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\ 






m ; 1 

GUIDES AND HANDBOOKS, 

niiUSTMTIVE OF THE CONTENTS OF THE CRYSTAL PAIACE:- 

1. GENEEAL GUIDE-BOOK TO THE PALACE •• ^ 

AND PARE. Witii nximerous Illustrations. By Samukl Phillips . 1 

2. HANDBOOK TO THE EGYPTIAN COUET. 

With Illustration& By Owbn Jones and Samuel Sharpe . .06 

3. HANDBOOK TO THE GREEK COUET. With 

Illustrations. By Geobge Bchabf, Jun. OS 

4. HANDBOOK TO -THE EOMAN ^OUET. With 

IllustratioQs. By Geoboe Schabf, Jun 6 

5. HANDBOOK TO THE ALHAMBEA COUET. 

With Illustrations. By Owem Jones 8 

6. HANDBOOK TO THE NINEYEH COUET. 

With Illustrations. By A. H. Layard, M.P. 6' 

7. HANDBOOK TO THE BYZANTINE COUET. 

With Illustrations. By M. Diqby Wtatt and J. B. Wabino . .08 

8. HANDBOOK TO THE MEDIEVAL COUET. 

With Illustrations. By H. Digbt Wtatt and J. B. Waring . .09 

9. HANDBOOK TO THE EENAISSANCE COUET. 

With Illustrations. By H. Diobt Wyatt and J. B. Wabino . .08 

10. HANDBOOK TO THE ITALIAN COUET. With , 

Illustrations. By M. Diobt Wtatt and J. B. Waring . . .06 

11. HANDBOOK TO THE POMPEIAN COUET. 

With Illustrations. By Gsoboe Scharf, Jun. 6 

12. HANDBOOK TO THE SCHOOLS OF MODEEN 

SCULPTURE. By Mrs. Jameson 6 

13 AN APOLOGY POE THE COLOUEIXG OF 

THE GREEK COURT IN THE CRYSTAL PALACE. By Owen 
Jones 6 

14. HOW TO SEE THE SCULPTUEE IN THE 

CBTSTAL PALACE. By Raffaele Monti. (In (he Press.) 

15. THE POETEAIT GALLEEY OF THE CEYS- 

TAL PALACE. Described by Samuel Phillips . . . .16 

16. HANDBOOK TO THE ETHNOLOGICAL AND 

ZOOLOGICAL DEPARTMENTS. With Illustrations. By Profes- 
sor Edwari> Forbes and Dr. Latham .06 

17. THE EXTINCT ANIMALS AND GEOLOGICAL 

ILLUSTRATIONS DESCRIBED. With Plan and Drawing. By 
Professor Owen . ...••••••03 

18. THE CEYSTAL PALACE INDUSTEIAL DI- 

RECTORY 3 



The Pivprletora reserve to themselves the right of authorising a 

Translation of the above works. 



1- 



AT, 




£^ 4^. <? Ma-^. ^' 



GUIDE 



TO THE 



CRYSTAL PALACE AND PARK. 



CONYEYANCE BY BAIL AND EOAD FROM LONDON. 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE BY RAILWAY. 

Triiks conveying persons direct to the Palace leave the Bridge Termintis o£ 
the Brighton Bailway at a quarter before nine in the morning on Mondays, 
and a quarter before ten on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays, and 
continue running every quarter of an hour, or more frequently when occasion 
requires, throughout the day : returning from the palace every quarter of an 
hour, and in the evening until all the visitors desirous of travelling to Town 
by railway have quitted the building, which closes one hour before sunset. 
The Fares to the Palace and back, including admission to the Palace itself are, 
on the above days, two shillings and sixpence, "first cUus ; two shillings, second 
clcus ; and one shilling and sixpence, third class. 

On Fridays and Saturdays the Crystal Palace opens at twelve o'clock in tiie 
morning, and trains will start from London at a quarter before that hour, and 
continue running every quarter of an hour throughout the day, returning every 
quarter of an hour until all the visitors shall have quitted the Palace. 

Holders of season tickets will be conveyed from London by train to the 
Palace on every day of the week by payment of the ordinary fsLre of the 
Brighton Bailway. 

Onmibuses from all x>arts of London will convey passengers direct to the 
terminus of the Brighton Bailway. 

Visitors residing at or desirous of reaching the Palace from the New Cross 
or Forest Hill stations, on the Brighton line, will be conveyed to the Palace by 
the ordinary Epsom and Croydon trains, which leave London at quick interyals, 
and call at both these stations. These trains wiU, however, convey them 
only to the Anerley or Sydenham stations, from which places conveyances to 
the Palace may be procured. 

THE CRYSTAL PALACE BY ROAD. 

Persons tratelling in carriages from London to the Palace 'Will find ibe 
various roads marked on the annexed map, which wiU enable them to choose 
the most expeditious routes from different parts of the metropolis to the 
Crystal Palace doors. Carriages from London must set down at either the 
liorth or south transepts, but not at the central transept; whilst visitors 
from Penge, Beckenham, and all places situated to the south-east of the 
Palace, will set down at the Crystal Palace Bailway station. 

The Crystal Palace Company have already provided accommodation for 
three hundred horses, in tilie '^Paxton Stables," at the Woodman Inn, on 
Westow Hill, within five minutes' walk of the Palace. The charge for such 
accommodation is fixed at one shilling and sixpence, including a feed of com 
and aU other expenses, no attendant being allowed to receive a fee. 
Carriages and horses will find a convenient stand formed in front of the 
Palace, opposite the north and south transepts^ where horses will be supplied 
with hay and water at a very trifling charge. 

All communications concerning the rojid traffic to the Palace should be 
addressed to Mr. Charles Boumer, Traffic Manager, Crystal Palace^ Sydenham, 



■ 




'Up 



• \ 



hSi 



GUIDE ' 

CRYSTAL PALACE 
PARK. 

By SAMUEL PHILLIPS. 

ILLUSTRATED BY P. H. DELAMOTTE. 



CETSTAl PALACE LIBBAHY ; 

BRADBUBY AND BVAN9, II, BOUVEEIB OTRHBT, WHDON. 
1864. 



BBABBOBX A«B BTABB, 

rBMVSBI TO *HB CBTBTAX FALACB COMrMIX 

■ WBITBVBIABS. 



X 

CO 



vi 



CONTENTS, 



'/ 



c:i 






2 



DriBOI>U0TIOH 

SIT" . 

EffT&AVOB TO THE PALACfB . 

AOOOVHT OP THE BUILDISQ 

HOT-WATER APJAEATT7S 

THE ABTBSIAN, AED FOFNTAIKS SUPPLY 

THE HATE .... 

G&EAT TRANSEPT 

lETEODUOTION TO TflB PIKE ART COURTS 

THE EOTPTIAN eOURT , 

THE GREEK OOURT . 

GREEK SCULPTURES 

THE BOKAH OOURT . 

SOULPTUREfl nr ROMAN COURT 

THE ALHAMBRA COURT 

THE ASSTRLIE COURT 

RAW PRODUCE AHD AGRICULTURAL COLLECTIOE 

THE BTZABTIEE AHD ROXAKESQUB COURT 

THE GERMAN MEDLflYAL COURT 

THE ENGLISH MEDIJtyAL COURT 

THE FRENCH AND ITALIAN MEDIJBYAL COURT 

THE RENAISSANCE COURT 

THE ELIZABETHAN OOUBT . . 

THE ITALIAN COURT . 

THE STATIONERY COURT 

THE BIRMINGHAM COURT 

THE SHEFFIELD COURT 

T^ POMPEIAN COURT . 



PlGI 
11 

23 

23 

24 

30 

82 

35 

38 

38 

39 

45 

49 

51 

54 

57 

62 

66 

68 

77 

78 

84 

85 

89 

91 

95 

96 

97 

98 



8 



CONTENTS, 



VSnVQJ^QlGXh AND KATURA.It HISIORT DJBPAAIKXKI . 

iriSW WOULD .... 

OU) WOULD ..... 
THB XnSIOAL INSIRUMBMT OOUSI . . , 

THB PRDTTBD VJlBRIOS OOUBI 
THa MIXED VABRIOS OOURT. 
THE PORBIGW INDUSTRIAL OOURT 
A WALK THROUGH THB NAYB . 
>^v ^Wa ORBEK AND ROMAN SCULPTURE COURT 
SBB (^^HIO RENAISSANCE SCULPTURE COURT . 
THB OOURl; OP FRENCH AND ITALIAN SCULPTURE. 
LIST 07 UODBBir SCULPTURES . 

THB OARDEN OP THB NAVE 
THB MAIN AND UPPER OALLERIES . 
THB PARK AND GARDENS . . * 

THB GEOLOGICAL ISLANDS AND THE EXTINCT ANIMALS 
LIST OF EXHIBITORS , , t . 



PAOK 
. 103 
. 104 

. 108 
. 115 
. 116 

. iir 

. 118 
. 120 
. 128 
. 134 
. 136 
. 138 
. 140 
. 148 
. 145 
. 157 
. 165 



r 



PBEFACE, 

The following pages are presented to the public as a brief but 
connected and carefully prepared account of the exterior and 
interior of the Crystal Palace. It is believed that no important or 
interesting object in connexion with the Exhibition is without its 
record in this little volume ; although^ in so vast a collection of 
works of architecture, sculpture, and industrial manufacture, it is 
dearly impossible to compress within the limits of a Q^neral Hand- 
book all the information which is necessary to satisfy the visitor 
desirous of precise and accurate knowledge of the numberless objects 
offered to his contemplation. 

A general and comprehensive view of the Crystal Palace 
will unquestionably be obtained by the perusal of the present 
manual. The Hand-books of the respective departments will supply 
all the detailed information necessary to fill in the broad and 
rapidly drawn outlines. In them, Literature will faithfully serve 
as the handmaiden to Art, and complete the great auxiliary work 
of education which it is the first aim of the Crystal Palace to effect. 

These Hand-books are published at prices varying from three- 
pence to eighteen-pence, according to the size of the volume. The 
lowest possible price has been affixed to one and all. It may be 
fearlessly asserted that books containing the same amount of 
entertainment, information, and instruction, it would be difficult to 
purchase at a more reasonable rate elsewhere. 

The Crystal Palace— destined for permanent service— opens in- 
complete with respect to a part of its design. The public will not 



10 PKBFACE. 

be the losers by the circumstance. With the exception of the 
great water displays— «which are already far advanced, and will 
rapidly be brought to completion — ^the grand scheme originally 
projected by the Directors has been, in its chief featnresy 
thoroughly carried out by their officers. It would have been 
physically impossible to accomplish more than has been done. 
What has been achieved, within comparatively a few months, 
must elicit admiration and astonishment. Already the Crystal 
Palace stands unrivalled for the size and character of its structure, 
for the nature of its contents, and for the extent and advancing 
beauty of its pleasure-grounds. Day by day the people wiU have 
an opportunity of witnessing the growth of their Palace, and the 
extension of its means of good. An institution intended to last 
for ages, and to widen the scope, and to brighten the path, of 
education throughout the land, must have time to consolidate its 
own powers of action, and to complete its own system of instruction. 
Within a very few months, the promises held out from the first by 
the Directors will be fulfilled to the very letter ; and the community 
may, in the meanwhile, watch the progress of the Crystal Palace 
towards the certain accomplishment of its unprecedented design. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The annexed map of the routes to the CrTstal FaUce viU 
enable the visitor to ascertain the shortest and least troableeome 
yiaj of reaching the Palace from the Tarioua parts of the great 
metropolis and its enTirons. For his fiirther information full par- 
ticnlara are added respecting tlie times of startiiig, and the &rei 
of the jomiiey by tha London and Brighton Kailway, which will 
■erve as tite great main line for the oonveyanoe of Tisitota by rail 
from London to the Palace doors. 

We will presmne that the visitor has taken his railway ticket, 
which, for his convenieaoe, includes adnuesion within the Palace, 
and that his short ten minutes' journey has commenced. Before 
he alights, and whilst his mind is still imoccupied by the wonders 
that are to meet his eye, we take the opportunity to relate, as 
briefly as we can, the History of tha CryBtal PaUoe, from the 
day upon which the Boyal Commissioners assembled within its 
transparent walla to declare their great and successful mission 
ended, until the 10th of Jane, 1864, when reconstructed, and 
renewed and' beautified in all its proportions, it again opened its 
wide doors to continue and confirm the good ii had already 
effected in the nation and beyond it. 

It will be remembered that the destination of the Great Etzhibi- 
tioa bnilding occupied much public attention towards the dose of 
1861, and that a universal r^pret prevailed at the threatened loss 
of a Btmotore which had accomplished so much for the improve- 
ment of the national taste, and which was evidently capable, under 



12 QENEBAIi GUIDE BOOK. 

intelligeut direction, of effecting so very much more, A special 
oommission even had been appointed for the purpose of reportmg on 
the different useful purposes to which the building could be applied, 
and upon the cost necessary to carry them out. Further discus- 
sion oh the subject, however, was rendered unnecessary by the 
declaration of the Home Secretary, on the 25th of March, 1852, 
that Grovemment had determined not to interfere in any way with 
the building, which accordingly remained, according to previous 
agreement, in the hands of Messrs. Fox and Henderson, the builders 
and contractors. Notwithstanding the announcement of the Home 
Secretary, a last public effort towards rescuing the Crystal Palace 
for its original site in Hyde Park, was made by Mr. Heywood in the 
House of Commons, on the 29th of April. But Government again 
declined the responsibility of purchasing the structure, and Mr. 
Heywood's motion was, by a laige majority, lost. 

It was at this juncttire that Mr. Leech,* a private gentleman, con- 
ceived the idea of rescuing the edifice from destruction, and of 
rebuilding it on some appropriate spot, by the organization of a 
private company. On communicating this view to his partner, Mr. 
Farquhar, he received from him a ready and cordial approval 
They then submitted their project to Mr. Francis Fuller, who 
entering into their views, imdertook and arranged, on their joint 
behadf, a conditional purchase from Messrs. Fox and Henderson, of 
the Palace as it stood. In the belief that a building, so destined, 
would, if erected on a metropolitan line of railway, greatly 
conduce to the interests of" the line, and that communication by 
railway was essential for the conveyance thither of great masses 
from London, Mr. Farquhar next suggested to Mr. Leo Schuster, 
a Director of the Brighton Bailway, that a site for the new Palace 
should be selected on the Brighton Hne. Mr. Schuster, highly 
approving of the conception, obtained the hearty concurrence of 
Mr. Laing, the Chairman of the Brighton Board, and of bis 
brother Directors, for aiding as far as possible in the prosecution of 

* Of the firm of Johnston, Farquhar, and Leech, Solicitors. 



INTRODUCTION. * 13 

the work. And, accordingly, these five gentiemen, and their 
immediate Mends determined forthwith to complete the purchase 
of the building. On the 24th of May, 1862, the purchase- 
money was paid, and a few English gentlemen became the owners 
of the Crystal Palace of 1861. Their names follow : — 

Origvncd Pvrchdsers of the BuUdmg, . 
Mb. T. N. Farquhar, Mr. Joseph Leech, 

Mr. Francis Fuller, Mr. J. C. Morice, 

Mr. Robert Gill, Mr. Scott Russell, 

Mr. Harman Grisewood, Mr. Leo Schuster. 

Mr. Samuel Laing, 

It will hardly be supposed that these gentlemen had proceeded 
thus far without having distinctly considered the final destination 
of their purchase. They decided that the building, — the first 
wonderful example of a new style of architecture— should rise 
again greatly enhanced in grandeur and beauty; that it should 
form a Palace for the multitude, where, at all times, protected 
from the inclement varieties of our climate, healthful exercise 
and wholesome recreation should be easily attainable. To raise 
the enjoyments and amusements of the English people, and 
especially to afford to the inhabitants of London, in wholesome 
country air, amidst the beauties of nature, the elevating treasures 
of art, and the instructive marvels of science, an accessible and 
inexpensive substitute for the inJTirious and debasing amusements 
of a crowded metropolis : — to blend for them instruction with 
pleasure, to educate them by the eye, to quicken and purify 
their taste by the habit of recognising the beautiful — ^to place 
them amidst the trees, flowers, and plants of all countries and 
of all climates, and to attract them to the study of the natural 
sciences, by displaying their most interesting examples — ^and 
making known all the achievements of modem industry, aad the 
marvels of mechknical manufactures: — such were some of the original 
intentions of the first promoters of this National undertaking. 

Having decided upon their general design, and upon the scale 



^-nv^Vi^PHP 



14 GENERAL aUD)E BOOK. 

on which it should be executed, the directors next proceeded to 
select the officers to whom the carrying out of the work should be 
entrusted. Sir Joseph Paxton, the inventive axchitect of the great 
building in Hyde Park, was requested to accept the office of Director 
of the Winter Garden, Park, and Conservatory, an office of which 
the duties became subsequently much more onerous and extensive 
than the title implies. Mr. Owen Jones and Mr. Digbt Wyatt, 
who had distinguished themselves by their labours in the old Crystal 
Palace, accepted the duties of Directors of the Fine Art Depart- 
ment, and of the decorations of the new structure. Mr. Chables 
Wild, the engineer of the old building, filled the same office in the 
new one. Mr. Grove, the secretary of the Society of Arts, the parent 
institution of the Exhibition of 1861, was appointed secretary. 
Mr. Francis Fuller, a member of the Hyde Park Executive Com- 
mittee, accepted the duties of managing director. Mr. Samuel 
Laing, M.P., the Chairman of the Brighton Railway Company, 
' became Chairman also of the New Crystal Palace, and Messrs. Fox 
and Henderson imdertook the re-erection of the building. 

With these arrangements, a Company was formed, under the 
name of the Crystal Palace Company, and a prospectus issued, 
announcing the proposed capital of 500,000?., in one hundred 
thousand shares of five pounds each. The following gentlemen 
constituted the Board of Directors, and they have continued in 
office up to the present time : — 

Samuel Laing, Esq., M.P., Chaitman. 
Arthur Anderson, Esq., Charles Geach, Esq., M.P«) 

E. S. P. Calvert, Esq., Charles Lushington, Esq., 

T. N. Farquhar, Esq., J. Soott Russell, Esq., F.R Si, 

Francis Fuller, Esq., Managing Director. 

It will ever be mentioned, to the credit of the English people, 
that within a fortnight after the issue of thevCompan3r's prospectus^ 
the shares were taken up to an extent that gave the Director^ 
ample encouragement to proceed vigorously with their novel and 
gigantic undertaking. 



INTBODUCnON. 15 

In the proepectos it was proposed to transfer the building 
to Sydenham, in Kent, and the site ohosen was an irregular 
parallelogranx of three hundred acres,*^ extending from the 
Brighton Bailway to the road which forms the boundary of 
the Dulwich wood at the top of the hill, the fall from which to 
the railway is two hundred feet. It was at once felt that the 
summit of this hill was the only position, in all the ground, for the 
great gla£» building — a position which, on the one side, commands a 
beautiful view of the fine counties of Surrey and Kent, and on the 
other a prospect of the great metropolis. This site was chosen, and 
we doubt whether a finer is to be found so close to London, and so 
easy of access by means of railway. To facilitate the conveyance 
of passengers, the Brighton Bailway Company, — ^under special and 
mutually advantageous arrangements — ^undertook to lay down a 
new line of rails between London and Sydenham, to construct 
a branch from the Sydenham station to the Crystal Palace garden, 
and to build a number ^ of engines sufficiently powerful to draw 
heavy trains up the steep incline to the Palace. 

And now the plans were put into practical and working shape. 
The building was to gain in strength and artistic effect, whilst the 
contents of the mighty structure were to be most varied. Art Was 
to be worthily represented by Architecture and Sculpture. Archi- 
tectural restorations were to be made, and Architectural specimens 
from the most remarkable edifices throughout the world, to be 
collected, in order to present a grand architectural sequence from 
the earliest dawn of the art down to the latest times* Casts 
of the most celebrated works of Sculpting were to be pro- 
cured : BO that within the glass walls might be seen a vast 
historical gallery of this branch of art, from the time of the 
andent Egyptians to our own era. Nature also Was to put 
forth her beauty throughout the Palace and Grounds. A magnifi- 
dent collection of plants of every land was to adorn the glass 
stmcture within, whilst in the gardens the fotmtains of Versailles 

* A porUon of tbui land, not roqttired for the pniposes of tb^ l^aXatie, hoA 
been disposed of; 



16 GENEEAL GUIDE BOOK. 

were to be outrivalled^ and Englishmen at length enabled to witness 
the water displays, which for years had proved a source of pleasure 
and recreation to foreigners in their own countries. Nor was this all. 
All those sciences, an acquaintance with which is attainable through 
the medium of the eye, were allotted their speciJ&c place, and Greology, 
Ethnology, and Zoology were taken as best susceptible of illustra- 
tion ; Professor Edward Forbes, Dr. Latham, Professor Ansted, 
Mr. Waterhouse, Mr. Gould, and other gentlemen well known in 
the scientific world, tmdertaking to secure the material basis 
upon which the intellectual service was to be grounded. To prevent 
the monotony that attaches to a mere museum arrangement, in 
which glass cases are ordinarily the most prominent features, the 
whole of the collected objects, whether of science, art or nature, 
were to be arranged in picturesque groupings, and hajmony was to 
reign throughout. To give weight to their proceedings, and to 
secure lasting advantage to the public, a charter was granted by 
Lord Derby's government on the 28th of January, 1853, binding 
the Directors and their successors to preserve the high moral and 
social tone which, &om the outset, they had assumed for their 
National Listitution. 

The building paid for, the officers retained, the jplans put on paper 
— ^the work of removal now commenced, and Messrs. Fox and 
Henderson received instructions to convey the palace to its destined 
home at Sydenham. The first column of the new structure was 
raised by Mr. Laing, M.P., the chairman of the Company, on the 
5th August, 1852 ; the works were at once proceeded with, and 
the most active and strenuous efforts thenceforth made towards the 
completion of the undertaking. Shortly after the erection of the 
first column, Messrs. Owen Jones and "Dighj Wyatt were charged 
with a mission to the continent, in order to procure examples of 
the principal works of art in Europe. They were fortified by Lord 
Malmesbury, then Secretary of State, with letters to the several 
ambassadors on their route, expressing the sympathy of the 
€k)vemment in the object of their travels, and backed by the 
liberal purse of the Company, who required, for themselves, only 



INTEODUCTION. 17 

that the coUectioji BhoTild prove worthy of the nation for which 
they were caterers. 

The travellers first of all visited Paris, and received the most 
c(Hxiial co-operation of the Gk)vemment, and of the authorities at 
the Museum of the Louvre, and the £oole des Beaux Arts. The 
permission to obtain casts of any objects, which could with safety 
be taken, was at once accorded them. From Paris they proceeded 
to Italy, and thence to Germany, in both which coimtries they 
experienced, generally, a ready and generous compliance with their 
wishes. At Mimich they received especial attention, and were 
most kindly assisted by the British Ambassador, and the architect 
Baron von Klenze, through whose instrumentality and influence 
King Louis permitted casts of the most choice objects in the 
Glyptothek for the first time to be taken. 

The chief exceptions to the general courtesy were at E.om6, 
Padua, and Vienna. At the first-named city every arrangement 
had been made for procuring casts of the great ObeUsk of the 
Lateran, the celebrated antique equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius 
on the Capitol, the beautiful monuments by Andrea Sansovino in 
the church of S. M. del Popolo, the interesting bas-reliefs &om the 
arch of Titus, and other works, when an order from the Papal 
Government forbade the copies to be taken : and, accordingly, for 
the present, our collection, as regards these valuable subjects, is 
incomplete. 

At Padua contracts had been made for procuring that master* 
piece of Renaissance art, the candelabrum of Bicdo, the entire 
series of bronzes by Donatello, and several other important works 
in the church of St. Anthony ; but, in spite of numerous appeals, 
aided by the influence of Cardinal Wiseman, the capitular authori^ 
ties refused their consent. 

At Vienna agreements had been entered into for procuring a 
most important series of monmnents from the Church of St. 
Stephen, in that city ; including the celebrated stone pulpit, and 
the monument of Frederic IIL A contract had also been made 
for obtaining a cast of the grand bronze statue of Victory, at 





18 GBITB&AL eUIDB BOOK. 

Brescia ; but althougli the influence of Lord Mabnesbuiy and Lord 
Westmoreland (our ambassador at Vienna) was most actiyely 
exerted, permission was absolutely refused by the Austrian autho- 
rities in Lombardy, as well as in Vienna itself. Thus much it is 
necessary to state in order to justify the directors of the Crystal 
Palace in the eyes of the world for omissions in their collection which 
hitherto they have not had power to make good. They are not 
without hope, however, that the mere announcement of these defi- 
ciencies will be sufficient to induce the several governments to take 
a kindly view of the requests that have been made to them, and to 
participate in the satisfaction that follows every endeavour to 
advance human enjoyment. 

In England, wherever application has been made, permission 
— ^with one exception — ^has been immediately granted by the autho- 
rities, whether ecclesiastical or civil, to take casts of any monu- 
ments required. The one interesting exception deserves a special 
record. The churchwardens of Beverley Minster, Yorkshire, enjoy 
the privilege of being able to refuse a cast of the celebrated Percy 
shrine, the most complete example of purely English art in our 
country ; and in spite of the protestations of the Archbishop of 
York, the Duke of Northumberland, Archdeacon Wilberforce, Sir 
Charles Barry and others, half the churchwardens in question insist, 
to this hour, upon their right to have their enjoyment without 
molestation. The visitors to the Crystal Palace cannot therefore, 
as yet, see the Percy shrine. 

Whilst Messrs. Jones and Wyatt were busy abroad, the 
authorities were no less occupied at home. Sir Joseph 
Paxton commenced operations by securing for the Company 
the extensive and celebrated collection of palms and other 
plants, brought together with the labour of a century, by 
Messrs. Loddiges, of Hackney. The valuable assistance of Mr. 
Fergusson and Mr. Layard, M.P., was obtained for the erection 
of a Court to illustrate the architecture of the long-buried 
buildings of Assyria ; and a large space in the Gardens was 
devoted to illustrating the geology of the antediluvian period, 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

md exhibiting spedmens of the gigantio animals Hving beforo 

the flood. 

As soon as the glass stnicture was sufficiently advanced, the 

valuable productions of art which Messrs. Jones and Wyatt had 
acquired abroad rapidly arrived, and being received into the 
building, the erection of the Fine Art Courts oonunenced. To 
carry out these works, artizans.of almost every continental nation, 
together with workmen of our own country have been employed, 
and it is worthy of note, that, although but a few years before, many 
of the nations to which these men belonged, were engaged in deadly 
warfiEure against each other, and some of them opposed to our own 
country, yet, in the Crystal Palace, these workmen have laboured for 
months, side by side, with the utmost good feeling, and without 
the least display of national jealousy — a fact alike honourable to 
the men, and grati^^ing to all, inasmuch as it shows how completely 
the ill-will that formerly separated nation from nation and man 
firom man, is dying out, and how easily those, who have been at one 
time enemies on the fleld of battle, may become fast Mends in the 
Palace of Peace. 

To the whole of these workmen, foreigners and English, engaged 
in the Crystal Palace, the Directors are anxious to express their 
obligations and sincere acknowledgments. They recognise the 
value of their labours, and are fully aware that, if to the minds of 
a Few the public are indebted for the conception of the grand Idea 
now happily realized, to the Many we owe its practical existence. 
Throu^out the long and arduous toil, they have exhibited-— 
allowance being made for some slight and perhaps unavoidable 
differences — an amount of zeal, steadiness, and intelligence which 
does honour to them, and to the several nations which they repre- 
sent. To all — their due ! If the creations of the mind stand 
paramount in our estimation, let appropriate honour be rendered 
to the skiU of hand and eye, which alone can give vitality and form 
to our noblest conceptions. Of the advantages attendant on the 
erection of the Crystal Palace, even before the public are admitted 

to view its contents, none is more striking than the education it 

o2 



GENERAL GUIDE BOOK. 

nsbs already afforded to those wlio have taken part in its production. 
For the first time in England, hundreds of men have reoeived 
practical instruction — ^in a national Fine Art School — ^from which 
society must derive a lasting benefit. It is not too much to hope that 
each man will act as a missionary of art and ornamental industry, in 
whatever quarter his improved faculties may hereafter be required. 

At one time during the progress of the works as many as 
6400 men were engaged in carrying out the designs of the Directors. 
Besides the labours already mentioned, Mr. B. Waterhouse Hawkins, 
in due time, took possession of a building in the grounds, and 
was soon busily employed, under the eye of Professor Owen, in 
the reproduction of those animal creations of a past age, our 
acquaintance with which has hitherto been confined to fossil 
remains. Dr. Latham WaH engaged in designing and giving 
instructions for the modelling of figures to illustrate the Ethno- 
logical department, whilst Mr. Waterhouse and Mr. Gk>idd, aided by 
Mr. Thomson, as superintendent, and Mr. Bartlett, as taxidermist, 
were collecting and grouping valuable specimens of birds and 
animals to represent the science of Zoology. Towards the exhibition 
of the articles of industry, six architects were commissioned to erect 
courts for the reception of the principal manufactures of the world, 
and agents were employed in various parts of England, to receive 
the applications of intending exhibitors. 

Such are a few of the operations that for the last few months 
have gone forward in, and in respect of, the Crystal Palace ; and, 
excepting by those whose business it has been to watch the progress 
of the works, no adequate idea can be formed of the busy activity 
that prevailed within the building and without, or of the 
marvellous manner in which the various parts of the structure 
seemed to grow under the hands of the workmen, until it assumed 
the exquisite proportions which it now possesses. 

Her Majesty and his Koyal Highness Prince Albert have been, 
from the first, graciously pleased to express their warmest sympathy 
with ■ the undertaking, and have visited the Palace several times 
during the progress of the works. In honouring the inauguration 



INTRODUCTION. 21 

of the Psklace with her royal presence, her Majesty gives the best 
pzoof of the interest she takes in an institution which — ^like the 
great structure originated by her Royal Consort — ^has for its chief 
object the advancement of civilization and the welfare of her 
subjects.* 

* The Quee&'s apartments in the Crystal Palace, destmed for the reception 
of her Majesty and his Eoyal Highness Prince Albert, when they honour 
the Exhibition with their presence, have been erected by Messrs. J. O. 
Crace and Co., in the Italian style. The suite of apartments, which are 
placed at the north end of the building, consists of a large entrance vestibule 
with architectural ornaments, and painted arabesque decorations. A long 
corridor leads from the vestibule to the several apartments, and is formed into 
an arched passage by means of circular-headed doorways, before which hang 
portiires, or curtains. To the right of the entrance are two rooms, one appro- 
priated to the ladies-in-waiting, and the other to the equerries ; the walls of 
both being divided into panels, and decorated in the Italian style. On the 
left are the apartments for the use of her Majesty and Prince Albert, 
consisting of a drawing-room and two retiring rooms. The walls of the 
drawing-room -are divided by pilasters, the panels covered with green silk. 
The cove of the ceiling is decorated with arabesque ornaments. 



GUIDE TO THE CRYSTAL PALACE. 



THE SITE. 

The Crystal Palace stands in the county of Surrey, immediately 
on the confines of Kent, bordered on one side by Sydenham, and 
on the other by Norwood and Anerley, whilst Penge lies at the 
foot of the hni, and Dulwich Wood at the top. No particular 
topographical or historical facts are associated with these places. 
Sydenham, however, is invested with some literary interest as 
having been the residence of the poet Campbell, the author of the 
** Pleasures of Hope," who passed, as he says in one of his letters, 
the happiest years of his life in this suburban village. 

ENTRANCE TO THE PALACE. 

The visitor, having reached the Crystal Palace terminus, quits the 
train, and ascends the broad flight of steps before him, leading 
to a covered way called the KaUway Colonnade, in which will 
shortly be placed a collection of plants forming an avenue of choice 
exotics. At the end of this colonnade is the south wing of the 
Palace. Ascending the first flight of stairs he enters the second- 
class Refreshment Boom, and by another flight he attains the level 
of the floor of the main building.'^ 

* In the lower gtory of the South Wing will be found a second-class Rstrssh- 
MENT Eoox, where refreshments of a substantial kind may be procured at a 
moderate charge. Above this, in the next story of the South Wing, is a 
first-class Eefreshment Boom, for confectionary and ices, as well as more 
nourishing fare ; and, above this again, is a large space occupying the whole of 
the upper floor of the Wing, and extending across the end of ike main, building, 
whilst) built out from the North end, will be found two Dining Rooms, one 
devoted to general use, and the other for Exhibitors only, appropriated 
to first-class Refreshment Tables, where cold viands may be obtained. At 
each end of the great Transept, under the Galleries, will be found two 
Stalls with ices and refreshments : and at the north end of the building, 
extending to the back of the Assyrian Court, and eovering the top floor of the 
North Wing, is a large space also devoted to the sale of ices and confectionary. 



24 GENERAL GUIDE BOOK. 

Having entered the Palace, the visitor may desire, before he 
examines its various contents, to learn something of the Building 
itself — certainly not the least remarkable feature in the extraor- 
dinary scene now submitted to his contemplation. We therefore 
.proceed at once to furnish him with an 

ACCOUNT OF THE BUILDING. 

In taking the structure of the Great Exhibition of 1851 — ^that 
type of a class of architecture which may fairly be called ^^ modem 
•RTigliah '' * — as the model for the new building at Sydenham, the 
projectors found it necessary to make such modifications and 
improvements as were suggested by the difference between a tem- 
porary receiving-house for the world's industrial wealth, and a per- 
manent Palace of Art and Education, intended for the use of 
mankind long after its original foimders should have passed away. 
Not only, however, have increased strength and durability been 
considered, but beauty and artistic effect have come in for a due 
share of attention. • lie difference of general aspect between the 
present palace and its predecessor, is visible at a glance. In the 
parent edifice, the external appearance, although grand, was mono- 
tonous ; the long flat roof was broken by only one transept, and 
the want of an elevation proportionate to the great length of the 
building was certainly displeasing. In the Sydenham Palace, an 
arched roof covers the nave — ^raising it forty-four feet higher than 
the nave in Hyde Park — and three transepts are introduced into 
the structure instead of one, the centre transept towering into the 
air, and forming a hall to the Palace of surpassing brilliancy and 
lightness. A further improvement is the formation of recesses, 

* We do not know any name more suitable to express tlie character of this 
iron and glass building than that which we have chosen. In Gothic archi- 
tectnre we have named one style " Early English," and we think we may with 
eqnal propriety confer the title of "Modem English" npon the new order, 
which is essentially the creation of the nineteenth centnry, and which served to 
house one of the greatest national displays that England ever attempted — Thb 
Grbat Exhibition op 1851. The erection of the building both of 1851 and of 
1854, it may be well to remark, is mainly due to the rapid advances made in 
this country in the manufactures of glass and u'on, substances which with only 
moderate attention will defy the effects of time. The present structure is 
capable of enduring longer than the oldest marble or stone architectural monu- 
ments of antiquity. The iron, which forms its skeleton or framework, becomes 
when painted, the most indestructible of materials, and the entire covering of 
glass may be renewed again and again without in any way interfering with the 
construction which it covers. 



ACCOUNT OP THE BUlLDINa. 26 

twenty-four feet deep, in the garden fronts of all tke transepts. 
These throw fine shadows, and take away from the continuous 
surface of plain glass walls : whilst the whole general arrangement 
of the exterior — ^the roofs of the side aisles rising step-like to the 
circular roof of the nave^ — ^the interposition of square towers at 
the junction of the nave and transepts, — the open galleries towards 
the garden front, the long wings stretching forth on either side, 
produce a play of light and shade, and break the building into 
parts, which, without in any way detracting from the grandeur and 
simplicity of the whole construction, or causing the parts them- 
selves to appear mean or small, present a variety of s\uiace that 
charms and fully satisfies the eye. 

Unity in architecture is one of the most requisite and agreeable 
of its qualities : and certainly no building possesses it in a greater 
degree than the Crystal Palace. Its design is most simple : one 
portion corresponds with another ; there is no introduction of 
needless ornament : a simplicity of treatment reigns throughout. 
Not is this unity confined to the building. It characterizes the 
contents of the glass structure, and prevails in the grounds. 
All the component parts of the Exhibition blend, yet all are 
distinct : and the effect of the admirable and harmonious ar- 
rangement is, that all confusion in the vsist establishment, within 
and without, is avoided. " The mighty maze " has not only its 
plan, but a plan of the most lucid and instructive kind, and the 
visitor is enabled to examine every court, whether artistic or in- 
dustrial ; every object, whether of nature or of art, in regular order ; 
so that, as in a well-arranged book, he may proceed from subject 
to subject at his discretion, and derive useful information without 
the trouble and vexation of working his way through a labyrinth. 

All the materials employed in the Exhibition of 1861, with the 
exception of the glass on the whole roof, and the framing of the 
transept-roof, have been used in the construction of the Crystal 
Palace. The general principle of construction, therefore, is identical 
in the two buildings. The modifications that have taken place, 
and the reasons that have led to them, have already been stated. 
Two difficulties, however, which were unknown in Hyde Park, had 
to be provided against at Sydenham : viz., the loose nature of th^ 
soil, and the sloping character of the ground. Means were taken 
to overcome these difficulties at the very outset of the work. The 
disadvantage of soil was repaired by the introduction of masses of 
concrete and brickwork under each colimm, in order to secure 
breadth of base and stability of structure. The slanting ground 



ACCOUNT OF THB BUHDINO. 27 

was Beizsd b^ Sir Joaeph Paxton with hia OEUal logacil^, in Older 
to be conTerted from an obstaole into a positive advantage. The 
gronnd ran rapidly down towaida the garden, and Sir Joseph 
accordingly constmctod a lower, or basement story towards the 
giarden front, by means of which not only increased apace was 
gained, but a hi^er elevation secured to tbe whole building, and 
the noblest possible view. The lower story is sufficiently large to 
serve as a department for the exhibition of machinery in motion, 
idiich intoresting branch of science find human industry will 
thus be contemplated apart from other objects. Behind this 
space, westwards, is a capacious horizontal brick shaft, twenty- 
four feet wide, extending the whole length of the building, 
and denominated "Sir Joseph Faxton's Tunnel "(t). Leading 
out of this tunnel are the fumacep and boilers connected with 
the heating apparatos, together with brick recesses for the stowage 
of coke. The tunnel itself is connected with the railway, and is 
used as a roadway for bringing into, and taking from, the Palace 
all objects of arc and of industry ; an arrangement that leaves the 
miun floor of the building independent of all such operations. 
Behind the tunnel, and still towards the west, the declivity of the 
ground is met by means of brick piers of the heights necessary to 
raise the foundation pieces of the columns to the level at which 
they rest on the summit of the hill. 



The building consists, above the basement floor, of a grand «entral 
nave, two side aisles, two main galleries, tliree transepts, and two 
winpL It will be rem^nbered, that in Hyda Park an imposing 



28 GENERAL GUIDE BOOK. 

effect was secured by the mere repetition of a column and a girder 
which, although striking and simple, was certainly monotonous ; 
and, moreover, in consequence of the great length of the building, 
the cohunns and girders succeeded one another so rapidly that the 
eye had no means of measuring the actual length. At Syden- 
ham pairs of colimms and girders are advanced eight feet into the 
nave at CTjery seventy-two feet, thus breaking the uniform straight 
line, and enabling the eye to measure and appreciate the distance. 

The btdlding above the level of the floor is entirely of iron and 
glass, with the exception of a Jportion at the north front, which is 
panelled with wood. The whole length of the main building is 1608 
feet, and the wings 574 feet each, making a length of 2756 feet, 
which with the 720 feet in the colonnade, leading from the railway 
station to the wings, gives a total length of 3476 feet ; or nearly 
three-quarters of a mile of ground covered with a transparent roof of 
glass. The length of the Hyde Park building was 1848 feet, so that, 
including the wings and colonnade, the present structure is larger 
than its predecessor by 1628 feet ; the area of the ground floor, in- 
cluding the wings, amounts to the astonishing quantity of 598,396 
superficial feet ; and the area of gallery flooring of building and 
wings to 245,260 superficial feet, altogether 843,656 superficial feet. 
In cubic contents the PaJace at Sydenham exceeds its predecessor by 
nearly one-half. The width of the nave, or main avenue, is 72 feet, 
which is also the width of the north and south transepts ; and the 
height of all three from the floor to the springing or base of the arch, 
is 68 feet; the height from the flooring to the crown or top of the* 
arch being 104 feet, just the height of the transept at the old 
building. The length of the north and south transepts, is 336 feet 
respectively. The length of the central transept is 384 feet ; its 
width 120 feet; its height from the floor to the top of the louvre, 
or ventilator, 168 feet ; from the floor to the springing of the arch, 
108 feet ; and from the garden &ont to the top of the louvre, 208 
feet, or 6 feet higher than the Monimient. 

The floor consists of boarding one inch and a half thick, laid as in 
the old building, with half-inch openings between them, and resting 
on joists, placed two feet apart, seven inches by two and a half 
inches thick. These joists are carried on sleepers and props eight 
feet apart. The girders which support the galleries and the roof- 
work, and carry the brick arches over the basement floor, are of 
cast-iron, and are 24 feet in length. The connexions between the 
girders and columns are applied in the same manner as in the build- 
ing of 1851. The principle of connexion was originally condemned 



ACCOUNT OP THE BUILDING. 29 

by some men of standing in the scientific world ; but experience has 
proved it to be sound and admirable in every respect. The mode of 
connexion is not merely that of resting the girders on the columns 
in order to support the roo& and galleries, but the top and bottom 
of each girder are firmly secured to each of the columns, so that the 
girder preserves the perpendicularity of the column, and secures 
lateral sti&ess to the entire edifice. Throughout the building the 
visitor will notice, at certain intervals, diagonally placed, rods 
connected at the crossing, and uniting column with column. These 
are the diagonal bracings, or the rods provided to resist the 
action of the wind : they are strong enough to bear any strain that 
can be brought to bear against them, and are fitted with screwed 
connexions and couplings, so that they can be adjusted with 
the greatest accuracy. The roof, from end to end, is on the 
Paxton ridge-and-furrow system, and the glass employed in the 
roof is -j?^ of an inch in thickness (21 oz. per foot). The discharge 
of the rain-water is efiected by gutters, from which the water is 
conveyed down the inside of the colimms, at the base of which are 
the necessary outlets leading to the main-drains of the building. 
The first gallery is gained from the ground-floor by means of a flight 
of stairs about 23 feet high ; eight such flights being distributed 
over the building. This gallery is 24 feet wide, and devoted to the 
exhibition of articles of industry. The upper gallery is 8 feet 
wide, extending, like the other, round the building ; it is gained 
from the lower gallery, by spiral staircases, of which there are ten : 
each stair-case being divided into two flights, and each flight being 
20 feet high. Kound this upper gallery, at the very summit of 
the nave and transepts, as well as round the ground floor of the 
building, are placed louvres, or ventilators, made of galvanized 
iron. By the opening or closing of these louvres — ^a service 
readily performed — ^the temperature of the Crystal Palace is so 
regulated that on the hottest day of summer, the dry parching heat 
mounts to the roof to be dismissed, whilst a pure and invigorating 
supply is introduced at the floor in its place, giving new life to the 
thirsty plant and fresh vigour to man. The coolness thus obtained 
within the palace will be sought in vain on such a summer's day 
outside the edifice. 

The total length of oolunms employed in the construction of the 
main buildings and wings would extend, if laid in a straight line, 
to a distance of sixteen miles and a quarter. The total weight of 
iron used in the main building and wings amounts to 9,641 tons, 
17 cwts., 1 quarter. The superficial quantity of glass used is 25 



80 GENERAL GUIBB BOOK. 

acres ; and, if the panes were laid side by side, they would extend 
to a distance of 48 miles ; if end to end, to the almost incredible 
length of 242 miles. To complete our statistics, we have further 
to add that the quantity of bolts and rivets distributed over the 
main structure and wings weighs 175 tons, 1 cwt., 1 quarter ; 
that the nails hammered into ^ the Palace increase its weight by 
103 tons, 6 cwt., and that the amoimt of brick-work in the main 
building and wings is 15391 cubic yards. 

From the end of the south wing to the Crystal Palace Bailway- 
station, as above indicated, is a colonnade 720 feet long, 17 
feet wide, and 18 feet high. It possesses a superficial area of 
15,600 feet, and the quantity of iron employed in this covered 
passage is 60 tons ; of glass 30,000 superfidal feet. 

HOT-WATER APPARATUS. 

Yast as are the proportions of the Crystal Palace, novel and 
scientific as is the principle of construction, we are in some degree 
prepared for this magnificent result of intellect and industry by 
the Great Exhibition of 1851. One arrangement, however, 
in the present structure, admits of no comparison ; for, in 
point of extent, it leaves all former efforts in the saane direction 
far behind, and stands by itself unrivalled. We refer to the 
process of warming the atmosphere in the enormous Glass Palace 
to the mild and genial heat of Madeira, throughout our cold and 
damp English winter. 

The employment of hot water as a medium for heating apart- 
ments, seems to have been first hinted at in the year 1594, by Sir 
Hugh Piatt, who, in a work entitled " The Jewell House of 
Art and Nature,^' published in that year, suggests the use of hot 
water as a safe means of drying gunpowder, and likewise 
recommends it for heating a plant-house. In 1716, Sir 
Martin Triewald of Newcastle-on-Tyne, proposed a scheme for 
heating a green-house by hot water ; and a Frenchman, M. Bonne- 
main, a short time afterwards invented an apparatus for hatching 
chickens by the same means. In the early part of this century 
Sir Martin Triewald's plan of heating was applied to conservatories, 
at St. Petersbtirgh ; and a few years later, Bonnemain's arrangement 
was introduced into England, where it has undergone several 
improvements, and occupied the attention of scientific men. 
Its application to the heating of churches, pubtip libraries, and 
other buildings, has been attended with considerable, success, and 



HOT WATBB APFAEi^TUS. SI 

it is now looked upon as the Bafeet, as well as one of the most 
effectual ariU&cial methods of heating. 

The simple plan of heating by hot water is that which Sir Joseph 
PaKton has adopted for the Crystal Palace. But simple as tile 
method undoubtedly is, its adaptation to the purposes of the Palace 
has cost infinite labour and anxious consideration : for hitherto it 
has remained an imsolved problem how far, and in what quantity, 
water could be made to travel through pipes — ^flowing and return- 
ing by means of the propulsion of heat £rom the boilers. At 
Chatsworth, the seat of the Duke of Devonshire, the principle 
has been carried out on a large scale, and the experiment there 
tried has yielded data and proof : but in the present building, a 
greater extent of piping has been attached to the boilers than was 
ever before known, or even contemplated. In order to give the 
visitor some idea of the magnitude of the operation in question, it 
will be sufficient to state that the pipes for the conveyance of the 
hot water, laid under the floor of the main building, and aroimd 
the wiogs, would, if placed in a straight line, and taken at an 
average circumference of 12 inches, stretch to a distance of more 
than 50 miles, and that the water in flowing from and returning 
to the boilers, travels one mile and three-quarters. But even 
with these extraordinary results obtained, the question as to the 
distance to which water can be propelled by means of heat, is 
far from being definitely settled. Indeed, Sir Joseph Paxton 
and Mr. Henderson have invented an ingenious contrivance, 
by means of which, should it ever be required, a much larger 
heatLag surface may be called forth at any time in any particular 
portion of the building. 

The general arrangement of the Heating Apparatus may be 
described as follows : — ^Nearly twenty-four feet below the surface 
of the flooring of the maiu building, and leading out of ^^ Sir 
Joseph Paxton's tunnel " * (the name given to the roadway in the 

* The formatioii of tumiels, for the passage of water especially, and for 
drainage, was well known to the' ancient Greeks and Romans, and the remains of 
many of their great works of this kind possess an extreme interest. In the timnel 
or Tindergronnd canal of the Abruzzi in Italy, formed bj the Roman Emperor 
Glandins, and lately cleared out by the Neapolitan Government, nearly the 
same means appear to have been used for its excavation and construction as 
are employed in forming tunnels at the present day. Amongst other re- 
markable tunnels of antiquity may be cited that of Fosilipo at Naples, nearly 
three-quarters of a mile long, probably constructed about the time of Tiberius 
(circa A.n. 30), and the Greek tunnel, 4200 Greek feet in length, excavated 
through a mountain for the purpose of conveying water to the city of Samos. 

One of the earliest tuiu^els of modem times was made at jbanguedoc in 



32 (jBNERAL GUIDB BOOK. 

basement story, extending the whole length of the building on the 
fdde nearest the Gardens), are placed, at certain inter\rals, boiler- 
houses, each containing two boilers capable of holding 11,000 
gallons of water. The boilers are twenty-two in number, and 
are set in pairs. In addition to these, a boiler is placed at the 
north end of the building, on account of the increased heat there 
required for the tropical plants. There are also two boilers set in 
the lower stories of each wing, and two small boilers are appropriated 
to the water in the fountain basins at each end of the building, 
which coDtain Victoria Eegias and other aquatic plants of tropical 
climes. Four pipes are immediately connected with each boiler ; 
two of such pipes convey the water from the boiler, and the other 
two bring it back ; they are called the main pipes, and are nine 
inches in diameter. 

Of the two -pipes that convey the water jfrom the boiler, one 
crosses the building transversely — ^from the garden-front to the 
opposite side. Connected with this pipe, at certain distances, and 
in allotted numbers, are smaller pipes, five inches in diameter, laid 
horizontally, and immediately beneath the flooring of the building. 
These convey the water from the main pipe to certain required 
distances, and then bring it back to the reimm main pipe, through 
which it flows into the boHer. The second main pipe conveys the 
water for heating the front of the building next to the Garden ; 
and connected with this, as with the other main pipe, are smaller 
pipes through which the water ramifies, and then, in like manner, 
is returned to the boiler. Thus, then, by the mere propulsion of 
heat, avast quantity of water is kept in constant motion throughout 
the Palace, continuaUy flowing and returning, and giving out 
warmth that makes its way upwards, and disseminates a genial 
atmosphere in every part. 

To ensure pure circulation throughout the winter, ventilators 
have been introduced direct from the main building into each 
furnace, where the air, so brought, being consumed by the fire, the 
atmosphere in the Palace is continually renewed. 

THE ARTESIAN WELL, AND THE SUPPLY OF THE FOUNTAINS. 

In July, 1852, the supply of water for the fountains and other 
great works in connexion with the Crystal Palace, first seriously 

France, a.d. 1666 : since that period they have become general. The great 
labour required in their formation, is likely to be obviated by the invention 
of a machine by an American, which is said to be capable of cutting a rapid 
way even through masses of rock. 



ARTESIAN WELL AND FOUNTAINS. 88 

engaged the attention of the Directors. Various proposals were 
made, and suggestions offered : some were at once rejected : others, 
although not free from difficulties, were taken into consideration. 
The most feasible of these was that which involved the extension 
to Sydenham of the pipes of one of the nearest London water- 
work companies, — a measure that would at once secure a sufficient 
supply of tolerably good water. Against the proposition for sinking 
a well on the grounds, it was urged that the neighbourhood is 
almost destitute of water ; that wells already excavated to the 
depth of two hundred feet had yielded but a small supply ; and 
that even if a sufficient supply could be secured by digging, the 
Water obtained could never be raised to the top of the hill. 

Acting, however, upon sound advice, and after due consideration, 
the company commenced the sinking of an artesian well at the foot 
of the hill on which the Palace stands, and after proceeding to a 
depth of 250 feet, their efforts were rewarded. They have now 
carried the well down 670 feet from the surface, and require only 
time to complete their operations and to secure water sufficient for 
their novel and interesting displays. 

When an abundant supply of water shall have been brought to 
the foot of the hill, it will be necessary not only to raise it to the 
top, on a level with the building, but also to elevate it te a suf- 
ficient height for obtaining the fall requisite for fountains to throw up 
water to a height varying from 70 to 260 feet. The following is a brief 
outline of the arrangements now making to effect these objects :— * 

Three reservoirs have been formed at different levels in the 
grounds, the lowest one being on the same level as the largest 
basins placed nearly at the base of the hill ; the second, or inter- 
mediate reservoir, is higher up, and in a line with the basin in the 
central walk ; whilst the third, or upper reservoir, stands on the 
top of the hill immediately adjoining the north end of the building. 
Next to the Artesian Well, a small engine is placed which raises 
the water required to be permanently maintained in the reservoirs 
and in the basins of the fountains, and which will subsequently 
supply, or keep up the water that is lost by waste and evaporation. 

The reservoir on the sTommit of the hill contains the water 
required for the useVof the building, and for the fountains 
throughout the grounds. Close to this reservoir is an engine- 
house, containing the steam-engines that raise part of the water in 
the reservoir into two large tanks (each capable of holding 
200,000 gallons of water), placed at the summit of the square 
towers terminating the wings. From these towers the water 



84 aMEBAL GUIDE BOOK. 

flows to the basins in the grounds, and there throws up jets of 70 
to 120 feet in height. These engines likewise lift to a proper 
elevation the water necessary for the interior of the building, and 
for making proper provision against fire. The remainder of the 
water in the top reservoir^ in consequence of the sloping character 
of the ground, will not need any help &om the engines, but will 
flow direct to fountains on a lower level, and play smaller jets. 
Through the same convenience, the waste water firom the upper 
fountains will be used a second time in the lower fountains. 

The centre or intermediate reservoir collects the waste water from 
the displays which take place on ordinary days, and which will 
include all the fountains save the two largest and the cascades. 
Attached to this reservoir are also engines which pump the water 
back to the upper reservoir. The lowest reservoir collects similarly 
the waste water from the displays which will be presented in the two 
largest fountains on the days of great exhibition, and its engiQes 
will return the water at once to the top leveL With the exception 
of the two largest fountains, which cannot play until the towers, 
which have to supply jets of 250 feet high, are built at each end 
of the building, the water-works of the Palace will shortly be 
complete in every respect. 

From the above simple statement it will be seen, that the 
arrangements for supplying the fountains with water are at once 
simple, complete, and based upon the most economical principles. 
The engine power employed is that of three hundred and twenty 
horses ; the water itself is conveyed to and from the reservoirs in 
pipes varying from three feet to one inch in diameter ; and the 
weight of piping may be set down at 4000 tons, its length, 
roughly estimated, at ten miles. 

The name Artesian is derived from the province of Artois in 
France, where it is supposed that these wells were first constructed, 
although it has been asserted that they were sunk in Italy at an 
earlier period, and that they were even in use amongst the ancients. 
An Artesian well may be briefly described as a small boring or 
sinking in the ground through which water rises to, or nearly to, 
the surface of the earth, in compliance with that well known law 
which causes water to seek its level. 

In the present case, the water which appears in the well comes 
from a reservoir lying between the London clay and the hard under- 
rocks as its upper and lower envelopes. This reservoir is supplied 
by rain wat^, which, percolating the porous superficial and 
upper strata^ and findiag an impediment to its downward progress 



THE NAYS. 85 

on reaching the rocks, flows transversely into the space between 
the hard clay and rock, as into a cistern. The process by which 
the reservoir is supplied is continuous, the water finding its way 
down to it as if by a series of small tubes, and pressing against the 
lower surface of the clay with a force which, if unresisted, would 
raise it to the level from which it descended. When the clay is 
pierced by the auger it is evident that this force is free to act, the 
resistance of the clay at the point where it is pierced being removed, 
and accordingly the water rises in the bore to the level from which 
it is suppUed, and v/iil continue to do so as long as the percolation 
lasts. The most remarkable Artesian well yet made is one at 
Kissingen in Bavaria, which, in 1852, reached a depth of 2000 
feet. As a commercial speculation it has been attended with 
complete success. The water is saline.* 

THE NAVE. 

Quittrug the wing, to which the visitor was brought, he turns 
into the body of the Palace, and the first object that attracts 
attention is a fountain of toilet vinegar, erected by Mr. E. Bimmel, 
frx>m designs furnished by Mr. John Thomas. Keeping close to 
this, the south end of the Palace, we proceed towards the centre of 
the nave, and passing through the opening in the ornamental 
screen which stretches across the nave, a fine view is gained of 
the whole interior of the building. In the fore-ground is Osier's 
crystal fountain, which adorned the Palace in Hyde Park, but 
here elevated in its proportions and improved. It is surrounded 
by a sheet of water at each end of which float the gigantic leaves 
of the Victoria Begia, the intermediate space being occupied by 
various aquatic plants ; several species of the Nymphoea Devoniana, 
the Nelumbium speciosum or sacred bean of the Pythagoreans, <feo. 
On either side of the nave the plants of almost every clime wave 
their foliage, forming a mass of cool pleasant colom:, admirably 

* Foantaijis were well known to the ancient Greeks and Eomaos, who 
ornamented their cities with them. It would appear that the latter were 
acquainted with the law by which water ascends from a jet ; painted represen- 
tations of such fountains having been found at Pompeii. The discovery is 
attributed to Hero of Alexandria, about 150 B.C. However this may be, the 
law itself was never applied in practice to any extent. The next jet- 
foxmtain we meet with ^ on the celebrated mosaic work at San Vitale, 
Bavenna, about 630 a.d. "We are not aware of any examples of jet-fountains 
occurring amongst Europeans or Orientals of the middle ages, though ordinary 
fountains were plentiful. The great jets of comparatively modem fountaiDfl are 
the result of our advanced scientific knowledge. 

B2 



36 . aENERAL OTIPB BOOK. 

hannonizing with the surroundmg tints, ^jid also acting as a most 
effective background to relieve the white ^ statues, which aie 
picturesquely grouped along the nave ; at the back of these are 
the faQades of the various Industrial and Fine- Art Courts, whose 
bright colouring gives additional brilliancy to the interior, whilst 
the aerial blue tint of the arched roof above considerably increases 
the effect of the whole composition. 

Let the visitor now proceed up the building until he arrives 
at the central transept, at which point he will be enabled to 
judge of the vastness of the hall in the midst of which he stands, 
and of the whole structure of which the transept forms so noble 
md Qouspicuous a part, 

THE GREAT TRANSEPT. 

Immediately on his right in the transept is a selection of works 
of the old school of French Sculptors in front of the Gallery of 
French Portraits, which commences immediately behind the statue 
of Admiral Duquesne. On the opposite corresponding side are 
ranged the works of Oanova, behind which, commencing near the 
statue of Bubens, is placed the Italian portion of the Portrait 
Gallery. On the left is a selection from the Works of English 
Sculptors, at the back of which are i:anged the German portraits, 
commencing at the Statue of Peel by Marochetti. On the 
north-west side of the transept are selections from the ancient 
Boman and Greek Schools of Sculpture, fronting the English 
portraits which begin at the back of the statue of the Famese 
Hercules. The schools of French and Italian sculpture, and of 
German and English sculpture were passed by the visitor at the 
junction of the nave and transept. Corresponding to these courts, 
at the jimction on the opposite side, are Courts of the Grothic and 
Renaissance, and of Greek and Boman sculpture. Full accounts 
of all the works of art that attract and seize the eye of the visitor 
at this point will be found in the Handbooks that deal especially 
with these subjects. When a sufficient idea of this portion of the 
Building has been obtained, he will do well to pass at once 
towards the architectural restorations which await him on the other 
side of the transept. 

In order the better to appreciate the arrangement of those 
restorations through which we now propose to conduct the visitor, 
a few words explanatory of the object which they are intended to 
serve may prove of \ise. 







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NORTH KATE. 

Greek and Roman Sculpture Court. 

EniK^liflh Portrait Gallery. 
Gothic and Renaissance Sc\ilpture Court. 

Italian Portrait Gallery. 



sotrtfi UAVB. 

German and English Sculpture Cotart. 

German Portrait Gallery. 
French and Italian Sculpture Court. 

French Portrait Gallery. 



SBNKBAL GUIDE BOOK. 



Olymi^tm Jupiter. 

INTRODUCTION TO THE FINE ARTS COURTS. 

One of the most important objects of the Crystal Palace is to 
teach a great practical lesson in art, Specimena of the various 
phases through which the arts of Architecture and Sculpture 
have passed, are here collected, commeiicing fiom the earliefit 
known period down to modem times, or troia the remote ages of 
Egyptian civilization to the sixteenth century after Christ— a period 
of more than three thousand yeare. 

PeriiapB no subject, with the exception of the literature of 
departed nations, affords more interest to the mind of man, than 
these visible proofe of the different states of society throughout 
the world's history ; and nothing better aids us in realizing tho 
people and customs of the past, than the wonderful monuments 
happily preserved from the destructive hand of Time, and 
now restored to something of their original splendour by the 
patient and laborious i«searchea of modem times ; and, we 
may add, (not without some pride) by the enterprising liberslity 
of Englishmen. 

Nor is it the least extraordinary fact, in this view of 
progress, that the building itself, which contains these valuable 
monnments of past ages, is essentially different from every 
preceding style, uniting perfect strength with aSrial lightness, 
and as easy of trection as it is capable of endniance. Tbie 



THB EGYPTIAN COUBT. S9 

combination of glass and iron has produced the original and 
foeautifal resnlt of which the Crystal Palace is the most brilliant 
example, suggesting to the mind a new and wonderful power of 
extension beyond anjrthing the mind of the artist has yet devised. 
Thus then, beneath one roof, may the visitor trace the course of art 
from centuries long anterior to Christianity, down to the very 
moment in which he lives, and obtain by this means an idea of the 
successive states of civilization which from time to time have arisen 
in the world, flourishing for a greater or less period, until over- 
turned by the aggressions of barbarians, or the no less destructive 
agency of a sensual and degraded luxury. Sculpture, the sister 
art of architecture, has also been worthily illustrated within our 
walls. Vainly, in any part of the world, will be sought a similar 
collection, by means of which the progress of that beautiful art can 
be r^ularly traced. 

The statues will generally be found in the Architectural Courts 
of the countries to which they belong, so that the eye may track the 
intellectual stream as it flows on, now rising to the highest point 
of beauty, and now sinking to the lowest depths of degradation. 
The visitor is invited to j;)roceed with us on this world-wide tour of 
inspection, but to bear also in mind that our present task is to 
show him how to see the Building itself, and not to describe its 
contents, except by briefly pointing out the most remarkable 
objects that encoimter him on his way. For detailed and valuable 
information the visitor is referred to the excellent Handbooks of 
the respekjtive Courts, aU of which describe with minuteness not 
only their contents, but every needful circumstance in connexion 
with their history. The point from which we start is the central 
transept. Proceeding northwards, up the nave, the visitor turns 
immediately to the left and finds himself in front of 

THE EGYPTIAN COURT. 

The remains of Egyptian Architecture are the most ancient yet 
discovered. They possess an absorbing interest, not only on 
account of the connexion of Egypt with Biblical history, but 
also of the perfect state of the remains, which enable us to judge 
of the high state of civilization to which Egypt attained, and 
which have permitted the decipherers of the hieroglyphics, led 
by Dr. Young, Champollion, and Sir Gardner Wilkinson, in 
our own time, to give us clear insight into the manner of life 
—public and private— of this early and interesting nation. 



40 eBNEBAL GUIDE BOOK. 

Egyptian architecture is characterized by simplicity of consiiructioiiy 
gigantic proportions, and massive solidity. The buildings were 
almost entirely of stone, [and many of them are excavations and 
shapings of rocks. The examples of this architecture now before 
us are not taken &om any one ruin, but are illustrations of 
various styles, commencing with the earliest, and terminating 
with the latest, so that we are enabled to follow the gradual 
development of the art. Little change, however, was effected 
during its progress. The original solidity so admirably suited to 
the requirements of the Egyptians continued to the end ; and 
religion forbade a change in the conventional representations of 
those gods and kings which so extensively cover the temples and 
tombs. So that we find the same peculiar character continued in 
a great measure to the very last. 

Advancing up the avenue of lions, cast from a pair brought 
firom Eg3^t by Lord Prudhoe (the present Duke of Northumber- 
land), we have before us the outer walls and columns of a temple, 
not taken from any one particular structure, but composed 
from various sources, to illustrate Egyptian columns and capitals 
during the Ptolemaic period, somewhere about 300 years b.o. 
On the walls are coloured sunk-reliefs showing a king making 
offerings or receiving gifts from the gods. The capitals or heads 
of the columns are palm- and lotus-leaved ; some showing the 
papyrus in its various stages of development, from the simple 
bud to the full-blown flower. The representation of the palm 
and the papyrus occurs frequently in Egyptian architecture ; the 
leaves of the latter, it will be remembered, were made into paper, 
and its flowers were specially used as offerings in the temples. 
On the frieze above the columns is a hieroglyphic inscription 
stating that '^in the seventeenth year of the reign of Victoria, 
the ruler of the waves, this Palace was erected and furnished with 
a thousand statues, a thousand plants, &c. , like as a book for the 
use of the men of all countries." This inscription is repeated, with 
some slight additions, on the frieze of the interior of the Court. 
On the cori^ce of both the inside and outside of the Court, are the 
names of Her Majesty and Prince Albert, engraved in hieroglyphic 
characters, and also winged globes, the symbolic protecting deity of 
doorways. Entering by the central doorway, on the lintels and 
sides of which are inserted the different titles of King Ptolemy in 
hieroglyphics, we find ourselves in the exterior court of a temple in 
which the multitude assembled ; the decorations of the walls are 
similar to those . we saw outside, and it must be borne in mind 



THE EGYPTIAN CODST. H 

that the colouring ie taken &om actu&l remaios in E^Qrpt. On tha 
wall to the left ia a large picture copied &om the great Temple of 
Kameaes IIL or BameseB Mai Amim, at Medioet Haboo near 
Thebea, showing the couuting of the hands of the slain before the 
king who is in his chariot ; on the light hand side of the Court is ' 
a representation of a battle-scene, with the Egyptians irtonning a 
fortress. Turnii^ to the left, after examining the eight gigantic 
figures of Kamesea the Great, forming the fofade of another temple, 



The GlganUo Pigiirea ot Ramesos tliB Great, 

we enter the colonnade of aa earl^ period, its date being abont 1300 
B.C. The columns represent eight stems and buda of the papTTUs 
boond together, and are cast irom a black granite column bearing 
the name of Amunoph, now in the British Museum. 

