBLER Locustella naevia 

Subspecies straminea. Vagrant. A speci- 
men was obtained from the Babai River, 
Bardia District (D5) in April 1972 by R.L. 
Fleming (9,243). Only three other rec- 
ords: one ringed on 11 April 1976 at Kosi 



Barrage (287,293), another seen there on 8 April 1983 (56), 
and one or two at Chitwan (J6) on 13 April 1985 (59). 
Frequents tall grass and reedbeds. Range Winters locally 
throughout the subcontinent. 



270 



Warblers 



BRISTLED GRASS WARBLER Chaetomis striatus 

First definitely recorded by R.L. Fleming 
Jr. who saw one singing by the Rapti 
River, Chitwan (J6) on 24 April 1986 
(227). A minimum of five birds was found 
in the same area between 6 and 13 May 



1986, including one nest-building on the latter date 
(763324,321). Found in riverine grassland. Range Punjab in 
Pakistan; most of India, but very locally distributed; Bang- 
ladesh. 



STRL\TED MARSH WARBLER MegaUmts palustris 

Striated Warbler 



First recorded from the Kosi River on 15 
February 1938 by F.M. Bailey (62). Local, 
probably resident. Common at Kosi 
Tappu (P8,Q8): a maximum of 30 was 
reported there on 31 May 1982 (432). 
Fairly common at Kosi Barrage, a rare 
resident at Chitwan, and also reported 
from Belatari (G6) (587), Sukla Phanta 
(432), Dhangarhi (647), and Emelie (A4) 
(647). Inhabits tall, damp grassland and 
reedbeds. Range Pakistan in the Punjab, 
east to n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




^^^^M " jAJ ' » ' S ■ ■' ■ D ' 



BLACK-BROWED REED WARBLER 

Acrocephalus bistrigiceps 
Schrenck's Sedge Warbler 

Subspecies bistripceps. Vagrant. There 
are three records, all of single birds in the 
Kosi marshes in winter. First seen on 19 
January 1981 by J. HaU (300). Subse- 
quently found there on 17 March 1982 
(770), and 23 February 1983 (66). Found 
in tall grass and reedbeds. Like other 
Acrocephalus warblers it is skulking and 
easily overlooked, especially in winter. 
Range Recorded in winter in Ladakh 
(once), Nepal (rare), Calcutta, and n.e. 
India. 



BLUNT-WINGED WARBLER Acrocephalus condnens 
Blunt-winged Paddyfield Warbler, Swinhoe's Reed 
Warbler 

Subspecies haringlonn Status uncertain; only three con- 
firmed records received. Possibly overlooked because of its 
similarity to Paddyfield Warbler. First recorded on 10 
February 1%5 north-west of Bhadrapur (R8) at 230m by 
R.L. Fleming Sr. (234,247). Later reported along the Vish- 
numati River, Kathmandu Valley in March and November 
(243). Found in tall grasses, reedbeds and willows along 
river banks. Range Breeds in the Himalayas from the Kagan 
valley east to Kashmir; Assam. Winter quarters poorly 
known, but recorded from the Bengal duars and Bangla- 
desh. 



PADDYFIELD WARBLER Acrocephalus agiicola 

Obtained by B. Hodgson in his later col- 
lection (409) but the specimen may have 
originated in India. First definitely re- 
corded by F.M. Bailey from Sundar Gun- 
dar, Morang District (Q8) on 7 February 
1938 (62). A local winter visitor to the 
tarai. Fairly common at Kosi Barrage, but 



scarce at Chitwan. It has been recorded from the Kath- 
mandu Valley (629,687,403), but requires further confirma- 
tion. Only single records from elsewhere. It is possible that 
some reports should be referred to the Blunt-winged War- 
bler because the two species are easily confused. Frequents 
reed-beds and tall damp grassland. Range Breeds in n. 
Baluchistan. Winters throughout the subcontinent. 



Warblers 
PADDYFIELD WARBLER, cont'd . 



271 





BLYTH'S REED WARBLER Acrocephalus dianetontm 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common winter visitor and passage 
migrant, most frequent in winter up to 
1525m, but noted on passage up to 
2900m. Reported in the Kathmandu Val- 
ley, and in the eastern tarai and foothills 
(P8,Q8) (293), between Oaober and 
May. Inhabits bushes at the edges of cul- 
tivation and forests and in gardens. Range 
Winters throughout the subcontinent. 




CLAMOROUS REED WARBLER Acrocephalus stentoreus 
Indian Great Reed Warbler 



Subspecies bnmnescens. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (388). A local winter visi- 
tor and passage migrant, occurring chiefly 
in the tarai. Occasionally seen at Kosi 
Barrage, found at Kosi Tappu (481,327), 
rare at Chitwan, and only single records 
from other areas. Singles were collected 
at Balaju (L6) at 1340m on 26 December 
1966 (591) and on 12 September 1970 
(589). Some records should perhaps be 
referred to the Oriental Reed Warbler as 
the two species are easily confused. Oc- 
curs in reeds, wet grassland, and bushes in 




damp areas. Range Breeds in Pakistan, Kashmir, and spo- 
radicalfy in the Indian peninsula. 



ORIENTAL REED WARBLER Acrocephalus orientalis 
Eastern Great Reed Warbler \A. anmdinaceus) 
Great Reed Warbler 



Vagrant. The only record is of one col- 
leaed near Biratnagar (Q9) at about 75m 
on 9 March (year unknown) by R.L. 
Fleming (243). The record from Kosi 



Barrage given in the first edition of this book (435) has been 
withdrawn. Possibly overlooked because of similarity to 
Clamorous Reed Warbler. Found in reedbeds and wet rice 
flelds. Range Winters in n.e. India. 



272 



Warblers 



THICK-BILLED WARBLER Aarxephalus aedon 

{Phragamaticola aedon) 



Subspecies aedon. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by R.L, 
Fleming at Trisuli Bazaar (L6) on 14 
November 1956 (245). An uncommon 
winter visitor regularly reported between 
75m and 1500m. Areas include Pokhara, 
Kathmandu Valley, Hetaura, and Chatra 
(Q8). Occurs in tall grass and scrub along 
wooded streams and forest edges, also in 
gardens and at the edges of cultivation. 
Range Winters from Rajasthan and 
Gujarat east to n.e. India and Bangla- 
desh. 




BOOTED WARBLER Hippolais caligqta 
Booted Tree Warbler 

Subspecies caligala. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388,710). A scarce winter visi- 
tor and passage migrant reported be- 
tween January and April. The subsequent 
records areofonecoUectedatBeltar (L6) 
at 550ra on 5 January 1974, singles seen at 
Tamaspur on 7 and 9 April 1981 (559), at 
MeghauU (J6) on 24 March 1982 (770), 
Kagbeni at 2810m on 5 April 1982 (812), 
Kosi Barrage on 18 April 1982 (199,294) 
and on 13 February 1984 (408), Kosi 
Tappu on 9 February 1984 (408), and at 
Sauraha (J6) on 17 March 1986 (403). 
Found in deciduous scrub and bushes at 
edges of cultivation in dry habitats; fa- 



ORPHEAN WARBLER Sylvia hortensis 

Subspecies jerdoni. Vagrant. First re- 
corded in spring 1975 at Sukla Phanta by 
R.L. Fleming Sr. (238). Later the same 
year a probable was noted at Dharan 
(Q8) on 13 June (293), and one was seen 
at Chitwan on 11 November (141). The 
only other record is of one seen at Kosi 
Tappu on 9 March 1989 (193). Found in 
bushes and forest edges in the tarai and 
bhabar. Range Breeds in n. Baluchistan, 
and in the Himalayas in N. W.F.P. Winters 
east to Bihar, and south to s. India. 




fii , , I, 



3. fW 



J'FM'A'M'J'J'A'S'O'N'D' 



vours acacias. Range Breeds in Pakistan. Winters locally 
throughout the subcontinent, except n.e. India. 




Warblers 



273 



LESSER WHTTETHROAT Sylvia cunuca 

Subspecies bfythi. First recorded on 30 
October 1957 at Phewa Tal by RA. 
Paynter Jr. (663). An uncommon winter 
visitor and passage migrant, regularly 
seen in winter up to 1500m, at localities 
including Pokhara, Tamaspur, the Kath- 
mandu Valley and Chitwan where the 
maximum of nine was seen in mid-Febru- 
aiy 1989 (506). Birds noted at about 
2750m in the upper Kali Gandald valley in 
March (594) and September (76), and at 
Hanga Tham at about 2135m in March 
(193) were presumably on passage. Fre- 
quents scrub and undergrowth. Range 
Breeds in n. Baluchistan, and in the 
Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Ka- 
shmir. Winters east to West Bengal, and 
south to s. India. 




GOLDEN-SPECTACLED WARBLER Seicervus buridi 

Yellow-eyed Warbler, Black-browed Flycatcher- Warbler 



Subspecies buridi. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common altitudinal 
migrant. Mainly summers between 2400m 
and 3800m and winters from 2135m down 
to 250m, occasionally to 150m. Breeding 
confirmed at Phulchowki (190). Found in 
undergrowth in broadleaved and conifer- 
ous forests and in rhododendron shrub- 
beries above the treeline. Range Hima- 
layas from Murree east to Arunachal 
Pradesh. 




GREY-CHEEKED WARBLER Seicercus poliogenys 

Grey-cheeked Flycatcher-Warbler 



Obtained by B. Hodgson in his later col- 
lection (409) but the specimen may have 
originated in India. First definitely re- 
corded by H. Stevens from the Singhalila 
ridge (S7) at 3100m in April and May 1912 
(738). Scarce, probably resident. There 
are a few records from Phulchowki. Re- 
ported in Kathmandu (635) but its pres- 
ence there requires confirmation. Noted 
in the upper Manang vaUey (J4) (762) in 
mid-July 1977, the western limit of the 
species's range. The only other records 
are from the upper Mai valley (ST) at 
2440m on 10 March 1961 (246), Milke 
Danda (Q7) at 3200m in October 1978 
(155,156301) and in Mechi Zone (R8,S7) 




mmi 



■w=i 



F M A^H ■ J^J ■ A ' S ' ■ N ' D 



on 25 January 1985 (142) and on 30 March 1989 (193). 
Inhabits bamboo and dense undergrowth in damp, ever- 
green, broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas from Nepal 
east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



274 



Warblers 



[WHITE-SPECTACLED WARBLER Seicercus affiius 

Allied Flycatcher- Warbler 



The species was described from Nepal by 
F. Moore from a specimen included in 
Hodgson's later collection (409,798) but 



it may have originated in India. There are no other records. 
Inhabits dense, damp evergreen, broadleaved forests. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh.] 



CHESTNUT-CROWNED WARBLER Seicercus castaniceps 

Chestnut-crowned Flycatcher-Warbler 



Subspecies castaniceps. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(798,118). A resident subject to altitudi- 
nal movements. Occasionally seen be- 
tween 1800m and 2750m in summer; and 
between 1000m and 2285m in winter, al- 
though sometimes down to 250m. Inhab- 
its broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas 
from Corbett east to Arunachal Pradesh. 




GREY-HOODED WARBLER Seicercus xanthoschistos 

Grey-headed Flycatcher- Warbler 



The species was described from Nepal by 
J.E. and G.R. Gray from a Hodgson 
specimen (277,798). A common resident 
subject to altitudinal movements. Sum- 
mers between 1000m and 2750m. Some 
birds remain at the highest elevations 
during winter, but most descend to be- 
tween 2000m and 750m; rarely down to 
245m. Found breeding in the upper Kali 
Gandaki (811), west of Pamdur (H5) 
(153), and on the hills surrounding the 
Kathmandu Valley (629). Two inter- 
grading races occur: S. x. albosuperciliaris 
(a), and S. x. xanthoschistos (x). Feeds in 
the lower canopy and in tall bushes in 
coniferous and broadleaved forests. 
Range Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to 
Arunachal Pradesh. 




J ' fA" 



BROAD-BILLED WARBLER Tickellia hodgsoni 
Broad-bUled Flycatcher- Warbler (Abroscopus hodgsoni) 



Subspecies hodgsoni. The species was 
described from Nepal by F. Moore from a 
specimen included in Hodgson's later 
collection (409,798) but it may have origi- 
nated in India. First definitely recorded 
by H.S. Nepali from ShyaksUa Toten, 



Barun vaUey (Q6) at 2195m on 22 November 1984 (588). 
The only other record is of one seen at Tashigaon, upper 
Arun valley (Q6) at about 2300m on 5 September 1986 
(590). Inhabits moist broadleaved forest with bamboo. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Bhutan and possibly 
Arunachal Pradesh. 



Warblers 



275 



RUFOUS-FACED WARBLER Abroscopus alboguiaris 
White-throated Warbler, White-throated Flycatcher- Warbler 



Subspecies alboguiaris. The species was 
described from Nepal by F. Moore from a 
specimen included in Hodgson's later 
collection (409,798) but this may have 
originated in India. There are only two 
definite records, both from the eastern 
tarai and lower foothills in Ham District 



(R8): an undated record by R.L. Fleming (223), and three 
seen south of Ham on 18 March 1982 at about 305m (794). 
Scarce, presumably resident. Breeds from early April to 
June. Frequents bamboo and scrub jungle. Range Hima- 
layas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and 
Bangladesh. 



YELLOW-BELLIED WARBLER Abroscopus superciUwis 
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher- Warbler 



Subspecies Jlaviventris. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (276) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by B. Biswas 
on 11 May 1947 at Hitaura, and proved 
breeding there (102). A resident subject 
to altitudinal movements, mainly seen 
between 245m and 1525m. Fairly com- 
mon in the upper Mai valley (R7), and 
from Garuwa north to Ham. Uncommon 
at Chitwan where it is possibly only a 
winter visitor. Found on Phulchowki in 
March (476) and a pair noted courtship 
feeding at 1700m on Nagarjung in May 
(556). Single reports received from other 
areas. Found on the hiUs around Pokhara 
in mid-August 1977 (H5) (762) and at 
Phewa Tal on 6 February 1989 (673), the 




most westerly records of the species. Breeding confirmed at 
Hetaura (102). The maximum altitude recorded is at 
2285m, above Hanga Tham on 23 December 1979 (206). 
Inhabits bamboo in damp, broadleaved forests, often near 
streams. Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



BLACK-FACED WARBLER Abroscopus schistkeps 
Black-faced Rycatcher- Warbler 



Subspecies schisticeps. The species was 
described from Nepal by J.E. and G.R. 
Gray from a Hodgson specimen 
(277,798). A local resident found between 
1525m and 2700m. Probably descends 
from higher altitudes in winter. Fairly 
common on Phulchowki and Sheopuri; 
occasionally seen north-west of Pokhara 
(H5), and in Langtang (L5) where proved 
breeding north of Syabru (321). Single 
records received from elsewhere. Found 
at Khaptad (C3), the only locality in the 
west (428). Frequents damp forests, espe- 
cially in moss-covered trees, bamboo, and 
thick undergrowth. Range Himalayas 
from Ganvhal east to Bhutan and possi- 
bly Arunachal Pradesh; also n.e. India. 




276 



Warblers 



YELLOW-VENTED WARBLER Phyttoscopus cantator 

Yellow-throated Leaf Warbler, Black-browed Leaf Warbler, 
Yellow-faced Leaf Warbler 



A Hodgson specimen was listed for Nepal 
by Seebohm (710) but it may have origi- 
nated in India. First definitely recorded 
by R.L. Fleming who collected one north- 
west of Bhadrapur (S8) at 305m on 8 
February 1965 (247). Uncommon and 
very locally distributed. Reported be- 
tween November and early April in the 
far eastern tarai and foothills, between 
250m and 600m. Regularly seen between 
Sukhani and Chisapani (R8). The only 
other records are of one near Dharan 
(Q8) on 25 December 1978 (134), and one 
or two near Tumlingtar (Q7) on 13 April 
1982 (599). Found in Sikkim at 2000m 
(738), and possibly occurs at a similar 
altitude in eastern Nepal. Breeds from 
the end of April to June. Frequents the 
lower storey of broadleaved forests, 
among bushes and bamboo. Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Bhutan; 
n.e. India. 




BLYTH'S LEAF WARBLER Phylloscopus regidoides 
Crowned Leaf Warbler, Blyth's Crowned Warbler 



Subspecies reguloides. First collected by 
B. Hodgson (114). A common resident 
subject to altitudinal movements. Sum- 
mers from 1980m up to 3800m; chiefly 
between 2440m and 3050m. Mainly win- 
ters below 1500m, although it has been 
found up to 2750m. Found breeding at 
JChaptad (C3) (428), in the Dudh Kosi 
valley (F6) (109), and on the hills sur- 
rounding the Kathmandu Valley (635). 
Inhabits broadleaved and coniferous for- 
ests in summer; forest edges, bushes and 
open forests in winter. Range Breeds in 
the Himalayas from Murree east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh, and in n.e. India. Winters 
down to the adjacent plains and south to 
Bangladesh. 




pmiF^im 



J ' F ' M^A ' M ' J ■ J^A ■ S ■ ■ N D 



Warblers 



277 



WESTERN CROWNED WARBLER 

Large Crowned Leaf Warbler 



Phylloscopus ocdpi talis 



A Hodgson specimen was listed for Nepal 
by Seebohm (710) but it may have origi- 
nated in India. First definitely recorded 
by F.M. Bailey from Godavari (L6) on 17 
April 1938 (62). An uncommon spring 
passage migrant and rare winter visitor; 
possibly breeds. Described as fairly com- 
mon in the west between 1800m and 
1990m in spring and summer (243), but 
only three other reports received from 
there (464,573,438). Chiefly recorded 
between March and May in the Kath- 
mandu Valley and surrounding hiUs, and 
at Chitwan. Described as a common win- 
ter visitor to Chitwan (296), but this re- 
quires confirmation. The maximum of ten 
was seen there on 14 March 1983 (513). 
Only a few other winter records received: 
in January from Begnas Tal (408) and 
Godavari (320), and in February from 
Kosi Tappu (408); and also one in Octo- 
ber from Dhorpatan (573). Found in 
broadleaved and coniferous forests. 
Range Breeds in the Himalayas from 
Kohat east to Kumaon. Winters in the 
Indian peninsula, possibly east to Bangla- 
desh. 




!i ,iiii | i I 



' ? ' r? ? ^^r.A« ' 3 ' ^M - I 



(^ 



SLENDER-BILLED WARBLER Phylloscopus tytleri 
Tytler's Leaf Warbler 

Scarce. Status uncertain; possibly a pas- 
sage migrant or else a summer visitor. 
First recorded by R.L. Fleming Sr. who 
collected one south of Rupal, Dan- 
deldhura District (A3) at 2135m on 9 
April 1965 (234,247). The only other rec- 
ords are from Khaptad (C3), where one 
was seen on 20 April at 2500m, and also 
noted between 22 and 29 April at 3050m, 
with a maximum of five on 28 April (428). 
Found in oak/rhododendron forest (243) 
and in shrubberies at forest edges (428). 
Range Breeds in the w. Himalayas in 
Gilgit, Hazara and Kashmir. Winters in 
the Indian peninsula, but few records. 




278 



Warblers 



GREEN WARBLER Phylloscopus nitidus 
Yellowish-breasted Warbler {P. trochiloides nitidus) 



A Hodgson specimen was listed for Nepal 
by Seebohm (710) but may have origi- 
nated in India. First definitely recorded 
by J. Scully in April 1877 from the Kath- 
mandu Valley (708). A scarce and local 
spring migrant, reported between March 
and mid-May, chiefly in the second half of 
April. There are several reports from the 
Kathmandu Valley and surrounding hills, 
between 1500m and 2135m. The only 
other records are from Khaptad (C3) at 
2100m (428), Gorlekharka (Q7) (546); 
also the lowlands between 75m and 305m, 
at Chitwan (440,111), the Rapti dun (K6) 
(190), Narayangarh (J6) (647), and Kosi 




^ ' J ' J ' A ' S ' 0^ 



Barrage (559). Found in broadleaved trees in forests and 
forest edges. Range Winters in s. India, and recorded on 
passage from Pakistan east to Nepal and Calcutta. 



GREENISH WARBLER Phylloscopus tnxhiloides 
DuU Green Leaf Warbler 



First collected by B. Hodgson (114). Two 
subspecies occur. P. t. viridanus (v) is a 
common winter visitor up to 1830m and a 
passage migrant. P. t. trochiloides (t) is a 
common summer visitor between 2440m 
and 4270m; chiefly between 2900m and 
3900m. Found breeding at Kalapokhari 
(S7) (530). Passage birds presumably 
move through very quickly as there are 
only a few reports, chiefly from April to 
early May, and from mid-September to 
early October. Surprisingly, there are 
only a few winter records. Summers in 
broadleaved and coniferous forests or 
bushes near the treeline, and winters in 




open wooded areas and gardens. Range Breeds in the 
Himalayas from Kohat east to Arunachal Pradesh, and n.e. 
India. Winters throughout India and Bangladesh. 



LARGE-BILLED LEAF WARBLER Phylloscopus magfiirostris 





i 



Warblers 
LARGE-BILLED LEAF WARBLER, cont'd . 



279 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
summer visitor; possibly also occurs in 
winter. Likely to be confused with Green- 
ish Warbler especially in winter. Mainly 
summers between 2440m and 3600m. 
There are several records of passage 
migrants from Chitwan and the central 
region (L6,L7,K7) in March, April, Au- 



gust and September. Reported in winter between 75m and 
2750m at PhewaTal (300), Ghorepani (309), Chitwan (408), 
Hetaura (121), Kosi Barrage (622), Kathmandu Valley 
(309,518) and Mai valley (R7) (307) but further confirma- 
tion of its occurrence in winter is desirable. Occurs in 
broadleaved trees near streams in summer. Range Hima- 
layas from N.W.F.P. east to Bhutan and presumably Arun- 
achal Pradesh. Winters in southern and n.e. India. 



ORANGE-BARRED LEAF WARBLER Phylloscopus pulcher 
Buff-barred Warbler 





J ' F ■ M ' A ' M^J JA* S ■ N ■ D ■ 



The species was described from Nepal by 
E. Blyth from a Hodgson specimen (118). 
A common altitudinal migrant. Summers 
between 2440m and 4265m, chiefly from 
3500m to 4000m. Winters between 915m 
and 3050m and possibly higher. One was 
noted at the unusually low level of 75m in 
January 1978 at Janakpur (M8) (302). 



Two intergrading races occur: P. p. pulcher (p) and P. p. 
kangrae (k). Found breeding in the Kathmandu Valley 
(243), Khumjung (P6) (190), the Gandak-Kosi watershed 
(L5) (633) and Gapte (682). Frequents broadleaved forests 
and also shrubberies of fir, birch, juni{>er and rhododen- 
dron above the treeline in summer. Range Breeds in the 
Himalayas from Kishtwar east to Arunachal Pradesh, and in 
n.e. India. Winters at lower elevations in the same hills. 



GREY-FACED LEAF WARBLER Phylloscopus maculipennis 

Ashy-throated Warbler 





JFM^ s :^i » SO^ND 



280 



Warblers 



GREY-FACED LEAF WARBLER, cont'd ... 



Subspecies maculipennis. The species was 
described from Nepal by E. Blyth 
(125,798), but it may have originated in 
India. The species was collected by B. 
Hodgson, but not separated from PaUas's 
Leaf Warbler. First definitely recorded by 
H. Stevens from the upper Mai valley (S7) 
at 2745m in April 1912 (738). A fairly 
common resident subject to altitudinal 



movements. Chiefly summers between 2440m and 3500m, 
and winters between 2900m and 1525m, rarely down to 
915m. Little is known of its breeding behaviour. Confirmed 
breeding at Khaptad (C3) (428), south of Annapuma (H5) 
(814) and on Phulchowki (636). Occurs in broadleaved and 
broadleaved/coniferous forests in summer, broadleaved 
forests and secondary growth in winter. Range Himalayas 
from Kashmir east to Arunachal Pradesh, and probably n.e. 
India. 



PALLAS'S LEAF WARBLER PhyUoscopus pmregulus 

Yellow-rumped Leaf Warbler, Lemon-rumped Warbler, 
PaUas's Warbler 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common altitudinal migrant. Mainly 
summers between 2750m and 4000m, and 
winters between 275m and 2750m, chiefly 
from 1400m to 2000m. Two intergrading 
races occur: P. c. simlaensis (s) and P. c. 
chloronotus (c) (798). Found in 
broadleaved and coniferous forests and 
also in fir and birch shrubberies above the 
treeline in summer. Range Breeds in the 
Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh. Winters in the foothills 
and adjacent plains south to Bangladesh. 



■^^ 




1 1 IIII^W 



^^^^^t!^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



YELLOW-BROWED WARBLER PhyUoscopus momatus 
Plain Leaf Warbler, Inornate Warbler 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). Two 
races occur. P. i. momatus (i) is an uncom- 
mon winter visitor and passage migrant 
from March to mid-April, and from mid- 
October to early November. Found in the 
Kathmandu Valley (628,635), near 
Pokhara (628) and at Tukche (527). P. i. 
humei (h) is a common resident and 
abundant passage migrant. Summers be- 
tween 2800m and 3660m; fairly common 
in winter below 2135m, and rare up to 
2560m. Breeds in coniferous forests and 
winters in open broadleaved woods and 
secondary scrub. Range Breeds in the 
Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Nepal; 
probably also in Arunachal Pradesh. 
Winters south to Belgaum and Bangla- 
desh. 




pz^iEp: 



J'F'M'A'^J' Jj^A ■ S ■ ■ N ■ D 



Warblers 
RADDE'S WARBLER Phylloscopus schward 

Vagrant. One was found north of Charali 
(Q8) at 150m on 25 December 1979 by R. 
Fairbank (206). The only other records 
are of singles seen at Pokhara on 4 and S 



287 



March 1983 (794) and on 4 March 1986 (55). The species 
frequents undergrowth and bushes in winter. Range Va- 
grant in n.w. India and Nepal. 



DUSKY WARBLER Phylloscopus Juscatus 
Dusky Leaf Warbler 




First recorded by B. Hodgson (391). A 
winter visitor, occasionally seen up to 
1600m. Most birds appear in mid-Octo- 
ber and remain to the end of March. 
Common at Kosi Barrage. Two races 
occur: P. f. weigoldi (w) (234,247), and P. 



-r-r'- 




J'F'M'A'MJ'JA'SO'N D 



/ fuscatus (0 (102,190,647,659). Inhabits bushes, hedges 
and long grass, especially near water. Probably overlooked 
because of its skulking behaviour. Range Winters in the 
Himalayan foothills from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh 
and south to Rajasthan and Bangladesh. 



SMOKY WARBLER Phylloscopus JuJigivenler 
Smoky Willow Warbler 

Subspecies fuligivenler. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(391,798). Mainly an uncommon altitudi- ' 
nal migrant. Breeding behaviour is poorly i 

known. Reported in summer between 
3900m and 5000m: described as common 
and found breeding on Lamjung Himal 
(J5) between 3900m and 4200m in June 
(757,762); also seen between Gapte Cave 
and Gosainkund and noted carrying food 
there in late May (321); seen in Khumbu 
in June and July (48,190,474) and in the 
Barun valley (Q6) in September (590). 
Regularly reported in winter below 915m 
at Sukla Phanta, Phewa Tal, Tamaspur, 
Chitwan, and Kosi Barrage. Noted as high 
as 3200m in November at Barapakhari, 
Lamjung District (J4) (589). Three birds 
at Khaptad (C3) at about 3050m in April 
and May were presumably passage mi- 




grants. Summers in dwarf juniper shrubberies and other low 
bushes above the treeline, and winters in dense under- 
growth near water. Range Breeds in Nepal, n. Sikkim and 
Bhutan. Winters in the adjacent foothills and plains from 
Corbett east to Arunachal Pradesh, and in n.e. India. 



282 



Warblers 



SULPHUR-BELLIED WARBLER Phylloscopus gfiseolus 

Olivaceous Leaf Warbler 



First recorded in Kathmandu by F.M. 
Bailey on 13 April 1938 (62,108). A scarce 
passage migrant and winter visitor. 
Mainly reported in April, presumably on 
passage. Described as common in Bardia 
District (C5) in early April 1972 (9,243). 
Singles were seen below Naudanda (H5) 
on 5 April 1982 (199,294), and at Chitwan 
on 12 and 15 April 1983 (56). The only 
other records are from the lower Lang- 
tang valley on 21 August 1949 (619), and 
at Tamaspur on 4 December 1979 (206). 
Winters in rocky areas. Range Breeds in 
the w. Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to 
Gilgit. Winters in n. Pakistan and n. India. 




in^:; 



' J ' F M " ' mAJ ' -"A " ' S ' ■ N % ' 



TICKELL'S WARBLER Phylloscopus affinis 
Buff-beffied Leaf Warbler (P. subaffmis) 
Buff-throated Warbler 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). Two 
races occur. P. a. arcanus (ar) is a scarce 
winter visitor (659). P. a. affinis (af) is a 
common altitudinal migrant. Mainly 
summers between 3355m and 4880m, and 
winters in the tarai; occasionally also in 
the lower hills up to 1190m. Proved 
breeding in the Langu valley (F2) (330) 
and in Khumbu (190). A common mi- 
grant on the hiUs surrounding the Kath- 
mandu Valley, in March, April and Sep- 
tember (635), and in the upper Kali Gan- 
daki valley in September and October 
(76,526). Occurs in willow and other 
shrubs in summer; bushes and secondary 




J ' F ' M ' A^M ' J J *AS N D 



growth in well-wooded areas in winter. Range Breeds in the 
Himalayas from Gilgit east to Sikkim. Winters in e., n.e. and 
s. India and in Bangladesh. 



CHIFFCHAFF Phylloscopus coltybita 
Brown Leaf Warbler 

Subspecies iristis. First collected by B. 
Hodgson (277). Awinter visitor occasion- 
ally seen up to 1370m. Seen at higher 
altitudes, presumably on passage: near 
Chumo (P6) at 2800m in May (75), Hanga 
Tham at about 2135m in March (549), 
and several reports from the upper Kali 
Gandaki valley between 2560m and 
2800m, from mid-March to mid-April, 
and from late September to early Octo- 
ber. Winters in bushes, secondary growth 
and light forest. Range Winters in Paki- 




m^uz 



JFM'A'M'J'J'A'S'O'N'D' 



Stan, in n. India south to Maharashtra and Bengal, and in 
Bangladesh. 



Warblers/Flycatchers 



283 



GOLDCREST Regulus regutus 



A Hodgson specimen was listed for Nepal 
by Gadow (253,798) but it may have origi- 
nated in India. First definitely recorded 
by H. Stevens on the Singhalila ridge (S7) 
on 25 January 1912 (738). A resident, 
subject to altitudinal movements. Occa- 
sionally found between 2200m and 3050m 
in winter, and up to 4000m in summer. 
Proved breeding at Khumjung (P6) (190). 
The intermediate R r. siUdmensis/hima- 
layensis (hs) and J^ r. sikJdmensis (s) have 
been recorded. Occurs in coniferous 
forest. Range Himalayas from N.W.F.P. 
east to Arunachal Pradesh. 




J F -f A^^M .^» 



STOLICZKA'S TIT-WARBLER Leptopoecile sophiae 
White-browed Tit- Warbler 




Subspecies obscura. First recorded above 
Jomosom in December 1949 at 3600m by 
R.L. Fleming Sr. (647). A resident, occa- 
sionally seen between 2700m and 4575m 




■III III I 



F M^A M J J^5^ SO' 



throughout the year, in the trans-Himalayan region. Found 
in dwarf juniper and Caragana shrubs above the treeline in 
semi-desert areas. Range Tibetan fades north of the Hima- 
layas in Baltistan, Gilgit and Ladakh east to Nepal. 



LARGE NILTAVA Niltava gnmdis 
{Muscicapa grandis) 

Subspecies grandis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A locally distributed resi- 
dent. Occurs between 1525m and 2850m 
and is probably subject to seasonal move- 
ments. One at Ghorepani on 14 March 
1983 is the most westerly record of the 
species (148). Uncommon on An- 
napuma, in the upper Mai valley (R7,S7) 
and on Phulchovi^ in winter, and single 
records from elsewhere. Inhabits dense, 
damp, broadleaved forests, especially 
near streams. Range Himalayas from 
Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India. 




I . ' I II , 



::;=l 



J F M^A ' M ' J ' J^A S N D 



284 



Flycatchers 



SMALL NILTAVA Niltava macgrigoriae 
(Muscicapa macgrigoriae) 

Subspecies macgrigoriae. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (369). A fairly common 
resident subject to altitudinal move- 
ments. Winters between 270m and 
1400m, and summers up to 2200m. Lo- 
cally common north-west of Pokhara 
(H5) and in the Kathmandu Valley and 
surrounding hills. Proved breeding on 
Phulchowki (763,792). Inhabits bushes 
near streams, edges of tracks and clear- 
ings in broadleaved forest. Range Hima- 
layas from Mussoorie east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India. 




RUFOUS-BELLIED NILTAVA Niltava sundam 
Beautiful Niltava (Muscicapa sundam) 





Subspecies sundara. The species was de- 
scribed from Nepal by B. Hodgson (369). 
A common resident subject to altitudinal 
movements. Chiefly winters between 
800m and 1830m, and summers between 
2135m and 3200m. Proved breeding near 



Syabru (L5) (682), at Thodung (N6) (190) and on Phul- 
chowki (792). Frequents bushes and undergrowth in 
broadleaved forests and secondary growth. Range Breeds 
in the Himalayas from Murree east to Arunachal Pradesh, 
and in n.e. India. Winters in the foothills and adjacent plains 
south to Bangladesh. 



PALE-CHINNED FLYCATCHER Cyomis poliogenys 

Brooks' Flycatcher (Muscicapa poliogenys) 



Subspecies poliogenys. Collected by B. 
Hodgson, but confused with Blue- 
throated Flycatcher; the specimens have 
now been correaly identified in the Brit- 
ish Museum (Natural History). A resi- 
dent, mainly seen up to 455m. Found at 
Butwal and Dobhan (G6) in January 1950 
(647), and Tilaurikot woods (G6) in 1978 



(157), the most westerly records for the species. Corrmionat 
Chitwan and north of Sunischare where proved breeding 
(2%r321); also common at Dharan and Tamaspur and occa- 
sionally seen elsewhere. Inhabits bushes and undergrowth 
in broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas from Nepal east 
to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India, Bangladesh and the E. 
Ghats. 



Flycatchers 



285 



PALE-CHINNED FLYCATCHER, cont'd ... 




J ' F M ^' -^ JAJ ft ' 3 ' ■ N ■ D 



PALE BLUE FLYCATCHER Cyomis imicolor 

{Muscicapa unicolor) 

Subspecies unicolor. First recorded at 
Hetaura and Bhimpedi between 4 and 16 
May 1947 by B. Biswas. One of the speci- 
mens was a female with eggs (103). 
Scarce; presumably a resident, subject to 
seasonal altitudinal movements. Little is 
known of its breeding habits. Regularly 
reported from Phewa Tal. The only other 
records are from the Rapti dun (L7) in 
December 1970 (444), south of An- 
napuma (J5) in 1977 (762), upper Arun 
valley in September 1986 (590), Chitwan 
inMarch 1987 (552) and April 1989 (193), 
Godavari in March 1986 (514) and 
Nagarjung (L6) in November 1989 (256). 




1,1 I II ,■!■ ^ , , , U . Iff] 

Found in damp subtropical broadleaved forests. Range 
Himalayas from Garhwal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh. 



BLUE-THROATED FLYCATCHER Cyomis nibeculoides 

Blue-throated Blue Flycatcher {Muscicapa nibeculoides) 

Subspecies rubeculoides. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (369). A partial migrant. 
Mainly a summer visitor between about 
365m and 1500m but noted at 2100m at 
Bigu (N6) (190). Fairly common and 
breeds in the Kathmandu Valley (635). 
Occasionally reported in summer from 
elsewhere. Confirmed breeding at 
Hetaura and Bhimpedi (103). Rarely re- 
corded in winter at locaUties in the lower 
foothills, including Chitwan and north of 
Sunischare. Frequents open forests and 
groves. Range Breeds in the Himalayas 
from Kashmir east to Arunachal Pradesh, 
and in n.e. India and Bangladesh. Winters 
south to s. India. 




J ' F ' M^A ' ,M ' J ■ J ' A^S ■ ■ N ■ D 



286 



Flycatchers 



HILL BLUE FLYCATCHER Cyomis banyumas 

Large-billed Blue Flycatcher (Muscicapa banyumas) 



Subspecies magnimstiis. A Hodgson 
specimen was listed for Nepal by Sharpe 
(714), but it may have originated in India. 
First definitely recorded by D. Lowndes 
who collected one from Thangja, Mar- 
siyangdi valley (J4) at 2590m on 20 Au- 
gust 1950 (512). A male was seen in the 
same valley at about 1250m on 1 May 
1984 (158). These are the most westerty 



records for the species. Found on Makalu Base Camp trek 
(06) at about 3350m on 6 and 11 May 1982 (244) and at 
Nagarjung (L6) on 31 December 1988 and 1 January 1989 
(69). Reported fom Godavari in winter (73,587), but further 
confirmation is desirable. Found in dense humid 
broadleaved forest, especially in ravines. Little is known of 
the attitudinal distribution and seasonal movements of the 
Himalayan population. Range Himalayas from Nepal east 
to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 



TICKELL'S BLUE FLYCATCHER Cyomis tkkelliae 
TickeU's Red-breasted Blue Flycatcher (Muscicapa tickelliae) 



Subspecies tickelliae. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by R.L. 
Fleming Sr. from Butwal at 275m in Feb- 
ruary 1950 (647). Scarce, status and move- 
ments uncertain. Described as fairly 
conunon at Sukla Phanta in winter and 
possibly resident (700), and a resident 
seen occasionally at Bardia (192,432,162). 
The only other reports are from Dhan- 
garhi in December 1952 (647),the eastern 
foothills (08) in April 1975 (293), 
Luxmighat (G6) in March 1978 (157), and 
Chitwan in autumn 1978 (762), in March 
and April 1980 (440,474) and in October 




1986 (135). Inhabits open dry broadleaved forests. Range 
The Indian peninsula east of a line from Kutch to Mus- 
soorie; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



PYGMY BLUE FLYCATCHER Mwsdcapella hodgsoni 





Flycatchers 

PYGMY BLUE FLYCATCHER, cont'd . 



287 



Subspedes hodgsoni. The species was 
described from Nepal by F. Moore, from 
a specimen included in Hodgson's later 
collection (409,798) but it may have origi- 
nated in India. First definitely recorded 
by H . Stevens in the upper Mai valley (S7) 
on 21 March 1912 (739). Scarce and local, 
probably resident. Seasonal altitudinal 
movements are uncertain. Summers be- 
tween 2100m and 3500m, and winters 



between about 305m and 3500m. Found near Ghorepani on 
19 March 1982 (57) and 31 March 1986 (264), the most west- 
erly records of the qjecies. Reported between March and 
October in Manang (762), south of Annapuma CH5) 
(300,559), (J5) (762), below Thare Pati (L5) (141), on 
Phulchowici, in the upper Mai valley (442), and from Go- 
davari ravines and north of Sunischare in winter. Its breed- 
ing habits are little known. Found in dense, damp 
broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 



VERDUER FLYCATCHER Muscicapa thalassma 





fDH^Dt 



J ■ f ■ ^ A ' M ' J ' J ' AAS ■ ' N ■ D ' 



Subspecies thalassina. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A partial migrant; 
common in summer, occasionally seen in 
winter. Mainly a summer visitor between 
1200m and 2625m, and sparsely up to 
3000m. Proved breeding at Khaptad (C3) 
(428), in Langtang (682), in the Kath- 



mandu Valley and on the surrounding hills 
(432,440,629,659), at Bhimpedi (103), and north of 
Dhankuta (Q7) (446). Some birds remain in the tarai and 
foothills up to 350m in winter. Occurs in open forests, 
especialfy of broadleaved trees. Range Breeds in the Hima- 
layas from the Indus valley east to Arunachal Pradesh, and 
in n.e. India. Winters south throughout India and Bangla- 
desh. 



FERRUGINOUS FLYCATCHER Muscicapa fenupnea 
(M. rufilata) 



The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (391,798). Scarce, probabty 
only a summer visitor. Summers between 
2000m and 3300m. Records at lower alti- 
tude are probably of migrants. Seen at 
Lete (H4) at 2440m on 6 May 1981, the 
most westerly record of the species (811). 
Mainly found in the east; localities where 
reported recently include north-west of 
Pokhara (H5) (655,82,111), Khumbu 
(559,463), upper Arun valley (483), Barun 
valley (Q6) (590), upper Mai valley (R7) 
(561), Ham (770) and Hans Pokhari (S8) 
(193,183). Frequents humid, broadleaved 




P^n 



■ J ■ JA* S ■ N ■ D 



forests, especially of oak. Range Himalayas fom Nepal east 
to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 



288 



Flycatchers 



ASIAN SOOTY FLYCATCHER Musdcapa sibirica 

Sooty Flycatcher, Dark-sided Flycatcher 





Subspecies cacabata. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A fairly common summer 
visitor between 2000m and 3300m. Seen 
at lower altitudes on passage. Breeds on 
the north face of Sheopuri (243) and in 



!"| . "P'" ' ' ■ -^... i.'.^ff 



the upper Mai valley (S7) (741). There is a winter record of 
one at Begnas Tal on 27 December 1981 (300). Occurs in 
the canopy of open broadleaved and coniferous forest, or in 
clearings. Range Himalayas from Safed Koh east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India. 



RUFOUS-TAILED FLYCATCHER Musdcapa ruficauda 



First recorded at Kathmandu on 19 April 
1935 by YM. Bailey (62). An uncommon 
summer visitor and passage migrant. 
Summers between 2440m and 3655m. Lo- 
calities include the upper Kali Gandaki 
valley (509), Manangbhot (J4) (512), 
south of Annapuma (J5) (762), and Lang- 
tang (L5>15) (199,682321). Reported 
occasionally on passage in April and May 
in the Kathmandu Valley, and rarely at 
Chitwan in April, September and Octo- 
ber. There are only two records from the 
east (155301,474), and further confirma- 
tion of its occurrence there is desirable. 
Summers in fir, birch and oak forests. 
Range Breeds in the Himalayas from 
Safed Koh east to central Nepal. Winters 
in s.w. India. 




BROWN-BREASTED FLYCATCHER Musdcapa muttui 



Vagrant. First recorded by S. Vyas who 
saw one at Rani Bad, Kathmandu Valley 
at about 1330m on 6 September 1987 
(792). The only other record is of one seen 



at Chatra at about 135m on 4 Oaober 1987 (792). Found in 
thickets near water and in forest undergrowth. Range 
Breeds in n.e. India and possibly in Sikkim; winters in s.w. 
India and Sri Lanka. 



Flycatchers 



289 



ASIAN BROWN FLYCATCHER Muscicapa latimstris 
Brown Flycatcher (M. dammed) 





S\ibspsass latimstris. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). Mainly an uncommon 
passage migrant and summer visitor, rare 
in winter. Breeds between 1000m and 
1550m. Occasionally reported from the 
Kathmandu Valley between April and 
September and found breeding in 
Gaucher forest (243). There are a few 



spring and autumn records, presumably of passage mi- 
grants, from Chitwan, and north of Sunischare, and mainly 
single reports from elsewhere. Noted in winter in the Kath- 
mandu Valley (78,444), at Chitwan (296), and in the eastern 
tarai (P8) (293). Inhabits op)en broadleaved forest. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from Chamba east to Bhutan; also 
in the Vindhya Range, and the W. Ghats. Winters in s. and 
e. India, and Bangladesh. 



SAPPHIRE FLYCATCHER Ficedula sapphim 
Sapphire-headed Flycatcher {Muscicapa sapphim) 



Subspecies sapphim. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by H. Ste- 
vens in the upper Mai valley at about 
2135m on 4 and 11 April 1912 (741). 
Scarce, possibly resident. Subject to alti- 
tudinal movements. Seen in the upper 
Arun vaUey at 2800m in May 1981 (483). 
Found in the eastern lowlands from Janu- 
ary to March: at Chatra (Q8) at 150m in 
1949 (659) and 1974 (518), and in the 
lower Mai valley (R8) in 1961 (246), 1985 
(59) and 1989 (549,307). A male, probably 
on passage, seen at Nagarjung on 31 May 
1982 (540), forms the most westerly rec- 
ord for the species. Reported near Ghan- 
drung (H5) (243), but confirmation of its 
occurrence so far west is desirable. Inhab- 
its damp, evergreen, broadleaved forest. 
Its breeding behaviour is little known. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Bhutan and possibly Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India. 




f I , I ,1 



J ' F ' M '^ M ' JAJ ' A ■ S ■ ■ N D ' 



290 



Flycatchers 



SLATY-BLUE FLYCATCHER 

{Muscicapa leucomelanura) 



Ficeduta tricolor 



Subspedes tricolor. The species was de- 
scribed from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(391,798). A common altitudinal migrant. 
Mainly summers between 3050m and 
4000m. Winters between 160m and 
2135m but most frequently between 245m 
and 1525m. The race F. t. minuta is de- 
scribed as occurring in Nepal (450), but 
no records have been located. Inhabits 
shrubberies above the treeUne in sum- 
mer; bushes, tall grass and forest under- 
growth in winter. Range Himalayas from 
the Indus River east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India. 




ULTRAMARINE FLYCATCHER Ficedula superciliwis 
White-browed blue Flycatcher (Muscicapa superciliaris) 





■ A ' S ' ' N ■ D ■ 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). 
Common. Mainly a summer visitor from 
late February to late October. Found in 
the breeding season between 1800m and 
3200m, but chiefly from 2000m to 2500m. 
Proved breeding on Sheopuri (440,682). 
There are a few winter records up to 



1500m: localities include Dana (H4) (439), Naudanda (H5) 
(309), and the Kathmandu Valley (622). Two intergrading 
races occur: M. s. aestigma (a) and M. s. superciliaris (s). 
Occurs in broadleaved forests, especially of oaks. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from Kohat east to Arunachal 
Pradesh, and in n.e. India. Winters south to Kamataka and 
Bangladesh. 



LITTLE PIED FLYCATCHER 

{Muscicapa westermanni) 

Subspecies collini. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). An uncommon altitudi- 
nal migrant. Summers between 1200m 
and 3000m, and winters between 275m 
and at least 915m. A nest was found in the 
Dhorpatan valley at 2990m (499); seen 
carrying food on 17 May at Thulokobang 



Ficedula westermanni 



(H5) (800) and collected in breeding condition at Chitlang 
(L6) in April (103). There is no other published breeding in- 
formation for this subspecies. Taken at Barmdeo Mandi 
(A3) at 300m in January 1953j the most westerly record of 
the species (647). Range Breeds in the Himalayas from 
Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh, and in n.e. India. Winters 
south to Madhya Pradesh and Bangladesh. 



Flycatchers 

LITTLE PIED FLYCATCHER, cont'd . 



291 




SLATY-BACKED FLYCATCHER Ficeduta hodgsonii 
Rusty-breasted Blue Flycatcher (Muscicapa hodgsonii) 



First recorded by B. Biswas on 20 March 
1947 at 1495m at Thankot, Kathmandu 
Valley (103). A scarce and local altitudi- 
nal migrant. Caught at Phematan, Barun 
valley (Q6) at 3450m before the monsoon 
in 1973 (71). AH other reports are be- 
tween 245m and 2000m in winter and 
early spring. Described as fairly common 
in the Kathmandu Valley during winter 
and early spring in 1955 (635), now a 
scarce but regular visitor to Godavari. A 
few records from north of Sunischare and 
single reports from elsewhere. Found 
below Ghasa on 24 February 1986, the 
most westerly record for the species 
(403). Found in fir forests in summer and 
in damp broadleaved forests in winter. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 




SNOWY-BROWED FLYCATCHER Ficedula hypeiythra 
Rufous-breasted Blue Flycatcher (Muscicapa hypeiythra) 



Subspecies hypeiythra. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). An altitudinal migrant. 
Occasional. Summers between 2000m 
and 2440m, and sometimes up to 3000m. 
Winters between 275m and about 1525m. 
Proved breeding on the hills surrounding 
the Kathmandu Valley (635). Rare at 
Chitwan between September and April 
(296). Found in the lower storey of humid 
broadleaved forests with dense growth. 
Range Himalayas from Kumaon east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 




nm m 



5,0. ^^^W ja' a ^W U 



292 



Flycatchers 



WHIXE-GORGETTED FLYCATCHER Ficedula monikger 

(Muscicapa monileger) 



Subspecies monileger. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(391). Scarce, presumabty resident. An 
adult and a juvenile were found at Lumle 
(H5) at 1550m on 25 July 1973 (814); also 
seen at Ghandrung on 2 November 1979 
(813). These fonn the two westernmost 
records for the species. Altitudinal move- 
ments within Nepal are poorly known. 
Other reports are from Phewa Tal (460), 
south of Annapuma (J5) (762), Sheopuri 
(587), Godavari (647), Kathmandu Val- 
ley (486), Arun valley (441), Barun valley 
(Q6) (588), the upper Mai vaUey (741) 
and north of Sunischare (142). Found in 
dense undergrowth in damp, broadleaved 




JMI 



F M A 



M ' J ■ JAA ' 



forest. Breeding of the race occurring in Nepal is unde- 
scribed but probably is the same as in the eastern race. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India. 



ORANGE-GORGETTED FLYCATCHER Ficedula stmphiata 

Rufous-gorgetted Flycatcher (Muscicapa strophiata) 



Subspecies strophiata. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(369). A common altitudinal migrant. 
Mainly summers between 2440m and 
4000m, and winters between 915m and 
1830m, but seen uncommonly up to 
2135m and down to 245m. Confirmed 
breeding in the Mai vaUey (741) and at 
ChankheU (626). Found in broadleaved 
and coniferous forests. Range Breeds in 
the Himalayas from Kangra east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh, and in n.e. India. Winters 
in the foothills and south to Bangladesh. 




KASHMIR FLYCATCHER Ficedula subrubra 
Kashmir Redbreasted Flycatcher (Muscicapa subrubra) 





| ii .1 I 



I^ 



J ' F M ' A^M ■ J ■ J^A K ■ N ■ D 



t«zo 



Flycatchers 

KASHMIR FLYCATCHER, cont'd . 



293 



First recorded in Kathmandu on 10 April 
1953 by D. Proud (635). A scarce visitor, 
mainly reported on passage in spring. 
Status uncertain. Several reports of 
singles in March and April 1982: at Sau- 
raha (J6) (682), Pashupatinath (199,208), 
Gokama (599), Hetaura (682,770), and 
north of Birtamod (R8) (794). Also re- 
ported in April at Sauraha (J6) in 1985 



(313) and 1986 (403). Only two autumn records: from 
Godavari in October 1970 (444) and Sukipatal (06) in 
November 1973 (441). Found twice in the Kathmandu 
Valley in winter: at Swayambhunath in December 1964 
(589) and at Godavari in February 1980 (523). Frequents 
open broadleaved forest .Range Breeds in the w. Himalayas 
in Kashmir and the Pir Panjal range. Winters in Sri Lanka. 
Vagrant east to Bhutan. 



RED-BREASTED FLYCATCHER Ficedula parva 

Red-throated Flycatcher (Muscicapa parva) 



Subspecies albicilla. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common winter visitor 
from the tarai up to 1830m. Mainly occurs 
between late September and late April in 
the Kathmandu Valley (635), at Chitwan 
(296), and in the eastern tarai and foot- 
hills (P8,Q8) (293). Noted on autumn 
passage: at Tukche, at 2590m, where one 
or two were seen from 4 to 16 September 
1973 (76), and in Langtang at 2320m on 31 
October 1980 (516). Found in bushes, 
groves and scrub at edges of cultivation. 
Range Winters throughout the subconti- 
nent. 




