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I 



\tk- F-r. TIL 3. 2 9Zi 



FRENCH GRAMMAR 



WITH 



EXERCISES. '''' 



Price \0s, 6d» 



GUIDE 



TO THE 



FRENCH LANGUAGE; 



ESPECULLY DEVISED FOR PERSONS WHO WISH TO 

STUDY THAT LANGUAGE 



WITHOUT THE ASSISTANCE OF A TEACHER. 



BT 



J. J. P. LE BRETHON. 



THE TENTH EDITION, REVISED AND CORRECTED, 

Br L. SANDIER, 

PBOPESSOR OF L.\NGUAa£6, AND MEUBER OF THE HISTORICAL INSTITUTE OF FRANCE. 



WITH A KEY TO THE EXERCISES. 



ADOLESCENTIAM ALKSX 3VCWDVU KgT KT LAUDABILK.— CiCeTO, 



LONDON: ROBERT BALDWIN, 

47, PATERNOSTER-ROW. 

1847. 




LONDON 
Printed by William Clowes and Sons, 
SuQford Street. 



PREFACE. 



The study of the French language, in this country^ has become 
so essential a feature in the character of modern education^ and 
so intimately associated with the advancing civilization of the age^ 
as to render its easy acquisition a matter deserving urgent 
attention. No apology therefore can be reasonably required for 
the issue of a carefully revised and amended edition of the 
standard Grammar of M. Lc Brethon. 

It is very much to be regretted, that in nearly every French 
Grammar, professedly written to give the English student 
a thorough knowledge of French, there should be such a 
number of ill-arranged and unclassified rules, which bewilder and 
dishearten the learner, unless he be endowed with a mind of mor^ 
Ihan ordinary capacity. Now, one effect of this improper ar- 
rangement of the rules is, that the pupil, presuming a knowledge 
of the French language to be unattainable, without close and 
arduous study, becomes discouraged, and, if he be compelled to 
proceed through this dreaded labyrinth of rules, he does so hope- 
less of ever attaining any proficiency; and the result is, that 
under circumstances so unfavoufable and prejudicial, little or no 
progress is made* Hence, the many months — ^nay, the many 
years — frequently devoted by young persons to the study of the 
French language, at the end of which, they give it up in despair 
of ever learning anything worthy to be called French. Should 
we not, then, endeavour to obviate this general want of success, 
mainly, if not entirely, arising from the absence of care and judg. 
ment in the selection of the books intended for their use ? The 
way to learning should be made smooth and easy of ascent : it is 
important, therefore, that the rules of Grammar should be properly 



VI PREFACE 

arranged and classified^ so as to lead the student to a gradual, 
but thorough knowledge of the language which it is his desire 
to obtain. 

During my long career as a teacher of the French language 
in England, which has extended over a period of nearly twenty 
years^ I have invariably made it a point, to examine carefully 
every book connected with my profession which I could possibly 
procure. The experience I have thus acquired, has led me to 
this conclusion, that the Grammar of M. Le Brethon is superior 
to all other French Grammars, hitherto published, whether 
regarded as to the simplicity of its arrangement, or its adaptation 
to the most ordinary or the loftiest mind. It is a work of great 
merit — being methodical, plain, easy, and complete. This, I am 
aware, is a very high eulogium to pronounce upon any work, 
especially upon a Grammar ; but I feel convinced that a careful 
and unprejudiced perusal of the book will at once establish the 
accuracy of my opinion. 

Throughout this Grammar, the student will find the most 
ample directions ; indeed, they accompany him, as he progresses 
through the various rules and exercises, explaining whatever 
may appear doubtful or difficult in the construction of the lan- 
guage, and guiding him to the close of his studies, with a fulness 
and amplitude that tender it utterly impossible that considerable 
advance should not have been made in its acquisition. It is a 
happy feature in the arrangement of this Grammar, that the 
method is adopted of constantly placing before the eye of the 
pupil, figures referring to the rules through which he has passed, 
and only a partial knowledge of which he may have acquired. 
The result is, that the nature and peculiar properties of the rules 
become deeply impressed upon his mind, by the facility thus 
afforded of recurring at once to them, if necessary, instead of 
having, as in niost other Grammars, to peruse many pages before 

obtaining the desired information. It may be affirmed, then, 
that any person, of even ordinary capacity, who has attentively 

studied this Grammar, cannot fail to have acquired a competent 

knowledge of French. 



PREFACE. Vii 

It is generally admitted that the French language is the best 
adapted for the expression of whatever is light, delicate^ or 
amusing, and the happiest language for the exercise of the con- 
versational powers. Hence, in all large towns in Europe^ French 
is quite familiar to the higher circles of society, and by tacit con- 
vention^ whenever well-educated men of different nations meet 
together, French is at once the language adopted. 

To those who aim at enriching their minds by acquainting 
themselves with the beauties of literature, French is of the 
greatest importance, as the writings of the ancient and modem 
authors of France abound in passages of the utmost sublimity 
and grandeur. 

To the tourist, a knowledge of this universal language is abso- 
lutely necessary ; it will minister to his comforts whilst abroad, 
and add materially to the stock of information he may accumulate 
during his journey. 

To those persons whose business avocations are at all identified 
with foreign commerce, French will be found invaluable ; and it 
is unquestionably true, that young men acquainted with this lan- 
guage are more readily engaged by merchants than those who 
are ignorant of it. 

There are also considerations of an entirely different character, 
which may induce others to enter upon its study. The political 
prominence of France — ^her intimate connection with England — 
the growing importance of the commercial relations between the 
two countries, and their mutual interests, feelings, and sympathies 
in the advancing civilization of the world, render French an inter- 
esting and important study to every intelligent Briton. 

In conclusion, I would reiterate the sentiment so happily 
embodied in the language of a modern author, that, as long as 
any person confines his own study, solely to his native tongue, he 
cannot understand it perfectly, or ascertain with accuracy its 
poverty or richness, its beauties or defects. He who cultivates 
other languages, as well as his own, gains new instruments to 
increase the stock of his ideas, and opens new roads to the temple 
of knowledge. He draws his learning from pure sources, con- 



> Xn PREFACE. 

verses with the natives of other countries, without the assistance 
of an interpreter, and surveys the contents of books without 
being under the necessity of an implicit reliance on translations. 
He may unite the speculations of a philosopher with the acquire- 
ments of a linguist ; he may compare different languages, and 
form just conclusions with respect to their beauties and defects, 
and their conformity with manners and institutions. He may 
trace the progress of national refinement, and discover by a com- 
parison with their corresponding terms, that the history of lan- 
guage, inasmuch as it developes the efforts of human genius, and 
the rise and advancement of its inventions, constitutes an im- 
portant part of the history of man. 

L. SANDIER, 



( i>^ ) 



DIRECTIONS. 



Let the student begin at the first part of the Introduction to the French 
language, page 27 ; comparing the French with the English, and endea- 
vouring to form some idea of the difference between the two languages. 
Then, let him read, two or three times over, as far as page 32. Having 
arrived at page 32, let him translate it with the assistance of the English 
by its side, and so on to page 58. 

. Rule 1, page 32, corresponds with rule 1, page 62 : underneath it is an 
exercise — ^which the pupil should write after having well read and under- 
stood the said rule, observing a similar plan with each succeeding one. The 
numbers referring to the rules in the first part of the Introduction, agree 
throughout with those in the second part. 

After a few lessons, I would advise the pupil to translate ' Ferrin's 
French Fables,' the easiest book for beginners; next to which comes 
' Wanostrocht*s Eecueil choisi.' Those who have not a good memory 
will do well to write out the English translation of either book, which, 
with the aid of tlie Index found in both of them, is an easy task. After 
having written a dozen ftibles, he will be accustomed to the finding of 
words, and already know a good many ; he may then cease writing his 
translations, as he will easily read the fables ih English with the assistance 
of the Index, 

Pupils naturally being very anxious to learn pronunciation, I would 
recommend the master to teach them, first, the various sounds of the 
French alphabet, particularly the vowels, which differ more than ^con- 
sonants from the English sounds. The next step is to teach them to read 
the verbs, beginning at page 106, and requesting particular attention to 
the numbers prefixed to them, all of which refer to excellent rules on 
pronunciation at the beginning of tlie grammar. Des CaiTth'es* Dialogues 
shoAld now be given to the pupils, and they miglit be taught to read a 
number of familiar words with which they soon become acquainted. The 
printing of the Dialogues greatly facilitates pronunciation, ^silent letters 



X DIRECTIONS. 

being in italics. I would strongly advise the teajcher, in the generality 
of cases, not to accustom pupils to repeat any thing from memory, at 
least for the first three months, as it is a very tedious task to remember 
words of a foreign language, before knowing how to pronounce them 
properly. This part of the study of French — I mean pronunciation — 
will, in time, become the easiest, if the pupil be not made to learn it in 
too hurried a manner. Very great assistance will be derived from 
attending to the rules found at the first and following pages of the 
Grammar, as it is beneficial to learn pronunciation by rules, as well as by 
hearing the different sounds from a native of France. Exemplifications 
should also be given, and to do this effectually, the teacher should have 
some knowledge of English pronunciation ; corresponding sounds between 
French and English existing for all the words, with only a few exc^** 
tions. In order, however, to facilitate this, it is my intention shortly to 
bring out a pronouncing-book which, I trust, will answer the purpose 
satisfactorily.* 

It will now please and encourage the learner to compose short and easy 
sentences, on the most common topics ; doing this on all the verbs will be 
found very beneficial. As soon as a sufRcient knowledge of pronunciatioa 
is acquired, it is time to begin, at page 62^ reading in French, at sight, the 
exercises previously written. It will be well, at the same time, to trans- 
late * De Porquet's Trt&Bor de PEcolier Fran9ais,' that is, making English 
into French,^ a most essential point to be obtained, as we suppose pupils 
anxious to speak French. After having gone through * Perrin's Fables,' 
or * Wanostrocht's Recueil choisi,' let the learner translate * Blanchard's 
Petit voyage autour du monde,*t a very interesting little work. Or, if he 
be anxious to begin at once reading our standard French authors, here is 
a list of a few very instructive and captivating works : 

T«IWmaque, by Fenelon ;' Numa Pompilius, by Florian ; les Incas, 
Belisaire, by Marmontel ; Histoire de Charles XII., Roi de Su^e, His- 
toire de Pierre-le- Grand, Siecle de Louis XIV*, Vie de Louis XV., 
Essai sur les Moeurs et TEsprit des Nations, by Voltaire J; Voyage 
du jeune Anacharsis en Grece, by Barthelemy ; Voyages en Syrie et en 
Egypte, by Volney ; Histoire des R«5volutions Romaines, de Suede, et de 

♦ The Modern French Pronouncing Book, or Parisian Pronunciation exemplified 
through the medium of English Sounds ; to which is added, a Translating-Book for 
Beginners, vitb notes. By Louis Sandier. 

t A new edition, revised and corrected, with grammatical and explanatory i^tes. 
By h* Sandier. This work may be advantageously used by most beginners. 

X The style of Voltaire is the easiest and the most free from idioms among French 
authors. 



DIRECTIONS. XI 

Portugal, by Vertot ; Les Tiagedies de Corneille, de Bacine, de Voltaire ; 
Les Comedies de Moliere, with notes by Gombert* 

Meanwhile, the pupil is supposed to b^ve written the exercises in the 
grammar, as £ir as page 104 ; then he should read the third pert of the 
grammar, on syntax, extending from page 179 to 270, at least four 
pages a week, and also commit to memory the idioiaatical senteQcei» at 
page 258, and following. In the mean time, it is proper he should write 
the exercises of the third part, beginning at page 271. Simply reading 
them will answer the same purpose with some pupils ; the discrimination 
must here be left to the judgment of the teacher. The time for composing 
letters is now come, first writing them in English, (but taking care to use 
only short and simple sentences,) and translating them into French, 
observing the parsing of ea(^ word, and never forgetting that the chief 
and fundamental rules of grammar are the same in all languages. 

I suppose the learner pretty well acquainted with the pronunciation by 
this time, and would advise him to read every day, aloud and slowly, a 
page or more of a French book ; it would be an advantage if he heard it 
read previously by a French person. This being strictly followed up, his 
ear would become accustomed to the sound of the language, and enable 
him to und^tand better when addressed in French. Let him remove 
his ^'mauvaise honte," and speak French whenever he can; and even 
supposing his mistakes may occasionally excite a smile, there is nothing to 
make him feel ashamed, for it would be unreasonable to expect him to 
speak a foreign language as correctly as he speaks his own. 

Pupils desirous of teaching themselves-^rand parents or teachers wishing 
to give instruction in French, but not feeling fully competent to the 
task — will do well to procure the Key to Le Brethon's Grammar, which 
contains excellent directions for their guidance. It may also be placed 
with advantage in the hands of those who. having already a knowledge of 
French, experience any difficulty in understanding grammatical construc- 
tion ; they may use it as a translating book, by which they will often 
learn the arrangement and agreement of words. 

A most important point in teaching, and one which cannot be too 
firequently dwelt upon, is that of studying the disposition and peculiar 
temperament of the pupil, and apportioning lessons accordingly ; as what 
we do with pleasure is invariably better done. Let the teacher be mild 
and encouraging : if he conciliate his pupils, his success will be by far 
greater than any exhibition of ill temper at their dulness or inattention 
could possibly produce ; gentle reasoning, "with patience and forbearance, 
mu&t ultimately succeed. At the same time, let the teacher remember, 



Xil DIRECTIONS. 

that his mildness must not degenerate into want of firmness ; he should be 
courteous, yet reserved— endeavouring to cultivate that regard which 
ought ever to exist in the relation of the pupil towards the master. 
Punctuality and regularity of attendance are most essentially requisite—- 
as well on the part of the learner, as on that of the teacher — ^and without 
these, only very unsatisfactory prog^ress can be expected. 

* It is not sufficient that young people have good books, a good method, 
and even a good master, if this master be unsupported by heads of schools 
and parents. A great evil existing in many scholastic establishments is, 
that pupils have no school time allowed for their French lessons ; they 
must learn them whenever they can — often, indeed, during their hours of 
recreation. It may be' naturally expected, therefore, that few of them do 
so with pleasure, because they regard the study of French as an encroach* 
ment on those hours which, they imagine, ought to be exclusively 
devoted to leisure. This is an evil which ouglit to be immediately 
remedied. 

An erroneous idea prevails with some persons that the study of French 
interferes with other studies: on the contrary, it is actually a great 
assistant. By learning the French grammar, the pupil must become 
more thoroughly acquainted with his own ; the parts of speech, as I have 
before observed, being essentially the same in all languages ; and different 
French words, in many instances, not only explain peculiar shades of one 
English word to which, otherwise, his attention would, perhaps, never 
have been attracted, but exhibit the real meaning and etymology of many 
other words derived from the French. Then, too, the pronunciation of a 
foreign language by making his organs more flexible, soften his articu- 
lation when pronouncing his mother-tongue. As, however, in learning 
languages, we do not confine ourselves to words only, but learn them con- 
nectedly to form sentences and express the ideas of the author we read, we 
must, necessarily, enlarge our minds by this repeated intercourse ^vith the 
works of genius. 

L. S. 



THE ALPHABET. 



1 HE FRENCH LANOUAQE is composed of twcnij/'Jive letters, viz 



A pron< 


ounccd ah like 


a in art. 


B 


bay 


6 


6ay. 


C 


say 


s 


«ay. 


D 


day 


d 


day. 


E 


ay 


a 


ale. 


F 


f 


f 


dea/. 


G 


zhay* 


1 




H 


ash 


h 


asA. 


I 


ee 


m 

I 


field. 


J 


zhee* 


1 




K 


kah 


C 


cart. 


L 


I 


I 


ell. 


M 


m 


m 


gem. 


N 


n 


n 


pen. 











old. 


P 


pay 


P 


jpay. 





ku 


1 




11 


, oyr 


r 


to err. 


s 


s 


8 


ble^^. 


T 


lay 


t 


bailor. 


U 


u 


9 




V 


vay 


V 


t?eil. 


X 


eeks 


X 


sir. 


Y 


ee-grayc 




the same sound lis t. 


Z 


zeyd 


2 


zed. 



These are the names l^y which the letters are called in french ; but in 
that language, as well as in the english, the sound of several of them 
varies according to their position with other letters, as will appear by the 
following^ observations.i 

* To giyc this letter its proper sonnd, tbe h must be pronounced aspirate. 

1 The sound of ^ and j, in english, is foiined of 4)! so general, jud^e, are pro- 
nounced general, djudge; leave out the sound of d in french, and you will have the 
proper sound. 

2 There is no word in the english language in which the sounds of the french q 
and u are to be found, and no combination of characters can give an idea of the 
pronunciation of these two letters. The person who has them to pronounce, must 
shut his lips quite close, leaving only a small opening in the middle, as if he were 
going to blow a flute. 

t It is perhaps unnecessary to observe, that in a treatise of this kind, the minutest 
precision must not be expected. There are simple sounds which no combination of 
characters can exactly express : every person who knows any thing of languages 
must be sensible of this. 



t 4E 



2 PRONUNCIATION 

OF VOWELS. 

The French reckon three sorts of vowels. 

Tlie simple, a, c, i, o, w. 

The compound, oz, ao, «!«, ea, coi, e«M, et, eu, eo, oe, ou. 

The nasal, 0771^ a/i, em^ en, im, in, aim, ain, ein, om, on, inn, vn 

OF SIMPLE VOWELS. 

a, e, I, 0, u, 

1 Each of these letters has two sounds common to both languages ; 

English wor^s in which the same sound is f omul 
One short, as a in natte, paw, a in pat, 

e hette, beet. e bet. 

i Jixe, fixed, i fix. 

o hotte, dorser, o hot. 

u mur, wall, u see note 2. 

The other long; as & in pctte, ^ paste, a in pall. 

£ bHe, I . beast, e bear. 

i fit, > marked ' 3 might do, i field. 



5 hdie, I lajTdlord,' o liope. 

ii mUr, J ripe, u see note 2 and 3. 

N. B. The beauty of french pronunciation depends upon a clear and distinct arti- 



2 To the two sorts of e abovementioned, must be added e mute, as in 

cela, that, pronounced sla. 

demande, requires, dmand. 

des mesures, measures, daymsur. 

This e, ah you see, has no sound, but it generally affects the sound ot 

the penultima, by rendering it longer, if it be a vowel, or by giving a 

sound to the consonant which, without it, would be silent ; for ex, 

6maim^, mascul. loved,ispronoun. aymay, like^i 

i joli, pretty, ZAoZ/i, 4 t>short. 

u rti, seen, vu, u) 

e in aimh, femin. loved, is pronoun, avmay^, like ^1 

i joUe, pretty, zholee, i Mong 

u vue, seen, vA, dj 

petit, mascul. little, is pronoun, p^t, see note 4. 

grand, great, gran, 

pris, taken, pree. 

but petite, femin. little, is pronoun, ptift. 

grande, great, grand, 

prise, taken, preez. 

In un bon chien, a good dog, the n has only a half sound. 

In une bonne chienne, a good bitch, the n has sl/uU sound, fi 

N. B. e mute is distinguishect from the two others, by its not being accented ; it is 
never pronounced at the end of words, but when e begins a word, it is always sounded 
whether it be accented or not. 



3 A vowel with a circumflex is pronounced as long again as it would be without it. 

4 Sound the liitter t as sharp as you can, sharper, if possible, than y in pretty, 

5 To give n its full articulation, you first press the tip of the tongue against the root 
of the luwer teeth, then raise it up quickly to the rooi of the mouth. In the pronun- 
ciation of the above nasal vowels, the articulation of n must end, when the tip of the 
tongue is at the root of the lower teeth, without any motion towards the roof cf the 
mouth ; this is what is here meant by a half sound. 



PRONUNCIATION 3 

OF SIMPLE VOWELS. 

In the monosyllables, je, me, fe, /c, «c, ccj de, ne, que, this c has some- S 
times a weak guttural sound, similar to that of e in dau^hter^ ngter^ 
because the consonant can fiot be pronounced without a feeble articu* 
lation of a vowel ; but it is always dropt in conversation and in familiar 
reading, when it can be done without embarrassing the pronunciation. 
The manner in which this is effected is easy. With the last syllable of 
the preceding word, pronounce the consonant to which e mute belongs, 
and the e^ thus unsupported, will remain silent ; ex. 

Quand me ferez^voos le plaisir de me prater ce livre que je vous ai demand^ ? 

pronounce, kam fraye vocl pUiyzeer dum praytays Uvr kwzh voozaifd mandof f 

But there must not be any pause between the words, and the junction 
must be as smooth as possible. 

Observe only, that a syllable ending in e mute, can not attract the 
consonant of another e mute, without giving to the first e a gentle gut- 
tural sound, like that of e in daughter, so as to render the pronunciation 
easy; ex. 

Je ne puis pas vous le dire, puis que je ne le sais pas. 

pron. zhen fmeepaw tool 4eer, pueesk zhen lugh say paw. 

But carefully avoid pronouncing it like an accented ^, for there is not 
any pronunciation more ridiculous.* 

Among the simple vowels is also reckoned y, which however does 4 
not increase their number, since its sound is the same as that of i. The 
peculiar use of this letter is to divide the syllable in which it is found, 
into two distinct syllables ; it is equivalent to ii ; as. 



pays. 


country, 


pron. 


p(ty-ee. 


cUoyen^ 


citlsen. 




citway-eeytn. 


soyona. 


let us be, 




swoy-eeon. 


joyeux. 


joyful, 




zhwoy-eeugh. 



Except in the words derived from the greek and latin, where y is kept 
to shew the etymology of the word, and is pronounced like one i only ; as, 

Egypte, E^ypt, ayzheept, 

tyramde, tyranny, teerarmee. 

etymologie, etymolofi^y, ayteemolozhee, 

mytkologie, mythology, meetolozhee. 



* In the pronouncing of this e consists much of the neatness and elegance of a true 
Trench accent. In the southern provinces of France, especially iuGuyenne and Gascogne, 
they pronounce it like the acnte or short k, which gives them thai affected pronun- 
ciation, so much ridiculed by the rest of the inhabitants of France, under the name of 
accent gascan. For tliis reason a foreigner will sooner understand a native o{ Bordeaux, 
than a native of Parts, and may often understand the former, without being able to 
understand the latter, though if he understands the latter, he will undoubtedly under- 
stand the former. It is the frequent dropping of this e which makes a foreigner believe 
that the French speak fast, for, in reality, tne French, taken in general, do not pro- 
nounce their wuras faster than other people do ; but by dropping this letter, they link 
two, three, or four words together, and so go quicker through a sentence than a fo- 
reigner does, who gives a full sound to every e he meets with. Foreigners should pay 
particular attention to this, as nothing is more difficult to get- rid of than a bad accent. 

n 2 



-u.- 



4 PRONUNCIATION 

OF COMPOUND VOWELS 

ai, ao, aUf ea, eai, eau^ et, eoy eu^ oe^ ou. 

Th:s sort of vowel is foraied by the association of several simple 
vowels, which produce together, a sound different from that which they 
produce separately. 

O at 



'. > sounded like k short, i. e. ay ; as. 



f'oi, 1 have, pronoance zhay. 

je unangeaif I ate, zhmanzhay, 

5 tti-^i ^ sounded like ^ long, i. e. aye; as, 

aie^ I j^avaisy I had, zhavc^e. 

aient, > J'a««» I n^ay i^ave. rAacy 

• / t^ aient, they may have, eel-z-aye. 

. ' I j^^ mangeais, I was eating, zhmanzhaye, 

eaient, ) iu nagcaient, they were swimming, ed nazhaye. 

^ ao, found only in aoilt, august ; toon, oxfly ; faony fawn ; paon, peacock. 

pronounced oow, ton, fan, pan, (see nasal vowels.) 

^'* > final, sound like o short, or au, in laurel; as, 

eau, water o. 

peau, skin, ;)o. 

8 a2£, 1 followed by a consonant in the same word, sounded like 6 

eau, J long, or au in hautboy ; as, 

eaux, waters, d. 

aiifoiU, as much, ttan, 

9 <?a, the e has no sound, but gives g the soft sound of ^', or zh ; as, 

jean, John, sAan. 

mangea, ate^ maiiz^. 

10 ^'> pronounced like ei in reigrn ; or ai in ram ; as, 

reine, queen rain, 

peine, pain, pain. 

1 1 ^0, in geo, the e has no sound, but softens that of g into zh; as, 

george, ^eorge, zhorzh, 

gedUer, jailer, zMleeai/. 

12 w» the nearest idea which I can give of cm, is that of c, in her, agree- 
ably to Walker s pronunciation of that word, viz. hur. 

feu, fire, feu, 

peu, little, peu. 

N. B. e has no sound in the monosyllables, 
e«i, eus, euJt, edmes, eCtes, eurcnt, eusse, had ; pronounce u, H, u, Hm, Ht, ur, uss. 

13 o^> pronounced c; the o having no sound; and the words in which it 

was found formerly being now generally spelled without it ; as, 

caw, heart, keur. 

oeuvres, works, euvr, 

14 on, pronounced like oo in cooky hooky look; as, 

coup, blow, hoo. 

bout, end, boo, 

15 N. B. If one of the vowels is accented, or marked over with two dots (••), 

the vowels form distinct syllables, and are pronounced separately ; as, 

Jliau, scourge, flay-o. 

ndireti. ingenuousness, na-ivtay. 




PRONUNCIATION O 

OF NASAL VOWELS. 

amy an, em, en, im, in, aim, ain, ein, ofn on, um, un, 

have all the same sound, thai of en in encore, or an in want, ob- 1 G 
serving to g^ve the n only a half sound ; See note 5. 

ambition, ambition, anbisecon 

empire, empire, anpeer. 

en/ant, child, _ an/an. 

anglais, englisli, angUtye. 

vengeance, revenge, vanzhance, 

vmement, ornament, omum-an, 

en has the sound of en in when, giving n only a half sound ; See note 5. 17 

1, In foreign names ; as, 

mentor, mentor, mentor, 

2. At the end of words ; as, 

examen, examination, egzamen, 

hien^ well, beeyen. 

entretitti, conversation, antrut^ycn. 

N. B. ent has no sound at the end of the third person plural of IS 
verbs ; as, 

t75 eurent, they had, eel z-ur, 

iUfurent, they were, eel fur. 

ils aim^ent, they loved, eel-zaymayr, 

have all the same sound, a sound similar to that of in in fine, 19 
giving n only a half sound ; See note 5. 

inmarfait, imperfect, ineparfay. 

iiymi, infinite, inefini. 

cou^H, consin, fiMUi;. comane, 

fin, end, fine, 

faim, hunger, fine, 

pain, bread, pine, 

sein, boson), sine. 

But if 271, either in the first or last syllable of a word, is followed by a 20 
vowel, it is sounded like the english preposition iri; as, 

inaccessible, inaccessible, inaksessible. 

inutile, useless, inutil. 

fine, fine, fin. 

cousine, cousin, /^mtn. coozin. 

badine, playful, bad-in. 

'^' I are sounded like on in wont, observing always to give n only a 21 
^'*' I half sound ; See note 5. 

compter, to coant, contay, 

doiyon, dungeon, don-zAon. 

pigeon, pigeon, peezkon. 

mangeons, let us eat, man-zkon. 

N. B. The English are apt to open their mouths too much in pmnouncing on, by 
which means, instead of sounding it like on in wont, they sound it like an in umnt. 
'Jliey should guard ag-ainst this. 

um, \ have all the same sound ; but no exact idea can be given of it, 22 
un, > unless it be that of un in fungus ; observing not to give n its 
eun, J full sound ; See note 5. 

parfum, perfume, parfun. 

chacun, each, shak-un. 

Ajeun, fnstinfir, azhun. 




6 



PRONUNCIATION 



OF DIPHTHONGS. 



\ 



23 Diphthongs are a union of several vowels, which, though they produce 
^ different sounds, are pronounced at the same breath ; 



•) 
I 



ia, sounded like ya in yard, ex.' fiacre. 



«<•» 
\au, 

Uu, 

iou, 

iarUA 

ient, j 

ten, 

ion, 

oe 

€ue 

em 

oin 

oitan 

ouen 

oua, 

out 

ua, ' 

ve, 

«», 
uin 



■■■] 



ve 
yo 


york. 
yoke. 


you 


yon. 


yan, 




yen, 
yon. 




whey 


whey. 



woa, 

tvoin, 

wan want. 



tra 
wi 



water, 
without. 



In pronouncing this u 
Y shut your lips as direct- 
ed in note 2. 



J' 



pied, 

fiofe, 

tmmler, 

dieu, 

chiourme, 

priant, 

paiient, 

bien, 

actum, 

bolfie, 

fouet, 

moi, toif 

bourgeois, 

soin, 

huange, 

rouen, 

louage,^ 

oui, r^oui, 

nuage^ 

'ecuelle, 

hii, fruit, 

juin, 



hackney-coach, 

foot, 

vi»l, 

to meWy 

god, 

a galley crew, 

prayingj 

patient, 

well, 

action, 

box, 

whip, 

I, thou, 

burgess, 

care, 

praise, . 

rouen, 

hiring, 

yes, rejoiced, 

dtoud, 

porringer, 

him, fruit, 

June, 



feeyacr, 

pee-ay, 

feeol. 

meeolav. 

dee-vgh, 

sheeoorm. 

preeyan. 

pawceeyan. 

beeyen. 

akseeyon. 

bwheyt, 

fwhey. 

mwoa, twoa. 

boorzhwoa. 

suMiin. 

Iwanzh, 

rwan. 

hcoih, 

we, rayziucee, 

nuaih. 

aykuayl. 

lui^frui, no. 4. 

zkuine. 



6 To remove the embarrassment which learners find in the pronunciation of ot. which 
is sometimes pronounced like the diphthong oi, and sometimes like the coropouna vowel 
at, iu words which are entirely similai*, 1 have through all this work spelled with ot 
the words which are pronounced woay and with at, those which are pronounced ay. 
It will perhaps be argued that this is contrary to the opinion of the french academy. 
I respect the opinion of the french academy, as much as any man can do, when it is 
consonant to reason ; but the opinion of no man, let his rank apd talents be ever so 
eminent, nor of any corporation of men, however pompous their afppellation may be, 
can be put in competition with reason. Now is it reasonable that two sounds so very 
different should be expressed by one sign ; exposing the learner to innumerable mis- 
takes, when by the mere change of a single letter, another sign can so easily be 
formed, which removes every difficulty ? The following words, for instance, are given 
to a foreigner to pronounce, or even to a native of France, who never heard them pro- 
nounced before : 

Francis, dano\$, su&doia, chino'is, bourgeois, chamois, /oi. paroisse,perfo\t, &•€. 
Frangois, anglois, hoUandois, japonois, bougeois, charmois, foible, paroisse, pevfoit, efc. 

The stranger is told how to pronounce the words in the first line ; he pronounces 
them well ; he goes on confidently to the second line, naturally thinking that the same 
letters ought to produce the same sound : what must his astonishment be, when he is 
tuld that oi in the words contained in the second line is pronounced quite differently 
from what it is in the words contained in the first, the first being pronounced troa,and 
the second ay ; and how much greater will his surprise be still, when he finds that 
even in the same word such as voyoi«, croyois, ^c. (see rule 4) ot has two diflferent 
sounds, the first syllable being pronounced woa and the second ay* And have you 
no means, the stranger will say, of removing this insuperable difficulty? Yes. we 
have, and a very easy one too ; you have only to chans^e o into a in the words which 
are to be pronounced ay, and the whole difficulty will vanish ; but the french aca> 
demy do not approve of it. Oh ! never mind the french academy, the stranger will 
say. Nor do the French, it seems, mind it much, for these great censors of the lan- 
guage have the mortification to see that, in almost every book now printed in France, 
this diphthong is spelled contrary to their arrogant and unreasonable decision. In 
vain they will say that at does not express the exact sound that we wish to express ; 
if it removes a great difficulty, if nothm^ better is oflTered. if it is the best reprcseuta* 
tive of this sound that we can find, and is a sign which nobody can mistake, we must 
be satisfied with it, till the french academy deign to favour us with a better. — (Set 
Dictionnaire PhihtophiqKf, art. A.) 



PRONUNCIATION 



OF CONSONANTS. 

General Rules, 

The french language admits of two modes of pronunciation : oiie for 
poetry and oratory, the other for (fonversation. 

In repeating verses^ and in oratorical discourses, the Jinal consonant ^ * 
of a word is generally sounded, when the word which follows it begins 
with a vowels or h mute ; as, 

D'unpinceau delicat, V artifice agr'eable, 
Du plus afreux ol^et^fait un objet aimable. 
Ds8 dons exlirieurs VtodformiU lus^e, 
Mais Cesprit a toujours une nouveUe grace. 

The above lines must be read in the following manner ; 
• Dun paineso daylika lartifice agrayable, 

Duplut'offrevL-z-obzhayfaif't-un'Oozhay't-aymable. 
Day don-zextayrieur luni^onnitay lasa. 
May layspri-t-a toozhoor-z-un noavayl grass. 

In conversation, the ear alone being consulted, opinions greatly differ. ^^ 
Some are for sounding the final consonant of every word, when the word 
which follows it begins with a vowel ; others, and this seems to be the 
opinion of the best informed persons, maintain that the final consonant of 
a word should be sounded on the initial vowel of the next, only when 
the two words are so connected that the second word is necessary to 
complete the sense ; such as, 



Article and noun ; 
tm errant, 
eet hiver, 
d son (ige, 
les arises, 
des hommes, 

Adjective before the noun ; 
ben outrage, 
grand espace, 
petit homme, 
gros oiseau, 
beaux habits. 

Pronoun with the verb, and verb with the pronoun; 

il est, he is, 

est-U 1 is he ? 

sont-elles 7 are they ? 

nous avotis, we have, 

you have some, 
nave they got them ? 



a child, 
this winter, 
at his a^e, 
the artihces, 
of men, 

good work, 

f^reat space, 
ittle man, 
large bird, 
fine clothes, 



vous en avez, 
les ont-ils 7 



u n-at^an, 
s-t-cevayr, 
d so-n&zh, 
lay-z-art\fiss, 
day-z-om. 

bo-n-oovrazh. 

gran-t-ay^ass 

vti-t-om.{7) 

frd-Z'Owyzo, 
dz-abee. 



t'U-aye. 
oye-t-il 7 
son-t-ell7 
noO'Z-avon. 
voo-z-an- avaye 
lay-z on-t-eel' 



Preposition with the noun, pronoun, or verb that follows it ; 



snna amis, without friends, 

avee elle, with her, 

en allant, in going, 

■chez eux, to their house, 

apris avoir, after having, 

Adverb before the adjective or participle ; 

bien hnnnSte, very honest, 

plus hfibile, more clever, 

tr^-aimable, very lovely, 

fort utile, very useful, 

trop *gnorant, too ignorant, 

N. B. There are a few other instances in which a final consonant 
may be sounded on the following vowel, but they can hardly be reduced 

(7) ^V'e Ronnd tbe final consonant of an adjective upon a noon, but not the final consonant of a noun 
npon an adjective ; so, though 
petit enfant^ is pronounced pti-t anfan. 

enfant aimable could not be prononnced anfan-t-aymable^ bnt anfan nymahle. 



sitn-z-amee, 

atayk-elL 

an-allfin, 

shay-z-ugh, 

apray-z-arour 

beeyen-onayt 

plu-z-ah-btU. 

tray-z-aymable 

for-t'UttlU 

irO'P'inyoran. 



8 PRONUNCIATION 

OF CONSONANTS. 

General Rules, 

to rules, as it chiefly depends on the number of letters of the same sound 
that follow one another. The surest way for a foreigner is to confine 
himself to the general rules which apply to nine-tenths of the words the 
final consonant of which is to be sounded on the following vowel. The 
rest must be learned from the conversation of well informed persons.* 

^^ The foregoing instances excepted, the final consonant of words, in 
general, has no sound in french. See the particular rules for consonants 
under their respective heads. 

Ill ■ I I ■■ ■ ■ M ' ■ ■ 

« 

* As in music, it is the diversity of sounds that produces melody ; so it is with 
languages. The union of the final consonant of some words, to the initial vowel of 
the word which follows them, being done to disencumber the language of too great 
a number of monosyllables, and to render it more mdodious by a greater variety of 
sounds ; the rule given by soine persons, that every word ending with a consonant 
should be joined to the following word, when it begins with a vowel, is totally erro- 
neous, and produces the very effect which this union is intended to remove. It is true, 
that in reading verses, the final consonaht is generally joined to the following vowel, 
to preserve the measure of the verse ; and, inpublic speeches, the consonants are 
also often sounded at the end of words, to give a stronger impulsion to the air, and 
to be heard at a greater distance ; but in familiar reading, ana in conversation, this 
is carefully avoided by all unaffected people. 

If any authority be necessary to support what I advance here, I trust that oiVabbt 
d*Olivetf one of the most distinguished members of the french academy, will be sufid- 
cient to convince every man of candour, since it implies the opinion of the most en- 
lightened part of that bod v. This philosophical grammarian, in his treatise on french 
prolsody, (a work which has been, and ever will be the admiration of the learned,) 
before he speaks of the effect which certain nasal terminations have in repeating 
verses, remarks, art. 3. parag, 5 

Je commence par dire que cette observation ne regarde point ceux qui ^crivent en prose, 
car la prose sov^re les hiatus f pourvu qu'ils tie soient, ni trop rudeSy ni trop frequents. 
Us cantribuent m^me H donner au discours ttn certain air naturel, et nous voyons en ^et 
que la co^persation des honnetes gens est pleine d'hiatus volontaires qui sont tcUement 
autorisis par I'usage, que si Von parloit autrementy cela seroit d'un pMant, ou d'un provin- 
cial. Par exempUy lorsqu^un acteur rScite ces vers de la premij^e scene dAthaliCy Je viens 

c^l^brer avec vous la fameuse journ6e, &c, Pensez-vous ^tre saint ? il protwnce 

comine s'U yavoit; C^16br6-r-avec vous pensez-vou-z-^tre« Mais dans la simple 

conversation, I'usage veut qu*on prononoe comme s*il y avoity c616br6 avec vous — pensez- 

vou dtre, &c. And art. 2, he says On le croira si Von veut ; au moins est-it certain 

qiCau thi&tre ce n*est pas chose rare qu^un acteur, et surtout une actiice dont les talents somt 
admir'es fasse adopter un mauvcds accent, une prononciation irr'egidiere, d'oU naissent insen- 
siblement des traditions locales qui se perpitnent, si personne n^est aitentif d les combattre* 
These are the words of a man, for whose opinions the french academy had the great- 
est deference ; a man who, at their request, had made this subject one of his parti- 
cular studies, and who had consulted upon it, as he himself declares, all the men of 
taste and learning'with whom he was acquainted ; and they never were contradicted, 
but by persons, who, being fond of appearing singular, affect in conversation the em- 
phatic tone of the stage, without considering whether they are speaking prose or 
verse, (most of the frencn plays are in verse J or by those who, looking upon singu* 
larity as au accomplishment, mimic their ridiculous affectation. 

Dans une nation qui est une par rapport au gouvemementy U ne pent y avoir dans sa ma- 
nikre de parler qvCun usage UgilimCy celui de la cour et des gens de lettres, d. qui elle doit des 
encouragements; tout autre usage qui s^en^carte dans la prononciation, dans Us termi- 
naisoHSy ou de queUju^autre fagon que ce pmsse etre, ne fait ni une langue, ou un idi&me 
d. party ni un dialecte de la langue nationale ; c^est un patois ahandonne d. l<t populace des 
provinces, et chaque province a le sien. Girard synon. frauQ. ait, Langue, iJingage, ^c 

f By hiattis is meant a broken sound. 



PRONUNCIATION 



9 



OF CONSONANTS* 

Particular Rules, 
B 

6 is sounded at the end of proper names ; as, 

job^ joD, pronounce zkah, 

Jacob, Jacob, zhakob. 

At the end of common names b is found only in 
plomb, lead, pron. pUm. 

radoub, refitting, radoob, 

C 

This letter has two sounds common to both languages. 

1 . That ofk as in case, pronounced kase, 

2. That of « as in cease, sease. 

c before a, o, u, has the sound of k, 

cay ka, car, for, kar, 

CO, ko, cour, yard, koor. 

cUfkti, calotte, breeches, kulot. (u, see note 2.) 

c before e, i, or before a, o, u, with a cedilla, this mark {f) under it; 

has the sound of s ; as, 

fa, sa, facade, front, fasad, 

ety se, ceder, to yield, payday, 

ci, si, ceci, this, seec. (t, see note 4.) 

fo,so, gargon, boy, garson, 

fM, su, refu, received, rsu, («, see note 2.) 

c final is generally sounded, and has the sound of k ; as, 
' avec, with, avayk. 

public, public, pubieek. {Uf see note 2.) 

except the following words, in which c final has no sound ; 
broc, pore, clerc, unmare, blanc, franc, jonc, ironc, almanac, estomac, tabac. 
ajug, pork, clerk, 8 ounces,white,frank, rush, trunk,almanack, stomach, tobacco 
pron.oi'o, par, clayr, mar, hUm, fran^* zkon, tron, abnana, aystoma, taha, 

cc, before e, i ; the first c has the sound of k, the second that of s ; as, 
succis, success, suksaye. 

accident J accident, akseedan. 

Before a, o, u; cc liave only one sound, that ofk; as. 



accabler. 



1 



akablay. 

akonpieer. 

akusay. (m, see note 2.) 



pron. 



to crush, 
accomplirf to accomplish, 

accuser, to accuse, 

ch, generally pronounced sh ; as, 

chirurgien, surgeon, sheeruzheyen. 

architecle, architect, arsheefayct. 

ch has the sound of k in the following words ; 

Christ, Chretien, ehoriste, archange, archestre, chroni^ue, chronologic, 

Christ, christian, chorister, archangel, orchestre, chronicle, chronology. 

ukrist, krayieeyen, koreest, arTcanzIi, orkaystf, kroneek, h-onolozhee, 

D 

d final has no sound ; as, 

froid, cold, fricoy, 

chaud, hot, show, 

except^t the end of a word which is pronounced at the same breath with 

another word beginning with a vowel, then d has the sound of t ; as, 
apprend'il'/ doeshelcarn? apran-t-eeif 

quaiui il vient, when he comes, kan-t-cel vieyen. 

d, or even dd, in the body of a word, is sounded :< as, 
adjectif, adjective, adjecteef, 

addition, addition, addeeseeon. 



• c, in the adjectives blanc and franc^ followed by a noun beginning with a vowel, 
has the sound of k; as. Dm blanc au noir, pronounce du blan-k-o-noir, Frtmc itourdi, 
pron. fran k-aytoordee, (i, sec note i,^ 



10 PRONUNCIATION 

OF CONSONANTS 

F 

j final is generally sounded ; as, 

chef^ chief, sAaj/. 

«er/j sinew, nayrf, 

haufy ox, 6ufi/. 

flPM/, egg, u^. 

cxcppt in defy key, ctoy. 

6011/5, oxjeo, 6i2Wi. 

a>M/5, egg8, (Jg-A. 

and if pronounced at one &rea^A with a word beginning with a consonanf, 
chef'd'aunre. master-piece, ahaydi'ugvrei 

nerf de bonify cow-skm, a rod, mtyr d bvgf. 

bocufsaUj salt beef, bushsaUiy, 

mtffrais^ new egg^ ughfraye. 

^ / is sounded in neiff at the end of a sentence ; as, 

j'en ai neufy I have got nine, zhan-ay nugf. (fu, s. rale 12. ^ 

un liobit nei{f, a new suit, un-abee nugf, 

joined to a noun beginning with a consonant, y* has no sound ;. as, 

neufUvreSy nine livres, nu^A ^rtr. (^u, see rule 12.) 

dix^neuf sow, nineteen pence, dees nugh soo, 

joined to a noun beginning with a vowel, /* has the sound of v; as, 
^ neuficus, nine crowns, nugh-v-aykdL, (ti, see n. 2.) 

vingt-ne^if hrnnmesy twenty-nine men, vyngtnugf'Vom, 

G 

^ g final has no sound ; as, 

long, long. Urn. (ouy see rule 21.) 

«'»"^' 1?'°"^' f^»» I (aw, see rule 16.) 

rangy rank, rtiny J ^ * ' 

_^ except in long acch, long fit, longaksey, 

sang et eaUy blood and water, sank- ay o. 

de rang en rangy from rank to rank, drunk-an ran, 

g before e, «, has the soft sound of zh, or s in pleajiurey or 2 in azure, 
gey zliay, gin^ral, general, zhaynayral, 

giy zhefy gigoty log of mutton, zku^ego, 

g before a, o, », has the hard sound of ^ in god; as, 

gfh g<h garfony boy, garson, (on, see rule 21.) 

goy go, gorge, throat, gorzh. 

g^h g^j gu6rxry to cure, gayreer, 

- N. B. ^ form only one sounds that of ^ hard; as, 
gutrir, to cure, gayreer. 

guerrcy war, gayrr. 

guide, guide, ghied, 

^ except the following words, in which gii have each a dUtinct sound ; 
aiguiUe, ai^Ulony atguisery arguery cigu'ey aigWBy ambiguey ambiguity. 
needle, stmg, to whet, toargue,hemlock,sharp,ambiguous,ambigui(y. 
pron, aygueeUyaygueaUonyaygueesayyarguayy seegHy aygdy anbeegHy ambeegueetay 

gna, sound gnya, ] 

£7i^> gnye, I observing to sounds the n as much as possible 

gniy gnyiy [ through the nose ; as, 

gnoy gnyoy J 

campagnardy countryman, kanpagnyar. 

accompagniy accompanifd, akmpagnay, 

compagniey company, konpagnee, « 

ignorant ignorant, eegnyoran. 



PRONUNCIATION 



u 



OF CONSONANTS 

There are two sorts of h both in french and in eng^lish ; the one aspi- 

rate^ which requires an effort of the breath ; as, 

tUroSf hero, hayrow, 

hasardf hazard. hazar» 

the other mute, which has no sound, and serves only to shew the ety 

mology of the word ; as, 

hotmeur^ honour, anhur, (eu, see rale 12.) 

hiatoiref history, eesttcoyr, 

S. B. These two sorts ofh are often embarrassing to the learner ; they are marked 
in dictionaries, bat one should always bear some characteristic mark in writing. The 
k mute that occurs through the subjoined exercises will be preceded by an apostrophe. 



cA, pronounced sh ; as, 
chat, 
chose, 

ph, pronounced f; as, 
phrase, 
philosophe, 

rh, sounded r ; as, 
rh^torique, 
rhume, 

ih, sounded t ; as, 
thomas, 
m^thode. 



cat, 
thing. 



sentence, 
philosopner, 

rhetoric, 
cold, 

thomas, 
method, 



sha, (see c.) 
shoz. 



fraz. 
feelasof. 



raytoreeck. 

rhugm, (ti, see note 2.) 



tomaw, 
maytod. 



I 



J, pronounced zh, or like 8 in pleasure, leisure, or « in azure ; as, 

jttrdin, garden, zhardine. {in, sei* rub? 19.) 

jour, day, zhoor. 

K 

k, the same sound in french as in english ; as, 

kan, kan, kan. (an, see rale IG.) 

Stockholm, sto<:kholm, itokobn* 



I final is g^enerally sounded ; as, 
ael, salt, 

Jil, thread, 

cheval, horse. 



sayh 

feeL (t, see note 4.; 

skcaL 



except 6arii, chenil, coutU, fusil, fenil, fits, gril, ouHl,percilj mmrcU, sodl. 

barrel , kennel, ticking,gun, hayloft, son, gridiron, tool, parsley,eyebrow,drunk. 
Dron. baree, shnee, kootee, fiaee^fnee, fee, gree, ootee,persee, soorsee^ ioo, 

L In the pronouns il, il», gome sound the I in all instances ; others 

sound it only when it is followed by a vowel ; opinions being divided, / in 

t/. Us, followed by a consonant, may either be pronounced or dropt ; as, 
il a, he has, eel-a, 

il dit, he says, eel dee, or ee dee, (t, s. n. 4.) 

ils ont, they ha?e, eel-zon, or eez-on. 

Us disentf ^hey say, eel deez, or ee deet. 

In conversation / is not sounded in 

quelque^ some, knyk. 

qiieuju^un, somebody, kaykun, 

U, in general are both sounded the same as in english ; as, 
allif^orie, allegory, al-laygoree, 

iUustre^ illastrious, illustr, (u, see note 2.) 

But U pr?ceded by i in .the middle, and at the end of words, must 



c 



12 



PRONUNCIATION 



OF CONSONANTS. 



be sounded like ill in the word miUion; as, 



X 



also il in 



pteilleur, 

OouteiUe 

famiUey 

haiaiUej 

avril, 

babil, 
travailf 
soleilj 
gentil homtne, 



belter, 

bottle, 

family, 

battle, 

april, 

peril, 

prattling, 

labour, 

sun, 



meylhttr. 

hooteyll, 

fameeU. 

baiauUU 

avrcelL 

payreeU. 

babeel. 

travauiU. 

soleyll, 

zhanteeUom. 



(and all words 
lending in aiL 



nobleman, 

except the foUpwing words, in which one I only is sounded ; ^ 

argille, distille, imb^ciUe, miUe, ville, pupiUe, tranquiUe* 

clay, distil, imbecile, thousand, town, pupil, quiel 
liTon. arzheel, deestecl, inebayceel, meel, veel, pupeel, trankeei, 

M 

772, at the end of a word, and in the first syllable of words beginning 
with com, has only the half sound of n. See note 5. 



/aim, 


hunger, 


fine, (in, see rule 19.) 


nom. 


name, 


non. (onf see rule 21.) 


compliment. 


compliment. 


conpleeman, (jan, rule 16.) 


m has no sound in 






damnery 


to damn, 


dawnay ; and derivatives. 


solemnelf 


solemn. 


solaneL 


automne, 


autumn, 


dton. 


but m has a full sound in 






automnal, 


autumnal, 


dtomnaL 


mnnistw. 


amnesty, • 


amneestee. 


caUmnie, 


slander. 


calomnee. 


hymne, 


hymn. 


heemn. 


indemniser, 


to indemnify. 


inedamneesay. 


indannite, 


indemnification. 


inedamnceiay. 


agam£mnonj 


agamemnon. 


agamemnon. 


somnambule. 


sleep-walker, 


somnanbul, (see note 2.) 


mm, only one sound ; as, 






hommCy 


man. 


om. 


femme, 


woman, 


fam. 


except in the first syllable 


of the words beginning with imm; as. 


immnrtel, 


immortal. 


im-mmi:aifl. 


immense. 


immense. 


im-manss. 



N 
What has been said of m may be applied to w. 

n, at the end of a word, or in the first syllable of words beginning 
with con, has only a half sound. See note 5. 



pain, 

vin, 

condition, 

nn, only one sounded. 
ann6e, 
connakre, • 



bread. 



wine 



?. 



condition, 



year, 
to know, 



H^i* 1 (in, s. rule 19.) 
oondeeseeon, {on, rule 21.) 



anaye, 
conaytr. 



except the following words, in which nn are both sounded ; 
annotation, annotation, an-notasseon, 

annueU annual, an-nuel ; and derivatives. 

annuUi, to annul, an-niday 

inn£, innate, in-nay, 

innoter, to innovate, tit not'ajy ; and derivatives. 



I 
PRONUNCIATION 13 

OF CONSONANTS. 

P 

p final is not sounded, even when il is followed by a vowel ; as 

mi Imp, a wolf, un loo. (u. seo note 2.) 

ce drop eH bon, this cloth is good, sdra aye oon» 

except in cap, cap^ cap. 

cep, stock of a vine, sayp, 

p in trop and beaucoup, joined to a word beginning with a vowel, is 

sounded; as, 

trop entet^f too obstinate, tro-p-antaytay, 

beoiicoup ^tudid, much studied, bokoo-p-aytudeeay, 

followed by a word beginning with a consonant, p has no sound ; as 
irop shtpidcy too stupid, iro stupeed, (u, see n. 2.) 

beaucoup d'qf aires, much business, bokoo duffayr, 

p is sounded in 

baptismal, sceptique, September, septentrion, accepter, excepter. 

baptismal, seeptick, septembre, north, to accept, to except, 

pron. bapteesmal, saypteech, sayptanbr, sayptantreeon, a/tsayptay, cksayptay. 

but p is not sounded in 

oapthne, cotnpte, exempt, prompts manuscript, sept, temps, 

baptism, account, exempt, quick, manuscript, seven, time, 

pron. bataym, contf egzan, pron, manuscree, sayt, tan, 

pp, one only sounded ; 

apparence, a])pearance, aparans^i. 

appartenir, to belong, apartneer, 

ph, sounded y*; as, 

sphere, sphere, s/ayr, 

phUosophie, pnilosophy, feelosqfee. 

Q 

q final is found only in coq and cinq ; 

q is sounded, and has the sound ofk in 

coq, cock, cok. 

coq ii Vdne, idle talc, coh a lawn* 

but it is not sounded in 

coq d'inde, turkey-cock, co dynd. (in, see rule 19.) 

q in cinq substantive, is sounded k ; as, 

nn cinq de pique, a five of spades, un synk dpeeck- 

H cinq pour cent, at five per cent, a synk poor san. 

trois et deuxfotU cinq, three and two are five, troa-z-ay dughfon synk, 

in cinq, prefixed to a noun, and pronounced at the same breath with 

it, q is sounded if the noun begins with a vowel ov h mute; as, 

ctft^ hammes, five men, synk om. (in, s. rule 10.) 

vingt'cinq 6cus, twenty-five crowns, vyngt synk aykQ. 

if the noun to which cinq is prefixed, begins with a consonant, q is not 

sounded ; as, 

cinqgarcons, five boys, sine karson.\f . „. , -„ % 

cinqyUl^, five girls. sinefeelL ](^«fi^ru\el9,) 

qu has only one sound, that of k; -as» 

qui, who, kee. (i,'see note 4.) 

quatre. four, katr, 

quaUte, qvialiiy, kaleetay, 

marquis, marquis, tnarkee, 

except the following words, in which qu are pronounced kto : as in 
english : 

aqnuttique^iquateur, quadrature, quadruple, quadrupede, quadragenaire,' quarto, 

aquatic, equator, quadrature,qnadruple,quadrupea, forty years old, quarto 

pron. ahcateek, aykwater, kwadratur, Kwadruple, kicadrupayd, kivadrazhaynayr, kwarto. 



V 



14 PRONUNCIATION 

OF CONSONANTS. 

R 

r is sounded at the end of all words ; as, 

coTy for, because, kar. 

poWy for, pour, 

parvenir, to arrive, parvneer. 

except the words ending in er or ier^ of more than one syllable, in whicti 

the r has no sound, but it gives to e the sound of ^ shorti i« e. ay ; as 
aimer, to love, aytnay. 

icoliei'f scholar, aykoleeav, 

and in monsieur^ sir, tnoseeugh, 

r is not sounded in noire, voire, quatre, joined to a noun beginning 

with a consonant ; as, 

notre maison, our house, jiot mayzm* {on, rule 21.) 

voire cliapeau, ^^^^ ^^^t ^^^ shapo. 

quatre Uvres, four livres, kat leevr. 

but r is sounded when notre, voire, quaire, are joined to a noun begin- 
ning with a vowel ; as, 

notre ami, our friend, ^lotr-amee, 

votre honneur, your honour, voti^-onhur. (eu, see rule 12.) 

quaire Sous, four crowns, hatr-aykd, 

and in notre p^e, our father, notr-payr, lord's prayer. 

notre dame, our lady, notr-dam, virgin mary. 

r is always sounded in 

le ndtre, ours, Inowtr, 

le vttre, yours, Icowtr, 

rr, only one is sounded ; as, 

arriver, to arrive, areevay, 

arroser^ to water, arozay, 

except in the first syllable of the words beginning with irr; as, 
hrSgulur, irregular, ir-raygtdeeay. 

irr^prodiabk, irreproachable, ir-rayprosfvwL 

S 
This letter has two sounds common, to both languages, the first hard 
or aspirate, like c soft ; as, 

somme, sum, sum, 

the other soft or liquid; like z ; as, 

rose, rose, roze* 

5, at the beginning of a word, or in the body of a word, when it is pre- 
ceded or followed by a consonant, is always pronounced hard or aspirate, 

-as, 

salut, safety, salu. (u, see note 2.) 

souper, supper, soopay, 

personne, nobody, payrson* 

s, between two vowels in the body of a word, or at the e7id of a word, 
which is to be pronounced at Ihe same breath with another word begin- 
ning with a vowel, has the sound of z ; as, 

raison, reason, rayson. (on, see rule 21.) 

plaisir, pleasure, pUtyzeer, 

trois heureh, three hourS) troa-z-hur. 

mes en/ants, my children, may-z-a?t/cin. {an, rule 16.) 

in other instances, sjinal has no sound ; but renders the syllable long ; 
trouvas-iu'J didst thou find? troovaw tu'/ (U, see n* 2^ 

tes amis, thy friends, taye-z-amee, 

revenus, retumed| rughvnL{&ee note 2.) 

except at the end of greek and latin names which have been adopted 



PRONUNCIATION 
OF CONSONANTS. 

in the freiich language ; as, 



15 



pdris, pans, the trtgauy 
v^usf venus, 

also in as, ace. 


pawreess, 
vayfotSi 
tnars* 
ass. 


visy screw, 
lis, lily, 
abes, aluos, 
mars, inarch, 
but not in fteur de hi, flower de lace, 


veess. 
leess. 
aloaps. 
marce* 
fiithr dlee. 


S3 have only one sounds but always aspirate 


; as. 


assurer, to assure, 
ressentir, to resent. 


asuray. (u, see note 2.) 
rsanteer 


sc before e, i, have only one sound, that of* 


aspirate; as. 


sceptique, sceptif-k, 
science, science, 


saypteeck. 
seeanss. 


9c before a, o, n, I, r, have the sound of sk ; 


as, 


scandale, scandal, 


skandal. 


gascon, gascon, 
scorbut, scurvy, 
sculpteur, scuiptor, 
esclave, slave, 
scrupttle, scruple, 


gaskon. 

skorbu. (tt, see note 2.) 

skulptur, 

ausklav. 

skrupul, (n, see note 2. 



T 

t has two sounds, both found in satiety, pronounced society. 

t at the beginning of words has the same sound in french as in englisli, 

table, ^ table, tabl. 

tiimdU^, timidity, teemeedeetay. 

in the body of a word t followed by i, has generally the sound of c; 

patieTue, patience, pawceeanss, 

action, action, akceeon. 

except the following words, in which t retains its own sound ; 

bastion, question, partie, matiere, iiions, 4tiez, sortions, sortlez, entier. 
bastion, question, part, matter, were, were, went out, went out, entire 
pron. basleeon, kaysteeon, partee, mateeayr, ayteeon, ayteeaye, sorteeon, sorteeaye, anteeay 

ewtiirement, chr^tien, ehrHientS, aouHe/n, entretien, ilretient. 
entirely, christian, Christendom, support, maintenance, he retains, 
pron. anteeayrman, crayteeyen, krayteeantay, sooieeyen, antrughteeyen, U rughteeyen, 

and the words ending in tik, and tier ; as, 



amJti6, 


friendship. 


ameeteeay. 


chAtier, 


to chastise, 


shawteeay. 


t final is not sounded ; 


as, 




tout. 


all. . 


too. 


Uest, 


it IS, 


eel aye. 


fait. 


done. 


fay. 


except in est, ouest, 


east, west, - 


ayst, west. 


Ust, dot 


ballast, dower. 


layst, dot. 


brut, correct. 


rough, correct, 


brut, corrayct. 


unfatfUnsot, 


a fop, a fool, 


unfat, un'sot. 


pact, exact. 


pact, exact. 


pact, egzact. 



and when it ends a word which must be pronounced at the io/ms 

breath with another word beginning with a votoel ; as, 

est-eUe'! is she? aye-t-elU 

tout Ufaitt quite, toot-ofay, (see gen. rule.) 

but never in et, and, (conjunction) ay. 



16 PRONUNCIATION 

OF CONSONANTS. 

t is sounded in sept, kuity substantives ; as. . 

ten aej^, a seven, vn sayi. (u, see note 2.) 

un hwt^ an eight, un hueet. 

in sept J huit, vingt, cenU joined to a noun, t is sounded when the nomt 
which follows it begins with a vowel; as, 

sept enfants, seven children, sayt-a^fam 

huii amis, eight friends, hueet-amee. (see gen. rule.) 

if the noun begins with a consonant t has no sound ; as, 

sept nacireSt seven ships, say naurveer, 

cent chevaux, a hundrea horses, san shvd, 

tt, only one sounded ; as, 

attirer, to attract, ateeray, 

frotteVf to rub, frotay. 



V has the same sound in french as in english ; as, 

vanitS, vanity, vaneetay, 

vivacitif vivacity, veevacectny 



This letter has three sounds, viz. gz, ks^ and z. 

In the first syllable of a word x followed by a vowel, is sounded gz ; as, 
exemple, example, egzanple. 

exister, to exist, egzeestay, 

followed by a consonant^ it is sounded ks ; as, 

excis, excess, ayksaye. 

exposer, to expose, ayksposay* 

X is also sounded ks in 

sex, axe, sex, axle, sayks^ nks, 

fluxion, fluxion^ flukseeon. (it, see note 2.) 

axiome, axiom, dJcseeom, 

siyx,phcenix, stjx,phGrnix, steeks, fayneeks, 

index, poUux, index, polIux, inedeJcs, polbiks. 

alexandre, alexanaer, alayksandr, 

X has the sound of s aspirate in 

nx, dix, six, ten, sees, dees, 

dix-sepi, seventeen, deessayt, 

soixante, sixty, soassant, 

X filial generally has no sound ; it only renders the syllable long ; as, 
heaux, fine, 66. 

liexix, places, leeiigh, 

except when it ends a word which js pronounced at the same breath 

with another word beginning with a vowel, then it is sounded i ; as, 
six amis, six friends, see-z-amee. , 

beaux yeux, fine eyes, bd-z-yetigh, (general rule.) 

and when it is followed by iSmej or iemement; as, 

deuxUme, second, dughziem. 

sixiimement, sixthly, seezeemman. 

Z 

z has the same sound in french as in english ; as, 
zele, zeal, zayl, 

z final has no sound ; but renders the syllable long. 

vous avez, you have, voo-z-avaye, 

vous parlez, you speak, voo parlayc, 

except in chez, a{ one's house, followed by a vowel ; as, 
chez dU, at her house, shay-z-eU, 



PROSODY, 17 

GR 
PRONUNCIATION OF SYLLABLCJ. 

By prosody is meant the manner of pronouncing each syllay3 fe^U- 
(arly, t. e. according to what each syllable taken separately requires. 

It is certain that some diversity must be observed in the pronunciation 
of syllables, otherwise the language would be perfect monotony ; there 
are then divers inflexions of the voice, some which raise the tone, some 
which lower it, and this is what grammarians call prosodical accent,* 

GENERAL RULES. 




Hut if, in tliese words, the e mute were changed into a masculine ^, then the penul- 
tim:i would become short ; as Her, to tie ; loiter, to praise ; niier, to shadow. 

11. When a vowel ends a syllable, and is followed by another vowel, which is not 
€ mute, that syllable is short ; as cr^e, created ; ftal, trusty ; cictionj action ; kiCiTf to 
hatr ; dirii^, endowed ; titer, to kill. 

IIL Every syllable ending with any consonant but «, .r, or z, is short ; as, site, 5ack ; 
Uv, lake ; tUtly salt ; irentUil, fan ; fHim, hunger ; parfiimf perfume ; seKn, bosom ; soKn, 
care ; gatf^Sn, boy ; dip, cape ; nectdr, nectar; pdt, pot ; aUrt, fate, ^c. 

IV. Every syllable ending with f, x, or z, is long ; dessaes, sacks ; dea tch, salts ; dei 
pott, pots ; mon/tlf, my son ; la poiar, peace ; la voix, the voice ; U ntz, the nose. 

V^. Between two vowels, the last of which is mute, the letter « or x lengthens the 
peuultima; as, exidse, extasy; diocise, diocese; il pe^, he weighs; betJse, foolish- 
ness ; /raiicAtte, cnnduur ; rose, rose: Spouse, spouse ; ruse, cunning ; recluse, recluse; 
flise, glad ; tkese, thesis ; rase, vessel. 

And it then generally happens, that the antepenultima becomes short ; as Us'extHsie, 
he falls into extasy ; pKS^e, weighing ; ipoiisee, married, Ifc, for the french prosody 
requires that the pcnuitima be strong, if the final is mute, and that the pcnultima be 
weak, if the voice rests upon the final. 

VI. An « or an T sounded, preceded by a vowel, and followed by a consonant, always 
renders the syllable short ; as, jUspe, jasper ; miisque, mask ; dstre, star ; burtHstpte, 
burlesque ; /uti^s^e, fatal; jf(ste, track; t^tsque, risk; pUste, post; brOaqiu, abrupt; 
fOste, just ; wtrhe, beard ; bUrque, bark ; bcrceau, cradle ; infirme, infirm. 

But when there are two rr^ if the two together form only an indivisible sound, the 
RvUable is always long ; as, arrit, arrest ; barre, bar ; bisarre, whimsical ; tonnicrre, 
thunder ; Sctorre, to be hatching, 8^c, 

VII. When the nasal vowels am, an, em, en, im, in, aim, ain, ein, om, on, vm, 
LN, are followed by a consonant, which is neither m nor n, and which begins another 
syllable, they are long ; as, ainsi, thus 4 jdmbe, leg ; jdmbon, ham ; crdtate, fear ; trem- 
bier, to tremble : peindre, to paint ; joindre, to join ; tbmber, to fall ; hiimble, humble, ^e. 

If m or n be doubled, it renders the syllable short to which the first of the doubled 
consonant belongs ; as, Mmme, man ; jlmme^ ^oman ; ipigrHmme, epigram ; qu'il 
pritme, let him take ; coiu^ne, consonant ; per^itme, person, nobody. 

PARTICULAR RULES. 

A 

A, the first letter of the alphabet, is long ; as, un petit i, a little a; Une sail nt a ni 
b, he knows neither a nor 6. 

A, the preposition, is short ; as, ie suts d Parts, I am at Paris ; yicris it Rome, I write 
to Rome ; as is also a in the third person singular of the verb avoir, to have ; il d tie 
beaux Itorts, he has fine books ; U d Hi, he has been ; U d parU, he has spoken. 

At the beginning of a word a is long, in acre, sour ; age, age ; ame, soul ; aae, ass ; 
apre, harsh ; arrhes, earnest money ; as, ace, ^c. 

* This mark ( ' ) is intended to show that the syllable is Umg ; this other ( *') that it 
Is shtrt; and the doubtftil syllables are marked with a gntee accent thus C)' 



18 ' PRONUNCIATION 

OF SYLLABLES. 

These instances excepted, a is short, whether it makes A syllable of itself; as in 
iipoiret apostle ; or is followed by a double consonant, as in dpprendre, to learn ; or by 
two consonants which are different, as in Ult^r^t altered ; Hrgument, argument. 

At the end of a word a is very short in the preterite and future tenses of verbs ; as, 
U airnH, he loved ; H chantH^ he sung ; U aimerd, he will love ; U chanterd, be will sing. 
In the articles W, the ; mdyVny; ttLy thy ; »tf, his. In the adverbs ^Hy here ; W, there ; 
dijdy already. A little more stress is laid upon the a, in substantives borrowed from 
foreign languages ; as, sofdy sofa; duplicatd, duplicate, ^c. 

ABE, always short; as, ardbe, arabian ; except astroUbe, astrolabe ; crabe, crab. 

ABLE, short in all adjectives ; as, aimdble, amiable^; capUble, capable, fyc. long in most 
substantives ; as, cable, cable ; fable, fable ; sable, sand ; and in these verbs, on vCac- 
cable, I am overwhelmed ; je mensdble, I stick in the sand ; U hdble, he brags. 

ABRE, always long; as, aabre, sabre; Use cahre, he rears ; also in the masculine 
termination ; se cabrer, to rear; deWnr^, in tatters. 

AC, always ^hort ; as site, sack ; ldc,\ake ; trictrdc, back-gammon. See III. Gen. Rul. 

ACE, long, in grace, favor ; espace, space ; Idcer, to lace ; dilacer, to unlace. 

These words excepted ; aceis short ; as, gldce, ice, looking-glass ; preface, preface. 

ACHE, long, in Idche, coward ; tache, task ; reldche, relaxation ; j« mdche, I chew.f 
As also in the masculine terminations mdcher, to chew ; reldcher, to relax, ^c« 

In all other instances ache is short; as, tUche, a spot ; moustUche, whisker; vdche, 
cow ; il se cdche, he conceals himself ; U arrUche, he pulls out, Sfc, 

ACLE, long, in U rdcle, he scrapes ; U dSbacle, the ice is breaking ; these two wordb 
excepted, ACLB,i8 doubtful; as, ord^le, oracle; mirdcle, miracle ; obstiicle, obstacle. 

ACRE, long, in acre, tart ; but short in all other words ; as, didere, deacon ; Jidcre, 
hackney-coach ; dcre, an acre ; sdcre du rot, the king's coronation. 

ADE, always short, as, s^r^n^fde, serenade ; cascdde, cascade ; fdde, tasteless ; Uper^ 
tudde, he persuades ; U s'ivdde, be makes his escape. 

A ORE, short in Iddre, leprous : but long in cadre, frame ; escadre, squadron ; even 
when the word ends wilh e mascul. as, madri, speckled ; encadrer, to frame. 

AFE, APHE, always short ; as, cardfe, decanter ; Spitdphe, epitaph ; agriffe, clasp. 

AFREj AFFRE, loug, in qfrc, fright ; bdfre, gluttony ; short in all other instances ; aSj 
hdiitfre, gash ; si^e, ravenous. 

AFLE, long ; as, rafie, a royal pair at dice ; j'^rafle, I scratch ; and the same quantity 
is preserved when e final is short ; as, rafler, to sweep away ; irafier, to scratch slightly. 

AGE, lon|^ in the word age^ age ; but so short in all the rest that we dwell a little upon 
the penultima; partdge, division ; ixoantdge, advantage, ^c. 

AGNE, always short, except in the verb gagner, to gain ; je gagne, I gain. 

AGUE, always short, bdgue, ring ; ddgue, dagger ; vdgue, wave, vague. 




approaci 
AiE, always long ; as, hdie, hedge ; plate, wound ; vrdie, true. See I. Gen. Rule. 

AYE, short ; as, vous dyez, you may have ; vous pdyex, you pay ; vous bigdiyez, you 
stammer. See II. General Rule. 

The reason of this difference between aie and aye is, that aie makes only one syl- 
lable, and that Y, which is equivalent to ii, dividing the word into two syllables, these 
words are pronounced as if tnev were spelt ai-iez, pauiez, higai-iez, the first syllable 
of which is pronounced like 6 short, (bee ai, compound vowel.) 

aigne, always short : ^B,chatdigne, chestnut; je ddigne, I deign; il se bdigne, he is 
bathing ; on le sdigne, they are bleeding him. 

A 16 RE, always short; as, digre, tart ; tntffgre, lean ; vindigre, vinegar, ^c. 

AIL. General Rule. When a word ends with I liquid, the syllable is short; as, 
iventdil, fan ; gouvemdil, rudder: the a being the only vowel which is heard in the 
penultima, and the i serving only to soften the sound of the following consonant. 
This is also the case in the three following paragraphs. 

f Formerly written Xasche, tasche, with a mute s, to show that they are long. This 
is now supplied by a circumflex accent, and it should not be omitted over these words, 
as the pronunciation of a word sometimes alters its meaning. 



PRONUNCIATION 19 

OF SYLLABLES. 

AILI.E, short in meddiUe, medal; and in the following verbs ; j« detmUe, I retail; 
fimdiUe^ I enamel ; je trovdUle, 1 work ; but it is lon^ in all other words ; as, je rdiUe, 
I jeer ; t/ baitte, he yawns ; il braille, he brawls ; il nmdiUe, he makes poor verses. 

AiLLET, AiLLiR, short ; Si3,mililleif mallet; pHiUetf pale coloured ; jdUlirf to spout; 
assdUlir, to assault. 

AiLLON, short in mddiUUoii, medallion ; batUiUon, battalion ; tuna ^mHiUons, we ena- 
mel ; ditdilUnu^ let us detail ; tnwitilUms, let us work. These words excepted, aillon 
is long ; -as, haiUon, tattered clothes ; bdiUon, gag ; nous taiUonSf we cut, Sfc, 

AIM, AIN. See III. and VII. General Rules. 

AIHE. This termination is found only in the verb ci(mer, to love ; which is short 
RSffatmef I love ; tu dUmeSf thou loves t, fyc. 

AiNE, long, in hdine, hatred ; chdlne, chain ; gdine, sheath ; je traine, I draw, and 
their derivatives. These instances excepted, aine is short; as, capitUinef captain ; 
font&ine, fountain ; semdine, week ; Idine, wool. 

AIR, AIRE. The first is doubtful in the singular; as, fitir, the air^ cMir, flesh ; 
ieldir, lightning, Sfc, The second is long ; as, une pdire, a pair ; la chdtre, the pulpit. 

Ais, Aix, AisE, aisse, all loug ; BS,palais, palace ; fatdis, I had ; fStdis, 1 was ; un 
franfdis, a frenchman ; pdix, peace ; foumdite, furnace ; cdisse, chest. 

AIT, AiTE, both short; as, lUit, milk ; attrUit, charm ; retrUite, retreat, 4^. except U 
plait, he pleases ; U nditj it springs ; il repdit, he feeds ; lefdiU, the summit. 

AiTRE, alwavs long ; trdftre, traitor ; mdtire, master ; and other terminations of tho 
same sound, tnough spelt differently ; as, paraltre, or patAitre, to appear, 8fC, 

ALE, ALLS, always short; eigdle, cicada; scandUle^ scandal: une mallei a trunk; 
une bdlU, a ball ; except hkle, sunburning ; paUy pale ; un male, a male ; un rale, a 
rail ; and the derivatives of these words, tnou{{h the final syllable be masculine ; as, 
kdU, parched by the sun ; rdler, to rattle ; pdlir, to grow psue ; pdieur, paleness. 

AM, AN. See III. and VII. General Rules. 

AME, always short ; ddme, lady ; rUme, oar, ream, ifc, except in the following words ; 
dme, soul ; i^fdme, infamous ; blame, blame ; il se pame, he swoons ; un brdme, a bra- 
min ; and in all the preterite tenses of verbs ; as^ nous aimdmes, we loved ; nous 
ehanidmes, we sang ; nous parldmes, we spoke ; nousjoudmes, we played^ fyc. 

ANB, ANNE, always short ; as, cabUne, cotiage ; orgHne, organ, ifc, except due, ass ; 
erdne, skull ; les mdnes, the manes ; de la mdnae, manna ; une mdnne, a basaet. 

ANT. See III. General Rule. N. B. In the word comptant there is a difference ; 
when a participle, it is long ; fiB,jemesuis trompi en comptdni Vargent, I made a mis- 
take in counting the money ; and it is short when used as a substantive or adverb ; 
tLSfiladu comptHnt, he has ready money ; payer comptdnt, to pay in ready money. 

AP, always short ; as, cHpy cape. See III. General Rule. 

APE, APPE, always short ; pdpe, pope ; tritpe, trap ; grjtpe, a bunch ; onfrdppe, some- 
body knocks ; except rdpe, a rasp ; and rdper, to rasp, in which it is lodg. 

A PRE; cdpre, caper; dpre, tart; the only two words of this termination, are longi 

AQOE, always short, except |iagii««, easter } and Jacques, James. 

AR, always short $ as, cdr, for; nectttr, nectar. See III. General Rule. 

ARBE. General Rule. Every syllabic which finishes witli r, and is followed by 
another syllable beginning with a consonant, is short ; as, bdrbe, beard ; bdrque, bark; 
6crceau, cradle ; ia/irme, infirm ; ^rdre, order, Sfc, 

ARE, long ; as, barbdre, barbarous ; je prSpdref I prepare ; but when the last syllable 
is not mute, are is short ; as, 4gdri, strayed ; pripUroMt, preparing ; barbdrie, barbary. 

ARRE. General Rule. Whatever vowel precedes two rr, if the two together ibrm 
only one sound, the syllable is long ; as, drtvt, arrest ; bdrre, bar ; tonnerre, tnunder, ifc, 

A HI, ARIE, always short ; as, mdri, husband ; ptfri, wa^er ; Mdrie, Mary ; barbd*'ie, 
barbary ; except, nourtdri, uproar ; tndrri, sorry ; iqudrri, squared. 

AS, commonly long, as there are Tew words terminated in this manner in which the 
4 is not sounded very open, whether the s be pronounced ; as in PaUds, Pallas ; ds, 
ace ; or whether it be mute, as in tds, heap ; tu as, thou hast ; tu aimds, thou lovedst. 

. ASE, always lon;^; as, base, basis; Pegdse, Pegasus; emphdse, emphasis; extdse, 
extasy ; rdser, to shave ; jdser, to chatter. See V. General Rule. 

ASPE, General Rule. An s sounded, preceded by a vowel, and followed by a con^ 
•onant, always renders the syllable short; tiSfmdsqtte, mask. See VI. General Rule* 



20 PKONUNCIATIOX 

OF SYLLABLES. 

AssE, short; except in the substantives basse, base; casae, cassia; cUsse, class; 
icJiasses, stilts ; passe, pass ; nasse, bow-net ; tasse, cap ; chasse^ shrine ; masse, niafss ; 
in the feminine adjectives basse, low, base ; grdsse, fat ; Idsse, weary ; nnd in the fol- 
lowing verbs ; il amasse, he collects ; U ei^lmsse, he inchases ; U easse, he breaks ; il 
posse, he passes ; il compdsse, he measures ; with their compounds. 

All these words retain their quantity, even when the termination, instead of being 
mute, is masculine ; as, chassis, sash ; cdsser, to break ; passer, to pass. 

Add to these the first and second persons singular, and the third person plural of 
verbs, terminated in &S8€, Sisses, dssent, in the subjunctive ; aa,faimas8e, 1 might love ; 
tuaimdsses, thou mightest love ; ils aimdssent, they might love. 

AT, long in the substantives bat, a pack-saddle; viiit, mast; appa^, bait; degat, 
havock ; and in the third person singular of the perfect of the subjunctive il aimdt, he 
might love ; il chantdt, he mi^ht sing ; il parldt,ne might speak, e^c* 

In all other substantives, in adjectives, and in the present oi the indicative, at is 
short ; ^3,avodit, counsellor ; hlUt, splendour ; plUt, flat, a dish ; on se hUt, people fight. 

ATE, always short, except in hate, hnste ; pdU, dough ; il gate, he spoils ; il nidte, 
he masts; ildimdte, he dismasts; and in the second person plural of the preterite 
tenses of verbs, terminated in ates; as, vous aimdtes, you loved ; vous parldtes, you spoke. 

ATRE, short in qyJUtre, four ; and in lMtr€,\,o beat, with its derivatives, abttttre,\jo pull 
down ; combiittre,io fight, ^c. 

Tht'se in$«tances excepted, atre is always long; as, idolatref idolatrous ; tli^atre, 
theatre ; opinidtre, obstinate ; empldtre, plaster, tfc, 

AU, compound vowel. When this vowel forms a syllable which is followed by a 
mute termination, it is long; as, duge, through ; autre, other ; dime, ell ; pdume, tennis. 

It is also long when in the last syllable oi a word it is followed by a consonant ; as, 
hdut, high ; chdud, hot ; chdux, lime : faux, false ; except Piitd, Paul. 

But AU is doubtful when it precedes a masculine sellable ; as, dubade, serenade ; 
Undace, audacity ; dutomne, autumn ; dugmenter, to increase ;. duteur, author ; and 
when it is final ; H.s,joydu, jewel ; cotedu, hillock ; eoutedu, knife. 

AVE, short in rUve, radish ; cUve, cellar ; on pHve, they are paving ; but oflener long; 
as, entrdte, shackles ; grdve^ grave, serious. 

But when v instead of being followed by e mute, is followed by a masculine sylla- 
ble, the preceding syllable is short ; sls, grUvier, gravel ; aggrdver, to aggravate. 

BRAVE preceding its substantive is short ; as, un brdve homme, a well-behaved 
man ; but long when it comes after it ; as, vn homme brdve, a brave or courageous man. 

AY RE, always long; as, hdtre, harbour; caddvre, corpse. 

AX, AXE, always short ; as, Ajdx, Ajax ; thordx, thorax ; bordx, borax ; Hxe, axle ; 
tdxe, tax ; paralUtxe, parallax. 

E 

The French distinguish three sorts of «, which express different sounds ; the differ- 
ence of which is perceived in fertnet^, firmness ; lumnitetS, honesty. 

The first e in each of these words, is long, the second mute, and the third short. 

E mute is also called feminine ; the others are called masculine. 

There is no accent over e mute, the short requires an accute accent, and the long a 
grave, or a circumflex, but it is found sometimes without any of tliese signs, as ap* 
pears in the first syllable of the word fermet^. 

With respect to e mute, it is sufficient to know that it never be^ns a word, and 
that it is seldom found in several consecutive syllables; for if it is found in some 
compound words, such as revenir, to return ; redevenir, to become again ; entretenir, 
to entertain ; at least this never happens at the end of a word ; thus the e which is 
mute or feminine in the penultima oi the infinitive of verbs ; as, appeler, to call ; peser, 
to weigh ; mener, to load ; devoir, to owe ; concevoir, to conceive, becomes masculine, 
or is changed into the diphthong oi, in the tenses which end with« mute; fapptUe,! 
call ; il piise, he weighs ; ii m^e, he leads ; Us doivent, they owe ; ils con^vent, Sfc, 

For the same reason, thoug^h we make e mute in chapelain, chaplain ; chandelier, 
candlestick ; celui-ci, this ; jatme, I love ; je chante, I sing ; we sound it in chapille, 
chapel ; chandtUe, candle ; celle, that ; aimJU-je, do I love P cliante-je, do I sing ? 

For such is the genius of the frcnch language, that the penultima be strong, if the 
final is mute, and that the penultima be weak, if the voice rests upon the final. 

• Formerly spelt with an s mute, to show that they are long ; as, bast, mast, U 
aimasty vous aimasteSf &c. This is now supplied by a circumflex accent, h&t, m&tt &c, 



PRONUNCIATION 21 

OP SYLLABLES. 

EBLR^ EBRR, £C, ECE, always short; aa,hitblefWSii\YfOTi',funtbre,moumiu\; bee, 
bill; nt^cfj niece. 

ECHE, lonff and very open in biche, spade ; Uche, thin slice ; gr'icche, noisy ; vedie, 
fislurif^ ; peche, peach ; il empeche, lie prevents ; il d^pccJie, he dispalches ; il ^ricne, lie 
preaches. Short in caUche, calash ; Jleche, arrow ; mtche, match ; crtdiCj crib ; seelie, 
dry, the cuttle-fish ; br^che, breach ; on ptche, people sin. 

EOLE, ECT, ECTE, DRE, EDB, EDER, all sliort ; as, aiicUt age ; resptct, respect ; insccie, 
insect ; cidre, cedar ; remcdej remedy ; ctder, to yield ; posscder, to possess, S^-c. 

e'e. General Jvule. The penultima vowel of all words ending with e mute, is 
long ; as, pensee, thought ; armie, army ; je lie, 1 tie. See I. General Rule. 

E'E'. General Rule. When a vowel ends a syllable, and is followed bv anotiier 
vowel which is not e mute, that syllable is short; as, crtS, created ; /taf, liusly; 
action, action ; hiCir, to hate ; tner, to kill, ifc. See II. General Rule. 

EF, EFFE; the first is short ; as, cktf, chief; brtf, brief, short. The second long; 
^j tr^'*ifCy graft, the rolls ; je gri^'e, I graft. 
EFFLE, long, in nifle, medlar ; short in tf6fle, trefoil, club. 

^ EGE, EGLE. The first long ; as, sacritige, sacrilegious ; college, college ; siege, seat, 
siege. The other short ; as, rtgU, rule ; scigle, rye, S^c, 

EONE, EIGNE. The first is doubtful ; as, r^ne, reign ; dudgne, duenna. The other 
is short; 2iB,pcigne, comb ; entidgne, sign; quilfHgnet let him pretend. 

EG BE, EG UK, short ; as, nigre, negro; inttgre, upright; btgxie, a stammerer ; coUtgue, 
colleague ; il alUgue, he alleges, ^c. 

EiL, EiLLE, short; as, soUUi sun; somintU^ sleep; ab'Hlle, bee; bout'tille, hoiile; the 
only exceptions are, viiille, old woman ; rietUard, old man ; vieillesse, old age. 
EIN, El NT. Sec III. and VII. General Rules. 

EiNE, short; as, vtine, vein; p^ine, pain; the only exception is riine, queen. 
EINTE, always long; as, att'einte, stroke ; /einte, feint. 
EL, always short ; as, se2, salt ; crtiel, cruel, S^c, See III. General Rule. 

ELE. ei.le^ long in zele, zeal; poile, frying pan; frile, frail ; pele-niele, confusedly ; 
grhle, nail ; 1/ se/ele, it cracks ; la brebis bhle, the sheep bleats. 

These instances excepted, ele, elle, is always snort; as, modcle, model ; fidtU, 
faithful ; reb^^Uet rebellious ; mtrtdle, mortal, ^c. 

EM, EN. See III. and VII. General Rules ; and sound the final consonant in ittmn 
item; BithUem, Bethlehem ; anien, amen ; hpmen, hymen; examen^ examination. 

EME, doubtful in crimt, cream ; short inje seme, I sow ; il shne, he sows ; and long 
ij ail other words; as, bapteme, baptism; diac/^/fie, diadem ; 7»tm«, even, fyc. 

ENE, long in chine, oak; cene, the lord's supper; scent, scene; gtne, rack; aUne, 
awl ; rene, rein ; frene, ash-tree ; arcne, area ; pene, the bolt of a lock ; and in the pro- 
per names, Athines, Athens; Diogenes, Diogenes; Mieene, Maecenas, ^c. but short in 
p/ienomtne, phcenomenon; ib^e, ebon^r; etrennc, new year's gift ; qu'il jtrenne, let him 
take ; qu'U vitnne, let him come ; and in all words in which the consonant is doubled. 

EPE. EPRB, always long; as, guepe, wasp; crepe, crape; vepres, vespers; except 
Icpre, leprosy. 

EpTE, EPTRE, ECTRE, always short; as, prdcepte, precept; U accrpte, he accepts, 
sceptre sceptre ; spictre, spectre. 

EQUE, ECQiiE, always short ; as, grccque, greek ; bibliotheque, library ; obtcaues, fu- 
neral, ^c, except iteque, bishop : arclieveque, archbishop. 

ER is short in Jupiter, Jupiter; fAicifer, Lucifer ; ^f/t^, aether ; clier, dear ; cancer, 
cancer ; pater, the lord's prayer; magister, a country schoolmsster ; fratir, a surgeon s 
npprentice; and Inn^ in fir, iron; er\fer, heW; Ufer,]\g\\i^ mcr, sea; amir, bitter; 
kiver, winter; bat it is doubtful in the infinitive of verbs when the r is sounded with 
the following vowel, as is always the case in repeating verses. 

ERBE, ERCB, ERSx, ERCHE, ERCLE, RBDE, ERDRE, all short. See the General Rulr 
nnder abbe. 

ERP, BRT, doubtful : as, conchi, concert; ouvirt, open; disirtj desert, wilderness; 
il perd, he loses ; le v^rd, green, Sfc, 



22 PRONUNCIATION 

OF SYLLABLES. 

ERE, doubtful ; as, chimire, chimera ; p^e, father ; nncire^ sincere ; U espere, he 
hopeS; S^c, but long in the third person plural of the perfect tense of verbs ; aSj t^ 
dtitrentf they went ; Us parlirent, they spoke ; ils chanttrent, they sang, S^c^ 

EROE, ERGUE, ERLE, SEME, ERNE, ERPE, all short. See ARBE, General Rule. 

ERR, always long when agreeably to the general rule, the two rr form only one In- 
divisible sound; as in gwrre, war; tonnarre, thunder; nous verrons, we shall see; 
short when the two rr are pronounced separately ; as, irreur, error; t^rreur, terror, 8fc, 

BRTE, ERTRE, ERVE, all short. See ARBE. General Rule. 

LssE, long in confisse^ confession ; presse, press ; comprisse, compress ; ejcprisse, ex- 
press ; cesse, ceasing; on s'empresse, they are eager; ilproftsse, he professes. 

These instances excepted, esse is short ; as, tendrtsse, tenderness ; paresse, laziness ; 
carcsse^ caress ; jeuiiZsse, youth, Sfc, 

esque, este, estre. See VI. General Rule. 

ET, long in arreit, a decree ; behet, a simpleton ; /orc#, forest; eenit, broom; prit, 
teady ;appret, preparation; acquitf acquisition; intertt, interest; tlist, he is.* 

These instances excepted, et is short; as, cad&tf younger, junior; bidtt, pony; tt 
and; siyet, subject; brocJiH, pike, ^c 

ete, long in bete, beast ;/^^£, feast; arbdtctet a cross-bow; boete, box; tempete, 
tempest; qucte, quest; conquite, conquest; enqiietej inquest; requite^ request, peti* 
tion ; arrtte, fish-bone ; crete, crest, a coxcomb ; titet head ; in all other instances, 
ete is short ; and the t is doubled ; as, toibt&tte, shelf, memorandum-book ; houtttte, 
crook ; unless the etymology forbids doubling it, as, prophtte, prophet ; potte, poet. 

Honn&te is short when placed before a noun ; as, un hmrn^te fiomme, an honest man ; 
it is long when placed after ; as, un homme honncte^ a civil man. 

Vous Stes, the second person plural of the present tense of itre, is either long or 
short, as the poet chooses. 

ETRE, long in etref a being, to be; salpetref saltpetre; ancetre, ancestor ; /m^e, 
window; pritre, priest; champitre, rural; itctrCf beech; gvictres, spatterdashes. 

In all other instances etre is shorty and t is doubled, unless the etymology pre- 
vents it; as, dicmOttre, diameter; UpenHret he penetrates ; Uttrej letter; mUttre, to put. 

' Eu, compound vowel, short in the singular, feu, fire ; bl&u, blue ; j^ game, sport ; 
Vfftt, vow; nevhif nephew, Sfc. 

EVE, long in ^eve, truce ; la greve, the sea-shore ; t{ rcve, he dreams ; and the pe- 
nnltima of the verb rtver, remains long in all its tenses ; as, revery to dream ; je revait 
1 dreamt; but eve is doubtful in/ev€, bean; br^vej brief, short ; ilacheve, he finishes; 
1/ crkvCf it bursts ; t7 se Uve, he rises ; and the peuultima of these verbs is mute, if it 
be followed by a masculine syllable ; as, achever, to finish ; il se levait, he was rising. 

EUF, short ; as, oeu/, widower ; neuf, new ; un <guf, an egg ; un baeufy an ox. 
N. B. The /is pronounced in all these words, in the singular, but not in the plural, 
except in teufSf widowers. 
EUIL, short ; as, 8e\iU, threshold ; fuuthM, arm-chair, ^TC. See III. General Rule. 

EULE, long in m^iUe, grinding stone, mill'Stone. This excepted, eule is short; as, 
sivUi single, alone ; gueuU, the name given to the mouth of beasts and fishes. 

EUNE, long in jeune, fasting; and short in jetlne, young. 

EUR, EURE. The first is short in the singular ; od^r, odour ; p^r, fear ; mtyt-ur, ot 
age; and long in the plural odeurs, odours: but the second is doubtful, t. e. 

If EURE ends a word pronounced at the same breath with another word, it is short; 
as, la nurture partie^ the major part; une heure entUrej a whole hour. If ther'*' is no 
word after it, to be pronounced at the same breath with it, it is long; as, cetteJUleest 
mf^airej that girl is of age ; f attends depuis une keure, 1 have been waiting for an hour. 

£VRE, doubtful; livre, lip; Misre, goat; liHrei hare; orfhwe^ gold or silver-smith. 

EUX, EUSK, long; dxMXj two; prSciiuXj pridcuse, precious; crhiser, to dig, 8fc, 

EX, always short ; as, exempk, example ; extirper, to extirpate ; s^xe, sex, SfC, 




PRONUNCIATION 23 

OF SYLLABLES. 
I 

An observation which may have already been made, but which wUl appear more obvious by 
reading the rules on the three remaining vowels, is, that the number of dtort sylidbles is 
much greater than of long ; therefore, in order to abbreviate this treatise, tlu>se terminations 
will be omitted which are short without exception. 

IDRE, long in hldre, written hydre, for the sake of the etymology, hydra; cidre, cider. 

IE, diphthong, doubtful; as, miel, honey ; flel, gall ; fier, proud ; amltii, friendship; 
carrUre, quarry; poussiire, dust; mien, mine; tlen, thine; dieu, god. 

IE, dissyllable, long; as, vie, life ; saisie, seizure ; ilpne, he begs. See I. Gen. Rule. 

lEN, when a dissyllable, the two syllables are short ; as, Jten, tie ; Pari^en, Pari- 
sian ; when a diphthong, the syllable is doubtful ; as, U mien, mine ; rim, nothing, ^c. 

lOE, doubtful; tlge, stalk; prodlge, prodigy; ItH^e, litigation ; veitlge, footstep; je 
fiCchUgf, I bind myself: U s'ti\ffllge,m afflicts himself. 

But lOE is short in the tenses of these verbs which do not end with e mute, as 
s*obttger, to bind one's self; qffKgS, afflicted. 

ILE, long in lie, island ; hutle, oil ; s/yle, stile ; tuUe, tile ; presqittUf peninsula. 

IM, IN. See 111. and VII. General Rules. 

IME, long in abime, abyss ; dime, tythe ; and in the first person plural of the prete- 
rite tense of verbs ; as, noustHmes, we saw; nous rSpondimes, we answered. 

ION, short ; as, action, action ; passion, passion. Sbe II. General Rule. 

IRE, doubtful, empire, empire ; icrire, to write ; il souplre, he si^hs ; long in the 
third person plural ot the periect tense of verbs ; ils puntrent, they punished ; iufirent, 
short before a masculine termination; as, soupitrer, to sigh; dSArer, to wish, 8fc. 

ISR, long ; as, remise, coach-house ; surprise, surprise ; yipuxse, I exhaust ; ils disent, 
they say ; qu'ib tisent, let them read. 

ISSE, always short ; as, saucXsse, sausage ; rigtisse, liquorice ; except in the perfect 
of the subjunctive; as,jeftsse, I might do ; Us puntssent, they might punish, 8fc. 

IT. lon^ only in the third person singular of the perfect of the subjunctive; as, U 
dlt, ne might say; ilfit, he might do ; ilpunit, he might punish, 8fe,* 

ITE, long in benlte, blessed ; gite, the seat of a hare ; vite, quick ; and in the second 
person of the perfect of verbs; as, vousfites, you did ; vous vites, yoo saw, 8fc. 

ITRE, long in ipitre, epistle ; huttre, oyster ; regxtre, register; but if regfistre is spelt 
with s, the V is snort. 

lYE, lon^ in the adjective feminine, formed from the masculine in if; as, tafdive, 
late; eapnve, captive ;jutve, Jewess, ^c. 

IV Ri, long in vivres, victuals ; short in vivre, to live i im Utre, a book, 8^c, 

O 

O, always short when it begins a word ; as, }kcaeion, occasion ; Meur, odour, 8fe. 
except OS, bone ; oser, to dare ; osier, osier ; oter, to take awav ; otage, hostage ; as 
likewise in liote, host, landlord ; though we say Mtel, hotel, and KiteUerie, an inn. 

OBE, long in globe, globe ; and Uhe, lobe ; in every other instance ore is short; as, 
rVfre, robe, gown ; if adrdbe, he robs. 

ode, long in the verb roder, to ramble ; je rdde, I ramble ; short in all other instances ; 
as, mMe, mode, fashion; antipMe, antipodes; piriMe, period, S^e, 

OGE, always short; as, iUge, praise; horUge, clock; on difige, they derogate. 
oi, diphthong, doubtful at the end of a word ; as, mai, me ; ro\, king ; /oi, faith ; em- 
pUi, employment; short at the beginning; as, mMsson, harvest; miwtu, half. 

OIE, long ; as, jdie, joy ; tme, silk ; qtCU voie, let him see, Sfc. 

OIENT, termination of the third person plural of the imperfect of verbs, is long ; as, 
Us atbient, they had; ils chantoient, they san^, 9^e. whilst the third person singular of 
the same tense spelt oiT, is short; as, tl atHkt, he had ; il chantMt, he sang, 8fe, 

oiN. See HI. and VII. General Rules. 

oiRj oiRE, the first is doubtful ; as, espbir, hope ; devdir, duty, 8fc, the second long; 
as, bbire, to drink ; gtoire, glory ; mSmaire, memory, 8fc, 

* Formerly yvrititD fiat, dist, pvnist, with a mute s, now supplied by a circumflex. 



24 PRONUNCIATIOH 

OF SYLLABLES. 

ois, always long:; whether it be a diphthong, as in fdis, time ; htturgcois, burgfess , 
Danbis, D.tue ; Suidbis^^ Swede, 8fc, or whether it be ust^d instead of thn coDipound 
vowel Ai, Asj'^tliiSf vrfdtdis, I was; un Francois, or vn Fran^dis, a Frenchman, 8fc, 

oiSE, oissE, oiTRE, oiVRH, all long ; Si8, framiwise, raspberry ; paroisse, parish ; cloi- 
tre, cloister ; pdirre, pepper, ^c. 

oiT, short ; as, U b^it, he drinks ; except U crbit, he grows ; and when it is used in- 
stead of the compouod vowel ai; as, ilparbit, or ilparditf it appears. 

OLE, always short ; as, ob)Me, obole ; id6le, idol ; bouss^le, sea compass ; except drole, 
facetious ; pole, pole ; geole, jail ; mole, mole, pier ; role, a list, the part of an a( tor ; 
contrele, control ; eiybUr, to wheedle, to decoy ; enrbler, to enlist, and the tenses de- 
rived from these verbs ; U contrble, he controls ; Us enrblent, they enlist, S^'c, 

OM, ON. See 111. and VII. General Rules. 

OME, ONE, long; as, atomef atom ; axibme, axiom ; phantbfne, phantom ; trbne, throne, 
8^c. except R)ime, Rome ; and the words in which the consonant is doubled, which 
fullow the general rule ; as^ s6mme, sum ; p6mme, apple ; consbmte, consonant. 

ONS, always long ; as, nous ainibns, we love ; fbnds, land, funds ; maubns, houses'; 
pbntSf bridges, fyc. See I\^ General Rule. 

OR, always short; as, caU)ir, beaver; but^irf bittern, a blockhead ; ene^, yet, still ; 
4/f'6rt, effort; but when or is followed by «, it is long ; as, hirs, out ; ators, then; U 
corps, the body ; les tresbrs, the treasures. See IV. General Rule. 

ORB, long; as, cmrbre, aurora; je deplore, I lament ; but observe thnt the penultima 
of the verbs which have only one r, and which is long in the present of the indicative ; 
as, je dicbre, I decorate; U s'ivapbre, it evaporates ; becomes short if the termination 
is masculine; as, dhorer, to decorate; ivaph^i, evaporated, and that it remains long 
in tenses in which the r is doubled ; as, il s'^vapbrraxt, it would evaporate, 8(C. 

OS, osE, long; as, bs, bone; prbpos, discourse; d. prbpos, timely; dose, dose; chose, 
thing; il bse, he dares. See iV. and V. General Rules. 

ossE, long ; as, grbsse, big ; fbsae, pit ; t7 emlosse, he endorses ; even when the final 
is masculine ; as, grbsseur, bigness ; grbssesse, pregnancy ; fbssi. ditch. 

OT, long in imjibt, tax; tbt, soon; dSjHitf deposit; entrepot, store-house;$tf/)pdf, a sub- 
servient agent ; rbt, roast meat ; itr^cbt, provost, sheriff".* 

OTE, long in iidte, host, landlord ; cote, coast, rib; maltbte, exaction of taxes; jbte^ I 
take away ; likewise when the final is masculine ; as, cbti, side ; ote, taken away.-f 

OTRE. There arc only three words of this termination, viz. ayiHre, apostle ; noire, 
our, ours ; voire, your, vours. 

As to the first it is always long; but the two others are doubtful ; not that their 
measure is arbitrary, for it depends upon the place which they keep in the sentence. 

Notre and Votre are short, when like an article thev are prefixed to a substantive, 
i. e. when used for our, your; and long when they themselves are preceded by an 
article, and used as pronouns, i. 6. wlien used for ourj, yours ; so we &Ay,je8uis vMre 
serciteur, I am your servant ; et moi le vbtre, I am yours. Cest-Ui vl&tre opinion, mats 
la nbtre est que, Sfc. that is ;our opinion, but ours is that, Sfc. Les nbtres sont excellents, 
mais lesrotres ne valent rien, ours are excellent, but yours are good for nothing. 

If the final be mute, as in this sentence, je suis le tbtre, after which my ear expects 
nothing more, then the voice wants a sup^rt, and not finding it in the final re, it takes 
it in the penultima vo; but in this other, je suis vMre setxiteur, where after votre I ne- 
cessarily expect a substantive, between which and votre there can be no intermission, 
this substantive is destined to support my voice, and 1 pass quickly over votre. 

Perhaps there is not in the french prosody a principle more extensive than this. A 
doubtful syllable which is made short in the body of the sentence, is made long if it 
comes at the end. 

Sometimes even in conversation as well as in oratory, a long syllable becomes short, 
by the transposition of the word ; for we say, un homme honncte, a civil man ; un 
kotnme brave, a brave or courageous man; but we say, un konntte komme, an honest 
man ; un brUce homme, a well-behaved man ; these instances have already been men- 
tioned, (See K) but can so important rules be recalled too often ? 

* Formerly spelt with an s mute, impost, rost, suppost, to show that the syllable is 
lon^, this is now supplied by a circumflex. 

t Formerly spelt hoste, coste, and when a syllable was to be pronounced shorty 
the consonant was doubled ; as, kotte, dorser; cotte, petticoat, 8fc, 



PRONUNCIATION 23 

OF SYLLABLES. 

ocoRE, oue, long; as, poudre, powder; mondre, to griod ; riaoiidre, to resolve, ire. 
boiie, dirt; jouBi cbeek ; U hite, he praises, ^c. bat when ov is followed by a roascii- 
line, instead of a feminine terminativ)n, it is short ; as, potidrS, powdered ; motUUf 
ground ; roiU^ broken on the wlieel ; Iom, praised, Sfc, 

ooiLLE, long in rouUUf rust; U dirouilU^ he gets off the rust; U emhroiuttef he em- 
broils ; U ddlfrouiUef he unravels; but ouil is short when it is followed by a masculine 
syllable; as, bro&iUonj bad paper or writing; brotiiUSy daubed ; rotiUUf rusty, ifc. 

OULE, long in moiUe, mould, muscle; la foide, the crowd; il foule, he presses, he 
tramples ; Uroide, he rolls ; U s'icroule, it falls down ; U se soi'de, he gets drunk. 

ouiii!:, OURRE, the first is doubtful ; as, bravokre, bravery ; the second is long ; as, de 
ia bourret cow hair; qu'dcoivrre, let him run; but if ou, instead of being followed by a 
mute, is followed by a masculine syllable, then ou is short, notwithstanding the gene- 
ral rule under arre; as, cofirrter, messenger; boiirrade, thrust, S^c. as likewise in the 
futore and in the conditional tenses of verbs spelt with rr, in which the two rr are sound- 
ed separately; as, je motirrai, I shall die; je cohrrai, I shall run ; j€ moUrraia, &c. 

ODSE, lung; as, ipovae, bride; qu*eUe coxae, let her sew. See V. General Rule. 

onssR, long in je poioH, I pnsh ; short in all other instances ; as, je totaae, I cough; 
coii«m, cushion ; jnVasm, young chick, ifc, 

OUT, long in aoiii, august ; covd, cost ; gout, ivAie ; mout, must, new wine. 

OUTE, long in abaoute, absolution ; joute, tilt ; croiite, crust ; voute, vault; il coiite, it 
costs ; il broiite, it gcazes ; jegoilte, 1 taste ; Va^oiUe, I add ; but ou is generally short, 
when the syllable which follows it is masculine ; as, €fjotiter, to add ; coiUS, cost, fyc, 

OUTRE, long in poiitre, beam ; and in couire, coulter, ploughshare ; short in all other 
instances ; as, loiiire, otter ; oUtre, en oUtre, besides, ffe. 

V 

UCHE, long ; as, buehe, a log of wood ; riiche, hive ; en d^buche, they dislodge, 8fc, 
bat u is short, if the final is masculine ; as, biicher, pile ; d^bUchd, dislodged, S^c. 
VET, diphthong, found only in the word iciUUe, porringer, is short. 
UK, dissyllable, always long ; as, vue, sight ; tortive, tortoise, 8fc* See I. Gen. Rule. 

UOB, dcflbtful when the final is mute; as, deluge, deluge; re/kge, refuge; short, 
when the final is masculine ; as, jiiger, to judge ; re/iigier, to take refuge, §c. 

ui, diphthong, short before a masculine syllable ; as, biiisson, bush ; ctiisine, kitchen ; 
rttisseoM, rivulet, Sfc. 

UIE, long ; as, plme, rain ; trute, sow ; il s'ennuxe, he grows tired. See I. Gen. Rule 

OLE, long in the verb brider, to bum ; je bride, I bum ; tu brides, thou burnest, 8fc. 

UM, UN. See 111. and VII. General Rules. 

UMES, long ; as, notes fumes, we were ; nous pumes, we could; nous refumes, we re 
ceived ; nous apergumes, we perceived, fyc, 

URE, always long ; as, augure, omen ; verdure, grass , parjure, perjurer, penury ; on 
assure, they assure ; Hsfftrent, they were; but u is short if the final is masculine ; as, 
augilrer, to conjecture ; parjUrer, to perjure; assM, assured. 

USE, alwavs long ; as, muse, muse ; excuse, excuse ; ruse, canning ; see V. General 
Rale , we also say, rus^, cunning ; but in the other words in whicn the final is mas- 
culine, u is short ; as exctkser, to excuse ; rejtlsi, refused, ifc. 

OCE, ussE, the first of these two terminations is confined to nouns, ^ind always short; 
as, ptiee, flea; asttltee, craft, i^c, the second is confined to verbs, and is always long; 
as, Jtf fusse, I were ; je pusse, I mi^ht ; ils fussent, they might be ; except PrUsse, 
Prussia; and Rtisse, a Russian ; substantives in which ussR is short. 

UT, short in all substantives; as, le bht, the end; un d^bilt, a beginning; except in 
/til, a cask ; loi m^ut, a gun carriage ; short in the third person of the perfect tense ot 
the indicative of verbs; as, ilfiit, he was ; il v^cUt, he lived ; long in the same person 
and tense in the subjunctive ; as, ilfut, he might be ; il ticiU, he might live, 8;c, 

UTB, UTEs, short in all substantives ; 6rKfe, 'brute, rough, ^c. except^u/e, flute ; al- 
ways long in verbs : vous fuies, you were ; vous lutes, you read : vous refutes, you 
received ; roiis apergutes, you perceived j 4rc. 

It is not perhaps unnecessary to inform such readers as might be discouraged by the 
multiplicity, or by the prolixity of these rules, that it is not requisite, in order to speak 
freach with propriety, that they should be observed with a scrupulous nicety, which 
few persons, if any, do. but he certainly speaks best who deviates the least from them 



26 



PRONUNCIATION 



OV SYLLABLES. 

HOMONYBJOUS, OR EQUIVOCAL WORDS, 

THE MEANING OF WHICH IS DETERMINED BY THE ACCENT. 



Aeret tart. 
J line f awl. 
BdiUer, to gape. 
Bat, pack-saddle. 
BdteUur, mountebank. 
Bedut4, beauty. 
Bete, beast. 
Boite, box. 
Bond, rebound. 
Chair, flesh. 
Chasse, shrinr. 
eiair, clear. 

Ccrps, body. 

Cote, rib. 

Cote, coast. 

Cuxre, to boil or roast. 

Faxte, summit. 

Fite, feast. 

Faxx, burthen. 

Lefoie, the liver. 

Unefoxs, once. 

Farit, forest. 

Je goute, I taste. 

Grave, grave. 

Hale, scorching of the Bun. 

Hbte, host, landlord. — 

Jeune, fast. 

Tmcs, noose. 

Udme, the soul. 

Li'ga, legacy. 

Lis, lily. 

Mditre, ni^ter. 

Male, male. 

Masse, stock. 

Mat, mast. ■ 

Mdtin, mastiff. 

Mots, month. 

Miir, ripe, 

II n'tsty it is not* 

II naxt, it springs. 

Vdte, paste. 

Paume, palm. 

Pecluur, fisherman. 

Picker, to fish. 

Picker, peach-tree. 

Pine, bolt. 

Rot, roast meat. 

Sds, sieve. 

Seine, scene. 

La Seine, the communion 

Siir, sure, sure, certain. 

Tdcke, task. 

Tocher, to endeavour. 

Te^^; head. 

Vers, verse. 

Virs, towards. 

Virre, glass. 



) 



} 



Acre, acre. 

Halline, breath. 

BUiller, to give. 

ii 6cre, he beats. 

Bdtelter, waterman. 

Btittd, booted. 

Btl^^e, beet. 

11 b&Ue, he goes laote. 

BUn, good. 

CA^, dear. 

Ckdsse, hunting. 

C£^. clerk, 
f Qh^f hunting horn. 
I Cbr, a corn. 

1 CMfe, petticoat. 

Ctttr, leather. 

Fo^fte, done. 

jPa)(^ done, fact, 
Lajfiii, faith. 
Vnfoutt, a rod, a whi<>. 
Fore*, gimblet. 
Une goiUte, a drop. 
Je grdve, 1 engrave. 
ii<yi^, market. 
Hme, scuttle. 
Jetme, young. 
LUc, lake. 
LUme, blade. 
La'(d, u^ly. 
Lait, milK. 
m, bed. 
Mtttre, to put. 
^/(^/^j mail, trunk. 
Mdsse, mass, mace 
iWtf, ray. 
Mdtin, morning. 
Ma^, me. 
MtLr, wall. 

iV^f, clean. 

Prf**«, paw. 
Plhnme, apple. 
PeckeuT, smner. 
Picker, to sin. 
PiclU, sin. 
/V)fne, punishment. 
R»^ belch. 
iS2t, her. 

Saine, wholesome. 
La, SetnCf the Seine. 
Siir, sour. 
T<ycA«, stain. 
Tdcher, to stain. 
'i tte, teat. 

Ver, worm. 
Fcrd, green. 



{ 



} 



( 27 , 



INTRODUCTION 



An introduction 

A LA 

to the 



LANGUE FRANfATSE 

language freneh, **• 



PREMIERE PARTIE. 

Firtt part. 




La lanoub PRAN9AI8E est compos^e des monies lettres ou 

3%« language freneh^* is composed of the same letters or 

caract^res que la langue anglaise^% except^ le W; mais la 

characters as the english, except the vr ; but the 

nonciatioii de ces lettres, n* est pas toujours la mAme dans 



tn 



the same 
en francais: 

freneh ; 

J. K, 

thecj hah, 

X. Y, 

eehSf eegrayc, 



pro- 

pro- 

ces 

these 



tn 
I, 

V, 

vajf, 



L, 

I, 



M. 

m, 

z. 

zeyd. 



nuneiation of these '^ is not always 

deux langues; elles se prononcent 

two or in both languages; they are pronounced 

A, B, C, D, E, F, G. H, 

ah, bay, tag, day, ay, f, *1iay, ath, 

N, O, P. Q. R, S, T. U. 

«> 0, pay,, t, ayr, s, tay, f, 

La LANGUE FRAN9AiS£^, ainsi que la langue anglaise^, est aussi 

as well as is also 

compos^e de nbuf sortes de mots qu' on^ appelle 

composed of nine sorts of words which people call, or are called^ 

commun^ment les partieg etoraison; ces mots sont, 

commonly the parts of speech ; these words are, 

Le NOM, I'ARTICLE, 

the noun, ^^ article, 

le PRONOM. le VERBE, 

the pronoun, the verb, 

la PREPOSITION, la CONJpNCTION, 

the preposition, the conjunction. 



rADJECTIF, 

the adjective, 

TADVERBE, 

the adverb. 

riNTERJECTION. 

the interjection. 



* The figaies at the top of the words indicate the rule to which the different sorts of 
words that compose the language are subject. The learner wiU do well to refer to these 
rules until they are famiUar to him. They wiU be found at page 3i, and in the following 
pages* 

N, B, The english words are here placed Uterally under the freneh. It will require 
Teij little knowledge Qf the english language to arrange them in the grammatical order 
whscb they require. The person who is not capable of doing that, must study his own 
language, oefore be attempts to leani French* t See note 9, page 1. 



28 INTRODUCTION 

CHAP. I. 

DU NOM. 

0/ the noun, 
Tjut mot qui sert h exprimer 1** id^e d'* une substance, soit 

Eiej-y word which serves to eapress the idea of a tubstance, either 

rcelle, comme, homme, femmey cheved,' maison, soleiU lune ; ou id^ale, 

real, as, man, woman, horse, house, sun, moon; or ideal, 

cumme, dieu, del, homieur, vice, veriu, s' appelle NOM. 
^'t godf heaven, honour, vice, virtue, it called a noun. 

De ces mots appel^s NOMS, (quelques uns) ne conviennent qu'* 

Of these words called nouns, wme — f belong to only 

a une seule personne, ou k une seule cliose; comme, Jean^Jacques 

to a single person, or to a single thing; as, John, james, ' 

Voltaire, Shakespeare, Londres, Paris, France^ Angleterre, la Seine, 

Voltaire, shakespeare, london, parts, france, england, the seine, 

les Alpes,8;c et ces noms s'* appellent Tioin^ propres, 

the alps, ^*c. and these nouns are called names proper,^* 

D'* autres conviennent k touts les fetres de la m^me espece ; 

Some others belong to all — f beings of the tame kind; 

comme, homme, femme, enfant, cheval, vache, oiseau, maison, ville, 

as, man, woman, child, horse, cow, bird, houtCy city^ 

campagne, arbre,8^c. et ceux-ci s* appellent noms communs, 

country, tree, S^c. and these are called names comwon,** 

Dans cette derniere classe (on comprend) les noms com« 

In thit last class (we*^ include or are included^ J the nouns com^ 

pos^s d* id^es abstraites"; comme, dieu, del, dme, vice, vertu^ 
pounded of ideas abstract: at, god, heaven, soul, vice, virtue^ 

amour, desir, honneur, plaisir, et autres semblables. 

love, desire, honour, pleasure, and such like, 

II faut consid^rer dans les? noms, 1e genre, et le 7iombre. 

It is necessary to consider in ^-f nouns the gender, and the number, 

II n*y a en fran^ais que deux genres; le masculin, et le f^minin 
There - are in french only two genders ; the masculine, and the femintne. 

Par MASCULIN (on veut** dire) le genre mdU^ ; comme, homme. 

By masculine (toe mean or is meant^) the gender male ; as, man, 

coa, chevcU, taureau, chien^ chat, bt'lier, houc, cerf, 8fc, 

cock, horse, bull, dog, he cat, ram, he goat, stag, ^'c. 

Par F^MiNiN (on veut^ dire) le genre femette^ ; coxnmc, femme. 

By feminine (we mean or is meant^) the gender female; as, woman, 

poule, jument, vache, chienne, chatle, brebis, chSvre, biche, S;c. 
hen, mare, cow, bitch, she cat, ewe, she goat, hind, 8^c. 

• When the monosyllables le, de, ne, se,je, me, te, la, que, are followed by a vowel or 
A h mute, the vowel, e, a, is left out, and an apostrophe, this mark ('), put in its plac«* 

t T*ie words marV.ed under with a dash, this mark (— }, are not expressed in english. 



A LA LAMGUG FRAN(!A1SE* 1?0 

DU NOM. 
SjQS noms des autres 6tres vivants'* dont le soxe n' ent 

The names of the other beings living (of which) the sex ** is 

pascoiinu, (ainsi que) des 6tres inanimct^ q\i* (on*« appelle) 

not known, (as well as) of the beings inanimatf which (peopU call or are called^) 

com muniment choses, et qui sont de (ce que) 

commonly things, and which are of (that which or what*'*) 

les Anfflais appellent le genre neutre, appartiennent en francais 
the engiuh call gender neuter,^* beUmg in french 

& I* uit ou d /' autre de ces deux genres. 

to the one or to the other of the§e tioo genders, 

(II y a) en franqais comme en anglais, deux nombres; le sinoulier , 
There are in french as in english, ttvo numbers ; the singular, 

quand on ne parle que d' un ^tre; comme, un' homme, une 

when we — speak only of one being; as, a man, a 

femme, une' ntaUon; le plurirr, quand on parte de plusieurs ^tres; 

woman, a house; plural,* we*^ of several beings; 

comme, des> hommes, des> femmes^ des' maisons. 

ai, some men, some women, some houses, 

Remarquez que le nombre plurier^ se forme en iran9ais comme en 

Remark that is formed in as in 

anglais, en ajoutant a au singulier; une' maison, des' maisons. 

by adding s to the a house, some houses. 

Except^ premi^reroent ; les noms qui (se terminent) en s ou en 

Except, first ; the nouns which (terminate or end) in 8 or 

X dont le plurier ne difltre point du singulier; ainsi on^ dit : 

X of which — differs not from the so tee say ; 

monJiU, mes Jils: un pois, des poh; une noix, des noix, &c. 
my son, my sons; a pea, some peas; a nut, some nuts, &'c. 

Secondement ; les noms dont le singiilier (se termine; en u, qui 

Secondly ; the of which ends in u, which 

demandent un x (au lieu) d' une s pour signe du plurier ; comme, 
require an x instead of an b for the sign of the as, 

un couteau, des couteaux ; le' jeu, les' jeu\ ; lieu^ lieux, Sfc, 
a knife, some knivet the game, the games ; place, places, ^e. 



r§\ 



Troisiemcfment ; les noms dont le singulier (se termiiie) en at. 
Thirdly; cf which ends in al, 

ail, qui changent /, ou il, en ux pour le plurier ; comme, 77ia\, mawx 
ail, which change \, or i\, inio ux for as, ivil, evils, 

cheva\, cht'vaux; gkneral, generaux; travaW, travaux, Sfc. 
hu'se, horses; general, generah; work, works, 8fc, 



* This word yon will n^enerally see in other grammars spelled pluriel; but as it iii 
prononnred pbtrier, the same as singulier, I have thonght it proper to spcU it as it i^ 
pronounced, that it might be more easily remembered. 



30 INTRODUCTION 

CHAP ir. 

PE L' ARTICLE. 

Of the article. 

Com me le m^me nom peut exprimer des* id^es difTi^renies, on'*' 
As the tame noun may express N. B. ideas differentt^^ we 

a adopts des" signes pour designer chacune de ces iddes. 
have adopted N. B. signs to denote each of these ideas. 

Ces signes se nomment en grammaire ARTICLE ; mais comme ils 
These are called in grammar but as they 

varient avec nos id^es, les' grammairiens ne s'accordent pas sur le 
vary with our •— grammarians — agree not on 

nombre, ni sur le nom qu' on doit donner k chaque signe en particulier. 
nor narne whidi we ought to give to each sign in particular. 

Cet accord n*est nullement n^cessaire, i] suffit d' en** savoir Tusage. 

This agreement ^ is (by no means Jnecessary^ U suffices to of them know the use. 

rOn verra) dans ce traits que j' ai augment^ le nombre des 
(Jtwillbeseen*7)in this treatise that I have increased of the 

signes appel^s article, parceque cela m'*' a paru ii^cessaire 
called because that to me has appeared necessary 

pour diminuer celui** des regies ; ainsi, j* appelle article des° mots 
to diminish that of the rules ; soj I call — N. B. words 

que (les uns) appellent pronom, que d'autres appelleut adjectif ; 

which some call . pronounsy which others adjectives; 

et je les** appelle ainsi, parceque ces mots sont touts destines au 
and I them call so, because these are all destined to the 

m^rae usage, et que les m^mes regies sont communes h touts. 

tame use, and that rules common 

(Afin qu') on*' pAt retenir ces signes plus aiscSment; 
That people might retain these more easily; 

je leur" ai donn^ des^ noms analogues h la 
/ to them have given — N. B. names analogous to the 

fonction qu' ils font dans la phrase; ainsi, j' appelle 
office which they perform in the sentence; so, 1 call 

LE, LA, LES ; DU, de LA, DES ; AU, & LA, AUX, article 

THE ; of or from the ; to or at the, 

defini^^^ parcequ' on** (se sert) de ces signes pour designer que 
definite^ because we use — • these signs to denote that 

le nom qui les** suit, est employ^ dans un sens dtfinP^y 

noun which them follows ^ is used in a sensB definite; 

comme, Apportez le* paint i^^' viande, les* habits, 

aSf bring the oready the meat, the clotJies, 

J* appelle DU, de LA, DES, article pariiiifi* parceque ces signes 

I call SOME, partitive, because these 

s'emploient h designer une portion de la substance, dont oa 
are used to denote a portion of the stib^anee, ("tf which J w^ 



A LA LANGUE FRANfAISE. 31 

DE L'aRTICLE. 

parle; comme, Donnez'inoi du* pain, de la* viande, des* habits. 

speak; as, give me some tyread, ioms meat, some clothes, 

J' appelleUN, UNE, et touts les autres nonibres article numeral, 

I call (a, an, one,) and all the other numbers numeral^^ 

lorsque ces sig^es s* emploient k nombrer les objets dont on 

when these are tised to number objects of which we 

parle ; com me, un* pain ; une* armee, 

speak; as, a, or one loaf; an army or one army, 

y appelle CE, CETTE, CES, article dSmonstralifi* 

THIS, that; this, that; these, those, demonstrative^ 

parceque c* est au moyen de ces sig^es qu* on*« indique 
because it is by the means of these that we point out 

le lieu oh. est V objet dont on parle; comme, 

the place where is the object of which we speak, or spoken of; as, 

CE* pain, CETTE* viande, ces* habits, 

this or that b^ead^ this or that meat, these or those clothes. 

S appellcMON, MA, MES; TON, TA, TES; SON, SA, SES; 

my; thy; his, or her, <w its; 

NOTRE, NOS ; VOTRE, VOS ; LEUR. LEURS, article possessifi* 
our; your; their; possessive, . 

parceque ces signes s* emploient k designer la possession de V objet 

because these are used to denote possession of 

dont on parle ; comme, moxN* pai7i, ta* viande, ses* habits. 

of which as, my bread, thy meat, his or her clothes,* 



* Some win perhaps be surprised to find under the head article, words which hare 
so long been consecrated to the class of pronouns. Though they certainly partake uf the 
nature of pronouns, by denoting the persons, they in reality are articles, used for the 
same purposes, in similar instances, and subject to the same rules as those words gene- 
rally Imown by the name of article. If it be objected, that when I say My book^ the word 
My is a pronoun, since it is the same as if I said, the book of Me. I answer, that as you 
cannot change the nature of these words without substituting an article in their place, 
they are as much articles as pronouns ; and if they have no afiinity at all to the syntax of 
pronouns ^especially in french^ and their affinity to the syntax of articles is so great, 
that the rules which are appUcaDle to one, are applicable to all ; why should not words, 
which have so great an analogy to each other, be set in one point of view, rather than 
send the learner from chapter to chapter for what he may, and ought to find in the same 
page 1 

** The genuine PRONQUai,'' says Harris, " always stands by itself, assuming the power 
of a noon, and supplying its place j the genuine article never stands by itself ^vlI appears 
at all times associated to something else, requiring a noun for its support, as much as 
attributives or adjectives."— /Zermw, page 73. 

Also Vabb^ d'Olivet : j'ai dit, en premier lieu que Tarticle est un adjectif; et si jo 
n'avois pas craint d'entasser trop de cKoses a la fois, j'aurois volontiers ajoute que cet 
adjectif est tiz6 de la classe des pronoms. Quand il pr^cdde un subst^tif on le nomme 
ARTICIR ; La pMOt nouvelle sejoue demain ; et quand il precede ou suit un verbe, Je la 
verrai, Voyes-lti, on 1' appelle pronom ; mais d ailleurs n'est-ce pas une chose qui con- 
rient a la plupart des pronoms adjecttjs d'etre mis avant le NOM a I'exclusion de /'article 
et avec la m6me proprUt^, comme quand je dis, ce papier, cette plume ; mon frere, votre 
sxur, &c. — Kssais de Grammaire chap. 9. 



e32 



INTRODUCTION 



CHAP. III. 
DE UARTICLE, ET DU NOM. 

Of the and of the 

RiOLES G^ Nig RALES. 

Rules general.^* 

l.Nousavons*vutqu*(ilya)enfran9ais We have* teenf - (there are) - - 

DEUX GENRES, Ic* mcLscuUn ct W fbminin ; two—, and ; 

qu' (il y a) deux nombres4 le* singulier that( ) ,% — 

et Ie> plurier } et npus avons vu§ que V and . — ; . — — — ^ the 

article est un sij^ne qu* on*' met avant un> - is a sign which toe put before - 
NOM, pour designer Tid^e qu' on*« veut expri- -, to denote the idea - we wish to 
merparcenom; (2i present) (sou venez-vous) express by that -; now remember 

que Ce* signe appel^ article, doit tOUJOUrs that this - called - must always 

^tre du^ m^me genre et du meme nom- be (of the) samt — - 

a* - - which follows it ; example, 
singular, plural, 

— -. — . — and — . 
the father, the mother, the children, 
of the — , of the — , of the — . 
to th£ — , to the — , to the — . 
a or one — , a or one — . 

(this, tliat, •'t) (this, that -,) (these, 

»ny — » 'ny — » w»y — . [those -,) 

thy — , thy — , thy — . 

(his, her-,) (his, her-,) (his, her-,)^ 



BRE que le^ nom qui le** suit ; exemple, 



SINGULIER. 
MASCULIN. FBMININ. 



LE perCj 
DU pere, 
AU pere, 
UN pere, 
CE pere, 
MON pcre, 
TON pere, 
SON pere, 
NOTRE pere, 
voTRE pire, 
LEUR pcre, 
DU pain J 



PLURIER. 
MASC. et Fl^MIN. 

LEs enfants, 
DEs enfanU, 
Aux en funis. 



LA mere, 

de LA mire, 

d LA wiere, 
UNE mere, 

CETTE 7werc,cEs enfanis, 
MA mere, mes enfanU, 
TA mere, tes enfanis, 
SA mere, ses enfanis, 
NOTRE mere, nos enfanis. 



our 



our- 



our 



your — , your ^, your — . 



VOTRE mire, vos enfanis, 

LEUR mere, leurs enfanis, thetr — , their — , their — . 
dcLA viande, des Aa62Y*, «,;„« fc^gad, ,om« wMt, s(me clothes, 

2. Nous (venons devoir) ^ que Tarticle We (have just seen) that — 
doit toujours fttre du* mj^me genre, et must always be (- — ) — — , - 
du^ m£me nombre que le* nom qui le** suit; (—) — « ^hick follows it ; 

* The english words which express the meaning of the french are placed in the margin. 
The words that have been frequently repeated, or which are the same in both languages, 
are left out, and a dash, this mark ( — ), put in their places, that the learner may have au 
opportunity to exercise his recollection. 

t Page 28. t Page 29. § Page 30. 

II I have frequently been aslced if, having only one word to express both His and her, we 
do not often commit mistakes in the use of that word. No, we never do ; because this sign 
always refers to a noun mentioned before, the gender of which we know ; So, when I say« 
Monfrere a perdu son couteau, My brothe^ has bst his knife ; I know by Son that it is the 
knife belonging to my brother, ma sociir a perdu son couteau, My sister has lost her knife ; 
I know by this Son that it is the knife belonging to my sister. But suppose a gentleman and 
a lady sat at table, and both let tlieir knives fall ; and a person said to a servant, Ramttsset 
son couteau, meaning the knife of the lady, which knife would the servant pick up ? Indeed 
he would not know, but a Frenchman would not express himself thus ; He would sAv : 
Ramassei le couteau de monsieur. Pick up the gentleman's knife : or, Ramassez U couteau de 
madame. Pick up the lady*s knife, by which all ambiguity would be avoided. 

1 Rulel. 



A LA LANGUE FKAN^AISE. 33 

DE l' ARTICLE ET DU NOM. 

cependant, comme la» langue fran9aise>* however m 

demailde une^ certaine M^LODIE dans requires a certain mehdy m 

Ia» liaison desf mots, et que la* rencontre - union (of the) -, - that - meeting 

de DEUX VOYELLES dans de*^ petits mots of two vowelt - tomf mall words 

tels que T' article, produit un son d^s- tuehas , produces a sound 

agr^ble h V oreille ; lorsque le^ nom qui — to the ear ; when 

suit r ARTICLE est SINGULIER, et qu' il follows " is -^t - that it 

commence par une^ voyelle, ou par une" begins with a — , o>* with a 
H muette, on*' emploie 



L au lieu de h'E, 



deV 



CET 
HON 
TON 
SON 



99 
99 
>t 

>* 



DU, 
AU, 

CE ; 
ma; 
ta; 
sa; 



la; 
c^eLA; 
a la; 



the; 

ofifrom the; 
to, at THE ; 

this or THAT ; 

my; 

thy; 

his, her, its ; 



- mute, we** use 

— instead of-^^ — ; 



sans considSrer le oenre du nom qui without considering — (of the) 



le«* suit ; exemple. 



MASCULIN. 

> « _» 



L age, h 
del/ dge,deL* 
d L* dffe,d l' 

get age, 

MON dge^ 

ton dge, 

BON dge^ 



FiUININ 

idee, h* heure. 

idee, deh* heure. 

idSe, a i/ heure. 
cettb idee, cette heure. 

BiON idee, mon heure.* 

TON idee, ton heure. 

SON idie, son heure. 



3. L' article se repete en fran^ais avant 
touts les noms, suivant le genre et le 
Dombre de chaque nom, quoique ces noms 
soient dans la m^me phrase, et que 1' 
article ne soit pas r^p^t^.en anglais; ex. 

IjE pire, la mere, et les enfants sont id, 

Je vou^ apporte du pain, de la 
mande, de l' argent, et des habits. 

II a invitS mon frire, ma soeur, 
et ME8 cousins.* 



follows tt** ; example, 

the age, the idea, the hour, 

of the — , of the — , of the — . 

to the », to the — , to the — . 

thisoithat^, this, that—, this, that — 

my — , my — , my — s 

thy —, thjf —, thy -~. 

his or /wr— , his, her — , his, fcr- — 

» — is repeated - — before 
all - — (agreeably to) end - 

- of each — •, though these - 
are in — same sentence, - 

— is M^ repeated in — ; ex. 

- — , - — , and - — " are here. 

J you** biHng some bread, wme 
meat, sonu money, — some clothes. 

He has -— my brother, my sister, 
and my cousins.* 



* Observe that two of the signs called article cannot be used before the same noun ; so 
we say le brcu, the arm ; la main, Uio hand, LA dame, the lady, UNE dame, a lady : MAdame. 
my lady, madam, Mrs. ; des (2ame<, «ome ladies ; M¥.sdames, ladies ; une demoiselle, a yoimg 
lady ; des demoiselles, some young ladies ; M^emoiselUs, ladies ; but we do not say, lk 
mon bras ; la ma main ; la madtune ; unb madame ; des mesdames ; la tfiademoiselle ; 
one mademoiselle ; des mesdemoiselles ; because each of these signs fixing the proper 
meaning of the noun, renders another sign superfluous. 

2V. B. From tliis rule must be excepted the words monsieur and messieurs, which 
though they are compounded of the noun siEUR, and of the article mon, Mes, will in some 
instances admit of tne other articles ; for we say : le monsieur, the gentleman ; UN nuni' 
flieur, a gentleman ; CE monsieur, this gentleman, &c. les messieurs, tlie gentlemen ; ces 
m«nieurs, these gentlemen ; nos mcisieurs, our gentlemen. These few singulartties will 
be learnt by custom. 



34 



INTRODUCTION 
DE i/aRTICLB £T DU NOV. 



REOLES PARTICULliRES. 

Rules particular,^* 

Cos ou tcn^^fait usage de I* article. 

lnMtan€u(in which) Vfg** make use qf the article. 

4. Uarticle ^tant un si^e destin^ h -— r being a iign intended t9 
annoncer Tid^e du nom qui le** suit, ce denote 'idsa (of the)" foUowei^, . 

signe serait superflu avant les noms qui, - fwmid be) superfluous which 

n* appartenant qu* k un seul 6tre, pr6- belonging only te one being, pre- 
sentent d'eux - monies une id^e Bxe^"; sent of themselves a -^ fixed; 

c'est pour cette raison que les noms de it is for this reason that - names of 

personnes et de viUes s'emploient, en persons -of towns are used, in 

fran^ais comme en anglais, sana article; french as in english, without - ; 

ainsi, nous disons ; m, we say ; 

Tai vu Voltaire^ Paris, Londres. I have seen — , — , London. 

Je parte de Voltaire, de Paris, de Land. J speak of — , — , — . 

Je prkfere Locke h Volt. Paris h Lond. I vrefer — ro — , — to — . 

5. Cette r^gle qui devrait 8*^tendre h Thurvletohickouglutoexundto 
touts les noms dont I'id^ ne peut changer, a/i - — (of which) - - cannot change 
n'est pas g^n^rale en fran^ais, comme elle m not general — ,asii 

Test en anglais, puisque les noms de is "^, since - names of 

pays demandeni Particle d^6ni» le, countries require le, 

LA, les ; DU, de la, DES ; AU, d la, !»» les ; du, de la, des ; au, a la, 

Aux, de m^me que les noms communs*^, •^*» *^* *«*»* « - ««"*« comnum, 

ainsi, (quol qu*) on disc sans article ; w> though wt^ soy without — , 

J^ai vu Paris, Londres ; I have seen Paris, London ; 

il faut dire avec Tarticle, «"« mvji say with - — -, 

J*ai vu LE Portugal, la France, I have seen the — , Hie — , 
h'Espagne, h*Angteterre. the Spain, the England. 

Je parte du Portugal, de la France, Iepeakofthe'-^,ofthe'^, 

de h^Espagne, de i.* Angleterre. of the — •, of the — . 

Je prSJdre i^Angleterre au Portugal, I prefer the -^ to the '^, 

LA France d iIEspagne. the — to the — . 

6. Mais les noms'< de pays perdent But countries lose 

I'article, quand ils viennent apr&s les — , when they come after - 

verbes qui d^signent demeurer, alter^ verbs - denott dwelUng, going, 

venir^ lorsqae ces verbes sont accompagn^s coming, wSien •> -*• ar< attended 

de la proposition en ou de ; car on dit: 6y - - en w de ; for we** say : 

Je viens de France, n* Italic. 1 eomefiom — ,from Italy. 

Je vais en HoUande, en Angleterre. 1 (go or am going) to — , to — • 

J^ai demeurS en Espagne, en Portugal. • have lived in Spain, in — . 

Et cette r^gle m^me a encore des And this rule even has still some 

exceptions qu' on verra dans la demi&re '-^whidt we shall see in the last 

partie, et que je n* ai pas voulu ., — have not (been willing) 

rapporter ici, de peur d'embarrasser les to mention -, for fear - emoarrasting - 

commenqants.v (II n* y a que) I'usage qui beginners.^ (his only) - custom widek 

puisse rendre ces variations famili^res . can render these -^ — . 



A LA LANGUB FRAN^AISE. S5 

DB l'aRTICLB ST DU KOM. 

7. Touts les noms communs^ emp\oj6s^ AU • name* e&mtnon}^ used 
dans un senM genirat^ oa Us n'ont point inaurue'(intDhieh)th&yhaietuft 
d'article en anglais; comme, bread is any -^ in englUh ; at, ^tLt^AO u 
good; ou dans un sens pariiculier^ oh good; or ina-parttcu/ar CmwA^M) 
* lis ont Tariicle the ; comine, the bread - hav€ — tHF. ; as, the bread 

VITHICH I EAT IS GOOD, dcmandent V which I eat » good, re^ttirtftAa 

article d^finiw le, la, lbs; du, de la, — rf«/ffttte le, la, les ; du, de la, 
DEs; AU, d LA, AUX ; ex* des ; axi, k la, aux ; ex. 

Sens g^n^raU*' ; T aime le paiuj la . _; / lUte bread, 
viande^ lbs (pqmmes de ierre.) ,^^^ (appUsefthe earth, i. e. 

Sens particulier^« ; T aime le pain^ potatoes.) - — ; - — tJie-^, 
LA viande, les (pommes de terre) que the — , the — , which 
vou» m*^*avez donnes. you me*^ have given. 

Sens g^n^ral ; Je parle du pain^ de la — ; I speak of^, of 
viande^ des (pommes de terre.) — , o/— . 

Sens particulier ; Je parle du pain, de — ; — of the ^, of 
LA viande f des (pommes de terre) que the -^t of the — which 
nous avons achetks, we have bought. 

Sens g6n€ral; Je prefere le fruit au — ; - prefer fruit to 
pain, h LA viande, aux {pommes de terre.) —, to — , to—. 

Sens particul. J e prefere i."^ fruit que — ; — the 

fai a sovper, au pain, 2i la viande, et I have at — , to the — , to the — , — 
AUX (pommes de terre) quefavais a diner, to the — which I had at dinner. 

9. Si on veut ne designer qu' une' por- If we wish to denote only a por- 
tion de la substance dont on** parle, il tionof — (of which )we*^ speak, we 
faut employer avant le nom, un des sigiies must use before — , one (of the) sigm 
partitifs^ DU, de la, des, exprim^s"* partitive du, de la, des, expressed 
en anglais par some ; mais il est bon d' — ^ some ; but it is proper to 
observer que le signe some s'omet tr^* observe that • -r some is left out very 

sou vent, et que les signes du, de la, often, du, de la, 

DES, doivent toujours s'exprimer. des, must always be expressed. 

II parait que ce signe est le in^me que It appears that this — is- same - 

celui** de Tarticle ddfini** op the, r^gi that*^of- ov the goLtmed 

par le mot portion SOUS-entendu, et que by - word portion underuood, - which 

nous avons ^t^ obliges d'admettre faute »« - been obliged to admit (for want) 

d'un autre signe pour designer eette id^e ; of another — to denote this idea ^ 

ainsi, quand je dis ; eo, when I say : 

n m^'a donne du paifi^ de la viande^ He m$** hat given some -, eome-^t 

DBS (pommes de terre ;) same — ; 

c' est comme si je disais ; it it at if ^ said ; 

// m^ a donne une portion dv pain. He m^ hat - a portion of ^, 

de LA viande, des (pommes de terre.) cf — , of—. 

8.- Cette regie a deux exceptions. Ihit rule hat ttpoe*cepiums. 