Passing on wo find ourselvos in a dark tomb copied from one at 
Boni Hassan. It is the earliest piece of architecture in the Crystal 
Palace, its date being about 1660, B.C. The original tomb is cot 
in the solid chain of rocks that forms a boundary on the east of 
the Nile, separating the sandy desert from the fertile valley of the 
river. Although architectural remains exist in Egypt of a much 
earlier date than this tomb, it still possesses great value to MS, for it 
may be considered as exhibiting the first order of Egyptian columns, 
which was employed in constructing buildings at as remote a period 
as two thousand years before Qhrist ; this fluted ctdomn in 



42 GHKERAL OUIDE BOOK. 

another roapect cl^ms oiir attention, for there can be bst little doubt 
that it supplied the Greeks with the model of their earlyDoric 

Passing out, we behold, in front of us, a beautiful colonnade, 
ttom the Island of Phite, and of the same perioil as the 
Egyptian wall which we first saw fronting 
the nave. Within tlufl Court we cannot fail to 
remark the scstterejf statues, especially the 
Egyptian Antinous, executed during tho 
Eoman nilo, the life-like development of 
whose limbs, representing, as it no doubt 
does, the Egyptian type, is sufficient to 
ooavince us that when Egyptian art ■wan 
not tied down by the hierardiicnl yoke, it 
was capable of producing works of tnith 
and merit Amidst the statues will bo 
found two circular-headed stones— copies of 
the celebrated Eosetta stone (ao called fi;om 
having been found at the little town of 
Rosetta, near Alexandria) from which 
Dr. Yotmg and Champollion obtained a key 
First ordM^of EgypliM ^^ y^^ deciphering of hieroglyphics. The 
stone is engraved in three charaeters : Hiero- 
glyphics, Enchorial — the writing of the country — and Greek ; tho 
inscription is an address from the priests to the Greek King of 
Egypt, Ptolemy V., in which the sovereign's praises are set forth, 
and orders are given to sot up a statue of the king, together with 
the address, in every temple. Tha date of this interesting remnant 
of Egyptian manners and customs is about 200 years before the 
Christian era. Further on to the right — in a recess, is the 
model of the temple of Aboo Simbel, cut in tho side of a rock, 
in Nubia. Tho sitting flg\ires represent Eameses the Great, 
and the smaller ones around, his mother, wife, and daughter. 
The original tomb is ten times as large as the present model. 
Some notion of the stupendous mi^{nitude of these Egyptian 
remains may be formed by observing the small figure standing 
on the tomb, which shows the relative height of an ordiiiary 
living man. Turning from this recess, and after looking at the 
beautiful lotus columns to the left, surmounted by die cow- 
eared Goddess of Love of the Egyptians, and having examined 
the two large pictures on the walls of the temple — one of which 
represents a king slaying his enemies with the aid of the god 
Ammon Ka, and the other a feat of arms of the same king — 



44 



GENEEAL aUlDE BOOit. 



we direct our attention to the oolumns before us, which are 
reduced models of a portion of the celebrated Temple of Kamac at 
Thebes. This temple was, perhaps, one of the largest and most 
interesting in Egypt ; the principal portions said to have been 
erected by Eameses IL about 1170 b. c. It seems to have been 
a fashion with the Theban kings to make additions to this temple 
during their respective reigns ; and, as each monarch was anxious 
to outvie his predecessor, the size of the fabric threatened to 
become unbounded. Temples and tombs were the grand extrava- 
gances of the Egyptian kings. The simis that modem rulers 
devote to palaces which add to their splendour whilst living, were 
given by the remote princes of whom we speak, and who regarded 
life as only a fleet passage towards eternity, for the construction 
of enduring homes when life should have passed away. Inasmuch 
as, if the career of an Egyptian king proved irreligious or 
oppressive, the priests and people could deny him sepulture 
in his own tomb, it is not imlikely that many Egyptian kings 
lavished large siuns upon temples, in order to conciliate the 
priestly favour, and to secure for their em- 
balmed bodies the much-prized sanctuary. 
It is to be observed, however, with respect 
to the names and inscriptions fo\md on 
Egyptian monuments, that they are by no 
means always to be taken as an authentic 
accoimt of the illustrious remains within. 
Some of the Egyptian kings have been 
proved guilty of erasing from tombs the 
names of their predecessors, and of sub- 
stituting their own ; an imwarrantable and 
startling deception that has proved very 
awkward and embarrassing to Egyptian 
antiquaries. 

The portion of Kamac here modelled 
is taken from the HaU of Oolimms, com- 
menced by Osirei the First, and completed 
by his son, Eameses the Great — a most illus- 
trious monarch, who flourished during the 

twelfth Century before Christ, whose deeds are frequently recorded, 
and whose statue is foimd in many parts of Egypt. Before 
entering the temple we stay to notice the representations of 
animals and birds on the frieze above the colimms, which is the 
dedication of the temple to the gods. Entering between the 



r< 'i r< ri »> r. r. 



Mmf^m^ 




Column from Kamac. 



THB GEEBK COCET. 15 

eolimms, on the lower part of which is the name of Rameses the 
Great, and, in the middle, a representation of the three principal 

divinities of Thebes receiving offeringa from King Osim ; and 

after thoronghlj examining this interesting restoration, we t^urn 
again into tie onter court, Begaining the nave, a few steps 
directed to the left, bring ns to ' 



The Parthenon. 



THE GREEK COURT. 



Architeotnre and fioulpture have here made a stride. We have 
noted even in Egypt the advance from early rude effort to a con- 
dstent gigantic system of art, that covers and almost darkens the 
laud under the ahadow of a stem hierarcMcaJ religion. Wo step at 
once from the gloom into the sunshine of Greek art. The over- 
whelming grandenr of E^ypt, with its austere conventionalities is 
exchanged for true simplicity, great beauty, and ideality. Just 
proportions, truth, and grace of form and appropriate ornament 
characterized Greek architecture. The fundamental principles of 
construction, as will readily be seen, were the same in Greece as in 
Egypt, but improved, added to, and perfected. The architecture 
of both countries was columnar ; but, compare the Greek columns 
before as with those which we just now saw in Egypt, taken from 
the tomb of Beoi Hassan ; the latter are simple, rude, ill-propor- 
tioned, and with slight pretension to beauty, whilst, in the former, 
the simplicity still prevailing, the rudeness and heaviness have 



id GENERAL GUIDE BOOK. 

departed, the pillars taper gracefully, and are finely proportioned 
and elegant, though of great strength. The specimen of Greek 
architecture before us is from the later period of the first ozder, 
namely, the Doric ; and the court is taken, in i)art, from the 
Temple of Jupiter at Nemea, which was built about 400 
years B.C., still within the verge of the highest period of Greek 
Art, Passing along the front, we notice on the frieze above the 
columns the names of the principal Greek cities and colonies. 

We enter the court through the central opening. * This portion 
represents part of a Greek agora, or forum, which was used as a 
market, and also for public festivals, for political and other 
assemblies. Around the frieze in this central division are the names 
of the poets, artists, philosophers of Greece, and of their most 
celebrated patrons, the list commencing immediately above the place 
of entrance, with old blind Homer, and finishing with Anthemius 
the architect of Saint Sophia at Constantinople. The names, 
it will be remarked, are inserted in the Greek characters of the 
period at which the various persons lived. The monograms within 
the ohaplets on the frieze are formed of the initial letters of the 
Muses, the Graces, the Good and the Wise ; on the walls are also 
pictures representing the Olympian Gods and Marriage of Peleus 
and Thetis, the Judgment of Paris, Destruction of Ilium, 
and Escape of .^Eneas and Anchises, Hades and the Argonautic 
expedition. The colouring of this court, with its blue, red, 
and yellow surfaces, blazoned with gold, produces an excellent 
effect. It is the object of the decorators to give to the whole of 
the architectural' specimens in the Crystal Palace, those colours 
which there is reason to know, or to believe, they originally 
possessed ; to restore them, in fact, as far as possible to their 
pristine state, in order that the iooLagination of the spectator 
may be safely conducted back in contemplation to the artistic cha- 
racteristics of distant and distinctive ages. In this court are 
arranged sculptures and models of temples. Amongst the former 
will be recognised many of the finest statues and groups of the Greek 
school, the Laocoon (16) ; the Famese Juno (6) ; the well-known 
Discobolus (4) from the Vatican ; the Ariadne, also from the Vatican 
(27) ; the Sleeping, or Barberini Faun (19) ; and, in the centre, the 
unrivalled Venus of Melos (1). * We make our way roimd this 
court, beginning at the right hand. After examining the collection, 
we pass between the columns into the small side court, (next to 
Egypt), answering to a stoa of the Agora. Around the frieze are 

* These ntunbers refer to the Handbook of the Gr^k Court. 



TH8 6EEBK COOET. 17 

fonad the nanieB of the great men of the Greok colonies, arranged 
in ohrraiological order. The visitor has here an opportunity of 
contrasting the architecture and sculpture of the Egyptians with 
Uioae of the Oreeks. On one side of him is an S^yptian wall 
inclining inw&rds, with its angular pictorial decorations, and the 
BaaaiTe coIohb^ figures guarding the entrances. On the other Bide 
are the beautiful columns Mid bold cornice of the Greek Doric, 
muTOunded by statuea characterized by beauty of form and refined 
idealized ezpression. In this diviaioa will also be found tJie busts 
of the Greek Poete, arranged 
in chronologioal order, com- 
mencing on the right-hand side 
from the nave ; these form a 
portion of tiie Portrait Gallery 
of the Oryatal Palace. 

Making our way through the 
opening in the back, opposite the 
Nave, weenter a covered atrium, 
commonly attached to the portion 
of the agora here reproduced. 
The massive onto, or square 
pillars, and the panelled ceiling 
— the form of the latter adapted 
from the Temple of Apollo at 
Bassaa in Arcadia — give the 
visitor another specimen of 
Greek architecture. We pn>- 
oeed, to the right, down this 
atrium, occasionally stepping 

out to esamine the soulptuie Portrait of Uomer. 

airanged in the gallery, and the restored and coloured frieze of the 
Parthenon of Athens, which extends its length along the waU. 
The coloured portion has been executed under the direction of 
Mr, Owen Jonea, the golden hair ami the several tints being 
founded on authentic examples which still exist on analogona 
remains of ancient Greek art. This frieze represents the 
Panathenaic procession to the temple of Athene Folias, which 
formed part of the display at this greatest of the Athenian 
festivals, and took place every fourth year. Dividing the 
frieze, is one of the moat interesting objects in the Crystal 
Palace, a model of the weatem front of the Part.henon itself, about 
one-fourth the size of the original structure. This ia the largest 



48 GBNEEAL aUIBE BOOK. 

model that has ever been constructed of this beautiful temple, and, 
being coloured from actual remains and legitimate deductions, it 
possesses the great charm of a veritable copy. The scale is suffi- 
ciently large to give a complete idea of the original. This 
admirable model is due to the intelligent and successful researches 
prosecuted in Athens by Mr. Penrose, whose labours have thrown 
so much new light upon the refinements practised by the Greeks in 
architecture. Mr. Penrose has himself directed the construction 
of the model. In this gallery are ranged statues and groups, 
including the celebrated Niobe group, from Florence (187 to 
187 L, inclusive). This subject of the punishment of Niobe's 
family by the gods was frequently treated by Greek artists ; and 
certainly the group before us is one of the most beautiful examples 
of Greek sculptural art. It is supposed that the portion of 
the group at Florence occupied the pediment of the temple of 
Apollo Sosianus at Rome. The Niobe group belongs to one of 
the brightest period^. Casts from those most beautiful and 
wonderful remains of ancient art, the colossal figures from the 
pediment of the Parthenon at Athens, are also here (185 to 
185 B.). The originals, brought over to England by Lord Elgin in 
1801-2, are in the British Museum, and the nation is indebted for 
the acquisition to the painter Haydon, who was the first British 
artist to recognise the value, and appreciate the beauty of these 
mutilated but inimitable monuments of art at the highest period of 
its glory. They belong to the Phidian school, and are characterized 
by simple grandeur, great repose in the attitudes, and a deep study 
of nature iu their forms. The Theseus more particularly displays 
a marvellous study and appreciation of nature. In connexion 
with the Parthenon will also be seen a cast from a part of one of 
the actual columns, also in the British Museum (150).* In this 
Stoa is the wonderful Belvedere Torso, &om the Vatican (67); the 
far-famed Venus de' Medici (198), fn>m Florence, and the exqui- 
site Psyche (199), firom the Museum at Naples. The visitor will 
not fail to be astonished, no less by the number than by the 
charming effect of these works which have come down to our 
time, and which will descend to the latest posterity as models of 
excellence. Proceeding until we arrive at the junction of the 
Greek and Boman Courts, we turn into the right hand division, 
of the outer court ; round the firieze of which are the names of 
the statesmen and warriors of Athens, the Peloponnesus and 

* For a minute description of all the stataes and other works of art in this 
Oonrt^ see the "Handbook to the Greek Court." 



THE GREEK COURT. 



49 



Attica. The busts ranged on either side are portraits of the Greek 
philosophers, orators, generals and statesmen, arranged in chrono- 
logical order, conuuendng at the entrance from the naye. 

GREEK SCULPTURES. 



^ 



Ko. 

1. Vbkus VicrpBix. 

2. Venus YiCTSix OF Cafua. 

3. DiONE. 

4. Quoit-Thbowxr. 

5. The Warbiob of Aqasias. 

6. JlTNO. 

T. Naiad. 

8. Apollo. 

9. Mkbcubt. 

10. "Fjxun. 

11. Colossal Female FiOTJiiE. 

12. Faun. 

13. Scythian. 

14. Danaid. 

15. Vacant. 

10. Laoooon and his Sons. 
17. Farnese Minerva. 

18. 3IINERVA. 

19. Bleeping Faun. 

20. Youth. 

21. Jason. 

22. Diana. 

23. LuDOYisi Habs. 

24. Qenius of Death. 

25. Jason. 

26. Apollo Lycius. 

27. Ariadne. 

28. MlNERYA. 

29. MiNERYA. 

30. SOMNUB. 

81. Clio. 

82. Frieze in Alto-rilieyo. 

83. Endtmion. 

84. Bas-relief.^ 

85. Perseus and Andromeda. 

86. Polyhymnia. 

87. Minerva. 

88 & 39. Canzphobjl 

40. Minerva. 

41. Flora. 

42. Uyoieia. 

43. Small Statue OF Female. 

44. Euterpe. 

45. Vesta. 

46. Euterpe. 

47. Borohssb Flora. 

48. Minerva. 

49. A Muse. 

60. Polyhymnia. 

61. Thalia. 

62. A Bronze Figure. 

63. Torso of an Amazon. 

64. Minerva. 

65. Small Female Figure. 

66. The East Frieze of the Theskum. 

67. Portion of Frieze. 

68. Battle of the Amazons. 

69. Bas-rblikf. 

OD. XUIEBTA. 



No. 

61. Puteal. 

62. Torso of a Faun. 

63. ^SCULAPIUS AND TELSSPBORUB. 

64. Pomona. 

65. Philosopher. 

66. Torso of a Youthful Male Figure 

67. A Seated Hercules. 

68. Torso of a Female Figure. 

69. Horse's Head. 

70. Polyhymnia. 

71. Horse's Head. 

72. Torso and Legs of a Deuoatxlt 

formed Female. 

73. Marsyas. • 

74. Horse's Head. 

75. Diana. 

76. Antinous and his Genius with 

small Statue of Elpis. 

77. Ganymedes and Eagle. 

78. Cupid and Psyche. 

79. Thalia. 

80. Augustus. 

81. Apollo. 

82. Ceres. 

83. Bacchus crowned with Ivt. 

84. Victory. 

85. Penelope and Telemachus. 

86. Half-draped Female Statue. 

87. Thetis. 

88. Ganymedes. 

89. Bacchus. 

90. .ssculapius. 

91. Hunter. 

92. Julian the Apostate. 

93. Architectural Scrollwork. 

94. Architectural Scrollwork. 

95. Architectural Ornament. 

96 & 98. Two Portions of a Frieze. 
97. Spain. 

99. Architectural Ornamenv of a 
Griffin. 

100. Bold Architectural Ornaments. 

101. Architectural Scrollwork. 

102. Architectural Scrollwork. 

103. Architectural Fragment. 

104. Architectural Fret. 

105. Architectural Portions of a 

Cornice. 
106—110. Architectural Fragments. 

111. Large Lion's Head. 

112. Capital. 

113—116. Architectural Fragments. 

117. LUCILLA. 

118. The Front of a large Sarcopha- 

gus. 

119. A.B. Bas-relief. 

120. Vacant. 

121. Vacant. 

122. Viotort 



fo 



eBN£&AL eUlDB BOOK. 



No. 


No. 




128. Vaca»T. 


178B. 


124. From A Terra-ootta. 




The Elgin Marbles. 


126. Bas-relief. 




Frieze. 


126. Bas-relief. 




East Frieze. 


127. Roman Sacrifice. 


179. 


A Portion of the West Frieze of 


128. Terra -coTT AS. 




THE Parthenon. 


129. PXJDICITIA. 


180. 


Fragment of the Frieze of the 


129.* Bas-relief. 




Parthenon in the Vatican. 


130. Cerk. 


181. 


Portion of an interesting littlb 


130 a. Bar-relief. 




Female Figure. 


181. Bas-relief. 


182. 


Fragment of one of the South 


182. Musicians. 




Metopes of the Parthenon. 


183. The Muses. 


183. 


Vacant. 


134. Bas-ret.ief. 


184. 


Vacant. 


185. Bas-relief. 




Statues from the Eastern Pe- 


ISA. Bas-relief. 




diment OF THE Parthenon. 


137. Bas-relief. 


186. 


Theseus. 


138. Alto-rilievo of white marble. 


186a 


.. Ceres and Proserpine. 


139. Bas-relief. 


186c 


. Horse's Head. 


140. Bas-rblibf. 


1S6B 


r. The Fates. 


141. Tfrrr Cities PEBSONuriED. 


187. 


NiobA and Daughter. 


142. Vestal. 


187a 


.. Niobid. 


143. Bas-relief. 


187b 


1. Niobid. 


144. Retrograde Sepulchral Inscrip- 


187c 


. Niobid and P.iwaoogub. 


tion. 


187r 


K Niobid. 


145. Small Bas-relief. 


1871 


. Niobid. 


146. Athenian Bas-relikf. 


187* 


'. Niobid. 


147. The Dioscuri. 


187Q 


L Niobid. 


148. Portion of a Funereal Vase. 


187b 


[. Niobid. 


149. Cippus. 


187i 


. Niobid. 


160. Upper Part op Doric Column of 


187k 


:. Niobid. 


the Parthenon. 


187l. Niobid. 


151. Bas-relief. 


188. 


Colossal Torso. 


162. Athenian Bas-relief. 


189. 


The Ilioneus restored. 


168. A VERT FINE FrAOMENT. 


190. 


Venus. 


164. Alto-rilievo from Athbi^s. 


191. 


Cupid. 


166. Pluto. 


192. 


The Son of NiobA. 


166. Fraombnt of Frieze of the Par* 


198. 


Farnese Torso of a Youth. 


THENON. 


194. 


Amazon. 


157. Fragment OF A Horse's Head. 


196. 


Priest of Bacchus. 


168. Small Bas-relief. 


196. 


Melpo^aenA. 


169. Bas-relief. 


197. 


Ilioneus. 


160. Juno AND MlNERYA. 


198. 


Medici Venus. 


161. A Cavalcade. 


199. 


Psyche. 


162. An INSCRIBED STtxJ. 


200. 


Owl upon a Square Plinth. 


163. Bas-relief. 


201. 


Iris, Hecate; or Lucifera. 


164. The lower portion of a StAlA. 


202. 


Pan. 


166. JXTNO. 


203. 


Cupid. 


166. Bas-relief. 


204^ 


Model of the Temple of Neptune 


167. A small Athenian Bas-relief. 




AT PiBSTUM. 


168. Bas-relief. 


206. 


Square Altar of the Capitol. 


169. A LOW Belief. 


206. 


Sosibius Vase. 


170. Gartatidji. 


207. 


Funereal Vasb. 


171. Bas-relief. 


208. 


Sacrificial Altar. 


172. Ultsses AND HIS Dog. 


200. 


Candelabrum or Tripod. 


173. An INSCRIBED Farbwetx Scene. 


210. 


Altar. 


174. An iNTEREHTiNa little Alto-ri- 


211. 


A Tripod. 


lievo. 


212. 


VicrroRY. 


176. Bas-relief. 


213. 


ClNERARIXTM OF LUOILIUS. 


176. Fragment OF Seated Female. 


215. 


Euripides. 


177. Fragment. 


216. 


Candelabrum. 


178 and 178a. Alto-Biluevo. 


217. 


Head of Magnus Decentius. 



We walk througli this court until tre reach the nave ; ihetf 
turning to the left find ourselves facing the 



thb Roman court. 



ROMAN COURT. 

On approaching this Court the viBitor will at onoe notice 

a new architectural element — as useful aa it is beautiful 

namely, the Arch, a feature that 
lias been found susceptible of the 
greatest variety of treatm.ent. Until 
within the last few years the credit 
of the first use of the arch as an 
arehitectwral principle has been given 
to the Greek architect under Boman 
rale, but disooveriea in Egypt, and 
more recently in Assyria by Mr. 
I*yard and M. Botta, have shown 
that constructed and ornamented 
arches were frequently employed in 
architecture many himdred years be- 
fore €he Christian era. It is to be 
observed that architecture and sculp- 
ture had no original growth at Bome, 

and were not indigenous to the soil. Boman structures were modifl- 
catioDH frvm the Greek, adapted to suit the requirements and tastes 
of the people ; and thus it happened that the simple severity, 
purity, and ideality of early Greek art degenerated under the 
Boman empire, into the wanton luxuriousnesa that characte'rized 
its latest period. In comparii^ the Greek and Roman statues, 
we remark a grandeur of conception, a delicacy of sentiment, & 
poetical reBnement of thoi^ht in the former, indicative of the 
highest artistic development with which we are acquainted. When 
Greece became merely a Boman province, that h^h exc^enoe 
was already on the decline, and the disper»on of her artists, 
on the final subjugation of the country by Mummiua, the Boman 
gMieral, n.c. 146, hastened the descent. A large number o£ 
Grecian artists settled at Bome, where the sentiment of ser* 
vitude, and the love of their masters for display, produced 
wcnks which by degrees fell further and further &om their 
glorious models, until richness of material, mannal cunning, and 
a more than feminine weakness characterized their principal pro- 
ductions ; and the aoulptor's art became d^raded into a trade, in 
which all feelii^ for the ancient Greek excellence was for ever lost. 
■ 2 



B2 QEHEBAL QUIDS B00£. 

Thus, in the tranqilauted art of Greece, serving iie Roman masterB, 
a. material and sensual feeling more or less prevails, appealing to the 
pa^siooB rather than to the intellect« 
and high imaginationa of men. The 
cumbrous dresses and armour vhich 
mark the properly Roman style, hide 
the graceful and powerful forms of 
nature imder the symbob of station 
and office, creating a species of poli- 
tical sculpture. 

Sin the wall now before us we 
have a model of a portion of the 
outer wall of the Coliseum .it Rome, 
pierced with arches and ornamented 
with Tuscan columns. The Coiisenm 
is one of the most wonderful stmc- 
I turea in the world, and the Pyra- 
mida of Egypt alone can be 
compared with it in point of size. 
It is elliptical in form, and con- 
sisted outwardly of four stories. 
In the centre of the interior was 
' the arena or scene of action, 
eWtu.otHadrkm from the BriUsli ^^^^ „,^^ tj,^ seats for spec- 
tators rose, tier above tier. The 
enormous range was capable of seating 87,000 persons. Ves- 
pasian and Titus erected this amphitheatre, and the work com- 
menced about A.D. '79. In this vast and splendidly decorated 
buildup, the ancient Bomans assembled to witness chariot-races, 
naval engagements, combats of wild animals, and other exciting 

Entering the Roman Court through the central archway we come 
into an apartjnent whose walls are colotu^ in imitation of the 
porphyry, malachite, and rare marbles with which the Roman 
people loved to adorn their houses. This style of decoration appeal^ 
to have been introduced a little before the Christian era, and so 
lavish were the EomanB in supplying ornament for their homes, that 
the Emperor Augustus, dreading the result of the extravagance, 
endeavoured by his personal moderation to put a stop to the 
reckless expenditure : although, it is recorded, that the lofty 
exemplar was set up for imitation in vain. 

FollowiBg the same plan as in the Ctreek Court, we proceed rotmd 



THE ROMAN COURT. 08 

from the right to the leffc, examining the sculptures and models. 
Amongst the former will be noticed the statue of Drusus from 
Naples (222) ; the beautifdl Venus Aphrodite from the Capitol, 
Home (226) ; the Venus Genitrix from the Louvre (228) ; the 
fine statue of a musician, or female performer on the lyre, from 
the Louvre (230) ; the Marine Venus (233) ; the Venus of Aries 
(237) ; the Venus Callipygos from Naples (238) ; and the Bacchus 
from tiie Louvre (241).* Around the court are placed the portrait 
busts of the most celebrated kings and emperors of Borne, arranged 
chronologically, commencing, on the right hand side of the entrance, 
with Nimia Pompilius (34), and terminating with Constantinus 
Chlorus (73)t. Amongst the models is one of the Coliseum, which 
will give the visitor a perfect idea of the form and arrangement, if 
not of the size, of the original structure. Having completed our 
survey, we enter the arched vestibule at the back adjoining the 
Greek Court. This vestibule, and the three others adjacent, are 
founded, in respect of their decorations and paintings, on 
examples still extant in the ancient baths of Rome. The bath, as 
is well known, was indispensable to the Bomans, and in the days of 
their " decadence," when they had sunk from glorious conquerors 
and mighty generals into the mere indolent slaves of luxury, the 
warm bath was used to excess. It is said that it was resorted to 
as often as seven or eight times a day, and even used immediately 
after a meal, to assist the digestive organs, and to enable the 
bather to enjoy, with as little delay as possible, another luxurious 
repast. 

We proceed through these vestibules, as in the Greek Court, 
studying the objects of art, and occasionally stepping out to notice 
the continuation of the Parthenon frieze on the wall at the back, 
and the sculptures ranged aroimd. In the centre of the first 
vestibide is the Venus Genitrix (234) ; in the centre of the second 
vestibule, the Apollo Belvedere (252) ; and in the third, the Diana 
with the deer (261) J, — ^three chef-d'oeuvres of sculpture, that give 
an idea of the highest state of art imder Koman rule. We soon 
arrive at the sides of the Alhambra, when, turning to the right, 
we find ourselves in a Homan side court, which is surroimded by 
the busts of the most renowned Koman Generals, of Empresses and 
other women. 



* These numbers refer to the Handbook of the Roman Court. 

t These two numbers refer to those in the Handbook to the Portrait Gallery. 

1 Numbers of Eoman Handbook. 



a 



GENERAL GUIDE BOOK. 



ANTIQUE SCULPTURES IN ROMAN COURT AND NAVE, 



No. 


No. 


218. Model of the Fobuu op Sooie. 


284. Faun OF THE Capitol. 


221. Faun. 


285. Mercury. 


222. Statue of Drtjsus. 


286. Trajan. 


223. Young Faun. 


287. Mercury OF THE Vatioah. 


224. Draped Venus AND Cupm. 


288. Antinous. 


225. TouNO Hebcules. 


289. Meleager OF Berlin. 


226. Venus of thr Capitol. 


290. Menander. 


227. Oantmedes. 


291. POSIDIPPUS. 


228. Venus Genitbix. 


292. Boar. 


229. QiBL. 


293. Meleager OF the Vatican. ^ 


230. Portrait OF A Musician. 


294. Quoit-Pi.ayer. "* 


231. Small Female Figure. 


295. Faun. 


282. Youth INVOKING the Gods. 


296. Adonis. 


2S8. Marine Venus and Cupm. 


297. Polyhymnia. 


294. Camillus. 


298. Apollo Sauroctonos. 


285. Large Female Figure. 


299. Athlete, or Boxer. 


286. Venus. 


300. The Clapping Faun. 


28T. Venus VicTRix. 


801. Apollo Sauroctonos. 


238. Venus Calupygos. 


802. Amazon. 


289. Urania. 


803. Faun. 


240. Baccthus. 


304. Wrestlers. 


241. Richelieu Bacchus. 


805. Young Faun. 


242. Faun. 


806. SiLENUS. 


243. Venus AND Cupid. 


307. POSIDONIUS. 


244. Female READING A Scroll. 


308. Demosthenes, 


245. Venus. 


309. Gladiator. 


246. Cupid AND PsTCHB. 


310. Achilles. 


247. Boy EXTRACTING Thorn. 


311. Bacchus. 


248. Venus. 


812. Germanicus. 


249. Ceres. 


818. Adonis, or Apollo. 


260. AncuirrhOe. 


814. Antinous. 


251. Nymph Extracting a Thorn. 


315. Discobolus. 


252. Belvedere Apollo. 


316. Mercury. j 


268. Young Faun. 


317. Hercules. ] 


264. Cupid. 


318 and 819. Dioscuri. , 


266. Hercules AND Omphals. 


819. Vacant. 


266. Young Faun. 


320. Monument OF Lybigratbb. 


267. Faun. 


821. Demosthenes. 


268. Apolix) Bauroctonoc 


822. Sophocles. 


269. Faun. 


323. Vacant. 


260. TounoFaun. 


824. Phocion. 


261. Diana. 


826. Vacant. 


262. BoyandGooss. 


826. Aristides, or JEschinbs. 


263. Boy AND Bird. 


827. Philosopher. 


264. Boy with Masiu 


328. Minerva. 


266. Uranu. 


329. Melpomene. 


266. Penelope. 


380. Young Jupiter. 


267. Ganymedes. 


831. Lucius Verus. 


26a Girl. 


332. Plotina. 


269. Boy AND Goose. 


338. Lucius Verus. 


270. EUMACHIA. 


834. Julia PiA DoMNA. 


271. PUDIOITIA. 


835. Juno. 


272. Portrait Statue of a Roman 


836. Medusa Head. 


Lady. 


837. Olympian Jupiter. 


278. LiviA Dbusilla. 


338. Titus Vespasian. 


274. Vase. 


839. Jupiter Serapis. 


276. Candelabrum. 


340. Marine Deity. 


276. ToRLONiA Hercules. 


841. Juno. 


277. Dog. 


342. Pbrtinax. 


278. Colossal Cupid AS Hercules. 


348. Trajan. 


279. Bacchus. 


844. Marcus AuRBLiUB. 


280. Antinous. 


845. M. AORiPPA. 


281. Agrippina the Elder. 


846. Thalia. 


282. Adonis. 


847. Antinous. 


288. Bagchuh. 

• 


848. Head OF THE Youthful Baochfs. 



THE EOMAN COUET. 



55 



No. 


No 


» 


349. Juno. 


414. 


Part of a Sepulchral Alta)%, 


350. DlBCB. 


415. 


Omphale. 


S51. P ALT. AS. 


416. 


Stag Bearing. 


852. BOSOHKSB VAflTI. 


417. 


Roebuck Standing. 


S53. M£BICX Yabb. 


418. 


Nymph. 


S54. Vasb. 


419. 


Nymph at Fountain. 


855. Vabk 


420. 


Small Statue of Sitting Hsr- 


356. Vabx. 




CULES. 


867. FouNTAnr in form of a Tripod. 


421. 


Cato and Porcia. 


S58. Cupid sncibcliu) by a Dolphin. 


422. 


Bronze Plates from StrusoA-N 


859. Amazon. 




Chariot. 


860. Cerks. 


423. 


^aop Statue. 


361. Mbrcurt. 




Not yd arrived. 


862. MEDia Venus. 


219. 


Model of the Coliseum at Rome. 


863. Athlete. 


220. 


Model of the Trajan Column at 


864. PosiDONius. 




Rome. 


865. Polyhymnia. 




Adorantb, 


866. Bronze Statue of a Youth. 




Adorante. 


367. Faun. 




^NEAS. 


368. Antinous and his Genius. 




AESCULAPIUS. 


869. Dancing Faun. 




Ariadne. 


370. Sleepino Faun. 




Bas-rrt.tbf of a Comic Scene. 


371. Bust of MetiEaqer. 




Bas-relief. 


372. Bronze Faun. 




Boy and Goose. 


373. Apollo Sauroctonob. 




Bust of Scifio Africanus. 


374. Small sittino Figure of Urania. 




Centaur Borohess. 


875. Bronze Statue of a Youth. 




Ceres. 


376. Small Figure of Ceres. 




Crouching Veiivs, 


377. Apollo Lycius. 




DOMITIAN. 


378. The dog Molossus. 




Euterpe. 


379. Wrestlers, or Pancratiast^. 




Flora. 


880. Bronze Statue of a Boy ex- 




Florence Hermaphrodite. 


tracting A Thorn. 




Hercules. 


881. Antoninus Pius. 




Hermaphrodite. 


882. Indian Bacchus. 




Hermaphrodite. 


883. Bust of Laughing Faun. 




Indian Bacchus. 


384. Bust of Achilles. 




Indian Bacchus. 


885. Double Hermes, or Terminal Bust. 




Indian Bacchus. 


386. Bearded Bacchus. 




Isis. 


387. Bacchus. 




Isis. 


888. 2sus Trophonios. 




Juno. 


889. Head of Apollo. 




Juno of the Capitol. 


890. Jupiter. 




Jupiter Sebapis. 


891. Double Hermes, or Terminal Bus'». 




IiA Providence. 


892. Head of Apollo. 




Menelaus Bust. 


893. Jupiter Sebapis. 




Minerva Bust. 


394. The Sun. 




Muse. 


395. Juno. 




Nebrid Bacchus. 


306. Apollo. 




NiOBE Sarcbophaous. 


397. Head of the Laoooon. 




P^TUS AND ARRIA. 


898. Achilles. 




Palsmon. 


399. JEscuLAPius. 




Providentia. 


400. Female Bust. 




Rome. 


401. Philosopher. 




Rome. 


402. Bust of Draped Female. 




Salpion Vase. 


403. Pluto. 




Sibyl. 


404. Omphale. 




The Triumph of Titus. 


405. Bust of Ariadne, or Arethusa. 




The most celebrated Bernini Her- 


406. Sera PIS, or Infernal Jupiter. 




maphrodite. 


407. Paris. 




Tiberius. 


408. Bust of Minerva Medica. 




Triangular Altar of the Twelve 


409. Bust of Pallas. 




Gods. 


410. Medusa. 




Vase of the Capitol. 


411. Bust of Reposing Faun. 




Venus of Cnidos. 


412. Head of a Child. 




Wounded Amazon. 


413, Jufstkb. 




YovNO Hercules. 



tuu 



I- -L -^ H 

i i 

■ ■ 

H CORRIDOR ■ 



THE ALHAMBBA COURT. Cj 

PsBBrng thKiugli this compartment, we once more make our 
way to the nave, and bring ourselves face to face with the goi^eoua 
nutgnificeiice of 



f • 



THE ALHAMBRA COURT. 

The architectural seqnence is now interrupted. We have arrived 
at one of those offshoots firom a. parent stem which flouriahed for a 
time, and then entirely disappeared : leaviog examples of their art 
which either compel our wonder by the exlraordinary novelty erf 
the details, aa in the case of Nineveh, or, as in the court now 
before us, excite our admiration to the highest pitch, by the splen- 
dour and richness of the decorations. The Saracenic or Moresque 
architecture sprang &om. the Byzantine, the common parent of all 
subsequent styles, and the legitimate suooessor to the Boman system. 
We shall immediately have occaaioa to speak more particularly of 



68 OTNERAL GUIDE BOOK. 

the parent root when we cross the nave and enter the Byzantine 
Court. Of the Moorish architecture which branched out from it, 
it will be sufficient to say here that the solid external structure was of 
plain, simple masonry ; whilst the inside was literally covered, from 
end to end, with rich arabesque work in coloured stucco, and adorned 
with mosaic pavements, marble fountains, and sweet-smelUng 
flowers. 

The fortress-palace of the Alkambra,* of a portion of which 
this court is a reproduction, was built about the middle of the 
thirteenth century. It rises on a hill above the city of 
Granada (in the south of Spain), the capital of the Moorish 
kingdom of that name, which, for two hundred and fifty years, 
withstood the repeated attacks of the Christians, and was not 
finally reduced until 1492, by Ferdinand and Isabella. The 
Alhambra, under Moorish rule, was the scene of the luxurious 
pleasures of the monarch, and the stage upon which many fearful 
crimes were enacted. Within its brilliant couriis, the king fell 
by the hand of the aspiriag chief, who, in his turn, was cut 
down by an equally ambitious rival. Few spots can boast a more 
intimate association with the romantic than the Alhambra, until the 
Christians ejected the Moors from their splendid home, and the 
palace of the unbeliever became a Christian fortress. 

The part here reproduced is the far-famed Court of Lions and 
the Tribimal of Justice. The outside of these courts is covered 
with diaper work, consisting of inscriptions in Arabic character, 
of conventional representation of flowers and of flowing decora- 
tion, over which the eye wanders, delighted with the harmony of 
the colouring and the variety of the ornament. Entering through 
the central archway, we see before us the foimtain supported by the 
lions that give name to the court ; and, through the archway oppo- 
site, a portion of the stalactite roof of the Hall of the Abencerrages. 
Around and about us on every side highly ornamental surfaces 
attract and ravish the vision. We gaze on the delicate firetwork 
of the arches, on the exquisite pattern of the gorgeous illumination, 
we listen to the pleasant music of falling waters, and inhale the 
fragrant perfume of flowers, until, carried away by the force of 
imagination we live in an age of chivalry, and amidst the in- 
fluences of oriental life. This court is 75 feet long, just two- 
thirds the length of the original ; the columns are as high as the 

* (The Red) probably so called either from the colour of the soil, or from 
the deep red briek of which it is built. 



THE ALHAMBKA COUET. S9 

columua of the Ck>iirt of Lions itself, and the arches th&t epring 
from them are also of the actual size of the original archea. Over 
the columns ia ineoribed ia Cufic characters " And there u no 
Conqueror but God. " Bound the baaiu of the foimtun ia on Arabic 
poem, from which we take two specimens : — 

" Oh thou who beholdest these Lions crDnching — hur not I 

Life is wanting to enable them to show their fury I " 

Leas, we must thinli, a needless caution to the intruder, than the 

poet's allowed flattery to his brother artist. In the Terse of 



Btucoo Oi-nament Ironi the Albnnibrii. 

Greece and modem Italy, we find the same heightened eipreBsion 
of admiration for the almost animating art of sculpture. The 
following passage is oriental in every letter : — 

" Seeat then not how the water flows on Itc anrittce, 
cotwithetaiiding the eurrent strives to oppoaa its pcoeress. 
Like a lover whose ejelids are piegnant with tears, and 
who snpprcsB«s them for fear of a tale-bearer." 



eo GENERAL GDIDE BOOK. 

Through this briUiaat court, the visitor will proceed or linger as 
his faBcinated spirit directs. There are no statues to examine, for 
ths religion of the Moors forbade the represeutatiou of living 
objects i in truth, the exquisitely wrought tracery on every 



Arabesque orunmsot from the AUuunbiH. 

side upoa which the Moorish mind was thus forced to concentrate 
all its artiBtic power and skill, is in itself sufficient exclusively to 
arrest and to enchain the attention. A curious infringement, 
however, of the Mahonunedan law just now mentioned, which 
proscribes the represontatioa of natural objects, ia observable in 
the lions supporting the fountain, and in three paintings, which 
occupy a portion of the original ceHings in the Tribunal of Justice 
and the two alcoves adjoining. It is also to be remarked that, 
altliough the followers of Mahommed scrupulously avoid stepping 
upon a piece of paper leat the name of God should be written 
thereon, yet that name is found repeatedly upon the tile floor (^ 
the same tribunal. From these circumstances it would seem that 



THE ALHAMBEA COtlET. 61 

the MahommediuiB of tlie West were more lax in their obeorvances 
than their bretliren of the East, having in all probabilit]'' imbibed 
some of the ideas and feelinga of the Spanish Christians with whom 
they came in contact. 

Passing through the archway opposite to that at which we 
entered, we find ourselTea in a vestibule which in the Alhambra 



UooriBh bas-nLicf, from a Fountam at QrauadA. 

itself leads from the Court of Lions to the Tribunal of Justice. 
This is, however, "only a portion of the original passage. The 
arches opening from the central to the right and left divisions 
of the vestibule are of the size of the originals, the patterns on 
the walls and ceilings being taken from other portions of the 
Alhambra. 

The visitor may now proceed through the left-hand arch into the 
division next the Roman Court. On the right of this division 
he will find a small room devoted to models, and specimens of the 
wiginal casts of omamenta of the Alhambra, brought by Mr. Owen 
Jones from Spain, from which this court has been constructed. 
Returning to Uie central division, he sees on hia loft tbe Hall of 
the Abencerrages, already spoken of, and which, with its beautiful 
stalactite roof, is now in rapid course of completion. Proceeding 
onward, we quit the Alhambra, and emerge into the north 
transept. 

The visitor now crosses the transept, immediately in front of the 
colossal sitting figures, which he will be able to examine with eSect 
when he commences a tour through the nave, which we propose 
that he shall shorUy make. Passing these figures then for tbe 
moment, he directs his attention to 



Tho great mound or Kimroud. ' 



THE ASSYRIAN COURT, 
whioli feces him. This Court ia larger Uum aaj other appropriated 
to the illuBtratioD of one phase of art. It is 1 20 feet long, 60 feet 
wide, and haa an elevation of 40 feet from the floor line. Ita 
chief intereit, however, consiBts in the fact of its illuBtrating a, 
itylo of art of which no specimen haa hitherto been pre- 
Bented in Europe, and which, indeed, until the loat few yeara, 
lay tmknown even in the coimtry where its remaine have been unex- 
pectedly brought to Ught. It is onl; ten years ago that M. 
Botta, the French Consul at MobbuI, fimt discovered the ciisteDce 
of sculptural remains of the old Assyrian empire at Khoisabad : 
and siitce that time the palace, now known to have been erected 
about fhe year 720 x.c. by Sai^u, the successor of Shalmaneser, 
has been midnly explored, as well as the palace of hia soa 
Sennacherib at Koynnjih, and that of Esarhaddon at Nimroud, 
bewdes other older palaces in the last-named locality. In addition 
to the explorations that have been made on these sites, extenaive 
excavations and examinations also within the laat few years have 
been made into the ruins of the palaces of Nebuchadnezzar at 
Babylon, and of Darius and Xerxes at SuBa. 

It is from the immense mass of new materials, so suddenly 
revealed, that Mr, James Fergusson, assisted by Mr. Layard, has 
erected the court before which the visitor now stands — an 
architectural illustration which, without pretending to be a literal 
copy of any one building, most certainly represents generally the 
architecture of the extinct but once mighty kingdoms of Mesopo- 
tamia, during the two centuiiee that elapsed between the reign of 



THE ASSTSIAH COURT. 68 

Sennacherib and that of Xerxes, viz., from about B.C. VOO to 
B.C. 600. 

The oldest form of architecture in these Eastern parts was 
probably that which existed in Babylon : but the absence of stone 
in. that country reduced the inhabitants to the necessity of using 
bricks only, and for the moat part bricks burnt by the sun, though 
sometimes fire-bumt brickwork is also found. The face of the 
walls so constructed was ornamented with paintings, either on 
plaster or enamelled on the bricks, whilst the constmctiTe portiooii 
and roofs were of wood. All this perishable jnatorial has of course 
disappeared, and nothing now remains even of the Babylon built 
by I^'ebnchadnezzar but formless mounds of brickwork. In the 
more northern kingdom of Assyria, the existence of stone and 
marble secured a wainscoating of sctdptured slabs for the palace 
walls, whilst great winged bulls and giant figures also in stone 
adorned the portals and fajades. The piUars, however, which 
sapported the roofs, and the roofs themselves, were all of wood, 
generally of cedar, and these having been 
destroyed by fire or by the lapse of ages, 
nothing remains to tell of their actual size 
and form. Yet we are not left entirely to 
conjecture in respect of them. Susa and 
Peraepolis in Persia — the followers and 
imitators of I4^inereh — arose in districts 
where stone was abondant, and we find 
that the structures in these dttes had not 
only atone piUars to support the roof, but 
also stone jambs in the doorways, thus 
(fording an nnmistakeable clue to the 
nature of such portions of building as are 
wanting to complete our knowledge of the 
architecture of the Assyrian people. 

As now laid bare to us, the Assyrian 
style of architecture differs essentially 
from any other with which we have _^ 
hitherto been made acquainted. Its 
main characteristics are enormously thick 

mnd-brick walls, covered with painted bas-reliefs, and roofs 
Bnpported internally by slight but elegant wooden columns,. 
ornamented with volutes (spiral mouldings), and'the elegant honey- 
BUckle ornament which was afterwards introduced through Ionia 
Into Greece — ^this Assyrian stylo being, according to some, the 



.e arcade of th 



SJ QENEItAL GUIDE BOOK. 

parent of the Ionic order, as the I^yptian was of the Doric order, 
of Greece, Ab far as we can judge firom descriptiosa, the architec- 
ture of Jemsalem was almost identical with that of Assyria. 

The whole of the lower portion of the exterior &ont and sides of 
this Court is taken from the palace at Ehorsabad, the great winged 



Bnttancs lo the KioeTch Court. 

bulls, the giants strangling the lions, and the other features beiog 
casts from the objects sent from the site of tlie palace, to the 
Louvre, and arranged, as far as circumstances admit, in the relative 
position of the original objecta as they were discorored. The dwarf 
columns on the walls with the double bull capitals, are modelled 
from details found at PersepoUa and Susa, whilst the cornice and 
battlements above have been copied from repreeontationa found in 
one of the bas-reliefs at Khorsabad. The painting of the cornice 
is in strict accordance with the recent discoveries at that place. 

Entering through tiie opening in the side, guarded by colossal 
bulls, the visitor finds himself in a large hall, in the centre of which 
stand four great columns copied Hterally from columns found at 
Biwa and Fersepolis. The walls of Uie hall are covered with 



THB AS8TBIAH CODET. 

sculpture, cut boat, origiiials brought to thu coumtiy bj Mr 

iMyaxd from his escaTations at Nimroud, and dc^xMited in tbo 

Britiah Maeemn. Upon 

the Hculptnrea are engraved 

the aimiT-'lieaded iuscrip- 

tionB which have been bo 

recently', and in bo lanaik- 

able a manner, deciphered 

by Colonel BawlinBoa and 

Dr. Hincks. Above these 

IB a painting of Awima-la 

and tieeB, copied from one 

found at Shorsabad. The i 

roof crowning the hall re- ' 

presents the form of ceiling 

usual in that pait of Asia, 

but if) rather a vehicle for the display of the various coloured patterns 

of Asajrian aft than a direct copy of anything found Id the Asayrian 

palaces. In the centre of the great hall the visitor -will notice a. 

decorated archway leading to the rofreahment room. The very recent 

discovery of this highly ornamented arch at Khoraabad proves — 

somewhat uneipectedly— that the Assyrian people were far from 

ignorant of the value of tliia beautiful fonturo of architecture. On 

either aide of the main cntranco to this Court (from the Nave), are 

two small apartments, lined also with casts from sculptures at 

Nimroud, arranged, as nearly as may bo, according to their 

original positionB. Above them are paintings of a procession, auch 

as occupied a similar place in the palaces of 'Assyria. A complete 

detailed account of this interesting department will be found in 

Mr. Layard's valuable Handbook to the Nineveh Court. 

Having completed his survey of the interior of this Court, the 
visitor may either enter the refreshment room at the back through 
the atchway, and then make his way to the Nave, or ho kiay at 
once quit the Court by the central entrance, and turning to the 
left cross the north end of the Nave, stopping for one moment 
under the shade of the finest palm-tree in Europe, on his pasaago 
to look from end to end of the magnificent structure within which 
he stands, and to glance at the exterior of the Court he has just 
quitted, the br^ht colouring of which — the bold omamenta, 
the gigantic bulls, and colossal features, present as novel and 
striking an architectural and decorative display as tho mind can 
imc^pne. 



66 GBNEEAL GTJIDB BOOK. 

Having crossed the btdlding under the gallery, the visitor will 
find on his left the north wing : the site appropriated for the exten- 
sive collection of Raw Produce, now forming imder the hands of 
Professor Wilson. 



RAW PRODUCE AND AGRICULTURAL COLLECTION. 

This collection is intended to show, by means of a series of 
industrial specimens, the natural resources of this and other 
coimtries ; to teach, through the medium of the eye, the history 
of the various substances which the earth produces for the use of 
man ; to point out whence and by what means they are obtained, 
and how they are made subservient to our wants and comforts. 
The collection has thus a twofold object : First, to display what is 
termed the raw produce of the world, comprising substances 
belonging to each of the three kingdoms of nature ; and secondly, 
to exhibit the same produce, when converted by industry into the 
form of a highly-finished manufacture. 

The coUectionVonsists of the three following principal divisions : 

1. The Soil. 

2. The Produce of the Soil. 

3. The Economic and Technical Uses to which the Produce is 

applied. 
The first grand division, " The Soil," includes specimens of all 
those geological formations comprising what is termed the crust of 
the earth. From the debris of these rocks is formed what we 
generally understand by the term soU ; but soils, as we are accus- 
tomed to see them, are considerably altered by the presence of 
vegetable matt<?r, the result of the decomposition of plants, and 
of artificial substances applied as manure. Accordingly, specimens 
of the naimrctl sorts of various geological formations (or, in fact, 
the rocks merely in their disintegrated form), together with the 
same soils altered by cultivation, and samples of the manures 
which assist in changing their qualities, form an important series 
in this division. Besides giving rise to the different agricultural 
soils, the rocks of most formations are interesting as producing 
objects of economic value. From many such rocks are obtained 
building stone, slates, tiles, clays used in biick-making, flints usdd 
in glass, alum, salt, and other useful articles* These, in the 
present collection, are illustrated by specimens ; and when any of 
such substances give rise to a branch of industry, a oompletd 
illustxibtive series is presented to the contemplation of the visitor. 



k^W PBODUOB Aitt) AQBICULlndEAL ClOLLBOiftOS. 

For example : it will be found that in tke case of ceramic ware 
or pottery, the series commences with flint, which is shown firL 
in its natural state as it comes from the chalk pits, then calcined 
and ground, and then re-calcined. Next we see it mixed with 
clay, afterwards moulded iato the form of a vase, and lastly baked. 
To these different specimens, it will be noted, are added samples of 
the colour xised in the ornamentation of the object. 

By fax the most important and useful mineral product is ooal^ of 
whidi tq^dmens of different qualities, suited to various purposes, 
are exhibited from foreign countries, as well as from all the coal 
fields of Great Britain. 

From the rocks of different formations we obtain the ores of 
metals, the principal of which in this country are iron^ lead, 
copper, and tin. Other metals are found, but in smaller quan- 
tities than elsewhere. Metals are not generally found natwcy but 
in the form of oxides, sulphides, &c., and must therefore undergo 
conaiderable changes before they can be made available. The 
methods of extracting metals from their ores, as practised in this 
and other countries, and the various uses to which the metals are 
applied, are amply iUustrated by specimens from all the principal 
works, and form, perhaps, the most instructive and important 
feature of the mineral division of the Baw Produce collection. 

The second great division, "The Produce of the Soil,*' resolves 
itself naturally into two principal groups : viz., vegetable sub- 
stances, or the direct produce of the soil, and animal substances, 
the secondcMry produce of the soil. The chief sub-divisions of 
these groups are : 

(h Substances used as food, such as tea, coffee, fruits (amongst 
vegetable substances), and meats, gelatine, lard, &c, (amongst 
animal products). « 

5. Substances used in the arts, manufactures, &a, as flax, 
hemp, cork, gums, dye-stuffs (ia the vegetable kingdom), and 
wools, silk, horns, skins, oils, &c, (in the animal kingdom). 

And these are again classed as Home and Foreign products. 

The third great division, " The Economic or Technical Uses to 
which the Produce is applied,'* is a most important feature of this 
department. The want of a " Trades' Museum " in England has 
long been felt by commercial and scientific men, and imtil now no 
attempt at any collection of the kind has been jpade. The' 
technological illustrations about to be here produced in a great 
measure supply the desideratum, and present, so to speak, a series 
of et/e leeture9 that carry with them an amount of information no 

f 2 



(^ GBNBEAL GUIBS BOOK. 

less instructiye than important to the progressive iudiistiy of the 
kingdom. . 

In this division each series is commenced by examples of the 
raw material, which is carried by illustrative specimens through 
the various processes to which it is submitted before it reaches its 
highest value as a manu£Eictured article. The visitor also finds in 
this series models, &c., of the machinery used in the manufactures. 
As -an example of the instruction afforded in this division, we 
will take the manufacture of linen. The first sample seen is the 
flax plant. This produces linseed and fiax straw. The fonner is 
pressed, and we have linseed oil and oil cake. The straw is 
steeped, broken, and scutched, and we have rough fibre. The 
rough fibre is heclded, and is then ready for spinning. The refuse 
which is heckled out is tow. The heckled fibre is spun into yams 
of different degrees of fineness, which are woven into linen of 
various qualities. Finally, the linen is bleached. The tow is used 
for paper-making, for string and cordage, or is spun into coarse 
thread, called tow-line, and woven into rough fabrics. The 
technical application of animal substances is treated in a similar 
manner. 

The third division, as in the case of the second, is sub-divided 
into articles used as food, and those used in the arts, &c. , and is 
also similarly separated into smaller groups of home and foreign 
produce ; and again, as far as the plan admits of carrying out, 
into manufactures dependent upon chemical, and manufactures 
dependent upon mechanical agencies. 

Leaving the north wing, and returning up the aisle, on the 
garden side of the Palace, we come, following the order of the 
architectural arrangement, upon the 

THE BYZANTINE AND ROMANESQUE COURT. 

Before the visitor is conducted through the architectural Courts 
on this side of the Nave, it is necessary he should imderstand that 
they differ considerably in arrangement and treatment from those 
on the opposite side, which have already been described. In the 
Egyptian, Greek, and other Courts through whidi he has passed, 
the forms or characteristics of some one distinctive structure have, 
to a greater or less extent, been given ; but the Courts into which 
we are now about to penetrate, are not architectural restorations, 
but rather so many collections of ornamental details stamped with 
unmistakeable individuality, and enabling us at a glance to recog- 



THB BTZJLHTIHE AND SOHAHBaQUE COUBT. «B 

mse and distinguiali the Beveral Btyles that have exiited aud 
succeeded each other, from the beguming of the 6th down to the 



Bjiaaiiae Couii (eutrsjice Iraai North Tramept). 

16th oentujy. la each Court will be found important detaihi, 
ornament, and even entire portioiu!, taken from the most remark- 
able or beautiful odiEces of the periods they illustrate. Thus 
the palaces and ChriHtian temples of Italy, the oaetles and 
churches of Germauf , the hotels-de-ville and diateaux of Belgium 
and France, and the cathedrals and mausiona in our own country, 
have all been laid under contribution, bo that here, for the first 
time in the history of architecture, wu have the opportunity of 
acquiring a perceptive and practical knowledge of the beautiful art 
during the period of its later progress, ' 

The regular architectural sequence on the other side of the Nave 
finds its termination in the Roman Court, and we now resume the 
oiderof history with the "Byzantine" Coiui, Art, as we have already 



70 aBNBEAIi GUIDB BOOK. 

indicated, declined dniing the Eoman Empire ; but the genexal 
adoption of Christianity gave the blow that finally overthrew it, for 
the introduction of this faith was, unforfcunately, accompanied with 
bitter and violent enmity against all pagan forms of beauty. An 
edict of Theodosius, in the early part of the 5th centuiy, ordered 
that pagan art should be utterly annihilated/ and the primitive 
Christians demolished with fanatic zeal the temples, bronzes, 
paintings, and statues that adorned the Boman capital. 

To complete the work of destruction, it is related that Gregory 
(a.i>. 500) one of the celebrated ^^ Fathers'^ of the Koman Church, 
gave orders that every vestige of Pagan Rome should be consigned to 
the Tiber ; and thus was ancient Art smitten and overthrown, and 
the. attempt made to efface its very foot-prints from the earth ; so 
that, indeed, men had now to proceed as best they might, by painful 
and laborious efforts, towards tbe formation of a new and essen- 
tially Christian style of architecture, which, however feeble and 
badly imitated £rom ancient models at its commencement, was 
finally productive of the most original and beautiful results. 

Constantino the Great, in the early part of the 4th century, 
embraced Christianity. The new religion required structures 
capable of holding large assemblages of people at certain periods; 
and notwithstanding the magnificence of some of the Boman 
structures, none could be found appropriate to the required 
use, save the Basilicas, or Halk of Justice, at Bome. The form of 
these structures was oblong, and the interior consisted of a central 
avenue and two side aisles, divided i^om the centre by a double 
row of columns, the central avenue terminating in a semidrcular 
recess with the roof rounded off. It will be at once apparent that 
such buildings were admirably adapted to the purposes and 
obeervances of the new religion ; and, accordingly, in a.!). 828, 
when Constantine removed the seat of empire from the West to the 
East, fix>m Bome to Byzantium (Constantinople), the Boman 
Basilica probably served as .a model for the Christian ohurdies 
which he rapidly raised in his new city. 

But on this point we have little authentic information ; time, 
the convulsions of nature, and the destructive hand of man, have 
long since lost to us the original churches built on Constantino's 
settlement at Byzantium, and the oldest monument with which we 
are acquainted, that of Santa Sophia, built in the early part of the 
6th century by Justinian, bears no relation in its plan to the long 
basilica of the Western Empire. 

The great characteristic of Byzantine church architecture was a 



THK BTMNTOTB AND EQMANBSQUB COUBT. 71 

plan fbrmed tm the Greek cross, and sunnoiuated at its points of 
intesrsection by a central dome. The direct imitation of the 



1= 






Greek Oroea. Latin Cross. 

antique capitals was eschewed, and a foliated capital was intro- 
duced in its place, varying considerably in pattern even in the 
same building : the arcli was in general semicircular, and the use 
of mosidc ornament universal, but it was some time before the 
Byzantine style received its full development ; for the earlier 
Christians generally maintained a profound antipathy to all Art, as 
ostentatious, and savouring over-much of worldly delights. It is 
not, however, in the nature of man to exist for any length of time 
in this world, wondrously adorned as it is by its Divine Creator, 
without imbibing a love for the adornment so profusely displayed 
around him. This natural fueling, which St. Augustine and the 
stricter Christians vainly sought to decry and repress, was 
strengthened and aided by the more forcible notion of holding 
out some attraction to the pagans, who, accustomed to the 
oeremonies and charms of their old rites, might be repelled by the 
apparent gloominess of the new creed. As the number of converts 
increased, a demand for church ornament made itself felt, and Art 
once more awoke, not in the excelling beauty of its former life, 
but rude, unpolished, and crippled by religious necessity, which 
placed, as in Egypt of old, a restriction upon the forms of 
nature, lest by copying them the people should relapse into the 
idolatrous worship of graven images. In the Eastern or Greek 
C9iuich, even the rude and grotesque sculpture first allowed was 
speedily fcnrbidden and banished for ever. The- mosaic painting, 
however, was ocmtinued by Greek artists, and this peculiar style 
of ornamentation is one of the most distinctive features of 
Byzantine architecture. Not only were the walls and ceiUngs 
covered with extraordinarily rich examples of glass mosaic work, 
fbrmed into pictures illustrative of Scripture subjects and saintly 
legends, or arranged in elaborate patterns o^eometrical and other 
ornament, but columns, pulpits, &c., were rendered brilliant with 



73 OBITBIUL QCIia BOOK. 

its glowing colours. Moetua work also in at timeB found on the 
fa^adefi of the Bj'zantine bnildingB ; whilst the pAvement, if less 
gOTgetmB, wBH at least aa richly csnamented with caloured inlay of 
Marble moHaic As we haTe, however, just observed, the fear of 
idolatry led to the comparative neglect of sonlptnra, and the edict 
forbidding the soulpture of images for religious purposes becamo 
one cause of the separation of the Latin Church in Rome &oin 
the Greek Church in Constantinople, and thenceforth the two 
churches remain dUtinct. In the former, sculpttire (»ntinued to 
exist, not as an independent art, but as a more architectural 



Byzantine architecture flourished from A.i>, 328 to 1463 : but 
the Byzantine proper can be said to extend only troia the 6th to 
thellthcentuiiee. Bomaneeque 
architecture in its varioua deve- 
lopments was mora or lees im- 
pressed with the Byzantine cha- 
racter, and in its general features 
resembles the source frcon which 
it was in ft great measure derived; 
althou^ the dome is generally 
absent in the churches of northern 
Etirope, which retained the plan 
of the old Homan basilica in 
preference to that of the Oreek 
cross, tor a longtime peculiar to 
the Intern Church. 

It would not be hazarding 
too much, to assert that By- 
zantine architecture was gene- 
rally adopted thron^out ' most 
European countries from the 6th 
to the Ilth century, with such 
modifications as the necessities 
_^>' of climate, the differences of 

Bomtuicequo Toiror. creed, and the means of building 

necessitated. 
Before entering this Court the visitor will do well to examine 
its external decoration, affording, as it doee, not only an excellent 
notion of the splendid mosaic ornament we have already alluded 
to OS peculiarly Byq^tine, but for its paintings of illustrious 
characters of the Byzantine period, taken bom viduable illumina- 



THB BTZANTINB HID BOIUKSSQUB CODET, TS 

tione and mosaics still in exiatenoe ; taoh u, the fine pottntits of 
Jnsti i mm and his oonBOrt Theodcm, from Baveona (by tiie entranoe 
from Uie Nare), and those of Charles the Bald of Franoe, and the 
Eimperor Kioephonis Botoniates of Oo&atantiiiople, copied frtmi 
viduable existing authorities ; whikt an allegorical representation 
of Ni^t, on the return side, is a proof that the poetry of Art 
was not altogether dead in the 10th oentvny, to which date it 
bel<»igs. 



Byzimtma Court— ArcliM trom the Han. 

In front of all tlie Courta facing the Nave, are placed many very 
interesting examples of Medieval and Benaissance Art, a brief 
notioe of whidi will be found later in this Tt^ume^ oadra the head 
of " A Tour through the Nave." 

Hio entomce to the gallery at the back of the Byzantine Conrt 
is formed by the Chancel Arch of Tuam Cathedral in Ireland, 
built about the beginning or middle of the 13th century, a most 
interesting lelio of art in the Sist^ lale. 