J'FM'A'M'J'J'A'S'ONO 



GREY-HEADED FLYCATCHER Culicicapa ceylonensis 



Suhspeciss pallidior. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A very common partial 
migrant. Summers between 1200m and 
3100m, but most frequent from 1500m to 
2400m. Found breeding in the central 
region (L6) (103,659), at Chitwan (296), 
in the Hongu valley (P6) (109), and north 
of Dhankuta (07) (446). Some birds 
remain in winter from 75m up to 1800m. 
Range Breeds in the Himalayas from the 
Indus valley east to Arunachal Pradesh, 
and in s.w. and c. India. Winters in n. 
Pakistan, much of India, and in Bangla- 
desh. 




294 



Flycatchers 



YELLOW-BELLIED FANTAIL Rhipidura hypaxantha 




,5-' A 




J ■ F M AA« J ' -^A- 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
very common resident, subject to altitudi- 
nal movements. Chiefly summers be- 
tween 2440m and 4000m. Winters be- 
tween 200m and 1800m, but seen occa- 
sionally up to 2560m and down to 760m. 
Proved breeding on Phulchowki (792). 



Noted as low as 245m at Chitwan in February 1981 
(300,656) and December 1986 (325). Found in the lower 
canopy of broadleaved and coniferous forests and shrub- 
beries of birch, fir and rhododendron above the treeline. 
Range Himalayas from the Chenab River east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



WHITE-THROATED FANTAIL Rhipidura albicollis 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common resident up to 1500m, and 
occasionally seen up to 2440m. Usually 
descends from the highest altitudes in 
winter but noted at 2135m in February 
(243). Common at Chitwan where it 
breeds (296); also proved breeding in 
Doti District (C3) (438). Inhabits ravines 
and shady areas in broadleaved forests. 
Although the western race/?, a. canescens 
is given as extending to w. Nepal (47), 
specimens of R. a. albicollis have been 
collected throughout (62,647). Range 
Himalayas from Murree east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India, Bangladesh and 
the Indian peninsula from Mt. Abu south- 
wards. 




J ■ FAM ' A ■ M ■ J J AAS ^ " 



i 



Flycatchers 



295 



WHITE-BROWED FANTAIL Wtipidum aureola 



Subspecies aureola. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409), but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by FJM. 
Bailey from Tribeni (H7) at 75m on 19 
December 1935 (62). Chiefly an uncom- 
mon resident throughout the lowlands up 
to 275m. Occasionally found at Chitwan, 
and single records received from most 
other areas. Frequents undergrowth and 
bushes near the ground, in more open and 
drier forests than White-throated Fantail. 
Range Himalayan foothills from the In- 
dus River east to the Bhutan duars; south 
through most of the subcontinent. 




ASIAN PARADISE FLYCATCHER Terpsiphone pamdisi 

Paradise Flycatcher 



Subspecies leucogaster. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A summer visitor, 
mainly seen from the tarai up to 1525m. 
Noted at 1850m at Yangnam (R7) in 
April (658). There is a winter record of 
one at Soktim (R8) in January (142). A 
common breeder at Chitwan (J6,K6) 
where it occurs from March to October 
(296). Found to be fairly common and 
breeding at Dailekh (D4) in June 1979 
(626). Last century described as breeding 
very commonly in the Kathmandu Valley 
(708), but only a few recent reports, in- 
cluding a pair breeding at Nagaijung in 
July 1987 (792). Chiefly single reports 




from elsewhere. Found in open forests, groves and gardens. 
Range N. Baluchistan, and the Himalayan foothills from 
N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India, Bang;ia- 
desh, and the Indian peninsula from Kathiawar southwards. 



BLACK-NAPED MONARCH Hypolhymis azuma 
Black-naped Flycatcher {Monarcha azurea) 



Subspecies slyani. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A local resident, occa- 
sionally seen in the tarai and lower foot- 
hills up to 365m. Breeding confirmed at 
Chitwan (296) and Hetaura (103). Other 
localities include Sukla Phanta (700), 
Bardia (162), Tamaspur, the central dun 
(K7,L7), and the eastern lowlands, espe- 
cialty north of Sunischare (P8,Q8,R8). 
Found in the middle storey of 
broadleaved forests. Range India south 
and east of a line from Kutch to Dehra 
Dun; Bangladesh. 




296 



Babblers 



PUFF-THROATED BABBLER Pellomeum mfUxps 

Spotted Babbler 



Subspeciesma«(/e//(V. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A resident chiefly occur- 
ring up to 915m; rare up to 1675m. Does 
not appear to move seasonally. Conmion 
at Tamaspur and Chitwan (J6,K6), fairly 
common in the eastern tarai and foothills 
(P8,Q8,R8), and occasionally seen at 
Begnas Tal, Phewa Tal and in the }ower 
Aran valley. Scarce in the Kathmandu 
VaUey (300,635) and few records from the 
west. Inhabits bushy undergrowth of 
broadleaved forests, heavy scrub and sec- 
ondary growth. Range Himalayan foot- 




hills from Kangra east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India, and 
the hills of peninsular India. 



ABBOTTS BABBLER Trichastoma abbotd 

Subspecies abbotti. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by S.D. 
Ripley from Chatra at 150m in February 
1949 (659). A very local resident occur- 
ring between 75m and 275m. Common 
north of Sunischare where the maximum 
of 15 was heard on 24 March 1981 (442). 
Found again at Chatra in 1957 (245). The 
only other records are from Dharan in 
1986 (763), Kosi Tappu in 1987 (328), 
Charkose Ban (89) in 1989 (164), and 
Chitwan in 1978 (762) and 1989 (597), the 
westernmost locality for the species. 
Breeds from April to July. Frequents 




nS^ M ' J I J Aa ' s I o ■ N 



tangled thickets, especially at forest edges along stream 
banks. Range Himalayan foothills from Nepal east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



RUSTY-CHEEKED SCIMITAR-BABBLER Pomatorhinus erythmgenys 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (359). A 
common and sedentary resident, mainly 
seen between 305m and 2135m and occa- 
sionally up to 2440m. Confirmed breed- 
ing on the hills surrounding the Kath- 
mandu VaUey (336,708), at Hetaura and 
Bhimpedi (101), Taplejung (R7) (687), 
and in the Mai valley (ST) (737). The race 
P. e. haringtoni (h) (246,587,737) and in- 
termediates between P. e. erythrogenys 
and P. e. hanngtoni (eh) (62,101,621,647) 
have been collected. Found in thick scrub 
and undergrowth at forest edges, secon- 
dary jungle, bushy hillsides, and bushes at 
field edges. Range Himalayas from the 
Jhelum River east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




Babblers 



297 



WHITE-BROWED SCIMITAR-BABBLER Pomatorhimts schisticeps 

Slaty-headed Scimitar-Babbler (P. horsfieldii) , 

Subspecies schisticeps. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(359,798). A sedentary resident, occasion- 
ally seen between 245m and 915m, and 
rarely up to 1500m. Breeding confirmed 
at Hetaura (78) and Chitwan (296). 
Found in dense scrub, secondary jungle, 
and undergrowth in forests. Range Hima- 
layas from Kangra east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




STREAK-BREASTED SCIMITAR-BABBLER Pomatorhinus mficollis 
Rufous-necked Scimitar-Babbler 



The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (359,798). A fairly common 
resident betweeen 1500m and 2590m, 
which is not known to migrate altitudi- 
naUy. Two intergrading races have been 
recorded: P. r. godwini (g) (246,574,659) 
and P. r. mficollis (r) (62,101,190, 
621,647,708). Inhabits thick undergrowth 
and dense, scrub-covered hillsides. Range 
Himalayas from Kumaon east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




F ■ MA^ M JAJ 



CORAL-BILLED SCIMITAR-BABBLER Pomatorhinus fermpnosus 

Subspecies femiginosus. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later coUeaion (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. The only other report is of a dozen 
sightings from the Arun valley in 1973 
(243). Occurs in dense undergrowth and 
bamboo jungle. Range Himalayas from 
Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India. 




298 



Babblers 



SLENDER-BILLED SCIMITAR-BABBLER Xiphirhynchtts superdliaiis 



Subspecies superciliaris. Although listed 
as obtained in Nepal by B. Hodgson in his 
later collection (409), these specimens 
may have originated in India (716). First 
definitely recorded by H. Stevens from 
Kalipokhari (S7) between 2440m and 
3050m in April and May 1912 (737) . A few 
later reports received from the upper Mai 
valley (S7). A scarce resident which 
probably migrates altitudinally. Found 
near Tirkedhunge (H5) at 1500m on 29 
January 1979 (486,652) and on 10 March 
1981 (476), the westernmost locality for 
the species. The only other records are 
from south of Annapuma (H5,J5), above 
Syabru (L5) (321), below Ghora Tabela 
(L5) (70), on the north face of Sheopuri 




' ? ''n^W J ■ jA» ' i " '" 



(9,243), at Sukipatal (Q6) (10) and in the Barun valley 
(588). Inhabits bamboo and thick undergrowth in damp 
broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



[LONG-BILLED WREN-BABBLER Rimatormalacoptilus 



Subspecies malacoptilus. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409,716) 
but the specimen may have originated in 



India. Inhabits forest undergrowth and dense scrub (46). 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India.] 



GREATER SCALY-BREASTED WREN-BABBLER Pnoepyga albiventer 

Scaly-breasted Wren-Babbler 





The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (391,798). A fairly common 
resident subject to altitudinal move- 
ments. Usually summers between 2440m 
and 4000m. Winters between 275m and 
2285m, but maiiJy between 1000m and 



2440m. Two intergrading races occur: P. a. palUdior (p) 
(647,659) and P. a. albiventer (a) (101, 246,574,647). Inhab- 
its dense undergrowth in damp broadleaved forests, par- 
ticularly near streams and in ravines; also boulder-strewn 
slopes and forest edges. Range Himalayas from Duala Dhar 
east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 



Babblers 



299 



LESSER SCALY-BREASTED WREN-BABBLER Pnoepyga pusUla 
Brown Wren-Babbler, Pygmy Wren-Babbler 



Subspecies pusilla. The species was de- 
scribed from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(391,798). A resident subject to altitudi- 
nal movements. Breeds over a lower 
altitudinal range than the previous spe- 
cies, although their ranges overlap be- 
tween 2440m and 2590m. Occasionally 
seen between 1500m and 2590m in sum- 
mer, and between 915m and 1770m in 
winter; rarely down to 275m. Breeds near 
the rim of Sheopuri (243). Collected at 
Ainthpur (A4) in January 1953 (469), the 
western hmit of its range. Habitat is simi- 
lar to that of Greater Scaly-breasted 
Wren-Babbler. Range Himalayas from 
Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh. 




SPOTTED WREN-BABBLER Spelaeomis formosus 



Scarce, presumably resident. The only 
record is of one heard by R.L. Fleming Jr. 
north-west of Shyaksila Toten, Barun 
valley (Q6) at 1785m on 12 November 



1984 (588,226). Frequents damp rhododendron forest with 
thick ferns and mossy rocks (46). Range Himalayas from e. 
Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangla- 
desh. 



RUFOUS-THROATED WREN-BABBLER Spelaeomis caudatus 
Tailed Wren-Babbler 



Obtained by B. Hodgson in his later col- 
leaion (409) but the specimen may have 
originated in India. First definitely re- 
corded by R.L. Fleming in the upper Mai 
vaUey (S7) at 2195m on 10 March 1961 
(246). Subsequently regularly reported 
from the same area. A scarce and very 
local resident found between 2135m and 
2440m. The only other records are from 
Paniporua (R7) on 18 April 1988 (537), 
and from Shyaksila Toten, Barun valley 
(Q6) on 24 November 1985 (588), the 
most westerly locality of the species. Fre- 
quents damp dense broadleaved forests 
among thick undergrowth and moss-cov- 
ered boulders. Its breeding habits are 
poorly known. Range Himalayas from 
Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh. 




300 



Babblers 



[LONG-TAILED WREN-BABBLER Spelaeomis lonffcmidatus 

Mistakenly listed for Nepal, instead of the 
previous species, by Fleming (234) and 
this error was repeated by Ripley (664).] 



RUFOUS-CAPPED BABBLER Stachyris nificeps 
Red-headed Babbler 



Subspecies rujlceps. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by H. Ste- 
vens who found it breeding commonly in 
the upper Mai valley (S7) in April 1912 
(737). A fairly common resident in the far 
east; possibly subject to altitudinal sea- 
sonal movements. Regularly seen subse- 
quently in the Mai valley, and also the 
Anin valley watershed, probably the 
western limit of its range. Reported as far 
west as Lumle (H4) (814), but further 
evidence of its presence in the area is 
required, as this would be a considerable 
westward extension of its range. A record 




nrr 



J ' F ■ MA* M'J'JAA'S'ON 

from Sheopuri (733) is also not acceptable. Frequents 
bamboo and dense undergrowth in humid, broadleaved for- 
ests. Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Orissa. 



BLACK-CHINNED BABBLER Stachyris pynhops 




The species was described from Nepal by 
E. Blyth from a Hodgson specimen 
(115,798). A resident, fairly common east 
to the Tamur valley; rare further east. A 
sighting in Ham District (R8) in summer 
1989 (658) is the easternmost record for 



the species. Found throughout the year from 245m to 
2440m, but most frequently above 915m. Birds at higher 
altitudes sometimes descend in winter. Proved breeding in 
the Kathmandu Valley (336) and at Chitwan (296). Found 
on the ground, or in low undergrowth, in secondary and 
open forest. Range Himalayas from Murree east to Nepal. 



Babblers 



301 



GOLDEN BABBLER Stachyris chrysaea 
Golden-headed Babbler 



Subspecies chrysaea. The species was de- 
scribed from Nepal by E. Blyth from a 
Hodgson specimen (115,798). Scarce and 
very local, probably resident. Recorded 
between 1800m and 2440m. Several rec- 
ords from south of Annapuma, and also 
from south of Machapuchare (H5), the 



western limit of the species's range. The only other records 
are an undated one from the upper Mai vaUey (S7) (223) 
and from Tashigaon, upper Arun vaUey on 5 September 
1986 (590). Breeds from April to July. Inhabits bamboo and 
dense undergrowth in humid, broadleaved forests. Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh. 



GREY-THROATED BABBLER Stachyris nigriceps 
Black-throated Babbler 



Subspecies nigriceps. The species was de- 
scribed from Nepal by E. Blyth from a 
Hodgson specimen (115). Occasional. A 
local resident subject to some altitudinal 
movements. Chiefly summers between 
1220m and 2000m, and winters between 
245m and at least 1830m. Mainly seen 
east of the Kathmandu VaUey, rare fur- 
ther west. Areas include Phulchowki and 
the Mai VaUey (R8,S7). CoUected at 
Ranibas (G6) at 760m in January 1952 
(647), the western limit of the species's 
range. Confirmed breeding at Chitwan 
(296), Godavari (190) and as early as 12 
March at Bhimpedi (101). Occurs in un- 
dergrowth and bamboo thickets in damp 
broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas 
from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India. 




TAWNY-BELLIED BABBLER Dumetia hyperylhm 
Rufous-bellied Babbler 



Subspecies hyperythra. First recorded at 
Chisapani (C4) at 305m, and at Tikapur 
(C5) at 75m in December 1948, by S.D. 
Ripley (659). He described the species as 
common in the area but it has not been 
reported there subsequently. Scarce, 
probably resident. Found in the tarai 
between 75m and 305m. CoUected at 
Dhangarhi in December 1952 (647); rare 
at Chitwan (296). The only other records 
are of 12 in the eastern tarai (Q8) in 
January 1975 (293) and one north of But- 
wal on 1 August 1978 (159). Inhabits 
thorny scrub and taU grass of the 
lowlands. Range S. Rajasthan east 
through Simla and the Nepal tarai to 
Bangladesh, and south through the pen- 
insula to s. India. 




^ FAM ' A ' M ' J ' J '^A ' SAO « " 



302 



Babblers 



STRIPED TIT-BABBLER Macmnous gulans 
Yellow-breasted Tit-Babbler 

Subspecies rubricapilla. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A resident from the 
tarai up to 760m. Common from central 
areas eastwards, and occasionally seen 
further west. Found at Barmdeo Mandi 
(A3) in January 1953 at 290m (647), and 
at Sukla Phanta in May 1982 (432), the 
western limits of the species's range. Con- 
firmed breeding at Chitwan (296) and 
Hetaura (101). Frequents both open and 
dense broadleaved forests. Range Hima- 
layan foothills from Nepal east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; e. and n.e. India, and 
Bangladesh. 




F ' M^A ' M ■ J ■ J^A SO N D 



CHESTNUT-CAPPED BABBLER Timalia pileata 
Red-capped Babbler 



Subspsdes bengalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A locally common resi- 
dent. Reported at Barmdeo Mandi (A3) 
at 290m in January 1953 (647), the west- 
ernmost record of the species. Frequent 
at Chitwan (J6,K6) where breeding has 
been confirmed (296). A few records 
from Tamaspur, but only single reports 
from elsewhere. Forages amongst taU 
grass, reedbeds, and damp scrub jungle in 
the lowlands. Range Himalayan foothills 
from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




J ' FAM 'A'M'JJ'A'3 O^N ' D ' 



YELLOW-EYED BABBLER Chrysomma sinense 



Subspecies sinense. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A local resident from the 
tarai up to 365m. Fairly common at Chi- 
twan (J6,K6) and occasionally seen at 
Sukla Phanta and Bardia (C4,C5). Only 
single records from elsewhere. Occurs in 
bushes, sugarcane fields, reeds and tall 
grass. Range Throughout most of the 
subcontinent, absent from parts of the 
arid north-west. 




J ■ F ' » ' A ' M^J ' J ' A ■ i N^D ■ 



Babblers 



303 



GREAT PARROTBILL Conostoma aemodium 
(C. oemodium) 

The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (383,798) who coUected it 
from Gosainkund (L5) (336). Uncom- 
mon, probably resident. Occurs between 
27(X)m and 3660m, and shows little, if any, 
seasonal movement. Observed as high as 
3355m in late January (243). Recorded a 
few times at Khaptad (C3) (245,657,428), 
the most westerly records of the species. 
Regularly reported from north-west of 
Pokhara, especially above Ghorepani. 
Other localities where found recently 
include the upper Kali Gandaki valley 
(159,546), Surkhe (P6) (595), upper Arun 
vaUey (10,483,589) and Singhalila ridge 
(S7) (549). Inhabits bamboo. Its breeding 




behaviour is poorly known. Probably under-recorded be- 
cause it tends to remain out of sight in the undergrowth. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Bhutan and probably 
Arunachal Pradesh. 



BROWN PARROTBILL Paradoxomis unicolor 
Brown Suthora 

Subspecies unicolor. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(386). Uncommon and veiy local, proba- 
bly resident. Recorded between 2590m 
and 3050m from October to May. There 
are several reports from the upper Mai 
valley, below Machapuchare, at Pipar, 
and near Ghorepani, the westernmost 
locality for the species. The only other 
records are from the Tinjure ridge (Q7) at 
2895m in February 1949 (659) and from 
Surkhe (P6) in December 1986 (595). Its 
breeding behaviour is little known. A 
female with enlarged ovaries was col- 
lected in the upper Mai valley at 2925m 
onl9 May 1970 (9,243). Inhabitsbamboo. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh. 




■1. '.Mflf^F.TFFT^F^ 



BLACK-BREASTED PARROTBILL Paradoxomis flavimstris 
Gould's Parrotbill 



Subspecies flavirostris. The species was 
described from Nepal by J. Gould from a 
Hodgson specimen (267,798). Although 
not included in the catalogues of 
Hodgson's collections (276,277, 388), a 



specimen was subsequently listed as collected in the Nepal 
tarai (716). TTiere are no later records. Frequents dense 
thickets of reeds, high grass and bamboo, from the plains up 
to 1900m (664). Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



304 



Babblers 



FULVOUS PARROTBILL Pamdaoconus fulvifmns 
Fulvous-fronted Parrotbill, Fulvous-fronted Suthora 



Subspecies fulvifmns. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(388,798). Uncommon and locally distrib- 
uted, probably resident. Not known to 
move altitudinaUy with the seasons. Seen 
above Ghorepani on 2 April 1982 
(199,294); the western Umit of the q)e- 
cies's range. There are a few records from 
the Modi Khola valley (H5), but the only 
other recent reports are from Pipar (499), 
Syabru (L5) (656), between Ghat and 
Kharke (P6) (769), and the upper Arun 
valley (10,483,589). Frequents bamboo. 
Probably breeds in June and July, but its 
nest has still not been found. Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh. 




BLACK-THROATED PARROTBILL Pamdoxomis nipalensis 
Nepal Parrotbill, Orange Suthora 




The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (378,798). A resident, mainly 
found between 2000m and 3000m, but 
noted a few times as low as 1050m near 
Birethante (518,594,142). OccasionaUy 
reported from the Kali Gandaki valley 
eastwards. Only two localities from the 
west: at Chankheli (627) and common at 



Khaptad (657,428). Two races have been recorded: P. n. 
humii (h) (659) and P. n. nipalensis (n) (246,527,647). P. h. 
garhwalensis may occur in the west. Breeding behaviour is 
poorly known. A pair seen copulating in mid-March above 
Ghasa (321). Frequents bamboo and thick undergrowth in 
oak forests. Range Himalayas from Garhwal east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India. 



[RUFOUS-HEADED PARROTBILL Pamdoxomis mficeps 
Greater Red-headed Parrotbill, Red-headed Parrotbill 



Subspecies mficeps. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. There are no other records. Inhabits 



bamboo, dense thickets of reeds and mixed grasses, and 
scrub growth from the plains up to 1400m (664). Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh.] 



Babblers 

SPINY BABBLER Turdoides nipalensis 



305 




The only endemic species of bird in Ne- 
pal. The species was described from 
Nepal by B. Hodgson (359,798). A resi- 
dent, subject to altitudinal movements. 
Found occasionally between 1500m and 
2135m in summer, and between 915m and 
1830m in winter. Regularly seen from 
Pokhara north-westwards (H5) and on 



the hills surrounding the Kathmandu Valley, particularly 
near Tokha Sanitorium. Noted as far east as Ham District 
(R8) (658) and west to Baitidi (A2) (587). It may occur west 
into India, but there are no definite records. Inhabits dense, 
secondary scrub, particularly away from cultivation, where 
the undergrowth is usually thicker. Probably under-re- 
corded as it is difficult to observe, and is more often heard 
than seen. Range Nepal. 



COMMON BABBLER Turdoides caudatus 



Subspecies caudatus. First collected by 
JA. Propst near Nepalganj airport in 
1973 (243) and subsequently found to be 
fairly common in the area (243,464). Very 
locally distributed, probably resident. 
Occurs in the tarai near the Indian bor- 
der. Seen in 1978 in TUaurakot woods 
(G6) (155,157). The only other records 
are from Sanauli (G7) on 21 March 1959 
(230) and near Lumbini (G7) (750). Fre- 
quents dry cultivation and scrub. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent, except 
Orissa, W. Bengal and n.e. India. 




STRIATED BABBLER Turdoides eariei 

Subspecies eariei. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). Resident. Locally com- 
mon in the eastern tarai and dun (P8,Q8), 
particularly on Kosi marshes; also at Chi- 
twan where proved breeding (296). Un- 
common elsewhere. Occurs in tall grass 
and reed-beds in the lowlands. Range The 
plains of the Indus, Ganges, and Brah- 
maputra River systems. 




^^^J^aTT^j ' A ■ s OA" " 



306 



Babblers 



SLENDER-BILLED BABBLER Turdoides longimslris 

The species was described from Nepal by 
F. Moore from a specimen included in B. 
Hodgson's later collection (409,798) but 
it may have originated in India. First defi- 
nitely recorded by T.P. and C. Inskipp 
near Tiger Tops, Chitwan (J6) on 28 April 
1980 (440), Very local, probably resident. 
It is fairly common at Chitwan (296), and 
was probably overlooked previously. 
There are no records from elsewhere. 
Frequents taU grass and reeds, especially 
near water. Usually remains hidden in 
the vegetation. Range From Oudh and 
the Nepal tarai east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




LARGE GREY BABBLER Turdoides malcolmi 



First recorded on the India-Taulihawa 
road (FT) at 105m on 10 August 1978 
(155,157) by J. Cox Jr. Later seen in the 
same area (777), and nearby at Bhairawa 
on 27 January 1982 (770). Locally distrib- 
uted and presumabty resident. Occasion- 
ally found in the tarai near the Indian 
border. The only other records are on 9 
and 11 January 1980 at Kalapani, by the 
Babai Khola near Ghurai (E6,F6) in 
January 1981 (576); from the Babai Khola 
crossing near Gularia (C5) on 22 May 
1982 (432), and near Lumbini (G7) in 
February 1989 (749). Feeds on the ground 
or in low vegetation, in open dry scrub 
country and cultivation. Range India 
from Punjab east to Uttar Pradesh, and 
south to Tamil Nadu. 




:;=1 



'j'f'H'A'M'J'J'A'S'O'N'D' 



JUNGLE BABBLER Turdoides striatus 

Subspecies striatus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A fairly common resident 
mainly occurring between 75m and 
1220m. Found at 1500m in Doti District 
(B3) (68). Not known to move altitudi- 
naUy. Found in gardens, cultivation and 
secondary scrub. Range Throughout 
most of the subcontinent. 



-'V^ 




J fA" 



Babblers 



307 



WHITE-THROATED LAUGHING-THRUSH Ganulax alboguUms 



Subspecies albogularis. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(353). A common resident, subject to alti- 
tudinal movements. Summers chiefly be- 
tween 1800m and 2440m ; occasionally up 
to 3500m. Winters between 1220m and at 
least 2255m. Proved breeding on the hills 
surrounding the B^athmandu Valley 
(708). Inhabits both dense forest and 
open secondary growth. Range Hima- 
layas from Murree east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India. 




pppupi 



WHITE-CRESTED LAUGHING-THRUSH Garrulax leucolophus 




Subspecies leucolophus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A common resident 
occurring mainly between 800m and 
1980m. Uncommon down to 305m, and 
up to 2135m. Possibly shows some sea- 




sonal movements. Confirmed breeding at Godavari (190). 
Frequents broadleaved evergreen forests; also secondary 
growth. Range Himalayas from Chamba east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



LESSER NECKLACED LAUGHING-THRUSH Garrulax monikger 

Necldaced Laughing-thrush 

Subspecies monikger. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(353,798). Mainly an uncommon resident 
from the tarai up to 915m. Found at 
Marek (G6) at 915m in January 1950 
(647), the westernmost record of the spe- 
cies. Localities where regularly reported 
include Begnas Tal, Pokhara, Chitwan 
and north of Sunischare. Only two rec- 
ords from the Kathmandu Valley this 
century (629,652). Occurs in dense 
broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas 
from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




308 



Babblers 



GREATER NECKLACED LAUGHING-THRUSH Ganulax pectomlis 

Large Necklaced Laughing-thrush, Black-gorgetted Laughing-thrush 



Subspecies pectomlis. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(353). A local resident occurring between 
75m and 1220m. A few records at 
Pokhara (208,519,142), the westernmost 
locality for the species. Fairly common 
north of Sunischare, uncommon at Chi- 
twan (J6,K6) and mainly single reports 
from elsewhere. Uncommon near the 
western limit of its range. Only one record 
from the Kathmandu Valley this century 
(629). Found breeding at Hetaura (101). 
Inhabits dense broadleaved forests. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bang- 
ladesh. 




j'fJm'a ■ M ' J ■ J ' A^S ■ N U 



STRIATED LAUGHING-THRUSH Gamdax striatus 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
locally common resident between 1200m 
and 2850m; most frequent between 
1500m and 2750m. Possibly shows some 
altitudinal movements. Regularly seen at 
Khaptad (C3), north-west of Pokhara 
(H5), in Langtang, in the Anin and upper 
Mai valleys, and on Sheopuri and Phul- 
chowki. Two subspecies have been 
recorded: G. s. vibex (v) (101,190,482), 
and G. s. sikkimensis (s) (482,659). Fre- 
quents dense broadleaved forests. Range 
Himalayas from Kulu east to Arunachal 
Pradesh and n.e. India. 



o^Jr^> 




VARIEGATED LAUGHING-THRUSH Ganulax vanegatus 



Subspecies vanegatus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A resident, possibly 
subject to some seasonal movements. 
Occurs between 2100m and 4100m. 
Common in west and central areas east to 
upper Langtang (M5). Scarce in Hel- 
ambu (L5) and further east. Collected at 
Ting Sang La between 3400m and 3500m 
on 3 and 7 May 1962 (190), the most 
easterly records for the species. Proved 
breeding in the Dhorpatan valley (F4,G5) 
(499). Found in coniferous and 
broadleaved forests with thick under- 
growth and rhododendrons above the 
treeline. Range Himalayas from Kohat, 
Chitral and Gilgit east to Nepal. 




Babblers 



309 



RUFOUS-CHINNED LAUGHING-THRUSH Ganulwc mfogularis 




First recorded by B. Hodgson (353). A 
locally distributed resident, possibly mak- 
ing some altitudinal movements. Occa- 
sionally seen between 915m and 1675m; 
rare up to 2135m. Regularly reported 
from Pokhara and hills to the north-west 
(H5); also from hills surrounding the 



Kathmandu Valley. Mainly single reports from elsewhere. 
Confirmed to breed at Bhimpedi (101), and on Jahar Powah 
(L6) (336). Two intergrading races occur: G. r. occidentalis 
(o) (245) and G. r. mfogularis (r) (101,647). Found in 
broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas from Murree east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



SPOTTED LAUGHING-THRUSH Gamdax ocellatus 

White-spotted Laughing-thrush 




First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
locally, fairly common and sedentary resi- 
dent; chiefly found between 2135m and 
3660m. Regularly seen at Khaptad (03), 
Ghorepani, Ghasa, Langtang, and in the 
Arun and upper Mai valleys. Little is 
known of its breeding behaviour. Two 
nests with young were found at Thodung 




J ■ F ■ M ■ A^M J^J ft S ON D 



(N6), at 2850m and 3100m, on 30 May and 3 June 1962 
(190). Also collected in breeding condition at Jiri (N6) and 
Thodung, between 3000m and 3200m in May and June 
(190). Two intergrading races occur: G. o. ffiseicauda (g) 
(246) and G. o. ocellatus (o) (246,621,647,737). Frequents 
open mixed forest with undergrowth, and rhododendron 
shrubberies. Range Himalayas from Garhwal east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh. 



310 



Babblers 



GREY-SIDED LAUGHING-THRUSH Ganulax caerulatus 



Subspecies caerulatus. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(353,798). A locally distributed resident, 
occasionally seen between 1370m and 
2745m. Regularly reported from Phul- 
chowki, the upper Arun valley (Q6) 
(690,590), the eastern hills (Q7,R8) (223), 
and on Sheopuri where proved breeding 
(243). Noted south of Armapuma (J5) at 
about 1500m in June 1977 (762), the most 
westerly record of the species. Inhabits 
dense, humid, broadleaved forests. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Bhutan and probably Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India. 




RUFOUS-NECKED LAUGHING-THRUSH Ganulax mficollis 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (277). A 
very local resident. Fairly common near 
Tiger Tops, Chitwan where breeding has 
been proved (296). The only other rec- 
ords are from Tamaspur, the western 



limit of its range. Found in thick undergrowth in dense, 
broadleaved forest at about 275m. Breeds from March to 
August. Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



STREAKED LAUGHING-THRUSH Ganulax lineatus 



Subspecies setafer or lineatus if setafer is 
considered invalid (647). First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (353,798). A resident, 
subject to some altitudinal movements. 
Common in the Langtang vaUey (L5) and 
further west. Occasionally seen in the 
Kathmandu Valley and eastwards. Sum- 
mers chiefly between 2440m and 3905m, 
and winters from 1065m up to at least 
2745m. Found breeding on the hills sur- 
rounding the Kathmandu VaUey in May 
and June (190^36,708) and at Junbesi 
(P6) (190). Inhabits secondary scrub, for- 
est edges, bushes at roadsides, and edges 
of cultivation. Range Hills of Pakistan, 
and the Himalayas from Chitral east to 
Arunachal Pradesh. 




k 



Babblers 



311 



BLUE-WINGED LAUGHING-THRUSH Ganulax squamatus 



First recorded by B. Hodgson who found 
it breeding in the central region 
(353,414). A scarce resident between 
1220m and 2440m. One was seen at 
Karuwa (H5) on 27 April 1984, the most 
westerly locality for the species (623). 
Other recent reports are from Phul- 
chowki, the lower Marsyangdi Khola (J5) 
(126,142), the upper Aran (10,574), 
Barun (588) and upper Mai valleys (142) 
and Hans Pokhari (S8) (559). Proved 
breeding on Sheopuri (247). Skulks in 
dense undergrowth in humid, 
broadleaved, evergreen forests. Range 




mrir 



Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India. 



SCALY LAUGHING-THRUSH Ganulax subunicolor 

Plain-coloured Laughing-thrush 

Subspecies subunicolor. The species was 
described from Nepal by E. Blyth 
(114,798) from a Hodgson specimen. 
Local, probably resident. Occurs between 
1500m and 3450m, and possibly descends 
from higher levels in winter. Fairly com- 
mon in the upper Arun and upper Mai 
valleys. Occasionally reported from the 
Modi Khola valley and Pipar(H5) Found 
north of Ghasa (H4) at 2075m on 16 May 
1984 (158), the westernmost record for 
the species. Single reports from else- 
where. Frequents thick undergrowth in 
damp, broadleaved, evergreen forests. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh. 




BLACK-FACED LAUGHING-THRUSH Garrulax affrnis 



The species was described from Nepal by 
E. Blyth from a Hodgson specimen 
(114,798). A common resident subject to 
altitudinal movements. Summers mainly 
between 2750m and 4000m, and locally as 
high as 4600m. Descends from hi^er 
levels in winter, occasionally down to 
1830m. Regularly seen west to the upper 
Kali Gandaki valley. Recorded near 
Bundi Pass, Jumla District (E3) on 19 
May 1985 (160), the western limit of the 
species's range. Confirmed breeding in 
Khumbu (190) and Langtang (771). Two 
races occur: G. a. afpnis (a), G. a. bethetae 
(b), and intermediates (ab). Occurs in 
bushes in broadleaved, coniferous and 




mixed forests, and shrubberies above the treeline. Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



312 



Babblers 



CHESTNUT-CROWNED LAUGHING-THRUSH Gamdax ayOvoce^uiius 

Red-headed Laughing-thrush 





F •< aA-^ -• ; 'AS t " " 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common resident subject to altitudinal 
movements. Summers chiefly between 
1800m and 3000m. Mainly winters be- 
tween 1800m and at least 2750m, and 
occasionally down to 1100m. Proved 



breeding in the Kathmandu Valley (101,190). Two races 
occur: G. e. kali (k), G. e. nigrimentum (n) and intermediates 
(kn). Frequents dense undergrowth in broadleaved forests. 
Range Himalayas from Changla Gall and Murree east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 



RED-FACED LIOCICHLA Uocichla phoenicea 

Crimson-winged Laughing-thrush 

Subspecies phoenicea. The species was 
described from Nepal by J. Gould (268), 
probably from a Hodgson specimen. 
Recorded by Hodgson (277), but there 



are no later records. Occurs in dense undergrowth in ever- 
green forests, and at field edges, from 900m to 1800m (46). 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



SILVER-EARED MESLV Leiothrix argentauris 

Subspecies argentauris. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(378,798). Local, probably a sedentary ^ 
resident. Recorded mainly between ' 
365m and 1220m, but occasionally down '■ 

to 205m and up to 1830m. Regularly seen 
in Ham District (R8), but few recent re- 
ports from elsewhere: at Bardia (162), 
near Bandipur (H5) (329), south of An- 
napuma (J5) (762), near Narayanghat 
(J6) (7), Tribeni (Q8) (446) and Hans 
Pokhari (S8) (193). Frequents bushes in 
evergreen broadleaved forests and shady 
ravines. Range Himalayas from Garhwal 
east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and 
Bangladesh. 




Babblers 



313 



RED-BILLED LEIOTHRIX Leiothrix lutea 
Pekin Robin 

Subspecies calipyga. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (378). A fairly common resident 
subject to slight altitudinal movements. 
Occurs mainly between 1220m and 
2440m, but occasionally seen down to 
915m and up to 2745m. Found breeding 
on Sheopuri (414,632). Inhabits thick 
undergrowth and wooded ravines in 
moist broadleaved forests. Range Hima- 
layas from Pakistan, in the Punjab, east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 




FIRE-TAILED MYZORNIS Myzomis pyrrhoura 





I , ,11111111. 



The species was described from Nepal by 
E. Blyth from a Hodgson specimen 
(114,798). A locally distributed resident, 
subject to some altitudinal movements. 
Found between 2135m and 3950m, and 
up to at least 2745m in winter (659). 
Occurs mainly from Langtang (L5) east- 
wards. Noted north-west of Pokhara (H5) 
at about 2000m in early August 1977 
(762), the westernmost record for the 



species. Regularly seen near Gapte cave (L5), and in the 
upper Arun and upper Mai valleys. Its breeding behaviour 
is poorly known. The nest of the species was first described 
from the Gandak-Kosi watershed (L5) at 3660m, where a 
pair was feeding young in late May 1961 (639). Three nests 
under construction were found at Gapte (L5) at 3505m on 
21 May 1982 (294,682). Inhabits mossy forests of juniper 
and rhododendron; aUo bamboo thickets. Range Hima- 
layas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



CUTIA Cutia nipalensis 
Nepal Cutia 

Subspecies nipalensis. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(348). Very locally distributed, probably 
resident. Favours an altitudinal zone of 
2100m to 2300m. Possibly shows some 
altitudinal movements, but noted up to at 
least 2285m in February (647). Found as 



low as 1095m at Birethante in December 1984 (142). Regu- 
larly recorded on Phulchowki; occasionally seen in the 
upper Mai and Modi Khola valleys, but onty two records 
from elsewhere. The nest has not been described. Feeds in 
the canopy of dense oak and on moss-covered trunks in 
humid, broadleaved evergreen forests. Range Himalayas 
from Kumaon east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 



314 

CUTIA, cont'd . 



Babblers 





I ! 1 , 11 



t^^-^Si-T^^-^^W 



BLACK-HEADED SHRIKE-BABBLER Pteruthius rufiventer 

Rufous-bellied Shrike-Babbler f 



First definitely recorded from Nepal by 
R.L. Fleming Sr. at Jiri (N6) at 2500m on 
19 November 1960 (246). Specimens in B. 
Hodgson's later collection have been 
described as Nepalese (409), but may 
have originated in India (276). A scarce 
and local resident, mainly reported be- 
tween 2135m and 2500m. A few reports 
from south of Annapuma, and also south 
of Machapuchare where found up to 
3230m on 23 April 1979 (244). Noted 
twice near Ghandrung (H5) (746,436), 
the most westerly locality for the species. 
The only other records are from the up- 
per Arun valley in 1973 (10,441), Barun 
vaUey (Q6) in 1984 (588), upper Mai val- 
ley (S7) in 1983 (148) and 1989 (307), and 




^1 ■ ^ 



m>XI 



JFM'AMJ'J 



west of Sanam (P7) in 1986 (546). Its seasonal movements 
and breeding habits are unknown. Frequents dense mossy, 
humid, broadleaved evergreen forests. It moves sluggishly 
and is easily overlooked. Range Himalayas from Nepal east 
to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 



WHITE-BROWED SHRIKE-BABBLER Pteruthius flaviscapis 

Red-winged Shrike-Babbler 




Babblers 

WHITE-BROWED SHRIKE-BABBLER, cont'd ... 



315 



Subspecies validirostris. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A fairly common resi- 
dent subject to some altitudinal move- 
ments. Summers chiefly between 1800m 
and 2200m. Winters mainly between 



ISOOm and 2135m, but wanders down to 1200m, and one 
record at 305m at Badalmachi (B4) in December 1952 
(647). Inhabits broadleaved forests, favouring oaks. Range 
Himalayas from Murree east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India. 



GREEN SHRIKE-BABBLER Pteruthius xanthochloris 



The species was described from Nepal by 
J.E. and G.R. Gray from a Hodgson 
specimen (277,798). A resident, occasion- 
ally found between 2135m and at least as 
high as 3050m throughout the year. May 
descend from the higher altitudes in win- 
ter. Regularly reported north-west of 
Pokhara (H4,H5), in Langtang, and on 
the hills surrounding the Kathmandu 
Valley. Two races occur: P. x. occidentalis 
(o) (245), andP.x. xanthochloris (x) (647). 
Frequents broadleaved and coniferous 
forests. Range Himalayas from Murree 
east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 




BLACK-EARED SHRIKE-BABBLER Pteruthius melanotis 

Chestnut-eared Shrike-Babbler 



Subspecies melanotis. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(395). A resident, subject to altitudinal 
movements. Occasional and locally dis- 
tributed. Summers between 1800m and 
2440m, but mainly above 2135m. Winters 
mainly between 1500m and 2000m, but 
recorded at 305m on 12 January 1981 
south of Ham (300). Regularly seen 
north-west of Pokhara (H5), on the hills 
surrounding the Kathmandu Valley, and 
in the upper Arun, Barun and upper Mai 
valleys (R7,S7). Reported a few times 
from Ghorepani, the western limit of the 
species's range. Breeding behaviour is 




little known. Found in humid, broadleaved evergreen 
forests. Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



WHITE-HOODED BABBLER Gampsorhynchus rufulus 
White-headed Shrike-Babbler 



Subspecies rufulus. Scarce. Obtained by 
B. Hodgson in his later collection (409) 
but the specimen may have originated in 
India. First definitely recorded by R.L. 
Fleming who saw one north of Bhadrapur 
(S8) at 600m in February 1965 (247). The 



only other record received is of five seen at Soyang, Ham 
District (R8) at about 1400m on 17 January 1989 (694). 
Occurs in secondary jungle, and in undergrowth of ever- 
green forest (664). Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



316 



Babblers 



RUSTY-FRONTED BARWING Actinodum egertoni 

Spectacled Barwing 




Subspecies egertoni. The species was de- 
scribed by J. Gould from a specimen pre- 
sented by P.G. Egerton from Nepal 
(267,798). Scarce and local, presumably 
resident. Reported between 1785m and 
2255m. Found south of the Lamjung 
Himal (J5) in October 1976 (474) and in 



1977 (762), the most westerly records for the species. Un- 
common in the upper Mai valley. The only other reports are 
from Chitlang in April 1947 (101), Walung forest (06) in 
January 1959 (482), Barun valley (Q6) in 1984 and upper 
Arun valley in 1986 (590). Frequents dense thickets in 
humid, broadleaved evergreen forest. Range Himalayas 
from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 



HOARY BARWING Actinodum nipalensis 

The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (353,798). A fairly common 
resident subject to some altitudinal move- 
ments. Most frequently seen between 
1980m and 3000m, but occasionally up to 
3500m and down to 1500m. Noted up to at 
least 2750m in winter (647). Fairly com- 
mon at Khaptad (C3) (657,428,68), the 
western limit of the species's range. Little 
is known of its breeding behaviour. Col- 
lected in breeding condition between 15 
May and 3 June 1962 at Bigu, Jiri, and 
Thodung (N6), between 2900m and 
3200m (190). Seen nest-building on 
Sheopuri on 16 April 1988 (438) and at 
Kutumsang (L5) at about 2470m on 18 
May 1988 (771). Forages in mossy oak 
and rhododendron forests. Range Hima- 
layas from Nepal east to Bhutan. 



^A'A 




I , iiipi jn 



A ' S ' ' N ' D ' 



Babblers 



317 



BLUE-WINGED MINLA Minla cyanoumptem 



Subspecies cyanouroptera. The species 
was described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(378,798). A fairly common resident, sub- 
ject to some altitudinal movements. Win- 
ters mainly between 1000m and 1830m, 
but occasionally up to 2285m. Summers 
up to 2440m, and rarely to 2750m. Proved 
breeding at Hans Pokhari (S8) (193). 
Found in bushes and tangled under- 
growth in dense forest. Range Himalayas 
from Naini Tal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




J^F M A^i J^J ' A S ' ' N ■ D 



CHESTNUT-TAILED MINLA Minla strigula 

Bar-throated Minla, Bar-throated Siva 

The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (378,798). A common resi- 
dent subject to altitudinal movements. 
Summers chiefly between 2440m and 
3750m. Winters mainly between 1400m 
and 2745m, but noted at 1035m at Bire- 
thante (H5) in February 1982 (770). 
Proved breeding on Sheopuri and Phul- 
chowki (243). Two subspecies occur: M. s. 
simlaensis (si) (247), and M. s. strigula (s). 
Chiefly inhabits broadleaved forests, es- 
pecially of oak. Range Himalayas from 
Kangra east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India. 




(=PiPCt: 



^^^^^^^W 



RED-TAILED MINLA Minla ignotincta 




Subspecies ignotincta. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(378,798). An altitudinal migrant; proba- 
bly resident. Common in the far east, and 
occasionally seen elsewhere. Reported 
from Ghorepani (206,439), the western- 
most locality for the species. Summers 
mainly between 1830m and 3400m, and 



winters between 760m and at least 2285m. Little is known of 
its breeding behaviour. Collected in breeding condition at 
Thodung and Jiri (N6), between 3100m and 3400m, on 24 
and 30 May 1%2 (190). Frequents damp, dense 
broadleaved, evergreen forests, especially of oak. Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh. 



318 



Babblers 



GOLDEN-BREASTED FULVETTA Alcippe chrysods 
Golden-breasted Tit-Babbler 



Subspecies chrysalis. The species was 
described from Nepal by E. Blyth from a 
Hodgson specimen (116). Hodgson found 
it breeding in the central region in May 
and June (414). Its breeding habits have 
not been recorded since. Very local, 
probably resident. Found between 2435m 
and 3050m. Common in the upper Modi 
Khola valley (H5), occasionally seen in 
the upper Mai valley and uncommon 
south of Annapuma. Only two other rec- 
ords received: collected in April 1984 at 
Yanjua Dhoja (R6) (589) and at 
Pahakhola (Q6) in June 1988 (537). 
Noted north of Ghasa on 3 March 1986 
(321), the most westerly record for the 
species. Frequents bamboo. Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India. 




f^V^SflSPj^ A ' S f 0*11 T 



[YELLOW-THROATED FULVETTA Alcippe cinerva 
Dusky-green Tit-Babbler 



Obtained by B.Hodgson in his later col- 
lection (409) but the specimen may have 
originated in India. Reported at Godav- 
ari in April 1948 (629), but confirmation 



of its occurrence there is desirable. No later records. Found 
in deep evergreen forest (47). Range Himalayas from 
Sikkim east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangla- 
desh.] 



RUFOUS-WINGED FULVETTA Alcippe castaneceps 

Chestnut-headed Tit-Babbler 



Subspecies castaneceps. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(378,798). A common resident subject to 
some altitudinal movements. Summers 
mainly between 1825m and 274Sm but 
noted at the particularly high altitude of 
3505m at Gapte cave in May 1982 (682). 
Winters from 1525m up to at least 2745m. 
A few records from the upper Kali Gan- 
daki valley, the western limit of the range 
of the species. Occurs in thick under- 
growth in moist broadleaved forests. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bang- 
ladesh. 




Babblers 



319 



WHITE-BROWED FULVETTA Alcippe vinipectus 
White-browed Tit-Babbler 



The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (378,798). A common resi- 
dent subject to some altitudinal move- 
ments. Summers usually between 2400m 
and 4200m. Winters between 2135m and 
3000m, but rarely down to 1525m. Proved 
breeding at Khaptad (C3) (68), in Lang- 
tang (771), Khumbu (190), and on Nangi 
Danda (L6) (636). Two races occur: A. v. 
vinipectus (v) (62), andy4. v. chumbiensis 
(c) (647). Inhabits bushes in broadleaved 
and coniferous forests, and shrubberies of 
birch, juniper and rhododendron. Range 
Himalayas from Dharmsala east to Bhu- 
tan, and possibly Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India. 




[=PI"WI= 



ffr 



NEPAL FULVETTA Alcippe nipalensis 
Nepal Babbler, Nepal Quaker Babbler 

Subspecies nipalensis. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(378,798). A resident subject to altitudi- 
nal movements. Winters chiefly between 
245m and 1830m, and summers up to 
2285m. Common on the hills surrounding 
the Kathmandu Valley, but uncommon 
elsewhere. Reported from north-west of 
Pokhara (H5), Chitwan (J6,K6) and 
Mechi Zone (R7,R8,S7,S8). Single rec- 
ords from elsewhere. Found breeding on 
Phulchowki (101,629,659), and on 
Sheopuri (243). Noted near 
Narsinghkanda (C4) on 15 November 
1985 (162), the westernmost record of the 




J ■ FAM A ' M ' J ■ JAA ' S ■ N D 



species. Frequents dense undergrowth in damp forests. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



RUFOUS-BACKED SIBLV Hetemphasia atmectans 
Chestnut-backed Sibia 

Subspecies annectans. Scarce, presuma- 
bly resident. First seen near Mai Pokhari 
(R7) at 2135m on 17 and 18 September 
1978 by S. LeClerq, R. DeWitt and R.L. 
Fleming Jr. (178,243). The only other 
records are from the same area near 
Phidim (R7) at 1450m on 10 November 
1978 (155,301) and at Hanga Tham at 
2650m on 27 March 1989 (193). Breeds in 
May and June. Occurs in dense, humid, 
broadleaved evergreen forest (664). 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 




320 



Babblers 



BLACK-CAPPED SIBIA Heterophasia capistrata 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (381). A 
common resident subject to altitudinal 
movements. Chiefly summers between 
1980m and 3000m, and winters between 
1050m and 2750m. Noted at 850m in 
December in Mechi ZU)ne (658) and at 
3400m at Ting Sang La in May (190). 
Proved breeding at Godavari (190). 
Three races occur H. c. capistrata (c) 
(247), H. c. nignceps (n) (101,482, 
619,647,798) and H. c. bayleyi (b) (647). 
Forages in broadleaved forests, especially 
of oaks. Range Himalayas from Murree 
east to Arunachal Pradesh. 




LONG-TAILED SIBIA Hetervphasia picaoides 

Subspecies picaoides. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(381,798). He found it in the tarai and 
lower hiUs (336). Described as tolerably 
common about Nimboatar (L7) in winter 
1877 (708). There are no other confirmed 
records. Frequents forest clearings, and 
open scrub with large trees (47). Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India. 




WHITE-NAPED YUHINA 

Chestnut-headed Yuhina 



Yuhina bakeii 



Obtained by B. Hodgson in his later col- 
lection (409) but the specimen may have 
originated in India. First definitely re- 
corded by R.L. Fleming who collected 
one from Hans Pokhari Danda (S8) at 
1525m on 18 February 1969 (9) and de- 



scribed the species as fairly common (243). The only other 
record is of one seen at the same lo<^ty on 8 April 1989 
(193). Breeds from April to July. Frequents humid ever- 
green forest. Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



Two records of Rufous-vented Yuhina (109,647,659) have been wrongly listed as this species (47,101,664). 



WHISKERED YUHINA Yuhina flavicollis 
YeUow-naped Yuhina 

The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (356,798). A common resi- 
dent subjea to some altitudinal move- 
ments. Summers chiefly between 1830m 
and 2745m, and winters between 800m 
and 2745m. Proved breeding in the cen- 



tral region (414) and on Sheopuri (243). Two races occur Y. 
f. flavicollis (f) (62,101,659), and K / albicollis (a) 
(247,647,659). Found in bushes and lower branches of 
mainly broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas from Hima- 
chal Pradesh east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and 
Bangladesh. 



Babblers 

WHISKERED YUHINA, cont'd . 