La premiere est que les signes partitifs" - first is that — partitive 

du, tie LA, DBS, etant les monies du, de la, dea, being - saw 

que ceux de Tarticle d^fini^ of the; at those of the — definitive or the 



d2 



3f6 INTRODUCTION 

DE L*ARTICLE ET DU NOM. 

quand un nom employ^ dans un sens when a noun uted in a ^ 

partitif^ est r^gi par un autre nom, il ne — is governed by another — , ice 

faiit pas employer du, de la, DES, qui tnmt not use du, de la, des, which 

rendraient Tid^e particuliere et ddsigne- (toould make) - idea - - (would 

raient of the; il faut employer seulement denote^ of the ; we mmt use only 

DE avant le nom ; ainsi, 11 faut dire; de before--^; to, we.mutt say ; . 

II m^^a donne un morcemi de pain^ He m^ has given a piece of —, 

une livre de viande; Non, un morceau du <^poundof—; not, a piece (of the) 

pain^ une livre de la viande, — , — of the — . 

J*ai une grande quantite de (pommes I have a great quantity of -^ ; 

de terre :) Non, des pommes de terre. not, (of the) '^, 

N. B. On doit comprendre dans cette We^ must include in this 

r^gle les mots suivants** qui prennent de rule - words following which take de 

avant le nom qui les** suit, quand ce nom before follows them, when - - 



BEAUCOUP ; 



TANf 



autant; < 
plus; 

MOINS ; 

TROp; 



est employ^ dans un sens partitif^ 
ASSEZ \ ex. assez de pain, 

{heaucoup de viande. 

{beaucoup de gens, 

{tant D*argent. 
tant de pommes de terre, 

{autant de pain, 

[autant de gem, 

plus DE viande, 

moins D*argcnt, 

Urop DE peine, 

\trop D* en f ants, 
PEU ; peu DE pain, 

GU^RE ; guere p^ habits, 

PAS, {pas D*argent, 

point; (poijit D'amis, 

JAMAIS ; jamais de repos, 

10. La seconde exception est que si lenom 
employ^ dans un sens partitif^^ est ae- 
compagn^ d'un adjectif, et que cet adjectif 
pr^c^de le nom, au lieu des stgnes du, de 
LA, DES, avant le nom, on met de avant 
t adjectif, sans considerer le genre ou le 
nombre du nom qui l^ suit, et ce de avaiit 
Tadjectif, d^signe la m^me id^e que les 
signes du, de la, des, avant le nom ; ex. 

roici DE bon pain^ D*exceltente viande, 
de jeunes (pommes de terre,) 

Mais si le nom priicede Tadjectif,* il 
faut revenir, aux signes du, de la, des, 
eton** doit dire; 

Void Du» pain frais,^ de la* viande 
excellente,^^ des» (pommes de terre) rSties, 



is used in partitive ; 

Enough ; ex, enough of bread. 

Much, 

Many J 

So much, 

So many ; 

As much. 

As many ; 

More ; 

Less ; 

Too much, 

Too many ; 

Little, few; 



) mttcA - meat ; 
'many - people, 

}so much • money ; 
so many - potatoes, 
}as much - bread ; 
i 



y. 



I as many - people, 
more • meat, 
less - money. 
\too mv^h - trouble 
'too many - children 

little . 

Little, few ; few - clothes. 

No. not; i«of money; 
Knot •friends. 
Never ; never • rest, 

—- second -— is that if - noun 
used in a sense partitive is 
attended by an adjective, and that this • 
precedes - — , instead (of the) — du, d€ 
la, des, before - — , we^ u«e de before 

- — , without centering - -^ or • 

— (of the) - which — if,** -this de - 

- — , denotes - same idea as - 

— du, de la, des, — - — ; — . 
(Here is) some good — , some , 

some young potatoes. 

But if ,'— precedes - — , we 
must return to the — du, de la, des, 
and we** must say ; 

(Here is) new^ - — 

excellent, roasted 



• See niles 16 and 17. 



A LA LANGUE FRAN^AISR. 37 

DE PLUSIEUR8 N0M8 ENSEMBLE. 

11. Quelquefois plusieurs nouiS (se Sometimes uveral — 

rencontrent dans la m^me phrase, ay ant meet in " game sentence, having 

une esp^ce de rapport ensemble ; com me, a kind of reference together; as, 

quand je dis ; Le livre de pierre ; ces mots when I say ; The — of Feter ; these - 

i^ PIERRE ajout^ k iivre, servent, outre V of Peter added to -, serve, besides ^ 

id6e de livre, h donner celle de possession, idea of^, to give that of possession,' 

Les Aiiglais ont plusieurs manieres de The English have several ways of 
placer ces noms en rapport. placing these nouns in reference, 

Quelquefois ils les»* placent dans Y Sometimes they t*m»* place in the 

ordre que les id^S consider^es S^part^- order that - - considered separately 

ment se^ pr<$sentent ^ T esprit ; comme, themselves present to - mind ; as. 

The BOOK of PETER ; The pen of the mas- ; 5 

TER ; The crown of the king. . 

Quelquefois ils renversent 1' ordre des ^'•reveru^'^ofthe 

mots, et placent le nom du possesseur wcrds, name of the possessor 

avant celui^ de la chose poss^dee ; before that of - thing possessed ; 

comme, peter'« book ; the master'* at, ; - -^ 

PEN 5 the KINQ*S CROWN. — ,* 

D*autres fois enfin, ils donnent k (I'un) At other times in short, - give to . 

de ces noms la propri^t6 d'un adjectif; et - - nouns - property of an adjective, - 

le^ placent avant la chose qu'il df^signe ; «* thing vshith it denotes ; 

The street-door; london-porter ; a - — — ; — — ; - 

GOLiy-WATCH; SILK-STOCKINGS. ; , 

Les Fran9ais au contraire n' ont qu' The Fren^ on the contrary have 0Hi,y 

une manidre de placer ensemble ces oneway of placing together - 

noms; fls placent invariablement le pre-' nowns; They ^ invariably - first, 

tnier, le nom qui est le svjet du'' discovrs, . . which is - subject (of the J discourse. 

et ces deux noms s'unissent ensemble •- two- are united « 

par le moyen des signes de, du, de la, by • tneans (of the) signs -, -, - -, 

DES, suivant que le nom est ou 'propre on ., according as-- is either proper ot 

commun, dt^fini ou partitif; ainsi, dans common, definite or partitive; so, in 

cet* exemple; peter'« book: le sujet du^ this-; --; thesulyect(ofthe)f 

discours ^tant a book, et (non pas) peter, discourse being - ., and not - 

on doit commencer la phrase par Uvre, wg** must begin - sentence by ^—^ 

et dire : Le livre^ Demande, le livre de . say : The ., Query, . - o/ 

qui ? R^ponse, de Pierre, Dans cet autre ; Ufhom? Ans, of Peter, In - other; 

The master'* pen; le svjet du'' discours ; ^^(ofthej-- 

i^tant a pen ; on doit commencer la phrase being a-, we must begin - — 

par PEN, et on doit dire; La plume, D. by ',~wennuisay; the pen, Q, 

.a plume de qui ? R. du tnattre. - - ofwhsml A, of the master, 

Et dans ces autres phrases : The street- — arter sentences : Ihe — 

/)00R ; LONDON-BEER ; a GOLD-WATCH ^ —i--'^ ;-.-«.*-.;, 



38 INTRODUCTION 

DB PLUSIEURS NOMS ENSEMBLE. 

silk-stockings; le sujet du^ discoiirs '^..(ofthe)^ 

f^tant DOOR, BEER, WATCH, STOCKINGS, 6«n^ ■—,—,—, —, 

ces iDoU doivent se placer les premiers, these - mu*t be placed - first, 
et on doit dire : we must say • 

La* porte db la> rue, - door of- street, 

De ]a" biere^ PS Londrea. Some beer of London. 

Une* montre n'or. Des" ha$ de 9oie. . wateh of gold, - stockings of silk, 

12. (II y a) des* CaS oa T* on ne pour- (There are) -instances (in which) 

rait pas changer ainsi I'ordre des mots en could not change so - - (of the) - in 

anglais, sans chftnger aussi Tidf^e qu' on englisk, without • also - - which w^ 

veut exprimer; par exemple, si, au lieu wish to express; for — , i/, instead 

de dire; a WINE-QLASS ; a WATBB'POT ; of saying; : ; 

on disait, a glass of wine; a pot of we saidy -- of - ; • - of 

water; on^ exprimerait une id6e (tout- —; we should express an - 

k-fait) difT^rente*' ; cependant ces noms quite different ; yet these nouns 

demandent cet ordre en fran^ais, mais require this order in french, but 

au lieu de les** unir par les signes de, du, instead of them uniting by --de, da, 

de LA, DBS, on les^ unit par la pr6- de la, des, we them^ unite by - pre- 

position A. Ceci arrive quand on position a. This Jiappens when we^ 

veut designer Vusage, et non la possession wish to denote - use, 

de la chose dont on parle ; ex. - - • (of which) we speak ; ex, 

Un verre A vin. Un pot A eau. A g^ M /<w »»«<• - ?otfitfw water. 

Une CuiUer A the, De«* armes A feu, - spoon fit for tea.- arms fit to fire with 

Un$ac A poudre, Un movUn A ventf A bag fit for pounder, A mill to be 

Itumed by the %Dind,f 



»* When ON comes after the conjunctions et, 81, ou, or any word ending in ov or on, or 
between que and a verb beginning with con or com, the letter L' is generally placed before 
ON, to soften the sound of these words which othem-ise would be disagreeable ; so we say ; 
C'est un pays ou L'on vit a bou marck£ ; it is a country where people live cheap : On apprend 
t)lus facilement les choses que L'on comprendf que celUs que L'on ne comprend pas ; people learn 
more easily the things which they understand, than those which they do not understand: 
fu on vitf ^c. qu'an comprend, &(o, would be harsh to the ear. But if these words were follow- 
ed by LE, LA, LES, L' must not bo added to qn, as it would then cause the same discordance 
which it is intended to remove ; so we say ; Si on ^ "savait. Not, Hi l'on te savait ; if people 
knew it. On estimerait davantage la seietice, si on !a coimaissait. Not, si l'on la connaissait ; 
people would esteem learning more, if they were acquainted with it. 

JV. B, Some authors make frequent, use of this l' without any necessity. 

t This rule is not without some excAptiona ; for we say ; un pet de chamhre ; a chamber- 
pot. Une fille DE chambre ; a chamber-maid. Un bonnet DE nuil ; a night-cap. Un mou- 
c/tot'r DE poc/i« ; a pocket-handkerchief. Un cheval DE carrosM, a coach-horse, &c. These 
few exceptions will be learnt by reading, and in conversation. 

N, B. Many of tliese compound names are expressed by a single word in french ; aa 
Coach-man, Cocher ; Foot-man, Laquais ; Fisher-man, Picheur ; Fisli-market, Poissoiuierie ; 
Fish-bone, ilrete; Water-fall, Cajcaiitf ; Counting-house, Compioir; Coach-house, i?emu«,- 
Arm-chair, Fauteuil, &;c. These expressions are all found in the dictionaries, and will be 
learnt by reading. 



A LA LANGUE FRANfAISE. 39 

CHAP. IV. 

DES ADJECTIFS. 

Quelquefbis on*« veut designer les Sometimes w*« with to denote 

qualites des personnes, ou des choses dont qualitiet{pfthe)-oT{'-)things{of which) 

on^ parle ; commc quand je dis : we** tpeak ; at when I tay : 

Un} BON marif Une^ belle ^^TTime, A good hutband, A fine woman, 

De^^ .lOLIS enfants^ Des fruits nt'RS;^ Some pretty children, Fruitt ripe ; 

les mots boUt belle, jolis, fnUrs, qui ser- iheword^ good, fine, pretty, ripe,— 

vent ^ designer la qualite des substances tervetodenate'quality(ofthe)^^ 

dont je parle, s'appelient ADJBCTIPS. (ofwhu^) - tpeek^ are called — . 

13. L*adjectif doit 6tre du mImz -• mutt he ("of the) tame 
GENRE et du MiME NOMBRE que le nom gender and (—)' number at 
qu* il qualifie. which it qualifies. 

Le f^inin d' tm adjectif se forme en - feminine ef an -it formed by 

ajoutant e must au masculin ; ex. adding e mute to the • ; ex, 

Voild un JOLi gar^'on ; il est Men (That it) a pretty hmf; he it well 

HABILLE. dretted. 

Voila une JOLie^lle; die est tres^bien C") • pretty gvtl; the - very foell 
HABILLie. dressed. 

Except d les adjectifs qiii (se terminent) Except - - that end 
en e muet, qui sont les m^mes pour *** ^ mute, which are the sarne for 
(le« deux) genres ; ex. both - ; ex. 

Un JEUNE homme AIMABLE.'* - young man omieAle. 

Une^ JEUNE femme aimable.^" • • woman -^^ 

Excepted aussi les adjectifs qui (se ter- - alto • - that end 

minent) en a?, lesquels changent ip en se m x, which change x into 9m 

pour le ft^minin ; ex. /•r -; ex. 

Mon frere est paresbeuj?. My brother it Uay, 

Ma sceur est parE8SEU«c. My sitter - lazy 

Le plurier des adjectifs se forme de - plural (of the) - is formed tn 
la m^me mani^re que celui des noms, en - tame manner at that (of the) -, by 
ajoutant « ou j? au singulier ; ex. adding sim* z fto the) — ; ex. 

Une JOhi'RjUle. D^^ JOIAZS JiUss. A pretty girL Some". 

Un beau chapeau. De beaux chapeaux. A fine hat. Some fine hatt. 

14. Quand un adjectif qualifie plusieurs When an • qualifiet teveral 
noms du m^me genre, il doit 6tre dii '(ofthe)tame''itnutttbe(''-) 
M iME genre que ces noms, et plurier ; ex. •— - « thote — , — ; ex* 

Mon pere et mon frere sont occvvis. My father - - brother are imtpr 

Ma mere et ma sceur sont occupies. My mc^er - - tkter - -. 

15. Si un adjectif qualifie plusieurs If • - quoHfieS teieml 
noms de genres differents,^^ V adjectif - of ^ different, - - 

doit fetre masculin'* et plurier ; ex. must be masculine - - ; ex 

Mon pere et vtd mere sont occupis. - - and . 



40 



INTRODUCTION 

DBS ADJECTIFS. 



16. En anglais les adjectifs se placent In englhh -• are placed 

ordinairemeut avant le nom ; en fran- generally before -^infrenrh 

qSLlS lis se placent APR^S le nom ; ex. they are placed after --i ex, 

Un habit rouoe. Un chapeau noir. A coat red, • hat black, 

Un^ tahle RONDE/ Un baton ROMPU. A table round, - ttiek broken. 



17. De cette r^gle on doit excepter les 
adjectifs, (beau, bel, belle ;) (bon,bonne ;) 

QRAND ; (OROS, GROSSE ;) JEUNE ; JOLI ; 
MAUVAIS ; MiCHANT ; . MEILLEUR ; II^ME ; 
MOINDRE ; PETIT ; PLUSIEURS ; TOUT ; 

(viEUX, viEiLLE ;) qul se placent 
ordinairement avant le nom ; car on dit : 
Un BON mari, Une belle femme, 

De joLis enfants, Un g|ios arbre. 
Une PETITE maison,.Un QRA^DJardin, 

' Les mSmes mots qui servent k qua- 
lifier les noms, servent aussi au moyen 
des adverbes, h en** comparer les qualites. 

Quand on compare ensemble deux 
substances, la quality d* une de ces 
substances est ou superieurCf ou infif- 
rieuret ou egale k la quality de I* autre; 
et ceci s* appelle comparatip; ou la 
quality d' une de ces substances est 
(au-dessus de) toutes les autres; et ceci 

S' appelle SUPERLATIF. 

IS. Le comparatif de svperioriti se forme 
en mettant plus avant fadjectif ; ex. 
Monfrere est plus grand que vous. 

19. Le comparatif d* inferiorite se forme 
par MOiNS, ou pas si avant Tadjectif ; ex. 

Mon frere eat moins grand ou iH eat 
PAS si grand que vous, • 

20. Le comparatif d' egalite se forme 
en mettant aussi avant I'adjectif ; ex. 

Monfrere est aussi grand que vous, 

21. Le superlatif se forme en ajoutant 
r article aux particules comparatives^ 
PLUS, HOiNs; ex. 

Mon frere est le plus grand. 
Ma sceur est la moins grande,^ 
Vos aifants sont les plus grands,^ 
Mon meilleur ami. Sa plus belle robe* 



From this — tiw** must except - 

— Cfi^^y handsome ;) good y 

(great, large, tall;) big; young ;prelly , 

bad; vncked; better; same; 

less ; {little, small ;) several ; {all, whoU ;) 

old; which are placed 

generally before •-; foruesay : 

• - hudnind, - - woman. 
Stmt - children, - big tree, 

• small house, • large garden. 

• same — which serve to qua^ 
lify , - also (by the) means 

(of the J -to( of them J compare . 

When we compare together two 
substances, of one of these 

— is either superior, or infe- 
ricr, or equal to "^ of the other ; 

and this is called comparative ; or the 

— of one of these — is 
above all tlie others ; — this 
is called superlative. 

The — of superiority u formed 

by putting plus before ; ex, 

"is (more tall or taller J than -, 

llie — of inferiority is formed 
by moins or pas si ^-the — ; ex. 

My — is less tall, or is not 
so ttdl as — -. 

The — of equality is formed 

by putting aussi before ; ex. 

My — M fl« tall as — 

The — is formed by adding 

the — (to the) 

plus, moins ; ex. 

My — is the most tall, or • tallest. 

My — u the least tall. 

Your - are - most tall, or - tallest, 

'best friend, tier finest gow^. 



A LA LANGUE PRAN^AISE. 41 
CHAP. V. 
DES PRONOMS. 

Comme il serait souvent ennuyeux de As it would b$ often tedwut to 

r^p^ter les m6mes noms, ou^ a adopt<$ ^-^ the same -, v>g** haoe adopted 

certains petits mots pour representer ces certain small wards to represent these 

noms, et que pour cette raison on^ a — ., . whieh for this reason we^ have 

appel6s PRONOMS ; ainsi, quand je dis : called — ; so, when I say: 

JE ou HOI ; ces mots je ou moi re- I or me ; these — I or me 

pn^sentent mon nom ; tu, toi; nous; name; thou, thee, (we, us;) 

YOU8 ; IL, LUI ; ILS, EUX ; ELLE, yoQ ; he,him; they, them ; (she.her;) 

ELLES, repr^sentent les noms de quel- (they, them,) — names of 

ques autres persomies. some other persons, 

On^ distin^e les pronoms en per- hV distinguish the — into per- 

SOMNELS, RELATIFS, P088E8SIFS, DiMON- sonal, relative, possessive, demon^ 
STRATIFS, INDiFINIB. strative, indefinite. 

DES PRONOMS PERSONNELS**. 

Les pronoms personnels** sont ceux The •— ^^* are such 
de ces mots qui tiennent ordinairement of these - which heep usually 
la place des personnel, ' rof'^9 ov are used instead of — . 

On distingue en grammaire trtm per- We distinguish in ^ three 

sonnet. La premiere personne est celle persons. The first person u that 

qui parle; comme, jb stiis, nous sommes; who speaks; as, I am, v^e are ; 

la Kconde personne est celle h qui on parle ; . secmd to whom we speak ; 

commci TU «, vous Hes; et la troisieme «, thou art, you ar«; --third 

personne est celle dont on parle ; comme, (of whom) we speak; as 

IL ett^ ELLE est; ILS sont^ ELLES sont; he if, she -; they ore, they - ; 

mus chacune de ces personnes est repr<S- hut eacn . these — is 

sent^e par plusieurs mots difTt^rents**. represented by several - different^^. 

Les pronoms qui repr<$sentent la pre^ The ^ which represent ~ 

miere personne sont je, hoi* ; bie, hoi* ; first — > are l* ; me* : 

NOUS. (we, us.) 

Ceux qui repr($sentent la seconde sont Those which -^ the second are 

TU, TOI* ; TE, TOI* ; vous. thou* ; thee* ; you. 

Ceux qui repr^sentent la troisUme sont Those which — the third are 

IL, LUI* ; ILS, EUX* ; LE, LUI* ; he» ; they* ; him* ; 

LES, LEUR*; pour le mas; ELLE. ELLES; them* ; for the — ; she, they; 

LA, LUI* ; LES, LEUR* ; pour le fern ; her* ; them* ; forthe .; 

mais ces mots ne (s*emploient) pas -in- but these - (are used) not 

diff^remment I'un pour I'autre. indiscriminately the one for the other. 

Pour rendfe ce sujet plus clair. To render this subject more clear, 

il me** semble necessaire de diviser it (to nu^) seems necessary to divide 

ces pronoms en nominatifi ou agents these -^ into — or agents 
du verbe, et en objcts du verbe. (of the) verb, and into objects (^ -) — . 

* These two words are expressed by the same word in engUsh, but they ^% ;iQt used 
indiscriminstely in fresch, as will appear by tbe following rules. 



42 INTRODUCTION 

DES PR0N0M8 PERSONNELS. 

Par nominatifs ou agents du verbe, je By — w^ (of the) - J 

(veux dire) les mots qui dirigent Taction mean - wards wJdeh dheet the • 

du verbe ; et par objets du verbe. les mots (of the)-; -hy objeeu(oftht) », - 

qui en** re^oivent 1' action; ainsi, dans w&u^fo/tt**^rteenw- •; joytn 

cette phrase, je voud** aime ; je est le tlm sentence, I you** lave, lU- 

nominatif ou agent du verbe aime^ ct - or ^ («^ the) - looe^ . 

vous en** est V objet; et dans cette autre, youfo/it«»^£i- -; . - thU other, 

vous** M* aimez; vous est le nomiiiO' youmeiove; yoats 

tif du verbe aimez ; et me en^ est V objet. (of the) - love ; - me (of »t**J is r - 

Les pronoms ruiminaiifi^ sont pour la The — nonAnoHv^^ ate far . 

premiere personne, je, moi, singulier ; first — I,nngular; 

NOUS, plurier ; pour la seconde personne, weypkmd; -- second — 

TU, TOI, singtdier; vous, plurier; thou, «n^wlar; you, piurai; 

pour la troisieme au masculinj il, lui, "third (in the) nuxsailine,hey 

singulier; ils, .eux, plurier; pour nngular; tkey, plural ; - 

la troisieme au feminin, ELLE, siTZglZ- - t&ird f i» tA«J feminine, she, lin^i 

/zer; elles, plurier; mais les mots 2ar; they, pZuroi; 6ut. > 

je 07/ moi; TU ou TOI ; il oului; ils jeormoi; tuortcM; Uorloi; ils 

ou EUX, (ne s' emploient pas) indiffd^- or eux, (are not used) indis- 

remment 1* un pour V autre, cnndnatehf ih£ one Jbr the other. 

22. JE, TU, il, ils, b' emploient Je, ta, il, ils, ar« uvd 
(toutes les fois qu') il y a dans la phrase whenever there is in > sentence 
un verbe qui peut s'accorder avec ces pro- a - which may agree with — ; 
noms ; ex. je SuiSt TU es, il e^^, ils sont. -I am, thou art, he is, they are, 

23. MOi, TOI, lui, eux, vs' em- Moi, toi, lui, eux, ar« u«<2 
ploient lorsque ces mots sont joints k un wAmtAese- are joined toon* 
autre substaiitif pour nominatif du mime ether — for -^ (of the) same 
verbe, ou lorsque le verbe est sous-enten* .., or when — is understood ; 
du ; ex. Qy,i est Id ? moi. Ce n* est pas ex. Who is there? L Jtisnot 

MOI qui ai fait cela ; d est lui. Vous J who have done that ; it is he. You 

et MOI nou^s irons. Toilet lui vou^ res* -1 will go. Thou-he<WZ 

terez. Ce sont eux qui we** V^ ont dit, stay. It is they - me it** have told 

N, B. NOUS, vous. SLLE, ELLES, N. B. I^ous, Tous, eUe, elles, 

etant invariablement les miimes dans touts being invariably - same in all 

les7 cas, ne prcbentent aucune difficultt^. instances, present no difficulty. 

Les pronoms o6;e^« du verbe sont pour The (of the) — are far 

la premiere personne me, moi, sing; . first -^ me, singular ; 

NOUS, plur ; pour la seconde personne us, piuroZ; ; 

TE, TOI, singul ; vous, plur ; pour thee, singular ; you, plural ; - 

la troisieme personne au masculin, le, - third - in the masculine, him, 

LUI* singul ; les, LEUO, eux, plur ; him singular ; them, plural ; 

pour la troisieme personne au feminin (in the) feminine 

LA, lui, elle, singul; les, leur, her, nn^uW ; them, 

elles, plur; mais ces mots ne s'em- lihem plural; but theses are used 

ploient pas indifft^remment. n«t indiscriminately. 



A LA LANGUE FRANfAlSE. 43 

DES PRONOMS FSBSONNELS. 

• 

Les pronoms objets du verbe se placent 27k« — — ("^ the) — an placed 

tantdt avant^ et iaotot (tprei le verbe ; et umtHmu befere^ - - afUr - • ; - 

le choix de ces mots depend de la place -cAoiceo/ — dependt vn - pUue 

que ces pronoms occupent dans la phrase. ... keep in • aenteuoe. 



24. Prenez pour r^gle g(Sn^rale^* que les 
pronoms objets du verbe, se placent en 
fran^ais avant le verbe qui le^ r<^git; 
dans ces cas mb s' exprime par me, 
et THEE par tb ; ainsi on dit : 
U ME voit. ME voiUil ? 

n TE voit, TB voit^U ? 

n LE voit. LE voit-U ? 

H LA voit, LA voii-il? 

H NOUS voit, NOUS voit-U ? 

II vous voit Yous voit'U ? 

II LES voit, LES voit'il 9 



Take for rule — that - 
--* . (efthej ., art pJocMl ii» 

— btfare - — ux&tcft -•• governe; 

- tAcM tfifteiMet - ie ex pre eud - 



// ne ME tH>i7 j9a«. 
II ne TE V027 pox. 
line LIB voit pas. 
II ne LA voit pas. 
II ne NOUS voit pas. 
n ne VOUS voit pas. 
n ne LES voit pas. 



Ne HE voit-il pas ? 
Ne TE voit-il pas ? 
Ne LE voit'il pas ? 
Ne LA voit'U pas ? 
Ne NOUS voit'il pas ? 
Ne VOUS voit'il pas ? 
Ne LES voit'il pas ? 



Heme teet. 


Me 


tees he?* 


- thee -. 


Thee 


.? 


. him -• 


Him 


-? 


- her -. 


Her 


'? 


- ns 


Us 


• 


- you -. 


You 


-? 


- them-* 


Them 


• 


He me sees not. Me sees he not ?X 


- thee - -, 


Thee 


. . •? 


- him - -. 


Him 


- - - ? 


- her - - 


Her 


. - - ? 


- us - -, 


Ua 


- - - ? 


- you - - 


You 


- - - t 


- them - -, 


Them 


. . . ? 



25. Observez senlement que si le verbe 
qui r^git ces pronoms est compost d'un des 
verbes auxiliaires^ avoir ou Atre^ et d'un 
participe passe*^ les pronoms se placent 
avant le verbe cnunliaire^, non entre le 
verbe auxiliaire et le participe ; ainsi on dit : 



II m' a vu. 
II '^ a vu. 
II L* a vu. 
II l' a vue. 
II NOUS a vas, 
11 vous a vus. 
II LES a vus. 

line i^ a pas vu. 
II net^ a pas vu. 
II ne l' a pas vu. 
It ne i! a pas vue. 



M* a-t*'il vu ? 
t' a-t-il vu ? 
il a-t-il vu ? 
L* a-t'U vue ? 
NOUS a-t-U vus ? 
VOUS a-t-U vus? 
L£s a-t-U vus ? 

Ne M* a^t*-il pas vu? 
Ne 1^ a*t-il pas vu ? 
Ne L* a-t'll pas vu ? 
Ne h* a-t-'ilpas vue? 



Observe only that if 

- governs ' - is compounded - - (- -^ 

- auxiUary^^ have or be, and - - 
participle pasi^^, - '—are placed 
before - - — , not between - 

- — ; so we say : 

Heme has seen. Me has he -?$ 
- thee - -. Thee - - 



- him* - 

- her - 
-us 

- you - 

- them - 



Him 

Her 

Us 

You 

Them 



// ne NOUS a pas vus, Neiiovsart-tlpasvus? 
II ne VOUS a pas vus. NeyoVAa-t-Upasvus? 
II ne LE^ a pas vus. Ne les a-t-U pas vus ? 



Heme has fut teen. Mehashe * 

- thee - - -• Thee - - 

- him « - •• Him 

• her • .' •. Hep - - 

- us - - -. Us - - 

- you - - -, You - • 

- them* - -• Them - > 



a 



* The letter (t) has not any meaning here, it is added only to soften the pronunciation. 
^ Proper english. Does he see nu, 6;c. t -^o^ henotseeme? S;c. 

$ Proper englisb, Has he seen me, S^c, H Has he vot seen me ? 6fc, 



44 INTRODUCTION 

DBS PR0N0H8 PERSONNELS 

26. Cette regie est sujette" h deux ThUruUUliabUtotwi 
exceptions; la premier^ est que si on*« —; -fintUthatifwe^ 
commande, les pronoms se placent apres command, — are placed after 
le verbe; alors on^ exprime me par "—; theHwe**expren^by 
UOI, et THEE par TOI. moi, and ^-^ by toi. 

27. Mais si le verbe defend^ les pro- Butxf — forbids,-^ 
noms rentrent dans la rfegle generale», et -^rehiminto , . 

se placent avant le verbe; alors me s'ex- arep^edbefoie ; then-^is 

prime par me, et thee par te ; ex. exprested (y me, — byte; ex. 

Commandement.* D6fense.V Conlmanding Forbidding. 

Regarde^Moi.^ Ne me r^^arrfe pas. look at me. Me look at not, 

Regarde-TOi. Ne tb regarde pas. _ -thyself. Thyself--.. 

Regardez-Novs, Neiiovsregardezpas, _ -us. Us . 

RegardeZ'YOVS. Ne vous regardez pas. — . yourself. Yourself - - -. 

Regardons-j.^^. Ne le regardom pas. Let us look at him. Him Ut us not look ^ 

Ri^gardonS'LA, Ne la regardons pas her. Her 

RegardonS'LEs. Ne les regardons pa% them. Them 

28. Les pronoms ne sont pas toujours The -^ art not always 

r^gis^ par les verbes ; ils sont sou vent govemedby the --; they are oflen 

r6gis par une preposition qui les** unit which them*^ unites 

au verbe qui les«* accompagne ; alors le (totla) tJiem*^ attends ; then - 

pronom <5tant Tobjet de la proposition, et -- being the object of the—, ^ 

non Tobjet du verbe, il se place apres \a. not- •^( of the) -^^ it is placed after - 

proposition; et me s'exprime par moi; — ; — is expressed by moi; 

TH££. par toi; him par lui ; her — 6y toi ; — fcylui; — 

par elle; them par eux; masc. ; par by eVLe, --by eux, —; by 

elles ; fern. ; ex. elles, — ; ex. 

riens a moi. Assieds-toi (prfes de) moi. Come tome. Sit thyself by me. 

Nous parlions de toi . Allons avec lui. - were speaking - thee. Let us go ' liim 

Je ne puis pas y alter sans elle. J cannot go there without her. 

AveZ'Vous pense h eux, mas, ; & elle.b f. ? Haoe you thought of them 1 

29. S'il arrive que pi usieurs pronoms If it happens that several -^ 
soient rtf gis par le m6me verbe, ils se are governed by - same — , they are 
placent ensemble dans I'ordre qui. suit ; placed together in - oider -^follows - 

Les pronoms de la premiere personne The first -^ 

ME, nous; ceux de la seconde te, me, nous;Ma» te, 

vous ; et celui de la troisiSme se, se vous ; - that - - third se ; are 

placent avarz^ touts les autres pronoms; placed before all- otW — ; 

le, la, les, se placent avant lvi, le, la, les, lui, 

LEUR, Y, EN ; lui, IrEUR, avant y, leur, y, en ; lui, leur, p— y, 

EM ; et Y avant en. en ; - y — en. 

Except^, lorsqu' on emploie moi, toi. Except, when we use moi, toi, 

au lieu de me, te; car alors moi, toi, tnrtetwi o/ me, te; /ort^«n moi, to*, 

se placent apres les autres pronoms. are placed after - other — . 

Et lorsque moi ou toi rencontrent And %nhen moi or toi meet 

le pronom en, ils se chan^ent en m*, — en, - are changed into m* 

T*, et se placent avant en. Toutes ces t*,- are placed — en. All these 

vari^tlQIlS se font pour la^ mtSlodie ; ex. — are made forf melody ; ex. 



A LA LANGUE FRAN^AISE. 
DE8 PROWUM8 PERSONNELS. 



45 



Pronomt avant /e verbe, regie 24 et 25. 

PREMIERE PERSONNE. 



Praiumu apr&s U verbe, regie S6, 



tl ME LE donnat, 
II ME LA donna ; 
It ME LES donna ; 
II M' EN donnu. ; 
II NOUS LE donna ; 
II NOUS LA donna ; 
//NOUS LES (/onna; 
II NOUS EN donna ; 
J/ M' y a envoy t ; 
U ME l' Y a e})iM)y^ ; 
7/ ME LES Y a envoy£s; 
II M' Y EN a envoye; 
7/ NOUS raenooySe; 
IliiOV»V Yaenvoy£; 
U NOUS LES Y a envoys ; 
II NOUS Y EN a eiwoyi; 



II TE LK donna , 
r/TE LA (ionna, 
// TE LE8 donna ; 
II T EN d4mtia ; 
// VOUS LE donna ; 
II VOUS LA donna ; 
II VOUS LES donna ; 
II YOVSev donna; 
IIT* Y a envoys ; 
II TE l' Y a envoye'; 
II TE LES Y a envoy£s ; 
II T* Y EN a envoye ; 
nyOVSYaenvoyd; 
II VOUS L' Y a envoys ; 
II VOUSles Ya envoy £s; 
II VOUS Y EN a envoys ; 



Heme him or it* gave 



- her or it* -. 
• them -. 
me some -. 
VLB him or it* 

- her (w it* -. 

- them -• 

- some -• 



I>(mn«s*LE-MOI ; 
D(mn«E-LA-MOI, 
Donnez-LES-MOI -, 
Donnez-M* EN ; 
Donna-NOUS-LE ; 
£>onn«z-NOUS-LA ; 
DoMn«5-NOUS-LES ; 
D(mn«.NOUSEN ; 
' me there has sent, Envoyez-Y-MOl ; 

- - it - - -. £nt;<)y«B-L*-Y-MOI ; 

- - them - - -. Eni;oy«5-LES-Y-MOI ; 

- - - some - -. Envoye»-Y'En-MOl ; 
• us - - -. A£nvoyes*NOUS-y ; 

- - it - - -. E»t»y«-NOUS-L'-Y j 

- • them - • -. £/iW5^«2-NOUS-LES-Y ; 

- - some • -. . Enwy«-NOUS-Y-EN ; 

8EC0NDE PERSONNE. 

He thee him or it*-. il«p»*^««it6-LE-T01 , 



her or it* 

- them -. 
thee some •. 
you him or it -. 

- her or it* -• 

• them -• 

• Sfome -• 

thee there has sent 

- it - - -. 

- them - - -. 

- there some • -. 
you - - -. 

" it - - •• 

• them - - •• 

- - some - -. 



Repr^sente-LA-TOlj 
il^^^sente-LES-TOi; 
Repr^sente-T' en ; 
^^^♦•^^"'^-VOUS-LE ; 
Rqtr^senteZ'WOVS'LA ; 
H4>r^«ent«x-V0US-LES ; 
R^^r^sentet-YOVS'EH ; 



Give it or him* me 

- it or her* -. 

• them •. 

• me some. 

- us, him or it. 

• - her or it. 

• - them. 

- • some. 
Send there mer 

- it - -. 

- them - -. 

• - some -. 

- - "• 

- - it -. 

• - them -. 

- - - (some«} 

Represent it( to thee. ) 

- her or it* (- -.) 

- them (- -.) 

- thee (of it.) 

• yourself him or it. 

- - hertirit. 

- • them. 



rranjpoit«5-VOUS-Y ; Carry yourself there. 



// SE LE rappelU ; 
U SE LA rappelle ; 
II SE LES rappelle ; 
II S' EN repent ; 
II S' Y applique ; 
II LE LUI a donn£ ; 
Jl LA LCI a donn6e ; 
II LES LUI a donnas ; 
II IsE LEUR a donn£ ; 
II LA LEDR a donn£e ; 
II LES LEDR a dotm^s ; 
II L* F,N avertit ; 
II LES EN avertit ; 
II \J Y envoya ; 
1 1 LES Y envoya ; 
II LE LUI Y env<3ya ; 
II LA LUI Y envoy a ; 
II LES LUI Y encoya ; 
II LK LEUR Y envoya ; 
II LA LEUR Y envoya ; 
II LES LEUR Y envoya ; 
II LUI EN envoya ; 
II LEUR EN envoya ; 
II LUI Y EN envoya ; 
II LEUR Y EN envoya ; 
11 Y EN envoya ; 



In/orma;- VOUS-Y-EN ; 

TROISIEME PERSONNE. 

He to himself it recalls, 
- • - her or it* -. 
• - - them •• 
-himself(o/it)r«pentr. 



£ngiitre-t]iere(o/it. ) 



- (to it) applies. 
it(U 



tohimorher) --. Donnet-LE-LUl ; 

• it, ner* (- -) - given. Donnez-hA-LVl ; 

them (--)--. * Donn«s-LES-LUf ; 

it, him (to them) - -. Donricz-LE-LtUR ; 

her or it* (- -) • -. Dwinez-LA-LEUR ; 

them (- -) - -. Don7ie2-LES-Li:uR 

him (of it) wamedf Avertissez-h' en ; 



them (of it) -. 
him there sent ; 
■ them - •. 
• (to him or her) 
.(-O... 
.(--)... 
it (to them) - -. 
it (W her (--)- •. 
them (- -) - -. 
'to him or her) 



-) 



Avertissez-UES-EH ; 
Envoyez-h* Y ; 
Enroyez-LES-Y ; 
Envoyez-LE-LOi-Y ; 
En»oyez-LA-LUi-Y ; 
Eni'oyes-LES-Lui-Y ; 
Enyoyez-LE-LEDR-Y ; 
£nroy«8-LA-LEUR-Y ; 
Eravoyez-LES-LEUR-Y ; 
Enooy «-LUI- EN ; 
Enwiyez-LEUR-EN ; 
£nw)yez-LUI-Y-EN ; 
Envoyes-LEUR-Y-EN ; 
Envoyez- Y-EN ; 



Give it (tohim or her.) 

- it or her* ( .) 

- them ( .) 

- - - (to them.) • 

- it or her (- -.) 

- - (- -.) 

Wajm him (of it.) 

- them (- -.) 
Send him or it there 

- them -. 

• • - ( to him or her) -. 

-her or it (--)-. 
..(..).. 

• it or him (•-) 

- her or it* (- -) - 

- them (--)-. 
"to him) some. 

to him) there -. 



* See SOth rule. 



46 INTttODtJCTlON 

DBS PftONOMS PERSONNELS. 

30. Comme (il n' y a) en fran<;ais que As (there are) infreiidi tmly 
deux genres, 1e masculin et le riuiNiN, two genders, tha ^ and the --, 
les pronoms ir, they, tbeu qui the — , -, -loAicA 

(se rapportent) aux^ choses, et qui sont refer td^ things, and which are 

du ^enre neutre*« en angrlais, (s' expri- (of the) ^neuter — , are expfested 

ment) par il, elle, ils, ELLES ; by i\, ei)le, lis, elles ; 

LE, LA, LES, de m6me que si on par- ^,lBL,leB,thesameasifwe** 

lait des* personnes ; ainsi on dit ; en par- spoke oP--; so we say ; in 

lant d'un homme ou d'un habit ; speaking - - man or - - coat ; 
Il est bien fait ; He or it ii well made, 

Je vous LE** montrerai. ^ yo"* it or him (wiU shew.) 

En parlant d'une femme ou d*une Jieur ; woman - - - flower ; 

Elle est belle ; Regardez-hk^. She or it is fine ; Ufek at her or it. 

Remarquez que les mots LS^ la. Remark that — words le, Is, 

LES, prononti sont pr^cis^ment les les, — , are precisely the 

monies que le, la, les, article; mais wwi* « le, la, les, — ; hut 

il est aise de ne pas les"* confondre. le, itiseatytonotthem^ confound. Le, 

LA, LES, article est toujours suivi d'un la, les, —, is aiujoys/oiiwcftifcy a 

nom ; lb, la, les, pronom est toujours noun; \e. Is, les -^ is always 

prec^dtJ ou suivi d'un verbe; ainsi, dans preceded or folloioed by a^; so, in 

cette phrase ; ^^w eentence ; 

Void LE pere, la md^re, et les enfants ; (Here is) — , -nuther, •• children , 

LE, LA, LES est article. le, la, les is an article. 

Et dans ces autres ; Je le** ©ow, je And - these others ; I him see, - 

LA** vols, je LES** vois ; her -, - them - ; 

Foye^r-LE", i?oyez-LA*, t?oyc2-LES*" ; See him, -her,' them; 

LE, LA, LES est prouOHl. le, la, les isa'-^. 

31. Les pronoms he, sue, tbet, TA^ — he, she, they, 

HIM, HER, THEM s' cmploient quel- him, her, them, are used sometimes 
quefois sans rapport h un nom exprimc^ without reference to a -^expressed 
dans la phrase, mais avec rapport aux mots *» *^ — > but with — (to the) words 

MAN, WOMAN, OU PEOPLE SOUS-CUtcnduS ; MAN, WOMAN, - PEOPLE UndCT^Ood ; 

alors HE, HIM s* expriment par celOi; thennY.,mvL are expressed by celm-, 

SHE, HER par CELLE ; THEY, THEM^ »HE, HER by Celle J THEY, THEM, 

par CEUX ; ex. by ceux ; ex. 

Celui d qui, c'est - It - dire, l'homme Hetoti'^wn, i. e., -man 

d qui personne ne plait, est plus to wham nobody pleases, is more 

malheUTeux que celui qui, i. e, que L* unhappy thanhe who, i.e., than the 

HOMME qui ne plait a personne. man who pleases nobody, 

Celle qui, c'est - & - dire, la femme She who, i. e., - woman 
qui refuse un mart, n' est pas toujours who reftuee a husband, is w*t always 
sdre dten trouver un autre. sure of finding another, 

Ceux qui, e'est - ik - dire, lbs gens They wfc«», i- «•» - P«opl< 
qui paraissent heureux^ ne /«•* sont pas who appear haprpy, so are tu^ 

toujours, always. 



A LA LANOUE PRANf AISE. 47 

DB8 PaONOMS RELATirS. 
Le mot RELATIF signifie qui a rapport Tht - - meam tohieh has rtferenet, 

Quoique touts les pronoms par leur Though all the prwujuns by their 

nature soient rdatifs, c*est-&-dir6 aient nature be relative, i.e. have 

du rapport h quelque substantif exprimt^ ume reference to some ^ exprested 

ou sous-entendu, on^ a donn6 h (ceux-ci) <w — » peopU^ have given to these 

le nom de relatifs, (k V exclusion) des the name of ^, exclusively (of f he) 

autres, parcequ' lis servent plutdt h otUrs, because they -^rather to 

rappeler Tidl&e des ^tres dont on^ a recall * idea (") beings of which we kav% 

parle, qu' k les** rcpresenter. V«fc«», than to them**' represent. 

Les pronoms relatifs^' SOnt qui, que, The — relative are qui, que, 
DONT, QUOI9 QUEL, LEQUEL ; en dont, quoi, quel, lequel ; in 

anglais WHOf whom^ whose, tbat^ «n^ii«A, —,—,—, —• 

WBICH, WHAT. — , — . 

Ces mots semblent ne presenter aucune These — seem • (to present) any 

difficult^, cependant, comme le m6me difficulty, yet, as - same 

mot est repnSsent^ par plusieurs mots word is represented by several — 

differents'" dans (les deux) langues ; ils — ^^ in both languages ; they 

embarrassent SOUVent les C0mmen9antS ; embarrau often the beginners ; 

ainsi faites attention aux regies suivanies. so pay -^ (to the) -^following. 
32. Quand who, that, which, Tr/i«n— ,— , — , 

SOnt le nomijiatif d'Mn verbe, ils s'expri- are the >— of a ^, tliey are expressed 
ment par qui ; . by qm; 

Quand whom, that, which, sont When — , •— , — , are 
V objet d'un verbe, ils s'expriment par the '^ of a '—, tJiey are expressed by 
QUE* ; que* ; 

WHOSE, of WHOM, of WHICH, '~,of—',0f-^ 
s'exprimeot par dont. are expressed by dont. 

N. B. QUI, QUE, DONT ne con- N. B. Qui, que, dont, 
naissent ni genre ni nombre ; c'est-a- know neither -^ nor -^ ; that is to 
dire, se disent ^alement des? personnes say, are said both of 7 — 
et des choses, d'un ou de plusieurs; and of 7 things, of one or - several i 
ainsi on dit ; so we say : 

Vhomme qui, le cheval qui, U car- The man who, • horse that, - 
ro»9e QUI est a la porte. coach which is at - door. 

Vhomme que, le cheval que, hear- The — whom, the -^ that, the 
rosae que Ttoua aeons rencontri. -— which - have met, 

Vhomme dont, le cheval dont, le — Co/ whom,) — (0/ which)- 

Camwse DONT je VOIU^ ai parle. - (of which) - (to t/oa") Aave spoken. 

* Persons not yersed in grammatical terms are often at a loss to distinguish the object 
from the nominative, i. e. when to express that, which by QUI, and when by QUE. 

To these I will observe, that that, which are the nominative, and expressed by QUlj 
when they are followed immediately by a verb ; as. 

The coach that or which is at the door ; LecarroaseQVl est a laporte. 

THAT, WHICH are the (Aject of the verb, and expressed by QUE, when, betweer. them 
and the verb, there is a noun or a pronoun which is the nominatiye of the verb , as. 

The coach that or which we have met ; LeearrossfQVE nous avons rencontrS. 



48 



INTRODUCTION 



DES PRONOMS RBLATIFS. 

33. Quelquefois WHOM^ . WHICH^ Sometimes -—, — , 
sont r%is par une proposition, et non par are governed by a — , and not 



un verbe ; alors ils s'expriment, 

WHOM par QUI, pour (les deux) 
genres et (les deux) nombres ; 

WHICH par /eQUEL, ^aquelle, 

Ze«QUELS, /e.9QUELLES. 

From WHICH par c^t/quel, de la* 

QUELLE, cfeJ^QUELS, de^QUELLES. 

To, at WHICH par auQUEL, d /a- 

QUELLE, aUJ7QU£LS, aUiTQUELLES, 



a — ; then they are erprased, 

«— by qui, for both 
— , and both — ; 

— by lequel, laquelle, 
lesqiiels, lesquelles. 

From — ', by duquel, de la> 
quelle, desquels, desquelles. 

To, at — by auquel, a la- 
quelle, auxquels, auxquelles, (agree 



suivant le genre et le nombre du nom ably to) the — and the -^ (of the) - 
auquel lis (se rapportent) ; ainsi on dit ; 

Void les gens avec qui fai dink, 

Le cheval sur lequel^c suU venu. 

La chaise dans laquelle fetais, 

Les chevaux AUXQUELS^e t^ai donnh* 



to which they refer ; sowe say ; 

(Here care) • people with whom - - dined, 

- horte on which • am come or - came, 
• chaise in which - was, 

- horses to which - it** have given. 



34. WHO, WHOM, WHOSE s'cm- 
ploient quelquefois sans rapport k un 
nom exprimO, mais par rapport au mot 
PERSON sous-enlendu. Ces mots peu- 
vent alors (se toumer) par what per' 

SONf QUELLE PERSONNE, et s'eX- 

priment par qui ; ex. 

Qui vous^^ a dit cela? (c'est-k-dire,) 
QUELLE PERSONNE t?oi«'* a dit cela ? 

Je ne sais qui voits (voulez dire) ; 
(c'est - k - dire) quelle personne vous 
votdez dire J, 

2 QUI OU d QUELLE PERSONNE CSt 

cette maison ? 

De QUI OU de quelle personne est- 
elleJiUel 

Dans les phrases interrogatives^, 
WHICH demande trois distinctions. 

35. Quelquefois which se joint 
comme un adjectif au nom qui le^ suit, 
c'est-k-dire sans le secours des' proposi- 
tions ; comme, which man ? which. 
carriage? which horses? alors which 
s'exprime par quel, quelle, quels, 
quelles, suivant. le genre et le nombre 
du nom qui le"* suit ; ex. 

De quel homme parlez-vous ? 

Dans quelle voiture (melirai-je) ceci? 

A QUELS chevaux b^ (dimnerai-je?) 



are used -^ without reference to a 

— expressed, but with — (to the) word 
•— UTiderstood, These words 

may then (be turned) into — 
— -, quelle personne, and are ex- 
pressed by qui ; ex. 

Who you*^ has told that 1 i. e. 
what — -■* — ? 

I know not whom -— fnean, 

i, e. wAat— •— • 
t 

To whom or - what — belongs 
that house, (or whose house is that 1) 

Of whom or - what — is 
she daughter ? whose daughter - - ? 

In — sentences interrogative^* 

— requires three distinctions. 

Sometimes — « jnned 
like an - (to the) - which follows tt,~ 
i. e., wUhout the help (of the) — ; 



as. 






— ? ? tAw — 

if expreseed by quel, quelle, queU, 

quelles (agreeably to) and - — 

(of-) — foUowsit*^; ex. 

Of which man speak you ? 

In which — (shall 1 put) this ? 

To which horses it (shall 1 give ?J 



■J 



A LA LANGUE FRAN§A1SE. 49 

DES PRONOMS RELATIFS. 

36. Quelquefois which se joint Sometimes — is joined 

comme un substantif au nom qui le** suit, like — (to the) noun -follows it *^ 

par le moyen d*une proposition; comme, by -means ; as, 

WHICH of these men? which of the / — 

carriages? ou il s'emploie sans 6tre suivi — ?oritiii«ed — being followed 

d'un nom,, mais par rapport k un nom by — ,butwithreferencetoa—, 

dont on a d6jk fait mention ; comme, It (of which) . . already made — ; as,- 

is one of these men ; which is it ? alors ; .is-'i then 

WHICH s'exprime par /eqUEL, Zo- which iierpre»ec26yleqiiei, 

QUELLE, ZeSQUELS, ZesQUELLES ; Isquelle, lesquels, lesquelles ; 

Of from WHICH par cZmQUEL, de la- -, - which, by duquel, de la- 

QUELLE, (ZexQUELS, cZesQUELLES ; quelle, desquels, desquelles ; 

7*0, at WHICH par atZQUEL, d la- -,- which 6^ auquel, d la* 

QUELLE, at/i7QUELS, ai/J?QUELLES, quelle, auxquels, auzquelles, 

(c'est-il-dire) Tarticle dOfini** Ze, Za, les; (i.e.) le,la, les; 

dUf de iOy des ; au^ h la^ aux, suivant du,dela,des;au,ala,aux,(a£Teea6/2(rc 

le genre et le nombre du nom, s' ajoute (--)—, is added 

aux mots quel, quelle, quels, ftot^ej-— quel, quelle, quels, 

QUELLES, comme s'ils Otaient eux-m6mes qvLeHea, as ifthey were themselves 

des" noms ; ex. - * ^-^ »">""« ; ex, 

DUQUEL de ces hommes parlez-vcus ? (Of which) — speaP you '/ 

LEQUEL est le plus grand ? Which is - most tall, or - tallest '/ 

LAQ UELLE des VoUures prdfereZ-VOUS ? Which (- -) carriages prefer you '/ 

LAQUELLE est la plus belle ? Which . - most fine, or - finest 7 

LESQUELS de ces chevauj! aurons-nous ? Which of these - (shall have) we 'I 

LESQUELS SOnt Ics m>eilleurs ? Which are the best / 

37. Quelquefois le relatif which ren- Sometimes -relative which im- 

ferme le mot that ou those sous-entendu, plies the understood, 

comme, quand, en rtlponse k cette ques- as, wheti, in amwer to -question; 

tion ; which horse shall I ride? Je '^ I 

dis. Ride which you wUU c'est-^-dire, My. -,i.e., 

THAT WHICH you wiU ; WHICH daus > — - 

ce sens s'exprinie par celui que, ma«. ; - seme is repressed ^ celui que, ma;. ; 

CELLE QUE, f&m, ; CEUX QUE, mOAC, cell^ que, /em. ; ceux que, - 

pL ; CELLES QUE, fem. plur, ; suivant - ; ceUes que, - - ; (agreeably to) 

le genre et le nombre du nom auquel il '—(of the) — (to which) it 

(se rapporte); ex. refers; ex. 

Lequd de ces chevaux monterai^je ? Which (^11 ride) 1/ 

Montez celui QU* il VOUS^ plaira ? Ride which, i, e. that which . please. 

Dans quelle voiture mettrai-je ceci ? in which carriage ($hall put)l this / 

Mettez-le dans celle QUEje vous ai dit. Put tt in which, (.e. that which— to/c/. 
Auxquels des gar^ons le donnerai-je ? (To which) (- -) boys it** (shall give) I ' 

DonneZ'U^ a CEUX que vous voudrez. Give it to which,i.e.those which- will* 

WHATf (do m^me que) which, dc- '-,(a$weUai)—, 

mande trois distinctions. • rtquiret three aittinctu^u. 



50 INTRODUCTION 

DES PRONOM8 RBLATIF8. 

38. Quelquefois what 6e joint cotni* Sometimes -^u joined Uhe^ 

me un adjectif au nom qui le suit ; alors il — (to the) . ^ follows it^; then it 

s'exprime par quel, quelle, quels, is expressed by quel, quelle, quels, 

QUELLES de la m&me mani^re que queVLea, in the same manner as 

wnictt ; ex. — ; ex, 

De QUEL homme, de quelle voituref 0/what—,- what carriage, 
de QUELS chevaux parlez-voui ? • wliat horses speak -^ '/ 



39. Quelquefois what s*emploie 
absolument, c'est-k-dire, sand rapport a 
un nom exprim^, mais avec rapport au 
mot TBI NO sous-entendu ; alors what 
peut se tourner par what titia'o, et 
s'exprime par que, ou par quoi. 

WHAT s'exprime par que, quaiid il 
est V objet d'nn verbe ; com me, 

QvK dites-iJOiLs? q\]E faites-vmis 9 

WHAT s'exprime par quoi, quand il 
est rtSgi par une proposition ; comme, 

De QUOI parle-t-il? A QUOi pensez-v&us? 
Ou employ^ comme inteijection ; ex, 

Quoi ! vous nUtes pas encore levS, 

40. WHAT s'emploie quelquefois au 
lieu des mots that, which; comme, 
quand on dit; Do what is just ; c'est- 
h-dire, that which is just; alors 
WHAT s'exprime par ce qui, quand 
il est le nominaiif d'un verbe, et par ce 
QUE, quand il en** est Vohjet ; ex. 

Faites ce qui est juste, 

Ce que je vou^ dis est vraL 

Mais quand what dans le sens de 
THAT WHICH cst r€g\ par les propo- 
sitions OF, TO, (il faui) considOrer si la 
proposition vient avant o\x apres what; 
car, or what s'exprime par de ce qui, 
nomin, ; par de ce que, objet; ex. 

Parlez de ce qui ro?/i** regarde, 

WHAT OF, s'exprime par ce dont ; 
Ce dont je parte ne vous regarde pas, 

TO WHAT s'exprime par a ce qui, 
d CE QUE ; comme, 

(Appliquez-vous) a ce qui est utile, 

WHAT TO s*exprimc par ce d 
QUOI ; comme, 

Ce d QUOI il «' applique ripest P^ ^Uilc. 



ituted 

absehfUly, i. e.> vnthouit reference - 

— — expressed, but with — (to the) 
understood; then'" 

may be turned into , - 

is expressed by que, or by quot. 

— is expressed - que, when it 
is - ot^ect - - — ; as, 

What My — ? —do—? 

— is expressed - quoi, 

— governed - • — ; as. 

Of what speaks - 7 To what think - 21 
Or used as an iuterjectioji ; ei. 
What ! •— are not yet up, 

— is used — in' 

stead (of the) , — ; as^ 

when we*^ say ; — — . - — ^ that is 
to say, — ; then 

— is expressed by ce qui, when 
it is of - — •, - - ce 

que, — It {of it'^) is ; ex. . 

Do that which or what -just. 
That which or what • - say - tnie. 
But when ^in • sense - 

— — - governed 6y - — 

-, -, (it is necessary) (to -) whether ». 

— come: before or after — ; 
for, - — is expressed by de ce qui, 
— ; 6y de ce que, — ; ex. 

Speak o/ what, i. e. of that which.' 
concerns, 

-^ ., if expressed by ce dont ; 

. (ofwhich) - - or what - ^peak of -"not 

. — --*- £y a ce qui, 
d ce que ; as. 
Apply to that which or wheA' useful, 

— - if expressed byceh 

quoi ; as, 

'—to which • applies or what • - to • not -, 



A LA LANGUG tTRAK^AISl-. SI 

DE8 piioMOlis t*osslsissirB. 

On appelle pronoms posses^tpb^ cer- lVi/**caU'~po8Kemveeeitam 

tains mots qu' on^ emploie h d<$8igner ^whiehartuted^todeiutte 

la possession des objets dont on^ parle. . — (of the) *> (i)fwkMi)wti**tfmk 

Les pronoms possbssifbi* sont, The are^ 

MIEN, TIEN, BIBN, pOur le mcuc, ]MKne, tliine, his orln^n^for . 

UIENNB, TIENNE, SIENNB^ /^. Mine, thine, bis &t hers, -^. 

n6tre, v6trE, LEUR, serveht polir Ours, yours, theirs, ttrvefor 

(let deux) genres, both genden. 

N. B. Les pronoms POssESstPB^' sont N. B. The — — are 

tOU jours pr^ed^S** de I'article d^fini** always preeetled by 

le, la, les ; dii^ de la, des ; an, a la, le, la, les ; du, de U, des ; au, a la, 

aux, de mftme que s'ils ^talent des noms; Aux, the tame as if they were noum 

ainsi on^ dit ; eo we^ say , 

Le uiEN, la MiENNE, les MIENS, les 

miennes. Mine. 

Du mien, de la mienne, des miens, 

des miennes. 0/mine. 

Au MIEN, d la MIENBTE, aUX MIENS, 

aux MIENNES. TV) mine. 
Le TIEN, la TiENNE les TIEN8, les 

TIENNES. Tliihe. 

Du TIEN, de la tienn)b, des tibns, 

des TIENNES. 0/ thine. 

Au TIEN, d la TIENNE, tttlX TIENS, 

aux TIENNES. To thine. 

Ije aiENf la sienne^ les si ens, les 

flIENNES. His, Hers. 

Du siEN, de la siennb, des sienb, 

cfe« SIENNES. 0/ his, o/ hers 

Au siBN, d la bisnne, aux sienb, 

aux SIENNES. To his, to hers. 

Le n6trb, la n6trb, les n6tres. Ours. 

Du n6trb, de la n6tre, dss n6tre8. O/ours. 

Le v6trb, la v6tre, les y6trbs, Sfc. Yours. 

Le LEUft, la LEUR, les lburs, Sfc. Theirs. 

41. Les pronoms possebsifs^' s'accor- The — -^ agree 

dent en genre et ^n nombre avec le nom {n gmuter - in number with - ^ 

qu'ils repi^sentent ; ex. lofctcA - rtpretent ; ex. 

Voire cheval est meiUeur que le MIBN ; Your horse is better than mine ; 

c*est-2L-dire, que mon cheval. i. e., than my — . 

Ma maison est ntieux Silu^e que "LA My house- better ntuated than 

SIENNB ; c'est-k-dire, que sa maison. his ; i. e., than his—. 

Je prejere cette situation d la leur. 1 prefer this situation to theirs. 

Fous avez pris mes gants, et moi, fai • have taken - gloves, • 1 have 

pris LES v6tRE». — yours. 

MSlez-VOU^ de VOS affaires, et ne Meddle yourself^ with your — , . 

wnu^ mHez pas des n6tRES« yourself*^ meddle not with ours. 

E 2 



52 



INTRODUCTION 



DES PRONOMS P0S8ESSIFS. 

42. Les Ang^lais emploient les pro- TheEnglishme 

noms POSSESSiFs" mine, thine, his, — mine, thine, his, 

HERSi OURS, YOURS, THEIRS, dans hers, ours, yours, theirs, in 

des cas ou les Frani^ais font usage des some- (in which) — tnake%m(ofthej 

pronoms personnels^' moi, toi, lui, moi, toi, lui, 

ELL2, MOUS, VOUS, EUX, ELLES ; elle, nous, vous, eux, elles ; 

c'est lorsque ces pronoms (se rencontrent) it ti whm meet 

avec le verbe To he, ixRE, employ^ wUh - — to be, etre, used 

dans le sens du verbe To belong, in the sense (of the) 

appartenir; car alors mine s'exprime —; fm-then-'isexpresud 
par a moi ; thine, par d toi ; 6y a moi ; — , 61/ a toi ; 



HIS, par a 
OURS, par 



LUI ; HERS, par a elle ; his, 6y a lui ; hers, by a elle ; 



a 



NOUS 



YOURS, par a ours, ^3^ a nous ; yours, % a 

vous; THEIRS, par d eux, masculin ; vous ; theirs, 6y a eux, — j 
par d ELLES, feminin ; ex. 



Ce cheval est-il^ h vous ? 

Qui, il est h. moi. 

Je pensais qu! it etait k votre frere. 

Qui vous^ a dit qii il etait h lui ? 

Ne saveZ'Vous pas que tout ce qui est 

ici €Jtt k MOI ? 
Je pense que ces livres sont k eux. 
lis ne sont pas k eux ; ils sont k nous. 



hy a elles, — ; ex. 

This horse is it** yours i. c. to you 
Yes, it is mine i. e. to me. 
J thought - if was to your bi'oiher. 
Who - has told that it was his ? 
Know - not that all that which is 
here is mine 1 

- think — are to them i. e, theirs. 
They arfnot theirs ; - - ours. 



43. Les Anglais font encore usage des 
pronoms possessifs" mine, thine, 

HIS, HERS, OURS, YOURS, THEIRS, 

dans un autre cas oh. les Fran^ais 
emploient Tarticle possessif mes, tes, 
sEs, Nos, vos, leurs ; c' est dans 
ces sortes d'idiotismes ; A friend op mink ; 
A hook OF yours; dans ces cas mine 
s'exprime par mbs ; thine, par tes ; 
HIS ou HERS, par SES ; ours, par 
NOS ; YOURS, par vos ; theirs, 
par LEURS, qui, suivant jes regies sur 
r article, se placent avant le nom ; ex. 

Un de vos amis est venu ici, 

Un de SES enfants est mort. 

Un de Nos voisins me^ T a dit, 

J'ai rencontrk un de leurs valets. 



ThA — make still use (of the) 
— — mine, thine, 
his, hers, ours, yours, theirs, 
in another instance (in which) - — 
use - — — mes, tes, 

ses, nos, vos, leurs ; it is • 

' kinds of idioms ; A friend of mine ; 

A hook of yours ; ---mine 

M expressed by mes ; thine, • tes ; 

HIS or HERS, by ses ; ouRS, - 

nos; YOURS, -vos; theirs, 
• leurs, -, (agreeably to) - - on 
the — , are placed before - -; ex. 
One of your friends* is come here, 
Ojie of his children^ is dead. 
One of our neighbours^ - it has told, 
I have met one of their servants.§ 



• Or, a friend of yours. t Or, a child of his. t Or, a neighbour of ours, $ Oi, a 
iervant of theirs* 



A LA LANGUE FRANfAISE. 53 

DES PRONOMS D^MONSTRATIFS. 

On appelle pronoms DiMONSTRAXlFS" IVei'^eaU'^denumstrative 

certains inots qui servent k indiquer les certain — which — toCpointoutJ' 

cbjets dont on parle. — (of a>kich) «»*• speak, 

Ces pronoms sont CELUI, CELLE ; Thete ce\m, celle\ (thUf that; J 

ccux, CELLES, form^s des pronoms ceux,celle8;(t/i««e,tftofe,)/oi7n«d(-->— 

perxoniieb^ ^lvi, elle, eux« elles^ — lui, elle, eux, elles, 

auxquels on ajoute ce. (to which) we*^ add ee, 

44. Les pronoms niMONSTRATiFs, de The ,the 

m^me que les autres pronoms, s'accordent tame as - others, agree 

en genre et en nombre avec le nom qu' in— and — with — which 

ils repr^sentent ; ex. *hey represent ; ex, 

Ce chevcU vaut mieux que celui, (c'est- This- it better than ih9X,ii,e.,) 

2^-dire) le cheval que vous avez.vendu, the horse which -have sold, 

Ceite maison est mieux situhe que cells, This - is better situated tJian that, 

(c'est-k-dire) la majson ouje demeure, i.e., — house (in which)- live. 

Vos livres sont plus amusants que •booh are more entertaining tlian 

CEVX de votre somr, those . 

Les rues de Paris ne sont pas si larges, The streets — are not so broad, 

ni si commodes que CELLES de Londres. nor so commodious as those -London. 

N, B, Les mots THia, these; N. B. Thtf— this, tiiese; 

THAT, THOSE, Indiqueut une distinction that, those, (^pointoi/f J- — 

locale** que les mots celui, celle, local^* which - - celui, celle, 

CEUX, CELLES ne d^signent pas; ceux,celle8d«m)<enof ; 

(c*est pourquoi) lorsqu* on** veut mar- therefore when we*^ wish 

quer cette distinction en fran9ais, (il (to shew) that ,(itis 

faut) ajouter aux mots celui, celle, necessary) (to add){to the)— celai,Cii\\e, 

CEUX, CELLES, la particule adverbiale" ceux, celles, — adverhial^^ 

CI pour designer un objet proche, et (^h here,) to denote - olyect near, - 

lA pour designer un objet 6\o\gn6 ; ex. CIhi there,) (far off); ex, 

Ce cheval'Cl vaut mieux que CELUI-L A. This — here is better - that there. 

Cette matson-Lk est mieux situee que That - there is better situated than 

C ELLE- CI. this here. 

Ces livres-Cl sont plus amusants que These—- here are more -^ than 

CEUX-lA. those there. 

Ces rueS'hX sont plus larges que celles -CI. 77mms . then are broader - these here . 

45. CECI, CELA se trouvent aussi (Ceci,t^M;)(cela, tAat;)ar»/<mmf* 
dans la classe des pronoms niMONSTRA- • - eUus (cfthe) . 

TIFS*". Ces mots repr^sentent le sub- These 

stantif CHOSE sous-eutendu, et peuvent thing underttood,' may 

se toumer par cette chose-ci, 6« turned into this thing, 

CETTE chose-lA ; ainsi quand je dis : th&t thing ; to when - - .* 

Ceci est bo7i; c*est comme si je disais, Thisii jr«N£;itis(thesame)asif.niii 

cette chose- CI est bonne. this thing . good, 

Cela est mauvais; c'est-k-dire, cette That - fcod • i. e. tliat 

chosb-l A est mauvaise. thing . .. 



54 INTRODUCTION 

D^S PRONOMS IND^FINIS, 

Les pronoms ind^ finis son t des* mots The — indefinite are -^^-^ — 

qui servent (ainsi que) les autres pronoms like -other — 

h ddsig^ner les objets, mais d'une maniere to denote — ,butinQ, — 

indt^termin^e" ; COmme quand je dis : indeterminate^^ ; as when I say : 

On vient; QUEI«QU' VVVientj People come; SomOody comes ; 

Ces mots on, qublqu'un, (bien qu'ils !rfi«e — people, somebody, t/um«* 

se rapportent k quelque) personne, ne they refer to some— , 

designent personne en particuHer. ^<''»^*« ^^ C«»y ho^)tn particulwr. 

Les pronoms ind£finis*« sont (en as- The are(rafiker 

sez grand nombre,) comme on le** verra nMmeromt)aawt^it(sha}ltee 

dans la seconde partie de ce traits ; mais part of this treatise } but 

je lie parlerai jci que du pronom On, le I (will 8peak)hereo(Uy (of tlie)- On, 
plus usit^ de touts. most used of all. 

46. On d^signe qvdqtC un^ quelque On denotes BomehodY, some 

personne, ei repr^sente les mots one, we, person, -represents one, we, 

THEY, PEOPLE, employes dans un sens in- they, people, u«ed - « — 

d^fini; ^insi, quand je dis: oif vient ; c*est — ; so, when I sfiy. one pomes i it is 

comme si je disais, qu£LQU*un vient. (the same) as- ^ said, somebody — . 

* 

47. Les Anglais ont une autre maniere The English have another way 
ind^finie*' de s** exprimer, au moyen du — to themselves— , (by the) means (--) 

pronom ind^fini^' it, que les Fran^ais it, which the French 

expriment par On ; ex. express by On ; ei. 

On dit; on croit; OV rapporte. It is said; -is believed i- is reported > 

48. Les expressions passives** ^tant The expressions passive being 
contraires au g^nie de la langue frantjaise, contrary to the genius of , 

on y** suppl^e au moyen du pronom On ; we them supply (by the) - (of the) - On , 
ainsi, au lieu de dire comme les Anglais; so, instead of saying lihe — ; 

j'aI ]fiT£ DIT que des nouvelles ont i6t£ I have been told that news has l>een 

rcpuc* ; les Fran<jais disent ; • received; - — say ; 

On m' a dit qu' on a re^u deffi nouvelles. One --told--, received'v-^- news. 

Voilk ce qui rend Tusage du pronom (It is) that which renders -.(of the) 
On si frdquent, que vous trouverez On so frequent, that you (will find) 

(peu de*"-^) pages oil ce petit mot (ne few pages (in which)this small- 
se** pr^sente) k V OS yeux. CitselfwUl not present) - - eyes. 

Remarquez que On est toujours no- Remark that On is always 

minaiif du verbe, et que, quoiqu* il nomiruitive (of the)— ,—, though u 

repr^sente souvent les mots we, they, represents often — we, they, 

PEOPLE, qui sont du nombre plurier*«, il people, which are (of the) ,it 

demande toujours le verbe k la troisieme requires always — in -third 

personne au singulier, comme on le** voit ^cinthej-^ as we it** see 
dans ces exemples ; these — , 

On vient ; On dit ; On croit ; People come ; — say , - believe ; 

On pense; Ovrapporte; On orefW, ^C. .think; —^epoii; ^ have received. 



A LA LANGUE B'RANfAISE. 55 

CHAP, VI. 

DES VERBES. 

Le TEKBR est un mat dont Tusage est Tk$ verb is — (of u^iekj • ttM« 
de designer 1* existence^ ou V ciction dea todetwu — ^or — {of the) 
^tres qui sont le sujet de nos pens^lis. , beings that are — ofourthonghts. 

L' existence; comme, jb suis^ /exisie. 2^— ;«, I am, I exist, 
L' action; comme, je parle, JK chante^ -— ; «, Ispeak, Ising, 
JE marche, je 6ow, je mange, 8fc, • walk, - driak, - eat, ^c. 

Toute action dem^nde un ag'en^, c'est- tjveri^^ requires- agent, that is 

a -dire, un 6tre pour produire cette action, to say, -being to produce — , 

et cet agent s' appelleen grammaire le 'this-^iscaikdingramnuir' 

nomindtifdn verbe. —fo/tiO— • 

Nous avons vu page 41, qu* (ii y a) We have seen ^4t, that Cthere are) 

/ro2f personnes, dont la premiere est celle three ^,( of which) -first -that 

qui parle ; la seconde celle k qui oq whospeahf; — that to whom we 

parle, et la troisiime celle dont on parle. speak^ - - tJiti-a . (ofwhum) - — . 

49. Le verbe doit 6tre dif mSme rke -^ must be Cof the) same 
nombre et de la m&ne personne que le — of'same—ut- 
nominatif, et ceci s'appelleen grammaire — t'thisiscalUdin-^ 

accord du verbe avec son nomiuatif ; ex. agreement (of the) — with id—; et 
J*apprends : TV apprends ; IL apprmd; ^ leam; thou leamest; he leams 

ELLE apprend, ^^le leams, 

MoN FRiRE apprend; ]^A SCBUR ap- -brother teams; 'sistei' leams. 

prend. 

Nous apprenons ; vous apprenez, - leam ; • leam^ 

Ils ou elles apprenneni; bxes fr^res -team; ^broihers 

apprennent ; mes s(eurs apprennent. leam; - sisters leam. 

Le nomiJiatif du verbe se place tantfit ^Ae— (.-) — & placed «nmetf ma 
avant, et tantut apres le verbe. "'Z^^* " — «/*«* " — • 

50. Dans les phrases qui ne sont pas In - seiitenees which are fwt 
interrogatives, le nominatif se place avatit interrogative, — is placed before 
le verbe ; ex. — ; «• 

J* apprends bien ; tu apprends bien ; I leam well.; - leamest well ; 

II apprend bien ; elle apprend bien. - leam* • ; - leams — . 

MoN FRiRE apprend bien; ma sceur well; - — 

apprend bien, . 

Nous apprenons bien ; vous appre- - Uam - ; - leam 
nez bien. well. 

Ils apprennent bien; elles appren- -learn^; -leam 
neut bien, well. 

Mes FRiRES apprennent bien; mes '- well;- 

soRURs apprennent bien. toell. 



5() INTRODUCTION 

DES VERBES. 

Mum quand la phrase est interroga- But when , 

/ere, c* est -^ -dire, quand on fait une i.e., --osfc. 

question, (il faut) considdrer si le no- 'f(iti8neceaary)(to ') whether - 

minatif du verbe est un nom ou un "-(of the) noun or a 

PRONOM* — . 

51. Si, quand on^ fait une question^ Ift—wt^iuka—, 

le nominatif du verbe est un pronom — (of the) 

personnel}^ ou Je pronom indefini}^ on — ,«• on 

ou CE, ces pronoms se placent en fran- or ce, these — are placed ^-^ 

^ais comme en anglais apres le verbe; ex. as ; ex. 

ApprendS'JE* bien 9 Apprends-rv bien ? Learn i* well 7 Leamest thou — ? 

^pprend-ih bien? Apprend-ELLE bien? Leamshe^J Learns she — 7 

jipprenons-yovs ? Apprenez-Yovs bien? Learn we — 7 Leamyou — 7 

Apprennent-iLS ? Apprennent-ELLES bien ? Learn they — 7 I^am they — 7 

Que dil-OV ? E«^CE Id tout ? ^^hat say peopU 7 Is that all 7 

52. Si, dans une phrase interrogative^^, If,ina sentence—, 

le nominatif du verbe est un nom, on -^ (of the) noun,w^ 

place ce nom avant le verhe, de m6me —«Aii— before — , the same 
que si la phrase n'dtait pas interrogative ; ««/ — was not — ; 
mais pour marquer qu' on fait une qiuS' but to shew that we ask — , 
tion, on ajoute apr&s le verbe un des we add after — one (of the) 

pronoms personnels*^ il, elle, ils, ou il, elle, lis, 

ELLEs, suivant' le genre et le nombre du 3te]lest(agreeablyto)»—and — 

nom qui est le nominatif du verbe; ex. (\*f the)— which (of the) — ; ex. 

Votre FRERB apprend'lL* bien ? - brother learns he* well 7 

Votre SGB UR apprend-ELhE bien ? - «"**«• Uams she — t 

Vos FRiRES apprennent'lL8 bien ? - Brothers learn they — ? 

Vos s(£URs apprennent'ELLES bien ? - asters leam they — 7 

CHAP. Vll. 
DES ADVERBES. 

Nous avons vu page 55, que le verbe We have seen—, that — 

est un mot qui sert k exprimer une action; ts •-- servesto express — 

mais comme la mSme action pent se faire but as-' same — may be performed 

de dijfferentes^ manieres, on^ a adopts in— manners, wn** have adopted 

certains mots auxquels on^ a donn6 le (towhich) '- given- 

nom d* ADVERBE, ' pour exprimer la , to express » 

mani^re dont se fait cette action ;. comme, —(in which) is done this- ; as, 
Je marche vite ; Tu marches lentement. - walk fast ; - walkest slowly 
Nous parlous bien ; Vous parlez mal. - speak well ; - speak badly. 

* When the i^nglish ask a question, they are obliged to have recourse to the signs do, does, 
did ; as. Do I leam well ? Doest thou leam well ? Does he leara well 1 Does your brother leam 
well 1 Does your sister leam well 1 Do we leam well ? Do you leam well 1 Do they leam 
well ? Do your brothers leam well 1 Do your sisters leam well ? Did I leam well ? ^c. ; 
the French, as you see, do not require any signs, and when these signs occur in engUsh, they 
must be left out in french . 



X LA LANGUE FRAN^AISE. 



57 



DES A.DVERBES. 

Les mots VITE, LENTEMENT, ' BIEN, fast, slowly, well, 

MAL sont des" ADVERBES. badly are - bn.b. adverbs 



53. L'adverbe, ^tant (& regard du) 
verbe ce que Tadjectif est ^ I'igard du 
nom, c*est - & - dire, exprimant quelque 
eirconstance du verbe, doit se placer im- 
mediatement apres le verbe ; ex. 

Je vis hier voire sceur. 

Elle parte tr^s-bien fran^ais. 

Elk aime fort Ict^ lecture, 

54. Les adverbes se placent souvent en 
anglais, indiff^remment avant ou apres le 
verbe ; comme, / often see him^ or i 
see him often, j very seldom spetdc to 
Aim, or j speak to him very seldom ; 
en fran^ais, touts ces adverbes doivent 
se placer apres le verbe ; ex. 

Je (me promenej souvent senl. 

Je vais rarement a la ville, 

Je vais toujours d la campagne. 

55. Les adverbes nigatifs sont ne-pas ; 
ME-point ; ne-plus ; ne-jamais ; ne- 
auERE 3 ne-nullement ; ne se place 
toujours avant le verbe, et pas, point, 
PLUS, jamais, ou&re, nullement, com- 
me les autres adverbes, se placent im- 
roddiatement apres le verbe ; ex. 

Je ne fi^'aime pas or point. 
Je NB veiix plus la** voir, 
Je NE lui^ parlerai jamais. 
Jc N* y"* consens nullement. 
Vous N* y** avez qu^re pense, 

CHAP. vm. 



- • being Cwith respect to the) 

— tohat*^ . . 15 . — _ . - 

— , i. e. expressing some 

— Cqf the) — , must be placed 

— after - — ; ex, 

- saw yesterday - — . 

- speaks very well french, 

- likes much -' reading. 

- -r- are placed often in 

— , indiscriminately before or after ■ 
— ; as, - often - -, or - 

— - often. - very seldom - - 
— , or - - - - very seldom ; 
in — , all these — must 

be placed after ; ex. 

- walk often alone, 

- go seldom to town, 

• ^0 always into • country. 

The — negative are no, not ; 
no, not ; no more ; never ; but 
little ; by no means ; ne is placed 

— before , - pas, point, 

plus, jamais, guere, nullement, 
^t^ • other — , are placed 
immediately after ; ex. 

- her** love not. 

- will no more het^ see, 

- (to her)** (will speak) never. 

- (to it**) consent (by no means.) 

- (of it) have (very little) thcught. 



DES PROPOSITIONS. 

Les propositions sont des^ mots The — are -^^-^ words 
qui servent k exprimer le rapport que which — to express - relatian - 
plusieurs mots de la m^me phrase ont several -of- same sentence have 
les uns aux autres; comme quarid je dis ; the one (to the) other; as when 1 My 

Je viens de Londres. 

Je vais A BcUh aveg ma sceur, 

Je passerai chez votre mere, 

Je ne partirai pas sans vous^ voir. 



- come from London. 

- (am going) to — with - sister, 

- (will call) upon - — . 

- will not set out without •> seeing. 



Les mots de. A, avec, chbz, sans, - - de, a, avec, chez, sans, 
■ont des* propositions qui servent are-'N-^* — - — 



58 INTRODUCTION 

DES PRiPOSITIQNS. 

h exprimer le rapport qu (il y a) entre reUtim - (ther$ UJ betwetin 

le verbe qui les** pr^cMe, et le substantif them^ precedes, 

qui les** suit, et k les** unir ensemble. • themfolhwt, - to - unite together 

56. Les propositions se placent souvent — are placed of ten** 

en anglais indiflRSremment avant ou apres • - ind'ucriminately ^or- 

le substantif qu'elles rt^gissent ; comme, - — which they govern ; at, 
With toliom were you? or. With whom- -J or, 

fFhom were you with ? Whom - - with 1 

Of what do you speak ? or, Of what /or, 

fVhat do you speak op ? What of 1 

En fran^ais, les propositions se placent In — , — are placed 

toujours avav;t le mot qu'elies rOgisspnt ; ex. alway^ which - govern ; ex. 

A\ EC qui eiait'il? de quoi parlez-vous? Withtrfcomtwu-'/ Of what epeak 

CHAP. IX. 

DES CONJONCTIONS. 

Nous voyons page 57, que les prepo- We see • ST, that — 
sitions servent k unir plusieurs mots en- — to unite tevftal • together, 
semble pour en former une phrase; les to (of them) form -sentence; - 
CONJONCTIONS servent k unir pin- — to unite several 
sieurs phrases en une, et k exprimer le sentences in one, -to — 
rapport qu'elles ont entre elles ; comme, relation which - • between them ; as 
quand je dis : when I say : 

JHrai a la vUle, sHlfait beau tems, - (sha^l go) to town, if it is fine tceather 

Nous parlirons quand vous voudrez, - f«*aii set, out) when - like. 

• Je nHrai pas (A bioins que) vous ne - (will go ) not unless - 
veniez avec mot, come with me. 

Lies mots si, quand, A MOINS quit - . si, quand, a moins que 
sont des* conjonctions. are — • »■• — . 

Vous verrez dans la derniere parti e de - (will see) in • last part 
cet ouvrage, une liste des conjonctions this work, - list (of the) — 
avec leurs diff^rents usages. with their various uses. 



The learner having read the rules so far, must read them over again if he does not 
understand them well. But as he must now have some general idea of the differeme in the 
construction, or arrangement of words in the two languages, he should try at th^ same time, 
to translate the following exercises into freneh. This will be the meant qf impressing the 
rules on his mind. If the exercise on each rule is found too long, he has no need to write 
any more than to be convinced that he understands it, and dwell only on such parts as •eem 
to him the most dijicult. If his time is not entirely taken up with these exercises, he 
should now peruse the verbs, that he may be able to go on without interruptton when he 
comes to the exercises on the verbs, which he cannot write with ease or advantage before he 
has a general knowledge of the conjugations. 



r 59 ) 



AN 

INTRODUCTION 

TO 

FRENCH GRAMMAR 

PART U. 



EXERCISES 

ON THE 

RULES 

CONTAINED IN THE FIRST PART.^ 



The French language* as we have seen before, is like the 
euglishi composed of NINE different sorts of words, commonly Hnown 
by the iiamss of 

NOUN, PRONOUN, PREPOSITION, 

ARTICLE, VERB, CONJUNCTION, 

ADJECTIVE, ADVERB. INTERJECTION. 



• The rules of syntax are too numerous, too ftiU of exceptions, and exceptions of excep- 
tions to be retained, or even understood all at once by tender or slow minus. The folloir- 
mg exercises, upon the fundamental rules only, are intended to give a general idea oi 
the language. The learner may write them whilst he is perusing the verbs, after which 
he may pass to the other exercises, which iarJude «Tery thing &vt can be reduced into 
rales in the french language. 



60. AN INTRODUCTION 

CHAP. T. • 

NOUN. 

Every word is called a noun which names a beings either real, as 
S7//2, moouy earthy many hou9e, tree ; or ideal, a;», god^ heaven, honour , Sfc, 

Nouns are distinguished into proper and common, 

A noun proper, or proper name, is the christian or family name 
of a person; as, John, James, Voltaire, Shakespear: of a river; as, 
Ihe Thames, the Mersey: of a place; as, l^aris, London: of a county; 
as, Middlesex, Lancashire : of a country ; as, England, France, Sfc. 

Nouns common, or common names, are the names of beings in general, 
of which we know several ; as, man, woman, child, house, tree, river, 
city, country, horse, cow, sheep, dog, ^c. 

N, B. In this class are comprised the abstract names of virtue, vice, 
pleasure, pain, love, desire, fear, hatred, glory-, honour, and such like. 

Two things are to be considered in nouns ; the gender and the number 

The gender is the distinction between the sexes. 

All nouns in french are either masculine or feminine. 

By m,asculine is meant the m>ale being ; as, man, horse, bull, dog. 

"By feminine is meant ihe female being; as, tpoman, mare, cow, bilch. 

The names of beings whose sex is unknown, and of those inanimate 
beings, called things, which are of the neuter gefider in english, are 
either masculine or feminine in french, as custom has fixed it.^ 

There are ttvo numbers, the singular and the plural, 

A noun is singular when we speak of one being only ; as, a book, un 
livre; a house, une maison ; a tree, un arbre; a ship, un navire, &c, 

A noun is plural when we speak of more than one, 

N. B. The plural is generally formed in french as in english, by 
adding s to the singular; as, des livres, book«; des maisons, houses; 
des arbres, trees; desnavires, ship*, 8fc. 

Except the nouns ending in 9 or jp in the singular, which are the 
same in the plural : as, monJUs, my son ; mesjils, my sons ; une brebis, 
a sheep ; des brebis, sheep ; une noix, a nut ; des noix, nuts ; une voix^ 
a voice ; des voix, voices. 

Except also the nouns ending in u, which take x instead of s for the 
sign of the plural number; as, chapeau, hat; chapeaun, hats; jeu^ 
game ; jeux, games, Sfc. 

And the nouns ending in ai, ail, which change I or il into ttx for the 
plural ; as, ma\, evil ; maux, evils ; cheval, horse ; chevaux, horses ; 
^tfn^rai, general ; ^^n^raux, generals ; ^rat^ail, labour; ^raoaux, labours. 

* The gender of these nouns is known by the termination ; rules are given in the syntax 
how to discriminate it ; until then, in the introductory exerciseSi the nouns matculine will 
be marked m,, the/emtntn«will be marked/. 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. 
CHAP. II. 

ARTICLE. 



61 



The same noun admitting different meanings^ as for example ; tub 
bread, the wine; some bread, some wine; this bread, that 
wine; my breads thy bread, his bread; my wine, Sfc, it was 
necessary to adopt some signs which would fix its proper meaning. 

These sigjis, called article, are various, and generally receive their 
appellation from the office which they perform in the sentence. They 
are called in this treatise, 

DEFINITE, that which defines the object ; as, the bread, the wine, 

PARTITIVE, that which denotes a portion of the object ; as, some 
bread, some toine. 

NUMERAL, that which numbers the objects ; as, a or one shilling.* 

DEMONSTRATIVE, that wh\ch points out the object; as, 7^£ri5 or that 
bread, these or those clothes. 

POSSESSIVE, that which expresses the possession of the object ; as, jrr 
bread, thy bread, his bread, her bread, our bread, your bread, 
THEIR bread; my wine, thy wine, his wine, ^c* 

21ie signs called article, are declined infrench asfuU-ows: 



DEFINIT. 


THE; 


SINGULAR. 
1 ^ , " 

Masculine, Feminine. 
LE, LA. 


PLURAL. 
3 
Meuc. and Fern, 
LES. 


Of, from 


THE; 


DU, 


deLA, 




DES. 


To, at 


THE; 


AU, 


h LA, 




AUX. 


PAR TIT. 


SOME; 


DU, 


de LA, 




DES. 


NUMERAL 


A, AN; 


UN, 


UNE, 






DEMONS. 


THIS, THAT; 


CE, 


CLTIE,* 








THESE, THOSE; 


... 


• . • . 




CES. 


POSSESS. 


MY; 


MON, 


MA,» 




MES. 




THY; 


TON, 


TA, 




TES. 




HIS, HER, ITS; 


SON, 


SA, 




SES. 




OUR; 


NOTRE, 


NOTRE, 




NOS. 




YOUR; 


VOTRE, 


VOTRE, 




VOS. 




THEIR ; 


LEUR, 


LEUR, 




LEURS 



* See note* page 31, to which might be sddod all the numbers, and the words 
CHAQUB, eack; TOUT, every; PLUSIEURS, several; which exclude the article from the 
noun, and have the same property as the words generally known by the name of artici p.* 



62 



AN iKfRODUCTION 



CHAP, III. 

ARTICLE and NOUN. 

GENERAL RULES. 

L The signs called articls are never used without a noun after them^ 
and they must be of the same gender and number as that noun; thiSy in 
grammar^ is called agreement of the article with the noun; ex. 

SINGULAR. 

1 2 

Feminine. 

^ LA Mere, 



The 
of The 
to The 

A 

The 
of The 
io The 



Masculine. 
le Pere, 






DU 
AU 
UN 

Le 

DU 

AU 



Pere, 
Pere. 
Pere, 

Pain. 
Pain. 
Pain. 



Some DU Pain, 
Pain. 
MON Pdre. 



This \ 
That] 



CE 



M?/ 



? 



of My a de u on Pere. 

to My fS d MON Pere^ 

My m MON Pain, 

XifMy ^(feMON Pain. 

to JWy f' d MOV Pajw. 



if « g 

Your 
Their 



TON Pawz. 
SON Pai/i. 
SON Paiji. 
NOTRE Pafn. 
votre Pain. 
LEUR Pain. 



the 
of the 
io the 

a 

the 
of the 
io the 



gcZcLA Mere, 
" ^ - ■ Mert 



gaLA 



g LA 

^dei.k 
: a LA 

«oin£ (2eLA 

this 
that 



UNE Merc. 

Ffancfe. 
Vidnde, 
Viande. 

Viande, 



plcraI. 
3 

Masculine and Feminine. 



} 



CETTE Viande, 
Mire. 



my g MA 
of my § rfe M A Mere, 



io my 

my 
of my 
io my 

thy 
his 
her 
our 



?3 a MA 



g MA 

^deMX 
• a MA 






TA 
SA 
SA 



Mere. 

Viande. 
Viande. 
Viande. 

Viande. 
Viande. 
Viande. 



the 
of the 
to the 

. the 
of the 
iothe 

some 



o 



LEs Enfants. 
DES Enfanis. 
Aux Enfants. 



i 

M 
B0 



LES 
OES 
AUX 



Habits. 
Habits. 
Habits. 



DEB Habits. 
CEs Habits. 



NOTRE Viande. 
your VOTRE Viande. 
their leur Viande. 



these \ 
those J 

my I MES Enfants. 
of my gJeMES Enfants. 
to Tny B d MES Enfants. 

my g MEs Habits, 
of my grfeMEs Habits. 
io my SdMEs Habits. 



thy 

his 

her 

our 

your 



H 

a 

H 

as 



TES 

SES 

SES 

NOS 

VOS 



Habits. 
Habits. 
Habits, 
Habits, 
Habits, 



their leurs Habits. 



EXERCISE. 

The father, the mother, the children. The good nature of the father, 
pere, mere, enfants, * bon naturel m. 

the tenderness of the mother, the civility of the children. Speak to the 

• tendresse f. * civUM f. Parlez 

father, tell it to the mother, give it to the children. The brother, the 
ditee.le donnei^ frere. 



* Before you prefix an article to a noun, never omit to consider, 

1 Whether the noun which follows the article is nuueuline or feminins ; 

2 Whether it is tingular or olural. 

If the noun which follows tne article is nuuc, sing* use tue signs contained in the 1 
column. 

If the noun which follows the article ia f em, nng, use the ngns contained in thfi2 column. 

If the noun which follows the article is plural, whether masculine or feminine, use the 
signs contained in the 3 column. 

t Observe also, that if the noun is singular in english, it miust be singular in french, and 
if it is plural in english, it must be made plural in french, agreeably to the rules, page 60, 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. 63 

ARTicLS and koUn. 
sister, the cousins. The complaisance of the brother, the modesty 

ujnir, cousins. * complaisance f. * modestie t 

of the sister, the kindness of the cdusins. The hor^e, the cow, the 

* bont6L ch§val, vache, 

dogs. The bridle of the horse, the horns of the cow, the ears of the 
chiens, * bridB f. comes oreiltes 

dogs. Bring it to the horse, give it to the cow, leave it to the dogs, 
AfiporteZ'ie donnet-U laissex-le 

The nose, the mouth, the eyes. The tip of the nose, the size of 

• n«s, m. houche/S* yeux. * boutm., grandeur f, 

the mouth, the beauty of the eyes. A glass, a spoon, a knife, a 

heautii. • t/err«, m. cuiller,f, cout6au,m. 

fork. Some wine^ «ofne beer, tome glasses. This dinner, this 

fourchette, f. * vin, m, bih'e, f. * dtner, m. 

table, these dishes. That cheese^ that bottle, those apples. My arnij 

table /f» plats, fromage,m, bouteille,{. pommes, t bras, mi 

m^hand, m^feet. Hwhat, ^is shirt, Af« stockings, ifcr apron, 

• main, f. * < pieds, t chapeau, m. • vhemise, f. • 6a*. * tabjiier, m. 

Aer gown. /*er scissarg. Our garden, our hous^^ our fields. Your 

• ro6«, f. • ciseatLX, . jardin, m. tnaijon, f. champs. 

umbrella, your watch, your gloves. JTieir coach, their servants, 
parapluie, m. <^ montre, F. gants. earrosse, m, domestiques. 

If the noun which follows the article is singular, and begins with aM 
VOWEL, or H mute,! whether it is masculine or Feminine, use 

l' I* le, la ; as, The g l' Enfant, m. l' Hiatoire. f. 

deil 8 du, deLA; oi The tideh* Enfant. dejJ Histoire. 

dh* ^ AU, d LA ; to The ^ d l' Enfant. a i! Histoire. 

GET CE ; This or That a get Enfant. gette Histoire. 

HON MA ; My § MON Enfant MbN Histoire. 

TON ta; Thy § ton Eiifant. ton Histoire. 

SON SA ; JTw or JETer * son Enfant, son Histoire. 

EXERCISE. 

TAtf air. TAe water. Jlfy slate. Her writing. His school. Her 

• air. eau, • ardoise. ■ ieriture. • ^co^e. • - 

school. 2%f« man. 2%^/ child. This tree. TAai bird. The ornament 

' 'homme enfant. arbre, oiseau, omement 

of the mind. The history of the year. The wing of the bird. He 

esprit. ■ 'histoire ann£e. aile II 

sacrificed his honour to the interest of the state. She has lost the 

sacrifia 'honneur int^rSt ^t. EUe a perdu 

aflfection of her friend. Her obstinacy is the cause of his inconstancy. 

affection * ami. opiniAtreti est * cause f. ineonstance. 



• See note • page 62. t See note • page 83. 

X The h mute is marked in these exercises wiUi an apostrophe, this mark , before it. 



64 AN INTRODUCTION 

ARTICLE and NOUN. 

O The signs called article must be repeated before every noun infrench 
agreeably to the gender and number of each noun, though the nouns are 
in the same sentence^ and though the article is not repeated in english ; 
as. 

The father, mother and children are (gone out,) 

Le p^re, LA mere et les enfants sont sortis, i. e. the father, the Sfc, 

Some bread, meat* money and clothes. 

Du painj de la viandct de j.*argent et des habits, i. e. some bread, Sfc. 

EXERCISE. 

Bring the bread and butter"; the tea and coffee"; some milk or 

Apportex * painm, et beurre;m, th6m, cafii m. * laitm^ou 

cfeam' ; a cup and saucer" ; a knife and fork" ; some bread and 

creme ; f. t(use f. ioucoupe ; f« eouteau m. fourchette ; f. 

cheese" ; the dishes and plates" ; the beans and bacon" ; the pepper 
fromage ; m. '* plat t assiette ; t feve t l^rd ; m. poivre m. 

and salt". My brother and sister" are (gone out.) His father and 

seL m. * frtre sontr sont sortis. — * 

mother" are dead. She has lost her friends and relations". 
sont morts, EUe a perdu amt't parent,^ 

M PARTICULAR RULES. 

^ The nam^s of persons and places are used in french, as in english, 
without article ; ex. 

I like Voltaire, J'aime Voltaire, 

London. Londres, 

I speak of Voltaire, Je parle de Voltaire, 

of London. de Londres. 

I prefer it to Voltaire, Je le prefcre A Voltaire^ 

to London. A Londres. 

Observe that de and A which are prefixed to Voltaire, Londres, are 
not article9 ; they are prepositions used to unite the noun to the verb. 

exercise. 

I have read almost all the^ works *of Voltaire and *Rousseau. 
J* ax lu. presque toutes csuvres * (a) 

I am reading now the^ adventures of Telemachus the son of Ulysses 
Je — ^ lis aprisent aventures TiUmaque — * fils X Ulysse 

and Penelope. Have you ever been in London? Yes, 1 have, /. e., been. 

(a) Fin^Urpe, Avez - vow jamais 6t6 a Oui, j'y ai tie 

Is it as large as Paris ? London is much larger than Paris. 
I^t-il aussi grand que est beaucoup plus grand que 

London is ^Ae> largest city in Europe. Have you seen Naples? No; 

plus grande ville £. de V vu Acn ; 

I have been at Florence and Rome, but I have nof" been at Naples. 

ai 6t6 a (a) maisje n*ai pas 6te 

* A dash, this mark ( — ), under a word shews that the word is not expressed in french 
agreeably to rules which wUl be seen in the last part of this work. 

t See note t page 6f . 

(a) The preposition must bo repeated before every noun in french, in the same way as 
tho article > t See nota ♦ page 28. 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. 65 

ARTICLE and NOUN. 

But the names tf countries and provinces which are used without O 
an article in english^ require in french one of the signs le, la, les ; 
Du, de LA, DEs; au, a la, aux, agreeably to the gender and number 
of the noitn ; as, 

I like Portugal, Taime le Portugal, 

France, la France, 

England. l' Anghterre, 

I speak of Portugal, Je parle du Portugal, 

of France, &c. de la Frajice, 8fc, 

I prefer it to Portugal, Je le prefcre au Portugal, 

to France, &c. k la France, Sfc, 

exercise. 
Italy* is the garden . of Europe*. France* is also a fine country ; 

^Italie* est jardhi m. *Kurope4 France f. est aussi beaii jmys ; m. 

it lies between Spain', Italy, Switzerland, Germany*, Ho]land^ 

elle (est sHuee) entre Kspagne, • Suisse, f. * AUemagne, Hollande, f. 

and England*. Spain, with all the gold of Mexico* and Peru*, is 

et AngLeterre. * avw tout * or Mejnqv.em. (a) P^rou,m, n'est 

not^ so rich as France. Brazil* belongs to Portugal, Mexico to 

pns si riche que * Brtsil m. appartient * m. * 

Spain, Canada* to England, Martinique* and Guadeloupe* to France. 

* Canada m, * Martinique f. Guadeloupe f. * 

Observe however that the names of countries are used without the O 
article in french, when they come after verbs denoting dwelling or 
moYement, such as to be in, to live in, to co to, to come from; 
In these instances, in, to are expressed by en, and from by de ; as. 
He is in France. II est en France, 

in England. en Angleterre, 

He is going to France, II va en France, 

to England. en Angleterre, 

He comes from, France, // vient de France^ 

from England. d* Angleterre. 

exercise. 

My brother livles in Switzerland and my sister in France. I intend 

demeure • * J* Caidessein) 

to go to France and Italy, (as soon) as the war is over. I come 

d* alter • • (a) austitdt que * guerre f, sera finie. Je viens 

from Portugal, and I (am going) to Holland and England. Have you 

• Je vais • • (a) Avez - innts 

ever been to Spain ? No ; I (am going) to Turkey and to Greece, 
jamais itt • "Son ; Je vais • Turquie • Grece, 

whence I (will pass) into Spain. I would rather go to Italy. 

(d" ott) je passei'ai en • J' ainerais mieux alter • 



* The figures at the top of thd words or under the words, indicate the number of the 
parajpiipk where the rule concerning that word is to be found ^ if you do not perfectly 
recollect the rule, never omit to look for it, and read it Qvery time with the example. 

t The parts of the world follow the same rules as the names of countries. 

W 



66 Aiy INTRODUCTION 

ARTICLE and NOUN. 
THE; LE» LA. L£S , DU» de LA» D£S ; AU, a LA, AUX. 

/ j4fl common names tiBed in a general sense ; as, bread is ^ood ; or 
in a PARTICULAR sense ; as, the bread which I eat is good, must hxivt 
before them one of the definite signs le, la, les; du, de la, des ; au, d 
LA, AUX, agreeabfy to the ^nder and number of the noun; ex. 

general seTisCf no article in english before the noun, 

I like bread, J*aime le pain, 

meat, la viande, 

money, l' argent^ 

clothes. les habits, 

1 speak of bread, Je parte du pain, 

of meat, ©y clothes. de la viande^ des habits. 

I prefer it to bread, to meat, &c. Je leprefire au pain, k la viande, ^'c 

PARTICULAR sense, in e?iglish the before the noun, 
I like the bread ^ J'aime le pain \ 

the meat f ^ i la viande f .»^ . 

<Ac money r ''*^«- i,' argent n""'^ "'• 

the clothes) les habits J 

I speak of the bread & meat I have. Je parte du pain et^e Lkviande quefai. 
I prefer it to the bread & meat he hsLS,Jeleprefere a vpain et k la viande qiHl a. 



Gold^ and silver^ are precious, but ^iron and steel^ are 

^r * ^argent tout prScieux, mais fer m. ^acier sojit 



EXERCISE. 

more useful. 

plus utUe$. 

The gold and silver of Peru are purer'^ than those of ^Europe. 

• a P^rot* m. sont (plus purs) que ceiue • 

ModestyT and virtue are preferable to beauty and ^riches. I prefer 

modestie f. Hertu f. sont prif^rabUs ^heautt f. {tk)richesse, Je pr^fere 

the modesty and virtue of your sister, to the beauty and "riches of your 

' ^ de > (a) 

cousin. Peace* and plenty* make men* happy. (Let us preserve) the 
coiLsine, paix f. ^abotidance rendent kommes heureux, eousei'vous ^ 

peace and plenty which we enjoy. Patience and perseverance are 

" dont nous jouissons, f patience i, "tpersivirance i, sont- 

necessary to happiness. I admire the patience and perseverance of 

n^cessairet '^bonhenr, m. J' admire * fp • f. 

your brother. Pride* and vanity are generally the cause of the mis- 

^orgueil fvaniti f. ordinairement * cause f. * »»"/- 

fortunes of men. (Let us go) into the garden to see if the fruit is 

heur ^homme, atlons dans * fardin m. — voir si * fruit m. est 

ripe. Which fruit do you" like best? Gooseberries or strawber- 

mur. Quel — aimez - vmis lemienxt fgroseille ou.f fmise'! 

ries ? I do not** like gooseberries ; I like cherries and peaches. 

Je — n* aime pas • J' a»>i2e "^ cerise ^piche. 

Children generallv like fruit. I prefer milk* and cheese to fruit. 

enfant * en gitUral aiment ^ Je pr^fere lait m. ^frontage m. * 

* Tlie figures annexed to tlie words indicate the rule which that word requires. 



.' TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. 67 

ARTICLK and NOUN. 

OF exprmed fyy D£ ; tut by dn, di la, des. 

Observe that the prtpontion of before a nofin med in a obneral q 
sense, preceded by another noiin^ uted in a partitivb sense, cannot be 
txpreued by du, de la, des, which would render the erpremon particular 
and mean ov the, it must be expreued by de only^ without any regard 
to gender or number ; as. 

He gave me a pound q/* bread, II me doftna une livre de pain, 
a piece q/^meat, un morceau de viande, 

a bag of money, un sac d'* argent, 

aheap o/' clothes. un toe n^ habite, ^ 

Not, Une livre dv pain; Un morceau de la viande, Sfc. which would 
mean a pound of the bread ; a piece of the meat, Sfc, 

N. B. In thii rule. mu$t be included the following word»^ whichj 
though they have no sign after them in englinh, require the connective 
particle de to unite them to the noun which follown them : 



ASSEZ, enough; 


ao. 


A8Se2 


DE pain. 


BEAUcouF, much, many ; 




Bcaucoup 


DE viande. 


coMBiEN, how much, how many; 


combien 


D* argent. 


TANT, 80 much, so many ; 




rant 


D* habits. 


AUTANT, as much, as many ; 




jutant 


DE pain. 


PLUS, more ; 




plus 


DE viande. 


MoiNS, less; 




Moins 


d' argent. 


TROp, too much, too many ; 




Trop 


d' habits. 


OUfc'RE.t}'*"^'-^'^' 




peu 
Guere 


DE pain, 
DE viande. 


PAS, POINT, no, not; 




pas, or point 


, D* argent. 


JAMAIS, never \ 




jamais 


d' habits. 



Not, assez du pain, Sfc, which would mean enough of the bread, 8fC. 

EXERCISE. 

I have bought a pair of boots, and two pairs o/* shoes. Drink a 
J' ct aektU ^ poire f. * hotte, deux * $oulier. Buves ^ 

glass q^wine. Have a little patience*. This is (a day) of rest, 

rerrem vin, Ayet unpeu n.b. q* gg^ (auJQurd*huijow)^ repot. 

I have many things" to do. I have no money^ and I have very 

bteueeup ehee^"^' a faire, Je n'ai ,pat argent*^'^- f ai tres- 

few friends*. You have more property" ihah I have. I have not*» 

peu anu. "•■• avez plus lien '^ *• que moi — Je n'ai pat 

(so many) friends* as you. Your friends have (cu much) interest* as 

taiU ^B- que ont autant cridit **•■• qu€ 

mine. Give me little wine* and much water*. You give me** 

Uindens. Zhnnet-moi peu ^•*- eau.^'^ Vous me** dotinez 

(too much) wine* ; you do not* give me** water enough*. I never 

trop N.B. y^fuf _ n^ me*^ donnez pat assez. **•■• Je ««•* 

drink wine* without putting a (good deal) of water* (into it**.) 

lots jamais "•*• sans y** mettre — beaucoup "•■• — 

* See note * p. 88. t Observe that gukbe is used only in negative sentences. 

p 2 



68 AN INTRODUCTION 

ARTICLE AND NOUN. 

SOME, ANY; DU, de LA, DES 

y If you want to express only a part of the substance of which you are 
speaking ; ojs some bread, some meat, Sfc. use before the noun one of 
the partitive signs du, de la, dfs, agreeably to gender and number. 
These signs are the same as those of the definite article of the ; as. 
He gave me some bread, // me donna nv pain, 

some meat, de la viande, 

some money, de L* argent, 

some clothes. des habits. 

I. c. a portion of the bread, of the meat, of the money, of the clothes. 

N. B. The sign some is often understood in english, before such nouns 
as bread, meat, money, Sfc, but tfie sign which represents it in french, 
cannot be omitted ; and it must be repeated before every noun ; as, 

He gave me bread, meat, money, clothes ; i. e. some bread, some meat. 

II me donna du pain, de la viande, de l* argent^ des habits. 

exercise. 

The dinner is on the table. Will you have meat'^'*"* or fish*^**? 
diner m. est tur f. Vaulez-oou» — viande f. ou poisson m.? 

Will you have some beef and cabbage ; some mutton and turnips? I 
— bceufm, ^choux ; plur. mouton m. hiavet / Je 

(shall e«t) some fish and potatoes. Bring me some salt and pepper. 

mangerai Xpommes de terre.) Apportez-moi ul m. 'powre, m. 

What will you drink? Will you have beer', or cider'? I (will drink) 
Que voideZ'Vous boire 7 — bitre, f. ou cidre m. / Je boirni 

some wine and water'. Put some bread and cheese, on the table. 

vin m, *eau. Mettez pain m. ^fromage, m. sur f. 

SOME, ANY expressed by de ; not by du, de la, des. 

\ Q The partitive signs du, de la, des, require the noun immediately after 
them ; therefore if a noun used in a partitive sense is preceded by an 
ADJECTIVE, use DE before that adjective, for both genders and numbers, 
instead o/du, de la, des, before the noun ; as. 

He gave me very good bread, II me donna de tres-bon pain, 

excellent meat, d' excellente viande, 

fine clothes. de beaux habits. 

EXERCISE. 

(This is) ^excellent wine, but (that is) "very bad beer. Have you any 
Voici excellent vin, tnaU voila tree - mauvaise biere, Avex - vom *® 

good beer in France? No; but we have "•good wine and good brandy. 
bowne biere en Non; nousavom Don ^^onneCeau-^-vie.) 

Good small beer is better than bad wine. You must have fine 

^^bonne petite biere eit meilleure que ^^mauoait devez avoir "6entt 

fruit in France. Yes ; we have very fine fruit. {Are there) any large trees 

en Oui ; avons ^^tree - beau Y a-t-il *• grands arbre 

In your garde*? No; (There are only) young trees. Have you not 

dans^ jardin'l Non ; (Un^yaqueJ ^^jeunes N* avez-vius pas 

better pens to lend me? I have good pens, but bad«> ink. 
^^eiHeurei plume a me*^ yriter »*/ /' oi ^%onnet mats mauvaise ena-e 



T'O FRENCH GRAMMAR. 69 

ARTICLE and NOUN. 

How to place tfro nouns together. 

TVhen two nouns come together, the French always place first the 1 1 
noun which is the subject of discourse, with du, de la, des, de, or A, 
before the second noun, agreeably to the sense in which it is used; as, 

Petei^s book, 
i. e, the book of Peter,- 

Some London beer, 
i, e. Some heer of London, 

La plume du mattre. 



Le livre de Pierre. 
De la Here de Londres. 



The master's pen, 
i. e. the pen of the m,aster. 

The street door, 
t. e the door of the street, 

A gold watch, 
I. e, a watch of gold. 

Some silk stockings, 
i. e. Some stockings of silk. 



La porte de la rue. 
Une montre d' or. 
Des has de Aoie, 

exercise. 



} 
} 
} 



DE, 4tk rule, pro- 
per tiames. 



DV, de LA fTtkrulef 
particmar seme. 



DE, OF, Qth rule, 
general serne. 



Where is WilliamV hat'f? Have you seen MaryV apron'? 
Oil est Guillaume chapeau m.l AveZ" vou$ vu Marie tablier m. ? 

Will you drink a glass of Port* wine"? NatureV voice' proclaims 
Voulez-voiu boire ven'e m. Oporto vin '/ Nature f. voix f. procUtme 

godV power^. Ignorance' is the mother of errotf. Have you seen my 

liieu pouvoir.m.. ^Ignorance mere ^erreur. va 

father^ff horse' ? I (will wait for you**) at the garden gate', or (at the) 

cheval 'i Je (voxu^ attendrai) a jardin m. porte, f. ou au 

corner of my sister « house'. Shut the kitchen door', and open the 
coin m, maison, f, Fermez ^cuisine f. porte, f, ouvree 

parlour' window. Bring my gold* watch, and clean my silver® buckles. 
salle f. "^fenetre, f. Apportez * or montre, f. nettoyez * argent boucle. 



Sometimes however the order of the words could not bd changed in 
english in the above manner, without changing also their meaning ; for 
tx. A WINE glass. An INK bottle, A TEA spoon, could not be changed into 
A glass of WINE, A bottle of ink, a spoon o/tea ; yet the nouns require 
this order in french ; but instead of de betweai the tv)o nouns, we use A. 

N. B. This is done when the first noun denotes the use of the other; as, 

A wine glass, i, e. a glass used for wine. Un verre A vin. 

A tea spoon> i. e. a spoon used for tea. Une cuiller kihfi. 

EXERCISE. 

Give me the wine" bottle, and the water" pot. Put some wine" 
DenneZ'moi vin bouieille, f. eau pot. in. Mettez 

glasses on the table. Bring the tea" board and the coffee" cups. 

verre mr table, f. Appmtes th^ cabaret m. caje tas$e. 

There is no powder* in my powder" bag. (Let us go) and sit 

II n*y a pas poMrfrc^-B. ^atu sac. m. AUotis — (fious asseoir) 

in the dining" room. Have you any fire" arms in your house? 
dant diner chambre, f. Aiez ' /Vu arme maxsonf.t 



12 



70 ^ AN INTRODUCTION 

CHAP. IV. 

ADJECTIVE. 

An ADJECTIVE is a word joined to a noun, to denote some quality or 
circumstance belonging to that noun ; as, good bread, bad meat, &c. 

It) The ADJECTiVK must be of the same gender and number as the noun 
which it qualifies. 

An adjective is made feminine by adding e mute to the masculine ; as, 
(That is) a pretty boy. Voild un joli gargon. 

(This is) a pretty girl. Void une sohiejille. 

He is well dressed, II est bien habii.l!^. 

She is very well dressed, Elle est tres-bien habill^^. 

Except the adjectives ending in e mute, which are of both genders ; as, 
Un jeune homme aimable. An amiable young man. 
Une jeune femme AiMABiiE. An amiable young woman. 

And the adjectives in jr, which change x into ssfor the feminine; as, 
Monfrire est paresseut. My brother is lazy 

Ma soeur est paresseu^c. My sister is lazy. 

The PLURAL number of adjectives is formed like that of nouns^ by 
adding s or x to the singular ; see nouns, pogc 60. ex. 

Une JOLiE Jille, A pretty girl, Un bi&av chapeau, A^/je hat. 
De JOhii&sjUles, Pretty girls. De BEAU<r chapeaux. Fine hats. 

N. B. A past PARTICIPLE used to qualify a noun, or coming after the 
vm'b to BE <o ejspress an action or the state of the noun, follows the same 
. rules as an adjective; ex. 

My brother is gone out. Monfrire est sorti. 

My sister is gone out. Ma soeur est soRTie. 

EXERCISE. 

Your brother is diligent; your sister is diligenP^; your brothers are 

est diligent; * ' $ont 

diligenV^ ; your sisters are diligenP^, Your father is esteemed ; your mo- 
• * • estim^ ; 

ther is esteemed}^; your sons are esteemed: your daughters are esteemed. 

• ^ fits "•' » fil^ »»• 

That boy is very civil; that girl is very civil; these gentlemen are 

* N tret . ciw/j * • ' mestieurt 

yery civil; these ladies are very civile. Our man servant is lazy; 

• * dame • — valet paresseux ; 

our maid servant is lazy^; our men servants are lazy^^; our maid servants 

servante • * — * * — ^ 

are lazy^. My son is very young ; my daughter is very young; my 
• p'is . jeunfi} * 

sons are very young ; my daughters arc very young. Your cousin is 

* 1 €Ou^ne f. 

very amiable; she is officious^ and complaisant}*, 

aimable; die officiewi^ eomplaifant,* 

• The masculine singular only of adjectives is here giren ; the learner must make the 
adjectiye of tiie gender and number which the noun requires, agreeably to the above rules. 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. 71 

ADJECTIVE. 

If an adjective qualifies sevehal nouns singular o/^e same gtnder, 14 
that adjective must he oj the same gender as those nouns, and plural , as 
Her fathei and her uncle are angry. Son pere ei son ancle sont fAch^s* 
Her mother and her aunt are an^rj^. Sa mere et sa tante sont vkcHtes. 

But if the nouns are of different genders, the adjective must be of I O 
the MASCULINE gender, and in the plural number; as. 

Her father and mother are angry. Son pere et sa mere sont vkcuis, 

exercise. 
My mother and sister are ready. His daug^hter and his niece are 

» et ■ sont prit, " * fille niecB 

civil and obliging. Her son and daughter are dead?*. The horse and 

civil^^ obligeant,^* * fils • . mort,* ckeval 

the cow have escaped}^ The gate and the door were open^*. The 

vache (se sont^ ichappi.* ' barriere f. pmrti f, itatent ouoert,* 

man and the woman were gone, I found a glass and a bottle broken, 

^iaient parti*, Je trouvai verve m., houteillei, cats4,* 

Adjectives are generally placed in english before the noun ; in french 1 U 
they are placed after the noun ; as, 

A red coat. A round table. A new house. 

Un habit rouge. Une table ronde. line maison neuve. 

Except these adjectives, which are generally placed before the noun ; 1 / 

premier, \st ; second, 2d ; and all the adjectives of number. 

BEAU, BEL, m,\Jine, mauvais, bad, 

BELLE, fern, f handsome, MECUJLiiT, wicked, 

BON, m. bonne, f. good, meilleur, better. 

GRAND, great, large, moindre, less. 

OROS, m, GRossE, f. big. PETIT, little, small. 

JEUNE, young, TOUT, all, whole, 

JOLi, pretty, vieux, m. vieille, f. old;'f 

A good husband. A handsome woman. A pretty litUe bird. 

Un BON mari. Une belle femme, Un joli petit oiseau. 

EXERCISE. 

England is b, fruitful country. The english^^ nation has made several 
^Angielerre est ' fertile^* pays, m. . ^ anglais^^ nation f. a fait plusieurs^ 

useful^ discoveries. Your sister is a charming^ woman. She has the 

utite^ ddcouverie, est * charmant^* femme, EUe a * ' 

most engaging^^ manners^ Does she^^ know the french^* language? 
piiu engageant^^ manieres, f* •— fail - elle^^ ^ fraufai*^^ langue f. 1 

I have met . her near the white^* house. She lives in a^ smail^f 

Je P^^ai rencontrie ** (pres de) * blanche maison, f. demeure dans *■ 

house in a large garden. It is an old^f house, and (there is) a bad^ road 

maison f. > *' jardin, m. C ert * vieille il y a chemin m. 

to go (to it) but it is the bes£^ situation in this neighbourhood. 

pour y** aller ** mail e' fit ^ meilleur^^ f. ds ^ voisinuge. m, 

* A participle used to qualify u nouu, follows the same rule as an a^ective ; 13 ' "^ 
t Add to them meme, same, and plusieurs, several, which also come before the noun. 



72 AN INTRODUCTION* 

ADJECTIVE. 
COMPARISON of ADJECTIVES. 

The same words which serve to qualify nouns, serve also by the 
means of certain adverbs to compare their qualities. 

1 Q The comparative of superiority, more before the adjective, or r or 
ER added to it, is formed in french by plus* before the adjective; as. 
I am more strong, or stronger than you. Jesuis PLVsfort que vous, 

1 Q The comparative of inferiority, less, or not so before the adjec 
^ tive, is, formed by MoiNst, or pas si before the adjective; as, 

I am less strong than you. Je suis moins fort que voiis, 

I am not so strong as you. Je ne suis pas si fort ^ue vous, 

OA The comparative of equality, formed by as before the adjective is 
^formed in french by aussi before the adjective; as, 

I am as strong as you. Je suis aussi fort que vous, 

Q 1 The superlative most or least before the adjective, or st or est 

^ ■*• added to it, is formed by adding le, la, les, to llie comparative words 

plus, moins, agreeably to the gender and number of the noun; as. 

My brother is the strongest, Monfrere est le plus fort. 

My sister is the least strong. Ma sceur est la moins forte. 

exercise. 
The country is more pleasant than the town. My horse is younger 

* campagne f. est ^® agriable que * ville, f, * eheval jeune " 

and runs faster than yours. That* house is larger^* and more 

court vite *• le voire. muUon^la f. grand *' ^* 

convenient than this**, but this** is better built. You write better 
commode celie-ci, celU-ci (b) bdtiM icrivez (b) 

than I do, because you have ^^better pens. Vice' is l^ss dangerous 

moi — , parceque (b) plume, f. Vice m. *• dangerettx 

than hypocrisy'. She is not so handsome as her sister, but she is more 
^hypocrisie, Kile n*est pas *• belle " saiur, elle est 

amiable. She is as rich as you. She is the handso7nest woman in 
aimaUe, *> riche «» ^ » belle « (c) 

the town. Her father is the jprowrfest" man that I have ever known. 

ville, f. orguexUeux^* que aie (d) jamais connu>, 

• Except MEILLEUR, better; pire, wm^ ; adjectives, 1 ^.j^j^j^ ^^^ comparative of 

MIEUX, better ; pis, worse; adverbs, > themselves 

t Except MOINDRE, less ; adjective, J 

(b) Beginners are apt to mistake the ^ords MEILLEUR & MIEUX, which are botk 
expressed by BETTER. 

MEILLEUR, better, is the comparative of BON, good, an adjective, and is added to 
nouns ; as. 

My pen is good, yours is better. Ma plume est bonne, lavotre est meilleure. 

MiEUX, better, is the comparative of BIEN, well, an adverb, and is added to verbs ; as, 

I write well, but you write better. J* icrk bien, mais vous derives mieux. 

(c) IN, after a superlative, is expressed in french in the same manner as OF ; ex. 
She is the finest woman in ths town. C* est la plus belle femme de LA vilU, 

(d) QUI, QUE, DONT, after a superlative require the verb in the subjunctive ; as. 
She is the finest woman T have ever seen. C* est la plus belle femsne que 7" All jamais vu4. 



TO KKENCH GRAMMAR. 73 

CHAP. V. 
PRONOUN. 

A PRONOUN. is a word used to represent a noun; as when I say, i, 
instead of naming my own 7iame, thou, you, be, she, it, they, 
instead of naming that of another being. 

There are various sorts of pronouns, generally known by the names of 

PERSONAL, RELATIVE^ POSSESSIVE, DEMONSTRATIVE, INDEFINITE. 

OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 
PERSONAL PRONOUNS are either agents or nominatives of verbs, or they 
are objects. 

ITie mminat. are, I, THOU, HE, SHE, IT, WE, YE, YOU, THEY. 
The objuts are, ME, THEE, HIM, HER, IT, US, YOU, THEM. 

OF AGENTS or NOMINATIVE PRONOUNS. 

fFhen i, thou, he, she, it, we, you, they, are the nominative ^^^ 
of a verb, i. e. when there is before or after them, a verb of the same 
number and person thai agrees with thein, they are, 

1. JE. HE, IT. IL. 

THOU. TU. THEY,mas. ILS. 

WE. NOUS. , SHE, IT. ELLE. 

YOU. VOUS. THEY,f%m. ELLES. 

N. B. TAe nominative pronouns keep the same place in the sentence 
in french as in english ; ex. 
. / have. Thou bast, ne has, &c. Have I? Hast Thou? Has he? Sfc. 
J'ai. TV as. il a, S^c. ^wb? ^»-tu? ^-^IL? &c, 

EXERCISE. 

I speak. Thou writest. He plays. She sings. We walk. You danc», 
parte. 6cri$. joue. chante. marchons. dansn. 

They study. Have you done? Is he come? Are they gone 

etudient. Avez fiuif Ett venu? Sont partis f 

If J, THOU, BE, SHE, WE, YOU, THEY, have not a verb to agree wiihji^ 
them, or if they are joined to another substantive,* they are, 

HE. LUI. 

THEY, mas. EUX. 

SHE, IT. ELLE. 

THEY, fern. ELLES. ex. 

It is J who have done that. Cest moi qui aifait cela. 

He and J have done that. Lui et moi nous avonsfait cela. 

You and they have done that. Vous et eux vous avez fait cela. 

ElOBRCISE. 

Who has done that? It is not" J; it is he. It was neither 
Qui a fait edal Ct n*est pas ^ e* est ^ Ce n*itait ni 

he nor I, it was either you or they. He and / were together. 

■» ni ■■ e' itait ou wt » ■■ ■• '^nous Hums) ensemble. 

I can do that better than he. You can not do it** better than /. 
•* puis favre cela (b) que ^ ne pouvex pas !«•* faire (b) ^ ' «» 



/. 


MOI. 


THOU. 


TOI. 


WE. 


NOUS. 


YOU. 


VOTJS. 



* By stthtUintive is meant here every word which either names or represents a mnstanice 



74 



AN INTRODUCTION 

PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

OP OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 



A TABLE skewing how the objective pronouns are expressed, according 
to the place which they keep with the verb. 

Befbre the verb. After the verb. After a preposition. 
24, 25, 27, rules. 26 ruU. 28 ruU. 

MOT. 
TOI 



ME, 
to ME. 


} 




ME. MOI. 


THEE, 
to THEE. 


} 




TE. TOI, 


HIMSELF, 




« 




HERSELF, 








ITSELF, 




► 


SE. 


THEMSELVES. 


, 




US, 
to US. 


. 


Whether 
24i 


before or after the verb, 
23, 26, 27 rules. 

NOUS. 


YOU, 
to YOU. 


} 




VOUS. 


HIM, 
IT I mas. 


} 




r.E. 


HER, 

IT I fern. 


} 




LA. 


THEM. 






LES. 


to HIM, 
to HER. ' 


k 




LUI. 


to THEM. 






LEUR. 


of, frem, \1T, 
fw, with ITHEM. 


► 




EN. 


to, at, \IT, 
in, by StHEM. 


k 




Y.(e) 



SOI. 



NOUS. 



VOUS 



LUI. 



ELLE. 



rEUX,f!i. 
lELLES,/, 



This table shews hi one point of view all the rules concerning tite 
objective pronouns. 

These pronouns, as you see in the table above, are sometimes governed 
by verbs, and sometimes by prepositions. 

When the objective pronouns are governed by a verb, they are placed 
invariably before that verb. See rules 24, 25 and 27. 

Except when the verb commands^ for then the pronouns must be placed 
after the verb, and moi, toi must be used, instead of me, te. See rule 
26. 

If the pronouns are governed by a preposition, they are then independ- 
ent of the verb, and must be placed after the preposition. See rule 28. 



(e) EN, T, are also adverbs*of place, used, en for THENCE ; Y for THERE, thither, 
and they follow the same rules as the pronouns. 



on 
> (^ 

CO 



OB 
CA 



*y9 



TO FHENCIl GUiVMMAU. iO 

PRR80NAL PRONOUN. 

The ORDER which the objective pronouns keep toiih the vbrb. 

GENERAL RULE. ^. 

When the pronouns Af£, thee^ rs, roir, Hijf, hbji, ir, thjbji, ^•' 
are governed by a verb, the pronmins me, te, nous^ vous, le, la, les, 
LUi, LEUR, EN, Y, whlch represent them, must be placed immediately 
BEFORE that verb ; ex. 

He sees me. II me voit. literally he me 

thee, II TR voit, he thee 

UB, II NOUS voit, he us 

you. It VOUS voit, he you 

him, or it. Il le voit, he him, or i7 

Acr, or it, Il la wiY. he her, or i7 

^em. // LES voit. he ^Aem 

Does he see me? me voit-U ? me 

thee? te voit-il? thee 

U8? NOUS voit il? us 

you? vous voit-il? you 

him, or t7/ le voit-il ? him, or f^ 

Aer, or it? la voit-il? her, or f< 

them? LES voit'il? them 

He does not see me ; 4*^^. J/ 7ie me voit pas. he fne sees not. 

Does he not see me? 8fc, . Ne me voit-il pas? me sees he not? 
Does^ he not see thee ? Sfc. Ne te voit-il pas ? thee sees he not ? 

BXBRCISB. 

1 see you» I see him, I see her, I see them. Do you" see me ? 

voi$ •* ■* ** ■* — voyei - wtu •* 

Do you see ti« P Do you see him ? Do you see Aer ? Do you see 
<Aem P I do not" know you, I do not know him, I do not know 

•* — ne cannaisjKU ** — •• •* — . *» 

Aer, I do not know them. Do you" not know me P Do you 

•* — M •* — ne eonnaiues-voui poi •• 7 — *> 

not know ui? Do you not know AfmP Do you not know her? 

M W/ .^ 55 «^ 55 U 

Do you not know them? I meet them sometimes, but I do not* 
— * •* •*'/ rencontre ■* quelqtufoit, — ne 

speak (to them). Have you seen your mother lately? I saw Aer 
jHirlepas — leur*^. A vex vu depuUpeu'/ vu •* 

yesterday. Did she" brin^ yoii any things? She brou|rht me a 
kier, — apporta-t-elU ** queique ehml apporta ** 

new book. Did you" tell Aer that I wished to see AerP 
nouoeau liore. m. — aitei'Vaut hti** que touhaitait — voir la** ? 

I told Aer that we (should go) to see Aer on Sunday. What did 
die I«i** que iriom — voir laU — dimanehe. Que 

she" say to you ? She told me that she (would be) glad to see ut 

dU-eUe — •« dit ** qu' eerait (bienaite) de voir •^ 



76 



AN INTRODUCTION 



literally he me 
he thee 



PERSONAL PRONOITN 

The ORDER which tlie objective pronouns keep with the verb. 

GENERAL RULE. 
J^O If the OBJECTIVE pronouns MEy THEE, US, YOU, HIM, HER, JT, 

THEM are governed by a verb compounded of the auxiliary verbs 
HAVE, or BE, and of a participle past, the pronouns me, te, nous, 
vous, LE, LA, LES, Lui, LEUR, EN, Y, which represent them, must 
be placed before the auxiliary verb ; not between the auxilicry and 
the participle ; as, 

// m'* a rw. 
// T* a vu. 
II L* a vu, 
II L* a vus. 
II N ous a vus. 
II VOUS a vus, 
II LES a vus. 

m' -fa-t'tlvu? 
T* si't'il vu ? 

L* Vi't'ilvU? 

L* a-t'il vue ? 
NOUS a-t'il vus? 
VOUS a-t'il vus? 
LES a-t-ilvus? 

II ne M*a pas vu. 
Ne M'a-<-i7 pas vu f 

EXERCISE. 

I have seen you. I have seen him, I have seen her, I have 



He has seen me. 

thee. 

him, or it. 
her, or it. 
us. 
you. 
them. 

Has he seen me ? 
thee? 

him, or it? 
her, or it ? 
us? 
you ? 
them? 

He has not seen 7we ; Sfc. 
Has he not seen me? Sfc. 



p 

CO 

> » 

9 



he him, or it 
he her, or it 
he us 
he you 
he them 

me 

thee 

him, or it 

her, or it 

us 

you 

them 

he m£ has not seen. 
me has he not seen ? 



P3 

a> 

OB 



ai 



vu 



u 



vu 



25* 



vue 



»• 



seen them. Have you seen wie? Have you seen iw ? Have you seen 



VUf 



-4i;ea-^uu3 ra ■*' / 



vus 



vu 



him ? Have you seen her ? Have you seen them ? Where have you 
»*/ vue «*•? vus ^1 Oil 



seen Am? I have met , 

vu *** ? rencontr6 



him, at the door. He had 



kd* 



acait 



seen 






a poi-te, f. 

(comino^ out) of the house. He has kept m£ all this while. I would 
sortir * mataon. f, retenu ** fowt * temi. m. — 

have told Aim*' that I wanted to go. I have told him^ that you 

auravs dit lui $ que voulais, •— (m*en alter,) uit lui \ que 

had forbid me to stop.\ I have heard you. Had you never** 

aviez difendu •* de tn*arreter.^ entendu ** Neaviez ' vous jamais 

seen him before? I had met him once or twice, but I had 

vu UP* uuparavant? avals rencontre /«*** une ou deux fois, mais ne avuis 

never" spoken (to him), and he had never" spoken (to me.) I have 

jamais par IS — /«i** ne avait jamais — ** 

written (to him) this mornings, but he has not** yet answered me. 

icrit ' — iwi** * matinf m. ne a pas encore (fait riponsej **. 



• See note • page ?8. ♦ iStO note • pacje 4S. % See note (f) page 79, 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. i I 

PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

The ORDER which the objective pronouns keep with the verb. 

EXCEPTIONS. c%£t 

1st Exception. fFheji the objective pronouns me, thee^ vst you. ^O 
niM^ HER, IT, THEM are governed by the imperative of a verb used 
ill a commanding sense^ i. e. without a negation^ the pronouns which 
represent them, are placed immediately after the vertf ; 

In these instances me is expressed by moi, and thee by toi. 

But if the imperative is used in a forbidding sense, i. e. if it is ^§ 
attended by a negation, the pronouns must be placed immediately before 
the verb, agreeably to the general rule ; 

Then me is expressed by me, and thee by\E ; ex. 

Imperative COMMANDING, 26 rule. Imperative FORBIDDING, ?7 rufe» 

Look at me. Regarde-Moi. Ne me \j,^„„^^. „„, O 

thyself Toi. NeTE ]'''^^r^^ P^'- g 

Look at us. Regardez-^ovs. Ne nous L^ ^^^,^ | 

yourself vous. iVevous i * jo 

Let us look at him, or it, Regardons.i.^. Ne le 

her, or it. la. Ne la 

'thfm. LEs. Ne les 



o 
p 



'regardons pas. ^ 



EXERCISE. 

Speak to me. Do not» speak to me. Do not interrupt me. Warm 

ParUz — ■• — ne pas — *7 — " iiUerrompez *^ Chauffe 

thyself a little. Do not warm thyself (so much.) Write to her. Do 
•• un peu. — ** •' ta7it, Kerivez — /mi**. — 

not write to her. Send it (to him.) Do not send it to him. 
M — «7 * Envoyez-l^ — /wi.*» — " le^^ IviV, 

2d Exception. The objective pronouns are not always governed by ^9 

verbs, they are sometimes governed by a preposition which some verbs 

require to be united to the substantive* that follows them ; then the pro" 

noun being the object of the preposition, and not the object of the verb 

it is placed after the preposition, and we express 

ME, by MOI. US, by NOUS. 

THEE, by TOI. ' YOU, . by VOUS. 

HIM, by LUI. THEM,m. by EUX. 

HER, by ELLE. THEM, fern, by ELLES ; ex. 

Was he speaking of me? Parlail-il de moi ? 

I will not go with him. Je w' irai pas avec lui. 

He is come without her. II est venu sans elle. 

He applied to them. II dadreasa ^ eux, m. k elles, ^.f 

exercise. 
Come to me. I do not" care for thee. I went to her, and she 

Vient a " — fi« m« soucie peu de * • allat *• et 

sent me to him, I will not go unth them. I am tired of them, 

fnvoya •* " — M irai avee » ennuy^ df « 

Have you thought of me? I always** think of yon. 
.4 rex pen$i d •• toiijours pense ^ • 

• See note • page 73. t Tlii» is more fully explained in the third part of this work. 



78 



AN INTRODUCTION 



29 



PERSONAfi PRONOUN. 

The ORDER wkieh SEVERAL objective pronouns k§ep togethbb. 

When SEVERAL objective pronouns are governed by the same verb 

they must be placed together in the following order : 

Before the twr6, i4, «5 rxdet. After the verb, 26 ruU. Whether bef. or aft. the verb ; 
ME 
NOUS,^ LE. 

VOUS l**-^* *•*» '^» **"' ^' *"• LES 

HE, 'J Y. ' 

Whether before or after the vm^, U, 25, 26, 27 ru^c. 

LE, 1 

LA, fbef, LUI, LEUR, Y, EN. 

LES, i 



E. ] 
ES,p 



24, 25, 26, 27 ru/«. 
ME, I 

if. MOI, TOI. j£ >bef. BN. 



^^HW-v. 



EN. 



LEUR, 

Y, bef. EN.* 

* Haying uniformly observed that the arrangement o£ several pronouru together is one 
of those nues which learners find the greatest difficulty to attain, I hare given examples 
shewing how several pronouns are placed together in all possible instances, by the means 
of which errors may always be rectified. 

BEFORE the verbf 24,25 rules. after the verb, 26 rule. 



him or it to me. 
her or it to me» 
them tome, 
me some, 
him or it to us. 
her or it to us 
them to us, 
us some, 
me there. 



FIftST PERSON. 

11 ME LB dontM. 
11 ME LA donna, 
11 ME LES donna, 
11 M' EN donna, 
11 NOUS LB donna. 
11 NOUS LA donna. 
11 NOUS LES donna, 
11 NOUS EN donna, 
11 M' Y envoya. 



him, her^ or it to me there. 11 ME l' y envoya. 



them to me there, 

me same there, 

us there. 

him, her, or it to us there, 

them to us there, 

some to us there. 



He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 

He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 

THIRD PERSON, 
He recalls him or it to hims^f. 11 SE le rappelie. 
He recalls her or it to himself. 
He recalls them to himself. 
He repents cf tt, of them. 
He applies himself toit to them. 



IMPERATIVE COMMANDING. 
VonneS'LE-MOl. 
Donnet'LA'MOl. 
DonneZ'LES'TAOl. 
Donnet'M* en. 
Donn«-NOUS-LE. 
l^onn«-NOUS-LA. 
Donn«-NOUS-LES. 
i>0nn«z-NOUS-EN« 
£n«02(es-Y-MOI. 
Envoy es-L* Y-MOI. 
Envoyez-LES-Y'MOl. 
A'uwiyM- Y- EN-MOI. 
£ntwyes-NOUS-Y. 
£nw)y«-NOUS-L' Y, 



11 ME LES Y envoya, 

11 M* Y EN envoya, 

11 NOUS Y envoya, 

11 NOUS L' Y envoya, 

11 NOUS LES Y envoya, Envoycz -NOUS-LES-Y. 

11 NOUS Y EN envoya, , Envoyec-NOUS-Y-EN. 



< 



3 



% 

p. 

3 

r 



him or it to thee, 
her, or it to thee, 
them to thee, 
thee some, 
him or it to you. 
her or it to you, 
them to you, 
you some, 
iiiee there. 



SECOND PERSON, 

11 TE LB donna, 
II TE LA donna, 
11 TE LES donna. 
II T* EN dontia. 
11 VOUS LE donna. 
11 VOUS LA donna. 
11 VOUS LES doima, 
11 VOUS EN donna. 



ft 



11 T' Y envoya, 

him, her, or it to thee t}ter§, 11 TE l' y envoya. 

them to thee there • 11 TE LES Y envoya. 

some to thee thei'e, // T' Y EN envoya. 

ou there, 11 VOUS Y envoya, 

im, her, or it to you there. II VOUS L* Y envoya. 

them to yon there. ll VOUS lES Y envoya. 

some to you there, 11 VOUS y en envoya. 



IL SE LA raypelle. 
11 SE LES rappelie, 
11 S' EN repent. 
11 9* Y applique. 



Bepr6sente'LE-T0l. 
Repr^senU'LA-TOl, 
R^^sente-LES'TOIt 
Repr^sente-T en. 
Hepr£sente%' VOUS-LE. 
jR^jentcs-VOUS-LA. 
Rejprisentez'VOVS'LES, 
B^^r^sentez-YOVS'Efi, 



* 



-I 

CD 



Traiuporfes- VOUS- Y . 



In/onwt- VOUS- Y- Eh . 



S 

«« 

^ 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. 79 

PBRSONAL PRONOUN. 

The ORDER which beveral objective pronouns keep together. 

BEFORE tht verb, 84, 25 rulet, after the verb, 26 -^U. 

THtRD PERSON, 

He has giren khn or it to Mm, to her* ll L£ tin a donnS, DonNet-LE-Liii. Q 

He has given her or it to him, to }^er, 11 LA LUI a donn6e. Z)oun6x-LA-L(JI. 5' 

He has given t^em to ftim, to her. i/ LES Lui a Wo?t»^9. Do/tiiez-LKS-Ll'l. Z. 

He has given him or tt tojtkem, 11 LE leur a donn^, Donnet-hK-L^VR, ^ 

He has given }ier or ii .u (Kern. ll LA leur a dotui^e, Donnet-LA-LEUR. s 

He has given them to tJiem. ll LES leor a donn£s, DonNex-L£S>LiaiR. 