Entering through the arches at the North end, we turn to the 
light into m cool doister of the Bomanesque school, a ntsbsed 



74 



eBNBOmi GUIDS BOOE« 



eopy of a doister at the diuroh of Santa Maria in Oapitolo at 
Oologne, an ancient edifice said to have been conunenoed about thtd 
jrear 700. The eloister is, however, of the close of the 10th 
century. The restoration gives ub an excellent notion of the 
Ksrobes^ columns, and capitals of this period, and shows the 
difference that exists between Byzantine and ancient Greek «r 
Boman art. Proceeding through the doister, the roof of which is 
beautifully decorated with Byzantine ornament, in imitation of the 

glass mosaic work, we remark various 
pieces of sculpture, diiefly from Venice : 
at the extreme end, to the left on 
entering, is a recumbent effigy of 
Bichard Coeur de lion, from Bouen ; 
at the farthest end, to the right, is 
placed the Prior's doorway from My, 
in a late Norman style, and next to 
this, to the right, a representation of 
the Baptism of Christ, from St. Mark's, 
at Venice. Betuming to the central 
entrance from the Nave, we enter the 
Court itself. The black marble foun- 
tain in the centre is an exact copy of 
one at Heisterbach on the Bhine. 
We may now obtain some notion of 
the different features which mark the 
Byzantine, the German Bomanesque, 
and Norman styles, all agreeing in 
general character, but all varying in treatment. The doister 
we have just quitted, with the cubical capitals of its external 
oolumns and its profuse mosaics, presents a strongly marked 
impress of the Byzantine style, the same influence being also 
remarked in the external mosaic-work of the small but beautiful 
portion of the cloisters of St. John Lateran at Borne ; on each 
side of which are flne examples of German Bomanesque, whioh 
is frequently also called the Lombard style, as indicative of its 
origin ; and beyond these again, in the extreme angled, are 
interesting specimens of the Norman style as practised in England 
during the twelfth century. These examples will enable the 
visitor to judge in some measure of the differences that diarao* 
terize the three. To the left is a very curious Norman doorway, 
from Kilpeck Church, in Hereforddiire ; the zigzag moulding 
around it is peculiar to the Norman ; and in the sculptured relie& 




Aroh and oolunm from Cloister. 



i 



I 



THE BTZANTINB AND EOMANESQUB COUBT. 70 

wliioh Burround the doorvay a symbolism is hidden, tat the mean- 
ing of which we must refer our readers to the Handbook of this 
Court. Next to this is a doorway from Mayence Cathedral^ the 
bronze doors within it, which are from. Augsbuigh Cathedral, in 
Grermany, being interesting examples of the axt of bronze-casting 
in the latter half of the 11th century. The rudely-executed 
subjects in the panels are mostly taken from the Old Testament, 
but no attempt at chronological arrangement has been made* 
Above the St. John Laieran cloister is an arcade from Gelnhausen 
in Germany, a good specimen of grotesque and symbolic sculpture 
quite in the style of the early Lombard work in northern Italy. 
The doorway on the opposite side of the St. John Lateran 
cloister i. » oompoBitiaa showing the general chuaoteristios of the 
Romanesque style; the^oors are from Hildesheim Cathedral, and 
were executed in 1016, by order of Bishop Bemwardus. They 
contain sixteen panels, arranged in proper order, eight representing 
scenes in the Old Testament, commencing with the creation of 
man, and eight representing subjects firom the New Testament, 
beginning with the Annunciation. Next to this, and corresponding 
to the Kilpeok doorway, is a second side door from Shobdon Church, 
Herefordshire. The circles ornamented with foliage over the 
Shobdon Chancel Arch, are from Moissac. On the side wall next 
to the Arch, is the monument, from SaJisbury Cathedral, of Bishop 
Roger, who died a.d. 1139 ; it is transitional in style, from the 
Norman to the Early English. 

On either side of the fountain in this Court, are placed the 
celebrated effigies of Fontevrault Abbey, (the burying-plaee of the 
Plantagenets), consisting of Henry 11. and his Queen Eleonora ; 
Richard I. ; and Isabella, wife of King John. These date from 
the 13th century, and they are not only interesting as works 
of art, but valuable as portraits, and as evidences of costumes of 
that period. An effigy of King John from Worcester, and another 
of Berengaxia, wife of Richard L, from the Abbey of 'I/Espan, 
near Mans in France, are also to be foimd here. 

The inlaid marble pavement of the Court is copied from churches 
in Florence, and is of the beginning of the 13th century. 

Having thoroughly examined the various contents of this Court, we 
pass through the opening in the arcade of St. John Lateran, before 
mentioned, and enter a vestibule, the vaulting of which is from the 
convent of the Franciscans, at Assisi, in Central Italy, with the 
paintings in the four compartments of the vault, from their originals 
by Cimabue. 



78 OENEEAL QDIDB BOOK. 

In tlie centre of this compartment is a laxg6 black marble Nor^ 
man font from Winchester Cathedral : the date of which has given 
rise to much couttoversy ; thoae afisigned, ranging from 630 to 
1150. Next to this font is another from Eaidaley Church, 
Hereforddiire, of the 12th century. 

Pa«dng now to the left, we see on the back wall, looking towards 
tile Goideu, three openingn, the central one of which is a doorway 
from the church of Freshford, in Kilkenny, of about the latter end 
of the 11th or beginning of the 12th century, and on either side of 
it, are windows from the church of Tuam, in Ireland. Aboye the 
Freshford doorway ia a large circular window from Bathain Church, 
remarkable for its great antiquity, and said to have been erected aa 
early aa the middle of the 8th century. In this comx)artment are 
also placed Irish ctosbcb, affording examples of the sculptural antiqui- 
ties of the Sister Isle ; and some interesting crosses from the Isle of 
Man. Having examined this com- 
pailment, we proceed tor a short 
distance southwards, down the cor- 
ridor or gallery, and pass, on the 
back wall of the Byzantine Court, 
first, a doorway composed prin- 
dpally from an existing example 
at Bomsey Abbey, the baa-relief 
in the door-head being from 
Shobdon : and on the other side 
of'the St. John Lateian arcade, 
a beautiful Norman doorway from 
Birkin Cburoh, Yorkshire : after 
which we reach the smaUer division 
of the Medieval Court, dedicated 

, , — ..1- 1 LoorrromBuldiiCliunih. 

to works of German Medifeval 

Art, the entrance to which is beneath the Pointed arcade on our 
rigbi. 



THB aSBHAN HBDIJEYAL GOUBT. 77 



THE GERMAN MEDI>EVAL COURT. 

This small Court is devoted exclusiviely to examples of Gothic 
art and architecture in Germany, and, taken with the English and 
French Mediaeval Courts, — ^which we shall presently reach, — gives 
an excellent idea of the style and character of architecture in these 
three countries during the Middle Ages. Such remarks as are 
required to explain the transition from the Bomanesque and 
Byzantine to the Pointed style of architecture, we shall defer until 
we find ourselves in the Medisev^ Court of our own oountiy. We, 
therefore, without preface, conduct the visitor from the gallery of 
the Byzantine Court, through the side arches directly into the 
German MedifiBval Court. The large doorway in the centre at 
once attracts attention. This is cast from a celebrated church 
doorway at Nuremberg, and is especially worthy of notice. On the 
wall to the right is a doorway leading into the Byzantine Court. 
This is not copied from any one particular example, but is a com- 
position displaying the elements of the German stylo. The 
equestrian statue of St. George is from the Cathedral square at 
Prague, a work of the 14th century. The seven round bas-reliefs 
at the top of the doorway, representing scenes from the life of 
Christ, are fac-simile copies of the originals by Yeit Stoss, at the 
Church of St. Lawrence, in Nuremberg. On either side of this 
doorway are two monuments, of bishops Siegfrid von Epsteift and 
Peter von Aspelt, opposite to which are the fine monuments of Albert 
of Saxony, and of Bishop Yon Gemmingen ; aU of these are cast 
from the originals, in Mayence Cathedral. Above the arches, and 
aU roxmd the Court, is- a. small arcade, the capitals, brackets, and 
other monuments of which are taken from various (German churches, 
but more especially from the Cathedral of Cologne. Immediately 
over the arches through which we have entered, and between the 
columns of the arcade, are four bosses with the symbols of the 
Evangelists, also from Cologne Cathedral.. 

Passing through the Nuremberg doorway, in the centre, we see 
immediately before us, and over the arches leading to the nave, 
eight dancing munmiers, from the Town-hall, at Munich ; they 
are represented as exhibiting before an audience, probably at 
some civic festival, and are full of grotesque droUery. Beneath 
the mummers are placed consols or brackets, from the hall 
of Gurzenich, at Cologne, remaEkable for the humour displayed 
in their conception. On the wkll to the right are three large 



reliefs^ from the church of St. Sebald^ at Nurembeig. lliey 
are the work of Adam Krafiti and represent : — 1. The Betrayid 
of our Sayiour ; 2. The Mount of Olives ; 3. The Last Supper ; — 
and in their execution show great power and much less stiffiieas 
than is generally foxuid in medissyal works. Adam Krafit 
was an excellent sculptor, who floiuished at the close of the 
16th century. His works, which are chiefly to be found at 
Nuremberg, possess great merit both in their search after truth 
and the unusual manual ability they display. Immediately 
beneath these relief^ is another by the same artist, taken from 
the Frauen-Kirche, or Church of our Lady, at Nuremberg. It 
represents an adoration of the Virgin, and shows even more vigorous 
handling than the other three. On the left hand wall, next to the 
Nuremberg door, is a bas-relief of ^^ Justice with the Bich and 
Poor," by Veit Stoss, from the Town-hall, at Nuremberg ; and on 
the other side of the composition doorway, leading into the "Rnglish 
MediflBval Court is the celebrated rose wreath and cross, by Veit 
Stoss, from Nuremberg, which deserves especial examination as 
one of the master-pieces of that sculptor, and on account of its 
very peculiar arrangement. The other subjects found in this 
Court present excellent examples of German Mediaeval Art down to 
the time of Peter Vischer, whose works evince an evident influence 
derived from the Renaissance School of Italy, at the dose of the 
15th and at the commencement of the 16th centuries. 

We now emerge into the Nave, and turning to the left, find 
ourselves in front of 

THE ENGLISH MEDI>EVAL COURT. 

It will have been remarked in the German Medieval Court 
that architecture has undergone another diange. No sooner 
had the Lombard or Bomanesque style become systematized, than 
fBatures arose which contained the germs of yet more important 
changes. 

The Horizontal line principle of antique Art was gradually given 
up, and a marked inclination towards the Vertical line principle 
took its place. The full change was yet by no means c(nnplete, 
lind it remained for the introduction of the pointed arch in the 
12th century, under Norman influence in England and France, to 
eflect a gradual revolution in the whole system of construction and 
ornamentation, until nearly every trace of the preceding style was 
lost, and another essentially distinct m all its characteristics aros^ 
bx its stead; 



THE ENGLISH HHDtJlTAt OOtBT. 70 

Ab we are noir itanding before the eode^EUstieal ftrohitectnre of 
OQT own ooQutiy, it may be mtereeting to notice briefly, and in 



Eiitraiica to BnElish Kedienl Conrt, 

Glironolo^cal order, the progreBS of Pointed architectnre in 
Englcind, and to specify a few of thoBe leading features -which 
serve to distinguiah the style of one period &om that of 
another. 

Prior to our doing this, it will bo well briefly to notice the 
Nonaan atyle which preceded the Pointed, and which was exten* 
tdvely practised by the Konnans and English in this oountry, after 
the sacoessfulinTasionbyWiUiamin 1066. Its leading features are 
extreme soUdity, absence of ornament (at its earliest period), eeml- 
circnlar or horaeshoe arches, and the peculiar zigzag monldings 
iMfore noted. The buttresses or snpportg placed against walls to 
give them strength are broad, but project veiy little. The piUais 
are short, masaive, and fi[«quently circular, whilst the capitfJs are 
usually cubioal and channelled in a peculiar manner, sometimes 
being qnite plain, and at othere carved with grotesque and sjmbolio 
figures and foliage. 

The Norman lasted until the 13th century, when it made 
"way fiir th« first pointed style, which is known as JSarly 



so QEKEEUi OUIDB BOOK. 

Engluh. The arches in tlus style Eire lancet-shaped ; the pillars 

consist frequently of email shafts clustering roviud a circular 
pier, and are much slighter and taller than the Norman : the 
uapitals are frequently without ornament, being simply plain 
mouldings. "When the capital is carved with foliage the work is 
boldly executed. Spii«s too, although originating in the later 
TJrt rmim rose in the Karly Knglifth high into the air, li^ land- 
marks to the people, to point out where they might congregate to 
woiship their Divine Creator. The buttresses are bold, generaUy 
ri^ng in diminishing stages, and either terminating in a triaj^ulor 
head or sloping off into the wall Windows, two or thrca in. 
number, were often grouped together under a moulded areh, 
between the point of which and the tops of the windows aa 
intervening space was formed. This space, pierced with one or 
more openings, gave rise to that most distinctive and beautiful 
element of the Gothic style — Tkaceay. 

The Decorated style, which succeeded to the Early English, 
flourished during the 14th century, and the Court we are now 
about to enter pOBSesaea numerous examples of this, the best 
and brightest period of English Gothic ; for in the Early 
Ei^lish the style had not yet reached its highest point of beauty, 
and in the later FerpejidicMlar it already suffered decline. 
Tracery, as we have stated, was the 
chief characteristic of the Decorated 
style ; and it consists either of geo- 
metrical forms or of flowing lines. 
As an example of the former, the 
visitor may examine the arches of 
the cloister now before us, on the 
side niche of the Tintem door. The 
foliated details and carviogB, which 
also give character to this style, 
may, in like manner, be studied 
with advantage in this Coiut. The 
pillars are either clustered or single, 
and generally of octangular or circular 
form ; the capitals are sometimes 
carved with foUage, at other times 

Biiio niche of Tintem door. th^y "Te plain. The buttress is in 

stipes and terminated occasionally 
with Decorated pinnacles. The execution of the details of th^ 
style was admirable, and the variety and beauty of the ornaments, 



THE KKGLISH MBDI«VAL CODET. 81 

founded ctueflf on natural snbjecto, gire to the DmoriMi itylo 
an eSbct which has seldom, if ever, been snrpassed. 

From the latter part of the 14th to the beginning of the 
16th centtuy the PerpendicuZor style nas in vogue. It derives its 
name from the tracery, which instead of taking flowing forma, 
consists chieflj* of vertical lines, The arches became depressed in 
form, the Todor arch being distinctive of its later phase, whilst the 
ornaments were crowded and departed more from natural models. 
The more im, ortant buildings were coversd throughout with 
shallow pannelled work and profuse ornament, over which the eye 
wanders in vain for much-needed repose, and the effect of breadth 
and grandeur of parts is lost and frittered away. 

These few observatians, imperfect as they are, may perhaps assist 
the visitor's appreciation of the Court we are about to examine. 
Without further preface, then, we proceed through the archway, as 
usual, from the Nave. 

We are in a cloister of the Decorated period, founded in its arches 
and columns on the Abbey of Ouisborough, Yorkshire. Looking 
through the cloister, to the loft, we see before us a doorway from 
the Chapel of Prince Arthur, son of Henry VII., in Worcester 
Cathedral, which will enable ua to test in a 
measure the truth of our summary of the 
Perpendicular style. Crossing the cloister 
wo enter the Mediffival Court, which con- 
tains architectural specimens taken from our 
ancient chorchea and magnificent cathedrals. 

Entering the Court from the Nave, we 
find, immediately facing us, the magnificent 
door-way from Hochestor Cathedral, coloured 
so as to give an idea of its appearance when 
first erected. We may remark here that 
the practice of colouring and gilding was 
carried to an almost. extravagant extent in 
the Gothic style, although the efiacing hand 
of Time has left comparatively few examples 
in a perfect state. 

The most remarkable monument on the left 
of the door, is the richly-decorated Easter Artudo Q-um Quisborough, 
sepulchre, from Hawton Church, Notting- 
hamshire, representing the Kesurrection tmd Ascension of Christ, 
it was used as an altar ; variotis rites being performed before it, 
between Good-Priday and Easter-day. Further on in the angle 



HENEEAL QFIDB BOOK. 



iaa portion of Bishop Alcock's chantry ch&pel, from My Cathedral; 
on the other side of the adjoining doorway, which is A composition 



chiefly trota. the choir of Lincoln Cathedral, we remark the very 
beautiful oriel window of John o'Gannt, at Lincoln, and nez.t to 
it a portion of the elaborate altar-acreen of Winchester Cathedial. 
On the right of the Rochester door ia the finely designed monu- 
ment of Humphrey de Bohun, from Hereford Cathedral, with the 
efBgy of the knight in complete armour. The door beyond cor- 
responds to the one oppoute ; and further on, near the cloister, ia 
one of the doors of Lichfield Cathedral, with its beauti^ iron-, 
work, the painting of which is remarkably clevOT j and a portion 



with'B monii- 
mont, from 
'Wells, the dooi 
beneath the 
cloister being 
fTom Bishop 
Wea^B Chapel, 
Ely. Theexqra- 
eite tiicheti and 
eaitopies round 
the vnHia of the 
court ure &oin 
SonthweU hfin- 



The Btataee on 
a line with, and 
corresponding 
to those on the 
monumeat of 
BiBhop Bub- 
with, are excel- 
lent examples of 
late Gothic 
work, from Ar- 
magh Cathedral. 
The upper tier, 
consisting prin- 
cipally of sculp- 
tm«, presents 
valuable ezam- 
plee of that art 
The large ata- 
tues beneath 
the canopies are 
from the facade 
of WellB, and 
the angels in 
the spandreb of 
the archea are 
from the choir 
of lincoln Ca- 



84 QBNBBAL (iUIDT^ BOOK. 

thedral; they, are all of the highest interest with reference to 
the history of sculpture in England. The floor presents a remark- 
able and interesting series of the best sepulchral monuments of 
the Gothic period which England possesses, viz., those of Queen 
Eleanor, from Westminster ; Edward II., from Gloucester; the oele* 
bri^bdd xiionument of William of Wykeham, from Winchester ; and 
that of Edward the Black Prince, from Canterbury Cathedral 

Indeed all the subjects in this Court are full of value and 
interest, and the n\imerous examples of Gothic art here collected, 
which we have not space to describe in detail, form a Museum in 
which the visitor may obtain no inadequate idea of the rich 
treasures of our country. Passing beneatht he Rochester doorway 
we enter a vaulted and groined vestibule, the window of which is 
a beautiful example of the Decorated style, from Holbeach, in 
Lincolnshire, filled in with rich stained glass. In the centre is the 
very richly-decorated font, from Walsingham, in ITorfolk, an 
excellent example of the Perpendicular style. The walls of the 
gallery are lined with statues and monuments ; those on the Garden 
side are all English, principally from the facade of Wells Cathedral ; 
those on the side of the Court are chiefly from Crermany and 
France. Amongst the latter, we draw particidar attention to the 
bas-reliefs on the walls, from Ndtre-Dame, Paris, as excellent 
examples of early French €K)thic. Amongst the central monu- 
ments should be particularly remarked the Ardeme tomb, from 
Elford church, Staffordshire ; the monument of Henry lY., and 
Joan of Navarre (his queen), fh)m Canterbury Cathedral ; the 
tomb of Sir Giles Baubeny, from Westminster Abbey, of about 
the year 1507 ; and the splendid monument of Itichard Beauchamp, 
Earl of Warwick, from Warwick, one of the finest Gothic sepul- 
chral monimients remaining in England. Passing beneath the 
arcade^ near the Beauchamp monument, we enter 

THE FRENCH AND ITALIAN MEDI>EVAL COURT, 

On the walls of which, on the ground row, are ranged a series of 
arches from the choir of N6tre-Dame, at Paris, the greater nmnber 
of the canopies which surmoimt them being taken from the 
Cathedral of Chartres, both fine examples of early French Gothic 
art. The very excellent statues, bosses, <Sro., are from various 
French churches. The central statue on the floor is by the great 
Italian sculptor, Giovanni Pisano (13th century), and stands 
on a pedestal from the celebrated altar-piece of Or San Michele, 



THB BBNAI8SAN0B COUJEIT. 86 

■ 

at Florenoe, by Andrea Orgagna (14th oentuiy). The two 
statues nearest the gallery are by Nino Pisano^ -son of GiovaunL 
The very elaborate example of iron- work near the nave entrance 
is from one of the great west doors of the Cathedral of Notre- 
Damoy Parisy and evinces such consummate skill in workman- 
ship as to have obtained for its artist, when first made public, the 
unenviable credit of being in close league with the Evil One. 
The exact date of this iron-work is not ascertained, but it is of the 
best period of the French Pointed style. 

Once more regaining the Nave, we proceed on our journey south- 
ward, until a few steps bring us to 

THE RENAISSANCE COURT. 

Man had wrought for centuries patiently and laboriously at 
Gothic architecture, and had advanced, by regular stages, to the 
perfection of that style, which, after reaching its zenith in the 
14th century, as regularly and decidedly declined in excellence, 
until the indispensable principles of true art — simplicity, and good 
taste — ^were, towards the close of the 15th century, overwhelmed 
by excess of ornament. Whilst this downward road was followed 
by most European artists, various causes led to the revival of 
the Antique in Italy, and at the commencement of the 15th 
century, l^e celebrated Brunelleschi produced a work founded on 
the Antique Roman style, of the highest merit, viz., the Dome of 
Florence Cathedral. In the year 1420, Ghiberti executed his 
wonderful bronze doors, and from thenceforward the new style of 
the revived art, or the Benaissance, as it is now usually q^ed, 
advanced rapidly, first throughout Italy, and, in the succeeding 
century, throughout Europe. Amongst the causes which led to this 
revival may be included the decline of the feudal system, the growing 
freedom of thought, the recent discoveries of the New World, and 
of the art of Printing. With the rise of the spirit of personal inde- 
pendence was created a thirst for ancient literature and art, and 
a search for the hidden fountains of antiquity was enthusiastically 
persevered in, until in the end it proved eminently successfrd. 

Monastic libraries, in obedience to the demands of the public 
voice, yielded up their treasures of ancient literature, whilst the 
soil of Italy was made to disgorge its mutilated frrhgments of 
antique art. The effects of these sudden, unexpected, and precious 
acquisitions may readily be imagined ; they created a complete 
revolution in literature and art throughout Italy, which spread 



03 aENSRAL amOB BOOK. 

Utenoe into other ootrntriea. The two boMitlM tirts ot Fainting 
uid Sculpture saw witli emulative aliame tlieir pi^sent inferiorit]r 
in the ranks of Art ; and in their noble aspirations towaids the 
peEfootion newly placed be&nre them, the; aasiuned theii poeitaoa 
as distinct and legitimate creations. But if the Gothic ejBteia waa 
now dying out, it had left at least one valuable legacy to the 
fatnre, in its appreciation and adoption of natural models. The 
Italian artists of the 16th century received the gift joyfiiUy, 
and, combining it with what treasures antiquity afforded them, 
produced a style which, in sculpture eepeoially, has all the freeki.- 
ness of nature and the refinement of the antique, as both wer« 
capable of being united by gifted men whose names have come 
down in glory to our own day, and will oommand the aduuration 
of the latest posterity. 

On no branch of art did the revival of the antique more strongly 
act, than on the art of architecture ; the Qothio style, which had 
never t,'ken deep root in the soil of classic Italy, speedily fell 
altogether in that country before the recent discovery and imita- 
tion of the '^num antiquities. No powerful body of Freemasons 
was there, aa in England, France, and Oermany, to oppose the 
progress of the new style ; and 
the individual energy of iuoh 
men as Brunellesohi, Bramante, 
and the great architects of the 
northern states, soon established 
it on an indestraotible basis. 
And, however mnch a partizan 
spirit may decry this or that 
particular style, the productions 
influenced by the revival of 
the antique, throughout the 
16th century, especially in ar- 
chitecture and sculpture, will 
never bil to excite our astonish- 
ment and emulation. 

The facade before us is a re- 
stored copy of a portion of the 
Actsada of Httei Baurgthei-oiiidij at Kouen. Hdtel BouTgtheroulde, at Bouen. 
It was built at the end of the 
15th and the beginning of the 16th centniie* The baa-relief 
before us repreBents the Field of the Cloth of Gold, and the 
memorable meeting (in 1620) of Francis I. of France and our own 



THB BBNAISSANOE COURT. 87 

Henry VIII. The frieze above is from the Hospital of the Poor, 
at Pistoifty in Tuscany, and shows m(Hiks or priests relieying the 
poor ; the original is in coloured porcelaiDu Entering the Court, 
we find in the lunettes under the ceiling of the small loggia, or 
galleiy, portraits of twelve of the most celebrated persons of Italy, 
Spain, France, and Gei^many, of the Renaissance period, including 
in the central compartment Francis I. of France, and Catharine de' 
MedicL In the compartment to the right are, Lorenzo de' 
Medici and Lucrezia Borgia ; and, in that to the lefb, Mary of 
Burgundy and Maximilian of Germany. In the centre of the 
Court we find a fountain of the Itenaissance period, from the 
Ch4tean de Gaillon, in France ; and on either side of the 
foimtain are two bronze wells, from the Ducal Palace at Yenice. 
Directing our steps to the right, we may first examine the deco- 
rations on the lower part of the interior of the facade, the bas- 
relief of which is taken from the high altar at Granada Cathedral, 
in Spain. The statue in the centre is that of the wife of Louis 
de Poncher, the original of which is now in the Louvre; its 
date may be assigned to the early portion of the 16th century. 
The altar on which the statue is placed is from the Certosa near 
Pavia, in Northern Italy. The first object on the side-wall is a 
door, by Jean Goujon (a French sculptor who executed many 
works at the Louvre), from the church of Saint Maclou, at Kouen ; 
then a doorway from the Doria Palace at Genoa, a fine specimen 
of the dnque-cento ; above this are &Ye bas-reliefs from the 
museum at Florence, representing Faith, Prayer, Wisdom, 
Justice, and Charity ; and beyond it, one of the most beau- 
tifrd objects in the palace, a copy of the far:famed gates from 
the Baptistery at Florence, executed by Lorenzo Ghiberti, who was 
occupied upon his work for the space of twenty-one years. One 
glance is sufficient to assure the spectator that sculpture had indeed 
advanced to an extraordinary degree of excellence at the period 
which we have now reached. The visitor having sufficiently admired 
these ** Gates of Paradise,'' as Michael Angelo termed them, will 
proceed on his way, passing another doorway, which, like that on 
the other side, already seen, is from Genoa. Close to it, is a door 
by Goujon, corresponding to the door in the opposite comer. 

On the back wall we first notice a composition made up from 
various examples of dnque-cento work. Adjoining it is a portion of 
an altar from the Certosa, near Pavia, — a beautiful specimen of 
sculptural art of the time. Next to this is another piece 
of dnque-cento composition, from specimens at the same Certosa, 



68 GBNESAL QUIDB BOOK. 

from Bouen Oathedral and other places. In the centra^ two 
colossal figures (Caryatides), firom the Louvre, by Jean Goujon, 
suppOTt a large cast of the Nymph of Fontainebleau, by the 
celebrated Benrenuto Cellini Next to the Caryatides we see an 
exquisite specimen of a portion of the interior of the principal 
entrance to the Certosa most elaborately canred, and the panels 
filled in with bas-relie& ; the doorway by its side is from the 
H6tel de Yille, of Oudenarde, in Belgium. It stands out from 
the wall, and looks very like an antique cabinet or screen. 
Another architectural example from the Cerfcosa follows, being a 
sort of military monument erected to the memory of G. G. 
Yisoonti, Duke of Milan ; the date of its execution is the end 
of the 15th century. On the side next the French MediiBTal 
Court is first another oak door from Saint Madou by Jean 
Goujon« and then a doorway, from Genoa ; and, above it, the 
frieze of '^ The Singers, '^ by Luca della Bobbia, the original 
c^ which is at Florence, a most charming work, fall of life 
and animation. In the centre of this — ^the northern — side of the 
Court, is a cast from one of the windows of the facade of the 
Certosa, a remarkably fine example of dnque-cento ; next to it, 
another doorway, from the .Doria Palace at Genoa ; and in the 
comer a fourth door from Saint Maclou, by Goujon, the central bas- 
relief of which represents the Baptism of Christ. The lower part of 
the interior of the f agade is devoted to examples of Italian sculpture 
of the 16th century, including a head of St. John by Donatello. 

The monument placed against the wall is that of Ilaria di 
Caretto, from Lucca Cathedral, executed by Jacopo deUa Querda, 
of Sienna, early in the 15th century : it is a very fine example 
of the cinque-cento style. 

Two statues by Donatello cannot fail to be noticed — ^his St. 
John and David, which display great power and study of nature. 

We now pass out through the doorway imder the Nymph of 
Fontainebleau, and enter a vestibule in the Renaissance style. Here, 
on the ceiling, is a copy of a painting from the Sala del Cambio 
(Exchange) at Perugia, in Italy, by Perugino, the master of 
Baffaelle, who assisted Perugino in the work. The painting 
represents the Seven Planets, with Apollo in the centre, as the 
personification of the Sun. The wall of the Benaissance Court to 
the left of the entrance is decorated with terra-cotta arches, 
and a frieze from the Certosa ; the singing boys in the frieze are 
of great merit. The bronze monument in the centre is that 
of Lewis of Bavaria, a very interesting example of late German 



THB BLIZABBTHAN OOUET. 



89 



Oothk^ lemarkable for the finish of its details. - On eitiier side of 
tiie doorway are parts of Goujon's doors from St. Madou, at Bouen. 
In the cenlore of the gallery are placed Grennain Pilon's '^ Graoes/' 
now in the Loavre, a cluurming example of the French sdbool of 
sculpture. The four angles under the Perugia ceiling are occupied 
by four statues, also by Pilon ; and the very remarkable bronze 
effigy in the centre, against the garden, is from the Museum at 
Florence ; it is ascribed to Yecchietta of Sienna. 

The kneeling effigies in the gallery are from the Hertford 
moniunent in Salisbury Cathedral, probably ^ected in the first half 
of the 17th century. On the back wall, to the right of the 
doorway, are richly ornamented arches in terra-cotta, from the 
large cloisters of thd Gertosa, and also bas-reliefs and specimens of 
the Benaissance style from various parts of Italy. The central 
monument of Bernard von Gablenz is an exceedingly fine example 
of the style as practised in Germany, at the dose of the 16th cen- 
tury. After examining these objects, we turn into the narrow court 
adjoining the Benaissance Court, and find ourselves in 




''Hmm'*>i-mmii,WMM'ismM:' 







Facade from Elizabethan Coui't 



THE ELIZABETHAN COURT. 

The architectural details in this Court are taken from Holland 
House, at Kensington, a fine old mansion made interesting to us 
by many associations. Elizabethan architecture, whidi was in its 



90 OENBBAL aUIDB BOOK. 

flower dining the latter half of the 16th oentuiy — more than a 
hundred years after the revival of classical architecture in Italy-— 
showB the first symptoms of the adoption of the new style in 
England. The £3izabethan style — ^the name reaches back over the 
century — ^is characterized by a rough imitation of antique detail 
applied to masses of buildhig, in which many Grothic features 
were still retained as regards general form, but altered as to orna- 
ment. The style being in its very nature transitory, it gradwklly 
gave way, although characterized by a certain palatial grandeur and 
striking picturesqueness, before tiie increasing knowledge which 
England obtained of Italian architecture, until we find it entirely 
displaced in the first half of the I7th century by the excellent 
style of building introduced by Inigo Jones. We must add, that, 
although it has no pretensions to the character of a regular or 
complete system, yet few who have visited the great Elizabethan 
mansions scattered over England can have failed to admire their 
picturesque and solid appearance, their stately halls, corridors, 
staircases, and chimney-pieces, and the beautiful garden terraces, 
which form so important a feature in their general design. 

This Court contains several tombs of the period. The first is 
that of Sir John Cheney, &om Salisbury Cathedral : a soldier who 
distinguished himself in the wars of the Hoses, and was attached 
to the party of Henry YII. The original effigy is in alabaster, 
a material much used during the early part of the 16th century. 
The next monument is that of Mary Queen of Scots from West- 
minster Abbey, executed in the beginning of the l7th century, 
and displaying in its treatment all the characteristics of the Eliiai- 
bethan style. The succeeding monument is that of Queen 
Elizabeth, also from Westminster, constructed at about the same 
period as that of Queen Mary ; the original effigy is of white 
marble. The last monument is that of Margaret, Countess of 
Biohmond and Derby (the mother of Henry VII.), at Westminster. 
It is the work of the Florentine sculptor Torrigiano ; the original 
is in copper, and its date the early part of the 16th century ; it 
is of imuBual n\erit. Advancing a few paces, the visitor again 
reaches the Nave, and turning still southward, finds himself before 



!DHE ITALIAN COUET. 



The Italian Coui-t, 



THE ITALIAN COURT: 



Wldch, as will be at once remarked, closely resembles the' style 
of antique Bomam art, on irhidt, indeed, the modem is professedly 
founded. Although Bronelleschi, as we have befbreobserred, revived 
the practice of antique architectvire as early as the year 1420, yet 
varioiia causes combined to delay a thorough inveet^tion of the 
antique remains until the close of the century ; and it even is not 
until the commencement of the 16th century that we find the 
Italian style, or modernized Boman, re^^ularly systematized and 
generally received throi^hout Italy ; from whence it gradually 
extended, first to Spain and to France, and at a somewhat later 
period into England and Germany. The power and excellence of 
the style are nobly exhibited in a large number of buildings, 
amongst which may be noted the ancient library at Venice, 
St. Peter's at Borne, the Pitti Palace, Florence, the Banlioa of 
Vicenaa, the great Colonnade of the Louvre, Paris ; St. Paul's 
Cathedral, London ; and the Escurial Palace, near Madrid. 

Jn this style, architecture reets chiefly on its own intrinaio 
excellence, or on proportifm, symmetry, and good taste. The arts 
of Bculptm^ and painting, in a great measure, become independent 
of architecture ; and their absence in buildings of a later period 
(the 17th and 18th centuries, for instance) led to a ooldnws of 



92 GENERAL GUIDE BOOK. 

character, which happily promises at the present day to find its 
remedy. 

The Court before which we stand is foimded on a portion of the 
finest palatial edifice in Eome, — ^the Famese Palace, commenced 
by the architect Antonio Sangallo, for Cardinal Famese, and 
finished under the direction of Michael Angelo. A curious &ct in 
connexion with the original building is, that the stones which 
compose it were taken from the ancient Coliseum, within whose 
mighty walls the early Christians sufiered martyrdom ; so that, in 
truth, the same stones which bore witness to the faith and courage 
of the early devotees, served afterwards to build, for the faith 
triumphant a palace in whick luxury, worldliness, and pride, found 
a genial home. 

Prior to entering the Court, we may remark, in the niches, the 
bronze statues by Sansovino, from the Campanile Loggia at Venice, 
amongst which Apollo is conceived quite in the old Eoman spirit. 
Passing beneath the columns in the centre of the court, we see the 
fountain of the Tartarughe, or ''of the Tortoises'' at Home, 
designed by Giacomo della Porta, with bronze statues by Taddeo 
Tjandini. Turning to the right, the first object that attracts our 
attention is a statue of the Virgin and Child, Jsy Michael Angelo, the . 
original of which is at San Lorenzo, Florence. Advancing to the 
south side, we enter a loggia or arcade, the interior of which is richly -t 

ornamented with copies of Kafifaelle's celebrated frescoes in the Loggie 
of the Vatican palace at Rome. They consist of a mosit fanciful, yet 
tastdful, combination of landscape figures, architecture and foliage, 
founded on antique models, and bearing a dose resemblance to the 
ornamental work discovered in various Boman ruins, especially at 
the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, which, however, were at 
that time unknown. In the centre of the arcade, towards the 
Court, is the monument of Giuliano de' Medici, from San Lorenzo, 
Florence. On each side of his statue are the reclining figures 
Kight and Light (part of the same monument). This is one of 
Michael Angelo's masterpieces, and is remarkably characteristic of 
the sculptor's style. At the back of it, in the Loggia, is a fine spe- 
cimen of bronze casting, from Venice. On each side of the entrance 
to the gallery are two groups of a Virgin with the dead Christ, that 
to the right being by Bernini, the other to the left by Michael 
Angelo, both especially interesting as serving to indicate the state 
of art in the 16th and l7th centuries respectively. The remaining 
statues, as far as the loggia, are by Michael Angelo. The visitor 
may now enter the loggia, which, like its companion on the other 



THE ITALIAN COURT. 93 

side of the Court, is ornamented with copies of Raf^Bielle's frescoes 
from the Vatican ; in the centre of this side of the Court is placed 
Michael Angelo's celebrated monument of Lorenzo de' Medici, from 
the church of Sam Lorenzo at Florence ; the reclining figures on 
each side of the statue of Lorenzo represent Dawn and Twilight. 
At the back of this monument within the arcade is the fine bronze 
door by Sansoyino from St. Mark's, Venice, on which he is said to 
, have laboured from twenty to thirty years. .The projecting heads 

I are supposed to be portraits ; amongst them are those of Titian, 

Aretino, and of the sculptor himself. Proceeding onwards, the 
beautiful composition of Jonah and the Whale, by Raffaelle, 
is from the Chigi Chapel at Rome. Passing into the gallery on 
the Garden side, we remark in the four angles the pedestals of the 
Venetian standards, from the Square of St. Mark, Venice. The 
painted ceilings of this gallery deserve especial attention. The 
first on entering the gallery is from an existing example at the 
" Old Library," Venice ; the last is from the " Camera della 
Segnatura," by Raffaelle, at the Vatican ; beneath which is the 
fine statue of St. Jerome, by Torrigiano, from Seville, in Spain. 

The monuments on the external wall of the vestibule afford 
excellent examples of the later Renaissance style. Amongst them 

[ may be particularly noted the monimient of Landnio Curzio 

'^ (nearest the gallery), from Milan, by Agostino Busti, evincing 

that delicate execution for which the sculptor was famous ; and 
the central altar of La Madonna della Scarpa, from the Cathedral 
of St. Mark, Venice — an elaborate specimen of bronze casting, 
completed early in the 16th century by Pietro Lombardo and 
others. The monument on the side nearest the Nave is an excel- 
lent example of the Renaissance style. 

. The decoration of the vestibule is founded on the very elegant 
Casa Tavema at Milan, by Bernardino Luini, a pupil of Leonardo 
da Vind, and aiSbrds an excellent idea of the peculiar painted 
mural ornament prevailing in Italy at the commencement of the 
16th century. The doors are from the Palace of the CanceUaria at 
Rome, by BramAnte, the famous designer of St. Peter's in that 
city, and the immediate predecessor of the great architects of the 

^-1 16th century. The vestibule itself is rich in very beautiful 

drawings after the old masters, by Mr. West. 

We have now completed our survey of one of the most interest- 
ing features of the Crystal Palace. We have performed our 
promise to guide the visitor through the various Fine Art Courts, 
bringing before his notice some of the principal objects that have 



S4 GENERAL GUIDE BOOK. 

adorned las road, and endeavouring, by oor brief remarics, to 
heighten the pleasure he must aeoeaaarily have experienced from 



Fatado of Italian VeeUbuk. 

tlie eight of no noble an assemblage of architectural and sculptural 
ai^ Much however remains to be seen and accomplished — much 
that requires patient examination and study — examination that 
will yield tr^h beauty, and study that will be rewarded by per- 
manent and useful knowledge. For guidance and help we refer 
the viMtor to the handbooks of the several Courts. The misaion of 



B of Italian Court, 



^ 



THE STATIONERY COUBT. 95 

this little work, as far as the Fine Art Courts are ooncemed, is 
accomplished : and '^ The Guide Book " now only waits until the 
visitor has sufficiently recovered firom his fatigue, in order to 
resume, in other parts of the building, the part of cicerone. 

Grosfflng the great transept to the west, we proceed towards the 
south end of the building, and, keeping to the right hand, com- 
mence our pilgrimage through the Industrial Courts. The first that 
we arriye at is 

THE STATIONERY COURT. 

In the formation of this and of the other Industrial Courts, the 
several architects have been solicitous to express, both in the con- 
struction and the decoration, as far as possible, the specific 
destination : with the view of maintaining some harmony between 
the objects exhibited and the building in which they 
are contained. The Stationery Court has been designed and 
erected by Mr. J. G. Crace. The style of this Court is composite, 
and may be regarded as the application of cinque-cento ornamental 
decoration to a wooden structure, ifxtemally the aun has been to 
fnmish certain coloured surfaces, which shall harmonize with the 
plants around and with the general aspect of the Palace. In the 
interior of the Court, the dark neutral tint on the lower level will 
be seen to serve as an admirable backgroimd to the objects exhibited ; 
whilst the panels covered with cinque-cento decoration, combined 
with the elegant imitation of marquetrie work, produce an effect 
which deserves the highest praise. Over the opening through which we 
enter this Court, and between the stained glass windows let into 
the wall, have been introduced allegorical figures of the arts and 
sciences applied in the manufacture of the articles exhibited in the 
Court, and over the opening at the back the artist has depicted the 
Gemi of Manufacture, Commerce, <bc. In the centre of the panels 
throughout the Court representations are painted of the processes 
which the objects exhibited imdergo during their manufacture. 

As the visitor passes round this Court, let him step out at one of 
the entrances on the north side, close to which he will find erected 
** The Cbystal Palace Medal Press." This machine, which is 
official, and worked on behalf of the Company by Messrs. T. B. 
Finches and Co., will be employed from time to time in striking 
commemorative medals, designed by Mr. Pinches or other artists 
connected with the Palace. The machine is worked by four men, 
one of whom adjusts the metal to be stamped between the simk 



96 eBNERAL eUIDE BOOK. 

dies : as soon as the metal is fixed, the other workmen swing the 
lever rapidly rounds and the great pressure produces impressions of 
the dies on the metal, which is turned out sharp and distinct, and 
then put into a lathe and completed. In the glass cases placed 
near, the visitor will have an opportunity of inspecting nimierou» 
specimens of the medals produced by the machine, amongst which 
those in frosted silver deserve especial notice for the beauty of 
their appearance. 

The visitor, proceeding round the Stationery Court, fronu right 
to left, will find amongst the works of industry exhibited, fancy 
stationery, books, specimens of ornamental printing, pencil 
drawings, and other articles of the kind. At tho back of this and 
of the Birmingham Court, or towards the west front of the 
building, is situated " The Hardware Court,** in which are 
placed household utensils, iron and zinc bronzes, gas-fittings, 
refrigerators, and numerous articles in metals. At the back of this 
Court again, is a large space extending in a southerly direction from 
the Hardware Court to the Pompeian Court (at which the visitor 
will presently arrive), devoted to the exhibition of furniture. 
Here wiU be found not only useful articles of household furniture, 
but specimens of tapestry work, wood carving, picture frames, and 
other ornamental articles which give grace to our rooms, and 
which, by means of our great mechanical excellence, are daily 
becoming more and more within the reach of the great body of the 
people. The visitor will do well, in examining these Courts, to view 
them in sections, so as not to miss those Industrial Courts which 
face the Nave. Emerging from the opening that leads to the south 
side of the Stationery Court, a few steps will bring him once more 
into the Nave, where he will notice a stand appropriated to the 
exhibition and printing by the Messrs. Day, of chromo-lithographic 
views of some of the most picturesque and interesting portions of the 
contents of the Crystal Palace. These coloured views are produced 
by Mr. P. H. Belamotte, and they gain an additional interest from 
the fact, that the process of printing is witnessed by the visitor in 
the Palace. The greatest accuracy is obtained in fixing the colours 
by means of the registring process. 

Next in order of the Industrial establishments, comes 

THE BIRMINGHAM COURT. 

This Court has been designed by Mr. Tite, and the architect has 
considered that the purpose to which the Court is applied mi^ht 



THE SHEFFIELD COUET. 97 

best be expressod by showing some of the principal ornamental 
uses of kon in architecture. With this intention, he has designed 
lor the &^ade of the court a restoration, in modem woric, of the 
ICngliaTi ornamental iron endosuries of the l7th century, which 
differed but slightly from those prevailing at the same time in 
France in the 'style of Louis XIV. The English, however, are 
generally richer in foliage, while the latter are more fandfiil in 
scroll work. At the period referred to, the whole of those 
enclosures were of wrought and hammered iron, cast-iron being at 
that time little known, but in the enclosure before us, although it 
has been executed on much the same principle as the old work, the 
ornaments are cast, in order to secure greater durability, cast-iron 
not being so easily destroyed as wrought-iron, by the oxidation 
which proceeds with such enormous rapidity in this country. The 
castings have been most admirably executed, and so sharp and 
distincf were the outlines of the patterns, that they required but 
^ttle after-finishing. The pilasters are of enamelled slate, excellent 
for their imitation of marble, surmounted by iron capitals. Entering 
through the gates in the centre, the visitor finds th^ interior of the 
court panelled in the style of the same period and decorated by 
Mr. Sang with emblematical paintings and other appropriate 
ornamentation in encaustic. 

In this court will be found articles in nickel silver, seal-presses^ 
gilt toys, metallic bedsteads, and similar manufactured goods of 
universal use. Quitting this department, wo approach the next 
Industrial Court in succession, 

THE SHEFFIELD COURT. 

The architect of this court is Mr. G. H. Stokes, whose structure 
at once compels attention by the novelty of its design, and by its 
general striking efifect. Although there is a considerable admixture 
of styles in the court, the parts have been so well selected and 
their blending is so excellently contrived, that they yield a 
harmonious result in every way pleasing to the eye. The materials 
used in the construction are plate-glass and kon, an appropriate 
and happy selection for a court intended to receive the productions 
of Sheffield. The panels on the outer walls are of plate-glass, 
inclosed within gilt-mouldings ; the pilasters and the frieze over 
the large panels are likewise of {date-glass. The iron columns 
above, forming an arcade, are in a composite Moresque-Gotbic 
stylo, and elaborately ornamental in design. Entering the court 



es QBKBBAIi OUn>B BOOK. 

from the nave, we fiiid the interior deooratioDB identical with thoM 
of the exterior — with two differences, Tic, the large lower panels^ 
inatead of being of plate-glass, foe of red cloth, which aerreg as A 
back ground to throw up and disfday tlie artiolea exhiUted. Tho 
firieie or i^iaae above the columns, nowmerely covered inih painted 
decorations, will, at a future period be adorned with paintinga, 
&luatrative of the manu&cture of Sheffield ware. 

TTuuling out of this department wilt be found, at the l>aok, 
a apace devoted to mineral manufkctures, including works of art 
in terra-ootta, tiles, marble, and glaSB, Jcc. Having made OUT 
way to the nave, a stop brings us at onoe before tho exquiute 
rostoiation of 



Tb« Bs; sod Cit; or Nni'lcs. 



THE POMPEIAN COURT. 



Seventeen hundred and seventy-five years ago, the dtios of 
Herculauewn and Pompeii, beautifully situated on the shores of 
the Bay of Naples, were buried beneath the cinders and 
aabea votnitad forth by Vesuvius. The hoirors of this cala- 
mity are recorded in the writings of Pliny, and of other Roman 
historians of the period. So sudden was the outtneak and general 
oonvulsicoi thai, as we leant, many of the inhabitants of those 
dtiea were ctu^t in their terrible doom before the thought of 



100 GENERAL GUIDE BOOK. 

escape occurred to them. The dread event completed, nature 
resumed her former aspect. The mountain flames ceased, the 
intense blue sky again looked down upon the dancing waters, and 
there was nothing to tell of the general havoc, but a vast desolate 
tract covered with white ashes, under which man and his works lay 
entombed. 

For upwards of sixteen hundred yeajs the cities continued undis- 
turbed beneath their crust. But about the middle of ^the last cen- 
tury, curiosity with respect to them was stirred, inquiry commenced, 
and excavations were attempted. As in the more recent case of 
Nineveh, but with still more satisfactory results, success at once 
crowned investigation. The material that had destroyed Hercula- 
neum and Pompeii had also preserved them. That which had 
robbed them of life had also perpetuated their story in death. 
The cities were redelivered to man so far imdecayed, that he 
obtained actual visible knowledge of the manner of life of one of 
the most remarkable people that ever governed the world. To the 
insight thus obtained, the visitor is indebted for the reproduction of 
the Pompeian house before which he now stands — a habitation of 
the time, complete in every respect, from the outer walls to the 
most insignificant object in domestic use. 

The doorway of this house stands fronting the nave. Entering 
it, we pass through the narrow prothyrum or passage, on either 
side of which is a room devoted to the door-keeper and slaves, and 
on its pavement the words " ca/ve ccmemy" — ^beware of the dog — 
meet the eye. It is the usual notice engraved on the threshold 
of these Koman houses. Emerging from the passage, we are at 
once in the ^' atrimn" or outer hall of the edifice. The eye is 
not attracted here, as in other restorations of the palace, by the 
architectural design alone ; the attention is also secured and charmed 
by the decorations. The bright coloured walls, the light, fanciful 
character of the ornaments, the variety of patterns, and the excellent 
method of colouring, which at the lower part is dark, and graduates 
upwards, imtil it becomes white on the ceiling — constitute some 
of the beautiful features that give individuality to Pompeian houses, 
and cause them to differ most essentially from every other style. 

This entire hall, or ^^atrkmi,'^ was the part of the buildiog 
common to all visitors. The opening above is the " conijoluvmm,^^ 
and the marble basin beneath, the " imp^tmt*m," which received 
the rain that fell from the roof. In the actual houses at Pompeii, 
the size of the ^^impltmum" corresponds, of course, with the 
dimensions of the opening above. Here the " conypluviwm " has 



THE POMPEIAN COURT. 101 

been widened in order to admit more light into tlie court. The 
flooring consists of tesselated pavement, and near the two other 
doorways leading into the " airwMw," is inscribed the well known 
word ** Salve " — * Velcome " — ^announcing the profuse hospitality of 
the owner. Two out of the three entrances mentioned are formed 
here for convenience of egress and ingress, and are ngt copied from 
actual buildings, in which only one door exists. 

^^ As soon as we have entered the court, we turn to the right, and 

proceed round it, stepping into the " cubictday" or bed chambers, 
to admire the figures that seem to be suspended in the intensely 
fine atmosphere, and — ^with our English experiences — ^to wonder 
how, whether by day or by night, comfort could be attained in 
such close dormitories. We reach the side entrance, next to which 
is an open recess corresponding with a second recess on the other 
side of the " <xtrmm," These recesses were called " ate," or wings, 
and were used for the transaction of business with visitors. On the 
central panel of the first recess is painted a scene from the story 
of '' Perseus and Andromeda," and on the side panel are again 
exquisite figures, painted not in the centre of the panel, producing 
a stiff formality, but nearer to the top than to the bottom, so that 
the forms still seem to float before us. Continuing our way, wo 
turn into the large apartment opposite the door at which we 

* entered. This is the " tablimim,'' and was used for the reception 

of the family archives, pictures, and objects of art. It probably 
served the purposes also of the modem " drawing-room." Across 
the '^ tcMvn/um " a curtain was no doubt drawn, to separate the 
private dwelling-house from the more public " atriv/m" although it 
is a remarkable fact that no remains of hooks or rings, or of 
anything else, has been discovered to convey an idea of the means 
by which such a curtain could be attached. In order to enter 
within the " tcMvnvm " a special invitation was required. 

From this point, the " Peristyle " is also visible, with its colimms 
coloured red some way up, a flower garden in the centre, and a back 
wall, upon which are curious specimens of perspective decoration, 
in which the Bomans seem to have delighted. This court was 
always open to the sky in the middle. Passing through the 

i ^^tMmwn" and turning to the right, we come to a small door- 

way which admits us into the " i/ric^vimif" or dining-room. The 
Roman dining-room generally contained three couches, each laige 
enough to hold three persons. In feeding, the Roman was accus- 
tomed to lie on his breast and to stretch out his hand towards the 
table in order to serve himself. When dinner was over, he turned 



l02 aKKEBAL OUIDB BOUE. 

on ioB left ude, and leant on im elbow. Be-entering the Periskyio, ■ 
we proceed on our way, Btill to the r^ht, Eind pass a drinkiiig- 
room, on the watla of which &uit« are painted, some hanging in 
golden cluBteiB 6n a wreath of foliage, supported by Cupids. Next 
to this ia the "jiorta poaUca," or bock door, and, adjoining it a 
small recess, which served as kitchen. Crossing the " Peiistyle," 
near one end of which in the domestic altar, we turn to the left, 
and, after paetdng a small chamber, reach the batb-room — that 
chamber so esgential to the Inxmions Boman. Close to this 
is the eummer dining-room, and beyond this again, and correit- 
ponding with the " Ifm-Univ/m," is the bed-chamber of the imstress 
of the house. Quitting this, wo once more gain the " atrwim," 
by means of narrow fauces, or passages, and return to the nave, 
through the door of the house at which we originally entered. The 
visitor has seen the extremes of deoorative art, when, after sating 
his eyes with the profuse and dazzling embeUishment of the 
Alhambra, be has also dwelt upon the delicate work of colours 
gracing the walls of Pompeii. 



m CaBtellainaTe and Qivgnimo. 



ETHNOLOCflCAL AND NATUBAL mffTOEY DBFABTMSNT. 103 

ETHNOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY DEPARTMENT. 

UpoA quittiiig the Pompeian Court the yisitery still walking south- 
wards, crosses the south transept and enters that division of the 
building which is devoted to geographical groupings of men, aaimalsy 
and plants. The illustrations of the animal and vegetable kingdoms 
in the Crystal Palace have been arranged upon a specific principle 
and i^an. Although the British Museum contains nearly all the 
examples of animals and birds known in the world, and Kew Gar- 
dens exhibit specimens of the majority of trees and plants known to 
botanists — still neither of these collections affords the visitor any 
accurate idea of the manner in which these ntunerous objects are 
scattered over the earth. Nor do^hey assist his conjectures as to 
the nature or the general aspect of their native countries. Here 
an attempt, has been made to remove the confusion ; and it is 
believed that the associations of these two branches of Natural 
Science, in groupings arranged in such a manner as the nature 
of the bxiilding will permit, coupled with illustrations of the 
human variety belonging to the same soil (a collection which has 
never before been attempted in any country) will prove both 
instructive and amusing, and afford a dearer conception than can 
be obtained elsewhere of the manner ia which the varieties of 
man, animals, and plants, are distributed over the globe. 

Zoology (firom Zoifny an animal,) is, strictly speaking, that science 
which invesikigates the whole animal kingdom, comprehending man 
as well as the inferior animals. Zoology therefore, in a wide sense^ 
includes Ethnology, or so much of that science as considers the 
different varieties or races of men in a physical point of view, 
instituting comparisons between them, and carefully pointing out 
the differences or afiinities which characterize the physical structure 
of various branches of the great human family. In more confined 
use, the term zoology relates only to the consideration and study 
of the mammalia, or warm-blooded animals ; the requirements 
of scientific research having occasioned a new nomenclature in 
order to distinguish, the different branches of the same' study. 
Hence the natural history of birds is particularized as Ornithology, 
and that of fish, as Ichthyology,, whilst the investigation of those 
characters in man which serve to distinguish one race fix)m 
another is, as previously remarked, called Ethnology (from the 
Greek Ethnos, ^'nation"). This last-named science is subdivided 
again into different branches, but, in a limited and inferior 
sense, and as illustrated by the various groups in the Palace, 



104 aBNfiEAL QUIBE BOOK. 

it may be described as that science which distinguishes the 
differences in skin, hair, bone, and stature that exist between the 
various races of men. This zoological branch of Ethnology relates 
to the physical history of man as opposed to his mental histoiy, 
and foUowing up the course of his wanderings, endeavours by 
the above-mentioned physical peculiarities to ascend to the source 
fix>m which the several migrating races have proceeded. 

Within the Palace itself, we have been enabled to remark the 
works of man, and the gradual development of his ideas, especially 
in Art, leading to a variety of so-called '' styles," which answer in 
a measure to the varied tpedea of Divinely created life. We have 
now an opportuniiy of attentively considering the more marvellous 
and infinite creations of the Deity in the orgamzaldon and develop- 
ment of that greatest of all mysteries— -life itself; and of obtaining 
a vivid idea of those peculiar varieties of mankind, that have 
hitherto not fallen imder our personal observation. If the visitor 
should feel astonishment in the presence of some of the phases of 
human existence here presented to him, he may do well to bear 
in mind, that they are representations of human beings endowed 
with immortal souls ; to whose capabilities we may not place a 
limit, and that it is not yet two thousand years since the fore- 
fathers of the present European family tattooed their skins, and 
lived in so savage a state, that late archiBological researches 
induce us to suspect they were not wholly firee from one of the 
w(»«t diargee that is laid to savage existence ; viz. the practice of 
cannibalism.'^ 

Entering upon the path immediately before him, the visitor will 
commence the examination of the groups arranged on the^westem 
side of the nave which illustrate the Ethnology, Zoology, and 
Botany of 

THE NEW WORLD. 

The first section we come to is devoted to the illustration of the 
Arctic r^ons : to the left on entering are placed two polar bears j 
the skin of the largest having befen brought home by Captain 
Inglefield on his last memorable return from the Arctic regions. 
The smaller bear died in England some years ago. To the' right 
will be found a group of Esquimaux, a race of people inhabiting 
the ice-bound shores of the Arctic regions, and who from the nature 
of their language, and the position of their country, are compara- 
tively isolated from the rest of mankind. They pass their short 

* Arclueol. Joxtm,, p. 207. Sept. 18(3. 



ETHNOLOGICAL AND NATUBAL HISTORY DEPARTMENT. 105 

smfctmerB in hunting foxes and fishing, and during the winter, form 
dwelling-places in the frozen snow ; their principal means of 
subsistenoe being, during that season, dried fish, and whale oil. 
They are short of stature, possess broad faces, resembling in some 
respects the Chinese, straight lo^ hair, and weU-proportioned limbs, 

* and are generally plump and even £ei,t. Since the introduction of 
Christianity amongst the Esquimaux, they have advanced in civi- 
lization. Continuing along the path, we pass a glass-case con- 
taining a selection of North American birds, and beyond this we 
anive at a group of North American Bed Indians engaged in a 
war-dance, and surrounded by the trees and shrubs indigenous to 
North America. The most conspicuous amongst these are the 
American Bhododendrons, the Kalmias, the Andromedas, and the 
Amierican a/rbor vitcB, The Indians of the valle;)^ of the Mississippi, 
and of the drainage of the Great Lakes supply us with our current 
ideas of the so-called Bed Man, or the Indian of the Ne;7 World. 
In stature they are above the middle height, and exhibit great mus- 
cular force, their powers of endurance being very great ; in temper , 
they are harsh, stoical, and unsociable, whilst in warflEure they are 
savage and crueL The general physiognomy of the Bed Indians is 

V the same from the Bocky Mountains to the Atlantic. Between 
the Alleghanies and the Atlantic, the first-known country of these 
tribes, the variety is now nearly ^xtinct. 

Quitting this group and continuing our way, the visitor finds 
before him a glass tank containing some of the North American 
fluviatile (river) animals, such as the bull frog and snapping tiuiJe, 
and on his right a case of West Indian marine objects, exhibited 
in order to afford an idea of . the nature of the sea bottom in that 
region. In this case are moUusques, corals, sponges, <&c. This 
rare collection of objects is the property of J. S. Boworbank, 
Esq. , by whom they have bfeen kindly lent to the Crystal Palace, and 
arranged. 

Betuming a short distance, and taking the left-hand path, wo. 
find on our right the trees and animals of Central America ; 
amongst the latter a fine male puma grey with age. Before 
reaching this, the visitor will note a large specimen of 
Agave Americama^ one of the most striking plants of Central 
America. The puma may be regarded as the American represen- 
tative of the lion of the old world, the distribution of both these 
animals throughout their respective hemispheres having originally 
been very generaL like most of the cat tribe the puma is a 
good climber, and usually chooses trees, rocks, and other elevated 



106 aBKBBAL QVIDZ BOOK. 

positionB from TirMch it can dart upon its prey. On the left of 
the visitor are two groups, representative of the North Brazik. 
The greatest group on the left hand is characteristic of Guiana, and 
beyond it is the Amazonian group. These two are intended to serve 
as types of the South American varieties of Indians. And if we 
institute a comparison between the various races of North and South 
America, it will be found that the latter possess more delicate 
features, rounder forms, and are of smaller stature. Their habits 
and pursuits also differ. The red Indian of North America ^ves 
himself up entirely to hunting, whilst the South American 
devotes his life to £shing, guiding his light canoe down ^the 
rapid rolling rivers of his country, in search of the means of sub- 
sistence. 

Continuing our path, we arrive at a case of South American 
birds, and, beyond this, a zoological group. On the ground, to the 
left, is a -jaguar, which has just killed a brocket deer, and is about 
to eat it, when his repast is disturbed by a growl from a black 
jaguar, who is coming down the rocks, on the right, to contest the 
prey with his spotted brother. As the leopard is found only in 
the old world, so is the jaguar met with in the New World only, 
and each may be regarded as a representative of the other, on 
opposite sides of the Atlantic ocean ; the jaguar having greatly the 
advantage in size and muscular strength. Near these is placed an 
adult and a young specimen of the llama, or guanaco, as it is 
called by the Peruvians, who employ this animal as a beast of 
burden, notwithstanding its small size and apparent inability to 
sustain heavy loads. like the dromedary, it is capable of enduring 
great fatigue, and can climb over almost impassable roads. Indeed, 
imtil the introduction of mules and horses by the Spaniards, these 
little creatures brought to the sea-side all the gold and silver from 
the world-famous mines of the Andes. 

Leaving this episode of wild animal life, the visitor advances on 
his path, and, after passing a case of birds, arrives at another 
group of animals, illustrative of South America. Amongst these 
will be seen a specimen of the tapir, of which there are but three 
kinds, this (the American)^ being not only the largest of the three, 
but also the largest native animal of South America. It is of a 
harmless and timid nature, living on vegetable food, and shunning 
the haimts of man. It appears intermediate in form between 
idle hog and the elephant, and may be regarded as the New 
World representative of the latter, amongst thick-skinned animals. 
Next to this is a ptima, about to spring upon a brocket-deer. 



ETHNOLOQICAL AHD NATIJBAL HISTORY DEPAfiTMBNT. 107 

whoBo Bhouldsis it wonld Beize, and whom it would dertroy by 
pnUiiig back the head with its paws, iintil it would break tbe 
little creature'a neck. The ethnological group, on the light, ie 
a repreaentation of a party of BotocudoB, two of whom are 
engaged in a fierce fight with Bticka. These inhabitants of South 
America are regarded as the fiercest of American aavagea ; tiiey 
are yellow in colour, their hair is long and lank, their eyes are 
small, their cheek bones piominent, the expression of their ooun- 



tenanco is excesslTely savage, and they give themselves a still 
wilder appearance by the introduction of blocks of hard wood in 
the under-lip, and in the ears. Missionary efforts, it is consolatory 
to think, have done something towards civilizing Utese savages, who 
have been induced to become industrious and to turn their attention 
to the cultivation of the soiL Owing to the tropical character of the 
regions to whit^ the forgoing groups of South American men and 
animals belonj^ Hifl botanical specimens are not large. Nevertheless, 



108 GENERAL GUIDE BOOK. 

the species introduced are strictly coireet. They consistt, principally^ 
of Bmgmansias^ Fuchsias, Calceolarias, and those two splendid 
members of the fir tribe, AraucoMria vmbricata and BraaiUa/Mi. 

Such are the first specimens presented, in the Crystal Palace, of 
the zoological and other curiosities of the New World. Others in 
due time will follow ; but the j>resent examples will be sufficient 
to show the object attempted, in the way of scientific instruction, 
and to impress the mind of the visitor with the importance of the 
study of natural history, by the means of grouped illustrations. 

Crossing the road, and passing the screen, We proceed to examine, 
on the garden-side of the Palace, the various natural history 
illustrations of 

THE OLD WORLD. 

On entering this section of the department wiU be found two cases 
of South African birds, — for it is at South Africa we commence 
our investigation — and immediately before us is seen a group of 
Zulu Kaffires. This tribe has become especially interesting to 
Englishmen on account of their long war with the K&Sre people, 
and of their acquaintance with a number of Zulus who visited this 
country in 1863. The Kaffire tribes are far above the rest of the 
South African races : they are in a measure civilized, some of them 
build houses and towns, and pay considerable attention to arts and 
manufactures. In general they are tall and well proportioned ; 
their skin is of a brown colour ; they have woolly hair, high fore- 
heads, and prominent noses, and are of an excessively warlike and 
predatory disposition. On one side of this group are two Bosjes- 
men, and on the other two Earthmen, all of whom are generally 
styled Bushmen ; they fix their abode on unappropriated tracts of 
land, which frequently separate hostile tribes. 

On the right of the visitor, amidst the vegetation of South 
Africa, are placed a giraffe, a leucoryx, and a bontebok. The giraffe 
is a male bom in London about ten years ago. Its long neck 
enables it to browse upon the young shoots of tall trees, and to 
curl around them its tongue, which it can extend a great way, and 
with which it draws its food into its mouth. As the two-humped 
camel is peculiarly an Asiatic animal, and the llama a South 
American one, so is the giraffe peculiar to Afirica, and perhaps the 
most characteristic animal of that rich zoological region. 

In the space on the left of the visitor, which is also devoted to 
South Africa, are groups of a lion and cub, a brown hyaena, 
and a battle between a leopard and a duyker-bok. Such a 



110 GENERAL GUIDE BOOK. 

batUe is not an xuicoinmon occuirenoe in saTa^e life. _ The leopard, 
making too sure of its prey, has fearlessly sprung upon it, and the 
little antelope has received the attack upon its knees with its head 
down. No sooner does it feel the claws of its enemy, than it at 
once partly raises itself, and at ithe same instant, by means of the 
great muscular strength which ^ the deer tribe possess in the 
head and, neck, it buries one of its tldhis'in the ribs of the leopard, 
whose countenance plainly indicat«^'^e deadly nature of the 
wound. The plants of this region '&^ chiefly heaths. There are 
also some fine specimens of Foljfgm and Amphelexis, together 
with several plants whose aspectSv.ai'e £l.s curious as their names. 