321 




STRIPE-THROATED YUHINA Yuhina gularis 



Subspecies gularis. The species was de- 
scribed from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(356,798). A common resident subject to 
altitudinal movements. Summers mainly 
between 2435m and 3700m; winters be- 
tween 1700m and 3050m, rarely down to 
1400m. Breeding behaviour is little 
known. Collected in breeding condition 
between 14 and 27 May 1962 at Bigu and 
Harkhate Gain (N6) between 3200m and 
3300m (141). Inhabits forests of pure 
broadleaves and mixed with conifers. 
Range Himalayas from Garhwal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh and n.e. India. 




RUFOUS-VENTED YUHINA Yuhina occipitalis 



Subspecies occipitalis. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(356,798). A common resident subject to 
altitudinal movements. Summers be- 
tween 2400m and 3600m, most frequently 
between 3050m and 3400m; winters from 
1830m to at least 2745m. Found breeding 
on Nangi Danda (L6) (636), and in the 
Gandak-Kosi watershed (IS) (633). Oc- 
casionally seen in the upper KaU Gandaki 
valley, the western limit of the species's 
range. Records from the west near Rara 
(627) and Jumla (620), which are given in 
the first edition of this book (435), are 
now considered unacceptable. Frequents 
broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas 
from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh. 




F M^A « ' JAJ ^ b ■ N U 



322 



Babblers/Tits 



BLACK-CHINNED YUHINA Yuhina nigrimenta 



Subspecies nigrimenta. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(392,798). Scarce, probably resident. 
Reported between 610m and 1500m. Alti- 
tudinal movements are poorly under- 
stood. Recently recorded from Khaptad 
(C3) (428), Surkhet (D4) (297), south of 
Annapuma (H5,J5) (762,142), the Arun 
valley (Q6,Q7) (10,596,769), Sangure 
ridge (Q8) (293), and below Ham (59). 
Frequents the lower storey of 
broadleaved evergreen forests. Range 
Himalayas from Garhwal east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




nrr 



3;si¥»P 



'n ' Ip ft ' 



fA" a~ J ■ JA^ ' b U ' M 



WHITE-BELLIED YUHINA 

(y. xantholeucd) 



Yuhina zantholeuca 



Subspecies zantholeuca. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(115,798). A local resident, subject to 
large and poorly understood altitudinal 
movements. Recorded between 180m 
and 2285m, mainly below 1650m. Its 
breeding zone is uncertain but most fre- 
quently reported between 1300m and 
1600m. Common in the Kathmandu Val- 
ley, and fairly common at Chitwan 
(J6,K6) where it is possibly resident (296). 
Occasionally seen west to Pokhara Dis- 
trict (H5). Colleaed south of Dan- 
deldhura (B4) on 24 April 1965 (247), the 




most westerly record of the species. Found in clearings and 
forest edges. Range Himalayas fom Nepal east to Bhutan; 
n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



BLACK-BROWED TIT Aegitfialos iouschistos 
Rufous-fronted Tit 

Subspecies iouschistos. The species was 
described from Nepal by E. Blyth from a 
Hodgson specimen (116 ,798). A resident, 
occasionally found between 2590m and 
3700m throughout the year. Three noted 
on Phulchowki at about 2400m on 31 
October 1989, the first for the Kath- 
mandu Valley (256). Collected above 
Dana (H4) at 2590m on 21 December 
1963 (247) and seen between Kalopani 
and Tukche (H4) on 9 December 1984 
(58), the most westerly records of the 
species. The nest was first described in 
Ham District at 2745m in May (243). Also 
confirmed breeding at Ghora Tabela 
(L5) (812) in May, at Thodung (N6) 




(190), near Jaubari (R7) (12) and in the upper Mai valley 
(R7) (704). Frequents the lower storey of broadleaved and 
hemlock forests. Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh. 



Tits 



323 



WHITE-THROATED TIT Aegithatos niveogularis 




| |-.>U.a. ^' . ' a-. s*o^F^ 



First definitely recorded near Jumla in 
mid-May 1952 by O. Polunin (620). 
Probably resident. Found between 2S00m 
and 3550m. Its movements in Nepal are 
poorly understood. Occasionally seen in 
the north-west, including Rara (E2), 
Jumla (E3) and the Dolpo (F3). Common 
in the Langu valley (F2) where proved 
breeding (330). There are three reports 



from Ghorepani: on 12 March 1981 (559), and on 19 and 23 
November 1981 (146); also one from Kalopani (H4) at 
2560m on 19 March 1984 (787). Only one record from 
farther east: a pair at Gosainkund on 3 April 1979 at about 
2750m (474), a considerable range extension for the species. 
Inhabits bushes in mixed birch and coniferous forests, and 
shrubberies near the treeline. Range Himalayas from the 
Kagan valley east to Nepal. 



BLACK-THROATED TIT Aepthalos concmnus 
Red-headed Tit 




J ■ r /s « '^AJ J ' A s N ■ D 



Subspecies iredalei. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). An abundant resident. 
Occurs mainly between 1400m and 2700m 
throughout the year, but occasionally 
found down to 1065m, and up to 3000m. 
Proved breeding at Khaptad (C3) (428), 



north-west of Pokhara (H4,H5) (811), on Phulchowki (440), 
and in Langtang (440). Inhabits broadleaved or mixed 
broadleaved/coniferous forests. Range N. Baluchistan; 
Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India. 



324 



Tits 



YELLOW-BROWED TIT Sylviparus modestus 



Subspecies modestus. The species was 
described from the Himalayas by E. 
Burton (139), the type locality later de- 
fined as Nepal by Baker (64). A resident 
subject to some altitudinal movements. 
Generally fairly common, from the KaU 
Gandaki valley eastwards, and common 
in some areas. Usually summers between 
2135m and 2800m, and occasionally up to 
3250m; winters between 1500m and 
2800m. Noted at 4265m in the Gandak- 
Kosi watershed (732), but confirmation of 
its occurrence at such high altitude is 
desirable. Little is known of its breeding 
habits. The nest was first described from 
Phulchowki at 2380m on 4 May 1968, 
when the parents were feeding young 
(215). Another nest with young was found 
on Phulchowki on 2 May at 2000m 
(510,651). A nest with eggs was discov- 



,5-'"' 




ered on 25 April at 2410m during a trek to Ganesh Himal 
(215). Noted feeding flying young at Khaptad (C3) on 19 
May (428) and carrying food on Phulchowici in mid-May 
(556). Occurs in broadleaved forests and favours oaks. 
Range Himalayas from Kashmir east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India. 



GREY-CRESTED TIT Pants dichrous 
Brown Crested Tit 





Subspecies dichrous. The species was 
described from Nepal by E. Blyth from a 
Hodgson specimen (116 ,798). A resident 
subject to some altitudinal movements. 
Chiefly summers between 2745m and 
4200m, and winters from 2000m up to 



3655m, but seen at 4270m in February in Khumbu (558). 
Proved breeding at Pipar (H5) (800), in the Gandak-Kosi 
watershed (L5) (633), and at Khumjung (P6) (190). Fre- 
quents broadleaved, coniferous and mixed forests. Range 
Himalayas from Kashmir east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



rits 



325 



RUFOUS-NAPED TIT Fanis rufonuchaUs 
Simla Black Tit (P. nibidiventris rufonuchalis) 
Rufous-naped Black Tit 



First definitely recorded by FM. Bailey at 
Tullo Silki (D2) on 6 June 1936 (62). 
Fairly common, probably resident; sub- 
ject to some altitudinal movements. 
Summers between 2700m and 4000m. Its 
winter altitudinal range in Nepal is poorly 
known. Occasionally found in the upper 
Kali Gandaki valley, the eastern limit of 
the species's range. Proved breeding at 
Tukche (528). Frequents coniferous and 
oak/rhododendron forests. Range N. 
Baluchistan; Himalayas from N.W.F.P. 
east to Nepal. 




^ ^OOb J ■ F M A'^TlAJ ■ A ■ S ■ ■ N " 



RUFOUS-VENTED TIT Parus rubidiventris 
Rufous-breasted Black Tit, Rufous-bellied Crested Tit 
Sikkim Black Tit, Rufous-vented Black Tit 




The species was described from Nepal by 
E. BIyth (121). A common resident, sub- 
ject to some altitudinal movements. 
Summers chiefly between 3050m and 
4250m. May descend in winter, occasion- 
ally down to 2135m, but noted as high as 
4270m in February in Khumbu (558). 
Breeding confirmed at Dhorpatan (G5) 
(528), above Tukche (528), in the Gan- 
dak-Kosi watershed (L5) (633), at Tho- 
dung (N6) (528) and at Khumjung (P6) 




S ' ■ N D 



(190). Two races occur: P. r. rubidiventris (r), and P. r. 
beavani (b). It has been suggested that the Bhote Kosi (M6) 
marks the division between the races (528), but beavani has 
been found just west of there in upper Langtang (M5) 
(195,243,509). A specimen of nominate rubidiventris from 
near Jiri (N6) (525) was possibly a stray, and confirmation 
of its occurrence there regularly is needed. Frequents conif- 
erous forests, and mixed conifer and birch forests; also rho- 
dodendron shrubberies. Range Himalayas from Tehri 
Garhwal east to Bhutan and probably to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India. 



326 



Tits 



SPOT-WINGED TIT Poms melanolophus 
Crested Black Tit, Spot-winged Black Tit 

First definitely recorded by O. Polunin 
above Maina (E4) on 6 April 1952 (620). 
A common resident, probably subject to 
altitudinal movements. Summers be- 
tween 2200m and 3700m; wintering alti- 
tudes are poorly known. Found east to the 
Namlang and Langu valleys (F2) 
(447,330) and at Ringmo (F3) where 
proved breeding (528). Hybridises with 
Coal Tit further east (x). Birds showing 
slight introgression with the latter species 
have been found breeding and collected 
near Tarakot (F4), at Thankur (G4) and 
Dhorpatan (G5) (528). Hybrids have also 
been collected near Dhorpatan (G5) 
(528). Sightings of the species as well as 
hybrids have been reported further east 




from Ghorepani (305,476), and in the upper Kali Gandaki 
valley (207,559, 546,480), but confirmation of its occurrence 
in these areas is needed. Favours conifers, but also fre- 
quents mixed forest. Range Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east 
to Nepal. 



COAL TIT Pants ater 

Subspecies aemodius. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388,798). A fairly common 
resident subject to some altitudinal move- 
ments. Summers chiefly between 2800ra 
and 4000m, occasionally down to 2440m 
and up to 4250m. Winters mainly between 
2500m and at least 3050m, but noted at 
4270m in February in Khumbu (P6) (558) 
and rarely down to 1830m. Found breed- 
ing in the Gandak-Kosi watershed (L5) 
(633) and at Thodung (N6) (528). Hybrids 
(x) with Spot-winged Black Tit have been 
collected near Dhorpatan (G5) (528), and 
specimens showing introgression with 



,-5"^ 




that species have been collected near Dhaulagiri (H4) 
(528). Frequents coniferous forests and dwarf junipers 
above the treeline. Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Bhutan. 



GREAT TIT Pants major 
Grey Tit 

Subspecies nipalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (378,798). A common resi- 
dent subject to some altitudinal or local 
movements. Frequent up to 1525m, occa- 
sionally seen up to 1800m, and rare at 
higher elevations. Noted as high as 3050m 
at Rara on 23 June 1979 (626). Proved 
breeding in Doti District (B3,C3) (438) 
and at Chitwan (296). Inhabits open for- 
est, groves, cultivation and gardens; fa- 
vours broadleaved trees. Range N. Balu- 
chistan; Himalayan foothills from 
N.W.F.P. east to AJiinachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh; peninsular India. 




rits 



327 



GREEN-BACKED TIT Parus monticolus 

Subspecies monticolus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A common resident 
subject to altitudinal movements. Fre- 
quent between 1370m and 3100m, and oc- 
casionally seen up to 3660m. Replaces 
Great Tit altitudinally, chiefly breeding 
above 1525m, and wintering below 
2745m. Proved breeding at Khaptad (C3) 
(428), near Dhankhuta (Q7) (446), and in 
the Trisuli valley (L5) (517). Occurs in 
both dense and light forests; prefers 
moister habitat than that occupied by 
Great Tit. Range Himalayas from 
N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India. 




BLACK-LORED TIT Parus xanthogenys 
Yellow-cheeked Tit 

Subspecies xanthogenys. First recorded 
by B.Hodgson (388). A common resident 
subject to altitudinal movements. Breeds 
mainly between 1500m and 2300m, and 
winters between 915m and 2135m. Noted 
at the exceptional altitudes of 75m near 
Simra in January 1981 (309), at 2925m in 
the Dhorpatan valley (G5) in June 1981 
(499) and at 2700m at Kara in July 1989 
(68). Common in the Arun valley; uncom- 
mon further east. Seen with Yellow- 
cheeked Tits at Chisapani (R8) on 14 
January 1989 (307). Breeding confirmed 
at Khaptad (C3) (428), on the hills sur- 
rounding the Kathmandu, Chitlang and 
Markhu valleys (104,517), and at Pati 




pip^m 



Bhanjyang (L6) (771). Found in open forests, groves, and 
edges of dense forest. Range Himalayas from Murree east 
to DarjeeUng; hUls of the Indian peninsula. 



YELLOW-CHEEKED TIT Pants spilonotus 

Black-spotted Yellow Tit 

Subspecies spilonotus. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by H. Ste- 
vens in the upper Mai valley at about 
2400m on 28 March 1912 (737). Uncom- 
mon and very local, probably resident. 
Chiefly recorded between 1980m and 



2440m in the upper Mai valley near Hanga Tham between 
January and April. Two seen with Black-lored Tits at the 
exceptionally low altitude of 450m at Chisapani (R8) on 14 
January 1989 (307). Breeds from the end of March to the 
end of June. Altitudinal movements in Nepal are not 
known. Frequents open oak forests. Range Himalayas from 
Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 



328 



Tits/Nuthatches 



SULTAN TIT Melanochlora suttanea 





' J' ™ mA* ^ J ' -"Aa 



Subspecies sultanea. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson who 
obtained specimens from the lower hills 
(336^78, 798). Scarce, probably resident. 
Described as fairly common in December 
1877 between Hetaura and Nimboatar 
(L7) (708). The only later report from the 
area is one collected at Hetaura on 24 



May 1947 (104). Found at Rupa Tal (J5) in 1977 (587), the 
most westerly record for the q)ecies. Also reported from 
Chatra (Q8) in February 1949 (659), near Shantinagar (S8) 
on 20 February 1%9 (9), north of Sunischare on 17 March 
1982 (794) and a few recent reports from the Churia hills at 
Chitwan (J6,K6) (481,11,67). Frequents broadleaved 
forests. Range Himalayan foothills from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



VELVET-FRONTED NUTHATCH Sitta frontalis 



Subspecies fivntalis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (351). Mainly a fairly common 
resident found between 75m and 2015m, 
most frequent up to 1800m. No altitudinal 
movements have been reported. Com- 
mon at Chitwan where proved breeding 
(296). Inhabits broadleaved forests, espe- 
cially those of sal. Range Himalayas from 
Delu-a Dun east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India and Bangladesh; locally 
throughout the Indian peninsula. 




WHITE-CHEEKED NUTHATCH Sitta Uucopsis 

Subspecies leucopsis. First definitely re- 
corded by the Lulo Khola (F3) at 4575m 
on 30 June 1952 by O. Polunin (620). 
Probably resident. Found between 2745m 
and 4575m. Altitudinal movements in 
Nepal are unknown. Described as fairly 
common in the north-west (243) and as 



common in the Langu valley (F2) (330). Other localities 
include Rara Lake (159,68) and the Dolpo. Singles near 
Tarakot (F4) on 3 June 1973 (589) and on 20 April 1974 
(153) are the most easterly records of the species. Inhabits 
coniferous forests. Range Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to 
Nepal. 



Nuthatches 

WHITE-CHEEKED hfUTHATCH, cont'd . 



329 





I, mill 



l . ' . . „J>"li . s -VW 



WHITE-TAILED NUTHATCH Sitta himalayensis 



Subspedes himalayensis. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (351). A common resident 
subject to some altitudinal movements. 
Occurs chiefly between 1800m and 
3050m. Sometimes descends in winter, 
rarely down to 915m. Confirmed breed- 
ing at Khaptad (C3) (428), Ghorepani 
(82), on the Mamche Danda (L6) (633), 
on Phulchowki (632) and in Mechi Zone 
(R7) (658). Chiefly inhabits broadleaved 
forests. Range Himalayas from Chamba 
east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 




i i^M f< & 1 i k S O'N'D' 



CHESTNUT-BELLIED NUTHATCH Sitta castanea 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common resident from the tarai up to 
1830m. No altitudinal movements have 
been reported. Confirmed breeding in 
Doti District (C3) (438), the Kathmandu 
Valley (517), and at Chitwan (296). Three 
races are recorded: S. c. castanea (ca) 
(247,659), 5. c. almome (a) (190,647), S. c. 
cinnamoventris (ci) (482) and intermedi- 
ates between the two latter races (ac) 
(104). Mainly frequents broadleaved for- 
ests and groves. Range Himalayas from 
Chakrata east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh; locally in n., c, and 
s.w. India. 




J f M^ ' M^J J'A'SO'N'D' 



330 



Nuthatches/Treecreepers 



KASHMIR NUTHATCH Sitta cashminnsis 
Eurasian Nuthatch (S. eumpaea) 

Variously regarded as a subspecies of S. 
europaea (243,664) or S. castanea (784); 
here treated as a separate species pending 
results of further studies. Found between 
2400m and 3505m. First definitely re- 
corded on 12 May 1952 at Sialgari (E3) at 
2895m by O. Polunin (620). Fairly com- 
mon in the north-west, probably resident. 
Altitudinal movements in Nepal are 
poorly known. Found in oak, spruce and 
pine forests. Range N. Baluchistan; 
Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Nepal. 




Tnrr 






A ■ S ■ ■ N ■ D ■ 



WALLCREEPER Tichodroma muraria 

Subspecies nepalensis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). Fairly common. 
Mainly reported in winter when found 
over a wide altitudinal range from 245m 
to over 5000m. Noted at 5730m in 
Khumbu in mid-March 1975 (605). Un- 
common at Chitwan from October to 
March (296). Confirmed breeding in 
Khumbu (190) and in the Dhauligiri area 
(G4) (526). Frequents gorges and cliffs, 
especially above streams. Range Breeds 
in the Himalayas from Safed Koh east to 
Arunachal Pradesh. Winters down to the 
foothills, and in the plains south to Ra- 
jasthan. 




BROWN-THROATED TREECREEPER Certhia discolor 

Sikkim Treecreeper 



Subspecies discolor. A Hodgson speci- 
men was listed for Nepal by Gadow (253) 
but it may have originated in India. First 
definitely recorded by S.D. Ripley at 
Godavari in November 1948 (659). A 
resident subject to some altitudinal move- 
ments. Summers chiefly between 2000m 
and 2750m, occasionally up to 3050m. 
Sometimes descends in winter down to 
1800m, but has been found at 3050m in 
December (243). One collected at the 
exceptionally low altitude of 305m at 
Badalmachi (B4) in December 1952 (647) 
is the most westerly record of the species. 
Fairly common on Phulchowld, uncom- 
mon elsewhere. Breeding habits are 
poorly known. Taken in breeding condi- 
tion at Godavari at 2000m on 9 March 




1962 (190). Frequents broadleaved forests. The four Nepal- 
ese treecreepers all occur in the central Himalayas 
(H4,H5). Each species has been found to inhabit different 
overlapping altitudinal belts and forest formations (533). 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India. 



Treecreepers 



331 



BAR-TAILED TREECREEPER Certhia himalayana 
Himalayan Treecreeper 



Subspecies himalayana. A Hodgson 
specimen was listed for Nepal by Gadow 
(253) but it may have originated in India. 
First definitely colleaed by S.D. Ripley at 
the exceptionally low altitude of 75m at 
Tikapur (C5) in December 1948 (659). A 
fairly common resident subject to some 
altitudinal movements. Summers mainly 
between 2900m and 3660m; in winter 
sometimes descends to 1800m, and occa- 
sionally down to 305m. Regularly re- 
ported east to the upper Kali Gandaki 
valley. Four were seen below Pisang (J4) 
on 28 March 1985 (451); the most easterly 
record in the Himalayas. A nest was 
found on 9 April 1974 in the Pehna Khola 
vaUey (F4) (153). Noted feedingyoung on 
8 May 1988 at Khaptad at 3050m (C3) 




(428), and carrying nest material on 9 May 1985 at 2740m 
near Bumra(E3) (163). Breeding behaviour for this subspe- 
cies was previously unrecorded. Frequents coniferous and 
rhododendron forests. Range N. Baluchistan, and the 
Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Nepal. 



RUSTY-FLANKED TREECREEPER Certhia nipalensis 

Nepal Treecreeper 





The species was described from Nepal by 
E. BIyth from a Hodgson specimen 
(798,118). A fairly common resident, sub- 
jea to some altitudinal movements. 
Summers chiefly between 2550m and 
3660m, and winters between 1830m and 
at least 3505m. Breeding behaviour is 
poorly known. A nest was foundon4May 



1970 at Dhorpatan (G5) at 3400m (527); seen feeding young 
on 21 May 1982 at Gapte cave (L5) at 3505m (199); and 
flying inandoutofa crevice in an oak in the upper Langtang 
valley on 30 April 1982 (517). Taken in breeding condition 
at Ting Sang La (N6) between 3000m and 3400m on 7 May 
and 2 June 1%2 (190). Inhabits oak, also mixed coniferous 
and broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas from Kumaon 
east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



332 



Treecreepers/Sunbirds 



EURASIAN TREECREEPER Certhia famiUaris 
Northern Treecreeper, Common Treecreeper 



Subspecies mandellii. First definitely re- 
corded at Chilung Pati (L5) at 2895m on 9 
September 1935 by F.M. BaUey (62). A 
fairly common resident, subject to some 
altitudinal movements. Mainly summers 
between 3000m and 4100m, and winters 
from 2000m up to at least 3655m. Breed- 
ing behaviour of this subspecies is little 
known. Observed nest-building on 19 
April 1952 in an old fir stump at Punga 
Lekh (D3) at 3355m (620). Juveniles col- 
lected at 3950m and 4200m in Khumbu in 
late June 1962, were found to be inde- 
pendent (190). Seen feeding young in a 
nest hole at 3250m on Dori Lekh (E3) on 
9 May 1985 (163), and one recently 




fledged young bird was seen at 2800m at Khaptad (C3) on 
21 May 1988 (428). Occurs in coniferous and birch forests. 
Range Himalayas from Gilgit east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



FIRE-CAPPED TIT Cephalopyrus flammiceps 

A specimen listed as "Nepal Purchased", 
but with no other details is the first notice 
of the species (253). First definitely re- 
corded by J. Martens from Myandi Khola, 
Muri (G4) at 2100m on 26 March 1970 
(527). Status in Nepal is uncertain; a 
scarce resident but also a very uncommon 
and erratic visitor. Proved breeding at 
Khaptad (C3) with flying young seen in 
May (657,428). Mainly recorded between 
2135m and 3000m. Several recent reports 
from the upper Kali Gandaki valley in 
March and April, and a few from the 
Kathmandu Valley and surrounding hills 
between January and March. An influx in 
1982 from February to May: in the Kath- 
mandu Valley (73), Khumbu (599), 
Syabru (L5) (199), and in the upper Kali 




I ,i ,1 1 111 



Gandaki valley with a maximum of over 12 near Lete (703). 
Single records from elsewhere. Two races have been 
recorded: C. / flammiceps (664) and C. / oKvaceus 
(253,664,789). Frequents broadleaved and mixed forests, 
favouring maples. Range Himalayas from Gilgit east to 
Bhutan. 



RUBY-CHEEKED SUNBIRD Anthr^ptes singalensis 
Rubycheek 



Subspecies rubinigenlis. First recorded at 
Chatra in February 1949 by S.D. Ripley 
(659). Very locally distributed, probably 
resident. Uncommon north of Sunischare 
and rare at Chitwan (296), the most west- 
erly locality for the species. Described as 
unconunon in the eastern tarai in 1976 
(293). The only other records are from 
near Dharan on 8 February 1969 (9) and 
Hetaura on 9 October 1970 (444,450). 
Breeds from mid-March to June. Re- 
ported up to 455m in open forests or 
forest clearings; favours evergreens. 




Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



Sunbirds 



333 



PURPLE SUNBIRD Nectarinia asiadca 

Subspecies asiatica. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (366). A resident, common 
from the tarai up to at least 365m, mainly 
a summer visitor above 900m. In the 
Kathmandu Valley chiefly occurs be- 
tween June and mid-November, with a 
few overwintering. Confirmed breeding 
in the Kathmandu Valley (708), and at 
Chitwan (296). Found in flowering shrubs 
and trees in open forests and gardens. 
Range Throughout the subcontinent. 




\^ ^^' 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



MRS GOULD'S SUNBIRD Aethopyga gouldiae 

Subspecies gouldiae. A Hodgson speci- 
men was listed for Nepal by Gadow (254) 
but it may have originated in India, first 
definitely recorded by FM. Bailey at 
Kodari (M6) on 27 May 1937 (62). An 
uncommon resident, subject to altitudlnal 
movements. Summers chiefly between 
2500m and 3655m, and winters between 
1830m and at least 2700m. Breeding con- 
firmed above Dhunche(L5) (195). Regu- 
larly seen north-west of Pokhara 
(H4,H5), in Langtang, the upper Mai 
valley (S7) and on Phulchowld. Frequents 
rhododendrons in oak and coniferous 
forests. Range Himalayas from the Sutlej 
valley east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh. 




GREEN-TAILED SUNBIRD Aethopyga nipalensis 
Nepal Sunbird 



The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (366,798). A common resi- 
dent subject to altitudinal movements. 
Summers chiefly between 1830m and 
3000m, occasionally up to 3505m. Mainly 
winters between 915m and 2745m but 
collected as low as 305m at Tan (N8) in 
December 1953 (647). Two intergrading 
races occur: A. n. horsfieldi (h) (647,659), 
A. n. nipalensis (n) (104,190,512, 
647,659,741) and intermediates (hn) 
(647). Found in oak and rhododendron 
and mixed broadleaved forests. Range 
Himalayas from Mussoorie east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




334 



Sunbirds 



BLACK-THROATED SUNBIRD Aethopyga saturata 
Black-breasted Sunbird 




Subspecies saturata. The species was de- 
scribed from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(366,798). A resident, subject to some 
altitudinal movements. Occasionally 
found between 1000m and 1830m, and up 
to 2200m in summer. Descends from 



higher levels in the coldest weather, infrequently down to 
305m. Confirmed breeding in the Chitlang vaUey (L6) 
(104). Inhabits flowering bushes in open forests, and the 
edges of dense forest. Range Himalayas from Murree east 
to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



CRIMSON SUNBIRD Aethopyga sipamja 
Scarlet-breasted Sunbird, Yellow-backed Sunbird 

Subspecies seheriae. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (366). A resident, subject to 
some altitudinal movements. Fairty com- 
mon up to 915m, occasionally seen up to 
1200m, and scarce up to 1800m. With- 
draws from higher levels in cold weather. 
Confirmed breeding at Amlekghanj (K7) 
(104), andChitwan (296). Found in flow- 
ering shrubs in light forests, groves and 
gardens. Range Himalayas from Kangra 
east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and 
Bangladesh; hills of the n.e. peninsula and 
W. Ghats. 




FIRE-TAILED SUNBIRD Aethopyga ignicauda 
Fire-tailed YeUow-backed Sunbird 

Subspecies ignicauda. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(366,798). A fairly common resident sub- 
ject to altitudinal movements. Summers 
at higher altitudes than Green-tailed 
Sunbird, mainly between 3000m and 
4000m. Winters chiefly between 1050m 
and 2135m, but has been found up to 
2895m. Proved breeding at Gosainkund 
(L5) (771). Inhabits rhododendron 
bushes above the treehne and open conif- 
erous forest. Range Himalayas from 
Garhwal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh. 




Spiderhunters/Flowerpeckers 



335 



LITTLE SPIDERHUNTER Amchnothem longirostm 



Subspecies longirostm. First recorded at 
Kankaimukh near the Mechi River (S8) 
at 150m on 21 February 1961 by R.L. 
Fleming Sr. (234,246). Scarce and very 
local, probably resident. Subsequently 
found north of Sunischare (R8) (243) 
including one on 16 November 1978 (155) 



and three in mid- January 1989 (307). A scarce resident at 
Chitwan, near Tiger Tops (296), the most westerly record of 
the species. Breeds from March to September. Frequents 
wild bananas in damp broadleaved evergreen forests along 
streams, between 75m and 305m. Range Himalayas from 
Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangla- 
desh; W. and B. Ghats. 



STREAKED SPIDERHUNTER Amcfutothem magna 



Subspecies magna. The species was de- 
scribed from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(366,798). Probably resident, locally dis- 
tributed. Mainly found in the tarai and 
lower hiUs up to 450m, but two were 
trapped at 2135m in the Arun valley 
(243). Fairly common north of Sunischare 
and uncommon elsewhere. Found at Chi- 
twan, the most westerly locality of the 
species this century. Inhabits broadleaved 
evergreen forests with dense under- 
growth, favouring wild bananas. Usually 
feeds in the canopy. Range Himalayas in 
the Sutlej vaUey (not since 1868), and 
from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




THICK-BILLED FLOWERPECKER Dicaeum agile 



Subspecies agile. First recorded by J. 
Scully in July and August (1876 or 1877) 
in the Kathmandu Valley (708). A resi- 
dent below 800m, mainly a summer visitor 
at higher elevations. Occasionally seen in 
the Kathmandu Valley up to 2135m be- 
tween May and October, and at Sukla 
Phanta where breeding has been con- 
firmed (432). Uncommon elsewhere. 
Inhabits broadleaved forests and groves. 
Range Himalayan foothills from Raw- 
alpindi east to Arunachal Pradesh, and 
south to Kerala and Bangladesh. 




^J ' F ' M ■ A ' M ' jA^ a S N U 



336 



Flowerpeckers 



YELLOW-VENTED FLOWERPECKER Dicaeum duysonheum 



Subspecies chrysochlore . Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by R.L. 
Fleming Jr. in 1974 near Dhankuta along 
theTamur River (08) at 245m (216,243). 
Scarce and veiy local, probably resident. 



Reported from north of Sunischare: in March and April in 
1977 (178), 1981 (559), 1982 (207,561) and 1987 (205). The 
only other records are from Chitwan in March in 1985 and 
1989 (67), the western limit of the species's range. Breeds 
from April to July. Seen in mistletoes in open forests and 
forest edges. Range Himalayan foothills from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



YELLOW-BELLIED FLOWERPECKER Dicaeum melanaxanthum 

f 




cA 



The species was described from Nepal by 
E. Blyth from a Hodgson specimen 
(114,798). Locally distributed, probably 
resident. Seasonal movements are poorly 
understood. Found between 2400m and 
3000m in summer, and from 1050m to at 




least 1550m in winter. Occasionally seen in the Kathmandu 
Valley and surrounding hiUs in winter, uncommon else- 
where. Breeding behaviour is unknown. Frequents flower- 
ing and fruiting trees in open broadleaved forest and forest 
clearings. Range Himalayas from Almora east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India. 



PALE-BILLED FLOWERPECKER Dicaeum erythroihynchos 

Tickell's Flowerpecker 



Subspecies erythrorliynchos. First re- 
corded by B. Hodgson (388). A resident, 
occasionally found throughout the tarai 
and lower foothills up to 305m. Sight 
records from the Kathmandu Valley at 
1400m in summer (50,629,664,814) are 
unacceptable. The species is easily con- 
fused with Plain Flowerpecker, particu- 
larly the immatures which all have pale 
bills. Inhabits groves and open 
broadleaved forest. Range Himalayas 
from Dharmsala east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh; In- 
dian peninsula. 




Flowerpeckers 



337 



PLAIN FLOWERPECKER Dicaeum concolor 

Plain-coloured Flowerpecker 

Subspecies olivaceum. A Hodgson speci- 
men was listed for Nepal by Sharpe (717) 
but it may have originated in India. First 
definitely recorded by S.D. Ripley at 
Nagarjung (L6) in April 1947 (659). Lo- 
cally distributed, presumably resident. 
Occurs mainly between 305m and 1525m. 
Noted as high as 2500m above the Trisuli 
valley (L5) on 31 October 1980 (516). 
Fairly common north of Sunischare, and 
in the Kathmandu Valley from mid- 
March to the end of September (635), but 
uncommon elsewhere. Proved breeding 
at Tumlingtar (07) (546). Found in 
broadleaved forest edges and groves. 
Range Himalayas from Nepal east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bang- 
ladesh; s.w. India. 




FIRE-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER Dicaeum ignipeclus 

Buff-bellied Flowerpecker 



Subspecies ignipectus. The species was 
described from Nepal by E. Blyth from a 
Hodgson specimen (114,798). A common 
resident subject to altitudinal move- 
ments. Summers mainly between 1830m 
and 2700m, and winters between 915m 
and 2285m. A scarce winter visitor to 
Chitwan. Proved breeding in the Chitlang 
valley (L6) and Kathmandu Valley (104). 
Frequents broadleaved forests. Range 
Himalayas from Kashmir east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India. 



.1-^ 




SCARLET-BACKED FLOWERPECKER Dicaeum cruentatum 



Subspecies cruentatum. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (315) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded from Ham 
District (R8) at the exceptionally high 
altitude of 2135m (undated) (223,243). 
Scarce and very local, probably resident. 



The only other record is of a male and two females seen at 
Dharan at 305m on 21 April 1979 (651,652). These are the 
westernmost records of the species. Breeds from April to 
August. Frequents broadleaved forests. Range Himalayan 
foothills from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India 
and Bangladesh. 



338 



White-eye/Orioles 



ORIENTAL WHITE-EYE Zosterops palpebmsus 

White-eye, Indian White-eye 



Suhspsdes palpebmsus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A very common resi- 
dent, subject to some altitudinal move- 
ments. Occurs up to 1370m throughout 
the year; probably only a summer visitor 
at higher altitudes up to 2440m. Breeding 
confirmed at Chitwan (296,432) and in 
the Kathmandu Valley (629,708). Inhab- 
its undergrowth in open forests, groves 
and gardens. Range Throughout the sub- 
continent, except parts of the extreme 
north-west. 




MAROON ORIOLE Oriolus IraillU 




Subspecies tmillii. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (348). A locally fairly common 
resident, subject to some seasonal move- 
ments. Regularly seen on the lulls sur- 
rounding the Kathmandu Valley, north- 
west of Pokhara (H5) and at Khaptad 
(C3) (428); few reports from elsewhere. 



Summers mainly between 1500m and 2440m, and winters 
between 1200m and 1800m. Noted at Chitwan in November 
1981 (296). Breeding confirmed at Bhimpedi (105). Inhab- 
its dense broadleaved forests. Range Himalayas from 
Himachal Pradesh east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e India 
and Bangladesh. 



BLACK-HOODED ORIOLE 

Black-headed Oriole 



Oriolus xanthomus 



Subspecies xa«rtomuj. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A resident, subject to 
local seasonal movements. Common in 
the tarai and lower foothills below 365m, 
uncommon up to 915m, and rare at higher 
altitudes. A straggler to the Kathmandu 
Valley (240). Breeding confirmed at Chi- 
twan (296) and Hetaura (105). Inhabits 
open broadleaved forests and groves. 
Range Himalayas from Himachal 
Pradesh east to Arunachal Pradesh, and 
south to Kerala, Kutch and Bangladesh. 



.^-^ 




Orioles/Shrikes 



339 



SLENDER-BILLED ORIOLE Oriolus tenmmsOis 
Black-naped Oriole (O. chinensis) 



First recorded by J. Scully on 1 February 
1877 in the Kathmandu VaUey (708). He 
found it to be fairly common in the Valley 
from October to March, but it has only 
been recorded a few times subsequently, 
between January and April (222,243, 
301,629). Scarce. Status is uncertain, 
probably a winter visitor. Other recent 
confirmed records are from north of 
Dhumre (J5) (652), Chitwan (151,296), 
Dharan (628), Hetaura (262), Tumlingtar 
(Q7) (574,587), upper Mai valley (R7) 
(321), Kosi Tappu (408) and north of 
Sunischare (658,549). Found in trees in 
open country and groves. Range Breeds 




in the Himalayas from Bhutan east to Arunachal Pradesh 
and in Meghalaya. Winters west to Nepal and Bombay, and 
south to Kanyakumari. 



EURASLVN GOLDEN ORIOLE Oriolus oriolus 
Golden Oriole 



Subspecies hmdoo. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A summer visitor from 
the tarai up to 1830m. Common at Chi- 
twan from March to October (296), occa- 
sionally seen elsewhere. Found in the 
Kathmandu Valley and surrounding hills 
between mid-April and the end of No- 
vember (629,635). Breeding confirmed in 
the VaUey (629) and near Dhankhuta 
(Q7) (446). Inhabits groves, trees at the 
edges of cultivation, and open wooded 
country. Range Breeds in Pakistan, in the 
Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Nepal, 




nunr 



,0b ■ J ' F ■ M^A M J J ' AA5 ON D ' 



and south to Kamataka. Winters throughout the peninsula 
east to Bengal. 



BROWN SHRIKE Lanius cristatus 

Subspecies cristatus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (375). A winter visitor and pas- 
sage migrant, occurring mainly below 
1525m. Fairly common from central 
Nepal (K7,L6) eastwards, uncommon 
further west. One seen at Syang (H4) at 
about 2700m on 29 January 1983 showed 
the characters of lucionensis (748). 
Noted, presumably on passage: in the 
upper Kali Gandaki valley at 2560m from 
13 September to 5 October 1973 (76), and 
in mid-March 1982 (207); also at Tamga 
(P6) at 4000m in mid-October 1970 (526), 
and between Khinza and Those (N6) at 
2700m on 3 May 1982 (207). Frequents 
open forest, forest clearings and edges. 




J'F'M'A'M'JJ'ASOMD 



secondary scrub, and hillsides with scattered bushes. Range 
Winters throughout the subcontinent, except parts of the 
north-west. 



340 



Shrikes 



ISABELLINE SHRIKE Lanius isabeUinus 
Pale Brown Shrike (L. coHurio isabeUinus) 

Subspecies isabeUinus. First recorded by 
J. Scully who collected a specimen on 15 
August 1875 which is held in the British 
Museum (Natural History). The speci- 
men is not listed by Gadow (253) or by 
Scully (708). Vagrant. The only other 



records are of singles seen at Meghauli (J6) on 28 Decem- 
ber 1984 and at Sunischare on 28 January 1985 (142); also at 
Kosi Barrage on 30 January 1987, and photographed at 
Phewa Tal on 3 March 1986 (55). Frequents dry open scrub 
country. Range Winters in Pakistan and n.w. India. 



BAY-BACKED SHRIKE Lanius vittatus 

Subspecies vittatus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). Mainly an uncommon 
winter visitor and passage migrant, but 
regular sightings in summer and winter at 
Surkhet (D4) (244). Winters chiefly be- 
tween 75m and 335m. Singles noted, pre- 
sumably on passage, at Marpha at 2600m 
in September 1973 (76), at Kagbeni at 
2810m in April 1982 (812), and north of 
Manang (J4) at the exceptionally high 
altitude of 3965m in July 1988 (194). In- 
habits open, dry bushy areas, and edges of 
cultivation. Range Pakistan and India 
from the w. Himalayan foothills, east 
to Bengal and south to s. India. 




j'f'm'a'^)'J'J'A'S'OND' 



LONG-TAILED SHRIKE Lanius schach 
Black-headed Shrike, Rufous-backed Shrike 





J ' F M ' A^M i J A SON D 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (375,798). 
Common. Mainly resident, subject to alti- 
tudinal movements. Summers up to 
3100m, chiefly between 1500m and 
2700m. Some birds remain to winter in 
the foothills and tarai, others move south 
to India. Two intergrading races occur. 
The Black-headed Shrike L. s. tricolor (t) 
occurs chiefly in central areas (L5,L6), 
and eastwards. Proved breeding in the 
Gandak-Kosi watershed (L6) (230), in 
the Kathmandu Valley and on the sur- 
rounding hills (629,659,708), at low alti- 



tude at Chitwan (296) and near Dhankuta (Q7) (446). Oc- 
casionally reported in winter in the west 
(62,153,620,627,647) but these birds may be intermediates 
between this race and the Rufous-backed Shrike L. s. 
erythronotus (e). Introgression is apparent in the Kath- 
mandu Valley (88), but both intermediates (te) and pure 
erythronotus are common in the Kali Gandaki valley and 
westwards. A birds of each race was observed behaving as a 
pair near Jomosom on 12 April 1982 (812). The numbers of 
erythronotus are probably increased by winter visitors. The 
species inhabits lightly wooded areas and bushes in open 
country. Range Throughout the subcontinent. 



Shrikes/Drongos 



341 



GREY-BACKED SHRIKE Lanius tephronotus 
Tibetan Shrike 



Subspecies tephronotus. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (375). A fairly common alti- 
tudinal migrant. Summers chiefly be- 
tween 2745m and 4575m; winters mainly 
from 275m up to at least 2560m, infre- 
quently below 365m. In the Kathmandu 
Valley chiefly seen from October to 
March. Frequents open bushy areas and 
edges of cultivation. Range Breeds in the 
Himalayas from Baltistan east to Anin- 
achal Pradesh. Winters in the foothills 
and south to the plains of n. and n.e. 
India. 




GREAT GREY SHRIKE Laniits excubitor 
Grey Shrike 

Subspecies /oAwra. First collected by H.S. 
Nepali near Gauhna village (C5) on 8 
February 1969 (591). A locaUy distributed 
resident in the tarai near the Indian bor- 
der. Fairly common in Kapilvastu District 
especially near Bhairawa (F6,G6) (7,155, 
444). Uncommon near Kosi Barrage and 
Kosi Tappu (P8,Q8,R8), and elsewhere in 
the far south-east tarai (Q9,R9) (293). 
Only single records from other areas. 
Occurs in dry, open scrub country. Range 
Pakistan and n. India east to Bangladesh, 
and south to Kamataka. 




J F^M A^ JAJ A^ ON D 



BLACK DRONGO 

{p. adsimilis) 



Dicrurus macrocertus 




.Jr^ 




J ■ F M^A ' M ' J J aA^ ' li [T 



Subspecies albirictus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (340). An abundant resident 
subject to some altitudinal movements. 
Occurs up to at least 1525m throughout 
the year, and occasionally up to 2000m in 



summer. Confirmed breeding at Nepalganj (432), Pokhara 
(326), in the Kathmandu VaUey (629,708), TrisuU valley 
(L5) (517) and at Hetaura (106). Frequents open wooded 
country, edges of cultivation and habitation. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 



342 



Drongos 



ASHYDRONGO Dicrums Uucophaeus 

Grey Drongo 

Subspecies longicaudatus. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (388). Common. Mainly a 
resident, subject to altitudinal move- 
ments, and with some birds moving south 
to winter in India. Summers regularly 
between 1220m and 2745m, and winters 
between 1065m and 1525m. It is also a 
locally common resident in the lowlands 
at Bardia and Chitwan. Proved breeding 
at Chitwan (296,432), on the hills sur- 
rounding the Kathmandu Valley 
(629,708,556) and at Bhimpedi (106). 
Inhabits broadleaved and coniferous 
forests. Range Breeds in the Himalayas 
from N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal 
Pradesh, and in n.e. India and Bangla- 
desh. Winters south to s. India. 




WHITE-BELLIED DRONGO Dicrums caemlescens 



Subspecies caemlescens. A Hodgson 
specimen was hsted for Nepal by Sharpe 
(713) but it may have originated in India. 
First definitely recorded by J. Scully who 
found it commonly at Hetaura in winter in 
1876 or 1877 (708). A resident in the 
lowlands up to 305m. Common in the 
west at Sukla Phanta, Dhangarhi and 
Bardia; fairly common in central areas at 
Tamaspur, Chitwan, Butwal and 
Hetaura; occasionally seen further east. 
Confirmed breeding at Mahendranagar 
(A4) (811) and Dhangarhi (432). Occurs 
in clearings and edges of thin forest. 
Range India from Haryana and Kutch 
east to Bengal and from Nepal south to 
Kerala. 




CROW-BILLED DRONGO Dicmms aimectans 

The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (374,798). Its status is uncer- 
tain in Nepal and the rest of the subconti- 
nent (45,664) because of confusion with 
the Black Drongo. Probably an uncom- 
mon summer visitor. Wrongly described 
as a common resident at Chitwan (296); 



only a few records in q>ring have been confirmed from 
there. The only other acceptable records are from Bardia 
(432), Hetaura (106,245), the eastern foothills (P8,Q8) 
(293,792), Kosi Barrage (256) and north of Sunischare 
(442,794). Frequents humid, broadleaved, evergreen 
forests. Range Himalayan foothills from Kumaon east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



Drongos 

CROW-BILLED DRONGO, cont'd . 



343 





' J ' F :!Aft^^'AJ A ' S * M D 



BRONZED DRONGO Dicrums aeneus 

Little Bronzed Drongo 

Subspecies aeneus. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (374). A fairly common resi- 
dent, subjea to some altitudinal move- 
ments. Usually winters below 1220m; 
mainly summers up to 1600m, occasion- 
ally up to 2000m. Confirmed breeding in 
the central hills (414), at Dhunche (L5) 
(771) and at Chitwan (296). In the Kath- 
mandu Valley it is mainly a summer visi- 
tor. Frequents clearings and forest paths 
in broadleaved forests. Range Himalayan 
foothills from Mussoorie east to Arun- 
achal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh; 
E. and W. Ghats. 




W 



J ■ FA^ AM' J/iJ 



LESSER RACKET-TAILED DRONGO Dicrums ranifer 

Small Racquet-tailed Drongo 



Subspecies tectirostris. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (374). A locally distributed 
resident, found mainly between 915m and 
1800m. Some birds possibly withdraw 
from higher elevations in winter. Occa- 
sionally seen north-west of Bokhara, at 
Begnas Tal, and Chitwan north of the 
Churia range, where it may be only a 
winter visitor (243,296); uncommon in the 
Kathmandu Valley and in Ham District 
(R8). Mainly single records from else- 
where. Proved breeding at Bhimpedi 
(106) and in the Kathmandu VaUey (243). 
Inhabits dense, moist broadleaved 
forests. Range Himalayan foothills from 
Garhwal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh. 




344 



Drongos/Woodswallow 



SPANGLED DRONGO Dicrums hottentottus 

Hair-crested Drongo 

Subspecies Aotte/ifoftos. First recorded by 
J. Gould (266). A fairly common resident, 
subject to seasonal movements depend- 
ing on the supply of nectar, its main food. 
Occurs chiefly from the tarai up to 1050m, 
uncommonly at higher altitudes. A strag- 
gler was found at 4115m in June 1971 in 
the Dolpo (G3) (224,692). Proved breed- 
ing at Hetaura (106). Frequents moist 
broadleaved forests; associates with flow- 
ering trees, especially silk cotton. Range 
Himalayan foothills from Kangra east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bang- 
ladesh; E. and W. Ghats. 




J ' F ' mA» ' " -'AJ « SON 



GREATER RACKET-TAILED DRONGO 

Large Racquet-tailed Drongo 



Dicrums pamdiseus 




1 ; ■ ■ 



li.u- 




Subspecies grandis. First recorded by J. 
Gould (266). A locally common resident, 
liable to some seasonal wanderings. 
Found mainly below 150m, uncommonly 
up to 365m, and rarely at higher altitudes. 



Regularly seen at Sukla Phanta, Bardia, near Dharan, north 
of Sunischare, and also at Chitwan where proved breeding 
(296). Occurs in open broadleaved forests. Range India east 
and south of a line from Gujarat to Kumaon; Bangladesh. 



ASHYWOODSWALLOW Artamus fuscus 

Ashy Swallow-shrike 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
local resident. Found mainly between 
75m and 365m, but noted in the upper 
Kali Gandaki valley at 2560m on 13 April 
1978 (655), and on 1 March 1981 (65). 
Common in summer in the eastern tarai 
and foothills (Q8) (293), and fairly com- 
mon at Hetaura, north of Sunischare, and 
at Chitwan where proved breeding 
(296,432,771). Mainly single records from 
elsewhere. Frequents open country and 
grassy ridges. Range India east and south 
of a line from Gujarat to Simla; Bangla- 
desh. 




Crows 



345 



EURASIAN JAY Ganulus ^andarius 

Himalayan Red-crowned Jay, Jay 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
locally distributed resident, found mainly 
between 1800m and 2440m throughout 
the year, but subject to some altitudinal 
movements. Common on the hills sur- 
rounding the Kathmandu Valley, fairly 
common at Khaptad (C3); occasional^ 
seen elsewhere. Proved breeding on 
Sheopuri (414), and in the Markhu valley 
(L6) (106). Two races occur. G.g. bispecu- 
laris (b) (482,647,659), G. g. interstinctus 
(i) (736) and intermediates (bi) (106). 
Inhabits broadleaved forests, favouring 
oak. Range Himalayas from Hazara east 
to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and 
Bangladesh. 




J^J A ' i ON D 



LANCEOLATED JAY Gamilus lanceolatus 
Black-throated Jay, Black-headed Jay 

First recorded by B. Hodgson who found 
it breeding on Jahar Powah (L6) 
(388,414). Presumably resident. Re- 
ported chiefly between 915m and 2500m 
and subject to some altitudinal move- 
ments. Common in Dandeldhura and 
Doti Districts (A3,B3,C2,C3); uncom- 
mon further east as far as the hills sur- 
rounding the Kathmandu Valley. A pair 
was noted at Yarsa (N6) at about 1800m 
on 3 April 1981 (159); the eastern limit of 
the species's range. Inhabits oak and 
mixed broadleaved forests. Range Hima- 
layas from N.W.F.P. east to Nepal. 



,-5^^ 




;ii II, I , 



? W BFP .A.''» -A^ 



YELLOW-BILLED BLUE MAGPIE Urocissa flavimstris 
Gold-billed Magpie {Cissa flavimstris) 

Obtained by B. Hodgson in his later col- 
lection (409) but the specimen may have 
originated in India. First definitely re- 
corded by J. Scully from the hills sur- 
rounding the Kathmandu Valley and in 
Nawakot Distria in June and July 1877 
(708). A common resident subject to 
some altitudinal movements. Found 
mainly above 2440m throughout the year; 
in summer frequently up to 3660m, and in 
winter occasionally down to 1850n;. In the 
far west seen in May as low as 1500m in 
Bajhang District (C2) (657) and at 1300m 
in Doti District (C3) (438). Proved breed- 
ing at Thodung (N6) in May (190). Two 
races occur: U. f. cucullala (c) (647), U. f. 



s-^. 




flavimstris (f) (247,482,574,661) and intermediates (cf) 
(106). Frequents broadleaved and coniferous forests. 
Range Himalayas from Hazara east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India. 



346 



Crows 



RED-BILLED BLUE MAGPIE Urodssa aythrorhyncha 

Blue Magpie (Cissa erythmrhyncha) 




Subspecies occipitalis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A common resident 
subject to some altitudinal movements. 
Generally occurs at lower elevations than 
the Yellow-billed Blue Magpie. Reported 
chiefly between 365m and 1525m, but 
occasionally up to 2200m in summer, and 




noted at 3050m near Rara on 21 June 1979 (626). Found at 
Hans Pokhari Danda (S8) inMarch 1988 (485), the eastern- 
most record of the species in the Himalayas. Confirmed 
breeding in DotiDistria (C3) (68), at Hetaura (106), in the 
Kathmandu Valley (629) and upper Arun valley (483). 
Inhabits broadleaved and mixed forests. Range Himalayas 
from Kangra and Kulu east to Nepal; n.e. India. 