He warned him, or her of it, ll L' bn oo«rtit. Avertissez-U EN. -§ 

He warned them of it, ll LES en avertit, >(t>crtis«s-LES-EN. 

He sent him, her or it there, ll U y envoy a. Envinf ei-h* Y. . 

He sent them there, 11 L£S y envoya, £ntw^n-LES-Y. cp 

He sent him or it to him^ to her there, ll LE LUI Y envoya, Enwyez-LK-LV i-Y.* p 

He sent her or it to him, toher there, ll LA LUI Y envoya, Envoyez'LA'liM-Y, ^ 

He sent them to him, to her there, 11 LES LUl Y envoya. Envoy et^LKi^LVi-Y, ^' 

He sent htm or tt to them there, ll LE leur y envoya, £nvo?/es-LP2-LEUR-Y. S* 

He sent her or it to them there, ll LA LEUR Y enioya. £»voi/(a-LA-LEi)R-Y. S* 

He sent them to them there. i/ LES leur Y e^ttoya. Eitro^es-LES-LkUR-Y, ^ 

lie sent some to him, to her, 11 hVl r.H envoya. Envoy ez-LVl-e.^. »• 

He sent tome to them^ or them $ome, 11 LEUli en envoya, Eniv)i/e3-LEU K-en. ;* 

He sent «ome to him, to her there, 11 LUI Y en envoya. £nt;oi/es-LUI-v-EN. ]^ 

He sent $ome to them there, . Jl LEUK Y en envoya, £ni;oye3-LEUR-Y»EN. » 

He sent $ome (g) there. 11 Y en envoya, Ewvoyes-Y-EN, 

EXERCISE. 

I have brought you the book which I had promised you. Where 

ai apporte ^ /ii;)*em. que avais promis ** Ou 

is it? Shew i^me, I (will shew) iP*you (by and by.) Will you give 
ett'ill MontreX'le ^ montrerai le ^ tantot, Voulet donne^ 

it^ me ? Give iP^ me, I can not give f/** you. It does not belong 
U *• ? Donnex'le *• tie puis pas donner le ^ 11 — n' est pas 

to me, I (will lend) i^ you, -Wl^en will you" lend i<** me? 

a *• priierai le *• Qiiav-d — priteret'^ous le ••? 

Lend it^ me now. I (will return) i(^ to you (to-morrow). I (will lend) 

Pritet'le ■• a present, rendrai le — * demain, preterai 

i(^ you next" week^. I (shall be) in the country then. I (will send) 

le ^ prochaine semaine. f. serai ^ campagne f. alors, enverrai 

them to you there. You will not find (any body) to bring them 
** — ■• ,y •* — ne troitveret persontie pourapporter ■* 

to me there, I (will take) them to you there myself. Has she given 

— •• y •• porterai ** — ^ ■• woi-m^me. A-t^elle donn£ 

him^ any money? No; she has lent him^ a guinea. Tell Aer* 

(0 • argent 7 Nan; pret6 (f) » gnin6e,i, Dites {€) 

not to lend Aim** any more, for he will never return im her, 

dene pas preter (f) (gj* davantage, car — «e** rendrajamak le (£)•• 

* Lui Y is grammatical, but i, ? , at the end of a sentence do not sound well, there- 
fore, instead of Y for there, use la, and say lui lH instead of lui y. 

(f) When a verb governs two substantives, either nouns or pronouns, one of them 
has a preposition expressed or understood, but the preposition is generally understood 
1>efore the pronoun which represents die person, in these instances him, BSR, must 
be expressed by LCI, and thkm by leur, the same as when to is prefixed to them ; ex. 

I will send him money, i. e. money to him ; Je lui enverrai de Pargent ;m>t Venverrai, 
I have offered them some, i, e. some to them ; Je leu r bm ai tifert ; notje les kn at offert, 

(g) Some, jny, implying of it, of thetn, understood after them, are expressed by en . 



80 AN INTRODUCTION 

Q^ PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

OU Js there are only two genders infrench, the masculine and the femi- 
nine, the NEUTER PRONOUNS iTy THEY, THEM must be expressed by il, 
ELLE, iLs. ELLEs; LE, LA, LES, the Same a s HE, SHE, they; him, ueh, 
THEM, masculine or feminine, agreeably to the gender of the noun which 
they represent ; so we say : 

Of a man or a tree. 
Il est grand; je le vois. He or it is tall ; I see him, or it. 

Of a woman or a flower; 
Elle est belle ; regardez-LK. She or it is fine ; look at her, or il,{\\) 

Of men or trees ; 
Ils sont id; je les ai vns. They are here ; I have seen them. 

Of women or flowers ; 
Elles sont belles; je les admire. They are fine ; I admire them. 

exercise. 
You have a fine hat. It is new. I can not wear i7«*. It is 

avex » beau chapeau. m. «* est neuf, ne saurais pmter *>(b) «* 

too small. (Here is) another; try it^. This watch has cost me 

trap petit. En vtnci unautn; essay ex *>(h) » montreta eoute ** 

a (gfood deal) of money", but it is not" good ; It does not go well. 
— beancoup argeut,^-^' «>?i*«tptf5 bonne; ^ — ne vapasbien. 

Get i(^ mended. Give it^ me. (That is) a good house; it 

Faites "(h) raccommoder. Donnex (li) •• Voila » bonne maison ; f. » 

is well built, but it is not well situated. It is too near the road. If 

Men Wti,i8 »» bien $itu£ w » trap presde ro«te.f. Si 

it was niine,« I (would sell) it**!^ Eat some of these grapes ; 

" ttait (a moi) vendrais ^^h) Mangex (quelques-uns) * raisim ; m 

they are good. I (would rather have) apples, if they were ripe. 

*• ban, " J* aimerais mieux — *pomme<, f. "^ ttaient murj* 

It is not the time for apples. Is it astonishing that they are 

(i) n*est pas terns m. ties (i) itonnant qu* ^ne soieut 

not" ripe? // (would be) an astonishing thing if they were. 

pas ** (i) serait 6tonnante *• chose f. gu* •• lef assent, 

-* - --r - _.^__. ■-!■■■■»■■ _■■■■_■ I ■■-LIIM 

(h) Learners are scmietimes embarrassed how to discriminate it the ofyeet from tr 
the ajr«»t or nominative, t. e. when to express /r by IL, elle, and when by le, la. 

It is the agent, and expressed by il, elle, agreeably to the gender of the noun to 
which it relates, when, if you were speaking otv^ person, you would use BE or she ; as. 
He or IT is come. Il est venu. She or it will fall, elle tombera. 

It is the object, and expressed by lf., la. agreeably to the gender of the noun, when, 
if you were speaking ofvi person, you would use him or her ; as, 

I see HIM or it, Je le vois. I know her or ir. Je la connau. 

(i) Jr is often used in an impersonal sense, I. e, without reference to any substantire 
mentioned in the sentence ; as, it is glorious, shameful, necessary, &c. 
In these instances, it is always expressed by IL, or by CE. 

Jr is expressed by il, if the verb is followed by an a(/;>rfit)« without a substantive ; as, 
/r is glorious, shameful, necessary. IL est glorieux, honteiiXj nccessaire, 6^c, 

It is expressed by ce, when the verb is followed by a tubetantivt, either with or with- 
out an adjective ; as. 
It is 1. IT is he. it is she. it is you. it is your brother, it is a shameful thing* 
e'estmoi. c*est luu c'estelle. o'est roui, c^estvotrefrere. c'egtunechoeehonteuse. 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. 81 

PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

//e, SHU, THEY, HI My HER, THEM, are sometiTKes used without q\ 
relation to any noun expressed before tlieniy but imply the words man, 
WOMAN, or PEOPLE Understood; as, 

He who IS honest is esteemed ; i. e. the man who is honest is &c. 

Do vou know her whom I love? i. e. Vie woman whom I love? 

In this sense they are expressed ; 

He who is honest is esteemed. celui qui est honnete est estime. 
Do you know her whom I love? ConnaisseZ'Vous celle quefaime? 

N. B, celui, celle, ceux, aitd the relative qui, que, dont which 
attends them, must not be separated, as the corresponding words sometimes 
are in english; they must be placed together; as. 

He knows men but little who relies on their promises. 

Celui qui compte sur les promesses des hommes ne les connait guere ; 
t. e. He who relies on the promises of men knows them but little (k). 

exercise. 

He who can live dishonoured does not deserve to live. He who 

■^ qui Tpeut vivre d^shonore — " mdrite de "^ 

betrays a friend is unworthy of friendship. He can not be hap]yy 
trahit ami m. indigne amitii, *^ ne saurait — etrejieuvenx 

whose^ happiness depends on others. Do not" trust him who 

a'oiitN.B. 7ifonheur m. depend des autre*, — ^'evous fiexpasa ** 

has deceived you. She (of whom) you speak (will come) (by -and by.^ 

trompi ** "* dont parlet vieadra " tantot. 

She is not come fofwhom^) you (were speaking.) Do you" know her 

•* eat ** venue N.B. partiex, — ConnaisseZ'Voits ** 

(of whom) we (are speaking?) They who prefer 'rfches to ^^honour 

partem 7 *'^ prif event richesses *'honneur 

are contemptible. They are mistaken whc^^ think that riches make 
m^risable^K ** — $e trompetit ^•^' pensent qne ^ rendent 

men? happy. Do you" know that gentleman? He is a physician. 
homme heureux, — • Connaissez-'votu ^ monsieur'/ (1) medecin, 

(That is) his wife. She is a fine woman. They are *®very honest people. 

^oil^ 1 femme. (1) belle femme. (1) tres - honnetes gens, 

(k) We may also say without changing the order of the words ; 

Celdi-La ne connaU guere les hommes qui compte sur leurs promesses ; 
or c' EST ne connaitre griire les hommes que de compter sur leure promesses ; 
but these two modes of ezpressiop are more adapted to oratory than to conrersation. 

(I) He, she, THEYr coming with the verb be followed by a substantive, are generally 
expressed by CE, though the noun to which they refer has been mentioned before ; as, 
He is a merchant. C'est un nigociant. 

She is a milliner. Cest une marchande de modes. 

They are great rogues. Ce sont de grands fripcns, 

N. B. If the substantive which follows the verb denotes trade or profession, he, she, 
THEY, may be expressed by il, elle, ils, elles, but the article must be Ujft out; as, 
II est nigociant, Elle est marchande de modes. 

But the learner will do well, in these instances, to use CE until he has seen the second 
part of this book, in which this is more fully explained* 

a 



82 



32 



AN INTRODUCTION 

RELATIVK PRONOUN. 

WHO, WHOM, WHOSE, THAT, WHICH, WHA1\ 
QUI, QUE, DONT. QUOl, QUEL, LEQUEL. 



14 ken WHO, whom, whose, that, which, comt after one or several 
substantives which they particularize, thei/ are expressed, 

U komme qui 

^comes. Le cheval qui 

La chaise qui 

V /i07W7We QUE 

Le cheval que }je lois. 



9 






WHO, 
THAT, 

WHICH;} 
WHOM, ] 
THAT, \ 
WHICH;] 
WHOSE, ] 



>QU1. 



QUE. 
(m) 



The man who 
Tlie horse that 
The chaise which 

The man whom 
The horse which 
The coach that 



n'ient. 



>I see. 



I Of WHOM, ^DONT. The horse of which \l speak. Le cheval dont ^je yarU. 

ntJ 



LecarrosseqvE 

The man of whom \ V ^o?«7nc dont] 

The horse of which >1 speak. '^ • • 
Of WHICH;] .The chaise o/tt?Ajc/iJ La chaise bo^t ^ 

N, B, QUI, QUE, DONT 7nust be placed immediately after the noun 
to which they relate ; as, 

Is the ship arrived which was expected ? 1 i. e. the ship which was 
Le NAViRE Qu'on attendait est-il^ arrive ? j expected, is ii^ arrived ? 

EXERCISE. 

Do you^^ know the master who teaches me french?? THe scholars 

— Connaxtsez'voui maitre ** enseigne •* fran^ais m, ? icolien m. 

whom you have recommended to me are very diligent. (This is) 

"* avei recommandh - ■* sont trea *■. Void 



M 



the person of whom I (was speaking.) Have you seen the ships ihat^ 

* perionne u ■■ pariah, vu * narire (m) 



(are just) (come in ?) You have bought a book which^ is very dear. 

vienuent d'arrivrl achet^ livrem, (m) est tres - cher. 



The book which^ you have bought is very dear. The book of which 
(m) »* 

you speak is very dear. That house is sold which^ you wanted to buy. 

parln * maison f. vendue ^'^ vouliez - acheter 

The ladies you want to see are here. The gentleman is gone who^ 

dame(n) mndet voir id, m<nisieur parti '*•**• 

has brought you a letter. He has lost all the money he had. 

appovti ■* * lettre, f. perdu tout ■ ar|eiU(n) avait, 

(m) Persons not versed in grammatical terms, are often at a loss to distinguish the 
object from the nondnative, i. e. when to express that, which by QUI, and wh%a by que. 

To these I will obserro, that that, which are the nominaiive, and expressed by QUi, 
whentliey are followed immediately by a verb; as. 
The coach that or which is at the door. Le carrosse QUI est a la porte. 

That, which are the object of the verb, and expressed by QUE, when, between tliem 
and the verb, there is a noun or pronoun which is the nominative of the verb ; as, 
The coach that or which we have met. Le carroue que nous avons rencontri. 

(n) The distinctive pronouns whom, that, WHiCH^are often left out in english ; as. 
The man I saw ; for the man whom i saw; but the corresponding words QUI, QUE, DONT 
n^ust always be expressed in french ; as, 

The mnn I saw, i. e. whom I saw. L' homme QVEje vis. 

The wine we drank, i. e. which we drank. Le vin que nous bdmes. 

The woman I speak of, i. e. ofwhem 1 speak. Lafemme DOHfje parle. 



33 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. 63 

RELATIVE PRONOUN. 

After any preposition hut of, or a preposition synontfmous to it, 

IFhom u expressed by QUI for both genders and numbers, 

Masc. 8IN0. Fern. Mok. plur. Fern. 

WHICH by UQVEh, /aQUELLE, /«« QUELS, /«« QUELLES ; 

From WHICH by duQUEL, de laQVELLE^ d« QUELS, rfwQUELLES; 

To, at WHICH ' by auQUEL, a iaQUELLE, aitxQUELS, auiQUELLES ; 

agreeably to the gender and number of the noun to which it relates ; as. 
The man with whom \ U homm^ avec qui 

The horse 071 ti^Aic^ >I came. Le c^&a/ sur lequel >jevins. 
The chaise in which J La chaise dans laquelle; 

The man/rowi whom l*u' f ii ^^ homm£ de qui 1 ' f h 
The horse from which ] ' Le cheval duqv el | <^ o a. 

The man to whom 1 . •* -2^* homm>e k qui 1 •? » _. 

The horse to which |he gave it. ^^ ^yi^^/ auQUEL \ ^^ l^ donna. 

EXERCISE 

You know the lady to whom I have spoken. The study to which 

Connaissez dame " ai parU, * ^lude f. ^ 

he applies is not very usefuL The chair oji which you sit is 
s*applique est ** tres - utile, chaise f. $ur ** (etee assis) 

broken". The coach in which I came wa^ overturned. The people 
rompu, NB. carrotte m. dans ■* vim fut renverti, gen* m. 

with whom I was were very civil. (This is) the stick with which 
avec ** ^tait ^taicnt civil^*, Voici batan m. * 

he struck me. Where is the horse to which you have given the com ? 

frappa ■*.(>** ®* avez donn^- * hvoine'l 

Who, whom; wnosE used absolutely, i. e. without reference to any o4 
noun m^niioned before, imply the word person understood. 

Who, whom are then expressed by QUI ; as, 

Who is there? i. e. what person is there? qui est Id? 

I know whom you love, i. e. what persoji, 8fc, Je sais qui vous aimez. 

Whose is expressed by db QUI, when it is used for of what person ; 
and by A QUI, when it is used for to what person; a?, 
Whose daughter is she ? 
i. e. (ofwhai person) is she the daughter? 
Whose house is that ? 
i. e. (lo what person) does that house belong?^ 

^ EXERCISE. 

Wh<ym did you send? Whom have you found? Whom did you 

•* avez ** envoy i 7 ** avez trouv67 ■♦ avez 

speak to" ? I know whom you are speaking of". Whose hat 
parU a / sate ^ •— parlez de ^ chapeau m. 

is this? Whose coach is that? I do not know whose it is. 
est » y »* carrossem, ^ / — n« sait pas ^ ^ 

Whose son is he? Whose wife is she? Whose relations are they? 
w file '! femme ? •* parent sontmiU 'f 

G 2 



DB QUI est-elie Jille? 
A QUI e</ cette maUon? 



84 AN INTRODUCTION 

RELATIVE PRONOUN. 
WHICH INTERROGATIVE. 

In an interrogative sentence which requires three distinctions. 

Which interrogative is either joined to the noun like an adjective, 
i. e. without the help of a preposition ; as, 

WHICH maTt? yruiCH carriage? which Aor»e9? 

Or, like a substantive, joined to it by the preposition of ; as, 
which of the men? which of the carriages? which of my horses? 

Or like a pronoun used absolutely after the noun^ as, 
It is one of these men ; which /« it? 

35 Which interrogative yoi/icd like an adjective, /. e. without a prepo- 
sition, to the noun to which it relates, is 

Masc. sing Fern, Masc, PLUR. Fern, 

WHICH; QUEL, QUELLE, QUELS, QUELLES ; 

Of, from WHICH ; d«QUEL, rfeQUELLE, d«QUELS, d«QUELLES ; 

To, at WHICH; a QUEL, a QUELLE, a QUELS, a QUELLES • 

agreeably to the gender and number of the noun ; as. 

Which man ] quel homme \ 

Which carriage >will you have? quelle voiture\vo%dcZ'Vous? 

Which horses J quels chevaux] 

06 Which interrogative joined by a preposition to the noun to which 
it relates^ or coming after it absolutely, i. c. without a noun, is 

Masc, sing. Fern, Masc, pi.UR. Fern. 

WHICH ; le QUEL, /aQUELLE, les QUELS, les QUELLES 

Of, from WHICH ; ditQUEL, de /aQUELLE, des QUELS, des Q UELLES 

ro,at WHICH; ouQUEL, « /aQUELLE, atuQUELS, aiuQUELLES 

agreeably to the gender and number of the noun; as, 
^i^fcA of these men 1 .„ lequel rfe ce« Ao7nme» 1 

^AicA of the coaches ^^J* ^^^ laquelle des tjotore* \vouleZ'Vous? 
^AfcA of my horses J ^^^ iJEsqv^i.^demes chevaux] 

Which is the tallest? lequel ed le plus hard? 

Which is the finest ? laquelle est la plus belle ? 

Which are the best? lesquels so?it les meiUeurs? 

Qy Which sometimes implies the demonstrative pronoun that or 
' THOSE understood, this demonstraiive word can not be omitted in frenvh, 
and WHICH, as including the two words, is expressed by 

CELUl ODE m.^^ ^^^ CEUX OCE m. 1^„„,^ ^^j^j - 

CELLEque/. J CELLESque/.J 

agreeably to the gender and number of the noun to which it relates; as, 
Which of these horses shall I ride? Lequel de ces chevaux monterai-je? 
Ride which you will, i. e. that which Montez celui que vous voudrez, 

exercise. 
Which book shall I read ? Which of these books shall I read ? 

" livre m. — " lirai-je^' / ae i ai / 

Read which you please. Which pen shall I make use of*^? 
A^isez ^ Uvotis plaira, ** jtlumtL — •* me servirai'je de'i 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. 85 

RELATIVE PRONOUN. 

IFhich of these pens shall I*^ make use of? Use which you will. 

M • I — me Krvirai-je *• / Servez-'Vout de ^ voudrez, 

fVhich boy shall P* give this to? fFhich of the boys shall I give 

" garfon — donnerai'je ceci »«/ se ♦ i ai 

this to ? Give it to which you like. Which lady is the handsomest ? 

*•/ DonneZ'le ^ voudrez, " rfam« Mt fcW/c ** j 

Which of these ladies is the handsomest? Which ladies do you 

«;peak of"? To «rAfcA do you" give the preference? Which 

parleZ'Vou^^ / ■• — donnez'votur^^ preference f. / 

fruit do ypu» like best? Which of these fruits do you like best? 

/ruit m. -7 aimeZ'Vatis lemieux'! • i — ? 

Which is the ripest? Eat of which you like. Which road shall 
est mur^^l Mangez voudrez. route £, — 

we go by*«? Which of these roads shall we go by*«? Which 

" iivrupar'f * " par'/ 

houFe shall we» go to? Which is the best*'? Go to «rA/cA 

maiionf. — irons-nous **!' meilleur^ AUez a 

you choose. Which door must I go through ? Which of these 

v<mdrez. port* f. faut'il que je passe par^ '/ 

doors must I go through ? Go through which you please. 

par *• '/ Passez par il vous plaira, 

WHAT requires the same diitinction as WHICH. 

What followed by a ?iouh, or relating to a noun mentioned 3o 
before^ is expressed in the same manner as which ; 

Masc. SING. Fern. Masc. PI.UR. Fem. 

WHAT; QUEL, QUELLE, QUELS, QUELLES 

Of, from WHAT; rf«QUEL, d*QUELLE, d«QUELS, c^QUELLES 

To, at WHAT; a QUEL, o QUEL'LE, a QUELS, a QUELLES 

agreeably to the gender and number of the noun; as. 
What man j quel homme ] 

What carriage >will you have? quelle voitureyvonlez-vous? 

What horses J quels chevanx) 

It is my opinion, what is yours ? Cest mon opinion ^ quelle est la voire? 

exercise. 
WJiat man has he employed ? What language do you^ like best ? 

■• a«t-t7 employ 6 f * langue £, — aimez-'Vous le mifiux ? 

What study do you" apply to»? What sort of books do 

* itude f. — vous*^ appliquez-'Vous *^ ? " sorte f. • livre — 

you" read? To what use shall I put it**? WTuU news 

lisez'vow^^ ' ? ■■ usage ra, — ** mef trai-^V* /c ? •• nouvellef, 

are you" speaking of? /iTAo/ is your sentiment? What is yours**? 
— parJ«2-«mj** *• ? * «t «nf im«nt m. ? " ^ ,^|^ ^ 

* WHICH may here be either singular or pjurat, agreeably to the number that is meant 



86 AN INTRODUCTION 

RELA.TIVE PRONOUN.. 

39 WnAT used absolutely, L e, without reference to a noun mentioned^ 
implies the v)ord thing understood^ and is expressed by que or 6y quo i. 

What is ejpj)ressed by QUE, when it is the object of a verb ; as, 
What are you doing there ? que faites-vous Id ? 

1 do not know what to say to her. Je ne sais que lui dire. 

What is expnessed by QUOI, when it is governed by a preposition, 
or used as a?i interjection; ex. 

What do you meddle with'^ ? D^ quoi vous^ melez-vous^^ ? 

What! you have not done yet. Quoi ! vous rHavezpas encore Jiiii, 

exercise. 

What do you want? What do you think of that? Whut shall 
8» — »i cherchez f ^^ — *^ -pensez de cela ? » -*. 

I do with this ? Do you know what this is made of? What 
»» ferai de ceci ? -^ " saiez 8» ceci^ fait ^r ^ 

is it good for^? I do not know what you (are talking) about, 
il hon d, f — " MW ■• partez de *». 

What / are you not gone yet* ? What ! you do not answer me. 

8* " parti encore? ^ ** rfyondez **. 

4U What sometimes implies the demonstrative jsrowown that, and the 
distinctive which ; it is then expressed, 

Noni. What, ce qui ; Always do what is right ; i. e. that which is right. 

Faites toujours cb qui est juste. 

Obj. What, ce que ; What I say is true ; i. e. that which I say is true, 

(m) CE QUE je dis est vrai. 

But with the prepositions of, to, or any preposition that is synony- 
mous to them, it is necessary to consider whether the preposition comes 
before or after what ; for. 

Of WHAT is de CE qui, II speak of what is true ; i. e. of that which 
de CE que;JJc parte de ce qui est vrai. 

What of is CIS dont ; as. What he speaks of is not true ; i. e. that of which 

CE DONT il parte n*est pas vrai. 

To WHAT is k CE qui, 1 You do not apply to tfj/ifl^s useful ; to that which 
k CE que;/ Fbws ne vous appliquez pas a ce qui est utile* 

What to is CEkquoi ; &s,What you apply to is not useful ; that to which 

CE k quoi vous vous appliquez 7i*est pas utile. 

EXERCISE. 

Say what is true, and do what is just. What*^ we do hastily 

Dites *® ett vrai, et faites *^ juste. (m) faiioru (a la h&te) 

is often imperfect. Shew me what*^ you have done. Pay attention to 

aouvent impiirfait. Montrez ^ (m) fait. FiUtes attenticn 

what*^ I say to you. Are you sure of what*^ you say ? It is what vou 
(m) dis - ^ Etes sur (m) ditesr C/est *» 

may be sure of. I would not" trust to what^ he proposes. What 

poiivezttre ^ nevoudrais pas mefier (m) propose, ** 



Masc, SING. Fern, 




Masc, PLUR. 


Fern, 


le MIEN, 


Za MIENNE, 


. les 


MIENS, 


Us 


MIENNES. 


du MIEN, i 


ie kx MIENNE, 


des 


MIENS, 


des 


MIENNES 


flu MIEN, 


a la MIENNE, 


aux 


• MENS, 


aux 


MIENNES 


h TIEN, 


la TIENNE, 


les 


TIENS, 


les 


TIENNES. 


\U SIEN, 


la SIENNE, 


Us 


SIENS, . 


let 


SIENNES. 


{e NOTRE, 


la NOTRE, 


les 


NOTRES, 


les 


NOTRES. 


/» VOTRE, 


la VOTRE, 


Us 


VOTRES, 


les 


VOTRES. 


' le LEUR, 


la LEUR, 


les 


LEURS, 


Us 


LEURS. 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. 87 

. RELATIVE PRONOUN. 

yoii trust to is very uncertain. He complains of what*'' he has 

vous vous fiez ^ est tris - incertain, te plaint (m) a 

suffered. fFhat he complains of is right. They attribute it to what^ 
souffert, *® se plaint ^ juste. attribuent W* (m) 

I have told you. What they attribute it to has never" happened. 
dit ^ ^ •* n* est jamais \i,rrivi, 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUN. 

Ma 
MINE. 

OfJromMlNE. 

To, at MINE, 

THINE, 

HIS. 
HERS 

OURS. 

YOURS. 

THEIRS. 

The POSSESSIVE pronouns le mien, le tien, le sien, &c. must be of^ 1 
the same gender and number a^ the noun which they represent ; as, 
Your horse is better than hers, i. e. her horse. 
Voire cheval est meilkur que le sien. 
My house is not so fine as hisy i. e. his house. 
Ma maison iH est pas si belle que la sienne. 
Your histories are prettier than his, i. e. his histories. 
Vos histoires sont plus joUes que les siennes. 

EXERCISE. 

Why do not" you" eat your cake ? Your brother has eaten his, 

Pourquoi — ne mangeZ'Vous pas * gdieaum..? * a mangi *i 

My sister has not eaten hers. I (will eat) mine (by and by). Your 

c *? *^. mangerai *^ tantot. ^ 

lesson is shorter^® than Twt'we, but (I shall know) mine before you 

le^on f. court^^ ** mais saurai *^ avant que 

know yours. It is not* your business, it is his. My books are 
taehUz *^ Ce n'est pas ^ affaire f. , e' est *^ livre m. soni 

finer^' than yours and his. They are not finer than mine. Have 

beaux *» 41 80 w » 4i 

you cleaned my boots ? Yours and mine are clean**, but his are not. 
dicrotic ' botte f. ? *^ ** dicretti^ ** ne U sont pas. . 

The POSSESSIVE words mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, ^"^ 
THEIRS', do not always represent a 7ioun mentioned before them ; they 
often come with the verb be used in the sense of belong, instead of 
the PERSONAL pronouns me, thee* him^ her, usy you, them ; as 
for example. This book is mine, i.e. belongs to jir£; in this sense 
mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs, are expressed by 



88 



AN INTRODUCTION 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUN. 

h Moi, h TOi, k LUi, a ELLE, h NOUS, a V0U8, a Eux, m. h ELLEs,/. as, 
This book is mine, Ce livre est k moi ; t. e. belongs to me. 



is thine, 
is his. 
is hers, 
is ours, 
is yours, 
is theirs. 



est k Toi ; 
e«/ 2i LUI ; 
e«^ a ELLE ; 
est a NOUS ; 
est k vous ; 



to thee, 
to him, 
to her. 
to us, 
to you. 



est k Eux ; m. k elles ; f. to them. 



EXERCISE. 

stick is mme, and this umbrella is his. It^ is neither 

bdtan m. ^' ^ parapluie m. ^ n* est ni 

yours nor M>, it is hers. Is this horse" yours ? It is not mine ; 

" " " Ce chevalest'il^^ *«? 



This 
1 



4t 



nt 



4f 



M 



4S 



80 



55 



42 



it is my cousin'«. If it was yours, what would you** do (with it) ? 
«> (o) S' «> 4tait « » — /m>z-»oiM" en^ f 



If it was mine, I (would sell) it^. I wish 

•• ** vendrait **(^) touhaiterais qu' 



it was (mr«. 



4t5 ^/'^ POSSESSIVE pronouns mine^ thjse, jijs, H£A5, oitas, yours, 
THEins, by an idiom peculiar to the english languxige^ are sometimes 
joined to the noun to which they relate by the preposition of; as a 
FRIEND OF MINE ; A BOOK OF YOURS ; Ihis POSSESSIVE pronouu Can not 
he expressed by the possessive pronoun in french ; it must be expressed 
by the possessive article mes, tes, ses, nos, vos, leurs, j9^ace(2 before 
the noun, which must always be plural in french ; as. 



A friend of mine, 
of thine, 
of his. 
of hers, 
of ours, 
of yours. 
of theirs. 



un de MES amis ; 
un de TEs amis; 
un de SES amis; 
un de SES amis; 
un de Nos amis ; 
un de vos amis ; 
un de LEURS amis ; 



i, e, one of my 
one of thy 
one of his 
one of her 
one of our 
one of your 
one of their 



-a 
> c 



EXERCISE. 

(This is) a relation of mine. He is a cousin of ours, A brother oj 

Void * TparentiR, *•(!)««* *■ 

m.ine has married a sister of his. (That is) a child of theirs. I have 
*■ a ipauU * ** VoUa enfant m. ** 

seen to-day a scholar of yours. I (shall dine) to-morrow with 

vu (aujour ahm) icoliev m. ^ dinerai demain avec 

a friend of ours, I have found a book of yours amongst mine. 

** trouv^ livre m, *• parmi 

It"^ is not mine ; it is my brother*^. It is a friend's of mine, 

n'estpat « » (o) «» (o) « 



41 



(a) The poBsessioii denoted in english by adding s to the noun, is expressed in french 
by a before it ; as, It is my father'*. Ilett a. mon pire} Not, U est de mon ptre. 



TO FRENCH GUAMMAtt. 89 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN. 
Ma$e, SIKO. fim. Mate, plur. Fern, 

rjf^rJCELUI; CELLE. THOSE;}^'^^^ * CELLES. 

The DEMONSTRATIVE pronOUHS CELUI, CELLE, CEUX, CELLES mitst be of^^ 

the same g^ender and number as the noun which they represent; as. 
He has eaten his apple and that of his brother ; i. e. the apple of, &c. 
// a mangi sa pomme et celle de son frere. 

EXERCISE. 

She has spoiled her hat - and that of her brother. He has torn 

a g&ti * chapeaum, ** * d^'chiri 

my gown and that of ray sister. Bring my shoes and those of my 

* robe f, ** Apportez * soulien m. ** 

mother. (Look at) these' guineas and those which"* he has given us. 
Regarda (p) guinies f. ♦* (in) a donniet, •* 

N. B. The DEMONSTRATIVE toords TBiSy these; that, those 
• imply a local distinction which celui, celle, ceux, celles do not 
express; if you wish to make that distinction infrench, you must add to 
these pronouns the adverbs ci, here ; and lA, there ; thus, 

THIS; CELUI-ci, CELLE-ci. THESE; CEUX-«, CELLES-c/. 

THAT; CELUI-M, CELLE-W. THOSE; CEUX-id, CELLES-(d; as. 

This horse is better than thai ; 

Ce cheval'Ci est meilleur que CELUi-lk ; i, e. this horse here — that there, 

exercise. 
That' horse is young, and this** is old, but I ^prefer this** to 

(p) eheval-ld est jeune, "•■• vieux, mais prifere ''•■• 

that**. These' girls dance much better than those**, 
N.B. ^p) jiUe-ei dansent beaiieoup (b) "•*• 

If THIS, THAT are not followed by a noun, nor relate to a noun 4o 
rhentionedf they imply the word thutg understood,, and are expressed^ 
THIS by CECI ; THAT, by CELA ; as. 

This is good, i. e. this thing is good. ceci est bon. 
That is better, i. e. that thing is better, cela est meillear, 

exercise. 
Take this. Leave that. Have you seen this. That is very^ pretty. 

Prenez *» Lamet ♦» v„ 45 « tra.joU, 

(p) The demonstratiye words this, that, these, those, have three different proper- 
tiei. 

If THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE are followed by a noun, they bare the property of a 
demonstratiye articUf and are expressed by ce, cette, ces ; as, 

Thi* bread, tAatmeat, thoee clotnes* Ce pain, cette viatide, ces habiti. See rule 1. 

If THIS, that, these, those do not point out a noun after them, but repreeent one 
mentioned before, they are pronouns, and are expressed by celui, celle, ceux, cillks, 
agreeably to the fender and number of the noun which they represent (rule 44.) ; as, 

He has eaten his apple & that of his brother. II a mangi sa pomme ^CELLEoesott frhe. 

If this, that do not point out a noun after them, nor represent one mentioned before, 
they may be considered as substantives, and are expressed this by CECI, that by cela. 
3am i» good, but that is better. Ceci est bm, mais cela ett meilUur, (rule 45.) 



90 AN INTRODUCTION 

INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 

4:0 ONEy WEj TUEYy PEOPLE, used in an indefinite sense, i. e. not 
relating to any particular person, are expressed by On. 

N, B. Observe that On is always the nominative of a verby and 
though it represents we, they, people, which are plural, it requires the 
verb in the third person singular ; as, 

mL\ ' y rON dit; i. e. one says. 

Thh/ say, people say. J • ' j 

EXERCISE. 

People are never" so happy nor so miserable as they imag^ine. 

*^ n*est jamais si henreux ni liialheureut qu* ** s^imagine. 

They say that we (are going) to have peace. They say so ; but can 

*• dit que nous aliens - avoir "^paix, f. ** /«** ; pent 

one believe it, when they (are making) such preparations for war7? 

■*« croire le^^^quand **' fait tunt de priparatif pour giterre L'f 



47 



The following «7zd other like indefinite -expressions, are also ex- 
pressed in french by On, with the verb in its active sense, 

N. B. The verb is rendered active by leaving out the auxiliary verb 
B£, and making the participle into a verb of the same tense and person 
as the auxiliary verb is; ex. 

It was said. on disait ; i.e. one said.' 

// is reported. on rapporte ; one reports. 

EXERCISE. 

It is thought that (there will be) a war. It is said that hostilities 
*7 pense qu* il y aura - guerre, *^ dit que ^hostiliUs 

have already begun. It is supposed that the two fleets have met. 

out dtja commence, *7 $* imagine que deuxflotte se sont rencontr^es. 

4.0 The english passive verbs used indefinitely, require the active signifi^ 
cation in french, with On for nominative ; but observe that by adding on 
to the sentence, the substantive,* which is the nominative of the verb in 
english^ becomes its object in french ; as, 

I have been told that news has been received; turn thu sentence thus, 

One has told me that one has received news. 

On m"'a dit qu* on a re^u des nouvelles, 

FXSRCISE. 

PVe have been told that you were married. / have been told so 

*® dit' que 6tiez mariS. *" /«** 

too, but that is not true. I vfhs advised to do it. I have not 

aussif cela 7i' est pas vrai, *® avait conseilU de faire /«**. ^nea pas 

been permitted to do it. Do you» know what is said of you ? 
« permU de « - eavet - vowfi^ *• ^ dit d9 «/ 

What can be said of me? It is said that great news is 
"• peut *' dire " ? *7 _ rfjt q^^ ^'^gi'andes nouvelles ^ 

expected. Have the letters been received which were expected ? 
attend, « lettre *® rcfu " « attendait'/ 

* By substantive in bera meant every vford which either n«met or repreeents a wbsiance. 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. 91 

CHAP. VI. 

VERB. 

A VERB is a word which expresses either being or icting. 

Being; as^ i am ; i exist ; rhou art; ue. is; uy brother is; we are, &c. 

Acting ; as, / speak ; / blame ; i walk j j drink ; / sing, &c. 

Every action requires an agent, i. e. a being to perfirm that action ; 
this agent, in grammar, is called the nominative of the verb. 

The VERB must be of the. same number and person as the agent or no- 49 
miuative ; this is called agreement of the verb with its nominative ; ex. 



Ip. J sing. 

2p. Thou singest. 

3p. He sings. 

She sings. 

My brother sings. 

My sister shiga. 



SINGULAR. 

Je chantc. 

Tu CHANTC*. 
// CHANTe. 
Elle CHANTC. 

MonfrSre chantc. 
Ma sceur chantc. 



plural. 

Nous CHANTOn*. 
Vous CHANTeZ. 
lis CHAJiTeflt. 

Elle.8 CHANTent, 
Mes freres chantc/i^. 
Mes striirs chantcw^ 



§ 



» 



3r» 



EXERCISE. 

I speak. Thou playest. He walks. She dances. My brother 

parlei, jonet, marcher. danscr, 

stays. My sister forgets. We blame. You study. They look. My 

rester. oublieT. bldmer, ^tudier, regarder. 

brothers call or (are calling.*) My sisters dispute or (are disputing.*) 

appelQU disputer. 

In a DECLARATIVE Sentence, i. e. when a question is not asked, the o\j 
NOMINATE E of the verb is placed in french, as in english, before the 
verb; as. 



I sing. 

Thou singest. 

He sings. 

She sings. 

My brother sings. 

My sister sings. 



Je CHANTe. 

Tu CHANTC*. 
// CHANTe. 

EUe CHANTe. 
Mon frcre cHANxe. 
Ma sceur chantc. 



Nous CHANTO;W. 
Vous CHANTfZ. 
lis CHANTe/ii. 

Files ciiKSTent, 
Mes freres chantcti^. 
Mes scenrs ghantctz^. 



N Pi 









He speaks french. She 

par/er** 

My sister speaks french. 
parier** 



EXERCISE. 

I speak^ french. Thou speakest french. 

parler frariQais, • purler*^ 

speaks french. My brother speaks french. 

parler*'^ parLet** 

We speak frencli. You speak french. They speak french. My bro- 

parier** parser*' , parler*^ 

thers speak french. My sisters speak french. They speak it very well. 

parler*^ parler*^ parler U^ tres - bien. 

But when the sentence is interrogative, i. e. when d question is 
asked, it is necessary to consider whether the nominative of the verb is a 
noun or a pronoun. 



* These two modes of expression are rendered in the same manner in french. See 
the conjugations, page 112 and following. 



51 



52 



92 AN INTRODUCTION 

VERB. 

Ify when a question w OAked^ the nominative of the verb is one of the 
pronouns je, tu, il, elle, nous,- vous, ils, elles, on or ce, these 
pronouns are placed infrenchy as the corresponding words are in enslish^ 
iinmediately after the verb; as. 

Do (q) I sing^ well ? Chant'e - je hien ? i. e. sin^ I well ? 

Doest thou sing well ? Chantes - tu hien ? singest thou well ? 

Does he sing well? Chante-i*-iL Men ? sings he well ? 

Does she sing well? CAan<e-t*-ELLE bien ? sings «Ae well ? 

Do i£?e sing well? Chantons-uovs bien? sing t(?3 well ? 

Do yoM sing well? Chantez - vous ftiVn ? sing you well ? 

Do they sing well ? CAan^e/i^-iLS bien ? sing ^Acy well ? 

Do Mfy sing well ? Chantent-ELLi^s bien ? sing they well ? 

EXERCISE. 

Do I speak** french well* ? Doest thou speak french well ? Does 

(q) ** par/«r fran^ais bienf f (q) *» -parler*^ *■ f (qj 

Ae speak french well ? Does ^Ae speak french well ? Do we speak french 
well ? Do you speak french well? Do they speak french well? 

//^ irAera we ask a question, the nominative of the verb is a noun, 
that noun is placed before the verb in french, the same as when the 
sentence is not interrogative; but to shew that a question is asked, one 
of the personal pronouns il, elle, ils, elles, agreeably to the gender 
and NUMBER of the noun, is placed immediately after the verb ; as. 

Does my brother sing Mon fr^re chante-i-iL bien? i.e. lay b. sings he? 
Does my sister sing % Ma soeur cAan^e- t-ELLE bien? My s, sings she 
Do my brothers sing ^ Mes freres chantent-ihs bien ? My b, sing they 
Do my sisters sing Mes soeurs cAa/i^cTt^ elles bien ? My s, sing they 

EXERCISE. 

Does my brother speak** french well* ? Does my sister speak french 

(q) ** ^rUr franfaU Went f (q) *• por/er** 

well ? Do my brothers speak french well ? Do my sisters speak 

*3 ? (q) «« paWcr« « f (q) « pan«-*» 

french well ? Does your son go to school now ? Does your daughter 

» / (q) « va cL V6coU a^itsntf « 

go to school now ? Do your sons go to school now ^ Do your 

va ? (q) ** «'<>"* ^ 

daughters go to school now ? Do the 6oy** make any progress ? 

*• vont f (q) gar^ons font • Tprogrit dIut. 

Do the gi'rfe" make any progress ? Is all your famUy^ vrell ? 
fillet ' r se porte toute famiUe U f 

(q) The auxiliary words do, did, thaU^ will, should, irouU, mai;, nught are not ex- 
pressed in french ; their meaning is implied in the termination of the verb. 

* When It, ELLE, ON come after a verb ending with a vmcel, - t - is placed tetutun 
these pronouns and the verb to soften the pronunciation. 

t Place the adverb bien before/iTiTifau ; thus, bimfran^ais. See 53 ru?e. 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. 93 

CHAP. VII. 

ADVERB 

An ADVERB is a word added to a verb to denote the manner in which 

an Action is performed ; as, / walk fast ; Be walks slowly ; you write 

'WELL; she tm7e9 badly; the words fjst, slowly^ well^ badly, 

which denote the manner in which ihe action of the verbs walk and 

WRITE is performed, are adverbs. 

The adverb being to tfie verb what the adjective is to the noun, i. e. OO 
expressing some circumstance of the verb, mitst be placed immediately 
after the verb which it modifies ; as, 

I saw your sister yesterday. Je vis hier votre sceur. 

She speaks french very well, Elle parle TRia-BiES frafi^ms. 

I will come to see her soon, Je viendrai bientot la voir J* 

EXERCISE. 

You read french very well, I wish to learn it** fvery much,) 
lisez 7fran^aU m, tris - bien^, touhaite - apprendre ^ fort^. 

You will soon^ know it**, if you read the rules attentively^, I (will do) 

-> bientSt murez ^ , lisez regies attentivement, ferai 

what you have recommended to me carefully'^. We (shall go) into 
*" recommandi - ** soigneusement, irons d 

the country to-morrow, I hope you (will come) to see us ofltn^, 

campagne f. demuin^. espere que vietidrez - voir ** sottvent. 

Some adverbs may be placed in english either before or after the 04 
verb which they modify ; as, I often see him, or I see him often, 
I VERY SELDOM speak to him, or I speak to him very seldom ; but 
ihe adverbs which represent them infrenchy must always be placed after 
ihe verb ; as, 

I often see him. Je le vois souvent. 

I sometimes meet her. Je la rencontre quelquefois. 

I seldom, speak to them. Je leur parle rarement. 

exercise. 
You always^ walk alone. I seldom^ go to town. I generally 

Vous ioujouTS vous promenez seal, rarement vais a la ville, ordinairement 

go into the country. I of ten^ think of you. You seldom^ come 

vais a campagne f, souvent pense a ^ rarement venet 

to see us now. I sometimes think that you soon^ (will forget) 
- voir •* h present, quelquefvi^ pense que bientot otiblierez 

US. You certainly^ can not think so. I sincerely^ wish that 
•* eertainement pouvez ** penser ie** sineerement souhaite que 

you may succeed. I heartily** wish you the same. 

puissiez r^ussir, deboncamr souhaite ** la mime chose, 

* llie perspicuity of a sentence often depends on the placing of the adverbs. These 
sentences for example ; J'aim£ beaucoup a lire, and J*aime a lire beaucoup, though 
formed of the same words, by changing the place of the adverb beaucoup, express two 
different ideas. J*aime beaucoup a lire ; means, I am fond of reading ; J'aime it iirt 
BEAUCOUP ; means, 1 like to read a great deal. 



55 



94 AN INTRODUCTION 

ADVERB. 

The NEGATIVE adverbs 

NOy NOTy are ne — pas, ne — point 

NO MORE, 



}NE — ] 



•PLUS. 
NOT ANY more; 

NEVER ; NE JAMAIS. 

BUT LITTLE. 






;NE — GUERE. 
VERY LITTLE 

BY NO means; ne NULLEMENT. 

NE is always placed before ike verb, and pas, point, plus, jamais. 
GUERE, NULLBMENT are placed immediately after the verb ; as, 
I do not like that woman. Je n^aime pas cette femme, 

I have neiver liked her. Je ne Tai jamais aimke, 

I will not speak to her any more, Je ne lui parlerai plus. 

EXERCISE. 

Do not you" know that man ? Have you never seen him before? 

- " connaissez ' *homme? Avez *^ ®* vu ■* auparavantl 

Were you not in his company yesterday? I know him but Utile. 

^tiez *^ ** o ' compagnie f. hiei-^ ? connais ** ** 

I do not wish to see him any more. I by no means consent (to it.) 

- ** souhaite - «* 55 m coruens y**. 

CHAP. VIII. 

PREPOSITION. 

prepositions are words which serve to connect other words together, 
in order to form a sentence ; as, 

I am going to London with my father. 

The words to, with, which connect the substantives, London <t father 
to the verb go, are called prepositions. 

9Q The prepositions may often be placed in cjiglish either before or 
AFTER the substantive which they govern ; as, 

WITH whom were you, or whom were you with 9 of what do you 
speak, or what do you speak of ? In french the prepositions must 
always be placed before the substantive which they govern ; as, 
With whom were you ? 



or whom were you with ? 

To whom did you speak ? 
or whom did you speak to ? 

Of what are you speakin<>:? 
or what are you speakings oj ? 



ayec qui etiez-vous ? 
►A qui aveZ'Vous parU? 
►DE quoi parlez-vous ? 



exercise. 



What country do you come from? What people did you come 

* pays m. - *^ vencz rfc** f ** gens f. ites *^ venti 

with? What news do you speak of? Which road shall 
avec^ ? ™ nouvelles f, *^ parlez <&*• f ^ chemin m. - 

we go by^ ? Which of these houses shall we go to ? What 

•* irons par f w i muisons f. - ** irons a^ f ■• 

are you laughing at ? It is what you may depend vpon. 

" riez d^^f C* est * pouvez compter sur^. 



TO FHENCH GRAMMAR. 

EXERCISE 071 the FOUR coiyugatioTts ER, IR, OIR, RE ; 
And RECAPITULATORY EXERCISE 071 the foregoiug rules* 



95 



AFFIRMATIVELY. 



donnerf •* ^eau. 



ihexn. They are looking^ at us.- 

(j) regaifisrf - •*. 



84 



VERBS in er.f 

I like** wine. Thou askest** for beer. He 
aimerf '^^vin m. demanderf - •6iere f. 

gives*' me water. We are looking** for flowers. You go** to see 

(r) chercherf - ^fleur, allerf - voir 

— I was helping** him, He 
(r) aiderf /ui**. 

was disturbing me. We were studying out lessons. You were 
troubler*» «* (r) ^tudiet^ » Ufon. 

singing a song. They were playing in the corner. 1 brought** 

chante'^ ^ chanton, f. jouer dans coin. m. apporter t 

him** a book. He admired it** much. We invited them to stay. 

(f) Uvre, m. admirer *° (h) beaucoup. inviter ** d rester. 

You went away too soon. They arrived in time. — I shall dine** 

Vout vous m alUr - trop tot arriver a terns. (q) diner 

with you. He will send it** me. We will accompany you. You 

avec *. (q) envoy er^ *• aceompagner ** 

will sup with us. They will bnng it** to them. 1 should like** 

touper **. apporter - ■*. (q) 



aimer 



to see it**. He would give it you, if you asked him** for it**. 

a voir le, (q) donner «* », si demandiez (f) -^ le. 

We should stay with you, if we had time. You would avoid his 



Tester 



iviter 



avians Uems, m. 

company, if you knew him. They would pay them, if they had 

compagnie, f. contiaissiez **. payer ** , avaient 



money. They would lend them** some, if they asked them** for it". 

*argent, preter (f) (g) **, demandaient (f ) - le, 

INTERROGATIVELY. Do T speak** too fast? Doest thou advise me 

(q) ** parler trop vite? (q) ** conseiller ** 

to do it** ? Does he converse well ? Do we spend (toc^much) 

de fiure Uf (q) ** converter bien? *^ dipenser trop 

money*? Do you live in town now? Do they call us? 

argent^'^ 7 *' demeurer a la ville f. d prhent ? *' appeller ** ? 

ff^as I striking too hard ? Was he speaking french ? ^ere we 
(r) *' f rapper** trop fort 7 *^ parler franfais7 (r) 

> 

7 



going too far? ^ere you eating fruit? fFere they scolding your 

ailer trop l<fin 7 ** manger ^fruit m. 7 *^ grander ** i 

Did I hurt** him? Did he shut the door? Did we 

(q) " blesser «*? " /erm«r » portef.7 si 

* The learner must peruse the verbs before he writes these exercises. 

t Make the tame difference in the verbs which are here given, as is marked in italic 
diaracters in the verb BLAMer, page 11^, agreeably to tense, number, and person, 

t See the irregular verb envoy^t, page 117. 

(r) Do not express the auxiliary words be, am, art, is, are, was, wast, were, when they 
are followed by the present participle in ing. Consider them only as signs which in- 
dicate the tense in which the verb which foUows them must be in french. 




96 AN INTRODUCTION 

RECAPITULATORY EXERCisB OH the foregoiTig Titles, 



VERBS 111 er, 

gain any thing? Did you invite them? Did they insult you? 
gagner quelqtie chote ? (q) inviter ■* ? inndter •* 

Shall I begin« it«* again? ^ill he bring it with him? 

(q) ** recmimencer le — ? (q) appoi-ter ** " 

Shall we divide it amongst us? Will you think of me? JVill 
partager »* entre "/ penser d * ? 

they take it«* along with them ? —Should I lend it him* it 
emporter le — arcc " ? ((f) «» prater •* (f), 

he asked me for it? fFould he stay with us, if we asked him? 
demandait «* - »v (q) rester avec *, enpriwns •* 

Should we dance, if it was not so late ? Would you shew it** me, 

(q) dansery (i) ^tait " si tardl (q) montrer » , 

if I called at (your house) ? Would they change it, if I sent it 

passais chez vous 'i (q) changer ■*, si renvoyait 

back to them ? Would they forgive me, if I begged their pardon ? 

— - •• '/ pardonner •*, demandais leur^ pardon ? 

NEGATIVELY. I do Tiot blame you. He does not deny it. We 

(q) " bldmer*^ «* (q) w nier »* 

do not breakfast so soon. You do not give me moneys enough. 

" dejeuner ^ si t6t, ** donner •* argent^^- assez. 

They rfo not cost (so much.) 1 was not touching it. He was 

** co<i£«r tant, (r) ** toucAer** y**. 

not taking it away. We were not disputing. You were not listening 
emporter /«** — (r) disputer *». icouter 

to me. They tocre not looking at you. 1 did not speak to 

- •* regarder - ". (q) ** parler^ 

her. She cfzci not look at me. We did not shew it to them. 

•* regarder — ■* montrer •• ■• 

You did not eat any«*. They did not invite us. — I shall not stay** 

manger* (g) inviter ■* (<l) ** rc»rer 

long. ^ He tDiU not incommode you. We shall not play to-night. 

longtems. (q) incommoder *• joii«r cc soir. 

You «w7/ not fail to ask for it**. They will not shew it** you. 

manquer de demander - le, montrer ** 

I should not like** to go there. He would not borrow money*, if he 

(q) ** aimer H alter y**. (q) emprunter argent^'^-, ^ 

had any**. We should not d^pise others, if we had no pride*. 

avait (g) mepriser les autreSf si n*avions pas orgueiL^^' 

You would never pardon him, if you knew what he has done. 

** pardonner lui**, saviez ** fait 

They would not blame me, if they knew the pains I have taken. 

bldmer **, savaient peines (n) prises, 

NEGATIVELY and INTERROGATIVELY. Do I not begin** right? 

(q) *i *• commencet bienf 
Does she not dance well ? Do we not incommode you ? Do you 

(q) ** ** dauser bien f ** ** incommoder ** f '* 

• See note *, page 110, 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. 97 

RECAPiiULATOBY EXERCISE 071 the foregoing rules. 

YEass in er. 

not breakfast this morning? Do they not deserve it? — H^as I 

» dejeuner * matin m.^ i «i miriter l^'! (r) •* 

not relating it right? Was he not shaking the table? Were we not 

« raconter •* bien 'i »* rmuer table f. / (r) ** 

walking too fast? Were you not speaking to me? Were they not 

marcher trap vite ? *' parler - ** / *• 

asking you for it*? — Did I not shut the door? Did he not ffive 

demander ** - /« ? (q) »i m fermer poj'te f. / *^ donner 

her*^ some ? Die? we not stay too long ? Did you not encourage 

(f) (g)*® / " restw trop long-temt'i . " eneourager 

them? JD/c? they not accompany you? — Shall I not bring it** you? 

•* y *^ . accompagner ** / (q) *^ ** apporter le * / 

^i7^ he not marry her ? S^aZ/ we not sing a song ? Will you not 

(q) '^ ipouser •* / *i chanter chanson f. / ** 

grant him" that favour? ^?7/ they not refuse it«* me? — Would not 
accorder (f) i ^dce f. ? rc/u««r U ^ '! (q) »» 

that book cost less in London than here ? Would not your father 

** couter moim d. Lotidres qu* ici ? (q) ** *■ 

send him to France, if he was older ? Would he not go himself, 

envoy er* « « itait dgi^^ '! (q) «i allerf lui-mime, 

if he had time? Would not your sister go with him, if he went? 

avait 7temsm.f (q) " allerf » , «' t/ y alUitf 

VERBS in ^r. j 

REGULAR. I am finishing the work I had begun. He (s building 

(r) finir * ouvrage (n) avaU commencS, (r) bdtir 

a new** house. We are demolishing ours. You are embellishing ii" 

nenve maison, f. (r) dimolir *^ .embellir *» 

much. They are filling it** with furniture. — I was reflecting on 

beaucoup, remplir ** de meubles. (r) rifiichir d. 

what I have to do. He - was languishing in misery. We toere 

*^ b. /aire, Umguir dans ^misere. f. (r) 

warning them of the danger. You were not applauding what they 

avertir ** danger, m. ** appiaudir a *• 

have done. Were they not betraying us ? — I punished him severely. 

fait. (r) *^ ** trahir ** f punir ** skveretnent. 

Did he not accomplish his purpose ? Did we not obey your orders ? 

^q^ ai »a accomplir dessein m. ? (q) ** obSir H * arrfr« f 

You cZ2(2 not choose a good colour. They matched them as well as 

(q) ** choisir bonne couleur.t assortir ** atissibien qu* 

they could. — I wiU banish him from my house. That will rejoice 

purent. (q) bannvr ** de * ** rijouir 

US (very much.) We will bless you (as long) as we live. You 

•* beaucoup, b^nir ** tant que viwons. 

* See the inegular verb envover, page 117. t See aller, page 116. 

X See page 118 the regular verb finir, and make the same difference in these verbs. 

u 



98 AN INTRODUCTION 

RECAPITULATOfeY EXERCISE 071 the fittgoin^ TUlei,^ 

VERBS in tV. 
AEOULAR. toUi fill what you can find. Thut will Hot impoverish 

emplir *® pourrex trouvert appauvrir 

them much. — t ioould cure him, if I could. You would finish 

•* beatieoup, (q) gu£rir ■* , si pouvais, firiir 

at once 'our misfortunes. We w<mld abolish it, if we could. You 

tmit d*uncoup ' malheur, abolir **, pouvions, 

would divert them much. Your brothers would succeed better, if 

divertir ** * riussir (b) , 

they were more careful. Will this tree" blossom this year? Did 
^ient soigneiLx, (q) * arbre m. fleurir ^ anniefj (q) 

it** blossom last" year? Youngs trees seldom''* blossom two years 

•* fleurir demiere ' 7 "^Jeunei raremtnt fleurir deux 

together. Do the fruits ripen well ? Do they" not often** wither on 

(de suite.) (q) **m. mUrtr ? ^ souvent se flitrir d 

the tree? Do they" not commonly** (grow rotten) ? (Here are) several 

* y (q) * ordinairement pourrir '/ Voici plusieun 

sorts of fruit ; choose which you like best* Fillf your basket 

sarte f. ^ ; choitirf ^ aimer le mieux, Remplir corbeille f 

(with it.) Enjoy it while it mil last. We will supply you 

en**. Jouir t «n* pendant que ** durer, foumir •* 

with pears and apples^ as fast as they wiU ripen. The children 

- ^Ire f. ^omme f., ausd vite qu* ^ murir. enfant m. 

will rejoice (very much,) for they are very** fond of fruit,, and it 
se rejouir beaucoup, car — beaucoup aimei* - '^fruit, ^ 

is growing dearer every day. I hope that they wUl obey you, for 

- ench^ir - touts les jours. esptirer qu* (fbiir *• , car 

children who disobey their parents seldom** succeed. 

f *** dimthiir H ^ parent rarement r^ussir. 

. I am perusing this book, boes it*> belong to you? 

(r) parcourir* * litre, m. (q) ^ appartenir* - ** ? 

It belongs to a friend of mine. Runf fast. Why do not you run 

** appartenir* *® Courir vite, Pourquoi ** courir 

faster? We are running as hard as we can. For whorn are 

vite ^®'/ (r) courir ** vite ^ pouvons. Pour *f , (r) 

you gathering these flowers ? We are gathering them for your 

cueilUr * fleur f cueillir ** pour 

mother. I wUl offer them to her, that .she may remember me. 

offrir ** - ** » afin qu* se souvenir de *° 

Does not your mother hate me? Why should she hate you? 

(q) »a hair ^ f ' m hair " f 

Because she never comes to see us. He maintains that he has not 

Puree que ** venir - t?oir **. souteiiir qu* ** 

done ic, but I firmly** believe that he lies. fFas your sister asleep, 

fait **, fermement crois qu* menhir, (r) *' darmir, 

when we set out? They came in as we were going out. 

quand partir - f entrer - comme (r) sortir - 

* See the table of the in-egnlar verbs in ir, p. 120. t 2d person jjnperative 



IRREGULAR 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. 99 

RECAPITULATORY EXERCISE OTl the fottgoing ftdej, 

VERBS in «>• 

IRREGULAR. They were running to U9» when we discoveted 

accourir vers ^, d^couvrir 

them. I came yesterday to see you, but you were not in. I went out 
early in the morning, and I did not return till late. .1 met 

ie bon - - matiiif m. (q) ne* revenir que* tard, rencontrer 

your father, and he consented to every thing that I proposed to 

coruentir d tout C9 que proposer 

him. Did my father offer you any money ? He offered me all 

«*. (q) *« offrir " » argent '/ offrir « tout 

the money that I should want. We went out (as soon) as the 

dont aurais besoin, tortir - aussitot que 

dinner was over. You did not set out so soon as you intended. 

diner m. fut finii, , partir - ii tot que (aviez desiein.) 

They detained us a good while at the inn. At what time toill 

retenir ** - Mng terns d * auherge. a ^ heure f. (q) 

you set out to-morrow P We shall set out as soon as we are 
poilxr - demain f (q) partir - aussitSt que serom 

ready. When will you return? We shall not return before the 

pret^^, Quand revenir f ** revenir avant 

end of next" week. Shall I help you to a glass of wine ? 
fin f prochaine '^semaine, f. servir ** - verre m. ' vin f 

Help yourself first. I will help myself afler you. I will 

Servir t?ou«* le premier. servir nu/'* apres *■ 

never consent (to it) You grow more ceremonious every day. 
^' conseatir y ^. devfnir cirimonieux toutt les jours. 

Why do you not come to see us oflener ? Why does not 

Pourquoi *' venir - voir ■* souvent^^f 

your sister come with you f When will your brother return fVom 

*• venir avec ^ f * revenir de 

.^is journey? Will he not set out as soon as he hears that 

voyage m. f ** partir - aussitdt qvf apprendra que 

you are going (to be married ?) fFUl your mothcJr consent to your 

oiler vous marier f *■ corisentir 

marriage? fFUl she not obtain your father*s consent? Iflw^re 

tnariage f ^ obtenir *' consentement m, f itais 

in your place, I would not go out so soon. Would my brother 
d place, (q) «» smiir - si tk, (q) ** 

obtain that place, if he asked for it**? Should the children go 
obtenir * place, f, demandait - •'(h)f ** sortir 

odt, if it was fine weather ? It is too late ; they would not 
- , t* il faisait beau terns f (i) trap tard ; ** 

return in time for supper. They would not remember it**. 

revenir it terns pour souper, ** se souvenir erf*. 

They would soon" feel the want (of it.) 
bient6t sentir besoinm. en**. 



' Ne que, without pas, ezpresscB not tUU 

II 2 



100 AN INTRODUCTION 

RECAPITULATORY EXERCISB 071 the forCgoijlg ruUs. 

VERBS in oiV.* 

Does that man" owe you any thing? He owes me a 

(q) * homme devoir •* quelqut chose f devoir •* - 

(great deal) of money. (How much) does he owe you? I do not 

beaucoup " argent, la, Combien devoir ** f ** 

know exactly; but I can get nothing from him. You should tell 
iavoir au juste ; ne pouvoir tirer neti de * devoir (s) dire 

him** that you want it. You should get him arrested. He is 

(f) qti£ avez besoin en**. (s) fiiire ■* arrSter, devoir (t) 

to pay me part (of it) in a day or two. If you receive it** 

- payer ■* unepartie **«i* dans jourm,ou deiix, recevoir ^ 

to-morrow, will you lend me eighteen or twenty pounds ? I 

demairit vouloir priter ^ dix-kuit ou vingt awes sterling f 

can not" lend you (so much.) I can lend you** ten or twelve 

pouvoir priter •* tant, pouvoir priter vous en** dix douze. 

Lend me what you can. Were we not to take a walk this 

Priter *• ^ pourrex. Devoir (t) ** - faire wi tour de promenade * 

evening ? Yes, we were ; but the master will not let me (go out) 
sotrm, f Oui, le devoir (t); vouloir laisser ** sorttr 

before I have said my lesson. Can you say it** now ? I do 
(avant que) aie dit * /epon. f. Pouvoir dire ** dprisentf 

not know whether I can ' say it** or not ; but I knew it**, when 

savoir si pouvoir dire ** ou non ; satais **, qvxmd 

T came in. You do not know it^ yet. I shall know it** in a little" 
SUM entri. savoir *® encore. savoir ** en - peu^-^- 

time. I can say it** now. I see your sister who is coming 
terns. pouvoir dire ^ iiprisent. voir ** (r) venir 

to help us. We do not see her oflen, but we sometimes hear 

- cider ** voir ** souvent, quelquefois^ rececoir 

(from her.) You shall see her to-morrow, if you will, for I 

(de ses nouoeUes.) voir ** demain, vouioir, car 

know that she intends to call upon you. If you will believe me, 
savoir qu* (a dessein) de passer chez ** vouloir croire ** , 

we will go. I think that it will rain soon. If it rains, do 

s*en alter. penser pleuvoir bientot. pleuvoir, 

you know what we will do ? We will sit down under that large 
savoir *• ferons f s'asseoir sous (p) gros *^ 

tree, until the rain is over. I can not" stay. I do not 

arbre m. Cjusqu' d ce que) pluie f. soit pass^e. pouvoir rester, 

know 

savoir 



now what I must do. It will not rain much. It is only a shower. 

voir *® devoir faire. pleuvoir Ce n'est qa* * ond^e. f. 



* See the table of verbs in oir, page 134, 135. 

(s) Should^ denoting duty^ or the necessity of doing a thing, is expressed by the cou" 
ditional of DEVOIR ; as. You should or ought to do it. Vous devriez le faire. 

(X) The present tense of the verb BE, am, art^ is, «re, and the imperfect was, were, 
followed by the infinitive of a verb, are expressed by the same tenses of devoir ; as, 
I am to go there. Je oois y aller. I was to go there. Je devais y ailer* 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAIl. 101 

hiECAnruLATORY EXERCISE 071 the forcgoing rules, 

VERBS in re* 

What aje you doing there? I am waiting for my brother 

" (t) «i faire let ? (r) attendre 

He is learning his lesson in the garden. If you see him, 

(r) apprendre ^ lefon f. dans jardin» m, voir •* , 

tell him* that I am waiting for him here. I hear you. Why 
dire (0 9*t« attendre ** id, entendre **. Pourqvm 

do you interrupt me so often ? Do you pretend to know that better 
(q) interrompre ** si souventf pr6tendre - tavoir *' (b) 

than I do? I vnll not interrupt you (any more.) These people 
91M ** - ? (q) n« interrompre ** plus ** * gens 

sell "very bad*^ wine. They sell it"* very dear. I never drink 
vendre tres - mauvais vin* m. vendre ^ cher, ^'"^ bdre 

mne* , when they** sell it** so dear. Do you hear that man? 
vin ^-^f quand N.B. vendre ^ si (q) entendre * f 

He is speaking to us. I hear him, but I do not understand what 
(r) parler — •*. entendre •* • , comprendre *® 

he says. I was answering your letter, when I heard that you were 

dire» (r) r&pondre i lettre, qiiand (ai appris) que £tiez 

in town. You surprise us quite, for we did not expect you 

en ville» surprendre ■* Ctout Afaitf) car (q) attendre ** 

so soon. I came down as soon as I heard you. If I return 
si tot, descendre - aussitot que entendre ^ . rendre 

them", their goods, will they return me my money ? They would 

(f) marchandise, rendre •* • argent f 

not return you one half (of it.) I would lose the whole rather 

rsndre ** la moiti6 **«n*. perdre toutm, plutot 

than submit to such terms. What are you learning now? 

que (de me soumettre) d ^Helles conditions, * (r) apprendre d, present f 

I am learning mathematics. Do you understand them well ? I 
apprendre "^math^matiques, entendre ** bien f 

understand them pretty well. If you take * pains, you will make 
entendre ** asses bien, prendre de la peine, faire 

great^' progress in a short* time. Does your sister learn ^music 

^® progres en - peu nb. ^q) * a« apprendre musique 

still*? No; she is learning french* and geography. Do you read 

encore f Non ; (r) apprendre frangais m. f geographic, t, (q) lire 

french" books now? I am reading Marmontel's tales. I do not 

Hivre dprSsentf (r) lire " "^eontes, 

.ike tales. I like plays. Do you translate any book? I translate 

aimer f "^comedies, traduire quelque f traduire 

english'* histories into french. I pity you much. Why do you 
anglais ^^ ^histoiref, en fran^i^, plaindre ** fori, Pourquoi 

pity me? Because you are losing your time, and you displease all 
piaindre ** f Farce que (r) perdre teins, et que d^plaire d tout^'^ 

your friends. I do not fear them. I (fa not depencjj upon them* 

* ami, m. craindre •*. d^pendre\ d' *^. 

• See the table of verHip re» p. HO, 147, 146. 



103 AN INTRODUCTION 

RBCAPITULA.TORY EXBRCISE OTl ike foregQitlg TUks, 

VERBS in re. 
I wiU do what I think proper. That man is always^ laughing. 

faire *' croir^ apropos. * (r) toujours rire. 

Do you know what he is laughing at? He does not know h^ 

savoir *» (r) rire de^l ** savoir le 

himself. Let us drink* your friend's health. What shall we drink ? 

lui-meme, - - boire a " '^santS.f, '* (q) boiref 

Drink a glass of wine. I will drink a glass of beer. I will not 
Boiref verrem,^ (q) boire * biire, ** 

permit you to do that. Promise me not to do it**. Well! £ 

permettre ■* de faire ** Promettre t ^ dene pas faire le. Eh bien ! 

promise it to you. You always promise, but you seldom'* keep 
promettre ** - ^ , toujours^ promettref mats rarement tenir 

your word. 1 do pot believe what he says. Why do not you 

parole, ** croire *^ dire Pourquoi ** *^ 

Delieve him? Do you mean to say that he lies? I do not say 

croire ** f *^ vouloir - dire qu>* mentirf ** dire 

so ; I only*^ say that people often** promise what they*' do not 
cela ; seuUm^t dire que *' ^'^ sowent promettre *° ^*^' ** 

intend to perform. What are you sewing there ? I am making a 

avoir dessein de faire, *• (r) coudre la f (r) faire * 

gown for a sister of mine. For which of your sisters are you 

roifi f. pour 48 a« i ^j.) 

making it** ? For the youngest. You are always** doing and undoing the 

faire ^ f jeune *^ . toujours faire d^faire * 

same thing over again. Put out one of these candles. Putrt,^ these 

m^me chose f. - - Eteindre t une (p) chandelles, f. Rem£ttreXjp) 

books into their places again. Why do you not pay attention to 

livre d ^ - Pourquoi faire attention. 

what I say to you? fVill the master permit us to (go out) 

*® dire - ®*f ** permettre ** de 9ortir 

to-day? I do not know; ask it*<^ him*^. He will not live long, 

aujourd'hui? savoir; demander le(f), vivreC long terns) 

if he drinks (so much.) Yet, he appears to enjoy good health. 

it boire tant, Cependant, paraitre - iouir d^une bonne taniS. f. 

COMPOUND TENSES. 
Have you seen my mother? I have seen her, but I have not spoken 

voir f voir^ ** , parler 

to her. Has your sister done what she had promised me to do? 

** ** faire *® avait promettre ** de faire f 

Why has she not done it? Has your father forbid her to do 

Pourquoi ** faire ^f ' ** d^fendre iui** de fatre 

it** ? Has your brother been where I had told him ? Has he 

lef ^^ etre oil avais dire lui^^f 

received the letter which® my sister has sent him** ? Have you read 
recevoir lettret (m) envoycr t (0^ Uret 

• Ist person imperatiye. t 2nd person imperative, t This participle must be feminine 



TO FRENCH GRAMMAR. 103 

RECAPITULATORY EXBRCI8B ofi the foregomg rules, 

COMPOUND TENSES. 

if^ ? Has your &ther bought the horse which"* I had recommended 

^ (li) f 3> acheter (m) avaU recommander 

to hixn'^? Has he tried itP Has my mother brought any body 
(f) f essay er *^f *' amener qvslqu* un 

with her? Are your brothers gone out? Have your sisters 

aveo » f «a «artir plur. - f » 

finished the work they had begun ? They would not have done 

finir ouvrage(n) avaient eommenoert *' faire 

it so soon, if they had not been compelled (to it.) I haire met 

■* $i tot, avaient ** farcies y **. rencontrer 

^ man on (horseback) who has asked me the way to (your house. 

d. cheval demander *^ cheminm,diez wus^. 

REFLECTIVE VERBS.t 
AFFiRMAT. I am getting up. He is washing himself. We 

(r) se leoer - (r) u laver *• 

are dressing ourselves. You are amusing yourselves. They are 

(r) s*habiUer •* s^amuser •• 

getting ready to (go out). I was getting up, when you called me. 
s*apprSter - d sertir - . (r) se lever - , qmnd appeler ** 

He was warming himself in the parlour. We were conversing by 

se chauffer ■* dans salle f. (r) s*entretenir pris 

the fire. You were (making merry). They were laughing at us. 
du feu, se diverttr, se moquer de ■. 

iNTERRoa. Do I get up too late ? Does that man (run away) ? 

(q) ^^ seUver - trap tardf (q) ■ ** t*enfuirf 

Does your bird" (grow tame) ? Do we warm ourselves 
(q) oiseau m. s*appriveiser t •* se cbauffef ** 

(loo much) ? How do you do ? How does your sister do ? 
tropf Comment *' se porter? ** se porter f 

Was I coming too near ? fFds he hiding himself ? Did we 

(r) s^approcher pres f se cocker ■* f ** 

expose ourselves (too much)? fVere you inquiring after them? 
s^exposer ■* trap f »' ijiformer d* * ? 

NEOATiv. I do not care for him. He does not mistrust them. 
(q) ** se souder de * (q) ** se mijier de ^ 

We do not repent (of it"). You do not rise early enough. They 

<e repent ir en^, se lever assn matin. 

do not meddle with his affairs. I did not stop. He did not 

semeUr de * affaire, (q) s'arriter. ** 

undress himself. We did not sit down. You did not awake in 

se dSshabiller •• . s'asseoi"' - . s'iveiller d 

time. I did not expect that they*« would have called me up so soon. 

terns. ' sattendre N.k (q) ^eiller » - j» tot. 



t See the reflective verb se blamer, p. ll^. 



104 AN INTRODUCTION 

RECAPITULATORY EXERCISE 071 the foregoitig rules. 

REFLECTIVE VERBS. 

INTERR. and NEGAT. Am I not mistaken ? Doe» he not apply to 

(r) «i 3^ se tromper f (q) »» «* s*appliquer 

study'? Do we not walk to-day? Why do not you (make 

*6tudef ** sepromenei' aujourd'huif Pourquoi " *' s« 

haste)? Why do not you (get ready)? Do you not rejoice (at the) 
d&picherf ** s*appriter f *i se r/^jouir de» 

good" news we have received? Do you not remember what I 

*7 nouvetUi f. (n.) ref ue5 f m touvenir de ^ 

have told you? No; I do not remember it*». I do not recollect it*. 
dk ^ se souvenir en^. te rappeler U** 

COMPOUND TENSES. 

AFFIR. I have (gone to bed) late. Thou hast soon (fallen asleep). 
• te coucher tard, * bientot t*endormir.i 

He has awoke early. We have (got up) before you. You have 

• g^SveilUr de bon matin, * se lever\ avant *■ • 

hurried yourself (too much). They have dressed themselves in haste. 
se presser\ trop^, - • s*habiUei'} H la hate, 

INTER. Have 1 (gone away) too soon ? Hast thou bathed lately ? 

• " s*enaUer\ trcptdt 9 • 5i se baigner depuis peuf 

Has he amused himself well? Have we undressed ourselves 

• *^ s*amuser bienX f • ^^ se dtshabiUerf 

too soon ? Have you been well since I saw you ? Have 
tot 9 • ^^ se porter t dtpuu que w'ai vu ** ? • 

they stopped too long? Have they (got ready) in time? 
** s'arreterf trap long'tems9 • ** s'appreterf d, terns 9 

NEGAT. I have not been well to-day. Thou hast not complained (of iO. 

* ** se porter t • m se plaindre en *• 

He has not perceived it much. We have not walked long. 

• ** t^apercevoir en® t • m se promenerf long-terns. 

You hav'fe not rested enough. They have not (sat down) a moment. 

• " se reposeri assez, t • M s'asseoir t un moment, 

i-STER and n::gat. Have I not (made haste) enough? Hast thou 

• 51 as gg dipecher t asiez % f • ^* 

not (caught cold)? Has she not married too young? Have we 
** s'enrhumer 9 • ai as ,g marier t jeune 9 • »i 

not mistaken the way ? Have you not inquired after them ? 

** sem^prendrei de chemin9 * " ** s'informeri d* " f 

Have they not applied to you ? Have they not (been mistaken) ? 

• 51 55 g'adresser t " ? ♦ ai as ^g tromper t ? 

* In the compound tenses of the verbs that are made reflective, the auxiliary verb 
HAVE can never be expressed by the verb avoir ; it most be expressed by the same 

terus and person of the auxiliary verb etre to BE. See the compound tenses of tiie 
reflective verb blamer, page 115. 

t This participle must agree in gender and number with the nominative of the ver^ 
See Syntax, Rule 158. 

) Jhis a4verb must be placed 6e/ore the participle in french. See Syntax, Rule 183. 



THE 105 

CONJUGATIONS 

OR 

ACCIDENCE OP VERBS. 

A VERB, as has been seen, page 91, is a word which expresses 
either being or acting. 

As the same action ma> be performed in different manners, at different 
timeSy and by different persons, it was found necessary to modify or vary 
the same word, so as to denote the manner in which an action is done, 
the TIME in which it is done, and the person or persons by whom it is 
done, and this is what grammarians call conjugation. 

The manners of acting, in grammar called modes or moods, SLvefour; 

INFINITIVE, imperative, INDICATIVE, SUBJUNCTIVE, or CONJUNCTIVE. 

The TIMES, in grammar called tenses, are properly three only; past, 
PRESENT, and future; but, in order to express time with more precision, 
these are again divided into other tenses, the use of which will be seen 
in the syntax of verbs. 

The PERSONS who act in a verb are generally three for each number. 

1. The person or persons who ^edk ; as, j blame; we blame. 

2. The person or persons spoken to ; as, rhou blamest; you blame. 

3. The person, persons, or thmgs spoken of; as, ne, she, my brother^ 
My sister blames ; rhey. My brothers^ My sisters blame. 

The modifications or variations by which these moods, tenses, and 
persons are known, differ, according to the different languages. 

In english, the difference is shewn by the means of certain si^wi pre- 
fixed to the verb ; as, do blame ; did blame ; shaJll or will blame ; 
shot(ld or toould blabie ; may blame, might blame. 

In french, it is made by changing the last syllable of the word ; as, je 
blAm 6, TU blAm es, il blAm e, nous blAm ons, yous blAm ez, ils 
blAm ent ; je blAm ais ; je blAm ai ; je blAmer ai ; je rlAmer ais, &c.* 

This variation in the tenses and persons, simple as it is, because it is 
nearly uniform, is nevertheless found embarrassing by some persons. 

The difficulty lies chiefly in the present and perfect tenses of the indi- 
cative and subjunctive moods, and in the imperative. 

In order to remove it as much as possible, I have placed in one point 
of view, the tenses which are either similar or partly similar, or formed 
from one another, that, by perceiving at once the similarity or the dif- 
ference, the learner's mind may be more easily impressed with it.- 

* 1'he signs by which these inflections or yariations are made, not being the same iu 
all verbs, the conjugations mast also be various. 

The number of them is not exactly fixed, and varies in almost every grammar. Some 
fix it at /our, some at six, some at t«n, some at eleven, some at twelve. 

It appears tome that their number must either be limited to /our, or extended to twelve. 

As amongst such a number of conjugations, out of which there will still be a great 
number of irregular verbs, it is very diflficuU for learners to distinguish of what conju- 
gation a verb is ; and as the infinitive of all the french verbs ends in one of these termi- 
nations ER, IR, oiR, RE, tlie only signs by which each different conjugation may be 
discriminated, 1 have thought it more simple to fix their number at four. 

All verbs which may be conjugated after the same manner as one of these four, are 
called regular. 

Those verbs which can not be conjugated like one of these four, are called irregular, 
and set in an alphabetical order after the regular, so that the learner can never be mis- 
taken as to the manner of conjugatiog any verb which he may have need of, by paying 
attention to the termination of the infinitive only. 



106 



AUXILIARY VERB AVOIR. 

INFINITIVE MOOD OR MANNER 
To HAVE, AVoiV. 







IMPERATIVE MOOD. 








Have. 


Aie, SlTlg. 


Ayez, plur* 




• 


Let m have 


• 


Ayons. 




INDICATIVE MOOD. 




aUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 




y^ I have. 
S Thou hast. 




J't 


ai».{ 


Quef aie«. 


p 




Tu 


as*. 


Qice tu aies. 


^ 

^ 


1 He has. 




II 


a. 


QuHl ait*. 


§ 


J fFe have. 




NOUS^ AV 07M*. 


Que nous ayons*. 




g You have. 




Vous 


AV €«*. 


Que vous ayez. 




* They have. 




lis 


01) t«. 


Qu*ils aient". 




g* J had. 

•g Thou hadst. 


, 


r 


AV aiV. 




• 




Tu 


AV a««.§ 






§» He had. 




II 


AV a/^. 


# 




I TFe had. 




Nou^ 


AV I07W. 






1 You had. 




Vous 


AV fear. 






? TAcy had. 




lis 


AV aten^. 






^ I had. 

g^ TAou hadst, 

g He had. 




J't 


eus". 


Quef eusse®. 


P 




Tu 


eus.|| 


Qmc <2< euBses*. 






II 


eut««. 


Qu*il efit* 




g- We had. 




Nou^ 


eumes. 


Qi^e nof/« eussions. 


1- 


§ You had. 




Vow 


eutes'®. 


Que vous euBsiez. 




* TAeyhad. 




lis 


eurent". 


QuHls eussent^". 





>^ I shall or will have. 


r 


•aurai*. 




. 


^ Thou shalt, wilt have. 


Tu 


auras*. 






3 1/e shall, will have. 


II 


aura. 






o IVe shall, will have. 
5^ You shall, will have. 


Noui^ 


aurons. 






Vous 


aurez. 






? TAey shall, will have. 


lis 


auront*. 






51 /should, wld 


. have. 


J' 


'aurai s«. 






J* 7%0M shd. wld. have. 


Tu 


aurais.§ 






He shd. wld. 


have. 


II 


aurai t*. 







& We shd. wld. have. Nous^^ aurions. 
S 



YoM shd. wld. have. Vous 



auriez. 
S- They shd. wld. have. //« auraient^ 

GERUNDy or present participle. 
Having. Ayant. 



PARTICIPLE past. 

Had. 



£U. 



Have I? 
Hast thou? 
Has he ? 
Has s^e 9 
Has my brother? 
Has my sister? 



The same verb conjugated Interrogatively. 



Ki-je'' ? 

AS-<U« ? 
A-t-l7« ? 

A-t-c/Ze« ? 
Monfrhre &'Ul^? 
Ma sceur a-t-ci/-e* ? 



Avons-no?/^" ? 
Avez-uoiw*^ ? 
ont-i7««» ? 
onUelles'^ ? 
Mes fr^res ont-27«" ? 
Mes soeurs ont-elles^? 



3* 

P 

«< 



person. 



* The plural is generally used instead of tibie singular , though speaking to a single ] 

t See npte * page S8. i These figures refer to the pronunciation, see page 4. 

i See note 6, page 6. j| See, syntax of verbs, the distinction between avais and eut 



AUXIUARV VERB AVOIR. 
The same verb ayoiji conjugated negatively 

INFINITIVE. 
NOt to HAVE. NepaS AVOIR. 

IMPERATirE, 

Have not iv^'aie, or n' ayez \ 

Let us not have. 



107 



MNDICATIFE. 






had not. 



I have 710^. 
Thou hast not. 
He has not. 
We ] 

You >have not 
They J 

I 

Thou 
He 
We 
You I 
They J 

Thou 

^ Miad not 

You 
TheyJ 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

TheyJ 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

TheyJ 



n* ai* 



n as 
«* a 



shall, will 
7iot have. 



shld. wld. 
not have. 



Je 
Tu 
11 

Nous n' avons" 
Vous n* avez 
lis 71* ont«3 

Je n* avais* 
Tu n* avals 
II 7i* avait* 
Nous 71* avions 
Vous 71* aviez 
Ila 71* avaient" 

Je 71* eus*« 
Tu 71* eus 
II 71* eut** 
Nous 71* eAmes 
Vous 71* eilles 
lis 71* eurent^* 

Je 71* aurai' 
Tu 71* auras 
II 71* aura 
Nous n* aurons 
Vous 71* aurez 
lis 71* auront* 

Je 71* aurais* 
Tu 71* aurais 
II n* aurait 
Nous 71* aurions 
Vous 71* auriez 
lis 71* auraient" 



N- ayons j^^*^ 

SUBJUNCTIVE 



Ti'aie* 



iww.t 



72 aies 



Que je 

Que tu 

Qu'il 7i*ait*» 

Que nous Ti'ayons 

Que vous Ti'ayez 

Qu'ils 72*aient" 



rpas. 



S 



}pat. 



^ 



'pa«. 



Que je Tt'eusse ^ 
Que tu Tt'eusses i 
Qu'il Ti'efit*' [ g 
Que nous Tt'eussionsf^^* ^ 
Que vous 7»'eu88iez I ^ 

Qu'ils «*eusBent^'j rS 



^jpa«. 



>pas. 



PARTICIPLE. 

pas eu. Not had. 



GERUND. 

Not having. jv* ayant pas. 

The same verb conjugated negatively and interrogatively. 

Have I j iv* ai-je" 1 jv* avons-Tioiwl 

Hast thou I JO 2v* as-<u" I « y avez-ro?/« I « 

Has he ""'^ Va-t-.7»p"«^ j.' ont-i/,» P? 

Has she ] V a-t-cWcJ jv* out-ewes'* j 

Has 710^ my brother? Mon frfere 7i'a-t-t7* pas? Mes fr^res 7i* ont-t7« pcwr? 

Has noi my sister ? Ma soBur 7i'a-t-e//6" pas? Mes soBurs7i'ont-e//c«|?a«? 



f See note * page 28 . 



t See the negative adverbs, rule 5ff, page 94. 

h2 



108 



AUXILIARY VERB ETRE. 
INFINITIVE MOOD, 

To BE. etre» 



Be. 

Let U8 be. 



IMPERATIVE. 

sois, 8i?ig. soyez, plur.* 



INDICATIVE, 

ug -Tarn. 
S Thou art. 
S Hie is. 
^ ff^e are. 
g You are. 

• They are. 

g< I was. 
"g TAou wast. 
g» He was. 
S^ ^c were. 

You were. 

TAcy were. 

^ J was. 
2 Thou wast. 
§ He was. 
r* We were. 

Cv 

S You were. 

* TAey were. 

^ J shall or will be. 
2^ TAoz£ shalt, will be. 
» He shall, will be. 
g ^e shall, will be. 



i 



5' You shall, will be. 
? They shall, will be. 

t? I should, wld. be. 
s* TAoif shd. wld. be. 
I He shd. wld. be. 
g- ;re shd. wld. be. 
I' You shd. wld. be. 
*r 7%€y shd. wld. be. 



Je* tsuis*. 
Tm es«. 
II 'est« 
iVb{/« sommes. 
FoM« 6tes*. 
lis sont*. 

/' i,T aisP. 
Tu iT ais. 
II iT ait^. 
Noiis ix ion^. 
Vou8 ^Tiex, 
lis ^T aieni\ 

Je* ffus*. 
Tu fus.t 
J/ fut*'. 
Nous fllmes. 
Vou^ futes*. 
Its furent". 

J^ serai*. 
Tu seras*. 
// sera. 
Nous serons. 
Voy^ serez*. 
lis seront*. 

J^ serais'. 
Tu serais. 
II serait**. 
Notts serions. 
Vous seriez. 
Us seraient". 



soyons. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



SOIS 



S3 



Quej^ 

Que tu sois"^. 
QuHi Eoit»». 
Que notes soyons*. 
Que vous soyez. 
Quits Boient^'. 



Quej^ 
Que tu 
Qu'il 



fuBse*. 

fusses*'. 



Que nous fussions. 
Que vous fussiez. 
QuHls fuBsent^^ 









CO 



GERUNDf or 


present participle, partici ple 


past 




Being. 


The 


iT ant, iTd. 
sams verb conjugated Interrogatively. 


Been. 




Ami? 




suis-jf'c^ ? sonimes-«o?/«** ? 




p 


Art thou ? 




ES'tu^^ ? Etes vous^^ ? 




S 


Is he? 




Est-i/M ? sont-i&« ? 




$ 


Is she? 




Est-eWcM ? 8ont-eZ/es« ? 




•>c 


Is my brother ? 


Mon fr^re est-tZ" ? Mes freres sont-t&=^ 


'? 


^ 


Is my sister ? 




Ma soeur est-eZ/e* ? Mes soeurs sont- eZ/cs" ? 


ft 

• 



* The plural is generally used instead of the singvlar, though speaking to a single person 
t See note 2, pmge 1. | See. syntax of Terbs, the distinction between itaU and fu$ 



AUXILIARY VERB ETRE. 
The same verb £tre conjugated negatively. 

INFJNITIFE. 

Not to BE. jve jtas etre. 

IMPERATIVE, 

Be not. Ne sois, or Ne soyez 



109 





] 


Let us 720^ be. 


INDICATIVE. 


I am 720^. 


Je^ 72C suis 


Thou art not. 


Tu /i* es2« 


He is ?iot. 


II n* est« 


We 


Nous 7ie sommes 


You >are not. 


Vous 71* 6tes 


They J 


lis 72C sont«« 


I 


Je' 7i' ^tais« 


Thou >was not. 


Tu n' ^tais* 


He J 


II n' (5tait«<» 


We 




Nous n* ^tions 


You 


►were not. 


Vous n* fetiez 


They 




lis 71* ^taient* 


I 1 


Je' ne fus 


Thou >was 720^. 


Tu ne fus* 


He j 


II ne fut» 


We 




Nous Tie fumes 


You 


►were not. 


Vous 72C futes 


They J 




lis TIC furent" 


I 1 




Je' TIC serai* 


Thoii 




Tu T2C seras 


He 


shall, will 


II TIC sera 


We 


'not be. 


Nous TIC serons 


You 




Vous TIC serez 


They, 




lis TIC seront* 


I 




Je* T2C serais' 


Thou 




Tu T2C serais 


He 


shld. wld. 


II T2C serait 


We 


710^ be. 


Nous TIC serious 


You 




Vous TIC seriez 


Thev. 




lis T2C seraient' 



^pas. 



tpas 



Ne soyonsi 

SUBJUNCTIVE, 

Que je* ne sois*" 
Que tu ne sois 
Qu'il 72C soit* 
Que nous 72c soyons 
Que vous ne soyez 
Qu'ils ne soient^' 






}pas, § 

c 



>^flW. 




Que je' ne fusse ") 




B 


Que tu TIC fusses 




^ 


Qu*il TIC mt" 






Que nous tic fussions 


rpas. 


Si 


Que vdUs TIC fussiez 






Qu'ils TIC fussent". 







^as. 



^as. 



PARTICIPLE 



Not been 



GERUND. 

Being 720^. N^^iwaipas. pas it^ 

The same verb conjugated negatively and interrogatively. 
Am I ] Ne suis-jc ] Ne sommes-Tiot/^l 

Art tlioul .o y eS'tu I « ^ 6tes-t?oiw I « 

Is he P^ i^-est-ii p""^ i.esont-t& b'**^ 

Is she J iv* est- elle] Ne sont-elles j 

Is not my brother? Mon frfere n^esi-il pas? ues freres tic sont-f^f pas ? 
Is T20^ my sister? Ma soeur Ti*est-c//c pas 9 Mes sceurs tic sont-c//c9 pas? 



* See, syntax, role 140, the distiiiction between avaii and eus ; 4tau and fui. 



H 3 



110 



THE FOUR CONJUGATIOI 
A TABLE shewing in one point ofvieWf the didference between the foui 

ER.** IR. 



INFINIT. 

blAm er. 

INDICAT. 

1^ Je blAm 

3 Tu 

^ 11 



GERUND 

ant. 



PARTIC. 



IMPERAT. SUBJUNCT, 



g- Nous 
I Voiu 



■d 



^Je blAm 

Tu 
I 7/ 

Vous 



* -r. 



>^ Jie blA&i 
^Tu 
I J/ 

J? 2Vbz/* 
I Fous 



es. 

e, 

onf 

ez. 

ent, 

ais, 

ait. 

ions, 

iez. 

aienu 

ai. 

as, 

a, 

dmes, 

dtes, 

erent. 



e, 

ons, 
ez. 



e, 

es. 

e. 

ions, 

iez 

ent. 



asse, 

asses, 

at, 

assions, 

assiez, 

assent. 



^Je blAmkr ai, 

* II 
2 Nous 



5* Vous 
? li- 



as, 

a, 

ons, 

ez. 

ont. 



'^Je blAmer OM.t 



Tu 



n 



S- Nons 
I Vous 
?^Ils 



CIS, 

ait. 
ions, 
iez, 
aient. 



** After the same manner as blamer are 
conjugated all the verbs the injBuitive of 
which ends in er (about 2700 in number), 
except ALLER and envotee. Observe 
only that in the verbs in ger, as CHANcer, 
MANoer, soNGcr, the e is retained before 
Of 0, in order to soften the sound of g ; so 
instead of saying cuahgous, KAHGons, 
BOWions ; caAXioaia, MAMGai«, soNoais ; 
ve say changeoim, HANGeon«, soMcean^; 
CHANGeats, MANCreais, ^cX 



GERUND 

issant, 

IMPERAT. 



2S, 

issojis, 
issez. 



PART. 

« 

SUBJUNCT. 

isse. 

isses. 

isse. 

iss^lons. 

issiez. 

issent. 



tsse, 

tsses. 

it. 

tssions, 

issiez. 

issent. 



INFINIT. 

FIN ir. 

INDICAT. 
FIN is. 

is, 

it, 

issons, 

issez. 

issent, 

FIN issais.'\ 
tssais. 
issait. 
issions. 
issiez. 
issaient. 

FIN is. 
is. 
it, 
imes, 

ites. 
irent, 

FiNiR ai. 
as. 
a. 

ons. 
ez. 
ont. 

FiNiR ais.f 
ais. 
ait. 
ions, 
iez. 
aient. 

After the same manner as fiiSib are con- 
jugated about 220 verbs in irt hoih prindtive 
and compound. 

Compound verbs are those whose signifi- 
cation changes by the means of a preposition 
prefixed to them ; as, dejleurir, to lose the 
blossom ; refleurir, to blossom again ; which 
are conjugated like their primitive Jleurir, 
to blossom ; 64faire, to undo ; refaire^ to do 
again, which are conjugated like their pri- 
mitive ^tre, to do. 



* These are the only $ign$ by which it can be known to what conjugation a verb bel<min. By paying attention 1 

in er after blAm er, those In ir after fin vr^ tliose in oir after dkv otr, and those in re after attxko re ; and with i 

himself able to rectify. 
X Verbs ending in the infinitive in eety as menaeery j^acery must have a cedilla under the c, before either a or o' 
Verbs in er, having an e preceding the last syllable, as in cotaiderery r^glery change the i into before a syllabli 

endinc iu fger must oe excepted ; tlius : abrigery j'abrige, nous abre^erons. 
Verbs in «r, having an mute before the last syllable in the infinitive, as /0t;0r, menery change the e mute into 
Verbs ending in the infinitive in eler or eter (not iter or eter\ as appelevy Jeter, double the consonant / and t be 

verlM : ackttery bourreler, deceler, geler, harceter, peler, which are spelt j'ocAete, tu bourrilesy ils deceknty il geUy nei 
Verbs ending inyer, w player, payer, a^puyer, change the y into i before mute ; thus : payer, je pnie ; piffyer. 



oNs ER, IR, OIR, RE* 

UR conj agnations, and how the tenses of a verb proceed ^om one another. 

OIK. KE. 



Ill 



INFINIT. GERUND 

DEV oir. ant, 

INDICAT. IMPERAT. 

Dois. 

Dois. Dois. 

Doit. 
DEV OTIS, ons. 

ez. ez. 

Doivent. 

DEV a%sj\ 
ais. 
ait. 
ions, 
iez. 
aient. 

DUS. 
DUS. 
DUt. 

Dumes 



PARTIC. 

Dd. 



Dusse. 
Dusses. 

Dllt. 

Dussions. 

Dussiez. 

Dussent. 



Diltes 
Durent. 

DEV rai. 
ras. 
ra. 
Tons, 
rez, 
ront. 

DEV rais.'\ 
rais. 
rait, 
rions, 
riez. 
raieni. 

After the same manner as devoir are 
conjugated BEDEVoir, PSRCEVoir, apebce- 

VOlV, S'APEBCEVOtr, CONCEVOlV, RECEYOtV. 

N.B. This verh is not regular ; if it is 
foond here amongst the regular, it is because 
its termination requires a conjugation of its 
own. The words which are irregular are 
printed wholly in roman characters ; the re- 
gular are the italic terminatiotu added to 
the capital letters. 



INFINIT, 

ATTEND re. 



8UBJUNCT, 


INDICAT. 


Doive. 


ATTEND 


S. 


Doives. 




S. 


Doive. 


ATTEND 




ions. 




ons. 


iez. 




ez. 


Doivent. 




ent. 




ATTEND 


ais.-f 

ais, 

ait. 

i07l8. 

iez. 


. 




aient. 



GERUND PARTIC. 

ant, U, 

IMPERAT. SUBJUNCT. 

e. 
s. es. 

e, 
ons, ions, 

ez. iez. 

ent. 



ATTEND U. 

is. 

it. 

tmes, 

ites. 

ireni. 

ATTBNDE oi. 

as. 
a. 

ons, 

ez. 

ont. 

ATTENDR aU.f 

ais. 

ait. 

ions, 

iez. 

aient. 



isse. 
isses. 

it. 

issions, 

issiez. 

issent. 



After the same manner as attendre are 
conjugated BATTre, abatttc, combatttc 

DEBATTr«, RABATTre, RBBATTTC, FENDr^, 
DBFENDr«, DE8CENDr«, CONDESCENDre, 
FONDr«, CONFONDre, BEFONDre, HORFONDre, 
ROMPre, CORROMPTC, INTERBOMPrC, PONDr«, 
R£PONDre, COBBESPONDre, REPANDre, mor- 
Hre, Df MORDrC, TE»Dr«,ETENDrc, ENTEMDre, 
PRETENDre, RENDre, PENDre, D^PENDW, 
VENDre, PEBDre, TORDr«, RETORPr^^ TONQrtf. 



lo the termtMit Jra of the tn/Sattiee, and altering the 8»me number of letters as are here marked in italics^ i.e. Uiose ending 
ttie aisistance of the tables of the irregular verhg, it is impoasible for any person to commit errors which he is not 

f See note 6, page 6. 
; thus, t7 niMOfa, now p/a^OM. 
f ending in e mute ; thus : amidirer, je eoiuu^re ; r^gler^ il r^ ; repfter, il repetera. But from this rule the verbs 

> before a syllable ending in e mute ; thus : /ewr, je live ; semert tu i«iii«s : mener, nous mhtcnrnt. 

fore e mute ; thus : avpelery yappellet yappellerai ; jeter, il jette, il jettera. Except from this rule the six following 

10 hart^leroiUf rauapehrez. 

i 1 p/or> ; oppmyeTf j apputiraif 



112 



REGULAR VERBS In ER. 

INFINITIVE MOOD, 

To BLAME. BLaM er 



IMPERATIVE. 

blAm e, sing. 



Blame. 

Let 1^ blame. 



INDICATIVE. 

^ I blame, or am S Je* blAm c^. 
3 Thou blamest, artB Tu blAm c«**. 
S He blames, or is & Jl blAm e. 



OB 

9 



fFe 

You 

They 



Thou 



^fFe 

i ^^^ 

« Thou 
fHe 

^fVe 
g Ybw 



blame, ore 
blaming.* 

teas 

I blaming.* 

were 
blaming. 



blamed or 
did blame. 



?I 



o 



o 



%Thou 
He 
We 

I 

Thou 
He 

^IVe 
You 
They] 



n 

o 

3 



O 

B 



iVbi/9 blAm o71«. 
Vous blAm ez. 
I/5«» blAm mP^. 

J(? blAm flw*. 
Tu blAai ais. 
II blAm aiY*. 
Nous blAm fon». 
Foi« blAm fez. 
J/s** blAm a£en<«. 

•/^e^ BLAM ai'. 
Ttt blAm flw*. 
Jl blAm a. 
-ZVoM* blAm ame». 
Fows blAm a<e«. 
i^^** blAm erew/." 
•/^e* blAmer fli*. 
Tu blAmer <m* 
// blAmer a. 
Nous blAmer ons, 
Vous blAmer ez. 
11^ blAmer ont^. 

Je=* blAmer aisP, 
i ij ?j Tu blAmer ais. 

Shovldy would ri i Its 

,1 II BLAMER ai/.*' 

> blame, or ^r i • 

^ ' Nous BLAMER lOJlS, 

Vous blAmer iez. 
Jl^ blAmer aientm* 



blAm ez, plur. 

BLAm 07Z«. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Queje^ blAm ^. 
5v blAm e^. 
fl blAm e. 
Nous blAm ioTttf. 
Fbi^A blAm iez, 
Jfow blAm en<^". 



fi: 

3 

P 

3 



Queji? 


blAm 


asst* 




Tu 


blAm 


asses. 




II 


blAm 


dt^. 




Nous 


blAm 


assions. 




Vous blAm 


assiez. 




7/a« 


blAm 


assent^*. 



3 

•3« 



cr 
3 



shall, will 
blame, or 
be blaming. 



be blaming. 



Blaming. 

Interrogatively, 
HhXMB'je? ^ Je 

blAmes-/uP •-! TU 

BLAME-t-iY ? 



GERUND, 

blAm ant. 

Negatively, 
Tie blXme 

TZeBLAMES 
TteBLAME 



sr ii 



>pas. 





PARTICIPLE 






blAm e. Blamed. 




Interrogativ. and Negativ, 




Cli 


Ne BhkME'je 




a, 

o 


O 


Ne BlAM£S-/7£ 




HI 




A'e blAme-I-i/ 


>pas? 


o 


2 


Ne BlAm0N8-7?07/» 




3 

• 


A'e blAmez-i;o7/« 




3 


A'e blAment-zV* 







blAmons-7io7/« 3 NOUS ne blAmons 
blXmez-vous? "y vous Tie blAmez 

BlAmENT-I^Y? o lis 7?eBLAM£NT 

N. B. After the same manner as blAmer conjugate all (he verh% the 
infinite of which ends in er, except aller and envoyer, p. 116, 117.t 

* Never say j> suis blumont, tu es hlAmantt il est hlamant^ f 6tais bldmant, S^c, So« 
note (j) p. 95. t See note * page 110. 



REGULAR VERBS in ER. 



113 



Compound tenses of the verb blAmer, 
Formed by adding the participle blAm£ to the auxiliary kvoitt. 



INFINITIVE COMPOUND, 



To have blamed. 

INBICATirE. 

^ I have I J* ai 

s Thou hast >blamed. Tu as 

II a 



\ He has j 

I We ] 

I You \have blamed. Vous avez 

^ TheyJ 



l^oxxsavons 



ont 



I Thou 
9»He 
I We 

I You 
^ TheyJ 

a Thou 



>had blamed. 



He 
We 

You 
TheyJ 

!?I 

I Thou 
He 



>had blamed. 






lis 

J' avals 
Tu avals 
II avalt 
Nous avions 
Vous aviez 
lis avaient 

J' eus 
Tu eus 
II eut 
Nous e^mes 
Vous elites 
lis eurent 

3* aural 
Tu auras 
II aura 






BLlMi.* 



Avoir blAm£. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Quef ale 
Tu aies 
II ait 
Nous ayons 
Vous oyez 
lis aient. 



blAm^ 



cr 

p 

3 

O4 



^blAm]^. 



Tu 



blAm£. 



eusse 
eusses 
II ei2^ 
Nous emissions 
Vous eusslez 
lis etM»en^ 



3 



blAm£. g' 



3 

Oi 



Aave blamed. Nous aurons 
Yous aurez 
lis auront 

al ^ 3* aurais 

1^ Thou j Tu aurais 

r He \Hhouldt wld. II aurait 
I We fAat;e blamed. Nous ai^rion; 
*! You I Vous aurlez 

• TheyJ lis auralent 



^BLAMk. 



*blAm£. 



OERUND. 

Having blamed. Ayant blAmi^* 



Interrogatively, 
W'je 

AS'tu 

At-i/ 

Awons^nous 

AyeZ'Vous 

Ont-i^ 



7i'ai 
7i'as 



blAm^? 



Negatively. 

je 

TU 

il 7i'a 
NOUS 72'avons 
vous n'avez 
lis 7i*ont 



PARTICIPLE 

EU blAm^. Had blamed. 

Interrogatively and Negatively, 
N'a.\-je 
N'vLS'tu 
I A / N*SL't'il 

^as blAms. , 
^ jravons-7io?/« 

A'^avez-rot^j 

N^oni-ils 



pasBhXMi? 



* See, syntax of verbs, the rules on tlie past participle' 



114 



RKOULAR VERBS in ER, 
The verb BLAME R made reflective.* 



jNFiNiTira. 

To BLAME oneself. 

IMPERATtFE. 
Cimmaitding 96 rule, page 77. 

Blame thyself. bl4m e - toi. 
yourself, bl&m ez - vous. 
Let us blame ourselves, bl&m o7{s*nous. 



SE BLJiMer. 

Forbidding 9f rule, page 77. 
Ne TB blftm e ] 
Ke vous blam eg >pas 
ire NOUS blftm ons) 



I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

They} 

I 

Thou 
He 

fFe 
You 



INDICATIVE* 

myself. Je® me bl^m e. 

thyself. Tu te ~ bl&ra es, 
^himself. U se h\knx e. 
I ourselves. Nous nous blam ons. 

yourselves. Vous vous bl&m ez. 

themselves. lis se bl^m ent 



(6 



SUBJUNCtlFE. 

Queje^ me bl&m e. 
Tu TB bl^m es. 
II SE bl^m e. 
Nous NOUS bl^m torz^. 
Vous vous blUm fc«. 
//« SE bl^m ent. 



§ myself. Je me 

8 thyself. Tm te 

, S himself II se 

> p 



bl^m a/s. 
blUm ais, 
bl^m ai7. 



:3 

& 

5 

n 

B 

en 

A. 



I ourselves. JVbM« nous bl^m ions. 
5* yourselves. Vous vous blim ic«. 
'^•^ themselves. J/* se h\km aient 



They) 

I ^ myself. Je me blam ai 
Thou ^ thyself. Tu te blam as. 
He I p" himself. II se bl^m «. 
We I I ourselves. Nous liovs h\km dmes 
You ^ yourselves. Vous vous blllm a/c*. 
They] .themselves. //« se h\^m e rent. 

I ] §- myself. Je Me bl&mer ai. 
Thoul % thyself. Ti* te blamer as. 

He I § himself. II s e blimer a. 
We I S: ourselves. JVbz^* nous bl&mer ons. 
You 5" yourselves. Vous vous blamer cz. 
They) 3 themselves. //» se blamer ont. 

%* myself. Je me blamer aw^ 
•^ thyself. Tu te blamer aw. 
§ himself. II se bl&mer «i7. 






Qneje me bl&m cuse 
Tu te bl&moMe*. 
71 SE hlkmoU. 
Nous NOUS bl^m assionsi ST 
Fott« VOUS blS,m assiez. g 
//« SB bllUnafse/t^. 3 



A. 



r 

Thou 
He 

We 

You 

They) 

Interrogatively, 



'^ ourselves. Nous nous bl&mer ions, 
^ yourselves. Vous vous bl&mer iez. 
I themselves. Us se blllmer aient. 

Negatively 

je ne me bl^me 1 



Interrogatively and Negatively, 
JVC ME bllme-jie 



ME blame-jfe ? 

TE blames-<M? rune te blimesVpcw. jvcte lAkmea-tu^pas ? 

sE bia,me-t-27 ? il ne se blftme J .ve se blUme-t-i/J 

NOUS blamons-no2£« 9 nous neNOUs blftmons/jflw. Ne nous bl&moAs-7iot£«j9a«? 

vous blamez-t?0M5 ? rous ne vous blftmez pas. Ne vous bl&mez-vo7/« pas ? 

SE bl§lment-zZs ? //« we se blament^a*. a^cse bl&ment-2Y*/>fiw? 

* Sometimes it happens that the agent or person who acts is also the object* i. e. acta 
upon himself, as when I say ; 1 blame myself; Thou preparest thyself; He distinguishes 
himself i We v^ash ourselves ; You dress yourself; They expose themselves Sec by which 



REGULAR VERBS in ER* 

Ccmpoynd tenses of the reflective verb S£ blAbier, 
frrmed by adding the participle blAm^, to the auxiliary verb 

INFINITirS COMPOUND. 

To have blamed oneself. 



115 



TRE. 



^Ure blAm^. 



/ 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 
They] 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

Y(m 

They] 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 
They] 

J 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

They] 

I 

Thou 



INDICATIVE. 

^ myself. J^ 
§ thyself. Tu 
.^himself. II 



ME 



blAm^, m.^ 'L 



^ myself. 
g thyself. 
2 himself. 
^ ourselves. 



suu 

T** es 

s' est 
p* ourselves. Nous nous sommes^ * » 
I yourselves. Vousvovsites ^ ' 

^ themselves. lis se sont 

Je M* etais 

Tu T* ktais 

II : s' etaii 

^ Nous nous etions 

n yourselves. Vous yovs Stiez 
^ themselves. lis s' etaient 

jj, myself. Je me fits 
1^ thyself. Tu te fiis 
Q' himself. // se fid 
g" ourselves. Nous yovs fdmes 
I youtselves. VousvovsfHtes 
^ themselves, lis se furent 

S- myself. Je me serai 
j^ thyself. Tu te seras 
. ^ himself. II se sera 
a ourselves. Nous^ov^serons ] ^* '- 
^ yourselves. . Vous vous serez \ L I f 



•fee, f. 

m. 
^es, f. 

blAm^, m. 
h, f. 

blAm^s, m. 
hes, f. 



blAm^, m.^ i^ 
ee. f. j^ 



SUBJUNCTIVE, 

ME SOis 
TB SOis 

II SB soit 
Nousifovssoyons ^ 
Vous vous soyez 
lis SE soient 






ME 

TE 

SE 



fnsse 

fytsses 

J^t 









blAm^«, m. 
kes, f. 

I blAm^, m. 
j ke, f. 



Nous ifova/ussions 
Vous vous fussiez ^ 
lis sE fussent(j^ 



jT themselves. J/« 



SE seront ] 



2L 



§- myself. 
^ thyself. 



/Te ^ himself. II 
ijtr^ >S i„._ -KT 



ME 

TE 

SE 



serais 
serais 
serait 



blAmc', m. 
ke, f. 



We 
You 

They] 



Yourselves. JVbzw nous «mow5 ] a t 
S^ yourselves. Vous\ovsseriez > ' * f * 
g themselves, /fo se seraient] 



Interrogatively, 



UESUU'JtX 

T^ e«-^2£ >BlAu^P 

8* C«^-27 j 



je ne me «2^2« 
Ttt ne t' es 
il ne s' e«< 



pas^^LkMef 



Interrogatively and Negative. f, 
NejAESuiS'jV 

>pas BhkiiL ACT* es-tu 
Nes* est'il ^ 

lious sommes-nous\ ^Nousnemov^swnmesp^ 2 Net^ovntommes-novspy ^ 
vovs ^teS'Voiis > ^ vous 7ievovB§tes pas >^ jve vous ^fe»-»ow* J9a* >^ 
6£ sont-ils ] ^^ils nesE sont pas j ^^ ivc se sont- ils pas j §• 

you see tiiat the person who is the agent, performs the action on himself ^ and conse- 
quently is also tlie object. These verbs the French call rifl^ehis, i. e. reflectiye, or 
reflected, because the energy of the verb returns to its agent. They differ in nothing 
from the other rerbs, but in requiring an objective pronoun of the same number and 
person as the agent, or nominative, and in having their compoimd tenses formed with 
the aiixiiiarif ETR£, instead of the auxiliary avoir. 
N, B, Toese verbs are known in the dictionaries by having S£ before their infinitive. 



4> See note * page S8. 



f See, syntax of verbs, the roles on the past partietpU^ 



116 



IRREGULAR VERBS in £R.* 



INFINlTirE. 

To GO. ALLer. 

IMPERATIFE. 

GO. va, sing. all 62, plur. 

Let U8 go, ALL ons. 



hj 



INDICATIVE, 

I'M 
J/ 



g^, or 0771 (Jq 



g 2rAoz£ goest, ar^ g 
§ He goes, or w ^ 

r^ 1 

'g Znou noa* goin?. 

I You Ywere going. 
? They] 

® 7%0M 

g He I went, or 
J ^<? I dfd go. 
g You\ 
^ They I 

<i^ He UhaU^ will go, 
g ff^e I or 6e going. 
B\ You 
They, 



vaisV 

vas*. 

va. 

NouskLL ons. 
Vous ALL ez. 
Us vont*. 

«r ALLazV. 
Tu ALL ais. 
II ALL ai^ 

Nous A.LL 10715. 

FoM« ALL iez. 
Us ALL aieni^. 

T ALL af^.t 
I'm all a^. 

II ALL a. 
iVbi/s ALL oLtnes. 
Vous ALL ^ie^. 
lis ALL erenP\ 



o 

w 









should^ wd, go, 
or ^e going. 



T 

Tu 
II 

Nous 
Vous 
lis 

T 

Tu 
II 

Nous 
Vous 
lis 



rai* 

ras*. 

ra. 

rons. 

rez. 

ront**. 

rais*. 

rais. 

rait*®. 

rions. 

riez. 

raient® 



Going. 



GERUND. 

ALL ant. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Quef aille. 
Tu ailles. 
// aille. 
iVou«ALL ions. 
Vous ALL iez. 
lis aillent". 



o 



Quef ALL asse^. | 
Tu ALL (isses. 2^ 
It ALL a^. 2 
iVbu« ALL assions, vq' 
FoM« ALL assiez. «« 

Zff ALLOASen^. ^ 



PARTICIPLE. 

ALL e. Gone. 



2V. B. ALLER, (o GO, requires a place mentioned after it ; as, 

Je VAis d la maison, d Za ville, &c. I am going home, to town, &c 

If no place is mentioned, we make the verb reflective as follows : 



* A verb is called irregular, when aU its tenses and persons cannot be fonned from 
the infinitive, by changing only the last syllable, as you see in the verb BLAMER. 

In order to render the difference more obvious, the tenses or persons which are formed 
regularly from the infinitive, have their terminations printed in italic characters, the 
words which are irregular are printed wholly in ronutn. 




IRREGULAR VERBS in ER. 



117 



INFlNlTirE. 

To GO away, S'e/i ALL er. 

IMPERATirE. 



Commanding i-ule 36, p. 77. 

GO away^ orl va-T*c/f, sinpf. 

be gone, J ALLez-vou8-«/t, pi. 
Let i/« go atoa^, ALLon<*NOUs-fn. 

ISDICATirE. 

T go, or am © 
Thou goest, artn 
He goes, or w | 

fFe 

I go, are 

going airay 



Forbidding rule iT, pagt 77 

Ne T*en Va pas. . 
Ne vous en ALLez pas 
Ne NOUS en khhona pas 



do not go 

away. 
ett^notgo 



M en vais 
T*en vas. 



Tu 

II sen va. 
iVb?/«N0Us en allous. 
VouB vous e/i ALLe2:. 
J Is B*en vont. 



SUBJUNCTIVE, 

Queje m'c/i aille.- 
Tu T'en aillesC 
// s'cn aill§/ 



Je 



M en ALLa». 



O 

iVbu^ NOUS en ALhions. 
Vous vous en khiAez. | 
//i sVn ail lent. ^ 



You 

They] 

I was going away, 

I went away, 

J shlly will go azra^. Je 

I shd, wld ^o away, Je M*en irais« 

/ am not going away, Je ne n'en vais pas, &c. 

Compoimd teDses^ formed by adding the participle all£ to the auxiliary verb £Ta€« 



M'en ALLai, Queje M*en khhcuse. 



M en irai. 



I have ^ 
Thou hast 
He has 
We Aawc 
You have 
They Aarc^ 



■§ 

3 

'a 



Je M'en suis all^. 

Tu T*e7i es alle. 

// s'en est alle. 

iVbi/f Noug en sommes alles. 

Vous vous en 6tes allies. 

JLt 8* en sont alli^.s 



ENVOYER, To send. 

The aole irregularity of this verb is in the future and in the conditional, the other 
tenses being formed regularly in the same manner as blamek. 

INFINITIVE 









To SEND. 


ENVOY er. 




INDICATIVE, 




SUBJUNCTIVE, 


Pres. 


I send. 




J' 


RNVOie. 


Quef ENVOIS*, 8^c. 


Imp. 


/ did send. 




J' 


ENVOYCrW. 


Perf. 


I sent. 




J' 


ENVOYflt, SfC. 


J\ ENVOYf««e, Si'i 


Futu. 


J 

Thou 






Tu 


enverrai*. 
enverras. 






m 


shall. 


or 


II 


enverra. 






We 


will send. 


Nous 


enyerrons. 






You 






Vous 


enverrez. 






They} 






lis 


enverront*. 




Cond. 


I ] 
Thou 






J' 
Tu 


enverrais*. 
enverrais. 






He 


Md, 


or 


II 


euverrait**. 






We 


wld send. 


Nous 


enverrions. 






You 






Vous 


enverriez. 






They] 






lU 


enverraient*. 


- 



Conjugate in the saine manner, uenvoy er, to Send back, to Disfniss. 



118 



REGULAR VERBS ill IR. 



INFINITIVE, 

To FINISH. FIN ir. 



IMPERATIVE, 



Finish. FIN 2>, sing. 

Let us finish. 

INDICATIVE, 

I finish, or am 

^' *" FINW. 



3 Thou finishcst, art ^ Tu 

I He finishes, or is 5* // fin it^. 



^ ^ [finish, or 
g You > ij . u' 
^ TVi^ J «^« finishing. 

.0 



•g Thoupva'i finishing. 

a fFe ] 

I YoM >M?erc finishing, 

^ They] 

I 






2 Thou 
^ He 



ZlFe 
You 
They] 



CD 

3 



finished, 
did finish. 



I Thou 



They] 



shall, will 

finish, 
be finishing. 



He 



^ Thou 

o 
a 

^.FTe 
f You 
^Theyj 



should, would 

finish, 
he finishing. 



^ Nous FIN issofis. 
Vous Fitiissez, 
lis fin issenl'^, 

Je^ FIN issai}fi, 
Tu visissais, 
II FIN issaii^. 
Nous FIN issio}is, 
FouSFJNissiez, 
lis FIN issaii/itfi 

t/c" FIN i^. 

Tu FIN is. 
II FIN it-'. 

Nous Fis Imes, 
Vous FIN ties, 
lis FIN ireni^K 

Jt? FINIR ai\ 

Tu FINIR as, 

II FINIR a. 
Nous FINIR OJIS 
Vous FINIR CZ, 

J's FINIR on^*^. 

Je' FINIR a/V. 
Tu FINIR aw. 
// FINIR aii^. 
Nous FINIR ions, 
Vous FINIR iez. 
lis FINIR aieni^. 



FIN M«C2, plur. 

FIN issons. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Queje^ *®FiN me*. 
T'?^ FIN me«. 
II FIN me. 
Nous FIN Visions. I 
Fbu» FIN m/ez. 



G£B17>'D. 

Finishing. 

Interrogatively. 
FINIS -^e ? I o' 
FlNI8-tU? 
FINIT-f/ ? 
FINISSONS-nOW« ? 
FINI8SEZ - t'OMJ? 
FINISSENT-lZ«? 



FIN issant. 
Negatively. 



Cft* 



FIN issejit^^ 2. 
35* 



Tu 



B. 



J/ 



FIN f«fi^. 

FIN fsses, 

FIN fZ". § 

Nous FIN issions. ^ 

Vous FIN lw2>5f. ^ 

Us FIN issenV\ a* 



s- 







je 


Tie FINIS 


TU 


Tie FINIS 


il 


7ICFINIT 


NOUS 7Ze FINISH© NS 


VOllSWeFINISSEZ 


lis 


/ZeFINISSENT 



pas. 



O 



o 

35 






PARTICIPLE. 

FIN 2. Finished. 

JnieiTOgatively and Negat. 
NB FINi&'je ] ^ ^ 

Ne FiNis-tu\pas? 

Ne FINIT-l7 J 

A'e FINISSONS-7IOW5 j9 

A^e FINI8SEZ - VOUS J) 

Ne FIN issENT'ils pas ^ 






— 
•o 



J^fler the same manner as finir, are conjugated the following verh, 
•'Ahatardir, to degenerate. Abolir, to abolish. Aboutir, to end. 

I'Abetir, to grow stupids Aboiinir, to belter, <'Abrutir« (0 became stupid. 

Accomplir 



REGULAR VERBS in IR. 



119 



AcoompUr, to accomplidi, 
Accourcir, to shorten. 
f'Accroupir, to sit squat, 
Adoucir, to soften, 
Affadir, to render tas^less, 
Affermir, to strengthen. 
Affaiblir, to weaken. 
Affranchir, to free. 
Agir, to act. 
Agrandir, to enlarge. 
Aguerrir, to inure to uvcr. 
Aigrir, to exasperate. 
Alentir, to slacken, 
Amaigrir, to grow lean. 
Ameublir^ to make moveable. 
Aflioindrir, to lessen, 
Amollir, to soften, 
Amortir, to redeem, 
An^antir, to annihiUtte, 
Anoblir, to ennoble. 
Appauvrir, to empoverish. 
Appesantir, to make heain/, 
Applanir, to level, 
Applatir, to flatten, 
Applaudir, to applaud, 
Approfondir, to fathom, 
Asservir, to enslave, 
Assortir, to match, 
Assoupir, to make drowsy. 
Assouplir, to supple, 
Assourdir, to deafen, 
Assouvir, to glut, to satiate, 
Assujettir, to suhdue, 
Attendrir, to move to pity. 
Atterrir, to approach the land. 
Avertir, towaim,- 
Avilir, to revile t to debase. 
Baimiri to banish, 
H^tir, to build, 
B^nir, to bless, 
Blauchir, to whiten, 
Blemir, to grow pale. 
Bleuir, to make blue. 
Blondir, to grow fair, 
te Blottir, to lie squat, 
Bondir, to skip, 
Brandir, to brandish. 
Brouir, to bUut, 
Brunir, to burnish. 
Candir, to candy. 
Cherir, to cherish, 
Cboisir, to choose, 
Clapir, to squat, to clap* 
Compatir, to compassionate. 
Convertir, to convert, 
Cr6pir, to roughcast, 
Croupir, to stagnate, 
D^brutir, to take theroughness. 
D6finir, to define. 
Defleurir, to lose the blossom, 
D^gamir, to disgarnish. 
D6gourdir, to warm a littie. 
Deguerpir, to move off, 
D6molir, to demolish, 
Dep^rir, to decay. 
D^polir, to unpolish. 
D^roidir, to take off stiffneu. 



D^rougir, to take off redness, 

J) €soh%ir, to disobey. 

se Dessaisir, to give up. 

D^sunir, to disunite. 

Dirertir, to divert, 

Durcir, to harden, 

Eblouir, to dazzle. 

Eclaircir, to brighten, 

Elargir, to widen. 

Erabellir, to embelli^, 

Emplir, to fill, 

Encherir, to grow dearer. 

En durcir, to harden, 

Enforcir, to grow strong. 

Enfouir, to bury. 

Enhardir, to embolden. 

Engloutir, to swallow up. 

Engourdir, to benumb. 

Enlaidir, to p-aw ugly. 

i'Enoirgueillir, to grow proud, 

Enrichir, to enrich. 

Enseyelir, to put in a shroud. 

Envahir, to invade. 

Epaissir» to thicken. 

Epanoair, the bud opening. 
Equarrir, to square, 
Etablir, to establish, 
Etourdir, to stun, 
Etrecir, to narrow. 
I'Evanouir, to faint, 
Farcir, to stuff, 
Flechir, to bend, to move, 
F16trir, to wither, 

Fleurir, to blossom, to flourish. 
Fouir, to dig, 
Fourbir, to furbish, 
Foumir, to supply. 
Franchir, to leap over, 
Fr6mir, to shudder, 
se Froidir, to grow cold, 
Garantir, to warrant. 
Gamir, to furnish. 
G^mir, to groan. 
Grandir, to grow tall. 
Grossir, to grciv big, 
Gu^rir, to cure. 
Henoir, to neigh, 
Inyestir, to invest. 
Jaillir, to spout out, 
Jaunir, to grow yellow, 
Jouir, to enjoy, 
Languir, to languisli, 
Meurtzir, to kruiee, 
Moisir, to grow mouldy . 
Mollir, to grow soft, 
Mugir, to Unv, 
Munir, to store, 
Mfirir, to ripen, 
Nantir, to give security, 
Noircir, to blacken. 
Nourrir, to feed. 
Ob6ir, to obey. 
Obscurcir, to obscure. 
Ourdir, co warpT 
PMir, to ^row pale, 
Parfoumir, to make up, 
PItir, to suffer. 



P^rir, to perish, 

Pervertir, to pervert, 

P6trir, to knead, 

Polir, to poiish, 

Pourir, to grow rotten. 

Premunir, to provide, 

Funir, to funUk, 

Kaccourcir, to shorten, 

Kacomir, to make tough, 

Kadoucir, to soften. 

Raffermir, to strengthen again, 

Kafraichir, to refresh. 

Ragrandir to enlarge again, 

Raieunir, to grow young again, 

R«lentir, to sladcen. 

Ramoitir, to moisten, 

Ramollir, to soften. 

Rancir, to grmo rancid, 

Ravilir, to debase, 

Rarir, to ravish, to delight, 

Rebatir, to build again. 

Reblanchir, to wluten again. 

Rebondir, to rebound, 

R6fl6chir, to reflect, 

Refieurir, to blouom again, 

Refroidir, to cool, 

R6gir, to rule, to govern. 

RejaiUJr, to epnrt up, 

R^jouir, to rejoice, 
Rembrunir, to darken, 
Remplir, to fill again, 
Rencb^rir, to grow dearer, 
Rendurcir, to make harder, 
Renhardir, tog^owbold again 
R6partir, to distribute equally 
Repolir, to polisii again, 
R^saisir, to seize again, 
Resplendir, to shine, 
Ressortir, to resort, 
Retentir, to resound, 
R6tr6cir, to straiten. 
Reverdir, to grow green a ga\n 
R6unir, to reunite, 
R^ussir, to succeed, 
Rotir, to roast. 
Rougir, to blush. 
Rouir, to steep, 
Roussir, to make reddish, 
Rugir, to roar. 
Saillir, to gush put. 
Saisir, to seize, 
Salir, to soil, 
Sevir, ta exercise seventy, 
Subir, to midergo, 
Subvertir, to subvert, 
S6 Tapir, to squat, 
Tarir» to drains 
Temir, to tarnish. 
Terrir, to land. 
Trahir, to betray. 
Transir, to chill, 
Travestir, to disguise, 
Unir, to unite, 
Verdir, to grow green, 
Vemir, to varnish. 
Vieillir, to grow old, 
Vomir, to vomit. 



I 2 



*Uke \EKifi, 



120 IRREOULAU VERBS in IR.* 

The IRREGULAR verbs belonging to this conjugation are, 

a'Abstenir, to abstain Ii1<e vf.nir. Ohteniry to obtain like vemr. 

Accourir, to run to Uhe courir. Offrir, to ofter like ouvrir. 

Aecueillir, to welcome /t/cccuF.i i.LiR. Ou VRIR, to open page 137. 

ApparteniVf to belong like vfnir. Pareourir, to over-run Um courir. 

ACQUERIR, to acquire page 121. Partir, to set out ) .., „„-,^, „ 

BOUILLIK, to boil page in, PrexeHtir.toh&ye a foresight/ ""* S^NTI R. 

Concourir, to concur like courir. Parvenir, to attain " 

Conqu&rir, to conquer /iA-c acquekir. Prcvenir, to prevent 

Consentir, to consent like sentir. Provenir, to proceed 

ConteniTf to contain 1 Querir, to fetch4 

Contrevenir, to contravene . > like vemr. Recourir, to have recourse to. like courir. 

Convenirf to agree J Pecauvrir, to cover again .... like or) v r i ii . 

COURIR, to run page 123. Recueillir, to collect /lAecnEiLLiE 

Couvrivy to cover like ouvrir. Redevenir, to become again. . . like venir. 

CUEILLIR, to gather page 124. se Rendarmir, to sleep agaiu^ 

V^couvriry to discover like ouvrir. Repartir, to set out again . . > like sentir. 

D^mentiVy to give the lie ... 1 se Repentirf to repent J 

se V&partir, to give up . . . . > like senti r. Requ6rir, to require like acquerir. 

Dtsservir, to take off the i Ressentir, to resent ........ 1 ii. 

Daeniry to detain. . [dishes. ) i-k «p^, „ Re&ortir, to go out again .../**** sestir. 

Devenirf to become / vn^i «• Ressouvenir, to remember. . . l 

se Dtvetiry to undress like revetir. Retenir, to retain. . . ; « I /iA^ vemr. 

Ditcimvenir, to disagree ^'/ctf venir. Revenir, to return J 

Viscourirj to discourse ....»• like cou R i R. HEVETIR, to invest page 128. 

Dormir, to sleep i Secourir^ to succour /tA« courir. 

Endnrmir, to lull asleep. . . . > like sentir. SENTIR, to feel, to smell. . . page 129. 

B^Eiidormir, to fall asleep. . . J Servir, to serve, to use j .., 

Encourir, to incur like courir. Sortir, to go out J **** sentir. 

s'En/uir, to run away like fu i R . Souffrir, to suffer /tfce ouv Ri p 

Efitretenivy to keep up like venir. Soutenir, to maintain 

Entr' ouvrir t to open a little . . like ouvrir. se Soutenir , to remember 

FUIK,toilee,to shun,to avoid. Subvenir, to afford ^ like Vbnip. 

Ha'ir, to hate.t page 125. Survenir, to befall 

Intervenir, to intervene . • • • \ i -r „ Tenir, to hold 

Maintenir, to maintain . . . . | "^ « v e M R . JRESS AILLIR, to start .... page 130, 

Mentir, to lie like sentir. VENIR, to come page 131, 

MOURIR.to die page 126. Vetir, to clothe like revetir. 



* Several of these irregular verbs having a similarity in their conjugation, as, for 
example, the verbs in tir, which are all but two (vetir and revitir) conjugated like sen- 
tir, the verbs in enir which are conjugated like venir ; I have coniugated only one 
verb of each termination, as a model for the others : and all the verbs which may be 
conjugated in the same manner as that verb are found under it. 

t HAIR is regular only in the fir$tt second, and third persons singular of the pretent 
of the indieatioe, and in the second person singular of the imperative, where ai are pro- 
nounced in one syllable, 

Je hais, I hate. pronounce hcye, 

Tu hais. Thou hatest. haye. 

II hait. He hates. hay. 

in the other tenses and persons at are pronounced in ttoo distinct syllables, and the t it 
marked over with two dots, 

Noua ha jssons. We hate. pronounce ha-isson. 

Vous ha issez. You hate. ha-iisay, 

lis ha'issent. They hate. ha-iss. 

Je haissais, I did hate. ha-issaye, 

Je ha'is, I hated. ha^ee. 

Je ha'irai, I shall hate. ha-eeray, 

Je ha'irais, I should hate, &c. like FIN I R. 

X Used only in the i?t/?nt/ ire after AUer and Envoye**; as, 

Alle^ querir, to go and fetch. Envoy er queHr, to send for. 



IHREGULAR VERBS ill IR. 



121 



INFJNITJFE. 

To ACQUIRE. ♦ACQUfiRir. 



Acquire. 

Let V8 acquire. 



IMPERATirE. 

Acquiers, «2V?^.acqu£r ez, plur. 

ACQU^R OTU. 



INDICATIVE, 

^ 1 acquire, or am g J* 
3 Thou acquirest, art^ Tu 
g He acquires, or w 5! // 

I You \ ^c^"""®* 
• Theyr^^ acquiring. 



3 



»8e 



■g Thou >wa8 acquiring. 
^He J 



You 
They] 

I 



mere acquiring. 



? Thou 









He 
We 
Y(yu 
They] 

g TAot/. 
5 He 

5^ You 
? TAfyJ 

^ Thou 
I He 

^•fTe 
I' YOM 

^ Theyj 



acquired, 
did acquire. 



shall^ wUl 
' acquire, 
be acquiring. 



should^ would 
' acquire, 
be acquiring. 



'acquiers. 
acquiers. 
acquiert' 
Nous acqu($r ons, 
Vous acquer ez, 
lis acquiferent*®. 
«/' *acquer aw*. 
Tu acqut^r ais. 
II acqut^r aif*. 
Nous acquer ions, 
Vous acqut^r iez. 
lis acquer aien^, 

•/' *acquis.f 
7^ acquis. 
// acquit**. 
Nous acqutmes. 
Vous acquttes. 
lis acquirent. 
«/' *acquer rai*.l 
Tu acquer r(u. 
II acquer ra. 
Nous acquer rons. 
Vous acquer rez. 
lis acquer ronf^, 

J' *acquer rai^ % 
Tu acquer rais. 
II acquer rat<". 
Nous acquer rions, 
Vous acquer riez, 
lis. acquer raten/*. 



I 

e 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Quef *acquifcre. 
tu acquieres. 
il acqui^re. 
nous acquer ions, 
vous acqut^r iez, 

lis acquiercnt".^ 

c 






Quef 
tu 



*acqui88e*. 
acquisses. 



o 



il acquit' 



noiu acquissions. ^^' 

Si* 



c<«» 



VOUS acquissiez. 
tV* acquissent". S 






PARTICIPLE. 

Acquis. Acquired. 



OERUND, 

Acquiring. ACQuiR ant. 

Conjugate in the same manner^ 

RRQU^RiV, to require^ and coNQuiair, to conquer, 

N. B, CONQUER ir is used only in the injinitive, in the gerund con- 
QU^Ran^, in the participle C0NQui«, and in the perfect ^ 

Je conquis. /conquered. Queje conquisse. d^ 

Tu conquis. Thou conqueredst. Tu conquisses. 

// conquit. /reconquered. // conqutt. o 

Nous conquimeSy &c. We conquered. Nous conquissions. »p 

* See qu, page 13. t See note 4, page 2. 

t These two rr must be sounded distinctly ; in order to do it, lay a stress on the first r 






122 



IRREGULAR VERBS ill IR. 



INFINITIVE* 

To BOIL. BOUILLiV. 



soil. 

Let tis boil. 



IJiPERATIFE, 

Bous, sing. BOUiLL ez plur. 



BouiLL ons. 



INDICATIVE. 

^ I boil, or am g* 
3 Thou boilest, art 5: 
g He boils, or is 

" «re boilinff. 






o 



5 

O 



«B 



' ] 

Thou )was boiling. 

He J 

We ] 

YoM >«ccrc boiling. 
They] 



boiled, 
did boil. 



§ TAow 
tHe 
^fFe 
g Yow 
" They] 

I TAo?^ 

® ^e [«M, w?ZZ boil, 

IWe 

&: Yow 

? TAcyJ 

.'" TAoM 

fYou 
f-They] 



be boiling. 



shdj wd boil, 
he boiling. 



J(^ "bous**. 
Tu bous. 
II bout««. 
NoushoMxW ons, 
Vous bouill ez. 
lis bouill ent^^. 

Je **bouill aisfi. 
Tu bouill ais. 
II bouill ail^. 
iVbw* bouill 10W5. 
Vous bouill iez. 
lis bouill aieiii^ 

Je "bouill if^. 
Tu bouill is. 
II bouilh^s". 
Nous bouill imes. 
Vous bouillf^e*. 
lis bouill irenP^. 

Je "bouillir ai^, 
Tu bouilIira«. 
n bouillira. 
iVbz/5bouiHiro«s. 
FoM.? bouillirc^. 
lis bouiIliro?i^. 

Je "bouilliraw.* 
Tu bouillir ais. 
II bouillir ai<**. 
Nous bouillir ions. 
Vous bouillir iez. 
lis bouillir aient^. 



Boiling. 



GERUND. 



BOUILL ant. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Que je bouill e. 
Tu bouill es. 
II bouill e, 
iVoM* bouill ions. 
FoM« bouill iez. 
lis bouill e72<". 



o 



o 



Que je bouill mc*. 
Tu bouill isses. 
II bouill f^«. 



? 






2VbM« bouill issions. <§] 
VoushomWissiez. ^ 
lis bouillfwcn^. 2. 



PARTICIPLE. 

BOUILL i. Boiled. 



N, B, To boiL, used in an active sense, i. e. followed by an object^ is not expressed 
hj houillirt but by faire bouillir ; as, 

Je fais bouillir'* 
Jtt fais bouillir j 



TTL^lboil, or 
jj ]am boiling 



We 

Yon 

They 



(boil, or a) e 1 
boiling. J 



Water, meat, &c. 



'Ls^Lnst^iiW*'-'^'^^' 



Vous faikes bouillir 
lis font bouillir 



ThQ^*;^^,^}boiled, or been boiling. y^^**^gjfait bouillir, &c. 

And so on^ by adding the infinitiye bouillir to the yerh faire. See Faire. 



iRREauLAB VEHBS in IR. 



123 



INFIXITIFE. 

To RUN. »*COUR ir. 

iMPERATJFE. 

Run. COVE. St sing. covr cZyfliir. 

Let tu run. cour ons. 



INBICATIVE. 

\^ I run, or am 2 

3 Thou runnest, art S 

es 



§ He runs, or is 






They] 



run, or 
are running. 



« Thou 



►1 



t&a« running. 

^ ^e ] 

§ Ybif >trcre naming. 



2 Thou 






en 

O 



He 

YOM 

I Thou 
3 He 

S You I 



ran, 
did run. 



o 



shlly xoll run, 
(6e running. 






You 
They) 



O 



shd, ltd run 
6e running. 



Je" "cour a*. 
I'm cour s, 
II cour <*•. 
iVbiis cour ons. 
Vous cour e^;. 
J/,» cour enV^, 

Je "cour ais*. 
Til cour fltfa. 
// cour ai(^, 
NousQOViX ions. 
Vou^ cour iez. 
lis cour aient^. 

Je **cour ws** 
Tm cbur tt*. 
II cour w^. 
iVbz/« cour Hmeft. 
Vous cour iJ^^s. 
7/ij cour urefU^K 

Je "cour rai^* 
Tu cour rflw. 
J/ cour ra. 
Nous cour rons. 
Vous cour rez. 
Us cour roft^, 

Je "cour rais^.* 
Tu couT rai». 
// cour roi^. 
iVoM* cour rions. 
Vous cour nez. 
r& cour raieni*. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Que js "cour e. 
Tu cour e*. 
// cour c. 
iVbutf cour ions. 
Vous cour ie«. 
J/« cour €nt}\ 



s 



c 
s 



Queje '*cour ttwe*. 
Tm cour usses. 
II cour i2/*. 



s 



qc' 



iVbiw cour ussions. g 
FoM* cour ussiez. g 
/& cour ussent. s 



Running. 



PARTICIPLE. 
COUR t/. Run. 



COUR an^. 