Choosing the path to the right, ~^ he faces the group of Kaffires, 
the visitor will presently arriv^^at the section which separates 
Eastern Africa, on the confines oi which will be found a female 
hippopotamus. As this animial is found in both Southern and 
Eastern Africa, it here occupies kn intermediate place between 
the two provinces. From the fine young male now in the Begent's 
Park Zoological Oardens, "Uie habits of this animal are too 
generally known to need CQi]bi^ent here. We now come to a 
group of those Danakils who inhabit the country between 
Abyssinia and the sea, le^ing a camel to water. The 
Danakils are a nomad or wanderiug tribe ; they are of a cho- 
colate-coloui^d complexion, and have woolly hair, which they 
dress in a fantastic manner ; tliey are of slender make, tall, and 
differ widely in appearance fcom'the Negto. The Danakils are tran- • 
sitional between the Negro and tiie Arab, possess a Jewish 
physiognomy, and have acquired fb^ Negro element from their 
iAtercourse with the neighbouring m^mbeis^ of that race. Proceed- 
ing a short distance^ we find, on the' extreme left, a group of slaves, 
which, with the plants and animsds, repres^t Western Africa. The 
Negro nations of Guinea are those that have supplied slaves for the 
Americas. These specimens are typical of the Negroes from the 
Delta of the Niger, and are chiefly Ibos, but the lighter varieties 
are the Fellatahs and Nufis, from the interior of the country, and 
they exhibit less of the Negro type. SFear this group will be found 
three specimens of the chimpanzee, tne animal whose form most 
nearly resembles that of man. It is found only on the Western Coast 
of Africa, though it may probably also exist in the far interior, where 
no European as yet has penetrated. Though similar to the ourang 
outang of Sumatra in general form, the chimpanzee is a smaller 
animal ; it lives in woods, builds huts, uses clubs for attack as well 
as for defence, and in many ways exhibits an intelligence that 



BTHNOL09IOAL AND NATUEAL HIBTOET DHPAETMENT. IH 



Th« Ohimpimioo. 

Beyond thia, and npon the verge of N'mihem AMca, is repro- 
xentod & battle between two Isopwls, fordblj' reminding lu of a 
quairel between two oats, which, in fact, it is. Anj one who 
has seen one o^t advancing towards another, must have observed 
that there is always a dedro to receive the aaaault lying on the back. 



112 GBNfiBAL GUIDB BOOK. 

with the four legs upwards. The motiTe is to be in a positioii to haTO 
free use of the claws of all the legs ; and in the group before us, 
though the smaller animal appears to have the advantage both by 
position and by the grip he has taken on the throat of the other, 
yet the laceration he is receiving underneath from the hind 
legs of the larger animal, will soon oblige him to release his 
hold. The vegetation of North Africa includes orange and lemon 
trees, the date palm, the oleander, the sweet bay tree, and the 
laurustinus. 

On the right we have before us an illustration of Asia, in which 
the tiger hunt forms a most important feature. The danger of this 
sport is sufficiently known to all who have engaged in or heard of 
it. The tiger, seen extended on his back, has been wounded from 
the howdah, or car on the elephant's back, and in his struggle has 
rolled over into that position. The other tiger seeks to revenge his 
companion by an attack upon the persons in the howdah, whilst 
the elephant is in the act of uttering a roar of fear, and stcurting 
off with the speed of terror from the scene of action. Under such 
circumstances, the keeper, seated on the neck of the animal, has no 
control over him, and the riders are in imminent peril of being jolted 
out of their seats, and of falling into the clutches of the tiger. 
Near this episode of hunting-life in India will bo found a group of 
Hindoos, in vrhich will be readily distinguished two distinct kinds 
of physiognomy, one coarse-featured and dark-skinned — ^the low 
caste— and the other with fine features, and lighter-skinned — ^the 
high caste. The Hindoos belong to the Indo-European nations, 
and are spread over British India ; some of them are exceed- 
ingly handsome, possessing small foreheads and black lively 
eyes ; they are physically weak, and incapable of hard, manual 
labour. Some are very skilful artisans, and employ their time 
in painting on ivory, in wood-carving, and in manufacturing 
the beautifdl Indian shawls and fine cloths so much esteemed by 
Europeans. The most conspicuous shrubs here are the Indian 
Bhododendrons, contrasting with the American Khododendrons in 
the New World. Here are also the India-rubber tree, the Assam tea 
plant, and the drooping Juniperus recurva. Opposite the group of 
Hindoos the visitor will see a lion and lioness witii a cub under the 
shade of some orange trees, as further illustrations of North Africa. 
Near them is a specimen of the Barbary Ape, the only monkey found 
in Europe. He is seen in the wild state inhabiting the caverns of 
unpregnable Gibraltar. 

Further on, and on the left of the visitor, will be seen a group 



BTHNOLOQICAL AND KAimiAL EISTOBT DEPAATHMT. 113 

r^meenting the population of Chineee Tartar^, and seTeral apod- 
BWnB of Afdatic ankoAlu, including the Lu^e-homed sheep called 
Oris Ammon, which is exceedingly lais ; the Yaka, or granting 
axea, which are used hy the Tartars for riding or driving, as 
w^ as for food or dothing ; the tail being veiy much in request 



in India for brdBhing away flies, no less than as on emblem of 
authority ; and the Onnce, an animal which three hundred years 
ago was comparatively well known, but whose skin has since become 
so lare that the veiy existence of the animal has been questioned. 



Ill QENfiEAli GtriDE ^OOS. 

European travellers have lately visited its haunts in Central Asia, 
and satis&otorily proved that it still lives. The most conspicnoiui 
plants are the Camellias and the Indian arbor vitse, which is tibe 
Asiatio representative of the similar plant in the new world. 
Amongst this botanical group will be found also specimens of the 
black and green tea plants. 

Let the visitor now pass under the staircases leading to the 
gaUeries, aad, bearing somewhat to the right, he mO. come to » 
small plot of groimd dedicated to the illustration of Australia 
and New Guinea. Selecting the left-hand path, he will fii^t notice 
a case of marine objects, consisting of the mollusques, corals, &c., of 
Australia, and advancing a few paces, wiU find, on his left, a small 
piece of ground devoted to New Guinea. The ethnological group 
are the Papuans of New Guinea, easily distinguishable by their 
curious, Mzzled hair, which makes their heads ijpsemble mops ; 
they are neither Malays, nor Negroes, but a mixed race between 
the two, retaining the characteristics of the tribes from which 
they sprung : hence they may be called Malay-Negroes. Turning 
to the right from this group, a few steps conduct us to a case 
filled with Australian birds, and then proceeding towards the 
entrance to this portion of our geographical illustrations, we 
have on our right a general illustration of Australia ; and on 
the left another marine case. - Amongst the animals will be 
noticed that most characteristic form, the kangaroo. The Austra- 
lian men here depicted strike xis at once by their half-starved, 
lanky, and ill-proportioned bodies ; they may be looked upon as 
savages, hunters, and inhabitants of forests ; they possess that 
excessive projection of the jaw which ethnologists make one of 
the distinguishing traits in the most degraded forms of man. 

Here the visitor wiU find numerous plants with which he is 
acquainted in conservatories ; the Banksia, the Acacias, and the 
different kinds of Epacris aad Eriostemon, are amongst the most 
conspicuous. He wiU see also specimens of three other kinds of 
Araucaria, the most elegant of which is the Norfolk Island Pine. 

Quitting this part, and proceeding up the building in a northerly 
direction, after crossing the transept we find, dose to the open, • 
corridor looking out on the gardens, a plot of ground devoted to 
the illustration of the Indian isles. The principal group of men 
represents a party of the natives of Borneo in iiieir war dresses, 
and to the left is a group of Simiatrans, with three opium eaters 
from Java ; there will likewise be noticed a black leopard and two 
Malay bears« 



MUSIOAL INSmUHfiKT COUET. 115 

The plants of the Indian islands^ with the exception of those 
beantifiil Orchids (for the growth of which our building is not 
siifficientl7 warm or humid), are not to be procured in England. 
The vegetation of these regions is, accordingly, unrepresented. 
Our iUustrations here are conventional and picturesque. 

With this group we complete our rapid survey of the Natural 
History department of the Crystal Palace. It remains to mention 
that the lithnological section has been formed imder the direction 
of Dr. T«tham ; that tiie Zool<^cal Collection has been formed by 
Mr. G. B. Waterhouse ; that Mr. Gkmld has formed the Ornitholo- 
gical Collection, and that Sir Joseph Paxton has selected the plants to 
illustrate the Botany. The whole of the Katural History arrangements 
have been effected under the general direction of Professor iidward 
Forbes, and the personal superintendence of Mr. Wm. Thomson. 

Turning now to the left, a few paces bring us to tiie side of the 
first Industrial Court ; or, of 

THE MUSICAL INSTRUMENT COURT. 

Thiir,Courb displays much inventive fkncy in its geneml design 
and execution, and may fairly challenge comparison with any archi* 
tectural novelty in the Palace. It is the production of Mr. John 
Thomas, who is well known as the sculptor of the statues at the 
new Houses of Parliament. The aim of the architect here has 
been, not so much to build a mere Court for the exhibition of 
musical instruments, as to produce a Temple dedicated to Music^ 
and to render the architectural detail and ornament typical of the 
high and beautiful art as well as of the subservient mechanical 
craft. The end of the Court before which we are now standing is 
symbolical of Sacred Music. Over the two doorways are alto- 
relievo figures of Miriam and David, and in the centre is a 
bust of JubaL The three-quarter columns are of a composite 
design, part of the shaft being made to represent organ-pipes. 
Turning into the nave^ we advance towards the principal sidoi 
or rather front of the Comii, which is divided iQto three com* 
partments, and may be regarded as the typification of mytho* 
logical and primitive music, a head of Apollo appearing in 
the centre, the frieze along the whole length of this side being 
ornamented with heads of Pan, lyres, sea-shells, and other 
instruments of sound. In front are the statues of Musidora to 
the left and Diana to the right ; the recumbent figures near thenf 
Are allegorical of Night (to the left) and Morning; Entering 

. x2 



116 QBNB&AL aUIDB BOOK. 

tiiroUgh one of the central openings, we find tihe interior of the 
Court more highly decorated than the exterior. Over the 
entrances are figures of St. Cecilia and Erato^ tinder which are 
lines from Dryden and Collins. Bound the other portions of 
the Court are ranged the busts of the most celebrated English 
and foreign c(»npo6ers, and on the Meze are figures of boys 
playing upon various instrumoits. In fact the whole Court, 
externally and internally, is descriptive of the music of all ages and 
all countries ; whilst ilie pleasant subdued colouring hannonizes 
charmingly with the pervading spirit. MsJdng his way round this 
court by the usual route, viz., from right to left, the visitor will 
notice the places appropriated to pianofortes, harps, drums, wind 
and stringed instruments. The windows of this court afford a 
favourable opportunity for exhibiting printed musia On issuing 
into the nave we come next to the 



PRINTED FABRICS COURT. 

This court represents a branch of trade peculiarly belonging to* 
England, and one indeed, in which, until of late, she has been 
almost without a competitor ; viz., the manufacture and printing 
of cotton and woollen goods. The architects, Messrs. Banks and 
Barry, have adorned the walls of this court with medallion portraits 
of the eminent men to whose genius we are indebted for improve- 
ments in this particular branch of manufacture ; and the frieze, with 
bas-reliefs representing' the introduction of the raw material into 
thifif country, and the several processes through which the same 
material passes, until it finally quits England again in its most 
highly finished and useful form. No particular style is followed 
in this court : the architects have suited their fancy by appro- 
priating -what they found pictmresque in several styles ; and the 
character of the court may be called decorative Italian, combined 
with Elizabethan, and even Byzantine features. Entering through 
the central opening, the most important object in the interior is an 
allegorical figure of Manchester placed in the centre : a distinction 
due to' the city which is the heart of the cotton trade of the 
country, Next in order to this court we reach the 



MIXBD FABBICS OOUET. IV 



MIXED FABRICS COURT. 



UMi Oourt luMs been erected by Professor Gottfried Semper. It 
is divided into two parts : one covered by a ceiling, for the 
reception of the more delicate fabrics likely to suffer by exposure 
to the sun's rays, and which may be seen to better advantage in a 
subdued lighit ; and the other uncovered, and appropriated to raw 
produce, «nd such textile manufactures as are not susceptible of 
injury from sunshine. The style of decoration employed is Cinque 
CkmbOy and the ornaments are, as in other cases, symbolical of the 
fioaAufactures to which the Court is dedicated. 

On the tympanum- above the entrance to the covered porti<Ht is 
placed a head of Minerva, the traditional inventress of spinning and 
weaving. In the panels on either side of the head will be paB^ia|;B 
of the olive tree, sacred to Minerva, and, in our ideal, to Peace, 
the true protecting goddess of human industry. Oh the roof 
of the covered portion will be placed a fountain, composed of 
Majolica ware, at the angles of which ar6 placed small figures of 
•boys on sheep, and the general decorations of wMch are symbolical 
of weaving and spinning. This fountain will, however, be better 
seen from the gallery above. 

Entering throu^ the opening in the semidrculai: uncovered 
portion, on either side of which are pedestals, to be surmomited 
by typical groups, we may first examine the decorations of the 
Coxat, and then the contents of the glass cases, which include 
hosiery, shawls, and other textile fabrics. Afber this we enter 
the covered division. The lower portion of the Court is occupied 
with glass cases, and above are placed ornamental columns, support- 
ing the ceiling ; the latter is panelled in oak, abd the insides of the 
panels are filled in with representations of the hemp and flax 
plants, from which linen is manufactured ; mulberry bushes, the 
leaves of which are the food of the silk- worm ; and tiie symbolical 
Golden Fleece, all painted on blue and red groimds. On the ceiling 
also are tablets inscribed with the names of the principal continental 
and "RTigliah manufacturing towns. In this court are exhibited 
manufactured silks, India and China shawls, and other costly and 
delicate fabrics. 

Quitting this collection of manufactiuna, we pass on, in the 
nave, to the 



118 GBNSBAIi aUIDE BOOK. 



rORElQN INDUSTRIAL COURT. 

Conftjaououft amidst tiie articles of art and manufactttre exhibited 
in this Court are the specimens oi Sevres porcelain and Gobelin 
tapestry, sent for exhibition at the Crystal Palace &om the Tmi>eria] 
manufiEbctories of IVance by his Majesty the Empefor of the 
French. The Gbbelins factory at Paris is celebrated for its 
tapestry work and carpets ; and the quarter of the city in which it 
is situated has for four or five centuries past been inhabited ^by 
wool-dyers, for the sake of a valuable and peculiar stream of water 
that passes through it. Jean Gk>belin, a wool-<Lyer, lived here in 
the 16th century, and amassed a large ftintane in his trade, which 
after his death was carried on for a time by his descendants, who 
having in their tnm become rich, allowed the business.to pass into 
other hands. Their successors, the Messrs. Canaye, added a new 
branch of trade — the manufiftcture of tapestry, which until then 
had been confined to Flanders. Louis XIV. purchased the fEustory 
from these proprietors ; and the Gobelins, which has since remained 
crown property, was in 1826 made also the seat of the royal manu<* 
&otory of carpets. Le Brun, the painter, was appointed director 
of the Gobelins in 1667, and painted his ^* Batties of Alexander 
the Great " as patterns for tapestry. At the present time many 
eminent artists and chemists are connected with the factory, 
including M. Chevreuil, whose connexion with the Gobelins has 
led to the production of a most valuable and complete work on the 
contrasts of colour. 

The manufactory of Sevres porcelain was originally established 
at Yincennes ; but in the middle of the last century the fiurmers- 
general purchased and transferred it to the littie village of Sevres, 
situated a few miles from Paris. Louis XY., in compliance with 
the wish of Madame de Pompadotir, afterwards bought it from the 
fkrmers*general, and, like the Grobelins n^nufiMtory, this, too, has 
since remained the property of the crown. 

Porcelain is of two kinds, soft and hard, and up to 1770, the 
former only was produced in France ; but after that period the 
latter also was manufactured at Sevres. Common earthenware 
vessels are soft : white stone ware and crockery are hard : and hard 
porcelain during the last century was alone considered worthy of the 
name, the manufacture being confined chiefly to China and Japan. 
In 1761, however, the secret of its composition had been imparted 
to the director of the Sevres works, who was, however, unable to 



THE FOEBIGN INDUSOJBUL COURT. 119 

produce the superior ware in consequence of the scarcity of the 
white Kaolmy or day, employed in its production. A large 
quantity of this material haying been shortly afterwards accidentally 
diseovered at Limoges, in France, the manufacture of hard porce- 
lain of the finest quality was commenced, and has ever since 
been carried on, at Sevres. The common specimens of S^yres 
china are ornamented with beautifdlly painted flowers on a 
plain ground ; but the more splendid pieces have grounds of 
rarious colours, including those most highly prized and beautiful, 
the Eose Dubarry and the Bleu de Boi. When the first named 
ground is employed the cups are frequently jewelled, and generally 
these splendid examples are decorated with the most beautiful 
paintings of fruits, flowers, and figures. The specimens^ painted 
with subjects after Watteau are much prized. 

Specimens of Sevres china command large sums amongst 
coUectoiB, and like most objects of vertu are often fraudulently 
imitated. Attached to the Sevres fEtctory is a museum, in which 
are placed specimens of all the different kinds of china manufac- 
tured there since its. establishment, and a most valuable collection 
' of works in ceramic warei of all ages and nations. We may add, 
that this manufla.ctory, in the hands of government, is not a 
profitable speculaticm, and barely covers its necessary expenses. 

This Court was originally entrusted to a French architect, who, 
late in the spring, on account of the short period allowed for its 
construction, declined its execution. At the eleventh hour. Sir 
Joseph Paxton took it in hand, and in the short space of one 
month the Court has risen from its foundations to its present state 
of completeness, the builder being Mr. George Myers. The style 
chosen by Sir Joseph Paxton is late Grothic. It is built, like the 
Stationery Court, chiefly of wood, the construction not being con- 
cealed, but allowed to appear, and emblazoned with colour. The 
lower panels facing the nave are of silvered-plate glass, and above 
are panels ornamented with beautiful examples of illuminated art. 
The decorations of the interior consist of shields emblazoned with 
the arms of various nations, and legendary scrolls setting forth 
the names of the principal seats of manufacture. 

This Court concludes the series of Industrial establishments 
erected within the Crystal Palace for the display of the skill of 
England and of other nations. The attempt to collect under 
one roof the best specimens of various trades whose seats of 
manufrtcture are scattered over the world, is now for the first time 
Hiade in connexion with the most elevating exhibition ever offered 



120 GBNBEAL GUIDE BOOK. 

for the instruction and enlightenment of man. The union of 
industry and Fine Art first formed in the Crystal Palace of 1851, 
but severed at the close of a few months, is here permanently 
consolidated and secured. The advantages to both purchaser and 
seller offered by this gigantic museum of intellectual and manual 
production are self-evident. Here the manufacturer and trades- 
man may bring his specimen, ussured of an admirable site for 
exposition : and here the purchaser has an opportunity of com- 
paring the best works of different hands, and lands, without the 
labour and fisitigue of journeying from shop to shop in search 
of his requirements. His selections made — a school of art, 
unrivalled in the world, solicits his contemplation, and a garden, 
of beauty certainly unmatched in England, invites to repose and 
restoration. 

Quitting the last Industrial Court, and turning to the right 
towards the garden, we reach the Photographic Departmemt 
entrusted to Mr. P. H. Delamotte, the photographer to the Crystal 
Palace Company, for the exhibition of the views of the Palace and 
grounds — ^illusixations, of a kind promising to displace the unsatis- 
factory prints which of late years have formed the sole questionable 
ornament for the walls of the working classes. 

The visitor having explored all the Fine Art Courts as well as 
the several Courts of ManufiEtcture, may now give his exclusive 
attention to the chef-dPoeuwes and valuable examples of ancient and 
modem sculpture, which he has not found Aa the Fine Art 
Courts ; but which will arrest his eye from point to point, as he 
accompanies us in 

A WALK THROUGH THE NAVE. 

Our starting point shall be the screen of the kings and queens 
of England, at the south end of the building, containing casts of 
the regal statues at the new Houses of Parliament, Westminster, 
executed by Mr. John Thomas. 

The screen itself is from the design of Mr. M. D. Wyatt, and is 
characterized by much originality and appropriateness of treat- 
ment. The series of monarchs is placed in chronological order, 
commencing, on the return side to the left (as we face the screen), 
with the kings of the Saxon heptarchy ; and beneath them the 
Saxon kings, the first on the left being Egbert, by whom the 
greater number of the petty kingdoms were first consolidated. 
The Norman series conmienoes, on the principal frt>nt, with 



122 GENBBAL aUIDE BOOK. 

William I. amd bis queen, above whom are the stataea of St. 
G^rge and St. Andrew. Amongst the various rulers of the state 
may be noticed as of great excellence, in that style of sculpture 
which has been termed ^^the Bomantic/' Henry 11., Berengaria, 
Henry V., Henry VI., Bichard III., Edward VL, Charles the 
First and his Queen Henrietta, and Cromwell ; this last was 
rejected by the Committee of iJie Houses of Parliament, but is 
clearly necessary for completing the historical series which is con- 
cluded on the return side, to the right, with the royal per- 
sonages of the reigning Guelph family, and a lower row of Saxon 
kings. 

Quitting the screen, we are first attracted on our road by Osier's 
Crystal Fountain, which occupied so conspicuous a place in the 
Great Exhibition in Hyde Park. On the water which surrounds 
it, float the gigantic leaves of the Victoria Eegia, the Kymphsaa 
Nelumbia, and other tropical plants. We will now proceed to 
the west end of the south, or Norwood transept, in which is placed 
a cast of the well-known 



EQtnsSTBIAN STATUE OF CHABLES I. 

from the origin&l at Charing Cross. It was designed and executed 
in 1633, by Hubert Le Sueur, a French sculptor, pupil of the 
celebrated John of Bologna, but was not at the time raised on its 
intended site. During the civil wars, the Parliament, wanting 
men more than statues, sold it to John Eivet, a brazier, living 
in Holbom ; by him it was kept concealed until the restoration 
of Charles II., when it returned again into the hands of the 
government, and was finally erected at Charing Cross in 1674. 
The pedestal is a work of the celebrated sculptor Grinling 
Gibbons. 

Beyond the statue of Charles I. in the central line, is placed 
that of James II. by Grinling Gibbons, cast from the original 
now in the court at the back of WhitehalL It is an excellent 
example of a portrait statue treated in the classical style ; and 
affords us a proof of the higher reach of Gibbons's genius ; whose 
well-earned reputation in the seventeenth century, we may remark, 
rested more especially on his works in ornamental carving, of 
which the exquisitely cut fruits, flowers, wreaths and other orna- 
ments on the &9ade of St. Paul's, London, are examples. 

A selection from the best productions of various Engliyi 
sculptors surrounds this portion of the transept. At the south 



A WALK THBOUaH THE NAVE. 128 

angle is the original model of the colossal statue of the great Earl 
of Chatham (449),* forming a portion of his monument in West- 
minster Abjbey. It was executed by J. Bacon, B.A., a contem- 
porary sculptor, who was celebrated for the truth and yigour of 
his porisnuts. Bacon should also be mentioned with honour, as 
one of the first native artists who foimded the English school of 
sculpture in the last ludf of the eighteenth century. Amongst the 
sfcatues in the transept itself, we would notice !M^iodonald's excel- 
lent compositions of Ulysses recognised by Ms Dog (48), and 
Andromeda (45) ; the very grac^uUy designed figure of a Bather 
(36), by Lawlor, and a group of Boys Contending for a Prize, by 
the same artist. Near the entrance are placed two figures of Dogs, 
cast from the antique, and the well-known Florentine Boar : the 
originals of these are in the gallery at Florence. 

The statues on the north side of this end of the transept ase 
principally by Spence and Theed, amongst them will be remarked 
the Highland Mary (58), and the statue of Flora (59), both by 
Spence ; I^arcissus at the Fountain (60), and Psyche (61), by 
Theed. 

At the junction of the Transept and the Nave is placed 
the colossal statue of Br. Johnson, £rom his monument at St. 
Paul's, the first that was erected in that CathedraL This portrait- 
statue, as that of Chatham, is by Bacon ; but composed, as will 
be remarked, on a diametrically opposite principle ; the great 
writer being half clad in a classic toga, whilst the great statesman, 
is brought more Tividly to our minds by being represented in the 
costume of his period and his order. 

Proceeding in front of the Pompeian Court on this side of the 
Nave, will be found various works illustrative of modem Grerman 
sculpture ; amongst which we notice a prettily conceived figure of 
a Child-Christ (163), designed for the Boyal Christmas tree, by 
Blaeser of Berlin, and a group of Minerva Protecting a Warrior 
(162), by the same sculptor. 

A charming little composition, by Brugger, of a ^'Centainr'^ 
instructing the young Achilles (No. 164). The original model of 
a nymph, with an urn (167), by Dsumecker, executed as a 
fountain at Stuttgard. An allegorical figure of Medicine (171)) 
by Hahnel of Dresden. Two seated statues, in the Greek style, 
of Thucydides and Homer (176), by Launitz. A statue of a 
Magdalen (261), by Wagner. A statue of Hector (166), by 

♦ This number refers to " The Handbook to the Portrait Gallery." 



124 GENERAL GUIDB BOOK. 

Danneoker. A very spirited group of a Hunter defending Yob 
family against a Panther (264), by Widermann, of Munich* ; 
the statue of a Hunter (263), is a chef-d'cRU/tyre by Wittig. 
C^posite the Stationery Court are excellent life-size statues of 
stags (193*),, by Professor Ranch, of Berlin, excellent examples of 
that difficult branch of the sculptor's art— the study of animal 
nature. Beyond the Stationery Court, a little to the l>a(dc, is a 
very beautifal group of a Pietk (196*), by Bietschel, of Dresden. 
The fine statues of Victory (184 to 188 inclusive), by Professor 
Bauch, are characteristic examples of that great sculptor's style, 
and of the successful variety of treatment in five designs for one 
and the samo subject. And the statue of a Nymph holding a 
Basket of Fruits and Flowers (160), by Professor Drake, is a 
picturesque example of the ** BomanUc " school A little beyond 
this is the Court of 



ENGLISH AND GERMAN SCULPTURE. 

which we may enter and explore with advantage. 

In this Court is placed a selection of the finest prodjcictions of 
the English and German schools of modem sculpture, prominent 
amongst which is seen the noble colossal head of Bavaria, by 
Ludwig Sehwan thaler, of Munich, who enjoyed a European celebrity. 
Hie original bntnze statue to which it belongs, erected outside the 
city of Munich, is fifty feet in height, the pedestal on which it 
stajids being thirty feet high. For ten years did the great 
artist, weak and broken in health, still devote himself with a true 
artist's love to the progress of his task : but he was not destined 
to witness its perfect completion ; and when the statue of the 
Genius of Bavaria was cast in bronze, its author had passed firom 
amongst us. The statue was first publicly exhibited in 1850. 

Opposite the head of Bavaria, is another example. of those 
embodiments of towns and nations, which are so frequently to be 
found on the Continent. The present colossal statue all^orizes 
Franconia, a province of Germany ; it is characterized by much 
nobility of conception, and worthily sustains the reputation of the 
modem German sculptors. The original, by Professor Halbig, is 
erected at Kilheim, in Bavaria. 

In the centre stands a part of the monument of Frederick the 
Great at Berlin, designed by Professor Bauch ; and near to it is 

* These numbers refer to those in the " Hiwidbook of Modem Sculpture." 



THB POEmAIT GALLBRT. 125 

placed a small model, showing the complete monument. The 
equestiiaa statue of the King, which surmounts the largest of the 
two, deserves particular attention, as one of the finest examples of 
modem portrait sculpture ; whilst the artistic management of the 
costume, the drapery of the cloak, and the general success seen in 
the treatment of modem costume, constitute the statue, in this 
respect, also, a tnodel in art. 

Amongst other works representative of the German school, may 
be noticed two statues of Nymphs by Schwanthaler (Nos. 202 and 
203), remarkable for their beauty of form. Placed on either side 
of the head of Bavaria, are two colossal ^* Victories," by the same 
•artist, fix>m the ^^ Ruhmeshalle," or Hall of Fame, at Munich. 
The life*size statue of a Danaid (188), by Bauch, also deserves 
especial notice, whilst Tieck's charming collection of statuettes 
<Nos. 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, and 258) chums equal praise. 

Several examples of the works of the celebrated Thorwaldsen 
will also be found collected in this Court, and evoke especial 
admiration for the beauty of their forms, for their ideality of 
expression, and for the purity of sentiment which characterizes 
their conception. Amongst them we would particularly point out 
"Venus with the Apple" (217), the Three Graces (222), 
Mercury (219), and the very beautiful bas-reliefs on the wall, 
illustrating the triumphs of Alexander (226). 

Amongst the productions of the English school, we would draw 
attention to Crawford's graceful statue of Flora (10), Wyatt's 
Bather (77), and a Nymph with an Urn (76). 

On quitting this Court (towards the great transept) we enter 
that section of 

THE PORTRAIT GALLERY 

which is devoted to the portrait-busts of celebrated Germans ; 
amongst them will be found the greatest names from that crowd of 
remarkable men, of whom Germany, in modem times, has been the 
prolific mother. They are arranged chronologically and in regular 
succession as artists, musidans, poets, dramatists, scientific men, 
authors, statesmen, soldiers, prelates, theologians, and royal per- 
sonages ; amongst them are to be remarked Beethoven (321), 
Mendelssohn (331), Goethe (337), Blucher (360), BerzeUus (354), 
Handel (314 a), Humboldt (351), Badetzky (370), and the reigning 
King of Prussia (384).* In order the better to appreciate this, 

* These numbers refer to those marked in <* Handbook to the Portrait 
GWHery." 



\- 



125 GSNS£AL QUIDS BOOK. 

and th6 three remaming seddonB of the Portrait Gallery, we refer 
the visitor to the Haudbook of the Portrait GaUeiy, which contains 
not only a notice of the Hves, but general information as to the 
diaraeter and claims to renown, of the several notabilities. 

Betuming to the nave, the visitor will find, at the angle of the 
great transept, a cast from the colossal bronze statue of Sir IU>- 
bert Peel by Marochetti, from Manchester ; and turning at this 
point, to the left, may proceed to examine the statues and numu- 
ments at the west end of the great transept. The subjects 
ranged in front of the Gennan portrait gallery, are selections 
from the works of the Roman school of English sculpture, includ- 
ing a fine collection of the works of Gibson and Wyatt. Amongst 
the principal productions of the latter, may be noticed Penelope 
(82),* a diarming group of Ino and Bacchus (73), Zephyr and 
Flora (80), a Huntress (79), and a graceful Composition of a Girl 
with a Lamb (81). The chief works of Gibson's chisel are the 
Floni (14) ; a very beautifully conceived Venus (18) ; the 
wounded Amazon (16), which it will be interesting to compare 
with the same subject, the work of an ancient Greek sculptor 
(to be noticed shortly) ; a Hunter holding in a Bog (20) ; the 
graoefEil statue of Hylas (22) ; Cupid disguised as a Shepherd 
(15), and the very elegant group of Aurora borne by the 
Zephyrs (21). 

The central place, at this end of the great transept, is oc- 
cupied by 

THB CHOEAGIO MONCTMEKT OF tYSICSATES. 

This beautiful example of ancient Greek architecture is usually 
styled the Lantern of Demosthenes, on account of a tradition, 
which ascribes its erection to that celebrated orator. No weight, 
however, can be attached to this supposition, although it may be, 
and in all probability is, due to the time of Demosthenes. 

An inscription on the architrave informs us that this monument 
was erected by Lysicrates of Kikyna, at his own expense, in order 
to commemprate a musical triumph obtained by various members 
of his tribe or clan, the Akamantis. The ancient Greeks were 
in the habit of holding a species of musical toiunament, in which 
the most celebrated masters of the art vied with each other; 
in this particular case, the palm was awarded to Theon, the flute- 

* Th«se numbers tefet to those in the '^ Handbook of Modern Sonlpture;^ 



THE PORTRAIT GALLERY. 127 

player, and the chorus of boys led by Lysiades ; the magistrate 
for the year being Evanectus. It was to celebrate this triumph 
that the monument was erected ; the tripod at the summit being 
the prize awarded, and on it was sculptured the story of Baochus 
transforming the Tyrrhenian pirates into dolphins, which was the 
Bubject of the musio. A tripod was the «Bual prize granted in 
these contests, and the victor either placed it in one of the temples, 
or, as in the present instance, consecrated a monument specially 
for its reception. 

Around the pedestal of this interesting work are placed four 
noble Greek statues of Zeno (321), Aristides (322), .^Ischines (323), 
and Fhodon (324), and on either side are seen the celebrated 
statues of men and horses, now at Eome, on the Quirinal hill, 
generally known as 

THB MOKTE CAVALLO GROUP. 

The figures are supposed to represent Castor and Pollux, and 
the two groups are respectively attributed to the sculptors 
Fhidias and Praxiteles, their names being found engraved on them. 
Th^ are admirable and striking works, remarkable for the life 
and vigorous action displayed in them. 

Passing these ancient classic monimients, and directing our steps 
along the northern side of the transept, we find several works 
of Greek sculpture, including a poetically conceived statue of 
Polyhymnia (341). The spirited figure of the Dancing Faun (352), 
firom Florence. The admirable seated portrait statue of Posi* 
donius (342). The Sleeping Faun (408). A copy of Venus de' 
Medici A statue of Mercury, seated. The Discobolus of 
Kausidas, from Naples. And the wounded Amazon (330). 
Amongst the remaining subjects, the Faun with a Goat may be 
selected as a characteristic example of the Boman style of sculpture. 

At the back of these, will be found another section of the 
Portrait gallery, consisting of the busts of celebrated Englishmen 
and Americans, arranged as previously described in the G^erman 
portrait section ; among the most remarkable may be selected — 
Inigo Jones * (388), Sir C. Wren <389), Garrick (390), Flaxman 
(394), Bacon (420), Locke (422), Newton (423), FraaJdin (424 a), 
Adam Smith (426), and Washington (451). 

* These ntuubers refer to those marked in the Handbook to ''Portrait 
Qalleiy*'* 



128 0^SEAL atJIPS BOOlt. 

At the junotion of this angle of the great transept with the nave, 
is placed the celebrated Famese Hercules, from the Mtisexim at 
Naples ; a fine example of antique sculpture, charaotetized by a 
massiTe and somewhat exaggerated muscular development, not 
however altogether inappropriate to the Hero of Physical force. 
Keeping still to the left, along the nave, we remaik several 
antique statues including the Antinous as Mercury from the 
Capitol at Bome (316), and the Adonis from Oapua (213). 

Before reaching the Egyptian Court, we turn to the left, and a 
few steps bring us to the 

GREEK AND ROMAN .SCULPTURE COURT* 

In which, as the name denotes, are collected some of the ch«f- 
(Pxuvrea of the Greek and Roman schools ; the first group that 
attracts the eye, being that in the centre of the Court, known as 
the 

TOBO FARNESE, OR FABKESE BULL. 

The original of this beautiful group, which is now preserved in 
the Museum at Naples, was discovered in the Baths of Caracalla 
at Bome, and derives its name from having been placed in the 
Famese Palace in that city. The subject is the revenge of Queen 
Antiope and her two sons, Zethus and Amphion, on Dirce, for 
seducing the affections of her husband, Syeres, King of Thebes. 
The sons, enraged at the insult offered to their mother, are repre- 
sented as about to revenge themselves by tying the unfortunate 
Dirce to the horns of a bull, when their mother, moved with 
womanly pity, intercedes for her rival, and induces them to forego 
the intended punishment. According to Pliny, the Toro Famese 
was the work of the Bhodian artists, Apollonius and Tauriseus. 
Among other remarkable subjects in this Court, we would draw 
attention to the colossal *^ Yelletri Pallas," (407) so called from 
having been discovered at Yelletri, near Bome, and now preserved 
in the Louvre, at Paris ; the Dying Gladiator (309) ; a Boy with 
a Dolphin ; and a colossal head of Pallas (409). 

A fine collection of Greek ideal and portrait busts will also be 
noticed in this Court ; amongst which the colossal heads of Yes- 
pasian (332),* Trajan (354), Pertinax (379), Lucius Yems (361), 
and Titus (333), are particularly deserving of notice. The visitor 

♦ aheee numlxW refer to those in iU ''Handbook to the Greek Court and 
Nave." 



THE GBEBK AND BOMAN SCUlfTUBB COURT. 129 

should not. quit - tins compartment without notieing the coUection 
of antique vases which it. ccmtains, amongst which the Medicean 
Yase (343) is a peculiarly elegant example of antique art. 

Betradng our steps, we once more regain the Nave, and 
advancing in front of the Egyptian Court, remark several works 
of Greek art, including a statue of Bacchus (311). 

From this point, extending throughout the fa9ade of the Greek 
Ck>urt, are ranged excellent examples of Greek sculpture, which 
the visitor may compare with the subsequent works of the Roman 
sculptors, or of Greeks settled at Bome, placed before the walls of 
the Boman Court. Amongst the Greek statues we select the 
group of Silenus and a youthful BatMshus. (306), excellently treated 
and full of life ; [seated statues of Demosthenes the philosopher 
(303) ; and of Posidonius (307), on each side of the first entrance 
to the Court ; a Bacchus and Faun (305) ; the fine group of 
the Wrestlers, from Florence (304), the well-known Drunken 
Faim (295), from the Museum at Naples ; and the ApoUo 
Sauroctonus (298), from tiie Vatican.^ Nor must we omit the 
excellent seated statues (271, 290). 

In front of the Boman Court will be first noticed Meleager and his 
dog (289) ; the fine Mercury from the Vatican (287), and the 
same subject (288) from Naples. Before the first entrance to the 
court are placed the seated statues of Trajan and Agrippina. 

The Mercury disguised as a shepherd (285), and the Adonis 
(282),f are characteristic specimens of the ordinary Boman style. 

Passing the fa^gade of the Alhambra Court, we arrive at the 
FountaiDS, which at this end of the Nave correspond to those of the 
south end, in position, and with respect to the aquatic plants which 
live in the water of the long basin. The two fountains here are 
designed by Monti the scidptor. The figures of Syrens, sup- 
porting the large shells, typify by their colour four races of men : 
the Caucasian, white ; the Nubian, black ; the North American- 
Indian, red ; and the Australian, olive. The smaller figures above 
these bear fruit indigenous to various soils. The design of the 
Fountains is most appropriate, and the entire composition very 
artistic. The bronze colour of these statues and of many others, 
in the building, is produced by means of the electrotype process 
with signal success. 

Travei:sing the Av^iue of Sphinxes-— to be noticed on our return- 

* These numbers refer to those in '' Handbook in Gh^k Court." 
f These and the following nnmbers refer to those in *' Handbook to Boman 
Ck>iirt and Nave." 



ISO SBlfEElL GUIDB BOOK. 

down the garden side, &om which point a better view of the whol» 
transept is giiined — we pass & T&iiet}r of Palms, Bantmas, and 
other tropical phmte, continued thronghont this part of the nSiTe, 
and rendered, more agreeable to the eje by the addition of an 
artificial soil and rock-work. 

Beyond this portion, and at the extreme north end of the nare, 
are placed 

THE XOOfi. KAS-VLES. 

These most interesling monumenta of ancient Greek art are now 
in the Glyptothek at Munich. 

They were diacorered in the island of .^^gina, and are supposed 
to have ornamented the tympanal of the east and west fronts of 
the temple of Minerva in that island. The gronp, repreeenting the 
contest over iiie body of Patroolua, belonged to the western ; and 
the five figures descriptive of the battle of Hercules and Telamon 
gainst the Trojan Ving laomedon were in the eastern tympanum. 
They are most remarkable examples of Greek sculpture during its 
second period, or from the close of the sixth to the middle of the 
fifth century B.C. 

The conception, the anatomy, (md beauty of form foand in 
these statues denote a higJJy cultivated artistic taate and power, 
to which the peculiar faces, the invariable smile on the mouth, and 
a certain stiff angularity of treatment, form a marked contrast. 
We observe in them that turning-point in the histoiy of Greek 
sculpture, when the conventionalities of an earlier system were 
receding before that love of nature and extraordinary perception of 
the beautifid, which subsequently rendered the Greeks so pre- 
eminent in art. 

The ordinals, which had, aa may be supposed, suffered con- 
siderably from the effects of time, were restored by Thorwaldsen, 
the Dane, whose consinentions spirit and thorough appredation of 
the antique sive ' assurance of the correctness of the interesting 

turn journey down the garden side of the 
pq towards the artificial rock-work, covered 
ind arrive at a fountain of toilet vin^^, 
nel, from a design by Hr. John Thomas, by- 
placed at the angles of the fountain are also 
onwards, we obtain a fine view of th« north 
I avenue of sphinxes and ps^ bees, tenni- 



182 GENERAL GUIDE BOOK. 

THE COLOSSAL EGTPTIAK FIOUBESy 

whicli are from the temple of Kameses the Great at Aboo Simbel, 
in Nubia. These immense seated statues towering to the roof of 
the transept afford us some adequate idea of the stupendous mag- 
nitude and passive grandeur which characterize the monuments of 
ancient Egyptian art. Their height is 65 feet. 

It may be remembered that in the Egyptian Court we directed 
the attention of the risitor to a model of the temple at Aboo 
Simbel ; on the facade of which were four statues of Barneses the 
Great. Two of these statues are here reproduced on the scale of 
the originals, the smaller figures aroimd them representing the 
mother, wife, and daughter of the king. 

The temple of Aboo Simbel, in Nubia, is excavated from the 
rock, and was first discovered by Burckhardt, the traveller ; the 
accmnulated sand of centuries, which then covered it, was removed 
by order of Belzoni, the first, with Captains Irby and Mangles, to 
pass its long closed entrance. The interior was covered with 
paintings and hieroglyphics relating to Bameses thetj^reat, and the 
date of the temple has been consequently placed at about 1560 B.c. 

The sphinxes which formed the avenue are cast frx)m one pre- 
served in the Louvre, the writing engraved on which presents us 
with a curious but not uncommon instance of a custom that pre- 
vailed amongst the Egyptian monarchs. On one side of the 
shoulder the name '' Pthalomen Miotph " is written in hierogly- 
phics, and on the other shoulder is the name of Shishak I. The 
last named lived about 1000 B.O., and the first nearly two hundred 
years before him. Other instances occur where the name of the 
original founder has been erased altogether, in order to make way 
for the name of some comparatively modem king. 

Leaving the fountain on our right, we arrive almost imme- 
diately in front of the Byzantine Court, where, resting beneath the 
foliage, are six effigies- of knights from the Temple Church, 
London. They are clad, with one exception, in ring-mail, and 
afford us perfect representations of military costume in the 
early part of the 13th century. They are usually called the 
Knights Templar ; but without evidence : the cross-legged 
statues are probably crusaders. The entire seiies have been 
carefully restored by Mr. Richardson. The two first statues in 
frx>nt of the German Mediaeval Court, as we fa^ce the entrance, are 
fine examples of German Gothic sculpture, from Cologne and 
^Nuremberg : the three subjects beyond them are from Langen 



THE GBBEK AKD BOMAN .SCULFTUBE COUKT. 138 

Church, Germany. The two first statues on our ' right are ir6m 
the facade of Wells Cathedral, and next to them are yarious 
examples of German sculpture. Facing the Frngliah Medbeval 
Court, will be noticed, on each side of the. entrance, the effigies 
of Bishop Kilkenny from Ely Cathedral, Henry III. from 
Westminster, and of Longesp^e from SaliAbuiy Cathedral: the 
two last being especially interesting monuments of the 13th 
century. 

On the right of the entrance, and nearest to the nave, are two 
statues from Wells Cathedral, noticeable as fine examples of Early 
"English sculpture, and the effigy 6f Bishop Northwold from Ely. 
Nearer the facade is placed the remarkable ^gy of Queen Philippa, 
the wife of Edward III. , from Westminster Abbey, belonging to the 
last half of the 1 4th century. Beyond this again, will be noticed 
the effigy from Salisbury Cathedral, of Bishop Poer, who died in 1228, 
one of the earliest monumental statues in England. In front of the 
facade of the French Mediadval Court, will be found several pieces 
of €rothic sculpture of the early period of the Pointed style, from 
Ghartres Cathedral ; on the right of the entrance from the nave are 
placed the busts of Henry II. and Diana of Poictiers, Bayard and 
Louis XII., and nearer to the nave will be seen the Virgin ** de 
Trumeau," from Notre Dame, at Paris ; and a fine picturesque 
bronase statue of a knight from the monument of Maximilian, of 
Innspruck, in the Austrian Tyrol, a remarkable work of art, 
ex:ecuted by native artists in the early part of the 16th century. 
Farther on is placed the fine bronze statue of Albert of Bavaria, 
from the tomb of Lewis of Bavarian at Munich, remarkable as 
serving to illustrate the vefy rich and characteristic costume of the 
close of the l©th century. Opposite to it is the very fine St. Greorge, 
by DonateUo, from Florence, one of the masterpieces of that 
celebrated sculptor, whilst another Innspruck statue occupies a 
position nearer the nave. Advancing onwards, still in front of 
the Renaissance Court, we recognise ' amongst the busts, those of 
Francis I., SuUy and Henry IV. of France, Shakspeare, Machia- 
velli, Ben Jonson, Cosmo de' Medici, and Lord Bacon. The 
^atues on each side of the path are from the Tartarughe fountain, 
at Rome, the extreme figure being the celebrated Bacchus, by Michael 
Angelo. Amongst the works of Italian art placed in front of the 
Italian Court, we remark the Bacchus by Sansovino, from Florence, 
the Triton from the gardens of the Doria ' palace, Genoa, the 
Tartarughe statues from Borne, and at the angle, in front of the 
Italian yestibule, the beautifril statue of Mercury, by John of 



184 GBNSBAL GUIDB BOOK. 

Bologna, a ^f-Haefmn of the 16th oentuiy school Amoi^ the 
boBts wfll be remarked those of Bafi^lle and Miehael Angelo, Iniga 
Jones and other cdebiities of the Benaissanoe period. 
Still advancing, a few steps to the left, will lead ua into 

THE GOTHIC RENAISSANCE SCULPTURE COURT 

Or " Court of Monuments of Ghiistian Art.'' 

The fbrst subjects that attract our notice as we enter are the 
Tery interesting crosses of the early Irish Church, and the richly 
Boulptured bronze colunm &om Hildesheim Cathedral in GreixiuuLy, 
a fine example of the Byzantine period. 

Beyond these are monuments of the Gothic period, amongst 
which are conspicuous the Caniilupe shrine from Hereford Cathedral* 
and the effigy of Edward III., from 'V^estminster. The central 
tombs of Bishop Wakeman, from Tewkesbury, and of Bishop Brid- 
port, from Salisbury (the last-named being that to the left). 

The tomb of Henry YII., an interesting example of the Italian 
Renaissance style in England, at an early p^iod of its introduction, 
and the fine monument of Cardinal Zeno from Venice, occupy 
the further end ; and the equestrian statue of Gattamelata, by 
Donatello, forms a conspicuous feature in this portion of the 
Court, which is completed with a cast of the celebrated Moses, by 
Michael Angelo. 

As we quit this Court, we remark in front of it two statues of 
Perseus : one by Cellini, and the other by Canova. That on tha 
left, as we fEice the Court,, by Cellini, is di^acterized by a 
grandeur of conception and power of execution, which place his 
name among those of the greatest sculptors of his day. 

For minute and interesting information respecting the monu- 
ments^ and all the statues on this side of the Palace, the visitor is 
referred to the Handbooks of the Mediseyal and Italian Courts (by 
Messrs. M. D. Wyatt and J. B. Waring), where they are folly 
described. 

The section of the Portrait Gallery, situated next to this Court, 
is devoted to the most celebrated characters of Italy, arranged iu 
the order hitherto observed. The great nobility of expression 
seen in these heads will not £adl to arrest the visitor, and to 
command his respect for the intellectual vigour which marks the 
creations of one of the most favoured spots — ^vrith respect to Art 
-r— on the earth'^ surface. We select from amongst them, Brmiel- 
leschi (131), Leonardo da Yinci (141), Michael Angelo (143), 



THE GOTHIC BfiNAISSANCE SCULFTUKB OOU&T. IZS 

Palladio (155), GanoTa (168), Pagaoini (irO), Dwte (173), Tasso 
(177), AMeri (180), and Gaineo (185 a).« 

Bending our steps from this department to the junction of the 
nave and grand transept, we find the colossal statue of Bubens, 
by Gee& of Brussels, erected in the cathedral square at 
Antwerp, of which city Bubens was a native : the original is in 
bronze, and a fine example of the modem ^'Bomantic" school 
of sculpture. Advancing along this side of the transept, and 
continuing across the garden end, we observe several chef-d'(»VA}re8 
of the late celebrated Italian sculptor, Ganova : conspicuous 
amongst which are the well-known '^ ^Graces " (125), the Dancing 
Girls (136, 137), Venus and Adonis (126), Mars and Venus (135), 
Venus emerging from the Bath (131), a group of Hebe and Paris, 
and a Magdalen (138).t 

The finely designed equestrian statues of Castor and Pollux at 
ifais eod of the traMept, axe cast from the original in bronze, by 
San Giorgio, of Milan ; and form no unworthy pendants to the 
ancient Greek sculptures of the same subject, on the opposite side. 
The equestrian statue in the centre is tiie celebrated one of 
CoUecme, modelled by Andrea Verocdhio and cast by Leopardo. 
The original, in bronze, is erected at Venice, and has always been 
admired as one of those Benaissance monuments, in which energy 
and power are exhibited with imusual spirit and knowledge. 
Pringing the southern side of this transept are placed subjects 
from the extinct French school of sculpture, the earliest charac- 
teristic example of which may be soen in the Milo, by Puget 
(117). Amongst the remaining statues we would notice the 
Bather, by Houdin (112), Julien's Amalthea (113), a Bacchante 
by Qlodion (90), and Venua at the Bath (83), by AUegxinLf 

At this angle of the nave and transept is placed 

THE COLOSSAL FlGtrSB OF DUQUESmS. 

The original of this fine bronze statue is erected at Dieppe 
in honour of the great French admiral, Duquesne. It was designed 
and executed by the sculptor Dantan, and is remarkable for the 
noble expression of the form and its spirited " Bomantic " treat- 
ment at the hands of the artist. 

From this statue, extending at the back of the extinct French 
school, will be found the fourth and last section of the Portrait 

♦ Numbers of " Portrait Gallery." 
t Numbers of ''Handbook of Modem Sculpture." 



1D6 OBHJBBAL GUIDB BOOK. 

Gallery, containing the iUustrions men and women ct ^France. 
Amongst them we remark Jean Gonjon (IM), FeHbien (203)/ 
Rachel (216), Oomeille (218), Lafontaine (220 a), Moli^e (221), 
iUcine (226), Voltaire (233), Le Sage (280), Bnffon (245), 
Massena (279), Ney (283), and the present Emperor Xotds Kapo- 
leon (312).^ In the centre of this compartment is another of Mr. 
Bimmel's fonntains, executed from a design by Mr. John Thomas. 
The crystal basin, Parian marble figures, ebony pedestal, and 
natural flowers, harmonize excellently. At the back of this 
compartment, and corresponding to the German and English 
sculpture on the opposite side of the nave, is 

THE COURT 0»^ FRENCH AND ITALIAN SCULPTURE. 

Amongst the very beautiM productions of the sculptor's art to 
be found in this Court, our space prevents more than a meris 
enumeration of some of the most remarkable, such as a colossal 
group of Caiji (99), by Etex ; " The Chase!" (No. 94), by Jean 
Debay, of Paris ; Melpomene, by Rinaldi (164) ; Ishmaei, by 
Strazza (160) ; Diana, by Benzoni (123) ; Esmepalda, by Bossetti 
(154) ; a child sewing, by Magni (148) ; and '^ the first cradle,^ 
by Auguste Debay (96), which deservedly occupies the place of 
honour in the centre, being one of the most charming works Of 
modem sculpture ; Venus disarming Cupid, byPradier (116) ; Night, 
by Pollet (116) ; The Fates, by Jean Debay (98) ; Cupid in a 
Cradle (102), by Fraiken, a very prettily conceived and chaaming 
design in the style of the modem school ; Venus with a Dove (108), 
by Fraiken ; a Dancing Faun, by Luquesne (114), designed with 
much vigour ; and, lastiy, a Neapolitan " Dancer,"by Duret (98).* 

At the back of this Court, on the garden side, are placed some 
remarkable historical statues of great interest : L'H6pital (259) 
Chancellor of France. under Henry IL (a.d. 1662), D'Aguesseau 
(269) Chancellor imder Louis XIV. ; Louis XJII. from the 
original in the Louvre, by Couston, a pupil of Coysevox. Louis 
XIV. (308 a), by Coysevox ; f and the same monarch when a boy 
(308), from a hronza now preserved in the Museum of the Louvre. 
The remaining statue is that of Louis XV., by Couston (fils), an. 
interesting work of the early part of the eighteenth century. 

Quitting the Courts we continue our examination of the statues, 
which extend along this, the garden side of the nave, commencing 



* Nmubers of "Portrait Qalleiy. 
t Numbers of ''Handbook of Modem Sculpture. 



11 



THE COURT OF 9BBNCH AND ITALIAN SCULFTUBB. 187 

next U> Ihiqaesne with Monti's admirable aUegoiidal statue of ItfeJy 
(169). The most notable of the succeeding subjects are the Plrodigal 
SooL (145)9 ^ Sc^ Gioigio ; David (147), by Magni, an artist whoto 
studies of every-day life are remarkable for their trutii to nature ; 
Gain (99), by Etex ; Geefs's Malibran (108) ; a colossal group of the 
Murder of tiie Innocents (142) ; a grand seated figure of Satan, by 
Iiough (41) ; the Horse and Dead Knight (46), also by Lough ; 
a statue of Dargan, the mimificent founder of the Irish Exhibition 
of 1853, by Jones (403*) ; an admirable statue, by Moore, of Sir 
Michael CVLoughlin, Master of the Bolk in Ireland, and *tiie first 
Roman Catholic raised to the judicial dignity since the Bevolution 
of 1688 (473). Near to these is a characteristic and striking 
seated statue of Lord Brougham, by Papworth senior. 

We now bend our steps to that junction of the Transept and 
Nave which is marked by a colossal statue of Huskisson, the first 
statesman to pioneer the way to Free-trade. It is a noble work in 
the Classic style, by Gibson^ 

In this portion of the Transept are several works of the English 
School of Sculpture, amongst which may be particularly remarked 
a statue of Shakspeare (407b) by John Bell ; the Maid of Sara- 
goflsa ; a very picturesque and vigorous ideal figure of a heroine, 
who has also inspired the pencil of Wilkie ; The Dorothea, so well 
known to the public by small copies in Parian marble ; a graceful 
statue of Andromeda, and Jane Shore. All these specimens of 
Bell's power as a sculptor are on the north side of this part of ikh 
Transept. Opposite to them will be found graceful statues of a 
Nymph (65) and Psyche (64), by Sir Eichard Westmacott. A 
Dancing Girl (50), by Calder MarshaU, R.A. The First Whisper 
of Love (49), Zephyr and Aurora (52), and an excellent portrait 
statue of Geoffirey Chaucer (53), the father of the school of English 
Poetry, also by MarshalL Nearer the Nave is an ideal statue of 
Shak!^)eare by Boubilliac, cast from the original, still preserved in 
the vestibule of Drury-lane Theatre. The colidssal statue at the 
angle is that of the great German Philosopher, Poet, and Writer, 
Leesing, byllietschel of Berlin. Along the centre of the Transept are 
placed the Eagle Slayer (6) by Bell, a work remarkable for its vigorous 
treatment ; the well-known and graceful composition, also by Bell, 
of Una and the lion ; and the fine monument erected by the good 
citizens of IVankfort to the memory of the first printers, Gutenberg, 
Faust, and Sohoeffer. The central statue represents Gntenbeigp 

* Nnmbera of ♦* Handbook of Modem Sculpture." 



im 



aENBElL GUIDE BOOK. 



wlio rests with an arm cm the shoulder of each of his fellow- 
workmexL The original is by Baron Lannitz of Frankfort, and ia 
a creditable instance of the public spirit, which does not, after the 
lapse of centuries, forget the originators of The Press — ^that mighty 
power, — ^which performs at this day so grand a part in the 
governance, and for the benefit, of the civilized world. On our way 
towards the Queen's screen we pass several excellent works of 
statuary art, amongst which may be noticed, A Faun with Cymbals 
(66), by R Westmacott, R.A,, and a David (67*) by the same 
sculptor ;' and c^posite to these Thorwaldsen's beautiful Yenus 
with the Apple (218), and a fine statue of Erato (174), by 
Launitz. 

LIST OF MODERN SCULPTURES. 



No. 

1. William Pitt, "the Gbeat Lobd 

Chatham." 

2. Dr. Johnson. 
2*. The Elements. 

S. A NTMPH PRBPABINaTO BATHE. 

3 A. Sleeping Ntmph. 
8 B. The Graces. 

3 c. Apollo DiscHAROiNa HM BOW. 

4. The Tired Hunter. 

4 a. Maternal Affection. 
4 b. Ete. 

4 c. Eve listenivo. 

5. Una AND luas Lion. 

5 A. Dorothea. 

6. The Eaolb Slater. 

6 a. Jane Shore. 

6 b. The Maid of Saragossa. 

7. Andromeda. 

8. The Infant Hercules. 

8 A. The Brother and Sister. 

9. Shaksspsarb. 

10. Flora. 

11. The Dancers. 

12. Small model. 
12*. Venus. 

18. Venus ViHciTRicE. 

14. "Flora.. 

16. oupid disouised as 



A Shepherd* 



BO 7. 

16. A Wounded Amazon. 

17. Narcissus. 

18. Aurora. 

19. Venus AND Cupid. 

20. The Hunter. 

21. Psyche BORNE BT THE Zephtbs. 

22. Htlas and the Ntmphs. 

23. Cupm with a Butterfly* 

24. CuPH> AND Psyche. 

25. Venus and Cupid. 

20. The Hours lead forth the Horses 

OF THE Sun. 
27. Phaeton. 
28* jocasta and her song. 

29. WiLLIAN HUSKISSON. 

80. Grazia. 



No. 

31. Beatrice. 

32. Christ's entry INTO Jerusalem. . 

33. The Procession to Calvary. 

33*. Children with a Pont and a 
Hound. 

84. The Emigrant. . 

85. Two Boys WBBSTLiNa. 

36. A Bathing Nymph. 

37. Samson. 

38. musidora. 

39. Murder of the Innocents. 

40. MiLO. 

41. Satan. 

42. Ariel. 

43. TiTANLA. 

44. Puck. 
44*. David. 

45. Apotheosis of Shakspeabb. 

46. The Mourners. 

47. Andromeda. 

48. TJltsses. 

49. The First Whisper OF Love. 

50. A Dancing GntL. 

51. Sabrina. 

52. Zephtr and Aurora. 

53. The Poet Chaucer. 

54. A Nymph of Diana. 

55. Mercurt. 

56. Shakespeare. 

57. Lavinia. 

58. Highland Mary. 

59. Flora. 

60. Narcissvs. 

61. Psyche. 

62. Humphrey Chetham. 

63. A Boy with a Butterfly. 

64. Psyche. 

65. A Young Nymph. 

66. A Faun with Cymbals. 

67. An Angel watching. 
67*. David. 

68. Venus AND Cupm. 

69. Venus instructing Cupid. 

70. Venus AND AscANius. 

71. *' Go AND SIN NO More." 



I 
i 



SGULPTUBBa 



13d 



No. 

72. Paolo aks FKAscncA^ 

78. iNd AKD BAOOHUB. 

74. Cupid AND THK Ntmph EvcHABia 

75. ANtmph. 

76. A Ntmph mTBBiNo THX Bath. 

77. A Nymph about to Baths. 

78. A HUNTRBSS. 

79. A Nymph OF Diana. 
SO. ZxPHYB wooiNO Flora. 

81. ASHEPHKRDBaSWITH A ElD. 

82. Pbnklopb. 

83. Vbottb AT THs Bath. 

88 *. Baochantb. 

84. The Nymph Salmacis. 

85. MODSBTY. 

8d. Cupu>. 

87. Cyparissus. 

88. A Doo. 

89. Casdcib PBRBnOL 

90. A Bacchante. 

91. A Neapolitan OiRL. 

92. Admiral DuQUBBNE. 
98. The Threb Fates. 

94. Thb Chase. 

95. Modesty and Loye. 

96. The First Cradle. 

97. LlNGENurri. 

98. A Neapolitan Dancer. 

98*. A Neapolitan Improyisatobe. 

99. Cain. 

100. A Bathbr (La Baiqnbuse). 

101. MiLO OF Crotona. 

102. Cupid cradled in a Shell. 

103. Venus CARssBiHa her Dote. 

104. Cupid Captive. 

105. A Woman of the Campaoka of 

Bomb. 

106. A Woman ep the Rhine. 

107. Pbter Paul Rubens. 

108. Malibran. 

109. The Life of St. Hubert in a series 

OF eight Bas-rblibfs. 

110. A Doo. 

111. An Italian Mower. 

112. A Bather. 

113. AMALTHiBA. 

114. A Dancing Faxtn. 

116. burydioe. 

115." Charity. 

116**. Night. 

116. ViBTUs disarming Cupid. 

116*. A Child. 

117. MiLO OF C^ROTONA. 

118. Innocence. 

119. Venus. 

120. A OiRL Praying. 

121. Charity. 

122. CopiD Disguised in a Lamb's Skin. 
128. Diana. 

124. Psyche. 

126. The Three Oraobs. 

126. Venus and Adonis. 

127. Bndymion. 

128. Nymph with Cupid. 

129. Paris. 

180. Terpsichorh. 



No. 

181. Venus LEATtNG THE Bath. 
132. Venus. 
138. Hebe. 
134. Psyche. 
136. Mars AND Venus. 
136. Dancing Girl. 
187. DANciNa Girl. 

138. The Maodalbne. 

139. Pbbseus. 

140. PBBSEU& 

141. A Funereal Vasb. 
141*. Pope Clement XIII. 
141t. A Sleeping Lion. 

142. The Murder of the Innocents. 
148i The Dead Body OF Abel. 

144. Castor and Pollux. 

145. The Prodigal Son. 

146. David. 

147. A Girl Sewing. 

148. The First Steps, or thb Italian 

Mother. 

149. Italy. 
160. Veritas. 
160*. Eve. 

152 Melancholy. 

153. BvE. 

154. Melpomene. 

155. Hope. 

156. EflKERALDA. 

157. Greek Slave. 

158. The Mendicant. 

159. Audacity. 

160. ISHMAEL. 

161. The Peri. 

162. Minerva protecting a Warrior. 

163. A Child Christ. 

164. The Centaur Chiron msTRUoriNa 

THE YovNG Achilles. 

165. Penelope. 

166. Hector. 

167. A Nymph. 

168. A Girl bbabing Fruit. 

169. Vase. 

170. Pomona. 

171. Medicine. 

172. A Bacchanal. 

173. Franconia. 

174. Erato. 

175. johan gutenburg. 

176. Homer. 

177. Thucydides. 

178. A Guardian Angel. 

179. Mercury AND A Little Satyr. 

180. A Child Praying. 

181. A Boy holding a Book. 

182. A Boy holding a Shell. 

183. ADanaid. 

184. A Victory. 

185. A Victory. 

186. A Victory. 

187. A Victory. 

188. A Victory. 

189. A Victory. 

189*. Public Happiness. 

190. The Maiden on the Stag. 

191. An Baqlb. 



140 



aBNBSAIi QUIDB BOOK. 



No. 

192. Four Long BAs-REUcpft. 
198. An Baoue. ' 
198». Two Stags. 
193**. Two TocTHS, OR SrimEivTs. 
194. Small Model of thb Mbmorial 

ERECTED TO FrEDBRIO THE QrEAT. 

196. Equestrian Statue or Frederic 

THE Great, Kino of Prussia. 
195*. The Cardinal Virtues. 
195**. Tbe History or Frbdbbio tbv 

Great. 
19«. A " PibtA." 

197. Cupids riding on Pantrbrs. 

198. The Christ- Angel. 

199. Morning, Noon, Night, Dawn. 

200. LsssiNG. 

201. A Madonna. 
90]*. A ViouN Plater. 

202. A Nymph. 
90S. A Nymph. 

204. Ceres and PROSERnNC. 

205. Bayaria. 

206. A Figure or Victory. 

207. A Figure or Victory. 

208. Four angels. 

212. A Knight. 

213. Bsllerophon with Pegasus and 

Pallas. 