GREEN MAGPIE Cissa chinensis 

Subspedes chinensis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A locally fairly common 
resident, occurring chiefly below 1200m. 
Regularly seen north-west of Pokhara, at 
Begnas Tal, and in the Mai valley 
(R7,R8). Uncommon at Chitwan (296) 
and elsewhere. Inhabits dense thickets in 
moist broadleaved forests. Range Hima- 
layas from Garhwal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




RUFOUS TREEPIE Dendmcitta vagabunda 
Indian Treepie 




Crows 



347 



RUFOUS TREEPIE, cont'd . 



Subspecies vagabimda. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A common resident 
from the tarai up to 1050m, uncommon 
up to 1370m. Noted in December 1979 
with Grey Treepies, at about 1800m on 



Phulchowki, and in Februaiy 1989 at Kimche (H5) at 1585m 
(69). Confirmed breeding at Chitwan (296). Frequents 
open wooded country, groves and trees at edges of 
cultivation. Range Throughout most of the subcontinent. 



GREY TREEPIE Dendmcitta formosae 
Himalayan Treepie 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
common resident subject to altitudinal 
movements. Generally occurs at higher 
altitudes than Rufous Treepie. Chiefly 
summers between 1050m and 2150m, and 
winters between 915m and 1525m. Noted 
as low as 250m at Chitwan on 25 Septem- 
ber 1989 (67). Proved breeding at Phewa 
Tal (326). Two intergrading races occur: 
D.f. occidentalis (o) and D.f. himalayen- 
sis (h). Inhabits forests and secondary 
scrub. Range Himalayas from the Jhelum 
River east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India and Bangladesh; E. Ghats. 




[COLLARED TREEPIE Dendrocitta frontalis 
Black-browed Treepie 

Subspecies fmntalis. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 



dia. No subsequent records. Inhabits dense, mixed, ever- 
green forest and bamboo jungle (45,664). Range Himalayas 
from Darjeeling east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India.] 



HUME'S GROUND JAY Pseudopodoces humilis 

Hume's Ground Pecker {Podoces humilis) 
Hume's Ground Chough, Tibetan Ground- Jay 



First definitely recorded on 18 June 1952 
at Tuiyegaon (G3) at 5335m by O. Pol- 
unin (620). A resident, occasionally found 
in Trans-Himalayan Nepal between 
4000m and 5335m. Shows little seasonal 
movement. Reported on the Thorong La 
(H4) (314) and above Manang (J4) (553). 
Breeding confirmed in Mustang (H3) and 
in the Dolpo (G3) (243). A juvenile was 
collected at Bhareal (G3) at 4880m on 28 
July 1978 (587). Breeding behaviour has 
not been described in the Indian subcon- 
tinent. Feeds on the ground in the Ti- 
betan steppe fades above the treeline, 
among scattered bushes, or on stony 
hillsides. Range N. Nepal and n. Sikkim. 




Topq 



I I ' I p i 

' J ' F ' M ' A^M J jAa ■ S ' N 



348 



Crows 



SPOTTED NUTCRACKER Nucifmga caryocatactes 

Nutcracker, Eurasian Nutcracker 



Subspecies hemispila. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A common resident, 
subject to some altitudinal movements. 
Mainly summers between 2745m and 
3660ni, and winters from at least 2135m 
up to 3050m, but seen several times at 
Khaptad (C3) down to 1500m in May 
(428). A straggler was seen at 305m at 
Dharan in October (243). Breeding con- 
firmed in the Dhorpatan valley (G5) 
(499), in the Gandak-Kosi watershed 
(L5) (633) and in the upper Arun (483) 
and upper Mai valleys (736). Forages in 
coniferous forests. Range Himalayas 
from Chitral east to Arunachal Pradesh. 




ALPINE CHOUGH Pynhocona gruculus 

Yellow-billed Chough 





I , .iiiiimij^z]; 



Subspecies digiiatus. First definitely re- 
corded on the Singalila Range (ST) on 6 
March 1912 at 3610m by H. Stevens (736). 
A common resident, subject to some alti- 
tudinal movements. Occurs chiefly above 
3500m and up to at least 6250m. Noted as 
high as 8235m on Sagarmatha (243). 
Sometimes descends from higher levels in 



winter, particularly after bad weather. Seen at 2350m near 
Jumla on 29 March 1977 (464), and below Chame (J4) on 13 
November 1978 (553). Breeding confirmed in Khumbu 
(190) and as low as 3450m below Manang (J4) (757). 
Inhabits alpine meadows and upland cultivation, often near 
cliffs. Range N. Baluchistan, and the Himalayas from Chi- 
tral east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



I 



Crows 



349 



RED-BILLED CHOUGH 

Chough 



Pyrrhocona pynhocorax 



Subspedes himalayanus. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (277). A common resi- 
dent, subject to altitudinal movements. 
Occurs mainly above 2440nv, and noted as 
high as 7340m and 7950m on Sagarmatha 
in May 1952 (415). May descend from 
higher elevations in winter, occasionally 
down to 2135m, and found as low as 
1450m at Dana (H4) in February and 
March 1982 (57,682). Proved breeding in 
the Langu valley (F2) (330) and at 
Kagbeni (811). Habitat is similar to that 
of Alpine Chough, although generally 
found at lower altitudes. Range N. Balu- 




J FA^ ^ ^A^ J k S O^J D 



chistan, and the Himalayas from Chitral east to Arunachal 
Pradesh. 



HOUSE CROW Corms ^lendens 





Subspecies splendens. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (277). An abundant and sed- 
entary resident from the tarai up to 
1525m, rare at higher altitudes. The maxi- 
mum altitude reported is 2100m at 



Nagarkot (M6) on 9 February 1983 (593). Confirmed 
breeding at Chitwan (296), and in the Kathmandu Valley 
(517,629,708). Entirely associated with man. A scavenger in 
villages and towns. Range Throughout the subcontinent. 



JUNGLE CROW Corvus macrorhynchos 
Large-billed Crow 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). An 
abundant resident. Four races occur. C. 
m. intermedius (i) (106) is found mainly 
between 1200m and 4900ni, and shows 
little evidence of seasonal movements. 
Seen as high as 5790m below the summit 
of Paldor East (L5) in October 1982 
(583). This race is larger than the other 
two, has a call similar to that of the 
Common Raven, and is often confused 
with that species. Intermediates between 



this race and C. m. tibetosinensis (it) occur in n.e. Khumbu 
(45). C. m. culminatus (c) (234) and C. m. levaillantii (1) 
(246), have only been collected in the lowlands. Proved 
breeding at Khaptad (C3) (428), Nepalganj (432) and in the 
Kathmandu Valley (629,708); also at Chitwan (296), near 
Dhankuta (Q7) (446), and in the upper Mai valley (736). 
Frequents forests, cultivation, and open country above the 
treeUne, but usuaUy associated with villages and towns. 
Range N. Baluchistan; Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh; the whole 
of peninsular India. 



350 

JUNGLE CROW, cont'd . 



Crows/Starlings 





Voo. ^^S^^^^^^^^^E^^ 



COMMON RAVEN Corvuscomx 

Raven, Northern Raven 

Subspecies tibelanus. First definitely re- 
corded in July and August 1950 by D. 
Lowndes at Manangbhot (J4) between 
4265m and 4570m (512). A fairly common 
resident subject to some altitudinal move- 
ments. Occurs in Trans-Himalayan Nepal 
mainly above 3500m, and up to at least 
5000m. Seen as high as 8235m on Sagar- 
matha in 1971 (244). May move south and 
to lower altitudes in winter, occasionally 
as low as 2500m, particularly after severe 
weather. Inhabits dry rocky areas above 
the treeline, in the Tibetan fades. Range 
Pakistan; Himalayas from Hunza east to 
Aninachal Pradesh. 




SPOT-WINGED STARLING Samglossa spiloptem 

Spot-winged Stare 




( 



Starlings 

SPOT-WINGED STARLING, cont'd ... 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (348). 
Occasionally seen up to 915m and uncom- 
mon up to 1830m. Status is uncertain. A 
passage migrant to Chitwan from Febru- 
ary to April and in July (296). Flocks of up 
to SO noted at Dharan in March and June 
(293), over 100 in Doti District (B3) in 



351 



May (68) and 125 at Chitwan in February (565) were 
possibly on migration. Breeding confirmed at Hetaura 
(105), Betrawati (L6) (299) and Mechi Zone (R7) (658). 
Frequents open broadleaved forests and feeds on nectar of 
flowering trees. Range Himalayan foothills from Kangra 
east to Sikkim; n.e. India east to Bangladesh. 



CHESTNUT-TAILED STARLING Stumus maiabaricm 

Grey-headed Myna 




.-V^. 




■I l l I 



'j'f'A'^'x'-'' JAa ■ s ' ■ n ■ d 



Subspecies malabaricus. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (348). Fairly common 
between 75m and 1370m. Although re- 
corded in all months it is not certain that 
it is resident. A summer visitor to the 
Kathmandu Valley from mid-March to 
early November (635). Occurs at Chitwan 
from February to October, and possibly 



resident there (2%). Described as a winter visitor to Sukla 
Phanta (700) and as both a resident and local migrant to the 
eastern tarai and foothills (Q8) (293). Breeding confirmed 
at SUgadi-Doti (B3) (438), Chitwan (296), in the Kath- 
mandu VaUey (629,756) and in the east (Q8) (293). Inhabits 
lightly wooded country and groves. Range The whole of the 
subcontinent east and south of a line from Rajasthan to 
Dehra Dun. 



BRAHMINY STARLING Stumus pagpdamm 
Brahminy Mynah 




,-5- ^ 




352 



Starlings 



BRAHMINY STARLING, cont'd ... 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (348). A 
resident, reported mainly up to 915m. 
Seasonal movements are poorly known. 
Occasionally seen at Nepalganj and west- 
wards; uncommon further east. Noted at 
the unusually high altitude of 3050m in 
the Langu valley (F2) in May 1983 (330). 



Found breeding at Surkhet (D4) (626), in the eastern 
foothills (Q8) (293) and by the Indrawati Khola (M6) (243). 
Only one record from the Kathmandu Valley, possibly 
referring to escaped birds (3). Inhabits dry open 
broadleaved forest and scrub. Range Throughout the sub- 
continent, except parts of the north-west and north-east. 



COMMON STARLING Stumus vulgaris 

Eurasian Starling, Starling 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (348). He 
also provided the only specimen of S. v. 
humii (519), although this may have origi- 
nated in India. Two other races have been 
recorded: S. v. porphyronotus (p) (62,647) 
and 5. p. poltamtskyi (t) (245) . The species 
is an uncommon winter visitor and 
passsage migrant found chiefly up to 
1500m. Several reports from Sukla 
Phanta, Pokhara, Kathmandu Valley, and 
Kosi marshes. Mainly single records from 
elsewhere. The maximum of about 100 
was seen on 6 January 1988 by the Bag- 
mati River, Kathmandu Valley (203). 
Singles noted at Jomosom on 28 March 
1983 (56) and Kagbeni on 1 April 1984 
(421) were presumably on passage. 
Found in damp grassland and cultivation. 
Range Winters throughout Pakistan, n. 
India, and Bangladesh. 




) I, II . I, 



PVPOi: 



j'fma'm'J'J'a'so'nd' 



ROSY STARLING Stumus mseus 
Rosy Pastor, Rose-coloured Starling 

Vagrant. First recorded by B. Hodgson 
who found it on 10 October in the Kath- 
mandu Valley (336,388). The only other 
record is of one seen on 14 April 1981 at 
Kosi Barrage (559). Frequents grassland 
and cultivation. Range Winter visitor to 
India east to Bengal and south to s. India. 
Passage migrant in Pakistan. 




Starlings 



353 



ASIAN PIED STARLING Stumus contra 

Pied Myna 

Subspecies contra. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A fairly common resident 
throughout the lowlands up to 305m. 
Possibly subject to local movements. 
Confirmed breeding at Chitwan (2%) 
and in the eastern tarai (Q8) (293). One 
located in the Kathmandu Valley (813) 
was possibly an escaped bird. Forages in 
cultivation and other open country, usu- 
ally near habitation and grazing animals. 
Range Haiyana east to n.e. India and 
Bangladesh, and south to Bombay and 
Andhra Pradesh. 




COMMON MYNAH Acridotheres tristis 
Indian Mynah 




J ■ F ■ M^A ' M ' J ■ J^A S ' N ■ D 



Subspecies tristis. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (348). An abundant resident, 
regularly found up to at least 1830m 
throughout the year. Occasionally sum- 
mers up to 30SOm and winters up to 



2135m. Found breeding in the Dhorpatan valley (G5) (499), 
at Chitwan (296), Hetaura (105), in the Kathmandu Valley 
(517,629) and eastern lowlands (Q8) (293). Frequents habi- 
tation almost everywhere. Range Throughout the subconti- 
nent. 



BANK MYNAH Acridotheres ginginianus 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
locally, fairly common resident, occurring 
mainly in the tarai. Only occasionally seen 
at higher altitudes. Several reports from 
the Kathmandu Valley refer possibly to 
escaped birds. Subject to some local 
movements but these are poorly under- 
stood. Breeding confirmed at Chitwan 
(296), Mahendranagar (A4) (811), Bardia 
District (432), and the eastern tarai (P8) 
(293). Found near villages, often associ- 
ated with grazing animals. Rarely occurs 
in urban areas in Nepal. Range Pakistan, 
and n. India east to Assam and Bangla- 
desh, and south to Bombay and n. Orissa. 




354 



Starlings/Sparrows 



JUNGLE MYNAH Aaidotheres fuscus 

Subspecies /uscMs. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (348). A common resident from 
the tarai up to 1525m. Noted up to 2200m 
at Khaptad (C3) in April and May 1988 
(428). Subject to local seasonal move- 
ments which are poorly understood. 
Abundant at Chitwan in spring (432) but 
absent in December (460). Common 
throughout the year in the Kathmandu 
Valley but less numerous in winter (629). 
Breeding confirmed at Chitwan (2%), 
Hetaura (105) and in the Kathmandu 
Valley (629,708). Inhabits weU-wooded 
areas, cultivation, and edges of towns and 
villages. Range Himalayas from Murree 




S N D ■ 



east to Arunachal Pradesh, and south locally throughout 
the peninsula to s. India. 



HILL MYNAH Gracula religiosa 

Talking Mynah, Crackle 

Subspecies intermedia. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (348). A resident, occasion- 
ally found in the central and eastern low- 
lands, mainly up to 455m. Noted at 1025m 
in Ham District (R8) in December (658). 
Subject to some local and poorly under- 
stood seasonal movements. Breeding 
confirmed at Chitwan (296) and Hetaura 
(105). One noted in the Kathmandu Val- 
ley on 21 December 1980 (576) was 
probably an escaped bird. Frequents 
moist broadleaved forests. Range Hima- 
layas from Kumaon east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh; hills 
of the n.e. peninsula; W. Ghats. 




HOUSE SPARROW Passer domesticus 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). An 
abundant resident from the tarai up to 
1600m, occasionally reported up to 
2135m. Possibly subject to some local alti- 
tudinal movements. Breeding confirmed 
at Sukla Phanta (432), Surkhet (D4) 
(626), Nepalganj (626), Chitwan (296), 
and in the Kathmandu Valley (626,659, 
481). P. d. indicus (i) has been found up to 
1500m (245,482,647). The birds above 
this altitude are likely to be P. d. parldni 
but specimens are lacking. Birds in the 
Kathmandu Valley are intermediate be- 
tween the two races (ip) (105). Frequents 
villages, towns and nearby cultivation. In 




OOOm ' J ' FAM ■ A ■ M ■ J ' J A^^ C N D 



the Kathmandu Valley chiefly occurs in urban areas. Range 
Throughout the subcontinent. 



Sparrows 



355 



SPANISH SPARROW Passer hispaniolensis 

Willow Sparrow 

Subspecies tnmscaspicus. Vagrant. First 
recorded at Kosi Barrage where a flodc of 
50 was seen on 16 February 1981 by D. 
Mills et al. (65,559). The only other rec- 
ords are of up to three in mid-March 1982 
(682,770), also at Kosi. At least three 
males showing intermediate features be- 
tween Spanish and House Sparrows were 
observed in a party of about 20 sparrows 
on 17 and 18 February 1981 at Kosi Bar- 
rage (180). Frequents cultivation and 
semi-desert. Range A winter visitor to the 
plains of n. Pakistan and n.w. India. 



CINNAMON SPARROW Passer rutiUms 

Cinnamon Tree Sparrow, Russet Sparrow 

Obtained by B. Hodgson in his later col- 
lection (409) but the specimen may have 
originated in India. First definitely re- 
corded by F.M. Bailey at Chari Gaon (E2) 
on 14 June 1936 (62). A resident subject 
to some altitudinal movements. Fairly 
common in the Kali Gandaki valley and 
westwards; uncommon further east to 
Kathmandu. A total of about 50 was seen 
at the unusually low altitude of 75m near 
Kosi (748). Most frequently reported 
between 1000m and 2900m, although it is 
also common in Dolpo and Mustang Dis- 
tricts up to 4270m in summer. Also found 
breeding at much lower altitudes, at 915m 
at Phewa Tal (153) and at 2590m at Sikha 





(H5) (153). Frequents open forest and cultivation near hill 
villages. Range Himalayas from Chitral and Kashmir east to 
Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 



EURASIAN TREE SPARROW Passer monlanus 
Tree Sparrow 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). An 
abundant resident subject to altitudinal 
movements. Occurs chiefly between 
610m and 4270m. May withdraw from 
higher levels in winter but noted as high 
as 3795m in February 1982 (770). Proved 
breeding at Tansen (H6) (230), Bhimpedi 
(105), Chitwan (67) and in the Kath- 
mandu Valley (629,708). Also breeds at 
the unusually low altitude of 75m at Kosi 
Tappu where it occurs from January to 
May (327). Co-exists with House Sparrow 
in Kathmandu and elsewhere. Two races 
occur: P. m. malaccensis (m) up to 2000m 
(62,105,482) and P. m. tibetanus (t) at 




higher altitudes (512,647). Frequents towns, villages and 
adjacent cultivation. Range N. Baluchistan; Himalayas 
from N.W.F.P. east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. India. 



356 



Spanows/Snowfinches 



CHESTNUT-SHOULDERED PETRONIA PetroniaxanthocolUs 

Yellow-throated Sparrow 



Subspede&xanthocollis. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (388). A resident subject to 
local movements, found mainly up to 
305m. Occasionally seen in the far west 
(A4,B4,C4,C5) and at Chitwan; uncom- 
mon elsewhere. Proved breeding at Chi- 
twan (296). Inhabits open dry forest, 
thorn jungle and trees at the edge of 
cultivation. Range Pakistan and the 
whole of the Indian peninsula east to 
Bengal. 



PLAIN-BACKED SNOWFINCH 

Montifiingilla blanfordi 
Blanford's Snowfmch 




RUFOUS-NECKED SNOWFINCH 

Montifiinplta n^icollis 
Red-necked Snowfinch 



Subspecies blanfordi. Status uncertain, 
possibly a scarce resident. The only rec- 
ord received is of one collected at Neach- 
achung, Mustang (H3) at 4815m on 13 
June 1977 by H.S. Nepali (587). It was 
found within 100m of birds of the two 
following species. Inhabits the Tibetan 
steppe. Range N. Nepal and n. Sikkim. 



Status uncertain, possibly a scarce resident. The first record 
was of one collected one at Neachachung, Mustang (H3) at 
4815m on 13 June 1977 by H.S. Nepali (587). Singles seen at 
Pipar Hill (H5) at 3290m, and on nearby Kumai Hill at 
3340m both in October 1979 (499) were possibly the same 
individual. The only other records are of a flock of about 20 
seen near Khumjung (P6) at 3700m on 29 October 1987 and 
one above Dugla (P6) at 4850m on 5 November 1987 after 
a severe blizzard (558). Frequents open stony areas and 
short grassland in the Tibetan steppe. Range N. Nepal and 
n. Sikkim. 



WHITE-RUMPED SNOWFINCH Montifiingilla taczanowsldi 

Mandelli's Snowfinch 



Status uncertain, possibly a scarce resi- 
dent. The only record received is of one 
collected at Neachachung, Mustang (H3) 



at 4815m on 13 June 1977 by H.S. Nepali (587). Found in 
open stony Tibetan steppe habitat. Range N. Nepal and n. 
Sikkim. 



TIBETAN SNOWFINCH Montifiingilla adamsi 
Adams' Snowfinch, Black-winged Snowfinch 

Subspecies adamsi. First definitely re- 
corded near Saldang, Dolpo (G3) at 
4330m on 16 June 1971 by R.L. Fleming 
Jr. (224,246). A common resident in 
Dolpo and Mustang Districts. Breeds be- 
tween 3600m and 4500m (50,664), and is 
subject to some poorly understood altitu- 
dinal movements. Reported between 
November and March from 2530m to 
3445m in the upper Kali Gandaki valley 
(765,403), on Thorong La (H4) (298), 
near Langtang village (M5) (180) and in 
Khumbu (546,595,596). Occurs on open 
stony hillsides, plateaux and near upland 
villages. Range N. Himalayas from La- 
dakh east to Sikkim. 




Weavers 



357 



BLACK-BREASTED WEAVER Ploceus benghalensis 
Black-throated Weaver 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
locally distributed resident in the low- 
lands, occurring up to 245m. Subject to 
some local movements. Fairly common at 
Sukla Phanta (700), Chitwan (296) and on 
Kosi marshes (P8,Q8). Breeding con- 
firmed at Tilaurakot (G6) (157), and 
Chitwan (296). Frequents tall, damp 
grassland and reedy marshes. Range 
Mainly in the Gangetic plain east to n.e. 
India and Bangladesh, but also very lo- 
cally in Pakistan, Gujarat and near Bom- 
bay. 




J F M A -^^J J - SAO 



STREAKED WEAVER Ploceus manyar 

Subspecies flaviceps. First recorded at 
Kosi Barrage by S.C. Madge et at. who 
found a flock of 20 on 8 February 1974 
(518). A very local resident and local 
migrant, in the tarai. In 1976 described as 
common and breeding at Kosi from June 
to August (293) but only a few other 
reports from the area, between February 
and August. The only other record is from 
Sukla Phanta where about 17 were seen 
on 4 May 1982 (432). Inhabits reedy 
marshes. Range Throughout the subcon- 
tinent, except some parts of the north- 
west. 




BAYA WEAVER Ploceus philippinus 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388,798). 
A common resident from the tarai up to 
1370m, subject to seasonal movements. In 
the Himalayas mainly a summer visitor. 
Breeding confirmed near Taulihawa (G6) 
(157), north-west of Pokhara (499), at 
Chitwan (296,652), in the Kathmandu 
VaUey (629,708,756,321), Sunischare 
(321), and elsewhere in the eastern low- 
lands (P8,Q8) (293,432). Two races occur: 
P. p. philippinus (p) (190,647), P. p. bur- 
manicus (b) (247) and also intermediates 
(pb) (62,105,632). Frequents cultivation 
and grassland with scattered bushes and 
trees. Range Throughout the subconti- 
nent. 




^T'aSr^M ' J ' J ■ A bA" 



358 



Manias 



REDAVADAVAT Amandava amandava 
Red Munia 

Subspecies amandava. Obtained by B. 
Hodgson in his later collection (409) but 
the specimen may have originated in In- 
dia. First definitely recorded by FJvI. 
Bailey at Bilauri (A4) on 11 February 
1937 (62). A locally distributed resident, 
seen occasionally up to 305m. Noted up to 
670m at BulbuU, near Surkhet (D4) in 
August 1979 (244). Regularly found at 
Sukla Phanta, Kosi Barrage, and at Chi- 
twan where proved breeding (296). One 
seen in Kathmandu was probably an es- 
caped cage-bird (546). Frequents reedy 
marshes and tall grassland. Range 
Throughout most of the subcontinent. 




J ■ F ■ M ■ ft ■ M ' JAJ ■ A ' S O^N D 



INDIAN SILVERBILL Euodice malabanca 
White-throated Munia {Lonchura malabanca) 

First definitely recorded at Raghun- 
athpur (N8) at 275m in December 1953 by 
R.L. Fleming Sr (647). An uncommon 
resident in the tarai and duns up to 305m. 
Several reports from Kosi and Nepalganj. 
Mainly single records from elsewhere. 
Found breeding in old weaver nests at 
Biratnagar in November (243). Frequents 
cultivation, grassland and open scrub 
country. Occurs in drier habitats than 
other munias. Range Throughout the 
subcontinent. 




^^^^^^^^JA^^^^^^^^A 



STRIATED MUNU Lonchum striata 

Sharp-tailed Munia, White-backed Munia, White-rumped Munia 

Subspecies acuticauda. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (354,798). A local resident, 
subject to seasonal movements. Seen 
regularly throughout the year up to about 
1220m; but mainly a summer visitor from 
this altitude up to 2135m. Fairly common 
near Pokhara and uncommon in the 
Kathmandu Valley where proved breed- 
ing (629). Occasionally reported from 
elsewhere. Inhabits open wooded areas 
and scrub near cultivation. Range Hima- 
layas from Garhwal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh; n.e. India and Bangladesh; pen- 
insular India south from s. Gujarat and s. 
Bihar. 




Munias 



359 



SCALY-BREASTED MU?«A Lonchum punctulata 
Spotted Munia, Nutmeg Mannikin 




Subspecies /junc/u/a/a. First recorded by 
B. Hodgson (354). A fairly common resi- 
dent. Occurs mainly up to 1525m 
throughout the year, but noted at 2680m 
in the Dhorpatan valley (F4) in summer 
1981 (499). Proved breeding at Chitwan 



(296); in the Kathmandu Valley (629), in the eastern low- 
lands (08) (293) and as high as 1670m at Uttarpani (07) 
(613). Forages in cultivation, grassland and bushes. Range 
The whole of the subcontinent east and south of a line from 
Kathiawar to Madhupur. 



CHESTNUT MUNIA 

Black-headed Munia 



Lonchum malacca 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (354). Lo- 
cally distributed and chiefly found from 
the tarai up to 1220m. Probably resident. 
Reported to be fairly common and 
proved breeding at Chitwan (296). In 
1877 described as a common breeding 
summer visitor to the Kathmandu Valley 
(708) but there are very few later records. 
Occasionally seen from April to Septem- 
ber in the eastern tarai (P8) (293). Several 
sightings from the Kosi marshes; mainly 
single reports from elsewhere. Collected 
in breeding condition at Hetaura in July 
(105). Two intergrading races occur L. m. 
nibmniger(T) (105,247,798) andL. m. atn- 
capilla (a) (234,246). The nests and eggs 
of these races are undescribed. Frequents 
cultivation and grassland. Range Ambala 
and Lucknow east to n.e. India and Bang- 
ladesh, and south to Orissa; Bombay and 
Raipur south to s. India. 




360 



Finches 



COMMON CHAFFINCH Frinfflla coeUbs 

Subspecies coelebs. First recorded at 
Rara at 3050m on 6 Februaiy 1971 by R. 
L. Fleming Jr. (9). An uncommon winter 
visitor found mainly between 2000m and 
2750m, but may descend to lower alti- 
tudes in cold winters. Noted as low as 
1555m at Lumle (H5) in November 1981 
(146). Only three records received from 
east of the Kali Gandaki vaUey, in the 
upper Langtang vaUey (M5) in January 
1981 (180), in the upper Marsyangdi val- 
ley (J4) (158) and at Goraibas (ST) in 
March 1989 (549). Frequents conifer for- 
ests and bushy areas. Range Winter visi- 
tor to Kohat, GUgit, and Nepal. 




I .iipiii .i 



J'F'M'A'M'J'J'A'S'O'N'D 



ICW 



BRAMBLING Fringilla montifiinfflla 

First recorded by R.L. Fleming Jr. at Rara 
and Jumla in winter 1971 (243). An erratic 
winter visitor, seen mainly in the north 
and north-west between 2135m and 
3050m. Occasionally reported from the 
upper Kali Gandaki valley in severe win- 
ters. The maximum of 30 was noted at 
Tukche on 18 March 1982 (207,561). In 
the cold winter of 1978 two were found on 
Sheopuri summit (243) and one near 
Godavari at 1525m, both records in Janu- 
ary (243,746). Habitat is similar to that of 
Common Chaffinch. Range Winters in n. 
Baluchistan, and in the Himalayas from 
N.W.F.P. east to Nepal. 




I , I ,iiii| 



fTWF 



J'f'm'A'H'J'J'A'S'O'U'D' 



FIRE-FRONTED SERIN Serinus pusillus 
Red-fronted Serin, Gold-fronted Serin, or Finch 



v-n 




Finches 

FIRE-FRONTED SERIN, cont'd ... 

First recorded by O. Polunin on 12 April 
1952 at Jumla at 2345m (620). Fairly 
common, presumably a resident subject 
to altitudinal movements. Mainly seen 
above 2440m but found as high as 4575m 
in summer; occasionally down to 2100m 
in winter. Regularly seen in the upper 



361 



Kali Gandaki valley and westwards; few reports from fur- 
ther east. Found at Manang in November 1981 (553,554) 
and November 1984 (142), at Hinko (H5) in January 1983 
(748), and near Syabru (L5) inMarch 1987 (484). Frequents 
Tibetan steppe habitat in summer; bushes and small trees in 
winter. Range N. Baluchistan; Himalayas from Chitral east 
to Nepal. 



TIBETAN SERIN Serinus Mbetanus 
Tibetan Siskin {Carduelis thibetana) 

First recorded at Godavari at 1525m on 
28 January 1952 by D. Proud (634). A 
local winter visitor, occurring between 
1050m and 3355m. Most frequent in the 
Kathmandu Valley, particularly the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Godavari where 
it occurs from the end of November to 
end of March (57). The maximum of sev- 
eral hundred birds was reported there in 
February 1953 (635). Uncommon else- 
where. A flock near Jhingrana (C3) at 
about 2100m on 18 March 1989 (68) is the 
most westerly wintering record for the 




I M . IM 



J ' F ' M ■ A ■ M ■ 



species. Mainly occurs in alders. Range Possibly breeds in 
Arunachal Pradesh. Winters in the Himalayas from Nepal 
east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



SPECTACLED FINCH Callacanthis burtoni 
Red-browed Finch 




First recorded on Sheopuri at 2500m on 
25 March 1961 by D. Proud (639). A local 
and erratic winter visitor; possibly also 
breeds but not definitely known to be 
resident. Regularly occurs near Ghore- 
pani. Found to be fairly common there in 




I , ,11111 1 



^^F^^ aAm ' J ' jAa ■ S ■ o" N ■ D ' 



February and March 1982 but scarce in some winters. 
Chiefly single records from elsewhere. Only one summer 
record: from Ghorepani on 24 July 1978 (688). Frequents 
forests of fir, oak, hemlock and rhododendron. Range 
Himalayas from Safed Koh and Chitral east to Sikkim. 



362 



Finches 



YELLOW-BREASTED GREENFINCH CardueUs spinmdes 

Himalayan Goldfinch, Himalayan Greenfinch 



Subspecies spinoides. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common resident, sub- 
ject to altitudinal movements. Breeds 
mainly between 2440m and 3700m, but 
noted up to 4400m in Khumbu (190). 
Winters chiefly from 915m to 1850m; 
rarely in the tarai. A flock of 20 was seen 
on 4 May 1982 at 160m at Sukla Phanta. 
Inhabits cultivation, forest edges; also in 
shrubberies above the treeline in 
Khumbu (190). Range Himalayas from 
Hazara and Murree east to Arunachal 
Pradesh. 




EURASLVN GOLDFINCH Carduelis carduelis 

Goldfinch 



Subspecies caniceps. First recorded by D. 
Lowndes at Manangbhot (J4) at 3660m 
on 28 June 1950 (54). An uncommon 
resident, subject to altitudinal move- 
ments which are poorly understood in 
Nepal. Summers mainly between 2450m 
and 4200m. Found chiefly between 1920m 
and 2440m in winter, but collected as low 
as 75m at Nepalganj in January (243). 
Found in the LangtangvaUeynear Syabru 
(180) and Sherpagaon (207); also in Hel- 
ambu (243,585); the most easterly locali- 
ties for the species in the Himalayas. 
Frequents upland cultivation, shrubber- 
ies above the treeline and open conifer- 
ous forest. Range N. Baluchistan; Hima- 
layas from N.W.F.P. east to Nepal. 



^-^ 




r \ 3 



I ,1 (■,iiiiii|i 



^^^iSnf**j'AAs™ ' N '"? 



EURASIAN SISKIN Carduelis spinus 
Siskin 

Vagrant. A male was found at Nagarjung 
at 1500m on 7 April 1982 by C. Winyard et 
al. (207,561). The second published rec- 
ord from the Indian subcontinent. Inhab- 
its conifers. Range Vagrant to Himachal 
Pradesh and >tepal. 




Finches 



363 



COMMON LINNET Carduelis cannabina 

Linnet {Acanthis cannabina) 

Subspecies fce//a. Vagrant. First recorded 
by R.L. Fleming Sr. in small flocks in 
Jumla District between 2370m and 2410m 
in January and February 1971 (9,243). 



The only other record is of one seen at Bhoudigaon, south 
of Jumla on 17 January 1977 (212). Found in meadows, cul- 
tivation and bushes. Range N. Himalayas from GUgit east to 
Nepal. 



TWITE Carduelis flavirostris 
Tibetan Twite ^Acanthis flavirostris ) 

First recorded on Gosainkund Pass on 15 
and 18 June 1964, between 4200m and 
4500m by M. Desfayes (188). Probably 
resident. Found between 3965m and 
4500m. Possibly subject to altitudinal 
movements, but these are little known. 
Fairly common in Dolpo (G3) and Mus- 
tang (H3), uncommon in the upper Kali 
Gandaki valley and rare further east. Fre- 
quents boulder-strewn alpine meadows 
and stony hills. Range N. Himalayas from 
Chitral east to n. Sikkim. 




t^JW^ 



' J ' F ' M ' A^^ J ^J "" A A^" 



COMMON CROSSBILL Laxia curvimstra 
Crossbill, Red Crossbill 

Subspecies himalayensis. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (116,388,798). Occasional. 
Residential status is uncertain and move- 
ments are poorly understood. Reported 
mainly between 2590m and 3660m. 
Breeding behaviour for this subspecies is 
little known; presumably breeds in any 
month depending on the crop of cones 
like other crossbills. An adult seen feed- 
ing young on 8 March 1987 at Kalopani 
(H4) at about 2530m (480). Found in 
hemlocks. Range Himalayas from Lahul 
east to Arunachal Pradesh. 




-jm 



PLAIN MOUNTAIN-FINCH Leucosticte nemoncola 

Hodgson's Mountain-Finch 

Subspecies nemoricola. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(354,798). A common resident, subject to 
altitudinal movements. Summers chiefly 
between 4200m and 5200m and winters 
between 2000m and at least 3650m. 
Noted at 1650m near Landrung (H5) in 
March 1989 (166). Breeding confirmed in 
Khumbu (190). Inhabits alpine meadows 
and scree slopes high above the treeline in 
summer; cultivation and open forest in 
winter. Range Himalayas fom Chitral east 
to Bhutan, and possibly Arunachal 
Pradesh. 




364 



Finches 



BIACK-HEADED MOUNTAIN-nNCH Leucosticte hrandti 

Brandt's Mountain-Finch 



Subspecies haematopygia. First recorded 
at Tingegaon (G3) at 5060m on 18 June 
1952 by O. Polunin (620). A fairly com- 
mon resident, subject to some altitudinal 
movements. Generally occurs at higher 
altitudes than Plain Mountain-Finch. 
Summers chiefly between 4200m and 
5250m, but noted at 6000m on 18 June 
1952 in the Dolpo (G3) (620). Usually 
winters above 3500m, but during the par- 
ticularly cold winter of 1982 found down 
to 2350m north-west of Pokhara 
(682,770). A large flock of about 600 was 
seen at Jomosom on 9 February 1982 




.11 1 1. null I 



^j^^^^^J^TSb 



(682). Frequents stony slopes and alpine meadows. Range 
Himalayas from Chitral east to Sikkim. 



MONGOLIAN FINCH Bucaneles mongolicus 
Mongolian Desert Finch, Mongolian Trumpeter Finch 
(Rhodopechys mongoUcd) 

Vagrant. First recorded by R.L. Fleming 
Jr. who found a flock of 16 in the Mukti- 
nath valley at 3505m on 25 June 1976 
(243). The only other reports were during 
the particularly severe winter of 1982: a 
party of 34 was noted near Jomosom on 8 
February (641), and one on 9 February 
(606,682). Found in dry rocky areas. 
Range Himalayas from Ladakh east to 
Nepal. 




BLANFORD'S ROSEFINCH 

Crimson Rosefinch 



Carpodacus rubescens 



The first record is of a specimen in Man- 
delli's collection from Dolakha, Bhota 
Kosi vaUey (N6) in August 1875 (104). 
Scarce. It is not clear whether the species 
is resident, and movements in Nepal are 
poorly known. Reported between 2745m 
and 3050m in August and September: 
collected at Gatlang, Landang Busli and 
Mangning (L5) in 1935 (62), and at Tarke 
Gyang (M5) in 1949 (619,621); also south 
of Bhairakund (M6) in October 1973 
(589). Found between 2315m and 3050m 
in winter. Several reports of up to five 
birds east of Ghorepani (H5): in Decem- 
ber 1985 (546), March 1986 (264,321,260), 
March 1987 (480) and December 1989 
(176,729); also up to five seen at Chitre 




-^. 



f^; 



TZ^ 



(H5) in March 1987 (594). Breeding behaviour is unknown. 
Frequents glades in conifer, or mixed conifer and birch 
forests. Range Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal 
Pradesh. 



Finches 



365 



DARK-BREASTED ROSEFINCH Carpodacus nipalenas 

Nepal Rosefinch 



Subspecies nipalensis. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(354,798). A fairly conunon altitudinal 
migrant. Summers chiefly between 3050m 
and 3900m; winters between 1830m and 
2745m, and sometimes down to 1500m. 
Breeding behaviour is little known. 
Trapped with a brood patch at Chankeli 
at 3050m in July 1979 (626), and coUected 
in breeding condition at Khumjung (P6), 
between 3900m and 4000m on 30 June 
and 6 July 1962 (190). Inhabits rhododen- 
dron and fir forests, and shrubberies 
above the treeUne, in summer; also in cul- 




tivation and forest clearings in winter. Range Himalayas 
from Kashmir east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



COMMON ROSEFINCH Carpodacus aythrinus 
Scarlet Rosefinch 



First collected by B. Hodgson (388). 
Fairly common, C. e. roseatus (r) is an 
altitudinal migrant. Summers mainly be- 
tween 3350m and 4000m, and winters 
from 1500m down to the foothills. C. e. 
erythrinus (e) is a winter visitor, reported 
chiefly between 275m and 2000m. The 
only record of C. e. kubanensis (k) is of 
one collected at Rekcha (D4) at about 
1525m in December 1948 (659). Inhabits 
shrubberies and open coniferous and 
birch forests in summmer; cultivation 
with bushes, and open wooded country in 
winter. Range Breeds in n. Baluchistan, 
and in the Himalayas from Chitral east to 




Bhutan and possibly Arunachal Pradesh. Winters through- 
out the subcontinent. 



BEAUTIFUL ROSEFINCH Carpodacus pulchenimus 



Subspecies pulcherrimus. The species was 
described from Nepal by F. Moore, from 
a specimen in Hodgson's later collection 
(409,798), but it may have originated in 
India. First definitely recorded by F.M. 
Bailey on 18 July 1936 at Bito-kola (D2) 
(62). A common resident, subject to alti- 
tudinal movements. Summers mainly 
between 3600m and 4650m, and winters 
between 2100m and at least 3300m. 
Breeding confirmed in Khumbu (190). 
Found in bushes on steep slopes, and 
cultivation in winter; in rhododendron 
shrubberies, Caragana scrub and on stony 
slopes in summer. Range Himalayas from 
Garhwal east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



-J--A 




366 



Finches 



PINK-BROWED ROSEFINCH Carpodacus rhodochmus 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common resident, subject to altitu- 
dinal movements. Summers chiefly be- 
tween 3050m and 3900m. Winters mainly 
from 3000m down to 1800m, and occa- 
sionally down to 915m. Frequents fir and 
birch forests and shrubberies of rhodo- 
dendron and juniper in summer; oak for- 
ests in winter. Range Himalayas from 
Kashmir east to Sikkim. 




VINACEOUS ROSEFINCH Carpodacus vinaceus 



Subspecies vinaceus. First recorded by 
R.L. Fleming Sr. at Belbahadi (B4) at 
1065m in December 1952 (647). It was 
identified initially as a Dark-rumped 
Rosefinch, but has been reidentified by 
the Chicago Field Museum (9). Scarce. 
Status uncertain, probably a breeding 
resident. Reported between 1065m and 
3050m in winter; and between 3050m and 
3200m in summer. A few records from the 
upper Kali Gandaki valley between Feb- 
ruary and November (527,770) including 
a laying female collected near Chadziou 
Khola on 3 July 1973 (50). Three reports 
from east of Ghorepani: in March 
(650,463) and December (176,729). 
Single records from near Chandrakot 
(H5) in March (147), Sukarmala (C4) in 
November (162), Machapuchare and 
Milke Danda (Q7) in winter (undated) 




Tmr 



J ' F ' M ■ A ■ M ' J 



ffhf^' 



(50), Langtang (L5) in May (421), and trapped at Chankheli 
in July 1979 (626). Breeding behaviour is poorly known. 
Inhabits bamboo and dense bushes in forest. Range Hima- 
layas at Naini Tal and in Nepal. 



DARK-RUMPED ROSEFINCH Carpodacus edwardsu 

Edwards' Rosefinch, Large Rosefinch 



Subspecies rubicunda. Scarce, status un- 
certain. A Hodgson specimen was listed 
for Nepal by Sharpe (718) but it may have 
originated in India. First definitely re- 
corded by H. Stevens from the upper Mai 
vaUey (S7) at 2440m on 28 March 1912 
(740). Found nearby, on the Singhalila 
ridge (S7) at 3635m in May 1989 (704). 
The only other confirmed reports are 
from Gosainkund between 3200m and 



3505m in May: a maximum of 12 was noted at Gapte, also 
seen at Mungun (L5) and Chandabari (L5) in 1980 (440) 
and at Gapte in 1986 (321). These are the most westerly 
records for the species. A specimen of Vinaceous 
Rosefinch, taken in the west in winter was initially misiden- 
tified as this species (50,647,664). Breeding behaviour is 
Uttle known. Frequents open rhododendron or birch for- 
ests; also rhododendron and juniper shrubberies. Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



Finches 
SPOT-WINGED ROSEFINCH Catpodacus rhodopepUis 



367 





Subspecies rhodopeplus. First recorded 
by B. Hodgson (388) . A locally distributed 
resident, subject to altitudinal move- 
ments. Fairly common near Ghorepani in 
winter, in the upper Kali Gandaki valley, 
and in Langtang (LS); occasionally seen 
at Khaptad (C3) and in the Barun valley 



(Q6), uncommon elsewhere. Summers mainly between 
3050m and 4000m, and winters between 2000m and 3050m. 
Breeding behaviour is poorly known. Inhabits rhododen- 
dron shrubberies above the treeUne and grassy slopes in 
summer; dense bushes in forests and damp ravines in 
winter. Range Himalayas in the hills north of Chakrata and 
Mussoorie, e. Kumaon, Nepal and Sikkim. 



WHITE-BROWED ROSEFINCH Carpodacus thum 



Subspecies thum. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (336^388). A fairly common 
resident, subject to altitudinal move- 
ments. Summers chiefly between 3800m 
and 4200m. Winters mainly beteen 2440m 
and 3660m, but noted as low as 1830m at 
UUeri (H5) on 19 December 1981 (309). 
Proved breeding at Dolaka (N6) (414). 
Found in dwarf rhododendron and juni- 
per shrubberies and alpine meadows in 
summer; open bushy hillsides in winter. 
Range Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to 
Arunachal Pradesh. 




STREAKED ROSEFINCH Catpodacus rubicilloides 

Eastern Great Rosefinch, Streaked Great Rosefinch, Crimson-eared Rosefinch 

Subspecies lucifer. First recorded in De- 
cember 1949 by R.L. Fleming Sr., in the 
upper Kali Gandaki valley at Thinigaon at 
2805m, and at Jomosom at 2865m (647). 
Fairly common from mid-November to 
early April, between 2800m and 3660m, in 
the upper Kali Gandaki valley north of 
Jomosom, and nearMuktinath. Summers 
in the Dolpo (G3) up to 4575m (224,587). 
The only other records are from Rara in 
February 1977 (464) and Gorak Shep 
(P6) in May 1987 (769). Occurs on open 
stony ground in summer and scrub in dry 
habitats. Range N. Himalayas and Ti- 




1=;=? 



J F M A m/^ ' jAA S 



betan plateau from Ladakh east to Bhutan. 



368 



Finches 



GREAT ROSEFINCH Carpodacus mbicUla 
Spot-crowned Rosefinch 

Subspecies ieve/tzovi. First recorded on 1 
August 1962 by R.L. Fleming Sr., at 
Gokyo Pokhari (P6) at 4S75m (247). 
Occasional, presumably resident. Usually 
shows little altitudinai movement. Re- 
ported chiefly between 3660m and 
5000m. Noted as low as 2650m in the 
upper Kali Gandaki valley in 1982, during 
a particularly cold winter (57,682) and at 
5350m near Everest Base Camp (P6) in 
March 1986 (546). Breeding behaviour is 
poorly known. Confirmed breeding in 
Khumbu, where juveniles were collected 
at 5000m on 24 August 1962 (190). Fre- 
quents the higher part of the alpine zone, 
on sparsely vegetated and rocky ground. 
Range N. Himalayas from Chitral east to 
Sikkim. 




RED-FRONTED ROSEFINCH Carpodacus puniceus 
Red-breasted Rosefinch 



Subspecies puniceus. The species was 
described from Nepal by E. Blyth, from a 
Hodgson specimen (116,798). A high alti- 
tude resident, subject to some altitudinai 
movements. Summers between 4265m 
and 5490m. In winter noted at least as 
high as 4575m (243), and there have been 
several reports from about 2745m in the 
upper Kali Gandaki valley after cold 
spells. Noted as low as 2980m at Rara in 
September (68). Breeding behaviour is 
poorly known. Taken in breeding condi- 
tion on 29 July and 3 August 1962 at 
Gokyo at 4850m and 5100m (190). Habi- 
tat is similar to that of the Streaked 
Rosefinch. Range N. Himalayas from 
Ladakh east to Arunachal Pradesh. 




CRIMSON-BROWED FINCH Pmpynfiula subhimachala 
Juniper Finch, Red-headed Rosefinch (Pinicola subhimachala) 



The species was descnTsed from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (354,798). An uncommon 
resident, showing some altitudinai move- 
ments. Summers chiefly between 3500m 
and 4000m; winters from 2590m up to at 
least 3050m. Localities include Phul- 
chowki and east of Ghorepani in winter, 
and in Langtang (L5JvI5). Found twice in 
the upper Kali Gandaki valley in May 



1978 (762,159), the most westerly records of the species. 
Reported in the Namlang valley (F2) (447), but confirma- 
tion of its occurrence so far west is desirable. Breeding 
behaviour is poorly known. Collected in breeding condition 
at Trashinga (P6) at 3550m on 9 August 1962 (190). Fre- 
quents dense bushes near the treeUne in summer; forests 
with thick undergrowth in winter. Favours junipers. Range 
Himalayas from Nepal east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India. 



Finches 
CRIMSON-BROWED FINCH, cont'd ... 



369 




I^B. 



SCARLET FINCH Haematospiza sipahi 

The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (354). Uncommon and lo- 
cally distributed, presumably resident. 
Subject to altitudinal movements, but 
these are not clearly understood. Re- 
ported between 2135m and 3100m in 
May, and winters from 1220m up to at 
least 2560m. Regularly seen in the lower 
Langtang valley in spring, and near 
Ghorepani and on Sheopuri in winter. 
Breedijig behaviour is little known. In- 
habits ravines and clearings in dense 
broadleaved forests, especially near 
streams. Range Himalayas from Garhwal 
east to Arunachal Pradesh, n.e. India. 



GOLD-NAPED FINCH Pynhoplectes epauletta 
Gold-crowned Black Finch 



The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (354). Probably resident but 
has mainly been reported in winter. Sub- 
ject to altitudinal movements which are 
poorly understood in Nepal. Seen at 
3260m and 3355m in May, and between 
1525m and 3000m in winter. Uncommon 
on Phulchowki; several reports from 
north-west of Pokhara and in the upper 
Mai valley, single records from most 
other localities. Breeding behaviour is 
unknown. Noted carrying nesting mate- 
rial or food on 10 March 1988 at Hanga 
Tham (465). Frequents dense under- 
growth in oak and rhododendron forests 
in winter, and rhododendron shrubberies 
in summer. Range Himalayas from Simla 
east to Arunachal Pradesh. 





I , II I I I I 



'j'fm'am'jj'a'So'n'u 



IcqRi 



370 



Finches 



BROWN BULLFINCH Pynhula nipalensis 

Subspecies nipalensis. The species was 
described from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(354,798). Locally distributed, probably 
resident. Shows little altitudinal move- 
ment: recorded between 1600m and 
3050m in winter, and up to 3200m in 
summer. Occasionally seen on Phul- 
chowki throughout the year; also on 
Sheopuri, atGhorepani, inLangtang, and 
in the upper Arun and upper Mai valleys. 
Mainly single reports from elsewhere. 
Breeding behaviour is unknown. Noted in 
June with nesting material at 2380m 
(243). Found in dense, moist broadleaved 
forests. Range Himalayas from 
Dharmsala east to Arunachal Pradesh; 
n.e. India. 




RED-HEADED BULLnNCH Pynhula erythmcephala 



First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common resident, subject to some 
altitudinal movements. Summers mainly 
between 3050m and 4000m. May descend 
in winter to 1830m, but resident at 3865m 
around Tengboche (P6) (558). Frequents 
low bushes in broadleaved forests. Fa- 
vours rhododendrons. Range Himalayas 
from JCashmir east to e. Bhutan. 




[BLACK-AND-YELLOW GROSBEAK Mycerobas ictenoides 
(Coccolhmustes ictenoides) 



Reported by D. Proud from the Gandak- 
Kosi watershed in May 1952 (633), but 
probably in error for Collared Grosbeak. 



Range Himalayas from N.W.F.P. east to Garhwal; also a 
specimen from Darjeeling in Leningrad Museum (592).] 



COLLARED GROSBEAK Mycerobas affinis 
Allied Grosbeak (Coccothrausles afjinis) 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
resident, subject to altitudinal move- 
ments. Fairly common east to Langtang, 
uncommon further east. Summers chiefly 
between 3000m and 3900m, and winters 
down to 2440m. Noted as low as 1065m at 
Birethante (H5) in December 1982 (315). 



Breeding behaviour is little known. Taken in breeding 
condition at Bigu (N6) at 3300m on 16 May 1962 (190). Seen 
carrying nesting material at Kalopani (H4) at 2560m, on 5 
May 1981 (811). Frequents coniferous or mixed 
broadleaved/ coniferous forests. Range Himalayas from 
Hazara east to Arunachal Pradesh. 



Finches 

COLLARED GROSBEAK, cont'd ... 



371 




SPOT-WINGED GROSBEAK Mycembas melanozanthos 
(Coccothraustes melanozanthos) 

The species was described from Nepal by 
B. Hodgson (354,798). Presumably resi- 
dent. Altitudinal movements are poorly 
known. Reported between 1400m and 
2135m in winter, and up to 3355m in 
summer. A regular winter visitor to Phul- 
chowki, several records from north-west 
of Pokhara (H5) in winter, and Langtang 
in spring. Single reports from elsewhere. 
Inhabits mixed coniferous/ broadleaved 
forests. Range Himalayas from the Indus 
vallqr east to Arunachal Pradesh; n.e. 
India. 