-^/<er <Ae same manner as courir^ conjugate 
ACCOURIR. to run to. parcourir. to peruse, to overrun. 

coNcouRiR. to concur. { to run again, to have 

DiscouRiR. to discourse. ' ] recourse to. 



ENCouRiR. to incur. 



SECOURiR. to succour, to relieve. 



N. B. The compound tenses of accourir are formed with either Avoir or Eire; as, 
I have run, J* ai accouru, or Je suis accouru. 

Thou hast run^ Tu as accouru^ Tu es accouru. 

He has run, I^ a accouru, H est accauru. 

We Aavtf run, &e« ^oim avons accouru, Hous sommes accourva, S^c. 

* These two rr must be sounded distinctly ; in order to do it, lay a stress on the first 



1-24 



IRREGULAR VERBS ill IR. 



INFINITIVE. 
To GATHER. CUEILL*I>. 

IMPERATIVE. 

Gather. cueill e, sing, cueill ez, plur. 

Let us gather. cueill om. 



INDICATIVE* 



H 

A 
CO 

o 

p 






60 



/ gather, or am 
Thou gatherest, art ? 
He gathers, or m 

I gather or 
are gathering. 



You 
They 



a 






A 



A 

a 

CO 

A 



A 
ft 



A 

m 

A 



? 

•I 

A 

•d 
o 
B. 

< 
A 



Hj 

a 



a 

o 

cr. 

o 



'2(705 gathering. 



gathered, 
did gather. 



Thou 

He 

fFe ] 

You \were gathering. 

They] 

I ^ 
Thou 
He . 
We { 

You 
They] 

Thoul 

He [shU, wll gather 

JVe i he gathering. 

You 

They] 

Thou 

He \shd, wd gather. 



IVe 

You 
They] 



he gathering. 



GERUND* 

Gathering. 



Ji? cueill*e. 
Tu cueill cs". 
II cueill e. 
iVb?/a cueill o?w. 
Vous cueill ez. 
lis cueill ent^^. 

Je cueill ai^. 
Tu cueill ais. 
II cueill aii^, 
2Vb?£9 cueill ions, 
FoM« cueill iez, 
lis cueill aienf, 

Je cueill is*. 
Tu cueill is. 
II cueill i^. 
iVbi^ cueill fmes. 
Vous cueill f^es. 
//* cueill irenV*. 

Je cueill eraiK 
Tu cueill era*. 
// cueill era. 
iVbi/s cueill erons. 
Vous cueill ercz. 
Is cueill eront^. 

Je cueill erais*. 
Tm cueill erais, 
II cueill eraiP^. 
iVb2£« cueill erions. 
Fbf/s cueill eriez. 
lis cueill eraient'. 

cueill afiL 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Queje cueill e. 
Tu cueill e?. 
// cueill e. 
2Vb7^« cueill ions. 
FotM cueill iez. 
lis cueill enO* 



cr 



rt 

n 



Quej^ cueill m€*. 
Tu cueill isses, 
II cueill f^». 
JVbf/« cueill issions. 
Foi/f cueill issiez. 
lis cueill issent. 



aq 

cr 
«^ 

Oq 



-1 



PARTICIPLE. 

CUEILL i. Gathered 



Jfler the same manner as cueillir are conjugated^ 

ACCUEiLLiR, to welcomc^ and recueillir, to receive^ to collect. 

N, B. AccuEiLi.iRis now rather obsolete, instead of it, we use Faire bon accueil ; as, 
They welcomed us. i/* nous firent bon accueil. 

To BE WELCOME Is, Etre bien venu; as, ,r ^ , • 

You are welcome, Vous etet bien renu. 



* The nearest idea that I can give with letters, of the sound of CUEILL, is hheughl. 



1RRE0ULAU VEUBS HI IR. 



125 



INFINITIVE. 

To shun; To flee. 



shun. 

Let %Ls shun. 

INDICATIVE, 



IMPERATIVE. 

FU 18, sing. 






(A 



e 

9 



/ shun, or am 
Thou shunnest, art § 
Ht shuns, or is 
fTe 



You \ ®*^""' ^^ 
Thev \^^^ shunning. 






Jig' Tu 2«*". 

Tm fu w. 
// fu e^*'. 

Nous lu ^07t5. 

FoM* fu yez. 
lis fu ie/i^". 



srf 



5 
ST 



A 
B 
an 



Thou \was shunning. 

You \were shunning. 
Thnj] 



-J 






A 

9 
M 



^ 



o 



it 



*«1 

e 



o 
o 



o 

M 



He 

We 

You 

Theyl 

I 

Thou 
He 
We 
You 

Th^y] 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

TAeyJ 



shunned, 
did shun. 



Je *fu 
Tu fu 
// fu 
iVbwtffu 
Vous fu 
//« fu 

Je fu 
Tw fu 
J/ fu 

Nous fu 
rbtiA fu 
lis fu 



yaufi. 

yais. 

yail?^. 

yions. 

yiez, 

yaient^, 

is*, 

2.V. 

imes, 

ties, 

irent^K 



shcUlt will shuUf 
be shunning. 



shd, lod shun 
he shunning. 



Je fuir 
Tu fuir 
II fuir 
2Vbws fuir 
Vous fuir 
//« fuir 

tfe fuir 
Tu fuir 
// fuir 
Nous fuir 
Fo?/«fuir 
//« fuir 



ai*, 
a. 

ont^, 

ais^. 

ais. 

ai(^. 

ions. 

iez. 

aieni^. 



GERUND, 

shunning. fly anl^. 

After the same manner is conjugated 

I run, or am 

Thou runnest, art 

He runs, or is 

We run, are 

You run, are 

They run, are 

N. B. The compound tenses of f 'en fuir are 
I have run away. 
Thou hast run away,^ 
He has ranaivay 



FU ir. 

FUYez, plur. 
vvYons. 

SUBJUNCTIVE, 

Que je fu ie, 
Tu fu ies, 
11 fu £e. 
Nou^ fu yions, 
Vous fu yiVz. 
J/« fu ie?i/. 



I 

9 

3 

a 



Queje 
Tu 
II 



fu iwc*. 
fu mes. 

Nousfu issions 
Vousfii issiez. 
lis fu issent. 



o 
s 



OS 

cr 
e 



running away. 



PARTICIPLE. 

TV i. shunned 

s'enfuir, to run away; thus, 
je m' enfu». 
TU t' enfuif. 
it s* enfu/^. 
jv^oi£« NOUS enfu^on«. 
vous vous enfuycz. 
lis 8* eiifnienV*, 

formed with Eire, not Avoir ; as, 
Je ME suis\ 
Tu T* «» >ENFUI, &C, 
i/ S' «< J 



126 



IRREGULAR VERBS ill IR 



INFINITIVE. 

To DIE. MOUR iV. 

IMPERATIVE* 

Die. Meursj sing, mour ez, plur 



Let us die. 



MOITR 071S, 



INDICATIVE, 

t^I die, or am ^ Je "meurs*®. 
3 Thou diest, art B' 



S He dies, or is 




die, or 
arc dying. 



•g Tho7i Vwas dying. 
^He J 

g You fwere dying. 
? They] 



2 Thou 
^ He 



s row 

* They} 

B Thou 
3 He 
I /Te 

ffi You 
? TAeyJ 

?^ 

^ Thou 

SHe 

§' Yb?/ 



died, 
cf/(i die. 



shll, will die, 
6e dying. 



shd, wd die, 
'^c dying. 



GERUND. 



Tu meurs. 
II ineurt*. 
Nous mour ons, 
Vous mour cz. 
J/« meurent". 

Jc "mour aiV. 
Tm mour fli*. 
II mour aiY". 
A^oM» mour ions, 
Fous mour /e*. 
//* mour aient'. 

Je "mour us^. 
Tu mour us, 
II mour M^. 
A'b?/* mour ^me?, 
Fo/^5 mour iites. 
lis mouT urenO^. 

Je "mour rai\* 
Tu mour ras. 
II mour ra. 
2VbM« mour rons. 
Vous mour rcz. 
lis mour ronf^. 

Je "mour ravfi,^ 
Tu mour raj». 
// mour raiP^. 
Nous mour non«. 
Vous mour riez. 
J^ mour raient\ 

MOUR an^. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Que je meure. 
Tu meures. 
Il meure. 
Nous mour ioiis, 
Vous mour iez. 
lis meurent. 



w 

S 



Queje 
Tu 
II 



mour z^95£*. 
mour usses. 
mour il/**. 



9 



iVoM* mour ussions, ^ 
FoTW mour ussiez. ^ 
J/9 mour ussent. H' 



PARTICIPLE. 

Mort". Dead, 



dying away. 



Dying. 

After the same manner as mourir is conjugated se mourir, to be dying ; 

Je ME meurs. Jam 

Tu TB meurs. Thou art 

II SE meurt. He is 

Nous NOUS mour ons. We are 

FoMs vous mour ez. You are 

lU SE meurent. yAcy are J 

N. B. The compound teases of MOURIR are formed by adding Afortto the auxiliary 
£fre; as. He hoa died. li est matt. 

They Aave died. lU sont mortf, ^e. * 

• These two rr must be sounded duXxruAly ; in order to do it, lay a itrets on the yirst r 



IRREGULAR VERBS ill IR. 



127 



INFINITIVE. 
To OPEN. OUVR *>. 



open. 

Let us open. 



IMPERATIVE, 

ouva e, aing. 



INDICATIVE. 



o 




s 



>^ J open, or am 

3 T^(m openest, art S 

I He opens, or is 

ZfFe ) 

open, or 

are opening 



"g Tkounoas opening. 
^He J 

^ You \were opening. 



They] 



2 Thou 
WHe 

^ ^e 
S You 

?^ 

^ Thou 

3 ffe 

lire 

^' You 
? TAcyJ 

1^ Thou 

i He 



opened, 
did open. 



«Aa//, will open, 
&e opening. 



FOM 



shdf wd open, 
6e opening. 



T "ouvr c. 
T// ouvr ea. 
II ouvr e. 
iVbi/« ouvr ons. 
Vous ouvr cz. 
lis ouvr en<". 

J* "ouvr aiV. 
jTm ouvr ai5. 
7/ ouvr ai(^. 
Nous ouvr 10715, 
Vous ouvr fe2. 
/& ouvr aieni^. 

T "ouvr M*. 
Tm ouvr is. 
II ouvr i^. 
Nous ouvr fmes. 
FoM* ouvr ties, 
lis ouvr ircn^^* 

J* "ouvrir ai\ 
Tu ouvrir asi 
II ouvrir a. 
Nous ouvrir ons, 
Vous ouvrir ^s. 
lis ouvrir on^. 

J* "ouvrir ai^. 
Til ouvrir ais, 
II ouvrir ai^«. 
Nous ouvrir ions, 
Vous ouvririVz. 
lis ouvrir aienl^. 



GERUND. 

opening. ouvr anP^. 



OUVR 62, plur. 
OUVR ons. 



SUBJUNCTIVE, o 

D 



Que f "ouvr c. • 
Tu ouvr e». 
// ouvr c. 
iVbw» ouvr tt>n». 
Vous ouvr iear. 
//» ouvr eni. 



o 



9 



a 



Que f "ouvr mc*. 
I'm ouvr isses. 
II ouvr f^. g 
Nous ouvr issions. ^' 
Vous ouvr miez. £ 
i/a ouvr issenU *§ 

8 



ouvert®'. opened* 



After the same manner as ouvrir, are conjugated 
bntr'ouvrir, to open a little. recouvrir, to cover ogam 

couvrir, to cover. opfrir, to offer. 

d^couvrir, to discover. souffrir, to sniffer. , 



128 



inREGULAR VERBS ill IR. 



JXFINJTJrE, 

To INVEST with.* REVfiT ir. 

IMPERATIVE. 

invest. REvix «, sing, rev^t ezy plur. 



Let us invest. 



revet ons. 





INDICATIVE. 




SUBJUNCTirE. 


a* 


M / intest, or cnn B 


J^ rev6t »*». 


Que je 


rev6t e. 


< 


3 Thou investest, art n 


Tu rev6t ». 


Tu 


revfit es. 


Of3 


§ He invests, or m s* 


// rev6t«. 


II 


rev6t e. 


S 


ff^e ^ 


1 invest. 


Nov^ rev^t ons. 


Nous revet ions. 




1 ^^" 


Vous rev6t e;?. 


Vous rev^t iez. 


5* 


• They, 


are investing. 


Its rev6t cn^*». 


lU 


rev6t ent. 


en 


g Thou nDOs investing. 


Je rev6t ciV. 








I'm rev^t aw. 








^He j 


// revftt ai(^. 








a fTe ] 


Nous rev6t fo/w. 








1 You \ieere investing. 


Vous rev6t iez. 


« 






P They} 


J^ rev^t aienl^* 






5 

< 


^^ 1 


Je rev^t is*. 


Queje 


rev6t isse. 


99 


8 He (invested. 


r?^ rev6t is. 


Tu 


rev^t isses. 




II rev6t iY«. 


II 


rev6t t£». 




ff'^" 


r did invest. 


,Nous rev6t fme*. 


Nom 


r rev6t issions. 


=§. 


i ro« 




FoM« rev6t ites. 


Vous revfet issiez. 


»4 


• TAeij] 




Its rev^t irent^\ 


lis 


rev6t isseiit. 


3 

3 


^r ] 


- 


Je rev6tir aiK 






CO 

r 


S Thou 




Tu rev^tir as. 


• 






3 He 


shll^ wU invest, 
be investing. 


II • revetir a. 








1 fTe 


Nous revetir ons. 








&: Tow 




Vous revetir ez. 


• 






? TAcy. 




Its revStir on^. 








?I 1 




Je revetir ais^. 








S* TAOM 




Tu revetir ais. 








i-ffe 


shdf wd invest, 


II revetir ait. 








t'^e 
\ You 
^They^ 


he investing. 


Nous revetir io?is. 










Vous revetir iez. 










lis revfetir aien^ 


• 






GERUND. 




PARTICIPLE. 




11 


ivesting. rey^t an^. 


rev^i 


' u. invested. 



^yifcr <Ac «ame manner as revetir, are conjugated 

v^TiR, to clothe; and d^v^tir, to undress; 

but these two verbs are seldom used, except in the infinitive vixiR, d£- 
viTiR, and in the participle vixu, clothed ; instead of the former, we 
make use of habiller, to clothe, to dress ; and instead of the latter, we 
use DisHABiLLER, to uudress. 



* To invent with honours, dignities, ^c. but not to surround. 



IRREGULAR VERBS 111 IR. 



129 



INFINITIVE. 
To FESL ; To SMELL. 

IMPERATIFE. 

Feel. sens, sing. 

Let tu feel. 

INDICATIVE. 

T feel, or dm ? * Je^ "sens*. 



n 



d 






B 
ST 

n 



o 
"1 

n 



m 



C 

c 

<B 

T3 

O 

CO 

P. 

c 

« 

O 
9 

& 

r. 

S 



[arc feeling. 



Thou feelest, art g^ 
He feels, or M crq 

You ^ ^^^'' 
They 

Thou hoas feeling. 

He J 

/Tc ] 

You fwere feeling. 

T/iey] 

I 

Thou 

He 

^Fe 

You 

They^ 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 
They) 

I 

Thou 

He 

TFe 

You 

They] 



felt, 
did feel. 



lis 

Je 

Tu 
shally will feel, II 
be feeling. 



shdf wd feel, 
be feeling. 



Tu sens. 
II sent*. 
Nous sent om. 
Vous sent ez. 
lis sent enPK 

Je sent aiV. 
Til sent ais, 
II sent ai^. 
Nous sent to7i« 
Vous sent fe^. 
7Z« sent aientK 

Je* sent m*. 
Tu sent is. 
II sent tY*. 
Nous sent fme*. 
Fbw« sent ites, 
sent irenO^* 

sentir ai*. 

sentir ox. 

sentir a. 
iVbtM sentir ons. 
Vous sentir e«. 
lis sentir on^, 

Je sentir aif^, 
Tu sentir ai9. 
/i? sentir ait. 
Nous sentir fon«. 
Vous sentir iez 
//.» sentir aient^. 



SENT »>. 

SENT C2, plur. 
SENT onff. 

SUBJUNCTIVE 

Que je sent e*. 
TV sent es. 
II sent e. 
A^ous sent ions, 
Vous sent i>2. 
lis sent e/?<*». 






Queje sent mc*. gj 
Tw sent isses, ^ 
II sent it.^ i. 
iVbi/j sent issions. ^ 
Fottf sent imez. ^ 
lis sent i«se7i^. CL 



SENT 2. Felt 



GERUND. 

Feeling. sent ant^. 

After the same manner as sentir are conjugated 
consentir, to consent. partir, to set out ; to depart, 

d£mentir, to give the lie. prbssentir, to have a foresight, 

se d£partir, to give up. repartir, to set out again; to reply 

pesseryir, to take off the dishes ; se repentir, to repent. 
DORMiR, to sleep. \to do an ill office, ressentir, to resent. 
endormir, to lull asleep. hessortir, to go out again. 

/endormir, tofttll asleep. servir, to serve; se servir to use.* 

KEfiTiR, to lie ; to tell a lie. sortir, to go out. 



• Observe tliat the third per$an nngular of tho preswif tense of sfrvir, ia ; ert, not sero 



130 



IRREGULAR VERBS in JR. 



INFINITIVE. 

To s"*Rx^rj?=>r.KESSAILL .r de,W. dep««r.« 

IMPERATtFE. 



start. 

Let us start. 



INDICATIVE. 



TRESS AiLL e^ sing. 



TRESSAILL CZ^ plUT, 
TRESSAILL OTU. 



S 



CO 

09 



B 

n 
n 






OB 



»«3 

P 



O 

00 

^« 
ST. 



6 



o 
p 

I. 



/ start, or am 
Thou startest, art E 
He starts, or is g' 

TV^gyj^^e starting. 

^ ] 

Thou >was starting. 

You \were starting. 
They] 

Thou\ 

He [started, 

IVe [ did start. 

You 

They] 

I 

Thou 

He \shll, toll start, 

^e I 

You 

They] 

Thou 

He \ shd^ wd start, 

ff^e ( be starting. 

You 

They) 



Jc* tressaili c.1 
Tu tressaili es, 
J I tressaili e. 
Nous tressaili ons. 
Vous trejssaill ez. 
Us tressaili enP*, 

Je tressaili aiifi. 
Tu tressaili ais, 
II tressaili aii^. 
Nous tressaili ions, 
Vous tressaili icz. 
lis tressaili aient^. 

Je tressaili ««■•. 
Tu tressaili is. 
II tressaili /f»'. 
No\is tressaili imes, 
Vous tressaili ites, 
lis tressaili irent^*, 

Je tressaili ir ai\ 
Tu tressaillir as, 
II tressaillir a. 
Nous tressaillir ons, 
Vous tressaillir car. 
lis tressaillir on^. 

Je tressaillir aisf^, 
Tu tressaillir ais. 
II tressaillir aii^. 
Nous tressaillir ions, 
Vous tressaillir iez. 
lis tressaillir aieiiP 



SVBJVNCTIVE. 

Queje tressaili e. 

Tu tressaili es. S 
II tressaili e. ^ 
Nou^s tressaili ions, " 
Vous tressaili iez. 



C9 

-1 



lis tressaili ent. 



Queje 
Tu 
II 



tressaili iss^. 3 



*». 



tressaili isses, ^ 
tressaili it. ^ 

Nous tressaili issions. 

Vous tressaili issiez. 

lis tressaili issent. ^ 

"1 



PARTICIPLE. 

TRESSAILI }. Started 



GERUND. 

Starting. tressaill ani^. 

After the same manner as tressaillir are conjugated 
assaillir, to assaulty but it is not used in the Jirst^ second^ and third 
persons singular of the present tense, and is seldom used« except in the 
infinitive assaillir, and in the participle assailli, assaulted, 

saillir, to jet out, used only in the infinitive saillir, in the gerund 
baillant, in the participle sailli, and in the third person of each tense 

* TRESSAILLIR is Seldom used without the words joi«, joy ; or jMur, fear, 
t See II preceded by i, page 11 and 12. 



IRREGULAR VERBS in IR. 



131 



To COME. VEN ir. 

IMPERATIVE. 

come. viens, sing, ven ez plur. 



Let us come. 



VEN 071S. 



INDICATIVE. 

I come, or am § 
^ TAoM qomest, art 3. 



g //e comes, or is ° 



3 

SB 



^e 



U5 



You r™*' *"^ . 
• They) «« coming;. 

•g Thou >u)as coming. 
^He J 

B Yo?z }were cominfr. 






^ TAow 






We 

You 

They] 

c. You 
? They) 



came, or 
did come. 



sfiall, will come, 
or 6e coming. 



Thou 
§ if c 

I* YoM 



^A(2, wd come, 
or 6e coming. 



coming. 



Je^ viens^. 
Tu viens. 
II vient*^ 
A'oM^ven ozw. 
Fo7« ven ez. 
lis viennenU*. 

J^ ven ais^. 
Tu ven aw 
// ven ai^. 
Nous ven ions. 
Vous ven zes. 
J/» ven aieni^. 

Je ^^vins*". 
Tu vins. 
// vint**. 
JVbw^vinmes. 
Vous vintes. 
lis vinrent'®. 

Je* viendrai* 
Tu viendras. 
II viendra. 
iVbt^ viendrons. 
Vous viendrez. 
lis viendront*. 

J(? viendrais. 

Tu viendrais. 

II viendrait*'. 

Nous viendrions. 

Vous viendriez. 

lis viendraient^ 

YEN anl?^. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Queje^ vienne*. 
Tu viennes. 
II vienne. 
Nous ven ions, 
Vous ven ieg* 
lis viennent. 



o 
3 



o 

o 

g 



3 



Que j(^ vinsse*. 
Tu vinsses. 
II Vint*®. 
Nous vinssions. 
Vous vinssiez. 
lis vinssent" | 



cr 

O 

o 



VEN U, 



come. 



After the same manner as venir are conjugated. 



OBTENIR, to obtain, 

PARVENiR, to attain, to arrive 

PKkxiRJiiRi to prevent, to anticipate, 

PRovENiR, to proceed, 

REVENiR, to come again, to return. 



• ABSTENiR, to abstain. 

APPARTENiR, to belong. 

CON VENIR, to agree, to become. 

coNTRE VENIR, to contravcne. 

coNTENiR, to contain. 

DiscoNVENiR, to disagree^ to disown, uetenir, to retain, to keep. 

DETENiR, to detain. sovtenir, to maintain. 

to become. se souvenir, <o remember. 

to keep vp. SUB VENIR, to afford. 

to intervene. subvenir,<o befal, to happen. 

to maintain. tenir, to hold. 

N. B. The compound tenses of venir, convenir, devenir, disconvenir, parve* 
NIR, orovenir, REVENIR, and SORVENIR, are formed with the auxiliary Ktre, noiAcoir 
as. I have agreed, Je suis e^venu ; not J'ai convetm, 

13 



devenir, 

entretenir, 

intervenir, 

MAINTENIR, 



132 



VERES 
A TABLE skewing, in one point of view, how to coT^i 





INFIN. GER. 


PART. 


INFIN. 


GER. 


PART. 


INFIN. GER. 


PABT. 


FINtr, *Msant, 


• 


fiOUlLLir, 


ant, 


• 

t. 


CUEILL ir, ant. 


t. 




INDIC. INFER. 


SUBJ. 


INDIC. 


IMP. 


SUBJ. 


INDIC. IMP. 


SUB. 


? Je FIN w 


isse 


bous 




e 


CUEILL e 


e 


S Ttt 


is is 


isstes 


bous 


bous 


es 


et e 


es 


S // 


it 


use 


bout 




e 


e 


e 


;: iVoMs 


issons issons 


issions 


BOUILL om 


ons 


iont 


ons ons 


ion 


g Vous 


issez issez 


issiez 


ez 


ez 


iez 


ez, ez 


iez 




isient. 


issent. 


ent 




ent. 


ent. 


em 


1 Tu 


tssait 




ids 






ais 


iisais 




ais 






ais 




5 i/ 


issiiit 




ait 






ait 




n*iV(mi 


issions 




ions 






urns 




S Fouj 


issief 




iez 






iez 




• 


issat^nt 




, aient 






aient. 




KJe 


is 


isse 


IS 




i^e 


m 

U 


im 




is 


isses 


is 




isses 


15 


is* 


fli 


it 


it 


it 




it 


it 


it 


Jt iSTous 


itnes 


issions 


imes 




issions 


imes 


iUiW 


S Foiu 


ites 


issiez 


ites 




tssiez 


ites 


iaie 


% lU 


irent. 


issent. 


irent. 




issent. 


irent. 


ism 


M J«FINIR at 




BOIIILLIR ai 






CUEILL erat 




& 2'tt 


as 




as 






eras 




^ J/ 


a 




a 






era 




g IVoiw 


ons 




ont 






eront 




C.Voui 


ez 




ez 






eres 




2 I/* 


ont. 




ont. 






eront. 




• 

»sj Je 


uis 




ais 

• 






erais 




£ 3'u 


ait 




ais 






erais 




^ If 


\^' mgate 
«« in IR, 




ait 






erait 




g iVoti* 
p* Vout 


FINIR, con- 
all the verbs 
tfio following 


ions 
iez 






erions 

«•»« AeenfH 


r I/« 


aient, except< 


A. 

acquis. 


aient. 




tr. 


eraient, Rccneilk. 


^ACQUERiV, a«f. 


COUR ir, ant. 


FU tr, yant. 


• 

1. 


2 J* 


acquiers 


acquiere 


s 




e 


is 


• 


p Tu 


acquiers acquiers acquieres 


s 


f 


es 


u it 


ies 


acquiert 


acquiere 


t 




e 


it 


ie 


S iVous 


ons ons 


ions 


ons 


ons 


ions 


yont yons 


ykm 


§ Vota 


ez ez 


iez 


ez 


ez 


iez 


y« yes 
tent. 


!/« 


'lis 


acquierent. 


acquierent 


ent. 




ent. 


iem. 


JERais 




ais 






yait 




a ^ 


ais 




ais 






yait 




ait 




ait 






yait 






ions 




ions 






yiont 




iez 




iez 






yiez 




^ 7/a 


aient. 




aient. 






yaieni. 




acquis 


acqidsse 


us 




usse 


• 

u 

m 


isie 


acquis 


acquisses 


us 




nsses 


15 


im 


s.// 


acquit 


acquit 


ut 




ut 


it 


it 


g" Nous 


acquimes 


acquissions 


umes 




usdons 


imes 


• • 


g Fbiw 


acquites 


acquissiez 


utes 




ussiez 


ites 


tiair: 


? 7& 


acquirent. 


acquissent. 


urent. 




ussent. 


irent. 


tSIO)! 


c J'acqueb rai 




COUR rai 






FUIR at 




r 7\f 


ras 




ras 






as 




*g 7/ 


ra 


f 


ra 






a 




2. Nous 


rons 


il 


rons 






on% 




5* row 


rez 




t-es 






■ ez 




• 7/» 


root. 




ront. 






ont. 


• 


?y' 


rats 


■•■ 


rais 






aU 




r- 7>< 


rais 




rais 






ais 




8// 


rait 


1. 


rait 






ait 




g^iVbtt* 


rions 




rums 






wns 




^ Vous 


nez 




riez 






iez 




' lis 


raient 




raient 


r 




aient. 




In the flame maoner conjugate: Conquerir, Be-} 


Like CouHiR conja^raCe 


Aeeourir, 


Like FuiR conj agate 


.^«l: 


ij'U'iir. 






Conconrir,DiscoQrir,Encoarir, Par- 1 

j_ r» ?_ o i_ 


to run away. 





eourir, Recoarir, Secoarir, 



^ in IR. 

ugate all the verbs in IR, botk regular and irregular 



133 



r. 



I. 






OTIS 

ez 






INPIN. GER. PART. 
MOUR tr, ant, mort. 

INDIC. IMP. SUBJ. 

xneurs meure 

meurs meurs meures 
meort meure. 

MOOR ons <ms ions 
ez ez iez 
meurent. menrent* 

ais 

ais 

ait 

ions 

iez 

aient. 



us 

us 

ut 

umes 

utes 

urent, 

MOUR rat 
ras 
ra 
rons 
rex 
ront, 

rat's 

rais 

rait 

rums 
riex 
raient. 



usse 

usses 

ut 

ussions 

ussiez 

ussent. 



se Moarir. 



OU VR ir, ant, ouvert. 



ns 

E 

r. 



ons 

ez 

nt. 



oir, 



e 

es 

e 

ons 

ez 

ent, 

ais 

ais 

ait 

ions 

iez 

aient, 

* 

u 

is 

it 

imes 

ites 

irent, 

onVRiRot 
as 
a 
on* 

ez 
ont. 

ais 

ais 

ait 

ions 

iez 

aient. 



e 
e , es 

e 
ons ions 
ez iet 

ent. 



tsse 

issei 

it 

issions 

issiez 

iisent. 



INFIN. GER. PART. 
REVM^ ir, ant, «. 

« INDIC. IMP. SUBJ. 



REVET S 
S 

rerSt 
. ons 
ez 
ent, 

REVET ais 
ais 
ait 
ions 
iez 
aient 

is 

is 

it 

imes 

ites 

irent, 

REVETIRai 
as 
a 

Otis 
ez 
ont, 

ais 
ais 
ait 



ons 
ez 



e 
es 

e 

ions 
iez 
ent. 



INFIN. GER. PART 
TRESSAIL ir, ant, %, 



xsse 
isses 

it 

issions 
issiez 
issent. 



wns 

iez 

aient. Ve tir, se DevS tir. 



SENT tr, ant, i. 



In the Mime manner conjngate 
Entr'anvrir. Coavrir. Deeouyrir, Re- 
coarrir, Offrir, SouiTrir. 



sens 

sens sens 
sent 
SENT ons ons 
ez ex 
ent, 

ais 

ais 

ait 

ions 

iez 

aient. 

is 
is 



es 

e 

ions 

iez 

ent. 



isse 

isses 

it 

issiont 

issiez 

issent. 



it 

imes 
ites 
irent, 

SliNTIR tti 
as 
a 

ons 
ez 
ont, 

ais 

ais 

ait 

ions 

iez 

aient, 
Consentir, Pressentir, Ressenttr, 
Mentir, Di^menUr. Partir, Repartir, 
M Departir, Sortir, Reasortir, se 
Repentir,St!rvir, De8Kerrir,Doraur 
KMormir, s'Endormir. 



TRES- IND. 
SAILL e 
es 
e 

ons 
es 
ent, 

au 

ais 

ait 

ions 

iez 

aient, 

is 

is 

it 

imes 

ites 

irent. 



IMP. 

e 

om 
ez 



SUBJ. 

e 
es 

e 

ions 
iez 
ent. 



TRES- 



isse 
isses 

it 

issions 
issiez 
issent 



SAILLIR at 
as 
a 

ons 
ez 
ont. 



ats 

ais 

ait 

ions 

iez 

aient, Assaillir, Saillir. 



VEN tr, 

viens 
viens 
vient 
VEK ons 

ez 



ant, 

viens 

ons 
-ez 



u, 

vienne 

viennes 

vienne 

ions 

iez 

vienncnt 



vinsse 

vinsse 

vJnt 

vinssions 

vinssiez 

viossent 



viennent. 

ais 

ais 

ait 

itms 

iez 

aient. 

vins 

vins 

vint 

vinmes 

vmtes 

vinrent. 

viendrai 

viendras 

viendra 

viendrons 

viendrez 

viendront. 

viendrais 
viendrais 
viendrait 

viendnon« contc 

viendriez nir. Contreremr 
viendraient. Devenir. Discon- 
venir, Intervenir, Parvenir, Prevenir, 
Provenir, Revenir, se Souyenir, Sub* 
venir, Survenir, Tenir, s'Absteoir* Ax*' 
partenir, Contenir, Dfttenir, Enfretftoir 
Maintenir, Obtenir, Retenir, Suutenir 



134 



REGULAR VERBS in OIR* 



iNFjKirirE. 
To OWE. DEV oir 

IMPERATIVE* 

owe. Dois, dn^. dev ez, plur. 
Let us owe. dbv om. 



INDICATIVE, 






J owe. 

Thou owest. 



g He owes. 

?^« ] 

S YoM Vowe. 

• They] 
■ Thou\ 

I Y(m 
? They] 

Thou 






i 



►1 
<5 



He 

Z We 
You 
Theyl 

a 2%ow 



>owe(l. 



CO 



O 
CO 



He 

^ We 
B'. You 
? They^ 

^^ ' 
r* Thou 

i ^« 

i'You 
f^They] 



>shaUy will owe. 



>shldt wld owe. 



Je •Mois*. 
Tu dois. 
// doit«. 
iVbt/* DEV ons. 
Fous DEV ec. 
J/* doivent**. 

J^ DEV a?y. 
T// DEV ait. 

II DEV Oi^. 

Nou9i>i^\ ions. 

Vows DEV fc«. 

Tls DEV aie/i^ 

Jc dus-t 
Tu\ dus. 
J/ dut«. 
iVbi/« dumes. 
Vov^ dutes. 
lis durent", 

Je DEV rai\ 
Tu DEV rflw. 
II DEV ro. 
JVoM* DEV tons. 
Vous DEV rcz. 
/fe DEV roni^. 

Je DEV rffu". 
Tu DEV raw. 
J/ DEV rai^. 

Nous DEV n0719. 

Fbtta DEV riez. 
lis DEV raient^. 



GERUND. 



owing. 

Interrogatively. 
Doin-je ? §- 

Doh-iu ? H 

DoiU7? I 

Devons-Tioi^A P « 
Devez-t?oM»? 
Doivent-f/s? 






DEV an<". 

Je Tie dois 
TU Tie dois 
il Ttedoit 
NOUS Tie devons K 
vous Tie devez I 



o 

o 

o 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Que je doive*. | 
Ihi doives. « 
II doive. S 

Nous DEV 10719. ^ 

Vous DEV ie2. I 
J/« doivent. ft 



Que je 
Tu 

n 



dusse*. % 
dusses. - 

dat» I. 

jVbusdussions. ^ 
Vous dussiez. o 
Us dussent.*" % 



PARTICIPLE. 

dA. owed. 



flu 

O 



Interrogatively and Negativ. 
Ne dois-je 
JVC dois-^i£ 
Ne doit-f7 
Ne devons-7ioM« 
A'e devez-roM« 
Ne doivent-f/s 



pas ? o 
o 

•■o 



lis Tie doivent J 

After the same manner as devoir are conjugated^ 
APERCEVOiR,) . .^ PERCEvoiR, (a law term) ^0 rccetre. 

•' APERCEVoiR,/ ^ * RECEVOiR, to recdve. 

coNCE^oiR, to concdvc. redevoir, to owe still. 



* See H. ». imder devoir, page lll< 



f See note ^, page 1» 



IRHEOULAK VERBS in OIR. 



135 



The IRREGULAR verbs belonging to this conjugation are 



■} 



ASSEOIR, L^.;, j^^ 

Choir f to fall . . i 

Dechoir, to decay 

Echoir^ to expire, to be out 

Emouvoir, to stir up. 

Entrevoir, to have a glimpse ; 
Equivaloir, to be equivalent ; 
Fa//otr,inust; lobe necessary 
MOUVOIR,tomove;. 

PieuvoiTf to rain ^ 

Pouruoir, to provide : . . 
POUVOIR, to be able ; 



page 13d 



like ASSEOIR. 



PREVOIR, to foresee ; . . . page 139. 

Prh)uloir, to prevail : • • • . 1 .>,, „ * , «, » 

8ePr^twteir,to avail oneself J *** v^^-oiR. 
* Revaloir, return like for like ; like VALOIR. 

Rasseoirf 1 to sit down ) 
like Mou VOIR, se Rasseoir, | again ; / * * * 
like VOIR, 
like VALOIR. 
.t 
page 137, 

eee prevoir. 
page 138. 



Revoivy to see again ; ....... like voir. 

SAVOIR, to know ; page 140. 

5&oir, to fit,to suit, to become; t 

Surseoirf to supersede; .... see pftEVoiR. 

VALOIR, to pe worth ; . . . page 141. 

VOIR, to see ; page 142. 

VOULOIR, to will, to be wiUmg ,• page 143, 



* These three verbs are now hardly ever used, but are found in many ancient writings ^ 
they are conjugated thus : 



INFINITIVE. 

CHotr. 
DECHotr. 



Je 

Tu 
11 



d^chois, 

d^chow. 

d6chot^ 
g- Nou$ dichoyons. 
I Foftf dechoyet. 
? Ili d€choient, 

? Je d^chuj. 
a> Tu d^chuf. 

5 J^ d^chttt. 
g- Nousd€chumei, 

gVous dechute«. 
. lU dkchurent» 

^ Je d^cherrai. 

6 Tu d^cherras. 
rj U d^cherra. 
§ iVbuf d^cherrons. 
^. Vout d^cherrez. 
j J^ d^cherront. 

p^ Je d^cherrois. 
g. Tu d^cherrois. 
o II d^cherroit. 
S NoMi d^cherrions. 

VoM decherriez. 

JU d6cherroient. 







re decaying. 



decayed, 
did decay. 



r 



To Fall. 
To Decay. 

INDICATIVE. 

I decay, or am g* 
Thou decayest, art ^ 
He decays, or is *t 
^Ve ) . 

You I -^®^*^y' 

Th^ifh' 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

They 

Thoul 

He [ shall f will decay. 

We I be decaying. 

You 

They) 

I 

Thou 

He [should, wmtld decay. 

We I be decaying. 

You 

They J 



PARTICIPLE. 

CHu. fallen. No other tenses. 

DECHu. decayed. 

80BJUNCTIVB. 

Queje d^chot«. I \ 

Tu dechoi^s. TTioa I 

II d6chot«. He I decay. 

Nous d€choyions. We ftnay decay. 

Voasd^chuyiez, You I 

Us dichoient. They J 

Queje d^chtKse. I ^ 
Tu dhchusses. Thou | 
II dtchuu He ( decayed, 
Nous d^chussions. We ?mht decay. 
Vous dichusnes. You I 
lis dhchussent. They) 



i 



INFINITIVE. 

ECHOIR. To Expire ; speaking of the end of a term ; as, 

The rent is due, the time is expired. La rente est due, le terme est 6cha. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 



INDICATIVE. 

Pres. II ^choit. It expires. 

Perf. II ^chut. It expired. 

Fut. II echerra. It will expire. 

Con. iZ ^cherroit. It wou/d expire. 



Qiiil Scheie. It may expire. 
11 6chiit. It might expire. 



GERUND. 

kch€ ant. 



PARTICIPLE. 



Expiring. 



ECltU. 



Expired. 



♦ FALLOIR, PLEUVOIR, see the impersonal verbs, page 172, 174. 

t SEOIR, To Jit, to suit, to become, has only the third person of each tense in use. 
Ilsied. It fits. II seyait. It fitted. II nira. It will fit. llsiSrait, It would fit. 
I<f ti^e^.They fit.Iin^i«nt.They fitted. /fa «Vront. They will fit./iiJ«roien*. They wd fit 



136 



IRREGULAR VERBS in OIR. 



INFIXITIFE. 

Tq sit doum. S* ASSE oir. 

IMPERATIVE. 

sit down. Assieds-TOiy sing, ASS£Ye2-vous, pint. 

Let U8 sit down. assby 07»-Noua 



JNDICATirE. 



^ T sit, or am |- 
s" TAoM sittest, dr^ & 
g i/c' sits, or is 

sit, are 



M' 



<t> 

to 



CP 

o 





"^assieds*", Queje 

tu 
il 



Tu t' assieds. 

// s' assied"*. 

Nous NOUS asse yons. 
■^ I sii, are p rr 

I 'ti* d w' ^"* vous asse yez. 

They J ^* ^^^ ^ "* /fe s' asse ytf»<^' 



SUDJUSCTIFE, 



M' 



asse yc*. 

T* asse yej. 

s' asse ye. 
nous NOUS asFey ioTis. 
vous vous assey iez. 
ils 8* assey t«i/. 



S 

^ 



o 
S 



I «,, liTflW sitting 

^ rr I down. 

^ /Te 1 

§ You *"7 *^*^'"^ 

STAeyj ^^^^"• 

5 Thou 

^ He [sat, rfi4 
^ ^e Tsit down. 
I You 

I Thov\ 

• //e \shU, wU sit, 



t7<? M* asse yais*, 

Tu t' asse yais. 

II s' asseyai^. 

Nous NOUS asse yions*. 

Vous vous asse ^tV^r. 

7& s' asse yaien^, 

Je 



M 



assis' 



o 

M 

cr. loM 



Tm t' assis. 
II s* assit**. 
Noits NOUS assimes. 
Fo}/^ VOLS assttes. 
lis s' assirenU*. 

•/^ m' 

Tu t' 
// s* 



Que je 
Tu 
II 



t' 

8' 



assisse' 



I 3 



assisses. ^ 



ex*. 



**assey^rai*. 



asse^^ras. 
asseyera. 



assit«. 2. 
Novs NOUS assissions. 
FbfYf vous assissiez. 
lis s' assissent. 

o 

9 



^ sitting dn. Nous nous asseyerons. 

FoM* vous assey^rcz. 



" Jfe 



8' 



asseycront"'. 

asseyfrais'. 
assey^rais. 



I \ Je 

Thou Tu 

^ ... .shd, wd sit, // 8' asseyerait' 

^ilFe [6e sitting dn. *Vo«« nous asseyerions. 
I You 
f^They 



»S6 



Vous vous asseyCTiez. 
lis s' asseyeraient*. 



OERVSa. 

sitting down. 

Interrogatively. 



m' assieds-je ? g* 
assieds-/?^ ? N 

09 



PARTICIPLE. 

Assis. sat down. 

Interrogat. and Negat. 
Ne m' assieds-je ] 
iee t' assieds-^u \pas ? 
Ne s' assied-i7 j 



s'assk yant^. 

Negatively, 

je lie m' assieds] ^ 
T' assieds-m ?"*s tu ne t* assieds >pa«. ^ 
s' assied-t'/ ? ^' jl ne s' assied j § 

COMPOUND TENSF.s/onii«<i by adding assis to the auxiliary etre. 

I have j S je mb «i/is | Queje mb sots ] 

Thou hastl 2^ tu t' e» [.ecTQ ^''' ^^ *^" I 

HeAfl* [| il s' e*/ [^^"^- jl se «oi7 ( 
yfe have js >'oi/« nous sommesj jv^ot^ nous soyo;t« J r- 

J/z the same manner, conjugcUe rasseoir, se rasseoir, to sit down again. 



CASSIS. 



B 

ex 



IRREGULAR VERBS in OIR. 



137 



To BIOVE 



Move. 

Let us move. 



INFINITIVE. 

MOUV oir*. 

IMPERATIVE* 

ME US, sing. MOUV car, jdur. 



MOUV ons. 






M 



•a 
■-« 

n 



CA 



o 



o 



c 

s 



C 

« 

s 

c. 

o 

p. 



INDICATIVE. 

I move, or am 3 Je *«meus''. 
7%07^ movest, art <, 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



moved, 
did move. 



He moves or is ^ 

You \ ™^^^'. 
They r^ "^^^»"^- 

^ 1 

TAoTi >«;flw moving. 

//e J 

We. \ 

You \were moving. 

They J 

I 

Thou 

He 

JFe 

You 

They] 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

They] 

I 

Thou 
He 

We 

You 

They] 



shll.wll move, 
be moving. 



shd, vxl move, 
bi moving. 



Tu meus. 
II meut««. 
Nou^ mouv ons, 
Vous mouv ez, 
lis meuvent^^ 

Je "mouv «M«. 
Til mouv ais. 
II mouv ail?^. 
JVbi« mouv ions. 
Vous mouv iez, 
lis mouv aientf^. 

Je tmus*^. 
Tu mus. 
II mut*. 
Nous mumes. 
Vous miltes. 
lis murent**. 

Je "mouv rai^. 
Tu mouv ras^. 
II mouv ra. 
Nous mouv rons. 
Vous mouv rear. 
lis mouv roni^, 

Je "mouv rais^, 
Tu mouv rais. 
II mouv rai^. 
Nous moiiY rions. 
Vous mouv riez, 
lis mouv raieni^ 



Queje 



meuve' 



c 
< 
ft 



Tu meuves*. 
// meuve. ^ 
JVoMS mouv ions, a 
Fb?/5mouv iez. ^ 
lis meuvent, o 



Queje musse*. 
Ti£ musses. 


3 

o 
< 


II mut» 


CO 


JVbi/imussions. 


s 


Fow« mussiez. 




lis mussent". 


3 
o 

< 



PARTICIPLE. 



GERUND. 

Moving. MOUV ani^. mu. Moved. 

jifter the same manner as mouvotr is conjugated iBMOUvoia, to move, 
to stir up, speaking o^ vapours, or the passions; as, 

Le sokil ^meut les vapeurs. The sun stirs up the vapours. 

Cet homme s'<lmeut de Hen. That man is moved with the least thing 

* MODVOi R is a technical term, used only in some general propositions ; as for examole 
Every free body moves in a straight line. Tout corps Ubre se meut en ligne drotte. 

The general acceptation of move is KEMUER ; as, 
Move your arm, your leg, your foot, tlie chair, the dish, the table, &c* 
Remuez U bras, tajambCf le picd^ la chaise, le plat, la table^ ^c. 

f See note 9 page I. 

K 



138 



IRREGULAR VERBS in OIR. 



INFINITIFE, 

To be ABLE. POUV otr. 



S 



en 

Cb 



I 

B 
ifl 



►T3 



g 



B 

3 

o 

OS 

9 



»«1 

i 



§ 



INDICATIVE. 

I can, or am able. 
TAou canst, art able. 
£fe can, or is able, 
^e ] 
You >can, arc able. 

I \ 

Thoufcould, wets able. 

He J 

/Te ] 

Yow >could, were able. 
TAcyJ 

J ] 

Thou y could, was able. 

He 

We \ 

You >could, toere able. 

They] 

I 



>shU, toll be able. 



Thou 
He 

IVe 

You 

They] 

I \ 

Thou 

He could. 

We (shd, wd be able. 

You 



^They 



Being able. 



GERUND. 



Je *puis", 
Tu ^peux. 
II pent.* 
Nous pouv ons, 
Vous pouv ez. 
lis peuvenU*. 

Je "pouv ozV. 
Tu pouv ais. 
II pouv ait^. 
Noi/s pouv ions. 
Vous pouv iez, 
lis pouv aien^. 

Je tpus*. 
Tu pus. 
// put*. 
Nous primes. 
Vous putes. 
lis purent". 

Je "pourrai*. 
Tu pourras**. 
// pourra. 
Nous pourrons. 
Vous pourrez. 
lis pourroiit". 

Je "pourrais'. 
l\e pourrais. 
// pourrait*®. 
Nous pourrioDs. 
Vous pourriez. 
lis pourraient*. 

POUV ani^. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Queje puisse*. 3 
Tu puisses". ^ 
II puisse. ^ 
Nous puissions. ^ 
Vous puissiez. ^ 

Ik puissenU*. ^ 

g; 



Queje 
Tu 
II 



pusse*. 

pusses. 

put«. 
Nous pussions. 
Vous pussiez. 
lis pussent*'. 



S 

zr 

*♦■ 

•s. 

p 



PARTICIPLE. 

pu. seen able 



* MAY, MIGHT have, through the verbs, been considered only as signs of the suhjunc- 
tive mood ; but these words are not always signs ; they are sometimes verbs denoting 
power. 

In order to discriminate whether may, might, are verbSf or only signs, change them 
into the tenses of the verb BE, that will make the best sense with the word power or abl^ 

If MAY, MIGHT, thus changed, answer to the tenses of the indieaiive of the verb B£, 
they must be expressed by the same tenses of the verb POOVOIR ; as, 
I may see it, if I choose, i. e, it is in my power, or 1 am ahle to see it, if I choose. 
Je puis le voir, sije vexix, 

I might see it, if I chose, i. e, it would be in my power, or I should b$ able to see it, if ^ 
chose. Je pourrais le voir, si je voulais. 

If MAY, MIGHT, answer to the tenses of the subjunctive of the verb BE, they may be ex 
pressed either by the subjunctive of the following verb, or by the sul^unctive of Pou VOIR ; as 

Bring it me, tnat I may see it, t. e, that I may be able to see it. 

ApporteZ'le-moij afin queje le voie, or afin gueje puisse le voir. 

He brought it me, that I might see it, i. e. that / might be able to see it 

U me Vapportay afin queje le yisse^ or afin queje pusse le voir, 
f See note f , page 1. N. B^ MA\ 



IRREGULAR VERBS in OIR. 



139 



JNFJNITJFE. 

To FORBSEE. PREV oir. 









IMPERATIVE* 




Foresee. 


PRiv ois, sing. 


PR^v oyesj plur. 




Let us foresee. 


PR]gy oyons. 




UfDlCATJVE, 


SUBJUNCTIVE 


1 
I* 


^ I foresee. 


Je pr^v 0M». 


Queje prtSv oi^. 


§> 


3 Thou foreseest 


Tu pr6v ois. 


Tu pr«Jv oie^. 


(3 


§ He foresees. 


II priv oit^. 


II prt^v oic. 


ff^^ 




Nous priv oyons*. 


JVbi/« pr«5v oyions. 


S 


1 You 


foresee. 


Vous prdv oyez. 


Vous pr«iv oytcz. 


^ 


' They 




Us pr^v oienP*, 


Jife prtiv oien/. 


5» 


B 




Je pr^v oyaUfi. 




^3 

CO 


1 Thou 




Tu pr^v oyais. 




m 


^ ITe 


did foresee. 


II pr^v oyaiff'. 
Nous pr6v oyions. 






g You 




Vous pr^v oyiez. 






? They^ 




lis pr6y oyaient^. 




5! 


^Thou 




Je priv £s*» 


Queje_ pr^v tMc". 






Tu pr^v is. 


Tt/ prfev isses. 


•• 


foresaw, 


II pr^v ii^. 


II prev 1^. . 


3 


Z }Ve 


did foresee. 


Nous prt5v imes. 


2Vo?/*pr^v issions,^ 


g You 




Vous prev ites. 


Vous pr6w issiez. 




• They] 




Us pr^v irenf*. 


lis prdv issenV^ 


.f 


?^ 1 




Je pr^voir ai*. 




i 


1 Thou 




Tu pr^voir as*. 




.« 


S He 


shaU, will 


II pr^voir a. 






S If'e 1 foresee. 


Nous pr^voir ons. 






f YoM 


Vous pr^voir ex. 






? They, 


lis pr^voir on/". 






?^ 1 




Je pr^voir aitfi. 






s* TAoM 




Tu pr^voir ais. 






\Ht 


shuld, wuld 


11 pr^voir oiY*. 






^We 


foresee. 


Nous pr^voir ions. 






%You 




Vous pr^voir iez. 






f-Theyi 




lis pr^voir aienifl. 




. 


Foreseeing. 


pr£v oyant^. 


PRiv 1/. Foreseen 


After the same manner is conjugated surseoir, to supersede, partici 


pie 


suRsis. pouRVOiR, to provide, except the 


perfect tense. 




/ 1 




Je pourv us. 


Queje pourv wssc*. 


3 


Thou 




Tu pourv us. 


Tii pourv ii«9e«. 


"§. 


He 


provided, 


II pourv ut^. 


// pourv dt^. 


Si. 

"3 


We 


did provide. 


Nous pourv Hmes. 


Nous pourv ussions. 


3 


You 




Vous pourv Ctes, 


Vous pourv t^«9ie2;. 


<_ 

A 


They] 




Us pourv urent^\ 


Ji* pourv ussenO^ 





A^.B. MAY, expressing a with, is rendered by the pratnt of the subjunctive of POUVOIR ; 
as. May you be happy ! Puissiez-vou« Stre heureux ! 

But observe that, these instances excepted, the subjunctive never begins a sentence ; so 
this, May I see it 1 is, Puis-jc U voir ? Not Le voie-j>, or Puiss6-;e /« voir f 



k2 



140 



IRREGULAR VERBS ill OIR. 



INFINITIVE. 

To KNOW. SAV oir.* 

JMPERJTIFE. 

Know. sache, sing, sachez, plur. 
Let us know. sachons. 





INDICATIVE, 


SUBJUNCTIVE. ^ 


^ I know. 

3 Thou k no west 


Je sais'. 


Queje 


sache.f g 


Tu sais. 


Tu 


saclies**. ^ 


g He knows. 


7/ sait«. 


II 


sache. g 


J^« 




iVb7/.?sav ons 


Nam 


rsachions. ;§ 


g You 


^know. 


Vous sav cz. 


Vous sachiez. g* 


•" Theyl 




J& sav enVK 


lis 


sachent*®. o 

• 


1 Thou 




Je sav a/s«. 






Tu sav au. 








did know. 


J/ sav ait^^. 
Nous sav 107W, 






$ You 
P They, 


> 


rbwssav iez. 








lis sav aieni\ 




9r 


^^ ' 




Je sus**. 


Queje 


susse*. » 
susses. " 


2 Thou 
fHe 




T?^ sus. 


Tu 


knew. 


J/ sui*. 


II 


sAt*. i 


^^e 


did know. 


Nous ^umes. 


iVbiz^ suasions. ^ 


1 You 




Vous sutes. 


Vom 


r sussiez. p 


' ^eyl 




J/* surenU'. 


lis 


sussent^*. g 


?^ ^ 




Je 'saurai'. 




• 


g Thou 




Tu sauras=«. 






I He 


sAfl//, «r/// 


// saura. 






1 fTe 


know. 


iVbt^saurons. 






»i You 




Vous saurez. 






? They^ 




lis sauront". 






?^ 1 




Je •saurais*. 






s* Thou 




Tu saurais. 






g ^e 


shouldy 


II saurait* 






1 You 
PThey^ 


wld know.^ 


iVb?/* saurions. 








Vans sauriez. 








lis sauraienf^ 






OERUND. 


PARTICIPLE. 


'Knowing. 


sachant". 


su. 


Known. 



• Meaning mental knowledge, science^ information ^ as, 
I know my lesson, French, English, mathematics. 
Je sais ma lecon, U Fran^ais, V Anglais, les mutk^matiquet, 
I know your brother will come. Je sais que votre frere viendra. 

But To KNOW, meaning to be acquainted with, to know by sight, is not eicpressed by 
BAVOiR, it is expressed by CONNAITRE ; as, 

1 know your brother, your sister, i.e.l am acquainted with them, I know them bv 
sight. Je connais votre fr^e, votre sxur, 6^e, See connaitre. 

+ Not that I know, ^c. so often used in answer to a question, is expressed by the pre- 
sent of the subjunctive of this verb j thus. 

Not that 1 know. Non pas queje sache. 

No( that we knou\ Non pas que nous sachions. 



inREGULAR VERBS in OIR. 



141 



INFINITIVE. 

To be WORTH. VAL oir. 





INDJCATIFE. 


auBJUNCTiri 


• 


y^ I am worth. 


Je "vaux**. 


Queje 


vaille*.* 


3 


5 T!iou art worth. 


Tu vaux. 


Tu 


vailles*. 


(§ 


^ Heis worth. 


II vaut*. 


II 


vaille. 




^f^e ] 


Nous yq\ oris. 


Nousvq} ions. 


^ 


S You >are worth. 


Vous val ez. 


Vousy&\ iez. 


o 


" They\ 


Ila val enP\ 


Ila 


vaillenU*. 


5- 

• 


r^ ] 


Je val aM«. 








"S Thouyvxts worth. 


Tu val aw. 








^He J 


// val ait^. 








^fTe 


Nous val ions. 








a You >were worth. 


yotis\a\ iez. 








8 Theyj 


lis val aieni^. 








^I ] 


Je val iM*. 


Queje 


val usseP. 


3 


» Thou )was worth. 


Ttt val l^«. 


Tu 


val usses. 


f 


^He J 


II val ?/^'. 


II 


val Hlh. 


en. 


^^e 


2Vbu«val itme*. 


Nous\a\ ussions. 




1 You >«£?crc worth. 


Vous val i2^e«. 


Vous 


val ussiez. 


O 


• They, 


//5 val urenP\ 


lis 


val v^ssenV^ 




*riT ] 


Je ^vaudrai*. 








1 Thou 


Tu vaudras". 








3 He [shall, will 


II vaudra. 








1 ^^e 


be worth. 


Nous vaudrons. 








E You 




Vous vaudrez. 








? They^ 




lis vaudront*. 








^^ 1 




Je •vaudrais*. 








r Thou 




Tu vaiidrais. 








8 I^e 


should, would 


11 vaudrail^. 








ft/Tc 


be worth. 


Nous vaudrions. 








g' You 




Vous vaudriez. 








.2- TAcy. 




lis vaudraient* 








G£AI^^D. 




PARTICIPLE. 




£ 


eing worth. 


VAL ant^. 


VAL U. 


Been worth 



^fler the same manner as valoir are conjugated 
uqviYXLOiK, to be equivalent. vR£YkLoiR, to prevail. 

RE VALOIR, to return like for like. se pre valoir, to avail oneself 

But observe that pr^valoir and se prevaloir have an imperative. 
prevail. prdvaux, sing. pr£val ez. plur. 

Let us prevail. preval ons. 



And, I may 

Thou mayesl 
He may 
We mMy 
You may 
They muy 



prevail, is 



Queje pr6v ale, 
Tu prev aies, 
11 pr^v ale. 






/not ***• 
iVbM«prt5v alions,[ gs 



Fo?/«pr«5v aliez, 
lis pr<lv alent 



it 



* See II preceded by i, page 11 and 152. 



143 



IRREGULAR VERBS ill OIR. 



INFINITIVE, 

To SEE. V oir. 



see. 



IMPERATIVE. 

V ow, sing. 



Let us see. 



INDICATIVE, 



I see. 



S Thou seest. 
g /le sees. 

S Yot/ >see. 



ri. ] 



I%ow 






iYou 
? They) 



^ Thou 



did see. 



CD 

They^ 



>saw, c?irf see. 






B Thou 
^ He 

f Yo?/ 



»«Aflr/', will see. 



Tu V ow. 

J/ V 02^^ 

NojtsYoyons*, 
Voiis V oyez. 
//« Yoient^K 

Je V oyaisfi, 
Tu V o^az;?. 
// V oyai^. 
Nous V oyions, 
Vous V oyee2. 
//* V oyaieni^. 

Je V /a-*'*. 

T'lM V w, 
II V z>. 
2Vb7/5 V imes, 
Vous V ?^e», 
//« \ireiii^\ 

Je *verrai*, 
Tu verras*', 
II verra. 
Nousyevvoxis, 
Vous verrez. 
lis verront*". 



r Thou 



Je *verrais'. 
Tu verrais. 

& #r c 2Vot/« verrions. 

FoM^verriez. 
J& verraient*. 



gYou 
f'They] 



V oyons, 

SUBJUNCTIVE, 

Queje vofe®. 
Tu V ofes*^. 

// vo/e. 3 

Nous y oyions, «i 

VonsYoyiez. % 

lis Yoient, ^ 



Queje V iss^, 
Tu V Mse*. 
/Z V f <». 
JVbiw V issions, 
Vous V zme^r. 
J/.S V issent^K 



in 

n 



Cfi 

pi 



'Ji 



GERUND, PARTICIPLE, 

seeing v oyanl^. v w. seen 

^y?er <Ae «ame manner as xom are conjugated 
ENTREvoiR, to have a glimpse, 'revoir, to see again. 



* Only one r is sounded, the other r serves to make the preceding e long. 



IRREGULAR VERBS 111 
rjTFINlTirE. 

To WILL, To be willing. 



INDICATIVE. 



I 



CO 



I 
I 



►0 
I 

e 






o 

CD 

9 



s 

o 

g 



/ will,* or am S. 
Thou wiliest, arl E: 
He wills, or i« c^ 

TA^y r^ willing:. 

7%oul ^°"^^»; 
u- 1^^ willing. 

jA^j«^^« willing, 
J 

H/? 
J^c 

You 
They) 

I 

Thou 

He 

tFe 

You 

They} 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

They] 



would, 
r willed. 



will.* 

9halU will 
be willing. 



would,* 
yshould^ wld 
be willing. 



Je "veux*'. 
Tu veux. 
II veut«. 
iVb//irvoul om* 
FbM«voul ez. 
lis veulenU*. 

Je "voul aw*. 
Tu voul ais. 
II voul ai^". 
Nou9 voul iom. 
Vou8 voul iez, 
lis voul aient^» 

Je "voul ii«". 
Tt/- voul us. 
II voul le^. 
iVbuAvoul ^mes. 
Vous Toul i2^e«. 
Jfe voul urenV*. 

Je "voudrai*. 
Tu voudras. 
II voudra. 
Nom voudrons. 
Vous voudrez. 
lis voudront**. 

Je "voudrais*. 
Tu voudraiB. 
II voudrait*. 
Nous voudrions. 
Vous voudriez. 
lis voudraient*. 



GERUND. 

Being willing, voul ani^. 



OIR. 113 



VOUL oir. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Queje veuille*. | 

Tu veuilles". ;§ 

II veuille. S^ 

Nous voul ions, i, 

Vous voul iez. §? 

lis veuillent' . CR 



Queje voul uss^. 
Tu voul usses. 
II voul <2<« 
iVbu« voul ussions. 
Fou« voul y^siez. 
lis voul ussenPK 






aa 



PARTICIPLE 

VOUL u. Been willing. 



* FVequent mistokct are ooxnmitted in the uae of the word WILL, vhich Mmietimes ia a vkbb im* 
laying will, wisk, deure, inclination, nnd sometimes, as has been seen through the corjngations, only 
the sio "( of some of the tenses of verbs. 

* Though the distinction between will, the verb, and will, the siffit, in some instances be nice, yet 
it is necessary it should be made, as it changes the idea. 

If WILL, would, can be changed into the words be tmlling, they denote the will, and are ex- 
pressed by the tenses of vouloib as above. 

If WILL, Would, cannot properly be changed into be unllfng, they are mere sions expressed in 
ftench by the Urminatiim of the verb. This sentence, for example, 

fVill yon go to the play to-night ? may be translated two ways, thus : — 

VouLis-toics alter a la eomidie ee toir t. or, ibkx-vokc d la comidie ce soir f with this difference, 
that in the first instance, I inquire whether it is the with, detite, or inclinaXxon of the person I am 
addressing, to go to the play, yet he mav noc go for all that ; in the second, I do not consult his 
uAfl or iacinatian, tot a person may do a tning against his inclination ; but I ask whether hit going 
to the play will actually take place, either because he has retolved to go, or because he b compelled 
to go. 

t Voidoir has two imperatives ; one (veiut, wnUamt, vtmlez) is very rarefy used, according to the 
French Academy ; most other grammarians say it should meter be used, being ridiculous for a person 
to command himself, and abaard to command others to do the same. The second impprative id onl y 
used in the second person plural (vemillex'), and means have the goodness, the kindnc^si. 



&3 



144 



VEllBS in 



INFIN. 

DEV oir. 



A TAHLE shewing, in one point of view, how to oonjugai 

PART. 

pu. 



GEK. 

aut. 



PART. 

du. 



I U 

Z Noui 

§ Voiu 

S Us 

m 

ffje 
I 7a 

P KOHS 

8 J/ 

^ Nous 
g Fous 

P. lous 
t Us 

" ii 

o. Voui 
r lU 



JNDIC. 

dois 
dois, 
doit 
DEV on$ 
«, 
doivent. 

ais 

ais 

ait 

ions 

iez 

a lent, 

dus 

dus 

dut 

dumes 

dutes 

durent 

DCV rai 
ras 
ra 
tons 
m 
rent, 

rais 

rats 

rait 

rions 

riez 

raient. 



IMP. 
dois, 

OflS, 



SITBJ. 

doivo 

doives 

doive 

ions 

iez 

doivent. 



dasse 

dusses 

dut 

dussions 

dussiez 

dusseut. 



6ER. 
ant, 

IMP. 



Like DivoxR conjugate 
Redevoir. Pe^evoir, 
Apercevuir, Concevoir, 
Recevoir. 






ASSE oir. 



assieds 
assieds 
assied 

« ^ttS ASSEyCMM, 

« Vans yez, 

? lis yent. 



S Tu 



yontt 

assieds, 

!fonSf 
yez. 



asria. 

Vtf 

yen 

V« 

yiont 

yiez 

yaU 



L Nou9 
I Vou$ 



i 



Nous 
Vous 

g Nous 

I: roM» 



yats 

yais 

yait 

yhns 

yiez 

yaient 

assis 

assis 

assit 

assimes 

asntes 

assirent 

asseyerai 

asseyeras 

asseyera 

asseyerons 

asseyerez 

asseyeront. 



assisse 

assisses 

assit 

assissioDS 

assissiez 

assisscnt. 



Yt* .7*' asseyerais 

g. Ta asseyerais 

^ // asseyerai t 

asseyerions 

asseyeriez 

asscycraient. 

Like AssEOtR, coi\jngate s'Ajueoir, Ruaseoir, M 
Kasseoir. 



§ Nous 
Pj Vous 



INFIN. 

POU Voir, 

INDIC. 

puis 

peux 

peut 

POUV ORS 

ez 
peuTcnt. 

uis 

ais 

ait 

ions 

iez 

a tent 

pus 

pus 

put 

pumes 

ptites 

pureut. 

ponrrai 

pourras 

pourra 

pourrons 

pourroz 

poiirront 

poorrais 

pourrais 

pcurrait 

pourrions 

pourriez 

pourraient. 



SUBJ. 

puisie 

puisses 

puisse 

puissions 

puissiez 

puisscnt. 



pusse 

pusses 

put 

pussions 

pussiez 

pussent. 



PliitV oir, oyant, u. 



015 

ois, 
oit 

oyons, 
ci/ez, 

Ol^llt, 

oyais 

oyait 

oyions 

oyiez 

oyaient, 

• 

u 
is 
it 
imes 

ites 
ireut. 



Olf, 

oyons, 
ez, 



ate 

oies 

oie 

oyimt 

oyiez 

oient. 



isse 

issei 

it 

issipnt 

issiez- 

iisent 



PREVOlRai 
as 
a 

ons 

ez 

out. 

ais 

uis 

ait 

itms 

tez 



a tent, 

Pourvoir, perfect PourvM, P<mrT«P; 
r.ot Ponrv/i, eur&roir, pHrticiple 5«i 



OIR. 






145 


all the verbs in OIR, 


bolh regular and irregular. 






1NFIN. GER. 


PAKT. 


INFIN. GER. 


FAKT. 




SAV wr, sachant, 


fill. 


Voir, oyant, 


u. 




INDiC. IMP. 


SUBJ. 


IN Die. IMP. 


sub:. 




sais 


saclie 


Vols 


oie 




sais, sache» 


saches 


ois, ois. 


oii's 




salt 


saclie 


oit 


vie 




SAV ons, sachons, 


sachions 


oyonSf oyons, 


oylms 




ez, sachez. 


Bach iez 


oi/ez, oyez, 


oyiez 




ent. 


sacbent. 


oient. 


oient. 




ais 




oyais 






ais 




oyais 






ait 




oyait 






iont 


• 


oyions 






iez 




oyiez 






aient. 




oy aient. 




sus 


susse 


m 

\S 


tsse 




BUS 


susses 


is 


isses 




sut 


sut 


it 


it 




sumes 


sussions 


imes 


issions 

m • 




sutes 


sussiez 


itcs 


'ssiez 




surent 


sussent. 


irent. 


issent. 




saurai 




verrai 






sauras 




yerras 






saura 




verra 






saurons 




verrons 






saurez 




verrez 






sauront. 




verront. 






saurais 




veirais 






saurais ^ 




verrais 






saurait 




verrait 

• 






sauriona 




vernons 

• 






sauriez 




verriez 






sauraient. 


u. 


verraient. Kntrevo\/, Revoir, 




VALwr, ant, 


VOUL oir, ant. 


u. 




YHVLX. 


vaille 


veux 


veuille 

* ii 




vaux 

vaut 


vailles 
vaille 


veux 
veut 


yeuules 
veuille 

• 




VAL ons 


ions 


vouL (ms 


UVIS 




ez 
ent. 


iez 
vaillent. 


ez 
veuleut 


*£Z 

veuitlent 




ais 




ais 

* 






ais 




au 






ait 




ait 

• 






ions 




tons 


y 




iez 




iez 






aient. 




aient. 






vs 


usxe 


us 


Ua%9 




vs 


usses 


vs 


USSfS 






ttt 


ut 


ut 


nt 

• 




^mes 


Wisufns 


umes ' 


usii(ms 




utes 


us^iez 


iites 


usiiez 




urent. 


ussent. 


urent. 


n<i€»»?. 




vaudrai 




voudrai 






yaudras 




voudms 






vaudra 




voudra 






Taudrons 




voudrons 






vaudrez 




voudrez 






vaudront. 




Voudrout. 






TTUKll'ais 




voudra is 






vaudrais 




voudiais 






raudrait 




voudrai it 

1 • 






vaudriona 




Youdricua 

> • 






Taudriez 




vouurif^z 






vaudraieut. 




voudraipnt. 




t. 


K»niir«loir,R«vn1oir,(Prevalo*ir, se Prf- 


1 




v!&\\ATtSMbjtmetivet Prcvo/e, not Prevoi7/<. ) 







1 40 



UUGULAU VLRBS ill RE. 



ISFISITIFE, 

To Whir fir J To ^xpeci*. 

IMPERATIFE, 

wait. ATTEND *, sing. 

Let vs wait. 



ATTEND re '. 
ATTEND eZy plur. 

ATTEND Ons, 



» Thou 
WHe 



INDICATIVE, 

^ I wait, or am g J* attend «". 
3 Thou waitest, art E Tu attend s. 
g He waits, or /« ^ II attend*'. 
^ ^c 1 .. ' iVb?/« attend ons, 

S yb?« > ' ... Vous attend- ez, 

* They J ^* ^"^* J/« attend enPK 

g* / ] , J' attend fllV. 

*g TAow^t^'o* waiting. Tm attend ais, 

^ He ] II attend ai^. 

5 ^e 1 JVoM« attend ions, 

S yb?^ >ircre waiting. Vous attend iez, 

? They ] lis attend aient^. 

tT attend is*. 
Tu attend is. 

II ATTEND 2^. 

Nous ATTEND imcS. 
Vous ATTEND ftes, 

lis ATTEND irenP*. 

J* ATTENDR fli*. 

Tu ATTENDR OS, 
shlltWllWdMj II ATTENDR a. 

he waiting. Notts attendr ons, 

Vous ATTENDR €Z. 
lis ATTENDR Onff^. 

T ATTENDR aisP. 

Tu ATTENDR ais, 

shdt wd wait, II attendr ai(^. 

Nous ATTENDR ioilS. 
Vous ATTENDR icZ, 

lis ATTENDR atent^, 
waiting. attend ujiP^. 



Quef 
Tu 



SUBJUNCTiyE, 
ATTEND e*. 



ATTEND e*." 
II ATTEND e. 
Nous ATTEND i07lS. 
Vous ATTEND /eZ. 

lis ArrEND enV^. 






CO 



We 

You 

^ They] 

? Thou 



waited, 
did wait. 



Quef 
Tu 



t 

p 



a 



ATTEND me.* 

ATTEND isses, 
ATTEND ti^, \ 

Nous ATTEND issions, ^' 

Vous ATTEND isStCZ, ^ 



// 



«-♦. 



lis ATTEND issenO^. S 



He 
We 



3 

o 

cr! You 

? They] 

^ Thou 
§ He 
B-.We 



You 
?- They} 



o 
a 



be waiting. 



ATTEND W. 



waited. 



jifier the same mariner as attendre, are conjugated 

Battre, <o beat, to fight. Descen(iTe,to gooTcomedtnon. 'RehBttre,tobeatagain,torep€at 

Abattre, to putt down, 'Entendre fto hear , understand, Hefondre, to melt again, 

Combattre, to fight. Etendre, to stretch, to spread, Kendre, to render, to return. 

Condescendre, to condescend. Fendre, to cleavCf to split, se Rendre, to surrender, 

Confondre, to confound. ¥ondre, to melt, to cast, 

Correspondre, to correspond, Interrompre, to intemipi, 

Corrompre, to cotTupt, Mordre, to bite, 

JD^battre, to debate. se Morfondre, to grow cold, 

se D^battre, to struggle. Pendre, to hang 

DHendre, to forbid. Perdre, to lose, to ruin, 

se Defeiidre, to defend oneself, Pondre, to lay eggs. 

D^mordre, to relax, Pr^tendre, to pretend, 

D^pendre, to depend, Rabattre, to abate. 



R^pandre, to spill, to shed. 
R^pondre, to answer, 
Retordre, to twist avew, 
Rompre, to break, 
Suspendre, to suspena, 
Teodre, to tend, to ben^m 
Tondre, to shear, 
Tordre, to twist, to wring, 
A'^endre, to sell. 



IRREGULAR VERBS in RE. 147 

The IRREGULAR verbs belonging to this conjugation are 

Abtoudref to absolve, see resoudbe. Enceindre, to encompass, . . • like peindrb . 

Abttraire, to abstract, tee traire. Enclore, to enclose.-f 

Accrcitre, to accrue, like coNNAtTRB. ETiduire, to daub, like instruire 

Admettre, to admit, like mrttre. Enfreindre, to infringe, .... 1 in^ ffindre 

Avparaitre, to appear, like connaItrb. Enioindre, to enjoin, / i-BiwuKii. 

APPRENDRE, to learn, . . . page 149. B'Entremettre, intermeddle, . like mettre. 

Astreindre, to restrain, \ .., „-,«Tio v Entreprendrey to undertake, . like apprendrb 

Atteindre, to reach, to bit,. . j "'^ ^eindrk. Epreindre, to squeeze out, \ ,m ^ „„,««„r 

BOIRE, to drink, page 150. lieindre, to extinguish, . . . / "''* ^^^'N^RE- 

Brairef to bray.* Exclurey to exclude, *,.,,»., see concLORE. 

Ceindref to gird, like FEINDRE. ExtrairCy to extract, like TRAIRE. 

Cireoneirey to circumcise,. ,.. see dire. FAIRE, to do, to make,. . . « page IdT. 

Circonscriret to circumscribe, . like ecrire. FEINDRE, to feign, page 158. 

Clore, to close, to shut.t Frire, to fr^, « see Ri RE. 

Commettre, to commit, like mettke. Jnduire, to induce, like instrdihe. 

Comparattre, to appear, /i/cecoNNAiTRE. Inscrire, to inscribe, like ECRIRE. 

Complaire, to comply with, . . like plaire. INSTRUIRE, to instruct, . page 159. 

Comprendre, to understand, . . like apprendre. Jnterdire, to interdict, see DIRE. 

Compromettre, compromise, . . like mettbe. Introduire, to introduce,. . . • like instruire. 

CONCLURE, to conclude, . . page 151. JoindrBf to join, like feindre. 

ConduirSf to conduct, to lead,, like instruire. LIRE, to read, page 160. 

C&nfire, to pickle, see dire. Luirey to shine, see instruire. 

Conjoindref to join together,. . like feindre. Maudire, to curse, ) _. m» b 

CONNAITRE, to know, .... page 152. MMire, to slander, ^ see hike. 

Qmstiiiire, to construct, .... like instruire. Miconnaitre, not to know, . . like coNNAiTRE. 

Contraindre, to compel, like feindre. se M^rendre, to mistake, . . like apprendre 

Contrediref to contradict, ,,.. see dire. METl^RE, to put, page 16i . - 

Contrefaire, to counterfeit, . . . like fairk. MOUDRE, to grind, page 162. ^ 

Convaincret to convince, like vaincre. NaAtrey to come to life, see connaiTRB. 

COUDRE, to sew, page 153. Nuiret to harm, to hurt, ..... «e« instruire. 

Craindre, to fear like feindre. Oindret to anoint, like feindre. 



CROIRE, to believe, page 154. Omettre, to omit, like Mettre. 

ChoUre, to grow up, like con naitre. Paitre, to graze, 1 i .. connaitrh 

Cuire, to do victuals, to cook, see instruire. Paraitre, to appear, J * 



Dicoudre, to unsew, like coudre. Peindrey to paint, like feindre. 

D6crire, to describe, like ecrirb. Permettre, to permit, like METTRE. 

DiertAtrey to decrease, Hke coNNAtTRE. Plaindre, to pity, 1 j-r^ »£i«uitR 

se Didire, to recant, to retract, see dire. se Plaindre, to complain, . . / 

D£duirey to deduct, like instruire. PLAIRE, to please, page 163. 

Difaire, to imdo, to defeat,. 1 i.. «.,«« se Plaire a, to delight in,. . . like plaire. 

Be Difaire, to ^et rid of, ... J faire. Poursuivre, to pursue, iifc« suivre. 

D^aindre, to disjoin, 2t^e feindre. Pr^dire, to foretel, see dire. 

Demettre, to disjoint, 1 ... Prendre, to take, tt/c* apprendre. 

■e Demettre, to abdicate, . . . / mettre. Prescrire, to prescribe, /i/c« ecrire. 

Diplaire, to displease, 2i/ce plaire. Produir^, to produce, like instruire. 

Disapprendre, to unlearn,. . . . Zi/c6 apprendre. Pramettre, to promise, like mettre. 

Vitemdrey to take off the die, like feindre. Proscrire, to prosmbe, Uke I^CRIRE. 

Vitrai^e, to destroy, like instruire* Reboire, to drink again, like BoiRE. 

DIRE, to say, • page 155. Reconduire, to lead-back, . . . like instruire. 

DisparaAtre, to disappear,. . . . like coNNAtTRE. ReconnaUre, to know again,, like connaitre. 

Dissoudre, to dissolve, like RitoUDRE. Reeaudre, to sew again, .... like coudre. 

Diitraire, disturb attention, . . like trai re. R£crire, to write again, like ecri re. 

Eclore, to hatch.-f* Recuire, to do or cook again, see instrui re. 

ECRIRE, to write, page 156. Redefaire, to undo again, . . . like fa i r e. 

Elire, to elect, like lire. Redirey to say again, like dire. 

Emoudre, to whet, to grind, . like moudre. RMuire, to reduce, Uke instruire. 

* brairb is used only in the following tenses and persons ; 

Present, Future, Oniditional, 

11 brait, ff«, it brays. 11 braira. He, it will bray. 11 brairait. /i«, it would brav. 
1 4 braient, They, bray. lis brairont, They will bray, lit brairaient. They would bray. 

f CLORB, and its compounds bclorb. rnclorr, have only the followinii tenses and 



148 IRREGULAR VERBS in RE. 



__• 
Befaire, to do again, f,,,like faire. 
Retire, to read again, ..... like lire. 

Reluire, to shine, like instrcire. 

Remettre, to put again, . . . like mettre. 
Rtmoudre, to grind again,, like moudre. • 

Renaitre, to revive, tee connaitre. 

Rentrairej to finedraw, . . * like traire. 

Repattre, to feed, see connaitre. 

Reprendrej to take again,. . like appk enure. 
RfiSOUDRE, to resol ve,. paj^e 164. 
Restreindre, to restringe^. . like feindre. 
Revivre, to live again, .... like viVRC. 

RIRE, to laugh, ......... page 165. 

Satisfaire, to satisfy, ..... like FAIRE. 

S6duire» to seduce, like instruire. 

Soumettre, to submit, like METI'RE. 



Sourire, to smile, ........... like rire, 

Sousci ire, to subscribe, like ecrire. 

Soustraire, to subtract, like traike. 

SUIVRE, to follow, page 166. 

Suffire, to be sufficient, see dire. 

Surfuire, to exact, .......... like faire. 

Swprendre, to surprise, like apprendiie 

Survivre, to outlive, survive, . like vivre. 
se Taire, to hold one's tongue, . like pla i r e. 

Teindre, to dye, like fei ndre. 

Traduire, to translate, like instrCire. 

TKAIRE, to milk, page 167. 

Transerire, to transcribe, .... tike ecrire. 

Transmettre, to transmit, like mettke. 

VAINCRE, to vanquish, . . . page 168. 
VIVRE, to Uve, page 169. 



persons in use : 



infinitive. 
CLo «*6. To close. 



09 



p 

o 
S2. 

< 
o 



O 

o 





Je clo f . 

Tu clo s. 
II clo t. 

Je clor ai, 
Tu clor as» 
II clor a. 
Nous clor 07W. 
Tous clor ez. 
lis clor ont. 



Je clor ais. 
Tu clor ai*. 
II clor ait. 
A'ous clor ions. 
VouL clor wz, 
i/s clor aient. 



indicative. 

1 close, Oram closing. 
2'hou closest, art closing. 
He closes, is closing. 

Tfiou\ 

We r^^i ^^^ close, or be closing. 

'You I 
They) 

Thoul 

Txf \should, v)ould close, oi* be closing. 

You 
They) . 



participle. 
CLO s. closed* 

subjunctive. 
Q^JI^ close. 
Tu closes. 
11 close. 



3 

a 

o 
o 
o 



compound tenses. 



3 



I have 
Thou fcast 
He/ia5 






g Youhat'e I 
I They have) 






J' ai 
Tit as 
II a 
Koits avons i 
Voiis avez 
Us ont 



Qve 



»c/05. 



aie 

ales 

ait 



k 

It 

Nous ayons i' 
Vflus ayez I 
Us aient J 



>Wos. 



I had closed^ &c. J' avais clos, 6ic, 



V- 



S 



o 

CP 



Conjugate in tlie same manner, enclore, 



To enclose. 



Colore has only the following tenses and persons in use . 



infinitive. 
^CLo re. 



To be hatching. 



participle. 



ECLO£. 



hatched. 



n ^ciot. 

Jls ^closent. 
It Sclera. 
Us ^cloront. 
// ^clorait. 
lis ecloraient. 



indicative. 



It is hatching. 
They are hatching. 
It will be hatching. 
Titey will be hatching. 
It would be hatching. 
T^. would be hatchingr. 



subjunctive. 
Qm**/ ^close. 
Jls ^closent. 



3 

tr 

o 

cr 

P 



IRREGULAR VERBS in RE, 



149 



INFINITIVE, 



To LEARN. 



*APPREND re. 



IMPEllATIFE, 

Learn. apprend s, sing, Apprenez, plur. 

Apprenons. 



Let us learn. 



INDICATIVE. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 






a 

CD 



B 

•a 

t 

•I 

n 









/ learn, or atti 

Thou learn est, art 

He learns, or is 

fFe ) , 

learn, 

are learning. 




5* 



learned, 
did learn. 



c 



•<t) 
o 

P. 

o 



^ 



o 

cr. 

c 
p 



Thoufwas learning. 
He J 

/re ] 

You >wcre learning. 
They] 

T 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

They] 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

They] 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

They 



shlU toll learn, 
be learning. 



shd^ wcMearn, 
he learning. 



// 

Nous 
Voiis 
lis 



.rt *apprend ^. Qt^f 
Tu ^^apprend s. Tu 

II apprend*". 
Nous apprenons. 
Vous apprenez. 
lis apprennent'^ 

J' apprenais". 
Tu apprenais. 
ll apprenail*''. 
Nov^ apprenions. 
Vous appreniez. 
Its apprenaient*. 

J^t appris**. 
Tu appris. 
II apprii**. 
Nous apprimes. 
Vous opprites, 
lis apprirent^®, 

T apprendr at*. 
Tu apprendr as^, 
11 apprendr a. 
Nous apprendr on». 
Vous apprendr esr. 
lis apprendr ont^, 

J* apprendr aisP, 
Tu apprendr ais. 
II apprendr ai^. 
Nous apprendr ions. 
Vous apprendr tez. 
lis apprendr aienP. 



apprenne*. 

apprennes**. 

apprenne. 

apprenions; 

appreniez. 

apprennent. 



Quef 
Tu 
II 

Nous 
Vous 
lis 



apprisse*. 

ap])risses. 

apprit*®. 

apprissions. 

apprissiez. 

apprisseut^®. 









<0 



P 

•n 
9 



GERUND. 

Learning. Apprenant'^ 



PARTICIPLE. 

Appris*. Learned. 



After the same manner as apprendre, are conjugated \mutake, 

D^sAPPRENDRE, to unleam, se m£prendre, to commit a 

PRENDRE, to take. reprendre I ^^ '^*^ again, 

COMPRENDRE, to Comprehend, to understand. * \ to rebuke. 

ENTRBPRENDRE, to Undertake. surprendre, to surprise. 



* Sound only one p. * see pp. page 13. 



t See note * page 28. 



150 



IRREGULAll VERBS in RE. 



INFlKITIVEm 



To DRINK. 



BOI re. 



Drink. 

Let us drink, 

INDICATIVE. 



IMPERATIVE* 

BOI Sy dng. 



•-1 



^ I drink, or am 

3 Thou drinkest, art =" 

S He drinks, or is .g* 

Z We \ '^ 

S You \ ^""^' 

© «,. [are drinking. 



They 



•g Thou >M7flW drinking. 
^He J 

I You >t£?crc drinking. 
P They] 



2 Thou 
fHe 

S You 

I Thou 

I Wj 
&. You 



> 



drank, 
did drink. 



shally will drink, 
be drinking. 



I He [shd, wd drink, 

I* FOM 

.^TAcyJ 



6e drinking, 



Je "boi 5®^, 
7^i£ boi s, 
II boi <-«. 
Nous buYons. 
Vou^ buvez. • 
lis boi venO^, 

Je *buvais'. 
Tu buvais. 
II buvait*. 
Nou^ buvions* 
Vous buviez. 
lis buvaient*. 

Je *bus*. 
Tu bus. 
It but« 
Nous bumes. 
Vous bdtes**. 
lis burenU®. 

Je *^boir ai\ 
Tu boir a^\ 
II boir a. 
Nous boir ons. 
Vous boir ear. 
lis boir 071^. 

Je "^boir ajV. 
Ttf boir ais, 
n boir flt7.a» 
iVoM* boir ions, 
Vom boir /cz. 
lis boir aienU^ 



Buvez, ;3/Mr. 
BUYons, 

SUBJUNCTIVE, 

Que je *3boi vc", 
jTm boi t?e«*'. 
K boi ve. 
Nous buvions. 
Vous buviez. 



3 



Its boi »e/i/>*, 3. 

99* 



P 
n 
TT 



Queje *busse'. 
Tu busses. 
// bdt*. 3 
Nou^ bussions. ca* 
Vous bussiez. S 

Us bussent*". 9* 

»■•• 

s 



6ERUND. 



Drinking. 



Buvant**. 



PARTICIPLE. 

Bu. Drunk. 



After the same manner as boire is conjugated 
REBOiRB, to drink again ; to drink afresh. 



* See note 2- page 1, 



IRREOULAU VERBS in RE. 



151 



INFJNITiyE, 

To CONCLUDE. CONCLU re. 



IMPERATIVE, 

conclude. conclu s, «mg-. 
Let tis conclude. 

INDICATIFE, 

^ I conclude, or am g Je "conclu «*». 
S Thou conc\udesty art ^Tu conclu «. 
§ He concludes, or h B-Jl conclu <». 
Z IVe. 1 1 , ^ Nou% conclu on.?. 

i You pnclude,are- ^^w. eonclu ez. 

? They) «^«"c^^^»"«- m conclu eni'\ 



CONCLU ez, |}ZMr. 

conclu 0719, 

SUBJUNCTtyE. 

Que je conclu c*. 
Tu conclu <?«*•. 
J/ conclu e. 
2Vbi/« conclu lOTW. 
Vous conclu iez. 
Tls conclu enV*, 



^ mL u^as conclud- 
*o Thou) . „. 

%He. J '"8- 

a We 



- They] '"S- 






S, TAow 



S'//e 



/ie I concluded, 
We [did conclude. 
You 
They) 



^ You 



Je *^conclu ais^, 
Tu conclu ais, 
II conclu ai^. 
Nous conclu ions. 
Vous conclu iez. 
lis conclu aieiii^. 

Je "conclu «*. 
Tu conclu s. 
II conclu <«. 
Nou^ conclu fnes, 
Vous conclu tes, 
lis conclu reni^^. 



I 

^ Thou 



»«3 




Je "conclur aP. 

Tu conclur as*'. 

II conclur a. 

, ,. Nous conclur ons. 
concluding. ^.^^ ^^^^,^^ ^^ 

lis conclur ont.^* 



shall, will 
conclude. 



?J 



Thou 



I He 

t-We 

O 



You 
They] 



should, would 
conclude. 



o 

2- 

c 
& 

c 
s 



Que je conclu wc". 
Tw conclu sses, 
II conclu <*>. 
Nous conclu ssions. 
Vous conclu ssiez. 
lis conclu ssenV^. 



s 

9 

c: 

ft 

a. 

n 

o 



cu 
« 



Je "conclur ais^, 
Tu conclur ais. 
II conclur ai(*. 

, I J. Noujs conclur ions. 

he concluding, j^ou, conclur Uz. 

lis conclur aient^* 



GERUND. PARTICIPLE. 

concluding. conclu ani^. conclu, concluded 

After the same manner as conclure, m conjugated 
' BXCLURB, to exclude; observe only that the participle of exclure ia 
EXCLUs, excluded. 



152 



IRREGULAR VERBS in RE, 



To KNOW.* 



INFINITIFE, 

tCONNAIT re. 



Know. 

Let us know. 

INDICATJFE. 

/know. Je» fconnais*. 



I Thou knowest. 
a He knows. 

S You >knovv. 



IMPERJTIFE. 

connais, sing, connaissez, plur. 

connaissons. 

SUBJUNCriVE, 

Queje connaisse^ 
Tu connaisses*". 



*-* T 

•g Thou 
^He 
- fTe 
8 You 
fTheyl 

2 Thou 
WHe 

zm> 

5 You 
" They} 

^^ 

B Thou 

3 He 

I ^^ 



)c?2d know. 



^ knew, 
did know. 



shall, will 
know. 



Tu connais. 
II connatt®*. 
Nous connaissons. 
Vous connaissez. 
lis connaissent'^ 

Je connaissais*. 
Tu connaissais. 
// connaissait®®. 
Nous connaissions. 
roiis connaissiez. 
lis connaissaient*. 

Je connus*^. 
Tu connus. 
// connut*®. 
A^ous conn limes. 
Foits connutes. 
lis connurent". 

Je connahr ai\ 
Tu connaJtr as*«. 
Jl connattr a. 
Nous connaitr ons, 
Vous connaitr ez. 
lis connaitr on£^. 



II connaisse. 
Nous connaissions 
Vous connaissiez. 
lis connaissent". 



5C 

S 

o 



O 



Queje 
Tu 
II 



connusse*. 
connusses. 
connut*'. 






Nous conmissions. ^^ 
Vous connussiez. ^ 
lis connussent'8 § 



^ Thou 
§ He 

^.We 
I' You 
r- They^ 



Known. 



Je connaitr aUf^, 
Tu connaitr ais, 
shuld, wuld II connaitr aii^, 
know. Nous connaitr ions, 

Vous connaitr iez, 
lis connaitr aienP 

Knowing. connaissant««. . connu. 

After the same manner as coNNAixRE, are conjugated 
MicoNNAiTRE, not to kuow, PARAf TRE, to ttvpear. 
RECONNAiTRE, to know again. APPARAiTRB,<o'e7;;;?ear,speakinff of ghosts. 
CROiTREjogrowup^totncrease. coMPARAtTRE, (a law term,) to appear. 
AccRoiTRE, to accTue, disparaItre, to disappear. 

DfiCROiTRE, to decrease, paitre, to graze. 

RECRoiTRE, to grow ugaiji. REPAiTRE, to feed. 

RENAlTRE, to TCVive, r r - :, 

WAITRE, to come to /l/e, part, ne. lperf.snb.NAQC-i«e,-»,g>,-ft; .^shm, -iisiez, istent. 

• IMeaning to know hy sight, or to be acquainted with : as, 

J. .Znoit* T?' **"" ^""'^t' ^!** ^°^^®' yo"'^ brother, your sister, ». e, by sight. 
Je connais cet homme, ce cheval, cette maison, vctre frere, votre sceur 
See SA VOIR, page 140. t Sound only one n, and lay th^ iccent upon o. 



IRREGULAR VERBS in RE. 



153 



INFINITIVE, 



To SEW. 



COUD re 



IMPERATIVE* 

sew. coud 8, sing, cousez, plur. 



Let us sew. 



cousons. 



W 

o 


n 



/ sew, or am % Je» "coud «**. 
7%07/ sewest, ar^ 3. Tu coud «. 



//e sews, or is 
fFe 1 



s 



// coud*®. 
Nous cousons. 
Vous cousez.* 
lis cousent" 



SUBJUNCTIVE, 

Queje "couse*. 
Tu couses*°. 
II couse. 
^OMScousions. 
Vous cousiez. 
Us cousent". 



d 

en 



B^ 1 

•g Thourwas sewing. 

^He J 

I You fwere sewing. 
? They] 






^ TAow. 



CD 



sewed, 
did sew. 






We 



3 /Te 

•CI 

o 

CO 

c. You 
? They] 



shll, wll sew, 
he sewing". 



Je "cousais*. 
Tu cousais. 
II cousait**. 
JVb?f«cousions. 
Vo^is cousiez. 
Its cousalent^ 

Je "cousis.t 
Txv cousis*. 
II cousit*'. 
Nous cousimes. 
Vous cousites. 
lis cousfrent". 

Je "coudr az*. 
Tu coudr/M**. 
II coudr a. 
Nous coudr ons, 
Vous coudr ez, 
lis coudr ont^. 



Que je "cousisse*. 
Tu cousisses. 
// cousit*». 
Nous cousissions. 
Vo7ts cousissiez. 
lis cousissent". 






en 



? Thou 
olle 
^.IVe 
g You 
f-Theyj 



shd, wd sew, 
6c sewing. 



Je "coudr cm*. 
Tu coudr ais. 
II coudr ai^. 
Nous coudr io7is, 
Vous coudr iez, 
lis coudr aient^. 



GERUND, 



sewing. 



cousant'*. 



PARTICIPLE. 

cousu. sewed, 



jifter the same manner as coudre, are conjugated 
D^couDRE, to unsew, RECOUDRE, to sew again. 



* See 8 between two yowcla page 14. 



t See note 4, puife 9» 



154 



IRREGULAR VERBS in RE, 



INFJNITIFE. 

To BELIEVE. CROI re. 



JMPERATirS* 





Believe. 


crois, siTig. 


croyez, 


plur 




Let us believe. 


croyona 


• 




INDICATIVE, 




SUBJUNCTIVE. 


1 


^ / believe. 


Je* croi s^. 


Que je «®croi e. 


S* 


3 Thou believest. 

CD 


Tu "croi s. 




TV croi cs*«. 


% 


g He believes. 


II croi t^. 




// croi e. 


3 


i ^^ ] 


Nous cvoyons. 




iVoTw croyions. 


^ 


1 You >believe. 

CD wv ■ 1 


Fous croyez*. 




Fbi« croyiez. 




• They] 


lis croi ent^* 




//» croi cw<^*. 




1-4 r ^ 




Je "croyais*. 






•g Thou 




Tu croyais. 








^He 
- ITe 


did believe. 


II croyait". 
No7ts croyions. 




y 




S You 




Vous croyiez. 








? r>i6^^ 




lis croyaient" 






2- 


'^^ 1 




Je crus**. 


Que je crusse*. 


5* 


S TAOM 




Tu crus.* 




T?^ crusses. 






believed. 


II crut». 




// crut**. 


3 


jj^c [cZid believe. 


iVbw* crumes. 




iVoi/^crussions. 


i' 




Vous crutes. 




Fo?/5 crussiez. 


cr 


• They, 


lis crurent". 




lis criissent". 




^'^ 1 


Je »croir ai*. 






< 

(6i 


1 Thou 


Tu croir as^. 


- 




9 


II croir a. 








g ^e ( believe. 


Nous croir ons. 








1 You 


Vous croir cz. 








? They, 




lis croir ow^. 









?^ 1 

<^ i/e UAi/Zc?, wuld 






o 
E. 



believe. 



t7e ^^croir ai^, 
Tu croir «w. 
J/ croir ai^. 
Nous croir tow*. 
Vous croir «C2. 
J& croir aient^. 



GERUND. 

Believing. croyant**. 



PARTICIPLE. 

cru. Believed 



* See note 2, page 1. 



IRREGULAR VERBS in RE. 



155 



INFINITIVE, 
To SAY, To TELL. 

lUPERATirS, 

say. Di 8f sing. 

Let U9 say. 



S 



INDICATI 

I say, or am p 
TAou sayest, ar^*g- 
He says, or w ^.^ 

fTe 

, say, 

are saying 



I 

n 



You 
They] 

I 



i 



? 

s* 
a 



»said,<?tc2say. 



•■J 



P. 



r 



I 



7Aoi/>u7a« saying. 

He ] 

We ] 

You \were saying. 

They] 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 
They] 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

They] 

T 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

Theyi 



shllf toll say, 
be saying. 



ahd, wd say, 
^ he saying. 



saying. 



VE, 

J^ di a«. 
Tu di«. 
II di <». 
NousAi sons. 
Vous dites** 
Us di senP*, 

Je di iaitfi, 
Tu di sais. 
II di «ai<»*, 
A'oi^sdi sions. 
Vous di «iez. 
J/« di saieni^, 

Je di«" 
Tu di s, 
II di <". 
Nous 61 mes, 
Vous di <e*. 
lis di rcn<". 

/e dir aiK 

Tu dir ai"*. 
// dir a. 

N0US6\V OTIS, 

Vous dir ez, 
lis dir o/i^. 

Je dir ou". 
Tu dir ais. 
II dir a/^. 
iVb7/5 dir ions. 
Vous dir tez. 
Jfo dir aient^. 

DI sant^. 



Di re. 



Dites, p/tff. 
DI «on«. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Que je di se*. g 

, Tm di«e«*. -ir^ 

// di se. % 

Noujs6l\ sions. ^ 

Vous di siex. g 



Qm« je di S5c«. S 
Tu di ««e*. P- 
// dl ^. g 
iVbiw di ssions. § 
Fbtzi di ssiez. 2" 
//« di «jen<." 4? 



DI<». 



said. 



^y^er Me same manner as dire, are conjugated 

CONTREDIRE^ to controdict. pr^dire, to foretell. 

se D]£dire, to retract^ to recant, redire, to say again. 

interdire, to interdict. confire, to confecty preserve fruit in sugar. 

M audire, to curse. circoncirb, to circumcise, part, circoncis. 

m£dire, to dander. suffire, to he sufficient part, suffi. 

Observe only, that except redire, the ucond person plural of the preunt of the indi- 
cative, and of the imperative of all these verbs ends in $ez, and not in tes ; so, Vout 
coNFtses, Voui OONTREDISM ; and that in maudire the s is doubled in the middle of the 
word ; lo, Nous havdissohb, Vous MKUDissfLZ ; Jt maudi5SA1S, &c. not Nous maudi* 
sons, &c. 



156 



IRREGULAR VERBS in RE. 



INFINITIVE. 

To WRITE. fiCRI re. 







IMPERATIVE. 






write. 


iCRI «, Af/I^". 


ECRi W2, plur. 




Let U8 write. 


iCRI t?07W. 




INDICATIVE. 




SUBJUNCTIVE. 




^ I write, or am ^ 


r* Un^. 


Que J ^cri rc«. 


2? 

»i4 


3 Thou writest, art E 


Tu dcri «.t 


5'm ^cri pes* 


^9 


§ He writes, or U aq 


II ^cri ^. 


II icn ve. 




1 ^^« Lr/wHtlno. 


Vous 6cn vez. 


Nous icr'i vions. 
Vous «^cri viez. 


• JAwj^'^^^"^'"^* 


lis 6cri vent^K 


lis dcri vent^^. 


a. 


ir^ ] 


J** fecri vaisP. 






•g Thou)wa>s writinff. 


Tu ^ri vats. 


. 




^He J 


II €qv\ vaii^. 






I We 


Nous€qv\ vions. 






g YoM >«rere writing. 
? They] 


Vous 6cn viez. 






lis <5cri vaieni^. 




^^ 


^^ ^ 




J* ^cri vis.-f 


Quef €cri rme». 


3 


^ Thou 




Tu 6cri vis. 


Tu dcri rwsc*. 


?? 

V 


life 


1 wrote. 


II ^cri vi^. 


7/ dcri vtl^. 


3 


ZWe 


'c?zVi^ write. 


Nous€cv\ vimes. 


No7is icn vissions. 


■§; 


i You 




Vous 6cri vites. 


Vous dcri vissiez. 




* TAfy, 




lis 6cri virenP*. 


lis dcri rme'i/^' 




HiJ ^ 




J* ^crir ai\ 






1 Thou 




Tu dcrir as^. 






3 J/c 


shlU wll write, 


II ^crir a. 






1 ^e 


' ^e writinff. 


Nous^onv ons. 










Vous eerir ez. 






« TAeyJ 




lis dcrir oni^. 


1 




^/ . 




«/' ^criraf«.« 






.*" 7%0M 




Tw ^crir ais. 






I He 


shdy wd write. 


II dcrir ait^. 






^.m 


6e writing". 


Nojis dcrir ions. 






§' ybw 




Vous ^crir /ez. 


• 




?- They^ 




lis 6cnr aient\ 


• 






GERUND. 


PARTICIPLE. 





writing. ecri ran^^'. 

After the same manner as iScrire, are conjugated 
circonscrire, to circumscribe, proscrire, to proscribe. 



lECKi i^. written. 



decrire, to describe. 
INSCRIRE, ^0 inscribe, 
PRESCRiRE, to prescribe. 



R^CRiRE, ^ v}rite again. 
souscRiRE, to subscribe. 
TRANSCRiRE, to transcribe, to copy. 



• See note • page 28. 



t See note 4, page 2. 



IRREGULAR VERBS lU RE. 



157 



INFINITIFE. 
To DO, TO MAKE. 

IMPERATIVE* 

DO FAi «, sing. 

Let US do. 



FAI re. 



Faites, jdur, 
FAI 9ons, 



INDICATiy^E. 



? 



o 



g 

CD 




e 



s 



I 

•4 



a 

I 

i 



I do, or am 
Thou doest, «r< 5* 
He does, or t» ^ 

JFe ) , 

do, 

are doin^. 



>was doin^. 



You \were doing. 
They] 

I 

Thou 

^^ >did, or made. 

You 
They 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 
Theyi 

I 

Thou 

He 

fTe 

You 
They} 



shU, will do, 
be doing. 



shd, wld do, 
be doing. 



Je* fai «•. 
Tu fai 8. 
II fai ^. 
Nova fai sons. 
Vous faites. 
lU font* 

Je fai saUP. 
Tu , fai «ais.* 
II fai *af^. 
iVb?/«fai «ton«. 
Vous fai fi'es. 
J/ji fai saient^. 

Je fis*. 
Tm fis. 
II fit«. 

iVbttS I frnes. 
Vous files. 
/^* firent*". 

Je tferai\ 
Tu feras'-». 
J/ fera. 
Nous ferons. 
Vous ferez, 
Jfe feront". 

Je tf<?niis'. 
Tw ferais. 
II ferait« 
iVbii«ferions. 
Fbiw feriez. 
lis feraient*. 



SUBJUNCTIVE 

Queje fasse'.J 
Tu fasses*", 
II fasse. 
Nous fassions. 
Vous fassiez. 
lis fassent**. 



c 
o 

Q. 
O 



Queje fisse". 
Tu fisses. 
// fit*. 






A^07^s fissions. H|^ 
Vous fissiez. ^ 
Us fissen*^" 5" 



Doing. 



GERUND. 

FAI san^. 



PARTICIPLE 

FAI ^. Done, Made. 



Afler the same manner as fair^, are conjugated 

CONtrefaire, to counterfeit, refaire, to do again, 

DiFAiRE, to undOy to defeat, satisfaire, to satisfy, 

se DiFAiRE, to get rid of, surf aire, to exacts to ask too much. 

RBDEFAiRE, to uudo again. 



* See s between two rowels, page 14. t Pionoiinceyray,^ai0, ^r. t See a, p. 15. 



158 



IRREGULAR VERBS in RE. 



INFINITIVE* 
To PRETEND, TO FEIGN. FEIND Tt. 



IMPERATIFE, 

pretend. Feins, sing. 

Let us pretend. 

INDICATIVE. 



^^ / pretend. 

3 Thou pretendest. 



en 



a He pretends. 



ft 

3 

OB 






s 



c 

c 
1 
1» 

o 



You 
' They] 

3 ' 

- /Te 

They] 

I 

Thou 
He 

We 

You 
They} 

I 

Thou 
He 

We 
|i You 
? They] 

J/ 

^ Thou 
I He 
BiWe 
I* You 
pThey] 



^pretend. 



Jf? feins"» 
Til wfeins. 
n feint« 
iVbti^ feignons. 
Vous feignez. 
lis feignent". 

Je **feignais'. 
'Was pretending. Tu feignais. 

H feignait*. 

2Vbu« feignions. 
"Were pretending. Vous feigniez. 

lis feignaient*. 



pretended, 
did pretend. 



shall, will 
pretend. 



should, would 
pretend. 



pretendins:. 



Je "feignis*. 
Tu feignis. 
II feignit**. 
Nous feigntme3. 
Vous feignttes. 
lis feignirent". 

Je ^"feindr ai\ 
Tu feindras**. 
II feindr a. 
Nousfemdrons, 
Vous feindr €2., 
lis feindr ow(*. 

Je ^•feindr aisP. 
Tu feindr ais» 
II feindr ai^. 
2Vbu« feindr ions, 
Vous feindr iez. 
lis feindr aieni*. 

Feijrnant*. 



Feignez, plu* 
Feig^ons. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Qusje '•feigne«. 
Tu feignes»». 
// feigne. 
2Vbu9 feignions. 
Vous feigniez. 
lis feignenO®. 



n 



S 



2.- 

Queje "feigniflse*. » 
Tu feign isses. g^ 
n feignit«. 
Nous feignissions.^2. 
Vous feignissiez. g; 
Tls feignissent'® "^ 



a 



Feint**, pretended 



After the same manner as feindre, are conjugated 



ASTREiNDRE, to tie, to bind, 
GRAiNDRE, to fear. 
ooNTRAiNDRE, to constrain. 



to gitd. 
to erwompass, 
to join, 
to unite, 
to disjoin, 
to enjoin. 
ENVREJNDRE, to infringe. 



CEINDRE, 
ENCEINDRE, 
JOINDRE, 
CONJOIN DRE, 
D^JOiNDRB, 
EN JOINDRE, 



to anoint. 

to die. 

to take off the die, 

to extinguishf to put out, 

to reach. 

to paint. 

to pity. 

to complain. 
RESTREiNDRE, to restrain, to limit, 
iPRsiNDRB, to squeeze out, to strain. 



OINDRE, 
TEINDRE, 
D^TEINDRE, 
^TEINDRE, 
ATTEINDRE, 
PEINDRE, 
PLAINDRE, 
Se PLAINDRE, 



<.v»« 



IRREGULAR VERBS ill RE, 



159 



INFINITIVE. 

To INSTRUCT. 

IMPERATIVE, 

instruct. iNSTRUi s, sing. 

Let us instruct. 



INSTRUI re. 

INSTRUI sez, plur. 
INSTRUI sons. 



g He instructs, or is 

5 V I instruct, { 

g You } ' I r 
Th (^''^ii^structiiig. 



INDICATIVE, 

^ J instruct, or am B'T *• 
g" Thou instructest, art ^ Tu 
I He instructs, or is § II 

5* Nous 

^'^ Fous 

Us 

"g Thou}toas instructing. Tu 

^He } II 

R IFe ] Nous 

p FoM >u?erc instructing Vous 

" TA^j //« 

J 1 J' » 

instructed, 
dzV^ instruct. 



10 



"i Thou 



He 



S You 

I Thou 

1 ITe 
a Fott 

5^ J 

§ He 

§ You 
f^They) 



II 

Nous 
Vous 
lis 

T » 

Tu 

II 

Nous 
Vous 
lis 

Tu 
shdy wd instruct, II 
he instructing. Nous 

Vous 
lis 



9A/,U7/ instruct, 
be instructing. 



nstrui «*. 
nstrui s. 
nstrui <**. 
nstrui sons. 
nstrui sez, 
nstrui senV*. 

nstrui sais^. 
nstrui sais. 
nstrui saii^. 
nstrui sions. 
nstrui siez. 
nstrui saient^. 

nstrui «i«w. Qwej 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Quef »»i nstrui »e«. 
Tu iustrui ses^. 
II instrui se. 
Nous instrui sions. 
Vous instrui sies. 
lis instrui sent^*. 



D 

CO 

-I 

c 
o 



3 



1^ 



nstrui 4^9. 
nstrui siP^. 
nstrui «fme». 
nstrui sites, 
nstrui sirerit*, 

nstruir at*, 
nstruir as^. 
nstruir a. 
nstruir otis. 
nstruir ez. 
nstruir onff'. 

nslruir ais, 
nstruir ais, 
nstruir ail^. 
nstruir ions. 
nstruir iez. 
nstruir aieni^. 



^'instrui Hsst^. 
Tu instrui sisses. (L 
II instrui stt^. g 
Nous instrui sission$.(^' 
Vous instrui sissiez. ^ 
Il^i instrui sissent. B' 

M 

o 

r 



PARTICIPLE. 

INSTRUI t*^. instructed 



GERUND, 

instructing. instrui sant^. 

After the same manner as i^struir£, are conjugated 
Conduire, to conduct, introduire, to introduce. 

RECONDUiRE. to take Of lead back, luirb. K^ ,^. ^^^^ 

construire, to construct. reluire,) ' *^ 

cuiRE, to do victuals, to cook,* nuire, to hurty to injure, part. nui. 
RECuiRE, to do or cook over again, produire, to produce. 
DEDuiRE, to deduct. r£duire, to reduce, to compel. 

d^truirb, to destroy. s£ouire, to seduce. 

enduire, to daub. traduire, to translate. 



* To COOK, followed by an object, is generally expressed by Faire cuire; as, 
I cook, or am cooking meat, fish, &c. J« fais cuire de la viande, du pouscm, S^e. 

l2 



160 



IRREGULAR VERBS in RE 



INFlNITirE^ 

To READ. •LT re. 

JMPEBATirE, 

Read. LI s, sing. li «ez, plur. 

Let lu read. li sons 



OB 

1:1 



s 



INDICATIVE. 

I read, or am 3 
ITAou readest, art cu 
He reads, or is ^ 



•g Tkou) 
^He j 



was reading. 



I You \were reading. 
.• They] 



J& *lij*. 
Tu li s. 

II li <«. 
iVbii^li «on«.t 
FouA li «e;;. 
J/« li senV*. 

Je *Y\ sais^. 
Tu li sais.-f 
II li saii^. 
Nov^W sions. 
Vous li siez. 
Us li saient^. 



•1 



8UBJUNCT1VE. 

Queje *\\ «c«.t 
Tm li «cs*«. 
II li «e. ^ 
iVbi£« li sions, ^g 
Fo2<^ li siez. 
lis li «en^*. 







read, 
5 ^Pc (did read. 
Tom 





CO 






Je lus". 

Tt£ :;ius. 

IZ lut« 
Nousldmes. 
Vous lilies. 
Jfe lurent'*. 



o 

CD 



Jc •lir ai*. 
Tm lir flw®'. 
He [shall, will read, J/ lir a. 



^ We 
&! You 
They] 






be reading. NousWr ons. 

Vous lir ez. 
lis lir oni^. 



•1 



Queje |lusse'. 
jTu lusses. 

// mt* s 

Nous lussions. *|! 
Vous lussiez. ^ 
Us lussent» » 



^ Thou 
BHe 



shld, wld read. 



g: /f^e r 6e reading. 



Je *lir aisP. 
Tu lir ai.9. 
II lir oi7««. 
iVbiM lir to7t«. 
Vous lir fer 
J/« lir aieni^. 



GERUND. 

Reading. li sani^. 



PARTICIPLE, 

LU. Read 



After the same manner as lire, are conjugated 
£lire, to elect. relire, to read again. 



* See note 4, page 2. f See p. 14, i between two vowels. | See note 2, p. 1 



IRREGULAR VERBS in RJ^, 



161 



INFINITIVE. 

To PUT. ♦METT re. 



IMPERATIVE. 

Put. Mets, sing. 

Let U3 put. 



INDICATIVE. 



^/e» 



H0 / put, or am 

g Thou put test, art E ^m 

I He puts, or M c^ /^ 

put. 



mets*. 

mets. 

met*'. 
5 ff^e 1 _ . ' Nous mett 07i«. 

i YoM >^*;^ ' ... FbzM mett C2. 

g* J I Je *ii>ett OM«. 

TAou>7/709 putting. 2V mett ais. 
^ He ) II mett ai(?^. 

^ /l^e I iVoM* mett ions. 

I YoM }tt?crc putting. Vous mett fcs. 

Jfo mett aienl^. 






? They] 
T 






I «^e 



I (2z(2 put. 
You 
They] 



X You 

9 



TAeyJ 



J* 2%0M 

life 

I You 
^They) 



Je tmis*. 
Tu mis. 
II mit^. 
iVbi^s mtmes. 
Vous mttes. 
lis mirent". 

Je ' *mettr ai\ 
Tu mettr tu^ 
shU^ wU put, J/ mettr a. 
he putting. Nom mettr ons, 
Vous mettr cz. 
lis mettr on^. 

Jc 'mettr aisfi, 
Tu mettr ai>. 
«Arf, wd put, // mettr ot^. 
be putting Nous mettr zow*. 
Vous mettr fez. 
//« mettr aient\ 



»rp.TT C2, ;?/i£r. 

METT OJIS. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Que je *mett c". ^ 
Tu mett C.V*. J* 
// mett e. S 
iVb?/* mett 20715.^ 
Vous mett fez. ^g 
Jfe mett en<". s* 



Queje tmisse^. *g 
I'm misses. "^ 

// IT^tt*. J. 

Nous missions. % 
Vous missiez. ^o* 
lis missent^^ ^ 



PARTICIPLE. 

Mis. put. 



OERUND. 

putting. METT an^. 

After the same manner as mettre, are conjugated 

ADMETTRE to admit. omettre, to oniH. 

coMMETTRE, to commit. permettre, to permit. 

compromettre, to compromise, promettre, to promise. 
d^mettre, to put out of joint, remettre, to put again^ to deliver up. 
se d^mettre, to abdicate, soumettre, to submit, 

i^entremettrb, to intermeddle, transmettre, to transmit. 



* Sound only one t. 



t See note 4, page % 



162 



IRREGULAR VERBS ill RE. 



INFINITIVE. 

To GRIND. MOUD re. 



Grind. 

Let us grind. 



IMPERATIVE. 

MOUD 9, nng. 



Moulez, plur. 

MOUloUS. 



INDICATIVE. 

^ I grind, or am ^ 

3 Thou grindesty art |* 

§ He grinds^ or is s* 

? ^e 1 . , "" 



o 



Tou 
They 



\ 



oq 



are grinding. 



} 



'g Thou \was grinding. 
a fTe 



CO 



TAcyJ 



* TAott 
fife 



'ti^ere grinding. 



n» 



ground, 
(f tVf grind. 



Je "moud «*•. 
T{i( mond s. 
II moud**. 
Nous m onions. 
Vons moulez. 
lis moulent". 

Je "moulais*. 
Tu moulais. 
II moulait*. 
Nous moulions. 
Fous mouliez. 
lU moulaient*. 

Je "moulus* 
Tu moulus.* 
II moulut*. 
iVbuAmoul dines. 
Vous mouldtes. 
lis moulurent^. 



Je **moudr ai*. 
Tu moudr cu^. 



9 Thou\ 

^ He \^shalU V)ill grind, // moudr a. 
§ fFe I be grinding. Nou>s moudr ons. 
c. You I Fou^ moudr ex. 

? They) lis moudr ord^. 



^ Thou 
i He 

§' You 
f-They, 



shdt wd grind, 
he grinding. 



Je ^*moudr aufi. 
Tu moudr ais, 
II moudr aii?^. 
iVbt£« moudr ions, 
Vous moudr iez. 
lis moudr aienP, 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Queje "moule". 
Tu moules*". 
II moule. 
Nous moulions. 
Vous mouliez. 
lis moule nl'*. 



9 

a 



05 

5' 

9 



a!? 

-1 

Queje '*moulu8se*. 5 
Tu moulusses. S- 
II mouldt*'. g 
Nova moulussions.c^' 
Vous moulussiez. S! 
//* raoulussenU®.'3 



GERUND. 

grinding. Moulant^. 



- PARTICIPLE. 

Moulu. around< 



After the same manner as houdre, are conjugated 
iMOUDRE, to grind, to whet. r£moudre, to grind again. 



* See note 2, page 1 



IRREGULAR VERBS ill RE. 

■ 

INFINJTJrE, 



163 



To Vh^kSE. 



please. 

Let us please. 

INDICATIVE. 



IMPEBJTirE* 

PLAi «, sing. 



^ 1 please. 

n Thou pleasest. 

S He pleases. 

g You >please. 
•'' They] ' 



A 



a 



•g Thou 
He 
IVe 
You 
They] 



'did please. 



2 Thou 
^He 

g You 
" They] 



s Thou 



pleased, 
did please. 



He 



>. 



I We 
&! You 
? They] 



r Thou 

§ ^« 

^.We 



shall, 
will please. 



should, 
would please. 



Je plai «". 
iPw plai s. 
II plat <*». 
iVoM* plai sons. 
Vous plai «C2f.* 
lis plai «c7ii** 

Jig plai sai^. 
Tu plai *aw.* 
7/ plai saiP^. 
iVbu« plai sions, 
Vous plai siez, 
lis plai 8aient\ 

Je tplus**. 
Tu plus. 
1/ plut« 
Nous plumes. 
Vous pKites. 
lis plurent". 

Je plair ai\ 
Tu plair OJ^. 
JZ plair a. 
Nous plair 07M. 
Fow* plair ez, 
lis plair on^. 

Je plair «»•*• 
Tu plair ais. 
II plair a/^" 
iVbtM plair ions, 
Vous plair «c«. 
J/^ plair aient^ 



PLAI r& 



PLAI 8€2, plur. 

PLAI «on9. 



SUBJUNCTIFE. 



bBS 



Queje plai «fi". 
I'm plai se^ 

II plai «^« 
2Vau« plai sions, 
Vous plai «f pz . 
Us plai w;?<'®. 



rr 



R 
^ 






ft 
P 



Queje tplusse*. 

Ttt plusses. g. 
II pldt". g 

IVoM* pi ussions. ^• 
Vou^ plussiez. S! 

Us plussent". ^ 

g 

VI 



PABTICtPLB' 

PLU. pleased 



QEBUJiHn 

pleasing. pI'A.i sanff^. 

After the same manner as plairb, are conjugated 

coMPLAiRE, to comply. 96 PLAiRE, to delight in. 

OEPLAiRE, to displease. se taire, to hold one's tongue, to be sUent. 



• See I betweea t>vo yowels, page 14. 



t See note 3, page 1* 



164 



IRREGULAR VERBS Iti RE 



INFINITIVE. 
To RBSOLVE, TO DISSOLTE. RfiSOUD r«. 



3 

s 

g 






a> 






CO 






•T3 
O 
m 

(0 



o 

o 



Resolve. R^sous, sing. 

Let T^s resolve. 

INDICATIVE. 

T resolve, or am JS Je "r^sous*. 

CO 



R^solvez, plur. 
R<$soIvons. 



Tu rtSsous. 
// r^sout**. 
Nous resolvons. 
Voiis rtJsolvez. 
Us re^solvent". 

Je r^solvais*. 
Tu r^solvais. 
II r^solvait. 
Nous r^solvions. 
Vous r^solviez. 
lis r^solvaient". 

Je rfesolus**. 
Tu r^solus. 
II r^solut*. 
Nous rdsolllmes. 
Vous r^soIi\tes. 
lis r^solurent^*. 

Je **r^sou(Ir ai*. 
Tu rdsoudr a^, 
shll, wll resolve, // rdsoudr a. 
he resolving. Nous rdsoudr ons, 

Vous rdsoudr ez. 
lis rdsoudr ont*^. 

Je **rdsoudr aiV. 
Tu rt^soudr ais. 
shd, wld resohe, II idsoudraf^. 
he resolving. Nou^ rdsoudr ions. 

Vous rdsoudr iez, 
lis rdsoudr aient\ 



Thou resolvest, art o^ 
He resolves, or is s* 

V I resolve, 
You > , . 

yy^^jfl^c resolving. 

T \ 

Thoxi}was resolving:. 

He J ^ 

PFe \ 

You >«(?crc resolving. 

They] 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 
They} 

I 

Thou 
He 

We 

You 
They] 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

They) 



resolved, 
did resolve. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Queje rdsolve*. 

Tu rfesolves**. 

II rdsolve. 

Nous rdsolvions. 

Vous rdsolviez. 

lis rdsolvent". 



CR 

o 

< 



CO 

< 
tb 



Queje r^solusse*. 
Tu rdsolusses. 
II rdsoiat* 

Nous rdsolussions. 
Vous rdsolussiez. 
lis rdsohissent". 



CO 



(§• 






^ARTICITLE. 

Rdsolu. Resolved, determined. 
Rdsous, Melted, dissolved.* 



GEHUND. 

Resolving. K^,„i„„t«, 
Dissolving. J 

After the same manner as r^soudre, are conjugated 

ABSOUDRE, to ahsolve, part, absous, ahsolved ; and dissoudre, to 
dissolve, part, dissous, dissolved. 

N, B. These two verbs have no perfect tense. 



* J^f JjB ioUU a feiK>V9 Is Ir'vuiHard en pluie. The sun has melted the mist into rain. 



IRREGULAR VERBS 111 RE. 



165 



INFINITIVE. 

To LXVQW, RI re. 



IMPERATIVE* 

Laugh. RI 8, sing, 

Jiet us laugh. 



Ri ez, plvTf 

RI 071^ 



INDICATIVE. 



c 



>^ I laugh, or am 

I Thou laughest, art'^ 

I He laughs, or is 



g 



s 



tW 



0^ 

"§ TAou \was laughing. 
%^He J 

3 FoM >ircre laughing. 
? TAcyJ 

Jfe [ laughed, 
? We [did laugh. 

They, 

1 TAoM 
3 He 

? They\ 



shll^ will laugh, 
he laughin 



g- 






I' You 
^They 



shdt wld laugh, 
be laughing. 



Jc® *ri «*•, 
Tu ri ». 
J/ ri <». 
iVoM* ri on». 
Fbi/« ri ex. 
lis ri e7i<»«. 

Je *ri aM«, 
TVf ri ai^. 
II ri «z<». 
JVoM^riions*. 
Fbiw riiez. 
//* ri aienP, 

Je *ri «*. 
I'm ri *. 
II ri <*. 
2Vot«rim^». 
Fbiw rl ^e*. 
lis r\ren^\ 

Je *rir ai\ 
Tu rir as»». 
// rir a. 
Nous rir ons, 
Vous rir c^. 
J/-J rir oni^, 

Je *rir ajV. 
Tu lir ai5. 
J/ rir aiP^, 
NouAuv ions. 
Vous rir iez. 
lis rir aieni^. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Queje *ri c«. 
Tt^ ri es««. 
JZ ri c. 
JVbtw riions*. 
Vous riiez. 
IZs ri cn<'*. 



03 

c 



i 






Queje 
Tu 


*ri 5w*. 
ri sses. 


g 

04 


11 


rti^. 


3 


Nous 
Vous 


' ri ssions. c^* 
ri Micar. o^ 


lis 


ri ssenP* 


•g 



PARTICIPLE. 

RI. Laughed. 



Laughing. ri ani^. 

After the same m,anner as rirb, are conjugated 
sourire, to smile. frire, to fry, part, frit, fried. 

N.B. FRIRE is used only in the 1st, 2d, and 3d person of the present of the indicative, 
je/»«, tvi f ri s J i\ frit; in tlie future, ]efrirai,i\ifriras, ^c. and in the conditional, yefrirais, 
ta friraiSf 6^c, ; me other tenses are formed with the verb faire, and the infinitive of this 
verb ; so. We fry, nous faisons /rirc; you fry, vtms faites /rire ; they fry, ils font frire. 

Fry this fish, these eggs, that meat. Faites frire ce poisson, ces csufs, cetle viande. 



* See note 4, page it 



166 



IRREGULAR VERBS in RE. 



INFINITIVE. 
To FOLLOW. SUIV IT. 







IMPERATIVE. 






Follow. suis, sing. 
Let us follow. 


surv C2, jiftir. 
SUIV ons. 




INDICATIVE. 

^ I follow, or am oj Je* suis". 
3 2%ott folio west, ario' Tu *^suis. 
g He follows, or is |. II suit*. 
^ M'c 1 r 11 ^ Nous suiv ons. 


SUBJUNCTIVE 

Queje suiv ^. 
Tu suiv cs*. 
n suiv e. 
iVout suiv f'OTtS. 
Fotw suiv iez. 
Us suiv cTi/". 




"g 7%ou>ii>as following. 

§ You Wre following. 
? They] 


Je ''suiv aisfi, 
Tu suiv ais, 
II suiv aiff^. 
Nous suiv ions* 
Fous suiv iez. 
Us suiv aient^. 






Tl' 1 

5 TAow 

S ^e 

S Fob 

° TAey, 


followed, 
did follow. 


Je *»suiv is*. 
Tm suiv is, 
II suiv i^. 
iVbw* suiv tmes, 
Fous suiv f^. 
Us suiv irenPK 


Queje suiviwA 
2*tt suiv i«M«. 
II Buiv ft*». 
iVbiw suiv issions. 
Fous suiv tsstez. 
J2s suiv issenV* 




^' 1 
g Thou 

3 He 

ft You 
? rA«y. 


shJIl, wll follow, 
he following. 


Je •■suivr ai\ 
Tu suivr flj*. 
J/ suivr a. 
Nous suivr o;i«. 
Fous suivr ez. 
Jfe suivr owP^. 


■ 


2"^ 1 

.'♦ Thou 

froM 

e. They, 


shd, wd follow, 
he following. 


Je *^suivr aitfi, 
Tu suivr ais, 
II suivr ai/*". 
Nous suivr foiw. 
Fo?£« suivr iez. 
Us suivr aienP, 






OERVKD. 




PARTICIPLE. 




Following. 


SUIV a«^. 


SUIV i. Followe'l 


^y? 


er the same manner <m suivre, are conjugated 


1 



/ensuivre, to follow from, i. e. a consequence. 
pouRsuivRE, <o pursue. 



IRREGUtAR VER3S IQ RE. 



167 



INFINITirE. 

To MILK. TRAI re. 



IMPBRATIVE, 



Milk. TRAI «, sing. 

Let U8 milk. 










r 









(» 



»«1 



it 

•a 
o 
(fl 
•—• 

ff. 

«^ 

A 







O 

o 

a 
a. 



o 



I milkt or am 3 
Thou milkest, art ^ 
He milks, or w jg 
IFe 1 • 

Ycu [ "'^\,. 

r \ 

ThouftDcu milking. 

He J 

fTe ] 

YoM \werc milking. 

They] 

I 

Thon 

He 

We 

You 

Th^. 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

They] 

I 

Thou 

He 

We 

You 

They] 



milked, 
did milk. 



shall, will milk, 
he milking. 



shld, wld milk, 
be ihilking. 



TJVE. 

J(? trai «". 
Tu trai s. 
11 trai 1^. 
iVbtwtrayons*. 
Vous trayez. 
lis trai c/i^». 

Je ^trayais*. 
Tu trayais. 
II trayail**. 
Notts trayions. 
Vous trayiez* 
lis trayaient*. 

Je tirai.* 
Tu tiras*. 
// tira. 
2Vbu«tir&mes. 
Vous iir&tes. 
lis tirferent». 

Je trair ai^. 
Tu trair a^. 
II trair a. 

NoVSiVKlT OTIS. 

Vous trair ex. 
lis trair onl?^. 

Je trair aisfi, 
Tu trair ais, 
II trair aiP^. 
Nous trair ions. 
Vous trwr iez. 
Us trair aient^. 



Trayez, plur, 
Trayons. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Queje trai c*. 3 
Tu trai cs"*. 
// trai e. 
Nous trayions. 
Vous tray iez. 
/& trai ent", |i 



pr 



^ 



Queje tirasse*. ^ 
Tu tirasses. £. 
J/ tirit" 2 
Notts tirassions. c§ 
Vous tirassiez. ST 
lis tirassent^. 5 



GERUND. PARTICIPLE. 

Milking. Trayant". trai <*. Milked. 

After the same manner as traire, are conjugated 

ABSTRAiRE, to abstract. rentraire, tojinedraw. 

oisTRAiRE, to disturb ones attention, boustraire, to subtract. 

extraire, to extract. N. B. These verbs have no perfect tense. 



• TRAIRE bavins no perfect tense, we supply its place with the perfect of the verb 
Tf Res, which in«y be «8ed in the same sense as trairb ; example, 

I milked my cows, my goats, &c. Je tirai mes vache$, mes ehevret, H^e. 



168 



IRREGULAR VERBS in RE. 



INFINITIVE, 

To VANQUISH. VAINC re, 

IMPERATIFE, 

vanquish. vainc «, sijig, vainquez, plur. 
Let us vanquish. vainquons. 



INDICATIVE, 



^ I vanquish, or am 

g Thou vanquishest, artS 



'4 
g 



w — 

S He vanquishes, or is 

«• — I vanquish, 

are vanqtiishing. 






You 
They} 



09 

5- 

crq 



•g Thou >was vanquishing^. 

a You hvere vanquishing, 
" They] 



V> 



^ Thou 
fHe 

g Yoii 
■They] 

SThou 
^ He 

l^e 
£ You 
? They, 

^Thou 
%He 

B;.m. 
I You 
f^They] 



vanquished, 
did vanquish. 



Tu 

II 



shll, wll vanquish, 
he vanquishing. 



shd^ wd vanquish, 
he vanquishing^. 



J(? vainc ^, 
Tu *'vainc s, 
II vainc * 
iVb?«« vainquons. 

Fow« vainquez. t 
lis vainquent". 

Je ^•vainquais'. 
Tu vainquais.t 
II vainquait**. 
Nous vainquions. 
Vous vainquiez. 
lis vainquaient'. 

Je ^•vainquis*'. Queje 
Tu vainquis.f 
II vainquit*^. 
Nous vainqutmes. 
Vous vainquJtes. 
Its vainquirent*'. 

Je •'•vainer ai\ 
Tu vainer as*®. 
II vainer a. 
Nous vainer ons, 
Vous vainer ez. 
Its vainer onff^, 

Je "vainer aisfi, 
Tu vainer ais. 
II vainer ait^, 
JVoMs vainer ions. 
Vous vainer iez. 
Us vainer aieni^. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Que je vainquet 
Tu vainques*^ 
II vainque. 
Nous vainquions. 
Vous vainquiez. 
Us vainquent'". 



< 

so 

a 



en 



vainquisse*. | 

vainquisses. ^ 

vain quit**. ^ 

iVbiM vainquissions. g 

Vous vainquissiez. ♦§ 

Tls vainquissenU*. ^ 



GERUND. 

vanquishing. vainquant*. 



PARTICIPLE. 

vaineu, vanquished. 



After the same manner as vaincub, is conjugated 
CON VAINC RE, to convince. 



* The 1st, 2d, and 3d person singular of the present of the indicative, are not much uped. 
f §pe ^fi, psige 13. 



170 



INFIN. 

ATTEND re. 









:\ 



♦ \ 



c- 



^/ 



vcC 



\ 



I II 

'* Nous 

9 VoUt 
I ^^ 

1 Ttt 

2 2/ 

§rau« 

Hi J» 

^ JViims 
S I/t 



INDIC. 
4TTEND «, 



attend 

OIM, 

a, 
«nt. 

aU 

ais 

ait 

iont 

ut 

aient, 

• 

u 

is 
it 

imes 
U$s 

irent 



GER. 
antf 

IMP. 



ons, 



PART. 

U. 

SUBJ. 

e 
e$ 

e 

tons 
iez 
ent. 



Uie 

iaes 

it 

usions 
issiex 
is$ent. 



J? J* ATTENDR «» 

•g U 
S. iVbu« 
P. Fota 



S 2/< 



as 

a 

ons 

ex 

ont. 






Battre, and its compounds; 
Fendre, Defendre. Docendre, 
Condescendre, Fondre, Con- 
fondre, se Moifondra, Rooipre, 
Corrompre, Interrompre, Pon- 
dns Repondre, Corraspondre, 
aient. Repandre, Mordre,Demordre, 
Tendre, Ktpndre, Entendre, Pretendre, Rradrp. Pendre, 
Dependre, Snspendre, Vendre, Per'dre, Tordre* Tondre. 



au 

ais 

ait 

ions 

xei 



APPREND re, apprenant, appris. 



C' 



S 

i 

i 

n 
o 

• 

B 

% 
% 

8 

i> 



o 





''J 



cr. 





1/ 

Nbus 
Fous 
1U 

r 

Tu 

Jl 

Noui 

Vous 

lU 

r 

Tu 

11 

Nous 

Vous 

lU 

J* APPRENDR 

Tu 

Jl 

Nous 
Vous 
lU 



apprend 
apprenons t 
apprenez 
apprennent. 

apprenais 

apprenais 

apprenait 

apprenions 

appreniez 

apprenaient. 

appris 

appris 

apprit 

apprfmes 

apprttes 

apprirent 

ai 
as 

• 

a 

ons 
ez 
ont. 



apprenne 

apprennes 

apprenne 

apprenions 

appreniez 

apprennent. 



appnsse 

apprisses 

apprit 

apprissions 

apprissiez 

apprissent. 



c 

s 



o 

o 



r ais 

Tu aii 

n aii 

No*u ion* 

Vous iez 

1 Is aient.Like A pprendie (•^0 tonjugated 

Desa|^prendr#, Prendre, Comprendre, Entrcprendre, 

»e Meprendre, Reprendre, Snrprendre. 



« 



Tt^ 



tmltntm • n/\*t« 



VERBS m RE. 

A TABLE shewitig^ in one point ofview^ how to conjugate all the verbs in RE, 



INFIN. GER. PART. 


INriN. OBR. 


PART. 


INPIN. GER. PART. 
£CKIr«, vant, t. 


INPIH. 


•01 re, buvant, bu. 


CROI re, croyant, 


era. 


FAl re. 


[NDIC. IMP. SUB J. 


INDIC. IMP. 


SUBJ. 


^ INDIC. IMP. SUBJ. 


INDIC. 


\ois ve 


CROIf 


« 


ECRi s ve 


PAIS 


t i ves 


». «, 


es 


«, f, ves 


«, 


t ve 


t 


e 


t ve 


t 


huvona, bxLvons, buvions 


croyons, croyons, 


croyions 


vons, vonSf vions 


sons. 


buvez, burea, buries 


croyez, croyez. 


croyiez 


vet, vez, viez 


faiteii 


vent. vent. 


ent. 


ent. 


vent, vent. 


font. 


buvaiii 


croyais 




vais 


sais 


buvais 


croyais 




vais 


sais 


buvait 


croyait 




vait 


sait 


buvions 


croyions 




vions 


sions 


buriez 


croyiez 




vies 


siei 


buyaient. 


cioyaient. 




vaietvt. 


saient 


bus busse 


cms 


crasse 


vis vtsse 


fis 


bus busses 


cms 


crosses 


vis visses 


fis 


but bOt 


cmt 


crut 


vit vit 


fit 


bQmes bussions 


crfimes 


erussions 


vimes vission$ 


fimes 


bCites bussiez 


crdtes 


crussiez 


vites vissiex 


fftes 


burent. bussent. 


crarent. 


erassent. 


virent, vissent. 


firent 


IK ax 


CROI Rat 




fcCRlR ai 


ferai 


as 


as 




as 


feras 


a 


a 




a 


fera 


ons 


ens 




ons 


feronj 


es 


es 




ex 


ferez 


ont. 


ont. 




ont 


feroni 


ais 


ais 




ais 


ferai s 


ais 


ais 




ais 


ferais 


ak 


ait 




ait 


ferai t 


ions 


ions 




ions • 


ferion 


tec 


ies 




iet 


feriez 


aient. 


aient. 




aient. Circonacrirp, t)ecrire. 


ferai e 


njugate in the same namner Reboire. 




t. 


InMrir«, Prescrire, Proachre^ Recrire, 
Sooscrire, TraoKcrire. 


Contrefjiire, 
faire,Redefa 


STNAITre, coxmaissant, connu. 


DI re, sunt. 


FEIND re, feignant, feint. 


INSTRUl 


connais connaisse 


s 


te 


feins feigne 


s 


connais connaisses 


*. », 


tes 


feins feignes 


*» 


connatt connaisse 


t 


se 


feint feigne 


t 


connaissons f connaissions 


sons, sons, 


sions 


feignons t feignions 


sons 


connaissez connaissiez 


dites, dites. 


siet 


feignez feigniez 


sex 


connaissent. , connaissent. 


sent. 


sent. 


feignent. feignent. 


sent. 


connaissais 


sais 




feignais 


sais 


connaissais 


sais 




feignais 


sais 




sait 




feignait 


sait 


connaissions 


sions 




feignions 


sions 


connaissiez 


siez 




feigniez 


sies 


connaissaient. 


saient. 




feignaient. 


saient. 


connus connusse 


s 


sse 


feiguis fbignisse 


sis 


connus connusses 


s 


ases 


feignis feignisses 


sis 


connut connQt 


t 


t 


feignit feigntt 


sit 


connQmes ' connussions 


mes 


snms 


feignhnes feignissions 


sivus' 


connQtes connussiez 


tes 


ssiex 


feignites feignissies 


sites 


connurent. connussent. 


rent: 


ssent. 


feignirent. feignissent. 


sirent, 


"'as 


DlRai 

as 




FEINDR ai 

as 


"<■■' 


a 


a 




a 


a 


ons 


ons 




ons 


ons 


ez 


es 




ez 


ex 


ont. 


ont* 




ont. 


ont. 


ais 


ais 




ais 


ais 


ais 


ais 




aii Astreindi*, Oraindre, 


ais 


?* Meconnattre, Reconnattre, 


ait 

m 




^j'j Contraindre, Ceindre, 
,'^-„, Enceindre, Joindre, 


ait 1 


ions Parattre, Apparaltre, Com- 


tons 

• 




V^ Conjoindre,D6loiBdre, 
'« Knjoindre, Enfreindre, 


toiu i 


*«f parattre, Dis parattre. Grot' 


»« Contredire. Dedire, Infer- 


xez ) 


aier.t tre, Accrottre, Decrottre. 


aient. dire, Maudire, Medire, Re- 


awnt.Oindre, Teindre, De- 


aient 


•*- P^ttre,Repatlf,Nattre,Renat- 


dire, Predire, Circoncire, ConSre, SaflSre. 


teindre, Eteiodre, Atleindre, Peindre, 


Recuire» h 


"kuadtfrConuattre, p. 152.) 


{See remark under Dire, p. 155.) 


Plaindre^ Restreindre, Epreinlre. 


(See Instn 



to grind; r£soudre. toresolve; traire, to milk; vaincre, to vanquish; which are not freauentlvl 



171 



oih re^lai and irregular.* 



OER. PART. 


INFIN. GER. PART. 


INPIN. GER, PART. 


INFIN. OCR. PAST 


utntf t. 


LI re, santt lu. 


PLAIrf, santy plu. 