214. Theseus and Hippolyta. 

215. The Shield or Hercules. 

216. Hope. 

217. Vends. 

218. Venus with the Apple. 

219. Mercury. 

220. Ganymede. 

221. A Shepherd. 

922. The Three Graces. 
228. loye bending his bow. 

224. A Genius seated and platino 

THE Lyre. 

225. A Vase. 

226. The Triumph or Alexander. 

227. Napoleon. 

228. Lord Byron. 



No. 

229. MiNERYA ADJUDGES THE ARMOUR Or 

Achilles to Ulysses. 

230. Apollo playing to the Gracbb 

AND the Muses. 
281. Thr Four Seasons. 
232. The Genius or the New Year. 
238. Cupm AND Hymen. 

284. Cupid and Ganymede. 

285. Cupid and Psych;^ 
886. Cupid and Hymen. 

287. Cupid bound by the Graces. 
238. The Birth- or Bacchus. 

239. LOYE CARESSING A DOG. 

240. LOYE MAKING HIS NeT. 

241. Jupiter dictating Laws to Love. 

242. The Four Elements. 

243. Bacchus rEEDiNo Loye. 

244. Loye awakening Psyche. 

245. The Baptism or Christ. 

246. A Guardian Angel. 

247. Three Singing Angeia 

248. Three Playing Angels. 

249. Three Floatiho iNrANTS. 

250. Charity. 

251. Christ Blessing Children. 

252. The Virgin with the Infant 

Christ and St. John. 
253^260. Eight small Statues. 

261. A Magdalen. 

262. Haoar. 
268. A Hunter. 

264. A Hunter defending his Family. 

265. The Shield or Hercules<^ 

266. Telbphus suckled by a Hind. 



267. A Nereid. 

268. A German Haicisn with a 

269. Winter. 

270. Diana. 

271. A Flower Girl. 

272. A Shepherd Boy. 
The Zollyerbin. 
Spain. 

Paris. 



Lamb. 



Mixed with those exquisite productions of man that He on 
either side of the visitor's path. Nature also bestows here some 
of her choicest treasures. We have still briefly to indicate the 
contents of 



THE GARDEN OF THE NAVE. 

The south end of the Palace and the south transept contain a 
selection of plants, .consisting chiefly of Rhododendrons, OamelliaSy 
Azaleas, and other choice conservatory plants, most carefully 
selected ; in the south transept, especially, are. arranged the finest 
specimens of these plants that can be seen. Opposite the Pompeiaa 
Court are placed two fine specimens of aloes, and, oonspicuoua 
opposite the^Birmingham Industrial Court, aro two J^orfolk Island 



THS GABDBN OF IHR NAVE. 141 

piiies. OppoBiie the Siationdry Court are two speoimena' of Morton 
Bay pine, as well as severaL specimeiis of Tdopea specioaissima from 
Australia. Under the first transept may be noticed two remarkably 
fine Norfolk Island pines, presented by his Grace the Duke of 
Devonshire. 

The garden facing ilie l^;3rptian Court is principally filled with 
palms ; and on either side of its entrance are two curious plants 
(resembling blocks of wood) called " Elephant's Foot ;" they are 
the largest specimens ever brought to Europe, and were imported 
from the Cape of Gk)od Hope by the Crystal Palace Company, lliis 
plant is one of the longest lived of any vegetable product, the 
two specimens before the visitor being supposed to be three 
thousand years old. Before this Court will be noticed also two fine 
Indian-rubber plants — a plant that has latterly acquired consi- 
derable interest and value, on account of the variety and import- 
ance of the uses to which its sap is applied. Here will also be 
noticed an old conservatory favourite, though now not often met 
with, the 8pa/rmannia Jfricana. Amongst the palms wiU be 
remarked many of very elegant and beautiful foliage, including the 
Seafarihia dtgcmsy one of the most handsome plants of New 
Holland, and the Chomosdorea degans of Mexico.. On the left of 
the entrance to the Eg3rptian Court will be seen perhaps the largest 
specimen in Europe of the BKipidM&nd/ron pUcatUe from the Cape 
of GkK>d Hope. Opposite the central entrance to the Greek Court, 
and in front of the beds, are two variegated American aloes. The 
beds are filled with a variety of conservatory plants, and have a 
border of olive plants. In front of the Koman Court will be 
observed, first, on either side of the second opening, two large 
Norfolk Island pines, presented by Her Most Gracious Majesty and 
His Boyal Highness Prince Albert. The beds, like those before 
ihe Greek Court, are principally filled with Camellias, Bliododen- 
drons, and Orange-trees, and are also bordered by several small 
■pedmens of the olive plant. Between the two foremost statues, 
at the angles of the pathway leading to ilie second opening, are 
placed two specimens of the very rare and small plant, which pro- 
duces the Winter bark of commerce, and which is called Drynvus 
Winterii, The garden in front of the Alhambra is devoted to fine 
specimens of the pomegranates. Having passed the Alhambra, we 
find the garden of the whole of this end of the building devoted to 
tropical plants, including a most magnificent collection of different 
varieties of palms. 

Between the sphinxes are placed sixteen E^gyptian date palms 



14« €^ENEEAL aUIPB BOOK. 

(Phcenix dactyUfera)^ recently imported from Egypt, and irhich 
owe their present imflomidiing appearance to the delay that took 
place in their transmission, on account of the steamer in which they 
were conveyed having been engaged, on her homeward passage, for 
the transport of troops. Amongst the different varieties of palms, 
the following may be noted, either for their large growth or beau- 
tiful foliage : an immense specimen of the 8ahal pahnetta from 
Florida, and a fine 8ahal Blacl^nurnicma ; also several fine speci- 
mens of the cocos, amongst which is the Cocos plumosuy reaching the 
height of thirty-five feet ; numerous specimens of the wax palm 
(Ceroxylon a/ndric6la)y natives of Columbia, and the curious Cala/mUs 
maximus, which, in the \damp forests of Java, grows along the 
ground to an immense length, and forms with its sharp prickles an 
almost impenetrable underwood, are also here. The Sa^ueraa sao- 
cha/rifera of India, noted for its saccharine properties, and the vege- 
table ivory palm {Fhnjtdephas macrocdrpa), deserve attention- 
The specimen of Fartdamus odoratis8vm/ifSy from Tahiti, is also 
remarkable, on account of its sweet smell. 

Opposite the Byzantine Court, the garden is filled with different 
varieties of palms brought from South America, Australia, and the 
Isle' of Bourbon. Before the Medisaval Court may be noticed two 
Norfolk Island pines, and close to the monuments at the entrance 
of the English Mediseval Court, are two fimereal cypresses, brought 
from the Vale of Tombs, in North China. Close to the Norfolk 
Island pine, on the right, facing the Court, is a small specimen of 
the'gracefol and beautiful Moreton Bay pine. The garden in front 
of the Renaissance Court is filled with conservatory plants, con- 
sisting of camellias, azaleas, &c. On either side of the entrance to 
the Italian Court are two very fine American aloes, the beds here 
being filled with orange-trees, olives, and other greenhouse plants. 
In the garden, in front of the Foreign Industrial Court, will be 
noticed two fine Norfolk Island pines. 

Having now explored the length and breadth of the ground 
floor of the Palace, we ascend the flight of stairs on the garden 
side (South), near the Great Transept, that leads to 



THB MAIN AND UPPER GAIXEBIES. 143 



THE MAIN AND UPPER GALLERIES. 

The main galleries ore devoted to the exhibition of articles of 
industry. It Tnll be sufficient to give the visitor a general list of 
the objects exhibited, and to point out the situations in which the 
various articles of manufacture are placed. The gallery in which 
the visitor stands, together with its return sides, is devoted to the 
section of precious metals and the composed ornaments. 

In the gallery beyond, towards the Sydenham or North end, are 
placed fom* hundred French and Italian photographs, illustrative 
of the architectural and sculptural arts of the periods represented 
by the several Fine Art Courts on this side of the nave ; the 
photographs being arranged in the order of the courts beneath, 
and as nearly as possible over the courts which they serve to illustrate. 
Here also will be foimd a ,fine collection of small works of art, con- 
sisting of statuettes, medals, and architectural ornaments, in like 
manner exemplifying the various styles from the Byzantine down to 
the Italian. In the north end, are works in porcelain and glass. In 
the north- western gaUery (at the back of the Assyrian Court), space 
is appropriated to Oriental manufactures. Here also is arranged 
a collection of most interesting paintings, lent to the Crystal 
Palace by the Honourable East India Company. They are copies 
of some frescoes, found on the walls of a series of caverns at 
Adjunta in Western India, and were made at the instance of the 
Indian Government, by Captain Gill of the Madras army. The 
paintings represent scenes in the life of Buddha and of Bhuddhist 
saints, and various historical events connected with the rise and 
progress of the Buddhist religion in India. The date of their 
execution extends from about the Christian era to the 10th or 
12th century ; and in style they closely resemble the contemporary 
works of painters in Europe, possessing nearly the same amount of 
artistic merit, and displaying the like absence of chia/t^-oscvrOy 
and the same attempt to copy, with literal exactness, the object 
represented. The collection is valuable, as affording the means of 
comparing the state of art in the East and in the West during 
the same period. 

In the north-western Transept are specimens of photography. 
Nearer the Great Transept, in the sam^ gallery, is arranged a 
valuable and interesting ooUeddon of photographs, illustrative of 
Orienljal aaxshitectore, amongst which the £!gyptian remains are 
particularly to be remarked ; whilst round the west end of the 



144 eENBIlAL OUIDS £|pOK. 

Transept itself philosophical instruments, cutlery, and fire-arms 
will be exhibited. In tjie. south-western, portion of the gallery, 
leather and articles manufactured in India-rubber occupy the 
space to the centre of the south transept, from which point, to 
the end of the building, the gallery is devoted to perfumery and 
chemicals. 

Along the south gallery, articles of clothing are displayed. Next 
to these are various miscellaneous articles, including work-boxes^ 
fishing-tackle, and the thousand and one objects of general use. 
From this department, to the point in the gallejy to which we 
first led the visitor, the space is appropriated to the department of 
substances used as food. 

The visitor may now ascend the flight of ^ spiral stairs in the 
central Transept, and step into the upper gallery, which is carried 
roimd the building, where a curious effect is produced by a series 
of circles extending along the building, and formed by. the 
casting of each of the girders in four pieces. . From this' ^lery 
a view is obtained of i^e whole length of the nave : and if we 
statioh ourselves at any angle of the north and south transepts, 
the nave will be seen to the greiEitest positive advantage. A still 
higher as6ent up the winding staircase brings Us to a gaUery which 
extends round the centre transept itself ; and .from this great 
height, nearly 108 feet above the level of the floor, a noble bird's 
eye view is gained, and the large Monte Gavallo groups below, as 
well as the modem Castor and Pollux, sink into comparative 
insignificance. 

On the first small gallery, above the main gallery in the central 
transept towards the road, will be found an exceedingly interesting 
collection of drawings and models for the fountains in the Crystal 
Palace, which have been furnished by Mr. M D. Wyatt, Mr. Owen 
Jones (the figures on whose designs were modelled by Signer 
Monti), Mr. John Thomas, Mr. John Bell, Baron Marochetti, 
Baron Launitz, and M. Hector Horreau. The models display much 
artistic treatment, and no small amount of inventive £EUicy. 

Descending the staircase by which we reached the transept 
gallery, we regain the main floor of the palace, and proceed to the 
basement story, a portion of which, on the garden side, is appro- 
priated to the exhibition of machinery in motion. This most 
important feature in the modem history of our country will receive, 
in the course of a few weeks, ample illustration. Passing on now, 
through the opening under the eafft end of th^ central tninflepi^ the 
vidtbr finds himself standing before— r 



T^ FABX LA|n> QASIANS. 



THE PARK AND GARDENS.* 

' Gardening, as an art, h^ flourished in all countries ; and has 
poBse«e«d in each ^ such distinctiTe features as Uie climate, the ' 
nature of the soil, and its phjdcal fbrmation, as well as the 
chatBcter of'tha people, have created. In the Gardens before na 

' Id the Park uid Ourdens, or in same put of the Fftlaee, the buid of the 
OryBt&l Fal&ce, vhich is composed of sixty performers on.wlnd ioHtrunientfl, and 
is the Urgent permaneat bond oftbs kind ever formed ia Eagland, wilt plajererj 
day ; in the sammer, from tliree until six o'clock, and in the winter from one 
until four o'clock. The member? consUtuUng the mnaical companyT which haa 
bee& ooUe:;bed from til parts of Buiope, and includes ItalianB, Frenchmen, 
Hungiiriaa% Qermans, and Boglishmen, hare been aeleated from seven hundred 
candidates. The moat important instruments emplojed are the saiophoaea, 
the sereral kinds of which are capable of eipc«3wng the qualities and rolume 
of Knuid prodnoBd by itringed instruments. The musical director is Mr. Henry 



U6 OBNS&AL &U1D8 SOOlT. 

« 

two styles are seen. The Itauak and The English Landsoafb. 
A few words may be auffident to describe the leading obarac- 
teristics of both. 

In Italy, during the middle ages, internal war&xe confined men 
to their fortresses, and^no gardens existed save those ^^pleasaunoes*' 
cultivated within the castle's quadrangle. When times grew more 
peaceful, men became more trustful, ventured fprth^ enjoyed the 
pleasures of a country life, and gardening prospered* In momuB- 
teries especiaUy, the art received attention ; but it was not untU 
the beginning of the 16th century that a decided advance was 
manifest, and then we have to note a return to the style of gar- 
dening that flourished in ancient Borne itself. Lorenzo de' Medici 
possessed a garden laid out in the revived classical manner, and 
this style, which is recognised as the Italian, has -existed in Italy 
witii certain modifications ever since. Its chief features are the 
profiise use of architectural ornaments — the groimds being sub* 
divided into terraces, and adorned with temples, statuary, ums^ 
and vases, beds cut with mathematical precision, formal alleys 
of trees, straight walks, hedges cut into fantastic devices, jets 
of water, elaborate rock-work, and fish-ponds dug into squares 
or other geometrical forms. Everything in these gardens 
is artificial in the extreme, and in set opposition to the wild 
luxuriance of nature ; and although the trees and shrubs are 
planted with a great regard to precision, they are too frequently 
devoid of aU artistic effect. During the last century, the Italian 
style became blended with English landscape gardening, but with* 
out much success ; for the formality of the original style clings to 
all Italian gardening at the present day. 

English gardening does not seem to have been regularly culti- 
vated until the reign of Henry YIIL ; although, previously to hiA 
time, parks and gardens had been laid out. Bluff King Hal 
formed the gardens of Nonsuch Palace in Surrey on a most mi^* 
nificent scale, decking them out with many wonderftd and curious 
contrivances, including a pyramid of marble with concealed holes,, 
which spirted water upon all who came within reach, — a practical 
joke which our forefathers seemed to have relished highly, for the 
ingenious engine was imitated in other gardens after that period. 
In this reign also were first laid out by Cardinal Wolsey the 
Hampton Court Gardens, containing the labyrinth, at that period 
an indispensable device of a large garden. The artificial style in 
James the First's time called forth the indignation of the great 
Lord Bacon, who, although content to retain well-trimmed hedges 



THE PAES AND qtAEDMa 147 

«aid tveesy plendod atr(mgj.y m, the interests of n^tuiie* . He insisted 
that 43eyond the highly-dressed and embellished parts of the garden 
should ever lie a. portion sacred &oni the hand of man — a fragment 
of wild nature ! He calls it '^ the heath, or desert." Dunng 
Charles JL's reign, landscape gardening received an impulse. It 
was in his time that Ohatsworth was laid out, and that buildings 
were introduced into gardens. During his reign too lived Evelyn 
•—-a spirit devoted to the service of the rural genius. In his dia^, 
Evelyn makes mention of several noblemen's and gentlemen's 
gardens which he visited, and some of which indeed he himself 
devised. His remarks convey an idea of the state of gardening 
during the reign of the merry monarch. *^ Hampton Park, 
Middlesex," he says, " was formerly a flat, naked piece of ground, 
now planted with sweet rows of lime trees, and the canal for water 
now near perfected ; also the hare park» In the garden is a rich 
and noble fountain, with syrens, statues, <&c., cast in copper by 
Fanelli, but no plenty o£ water. Th^re is a parterre which they 
call Paradise, in which is a pretty banqueting-house set over a 
cave or cellar." It was under Charles too that St. James's Park 
was formed, a labour upon which the king employed Le Notre, the 
celebrated gardener of Versailles, — an artist of singular good taste, 
and wiUi an admirable eye for the picturesque. 

During the reign of William and Mary, Hampton Court was 
considerably improved. Some Dutch features were introduced into 
gardening, and vegetable sculpture, and parterres in lace, came 
into Togue. 

To the Dutch must be conceded the earliest manifestation of a 
love for gard^iing, in Korthem Europe — a feeling possessed by 
them ev^i before the thirteenth centiuy. The taste owed its 
origin, no doubt, partly to the general monotony of their country, 
partly to the wealth of their merchants, and partly to an extended 
commerce, which enabled the Dutch to import from the East those 
bulbous roots which, have long been cultivated in Holland, and 
were once valued at fabulous prices. Dutch gardening soon 
acquired a peculiar character of it& own. The gardens of Loo, laid 
out in the time of William III., were excellent examples of the 
symmetrical Dutch style ; a canal divided the upper from the lower 
^(arden ; the beds were cut in squares, and filled at various seasons 
of the year with tulips, hyacinths, poppies, siui-flowers, &c. ; 
straight walks intersected the grounds, which were adorned with 
numerous statues, grotto-work, and fountains, some exceedingly 
whimsical and cuxious ; the trees and shrubs were cut into devices, 

1.2 



UZ 0ENERAL GVlDt BOOK. 

principally in* pyramidical forms, whilst hedges separated tlie 
different parts of the garden, and were not allowed to grow ahove 
a certain height. Straight rows and double rows of trees constitute 
another characteristic of the Butch style, and elaborate lace-Hke 
patterns for parterres were much in vogue during the latter part of 
the seventeenth century. The influence of this style upon English 
gardens may still be perceived in the clipped hedgerows and trees, 
green terraces, and now only prim, now magnificent avenues, so 
frequent in our country. 

• It would appear that from William down to G eorge TI. , gardening 
in England suffered sad deterioration as an art. Formality pre- 
vailed to the most deadening and oppressive extent. The shapes of 
ihen and animals were cut in trees, and the land was threatened with 
a vast and hideous collection of verdant sculpture. Pope and Addi- 
son came to the rescue of nature, and ridiculed the monstrous 
fashion. Pope, in cJne of his papers in " The Guardian,*' details an 
imaginary set of plants for sale, including a " St. George, in box, his 
arm scarce long enough, but will be in condition to stick the dragon 
next April ;" and a "quickset hog shot up into a porcupine* by 
being forgot a week in rainy weather." Addison,' in "The 
Spectator," says, " Our British gardeners, instead of humouring 
nature, love to deviate from it as much as possible. Our trees rise 
in cones, globes, and pjnramids. We see the marks of the scissors 
upon every plant and bush." Pope himself laid out his grounds 
in his villa at Twickenham' ; and his gardens there, which still 
bear the impress of his taste, attest to his practical skill as a 
gardener. 

The satire of thesfe great writers contributed not a little to a 
revolution in English gardening. Bridgeman seems to have been 
the first to commence the wholesome work of destruction, and to 
introduce landscape gardening ; and it is said that he was instigated 
to his labour by. the Very paper of Pope*s in *'The Guardian," to 
which we have alluded. But Kent, at a later period, banished the 
old grotesque and ridiculous style, and established the new pictur- 
esque treatment. He laid Out Kensington Gardens, and probably 
Claremont. Wright and Brown were also early artists in the new 
style, and deserve honourable mention for their exertions in the 
right direction. The former displayed his skill at Fonthill Abbey, 
the seat of Mr. Beckford ; Brown was consulted at Blenheim, 
where he constructed the earliest artificial lake in the kingdom 
— the work of a week. Nor must Shenstone, the poet, be forgotten. 
His attempt towards 1750, to establish the nghts of nature in his 



TH9 ?AB|C AND eABDKI^. U9 

Qwu omamdutal lacm at the Leaaowes placets him &irly in th^. 
front rank of our rural reformers. Mathematical precision and the 
yoke of excessive art were thus cast off, the men and animals 
gradually remoTed themselves from the foliage, which was intended 
for birds and not for them, and nature was allowed a larger extent 
of liberty and life. She was no longer tasked to imitate forms 
that deiaracted from her own beauty without giving grace to the 
imitation ; but she was questioned as to the garb which it chiefly 
delighted her to wear, and answer being given, active steps-were 
taken to comply with her will. Then came Knight and Price to 
carry out the goodly work of recovery and restoration. To them 
followed an early opponent but later convert, Bepton, the gardener 
of Cobham Hall ; and as the result of the united labours of 
one and aU, we have the irregularly-bounded pieces of water which 
delight the English eye, the shrubberies, the noble groups of trees, 
the winding walks, the gentle undulations, and pleasant slopes,-^ 
all which combined, give a peculiar charm to our island land- 
scapes th&t is looked for in vain in fairer climates and on a more 
extended soil. 

In the Crystal Palace Gardens, the Italian style has not been 
servilely copied, but rather adapted and appropriated. It has been 
taken, in fact, as the basis of a portion of our garden, and modified 
so as to suit English climate and English taste. Thus, we have the 
terraces and the architectural display, the long walks, the carefully 
cut beds, and the ornamental fountains : but the imdulations of green- 
sward, that bespeak the English soil, give a character to the borrowed 
eilements which they do not find elsewhere. The violent juxtaposi- 
tion of the two styles of gardening — ^the Italian, and the English — 
it may readily be conceived, would produce a harsh and disagreeable 
effect. To avoid the collision, Sir Joseph Paxton has introduced, 
in the immediate vicinity of the terraces and the broad central walk, 
a mixed, or transitional style, combining the formality of the one 
school with the freedom and natural grace of the other ; and the 
former character is gradually diminished imtil, at the north side of 
the groimd, it entirely disappears, and English landscape gardening 
is looked upon in all its beauty. 

The Crystal Palace and its grounds occupy two himdred acres, 
and it is of importance to note that, in the formation of the 
gardens, the same uniformity of parts is adhered to as in the build- 
ing itself ; that is to say, the width of the walks, the width and 
length of the basins of the fountains, the length of the terraces, 
the breadth of the steps^ are aU multiples and sub^multiples of the 



150 ' GENERAL GUIDE BOOK. 

one primary number of eight. By tlds symmetrical arrangenlent 
perfect harmony prevails, unconsciously to the looker-on, in the 
structure and in the' grounds. The length of the upper terrace is 
1576 feet, and its width 48 feet ; the terrace wall is of Bath-stone, 
The granite pedestals on each side of the steps, leading from the 
great transept, are 16 feet by 24 feet. The width of the central 
flight of steps is 96 feet ; and this is also the width of the grand 
central 'w^alk. The lower terrace is 1656 feet long between the 
wings of the building, or nearly one third of a mile, and 612 feet 
wide, the basins for the fountaius on this terrace being, as just 
stated, all multiples of eight. The total length of the ga/rden front 
of the wall of this terrace, which is formed into alcoves, is 1896 
feet. The large circular basin in the central walk is 196 feet in 
diameter, and the cascades beyond are 450 feet long, the stone- 
work that surrounds each cascade reaching to the extent of a mile. 
The two largest basins for the fountains are 784 feet each in length, 
having a diameter in the semicircular portion of 468 feet each. 
Such are a few of the principal measurements connected with the 
Palace Gardens,, as these are seen on the surface. But although 
the work that is above ground may be recognised and calculated ' 
with little trouble by the visitor, there is beneath the surface an 
amount of labour and capital expended, of which he can with diffi- 
culty form an accurate idea. Drain-pipes spread under his feet 
like a net-work, and amount in length to several miles ; he 
treads on thousands of bundles of faggots which have formed his 
path ; he walks over ten miles of iron piping which supply the 
fountatins for his amusement. 

As the visitor quits the building, let him pause at the top of 
the broad flight of steps leading to the first terrace, and notice the 
prospect before him. At his feet are the upper and lower terraces, 
bordered by stone balustrades, the long lines of which are broken by 
steps and projecting bastions. Along these balustrades, at intervals, 
the eye is attracted by the statues that surmount them. Straight 
before him runs the broad central .walk, and, on either side of it, 
on the second terrace, the ground is covered with green turf, now 
relieved by beds filled with gay-coloured flowers, and hereafter to 
be further heighfened in effect by fountains throwing water high 
up into the air. As a side boundary to the foreground of this 
picture, the wings of the building stretch out their blue colouring 
and cheerful, Hght aspect, harmonizing with the rest of the scene. 
Looking straight forward, below the level of the second terrace, 
We see th<d fidte of the large circular fountain, surrounded by 



arcbitootuial OTBomeat, and white marble Btatues, which Btand out 
sbatp and dear agadnat the dark landscnpe beyond. On either aide, 
on a 7et lower level, a glimpse will soon be caught of the gliatening 
waters in the two largest fountajna, backed by embankiueiits of torf ; 
and beyond these again, will be visible the waters of the large lake, 
whose islandH are peopled by monaters that iniiabited the earth when 
the world was youi^. To the right, and to the left, in the grounds, are 
i sloping lawns, dotted here and there with trees, and thickly 



planted shrubs ; and then, beyond the Palace precincts, Gtretching 
away into the far distance, is visible the great garden of nature 
herself, a picture of rural loveliness, almost unmatched by any scene 
so close as tbia to the great London city. Undulating scenery 
prevails ; here it is rich with bright verdure, there dark with thick 
wood : here, the grass fie].d ; there, the grey soil, which, in the spring 
time, is covered with the delicate green of young wheat ; and, in 
the autumn, waves thick with golden com. Across the fields run 
long lines of hedgerows, telling plainly of the country in which they 
are found i and, in the very l^art of all, the village church spire 



1S2 orarraAL QtiDS BobE.' 

Bhooti tlirovgli the trees, surrounded by clusten of cottages, wBose 
modest forms are almost hiddeti by the dark foliage in whicli th^ 
are nestled. The exqiiisite scene is completed by a long line of blue 
hills that ranges at the back of alL 

Descending the steps we reach the first terrace, on the parapet 
of which are placed twenty-sue allegorical statues of the most 
iinportant commercial and manufacturing countries in the world, 
and of the chief industrial cities of England and France. 

On each side of the great central staircase are statues represent- 
ing Mulhausen, Glasgow, and Liverpool (to the right as we face 
the gardens), the two first by Calder Marshall, the third by Spence. 
On the left side are personifications of Paris, Lyons, and Marseilles, 
the first by Etex. 

The next bastion, on the Sydenham side, is smmounted by statues 
of Spain and Italy, admirably executed by Monti ; the succeeding 
bastion forms a pedestal for the very characteristic figures of 
Califomia and Australia by Bell. The staircase at this end of the 
terrace is ornamented at the first angle with representations 6f 
South America, by Monti, and of Turkey and Greece by Baron 
Marochetti ; the second group consisting of China, India^ and 
JSgypt, also by Marochetti 

The first- btotion, on the Norwood side of the centrsJ staircase, 
supports allegorical statues of Manchester, by Theed, and Belfast, 
by Legrew. On the succeeding one are placed those of Sheffield 
and Birmin^^iam, by Bell. 

On each side of the staircase, at this point, are very excellent 
representations of the ZoUverein and Holland, by Monti, and of 
Belgium, by Geefs. 

The last group consists of a fine allegorical statue of the 
United States, by Powers, and of Canada and Kussia, by Launitz. 

All these figurative subjects are more or less composed in the 
style of the modem *^ Bomaivtic" school of. sculpture, and afford 
excellent illustrations of the character, nature, and chief occupa- 
tions of the countries and cities they represent. 

Proceeding in a northerly direction, we pass on until we reach a 
flight of steps, by which we gain the lower terrace, or Italian 
flower-garden. At the bottom of these steps are stone recesses, built 
under the terrace above, in which streams of water wiU fall from 
dolphins' mouths into bronze basins. Crossing the terrace by the 
patii facing the steps, the visitor turns to the right, examining the 
flowers and the fountains, until he arrives at the central steps 
leading to the circular basin, from which point a most admintbie 



^S PAft£ AND QAaDBKS. .153 

vimr ot the idiole C178UI atruotare ii obtaiaed. Th^ dsep 
receBMfi in the transepts, the open g&Ueries, the circular loof . to 
the nave, tliQ height of the CBBtral trauBept, the great length of 



m from tb« Oud^ii. 



the building, and the general aerial appearance of the whole 
crfBtal fabric, produce an effect, which, for novelty, and 
lightnrt*, Burpaeaes «verf other arohit«ctural elevation in the 



IM ' eBNBBAI, etJIBB BOOK. 

mnrld. 'rnnuiig his back npon the buildinf, tlie vitdtor heWds 
on eitier side of him green nndtdating lawns, beds planted with 



The Arcods and Bo«ay. 

rhododendrons and olher floweiB, and winding grarel walks. He 
now aurrejB the mixed garden, before mentioned, which extends 



TkwCsdarTRH. 



THE FARE AIO) eARDBNS. 165 

tbroughout the south aide. To the right is a moiind, surrounded 
by an arcade of arabesque iron 'work, around which inntunerable 
roses are twined ; and, to the left, two spreading cedar trees — of 
a kind familiar to this neighbourhood — ^attract attention by their 
thick, spreading, sombre foliage. Descending the steps, and 
walking round the broad gravel path, the visitor reaches the large 
circular fountain, which is destined to form one of the most brilliant 
water displays in the gardens, depending solely upon the water for 
its effect, and not at all upon architecture or sculpture ; the 
water in this fountain will be made obedient to the hand of the 
artist, and shoot into the air, forming inniunerable beautiful 
devices. Around the basin it wiU become a liquid hedge, whilst, 
in the centre and over the whole surface of the basin, it will be 
thrown up in sparkhng showers, in all shapes, to all heights, — 
some breaking into misty spray at an elevation of seventy feet from 
the surface. 

Round the basin pf the fountain are white marble statues, 
copies jfrom the antique, and of works by Thorwaldsen and 
Canova. Amongst them will be found the celebrated Famese 
Hercules, the free and graceful Mercury by Thorwaldsen, and the 
Paris by Canova. Having made one half of the circle, the 
visitor, instead of proceeding down the central avenue, turns to the 
left, round the other side of the central foimtain, and passing the 
first outlet finds his way through the second, and descends the 
bteps into a walk which leads him to a smaller fountain. 

Keeping to the left hand side, we make half the circle of this 
smaller fountain, and then enter upon a pleasant path, on 
the right side of which stands one of the noble cedar-trees 
before mentioned. We are now quittiag the mixed Italian and 
English gasdens for the pure English landscape. Trees wave their 
long branches over our heads, the paths wind, and art recedes 
before nature. Travelling for a short distance, we come to a 
junction of two roads. Selecting the left, we journey on through 
a path bordered on one side by trees, and on the other by a lawn, 
until we approach a valley at the bottom of which is a small 
piece of water, lying close to a thicket forming a pleasant summer 
shade. Leading out of this small piece of water is seen a large 
lake, which forms the second or intermediate reservoir for the 
supply of the fountains. Under the hand of Sir Joseph Paxton 
the lake is made to serve for ornament as well as use. Pursuing our 
way along the path chosen, and which is now open on both sides, 
we descend towards the east, and <^n either side of us are beds 






TfiB eBOLOeiCAL- ISLANDS AND THE EXTINCT ANIMALS. 157 

filled with American rhododendrons. Onr road tak^s as along the 
edge of the lake. Bearing to. the right, we presently reach the 
junctioii of two paths. If the visitor turns to the left, he enters 
tiie Park which occupies this side oi the ground, and forms not 
one of the least agreeable features of the place. 

Quitting this Park, the visitor resumes his journey, continuing 
on the road which has brought him to the Park. He will shortly 
regain the Anglo-Italian gardens. Proceeding still to the left, he 
comes to a raised mound, <>r Bosary. Taking the right-hand path 
on the mound, we travel round it until we descend the pai& 
leading .to the basin of one of the great fountains. Kee|»ng to 
the right-hand side of the larger basin, we proceed southwards 
along the gravel walk, at. whose far end we find a stone arcade 
tiu-ough which 'we pass, and over which, water rushing down 
from the temple, wiU, hereafter, form a sparkling veil as it faUs 
into the basin. Having left the arcade, we turn to the right 
towards the building, and ascend the steps to the broad central 
gravel walk. We here behold the temples from which the water, 
of which we have just now spoken, is to flow. Now returning 
dowd the steps, we contiiiue our road along the central walk, azid 
skirt the margin of the right-hand basin, imtil we reach a fii^^ 
of steps. These we ascend, and find ourselves upon an embank- 
ment called the Grand Plateau. 



THE GEOLOGICAL ISLANDS AND THE EXTINCT ANIMALS.* 

Taking our stand on the Grand Plateau, fifty feet in width, to 
which we have arrived, we obtain an ext^isive and general view of 
the geological illustrations, extending over twenty acres of ground. 
This ground is divided into two islands, representing successive 
strata of the earfch, and by ^aid of the restorations of the once 
living animals that are placed upon them, preseniing us, on the left, 
with the tertiary, and on the right, with the 8ec<nid<»ry, epochs of 
the andent world. 

Long ages ago, and probably before the birth of man, the earth 
was inhabited by living animals, differing in size and form from 
those now existing, yet having a' resemblance in habit and struc- 
ture^ sufficiently close to enable us to institute a comparison that 
goes far to enlighten us upon the nature of these gigantic formf, 

• ■» 

* The water for these islands wSi be supplied in the course of a few weeks. 



1^ Qi^SBili eUIPS BOOK. 

Trbose boii£0, «Ad vometiividB «ven entire «keleto&8y ai?e founcl* 
buried in the eartli, on the surface of which they, once crawled, ^ 
and it ia ^m - the study and comparison of these fostHl romaina- 
that the vast bo4ies which the visitor sees before him have been 
constructed with a truthful certainty that admits of no dispute. 

Quitting the plateau by an easy descent) we cross the bridge at 
the foot of it) and) on our right, divided by a watercourse, find 4i 
partial illustration of the Coal Formation. This has been admirably 
oonstructed by Mr. James Campbell, a practical engineer and 
mineralogist, and haa been selected on accoimt of the peculiar 
interest attaching to its strata of coal, iron, lead, and liix^, all of 
which have helped so largely towards the prosperity of our com- 
mercial nation. The illustration commences at the lowest stratum 
with the old red sandstone, and ascends to the new red sandstone. 
The former is shown oroppmg out from under the mountain lime^ 
«tone and millstoue grit above,— which in this case «re thrown up, 
and display a great fault or break ; whilst the displacement of the 
coal iUustoates those faults, or troubles, as they are technically 
called, BO often found in the working of that mineral, and which is 
caused by an upheaving convulsion of nature at some early 
geological period, as in4icated by the stratum of new red sand- 
stone above, which li^ unconformably upon the dislocated masses 
below. 

Ptoceeding still to the right, we come to a cleft in the limestone 
formation, in which will be foimd a reduced model of a lead mine, 
illustrating the characteristics of the lead mines near Matlock, in 
Derbyshire. The veins selected for illustration are called in 
nainihg jphra^eology the pipe veins and rake veins, the nature of the 
latter affording the opportunity of examining the interior, and 
walking through to the top of the limestone strata. Entering by 
the opening at which we have arrived, the visitor will at once have 
an opportunity of forming an idea of the general appearance and 
working of a lead mine, as a small shaft has been constructed, with 
a number of miners' implements exhibited, including, at the mouth 
of the shaft, a windlass, technically called a stoce. Having 
examined the interior, and proceeded through to the top of the 
limestone strata, we find ourselves again on the plateau, and by 
descending, reglun the margin of the lake, where we face the 
secondary island. 

, The geological iUustx^'tiQi;! immediately before us is the Wealden 
formation, so well known in Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, and 
fgnnerly the great m^etropolis of tiie Dinosaxirian <»xiers, or the 






THE QEOLOaiCAL.ISl.AlTDS ASD lOS BZTINGT ANUU'LS. Ui»- 

tMg^ o£ giguttie KzardH ; tbeie ordmn «ra hete rapuMlited by 
the two IffWMiodoiu {Iguajio- toothed), and by ibe Hylteotavirut- 
(the great 8^7 lizwd of tiie We«lden), and the Megaki«wru$ 
(the Gigantic Uzatd.) 

Proceeding southwardB, or to the right fiwn the plateau, wo 
come to the next stratum le^esented on the island. Thia ia of 
the oolite period, BO called from the egg-shaped particles of 
which the stAny beds ate composed, in which the bones of tlie' 
great earnivoroos liwd were diflooTered by ProfesBor Backlaud, 
called by him Mtgatotavrvt, or Gigantic Lizard. Next in succea. 
sion ia the lisH, foimerly a species of bluish grey mud, but now 



Iiard stone, containing an immense quantity of bones in the most 
perfect state of preservation, particulftrlyjtlloBe of the IcMhyosavrvs, 
(Fish lizard), and the FUdoga/arus (Serpent-like Lizard), with its 
long serpent-like neck, ofwhichwe see three specimens on ijie island. 
The two long-headed crocodiles, vary like those of the Ganges, but 
double their size, togeth^ with the Idithyoaawi beforo mentioned, 
WM6 the inhabitants of that part of England now known aa Whitby, 
in Yorkshire, where the bones are found in perfect condition. The 
termination of this island represents the new red sandstone, re- 
markable fi»' the numerous and Taried footmarks found in it at 
difieteni parts of our island, partdcuhuly at liveipool, CSiester, and 



1«a OBNIKAI ^tJIOK BOOK. 

in Wanriebdure, where alM hare been fonnd the hoaen and fra^ 
ments of large fin^-like uuuiAlfi, three of wMeh are here built up 1^ 
the crsatiTe mind Kad hwda of Mr. HawkioB, nndar the guiding 
eye of Professor Owen. When the teeth of- these ftniniala were 
inflected bjr Professor Owen under & mieroecope, it wae found iJiat 
they had a Hingulu- labyrinth-like construction ; and the Profeetor 
accordingly gaye to this particular inhabittknt of the &r-diatant 
world the distinguishing name of Labyrinihodon (labyrinth tooth). 

At this p6int the visitor will do well to retrace his steps, and to 
proceed agttin to the bridge, which will oviduct him to the third, 
or tfrrtia/ry island, where he will discover aoim^ approaching inoze 
nearly in form and appearance the creatures of our own day. The 
most conspicuous is the Irish Glk with his nu^nificently branching 



antlers. This restoration has been produced from an entire skeleton 
of the animal in the poRsession of the Company, and the horns are 
real, having been taken from the actual fossil. Another of the 
more recent wonders, meriting more than a pasmng glance, is the 
great winglees bird from New Zealand. The skeleton of this bird 
was theoretically construoted by Professor Owen from a small 
fragment of bone a few indtee in length ; and when subsequently- 
all th« bonea belongiBg to this laid aizived frxun If ew Zealand, 



THE QEOLOQICAL ISLAUM AKD TES B^IXCT ANIMAI^. ISl' 

IWttdg Mb entin slnlolHM, ths aAootmt tlMy gave of themsdvar 
d(ni«apoiid«d eiaoUy wiAli the SMMimt wbidi the leamed PrafeBBOT, 
from dodadiDn, hwl giveo of them in tibsir abaenaa. 
' ABiongrt the nmaisug moutets heav repiesrated DUf be noted' 
1M JfejiothtrltHn (Gtettt Beast), and the Wyptodon (Sonlptimd' 
toob Arsadillo}, &am Sontli Amorioa. Hie fonner ia poniirayed 
in his natural action of puUing down lofty tieee for the puipoae of 
mora oonToniaaUj aeauiii^; the foliage upon which he lived. The 
(XJleetion ol extiitct n-T''''™^''' npcm this island is as yet inooiaplete ; 
bnt at a future period the Indian. Beriaa, and other large Mam- 
malia, or eackling animalH, including the Maalodon (the Ereasb- 
like tooth), the Mammolh, uid the DinMhermm (Monstrous Beast), 
will be added to con^lete this instructive series. 



Tbfl Clwrtj Tree. 

Hariug muveyed theaa ialands, tha vintor retnms to the Plateau. 

Sedewsoiding frnn tlua point onoe more to the hCrge fountain, 
he toiii* to tiie left, and ptooeeda ronnd its margin until he 
axrive* at the flight of stepa on the oppodta aide. AHoending 
tiiera, tiie pa^ oontiacta him through a belt of yonng cedaia which' 
«iLaiMle tha baaina. A. few step* ftirther, and he amvea at the 
jonetion of two fqikUi. Seleoting that to the left, lie will apeedHy 
gain the foot of the roaaty, and the mound, at the top of whi«b is' 



IS2 SBNEa&L OniDE BOOK. 

an ornamental arabesque ansde demgned hy Mr. Owat JoaeB. 
He vill here — aa on the ct^reapondiug mound — find rosea of every 
TaTiety, beaidoi other plants wbich dimb the (odes and around tiM 
roof of the arcade. Loc^dng from the opening in the arcade 
towards the large drcular fountain in the great central walk, he will 
note, close to one of the projecting stone baationa, a fine ^eny- 
tree, which may be identified bj the annexed engraving. This 
tree has an hiatorioal aasooiation in oonneiion with the OryBtal 
Palace ; for it was beneath its shade that Sir Joseph Faxton 
planned the nu^nificent gardens upon wiiich we look. 



new in Groundi. 

Proceeding tlirongh the arcade to the li^^t, we quit &e mound 
at the second outlet, and journey along a path, on either mde of 
which are fiower-beds and groups of lUiododendionB and Araleas. 
Bearii^; to the right we reach the basin of a fountain. Choosing 
the left-hand side of this basin, we turn into the broad walk whidt 
leads us hy means of a flight ot steps to the second terrace, nuLlriiig 
our way to the sonth-eud of which we shall readt an oiangery in 
the basement of the wing, where will, be found a fine collection, of 
orange-trees — bettor known to Englishmen in geoeial by their 
delicious fruit than by acquaintance with themselves. Leaving 
the orangery for the terrace, we make our way by Uie steps to the . 
upper terrace. 



THE GEOLOGICAL ISLANDS AND THE EXTINCT ANIMALS. 163 

. At this point the visitor may either enter the southern wing of 
the bnilding on his left^ and proceed thence through the colonnade 
to the railway station, or advance by the right along the upper- 
terrace until he once more places foot in the building. 

Having accompanied the visitor on his garden tour, we have 
now performed our office of cicerone through the Palace and 
grounds, and have brought before his notice the most beauti- 
fdl and striking objects on his path. We have selected, both in 
the Palace and Park, a route which has enabled him to see the 
chief subjects of interest presented by our nationaP Exhibition ; 
but, as a reference to the plans will show, there are many other 
roads open, which may be explored in fdture visits ; where 
our companion may wander as flEuicy guides him, within doors 
or without, through his eye feeding his spirit, whilst, as thou^ in 
jxresenoe of the past and the distant, he looks on the imaged 
homes and works of the nations, or turns from the creations of 
human art and genius, to drink in delight, w^th woiyier, from the 
strange or most familiar productions of bountiful, inexhaustible 
19'ature. On every side, a soothing and ennobling contemplation, 
in which he may find rest from the fatigues, and strength fbr the 
renewed labours, of an active^ a useful, and an enjoyed, if tran* 
sitory, existence. 



u2 



LIST OF EXHIBITOBS. 



STATIONERY AND FANCY GOODS COURT. 



Abbott, J. 8., Specimens of Short- 
hand writiBg .... 9 

Barritt and Co. /Ecclesiastical Book- 
bindiiur 22d 

Baxter, G., Specimens of (^Colour 
Picture Printing .... 20 

Boatwright, Brown, and Co., Spe- 
cimens of Sealing Wax . . 9 

Bohn, H. G., Printed Books . 15 and 16 

Bradbury and Evans, Printed 
Books-^Relief and Wave-line de- 
sign engraved for Sur&ce-printing 
—and the New Process of NiXture- 
prkuing .... 6 and 29 

Collins, H. G., Haps, Globes^ &c., 
lithographic Printing Press in 
action 25 

Cook, T., EngraTinff 

Dolman, C, Printed Books . . 5a 

Gilbert, G. M., Frames, Brtuskets, 
&c., Modelled in LeaUier . 

Hyde and Co., Specimens of Seal- 
ing-wax and Stationeiy . . 11 

Haddon, Bros., and Co., Specimens 
of Type-Music ; Stereotyping in 
various branches . . . . 3lA 

Jarrett, G., Embossing, Copying, 
and Printing Presses . . 13a 

JTones-andCauston, Account Books^ 
Stationery, and Printing . . 22b 

King, T. B., Paintings and Pencil 
Drawings 12 

Knight and Foster, Mercantile Sta- 
tionery 19a 

iiaytoQ, C. and E., Specimens of Or- 
namental and Writing Engravin? 13 

Leighton, Bros., Chromatic Block 
Printing and Lithpgraphy • . 6 



Letts, Son, and Steer, Articles of 
Stationery . . . . 1 to 4 

Marion and Co^ A., Photographic 
Papers, Stamp-dampers; Sundry 
Fancy ArtideB .... 24 

Miland's library. Plain and (kna- 

■ mental Stationery . . . 8lB 
Novello. J. A., Specimens of Musi- 
cal lypo^pfapny. Printing; and 
Illuminations .... 22a 

Pemberton, R., Books, Plans, At. . 7 

Pinches, F. B., Stamping Die Ski- 
graving; Ac, Cxystal Palace 
MedalPtess .... 2a 

Pope, H., Mercantile Stationery . 12a 

Ralph, F, W., ** Envelope Paper,** 
Sermon Paper, and Business En- 
velopes . . . . ' . 18 

Robersonand Co., C, Artists' Co- 
lours and Apparatus . . . 220 

^utledge and Co., G., Printed 
Publications. . . . . 21 

Saunders, T. H., Papers, hand and 
machine made. Bank note, Loan, 
Share, Cheque, and for Photo- 
graphic purposes . • . . 

Shepherd, T 

Shield, Elizabeth, Portraits and 
Drawings in Pencil 

Smith, J., Stationery 

Stanford, E., Maps, Books, and 
StatloneiT' 

Taylor tmd Francis, Ornamental 
Printing, Embossing, ^c . 

Tebbut, Rebecca, Desk, Stationery, 
&0, ;.*... 

Williasns and Co., J., Account 

■ Books of a Patent Construction . 8a 



23 



19 
S2a 



14 



BIRMINGHAM COURT. 



Allen, F., Articles of Gold and Silvet 
Filagree Work, suitable for Pre- 
sents and Testimonials 

Slews and Sons, W., Standard 
Weights and Measures, and Naval 
Brass-foundings 

CoxM and Son, D., Electro, Nickel, 
and Gtorman Silver Spoons, Ac. . 

Greatrex and Son, G. 



Horse&Il, J., ImprovedMusic-vrire, 
Covering-wire, Pins, &c 

Jennens, Bettridge and Co., Sped- 
xnens of Papier Mftch^ manufac- 
ture . . . • • 

Lingard, E. A., Coffin Furniture, 
Patent Cock, Seal Presses, Dies 
and Tools .... 

Lloyd, W. B. 



im 



GENBEAL aiHDB BOOK. 



Parker, W., Jewelleiy, OiltTojs, 
Masonic, and other Omamente . 

Peyton and Harlow, Patent Metal- 
lic Bedsteads . . . . 



Sutton and Ash, Specimens of 

Maniifkctared Iron 
Timmins and Sons, B. . . . 
Warden and Co., J. 



SHEFFIELD COURT. 



Addi4, S. J. , Carvers' and General 

Bdge Tools .... 

Butterly, Hobaon, and Co., Scales, 

Scythes, &c 

Cammell and Co.,C., SpringB,Steel, 

Files, &c ..... 
Cockw, Bros., Sheffield Tools, and 

Mechuxioal manufkctores. 
Fisher and Bramall, Specimens of 

Iron and Steel, Tools, Ac. 
Guest and Chrimes, Various Patent 

H]gh Pressure andFire-eocks, &c. 
Jowett, T., Various kinds of Files^ 



and specimens of the manu&c- 

ture of Steel 

Mappin and Bros., J., Cutlery; 

SuVer and Electro-plated gooda ; 

Dressing-oases 
Nowill and Sions, J., Silver and 

Steel Cutlery . . . . 
Parker and Thompson, Assortment 

of Tools, Ac 

Smith, J. J. . . . . 

Turton and Sons, T. 

WUkinson and Son, T., Cutlery, 

Tailor's-sheara^ Ac 



MINERAL MANUFACTURES COURT. 



Blanchard, Works of Art in Terra- 
Cotta Sand 6 

Blashfield, J. M., Artistic Manu- 
factures in Terra Cotta . 19 and 21 

Browne, B., Various kinds of 
Tiles 14 to 18 

Bucknell, Jones, and Co. 

Burg^n, J. T., Patterns of Gun- 
flints, German and Turkey Whet- 
stones 

Doulton and Co., Stoneware Che- 
mical Apparatus, Filters, Jars, 
Pipes, ^c. Terra Cotta Vases . 10 

Farmey Iron Co., Iron and Fire- 
clay Productions . ... 2 

Finch, J., Patent Bricks, Tiles, 
and Bath-rOom Furniture . . 4 



London and Penzance Serpentine 
Co., Obelisks, Monuments, Vases, 
Fotmtains, and various other 
Mineral Manu&ctures ... 

Minton^ Holllns, and Co., Tiles, in 
Mosaic, Encaustic, Plain Vene- 
tian, Ornamented, Moorish, and . 
other Styles 

Moigan and Bees, Implements. &c. 
u»8d in the Maiiufacture of the 
Precious Metals .... 

Stevens, G. H., Glass and other 
Mosaic Work. .... 20 

Workman, J., Patent 3rick and 
Cement 



HARDWARE COURT. 



Adams and Sons, W. S., Victoria 
Beffia Begistered Baths, Fur- 
nishing Ironmongeiy . 

Billinge,J 25 

Barlow, J. , Household Utensils, &c. 22 

Barringer and Co.. D. C, Spe- 
cimens of Moulding Seuid, and 
Broiuse Castings .... 40a 

Beverly and Son, J., Gas-Cooking- 
Stoves and (}as Meters. 

Benham and Sons, Banges, Stoves, 
Fenders, Gas Cooking Apparatus, 
Tea Urns, Lamps .... 41 

Bumey and Bellamy, Iron Tanks 
and Cistem 40b 

Chubb and Son, Patent Locks and 
Safes '. 

Clarke, S., Lamps, Ac, of various 
kinds 16 

Crook, £. and F., Improved Kit- 
chen Bange, Hot-plates, &c.. 
Wrought Iron Lily 

Diiley and Sons, J., Patent 
Ba^s, Ac 18 



Hart and Sons. J., Patent Door 
Furniture, Ornamental Metal 
House-fittings .... 82 
Hill, J. v., Mechanical Tools . . 12 
Hulett and Co., D., Gas Apparatus 23 
Huzham and Brown . . . 

Jobson, B. 1 

Kent, G., Domestic Utensils . . 14 

Knight, T. and S 6a 

Kuper and Co^ Wire Hopes and 
Submarine Electric Telegraph 

Cables 

Lyon, A., Machine for Mincing, 

and for Manufacturing Sausages. S3 
Masters. T., Various Patent House- 
hold Apparatus .... 4 
Morewood and Bogers, Galvanised 

Tinned Iron, and Plumbic 2inc 29& 31 
Newall and Co., Patent Wire Bope 

and Cord 2 

Nye and Co., S., Patent Mincing 

Machine 7 

Pamell and Puckridge, Iron Safes, 
Locks, Doors, Ac. . . . S 



LI9T OF EXfilBITOBS. 



107 



i> 



Ralph and Co.^ 0., Articles of Foiv 
mahing IronmoDgoTy . 

Bicket8» C, Oas Baoges, Stoves, 
Ac. 

BoUnson, Langton, and Co., Iron 
and Brasa Ware, Toolo, Ac 

Rueaell and Co., J., Iron Tubing . 

Buflsell and Bona, J., Gaa and Lo- 
comotive Tubing, Patent Lap- 
^relded Marine and Locomotive 
Tubing 

SpiUer, B., Bachelor's Tea Kettle . 

Stockw, Bros., Patent Beer Engines, 



5a 

5b 

12b 
84 



42 
6b 



lift-Pumps, Water Bottles, Pew- 
ter Goods, Ac 

Thomas, B., Toola for various 
Trades 12a 

Warner and Sons, J., Hydraulio 
Apparatus, Bells, Braziery 
Qoods . . 15 to 19 

Wenham Lake Ice Co., Befirigera- 
tor^ &c 21 

Young, W., Spirit Lamps and Ves- 
sels, Qaa Burners ... 24 

Zimmermann, £. G., Iron and Zino 
Bronzes ..... 6 



FURNITURE COURT. 



Alderman, J., Garriagea and Fumi- • 
ture for Invalids ... 

Bateman, H., Specimens of Wood 
used in Pianoforte and Cabinet- 
work 22 to 24 

Bi^ly, J. D., Paper Hangings and 
Oil Paintings . . 85 to 89 

Beljemann, H. J., Patent Re- 
volving, Rocking, Combination, 
and Beading^ Ch^rs ... 51 

Betjemami, O. S., Patent Self- 
Fastening Cen^petid Spring 
Bedstead; Indispensable Chair . 50 

Blyth, Son and Cooper, Bedfeathers 
and Horsehair, Ottoman-Chair- 
Bedsteads 69 

Baynes and Son, l^edmens of 
dyed and cleaned Damask and 
Chintz furniture . . . ' . 8 

Box, J., Fancy Cabinet Furniture 
and manufetctures . . . 49a 

Cooke, Hindley, and Law, Velvet- 
pile, Brussels, Eadderminster, 
and Bexlln Cairpets . . 8 and 9 

Cox and Son, Ecclesiastioal Furni- 
ture, Church Decorations, and 
Vestments . . . 40 and 41 

Grace, W., Chairs, Ac, in carved 
Rosewood and Mahogany . 10 to 12 

Day, H., Dlimunated lettering of 
the 14th century ... 44 

Filmer, T. H.,, Cabinet Furniture, 
Easy-chairs, and Decorative 
Upholstery . . . 8lAto3dA 

Greenwood, J., Models of Glass 
Cases, fitted with India Rubber 
and Wooden Stops ' . . .77 



49 



29 



74 



42 



Harrison, R., Tapestry Work 

Home, R., Pomx)eian and other 
Panelled Decorations . , . 

Jackson and Graham . ' . • 

Loader, R., Household Furniture . 

Lyle, J. G., Newly-invented Easy 
Chairs, Ifettrass, &c. . 

Moore, J.. Patent Moveable Glass 
Ventilator; Patent Respirator; 
and Specimens of a New System 
of Enamelling. .... 

Oliver and Sons, W., Specimens of 
Foreign Fancy Biffdwoods . 17 and IS 

Reed and Marsh, library-table . 48 

Rogers, W. G., Twenty Specimens 
ofCarvinginWood ... 1 

Smee and Sons, W., Cabinet Fur- 
niture .... 43a and 44a 

Teale and Smith, Imitation Mar- 
Quetry 46 

VoKins, J. and W., Mechanical, 
Imitation Metaland otlier Frames 76 

Wallis, J., Wahxut Chess Table, or- 
namented with original paintings 

Wallis, T. W., Specimens of Wood 
Carving 45 

Wilkinson, Son and Co. . . 25 and 26 

Winterbotham, A., Dacian Paper- 
hangings, Damasks, and Calicos. 4 

Ward, J., Invalid Chairs for In-door 
and Out-door use . . . 49b 

Webb, E., Coloured Damask, Da- 
mask Hair-Cloth, Hair Carpets, 

Yates and Nightingale, Pahitedand 
Embossed Table Covers, fta . 



MIXED FABRICS COURT. 



Allan and Co., M. W., Silk Mercery 

and Drapery Shawls 
Bull and Wilson, Cloths, Fanpy 

Silks, Cashmeres, Ac. . . 12 
Chiroimet, V., Laces, Cleaned, Ac. 43b 
Diek and Son, J., Sewing Cotton on 

Reels 43a 

Elliot, M. A. . Irish Tabinet or Poplin 
Farmer and Rogers, India, China, 

and Paisley Shawls ... 48 
Faulding: Stratton, and Brough, 

Damask Table Linens , 89 



Groucock, Copestake, and Moore^ 
Lace and Muslin ManufiEustures . 

Jay, W. C, Mourning Furnishing 
Goods 

Leach, Broadbent, Leach and Co., 
Woollen Stuff and Fabrics 

Reid, J., Printed Muslins and 
Drapery . . . . • 

Simmons, W., Millinery, Fancy 
Bonnets, Ac. .... 

Swears and Wells, Articles of Ho- 
siery 



42 
45 

22 



168 



CffimOBUkL iXtJWB BOOK. 



PRINTED FABRICS COURT. 



LewiBttad Allenbv, Uanufkctured 
SilkB, fuid Shawlf ... 



Stmpefm, J. uid 7., Tapestry Dftr 
mask for Curtains. 



la 



MU3ICAI. INSTRUMENTS COURT. 



Boosey and Bona, Various Wind In- 
Btruments, Patent DrumH5tick.t 
Ac. 24 

Brinsmead, H., Improved Piano- 
forte * 42 

Oooper and Son, J., Hichrochordon 
Pianoforte 88 

Challen andSon, Cottage Pianoforte 48 

Dlitln, H., Various Wind Instru- 
ments, Patent Side Drum . . 18 

Qreaves, B.^ MiiQieal Tuning Imple- 
ments 18 

Hughes and Denbam, Patent Grand 
Range Hannonich<»rdon Piano- 
forte ...... 

Jones, J. C, Pianoforte . . 62 

KOhler, J., Lever and othw kinds 
of Brass Musical lustraments^ of 
Patent Manu£Eicture ... 12 



and Co., 



Levesque, Edmeades^ 
Pianoforte .... I 28 

Marsh and Steedman, Cottage, and 
Michroch(»don Pianoforte . 41 and 47 

Moore, J. and H., a Cottage-Grand 
Pianoforte 85 

Pam, W. G., Two Cottage Piano- 
fortes 48 and 40 

Peachoy, 0.» Albert Pioeolo Plamo- 
forte 25 

Sacred Harmonio Society, Model of 
Orchestra as arranged for the 
Oratorios of the Society . • 66 

Taylor, 8. C, Two Conceitinas 

Tdkien, H., Pianoforte ... 46 

Yentura, A. B., Various Musicalln- 
struments^ Ancient and Modem . 4 



SOUTH-EASTERN CORNER OF CENTRAL TRANSEPT. 
RimmcH, E.» Fountain of Sydeztham Crystal Palace Bouquet. 



NAVE. 



Atkinson, J. and B., Perftunny, 
Soaps, and Toilet Furniture 

Brown, S. R. and T., Specimens of 

Muslins and Laoas, embroidered 

by Scotch and Irish Peasanby . 

•Forrest and Sons, J., Various kinds 

of Irish Lace and Embroidery . 

Groux's Improved Soap Co., House- 
hold, Toilet, and Marine Soaps . 

Banhart, M. and N., lithography 
and CmromoUthography * . 

Healh, J., Invalid Bath Chairs 

Lancashire Sewing Machine Co., 
Sewing Machines . 

Macdonald and Co., B. and J., In- 
fants' Clothing . . . . 

Meyers, B., Walking Canes and 
Sticks. 

Moigan, J., Wicks, Ac. in illus- 
tration of the manufacture of 
Candles. ..... 



9 

7 
12 
10 

3 

6 

4 
18 

8 



Meohi, J. J., Bresang and Writing 
Cases, Cutlery, Pocket-books, 
Ac 2 and 17 

Osier, F. and C, Ckystal Glass Can- 
delabra 6 

Powell, J. H., Books and Maps^ 
Hair Dye 16 

Price's Patent Caudle Co., Speci- 
mens of Candles, and of the 
Material manufactured; Extracts 
of SteaiineandOleine. • . 11 
t Fountain of Eau da 

ra«.«.i»ii IP J Cologne(S.E.End) 

Bi«^«U»B-»lFouiSun of ToUet 
L Vinegar(N.E.£nd) 

Robinson, H., Writing uid Dreas- 
ingCases 15 

Spiers and Son, Ornamented 
Works in Papier M&ch^ . . 1 

Thomaa, W. P., Thomas' Patent 
London Sewing Machine . 



SOUTH WING. 

nr OB HSAB THX BtFBESHlCSlfT DVPABnOOrT. 

lipeoombe and Co., Maxble and Glass Fountains, jce. • 

NORTH WING. 

DKPABTMSNT VOB AGBICULTUBAL IKFLSiaKTS. 



Barrett, Exall, and Andrews, 
Steam Engines, Agricultural Im- 
plements.and Machinery 



Bstiy, Bros., l^cimens of Non» 
Poisonons Sheep-Dressing Com- 
position. . . . . 



UBf OF B&HOftlH^lUS. 



16S 



Bigg, Tm IHmAmt ApporfttuB fof 
using Bigg's Patent Ootnpo- 
sition ..•-.. 

Bonlnols and Son, 

Baer^ C. JEHnrtabte Steatti Engine, 
Various Fsrming MacMnes . . 

davtfni, H., Yatioos Patent Ma- 
chines 

daytan, Bhuttleworth, and Co., ' 
Steam Bngtee, ThiMhing Ma- 
chine, Grinding-MiU 

Cc^;an and CVx, 

Oottam and Hallea, 

Croggon and Co., .- 

Croskill and S(m, W. 

Dray ai^d Co., w. . 

Ferrabee, J. and H. 

« Engine, Orinding-miU,' Mowing 
' Machines, Ac. ... . 

Garrett and Son, Models and 
drawings of Implements and 
Machines for Agricultural pur- 

- poses 

Haines, P., Shoes for Sheen, to cure 
Foot-rot. Foot-rot Powoer . 

Hart, C. , Threshing Machines, with 
combined apparatus for Winnow- 
ing, Ac 

Hill and Siiiith, .... 

Homsby and Sotn, R.> Portable 



Steam 



Steam Engine, Machines for 
Dressing and DriUing Com 

Howard, J. andF., Patent Ploughs^ 
Harrows, Horse Hoes, Ac. 

Huxham and Brown, lluree Mill- 

' stones ...... 

Lyon, A., Machines for Cutting 
vegetables •' . . . . 

M'NefflandCo. 

IffichoUs and Co. Weighing and 
Chaff-cutting Machines, Scales, 
Weights and Measures, Corn 
Bruuers and Mills 

Jneroe,' W.,'« . . • • . 

Bansomes and Sims, Agricultural 
Machinery, Steam Engines, dec. 

Smith, S., ... . . • 

Smith and Ashby, Patent Hay- 
making, and Chiet£f-cuttingMa- 
chines, Horse Bake, and Wheel 
Hand Bake, Ak}. . . . . 

Smithy W., ImiHToyed Steerage, 
Horse-hoes^ 4kc .... 

Stanley, W^ 

Toumay and Ca, Wheels Manufac- 
tured by Machinery worked by 
Steampower .... 

Wilson, F. J., Patent Barrows 

WiUdnson. T., .... 

Toung and Co., C. D., . 



EAST GALLERY, ADJACENT TO CE>4TRAL TRANSEPT. 

DSPABTIUBRT FOR TSBOfOini 1CBTAI& 



86 



42 
100 

87a 



Acheson. W., Irish Jewellery 
and Ornaments, Antique and 
Modem 

Benson. S. S. and J. W., JeweUexy, 
Watches, and Plate . . .1^2 

Biden, J. and F., Process of manu- 
fistcture of Gold Chains,- Ac, 
Specimens of Seal Bngravii^ 
4cc 

Chaffers, Jun., W., Coins, Medals, 
and Antiquities .... 

Connell, Mrs. M., Irish Bog Oak 
Ornaments ..... 

ElkingtoB, Mason, and Co. . 103 to 106 

Forrer. A., Jewellery and Fancy 
Work in Hair . . . . 87 A 88 

Gorsuch, W. H., Precious and other 
Stones, with a Lapidary's Tables 
and niustrations of the Process . 

Gk>ggeh, J„ 

Hawkins, F.G.S., F.L.S..B. Watex^ 
house. Sketch . Models of the 
Extinct AnJTpata, dec. . 

Holt, B. W.^ Work in Jet, Foreign 
Jewellffly, fto. . . . 181 & 182 

Jackson, W. H. and S., Chronome- 



44 

68 



42a 



ters . and Watches, with Begis- 
tered Improvements • . . 100a 

Keith, J., Plate, &c., for Ecclesi- 
asticid Service .... 44a 

Mahood, S., Jewellery, Bog Oak 
Manufactures, &c. . . . 64a 

Marriott, J. , Glajse Apiary, Humane 
Cottage Beehive, witn Bees at 
Work ...... 