WHITE-WINGED GROSBEAK Mycembas camipes 
{Coccothraustes camipes) 



Subspecies camipes. The species was de- 
scribed from Nepal by B. Hodgson 
(354,798). A fairly common resident, sub- 
ject to some altitudinal movements. Oc- 
curs chiefly between 3050m and 4200m. 
In winter may descend to 2745m, but 
sometimes remains at the higher levels. 
Frequents dwarf juniper and other shrub- 
beries near the treeUne in summer; for- 
ests in winter. Range Hills of Pakistan; 
Himalayas from Gilgit and Hazara east to 
Arunachal Pradesh. 




372 



Buntings 



BLACK-FACED BUNTING Embenza spodocephala 



Subspecies sordida. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388,798). An uncommon and 
local winter visitor and passage migrant, 
occurring from the tarai up to 1280m. 
Regularly reported from Kosi marshes, 
the Kathmandu Valley and, since 1984, 
from Phewa Tal.The only other records 
are from Chitwan. Inhabits long grass, 
edges of marshes, and rice paddies; usu- 
ally found near water. Range Winter visi- 
tor to Nepal, n.e. India and Bangladesh. 
Vagrant west to Corbett. 




pcp= 



J'FM'A'M'J'J'A'S'O'N' D 



PINE BUNTING Emberiza leucocephalos 




j'f'm'a'm'j'j'a'sonu 



Subspecies leucocephalos. First recorded 
by the Seti River, north of Pokhara (H5) 
on 22 November 1953 by D. Proud 
(628,638). A winter visitor, found mainly 
above 2440m, but occasionally down to 
915m. Fairly common in most winters in 
the upper Kali Gandaki valley, and in the 



north-west. A rare visitor to the Kathmandu Valley. Noted 
on the Singhalila ridge (S7) on 22 March 1989 (172), the 
most easterly record of the qjecies in the Himalayas. For- 
ages in cultivation and grassy areas with bushes. Range 
Winter visitor to Pakistan and the Himalayas from 
N.W.F.P. east to Nepal. 



YELLOWHAMMER Emberiza citnnella 



Subspecies erythrogenysl First recorded 
at Kagbeni at 2810m on 25 February 1981 
by D. Mills et at. (65,559); the first record 
for the Indian subcontinent. A scarce, 
irregular and very local winter visitor. 
Several reports from the Kali Gandaki 
valley (H4) between January and early 



April, in most winters between 1981 and 1987: a few birds 
between Kalopani and Jomosom from 2630m to 2745m, and 
as low as 1100m at Tatopani (770). The maximum seen, at 
least six, was at Jomosom in January 1983 (748). The only 
other confirmed record is of one or two seen at Jumla on 26 
January 1983 (627). Found in cultivation; often with flocks 
of Pine Buntings. Range Vagrant to Ladakh and Nepal. 



Buntings 



373 



WHITE-CAPPED BUNTING Emberiza stewarti 
Chestnut-breasted Bunting 

Vagrant. First recorded by FM. Bailey at 
Banbassa (A4), at about 75m on 7 Janu- 
ary 1937 (62). The only other records are 
of specimens taken at Tansen (H6) at 
1370m in December 1951 (647), and at 
Barmdeo Mandi (A3) at 290m in January 



1953 (647). Frequents fields and dry, 
grassy scrub jungle. Range Summers in n. 
Baluchistan, and in the Himalayas from 
Chitral east to Garhwal. Winters in the 
foothills from N.W.F.P. east to Nepal, 
and in n.w. India. 



ROCK BUNTING Emberiza da 
Eurasian Rock Bunting 

First recorded by F.M. Bailey at Puma 
(E2) on 16 June 1936 (62). A resident, 
common in the north-west, and east to 
Manang. Shows little altitudinal move- 
ment. Found mainly above 2440m, up to 
4600m in summer, and occasionally down 
to 1800m in winter. Found as low as 
1450m in February 1988 at SUgadi Doti 
(B3) (68). Noted in the Gathlang valley 
(L5) on 26 Oaober 1980 (516), and in 
Helambu on 30 January 1981 (300), the 
most easterly records of the species. The 
races £. c. stracheyi anAE. c. Jlemingorum 
(f) (527) have been collected. Inhabits 
open grassy and rocky areas. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from N.W.F.P. 
east to Nepal. Winters south to Quetta 
and Delhi. 




, IIHIIII.I 



3. ^ 



J ' F ' M ' A^ ' J ' J ' AAS ' ' N ■ D ' 



CHESTNUT-EARED BUNTING Emberiza fucata 
Grey-headed Bunting 





J ■ F ' M ' ^ TT J'AAS^O'N'D' 



374 



Buntings 



CHESTTWT-EARED BUNTING, cont'd . 



Obtained by B. Hodgson in his later col- 
lection (409), but the specimen may have 
originated in India. First defmitely re- 
corded by F.M. Bailey at Nekala (E2) on 
9 June 1936 (62). Uncommon, probably 
resident. Altitudinal movements in Nepal 
are not clearly understood. Several winter 
reports from Kosi; uncommon elsewhere 
between 75m and 915m in winter. A few 



reports from Jumla at about 2135m in May and August 
(587,620,626); adults and young common near the airport 
(244). Confirmed breeding near Dhaulagiri (H4) in 1973 
(243). Two subspecies recorded: E. f. arcuata (a) (62), and 
E. f. fucata (f) (234,247). Summers on bushy hiUsides, and 
winters by reedy streams, lakes and wet fields. Range 
Breeds in the Himalayas from Chitral east to Nepal. Win- 
ters down to the adjacent foothills and plains east to n.e. 
India and Bangladesh. 



RUSTIC BUNTING Emberiza rustica 



Subspecies rustical Vagrant. A male was 
found at Sauraha (J6) at about 24Sm on 
31 January 1981 by A. del-Nevo and P. 
Ewins (180,181). The only other records 



are of another male seen at Kagbeni at about 2810m on 25 
February 1981 (65) and two at Pokhara on 25 December 
1989 (729). These are the first records for the subcontinent. 
Range Vagrant to Nepal. 



LmXE BUNTING Emberiza pusilla 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (388). A 
fairly common winter visitor, occurring 
mainly between 75m and 2000m; rare up 
to 3050m. Also noted on spring passage in 
March and April (50). Feeds in stubble, 
and ploughed or grass fields. Range Win- 
ter visitor to Nepal, n.e. India and Bangla- 
desh. 



CHESTNUT BUNTING Emberiza mOa 




J'F'M'A'M'J'J'A'S'O'N'D* 



Vagrant. The only record is of one col- 
lected at Godavari at 1525m in January 
1954 by R.L. Fleming Sr. (647). Inhabits 
rice stubbles, bushes in cultivation, and 



forest clearings (664). Range Scarce winter visitor to n.e. 
India; also recorded in the Himalayas in Chitral, Ladakh, 
Nepal and Sikkim. 



YELLOW-BREASTED BUNTING Emberiza aureola 



Subspecies aureola. First recorded by B. 
Hodgson (388). A common winter visitor 
and passage migrant, from the tarai up to 
1370m. In the Kathmandu Valley it was 
described in 1955 as a winter visitor in 
large flocks, from the end of Novemberto 
May (635). Noted recently mainly as a 
passage migrant, with some birds over- 
wintering. Flocks of up to 400 are regu- 
larly seen in the eastern tarai (P8) from 
November to April (293). Enormous 
flocks reported flying to roost in March 
and April 1982: 3500 were estimated at 
Chitwan (770) and over 7000 at Kosi 




Tappu (199,227). Frequents cultivation and grasslands. 
Range Winter visitor to Nepal, n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



Buntings/Addendum 



375 



REED BUNTING Emberiza schoeniclus 
Common Reed Bunting 

Subspecies unknown. Vagrant. The only 
record is of two seen by T.P. Inskipp on 21 
December 1970 at Begnas Tal (444). 
Found in reedbeds and tall grass. Range 
Winter visitor to Pakistan, n.w. India and 
Nepal. 



RED-HEADED BUNTING Emberiza brumceps 

Vagrant. A male was seen along the Narayani River, Chi- 
twan, at about 130m on 15 April 1975, by R.L. Fleming and 
H. Gilston (243,296). Frequents cultivation (664). Range 
Breeds in n. Baluchistan. Winter visitor to the Indian 
peninsula from Haryana east to Bangladesh, and south to s. 
India. 



BLACK-HEADED BUNTING Emberiza melanocephala 



First recorded by H.S. Nepali who col- 
lected a specimen on 17 November 1969 
at Balaju, Kathmandu Valley at 1340m 
(591,589). A scarce winter visitor. The 
other records are from the eastern tarai: 



in December 1975 (293), Kosi Barrage in December 1984 
(150), January 1985 (142) and March 1987 (769); also at 
Damak (R8), where at least 15 were seen in December 1978 
(134). Range Winter visitor to w. and central India and 
Nepal. Migrates through Pakistan. 



CRESTED BUNTING Melophus lathami 

First recorded by B. Hodgson (354). A 
fairly common resident, subject to altitu- 
dinal movements. Summers from 2440m 
down to 1220m, and possibly even lower; 
winters from 1460m down to the tarai. 
Breeding confirmed in the Kathmandu 
Valley (414), north-west of Pokhara 
(811), and near Dhankuta (Q7) (446). 
Inhabits cultivation, and hillsides with 
rocks and bushes. Range Himalayan foot- 
hills from Hazara east to Arunachal 
Pradesh, and south to Gujarat and 
Raipur; n.e. India and Bangladesh. 




S ' tJ D 



ADDENDUM 



The following records of two new species for Nepal were received too late for inclusion in the main text. 



SPOTTED CRAKE Porzana porzana 

One was seen by Rosemary Cooper near 
Kusaha, Kosi Tappu Wildlife Reserve at 
about 75m on 28 February and 3 March 
1990. Frequents marshes. Range Winter 
visitor to Pakistan and India. 



JERDON'S BABBLER Moupinia altirostris 
(Chrysomma altimstre) 

Subspecies griseigularis. First recorded by Hem Sagar Baral 
who found three birds near Gaida Wildlife Camp, Chitwan 
at about 250m on 26 November 1989. On 7 December 1989 
he observed a group of six near Dumariya, Chitwan, and 
three were seen by him and Jonathon Barnes near Lami Tal, 
Chitwan on 25 April 1990. Inhabits grassland. Range Plains 
of the Indus in Pakistan, and in n.e. India and Bangladesh. 



376 



Bibliography 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



1 Anon (1976) Bird sightings (and other things). Nepal NatuK 

Consavcuion Society Newsletter No.35. November 1976. 

2 Anon (1976) Saturday morning bird walk. Neptil Nature Con- 

servation Society Newsletter No.32, August 1976. 

3 Anon (1977) A new record tor the Valley. Nepal Nature 

Conservation Society Newsletter No.40, April 1977. 

4 Anon (1977) Observation. Nepal Nature Conservation Society 

Newsletter No.39, March 1977. 

5 Anon (1977) Recent observations. Nepal Nature Conservation 

Society Newsletter No. 42, June 1977. 

6 Anon (1977) Tawny Pipit in Nepal Nqw/NoBoieConsen'anon 

Newsletter No. 41, May 19T7. 

7 Anon (1979) Some interesting bird sightings. Nepal Nature 

Conservation Society Newsletter, September 1979. 

8 Anon (1983) List of bird specimens collected by CO. Maser 

from Nepal in 1967, held in the Chicago Field Museum of 
Natural Histoiy. Unpublished. 

9 Anon (1983) List of bird specimens collected by R.L. Fleming 

Sr. and R.L. Fleming Jr. from Nepal 1965-71, held in the Chi- 
cago Field Museum of Natural Histoiy. Unpublished. 

10 Anon (1983) List of bird specimens collected by E. W. Cronin 

Jr. from Nepal in 1973, held in the Chicago Field Museum of 
Natural Histoiy. Unpublished. 

11 Anon. (1988) A check-list of birds recorded at Machan, Royal 

Chitwan National Park. Unpublished. 

12 Anon. (1988) List of bird specimens collected by E. Cronin Jr. 

from the Arun River watershed, 1972-1974, stored in the 
Kathmandu Natural Histoiy Museum. Unpublished. 

13 Abdulali, H. (1968) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 1 Gaviiformes to Cico- 
niiformes.7. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 65(1): 182-199. 

14 Abdulali, R (1968) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 2 Anseritonnes. /. Bombay 
not Hist. Soc. 65(2): 418^30. 

15 AtxlulaU, H. (1968) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 3 Falconifonnes. /. Bom- 
bay not. Hist. Soc. 65(3): 696-723. 

16 Abdulali, H. (1%9) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 4 Megapodidae, Pha- 
sianidae, Tumicidae. J. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 66: 251-285. 

17 Abdulali, H. (1969) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 5 Gruidae to Charadriidae 
(Charadriinae). / Bombay naL Hist. Soc. 66: 542-559. 

18 Abdulali, H (1970) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 6 Scolopacinae (part). J. 
Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 67(1): 51-56. 

19 Abdulali, R (1970) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 7 Scolopacinae (part) to 
Laridae. /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 67(2): 279-298. 

20 Abdulali, H (1971) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 8 PterocUdidae and Col- 
umbidae./ Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 68(1): 127-152. 

21 Abdulali, R(1971)A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 9 Psittacidae. /. Bombay 
nat. Hist. Soc. 68(2): 328-338. 

22 Abdulali, H. (1971) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 10 Cuculidae. /. Bombay 
not. Hist. Soc. 68(3): 756-772. 

23 Abdulali, H. (1972) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 11 ^trigidae and 
Caprimulgidae.7. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 69(1): 102-129. 

24 Abdulali, R (1972) A catalogue of the birds in thecoUection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 12 Apodidae and 
Trogonidae./ Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 69(2): 378-389. 

25 AbdulaU, R (1972) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 13 Alcedinidae. /. Bombay 
nat. Hist. Soc. 69(3): 538-546. 



26 Abdulali, R (1973) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 14 Meropidae and 
Coraciidae./ Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 70(1): 147-155. 

27 Abdulali, R (1973) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 15 Upupidae and Buc- 
erotidae. / Bombay not Hist. Soc. 70(2): 339-345. 

28 Abdulali, R (1974) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 16 Capitonidae. Indicato- 
ridae and Picidae (part). /. Bomtay nat. Hist. Soc. 71(2): 244- 
265. 

29 Abdulali, R (1975) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Nattual Histoiy Society - 17 Picidae (concluded). / 
Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 72(1): 113-131. 

30 Abdulali,R(1975)Acatalogueofthebirdsinthecollectionof 

Bombay Natural History Society - 18 Eufylaimidae, Pittidae, 
Alaudidae. / Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 72(2): 477-505. 

31 Abdulali, R (1976) A catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 19 Hirundinidae. J. Bom- 
bay not. Hist. Soc. 73(2): 348-355. 

32 Abdulali, R (1976) A catalogue of the birds in thecoUection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 20 Laniidae, OrioUdae, 
Dicruridae, Artamidae. J. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 73(3): 491- 
515. 

33 AbdulaU, R (1978) A catalogue of the birds in the coUection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 21 Stumidae. /. Bombay 
nat. Hist. Soc. 75(2): 373-384. 

34 AbdulaU, R (1980) Catalogue of the birds in the coUection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 22 Corvidae, 
BombycUUdae./. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. TI{V): 81-89. 

35 AbdulaU, R (1981) A catalogue of the birds in the coUection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 23 Campephagidae and 
Irenidae./ Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 78(2): 261-286. 

36 Abdulali, R (1982) A catalogue of the birds in the coUection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 24 Pycnonotidae. /. Bom- 
bay not Hist. Soc. 79(1): 135-145. 

37 AbdulaU, R (1982) A catalogue of the birds in thecoUection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 25 Muscicapidae (Ti- 
maUinae) (part). /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 79(2): 336-360. 

38 AbdulaU, R (1982) A catalogue of the buds in the coUection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 26 Muscicapidae (Ti- 
maUinae) (contd.)./ Bombay mn. Hist. Soc. 79(3): 607-619. 

39 AbdulaU, R (1983) A catalogue ofthe bu-ds in the coUection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 27 Muscicapidae (Ti- 
maUinae) (contd.). J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 80: 149-165. 

40 AbdulaU, H (1983) A catalogue ofthe birds in the coUection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 28 Muscicapidae (Ti- 
maUinae) (contd.). /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 80: 349-369. 

41 AbdulaU, R ( 1985) A catalogue of the birds in the coUection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 29 Muscicapidae (Musci- 
capinae, PachycephaUnae). J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 82: 87- 
113. 

42 AbdulaU, R (1986) A catalogue ofthe birds in the coUection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 30 Muscicapidae 
(SyMinae). / Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 83: 130-163. 

43 AbdulaU, R (1986) A catalogue ofthe birds in the coUection of 

Bombay Nattual History Society - 31 Muscicapidae 
(SyhTinae) (contd). /. Bombay nat. Hist Soc. 83: 339-359. 

44 AbdulaU, R (1987) A catalogue ofthe birds m the coUection of 

Bombay Natural Histoiy Society - 32 Muscicapidae 
(Turdinae). y. Bomftay/wl. Hist. Soc. 84: 105-125. 

45 AU, S. and Ripley, S.D. (1972) Handbook ofthe birds of India 

arui Pakistan, 5. Bombay and London: Oxford Univeisity 
Press. 

46 AU, S. and Ripley, S.D. (1971) Handbook ofthe birds of India 

and Pakistan, 6. Bombay and London: Oxford Univeisity 
Press. 



Bibliography 



377 



47 Ali, S. and Ripley, S.D. (1972) Handbook of the birds of India 

and Pakistan, 7. Bombay and London: Oxford University 
Press. 

48 Ali, S. and Ripley, S.D. (1973) Handbook of the birds of India 

and Pakistan, 8. Bombay and London: Oxford University 
Press. 

49 Ali, S. and Ripley, S.D. (1973) Handbook of the birds of India 

and Pakistan, 9. Bombay and london: Oxford University 
Press. 

50 All, S. and Ripley, S.D. (1974) Handbook of the birds of India 

and Pakistan, 10. Bombay and London: Oxford University 
Press. 

51 Ali, S. and Ripley, S.D. (1978) Handbook of the birds of India 

and Pakistan, 1 (Second edition). Bombay and London: Ox- 
ford University Press. 

52 Ali, S. and Ripley, S.D. (1980) Handbook of the birds of India 

and Pakistan, 2 (Second edition). Bombay and London: Ox- 
ford University Press. 

53 Ali, S. and Ripley, S.D. (1981) Handbook of the birds of India 

and Pakistan, 3 (Second edition). Bombay and London: Ox- 
ford University Press. 

54 Ali, S. and Ripley. S.D. (1983) Handbook of the birds of India 

and Pakistan, 4 (Second edition). Bombay and London: Ox- 
ford University Press. 

55 AUnd, P. (1986) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, February - 

March 1986. Unpublished 

56 Alstrom, P. and Olsson, U. (1983) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal, 1983. Unpublished. 

57 Andell, P. et aL (1982) Nepal Nona Indian, 1982. Unpub- 

lished. 

58 Andersen, U., Madsen, P.-E. and Molgaard, E. (1986) 

Fugleiagttagelserfra Nepal - Indien Vinteren 1984-85. Copen- 
hagerL Dansk Omitologisk Forenings. 

59 Andrews, T. (1986) Notes on birds recorded in northern India 

and Nepal, winter 1984-1985. Unpublished. 

60 Aijal, N. (1976) Sighting of Red-footed Falcons and Lesser 

Kestrels in Pokhara. Nepal Nature Conservation Newsletter 
No.31, July 1976. 

61 Aijal, N. (1976) Birds in the Lukla-Syangboche area. Nepal 

Nature Conservation Society Newsletter No.36, December 
1976. 

62 Bailey, F.M (1938) Register of bird specimens collected in 

Nepal 1935-38, and presented to the British Museum (Natu- 
ral History). Unpublished. 

63 Baker, E.C.S. (1922-1930) Fauna of British India: Birds. 2nd 

edition, 8 vols. Taylor and Francis, London. 

64 Baker, E.C.S. (1923)^1 hand-list of genera and species of birds of 

the Indian Empire. 

65 Baker, T. (1981) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1981. 

Unpublished. 

66 Baker, T. (1983) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, February - 

March 1983. Unpublished. 

67 Baral, RS. (1989) Notes on birds recorded at Gaida Widlife 

Camp, Royal Chitwan National Park, 1988-1989. Unpub- 
lished. 

68 Barber, I. (1989) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal 1988 - 1989. 

Unpublished. 

69 Barnes, LJ. (1989) Bird list for Nepal, India and Malaysia, 27 

October 1988 to 9 April 1989. Unpublished. 

70 Barrett, D., Prescott, T. and Barker, L (1989) Notes on birds 

recorded in Langtang National Park, February 1989. Unpub- 
lished. 

71 Bams, V. and Daniel, M. (1976) CapiUariids (Nematoda: 

Capillariidae) from Passeriform birds of NepaL Folia Parasi- 
tologica (Praha) 23: 105-110. 

72 Bams, V. Rysavy, B. and Daniel, M. (1975) Some cestodes and 

nematodes parasitizing gallinaceous and columbiform birds 
in NepaL Folia Parasiiologica (Praha) 22(4): 327-335. 

73 Bauer, C.-A (1982) Indien och Nepal. 22.1 - 7/8.2 1982. 

Unpublished. 



74 Bauer, C.-A (1984) Indien och Nepal, January 1984. Unpub- 

lished. 

75 Bauer, C.-A (1986) Birds and mammflls seen on 'Skof tour to 

India and Nepal, April - May 1986. Unpublished. 

76 Beaman, MA.S. (1973) Report of the oroithological Cam- 

bridge expedition to the Himalayas, 1973. Unpublished. 

77 Beaman, NIAS. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 

1973-1982. Unpublished. 

78 Beaman, MA.S. and Sharrock, J.T.R. (1980) Sunbird Holidays 

tour report, Febniaiy 1980. Unpublished. 

79 Beavan, R.C. (1867) Notes on various Indian birds. Ibis (2)3: 

430-455. 

80 Bensch, S. (1982) Two weeks bird-watching in Nepal, late 

January - earty February 1982. Unpublished. 

81 Benson, C.W. In prep. TyP^ specimens of birds (skins) in the 

University of Zoology, Cambridge. 

82 van den Berg, AB. and Bosman, CA.W. (1976) List of birds 

observed in Nepal, April 1976. Unpublished. 

83 Bergstrom, T. (1975) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, Octo- 

ber - November 1975. Unpublished. 

84 Bezuijen, M. (1988) Notes on birds recorded when trekking in 

the Jugal Himal region of Nepal, 24 March - 6 April 1988. 
Unpublished. 

85 Bhandary, H.R., Schemnitz, S.D. and Picozzi, N. (1986) Au- 

tumn foods of forest pheasants of Pipar, central NepaL /. 
WoHd Pheasant Assoc. 11; 29-33. 

86 Bijlsma, R. (1989) Nest-building in Bonelli's Eagle Hieraaetus 

fasciatus in October in Nepal. Ui4>ublished. 

87 Binford, L.C. (1977) Birds and mammals observed in India and 

Nepal on California Academy of Sciences tour, 26 February 
- 27 March 1977. Unpublished. 

88 Biswas, B. (1950) On the shrike Lanius tephronotus (Vigors), 

with remarks on the erythronotus and tricolor groups of 
Lanius schach LinrL, and their hybrids. / Bombay run. Hist. 
Soc. 49: 444-455. 

89 Biswas, B. (1950) On the taxonomy of some Asiatic pygmy 

woodpeckers. Proc. zooL Soc. Bengal 3: 1-37. 

90 Biswas, B. (1950) The Himalayan races of the Nutcracker 

(Nucifraga caryocatactes) (Lirm.) [Aves]. / zool. Soc. India 2: 
26. 

91 Biswas, B. (1951) On some larger spine-tailed swifts, with the 

description of a new subspecies from NepaL Ardea 39: 318- 
321. 

92 Biswas, B. (1955) Zoological results of the 'Daily Mail' Hima- 

layan Expedition 1954. Two new birds from Khumbu, eastern 
NepaL Bull. Brit. (MtClub 75: 87-88. 

93 Biswas, B. (1959) On the validity otHarpactes erytfirocephalus 

hodgsoni (Gould) [Aves: Trogonidaej. J. Bombay not. Hist. 
Soc. 56: 335-338. 

94 Biswas, B. (1959) Taxonomic status of the blood pheasants of 

Nepal and Sikkim./ zool. Soc. India 10(1): 100-101. 

95 Biswas, B. (1960) The birds of NepaL J.Bombay nai. Hist. Soc. 

57(2): 278-308. 
% Biswas, B. (1960) The birds of Nepal, Part 2. /. Bombay nat 
Hist. Soc. 57(3): 516-546. 

97 Biswas, B. (I960) Zoological results of the 'Daily Mail" Hima- 

layan Expedition 1954. Notes on some birds from Khumbu, 
Eastern NepaL Unpublished. See Biswas, 1974. 

98 Biswas, B. (1961) The birds of Nepal, Part 3. /. Bombay nat. 

Hist. Soc. 58(1): 100-134. 

99 Biswas, B. (1961) The birds of Nepal, Part 4. / Bombay not. 

Hist. Soc. 58(2): 444-474. 

100 Biswas, B. (1961) The birds of Nepal, Part 5. /. Bombay nat. 

Hist. Soc. 58(3): 653-677. 

101 Biswas, B. (1962) The birds of Nepal, Part 6. / Bombay not. 

Hist. Soc. 59(1): 200-227. 

102 Biswas, B. (1%2) The birds of Nepal, Part 7. /. Bombay not 

Hist. Soc. 59(2): 405-429. 

103 Biswas, B. (1962) The birds of Nepal, Part 8. /. Bombay not. 

HisL Soc. 59(3): 807-821. 



378 



Bibliography 



104 Biswas, B. (1963) The birds of Nepal, Part 9. J. Bombay not. 

Hisl. Soc. 60(1): 173-200. 

105 Biswas, B. (1963) The birds of Nepal, Part 10. J. Bombay not. 

Hist. Soc. 60(2): 388-399. 

106 Biswas, B. (1%3) The birds of Nepal, Part 11. / Bombay no). 

Hisl. Soc. 60(3): 638-654. 

107 Biswas, B. (1966) The birds of Nepal, Part 12. J. Bombay not. 

Hisl. Soc. 63(2): 365-377. 

108 Biswas, B. (1968) Some new bird records for Nepal /. Bombay 

not. Hist. Soc. 65: 782-784. 

109 Biswas, B. (1974) Zoological results of the Daily Mail Hima- 

layan Expedition 1954: notes on some birds of eastern Nepal 
J. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 71: 456-495. 

110 Biswas, B. (1983) Additional notes on birds recoixjed on 1954 

'Daily Mail' Himalayan Expedition. Unpublished. 

111 Blanchon, J.-J. and Dubois, PJ. (1987) Voyage au Nepal Mais 

1987. Unpublished. 

112 Bland, J.D. (1987) Notes on the distribution and ecology of 

some Himalayan pheasants. /. WoHd Pheasant Assoc. 12: 22- 
29. 

113 BIyth, E. (1842) Notes on various Indian and Malayan birds, 

with descriptions of some presumed new species. J. Asiat. 
Soc. Bengal 11: 160-195. 

114 BIyth, E. (1843) Monthly report for December meeUng, 1842./. 

Asiat. Soc. Bengal 12: 931-1011. 

115 BIyth, E. (1844) Appendix to report for December meeting, 

1842. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 13: 361-395. 

116 BIyth, E. (1844) "On the Leiotrichane Birds of the Subhema- 

layas," by B.RHodgson, Esq.: with some additions and an- 
notations, -a synopsis of the Indian Pari, - and of the Indian 
FringjlUdae. / Asiat. Soc. Bengal 13: 933-963. 

117 BIyth, E. (1844) List of birds obtained in the vicinity of Cal- 

cutta, from Septemtter 1841 to March 1843 inclusive. Amu 
Mag not. Hist. 12: 90-101. 

118 BIyth, E. (1845) Notices and descriptions of various new or 

little known species of birds./ Ay/o/. Soc. Bengal 14: 173-212; 
546-602. 

119 BIyth, E. (1845) Drafts for a Fauna Indica. No. 1. The Colum- 

bidae, or pigeons and doves. /.Afio/. Soc. Bengal 14: &45S7S. 

120 BIyth, E. (1846) Notices and descriptions of various new or 

little known species of birds. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 15: 1-51; 
280-313. 

121 BIyth, E. (1847) Notices and descriptions of various new or 

little known species of birds./. As«U. Soc. Bengal 16: 117-157; 
428^76. 

122 BIyth, E. (1849) Catalogue of the birds in the museum Asiatic 

Society, Calcutta. Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal 

123 BIyth, E. (1865) A few identiijcations and rectiCcations of 

synonymy. Ibis (2)1: 27-50. 

124 BIyth, E. (1866) The ornithology of India - a commentary on 

Dr. Jerdon's 'Birds of India'. Ibis (2)2: 225-258; 336-376. 

125 BIyth, E. (1867) The ornithology of India - a commentary on 

Dr. Jerdon's 'Birds of India'. Ibis (2)3: 1-48; 147-185. 

126 Bolding, J. and Jorgensen, T. (1987) List of birds recorded in 

Nepal and India, October 1986 - January 1987. Unpublished. 

127 Bolton, M. (1976) Lake Rara National Parle Management Plan 

1976-81. FO NEP/72/002 Project Working Document No. 3. 
Kathraandu: UNDP/FAO. 

128 Bolton, M. (1976) Royal Kamali Wildlife Reserve Management 

Plan 1976-81. FO NEP/72/002 Project Working Document 
No. 4. Kathmandu: UNDP/FAO. 

129 Bonaparte, C.L. (1850) Conspectus Generum Avium, 1. 

Lugduni Batavamm, apud EJ. Brill, Academiae TVpogra- 
pbum. 

130 Bonaparte, C.L. (1856) Especes nouvelles d'oiseaux d'Asie et 

d'Amerique. Compt. Rend. Acad Sci. Paris 42: 764-776. 

131 Bonaparte, C.L. (1856) Suite et fin des additions et corrections 

au coup d'oeil sur I'Ordre des pigeons, et a la partie corre- 
spondante du Conspectus Avium. Compt. RetuL Acad Sci. 
Paris 43: 942-949. 



132 Bonaparte, C.L. (1857) Conspectus Generum Avium, 2. 

Lugduni Batavarum, apud EJ.BriU, Academiae T^pogra- 
phum. 

133 Boot, KJ. (1982) List of bird q>ecimens bom Nepal in Royal 

Albert Memorial Museum, ^eter. Unpublished. 

134 Bowden, C. (1979) Bird records from Nepal; in report of 

University of East Anglia Expedition 1978/79. Unpublished. 

135 Bradbear, P. (1986) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, Septem- 

ber - October 1986. Unpublished. 

136 Biearey, D. (1985) Record of Amur Falcon Faleo amurensis in 

Nepal, April 1983. Unpublished. 

137 Brearey, DM. and Piitchard, D.E. (1985) Birds and other 

wildlife of Lake Rara National Park, northwest Nepal Saipal 
82-83. Report No. 3. Unpublished. 

138 Buckton, S. (1990) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, Decem- 

ber 1989 - February 1990. UnpubUshed. 

139 Burton, E. (1836) Characters of several birds from the Hima- 

layan Mountains. Proc. zooL Soc. London 3: 152-154. 

140 Byeis, C. and Adams, A. (1983) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal, 1983. Unpublished. 

141 Byrne, RW. and Harris, S.M. (1975) Skeletal report of birds 

and mammals seen during September - November 1975 in 
Nepal Unpublished. 

142 Calladine, J. (1985) Nepal and India. Notes on birds and 

mAmmfltq recorded, 18 October - 16 February 1985. Unpub- 
lished. 

143 Carty, P., Jackson, S., McCarthy, B., and Woolly, B. (1984) 

Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, winter 1983/84. Unpub- 
lished. 

144 Chappie, J.L. (1976) A visit to Kosi Eanagie.ArmyBintwtitching 

Soc. BuU. No.4/76. 

145 Christensen, S., Bijlsma, R, De Roder, F. and Henriksen, M. 

(1984) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1984. Unpublished. 

146 Clements, A. and Bradbear, N. (1981) Systematic list of species 

seen in Nepal and India, November - December 1981. Un- 
published. 

147 Ougston, D.L. (1985) A checklist of the birds and mammalg 

seen in Nepal &Y>m 8 - 30 March 1985. Unpublished. 

148 Cocker, P.M. and Adams, A. (1983) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal, 1983. Unpublished. 

149 Cocker, P.M. and Inskipp, C. (19SS)A Himalayan ornithologist: 

the life and work of Brian Houghton Hodgson. Oxford: Oxford 
University Press. 

150 Collins, A.R (1986) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, Novem- 

ber 1984 - February 1985. Unpublished. 

151 Conder, PJ. (1978) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, Febru- 

aiy - March 1978. Unpublished. 

152 Cooper, D. and Cooper, J.F. (1989) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal, 1 - 28 January 1989. Unpublished. 

153 CortKtt, G.B. (1974) Birds recorded on the RAF Dhaulagiri 

Expedition, March - May 1974. Unpublished. 

154 Couronne, B. and Kovacs, J.-C. (1986) Observations onutholo- 

giques au Nepal, Fevrier - Mais 1986. Unpublished. 

155 Cox, J. Jr. (1978) Avian jottings for Nepal, 1978. UnpubUshed. 

156 Cox, J. Jr. (1979) New and interesting birds observed on a 

month's journey in east Nepal Nepal Nature Conservation 
Society Newsletter July 1979. 

157 Cox, J. Jr. (1982) Avian checklist of species observed during 

1978 in the district of Kapilvastu, centra] tarai Unpublished. 

158 Cox, J. Jr. (1984) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1984. 

Unpublished. 

159 Cox, J. Jr. (1984) Further notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 

1976-1984. Unpublished. 

160 Cox, J. Jr. (1985) Birds of the Rara-Jumla area, west Nepal. 

1976-1984. Unpublished. 

161 Cox, J. Jr. (1985) Partial checUist of birds recorded within Rara 

Lake National Park, Nepal, May 1985. Unpublished. 

162 Cox, J. Jr. (1985) Selected notes from a brief avian survey of 

Royal Baidia Wildlife Reserve and periphery, west Nepal 
during November 1985. Unpublished. 



Bibliography 



379 



163 Cox, J. Jr. (1988) A note on treecreeper Certbiidae nesting in 

west Nepal Unpublished 

164 Cox, J. Jr. (1989) Birds observed in the south-east terai, Nepal, 

12 - 26 Februaiy 1989. Unpublished. 

165 Cox, J., Lindvall, M. and Underwood, L. (1982) Notes on birds 

recorded in Nepal, per P. Hall. Unpublished. 

166 Cox, S., Cox, P., Loud, P. and Brown, G. (1989) Notes on birds 

recorded in Nepal, 12 - 31 March 1989. Unpublished. 

167 CToma,E.V/. JT.(l979)TTKAnm,analurallusloiycflhewoi1d's 

deepest valley. Boston: Houghton MifDin Co. 

168 Cronin, E.W. Jr. (1979) The legacy of Chang Hua. Aniimil 

Kingdom 82(4): 31-35. 

169 Cronin, E. W. Jr. and Sherman, P. W. (1976) A resource-based 

mating system: the Orange-rumped Honeyguide. UvingBird 
15: 5-32. 

170 Curry-Lindahl, K. (1979) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 

1979. Unpublished. 

171 Curry-Lindahl, K. (1980) The Forest Wagtail Molaalla uutica 

recorded in Nepal Bull. Brit. Om. Club 100: 201-202. 

172 Curson, J. and Bose, A (1989) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal, February - April 1989. Unpublished. 

173 Cuvier, C. (1829) Le regjie animal distribue d'apres son orgam- 

sation, pour servir debase a rhistoirenaturelledesanimauxet 
d'introduction a t'anatomie comparee. Second edltioiL Paris. 

174 Dahmer, TA. (1976) Birds of Kosi Tappu Reserve. Unpub- 

lished. 

175 Dahmer, TA. (1976) Occurrence of the Dusky Homed Owl in 

Kosi Tappu. Nepal Nature Conservation Society Newsletter 
No J5, November 1976. 

176 Davison, A. (1990) Note on birds recorded in Nepal, December 

1989 - February 1990. Unpublished. 

177 Dawson, I. (1983) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, December 

1982 - January 1983. Unpublished. 

178 De Witt, R. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal. Unpub- 

lished. 

179 Deignan, H. (1954) On the nomenclature of the Himalayan 

Goldcrests, BulL Brit. Om. Club 74: 103-104. 

180 del-Nevo, A and Ewins, P. (1981) Bird watching in Nepal, 7th 

December 1980 - 19th Februaiy 1981. UnpubUshed. 

181 del-Nevo, A. and Ewins, P. (1983) Rustic Bunting (Emberiza 

rustica) - a new species for Nepal / Bombay not. Hist Soc. 80: 
417j»18. 

182 del-Nevo, A. and Ewins, PJ. (1984) Birds feeding on Dre- 

driven insects. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 80: 413-414. 

183 DeLuce, P. and Goodyer, N. (1990) An investigation of the 

status and conservation of forest birds in the Mai valley of far 
east Nepal Survey repoil Unpublished. 

184 Derry, J.F. and Honit^, G.M. (1981) Nepal bird list, Stowe 

Himalayan Expedition Journal, 1981. Unpublished. 

185 Desfayes, M. (1965) Field notes on Grandala coelicolor. Ibis 

107: 400^1. 

186 DesCayes, M. (1969) The Smoky Leaf Waitler, Phylloscopus 

fijjigiventer (Hodgson) in Nepal / Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 66: 
623-624. 

187 Desfayes, M. (1970) The Blackbird, Tardus tttemla maximus in 

Nepal. / Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 67: 371-572. 

188 Desfayes, M. (1971) Tibetan Twite, Acanthis flavirostris in 

Nepal J. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 68: 832. 

189 Diesselhorst, G. (1965) Winter habitat otAcrocephalus dume- 

torum Blyth. BulL Brit. Om. Club 85: 111. 

190 Diesselhorst, G. (1968) Beitrage zur Okologie der Vogel Zen- 

tral- und Ost-Nepals. Khumbu Himal 2: 1-417. 

191 Diesselhorst, G. and Martens, J. (1972) Hybriden von Poms 

melanolopfms und Parus ater im Nepal-Himalaya. /. Om. 
113(4): 374-390. 

192 Dinetstein, E. (1979) An ecological survey of the Royal Kar- 

naU-Bardia Wildlife Reserve, Nepal University of Washing- 
ton. Unpublished thesis. 

193 Dodman, T. and Guinan, Y. (1989) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal, March - April 1989. Unpublished. 



194 Dunkley, A, (1989) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal 1988- 

1989. Unpublished. 

195 Durham Univeisity Himalayan Expedition. (1977) Langtang 

National Park Management Plan 19T7-S2. FO NEP/72/002 
Field Document No. 7. DUHE/HMG/UNDP/FAO, Kath- 
mandu. 

196 Durrai, D. (1984) Dusky Eagle Owl at Chitwan, February 1984. 

U[q)ublished. 

197 Dymond, J.N. (1986) Selected bird list, Nqul, Februaiy - 

March 1986. Unpublished. 

198 Dymond,J.N.andThorpe,RI. (1980) Notes onbirds recorded 

in Nepal, February 1980. Unpublished. 

199 Fames, J. (1982) Notes on birds recorxled in Nepal, 1982. 

Unpublished. 

200 Eames, J. and Grimmett, R.F. (1982) Birds recorded at Kosi 

Tappu Wildlife Reserve, April 1982. Unpublished. 

201 Ebeb, E.B. (1986) Ornithological records during a trip to 

Russia, Japan, Thailand, Nepal and India, August - Decem- 
ber 1985. Unpublished. 

202 Egger, J., LemVe, G.W. and Tunm,H. (1990) Nepal, 3 - 24 

Februar 1990. Unpublished. 

203 Ellen, R.E.T. (1988) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, January 

1988. Unpublished. 

204 Ehves, HJ. (1873) Geographical distribution of Asiatic birds. 

Proc. 200L Soc. London 42: 645-682. 

205 Eve, V. and Hibberd, G. (1987) Notes on birxJs recorded in 

Nepal Unpublished. 

206 Fairbank, RJ. (1980) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, No- 

vember 1979 - January 1980. Unpublished. 

207 Faiibank, RJ. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1982. 

Unpublished. 

208 Farrow, D. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, March - 

April 1982. UnpubUshed. 

209 Fleming, R.L Jr. (1968) Winter observations on the ecology 

and distribution of birds on the Kosi-Gandak watershed 
ridge, central Nepal Pavo 6: 1-11. 

210 Fleming, R.L Jr. (1968) Buceros bicomis, Liimaeus, in Nepal 

Pavo 6: 59-61. 

211 Fleming, R.L. Jr. (1968) The Waxwing, Bombycilla garrulus 

(Linnaeus) in Nepal J. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 65: 488. 

212 Fleming, R.L. Jr. (1%9) Birds of Thakkhola, north Nepal /. 

Bombay not. Hist Soc. 66: 132-139. 

213 Fleming, R.L Jr. (1971) Avian zoogeography of Nepal 77ie 

Himalayan Review 4: 28-33. 

214 Fleming, R.L Jr. (1972) The Kathmandu Christmas Bird 

Count Nepal Nature Conservation Society Newsletter No.7, 
January 1972. 

215 Fleming, R.L Jr. (1973) Noteson the nest and bebaviourof the 

Yellow-browed Titmouse, Parus modestus (Burton). / Bom- 
bay not Hist. Soc. 70: 326-329. 

216 Fleming, R.L Jr. (1974) Rediscovery of the Yellow-vented 

Floweipecker in Nepal Nepal Nature Conservation Society 
Newsletter HoJ22, January 1974. 

217 Fleming, R.L Jr. (1975) Christmas bird counts. Nepal Nature 

Conservation Society Newsletter No. 28, February 1975. 

218 Fleming, R.L. Jr. (1975) The discovery of the BUck-capped 

Kingfisher. Nepal Nature Conservation Society Newslettertio. 
28, February 1975. 

219 Fleming. R.U Jr. (1975) A pink seagull in Nepal Nqw/Maure 

Conservation Society Newsletter No29, July 1975. 

220 Fleming, R.L Jr. (1978) An invasion of European Blackbirds. 

Nepal Nature Conservation Society Newsletter No. 52, May 
1978. 

221 Fleming, R.L Jr. (1979) Notes on birds seen in the Everest 

National Park, Nepal, May 1979. Unpublished. 

222 Fleming, R.L. Jr. (1979) The Kathmandu Christmas Bird 

Count, 19TJ. Nepal Nature Conservation Society Annual Vol- 
ume II 1978-79: 21-27. 

223 Fleming, R.L Jr. (1981) Distribution information on various 

bird species in Nepal Pers. cormiL March 1981. 



380 



Bibliography 



224 Fleming, RL. Jr. (1982) List ofbirds recorded in Dolpo district 

in 1971. Unpublistied. 

225 Flemiag,R-L.Jr.(1983)Aneast-westAquilaeagIemigrationia 

the Himalayas. J. Bombay not. Hist Soc. 80: 58-62. 

226 Fleming, R.L. Jr. in Utt. 5 September 1989. 

227 Fleming R.L. Jr. in titt. 19 January 1990. 

228 Fleming R.L. Sr. (1952) Notes on the Nepal Koklas Pheasant 

(Pucrasia macrolopha nipaJensis) and the Spiiqr Babbler 
(Acanthoptila nifxUensis). J. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 50: 658- 
661. 

229 Fleming, R.L- Sr. (1953) Birds of NepaL / Bombay not. Hist 

Soc. 51: 939-943. 

230 Fleming, R.L. Sr. (1959) An ornithologist revisits west Nepal 

(March 21-25, 1959). / Bombay not Hist Soc. 56: 570-80. 

231 Fleming R.L.Sr. (1959) Spiny Babblers in KathmaiKlu Valley. 

/ Bombay not Hist. Soc. 56: 628-630. 

232 Fleming R.L. Sr. (1963) Occurrence of the Orange-rumped 

Honey Guide (Indicator x. xanlhortotus) in Nepal Pavo 1: 66- 
67. 

233 Fleming, R.L. Sr. (1963) Two new records for Nepai Pavo 1: 

126-127. 

234 Fleming, R.L. Sr. (1968) Nepal birds: supplement to Biswas' 

UsL /. Bombay not. Hist Soc. 65: 326-334. 

235 Fleming, R.L. Sr. (1974) Two new bird records for Nepal. 

Nepal Nature Conservation Society Newsletter No. 23, April 
1974. 

236 Fleming, R.L. Sr. (1976) May trek to the Annapuma Range. 

Nepal Nature Conservation Society Newsletter No. 32, August 
1976. 

237 Fleming, RL, Sr. (1977) Bird movements in NepaL Nepai 

Nature Conservation Society Annual Vol.1 1977: 40-43. 

238 Fleming, R.L, Sr. (1977) Sukla Phanta WUdlife Reserve. Nepai 

Nature Conservation Society Newsletter No. 39, March 1977. 

239 Fleming, R.L. Sr. (1977) Birds in the Kosi area, 5 November 

1977. Nepal Nature Conservation Society Newsletter No. 46, 
October 1977. 

240 neming, R.L. Sr. and Fleming. R.L. Jr. (1970) Birds of Kath- 

numdu Valley and surrounding hills: a check list. Kathmandu. 

241 Fleming, R.L. Sr. and Fleming R.L. Jr. (1970) Avian sap- 

drinkers of the Himalayas. /. Bengal not. Hist. Soc. 36: 54-57. 

242 Fleming, R.L. Sr. and Fleming R.L. Jr. (1980) A checklist of the 

birds of Kathmandu Valley. Unpublished. 

243 Fleming, R.L. Sr., Fleming R.L. Jr. and Bangdel, L.S. (1979) 

Birds of Nepal. Second edition. Kathmandu: Avalok. 

244 Fleming, R.L. Sr., Fleming, R.L. Jr. and Bangdel, L.S. (1984) 

Birds of Nepal. Third edition. Kathmandu: Avalok. 

245 Fleming, R.L. Sr. and Traylor, MA, (1961) Notes on Nepal 

birds. Fieldiana: zooL 35(9): 447^7. 

246 Fleming, R.L. Sr. and Traylor, MA. (1964) Further notes on 

Nepal birds. Fieidiana: zool. 35(9): 495-558. 

247 Fleming, R.L. Sr. and Traylor, MA (1968) Distributional 

notes on Nepal birds. Fieidiana: zool. 53(3): 147-203. 

248 Forbes, RC and Robinson, RC. (1898-1900)Catalogue ofthe 

Psittaci, Coraciae, Charadriiformes, Pici and Cuculii in the 
Derby Museum. Buil. Liverpool Museum Vols. I,II. 

249 Forester, J A and LeUiott, AD. (1983) Pipar Wildlife Reserve 

management proposals. World Pheasant Association News 3: 
4-6. 

250 Forster, E. (1982) Himalayan solo. Shrewsbury: Anthony Nel- 

son. 

251 Fox, J.L. (1974) An ecological survey ofthe proposed Langtang 

National Park. Report to National Parks and Wildlife Con- 
servation OCGce. Kathmandu: mimeo. 

252 Fraser, L. (1848-1850) Catalogue of the birds of Knowsley 

Museum. Six volumes. Unpublished. 

253 Gadow, R (1883) Catalogue ofthe Birds in the collection ofthe 

British Museum, 8 - Paridae, Laniidae, Certhiomorphae. 
London: British Museum. 

254 Gadow, R (1883) Catalogue ofthe birds in the collection ofthe 

British Museum, 9 - Nectariniidae, Meliphagjdae. London: 
British Museum. 



255 Gantlett, SJ.M. (1981) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 

November 1981. Unpublished. 

256 Gardiner, S. (1990) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1989- 

1990. Unpublished. 

257 Gardiner, S. (in prep.) Sighting of a Mandarin Duck in east 

Nq>aL 

258 GariLatt, KJ. (1981) Sagarmartha National Park Management 

Plan. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conserva- 
tion, Kathmandu. Unpublished. 

259 Gaston, AJ. (1974) List of species seen between Pokhara and 

Amuq^uma Sanctuary, May 1974. UI^}ubUshed. 

260 Gawn, S. (1987) Birding in India and Nepal, 5 February - 10 

April 1986: a trip report Unpublished 

261 Gibbs, R (1961) The hills of India. London: Jarrolds. 

262 Good, J.B. and Ryan, J. (1988) Notes on birds recorded in 

NepaL 10 February - 5 March 1988. Unpublished. 

263 Goodere, J. (1978) A new bird for Nepal and notes on some 

other scarce species. J. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 75(3): 925-926. 

264 Goodwin, A (1986) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1986. 

Unpublished. 

265 Gould, J. (1835) Characters of several new species of insesso- 

rial birds, including a new genus {StenorHynchus). Proc. zool. 
Soc. London 3: 185-187. 

266 Gould, J. (1836)Charactersofsomenewspeciesofbirdsinthe 

Society's collection. Proc. zool. Soc. London 4: 5. 

267 Gould, J. (1836) Characters of some new birds in the Society's 

collection, including two new genera, Paradoxomis and 
Actinodura. Proc. zool. Soc. London 4: 17-19. 

268 Gould, J. (1837-1838) Icones Avium, or figures and descriptions 

of new and interesting species of birds from various parts ofthe 
globe. London. 

269 Gould, J. (1838) A monograph ofthe Trogonidae, orfamOy of 

trogons. LondoiL 

270 Gould, J. (1854) Descriptions of two new species of Pucrasia. 

Proc. zooL Soc. London 22: 99-100. 

271 Gould, J. (1861) 77i€ birds of Asia, 3 (13). London. 

272 Gould, J. (1868) On four new species of birds. Proc. zool. Soc. 

London 1868: 218-220. 

273 Grahame, L (1971) Blood Pheasant - a Himalayan adventure. 

London: Mitre Press. 

274 Gray, G.R. (1844) The genera of birds. London: Longman, 

Brown, Green and Longmans. 

275 Gray, J.E. (1829) [Descriptions of Phasianus Hamiltonii and 

Phasianus nepauiensis.] In Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 8 
(Aves, 3): 27. 

276 Gray, J.E. (1863) Catalogue of the specimens and drawings of 

mammals, birds, reptiles and fishes of Nepal and Tibet, pre- 
sented by B.H.Hodgson, Esq. to the British Museum. Sea>nd 
edition. London. 

277 Gray, J.E and Gray, G.R. (1846) Catalogue of the specimens 

and drawings of Mammalia and birds of Nepai arid Thibet, 
presented by B.H.Hodgson, Esq. to the British Museum. Lon- 
doiL 

278 Green, MJ.B. (1980) A report on conservation and manage- 

ment issues within the Langtang National Park. Unpub- 
lished. 

279 Greensmith, A (1971) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 

October 1970-March 1971. Unpublished. 

280 Gregoiy-Smith, R.C. (1974) Birds seen at Dharan. Army Bird- 

watching Soc. Buil. No. 4/74. 

281 Gregoiy-Smith, R.C. (1975) Notes on birds seen in NepaL 

Army Birdwatcfiing Soc. Bull. No. 2/75. 

282 Gregoiy-Smith, R.C (1976) Notes on birds seen in NepaL 

Army Birdwatcfiing Soc. Bull. No. 4/75. 

283 Gregory-Smith, R.C. (1976) Notes on birds seen at Dharan. 

Army Birdwatching Soc. Bull. No. 1/76. 

284 Gregoiy-Smith, R.C. (1976) Birds of Sangure Ridge. Army 

Birdwatching Soc. Buil No. 2/76. 