^UlVre, ant, i. 


IMP.. SUBJ. 


INDIC. IMP. STTBJ. 


tNDfC. IMF. SUBJ. 


INDIC. IMP. SDBJ. 


fasse 


his se 


PLAI S SIS 


suis e 


f, fasses 


«, », ses 


s, s, ses 


suis, suis, es 


fasse 


t se 


t se 


suit 


5nn5, fassions 


smis, sons, sions 


sons, sotu sions 


SUIT ons, ons, ions 


faites fassiez 


sez, lez, siez 


ses, sez siez 


ez, ez, iet 


fassent 


sent, sent. 


sent, sent. 


ent. ent. 




Ml'l 


sais 


ais 




sais 


sais 


ais 




sait 


sait 


ait 




sions 


sions 


ions 




siez 


sies 


iez 




saient. 


saient. 


aient. 


fisse 


lus lusse 


plus plnsse 


is isse 


fisses 


lus lusses 


plus plustet 


is isses 


fU^ 


lut lut 


plut plot 


tl U 


fissions 


IQmes lussions 


plQmes plussions 


imes issions 


fissiez 


Ifites lussiez 


pKites plussie* 


ite$ issiez 


fissent. 


lurent. lussent. 


plurent* plussent* 


irent, issent 




LIR (It 


PLAIRat 


SUIVR ai 




as 


as 


as 




a 


a 


a 


, 


ons 


ons 


one 




ez 


es 


n 




Oflt, 


ont. 


ont. 




a is 


ais 


ais 




ais 


ais 


ais 




ait 


ait 


ait 




itms 


ions 


ions 




ie% 


iex 


iez 


• 


aient. 


aient. 


aient. 


;Sati8faire,Saifaire 


LikehmseoiyngateKYxTe^ReWre. 


Complaire, Deplair»|Se Platrt, 
se Taire. 


s'Ensaiyn, Pournlyrt. 


•y tant, t. 


METI'm, ant, mis. 


RI re, ant, ri« 


VIV re, ant, v6cu. 


se 


mets e 


s e 


yis e 

• • 


\, set 


meta, mets, es 


s, s, es 


yis, yis, es 


se 


met e 


t 9 


yit e 

• 


wns sions 


METT ons, ons, ions 


ons, ontt niona 


onSf ons, tons 


tez nez 


et, es, iex 


ex, ttj riiez 


es, ez iez 


sent. 


ent, ent. . 


ent, ent% 


ent ent. 




ais 


ais 


ats 




ais 


ait 


ais 




ait 


ait 


ait 

« 




ions 


riions» 


tons 

■ 




iez 


riles 


tez 




aient. 


aient. 


aient. 


sisse 

sisses 

sit 

sissums 

siasiex 

tissmt. 


mis misse 
mis misses 
mit mtt 
mtmes missions 
mites " missiez 
mirent. missent. 


f sse 
s sses 

t t 
mes ssions 
tes ssiet 
rent, ssent. 


y^cus y^cusse 
y^cus y^cusses 
y^cut y^cflt 
y^cQines y^cussiona 
y^cfites y^cussiez 
y^curent. y^ovssent. 




METTRat 


RIR si 


yiVR ai 




as 


M 


as 




a 


a 


a 




ons 


ons 


ons 




ez 


et 


ez 




ont. 


9nt, 


ont. 




ais 


ais 


ais 

• 


•dnirp, K^roodnire, 
lire, Endnireylntro- 


ais 

^ Admettre, Cpm- 


ais 
ait 

• 


au 
tilt 
torn 


1, Prodaire,Rediiire, 


. ' mettre, Comproinet- 


tons 

• 


iet 
aient* 

Revivre, Sonrivre. 


tire, Tradmrp, Con- 


^5 tre, Demettre, En- 


tes 


ire, Detmire.Caire, 


at«nt.tremettr<>, Om^ttre, 


zient. 


Relaire, Nain. 


Permettre, Promettre. Remet- 


Sourire, Frire, 


page 159.) 


.tre, Sonmettre, Transmettre. 


ISee rmark under Rire.] 





iwion Ufi Mtt nf fiiia fttTtia in nrAov tn Mil lor ii mnm conyeolent 1 thcv mftv be seen in tiic^T 



172 VERBS CALLED impersonal. 

Some verbs which have only the third person singular, and sometimes 
the third person plural of their tenses in use, are called impersonal, 
though they would perhaps be more properly called monopersonal, i. e. 
verbs of one person ; the most frequently used are the following : 

INFINITIVE. 



TONNcr. :£cLAiAer. 


PLEU voir. 


QEher. 


NEiGer. 


GR^Ler. 


VENTer. 


To •ilinnder. 'J'o Lighten. 


To Bain. To f 


reeze. 


To Snow. 


To Hail. To Blow. 


INDICATIVE. 






SUBJUNCTIVE. 


It thunders. 


7/ tonne. 






QuHl tonne. S: 


If It lightens. 


7/ tJclaire. 






II (^claire. | 


eg It rains. 


II pleut. 






II pleuvc ^ 


S It freezes. 


7/ g^lc. 






II gh\e. f 


5 It snows. 


7/ neige. 






II neige. s 


OD It hails. 

9 


II grele. 






7/ grele. « 


The wind blows. 


7/ ventc. 






7/ vente. ^ 


,^ It did thunder. 


II tonnai7. 








3 // did lijrhten. 


II ec]aira27. 








^ It did rain. 


II pleuvart. 








o It did freeze. 


II geiait. 








J? It did snow. 


II neigeait. 








1 It did hail. 


II gvfdait. 








The wind did blow. 


II yeniait. 






8; 


It thundered. 


77 tonna. 






92<'«7 tonna^. § 


y It lifirhtened. 


n (^claira. 






II ^claira/.«5; 


g» It rained. 


n plut. 






II pmt s: 


^ /^ froze. 


II gela. 






II gt\at. g" 


1 /^ snowed. 
» It hailed. 


II neigea. 






77 neigeo7. g. 


II grela. 






7/gr6W7. ^J3 


The wind blew. 


II venta. 






77 venta7, ^ 


It will thunder. 


72 tonnera. 






J* 


? It will lighten. 


H ^clairera. 








1 It will rain. 


II pleuvra. 








»o /(^ ^«?^7/ freeze. 


II g^Iera. 








i. /< «£;i7/ snow. 


II neigera. 








1 It will hail 


II grelera. 








• The wind will blow 


II veutera. 








»*j 7/ would thunder. 


II tonnera27. 








g 7^ would lighten. 


II 6claireraz7. 








3 7/ would rain. 


II p]euvraz7. 








1 7^ would freeze. 


II g^Ierai7. 








& It would snow. 


II neigeraiY. 








1' 7^ would hail. 


II grele rai7. 








r- The wind would blow. 7/ ventera?^. 








Inferrogratireiy. 


Negatively. 




Interrogatively ^ Negatively 


Tonne-t-f/?' 


o 


11 ne tonne 






Ne 


tonne- t-i7 ' 


1 S 


Eclaire-t-zV? 


OB 


11 n' eel aire 




t 


N* dclaire-t-t7 


w 


Pleut-27? 
G^le-t-27? 




11 ne pleut 
11 ne gele 


pas. 


n 

a. 

f 


iVepleut-i7 
iVegfele-t.i7 


1 1 


Neige-t-i7? 


9 
P. 


11 ne ucige 




Ne 


neige-t-t7 


Grele-t-i/? . 




11 Jie grele J 




1* 


iVegrele-t-f/ 



VERBS CALLED impersoTUiL 173 

INFIKITIVE. 

There be. Y AVOIR. 

INDICATIVE. SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Affirmatively. 
There is, 

TAcrcare II y a. , Qu*ilyait. g; 

There was, ^ 

There were II y avait g 

There was, *3 

TAcre were II y eut. II y eAU o- 

TAerc will be .;.... II y aura. •* 

TAere would be II y aurait. 

There is not, g: 

There are not II n'y a pas. II n'y ait; pas. ^ 

There was not, g 

TAere were not .... II n'y avait pas. ^ 

There was not, b 

TAcre were not II n'y eut pas. II n'y edt pas. o 

There will not be ... II n'y aura pas. g* 
There would not be . II n'y aurait pas. 

Interrogatively. 

Is therey 

Ate there? Ya-t-il? 

Was there. 

Were there? Y avait-il? 

Was there^ 

Were there? Y eut-il ? 

Will there be ? Y aura-t-il ? 

Would <Aere be ?. . . . Y aurait-il ? 

Is there not. 

Are /Aer« not? N'y a-t-il pas ? 

Was there not. 

Were <A«re not ? . . . . N'y avait-il pas ? 

Was <Aerc not. 

Were there t)ot ? . . . . N'y eut-il pas ? 

Will not </jere be ? . . N'y aura-t-il pas ? 

Would not there be?. N'y aurait-il pas ? 

COMPOUND TENSES. 

Tht^e has been, 

TAere have been . . . . II y a eu. II y ait eu. 

There had been II y avait eu. 

There had been E y eut eu. \\y edt eu. 

There will have been. II y aura eu. 
There wd have beeu . II y aurait eu. 

There has not been. 

There have not been . II n'y a pas eu. 

Has there been ? Y a-t-il eu ? Has not there been ? N'y a-t-il pas eu? 



174 



VERBS CALLED impersonal . 



MUST. FALLOIR. 

The verb must is conjugated through its different persons; but its 
representative falloir has only the third person singular of each tense, 
with // for nominative ; then the nominative of Muar becomes the nomi- 
native of the follewijig verb in french, which verb must be in the present 
of the subjunctive after Tl faut, II faiidra ; and in the perfect^ after II 
fallaity Ilfallut^ Ilfoudrait, as appears by the following example, 





9 



I must 

Thou must 

He must 

My brother must 

fVe must 

You must 

They must 

^ for me 
5 for thee 
8 for him 

for my brother 

for 'tis 
^ for you 

for them 

tH for me 

|. for thee 

^ for him 

p for Twy brother 

g tor M« 

I for you 

-< for them 

^ for mc 
I for thee 
S: for him 
I* for my brother 
§ for t^5 
for yoM 



go out. 



II faut 



to go out, or 
that J, <Ao?/., 
hcy 8fc, should 
go out. 



II fallait 
/Z fallut 



to go out, or 
'that J go out. 



II faudra < 






to go out, or 
hhat J should 
go out. 



q for them 



II faudraii < 



que je sorte, 

que tu sortes, 

qu^ il ;or/e. 

^t^e mon frere sorte, 

que nous sortions, 

que vous sortiei, 

qu' ils sortent, 

que je sortUse, 
que tu sortisses, 
qu* il «orZf^. 
9^6 mon frere sor/j^. 
gue nous sortissioiis. 
que T0U8 sortissiex, 
qu* ils sortissent 

que je 5orfe. 

qrwc tu sortes. 

qu* il sor^c. 

^we mon frere *orZc, 

^e nous sortions. 

que vous sortiez, 

qu* ils sortent. 

queje aoriisse, 
que tu sorlisses. 
qu* il «orZf^ 
^2/6 mon frere <ortfZ. 
92^6 nous sortissions. 
que vous soriissiei. 
qu* ils sortissent. 



I must 7io< 

TAot^ must 7zo^ ^go out. 

He must no^ 

iWy brother must 7io< 

Must / ] 

Must thou Vgo out ? 

Must he 

Must my brother 

Must / 7Z0« 1 

Must thou not >go out? 
Must he not J 
Must ?{o^ my brother 



Negatively, 

que je sorte. 
II ne fvLutpasjque tu sortes, 

qii il »or<c. 



Interrogatively. 



que ihon frfere «or/c. 



I^ue je sorte 9 
que tu sortes ? 
qui! il «or^e P 
91M mon tr^re «or/e? 

!<pie je «orfe ? 
^ue tu sortes ? 
qu* il sorte ? 
que mon frere sorte? 



VERBS CALLED mpersonal. 175 

MUST HAVE, meaning To be in need of a thing, is expressed thus : 



T must have 

Thou must have 

lie must have 

fFe must have 

You must have 

T/iey must have 

My brother must have 

:7 for me 



money, books; 
or, J, thoUf he, §*c. 
want money, 
books. 



faut de Vargejit, des 
livres. 



& 

tn 

3 
9 

n 

Ui 
(A 
P 



for thee 
for him 
for us 
for yoit 
for ^Aew 



to have money, 
^books; or, /wanted 
money, books. 



^ for me 
=: for thee 



S* for him 



to have money, 
'books ; or, / shall 
want money, &c. 



// NOUS 
// V0U8 
Tl LEUR 

II ME 
H TE 

to have money, j, 
^^books;or,/should j^^^^^ 
want money, &c. j^^^^^ 

n LEUR 



n ME 

II TE 

J/lui 

J/ NOUS 

// vous 

// LEUR, 

II faut des livres a mon frtjre. 

// ME ^ 
// TE 
// LUI 
// NOUS 
II VOUS 
II LEUR, 

//me 

// TE 

// LUI I faudra de Vargent^ 
" des livres. 



fallait, or fallut de 
Vargent, des livres. 



faudrait de fargcfit, 
des livres. 



for us 

1 for you 
5 for thejn 

^ for me 
A. for thee 

2 for him 
% for us 
i for you 
q for <Aewi 

The impersonal verb TARDER, To long, is also conjugated in t!)e 
Fame manner as the above ; 
/long 

Thou longest 
He longs 
fFe long 
You long 
They long 
3/^ brother longs 

/ did long 
TAo7£ didst long 
He did long 
^e did long 
You did long 
They did long 



to see her, 
to g^ there. 



tarde de la voir^ cCy 
oiler. 



to see her, 
to go there. 



/7me ^ 

// TE 
// LUI 
II NOUS 
// VOUS 
// LEUR, 

// tarde k mon fr^re de la voir, 
II me 

II TZ 

II LUI I tardait de la voir^ iy 



Thou 
He 

I 

Thou 
He 

I 



} 
} 



longed, 
did long 



will long 



\,o see her, 
to go there. 



Ito 
[to 



see her» 
go there. 



should long to see her, &c. 



// NOUS 
// VOUS 
// LEUR 

II ME 
II TE 
//.LUI 

// ME 
// TE 
// LUI 

J/me 



alter. 



tarda de la voir, dij 
alter. 



}tardera de la voir, d*y 
alter, 

tarderait de la voir 



176 



THE NUMBERS, 



I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIIL 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 

XXVIII. 

XXIX. 

XXX. 

XXXI. 

XXXII. 

XXXIX. 

XL. 

XLI. 

XLII. 

XLIX. 

L,. 

LI. 

LIL 

LIX. 

LX. 

LXI. 

LXIX. 

LXX. 

LXXI. 



1, one. 

2, two. 

3, three. 

4, four. 

5, five. 

6, six. 

7, seven. 

8, eight. 

9, nine. 

10, ten. 

11, eleven. 

12, twelve. 

13, thirteen. 

14, fourteen. 

15, fifteen. 

16, sixteen.' 

17, seventeen. 

18, eighteen. 

19, nineteen. 

20, twenty. 

21, twenty-one. 

22, twenty-two. 

23, twenty-three. 

24, twenty-four. 

25, twenty-five, 

26, twenty-six. 

27, twenty-seven. 

28, twenty-eight. 

29, twenty-nine. 

30, thirty. 

31, thirty-one. 

32, thirty-two, &c. 
89, thirty-nine. 

40, forty. 

41, forty-one. 

42, forty-two, &c. 

49, forty-nine. 

50, fifty. , 

51, fifty-one. 

52, fifty-two, &c. 

59, fifty-nine. 

60, sixty. 

61, sixty-one, &c. 

69, sixty-nine. 

70, seventy. 

71, seventy- one. 



*l//i, ra. Uiu f 
Deux. 
Trois.f 
Quat re. 
Cinq, 
Six, 
Sept, 
Huit, 
Nevf, 
Dix, 
Onze. 
Dome. 
Treize, 
Quatorze. 
Quinze. 
Seize, 
Dix-sept, 
DiX'huiL 
Dix-nevf. 
Vingt. 

Vingl et un, 
Vingt'deux, 
Vingt-trois. 
Vingt-quatre. 
Vingt'Cinq* 
Vingt'Six, 
Vingt'Sept, 
Vingt'huit. 
Vingt-nevf, 
Trentc. 
Trente et un. 
Trente-deuXy Sfc. 
Trente-neuf. 
Quarante, 
Quarante et un, 
Quarante-deux, Sfc* 
Quarante^nevf, 
Cinquanie, 
Cinquante et un, 
CinquanU'deux, Sfc. 
Cinquante-neiif, 
Soixands. 

Soixante et un^ Sfc, 
Soixante-neuf. 
Soixante^ix, 
Soixante-onze 



* These words are both ArticUi and Suhstantives. 

Articles when prefixed to a noon : as, Un homme, Une femme ; Un lirre, Deux livres ; 
Trots hommes ; Quatre maisons ; Cinq chevauz ; Dix 6cus, &c. 

Substantives when preceded by an article ; as, un Deux ; un Trois : un Quatre *, le Deux 
I«Trois, ^Quatre, de Janvier, de fSvrier, de cceur, de pique, &c. des Trois ; cfesQuatro, &c. 

f" Tlie chapter on pronunciation contains rules which shew how to pronounce all these 
words. 



LXXII. 


72, 


LXXIIL 


73, 


LXXIV. 


74. 


LXXV. 


75, 


LXXVI. 


76, 


Lxxvir. 


77, 


LXXVIII. 


78, 


LXXIX. 


79. 


LXXX. 


80, 


Lxxxr. 


81, 


LXXXII. 


82, 


LXXXIII. 


83, 


LXXXIV. 


84, 


LXXXV. 


85, 


LXXXVI. 


86, 


LXXXVII. 


87, 


LXXXVIII 


. 88, 


LXXXIX, 


89, 


XC. 


90, 


XCI. 


9!, 


XCII. 


92, 


XCIII. 


93, 


XCIV. 


94, 


xcv. 


95, 


XCVI. 


96, 


XCVII. 


97, 


XCVIII. 


98, 


XCIX. 


99, 


c. 


100, 


CI. 


101, 


CII. 


102, 


ex. 


110, 


cxx. 


120, 


CC. 


2O0, 


CCL. 


250, 


CCC. 


300, 


CM. 


900, 


M. 


1000, 


C. 


100, 


CC. 


200, 


M. 


1000, 


MM. 


2000, 



THE NUMBERS* 

seventy-two. 

seventy-three. 

seventy-four. 

seventy-five. 

seventy-six. 

seventy-seven. 

seventy-eight. 

seventy-nine. 

eighty. 

eighty-one. 

eighty-two. 

eighty-three. 

eighty-four. 

eighty-five. 

eighty-six. 

eighty-seven. ^ 

eighty-eight. 

eighty-nine. 

ninety. 

ninetv-one. 

ninety-two. 

ninety-three. 

ninety-four. 

ninety-five. 

ninety-six. 

ninety-seven. 

ninety-eight. 

ninety-nine. 

a hundred. 

a hundred & one."* 

a hundred & two, &c 

a hundred & ten. 

a hundred & twenty. 

two hundred. 

two hundred & fifly. 

three hundred. 

nine hundred. 

a thousand.! 

one hundrea. 

two hundred. 

one thousand. 

two thousand. 



177 



Soixante'douze. 

Soixante-treize, 

Soixante^qtiatorze* 

Soixante»q7iinze. 

Soixante^seize. 

Soixanie-diX'SepL 

Soixante-dix-huit 

Soixante-diX'neuf 

Quatre-vingt, 

Quatre-vingt- un. 

Quatre-vingt-deux. 

Quatre-vingl'trois 

Quatre-vingt-quatre. 

Quatre-vingUcinq, 

Quatre-vingt'Six, 

Quatre-vingt-sept 

Quatre-vingt-huit, 

Quatre-vingt-neuf, 

Quatre^vingt'dix. 

Quatre^vingt'Onze, 

Qualre-vingt'douze. 

Qiiatre-vingt-treize, 

Quatre-mngt'qucUorze 

Quatre-vingt'quinze. 

Quatre^vifjgt'Seize, 

Quaire-mngi'dixsept 

Quatre-mngt' dix-huit. 

Quatre-vingt'diX'neuf 

Cent 

Cent un. 

Cent deiix, Sfc* 

Cent dix. 

Cent vingt. 

Deux cents.f 

Deux cent cinquante. 

Trois cents. 

Neuf cents. 

MiUe. 

Un cent. 

Deux cents. 

Un mille.X 

Deux mille. 



* llie article A^ and the conjunction Am!, are omitted with these numbers in french 
t Quatre^ingt and Cent, followed by a noun vlural, require s; as, Quatre-vingts ans, 
*eighty years ; Deux cents hommes, two hundrea men ; but not when they are followed 

by another number ; as Quatrf -vingt-dix ans ; Deux cent cinquante homme$. 
t In the date of the year, One is omitted, and Thousand is spelt Mil, not Mtlle ; so we 

-vrrite 1819, Mil huit cent dix-neuf, not Un milie huit cent diz-neuf. 



M, 



178 



THE NUMBEUS. 



From the foregoing numbers are formed the adjectima of number i 

e Premier^ m. la Premiere, f. 
e Second, m. la Seconde, f. 



1< 
2nd, 



the first, 
the second. 



3rd, the third. 

Ath, the fourth. 

bth, the tifth. 

6^^, the sixth. 

7th, the seventh. 

Sth, the eifrhth. 

9^A, the ninth. 

10^^, the tenth. 

11^^, the eleventh. 

IQih, the twelfth. 

ISth, the thirteenth. 

14th, the fourteenth. 

15/^, thefiaeenth. 

I6th,. the sixteenth. 

17th, the seventeenth, 

18ifA, the eighteenth. 

I9th, the nineteenth. 

20th, the twentieth. 

2U^, the twenty-first. 

22nd, the twenty-second. 

23rc^, the twenty- third. 

24th, the twenty-fourth. 

,2bt/i, the twenty-fifth. 

26^A, the twenty-sixth. 

27th, the 4wenty-seventh. 

28/A the twenty-eighth. 

29th, the twenty-ninth. 

SOth, the thirtieth. 

31s^, the thirty-first. 

S2nd, the thirty-second, &c. 



{ 



e or la Deuxieme) m. and /!* 

e Trom^me. 

e Qfia^rieme. 

e Cin^uieme. 

e i^Krieme: 

e S^tihme. 

e Huitihme> 

e 2Vcu»ieme, 

e Dixie me. 

e Onzi^me, or VOnzihme^ 

e Z>07/2;ieme. 

e Treizihme, 

e Quatorzihme* 

e Qumzi^me. 

e iSeirieme. 

e DiX'Septihme. 

e DLV'huUihmc. 

e Dij7-7t«ui;ieme. 

e FtTi^tieme. 

e Vingt-et'Unihmem 

e Ff7ig'<-(]?euxi^me. 

e Vingt'trowhme, 

e Fi7fg^*9ua^ri^me. 

e rtn^^cingui^me. 

e Vingt-sixieme. 

e Fi7ig"<-*ep<ieme. 

e Vingt-huitihme, 

e Ft?i^<-neM»ieme, 

e TVt^/i/i^me. 

e Trenie eiunltiitie, 

e 7Ve;i/e-(/etU7ieme, and so on, by 



adding icme, to the substantive numbers, page 176, 177. 

Observe only, that in those ending in e, the e is left out ; as, Quatre, 
Quatrihme; DouZ'C, Dow«i6me; and in those ending in^ ^Ae^is changed 
into V, for softness of sound; as,iVew/,Ncttmeme; Dix-neuf, Dix-neuvihiXiQ, 

From the above adjectives are also formed the numeral adverbs; 



Istly, 

2ndly, 

Srdly, 
4thly, 
bthly, 
6thly, 



firstly. 

secondly. 

thirdly, 
fourthly, 
fifthly, 
sixthly. 



{ 



PremieremenU 

Secondemeni. 

Deuxiemement. 

Trotsiem^emenU 

fiiuatriemement 

CinquiememenU 

Sixiememeni, 



and so on, by adding m^nt to the above adjectives. 

* Second and Deuxieme are used indiscriminately, when they are followed by a noun; 
as, Le second, or Le deiixitme jour ; La seeonde, or La deuxieme semaine ; but aftex anothet 
number, Deuxieme alone can be used ; so we could not say, Yingt second; Trente Mectind} 
we must say, yingi-deuiieme ; Trente-deufieme, 8^c. 



( 179 ) 

THE SYNTAX, 

CONTAINING 

THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES 

OF 

THE FRENCH LANGUAGE 

WITH 

PARTICULAR RULES 

AND 

EXCEPTIONS, 

NOT COMPRISED IN THE INTRODUCTION* 



The FRENCH LANGUAGE, like most of the living language|, is composed 
of NINE different sorts of words, commonly known by the names of 

NOUN, PRONOUN, PREPOSITION. 

ARTICLE, VERB, CONJUNCTION, 

ADJECTIVE, ADVERB, INTERJECTION.f 

* Some of the geaerel rules contained in the introduction are repeated in the syntax, 
because they are necessary to connect the different rules together. But each part must 
be considered as a distinct work, designed for different persons. The introduction is 
intended for children, and for persons who, not being accustomed to the study of lan- 
guages, couid not at once comprehend such a multiplicity of rules. The syntax, which 
includes all the rules which are necessary to a perfect knowledge of the language, is in* 
tended for the same persons, after they are sufficiently grounded in the introductory 
rules, and for persons of a comprehensive mind, who have no need of an introduction, 

t Ever since the art of speaking has been reduced into ft system, grammarians, and 
the philosophers who have written on the subject, have differed upon the parts, or dif« 
ferent species of words of which it is composed. Some argue that there are but two, 
the NOUN and the verb, and assert that the rest are only corruptions or abbreviations of 
these ; others add the article and die conjunction ; others the pronoun, and so on 
to the INTERJECTION. It does not belong to a production of this kind to inquire into 
these different opinions ; and I have adopted ihe most prevalent, because it has ap- 
peared to me, that whether they be words, or only abbreviations of words, there are nine 
sorts, which are subject to different rules. 

Those who are desirous to see ingenious dissertations on this subject, may read 
Harrises Het'mes, and Tooke's Divenions ofPwrUy, 

M ? 



180 

CHAP. I 

NOUN. 

EVERY WORD is Called a noun which names a mhstance or hein^^ eithei 
real, as man, house, tree, 8fc. ; or ideal, as god, heaven, glory, 8^c, 

Nouns are distinguished into proper and common. 

A noun proper, or proper name, is that which belong:s only to one 
being ; as, John, the Thames, London, Paris, England, France, Sfc* 

A noun common, or common name, is that which belongs to all beings 
of the same kind ; as, man, woman, river, city, country, Sfc, 

N» B, In this class are comprised the abstract names of virtue, vice, 
pleasure, pain, hve^ desire, fear, hatred, glory, honor, and such like. 

Two 

* Though proper names should remain invariably the same in all languages, yet the 
French have given to the names of countries, and of some capital cities, names or ter- 
minations adapted to their own language; so, Asia is called Asie; Africa, Afriqiie; 
America, Am^rique ; England, Angleterre ; Scotland, Ecosse ; Loudon, Londres ; Spain, 
Espa^ne ; Mexico, Mexique ; Jamaica, Jama'ique ; Italy, Italie ; Tuscany, Toscane ; 
Sardinia, Sardaignt ; Sicily, Sicile ; Leghorn, Licoume ; Mantua, Mantoue ; Geneva, 
Geiieve ; Genoa^ Genes ; Switzerland, Siiisse ; Germany, Allemagne ; Hungary, Hangrie; 
Bohemia, Bohhte; Vienna, Vienne; Poland, Pologne ; Warsaw, Varsovie; Cracow, Cra- 
eavie; Russia, Ruuie; Prussia, Pruise; Sweden, Suede, 6^c, for which no rule can be 
given ; but as they are single words, and are generally found in the dictionaries, when 
they have been seen once or twice, they are easily retained. 

The names of persons, derived from the living languages, do not vary ; so, For, Pitt, 
White, Brown, are in french. Fox, Pilt, White, Brown, as in english ; but the names of 
persons, derived from the greek and latin languages, generally bhuige their termina- 
tions, agreeably to the following rules. 

Names ending in aZ, ar, or, is, os, on, do not vary ; as, Annibal, Adherbal, Casar, 
Hamilcar, Mentor, Nestor, Adonis, Sesostris, Minos, Atropos, Damon, Solon, 6^c, nor the 
names of men ending in a, Ba^Numa, Nerva, Sylla, Agrippa, Dolabella ; except Seneca^ 
which is SMque* 

The finals as and es, are changed into e : as, Pythagoras, Pifthagore; Mecenas, M^ce- 
ne ; Eneas,. iVi^e; Socrates, Socrate; Demosthenes, Demosthene, ^c. ; extept A^6silas, 
Leonidas, PHopidas, Phidias, Pythias, Pausanias, Epaminondas, Eudamidas, Calchas, 
Olympias, Cirls, Xerxes, Pericles, and a few others not often met with. 

The finals us and ius, are also generaUv changed into e; as, Augustus, Au^uste; Titus 
Tite; Tiberius, Tibere; Julius Csesar, «/i//e«C^Mr; Tacitus, Tacite ; Virgihus, Virgile; 
Horatius, iforace; Eolus, Eole ; (Edipus, Oedipe; exce^tt Appius, Bacchus, Brutus, Cin- 
einnatus, Claudius, Crorsus, Cyrus, Darius, Decius, Dentatus, Gallus, Germanictis, Janus, 
Junius, Manliu^, Marius, M^n^nius, M6teUus, Mutius, Papirius, Plaufius, PompHins, 
Porus, Pyrrhus, Remus, Romulus, Silvius, Valerius, Venus, Fullus, and a few others not 
frequently met with; and Conolanus, Ta^quinius, which lose the finals us, ius^ thus, 
Coriolan, Tarquiti, 

Nouns in c^t/s, change chus into que; as, Telemaohus, TtUmaque; Lysimachus, Lysi^ 
maque; Gracchus, Graeme; except Antiochus, 

Nouns ending in o take the addition of n ; as, Cato, (^aton ; Cicero, Ciceron ; Scipio, 
Scipion , Plato, Platon ; Apollo, Apollon ; Pluto, Pluton ; Juno, Junon ; Dido, Didon 
except Calffpso, Clio, Clotho, Sapho, Echo, 

The final der is changed into dre ; as, Alexander, Alexandre ; Lysander, Lysandre, 

Names of women ending in a, change a into e mute ; as, Julia, Julie ; Amelia, Am6lie; 
Agrippina^ Ag^-i^fpine ; Cleopatra, Cltop&ire ; Minerva, Minerve, &c. 

Those ending in e, £, retain their termination ; as, Cybele, Melpomene, Circ6, CloS, 
Daphni, Hcht, Diishi ; except the following, in vi'iiich the Frenc^do not sound the final 
f ; Ariadne, Eurydice. Pin^lope, 



NOUN. 181 

Two things are to be considered in nouns j the gender and the number. 

The gender is the distinction between the sexes. 

The french language admits of ttvo genders only, the masculine and 
the feminine. 

By masculine is meant the male being; hj feminine^ the female. 

The names of beings whose sex is unknown, and of those ina?iimate 
beings, commonly called things, which are of the neuter gender in english, 
are either masculine, or feminine, in french, according to custom,* 

. There 



The difference of gender is generally known by the terminatUm of the noun. 



Nouns of the following Terminatioiu are 

MASCULINE. 

A. un Opera, an opera ; un Sopha, a sopfui ; 
du Quinquina, peruvian bark. 

Al sounded A ; as, 

un Plat, a dish ; un Combat, a battle. 

B. du Plomb, lead; le Hadoub, refitting ; 
un Kumb, a point of the compass, 

C. le Bee, the beak: du Sue, gravy , 
du Pore, pork ; au Tabac, tobacco. 

D. du Lard, bacon; du Fard, paint; 

un Regard, a look; le Hasard, chance. 

E preceded by any letter but T ; 

du B16, corn ; un Pre, a meadow ; 
un Cong6, a holiday ; du Caf6, coffee. 

Except TAmiti^, friendship ; 
la Moitie, the half; la Pitie, pity. 

£K sounded E ; as, 

un Baiser, a kiss ; le Danger, danger; 
un Metier, a trade ; un Panier, a basktt. 

AX, sounded E; as, 

un Geai, a jay ; un Balai, a broom, 
un Essai, an essay; un D^ai, a delay. 

AIT, £T sounded E ; as, 

un Fait, a fact ; un Portrait, a picture ; 
un Sujet, a subject ; un Objet, an object. 

F. un Nerf, a sinew ; un (£uf, an egg; 
du Boeuf, beef; du Suif, tallow. 

Except une Clef, a key ; la Soif, thirst ; 
la Nef, the body oj a church, 

G. le Rang, rank ; le Sang, the blood ; 

un Etang, a pond ; un hareng, a herring, 

I. un Etui, a case ; un D^fi, a challenge ; 
un Lit, a bed : un Habit, a coat. 

Except une Fourmi, an ant ; la Nuit, 7113 /tt. 

01. un Envoi, an invoice ; un Cjsnvoi, a convoy ; 
un Emploi, an employ ; le I)oigt, the finger. 
Eicept la Foi, faith ; la Loi, law, 

L. un Mai, an evil ; le Travail, labour ; 
un H6tel, a hotel ; le Sommeil, sleep, 

M. le Norn, the name ; le Parfum, perfume ; 
du I'h^ m, thyme. 
Except la Faioi, hunger 



Nouns of the following Terminatiotia are 

FEMININE. 



T£. la Libert^, liberty: la Sante, health , 

la Beaut^, beauty ; la Bont6, goodness , 

la Majeste, majesty ; la Divinity, divi' 

nitu. 

Except i'Et^, summer: un Comt6,a county , 

le Cot6, tAe side; un p£Ue, a pie; un (jomite, 

a committee ; un Traite, a featy, a treatiu ; 

da Th6, rome tea. 



182 



NOUN. 

There are two numbers, the singular and the plurals 

A noun is singular, when we speak of one being only; as, a book, 
un livre; a house, une maison; a tree, un, arhre; a ship, un navire, ^'c, 

A noun 



T- 



MASCULINE Terminations, 

if. All the terminations in s which are not ION, 
or SON soft, i. e. sounded ZON, viz, 

AN. da Bran, bran ; du Safran, saffron, 

ANT, ENT soit?iderf an ; as, 

un Uiamant,a diamond ; unPr^sent,ap}'eseRt ; 
le Vent, the uind. Except une Dent, a tooth. 

AIN. dvLp&ijif bread; unBain,a6atA. Exc.laMain, 

IN, EIN sounded AiN ; as, C*''^ ^«"^- 

du Vin, some wine ; le Matin, morning ; 
le Sein, the bosom; le Teint, the complexion. 
Except la Fin, the end, 

01 N. le Soin, care ; un Coin, a comer, 

lEN. un Lien, a tie ; du Bien, wealth. 

CON. un Balcon, a balceny ; un Flacon, a decanter, 

LON. un Violon, a violin ; un Papillon, a butterfly. 

SSON. un Buisson, a bush ; du 'Poisson, fish. 

Except Id^MoissoUy the hai^est; la Boisson, 
drink ; une Chanson, a song. 

CON . un Hame9on,a fish-hook ; un Lima^on.a snail. 
• * Except une Le^on, a lesson ; une Hanson, 
a ransom ; la Fa9on, the making. 

TON. un B&ton, a stick ; un Bouton, a button, 

O, un Echo, an echo; un Duo, a duet, 

or sounded O ; as, 

un Mot, a word ; un Complot, o plot ; 
un Pot, a pot ; un Gigot, a leg of mutton. 



EAU 



sounded O ; as. 



FEMININE Terminatiotit. 



ION. une Action, an action ; une Caution, 
a bail; une Portion, a portion. 

Except un Bastion, a bastion ; un Crayon, 
a pencil; un Kayon, a ray; un Pion, a 
man at drafts; le Talion, retaliation; un 
Scorpion, a sc(7rpJonj le Septentrion, the 
north ; le Croupion, the rump of fowls ani 
birds; un Million, a million. 



ZON* ^^® Maison, a house; la liaison, 
reason ; la Saison, the season. 

Except le ^azon, turf; du Poison, poison; 
un Tjson, a firebrand ; un Olson, a gosling 
I'Horizon, the horizon ; le Blason, heraldry 



un Couteau, a knife ; un Chapeau, a hat. 
Except I'Eau, water ; la Peau, the skin, 

P, un Cap, a cape ; un Cep, a stock of a vine; 
un Champ, afield; le Galop, the gallop. 

Q,, un Cinq, a five; un Coq, a cock, 

1\, All the terminations in r, which are not eur. 

AIR . 1' Air, the air ; un Eclair, a flash of lightning. 
Except la Chair, the flesh, 

EK.» le Fer, iron ; l*Enfer, hell. Except la Mer, 
the sea ; une Cuiller, a spoon, 

IK. le D^sir, desire ; le Plaisir, pleasure, 

OIK. le SoiT,evening ; unMouchoir,a handkerchief, 

OK. I'Or, gold ; un Tr^sor, a treasure, 

ORD ORT, sounded or ; as, le Bord, the border; 
un Fort, a fort ; le Sort, fate. 
Except la Mort, death, 

UUil« '® Jour, the day ; un Tour, a trick. 

Except la Cour, the court, the yard ; une 
Tour, a tower. 



EUR. la Peur,/«ir ; la Cbaleur, heat ; une 
Fleur, a flower ; la Couleur, colour. 

Except le Bonheur, htck, happiness ; le 
Malheur, misfortune : THonneur, honour ; 
le D^shonncur, disnonour ; le Cccur, the 
heart ; I'Equateur, the equator ; I'lnt^rieur, 
the interior ; I'Extferieur, tKe exterior. 

Except also the nouns in eur, which belong 
only to persons ; as, un Auteur, an author ; 
un Docteur, a doctor ; Sfc. 

See also, page 189, how some nouns femi- 
nine are formed from the masculine, in the 
same manner as adjectiyes, by ehang'ng the 
termination. 



NOUN. 183 

A noun is plural when we speak of more than one. 

N. B. The plural is generally formed in french, as in english, by add- 
ng 8 to the singular ; as, des livres, books ; des maUona^ houses, 8^'c, 

Nouns 



S. 



T. 



U. 



UT 



MASCULINE Terminations, 

le Bras, the arm \ le Repos, repose ; 
du Bois, wood ; le Succ^s, tuccesi ; 

Except une Brebis, a sheep; une Souris, 
a mouse ; une Vis]^ a screto; Tois, time» 

un Plat, a dish ; un Lit, a bed ; 
le Vent, the wind ; un Accident, an accident, 
Exe. une Part, a iharei une Fordt, a forest ; 
la Nuit, night; une Dot, a dowery; une 
Dent, a tooth ; la Mort, death, 

un Ecu, a crown ; un F^tu, a straw. 
Except la Vertu, vii'tue'; une Tribu, a tribe; 
de la Glu, bird-lime. 



FEMININE 'Vermvmiunis, 



sounded c; as, 

le But, the aim; le Scorbut, the scurvy. 

EU. le yen, fire; un Lieu, a place, 

OU. - un Trou, a hole ; un Chou, a cabbage, 

X. un Faix, a frurt^en ; le Choiz, choice. 

Except la Paix, peace; la Voix, t/te voice ; 
une Noix, a nut ; de la Poix, pitch ; une 
Croix, ''a erase ; la Toux, cough ; une Per- 
driz, a partridge ; une Faux, a scythe. 

From the above rules it appears that nouns ending with a consonant^ or any vovoet, but e 
mute^ are generally masculine; but there is a great number of nouns ending in e mute, part 
of which are masculine^ and part /emmine, which can not be reduced to such certain rules • 

GENERAL RULES. 

/ AU NAMES of COUNTRIES ending with e mute are feminine ; as, 
la Franoe, France ; la Hollande, Holland ; I'Angleterre, England ; la Suisse, Sidtzer' 
land, &c. except le Mexique, Mexico, Those ending with any other vowel, as Canada, 
Chili, Ptrou, ^c, or with a consonant, as Danemark, Portugal, Japon, 6fc. are masculine. < 

Be All COMMON NAMES ending in e mute, preceded by another vowel, are feminine ; as, 

le, une Ep^e, a su)ord ; une Arm6e, an army ; une Guin6e, a guinea : la Vie, life ; la Rue, 
Ue. the street; la Vue, the sight ; la J oie, joy ; la Joue, the cheek; la Pluie, inin, 6cc, 

Except le Foie, the liver ; un Incendie, a conflagration ; le G^nie, genius^ le JVIessie, 
t^e messiah; un Parapluie, an umbi-ella; un Troph^e, a trophy'; unPygmee, a pigmy ; 
le Caduc^e, caduceu's ; THym^n^e, hymen ; un Mausolle, a mausoleum; and nouns e^uUng > 
. in CUE and que, which are subject to a particular rule. See GUE, QIJE. 

PARTICULAR RULES. 

BE. There are Thirty-four nouns ending in be. Eleven of which 
are masculine ; the most commonly used are, 
un Adverbe, an adverb ; un Proverbe, a proverb; 

un Cube, a cube ; un Tube, a tube ; 

un Globe, a globe ; un T^orbe, a theorb ; 

un Orbe, an orb ; un Verbe, a verb j 

* The discrimination betvoeen the genders of nouns is a difficulty which the learner finds 
hard to overcome. In order to attain it, he must cotisider the greatest number of words of each 
termination which are either masculine or feminine, as a general rule, and retain as many 
words of the exception as he can* Besides this, w?ien he reads a french author, he must pay 
particular attention to the article which precedes each noun, and consider it as its necessary 
appendage. By these means the difficulty will insensibly lessen, and his mistakes will be bus 
few. Not to overload his memory with a multiplicity of words, I hare omitted in the list ^J 
nouns given as €uet)t*ons, th(»e which are either obsolete or little used. 



. Twenty 'three other nouns end« 
ing in be vue feminine. 



184 NOUN. 

Nouns ending in « or j? in the singular, are the same in the plural; as. 
971071 JiU^ my son ; mes fits, my sons ; une hrthU^ a sheep ; des brebis, 
sheep ; une voix^ a voice ; des votjp, voices ; une Tioix, a nut ; des noix, nuts. 

Nouns 



CE 



MASCULINE Terminatimu, 

There are Three hundred nouns ending in CE, Thirty-four 
of which are m€UicuUne ; the most commonly used are, 
un Appendice, an appendix ; un Indice, an indication } 
un Armistice, an armistice ; le N^goce, traffic ; 



FCMININE TerminatUmt, 



uu Artifice, an artifice ; 

un Auspice, an auspice; 
_ un lien^fice* a benefit ; 

un Calice, a chalice ; 
- le fJaprice, caprice ; 

un Cilice, a hair -cloth ; 
' le Commerce, commerce ; 

le D61ice, delight ; 
" un Edifice, an edifice ; 
' un Exercice, an exercise ; 



un Office, an office ; 
un Orifice, an orifice ; 
le Pouce, the thumb ; 
un Precipice, a precipice ; 
le Prejudice, injury ; 
un Sacrifice, a sacrifice ; 
un Service, a service ; 
le Silence, silence ; 
\e Solstice, the solstice ; 
le Supplice, punishment , 



le Frontispice, /rontispi«c« ; - le Vice, vice. 



Two hutidred and sixti^" 
six other nouns ending ic 
CE are feminine. 



DE. 



There are Two hundred nouns ending in DE, Twenty-seven 
of which are masculine ; the i<iost commonly used are, 

. un Camarade, a companion; Ae Monde, the world; 
un Code, a cmie; un P6riode, 

le Coude, the elbow ; un Remede, 

un Fluide, a fluid ; un Sph^roide, 

. un Grade, a degree ; im Subside, a subsidy ; 

un Guide, a guide ; le Suicide, suicide ; 

un Mode, a mode ; le Vide, Vacuum. 



, the world; ^ 

if a period of time ; I 
e, a remedy ; I ( 

ide, a spheroid ; >thr 



One hundred and seventy* 
ree other nouns ending id 
DE are feminine. 



FE. There are Twenty nouns ending in fe, PHE, Eight of which 

PH£. are masculine; tliey are, 

un Golfe, a gulph ; un Parafe, a paraph ; "j 

un Greffe, a court register ; un Paragraphe, a paragraph ; \ Tufeloe othernouns ending 

un Hieroglyphe, a hieroglyph; un Triomphe, a triumph ; | in FE, PHE, are feminine, 

un Logogriphe, a riddle; un T^l^graphe, a telegraph ; J 

GE. . There are Eighty nouns ending in ge, Thirty-tm» of which 
are masculiv ; uie most commonly used are. 



un ange, an fngel ; 

Mn archange, an archangel ; 

le Change, the 'change ; 

un Cierge, a taper ; 

un College, a college ; 

un Cortege, a retinue ; 

le DHuge, the deluge ; 

im Echange, an exchahge ; 

un Eloge, an encomium ; 

du Li^ge, cork ; 

du Linge, lin£n ; • 

le Manage, riding school ; 

un Melange, a mixture; 



un Mensonge, a lie ; 
un Prestige, a prestige ; 
un Privilege, a privilege ; 
un Prodige, a prodigy ; 
un Rechange, a change ; 
un Refuge, a refuse ; 
un SacriUge, a sacrilege; 
un Si^ge, a seatt a siege ; 
un Singe, an ape ; 
un Songe, a dream ; 
un Subterfuge, a subterfuge ; 
un Vertigo, a giddiness ; 
un Vestige, a track. 



1 Forty'eight other nouns 
Wding in OE are feminine. 



AGE. AH nouns ending in age are masculine; as, 

un Avantage, an advantage ; • le Mariage, marriage ; 



UB Badinage, a joke ; 
un Bocage, a giove ; 
le Courage, courage; 
du Fromage, some cheese ; 
le Jardinage, gardening ; 
On Hermitage, an hermitage ; 



le M6nvi%e^ housekeeping ; 
un Orage, a storm ; 
un Ourrage, a work ; 
le Rivage, tlie snore ; 
le Veurage, widowhood ; 
le Visage, the face, Sfc, 



I Except une Caj;e , a cage ; 

I une Image, an image; la 
^Nage, swimming ; mie Page , 
a page ; la Plage, a poetical 
word for sea; la Rage, rage. 



NOUN. 



185 



Nouns ending in u take j: instead of « for the sign of the plural number ; 
as, chapeaUy hat ; chapeaux^ hats ; chou, cabbage ; choux, cabbages ; lieu^ 
place ; lieux, places ; fiu, fire ; feux^ fires ; jeiiy game ; jeux, games, Sfc, 

Except 



MASCULINE Terminations, 

GUE. ITiere are Thirty -five nouns ending in gue, Twelve of 
which are masculine ; the most commonly used are, 
' un Catalogue, a catalogue ; un Dogue, a buU'dog ; 
le Di^calogue, the decalogue ; un Orgue, an organ; 
un DAlogue, a dialogue ; . le Prologue, the prologue ; 



FEMININE Terminations, 



\ 



Twenty 'three othe.r 

J nouns ending in gue are 
feminine. 



CHE. There are One hundred nouns ending in CHE, Twelve of 
which are masculine ; the most commonly used are, 
un Acrostiche, an acrostic; un Panac'he, a -plume ; 
le Coche, the stage coach; du Ponche, punch; 
un Diinancbe, a sunday ; un Pr^che,a dissenting sermon 
un fl^tjoistiche, an hemistich ; un Reproche, a reproach; 
un Manche, a handle ; un Tournebroche, a jack ; . . . . une MancLe^ a sleeve. 



; I nouns end 
J feminine. 



ightyeight other 
(Ting in che are 



L£. ITiere are Four hundred nouns 

dred of which are masculine ; the 

un Aigle, an eagle ; un 

un Angle, an angle ; un 

un Article, an article; un 

un Asile, an asylum; le 

un Buffle, a buffalo; un 

un Cftble, a cable; un 

le Capitole, the capital ; le 

le Centuple, the centuple; un 

un Cercle, a circle; le 

du Cheyre*feuille, wMdbine; un 

le Chyle, the chyle; le 

le Combte, the top ; un 

un Concile, a council; le 

le Contrdle, the control ; le 

un Couvercle, a lid; un 

le Cr^puscule, thetvoilight ; un 

un Crible, a sieve ; le 

un Crocodile, a crocodile; un 

le J^iMe, the devil; le 

un Disciple, a disciple ; le 

un Domicile, a domicil ; du 

le Double, the double ; un 

un Drdle, a fellow ; le 

1' Evangile, the gospel ; le 

un Exemple, an example ; un 

du Girofle, clovC'Spice ; le 

le H&le, the burning sun ; le 

un Intervalle, an interval, un 

un Libelle, a libel ; le 

un Maroufle, a scoundrel ; le 

un Merle, a blackbird ; le 

le Meuhle, the furniture ; le 

un Mille, a mile ; un 

un Miracle, a miracle; un 

un Modele, a model ; un 

un Monopole, a monopoly , un 

un Moule, a mould ; uu 

le MuAe, the muzzle f le 
un Muscle^ a muscle ; 



ending in le, One fcu»- 
most commonly used are, 
Obstacle, an obstacle; 
Ongle, a nail ; 
Oracle, aw oracle ; 
Parallele, the parallel ; 
P^cule, spare money ; 
Pendule, a pendulum ; ,,,, 
Peuple, the people ; 

Poele, a stove ; 

PoLe, the pole; 
Portefeuille, a portfolio ; 
Pr^ambule, the preamble ; 
Quadrangle, a quadrangle : 
Quadrille, quadril ; 
Quadruple, quadruple; 
Receptacle, a receptacle ; 
Role, a roll, the part of an 
Sable, the sand ; factor ; 
Saule, a toillow ; 
Scandole, scandal; 
Scrupule, the scruple ; 
Seigle, rye ; 
Siecle, an age ; 
Symbole, the symbol ; 
Souffle, the breath ; 
Spectacle, a spectacle ; 
Style, the style ; 
Tabernacle, the tabernacle ; 
Temple, a temple ; 
Trefle, trefoil ; 
Tremble, the asp tree ; 
Triple, the treble ; 
Trouble, disturbance ; 
Vaudeville, a ballad ; 
Vestibule, a Vestibule ; 
Vignoble, a vineyard ; 
Violoncelle, a violoncello ; 

Voile, a veil ; 

Zele, ilie zdil. 



une Pendule, a cloclc, 
une Poele, a fryingpan. 



Three hundred other 
in LB are 



/nouns ending 
'feminine. 



URO Voile, CI sati. 



186 



NOUN. 



Except clou^ nail ;ecrou, screw; verraUy bolt ; foUy mad ; ^hu, sharj^er ; 
trou^ hole ; sou, penny ; matou^ torn cat; and individuj individual ; which 
require s for their plural, elouSy naUs; ecrous, screws ;verrouSf bolts; 
fotiSf mad people ; JtUms^ Sfc, 

Nouns 



MASCULINE Temunaiions, 



FEMININE Termtnatunu. 



M£. 'lliere are One hundred and teveniy-two nouns ending in me, Forty^three of which are 

feminine ; the most commonly- nsed are, 



NE. 



PE. 



guE. 



0}ie hundred and twen 
iy^ttine other nouns end-/ 
ing in ME are moKulijie, 



rV Ame, the soul ; 
une Arme, an arm ; 
la Brume, the fog ; 
la Cime, the top j 
la Coutume, the custom ; 
la Cr^me, cream ; 
la Dime, the tithe ; 
r Ecume, tA«/oam; 
une Enclume, an anvil ; 
une Enigme, an enigma ; 



la Gourme, the rtranglet ; 

un IdiotismOf (tn idiom, 

la Lame, the blade ; 

une Larme, a tear ; 

la Legitime, a child^s portion , 

une Lime, a file; 

une IVIazime, a maxim : 

la Paume, the pahn, tennis ; 

une Plate-forme, a platform ; 

une Plume, a pen ; 



une Epigramme, an epigram ; une Pnmme, an apple 



r Escrime, fenci'ig ; 

r Estime, etteem ; 

une Ferme, a farm ; 

la FlasDme, the flame ; 

la Forme, t/i«/ffrm; 

la Gamme, the gamut ; 

la Gomme, gum ; 



la Prime, the prirrte ; 
une Rame, an oar, a ream; 
la R^forme, the reform ; 
la Rime, the rhyme ; 
une Somme, a sum ; 
la Trame, the thread ; 
une Victime, a victim. 



There are Two hutidred and forty -six nouns in ne, 7%tr<y 
of which are masculine ; the most commonly used are, 
de r Antimoin^, atUimMy ; , le JcQne, fasting ; 
un Aune, an elder ; - un Organe, an organ ; 

V Automne, autumn ; le Patrimoir.e, patrimony ; 

le Capricome, the Capricorn ;,Mn Peigne, a comb ; 
un Ceme, a magical ring; le Pene, the boU of a lock ; 



\ 



un Chene, an 02k ; 
un Cygne, a swan , 
un Cdne, a cone ; 
le Crftne, the scull ; 
un D{'cagone, a decagon ; 
im Domaine, a domain ; 
un Faune, a faun ; 
du Filigrane, filigree ; 
un Frene, an ash tree ; 



un Pentagone, a pentagon ; 
un i'h^nomene, a phenomenon ; 
un Polygone, a polygon ; 
un Prdne, a sermon ; 
le Regne, the reign ; 
un Renne, a rein deer ; 
un Signe, a sisn ; 
un Trdne, a throne. 



Two hund'^ed and six- 
teen other nouns ending 
/in KE are /eminiiz« 



There are Sixty^eight nouns ending in pe. Twelve of 
which are masculine ; the most commonly used are, 
un Groupe, a group ; un Participe, a varticiple ; 

un Horoscope, a horoscope ; un Polype, a polypus ; 
du Jaspe, jasper ; un Principe, a principle ; 

un Microscope, a microscope; un Telescope, a telescope. 



\ 



Fifty-six other nouns 
ending in few^ feminine. 



There are One hundred nouns ending in qde, Tfiirty-four 
of which are masculine; the most commonly used are, 
un A sterisque, an fluterts/c; lo Fanegyrlquey panegyric; 

le Pentateuque, the pentateuch; 

un Portique, a portico ; 
. lo Risque, the risk ; 

un Soliloque, a soliloquy ; 

un Specifique, a specific ; 

le Tropique, the tropic ; 

le Viatique, via/ictmt; 

le Zodiaque, the zodiac. 



un Cantique, a canticle; 
un Casque, a cask; 
un Caustique, a caustic; 
un Cirque, a circus; 
un Disque, a disk; 
un Em^tique, an emetic; 
un Oh^lisque, an obelisk ; 
un Manque, a want ; 
un Masque, a mas^ 



Sixty -six otlier nouns 
ending in que are/cmi. 
nine. 



NOUN. 



187 



Nouns ending in a/, ail, change I or il into ux for the phii al ; as, 
nuU, evil ; maux, evils ; chevcU, horse ; chevaux, horses ; canal, canal ; 
canaux, canals ; travail^ labour ; travaux, labours. 

Except 



MASCULINE Termina^lont* 



FEMININE TerminatioM, 



R& 



* / 



There are Six hundred and thirty ^two nouns ending in re, Two 
hundred and twenty 'three of which are masculine ; the most com- 
monly used are, 

un Adultere, an adultery ; le Directoire, the directory ; 

r Albitre, alabaster; un Douaire, o dowery ; 

V Ambre, amber ; un Empire, an empire ; 
unAmphith^&tre,a/iamp/ii(A«itre; un Empl&tre, a -plaster ; 

un Anniversaire, an anniversary; V Equilibre, the equilibrium; 
an Antre, a den ; un Etre, a being ; 

on Arbre, a tree ; un Exemplaire, a copy of a book ; 

un Arteve, an artet-y ; un Fiacre, a hackney coach ; 

un Astre, a star ; un Fifre, a fife ; 

V Atmosphere, the atmosphere; un Formulaire, a formulary,; 



un Atre, an hearth ; 

un Auditoire, an auditory ; 

un Augure, an omen ; 

du Babeurre, 6uttermi/fc; 

du Beurre, butter ; 

un Barometre, u barometer ; 

le Bien-6tre, happy state; 

un Cadavre, a corpse ; 

un Cadre, a frame; 

le Calibre, the bore ; 

du Camphre, camphire ; 

un Cancre, a crab ; 

un Cand^labre, a chandelier; 

le Caractere, the character ; 

un C4dre^ a cedar; 

le Centre, t^c c«ntre ; 

un Chancre, a shanher; 

du Chanvre, hemp ; 

an Chapitre, a chapter; 



du Genievre, juniper ; 

le Genre, t^e ge^uier; 

du Gingembre, ginger ; 

un Gouffre, a 5^uZ// 

un Havre, a harbour ; 

V Hemisphere, the hemisphere ; 

un H^tre, a beech tree ; 

un Inventaire, an inventory ,* 

un Interrogatoire, an interrogatory 

de ri voire, ivory ; 

un Laboratoire, a laboratcry , 

du Lierre, ivy ; 

un Lievre, a hare ; 

un Livre, a book ; 

le Lustre, the lustre ; 

un Luniinaire, a luminary ; 

le Maigre, the lean ; 

du Marble, marble ; 

le Mar tyre, martyrdom ; 



an Chef-d'otuvre, a masterpiece ; un Massacre, a massacre ; 



wun ChiflRre, a figure; 
du Cidre, cidUr ; 
unCylindre, a cy/mdci*; 
un Cimeterre, a cimeter ; 
un Cimetiere, a dturch yard; 
un Cintre, an arch ; 
un Clystere, a glister ; 
an Coffre, a chest ; 



un Membre, a limb ; 
un M6moire, a memoiial ; . 
du Mercure, mercury ; 
un M6t6ore, a meteor ; 
un Meurtre, a murder, 
le Ministere, the ministry ; 
un Mystere, a mystery ; 
un IVIonastere, a monastery ; 



one LiTre,a pou}ief. 

Four hundred 
)and nine othoi 
nouns ending in re 
are feminine. 



laMemoire,mem(r'v 



un Commentaire, a commentary ; un Monstre, a monster ; 



un Concombre, a cucumber ; 

un Congre, a conger; 

un CoroUaire, a coroUm-y ; 

le Contraire, the contrary ; 

un Corsaire, a corsair ; 

du Cuivre, copper ; 

le D^combre, the rubbish ; 

le D^lire, delirium ; 

un D6positaire, a depositary ; 

le Derriere, the back part ; 

un D^sastre, a disaster ; 

le D^sordre, the disorder ; 

le Diametre, the diameter ; 

OB Dictionnaire, a dictionary ; 



un Munnure, a murmur; 
un Missionnaire, a missionary ; 
un Navire, a snip ; 
le N6cessairo, the necessaries : 
un Negre, a neffro ; 
un Nombre, a number : 
un Observatoire, an dyserratory ; 
un Opprobre, a reproach ; 
un Orchestre, an orchestre ; 
un Ordinaif e, an ordinary ; 
un Ordre, an order ; 
le Parterre, the pit of a playhouse 
un P&tre, a herdsman ; 
un Phare, a lighthouse ; J 

du Pboaphore, 



188 



NOUiV. 



Except 6a/, ball; detail^ detail ; epouvantaily bugbear; evejtlail, fan ; 
gauvernail, rudder; portail, portal ; serail, seraglio; the plural of which 
is formed by adding s to the singular ; bab, balls ; details^ details ; 

epouvantails 



UASCOLINE Terminations, 



FEMININE Terminatixnu, 



KE. du Pbosphore, phmphonu ; le 

du PlILtre, plaster ; du 

^ duPoivre, pepper; ^u 

un Fore, a pore ; un 
lesPr^liminaires, pre2tintnarte<; un 
an Presbytere, a parsonage house; un 
un Promontoire, a promontory ; un 

un Pupitre, a desk ; «^un 

le Purgatoire, purgatory ; un 

on Refectoire, an eatingroom , un 

un Registre, a register ; le 

un Repairs, a den ; un 

un Reverbere, a reflector ; le 

un Sabre, a sabre ; un 

le Sacre, the coronation ; un 

du Salpdtre, sa/fpetr«; un 

on Sanctuaire, a sanctuary ; du 

un Sceptre, a sceptre ; un 

un Secretaire, a secretary ; un 

un S^minaire, a seminary ; le 

un Sepulcre, a sepulchre ; un 
un S^questre, a sequestration ; 



BE. 



TE. 



Sommaire, the compendium } 
Souffre, In-imstone; 
Sucre, sugar ; 
Tertre, a hillock ; 
Territoire, a territory ; 
Theatre, a theatre ; 
Thermomdtre, a thermmnet^; 
Timbre, a clock bell ; * ' j_'-' 
Tire-bourre, screw of a ramrod i 
Titre, a title ; 
Tonnerre, thunder ; 
Ulcere, an ulcer ; 
Ventre, the belly ; 
Vertebre, a vert^a ; 
Verre, a glass ; 
V^sicatoire, a bli^er ; 
Vinaigre, vinegar ; 
Vocabulaire, a vocabulary ; 
Vomitoire, a vomit ; 
Vulgaire, the vulgar ; 
Vulndraire, a vulnerary. 



There are Tioo hundred vad fifty nouns ending in SE, Fourteen 
of which are masculine ; the most commonly used are, 
r Aise, ease; un Narcisse, a narcissus ; 

un Carro8se,a coach ; le Parnasse, parnassus ; 

un Colosse, a colossus ; un Thyrse, a thyrsis ; 

un Diocese, a diocess ; un Trapeze, a trapezium; 

le Malaise, ujwisiness; un Vase, a vessel. 



There are Three hundred 
nine of which are masculine 
un Acte, an act ; 
un Antidote, an antidote , 
un Arbuste, a shrub ; 
un Aromate, an aromatic ; 
un Automate, an automaton 
un Buste, a bu^t ; 
un Cassetete, a puzzlebrain 
un Ceste, a cestus ; 
un Compte, an account ; 
unConte, a tale; 
un Contraste, a contrast ; 
le Culte, the worship ; 
un Decompte, a discount ; 
le DCmerite, demerit; 
le Doute, tfie doubt ; 




le Paste, pomp ; 



and seventy -five nouns in TE, Thirty^ 
; the most commonly used are, 

un Geste, a gesture ; 

un Gite, the seat of a lutre ; 

un Inceste, an incest; 

un Insecte, an insect; 
; un Labyrinthe, a labpritith; 

un Manifeste, a manifesto : 
; un M^compte, a misreckoning ; 

Id M^rite, merit ; 

unMyrte, a myrtle; 

V Omoplate, the omoplate ; 

un Pacte, a pact ; 

un Poste, a station ; ..«••« 

un Pr^cepte, a precept ; 

un Pr^texte, a pretext; 

le Reste, the rest ; 

un Squelette, a skeleton; 

le Texte, the text; 

unTirebotte, a bootjack; 

le Tumulte, tumult. 



N ^> There are Forty-two nouns ending in VE, Four of which are 
masculine, 

un Conclave, a conclave; - un Glaive, a sword ; 

un Fleuve, a rioer ; un Reve, a dream. 



Fotir nundred ana 
nine other nouns 
pending in re are 
feminine. 



Two hunared 
'and thirty -»x other 
nouns ending in SB 
are feminine. 



Three hundred 
and thirty -six other 
nouns ending in ti 
^vre feminine, 

la Poste, post office. 



\ Thirty-eight oihot 
Vnouns endii'g in v s 
J are feminine. 



NOUN. 



189 



epoiivantails, bugbears; eventails, fans; gouvernails, rudders; portails, 
portals ; serailf, s^sraglios ; and h&tailj cattle, the plural of which is 
b€8tiaux. 



MASCULINE TermbiatUmi. 



FEMININE Tennxnatwiu, 



XE. 



There are Ten nouns ending in XE; Five of which 
are masculine, 

unAxe, an oarts,' un Paradoxe, a paradox;] The other Five nouns ending 

r Equiuoxe, the equinox; le Sexe, the sex; Hn XE are feminine. 

1b Luxe, luxury ; J 

Z£. There are Tiro nouns ending in ze, One of which is 

masculine, viz. du Bronze, bronze. One /em. viz. de la Gaze, gauze. » 

Some nouns /eminine are formed in the same manner as tlio feminine of adjectives, by 
adding e mute to the masculine, or by changing the termination ; these are ; 
1st. The nouns denoting ftade, profession, businesSf 6^c, as. 



un Acteur, 
un Berger, 
un Boucher, 
un Boulanger, 
un Com^tlien, 
un Cuisinier, 
un Epicier, 
un Fermier, 
un Marchand, 
on Ouvrier, &c. 



an ax:tor , 
a shepherd , 
a butcher ; 
a baker ; 
a player ; 
a cook; 
a grocer ; 
a farmer ; 
a dealer; 
a luorkman ; 



une Actrice, an actress. 

une Bergere, a shepherdess. 

une Bouchere, a female butcher, 
une Boulangere, a female better • 
une Comedienne^ a female player, 
une Cuisiniere, a female cook. 
une Epici^re, a female grocer. 
une Fermiere, - a female farmer, 
une Marchande, a female deale*". 
une Ouvriere, a loorkwoman. 



2d. The following, as being the most frequently used ; 



un Amant, 

un Ami, 

un Chat, 

un Chien, 

un Chanteur, 

un Citoyen, 
' onCompagnon, 

un Cousin, 

un Danseur, 

un Diable, 

un Ecolier, 

un Epoux, 

un H^ritier, 

un H^os, 

un Hdte, 
. unlvrogne, 
, un Juif, 
' un Lapin. 

un L^vrier, 

un Lion, 
- unLoup, 

le IMaitre, 

le Alarie, 

un Menteur, 

un Orphelin, 

un Parent, 

on Paysan, 

on Prisonnier, 

un Sultan, 

unTigre, 

un Tuteur, 

un Veuf, 

nn Voisin, 



a lover ; 

a male friend; 

a male cat; 

a dog; 

a male singer ; 

a citizen ; 

a male companion ; 

a male cousin ; 

a male dancer ; 

a male devil ; 

a male scholar ; 

a husband ; 

an heir ; 

a hero ; 

a landlord ; 

a drunken man ; 

ajew; 

a buck rabbit ; 

a greyhound ; 



a lion 



a male wolf; 
the master ; 
the bridegroom ; 
a man who lies ; 
a male orphan ; 
a male relation ; 
a countryman ; 
a male prisoner ; 
a sultan ; 
a tiger; 

a male guardian ; 
a widower ; 
a male neighbour ; 



une Amante, 
une Amie, 
une Chatte, 
une Chienne, 
une Chanteuse, 
une Citoyenne, 
une Compagne, 
une Cousine, 
une Danseuse, 
une Diablesse, , 
une Ecolicre, 
une Epouse, 
une lieritiere, 
une ll^rome, 
une Ildtesse, 
une Ivrognesse, 
une Juive, 
une Lapine, 
une Levrette, 
une Lionne, 
une Louve> 
la Maitresse, 
la Marine, 
une Menteiise, 
une Orpheline, 
une Parente, 
une Paysanne, 



she who loves. 

a female friend. 

a female cat, 

a hitch. 

a female singer. 

a citizeness. 

a female companion 

a female cousin. 

a female dancer* 

a female devil. 

a female scholar. 

a wife. 

an heiress. 

a heroine. 

a landlady. 

a drunken womanm 

a Jewess. 

a doe rabbit. 

a greyhound bitch* 

a lioness. 

a female wolf, 

the mistress, 

the bride. 

a woman who lies. 

a female otphan, 

a female relation-. 

a country ivoman. 



une Prisonniere, a female prisoner, 

une Sultane, a sultana. 

une Tigresse, a tigress, 

une Tutnce, a fenude guardian. 

une Veuve, o widow. 

une Voisina^ a femttle netg^^httw 



190 



CHAP ir. 
ARTICLE. 



An article is a sign prefixed to a noun, to shew the sejise in which 
that noun is used. 

These signs are various, and generally derive their appellation from the 
office which they perform in the sentence. They are called in this treatise 

DEFINITE, PARTITIFEt NUMERAL, DEMONSTRATIVE^ P08SESSIFE,* 

CHAP. III. 
ARTICLE and NOUN 



I 



3 



GENERAL RULES. 

The ARTICLE must be of the same gender and number as the noun 
which follows it ; this is called agreement of the article with the noun ; ex. 

SINGULAR. 
Masculine. 
The X LE Vin, 



ofThe 
to The 



hi 



DU 
AU 



Some 5 DU 



A 
This 



That ? 



UN 
CE 



Vin. 
Vin. 

Vin, 

Verre, 

Verre, 



the 



Myt ^ MON Vin, 
Thy 5 TON Vin, 
His ^ SON Vin, 
Her SON Vin, 
Oiirf ^ NOTRE Vin, 
Yowr 5 voTRE Fin. 
Their^ LEVR Vin, 



Feminine. 

S LA Gloire, 
of the Jo dehk Gloire, 
to the ' a LA Gloire, 

g 

someifi dehji Gloire, 



a 
this 



UNE Tasse, 



that y <='="=raMe. 






MA Gloire, 
TA Glofre, 
SA Gloire, 
SA Gloire, 
© NOTRE GZotre. 
your^ voTRE Gloire, 
their T^LEVR Gloire, 



my 
thy 
his 
her 
our 



PLURAL. 
Masculine and Feminine. 
the •« LEs Plaisirs, 
of the ti DES Plaisirs, 
to the g Aux Plaisirs. 

some^ DES Plaisirs, 



these) 
those} 



CES Plaisirs, 

MEs Plaisirs, 
TES Plaisirs, 
SES Plaisirs. 
SEs Plaisirs. 
Nos Plaisirs, 
your' vos Plaisirs, 
their LEVRsPlaisirs 



my 
thy 
his 
her 
our 



»0 



If the noun which follows the article is singular, and begins with a 
VOWEL or H m?/ie|, whether it is masculine or feminine, melody requires 



L 

deh* 
d l' 

GET 
aiON 
TON 
SON 



LE, 



la; 



Co 

I DU, rfcLA; 
^ AU. d 



AU, 

ce; 

ma; 

ta; 

sa; 



as. The 

of The 

LA ; to The 

This or Thai 

My 

Thy 

His or Her 



SB 



L' Honneur, m. 
§ de L* Honneur, 
a h* Honneur. 
GET Honneur, 
MON Honneur, 
TON Honneur, 
SON Honneur, 



L* Amilie f. 

rfc L* Amitie. 

a l' Amitie, 

CETTE Amitie, 

MON Amiiik. 

TON Amitie 

SON Amitie, 



The ARTICLE must be repealed before every noun in french, agreeably 
to the gender and number of each noun, though the nouns are in the same 
sentence, and though the article is not repeated in english ; as. 
The brother, sister and cousins. LEfrere, la sceur et les cousins. 
Some wine, glory and pleasures, du vin, de la gloire et des plaisirs, 

* See pa^e 61, a table of the words called article. t See note * page 31 

i. H mute IS marked through these exercises with an apostrophe, this mark ' before it. 



ARTICLE a?ld NOUN. 191 

PARTICULAR RULES. 
PROPER NAMES. 

The NAMES of PERSONS and places^ i. e. of cities, towns, villages, Sfc, 4 
are used in French as in english, without any of the signs called article ; as, 
I have seen Ceesar, J*ai vu Cesar, (aj 

Rome. Rome, 

The statue oyCeBsar, La statue de Cesar, 

at Rome. A Rome.fbJ 

But the NAMES of COUNTRIES and PROVINCES which are used without O 
an article in english, require, in french, the definite article le, la, les ; 
DU, de la, des; au, d la, aux, the same as common names ; ex. 
I have seen France, J*ai vu la France, 

Italy. l* Italie. 

The beauties of France, Les heautks de la France, 

0/ Italy. de l' Italie, 

It belong^s to France, &c. Je appartient k la France, 8fc, (c) 

Yet the names of countries and phovinces are used without the U 
article, when they come after verbs denoting dwelling or movement; such 
as, to be in, to live in, to go to, to come from. 

In these instances, j^, to, are expressed by en, and from by de; as, 
I am going to France, Je vais en France, 

to Italy. en Italie, 

I have been in France J^ai etk en France, 

in Italy. en Italie. 

I come from France, Je viens de France, 

from Italy. d* Italie (d) 

(a) Some names of persons, derived from common names, such as, Le Brun, Lt Blanc, 
Le NoiVf La Porte , La Grange, La Fontaine, 6^c. are always preceded by an article, bat 
that article is considered as a syllable of the name, and never varies. 

{b) Except le Caire, Cairo : le Catelet^ la ChapelU, la Charity, la Fert^, la Fleche, le 
Havre, la Havanne, Havannah ; la Have, the Hague ; la Hague, lo Mans, la Mecque, 
Mecca ; le Plessis, le Puv,leQue9nq^,la llochelle, which require the definite article, for we 
say, Je vient du Havre, 1 come from Havre. Je vais a la Rochelle, I am going to Bochelle. 

Co) Some names of countrie$, which take their name from their capital city, such as, 
Alger f Algiers ; Avipum, Genes. Genoa ; Geneve, Geneva ; Flo'^ence, Maroc, Morocco ; 
Naples, Orange, Tunis, Tripoli, Venise ; or from the name of some person; as, St, Domin" 
gue, St. Domingo ; St, Vincent, ^c. do not require the article. 

Cd) From this rule must be excepted the countries discovered by the navigators, and 
some countries in Asia and Africa, which are never used without the article. The most 
essential to be known, on account of their bein^ frequented by the Europeans, are 
.' Archipel, Archipelago.la F/oriiftf, Floriaa. le Mississipi, Mississipi. 

jesBarbades, Barbadoes. la Grenade, Grenada le Mogol, Mogul Emp. 

e Bengal, Bengal. la Gua</e/oupe,Guadaloupe. iesMo/u^ues, Moluccalsles. 

a Bermude, Bermuda. laGifyontf^ Guiana. la Nigritie, rterre,Nigritia. 
e Brisil, Brasil. 1' Inde, India. la Nouvelle 2n^<e-New£ngland. 

a Califomie, California. V Indostan, Indostan. le Paragiuw, Paraguay, 

e Canada, Canada. ItiJama'iqye, Jamaica. le P6loponesej Peloponesus. 
a Caroline, Carolina. leJapon, Japan. la Pensylvanxe, Pennsylvania, 

e Chili, Chili. le T^evant, The Levant, le PSrou, Peru. 

a Chine, China. luLouisiane, Louisiana. lesPhilippines, ThePhiLIsles. 

a Coc/tincA (n«,Cochinchina.la ]Vfartint9ti«,Martinique. la Sonde, Sunda. 

e Congo, Congo. leMexique, Mexico. la Virginte, Virginia. 

For we say : J* ai it4 au Canada. I have been /7t Canada. Je vais a la Jama'ique, aa 
Mexique, au Pirou, ^c. I am going to Jamaica, to Mexico, to Peru, &c. Je vieus du 
laptm, de la Chine, dea Ind^, ^c. 1 come /rom Japan, China, the Indies, &c. 



7 



8 



192 • ARTICLE and noun. 

COMMON NAMES. 

DEFINITE ARTICLE. 
THE, LE, LA, LES ; DU, de LA, DES j AU, a LA, AUX. 

Every common name used in a general sense, i. e. implying' thi 
whole* of the* substance spoken of, or in a particular sense, i. e. im- 
plying some particular sort* of the substance, requires before it one of 
the definite signs le, la, les ; d;;, de la, des ; AU, a la, aux, agreeably 
to the gender and number of the noun ; ex. 

GENERAL scuse, 710 article in english before the noun. 
T like wine, tPaime le vin, 

glory, LA gloire^ 

money, l* argent, 

pleasures. les plaisirs 

The love q/'wine, o/* glory. U amour du t?m, de la gloire, Sfc, 

He owes it to wine, to glory. II le doit au vin, h lk gloire, 5rc. 

PARTICULAR scuse, in english the before the noun. 

This is the wine ] Void le vin, 

the s\ovy It im Lk gloire, , 

JL i. >I like. , ^ . )quejaime, 

the money j l argent, ( ^ '' 

These are the pleasures) les plaisirs] 

A glass of the wine I like. Un verre du vin quefaime, 

OF expressed by DE ; not by du, de la, des. 
In the above examples you see of expressed by du, de la, des, but 
observe that this preposition coming aftera noun used in a partitive sense,* 
can not be expressed by du, de la, des, which would then particularize* the 
substance spoken of, and mean of the; it must be expressed by de only, 
without any regard to the gender or number of the noun ; so we say. 
We have a pipe q/'wine. Nous avons une pipe de vin, 

plenty q/* money, quantite d argent, 

a variety q/* pleasures. une variete de plaisirs. 

Not, une pipe du vin, quantite de iJargent, Sfc, which would mean a 
pipe of the wine, quantity of the money, &c.t 

N. B. In this rule must be included the following words which, though 

• When you speak of a substance, you either mean it Whole, or in Parts, 

If you mean the Whole of the substance of which you are speaking, the noun tliut 
names it, is said to be used in a General sense ; as, Wine cheers the heart oftnan, i. e. that 
substance in general known by the name of Wine, cheers the heart of man. 

If you mean some PaHicttlar sort of tlie substance of which you nve speaking, the 
noun is said to be used in a Particular sense ; as, 2^he wine which tre drank was good ; in 
speaking thus, I do not mean to say, that all the substance called wine is good, for 
there is bad wine, but that particular sort which we drank was good. 

If you neither mean the whole, nor any particular sort of the substance spoken of, but 
a certain Portioiif or Quantity of it ; as when you say, Give me some wine, A glass of wine; 
i. e, a portion of the substance called wine, the noun is said to be used in a Partitive sense, 

t It appears from the foregoing examples that, when two nouns come together in 
french, they must be connected by some sign, and tliis sign is determined by the sense 
in which the nouns ai'e used. 

If, as in the first instance (rule 7.), the nouns are used in an unlimited signification, 
they must be connected by the sign which denotes that idea, viz. du, de la, des. 

But if, OS in the second instance (rule 8), the extent of the secotid noun is deteminsd 
f the fit St, then a simple preposition is sufficient to connect them. 



ARTICLE a7ld NOUN, 193 

they have no si^n after them in english, require in French the connective 

particle de to unite them to the noun which follows them; 

A6SEZ, enoifgk ; as, Assez DV^vin. 

BEAUCOUP, much, many ; (e) neaucovp d' argent 

coMBiEN, how mitchf how many ; combien de gloire, 

TANT, 80 much, 80 many ; rant de plainrs, 

AUTANT, as much, as many ; Autant de vin. 

PLUS, more; plus d' argent, 

MOiNS, less ; moins de gloire, 

TROP, too much, too many ; rrop Dj^plaisirs, 

peu, \,'m,j /» peu DKvin. 

s HI tile, few ; s > „ # 

au£RE,5 ••' ' Guere d argent. 

PAS, \ . pas, orl , . 

„ yio,7iot: .* > DE gloire. 

POINT, ) ' ' point J ° 

JAMAIS, never; jamais DEplaisirs, 

PAnriTlVE ARTICLE, 
SOME, ANr; DU, de LA, DES. 

Every common name used in a partitive sense* i. e. implying only Jj 
9l portion of the substance spoken of, requires one of the partitive signs 
DU, de LA, DES, agreeably to the gender and number of the noun ; as, 
Wc have some wine. Nous avons du vin, 

some glory, de la gloire, 

some money, . de l* argent, 

some pleasures. des plaisirs. 

N, B. The sign some is often understood in english before collective 
substantives^ such as, men, bread, meat, money, clothes, wine, fruit, 
pleasure, Sfc, but the corresponding sign can not be omitted in french, and 
it must be repeated bjefore every noun ; as, 

We have wine, glory, money, pleasures; i. e. some wine, some Sfc. 

Nous avons du vin, de la gloire, de h*argeht, des plaisirs. 

Exception, SOME, ANY expressed by DE ; not by du, de la, des. _ ^ 

The partitive signs du, de la, des, require the noun immediately after 1 [} 
them, therefore, if a noun used in a partitive sense is preceded by an 
adjective, use de before that adjective without any regard to gender or 
number, instead of du, de la, des before the noun ; as, 
We have excellent wine, Nous avons d* excellent vin, 

fresh glory, de nouvelle gloire, 

very good money, de tres-bon argent, 

true pleasures. de vrais plaisirs. 

But if, agreeably to the general rule, the adjective comes after the noun^ 
then the noun resumes its proper sign, viz. du, de la, des ; as. 
Nous avons du vin excellent. We have excellent wine, 

de LA gloire bien acquise, well acquired glory, 

de l' argent comptant, ready money, 

DES plaisirs champ^tres. rural pleasut-es. 

{e) Much, Many, are expressed by Beaucoup or by Bien, iivith this difference cnly, 
that Beaucoup requires de after it, and Bien requires Dl), de LA, des ; so we say, 



Beaucoup de vin, de gloire^ d' <iirgent, de plaisirs, 
r, Bien du rin, de la gloire, de V argent, des plaisirs. 



Or, Bien du vin, de la gloire, de V argent, des plaisirs, • See note • page 192, 



12 



194 ARTICLE and noon. 

NUMERAL AttTICLE, 
A, AN; UN, UNE. 

1, 1 Ay Air denoting individuality, i. e. one only of the substance spoken 
off is expressed in french by the number UN, vne^ and no distinction is 
made between a and one ; as, 

A or one bottle. une hoiiteille. 

A or one pound. une livre. 

A or one dozen. une douzaine, 

A or one hundred. un cent (f) 

But A, AN before the names of Measure, weight, Number and periods 
of time, used in a collective sense, i, e, not denoting^ individuality, is not 
expressed by un, une, it is expressed by le, la ; as. 

Wine sells at six shilling's a bottle ; Le vin se vend six shelingsjA.boU' 

i. e. six shilling's per bottle, teille ; not, une bouieille. 

Butter twenty pence a pound ; Le beurre vingi sous la livre ; 

i. e. per pound, not, une livre. 

Eggs a shilling a dozen ; Les ceufs un sheling la douzaine ; 

]. e. one shilling per dozen. not, ' une douzaine. 

Oranges a guinea a hundred ; Les Oranges une guinhe le cent; 

i. e. one guinea per hundred, not, une gninee un ce?it 

I go to town once a day ; Je vais a la ville unefois hnjovr, 

i. e. each day, or daily. or vkKJour ; not, nn jour. 

Three times a week, or weekly. Troisfois la semaine, or par sent. 

By these words a bottle, a pound, a dozen, a hundred, I do not mean 

thato7ie single or individual bottle, pound, dozen or hundred sells at that 

price ; but each bottle, pound, dozen, or hundred ; nor that I go to town 

one single day or week ; but each day, each week. 

DEMONSTBATJVE ARTICLE. 

THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE; CE, GET, CETTE, CES. 

1 o "^he demonstrative words, ce^ get, cette, ces are used in the same 
instances as the corresponding signs are in english ; they serve to point 
out the objects we name, and follow the same rule as le, la, les ; ex. 
I like this or that wine, J'aime ce * vin, 

this or that beer, cette biere, 

this or that money, get argent, 

these or those fruits. ges fruits. 

N. B. GE, GET, gette, ces do not express that local distinction which 
is implied in the words this, these; that, those; so, if you wish 
to make the same distinction in french, you must add to the noun, gi 
to denote the nearest object, and la to denote the remotest; as, 
I prefer this wine to that, Je prefere gb vin - ci o cdui-hk. 

this beer to that.* gette biere-ci a ceUe -lA. 

I prefer thai wine to this, Je prefere gb vin - lA d celui -Ci. 

that beer to this,* gette biire-'hX a celle - ci. 

this money to that, get argeht'Ci a cdni ^lA. 

those fruits to these. ges fruits»hk a ceuz - Ci. 

(f) Any number prefixed to a noun may be considered as an article, since, like the 
article, it serves to determine the acceptation of that nou") ; as. Deux horomes, two men ; 
Trots femmes, three women ; Quatre livres, four books ; Six bouteilles, tix bottles, &o 

* THIS, THAT, THESEj THOSE are also pronouns ; see note (p) page 89. 



15 



>coupe LE doigt* 



ARTICLE and NOUN. 195 

POBSESSiyE ARTICLK, 

MY, THY, HIS, HER, ITS, OUR, YOUR, THEJR. 
MON, MA, MES; TON, TA, TES ; SON, SA, SES ; NOTRE, &c. 

These words follow the same rule as the article le, la, les ; they 1 ^ 
agree in gender and number with the noun which j^^/o2i?s them; so, 
Her father, is, son pere. His or her son, son fils. 

His mother, SA mere. His or her daughter, sa JiHe, 

The possessive article my, thy^ his, her, ouRt your, their is 
expressed by the definite le, la, les, when prefixed to the name of any 
pari of the body, after a irerb denoting a natural action of the body ; as, 

I open my "j J* ouvre ] 

Thou openest thy >mouth. Tu ouvres >Lk bouche; 

He opens Aw J II ouvre j not, ma bouche,* 

Or when the verb denotes an action done upon the body ; as, 

I have cut my ] Je me suis 

Thou hast cut thy mnger. Tu t* es 

He has cut his j II s' estf 

Never say ; J*ai coup4 HON doigt j Tn as coup£ ton doigt ; II a coupi SON doigt, 8^c. 

N, B, Observe that in speaking of an action done upon the body, the 
person on whom the action is done must be denoted by a personal pro- 
noun ; so, if the verb is not reflective, i. e. if the agent does not act upon 
itself, as it does above, one of the pronouns me, nous, te, vous, lui, 
LEUR, agreeably to number and person, must be added to the verb ; as, 
(my ] II u' \ 

He has cut-| thy >finger. II t' ?a covpd le doigt, 

[his or her j H lui J 

our 1 II NOUS 1 

your >fingers. U vous \a coupe les doigta, 

[their j II leur j 

Never say ; Ha aoup^ MON doigt ; II a eoup£ ton doigt ; Ha coupS spN doigt, S^c, 

If, in instances similar to the above, i, e, before the names of the parts 
of the body, the possessive words my, thy, bis, her, our, your, 
THEIR come with the verbs, To have a pain. Avoir mal ; To hurt, se 
Faire mal; To be cold. Avoir froid; To be warm, Avoir chaud; they 
are expressed by au, d la, aux ; as. 



He has cut^ 



16 



I have a pain in my 1 T ai \ 

Thou hast a pain in thymng^x, Tu as \mal au doigt, 

He has a pain in his J II a j not, d mon d 



MON doigt 



» 



I have hurt my \ Je me suis 

Thou hast hurt thy [hand. Tu t' es \fait mM k la main ; 



\ 



He has hurt his J II s' est\ j not, d ma main. 

My feet are ) J* ai 



\ 



Thy feet are Vcold. Tu a^t > froid AVX pieds ; 

His or her feet areX j // or elle a J not, d mbs pieds. 



* When I say, J'oUvre la bouche, I open the mouth ; the hearer understands that it is 
of my own mouth that I am speaking, for if it was the mouth of another being, I &)iould 
name that being. Again, Je me auit eoup6 le doigt, corresponds with tlie engUsh, I have 
cut myself in the finger ; and Tai mal AU doigt, with, I have a nain in the finger. Here 
also the possession being sufiiciently determined by the pronoun ME, or by the verb 
J'ai, any oUier possessive expression would be superfluous ; however, these are jdiom» 
which practice alone can render familiar. f See 237 rule, t See 239 rule* 

n2 



17 



18 



19 



20 
21 



22 



23 



24 



196 ARTICLE (aid NOUN. 

Its and their neuter, are also expressed by le, la, les, and the 
pronoun en is added to the verb, when the noun to which they are pre- 
fixed is not «roverned by the same verb as the noun to which they refer; as, 

Tliat tree is fine, but its fruit is good for nothing-. 

Cet arbre est beau^ mats le fruit h'en vaut rien; i. e. the fruit of it. 
But they are expressed by son, sa, ses, leur, if the nouns are governed 
by the same verb ; as, 

I like that tree, its shape and its leaves. 

JTaime cet arbre^ sk forme et SEsfeuilles, 

The possessive mon, ma, bies must be prefixed to names of kindred and 
friendship, when we call or answer any one by those names ; as. 
Come here, brother. •- Fenez ici, uosfrere. 

I can not, sister. Je ne saurais, ma soeiir. 

The article is lefi out in french, when expressed in engh'sh, at the title 
page, or before any of the parts of a book ; as, 

A french grammar. Grammaire frangaise. 

The preface. The first part. Preface, Premiere partie. 

The article a, an which comes after wuat^ is omitted in french; as. 
What a man ! Quel hommel not qiuI vs hommef 

What a woman I Quelle femme ! - Quelle une femmel 

The article a, as coming before hundred or thousand, followed 
by a noun, or relating to a noun, is not expressed in french, the words 
CENT and mille having the property of an article*; as, 

I have won a thousand guineas; Tai gagne mille guinees; 

Will you have a hundred of them ? En voulez-vous cent? not, un cejii. 

No article is used in french, before a noun added to illustrate or 
explain another noun ; and the article which is prefixed to such nouns 
in eiiglish, must be omitted in french; as, 

Zaira a tragedy of Voltaire. Zatre^ tragedie de Voltaire. 
Paris the capital of France. Paris^capiicUe de la France, 
Never, Zaire une tragedie; nor Paris la capitate S^'c. 
But if we left out the first noun, we should say ; J'at vu une tragedie 
de Voltaire, J^ai vu la capitate de la France. 

The article a, an is also omitted in french after some neuter verbs, sucli 
as £tre, to be ; Devenir, to become ; se Faire, to turn ; Passer pour, to 
be reckoned, to pass for ; the noun which follows these verbs being con- 
sidered as an adjective which serves to illustrate their nominative; as. 
Is he a Frenchman ? Est-il Frangais ? 

He passes for a German. II passe pour AUemand, 

His father is a merchant. Sonpereestnegociant;iioi,xisnegoc, 

But the article must be expressed, if the noun is attended by an adjective 
or by a relative pronoun, for it then returns into the class of substantives ; 
His father is a wealthy merchant. Son pere est UN riche negociant. 

No article is used in french before a noun which, being joined to a 
verb, forms only one idea with that verb ; as^ Avoir peu'r, to fear, to be 
afraid ; Avoir mxd, to ache, to have a pain ; Avoir raison, to be right, 
to be in the right, &c. ; these expressions are found in the dictionaries. 

• See note (f) page t?4. 



ARTICLE and NOUN. 197 

Hon to place two nouns together. 

Sometimes two nouns come together, having a dependence on each jSiO 
other, and forming a kind of complex idea ; as, 

JohijUi horse. The princes sword. The lady*8 gown, A silk gown. 

The English have ttfo ways of using these nouns ; they say, 

1 . The horse of John, The sword of the prince. The gown of the lady. A gown ofsiUL 

2. JohTLS horse. The prince's sword. The ladjfs gown. A silk gown. 

The French, on the contrary, have only ojvjr of these modes of placing 

Tno NOUNS together ; they, as in the \st instance, always pla^e first the 

noun which is the subject of discourse, with du, de la, des, de, or X 

BEFORE the second noun, agreeably to the sense in which it is used; as, 

John*s horse. Le cheval de Jean ; i, e. the horse of John, 4. rv/. 

The j3n/zcc'« sword. L'epee du prince; the sword of the prince.* 

The Ictdi/s gown. La robe de la dame ; the gown of the lady.^ 

A silk gown, Une robe de sole; a gown q/'silk. 8 rule. 

Sometimes however the order of the nouns could not be changed in the ^O 
above manner in english, without changing also the meaning; for ex. these 
expressions, a wine glass, a Tea spoon, could not be turned into a gIom of 
wine, a spoon of tea; yet the nouns require this order in french : instead 
of changing the order of the wordj to alter the idea, as the English do, the 
French change the preposition, and instead of de, they use a ; so, 

A glasR of wine, is, Un verre de vin ; and 

A wine glass, is, Un verre k vin; i. e. a glass used for wine.* 

N, B, When the nouns are compounded of the words Fair, foire ; 
Market, maroh^, and in speaking of Messes, and the ingredients which they 
are made of, the two nouns are connected by au, d la, aux; as. 

The hay market. Le marche k\3 foin ; i. e. the market ybr hay. 

Some cream tarts* Des tartes a la creme ; tarts made with cream. 

Sometimes the name of a country is changed in english into an Jtf 
adjective, and pre^xed to the name of its production ; as Spanish wine, 
French brandy, English beer, Dutch cheese, &c. ; that adjective must be 
expressed by the substantive in french, and placed after the name of 
the production, connected by the preposition de ; as, 

Spanish wine. Vin D*Espagne; i, e, wine q/* Spain. 

Frc7ic^ brandy. Eau-de-vie d^ France ; f. c. brandy o^* France. 

Before the name of a country, after a noun denoting dignity or aw- JtO 
Ihority, such as emjjeror, king, prince, Sfc, of is expressed by de ; as. 
The emperor o/* Russia. Vempereur de Russie, 

The parliament oy* England, Leparlemeni D*Ahgleterre, 

After any other noun, of is expressed by du, de la, des ; as, 
The south o/ France. Le iud de la France, 

The north ojf England. . Le nord de h*Angleterre. 

* This rule is not without some exceptions, for we say, Un pot de chambre, a chamber 
pot ; UnefiUt de chambre, a ciiamber maid ; Un bonnet de nuit, a night cap ; tin mouchoir 
de poche, a pocket handkerchief ; Un cheval de carrossey a coach horse ; Un cochon deiait, 
a sucking pig, &c. these few exceptions wiJl be learnt by reading, and in conversation. 

N, B, Many of these compound names are expressed by a $ingle word in french ; as. 
Coachman, Cocher ; Footman^ Laquais ; Countinghouse, Comvtoir ; Coachhouse, Remise, 
I'hese expressions are found in the dictionaries, and will be learnt by reading. 



29 



30 



31 



196 CHAP. IV. 

ADJECTIVE. 

An adj£ctive i& a word added to a noun, to denote some quality oi 
circumstance belonging to that noun ; as, good wine, jf/i^ flowers. 

The ADJECTIVE must be of the same gender and number as the 
noun to which it is added; as, 

That is a handsome man. Voild un bel homme. 

That is a handsome woman. Voild vne bellb femme,CgJ 
N, B. \ past participl*iy used to qualify a substantive, follows the 
same rules an an adjective; ex. 

He is very well made, II est tres-bien fait. 

She is very well made, Elle est tres^bien faitc. 

When an adjective qualifies severa/ nouns^iz/^u^ar of the same gender, 
that adjective mustbeofthe«a77ze gender as those nouns, andp£(/^A^L;as, 
My fatherand brother are g^onc out Mon pere et mx>nfrere sont sortie. 
My mother and sister are gone out. Ma mere et ma sceur sont soRTie*. 

But if the nouns are of different genders, the adjective- must be of 
the MASCULINE gender, and in the plural number; as, 
My father and mother are gone out. Mon pere et ma mere sont sortis. 
He found his son and daughter dead, II irouva sonjils et saJiUe morts. (h) 

Cg) The feminine gender of an adjective , or of 2l participle used adjectively, is fonned 
by aadins e mute, that is to say, « not accented^ to the masculine ; as, 

loved } pretty j lost ; great ; fine ; last ; precise ; little ; learned. 
Masc. aim^f joli, perdu, grand, fin, dernier, precis, petit, savant. 

Fern. aim(Se, jolie, perdue, grande. fine, derniere, p^tcHB, petite, tavante, 

EXCEPTIONS. 

£. Adjectives ending in e mute, are the same for both genders ; as, Un honnSte homme , 
an honest man. Une honnice femme ; an honest woman. Vnjeune liomme aimahle ; «u» 
amiable young man. IJnejeune femme aimable; an amiable young woman. 

I. The feminine of fc^ni, blessed, is b^ite ; tliat oifavori, favourite, ia favorite. 

U. The feminine of beau, fine ; nouveau, new ; mou, soft ; fou, mad ; is belle, nouvellei molle^ 
folle, from bel, nouvel, mol, fol used before a noun masculine beginning with a vowel. 

C. The feminine of blar^., white : franc, frank ; sec, dry ; eaduc, decayed ; public, v^ublic ; 

grec, greek ; turc, turkish ; is blanche, franche, seche, caduque, publique,grecque, ttirque, 

D.The feminine of nud, naked; c)*ud,raw; is nue, crue; and thatof rfrd, green, is verte, 

F, Adjectives ending in/, change / into ve for the feminine ; as, 

Masc. frrcr/, hrief ; neuf, new ; na'//, candid ; act if, active ; pZainti/*, sorrowful. 
Fem. breve, brief; neuve^new ; jia'ive, candid ; active, active ; plaintive, sorrowful. 

G. The feminine of long, long, the only adjective ending in g, is longue, 

L, N, 1 Adjectives ending in el, eil, ul, un, ien, on, as, ais, es, et, os, ot, double the filial 
S, T, J consonant, and take e mute for the feminine gender ; as, 

cruel; rosy ; null ; ancient ; good ; big ; fat ; thick ; clean ; foolish. 
Masc. cruel, vermeil, nul, ancien, Hon, gros, gras, ^pais, net, sot, 
Fem. cruelle, vermeille, nulU, ancienne, bonne, grosse, grasse, ipaisse, nelte, sotte. 

Except the adjectives of nations ; as, /ranpai<, french ; ang/ais, english ; &ic.mauvais, 
Dad ; niaisj silly ; ras, shorn ; complet, complete ; discret, discreet ; inquiet, uneasy ; 
replet, replete ^ secret, secret ; which follow the general rule, fran^aise, an^laise, mau- 
vaise ; ^c. frais, fresh ; tiers, third ; which make fraiche, tierce ; and binm, benign ; 
maim, mischievous ; which make bihigne, malignc, in tlie feminine. 

X. Adjectives ending in x, change x into«e tor the feminine ; as, 
Masc. heurevjCf happy ; paresseux, lazy ; jaioux, jealous ; faux, false ; 
Fem. heureuse, happy, paressf.use, lazy, jalouse, jealous, fausse, false. 
Except doux, sweet, soft ; which makes dancer wad vuvx, old, which makbs vieille. 

N, B, The plural of adjectives is fonned like tbf.t of nouns, by adding t to the singular. 

^ (h) When the adjective is not separated from fiie nouns by a verb, some authors make 
it agree with the last noun , thus, // trouva sonjiher 9a fiUe MORTf ; but they except the 



ADJECTIVE. 199 

AHjectives in engUsh are generally placed fi£FOJi£ the noun, in French oJi 
ibey are generally placed after it; aS, 

A black coat. Un habit noir, 

A well made man. Un homme bien fait. 

'MXi^ french language. La langue francaisis. 

Except these adjectives, which are generally placed before the noun ; OfJ 
PREMIER, \st; SECOND, 2nd; and other adjectives of 7zt/m&er. 

BEAU, BEL, mAjlJie, MECHANT, Wicfccd, 

BELLE, yem. jhandsomfi. meilleur, better. 

M^ME, same, 
moindre, less. 
petit, little, smalL 
PLUSiEURS, several. 
TOUT, all, whole. 
viEux, m. viEiLLE, f. old ; a?, 
(Test une belle femme. 
EUe a un bon mari. 

But if any one of the above adjectives comes with another adjective Otc 
that can not be placed before the noun, they must both be placed after^ 
connected by a conjunction; as, 

A handsome, amiable woman. Une femme belle et aimable. 

A good^ complaisant husband. Un mari bon et complaisant, (i) 

adiectives which express union ; as, 11 trouva son fits etsafille re'dnij, R£C0NCILi6s, &c. 
These exceptions and exceptions of exceptions are very difficult for learners to retain ; 
therefore I would advise them to follow the general rule, which is perfectly agreeable 
to the fundamental principles of the french language. 

CiJ The rules for tlie placing of adjectiyes are not very strictly adhered to, especially 
in poetry. Even in prose many adjectives may be placed either before or after the noun, 
according as their position is more agreeable to the ear, of which a learner can be no 
judge ; so his surest way is to follow the rules, and to notice in reading, those adjectives 
which he finds sometimes before and sometimes after the noun. Yet custom, for want 
of other expressions, has fixed a place for some adiectives which must be attended to, as 
the placing the adjective befoi-e or after the noun changes the idea ; the most common are, 



BON, m. BONNE, f. gOod. 

GRAND, great, large. 

OROS, m. GROSSE, f. big. 

JEUNE, young. 

JOLi, pretty. 

MAUVAis, bad. 

She is a handsome woman. 

She has a good husband. 



De braves gens. 
Des gens braves, 
Un bon homme. 
Un homme bon. 



Un brave homme. A wellbehaved man. 
Un homme brave, A courageous man. 

Well behaved people. 

Courageous people. 

A simple mau. 

A good natured man. 
Un honnUe homme. An honest man. 
Un homme honnSte- A civil man. 
D' honnetes gens. Honest people. 
Des gens honnetes. Civil people. 
Un gentil homme. A noble man. 
Un homme gentil, A genteel man. 
Un galant homme. A liberal man. 
Un homme galant. A galant. 
Un erand homme. A great man. 
Un homme grand. A tall man. 
Un vlaisajU homme.An odd sort of a fellow. 
Un nomme plaisant.A pleasant man. 



Un vilain homme. 
Un homme vilain. 
Un vauvre homme. 
Un nomme pauvre. 
Une cruelle femme. 
Une femme cruelle. 
Une sa^e-femme. 
Une femme sage. 
Une grosse femme. 
Une fenmie grosse, 
Un farieux animal. 
Un animal furieux. 



A disagreeable man. 
A nig^rdly fellow. 
A man without genius. 
A poor man. 
An unfeeling woman. 
A cruel woman. 
A midwife. 
A wise woman. 
A big, fat woman. 
A WDman with child. 
A huge creature. 



A fierce animal. 
Une certaiiie nouvelle.A certain piece of news, 
Une nouvelle c«rtain«.True or sure news. 
De nouveaa vin.. Fresh wine. 

Du vin nouveau. Wine newly made. 
La morte-eau, The neap tides. 

De I'eau morte. Standing water. 

The adjective Cher placed before the noun signifies clear, o^ectionate ; as, Monc/ter pere, 
my dear »ther ; placed after it, it signifies ofhighprifie ; as, Un livre cher, a dear book. 

"New is both Neuf and Nouvean ; Neuf is said of things newly made ; as, A new coat, 
Un habit neiif, i. e. made of new cloth ; un livre neuf, a neto book, i. «. a book that has 
not been used, &c. Nouveau is said of tilings newly invented, of new productions ; as, 
Un habit nouveau, a coat of a new fashion ; Un nouveau livre. or un livre noiivwu, a neuf 
Dook, t. e, a new production. Un nouvel habit meaus a tieti> aress. 



35 



36 



37 



200 ADJECTIVE, 

The adjectives of number, vremi^vl, ^rst ; second, deuxieme, second , 
TROisiEME, third; quatriemb, ^//r/A j cin<ijjieme, ^flh, Sfc, are placed 
in french as in english, before the noun ; as. 

The ^rst day. Le premier jour. 

The fourth monlh« Le quatrieme mois. 

But when the adjectives rhird. Fourth^ Fifth, sixth, Sfc. are used as a 
distinction to some personage ; as, George the third, jflenry the eighth ; 
or to date the months ; 'asVJuly \Athy November bth; they are changed 
into the substantive numbers Deux, rrois, auatre, cinq^ six, Sfc, 
If used as a distinction, they are put after the name of the personage, as ; 

George the third. George trois, i. e. george three. 

Henry the eighth, Henri huit, a. e. henry eight. 

If used as a date, they are put before the name of the month, joined to it by 
D£ ; as, July lAth. Le quatorze de Juillet, 

' November hth. Le cinq de Novembre,(k) 

Adjectives of measure and Dimension, such as, nigh, rail, low, neep. 
Thick, Big, wide. Broad, Long, shorty Sfc. which are placed after the num- 
ber in english, must be placed before it in french, joined to it by de ; as, 

A room twelve feet lo?ig, and ten broad. 

Une chambre lonoue de douzepieds, et large de dix; 
Literal, A room long q/* twelve feet, and broad often, 

A wall ten feet high, and two feet thick, 

Un miir haut de dix pieds^ et epais de deux; 
Literal. A wall high often feet, and thick of two, 

N, B. The adjectives of Measure and Dimension are frequently ex- 
pressed in french by their substantives f\ then the words remain in the 
same order in french as they are in english^ but both the number and 
the noun of measure must be preceded by de ; as, 

A room twelve feet long, and ten broad. 

Une chambre de douzepieds de longueur, et de dix de largeur 
Literal, A room o/" twelve feet of length, and often of breadth, 

A wall ten feet high, and two feet thick. 

Un mur de dixpieds de hauteur, et de de^ix d'ipAissEUR ; 
Literal, A wall often feet of height, and o/'two of thickness. 

But observe that when the adjective is changed into its substantive, the 
verb ^TRE must be changed into avoir, and de is omitted before the 
number ; as. Our room w twelve feet long, and ten broad. 
Adject, Notre chambre est longue de douzepieds, et large de dix. 
Subst, Notre chambre a douze pieds de longueur, et dix de largeur ; 

i, e. Our room has twelve feet o/" length, and ten o/* breadth. 
Adject, Ce mur est haut de dix pieds, et iPAis de deux, 
Subst, Ce mur a dix pieds de hauteur, et deux d*iPAissEUR ; 
i, e. This wall has ten feet of height, and two q/* thickness, 

(k) Except Premier in dating the days, and when used for a distinction, we do not 
say, Georges un, George one ; but George premier, George deux, or second, and then 
George trois, George <Aree ; George qucUre, Sfc. 

t The substantive may be formed by adding ur to the adjective when it ends ^ith 
a vowel ; as, Latrge^ koyeui ; and eur when it ends with a consonant ; as, Haut, 
hauteur, ^-c. 



ADJECTIVE. 201 

RE3IARKS ON THE ADJECTIVES, 

The ADJECTIVE can not be separated by an article from the noun which oO 
it qualifies, therefore those articles which come between the adjective and 
the noun in en^lish, must be placed before them in french; as» 

Such a man. un tel homme; not tel un homme. 

So great a tbing^. unk si grande chose. 

Except TOUT, all, whole^ which requires the article after it; as, 
All his time. Tout son terns. 

The whole day. Tout le jour, 

A whole day. Tout \jn jour,* 

Except also, when the adjective is used to distinguish some particular 
person from another person of ihe same name ; as, 

Peter the cruel. Pierre le cruel, 

Cato the elder. Caton L'ancien, 

Alexander the great. Alexandre le grand. 

By prefixing to an adjective, an article of the same gender and num- OcF 
ber as the noun to which it refers, that adjective has often the property 
of a SUBSTANTIVE, and the words Man, woman, people which are ex- 
pressed in english, may be omitted in french; as. 

The wise man is happy. Le sage e,st heureux. 

He is a troublesome man, Cest un importun. 

She is a little brown woman, Cest une petite brune. 

The great; the covetous j96op/&.Les grands; les AVARES.f 

As an ARTICLE prefixed to an adjective without a noun, gives to it 4U 
the property of a substantive, so when the article is taken from a 
noun, that noun assumes the power of an adjective; for example, 
I know a poet, 

I speak of a philosopher. 

Here the viord^poet and philosopher are substantives, because they 
name the objects spoken of, consequently they require an article ; so, 

Je connais un poete.^ 

Je parte d'un philosophe. But when I say. 

The man I speak of is a poet and a philosopher. 

He is a poet, but he is not a philosopher. 
The substance I am speaking of is man, the words poet and philoso- 
pher are only attributes of that substance, and they no more require an 
article than if I said ; the man I speak of is witty, is tbise^ so the French^ 

Vhomme dont je park est poete et philosophe. 

II est POETE, mais il riestpas philosophe. 

A philosopher is seldom a poet, but a poet is seldomer a philosopher. 
Philosophers the 1st part of the sentence is a sitbstant, in the 2nd anadj, 
Poetin the 1 st partof the sentence is an adjective, in the 2nd a substantive; 
So the French, 

Rarement un philosophe est poete, mais plus rarement un poete 
est philosophe. (See the 23rrf rule.) 

* And if tAut is governed by a preposition, the preposition must be placed before 
TOUT, and the article after ; as, 

Of ttie whole regiment. De tout le regiment. To the whole fleet. A toute LA fiotte, 

t This rule extends to many adjectiyes, but not to all; they should be taken notiee 
of in reading. 



41 



42 



43 



44 



202 ADJECTIYK. 

COMPABISONS 

The same words which serve to qualify nouns, serve also, by the means 
of certain adverbs prefixed to them, to compare their qualities. 

The quality of a substance, when compared with another, is either 
SUPERIOR, INFERIOR, or EQUAL to the Other ; this is called com pa rati ve* 

Or the quality is raised above, or lotcered below several others, and 
this is called superlative, 

OF COMPARATIVES. 

The comparative of superioritv more before the adjechve, or r or 
ER added to it, as more strong^ or stronger, is formed in french bv plus 
before the adjective ;* as. 

My horse is more strong or stronger than yours. 

Mon cheval est plus fort que le voire. 

The comparative of inferiority less before the adjective, is formed 
in french by moins before the adjective ;t as, 
My horse is less strong tha?i yours. 
Mon cheval est moins fort que le voire. 
The same comparative formed by so before the adjective, and as after 
it, is expressed, so before the adjective by si, and as after it by que ; as. 
My horse is not so strong as yours. 
Mon cheval n*est pas si fori que le vStre. 

Tlie comparative of equality as before, and as after the adjective, is 
expressed, as before the adjective by aussi, and as after it by que ; as. 
My horse is as strong as yours. 
Mon cheval est aussi fort que le vStre. 

OF superlatives. 

The superlative formed by most or least before the adjective, or by 
ST or EST added to it; as, most strong or strongcti, is formed in french 
by adding le, la, les to the comparative words plus, moins ; as, 
Comp. stronger, tlijs fort, m. plvs forte: f. 

Sup. strongest, Le Thvsfort La plvs forte, Les Phvs forts, Les Phvs fortes. 
Comp. Less strong, moins ^r^ m. MOtss forte, f. 
Super. Least strong, Le moins fort. La moins forte, Les moins forOt, 
Les M01N8 fortes, agreeably to the gender and number of the noun ; as. 
My pony is the strongest of my horses. 
Mon bidet est le plus fort de mes chevaux» 
My mare is the least strong of the two. 
Majument est la moius forte des deux.flj 
N. B. The comparison of adverbs is formed like that of adjectives ; as. 
Strongly, rortement. More strongly, phvs fortemetil. 
Most strongly, le flvs fortement. Less strongly, Moms fortement, Sfc. 

■! _ . !■ I - — j-^ — .^ , 

* Except MEILLEUR, better; hire, worse, adjectives, v^j^ comparatives of 

MiBOX, better; pis, worse, adverbs, [^"*^" Seinsel?es! 

t Except MOINDRE, less, ) w»«*"»o*T«a. 

(I) Obsenre what is said, note * page 53, that two of the sijins called article, can 
not be prefixed to the same noun ; so, 
My strongest horse ; is, Mon plus fort cheval ; Not, Mon le PLUS fort dieval. 
Observe also, that if *he adjective is placed first, the article needs not to be repeated 
before the noun : but if the noun is first, the article must be repeated before tlie adjec- 
tive ; as, It is Uie strongest horse I have seen. 

C'est le PLUS /art eheval quefaie vu; or C^est le cheval le PLUS fo^t qu$j*aie vu. 



ADJECTIVE. 203 

REMARKS on the COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE* 

When the comparison runs between two parts of a sentence/ an 4:0 
ARTICLE is added to the comparative in english ; as, 

The more you study, the more you learn ; 
This ARTICLE is omitted in french; 

PLUS vous etudieZi plus voua apprenez. 
And the adjective or noun which, in these instances, comes before 
the verb in english, must be placed after it in french ; as, 

The longer the day w, the shorter is the night. 

PLUS lejour est long, plus la nuit est courte ; 
Literal, More the day is long, more the niglit is short 

The inore populous a country w, the richer it M. 

PLUS un pays est peupl^, plus il est righe ; 
Literal. More a country is populous, more it is rich. 

The comparative words plus, moins, si, aussi must be repeated 40 
before every adjective, though they are in the same sentence; as. 
She is as rich and handsome as her cousin. 
Elle est aussi riche et aussi belle que sa cousine. 

The comparative words plus, moins, moindre, meilleur, mieux, 4/ 
PiBE, pis require ne before the verb which follows them ; as, 

This is better than I thought. 

Ceci est meilleur queje ne pensais. . 
However ne is not required if the following verb is in the injinitive, 
or if it is preceded by a conjunction ; as. 

It is greater to forgive than to revenge. 

II est plus grand de pardonner que de* se venger. 

1 am better now than when I was in town. 

Je me porte mieux a present que quand fktcds a la ville. 

The particles ur and than coming after the comparative, or after the 4o 
adverbs more, less followed by a word denoting quantity, not quality, 
are expressed by D£, not by que or par; as. 

It is stronger by much. // est plus fort de beaucoup. 

It costs more thaji ten guineas. II codte plus de dix guinees. 

The preposition IN9 sSier a. superlative in english, is expressed in french 41/ 
in the same manner as OFt agreeably to the rules on the article; as^ 
He is the richest merchant in London. 
Cest leplus riche negociant de Londres ; i. e. o/* London. 
She is the most virtuous woman in the city. 
(Test lafemme la plus vertueuse de la ville; i. e. of the city. 

The superlative followed by the relative or definite pronoun, qui, que, o\j 

dont requires the following verb in the subjunctive mood; as. 

She is the prettiest woman that was at the ball. 

C^est la plus jolie fomme qui F{iT au bal. 

He is the handsomest man that I have ever seen. 

Cest le plus bet homme que /aie jamais vu. 
•■—••• I .11. .1. .1 I. ■ I . - . — , — . 

. * The tame jtrepoiition which follows the comparative must be repeated after que 3 as. 
We are more inclined to revenge, than to forgive. 
A^oiM iommet plus portit a nous venger Qu'a fardonner* 



204 



CHAP. V. 
PRONOUN. 



A PRONOUN is a word used to represent a noun, as when I say I in- 
stead of naming my own name ; ruoUy yov, nst suEf it, they instead 
of naming that of another being. 

There are various sorts of pronouns, generally known by the names of 

PEBSOJfALy RELATIVE, POSSESSIVE, DEMONSTRATIVE, INDEFINITE. 



SECT. I. 

PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

As there are three persons in grammar, so there are three sorts of 
words to represent them, but sometimes the same person is represented 
by several words, as appears from the following table. 

Agents or NOMINATIVES of Verbs. 
Istper. i, JE, MOI. 

WE; NOUS, 



OBJECTS of Verbs, or of Prepositions.* 
ME, ME, ~ 

US; NOUS. 



2nd per. THOU, TU, TOI. 

YOU; VOUS. 

Srdp.m.IlE, IL, LUI. 

THEY; ILS. EUX. 

Srdp.{. SHE, ELLE, 
THEY; ELLES. 

3rdp.n. IT, IL, m. ELLE./. 

THEY; ILS,m. ELLES./. 



epo 
MOI. 

TOI. 



3rd pers. common 



THEE, TE, 
YOU ; VOUS, 

HIM, LE, LUL 

THEM; LES, LEUR, EUX- 

HER, LA, LUI, ELLF. 

THEM; LES, LEUR, ELLES. 

IT, LE, m. LA,/. EN, Y. 

THEM; LES,m.^-/» EN. Y. 

HlMself, \ 

«y SE. SOI: 

THEMselves ; ) 

And as these words are not used indiscriminately, it is necessary to 
attend to the following observations. 

• In every action there is wa. Agent, doer, or verformer; as I write, / teach, Thou 
teachest. He teaches. The master teaches ; and if the action is of a nature to be commu* 
nicated, there is also generally a Patient or receiver ; as, / write a Letter, I teach You, Him, 
Her, Them, French, English, 8^c. This Agent or doer, in grammar, is called the nomina- 
tive of the verb, and the Patient or receiver^ is called the object ; so, I, Thou, He, The 
master are nominatives ; Letter, You, Him, Her, ^c. are objects of theyerb. 

Until now I have avoided speaking of Cases, because if a case be what it seems to be, a 
modification or variation from tlie original word, it is evident that in french there are no 
cases in nouns ; and it is astonishing that grammarians should still persist in giving six cases 
to our nouns, as is done in Latin. WheUier a noun be the giver Gt receiver of an action, t. e. 
whether it be the nominative or the ohjectoi the verb, it remains invariably the same; for ex. 
Mon fr^re aime voire soeur. My brother loves your sister* 

Voire sceur aime mon fr^re. Your sister loves my brother. 

In the first instance, Frere, brother, is the tu^native of the verb ; in the second, it ii 
the fAject. Sotur, sister, in the first instance, is the object of the verb ; in the second, 
it is the nominative ; and in boih instances, tlie words are the same. 

But it is not so with the Personal, and Belative pronouns. The same substantive, when 
the object of the verb, is not always expressed by the same word as when it is the agent 
or nominative; so we do not say, 

II aime ELLE, ELLE aime IL ; He loves site, she loves he ; 

we say, II Vaitne elle h'aime; He loves her, she loves him* 

If it be asked why this variation in the pronouns and not in nouns ; it may be answered, 
that the pronouns having been invented to prevent the tiresome repetition of the same 
noun, if tliere had been only one word to supply its place, the repetition of that wonl 
must have been too frequent, and only half the inconvenience would have been removed. 



PERSONAL PRONOUN. 205 

AgentSy or nominative Pronouns, 

I THOU, BE, SHE, IT, WE, YOU, THEY. 

Tliese pronouns are sometimes singly the nominative of a verb ; as / 
AM, rhou ART, He is; sometimes joinUy with another substantive*; as, 
you and i are ; ne and ms brother are; and sometimes they are used 
absolutely without a verb; as. Who is there? /. 

When J, THOU, he, she, it, we, you^ they are attended by a verb 51 

that agrees with them in number and person, they are ; 

/, JE. HE, IT, m. IL. 

THOU^ TU. THEY, mas. ILS. 

WE, NOUS. SHEJT,t ELLE. 

lOC;^. VO.US. THEY, fem. ELLES. 

These words keep the same place in the sentence in french as in english ;t ex. 

/ am, rhou art, He is, she is. Je 9i/2«, tu es, il e«^, elle est. 
Am J? Art <Ao7A? is he? is «Ae? Suis-jv:? jbs-tu? Est-iL? Est-ELLE? 

If 7, THOU, HEy SHE, WE, YOU, THEY are joined to another substan^ OJd 

tive,* for a nominative to the same verb, or if they are used v)Uhout a 

verb to affree with them, they are ; 

r, MOI. HE, LUI. 

THOU, TOI. THEY,mtLS. EUX. 

T^E, NOUS 5/ff:, ELLE. 

YOU, VOUS. T/fEF, fem. ELLES; ex. 

In CONJUNCTION with another substantive: 

You and I are ready. vous et moi nous sommes prels. 

He and his sister are ready. lui et sa s(eur «o7?< ^r^/». 

You and </icy are ready. vous et eux vous^^ iies prSts, 

2%€y and their yriew£?5 are here, evx et leurs xuis so7it ici, (m) 

WITHOUT a verb to agree with : 

Who is ready to go? I, Qui est prSt a partir? moi. 

It is J who will go first. C est moi qui irai le premier 

It is he who will go first. C est lui gwi ira Ze premier. 

It is /Aey who will go first. Ce sont eux qui iront les premiers. 

When a personal pronoun is the agent or nominative of several verbs, Qfj 
it is generally repeated with each verb ; as, 

I say and maintain that, &c. Je dis et je soutiens que, Sfc, 

He is poor, and will always be so. Il estpauvre, et il lesera tovjours.\ 

* Observe that bv substantive I do not mean nouns only, I mean also the personal pro* 
nouns ; for the word which represents a substantive, is as much a substantive as the word 
wliich names it. t See the verbs, page 106 and following. 

(n) The pronouns Moi, Toi, nous, vous are sometimes added to Je, Tu, Nous, Vous, 
to point ont more clearly a contradistinction ; as. 

You will write and J will read. Vous icrirez, et MOt je lirai, 

Vou come from Paris, and wc are going there. Vous venez de Paris, ^t nous nous y atlons^ 

N, B, The words. My self ^ lliyself, S^o, which are often used by way of emphasis at 
the end of a sentence ; as, I will do it myself; are expressed. Myself, M0l-m^m«; Thy- 
Belf, TOi-m^«,* Himself, lui -m^me; Herself, ELLG-m^m«; Ourselves, NOUS-memex , 
Yourselves, vous-memes; Themselves, ^\i\-memes, m. ELLES-meme;, f. 

X If the verbs are in the same tense, and used in the same sense, as in the example, 7 
say and maintain, the pronoun may be omittM before the second verb, Je dis et soutiens; 
but if the verbs are in different tenses, as in the other example. He is poor, and will 
always be soj or if the verbs are used in different senses, i. e. one affirmatively and tno 
other negatively, the pronoun must be repeated. 



206 



PBRSONAL PRONOUN. 



OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 
AfE, THEE, VS, YOU, HIM, HER, iT, THEM. 

Now let us see when me is me or moi ; thee, te or toi ; him, lb 
or liUi; HER, LA or lui; them, les, leur, eux, elles. 

The OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS are always attended by some verb or 
preposition which governs them. 

They are placed sometimes before the verb, and sometimes after 
it; and it is the place which they keep in the sentence that determines 
which word is to be used. 

The ORDER which the objective pronouns heep with the verb. 

general rule. 

t)4: When the objective pronouns me, thee, us, you, him, ^'c, are 
governed by a verb, place them immediately before that verb, and express 



}by 



ME, 
to ME; 

THEE, \ 
to THEE; j 

US, 
to US; 

YOU, \ 
to YOU; f 

HIM, IT; 
HER, IT; 
THEM; 



} 



ME. 

TE. 

NOUS. 

VOUS. 

LE. 
LA. 
LES. 



to HIM,' 
to HER; 

to THEM; 



} h 



LUI. 



LEUR. 



to IT, 
to THEM^ 



.} 



neut. 



Y. 



I 



EN.' 



SE; thus, 



He looks at * 



me. 

thee^ 

t/s, 

you. 

him, or it, 

her, or it. 

them. 

Does he look at me ? 
He does not look at me. 
Does he not look at me ? 



of THEM, ]^^^' 

HIM^HERself, 

ITself, 

THEMselvesi 

II ME regarde. 

Jl TE regarde. 

Jl NOUS regarde. 

II \ QMS regarde, 

II LB regarde, 

II hk regarde. 

II LES regarde. 

ME regarde-t^il ?* 

//we ME regarde pas. 

Ne ME regarde-Uil pa%? 



00 Observe that if the objective pronouns are governed by a verb 
compounded of the auxiliary verbs avoir or £tre, and of a participU 
past, th^y must be placed before the auxiliary verb, not between the 
auxiliary and the participle ; thus, 

to me. 



He has spoken 



to thee. 

to tis, 

to you. 

to him, to her. 

to them, 
[of it, of them. 
Has he spoken to me? 
He has not spoken to me. 
Has he not spoken to me? 



II m' a parle. 

II T't A parle. 

II NOUS A parle. 

II vous A parle. 

II LUI A parle. 

II LEUR A parte. 

II EN A parle. 

m' K'i-il parle ?* 

II ve m' a pas parle. 

Neu^k'i'il pas parle? S^c. 



• This t is added for the sake of melody ; see note * page 92. f Sere note * page 98 



PERSONAL PRONOUN. 207 

The ORDER which the objective pronouns keep with the verb. 

Is6 Exception, When the objective pronouns me^ thee, us, you, 00 
iiiM, her, it, them are governed by the imperative of a verb used 
in u coMMANDiNO sejise, i, e. without a negation, the pronouns which re- 
present them are placed immediately after the verb ; * 

In these instances me is expressed by moi, and thee by Toi. 

But if the IMPERATIVE is used in a forbidding seme, i. e. if it is at- 0/ 

tended by a negation, the pronouns must be placed immediately before 

the verb, acfreeably to the general rule ; 

Then me is expressed by me, and thee by te ; ex. 

Imperative cOiMMANDlNO, 56 ride. Imperative FORBIDDING, 57 mle. 



me. Regarde-Moi. Ne me \j,^„arde tjos 

thyself, TOI. iVc te J '^ ^ 



Look at me. Regarde^uoi, Ne mk \ j„_ g* | 

o j 

Look at us, Regardez'vovs, Ne nous) ~ 



>regardons pas, J 



1^ ST yregaraez pas, © 

yourself. vous. Ne vousj ° ^ o 

Let us look at him or it, Regardons-L^, 2Vc le '^ ^ 

her or it la. Ne la 

them, I.RS. CjiJ Ne les 

2nd Exception, The objective pronouns are not always the object OO 
of verbs, they are sometimes governed by a preposition which some 
verbs require to unite them to the substantive which follows them ; then 
the pronoun being the object of the preposition, not the object of tlie verb, 
it is placed after the preposition, and me is expressed by moi ; thee, 
by TOI ; HIM, by lui ; her, by elle ; us, by nous ; you, by vous ; 
THEM, masc. by eux; them, fern, by elles; ex. 
He came to me, II vint & moi. 

He complained o/*<Aee. II se plaignit de toi. 

He applied to him, to her, to them. Ils'adressa k lui, a elle, h. eux, &c. (o) 

(n) With two imperatives goremin;^ the same pionouns, to avoid monotony, we say 
Vonne2-LT.-MOl, ou ME LE vendez.. Give it me or sell it me, ^ 

Voyez^LE., et lb eonsolez. See him, and comfort him. 

(o) Some difficulty arises here witli respect to the preposition A, which, like the pro- 
position TOi Is generally implied in tlie pronoun ; for we say 

//ME donna un livre, He gave me a book ; instead of 

II donna un livre a Moi ; He gave a book to me, 

Je LUI pretai de V argent, I lent him money ; instead of 

Je pritai de V argent a LUI ; I lent money to him. 

Bat in some instances this preposition can not be left out; for though we say, He gave 
ME a book ; J lent HIM money ; we could not say, lie came ME ; 1 went HIM ; we must 
say. He came to me ; 1 went to him. 

The verbs which require the proiotition A to unite them to tlie vronoxin, are the follow- 
ing : 1st, all the REi%,ECTIV E VERBS, which, as they always nave a pronoun attached 
to tjiem for their object, can not govern ano^er substantive, without a preposition ; as^ 

II a'est adresU a MOi, a TOI, «c. He has applied to me, to thee, h^c, 

Ne vousfiez pas a LUI, a ELLE, &c. Do not trust him^ /lei*, &^c. 

Sdly, A few NEUTER VERBS which also require a preposition to unite them to the 
pronoun which attends thom. The most frequently met with are : 

ALLER, to go ; as, N'allez pas a LUI. Do not go to him. 

BOIRE, to drink ; Je bois a vous. I drink to you. 

COUKIR, ACCOURIR, to run ; 11 accourt a Nous. He is running to us. 
DESCENDRE, to go or come down ; Elle descendit a MOI. She came down to me. 
ETRE, to be, viz, to belong ; Ceci est a eux. This belongs to them. 

MONTER, to go or come up ; Je monterai a elle. I shall go up to her, 

PENSER, to think ; Pensez a nous. Think of us. 

RECOURIR, to have reoourse ; Becourez a eux. Have recourse to them 
VENIR, to come ; lis vinrent a MOI* They came to me. 



208 



PERSONAL PRONOUN. 



The ORDER which several objective pronouns keep togetheil 

jy When SEVERAL objective pronouns are governed by the same verb, a 
precedency must be given to some of them. 

If; agreeably to the general rule, the pronouns are placed BjEFOBEthereri, 
ME, -k 
NOUS, 
TE, \have the precedency over lb, la, les, v, en, 

VUUoj I 

SE J 
LE, I 
t'f^ I^"^^ ^^ precedency over lui, leur, y, en. 

LEUR j^^^c i^^ precedency over v, en. 



Y Aflw ih^ precedency over en ;* as, 

Will he give him or it to me, me le 

her or it to me, me la 

them to me ? me les* 



He promised him or it to us^ 
her or it to us, 
them to us. 

Will he not lend it to you, 
her or it (o yoii^ 
them to you ? 

He will send it to me there, 
some to me there, (p) 
some to you there. 

He will not send it him or her, 
any /o him, to her, (p) 
them to them. 



II nous l' 

J/ NOUS l' 
II NOUS les 

Ne vous le 
Ne vous LA 
Ne vous LES 

II ME l'y 

II m'y en 

II vous Y en 

II ne le lui 
// ne lui en 
II ne LES leurJ 



>donnera't-il ? 

138 

^a promis, 
\pretera't-il pas ? 



\enVi 






enverra^ 



1 



enverra pas. 



UU But if, agreeably to the 56<A rule, the pronouns are placed after tht 

verb, in which instances Moi, toi are used instead of me, te, then 
LE, \ 

J ES 'have the precedency over moi, toi ; as, 
Y ' j 
Send him, or it to me. Envoy ez-hT^-iAoi. 
her or it to me. la-moi. 

them to me. les-moi. 

them to me there. les-y-moi.* 

1 Observe also that if me, thee after an imperative, are followed by 
SOME, of jTt of THEM, they are not expressed by moi, toi, as above ; 
ME some, ME of it, Sfc. are expressed by m'en ; thee some, Sfc. are ex- 
pressed by t'en, whether they come before or after the verb ; ex. 
He has sent me some, II m*en a envoy e, send me «o7ne. Envoy ez-u^'E.n, 
Doest thou remember it ? t'en souviens-tu? Remember iU souviens^T^LN. 



• See, page 78, 79, a table which shews how to arrange seivral pronouns together, 
(p) SOME, ANY, implying of it, o/them, are rendered by ENr 



J>£RSONAL PnONOUN". 209 

REMARKS on the PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

As there are only two genders in French, the mcuculine and the femi- q2 
nine, the neuter pronouns it, tbey, them must be expressed by il, 

ELLE, ILS, ELLE8, LE, LA, LES, the Same aS HE/SHE, THETj HIM, HERf' 

THEM, masculine or feminine, agreeably to the gender of the noun which 
they represent ; so we say. 
Of a man or a coach ; 
II vient; je le t?oi». He or /r is coming; I see Him or jt. 

Of a vxyman or a watch j (See note h, page 90.) 

Elle est belle; regardez^LA. She or 1 7 is fine ; look at Her or jt. 

N. B. It is often used in an impersonal sense, f. e. without reference 
to any substantive mentioned before ; as, 

It is glorious, shameful, necessary, proper, &c. 
In these instances. It is always expressed by il, or by cb. 
It is expressed by il, if the verb is followed by an adjective; .as« 

It is glorious, shameful, necessary^ proper, &c. 

Il est glorieiiXy honteuXy nicessaire, a propos, Sfc, 
It is expressed by ce, when the verb is followed by a substantive, 
either with or without an adjective; as. 

Is it you ? It is he. It is his son* It is a shameful thing. 

Est-c^ vous? C*est lui. C'est sonjils. C'est tine chose honteuse. 
not, Est'iL vousf iLettlui, it est wn)iu, means he is fais son. 

Though LUI and leur may be said of beings that have life, such as OeJ 
brutes and plants ; as. 

That tree is withered, give it some water^ 
Cet arbre estflktri, donnez-iAJi de Veau; 
They can not be said of lifeless beings, commonly called things; (q) 
in speaking of things, to it, to tmem must be expressed by Y; as. 
She loves reading, she gives all her time to it. 
Elle aime la_ Ut^ure, elle y donne tout son terns. 

Lui, elle, eux,, elles, after a preposition, are said only of persons ; Qi^ 
in speaking of 6ru^ or things, \he preposition must be changed into some 
adverb which implies the meaning of both the preposition and pronoun; as. 
Take this horse, and get upon it. 
Prenez ce cheval, et montez dessus, not sur lui. (q) 
If an adverb can not be fo.und to supply the place of ihe preposition,* give 
another turn to the sentence, by which ihi^ preposition will disappear; as. 
He is come with it; II i! a apport^, i. e. he has brought it. 
not, II est venu avec lui, which would imply a person, not a thing. 

(q) Except those that are generally personified, such as Heaven, Fortune, Providence, 
the luements, stvne Virtues and Vices ; as, 

Love is the tyrant of reason, yet there are people who sacrifice every thing to it, 
L* amour est Utyran de la raisoti, cmendant ilya des gens qui lui sacrifient tout. 
Or when in a metaphcorical sense, we attriDute to things, what in a proper sense can only 
be attributed to persons ; so, speaking of a Sword, we say ', 

Je LUI dots la vie, I owe my life to it. 
Of a Book; Ces livres me codtent cher, maisje leur dois mon instruction 
These books cost me dear, but I owe my instruction to tnem. 
But in speaking of the same things without giving rational attributes to them, we 
eould not use lui, leur, we must use Y ; as, 

It is an old sword, but I have got a new hilt put to tr. 
C*est une vieille 6pie, maisj'Y ai fait mettre une garde neuve, 

* Yoa find in the dictiouaries the words which are both p^epoiitiens and adverbs. 



65 



66 



67 



68 



69 



210 PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

BEMABKS on the PERSONAL PBOJfOUN3> 

He/she, it, they coming with the verb be, followed by a §ub$ian- 

tive, are g'enerally expressed by cb ; as. 

He is an officer. c' eat un officier» 

She is a seamstress. c' est une co%Uuriire 

They are merchants. ge sont de» n^ociants. 

If the substantive which follows the verb, denotes ron^, states trade, or 

professUniy he, ins, they may be expressed by il, bllb, ils, blles, 

but the article must be left out; as, 

II eat officier. ells eH coiUuriSre. ils wnt negodanta, 
not, IL est UN officier, elle est une coutunere, iLstont des negociand. (gee 23 rule.) 

He, she, they, him, heb, them are sometimes used without refer- 
ence to any noun expressed before them, but imply the words Man, 
wmnan, or people understood ; in this sense they are expressed, 

he. 1 > SHE, \ I THEY, 1 1 

• >by CELUi ; * >by celle : * }by ceux ; as, 

HIM,] ^ ' HER,i ^ ' THEM,) ^ ' 

He who can live dishonored, does not deserve to live, i* e. ^Ae man who 
Celui qui peut vivre deshonore ne mirite pas de vivre, 
I have met her whom you wished so much to see, i. e. the woman whom 
J'ai rencontre celle %i7E vous aovhaitiez aifort devoir, 
N. B, The pronouns celui, celle, ceux, and the relative qui, que, 
DONT which attends them, must not be separated, as the corresponding 
words are sometimes in english ; they must be placed togeiher ; 
They are mistaken who think that riches make men happy. 
CEUX QUI pensent que lea richesaes rendent lea hommea heureuA'se trompent. 
i.e. They who think that riches make men happy are mistaken.* 

His, heb, theib are also sometimes used in the same sense as the 
above pronouns, i. e. implying the worcl^ Mart, woman, or people under- 
stood, and are then expressed, 

his, by de celui ; her, by de celle ; their, by de ceux ; as, 

We~ always blame ^Aezr conduct who do not succeed. 

On^ blame toujours la conduite de ceux qui ne reussissent pas, 
1. e. We blame always the conduct ofthosey viz. of the people who do not succeed. 

When an objective pronoun is governed hy several verbs, that pronoun 
must be repeated with every verb by which it is governed ; as, 

She loves and esteems you. Elle vous aime et vous esttme. 

Speak or write to her Parlez-LVi ou lui ecrivez. 

It sometimes happens that the verb by which the objective pronouns 
are governed, is preceded by another verb ; as, 

I can not do it ; He will not give it me ; You m^y lend it to him. 
In these instance??, it is better to place the pronouns before the last verb 

than before the^rs^; so, instead of saying, 

Je ne lb puis pa^faire; say, Je ne puis pas lb faire, 

II ne ME le veut pas donner; II ne veut pas me lb donner,^ 

* These sentences may also be expressed without changing the order ofthe words ; thua, 

C£tix-la se trompent aui pentent que les richesses r^tident les hommes heureux; 
or, C'est se tromper que de penser que Les i^hesses rendent les hommes heureux. 
But these expressions are more adapted to poetry and oratory, than to conversation. 

t This rule is not strictly adhered to by french writers, eapecially ancient authors ; 
however it makes the sentence clearer, and it is the surest for a foreigner, as there are 
no exceptions to this nd^ and there are several to the other, which ii« slight be UaUv 
to mistalte . 



PERSONAL PRONOUN. 211 

REMARKS on the PERSON Al PRONOUNS. 

Le, la, les, en, y are often used when the corresponding words are / U 
not requisite in english ; for example, in answer to these questions ; 

Are you Mr. B ? Etes-vous Monsieur B ? 

Is that your house ? EaUce la voire maUon? 

Are these your gloves ? Sont-ce id vos gants ? 

It would not be sufficient in french, as it is in english, to answer With 
the auxiliary verb only, and say, Ouiy je suis ; Yes, I am. 

Non, ee tCevs pas; no, it is not. Ouiy ce sont; ycs, they are. 
We are obliged to add one of the above pronouns^ and say ; 

Omi, je LB suii. Non, ce ne h*est pas. Qui, ce les sont. (r) 

You have got fine apples. Vomjs avez de belles pommes. 

Will you have sojne ? (of them), en voideZ'Voiii quelques-unes ? 

Yes, give me a few. i. e. (of them). Qui, donnez m'EN quelques-unes, 
N. B. And if the auxiliary verb, with which the question is asked is 
attended by another verb^ that verb must also be repeated; as, 

Has he done it? Ua-t-il fait? . 

No, he has not, i. e. (done it), Non, il ne j/a pas fait. 

Do you remember it? Vous en souvenez-vou^? 

Yes, I do, i. e, (remember it). Oui^je rrC en souviens. 

Are you going to the play ? Allez^vous a la comedie? 

No, I am not, i. e, (going there). Non,je n* y vais pas. 

If the pronoun is added to represent a noun, it must be one of the words / X 
LE, la, les, agreeably to the gender and number of that noun; as. 

Are you the son of Mr. A? Etes-vous le fils de Monsieur A ? 

Ye6> I am, i. e. (the son). Oui,je le suis. 

Are you the daughter of Mrs. B ? Etes-vous la fillis de Madame B? 

No, I am not, (the daughter). Non, je ne la suis pas. 

Are these your gloves ? SonUce id vos oants ? 

Yes, they are, t. e. (my gloves). Qui, ce les sent. 

But if the'word'to be represented is an adjective, an adverb, or a whole § J^ 
sentence, le is used without regard to gender or number ; as, 

Are you married, sir? Etes-vous mari^, Monsieur? 

Yes, I am, i.e. (married). Oui,je le suis. 

Are you married. Madam ? Etes-vous MARi^e, Madame ? 

No, I am not, i.e. (I am not so). Non,je ne le suis pas. 

Are you contented. Ladies ? Etes-vous gontbntes, Mcsdames ? 

Yes, we are, t. e. (we are so). Oui, nous le sommes. 

En, y, which are generally applied to things, may, in answer to a ques- / ^ 
tion or a command, be applied to persons, en instead of de moi, de toi, 
dejsovs, de vous, de lui, (Telle, (Teux, (^'elles; y instead of a moi, 
d TOI, d NOUS, d vous, d lui, d elle, d eux, d blles ; as. 

Remember me. SouveneZ'Vous de moi. 

I wiU, i. IB. (remember you) Je m*EK souviendrai. 

Have you thought of tw ? Avez-vou^s pense k nous ? 

YeSfWehave, i.e. (thought of you) . Oui, nxms y avons pens^. 