Marshall, E. S., Specimens of Gold- 
beating 62 

M^ers, M., Jewellery, and Irish 
Bog Oak Ornament . . . 88a 

Bestell, B., Clocks, Watches, Plate, 
Jewelleiy, &c 

Staight, T., Manuftetures in Ivory, 
Peari, Tortoiseshell, fto. . . 46 

Steinite, Bros., Parcraetose Floor- 
ing, Ivory Carved, Wood Mosaic. 

Yieyx^liaind Bepingon, An Astro- 
nomical dock .... 100b 

Wathenton and Brogden, Ctold 
Chains and Miscellaneous Jewel- 
lery 101 & 102 

Waterhouse and Co., Ancient and 
Modem Irish Jewellery . . 65 & 66 



Batty and Co., Pickles, Preserves, 
Sauoes, and Oilmen's Stores . 16A16 



SOUTH-EASTERN GALLERY. 

DEPAKTMSMT FOB BUBSTANOZS VBSD AS IDOD. 

Dunn and Hewett, Cocoa, Coflee, 
Extracts and Spices . 



170 



GBN^AL OUIDBBOiMC. 



Edwardfl, Bros, Freparailoiui of Fa- 

rinaceoiu and other Food . 
Fry and Soob, Cocoa, its Varieties 

of Growth and Manu&cture 
Glass, G. M.y Isinglass, Gelatine 

Lozenges, and Jtnubes 
Giinter,B., Bride Cakes andOon- 

fectionery 20 

Homiman and Co., Tea as Imported 

free from Artificial Colouiing . 
Suent and Sons, Bordeaux Wine 

Vinegar 

Lea and Perrins, Sauces, Chemical 

Drinks, &c • . • • . 



12 
17 
12b 



10 

12a 

18 



Paris Chocolate Co., Cocoa and its 
Tarious manu&otures . . 

Phillips and Co. Tea . and Coflfee in 
all their vai^ouB kinds . . . 11 

Slee, T. P. and C. B., Mustard in 
the Seed and Mamifiwtured. Blue 
for Laundry purposes .... . 6a. 

Turner, G., Wedding and other 
Cakes ....'. 9 

Vickers, J., Russian IsinglaBs in 
Shapes 18a 

White, G. B., Cocoa, and ChoeolaAe 
in their Taiious stages of prepa- 
ration ...... 



DBPABTXXBT FOR MISOELLAHBGUB ABTZOLBS. 



Austin, J., Patent Line . . . 

Cave, A., Fancy Articles, Work- 
boxes. &o. 

Davis, Hrs. Cigars and Tobacco- 
nists' Goods in General . . 

Davis, J. J., Seal Engraving, Co- 
pving and Embossing Presses . 

Farlow, C, Fishing Tackle . 

Inderwick, J., Fancy Goods, more 
particularly in connection with 
Smoking, Tobaccos, ^c. . . 21 & 22 

Jones, B. C, Cigars of eveacy de- 
scription lit 2 

Kite, J., Patent Ventilating and 
Smoke Curing Apparatus^ illus- 
trated by experiment . . .8a 



14 

12a 

16 
12 



Latour, Bateau and Co., Dyed and 
Cleaned Gk>ods . ... 7 

Lillywhite, Bros., Articles con- 
nected with the Game of 
Cricket 9 

Marsland, Sons, and Co., Fancy 
Work and Cotton. . . . 58t6 

Huffgleton, W. H., Linen Stamps, 
Markioff Ink, &c. ... 4 

Nixey, W. G. Patent Revolving 
TilJ, Blacklead, &c.. Dyes, Var- 
nishes, &c 10 

Phillips and Co., Pipes, Stems, and 
Cigar Tubes 17 

Bymer, S. L. . . . . . 4a 



DEPA&TMSMT KA rZHB UXnCNB ASD DAXABKS. 



Hollins, E., Patent Shirtii^ . 
Russell, H. and G., Specimens of 



Sail Cloth of English and Ame- 
rican manufistcture 



SOUTH GALLERY. 

DKPABTMXNT FOB OLOTHINQ. 



Bern! and MeiUard, Velvet and 
Beaver Hats of all descriptions . 4 

Brook, Bros., J. , . . . . S9&40 

Caplin, Mme. R. A., Medical 
Corsets, Belts, Supports for In- 
valids, &c ..... 8 

Cai)per and Waters, Shirts of va- 
rious fashions . . . . 12&14 

Carrol, Bridget, Various Articles 
of Dress in Lace .... 

Carter and Houston, various Kinds 
of Improved Corsets ... 88 

Coles. W. F. Newly Invented 
Socks, of various kinds . . 16a 

Cooper and Fxyer, the Gorget Pa- 
tent Shirt, Elliptic Collars, &o. . 

Daily and Co., Specimens of Dyeing 
and Cleaning Silks, &o. . . 5 

Dando, Sons, and Co., Ha^s and 
Caps Mani^tured for lightness 16 

Davies, J., Fashionable Riding 
Habit ... . . 86a 

Eason, J., Ready-made Linen, 
French flowers, Ac. . . 24 to 26 

Ellwood and Sons, J., Air- 



for Warm 

. . 84 
Nicol, 

19Jc20 
Cotton 



Chamber Hats, &c.. 
Climates 

Gaimes, Sanders, and 
Pliant Ventilating Hats 

Glenny, C, Balbriggan 
Hosieiy ... 

Grundy, T., Easy Boots of a New 
and Improved Manu&cture ' 

Hawkins, Mrs., Corsets and Belts . 

Howard and Co., Embroidered 
Cloth, Silk, Berlin Cloth, &c. . 

King and Co., W., Silks, Satins, 
Velvets, Woollen Manumctures, 
Cambrics, Linen, Haberdashery, 
&C. . . ' . • . • 

Marion and Maitland, Corsets, 
Medical Supports, &c. • , 

Nicoll, B., Specimen Shirts . 

Nicoll, H. J. and D., Specimens of 
the Fashion, Patented and Regis- 
tered Articles of Dress and Per- 
sonal use . . . . 17 & 18 

Paine, H. and Co., Trousers . 

Philps and Son, Ladies and Chil- 
dren's Clothing and Hosiery 26a & 26a 



." 10a 

32 
S2a 

32b 



2 

86 
18a 



LIST OF EXHIBITOBS. 



171 



Price and Co., Waterproof and Air- 
proofOoods .... 

Bumble^ Mrs., Surgical Baadagoe, 
Supports, &Q 

Smitn, Mrs. J., Corsets and Socco- 
pedea^ Elastic or Silk Boots 

Sdoith, Julia, Corsets . . . 85a, 

Stray. F., and Co., Specimens of 
Smbroidery and Articles of Fash- 
ionable Dress for Gentlemen . 28 

Stroud, M. and D., Articles of Ho- 
siery, ^c .6 

Stuart, J. K, Patent Ventilating 
Hats 85b 



Thompson, MissS. C, WidowB'Caps 8a 

Thresner and Glenny, Under-cloth- 
ing for Warm Climates, Netting^ 
hfun Hosiery . . . ; 

Upton and Co:, W., Specimens of 
jSnglish and Foreign Leathers^ 
and Iieather Mercery . 

Watkins, W., Milita^ and other 
Clothing 

Whitelock and Son,. Articles of 
Hosiery 

Willianxs and Son, R., Umbrellas, 
Parasols, Whips, Canes, Ao* 21 & 22 

Wright^ £. J., Corsets, &c. . .85 



10 



80 



41 



SOUTH END OF BUILDING. 

DSPABTXSNT YOB BTAINBD OLASS^ &0. 



Nosotti, C, Laive Looking Glass in 
Solid Carved Florentine Style of 
IVame ... • 



Waites, W., Three Stained Glass 
* Windows 



SOUTHWESTERN GALLERY. 

DKPABTMXHT YOB laSOKLLANXOUS ABTIOUES. 



Allaire, TLSaf, Specimens of Dyeing 
and Cleaning. .- . . . 

Bamett. B. , Specimen of Old Paint- 
ing Restored . . . . 

Bartlett^ J., Patent Compressed 
Cricket Bats 

Bumingham, C, Assortment of 
Goods in Papier Mftch^ 

Carles, H. B., Gentlemen's Head- 
dreeees and Perukes 

Child, W. H., Specimens Brushes 
manufactured in Ivory, Bone, 
Tortoiseshell, and Wood 

ColUngs, J., Tailor's Registered 
Arm-pad 

Cowvan, B. and 8., The Canton, or 



QuadrilatenJ S^op 
oUinirford 



CuBingford, W., Various kinds of 
Netting 

Curtis and Son, M. I., Pianoforte- 
strings, Wire-screws and Pins . 

Billon, A., Specimens of Oma* 
mental Writing . . . . 

Farley, H., Models of Naval Archi- 
tecture and Implements 

Foot> Mary, Artificial Flowers, 
Head-dresses, &c. 

Freckingham, Mrs. E. Specimens 
ofFancvWork . . 

Giles, J. A., Specimens of Portrait 
Painting 

Gittens and AUkins, Patent De- 
tector Tills and Base Coin 
Detectors 

Grujeon, A., Cases of Plants, ar- 
ranged in Botanical Order . 

Hack, R., Harmonicon and Flute 
Flageolet 

HelMck, F., An Invention to Navi- 
gate the Air, invented by W. 
Bland, Esq., N. 8. W. . . . . 



d4A 



36a 
47 



32 



39 
38 



58a 



49 
87 
56 



2rA 

89a 
80 



29a 



Hodges and Turner, Various kinds 
ofElastio Fabrics. . . . 81a 

Holliday, R., Self-generating; Gas 
Lamps, Chemicals, &c. . . 81 

Hyams, M., Cigars, Tobacco, and 
Illustrations of their Manufac- 
ture 29 

Jackson, W., Wirework Mountings 
for Whips, Ac 72 

Joyce, F., Percussion Gun-caps, 
Primers, Waddings, &c. . . 27b 

Judson and Son, D. Dyewoods and 
Gteneral Drysalteries . . 

Lee, Thomas, Waterproof and Air- 
proofGoods 28a 

Levin, L., Glass Beads, Real and 
Artificial Coral, Ac. . . . 82a 

Loysel, M., Newly-invented Ma- 
chines for Making Cofiee . 41 & 42 

Maynard, J., Wire, &c., used in the 
Manufacture of Pianofortes . 36 

Mead and Powell, Toys, &c. Fancy 
Cabinet Work . . . 43 & 44 

Noden, J.. Hair-Dye, with Speci- 
mens of its Application . . 49b 

Olin, L., Purses made by Machi- 
nery . . . . • . 

Parker, J., Stag's-hom Umbrella 
Stand 47a 

Pierotti, H., Wax Dolls and Figures 
for Hairdressers .... 40a 

Ralph and Son, Articles of Gentle- 
men's Fashionable Dress . 

Ramage, R., Fair's Patent Venti- 
lators 89b 

Read, T., Specimens of Ornamental 
Writings, Embossing, Household 
Decoration, and Lith(M^phy . 27a 

Revell, J., Ornamented Leather- 
work, and Implements, and 
Materials used .... 88a 



172 



aSNB&AL Gim^B BOOK. 



Ridden and Go., W., (Aaglo-Ocniti- 
nental Co.) 

Boe, P., Modehi of FotmtaSnB, Jets 
d'Btiu, Valyefi, 4c . . . 

BalxnoDy L 

SunuBl, If ., Foreign Shells^ CoxaU, 
and China 

Sander^ W., Modelling In Leather 



S5a 

S8 

82b 



Sangater, W. S., ParaulB, Vm- 

breHaa, See., of yarious kinds . 64 
Saunders, J., Specimens of Teas 

and Coffees 40 

Saunders^ R., Fast-dyed Woollen 

Goods and Dye Detector 
Walden, H., Variegated Idnen- 

Baakets 65 



PEPABTIOENT FOB PBBrUKXBT. 



Eason, JSi, fiafr Peifdaieiy, Combs 
and Brushes 

Higgkis, Jv» Distilled Bsssdoos far 
rertvamea 

Lewis, J., Perflumes, Soaps, and 
Toilet Furniture . 



6 



fltaulson, M., Soaps, Essences, Fo- 
matuma, iKc , . • . • 4( 

Stuirock and Sons, Perfumery, and 
Toilet Furniture . . . 3ft4 



DaPABXMXNT FOB OHXMICALB. 



Allshem, F., nom8B(^)athic Medi- 
cine Chest, Medicines, Works, &c 4a 

Andrew, F. W., Cemented China 
and Glass; Articles of Toilet Fux^ 
niture 6 

Blundell, Spence, and Co., Assort- 
ment of Painter's Colours . . 6a 

burton and Garraway, Cudbear, 
Orchil, and Indigo Dyes . . 4 

Electric Power Light and Colour 
Co., Electric Colours ... 2a 

Field, J. C. Specimens of Wax, 
Candles, Sealing Wax, &c. . 7 

Gibbs, D. and W., Fancy and other 
Soaps lA 

Jones and Co., Orlando, Specimens 
of Starch from Bice ... 3 



King, W. W., Effervescent Citrate 
of Magnesia 

Prockter, Bevington, andProckter, 
Inodorous Glue . 

Bottmann and Co., G., Sodawater 
Madnnes and Filters . . ' . 

Beeves and Sons, Artists* Water 
Colours and Implements . 

Bose, W. A., Oil and Grease, for 
Burning and Machinery, Var- 
nishes, Paints, &c 

Walker and Stembtidge, Gurns^ 
Glues, Dyes, and Chemicals 

Williams and Fletcher, Colours and 
Chemici^ .... 



4b 
6a 

5 
8 



DSPABTUSHT FOB LKATHSB. 



Blackwell, S., Assortment of Sad- 
dlery and Hamesc^ patent and 
otherwise 40 

Brown, J., India Bubber Beda^ 
Sofas, Cludrs, and Marine Spring 
Bed 

Cant and Sons, G. W., Ladies and 
Gentlemen's Boots and Shoes of 
all kinds 14 

Clarke, C. and J., ManufiMitures 
from the Angora and Sheep Skin, 
Boots, Shoes, and Slippers 21 and 22 

Davis, Mrs. A.. Saddlery, HarnieHS, 

y 'and Horse Clothing ... 12 

Deed, J. S., Morocco Leathers of 
Various Kinds, Dyed Sheep and 
Lamb^i-wool Bugs ... 24 

East and Son, T., Specimens of 
Leather and Manufbotures trmn 
the Skin of the Sheep . . • 4 

Ford, A. F., Boots and Shoes . . 28 

Gutta Pereha Co., the West Ham, 
Artides manufactured in Gutta 
Pereha, under Letters Patent . 

Gottung; J. B., Two sets of Har- 
nesi; worked with Peacock- 
quiUs ; Covers and Mats of Pea- 
cock-work 19 



Hall, J. S., Models of Boots mann- 

fjoctured for the Boyal Family 

andNobili^ .... 10 
Haines and Nobes, Mill-bands and 

other Articles of Leather Manu- 

&cture 26 

Hall and Co., Leather-Cloth Boots 

and Shoes, Goloshes, Ac. . . 20 
JefiSg, B.^ Furs of the Arctic and 

Cold chmates .... 6 
Jones and Waters, Fancy Leathers 

used in the Manufitcture of Hats, 

Caps, Ac 28 

Marsden, C, Ventilating Boots, 

Shoes, Goloshes, &c . 87 6c 38 

Maxwell and Co., H., Spurs and 

Sockets lOA 

Kewton, T., Harness and Hone 

appcnntoients generally 
Norman, J. W., Boots and Shoes^ 

&c 28a 

Oastler and Palmer, Specimens of 

Tanned Skins . . . 84 & 86 

Preller, C. A.. Patent Leatiier 

Machine Bands, &c. ... 18 
Boberts, E. B., Manufactures from 

the Beaver, and various otiier 

Skins 8 



LI8!F 09 WfMXBSTOW. 



178 



Swaine and Adenev, Whips and 
Bidin^r Cftnes of aU kinds . 

Bouthgate, Q., Solid Leather Fort- 
manteaus 

Urch, HL, Saddlery .... 

Wansbrough, J., uarmenta Mann.- 
£Etotaxed ttom the Patent Para- 
India Rubber Cloth . 



82 
6a 



39 



Watson, C. J., Utilis Portman- 
toaa . ' 80a 

White, J. C, Harness, with White 
Patent Tugs 16 

'Wilson. Walkden, and Ck>., Pre- 
pared She^ Leather . . . 82a 

Wright, B., Patent Boots and 
Shoes 



VEPAXnOBST r09 INDIA-BtJBBSB. 



Edmiston and Son, India Bubber 
Clothing, Ornamental Olgects, 
in Gutta Percha and India 
Bubber 10&80 

Goodyear, C, Articles Manu&e- 
tured from India-Bubber . . 1 to 12 



Grueber uid Co., Patent Asphalts 
Sheathing and Dry Hair Felt . 

Mackintosh and'Co. , India-Bubber, 
natiye, and manufitotui^ 
with illustrations of the pro- 
cess 18 to 18 



WEST GALLERY, ADJACENT TO CENTRAL TRANSEPT. 

DSPABTMEKT FOS PHIL080PHI0AL tNJSTBUiCSNTS. 



Bailey, W. H.. Medical Instru- 
ments, Invalid Supports, &c. . 87 

Beard, Jim., B., Daguerreotype 
and JPhotog^phic Pictures. Ste- 
reoscopes, &c. . . • .^38&34 

Bermingham, Esq., T., KAps» 
Plans, Ac 48a 

Caplin, M.D., J., Medical Gynmasia, 
Instruments, and Furxiiturs for 
the Cure of Deformities . . 47a 

Claudet, A., Daguerreotype and 
Stereoscopic Portraits 

Coles, W., Patent Trusses 

Colt^ Colonel S., Patent Bepeating 
Firearms . .v . 91&92 

Cronmire, J., M. and H., Mather 
matical. and Nautical Instru- 
ments 60 

Deane, Adams and Deane, Fira 
Arms 

Elliott, Bros., Optical, Mathema* 
tical^ and Philosophical Instru- 
ments 20 

Elliot, J., Daguerreotype and Sta- 
reosoopic Portraits ... 40 

GroBsmith, W. R., Artificial Byes, 
Limbs, and other Productions of 
Surgical Mechanism .... 87 

Harnett* W., Dentistry and AxticiM 
usedjn Dental Surgery 

Hennah and Kent, Photographs « 49 

Hobson, T 88a 

Hogg, B., Photographio Portraite^, 
I^mdscapes, &e 40a 

Home,. Thomthwaite, and Wood, 



Photographic Cameras, Ac, 
Pictures, Medical Electro-Gal- 
vanic Machine .... 

Laroche^ M;,, Photographio Pic- 
tures. • t . . • • 

Mayall, J. E., Photographic Pio- 
tures 

Miles, E., Artificial and Mineral 
Teeth, Gums, and PaJates . 

NeWBon, H., Patent Wire Trusses 

Novra, G., Cutlery, Articles in 
Electrotype 

Pottinger, C. B., Photographio 
Apparatujv Stereoscopes, &c. 1 ds 2 

Potter, J. D., Scientific and Philoh 
sopbdcal Instrujnents 

Prince and Co., Models oi Inven- 
tions 

Bead, B.,. Agricultural and Hor- 
ticultural . Maahinea^ Surgtoal 
Instruments,. &c. ^ . , 

Beid, W., Iiistruments and manu- 
factures in cpnueoti<m with tljus 
Electric Telegraph . . . 

Smith S... Trusses,. Medical Sup- 

I)orts^ Uc 

. Statham, .W. .E., PhUosoi^iioal 

Instrumeuts in coiuiectioji, withi 

Chemistiy . « , . . 

, Stidolph, W., Educational Instpjir 

ments for the BUnd . 

Sharpe, T., Photographio Portraits 

White, J., Patent Tx^isse^ Belto, 
Suzgical Supports, 4e0. • . 80 



48 



81 

87 
49a 

11 



d6A 



41 



47 



68 

38 
50 



VVP4»TlBnn VOR FHIRTXD BQQUfl, VTO. 

Eent^ W., Printed Books 



I Tweedi9, W., Tempsranpa Books 
i and ^blications ... . 



174 



aBNEEAL 0T7£DB BOOK. 



NORTH-EASTERN GALLERY. 

DKPABTMXHT FOB OHUTA AHD QJ^ABa.. 



Aire and Calder Bottle Ck>., ^>eci- 
mens of Glase Bottle Manu- 
fsMsture . . . '. . 8S&S4 

Bourne and Son, Patent Stone- 
Ware Bottles, Jars, Vases, 4ec. . 16 

Brace and Colt^ Mftniifactares of 
the " Serpentine" stone 

Clarke, Hiss C, Antique China, 
Point Lace» &o. . . 66 & 66 

Claudet and Houghton, Olass 
Shades and Photo^^phic Glasses 

Copelanif and Son .... 

Goode and Co., T., China, Glass, 
China Laoe Figures, imitation 
H^joUca Ware . .' . . 6 

Green, J., Usefiil and Oznanxmtal 
China, Glass, and Barthen- 
ware. 87to40 



Hetley,NH., Glass Shades and 
Cases 28 

Hetley and Co., J., Glass-shades 
Window and Horticultural Glass 86 

Kerr, Binns, and Co. . .41 

Litchfield, 8., Ancient Furniture, 
China, Clocks, Candelabra, 
Bronses, &c .... 

Lockhead and Co., JT., Patent Per- 
forated Glass, Specimens of 
Glass, and Glass Manufactures . IS 

Roberts, J., Patent Inyention for 
Cooling Drinks and Edible Mat- 
ters; Specimens of Terra Fer- 
rum ...... 10 

Sinclair, C, Glass and China . lU 6t 12i. 



BASEMENT. 
PKPABTicxirr roB Mi-OHnnntT. 



Beeerofb Butler and Co. . 
Bellhouse and Co., K T. . 
Bernard, J. . . . < 
Birmingham Patent Iron 

Brass Tube Company 
Bradbury and Bvans . 
Burch, E. J. , 
Calvert, P. C. . 
Collins, H. H. . 
Coltman,W. 

Condie^ j 

Dalgetty, Ledger, and Co. . 

Denng, G. E 

Dunn, Hattersly and Co. . 
Galloway, W. and J. 
Gent and Co., G. 
GoodalL H. • . • . 
Goodfellow, B. . . . 

Grout, J 

Hanson and Chadwick 
Harrison and Sons, J. . 

Hill.W 

Hughes and Denham . 

Hughes, R. and T. 

Lister and Go. A. • . . 

Lloyd, Jun., G. p. 

Lloyd, G.. • * . • 



and 



I 



Lomas, Fromings, and Syk^s 
Muir, G. W. . 
Mansell, T. . 
Mason, J. 

ManloYe and Alliott . 
Moseley and Co., J. . 
Onions^. C. . 
Percy, W. 0. S. . 
Piper and Co. . 
Preston, F. . 
Quick, J. V. . 
Bamsbotham, J. 
Beade, Spencer, and Co. 
Benshaw, G. P. . 
. Robinson and Co., H. O. 
Richmond, S. 
Samuelson and Co. M. 
Shand and Mason . 
Smith, B. and J. . 
Snowden, F. W. 
Taylor, T. 
Walker and 
Walsh and Co., A 
Warner and Sons 
Whitworth and Co. 
Wright and Co. . 
Williams, W. . 



PXPABTHMVX 



Corben and Sons; Cairiage upon 
improved principlee . . • 

Hedges, W., Patent Curriculum . 

Hoadley, A. and S., A Carriage of 
FirstHslass Manu&cture . 

Holmes, H. and A*, Two Improved 
Four-wheeled Carriages 

Kinder and Co., light Boggart 
Phaeton 

Eesterton, B., A Dog-Cart of Im- 
proved ConstrQctioQ, with Patent 
Shafts Ac 



fOB OABBIAOIS. 

Lenny, C, Carriage of the latest 

Plan .... 
Mason, W. H. . 
Meaden, M., Four-wheeled Car- 

riage .... 
Offoni and Co., R., A Carriage 
Starey, T. R., Cottage Dog-Cart 
Thrupp and Co., C. J., A Four- 

Wheeled Carriage 
Tudor, W. H., Barouche, Park 

Fhaeton. • • • 



LIST OF EXHIBITOBa 



175 



EXHIBITORS NOT CLASSED. 



Boorer, "R., Slate Tables in imita- 
tion of vuious Marbles 

Cross and Co., J. W., Pails and Pa- 
tent Una Bngines 

Camolera, H. de^ Specimens of 
Flower Painting on Porcelain . 

Kennard and Co.. R. W., Cast Iron 
Gates and BaiUng made for the 
Peruvian Government. Vases 
and Ornamental Castings. The 
Cast Iron (harden Chairs in the 
Grounds 

HcGrQa.H 



Merryweather, M., Fire Escapes, 
Fire Engines, and Implemento . 

Stewards and Co., Statue in Port- 
land Stone *. . . . . . 

Taylor, Mrs. A. M. N., Various 
Specimens of Sea Weed 

Wood and Jerry, Carved and En- 
graved Shells . . . . 

WOson, J., Statuette in Parian 
Marble 

Wilkinson, Letitia, a Chum on 
Stand 



UABBVST AMD STAXI, PBHTSBI, WaiVBySZABS. 



\ 



AC p 




/':\ 



"-•».. 







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THE BACHELOR of the ALBANY. 

By the Author of "The Falcon Family," &c. 
Q;^* Other popu'ar works are in preparation for this 

Series. 
London : Chapman & Hall, 193, Piccadilly. 

BOOK^ 

20 PER CENT. DISCOUNT 

OFF ALL BOOKS 

T6n B&ABT MOKET, 

AT 

CHARLES HASELDEN^S, 

BOOKSELLER, 

SHAFTESBURY HOUSE, 
21, Wigmore Street, Cavendish Sqnare, LMidon. 

Conntry Orders must b^ aeeompaaled by a 
Remittance. 



TO SKETCH ERS FROM NATURE, AND 
ARTISTS IN GENERAL. 

NEWMAN'S DIAGONAL MOIST 
COLOUB SKETCHING BOX. 

Registered No. 3363, Act 6 & 7 Vie., cap. 6ft. 
Lightness, ease, comfort, and convenience of use, 
economy both of space, colour, and brushes,' &c. 

IMITATION CRESWICK PAPER. 

Size, 40 by 26 and 30 by 21. with the initial N iu 
the water-mark. Takes colour with ffreater/adl- 
Up and freest than any other Paper. 

SOME NEW VARIETIES OF VERY LIGHT 
and convenient Drawing Boards. Each of the 
above Articles has qualities ot pecvdiaT Value, par- 
ticularly to the uuTDOOB Student. Catalogues^ 
with ample descriptions, at — 

24y Soho Sqiutreff London* 



10 



AU V J!illT15£iJM.£iX^ T»t 



* XfO. li 



Ibe Cheapest, Largest, and Best Family Kewi^^ O bl 

L L O Y D^S '^ 
WEEKLY LONDON NEWSPAPER. 

EDITED BY 

DOUGLAS JERROLD. 

CONTAINING 

LEADING ARTICLES BY THE EDITOR, 

AND 
OF THE 

LATEST INTELLIQENCE. 



Send Three Postage Stomps to Edwabd Lloyd, 12, Salubuiy Sqntte, London, and receWe one 
Paper as a sample, or send Three Shillings and Threepence, in Postege Stamps or otherwise, and 
receive LLOYD'S WEEKLY LONDON NEWSPAPER, for One Quarter (Thirteen Weeks), 
Post-free. 



NEWSPAPER STAMP RETURNS. 

Number of STAMPS returned by order of the House of CommoiiB, as used by 
LLOYD'S WEEKLY NEWSPAPER for each quarter of— 



First Quarter 
Second do. 
Third do. 
Fourth do. 



1851. 


1852. 


1853. 


872,500 
912,000 
-826,000 
871,000 


845,200 

873,625 

949,000 

1,211,700 


1,127,925 
1,161,600 
1,112,500 
1,246,000 



First Qr. of 
1R54. 

1,346,897 



By the above returns it will be seen that LLOYD'S WEEKLY LONDON 
NEWSPAPER has, in little more than three years, increased at the rate of 
47,439 per quarter ; and the return for the first Quarter (12 Weeks) of this year 
shows a WEEKLY circulation of ONE HUNDRED AND TWELVE THOUSAND 
TWO HUNDRED AND FORTY-TWO COPIES, and one hundred and ninety- 
eight thousand eight hundred and twenty-six copies MORE than ANY OTHER 
Weekly Newspaper. 



LONDON, BRIGHTON, AND 
SOUTH COAST RAILWAY. 

TERMINUS, LONDON BRIDGE, 



LONDON AND PARIS 

DAILY DIRECT SERVICE, 

■VIA 

NEWHAVEN AND DIEPPE, 

SHOBTEST AND CHEAPEST ROUTE. 

FARES THROUGHOUT, 

1st Class, 28s. I 2nd Class 20s. 



. LONDON AND JERSEY, via NEWHAVEN. 

I 1st. ClasSi 21s. 2nd Class, 16s. 3rd. Class, 10s. 

For Tixnes of Starting seo tbe Times daily, the Time Tables of the London, Brighton 
and South CkMst Bailway Company^ and Bradshaw's Guides. 



Ezonrsion Tmina from London to Brighton and back, every 
Simday and Monday, leave London at 8 a. m., and return from 
Brighton at 7 p. m. Fares, Ist Class, Ts. dd. ; 2nd Class, 58. 6d. ; 
3rd Class, 3s. 6d. 

Tickets issaed by a Special Express Train every Saturday at 8 p. nt, available 
to return from Brighton by any Train on Sunday, or by a Special Express Tram at 
7 15 a. m. on Monday. 



THE CBTSTAL palace TRAINS 

START FROM THE 

LONDON, BRIGHTON. AND SOUTH COAST RAILWAY 

TERMINUS, LONDON BRIDQK 
c 



QLOVES, QLOVES, GLOVES. 

FOti LADIZa AND OBNTLEMEtr. '/ V 

BSAL ALPINE KID OLOVSS. 

Donblc Hwn, catuid^Hdbj uuivmiol mmnnment. Is ill ciJsnn d 

II. ti. PER PAIR. 

Can odIj bo obtained Ht 

■■ it i FF^ *. oxura aak aks za«. msoaMT stkmbt, xoksov. 

N4.— Ad ImaHDH Stock ot 

FRENCH CAMBRIC HANDKERCHIEFS, 

COMMENCING AT Oi. M. PER DOZEN. 

RIMKBIi'S PBRPUMB FOUNTAINS 

AT THE CRYSTAL PALACE. 

FOUNTAINS of TOILET VINEGAR il lb. North-att End. 

FOUNTAINS of STIJENHAM BOUQUET (C Ibe Houlli-Mit Coninof the GrbI Tnniepl. 

I-OONTAWS »fJAU^DE^C^L^GNE_.M 



2 3f, OEBB A RD BTBE ET, SOHO. LOND0JI._ 



BEE-HIVKS. 



f othgr BuebiTO, with Dnoingi and 

IAgtDti-— Uaacbola. HtLi. ft Wilioh, M, Kiag-itncti 
LiTaruDol, Jakbi CtTBfliaf, II, 13a]ta»>qiiue i Cheater^ 
h Uiciciaii & SoHi, ion, EaitiU«-(treel 1 Glunw, AniTiH k 
W H'AaLiH. IS6, TrongmU-ilTMl ; Dublin, J. EPHOHDIOH & 

NEWINCTON HOUSE. 

SALE OF 3ILES, SHAWLS, MAKTL&S, DRBSSBS, RIBBONS, 
ft*-, In tndlaH lariftT, at utnordUur low sn«. llclMnrt.chMpHl.aiidvoat htbknubla 
atoAafStrtw.MilliMTj. ft MoummgBamnninttn trade. W. iSlES.aaAflt.NewuigloiiCaiMwa^ 

FOB VARICOSE VEINS AMD WEAKNESS. 

SUBGICAL EIi&STIC STOCKINQS AND KNEE-CAPS, 

ON A NBW PRINCIPLB, 

Farrioaa, light In IciIur, and ineipenuie, jiddinf an cBcient and niiTaiTiiii isppoit wider 

inj ttmpiratucc, wilhonl Ibe trouble of Lacinf or Biudagint. 

ASSOKnTAL BTJPPORTINa BELTS, of the Bame beautiM Fabrio. 

Tbote foi T^in^ MB, bakn uid after AeoooHumeut, ua admlnblj adaptad for gtvia^ adequate 
nipportwilb eitrema llfhucai, ipoliil llltle attended lo la the coinpulllte])> dumij coDErir- 
u«> and fabriea bilhcrto emplered. 
IflttTuctioiii for UflaiuieuieDt, and Piicei, on appUeatioii, and the artidea aent bf poit from the 
tk.Uauf.etum., pQpg ^^q P L A N T E, 

*, WATERLOO PLACE, PALL MALL, LONDON. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 19 



THE BOTAL CRYSTAL WABEHOUSES, 

ei ft 62, ST. PAUL'S CHURGHYARD, AND 
68 & 69, PATERNOSTER ROW, 

ARE now OPEN for BUSINESS upon a Scale of Grandeur and 
Magntficenee hitherto aoAttempted in th« Commerciftl Worid. A tUU o«lj to this TMt 
FAXiACS of INDUSTRY will convince all who may honour tho 

LONDON MANTLE AND SHAWL COMPANY 

with their patronage, of th« |T«Ht «4nat»g*t to be detiyed from |michQiint at their Warehoutee, 

British and Foreign Shawls, Silks, Mantillas, and Dresses, 

at Mannfaetarcra* Prieea, from th« timpte and economical morning coitume, to tht m<»t elaboTatO 
and costly Oriental productiona. Indies inspecUog tho 

Crystal Saloons of the Company, 

may depend upon civilitT and every attention from the experienced Asaiatants of the Estftbliahineat^ 
MKt wiU not in any ease d« importuned to purchaae contrarr to their wiahes. 

The following is oar Price List of leading Articles j— 

GLACE STRIPED AND CHECKED SILKS, 

The fnll vobe of IS yards. One Guinea. 
83,000 yards richest quality; £X I0a<> much under nlw* 

Ecossais Poult de Soies, 

■ £l 18s. 0d. the robe of 13 yards, wide width. 
Blaek, 01ac6, Moir^, and Broeh^ Silks, Satins, &e., £l 158. to jft 3a. the IS yards, wide width, 
1,870 richest Moir6 antique and Brocaded Silks, £3 18s. 6d. to ^6. 

Kiuilin Bar^e Sylphide Tissue, and Faaey. BobM. 

French printed Muslins, /s. 6d., 13 yards. 

Bich Organdie ditto, Chintz patterns, ISs. Od. , 

Swias Cambrics, 4a. to da. the dress, ^anrantod faai ooloorft 

French Bairige, ]3s. 0d, to 18s. (Id. tie flounced toho* of 10 yordat 

Several thousand useful robes, lOs, 6d„ worth I8s. fld. 

BRITISH and FOREIGN SHAWLS, MANTILLAS, &c. 

9,700 Paisley Soarf Shawlf, woven in one pieeo, One OoiiMt* 

devefal aiousand puie Cashmere. Two Gwneaa, 

90,700 BardgeLTistne Shawls, ISs.pd., ^! oAe priOo, 

Indiai Chinay Crape Grenadine and Sylphide Shawls, iu 

endless variety. 

THE KAHTLB BEPABTHXirT 

la replete with every novelty, amongst which may be seen the 

Celebrated TOGA, forming four Mantles ia onOi 

and six of the moat superb and costly designs, as chosen by 

HER Most GRACIOUS MAJESTY. 
Engravinga of the Fashions and Patterns sent poat^firee, upon application to the 

LONDON MANTU: & SHAWI. COMPANY^ 

MANTLE AND SHAWL MANUFACTURERS TO THE QUBEN, 

61 ft 62, St. Paul's Chnrcliyard ; 68 ft 59, Paternoster Bow, loadon. 

N.B.— The Fur Stock ia large and well asaorted, witii every description of fuU-wasoned SUna . 
C 2 



— — — *•. f ./i V [ 

PETER ROBINSON. , <,.^ . 

LAPIE3 Tiiitiag London are invited to intpeet PETER BOBINSON'd EXTEH^StVE. 
^ FASHIONABLE Stock of 




SILKS, DRESSES, MANTLES, AND SHAWLI 

AS WORN IN PARIS ; »Uo to the 

BEAUTIFUL DISPLAY OF FOREIGN RIBBONS. LACES, OLOVES, &0. 

Rich Brocaded Ribbons, Valenciennes, 6|d per yard ; Ladies' Freneh-eut Kid 
Gloves, $s. 6d. tiie Half Dozen; Rich Embroidered Collars and SIe6TC8k,la..U|d. 
per pair ; Finest Organdia Chintz Blaslin, 78. 6d. and lOs. 6d. the Dresi ; Koue 
Antique ParaflolS| 5s. 6d. Pitt&rks bent F&bk. 

103, 106, and 106, OXFOEB BTSSBT. 

MOURNING ESTABLISHMENT, 103. 

A. MARION & Co., 

162, REGENT STREET, & 14, CITfe BERGERE, PARIS, 

Manufacturing Stationers and Importers of Fancy Ooods, 

SPECIALITY FOR FANCY PAPRRS AND ENVELOPES, 
0/ the mott novel and elegant Idnd. 

STAMP DAMPER, FOR MDISTENINQ POSTAGE & RECEIPT STAMPS, &6 
PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPERS, prepared and nnprepaied} BANK POST PAPERS; 

COFISTB ELECTBO-CHlMiqUK, FOB COPYING LBTT8B8 WITHOUT A FRSS8 ; 

ORNAMENTS AND ACCESSORIES FOR WRITING TABLES ; 

ParUian Noveltiea, Bronses, Figure*, Groups, Aoimals, lukstandt, Vatei, Candleatielii, Ae. 

■ I II 11- ■ I I 1 .1 ■ I » II . . 

VISITORS T O THE CRYS TAL PALACE. 

JAMES SCOTT & CO., 

(OF GLASGOW), 
Having jnst opened their Extensive Premises, 

77 and 78, ST. PAUL'S CHUBGHTABD, 

NEAR THE CORNER OF LUDGATE HILL, 

Respectfully invite YiMtors to London to inspect tlieir 

MAGNIFICENT STOCK OF SILKS, 

WHICH IS COUPLITI IN 

[EVERY DESIGN, EVERY QUALITY, AND EVERY PRICIL 

THEIR MANTLE AND SHAWL ROOMS 

are also replete witli every Novelty fur the present Season. 
FANCY DRESSES, DRAPERY, RIBBONS, HOSIERY, LACE, «co. 

77 and 78, ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD, LONDON ; and 

TRONGATE STREET, GLASGOW. 



Wo. 1.] advertiseme:;jts. 21 

A GREAT LUXURY RARELY TO BE MET WITH. 

n^HE difficulty of obtaining really good Tea is every day experienced, 

^L ' lMte|tM'putliin|r puffhig trtd«tmen adrertiae the bfst Teft at from fid. to 8d. per lb. ley tha|i 
%laj ta^tChtLf it in the market. Those families who want the fine eld fashioned Tea, sacb^nailBld^ 
be sold at from Ss. to iss. per lb. are respectfaUy informed that it may be obtained at 

PASSAM SMITH & COMPANY'S, 

HO L OOVEirTET STBEET, LEICESTER SaiTABE, LONDOV. 

4PKe VERT FINEST SOUCHONG IMPORTED, 6i. FINE PEARL LEAF GUNPOWDER, 6s. 

Yerr fine Strong Breakfast Congou 4a. Od. Giood Family Congou 3a. 4d. to 3s. 8d. 

Similar to the late Eastlndia Company's Good common ditto Ss. lOd. 

True Old Souchong flarour. Good Green Tea Ss. 6d. 

Tea to the value of £t forwarded carriage free to all parts of England. 

P. S. ft CO. beg to add that all COFFEES sold at their Establishment are unadulterated with 
Chicory or any other ingredient whatever. 

ROBERT LOW, SON, AND BEN BOW, 

WHOLESALE AND EXPORT PERFUMERS AND BRUSH MAKERS, 

SSO, STSAXTB, OPVOSXTB SOBtBRSBT HOVSS, &0«»OXr. 



Manufacturers of the choicest articles of Perfumery, long celebrated for their superior quality, and 
Mid in every town in the United Kingdom, most parts of the Continent, in the East and West Indies, 
North and South America, China, and other parts of the Globe. 

LOWS BROWN WINDSOR SOAP 

haa for many years been an esteemed favourite at home and abroad, and various Imitations have from 
time to time been prepared and sold for genuine. To guard against which, it is necessary to observe, 
that every Packet nas an address label in two colours, at each end, to counterfeit which is felony. 

OPENING OF THE CRYS TAL PALACE. 

In utidpktioii of this great NATIONAL BVBNT, 

GEORGE ATTENBOROUGH, 

252, REGENT STREET, 

Has made great additions to his ExtensiTe Stock of 

JBWSLLBRT, SILVBB, ^ BL6CTB0-FLATB, 

And belieTes it to be now unsurpassed for QUALITY and GOOD TASTE 

by anj House in the Kingdom. 

Visitors to*London will find a very LABOE STOCK for seleotion, 

at HOST EEASONABLE PRICES. 

THE BEST ELECTRO-PLATED SPOONS AND FORKS, 

; £2 108. FEB DOZEN. DESSERTS, £1 16«. 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUES SENT POST FREE. 

GEORGE ATTENBOROUGH, 
JEWELLER, SILVERSMITH, AND ELECTRO-PLATER, 

252, REGENT STREET, LONDON. 
COUNTRY ORDERSISENT CARRIAGE FREE. 



MOREWOOD & ROGERS'S 

PATENT GALVANIZED TINNED IRON. 

THE PATENT GALVANIZED TINNED IRON ha« been extensiyely 
employed for ROOFING for sereral yvara in the Oovemment Dockyards in 
Ei^gUad and abxoAd, On nost of the Lioes of Railwayi ao^ for the eompJete eon- 
atruetion of many Storm and Prirate Buildinga in Eoglaiid, as well as in tbe fi^ 
and West Indies, America, and Australia. It is employed also for ships' bolta and 
sheathing, boat-building ; railway and carriage roofs ; lining of tunnels ; telegrapfaj 
and other wire-cbatns ; rain-water gutters, pipe, beads, and cisterns; ridge-caps, 
ehimaey*pots ; and in fact, for all purposes for whi^ iron not liabte to nut is reqnired. 
From its strength, it is not liable to split or twist and get out of form — besides beias 
cheaper than lead, and more durable than Zinc, where these metals are used 
separately. 

Morewood & Rogers^s Patent Galvanized Tinned Iron is found to be well adi^ted 
for ns» in hot climates : as fipom its strength, and the small degree in whidi it 
expands and contracts with the yariations of temperature, it is not liable to crack or 
get oal of ahapew , 

For ROOFING purposes their PATENT TILES haye been found in the Colonies 
and elsewhere to combine all the desiderata of permanency, appearance, ease in 
fixing, purity of rain-water obtained, and cheapness (see Pamphlet), and as they 
pack closely into each other, much freight-room is saved in their exportation. 



MOREWOOD & ROGERS'S 

PATENT PLUMBIC ZING. 

k SOfeSVITUtS VOR IHBBI UULD PQJk 

ROOFlNCf iUDCES, CUTTERS, FLOORING, 

AND iXL OTRSK PUEBOBSS TO VAICH SHEET LBJlO IS jgPFUCABLS* 

This Metal consists of distinct layers of Lead and Zinc, perfectly united in the process 
of Manufacture, one si^o of oacb ftheet beitt| pure Leaj^ and the other pure Zinc : 
it therefore combines the Sti^ness of Zinc with the durable qualities of Lead. The 
L^Ad side of the sheet being laid outward, elfeetoally protects tiie Zinc below irom 
thwM tjtmospherie initaonces which so rs^idiy canse its dem^ whilst die 2ioeio 
atifiens End supports Uia Lead as to mako a sheet of Plumbis &m eqaal in atrsngti 
to one of Lead of several times its thickness and weight. 

Plumbic Zinc not requiring to be more than one-fourth or one-fifth as thick as 
Sheet Lead, is consequently much cheaper than that material. . 

For ooyering TemMses, Fiats, Floors^ Stairs, Passages, &0m it is weU snited, being 
like Lead to the treadi whilst the 2Sne on the nnder side of the sheet prevents it from 
treading out of shape. The Siae of the Sheets is 7 feet by % feet 8 inohefc 

No. 11 Gauge weighs about 18 oe. per foot super. 
No. 12 „ „ „ 20 oz. do. do. 

No. 13 „ „ „ 23 oz. do. do. 

No. 14 „ „ n ^6 oz* do* do. 

For fgrther particulErs a|pply to thoiy 

QALVANIZE0 TINNED IRON WAREHOUSE, 

DOWGATE DOCK, UPPER THABIES STRSST, LONDON. 



ai.AS8 SHADES 



WHOLESALE AND RETAII., AT 

CLAUDET AND HOUGHTON'S, 

M, SISH HOLBOSX, LOISOX. 

UWirf flt—» twhith tow iHtn giMt]y MJM«i) lUlw towuJi J (lie, on ■ppliutlon. 

PI.ATa OI.ABa, PATENT PI^TE 03UAJM, 

SUEK1' AND CROWN.WINDOW OLASS, 
BuHey'a fioogh Plata Olau mi Hwtimltuftl ttlMt ttMl 

rOB CONSE&VATOBIU, ITO., 

PAINTED AND STAINED GLASS. 

And every Tuiety of Colanred and OnuCnmitAl Wiodaw GJass. 

CLAUDET AND HOUGHTON, 

BS, HIQH HOLBORN, LONDON. 
Uats of Ftices oi Estimataa Mnt fre« on applicatton. 

CABINET, UPHOLSTERY, EASY CHAIR, AND CARPET 
MANUFACTORY, 

88 A 32, KEavSAS 8TB£ET, HIDSLS8EX EOBPITALj 

CRYSTAL PALACE, FI^NITURE COURT, NUMBERED 27, 29, AND 20. 

TH. PILMBR reipectfultj announoos that his large range of Ware- 
• lOon* vaitplM* with Oil m«t modem and tlegant FURNITURE, iDclndlncH gnat nrieir 
of Cibhuta, WritliigTabl«i,EuriudKi,uidnmRBUndi,iD BuM, HuqncUrig, ftc, tnuiurutaicd 
of thonti^J MuMmad iDi4eiiiiU lod iweriorwDrkinuiablp. In the Upboliterf and Cupvt Dtpait- 
mcnl wUIlM foimd (mr dacrlptloii ud^qnmtitiof oiitRiUlrDD deaigni of the moit emiaent oiiiMU, 
Bod ticcuMd hr Iho flnt mtuiufutlmn, bot£ uatEvB and foreign. Upwardi o( aim Ea«r Chain, 
Sofaa, and ConcfieB aMya in ituk, wunnlid ttHBed with (he beat materiali. 
Th* mliM Bbnk for price, qaalilj, Titieir.and Blent ii not lurptHed bf anj booM in thsUntdoB. 
£STABU8BED I«ie. 

a* A sa, mmmmmm* wrmmmrw, wntnwisas MOmwrtMM. 
GI.£Nri£LB PATENT STAAOH, 

USED IN HBR MAJESTY'S LAUNBRr, 

WOTHERSPOON'S SCOTCH MARMALADE, 

Jams, Jellies, Lozenges, and Comfits, made by Machinery. 

gilnad ihs Priie MM. 

of n'OTHBKBFOOe 

nmpddt, fjondon 



» ADYERTISEM EHTS. tRo-i" 

DR. COLLYER'S 2 

CAIIFOSMIA aUABTZ CRUSHED 

TRITURATOR, AND GOLD EXTRACTOR. - 

Palenlid in the U«V(d Slala, Gnat Siilain, France, and tlhtr Evmptan Cinaitna. 



MANUFACTURED BY 

BANSOUES AND SI MS, IPSWICH. 

EXPLANATION. 

THE power or drinog wheel oFalO-lioree engine is attaclied totbe&nn 
oraelutcerlinlriHliaUer. •Ituiltdia thaeumdbulB. Wben uoUon It (iTcn, ■ iloir, nndib 
luhig, (ibnlorr. partlnl nllinE ind •lidisi iction. i> camnuniciiUd la tht rjUndcn ; IhCfeopcnta 
11 crwtutt tritvraiert, uid pnheritertt br their weight Hnd ruhhing, u wdl h enuhdog BkolkiL. 
Thft Ur^ nlidder ii «■ feet in dJAmeter, tai iu weii^ht ia belweeq >ix and KTen Edng, Tha uoaUer 

01 ci^crefMnder mkf b« IncruMd onB-ihird b; bchif fUlcd wiUi und or water. Tbej tn to ctm- 
■tnicted tbtt when one porUon becooiei worn hy \mt uh, a Dew tnrriice m&T at onrc be preveutBd 
1^ chanting the rulcinm, AU parli of the inmchLne arc of giemt itrenKth and duxahditj'. Tlu 4gnn 

•(Tetn]D(*atcTfarcpmeDted ai flowing ioto the batLa. After the ore haa been reduced bj the large 

Sure inch. The crushed ore next enter, the Amalgamator Proper, where, hj the repealed rtTolotlOB 
nrmgated crlindtn, li ia lo IborouBhlr incoriiorMtd with the inerciU7 Ihcated b; aleuB) thai, oa 
inlljila of (be laUtHdt. no (race ot gold nan he diKoiered. 

The machine worka oier SiO aqune feet of crnahing ni tritnratlDf lufBct per miiiiit^ btin|[ 
equivalent to the cTuahin^ action otsu headeof alampa, each weiflhinir SOU ib. 

The Irilniatiou of the KDid partidea ia abaolutelj neeeaaii;, olhetwiae the nerenry eannot beeone 
anociated with them. The amalgamating procua baa been teated ia California ttr ihne jean with 
the moat perfect anecEia. Bach machine will reduce 10 loDi of hard d» per diem, 
A full ilied naehine ii now being elected at Meiaca. JOHN TAYLOR AND BON'S Kata- .i 



ei puticulan addreaa, DR. COLLTEB, the Patentee, at tbe Uining Journal O 
MESSRS. RANSOMES AND SIMS, IPSWICH. 



Mb..i.] ADVERT1SBMEHT3. 

SLACK'S NICKEIi SIIiVER. 

If4)wk^tet ind DHHt pnFMt Vlilta HeXt tm 
l^ltd, Md, In - - ' ..-:-,.- .■.— ..^- 



nUlni iU Sll'cr- 



Slaoki' ITiokel Electro-Plated 



^nd— it beiac rl>(<d on is bvuliful ■ milal. 
I and ( liL 
Qstlil;. Qnalit/, 



TMt SpDoni ind Forti pt 



■£■(, 



Slftcka' Table OutleTy and Fumiah- 
ing Ironmongelj Imheeo cilebntad for bmiIj 

Oataloguea eonhunlng ami DimwiHui. ind price., gmli, or lent pmt-fH*. 

"" "ilCHABD ft JOHH BLACK, 
336, Strand, opposite Someiaet House.- — 'Established 1S18. 

SODA-WATER APPARATTTS. 

EPS COUBIE PATEST PORTABLE 
GAZOGENE, 

: TUBE BEINQ ENTIRELY MADE OF CHINA.) 

le Immediate Frodnction of Soda- Water, Ginger 
Beer, Sparkling Wine, lemonade, ftc. 

euii of thii inpnisni Utile nucbiaF, conimnRi of Sodn.Witcr, 

n Hiitable for Domul'ic tat, tnd it ■ cml » Iriflini u [a be qullo 

•e hiUI, tontlici wllh laitneibni uid PDwdin fu grBcntlnE Ou, 
innliti, Unigguti, Sodn-Witer HuuruluRn, lie., thaoiboBt th* 

tsalo only —a. B. & Co., 21, Battlett's BuildingSt 
HOLBOBH. 

Ice.— SiTcnl ImitotioDi of Ihs iborc Apponlni luting nentlj 
ihrmlo the tud imlutioni vithont the UcenH of the Fitealtc'r 



PATENT PORTABLE FILTER, 

Bmill, uKful, and chop Ailiilc, FillciliiK frcm to p (iDiisi pci 14 hann, ud not onnpTinj nn 



86 ADVERTISEMEKTS. [No.!; 

THE QUSBlff'S 900TB. 

J. SPARKES HALL 

INVITES the attention of Ladies to his specimens of Elastic Boots, aD 
fac-aimile« of thoM made by him for Her Majesty ; — 



1. The Stocking Net £laiti« Boot for Summer 

wear. 

2. The Improved Cork Sole ElaatLc Boot for 

Walking. 

3. The Dreae Elastic Boot. 



4. The Kid Hirling »oi)ta, with MUitary H«el«« 
6. The SnauK-Iled and Camlet Over-shoes. 

6. The Treble Sole Waterproof Balmoral Boc^ 

7. The Princess Ro|al's Boota and Over-aho«k 

8. The Princess Alice's Boots xad Over'shoes. 
J. SPARKES HALL informs Ladies that he has a large assortmont of Elastic, Lace, and Bottoa 

Boots, of the best make and shape, from 8s. Od. to Sis. Shoes, from 4s. 6d. to ffs. Orer-shoes, 
OS. 6d. to 88. 6d. 

309, Begent Street, opposite the Polytechnic Institution; 

CRYSTAL PALACE, near the " Pompeian Hoase.** 

ESTABLISHED AS " HAYWARD'S," OTO. 

SPfiCIALITl: D£ DENTELLES ET DE BKODERIES, 

WEDDING ORDERS, 

IBRUSSELS AND HONITON LACE, 

^In beautiful and appropriate desigufi, in Flonnces, Squares, Soarfe, Y^k^ 

Handkerchiefs^ &c. 

BRUSSELS SQUARES, from 13 to 65 guineas. 

BRUSSELS FLOUNCINGS, from 14 to 100 guineas. 

BRUSSELS and HONITON BRIDAL SCARFS, from 7 to 45 guiaeas. 

HONITON SQUARES, from 3 to 48 guineas. 

A beautiful Imitation of the above at a rety modtrate price. 

D. BIDDLE, 81, OXFORD STREET, OPPOSITE THE PANTHEON. 

JOHN INDERWICK'S 

WHOLESALE AND BETAIL WAREHOUSE FOR 

PURE MEERSCHAUM PIPES, 

Cigar Cases, Tabes, Snuff Boxes, &c., 

68, PRINCES STREET, LEICESTER SQUARE, LONDON^ 

ESTABLISHED 1799, 

And in the Sonth-East Gallery, CETSTAI PALACE, STBESTHAM 

Shippers to the Coloniei ^ill find the largest and best*assorted Stock of Meerschaum 
and all other kinds of Pipes in London at this Establishment. 

IMPORTER OF GENUINE LATAKIA. 

MR HAYES, SENR., 

SURGEON DENTIST AND CUPPER, 

BEOS to i&fona his Patients that the report, so industriously circulated, 
of hit intention to quit his premises in 

SOHO SQUABE, 

is entirely without foundation ; on the contrary ha has renewed bis lease, completed the repairs, 
and arranged his premises, with every accommodation, tor the use of his patients. 

Mr. HAYES is the eldest son and sueesssor to the late Mr. Hayes, of May's-buildings, and 
adheres strictly to the same moderate 4;harces attd scientifie principles, tiiat haw dbtraeterised the 
practice for so many yearst 

12, SOHO SQUARE. 



No. 1.] ADVfiRTISEMBNTS. 27 

mi. DE JONGH'S 

XJGHT BROWH COB IIVEB OIL 

PREPARED FOR MEDICINAL USE \H THE LOFFODEN ISLES, NORWAY 

AUDPUT 10 THE IXST OF CHkHICAL ANILTSIS. 

The most effectaal Eemedy for Consumption, Asthma, Oont, Chronic 

Rheumatism, and all ScnrfUons Diseases* 

APPEOVBD of and recommended by BfiR2ELitrs, Liebig, Wolerh, 
Jonathan Pbriiba, Foravisft, asd nuincraiiC other enuacnt medical men and acientific 
chemists in Europe. 

Specially rewaiided with medals by the Govetnmente of Belginm and the Netherlands. 

Has almost entirely superseded all other kinds on ike Gmitinent, in consequence of its proved 
superior power and efficacy — effecting a cure much tnort tapitty. 

Contains iodine, phosphate of chalk, volatile acid, fmd the elements of the bile — in short, all its 
moat active and essentiu prineiples--in larger quantities than the pide oils made in England and 
Newfoundland, deprived mainly of these hj their mode of preparation. 

A PampUet by Pr. Da Jongh, with detailed remarks spon its superiority, direetione for use, cases 
in \^uth It haa been pteecribed'Viith me greatest suoeess, and testimonials, ferwarded gratis on 
application. ^ 

The following are selected from some of the leading Medical and Scientifie Testimonials in favour o 
Dr. Da JoHGH'a.God Liver OU :-» 

BAXOW IbZBBXO, Professor of Chemistry at the Uoiversity of Giessen, &c., &e. 

" Sir, — I have the honour of addressing you my wannest thanks for your attention in forwarding 
me your work on the ehenucidi eompoait^iHt an4 ptoperties, as well as on the medidnid effscte, of 
various kinds of Cod Liver Oil. 

*' You have rendq^d an essential feervice to science by your researches, and your efforts to provide 
sufferers with this Medicine in its purest and most genuine state must ensure you the gratitude of 
every one who stands in need of its use. 

** I have tht komwr of rttaaininij^ with eKpftwions of the highest regard and esteem, 

"Yours sincerely, 

*^* Oiessen, Oct. 30, 1847. DR. JUSTUS LIEBIG. 

** To Dr. Dft ScH^H, at tfa# Bagiiek** 



The late DB. JO V ATBAir PBBSXBA, Pro£eMor at the UaiversUy of London, 
Author of *^ The Elements of Materia Mediea, and TherapeuticB," &c., &« 

• " Hy Dear 8ir,->I was very glad to find from yon, when I had the pleasure of seeing you in 
txmdoB, that you were interest commerciaHy in Cod Liver Oil. It was flttinK that the Author of 
the best analysis and investigations into the properties of this Oil should himself be the Purveyor of 
this important medicine. 

*' I feel, howevexw Mme di|Mence in venturing to fulfil yo«r reqaeet by |tlvtng you mj opinion of 
the qualitjr of the 03 «r which you gave me k sample ; because I know that no ooe csn be better, 
and few so well, acquainted with the physical and chemical properties of this medicine as yourself, 
wUOm I regard as the highest authority on the subject. 

** I can, however, have no heutation about the propriety of responding to your application. The 
Oil which you gave me was of the venr finest quality, whether considered vrith reference to its colour, 
flavour, or chemical properties : and I am satisfied that for medical purposes no finer Oil can be 
procured. 

•< With my best wishes for your success, believe me, my dear Sir, to be very faithfully yours, 

^^"Finsbury Square, London, ApHi 16, ISSI. JONATHAN PEREIRA. 

«»To Dr. Db Jongh." ] 

Sold Wjiolesale and Eetail, in Bottles^ kbeUed with Pn Db Conor's stamp and 
signature, by Ansae, Karvord, and Co., 77, Strand, London, Sole Consignees and 
Agents for the United Kingdom and British Possessions, and by all respectable 
Chemisto aad Veniors of Medicine in Town and Country, at the following prices :— 

Half-Fints, 2s. 6d. ; Pints, 4s. 8d. 

IMPERIAL MEASURE. 



2a ADVERTISEMENTS. - t*f«»^« 



I I » ■■!' m 



DINNER, DESSERT, BREAKFAST, AND TEA SERVlCgA 

TABLE GLASS, fco. 

6E0B6E B. SANDER'S SHOW SOOMST, 

Contidii one of tlie largmt Stocks In Londooi eomprising everj modem ttyle^ 

A DINNER SERVICE FOR TWELVE PERSOK% 

108 PiKCM, ie2 28. TO ;e3 108. ■ ■ 

SEBYICES BIOHLT ENAKEILEB AHD GILT, 

At the lowest prices COTsUtent with good qtuUitj and workmanslMp. 

BREAKFASt AND TEA SERVICES 

Made up in sets of any sice to meet the conTcnienee of purchasera, at pfioes in pn^ortion to the abore« 

ail A s s 

The usual extensive choice of decanters, jugs, wine glasses, carafes, ice-pails, dishes, &c., richly 

cut and engraved. 

STATUETTES AND VASES, &c., 

la Parian and Alabaster. Foreign and Ornamental Glass, ftc 

PAPIER MAC HE TEA TRAYS, 

In great choice. 
Every description of common printed and coarse ware for kitchen use, at unusually low rates. 

GEORGE B. SANDER, 319, High Holborn, Isondon, 

OPPOSITE GRAY'S INN. 

^1 II , - - - - „ ^ IW_1J l_ _ III IMI - ■* ~ 

THE BEST FOOD FOR CHILDREN, INVALIDS, AND 

OTHERS. 

ROBINSON'S PATENT BABLET. 

For makinjs superior BARLEY-WATER in Fifteen Minutes, has not only obtained the patronafe 
of Her Majesty, and the Royal Familv, bu^ has become of general use to every dass of the oommunity, 
and is acknowledged to stand unrivalled as an eminently pure, nutritious, and li|^ht food for Jofaiita, 
CbUdren, and Invalids; much approved for making a delicious Custard Puddmg, and exc^enl for 
thickening Broths or Soups. 

ROBINSON'S PATENT GROATS, 

Form another diet universally esteemed for making a superior GRUEL in Fifteen Bfbutea, ligjbt for 
Supper, and, altcmatclv With the Patent Barley, is an excellent Food for Children and Invalids, l>eihflr 

ftarticulsrly recommended by the Faculty as tiie purest and best preparation of the kind extant, and 
ar preferable to the Emden Groats. 



PREPARED ONLY BY THE PATENTEES, 

ROBINSON, BELLVILLE, Sc CO., PURVEYORS TQ 

THE QUEEN, 

64, RED LION STREET, HOLBORN, LONDON, 

Sold by all respectable Grocers, Druggists, an others, in Town and Country, in Packets of 6d. and Is* 

and in Family Cannisters, at 2s., 5s., and 10s. each. 






Auy riivrxar^AiJ^iN i ;x 



29 



EAU DE VIE. 

RSrS Stifd Wholesome Brandy. 

Imperial Gallon, l6«.] Dosent, Sl«. 

B^ri^T BSSTV AVD CO., 

OLI^f>VttlfITAI«'S DISTILLUir, HOLBOAN. 

.. LONG FOCUS PORTRAITS. 

MR* ELLIOTT begs to announce 
that having eonctructed a PHOTOGRA- 
PHIC OPERATING ROOM, nearly 40 feet in 
length, he ia enabled to take 

Non-ZnTerted Stereoscopic and 
3>agueyreot3rpe Miniatures, 

without enlargement of the Hands and dictottien 
of object* not situated in the same plane, defects 
of which, from insufficient length of focus, com- 
plaint is so frequently made. 

Great faeility is also afforded from the size of 
the room for the composition of large gronpa. 
PiCTunssCopiiD. 
48, PlecadiUyi Private Entrance, p, Albany 
Court' yard. 

ADELAIDE, PORT PHILIP, 
SYDNEY.~PAS8£NGEBS and GOODS 
LANDED at Melbourne free. Saloon, £45 ; Cabin 
on deck, £25 to £30 ; IntermedUte, £l6 to £20. 
No steerage. Children half-price. In enclosed 
berths, per ist-elass ships. Apply to WM. BAB- 
NETT & Co., 85, Philpot-lane, London, Mer- 
chants. Colonial, Ship ping, and General AgenU. 

Jtttt published, price Ss., 

BEN RHYDDINQ 

AND 

THE WATER CURE. 

London : W, & G. F. CASH, 5, Bishopsgatcst. 
Without; or if by post, (Ss. 6d.) of Mr. SAML. 
HORTON, Ickley, near O tley, Yorkshire. 

HYDROPHOBIA. 

R. EDWARD DEAN of Ware- 

ham, Dorset, is in possession of a Bemedy 
fmr this dreadful malady that has borne the test of 
time, and ^proved itoelf entitled to the term 

Innumerable testimonials can be produced, and 
in no one instance, where the remedy has been 
t«mdy applied, has it been known to fail. 

As the remedy should in every case be newly 
prepared, it can be obtained only of the Proprietor: 
three Bottles invariably effect the cure. All com- 
munications must be prepaid, and a remitUnce 
accompany the order. The age of the applicant 
should be staUd ; the name, residence, &e:, legibly 
written. 



M 



THTE & GILBERT'S PATENT 

1 1 MINCING MACHINE for mincing Meat, 
Suet, Vegetables, and other subsUncei. 
^ May be seen in the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, 
situated in the Hard-ware Court, No. 37 c, and at 
the manufactory, 79, Wardonr-street, Soho. 
. jPartieuIais sent free on application. 



IMPORTANT TO MUSICAL AMATEURS. 

JULLIEN & CO/a 

ANNUAL MUSICAL PRESENTATION AND 
CIRCULATING LIBBARf— combimbd. 