285 Gregory-Smith, R.C. (1976) Ringing in Nepal, April-May 1976. 

Army Birdwatching Soc. Bull. No. 2/76. 



Bibliography 



381 



286 Gregoiy-Smith, R.C. (1976) The Kosi Barrage as a nature 

reserve- Army Bintwmching Soc. Bull No. 3/76. 

287 Gregory-Smith, R.C. (1976) Ringmg statistics, Nepal 1976. 

AnjTy Birdtvalching Soc. Bull No. 3/76. 

288 Gregory-Smith, R.C. (1976) Notes on birds seen in Nepal 

Army Birdwaiching Soc. BulL No. 4/76. 

289 Gregoiy-Smith R.C. (1976) The Kosi Barrage area as a nature 

reserve. Nepal Nature Conservation Society Newsletter No. 35, 
November 1976. 

290 Gregoiy-Smith R-C. (1976) Visit to the Kosi Barrage, 5 Man;h 

1976. Nepal Nature Conservation Society Newsletter No. 32, 
August 1976. 

291 Gregory-Smith, R.C. (1976) Birds in silk cotton trees. Nepal 

Nature Conservation Society Newsletter No. 31, July 1976. 

292 Gregoiy-Smith, R.C. (1980) The birds of south-east NepaL 

Adjutant 8: 31-35. 

293 Gregoiy-Smith, R.C. and BatsoD F. (1976) Birds of south-east 

Nepal. Unpublished- 

294 Griimnett, R.F. (1982) Noteson birds recorded in Nepal, 1982. 

Unpublished. 

295 Groh, G. (1981) Notes on birds lecoided in Nepal, 1981. 

Unpublished, 

296 Gurung, K.K. (1983) Heart of the jungle. London: Andre 

Deutsch. 

297 Hagen, P. (1979) Notes on birds seen at Surkhet, Nepal, March 

- April 1979. Unpublished. 

298 Halberg, K. (1987) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, Novem- 

ber 1985 and April - June 1987. Unpublished. 

299 Halberg, K. and Peteisen, I. (1973) Himalaya 1978-1983. Ob- 

servations of birds, mammals and some reptiles. Unpub- 
lished. 

300 Hall, J. (1981) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, November 

1980 - March 1981. UnpubUshed. 

301 Hall, P. (1978) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, September 

1976 - December 1978. UnpubUshed. 

302 Hall, P. (1980) Revised altitudinal ranges of some Nepalese 

birds. Unpublished. 

303 HaUer, R (1983) Die Thenniliabhangigkeit des Bartgeieis 

Gypaetus barbatus als mogliche Mitursacbe fiir sein 
Aussterben m den Alpea Om. Beob. 80: 263-272. 

304 Halliday, J. (1982) A study of the ecological distribution of 

resident and migratory birds along the Rapti and Narayani 
riveis in the Royal Chitwan National Park, Novemljer - De- 
cemtier 1982. UnpubUshed. 

305 HalUday, J. (1983) Birds recorded in Nepal (excluding Chitwan 

National Park), 12 October 1982 - 8 Januaiy 1983. Unpub- 
lished. 

306 Halliday, J. (1986) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, October 

- December 1986. UnpubUshed. 

307 HaUiday, J. (1989) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 12 

November 1988 - 2 February 1989. UnpubUshed. 

308 HaUiday, J. and McKnighl, G. (1990) An investigation of the 

status and coservation of forest birds in the Mai and Tamur 
valleys in eastern Nepal. Unpublished, 

309 Hamon, P. (1981) Bird observations in Nepal, December 1980 

- Januaiy 1981. UnpubUshed, 

310 Hansen, P.S. (1989) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 6 

Februaiy - 6 March 1988. UnpubUshed. 

311 Hardwicke, T. (1821) On the wild dog of Sumatra, a new 

species of Viverra, and a new species of pheasant Trans. 
Unn. Soc. London 13(1): 237. 

312 Hargitt, E. (1890) Catalogue of the birds in the collection of the 

British Museum, 18 - Picidae. London: British Museum. 

313 Hanap, S. (1985) Birding in Nepal in 1985. UnpubUshed. 

314 Harris, E. (1978) Birds identified from Lamosangu to Everest 

Base Camp, October - November 1978. Unpublished. 

315 Harrison, K., Colston, P. and Cook, S. (1983) Notes on birds 

recorded in Nepal, December 1982 - Januaiy 1983. Unpul>- 
lished. 

316 Harrop, AHJ. (1986) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 

March - April 1986. UnpubUshed. 



317 Hartert, E. (1891) Katalog der Vogelsanunltmg im Musettm der 

Senckenbergischen naturforschenden Gesellscht^ FranJ^urt. 

318 Hartert, E. and Sahin, O. (1892) Catalogue of the birds in the 

collection of the British Musettm, 16 - Coraciae, Upupae, 
TrochilL LoiKJon: British Museum. 

319 Hartley, M.M. (1981) List ofbird specimens from Nepal in the 

ClifFe Castle Alt Galleiy and Museum. UnpubUshed. 

320 Harvey, W.G. (1988) An annotated Ustofthebinls seen in and 

arouind the Kalhmandu Valley in Nepal, 10-14 January 1988. 
UnpubUshed. 

321 Heath, PJ. (1986) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 25 Janu- 

ary - 4 April 1986. UnpubUshed. 

322 Heath, PJ. (1988) Rusty-beUied Sbortwing. BuU. Oriental Bird 

Club 8: 16-19. 

323 Heath, PJ. (1989) A Shoit-bUledMimvetPeTiCTOcoeisftrewraj- 

tris nest in Nepal Forktaa 4: 117-118. 

324 Heatb, PJ. and Thorns, D.M. (1989) Bristled Grass Warbler 

Chaetomis striatus new to and breeding in Nepal, and its 
separation from Large Grass Warbler Graminicola bengalen- 
sis. Forktail 4. 118-12L 

325 Heathcote, P. and Heathcote, P. (1987) Notes on birds re- 

coixled in Nepal, Decemlwr 1986 - January 1987. Unpub- 
lished. 

326 Heathcote, P. and Heathcote, P. (198«) Notes on birxis re- 

corded in Nepal, 1 April - 15 May 1988. UnpubUshed. 

327 Heinen, J. ([1986] 1988) Rare and new bird records for Kosi 

Barrage and Kosi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal during 
winter and spring, 1987. J. Nat. Hist Mus. (Tribhuvan Univ., 
Kathmandu) 10: 23-30. 

328 Heinen, J. (1988) Notes on birds recorded at Kosi Barrage and 

Kosi Tappu from Januaiy 1987 to March 1988. Unpublished. 

329 Hendricks, P. (1982) Some post-monsoon biltls observed in 

central NepaL / Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 79: 247-253. 

330 HUlard, D. (1989) Notes on birds recoixled in Nepal, 1982-1985. 

Unpublished. 

331 iiillatil,T). (1989) Vttnishing tracks. Fouryearsamongthe Snow 

Leopards of Nepal New York: Arbor House/ William Mor- 
row. 

332 Hines, P. (1987) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal in spring 

1985. UnpubUshed. 

333 Hjaisen, T. (1988) List of species seen in Pakistan, India and 

Nepal, 1987 - 1988. UnpubUshed. 

334 Hoare, E. (1977) Notes on binls recorded at Tiger Tops, May - 

June 1977. UnpubUshed. 

335 Hodgson, B.H. (1827) [Description of Phtisianus nipalensis]. 

Quart Oriental Mag. Rev. and Regist. 8 (Sci): 44. 

336 Hodgson, B.R (1829) Notes and original wateicolour paint- 

ings of the birds of Nepal, Tibet and India, held in the Zoo- 
logical Society of London Library. Unpublished. 

337 Hodgson, B.H. (1829) On a new q)ecies of Bttceros. Gleanings 

in Science 1: 249-252; (1832) Proc. zooL Soc. London 2: 10-16; 
(1833) Asia Res. 18(2): 178-186. 

338 Hodgson, B.R (1831) On some of the Scokq>acidae of NepaL 

Gleanings in Science 3: 233-243. 

339 Hodgson, B.R (1833) Characters of a new species of Pendit: 

Proc. zooL Soc. London 1: 107. 

340 Hodgson, B.R (1833) On a species of Aqmla, Circaeestts and 

Dicrurus.Asiat Res. 18(2): 13-26. 

341 Hodgson, B.R (1833) On the migration of the Natatores and 

Grallatores, as ol)6eived at Kathmandu. Asiat. Res. 18(2): 
122-li«. 

342 Hodgson, B.R (1833) Description of the Buceros Homrai of 

the Himalaya. Asiat Res. 18(2): 169-188. 

343 Hodgson, B.R (1835) Description of the Bearded Vulture of 

the Himalaya. /. Asiat Soc. Bengal 4: 454-458; (1837) BibL 
Univ. 8: 212. 

344 Hodgsoa B.R (1835) Red-bUledEroUa.7.Asui>:5<>c. £0^0/4: 

458-461. 

345 Hodgson, B.R (1835) Note on the Red-billed Eiolia. /. AiiaL 

Soc. Bengal 4: 701-702. 



382 



Bibliography 



346 Hodgson, B.H. (1836) Descnption of a new species of 

Columba. J. Asia. Sex. Bengal 5: 122-124. 

347 Hodgson, B.H. (1836) Description of two new species belong- 

ing to a new form of the Meniline group of birds, with indi- 
cation of their generic character. J. AsiaL Soc. Bengal 5: 358- 
360. 

348 Hodgson, B.R (1836) Additions to the ornithology of Nepal 1. 

Indication of a new genus of Insessorial birds. /. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal 5: 770-775; (1837) 6: 110-112. 

349 Hodgson, B.H. (1836) Additions to the ornithology of Nepal 2. 

Indication of a new genus of wadeis, belonging to the Char- 
adriatic family. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 5: 775-777. 

350 Hodgson, B.R (1836) Additions to the ornithology of Nepal 3. 

Indication of a new genus of the Falconidae. J. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal 5: TTl-Tli. 

351 Hodgson, B.H (1836)AdditionstotheomithologyofNepal4. 

Indication of a new genus of the Picidae, with description of 
the type. A new species, also, of two new species of the genus 
Sitta. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 5: T7S-T79. 

352 Hodgson, B.H. (1836) Additions to the ornithology of Nepal 5. 

New species ofHirundinidae./. As/o/. Soc. Bengals: 779-781. 

353 Hodgson, B.R (1836) Notices of the ornithology of Nepal 1. 

Eight new species of Cinctosoma. Asiat. Res. 19: 143-150. 

354 Hodgson, B.H. (1836) Notices of the ornithology of Nepal 2. 

New species of the thick billed finches. Asiat. Res. 19: 150- 
159. 

355 Hodgson, B.H (1836) Notices of the ornithology of Nepal 3. 

New genera of the Columbidae. Asiat. Res. 19: 159-164. 

356 Hodgson, B.R (1836) Notices of the ornithology of Nepal 4. 

New genus and 3 new species of the SiMadae. Asiat. Res. 19: 
165-167; (1837) /. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 6: 230-232. 

357 Hodgson, B.R (1836) Notices of the omitholo^ of Nepal 5. 

New species of the Strigine famiiy. Asiat. Res. 19: 168-177. 

358 Hodgson, B.R (1836) Notices of the ornithology of Nepal 7. 

Two new species of the parrot tribe. Asiat. Res. 19: 177-178. 

359 Hodgson, B.R (1836) Notices of the ornithology of Nepal 8. 

New species of Pomatorfiinus, and its allies. Asiat. Res. 19: 
179-186. 

360 Hodgson, B.R (1836) Notices of the ornithology of Nepal 9. 

New species of MotacilUnae. Anal. Res. 19: 186-192. 

361 Hodgson, B.R (1836) Summaiy description of some new 

species of Falconidae. J, Asiat, Soc. Bengal 5: 227-231. 

362 Hodgson, B.R (1836) On a new genus of the Meropidae. J. 

Asiat. Soc. Bengal 5: 360-362. 

363 Hodgson, B.R (1836) On a new piscatoiy genus of the Strigine 

family. / Asiat. Soc. Bengal 5: 363-365. 

364 Hodgson, B.R (1836) On some of the Scolopacidae of Nipal. 

Pmc. zooL Soc. London 4: 7-8; (1837) Madras J. Lit. Sci. 5: 
410-412; (1838) Ind. Rev. 2: 117. 

365 Hodgson, B.R (1836) Summaiy description of some new 

species of birds of prey. Bengal Sporting Mag. 8: 177-183. 

366 Hodgson, B.R (1837) Description of sundiy new species of 

Cirmyris inhabiting Nepal India Review 1: 272-274. 

367 Hodgson, B.R (1837) Description of three new species of 

woodpecker. /. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 6: 104-109. 

368 Hodgson, B.R (1837) Indian quails. Bengal Sporting Mag. 9: 

343-346, 

369 Hodgson, B.R (1837) Indication of a new genus of Insessores, 

tending to coimect the Sytviadae and Muscicapidae. Iruiia 
Review 1: 650-«52. 

370 Hodgson, B.R (1837) Indication of a new genus belonging to 

the Strigine family, with description of the new species and 
type. Madras J. Lit. Sci. 5: 23-25. 

371 Hodgson, B.R (1837) On three new genera or sub-genera of 

long-legged thnishes, with descriptions of their species. / 
Asiat. Soc. Bengal 6: 101-104. 

372 Hodgson, B.R (1837) On some new genera of Raptores, with 

remarks on the old genera. /. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 6: 361-373. 

373 Hodgson, B.R (1837) New species of Scolopacidae, Indian 

snipes. /. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 6: 489^92. 



374 Hodgson, B.R (1837) On some new species of the EdoUan and 

Ceblepyrine subfamilies of the Laniidae of Nepal India 
Review 1: 325-328. 

375 Hodgson,B.R(1837)Onsomeiiewspeciesoftbemoretypical 

Laniidae of Nepal India Review 1: 445-447. 

376 Hodgson,B.R(1837)Onthestructureandhabitsoflbe£/aniu 

metanoplerus. Madras J. Lit. Set 6: 75-78. 

377 Hodgson, B.R (1837) On two new genera of Rasorial birds. 

Madras J. Lit. Sci. 5: 300-305. 

378 Hodgson, B.R (1838) Indication of some new forms belonging 

to the Parianae. India Review 2: 30-34, 87-90. 

379 Hodg^n, B.R (1838) Remarks on D. McCleUand's paper on 

the Bathyrynchtis brevirostris and Ciconia nudifrons. India 
Review 2: 563. 

380 Hodgson,B.R(1839)OnanewGenusoftheFlssiro6traltribe. 

J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 8: 35-36. 

381 Hodgson,B.R (1839)DescT^>tionoftwonewspeciesofanew 

form of Meruline birds. J. AsiaL Soc. Bengal 8: 37-38. 

382 Hodgson, B.R (1839) On Cuculus.J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 8: 136- 

137. 

383 Hodgson, B.R (1841) Notice of a new form of the Glaucopi- 

nae, or Rasorial crows, inhabiting the northern region of 
Nepal - Conostoma Aemodws (Nobis type). /. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal 10: 856-857; (1843) Am. Mag not. Hist. 10: 77-79. 

384 Hodgson, B.R (1843) Description of a new genus of Falco- 

nidae. /. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 12: 127-128. 

385 Hodgson, B.R (1843) Catalogue of Nepalese birds presented 

to the Asiatic Society. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 12: 301-313. 

386 Hodgson, B.R (1843) Additions to the catalogue of Nepal 

birds. J. AsiaL Soc. Bengal 12: 447-450. 

387 Hodgson, B.R (1844) "On the Leiotrichane birds of the Sub- 

hemalayas". /. AsiaL Soc. Bengal 13: 933-941. 

388 Hodgson, B.R (1844) Catalogue of Nipalese birds, collected 

between 1824 and 1844. Id Gray, J.E., Zoological Miscellany^ 
June 1844. 

389 Hodgson, B.R (1844) Falco-Ri^pedoides, Dhuti-Dhuter of 

India. Calcutta J. not. Hist. 4: 283-284. 

390 Hodg^n, B.R (1845) Characteis of six new species of Nepal- 

ese birds. y4m. Mag. noL Hist. 15: 326-327. 

391 Hodgson, B.R (1845) On Nepalese birds. Proc. zooL Soc. 

London 13: 22-37. 

392 Hodgson, B.R (1845) [Description of Yuhina nigrimenta]. In 

Blyth, E., }. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 14: 562. 

393 Hodgson, B.R (1845) [Description oiNeomisflavoIivaced\. In 

Blyth, E., / AsiaL Soc. Bengal 14: 590. 

394 Hodgson, B.R (1845) [Description ofAfrnvTiij cosfomc^s]. In 

Blyth, E., / AsiaL Soc. Bengal 14: 593. 

395 Hodgson, B.R (1847) [Description of Plem/A/uimetouMB]. In 

Blyth, E, 7. AsiaL Soc. Bengal 16: 448. 

396 Hodgson, B.R (1847) On the Charj or Otis Bengalensis. J. 

AsiaL Soc. Bengal 16: 883-889. 

397 Hodgson, B.R (1848) On a new genus of Insessorial birds. 

Calcutta J. not. Hist, g: 45-48. 

398 Hodgson, B.R (1848) On the buzzards of the Himalaya and of 

Tibet Calcutta J. noL Hist. 8: 94-97. 

399 Hodgson, B.R (1855) Catalogue of Nipalese birds, collected 

between 1824 and 1844. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 24: 572-582. 

400 Hodgson, B.R (1855) On the geographical distribution of the 

Mammalia and birds of the Himalaya. Proc. zooL Soc Lon- 
don 23: 124-128. 

401 HoUnstrom, G. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1982. 

Unpublished. 

402 Hohnstrom, G. (1983) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal during 

1981 and 1983. Unpublished. 

403 Holt, P., Crossley, R. and Moores, C. (1986) Notes on birds 

recorded in Nepal, Januaiy - April 1986. Unpublished. 

404 Hooker,J.D. (lS54)Hir7U2layanjournals. Notesofanaturalistin 

Bengal, the Si/ddm and Nepal Himalayas, the Khasia Moun- 
tains, etc. 2 volumes. London: J. Murray. 



Bibliography 



383 



405 Hopkins, J. (1971) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, Decem- 

ber 1971. Unpublished. 

406 Hopwood, S.F. (1940) Birds eating butterflies. / Bombay Nm. 

Hist. Soc. 42: 199. 

407 Honibuckle, J. (1980) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1980. 

Unpublished. 

408 Horaskov, J. (1984) Indien & Nepal, Vinteren '83-'84. Copen- 

hagen: Dansk Omitologisk Forening. 

409 Horsfield, T. and Moore, F. (1854) A catahgue of birds in the 

Museum of the Hon, East-India Comparry. London: W.R 
Allen. 

410 Hounsome, M (1981) List of bird specimens from Nepal in the 

Manchester Museum. Unpublished. 

411 Housden, S. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, Decem- 

ber 1981 - Januaiy 1982. Unpublished. 

412 Howman,K. (1979) Notes and News from the World Pheasant 

Association. Cage and Aviary Birds 15 February 1979. 

413 Hume, A.O. (1877) Pratincola insignis. Stray Feathers 5: 132- 

133. 

414 Hume, A.O. and Oates, E.W. (1890) The nests and eggs of 

Indian birds. 3 volumes. Second edition. Londoa* Porter. 

415 Hunt, J. (1953) The ascent of EveresU London: Hodder and 

Stoughton. 

416 Hunter, M.L. Jr. (1989) Himalayan birds face uphill while 

singing. /4uA 106: 728-729. 

417 Hurrell, A.G. (1985) List of birds seen in the British Embassy 

compound, Kathmandu, November 1983 - June 1985. Un- 
published. 

418 Hurrell, A.G. (1988) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1984- 

1988. Unpublished. 

419 Hyatt, K.H. (1954) Some notes on birds in central Nepal during 

1954. Unpublished 

420 Hyatt, K.R (1966) Notes on birds seen in Nepal, 1966. Unpub- 

lished. 

421 Innes, R. and Lewis, P. (1984) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal, March to May 1984. Unpublished. 

422 Inskipp, C. (1981) List of bird specimens from Nepal in the 

collection of the University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, 
collected by R.C.Lawrence in 1870. Unpublished. 

423 Inskipp, C. (1981) List of bird specimens from Nepal in the 

collection of the Bombay Natural History Society. Unpub- 
lished. 

424 Inskipp, C. (1982) A classification of the Hodgson original 

watercolour paintings of the birds of India, Nepal and Tibet 
in the Zoology Library of the British Museum (Natural 
History), LondorL Unpublished. 

425 Inskipp, C. (1982) A classification of the Hodgson original 

watercolour paintings of the birds of India, Nepal and Tibet 
in the library of the Zoological Socie^ of London. Unpub- 
lished. 

426 Inskipp, C. (1982) List of bird specimens from Nepal in Mer- 

seyside Museum. Unpublished. 

427 Inskipp, C. (1982) List of bird specimens from Nepal in Oxford 

UniverBity Museum. Unpublished. 

428 Inskipp, C. (1988) iChaptad National ParL An account of 

current knowledge and conservation value. A report to the 
Department of ^4ationaI Parks and Wildlife Conservation, 
Nepal Unpublished. 

429 Inskipp, C. (1989) Nepal's forest birds: their status and 

conservation. Monograph No. 4. Cambridge, U.K.: Interna- 
tional Council for Bird PreservatiorL 

430 Inskipp, C (1989) The ornithological importance of Khaptad 

National Park, Nepal. ForkiailS: 49-60. 

431 Inskipp, C. and CoUar, NJ. (1984) The Bengal Florican: its 

conservation in Nepal Oryx 18(1): 30-35. 

432 Inskipp, C. and Inskipp, T.P. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal, April-June 1982. Unpublished. 

433 Inskipp, C. and Inskipp, T.P. (1983) Report on a survey of 

Bengal Floricans Houbaropsis bengalensis m Nepal and In- 
dia, 1982. Study Report No. 2. Cambridge, U.K.: Interna- 
tional Council for Bird PreservatioiL 



434 Inskipp, C. and Inskipp, T.P. (1984) Additions to the bird 

species recorded from Nepal / Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 81: 
702-706. 

435 Inskipp, C and Inskipp, T.P. (1985) A guide to the birds cf 

Nqtai. Beckenham: Croom Helm. 

436 Inskipp, C and Inskipp, T.P. (1986) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal October - November 1986. Unpublished. 

437 Inskipp, C. and Inski|^, T.P. (1986) Some important birds and 

forests in Nepal ForktaU 1: 53-64. 

438 Inskipp, C. and Inskipp, T.P. (1988) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal 10 April - 7 June 1988. Unpublished. 

439 Insk^p, T.P. and Inskipp, C. (1977) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal December 1977. Unpublished. 

440 Inskipp,T.P. and Inskipp, C. (1980) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal April - May 1980. Unpublished. 

441 Insk^, T.P. and Inskipp, C. (1981) List of some birds speci- 

mens from Nepal in the collection of R.L. Fleming, 1957-73. 
Unpublished. 

442 Inskipp, T.P. and Inskipp, C. (1981)NotesoDbirdsrecoFdedin 

Nepal February - March 1981. Unpublished. 

443 Inskipp. T.P. and Round, P.D. (1989) A review of the Black- 

tailed Crake Porzana bicotor. Forktail 5: 3-15. 

444 Inskipp, T.P. et al (1971) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal 

September 1970 - March 1971. Unpublished. 

445 Isherwood, RJ. (1975) Birds in the Himalayas. //on^Xdn^ft/rf 

Report 1974: 37-40. 

446 \&her*iood,KJ.{\919,) Birds of the Pakhribas Area. Techmcai. 

Paper No.27. Dhankuta: Pakhribas Agriculture Centre, Brit- 
ish Gurkha Ex-Servicemen Reintegration Training Scheme. 

447 Jackson, R. (1978) A report on wildlife and hunting in the 

Namlang (Langu) Valley of west Nepal Report to National 
Parks and Wildlife Conservation Dept Kattunandu. Unpub- 
lished. 

448 Jardine, W. (1886) A catalogue of the birds contained in the 

collection of Sir William Jardine. 

449 Jardine, W. and Selby, PJ. (1830) [Description of Chloropsis 

Hardnickii] in Illustrations cf Ornithology 2: 1. 

450 Jannan, R (1971) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal 1970- 

1971. Unpublished. 

451 Jepson, P. (1985) Systematic list of birds seen in Nepal March 

- May 1985 and March 1987. Unpublished. 

452 Jepson, P. (1988) List of wildlife seen al Chitwan National 

Park, 26-29 November 1988. Unpublished. 

453 Jepson, P. (1988) Naturetrek list of birds and mammals seen in 

Mount Everest area and Gokyo lakes, S - 27 November 1988. 
Unpublished. 

454 Jepson, P. (1989) Naturetrek list of birds and mammflln seen in 

the Langtang National Park, 29 April - 21 May 1989. Unpub- 
lished. 

455 Jepson, P. (1989) Naturetrek list of birds and mammals seen at 

Royal Chitwan National Park, 25 - 30 May 1989. Ur^ub- 
lished. 

456 Jepson, P. (in prep.) Occurrence of Kessler's Thrush in Nepal 

457 Jerdon, T.C (1862-1864) The birds of India. 3 volumes. Cal- 

cutta: 

458 Jerdon, T.C (1871) Supplementary notes to The birds of 

India'. Ibis (3)1: 234-247; 335-356. 

459 Jerdon, T.C. (1872) Supplementary notes to The birds of 

India'. Ibis (3)2: 1-22; 114-139; 297-310. 

460 Johns, RJ. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal Decem- 

ber 1981 • January 1982. Unpublished. 

461 Jongeling, B. (1983) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1983. 

Unpublished. 

462 Joshi, A.R. (1986) Shivapuri Watershed and Wildlife Reseive. 

Unpublished. 

463 Juliusberger, R. (1987) A birdwatching tour to India and 

Nepal, 31 November 1986 - 16 April 1987. Unpublished 

464 Justice, S. (1978) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal 1976-78. 

Unpublished 

465 Kail. M. and Wallaoder. J. (1988) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal, 14 February - 28 March 1988. Urq>ublished 



384 



Bibliography 



466 Kattel, B. (1981) A cuisoiy ecological sliivey of Khaptad area. 

/. Nat Hist. Mm. (Tribhubvan Univ., Kathmandu) S(2): 67- 
73. 

467 Kennerley, P. (1982) Notes on recofded in Nepal, 1982. Un- 

published. 

468 Kennerley, P. and Tunibull,M. (1989) Report on a birdingtiip 

to Nepal, 4 - 20 Februaiy 1989. Unpublished. 

469 Khadka, R.B., Mishra, P.N. and Bhatta, B. (1980) Studies on 

the feeding ecology of Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis coromandus 
(Bonaparte) in Kirtipur meadows. /. Nat. HisL Mus. 
(Tribhuvan Univ., Kathmandu) 4(1): 1-14. 

470 Khanal, B. (|1986| 1988) Birds of Kanchanpur DistiicL J. Nat. 

Hist Mus. (Tribhuvan Univ., Kathmandu) 10: 145-150. 

471 Khanal, B. and Bhandary, HR. (1988) A study on natural 

environment of Dang valley. Report to the Royal Nepal 
Academy, Kathmandu. Unpublished. 

472 Khatri, H.S. (1974) Birds from Baitadi Nepal Nature Conserva- 

tion Society Newsletter No23, April 1974. 

473 Klhara, R (1955) Fauna and flora of Nepal Himalaya. Scien- 

tific results of the Japanese Himalayan Expedition to Nepal 
Himalaya. Kyoto Univ. Fauna and Flora Fes. Soc. 1-390. 

474 King, B. (1980) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1972-79. 

Unpublished. 

475 King, B. (1982) Piparbird list, May 1982. Unpublished. 

476 KjeUen, N., Jnle, E. and Walinder, G. (1981) Asien-81. Unpub- 

lished. 

477 Klapste, J. (1986) List of birds seen on Langtang trek, north- 

central Nepal, March - April 1986. Unpublished. 

478 Klapste, J. (1986) Trekking in Nepal Himalaya in search of 

Ibisbills. Bird Observer 655: 73-74. 

479 Koelz, W. (1954) 'Ornithological Studies'; I. New Birds from 

Iran, Afghanistan, and India. Contrib. Inst. Regional 
Eiq>loration, No.l, Aim Arbor, MicbigaiL 

480 Kovacs, J.-C. (1987) Compte rendu d'un voyage naturaliste an 

Nepal, Fevrier - Mars 1987. Unpublished. 

481 Kovacs, J.-C (1988) Voyage Indie - Nepal (Fevrier - Mars 

1988). Compte rendu des observations omithologiques & 
mammalogiques. Unpublished. 

482 Krabbe, E. (1983) List of bird specimens in the Zoological 

Museum of Copenhagen, collected by G.B. Gunmg, S. Rana 
and P.W. Soman from Nepal, 1959. Unpublished. 

483 Krabbe, N. (1981) India and Nepal, 1981, ornithological report 

Unpublished. 

484 Kratter, A (1987) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1987. 

Unpublished. 

485 Lalchan, L and Battachan, S. (1989) Notes on birds recorded 

in Nepal, 1988-1990. Unpublished. 

486 Lambert, F. (1979) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1978-79. 

Unpublished. 

487 Lancaster, R. (1981) Plant hunting in Nepal. London: Croom 

Helm. 

488 Lancaster, R. (1983) Additional notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal, September - December 1971. Unpublished. 

489 Langlands, AM. (1970) Tales from tiepaL Adjutant 7: 28-34. 

490 LaPersonne, V.S. (1933) The Common Central Asian King- 

fisher i/ilcedo atthis pallasii Reichenb.) in Nepal /. Bombay 
not. Hist. Soc. 36: 508. 

491 Larsen, J.T. (1988) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, May - 

June 1988. Unpublished. 

492 Larsson, C. (1988) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, May 1988. 

Unpublished. 

493 Latham, J. (1790) //u2er omithologicus, sive Systema omitholo- 

giae 2: 633. 

494 Leaerq, S. in lilt., 22 Februaiy 1990. 

495 Leece, J. (1977) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, October - 

December 1977. Unpublished. 

4% Lelliott, A.D. (1979) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, April - 
October 1979. World Pheasant Association project Unpub- 
lished. 

497 Lelliott A.D. (1980) Pieliminaiy report of an ecological study 
of highland pheasants in Nepal, March - May 1980. Unpub- 



Usbed. 

498 Lelliott, A.D. (1981) Cheer Pheasants in West-Central Nepal 

/. Wortd Pheasant Association 6: 89-95. 

499 Lelliott A.D. (1981) Notes on the birds recoided in Nepal, 

1978-81. Unpublished. 

500 Lelliolt A.D. (1981) Report on 1981 field season in Nepal 

Unpublished. 

501 Lelliott A.D. (1981) Studies of Himalayan pheasants in Nepal 

with reference to their conservation. M. Sc thesis, Univ. of 
Durham. Unpublished. 

502 Lelliott A.D. (1982) Blood Pheasants in the Himalayas. Cage 

and Aviary Birds October 16 1982. 

503 Lelliott A.D. (1982) Censusing the Cheer Pheasant Cage and 

Aviary Birds, September 4 1982. 

504 Lelliolt, A.D. and Yonzon, P.B. (1980) Pheasant studies in 

Annapuma Himal (1) Field studies. Vp. 53-55 in C. Savage, 
ed., Pheasants in Asia 1979. Eming, U.K.: World Pheasant 
AssociatioiL 

505 Lelliott A.D. and Yonzon, P.B. (1980) Studies of Himalayan 

pheasants in Nepal/. World Pheasant Association 5: 11-30. 

506 Linderetrom, Sj\. (1989) Notes on birds recorded in India and 

Nepal 28 January - 27 Februaiy 1989. Unpublished. 

507 UndvaU, M.L and Dhital P. (1978) Occurrence and habitat 

preference of birds in a Duns area. Part 1. Forestry 7. 

508 Lindvall M.L and Dhital P. (1978) Occurrence and habitat 

preference of birds in a Duns area. Part 2. Forestry 7. 

509 Lister, V. (1979) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal April -June 

1979. UnpubUshed. 

510 Lohrl H. 1981. Zur kenntnis der Laubmeise Sytviparus modes- 

tus. J. On. 122: 89-92. 

511 Low, G.C., Dewar, D., Newman, T.R and Levett-Yeals, GA. 

(1930) A classification of the original watercolour paintings 
of birds of India by B.R Hodgson. S.R. Tickell and 
CF.Sharpe in the libraiy of the Zoological Society of 
London. Proc. zooL Soc. London 1930: 549-625. 

512 Lowndes, D. (1955) Some birds from north-western Nepal /. 

Bombay not. Hist Soc. 53: 29-37. 

513 Madge, SC. (1983) Notes on birxls recorded during the 

Birdquest Nepal tour, March 19S3. UnpubUshed. 

514 Madge, S.C (1986) Selected notes on Birdquest Nepal tour, 

Februaiy - March 1986. Unpublished. 

515 Madge, S.C. (1989) Swinhoe's Snipe Gallinago megala: a new 

species for Nepal Forktail 4: 121-123. 

516 Madge, S.C and Appleby, R.R (1980) Sunbird Holidays tour 

report, October - November 1980. Unpublished. 

517 Madge, S.C. and Madge, P. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal April - May 1982. UnpubUshed. 

518 Madge, S.C et al (1974) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal 

December 1973 - Februaiy 1974. UnpubUshed. 

519 Madsea J. and Poulsen. M.K. (1980) ArtsUste for Nepal 7 

April - 14 Maj 1980. UnpubUshed. 

520 Madsen, S.T. (1990) Notes on birds recorded at Royal Bardia 

National Park, October - November 1989. UnpubUshed. 

521 Malheibe, A. (1849) Description de quek)ues nouvelles esp- 

eces de Picinees (Picus, Lion). Rev. et Mag. de Zoologie (2)1: 
530. 

522 MaUing Olsen, K. (1979) Notes on birds recoided in Nepal 

December 1978 - Januaiy 1979. UnpubUshed. 

523 Mailing, S. (1981) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal Unpub- 

Ushed. 

524 MaishaU, T. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal 1982. 

Unpublished. 

525 Martens, J. (1971) Artstatus von Parus rttfonuchalis Blyth. J. 

Om. 112: 451^58. 

526 Martens, J. (1971) Ziu* Kenntnis des Vogelzuges im nepalis- 

chen Himalaya. Vogelwarte 26: 113-128. 

527 Martens, J. (1972) Bnitveibreitung palaarkttscher Vogel im 

Nepal-Himalaya. Bom. zooL Beitr. 23: 95-121. 

528 Martens, J. (1975) Akustische Differenzierung ver- 

wandtschaftUcher Beziehungen in der Patvs Gruppe nach 
Untersuchungen im Nepal-Himalaya. /. Om. 116: 369-433. 



Bibliography 



385 



329 Martens. J. (1975) Veibreitung, Biotop und Gesang des Bam- 

busseidensangers (Cettia acanthizoides) im Nepal Bonn. 
zooL Batr. 26: 164-174. 

330 Martens, J. (1979) Die Fauna des Nepal-Himalaya - 

Entsteliung und Erfonchung Natur und Museum 109: 221- 
243. 

331 Martens, J. (1980) Lautausserungen, verwandtscfu^Uche 

Beziehungen und Verbreitungsgescfuchte asiatischer Laubs- 
anger fPliylloscopus) . (Fortscfaritte der Verlialtensfoischung, 
H 22). Berlin and Hamburg: Parey. 

332 Martens. J. (1980) Omithogeograpby of the Himalayas. SeTurJt- 

enbeigiana bioi 60: 241 - 247. 

333 Martens. J. (1981) Lautausseningen der baumlaufer des Hima- 

laya und zur altustichen evolution in der gatlung Cenhia. 
Behaviour T!(4): 287-318. 

534 Martens, J. (1984) Vertical distnbutioo of Palaearctic and 

Oriental faunal components in the Nepal Himalayas. Senck- 
enbergiana biol. 63: 321-336. 

535 Martens, J. (1983) Speciation and the development of Hima- 

layan avifaunas. Pp. 358-372 in V.D. Ilyichev and V.M 
Gavrilov, eds., Acui XVJIl Congressus Jnlenuttioruilis Omi- 
thotogici, 1. Moscow: Nauka. 

536 Martens, J. (1987) Remarks on my Himalayan expeditions. 

Courier ForscK-lnst. Senckenberg 93: 7-31. 

537 Martens, J. (1988) Selected bird observations, Nepal 1988. 

Unpublished. 

538 Martens, J. and Geduldig, G. (1988) Akustische Bairierenbeim 

Waldbaumlaufer (Cenhia familiaris). J. Om. 129: 417-432. 
339 Martens, J. and Geduldig G. (1989) Acoustic adapUlions of 
birds living close to Himalayan torrents. Proc. Int. 100 DO-G 
Meeting, Current Topics Avian Biol., Bonn 1988, pp. 123-131. 

540 Martins, R.P. (1982) Birds seen in Khumbu National Park from 

Lukla northwards. May 1982, and other notes on birds seen in 
Nepal, 1982. Unpublished. 

541 Martins, R.P., Parr, MJ., Robson, C.R., Speight, GJ., and 

Turton, J.M. (1983) Hodgson's Stonechats in Nepal in March 
and April 1982. Dutch Birding 5(4): 99-101. 

542 Masatomi, R (1971) [Aves]. In [Animals and plants of Nepal 

Himalaya]. (In Japanese.) 

543 Masatomi, H. (1975) Some observations on birds at high 

altitude lake sides in Gosainkund, central Nepal /. Bombay 
not. Hist. Soc. 72: 46-55. 

544 Matsuda, Y. (1979) [The Siberian Cranes surmount giant peaks 

of Himal.] (In Japanese.) 

545 Matthiessen, P. ( 1979) 77i£ Snow Leopard. London: Chatto and 

Windus. 

546 Mayer, S. (1986) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, October 

1985 - April 1986. UnpubUshed. 

547 McCarty, C. (1983) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, winter 

1982/83. Unpublished. 

548 McDougal, C. and Gurung, K.K. (1979) Checklist of birds of 

the Chitwan National ParL Unpublished. 

549 McKnight, G., Curson, J., Bose, A., Lalchan, L. and Battachan, 

S. (1989) Systematic list of birds, Mai valley, March 1989. 
Unpublished. 
530 Mees, G.F. (1981) List of bird specimens from Nepal in the 
Rijksmuseum van NatuurUjke Historie Leiden. Unpub- 
lished. 

351 Meilstrup, H. (1971) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, No- 

vember 1970 - May 1971. Unpublished. 

352 Meilstrup, R and Olsen, I. (1987) Slorttir til Indien og Nepal. 

20/2 - 14/3 1987. Copenhagen; Dansk Omitologisk Foien- 
ing 

333 Melville, D.S. and Hamilton, VJ. (1981) Notes on birds re- 
corded in Nepal, November - December 1981. Unpublished. 

554 Melville, D.S. and MehiUe, VJ. (1983) Sight record of 5enm« 
pusillus near Manang, central Nepal /. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 
80: 222-223. 

533 Mertens, P. von (1977) Rafting the Trisuli River. Nepal Nature 
Conservation Society Newsletter No. 41, May 1977. 



336 Millin, D J. and Woolner, J.D. (1988) Annotated list of birds 
seen in and around Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, 14 -18 May 
1988. Unpublished. 

557 Mills, D.G.R (1985) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal Un- 

publisbed. 

558 Mills, D.G.R (1988) Notes on birxls recorxkd in Sagarmatba 

National Park. Unpublished. 

339 Mills, D.G.R and Preston, NA. (1981) Notes on birds re- 
corded in Nepal, 1981. Unpublished. 

360 Mills, D.G.R and Preston, NA. (1982) IdenUfication of BIyth's 
Pipit Brit. Bints 12: 381. 

561 Mills, D.G.R, Preston, NA. and Winyard, C (1982) Notes on 

birds recorded in Nepal Unpublished. 

562 Mills, DJ. (1988) Systematic list of birds recorded during a 

holiday to Langlang aiKJ Royal Chitwan National Parks, May 
1988. Unpublished. 

563 Mischler,T.(1977)NotesonbirdsrecoidedinNepal,Febraaiy 

- April 1977. Unpublished. 

564 Mitchell, R. and Dick, JA (1977) Ectoparasites from Nepal 

birds. /. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 74: 264-274. 

565 Molgaard, E. (1983) The Far East 1981-82. Unpublished. 

566 Moore, F. (1854) A monograph of the genus Ruticilla, with 

description of some new species. Proc. zool. Soc. London 22: 
25-30. 

567 Moore, F. (1S54) Descriptions of some new and little known 

species of birds from Noitbem India, contained in the Mu- 
seum of the HoiL East India Company. Proc. zool. Soc. 
London 22: 74-78. 

568 Moore, F. (1834) Notice of a new Indian swallow. Proc. zool. 

Soc. London 22: 104. 

569 Moore, F. (1854) Notice of some new species of birds con- 

tained in the Museum of the Hon. East India Company. Proc. 
zool Soc. London 22: 104-107. 

370 Moore, F. (1834) Notice of all the known species of the genus 
Acceiuor, with the description of an uncharacterized species 
from Nepal Proc. zool Soc. London 22: 116-120. 

571 Moore, F. (1834) Notice of some imperfectly-known species of 
birds contained in the Museum of the Hon. East India Com- 
pany. Proc. zool Soc. London 22: 141-142. 

372 Moore, F. (1855) Notice of some new species of birds. Proc. 

zool. Soc. London 23: 215-217. 

373 Morioka, R (1985) Notes on birds of Dhorpatan, central 

Nepal Ton 33: 113-122. 

374 Morioka, R and Sakane, T. (1981) Notes on the birds of 

Khumba-kama Himal eastern Nepal Ton 29:129-146. 

375 Morita, M (1989) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal 1988-1989. 

Unpublished. 
576 Munthe, K. (1981) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal Decem- 
ber 1980 - January 1981. Unpublished. 

377 Murdoch, D. (1988) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal May 

1988. Unpublished. 

378 Murphy, C. (1986) Notes on birds recorded on Sheopuri in 

May 1986. Unpublished. 

379 Murray, J. (1890) The avifauna of British India aiul its depend- 

encies. London: Trubner. 

380 Muston, AJ. (1975) Ornithological report of the Joint British 

Army Mountaineering Association, and Royal Nepal Army 
Nuptse Expedition, 1975. Unpublished. 

381 Muston, AJ. (1976) Ornithological report on the recent army 

expedition to EvensLArmy Birdwatchlng Soc. Bull No. 2/76. 

382 Muston, AJ. (1977) Ornithological report Pp. 236-239 in J. 

Fleming and R. Faux Soldiers on Everest. The joint Army 
Moimtaineering Association, Kayal Nepalese Army Mount 
Everest Expedition 1976. LoiKlon: Her Majesty's Stationery 
Office. 

383 Mustoa AJ. (1982) Ornithological report of the British Army 

West Nepal Expedition 1982. Unpublished. 
584 Nazarenko, A. (1983) Some historic -biogeographic problems 
coimected with the Himalayas (with special reference to the 
dendrophilous avifauna). Zhumal obshch. Biol 46: 41-34. 



386 



Bibliography 



585 Nepali, H.S. (1972) The GokUiilch in Nepal Nepal Nature 

Conservation Society Newsletter No.12, July 1972. 

586 Nepali, H.S. (1974) Rediscovery ofthe Dunlin in Nepal ^/epo/ 

Nature Conservation Society Newsletter No. 23, April 1974. 

587 Nepali, RS. (1982) List ofNepalese bird specimens, and Dotes 

on birds seen in Nepal Unpublished. 

588 Nepali, RS. (1984) Bird report from the Barun Valley Report 

Unpublished. 

589 Nepali, RS. (1986) List of bird specimens collected in Nepal 

Unpublished. 

590 Nepali, RS. (1986) Notes on birds recorded in the Aran and 

Barun valleys, Nepal in 1986. Unpublished. 

591 Nepali, RS. and Fleming, RL Jr. (1971) Some binfc from 

Nepal /. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 68: 833-835. 

592 Neufeldt, lA. and Vietinghotf-Scheel E. v. (1984) Mycerobas 

icterioides (Vigors). InAtJas der Verbreitung Palaearioischer 
Vogel, 12. Berlin: Akademie Verlag. 

593 Nickel H. and Trost, R. (1983) VogelkundUche 

beobachtungen einer reise nach Indien und Nepal January - 
April 1983. Unpublished. 

594 NicoUe, S. (1987) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal 1987. 

Unpublished. 

595 Nielsen, J.T. (1986) Some bird observations in Nepal 3 Octo- 

ber - 10 December 1986. UnpubUshed. 

596 Nielsen, J.T. (1988) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal 18 

November 1988 - 6 January 1989. Unpublished. 

597 Nielsen, J.T. and Jakobsen, O.F. (1989) Notes on birds re- 

corded in Nepal 25 October - 23 November 1989. Unpub- 
lished. 

598 Nilsson, T. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal 1982. 

Unpublished. 

599 Nordin, T. and Wallander, J. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal Unpublished. 

600 Numme, G. (1985) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal Novem- 

ber 1983. Unpublished. 

601 O'Donnell, J. (1977) A brief survey of the birds of the Noif h 

Churia Hills. Unpublished 

602 Ogihie-Grant, W.R. (1893) Catalogue of the birds in the collec- 

tion of the British Museum, 22 - gamebirds. London: British 
Museum. 

603 Ogihie-Grant, W.R. and Shatpe, R.B. (1892) Catalogue of the 

birds in the collection of the British Museum, 17 - Coraciae 
(contd.). Halftones, Bucerotes, Trogones. London: British 
MuseunL 

604 Oliver, W.LR. (1984) Notes on birds recorded at Bardia, 24 to 

29 February 1984. Unpublished. 

605 Owens, G.F. (1975) Notes on birds seen on the Everest trek and 

in the Kathmandu Valley. Unpublished. 

606 Parr, M. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal 1982. 

Unpublished. 

607 Paynter, KA. (1961) Notes on some Corvidae from Nepal 

Pakistan and India. /. Bombay noL Hist. Soc. 58: 379-386. 

608 Paynter, R-A. (1962) Taxonomic notes on some Himalayan 

Paridae. J. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 59: 951-956. 

609 Penard, A.P. (1919) Muscicapa sibirica cacabata. New name 

for HemicheJidon fuliginosa Hodgson, 1844, preoccupied in 
MuscicapabyM.JUligin4>saSpaTTmAli,llS7,an(iM.Juliginosa 
Gmelin, 1789. Pmc. New Eng. root. Club 7: 22. 

610 Percival D. pers. comm. to R.L Fleming Jr. (1981). 

611 Persson, M. (1989) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal 1986- 

1989. Unpublished. 

612 Petersen, I. (1983) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal 1980. 

Unpublished. 

613 Pickering R. (1990) Notes on birds recorded in eastern Nepal 

1988-90. Unpublished. 

614 Picozzl N. (1984) The Pipar Project Progress report. World 

Pheasatu Association News 4: 7-9. 

615 Picozzi, N. (1984) Pipar Project - Nepal An ecological survey 

of a proposed reserve for Himalayan pheasants at Pipar, 
Nepal Abstract World Pheasant Association News 5: 9-11. 



616 Picozzi N. (1985) WPA trek and survey to Pipar, Nepal, May 

1985. World Pheasant Association News 10: 21-23. 

617 Picozzi N. (1986) Human impact on pheasant habitat and 

numbers of pheasants on Pq>ar, central Nepal In M Ridley, 
ed.. Pheasants in Asia 1986. Basildon: World Pheasant Asso- 
datioiL 

618 Pierce, R. (1989) Mountain birds amidst stones. Birds Irtiema- 

donal 1(4): 22-28. 

619 Polunin, O. (1950) List of bird specimens from Nepal in the 

British Museum (Natural Histoiy). Zoological Accessions, 
Aves 26. Unpublisbed. 

620 Polunin, O. (1952) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1952. 

Unpublished. 

621 Polunin, O. (1955) Some birds collected in I angtang Khola, 

Rasua Garhi district, central Nepal /. Bombay not. Hist Soc. 
52: 856-896. 

622 Porter, R.F., Oddie, W.E. and Marr, BA.E. (1981) Notes on 

birxls recorded in Nepal, February 1981. Unpublished. 

623 Post, P.W. (1985) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, April - 

May 1984. Unpublished. 

624 Powell N. and Pierce, R. (1984) Notes on birds recorded in 

Nepal, 14 March to 30 April 1984. Unpublished. 

625 Prater, S.R (1928) Fauna of Nepal. Appendix XIII pp. 279-334 

in P. Landon Nepal. LondoiL' Constable. 

626 Pritchard, D.E. (1980) The birds of western Nepal the report 

of the ornithologists. In Saipal 79. Univ. of Durham Expiedi- 
tion to Western Nepal 1979. Unpublished. 

627 Pritchard, D.E. and Brearey, D. (1983) Notes on birds recorded 

during the Saipal 1982/83 expedition to Nepal Unpublished. 
62« Proud, D. (1949-1954) List of bird specimens from Nepal in the 
British Museum (Natlval History). Zoological Accessions, 
Aves 27. UnpubUshed. 

629 Proud, D. (1949) Some notes on the birds of Ibe Nepal Valley. 

/. Bombay not. Hist Soc. 48: 695-719. 

630 Pioud, D. (1951) More bird notes from Nepal Valley. /. Bom- 

bay nat Hist Soc. 49: 784-785. 

631 Proud, D. (1952) Some birds seen on the Gandak-Kosi water- 

shed in March 195L J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 50: 355-365. 

632 PTOud,D.(1952)Furthernotesonthebirds&omNepalVaUey. 

/. Bombay not. Hist. Sac. 50: 667-670. 

633 Proud, D. (1953) More notes on the birds of the Gandak-Kosi 

watershed, Nepal /. Bombay not Hist. Soc. 51: 653-670. 

634 Proud, D. (1953) The Tibetan Siskin [Spimls Ihibetanus 

(Hiune)] in Nepal /. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 51: 737. 

635 Proud, D. (1955) More notes on the birds of the Nepal Valley. 

J. Bombay nat Hist. Soc. 53: 57-78. 

636 Proud, D. (1^'^ Bird notes from Nepal /. Bombay not. Hist. 

Soc. 55: 345-350. 

637 Proud, D. (1959) Notes on the Spiny Babbler, Acanthoptila 

nipalensis (Hodgson), in the Nepal Valley. / Bombay luit. 
Hist Soc. 56: 330-332. 

638 Proud, D. (1961) Notes on some Nepalese birds. 7. Bombay m». 

Hist. Soc. 58: 277-279. 

639 Proud, D. (1%1) Notes on the birds of Nepal / Bombay nat. 

Hist. Soc. 58: 798-805. 

640 Proud, D.(1%1) Corrections to 'Some notes on the birds of the 

Nepal valley". J. Bombay not Hist Soc. 58: 806-807. 

641 Pyle, P. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1982. Unpub- 

lished. 

642 Rahmani, A.R (1989) Status of the Black-necked Stork in the 

Indian subcontinent Forktail 5: 99-110. 

643 Rand, A.L (1953) Geographical variation in the laughing 

thrush, Garrulax qffinis. Nat. Hist. Miscellanea 116: 1-6. 

644 Rand, A.L (1967) The flower-adapted tongue of a Timaliinae 

bird and its implications. Fieldiana (zooL) 51(3): 53-61. 

645 Rand, A-U and Fleming RL. (1953) A new fruit pigeon from 

Nepal Fieldiana: zool. 34: 201-202. 

646 Rand, A.L. and Fleming, RL. (1956) Two new birds from 

Nepal Fieldiana: tool 39: 1-3. 



Bibliography 



387 



647 Raiid,A.L.andFleinmg,RL.(1937)BirdsofNepal.fie&&aRa.' 

zool. 41: 1-218. 
64S Rassel, P. (1988) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, March - 

November 1976. Unpublished. 