(t) If the answer is made with the pnHioims H£, SHE, THEY, relating to persons^ 
LCI, ELLE, EUX, ELLES added to the verb, render the other words unaeceasary ; 
la that your brother \ Yea, heia. Is that your sister ? Ho, the is not. 

fn-et ia voire fren jf Oia, c'ett LPi. £it-cc id voin ukut t Non, ee n'est pat ellu. 

(i2 



212 



SECT. It. 



74 



RELATIVE or distinctive PRONOUN 

WHO, WHOM, WHOSE, THAT, WHICH, WHA1» 

QUI, QUE, DONT, QUOI, QUEL, LEQUEL. 

When TTBo, whom, whose, that, which come after one or several 
substantives ^hich they particularize, they are expressed. 



5! WHO, 
3 



VQUI; 



I 



THAT, 
WHICH,} 

WHOM, j 
THAT, >QUE ; 
WHICH,] 



The man who 
The horse that 
The chaise which 

The man whom 
Tlie horse which 
The coach that 



U homme qui 

{comes. Lt choral QUI 
ha chaise qui 

L* homme que 
>lBee,C*) Le cheval que 
Le ccarosse que 



>vientm 



ie WIS* 









75 



L' homme dont] 
*l speak. Le cheval dont 
La chaise dont. 



2f e jitfrte. 



(^Me note in, pa^£ 82.) 
WHOSE,\ The man of whom 

^ of WHOM, VDONT; The horse of which 
*^ of WHICH,] The chaise of which. 

Qui, que, dont, whatever be the order of the corresponding words in 
english, must be placed immediately after the noun to which they relate ; 
Is the gentleman come, who i^^ to dine with us ? • 
Le MONSIEUR QU[ doit^dtfier avecnous, est-ilvenu? 

i. e. the gentleman who is to dine with us, is he^^ come ? 

N. B, DONT, besides being placed immediately after the noun to which 
it relates, must be followed by a substantive in the nominative ; as, 
He is a man whose probity is known. 
Oest un homme dont la prohite est connue, or, dont on conncut la 8fc. 

If WHOSE is followed by a noun governed by a preposition, it can 7iot 
be expressed by dont, it must be expressed by d?/QUEL, de Zaquelle, 
c^esQUELS, ffesQUELLES, agreeably to gender and number; as. 

He is a man on whose probity one may rely ; i.e. on the probity of whom 
(Test un homme sur la probite duquel on pent compter ; 
not, (Test un homme dont sur la probite, nor sur la probite dont. ftj 

{s) The distinctive words WHOM, that, which are often left out ; as. The man 1 saw, 
for the man whom I saw ; The wine we drank, for the wine which rce drank ; but the corre- 
sponding words QUI, QUE, DONT must never be omitted, and if they are the nominative, 
or the object of several verbs they must be repeated with each verb ; as. 

The man I saw, i. e. wfiom I saw. V homme QVEje vis. 

The wine we drank, i, e. which we drank. Le i in que nous hAmes. 

The woman I speak of, i. e. of whom 1 speak. La femme DOHTje parU, 

(t) When a relative pronoun comes after two nouns, and relates only to one of them, 
if the noun to which it relates is not the last in french, who, whom, that, which must 
he expressed by /eouEL, (aouELLE, (fSQUELs, (esQUELLES ; of whom, of which, by 
dfuQUEL, de ^aQUCLLE, desQivmhs, (iesQUELLES ; to whom, to which, by uuquel, 
d taQUELLE, auxQUELS, at/xQUELLES, agreeably to the gender and number of the noun, to 
avoid the ambiguity tliat might arise from Qur, que, dont, which are generally under- 
stood to relate to the last noun ; as. 

This is that young man's sister of whom we were speaking. 

Void la soeur de cejeune homme DE Laquelle nov^ partions. 
But this being done for the sole purpose of removing the ambiguity which would arise 
from QUI, QUE, DONT ; if a relative pronoun, coming after two nouns, was followed by 
a verb, or by an adjectiv>e that would sufficiently denote to which jioun it refers, it would 
be better to use qui, que, dont, than lequel, laquelle, &c. which are rather formal 
expressions ; the following sentence, for example, would not be ambiguous , 

That young man's sister who is so handsome, 

Lnsaur de cejeune homme qui est si belle ; qui being determined by belLe^ 
But, if these words can not be used without obscurity, the principal object of a Ian- 
iniftge being to express our thoughts with precision, elegaupe must yield to perspicuity « 



RELATIVE PRONOUN. 213 ^ 

Afler any preposition but of, or a preposition synonymous to it, 4 " 

TVhom is expressed by QUI, for both genders and numbers; 

Mate, SING. Fern. Masc, PLUR. Fern. 

WHICH le QUEL, la QUELLE, Us QUELS, Us QUELLES 

From WHICH duQUEL, d« /oQUELLE, a«« QUELS, d« QUELLES 

To.at WHICH auQUEL, a /aQUELLE, auxQUELS, auiQUELLES 

agreeably to the gender and number of the noun to which it relates ; as, 
The man with whom ] Vhomme avec qui ] 

The horse on which >he is. Le cheval sur lequel VU est. 
The chaise in which J fuj La chaise dans laquelleJ 

The man from whom ] , Vhomme de qui T 

The horse frcmi which >he comes Le cheval duquel >U vient 

The chaise /romM?AicA J fvj La chaise de IjK(IJJELLZ j , 

The man to whom ] Vhomme h, qui \ 

The horse to which >he goes. Le cheval auquel \il va» 

The chaise to which J (xJLa chaise h laquelle j 

fViio^ WHOM used absolutely, Le, without reference to a noun mentioned / / 
before, imply the word person understood, and are expressed by qui ; as, 

Who has done that ? 
i. e. what person has done that ? qui a fait cela Y 

I know whom you mean ; 

i. e. what person you mean. Je sais qui vous voukz dire, 

7Q 
WnosE used absolutely, implies also the vroxd person understood. / ^ 

If it can be changed into of whom, it is expressed by de qui; as. 
Whose daughter is she ? 
i. e. of whom Is she the daughter? De qui est-ellejille? 

I know whose relation she is. 
i. e. of whom, or of what person, Je sais de qui eHe est parente» 
If Whose can be changed into to whom, it is expressed by d qui ; as, 
Whose house is that? 
i. e. to whom does that house belong? A qui est cette maison? 

I do not know whose it is. Je ne'sais p<is ^ qui dh est, 

ftt^ After a preposition, which, relating to.tlie word Thine:, is expressed by QUOl; as, 
It is a thing of which I did not think. C^est une chose^ QVOlje ne pensais pas, 
I see nothing to whichhe can apply. Je ne vois rUn a quoi il puisse s'appliquer, 

(v) With a verb denoting dwelling or movement, even in a figurative sense, WHICH, 
after a preposition, is generally expressed by od ; as, . 

The city in which I live. Lm vilU dans laquelle, or ouje demewre. 

The happiness to which I aspire. Le bonheur auquel, or oa j'aspire. 

But we could not say, Le bonheur ouje pense^ the happiness on which 1 think 3 because 
penser does not denote movement ; we must say, Le bonheur A\}<iVELje pense. 

la the same sense,/rom which is expressed by d'ov, and through which, by par ou ; as, 
The country from which I come. Le pays duouel, or d'oii je viens. 

The town through which 1 have passed.JLa viu« par laquelle, or par ou j*ai passi, 

(x) The distinctive word which coming after an Indefinite expression, ot after a Noun 
vithont an articU in french, can not* be rendered by any of the relative words which cor- 
respond with it in english ; so these sentences, 

I have obtained leave, which was the only thing that I asked ; 1 can not be 

The earth is ravaged through ambition uhich is the scourge of mankind, j translated, 

J*ai obtenu permission qui or LAQDELLE ^tait la seuU ch(ae queje demandais ; 

On ravage la terre par ambition qui or laquelle est Ufl4au du genre humain : say, 

J'ai o6tenu permission, c'ttait la seule 'chose queje demandais. 

Oft ravage la terre par ambition, et Tambition est lefi'eau. du genre himain. 



214 RELATIVE PRONOUN, 

JVhich ixterrogative. 

In an interrogative sentence, wbjch requires three distinctions 

/ ff^HiCB interrogative is either joined to the noun like an adjectiife. 
i.e. without the help of & preposition; as, 

WHICH man? "which carriage? which horses? 
•} Or like a substantive, it is joined to it by the preposition op ; as, 

WHICH OF the men ? which of the carriages ? which of my horses? 
^ Or like a pronoun, it is used absolutely after the noun ; as. 
It is one of these men ; which is it? 

I came in one of these carriages. Jti which did you com>e? 

I / y Which interrogative joined like an adjective, i. e. without a prepo- 
sitioji, to the noun to which it relates, is 

Masc, SING. Fern, Mate. PLOR. Fern. 

WHICH; QUEL, QUELLE, QUELS, QUELLES 

Of Jrom WHICH; deQUEL, de QUELLE, d« QUELS, d* QUELLES 

To, at WHICH; a QUEL, h QUELLE, h QUELS, h QUELLES 

agreeably to the gender and number of the noun ; as, 
JVhich man ] quel homme ] 

fFhich carriage >do you prefer? quelle voiturefpriferez-vous? 
Which horses J quels chevaux J 

<) 0\) Which interrogative joined by a preposition to the noun to which il 

^^ ^ relates, or coming after it absolutely, i. e. without a noun, is, 

Masc. SING. Fern, Mate. FLUR. Fern 

WHICH; leQVEL, /a QUELLE, ic* QUELS, i«« QUELLES 

Of, fr<m WHICH; duQUEL, d« /a QUELLE, dc» QUELS, d««QUELLES 

To, at WHICH; auQUEL, a Za QUELLE, ouiQUELS, auxQUELLES 

agreeably to the gender and number of the noun ; as. 

Which of these men 1, 'L'Eq,VEL de ces hommes "j //^ 

Which of the coajchesf J p lacivell'e des voitures ^y^ ^-^^ J^ 

Which of my horses J ^ lesquels de mes chevaux] 

Which is the tallest? lequel est le plus haut? 

Which is the finest ? laquelle est la plus belle ? 

Which are the best ? lesquels sont les meilleurs ? 

QJ Which sometimes implies the demonstrative pronoun that or 
THOSE understood ; as. 

Which of these horses shall I ride? 

You may ride which you will, i. e. that which you will. 

This dbmonstrative word can not be omitted in french, and which 
as including the two words, is expressed by 

CELUI QOE, m 1 „^^ ^^^^ ^?y?J?,°^' '"• , JTHOSE which. 

CELLEqoE, /J CELLESque,/J 

agreeably to the gender and nufiiber of the noun to which it relates ; as. 

Which of these horses shall I ride? Lequel de ces chevaux monterai-je? 

Ride which, i. e. thai which you will. Montez celui que vous voudrez. 

In which carriage will you go ? Dans quelle voiturevouleM-votisalleri 

I will go in which you please. JHrai dans celle Qu't/ vous plaira. 

'J 
* The pronoun may be either singular or plural, agreeably to the number tbat is meant; 
for ex. Which of these horses will you ridel may be translated 

LEQUEL or LESQUELS de ces chevaux voulez-vous monter f 
LEQUEL meaning one horse; lesquels meaning that the person is tc nde tacre then one. 



it 



What man 
WTiat carriag 
What horses 



RELATIVE PRONOUN. 215 

What requires the same distinctions as which. 

What followed by a noun, or relating to a noun mentioned before, is o^ 
expressed, 

Masc. SING. Fern. Masc, plur. Fern, 

WHAT; QUEL, QUELLE, QUELS, QUELLES; 

OfJr&mWHAT; deQUEL, dc QUELLE, rf<? QUELS, d« QUELLES; 
To, at WHAT; h QUEL, a QUELLE, A QUELS, H QUELLES; 
agreeably to the gender ^nd. number of the noun; as, 

QUEL homme \ 
^ill you hare? quelle voiture\voule2-vous? 

QUELS chevaux] 
What are your reasons ? quellbs sont vos raisons ? 

What used absolutely, f. c. without reference to a noun mentioned, tjO 
implies the word thing understood, and is expressed by que or by Quoi. 

What is expressed by que, when it is the object of a verb; as, 
What are you doing there? qjJB faites-vous Id ? 

I do not know what to say to her. Je Tie sais que lui dire, {y J 

What is expressed by quoi, when it is governed by 2k prepositioTi, or 
used as an interjection ; ex. 

What do you meddle with? De quoi vous m£lez-vous? 

What I you have not done yet, quoi! vous 71^ avez pas encore fini. 

What sometimes implies the demonstra'hve pronoun that, and the 04 
distinctive which ; it is then expressed, 
Nom. What, ce qui ; Always do what is right; i. e. that which is right, 

Faites tovjours ce qui est juste. 
Objec. What, ce que ; What I say is true ; i. e. that which I say is true. 

CE que ye dis est vraufzj 

But with the prepositions of, to, or any preposition that is synonymous 
to them, it is necessary to consider whether the preposition comes before 
or after what ; for. 

Of WHAT is de ce qui, (I speak of what is true ; i. e. op that which, Sfc. 
decE i^vE;\Je parte de ce qui est vrai, 

Wha t of is ce dont ; as. What he speaks of Is not true ; i. e. that of which \ 

CB dont il parte rCest pas vrai. 
To what m a ce qui, (Apply to what is useful ; i. e. to ^uU which is, &c. 
^GE qvE;\Aj)pliqu€Z''Vous h cb qui est utile. 

WHATToiscEkquoi ; 3S,What you apply tois not useful ; i, e.^A^TO which 1 

CE k QUOI vous vous appliquez n*est pas utile, IT 



(y) WHAT, in. this sense, used interrogatively, is generally expressed in conversa- 
tion by qo'est-cb que, an idiomatical expression ; as, 

IVhat do you say ? qvu. tUtes-vous, or qu'est-ce que vous dites ? 

What are you doing? QVEfaites-voiis, or qo'est-CE que vous faites? 

And with the verfe be, it is always expressed by qu'est-ce que ; as. 

What is it 1 qu'est-CE que c'estl 

What is that to you ? qu'est-ce que cela vous fait ? 

(i) Though tlie words ce qui, ce que, being compounded of the pronoun substantive 
ce, and of the distinctive qui, que, should have two verbs either to atovern or to be go- 
▼eroed ; yet, when these words come before tiie verb etre followed by another verb, 
er by a noun in the plural number, another ce must be put before etre ; as. 

What vexes me is, that he will not study, ce qvi me f ache, c'estqu'U neveut pas 6tudisr^ 
What I detest most, are idle people ce avBje tUteste le plus, CB sont Its Mfs. 



85 



216 SECT. III. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOtJN. 

Masc» 8lNO« Fern, Mate* f»LUA. Fern, 

MINE; feMIEN, k MIENNE, les MIENS, Us MIENNES. 

0/, froiit MINE ; daMIEN, de la MIENNE, des MIENS, dtt MIENNES, 

Tv, aJt MINE ; au MIEN, d la MIENNE, aux MIENS, aux MIENNES. 

THINE; U TIEN, la TIENNE, les TIENS, Us TIENNES. 

2eR5;} ^ ^^^^' iaSIENNE, Us SIENS, les SIENNES; 

OURS; U NOTRE, Za.NOTKE, Us NOTRES, Us NOTRES. 

YOURS; U VOTRE, la VOTRE, Us VOTRES, Us V6TRES. 

THEIRS; U LEV^, toLEUR, Us LEURS, les LEURS. 

The POSSESSIVE pronouns le mien, le tien, le si en, ifc, must be of 
the same gender and number as the noun which they represent ; ex. 
Your hat is better than hers, i. e. her hat. 
Voire chapeau est meilleur que le si en. 
My watch is not so fine as his, i. e*. his watch. 
Ma montre n*est pas si belle que la sienne. 

oO The POSSESSIVE words m^ne, thine, nis, hers, ours, yours, 
THEIRS do 720^ always represent a noun mentioned before them ; they are 
often used instead of the personal pronouns me, thee, him, her, us, 
YOU, THEM, with the verb be, meaning to belong; as for example. 
This book is mine^ t. e. belongs to me ; in this sense mine, thine, his, 
HERS, OURS, YOURS, THEIRS are expressed by a moi, k TOi, h Lui, 
h ELLE, k NOUS, k vous, k Eux, m. h ELLES,^ ; as. 
This book is mine, Ce livri est k moi ; f. c. belong^s to me. 

is thine. est k toi ; to thee. 

is his. est k lui ; to him. 

is hers. est 2i elle ; to her. 

is ours. est k nous ; to us. 

is yours, estkvovs; to you, 

is theirst est k £ux, m. k elles, f, to them, faa) 

The possessive pronouns mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, 

THEIRS, by an idiom peculiar to the english language, are sometimes 

joined to the noun to which they relate by the preposition of ; as, a 

friend of mine ; a book of yours ; this possessive pronoun can not 

be expressed by the possessive pronoun \t\ french ; it must be expressed 

by the possessive article mes, tes, ses, nos, vos, leurs placed beforz 

the noun, which must always be plural in french ; as, 

A friend of mine. un de mes amis ; u e. one of my 

of thine. un de tes amis ; one of thy 

of his. mi de ses amis ; one of his 

of hers. un de ses amis; one of her 

of ours. un de NOS amis; oheofour 

of yours. un de vos amis ; one ofyow 

of theirs. Vn de leurs amis; one of their 

Nerer say ; Un ami de MES, nor Un eani des miens ; Un ami de tes ; Un ami de SES, &c. 

■ : : : r** — ^r— — 

(aa) Yet when a question is asked with est-ce ; as, £ST«ce la voire livref Is that 

Jrour book 1 we may answer, Out, c'est le mien, or il est a moi, Yes, it is mine, est-ce 
a sa maison f Is that his house 1 No, it is not his, it is his sister's ; Non, ce n'est pas Im 
st'EMNE^ e'est CELLE de sa santr, or EUe n'est pas a LUI, elU est a sa MSt4r» 



87 



2' 

? s 

cu 

01 



SECT. IV. 217 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN. 
Mate, SING. Fern. Masc» PLUlt. Fern, 

THAT'}^^^^^' CELLE. l^fsE-V'^^^' CELLES. 

The DEMONSTRATIVE prOllOUllS CELUI, CELLE, CEUX, CELLES muSt be OO 

of the same gender and number as the noun which they represent; ex. 
Bring my hat and thai of my sister; i. e. the hat of &c. 
Apportez mon chapeau et celui de ma sceur. 
He has lost his watch and that of his brother ; i. e. the watch of &c. 
// a perdu $a montre et celle de sonfrere. 

Have you seen these fbbj gloves and those which I had on yesterday? 
Avez-vous vu ces gants et ceux que f avals hier? 

N.B. The demonstrative words riri5, THESEy tbat, those imply 
a local distinction wh(ch celui, celle, ceux, celles do not express; 
therefore, when a distinction is to be made between two objects, the 
adverbial particle ci, here, to denote the nearest object, and la, there, to 
denote the remotest^ must be added to these pronouns ; as. 

This hat is better than thai. 

Ce chapeaurCi est meiUeut qife celui-lA ; f .e. this hat here — that ihere^ 

That watch is not so fine as this, 

Cette mantre-hk n'est pas si belle que celle-ci; t. c. as this here. 

But the particles ci, lA, being added merely to discriminate the objects, 
if the demonstrative pronoun is followed by a relative pronoun, or by a 
710U71 in the possessive state^ which makes the distinction sufficiently clear^ 
these particles would be useless^ and they must be left out; as. 

This hat is better than thai of your brother. 

Ce chapeau-ci est meUleur que celui de voire frerd. 

This watch is not so fine as that which you have lost. 

Cette montrC'Ci n^est pas si belle que celle que vous avez perdue. 

If THIS, THAT are not followed by a noun, nor relate to a noun men- Oy 
tioned before, they imply the word thing understood, and are expressed, 
THIS, by CECI; THAT, by CELA ; as, 

This is good ; i. e. this thing is good. ceci est bon. 

That is better ; i. e. that thing is better. cela est meillaur, 

(bb ) It is not unnecessary perhaps to recall here to the attention of the learner, that 
tlie words this, that, these, those hare already been seen in the chapter of articles, 
and he must take care not to confound them. 

If THIS, THAT, these, THOSE- are followed by a nourif tliey have the property of a 
demonstrative article, and are expressed by ce, cette, ces, as has been seen, rute 1. 
Ge vin, CETTE gloire, CES pluisirs. This wine, That glory, T/mim. pleasures. 

If THIS. THAT, THESE, THOSE do not point out a noun after them, but represent one 
mentioned before, they are pronouns, and are expressed by CELUI, celle, ceux, celles, 
agreeably to the gender and number of the noun which they represent ; as, 

11 a perdu sa montre et celle de sonfrere. He has lost his watch and thatofhia brother. 

If THIS, THAT do not point out a noun after them, nor represent one mentioned before, • 
they may be considered as substantives implying the word thing, and are expressed, 
THIS, by ceci ; that, by cela ; as, 

Ceci eU bon,maiscELA estmeilleur,i,e,This thing is good, but that thing is better. 

N. B. THAf, joining two sentences, is a conjunction, and is always expressed by que ; as, 

I know that he is come. Je sais Qv'il est vena. 

This conjimction is often understood in english, but it must always be expressed in french : 

Do you think he is come / Pensez-vous qv'U soU venuf [see conjunctions.] 



218 sfiCT. V. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUN* 

y U One^ we 1 used in an indefinite sense^ t. e. not relating to any 

THEY J PEOPLE] particular person, are expressed by ON. 

N. B. ON is always the nominative of a verb, and though it represents we, they, 
PHOPLE, which are plural, it requires the verb in the 3rd person sing, ; as, 
Otie says, I ^^ ^^^ j^ ^ ^^ , 

They say, peo^Zc say. J -^ ^ *' / 

yi The following and other like indefinite ejcpressionst are also ex- 
pressed in french by ON, with the verb in its active sense; as, 
It was said. on dSsait; i. e. oim said. 

It has been reported. on a rapporte ; ofie has reported. 

y^ The english passive verbs used indefinitely^ require the active signifi- 
cation in french, with ON for nominative; but by adding on to the sen- 
tence, the nominative of the verb in english, becomes its object in french ; 
/have been told that news has been received.! i. e. me has told me that om 
ON m*a dit qu'ov a rept des nouvelles ; J ^" receired news, 

i/tS ONESELF, 1 

Himself used indefiniteh/,>BsTe expressed by Soi; as, 
Itself after a preposition j 

Every one thinks well of^z7?z«e{/!CAacun a bonne opinion de sot. 

Virtue is amiable of itself. La vertu est aimable de soi. 

\j^ SoMEt repeated in a sentence of two parts, is in the first part Les uns, 
in the second part les autres ; as. 

Some laugh, some cry, les uns rient, les autres pleurent, 

«/d SoMEBODTt SOME ONE is QuELQu'uN for both genders; as. 

Somebody has taken my book, quelqu^un a pris man livre, 

yD SoMEf ANY, FEW followcd by a noun or a pronoun in the possessive 
slate, are expressed by Quelqu*un, quelques uns, m. quelqu'une, 
QUELQUES UNES,^ agreeably to gender and number ; as. 

Take some of these oranges. Prenez quelques unes de ces oranges. 
Give a,e a feu, of theo,. Donnez^'en ,vew„,.s vnbs. 

•^/ JVojBODr, xor ^ivr BOD r, personne; 1_ i r ^u i. 

^require A'e before the verb ; 

NOBODY WHATEVER, QUI QUE CE SOITj ^ » 

Nobody loves that man. personne N^aime cet homme. 

He trusts nobody whatever. II ne «e^ d qui que ge soit. 

Something is Quelque chose ; as, 

H^ gave me something good, J/m6(fonna quelque chose de6on(ce^ 

yy NoTHiNii^, not any thing, Rien ; 1 require nc before the verb; 

NOTHING \lfjfIATErER, QUOI QUE CE BOITj aS, 

Nothing\i& more agreeable. rien N'est plus agreahle, 
11^2i^\Aie%iow}thing whatever, II nb d applique a Quoi que ce soit. 

None, not AN'i'', followed by a substantive in the possessive state, are 

expressed by Auc^jn, m, AUCUNE.yi with Ne before the verb ; as. 

None of your ^j^ters is come, aucune de vos sceurs n'est venue, 

•• ' ' '• - ' ->^. — — 

Ccc) QUELQU'UN, PERf.QNNR, QURLQUE CHOSE, RIEN followed by an adjective or a 
past participle, reouire DE after ihem ; as Somebody wounded. Quelqu'un de blesti, 
SomeUiing good. Queique ckvse DA *Hm, Nobody corned Personne de venu. Nothing 



98 



100 



new. Rien de nouveau. 



a: 



INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 219 



101 



NoNEf Nul; lused absolutely^ are synouymoua to personne and 
NOT ONE, Pas un j require Ne before the verb ; as, 

None are free from faults. nul N*est exempt de dkfauts. 

Not one believes it. pas un, or personne Ne le croit(dd) 

Each, joined to a noun, is expressed by Chaque for both genders; as, lU^ 
Each boy had a shilling. chaque garpn eut un sheling. 

Each girl earned six pence. CHK^n^JlUe gagna six sous, 

Eacb, followed by a noun in the possessive state, or relating to a noun 1 \)o 

aUeady mentioned, is Chacun, m. chacune, /. as, 

Each of these books has its price, chacun de ces Uvres a son prix* 
Put them each in their places. Mettez4es chacun d sa place. 

Every, followed by a noun, requires a distinction. 1 (\A 

If EFERY denotes individuality, it is expressed by Chaque ; as, 1U4: 

Every language has its properties, chaque langue a ses proprietes; 
i. e. each language has &c. 

If EVERY denotes a totality, it is expressed by Tout, m. toutb,/; 
Every man is fallible, i. e. cil men ; tout homms est faiUible. 

Every one requires the same distinction as every. lUO 

Evert one, implying every one taken indvoidually, is Chacun; 

Every one lives after his own way. chacun vit a sa maniire, 
i. e. each person lives &c. 
Every one, implying every one collectively, is Touts, m. T0UTE8,y: 

Every one of them were taken; YTlsfurent touts pris, m. 
t. e. they were all taken. jEllesJurent toutes prises^ f. 

Every body is Tout le mondb ; as, lUO 

Every body speaks ill of her. tout le monde parte m^al d^dle. 
She speaks ill of every body, EUe parte mal de tout le mondb. 

Every thing is expressed by Tout; as. A"/ 

Every thing is right. tout est Men, 

She complains o^ every thing. EUe se plaint de toutt. 

Any BODYf ANY oNEj used in the sense ot some body, some one, are lUO 
expressed by Quelqu*un ; as. 

Has any body asked for me ? quelqu'un vHa-t-U demande ? 

' Any body, any one, used in the sense of every body, are expressed by 101/ 
, Tout le bionde, or il y y a personne qui Ne; as. 

Any body will tell you the same, i. e. every body will &c. 

tout le MONDE 'vous dira la m^e chose; 
or, IL Vy a PERSONNE QUI Ne vou^ disc la m^me chose. 

With a verb denoting admiration or doubt, or after a comparative, any 110 
BODY is expressed by Personne, but without Ne, because personne 
attended by ive, signifies nobody ; as, 

Did ever any body see that! personne a-t-U jamais vu cela ! 
He will do it better than any body. II lefira nUeux que personne. 

(dd) RiBN, AUCUN, PAS UN, PERSONiiE foUowed by QUI, QUE, DONT require the foi- 
lowing verb in the subjunctive ; «s, 
Have yo« found nothing that suita you 1 N'ovex-tNmi tr&uv^ rien qui vous convienne 1 
I do not know any body who can do it. Jt m eonnuit PERftONMB QUI puisse lefaire. 



Ill 



220 INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 



112 



115 



Any THiNGt in the sense o^ somethings is Quelque chose ; as. 

Has any thing happened? Ed-U arrive qufi.que chosb? 

Any TBiNG, used in the sense o^ Every things is expressed by tout; 
Do any thing you please. Faites tout ce qv!il voiu plaira, 

1 1 With a verb denoting admiration or doubt, any thing is expressed by 
RiEM, but without Ne ; for nien attended by Ne, expresses nothing ; as. 
Is there any thing finer ! Y a-t-il rien de plus beau ! 

114 IVnOEVETt, wnosoEVER joined to a substantive, or relating to a sub- 
stantive before mentioned, is expressed by Quel que, quels que, m. 
quelle (^2<^,QUELLE3 ^z^e, f. vi\\h the Verb in the subjunctive; and if 
the nominative is a noun, it is placed after the verb ; as, 
WJioever that man is, I shall have him punished. 
QUEXi QUE soit cet homme,^ le ferai punir, 

WnoEVERy WHOSOEVER, wnoMsoEFER, meaning any person soever, is 
expressed by Qui que ce soit, with a relative pronoun after il, and the 
verb in the subjunctive ,* as, 

Whoeverh?i^ done it, he shall repent of it; i.e. whoever tfiat person be; 

QUI QUE CE SOIT QUI VoMfait, il s*en repentira. 

Whomsoever you meet, do not stop ; i. e. whosoever that person be ; 

Qui que CE soit que vous rencontriez, ne vous arretez pas, 

1 lu Whoever, whomsoever, meaning Every body, is Touts ceux ; 

H e stops whomsoever he meets. // arrete to cts Ce ux qu*il rencontre, 

N, B, In proverbial sentences, whoever is Quiconque ; as, 

Ulioever is rich is every thing. quiconque est riche est tout. 

11^ WhateveRj whatsoever, with a substantive, requires a distinction. 
"■• ' If the substantive to which whatever, whatsoever is joined, is 
the nominative of a verb, it is /expressed by quel que, quels que, m 
QUELLE gt^e,QU£LLES que,f. with the verb in the subjunctive, and if the 
nominative is a noun, it is placed afier the verb ; s^. 
Whatever his reasons are, they will not be heard. 
QUELLES QUE soiejit ses raisons, sites ne seront pas ecoutSes, 

If the substantive to which whatever, whatsoever is joined, is the 
object of a verb, whatever, whatsoever is expressed by Quelque, sing, 
QUELQUEs, plur, foT hoth gcndcrs, with que after the substantive, and 
the verb in the subjunctive; as. 

Whatever reasons he gives, he will not be excused. 

QUELQUES raisons Qu'iZ donne, il ne sera pas excuse* 

118 Whatever, whatsoever, implying whatever a thing may be, is ex- 
pressed by Quoi QUE CE SOIT, with a relative pronoun afier it, and the 
verb in the subjunctive ; as. 

Whatever happens let me know it ; i. e. whatever the thing be Sfc, 
QUOI QUE CE SOIT QUI arrive, faites^e-moi savoir. 

1 ly Whatever, whatsoever, implying -^wy thing, or Every thing, is ex 
pressed by Tout ce qui, nomin, tout ce que, object, as. 

Whatever is right, is not always approved ; i. e. every thing that &c. 
tout ce qui est bien n'est pas tovjours approuve. 
Do whatever you will ; i. e. any thing, or every thing you will 
Faites tout ce que vous voudrez. 



120 



122 



INDEFINITE PllONOUN. 221 

Other is Autre, substantive and adjective, of both genders ; as. 

Give me an other pen. Donnez^moi une autre plume. 

Others think differently. D'autres jpensent differemment* 

Each other^ one another ; 121 

masc. SING. fern. masc. PLURAL. fern. ^^^ 

Vvn y Autre, Vune VAutre^ les Vn* les Avtm, lea unu lea Avtru ; 

of, from ONE ANOTHER ; 

Vun de V Autre, Vune de YAutr^f les um des Autres, les vnei denAutres; 

to, at ONE ANOTHER; 

Vun a V Autre, Vune a VAutre^ les rn* aux Autres, les rtiw aux Autre* ; 

agreeably to gender and number ; but observe that the preposition which 
comes before one another in english, must be placed betiveen the two 
words Tun, f autre in french ; as, 

They can not live without one another ; t. e. the one without the other. 

Us ne sauraient vivre Tun sans Tautre, m. Tune sans Tautre,/! 

Both ^ mas. sino. fem. masc. plur. fern. 

/'rn et Tiiutre, Vune et V Autre. Touts deux, routes deux; \ 

of,fivmBOTH: . USSSS 

cfe Trn et de V Autre, de Vune et de V Autre, de Touts deux, de routes deux; yiduai ob 
to, at BOTH; fij** *^* 

d Tern et a V Autre. d /'rn« et d i'iiutrtf, d. Touts deut a routes deux; j 

Your sisters are both rights 

Fos sceurs ont raison Tune et I'autre, or ont toutes deux raison. 

BOTH; les uns et les Autres, les unes et les Autres; \Spcakiiiff ctt greater 

of, from BOTH; des Uns et des Autres, des urns et des Autres; \Z^'^'^^iA^^ 

to, at BOTH; aux uns et aux Autres, aux unes et aux Autres ;] v^xtimi as. 

The French and the Dutch are united, let us beat both. 

Les Franfais et les Hollandais sont unis, battons les uns et les autres* 

Either; m. sino. fem. masc. plural. tem: 

Vun ou V Autre, Vune ou V Autre, Us uns ou les Autres, les unes ou les Autrei; 

of , from EITHER ; 
de Vun ou de V Autre, de Vune ou de V Autre, des uns ou des Autres, des unes ou des Autret; 
^ to, at EITHER; 
a Vun ou d V Autre, a Vune ou d V Autre, aux uns ou aux Autres, aux Une$ou aux Autres; 

Either of them will come. 

L'uN ou 1'autre viendra^ m. Tune ou Tautrr viendra, £ 

You may use either of them. 

Vouspouvez vousservir de Tun ou de 1'autre, m. de 1'une ou de I'icUTRE,^ 

Neither, NOT EITHER ; fem. 

masc. SING. fem. masc. plural. Ni les trnn 

Ni Vun ni V Autre, nI Vvne ni V Autre ; Ni les uns ni les Autres, [ni Us Autres , 

of, from NEITHER; videsunts 

Ni de Vun ni de V Autre, mdeV une ni/2« V Autre ; Ni des Um ni dee AUtres, [ni des Autres , 

to, at NEITHER; viauiunes 

Ni a Vun ni d V Autre, Ni d. Vune ni d Tiiutre; Niaux crnsni aux Autres, [pi aux Autres, 

These words require Nt before the verb which attends them ; as, 

I care for neither of them. 

Je NE me soucieni de Tun ni de Tautre, m. ni de Tune 7i£ de Vavtke,/, 

N. B. When these words are the nominative of a verb, they are gene- 
ral ly placed after the verb, and ils or elles is added to the verb ; as. 

Neither of them will come. 
Ni Tun ni Tautre ne vieridra ; or ils neviendront ni Tun ni 1'autre, m. 
Ni Tune ni YwrnEne viendra; or elles ne viendrontni I'une ni I'autre,/. 



123 



124 



• In proverbial sentences, others after of, to is generally rendered by autrvi ; as, 
i)o not do to others what you would not like to be done to. 
i\efaitespas a autrui ce gue vous ne voudriez pas qu'on vousftt. 



125 



127 



222 CHAP. VI. 

VERB. 

jtGRBEMBHT of the VERB VOith its NOMISATJFE. 

A VERB expressing either beijig or acting, necessarily implies a iubject 
or agent, generally known in grammar by the name of nominatife. 

The VERB must be of the mvm number and person as the agent, or 
nominative; this is called agreement of the verb with its nominatjf'e; as. 

Singular* PluraU 

J speak. Je PARLe, Nous JfKRions, < 

Thou speakest. Tu vkklcs, Fou9 ^xklcz. » 

My brother fMonfrire)^ ^«/'-«'-"UARL«n<. gT 
My 8%8ter Ma soeur J Mes scsun J P 

l^Q When TWO or more substantives in the singular are the nominatjfm 
of the same verb, that verb must be in the plural number; as. 
My sister and he speak french. . Ma soeur et lui parlent fran^ais. 

If the substantives which are the nominative of the verb, are of jiir- 
ferent persons,"^ the verb does not agree with either of them ; we add 
NOUS or Fous to the sentence with which we make the verb agree. 

We add nous, if there is in the sentence a substantive* of the ^rst 
person; as, 

He and I speak french. Lui et moi nous jporlons frangais ; 

L e. he and I we $peak french. *. 

We add fous, if there is in the sentence a substantive* of the second 
person, and none of the first ; as, 

You and they speak french. Vous et eux fous ^pvLtlez fran^is ; 

i. e. you and they you speak french. 

1 ^ O If the nominative of the verb is the relative pronoun Qui, the verb must 
be of the same number and person as the substantive* to which that 
pronoun relates; as. 

It is / who speak best. C* est moi qui parle le niieux 

It is thou who speakest best. C* est toi qui paries le mieux. 

It is he who speaks best. C est lui qui parle le mieux. 

It is we who speak best Cf est nous qui parlous le mieux. 

It is you who speak best. C est vous qui parlez le mieux 

It is they who spexik best. Ce sont eux qui parlent U mieux. 

12ft/ If Qui refers to several substantivjes of DfFFERENT persons,* it agrees 
with the FIRST person in preference to the second, and with the second 
in preference to the third ; as. 

It is you and / who speak best. C est vous et Moi qui parlous le mieux. 

It is you and he who speak best. C est vous et lui qui parlez le mieux. 

Lo\J The collective substantives La plupart, infikit^, noubre, quantiti^, 
TROUPE, MULTITUDE followcd by another substantive, require the verb of 
the same number as that second substantive ; ex. 

Most people are of that opinion. 

La plupart du monoe pen;ie ainsi, or La plupart des eENS pensent aitisi. 

lOl Le QUART, Le tiers, La moitiib require the verb in the singular; as. 

One fourth of my books are lost. Le quart de mes livres est perdu. 

See note * page S05 



VERB. 223 

PLACING of the NOMINATIVE witk the VERB. 

Iii a DECLARATIVE sentence, i, e. when a question is not asked, the nomi- 1 oA 
NATIVE of the verb is placed in french as in english, before the verb ; ex. 
I speak french well. je parle bien Jrangais, 

He speaks french well. il parle hienfran^is. 

My brother speaks french well. Mon fri&re parle bien frangais. 
My sister speaks french well. Ma sgbur parle bien frangais, fee) 

But when the sentence is interrogative, it is necessary to consider 
whether the nominative of the verb is a noun or a pronoun. ■■ oo 

If, when you ask a question, the nominative of the verb is one of LOO 
the pronouns je, tu, il, elle, nous, vous, ils, elles, on, or cb, this 
pronoun is placed in french, as the corresponding words are in english, 

IMMEDIATELY AFTER the VERB ; CX. 

Do / speak french well ? Parle-JE Men frangqis ?* 

Does he speak french well ? Par/e-t-iL bitnjranqais ? 

Does she speak french well? Par/e-t-ELLE bien frangaU ? 

Do people speak french well ? ParZe- t-oN bienfrangais? 

If, when you ask a question, the nominative of the verb is a noun^ 1o4 
that noun is placed before the verb, the same as in declarative sen- 
tences ; but to shew that a question is asked, one of the pronouns xl» 
elle, ils, elles, agreeably to the gender and number of the noun, must 
be placed immediately after the verb ; aS, 

Does ray brother speak french well ? Mon frhreparle-t'ih bienfrangais? (ff) 
Does my sister speak french well? Ma soeur ^ar/c-t-ELLE bienfrangais^ 
Do my brothers speak french well ?Mes freres parlent-iLs bienfrangais? 
Do my sisters speak french well? Mesh(:^\\mparle7vt-^i.his>sbienfrangais? 

r . 11 ■ 

(w) The nominative is generally 'placed after the verb in ft declarative sentence. 

1. When the verb is used as a parenthesis ; ex. 

You are wrong, said her mother to her. Vous avez tort, lui dit sa mIre. 

2. When the sentence begins with tel, or ainsI ; as. 

Such was his advice, TEL Stait son AVIS. 

Thus ended the business, AiNSi se termina Taffaire. 

3. When the nominative is attended by several words which can not be separated from it, 
or can not be placed before the verb, without suspending the sense of the sentence ; 

D* un cote on voyalt une nvt^e ou se FORM aient des iles bordiesde tilleuU fieuris. 
On one side was seen a river from which sprung islands lined with lime trees in bloom. . 
Ld. coui.BNT mille RUlsaEAUX qui distrihu^it partout une eau claire. 
There a thousand rivulets run which carry every where a clear water. FeneLon, 
These sentences would not be so cleai, if they were expressed thus : 
D' un c6t4 on voyait une riviere oil des iles bardies de tiUeule fieuris se FORM AIENT, 
la, mille ruisseaux, qui distribuent partout une eau claire COULENT. 

4. When the verb is preceded by que, se, or ou ; as. 

The money which my father sent me. Uargent QUE ni'envoya mon P^RE. 
The field where the battle was fought. Ltf champ ou se donna la bataillb. 

5. Je, nous, tu, vous, il, ils, elle, elles, on, ce are generally placed after the 
rerby when the sentence begins with one of these words, AiNsi, so, therefore; AU MOlNi, 
at least; en vain, in vain; k peine, hardly ; peut-etre, perhaps i as. 

You were hardly gone, when she came in. i( peine ^twz-vous wrti qu'elle entra, 

• Except the pronoun Je, when the verb to which it is joined ends with several conso- 
nants, so instead of saying; covRB-je'/ do J run'/ ments-Jc? do 1 lie'/ DORS-Jef do I 
sleep f which are hard to pronounce, we say, est-ce que je cours/ est-ce que je ments f 

(ff) When an interrogative sentence begins with que, (what); od, (wh^e); we gene- 
rally jUace the notm after the verb, witliout adding a pronoun to it; as, 
Ou «ft votre frere? Where is your brother? Ou est votre soeur? TrA«r« is your sister t 
Qvzfaitvotre frcre tWhat is your brother doing 1 QUE/ait votre uoBuxtWhat is your &o. 1 



224 v£Rfi. 

MOODS and TENSES. 
INDICATIVE MOOD OV MANNER. 

When we declare that a things is, or is noU or that it w, was, will be, or 
would be in our power to have it so, this manner of expressing ourselves 
is called indicative or declarative. 

PRESENT TENSE OT TIME, 

J* AI, ' I have, "x ^ . ^. . ^ ., , ^ ^ 

T- DfTTa T «. l»^» tod.,, thlswcdt, tliliiiiMith, Uuc jwr, 

J0 &U15, X am, > thUa«e, In aajr ftriad «f time not entiicly 

-^^j^ Je PARLE,* I speak, or am speaking ; J -i-F^t 

loO The PRESENT tense in french does not differ from the sani^ tense in 
english ; it expresses the being or acting at the time in which we are; as, 

I now have, I now am. I now speak, or am speaking. 

A present /ai. k prt^sent^e suis, k present jc parle. 

PAST TENSES. 

COMPOUND of the PRESENT. 

J* AI EIT,^ I hady or have had, 1 ^ely, today, this week, &e. in any period ef lime, net 

J* AI ETE, I was, have been, J "'^'•'y elapwd,- tM$Uth4 noma tmu to th$ preunt. 

J* AI PAH LB, I spoke, did speak, have spoken ; 
I OO If we speak of an action recently past, without mentioning the time in 
which it parsed, or if we mention a PERionf which is still lasting, such as, 
to-DAY, this week, this month, this year, &c. the action being past, and 
the period of time mentioned being still present, we make the verb partake 
of both the present and past tenses, by adding the past participle to 
the present tense of the auxiliary verbs avoir or ^tre; ex. 

IfO TIME MENTIONED, 

Were you ever at Paris? 
turn, Have you ever been at Paris? AwEZ-vous jamuis iTE a Paris ? 

No, I never was there ; - J 

turn. No, I have never been there. Non,je rCy k\ jamais ^t^. 

I had no opportunity to go ; 
turn, I have had no opportunity &c. Je rik\ pas eu occasion dy aller, 

Did you ever see Buonaparte? 
turn, Have you ever seen b.? Avez-vous jamais vu Buonaparte ? 

PERIOD MENTIONED, BUT NOT ELAPSED, 

I was at your house this morning ; 
turn, I have been at your house &c. J*ki iri chez vous ce maiin. 

Did you ^nd any body there ? J 

turn. Have you found any body &c. Y kvez-vous trouv^ quelqiCun ? 

I saw your sister, and spoke to her ; 
turn, I have seen your sister, and &c. .Tai vu voire sceur^ etje luiki parl^. 

Did you not we my mother ? 
turn, Have you not seen &c. ? N^AVEZ-vouspas vu ma mere? 

» !■ ■ ■ .III. .1 

* In ordet to render the elucidation of this interesting part of the language more ob- 
vious, I have laid down the two auxiliary verhs avoir, to Have; and etre, to Be, which 
are generally found the most emharrassing, and the familiar verh parler, to Speak, which 
^ay serve as a model for all the rest. 

t A period of time is a certain qtiantity of time, the duration of which ib fixed and agreed 
upon, and which being elapsed, that period ceases ; such as a Day^ a Week, a Fortnight, 
a Monlhf a Year, an Age, the four seasons of the year, Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter; 
Air any other portion of time, the beginning and end of which can be ascertained. 

t The french generally use the participle e'tb, instead oi the participle ALJ.E, to ex- 
press that a person has gone to a place whence he is returned. 



VERB. 225 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PERFECT TENSE, 

J* £US, I had, lyoi UrJ ay, last wmA, Usl month, iMt jrcar, a fiwtnlfht i|0» m an? period of time 

Je FU S I was ) "**^'' P*^' <*m i« <A« remate$t timt/nnn Uu pnttmi, 

J«PARLAI, I«pofc«,dj(i8peak; 

If we speak of an action past, in a period of time which is also en- lO/ 
tirely past ; such as Yesterday^ last week, a fortnight ago, last month, 
last year, any year previous to that in which we live, then both the time 
and action being pa>st or accomplished^ we use the perfect tense of the 
verb; viz. eus, fus, parlai; as, 

I caUed al your house yesterday. Je passai hier ckez vous. 
Did you ^nd any body there ? Y trovyXteb^ous quelqu'un ? • 

I saw your sister and spoke to her. Je vis voire sonir etje lui parlaj. 
Did you go to the ball with her? AllAtes-woiw au hal avec elle ? * 
No. Idirfnot; i.e.g'othere.<'^****''-»> Nonje rCy allai pas. (TORoieNB.) 
Did you not speak to my mother? Ne vkRhk^EB-vous pas a ma mere? 
Yes,IrffcJ;i.e.«pcaifctoher.<'^^**'«N«> Oui,je lui parlai.<^*^*~^ 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

r> -Hrr^A-rc-* w ' /Umr, it Uut tiiiM* whtti Uut bappcDsd, fa t timc JMpfr^d Of Uncertain. 

J ETAIS, I toas, ) 

Je PAR LAIS, I spoke, did speak ; 

The IMPERFECT is used in three different instances. 

\sL When we speak of an action that was passings and consequently loO 
imperfect or incomplete at a time we allude to, though at the time in 
which we relate it, it is perfect or accomplished, we use the imperfect 
tense of the verb: viz. avais, £tais, parlais, &c. 

These instances are generally expressed in english by the gerund or 
present participle in ing added to was or were; as. 
What were you doing there ? Que FAisiEZ-t7oi£« Id 

I was writing to a friend. «ricRiVAis d un ami. 

I wcu getting ready to go out. Je m'APPRiTAis d sortir, 
I was going to call upon you. .Tallais passer chez vous, 
I was talking of you just now. Je parlais de vous tout d theure, 
I was going out, as you came in. Je sortais, comme vous entriez. 

2nd. When we wish to denote that the action of which we speak was lOcI 
habitualy or has been reiterated, we must use the imperfect. 

In these instances, the english verb may be changed into the infinitive^ 
with did use, or used, before it; as. 

Where did you walk in London . 
;7fz. Where did you use to walk &c. Ou vous pROMENiEz-roi/« d Londres? 

I generally walked in the park. [/e pare, 

or, I used to walk &c. Je me promenais ordinairem^ent dans 

I often met frenchmen there. 
or^ I used to meet &c. J'y rengontrais souvent desfran^ais. 

I always spoke french with them. 
or, I used to speak &c. JePARLkistovjoursfran^aisavcceux. 

* It is not iiecessary in order to use the past tenses, that evevy verb should be at- 
tended by an expression denoting a time past ; it is sufficient that the time be men- 
tioned or alluded to at the beginning of the discourse, because the mind naturally goes 
back to the period which has either been mentioned or alluded to. 



140 



226 VERB. 

INDIOATIVS MOOD. 
IMPMiBFECT TEN8E. 

Sfd. Another very extensive use of the jmperfbct is in deicriptions 
for whenever, we describe the qualities of persons, or things, the Hate^ 
pla€i\ situation, order, disposition in which they were in a time past, we 
use the imperfect ; as, 
Where were you yesterday? Oit iTiKz-vot£# hier? 

I was in the country. J'ixAis & la campagne, 

I «'flr«"** not well.* Je ne me portais^** pas Men, 

I had a bad head-ache. J'avais grand mal a la tHe.* 

Was the country pleasant ? La campagne irtkiT-elle agreable ? 

Yes ; but it wa^ rather hot. Out; mats il paisait"* un pen chaud. 
N B. Observe however, that if the duration of the state, &c. which we 
wish to describe was limited to a period of which the etid was known, we 

• The gn^atest didioulty attending the past tenses is how to discriminate this last in. 
stance of. the imperfect from the j^erfect, i, e. how to distinguish an action from a state of 
being, and indeed the distinction is sometimes so nice, that It is not surprising foreigners 
should err in the use of them ; for example; 

FIRST instance* second instance, 

I WAS very wet in going into the country. 1 Vfxsso tfet that 1 could not stay 
He WAS kitUd in falling from his horse. He was dead when we found him. 
He HAD his leg carried off by a cannon ball. He had also a wound in his breast, 

WAS and had in these various instances can not he expressed hy the same tense ir4 
french. 

When, in the first instance, I say ; I was very wet in going int9 the country; He Was 
hilled in falling ; He Hkv his leg carried off ^c, I am relating facts, events which hap - 
pened, of the end of which a perfect idea may be formed, ana these must be expresser* 
by the perfect. 

But when, in the second instance, I say ; J was <o wet that I could nci stay ; He was 
dead wheti we found him ; He had aUe a wound in his breast; I no longer express the facts 
themselves, of 6em^ wet, of being killed 8^c. but describe a state ofbeing, i. e. I was in a 
wet state ,* He was in a dead state ; He was in a wounded state, the duration of which is 
not limited to any time, and can not be ascertained, and these are expressed by the im- 
perfect; thus, 

FIftsT instance.' , second instance. 

Je FVS treS'meuillS en allant h la campagne, J* etais si mauilt^ tjueje ne pus pas rester. 

II PUT tu^ en tombant de eheoal, II etait minrt quand nous U trouv&mes. 
11 EUT lajambe emport^e d*wn coup de canon, II avait ausai une bUssure a la poitrine. 

In order to elucidate this still more, and try the rules that have just been laid down, 
let us peruse a piece of history where the difference between a narration and a descrip' 
tion, A fact and an incident, wiU appear obvious. 

Calypso could not console herself for the Calmso ne pouvait*^^ se consoler du de^ 

departure of IJlysses. In her grief, she eon- part d'u/ysse, Dans sa douUur, elte se trou> 

«i<iere<i her immortality as a misfortune. Her vait^^ malheureuse d* itre immortelle. Sa 

grotto no longer resounded with the sweet grotte ne resonnait*^® plu^ du doux chant 

harmony of her voice. The nymphs who de sa voix, Les nymphes qui la servai- 

(Uttfnded her, dared not to speak to her. She ent**® n* osaienT'*^ iui parler. Kile se 

often walked alone upon the flowery turf prombnait^'* souvent seute sur les ga- 

which an eternal spring diffused round her zons Aeuris dont un printenu itemel dor- 

island ; but these charming abodes, far from dait'^ son (le; mais ces beaux lieux, loin 

assuaging her grief, served otAy to recall the de mudher sa douleur ne faisaient^^ 

sad remembrance of Ulysses, whom she Aac{ que lui rappeUr i^ triste souvenir d'Vlysse 

somany times seen by her side. Frequently qu* elle y avait*^ vu tant de fens aupres 

she stood motionless on the beach of tne sea, a elle, 6auvent e//« demeur A it^*^ immo- 

which she watered with her tears, and she bile sur le rivage de la mer qtf* elle arro- 

was incessantly turned towards that quarter sait^^ de ses utrmes, et elle etait^^ sans 

whore the ship ofUlys8es.plowingthewavest cesse tonm^e vers le c6t4 oil le vaisseau d' 

had disappeared from her eyes. All on a Ulysse, fendant les ondes, avait^^ disparu a 

sudden, sne perceived pieces of a ship ses yeux. Tout d roup, elle aper^ut*^ le* 

which had just been wrecked; then she debris d*un navire gui^ vrnait^^ de faire 

DESCRIED two men at a distance, one of naxfrage ; jwii elle dbcouvrit^'^ de lain 



VERB. 227 

INDICATIVE MOOO. 
IMPERFECT TENSE. 

should not use the imperfect ; we should use either the compound of the 
present or the perfect^ according to the period mentioned, or alluded to ; 
for though I should say, 

J*^TAis malade ce matin, I was ill this morning. 

J'AVAis hier grand mal a la t^te, I had a bad head-ache yesterday 
I would not say : 

Ttrkis malade^ but/Ai igri malade toute la maiinSe. 

•Tayais mal a la tSte, but/EUS mat a la tite toute lajoum&e; 
Because the state which I describe is known to fc^ve ended with the 
period mentioned, viz. la matinee^ la journee, 

whom was seemingly in years; the other, deux liommes dont I* un par AissAir^*^ dg^ ; 

though a youth^ resembled Ulysses. He had V autre, quoique jeune, ressemblait^^ a 

his sweet and lofty look, with his size and Ufyeae, il avait^^ sa douceur et safierti, 

majestic deportment. The goddess onder- avec sa tailU et sa d-marche majestueuse, 

STOOD that it toas Telemachus tlie son of La d^esse comprit^^' que c'etau^^ TiU- 

that hero, but she could not find out who maque fits deee hires, maiselleneTCT^^d^ 

that venerable man was by whom Telemachus ceuvrir qui ^tait^^ eet homme vinhxible 

UQS accompanied. dant Tim\aque btait^^ aceompagn4. 

Now, if we select from the above passage the fttcts tliat constitute the ground of the 
n nration, we shall find them to be these : 

Calypso, staodiog on her iHland, perceived the wrecli of a bhip; then the descried two men, the one 
yoQsg and the other old. She understood the joang one to be Telemachai, bat she could not reoogniM 
ike other. And the verbs expressing these facts are in the perfect. The verbs which form only inci- 
dentSt such as the description of Calypeo and her island, of Telemachas and his shiuw^reck, and which 
might be left oat of the narration, without impairing it, but not without strippmgit ofits beaaties, are in 
the imperfect. 

Let us examine another piece of the same author, in which there will be more narra' 
t*on, and less description, or more facts and fewes incidents, 

Telemachus, relating the manner in which he escaped the danger of being taken by 
tlie Trojan fleet, says : 

The affabiUty end the courage of the sage La douceur et le courage du sage Mentor 
Mentor charmed me; but I was still more «»« charmIrent*''. mats je vvs^" eticore 
surprised, when I saw with what address he ^f» pl^sfurprU, quandjeyjs'Vavee quelU 
J ,. J ^ *v T A* *v odresse tl nous delivha"' des Troy ens. 

delivered us from the Trojans. At the j)^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ i^ ^^^ commenca1t»« 

moment when the slues began to clear, and ^a^^claireir et qvelesTroyetu, nousvoyant 
the Tn^jans, having a nearer viewof us, would de plus pres, n* auraient pas manqu4 de nous 
infallibly have known us; he observed one of reconnoitre; U remarqua^^^ iin de leurs 
their ships that was almost similar to ours, vaisseaux qui kr AIT^^ presque semblable au 
which tile storm had separated from the rest, ndtre, et que la tempite avait^** icarti. la 
Her poop twu-adomed with particularflowers. PP^V^ «» eTAIT^** ecuroniUe de certaines 
He haitenod to put upon our poop garlands of fi^^'- ^ ^^ *« hXta"^ de mettresur notre 
flowers similar to theirs. He fastened them f'^'P* ^^* couronnes ds fleurs s^lables 11 
". ' ^T ci, " TIl j««^»«* w'c"* ^ ATTACH A»»7 lut-mSim avec des bandelettes 

himself with fiUetsof the same colour as those ^ ^ ^^ ^ouleur que eelUs des Troyens. 
of the Trojans. He or^red all our rowers to // ordonna^^ a touts nos rameurs de se 
stoop as much as they could along their baisser le plus qu'iU pourraient ie long de 
benches, that they might not be knovm by leurs banes, pour n'Stre point reeonnus des 
the enemy. In this manner we passed through ennemis. En cet itat nous passames^'^ au 
the middle of their fleet, and wnilst they were milieu de leurflotte, et pendant que Its vents ' 
driven by the impetuosity of the winds towards Unpitueux Us poussai knt^*' vers I'Afrique, 
Africa, we made all our endeavours to reach nousflnts^'^ lesdemiers efforts pour arrivcr 
the neighbouring coast of Sicily. There in- tur la cote voisine de Sicile. Njinisy arri- 
deed we arrived; but &c. vames^^ en effet ; mais 6ic. Frnelon. 

The narrative part of this histoiy is ; the affability &c. of the sage Mentor charmed me, bat I was still 
more sniliriMd when I saw with what address he delivered as from the Trojans. He observed one of their 
fthips witn ftuwers on her poop. He hastened topnt similar nowers apon onrs. He fattened them himself 
with filletM of the same colonr as those of the Trojans. He ordered all onr rowem to stoop along their 
benchrs, that we might not be known by the enemy. In this manner we passed throngh tne middle of 
their fleet, and made all oar efforts to reaeh the coast of Siciljr, where we arrived ^e. by which yon see 
that a// the verbs which are necessary to the from of the narration, beeaase they declstt facts* are in ih 
perfect tenu^ those which denote only incidents^ are in the imperfect, 

P 2 



142 



228 VERB, 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
FUTURE POSITIVE. 

J'AURAl, I j/iflMi iw« have, 1 . .. . . 

Je SERAI, I ihall, wW. be, } '^^jJS^^/i^^^ ti' SU**"' "^* '""''*^ 

Je PARLERAI, I shaU, will speak .]»"»•"' >» 

141 The FUTURE tense is used in french as in english, to express nvhat is 
to happen in a time to come; as, 

1 will caU upon you by and by. Je passerai tantSt chez voiis. 

The PRESENT tense is sometimes used in both languages, instead of the 
future ; so we say, 

Ou ALLEz-voiis ce soir? Where do you go this evening? 

for, Ou iVLEZ'Vous ce soir f Where shall you go this evening? 

N,B. But if TWO verbs denoting yii^wnYy come in the same sentence, 
the second verb can not be put in the present tense in french, as it is 
sometimes in euglish, it must be put in the future; as. 

Call upon me, when you are ready ; the time for calling and for being 
ready, having yet to come, I would not say in french, 

PASSEZ chez mot, quand vous ixES prU, which would denote that the 
person is ready at the time I am speaking ; I must say, 

pAssEz chez moi, quand vous serez pr^t, i. e. when you will be ready. 

I wtll call as soon as I have dined. 

Je PASSERAI aussitot quefkunki dine; not, amsitSt que fxi dtnS, 
which would denote that the person had dined at the time he is speaking. 

This generally happens after the words whent at soon asy as long^ as after, 

FUTURE CONDITIONAL. 

J^'AURAIS, I «fcouW, toouW have, ) „^ ,^ ^^ ,^ ,^^^ _. , .^ 

Je SERAIS, I should, would be, \ ^'ia^ifuSiSSi.Si"*"* '^' " 

Je PARLERAIS, I should, tcouldepesk; 3. 

The CONDITIONAL has also the same properties in french as in english ; 
it denotes that a thing would be done, if some condition was granted ; as, 
I would call there, if I could. Jy passerais, sije pouvais. 

Afler the conjunction if, SI; shall, will must not be considered as 
signs of the future, nor should, would as signs of the conditional of the 
verb which follows them ; will is then the present tense, and would the 
imperfect of the verb to WILL, to be vitillino, and they must be ex- 
pressed, will by the present, and would by the imperfect of the verb 
VoULOIR, with the following verb in the infinitive in french ; as, 
I will go with you, if you toill come witli me; i. e. if you are willing to come 
J'lR.Ai avec vous, si vous voulez venir avec moi.* [^gy 

I would go with you, if you would come with me ; l, e, if you were \mlling 
•TiRAis avec vous, si vous vouliez venir avec moi,* [to come. 

N, B. If should h the sign that follows if, it must be left out, and 
the following verb put in the imperfect ; as, 

Ifhe should come, what should I say to him? S*ilyiEV\iT,queluidiraiS'je? 

* In these examples. Ton see will ased first as a, sign of the future of the following verb, then as the 
present of the verb to wtll ; would first used as a si<fno( the conditional^ th«>n as the imperfect of the verb 
to will. If the learner finds himself embarrassed how to distinguish the verb from the sign, let him try 
to sabstitate in the place of will, would some verb of the sami* meaning, i. e. denoting will, yiisH, inclina- 
tion, desire, sach as please, like, choose, be willing; and he will know bjr the sense it will make, which is 
the verb and which is the sign. See also note * page 143. 

Cgg) If SI is used for whrther ; SHALL, WILL must be expressed by the future, and 
SHOULD, WOULD by the conditional ; as. 

Do yvu know whether he icill ccmef Savet-'Vous a* il VIENDRa t 

I want to know whHh$r he would come. ^ Je veux tavoir s' il viBNDRAir. 



143 
144 



VERB. 229 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

It has been said, (p. 224 ») that when we declare that a thin^ is 6r ts 
not, or that it is in our potoer to have it so, that mode of expression is 
called INDICATIVE, or declarative; but if the thing* spoken of is not 
asserted to be or not to be ; it' it is mentioned only as a thing which may 
or may not be^ and is not to be depended upon, this mode of expression is 
called potential^ conjunctive, or subjunctive.* 1 A C^ 

If we speak of an action the event of which is uncertain, which is 14:«1 
generally the case when, in a sentence of tjfo parts connected by the 
conjunction que, the Jirst part is either interrooative or negative, 
or is attended by some expression denoting doubt; as for ex*, when I say; 

Do you think your sister wUl come ? 

J do not think she wiU come to-day. 

Jf I hear that she comes, I will let you know ; 

In which instances it remains uncertain whether the person will come 
or not ; this uncertainty is imparted in french, by putting the verb in the . 
second part of the sentence in the subjunctive; thus, 

FenseZ'Vons que votre sceur viennb ? not, viendra. 

Je NE pense pas qtCelle vienne avjourd!kui ; not, viendra. 

Si fapprends qtieUe vienne, je vous leferai savoir, 

VIENDRA and viENT would assert as a fact, what the first part of the 
sentence shews to be doubtful. 

N,B. With respect to interrogative sentences, it must be observed, 
that it is only when we wish to impart ignorance or doubt of the thing 
inquired after, that the subjunctive is required afler them ; for if we knew 
that a thing is or wiU 6e, and only enquired whether the person to whom 
we speak knows it likewise, we should use the indicative; as. 

Do you not believe that Bhewillcome ? Ne croyez-vous pas qxCelle viendra ? 

Do notyouknow that she is married? Nesavez-vouspasqu*elle ESTmariie? 
which sentences express the same idea as these ; 

She will come, do you not believe it ? She is married, do not you know it? 

* A few examples will make the difference between the indicative and subjunc- 
tive moods more obvious : 

They say that peace is made. I believe that peace is made. 

Bjp these expressions I declare, in h positive manner, that, in the opinion of some perrao, the thing of 
which I am speaking (peace) does or does not exist, and this positive assertion most be made with the 
indicative; thus. 

On dit que la paix EST faite, Je crois que la paix est faite. 

But by thetie isxpresKions : 

Do they say that peace is made ? I do not believe that peace is made. 
I do not assert that peitce does or does not exists I eirher declare that I am ignorcMt of it, or that I 
doubt its enstence; bat a lhin|[ may exist, though I am ignorant of it; it ma^ exuit, Ihoagh I am not con- 
vinced of its existence, and this uncertainty, wticther the thing is or \a not, is imparted to the bearer by 
means of the subjunctive mood ; 

Dit-on que la paix soiT faite? Je ne erois pas que la paix soiT faite. 

Again, I know somebody whoioi// tend me money. He promised that he iwmid/eiMf me some 
These are positive assertions, and they mnst be made with the itsdicative; 
Je eonnais quelqu*un qui me PRATER A de l*argent. 
11 a promts qu*tl m*en PR Iter AIT. fiat in these other instances ; 
I seek for somebody who will lend me money. 
Do you know any body who would lend me money ? 
It is not asserted whether the tking I am speaking of, will, or will not he, i. e. whether the money teiii 
b0 lent or not; the event remains uncertain, and this uncertainty most be expressed by the suljjmndiiMi 
Je cherche queiqu'un qui me pretb, or qui veuille me priter de VargenU 
ConnaisseS'-vous quelqWun out voulOt me priter de Cargent t 
The indicative mood (says Harris3 which, in all grammars, is the first in order, is also the first, both m 
dignity and use ; it is this which pnbliithes oar sublimest perceptions, which exhibits the soul h her 
purest energies, superior to the imperfections of desires and wants, whibh includes the wh<de of time and 
Its minutest distinctions. 

As to the potential (jtubjmnetive') mood« it is only of a subordinate nature, and it implies but a d/tMens 
and conieetural asaertioa ; wbereas that of the indieatire is absolsUe, and without reserve, CHebmvs, 
page 1^ lft9.) 



230 



146 



VERA. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 



147 



The SVBJUNCTIVB 9nood is required afler all verba and adjectives, tie' 
noting wiU, wish, desire, command, fear, wonder, surprise, astonishment, 
joy, gladness, grief, sorrow, in short, after all expressions which denote 
any passion or emotion of the mind;* 

I will have you do that. 

I wish you may succeed, 

I desired \ito he got ready. 

I am afraid he will spoil it. 

I am surprised he is not here. 

I am glad you are come. 

I am sorry he has not seen it. 



as, 

Je veux que vous fassiez cela, 
Je souhaite que vous riSussissiez 
iTaf or(lonn6 gu'oTi le prepare. 
Je crains qu'il ne le oAte. 
Je suis surpris qu*il ne soit pas id, 
Je suis bieu atse que vous soyez venu- 
Je suis fSch^ qu'il ne /'ait pas vu. 



The SUBJUNCTIVE mood is also required in french after the following 
verbs and adjectives, though they neither denote doubt nor passion ; 



"quejy aille. 



II FAUT 1 . , 

Tf 1 ffjueje le voiE. 

II est temsJ^ "^ 

Cest le SEUL ami quefkiE, 

II CONVIENT 
Jl IMPURTE, 
II VAUT MIEUX 

II SUFFIT 

II est k PROPOS 

// est N^CESSAIRE . 

II est indifferent] 

II est CRUEL We cela soit. 

II est HONTEUX J 

II est JUSTE 
II est INJU8TE 
II est POSSIBLE 



It is material 
It is better 

It is sufficient 
>queje lui parle. Itis^^ 

It is necessary 



1 must see him. 
It is tiTne that I should see him. 
He is the only friend I have. 
It is becoming 



^that I should go. 



>>that I speak to him. 



>quil le FASSE. 



It is indifferent\ 

It is cruel . nhat it should be so. 

ll\& shameful j 

It \sjust 

It Z ^6fc ^*"* •>** *"""" ^"^ "• 
It is impossible 



Jl est IMPOSSIBLE 

After an adjective in the superlative degree, (see 50 rule.) 
After rien, aucun, pas un, personne, (note dd, p. 219.) 
After quelque, qui que ce soit, quoi que ce soit, (114, 115, 117, 
118 rules.) 

After the conjunctions afinque, quoique, &c. (see 218 rule.) 

i ' ■ ■ ■ , I ■ . , J l ■ . , — 

* The ingenious Mr. Harris, (Hermes, p. 15, 16.) gives the following definition ot 
the powers of the soul, which may throw some light upon this intricate subject. 

The powers of the soul mny be included in those of PERCEPTION, and those of volition 

By tne powers df perception, I mean the senses and the tntellect. By the powers of 
volition/ I mean not only the will, but the several passiotu and appetites ; in short, atl 
that moves to action, whether rational or irrational. 

If the leading powers of the soul be these two, it is plain that every speech or sen- 
tence, as far as it exhibits the soul« must of course respect one or other ot these. 

If we assert^ then it is a sentence which respects the powers of perception ; for what, 
indeed, is it to assert, but to publish some perception, either of the <«niei,orof the intellect. 

If we interrogate f if we command, if we pra^^ if we wish, what do we but publish so 
many different volitions 1 for, Who is it tliat qttestions ? He who has a desire to be in- 
formed. Who is it thM dananands 'i Ho who has a will, which he tvould have obeyed. 
'What ard those beings who either wiak or pray i Those who feel certain loants, either for 
themselves* or for oth^B. 

If then the souVs leading powers be the two above mentioned, and if it be true that all 
speech is a pMieation of these powers, it will follow, that every sentence will be either a 
sentence of assertion, or a sentence of volition. 

To tliismay be added that sentences of assertion require theiNDiCATl^ E,and 84ntence« 
e( volition require the subjunctive mood after them. 



YEFtB - 231 

fENSES of the SUBJUNCTIVE* 

The svaJUSCTirm mood being always subordinate to a verb that/^rc- 
cedes it,* its tenses are regulated by ihxs foregoing verb, 

PttESEJfT TEIfSE.' 

J' AIE, I have, may hare, ] . ^ ^ - ^ , ..,.•_.. 

J«S01S. I be, ma], he, I t«dj*«rth.pm«rfwdiw»rffai.l«u. 

J« P AKLE, I speak, may speak ; J 

The PRESENT of the subjunctive is used, when the verb which requires 14:0 
the SUBJUNCTIVE after it, is in \ht present ov future of the indicative ; as, 
*tirj i\ shall have i\me? ( que f Aifi le terns? 

i th'^ u"^ ^ *^^^^ ^^ ready ? pehsez-vousI que je sois pr£< ? 

3 tnmK I J ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ j^gj^p [gweyc lui parlb ? 

[ij'we/AiE /e terns; 

^ , // ATTENDRA^^Mcye SOIS prSt ; 

[till 1 Jij^eoA; to her. [queje lui parle. 

PERFECT tense. 

J* EUSSE, I had, might have, i .... 

J«FUSSE, I were, might he, I iuedrt« flit p»n^rf, imperjtrf, «id iWrfum-i 

/ePARLASSE, I spoke, wit^fct speakjj * i Ai\ 

The PERFECT of the subjunctive is used, when the verb which reauires L'ru 
the SUBJUNCTIVE after it, is in the perfect, imperfect, or conditional ; as, 
^ |T rtill I had time; f<3f?ie/EUsSE le terns; 

^ m iLd\ ^*^^ ^ ^^ ready ; II ATTENDiT-f^Mc^e fusse prU ; 



? .. -^till I am ready; 

<« I till r 9v%0nh in hoi 






3. 



till I spoke to her. l^weye hii parlasse. 

^rj [till I Aac? time ; (que f^Ms^z le terns ; 

S ... < till I should be ready ; f/ attend ait<| queje fusse pr^^ ; 
^» ° [till I should speak to her {(qneje lui parlasse. 

^W Id {^^^^ ^ ^^^ time? f^jze/EussE Ze ^cww? 

^h *ti ^*^^ ^ should be ready ? attendrait i7< queje fusse j^r^/ ? 
.^' [till I should speak to her? ^queje lui parlasse ? 

N,B. Tl)e PERFECT of the subjunctive is aldo used, though the fore- 1 01/ 
going verb is in the present of the indicative, if after the subjunctive there 
is another verb in the imperfect, or some conditiottal expression ; as. 

Do you think I might speak to her, if I went now ? 

PenseZ'Vous queje pusse Iniparler, sify allais d prisent? 

I do not think 1 should have succeeded tvithout your assistance. 

Jene pense pas quefEVssE reussi sans votre secours ; »• •• >*.yo» A'w' »<>« 
And also when the action expressed by the verb ia ptist; as, '*^* ™*'* 

It is no wonder that he was vvicked. 

It ti'est pas. Stonnant quHl Ftr mechant 

If, after a verb in the subjunctive, there is another verb, preceded 1 J 
by the conjunction que, that verb must also be in the subjunctive ; as. 
Do you think she expects that I shall come ? 

PenseZ'Vous qiCeUe «attende queje vienne? 

■ , . ■ . , ■ I — ■ ■ ■- I .■ 

* Except in some sentences of wish, where the verb vnsh is understood ; as, 
God b$ blessed ! Dieu soiT Mnt / 

"May you be happy ! PUissiEZ-vouj Hre heureuxf 

Would to God I had never seen him ' plut a dieu queje ne V evssf. jamair vu. 



152 



153 



154 



155 



156 



232 VERB. 

GEnuND or present participle. 

-AYANT, having,} 

PARLAkT, ipuSing; 

The OERUND or present participle, joined to a noun, generally de* 
notes quality i and, like an adjective, agrees with it in gender and nuirther^ 
She is a charming woman. Cest unefanme charmant^. 

She has engagtng manners. EUe a des manieres ENOAOKANTe^. 

But the QERUSD expressing the action^ and not the quality of the sub- 
stantive to which it refers, does not require any agreement with it ; as, 

I saw her in coming home. Je la vis en venant au logis, (hh) 

I found them in walkine here. Je les trouvai en me promenant ici. 

N,B, If the substantive to which the gerund refers is the object of 
the verb, it is better to express it with the indicative ; thus, 

I found her coming here. Je la trouvai qui venait tei. 

I saw them walking, Je les vis qui se promenaient. 

The english gerund governed by a verb, or the prepositions oFy from, 
AT$ FOR, AFTER, WITH, WITHOUT, is expressed by the infinitive in french ; 
I see him coming. Je k vois venir or qui vient. 

Without bringing his book. Sans ap porter son livre. 
I was prevented from, doing it. On rria emp^che de le fatre. 
I was tired with waiting. J* eta is las d'ATTENDRE. 

jifler having stayed so long. Apres avoir reste si long terns. 
I was afraid of being too late. Je craignais d*y ixRE trop tard. 

The GERUND, so often used in english with the auxiliary verb be, to 
render an action more definite, can not be expressed by the gerund In 
french ; the auxiliary verb must be Uft out and the gerund be made into 
a rERB, in the same tense and person as the auxiliary verb is ; as, 
I am speaking. Je parle ; never, Je suis 

Thou art speaking, T%i par les ; Tti es 

He is speaking. II parle ; // est 

I was speaking* Je parlais ; Tetais 

I shall be speaking. Je parlerai ; Je serai. 

The GERUND, when used as a substantive in english, i. e. preceded by 
an article, can not be expressed by the gerund in french ; it must be ex- 
pressed by a NOUN, if a noun synonymous to the verb can be found ; as, 

Let us go a walking. Aliens a la promenade. 

Her singing was much admired. Son CHk'ST fut fort admire. 

He gives all his time to gaming. 11 donne tout son terns au jeu. 

That is the cause of A2>6ei72g poor, C*est la la cause de sa pauvret^. 

If a NOUN synonymous to the verb can not readily be found, give 
another turn to the sentence ; as. 

What is the reason of your coming so late? 

Quelle est la raison que vous venez si tard ? i. e. that you come Sfc. 

The empoverishing of some is the enriching of others. 

Ce qui appauvrit les uns enrichit les autres ; i. e. what impoverishes. 

(hh) £n is the only preposition which ihe gernnd admits before it in french. therefore 
the preposition BY, which is often prefixed to it in english, must be expressed by en ; as, 
They saved the city by surrendering. lU $auverent la ville bn se rendant. 

You gained his esteem hy forgiving him. Vous avesgagni ton esHme^v lui pardonnant. 



PARLANT. 

See th« conii 

gatioiu, p. Hi. 



VEKB. 233 

EU,^ had, PAST PARTICIPLE. 

£T£^ been, N.B. £T^ never vanes its terminatwa. 

PARLI!, spoken; 1 ^M 

The past participle joined to a noun^ has the property of an aD' 1 of 
JECTIFE9 and agrees in gender and number with that noun ; 

A well made man. un komme bien fa.it. 

A well made woman. vnefemme bien faitc. 

. After the auxiliary verbs avoir and ixRE, a disHncHon must be made. i k o 

After iTRE, to BEy the pa>st participle must be of the same gender lOO 
and number as the nominative of the verb; ex. 

IL est bien fait. ils s'int bien faitx. 

ELLE est bien Tkvte, elles sont bien FkiTes, 1 f^ i\ 

After avoir, to have^ the past participle does not agree with the ID J 
NOMINATIVE of the Verb; so we say, 

iL a bien fait. ils ont bien fait. 

ELLE a bien Fkir, elles ont bien fait. 

In these instances ^ou must consider whether the participle has an ob- 
ject, and whether this object comes be/ore or q/ter the participle. 

If the PARTICIPLE comes before its object, it does Tiot require any 
agreement with it ; but if it comes ^f7£A the object, it must agree like 
an ADJECTIVE in gender and number with that object ; ex. 

PARTICIPLE BEtOJiE ITS OBJECT. 

My brother has made a mistake, Monfrere a fait une faute. 
My sister has made a mistake. Ma soeur a fait une faute. 
My brothers have made a mistake, Mesfreres ont fait une faute. 

PARTICIPLE AFTER ITS OBJECT. 

Here is the mistake he has made. Void la faute quit a FAiTe. 
Here is the mistake she has made. Void la faute qu*elle a faitc. 
Herelsihemistakeiheyhayemade.Voici la faute quails ont faitc. 

N. B, Observe that the participle agrees only with its direct object (see 163 mle) ; for if the object is 
frovemed bjr a prepotition expressed or understood, the participle does not agr«e with that object ; so, 
thoogh we say, // nous a vns, he has seen us ; we could not say. // nous a dits des nouvelleSy he has told 
ns news ; we must say, il aoosa dit; because nous is here used for h nous, to us. 1 £*f\ 

Sometimes after the participle preceded by an object, there is a verb 1 OU 
in the infinitive, then it is necessary to consider whether the object is 
governed by the participle, or by tfte infinitive which follows it. 

If the OBJECT is governed by the participle, the participle must be 
of the same gender mk- number as that object ; ex. 

The letter I have given him to copy. La lettre queje lui ai donned k copter. 

If the object is governed by the infinitive which foUows the parti- 
ciple, the participle has no agreement with the object ; as. 

The letter I have told him to copy. La lettre queje lui ai dit de eopier.* 

The participles plu, pleased; Dt, owed, ought; pu, been able; and 10 1 
vouLU, been willing; do not agree with the object that precedes them, 
because the injinittve of the foregoing verb is understood after them ; ex. 

Je lui ai rendu touts Us services quefai pu, lui rendre understood. 

I have done him all the services that I have been able, to do understood. 

* If yon are uncertain whether the object b governed by the participle^ or by the in/Snitive which 

follows I* ' "^ " ^ ^ "' " -" •• ' . .--1--J 

If the 




copy, 

ietteTt and it must agree with it. 

If the object comas more properlv after tbe inMnllivet as in the second instance. The letter I have told 
him to copy, which nixht betumra, / haoe tola Am to copy the letter, (not, the lettf>r to copy) the object 
leUmr it foramed by tiiie infinitive to copy^ and the participle has no agreement with it. 



162 



163 



164 



165 



166 



234 VERB. 

GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. . 

When a verb governs Tfvo substantives (see note • page 205) one 
of them is the direct object of the verb) and does not require any prt 
position; the other is an indirect object, and requires a preposition, 
expressed before a noun, and generally implied in the pronouns'^; as, 

I gave her a nosegay, Je lui ai donne un bouquet. 

Q. I ^ave tvhat t A. a nosegav. To whom f to hef. 
Nfitegay is tho direct object of the verb j to her is th« indirect, 

Bo not tell your mother of it, Ne le dites pas a votre m^re* 

Do not tell what f do not tell it. To whomf to your mother; 
For it is the thing you tell, not the Tperson you tell it to, whicn is the object of the verb. 

When a verb governs two objects, the direct object is generally 
placed BEFORE the indirect ; as, 

I gave your sister a nosegay, Tai donnk un bouquet a votre sceur. 

Yet the indirect object must be placed first, if by placing it last, it made, 
the meaning equivocal ; for example, we say, 

Elle a jete son bouquet dans la rue. 

She has thrown her nosegay into the street; but we do not say : 

Elle a jete le bouquet que vous lui aviez donnk dans Za rue. 

She has thrown the nosegay which you had given her into the street ; 
because, dans la rue, after donn^, might be understood that the nosegay was 
given in the street, not that it was throum into the street ; we say : 

Elle a jete dans la rue, le bouquet que vous lui aviez donnk. 

She has thrown into the street, the noseoay which you had given her.t 

The same noun may be governed by tjto verbs which are both used 
withoUtvLPREPOsiTJONyOrvfhich require both the same preposition; us. 
They attacked and took the place. lis attaquj&rent et prirent la place. 
But if one of the verbs requires a preposition after it, and the other 
docs not, or if the two verbs require different prepositions^ the noun 
must be made the object of the first verb, and an objective pronoun must 
be added for an object to the second verb ; so we could not say : 
lis ATTAQu^RENT et sc REND I RENT matfres de la place. 
They attacked and made themselves masters of the place ; because Rendre 
maitre requires a preposition after it, and Attaquer does not ; we say t 

lis ATTAQUERENT la plaCC, ct ^EN JIENDIRENT mattrCS, 

They attacked the place, and made themselves masters of it. 

The same verb may likewise govern several parts of a sentence, 
provided they are used in the same sense ; as, 

I expect much frotn him, but still more from you. 

•Patten Ds beaucoup de lui, mais encore plus de vous. 

But if one of the parts is affirmative, and the oihtr negative, the verb 
must be repeated in the second part ; as, 

I expect every thing from you, and nothing from him. 

J^ATTENJ>sio\3t de VOUS, et je iC attends rien de lui* 

Some verbs govern indifferently the infinitive or the subjunctive mood ; 
but if they govern two verbs, they must be both in the same moodi as, 
I will prevent him from going ou^, and from doing you any harm. 
Je Vemp&cherai de sortir, ei de vous fairs du mal; or 
Tempicherai qu'il ne sorte, et qu'il ne vous passe du mal, 

* See a tsbto of the proaoims, paga 7^- f '^^ £»gli>A ahoyiU pay particular Atttat(oa to tliis 

rule ; tKey are yery apt to act contrary to it, both in speaking aod nrxitinis. 



VERB. 235 

GOVERNMENT OF VERBS, - ^^ 

Passive verbs require de or par before the noun which they govern, 10/ 

They require de, when the verb expresses an action wholly of the mind; as» 
Your brother is loved and esteemed by all who know him. 
Voire frire est Aiui et E8Tim£ de touts ceux qui le connaissent. 

They require par, when the bodily faculties participate in the action; as, 

He was beaten by a sail6r> and robbed by a soldier. 

II a iri BATTU PAR un matelote et vol^ par un soldat. 

But instead of these passive expressions, it is better in french to use 
Ihe axitive sense of the verb, and say : 

Touts ceux qui connaissent voire frire VkXUiLviT et Z'estiment. 

All those who know your brother love and esteem him. (ii) 

When TWO verbs come together^ without being joined by a con- 
junction^ the latter is governed by the former in the infinitive^ 
sometimes with^ and sometimes without a preposition. 

The preposition to^ the sign of the infinitive mood in english, is ex- 
pressed by DE, A, pour, in french, but not indiscriminately, (kk) 

(ii) Grammarians distinguish thru sorts of verbs, which they call active, passive, 
and NEUT£R. 
Active, when the action of the verbpoiMs from the ageni to some chject', as, 

1 TEACH your lixUr, 
Passive, when the receiver of the action is made the leading pawei' of the verb ; this 
is done by adding ^e past participle to the atixiliary verb BE ; as, 
Your sister is taught by me. 
Neuter, i. e. neither active nor passive, when the whole energy of the verb remains in 
the agent, and is not communicated to any object ; as, 

J THINK, I WALK, I STAND, J SIT, / SLEEP, ^C. ^ 

Thette dtjitinctions are common to all languages. 

. But the £nglish;have a facility of changing ACTIVE wrhi into NEUTER verht, which 
the French have not; for example, when I say; 

We MET your broUiers quarrelUng ; we parted them. 

Here net and parted are active^ beeaose the enersy of the verb* met^ parted partes from the agent we, 
to an objact brothers ; if I take away the object, and say : we tnett we parted; then met and parted are 
neuter, becansethe whole energy of the verb remains in the agent toe. 

Again ; I opened the door; here opened is active, because it has an object, door. 

The door opened ; here opened is neuter, because the action remains in the door itself. 

To leave out this object would not render the verb neater in french, it woold only make the sentence 
incomplete. 

To answer the same end, and give to the verb a neuter signification, the French add 
to it an (^ective pronoun of the same person as the a^ent or nominativef bv which means 
tlie whole energy of the verb remains in the same being; hence the number ofrefiective 
verbs with which the french language abotmds : so in the first instance. 

We met your brothers, we parted them; the French Say : 

Nous rencontrames vosfreres, nous les separames. 
In the second. 

We met; imparted. Nousr.o\ia rencontrames; Nous nous SEPARAmes; i,e. 
we ourselves met; we ourselves parted. 

They STOPPED me; lis m'ARR&n^RENT. ITiey STOPPED; Jit s'ARREti^rent; i.e. 
they stopped themselves. 

/f« OPENED tAe <2oar; i{ OVVRIT^ porte. ThedooromtED; Laporte S'OCVRIT; i.e. 
the door opened itself. 

N. B, The Mnius of the french lanenage requires also that some verbs which have a kind of passive 
or neutar signification in enpliiih, shomd be made reflective, when we wish to shew that the aetion ex< 
pressed bv the verb is not limited to the instance of which we speak, but is applicable to all instances of 
the same Kind; for example: 

Ce mot n'EST pas bien PLACi£ ; This word is Tiot rightly PLACED ; i. e. in this instance ; 

II se PL kCE^ordinairement avant le verbe; It is generally PLACED before the verb ; t. e. 
Us usnal place Is before the verb. These Instances may also be expressed by ON ; on le place ordinaire- 
ment avant le verbe. See 9S rule. 

(kk) When TWO verbe come together, without a conjunction between them, the laitei 
is governed by the/ormer in the infinitive, whether the sign to be expressed or not. 



236 



VERD. 



^ GOVERNMENT Of VERES. 

1 U O To, before an infinitive, is e&pressed by de, when it can be changed 
into OF or from, and the injinitive into the gerund ox present participle ; 
N.B. This commonly happens after nouns used in a definite sense ; as, 
He has the pleasure of seeing her. II a le plaisir de la voiil 
She has the vanity to think so» EUe a la vanite dp. le penser.* 

* As this rule does not apply to all instances in whicB to is expressed by de, here is a 
list of the verb* and adjectives which require D£ before the infinitive which follows them : 



s* Abstenir de. 

Accuser de, 

Achever de, 

Afiecter de, 

Afflige de, 

Aise de^ 

Appr^hender de, 
B* Attendre de, d, t 

Avertir de, 
B* Aviser rfe, 

Bl^mer de. 

Capable de. 

Cesser de. 

Charger de, 



Abstain from. 
Accuse of. 
Finish to. 
Affect to. 
Afflicted to. 
Glud to. 
Fear to. 
Expect to. 
Warn to. 
Bethink to. 
Blame to. 
Capable of, to. 
Cease to. 
Charge to. 



se Garder <f«, 
Gronder de, 

se Hater de, 
Heureux de, 
Impossible de. 
Incapable de, 
Inspirer de. 



Chsimi'dejW^ide, Mighled with. 
Commander de, Command to.; 
Commencer de, a,t Begin to. 



Conjurer de, 
Conseiller de. 
Consoler de, 
Content de, 
Continuer de, d,t 
Convaincre de, 
Convenir de, 
Craindre de, 
Curieux de, 
D^courager de 
D^fendre de, 

ed DIpScher de, 
D^sesp^rer de, 
D^sirer de. 
Determiner de, 
Detoumer de, 
Diffirer de. 
Dire de, 

Discontinuer de, 
Disconvenir de. 
Dispenser de, 
Dissuader de, 
Doux de, 
Ecrire de, 

b' Efforcer de, 
Enjoindre de, 
Empecher de, 

a* Empresser de, 
Ennuy6 de, 
Enrag^ de, 
Entreprendre de, 
Essayer de, d,t 
Etonn6 de, 
Eviter de, 
Excuser de, 
Exempter de. 
Extorter cfe, fl,t 
Fach6 ae, 
Feindre de, 
Finir de, 

se Flatter de. 



Entreat to. 
Adinse to. 
Console for. 
Coiitent to. 
Continue to. 
Convince to. 
Agree to. 
Fear to. 
Curious to* 
Discourage witli. 
Forbid to. 
Make haste to. 
Despair to. 
Wish to. 
Determine to. 
Divert from. 
Defer to, Delay to. 
Tell to. 

Discontinue to. 
Disown to. 
Dispense with. 
Dissuade from. 
Pleasant to. 
Write to. 
Endeavour to. 
Enjoin to. 
Prevent to. 
Eager to. 
Tired of. 
Enraged at. 
Undertake to. 
Try to. 
Astoni^ied at. 
ilvotd to. 
Excuse to. 
Exempt from. 
Ex/iort to. 
&>rn/ to. 
Feign to. 
Finish to. 
Flatter to. 



Tafce care to. 
iSco/d for. 
if(ute to. 
Happy to. 
Impossible to. 
Incapable of. 
Inspire to. 



Juger a proposde, TOn/c proper to. 
Jurer de, Swear to. 



Juste de, 
Lasse de, 
Libre de, 
Mander de, 
Manquer de, 
Menacer de, 
M^riter de, 
N^cessaire de, 
N^gliger de, 
OflFrir de, 
Omettre de, 
Ordonner de, 
Oublier de, 
Pardonner de, 
Permettre de. 
Persuader de, 
se Piquer de, 
Plaindre de, 
Possible de, 
Prescrire de, 
Presser de, 
Prier de, 
Promettre de. 
Proposer de. 



Just to. 
Tired of, with. 
At liberty to. 
Send word to. 
ftfi/ to. 
Threaten to. 
Deserve to. 
Necessary to. 
Neglect to. 
Oferto. 
(m«t to. 
Order to. 
Forget to. 
Forgive for. 
Permit to. 
Persuade to. 
Pretend to. 
Pity to, for. 
Possible to. 
Prescribe to. 
Pre« to. 
Bequest to. 
Promise to. 
Propose to. 



Recommanderde, Pecommend to 
Refuser de, Refuse to. 



se 



Regretter de, 
Rejouir de, 
Remercier de, 

se Rcpentir de, 
Reprocher de, 
R6soudre de, 
Risquer de, 
Rougir de, 
Satisfait de, 
SoUiciter de, 
Sommer de, 

se Soucier de, 
Souhaiter de, 
Soup9onner de, 

se Souvenir de, 
Suffire de, 
Suggerer de, 
Supplier de, 
SQr de, 
Surpria de, 
T&cher de, 
Tarder de, 

se Vanter de. 



Regret to. 
Rejoice to. 
Thank for. 
Bepent of, to. 
J?q>roacfe for. 
Resolve to. 
jRtife to. 
B/us/i to. 
Satisfied to, with. 
Solicit to. 
Summon to. 
Care to. 
W^is/i to. 
Suspect to. 
Remember to 
Sufficient to. 
Suggest to. 
Entreat to. 
Sure to. 
Surprised to. 
EndeaiMmr to. 
Long to. 
Boast o£ 



t As it souods best, i. e. de to avoid the sound of sereral a, and a to arotd tbe sound of sevinti as 



VERB. 



237 



GOVERSMENT OF FEABS. T r»/\ 

TOf before an iNFiNirirs, is expressed by A, when it can be cban^ed 1 \)\f 
into Jift and the english infinitive into the gerund or present participle ; 
N.B. This is generally the case afler nouns used in s. partitive sense ; as. 
He has pleasure in seeing her. II a du plaisir k la voir. 
Is there vanity to think so ? Y a-t-il de la vanite A le PENSERpf 

t As this rale is not applicable to all instances m which to is expressed by A, here is 
a list of the verbs ietnd adjectives which require A before the infinitive which follows them : 
'_» 4v--- A c* — A^ -V A Exercise to. 



a* Abaisser d, 

Accoutumer ci, 

Admettre d, 

Admirable h,de,* 

Aftreux d, de* 

Agr^able ii,de,* 

Aider d, 

Aimer d, 

Ais6 a, 

Amaser d, 

Animer H, 
b' Appliquer d, 

Apprendre a, 
•' Appreter a, 

Aspirer a, 

Assidu a, 
■' Attacher a, 

Autoriser it, 

Ayoir H, 

Beau d, d«,* 

Bon tt, de,* 

Cbarmant d, 

Chercher a, 

Condamneri), 

Condescendre h, 



Stoop to. 
u4ccustam to. 
Admit to. 
Wonderful to. 
Dreadful to.^ 
Agreeable to. 
i/e/p to* 
Li/c0 to. 
£a«j^ to. 
ilmuse to, with. 
i4ntmat6 to. 
ilpp/y to. 
Learn to. 
Get reacfy to. 
Aspire to. 
Assiduous to. 
6'tic/e to. 
i4M(AortM to. 
iilaM to. 
Fiju to. 
Godd to. 
C/mrmin^ to. 
Seek to. 
Condemn to. 
Com/«scen(i to. 
Coiuijt to, in. 



Consistera, ^ 

Contraindro a, <Ze,t Compel to 
Contribuer <^, Cmitrtbute to. 

Demander d, i4«fc to. 

D6penser d, Speud to, in. 

Dernier d, I^<( to. 

D^sagr^able a, de* Disagreeable to 



Destiner d. 
Determiner d. 
Difficile a, de* 
Diligent a. 
Disposer d, 
Donner h, 
8* Echauffer a, 
s' Eftbrcer d, 



Destine to. 
JRefo/ve upon. 
Dt^cu/t to. 
Diligent to. 
Dispose to. 
Gi»« to. 
ifcat to. 
iSpe/id oneself to, in. 



Exercer d. 

Exciter d. 

Exposer a, 

Facile d, de,* 
se Fatiguer d. 

Forcer d, ae,t 

Gagner d, 

Habile d, 

Habituer d, 

H6siterd, 

Horrible d, de,* 

Inciter d, 

Jng^nieux d, 

Inviter d, ' 

Laidd, 

Lent d, 

Manquer d, 
86 Mettre d, 

Alontrer d, 

Obliger d, de,t 
8* Obstinerd, 

Occupy d, 
«* Opiniatrerd, 

Parvenir d. 

Passer d, 

Penser d, 

Perdre d, 

Persister d, 
se Plaiie d. 

Porter d, 

Premier d. 

Preparer d, 

Pret d. 

Prompt d, 

Propre d, 



Excite to. 

Expose to. 

Eau]^ to. 

Get tired with. 

Force to. 

Gatu to. 

Clever to. 

Acctiftom to. 

HeUtate to. 

Horrid to. 

incite to* 

Ingenious to. 

Invite to* 

Ugly to. 

67ai& to. 

O/nit to. 

iSet a6o{tt to. 

6'/ieto to. 

Oblige to. 

Of^inate to. 

Biu2( to. 

06sti7iate to. 

Arrive to. 

5pe;id in. 

'At/ii^ of. 

Lose in. 

Persist in. 

Delight in. 

Induce to. 

Firrt to. 

Prepare to. 

Ready to. 

Quick to. 

Fit to. 
Kecommencer d. Begin again to. 
Renoncer d, Benounce to. 



Effroyable d, de,* Frightful to. 
Employer d, Empby to, (/se to. 



Encourager d, 
Enclind, 
Engager d, 
Enhardir d, 
Enseigner d, 
8* Etudier d, 
Etred, 
Exact dy 



Encourage to. 
Inclined to. 
Induce to. 
Embolden to* 
7>ae/i to. 
Sftu/y to. 
Be to. 
Exact to. 



ll6soudre d, 
Rester d, 
R^ussir d, 
Servir d, " 
Soigneux d, 
Songer d, 
Sujet d, 
Tiicher d, 
Tarder d, 
Tendre d, 
Terrible d, de,* 
Travailler d, 
Venir d. 



Resolve to. 
Stay to. 
Succeed to, in. 
Aerye to. 
Careful to. 
jf'/iin/c of. 
Snitject to, apt to 
ilim at. 
De/ay to. 
7e;m to. 
TetTible tO. . 
W^wfcto. 
Come to. 




X De or d, as it sounds best in the active sense ; always de in the passive^ as, 
On m*a obligi de or a Ze /aire; They have obliged ~ " " ' 



7* at iti obligi de U fatrs ; 



. - „_ me to do it* 

I have been obliged to do it. 



238 



VERB. 



170 



171 



172 



OOySRIfMENT OF FEMB^ 

To, before an xjfriNiTirEt is expressed by pour, when the words ii^ 
order, or with an inientiony may be prefixed to it; as, 

I did it to fin order to) oblige you. Jet ai fait roua t;ov« oblioer. 
We went there to see you. Nova y aU&mes pour vous voir. 

N, B, The english gerund preceded by the preposition for, explaining 
why a thing is done, is also expressed by the infinitive with pour; 
He was hanged for having robbed. // a He pendu pour kyoir vole. 
He was flogged /or telling lies. II a etefbuette pour avoir menii. 

ITie INFINITIVE is used without a preposition infrench, when it is 
the nominative of another verb ; as, 

To he rich is nothing ; i;TRE riche tC est rien ; 

To be happy is every thing. Le tout est d'etre heureux. 

The INFINITIVE is also used without a preposition in french^ aflpr 
the following verbs : viz. 
aimer mieux ; J'aime mieux le faire. (U) I would rather do it. 



ALLER ; 
APERCEVOIE ; 

ASSURER ; 
CROIRE ; 

^ compter; 

DAI6NER ; 
DECLARER ; 
DEVOIR ; 

entendre ; 
knvoyer; 
^ esperer ; 

FALLOIR ; 

s' imaginer ; 
laisser; 

OSER ; 
PARAtTRB ; 

^ penser; 
prstendre ; 
pouvoir ; 
reconnaItre 
reoarder; 
retourner ; 
savoir ; 
sembler ; 
souhaiter ; 
soutenir ; 
VALoiR mieux ; 

VENIR ; 

VOIR ; 

VOULOIR ; 



Allans nous promener. 
Je Vaper^ois wouvoir. 
// assure I' AYom fait, 
II croit me tromper. 
II compie partir sous peu, 
Daignez me dire quand. 
II declare le savoir. 
II doit me Tenvoyer. 
Je I'eniends parler. 
Envoyez le ciifjicher. 
Jesptre le rencontrer. 

Ilfaut lui AIDER. 

Je mHmagine y ktre. 
Laissez-le dire et faire. 
// n'ose /avouer. 
IlparaU ^entendre. 
// a pensS tomber. 
PrStend il le faire ? 
// na pas pu me le dire 
; Je reconnais Tayoir dit. 
Je vous regarde faire. 
Elle retouma la voir. 
iZ saii ou la trouver. 
Mile semble avoir peur. 
Je souhaite la voir.* 
H soutieni i' a voir vu. 



Let us go to take a walk. 

1 perceive it move. 

He asserts to have done it. 

He thinks to deceive me. 

He purposes to go soon. 

Deign to tell me when. 

He declares to know it. 

He is to send it me. 

I hear him speak. 

Send /or it, or to fetch it. 

I expect to meet htm. 

It is necessary to help him. 

I fancy myself to be there. 

Let him say and do. 

He dares not confess it. 

He seems to understand it. 

He had like to have fallen. 

Does he pretend to do it? 

He could not tell it me. 

I acknowledge to have said it 

I am looking at you doing it. 

She returned to see him. 

He knows where to find her. 

She seems to be airaid. 

I wish to see her. 

He maintains to have seen it. 



// vaut mieux lui icRiKE.{ll) It is better to write to her. 
Viendrez'vousme voir? (mw) Will you come to see me} 
Je vois VENIR voire soeur, I see j^our sister coming, 
Elle ne veut pas rester. She will not stay. 



(II) Aimer mieux, vaioir mieox, followed by another verb in the infinitive, re- 
quire DE before tlie ucond infinitive; as, , n 

I would rather stay than go : ' J aimerait mieux rester que D y aller. 

It is better to go tnan stay alone ; // vaut mieux y alter que DE reMer Kit/. 

• S<xthaiter may also b« used with de ; as, Jtf souhaite le yoir, or de le voir; I wish to see him. 
(mm) Venir used for to be just, to have just, requires DE before the following infitii- 
tire ; and in the sense of to liappeuy it requires A ; as, 

1 have just seen her; Je vietu DE /a voir* 

if she should happen to know it ; Si elle venaii A U savoir. 



VEHB. 339 

REM4JtK$ Qlf TBE mRBB. 

With, WOULD. ^f^O 

If, by WILL, WOULD, yoti wish to denote wiU, wish, derire, you mu8t 1/3 
express them by the corresponding; tenses of the verb vouloir, with the 
following verb in the infinilm; if you wish to express a determination, to 
make a positive assertion, will must be considered as the sign of the^t*- 
/wre, and would as the sign of the conditional of the following verb 5 ex. 

My brother will not stay ; 1 ,, - * 

viz. Is not mUing to stay. J^on frire ne vbut pas rester. 

He positively will not stay. MonfrSre ne restera pas, ^'^^J, 

My brother would not stay; 1 .^ /. % 

vij. Had no desire to stay. /^^^ f''^''^ '^^ vovlkit pa^ rester. 

fFould he not stay, if I asked him ? Ne RESTBRAiT-t7p<a», sije Venpriais? 

WILL HAVE, WOULD HAVE. | ma 

If WILL HAVE, WOULD HAVE are used to denote the wish, the desire jL § ^ 
to possess an object, they are expressed by the corresponding tenses of 
vouLOiR as above, and have is left out; if they are used to denote not 
the wish to possess, but an axsurance of the possession itself, they are express* 
ed by the future or by the conditional of avoir ; ex. 
» My brother will have this book ; 1 ,-. ^ s ,. 

viz. My brother wishes to have &d. ]Monfrere veut ce livre. 

He will have it, if he behaves well. II Taura, s*il se comporte hien. 
My brother would have this book ; 1 ,^ /. % i- _ 

viz. My brother wished to have &c. ]Monfrere voulait ce livre. 

He wouldhave'iU if he behaved well. II f aurait, «'«7 «c comportait hien, 

N, B, If WILL have, would have, in the sense of wish, choose, are 
followed by another verb, the object of have becomes the nominative 
of the fbllounng verb, which must be in the subjunctive in french ; as, 

He toUi have hissister go with him; 1 „ «^ ,«.•,♦ « ^« ^ i„v 

i.e.He u^M.* that his siste? should go. 1^ ^^"^ ^"' '^ ^®"' ^'''''^ '^'''^ ^"'• 

He «i7»7Z not have her «/ay alone. J/ ne veut jpow ^u' elle reste seule,* -^ p^m 

WOULD HAVE in the sense of chosen, wished, been willing^ followed by 1 / 
^paat PARTICIPLE, is expressed by the imperfect or by the conditional of 
AVOIR with the participle voulu, and the english participle is expressed 
by tlie infinitive in french ; as. 

If you would have told him of it. Si vous aviez voulu le lui dire. 
He would not have believed me. II ti'aurait pas voulu me croire. 

SHOULD. , ^^ 

MHOULD, which is generally a sign of the conditional tense, is some- 1 / U 
times used in the sense of ought, i. e. denoting duty or necessity, and is 
then expressed by the conditional tense of the verb devoir; as, 
Yoxxshould go and see him (ought) .Vous devriez alter le voir. 
He should let me know it. II oevrait m^ lefaire savoir. 

SHOULD HAVE, OUGHT TO HAVE. 
SHOULD HAVE, and OUGHT to HAVE, followed by a past participle, 1 / / 
are expressed by the conditional of avoir, with the participle Dt, and 
the english participle is expressed by the infinitive in french ; as, 
You ought to have seen him. Vo%is auriez Dt le voir. 

He should havt let me know of it. II aukait D(i mele faire savoir. 

• When you sAf 2 will have lyom or / would have you do such a thing^ it is not the perton that yoa 
wish to hare, bat yoa wish that the person would do the thing you mention ; so we conld not say, je 
vons vtwe, norJ« v«u» roae avoir, nor J4 row aarai\ which would mean that yoa want the perton^ not 
that you want the thu^f to be done : we mtbt say, j« Teox que toos fassiei telle chote 



178 



179 



180 



181 



182 



240 VERB. 

REMARKS ON THE VERBS, 
MAY, MIGHT. 
If MJY, MIGHT are used to denote power, may is expressed by the 
present of the verb pouvoir, viz. puis; and might by the conditional 
pourrmSyWiih the following verb in the infisitife; as, 
^ Imay or can see it. if I choose; |j-, p„„ ;, ^^. ,. -^ ^^^ 
^ e. It IS in my power to see it, if &c. J ' •^ [Seenote pa«c lagj 

I mzV/i< or com/c? see it, if I chose :1 r . , . .. 

i. e. It would be mmy power io &c. P^ourrais ferozr, 52 ^e voulais. 

If Jif^r, might denote a mere possibility , they may be expressed by the 
subjunctive of pouvoir, or the subjunctive of the following verb ; as, 

firing it, that I may see it; ^AjyporteZ'le, afin quejc le voie ; 

i; e. That it may be in my power to see / or, qfln queje puisse le voir. 

He brought it, that I might see it ; 1 // tapporta, afin. queje /e visse ; 
i.e. That it might be in my power ^c, ) ' or, afin queje pusss le voir. 

COULD HAV^, MIGHT HAVE. 
COULD hafe, might HAVE followcd by a pa>st participle are ex- 
pressed by the imperfect or the conditional of avoir, with the paniciph 
pu, and the english participle is made by the infinitive in french ; as. 
If he could have come sooner. ^il avait pu venir plus tot. 
He might have seen it too. II aurait pu le voir aussi. 

WISH. 
The present tense of the verb wish, followed by another verb in th- 
imperfect, or in the conditional, is expressed by the conditional of sou- 
haiter, and the verb which is in the imperfect, or in the conditional in 
english, must be in the perfect of the subjunctive in french; as, 
I wish she had seen it. Je souhaiterais qu^elle feut vu. 

I wish he would come* Je souhaiterais quHl voulut venir 

I wish I had done it. Je souhaiterais ^a voir y^i^. (nn't 

MUST, NECESSARY. 
MUST is conjugated through its di/J^erent persons, hat its representative 
FALLOiR has only the third person singular of each tense, with il for 
nominative; then ihenominativeo^ must becomes the nomfna^irc of the 
following VERB, which must be in the subjunctive in french; as, 
I must do it. II FAUT queje le fasse. 

You must do it. II faut que vous le fassiez. 

My brother must do it. 11 faut que monfrere le fasse. 

It was necessary for me to do it. II fallait queje le fisse, &c.* 
N. B. When the nominative of must is indefinite, the French Icare'it 
out, and put the following verb in the infinitive; as. 

One must be mad to think so. II faut ^tre fou pour le penser.. 

MUST HAVE. 
MUST HAVE, meaning need to havt, is also expressed by palloir, and 
the nominative of must have is made the object of falloir; as, 
I mitst have money. II me faut de VargenL 

He must have books. II lui faut des livres. 

My brother must have a horse. II faut itn cheval a mon FRERE.f 

(nn) When two VERBS in the same sentence have the same person for their Nomtr.a- 
tive, the French generally put tiie tecand verb in the infinitive ; as, 
1 am afraid 1 shall spoil it ; Je crains de le gater. 

I wish I could do it'; Je souhaiterais I'ouvom lefaire. 

• See tlie different modifications of palloiBi p. 17^4. t See FAILOIR, p. 1T5 



183 



CHAP. VII. 241 

ADXERB. 

An ADVERB is to a verb what an adjective is to a noun ; it is a word 
added to the verb^ to denote some circumstance belonging to it^ or the 
manner in which an action is done ; as, 

/ walk FAST. You walk slowlv. He often reads. She seldom writes. 

There are adverbs of time^ of place, of order, of quality, affirmative, 
and negative, but their properties being the same in both languages, it 
IS needless to enumerate them here.'* 

Adverbs in general keep the same place with the verb in french as in 
english ; they are placed after the verb, when the tense is simple, and 
BETWEEN iheauxiliary^iiA th^partidpleythen the tense {^compound; as, 

I always esteem him much* Je testime toujours fort. 

I have always esteemed him much, Je Vdi toujoitrs fort estim^.f 

N, B, The ADVERB expressing some circumstance of the verb, must 
be placed as near to the verb which it modifies, as can be done without 
infringing upon other rules ; ex. 

I saw your sister yesterday. Je vis hier voire sceur. 

She speaks french very well. EUe parte TRi^S'iiiES frangais. 

She likes reading very much. Elle aime fort la lebture.X 

Some ADVERBS maybe placed in english, either before or after the verb I ©4 
which they modify ; as, / often see him, or I see him often ; but the 
corresponding adverbs must always be placed ^Fr£R the verb in french ; as» 
I often walk alone. Je me promene souvent saiL 

I seldom go to town. Je vais rarement d Za ville. < 

I always go into the country. Je vais toujours d la campagne, 

* Most of the ADVERBS are fonned from the adjectives ; in english by adding ly; 
in french by adding mbnt; as, 

ADJECTIVE, ADVERB. 

Wbe, Sage. ^ Wisely t Shgemetii. 

Afsured, Assure. Assured/y Assuremmf. 

Polite^ Poll. Polite/y, Voliment. 

Ansidaous, Assidtt. Assidaous/y, Assid&»«ll^ 

But observe that ment requires a vowel before it ; so that, if the adjective ends with a 
consonant in the masculine, the adverb must be formed by adding ment to the feminine ; 
as, " Masc. Fern. 

Frank, Franc^ Fraache. Vnnkly, Franehement, 

Public, Public, Publiqae. Public/j^, Fabliquemtfnt. 

Real, Reel, Reelle. Real/y, Reellemtfa^ 

Good, BoHf Bonne. Good/y, Bonaem«aC. 

Soft, Doiuf, Douce. SofUy, Donoement. 

Generous, Oenereux^ Genereose. Generous/y, Gen«reuseta«nl^ 

ExcGentil, Pretty ^ which makes Gentimtfat, Pretti/y. 

Except also the adjectives ending in nt, which require nt to be changed into mment, as, 
CoDstant, Constant. Constant/y, Constannnea^ 

Dpcent, J)heent. Decent/y, DecemmenC. 

Diligent, Diligen^ Diligent/y, DiligeniJTura^ 

EzcPresentOJ»0a^ Present/y ; Lentemeaf, Slow/y, which follow the general ftile. 

I Observe only that the adverbs com pounded of teveral words generally come after the participle, no 
we say, Je Fai vu tres-souvent. Je lui ai parle depnis peu. Vous etes yenu L propos. Not, Je rat tres- 
Konvent vu. Je lui ai depnis peu parte. Vout etes k propos venu. Yet, in some instances, the ear alone 
is consulted; for we 9Aj,je Pavms tout k fait oublie; I had quite forgotten it. Je ue the ««(< jamais si 
bien diverti ; I never diverted myself <o teell. These variations must be noticed in reading. 

X The perspicuity of a sentence depends often upon the right placing of the adverbs ; 
for example, J*aime beadcoup d marcher, Taime k marcher bf.aucoup. 

These two sentences, though they are fonned with the same words, by changioff the place of the adverb 
heaueoup, express two different ideas. J'atmeJbeaucoupa marcAor, means, I am /oado/ walking; J'cuim 
d marcher beanconp, means, I like to walk a great deal. 

Again ; J« ne Vai pas fait pour vous divlaire ; and, Je Vai fait pour N E pas voiu deptatre 
express also different iaeas j the first implies rw design ; the second implies onCf that of iwi . 
dtapUasing. The English, in general, do not pay sufficient attention to the placing of the 
odofrbi. 



242 



ADVERB. 



REMARKS ON TBE ADFERBS. 
HOW; QUE, COMBIEN. COMMENT. 
1 o5 Hoir, denoting admiration^ is expressed by que, and the adjective or 
adverb which follows HOfr, must be placed after the. verb in french ; as, 
How pretty this is ! Quie ceci est joli ! 

How well it is done! QU*i7 est BiEsfaitI 

In asking a question how is expressed by comment, to denote the 
manner, and by combien, to denote number or quantity; as, 
How will you do that? comment yer<?2-roii« ces^a^ 

Hbtt) often have you done it? combien defois Vavez-vous fait? 

HOW LONG, 
COMBIEN, COMBIEN DE TEMS, JUSQU'l QUAND. 
XoU Hoir LONG, referring to the beginning of time, is expressed by com- 
bien; referring to the duration, it is expressed by combien de tems; 
and referring to the end. It is expressed by jusqu'a quand ; as. 
How long have you been in France ? combien y a-t' il que vom ixBS enFrance f 
or combien de tems AVEZ-roM» i^ti^ en France? 

N. B. Few learners make a distinction between these two ways of expression ; yet tbe ideas which 
they express are qaite different. By the first, vous Stes en Fretnce^ it is understood that the person is in 
France still; by tne second, vous aves ete en France, it is understood that the person is no longer there. 

How long wiin COMBIEN de tems resterez-voua? i, e. what length of time ? 
)ou stay? J JUSQU* A quand resterez-vou^? i, e. until what time ? 

* A list of adverbial expressions, wLich can not be expressed literally, as learners 
are apt to do, some of which are not to be found in the dictionaries ; 



ABOUT, 

There abouts. 
Here abouts, 
Bound ABOUT, 

ALOUD, 

AMICABLY, 

ASIDE, 

On an average, 

BACKWARDS, 
BACKWARDS, 
Into the BARGAIN, 
BETIMES, 

BETTER and better, ^ 

So much the BETTER, Tant mUux, 
ABREAST, De front, 

BY and BY, Tantpt, 

By CHANCE, 

CHEAP, 

Most COMMONLY, 

In DAY time. 
In open day, 
Every day, 
From Day to DAY, 
Every other DAY, 
This DAY w«ek, 



Environ, 
A pen pres, 
Ici antour, 
A Ventour, 
A haute voix, 
A Vamiable, 
A c6t6f d. part, 
L*un dans I' autre. 
En arriere, f foiling) 
A reculons, (walking) 
Par-dessiu le marchi* 
De bonne heure, 
De mteux en mievx. 



That EXCEPTED, 
FAIRLY, 
How FAR, 

As FAR as here, 
As FAR as there, 

AFAR off, 



A ceUi pres, 
De bonne foi, 
Jusqu* oil, 
Jusqu^iei, 
Jusque Id, 
De loin, 
A la mode, 
A la francaise. 



After the fashion. 

After the FRENCH, ^ . 

The ENGLISH fashion, A VAnglaite, 
At FIRST, D'abord. 

On the same floor, De plein pied. 
Within a fortnight, Dans quinze jours. 



Par casfortuit, 
A bon march^, 
Presque toujowrt. 
Dejour. 
En plein jour, 
Ttmts les jours. 
Dejour en jour, 
De deux jours Vun, 
' Ilvaaujour d'hui Q jours, hour I 
D aujour d'hui en liuit. Every 



For FUN, 

For the future, 

GROPING, 

On the GROUND, 

HAND over HEAD, 
HARD by, 
HARDLY ever, 

In HASTE, 
HEAETILY, 
tiERE and THERE, 

HELTER skelter, 

HITHERTO, 
HOURLY, 

HOUR, 



This DAY month, 

DESERVEDLY, 

DIRECTLY, 

In DISORDER, 

By DROPS, 

EARLY, 

In good EARNEST, 

EMPTY, 

In EMULATION, 



En badinant, 
A Vavenir 
A tdton^. 
Par terre, 
A corps perdu 
Jci pres. 
Presque jamaii, 
A la hdte, ^ 
De bon caur, 
Pav'ei par4ii, 
P^le-m^, 
Jusqu*ici, 
D'heure en -fteu't, 
A toute hetire. 
Par mi garde, 
_ . , Sans y f aire atten 

f Ilvaaujour d'huiunmois,TO aU intents and Ition. 

D aujour d'hui en un mois, [purposes, De fond en comble, 

A bon droit* LARGELY, A pleines mains. 

Tout d. I' heure, lately, Depuis peu, 

A Vabandan, At last, Enfin, 

Goutted goutte. At least, Au moins, 

De bon matin. For less, A moins. 

Tout de bon. So much the less, D'autant mains. 

A vide. By little and littlf, Peu a peu, 

A I'envi* Ever so little, Tant soit peu* 



This DAY se 'night, _ ^ -„_„. ^ , 

tk;- r..v ^»^n;»k4 J J/yoawjourd'/iMil5?*our«. inadvertently, 
This DAY fortnight, | j^i^aujoir d'hui en qiunze, INCONSIDERATELY, 

aU INTENTS and 



ADVERB'. 



243 



REMARKS ON THE ADVERBS, 

HOW FAR} COMBIEN, JUSQU'Oir. 

How FAR, meaning what distance^ is expressed by combibn; and 
when used for to what distance^ it is expressed by JUSQu'o{y ; as, 
How far is it from here? combien y a-t-il did? 

How far shall we go? jusqu'ou irona-noua? 

HOWEVER, HOWSOEVER, LET; QUELQUE. 

HowEVERt HOWSOEVER, before an adjective; a participle, or an 
adverb, is expressed by quelque with que, after the adjective, pdrticiple 
or adverb, and the following verb in the subjunctive; 

However rich she is ; } • r > ?# -^ 

or Let her be ever so rich. \ «"«"»"« ^iche <ju eUe »ott. 

2V. B. If the nominative is a noun, it is generally placed after the verb ; as, 

However rich her sister is; \ . . .- «_..« 

^„ r . 1 • * i> • u f QUELQUE nche QUE soit sa scBur. 

or Let her sister be ever so rich. f "* ^ ^ 

QUITE, ENTIRELY; TOUT. 

Quite, entirely, before an adjective, or a participle, are generally 

expressed by tout; as. 

Those men are quite astonished. Ces hommes 9ont tout Stonnes. 

Those, women are quite astonished. Cesfemmes sont tout Stonnkes,* 



187 



188 



189 



How long ? Juiqu' A quandf step by STEP, 

As LONG as, Tantque. straight on. 

In the same manneb, De meme, thoroughly, 

Through MISTAKE, Parm6gard$, This long TIME, 

MORE than is necessaryi Plm qxCil n*enfaut. For a long time, 
M either more nor less, A^* plus ni moins, Trom time to time. 



MORE and MORE, 

Much MORE so. 
So much the more, 

At MOST, 
How MUCH 1 
As MUCH, 
So MUCH, 

Through ill NATURE, 
Nothing NEAR, 

Just NOW, 

NOW and then, 
All at ONCE, 

OPPOSITE, 
PURPOSELY, 

On PURPOSE, 

To what PURPOSE? 

At RANDOM, 

In every RESPECT, 
SEASONABLY, 

On both SIDES, 
The wrong side out, 
The wrong side up, 
SOONER or later, 

SOUNDLY, 

With all 8PE£D» 

At fuU SPEED, 

On a SUDDEN, 



De vius en pUu. . One time or other. 



A mut forte raiion, TO and fro, 
D^antant plus. From TOP to 



Pat it pas. 

Tout droit. 

A fond. 
r De long t&nt. 
\ Depuis long'tenn, 

De tetnt en tenu. 

Tot ou tard. 

0a et /a. 



{ 



Tout au pltts, 

Combien f 

Autant, ^ 

Tant, 

Par malice* 

A beaueoup pres. 

Tout de tuite. 

De terns en terns* 

7'out d'nn coup* 

Vis'd'vis. 

A dessein, Expres. 

De propos dilUtir^, 

A quoi bonf 

A tort et a travers, 

A touts igards* 

A propos. 



to BOTTOM, Defend en comble. 



topsy tubvy. 
In a TRICE, 

By TURNS, 

At every turn. 
In the TWINKLING 



of 



Sens dessui dessous. 
En moins de rien. 
Tour a tour. 
A tout bout de champ. 



[an eye. En un din d*<kil. 
San^ y penser, 
De cote et d^autre. 
En kaut. 
A centre ferns, 
A vue d'xil. 
Tout bas, 
A eontre sens* 



{ 



unawares, 
UP and DOWN, 
upwards, 
unseasonably, 

VISIBLY, 

With alow VOICE, 
The wrong way, 

In a WEEK, [day, Dans huit jours. 

It was a WEEK yester- // y eut hier S jours. 
It will be a week to- II y aura demain 8 
De part et d* autre, wherever [morrow, Partoirf ou. [jours, 
A Venvers. In no wise, En nulle manieie. 

WORSE and worse, De pis en pis. 
So much the worse, Tant pis, 
A year hence, Jlya un an* [an. 

This day 12 months, Jlyaaujourd^hutun 
Against one's will, A centre cceur. 
Whether one will or Bon grd mal gr£. 
YONDER, [not. La bos* 



A rebours. 
Tot ou tard, 
Comme il fuut, 
Au pins vtte, 
A bride abattue* 
Ventre a terre. 
Tout a coup. 



• When the adjective which follows tout is feminine, and begins with a consonant, wo 
make it agree in gender and number with the noun ; as, 

Hiis house is quite new, Cette maison est toute neuve. 

These women are quite ugly. Ces femmes sont toutes laides. 

Bat, as this is done solely for the sake of melody, it would be better, especially when the noan is 
\ Inrai, to mak* ase of TotA hfait, since the hearer is sometimea at a loss, whether TOUT£S means 
l«'7tf or ail. 

OS 



244 ADVERB. 

NEGATIVE ADVERBS 
NO, not; NB — PAS, NE — FOUNT* 



NE PLUS. 



NO MORE, 

NOT ANY more; 

NEVER ; NE ^JAMAIS. 



} 



} 



NE — 6 UK RE. 



190 



191 



192 



BUT LITTLEx 

VERY little; 

BY NO MEANS ; NE — NULliEMENT.t 

The NEGATIVE expressions ne — pas, ne — point, &c. form only one 
negation) ne is alw^ays placed before the verb, and pas, point, 2fi:c.'like 
the other adverbs, are placed after the verb, when the tense is simple 
and BETWEEN the auxiliary and the participle, when it is compound; as, 

I do not like her. Je ne Caime pas, or point. 
I will not see her any more. Je ne venx plus la voir. 

T will never speak to her again. Je ne lui reparlerai jamais. 
You have thought of it hut little. Votts N*y avez gu^re pense. 

N. B. If the verb which follows not is in the infinitive, the (wo ne- 
gative words ne — PAS, cr point, ne — plus, ne — jamais, may be, and 
are generally placed together before the verb; as, 

I am determined not to see her. J*ai resolu de ne pas la voir. 

Not to speak to her any more. De ne plus lui parler. 

Never to write to her again. De ne jamais lui recrire. 

Without a verb, no is expressed by non, and not by non pas ; as, 

Will you go to town to-morrow? Irez^vous demain a la ville? 

No; I will go, but not to-morrow, non ; fy irai, mals non pas demain. 

remarks on the neqatiye adverbs. 

With the verb can, rendered by the conditional tense of savoir, in- 
stead of the present of pouvoir, and with fvHY, rendered by que, instead 
of pour quoi, not is expressed by ne only before the verb ; as, 

I can not do it. /eNEjpi/f«PAS,orjeNEsaurais/e^fre. 

fFhy does he 7iot do it himself? Que n^ le fait-il lui-mime? 

N. B. We also generally suppress pas, point, with the verbs oser, to 
Dare; cesser, to cease; and with SAVOIR, to Know; when it is fol- 
lowed by si, Od, QUE, QUAND, QUEL, COMBIEN, COMMENT; aS, 

I dare not do it. Je n'ose lefaire. 

I do not know what to say to her. Je ne sais que lui dire. 

She is incessantly plaguing me. Elle ne cesse de me tourmenter. 

* Fas, point, are used indiscriminately, except in sentences of interrogation, when, 
Acco«^ng to the frencli academy, poiNTintimatesactou^f, and pas a kind of a^mnation; so, 

^*aveZ'Voti$ point prismou livref means, Have not you taken my booK? 
and N'avez iwus pas pn's mon livre 9 means, You have taken my book, have not you? 

Perhaps it would be better to give another turn to the sentence than to give these different properties 
to two monosyllables which may be so easily mistaken one for the other. 

Some grammarians, and even the french academy, make several other distinctions be- 
tween p A3,P0i NT ; viz.that poi NTmeans notataU,never, and denies more strongly than pas ; 
that PAS is said of something momentary, and point of things tliat are permanent ; so // 
NE lit PAS, means. He does not read now; and U ne lit point, means. He never reads : 
these distinctii>ns seem to me merely ideal ; I have endeavoured to ascertain them, and I 
have not founa any author who has observed them ; the ear alone is consulted. There 
are in our language, as well as in our manners, trifles which reason does not scruple lo 
overlook. 

t Mot andoouTTBare tXso negative expressions, but used only with the verbs tiiRP. 
and voir; as, 

II ne dit MOT ) He did not say a word. 11 ns voit gouttu; He does nol see at all. 



ADVERB. 245 

BEMARKS OS THE NEGATIVE ADVERBS, 

2Vbr, after the verb rake carCy prendre garde, is not expressed in lifo 
Trench, when the verb which follows it is in the infinitive^ and it is 
expressed by ne^ if the following verb is in any other mood ; as. 

Take care of falling, or not to fall. Prenez garde de tomber. 

Take care that he does not fall. Prenez garde qu^U ne tombe. 

The verb ebip^cher, to ninder, prevent. Keep from, requires a'js be- 1 y4 

fore the following verb, if that verb is jiot in the infinitive; so we say; 

Je tempecherai dejouer; \ , miu'j u« r i • 

r» >> n I -I • t I Will hinder him from playinff. 

ovaempecherai quu^Ejoue* J i j & 

The verbs craindre, avoir peur, appr^hender; to re^xTy to be 11/0 
Afraid; the conjunctions de peur que, de crainte que. Lest, for rear 
that, require a'is" before the following verb, if we fear that the action 
will happen ; then the verb has no negation in english ; as, 

I am afraid that he will come. Je crains qu'il nb vienne. 

Come in, lest he should see you. Entrez, de peur qu'il ne vous voie. 
But NE is left out, if the following verb is in the infinitive; as, 

I am afraid of spoiling it. Je crains, or fai peur de le gater. 

If we fear that the action wiU not happen, there is a negation in english, 
and it must be expressed by the corresponding negation in french ; as, 
I fear he will come no more, Je crains qu*il ne vienne plus, 

I am afraid he has not seen me. J*ai peur quit ne m*ait pas vu, 

N.B, The verbs nier, to deny, and douter, to doubt, used negatively, the 
conjunction A moins que, unless, and SI in the sense of h moins que, require 
also ne before the following verb ; as. 

He does not deny having seen her. // ne nie pas qu'tl ne tail vue. 

I do not doubt but she will come. Je ne doute^pa; qu*elle nk vienne, •» rkr* 

II y a — que. It is — since; de puis que, since, require jv£bef()re the 1 I/O 
verb which follows them, when we wish to denote that no action has taken place 

since the period we mentioTi ; then the verb may also have a negation in english; 

It is long since I have seen him ; I r, ^ _ ,^„^ ._^ _,.. • ^^ r^; „„ 
or I have not seen him this long while, r^ ^ ^ ''^^^ ^^^ ^"^-^^ ^^ * ^* ^"• 

But jv£ is not required, if there has been an action, and ?io negation 
could be used in english ; as. 

It is not long since I have seen him ;\r, , t . ^ . « . 

or I have seen him not long since. K^ nyapas long terns que.je tax vu. 

The negative particle a'js is required before the verb which follows 11// 
autre, o^A^r; AVTRE^ENTy otherwise ; as, 

He is quite another than I thought. II est tout autre queje ne pensais. 
He speakso/Aer2i;^6 than he thinks. /i{j7ar/e autrement quHl ne pense. 

After the comparative words plus, mieux, meilleur, moins, see 47 rule; 
as also with personnE; qui que ce soit, see 97 rule ; rien, quoi que ck 
soiT, 99; AucuN, 100; nul, pas un, 101 ; m l'un ni l' autre, 124. 

But, used in the sense of the adverb only, is expressed by ne before 1 I/O 
the verb, and que af^er it ; as» 

She is but fifteen (i. e. only 15). EUe v*a que quinze ans, 
I have seen her but once. Je ne fai vue qv^une fbis. 

But is sometimes used in the sense of a relative pronoun, and is then 1 ^/l/ 
expressed by qui ne, with the following verb in the subjunctive; as. 
There are few people but can do it, i. e. who can not do it. 
Ily a peu de gem qui ne puisseni lefaire* 



246 



CHAP. VUI. 



PREPOSITION. 

Prepositions are certain monosyllables added to a'om/i^, rerbitj and 
Adjectives in order to extend their meaning^ to tlie word which follows 
them; as, 

I came from Paris^ through Canierburyy to London. 

The words from, through, to, which express a relation between the 
verb came and the substantives which follow it, are called prepositions. 

The FREPObiTiONs are infrench; 



A 

APRfis, 

AVEC, 

AVANT, 

CHEZ, 

CONTRE, 

DANS, 

DE, 

DEPUIS, 

DEVANT, 

DERKlfiRE, 

DURANT, 

EN, 

ENTRE, 

EN VERS. 

ENVIRON, 



Atf To, 

Aflir, 

With, 

Befivrt. 

At th$ House of. 

Against, 

In, Into. 

Of, From, By, 

From, 

Since, From^ For, 

Before, 

Behind, 

During, For, 

In, Into, 

Between, Betwixt, 

To, Towards, 

About, 



EXCEPTE, 

HORMIS, 

AlOYENNANT, 

MA LORE, 

NONOBSTANT, 

OUTRE, 

PAR, 

PAIIMI, 

PENDANT, 

POUR, 

SANS, 

8ELON, 

BUIVANT, 

SOUS, 

SUR, 

TOUCHANT, 

VERS, 



\Save, But, Except, 

For, Hy the Cleans of. 
Against, In Spite of. 
Notwithstanding, 
Besides, 
By, Through, 
Among, Amongst, 
During, For. 
For^ In Order to. 
Without. ^ 

f According to. 

Under, Beneath, 
On, Upon, Oeer, 
Concerning, Affout, 
Towards, Alnrnt, 



* The following expressions are found in several french grammars, and even in the 
dictionary of the Trench academy, in the class of prepositions : 



AUPRES de, 
AliTOiiR de, 
a CAOSE de, 
a cOte de, 
en DE^A de, 
au delK de, 
iau* DESsoim de, 
par-DESsoiis, 
au - D ESS us de, 
.par-DESsifs, 
au DEVANT de, 

par DEVANT, 

au DERRii^RE de, 
a 



Near, By, Close to. 

Hound. 

On account of. 

By, By the side of. 

On this side of. 

On that side of. 

Under, Below. 
• Above, Over, Upon, 



a 



au 

le 

tt 

au 



FOKCE de, 
jusqu'a', 
HORS de, 
LIEU de, 
LOIN de, 
LONG de, 
MOINS de, 
MOV EN de, 
I'Rb's de, 
pRociiE de, 



By dint of. 

To, Till, Until, 

Out of. 

Instead of, in the place of. 

Far from. 

Along, 

Under, For less. 

By the means of, 

\Near to, Nigh, By. 



Behind, In the back of. 



au 



With respect to, 

TRAVERS de, }^"^' '^""*^*' . 

vis-a-vis de. Over against, Facing. 



.f , ( '( » If ■ 
I'egard de. As to. With respect to. 

And a few others which 1 have not thought proper to notice, hecause they certainly 
do not belong to this class. But these words are so far from being prepositions, that it 
is only by the means of the preposition de or A, that they can be connected with the 
word which follows them. It is evident that they are Nouns, preceded and followed as 
you see, by an Article, or by a Preposition, and coming under the rules that have been 
given on nouns. According to the french academy, some of these words are both Pre- 
positions and Advei'bs, They are Prepositions when Uiey govern a substantive after tliem, 
and they, are Adverbs when they are used absolutely without a substantive. This distinc- 
tion is right, but its application is not always so ; for example, J*itais a cbXk de ia^ wrte, 
I was by the side of the door ; here a cot^ is a preposition. II iiait snr la porte, etjetais & 
c6t6 ; He was on the door, and 1 was by the side of it ; here i) coti^ is an adverb. Wit!) 
due respect to the french academy, 1 must say that a cbli, in these instances, seems to 
me of the same nature as the substantive siV/e, which represents it in english. Certain 
it is, that these words called vrepositions are all derived from nouns or verbs. If then our 
. poverty of expression obltgea us to have recourse to this benevolent fkmily, I think theix 
generosity should not be abused, and their nature changed Without a necessity which, in 
these instances, does not seem to exist. 



PREPOSITION. 247 

DiFFEBEifCE between the french and English pnEPostrioNS. 

Having^ found it impossible to make rules sufficiently explicit for the i20u 
use of the prepositions, I have subjoined a list of all the ferbs and ad- 
ject if es which require a preposition different from the preposition which 
generally corresponds with it in english, l)y means of which the learner may 
always remove any doubt he may have respecting the prepositions.* 



I 



9 



Agree about, 

Carry about, 

Concerned about, 

Uneasy about. 

Discourse about, 

Easy about, 

Inquire about, 

Talk about. 

Greedy after. 

Inquire after, 

Thirst AFTER, 

Angry at 

Offended at 

Vexed at 

Angry at 

Offended at 

Vexed at 

Astonished at. 

Blush AT, 
Exasperated AT, 

Grieve at. 

Laugh AT» 

Laugh AT, 

Rejoice AT« 
Scandalised at. 

Smile AT, 

Surprised at. 

Wonder at, 

Followed BY, 

Gain by 

Get BY^ 

IVeceded by, 

Profit BY, 

Answer for. 

Blame for, 

Bless FOR, 

Care for. 

Chastise for, 

Console for. 

Design «ur, 



9 



Convenir 
Porter 



} 
} 



* 

:} 



DE ; as Nous sommes con\>enus de ceci. 
sur ; Je nej9or^epas d'argent suamoi. 

de 3 Je suis inquiet de sa santJ. 

DE ; Nous discourons de nos affaires. 
TranquiUe sur ; Jc suis tranquille sua cela. 
8* Informer de ; I?iformez 'wons de son retour. 

Parlons n'autres choses. 
11 est trop avide de richesses. 
II H*in forme sou vent de yous. 
II est altM DE sang. 



Inquiet 
Discovrir 



Parler 
Avide 
8* Informer 
Alterb 



de; 

DE; 

de; 
de : 



Fache contre ; Etre fdkche contre quelqu*un 



Fachh de; Etre/dcAe de quelque chose. 



EtonnS de ; 

Rougir DE ; 

Outre DE ; 

s' Affliger de ; 

Rire de ; 

se Moqutr de ; 

se Rejouir de ; 

ScandaliterDK ; 

Sourire 

Surpris 

Etonnk 

Suivi 



Gagnet 

Precede 
Prqfiter 
Repondre 
Blamer 
BSnir 
se Soucier 
ChOtier 
Consoler 
Destiner 



de; 
de; 
DE ; 
db; 

A; 

de; 
de; 
de; 
db; 
de; 
de; 
de; 
de; 

A; 



Je ne suis pas btonne db cela. 
Elle rougit de sa folic. 
II fut outre DE ce discours. 
II sqfflige DE sa perte. 
II rit or se moque de tout. 
II se moque de tout le monde. 
Je me rejouis db votre succ^s. 
Je fus acandalisb de son action. 
Elle sourit de ma confusion. 
Je ne suis pas surpris db cela. 
Je n' EN suis pas Stonni. 
II ^(ait suivi de ses gens* 

II n' a rieu gagne X cela. 

Le souper fat precede D*un bal. 
II n'a pas promts de yos lemons. 
R^ndez'WOixs de lui? de cela? 
Je le bldm£ de ses d^fauts. 
Benissons'le de sa bont^. 
Je ne me sottcie pas de lui. 
II sera chdtiS de sa malice. 
ConsolezAe de sa perte. 
X quoi le destinei-yous ^ 



* Some grammarians liare endearoared to analyze the different relations which the prepositions hart 
with the words which thef connect; so, according to them, all verbs and adjectitres expressing desire, 
knowledge, rememhraneet igitoraneetfifrgetfMlnesit eare,fear^ guilty innocenceyfulneei^ emptiness^ plenty t 




thejr leave so great a chasm in the field of prepositions, that I have not met with any person who has de- 
rived the least advantage from them. 



248 



PREPOSITION. 



DIFFERENCE bdwuen the French and enolish prepositioxs. 



Fit 

Good 

Grieve 

Obliged 

Pity 

Praise 

Provide 

Punish 

Sorry 

Sufficient 

Thank 

Borrow 

Conceal 

Escape 

Escape 

Hear 

Take 

Take 

Acquiesce 

Interested 

Delight 

Dexterous 

Glory 

Pride 

Ask 

Sensible 

Think 

Think 

Think 

Have pity 

Play 

Triumph 

Pretend 

Agre^ 

Call 



FOR, 

FOR, 

FOR, 

FOR, 

FOR, 

FOR, 

FOR, 

FOR, 

FOR, 

FOR, 

FOR, 

FROM, 

FROM» 

FROM, 

FROM, 

FROM, 

FROM, 

FROM, 

IN, 

IN, 

IN, 

IN, 

IN, 

IN, 

OF, 

OF, 

OF,t 

OF, 

ON, 

ON, 

ON, 

OVER, 

TO, 

UPON, 

UPON, 



Propre 
Bon 

s' Affliger 
Oblige 
Pldindre 
Louer 
Pourvoir 
Pitnir 
Fdche 
Sujfflre 
Remercier 
Emprunter 
Cacher 
Echapper 
Echapper 
Outr dire 
our 
Prendre 
Acquiescer 

8* Inikresser 

se Plaire 
Adroit 

se Glorifier 



H EnorgueiUir de ; 



• / . 



UPON, 



Congratulate upon. 

Depend 

Feed 

Impose 

Live 

Prevail 

Seize 

Smile 

Take 

Abound 



Dem-ander 
Sensible 
Penfer 
Songer 
Penser 
Avoir piiie 
Jouer 
Triompher 
se Piquer 
Convenir 
Passer 
Feliciter 
Dependre 
UPON, seNourrir 
UPON, en Imposer 
UPON, Fivre 
UPON, Persuader 
UPON, se Saisir 
UPON, Sourire 
UPON, se Charger 



A ; as_ A quoi cela est-il propre ? 

Cela n*est bon A rien. 

II est qfflige de ses fautes. 

Je lui suis oblige de sa lettre. 

Je le plains de sa faiblesse. 

On le loua de sa candeur. 

Qui pourvoit A ses besoins? 

II sera puni de sa t^m^rit^. 

Je suis fache de son malheur 

Cela ne lui* siifflt pas. 

RemerciezAe de ses bont^s. 

II Ta emprujvth A votre pere. 

Ne le cachez pas A votre ami. 

Echapper d'uu endroit. 

Echapper A une personne. 

Je Tai out dire A mon pere. 

Ne YStez pas A cet enfant. 

II le LUI* a pris or 6te, 

J^acquiesce A votre demande. 