214, BEGENT 8TBEET. 

DURING the Term of Subserip- 
tion, each Subscriber has the privilege of 
selecting^for hia own property— from 100,000 
different pieces, THREE GUINEAB* W^RU 
OF MUSIC. 

Subscribers are liberally supplied, on loan, with 
ever^ description of new Vocal and Instrumental 
Music, and have also at their disposal upwards of 
THnxa Thodbakd Volvmxs, including the 
Standard Operas, Italian, German, French, and 
English Songs, and all kinds of Instrumental Miuie. 




PATENT IBON TUBES AND FITTINGS, OF 

ALL KINDS AND SIZES, FOB GAS, STEAM* 

AND WATER. 

LAP- WELDED FLUES FOB BOILERS, 

GALVANIZED TUBES, SHEET-IRON, &e. 

JOHN RUSSELL ft CO., 

CHURCH-HILL, WEDNESBURY, 

TuBiMO Mancpactusbbb from the Coif If BNca- 
M BNT of LiGHTiNQ by Gab, and preriously Con- 
tractors with the Government and East India 
Company for Gun Barrels, which were also first 
supplied by them to Gas Companiefe, and used for 
the distribution of Gas. 

LONDON ESTABLISHMENT. 

69, trPPEB THAMES STREET. 

N.B . Every Tube is proved by hydnmliepresamw 
before leaving the Works. 

QROSJEAN'S 

Celebrated Trowsen 168. 

Over Coat £2 28. 

109, BEQEHT STBEET. 



A PRIZE MEDAL F.OR SUPE- 
BIOB LOCKS was awarded to J. H. 
BOOBBYEB at the Great Exhibition of I8A1, 
who invites the attention of Builders, &c., to his 
Stock jof Ironmongery) Brass Foundry, Nails, 
(wrought and cut). Copper, and Zinc; Patent 
Locks of all descriptions : China, Glass, and 
Wood Furnitures of all kinds, with Patent Shift- 
ing Spindles } Dr. Amott's Ventilator, 4s. 6d. ; 
and the new registered Venetian Ventilator, 
6s 6d. 

J. H. BOOBBYER (late STURCH and BOOB- 
BYEB), esublished nearly 200 years, for the 
supply of Goods from the best Manufactories, at 
the lowest prices. 

14, Stanhope street, Clare- market, London. 



WATERLOW AND SONS, ... 

KANUFAGTUBING AND EXPORT STATIONERS, 

65 TO 68, LONDON WALt, 
49, PARUAMBNT STREET, and BIRCHIN LANE, LONDON, 

A CGOXTHT BOOKS Xanufiiotared on fhe most approved principle^ 

^^ and ruled to any pattern on the ihortevt poarible notion* Tke ordinarj pattemt «r« »lw»y« kepi 

'*^'"'*°** FATEHT HUrOE BOOKBISDIHO. 

Undw Her Majaty'9 Kojtei, Utkr§ Paiwt 

Meanrt. WAxamLOW arb Sonb beg ratpeetfnUy to inform tke Nohility, Ofstvjr i&d PoliSLe, tkiU 
they have made arreagementi for the exclusive manufactore of Aecoont Books with AraoM*s Patort^ 
Ilingec, which they confidently reeommend as an excellent and valuable improvement upon the pve- 
sent style of Bookbinding, and as possessing the following advantages, vis.-~-greAt ease in the 
opening, and flatness when the book is opened— additional strength and dumbiUty, The invention i» 
well worthy the attention of Bankers, Merchants, Mid Public Companiea, at no putn ebai^ y$nHX be 
made ior books with theae patent Hinges. 

VTHE AHEBICAir (OPAQTTE) ENVELOPE, registered \sj Mesirs. 

^ Watcklow AMD Sons, offers perfect security against espionage, and is the ONLY SAFB 
ENCLOSURE for Documents of value. When th« Envelope is faetene^, all iht four 6apf we 
securely connected by the seal. 

]>ri«f If, per 1000, Adhesive imd Stamped* Sample packets sent free for six postage ttampe, 

mtt TOTTB LETTERS B7 WATERLOW'S PATENT LETTER 

^ COPYING PRESSES, p«troniied by Her M^esty*s Stutionery OiBce. Partienlai* and Deaigns 
with prices sent free. 

These Machines, although lower in price than those of any other manufacturer, are all warranted, 
And wjU be immediately exchanged, or the money returned. If any fault is discovered. The largest 
asaortment of the beat description of Copying Presses, Stands, and Materials always <m Sale. 



»■ ■ « w ■ > 



Under the Patr&nage €tftKe Board of Trade, Department of Practical Art, ^c» 

TITATERLOW'S PATENT ATTTOORAPHIC PRESS, or PORTABLE 

^VV PRI^TINQ MACHINE fot the Qountinir-house. Office, or Library, by meana of which 
EVERT PERSON MAY BECOME HIS OWN PRINTER.-The proeess is aimple, and 
thousands of Copies m^y be produced from any writing, drawing, piece of music, or design (previously 
made on paper), and the requisite number of Copies being finished, the suhiect may be c^aced and 
another substituted. Many hundreds of these Presses have now been sold. The Pf«sa mny be seen 
at work, and sp^iQiens of its production, with prices (from 7 Guineas upwards), obtained from the 
Patentees. 

llfERCHANTS, CAPTAINS, and SHIPPERS, are inyited to select 

*■* from an EXTENSIVE STOCK OF GENERAL STATIONERY, comprising 



Writing Papers 
Drawing Papers 
Tracing Papers 
Printing Papers 
Bank Note Papers and 

Engraring 
Parcl^nent; 



Account Books 
Envelopes 
Fancy Stationery 
Stationery Cabinets 
Writing pi^sks and 

Despatch Boxes 
Leather Goods 
For Exportation upon the most Liberal Terms. 



Copying Presses, and 

materials 
Lithographle Presses, 

and materials 
Binding Materials 
Stamping Presses 



Autographic Presses 
NuraDenng Machines 
Postage Scales and 

Balances 
Periodicals 
InHia Wax, &«., 9ce» 



STAMPING PRESSES for Paper, Books, &c., from 9ls., including ordinary Pics for Stamping 

Crests. Initials, Trade Seals, &e., &e. 

WATERLOW & S( )NS, 

ACCOUNT BOOK MANUFACTURERS, 

PRINTEBS, LITHO0BAPHER8, AND ^OBAVERS, 

London Wall, Birchin Lane, & Parliament Street, London. 



FOR FAMIIjY and EXPORT TRADE, 
CHARLES MEEKINC 1^ COMPANY'S NEW FREMi8ES| 

BROOKB HOUSK, 

' ITos. 141 & 142, Holborn, ajxd 1, 8, 3. 4, ft 6, Brooke-street, near 

Fumiyal'B Inn, London. 

THE aboye Premises are being prepared for, and will serre for tbe foil 
d«v«lopmfint of, the foUowinff Bmnches of their trade, which m« now ia the eoune of traiuftir 
from tbmr SUk «a4 Dftpery Betabltehmenfc, next St. Andrew's Charch, viz.-— 

GENERAL FURNISHING DRAPERY, 

. Cvp$Ht Cabinet Funiiture, DavMtka, Town^jt, Brocatellei, Moreens, Emboned and Printed Table 
Coven, Beddinffy Blankets, QuiU% Dimities, Chintzes, Floor Cloths, Matting:8, Comtees and Pole«4 
with eveiy article incidental to furnishing. 

C. M. & Co.*8 intention is not to parade any nnreal advantage to their cnstomen, nor would th^ 
create any impression that is not correct ; but as tradesmen they will continue to frame such methods 
of business as shall secure the interests of the public in the highest possible degree, and rely upon 
their own eontinnoas iadastry ia» and attention thereto. 

MR. MBCHI, No. 4. LBADBNHALL STREET, LONDON, feeling 
that these are progressive times, has made extensire alterations in his business Establishment, 
which he trusts will be for the comfort and advantage of his customers, by enabling them to inspect 
readUy his general Manufactures, eonsisting of Aitlcles of Luxury or Economy* suitable for presents 
or for use. Independently of hU usual extensive stock of Ladies' and Gentlemen's Dressing Cases, 
Work Boxes, anci Desks, in Wood, Morocco, and Bussia Ltcather, be h&s devoted one entire apartment 
to the most choice productions in Papier Mftch^ Ware, contrasting strangely with the oooe much- 
prized Ware td Japan and China. Catalogues will be forwarded gratts en appTieataon. Mr. Meehi )s 
prsparinfi a very choice assortment of fileganeies and Utilities for Sale at his depot at the New 
Oystal Palaee. His posttton will be in the Nave, st the Entrance to the Freneh Court. 

ALLBNS' ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, 

xjL and Description of upwards of IQO articles, eonsisting of Portmanteaus, 'nravSling Bags, Ladies* 
Portnuinteaas, Despatch Boxss, Writing Desks, Dressing Cases, and ^ther travelUng requisites, for- 
warded on receipt of two stamps. ^ 

ALLBRS' Travellhig Bag (Patented), has the opening as large as the bag itself, and therefore 
possesses an immense advimtage over all others. 

ALLENS* Registered Despatch Box and Writing Desk, and their New Quadruple Fortmante^ki 
(contaidhif faar eonpavtmsnts), are the best articles of the kind ever prodneed. 

/. W. ft T. ALLEN, Manufaoturers of Povtable Fomiture (see Separata Catalogue), and Militsi^ 
Outfitters, 18 and 3S, West Strand. 

■ ■ ■ ■■ ■ — ■ ■■ ■ — ■ » ■ i — ■l—^.pi. .1 ■^■■i>^. ■■■■!■ I, , ,» , m ,^ ^.m .— . ..J. ■■> . » 

Dea&ess, and Koises in the Ilarg.— Extraordinary Discovery. 
TtrST PUBLISHED. Price 7d. by Post. CERTAIN MODE OF 

fj SELF-CURE. Any partially or extremely deaf persan can raaicANnNTLT RssToaB T^BIR 
own vaAHiMQ. Distressing noises in the head relieved in ha\f an hour. This book has eured hun* 
dfcds, Ufing in the nest distant parts of the wofld, without absence from home or business. It is 

£ublished by Vr, HOGHION, Member of the London Royal College of Surgeons, May 2nd, 1845, 
I.A.C., April SQth, 1846, Cohsultimo SoaaaoNr to thx Ihstitutiom Foa thi Ci;xx or 

DSAFKBSS, 9, SDFFOLK«r|iACB, PALL MaI.L. 

Sent free to any part, on receipt of letter, enclosing Seven Poatflfe Stamps, A HINT and HELP, 
foor the Ben^t and Protection of Deaf Persons} a stop to Qnackery, extortionate Fees and Charges. 

By this Nsv niioovaaT, totally ssaf soFFaaias abb xnablxo to Baam ooKFaasATioK^ 
withont«ay £ar>trumpet or Instrument, for over rescuing them frmn the grasp of the extortionate 
and dangerosM Empiric. It eoatains startling cures, desi persons having cured themselves, SEUtny 
iostaataneottsly effected. 

All letters to be directed to Or. H0aHT0N,'9< SUFFOLK PLAC£> PALL HALL, LONDON 
PatimtscseMved any day fnm 19 till 4. Consultation free. 

CHINA AND ITS VARIETIES. 

PUBLIC NOTICE io heads of families and persons furnishing. Hotel 
and Tavern Keepers, and large eensnmers, will do well by going to BREILLAT'S old estab- 
Ushed CHINA AND GLASS WAREHOUSE, No. 37, BLACKMAN STREET, BOROUGH, on the 
left-hand side from London Bridge, and within 10 minutes widk of the Station, where they may 
purchase Dinner, Dessert, Tea, and BreakfMt Services of the best manufacture, on the most reasonable 
ternu ; also Table Oiass in great variety of design and patterns, and all useful articles of Earthenware 
at equally low prices. ESTABLISBlSD I79t« 



9A 



t^X* V A^Al A Alk^A^MJl V4A1 A*.^* 



BAXTER'S OIL - COLODR 
PRINTS AND ROWNET 8 WATER- 
COLOUR PRINTS. Every Fublication bj 
these celebrated Pateatees, from Sizpetace to One 
Guinea ; Compriiiog manf fine Ck>piM from tbe 
Old Hasten and Modern Artists, kept consUntly 
in Stock. RIXON ft ARNOLD, Printsellers, 
No. 99, Poultry, nearly opposite the Mansion 
House. 

DIE SINKING. Arms, Crests, 
Mottoes, Monograms, ftc. Sank and 
SngraTed on Steel, for Embossinv Paper and 
Envelopes in Gold, Silver, or Heraldic colours, in 
a very superior style by the best workmen in the 
trade. No charge for Plain Stamping. RIXON ft 
ARNOLD, Die Sinkers, No. 39, Poultry, nearly 
opposite the Mansion House. 

SEAL ENGRAVINa. Coats of 
Arnu, Coronets, Initials, and Family Seals, 
Engraved on Stone in the first style of the Art, at 
very moderate Charges, by the finest workmen in 
London. Engraving Crest on Seal, 9s. RIXON 
& ARNOLD, Seal Engravers, 89, Poultiy, nearly 
Apposite the Mansion House. . 

nOMMBRCIAL STATIONERY, 

KJ account BOOKS, WRITING PAPERS, 
ENGRAVING. LITHOGRAPHIC AND GE- 
NERAL PRINTING, at Charges advanUgeous 
to large Consumers ; Fifteen per cent, below the 
ordinary prices. Every branch of the business 
eondueted upon the premises. RIXON ft 
ARNOLD, Manufacturing Stationers, No. 39, 
Poultry, nearly opposite the Mansion House. 

E LA RUE'S MANUFAC- 

TURES, as exhibited in the Crystal Palsce, 
Sydenham, may be obtained at RIXON ft AR. 
NOLD'S, City Depot for Da La Rue's Stationery, 
No. 89, Poultry, nearly opposite ^e Mansion 
House. 

EDDING STATIONERY 

AND CARDS. An extensive Stock, com- 

S rising every elegance, novelty, and neatness of 
esign at RIXON ft ARNOLD'S, City Depot 
for De La Rue's Manufactures, No. 89, Poultry, 
nearly opposite the Mansion House. 

A SINGLE STAY, 

CARRIAGE FREE to auy part 
of the Country, on receipt of a Post Office 
Order. Waist measure only required. Drawings 
sent on receipt of a postage stamp. per pair. 
The Paris Wove Stay (white or grey) lOs. fid. 
The Elastic Bodice ISs. fid. 

C. and H.*S ELASTIC BODICE, with simple 
astening in front, is strongly recommended oy 
the Faculty. 

Families waited upon by Experienced persons, 
within ten miles of London free of expense. 

CARTER ft HOUSTON, Stay Manufacturers 
and Importers, 90, Regent Street ; 6, Blackfriars 
Road ; 5, Stoekwell Street, Greenwich ; and 
South Gallery, Crystal Palace— Established 1812. 



GATE'S IHFBOVEI) SHH^ 
TS THE MOST EASY AND 

1 PERFECT FITF ING SHIRT in the TRADE, 
made of the Very Best Material and First G-iass 
Work. 

Half a Doien First Class ShirU for Sis. fid. 
Haifa Dosen Really Good Shirts for 80a. 
Fine linen Shirts 7s. fid. to lOs. fid. eadi. 
Fine Linen Collars 4s. fid. to 5s. fid. a doaoi. 
All the New Style of Collars 9«> a doaes. 
Fancy Neck Ties, Fancy Neck Handkerchiefs, 
Scarfs, Hosiery, Gloves, ftc, 

At John Gate's Shirt WarehouBei 

4, GLASSHOUSE ST., REGENT 8Tw 

Gats a' Family and Household linen and Drapery 
Warehouse, No. 3, Glasshouse Street. 

pRYSTAL FRENCH SHADE, 

V^ for Alabaster and other ornaments, 4d. Mo- 
derateur Globes, Is. fid. Chimnies, 4d. Palmer's 
Shades, 8d. Table Lamp do. Is. fid. Glass and 
other chimnies, 2d. Jet Moons, 7d. each. Crys- 
tal French Sheet Glass, from Id per foot. Parii 
made Cotton for Moderateur Lamps, lid.pardoi« 
COX, 18, CROWN STREET, SOHO. 

HENRY POPE, 
22, Budge Bow, Cannon Street, 

CITY. 

WHOLESALE STATIONER, 

MANUFACTURER OF ACCOUNT BOOKS, 

PATTERN CARDS, AND THE MOST 

IMPROVED MANIFOLD WRITERS. 

Sample Case, Stationery Court, Crystal Palaee, ^ 
Sydenham. 

UNDER ROYAL PATRONAGE. 

MODELLING IN LEATHER. 
Inimitable Specimens at the Soho Bazaar 
(left entrance), and Crystal Palace, Sydenham 
(Stationenr Court). Lessons by Mna. Gilbbbt, 
Author of " Plain Directions for Modelling in 
Leather," — post free for ifi stamps. 

Manufactory, 13, Soho Square, 
The only Practical EstablishmMit in London. 

AIR-TIGHT SHOW CASES, DOORS, 
AND WINDOWS. 

GREENWOOD'S Patent India 
Rubber Stops, fitted to Old or New Cases, 
render them perfecdy Air-tight, also fixed round 
Doors, &e , to keep out cold, dust, and draft. 

New Cases made on the lowest terms. 
Manufacturer and Patentee, J. Gbbbmwood, 

Arthur Street West, London Bridge. ^ 

KXELSON'S 

XHIMITABLB AMD UNBIYALLBD FLUID 

" KORASAN." 

Nerer-foiling for the growth of Hair, and mreTent- 
ing it coming off; proeurab^^ &nlp firvm tA« 
/n««titor, FRANCIS £. NIEL80N, Chemist, 
Quadrant, Buxton, Derbyshire. Each bottle, 
8s. Qd. ; also in cases, 8s. 6d., lys. fid., and S3s. 
IneompiUitlUt, Grease, PonutunA, and Oils. 



Isrj., _> 



~S^-t. ADVERTISEMENTS. 33 

''art-union of LONDON, 

444, WEST STEAIfD, 

INSTITUTED 1637. 
INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER, XOOi VIOTORliC 1846. 

PRESIDENT. 
THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE LORD MONTEAGLE. 



PLAN FOR THE CUBBENT TEAS. 

Every Subscriber of One Guinea for 18S4-S will be entitled to :— 

I. AN IMPRESSION OF A PLATE 1^ J. T. Wiixmoeb, A.E.RA., fromOio 
original picture by J. J. Chalon, R.A.,— - 



it 



A WATER PARTY.'' 



11. A VOLUME OP THIRTY WOOD ENGRAVINGS, by leading Artiats, 
illustrating Subjects from Lord Btbon's^ 



tt 



CH1LDE HAROLD." 



III. THE CHANCE OF OBTAINING ONE OF THE PRIZES lo be allotted 
at the General Meeting in April next, which will include — 

THE RIGHT TO SELECT FOR HISlSELP A VALUABLE WORK 
OF ART FROM ONE OF THE PUBLIC EXHIBITIONS ; 

STATUETTES IN BRONZE OP « HER MAJESTY ON HORSE* 
BACK," by T. Thorneycropt ; 

COPIES IN BRONZE, from a Model in relief, by R. Jefferson, of '' Thb 

EmTRT of the D'DKfi OF We^INOTON into MlPBUI ;*' 

STATUETTES IN PORCELAIN OR PARIAN 5 

PROOF IMPRESSIONS OF A LARGE LITHOGftAPH, by T. H 
Maguire, after the original pietare, by W. P. Frith^ R.A., * *SWt 
Thrbb Bows/' from Moli^re's '< Bourgeois Gentilhommb," 



Fest-offioe orders sent in payment of SubsetiptionB mutt he niftde payaUe 4t ihe 
Post-office, Charing Cross, to Thomjs Stvons Watson, &e Astfotaat Seeretafy; 

June 1, 1864. QEOBOE GODWIN, \Bofwarit 



■0 oiiT 



1 
I 



.•« 



■> 



SPECIMENS IN THE NAVE, 

IM YARDS FROU CENTRE TRANSEPT. 



THE FRENCH MUSLIN COMPANY, 

FOB TBI lALB OF 

MUSLINS AND BAREGES ONLY, 

AT 

16, OXFORD STREET, 

{Near Soho B<uaar), 
Have just recoved the THIRD IMPOnTATION. 

The Variety is cnctleu, theColoar* perfeetly fast ; many of the I)?s'Kn<< are pasiiag 
beamtiful, and all of that lady-like eharaeter »o peculiar to the Freaeh. 

%* An exceUent varieiff qf Mourning MudiHt. 

The price rariea from 2s. the robe to Tiro Guineas. 



THE OLD ESTABLISHED 

TOT WAREHOUSE, 

3, CHEAPSIDE, -LONDON, 

(laU DUNNETTS). 

I I.. I ■ I I !■ ■■ II II II I ■ 1^1 .- .. .1,1 I ■ II, 

W. I.&nCHARS, 

Having taken the above business, begs most respectfully to inform the public, tli|i| 
he has considerably increased the well-selected stock, with all the newest and be^ 
description of Toys and Games^ both Foreign and fnglish^ and requests an inspection 
of the frame. 

'" Rocking Horses, Speaking and Model Dolls,' Doll's Houses, Baby Jumpers, 
#ai]ding Bricks^ Noah's Arks, American Yachts, Skin Horses^ Archery, Cricket 
Bats,&c. 

The newly-registered games of Pop Goes the Weasel, Jack's Alive, CanaoiMide, 
Parlour Bowls, Bagatelle and Tivoli Boards, Chessmen, &c. 

A beautifnl variety of the finest Mechanical Toys, continually arriving from abcoftd, 
ftnd Which can only be seen at their Establishment,— 3, CHEAPSIDE. 



LEUCHAR'S NEWLY PATENTED CHILDREN'S CARRIAGES. 



The Council or First Class Medal for superior excellence in General 
Brass Founding, Metallic Bedsteads, and Gas Fittings, &c., was 
awarded by the Jnrors of Class 22, in the Great Eknibition of 
1851, to; 




R. W. WINFIELD^ 

CAMBRIDGE STREET WORKS, METAL ROLLING AND WIRE MILLS 

BIRMINGHAM. 

PROPRIETOR OP THE ORIGINAL PATENT FOR 

METAI.UC MIUTARV BEDSTEADS^ 

PATSNTEE AND MANUFACTURER OF OTHERS UPON IMPROVED PRINCIPLES 

PATBNTBB OF THB 

HEW FBOCESS POA THE OBNAMEHTATIOH OF METALS; 

AND MANUFACTUBBB OF 

BRASS DESK, PEW, ORGAN, AND OTHER RAILING ; 
"wnrDOW 00UWICMB9 PATsm cvrtaxv bavds Ann bvds % 

GLASS CORNICE RINGS ; LOCOMOTIVE RAILINGS AND MOULDINGS ; 

BRASS AND ZING NAME-PLATES FOR SHOP FRONTS; 
SASH BARS AITD WINDOW GUARDS; 

CANDLE CHANDELIERS AND SCONCES ; 

PATENT TUBES, BY THB NEW PATENT PROCESS, WHETHER 

TAPER OR DOUBLE ; 

JPictiiw» ©ttllcs, Curtain, ®Kartro!&f , ^ 5taCr BnW, ^itxufpiXg, ^ Bw^riiifl; 

BALUSTRAD ES; 

FIBS SCREEN STANDS AND ARMS; 
BONNET, HAT, CLOAK, AND UMBRELLA STANDS ; 

BRASS AND IRON RECLINING AND OTHER CHAIRS; 
«A8 CHAN9SLIEBS, PlLLiRS, BRiNCHES, ANB FITTIRCIS 

of all kinds, and in yarions style* ; 

TUBING OP EVERY DESCRIPTION, ROUGH AND FINISHED ; 

BRASS AND COPPER WIRE, AND ROLL ED METALS, 

SHOVir ROOBIS 

CAMBRIDGE STREET WORKS, BIRMINGHAM ; AND 
141, FLEBT STREET, LONDON. 

R. W. WINFIELD'S NEW AND EXTENSIVE SHOW ROOMS contain Specimens of his 
.Vatnit MaCallie Blilitary Travelluig, and House Bedsteads, so much in use at home and abroad, with 
many other Articles of Furniture in Brass, Bronze, Or*Molti, and imitation of Silrer j together With 
Gas Fittings of evenr -description, and a rariety of other articles of his Manufacture. 
- The Poitsble Bedsteads are admirably adapted for use in the Camp, or.for TntYcUing j also well 
auited for OiBoers in the Army and Navy. 

THE PATENT SHIP COT AND SOFA is recommended to Invalids and OiBcers refitting ; it 
will be found to prevent Sea-Sickness, and afford all the comfort of a Bed upon Shore. 
d2 



SEAMEN'S HOSPITAL SOCIETY. 

EBtalliihed on board the " Sieadnouglit^" off GrewwidL 

INSTITUTED 18S1. IMCORPORATEO 1833. 

SUPPOBTKD BY VOLUNTARY CONTKIBUTIONS. 
rpHIS SOCIETY was instituted for the Charitable Belief of Sick and 

could be ■cain found lot them id tbeir meriloficu calling. It hu btim Uu mfuii of thiu rtJieviiiE 
ppnrdt oflOO.'OOO Sevqan, wlL^wl dbtlnctioa of Nttkn or CnAt Ai VhkI* m eoaliauHllj 
coming iatD tht ThuuM, buiif lUilniiiag chv of Sicknm ud Mhm* on b«i< and Aceidiuli 
ue inmUiitlT oKurriug upon tbe Him, or idong iu ihoru, Uw litnUiw tf Uii Ho^uul, Mid tbi 
Itellitf of Adnduisn (no inUsdiiction bctng mguiKd}, nmderlt ■ moM InviIuMe Iiiititiition. 

Subicriplioni in Aid of iu Fundi will be m<»t IhKDkfullr nonviid, tnd [nnliH inConnatian riren. 
ttthaSooctT'lOffico,?!, EINQ WIU.IAU STBBET, I/INDON BRIDGE, bT 
KKMBALL COOK. a>Mr<tofT. 

WRITING, BOOK-KCEPmO, «EC. 

PERSONS of any age, how- 
aro bad dieit writing, mi;, In EIQHT 
LESSONS, acquire permancDtlr m ilt- 

eivate correapandence. Arjthmetio on ■ 
tthod nquiring onlf mC'thlrd tba line 
iinallf RquiaiH. B«k.k*HUiR. u jitai* 

mercbanta' oftna, Sbvrt-hand, fee. For 
IcTBia, Iio,, applrto Mr, SWAKT, at tlH 
Inltilutlon, B, Piceadillj (betWHn th* 
Hajmarket and Rcgent-ctrfu), nuned 

^'^A pTActiokl, acienTjdc, and leallj phi- 
loHphlc, metbod." — C olonial Seniem. ^ _**^-«__-«__^- 

NSW TRUSS FOR HERNIA. 

T^ WALTSfiS begs to iavite all those suffering from BUPTUBB3 

HYDROSTATIC TRUSS, 

Tbicb be hat Utel; ianutad. S; maani of a PU £lled iriih mm, abiafa ahnja adapta Itaelt to tlia 
to iu eScacr, r. WALTia* bagi to call liio attsnUn of the PnbUc 











.■'YomWU 
jialfooBln' 


S 





CTJSVATUAE OF THE SFUTE AlTD LEGS 

F. WALTinaha^E bad eooaidenble cnKrteDce la IhU'clan of diaaaie. and baring iludied Anilomy 
witb npecial lefeninee to it, at SI. BaTtbalomew'i Hoipital, oBcn hii KTncxB, fttUng confiltnl of 
■ utUfMtorj leiult. 

Hanufacluei of ^^^^^ 

WAITERS' RAILWAY CONVBBIEHCE, 

Willi Self-aottegyalTS. 

WALTERS' PATEST E7DB0-PVEUKATIC SNEHA STRDTOE. 

IMPROVED ELASTIC STOCKINQG, 

whlcbaretalmoffandoolnilantl;. BiTetbemoit deliKhtfulinppoct totbo calf of Oe kg, wban in 
Eierciu, andtcndtotbe relief and eun of VaiicoK Veine, (EdcnalouB SiRlliiigi, *•! etket nak- 
neiaaa of tbt iMa. Price, frtcbf poit, )8i. ei,. and 13i. Od. eich. 
Enlwico fu Laidlea U the PtiTite Door, vhere a Fcmile attendi. 

6, MOORGATE STREET OITY. 



No. 1.] 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



S7 



JOHN WARNER AND SONS. 

(J 8 & 9) Crescent, Jewin Street, London ; Brass 
and Bell Founders, Hydraulic Engineers, Bi«Kieri», 
and liunp. Manufacturers. Patentees and Manu* 
faetwreM of varieas ImproTements in Pumps, 
Water Cloaets, Garden Engines, and Cocks. - 

Orddim Mt^ved and Information g^ven hj th«ir 
C3erk, at Nos. 16, 17> and 19, Hardware Court. 

DAYY*S ORIGINAL DIAMOND 
CBMENT. — An invaliuJblQ preparation 
for joining broken China, Glass, Earthenware* 
Woods, Cabinet-work, and Fancy Aftieles of 
every description, with extienii atrength aivl 
neatness; remarkable for the great facility of 
using it. As there are several disgracefal Imita- 
tions of th« DIAMOND CEMENT, the public 
can avoid Mlare and disappointment only by 
atrict caution in purchasing none withoiit the 
aignature. ''E^Davy'* on the Wrapper. No- 
thing ww ever sold by the nam* m Diamond 
Cement previous to his invention. 

N. B. — Manufactured at BARCLAY and 
SONS', No. 9«, Farringdon Street. Price is. 
per bottle. 

HENRY CLARKE, 

A0BZC!fLTVBAI^ ft OASnOI 

SEBDSXAR, 

89, K»NQ STREET, 

BARNETT MEYERS, 

8AVA0E 0ASI>E]!rS, CBUTCHED 

FBIAS8, lONlMlfr; 

To whom was awarded the Prise Medal, Class 29, 
Exhibition, 1851. 

Importerof Rattan, Malacca, Dragon, Partridge, 
Whangee, Ground Rattan, and every other variety 
of Canes. Carolina, East India, and Spanish 
Beads* &c. 

Maaafaeturer of every description of English 
and Foreign Walking Sticks and Canes, Sword 
and Dart Stidu, Night Protectors, Portable Stools, 
Cane Ribs for Umbrellas and Parasols. Prepared 
Cane and Whalebone Fishing IW>ds, Riding Canes 
and Whip% Ac. Wholesaile and for Exportation. 
Specimens in the Nave of the Crystal Palace. 

CHEMICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL 
APPARATUS. 
»HE PRIZE MEDAL was awar- 

X ded to GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS for 
the CHEMICAL APPARATUS exhibited by 
them at the ** Great Exhibition of All Nations," 
and they respectfully invite experiqpientalists of all 
elanee* to inspect their establishment, 3 Foster* 
lane, Cheapside, comprisinv one of the most 
extensive assortments of Philosophical Instru- 
ments on sale in London. Photograpbie Appa- 
rattw of every description. 

O. K. & SON'S are the appointed sole Agents 
for Voigtlander & Son's celebrated "Lenses "for 
Portraits and Views. 

GSOBOE KNIGHT & SONS, 2, 
^osteHftn^i Oheapside. 



m 



NOTICE TO INVENTORS. 

PATENT OFFICE, ' 
4, TaAFALOAx Sqi^ask, Chakino Ckobb. 

FOR " Circular of Inforioatkn ** 
as to Proteetion for Inventions, apply, per* 
aoaaUy or by letter, to Messrs. Faiaea & Co., or 
the Chief Clerk. 

8. SMITH, 1| High Holborn. 

OLD BstftbUshed Tmsa Maker, 
Qood Single Trusses, from 8s. to 2 Is. ; 
Donble, lOs. to 42s. Varletv of plastic Stock- 
ings, ftc. An Improved Balaing^ i)re&s to carry 
in Pocket. Specimens may be seen at the West 
Oalleiy, Philosophical Department. 

A yemiJe jtt attendanee. 

QUNDBRLAND SALE 

O OFFICES. QBORGS HARDCA8TLE, 

AucTioif xBa,yALUBa, and Commission Salks- 
MAV of Books, Pictares, Household Effiseta, 
Manufactures, MMhuiery, Colliery Materials,. 
Contractors* Plants, Agricoltural Stook, Shipping, 
Houses, Lands, and Real and Personal Property 
in general. SALES by Auction and Valuations 
conducted in any part of the United Kingdom. 

TOI PAIUmSB OF CRSAPNSS8. a»d TiUI 
OABI>XN OF THiB WQRX^. 

Open QTery Pay and Night with an 9iidleai {Qund 
' ' of aiaiwemeQla* 

Admission Is. 

Boats 3d., Omnibuses 6d., every ten minutes. 

B. E. HODGES, 

Patentee of INDIA RUBBER PROJECTORS, 

ACCUMULATORS, ELASTIC WHEELS, 
DRUMS, CYLINDERS, and PULLEYS | and of 
the Nbw MsTHon or Fastening th« £ii9S op 
I. R. usxD voa EI.AITIO Pasroasi. 
No. 44. Southampton-roWi Bussell-square, 

LONDON. 

T TRITSCHLBR AND Co.. 

il • 403, Oxford Street* near Dean Street. Ma> 
ijufj^turers an4 Importers of Clocks, Watches, 
Moslcal Boxes, Aeeordions, Concertinas, Barrel 
Organs, and Iiay Figures. Ball Room and Kitchen 
Clocks for 12 1., Warranted ; OfSee and Shop Dials, 
Hall, Dining Room, and Drawing Room Clocks 
equally cheap. Geneva Oold and Silver WatQhee, 
all Wa rranted. ^ 

Registered Standard Folio 
Frame, 

A most convenient mode of displaying Drawings 
and Works of Art, as well as an alegant appendage 
to the drawinfr-room or library table, superseding 
the use of the ordinary portfolio, enabling the 
possessor to show each work und«r ^ass, changing 
them at will. 

Manufactured by J. and W. VOKINS, Carvers, 
Gilders, and Dealers in Modem Water Colonr 
Drawings, S, John Street, Oxford Street, K^^ 
3, Great Ci\st}e Street, Regent Street. 



38 



ADVEaXISEMENTS. 



rNo.i; 



M 



THE CRYSTAZ. PAZtAOE, 

SYDENHAM. 

R. 6. BAXTER, tbe Inventor and Patentee of Oil Colour Picture 

Printing, begs to announee that he has in preparation a Series of Views of the Exterior and 
InlHltr oi «he Giystal Palaoe ; inehidittsr faithful representatiens of the RfrtpHan, IPtompeitta, M 
other CouHs« They will be printed in Oil Colours, and each Picture will be nubUshod aad aold^S^ 
special desire of tiie Directors, by GEORGE BAXTER, at the Palace, Sydenham. j' 

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH COMPANT. 

INCORPORATED 1846. 

TBE CmrSTAlM PAI.ACE 

has been placed in direct communication with 

The Electric Telegraph Company's System in Oreat Britain 

and with that on the Continent, by means of 

THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH COMPANY, 

SO that Messages can be trannnitted between the Crystal Palace and any Telegrapb Stadon in Great 
Britain, Ireland, or the Continent of Europe. 

The Electric Telegraph Company's Office is on the left hand side of the Grand Entrance with 
access from the outside. 



Lothbury, London, June, 1854. 



By order, 

J. S. FOURDRINIER, Secretary. 



COMFORT TO THE FEET, EASE IN WALKING 



THE ZiEATHliR CZiOTH. 

Or, PANNUS COBIUM BOOTS AND SHOES, 

are the easiest nnd most comfortable erer invented for Tender feet } a mort valuable relief for Corns, 
Bunions, Gout, Chilblains, &e., baring no drawing or painful effa^ on the wearer, and adapted for 
all climates.- 

A Boot or Shoe sent for sise will ensure a Fit. The material sold by the yard in any quantity. 

SUPERIOR VULCANISED INDIA RUBBER OVERSHOES, with soles which prevent sliding. 

HALL & CO., Patentees, Wellington Street, Strand, London, leading to Waterloo Bridge } and 
No. S, South-west Gallery, Crystal Palace. 

pAUTION.—TO TRADESMEN. MERCHANTS, SHIPPERS. 

\J OUTFITTERS, ftc— Wbbkbab it has lately come to my knowledge, that some unprincipled 
person or persons have for some time past been imposing upon the public, by selUng to the Trade 
and others a spurious article under the name of 

BOND'S PERMANENT MARKING INK. 

This is to ffive notice, that I am the Original and sole Proprietor and Manufacturer of the said 
article, and do not employ any Traveller, or authorise any person to represent themselves as coming 
from my Establishment for the purpose of selling the said Ink. 

This Caution is published by me to prevent further imposition upon the public, and terioua injury 
to myself. 

E. R. BOND, 

SOLE EXECUTRIX AND WIDOW OF THE LATE JOHN BOND, 
28. LONG LANE, WEST SMITHFIELP, LONDON. ^_ 

BRADLEY'S PALE OR BITTER ALE. 

Genuine and in Fine Condition, as recommended for invalids and the table by the Faculty, ' 

BRADLEY & Co. beg to inform the Trade, that they are now registering 
Orders for March Brewings of their Pale Ales, in casks of 18 gallons and upwards, at theSoho 
Brewery, Sheffield, and at their undermentioned Establishments, — 141, High*street, Hull ; 43, Sooth 
John-street, Liverpool; 2, Palace-street, Manchester j White Horse-yard, Chesterfield; tfaf^ 
Gate, Doncaster. 



AUVEUTISEMKKIS. 



ROYAL PANOPTICOIf 

OF 

SCXENCK AND ARTi 

LEICESTER SQUARE. 



OPEN DAILY FROM 12 TO 8. 

BVBNINGS (SATUEBAYS EXCEPTED) FROM 1 TO 10. 

ADMISSIOV, OITE SHILLING. 



GREAT ORGAN. LECTURES, 
MACHINERY IN ACTION, ELECTRICITY, lie., tic, «e 



PHOTOBRiPHIC DEPARTMENT OPEN DAILY. 



THE following Old -Established and Hiohly-Esteeueo Fbbfabations 
mil Willi il inliTii mil nlmlilii imll iliwim 

BUTLER'S TASTELESS SEIDLITZ POWDERS, 

Comliliied In om Compouiid l>a«d(« in betlle ind cua (ucampuiisU villi mcuun inil ipocB) it 
it. a., niXtiilt far lU cllmatai, ceBcuioui uia moit ifrHihU. 

, BUTLER'S CONCENTRATED SARSAPARILLA, 

ContiijiidE all tbv properti» of the Sutupuilla in & tctj cwidcDud «Ule, in |nuto, half, and qiurliv 
platfaotuup Aplut batljB iicqital to three galloDt of the or dinuy prvpHBtioDi 

BUTLER'S VEGETABLE TOOTH POWDER, 

7lfl.«ldDaitfQr prvcrT&nr udbeautifrlucllie t<«th, propertifa whidi b^va proeond fm It tbv Appt^ 
bUionoflheDHiitiyttkpiiiiiedptrHiiiitninUii Uniud Kiaidnai. Bold in b«ua U la. gd. 

BUTLER'S TARAXACUM, OR DANDELION COFFEE. 

An Btnnble and efficuloLU mode of uiInR tka Tuuunm in AOixtioiu sf IheLiTBt, Kidna7*,ud 
Uigoan Oriaiu. In Tlni at la. £d. 

BUTLER'S MEDICINE CHEST DIRECTORY. 

Fimllj, Boa, and OoTcnuncnt Uadicine Chnti 6\uA up iriili appropiiaui Medicioea and DiMctlra^ 

ICTUB a UUISDj CkeBlitsfMheq^lii, conui it SL fiaVij Italn, 



»• — ^ "*♦ ' . 



CUTLERY AND SHEFFIELD PLATE, 

WABEANTfiD OF FIRST-RATE QUALITY. 



a:« 



JOSEPH MAPPIN & BEOTHERS, 

QUEEN'S CUTLERY WORKSj SHEFFIELD. 





STOCK IN LONDON AT 37, UOOBGATE STREET ; 

1 

dOODS ON SHOW 



tn m 



SHEFFIELD COURT of the CRYSTAL PALACE. 

Buyers of CUTLERY, ELECTRO-PL ATED eOODS, AlfD DRESSING 
PASES, 9X9 invited to th« London Warehouse, 37, Moono ate- street, w)iere an 
immense vEriety of Stock can be seen of Mssans. MAPPlNSi' own manufaetare. 

Msasis. MAPPIN are appointed Cutlers to Queen Victoria, and were honoured 
with a Prise Medal at the 6reat Exhibition of all Nations in ipSil, for the superior 
quality and exeellenee of their manufactaree. 



JOSEPH MAPPIN & BROTHERS, 

QUEEN'S CUTLEKT WORKS, SHEFFIELD; 



AND 



37, MOORGATE STREET, LONDON. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 41 

PARASOLS. 

THE demand for a amab better and more elegant 
dHolptiaa of FARAS0L9 hHlng pnvnilcd during the lut [ew 

"" T. & J. SINGSTER 

bnog^nhidmiiBiirKcliiHdiii Lroniand SpitiUeldi, to tluii srds, 
tome rch uid coitlj' pttttnt, of which th«' Hipectfidlj LnTiti an 
iDBpeeBiDa, W. Hl J. 3^ kIh bog lo iAj th« hbTe Kcaved from 
GanFoH another parcel of ChlDi Orepe Pmwl Coven, mada oprwlj 
for tbifl bouH, which uticle waJ ui much ulmired lait leaaon. 

Alpau Pmnsoli mre poiticulirlj recoiDmeiided for the ua*aide uid 
garden, oa accouot of tbur great duialnlitj. 

fi 140, Beg«nt Stieet. j 10, Boy«l Exchange. 
k S4, neet Street. I 75, Oheapalde. 



PHILOSOPHICAL DEPARTMENT, 

Vo. 69 A. 

RICHABS READ, 

Instnimeiit Maker, by ipeoiol Appointment, to Her Majest/, 

85, RE&EgT CIBCUS, PiCOADILIiY, LOHDOH. 

Ihe Offloet for tlie Collecting and L^ally Beoovering Bents. 

ESTABLISHED UPWARDS OF M YEARS. 

MR. HARDING, Auctioneer and Appraiser, 25, New Broad Street, 
London, hiTing th< kanour of Iranucling buiiaai tar tlia Corpwation, lemal Wonliipful 
CmpaDla, aod nanj of the uioit ioflueatlat cltiHua in Londni, htgi nMclfuUT to cull Iba 
■ttendofl of Laadlordi and othin Id the above Officei, whim thoir iotcnata wilt b( carelnllji atnifiad. 

BY APPOINTMENT TO THE QUEEK AND ROYAL FAMILY. 

PATENT PE R AMBUI.AT.ORS. 

C. BURTON, IHTMTOB, PilBNTKE, IHD SOLB MaKUPACTDKIE. 



T^HEBEST BLACK TEA (Congou). 3a. 8d. per Ih.; Good ditto, 2a. 8d., 

-L »., Si. ti. I aouehong, M. i The Finen LapianB, )t. <*. ! Onngt Pe»o», «i. 4d. j Toung 
Il^iiHi or Onnpsvdn (rom li. C<rlon, PUnUUon, and Coila Rica Coffin, !>., 1i. td,, and It. 6d. 
|Hr lb. I the Floeit Old Hocba, u. M. 

Curuge paid hj Rail [a inf part of GnglBid on Teu and Coffog* to tha lUlOIUt nl tU., aud «D 



12 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



[No..^: 



JEAN UABm FABIMA, 

23, BHEIN 8TRA88B. 

COLOGNE. 

1, SALTERS-HALL COURT, CANNON ST. 

LONDON. 



r«r SkpoitatloB la B»b4. 

£au dc CiAognt, tingle 6a. 6d. per doi. 

do. double ........ 0«« ,t 

4o,- Extnit 940. „ 

Leyender Water, Sod quality H. Od. „ 

do. l»t quality .... 9fl. „ 

Extrait de PortuRal d'Orange, \ 
de Limctte, de Bergamote, \ (fo. 
de Citron, et de Cedxat .... ) 

Extrait de Hose 19«. 

Vrlees duty; patA. 

Eau de Cologne, double ........ Sit. per doi. 

Sxtcaltdo. 40t. „ 

Lavender Water, Itt quality .... Sit. „ 
Alto in Wicker Bottlea of 4, 6, 8, 1 S, and S4 ounoet. 

SAINBSBURY'S SUMMER BEVERAGES. 

A Table Spoonful of either of 
SAINSBURY'S FRUIT ESSENCES, 
mixed with an ordinary Tumbler full of Spring 
Water, will form a dehciout beTerage ; they are 
alto peculiarly adapted for flavouring Carbonized, 
Soda, and Potata Watert, and in every inttance 
where there it a Gaiogene in ute they will be 
fuund mott detirable. Batpberry, Orange, Black 
Currane, Red Currant, CherrY, and Apple Fruit 
Ettencee, at It. lOd. per imp!, half-pint ; St. 0d. 
per impl. pint ; Lemonade and Ginper Lemonade 
Ettenoet, at It. id. and St. 6d. i>er unpl. half*piut 
and pint; Foreign Pineapple and Mulberry, at 
St. Oo. and 5t. per half^pint and pint. 
Manuiaeloiy, 177> Strand, Tliiid Door Wett of 
Norfolk Street; 

HENRY DISTIN. MILITARY 
MUSICAL INSTRUMENT MAKER, to 
Her Miuetty't Army and Navy, and the Band of 
the Cryatal Palace, invitea the attention of the 
Public to hit Exhibition of Inttrumentt, No. 66, 
Mualeil Inatrument Court. •~* Manufactory, SI, 
Cranboome Street, Leiceater Square, London, 
Drawinga and Pricet Pott Free. 

BECKWITH ft SOir, 

QUN MAKERS, 
To the Honourable Eatt India Company, 

Sole Man^faeturert for the Regittered Mould for 
CattuigMini^ and other HeUow Conical BuIIett, 

58, Skinner Street, Snow HHl, London. 



LOWESTOFT. 

FURNISHED VILLAS to be 
LET on the ESPLANADE, eommaadiBg a 
lull view of the Sea, Pier^ and Hacbow^ aud are 
aatnated near the Railway. Tliey contamDmiraig 
and Dining-roome, with 7 Bed.«ooma, 

Apartmenta, with attendance if rafuiiML Apply 
^ M»' CoLMAW, 2. M ariae P arade, Lo i f et toft. 

J£ A S N, Manufactcbino 
• OuTriTTXB roB LADixa, IwrAirra, and 
Childesh, 194, Oxford Street, and M, South 
Gallery, Cryttal Palace.— Wedding and Foreiga 
Ordert executed with punctuality and economy. 
Wedding Order for j^'lO, including the following 
artidet t — 8 Long cloth Chemiaet, 6 Long>cloth 
Night Dreaaet and Slipa, 1 8 Cambric Bandkerchiefi. 
IS Diaper Towelt, IS paSrt Cotton Hoae. 6 Night 
Capt, pain Long-doth Orawen, S Flannel Petti- 
eoata, S White Mualin Drcaaiug Gowna, 1 Dret*ing 
Jacket Alto a large variety in ridi gooda for 
Ladiee and Infantt. 

TEASON, Importer of French 
• Flowera, 11 #c 14, Lowther Arcade, and 
S6, South Gallenr, Cryttal Palare.— Head Wxeathi 
of the Newett Fashioin, from 4i. 6d. to St. each. 
Bead Head Drettet, from St. 6d. to I5t. ^ 

A. DAVIS, 

Saddler and Harness ManniiMtiirer, 

33, STRAND. 

EGS to call the attention of the 



B 



Nobility and Gentry to a caae of Saddlery 
and Harnett, tituate in the South-wett Gallerv 
of the Crytt&l Palace, which, on inapection, will 
be found to be tupcrior in quality and the beat 
manufactured in England. Alto to hit Scale of 
Cbarget, from So to 30 pe^ Cent cheaper than 
any other Houte, for Hunting SaddUt, Ladiet* 
Side Do., with the late improvementt. Harnett, 
Bridlet, Horte Clothei, Blankett, Bruthet, 
Spongei, and Leathert, and ever^ requitite for 
tlie Btablet. — Litt of Pricet on appucatiox. 
A. Da via, 33, Strand, London. 

RICHARD GUNTER'S BRmE- 
CAKE ESTABLISHMENT, Lowndea- 
ttreet, Albert- gate. Wedding Breakfaato fur- 
niahed, complete or in part, with ailver, china, 
glatt, and attendantt. 

CORNER OF MOTCOMB AND LOWNDES 
STREETS, ALBERT GATE, LONDGM. \ ' 

THE 

MODEL UNIQUE 

6 for ftOs. 

Sole Manufacturera, M. & D. STROUD, 89, 
Edgeware-road, and 99, Tottenham Court-xond*. 

The MooaL, Umaua Shirt it the moat per- 
fect Shirt extant, bdng cut upon purdy adentiiie 
principlet, eate and comfort it obtained, combined 
with an exquitite fit. To each Shirt it attached 
appendaget for fixing and preventing the front 
from creating (a dcaideratum long fdt but never 
before applied to Sliirtt). 

Kept ready naade, or made te order# ' 

N.B.->On cadi Shirt it ttampedihe Maker*t 

Name. 



:ii; 



T. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 




THE ARGYLL GENERAL MOURNING 
WAREHOUSES. 

346 & 248, REOEHT STRE£T. 
npHE ProprietorB of the ARGYLL GENERAL MOURNING WAEE- 

^Ud ■> » moonni'. Boil™, md 



iTuldad In dtddlDg upoa 
nd dlt«ctioii, ud ■blcti 



a*ere> of Moumlng pPT«r to bi worn' audn mia 
k, enltUcd " HDninlng Etlqii«tl«."g1ilDgln detail t\ 



TIME OF NOTICE IN ORDERING MOURNING. 

ir in DrtuM, tpidecoDipleU. ISIiiHin. 



D. 9nCHOI.SON « COHPANT. 



r 



44 ADVERTISEMENTS.' CNo.T. 

To London and Oountry Ladies Visiting the Crystal Palace. 
THE REGENT CIRCUS ESTABLISHMENT. 

SOIVERBY, DBA.YSON, AND TATTOXT, 

272 AMD 274, REGENT CIRCUS, OXFORD STREET, 

IMPORTERS OF FOREIGN AND BRITISH MANUFAGTUR8S, SILK KiaitERS, 

LACEMSN, AND GENERAL WAREHOUSEMEN. 

MESSRS. SOWERBY k CO., hare determined to sWe with their 
VUamm Um Um beneit reaulUn; from their lonf expemiics and mUtmitcd capital, which 
enable them al aS aeaaom (and particalarlr the praaent) to hold out tuch indttoementa M to merit 
fromthe« an expteea tibit. Fkbrice of the highest character in perpetual Miccetmoii. Silke of 
the flaeat textore and Tarkty. Ainiiihiag the ^oicest tfiedaiens in dmlooiattque cirdee. Court and 
Evening Dreeea, Mantlee, Viawb, Ready-made Skirts, and Faney Fuffies of every novd material, 
with a combination of Ribbooe, Trimmtnge, Frenck Flowers, deewativo appendagta^-nttogetha 
unexa mpled in extent, Tarieftgr, or i^rice. 

DOmBSTIO XCONOBSY. 

H SPARROW 4 CO. beg to announee that ia consequence of the 
• l«te reduetSott of duir, and the present depressed elate of tite Tea market, they are enabled 
to offer Good Breakfast Congou at la. td., as., Ss. id., and as. fid. per lb. 

Fine Souchong, Ss. id., 9s. 8d.. and is. 
Tonng Hyson, Ss. id., Ss. 8d., is., is. id., is. 8d., Ss* 
Gnapow^or* Ss. 8d.» ie., is. id., is. sd., and M* 
Fmi Roaeied GoflSsc, lid., is., is, id., and is. 6d. 

With every other arlide in the trade nwportionately cheaji, and of that sterling qntiitv for which 
they have been edebrafted for Ae last Twen^ Tears ) a price-list of which msy be haa on appli- 
cation, poet-free, and pareels of ift value and upwards, rail paid, to any station in the kingdom. 

Address, HBNRT SPARROW, ft CO., Wholeaale Dealers i» Tea, sySj Oxford Strick, London. 

SIR WIUIAM BTmiTETrS PATENT& 

IN the year 1838 Patents were granted to Sir William Burkett, M.D.« 
F.R.S., Director- General of the Medical Department of the Royal Navy, for tiie nw of Chloride 
of Zinc, as applied to the preservation of iWDer, Canvas, Cordage, Cotton, Woollen, and other 
articles from Rot, Mildew, Moth,&c.; and in 18S3 Her Majesty was pleased to .grant an extension 
for seven years. Parties using Chloride of Zinc for any such purposes must purchase the same from 
the Proprietors of the FatenU, at their Office, 

So. 18, CasDon Street, Londoa BrUge* 

And any persan using it without teense wiU be preeeeded against for infrfaigement of their 
Patents. 

N.B.— The Prise Medal of 1851 was awarded by tha Royal Commissioners for Sir William 
BuRNnrr'a Patent 

SIR WILLIAM BITRNETT'S 
DISINFECTING FLUID. 

THE great and inyariable success of Sir William Burkktt's Patent 
Solution, in preaervinir Timber, &c., from Rot, and in arresting the decomposition of Animal 
and Vegetable Matters, soon led to its general spplieation as an 

ANTISEPTIC OR DISINFECTING AGENT; • 
and for the last eight years it has been in general use, with a success and public benefit truly 
marvellous, for the Disinfection of Side Rooms, Ciothing, Linen, ftc. { the Prevention ci Contagion, 
the Purification of Bilge-water and Ships' Holds, Cescpools, Drains, Water Closets, Stables, Dog 
Kennelf , dec. 

Sir William BcrRKXTT's Disinfecting Fluid is sold by all Chemists and Drufrgists throughout 
the United Kingdom; and at the Offiee, No. 18, Cannon Street, London Bridge; where Testimonials 
can be had. 

N.B.— Zt il« necessary to Caution the Public against a Spurious and 

Low-Driced Imitation, 



i^^O 



ADVEIftTISEMENTS. 



45 



X 



QRUEBER & Co.^ 

BEISFAST, 

M4M9WAcrvtLm*% or 

PATENT 

ASPHALTE FELT, 

FOR ROOFING, 
A» imptoiftd hf the Onginal Patentee. 

'SHEATHINQ FELT, 

TOR SHIPS' BOTTOMS, 

JLND 

DRY HAIR FELT, 

FOB .COVERING BOILERS, STEAM 
PIPES, Ac. 

AGENTS, 

lOSBES, STILL, ft Ck>., 

19, GEORGES STREET, HANSIONJROUSE, 

x.oiriM>ir. 

^i^—i— *^— ^i^M^ ■ ■■■■ ■»■■■■ »-■ ^^^ ■ ■ ■ Ml a I a^^^— Ml a 

SOMETHING NEW. 

> THE ALBANY CHAMBER 

LAMPS, 

WITH PATENT ELASTIC GLASSHOLDERS. 

THE application of an Elastic 
aiawholder to Lamps, pardcttlarly for cany- 
Sag abaut, U the greatest improvement that hai 
ever been made. The Olaaees are instantly ficad, 
or nnfxed, but it is impossible to shake them off, 
and it entirely prevents the rattling, so unplea- 
sant with the Glasses of all other Iiainps. 

The Albany Chamber Lamp Candles give saffi- 
dent light for carrying about the house and bum 
long enough for a nMkt^Ught. 

Obterve that the ^lame is en the Lamps, and on 
the Box ef Candles ; do not be pat off with any 
other ; adi to lec these, and then purchase which 
you judge best. 

Sokd retail by all respectable Lamp and Candle 

Dealers, aad wholesale by PALMER 8c CO., 

Sutton Street, ClerMuwell ; J. C. & J. FIELD, 

%3fpa Marsh, Lambeth; and the Patentee, 

' ' J. CLARKE, 55, Albany Street, Regent's Park. 

I N.B. Merchants and Shippers would find these 

' very profitable artieles to export. 

BRITISH COLLEGE OF HEALTH. 

HEW ROAD, LONDON. 

MO&ISOH'S 

I Vegetable ITniTttial Medicines. 

A CURE FOR ANT CURABLE DISEASE. 



^ ECONOMY. 

Eeonomjf thotUd be praetUed in aa tkwff$, hut 
more particularlff in matterg iof Medicine. The 
reMoration to heaUh has generaUp been purchased 
at a costly prices and certainly^ if health coutd 
not be procured at any other rate, a costly price 
shouU not be an object of scruple. But where U 
the wisdom f where u the eoonomy in ^pending vast 
sums on a physioian*s atUndanee, when sound 
health and long life may be ensured by that cheap , 
safe, and simj^ remedy. Parr's Life Pills f 

ASK FOR 




T 



Sold in boxes at is. I^d., 8s. 9d., and Family 
Paefcets at iSs. each. Full directions axe given 
with eaeh box. 

Sold by E. Edwards, 67, St. Paul's Churchyard ; 
Barclay and Sons, Farringdon-street ; Sutton and 
Co., Bow Churchyard} Hannay and Co., and 
Sanger, Oxford-street, London i and by all r»- . 
spectaUe Chemists and Medicine Vendors in 
Town and Country. 

EAU DE COLOGNE. 

MPORTED direct from Johann 

X Maria Farina, om^te the New Market, 
No* 81, Cologne. Tne same as supplied the 
Fountain in the Austrian Department, Gnat 
Exhibition ; the Court Costume Ball, time Charles 
II. ; also at Guildhall. 

Distingalshed from aU others by a 
Lithograph of the Fountain on each bottle. 

Town and country consumers may insure this 
beautiful Eau de Cologne being genume, by order- 
ing direct of 

P. A. QERARD, 

800, STRAND, LONDON. 

Balf Dozen C%ue, IS*. 

P. O. Order to the amount of £3 casriaie free. 



GEBAED'S CELEBBATED 
POMADE FOR THE HAIR. Its bene- 
ficial effects on Hair which exhibits a tendency to 
fall off Off tura grey, and also in exciting a healthy 
action of the skin amm bxtiuloedinabt. In 
Pots, 3s. each. 

8£>0, STRANG, LONDON. 

GERARD'S ORIENTAL PBR- 
FUMES.^A PBw Dnops on the handker- 
chief, forming a novel, powerful, and duraUe 
essence, delightfully fragrant and refreshing, 
entirely counteracting the deleterious and oppres- 
sive faintness of a heated and crowded atmosphere. 
In Bfltttlee, Ss. 6d. each. 

SQO, STRAND, LONDON. 

WILLIAM SMEE & SONS, 

CABINET MANUEACnrBEBS, 

UPHOLSTERERS, &c., 

0, FINSBURY PAVEMENT, LONDON. 

Exhibitors in the Furniture Couit, n^cte 

a person ig in attendance. 



46 AUVJSitrioisfttiiiPiro. iJ^ST- 

ATKINSON AND BARKER'S ROYAL INFANTS* PR^^P^A. 
■^IVfe. MO'THERS, c«H at your Druggirt*», or at our Agents*, and pmrcbne «'Sofll*^ the 
above, it U the BEST MEDICINE IN THE WORLD for INFANTS and, YOUNG CHILDR^ 
for the prevention and cure of thoM DISORDERS incident to INFANTfi affordinjt 1^*8™*!" 
RELIEF IN CONVULSIONS, Flatulency, Affections of the Bowels, DIFFICULT TEETHING, 
Ac., Ac, and may be given with safety immediately after birth. It it no misnomer Cordial!— no 
atnpefactive deadly narcotic t— but a veritable preservative of InfanU 1 Mothers would act wisely ia 
always keeping it in the nursery. Many thousands of childxen are annually saved by tUsimj(|[ 
esteemed Memcine, and the infante rather like it than otherwise.—Prepaf ed only by Robkkt Baskkb, 
Bowdon, near Manchester (Chemist to Her Most Gradoas Majesty Queen Victoria), in bottles, at 
Is. l|d.,9s. 9d., and 4«. 6d. each.— CAT7TiON.—Ob»erve the names of "Atkinson and Babkbb," 
on th e Government stamp.— 'Kstabli^hed in the year 1790. 

L'^ADIES* CHOICE READY-MADE LINEN, a la Mode de Paris, 
and entire WEDDING, INDIA, and FAMILY Home and Colonial OUTFITS, can be ^ 
promptly completed or forthwith selected, including JUVENILE CLOTHING, INFANTS' Outfits, 
CHRISTENING ROBES, Cloaks and Hoods* at Vl^hclesale Cash Prices, in the Ladies' separate 

Pepartment of T. HUGHES St, Co.*s, Anglo-Parisian Shirt, Cadet, and 
General Outfitting Warehouse, 203, Begent Street. 

SPECIALITY for tasteful BOUDOIRS and BREAKFASt ROBES, RIDING HABITS, Hats, 
Shirts, Gattntlets, &c., snd HUGHES' LADIES' "BOUQUfiTIN" EQUESTRIAN TROUSERS. 

CHARLES MACINTOSH & CO., 3, Cannon Street, West, London ; 
and Cambridge Street, Oxford Street, Alanchester. Patentees of the VULCANISED INDIA 
RUBBER, and General tlsnufacturers of India Rubber goods in their namerous applications, 
as Wearing Apparel, as Marine and Agricultural Articles, and to Mechanical and Surgical 
purposes, &c., ikc,. 
Descriptive Catalogues and Illustrations may be obtained at the Addresses given above, and also at 

CHABLES MACINTOSH & 0o.*8 Exhibition Stand, 

North- West Gallery, Crystal Palace, Sydenham. 

EDDING AND VISITING CARDS, printed in the first style of 

Fashion. An exqui«ite assortment of BRIDAL STATIONERY, including ENVELOPES; 
AT HOME snd INVITATION NOTES; patterns of which can be had on application, or sent pdst 
free on receipt of 24 Stamps. Address to -^ 

T. STEPHENSON, STATIONER, &c., 99, OXFORD STREET, near Regent areas. 

The well known depot for handsomely-bound Bibles, Prsyer-books, and Church Services. 
N.B. — ^Arms, Crests, and Initials, embossed on Paper, and Envelopes free of Charge. 

Bniflh Mann&cturers and TiinieryWaxelioiisemen; Nonpariel Dress 
Boot and Shoe Varnish, Blacking and Ink Makers, by appoint- 
ment to the Royal Family. 

FROST & NORTON, 
1, YORK 8TBEET, ST. JAMESES SttUABE. 

UNDER PATRONAGE OP ROYALTY AND THE AUTHORITY OF THE FACULTY. 

K EATING'S COUGH LOZENGES, a Certain Remedy for disorders 
of the Pulmonary Organs, in Difficulty of Breathing, in Redundancy of Phlegm, in Incipient 
Consumption (of which Cough is the most positive indication), they are of unerring efficacy. la 
Asthma and in Winter Cough they have never been known to fail. 

These LOZENGES are free from every deleterious ingredient ; they may, therefore, be taken at all 
tinites by the most delicate female and by the youngest child. Clertrymen, and Professional Orators v 
and Singers, will find them most valuable in allaying hoarseness and bronchial irritability. 

Sold in Boxes Is. l^d., and Tins, 2s. 9d., 4s. 6d., and 10s. fid. each, by THOMAS KEATING, 
Chemist, 79, St. Paul's Churchyard, London ; and by all Druggists in the World. 

N.B.— To prevent spurious imitations, please to observe, that the words " KsATiMQ'a CouGR 
LozKifGss" are engraved on the Government Stamp of each box. 

St. PatdU Cathedra, SOth Kav, 1840. 
Sir,— I have much pleasure m recommendmg your Lozengeg to those who may be distressed with 
Hoarseness. They have afforded me reli^ en several occcuione when icareeip able to sing from the 
effects of Catarrh. I think tbey would be very useful to Clergymen, Barristers, and Public Orators. 

I am, Sir, yours fcuthfully, 
To Mr. Kbatino. THOMAS FRANCIS, Vicar atoral. 



•XZSLIZIl 



:l:BOUTa EASTESRN RAILWAT, 

direct Kail Boute to all Parts of the Contmoity with the 

Shortest Sea Passage. 



■/, 



BAILT COMMUNICATIOir BETWEEir I.OHDOH AND FABIS 

IN TWELVE HOIJBS; 

Ziondon and Bnumeli in Fonvteen Hours \ 
London and Cologne in Twenty Hours \ 
Sea Passage only Two Hours. 

SUMMER SERVICES, 1854 

LONDON TO PARIS BY TIDAZ. TRAINS 

VIA FOLKESTONE AND BOULOGNE. 

Tltis 13 the quickest and most comfortable meann of commiinicaiion between 
Loudon and Paris ; it is performed every day, the time of departure Torying in 
accordance with the tide. (Time Table published daily in front page of '* The 
Times.") The Passengers are couTeyed by Express Train to Folkestone, where 
they find a powerful Steamer waiting in the harbour to receive them ; they walk 
on board, and two hours afterwards. are landed at Boulogne, where another Train is 
in readiness to . convey them immediately to Paris. The whole journey is thus 
acoomplished without interruption, in the shortest possible time, no small boats for 
embarking and disembarking being required. 