649 Ratna, A. (1977) Birds in the Chobar area. Nepal Nature 

Conservation Society Newsletter No.43, July 1977. 

650 Redman, NJ. (1984) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, Febru- 

ary - March 1984. Unpublished. 

651 Redman, NX, Lambert, F. and Crimmett, R.F. (1984) Some 

observations of scarce birds in Nepal / Bombay not. Hist 
Soc. 81: 49-53. 

652 Redman, NJ. and Muiphy, C. (1979) Notes on birds recorded 

in Nepal, December 1978 - June 1979. Unpublished. 

653 Reichenow, A. (1886) Monographic der Gattung Plocetts Cuv. 

ZooL Jahrb. 1: 113-164. 

654 Reid, T. (1984) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, winter 1983/ 

84. Unpublished. 

655 Rice, C. (1978) Notes on birds seen on a trek to Muktinath, 

April 1978. Unpublished. 

656 Richards, G. and Richards, L. (1981) Notes on birds recorded 

in Nepal, Februaiy-April 1981. Unpublished. 

657 van Riessen, A. (1986) Notes on birds recorded in far western 

Nepal, 1983-1985. Unpublished. 

658 van Riessen, A. (1989) Birds recorded in far eastern Nepal 1986 

- 1989. Unpublished. 

659 Ripley, S.D. (1950) Birds from Nepal 1947-49. / Bombay ma. 

Hist. Soc. 49: 355^17. 

660 Ripley, S.D. (1950) New birds from Nepal and the Indian 

region. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 63: 101-106. 

661 Ripley, S.D. (1953) Search for the Spiny Babbler. London: 

Victor GoUancz. 

662 ^f\ey,S.T).(\9il)Asynopsiso{thebir(lsoflndiaarutPJdstan. 

Fiist editioiL Bombay: Bombay Natural History Society. 

663 Ripley, S.D. (1962) The Lesser Whitethroat [Sylvia curmca 

blythi Ticehurst & Whistler] in Nepal A new record. / 
Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 59:290. 

664 Ripley, S.D. (1982) A synopsis of the birds of India and Pakistan. 

Second editioiL Bombay: Bombay Natural History Society. 

665 Roberts, J.O.M. (1950) List of bird specimens from Nepal in 

the British Museum (Natural Histoiy). Zoological Acces- 
sions, Aves 26: 321-323. Unpublished. 

666 Roberts, J.O.M. (1977) Pheasant conservation in Nepal Nepal 

Nature Conservation Society Ajumal I: 44-48, 

667 Roberts, J.O.M. (1978) Breeding of the MaUard (/Inser (sic) 

platyrhynchos) in Nepal/. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 15: 485-486. 

668 Roberts, J.O.M. (1979) Late sighting of Bar-headed Geese. 

Nepal Nature Conservation Society Newsletter, August 1979. 

669 Roberts, J.O.M. (1980) Nepal (2) status of the pheasants of 

Nepal. Pp. 22-26 in C. Savage, ed.. Pheasants in Asia 1979. 
Exning U.K.: World Pheasant Association. 

670 Roberts, J.O.M. (1980) The captwe breeding of Himalayan 

pheasants and some experience in release. Pp. 63-65 in C. 
Savage, ed.. Pheasants in Asia 1979. Exning, U.K.: World 
Pheasant AssociatioiL 

671 Roberts, J.O.M. (1987) Notes on birds recorded in NepaL 

Unpublished. 

672 Roberts, J.O.M. (1987) Record of Bar-headed Geese sightings 

- Kamali Tented Camp 1987. UnpubUshed. 

673 Roberts, J.O.M. (1988) Report on Bar-headed Goose sight- 

ings, 1988. Unpublished. 

674 Roberts, J.O.M. ( 1990) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1987- 

1990. Unpublished. 

675 Roberts, M. (1989) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1989. 

Unpublished. 

676 Roberts, P. (1978) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, February 

1978. Unpublished. 

677 Roberts, R. (1985) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1985. 

Unpublished. 

678 Roberts, TJ. and King, B. (1986) Vocalizations in owls of the 

genus Otus in Pakistan. Omis Scand. 17: 299-305. 



679 Robinson, P. (1977) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, May 

1977. Unpublished 

680 Robinson, T. (1988) Kessler's Thnish (Tardus kesslen') from 

Nepal/ Boinbaynat. Hist. Soc. 85: 618-619. 

681 Robson, C. (1979) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal Novem- 

ber - Decemlwr 1979. Unpublished. 

682 Robson, C. (1982) A report of birds seen in Nepal, 1982. 

UnpubUshed. 

683 de Roder, F. (1989) The migration of raptors south of An- 

napuma, Nepal, autiunn 1985. Forktail 4: 9-17. 

684 de Roder, F. (1985) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, autiunn 

1985. UnpubUshed. 

685 Rogers, MJ. (1987) Record of Red Kite Mitms milvus from 

Nepal, March 1987. UnpubUshed. 

686 Rooke, S. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, December 

1982. UnpubUshed. 

687 Ross, J. (1983) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, January - 

April 1983. UnpubUshed. 

688 Rossetti, J.B.O. (1978) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 

August 1978. UnpubUshed. 

689 Rossetti, J.B.O. (1979) Black-necked Crane Cms nigricollis 

seen at Begnas Tal near Pokhara, Nepal / Bombay not. Hist. 
Soc. 76: 513. 

690 Round, P.D. (1986) List of bird specimens coUected in Nepal 

by E. Cronin and stored in the Thai National Reference 
CoUection, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technologi- 
cal Research, Bangkok. Unpublished. 

691 Russell, V. (1981) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1981. 

Unpublished. 

692 Sakya, K. (1978) Dolpo, the world behind the Himalayas. Kath- 

mandu: Sharda Prakashan Griha. 

693 Sakya, K. (1980) Reports on the status of pheasants: Nepal (1) 

introductory paper. Pp. 21-22 in C. Savage, ed., Pheasants in 
Asia 1979. Exning World Pheasant AssociatioiL 

694 Sakya, S. (1989) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, January 

1989. UnpubUshed. 

695 Sah'adori,T. (1891) Catalogue of the bints in the collection cf the 

British Museum, 20 - Psittaci London: British Museum. 

696 Sa^adori, T. (1893) Catalogue of the birds in the collection of the 

British Musettm, 21 - Columt>ae. London: British Museum. 

697 Salvadori, T. (1895) Catalogue of the birds in the collection of the 

British Museum, 27 - Chenomoiphae, Ciypturi, Ratitae. 
London: British Museum. 

698 Saunders, H (1896) Catalogue of the birds in the collection of the 

British Museum, 25 - Gaviae. London: British Museum. 

699 Sayers, D. (1975) Buds identified on Nepal spring trek, 1975. 

Unpublished. 

700 Schaal; D., Rice, C.G., Fleming R.L. Sr.and Fleming R.L. Jr. 

(1980) A partial checkUst of the birds of Sukla Phanta Wild- 
life Reserve, Nepal, with remarks on the relevance of species 
inventories. Unpublished. 

701 SchaUer, G.B, (1980) Stones cf silence. London: Andre 

Deutsch. 

702 Scharringa, J. (1987) Ornithological observations Nepal, De- 

cember 1986 - January 1987. Unpublished. 

703 SchoDeld, R. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal 1982. 

Unpublished. 

704 Schrijver, L. and Scharringa, J. (1989) Ornithological records 

from Daijeeling District, West Bengal India, 17 - 23 May 
1989. UnpubUshed. 

705 Sclater, P.L (1888) Catalogue of the birds in the collection of the 

British Musettm, 14 - OUgomyidae. 

706 Scott, DA., ed. (1989) A directory of Asian wetlands. Gland, 

Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K.: International Union for 
Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 

707 Scott, DA. and Rose, P.M. (1989) Asian waterfowl census 1989: 

midwinter waterfowl counts in southern arui eastern Asia, Janu- 
ary 1989. Slimbridge: International Waterfowl and Wetlands 
Research Bureau 

708 Scully, J. (1879) A contribution to the ornithology of Nepal 



388 



Bibliography 



708 Scully, J. (1879) A contribution to the ornithology of Nepal. 

Stray Feathers 8: 204-368. 

709 Searle, M. (1980) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1980. 

Unpublished. 

710 Seebohm, H. (1881) Catalogue of the birds in the collection of 

the British Museum, 5 - Turdidae. London: British Museum. 

711 Shaipe, R.B. (1874) Catalogue of the birds in the collection of the 

British Museum, 1 - Accipitres. London; British Museum. 

712 Shaipe, R.B. (1875) Catalogue of the birds in the collection of the 

British Musetxm, 2 - Striges. London: British Museum. 

713 Shaipe.R.B. (lSTT)Catalogite of the birds in the collection of the 

British Museum, 3 - CoUomorphae. London: British Mu- 
seum. 

714 Shaipe, R.B. (1879) Catalogue of the birds in the collection of the 

British Museum, 4 - Campephagidae, Muscicapidae. London: 
British Museum. 

715 Shaipe, R.B. (1881) Catalogue of the birds in the collection of the 

British Museum, 6 - Timaliidae (part). London: British Mu- 
seum. 

716 Sharpe, R.B. (1883) Catalogue of the birds in the collection of the 

British Museum, 1 - Timaliidae (part). London: British Mu- 
seum. 

717 Sharpe, R.B. (1885) Catalogue of the birds in the collection of the 

British Museum, 10 - Fiingillifonnes, Part 1. London: British 
Museum. 

718 Shaipe, R.B. (1888) Catalogue of the birdsin Ihecollection of the 

British Museum, 12 - FringiUidae. London: British Museum. 

719 Shaipe, R.B. (1890) Catalogue of the birds in the collection of the 

British Museum, 13 - Sturaiformes. London: British Museum. 

720 Sharpe, R.B. (1890) Notes on specimens in the Hume Collec- 

tion of birds - No.6. On the Coraciidae of the Indian Region 
with descriptions of some new Species. Proc. zool. Soc. 
London 1890: 546-552. 

721 Shaipe, R.B. (1894) Catalogue of the birdsin the collection of the 

British Museum, 23 - Fulicariae, Alectorides. London: British 
Museum. 

722 Sharpe, R.B. (1896) Catalogue of the birdsin the collection of the 

British Museum, 24 - Limicolae. London: British Museum. 

723 Sharpe,R.B. (1&9S) Catalogue of the birds in the collection cf the 

British Museum, 26 - Plataleae, Herodiones. London: British 
Museum. 

724 Shelley, G.E. (1891) Catalogue of the birds in the collection of the 

British Museum, 19 - Indicatoridae, Capitonidae, Cuculidae, 
Musophagidae. London: British Museum. 

725 Shrestha, T.R. ([1986] 1988) Habitat ordination of birds in a 

managed grassland of Kathmandu Valley./. Nat, Hist. Mus. 
(Tribhuvan Univ., Kathmandu) 10: 31-51. 

726 Sieurin, R (1987) Record of Bean Goose Anser fabalis in 

Nepal, December 1985. Unpublished. 

727 Simpson, N. (1985) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1985. 

Unpublished. 

728 Singh, G. (1961) The eastern Steppe Eagle \Aquila nipalensis 

ntpalensis (Hodgson)) on the south col of Everest /. Bombay 
not. Hist. Soc. 58: 270. 

729 Slack, R.S. (1990) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, December 

1989 - Februaiy 1990. Unpublished. 

730 Slack, R.S., Green, J., Leonard, R and Richardson, D. (1988) 

Trip to Nepal, 31 March - 21 April 1988. Unpublished. 

731 Smith, S. (1988) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, Februaiy 

1988. UnpubUshed. 

732 Smythies, B.E. (1947) Some birds of the Gandak-Kosi water- 

shed including the pilgrim trail to the sacred lake of Go- 
sainkund. / Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 47: 432-443. 

733 Smythies, B.E. (1950) More notes on the birds of the Nepal 

VaUey, /. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 49: 513-518. 

734 Sorensen, U.G. (1988) Observations from Kathmandu Valley 

and Royal Chitwan National Parks. 9-21 Februaiy 1988. Un- 
published. 

735 Stevens, H. (1912) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1912. 

Hancock Museum, Newcastle-upon-iyne. Unpublished. 



736 Stevens, tt (1923) Notes on the birds of the Sikkim Himalayas, 

Part 1. J. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 29: 503-518. 

737 Stevens, R (1923) Notes on the birds ofthe Sikkim Himalayas, 

Part 2. / Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 29: 723-740. 

738 Stevens, H. (1924) Notes on the birds ofthe Sikkim Himalayas, 

Part 3. / Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 29: 1007-1030. 

739 Stevens, R (1924) Notes on the birds ofthe Sikkim Himalayas, 

Part 4. / Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 30: 54-71. 

740 Stevens, R (1925) Notes on the birds ofthe Sikkim Himalayas, 

Part 5. J. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 30: 352-379. 

741 Stevens, R (1925) Notes on the birds ofthe Sikkim Himalayas, 

Part 6. /. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 30: 664-685. 

742 Stevens, R (1925) Notes on the birds oftbe Sikkim Himalayas, 

Part 7. / Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 30: 872-893. 

743 Stirrup, S. (1986) Systematic list of species recorded in Nepal 

(Kathmandu and Cbitwan), August - September 1986. Un- 
published. 

744 Stones, AJ. (1987) Bird species recorded in Nepal, 8 March -5 

April 1987. Unpublished. 

745 Stresenianii,E.(1920)|/%:uimymieco/>Ao/ieu5:anewiiamefor 

P. striolaiits BIyth, preoccupied]. Verfi. Om. Ges. Bayem 14: 
289. 

746 Sudbury, A. (1978) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, Decem- 

ber 1977 - Januaiy 1978. Unpublished. 

747 SutcUffe, R. (1981) List of bird specimens from Nepal in the 

Glasgow Museum. Unpublished. 

748 Suter, W. (1983) Ornithological and mammalogical observa- 

tions in Nepal and NW India, including a few observations in 
Bangladesh and Pakistan, December 1982 - Februaiy 1983. 
Unpublished. 

749 Suwal, R.N., Nepali, RS. and Harris, J. (1989) Notes oo birds 

recorded around the Lumbini Development Area on 21-22 
Februaiy 1989. Unpublished. 

750 Suwal, R.N. and Shrestha, M.K. (1988) Birds recorded in a 

wetland survey of western Nepal, June 1988. Unpublished 

751 Suwal, R.N. and Shrestha, M.K. (1988) Sams Crane survey 

project, Nepal 1988. Unpublished. 

752 Sykes, W.R. (1954) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1954. 

Unpublished. 

753 Taylor, I.R. and Abbott, S.G. (1988) Annotated list of bird 

species in the Annapuma Conseivation Area, 3 - 12 Januaiy 
1988. Unpublished. 

754 Thapa, B.B. (1988) Notes on birds recorded at Khaptad Na- 

tional Park. Unpublished. 

755 Thiede, W. and Thiede, U. (1973) Zur Biologie des 

Tunnfalken {Falco ti'niumculus) im Nepal Bonn. zoot.Beitr. 
24: 285-290. 

756 Thiede, W. and Thiede, U. (1974) Feldbeobachtungen an 

VogeUl Nepab. Vogelwell 95(3): 88-95. 

757 ThioUay, J.M. (1977) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal Un- 

published. 

758 ThioUay, J.M. (1978) Distributions des Fakoniformesnicbeure 

autourdu massif de rAnnapuma (Himalaya Central). Oiseau 
a RF. 0.48:291-310. 

759 ThioUay, J.M. (1978) Ornithological survey of Royal Chitwan 

National Park, October - November 1978. UnpubUshed. 

760 ThioUay, J.M. (1978) Structures ecologiques comparees de 

peuplement aviens de forets mixtes temperees. Getfaut 68: 
347-372. 

761 ThioUay, J.M. (1979) La migration des grues a travers ■'Hima- 

laya et la predation par les aigles royaux. Alauda 47: 83-92. 

762 ThioUay, J.M. (1980) L'evolution des peuplements d'oiseaux le 

long d'un gradient altitudinal dans ITlimalaya Central Rev. 
Ecol. (Terre et Vie) 34: 199-269. 

763 Thorns, D. (1987) Notes on biids recorded in Nepal, 1986. 

Unpublished. 

764 ToUl, R. (1988) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1984. Un- 

pubUshed. 

765 Toohig.T. (1986) Notes on birds recoided in Nepal December 

1985 - Januaiy 1986. UnpubUshed. 



Bibliography 



389 



766 Tristram, RB. (1889) A catalogue of a collection of birds 

belonging to H.B. Tristram. DurhanL 

767 Tuladhar, A. (1977) Raojpokhari birds. Nepal Nature Conser- 

vation Society Newsletter No.45, September 1977. 

768 Tuladhar, A. (1979) The avifauna] ecology of Sunderghat (June 

19 - October 12, 1977). Nqial Nature Conservation Society 
Anrmal H 1978-79: 28-35. 

769 Turin, R., Heegaard, M. and Prieme, A. (1987) Northern pait 

of the Indian subcontinent 87. Unpublished. 

770 Turtoa J.M. and Speight, GJ. (1982) A report on birds seen in 

Nepal, 1982. Unpublished. 

771 lyier, C. (1988) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, May 1988. 

Unpublished. 

772 Underwood, L. (1978) Birds identified in Royal Chitwan Na- 

tional Park, specifically Sauraha, during the monsoon, Au- 
gust 1978. Unpublished. 

773 Underwood, L. (1979) Notes on birds seen at Sheopuri, Kath- 

mandu Valley, Nepal, March 13 1979. Unpublished 

774 Underwood, L. (1979) Nagarjung is alive and wild. Nepal 

Nature Conservation Society Newsletter, September 1979. 

775 Underwood, L. (1979) North of Pokhara during the monsoon. 

Part I. Nepal Nature Conservation Society Newsletter, Sep- 
tember 1979. 

776 Underwood, L. (1979) Natural histoiy north of Pokhara during 

the monsoon. Part II. Nepal Nature Conservation Society 
Newsletter, October 1979. 

777 Underwood, L. (1980) Random bird news in Nepal Nepal 

Nature Conservation Society Newsletter, February 1980. 

778 Underwood, L, (1980) Report on the Kathmandu Annual 

Christmas Bird Count 1979. Nepal Nature Conservation Soci- 
ety Newsletter, February 1980. 

779 Underwood, L, (1980) Spring's nature calling. Nepal Nature 

Conservation Society Newsletter, March-April 1980. 

780 Uprety, D.R. (1968) Information on some 'birds from Nepal'. 

In The fautuil studies of Nepal Nepal National Commission 
for UNESCO. Regional Seminar on the Ecology of Tropical 
Highlands. 

781 Vaurie, C. (1953) Geographical variation in Garrulax erythro- 

cephalus in central and western Himalayas with description 
of a new race from Nepal Bull. Brit. Om. Club 73: 77-79. 

782 Vaurie, C. (1955) Remarks on the nomenclature of the Hima- 

layan races olRegulusregulus.BulL Brit. Om. Club 75: 99-101. 

783 Vaurie, C. (1955) Systematic notes on Palearctic birds. No. 13, 

Zoothera mollissima and Z. dixoni. Amer. Mus. Novitaies 
1706: 1-8. 

784 Vaurie, C (1959) The birtis of the Palearctic fautta, Passeri- 

formes. London: Witherby. 

785 van der Veo, J. (1987) Asian wateifowl 1987: midwinter bird 

observations in some Asian countries. Slimbridge: Interna- 
tional Waterfowl Research Bureau. 

786 van der Ven, J. (1988) Asian wateifowl 1988: midwinter bird 

observations in most Asian countries. Slimbridge: Interna- 
tional Waterfowl Research Bureau. 

787 Vernon, J.D.R. and Griffin, D. (1984) Notes on birds recorded 

in Nepal, March 1984. Unpublished. 

788 Vigors, NA. (1831) Observations on a collection of birds from 

the Himalayan Mountains, with characters of new genera and 
species. Proc. zooL Soc. London 1: 7-9, 22-23, 35, 41-44, 54-56, 
170-176. 

789 Vigors, NjV (1832) [Description of Co/um6ai/od'^o/U(].frt)C. 

zooi Soc. London 2: 16. 

790 Voous, K.R (1988) Owls cfihe northern Hemisphere. London: 

Collins. 

791 Voous, K.R and Bijieveld, M.F.I. (1964) A note on Himalayan 

Buzzards Buteo buteo (Aves). Beaufortia 11: 37-43. 



792 Vyas, S. (1988) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1986-1988. 

Unpubhshed. 

793 Wahlstrom, C. (1979) Notes on birds recorxled in Nepal, 16 

November - 13 December 1979. Unpublished. 

794 Walinder, G. and Sandgren, B. (1983) ArtUsta over taglar 

obeerverade i Nepal, 10.3 - 12.4 1982. Unpublished. 

795 Walters, M (1984) Notes on eggs, in the coUection of the 

British Museum (Natural History), ascribed to Carpodacus 
nipalensis, PropyrrhuJa stibhimachala, and Pyrrhoplectes ep- 
auletta. Unpublished. 
7% Wangdi, G. (1988) Notes on some bird species recorded at 
Royal Bardia National Park by naturalist guides at Kamali 
Tented Camp. Unpublished. 

797 Warren, RL.M (1966) Type-specimens of birds in the British 

Museum (Natural History), t, Non-Passerines. London: Brit- 
ish Museum (Natural Histoiy). 

798 Warren, R.L,M and Harrison, CJ.O. (1971) Type-specimens of 

birds in the British Museum (Natural History), 2, Passerines. 
London: British Museum (Natural Histoiy). 

799 Warwick, J. (1986) A pheasant census trek in central NepaL 

Cage and Aviary Birds 11 January 1986. 

800 Warwick,J.(1986)SelectedbirdrecordsforNepal,April-May 

1985. Unpublished. 

801 Waugh, D. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, winter 

1982. Unpublished. 

802 Wegge, P. (1976) Himalayan Shikar Reserves, surveys and 

maruigement proposals. FO NEP/72/G02 Field Document 
No. 5. Kathmandu: UNDP/FAO. 

803 Weir, T. (1955) East of Kathmandu. Edinburgh: Oliver and 

Boyd. 

804 Whitehouse, S. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 1982. 

Unpublished. 

805 Whiteley, D. (1981) List of bird specimens from Nepal in the 

Sheffield MuseunL Unpublished. 

806 Willan,R.G.M(l%7) Great Crested Grebe (fodicq>jc7is(ams 

Linn.) in NepaL / Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 64: 108-109. 

807 Willard, D. (Chicago Field Museum), in lilt., 29 January 1988. 

808 Wilson, P. (1981) Ecology and habitat utilisation of Blue Sheep 

Pseudois lutyaur in NepaL BioL Consen. 21: 55-74. 

809 WinkeL W. (1987) Naturkundliche Studienreise 'Nepal und 

Nordindien' vom 8.11 - 29.11.87. Unpublished. 

810 Wittenberg, J. (1989) Indien - NepaL 17 February - 11 March 

1989. Unpublished. 

811 Wolstencroft, JA. (1981) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, 

March - May 1981. Unpublished. 

812 Wolstencroft, J-A- (1982) Notes on birds recorded in NepaL 

1982. Unpublished. 

813 Woodcock, M.W. (1979) India & Nepal 27 October - 17 

November 1979. Sunbird Holidays tour report 

814 Woodcock, MW. and Woodcock, BJ. (1976) Some birds 

observed in the monsoon in central NepaL /. Bombay not. 
Hist. Soc. 73; 296-303. 

815 Wotham, M and Bond, G. (1984) Notes on birds recorded in 

NepaL 1984. Unpublished. 

816 Yonzon, P. and Leiliott, A.D. (1981) Food habits and feeding 

of Himalayan pheasants. / Nat. Hist. Mus. (Tribhuvan Univ., 
Kathmandu) 5(4): 93-98. 

817 Zimmer, J.T.T. and Vaurie, C. (1954) The type species of the 

genera Tesia, PiuxpygaatuiOligura. Bull. Brit. Om. Club 74: 
40-41. 

818 KirkpatrickjColonel (1811) Account crfthe Kingdom ofNepaul, 

being the subsumce of observations made ditring a mission to 
that country in the year 1793. London: W. Miller. 

819 Inskipp, C. (1988) A Birdwatcher's Guide to Nepal. Sandy: 

PrioiL 



390 



Index 



INDEX TO ENGLISH NAMES 



Plate numbers are in bold. 



Accentor 

A^ine30,236 

Altai 28, 30, 236 

Blade-throated 235 

Brown 17, 28, 235 

Maroon-badced Z>34 

Robin 28, 30, 236 

Rufous-breasted 235 

Rufous-fitreaked 236 
AvadavaJ 

Red 27. 358 
Avocet 142 

Pied 142 
Babax 

Giant 11 
Babbler 

Abbott's 29,296 

Blfldi-chinned 300 

Bladt-tbroated 301 

BufC-chested It 

Chestnut-capped 26. 302 

Common 305 

Golden 16, 28, 29, 301 

Golden-headed 301 

Grey-throated 16, 25, 29, 301 

Jcrdon'B 11,375 

Jungle 306 

Large Grey 306 

Nepal 319 

Nepal Quaker 319 

Pufl-throated 296 

Red-capped 302 

Red-headed 300 

Rufous-bellied 301 

Rufous-cappied 29, 300 

Slender-billed 26, 306 

Spiny 16. 25, 305 

Spotted 296 

Striated 305 

Tawny-bellied 301 

White-hooded 315 

YeUow-eyed 26, 302 
Baibet 

Blue-eared 16, 199 

Blue-throated 199 

Brown-headed 81. 198 

Coppersmith 200 

Crimson-breasted 200 

Golden-throated 16, 25, 28, 199 

Great 198 

Great Hill 198 

Great Himalayan 198 

Green 198 

Lineated 81, 198 
Banviag 

Hoaiy 25, 316 

Rusty-fronted 16, 30, 316 

Spectacled 316 
Baza 

Black 16. 26, 105 

Blade-crested 105 

Jerdon's 10 
Bee-eater 

Blue-beaided 29, 194 

Blue-tailed 21, 195 

Chestnut-beaded 195 

Green 194 

Little Green 194 

Small Green 194 
BesTB34,35, 114 
Bird 

TaUor269 
Bittern 87 

BUckSS 



Chestnut 88 
Cinnamon 88 

Eurasians? 

Greats? 

Uttle 10. 87 

Tiger 88 

Yelk7w26,87 
Blackbird 257 

Common 257 

Eurasian 257 

Grey-winged 256 

White-collared 256 
Bluebird 

Asian Faiiy 16, 29, 233 
Bluetail 

Red-flanked 240 
Bluethroat 238 
Boobook 

Brown 182 
Brambling360 
Broadbill 

Collated 209 

Hodgson's 209 

Long-taUed 29, 209, 210 

Silver-breasted 209 
Bulbul 

Ashy 231 

BladtBl 

Black-crested 229 

Bladt-headed YeUow 229 

Brown-eared 231 

Grey 231 

Mountain 231 

Red-vented 25. 230 

Red-whiskered 229 

Rufous-bellied 231 

Striated 9. 16. 25, 229 

Striated Green 229 

White-cheeked 18, 230 

White-throated 29, 230 
Bullfinch 

Brown 26, 28, 30, 370 

Grey-beaded 11 

Red-headed 370 
Bimting 

Black-faced 22, 27, 77, 79, 372, 8 

Btack-headed 79, 80, 375 

Chestnut 78, 79, 374 

Chestnut-breasted 373 

Chestnut-eared 17, 78, 79, 373. 
374,8 

Conamon Reed 375 

Crested 80375 

Eurasian Rock 373 

Grey-headed 373 

Utile 78, 79, 374, 8 

Pine 28, 77, 79, 372, 8 

Red-headed 79, 80, 375 

Reed 79, 80, 375 

Ro(±77,79.373,« 

Rustic 78, 19. 374, 8 

White-capped 77, 79. 373, 8 

YeUow-breasted 22, 78, 79, 374, 
B 
Bush-Robin 

Golden 25, 28, 240 

Orange-flanked 240 

Rulous-fereasted 16. 18, 28. 29, 
30.240 

White-browed 28. 30. 240. 241 
Bushchat 

Collared 247 

Grey 18, 249 

Hodgson's 18, 27. 248, 249 



Jerdon's 249 
Pied 249 

White-necked 248 

White-tailed 248 
Bushlark 

Bengal 211 

Indian 11 

Rufbuf-winged 211 

Singjngll 
Bustard 

Great Indian 139 
Bustard-Quail 

Common 134 

Little 134 

Northern 134 
Button-OuaU 134 
Buttonquail 134 

Barred 134 

SmaU134 

Striped 134 

Yellow-legged 134 
Buzzard 

Common 22,3637,115 

Crested Hon^ 105 

Desert lis 

Long-legged 36, 37, 116 

Upland 36, 37, 116 

White-eyed 115 
Chaffinch 

Common 360 
Chat 

Blue 239 

Brown Rock 247 

Dark Grey Bush 249 

Indian 251 

River 251 

White-capped River 251 
Chiffchafr22.71,282,5 
Chough 349 

Alpine 348 

Hume's Ground 347 

Red-billed 21, 349 

Yellow-biUed 348 
Cisticola 

Bright-capped 26, 264 

FantaU26S 

Golden-headed 264 

Zitting 265 
Cochoa 

Green 247 

Purple 247 
Coot 

Conunonl37 

Eurasian 137 
Cormorant 8S 

Great 85,86 

Indian 10 

Large 85 

Uttle 86 
Coucal 

Greater 178 

Large 178 

Lesser 27.178 

Small 178 
Courser 

Indian 143 
Crake 

Baillon's 26, 135 

Black-tailed 10. 135 

Brown 26. 136 

Elwes's 135 

Indian Banded 134 

Ruddy 135 

Rudt^-breasted 26, 135 



Slaty-legged 134 

Spotted 10, 375 
Crane 

Black-necked 138 

Common 138 

Demoiselle 22. 199 

Sarutl38 

Sixrian 103 
Creeper 

Spotted 11 
CrTXsbill363 

Common 363 

Red 363 
Crow 

House 349 

Jungle 349, 350 

Large-billed 349 
Crow- Pheasant 

Common 178 
Cuckoo 

Asian Emerald 21. 173 

Banded Bay 26. 174 

Chestnut-winged 26, 172 

Common 175 

Emerald 173 

Eurasian 175 

Grey-bellied 174 

Grey-bellied Plaintive 174 

Himalayan 175 

Indian 175 

Indian Plaintive 174 

Jacobin 171 

KoeI176 

Lesser 21. 176 

Little 176 

Oriental 175 

Pied 21, 171, 172 

Pied Crested 171 

Plaintive 174 

Red-winged Crested 172 

Rufous-bellied Plaintive 174 

Short-winged 175 

Siikeerl77 

Small 176 
Cuckoo- Dove 

Bar-tailed 167 

Barred 29, 167 

Long-tailed 167 
Cudux>-shrike 

Black-fiuxd 226 

Blade-headed 225 

Blade-winged 226 

Dark 226 

Dart Grey 226 

Large 226 
Curlew 153 

Eurasian 153 
Cutis 25. 28, 30. 313. 314 

NeiMl313 
Darter 86 

Oriental 26, 86 
Dayal 

Robin 241 
Dipper 233 

Brown 233. 234 

White-breasted 233 

White-throated 233 
Dollarbird 196 
Dove 

Collared 165 

Common Emerald 167 

Emerald 167 

Eurasian Collared 165 

Indian Ring 165 



Index 



391 



Laughing 166 
Little Brown 166 
Oriental Turtle 166 
Palm 166 
Red Collared 165 
Red Turtle 165 
Rock 163 
Rufous Turtle 166 
Spotted 166 



Asby 21, 342 

Blafk341 

Bronzed 343 

Crow-billed 21, 26, 27. 29, 342, 
343 

Greater Racket-tailed 27, 344, 

Grey 342 

Hair-crested 344 

Large Raoquet-tailed 343, 344 

Lesser Racket-tailed 343 

Little Bronzed 343 

Small Racquet-tailed 343 

Spangled 344 

White-bellied 342 
Drongo-CudtDO 176 
Duck 

Cond)98 

Falcated 99 

Ferruginous 103 

Fulvous Whistling 95 

Lesser Whistling 26, 96 

LoDg-tailed 104 

Mandarin 99 

Pink-headed 102 

Spot-billed 101 

Tufted 103 

White-headed 10 
Dunlin 46, 47, 150 
Eagle 

Black 116 

Bonelli's 119 

Booted 119 

Crested Serpent Ul 

Golden 42, 43, 119 

Greater Spotted 22, 40, 42, 43, 
117 

Grey-beaded Fishing 26, lOS, 

Himalayan Grey- beaded 
Fishing 107 

Imperial 39, 40, 41. 118 

Lesser Fishing 26. 107 

Lesser Spotted 42, 43. 117 

Pallas'B Fish 18, 26, 107 

Ring-tailed Fishing 107 

Rufous-bellied 120 

Short-toed 111 

Spotted 117 

Steppe 21, 22, 23, 39, 40, 41, 117, 
118 

Tawny40,41, 118 

White-tailed 26, 107 

White-tailed Sea 107 
Egret 

Cattle 89 

Great 90 

Great White 90 

Intermediate 90 

Large 90 

Little 90 

Plumed 90 

Smaller 90 

YeUow-billed 90 
Falcon 

Amur22,122,123 

Baibaty44,45, 125 

Eastern Red-legged 122 

Laggar 44, 45, 124 

Peregrine 22, 44, 45, 124, 125 

Red-capped 125 

Red-oecked 26, 122 

Saker44,45, 124 



Sbaheenl24 

Falconet 

Collared 26, 29, 121 

Red-breasted 121 

Red-thighed 121 
Fantail 

White-brewed 295 

White-throated 294 

YeUow-bellied 294 
Mnch 

Crimson-browed 16, 28, 368, 369 

Gold-crowned Black 369 

Gold-fronted 360 

GokJ-naped 25. 369 

Juniper 368 

Mongolian 364 

Mongolian Desert 364 

MongoUan Trumpeter 364 

Red-browed 361 

Scarlet 26. 369 

Spectacled 28, 361 
Firethroat 11 
Flam^>adt 

Bladt-rumped 204 

Greater 205 

Himalayan 26, 204 
Flamingo 95 

Greater 95 
Florican 

Bengal 18, 26, 27, 139, 140 

Lesser 18, 140 
Flowerpecker 

Bufl-beUied 337 

Fire-breasted 337 

Pale-biUed 336 

Plain 25337 

Plain-coloured 337 

Scartet-backed 337 

Thick-billed 335 

TickcU's 336 

YeUow-bellied 25, 28, 336 

Yellow-vented 29, 336 
Ftycatcber 

Asian BrcTwn 21, 25. 289 

Asian Paradise 21, 26, 295 

Asian Sooty 21. 288 

Black-nap«] 295 

Blue-throated Blue 25. 285 

Blue-throated 285 

Brooks' 284 

Brown 289 

Brown-breasted 288 

Dark-sided 288 

Ferruginous 16, 21, 287 

Grey-headed 293 

HtU Blue 16, 286 

Kashmir 292, 293 

Kashmir Redbreasted 292 

Large-biUed Blue 286 

Utile Pied 290, 291 

Orange-gorgetted 292 

Pale Blue 285 

Pale-chinned 284. 285 

Paiadise 295 

Pygmy Blue 16, 286, 287 

Red-breasted 22, 293 

Red-throaled 293 

Rufous-breasted Blue 291 

Rufous-gorgetled 292 

Rufous-tailed 288 

Rusty-breasted Blue 291 

Sapphire 29, 289 

Sapphire-headed 289 

Claty-backed 16,25,291 

Slaty-blue 290 

Snowy-browed 25, 291 

Sooty 288 

TicfceU's Blue 27, 286 

Tickell's Red-breasted Blue 286 

Ultramarine 290 

Verditer 287 



Vivid Blue II 

White-browed Blue 290 

White-gorgetted 16,292 
Flycatcher-shrike 225 
Ffycatchcr-Waibler 

AUied274 

Black-browed 273 

Black-bced 275 

Broad-billed 274 

Chestnut -crowned 274 

Grey-cheeked 273 

Grey-headed 274 

While-Ihroalcd 275 

YeUow-bellied 275 
Flycatcher-shrike 

Bar-winged 230 
Foiklail 

Black-backed 260 

Little 259 

Slaty-backed 28, 260 

Spotted 260 

White-crowned 11 
Francolin 

Black 127 

Grey 27. 127 

Swamp 18, 26, 127 
Frogmouih 

Hodgson's 10 
Futvetta 

Golden-breasted 16. 28, 30, 318 

Nepal 25. 26. 319 

Rufouf-throated 11 

Rufous-winged 16, 318 

White-browed 319 

YeUow-throated 11,318 
GadwaU99 
Gallinule 

Indian 136 

Purple 137 
Gar;ganey 101 
Godwit 

Black-tailed 153 
Goldcrest283 
Goldenback 

Black-rumped 204 

Greater 205 

Himalayan 204 
Goldeneye 104 

Common 104 
Goldfinch 362 

Eurasian 362 

Himal^an362 
Goosander IQS 
Goose 

Bar-headed 21, 97 

Bean 96 

Cotton Pygmy 98 

Greater White-fronted 10 

Greylag 97 

Lesser White-fronted 10 
Goshawk 

Crested 29. 34, 35, 114 

Northern 34, 35, 113 
Crackle 354 
Grandala 30, 246, 247 

Hodgson's 246 
Grebe 

Black-necked 85 

Eared 85 

Great Crested 85 

Little 85 
Greenfinch 

Himalayan 362 

YcUow-breasted 362 
Greenshank 155 

Common 155 
Grosbeak 

Alhed370 

Black-and-Yellow 11, 370 

Collared 28. 370. 371 

Spot -winged 25, 371 



White-winged 371 

Ground-Jay 

Tibetan 347 
GuU 

Black-headed 157 

Brown-headed 26, 52, 53, 158 

Common 158 

Common Black-headed 52, 53, 
157 

Great Black-headed 26^51,157 

Lesser Black-backed 50, 51, 158, 
159 

Mew 52, 53. 158 

Slender-billed 52, S3, 158 

Yellow-legged 23. 50, 51. 158, 
159 
Harrier 

Eurasian Marsh 112 

Hen 112 

Montagu's 113 

Pale 112 

Pallid 112 

Pied 113 
Hanit-Cuckoo 

Common 173 

Hodgson's 172 

Large 21, 173 
Hawk-Eagle 

BoneUi's 119 

Booted 119 

Changeable 26, 27, 38, 120 

Mountain 25. 28, 38, 120 

Hodgson's 120 

Rufous-bellied 120 
Hemipode 

Andalusian 134 
Heron 

Black-crowned Night 88 

Great White-bellied 91 

Green-backed 89 

Grey 91 

Imperial 91 

Indian Pond 89 

Little 89 

Little Green 89 

Malay Night 88 

Night 88 

Purple 91 

Slnaled 89 

White-bellied 91 
Hobby 

Eurasian 123 

Oriental 124 
Honey-Buzzard 

Orieiital 105 
Honeyguide 

Himalayan 200 

Orange-rumped 28, 30, 200 

Yellow-rumpjed 200 
Hoopoe 17, 21, 196 
Hombill 

Common Grey 196 

Giant 197 

Great 26, 197 

Great Pied 197 

Indian Grey 196 

Indian Pied 197 

Oriental Pied 26, 27, 29, 197 

Rufous-necked 197 

Wreathed 10 
House-Martin 

Asian 82, 217 

Common 82, 217, 218 

Nepal 217 
Ibis 

BUck94 

Black-headed 26, 95 

Glossy 94 

Oriental White 95 

Red-naped94 
IbisbiU 26, 27. 30, 141, 142 



392 



Index 



Ion 232 

CommoD 232 
Juaoa 

Bronze-winged 141 
Phessant-tailed 26, 140 
Jay34S 

Black-headed 343 
Bladt-lhioaled 345 
Blue 195 
Eurasian 345 

Himalayan Red-crowned 345 
Hume's Ground 17, 347 

LanceoUted 17, 25, 345 
Junglefbwl 

Red 132 
Kestrel 127 

Common 22, 122, 193 

Eurasian 122, 193 

Lesser 22, 121 
Kingfisher 

Blati-badLed 191 

Black-capped 191 

Blue-eared 26, 81, 193 

Blyth's 193 

Brown-headed Stork-billed 191 

Common 84, 193 

Crested 28, 194 

Deep-blue 193 

Eurasian 81, 193 

Great Blue 193 

Himalayan Pied 194 

Indian Pied 193 

Urge Pied 194 

Oriental 10, 191 

Pied 193 

Ruddy 190 

Small Blue 193 

SmaU Pied 193 

Stork-billed 191 

Three-toed 191 

Three-toed Forest 191 

White-breasted 191 

White-throated 191 
Kite 

Black 22, 23, 106 

Black-eared 106 

Black-shouldered 106 

Black-winged 106 

Brahminy 106 

Dark 106 

Honey 105 

Pariah 106 

Red 106 
Koel 

Asian 176 

Common 176, 177 
Lammergeier 28, 108, 109 
Lapwing 

Eurasian 148 

Grey-headed 26, 147 

Northern 148 

Red-wattled 148 

River 146, 147 

Sociable 10 

Spur-winged 146 

White-tailed 148 

YeUow-wattled 147 
Lark 

Ashy-crowned Finch 21 1 

Bush 211 

Crested 213 

Greater Short-toed 22, 83, 211, 
212 

Homed 30, 213, 214 

Hume's Short-toed 22, 83, 212 

Long-billed 11 

Sand 212 

Shore 213 

Short-ioed 211 
La ughing-t brush 

Black- taced 311 



Black-gorgelted 308 

Blue-wmged 16,311 

Brown-cbeeked 11 

Chestnut -crowned 312 

Crimson-winged 312 

Greater NeckJaced 29, 308 

Grey-sided 16, 25, 310 

Large Necklaced 308 

Lesser Necklaced 16, 29, 307 

Necklaced307 

Ptain-ooloured311 

Red-headed 312 

Rufout-ciunned 25, 28, 309 

Rufous-necked 26, 310 

Scaly 16, 28, 30. 311 

Spotted 309 

Streaked 310 

Striated 17. 308 

Variegated 28, 308 

White-crested 307 

White-spotted 309 

WhUe-throaled 307 
LeaJbird 

Blue-winged U 

Golden-fronted 232 

Orange-beUied 25, 232 
Leiothrix 

Red-billed 313 
Likhl40 
Linnet 363 

Common 363 

Red-faced 312 
Lorikeet 

Indian 170 
Magpie 

Black-billed 11 

Blue 346 

Green 346 

Cold-billed 345 

Red-billed Blue 17, 25, 346 

YeUow-billed Blue 345 
Magpie- Rob in 

Asian 241 
Malkoha 

Green-billed 177 

Large Green-biUed 177 

Sirkeerl77 
Mallard 100 
Marmikin 

Nutmeg 359 
Martin 

Brown-throated Sand 214 

Collared Sand 214 

Crag 215 

Dusky Crag 11 

Grey-throated Sand 214 

House 218 

Northern Crag 215 

Plain 214 

Plain Sand 214 

Sand 214, 215 
Merganser 

Common IQS 

Red-breasted 105 
Merlin 123 

Red-headed 122 
Mesia 

Silver-eared 30. 312 
Minivet 

Grey-chinned 16, 25, 228 

Long-tailed 227 

Rosy 26, 228 

Scarlet 226.227 

Short-billed 227 

Small 228 

YeUow-throated 228 
Minla 

Bar-throated 317 

Blue-winged 317 

Chestnut -tailed 317 



Red-Uiled 16. 26. 30, 317 
Monal 

Himalayan 30, U2 

Monarch 

Black-naped 26, 295 
Moorhen 

Common 136 

Purple 137 
Mountain-Finch 

Black-headed 30, 82, 364 

Brandt's 364 

Hodgson's 363 

Plain 82, 363 
Munia 

Black-headed 359 

Chestnut 359 

Red 358 

Scaly-breasted 359 

Shaip-taikd 358 

^tted3S9 

Striated 358 

White-backed 358 

Wh^e-rumped 358 

While-throated 358 
Mynah 

Bank 353 

Brahminy 351 

COnuDoo353 

Grey-headed 351 

HiU29,354 

Indian 353 

Jungle 354 

Pied 353 

Talking 354 
Myzomis 

Fire-tai]edl6,30,313 
Nakia98 
Needletail 

White-rumpcd 26, 27, 186 

White-throated 21. 83, 186, 187 

White-vented 16, 26, 83. 187 
Nightingale 11 
Nightjar 

Common Indian 18S 

Eurasian 10 

Franklin's 184 

Grey 185 

Indian 1S5 

Jungle 185 

Large-tailed 185 

Little ISS 

Long-tailed 185 

Savanna 26, 184 
Niltava 

Beautiful 284 

Large 16, 25. 29. 283 

Rufous-beUied 284 

SmaU 25,284 
Nutcracker 348 

Eurasian 348 

Spotted 348 
Nuthatch 

Beautiful 11 

Chestnut-beUied 329 

Eurasian 330 

Kashmir 17, 330 

Velvet-fronted 328 

White-cheeked 17. 328. 329 

White-tailed 329 
Oldsquaw 104 
Oriole 

Black-headed 338 

Black-hooded 338 

Bladc-naped 339 

Eurasian Golden 17, 339 

Golden 339 

Maroon 338 

Slender-billed 339 
OspreyUl 
Owl 

Bam58, 17S 



Brown Fish 25, 26, 27, 56, 57, 

181 
Brown Hawk 26, 27. 54, 55, 182 
Brown Wood 56, 57, 183 
Collared So^ 54, 55, 179 
Conunon Barn 178 
Dusky Eagle 56, 57, 181 
Dusky Homed 181 
Eurasian Eagle 25. 56, 57, 180 
Forest Eagle 180 
Grass 58, 178 