Je m'intSresse A sou bien-^tre. 

II se plait AU jardinage. 

II est adroit aux exercices. 

11 se glorijie de ses richesses. 

11 s'enorgueillit de sa naissance« 

DemandeZ'le A cet homme. 

II est irhs-sensible au froid. 

Avez-vous pensS A moi ? 

Vous ne songez A rien. 

AveZ'Yous pens^ A mon affaire? 

Vous n'avez pitik de personne. 

Joue-i-W DE quelqu'instrument? 

II a triomphk de ses«enuemis. 

Il se pique de g^ndrosit^. 

Convenons de quelque chose. 
CHEZ ; Quandpo^^eres- vous CHEZ moi? 



1; 

de; 
DE ; 

DE, 

de; 

A; 

DE ; 
DE ; 

A; 
DE ; 

A; 
A; 

de; 

A; 

A; 

a; 

A; 
a; 
A; 
A; 

a; 

de: 



A 
A 
A 
A 
A 
de 

DE 

de 

DE 
DE 



DE ; Je \ou6 felicOe de votre retour. 

DE ; Vous ne dkpendez pas de lui. 

de ; II se nourrit de pain et de lait 

A ; II en impose aux gens. 

DE ; II vit DE fruit et de l^g^mes. 

A ; Je LUI* persiLadai de s'en aller. 

DE ; On se saisit aussit^t de lui. 

A ; II souriait A ses amis. 

DE ; II s'est chargk de cette afikire. 

en ; La France abonde en fmit. 

DE ; Je ne suis pas connu de lui. 

DE ; Une chambre ornke de tableaux 
WITH, Fache contre ; II est ixhs^fdchk gontre vous. 



WITH, Abonder 

Acquainted with, Connu 

Adorn with, Orner 

Angry 



* Observe that the preporition h is implied in LUi, which means to him. ^ table of the pronouns, p. 7^ 

f When think is osed in the sense of to have an opiniont of it expressed by 4€t not by k ; as. 
What do yott think of that ? Qlw pentex-vout de cela t not, a cela t 



PREPOSITION. 



249 



DIFFERENCE between the French and English prepositions* 



Amuse with 

Animated with 

Armed with 

Bathe with 

Charge with 

Charmed with 

Compare with 

Comply WITH 

Contented with 

Cover WITH 

Deh'ghted with 

Die with 

Disgusted with 

Dispense with 

Displeased with 

Do with 

Embellish with 

Endue with 

Enflame with 

Feed with 

Fill WITH 

Glut WITH 

In love WITH 

Load WITH 

Meddle with 

Moved WITH 

Overjoyed with 

Overwhelm with 

Part WITH 

Perish with 

Pleased with 

Prevail with 

Provide with 

Provided with 

Puffed up WITH 

Refresh with 

Satiated with 

Satisfied with 

Set with 

Sport WITH 

Store WITH 

Struck WITH 
Surrounded with 

Swarm with 

Taken up with 

Tax with 

Threaten with 

Tire with 

Tormented with 
Transported with 
Do without 



Amuser d? 

Anime de 

Arme de 

Baigner oe 

Accuser de 

Charme de 

Comparer A "; 
CondescendreX ; 

Content de 

Couvrir de 

Charmk de 

Mourir de 

DSgodte de 

Dispenser de 

Mecontent de 

Faire de 

Embellir de 

Doner de 

Enflammer de 

Nourrir de 

Emplir de 

Assouvir de 

Amoureux de 

Charger de 

se Meier de 

TouchS DE 

Ravi DK 

Accabler de 

seDe faire de 

Perir de 

Content de 

Persuader A ; 

Foumir de 

Pourvu de 

Ejifie DE 

seRafraichir de 

RassasiS de 

Satisfait de 

Gamir de 

BeJouer de 

Munir de 

Frappe de 

EntonrS de 

Fourmiller de 

Occupy DE 

Tcwer DE 

Menacer de 

Ennuyer de 

Tourmen^e de 

Transports d« 

seP/M^er de 



II Pamx^^ai^ de proraesses. 
II est anime de z6ie. 
II ^tait arm^ d'uh pistolet. 
Elle le baigna de ses larmes. 
On Vaccuse de trahison. 
II est charmk de ses manieres* 
Ccmparez-yous ceci A cela ? 
II condescend A ses caprices. 
Je ne suis pas content de cela. 
II est convert de poussi^re. 
II fut charme de son esprit. 
Je meur« DE faim, de soif. 
Je suis degoUte du monde. 
Dispensez-moi de cela. 
Je suis mecontent de lui. 
Que^ro-t-on de cet homme? 
Un jardin entbeUi de fleurs. 
II n'est douk n'aucun esprit. 
II ^tait enfiamme de colore. 
On le 7ioz/rrtfDE pain et D'eau. 
Emplissez votre verre de vin. 
II est oAsonvi de carnage. 
II est amjoureux de cette fille. 
II est chargk de butin. 
Af^fcz-vous de vos affaires. 
II fut touchS DE compassion. 
II fut ravi de cette nouvelle. 
II est accable de chagrin. 
II s'est dkfait de son cheval. 
II pkrit DE faim et de misere. 
Elle n'est pas contente de lui. 
PersjiadeZ'Lvi de le faire. 
I\s Jburnissent Tarm^e de bl^. 
II est bien pourvu n'habits. 
II est tout en/le n'orgueil. 
Se rafratchir d'uu verre de vin. 
II est rassasie de plaisirs. 
II n' est pas satisfait de cela. 
Une botte garnie de diamants. 
Elle Bejone de sa cr^dulit6. 
La place est munie de provisions 
11 fut frappe D'^tonnement. 
II ^tait entourk de flatteurs. 
Le iptiys fonrmiile de voleurs. 
II est trop occupe de lui-m^me. 
On le taxe de sedition. 
On le menaga de la mort. 
II est ennvye de ces choses. 
II est tourmentk de remords. 
Elle est transportee de joie. 
II ne peut pas se passer D'elle« 



201 



250 PRE POSITION. 

' DIFFERENCE between the French and English prepositions. 

Sometimes tLYerh requires a preposition after it in englvth^ and wil! 
not admit of it in french ; such are, 



Look 

Ask 

Buy 

Go 

Look 

SeU 

Stay 

Wait 

Wish 

Accept 

Admit 

Approve 

Beg 

Ignorant 



at; 

for; 

for; 

for; 

for; 

for; 

for; 

for; 

for; 

of; 

of; 

of; 

of; 

of; 



Look at that man ; 

He asks for you ; 

I bought this /or a penny; 

Go /or your book; 

Look for it ; 



Kegardez cet homme, 
II vouS demande. 
Xai achete ceci un sou, 
AUez chercher voire livre. 
Cherchez-Ze, not, pour lui 



I have sold it for two pdnce; Je Pat vendu deux sous. 



Stay for me ; 

Do not wait for me ; 

I wish for your company; 

Please to accept o/'this ; 

He will not admit ofihdX ; 

Do you approve q/*it? 

I beg of you to see her ; 



Atten^ez-mot ,not,pour moL. 

Ne w'attendez pas. 

Je souhaite voire compas. nie. 

Daignez accepter ceci^ 

11 w'adraettra pa>s cela, 

L*approuve2-t;oM5 f 

Je vous prie de la voir. 



She was quite ignorant ofW \ Elle /'ignorait tout hfait. 



Tyrannise over; She tyrannises over me; 



202 



TO, 
UPON 
UPON 
WITH 
UPON 
WITH 
WITH 
WITH 



Listen to me ; 
Look upon me as a friend ; 
Prevail upon her to stay ; * 
Prevail with him to come ; 



Elle me tyrannise. 
Ecoutez- mot, not h moi* 
Regardez-mo2 comme ami, 
Engagez-/a h r ester, 
Engagez-Za a venir. 
Has lie resolved upon any thing ? A-i- il resolu quelque cfiose 9 
1 bear with his importunities; /'endure ses imporiuniiis, 
I met with a robber ; Je rencontrai un voleur, 

I put up with his impertincfnce ;/(9souffris*on impertinence. 

In other instances it is the reverse, and tKe verb which has no prepo- 
sition in englishy must have a preposition after it in french; such are. 



Listen 

Look 

Prevail 

Prevail 

Resolve 

Bear 

Meet 

Put up 



Abuser de 

s'Apercevoir de 

Avoir besom de 

Avoir piti^ db 

Changer db 

se Defier db 

se D^mettre de 

Disconvenir de 

Douter de 

s' Embarrasser de 

Gemir db 

Heriter de 

Jouir DE 

Manquer db 

M4dire db 

se Metier db 

se Meprendre db 

se Moquer de 

se Passer db 

se Servir de 

se Souvenir db 

User DB 

se Venger db 

Attenter X ; 

Commander X; 

Compatir X ; 

Convenir X ; 

Seoir X ; 



II abuse de ma patience ; 
Je Tw'aper^ois de cela ; 
JJai besoin til'aigeni ; 
II n\ pas pitie db moi; 
n a change de dessein ; 
Vous defiez-roM« db lui f 
II s'esi demis de sa place ; 
Il n'EN'*' disconvient pas i 
II doute DE tout; 
II ne * embarrasse de rien ; 
// gemit DE ses f antes ; 
II a herit6 d'ww gros Men ; 
Il Jouit ly^une bonne santi; 
II ne manque de rien ; 
II medit des gens ; 
II se mefie de ses amis ; 



He abuses my patience. 

I perceive that. 

I want money. 

He does not pity me. 

He has changed his design. 

Do you mistrust him ? 

He has given up his place. 

He does not. disotvn it. 

He doubts every thing. 

He minds nothmg. 

He laments his errors. 

He inherited a large estate. 

He enjoys good health. 

He wants nothing. 

He slanders people. 

He mistrusts his friends. 

He has mistaken his way. 

He mocks wise people. 



// s'est mepris de chemin ; 

II se moque des sages ; 

II ne pent pas *'en* passer ; He can not spare it, 

II se sert db mon nom ; He uses my name. 

Je me souviens de cela; I remember that. 

II a us^ db violence; He has used violence. 

Je m'HN* vengerai ; I will revenge it, 

II a attente X ma vie ; He has attempted my life. 

Commandez- Luri' rf'y a//fir; ^trf ^*wi to go there. 

Je compatis X sa peine ; I compassionate his pain. 

Cela LUit convient, or 1 That suits or becomes him 

Cela Luif sied h merveille ;! wonderfully. 



< * The prepo^ltfon de is Implied in the pronoan EN, whirh meaas of it; see a table of thn p^3ao^:ns 
page7'^< t See note • page 251. 



PREPOSITION. .251 

DIFFERENCE ^between the frhnch and snglish PUEPoaiTioys. 



D6fendre 


X 


Deplaire 


X 


Desob^ir 


X 


seFier 


X 


Manquer 


X 


Importer 


X 


Nuire i 


X 


Obdir 


X 


Obvier 


X 


s' Opposer 


X 


Ordonner 


A 


Pardonner 


X 


Permettre 


A 


Persuader 


X 


Plaire 


X 


Prend regard 


eX 


Promettre 


X 


Renoncer 


X 


R^pondre 


X 


Resister 


X 


Ressembler 


X 


Subvenir 


X 


Succ^der 


X 


Survivre 


X 


Toucher 


X 



Defendez-LUi* de le dire; 
II d^plait X son pere ; 
H desob^it X aa mere ; 
Unese^eX personne ; 
R manque X ia parole; 
II LUi* importe de le voir ; 
Ne nuisez X personne ; 
Ob^issez X vo9 parents ; 
B n*a pu obvier X cela ; 
Opposez-rcm^X t injustice; 
Ordonnez-Lui* de lefaire; 
Pardonnez X vos ennemis ; 



Fbrbidhim to tell it 
He displeases his father. 
He disobeys his mother. 
He trusts nobody. 
He breaks his word. 
It concerns her to see it. 
Do not ir^ure any body. 
Obey your parents. 
He could not prevent that. 
Oppose injustice. 
Order him to do it. 
Forgive your enemies. 



Permettez-Lui* de s'en alter; Permit her to go. 



Persuadez-Lui* de la voir ; 
Elle plait X tout le monde ; 
II prend garde X tout ; 
B LUI* a promis de venir ; 
II a renonc6 Axjjeu ; 
R^pondez X ma question ; 
R^sistez X la tentation ; 
Elle ressemble X sa m^re; 
B subvient X ses besoins ; 
II succ^dera X son oncle; 



Persuade him to see her. 
She pleases every body. 
He minds every thing. 
He promised her to come. 
He has given up seaming. 
Ansioer my question. 
Resist temptation. 
She resembles her mother. 
He supplies her want^. 
He will succeed his uncle. 
She will not outlive him. 
Do not touch that book. 



Elle ne Lxri* survivra pas ; 
Ne touchez pas X ce livre ; 

In some instances the preposition may be placed In english, either ^{jfj 
before or after the substantive which it governs ; but in french, the pre- 
position must always be placed immediately before its object; as, 

mth whom were you? ) . ^^,.„.„cw? 

or frhom were you with r J ^ 

To loliom shall I give this ? K ^. ^^....^^v .• ™,. p 

or fFhom sliall I give this to ? ^ ^ <*'^^^^^^<^^'J^ cec« r 

The prepositions must be repeated in french before every tcord 204 
which they govern, though these words are in the same sentence, and the 
preposition is not repeated in english; as, 

1 come yrom France and Italy; Je viens de France tt 6'Ttalie^ 
I have been to Paris and Rome ; Tai hti k Paris et k Rome,'\ 

REMARKS ON THE PREPOSITIONS, 
FOR; DEPUIS, PENDANT, DURANT, POUR. OAJ^ 

FoA, before a period of time, is expressed by depuis, to denote the Ji\)o 
two extremes of the period; by pendant, or durant, to. denote its dura- 
tion ; and by pour, to denote the end ; as, 

I have not seen him ybr a month ; 
i. e. a month since, Je ne tat pas vu depuis un mois. 

They fought /or two days ; 
i. c. during two days. Ilssebattirent pendant deuxjoi{rs. 

They have provisions/or a year ; 
i. e. to last a year. lis ont des provinons pour un an, 

* The vreposition X is implied in the pronoun LDI, which expresses to ^tm, to her, Se4 
ft table or the pronouns, p. 74. 

f This i«petitl»B ifl n«t mXtny ttecMnrjr, b«t the ttirest way for a fonipier U to make it a general 
nOot until m has laamed by raadinf when the preposition may be left oot. 



206 



207 



208 



209 



210 



252 PREPOSITION. 

BEMARKS ON THE PREPOSITIONS* 

BEFORE; AVANT, DEVANT. 

Speaking of time^ or order^ before is expressed by avant, the oppo* 
site of which is apres, after; speaking of place or in presence, it is ex- 
pressed by DEVANT, the opposite of which is DERRiiRE, behind ; as. 
Do not walk before me. Ne marchez pas devant mot, 

I want to arrive before you. Je veux arriver avant vons, 

N. B. Without an object after it, before is auparavant ; as, 
1 had seen it before, Je Vavais vu auparavant. 

BY; VKi& DE, X c6Tfe DE. 
J3r, used in the sense of NEARy is fres de, or k c6te de ; as. 
He was sitting by or near me. II etait assis k c6Ti de moi. 
He passed by or near us. Ilpassa pr^s de nouf, h cdri de notis 

N. B. With the words myself, thyself, himself, 8fc., by is often 
used in the sense of alone, and is expressed by the adjective seul ; as, 
I like to be by myself, i. e. alone. TaimeditresEVh ; 7io<,PARmoi-m6me. 
She was by, herself bW the day. Elie a ete seule toutelajoumee. 

AT, TO; CHEZ. 

At^ to, denoting being at j or going to a person's house, are expressed 
by CHEZ, and the word house is left out in french ; as, 

JioXZ:^sZ£^''' } n/aut <r,.fame c..^ ma s^ur. 
She is ^r your mothei's, EUe est chez voire m&re. 

N. B. If the word house, instead of being preceded by a noun, is pre- 
ceded by one of the possessive pronominal articles my^ thy, his, her, 
OVR. YOUR, THEIR, the word house is also omitted, and the possessive 
ARTICLE is changed into a personal pronoun, thus ; 

At ntj^ house ; Chez moi. At our house; Chez ftovs. 

At thy house ; Chez toi. At your house ; Chez vous. 

At his house ; Chez lui. At their house ; Chez eux. m. 

At her house ; Chez elle. At their house ; Chez elles. f 

FROM ; De CHEZ. 

From, with verbs denoting coming or going from a person's house, is 

expressed by de chez, and the word house is left out ; as, 

I come from my sistei^s ; \ r : jt 
r, "^ • A f i > Je viens de chez ma soeur. 

or from my sister * house. J 

Isshereturnedyrommy7no<Aer^s?E»^e^fe revenue de chez ma m^re? 

N.B. If the word Aoiwc is preceded by the possessive pronominal article 
my, THY, HIS, HER, OUR, YOUR, THEIR, that article is changed into a 
personal pronoun, as follows ; 

From my house ; De chez moi. From our house ; De chez nous. 

From thy house ; De chez toi. From yofir house ; De chez vous. 

From his house ; De chez lui. From their house ; De chez eux. m. 

From her house ; De chez elle. From <Aefr house ; De chez elles. f 

FROM; D$ la PART. 
From, with the verbs to go, to come, not from the house of a person, 
hut from the person himself, is expressed by oe la part ; as. 
Go from me to my daughtei^s. Jllez de ma part chez majille. 
Whom do you come /rom? De la part de qui venez-vous f 



PREPOSITION. 253 

REMARKS ON THE PREPOSITIONS. 
IN, INTO J DANS» EN. 

Before the names of persons and places^ in^ into are expressed by ^1 I 

DANS ; as, 

I have read tliat in Voltaire. J*ai lu cda dans Voltaire, 

Are there fine streets in Paris? Y a-t-il de belles rues dans Paris9 

N. B. Observe only with respect to places, that after verbs denoting 

residence, in is expressed by A ; as, 

My brother lives in Paris. Man fr ere demeure A Paris, 

Before the names of countries^ with verbs denoting going or residing, mL^ 

iNf INTO are expressed by en ; as, 

My brother lives in France. Man frire demeure en France, 

Has he ever been into Italy? A -i-il jamais eie en Italic? 

N. B. In other instances, in^ into before the names of countries, may 

be expressed by en or by dans ; observing only that after dans, the noun 

must have an article, and after en, it must be without; as. 

There is some in France. II y en a en France, dans la France, 

Is there any in Italy ? Yen a-i-il en Italic, or dans rji^a/£e? 

Before common names used in a limited sense, i.e. preceded by any of the ^ A eJ 
signs which have been called article, in, into are expressed by dans ; 
In the last peace. dans la derniere paix. 

In this unfortunate war. dans cette guerre malheureuse. 

There are charms in society. II y a des ckarmes dans la societe. 

But when the same common names are used in an unlimited sense, in ^1^ 
which sense they generally have no article, in, into are expressed by en ; 
I like to live in peace. J*aime a vivre en paix,* 

We are always in broils. Nous sommes tovjours en querelle, 

' It is better to live in society. II vaut mieux vivre en societe. f 

Speaking of time^ in is expressed by dans, to denote the time after jLLO 
which an action will be performed^ and by en, to denote the time th.at 
will be employed in performing it ; as, 

I shall go to Paris in three days. 

Tirai a Paris dans trois jours; viz. after three days. 

JHrai d, Paris en trois jours ; i. e. I shall be three days in going. 

Before nouns denoting any part of the day, inxs not expressed in french ; ^ i O 

In the morning — In the evening. Le matin — Le soir. 

In the afternoon. Apres-midi, or Apres-dtne, 

N. B. Observe the same rule with on, before the days of the week ; as. 

On Sunday — On Monday. Dimanche — Lundi ; not, sur Lundi. 

On the day he came. Lejour qu*il est venu, 

• Jf in some instances IN, INTO are eicpressed by EN, without an article in french, 
before nouns which in english have the article A, AN ; as, 

1 came in a coach ; Je vhu £N carrosse. She fell into a passion ; Elle se mit EN colere ; 
It is because in these instances the noun serves less to namt^ the thin^ itself, than the manner of bein; 
or acting of the arent of the verb, and these words En carrone» En colere^ may be considered as adver- 
bial er.|irf-ssions ; but if we add to the same nouns some word which will render their meaning detinitSi 
IN INTO must be expressed by DANS ; as, 

I came in a line coach ; Je vim i>ans tin beau carrosse, 

She fell into a g^eat passion ; EiU se mit dans uiie granae colere, 

t Sori^U, in these two instances, is used in c different sense ; in the first instance, it 
meaus that particiilar state of being caUed society ; in the secocid, it is rather an adver- 
bial espression, and means sociably. 



254 



CHAP. IX. 



CONJUNCTION. 

Conjunctions are certain words, and sometimes short phrases that 
serve to express the relation which several sentences have tog^ether ; as, 

fVill you come, iv I go? I will not go^ unless you come. 
The words if, unless, which denote a relation between the verbs come 
and GOf are called conjunctions. 

The conjunctions are in Jrenchf 

tTfiatf To the end that, lyrAIS 

UnUtt, NI, 

Before, OU, 



AFIN QUE, 

POUR QOE, 

A MOINS OCR, 
AVANT QUE, 
AUSSI, 
BIENque, 

QUOlQUB, 

CAR, 
enCAS que, 

CEPENDANT, 

COMME, 
deCRAINTE que, 



So, Therefore, 
\ Though, Altfiough, 

For, Because, 
If, In cote that. 
Yet, However, 
As, Sinee* 

\Lest, For fear that. 



PePEURque, 

JUSQU'a ce QUE, TUl, Until. 
NfiANMOlNS, Nevertheless, 



PARCE que, 

POURTANT. 

POURVU QUE, 

PUISque, 

QUE, 

QUAND, 

LORSqce, 

QUAND, 

SANS QUE, 

SI, 

SOIT QUE, 



} 



And, Both, 
But, 

Neither, Ner, 
Either, Or. 
Beeauie, 
Yet, Htnoever 
Provided, 
Since, 
That, 

When, 

Though, If even* 
Without, 
If, Whether. 
Whether,* 



Several grammarians reckon above one hundred conjunctions, which they call 



DSCLARATirS, VIZ. SUSPENSIVS, VIZ, 
SAVOIR. St. 

COM MR. SAVOIR si. 

C'est-a-DiRE. C'est h savoir si. 

Par EXEMPLE. Qiioi qu'il ensoiT. 

AUGMENTATirB,riz, DIMINUTIVE, viz. 



d'ailleurs. 

OUTRE. 
DE PLUS. 
Au SURPLUS. 

RESTRICTIVE, VIZ. 
SINON. 

SI ce n'est QUE. 

QUOique. 

POUR, inz, QUOique. 

ENCORE que. • 

A MOIMS que. 

CAUSATIVE, viz. 
CAR. 
COMME. 

PARCE que. 
A CAUSE que. 
VU que. 
ATTENDU que, 
PUisque. 
POURquoi* 
AFIN que. 
I>e PEUR que. 
De CRAINTE que» 



encore. 

Au MOINS 
Du MOINS. 

Pour le MOINS. 

ADVERSATIVE, vlz. 

MAIS. 

CEPENDANT. 

NB'AN MOINS. 

POURTANT. 

TOUTEFOIS. 

BIEN que. 

COMPARATIVE, viz. 

OOMME. 

AINSI. 

De MEME. 

AINSI que. 
AUSSI BIEN que. 
AUSSI PEU que. 
AUTANT que. 
NON PLUS que 



COPULATIVE^ YIZ. 
ET. 

AUSSI. 
NI. 

nov plus. 

coNCBsaiVE, rit, 
QUoi que. 
A la v^ritb'. 
QUAND, QUAND m^me. 
NQNque, NON PAS que. 



DISJUNCTIVE, V13. 
OU. 

OU bien, 

SOIT. 

BoiT que. 

TRANSITIVE, viz. 
En EFFET. 
Au RESTE. 
A PROPOS. 

apre's tout. 

CONCLUSIVE, viz. 
OR, DONO. 
AINSI. 

Par CONSEQUENT. 
Ceetpourquoi. 
TELLEMENT que. 

De SORTS que. De manii^rb que. 

CONDITIONAL, VIZ. TIME and ORDER, vi& 
SI. QUAND, LORSque. 

SINON, PENDANT quO. 

QUAND, QUAND mSme.TANDis que. 



QUAND bien meme. 

i MOINS que. 

POURVU que. 

suppose' que. 

Au CAS que. 
NI PLUS NI MOINS que.En cas que. 
SI que. k CONDITION que. 

EN, viz, COMME. Bien entendu que. 

Which,except those mentioned in the table above, are either nouns or adverbs, withpnz ■ 
zling and useless denominationB, since their properties are the same in both languages. 

Some grammarians add to these afin de ; A Mo^NS QUE de ; avaNT de ; avant que 
de; AU LIEU de ; de crainte de; de peur de; faute de ; LOIN de; PLUTot qvE.de; 
JusQu' d ; but the only connective part of these words being de, or A, which aie prepo* 
Htumt^ they can hardly be said to belong to the conjunctions. 



tant que. 
avant que. . 
DEPUIS que. 
Dks que. 
AUBSixdr que. 
APRES que. 

CEPENDANT. 
a PEINE, ENFIN. 



CONJUNCTION. 255 

The CONJUNCTIONS in French affect the verbs which follow them, so as 
to require some particular mood» O 1 ^ 

The following CONJUNCTIONS require the liVDic^rirjBWoorfaflcr them; ml § 

Aussi, *o, Therefore. 

CA.a, For^ Became, 

CEPENDANT, 



} 



ou, 


Either^ or. 


PARCB QUE, 


Because. ^ 


P.UI8QUE, 


since. 


QUAND, 


[when. 


LOESQUE, 


QUAND, 


Tho\ J f even. 


QUE, 


That 


SI, 


jfy whether. 


\ii\\Q SUBJUIfCTiri 


; mood af\er then 


DECRAINTE QUE,* 


testy For 
fear that. 


DEPEUR QUE,* 


jusQu'a ce que. 


Tilt until. 


POURVU QUE, 


provided. 


^ QUE,t 


That, 


' SANS QUE, 


without. 


SOIT QUE, 


whether. 



. -. . ^^^7 However, 

POURTANT, • ' 

COM ME, AS, Since. 

MAIS, But. 

N^ANMoiNS, Nevertheless, 
Ni, Neither, Nor, 

The following conjunctions requi 
AFiN QUE, ^rhat, 
POUR QUE, fro the end that. 
A MoiNs QUE,* unless, 

AVANT QUE, Bcfore. 

RNCAs QUE, if in case that ^ — , n i rv 

When a conjunction governs several verbs, it is expressed before Z 1 tf 
the first verb only, and que is added to the other verbs, with the sahe 
MOOD after it, as if the conjunction itself was repeated ; ex. 

As he is diligent, and takes pains. 

coMME it EST diligent, et qi^il prend de la peine. 

He learns well, because he is diligent, and takes pains. 
• Tl apprend bien, parce qvHl est diHgent, et QU*il prbnd de la peine, ^ 

Unless he is diligent, and takes pains. 

A MOINS QU*f7 ne soit diligent, et qv'il ne prenne de la peine. 

When SI, if, governs two verbs, instead of repeating si before the Z2i\) 
second verb, we use que; and the verb which follows this que, must be in 
the SUBJUNCTIVE, though the verb which follows si is in the indicative; 

You will learn, if you are diligent, and take pains. 

Vous apprendrez, si votes Ates diligent, et que vous prenIez de lapeine, 

7/* you come, and 1 am not at home, you will wait for me. 

SI vous VBNEZ, et QUE je ne sois pas au logis, vous nCatiendrez, (oo) 

The idiom of the english language often admits an ellipsis, i. e. an omis- JdJiL 
sion of the conjunction tbat ; as, 

I think my sister will come ; for, I think that my sister will come. 
But the corresponding conjunction must always be expressed in french ; as, 

I think my sister will come. Je pense que ma sceur viendra, 

I know she intends to come. Je sais qifelle a dessein de venir. 

I hope she will soon be here. Tespere qv'elle sera bientSt id. 

* The conjunctions A moins que, De crainte qtie, De pkur que irequire NG before 
the verb which follows them ; see 195 rule. 

t Lreamers are often mistaken, by considering QUE as requiring always the suljunC'' 
tive mood after it ; but que does not gorem any particular mood ; its power depends on 
the verb or conjunction that pi'eeedet it. 

(oo ) The conj unction! F is often iuppretsed fVad the nominative transpoted after the verb ; as, 
Xf you thouid come, or tfiould you eome, or were you to eome^ ana I was not at home, you 
will wait for me, which turn of expression must be rendered in french by SI before tho 
▼erbi thus, SI vous veniez, et QUEje nefmse pa$ au logii, vous m*attendr$z. 



222 



223 



224 



225 



226 



256 CONJUNCTION. 

REMARKS ON THE CONJUNCTIONS. 

BOTH; ET, TANT. 

BoTHj a conjunction of emphasis, is expressed by et before an adjec^ 
tivCj by ET or tant before a substantive ; but observe, that when we use 
TANT before \he first substantive, we put que instead of bt before the second; 
She is both rich and handsome. EUe est et riche et beUe 
Both summer and winter. tant en ete QuVn hiver. 

N. B. This Conjunction in familiar writing and in conversation is 
generally left out in french; thus, 

EUe est riche et belle. En kte et en hiver. 

EITHER, OR ; OU, SOIT. 
Either, or, are generally expressed by ou ; as. 

That is either good or bad. Cela est ou bon ou mauvais. 

Either he is rich, or he is poor, ou il est riche, ou it est pauvre, 

N. B, EITHER, OR,- followed by a NOun, may be expressed by soit; as, 
Eit/ier through love or caprice, she has married him. ' • 
SOIT par amour ou par caprice, or soit par caprice, die Va epousi. 

NEITHER, NOR ; NE NI, NI NE. 

Neither, nor, followed by a verb in the indicative or subjunctive 
mood, are expressed, neither by ne, and nor by ni ne; as, 
I neither love nar hate her. Je ne Vaime ni ne la hais, 

I neither see her nor speak to her. Je j^e la vois ni ne lui parle. 

If, after neither, nor, there is a verb in the infinitive, an Adjective^ 
a Noun, or a pronoun, neither is expressed by ne before the verb, and 
MI after it, and nor is expressed by ni; as, 

I care neither for him nor for her. Je ne me soucie ni de lui ni d^elle. 

She is neither rich nor handsome. EUe vilest ni riche ni bdle. 

She has neither beauty nor riches. EUe N*a ni beaute ni richesses. 

I can neither see her, nor speak to herJe ne puis ni la voir, ni luiparler. 

WHETHER; SI, QUE, SOIT QUE. 
Whether, used in the sense of if, is expressed by SI, with the fol- 
lowing verb in the indicative ; as, 

Do you know whether she will come ? Havez-vous si elle viendra ? 

I want to know whether she will come. Tai envie de savoir si elle viendra. 

Whether, used in the sense of let, is expressed by que, or soit que, 
with the following verb in the subjunctive; as. 

Come yourself,i£7Ae/A€r she comes 1 Venez vous-m^e,q\j*eUevienneounon ; 
or not ; or let her come or not. /or Qu'eUevienneou qu'eUeneviennepas. 
Whether she comes or not ; or i soix (\vCeUevienne ou non ; or Qv'ellevienne 
let her come or not, we will go. / ou Qvelle ne viennepas, nous y irons, 

THOUGH, ALTHOUGH, IF EVEN; QUAND. 
Though, although, if even, followed by a conditional tense, are 
generally expressed by quand ; as. 
Though she should come. 



or Even f^she should come. 
She would not go with us. 



QUA NO die viendrait, elle 7iHrait pas 
avec nous, (pp) 



(pp) These conjunctions are often left out in english, and the nominative is put after the verb, vrbiob 
moae oF expression is also rendered in french by QUaND ; as, 

Were the to come, or, should she come now, she would not go with as ; 
Quand elle viendrait d presenttetle n* wait pas avec nous 



CONJUNCTION. 257 

REMARKS O.V THE CONJUNCTIONS. 

BUT FOR, IF IT WERE NOT FOR, &ie. SANS.' 

But for, if it were not for, if it had not been for^ had JLIiJ 
IT NOT been for, are generally expressed by sans ; as. 
But for you, I should have starved, sans vous,je serais mart defaim* . 



But for his friends, 

If it were, not for Yi\9 II \^ii\x9^ i„. ,^ .• -i -t »t» ^ 

ir J i t 1. x* v.- c ' \i >SANS scs amis, il auratt ete punt. 
Had it not been for his friends, ( ' ^ 






or naa u not been jor nis menas, i 
he would have been punished. J 



CHAP. X. 

INTERJECTION. 

Interjections are natural sounds caused by some sudden emotion of 
j.jy, grief, pain, aversion, disgust, fright, surprise, astonishment, Sfc, 

The sounds most commonly used in french as interjections ure ;* 
FOR joy; 

Ct ! si je pouvais U voir, 
AH ! qtieje terais aise ! 

Sounds caused by bursts of laughter. 



0! 


0/ 


AH! 


Ahl 


HA HA ! 


■ 


HI HI ! 


Sounds 


HO HO ! 


* 


FOR PAIN AND grief; 


0! 


Oi 


AH! 


Ah! 


HE! 


Ho! 


AIE! 


Ay I 


OUF! 


Oh! 


HELAS! 


Alas ! 


MON DIEU ! 


Odtar! 



6 I qtieje stiis a plaindre ! 
AH ! queje stds malheureux! 
HE ! vous mefaites mal, 
AIE ! vous me blessez. . 
OOF ! queje souffre ! 
HELAS ! j*ai tout perdu. 
MON DIEU ! que ferai'jef 

FORArERSIONf DISGUST; 
f IE ! Fie upon ! FI ! n* avez'vous pas de hontff 

FOR FRIGHT, SURPRISE, ASTONISHMENT ; 



HA! 


Ay! 


HA ! vous voila. 


EH! 


Hah! 


EH ! que vousites alerte ! 


OH OH ! 


Oh! 


OH OH ! je vous y preuds. 


CIEL ! 


Heavem! 


CIEL ! qu*allonS'nnus devemr f 


BON DIEU ! 


Mercy on us ! 


BON DIEU ! que VOUS ftes impatient i 



FOR CALLING ; 
HO! 1 

HOLA ! VSounds used when we call out to people. 

HEM ! J 

FOR SILENCE ,* 

ST! y 

C'HUT ! VSounds used when we eail for a sudden silence, 

PAIX ! j 

* The number of interjections cannot be ascertained, because any sound which expres- 
ses a sudden emotion of the soul may be called an interjection. Some of these sounds call* 
ed intenections express even different sensations, according to the inflexion which the 
voice takes, either of joy or grief, of pleasure or pain. The soul is then the only syntax 
fox interjections, and they can never embarrass the learner, since they do not require any 
rules. 



/ 



229 



258 CHAP. XI. 

IDIOMS. 

Remarks on some idiomatical expressions, and words having dif- 
ferent meanings, in which leaniers are apt to be mistaken. 

PEOPLE; PEUrLE, GENS, PERSONNES, MONDE. 
JiJi^ People, meaning that aggregate body of human beings that compose 
a Nation, a Government, is expressed by peuple ; as, 
The French people, Le pevple franqais. 

The will of the people. La volonti du peuple. 

N. B. Peuple is also said of that number of persons without dignify, 
who compose the Multitude ; as, 

An insurrection of the people, Un soulevement du peuple. 

People, used to denote a certain number of individuals, is expressed 

by GENS, PERSONNE, MONDE ; aS, 

Were there many people, i. e. persons, at the play ? 

Y avaitil beaucoiip de gens, beaucoup de bionoe a la comidie ? 

There is a great number of people in the street. 

Ily aun grand nombre de monde, de gens, de personnes dans la rue.. 

But observe that gens is not used after a definite number ; so we do not say. 
Deux ou trots gens ; two or three people; we say, Deux ou trots personnes. 

Except when gens is attended by an adjective; as 

Deux ou trois honn^tes gens. Two or three honest people. 

Cinq ou six jeunes gens. Five or six young people. 

Observe also that when gens is attended by an adjective, this adjective 
must be feminine if it comes before gens, and it must be masculine if 
it comes after ; as. 

Good people, civU people. De bonnes gens^ des gens civils. 

Old people are suspicious. Les vieilles gens sont soup^onneux. 

COUNTRY; PAYS, CAMPAGNE. 

Pays is said of a large extent of country, such as the Dominions of a 
government, a county ^ a province; caimpaqne is said of a certain extent 
of Fields, and is the opposite of ville, TOwn; as, 

France is a fine country. La France est un beau pays. 

I prefer the country to the town. Jeprefere la campagne d la ville, 

MOUTH; BOUCHE, GUEULE. 
Speaking of men. Horses, mules, ASses, we express mouth by bouche ; 
The mouth of a horse, of an ass. La douche ^un cheval, d^un dne. 

Speaking of other Auimuls, we express mouth by gueule ; 

The mouth of an ox, of a dog, &c. La gueule ctun boeuf, (tun chien. 

The mouth of a pike, of a trout. La gue ule d^un brocket, d^une fruite. 

TIME ; TEMS; FOIS. 
The word time, denoting any period, or space, is expressed by tems ; 
It is time to set out. II est tems de partir. 

We shall not be there in time. Nous ny serous pas k tems. 

But the word time is sometimes used to limit the action of the verb, 
or to denote a repetition of the action; as, the ^rst time; this time; an- 
'other time; several times, and is then expressed by fois ; as. 

Pardon me for this time. Pardonnez-moi pour cette fois. 

I will do it better next time. Je leferai mieux la prochaine fois. 

How many times hav^ you done it? Combicn de rois tavez-vous fait ? 



230 



231 



232 



IDIOMS. 2t59 

YEAR; AN, ANN£E. 

DAY; JOUR, JOURNEE. OQO 

An and jour are indefinite expressions which serve more to denote the JtOO 
periods of time than its duration ; they are chiefly used after the cardinal 
or primitive numbers i;n, Dciix^ rrois, auatrey 8^'c. ; as, 

tin AN, deiLX ANs, trois ans,- &c. A year, two years^ three years, Sfc. 
Un JOUR, deujp jours^ irois jours. One day, two days, three days^ Sfc 

Anni^e, on the contrary, implies duration, and will admit of different 
modifications ; so when year is attended by an article, or by an adjec- 
tive, or by another noun, you must express it by ann^e ; as, 

This year, last year. Cette annee, Tannek demiere. 

A good, a happy year, line bonne, une h^ureuse annee. 

A great number of years, Un grand nomhre d* annees. 

Journ^e is generally understood of the time which people employ in 
their occupations from their rising to their going to bed ; as, 

I spent the day very well. J'ai bien employe la journi^e. 

I have studied the whole day, J^ai eiudie toute la journ^e. 

MORMNG; MATIN, MATINEE. 

EVENING; SOIR, SOIREE. OQ/I 

It is the same with matin, matinee ; soir, soiree, as it is with jour, ^o4 
JOURNEE. Matin is said of the Jirst, and soir of the last part of the day, 
but they do not imply any idea of duration. Matinee, on the contrary, 
implies the whole time from day light till noon; but is generally under- 
stood to be from the time that people get up till twelve o* clock at noon ; 
and SOIREE implies the whole time of darkness till twelve dclock at night, 
or WW people retire ; as. 

It was fine this morning, Ilfaisait beau ce matin. 

I have studied all the morning, J*ai etudie toute la matinee. 

Shall we see you this evening V Vous verrons-nous ce soir ? 

I shall spend the evening with you. Je passer ai la soiree avec vous, 

N. B. Saluting people, for good morning, we say son jour, not 
Bon mxitin; and for good nigiit^ we say bon soir, in the early part 
of the night, and bonne nuit, when the night is^r advanced. 

NIGHT; NUIT, SOIR. 

If, by night, you mean the whole time of darkness on that part of the JtOO 
earth which we inhabit, you express it in frcnch by nuit ; as, 

Where did he sleep last night? Oh coucha-i-il la nuit demiere? 
Hespeutthewhole72ig'/£<attheba11.J/pa.95a toute la nuit au bal. 

If, by NIGHT, you mean only the^rs^ part of darkness which is other- 
wise called evenings you express it by soir; as. 
Will you go to the play to-night ? Irez^vous a la comedie ce soir 
Were you at the ball last night ? Etiez-vous au bal hier au soir 

TWELVE O'CLOCK; MIDI, MINUIT, no/* 

It is twelve o'clock. U est midi fin the day, J II est minuit (at night.) 2tO\) 
It is a quarter past 12. // est midi et un quart. li est minuit etwn quart. 
It is AaZ/*past twelve, II est midi et demi. II est minuit et demi. 

It is three quarters past twelve. 1 n j i 

T* «««♦« ««•.«•/-« L ««« (^ ^^ ^^*^ heure moms un Quart. 

it wants a quarter to one. j 

It is one o'clock. // est une heure. 

It is a quarter past one. II est une heure et un quart, &c. 

r2 



237 



238 



239 



260 IDIOMS 

To HAVK, expressed by fcTRE. 

The auxiliary verb have is expressed by the same tense and person of 
the auxiliary ^tre, to form the compound tenses of reflective veubs; as, 
I have hurt myself. Je me suis blesse. 

He has gone away. II s'en est alU. 

We have sat down. Nous nous sommes assis. 

You have walked. Vous vous fexES promen^s. 

They have diverted themselves. J/«se so^t divertis, [seepage 115.] 

The auxiliary have is also expressed by the same tense and person of 
£tre, when it comes before any of the following participles ; 
Agreed, 
Arrived y 
Become^ 



CONVKNU. 


come. 


VENU. 


Fallen, 


tomb£. 


ARRIVE. 


come in^ 


ENTR^. 


Gone, 


ALL]g. 


DEVENU. 


Dead, 


MORT. 


neturned. 


REVENU. 


SURVENU. 


Deceased, 


dec£de. 


set out. 


PARTI. 


Nl^. 


Disagreed, 


DISCONVENU. 


succeeded. 


PARVENU. 



Born, 

I have set out early. Je suis parti de bonne heure. 

He has agreed to do it. II est convenu de kfaire.* 

We have arrived in time. Nous somaies arrives a terns. 

You have returned too soon. Vous ^tes revenus trop tot. 

They have gone too far. lis sont alles trop loin. 

To BE, expressed \yy AVOIR. 
The auxiliary verb be is expressed by the same tense and person of the 
auxiliary avoir, when it is followed by the adjectives nungry. Thirsty, 
cold, warm, not denoting the natural feelings; Right, wrong. Ashamed; 
because these adjectives are expressed by a substantive in french ; as, 
I a7n hungry. J\ifaim, 

He is thirsty. II a soif. 

His feet are cold. // kfroid aux pieds. 

She is warm or hot. Elle a chaud; not, eUc est chaude. 

Her hands are warm. Elle a chaud aux mains. 

We aie right. No7is avons raison. 

They are wrong, ashamed. lis ont tort ; its unt honte, 

N. B. The verb be is also expressed by avoir, in speaking of the Age 
of beings, because iu these instances, as in the above, the French use a 
substantive instead of an adjective; as, [^have you? 

How old are you ? Quel age axez-vous? i. e. What age 

I am sixteen. J'ai seize ans; not, Je suis seize. 
How old is your horse? Quel age a votre cheval? 

* When the participle convenu means suited, it requires avoir ; as, 
Ceta m* AV RAIT fort hien convenu ; That loould have suited me very well. 

]V. B, The participles soRTi, gone out, been out; VASsi, gone by ; MOfiTK, gone up, <i5- 
eended ; drscendu, come down, require avoir or ktre, agreeably to thjp sense in which 
they are used ; but tlie same distinction, I think, is observed in english ; 

Mon pere A sorii; My father has been out. 11 etait sorti; He vms gone out. 

Jl A pass^ pres d'ici ; He has passed just by. J I EST passt ; He is gone by. 

J I A nionte Id eoiline/ He has ascended the hill. 11 EST monti ; He is gone up. 

11 A descendu Vescalier; He Aas come down the stairs. 11 est descendu ; He is come down. 

Dlmeur^, used for lived, dwelt, requires avoir ; and for remained, staid, it requires 
ETRR ; as, 

II A demeiiri a Paris; He has lived in Paris. IL EST demeuri d. P. ; He has staid in P. 

AccoURU, run fo,* Vi(Rl, perished; apparI}^,comvaru, appeared; DISVARV, disappear- 
ed ; CRv, grown; D^CRU, g*-own less; RECRU, grown again, take indifferently avoir or 

ETRE. 



IDIOMS. 261 

I'o BE, expressed by FAIRG. c\ A /\ 

The verb be, attended by an adjective or a substantive denotins: the iS4U 
state of the weather, or of the jtmosphere, is expressed in french by the 
same tense of the verb faire, with IL for its nominaiive; as, 
• How is the weather? Quel terns Ykxa-il? 

Is the weather fine? pait-i7 beau tents? 

Yes, the weather is very fine. Out, it fait irds-beau terns. 

It is rather wann. II fait un pext chaud. 

It is very cold. II fait tres^froid, or grand froid. 

The weather has been bad lately. II a fait mauvais tejns depuis petu 

To BE, To DO, expressed by Se PORTER. O >! 1 

The verbs be and do, used to denote the state of the Body, are express- ^4 i 
cd by the same tense and person of the reflective verb Se porter; as, 
How are you? how do you do ? Comment vous PORTEz-ro?/«? 
I am pretty well, I .thank you. Je me porte assez bien, dien niercL* 
I have not been well. Je ne me suis pas bien PORT^.p % , a 

How is your mother ? \r'> » j j. 'j 

H, ^ .1 J o >^ommcnt se porte madame;\ votre 

ow does your mother do? ) ' 

To BE, expressed by DEVOIR . O /I O 

The present tense of the verb iijs, am, art, w, are, and the imperfect ^'Xiw 

was, were, followed by another verb in the iNFiNiriFE, are expressed 

by the same tense and person of the verb devoir ; as, 
I am to go there to-night. Je dois y alter ce soir. 

He w to come to-morrow, II doit venirdemain; not, il est &c. 

He was to bring it to-day. // devait Capporter avjourdhui. 

To BE, not expressed in french. r% j o 

The iiifinitive word ro be, followed by a past participle, is not ex* ^4e5 
pressed, but the english participle takes the place of the i/tfinitive be, 
and is expressed by the infinitive in french; as. 

There is nothing to be seen. II n^y a rien h voir. 

He caused his head to be cut off. II Ixiijit couper la tete. 

This house is to be let, to be sold. Cette maison est a louer, ^ vend re. 

To BE Just, To HAVE Just; VENIR DE, Ke FAIRE Que DE. ^ . - 

The verbs have and be followed by the adverb Just, to deiwte an ac- ii'x'i 

tion past at the moment we are speaking, are expressed by venir de, or 

Ne faire Que de, in the same tense and pers(m as have or be are, and 

the english participle is expressed by the uifinitive in french; thus, 

T y.«, i^Moi or.«™^ j*^^ viENS d^arriver; or, 

1 am just come. < r i» • 

•' ( Jfi ne pais que d ar river. 

nT 1 *u L J ' J i \Monfrere WENKiT de finir ; or. 

My brother had just done. S tlt v ^ "^ i j: - * 

^ •^ [Monfrere ne faisait que de^n/r.J 

* The French do not, as the English do, thank thos« who inquire after their health. Intitead of Je 
Tou» remercie; thejr say, J)ieu merci; A voire service; Vous etet bien bon^ or bien civii; Vous avez bien 
de la bonte,OT they retarn the coniplinfient after the answer by saying, Et vousf and^ov / 

t It is customary with the French, in mentioning the relations of the people to whom 
they are speaking, to add the words Monsieur, Madame, Mademoiselle ; as, 

Comment se porte monsieur voire pere, monsieur votrefrire? 

J'ai rencontri MADAME cotre mere, mademoiselle voire sxur'y these words can not 
be expressed in english. 

X Do not confound tie fairE Q.ue DE, To be just. To have just, with Ne FAIRE Que, # 
which expresses another idea, vix. To do nothing but; DK added to the first makes the 
difit- rence between these two expressions. 



245 



262 IDIOMS. 

WAS NEAR, WERE NEAR, HAD LIKE ; PENSEK. 

IFjs NEAR, WERE NEAR followcd by a prcsent participle, and had 

LIKE followed by an infinitive, denote an action which was on the point 

of being effected, and are expressed by the perfect tense, or the present 

compound* of the verb penser ; as, 

I was near dyins: ; 1 t> • ,£ • * • 

T J. ^ 7f * u J- J f*'^^ PBNSE, orje PENSAi* viounr. 

or I had like to have died. •^ 

You were near falling ; 

or You had like to have fallen. 



246 



247 



'Fous avez PENsi tomber. 



e ^ we r mg , i j^ ^ pENsi, or il pensa* ^tre tue. 

or He had like to have been killed. J 

THERE IS, THERE ARE, IT IS FAR, IT IS LONG, AGO, 
IT IS SINCE, THIS, THESE; IL Y A ; IL Y AVAIT, &c. 

There is, there are, it is far, it is long, it is since, ago, 
and the demonstrative words this, these, pointing out a period of time, 
are expressed by the impersonal verb il y a ; il y avait, &c. ;t as. 

Is there any news to-day ? y a-^-il des nouvelles aujourd!hui ? 

Are there flowers in his garden ? y A-^f/ desjleurs dans sonjardin ? 

How ferwrt from Calais to farisPl ^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^p 
or How ^r is Calais from pans? J 

It is a hundred and fifty miles. il Y A cent dnquante milles. 

Calais is 150 miles from Paris. il y a cefit dnquante miUes de c, a p. 

How long has he lived here^ Comhien y a-/-il qvHil demeure id? 

He has been here these six months, il y a six mois quHl est id. 

Ji^wlOyearsw/icehewasinFranceliL Y a dix ans quHl etait en prance; 

or He was in France ten years «g-o. for, II etait en prance il Y a dix ans. 

It is lonff since I have seen him. ) , ^ .^ . + » • 

Tu °. u- ^f 1 u-1 hi^YxloTig'tenisquejeNEiraivu. 

or I have not seen him <m* long while) ^ ^i ^ t 

It was 12 months sijice I saw him 1 . „ . 

TU J * u- jt in xu }ihY awkiTunanquejeNEtavaisvu. 
or I had not seen him ^^ese 12 months. J 5^ •' 

HERE IS, HERE ARE ; THIS IS, THESE ARE ; VOICI. 
THERE IS, THERE ARE; THAT IS, THOSE ARE; VOILA. 

Here is, here are, this is, these are, pointing out any object, 
are expressed by voici; there is, there are, that is, those are, 
also pointing out an object, are expressed by voilA ; as. 

Here is, or this is your horse. voici voire cheval. 

Here are, or these are your boots, voici vos bdttes. 

There is, that is a man who says. voilA un homme qui dit. 

N. B. It is to be observed that, when the nominative of the verb which 
attends here, there, in the above sense, i. e, pointing out an object, is a 
personal pronoun, this nominative pronoun is changed into an objective 
pronoun in freneh, and placed bepore voici, voilA ; thus. 

Here I am. me void. Here we are. nous void. 

Here he is* le , void. There she is. la ' voila. 

Here they are. les void. There they are. les voild. 

• Agreeably to 136, 137 rules. 

i See the conjugation of the impersonal verb Y AVOIR, page 173. t ^^ the 196 rule 

§ The French do not give fo the different periods of tiine names which correspond with the English. 
For a week, they say« huit jours; for two w8ek«,or a fortnight, they say, quxnae jours; three weeks, troit 
sevuiines ; four weeks, un ntoU ; for a quarter of a year, they say, trots mots; half a year, six mois ; thrve 
4(iarter8 of a year, ne^fm^^u ; twelve months, unan. 



IDIOMS. 



263 



LET; QUE, LAISSEZ. • QAik 

Let, implying command or permission to a third person, is expressed I24o 
by QUE, and the object of let is made the Nominative of the following 
verb, which must be in the subjunctive in french ; as. 
Let him do it himself. Qu'i7 le fosse lui-rnhne. 

Lei her go, if she likes. Qu'c//e y aille, si elle veut. 

Let them go too. Qu'f^, or qv^elles y aiUent aussL 

Let my brother go alone. que monfrire y aille seuL 

Let, commanding or entreating a second person, is expressed by the 
second person of the imperative of the verb laisser, with the follow- 
ing verb in the infinitive ; as, 

Let him go ; permit him to go. latssez-^c alter. 

Let her go ; permit her to go, LAissEz-/tf aMcr. 

Let them go; permit them to go. hkissEz-les alter. 

Lc/ my brother go; sujffer himio go. ItAIssez oiler monfrdre. 

N. B. Let know, meaning to inform^ is expressed by faire savoir, 
ttgreeably to tense and person ; as, 

Let him know that I will come. faites lui savoir queje viendrai, 
. I will let him know it to-night. Je le lui ferai savoir ce soir. 

To MAKE ; FAIRE, RENDRE. ^ . ^ 

To make, meaning to perform some work, or some action, is expressed ^4t7 
by faire ; as. 

To make a book ; to make a noise, faire un livre ; faire du bruit. 

To make great progress. faire de grands progrcs. 

But to make, expressing not the performance of an action, but the moral 
or natural effects of one being on another, is expressed by rendre ; as, 

Exercise makes the body healthy. Vesercice rend le corps sain. 

Vice makes men unhappy. Le vice rend len hommes molkeureux. 

Misfortune has made n\m wise. Le mcUheur to rendu sage. 

To CAUStl, To HAVE, To GET; FAIRE. • 
The verbs cause, and have; and get, in the sense of cat/«e, meaning ^^(J 
to order, or procure a thing to be done, are expressed by the same tense 
and person of the verb faire ; and the english participle which follows 
HAVE, or GET, is exprcsscd by the infinitive in french 5 as, 

I had him arrested ; 1 r r ^1 

1 . J u* / u A J W^ * -^i PA IT arreter. 

or i have caused him to be arrested. J 

I shall have him punished ; \j h v 'n 

or I shall cause him to be punished.} • ^^^ ^* 

Get your watcli mended. faites raccommoder voire montre. 

To CAUSE To BE DOiVE or MADE, To HAVE or Uatbtp vATur' 
GET DONE or MADE, To ORDER, To BESPEAK ;P^^'^^ FAIRE. 

To cause to be done or made. To have or get done or made, 25 J 
To ORDER, To BESPEAK, are expressed by the verb faire repeated ; i.e. 
the ^rst verb in the same tense and person as cause, have, get, order, or 
bes])eak is, and the second verb in the infinitive; as, 
I am going to get a watch made. Je vais fairs fairs une montre* 
Where will you have it made? l^s 1^ « 

«-WK :ii - J •* J o fOu la FEREZ-VOUS FAIRE? 

or Where will you get it doner J 

I shall have it made in Paris ; 1 r 1 y. n • 

or I shall get it d<me in PHri,. K" '« "''*' "-^""^ * ^«"*- 



253 



254 



264 IDIOMS. 

^^^ To ASK, To DESIRE; DIRE, PIUER, CHARGER. 

JdOJj We say in French as in english, demander une chose, to ask for a thing ; 
DiSsiaEa une chose, to wish for a thing ; but we do not say ; demander 
de faire une chose, to ask to do a thing ; nor d£sirer vne personne de 
faire une chose, to desire a person to do a thing ; therefore, when ask 
or DESIRE are followed by another verb in the infinitive, ask must be 
expressed by dire or prier; and desire by prier or charger; as, 
He asked me to do it. II me dit, or il me pria de le faire. 

He desired me to tell you so. I/m'apRi£, or charge c?e»;o?/s /erf/re. 

To LOOK; REGARDER, PARAITRE. AVOIR LA MINE. 
Tq look, meaning to view, to consider, is expressed by regarder ; 
Look at this man, at that horse, regardez cd homme, ce cheval. 

To LOOK, meaning to seem, to Appear, is PARAixRE, avoir i/air, avoir 

LA MINE, AVOIR APPARENCE ; RS, 

That man looks very proud. Cet homme a /'air bienfier. 

You look very well to-day. Voiis avez bonne mine aujourd^hui. 

This bread looks well. Ce pain varkit ban, or k bo nneidiNv^* 

How does the country look? Quelle apparence a la campagne? 

To SUPPOSE ; SUPPOSER, PENSER, S'IMAGINER. 
The French say as well as the English, supposer une chose, to sup^ 
pose a things \. e^to take it as granted for the sake of argument; as. 
You suppose (i. e. you take for granted) a thing which is not probable. 
Vous SUPPOSEZ une chose qui n^est pas probable. 

But the verb suppose, so often used in english in the sense of to rhink, 
to Fancy, to imagine, can not be expressed by the verb supposer in 
french ; it must be expressed by penser or s'imaginer; as, 

J suppose you know the news, i. e. I think, I imagine, 4*c. 

Je m'iMAGiNE que vous savez ks nouvelles ; not, Je suppose, Sfc. 

It is supposed that there lias been a battle ; i. c. it is thought, 8;c, 

On pense, on ^'imagine qu*il y a eu bataille; never, On suppose. 

To HOPE ; ESPERER. 

To HOPE; Se FLAITER, AIMER a CROJ.RE, Se PLAIRE a CROIRE. 

The verb hope followed by a Future tense, is expressed by ksperer ; 

I hope you will be well by and by, to-morrow, &c. 

,r espere que voits vous portercz bien tantot, demain, Sfc, 

N.B. HOPE, being the expectation of something to com«,can never be said in 
french of what is past or present; so when the verb HOPE is followed by the/we- 
S(mt or peifect tense of another verb, it can not be expressed by Esperer ; it roust 
be expressed by Se Flatter, Aimer h croirr, Se Plaire a croirb ; as, 

I hope you are well. Je me flattk, or J'aime d croire, or 

Je me plais d croire que vous vous portez bien ; never, /espere. 

I hope that I have not kept you waiting. 

Je me FLAXTEt que jene vous at pas fait atlendre; never, j'espere. 

Yet, in these instances, we may also use the verb esperer, if we trans- 
pose it in parenthesis at the end of the sentence ; thus, 

Vous vous portez bien, /espere. You are well, I hope, 

Je ne vous ai pas fait attendre,fESvicRE. I have not kept you, I hope. 

* MINE is said of the luok of persons^ and o( things that are eatable, such as bread, meat, f nut, Sfc 
bat it cannot be eaid of other things. 

t Je me flattl, in this sense, does not mean I flatter myself; it means, I like to IhinV 
to fersuade myself. 



255 



IDIOMS. 265 

To TAKE; MENKR. PORTER. 

I'jBRiiVG; AMENER, APPORTER. OK '^ 

Mener, to TAKE^ is said of beings thai have the salural faculty o^ juO(] 
n diking; porter is said of the same beings when they have losl^ or are 
not able to use that facuhy ; and of Things ; as, 

Take my horse to the stable. menez mon cheval a teatrie. 

Take the saddle to the saddler. portez la selle an seUier. , 

Amener and apporter are used in the same sense as stcner and 
porter^ but they imply a relation to i\\^ place in which we are; as. 
Bring me my hor^e. AMENEZ-mof mon cheval. 

Bring me my whip. ' APPORTEZ-moi monfouet, 

Tn USF ' /^« SERVIR de, USER de, En USER, 

' ITRAITER, AGIR, AVOIR COUTUME. O^ ^ 

To USE, meaning to make use of Things, is expressed by the reflective ^t) / 
verb se servir de; as, / 

I am vsi?ig my knife, my pen, my book, my horse, &c. . * 

Je me sers de mon conleaie, de ma plume, de mon livre, de mon cheval; 
not J'r sE mon eouteau^ ma plume, <^. l)ecause user une chose, means, to wear 
out a thing, not to make use of a thing. 

Yet speaking of moral or intellectual objects, we express use by user de; 

To use patience, violence, reprisals, precaution. 

user de patience, de violence, de represailles, de precaution. 

To use, speaking of the Manner of Acting towards persons, is expressed 
by TRAiTER, £71 USER avcc, AGIR avcc ; as, 

lie uses me well. 

// 7ne TRAiTE blen; II en use bien avec moi; II agit bien avec moi. 

He has not used me well. II ne rtCa pas bien trait^. 

To USE, meaning to be Accustomed to, is expressed by avoir coutumb, 
or £:tr£ AccouTUMi; as, 

You are used to it. Vom y 6tes accoutum^. 

He was not tised to do so. // 7^*avdit pas coutume dagir ainsi. 

To HELP ; AIDER, SER VIR. ^ r 

To HELP, viz. to Assist a person to do a thing, is expressed by aider; Jiti ^ 
Shall I help you to do it? Vous AiD^RAi-jie d lefaire? 

My brother will not help me. Monfrere ne vcut pas wi*aider. 

Bnt to HELP is often used in the sense of to rake, to Ojffer, to present 
a thing to a person; help is then expressed by servir, not the person 
to the thing, but the thing to the person ; as. 

Shall I help yow to a glass of wine? Fous s^RviRM-je un verrc de vin? 
i. e. shall I help a glass of wine to you ? 

Help that gentleman to a glass; servez vn verre A ce tnonsienr; 
not, SERYBZ ce' monsieur A un verre ; for it is the glass that you help or pre^ 
sent to the gentleman, not the gentleman to the glass. 

To ATTEND, explained in the following examples ; O ^* * 

To attend a meeting. aller or assister d une assembltm, ^^ 

To attend to one's duty. fairs or rrmplir son devoir, 1 

To attend to what is said. faire attention d ce qtCon dit. 

To attend to business. s*appliquer aux affaires. 

To attend a sick 



266 IDIOMS. 

To attend a sick person. oardeb or soigner un malade. 

To attend a patient, viz. to visit, voir or visiter un malade. 
To attend a master, to wait upon, servir un mattre. 
To attend a maater, to be taught prendre legon dun maitre. 
To attend a pupil, to give Icsaona. donner lefon a un ecolier, 

T WANT J AVOIR BESOIN, AVOIR £N\aE, DfiSIRER, 
' ISOUHAITER, VOULOIR, DEMANl^ER. 
^OU ^0 WANTt meaning to be in Need of a thing, or under the Necessity of 
doing a thing, is expressed by avoir bbsoin ; as, 

I want money, clothes; am in need. Tai besoin dargent^ d*habits, 
1 do not want him ; have no need. Je 7i*ai pas besoin de luu 
I want to go to town ; f. e. must go. Toi besoin daller a la ville. 

But WANT is often used to denote merely wish or Desire; it is then 
expressed by avoir envib, d]£sirer, souhaiter, vouloir ; as, 

I want to see him; i. e. I wish, Je desire or souhaite de le voir, 
I wa?it to speak to him; (wish) J'ai en vie de lui parler, 
I want him to learn french. Je veux quHl apprenne lefrangais. 

To WANT a person or a Things in the sense of wishy is demander ; 
Whom or what do you want? Qui or que demandez-vou^? 
You are wanted; He wants you. O/i vori5 oemanoe ; i?voti«oEJifANDE. 

To MARRY; MARIER, Se MARIER, fiPOUSER. 
^Ol If. by MARRYy you mean to Give a person tn Marriage, or to perform 
what is called the ceremony , you must make use of the verb marier. If, 
by MARRY, you mean to take a person t;i Marriage, you use ^pouser; 

My father has married his niece. 

Mon pere a hari^ sa niece ; i. e. has given her in marriage, 

Mon pere a ^pousi sa niece; i. e. has taken her for his wife. 

That parson has married my sister. 

Ce prUre a mari^ ma soeur; i. e. has performed the ceremony. 

Ce pretre a ipous^ ma sceur; i. e. has taken her for his wife. 

N. B. MARRIED, in the sense of raking a wife, is expressed by ipousi 
after the auxiliary have, and by mari£ after the auxiliary be; as, 
I have married his sister. J'ai ^pous£ sa sceur; not mari£. 

I am married to his sister. Je suis hari£ a «a «a?ur ; not Spouse. 

To MARRY, m a Neuter sense, i. e. without an o6;ec/ added to it, is ex- 
pressed' by the reflective verb ae marier ; as, 

When do you marry Y Quand vous m ARiEZ-rotw ? 

I will never be married, Je ne me kariekki jamais. 

To RIDE, ejplained in the following examples ; 
262 To ride well. se tenir bien a cheval. 

To ride in a coach', on horseback, aller encarrossCi kller a cheval. 

FAIRE un TOUR CJl co^pTOSse ;ov. 



To take a ride in a coach. 
To take a ride on horseback. 



se PROMENER cn carrosse. 
FAIRE un TOUR d chevol; or 
se PROMENER d chcval. 



N. B. To RjDEf attended by any particular object, i. e*. an object deter* 
mined by any of the signs called Article, is expressed by alleh; as, 
I will ride your horse, and you will ride in my coach. 
J'iRAi sur voire cheval, et vous ibez dans mon carrosse. 



IDIOMS. 267 

Ti WALK; MARCHER. Se PROMENER. O^Q 

If, by IFJLK^ you mean th« action of ^oin^ from place to place, either ^\)ij 
for Business or Exercise^ you must use marcher; as, 

fFalk a little faster. marchez un peu plus vile, 

I can not walk any more. ^ Je ne puis plus marcher. 

i have walked too much to-day. J^ai trop marche aujourcthui. 

If, by WALK, you mean that exercise which is taken for Diversion, you 
must use the reflective verb se promener ; as, 

Let us walk a little, PROM£NON8*no2^ un peu* [ctkui. 

I have not walked to-day. Je Tie me suis pas promen^ aujour- 

N. B. To TAKE A WALK is expressed by faire un tour, or by faire 

Une PROMENADE, FAIRE UU TOUR de PROMENADE ; RS,* 

Let us go and take a walk, ^^on« faire un tour (^promenade. 

Go and iaJce a walk in the garden. AUez faire un tour dans le jar din,* 

To COME; ALLER. VENlR. OfiA 

The English oflen use the verb come, with reference to the person to ^U4r 
whom they speak; so speaking to a person in the street, they will say: 

I will.coME and see you to-morrow, meaning, at the person^s house; 

The French, on the contrary, speak with reference to the place^ and 
not to the person ; so this sentence : 

I will COME and see you to-morrow, may be expressed two ways; 

Je viendrai voim voir danaiiu being then at the place in which you 
are to come to see the person. 

J'iRAi vous voir demai?i, meaning the place where you are to go to see 
the person ; for, yenir means to move from a place in which we are not 
at the lime we are speaking, to a pUice in which we are; aller means to 
move from a place in which we are, to a place in which we are not. 

In asking a question, come is expressed by venir; but in the answer, 
the verb must be determined by the place, not by the person you are to go to. 

Ta RETURN ; RETOU RN ER, RE VENIR. O ^ C 

The English use the verb return both for to oo hack, and to come JlXio 
hack; but in french you must make a distinction. 

If, by return, you mean to go back^ you must use retourner ; as, 
I come from Paris, and I will return to-morrow; t. e. will ao hack. 
Je viens de Paris, etfy retournerai dtmmn. 
If, by RETURN, you mean to come bade, you must use revenir; as, 
I am going to Paris, and I will return next week; i. e. will come hack. 
Je vais a Paris, etje reitiendrai la seniaine prochaine, 

N. B. To RETURN, meaning to Give hack, to Restore, to Repay, is ex- 
pressed by rendre ; 'as. 

Return me my money. RENDEz-mot mx)n argent. 

Have I not returned it to you? Ne vous tai-jepas rendu? 

To CALL ; T ASSER CHEZ. OflP 

To CALL a person, is appeler auelqu'un; but to call at sl person's, ZuO 

or UPON a person is passer chez uuelqu*un ; as, ^ 

When will you call upon me? Quand pa.ssekez-vous chez moi? 
I will call upon you to-morrow. Je passerai demain chez vous. 

Never say, appelbz sue moi, call upon me ; ;* appsu.brai sur vous, ^. 

* Faire urn tour is generally aaderstood of a thort toalk; and Fair$ une promenadey Faire un tour de 
promenade means to take a walk, without any limitation at to time, hatrather long than thort. 



267 



268 



269 



270 



2G8 IDIOMS. 

To BREAK; ROMPRE. CASSER. 

RoMPit)2 IS said of things which require some effort to break them, such 
an wood and metals ; as. 

You have broken my stick. Vous avez rompu mon baton. 

Casser is said of things that are frail, such as gIoss and Earthenware, 
He has broken the plates. II a CASsi les assiettes. 

The glass and bottle are broken, Le verre et la bouteille sont cassis. 

N. B. In speaking of Bones, we use indifferently rompre or casser ; 
He has broken his leg. II s^cat cass£ or rompu lajambc. 

Without specifying any particular object, we use casser; as. 
They break every thing in this house. On casse tout dans cette maison. 
And for break to pieces^ we say briser; as, 
The ship was broken to pieces. Le navirefut tout brise. 

To LIKE; AIMER, TROUVER. 
To LIKE, meaning to be Fond of, to have a Liking for a person oi a 
thing, is expressed by aimer; as, 

I like wine, money, pleasure, France, the country, &c. 
Jaime le vin, t argent, le plamr, la France^la campagne, 8fc. 

But LIKE is often used, especially in asking questions, for to rhiuk, to 

iiave an opinion, and is then expressed by penser or trouver ; 

,T 1 II Ai • ^ n / i-e. What think you, what is your 

How do you like this country ? io;7t/iio» of this country ? 

Que PENSEz-roiw de cepays? or comment trouvbz-i?ou« ce pays? 

Yet in the answer we use aimer ; as, 

Je Taime beaucovp, Je Taime assez bien. Je ne Taime pas du tout 

I like it much. I like it well enough. I do not like it at all. 

To KEEP; CARDER, TENIR, AVOIR. 
To KEEP, meaning to preserve, to watch, to Guard, to Look after, is 
expressed by garder; as. 

Keep it for my sake; i e. preserve. okRDZZ-le pour V amour de moi. 
This dog keeps the house ; watches. Ce chien garde la maison.' 
This boy keeps \\\q flocks; looks after. Ce garcon oahdb les troupeaur. 

These instances excepted, tn keep is generally expressed by tenir 
She keeps a house, a school. Elle tient maison, ecole. 

He keeps an inn, boarders. // tient auberge, des pensionnaircs. 

To keep in prison, in the house. tenir en prison, dans la maison. 
To keep clean, to keep ready. tenir proprc, tenir pret. 

To keep cows, horses, a coach, avoir des vaches, des chevaux, un 
carrosse. Familiarly we say; rouler carrosse ; to keep a coach. 

To GET; GAGNER ; GOT not expressed infrench. 
The verb get, meaning to Gain, to win, to Earn, to Acquire, is ex- 
pressed by GAGNER ; as. 

He gets or earns five shillings a day. II gagne cinq shdings par jour. 
He has 5*0/ ori^OTi adealof money. // a gagn£ beaucoup d! argent. 

But the participle got, so often added to the verb have, to denote pos^ 
session, is 7iot expressed in french, and is perhfips useless in engHsh ; as, 

He has got a deal of money. II a beaucoup d^argent. 

Have you gfo< any money about you? AVEZ-ww/* de Vargent sur vous? 

You have got a new hat. Vous avez 7//* chapeau neuf; not, 

vom avez gagn£, which means, you have won, gained, earned^ ^c. 



IDIOMS. 269 

ToSPLND; DEPENSER, PASSER. ^^1 

Speaking of Money, property, to spend is expressed by d^penser; jL§ L 
speakini^ of rime, spend is expressed by passer; as. 

He spends a\\ his money in gaming. II defense tout son argent djouer. 
He spends all his time in hunting. // passe tout son terns d la chasse. 

To CHARGE; PRENDRE, FAIRE PAYER, PRIX. c\^c% 

Tlie verb charge, so often used in speaking of the price of things, 2ii m 
can not be expres^d in french by charger, which means to load, or to 
GIVE IN charge; it must be expressed by prendre, faire payer, or 
by PRIX, with some other verb ; as, 

How much do you charge a day for a horse? L e. do you require? 

Combien vre^ez-vous par jour port r un cheval? 

How much do you charge for a saddle? what is i\\Q price of a saddle? 
. Combien p rev e7.-vous pour une selle? or auelest le prix d'uneselle? 

You charge too much ; i. e, the price is too high. 

C*est TRop, c^est trop cher, vous prenez trop, vous faites payer irop; 
never, vous chargez trop; vous avez charge trop, 

T r/i *« nrrrT. f ALLER au-DEVANT de, 

10 UU to ML1.1 , IaLLER a la RENCONTRE de; ex. 

Let us go and meet your sister. allons aw-DEVANT.de votre sceur, lit O 
„r • J ^ \Nous AiiLioNs a \>otre rencontre ; 

We were ?o.;,gr to wierf you. |^^„, ^^^^^^^ axi-T^^SK^t de vom. 



274. 



275 



"^ ^^^^ailF'^^'^^..^ ^rr. .n UpPROCHER, S'aPPROCIIER de. 
. To GO NEAR, To COME NEAR; ) 

Approcher means to bring an object near, and .s'approcher de 
means to go, or come near an object; for ex. I shall say: 
APPROCHEZ la table. Bring the table near. 

But if I said to a person come near or go near the table ; I should not say, 
APPROCHEZ la table; I must say, APPROCHEZ-ro?/« de la table; for it is the 
verson who is to approach the table, not the table to approach the person. 
I brought my sister near me. J'approchai ma sceur de moi, 

I went near my sister. Je ji'approchai de 7na sceur. 

To HEAR ; ENTENDRE, ENTENDRE des NOUVELLES, &c. 
To HEAR a person is entendre QUelqulun; as, 
I hear your sister coming. J'entends venir votre sceur. 

But TO HEAR FROM a pcrson, is not entendre de Quelqu*un; hear 
is then expressed by entendre des nouvelles, apprendre des nou- 

VELLES, RECEVOIR deS NOUVELLES ; as. 

Do you hear from, your sister often? 

ENTENDEZ-VOl/A, or APPRENEZ-V02/S, Or RECEVEZ-tJOW* SOUVCtlt dcS NOU- 
VELLES de votre sceur? not, entendez-to?/* souvent de votre sceur? 

I hear from her almost every day. 

J'entends, or j'apprends, or je re^ois presque touts les jours de ses 
NOUVELLES, OX des NOUVELLES d^cllc; not, j'entends D'elleSfc, 

IT IS WITH; IL EN EST DE. 97 ^ 

It is with, denoting a similarity between two objects, is expressed ^4 \J 
by IL EN ebt de; as. 

It is with you as with me. I\EiizsTdevouscomm^demoi.[mille, 

It is with a state as with a family. II en est d*un etat comme d^unefa- 



277 



270 IDIOMS. 

WHATEVER, IN VAIN, TO NO PURPOSE; AVOIR BEAU. 
Avoir beau is an expression very prevalent in conversation, instead of 
EN VAIN, iNUTiLEMEiirT; SO, instead of saying; 

C^est en vain queje lui dis (Vhtudier^U n'enfaitrien; 

It is in vain that I tell him to study, be does not do it ; we say; 

J\i BEAU lui dire d^etudier, U n* en fait rien. , 

To FIND FAULT WITH; TROUVER d REDIRE d; ex. 
He Jinda fault with every thing. II trouve d redire d, tout. 
Whdii fault can he found with it? Que peut-on y trouvbr d redire? 

To TAKE IT KINDLY; SAVOIR BON GRE. 

To TAKE IT UNKINDLY; SAVOIR MAUVAIS GRE ; ex. 

If he comes,'I will take it kindly, SHI vient,je lui en saurai bon gre. 
He would take it unkindly of me. II m^en saurait mauvais ore. 
T'ake it kindly or unkindly » SACHEz-m en bonaaicm mauvais gr^. 

To DO WITHOUT, To BE EASY WITHOUT; Se PASSER de; ex. 
Can you do without a horse? Pouvez-vous vous passer de cheval? 

I can not do without one. \r • f 

T * . -..,Mi.^. 4 :* 1*'^ ne puis pas m en passer. 

I am not easy without it. ) ^ * 

281 WHAT IS THE ^UTTER, \ QU'VA-T-IL, QU'EST-CE QUIL Y A, 



278 
279 



280 






WHAT IS IT ABOUT, >QU'EST-CE QUE, 

WHAT IS ITf JqU'EST-CE QUE C'EST? ex. 

ffhai is the matter there? qu'v A-t-il Id ; qu'est-cc qu'il yhld? 

What is the matter with you? qu'est-ce que vous avez ? 
What is the ma^^er with your hand? qu'est-ce que vous avez d la main? 

N. B. Qu'est-cb que is very prevalent in conversation, instead of 
QUE ; so instead of saying : 

que dites'vous ? What do you say ? 

qjj^ faiie»-vcms? fTAo/ are you doing? we say: 

qu'est-cb que vous dites ? qu*est-ce que vousfaites ? 

282 IS IT, IS IT NOT, )EST-CEQUE, 

DOES IT, DOES IT NOT, VN'EST-CE PAS QUE, 

HAVE I, HAVE I NOT? Jn'EST.CE PAS? 

These expressions are often used to ask questions ; but they serve less 
to require information, than to shew a kind of pear or surprise, that the 
thing about which we inquire should be different from what we thought 
or wished it to be ; the difference will be made obvious in the following 
examples ; 

Vous en allez-vous ? Are you going ? 

EST-CE que vous VOUS en allez ? You are not ^oing, are you ? 

Ne sortirons-nous pas ? Shall we not go out ? 

N'est-ce pas QUE nous soriirons, | ^^ ^^^,j ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ p 
or Nous sortirons, n est-ce pas f } 

It seems to me, however it may seem to other people, that these two 
ways of asking a question, imply different ideas.* 

♦ These are the words which, I have remarked, generally embarrass the learner ; but 
he will hnd in the course of his studies, several other idiomatical expressions of less 
importance and too numerous to be explained in a grammar ; they are found in the dic- 
tionaries, and will be learned by taking notice of them in reading. 



271 



EXERCISES 



ON THE 



RULES CONTAINED IN THE SYNTAX. 



ARTICLE and NOUN. 

1 The article must be of the same gender and of the same number 

article doit itre mime genre m. et nombre m. 

88 the noun ; The horse, the cow, the sheep. The bread, the meat, the 

que nom ; m* cheval, vache, b^ebit.i Tpain, m. viande^ f. 

clothes. My garden, his house, his trees. Her finger, her ring, her 

^abit.\ jardifif m. maisotif f« arbi-e. doigt^ m. hague, f. 

gloves, A dish, a plate. Some butter, some sauce, some pepper, 

gant, plat, m. assiette, f. beurref m. tauce, f. paivre, m 

some mustard, some capers. This wine, that beer, those glasses. 

moutarde, f. eSpre, vin, m. biere, f. verre, 

2. The article must be pronounced easily with the noun ; Do you"" 

doit te prononcer aisiment avee — t || 

go*** to the assembly to-night ? I will go*** to the opera. Shall you go"* to 

aUer§ auembUe ee soirf — allerf^ op^a. — *■■ aller 

school this summer? I shall go*** towards the beginning of autumn. 

feeole it£ m. f -^ aller vers commencement m. ^automne. 

(Let us go) (as far as) that tree near the church. Do you hear*** 

*• - alloM jusqu*ii arbre m. pi'h de ^glise. — *** entendre§ 

that bird? Have*** you heard the history of that man? He has*** 

oiseau f m. Avoir entendu *histoire 'homme f avoir 

sacrificed his honour to the interest of the state. My ingenuity and 

9aerifi6 'honneur intuit 4tat» ing^nuiti et 

my exactness have*** (at last) won her affection and her esteem. 

exactitude avoir enfin gagni affection estime. 

* Theie exercises betu(r intended for persons who have written the introductory exercises, and for 
persons of a riper understaDding who are able to comprehend many rules at once, snch rules only will be 
pointed oat in each exercise, as the learner is supposed not toJiave seen, when he writes that exercise, 
that he may hare an opportunity to exercise his recollection. 

t See rales for the formation of the plural namber of nouns, p. 183 and following. 

t A dash under a word shews that the word is not expressed in french. 

jj The figures at the top of the words indicate the paragraph where the rule which 
that word requires is to be found. 

§ The Infinitive only of the yerb is given here ; the learner must himself find the right 
tense and person, agreeably to the conjugation to which the verb belongs ; therefore it 
IB necessaiy that he should peruse the conjugations, before he writes these exercises 



272 EXERCISE. 

ARTICLE and NOUN. 

3. The article must (be repeated) before every noun ; Briniif me 

article doit ae rip^ter avant chaqxie nom ; Appoitez *• 

some pens, •ink, and 'paper. I have a letter to write to my uncle 

• plume, *encre et papier, m. lettre t a icrire onvle 

and **aunt. This paper and ink are"* not g^ood. Lend me your wax 

tante, » etre *•* ban »» Fretex *• cire m 

and seal. My father and mother have*** invited your brother and sister 

cachet, m, et avoir invito 

to dine with us. After dinner we shall walk*^ into the p^rk and 

d diner avec ^ Aprh dhU nous nous promener dans pare m 

■•*g:ardens. We shall drink^** some tea or •coffee before we go.®* 
jardin. — prendre • ih4 m. ou cafi m. avant que y allions, 

4. The names of persons, *<"townsand *®*places do not take'** any*» article ; 

nojn personne, ville et lieux - *•* prendre •"•^» 

Moliere and Racine are*** the two best** french^ dramatic^ authors. 
et etre deux meilleur fran^ais dramatiqne^ auteur. 

Buonaparte and Blucher decided the fate of Paris in the plain of Waterloo. 

dhider^^ du sort de dans plaine f. 

Is Paris'" as large as London ? The city of London is'** much larger** 

Paris est'il ** grand ** Londres f vilie f. Stre beaucoup grand^ 

than that of Paris. Have'** you never been at Paris? No; I have been 
que celle , Avoir »3» >» 6t6 a f Non; '«* 

at Nantes, *wBordeaux, and "^Marseilles, but I have not been at Paris. 

a mais '** '•» 

Next* summer I will go'** to Paris, *"*Geneva, •^Florence and *»*Rome. 

Prochain "f^tt aller d, Gentvej 

5.The names of countries require*** the definite article, le, la, les; France 

nom pays demander * difini^^ i\ 

is*** the most pleasant ^country in*' Europe, It®* is as fertile as Italy, and 

itre plus agriahl^^ pays m. de I' « Elle '** *» ^ Htalie 

the air of France is more healthful than that of Italy. France is rich 
• '** ** sain que eelui * '"" riche 

and very powerful. She has conquered Holland, Switzerland, Italy, 
irts - puissant.'^ Elle '** conquis HoUande f. Suisse, f. * 

Spain, Portugal, Saxony, Bavaria, Prussia, Austria, part of Poland, 
*Espagne, m. Saxef. Baviere f, Prusse {, Kiutriche, unepartie Pologne f. 

and **^Russia, and compelled her enemies to make peace with her. 
* Bussief f. forc4 * ennemi ii faire "^paix avec elle, 

6. After verbs expressing dwelling, ooing, coming, instead of 
Apres Herhe qui expriment demeurer, aller, VENlR,f au lieu de 

the article before the names of countries, we** use'** the prepositions 

• avant pays on ^'•2* employer prtpositions 

Ell and De; Have*** you ever been to France ? I have lived in France 

et Avoi^ jamais iit / demcur^ 

♦The preposition 0/must be expressed in French, together with the article, viz. of the, 
f Thesd verbs being used here as substantives, must be in tlie infinitive in French. 



EXEUCISE. 273 

ARTICLE and NOUK. 

several years. I went*^ to France as soon as the war was over. 

plusieurs annie, aller^^ auititbt que guerre £,fut finie, 

I went^ afterwards to Germany and *>*Italy* I have lived near 

aller^^ ensuite AUemagne et Italie, J* ai demeur^ prhs (P 

(twelve months) in Italy. Were you ever in Switzerland? No; I 

unan* f jamais Suisse f *" , 

never was.'' From France I went**' to Holland and "^Sweden. I am 

^^ y ai ^U.SJU alUr Hollande Suede, 

goin^^ to Spain and '••Portugal ; from thence I will go"* to Greece, 
o//«-»« ; de Id aUer Greee, 

•^Egypt, *<>*Beugal, *>*China, and "^Japan. I have a brother in Ja- 

^gyP*^9 (^) m. (d) Chine, f, (d) Japan, m. a(d)Ja' 

maica, and another in Martinique. He is going to Mexico, and 'Peru. 

ma'iqueyf. un autre d (d) f, -va"* (d) Mexique, m, (dJPirou.m^ 

* 

7. Common** names' used* in a general or in a particular® senile 

commun ** rwm m. employ 4 dans sens general particulier sens m. 

require^ the article re, i«, lbs; Man* is born for society, but love 

demander ^ article 'Homme ni' pour sociit^, f. mais humour 

and ambition oflen^** disturb the happiness of the social® state. Men 

Ambition souvent trotibler^** bonheur m. social Hiat, 

thirst^ after honours and riches ; yet honours and riches seldom^^ 

soupirer apres honneur riehesse; eependant ravement 

make^*» men happy. True happiness consists^* in virtue ; for what are 

rendre heureux, Vrai t consister dans vertu f. ; car qtie 

birth, honours, beauty and riches without Nirtue? Virtue (of wliich) 

naissancSff, beauty t, ? dout 

men speak^ (so much) is (nothing but) a sincere desire of doing good, 
varler tant h'est qu* •• dhirm., faire^^ bien,m. 

and of shunning evil. My sister is learning"* French and Italian 
Sviter^^ mal,m, *'* apprendre Frangaism, *ItuLien; 

and I am going toi^* learn English, geography and mathematicks. 

-1*4 aller^^ - Anglais, giographie f. math^matique, 

8. When the preposition of comes before a noun used in a general 

Quand proposition f, OF venir^*^ avant employS ** 

sense, but (of which) the quantity is*« limited by another noun, this 

sens, m. mais dont quantity f. itre limiti^ par un autre , ^ 

preposition can*** not (be expressed) by c?w, de la, deSy which iirould 

f, pouvoir *•• (kkjs'exprimer par qui 

render the expression particular, and meano^rfff; it must (be expressed) 

rendre^^ ■ particulier^, siffnifierait o£ THE, , il faut (kk)Vexprimer 

by DC only, without any regard to the gender or "number of the 

seulement, sans avoir 6gard genre m. ou nombre m. 

* Twelve months, used to denote the period of a year, is never expressed by douse 
mois in french ; it is expressed by un an. See note § page 262, 

t Were being used here to express'&n action, must be expressed in the sanie manner 
as have been, thus, have you ever been, rule 136. t Put this adjective before the noun 

8 



S7i ISXERCISE. 

ARTICLE and NOUN. 

noun ; Have you got any money about you? I have not above" thiee 
or four shillings. I want to buy a basket of fruit. Have you much 

mi qtuxtrg ihelkiff. veus -^'^acheier panterm. fruit. (t) 

fruit in your garden this year ? (There is) a great" quantity of pears 

dan$ jardm anni$ f. f Jly a^^ grand *• quantity f. poire 

and "^apples, but (there is) no* stone^ fruit. Buy me a bottle of ink, 

pommeg H n*y a pas^*^ fruit a noyau, Achetez *• bouteille f. encre, 

a quire of paper» and a dozen of pens. (Were there) many people 

cahieria, papier, dousainef, plume. Y aoait-'il (e) mondem* 

at the play last night ? (There were) a great number of gentlemen, 

t com^dief.hier ausoirf llyavait grand nomhrem, messieurs, 

but there were very few" ladies. My brother has a pretty" collection 

il y avait tres - peu ^'^» dame. ^ joli *• f. 

of shells, *>*plants, ^birds, and "^other curious" things. He has got 
coquille, plante, oiseaUf autres cui-ieuse^ ch^m. *'* 

a parcel of letters for you. He has had a (great deal) of trouble. 
paquet m. lettre pour eu - beaucoup (e) peine, f. 

9. Common" names used* in a partitive sense require*** the article 

*' fnam m. employ 6 partitif^ sens m. demander 

j)U, de La, DCS ; I should like*^ to have some fruit. (Is there) any 

— aimer d avoir fruit, m. Y a-t-ii*** 

ripe fruit in the garden ? Yes ; (there are) strawberries, gooseberries, 

7mu-^ dans jardinm,? Out; ilya**^ f raise, groseille, 

cherries and apples. We will eaU** some strawberries and cherries. 

cerise pomme. — manger 

Have"* you got any (pine apples) in your houses ? No ; but we have 

Avoir ^^ *'® ananat serref* ^•^ ; mais 

grapes, figs, and melons in abundance. What shall we drink"*? 

raisin, figue, melon en abondance. Que « — . iss loifg ? 

Will"* you have beer or wine? We shall drink wine, if you have 
Vouloir *" - *'* biere f. ou vin ? m. — *** , si 

any,** and if you have no" wine, we will drink cider or water. 
«w» Cp) n*avez pas N^ , — *» eidre, m. ou hau. 

10. A noun used in a partitive sense, preceded by an adjective, 

employ^ dans partitif^ , , pr6c6d6 d* adjectif^m.. 

requires ne before the adjective, instead of du^ de la^ des^ before the 

ttemander^*^ avant * , au lieu de 

4ioun ; (Were there) any pretty" women at the ball ? (There were) 

; Y avaitil •*• joli " femme t bairn. 9 II n'y avait 

few but old" women. (There are) fine" country** houses in England. 
guere que vieille •• II y a**^ beiy* de eampagne muison f. en 

Some have large" parks and beautiful" gardens. (Are there) any 

Quelquttrunee ^^ grand^ pare trifbettux jardin, Ya-tU ^^ 

* Serve is the name the French have for all glazed places, where plants are either 
preseryed or forced. t At is expressed by the same preposition as to. 



EXBRcrsE. 275 

ARTICLE and NOVM. 

large*® trees in your garden? No; (They are) only Mnall*" trees. 

grand* arbrem, dans jar din f "' ; Ilnya*^ que petit ^ 

Some of the trees have fine"® fruit on this year. Have you got 

Quelqu»4mt orbrBs *** beau fruit m. - * ann^e. f. *** vo 

any nice^ flowers? Yes; we have some beautiful*® pinks. 
10 beUe» fleurf Oui ; i» tres-beaux aillet, 

11. The numeral article a, an/ (is expressed) by un, une, the same 

nuTMral^ J, AN, $*exprime par de meme 

as the number one ; A glass, a bottle, a pound, a day, a year. 
que nombre m. one ; verre, m. bouteilUj f. livre, f. jour, m. an. m. 

12. Before names of measure, **weight and ••^number used in a 

Avant ^nom • mesure, poids nombre pris 

collective sense, a, an, (arc expressed) by £«, za; I must'" buy 

collectif^ A, AN, s'expriment par ; 11 faut que f etcMte 

a pound of plums. (How much) do they sell them a pound ? They**' 

" 8 prune, Combien - on** ^vend let** f On ^.B 

sell^ them two pence a do2en. Beer^ sells*^ at four pence a pint, 

vendre les^ deux sou ^douzainej* Biire (, sevendre ^ quatretau pinte,{, 

wine^ five shillings a bottle, brandy six pence a glass, and ^ram 

vin m. cinq sheling , hau-de^vie , rum m. 

five shillings a quart. I go'*' to ^school once a day. I take*** lessons 

litre m, aller ^cole unefois prendre le^on 

three times a week. We have (holydays) only once a year. 

fois semaine. f. n'avons vacances qu'* unefois *annie» 

13. The demonstrative article this, that, thesb, those, has 

dimmstratif^ CE, CETj CETTE, CES, 

the same properties in french as in english ; iV^ serves to (point out) 
mimes propri6t4 en fran^ais qu* anglais; il sei-vir^^ a designer 

the objects ; This man, this woman» these children. That horse, that 
ob^et ; Viomme, femme, enfant, cheval, 

house, those trees This field, that grass, these people, those flocks. 

maison, f. arbre. champ, m. herbe, f. gens, troupeau 

N.B. . If you wish**' to shew a distinction between two objects, 

Si vculoir '7* marquer distinction £, entre deux objet, 

(you must) add ci afler the noun to denote the nearer** objet, and xd 

il faut (hk) ajouter apres *^ designer pluspres "^objet^ia, 

to denote the remoter; This man is taller than that. ** That woman 

*^ plus Eloigns J grand*^ celui-la,^'^' 

is handsomer than this.** These children play better than those.** 
belU^^ N.B. jouer^ f N". 

Those trees are larger than these.** This field is better than that.** 
it5 gros^^ ^'^ t ^'^ 

- - ■ — ^ — ^- ■ ■ — ' 

* The adyerb Only may be expressed two ways, either by SeuUment after the verb, 
or by Ne before the verb, and by Que after it ; so, Nous avons vacances seulement uns 
fois, or Nous }i*avon$ vacances wj'unefois ^c. t See note (b) page 72 

S2 



276 EXERCISE. 

ARTICLE afld NOUN. • 

14. The possess! ve"* si^s Mon, ma, jues; son 9 sa, ses^ 8fc. follow 

possessif^ tignem. j suivre^^ 

the same rule as the definite article lc, ta, lbs; they agree^ in gender 

mime regie f. qtie difini ^ ; Us I'accorder en genre 

and "^number with the noun which follows*** them ; My book, my 

nombre avec '^* suivre les^; livrCt to., 

pen, my papers. His coach, his chaise, his horses ; Her coach, 

plum£y f. papier, carrasse, m. chaise, f. chevaux ; 

her chaise, her horses. Our. friends, your children, their relations. 

ami, enfantf parent. . 

15. The possessive* signs my, thy, his, heb, our, your, their, 

possessif^ MY, THY, HISf HER^ OUR, YOUR, THEIR, 

(are expressed) by the definite article xe. La, lbs, before the name of the 

s*expriment d6fini ^ avant nom, m. 

parts of the body, when we^ speak of a natural action of the body ; 
partie corps, m, quand on^^'^' parler^^ naturell^ f. ; 

Raise your arm. Move your leg. Advance your foot. She shuts*** 
Lever* bras, m. Remuer* jambe, f. Avancer* pied. m. fermer 

her eyes, and opens her mouth ; or when we^ speak of an action done 

yeux, ouvrir^^ bouche ; f. an ^'^' **' qui se fait 

upon the body ; but, in these instances, vfe^ add*** to the verb one 

sur ; mais, dans * cas, ^•^' ajouter vei'bem, 

of the pronouns Me, nous, tc, vous, sc, Lui, zeur, (agreeably to) num- 

pronom m. suivant - "^nom- 

ber and person ; J have*^ hurt my arm. You have*®' cut your hand. 
bre m. ^personne ; f . f blssst t coup^ main, f. 

He has**' broken his leg. She has**' put her foot (out of joint.) 

f rompti. t *— d^mis 

You have hurt my arm. He has cut my hand. You have put her foot 

t bless^ t coup^ t — 

(out of joint.) The carriage ran*** over his body, and broke-** his leg. 
demis voiture f. a passt par-dessus f a rompu t 

16. After the words to have a pain, to hurt, to be cold, to be 

mot - avoir - mal, - se faire mal, - avoir froid, - avoir 

warm, the possessive** signs my, thy, his, her, &c. (are expressed) 

chaud, posseesif^ MY, thy, HIS, HER, ^c. s'expriment 

by AU, a La, aux ; I have a pain in my head. My mother has a pain 

** mal • tite.i, ** mal 

* Second person of the imperative, 

t These sentences must be expressed as if the words were construed m this manner 

1 to myself have**^ hurt the arm. You to yourself havft**^ cut the hand. He to himself 
- me suis blesse — vous etes coup6 - s' 

has**7 broken the leg. She to herself has**^ disjointed the foot. You to me have hurt 
est rompu — s* est dimis - m* avez bLess6 

the arm. He to me has cut the hand. You to her have disjointed the foot. The 
-^ m* a coupd - lui avez demis 

carriage to him has run*** over the body, and to him has broken**f the leg. 
voiture f. ■" lui a passi par-dessus ^ lui a rompu 



EXERCISE. 277 

ARTICLE and NOUN 

in her side. My father has jrot the ^out in his feet. Have®' you 

edU, m. *^ goutte f. * ^e wiw Uei - voviM 

not hurt your leg? No; but I have*^ hurt my knee. In the 

•pas fait mal • jambe f, f ^»i ; me suis fait mal • genou. m. Dans 

last** battle, my brother was wounded in his arm, and I was wounded 

dernier bataille, f. fut hless6 * , fu$ hlesU 

in the shoulder. My hands are®" warm, but my feet are** very cold. 
* fyaule, avoir chaud ff avoir grand froid, 

17. The possessive" si^ns its and their (are also*®* expressed) by 

possesHf^ signem. its their - aussi 8*expriment 

LCf La, Les, and the pronoun jsn (is added) to the verb, when the noun 

pronom m. 9*ajoute verbe, m. quand nomm. 

before which*" they come'** is not in the same part of the sentence as 
avant lequel iU^* setrouver- '•° meine partiei. phrase f, que 

the noun to which they refer ;"* That water is prood," I know^** its 
auqueP^ •* se rapporter ; eau f. . bon, (g) conmdtre 

qualities (turn, the qualities of it,) and I have experienced its effects, (/. e, 
qualitSs, en,** j" ai Sprouvi effet, 

the effects of itJ) ToW paint the human heart (it is necessary) to 

en** . Pour peindre humain^ cxurm, ilfaut *^ - 

know all its springs, (t. c. the springs of it) London* astonishes 
connattre touts ressort, en.** Londres itonner^^^ 

strangers ; They admire its extent, and its riches, i, e, (of it.) 
Stranger; admirer^^ Htemlue, rwhesse^f, en.**. 

18. The possessive" signs iron, m^, mcs, (are added) to names of 

possessif^ s'ajoutent "^nom • 

kindred and "•♦friendship, when we*^ call*** any b:>dy by those names; 

^rentk amiti^, quand on N-B. appeler ** de * ; 

Mother, you are" wanted. I am coming, child. Daughter, are you 

, on vous demande, J' -^y u«W|*** ^enfant, fille, 

ready? Yes, father. Come, friends, (let us be) merry. 
pret^f Om», Allons, ami, - - soyons ^a»." 

19. Do not put any" article in french before nouns used as 

— *** mettret ^•^' aoant ^nom employes en forme 

a title ; A treatise upon the immortality of the souU An introduction 
de titre; traits sur Hmmortatit6 *dme, introduction 

to the french" language. The preface. The first" part. The end. 
francais** langue.f. preface, premier partie. f. fin, 

20. Do not^ express the article a, an, which comes afler the word 

— exprimert A, an, '* venir^^ apres matm, 

what; What" a pretty dog! What a funny head he has! What 
what; Quel joli^ chien! •" droU de tetef, I " 

■ ■"*■ 
* Say ; At tke head ; at the side ; at the feet ; at the leg ; at the knee : at the ana ; ai 
the shoulder. ' N.B. at the is expressed in the same manner as to the. 

t Turn, I have warmth at the hands, but I hav^ ^eat Qold a^ {he feet, ( 2nd pers. imp. 



278 EXERCISE. 

ARTICLE and NOUN« 

a large^ house ! What a cold* day ! What a beautiful woman . 

grand?''^ maison I f. ^* froid jcur ! m. ■* belle ** femme ! 

21. Do not express Uie article a, an, before the numbers hundred 

— **o exprimer* A, an, avant nombre hundred 

and thousand, because the numbers have the property of articles; 
et THOUSAND, parce que ^** propriiUi, ^ . 

Can"* you lend me a thousand pounds ? I can*** lend you** a 
PoHVoir (kk)priter ^ mille livres sterling f pouvoir priter vous en^^ 

hundred, but I can not**^ lend you** a thousand. We have an army 

cent, poMwir*** votis en^^ mille, »» arm^e f 

of a hundred thousand men. They have a hundred field** pieces. 

homme, *** pUces de campagne. 

22. Do not put any* article in ftench before a noun which serves 

*** mettre • '^•^» en nomm. ^*t servir^^ 

to qualify or ***distinguish another noun; Neptune the jg^od of the 
d. qttalifier ou d distinguer un autit ; dieu 

sea. Telemachus an epic poem. Madrid the capital** city of Spain. 
mer, Tilhnaque epique^^ pdeme, capitale ville ^Espagne. 

My brother is a citizen of Geneva, a small republic between France 

citoyen Genioe, rSpublique entre * f. 

and Switzerland. He is a counsel and & member of the great council. 

^Suisse, f. avocat membre grand' conseiL m. 

23. Do not put any* article before the noun which follows itre, 

— *** mettre • ^-^ nom m. 7* f suivre *** 
Devemr^ ae waire, passer pour, when such noun serves only 

quand ce servir^^ seuLement 

to qualify the nominative of these verbs; Are you a Frenchman? 

d qualifier nominatifm, * verbe; ^^ Fran^aisf 

No ; I am a Spaniard. He passes*** for a Portuguese. His father was 

i»i • 1** Espagnol, passer pour Portugcus, 6tait 

a physician. He was a jew, and he is turned a christian. 

m^decin. juifj s'est fait chrStien, 

24. Do not put any* article before the noun which follows the 

— mettre* n.b. nomm. ^*t «a'vre*** 

verbs AVoir and Faire, when this noun forms*** only one idea with 

verbe m. * ne former qu' idSe f. 

those verbs ; I am*** in the right. She is®* in the wrong. I have a pain 

* % } avoir - rotawi. avoir - tort, avoir mat 
in my head. He made*** me a sign. He has done me an injury. 

*• faire ** signe, faire ^ tort, 

• 

* Second person of the imperatiye. f See note (m) page 8S. 

X In these instances, the noun may genemly be changed into a verb ; as, Avoir mal^ 
to have a pain, or to ache ; Faire offre^ to make an offer, or to offer ; Faire tort, to do av 
injury, or to injure ; Faire sipie, to make a sign, or to beckon, &c. 



EXERCISE. 279 

ARTICI.E and motn, 

25. When two nouns cotnei'" togfether to express one idea, 

Quand deux nom aenir • ent$nUfi0 ^^^ exprimer id6e^ t 

place first the noun which is the sufajeot dt diaooune, with oc, 

placer * le premier -7* t tuj€t ^ditcours, m* 

DU, de ixty DeSj before the second nonn, a^eeably to tjie rules on 

avant second^ tomfo nnjim m t r^giM •«? 

the article ; Which^ do you admire^ most, Cato's* penevtrance, or 

; LaquelU - ^^ admirer hpltis, CtUtm 7ptnhitmnce, f. 

CsBsar^s^ intrepidity?? Will you have any Londoi^ florter? No; 

Cesar *mtr^piditif - *?* » Lmdrtt pmier? m. »" > 

I will drink a glass of Lisbon wine. I have lost my gold watch. 

boire^** verram, UsbouM riw, - ptrdtt 4W numtre.f, 

I had it^ at the park gate. I am afraid'^' I have left it" 

avals /' pare m. p0rle, f. — craiudrt (nn) de /** mtvir lais»Se 

(in the) (cofiee room*) Put this gentleman's horse inlo my brother's 

an cqf(^. m. Metlre * monsieur ciievai dan$ 

stable. Have yon seen my mothers silk gown, and my sisters newt 

icarie, vu snie robe^ f. %iouveau 

bonnet ? It^ ig a present from the brother of her children's guardian. 
m. f C pris^it m. de tut$ur m» 

After her husband's death, all his father's friends forsook''^ her* 

tnari mort, f. tgu/t ^ami abandonmr^^ T** 

26. If one of the two nouns denotes'** the use of the other, 

Si nam »• designer > Htage *atUre, 

instead of changing the order df the words, aa the English do, 

uu lieu ' changer ^^ ordre mot , comme Anglais font, 

the French change the preposition, and instead of de, du, de la^ des, 

Fraufois ^^ pr^pmtion, f. 

before the second noun, they use'** 2; Bring me a wine glass, 

avant second^ , employer ; Apporttr* moi^ vin J verre, in. 

and a tea spoon. Take the cofiee cups into the dining room. He 

th£ cuiller, f, Pnrter* cafK tasse dans diner ehambre, f. 

has broken the water pot. Where is my sistei's work bag? It" is 

eassS eau pot, in. Oil ouvrage sac t m. II 

in my mother^s bed room. Have you ever seen a steam mill ? 
dans caitcher chand»re.f, jamMSvu vapeur matilinmj 

No ; but I have seen several water mills and many" wind mills. 
^'^ ; mais plusieurs eau moulin ^-S. t;etit fnou/in. 

N. B. After the words Foire, Marohe, we^ use^»' au* d xa, aux, 

mot on ^•■' employer 

before the second noun ; WilP*^ you come to the horse fair ? I want 

avaitt ^ nom ; Vouloit vftiir ohevaux foire f. f J'ai hesoin 

to go to the poultry market. Let us go through the hay market 

d* oiler volaille f. marchi. m. •- - aller $ par ' foin 

.»»»™«™«^i.«.—i ^^^^^™«-««^^"— ^^ii^ii^^»«^i^P— ^i«»"'^— ^■^-"^"^^-"^"■^~~~"^^"""~— W^^^-"" ■ " I" "'■' ii-«™^^i ai I II ■ 

* Second person iraperatire. i See note (m) page 8S. t Pat tbis adjectire before the noiw. 

g When I say to a person, bring me a vine glass, it is evident thatit ia the glassl want, not the wiae ■ 
fo I ought to meotion the^/a«< finU ( KiMt person imperative. 



280 EXERCISE. 

ARTICLE and NOUN. 

27. In speaking of the produce of a country, the English denote^ 

En parlant produit m. V^yh ^» Anguits disigtur 

the name of the country by an adjective ; the French denote it by a 

nom m. par adjectif; m. Fran^ais ^" /e** 

substantive, and place*'^ it after the name of the produce ; Have you 

substantif, m. placer le^* ; *"* 

Cfot any french brandy? No; but I have good Spanish wine. Do you 
ijo » France eau-de-vie f **^ ; ^^ bon Espagne vin, m, - *" 

like^* english beer^ ? No ; I do^.e. ^lot ; I prefer^*' dutch beer or 

aimer Angleterre biere f. ? **^ ; Je ne Vaime pas ; J*aimer mieui HoUande ^ 

french cider.' Will^ you have english *cheese, or swiss cheese ? 
France cidre. m. Vouloir - ^''* Angleterre fromage, m. Suisse * f 

28. Before the names of countries, of (is expressed) by oe, after 

Avant nomm, pays , OP s'exprime par , 

nouns denoting dignity or authority; by x)«, de LUy nes, after 

7 qui designent dignity f. autorit^ , 

other nouns ; The king of Congo. The queen of Angola. The stadtholder 

les antra ; roi reine stathoude* 

of Holland. The cortes of Spain. The petty states of Italy. The 

HolUtnde, Cortes plur. Espagne, petits ctat Italic, 

air of France is more healthful than that** of Italy. The soil of 

air m. f. plus salubre eelui sol m. 

Spain and Portugal would be"* very fertile, if it was well cultivated. 

m. - itre tres • fertile, s'il ^tait bien cultiv^. 

The south of England is warmer than the north of France. 

Slid m. chaud *^ nord m. 

* The gender of nouns will no longer be marked in tliese exercises with the initial 
letters m. /. ; the learner must now find out the gender by the rules given page 181 and 
following, according to the termination of the noun. But observe that it is by tlie sound 
of the last syllable of the word, not by the spelling that we know the gender of the noun. 
Now suppose you want to find out the gender of these twelve nouns, France^ Pays, Na- 
cioUf BesoiUf AtpriTnent, dHice, Vie,SecourSt Peche, Abricot, Fruit, G^ibier, which you will 
find in ^e beginning of the following exercise. 1st. France ; tliis noun ends in e mute ; 
see page 183 a general rule for the mute termination., and you will find it to he fern. Pays ; 
see either the termination i page 181, or s page 183, and you will find that these termi- 
nations are both masc. Nation ; look for ion, page 182 ; you will find tliat nouns of this 
termination, a few excepted, are all /em. Besoin ; look for the termination oin, page 182, 
and you will find it to be masc. Agr4ment ; look for ent, page 182, you will find that 
nouns of tliis termination are aU, but one, masc, DHice ; look for the termination CE, 
page 184 ; you will find dilice, masc,^ being an exception to the general rule, which is 
Jm. Vie ; see page 183, the general rule for common names ending in e mute, and you 
will find it to he fern, Secours ; look for our, page 182, and you will find it to be a muse, 
termination, PSche ; look for cue, page 185 ; you will not find that word iiTthe excep- 
tions, which are masc, then you conclude that it is included in the general rule, which is of 
the contrary gender. Abi'icot; look for o or OT, page 182; you will find that nouns of that 
termination are all masc. Fruit ; look for I, page 181, a masculine termination. Gtbier , 
look for ER, page 182 : you will find it to be a nusc. termination ; and so on for any otlier 
noun tlie gender of wJiich you want to know. But impress your mind with the general 
rule, and read often the exception, that by such frequent readings you may retain the 
most useful words contqu^ed in it ; for you must not expect to retain them all at once. 
The advantage of these niles must appear obvious. By marking the gender at tlie end 
of tlie noun, or by referring to the dictionary for it, you learn only the gender of one 
u'ord, whilst by referring to these rules, you learn the gender of a whole set of words. 



£XERCISE. 281 

ARTICLE and NOUN. 

RECAPITULATORY exercUe on the foregoing tulesJ* 
I come from France and Italy. I have been at Paris, Bordeaux, 

witir^" Italie. a »* 

Lyons, Geneva, Florence, Leghorn, Naples and Rome. How do you 

Lydn, Geneve, Lioourne, Comment -♦^^ 

like*''* France and Italy ? I like"* them both*** (very much*"), but 

trouver ? aimer /««** Vune et Vauh'e beaucoup n.b.^ 

I would^ rather live in France than in Italy. France is certainly a 

aimer mieux(kk)vivre qu* certuinement 

most beautiful country. It<" has within itself every thing that can^ 

tres . beau *^ EUe en elU-mime tout ce qui poui^ir 

minister to the wants, comforts and delights of life. France produces***, 

servir (kkj besoin, agrim£nt ^ diUce vie, produire 

almost without the assistance of. art, all** sorts of delicious fruit ; 

presque sans secours art, tout sorte d^licieux^^ f^^^t; 

pears, apples, grapes, peaches, apricots, plums, cherries, figs, olives, 

poirCf pomme, rainn, peche, abricot, prune, cerise, fis'^^f » 

a (g^eat deal) more corn, wine and oil than the inhabitants can**» 

beaueoup plus bU, vin *huile que habitant *'' pouvoir 

consume; and the country abounds*** with game, •••poultry, and "*cattle. 

consomm^r ; pays abonder en ^gibier, volaille, b^tail. 

The population of France, (considering '^its extent) is immense. Thev'o 

si on en conud^e Vdtendue On "'^ 

reckon in France twenty-five millions of souls. France is undoubtedly 

compter^** vingt « cinq dme, *^ sans contredit 

the most powerful nation in^ Europe. It^ alone has withstood the 

plus puissant^ de I* EUe seule rhisU ^^ aux 

efforts of Russia, Prussia^ Germany, England, Holland, Spain, 

Russie, Prusse, Allemagne, Angleterre, Hollande, Eipagne, 

and Sardinia, that wanted to*?* subdue it; but after twenty years of 

Sardaigne, ^^ voulaient - su^juguer la^ ; vingt an 

uninterrupted** victories, that brave and warlike** nation was (at last) 

canttnue** victoire, *' •* guerrier^ fut enfin 

overcome by all** those powers combined,** and compelled to submit 

aeeabli^^ par tout puissance combing, N*^* forcS^ de se soumettre 

to the greatest** humiliation to which men can** be condemned, that** 

plus grand 7« puissent itre condamne^^^, celU 

of obeying*** beings whom they despise***. Now that I have a little* 

^** obiir d itre '* mipriser, 2prisentque unpeu^-^ 

time to myself, I am going to*^ travel. I (am fond) of*** travelling. 
terns d mot, *** ailer^*^ - voyager, aimer^** a voyager^^ 

* The recapitulatory exercise at the end of each part of speech, is intended to try how far the learner 
nnderstands tue rules on Avhich he has been practising on that part of speech. An infallible way to ascer* 
tain it, is to induce hiiu to mark under every word on that part of speech the rule by which he makes nsa 
of such word ; for instance, in the above exercise on the article and the noun^ to make him mark under 
' every noun, the role by which, or at least to make him give a reason why he uses sach and such an arti- 
cle, und so on with the other parts of speech ; for unless he can do this, it is evident that he does not un- 
derstand that part of speech, that be has no foundation to build upon, and he must read th« rules pT«f 
af ain, till he is able to do it. f Do not pat any article after en^ 



282 EXERCISE. 

ARTICLE and NOUN. 

RECAPITULATORY cxerme on the foregoing rules* 
In travelling one sees (so many) new* things, and every new* 

En voyageant on^ voir^^ tant notttv22«* chose, ehaque iiouvel 

object furniahe& some new idea to the mind. In a few* days I will 

of^et foiimir^^ f nouvelle id6e esprit. Dans- peu^-^-jctur '- 

go to France, and afler spending some time with my friends at Paris, 

(i-ler , apret avoir passT t avec ami a 

I will go to Switzerland, Italy, and Spain, where I will embark^' for 

- *** Suisse, *** » ** , ow - m*embarquer pour 

America. I long to see that country of liberty and independence, 

Amerique, Jlmetarde de voir ^' *^ liberti ind^pendan^e, 

where rational" beings may^ communicate their ideas to their ^fellow 

ou rai»nnable''^ etre7 pouvoir communiq**er ^ idie 

beings) without fearing^ the holy^ political" or religious inquisition. 

sembhable sans craindre saint* politique ou religieuse^ 

After having^ visited the principal^ cities of the wise republic of the 

avoir vitit4 * ville sage * ripuhliqvs 

immortal Washington, I will go to Mexico, Chili, and Peru. I want 

immortel* , - alhr^^ Mexiquif , PSrou, ai envie 

to see if the tree of liberty, lately*** planted in the new world, 

de voir si arbre , dcpuispeu pUmti *'^ nouveau monde, 

is'* thriving better than it" has done in the old, and if it is 

- riussir^*^ mieux qu' il n*7 a faire *^^ ancieuj ^ "* 

spreading its enlivening" branches oyer the fertile" plains of that 
iteudre^*^ ses vivifiant^ sur *• plaine ** 

immense and rich" continent.. What a pleasure to see millions of 

^* riche Qiiel plaisir *•? voir • 

intelligent" beings uniting all their energies* to*'* break the chains of 

* Stre unir^** " pour rompre chaine 

superstition and despotism, those two satanic" enemies of reason, that 

despotisme, deux satanique^ enhemi raison, . *^ 

divine spark of the supreme wisdom I If the father of light deigns'^* 

" itincelle ®* sagesse ! lumiere daigner 

to cast a look on the actions of men, it is surely in such a work 

*7* Jeter regard sur , c' surement **' tel " ouvrage 

that he must delight to see his image employed. What is the reason 
qu* doit se compldire d voir occupi. Quelle 

that trade is so languishing, and that money is so scarce now ? 

que commerce ^^ si Umguissant, argent rare a present f 

(People in trade) think^^' that it is the war. Oh ! war is a dreadful 

Coinmer^ants penser que •* guerre. Ok! ^^a affreuse^ 

thing. War is the scourge of mankind. How preferable" are 
chose. . fl^au genre humain. Combien pr4JirahU^^ ^"^ 

peace and harmony amongst all men ! If men were reasonable, 

paix 'harmonic parmi touts i Si itaient raisonnabUf''^ 

•w— »^MP»^— — ■■ ^^MT— I ■ ■ I ■ ^ai !■ ■■■«■ ■■ I ■ ^ i^^*.i^— II I II 1 ^» ■ i.^M I ■■ — II ■»■■■■»■■■■■ ■ ■ I ■ ^■ ■■ 

* Put this word in Oie ting, ia ft-eneli. f When the suhgtance is restrained to a little^ afew^ SOMK 
b expressed by quelque^ quelquest not by du, de la, des, which imply an unlimited number or quantity. 



EXERCISE. 283 

ABTICLE and NOUN. 

RECAPITULATORY exerciie on Uie foregoing rulea, 
they (would never go to) war. War begets»«» taxes, taxes beget 



ne se feraient JamaU engendrer taxe. 



lis 



poverty, and plunge** peopie into mlseryi Thus whole" nations are 

pauvretiy pUmger penple «i» misen, Ainn entier^ 

made** miserable** to gratify Uie ambition of a few vain"^ beings 

rendrt W satisfaire petit nombre vain^ etre 

whom often chance alone raises to the supreme rank; and who have 

'* 9ouvent hazard seul ^Uver^^ " rfing, 7* *** 

the art of inciting men to slaughter men, by calling tbem<^ heroes,' 

* exciter ^^ a igorger en appelant eeux * hdros, 

who^ ^ are merely the base executioners of their inhuman* orders. 

''•^ ne sent que vil*^ eaicuteur inhurfuiin^ ordre. 

Will you come and take a walk along the river side before dinner ? 

VouUfir *■* venir (nn) /aire tour tur riviire bord ** ^^fi^ f 

The sight of the water is pleasant at this time of the year, (Is there) 

vue eau agriahle terns annSe. Y a^t-ii^^ 

any fish in this river ? Not much ; (there are) eels and carps, and 

poisson ? Ptiw ; Ily a*^ anguille carpe, 

some trouts : But we are not far from the sea, and our fish-market 

t truite: *•• loin de tner, poissonnerie 

is well supplied with sea "^fish. We have salmon, turbot, soles, 
bien pourvu^^ de denier poisson, «au«Ro/i, eole, 

mackerel, codfish, excellent'^ oysters, crabs, and lobsters. Let us go and 

maquereau, morue, t '^ hwtre, crabe lumtard, - - Alter (nnj 

see your market. What an abundance of (every thing) (there is in it!) 

voir marchi. Quelle* abondance ^^ t/ y a **• - / 

What a deal of hares, rabbits and partridges ! I see people yonder**® 

" quantity' lievre, lapin perdrix! voir gens^ la-ba$ n.b. 

who are selling"* woodcocks, snipes and (wild pigeons.) (Here are) 

75 isa vendre b^casse, b^cassine ramier, ®*7 

also pheasants and quails. Do you like quails? Yes; (very much.) We 

aussi faisan caille. - *" aimer f ; beaucoup. 11 

must*'* walk towards home. It** is dinner time.' Let us walk 

faut que noui allions vers la maison, C ^.B. diner keure^ - - Entrer 

into tke dining room. The dinner is on the table. What have we 

•*» diner talle, sur Qit' ^ **» ^^ 

for dinner? A round of beef with cabbage and carrots, and a loin 
pour f rouelle bceuf avec choux || carotte, longe 

of veal with peas and spinage. Bring me some mustard, salt, pepper, 

veoUf pois ^pinards.^ Apporter ^ moutardej set, poicre, 

a coffee cup, and a table spoon. (How much) do they®® sell*** meat 
cafd tasse, soupe euiller, Combien - is* n.b. vendre oiande 

a pound in this town? Beef and mutton sell*** eight pence a pound, 
iivre <i* ville f motUon se vendre huit sou ■ 

» I ■! I I « I ^ »^i— .^-.^— .^.i^— il. I«^l . . I • • • , 1 III III!.. 

* Torn hj calling heroes them trAo, ^rc f Sep note f p. 282. 

X Vxki this acyeetive after all these nouns. | This wdrd is plaral in freich. 



\ 

284 EXERCISE. 

ARTICLE and NOUN. 

RECAPITULATORY exercise on the foregoing rules. 
and veal seven pence. That is very dear. Yet we often buy**- 

veau sept C* tres - cher» Cependant ^" en 7® acheier 

a hundred pounds weight at a time. Cofn sells"* twelve shillings a 
cent livre — d, ^^ fois, BU se vendre douze sheling 

bushel, and bread three pence a pound; but good** workmen get"* 
hoisseau, pain trots livre; bon^ ouvrier gagner 

four shillings a day. Bring a bottle of wine, and some wine glasses. 
quatre jour, Apporter* bouteille vin, verre. 

Will you have french wine or Spanish wine? I will drink a glass 
Vouloir - ^7* France Espagne f - boire 

of Port wine, if you have any.** (There is) no wine in the bottle. 

Oporio , ,j en.(p) Iln'ya^ pas «i» 

Is there no wine in the wine cellar? Go to the wine merchant, 
N*y a-t-il pas cave f Aller* chex de vin marchandf 

and tell him to send me** a dozen bo.ttles of Port wine at sixty 
dire* ltd de envoyer m* dousaine de a soixante 

shillings a dozen. This wine costs me five shillings a bottle. You 

sheling couter ** cinq 

have a fine gold watch. It^ has cost a hundred guineas. It« is a 
belle or montre. Elle eout^ guinie. C 

present from my cousin's guardian. Have you seen my brother's 

present cousin tuteur, vu 

powder bag? It" is in my father^s bed room. Let us walk up to 
voudre sacf II *** coucher chambre» - - Allei* - 

that hill. What«» a fine prospect we have from here! What a deal 

colline. Quelle belle perspective d* ici! ®* quantity 

of fine® flowers (there is) here ! Let us gather some»» to»7« 

belle^ fleur ily a * ici! - - Cu^illir* erp^ quelqnes-unes pour 

make nosegays for your sister's children who (are so fond of) flowers. 

faire bouquet pour '^* aiment taut - 

(Elere are) some violets. What a pretty rose bud ! I see^** yonder 

Void **7 violetteJ ®* joli^ rose bouton I voir Id-bas 

some hawthorns, (honey suckles) and sweet" briers. (That is) my sister's 
aubSpine, t ckivre-feuillef odorant ^glantier. Voild.'^7 

husband's country house. Your father's house is finer*i than that. 8" 

nmri de campagne maison* belle ^•^• 

(There are) people who are looking"* at the flower pots which are at 

Voild.**7 gens^^ "s regarder «>i Jleur potl 7* a 

your mother's window. My brother's coachman felP^ from his horse 

fenetre* cocker tomber de - cheval 

yesterday^<» ; He broke^' his leg, and put^'' his arm out of joint. 

hier ; N.B. ^g casser jambe, se dimettre bras - - — 1| 

• Imperative. ' f Use the singular in french. 

X If you mean pots with flowers in, you must say, pots de^fleurs ; if you mean pots to 
put flowers in, ymi must say, pots a fleurs, || Out of joint i^expressedin the verb demettre. 



EXERCISE. 285 

adjectivf 

29. The ADJECTIVE must be of the same gender, and of the same 

*adjectif doit etre mime genre , 

number as the noun which it^ qualifies ; That young man is (in love.) 

noinhre que nam 7* il qualifier; (bb) jeume homme amour eux 

That young woman is (in love.) He is very young.. She is very 

'^bb) femme • triS" jeune, 

young. He is married. She is married.*^ He is capricious. She is 

• marii* ** • N.B, capricieux, 

capricious. All*" men are capricious. All** women are capricious. 
• Tout 7 7 • 

30. When an adjective qualifies several nouns of the same gender, 

Quand plusieurs genre, 

the adjective must be of the same gender as those^ nouns and plural ; 

doit que (bb) plurier ; 

Miss A. and Miss B. are (in love.) They are very happy. They 

Mademoiselle amoureux,* Elles tree • heureux,* 

will soon^B^ be married. That*^ makes the mother and daughter very 

- bientot Stre • (bbj rendre « trei" 

proud.* They are both"* very capricious ; but they arc civil and 

orgueilleux. Ellet toutes deux * ; civil * 

obliging. That" lady has a gown and a petticoat very well matched.' 

iHUgeafit.* (bb) dame robe jupe tres~ bien atsorti,* 

The tea and the sugar are good, but the cream and the water are bad. 

thd Sucre bon^ creme eau mauvais, 

31. If an adjective qualifies several nouns of different" genders, the 

Si qualifier diffirent^ 

adjective mast be of the masculine «gender and (in the) plural number; 

dote €tre masculin^ atu plurier — ; 

Mr. A. and Miss B. are (in love.) They are very happy. Are 

Motmeur amoureux, lis 

§ 

they not married yet>"? They are both*** very capricious; but they 

*•* marU^^ encore f touts deux ; 

are civil and obliging. He makes"' his son and daughter unhappy. 

citil oblrgeant, rendre ^ mulheureux.(h) 

You have a coat and a waistcoat very well matched. The tea and 

habit veste tr^s^bien assorti. thi 

the water are good, but the cream and the sugar are very bad. 

tau bon^ creme sucre mauvais. 

32. Adjectives are generally*** placed in french afler the noun; 

^Adjectif - ordinairement se placent en apris ; 

■ 

All** the polite people in** Europe speak the french** language. 

lout poli** gens m. de I* purler franfais langue, 

(I am told) that it is a very difficult language. Eatf a piece of new 
on m*a dit** que c* difficile Manger -morceau * frais 

i_ . -__—_____— 

• See note (g) p. 198, tiow the feminine gender of adjectives is formed, f Imperative. 



286 EXERCISE. 

AOJSCTIVS. 

bread, and drink a gflass of white wine. England is a delightful 

pain, boire* i^rre • btanc vin, AngUterre dSticieux 

country; but (there is) always a cold and damp air. (There are) 

w>; ilya*** froid humide "« 

charming* women^ opulent ^cities, froitfti] %nd8| and pleasant 

chai-manti • , apultnt^ vilU, fertile^ terre, agr6able^ 

country '"liouses. t like^ their simple* and cordial* manners. 

de campagn* ^maison, aimer ^* tlm'ple cardial \ manih'e, 

33. The. adjectives Beau^ Bel, Bdlc, Bon^ cfrand, aros, jeune, joliy 

adjectif 

Hauvaiiy MnlleWf jufdndre^ petite rout^ rmut^ p'ieille, and Uie 
adjectives of number premier, second, Sfc. are generally*** placed 

-< ordinairement se placent 

before*'^ the noun ; (That is) a large house* It<* is in a fine situation. 

avant ; Voild**^ grand^ EUe «»8 belle situatunu 

It belongs to a young man. He has lately married an old woman. 

*^ appartenir jeune i deptiit peu ipouii vieilU 

He^ is a big man. She is a little woman. They have two pretty children. 

C gros " petit^ deuxjoli^ 

34. If two adjectives requiring diflferent* places qualify the satne 

Si deux (qui demandent) diffifent^ • qualifier meme 

noun, they** (are placed) both"* after the noun, joined together by 

, ih se placent touts deux , joint"* ensemble par 

a conjunction ; (that Is) a large convenient house. It* is in a fine 

cimjonction; ^^ grand^ commode, EUe **• belle 

healthy situation. It belongs to a profligate yonnff man. He has 

saine •* appartenir dSbavM *» * 

lately married an old rich woman. He^ is a great man. He is a tall 

depuis peu Spousi riche C (ij •* (i) 

man.' They are **very honest* people. They are very civil* people. 

•* sont tres honnite(i) gens. •* honnSte(iJ • 

35. The adjectives of number (are placed) in french as in english, 

mymbre se placent en comme anglais^ 

before the noun ; The first day of the week. The third month of the 
*®^ t jour semaine. mois 

year. The fourth year of the reign of the fifth monarchy 

annSe. rdgne monarque, 

36. To distinguish some personage firom other persons of the same 

^'^^ distinguer || personnage ,d' autres personne meme 

name, the English use*** the adjectives of number ; the French use 

no/w, Anglais employer • ; Franfais *'* 

* ImperatiTe. f See note (g) page 198, bow the feminine gender of ad;ectiTe8 is formed. 
t See the adjectiyes of number, p. i78» || See Bote i page S8:^. 



/ 



EXERCISE. 287 

ADJECTIVE. 

the substaQtivetl, and leave oat the article f Henry the fourth was a grea< 

substantif, omettre^^" Henri • g*and 

maa and a good king; he succeeded Henry the third brother to Charles 

rot; suceSder d ^ de 

the ninth, the greatest villain that'^ ever • i^igned>^ over a civilized 

• ** Kilirat gitit ait^ jamais rign6 mr cimUs4^* 

people. Henry the eighth, after having^'* been tbe friend of Pope 

•*® Henri • apris awir 4ti <mi '^Fape 

Clement the seventh, became the greatest eitemy of the papaP" autho- 

• devenir ** ennemi , papal^ (Mto- 

rity, and delivered England (from the) shaoieful yoke of an Italian priest* 

rite, diUwer , *' du . honteiafi* j<nig Italien^ prStre. 

37. The adjectives tff measure and ■•Hlifflension which (are placed) 

• mesure dimension ^*i seplacent 

after the number in english, (are placed) before the number in french, 

nomhrt en se placent *" , 

and are always followed by the preposition De ; Our garden is two 

toujoufs ^uivis de jardin 

hundred paces long, and a hundred and fifty broad. It^ is surrounded 

• pas long, *'* t large, 11 entourS 

by a wall twelve feet high, two feet thick, and a hundred yards long. 

d mur *" pieJs haut, ipais, ** verge 

N. B. These sentences are more commonly^** expressed in french 

(bb) phrase - plus cammuniment s'expriment en < 

by the substantive of dioiension .in thid ni^iiner ; Our garden has two 

par eubstantif ^ de (bb)mani^eg 

hundred paces of length, and a hundred and fifty, of breadth. It^ is 

pas longueur, ** t . largeur, II 

surrounded by a wall of twelve feet of height, and of two of thickness. 
eniouri d pieds hauteur, ipaisseur. 

But observe that with the adjective (you"^ must) use the verb Mre^ 
observez qu' avec il ^-^'faut employer verbe , 

and with the substantive the verb Avoir ; thus. Our garden is long of 

; ainsi, long 

two hundred paces, and broad of a hundred and fifty ; or, our garden 

pas , large « . t i ^> 

has two hundred paces of length, and a hundred and fifty of breadth. 

pas longueur, largeur, 

38. The adjective is*^ not to be separated (from the) noun by vn, 

doit *»» - itre sipari da par 

unCf as it*" is sometimes by a, an, in english ; this article must be 
comme ilP^est quelquefois 4, AN, en ;' • doit se 

placed in french before these words ; Did»« you ever see such a man? 

placer fran^ais (bb^ ihot; Avez jammstm tel f 

• See numberg, page 176. t See note (m) page K. t See note • page 177. 



\ 



288 EXERCISE 

ADJECTIVE. 

I never saw"* so tall** a woman. It is not so great a things. 

*■• at vtt St grand Ce ** 51 graruP* chose, 

39* Many' adjectives have the property of substantives in frencli, ^ 

JBeoucoupNA propriiti ' en , 

and render^ useless the words man, woman, people, which the 
rendre inutiles fnot man, woman, people. 7^* 

(corresponding") adjectives require in english ; An En^lisli man. 
qui le$ reprisentent demander Anglais 

A French woman. He is a drunken man ; a covetous man. She is 

FrangaisB • •* ivrogne ; avare, •* 

an idle woman. They are ungrateful people. Learned men 

paresseux(g) • •* sont ingrat • , Savant^ 

are esteemed." Ignorant people are despised." Take notice of 

estim^. N.B. Ignorant 7 nUprisi. ".b. Taiiet attention d 

these words in reading authors, and in the dictionaries. 

(hh) en lisant ^auteur, . '^" dictionnaire, 

40. By leaving out the article before*" the names of distinction and 

En omettant - avant nom * distinction 

• . « 

of profession which follow the verbs itre^ DeveniVf ne raire^ passer 

profession • tuivre verbe 

pour, these nouns have the property of adjectives ; My brother is ^ 

, {bbj nom propriSt4 ^ 

colonel, and my father is a general. He is the commander ij^hief. 

colonel, g4niral, II commandant ^0B^«/. 

That man was a tailor. He lately^** turned a school "master. He 

* '^ tailleur* depuispeu s*estfait 6cole maitre, 

passes for a doctor. His son was a bookseller; now he is a surgeon. 

passer pour midecin. *" libraire ; chirurgien. 

The same words which serve to qualify nouns, serve also (by the) 

mimes 74» servir d qualifier nom^ , servir ausd au 

means of certain particles to compare their qualities. 

moyen • certaines (%) particuU d, en comparer les *' qualiti. 

41. The comparative of superiority which (is formed) in english by 

comparatif • supiriorit6 • se forme f en . en 

adding er to the adjective, (is formed) in french by plus before the 

ujoutant ER * . M forme en , par "• 

adjective ; Spain' is larger than France ; but France is richer and 

; ^Espagne grand^ que • ; riche 

more powerful than Spain. This" field is better than that," because 

puissant^ • ^'^ champ % ^'^*, pa^ce qu* 

it" is better cultivated. Your watch is finer than mine, because it" is 

il I cultiv4. montre belle " elle 

newer and dearer; but mine is better, and will last longer than yours. 
neuve, cher^ ; " t "" durer long-tems • ®*. 

• See note (m) p. 88. t See N. B. under note (ii) p. 235. t See note (b> p. 72* 



EXERCISE. 289 

ADJECTIVE. 

42. The comparative of inferiority, formed in english by less, or 

comparatif • infirumti, fcrmS eti par LESS, ou 

NOT so before the adjective, (is formed) in french by Moim or pas si 

NOT 90 ^ ^ , -^ te forme* par ou 

before the adjective; Spain* is not so rich, nor so powerful as France. 

« adjec^f; Espagne »»» », ni » d 

That** field is less fruitful than this.®* Your sister is not so handsome, 

*•■• champ fertile »•■• belle, 

nor so rich as your cousin, but she is not less amiable. 

cousine, aimable^ 

43. The comparative of equality, formed in english by as before 

igaliti, en par AS 

vhe adjective and as after it«*, (is formed) in french by aussi before the 

* • AS - , ''seformer^^ par ■ 

adjective, and ane after; Spain is not by much as populous as France. 
> ; • ^^ de beaucoup peupU^ * 

That" field is as fruitful as this.^ Your sister is as amiable as your 

*•■• champ fvrtiU *•■• aimable 

cousin. My watch is as good* as yours, but it is not so fine. 
>eatutn«. montre bon(g) •*, «« belle* 

' 44. The superlative, formed in english by adding most or st to 

^_ niperUuif, formi en ajautant MOST ou ST 

the^lpctive (is formed) in french by adding the article ze, ra, tesy du, 

■ seformer^^* en(hh) 

DC lay DCSy Sfc. to the comparative^ particles plus, Moina; France is 

comparative'*^ partieule ; * 

the most populous country in Europe. China is the largest empire 

peupU^' ^ 4» 5 t ^Chine grand 

in the world. (This is) my finest book. If it<* is not the finest, it 

*» monde. «*7 CU ^eau S* il , " 

is the best. It is the dearest book that I have ever bought. 

meiUeur, •* cher'* ** ^ jamais achet^, 

45. Do not express the article, and place the adjective or noun 

- *** exprimerX , placer 

after the verb, in the following" comparative" sentences and others 

• verbey euivant''^ • " phrase antres 

like ; The more you study^, the more you learn. The more I see 

semblables; Studier, apprendre. voir 

her, the less I like her. The more I know men, the less I esteem 

*♦ , aimer ** connaitre 7, estimer 

them. The more difficult a thing is, the more honourable it is. 

^ difficile chou , honorable ** 

1 think that the more* pains I take,^ the less' progress I make. 

penter (bb)'-^ plus "•■• peine prendre, moins'-^ progris fairOm 

* See If. B. (ii) page 235. t <^® i^te t p. 6j^. t Second pers. plur. iinperBtiye« 

T 



290 EXERCISE. 

ADJECTIVE. 

46. The comparativcj" panicles pIum^ Moinst sU Aum^ inu9t» 

eamparaiivi?* particuU $ devoir 

(be tepeated) befbre etery>** adjective ; She is more studious and 

(hk) 96 ripder *^ chaque ; Uudieux(g) 

dutiful than her sister. She is already as wise and clever as her 

ffb^uiant* dtfit »age habile 

mother ; but she is so proud and affected thiit nobody Hkes^* her. 

• fief^ ajgrectS^ •y aimer ** 

47. Que aftfer thfe comparative* words plus, Moina, Moindre, jieil- 

comparatif^ mots 

lev ft MieucPi pmj pire, requires Ne before the verb which follows it**; 

, demander *• 7* suivre le ; 

He has lost more than he has gained. He is richer than he was. He lives 

yerdre gagner, riche "® . vivre 

better than he did^ before. He is less happy than people imagine. 

(b) p. 79 faire *^ *•■• heureux ** *•■• $*imaginer, 

N. B. Ne (is left out) if the verb which follows Que is in the infi- 

i*$m£t(ii) *•■• 7* suivrB d ■ infi- 

nitiye, or if it is preceded by a conjunction ; it is better to read than 

nitif, ou •* pricidd d' conjonction ; il vaut mieux *7a Ure 

be idle. He is more studious now than when he was at school. 
Cn)oisif, itudkux dpriseni ^« d ^icole, 

48. Than, by, after more, less, used**' to denote a quantity, 

THAN, BY, aprh MORE, LESS, employes *•• designer . quantity, 

not a quality, (are expressed) by dc, not by que or par $ This does 
ncn qualiU, - s*exprimer^*^ , non ou . w „ 

not cost less than ftfly guineas. It is too dear by half. I would not 

^•® coiiter guinie, C trap moitie, 

sell it** for less than sixty. I have not had it^ more than a year. 
vendre U d eu I* an, 

49. Ik, after a superlative (is expressed) in the same manner as 

IN, mperlatif -s'exprimer^*^ de mima maniere que 

OF, agreeably to the rules on the article ; (That is) the cleverest boy 

DP, conformhnent rigle tur ' ; '*' habile garden 

in the school. His father is the most learned man in the kingdom. 

HcoU, savant rbt/durAe. 

His mother is the most sensible* woman in the whole town. 

qtirituel * ■• 

50; An adjective (in the) superlative^ followed by one of the relative* 

adjectif au , suiin de relatif^ 

words aui, OMf?, dotU, Requires the following verb (in the) subjunctive; 

mot , demander suivant^^ au stitjonctif; 

Mr. A. is the best friend I have. He is the most honest man I 
Moni, tneilleur (s) "* hcnnite (s) 

know. His sister is the handsomest woman I have ever seen. 

cotinaitre, belle (s) jamais vue 



EXERCISE. 291 

ADJECTIVE* 

RECAPITULATORY exerdst on the foregoing rules* 
What^* charming weather! how*** beautiful the country"^ looks! 

Quel charmant terns ! Que belle ^^ campagne itre! *** 

How attractire nature is, when it is arrayied in its vet-dint charms! 

»•* attrayant 7 ^ quand •* ami de ses Joerdoyant eharme! 

How sweet solitude is to ihhocent minds! Let lis go and take 

** douxCg) 7c(sur! - - aUn- (nn) faire 

a (short walk) in the neighbouring fields, (whilst we wait) till your 

fow «•»•■• a»8 voidn ehcanp, en attendant qus 

sister is»« ready. How«» is"* your aunt? She is still very ill. 