By these Trains, luggage can be registered for Paiis direct, relieving the Passenger 
from all trouble about it until the arrival in Paris, and avoiding the Customs 
emmination at Boulogne. 

The same correspondence of Trains and Steamers is arranged for the journey 
from Paris to London. 



Fixed Continental Services via Dover and Calais. 

FROM LONDON. 



London 4«put! 

Dover „ \ 

Cftlais M 

PAmis arrive , 

Bbossbls 

COLOGNB 






8.10 a.m. 
n. „ 

2 30 p.m. 
9.40 „ 
10.10 „ 
5. am. 



* 11.30 a.m. 
9.30 p.m. 
6.30 „ 
6. 5 a.m. 
6. „ 
1.30 p.m. 






TO LONDON. 

11.30 p.m. 

7. a.m. 

7. „ 

3. p.m. 

7.30 „ 
10.15 „ 



6.15 a.m. 
s. p.m. 

11.45 „ 
10. „ 

2. a,m. 

4.50 „ 



•8.30 


p.llt* 


11.15 


>» 


3. a.m. 


10. 


fi 


10.50 


*> 


4.45 


p.m« 


•9.30 


a.m. 


3. 


p.m. 


7..30 


fi 


2.30 a.m. 


5.30 


(» 


7.45 


n 



CoLOGNB depart 

BauasKLB 

Pabis 

Calais 

t>over „ 

London arrive 

* These Trains are not direct on Sundays. 

Offices for Through Tickets, Time Bills, &c. :— 

In London — 40, Regent Circus, Piccadilly; 
In Paris — 4, Boulevard des Italiens; 
In BBuasELa~74y Montague de la Cour. 

a. S. HERBERT, Secretarp. 

London Bridge Terminni, May, 1854. 



XEAOZ.X 

INSURANCE COMPANY. 

3, CBESCEHT, ȣW BBIDOE STKEET, BLA0E7BIAAS, LONSOH 



ttOBERT ALEXANDER GSAT, Eaa., Chaimm. THOHAS DF.VAS, B 

UHAHLES B1SCH0KF;E«. I JOSHUA Li 

TtlOUAS BODDINRTON, Eia. W. ANDERSON PEACOCK, E>«. 



CRAS.7 , , .-_ 

BICHU, UABNAN J.U>YD, Elk. I WILLIAM WTBBOW, Eao. 

.Hdtfam-THOMAS ALUCK, Eia. JAUU OASCOIONE LrNDE, Bi<t. 
J>Ay(Maii^^EOHGK LEITH ROUPELL, M.D,, F.B-S., IS, Wil1»ek->t(tM. 
au^KPU-JAlIES BANEB, B>«., M.D., l^iibuTT iqiuR. WM. COOKE. B>«., U.D., n, 
Trioitr-tqawv, Tvwo-'luU. 
■1. GLTN, XIU^ & CO., er, liombud-itnet. Huh*. HANBUBYS & 
' LLOVOa, M, Lflmliud.ibect. 

JctearyanddtoWurr— CHARLES JI 



The Easiness ol the Compaa; compriseB Ainuuicet on Uth tad fcrnivonfaliig, tlH 
fvdiwe «[ Ufo IntemU, ttae Bsl« ind Forcbue of Castiacent and Deferred 
AnnulUeB, Loans cl Hone; on Htir^age, ftc. 



This Compuiy was urUbliilwd in 1607) is en>pomf«d by the Act of Parli&ment 
S3 Geo. 3, and regulated hj Deed eundled in the High Coiirt of Clumcerj. 

The CompaBy was origiBaUy a strictly Proprietan one. The Aaaored, on tlie 
putidpKting Scale, now participate qnmqaeimially in four fifths of the amaBnt to be 
diiided. 

Ta the present Unie (lSt>3) the Assured IwTe teceired from the Comp«ay, in 
aatisfaclioD of their claims, upwards of ^1,400,000, 

The smotint at present assured la £3,000,000 nearly, and the income ot the 
CoDipanj is about £ 1 25,000. 

At the Ust Diviuon of Surplus, about £120,000 was added to the rams assured 
under Policies for the whole term of Life, 

The lives assured are perniitted, in time of peace, and not being engased in mining 
or gold digging, to reside in nny country,^ — or to pass by sea (not being sea~Amng 
persons by profession) between an; two parts of the same hemisphere — distant mora 
than 33 degrees from the Equator, without extra charge. 

AU Policy Stamps snd Medical Fees are now pdd by the Cotnpatiy. 

By recent enactments, persone are exempt, under certain restrictions, from Incona 
Tax, as respects so much of their income as they may devote to ssinrance on Lives, 



/— ^ 



SOVEBEIGN 
LIFE ASSUEANCE COMPANT, 



49, ST. JAMESES STREET, LONDON, 



ESTABLISHED 1846* 



^xu^ttti* 



THE RIGHT HOIT. THE SABL TALBOT. 
THE RIGHT HON. THE LORD P£ 
MAULEY. 



Slit CLAUDE SCOTT, Bart. 
BENJ. BONJ) CABBKLL, Esq., M.P 
HENBV FOWNALL, Esq. 



This Office presents the following advantages : — 

Tha securiiy of a kvge pMd-np C^prtal 

Very moderate rates for all ages, especially young lives. 

No charges whatever, except the prezimuB. 

All Policies indisputable. 

Advances noadt to Assurers on Kberal terms. 

By the^ recent bonus, four-fifihs of the premium paid was in many instances 
returned to the policy holders. Thus :~0a a policy for ^1,000, effected in 184^, 
premiums amounting to £153 8s, 4d. had been paid, while ^123 7& was the bomia 
added in 1853. 

A weekly saving of 14d. will secure to a person 25 years of age the 8«m.e££100 
on his a^aining the age of 5^or at^ deaths sbouldi it occuc psexiously. 

Bates are calculated for all ages, climates, and circomstanoes connected with 
life assurance. 



ProspeQinses, forms, and every information can be obtained at the— 

Office, 49,^ St. ^ames'a Street, London. 

BMM^X D. I>AV£NPOIlT» Scmtaty^ 



A. i.y T a:i L>x xoi:ijn.JUi,^ x Ot 



l^ 



NEW BRIDGE STREET AND LUDGATE HILL. 
INSTITUTED A.D., 1806. 

DIRECTORS. 
John Hampobk Gladstanbs, Etq., Chaimum* 
Chablss Bosibll, Esq., Depatj Chairman. 

J. Whatman BosAnanBT, Evq. T. W. Clinton Mubdocb, Esq. 

Fbbdkbick Bvbmbbtbb, Esq. , David Ridoall Bopbb, Esq. 

JoBN CoNiNGBAic, Esq. ' Edward Stbwabt, Esq. 

FBEDBaiCK D. Danvbbs, Esq. ' Captain h. 8. Tindal, R.N. 

Jambs Pabk Habbison, Esq. i Fbancib Wilson, Esq. 



m\ 



I^HIS Oompanj has now been in operation for nearly half a 
Centary, during which period the amount paid to its policy-holders has execcded 
itf 1,600,000. The distribution of Profits takes place every Third year, and the 
amount returned in Cash to each participating policy-holder has hitherto exceeded 
a fifth of the total amount of his premium. 1 ne premiums charged are in many 
eases considerably lower than in other oflBces. Claims are paid with unusual prompti- 
tude, namely, in thirty dajrs, and many other impdrtant advantages are secured to 
the policy-holders ; for which reference b requested to the Company's Pro»pectna. 

JOHN LE CAPPELAIN, Actuary and SecreUry. 



EftUITT $. LAW LIFE ASSUBANCE SOCIETY, 

No. 26, LINCOLN'S-INN FIELDS, LONDON, 



TRUSTEES. 



The Right Hon. The Lord High Chancellor. 
The Bight Hon. Lord Bf onteagle. 
The Bight Hon. The Lord Chief Baron. 
The Bon. Mr. Justice Coleridge. 



The Hon. Mr. Justice Erie. 
Nassau W. Senior, Esq., Master in Chancery. 
Charles Purton Cooper, Esq., Q.C., LL.D., F.B.S. 
George Capron, Esq. 



POLICIES in this Office are Indisputable, and the Assured will find 
all those other advantages and facilities which the more modem pract 



advantagei 
may with safety be adopted. 
Pol 



practice of Of&ca bma proved 



folicies becoming claims between the periods of division are entitled to a bonus in addition to that 
previously declared. 
No charge is made for Policy Stamps. 

LAW REVERSIONARY INTEREST SOCIfiTTs 

. OFFICES, 68, CHANCERY LANK ; 

DIRECTORS. 

I R. W. Jennings, Esq., Doctors* Comtnotu. 
Kenneth Macaulay, £«q., Q.C., Temple. 
J. B. Mowbray, Esq., M.P., Temple. 
H. E. Norton, Esq., 3, Park- street, Westminster. 
Henshaw S. Russell, Esq., Temple. 
Nassau J. Senior, Esq., Lincoln^s Inn. 
Alfred H. Shadwell, Esq., 13, Austin Frian. 
C. Ranken Vickerman, Esq., Gray's Inn. 



Chairmcm—'RJUMW Gumey, Esq., Q.C. 

Viu-Chairman^'SHmtM. w. Senior, Esq. 

John Ellis Clowes, Esq., Temple. 

John M. Clabon, Esq., SI, Great George-street. 

H. C. Chilton, Esq., 7, Chancery-lsne. 

John Clerk, Esq., Temple. 

Daniel A. Freerosn, Esq., 84, Old Jewry. 

John Gregson, Esq., 8, Angel-court 



Actuary— 3. J. Sylvester, Esq., F.R.S. 
£K0{ict7i>r«— Messrs. Capron, Brabant, Capron, & Dalton, Saville-place. 
Annuities, immediate, deferred, and contingent, and Endowments, granted on fitvourable terms. 
Life Interests purchased. Reversions purchased aod exchanged for Annuities. 



I 



^OUTH AUSTRALIAN BANKING COMPANY. 

IKCO&FORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER, 1847. 
64, OLD BROAD STREET, LONDON. 

The Director* grant Letter* of Credit and Bills on Adelaidef payable in ea«li. 
Bills on South Aaatralia collected and negotiated. 

AGENTS. 
Halifax.— Commercial Banking Company. 
HuLL.^ — Hull Banking Company. 

LivsBPOOL. — Borough Bank, and Messrs. Tbihher & Grainger. 
Plymouth. — J. B. Wilcocks, Esq. 
SouTHAHPTOit. — Hants Banking Company. 

WILLIAM PURDY. Manager. 

AI.I.IANCE 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN 

BARTHOLOMEW LANE, LONDON. 
Capital £5,000,000 Sterling. 

ESTABLISHED 1824. 



MasLtti of Birtttim. 

PRESIDENTS. 
SAMUEL GURNET, Riq. | SIR MOSES MONTEFIORE, Bart 

DIRECTORS. 



G. H.^ BARNETT, Esq. 
SIR £. N. BUXTON, Bart. 
SIR ROBERT CAMPBELL, Bart. 
SIR GEORGE CARROLL. 
RIGHT HON. G. R. DAWSON. 
JAMES FLETCHER, Esq. 
CHARLES 6IBBES, Esq. 
WILLIAM GLADSTONE, Esq. 



SAMUEL GURNEY, Jon., Esq. 
JOHN IRVING, Esq. 
SAMPSON LUCAS, Esq. 
THOMAS MASTERMAN, Esq. 
SIR A. N. DE ROTHSCHILD, Bart. 
. L. N. DE ROTHSCHILD, Esq., M.P. 
OSWALD SMITH, E*q. 
MELVIL WILSON, Eaq. 



AUDITORS. 
ANDREW JOHNSTON, Esq.— JOSEPH M. MONTEFIORE,E*q.— GEORGE PEABODY, E«q. 

Ufa Aasnrances are granted under an extensive variety of forma, and with 
or without participation in profits. 

The LiTea of Military and Naval Men, not in actual service, are assured without 
extra charge ; and no additional premium is payable for service in the Militia. 

Stamps on Life Policies are paid for by the Company. 

Kottiis are granted on the sole security of the Company** Policies^ when of 
gnffieient value to justify an advance of £50 or more. 

nr« Asauraaoes are aoc^ted at the usual rates ; and Foreign AsBtinuices, 
both Life and Fire, on reasonable terms. 

Detailed Prospectuses will be furnished on application. 

F. A. ENGELBACH, APftttStir & Scefctuy. 



VA 



OkA' * ju»AW A *>jjir»w ■»Jt.'» A itf ■ 



HAHB-IN-HAHB FIRE ANB 11]^ 
INSXTBAKGE SOCIETY, 

No. 1, NEW BRIDGE STREET, BLACKFRURS, LONDON. 

INSTITUTED IN 169O.— EXTENDED TO LIFB INSURANCE 183(1. 



IMMEDIATE, DEFERRED, AND SURVIVORSHIP ANNUITIES GRANTED. 



The Hon. William Asblbt. 
The Hon. 81E Edward Cubt. 
Arthob Edbm, Eaq. 
JoBif LBTTeoM Elliot, Esq. 



Bimtati* 

Jambb Esdailb, Eeq. 
Haryib M. FARauBAB, Esq. 
JOHW GURNBT Hoarb, Esq. 
£. Fullbr Maitland, Etq. 



WzLiiiAM Scott, Eiq. 
John Spbrlibg, Esq. 
Bbhrt Wilson, Esq. 
W. Esdailb Wimtbb, Eaq 



The Hon. ColonbIi Cust. | Jambb Eidail^, E^^ [ Tm9UAM Fvu.bb Maitland, Eaq 

lieun, GoaUKQVAKD Sbarp, ip, Fleet Street. 

Tbohab K. Cbambbrb, H.P., 1, Bill Street* Berkeley Square. 

The HoBomable A. J. Asjblet, 32, Lincoln's Inn lields. 



BfessTS. NicBOLL, SxTTB, & Co., 18, Carey Street. 
Jambs M. Tbrrt, Esq. 



RiCBARO Rat, Esq. 



LIFE. DEPARTMENT. 

The important advantages offered by the plan and constitution of the Life Department of the 
Society are : — 

That Insurers are protected hy a large invested CapitRl, upon which there is no Interest to pay, 
tnd for which no deduction of any kind is made; which enables the Directors to give the whole of 
the Profits to insuring Members. 

That the Profits are divided annaally amongst all Members of five yeara' atanding, and appUfd 
towards reducing Life Insurance to the lowest possible rates of Premium. 

The following Table exhibits the abatement of Premium that has been made for the p«st Twelve 
Years to Members of Five Years' standing :— 



Years of Division. 


]^te of Abatement. 


Years of Division. 


Bate of Abatement. 


1843 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 


£45 per Cent. 
45 

45 

50 „ 

S! 

50 „ 


1849 
1850 
1851 
1858 
1853 
1854 


JiSi\ percent. 



That persons insuring their own lives, or the liyes of others, may become Members. 
Thst persons who we wiUing to forego partidpation ii^ the Proftto Qsn i»safe at a tewoi rfitc than 
that charged to Members. 
No chai^ for Policy Stamps. 



FIRE DEP;\^RTMENT. 
fnittraBees ar« effected on every description of property at the usual rates. 



(By order) BICHARD BAY, S^s^lr^. 



^^'oTJ 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



53 



l^BifiPUTABLE LIFE POLICY G0NPAN7, 

72, LOMBARD STREET, LONDON. 

« „ « ^ TRUSTEES. 

RxcHO. HixiNg, Ks^., Q.C.,M.P. I John Campbell Benton, Efq. 

jAUEg FuLLsa Maoox, Esq. | Bichako SfoonxHi Esq., M.P. 

William Wilbkeforcx, Esq. 

THE Policies of this Company being indisputabre (in tenns of the 
l&eMl of CoBvatntioB daly Mgistcred) are fBXK^FERABLB SECUltlTtES, tlieir yilidity not 
beiaff ^qgvBdtot tfpon^e ittpoit of past, and perhaips.forgotteli, t(5nfiunktande»,itiul olBce docHubenUb 
Used as FAMILY FROVISIONiS, they relieve the assured from all doubt and anxiety as to the 
Sums Assured. New rremiams. 



future. 

1849 
1850 
1851 



4^108,6}; 1^4,304 

110,215 ........ 3,974 

127,488 4,438 



Sum* AsiMtred. New Premiums. 

1852 115,195 4.290 

1853 123.tf9S 4,538 

ALEXANDER ROBERTSON, Manager. 



NATIONAL PROVIDENT INSTITUTION, 

48, GRACECHURGH STREET, LONDON, 

FOR MUTUAL ASSURANCE ON LIVES, ANNUITIES, &c. 

DIKECTOftS. 

CHAiKUAK—Samuel Hayhurst Lucas, Esq. 
DcpvTlr C^iAiftUAN— Charles Lushington, Esq. 



John Bradbury, Esq. 
Thomas Castle, Esq. 
WaUam Miller Christy, Esq. 
Bdward Croniey, Esq. 

J. T. Conquest, M^D., F.£hS. 

John Feltbam, Esq. 
Robert lacIriMB, Esq;, M.P. 



JohirFeltham, Esq. 
Charles Gilpin, Esq. 
Robert M. Hidbom, Esq. 
Robert Ingham, Esq., M.P. 

PHTlnClAKS^ 

I 

TKUSTKBS, 



Rooert Sheppftrd, Bsq. 
William Tyler, Esq. 
X3hirlea Whetham, Bsq. 



Tbomu Hodgkia, M.D. 

Samuel H. Lucas, Esq. 
Cfaarlea Lusbington, Esq. 



Henry Compton, Esq. 
J(m1i. C. Dittlsdji>)e, Esq. 
John James, Jan., Esq. 



John lidd Pratt, Esq. 
James Vaughaa, Gsq^ 



AEBITRATOaa. 

John Ofco. Malcolm, Esq. 
Ridiard Ogle, Esq. 
Thomas Pidey, Esq. 
BAicKKRS— Messrs. Brown, Janson, and Co., and Bank of England. 
SoLiCTToa— Septimus Davidson, Esq. 
CoMSULTiif 6 AcTUAET— Chailes Ausell, Esq., F.R.d. 

Extiftets hem the REPORT of the Directors for 1853 :— 

" The Vtcectwn congratulate their fellow>members on the trery^ gratifying result of tlie recentlj^- 
complete Quinquennial Investigation of the assets and liaMlities of the Inrtitution, by which it 
appears that, on the 20th November, 1853, after providing for the present value of all the liabilities 
MI the LUie Anuiaave Departmoit, a «ur|dus remained of £242,627, which has been duly apportioned 
as heretofore. 

" The redactions range from 5 to 89 per cent, on the original Annual Premiums, according to th« 
age of the party and the time the policy has been in force ; and the Bonuses vary in like m«aner, 
from 50 to 76 per ceRt.«B the amount of Premiums ^id during the last five years. 

" The total amount of the reductions per annum for the ensuing five years is £33,348 17s. 2d. 

" The Bonuses assigned to those policies on which the original Ptemiums continue to be paid 
amount to £89,880 5s. ; this, together with Bonuses apportioned at former divisions, makes an aggre- 
gate additibn to tihte sums assured by the Policies in force of jtf 120,564. 

*< Notwithstanding the ^eat reduction of Premiums, the net annual income arising firotti 
13,326 existing Policies is £163«912 7s. Id.) this sum, with the interest on invested capiul, viSt, 
^37,398 7.t. 3d., shows a total annual ineome of je^l,2i0 l4s. 4d.*' 

The amount of Capital exceeds ONE MILLION STERLING. 

Prospeetusel a»A all <»th«ir infOTmloitiim may be obtuned ea application to the Ofllee. 

March 18, 1854. JOSEPH MARSH, Secretary. 



EVERETT'S BLACKING, 

M, 
FBTTBR ZiANB, ZiONl>ON. 

U^ed at the Palaee, and in the Establishment of every man of t(m in the kingdom. 



■IffOltM FREEHOLD LAND AND BUILDING SOCtETr^'J 

AND BANK FOa DEPOSITS. • ->- 

Lttldl Sfotam, £39 1 flobicriptioii, 4t. monthly ; Building Shares, £1M } Sabwriptton, Itt. monAly. 
Sams from Is. and np wards received in the Bank for Deposit*. 

An Estate has been purchued at the Abbejr Wood Station of the North Kent Railway, and will be 
shortly distributed. 

Offices, 147, Cheapside. \V. GUBLEY SMITH, Seovtafy. 

THE CONSERVATIVE LAND SOCIETY. 

Offices— 33, Norfolk Street, Strand, London. 

{ENROLLED UNDER 0Tn & ;th Wm. IV., Cj^r. SS.) 

E«tablished Sept. 7> ltt53> as a most eligible mode of Inreatment, and for the purpoae «f aidHag 
ilembers of gJl Classes to obtain cheaply and speedily the Freehold Franchise in Coimtie*. 

TRUSTEES. 
Lord Viscount Ranelagh. I I'he Right Hon. R. A. Christopher, M.P. 

The Hon. Colonel Lowther, M.P. | J. C. Cobbold, E«q., M. P. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 
Cha IBM AN.— Lord Viscount Ranelagh. 
Vici-Chaibman.— Colonel Brownlow Knux, M.P. 



Booker, T. W., Esq., M.P. 
ChurchiU, Lord Alfred. 
Cobbold, J. C, E«q., M.P. 
Codrington, 8ir W., Bart., M.P. 
Cribb, W., Esq. 
Duncombe, Hon. W. E., M.P. 



Fownall, Henry, Esq. 
Ray, H. B., Esq. 
Siraeey, H., Esq. 
Steven, Robert, Esq. 
WorthingtOD, Ber. J. W,, D.D 



Fowler, Robert Nicholas, Esq. 
Holmes, T. K., Esq. 
Huddleston, J. W., Esq. 
Ingestre, Viscount. 
Maidstone, Viscount. 
Blaitland, J. G., Esq. 

Bankbbs (City).— Messrs. Dimsdale, Drewett, Fowlers, and Barnard. 

Bankbbs (West-end).— Messrs. Herries, Farqubar, and Co. 

Stanoing Coumsbl. — Richard Malins, Esq., Q.C., M.P. 

CoxTBTAifCiNa CooNSBi..— William David Lewis,sEsq., and John Fish Pownall, Esq. 

SoLiciToas.— Messrs. Harrison and Lewis, Boswell Court. 

SuBVBTOB. — George Morgan, Esq., Architect uid Surveyor. 

Accountant. — Pcrs<S Stace, Esq. | Skcrbtabt. — Charles Lewis Gruneisen, Eaq. 

Shsres, j^SO each, unlimited in number. No restriction on the number of Shares held by oA« 
Member, or the amount of his investment. Subscriptions, 8s. per month. Entrance Fee, 2s. 6d. 
Pass-book, Is. Quarterage for Expenses, Is. every three months. First payment on a Share,,lSa. 6d. 
A Year's Subscription and Fees on a Share, 4f 6 Ss. 0d. No Fines on unadvanced Shares. 

A completed Share, which is at once entered on the Order of Rights, co*ts jf 5S Se. 6d. Interest 
on completed Shares 5 per cent., payable half-yearly, one month alter Lady-day and Michaclmaa. 
Interest at & per cent, is also allowed on any payments in advance of a year's subscription and 
upwards. No partnership liability. The prompt withdrawal of Shares is insured. 
Gmlee hours from Ten to rive o'clock, except on Mondays and Fridays, and then from Ten to Eicht. 

Prospectuses, Plans of Estates, Annual and Quarterly Reports, Balance-sheet from September^ 
1853, to Sept. %9, 1853, and Shares, to be had at the Office, 33, Norfolk Street ; and of the Agenta 
tor Members, in town and country. CHARLES LEWIS GRUNEISEN, Seerttarp, 

- - ~— I - ■! IT T-| T II I JP ■ ^J_l-»l_l K-^^ 

THOMAS SAI.T & CO., 

EAST INDIA PALE ALE BREWERS, 

BURTON-ON-TRENT. 

STORES:— 

XiOVBOir 2Af KuBffArford vnMrC 

&XVaS900Xi BZt B^nry Str««t. 

MAirOBBSTBK 37, Brown Btrmmt. 

BZBWtZVOBABK a«i, BuU BtrMt. 

BBZSTOZi Baek BaU, Baldwin Street. 

vOTTZxrOBAM ««• OFeybonnd Street. 

SVBZiZBr... ft, Chroirn Alley. 

BBZVBVBOB 17, Bowale Plaee. 

The Ales, in Cask (13 Gallons) and Bottles, may be obtained from all respectable Bottlera. 



1.) 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



55 



T?-pfrBr ©HDOWMBNT LIFE 

J- ASSURANCE & ANNUITY SOCIETY, 
.^jU^ C^UuuB Place, Blackfrian, hoadoxk, 

ESTABLIsnSl) 1835. 



Capital, £500,000. 

^. DIRECTORS. 

'WllUtt Biitterworth Bayley, Esq., Chairman. 
John Fuller, Esq., Deputy Chairman. 



Edward Lee, Esq. 
Colonel Ouaeley. 
&f ajor Turner. 
Joshua Walker, Esq. 



Lewie Burroughs, Esq. 
Babert Bruce Chiches- 
ter, Esq. 
Ui^ir Heodemon. 
C. H. Latoucfae, Esq. 

Th« periods of Valuation are now Armudlt instead 
of Septennial. 

The BONUS for the current year is 20 per 
Cent, in reduction of the Premium to parties who 
hare made Five Annual Payments or more on the 
Profit Scale. 

Endowments and Annuities granted as usual. 

INDIA BRANCH. 

The Society has Branch Establishments at 
Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay. 

*** Tables of Bates, both English and Indian, can 
be had on application at the Office. 

JOHN CAZENOVE, Secretary. 

THE GEMERAI. 

life antr iFire ^ggurance 
Compang* 

ESTABLISHED 1837. 

Kmpowered by special Acts of Parliament. 

6a, KING WILLIAM STREET, LONDON. 

Capital, One Million. 

Direetort, 
6. Bouffleld, Esq. J. Pilkington, Esq., 

T. Challis, Esq., Aid., M.P. 

M.P. T. Piper, Esq. 

J. G. Cope, Esq. T. B. Simpson, Esg< 



J. Dixon, Esq. 
J. T. Fletcher, Esq. 
C. Hindley, Esq., M.P. 
W. Hunter, Esq., Aid. 



The Right Hon. C. P. 

ViUiers, M.P. 
J. Wilks, Esq. 
E. Wilson, Esq. 



'In the LIFE DEPARTMENT FOUR- FIFTH 
of the PROFITS, divisible by the Company's Dee 
of Settlement allowed to Assurers, and all business 
relating to Life Assurances, Annuities, and Family 
Endowments transacted on the most liberal terms. 

No charge for STAMPS is made on LIFE 
POLICIES issued by the Company. 

In the FIRE DEPARTMENT— Houses, fumi- 
ture, stock-in-trade, mills, merchandise, rent, 
shipping in docks, and risks of- all descriptions, 
insured at moderate rates* 

LOANS of ^1000 and under advanced on 
personal security, and the deposit of a life policy 
to be effected by the borrower. 

A liberal commission allowed to solicitors, 
auctioneers, and surveyors. 

THOMAS PRICE, Sscretary. 



THE LONDON Assuinioiee. 

Incorporated a.d. 1720. 

FOR LIFE, FIRE, AND MARINE 
ASSURANCES. 
Head Office. No. 7> Royal Exchange, ComhUI. 
West End Office -No. 7, Pall Mall. 
EoWABD BuaMKSTsa, Esq., Governor. 
John Alvks AanuTHKOT, Esq.. Suh'Oovemor. 
S^uvnts Gkboson, Esq., M.P.,B0im<y-G<<W0rnor» 
Aetuarif—P KTKw, Habdt, Esq., F.B:S. 

THIS Corporation has granted As- 
surances on Lives for a PERIOD EXCEED 
ING ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY YEARS, 
hav'mg issued its fir«t policy on the 7th Jime, 1731. 

Two thirds or 66 PER CENT, of the entire 
profits are given to the Assured. 

Premiums may be paid Yearly, Half-yearly, 
or Quarterly. 

ANNUITIES ARE GRANTED by the Cor- 
poration, payable Half-yearly. 

ALL POLICIES ARE ISSUED FREE FROM 
STAMP DUTY, or from charge of any descrip- 
tion whatever, beyond the premium. 

The fees of MEDICAL REFEREES are PAID 
by the Corporation. 

Every facility will be given for the transfer or 
exchange*of Policies, or any other suitable arrange- 
ment vriix be made for the convenience of the 
Assured. 

Prospectuses and all other information may be 
obtained by either a written or personal applica. 
tion to the Actuary or to the Superintendent of 
the West End Office. 
JOHN LAURENCE, Secretary. 

NATIONAL GUARDIAN 

ASSTJEANGE SOCIETT. • 

19, MOOR^ATE STREET, LONDON. 

EVERY KIND OF LIFE ASSURANCE 

BUSINESS TRANSACTED. 

Great advantages oonnected with 
the surrender of Policies, if dis- 
continued from change of circum- 
stances. 

Further particulars of 

JESSE HOBSON, SecreUry. 

OPE MUTUALLIFE OFFICE, 

Incorporated under Act of Parliament. 
This Society combines all the modern improre- 
ments in the practice of Mutnal Life and Honesty 
Guarantee Assurance. 

H. C. BIFFE, Oeneral Manager, 
Princes Street, Bank, London. 
LOANS on Personal Security granted to the 
Policy Holders. ^^ 

HUSBANDS can secure ANNUI- 
TIES for their Widows, upon an advan- 
taxeous plan. Every description of Life Assurance 
effected.— EAST of ENGLAND LIFE OFFICE, 
6, King William-street, Mansion House, London. 
EDWARD BUTLER, Secretary. 



00 



AV V iujKXisifi jhj£:n 'ns. 



LifOifJ 



RELIANCE MUTUAL LIFE 
ASSURANCE SOCIETY. 
EstAblished 1810. 
Hie eatke Prollti divided among the Annred. 

TKVftTIBft. 

Vernon AbboU, Eiq. { A. Leslie Bfelrille, Esq. 
John Ledger, E«q. ] Jamee Traill, Eaq. 
George Whitmore, Esq. 

Life Assurances effected upon Equal, Half Fre- 
tniuin, Increasing, or Decreasing Scales : also by 
Single Paynents, or Payments for limited periods. 
Tables specially constructed for the Army, Navy, 
East India Company, and Merdiant Services. 

Ehdowments tot widows and Children. Pea- 
aions for retired Officers and Civilians. Immediate 
or I>eferTed Annuities, and Survivorships. 

£. 08Bo«NB Smith, Actuary and Secretary. 
71, King William- street, Mansion- bouse, Lottd<m. 

WEAK LEGS. 

The Best Hovse in the World for 

ELA813C8T0CKIVGB,T&irSSI8, 

BANDAGES, SPINAL STAYS. 
BAILEY,' 418, OxroED Stbcbt, London. 

JONAS BROOK & BROS., 
Heltham MiUs, near Euddenteld; 

AND 

. 80y Cajmoii^'StnBet Weit, iKwdofi. 

Specimens of their "Great ExhiWon Prise 
Threads and Crochet Cotton/' &e., in Bundle 
and on Reels ; also their newly patented GIac6 
Thread, are exhibited in the Comer of the South 
Gallery. Winding Machine eenstantly at work 
to supply Specimen Reels. 

f9.B.— ^Id Wb^esale and Retail by the prin- 
cipal Merchants and Drlipersin the Metropolis and 
throughout the Country. 

GEOEOE TUBNEE, 111, Boronf h, 

Corner of King-street, neer London Bridge ; and 
at South-East Gallery, Crystal Pialece, Svdenham ; 
Class, Substances used as Food, Manufacturer of 

WEDDING CAKES AND NURSERY 

BISCUITS. 

A hafgt assortment of Wnsiiro Cakii always 

ireiuiy, frtnn ita. up to £so. 

ATRIMONIAL INSTITU- 

TION.^OflBce, IS, John-street, Adelphi, 
London. Founded 1 846, established for the Intro* 
duetion of parties unknown to each other, who are 
desirous of forming Matrimonial Alliancks. 
The strictest honour and secrecy in every case. 
Prospectuses, applications, forms, rules, anl 
every information sent free on receipt of 13 posts^ 
stamps.-^By order of the Directors. 

LAURSNCB CUTHBURT. 



FAMILIES viftitiiig LOHDON 
during the present season are resMctally 
solicited to inspect the extensive and ^WT^ 
STOCK of beautiful Uraw'nK-room and doier 
STOVES, FEN OKR, and FIRE FURNITURE; 
also improved Kitchen Ranires. Table and Sus- 
pending LAMPS and CHANDELIERS, of, new 
and elegant deii(;ne, 'for <nl and g)ra • Tes aid 
CoiFee URNS, Patent Dish COVERS, TslkU 
Cutlery, Japan and Plated Ware, BaTHS, and 
every article requisite in furnishing a €ottat|;fe v 
mansion, always on show, at 

JEREMIAH EVANS, SON, and CGMPaUT, 

Stove Grate Manufactory and FunOshiag IRON- 

MONORRF Establishment, 

SS, King William-Street, London-street. 

PATENT SELF ADJUSTING TRUSSES. 

SALMON, ODY & Co., most re- 
spectfully inform the pnhAc, that tb/at 
Patent Self-Adjnsting Trusses afford moHB ease 
and security for the relief of HERNIA than any 
other instrument for the purpose. They wifi 
answer for right or left wde, requiring no under- 
strap nor any galling bandase. Persons in the 
country are requested te send the curcamference 
of the Bodr one inch below the Hips. 

CAUTION. — As many mercenaiy Druggists 
are vending an inferior article, purchasers are 
requested to observe, that SALMON, ODr, Bt 
CO., 292, Stfund, LoadiMi, Is marked tipon the 
leather case. 

Sold by one or more Druggist* in every City and 
principal Tvywn in the United Kingdom. 

SIB JAMES KUBSAYSrvm 
MAGITESIA, 

PREPARED under the immediate 
care ot the Inventor, and established for 
upwards of thirty years by the Profession, for 
removing BILE, ACIDiTIBS, and INDICES- 
TION, restoring APPETITE, preserving a mode- 
rate state of the bowels, and dissolving uric arid 
in GRAVEL and GOUT t also as an easy remedy 
for SEA SICKNESS, and for the febrile affection 
incident to childhood it is invaluable.— On the 
Value of Mi^nesia as a remedial Agent it is. un- 
necessary to enlarge; but the Fluid Preparatiot 
of Sir James Murray is now the most valued by 
the profession, as it entireljr avoids the possthtliqr 
of these dangerous concretions usually resulting 
from the use of the article in powder. 

Sold by the sole consignee, Mr. WILLIAM 
BAILEY, of Wolverhampton ; and h^ all whole* 
sale and retail Druggists, and Medicme Agents 
throughout U&e British Empire, in bottles. Is. 
2s. 6d., SS. 6d., 5s. 6d., lis., and Sis. eedi. 



ACIDTTLATED ST&TTP. 

In Bottles, Ss. eaeh. 

N.B.— Be sure to ask for ** Six James Murray^ 
Preparatiim,** and to see that his name is stamped 
on each label, in green i$ib, as follows ;—** James 
Muiray, Physidanto the Lord Lieutenant. ** 



^o. 1.] ADVERTISEMENTS. 57 

DENMARK HtLti (^^AMMAfi SCHOOL. 

Pftf«€IPAI^Mft. C. P. MASON, B.A., FELLOW OF UNIVfiBCITr 

COLLEGE, LONDON. 

ARRANGEMENTS are made for a eclect number of the Pupils of the 
above-named School to make periodical visits to the Crystal Palace fur the 
pCkpf^se flf entering upon a systematic and thorough study of the most ioteresting 
and important portions of the treasures of Art and Science whieli will be there 
collected. The results thus obtained will be brought to bear upon the illustrations 
of regular courses of instruction pursued at home. 

Further particulars may be obtained on applicatioti to the Principal. 

TEETH.— By Her Majesty's Royal Letters Patent.— NEWLY- 

* INVENTED and Patented application of Chemictfly.prepared WHITfe INDIA RUBBER in 
tbe eoDstrnctioQ of ARTIFICIAL TEETH, GUMS, and PaLaTES. 

Mr. £P&RAIM MOSELT, !Sttrge>oii- Dentist, 6l, GrosTcnor Street, Grosvenor Square, sole 
Inventor and Patentee. 

A new, original, and invaluable invention, consistinj^ in the adaptation, with the most absolute 
. perfeetien and knceess, of CHEMICALLY-PREPARED WHITE INDIA RUBBER, as a lining 
to the ordinary Gt>ld or Bone Frame. By tnis application all SHARP EDGES are avoided ; no 
springs, wires, or fastenings are requixed. A aataral elastieity hitherto wholly unattainable ; and a 
fit, PfiRF«CTSDwilktbe«Mst UNERRING ACCURACY is secured: whale, from the softness 
aad flekihllity oriT the agent employed, the greatest support is given to the adjoining Teeth when 
loose, or rendered tendi^ by the absolution of dtft gums. 

The ACIDS of the Mouth exert no u^ncy on the chemically-{>repared WHITE INDIA RUBBER^ 
and, as it is a non»condactor, fluids of any temperature may with thorough comfort be unbil>ed and 
retained in the mouth, all unpleMantness of smell or taste being at the same time whoUy provided 
against by the peculiar nature of its preparation. To be obtained only at 

61, LOWER GROSVENOR STREET, LONDON. 
M, GAY STREET, BATH. 10, ELDON SQUARE, NEWCASTLE-OW-TYNE. 

A TfiOBOlTGHLT GOOD-SITTING GABMSHX 

INDISPENSABLE. 

To those who have been pestered with badly cut Garments, 

J. SANDS 

Begs to state, that having had great experience in studying the Human Form, he will engage to fit 
the most difScult figure, or please^ the most fastidious taste. In passing bis Establishment 

17, HOLBORN HILL, (opposite Enrniyal's Inn), 

It will be seen that every peculiarity of Style is consulted, both in price and pattern. Dress and 
Frock Coats from 35s. to 70b. ; Blaclc Dress Waistcoats from 8s. 6d. ; and Trousers from 21s. Fancy 
Clothing and Juvenile Dresses in great variety. 

WILLIAM SPRAGUE,- 

Manufacturer of Improved 

Pianofortes, Org^ans, Harmoniums, 
Seraphines, Concertinas, Ac. 

A First-rate Piano for 28 Guineas; Finger 
Organ, 40 Guineas; Harmonium, 8 Guineas; Sera- 
phine, 6 Guineas} Concertina, 2 Guineas. NEW and 
SECOND HAND Instruments of every description always 
on Sale, with every other Article appertaining to the Musical 
Profession. 

ALL KINDS OF INSTRUMENTS CAKEFULLY TUNED AND REPAIRED. 

WTTiTiTAM SPBA0UE, 7, Fmsbury Pavetdent, London. 




•J] 



5S ADYKUriSSJlENTS. laq^ 

n — '— 

THE ONLY PRIZE MEDAL 

FIRE IiUlffP STOVE ORATEC^ 

Wu ftwardtd by the GnU Ezi)o»Uioii of 1851, to 

PIERCE 

FOB HIS IMPROVED COTTAGER'S GRATE, &c. ^ 

Warehonae ft HairafMtory, Ho. 6, Jermyn-itreet, BegentHrtceet. i 

Tha bMt ud CbwpMt Onto, te ill lucAil pupowi b, '\ 

' FIEBCE'S UVIVESSAL HBE-LUKP GSATE, 

Whicli requires no fixing, beingr nade in one pieee, hsring itrong oetaron ban and bottom* with j 
capaaoua and lafe Hobs, complete. Prices Xls. 6d«y 13s. 6d.y 238. 6d.9 ^^^ 258* < 

FIEBCE'S IMPBOVID COTTAOEB'S OBATE, 

For Warming Two Rooms with only One Fire. Price 30s* >nd 358* Also bis 

ECONOMICAL BADIATDTO EIBE-LUMP GBATES. 

Made in extensiTe variety of PattemR, from tbe simplest stjle of ornament to those of the most 
splendid design] suitable for Drawing Rooms, Dining Ro(Kns, libraries, &e. &c 

HIS NawLT-mynNTBD 

PYBO-PNEUHATIC WABHUTO ft VEHTHATHTO STOVE^BATE, 

For Chobcbbs, Halls, Pdblic Buildinos, Bankino Housbs, Schools, fte. 

Fur which the Soeieiy of ArtSf after many months trial of this Grate in use, warming their larae 
Model Room in John-ttrui, Addphi^ presented the Inrentor with the Large Silver Medal, given by 
JLBJL Frinoe Albert, at the Distribution of Prises in July, 1849. 

Manufactory, Ifo. 5, Jermyn-street, Begent-street, London. 

ALLSOFF'S FALE ALE. 

IN IMPERIAL QUARTS AND PINTS. 

BOTTLED BY PARKER 1^ TWINING, BEER MERCHANTS, 

5i| PALL MALL. 

QoartSi 83. ; Pints, 5s. ; Half-pints (for luncheon), 3s. per 

dozen. 

ALSO IN CASKS OF EIGHTEEN GALLONS AND UPWARDS. 



BARON LIEBI6 on ALLSOPPS PALE ALE. 

' <* I am myself an admirer of this beyerage, and my own experience enables me to 
recemmend it, in aceordance with the opinion of tbe most eminent English physieians 
as a very ajpreeable and efficient tonic, and as a general beyerage, both for .the 
inyalid and the robust.** 
^ Giemen, May 6. 

ADDRESS :— 

PABEXB & TWINING, Beer Merchants, 51, l^all Mall/ 



fdlX} ADVEBTIBEMEN TS. or 

PRIZE MEDAL. 

]|OM4P(Uited at the ExVibition of AH Nations, 1861, for Spinal Inatnunentt and Gymnastic 
l*T Apparatuaca, &c., * waa awardadf to 

.^TJiCPLm, Inventor of the ALLEVIATING TREATMENT, for 

the Ciu^ of Ddbnnitica of the Spine, Proprietor of the Royal OTmnaaium and Orthopiedie 
titntion. Strawberry-bill, Pendleton, Mtuidiester, bega to appriae those suffering from Spinal 
iplaiota that they may be aapplied with every requisite to follow the treatment at home. Apply 

|r jpaxticaJaca to |>r. Caplis, at the Institution. 

>.r ammmjm^ u^jr be aeen at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, Philoaophical Department, Ko 8i s. 



CCOUNT BOOKS— Always ready— largest and best assortment, all 

aisea and bindings, boond on an improved principle, and warranted to withntand the hardest 
r. Account Books and Stationery for exporUtlon.— NISSEN & PARKER, 43, Mark-lane. London. 

BTTBR COPYING MACHINES.— The best that are made— Three 

J G nineas, Four and Half Guineas, and Six Guineas, guaranteed for 1 9 months— excellent for ship- 
ig to the Colonies -Stands, Damping Boxes, Brushes, Oiled Sheets, &c.' NISSEN H PARKER, 
Mark-lane, London. 

[EALING WAX— To burn freely— warranted to be the best— in flat 

or rpnnd sticks— 80 or 40 to the pound packet • no article of Stationery is more difficult to be 
ned than good Wax. Extra hard Wax for hot climates -Parcel Wax for warehouses^NlSSEN 
PARKER, 43, Mark-lane, London. « 

LETTER AND NOTE PAPERS— Envelopes, and all articles of 
Stationery, of the best make, on the most moderate terms -every article exchanged if not 
approved— Shipping orders on the shortest notice— upwards of two thousand Mercantile Establishmenta 
aie regularly supplied —NISSE N & PARKER, 43, Mark.lane, London. 

LETTER PRESS PRINTING— For Circulars, Pamphlets, Catalogues 
Mercantile Tables, &c., in all languages— an extensive assortment of the newest types - dispatrh 
and moderate charyes.— Canvats'uR letters, printed, addreased, and delivered to constituents at a few 
ho«ra'notice.-*NISSEN& PARKER, 43, Mark.lane, London. ' 

T ITHOGRAPIIY— For Maps, Plans, Drawings, Circulars, Show Cards, 

,■ -i fte. &c., by accomplivhed Artists, in all the extensive variety now in uae, in lilack or coloured 
inka — Desiigrns provided. Sketches of Premises, Buildings, &c., taken on the shortest notice.— 
NISSEN & PAUKER, 43, Mark-lsne. London. 

ENGRAVING — In a style not to be surpassed, for visiting and invitation 
Cards and Notes — Bills of Exchange— Railway Bonds— Coupons, Bankers' Cheques, Bill* and 
Notes— Specimena and Destgna free on application.— NISSEN ft PARKEK, 43, Mark-lane, London. 

SAMUEL MARTIN 

Bega to call the attention of 

ntOHVONGERS Ain) 0AS-7ITTBBS 

To Ml cxtenaive Stock, comprising GENERAL IRONMONGERY and JAPAN WARE, in great 
variety, including Baths, Iron and Papier Mftch6 Tea Trays, &e. Manufacturer of the 

PATENT ALBERT OAS BURNER, 
Gaa Chandeliers and Fittings of every description, Oil, Candle, and Carriage Lamps, ftc, See,, 
suitable for the Home Trade and Exportation. 

14, Gough Square, Fleet Street, Xiondon ) 

AND, 

95, SUMMER ROW, BIRMINGHAM. 

N.B.— Wholesale only. 

LADIES' ECONOMICAL OUTFITTER. 

MRS. HISCOCK, 54, QUADUANT, REGENT STREET, Every 
Article of the BEST qua^ty, at the lowest possible price. 



I 



ou 



AU V iltti 1 IOUiiXLJ!iJ?l 1 0. 



PIANOFORTES. 
CBAMER, BEALE, AHS CO. 

Have the best of every description for Fale or Hire, 
also a lar;re astortment of Second-hatid Piano- 
fortes , very alightly deteriorated, at great ly red ucr d 
pticei . 201 . lufgent-ttrcet, and 07, Conduit- street. 
Branch Establishment, 167, North-st.« Brighton. 

HARMONIUMS. 
CSAMEK, BEALE, AND CO. 

ITftve a greftt yarietr, and are the Afrenta for the 
New Patent Model Hannoniam. the prices vary 
from 10 to 55 guineas. 901, Recent street, and 
67, Condnit-street. Branch Establishment, I67, 
Nort h-street, B rif^t on. 



SCEWEPPE'S SODA, POTASS, 
MAGNESIA WATERS, 

AND 

JBRATBS XiaMOirASa, 

Continue to b« manufactured, as usual, upon the 
largest scale at their several Establishments in 
London, Liverpool, Bristol, and Derby. Every 
bottle is protected by a label, with the name of 
their Pirm, without which none is genaine ; and 
it may be had of nearly aU respectable eh«mists 
throughout the kingdom. Importers of the 
GERMAN SELTZER WATER direct from the 
Springs, as for the last thirty years. 

51, HERNERS STREET, LONDON. 

KXHIBITOBS* GBMTBB OF ■OUTK.BHO 6ALLBBT. 

UMBRELLAS, PARASOLS, 
CANES, WHIPS, &c. 

R. WILLIAMS h SON, Makers to the Queen 
and Royal Family. 

MANUrACTORT, 44, LUDGATB HiLL, LOMDOM. 

Wbolesale^ Retail, and for Exportation. 

JOHN & JAMES SI MP SO N 

fJ beg to call the attention of the Fablic to the 
Case, No. 26, situated in the • 

PRINTED FABRIC COURT, 
in which is contained an assortment of British 
Manufactured Chintzes, Cloth for Curtains, with 
Silk bordering, and Silk and Wool Tkpestiy 
Damasks. 
Warehouse, No. 63, Skinntr Street, (Show HQl. 



MR. HOWARD, Surgeon-Dentist 
52, Fleet-street, has introduced an entirel; 



new description of ARTIFICIAL TEETH, fixed 
without springs, wires, or ligatures. They so 
perfectly resemble the natural teeth as not to be 
distinguished from the originals by ttie doaetft ' 
observer: tbey will never change colour or decay, 
and ti^l be found superior to any teeth ever before 
used. This method does not require the extrac- 
tion of roots or any painful operation, and will 
support and preserve teeth that are loose, and is 
guaranteed to restore articulation, and mastication. 
Decayed teeth rendered sound *nd nsdul in mas- 
tication. 

^LEET STREET. 
At home from 10 to 5. 



6 2, 



PHILOSOPHICAL INSTRUMI 
West Gallery. 

MAPS— Ireland, Galway, Ti 
atlantic Port, Lcugb Ryan. Railvray Ll 
Collision Preventive, Registry Lands for i 
Encumbered Estates* Court.— IaqulreforTHo| 
Bbbminoham, Esq., Elisabeth Cottage, Ai 
Messrs. flAi.m, Land Agents, 1S3, Pi 
Literary Society, 15, Qiflbrd Street, Londos.- 

FilNEST FRENCH Wl 
VINEGAR, 

SOUTH EAST GALLBRT, ta. 

W. A S. KENT & SON! 

IHPOHTERS, 

UPTON-ON-SEVERN. 

FERRIS, SCORE, & CO./ 

CHEMISTS TO THE QUEEN, 

4, and 5| UKION BTBSST) BBI8T( 

IMPORTERS or TBI 

GENUINE EAU DE COLOGNE,' 

French Sssenees, and West 
Arrowroot. 

PURE COD LIVER OIL, DIRECT fR< 
NEWFOUNDLAND. 

SOLB PROPBIIT R8 OP 

FRY'S COMPOUND DECOCTION OP 
SARSAPARILLA. 

THE ONLY PRIEB GRAKTEl 
FOR CORSETS in the United Kini 
at the Exhibition of all Nations, 1851.— 1 
CAPLIN, 53; Bemers-street, Oxford- street, id 
▼entor and Patentee of tbe c(M>rated H YGIENIj 
and CORPORIFORM CORSETS, the origin^ 
elastic bodice, also belts and supporte of esei 
description. Tbey are constructed upon sclentif 
principles, ttnd admit <X a variety of adaptation^ 
suited to the different phases of «-omajB*8 lifi 
Prospectuses forwarded to ladies, also directioi 
for measurement. N.B. A suite of show room 
has beOi added to tbe former ones, where ladi({ 
will find a numerous colleetion of th* aboi 
inventions ready for their inspection. 

INVENTOR, PATENTEE, AND SOLE 
. . JVIANUFACTURER. 

QTJALITT, the test of ECONOHTJ 

FIRST-CLASS CLOTHING, at the lowest] 
CflAROfifii. Dresv Coats, ^; BOY'S SUIT,) 
1 Id. per inAf ncc^r^bm to height. The well-] 
known WATERPROOF LIGHT OVERCOATS, 
45S. and 50B. Business entablhhed Half a Centary. 
W. BERDOE, 96, NEW BOND STREET, and* 
69> CORN H 1 LL. (Nowhere else.) 



n 



CBNIHttlL. PUIINJSHIMff umNmoMCEsm WAnCHWim 

89 OXJFOBD SQfBEiar (comer of Sbwniaa Slreet)» 
Koa 1 A^lfowman^flbnety andl 4 & 5 Beny'siJBlaoB^JDondaiu 



FEmBUIp flnOTESi aaidllBR 

moBa 

Bright Blimf^ with biwMed oroMiiMtt mi4 tir* mIi of 
baM, 21 14*. to 62. lOs.; ditto, with onaokionuuMntMnd 
two leti of bfttt, ftl. lOi. to ULiai.; Broiii^<F«ikUn 
compUtOf wMbatMiiMdt, fro» 7b to tt. ; SIcri r«a4«M 
trom 21; Iff. toiBl^; ditt». with riehormola.mrnamieBts, 
firom 21. ISfl. to 71. 7i. ; Flre-i(OM fkoa Is. 94. th« Mt to 
41. 41. BtlTwt4rMi4aUoth«ffFtteBt8toT««with>wU- 
•tisg health JxUtM, AUwtal«hh«Ji OMhkd to aiU f4 
ih«M TarTredooad ohwwik 

Yinti-nom tho fBDq[imiy tad o«ettt of his pwr 
•hiMt ; and 

Soeoi^j-- rxomtlMM j^wduMMt b«ia«iMd* esote* 
tirelj f«r ouh. 

ntON WaOKEADS and CE^;^ 

*S GQTft. 



ur^L-t. 



A rery latgoawortm—tofiihtMiTliilttoa^i inlttmmaA 
Braas. fkMi I7»^tet81t. oaoh; and Colairoai 81a. eaab;fif tod 
with doiwtidl jiHutti fad pMontpackinib aAdaatirtljrXKMs 
from M|c«%'tmti; ort>iL8. . 
Oomivon IrMiJMajkeada atlfihtCMh^. 



BATHS and TQILEITK^IICABJEL 

An iinriTallodanortm«iift^rtio^h«ratt*TMrl«l!f, nmH7,t 
or beautjofdeaifpii. 

PAPtEBrMACHE and IBQX.XBAr 

An AfMrtmoot of-Tta<^a^aBd'Wiit«n'wlMllr n 
prc«0dtBfetid, whvdnr as to extent, TBdotr* oniorelt j.- 



DISS 

In 



and H ME WAJEB 
JXUBHXff 

nftterial, in neat Taiicijra tad of the UmpmI 
pau«m8. 



T3SK rSBSeBCX SOBBEDSinBB for 

sonrsB; 

The SBAS NICIIBb aHiYBIl, Intiniliimii tMntf 
Toanagobj'WILlilAM & BUATON, wltao^l«lSBft 
hj.tht pUtaA pneaM of. Masan Elki^gto»ia»d>Ca, ig 
beyond all c oaa p ariaon tho vwy beet axVUkm-imxt to 
steriiiiR ailTer thai can b« employed aa ■iia>li»<eithn use. 
fttliT^ onamealoUy, aa by no poaatUatailtBa* it bo 
diikiocaifftedftoaajrenl eilrev. 

T«a8poong.pard«i. 181. .... afla. 

Deaaert J^trkl... . 80a. ... 4«a. ., 

Dcaaert ep9ona......». BQn ... iSa. ^ %m. 

TJkfaloForka — ...... ««■. .... 66c «. fldk 

l!fthle Spooni. — ^^. iOgi ... S8a. ... 9$l 

T«a and Ooilea Stta. Vaitera, GandlcatidBi, *«.. t£bn-^ 
portlonato pxieea. Ail kindaol ra-plaiinff dono^jflio 



CMEMQAUif mmtmonL, not puteh 

ridiili, 
TAbk «poooa and rwki, 
fttUtiaerperdoacn...... Ifih- 

Doiaort ditto and ditto.... 10a. \; 

Tefciiitto,.,,,......,...., sa. . 



S8s. 
311. 

lU. 



... (Mlfc 

Ilk 



CmZtEBJo. WASRAITTED. 



tnUoknlw,wttb 
M gh a h o n tdati^ lla. por doacn ; d e ea ar ta , to nmtbh, lOa.^ 
if touhahnrn la»«Ktr»4 lac««r oiaea, iTuraniTnmpnuliflii 
to 2aat mrdMMn; ifunn flna; with aihn fen i il aaifw> 
87ik i whito bona table knivea and forks, lla. por doaen ; 
eaffTOEa,f#Mi StrSd. perpair; tableatoels, fcom la. eaoh. 
Tho lanesi stook of'plaled doaaeit kniiw and totka, in 
•••ndoUiinriiiMMidofrtl 



PJUBISBKfibi 

Tha laqpBtt m wMit dntoeat 
fromls. ddjtoSgp. 



^KIU,nkH'8.BUBT0V1in»<Tnf LABOB SHOW ROOMS (ill eommnnioattns), ozolosiT^of «he BhM 
derated to tho ahow of GENEBAL rVitirc»HINCK IBOJIMOJffiaiUr, a» acfM^od- and otaMiAtd.tlCftl^liS 
ahaiBKi nay •••**/ miAM-^*! *" **^ — i---*^ "^ 



Ghitaiop»ai iriOr Bng^ aesi (p«* poi<^ £reei 

The Money" retwrMdfot! every Article not approved of, 
ESTA8USHEQ AJD. 1820. 



r «v«. 



THOMAS HARRIS & SON''S 



CEYSTM 




SPECTACLES, 



ZEOSaST FOR VWESaSBMlSQWBE^StttW^ 



rn9TS* judicibiRr selection of Spectacles for.tlie first time is most impor- 

JL tent, u on that depends the preserratioii of the bleuing of sight. How many puxchuefil of 
of Spectacles from mere trading vendors <omaf^ete'>.eHH»nes in the optician's art) have seriottsly 
impured or destroyed their sight, and have ultimately incurred far greater eai^MM'thaa ther-wmUd 
liave done had thdv wiwjn astscTiosr been made at a respectable.' Optic&sn^ 4 THOMAfi 
HARBIS &k SON'S longtczperience and extensive practice 'eosMes'tbem> to.dec*deto»-the fognfaof 
Spectacles OMMt becoming the fice ct the wearer, as well aamk the Glaeies most proper rta assist 
ererTtvancty of vision ; unless both theser partieuUra ai»^re|^ttded, SpecAadesaie^ constant anaoy.' 
ancob The improved Spectacles of THOMAS HARBIS and SON do not in the least disfigure 
tiie countenance; hence they 'are gen«rally preferred to those of others; their mperior effleacjf /or 
preserving the eight is also one of their mostsimpprtaBi^^chinteteristica. 

ARE SfECTACLEa REQUIREIX? 

. When.the tho«andleis plamd< bMweeiKthfeciip 
and the book* 

WbentoernMNliidifllisidty i»i'owidlB>tIil>eadiag 
k'needtor 

When the eyss appear as if fhey had a mist 
befiirethemt 
, WheaJ»Iaefe«peeha.seem^iloa4faif(4i»-fliftni^. 

When any of* the- above indieatiear aiisor- ail 
affectation should- be laid aside»^ »^ reeponatbiO 
and»^ilfnl. optioiaBiceaiaadtedi and' a paitf^oC 
" FreaecTCB " purchased.. 



.ti»^^esiwain^ or becomnsa^nHuih 
fatigaedi.by»ahMrte9erda»'a».to ba ohliged^to be 
firec|ueu ~ 
objects 

When ohjecta cannot be seen without removifliP' 
them to an increased distance. 

witeB tbaldbbnra of:a baok. appear to blend 
with ona another* 



When maio.light via 
medjyia 



.than. 



faB* 




T. H. and SON, having detcmined to supply the F&bUc with Spectaeks at tha lowest. remtt<k 

— ^ >ftej( bef-^ intniui»*tlmit« th^ faatfe recently redueed the. prices of these vahiaUft and* 

'M p eri ca nte, er.one*ib«tli| and tbejrconfideaUy assert that both in^iM^I^ 

cf ^ffe^glasdm/NmSjaetkuigsi <£«., iu every vmnitpk 

A^HmT, TQ TMe OLERQY AND T»*€: CHARITASliE. 

IVlr gilt-of % - good and' p r op e r- pal? of Sdeetaclte to one whose livelihood mav depend on the 
preservation of tiiat inestimable blessing, the-Eyecsight, doubtless would be truly apy«eciatod aa 
a valuable g}ft by the recipientr.who^ aaas^too often the r^it *hrrnirh irrniifj msani. irinaijiiabli 
infii«rOiir-si^t 'by^purausiiig and ustos^ worthless Olassea^ sold by Hawkers and.otiMrnMcpo^ 
ilenced vendors. To enable the Charitahto^ at a small. Cost to present the deserving with reaBff 
Ifood pair* 'T. H. and SON will supfdy Six Pairs assorted sighu and caaea fox 10s. Od.Twdls 



HJMBS^ PBXX9P(E3CT^0LASS, FOR THE WAISTCOATrPOCKET, 121.64:;^ 

Made for and first introduced in the Exhibition .of 1 861, 

• IU H n^i t to ^iyiff 93BiIi»«^«re«t aequisitiOttjto view the .Ol9(pctMiitIun tho CBTSTAL 

VMSACE, and the Btantiful Scenery around. 



Kik S2,. OJBPOajra THK OAXEa QE. WEi BEIXISH MUSBUJI^ 

CAUTION.— B^recoBecting that tl flr Ntanber is {•ya ; opmntethe Biitiah ^"-nwfirtHif. 

V ESTABLISHED SEVENTY TEARS. 



AMD COFFEES AT KEBCEANTS' 



DUTY OFF TEA. 

THB PBICES OF ALL OUB TEAS AGAIN REDUCED FOtTR PENCE 

PER POUND. 



PHILLIPS AND COMPANY 

OiYO ihib Pnblie the ftOl and entira ftdTuitage of th« RedaeUoa of Datj, ■» tU foUoiiip^ 

Prices will ihow : — 

BLACK TEAS. 

STROlfO CONOOtJ TEA m.... <•• 8d.» 9t« lOd., St. Ot. 

RICH SOUCHONG TEA 3s. 9d. ReeoBnaended. 

BEST IMPERIAL SO UC flONO TEA Si. 4d. Strongly recommended. 

BEST LAPSANO SOUCHONG TEA 3«. 8d. Strongly recommended. 

BEST A8SAU PEKOE SOUCHONG TEA 4i. Od. Very itroagly rccommeBded. 

Thia Tee ia of peculiar end extraatdinuy strength. 



\ 



GREEN TEAS. 

STRONG GREEN TEAS, with ilaroor Sa., 8a. 4d., Sa. 8d. 

PRIME MOrUNB GUNPOWDER «a Od. ReeoHBiended. 

THE BEST MOYUNE GUNPOWDER 4s. 4d. Recommended. 

TRUE PEARL GUNPOWDER 4a. 8d. Recommended. 

THE BEST PEARL GUNPOWDER 6«.ed. Recommended. 

The MIXED TEAS, «t Sa. 8d. and 4a. per lb., are now verj anpeiior Teaa, end ■!• 

atroogly recommended. 

COFFEES. 

THS BEST PLANTATION COFFEE. la.8d. perUk 

THB BEST COSTA RICA COFFEE la.ad. „ 

THE BEST WEST INDIA COFFEE Is.4d. „ 

THB BEST MOCHA COFFEE la.4d. »• 

COLONIAL PRODUCE AND SPICES, 

loe PER CENT. UNDER MOST HOUSES. 

Anow Root, Sd., lOd., la., la. Sd., end la. 4d. Sago, 3d. end 4d. ; Lecge SefO, 6d. TSivioMk 
Sd*i Beat, 7d. Toua lea Bfms, 6d.; Be»t. 8d. Meceeroni, Neptea* 8d. Itelimi Moeemmt end. 
Vermicdll, lOd. Semolina, 6d. end 8d. Millet, 4d. and 6d. Rice, Sd.,SAd., Sd., and 4d.; Beat, 4^. 
Scotch Berley, S^d. Peeri Barley, Sd. Cloves, la. Sd. end Is. 0d. : Beat, Sa. per lb. Ntttmesa, 
4e. 6d. end fta. } Beat, 6a. 4d. Mace, 4a. 6d. ; Beat, 5a. CinnaoMm, Sa» t B««k, Sa. 6d. Orenad Cm- 
nemon, 4a. Ceaaie, la. Sd. ) Gronnd, la. 6d. Black Pepper, Beat, la. end is. 9d. White Pepper, 
la. 4d. I Beat, la. 8d. Cayenno, Beat, Sa. Ginger, 6d., lOd., la., la. 4d., la. 8d., and Sa. t Boat. 
Sa. 4d. Mnatard, fid., Od., 7d., lOd., end Is. Beat Muaterd in EngUod, la. 4d. (pMked in tin leO^ 

SUGAR. 
For the eonrenlenee of their nrnnerona coatomera, PHILLIPS & Go. eqpplj Raw Svoab M 4d^ 
44d., and fid. per lb. Rbfinbo Suoab at fid., fi^d., and Od. 

PHILLIPS ft Co. aend eU Gooda CARRIAGE FRER, by their* own Veee, trfthb cMit mOef 
of No. 8, King William-atreet, City, end aend Teas. Coffees, and Spicea, CARRIAGE FRBB TO 
ANY RAILWAY STATION OB MARKET TOWN IN ENGLAND, if to the vehie of «lli« or 



A OcnenI Price Cnrrcnt is pnbliahed every Month, containing all the edventegee of Mm Lohbow 

Mabxbts, end ia aent free by peat on applieetion to 

PHILLIPS AND COMPANY, TEA M^RGHANTS^ 

8, KIKO WILLIAM, STREET, CIT¥f LONPON. ^ 

Semplee of. TEA end COFFEE are elao open for hispeetion'in Cut No. 11, in the Soath-OMl 

Gallery of the Cryatel Palace. 

PtetOflteeOrderaelMmldbemedepftyehletoPHILUPSftC*. CU^ Ofltoe, Londo*. 



iKESDAMES UABIOH & lUITLAin), 
PATENTEES, 64, COMMAUGHT TERRACE, HYDE PARK, LONDON.