Great Homed 180 
Uttle 17,54.55,183 

Long-eared 58, 184 

Mountain Scops 2S. 28, 54, 5S, 
180 

Northern Eagle ISO 

Northern Little 183 

Oriental Bay 10. II, 58, 179 

Oriental Scops 54. 55, 179 

Scope 179 

Short-eared 58, 184 

Spot-beUied Eagle 56, 57. 180 

Spotted Little 183 

^xxted Scops 180 

Tawny 56, 57. 184 

Tawny Fish 56, 57, 181 

Tawny Wood 184 
Owlet 

Asian Barred 54, 55, 182 

Barred 182 

Barred Jungle 182 

CoUaied 54, 55, 181 

Collared P^jny 18 

Jungle 54, 55, 182 

Spotted 54, 55, 183 

Tibet 183 
Oystercatcher 

Common 141 

Eurasian 141 
Paintedsnipe 

Greater 141 
Parakeet 

Alexandrine 170 

Blossom-headed 10, 171 

Large 170 

Moustacbed 26, 171 

Plum-headed 171 

Ring-necked 170 

Rose-breasted 171 

Rose-ringed 170 

Slaty-headed 170, 171 
Parrot 

Vernal Hanging 16, 170 
Parrotbill 

Black-breasted 303 

Black-browed 11 

Black-throated 25, 28, 30. 304 

Brown 16, 303 

Fulvous 16, 2S, 304 

Fulvous-fronted 304 

Gould's 303 

Great 28, 303 

Greater Red-headed 304 

Grey-headed 11 

Nepal 304 

Red-beaded 304 

Rufous-headed 11,304 
Partridge 

Black 127 

Chestnut-breasted 10 

ChukarI26 

Common Hill 129 

Grey 127 

Hill 129 

Rufous-throated 130 

Rufous-throated Hill 130 

Snow 30, 125 

Swamp 127 

Tibetan 17, 128 
Pastor 



Index 



393 



Rosy 352 

Peacock-Pheasant 

Grey 10 
Peafowl 

Blue 133 

Cominoo 133 

Indian 133 
Pedter 

Hume's Ground 347 
Peewit 14£ 
Pebcan 

Dalmatian 10 

Eastern White 86 

Great White 86 

Grey 86 

Spot-billed 26, 87 

White 86 
Petronia 

Chestnut-shouldered 3S6 
Phalarope 

Red-necked 157 
Pheasant 

Blood 30, 130 

Cheer 17, 28, 133 

Chirl33 

Crimson Homed 131 

Impeyan 132 

Kalij 25. 132, 133 

Koklass 17, 28, 131 

Western Homed 131 
Piculel 

Rufous 202 

Spedded201 

Spotted 201 

White-browed 29. 202 
Pigeon 

Bengal Green 168 

Blue Rodt 163 

Green 168 

Green-winged 167 

Green Imperial 10, 170 

Grey-fronted Green 168 

HilJ 17, 28, 163 

In^>eriaI169 

Maroon-backed Imperial 169 

Mountain Imperial 16, 169 

Orange-breasted Green 26, 27, 
167 

Pale-bached 10 

Pin-tailed Green 169 

Pompadour Green 16. 26, 168 

Rock 163 

Snow 163, 164 

Thick-billed Green 168 

Turkestan Hill 163 

Wedge-tailed Green 169 

Yellow-footed Green 168 
Pintail 101 

Northern 101 
Pipit 

American 221 

Blyth's 64. 65, 219 

Brown Rock 219 

Buff-bellied 62, 63. 221 

Hodgson's 220 

Indian Tree 220 

Long-billed 62, 64, 6S, 219 

Olive-backed 28, 62, 63. 220 

Paddyfield 64, 65, 218 

Red-throated 22, 62, 63, 220 

Richard's 64, 65, 218 

Rosy 62, 63, 221 

Rosy-breasted 221 

Tawny 64, 65. 219 

Tree 62, 63, 220 

Siberian Water 221 

Upland 17, 64, 65. 222 

Vinaceous-brcasted 221 

Water 62, 63, 221 
Pitta 

Blue-o^)ed 16, 210 



Green-breasted 210 

Hooded 26, 210 

Indian 26, 27, 210, 211 
Plover 

Black-beUied 146 

Eastern Golden 146 

Greater Sand 146 

Grey 146 

Grey-headed 147 

Kentish 145 

Large Sand 146 

Lesser Golden 146 

Lesser Sand 145 

Little Ringed 144 

Long-biUed 27, 144, 145 

Long-billed Ringed 144 

Mongolian 145 

Pacific Golden 146 

Red-wattled 148 

River 146 

SQC7wyl45 

White-tailed 148 

Yellow-wattled 147 
Pochard 

Boer's 103 

Common 102 

Red-crested 102 

Tufted 103 

White-eyed 103 
Pratincole 

Collared 143 

Little 144 

Oriental 143 

SmaU144 
Prinia 

Ashy 69, 266, 2 

Black-throated HiU 268 

Brown HiU 267 

Fulvous-streaked 265 

Graceful 27, 69, 265, 2 

Crey-br«asted 69, 70, 267, 2 

Grey-c^Tped 266 

Crey-dowDed 26, 69, 266, 2 

Hill 29, 70, 268, 2 

Hodgson's 267 

Jungle 27. 70, 268, 2 

Plain 69, 265, 2 

Rufescent 266 

Rufous 11. 69. 266, 2 

Striated 26, 70, 267, 2 

White-tailed 268 

YeUow-bellied 27. 70. 2S7, 2 
QuaiJ 

Black-breasted 128 

Blue-breasted 129 

Common 128 

Grey 128 

Himalayan 10 

Jungle Bush 129 

Manipur Bush 10 

Rain 128 
Rail 

Blue-breasted Banded 135 

Sl£ty-breasted 135 

Water 134 
Raven 350 

Common 350 

Northern 350 
Redshank 

Common 1S4 

Spotted 153. 154 
Redstart 

Black 22, 243 

Blue-capped 242, 243 

Blue-fronted 244 

Blue-headed 242 

Daurian 11 

Eversmann's 242 

Guldeostadt's 28, 30, 244, 245 

Hodgson's 243 

Plumbeous 245 



Rufous-backed 242 

White-bellied 30, 245 

White-capped 251 

White-throated 28, 30, 244 

White-winged 244 
Robin 

Blue-fronted 11, 246 

Blue-fronted Long-tailed 246 

Indian 251 

Indian Blue 239 

Magpie 241 

Pekin3t3 

Rufous-bellied Bush 241 

Siberian Blue 239 

While-tailed 16, 25, 246 

White-tailed Blue 246 
Rock-Thrush 

Blue 252 

Blue-capped 252 

Blue-beaded 252 

Chestnut-bellied 252 

Rufous-tailed 11 
Roller 

Broad-billed 196 

Dark 196 

Indian 17. 195 
RosefincJi 

Beautiful 75. 365. <, 7 

Blanf6nj's7S,364,<,7 

Common 75, 365, (, 7 

Crimson 78, 364 

Crimson-eared 367, 

Dark-breasted 75, 365, 6, 7 

I>aik-rumped 76, 366, «, 7 

Eastern Great 367 

Edwards' 366 

Great 28, 30, 76, 368. «, 7 

Large 366 

Nepal 365 

Pink-backed 11 

Pink-bttjwed 75, 366. 6, 7 

Red-breasted 368, (, 7 

Red-Cronted 30, 76, 368, 6, 7 

Red-headed 368 

Scarlet 365 

Spot-crowned 367. 368, 6, 7 

Spot-winged 28, 30, 76, 367, (, 7 

Streaked 17, 28, 76, 367, «, 7 

Streaked Great 367 

Vinaceous75,366,«,7 

White-browed 28, 30, 76, 367, *, 
7 
Ri^^ychedt 332 
Rut^hro^ 

Eurasian 238 

Himalayan 239 

Siberian 15, 22, 238 

White-tailed 239 
Ruff 150 

Sanderhng46,47, 148 
Sandgrouse 

Black-bellied 162 

Chestnut-beUied 162 

Imperial 162 

Indian 162 

Painted 162 

Tibetan 10 
Sandlark 

Indian 212 
Sandpiper 

Common 156 

Curlew 46, 47, 149 

Green 155 

Manbl54 

Terek 156 

Wood 155 
Sapsucker 

Rufous-bcUied 207 
Scaup 104 

Greater 104 
Sdmitar-Babbler 



Coral-biUed 297 

Rufous-necked 297 

Rusty-cbeeked 296 

Slaty-headed 297 

Slender-billed 16, 28, 29, 298 

Streak-breasted 297 

White-browed 297 
Serin 

Fire-fronted 17, 28, 360, 361 

Gokj-tronted 360 

Red-fronted 360 

Tibetan 25, 361 
Shama242 

While-nunped 242 
Shelduck 

Common 98 

Eurasian 98 

Northern 98 

Ruddy 97 
Shikra34,35. 115 
Shortwing 

Gould's 30. 237 

Hodgson's 245 

Lesser 238 

Rusty-bellied 11, 237 

White-browed 237 
Shoveler 102 

Nortfaem 102 
Shrike 

Bay-backed 340 

Black-headed 340 

Brown 22, 339 

Great Gr^ 341 

Grey 341 

Grey-backed 341 

Isabelline 340 

Long-taUed 340 

Pale Brown 340 

Rufous-backed 340 

Tibetan 341 
Shrike-Babbler 

Black-eared 16. 25. 28, 28. 30, 
315 

Black-headed 16, 28, 314 

Chestnut-eared 315 

Green 315 

Red-winged 314 

Rufous-bellied 314 

While*rowed 314, 315 

White-headed 315 
Sibia 

Black-capped 320 

Chestnut-backed 319 

Long-tailed 320 

Rufous-backed 319 
SilveibiU 

Indian 358 
Siskin 362 

Eurasian 362 

Tibetan 361 
Siva 

Bar-throated 317 
Skimmer 

Indian 26, 162 
Skytaik 

Eastern 213 

Eurasian 213 

Little 213 

Oriental 213 

SmaU213 
Snake-Eagle 

Short-toed 111 
Smew 104 
Snq>e 

Common 48, 49, 151 

Fantaill51 

Jack 48, 49, 150 

Painted 141 

Pintail 48. 49, 151 

SoUlaiy 28, 48, 49. 151, 152 

Swinhoe's 48. 151 



394 



Index 



Wood 48. 49, 152 
Snowcock 

Himalayan 17, 126 

Tibetan 2&, 30, 125, 126 
SnowfiDch 

Adams' 356 

Black-winged 336 

Blanford's 356 

Mandelli's 356 

Plain-backed 17. 356 

Red-necked 356 

Rufous-ncdted 17, 356 

Small 11 

Tibetan 17, 356 

White-nin:^>ed 17, 356 
Spanxjw 

Cinnamon 26, 355 

Cinnamon Tree 355 

Eurasian Tree 355 

House 17. 354 

Russet 355 

Spanish 355 

Tree 355 

WiUc(w355 

Yellow-throated 356 
Sparrowhawk 

BesralH 

Eurasian 34, 35, 114 

Northern 114 
Spiderbunter 

Utile 16. 29, 335 

Streaked 335 
Spoonbill 95 

Eurasian 26, 95 

White 95 
Spotbill 101 
Spurfowd 

Painted 130 

Red 10. 130 
Stare 

Spot-winged 350 
Starling 352 

Asian Pied 353 

Brahniiny3Sl,352 

Chestnut -tailed 351 

Common 352 

Eurasian 352 

Rose-coloured 352 

Rosy 352 

Spot-winged 22, 350, 351 
StUt 

Black-winged 142 
Stint 

Uttlc 46, 47, 149 

Long-toed 46, 47, 149 

Temminck's 46, 47, 149 
Stone-curlew 142 

Northern 142 
Stone-plover 

Great 26. 27, 143 
Stonecbat 247 

Common 247, 248 

While-tailed 27,248 
Stork 

Adjutant 93 

Asian Openbill 92 

Bla£k92 

Black-necked 18, 26, 93 

Greater Adjutant 18,93 

Lesser Adjutant 18, 26, 93 

OpenbiU92 

Painted 91 

White 93 

White-necked 92 

Woolly-nedted 92 
Sunbird 

Black-breasted 334 

Black-throated 334 

Crimson 334 

Fire-tailed 334 

Firt-tailed YeUow-tucked 334 



Green-tailed 333 

Mrs. Gould's 25, 333 

Nepal 333 

Purple 333 

Ruby-cheeked 29. 332 

Scartel-breasted 334 

YcUow-backcd 334 
Suthora 

Brown 303 

Fulvous-fronted 304 

Orange 304 
Swallow 215 

Bank 214 

Barn 17, 21, 215 

IndianOiff216 

Red-rumped 22, 216 

Streak-throated 216 

Striated 216 

Wire-tailed 216 
Swallow-shrike 

Ashy 344 
Swamp hen 

Purple 137 
Swan 

Bewick's 96 

Tundra 96 

Whoopcr96 
Swift 

Alpine 188 

Asian Palm 189 

Black 187 

Common 21, 187 

Crested 190 

Crested Tree 190 

Dark-backed 188 

Dark-rumped 188 

Foik-tailed 21, 28, 188 

House 189 

Khasi Hills 188 

Large White-rumped 188 

Little 189 

Pacific 188 

White-rumped Spinetail 186 

White-throated Spinetail 186 

White-vented Spinetail 187 
Swiftlel 

Himalayan 186 
Tailoibird 

Common 269 

Dark-necked 11 

Golden-headed 269 

Mountain 11, 269 
Teal 

Baikal 100 

Common 100 

Cotton 98 

Falcated 99 

Green-winged 100 

Large Whistling 95 

Lesser Whistling 96 

Marbled 10 
Tem 

Black-beUied 26, 161 

Caspian 26, 160 

Common 160 

GuU-biUed 159 

Little 161 

River 26, 160 

Whiskered 26. 161 

Wh^e-winged 162 

White-winged Black 162 
Tesia 

Chest nut- headed 261 

Grey-beUied 261 

Slaty-bellied 261 
Thick-Knee 

Eurasian 142 

Great 143 
Thrush 

Black-throated 258 

Blue Whistling 2S3 



Chestnut 257 

Dark 258 

Dark-sided 254 

Dark-throated 22, 258, 2^ 

Dusky 21, 258 

Eye-browed 258 

Golden Mountain 254 

Grey-headed 257 

Indian Grey 256 

Kessler-s 257 

Large Brown 254 

Large Long-billed 254 

Lesser Brown 254 

Lesser Long-billed 254 

Long-Billed 25, 28, 30. 254 

Long-tailed 253 

Long-tailed Mountain 253 

Mistle 17, 259 

Orange-headed 255 

Orange-beaded Ground 2S5 

Pied 255 

Pied Ground 2SS 

Plain-backed 2S3 

Plain-backed Mountain 253 

Red-throated 258 

Scaly 254 

Speckled Mountain 254 

TickeU's 256 

Whistling 253 

White-backed 257 

White's 254 
Tit 

Black-browed 16, 28, 30, 322 

BUck-lored 327 

Blaci-spotted YeUow 327 

Bladt-lhroated 323 

Brown Crested 324 

Coal 74. 326 

Crested Black 326 

Fire-capped 28, 332 

Great 326 

Green-backed 327 

Grey 326 

Grey-crested 324 

Red-headed 323 

Rufous-bellied Crested 325 

Rufous-breasted Black 325 

Rufous-fronted 322 

Rufous-naped 17, 74, 325 

Rutous-oaped Black 325 

Rufous-vented 74, 325 

Rufous-vented Black 325 

Sikkim Black 325 

S imla Black 325 

Spot-winged 17, 74, 326 

Spot-winged Black 326 

Sultan 328 

Wbite-throated 323 

YeUow-biowed 324 

YeUow-cheeked 30. 327 
Tit-Babbler 

Chestnut-headed 318 

Duslgr-green 318 

Golden-breasted 318 

Slr^}ed302 

White-browed 319 

YeUow-breasted 302 
Tit-Waibler 

Stobczka's 17, 28, 283 

Wbite-browed 283 
Tragopan 

Satyr 30, 131 

Western 131 
Tree-Pipit 

Brown 220 

Olive 220 
Tre ec r ee per 

Bar-taUed 17, 331 

Brown-throated 25, 330 

Common 332 

Eurasian 332 



Himalayan 331 

Nepal 331 

Northern 332 

Rusty-flanked 331 

Sikkim 330 
Treeduck 

Fulvous 95 

Lesser 96 
Treepie 

Black-browed 347 

Collared 11,347 

Grey 347 

Himalayan 347 

Indian 346 

Rufous 346. 347 
Trogon 

Red-headed 26, 190 
Turnstone 156 

Ruddy 156 
Twite 17, 363 

Tibetan 363 
Vulture 

Bearded 108 

Cinereous HI 

Egyptian 108 

Eurasian Black 111 

Eurasian Griffon 32, 33, 110 

Himal^an Griffon 28, 32. 33. 
110 

Indian Black 110 

Indian Griffon 110 

King 110 

Long-billed 32, 33, 109 

Oriental White-backed 32, 
33.109 

Red-headed 110 

Scavenger 108 
Wagtail 

Citrine 60, 61, 223 

Forest 59, 222 

Grey 223 

Large Pied 224 

Pied 223 

White 22, S9, 223, 224 

White-browed 59, 224 

YeUow60,61,222 

YeUow-headed 223 
Wallcreeper330 
Waibler 

Aberrant Bush 66, 263, 1 

Ashy-throated 279 

Black-browed Leaf 276 

Black-browed Reed 68, 270, 3 

Black-faced 25, 28, 275 

Black-throated Hill 268 

Blanford's Bush 262 

Blunt-winged 6S, 270, 3 

Blimt-winged Paddyfield 270 

Blyth's Crowned 276 

Blyth'sLeaf72,276,4 

Blyth's Reed 22. 68, 271, 3 

Booted 22, 272 

BocMed Tree 272 

Bristled Grass 270 

Broad-billed 274 

Brown Bush 67, 264, 1 

Brown HiU 267 

Brown Leaf 282 

Brown-flanked Bush 17, 66, 
262,1 

Buff-barred 279 

Buff-beUied Leaf 282 

Buff-throated 282 

Chestnut -crowned 25. 274 

Chestnut-crowned Bush 26, 66, 

262,1 
Chestnut-headed Ground 261 
Chinese Bush 67, 264, 1 
Clamorous Reed 68, 271, 3 
Crowned Leaf 276 
DuU Green Leaf 278 



Index 



395 



Dull Slaty-bellied Ground 261 
Dusky 71, 281. 5 
Dus^ Leaf 281 
Eastern Crowned 11 
Eastern Great Reed 271 
Fan-tailed 265 
Golden-headed Fantail 264 
Golden-speciacled 273 
Grasshopper 67, 269, 3 
Great Reed 271 
Green 73, 278, 4 
Greenish 21, 22, 72, 278, 4 
Grey-cheeked 273 
Grey-bcrd Leaf 72, 279. 280. 4 
Grey-hooded 274 
Grey-sided Bush 66. 263. 1 
Hume's Bush 263 
Indian Great Reed 271 
Inornate 280 
Lanceolated 67, 269. 3 
Large Bush 262 
Laj;ge Crowned Leaf 277 
Large Grass 26, 268 
Large-billed Leaf 73, 278, 279. 4 
Lemon-rumped 280 
Moustadied 11 
Olivaceous Leaf 282 
Orange-barred Leaf 72, 279. 4 
Oriental Reed 68, 271. 3 
Orphean 272 

PaddyfiekJ 22, 68, 270. 271. 3 
Pale-footed Bush 26, 66, 262, 1 
Pallas's 67. 269. 280. 3 
Pallas's Grasshopper 70. 269 
Pallas's Leaf 17, 72, 280. 4 
Plain Leaf 280 
Radde's71.72,281,5 
Rufous-capped Bush 263 
Rufous-faced 16, 275 
Scfarendt's Sedge 270 
Slaty-beUied Ground 261 
Slender-billed 71, 277, 5 
Smol^ 16, 27, 30, 71, 281, 5 
Smol^ Willow 281 
Spotted Bush 66, 67, 264. 1 
Streaked Fantail 265 
Streaked Grasshopper 269 
Striated 270 
Striated Marsh 27, 270 
Strong-footed Bush 262 
Sulphur-beUied 71, 282, 5 
Swinhoe's Reed 270 



Thici-billed 68, 272, 3 
TickeU'B21,22,71,282.5 
lytler'e Leaf 277 
Verreaux's Bush 263 
Western Crowned 72, 277. 4 
White-spectacled 11, 274 
While-throated 275 
YeUow-beUied 26, 29. 275 
YeUow-beUied Bush 25, 66, 263, 

YeUcTwish-breasted 278 

YeUow-browed 21. 73. 280. 4 

Yellow-eyed 273 

Yellow-faoed Leaf 276 

YeUow-nmqjed Leaf 280 

YeUow-throated Leaf 276 

YeUow-vented 29, 72, 276, 4 

Yellowish-breasted 278 
Wateicock 26, 137 
Waterhen 

White-breasted 136 
Waxwing 

Bohemian 233 
Weaver 

BayB357 

Blac^-bnasted 27. 28, 30, 356, 

357 

Bladc-thioated 357 

Finns 11 

Streaked 357 
Wbeatear2S0 

E>esen 17, 28, 250 

Eastern Pied 251 

lsabelUne2S0 

Northern 250 

Pied 250 

Variable 251 
Whimbrell53 
White-eye 338 

Indian 338 

Oriental 338 
Whitethroat 

Lesser 22,273 
Wigeon 

Eurasian 99 
Wood-Owl 

Mottled 10 
Wood-shrike 

Indian 229 

Lesser 229 

Pied 230 
Woodco<^152 



Eurasian 48, 49. 152 

Woodpecker 
Bay 206 

Black-backed 205 
Btadc-fu^jcd Green 203 
Brown 202 
Brown-capped 209 
Brorwn-caj^jed Pygmy 27, 209 
Brown-crowned Pygmy 209 
Brown-fronted 208 
Brown- fronted Pied 208 
Crimson-breasted 16, 207 
Crimson-breasted Pied 207 
Daijeeling 16,207 
I>aj^UngPted 207 
Fulvous-breasted Pied 208 
FuNous-breasted 208 
Golden-badted 204 
Great Staty 27, 206 
Greater Golden-backed 205 
Greater YeUow-n^>ed 203 
Grey-c^^)ed 209 
Grey-c^jped Pygmy 209 
Grey-dtjwned Pygiiiy209 
Grey-headed 203 
Heart-spotted U 
Himalayan 17. 206 
Himalayan Golden-badLed 204 
Himal^an Pied 206 
Large Scaly-bellied 204 
Large Yellow-naped 203 
Lesser Golden-backed 204 
Lesser Yellow-naped 202 
Mahratta 208 
Pale-headed 16, 205 
Red-eared Rufous 206 
Rufous 202 
Rufous-beUied 25, 207 
Rufoufr4)eUied Pied 207 
Scaly-bellied 204 
Scaly-bellied Green 204 
SmaU Scaly-beUied 2Q3 
SmaU YelkTw-naped 202 
Streak-throated 203 
Streak-throated Green 203 
Three-toed Golden-backed 204 
White-naped 27, 205 
Yellow-crowned 208 
Yellow-crowned Pied 208 
Yellow-fronted Pied 208 

Woodpigeon 164 
Ashy 16, 165 



Common 164 

Speckled 164 
Wood-Shrike 

Indian 224 

Lesser 224 

Pied 225 
Woodshrike 

Common 224 

Large 16, 225 
Woodswallow 

Ashy 29, 344 
Wren 234 

Northern 234 

Wmter234 
Wren-Babbler 

Brown 299 

Greater Scaly-breasted 298 

Lesser Scaly-breasted 299 

Long-billed 11, 298 

Long-tailed 300 

Pygmy 299 

Rufous-throated 29, 299 

Scaly-breasted 298 

Sponed299 

Tailed 299 

Wedge-billed 11 
Wren-Waibler 

Ashy 266 

Beavan's266 

Franklin's 267 

Hodgson's 266 

Jungle 268 

Plain 265 

Streaked 265 

YeUow-bellied 267 
Wryneck 201 

Eurasian 21, 201 
Yellowhammer 77, 372 
Yellownape 

Greater 203 

Lesser 202 
Yuhina 

Black-chinned 322 

Chestnut-headed 320 

Rufous-vented 16, 321 

Striated 11 

Stripe-throated 321 

Whiskered 320, 321 

White-beUied 321 

White-naped 320 

Yellow-naped 320 



396 



Index 



INDEX TO SCIENTIFIC NAMES 



Plate numbers are in bold. 



Abroscopus 

albogularis 275 
hod^oni 274 
schisticeps 275 
superciUaris 275 

Acamhis 

cannabina 363 
flavirosms 363 

Accipuer 

6fldiur34,35, 115 
genwto34,35, 113 
nirur34,35. 114 
trivirgaius 34, 35, 114 
vwyiftiT 34, 35, 114 

Acems 

nipalensis 197 

Acridoiheres 
Juscus354 
pnginumus 353 
/mrij353 

aedb/i 68, 272, 3 
agTKoto 68, 270-271. 3 
arundinaceus 271 
bistngiceps 68, 270, 3 
concinens 68, 270, 3 
dumetorum 68, 271, 3 
metanopogon 11 
owrualisdS, 271,3 
weworcur 68. 271,3 
v4^n>u)(Juri3 

egenoni 316 
nipalensis 316 

hypoleucos 156 

concinnus 323 

iouschistos 322 

niveogularis 323 
Aegithina 

tiphia 232 
Ae^pius 

monachus 111 

brevirostris 186 

gouldtae 333 
ignicauda 334 
nipalensis 333 
saturata 334 
siparaja 334 

gaiericuUaa 99 

arvensis 213 
gulgula 213 

an/iw81, 193 
Hercules 193 
meninting 81 , 193 

casianeceps 318 

chrysotis 318 

cinerea 11,318 

nipalensis 319 

rufoffjlaris 11 

vinipectus 319 
y4fccrom 

chukar 126 

ff'oeca 126 
v4/«andflvo 

(3mand<7V(i 358 

(JAoo/136 



bicolory3S 
phoenicurus 136 

d^um 101 

cfypema 102 

crecca 100 

/ofcoM 99 

prmosa 100 

penelope^ 

pkuyrhynchos 100 

poecilorfiyncha 101 

querquedula 101 

strepera 99 
/Intirromuy 

oscitans 92 
Anhinga 

melanogaster 86 

rw/'o 86 

aibifrons 10 
awer 97 
eryihropus 10 
/aftoto 96 
indicia 97 
y4nj:/w<Kroc««» 
albirostris 197 
coronatus 197 
malabaricus 197 

singalensis 332 

vwjo 139 
v4/u/iuf 

campestris 64, 65, 219 

cervinus 62, 63. 220 

godlewskii 64, 65, 219 

hodgioni 62, 63. 220 

novaeseelandiae 64. 65, 218 

novaeseelandiae richardi 64, 

65,218 

novaeseelandiae rufulus 64, 

65.218 

pelopus 221 

roseatus 62, 63, 221 

rubescens 62. 63. 221 

fimito 62. 65, 219 

spinoletta 62, 63, 221 

jyfranus 64, 65, 222 

triviaUs 62. 63, 220 
/l/>«r 

acuticauda 188 

flijimj 189 

apur 187 

/w/&a 188 

pacificus 188 
i49ut/a 

c/);yrac/os 42, 43. 119 

r/an^ 40, 43. 117 

htf/iaca 39,41, 118 

ru/jeienjir 39. 41, 117-118 

pomarina 42. 43, 117 

wpa>:40.41,118 

rapax nipalensis 117 
^racAn<?(Aen3 

longirostra 335 

magna 335 
y4r*OTOpfti4i 

mandellii 10 

rufbgularis 130 

torqueola 129 
^rdea 

a/6a90 

cinerea 91 

imperious 91 



insignis 91 
purpurea 91 

griTyu 89 
striatus 89 

nigriceps 139 

imerpres 156 
Xrtamur 

fuscus 344 

fiammeus 58, 184 
orttf 58. 184 

ftroma 54, 55. 183 

nocrufl 54, 55, 183 
^viceda 

jerdoni 10 

leupfuHes 105 
/lyrfjya 

6oen 103 

/ewia 102 

fuligula 103 

marila 104 

nyroca 103 
fia^o): 

tvffitoZbll 
San-af/iarromut 

hodgsoni 10 
Bfythipicus 

pyrrhotis 206 

garrulus 233 
^OTaunts' 

stellarisS^ 
Srachypteiyx 

hyperyiftra 11,237 

leucophrys 238 

montana 231 

steBaia 231 
Broitypterus 

luteoventris 67, 264, 1 

fa<:2arK>H>sibur 67, 264. 1 

thoracicus 66-(>l. 264, 1 

ftufto 56. 57, 180 

coromandus 56, 57, 181 

flavipes 181 

nipalensis 56, 57, 180 

zeylonensis 181 
Bubulcus 

ibis 89 
Bucanetes 

mongoticus 36A 
Bucephala 

clangula 104 

bicomis 197 

Burhinus 

oedicnemus 142 

Buiastur 

leesa 115 

Bweo 

6ur«o36,37, 115 
hemilasius 36. 37. 116 
n^us36.37, 116 

5mamy 89 
Coromanru 

merulinus 174 

passerinus 174 

sonneratii 174 
CalandreOa 



acutirostris 83, 212 

brachydactyla 83. 211-212 

cinerea 211 

«ry/a/ 212 
Ca/fdrir 

oZ/w 46, 47, 148 

a//>i>ia 46, 47, 150 

ferruffnea 46, 47, 149 

minuia 46. 47, 149 

subminuta 46, 47, 149 

lemminckii 46, 47, 149 

lestacea 149 
Ca/Iaran^Air 

burroni 361 
Caprimulgus 

affinis 184 

asiaticus 185 

europaeus 10 

indicus 185 

macrurus 185 

cannabina 363 
carduelis 362 
fiavirostris 363 
spinoides 362 
spinus 362 
ihibetana 361 

edwardsU 76, 366, 6, 7 
erythrinus 15, 365. 6, 7 
grandis 11 

nipalensis 75, 365. 6, 7 
pulcherrimus 15, 365, 6. 7 
punicei4s 76, 368, 6, 7 
rhodochrous 75, 366, 6, 7 
rhodopeplus 76, 367, 6, 7 
rubescens 15, 364, 6, 7 
rubtcilla 76, 368, 6, 7 
rubicilloides 76, 367, 6, 7 
tfiwm 76, 367, «, 7 
vinaceus 75, 366, 6, 7 

Casmerodius 
albus 90 

Catreus 

waSichii 133 

brachyurus 2Syi 
Centropus 

bengalensis 178 
sinensis 178 
rouiOM 178 

flammiceps 332 
Cercome/fl 

^ca 247 
Ce«hia 

rfKcofc)r330 

familiaris 332 

himalayana 331 

nipalensis 331 
Ceryfc 

lugubris 194 

rudtr 193 
Cerria 

acamhizoides 66, 263, 1 

brunnifrons 66. 263. 1 

fiavolivacea 66, 263. 1 

fortipes 66. 262, 1 

major 66, 262, 1 

moruana 262 

pallidipes 66, 262, 1 
Ce>ur 

erUhacus 10, 191 



Index 



397 



sPiatusZTO 
Chaetura 

caudacuia 186 

cochxnchinensis 187 

sylvatica 186 
ChaimarrorTtis 

teucocephaius 2S1 

maculaius 173 

Chcticophaps 
indica 167 

Charadrius 

aiexandrinus 145 
dubius 144 
leschenaulrii 146 
mongolus 145 
pladdus 144-145 

greganalO 
leucura 148 
ChUdoftias 

hybridus 161 
leucopferus 162 

ourif^onr 232 
cochinchinejisis U 
hardwicldi 232 

niffrjceps 139 
Chrysococcyx 

maculatus 173 
Chrysocotaptes 

festivus205 

lucidus 205 
C7t/)tromma 

o/ttros/re 375 

sinense 302 
Cicoma 

ctconia 93 

episcopus 92 

nigra 92 
CincUdium 

frontale 11, 246 

teucurum 246 
Cinr/ur 

OTic/ur233 

/jaJiiru 233-234 

gqUicus HI 

aerugjmosus 112 
eyaneus 112 
macrourus 112 
mdanoieucus 113 
/yga/gurll3 
Cisso 

c/uneruxi 346 
erythrorftyncha 346 
^^uviroffmr 345 

eDZtr264 
juncidis 265 

Oomafor 

coTvmandus 111 
jacobinus 171-172 

C^onguJla 

hyemahs 104 

Coccothraustes 
affinis 370-371 
canupcr371 
iclerioides 370 
m«Zanaza/U/ictf 371 

purpurea TAl 
viridis 247 

brevirostris 186 
Columba 

eversmanni 10 
hodffonii 164 
leuconota 163-164 



Jfvia 163 
palumints 164 
pukhricoOis 165 
rupenrir 163 
ConoHoma 

oonodHon 3CS 
oemcxfium 303 

mofa^unruT 242 

jouiortr 241 
Coraciar 

bengftaiensis 195 
Contcirwi 

maoa 226 

melanoptera 225 

melaschistos 226 

novaehoUandiae 226 
Corvus 

corax3S0 

monwAyntAcff 349-350 

apfcn«lenr349 
Corumir 

oU/iennr 129 

cwomorule/icui 12S 

4:an/mixl28 
Criniger 

flaveotus 230 
Cucuhts 

canorm 175 

/upwl72 

micropterus ITS 

poliocephalus 176 

saturane 175 

sparverioides 173 

voriur 173 

c^lonensis 293 
Cu/sohur 

eoromandelicus 143 
Curia 

mpalensis 313-314 

bewickii 96 
coiumbianus 96 
cygnus 96 
Cyomis 

banyumas 286 
yx)^^7ge7T>tr 284-2S5 
rubecuhides 2SS 
dckeUiaeT&d 
unicoiorlSS 
vivida 11 

AoZan^mir 189 

parvus 189 
DeHchon 

dasypta 82, 217 

ni/wilenJU' 217 

urAini 82, 217-218 
ZVnd>Ddaa 

Jbm»o«i«347 

/rcwoto 11,347 

vagatninda 346-347 

auriceps2D& 

canicapUius 209 

cmhpharius 207 

darjeltensis 207 

himalayeruis 206 

hyperyihna Hf} 

maca208 

mahrtuiensis 208 

moluecensis X9 

nanus 209 
Dendrocygpa 

bicoior95 

javanica 96 
Dendronanthus 

indicus 39,222 
Dicaeum 

agUe33S 



dirysonhettm 336 
eoneolor337 
eruerualum 337 
^i^ftmrAj'ncAar 336 
ig^iipecna 337 
iwefa w gtawrtww 336 

aen«i0 343 
Airimite341 
annecfonr 342-343 
coeruiesfCTir 342 
/KXienuxrur 344 
J^iKvpAona 342 
mocTOcerrur 341 
yxiraiiiivur 344 
re m^ 343 

tenghdienitf 204 

jAora204 
DuCTiia 

oenttt 10, 170 

&a(ital69 
Z>umeatt 

ft>7)CT>(ftm 301 

^i3vicoAu88 

Effvaa 
aiba90 
garzetta90 
uitermedia90 

EkuuB 

eaeruieus 106 

fmtenza 

owmito 78, 79. 374. 8 
bruniceps 79, 80, 375 
«a 77. 79. 373, 8 
cimneBa 77, 79, 372 
^aw 78, 79, 373-374 , 8 
tou«»tfpAate 77, 79, 372, 8 
mcJtirKCCT^AaAi 79. 80, 375 
pujiflfl 78, 79, 374, 8 
rarfltti 78, 79, 374, 8 
rutiJa 78, 79. 374 
schoertichts 79, 80, 375 
spodocephala 77, 79, 372, 8 
steward 77, 79, 373, 8 

£mruruT 

irwnaa/Jlaru; 260 
lescheTKtuIti 11 
mocuJiamr 260 
schistaceus 260 
joow/eri 259 

Ephippiorhynchus 
asiadcus93 

Eremop/tUa 

alpestris 213-214 

gmeiz211 

tmmneus23G 
eatliopeTX 

ehrysaeus2A0 

eyane 239 

cyanurtis 2A0 

f^perythrus 241 

indicia 240-241 

pert<wflto239 

sv€cicus 23S 
Esacus 

recurvirostris 143 
Eiufynamys 

scolopacea 176-177 
Eutxfice 

mdJbfcsnca 358 
Eupodoeis 

bengaiensis 139 
Eurysiomus 

orieniaiis 196 
Faico 

amurensis 122-123 

MtUTnicuT cterrug 124 



rl24 

cACTTOg44.45. 124 

ehicquera 122 

cotumbarius 123 

jugger 44, 45, 124 

naumanni 121 

pelegrinoides 44. 45, 125 

pengrinus 44, 45, 124-125 

iwerur 124 

subbmeo 123 

tinmmcutus 122 
Ficeduia 

/KM^gsoni) 291 

Aj5Wiyrt«i291 

monifcgCT 292 

porv(j293 

sapphira 289 

AropAfOM 292 

5U&ru2mi 292-293 

juperciiuinr 290 

tricokjrlSO 

watermarmi »0-291 
Francotinus 

francotinus 127 

guiaris 127 

pondericeriarws 127 
Frinff&t 

eoelebs360 

moru^rinffOa 361 
Futica 

atra 137 

eristata 213 
Craflicnar 

cinerta 137 
GoiUnajD 

gaOinago 48, 49. 151 

mego/a 48, 151 

minima ISO 

n«mon<»Jfi 48, 49. 152 

jo^uoha 48, 49, 151-152 

ilenura 48. 49, 151 
CaOinubt 

chioropus 136 
GaOoperdix 

hmulata 130 

spadicea 10, 130 

£affurl32 
Cantpsorhynchus 

ru/u/ur 315 
GorruZox 

a$'inu311 

dJdcJguXanr 307 

caeruiatus 310 

eTytfirocgjAofttf 312 

henrici 11 

/eiArofopAus 307 

/ineamr 310 

mOTOfcger307 

ocefiktfur309 

/lecVoniAf 308 

n^^coOu 310 

nj^TguZon; 309 

squamatus 311 

jrnoru; 308 

subuFUcdor 311 

ranega/w 308 
OonvJur 

g<andanuj345 

JanceoAmo 345 
Geeinutus 

fftmaa205 
Gthchelidem 

nilotica 159 

lactea 144 
maidivanim 143 
pratincola maJdivarum 143 
(rbiutru/ium 

Anxfoi 54, 55, 181 



398 



Index 



cuculoides 54, 55. 182 

radiatum 54. 55, 182 
Gorsachius 

melanoiophus 8S 
Gracuta 

nUffcsa 354 
Graminicola 

bengaiensis 268 
Gnmdaia 

eoeticoior 2A6-247 
Grus 

antigone 138 

grus 13S 

leucogeranus 10 

nigricoOis 138 
Gypaelus 

barbatus 108-109 
Gyps 

bengaiensis 32, 33, 109 

/Mfr«r32,33, 110 

himalayensis 32, 33, 110 

indicus 32, 33, 109 
Haematopus 

ostralegus 141 
Haemaiospiza 

sipahi3(9 
Halcyon 

capensis 191 

coromanda 190 

piieata 191 

smymensis 191 
Haiiaeetus 

aibiciSa 107 

leucoryphus 107 
HaliastuT 

Indus 106 
Harpactes 

erythrocephaius 190 

canenie 11 
Hemiprocne 

coronaia 190 

ton^pennis 190 
Hemipus 

picatus 225 
Heterophasia 

annecums '^\9 

capistnua320 

picaoides 320 
Hieraaetus 

fiaciatus 119 

kienem 120 

pennants 119 

/ujttt 172 

sparverioides 173 

vonur 173 
Himantopus 

fUmantopus 142 
Hippolais 

caligau272 
Hirundapus 

caudacutus S3, 186>187 

cochinchinensis 83, 187 
Hirundo 

daurica 216 

.^uvicofa 216 

ru/«ffnr215 

runrc(i2IS 

j]Tu</u( 216 
Hodgionius 

phoenicuroides 245 
Hopiopterus 

cinereus 147 

duvauceiii 146-147 

indicus 148 

maiaba/icus 147 
Houbaropsis 

bengaiensis 139-140 
Hydrophasianus 

dururgus 140 



AypcjyArur 207 
ozuraa 295 

fiavatus 231 

fei«rO(r«7)h>i/uf 231 

madagascariensis 231 

mfcfeOvuto 231 

vimtTenr 231 
/lEiuiorAyncAd 

struAenH 141-142 
/Mr 

ieu<ro»pAa&tf 91 
/cA(A}K7pAag0 

Humihs 107 

ichihyaetus 108 

nana 107 
Ictinaews 

malayensis 116 

jEonfAonoAa 200 
/fena 

puefla 233 

cruentus 130 
Ixobrychus 

cinnamometis 8S 
JtavicoUis 91 
minutus 10,87 
jv*ennr87 

ft>r9uuBa201 

^;»vi>o 56, 57, 181 
zgAJneniir 56, 57, 181 

coCi/no iroMZtniff 340 
<7istaiUT339 
excubitor 341 
iFateCinitf 340 
A7AacA340 
tepfironotus 341 
viooruT 340 

brunnicephaius 52, S3, 158 
eachumans 50. 51, 158-159 
amitf 52, S3, 158 
,^iJciff50.S1.158-l» 
jenei 52, S3, 158 
ichthyaetus 50, 51, 157 
ridibundus 52, S3, 157 
Lacthrix 

argenlauris 312 
JWea313 

jofAii3e283 
Lepiopiikx 

dubius9i 

javanicus94 
Lerwa 

lerwa\2S 
Leucosticte 

brandnS2,2(A 

nemoricola 82,363 
Lf/noia 

limosa 153 

phoenicea 312 

certhiola 67.269, 3 

toicAitoa 67. 269. 3 

nofvui 67. 269, 3 
Lonchura 

malabaiica 35S 

malacai339 

punctuiata 339 

striata^SS 
Lophophonts 

impejanus 132 
LophiXnorchis 



Idenertil2a 
Lophura 

fextcomdona 13M33 
Loriculus 

vemaHa 170 
Loxia 

eun>ifostra 363 
LMscinia 

bnmnea73fi 

caBiope 238 

0>aw239 

megarhynehoe 11 

peetarden s 11 

jiM«cmifo239 

nMrint 238 
L^TnnocTyprer 

mimmia 48, 49, 150 
A/ocronour 

gukpisyai 
HacTOpgpa 

unchaO 167 
Aformarenetbt 

angustirostns 10 

htgubris 194 
MegaJaima 

asiaaca 199 

australis 199 

frankhna 199 

Aoemac^pAoJa 200 

Jltntsaa 81, 198 

vtrenrl98 

zeylanica 81, 198 
Megaiuna 

paiustris 270 
Meianochiora 

sultanea$2S 
Meianocorypha 

maxima 11 
JWdlophur 

kahami90.375 
Mergus 

albelluslM 

rl05 
rlQS 
A/en:>pr 

fefcAenauto 195 

orientals 194 

pfiiiippinus 195 

superciUosm 195 



indicus 141 

caendescens 121 
Microptermts 

bracf^unts 202 
Mitna 

migrans 106 

mitvus 106 
Min&i 

cyanowroprcni 317 

^pio(WKta317 

jnTjuia317 

assamica 211 
candUans 11 
ery^at^tera 11 

A/onorc/ia 
azu/«a29S 

AfDnn£ioJl0 

cinciorftyncha 252 
nifiventris 252 
saxatiUs 11 
soliiarius 252 

Mont^inffOa 
adamsi'356 
btar^brdii56 
davidiana 11 
fv^(ȣLT3S6 
iioczanoHvAu 356 

Mocoafla 



oUio 59, 223-224 

eaj]E)Ku223 

cinema 223 

Otreofci 60, 61, 223 

>lav(i 60, 61, 222 

(nif&M222 

maieniiparfnnr ^, 224 
A/oupma 

aJlCiraslTB 11,375 
MuOer^Mcie 

pulvendentus 206 
Mmdcapa 

bariyumas2S6 

dauun£a2S9 

ferrugfnea 287 

grandu'283 

Aot^Tonu 291 

hyperylhra 29\ 

kttironm 289 

feucomdbnuni 290 

macg^gqriae 284 

moniZeger 292 

muma 288 

p0mi293 

po^iogenjv 284 

rubeeuJoides 2SS 

ruficauda28S 

rufUaui2S7 



sibirica 288 

5tn:yVuaia292 

n//>ru&7a292 

sundara 284 

superciUaris 290 

ihaiassina 287 

ftt?AW&(K286 

umcofc?r28S 

H«ff«mkjnm 290-291 
Muscicapeiia 

hodgsoni 286-2S7 
Mycerobas 

c^inis jno-yji 

eamipesTfl 

icterioides 11,370 

mdonozamhar 371 
A^vlena 

leucoeephaia9\ 
14yiophoneus 

caendeus2S3 
hfyiophonus 

caeruteus2S3 
Myzorms 

pyrrtioura 313 
Nectarinia 

asiatica333 
Neophron 

perenoptena 108 
Netta 

rufina 102 
Nettapus 

eoromandeUanus 9& 
NiOavo 

ffundis2B3 

maegrigoriae 284 

sundara 284 
Ninox 

seutukxta 54, 55, 182 
Nuc^ragfi 

caiyoeatactes 34S 
Numeniia 

arquatalSi 

phaeoptB 153 
Nycdcorax 

r^cticoraxSS 
NyctyoTTtis 

aAertoni 194 
Ocyceros 

birostris 196 
Oenandte 

desem 2S0 

0ateSina2SO 



Index 



399 



oenanthe250 

picata 2S1 

pieschanka 250 
Ophrysia 

superciUosa 10 
Oriolus 

chinensis 339 

ono/ur 339 

«nuirt>jois 339 

xamhomus 338 
Onhotomus 

atrogularis 11 

cuculatus 11, 269 

jT/roriu; 269 
OruT 

bakkamoena 54. SS. 179 

ji?opr 179 

spUocephalus 54, SS, 180 

sunia 54, S5, 179 
OxyuM 

leucocepftaJa 10 

haiiaaus 121 

atrosuperciUaris 11 
ytovireowir 303 
futvifrons 'iM 
gularis 11 
m/Mfanhr 304 
ru^f^ 11, 304 
ufUfofc»-303 
Pantf 

««/■ 74, 326 

dichrous 32A 

major 326 

melanolophus 74, 326 

moruicoius 327 

rubidiveruris 74, 325 

rubicIiventTTS rufonuchalts 

325 

rufbnuchalis 74. 32S 

^pi&j/iorur 327 

xan£Aqge/T>s 327 



domesacus 354 
hispaniolensis 3S5 
morUanus355 
rutHans355 
Pavo 

crisiatus 133 

capensis 191 

Pelecanus 
crispus 10 
onorrMo/uf 86 
pfulippensis S7 

PeQomeum 

ruficeps 296 

Perdicula 

asiattca 129 
manipurensis 10 

Perdu: 

hodg^oniae 128 

Pemrororic 

brevirostris 2Z7 
cinnamomeus 228 
ethologus22J 
flammeus 226-2Z7 
roseus22S 
Solaris 228 

Pcmir 

apivorus 105 
ptiiorhytKus 105 

jMnrfiocoflir 356 
Phaenicophaeus 

leschenauUU 177 

rmnr 177 
Phaiacrocorax 

carboSS^ 



fitscicoOis 10 
ni^ 86 

lobatus 157 
Pfuiomachus 
pugnax 150 

ftadutf 10. 58. 179 

rec«ur95 
rwiw95 
/•AoemcH/Ttf 
ounveur 11 

Aien/ieonrpAo/ur 242-243 
«7>«/»rt^ganer 244-245 
ef>vAn3norur 242 
frontalis 244 
A<x^gn)m243 
oc/trunv 243 
jctoticepr 244 

dedon 272 

PhyUoscopus 

afflnis 71, 282, 5 
cantaxor 72, 276, 4 
rt)Jfy6ua 71, 282, 5 
corofuuus 11 
y«/(gr«m(w71,281,5 
fuscatus 71, 281. 5 
gTireoiuj 71. 282, 5 
inomatus 73, 280, 4 
maculipenrus 72, 279-280, 4 
magmnxtris 73. 278-279. 4 
nihdur 73, 278, 4 
occipitalis 72, 277, 4 
proregulus 72. 280, 4 
;7ufcher 72, 279, 4 
reguloides 72, 276, 4 
J(:Amw2i71-72,281.5 
n/d(3;9inu 282, 5 
trochiJoidas 72, 278, 4 
trochiloides nitidus Z18 
tytleril\.,7n, 5 

Pica 

/Kfa 11 

aunc<^ 208 
carucapiOus 209 
cathpfiarius 207 
d^/fe/irir207 
himalayensis 206 
macei208 
mafiraaensis 208 
rumus 209 
Pici/mnus' 

innominatus 201 

PifUT 

come 203 

chlorolop/ius 202 

flavinucha 203 

myrmecophoneus 203 

squamatus204 

xaruhopygaeus 203 
/^inicoJia 

subhimachaia 368 
Piaa 

brachyura 2lQ-2\\ 

nipalensis 210 

n>rduia210 



leucorodia95 

Plegadis 

faicinellus 94 

Plocew: 

ben^ialensis 357 
man)W'357 
megarfiync/ua 11 
philippinus 357 

P/i/vioiif 

dominica 146 
yu/Mil46 



sguatarola 146 

att>hv/u«/- 298 
/>una)299 

caspicus 85 
erinorui SS 
nig^icoUis 85 

Podoi%r 

A«r7uto347 
Po^/)Je£tn>n 

£«ra/ran3nmt 10 
Pomatorfume 

ery^trogjotys 296 

forrug^nosus 1S7 

horsfiddii29n 

ruficoOis 2£n 

schisticeps 251 
Porphyria 

porphyria 137 
Porzona 

iwcotorlO. B5 

>usral35 

porzana 10, 375 

pusiSa 135 

P>VU<J 

orrDgu/flrtT 70, 268. 2 
cinereocapiHa 69, 266, 2 
eriniger 70. 267, 2 
JJaviventris 70, 267, 2 
jTOci^ 69, 265. 2 
hodgsonii 69, 267. 2 
inorrtata 69, 265, 2 
n(r«5r«tnr 11,69,266,2 
Axio/ir 69. 266, 2 
jvd^(2va26S 
sytvatica 70.268,2 

Propyrrhuia 

subhimachaia 36S-369 

/VuneCa 

atrogularis 235 
coOaris 236 
fiJvescens 235 
himakjyana 236 
i/nmacufora 234 
rutecuiiNdes' 236 
jttq/jAauii 235 

PronKimur 

daihousiae 209-210 

Pseudibis 

papulosa 94 

Au/m;tf347 
Psittacula 

alexandri 171 

cyanoctphata 171 

eupatria 170 

AimaJliiyana 170-171 

krameri 170 

roseata 10 
fterocfer 

aoistus 162 

indiOdS 162 

orierualis 162 
Pteruthius 

flaviscapis 314-315 

meibn(xu315 

rupvenler 314 

xontfiof/iZorv 315 

COrKOlOT 11 

rupestris 215 
Pucrasia 

macrolopha 131 
/)>cno/KVur 

C43/er230 

/cK-orur 229 

Jlffu«)ge/f>er 230 

/neltmuTfeTur 229 

Anoruf 229 



i^rrftocorar 

jnk:u/u;348 

/yrrfkxwtur 349 
Pyrrhoplectes 

epauletta3€9 
Pyrrhula 

erythaca 11 

oytfwDc«phato 370 

n^poJlenhf 370 

CTflTZonouter 134 
AiOa 

aqutmcm 134 
ftriatiu 135 
Recurvirostra 
avosata 142 

nr^u/ur 283 

o/McoJZir 294 
aum)ta295 
bypoxantlu 294 

caryophyQacea 102 
A/kxtop«cA>v 

ffwnjDAca364 
Rhopodyus 

tristis 177 
ii/iytKWTUj 

/iiZi jinana 245 
Rhyticeros 

imdukaus 10 

malacoptilus 11. 298 

paludicola 214 

riparia 214-215 
JtormzruJa 

bengfiaiensis 141 
RyrKhops 

albicoilis \62 
Salpomis 

spiloruxus 11 

catvus 110 
Sarhdianus 

meianotos 98 



spiloptera 3SO-3S1 

Sasia 

oehraeta2D2 

Saxicoia 

eaprata 249 
fmea2A9 
inngni; 248-49 
>ertfoRi249 
irurura248 
Wrquata 2A7-2A8 

Saxicoloides 
fulicata2Sl 

Scciopax 

mmcoAi 48, 49. 152 

iSeievma 

<?^nwU, 274 
Auf^A» 273 
eastaniceps 274 
poliogertys 273 
xanthosehistos 274 

Seriiophus 
tunatus2ff) 

Serinus 

pusiOus 360-361 
thibetanus 361 

Siaa 

cashmirensis Z30 
castanea 329 
«urt>/>oefl330 
forrnosa 11 
frontalis 328 
himalayertsis 329 
leucopsis 328-329 



400 



Index 



SpeJaeontis 

caudcttus 299 

formosus 299 

kmgicaudaius 300 
Sphenocichia 

humei 11 
Spiiomis 

cheela in 
Spizaetus 

cirrhatus2&, 120 

rtipaJensis J&, 120 
Stacftyris 

ambigua 11 

cfuysaea 301 

nigriceps 301 

pyrrfiops 300 

ruficeps 300 
Sterna 

acnHcauda 161 

alb^rons 161 

aurantia 160 

caspia 160 

hirundo 160 
&rep{opeiia 

chinensis 166 

decaocto 165 

oriemalis 166 

senegalensis 166 

tranquebarica 165 

a/uco 56, 57, 184 
leptogrammica 56, 183 
oceOata 10 
Aurmtf 

«wimi353 
mo/ei&Eincur 351 
pagodanim 351-352 
nweur J52 
vulgaris 352 

lugubris 176 

curruca Z73 
honensis 272 



motXemtf 324 

mdim 140 
Syrrhaptes 

libaaruts 10 

leschenaultii 177 
Tadrybaptus 

ruficolhsBS 
Tadoma 

ferruprua97 

tadoma 98 
Tarsiger 

ch/ysaeus 2A0 

cyanurus 240 

^/WTjil/irur 241 

indicus 240-241 

^uJ^inr22S 
pondicerianus 22A 
virgatus 225 

paradisi 295 

cofianetXYJJvnana 261 
t^xinhvnrer 261 
o/rven 261 

himalayensis 126 
tibetanus 125-126 

leucocephaia 2S1 

iK//tf£i;>{£u 95 
meianocephaius 95 
Tichodroma 
muraria 330 

hodgsooi 274 

/ufeaM302 
TocAus 

biroaris 196 



(TohwrllO 
Trajopan 

melanocephaius 131 

Anyni 131 

apicauda 169 
bicincta 167 
cwvinxtra 168 
phoemcoptera 168 
pompadora 168 
sphenura 169 

abboaiJ96 
Tringa 

erythmpus 153-154 
gftznu^l55 
hypoleucos 156 
nebuiaria 155 
ochropus 155 
Etagnatilis 154 
«reA156 
toianus 154 

troglodytes Z34 
Turdoides 

caudatus 305 

£0^(3 305 

fc>n£HTimv306 
md£»M[r7ii306 
nipo/ennr 305 
jmorur 306 

albocinctus 256 
6ou/dcw;2S6 
kesskri 2S7 
mentla2S7 
nou/nanm 258 
obscunts 258 
rubrocanusiSl 
m/uxiOu- 258-259 
umccsAv 256 
vircTWwiir259 

--134 



jy/wUKral34 
umJbl34 
TVto 

att>aS8.178 
capenirisSS, 178 

tiTW/v 196 
t/rocisra 

e7>>tA/T?rfrtfn£Aa 346 
JIovircufTir 345 

cinereus 147 
indicus 148 
leucurus 148 
maiabaricus 147 
spi/tonds duvaucelii 146 
vaneOus 148 

anaacur93 

cinereur 156 
Xiphirhynchus 

superciiiaris 298 
yuAim 

MA:«n320 

castaniceps 11 

fiavicoOis 320-321 

gu^cim321 

ni^imerua 322 

occipUalis 321 

juvuAoJ^um 322 

2(mAc^uca 322 



ijiMmca 186 

anvki2S5 
dduma 254 
dixoni 253 
margimOa 254 
molbssima 253 
mowifato2S4 
H<ardu25S 
Zasrercyv 

pa^&«MMr338 




Carol iNSKipphas an MSc. in Ecology and is a 
freelance writer with a special interest in 
conservation education. She is a keen ornithologist 
and has travelled widely in Nepal. 

Tim iNSKiPPhas a degree in Botany and has had an 
active interest in birds for a number of years. He is 
now involved in research on trade in wildlife at the 
World Conservation Monitoring Centre in 
Cambridge, and has contributed to several 
publications on the subject. He first visited Nepal in 
1970 and has returned frequently with Carol to 
gather information for this book. 

CONTENTS 

List of Illustrations 

Acknowledgements 

Introduction 

Topography, climate and vegetation 

Bird distribution 

Bird conservation 

Protected areas 

Migration 

History of ornithology in Nepal 

Birdwatching areas 

Identification section 

Key to the maps 

Species accounts 

Key to the colour plates 

Bibliography 

Index 

Colour illustrations by Clive Byers, Richard 
Grimmett, Craig Robson and Steve Rooke 



'This volume. . . is an invaluable source of reference 
and should be bought by every birdwatcher who is 
going to, or has an interest in , Nepal .' British Birds 

'This book is a must for anyone interested in the birds 
of this region.' Birds 

'The Inskipps have done a remarkable job in pulling 
together a huge amount of material . . .The result of 
their efforts will form a basis for the continued 
exploration of this still decidedly underworked 
land.' Oryx 



ISBN 0-7136-8109-8 




9 780713 681093