8oU prit. Comment 86 porter taiitef ejuon malade, 

I am sorry (for it.) She is a virtuous, prudent and generous wo- 

fdchi en^ «* vertueitx,(g) ginireux(g) 

man. Her daughter is very handsome, but she is too proud; She 

fil^ belle ^ •! trop orgueilleux(g) 

is as haughty as if she wfere the finest wbthan in England ; yet 

fier "0 ; dependant 

as she is richer and handsomer thai\ her cousin, she will **sooner get 

comme belle, cousine, f. - tot^^ trouver 

a husband; but virtue is more precious than richies. (Something 

mart; '^vertu pricieux(g) ^richetse, (llfaut 

must be allowed) for her age ; she is so young. She is older than I^ 
pa$ser quelque chose) d, ' dge ; jeune. Agi moi 

am. She is as old as my sister who is married. She is*^ not less 

t dgi 71 marU, a*** 

than twenty. I do not think that she is"* more thdh eighteen. Shie 

vingt ans» - penser en ^ ait *** 

is taller by two inches^ but she is not so handsome by tnuch. She has 

grand pouce, belle 

been spoiled in her infancy. Your sister is the most lovely girl I 

gdti ■ enfance, ahnable (s) 

know. She is so diligent and"^ attentive. YoU do hot learn so well 

conncAtre. attentif,(g) - apprendre 

as she does, because you are not so studious. My sister learns better 

t , pareeque studietix.( g) (b) p.7^. 

than I do, because she has a better memory than I have, but I take 

*• t , m&moire •• t , 

more pains' than she does. I found** my exercise easier than I thought. 

peine* ■• faire.i at trouvi theme aisi penser.^** 

It is beti^r than I expected. It is ^ess difficult than you imagined. 

attendre.'^*^ «* moins difficile s*imaginer.^*^ 

My son has made greater progress than I expected. (There are) 

10 41 progrei *7etp4rais^*o ms 

authors who write better than they speak ; there are others who speak 

•auteur »« t **» "' 

• See note • p. 281. f Tliis auxiliary verb is generally left out in frencb ; if you ex- 
press it, you must follow rule 47. t ^ee note (b) page 72, 

t2 



292 EXERCISE. 

ADJECTIVE. 

RECAPITULATORY cxercise on the foregoing rules. 
better than they write. The more I examine this afiair, the more 

puzzling** I find it«. Give that" to your eldest" sister and this" 

mHbarra$8ant . «* (hb) aini^^ (hb) 

to your younpfer brother. Your writing is bad, but this"' is worse, 

jeuw^* icniurei. (hh) pirct 

and that" is the worst of all. This ditch is nine feet deep, and 

(hb) t tout", (bh) fmA X P^^d profondf 

six feet broad. That tree is a hundred yards high, and ten feet 

t 'jM-ge, {hb) *arbre *^ verge haut, 

thick. London^ bridge, now the finest bridge in England, is seven 

^pais, fpont, ilprisent beau t 

hundred and sixty-six feet long, and fifly-six feet broad; the center 

§ pieds , large du milieti 

■*arch is one hundred and fifty feet broad, and thirty- two feet high. 

arche f. ^^ ^ , haut. 

Napoleon the first succeeded"* Louis the 16th ; Louis the 18th succeeded 

a *" succidi a ; >" a 

Napoleon the 2nd, king of Rome, and second emperor of the French. I 

, roi , " empereur 

want a watch ; but I should not like to give more than ten guineas (for it.) 



en 



"® montre ; - aimer d donner guinSe 

You can not get a good one for less than twenty. I will not give more 

(hk) avoir «n** d tnoins - en^^ 

than twelve. The best quality a man can'" have, is to be civil and 

qiutlitS(8j ^ pouvoir(kkX de civil 

obliging to the most uncivil and disobliging peopled The more difficult 

cbligeant incivil dischligeant gens^^ difficile 

a thing is, the more merit (there is) in doing*" it**. The more we 

choie , m^rite **• d faire " 

contemplate the beauties of nature, the less reason we have to (be 

eantempler beautS ^ y mom* vijet de noui 

proud.) The richer and the more elevated in diguity we are, the 

erunrgueUlir, riche ilevS en digniU , 

less* pride we ought to have, and the more we are obliged to be 

motm*'*' orgueil devoir *'■ avoir, obligi, d* 

just and reasonable; but most men (of these days) remember 

juste raisonnable ; la plupart det d*aujourd'hui ne te souvenir ^" 

that they are rich and powerful, only to'^' oppress the poor and 

C&6^*«»* puissant, que pour opprvmer pauvre 

the weak, and to be more unjust and unreasonable. 

faibU, *^ itre tnjuste diraisonnable, 

X See the numbers page 176. * Eldest and younger cannot be expressed by the 

comparatioe nor superlative in french,they must be expressed by the positive, for, as there 
is only one eldest and one younger there can be no comparison, t See note * page 20S. 

§ See note • page 177, 



EXERCISE. 293 

PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

51. When I, thou, he, she, it, we, you, they, are the nominative 

Quand i, THOU, HE, she, it, we, you, they, nominatif 

of a verb, they (are expressed) I by jc, thou by rw, he, it, m. by it 

verbe, ils s'expriment • / par , THOU , HE, IT, m. 

SHE, IT, / by eUc; wb by nou», you by rotis, they by /&, masc' • 

SHE, IT, f. ; WE , YOU , THEY , nuUC, 

by Elles, fem. ; as, I learn»« 'french. Doest thou speak it»* well ? 

, fem, ; comme, apprendre franfais, m. - *■• parler •■ bimi 1 

He has not learned long. It* is not difficult. She is too idle. 

'** long'Ums, difficile. tropparetseux,(g) 

We have not time. You will never learn. They are too fond of play, 

7temt. i» »» - iw aimer d joaer. 

52. I (is expressed) by moU thou by Toi, hb by luU they by 

/ -^B^exprimer^*^ par , thou , he , they 

EttXt m. by eUbs, f. if two of these pronouns are the nominative of 

, deux 

the same verb ; as, You and I will learn ^french. He and I will 

verbe; , i«7 « apprendre - 

learn together. You and they have learned before : Or, wh^n they 

^*^ ensembUm ^^ auparavant : Ou, ils 

are joined to another substantive ; as. My brother and I have begun 

joindre substantif; , ^^ commencer 

to learn it^. He and his sister learn very well. They and their 

i U »» tree 

master always speak french together : Or, when there is no' verb in 

the sentence to agree with thes« pronouns ; as. Who learns best ? 
pkraee pour t*accorder (bb) ; , ^ mieux ? 

He or I ? It* is I who learn best. It* is he who learns best. 

J K.B. IM K.a. IH 

53. When a personal* pronoun is the nominative of several verbs 

personnel pronom plusieurs 

it is generally** repeated with each verb; I believe and will always 

•^ - ordinaitement se r^p^t«r*** • ehaque ; croire - *®* 

believe that it is so. He always promises, but does not keep his 

que cela ainsi, *•* promettre, - ** tenir 

word. We have seen it*, and will see*** it again. 

parole. vu. le , revoir •* t 

54. When the pronouns he, thee, us, you, him, her, it, them, 

ME, THEE, US, YOU, HIM, HER, IT, THE if, 

are governed by a verb, the pronouns jce, re, nous, rous, se, lc. La, 

rigir *** verbe, 

Lcs, Lui, Leur, r, eti, which represent th^m, (are placed) in french 

7* reprSsenter ** , - se placer^*^ * en 

■ ■ ' »^ ' " I ■ ' 

• See N.B. under note (ii), page 235. ♦ 4ir«i« V* expressed by re before voir. 



294 EXERCISE. 

PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

imnoediately before that verb; Your brother does not love me. He 

imniddiatement **• (^J verbe ; - aimar*** 

never comes to see us. Does he not speak to you, when he meets 

iw venir ^^ wir, - ** parler (o) , rencontrer 

you? My mother will not allow me to speak to him. I will write 

? vouloir (kkjpermettre de (o) - 4cr%r» 

to her. I will scold her for using you so. Do not say (any thing 

(o) - grander de traiter ainti. - dM^ •• 

to her (about it.) She would use me worse (lor it.) She would beat 

(oj en - traiter plusmal en* - battn 

me. . If I knew it, I would not suffer it. I must^^ recondle their . 

Si savaU le, - souffrir II fatit queje r4concilie 

I will invite them to come to see me. I will speak to them to-day. 

- inviter d venir *7« -voir - (o) aujourd'hui, 

55. If the pronouns jve, re, ifousy vous^ se, xe, xa, xes, luU Leur, i 

proTiom 

Ell are governed by a tense compounded of the auxiliary verbs avoir 

rSgir^'^ par terns composS availiainfi* 

or irRE, and of a past"" participle, they must (be placed) before 

ou , passi participe, •* devoir {kkj se pifieer **• 

the auxiliai7 verb, not between the auxiliary and the participle ; Have 

" , non entre ; 

you seen my brother? I have seen him, but I have not spoken 

voir 7 , *** parler 

to. him. My mother has forbidden me to speak to him. Has he 

(o) difendre de (o) 

returned you the book which you had lent him? No, he has not 

rendre lime 5"* aviez preter * ? ^'^ ^^ 

returned it* yet**. Has he read it^? I do not think"* he has 

rendre le eneore» lire + ? - penser ^" 

opened it«. I am afraid®* he "^has lost it*. He has told me that 

ouvrir t - craindre ^*^ perdre t dire que 

you haye given it him. I have not given it him. It* is not mine. 

donner <« • «« • 1/ «» 

I hav€ borrowed it* from a friend. H§ has asked me fpr*®* it again. 

^mprunter t d, redemander - i i 

If the pronouns me, thee, us, you, him, hsr, it, them are 

ME, THEE, UJS, YOU, HIM, UJ8R, IT, THEM 

governed by the. imperative of a verb, consider whether the sentence 

r^gir ** par innpSroMf , contidirer «i phrate 

commands, or whether it* forbids. |j 

commander, ou si t dSfendre, 



^ Soe note (f) p. 79. t See note (h) p. 80. X -Again is expressed by re before demander 

I] The verb commands wben the action spoken of is to be done ; tbe verb forbids when 
the action spoken, of is not to be done ; so, Wait, is a command ; Do not wait, is a for- 

biddancfi or proliil-ition. 



EXERCISE. 395 

PEBSOHAL PRONOUN. 

50. If you command, pl^ee the pronouns after the verb, and express 

, placer^ apices verbg, exprimer' 

Me by Mois THSE and thyself by roi ; Wait fof me. Get thyself ready. 

, THEE THYSELF i Attendre^^ ApprSter - 

57. If you forbid, place the pronouns before the verb, agreeably to 

d^fendre, • • avant , suivant - 

the general^ rule, and express me by jue ; thee and thyself by re ; 

gMral^ rigtb, ME ; thee thyself j 

Help"" me. Do not help me. Help^ yourself; help him; help her; 

Aider* - *®o Servir^ t ; servir ; ; 

help them. Dp not help him; do not help her; do not help them. 

$ervir - servir ; -» ; - 

Wait for me. Do not wait for me. Bring me a clean" plate. 

AttejulM* *** - **^ Apporter* blanche assiette. 

Do not give me such a dirty plate. Bring it^ here. Do not bring 

gi ^ 8al^ * la id. - 

it here* Shew it him. Do not shew it him. Take it. Dq not 

•« Jlf(mfrer»«« lui4 «« "« Prendre «* 

take it. Hear me. Hear him. Do not hear him. Stop her. Do 

•■ Ecouter* - Arreter - 

not stop her. Let*** her go. Do not let her go. Let them alone. 

Laisser aller, - **® ti'anquilles. 

58. If the verb which governs the personal pronouns Is followed by 

rigir personnel^ suivi d' 

a preposition expressed in french, the pronouns (are placed) after the 

eiprim4^^ en , - se placer^^ 

preposition, and me (is expressed) by Moi; thee by roi; him by lui; 

, ME "S^exprimer^^ par ; thee ; him 

HER by Elle; them by eux, masc, by ^lleSy fern.; Come near me. 

HER ; THEM , , ' , ; s'opprocher \ de 

Have you thought of^ me ? I always think of you. I was coming 
pemer d ? ^®* penser4 - t>enir"* 

to you, when they obliged me to gQ to h^r. You are laughing'" 

a , obliger d* alUr ^ -^moqueri 

at*^ me. Do you know what she says of him P He does not care 

d$ - javoir*** ** dire de ' ? - w saucie* 

foi**^ her nor for what she says of him. They have enquired 

d* ni de ^ ••'t sHnformer 

afler you. Have you applied to ^ them? I will not trust*^ them. 

d^ ^^\ t'adresser d f vouldr mefierd 

What reason have you to mistrust^ them 9 I do not speak of them. 

■* reason de vous mijier d* I * 

* The gecoad person singular <^ the imperative is seldom used in french, except through 
familiarity or contempt ; the second person plural is used, though speaking to a single 
person; so instead of saying Place, we say Placezj instead of Attends, yve say Aitendes, 

f See reflective Terbs, pages 114, 115. t See note (f ) page 79. 



296 EXERCISE, 

PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

59. If several pronouns are governed by the same verb, they must 

plusieurs rSgir^^ par , •* devoir 

(be placed) together in the following order; The pronouns of the 

(kkj se placer eruembU s^* qui suit ■■ ordre ; 

first" person jtfc, nous; those of the second tc, rous, and that of the 

» personne ; * tecond^ , * 

third ae, (are placed"*) before any of the other pronouns ; Jtc, La, lcs, 

- se placer* ** touts - autres ; 

(are placed) before Lui, Lcur, r. En; luU Leur before r, eu; and r 

"Se placer ^^* ; "^ ; 

before sn ; I have something to tell you. What® is it ? I can riot tell 

t ; * i dire (y) 7 pouwir C^Ay 

it you now. I will tell it you (by and by.) Why wilP^ not you 

le aprisent, - tantot, Pourquoi vouloir 

tell it me now ? I have a letter for you. Your brother has sent \V* 

f lettre pour envoyie % 

me to bring it you. Where is it ? Give it me. Why will*^ not 
w »7o apporter t OH «f Donner^* ^ voubir^^ 

you give it me ? If you do not give it me immediately, I will*?' not ask 

«* f - •* aussitot, - ne 

you foy*®* it again, and I will tell him** of it. Here it is**^. Shew 

- II plus,^^ - lui \\ le La void "•■• Montrer 

it^ me. I will return it to yoa presently. I have brought you some 

«o - rendre •* - tout d Cheure. apporter ** • 

fruit too. Give us some. What® ! you had promised it to us, and 

ausst, (p) Quoi ! aviez promettre '^ - , 

you give it to them. I offered^ it to you first and you would not 

•• - ai offert •• - ** premierement avex *** 

have it. I will send you some to-morrow. Do not forget to send 

voulu *• - envoyer (p) demain, - oMier de 

me some, for it is long*" since I *" have eat any. I wilU'* not, 

(p) , car ily a long'tems que mangS (p) »•■• 

60. When a verb in the imperative governs several pronouns, if 

Quand d imp^ratif r^gir plusieurs , 

jfoi, 7oi are (in the) number, these two pronouns (are placed) for 

du g *8 " se placer^^ • pour 

the sake of melody afler the other pronouns ; Give it me. Bring 

- - m^lodie autres ; Donner^^ Amener 

her to me. Send them to me there. Send some to me there. 

— Envoyer - y. (e) p. 74. - 

* S^ M. B. under note (ii) p. 235* t See note * p. 78. t See note (h) p. 80. 

H We do not say in irench, Demander quelqu'un pour une chose, to ask somebody for a 
thing ; the thing is always the object of the verb, and the person the object of a prepon^ 
tion ; we say, Demander une chose a quelqu*un, to ask a thing to somebody, the same as 
we say, Donrur une chose a queUiu*un, to give a thing, to somebody. Nor do we say. 
Dire une personne d'une ch)sef to tell a person o/a thing, we say, Dire une chose a une pc*^ 
wnnCf tp te\l ]» thing to a person. 



EXERCISE. 297 

PEaSONAL PRONOUN, 

61. Except when either"" of these pronouns meets the pronoun 
ExeepU Vun im Vautre rencontrer 

En J for, ME SOME, ME of IT, of THEM (are expressed) by jt'en; 

i car, MB SOME, MB of IT, of THEM - «'cxpnm«r i«* ]par , 

THEE SOME, THEE of IT, of THEM are expressed^ by i^en, 

THEE SOME, THEE of IT, of THEM - CmJ N.B. ^ 

whether they come before or afler the verb; He ^ave me some. 

soit qu^ venir **• - ; aonner (p) 

Give me some. He put^ me (in mind) (of it.) Put me (in mind) 

(p) faire souvenir en Faites souvenir 

of it. He brought thee some. Recall to thyself the difficulties of it. 

*• apporter (p) Rappeler - difficult^ *• 

62. As there are only two genders in french, the masculine aud 

Comme il n*y a que genre en , tnasculin 

the feminine, the neuter" pronouns it, they, them (are expressed) ^ 

feminin, neutre^ IT, theT, them - (HJNB. lu t<( 

by il, Elle, lis, Elles, re, la, les, agreeably to the gender and*. % ^/ 

number of the noun to which they refer"*, the same as when (speak- 

• 7« te rapporter, de mime que on parte 

ing) of ^persons; Look at that tree; it is well blossomed, yet 

personne; ^egarder ^^ * arbre; fieuri, cependcmt 

it produces no fruit.^ I will cut it down, if it does not bear 

produire i«> N.B. abattre, (h) p. 80. • , - porter 

fruit* this year. (These are) "very fine trees, but they are too 

N.B. annee. "'' tree »■ , trap 

young to bear fruit yet*". They do not bear fruit*, when they are 

)eune» pour » d^jd.^-^- - ^•^•, 

so young. (That is) a fine flower. -It is a rose. Will you have»7* 




Si 



M 



«7 fleur. «* Vouloir 



it? How sweet it smells! I will take it to my mother. 

(h)p.80. »" fcont sentir! »78 «a« (h) p. 80. 

She is so*" fond of roses. Take some of these cherries ; they are 

- tant aimer - ^ Prendre " (bb) cerise; 

very good. They are not quite ripe" yet*". They will be better 

tres " tout d fait miir encore,^-^ (b) p. 72. 

in another week. It" is very pleasant to have a garden. near one's 

•*' une semaine, **••• agriable d* jardin presdesa 

house. It" is the greatest" pleasure I have. Was it" you who 
N.B. 44 plaUir(iJ ~ Etait ^.B. 

sent'" us some fruit the other day? No, it" was my brother. I 

envoyer^ autre jourf Non, n.b. i40 

thought"* it" was you. Did you like**' it**? Yes, it was very nice. 
p«n*er*" W** - trouver bon ? , **• bon. 



* To CUT is Couper ; To CUT DOWN is Abattre, not Couper en bas, 

t Sweet is here used adyerbially, so is Bon, and it does not require any agreement. 



398 EXERCISE. 

PBRSONAL PBONOUN. 

63. Though Luif zeur^ (are used) for all*^ beings i\\b.\?i hi^ve life 

QumquB , , - ^employer^^ p<mr Utr$ (m) p. Q3, ^vie 

such as brutes and plants; as likewise for ideal** substaacea in whieh 

tels que brute f ^jlantef et auisi idial^ ^ daju 7* 

we suppose an active principle, such as ^heaven, providenee, fortjine, 

supposer actif^ prineipe, telles que del, ^ § ^ » 

some virtues and viees ; as. Take the horses into the stable, and bring 

• vertu * , ,• comme, **• ■" Seurie, •*• 

them" some iiay. This tree is dying*", give*" it a little' water. 

(f) p. ^. • fom, * arbre - se mouriry donner *• peu ^-^ eau. 

Most men worship ^ove ; they sacrifice every thing to it ; They 

Laplupartdes adorer^^ amour; sacrifier *®7 My j/j 

can not be used for Ijfel^ss^ beings which are" commonly*" called 

- {hkj s'employer san$ vie ' que tn ordinairement appeler 

things ; in speaking of things, to it, to them ar^ expressed ])y Y ; 

chose ; en parlant 7 , to iTy to them - 8*exprimer *** ; 

Geography is a pleasant study $ you should give some time to it. You 

Giographie "^ agrMU^ 4tude; *''• * terns ** 

do not pay sufficient attention to it. I want tp learn mathematics ; but 

faire assez ^ N.B. »* seo ^math^matique ; 

I can not apply to them. I have not time to stick to them. 

(hkjm'appliqtier *• "^ de nCattacher *• 

64. Lniiy Elle^ eux, Elles^ afler a preposition^ (are said) only of 

priposition ne se disent que 

persons and beings that are" generally*" personified ; such as heaven, 
7personne ^ que on ginSralement personnifier^^ ; tels que ^ , 

providence, virtue, love, &c. ; as. If mep knew*" virtue, they would 

^ , '^vertUf "f amour, 8^c. ; comme, '' connattre ' , 

burn with love for it, and t own that (there is) no' real happiness 

hruUr d' pour , avouer que **• N-^- vraiX honheur 

without it. In speaking of brutes or things, the preposition is gene- 

sans En parlant " 7 brutes ou ^ , .. iw 

rally changed into an adverb, and the pronoun (is left out); as, 

se changer^*^ en - adverbe, - s'omettre^^ ; comme. 

That chair is broken, (Jo not sit*' upon it. The rails are 

(lih) chaise rompu^^, - s*asseoir || " dessus barreau 

newly paintied, do not leaner against them. Stand" (by the side) 

fraxchement peint * , - s*appuyer\\ contre Se tenir || d c6ti 

of them. I have made a terrace in my garden, a grotto under it, and 

terrasie ■^" , grotte dessous, 

planted trees all round it. I am going to make a water spout (in the) 

plants *arbre autour ^^^ ^Ts d'eau ^jet au 

middle of it, and a canal through it. Have you ever been in it ? 

milieu , d travers, jamais dedans ? 

• See note j page 882. f JVould is hers imderstood ia eoglbh. 

J Put this adjectire beCara the noon. || See the imperative 'fa rcflectiye rerb, p. 114. 



EXERC!SE. 299 

PERSONAL FBONOUN. 

65. When he, she, it, they are the nominative of the verb be, 

HE, SHE, IT, THEY, BE, 

followed bv a substantive, they^ are generally expressed by Ce; 
Do you know that gentleman who is coming (this way ?) He is a 
philosopher. He is a very learned man That is his wife who is with ] 

philoaophe, tris - savant C est la femne 

himt She is q very haughty" wom^n. Is that thpir house ? Yes, ^ ' 

* hautain *• femme. Est-ce la ? Out, ! 

it is. It is a very gopd* ho^se. They are very respectable people*. i 

66. He, she, thev, urn, her, them are sometimes psed'^ ] 

BE, SHE, THEY, HIM, HER, THEM - qi^elquefoh ^^ s'emfihyer 
without reference to a noun expressed in the discourse, but with 

rapport exprim^ *^ discours, avec 

reference to the words man, woman or people understood ; then they 

mot MAN, WOMAN ou PEOPLE Kus-eiitendus ; alors * 

(are expressed) he, him by cdui ; she, her by celle; they, them 

- i'exprimer^^ hs, him par ; SHE, her ; they, them 

by ceux; Happy he who lives, i. e. the Tnan who lives contented with 

; Heureiix vivre content *** 

his lot. Providence never abandons him who does not abandon himself. 

8ort, ^ *•• abandonner - s*abandonner lui'tneme. 

She who refuses a husband, is not alwavs sure to ^* find another. 
refuser mari, sAr • «n s* trouvei' un autre, 

N. B. The English, in this kind of sentences, often place"* the 

Anglais, •*' (^^J *ort« • phrase, '^ placer 

words HE, she, &c. and the relative who, whom, whichw follows 
he, she, S^e. relatif who, whom, (m) p. ai. «utwf 

them, in different" »parts of the sentence; the French (on the) 

** , "• different^ partie ; «m 

contrary, generally place Qui, QUe, Dont immediately after cdui, 
eontraire, ^^ ^*^ imniidiatement 

celle, ceux; He is a flatterer who praises men for virtues which'* they 
• ; flattetir louer ^ des (m) p. 88. 

have not. He can not be happy whose happiness depends upon 

saurait *•* ^* bonheur'^ dSpendre des 

other people. They are not always happy who seem to be so»*.t 

autres. -•» paraitre - - te 

67. His, HBR, THEIR usid in the same sense as the above" pro 
HIS, HER, THEIR employes sens que ci'dessus 

nouns, i e. witliout refereiice to a noun mentioned, are expressed, 

rapport ( dont ilsoit fait mention), - s^ejprimer^^, 

• See * D. 210. + Turn thi» sentence in f rench ; They who seem happy, are not always so. 



300 EXERCISE. 

PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

HIS by de celui; her by de ceUe; their by de ceux; Every body 

HIS ; HER ' ; THBIR IW 

blames his manners, i. e. the manners of him, who acts without modesty. 

blamer maniere , agir modestie* 

I would not trust her virtue, who does not care«» for her reputation. 

voubir me fier d, vertu - se souciei' de * 

Tlieir labours do not always succeed, who take their measures best.* 

travail - *** rSuasir prendre mesure le mieux. 

68. When a personal* pronoun is the object of several verbs, it must 

personnel otjet plusieurs , <' doit 

be repeated with each verb ; He saw and heard me. He loves and 

16 ripiter ^®* ; voir entendre ** atm«r 

esteems you. I hate and despise him. I entreat and conjure you. 
estimer ** ha'ir m^priser ** prier conjurer ** 

69. When several verbs come together, the pronouns should (be 

ensemble, devraient (»e 

placed) immediately before the verb which '* governs them ; Will 

placer) (m)p. 82. r4gir ** ; »7» 

you help me to do it? Can not you do it yourself? He wishes to 
aider ^^^ faire^f »" (m) n.b. « souhaiter >7« 

marry her. She will not speak to him. She can not bear him. 
ipouser ** vouloir (kk) (o) ** !•* souffrir **. 

70. When, in a sentence of several parts, the subject mentioned 
Quand^ '^^ phrase plusieurs partie, sujet dont il est fait mention 

in the first** part is continued, the french add*'^ to the following* parts 

premier continuer, frangais ajouter suivant** 

of the sentence one of the pronouns Le, La, tes, eu, y, agreeably to trie 

suivant — 

idea which^* they wish to express ; Is this the master of the house ? 

idde (m) p. 8S. vouloir *'• » Est-ce ici maitre f 

Yes, he is ; i. e. tht master. He is rich and I am not ; i. e. rich. He 

,Cr) , ' riche (m) . t 

has friends and I have not ; i. e. any friends. Are these the books 

^ami (m) . (p) t Sont-ce ici 

of which you were speaking ? Yes, they are ; i. e. the boohs. Is 

74 155 f '^ , t 

your brother at home ? No, he is not ; i. e. there. And if the 

»8* au logUf »" , 1". (e)p. 74. 

auxiliary verb with which we®® ask the question, is attended by ano- 

auxiliairi^ 7« N.B. faire , accompagni d* 

ther verb, that verb must also be repeated; Have you seen your 

, (hh) doit aus»\ - se ripiter ; (ii) ''•■• vu 

* Tnrn ; The laboarg of those who take best their measiffes, do not always succeed. 

t You do not repeat the noun or adjecthn; which is understood in engUsh, but yon mast add one of 
tae above pronouns to the verh^ as long as the saiM subject is continued. 



EXERCISE. 301 

PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

brother lately? No, I have not, i.e. seen him. When you see-^ 

ileimis peu f »» , • . verrez 

him, tell him that I want to speak to him. I will ; i. e. tell it him. I 

, dWe /kiW (hb) *w '7« (o) ♦ . 

do not know what he wants ; do you? i. e. know it? No, I do not ; i. e. 



aavoir ®* vouU>ir\ • ^ 70N.B. /• 



> 



k)ww it; if I did'*^ ; i. e. know it, I would not have asked you about it. 

70 N.B. ; • . 70 N.B. ^ detnunder - f *• 

71. If the pronoun, which** in these instances (is added) to the sen- 

,(m)p.82. (bb) cos ' iajouler^^ 

tence, represents a noun, it must be one of the words ze, la, les^ 

, reprisenter , doit mot 

agreeably to the gender and number of that noun ; Are you the 

mtvant - ■ (bb) ; 

brother of that lady? Yes, I am. Are you the sister of that 
^bb) 9 , (bb) 

gentleman ? No, I am. not. Are these your horses ? Yes, they are. 

motuieur t Sont-ce ici cheml t » ** 

72. If you have to represent, in the second part of the sentence, 

d reprisetUer *• 

an adjective, an adverb, or a member of a sentence, you^'^ must add 

, , ou un memhre - , il ".B. fa^if ajouter 

ic without regard to gender or number ; Sir, are you ready? Yes, I 

satis avoir igard ' oit, 7 . ^ pritf , 

am; i. e. ready. Are you ready. Madam? No, Sir, I am not; i. e. ready. 

9» 9 

Are your brothers returned*" ? No, they are not ; i, e. returned. 

184 989 f , 

73. En, r, which^* are generally said** of things only, may, in v,/ 

(m) p. 82, - *"* se dire ^ , peuvent, en ^ "^ 

answer to these questions, (be used) for persons ; sn, instead of 

rfyome (bb) , (kk) s* employer povr 7 • , au lieu de 

de jtfoi, de roi, de juousy de voxiSy de l?«*, ^EUe, d'jBiu?, dtElles; v, 
instead of k Moi, k Toif k Nonsy a voits, k Lui, a jsZ/e, k mix^ k slles ; 
Were you speaking of me ? * Yes, I was ; i. e. apeakcng of you. Do 

_ 183 199 58 ^ m , - 

you care for her ? No, I do not ; i. e. care for her. Will you not 

te smicUr de » f »" , • • va 

trusts him? No, indeed, I will not; i. e. trust him. Have*^ you 

voiis fier a * f *•* , en v£rit4, • , X 

not applied to them? Yes, we have'''; i.e. have applied to them. 

i\tdre$ter * ? , • • 

* These signs, or aaxilitry Terbs which represent the pnncipnl verb in-english, have no meaninK in 
french, yoa mast reptat the nerb itself. 

f Soe note | p. 896. X See compound tenses of a /eAcetire verb used interrogatively, pag« 11£. 



/ 



302 TiKERCISE. 

PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

RECAPITULATORY exercise on the foregoifig rules* 
Your sister has not used**' me well. What has she dbnfe to you ? 

H*»ta pas ti^avee iwn.b. t« fai^g ^^y f 

We were at the ball last night; I asked^ her to dance with kne; 
"• bal «» . piri^i9r »« rfanier ; 

she refused me, and after she had refused me, she danced with 
itf/Twjr'^ , oprd^qne tut ttfnsi , ••' 

another. She mehtioned it to me this morning. She is very sorry 
(for it.) She desired me to tell ybii so. She did"' not intend to offend 

en a ** prii ** dire le ** atotr destein '** ojfenser 

you. She had promised to dance with him before you had*" asked 

avait pramellre ^^ avant qiie eustiez deniander 

her. She ought''' then to have told me so. She forgot*^ it. She did not 

Ini aurait done - du dire /«** onblier - 

think (of it.) I beg you will forgive*" her. You had promised me 

penser^"^ y prier f deparaonuer Ini av»« 

that, when you should come to see tne, you would bring me your 

que, quand venir ^T* voir , - *** 

children. Why did** you not bring them with you ? I could not 

FinirqiUH avet anienis ? ai ^^ pu 

bring them to-day. I wilP" bring them the next time I come'**. 

""^ aujonrd'hui. - **« prcchaine fois **^ vietidrai. 

Bring them to me as soon as you can"*. ^ I will'®. They have desired 

■*• (o) aussitM qne poavoir,^ '*•'*• *** 

me to buy'® them fruit, and to send it to them, but I will take it to 

^^acheler({)p.?9. », ^^ etivoyef (o) , ^ ^(o) 

them myself. I long to see them. It is so long**« sincfe I have seen 
(m) N.B. J rfe voir U ya si long~iem que ['»« vws'*" 

them. They will be very glad* to see you. They are very fond ot 

bien aise ** - fort *** aimer - 

you. They are always talking'" oif you. You are so good || to them. 

155 183 parlei' auez tant de ItonU pour 

They like you better than their lincle. lie is incessantly t^azing'" 

aimer (b) p. 72. oncle, - sans cesse »"* tonrmenter 

them. They will"* not stay with him. They would rather come to 

vmiloir rester aiment mietix (o) 

me or go to you. They are very amiable^ children. I often think 

(o) w uimabl^ » '" penser 

of them. I am mueh obliged to you. You have got a nlcfe stick. 

*» bien obUg4 . (o) ^^ M f'^^on. 

Let*« me look at it. Will you have it ? I make you a present (of it.) 

Laisser voir - Vouloir '74 f faire *^ *" 

• See note * p. 281. f Turn in french, / beg you to forgive her. X See lONC, p. 175. 
11 To BE so GOOD. TO BE SO KIND, are expressed by Aooir taut de bonU * BB so GOOD, 
BE SO KIND, in the imperativej Ayez la bonte ; not Soyez a bm* 



EXERCISE. 803 

PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

RECAPITULATORY exercue on the foregoing ruUi. 

I thank you. I wilP?^ not deprive jou of it. I do not care (for it.) 

remercier vouloir (kk)jymyer - i$umcier en 

I have boug^ht it with the int(intion of giving^ it away. Have yon 

acheter dans dessein donner^ - EnJ^ 

ffot another? Yes, I have^^ Is this your new"* wateh ? Yes, it is. It 

^ un autre f , N.B. Est-ce ici neuve montre f , ce ^o o» 

is silver; I thoug^hf* it was gold. My uncle has promised me a gold 

d*argehi ; pensau^*° •* "' d'or, oncle d'or 

one, if I get a prize this year. I wish"^ you may^®.'^*** Ah ! 

en '", remporter prix (hb) **® souhaiter en remportieg tin. Ah ! 

h it<* yoii? How glad I am to see you! If you had not called upon 

"•*• f ^^ aise ^^ voir ! aviez *• 

me now, I would have called upon you this aflernoon. I wanted**^ 

a pr^iertt, «• . (bb) *aprhmidu >*« 

to see you. We go to the play to-niffht; will you come with us? 

alter eoml^die* m » f venir f 

Will your cousin*** be there? I think«» she wilK^i I will go; for I long 

- t coutine f. (e^ p. 74. penser N JJ. f ; car t 

(very much) to see her. She is a most amiable*" young lady. You 

fort ** voir •* des pltu aimables jeune demoiselle.§ 

do not know (how much) I love and esteem her. I always think 

- tavoit combien aimer estimer *^ penser 

of her, but I (am afraid)"" she never thinks of me« What reason 
■*• , craindre '*• aoo w raison 

have you to think so? Because, when I meet her, she does not 

>« le^f Parce que, rencontrer, - || 

take any notice of roes. You should^* speak to her. You should 
faire aueune attention d devoir (o) ^7' 

call upon her. I (am afraid) of offendingj^ her. I know"* she has 

(idi) "• eraindri diplaire *** lui savoir 

a ffreat regard for you, but I can not say that she loves you. 

- oeaueoup de respect pour , (kk) diri (bh)^^' 

Yet, I recollect that one day, as I was speaking of you to her, 
Cepmdant, sirappeUr un jour, comm$ "* (oj , 

she asked me if I knew*** you well. I told her that I did^*, 

dtmander eonnattre bien din (f) p. 79. (bb)^-^- ,' If'**- 

• Comedie in french, does not meso Comedy oiiIy,bnt is said of any kind of plays acted npon a staifft, ' 
and also of the house itself where such plays are acted ; you mav also express the word Play by Specta- ' 
cle. Theatre in frtneb is generally understood of that part of the house called the stage ; yet it is said I 
also of the Aoiue itself. 

t See note • p. 143. X See the impersonal verb long, p. 175. 

$ Detnoiselle is said of all ladies who hare never been married, whatever their age may 
be ; Dame is said of all ladies who are or have been married. 

I Express Not by ne only, before the verb, as aucune which follows it, supplies the 
pUfce of pas or point, 

% Ton may express 1 did by Oui only, ot yov insy repeat ih6 rtth Connaitre, and 
say, I did know you* 



304 EXERCISE, 

PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

RECAPITULATORY excrcise on the Jbregoing rules. 
and she seemed'"' pleased (at it.) If she is at the theatre to ni^ht, 

paraitre bien aise en d eomddie * ^ 

I will tell her what you haYe told me. I shall be much obliged 

•* ^ bien obUgl 

to you, if you do. I see a gentleman in that box yonder wha 

(o) f t monsieur (^) ^g^ ut-bas ''J 

owes me (a great deal) of money, but I dare not ask him for it, for 

devoir - beaucoup argent, oser § , de 

fear of giving him "pain ; yet I am in great want (of it ;) and 
peur faire ^^ '"* peine ; cependant, avoir grand besoin en ; 

as (you are acquainted with him^) I will be obliged to you, if you 
comme vous vous connaissez || , Co) , 

will tell him so, the first time you have an opportunity to 

»«* dire (£)p.79. W^. /wfO- "* ** occasion »" 

mention it to him. Who, Mr. A ? I know him very well. He is 

parler en (o) Qut^ Mons. A ? conwAtre tres . bien, 

a Yery honest man; he will pay you, you may be sure of it. I 

honnite(i) j payer , pouvoir sHr 

answer for him as for myself. I suppose"^ he has forgotten it. 

repondre ^^ comme ** mm-mime, s^imaginer oubaer 

My sisters were talking this morning of going'^ to drink tea^ at 

15S parler (bbj matin alter '^a prendre thS 

your "^^house this aflemopn. Shall you be there? Certainly, I shall7<>. 

N.B. 8 aprh-midi, (e) p. 74. Certainement, N.B. 

I should not like to lose that opportunity of seeing them. I want 

aimer "• (^b) occasion *** ** 

to return** them the book which'* they have lent me, and to thank 

N.B. (f)p.79. (m)p.82. prSter , remercier 

them (for it.) I have been told that one of them is going to be 

en " un« f - "» »7« 

married*®*. Is it true ? They®^ talk of it, but I do not know whether 

se marier, vrai 'i n.b. parler , n 

it is true or not. Ask *®her. I dare not ask her such a thing ; 
ou Hon, Demander k (f) p. 79. oser (f) p. 79. •* chose ; 

she would be angry with me. I met*^ them walking together 

f&^i *• ^'^ rencontrer d la promenade ensemble 

the other day, and I related'*' to them what had*"" happened to us, 

autre , raconter (o) ®* itait arriver (o) , 

after we had left'* them ; they laughed (at it) (very much.) They 

apres que ^^ quitties ; % rire '^ en beav^coup, ^ 

* See note • p. 303. t Here you may express Do by the verb Faire, or you 

may repeat the verb and the pronouns, if you tell it her, ^ 

t Turn ; I see in that box yonder a gentleman who S^c, § See note H p. !296« 

II Leave out with him ; as Vous vous connmssez means, you are acquairUed witn joch oihc^, 
% Mind the gender of the noun which this pronoun represents. 



EXERCISE. 305 

PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

RECAPITULATORY exercise on the foregoing rules, 
told"' me they wished*** that they had been with us. I also'** shewed*"' 

dire^^ • totihaiter (nn) autsi montrer 

them the letter which you have written to me, desiring me not**^' to 

(f)p.79. (m)p. 82. ^mt«"» (o) ,pourprier hb.»« 

mention it to them, for fear*** your father (should come) to know of 

parler en (o) , de peur que *•* vint a tatoir - 

it; but I requested them not*** to mention it to him. Have they 

le ; prier **7 h.b. d« parler en (o) • 

mentioned it to you? No, they have nof*. They only*** told*** me 

en(o) *•*, • *•'•** • ieulement ontdit 

that they had met you, and that you had**' walked (a little way) 

(bbJv.B. • avaient , 6tiez tepromener . unpeu 

with them. They were (very well) pleased** with you. I was not 

• • tres - content v.o, «» 

less so** with them. They have invited me to come and spend an 

moins le d' • • inviter *** venir (nn) *'* • 

evening with them. I intend**' to pay them*** a visit soon ***. 
*■* evec • avoir dessein *** rendre (f) p. 79. bientot. ^•^* 

Pray give my love to them, and tell them*** so. I will'*. Is not 

faire amitUs (o) t , (0 P« '^^' ^ *•"• 

your country **house finished yet***? No, it is not, and I do not 

de campagne *** finir **• "'B* wi , • 70 ^ « 

know when it will be. My father does not like it ' now. He says 

sacoir quand • 70 . atm^*(h) p.80. 

that it is too near the road. He wants*** to sell it, and *** 

(bb) w.B. • trap pret de route* avoir envie *** * (h) p. 80. d*«n7* 

build another a little further in the country. I wonder he does 

bdtir *** unpeu loin*^ *** *** t*£tonner «*» 

not like it; it seems*** a' good house, and it is in a pleasant 

• ; • avoir apparence - i , « ai3 agriable '* 

situation. He is going*** to add a terrace to it, and make a moat 

- aller *7* ajonter tetrasse , fossi 

round it. Have you been in the park? They** are making a p%nd 

jutour •* pare ? m.b. - faire ^^ itang 

in the middle of it. (Here is) some fruit. Will you have*'* any? 
mUwu 64 »«7 » ' (V) 

1 shall be obliged to you, if you will give me some. Take some. 
obligi (o) , »** (p) Prendre (p) 

Take some more. (There*** is) plenty in the garden. We have 

(p) davantage, en^ abondance •*• jardin, en'^ 

(so much) that we* do not*** know what to do (with it.) Have you 

tant (bb) »•».. - »-b. que ^^ faire ■** || en. 



• Mind the gender of the iioim which this prooonn represents, 
t Express this sentence thus: / pray you to give my low to them^ and to tell them tfO, 
I Tom this sentence thus : It hai a good appearance. Q IVith is implied in the prononn en, 





306 EXERCISE, 

PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

RECAPITULATORY escrcise on the foregoing rules. 
been where 1 told** you? No, I have not*®. Why do not you go? 

itre pa ai dtt »»^ N Ji. PowrqutA -yT^ i" 

Are you not ready yet**? Yes, I am. Is your sister ready? I 

*» jtret encore^ 9. ,7® m «• 

(am afraid) she is not. Go and tell her** to (get ready) as fast as 

eraindre « »*• 7° AUer-Cnn) dire (f) p, 79. ^'^ s*appr£Ur « vito *« 

she can'*. Is this the book of which you were speaking to me? 

pourra. Est-eeici ^* "* (o) 

Yes, it is. Have you read it? Yes, I have'^^. Is it entertaining? Yes, 

»• lire N.B. amusantf 

very. Read it. You know Mr. B.; do you no t«*? Yes, I do.^® 

exir^mtmmit* cofmaitre Monsieur ; tCest^ce pas f Oui, ^-B* 

He is a very clever young man, but I (am afraid*"*) he is a little itoo 

•* tres - habile^ jeune , eraindre *** ^^ unpen 

much) addicted to gaming. Has he ever asked you for money? Yes, 

trop adenn£ yen. jamais * ^argent? , 

he haaf®. Did** you lend him** any ? Yes, I **'didy^ 1 am very sorry 

».B. Avez priU (f) p. 79. (p) , ai n.». fdche 

(for** it,) for I do not think that he will ever return it to you. Do 
$n , car - (bbj ^-o* rendre *^* C^) - 

you think he will'* ? Yes, I do**. He is a very worthy* youug 

ft3i M^N.B. , jr.B. •* de heaucoup de miriie 

nian. I wish** you would recommend him to some of your friends 

*■* vauhir recommander •• 

who could serve him* I will'*. I esteem him (very much) myself, 

p<lt tervir »•»• estimer fort Cm)v.B. 

and I beg you by all that is dear to you, not** to mention to him 

supplier par tout ce qui cher Co) , n.b. d« parler de (o) 

what** I have said to you, for I would never pardon you for it. I 

(m) p. 82. C^) » ^^ **^ pardmner • 

will'* not. Only*** tell him**, when you see** him, that I shall be 

NA SeulePieni (f) p. 79. voir , (bh) nb. 

much obliged to him, if he will do me the favour that he has pro- 

Hen ohligi (o) , "* faire grdce '* pro- 

mised me. I will tell him'* so^. I like them who shew themselves 
iB«ttre*** (Op* 7^9. le aimer «* tnontrer . se 

such as they axe. (So do I.) Tell him** to call upon me as soon as 

$eU que Etmoiaussi. (f)p.79.** ■* ^ iSt *» 

he can**. I will'*. Now, I must wish you good morning. Come 

pouvoir, »•»• 2 present, ^** souha^te^ ' ■*♦ n.b. Veni-^ 

and see us again soon. You may'7* be sure that I wiU^^ I will 

'" Cnn) revoir f bientdt. pouvoir sAr (bbJv.B. v.b. 

eome as oden as I can, whilst I am so near you. I hope you will'*. 
** ** ** , pendant que *♦* pris d§ «*i n.b 

* "" ' M l I I I , ■ ■ . . I . , ■■■. ., ■ ._ 

* See note | page 996. f Re prefixed to a verb, esprestei the roitf Offom. 



EXERCISE, 307 

74. When who, that, which are the nomin^tiyp of a vefb, they 

WHO, THAT, WHICH nominotiff , i7* 

(are expressed) by qui; I see a gentleman yonder who 19 w^itingf 

s^eiprimer (ii) K.p. par ; voir trumsieur t Id^bas 7* *** attendre 

for me. It" is frpm him T have bought that hp^se ifhich is lame. 
He has another whii^h suits i]rie, I have on^ whichf I think, will die. 

en7^ un autr^ convenir tw^ un , cypire, mo^r%r» 

When WHOM, that, which are the object of ^ verb, they are 

WHOM, THAT, WHICH objef , 

expressed by Que ^ You know the gentleman we have ju$t^ met 

s*exj)rimer ; J t (s) venons de rencontrer. 

It" is from him I have bought the horse that you have seen. He has 

WB. Ml voir, 67*70 

another which I want to buy, to replace th^t whicli I have lost. 

120 260 acheter, *7o remplacer " perdre. 

Who6)B, 0/ whom, 0/ lyHiCH, ,are expressed by f)ont; He is the 

Whose, of whom, of which - iexprimer ; ••■* 

gentleman whose horse has v^on the race. lie is not the person , 

t gagni ie prix de la course. •* personne f. 

of whom you complain. No, he is^o pot. Jle is a j^m of i^hom I have 

seplaindreg , ** (r) •* 

a good opinion. The hors^ of which I was speaking to you is sold. 

« «» - parler ^** (0) vendre, 

75. Qui, »ue, Doni, whatever be ihfi or4er of the WQVis which 

, , , quelque **' soit 

correspond to them in english, must be placed immediately ^fle^ the 

cerrespondre ^ en , deooir -^se placer imm^diatement 

noun to which they relate ; A gentleman has been here who 

7* " M rapporter (ii) ; + i7 est venu ici | 

wanted^^ to speak to you. Is the man (come back) whpn^ I had 

vouloir^*'^ ^^ (0) ^** revenir avals 

sent (for him) ? Yes, he is^^ Is th^ money to ba had (turn, can 

envoyer le querir 9 , "•■• Peut-fn •* avoir 

on^ have the wimey) whic2» we are in need of? No, it is i)ot.«« 

(^k) av<m^ besoin «<» »»i , «•» 

N. B. DofU, (besides its heij^g placed) immediately after the noun 

, outre qu'il doit se placer 

to which it rdates, must also be followed immediately (by the) nomi- 

7* il , doit atissi etre suivi du 

native of the verb whicM* follows it ; as, (That is) the gentleman 

(m)p.8f. suivre **; , ^' f 

* See note *, p. S04, Uie distincUon between the nomiruUive and the object of a verb, 
t Monsieur^ not GeiUilhomme, which !n the french langaaee means Nobleman. 
X See paffe 140, and 168, the difference between Savoir ana Con»aitre. 
I Tarn ^is sentwca thus ; There has been here a gentleman who wanted &c. 

u2 



308 EXERCISE. 

ftGLATIVE PRONOUN 

whose horse I wanted*^* to buy. He is a man whose probity I know, 

vouloir^^ ^^* acheter, •* prohiti • , 

a man whose talents I admire, and whose friendship I value much. 

, amitiS priser fort. 

If the sentence can not be turned in this manner, whose must 

phra$e pouv(nr{kk)''setourner de (bb) maniere, whose doit(kk^ 

be expressed by duQud^ de laQuelle, desauels, desauelleSt agreeably to 
— s*exprimer par , , , , suivant - 

the gender and number of the noun to which the pronoun relates*** ; 

genre humJbre '« serapporter; 

He is a man to whose family I owe every thing, and in whose hands 

^ famille devoir ^^^ , main 

all my property is. They are people upon whose word one may depend. 

bien •' ^gens^^ sur parole on peut compter* 

76, Afler a preposition whom is expressed by qui for .both genders 

WHOM " s'exprimer le$ deux 

and numbers; which by leauely laauelle^ lesauels, lesaueUes ; 

let deux ; which , » » i 

from WHICH by duaud, de laQuelhy desauelst desQudles; to^ at which 

from WHICH , , , ; to, at WHICH 

by auQuely a laaudlcy auxQuds, auxoudles, agreeably to the gender 

, , , , suivant - 

and number of the noun to which it relates ; You know the gentle- 

• ilse rapporter ; • 

man to whom I have spoken. It® is he who has brought the parcel 

parler, n.b. ** apporter paquet 

in which your letter was. (This is) the carriage in which he came"^. 

^** *^ voiture est venu. 

Are these the horses to which he is so much attached ? They are not 
Sont-ce ici n fort attaM f 

fit* for the use which they are intended for*". Let us walk along 
propre *^ tusage let •* destine. d. Se promener f le long de 

the road in which we walked*^ yesterday. What is the name of 
route (o) se promener i hier, •■ 

the place in which we are? I like to know the name of the places 

• endroit Co) aifMt *•• • 

through which I go. Have*^ you inquired for the town from which 

C v) passer, Vous ites-vous inform^ de (v) 

he comes? I could not hear any thing on which I can rely. 

venir f ai **• pu •• apprendre •• ("uj *** compter* 

77. WHO, WHOM used absolutely, i. e. without reference to a noun 

Who, whom employ^ absolument, c'est-^'dire rapport 

mentioned in the sentence, implies the word person understood, 

( dont il soil fait mention J phrase , renfermer person sous-entendu. 



A . 



• See p. 140, and ld2. the distinction between Savoir and Connaitre, f See Se BLAMER, p. 114. 



KXERCISE. 309 

RELATIVE PRONOUN. 

and is expressed by Qui; Whom did** you meet? Whom were 

- 8*exprimer* ; ave% trouv^t *** 

YOU with ? Whom did** you . give it** to ? I do not know whom 

>8» «08 fly^j doHnS ■** — savoir 

you mean*". I do not know whom you are speaking of. 
vouloif dire, - « 135 aw 

78. Whose used in the same sense, i. e. without reference to a 

Whose employ^ mime stm, c^est'O^ire rapport 

noun expressed, implies also the word person understood, and ia 
exprim^f renfermer aussi person - 

expressed by de qui, when it is used for of whom ; and by d Qui, 

s^eiprimer* , ^s*employer* of whom; , 

when it is used for to whom; Whose son are you? Whose daughter 
- • to whom; *•• 

IS she? Whose relations are they? Whose house is that, or whom 

parent cette, t 

does that house belong to ? Whose property is it, or whom does it 
- (bb) est ^ . — 6«^ t - 

belong to? Whose children are these, or whom do these children 
ut «» ces, t (bb) 

belong to ? Do you not know whose they are ? They are my sister^s. 

•• 18B + 

Which used to ask a question, is sometimes*^ joined like an 
Which *•• faire , - quelqtufois. 8ejohidre^,comme 

adjective to the noun which follows it; as, which man? Some- 

adjectif suture *^ ; comme^ which MANf 

times it is joined to it like a substantive by the preposition of ; as, 

il - sejoindre* . ** substantif - par of; 

X^HiCH of THESE MEN ? aiid sometimcs it is used without (a noun 
WHICH of THESE MEN? -^ s*employer* Stresuivi 

after it,) but with reference to a noun expressed in the former^ part 
d\in nam, avee rapport exprim4 premier partie 

Qf the sentence; as, It^ is one of these men; which is it? 

phrase; , n.b. (bb) ; WHICH 18 iTf 

79. When which interrogative is joined like an adjective to- the 

WHICH interrogatif - sejoindre * comme 

noun which follows it**, it is expressed by Qud^ aueUe, auelst Quelles, 

stiivre le , il - s*exprimer • » > » > 

agreeably to the gender and number of the noun ; Which horse will 

iuioant - genre ^nombre j *7' || 

you ride? Which road shall we go by"*? Which inn shall we 

*" mojite^ f route ^^ atler par auberge *** 

(put up) 'at? Which is the best inn in this town? W^hich room 

descendre *^ * meiUewr i^^) ville'i chambre 

* See N.B. under note 0*0 P<^K« 3^* 

i These two modes of expression are generally rendered in the same manner in freoch. 

X See note (o) p. 88. | See note * p. 143. 



810 EXERCISK 

KBLAtlVE PRONCJUlf. 

will you sit in? Which papet would you like to reftd? 
*" retter *■ papia- *"• iite? 

80. When which interrogative is joined like a substantive by the 

WHICH - sejoindre • cmnme 

pr^osition of, to the noun which follows it, or when it relates to a 
OF, mivre **, il te rapporter 

noun mentioned in the foregoing^ part of the sentence, it Is expressed 

(dont il est fait tnentionj premier^ partie phraSe, •* - 4'eipnm«r • 

by leouel, laaudley lesoUets, lesQudles, dutiUel, de laHuelU, des Sft. 
v»r , , , , , , 

i. e. the ilrticle It, la, les; du, de la, de^; au, d Id, atut, agreeably to 

ce9t d dire ; ; suivant > 

Fender aud hnthber, is added to the words ^Uel, Quelle, audst anelles ; 
' , - s'ajouter* ; 

Which of these horses will you ride? Which is the easiest? 

t »7» monterf ais^l** 

Which of these two roads shilll Ivd go by«" ? Which is the shortest«« ? 

** par court ^f 

Which of these rooms will you sit in ? Which has the finest view ? 

178 rettir «» belle « vue f 

81. Sometimes which implies the pronoun that or those utider- 

WHICH renfermer that ou those sous- 

stood ; Then it is e&pressed by cdui 4nie, celie Que, cenx Que, 

entendu; Alcrs il -* t'evirimer* ^ , 

cdlea Que, agreeiibly to the gender and number of the hdun to which 
it relates ; Which horse shall I ride ? You may ride which (i. e. 

* se rapporter ; *** tnonter pouvex 

that which) you please^^. Which of these roads shall we go by ? 

i7 vou$ pUtira. **• allv ••^ 

Go by Which you like**«. In which room shall I ])Ut ydur luggage ? 

vouloir, '•• mettte hagagef 

Put it« in that which I told»" yoli. Put it in Vrhich you will>«. 

Mettre*^ * aidit ** ^ wuloin 

82. What joined to a lidtlU, or relating to a noun mentioned 

What joint , ayant rapport (dotit il est fait mention J 

m the sentence, is expressed by ouel, Qudle, Quels, QueUea^ agreeably 

phrase, - s'exprimer* ♦ » > > suivant 

to gender and number, in the same manner as which; What place 

- 7 . ' de matii^e que WHICH; endroit 

do you come from? What road did^* you come by? What inn 

i» iwttr *** ites^^ venu "* 

will you go to**? Have you heard the report? No, what is it? 

aller entendu bruit qui court f , •* 

* See N. B. vnder note (tt^ page 236. f See note * page 314. 



EXERCISE. 311 

RELATIVE PRONOUN. 

83. What used absolutely, i. e. without reference to a noun 
What employ 6 , c*at'd^dire rapport 

expressed in the discourse, implies the word thing understood, and 

eiprimi ^'^ discours, renfermer THING • 

is expressed by Que or by Quoi. What is expressed by ciu«» when it"* 
•'S*exprimer ou What " i'exprimer , ii 

is the object of a verb ; What do you think of this country ? What 

do you intend*' to (do with yourself) ? What do you mean"* ? 
- ^^ avoir dessein do deoenir ^ - im vouloir din f 

What do you want«<» to do with that? What is that to you? 
183 ^ouUnr »^ faire »« » (y) fait » (o) " 

What (is expressed) by auoi, when it is used as an interjection, or 
What , il - $* employer - , on 

when it is governed by a preposition; What! he is not come yet^. 
•* r6gir par ; / venu eticorev.B. 

What ! you do not answer me. J^isten to me. Well ! what ? 

- repondre ** icouter (o) *• JS& bt$n ! 

Wliat.are these people talking about? What do you meddle Mith? 
- (bb) gem^^ purler ^^ de«» - KmiUr d««» 

84. What is often used in the sense of that which: in these 
What - i** s* employ er*^^ tens that which: (bb) 

instances, what is expressed by ce ouu when it is the nominative 
ca5, WHAT " s'exprimer (m) p. 82. il nominatif 

of a verb, and by ce oue, when it is the object ; Do you know what 
, (m)p.ft?. objet; - ^^ 

(that which) makes her angry ? Do you hear what she says ? I know 
fdcher - - entendre 

what she wants'<'^ But when what in the sense of that which is 

vouloir, WHAT THAT WHICH 

governed by a preposition, (it is necessary) to consider whether the 
r^gir ilfaut *'* contid^rer » 

preposition comes before or after what ; for of what is de ce Qui, 
venir what; car of WHAT 

de ce oue, i. e. of that which ; what of is ce Dont, i. e. that 

, e*ett"^ire, of THAT WHICH ; WHAT of , that 

q/^ which; to what is a ce qui, a ce Que, i.e. to that which ; 
o/ which; to WHAT (m)p. 8@. , to that which; 

what to is ce a QUoi, i. e. that to which ; as, You speak of what 
WHAT to , that to WHICH ; comme, parUr 

will never happen. What you are speaking of will never happen. Are 
»•• mriver, "* "■ 

you sure of what you say ? It is what you may^^" be sure of. Will 

sur (m) p. 82. dire f «* pouvez «» 

you trust to what he proposes ? What you trust to is very uncertain. 
feJUr proposer f •* trh ^ ineertain. 



312 EXERCISE. 

RELATIVE PRONOUN. 

RECAPITULATORY cxercise on the foregoing rules,» 

What ! is it* you ? Where have you been since"* I saw** you ? 
/ N.B. Oil depuis que ai vu f *■ 

What country do you come from? What ship did^» you come 



pays^^ - ^* venir *^ navire etes 



venu 



in ? What news do you bring ? What do they*® say in town ? 
**■ nouvelUt - *^ apporter - *** h.b. ^ 7«i//e?. 

Read the papers, and you will see. Which paper must I read? 

Lire papier, voir, 1*1 iw 

Which of these papers do you advise me to read ? Which has the 

- 183 ctmseiller ** »« 

latest^ news? (There is) very little" difference; read which you 

frdiche^ *" tret- peuir.B. ; 

can'** get. Now, what do you think of the news? I do not 

pourrez trouver. Maintenant^ - ^^ penser - 

believe a word of what that paper says. (There is) not a word of 
croire mot C^^) **' 

truth in what I have read. What shall we do now? Let us go 

vrai f 138 _ ^ ^iig^ 

to the place in which we are to meet your cousin. What have yoii 
endroit (0) •*• *7' rencontrer i»» 

done with your stick? I do not know what I have done (with it). 1 

faire *^ baton f - tavmr en ■" 

(am afraid) I have left it at the inn at which we have*^ stopped 
craindre (nn ) laisser ** d auberge (v) nous nous sommes arreth 

to dinner. If your father asks you what you have done (with it), 

dtner, , ** en" , 

what will you answer^ him? Indeed, I shall noU** know what to 
*"• repondre lui^ Mafoi, n.b. 17a 

say. What would you advise me to say ? I will tell you sincerely 
dire, ** conseiUer ^ **• t dire ** sincirement 

what I would say. Well! what? What would you say? I would 

Eh bien : i3» 

tell him*** ♦he truth. It* is what I was thinking of. What is your 
ff)p.79. virit^, K.B. iw a«». 

reason for leaving this country ? Because I see nothing here to which 

raison de quitter (bb) **> J Farce que •• id (u) 

I can*** apply* I want tQ go abroad. What country would you 

puisse s'appiiquer, **•* dans les pays itrangers, "® 

like to go to? To France or Italy? Which country would you 

aimer *» »• s malief «<> iss 

advise me»* to go to? Which of those countries is the most pleasant? 
conseiUer "® **• plus agr^able f 

• See note* p. 281. 

t When the French speak of an action which they are on the point of doing:, thejr do not use the future 
as the English do; they express Shall^ Will by the present tense of the verb AUer^ to to; je vais, tu va», 
il t>a, Donti allons^ ^c. with th e folio win k verb m the injinitive; so turn this sentence thus, What are we 
gotng^'^i Iq ^q ^q^ f ^ Turn ; What reason have yov to leave this country f 



EXERCISE. 313 

RELATIVE PRONOUN. 

RECAPITULATORY cxercise on ike foregoing rules. 

You have seen them both ; which do you like best ? If you will 
voir *** > - *w aimer U mieux f **» 

come with me, I will go to which you like"". I will consider (of it.) 

*• , voutoir, penser y** 

(That is) the gentleman whose^* house we have just*** passed by*". 

**7 monsieur m.b. venont de passer pres de 

It is the house in which we lived"* formerly. Is it«* the house which 

•* (v) demeurer autrefois. ^^ 

your lather wanted*" to buy, and for which he offered^ (so much*) 

vouloir **• ^'^ aeheter, a offert tant v.b, 

money ? Yes, it is. Do you know that young lady ? Yes, I do.'^* 

argent? Qui, '» « iss • (^b^ ^ ^.b. 

Who is she? Whose daughter is she? She is married**. Whose 

rnari^, n-b. 

wife is she ? Whom is she married to ? She is the wife of that 

femme lae we cs ^^j 

gentleman whom we were speaking of. I know whose daughter she 
is. I know whose relations they are. Whose handkerchief is this 

* parent mouchoir 

which I have found on the staircase? I do not know whose it is. 

ti-ouver sur esealierf - • •* 

I do not know whom it belongs to. What shall I do (with it) ? 

- • appartenir ■•• faire en** 

Take it* back to the place in which you found*** it. Which door 

Renuttre •* - endroit (v) avez trouv^ ** porte 

must I go through ? Which of these doors must I go through ? 

181 188 passer par ■» »" »*■ *®* 

Go through which you like'**. Have you heard what I said*** to 
Passer wudres, entendre ai dit (o) 

you? No, what is it? The man you trust to deceives you. The 

** >w , (^y) sefieri ^ tromper »* 

company he keeps, is not honest. You do not know all the harm 

compagnie frequenter, honnite, - • mal 

does you. I do not *•■ know what to do. I wish*** vou would tell 
faire »* - h.b. • m faire. ^** ' vouloir 

me what I must do. You do not know what a disagreeable situation 

»* »*» - • ' «* disagr^abU 

I am in. What must I do ? Do what I told you. I do not see what 

— 181 188 Faire ia« aa . 



you can do better. If you had believed me, what you complain of 

(hk) de mieux. aviez ** , se plaindre t *®* 

would not have happened. I am sorry for what has happened to you. 

itre^ arriver. fdeh^ «» *» ^^j 

* See paf^e 140, 152, the difference between Savoir and Connattre, f See r^ctive verbs, p. 114. 



314 



EXERCISE. 
POSSESSIVE PRONOUN* 



85. The possessive" pronouns le mien, la tiienne, les Miens^ lea 

possessif^ pronom 

Miennes, mine ; le rierif la rienne, Sfc. thine ; le sien, la aienne, SfC. 
mine; ^c, thins; Sfe, 

HIS, HERS must be of thd same gender and number as the noun to 
HIS, BERS devoir etre genre * nombre que 

which they relate; Ate our horses ready? Yours and mine are^. 



7« 



se rapporter ; 



134 



prit 



89 7 



71. 



but hers is^® not. Get hers ready as soon as you can***. Have they** 
7« Appriter t *^ tot *^ poarret, w w.b. 

cleaned our boots? Yours are cleaned**, but his and mine are^* not. 
dicrotti * hottef d£erotte,v,B, 7« 

He does not want*^^ his now. Clean mine. I want mine directly. 

•- avoir besoin de tout d Pheure. 

86. Afler the verb be used in the sense of the verb belong, the 
Aprit verbe be employS*^ sens BELONG, 

possessive words mine, thine, his, &c. are expressed by the same pro- 
■• •■ fnot MINE, THINE, HIS, 6^6. - s'exprimer par mimes 

nouns as would be used ** with the verb belong ; thus> mine, d not 
que - on emploigraU belong; aina, mine, 

thine, d rot; his, h Lui; hers, d Elk; ours, d nous; yours, a rous 
thine, i HiBy ; Hers, j ovrs, ; rouns^ 

theirs, d £7tr, masc. d Ellea, fern. ; Is not this fan^^ yours ? No, Sir 
THEiRSf , , ; a eventail *" , 

it is not mine. I think*° it is my sister's. Yes, it is hers. Are these 



ei 



peneit 



St 



X 



ei 



IS 



horses yours or his? They are not ours; They are my cousin's. 
*■* oti •« ; «3 cotwm.t 

87. The possessive pronouns mine, thine, his, hers, &c. joined** by 

*• •* MINE, THINE, HIS, HERS, ^C. joint K.B. 

the preposition of to the noun to which they relate in this kind 

OP 5"* •* se rapporter, *^* * sorte 

of idioms, a friend of mine, a book o/* yours, and such like, are 
* idiolisme, A FRIEND of mine, a book of yovrs^ autres semblables, - 

expressed "in french by the possessive article ; thus, of mine, de ues ; 
■exprimer en par ■* ; ainsi, of mine, ; 

of thine, de Tcs ; of his, of hers, de ses ; of ours, de nos; of 

of TRINE, ; of HIS, of HERS, ; of OURS, ; of 

YOURS, de ros; of theirs, de Leurs, which, agreeably io the rules 
YOURS, ; of THEIRS, , ^* , suivant - r^gle 

on the article, are placed before the noun, which must always be 

sur , - se placer *°^ , 7* devoir itre 

plural in french ; as, I (have just*^) met an acquaintance of mine 

: . venir de reneontrer connaisstmce 



* Repeat of the same. t Beady \% expressed in the word Appriter, X ^^ Bot« (o) p. SS. 



LXERCISE. 316 

POSSfiSSIlTE ^ftd!?ou^. 
who told» me thdt ^ friend of dUi^ is dedd. Is not Mrs A 

adit w (bbJV'B fhoutir. Madams ^^ 

a relation of yours ? A son of herS is dead. A cousin of mine has 
parente 

married*^ a daughter of hers, but iShe is no ' relation of mine. They 
are neighbours of ours. I am going to dine with an aunt of theirs. 

voistn *** ailer *7« tante 

RECAPITULATORY cxercise on the foregoing rules* 
Your mother and mine are gone^ to (take^ a walk) in our fields; 

aller 17" n.b. sis champ; 

Let us go and (take a*^ walk) in yours« Is not that house yours? 

- - (tin) K.B.' (bb) 18* 

No, it is not ourfl; it is my uncle's. I should have taken it" for 

*'i , •• ; •* oncU* t pi*i«« •* pour 

yours* Our6 is not so 6ne as his, and his is better situated than 

ours. Let us go (this Way) ; I want to call at a friend's of mine. 
- - parici; ••* ««6 soe uneamie 

I think she is a friend of yours too. Who? Mrs. A. She is an 

"* •* auuu Madame •* 

old acquaintance of ours, but she is no friend of mine. I do not 
ancientiB X connaistance ■ » ^^ - 

like her. She is incessantly^** talking of herself,' or of some relation 
timer ** - sans eeese *** elle-memef ^ parent 

of hers. Let tis walk into this room. What a pretty work** bag 
- — Entrer *i" (bb) *■ ** jolt ouvrage sac^ 

you have got there. Is it yours ? No, it is not mine ; it is my 
sister's, 'this'® is mine. Hers is (very much) like** yours. Hers 

t K.B. ~. fart *•* resseinbter au 

is not so pretty as mine. How lon^^" have you had youts? 
^ ^ Combien y a-Uil que votu avex || 

I got^ mine about the same time that my sister got hers. Yours 

at eu vers temt ^^ 

lookflF" better than hers. Ves, because I take more care^ of my 

avoir apparence •• que , prendre soin n.b. 

clothes than she does of hers. (What is the matter with) your 

habit ^ fitire Qi** c«-c« qu' a »i 

neighbour? A sistef 6f his is dead. She went^^ (a few days ago) to 

voisin? mol^.** aller ily a quelquesjoun 'Tt 

see a child of hers who is at a relation of ours in the countrv* 

•OB tab ' 

and she died^ there. You hAve got a handkerchief of mine. A 

est mort ** y '* ^* ttiouchoir 

m ■ ■ p ■ ■ ■ . Il l • I ^ - I II ■ - 

F See note * p. Si\ t See note (o) p. S8. X Pn^ this adjective before the nottH. | See § p. 353 



316 EXERCISE. 

POSSBSSIVE PRONOUN. 

RECAPITULATORY cxerctse on the foregoing rules, 
handkerchief of yours ! I have no handkerchief of yours. I have 

none but what are*** mine. What ! is this*»* yours ? Yes, it is mine. 

pas *'* toient •* / ■" k.b. , •> 

You are greatly mistaken : It is not yours ; it is my mother's. 

- fort ^•* te tromper ; ** •* • 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN. 

88. The demonstrative^ pronouns celui, cdle^ this, that ; ceux, 

dSmonstratif*^ THIS, THAT; 

celles, THESE, THOSE nmst be of the same gender and number as the 

, T/IE8E, THOSE devoir itre genre fnonU)re que 

noun to which they relate ; This steeple is not so high as that of St. 
7« «i ti rapporter ; (bb) docker ** haut *■ 

Paul. This church is larger than that which we have just*** passed 
{bbj 4glise grande*^ '^^ venons de passer 

by*'®. These trees are finer** than those which are in your park. 

pres de (bb) arbre beau 7* pare. 

N. B. Observe that celui, celle, ceux^ cellea do not express that 

Observer ('bb)v.B. exprimer la 

local" distinction which is implied in the words this, these ; that^ 

de lieu 7* renfermi *" THiSf these ; tha t 

THOSE ; therefore, if you wish to make that distinction in french, 
those ; c*est pourquoif vculoir ^f* faire (bbj en , 

(you musU^*) add to these words, ci to denote the nearest** object, and 

ilfaut K.B. ajouter (bb) '" , »70 designer pres^ 7 ^ 

Lit to denote the remotest; This'" steeple is not so high as that. That*' 

170 ^loigni^ J K'B. *■ H.B. 

church is much larger than this. Tliese*' trees are finer than those. 

beaucoup ** v.a» ** 

But cU L^i arc not requisite, when the demonstrative pronoun is fol- 

n^cessaire, •* 

lowed by a noun or by a relative pronoun ; as. This gown is prettier** 

tuivre «* «o5 at . ^ ^b^J robe joli^ 

than that of your sister. This is not so fine as that which I shewed you. 

** belle *■ ai montrie,^ 

89. Sometimes this, that are used without reference to a noun 

•THIS, THAT - s* employer rapport 

expressed, but imply the word thing understood ; then they (are 

exprimd, renfermer THING sous-entendu ; alors •■ 

expressed), this by ceci ; that by celai Give me this. What will 

sevprimer, THIS ; THAT ; *^ 

you do with that ? Take this. Let that alone. I will take this 
faire de Prendre Laisser - f 

* See note (o) page 88. t Repeat of the same* t See note t page 313. 



EXERCISE. 317 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN. 

RECAPiTCLATORY excrcise on the foregoing rules* 

Do you hear that man? He is scolding*" that woman who has 

*" entendre t - grander 

been beating those children. Look at that house. Is not that a 

>** baHu Regarder ^^ ITest-ce pas Idl 

good house? Yes^ it is a good ho^se, but this is a better^ one. 
» • •* , (b)p.72. t 

Nfay! I think that is better. Those rooms seem to me to be 
Ohnon! penser^*^ (b) p. 72. parattre (o) »* - - 

larger^* than these; besides, that is much better situated than this. 

grand * ; outre cela, (b j p. 72. situi ** 

I do i\pt see that. I tUink this is as pleasantly situated as that. Do 

voir »*i ** agr^abUment lae 48 

you admire those flowers ? What flowers ? Those that^* we see in thai 
188 admirer fleurl « (m)p.82. 

garden before that house. How do you call this ? This is a poppy, 

devant Comment - *■* appeUr pavot, 

tnd that is a marigold. I do not like that kind of flowers ; I like 

souci, — aimer sorte ^ ; 

those that^^ have a pleasant smell. What do you think of these ? Oh, 

(m)p. 82. agriaJble^ odeur, ■• •- penser Oh, 

I like these better than those. These smell sweet. The action of 
(b) p. 72, ont une douce odeur, action 

Virginius sacrificing his daughter, is as strong and more pure than 

Virginiut taerifier , ** fort * pur *• 

that of Brutus condemning his son ; nevertheless this is glorious^ 

Brutut condamner ; n^anmoins glorieux(g) 

and that is not. Virginius secured only the honour of his family ; 

7^ muvait teulement 'honneur famiUe; 

Brutus saved that of the laws and of the country. (There was) much* 

Mauvait loi patrie, 11 y avait »•>• 

pride in the action of Brutus, perhaps there was nothing but pride; 

orgwil , peut4tre n'y**« avait-it - que " ; 

there was in that of Virginius only honesty and courage ; but this did^ 

^*honnetet6 » ; faire 

(every thing) for his family, that did**' every thing, or seemed*'' to 
^^ pour , faire W , ou sembler *7« 

do every thing for Rome, and Rome, which considered*"* the action of 

^aire , a consid£ri 

Virginius as that of an honest man and of a good father, consecrated 

eomme honnete , a^^ comacri 

the action of Brutus as that of a hero ; is not that just ? 

eomme hires; *** juste? 

* See note * page S81. f Read note (&&), p. 817i before yon write this exercise, 

t If jon eTpma This by the pronoun, yoa must leave oat a and one ; but you may express This is by 
Voicit rule 847; tli^n you express a by «««, and one by en, before Void ; thus, En voici une ^c. 



3 IS BXPiic^fii;. 

90. When the wordf oite, w9, thi^y, ^^ppiiS, ere used indefi- 

Quand OffF^ WE, THl^Y, people, $*einployer (dans 

nitely, i. e. without reference to any partici^l^r^ person, they 

un ten* ind^fini,^ rapport quelque en particulier persanne, 

are expressed hy on; but thoggh Qif represents we, thev, peop]le, 
s'exprimer(ii)v.B. quoique reprdsenter we, they, people, 

which ^re plural, it always requires the verb in the third person 

plurier, il ^•* demander d troisiems 

sin^lar ; . People are spreading*" strange** reports. They say that 
au singtUier ; « faire^^ courir Strange bruit . dire ('W^n.b. 

we have been beaten. Who says soP They say so. People s^y so. 

iieus 6attre»«. le^ »♦ 

(You"* must not) believe every thing that people say. 

II M.B. nefautpas croire tout ce que 

'91. AU^ indeilnite" expressions like these^, it is thought^ 

Tout indtfini'^ f semblablgt i w-b., it is THOUGffT, 

IT IS SAID, &c. are also expressed by Qjf, by changing tlie verb (from 

IT 18 SAID, 8^c, - *" i'exprimer par , (hh) ehangeant 

its) passive sense into the active ; It is thought that (there will be) 

du passif - «n - actif; f penser (^^) *•■• »' y Qura 

u peace. It is said that the preliminaiiffs are signed. li will soon*^ 

*• paix, (bb) K.B. pr^limin^ire tignpr *^, bientot 

be known if it be true. It was asserted yesterday opi the exchange. 

* n cela ?^7 vrai. f assurait hier d bourse, 

92. English" passive verbs used indefinitely are generally*^ changed 

Anglaif «» »« 7 ^mployis t 0r4i'f^kffnent se changer 

into their active signification in french, and take ojv for nominative ; 

dan$ ^ en , prendre ; 

but by changing thus the sense of the verb, the noun or pronoun 

(hhj ainsi , * 

which is the nominative of the verb in english, becomes its^^ object in 

7* en , devenir en** en 

french ; How can that b^ believed, when such great preparations for 

; pouvoir ^ t croire, *°«i •* pr^paratif 

war (are going on) ? I was told yesterday that it has been resolved 

7guerre "* /aire - f "7 (bb)v,ii, f resolu 

to (carry on) the war. Do you i^now if the letters have been received 

1* continuer t fef«* 

which (were expected) by the last** mail? They have not been received 

''* attendait^*^ dernier poete? t regv4S^^ 

* Though in point of order, this is the proper place for these prononns, yet as they are easy, and of 
less consequence than the other exercises which follow them; not to breaH the chain of the most nseful 
nileii,! would advise the learner, after harvingread the mles on the indefinite pronouns ^ page 818, and 
following, and written mles 90, 91 and 99, to pass over the rest of the mles and go to the exercise on the 
verbSt the knowledge of which is necessary to have a complete idea of the language. The m»t of this 
exercise may he written after ^1 the othyer exercbes. 

k A Passive verb is made Active^ by leaving out the verb 6«, and making the past {Ntftioiple into a 
verb of the same tense and person as the anxiiiary rerb ia; as It is thought ; tarn, (Me thinks. It has 
been said; turn. One has said , 



EXERCISE. 319 

INDEFINITE PEONOUX* 

yet***. They are expected to-day. Somebody has been sewt to know 

w.B. • attendre (nijourd'hui, •* ♦ envoy £ pour 

why they have not been brought sooner. We have been much deceived. 

jtottrqtun • appor^09 tdt.*^ * fort tromph, 

98. Onbsblp, himselp used uidefinitely, and itself after a pre- 

ONESELF, HiMtUlV datis till sens ind^fini, fTffELF 

position are expressed by Sot; Let*** every one think of himself. 

- s*&Lprinuri pw ; Que *•* penser **> 

Every one for himselfi and god for all. That is harmless in itself. 

f touti ** innocent de 

Vice is odious of itself. The earth contains all seeds ^ in itself. 

J • odieux teire contenir *• semence en 

94. Some repeated in a sentence of two parts, is, in the first part 
Some rfy^ti phrase partie, , ^ 

les vns, in the second part; les Autres; Some like one thing, some 

, ** > 9 aimer , 

like^ another. Some will have it one way, some will have it another. 

en aimer *'"* ** d*une manieref *74 « d'line autre, 

95. Somebody is Quelqiiun ; Somebody has told me so^. I heard'^ it 
Somebody ; dit It entendre ** 

from somebody. I expect somebody. Somebody will call upon me soon'*'. 

attendre ««« bient6t,v.B. 

96. Some, any, few used to denote a small quantity, or a small 

Some, any, few employes "• disigner petit^ quantity, 

number of the substance (spoken of,) are expressed by nuelqu'un, 

•lombre (dont on parle,) - s*exprimer f , 

QuelqtCune, auelques^uns, euelque9'Urfes, agreeably to the gender and 

, , , suivant - 

number of the noun to which they relate ; Have you seen any of my 

• 78 serapporter; vu 

flowers? Will you have some (of them) ? I will take a few (of them), 

fieur? >74 c/jW I prendre 

97. Nobody, not any body, is expressed by personne ; nobody 

NOBODY f NOT ANY BODY - 5*CJpWm«r t NOBODY 

WHATEVER by ftui quc ce salt; these two words require Ne before 

WHATETER ; (bb) mot demander aiant 

the verb which attends them ; Nobody likes that woman. That 

accompagner ** ,* aimer (hb) (^^^0 

woman likes nobody. Do not tell it to any body. Have you met 

dire ^ 

nobody ? Has nobody met you ? I have not met any body whatever. 

1** rencontr^ 

• Sm ^ p. 318. t Set N. D. noder AOte 0*0 p. i^- « Set note f p. 313. 



320 EXERCISE. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 

98. Something is expressed by Quelque chose; I feel something 

SOMETHING - s'exprimev* par ; 

that hurts me. I have something curious to tell you. Is not that 

7* blesser ** (cc) curieux d ** N^est-cepas Id 

something wonderful? Why do you not apply to something? 

(cc) 4tonnantf - *** s'appliquerCU'^f 

99. Nothing, not any thing is expressed by Rien; nothing 

NOTHING, NOT ANY THING - s'exprtmer* ; NOTHING 

whatever by Quoique ce soit ; these words require xe before the verb 
WHATEVER ', dematider 

which attends them ; I will give you nothing. You have not done 

7"* acconipagner ** ; donner ** ^ fait 

any thing to-day. He applies to nothing whatever. He does not 

aujourd^hxii, s'appliquer t 

mind any thing whatever. I would not part (with it) for any thing. 
fuire attention d se dSfaire t en *• 

N. B. Quelqu'un, amlque chose, personne, Rien followed by an adjective 

y , , suivis «>^ adjectif 

or by a past^ participle, require ne before that" adjective or participle ; 
^'^ passi participe, demander «>• (bbj * 

Somebody come. Something lost. Nobody hurt. Nothing done. 

vemi. perdu. blessS. fait. 

100. None, not any followed by a noun or a pronoun is expressed 

I^'ONB, NOT ANY suivi ^'^ «" -s'eiprimer* 

by AUCHHy inasc. ; Aiicune, fern, and requires Ne before the verb ; None 

par , ; , demander **• ; 

of the ladies whom we expected will come. We shall not see any 

t ^* attendions *^ venir voir 

(of them) to-day. Do you know any of them ? No, I do'® not. 

en** aujourd*hui. - ^ *•*, n.b. 

101. None used absolutely, i. e. without reference to a noun, is 

None employ^ , rapport , - 

expressed by jvt//, and not one by pas un, masc. pas une, fem. ; 

i^exprimer* par , NOT ONE , , ; 

these words are synonymous to personne, and require Ne before the 

tynonymea de , demander 

verb; None is sheltered from censure. None can boast (of it.) 

; d Vabri ' pouvoir u vanter en •* 

Many' people called themselves his friends, not one assisted him. 

N.B. «» disaient «e** , aider ^^ lui^ 

102. Each is sometimes'" joined to a noun in the same manner 
Each - qnelquefois tejoindre* de 

• See N. B. under note (it) pRge 23S. -f See reflective verbs, pag^ 114. 

% Speaking of young tadte$, we should tay demoiselles i speaking of married^ or grown up ladies^ we 
should say dames. 



EXERCISE. 321 

INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 

as an adjective, and is expressed by cfutque for both genders ; Each 
qiie , - $*exprimer • par Us deux ; 

horse carried two men. Each woman had a bundle in each hand. 

porter ^** jtaquet dans main. 

103. Each is sometimes joined to a noun by the preposition of, 

Each - sejoindre* 0F9 

or refers to a noun which has been mentioned before**'; then it 

se ra-p-porter dont •■ fait mention dijdi ; »•«• alon ii 

is expressed by chacim, masc. chacune^ fem ; each of tiiese men has a 

- i'txprrmer • , , ,5 (bh) 

shilling a day ; or these men have each a shilling a day. Each of these 

iheling par jour ; C^) 

women carried two bundles ; or these women carried two bundles each. 

porter ' ; 

104. Every followed by a noun requires a distinction. If every is 

Every mivi d* demander every - 

used'*^ to denote individuality, it is expressed by ckaque; Every 

iemploifer* *•• dhigntr des iiidividutf il - s'eipiimer* ,• 

science (L e, each science) has its principles. Every season has its 

xs principe, EvERY saison 

' attractions. Every plant has its properties. If every is used to denote 

charme, plante pYoprUti, "® 

a totality. It is expressed by routy masc. route, fem ; Every man lies, 

KM toiU, - B'erprimer* » > » >' > 

(i. e. cUl men lie) but every man is not a liar. Every woman is frail, but 

- menteur, fragile, 

every woman does not yield. I am found at every hour of the day. 

, - succomber, »* d *«* . 

105. Every one requires the same distinction as every. If, by 
Every one demander que every, 

every one, you mean*** every one taken individually, it is expressed 
EVERY oys, vouloir dire EVERY ONE pris indioiduellcment, ~ s'expi'imer* 

by chacun ; Every one has a good opinion of himself, (i. e. each 

person,) Every one thinks himself to be** in the right 

penser -t - avoir - ** ration. 

If, by every one, you mean*** every one taken collectively, il 

EVERY ONE vou loir dire EVERY oijfE pris collectivement, 

is expressed by tous^ masc. by routes, fem ; I have lost every one 
'" s^exprimer * , , , ; perdre 

of my books, (i. e. ail my books,) 1 had won twenty guineas, and 

, aiaa gagner , 

I lost every one of them. Every one of the robbers were taken. 

- ** - voleur ^^ prendre 

♦ Sec N. B. note (ii) page 235. ♦ This sentence can not be expressed liierallj, 

X 



32*2 EXERCISE. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 

106. Every body is rout U Monde; Every body sayf; so. Sh« 
Every body ; dire U^* 

speaks ill of every body. If is impossible to please every body. 

dire dumal v.*. »« plaire*^ 

107. Every thino is rout^ Every thin^ is for the best. You 
Every thjng ; mieux, 

complain of every thing. I am prepared against every thing. 
se pluindre * pr(t d 

108. Anv body, any one is sometimes used in the sense of 
Any body, any one - ^^ s'employeri 

SOME BODY, SOME ONE, and IS expressed by Quelqu^nn; Is any body 
8CME body, some ONE, - sViprimer t ; *** 

come ? Have 3fou met any body ? Can any body do what I do ? 

v^.nut Pouvoir ^** faire •* 

109. Any body, any one is sometimes used in the sense of 
Any body, any one - **• s'empUnjerf 

EVERY BODY, and is expressed by rout le Monde, or // rHy a personne 

EVERY body, -s*exprimeri , 

qui 7iet with this difference only, that rout le Monde requires the 

, (bb) , (bbJif'B. detnander 

following verb in the indicative, and mI n!y a personne qui ne requires 

qui suit ** d. indicatif, 

it (in the) subjunctive; Any body (or every body) may*'^® do that. 

** au subjonctif; ponvoir faire •• 

Any body will (or there is nobody but will) shew you the way. 

montrer chemin, 

110. With a verb denoting admiration or doubt, or after a compara- 

qui dSsigne ' ^doute^ compara- 

tlve, ANY BODY Is cxpressed by personne, but without se, because 

tif, ANY BODY - iexprimer , , 

personne attended by Ne, means no body; Did ever any body do 

aecompagnS de , $ignifier no BODY '"* jamais ^^ 

such a thing! Yes; and you can do it as well as any body. 

111. Any THING is sometimes used in the sense of something. 
Any thing - *" s' employer \ sometbinq, 

and is expressed by auelque chose; (Is there) any thing in the bottle? 

~ s'exprimer i ; ■*• bouteillef 

Have you heard any thing? (Is there) any thing new to-day? 

ttpprendre *** (cc) nouveau 

112. Sometimes any thing is used in the sense of every thing, 

ANY THING -^ s' employ er i EVERY THINQj 

and is expressed by rout ; He is fit for any thing (or every thing,) 

- s*esprimer t ; prapre ••• 

♦ See a reflective verb, page 114. f See N. B. note (ii) page 235. 



EXERCISE. 323 

INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 

1 will do any things to serve hiiQ. I prefer this to any thing. 

fair$ ^^^, servir pr^ferer ■• 

113. With a verb denoting admiration or doubt* Any thing is 

qmd^signe ' ^doute, Any thing - 

generally expressed by Rien ; (is there) any thing finer*» than civility ! 
^■^ s'eiprimer* ; **• (ccj beau ^dviliti ! 

I doubt that you will make*« any thing ffood (of it.) 

douter qM faire (cc)b(m en**. 

114. Whoever, whosoever is sometimes joined to a substantive. 
Whoever, whosoever joint tuhstantif, 

or relates to a substantive previously mentioned, and is expressed 

Merapporter dont on a dijd fait mentiony - 8*exprimer • 

by Quel que. Quels que, masc ; Quelle qtee, Quelles que, fern ; these words 
require the verb (in the) subjunctive, and if the/nominative of the 

demandar au tubjonctiff nominatif 

verb is a noun, it must be placed after the verb ; Whoever that' 

, •* devoir (hk) -• te placer* ; (^bj 

man be, he is acting wrong; or that man is acting wrong, whoever 

, agir^^ mal ; ^** , 

he be. Whoever those children be, they are ill*" behaved. 

(bbj , - mal $e comporter ^^'^ 

115. Sometimes whoever, whosoever, whomsoever implies the 

• WHOEVER^ WHOSOEVER, WHOMSOEVER renfermer 

word person understood, and is expressed by qui que ce soil, followed 
PERSON , - s^erprimer* , suiii 

by QUI, CMC, or Dontf which requires the followmg verb (in the) sub« 

*** , ^ , '* deniander qui suit ** au 

jnnctive; Whoever speaks to you, you ought to answer civilly. 

; (o) **, devoir ^J"* rfyondre civil^ment. 

Whomsoever you apply to, thcy^ will tell you the same thing. 

iadreuer **■, n.d. dire mime chose,' 

116. Sometimes whoever, whomsoever is used in the sense of 

WHOEVER, WHOMSOEVER - s'empUnfev 

every body, then it is expressed by Touts ceux, followed by qui* or 

EVERY BODY, alors " s^exprimer* , suivi '®® 

Que; Whoever (or every body who) is found out at ni^ht is stopped. 
; •* trouoer dehors la nuit •* arreter t 

Bring with you whomsoever (or every person) you meet***. 

Amener rencontrerez, 

117. Whatever, whatsoever joined to a substantive requires a 
Whatever, whatsoever joint . substantif demander 

distinction. If the substantive to which whatever, whatsoever 

7* WHATEVER,' WHATSOEVER 

* See N. B. note (ft) page 235. f Tarn t one stope whomsoever one fiids oat at night. 

x2 



324 , EXERCISE. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 

is joined, is the nominative of a verb, it is expressed by ouel quc^ 

, nominatif , -. I'eiprimer * par 

Quels qtiCymasc. Qudleque^Quelles ^^f.; which requires the verb (in the) 

» J , ; demander au 

subjunctive ; and if the nominative is a noun, it is placed after the verb ; 

suhjonctif; , •* -iep/ac«r* ; 

Whatever this* work be, it is too dear. Whatever his terms be. I shall 

(bb) mivntge , •« trop conditions , 

agree to them. Do not trust to their promises, whatever they be. 

accepter - «♦ - te fierf d promesse, - «* 

If the substantive to which whatever, whatsoever is joined, is 

7» WHATEVER, WHATSOEVER , 

the object of a verb, it is expressed by Quelque^ sing. Quelques^ plur; 

objet , •« - I'&Tprimcr • , ; , ; 

these words require true after the substantive, and the verb (in the) 

(bb) demander , au 

subjunctive ; Whatever business you have, you should not neglect your 

; affaire , »7« rUgliger 

friends. Whatever terms they propose, I shall agree to them. 

conditiont praposery accepter - ** 

118. Sometimes whatever, whatsoever implies the word thing 

WHATEVER, WHATSOEVER renfermer THING 

understood ; then it is expressed by Quoique ce soiU fcllowed by quU 

; alors - t*exprimer* , suivi *^ , 

Que or Dont, which requires the verb (in the) subjunctive ; Whatever I 

, 7* demander verbe au ; 

do, I am always scolded. Whatever he undertakes, he never succeeds. 

faire, grander, sntreprendre, *** rSussir, ■ 

119. Whatever, whatsoever is sometimes used in the sense of 
Whatever, whatsoever - s* employer^ ^ 

ANY THING, or EVERY THING, then it IS expressed by rout ce qitU 

AfiY THING y ou EVERY THING, alors - s* exprtmer * 

nom ; rout ce que, obj ; Take whatever you think^^' proper. He grants 

; , ; Prendre eroirez . a prapos, accorder 

her^^ whatever she desires. He approves of whatever she does. 

(f) p. 79. disirer* approiiver *°* faire, 

120. Other is AUtre; I see another man coming'^. I have found 
Other ; voir qtiivient.v-S' trovter 

another flower. (Here is*^) another. (There are) a great many others. 

fleur» En 7© void En ''^ **' - beaucovp d* 

121. Each other, one another is expressed by tuji t Autre, 
"Each other, one another - s^exprimer* 

Vune t Autre ; les uns les Autres, lea unes les Autres, agreeably to the 

; , , suivant - 

* See N. B. note (tt) page 233. f See imperative of a reflectire rerb, page lU. 



EXERCISE. 325 

INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 

gender and number of the noun to which it relates ; Fire and water 

* ^' se rapporter ; Feu^ can* 

destroy each other. These women hate one another. Observe 

ge dStruire (hh) se hair Observer 

that the preposition which comes before each other, one another, 
(bbJv.B, venir EACH other, one another, 

must be placed between the two words Vun fAutre^ tune l^Autre^ 8fc. 

devoir -"sepUtcer entre , , 

See those two women ; they are jealous of each other ; yet they can not 

; jaloux^d) ; 

(]o»* without one another. These people have fallen upon one another. 

se passer de (bb) gens *** tombS^^ 

122. Both, speaking of two individual* objects, is expressed by 

Both, parler individuel^ , - s*exprimer 

run et r Autre, or routs ueux, masc; by Vune.Qi VAUtre, or routes Deux^ 

, ou , ; ' , ou , 

fem ; Your brothers are**^ both very well. I saw them both last night. 
; se porter voir *** 

You know my. sisters; they will both be here to-night. In speaking 

; etre *** En parler 

of a greater number of individuals, but considered as two parties, 

*^ individu, conndirSs comme , 

BOTH is expressed by les uns et les Autres^ masc ; les unes et les Auires^ f ; 
both -s'exprimer , : , ; 

The Russians and the Prussians have declared war against us; but 

liusse Prussien declarer ''guerre - ** ; 

we will beat both. Both will have reason to repent (of it.) 
battre lieu de se repent ir en '^K 

123. Either is tun ou VAutre^ Tune ou V Autre ; les uns ou les Autres, 
Either , ; # 

les unes ou les Autres, agreeably to the gender and number of the noun ; 

, SHivant ^ * * 

Either of these men will do it. You may'^' speak to either. Take 
(^b) faire ** pouvoir parler Prendre 

either of these flowers. You may^^® have either of them. 

* (bbj flew, pouvoir (kk) *. - 

124. Neither, not either, i. e. either with a negation, is express- 

N EITHER, NOT EITHER, EITHER ^ s'expritner 

ed by Ni I'un ni VAutre^ nI tune ni t Autre; m les uns ni les 

(il) K.B. , . 

Autres, Ni les unes ni les Autres, a^eeably to gender and number; 

• , suivant - ^ ^ ' » 

these words require Ne before the verb ; Neither of them will study. 
(bbj demander Ne ; - - 178 iiudier. 

Neither of these men can do it. I will not trust"* either of them 

(bb) faire " *7» se fier d 



326 EXERCISE. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 

RECAPITULATORY cxtrcUe OTi the foregotng rules,* 

Do you know any of the ladies we have*" just passed ? No ; 1 

- connattre t (»J venlr de paster f ; 

know none (of them.) I have not seen any (of them) before. 

I should like to ^et aco.uainted with some of them. I know the two 

w> falre eonnaissance *^ 

last*. Which of the two is the handsomest? They are both very 
dernier, ^t belle ** 7 f tree 

handsome, and they have each a handsome fortune. You may*'* 
*• , t ^'«" bien* pouvoir 

get acquainted with either of them, or with both, if you like. They 

(kk) • "■ » • » votiloir, | 

come here every summer. Every body is fond of them. Every one 
iei StS, - aimer || *♦ 

who knows them is fond of the'r company They are very fond of 

•* - II - compagnie. X *- fort i*aimer - 

each other. They are always with one another. Are they married ? 

t X marier ^* ? 

No, neither of them is married, but I think they are both promised. 

»«, I - - i» , Ml J promettre,^^ 

I would give any thing I possess to be acquainted with them. You 

($J poetider *7® cohhu «* "t 

may speak to either of them. Bring here every one of your books. 
^7»(kk) I - - Apparter ici 

Let«4« every one of you shew me his exercise. Every one of you 
Que montrer ** theme, - - 

will be punished. Can I do any thing for you ? Yes, you can. 
punir, Fouvoir faire pour * , '• 

You can help me as well as any body. Nobody is more capable 
(kkjaidei' ^ *» ^^ 

than you. I should like to buy something, but every thing i-s so 

*•• acheter , <i 

dear now, that one can not get any thing. I should like to 

a prdsentt (bb) m.b, te procurer I's 

have some of 4hese flowers. Which do you think are the finest"? 

(bb) ■•* - **» belle ^f 

Some say that these are the flnest**; some give the preference to 

('bb)v-B. »N.B. ** J pr^firence 

those. These men relate both the same story, but neither of them 

•« K.B. (bb) rapporter mhne histoire, - - 

believes that it<* is true. I do not believe either of them. They are 

Croire (bb)V'»' "* vrai*^, - - - «» 

both wrong, whoever they be. Whosoever asks for me, tell him"* 

tort, »i »4^ Its 

* Sea * p. 281. i Se« t P* <^0. I Mind the gender of the noun which thli pionoan represcr.U- 
I We hare no other word to express the words be fond of^ in french, bnt the verb A'.mer. to like. 



EXERCISE, 327 

INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 

RECA-PiTUiiAToRY cxevcise on the foregoing rules, 

that I am not at home. Whatever he writes, let **' me know it. 
fbbJv-B. au logii. , faire^-^' ** saeoir * 

Whatever is right, is not always approved. Whatever good is said of 
bien, approuver, hien 

US, we are not told any thin^ new. Whatever your rank and riches 

« di>0 (cc) itouveau, rang riehesses 

may be, or whatever rank and riches you have, do not be proud, if 

, , - orgueilleux, 

you will not (be disliked) by every body. No one ought to be a judge 
i«* ddplaire i devoir *7« w j^g^ 

in his own cause. People often flatter themsdves more than they should. 
«i» propre »»» flatter se^ *7 i7« 

Every one complains of his memory, but no one complains of his 

ie plaindre i 

understanding. There would not be (so muoh^) disorder seen in the 

esprit, tant w.b. desordre • 

world, if yontM had a good impression given it' at first, and if care 

monde, jetmetse • d* abord, 

was taken to form the mind of children as It pught to be. I have 

soin • *" farmer esprit "^ cotnnU devrait - - 

just been told that Mr. A. is dead. Indeed? Yea, they say so, 

•" - dire Enviritil , /«»* 

He was invited to supper yesterday at Mrs. B.'s. They waited*** 

"* inviter *•• souper hier ** MadatM attendre 

for him a long time, but seeing that he did not come, somebody was 

»i 54 « terns, voir - ^^9 - 

sent**' to look for him ; he could**'' not be found any where ; they 
enwyer *" chercher *®' ** ; pouvair t - trouver nnlle part; 

have been seeking*" for him all night, and this morning he was 

chercher «»* " hiuit, (bb) »* 

found drowned in a pond, not far from Mrs. B/s house. Every body 

**• noyer •*' ^tangy non loin de ** 

is sorrv (for it). Is it known how thif^i accident happened**"? No, 

fdche en ** - savoir comment (bb.) arriver *" ? *•* , 

nobody knows. It is supposed that he (lost his way) in the dark. He 

'• -s'imaginer 8*Sgarer^^ •** obscuritS. 

is to be buried to-morrow. You will be ex])ected at his funeral. 

■*■ enterrer^demain. - attendre funSrailtes, (p\,) 

You will go; will you not? I will not go, unless*** I am invited 
70 . m 70 , dmotVwgu^w* - invitir 

(to it.) You may be sure that they will invite you. 

es ^i*(kk) siir (bb)if.B: ft* 

— .■■..■. . ^ ... I — 

« Tnro this lentenee th«8 : One would not sr« so much disorder in the world, if one gave at first • 
good impreMsion to youth, and if one took care to form the mind of children as one should. 

t Express Not by Ne only, before th« ▼erb, as Nulle which comes after, Isupplies the place of P«i or 
Foint. 



328 EXERCISE. 

VEao. 
AoREE&iENT of the vcrb with its nominative. 

Accord '• verbe son nominatif. 

You see in the conjugations that the termination of a verb differs 

voir conjugdisons (bb)V'Ji. termhtauon diff^rtr 

according to the noun or pronoun which is its'^ agent or nominative. 

luivant - .wow ^ronom en nominatif, 

125. The verb must be of the same number and person as this' 

devoir itre mime nombre *personne qxte (bh) 

agent or nominative ; I study ; Thou studiest ; He studies ; My brother 

; itud'ur; ; ; 

Studies ; We study; You study; They study; My brothers study. 

; ; 

126. When several substantives are the nominative of the same verb, 

phuieurs substantifi . , 

the verb must be (in the) phiral number ; My brother and sister study. 

devoir itre au plurier - ; " 

127. If several substantives of different" persons are the nominative 

t diffirent^ pertonne 

of the same verb ; as the verb can not agree with two different 

; comme t^accorder *» •« 

persons at the same time ; we** add to the sentence sous or rous with 

it la - fois; v.b. djouter phrase 

wln'ch we*' (make the verb agree.) We*® add jfous, if there is in the 

7« M.B fait accorder le verbe» »•»• , ily a 

sentence a substantive of the first"^ person ; as. You and I agree. 

f . premier** ; , »• itre d*accord. 

My sister and I are fond of study. She and I will learn together, 

** - aimer J itude. '* ensemble. 

We*® add ^om«, if there is in the sentence a substantive of the second 

».B. , t » 83 

person, and«* there is none of the first ; You and your brother do not 

, '** a n*y en ait pas . ® ; - 

agree. You and he are continually^*® quarrelling. You and your 

s'aceorder, *' - cmitintiellement se quereller *** 

sister will learn together. You and they are of the same opinion. 
128. If the nominative of the verb is the relative pronoun Qui, the 

relatif^ 

verb must be of the same number and person as the substantive to 
devoir • que 

which that pronoun relates ; It^ is I who will say my lesson first. 

^ (bb) serapporter; »•»• ** dire le^on le premier, 

It<* is we who will say our lessons first. It«* is you who will 

J».B. les premiers k-b. 

* Repeat of the same before pferson. | See note * page S03. % See note page 3S6r 



EXERCISE. 329 

VERB, 

say your lesson first. It^ is they who will say their lessons first.. 

129. If QUI relates to several substantives of difierent persons, the 

serapporter plusieiirg subslantif* * , 

verb agrees with the first** person in preference to the second, and 

s'accorder ^ par prSf^rence *• , 

with the second in preference to the third; It^ is you and I who will 

sa par *• ; n.b. «* 

begin. If* is you and your brother who will (go out) first. 

Cifmmencer. h«b. sortir Us premiei's, 

130. When the collective" substantives la plupart, infinite ^ Nomhrey 

Quand collectif^ , , , 

Quantity, rrmtpe. Multitude, are followed by another substantive, the verb 

, , f suivis *^ , 

agrees with this last substantive ; A great number of men perished. 

s'accorder dernier ; ' ® ptrir^^ 

Most of the cavalry deserted. A crowd of people"* came to see them. 

Laplupart cavaleri^ d^serter^^, foule * gens venir ^^a 

131. The collective substantives le uuart, le Tiers, la moitie require 

J , demajider 

the verb in the third person singular ; One fourth of the ships were 
a ausingulier; Le qtiart nacire ^^ 

taken or destroyed. One third of the crews deserted. One half of 
prendre detruire. Le tiers Equipage W X^ moiti^ 

men do not think, and the other half know not** what to think. 

7 penser, ne savoir n.b. w Vt 

Placing of the nominative with the verb. 

Place *• nominatif verbe, 

132. When the sentence is expositive, i. e. when a question is not 

phrase expositive, ** 

asked, the nominative is placed before the verb; I study well. He 
/aire, •'Se placer ; itudier 

studies well. This boy studies well. You study "well. They study well. 

garden t 

But when the sentence is interrogative, (it is necessary) to consider 

, ilfaut ^'^ considher 

whether the nominative of the verb is a noun or a pronoun, 
ft 

133. If, when a question is asked, the nominative of the verb is one 

, •* fairCf 

of the personal^ pronouns je, n/, il, Elle, nous, vous, ils, eUcs, on, 

personnel *• 

or ce, these words are placed in french, as the corresponding*' words 

, mot - se placer t ^n , comme qui y correspondent A 



• See note * page SOS. t See note («e) page Si3. % See N. B. note C^) page 233. 



330 EXERCISE* 

VERB. 

are in english, immediately after the verb; Do I study well? Does 

»e placer , • ; itudier 

he study well ? Do we study well ? Do you study well ? Do they study? 

134. If» when the sentence is interrogative, the nominative of the 

, quand phras$ , 

verb is a noun, this noun is placed before the verb, the same as 

, (bbj "Se placer f , de mime que 

in expositive sentences ; but (in order to) dhew that a question 

«» » M 7 ; 170 fairewir (bbjn.t. 

is asked, we"* put after the verb one of the pronouns //, slle^ ils, 

•« faire, n.«. mettre 

sUes, agreeably to the gender and number of the noun which is the 

, tuiuant - * 

nominative of the verb ; Does this boy study well ? Does this girl 

; (bb) gargon , Jlll$ 

study well ? Do these boys study well ? Do these girls study well ? 

Do any of them learn french ? Is not the french language very 

difficult ? Are your masters pleased* with you ? Does your father 
dijfficiU f content h.». «» 

often come to see you? Has your mother been here lately? 
1** ^'^ ici depuispeu? 

INDICATIVE MOOD. Use** of the tenses of the indicative. 

Em,ploi temt ' indicatif, 

135. The present tense of the indicative is generally used in the 

prhent '- - iw a*employeri 

same instances in french as in english ; I like study. Study is the 
coi en qu$ ; Utude ' * 

food of the mind. But the past"* tenses require several distinctions 
aliment * esprit, pasU ^ demander plugieurs 

in french, which the corresponding* tenses do not require in english ; 
y qui y correspondent ; 

therefore pay particular" attention to the following" rules. 

ainsi faire une particulier ^ saivant*^ 

136. If we"^ speak of an action past** without mention ing*^ the time 

w-B. jKiM^ V.B. fairs mention du terns 

in which it ^^ passed, or if we«« mention a period, and"" that 

7« M t'est passes, v b. faire mentbn d'ltn p^riode^X «* *** (bb) 

period IS not yet entirely elapsed, such as to-day, this morning, 

soit encore icoulij tel que aujourd'huif matin^ 

this week, this month, this year, &c. the action being past, and the 

/66J , mois, **» , ^c. ^tant »» , 



«*«a^>M^MM»^k« 



• See note * pa(ce 933. i See N. B. note (it J page 936. t S«e noto f page 824. 



EXERCISE. 331 

VBRB. INPICATIVE MOOD. 

period being still present, we"* make (the verb partake) both of the 

encurt , w.b. fairs participer le verbs et *** 

present and past time, by adding the past^ participle of the verb 

^M^ - , (hhj ajouter •• k.b. partieipe 

expressing the action, to the present of the auxiliary^ verbs Avoir, 

quiexprime , auxiliaire^ 

TO HAVE, or Eire, to be ; as. When did you see Mr. A, ? I saw him 

, oa , ; , Quand * t 

this morning. I met him as he was coming to town. He told me he 

»* t comms »» »w 7 dire I «*»' 

was going to*** your house. Did you not see him ? No, I did?® not. He was 

138 IM !,.». I , K.B. II 

at"®* our house, but I was not in. He only*** found my sister there, 

K.B. ^ 140 y M J J y 35^ 

and he would not stop. Did you hear that he was going to be mar- 

voubir K renter, X "* *''* - se ma- 

ried ? No, I did not ; (i. e. hear^ it) Who told you so ? His cousin 

rierf , t > *'•■• t ** '«*• " cousins t 

told me so. 1 heard that he was going abroad. I shall 

^ 55 igbi I « las dans Us pays itrangers. 

spon'*^ know if it be true ; for, when he called this morning, he 
hientot *' ; car, passer , 

promised my sister that he would call again (as he g;oes back.) 

X ** C66^K.B. repasser - en 8*en retournant, 

137. If we^ speak of an action past*^ in a period of time which is 
K.B. passi ■ 

also entirely elapsed, such as yesterday, lasl^ week, last month, last 
^eculS, hUr, > dernier » i^ ^ 1 , »• 

year^, &c. then both the time and the action being pasl**, we®* use the 
**• , ^c. alors et passi , k.b. 

perfect tense of the verb ; Where did you dine yesterday ? I dined at 

parfait ; Oil diner t **• 

my mothei's, and supped at my sister^s. Did you not go to the play ? 

, souper *®? X comidief 

Yes, I did?*. What play did they** act ? They**ticted a new comedy. 
, K.B. w pi^ce t K.B. jongr k.b. j mmvetle camidie. 

How were you entertained? I did not pay much* attention to the 

*** X * amiiser *" ? X faire k.b. 

play. I conversed all the while with a gentleman wl»o sat"* by me. 
pUcs, parler X terns monsieur Stre pres de ^ 

Did you not see me? No; I did?* not. Where were you? I was 

X »" ; ♦ K.B. Oil »** "0 

(in the) pit. I did not stop long. I went home, where I read the play. 

au parterre, X restsr ' X an logis, X piece, 

• Turn ; when hav$ yon teen f$e. ^ Turn ; I have seen him. 1 See note • page fifiS. 

I Tarn \ he hat ftfirti ^r. | See note • page STTft. \ Torn ; he Ma not Uen wilting. 



333 EXERCISE. 

VERB. INDICATIVE MOOD 

138. Sometimes we*> speak of an action that was passing, and which 
QueLquefois w.b- parler ^* - se passer *^, 

conseqiienCIy was incomplete at a period which vre^ mention**; 

par cotueqiient **• imparfait *• dont h«b. faire mention ; 

then the period bein^ past, and the action being* at that time incom* 

abrs f (bb) 

plete, we** use the imperfect tense of the verb ; What were you 

N.R. employer imparfait — i ^ 

m 

doing when I came in ? I was preparing myself to study a music 

15* suit^^ entr^l "* me^ "• musique 

lesson. I was going to play a tune. I was trying to tune my instru- 

t* 153 17a air, *** etsayer ** aecorder 

ment. Stop. You were doing it (the wrong way). You were spoiling^ 

Arreter, "* ** it rebours, gdter '** 

it. They"* were making (a great deal) of noise at*** your house last 

•• >'.B. "* oeaucouj) bruit »•■• 



)eaucoup 

mpany. 
compagnie, *** rijuair twiu** 



night. Yes, we had some company. We were enjoying ourselves. 



139. We** also*" make use of the imperfect to denote that the 

H.B. faire usage *''* disigtier que 

action (of which) we^ are speaking has been habitual''^ or that it lias 

^ 74 ' N.B. - iM habitueifCgJ « 

been reiterated ; How did you spend your time, when you were in the 

riitiri^^ ; *" "^^ le lems, »*• d 

country ? As soon as we were up, we walked in the garden till 

*** Aussitot que **® leo^s, sepromener jusqu* au 

breakfast time; after breakfast we (sat at our work) till Ttwelve 

dejeuji^ ** ; travailler jusqur A 

o'clock), and then we studied till dinner time. How did you spend 

«3« , abrs -dlu^ «* »»' «7i 

your evenings ? You had neither plays nor concerts to go to. Some 

tes «3* «** • com^die • - ou alter i 

ladies and gentlemen in our neighbourhood often called upon us, or 

imcssieurs voisinage ^®* **• , 

we called upon them, and we sometimes made a little concert, or we 

«« M , »* faire petit 

played at different games, but we generally*" spent the evening^ in 

jouer ^ *• ^ ^etUf ordinairement ■'** *"* ^®' 

reading or in conversing. We spent our time very agreeably.} 

lire *•• converser, "^^ le agr^ablement; 

* Do not pat any article before the noon which follows NT. i See note t page 283. 

t By using the 'Perfect instead of the Imperfect in rhese instances, the sentence woald be equally 
grammatical, but the idea would be very dlffeieut. This difference will appear obvious in the fuUowiag 
examples composed of the same words ; 

Quand j^ETAlS a LondrM, fALfjAlS d la comedie ; 
Quandje FUS d Londres.fALLAt a la comedie. 
By the first of these expressions, people will understand that when I teas in London, I used to go to 
the play ; by the second they wiU understand that when I arrived at London, at a certain period eithet 
Bamed or alluded to, I went to the play. Learners are very apt to confound these two tenst>s. 



EXERCISE. 833 

VBRB — INDICATIVE MOOD. 

140. Another very extensive use of the imperfect is in descriptions; 

**• ^tendu^ usuge imparjait «i« ^ ; 

for; whenever we'^* describe the state, place, situation, order or dis- 

ear, toute* lei fois que n.b. (Ucrire * itat, ■/j>i^ ® ^ordre, ® 

position in which the beings (of which) we*** speak were^ in a time 

y* €tre 74 N.B. 140 ^ fgjn^ 

past, we^ make use of the imperfect ; Where were you yesterday ? I 

, N.B. • • Ou, hiert 

called*'^ at**" your house, but you were not in. I was not well. I had 

a head-ache ; and as I could not study, I wenU^ to walk in the 
»* mal a la tSte ; comme , aller ^7« ^ «*» 

fields. There had been a little" rain. The plants were so fresh, the 

IL **® unpen w.b. pluie, si fratche^, 

trees were so green, and formed such an agreeable shade, and the flowers 

rert**, farmer si t •* ombrage, 

spread so sweet® a smell, that I could not be tired with admiring 

epandre douce * odeur, - se lasser *** admirer ^** 

the beautiful landscape which surrounded me. I wished to stay 
heau^ paysage entourer ^'* restef 

longer" ; but it was late, I was tired, and I had a long way to go. 

long'tems; tard, las, chemina faire, 

141. The future is generally used in the same instances in french 

futur t *" *^" cas en 

as in english; When will you call upon me? I will call to-night. 

que ; Quand *»« » "» 

I shall not be in. I shall be in the country. I will (set out) afler dinner. 

y ** *«> parttr dhiS. 

142. The present tense is sometimes used in french as in english 

— t en . comme 

to express an action that is*^ to pass in a time (not far) remote 

*^® exprimer ^* ^"^^ se passer pen Hoign4 

from the time (in which) we are ; as, Where do you dine to-day ? 

ou (v) y comme. Oil diner 

Do you go to the play to-night? No, we go to a ball. But if a 

comidie «" "S bal, 

verb (in the) present tense, denoting a future action, is preceded of 

ait - , dhignant '* , pricM 

followed by another verb (in the) future, that present tense must 

suivi *^ au futur, (bb) - devoir 

be expressed by the future in french ; Call upon me as soon as you 
- s exprimer I en ; «« ^ tot « 

can. We shall begin as*' soon as you are come. When you are 
pouvoir, commencer ** a^ivi, 

* See note * page 2S6. f Turn ; a shade so agreeable, ^ See N. B. note (tf) page 23o. 



834 EXERCISE. 

VERB— "-INOICATIYB MOOD. 

ready, we will go and take a walk"^. Hon shall not (go out) till 

prit, - (nnj n.b. ne sortir qu$ 

afler we have done. We will go as soon as you will. I hope we 

aprit que finir. partir ** i6t *• *** 

shall see you oftener^, when we are in the country. Come as oflen 

souvenU d *~ *^ 

as you can. I will call upon you every Uime that I go (that way). 

« «» »« fois 7* parUt. . 

143. The conditional tense has also the same properties in french 

conditifmnel — atijsi prapriitis en 

as in english ; I should like much to go to France. What would you 

que ; fart "» • « 

do, if you were there ? You would not have any^ pleasure. You 

faire, y ** n.b, plaisir, 

could not understand the language. I think I should soon^^^ learn it. 

entendre langne* **^ bientot 

14i. After the conjunction if, Si, shall, will can not be expressed 

conjonction l?^ , SHALL, WILL - t'exprimar 

by the future in french, nor should, would by the conditional ; 
par futur en , m should, would 

(will must be expressed) by the present, and would by the imperfect 

ilfaut exprimer WILL , would imparfait 

of the verb rotdoiry which then*** governs the following verb in the 

, 5^* alors rigir qui suit ■* a 

infinitive ; as, I will go with von, if you will come with me. I would 

infinilif; , • » , as • 

go with you, if you would come with me. I will teach you french* 

, • • enseigner "^fran^ais, 

if you will learn it. I would teach you french, if you would learn 
• apprendre, . • 7 ^ • 

it. How long do you think that I should be in learning it, if I should 

*•• penser a apprendre , t 

begin now? You may learn it in six months, if you will take 
emnmencer *^ *** , * prendre 

pams. You might learn it in six months, if you would take pains. 

de la peine, *'* ■*• • 

I will be obliged to you, if you will call upon me to-morrow***. I 

oblig^ (o) ** , •166 demain, wb. 

would be (very much) obliged to you, if you would call upon me. 

irei - (o) , •866 

• Observe, that in the sentences where IF occars, there are generally two JVilU or two Would ; that 
fFill which follows If is the present, and Would is the imperfect of the verb to WILL, to BE WILI^ 
ING, (see page 143.; and they mast be expressed by the corresponding tenses of the verb FOULOIR, 
which then governs the following verb in the infinitive; the other Wilt is the sign of the fnture, and tha 
other Would is the sign of tLe conditional of the following verb, which must also be expressed by the 
corresponding tenses, t. e. the Future or the Conditional of that verb in french. See also note * page 
328. 

j When Shoidd is the sign which follows //*, this sign mtist be left out, and the foUowinjif verb must be 
pnt in the Imperfect of the indicative. 



EXBUCI8E. 335 

VSRB — 8UBJUN0T1VS: MOOD. 

UsB** of the subjunctive. 

Usage snhjonctif, 

145 When wc*^ speak of an action, the event (of which) is iin« 
certain, which is generally the case when, in a sentence of two parts 

tmriain, cequi eat , '^' phrase partia 

connected by the conjunction ocr£, the first verb is either interrogative 

joint ^^ par eoiyonetion , ou interrogalif 

or negative, or preceded by si, this uncertainty is imparted to the 

nigatif, *• , {N)) incertitude - se communiquer 

the second verb (in the) subjunctive ; I think it will 



hearer, by putting 



au • ; *" 



rain soon. Do not you think it wilU^? It will perhaps rain a little, 

pleuvoir bient6t, *^ n.b. iw tin peu, 

but I do not think that it will rain much. If I thought that it 

(bb) K.B. "0 

would not rain, I would stop, but there is no " appearance that it will 
- »<• , rester, •*« imk.b. 

be fine to-day. I will (come a^ain), if I find that it does not rain. 

•*• revenir, trouver 

But observe with respect to interrogative sentences, that it is only 

it Vtgard dee "* , ce 

when we*^ wish to express our ignorance of the thing (enquired atler) 

N.i. wmloir *7« t6moigner son t dont on sHnforme 

that we** use the subjunctive ; for, if the person who asks the question 
que v.n. employer ; ear, - celui fatre 

Knew that a thing is, and only enquired^ whether the person whom 

**• , *•* sHnformer si '• 

he is speaking to knows it likewise, he would use the indicative ; Dc 
>» «» aussi, ' ; 

you not think that I did well to go before the rain came? Do 

(bb)9.B. *•« des* en alter ■*• pluie venirt 

not you think that I should have been wet, if I had stayed longer ? 

C66;k.b. mouilU, "® rester *» 

146. All verbs and adjectives denoting will, wish, oeaire, com- 

' 7 qui dSsignent volenti, souhait, disir, com- 

mandt rear, wonder^ surprise^ Aitonishmeni, joy, aladness, Gtief^ 

mandement, crainte, admirationy surprite, itonnement, joie, aise, peine, 

sorrow^ in short all expressions which denote any passion or emotion 

chagrin, en unnu>t ** 7 quelque ou 

of the soul, followed by the conjunction Que, require the following verb 

■ dme,i iuivi^ «* , demander 

(in the) subjunctive ; I am glad"> you are here. I wish*" my brother 

att ; bimaise ici, '"^ 

* Sm note * pag« SS9. i We eoold not lay notre after on, which is singnlar. | See note • page 230. 



336 EXERCISE. 

VERB. EfUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

would come. I wonder that he is not yet arrived. I am afraid**' 

s'^tonner (bb)v.ii» encore - eraindre 

some misfortune has^*« befallen him. It"* is a pity that somebody 
qneUjiie ** arrivS - lui ** v.n. •* dommage (bh) nb. •* 

did*^ not go with him. I am surprised that he has not written to 

•3* alii * sur^it * (o) 

me. I am sorry that he went"* there without my knowing it. I would 

have taken care that he should be treated as he deserves* 

soin — •* trailer ^^^ crnnme m^riter, 

147. The following** impersonal" verbs and adjectives, il Faut, il est 

tuivant ^ * impersonnel *' , , 

remSy il convienU il imporle, il rant mieux, il svffit^ seal, a propos, 

y f > t » > » 

Necessaire, indifferent , cruel, nonteux, juste, tn juste, possible, im- 
possible, followed by the conjunction que, require also the following 

^ 137 soo . ^ demander qui suit ®* . 

verb (in the) subjunctive ; It is time that we should go^*". I must be 

au ; s'en alter, ^ ^'^ 

ready to-night. I must (set out) to-morrow. It^ is fit that I should 

prit *** partir k.b. Apropos 

see in what state my aflairs are. It** is impossible that they should 

.4B 82 ^^at affaires k.b. «« 

be so bad as I am told. It^ is shameful that my partner does not 

*** mal que ^ dire, n.b. honteux assocU 

write to me. Is it®* necessary that you should go yourself? Is it** not 

(o) K.B. "« (m) K.B. - K.B. 

enough that you write to him? I think it would be better that you 

suffire ' (o) *** valoir mieux 

should send*** somebody. I do not know any body whom I can send. 

y 7° envoyer •* ^ i*3 y 70 

I must either go myself, or I must send my brother. He is the only 
»8i 01* y7« (m) N.B., 2,70 e5 gg^i 

man whom I can trust*?. It® is indifferent whether I go or not. 

me fier a^ k.b. que y^o ^j„j, 

N.B. The subjunctive mood is also used after an Adjective (in the) 

subjonctif — «. 183 s* employer au 

superlative degree, see the 50th rule ; After jRien, Aucun, pas un, per* 

super lut if, - , voir regie; , , , 

Sonne, see (ddj p. 219 ; After Quelque, Qui que ce soity Quoique ce soit. 



see 114lh, 115th, 117th, 118th rules; After the conjunctions ^n que 
A moins que, Avant que, Quoi que, and a few others, see 218th rule. 



• Put suivant siiier adjectifs, f See the reflective rerb a'en Allcr, ptge 117. 



EXERCISE. 337 

VERB- — SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

UsB^' of the tenses of the subjunctive. The tenses of the subjunc- 

Kmploi terns subjonctif, 

tive depend (on** the) tenses of the verb which governs it. 

dipendre des rdgir *- 

148. The present of the subjunctive is used when the verb which 

- i'employer 

governs it, is (in the) present or in the future of the indicative ; Da you 

fltt futur ; 

think your sister will come? I (am afraid) she will not be here to-day. 

2" , "» craindre "^ »« ici 

Somebody must go and fetch her. He will be back before we begin 

•* "* fw'*^ chercher . de retour *^* 

It^ is fit that somebody should go for her before it is too late. 

149. The perfect of the subjunctive is used when the verb which 

parfait - i'employer 

governs it, is (in the) perfect, in the imperfect, or (in the) conditional; 

au ' imparfaitf au oonditionnel ; 

I did not think*" my sister would have'** come. I (was afraid) she would 

140 238 128 craindre «i 

not be here in time. It"* was that which made me wish (hat somebody 

"• d terns. nb. "« » 7* faisaU (bb)V'B. » 

would go for her. He miglit have returned before the play began. 

^*« • ** »?» «« «w piece commencer. 

It® would be a pity"* she should not see if* after waiting'** so long. 

^•"' - dommage **• avoir attendu 

150. N. B. The perfect of the subjunctive is also used, though the 

parfait ®* '®* emploie, **• 

foregoing* verb is (in the) present, if, after the subjunctive, there is 

qui precede *'* au , , » **" 

another verb in the imperfect, some conditional expression, or if the 

H • , quelqne canditionnelle ^* , 

action spoken of is past ; Do you think your sister would come, if 

dont on parU paise ^*' ; *** *** , 

I went for her now ? It''* is not probable that she would have'** gone 

alter i • ** n.b. «« im 

there, if she had not been invited'^, I do not think we should have 
y**, t M inviter. *» '** 

seen her, if it had not been for you. I do not think we should. 

*** **, ce t a cause de ^ t 

151. If after a verb (in the) subjunctive (here is another verb express- 

au **• 

* Oo for U expressed by Alfer diereher^ not Alter pour. 

t /^(U, ffere, Had, mdy or mny other past tenye that comes after IP, &', miut be in the Imperfi-:'* 

X Inst«a«l of rcpeauny the verb, the froach woald nay ; Je ne le pentepas non plus. 

If 

V 



388 EXERCISE* 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 

ing doubt, preceded by the conjunction oue, that Terb must also be 

, Tpricidi ^^ , devoir 

(in the) subjunctive ; Do you think she expects*^' that I shall see her 

au , •■* s^attendre r»voir 

again? I wonder she could^?' have thought that I was capable (of It.) 

• s*4tonner^^ ait^^ pu p«nwi* en** 

152. When the gerund or present participle is used to qualify a 

g^rondif ^ participe - s^employer ** quaUfier 

noun, it agrees like an adjective in gender and number with that 

, s*accorder comme en genre **non»6r« C^^>) 

noun ; A charming girl, with a moving voice, singing her growing 

; ckarmant^ , de touchant^ , *** naissant^ 

\owe, in seeking^ her wandering sheep, heard some threatening 

amours, f. en chercher errant '• brebis, entendre • menofant ■• 

words followed by piercing cries. I heard her trembling steps. 
^role suivi^^ ■** per^ant^ en. tremblaiit^* pas, 

153. But, when the gerund expresses the action, and not the quality 

, ' exprimer , non qualite 

of a substantive, it does' not agree with that substantive ; A woman 

tuhstantiff •* s'accorder^ ; 

wandering through the country^, (lost her way.) Some men piercing 

errant a trovers campagne, s^igarer, * perpont 

through the crowd and threatening to kill her, she fled trembling. 

- foiUe mena^ant ^* ttier , s*enfuir en 

N, B. If the substantive to which the gerund refers is the object 

79 fg rapporter 

of a verb, it is generally expressed by the indicative in french ; We 

, — ^^^ s*exprimer par en ; 

met a woman wandering through the country. We heard a man 

errer d travers ■ *•*• 

threatening to kill her. We saw some huntsmen seeking for a hare. 

menacer i«8 ■ o cliasseur chercher — lievre, 

154. The english gerund being governed by a verb, or by the pre- 

** r^gi par VERBS, 

positions op, prom, at, for, after, with, without, is expressed by 

OF, FROM, AT, FOR, AFTER, WITH, WITHOUT, - S*exprimer 

the infinitive of the verb in french ; I saw you doing it, without 

infinitif en . ise ^ 

taking any pains. I was afraid of spoiling it. I blame him for 

de la peine, ci'aindre ^^ g&ter *"o 

going away, after having promised to wait for me. Be contented 

f>n iire all6, . les soi 54 . ^ contenter , 

with telling him'" so. There is no occasion for (using him ill. ) 
•» (f)p.79.te» «« 190 Uen de naltraiter « - 



• Again it expressed by re before voir f See the Jmperattve of a r^ective verb, pajfe 114. 



EXERCISE. 83d 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE. * 

155. The english gerund which is so often used with the auxiliary 

^^ gerondif - ^^ s'employer* auxiliaire^ 

verb BE, to define an action mure particularly, can not be expressed 

BE, *7® cUJinir particuliirementy - iexprimer* 

by the gerund in French; (the auxiliary verb must be lefl out,) and 

; il faut omettre U verbe auxUiaire , 

(the gerund must be made into a verb) (in the) same tense and person 

faire du gSrondif un verbe au • 

as the auxiliary verb is; What are you doing there? I am reading 
• que >* , _ : 83 i^p 

a novel. You are losing (a deal) of time. What have you been doing, 
roman, perdre beaucoup - ; 

whilst I was dressing myself? I was waiting for my sister. I am 
pendant que habiller me ^ **' 

going to dress mysel^ctoo. I (am afraid)*** they will be going**® before 

*'• *** (itMW. craindre^^'^ - partir ■** 

I am ready. Make haste, for they are going to (set off) just now. 

prit, se d^pecher^i car alter *7* partir tout d. I'heure. 

156. The gerund which is sometimes used as a substantive in 

- **• i* employer* - en 

english, i. e, preceded by an article, can not be expressed by the gerund 

, pricide *® , - s^xprimer* par 

in french ; (it must be expressed) by a noun, if a noun synonymous to 

; il faut Vexpnmer , synonyme 

the verb can be found ; as, the reading of good books forms the mind. 

•■ I , lecture 7 »3 former esprit. 

His having been instructed (turn ; his instruction) was of great ser* 

; *^ d'un grand 

vice to him. If a noun synonymous to the verb does not readily*^ 

Co^ ** ais^ment 

occur to the mind, you'** must give another turn to the sentence ; as, 

te presenter , il h.b. faut tour phrase; , 

I should have caught that bird, if it had not been for your making 

attraper ' oiseau^ 

a noise; (turn ; if you had not made Sfc.) You are the cause of his 

du bruit ; ; fait Sy. 

having been punished ; (turn ; thiat he has been punished,) What is the 



82 
9 



reason for your being so angry with him? turn ; that you are so angry. 

reason fAchi **<*?; 

157. The past" participle joined to a noun has the property of an 

pasU joint propri£t4 

adjective, and agrees in gender and number with that noun; A 

, s'accorder en genre ^'^nombre ; 

- - - - 

* 8e« N. B. note (it) page 935. f See the Imperative of a rejiectite verb, page 114 

y2 



340. EXERCISE. 

• PAST PARTICIPLE. 

married" man. A married woman. Well brought up children. W«U 

marier w-B. 2* bieti iUver*^ - • 

written letters. New builf^ houses. Roasted potatoes •. 

icrire •* • noiivellement butir • rotir ** pommes de terre. 

When a past participle comes after the auxiliary^ verbs have or 

** participe auxiliaire^ HAVE 

BE, you*** must make a particular^ distinction between these two verbs. 

BK, il N-B. faitt particulier^ entre (bb) 

158. After the auxiliary verb EtrCy to be, the past pjirticiple ag-rees 

®* verbe , to BE, '* s*accorder 

like an adjective, in gender and number with the nominative of that 

comme adjectif, ^^* tiominatif (bb) 

verb ; as, that man is married. That woman is married. Those 
; , marier, (^^bj 

children are well brought up. These letters aic well written. The 

Clever - 

potatoes are not done enough. Those houses are very well built. 

cuire *•■* ti'is bdtir, 

159. After the auxiliary verb AVoir, to have, the past participle 

** , to HAVE, ^* 

never agrees with the nominative of the verb ; so, in these examples ; 

^^ s'accorder ; ainsi, (bb) eiempU ; 

My mother has invited your sisters. Your sisters have invited my 

inviti 

mother, the participle invite must not change its masculine termination ; 

, devoir changer sa ** tenninaison ; 

except when the past participle comes after the participle £te^ been, 

except^ ** , BEEN, 

serving with Avoir ^ to form a compound tense; for then it agrees 

servant , *•• former compost ^* terns; car alors s'accorder 

with the nominative of Avoir; as, My sister has been invited. My 

; , ^tc inviti, 

brothers have been invited. My sisters have been invited. 

In all other instances (in which) the past participle comes after 

«" 7 cas , oil s« 

HAVE, it (is necessary) to consider whether the participle has an object, 

HAYEy il - faut *'* cotisidirer si objet, 

and whether. this' object comes before or after the participle. 

If the participle comes before its object, it does not vary, i. e. it is 

son , changer, 

Always masculine and singular 5 but if it comes after its object, it 

masculin singuLier ; , 

agrees like an adjective in gender and number with that object; 1 
t'accorder en *** * • 



EXERCISE 341 

PAST PARTICIPLE. 

bave lost my watch. I have not found it. I have found a watch* 

perdre niantre, irouv^r ** 

It is not that which I have lost. 1 have sent you a letter. I hav6 

63 88 envoyer *^ lettre, 

not received it. Have you not received the letter which I have sent 



recevoir ** 



you ? We have sold our house, but we have bought another. (That is) 

*w vetidre maison, c/i^o acheter um autre, •*-'' 

the house which we have sold, and (this is) the other which we have 



a»7 

» 

bought. We have gained a complete^ victory. Have you heard 

remporter complet ** victoire, entendu parler 

of the victory winch we have gained? We have destroyed or taken 

d6truire prendre 

ail the enemy's **ships. (Here are) the frigates which we have taken. 

ennemi vaisseau **7 frigate 

N. B. Observe that the participle agrees only with its direct object ; 

Observer (66^x8. son "* ; 

for, when the object is governed by a preposition expressed or under- 

car, r^gir exprimer ^^"^ sous- 

stood, the participle does not agree with that object ; (Here is) the 

entendre ^^7^ (hb) ; «*? 

person to whom I have written the letter of which I have spoken to 

perionne "^^ ^* (o) 

you. It mentions a victory to which we have not contributed a little. 

• 35 81 faire mention d* ^* contribiier - pen *"• 

Over** (how many)^ powerful* enemies have we not triumphed ! 

De combien »•»• puissant^ triompher! 

160. Sometimes afler a participle preceded bv an object, there is a 
verb in the infinitive, then (it is necessary) to consider whether the 

d infinitif, alars ilfaut *7' si 

object is governed by the participle, or by the infinitive which follows 

. rigir par , tuivre 

ft. If the participle governs the object, it agrees in gender and num- 

■* , •• s^accorder 

ber with that object ; but if the object is governed by the verb which 
follows the participle, the participle does not require any" agreement 

, ne demander pas k.b. accord 

with it ;• Have you finished the letter which I had given you to write? 

rol}jet; "» " "« 

Have you finished the letter which you had begun to write ? Have 

140 ^ 168 

■ ■ . - < I I ■■ I II ■ 1 ,1 

* Here the noun mast he repeated in the place of the pronoun, because the personal prononns after a 
prrposition, ean not be used to represent thir.g^. See G4 rule. j See note * page 333. 



34*2 EXERCISE . 

PAST PARTICIPLR. 

you read the books which I had lent you to read ? Have you read 

the books which I had advised you to read ? Is that the actress 

eonseilLer* ** "• Est-ee la aetrice 

whom we heard"* singf ? Sing the song which we heard her" sing 
entendre • chantei' f chanson *^ * lui 

(These are) the figures which I have lately learned to draw. I 

^7 dernierement • ^^ dessiner. 

still*** see the same faults whic{i you had resolved to avoid. 

encore faute *** rSsoudre* i* ^viter, 

161. The participles plu, oil, pu, roulu do not agree with the object 

, , , . i^accordw 

that precedes them, because the infinitive of the verb which comes be- 

7^ , Tparce que 

fore these words, is understood after them ; You have not written this 

, ioui^entenda -®* ; 

letter so well as you ought. You have had all the time and all the 
assistance that you wished**. I have taken all the pains that I could"*. 

tecourt ''* vouloit, • yeine 7* T^ivoir* 

GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

(A word is"* said) to govern another, when the word governing 

On dU qu^un mot en rigit un autre, qui r6g%t 

obliges the governed ioi^ conform to certain rules. 

thiiger mot qui eit r6gi se conformer certaine (i) rigU, 

162. When a verb governs two substantives, either nouns or pro- 

r^gir , toit ou f 

nouns, one of them requires a preposition, expressed before a noun, and 

^ demander , exprimer **' ** , 

generally implied in the pronouns ; Has your sister given my brother 

renfermer ^"^ ; *■* 

any money ? (turn ; gitjen money to my brother,) Yes, she has lent 

» ; , priter 

him» some; (i. e. some to him,) Did he ask her for it? (turn ; did he 

{f)p.79.CpJ; (o) «« 55 J 5. 

ccsk it to her?) No, it<" was she who offered it" him ; (i. e. it to him.) 

(o) t "*, K.B. 1*0 offnr^'^ (f}p.79. ; (o) 

They have requested me to buy them books, fto buy books to them,) 
prier -« (f)p.79. *• , (a) 

and to send them to them ; but I will not send them any ; C^ny to 

'* (o) ; Wv-rg.Cp); 

them,) Have they returned your sister (to your sister) those which 

«* K.B. (bh) 

she had lent them**? No, they have»» not ; i. e. returned them to her, 

* See note * page 333. t See note * puge 206. f See note || page S96. 



EXERCISE. 343 

aOVSRNMENT OF VERBS. 

163. When a verb governs two objects, the shorter, i. e. the ob<» 

r^gir objet, court **, 

ject which is compounded of the fewer^^ number of words, is generally 

compose plus petit ® mot, - *® 

placed first ; I have brought your brother a very entertaining book. 

se placer le premier ; i** amtuant ** 

He must dedicate all the time that he can spare to study. How can he 

*'* donner '* pouvoir - '^itude *** 

expect to learn unless'^ he pays all the attention he can to his books? 

s'attendre^^ »• k.b. faire » (s) 

If the objects are nearly of an equal lengthi h e. compounded of nearly 

dpeuprit igale , 

the same number of words, the direct^ object must be placed before 

® , direct devoir - se placer *^ 

the indirect ; Have you lent my sister any money ? She intends to 

Vobjet ; ^?* • avoir^^^ dessein de 

present your brother with a book. He gives his friends (a great deal) 

faire present "* de • "* ^ beaucoup 

of trouble. Tell her^^ that I will send her children some fruit. 

peine. (f)p.79.(bb)V'B, »«« 

Yet the indirect object must be placed first, though it were 

Cependant ^ devoir , quand meme it serait 

the longer^S if by placing it last, it^ caused an amphibology with 

long, r^^O ^ de^fiier, faisait amphibologie 

other words ; as, Take the parcel which I have brought into the 

d'autres I - ) *^ paquet 

parlour. Have you sent the letter which I gave you to the (post ofRce?) 

salon i** •* poste 

164. The same noun may be governed by two verbs which have 

mhne ^"^ r6gi par 

both the same government, i. e. which are both used without a pre- 

*" regime , « i«a| s* employer - 

position, or which require both the same preposition ; as, I hate and 

, demander ^** ; , ha'ir 

despise that young man. He is always talking and boasting*" of what 

mipriser (bbj ^•*t parler^^ sevanter ** 

he does. He is always opposing and (finding fault) with what other 
faire, *•* J s*opposer "* trouver "^ a redire a les autres 

people do ; but we^ could not say, I hate and mistrust that young 
-"• faire; w-b. , nmSfierde 

man. He is always- talking about, and finding fault with what other 

*•* parler de, trouver d redire d •* 

people do ; because se mifier requires a preposition before the noun 

• fa*re; 
• See note | ^agt 996. f Pat thif pronoan after the verb. i Put this adverb o/Zc the second rerb. 



344 EXERCISE. 

GOVBRNMENT OF VEKBS. 

which follows^ it, and hatr does not require any : and because parler 
and trouver a redire require different prepositions ; we'"' must say ; I 
hate that young* man^ and I mistrust him. He is always talking about 

(bb) , se m^fier de » i»* »*» *^ 

what other people do, and finding* fault (with it.) 
Ui antres - "* , ^** d redtre y ** 

165. The same verb may govern two parts of a sentence, provided 

*7? r4gir partie phrase, *^® 

they are both affirmative or both negative ; as our reputation depends 

^ ^** affirmative ou *" negative ; dtpendre 

much (upon"® the) caprice of men, but still more upon our actions ; 

du ' , encore de 

but if one part of the sentence is affirmative and the other is negative 

et «^» autre *«> 

(the verb must be repeated ;) so, instead of saying: Our reputation 
il faut rep^ter le verbe } ainsi, aulien ^^* 

does not depend (upon** the) caprice of men, but upon our good or 

du ^ aoo 8» 

'^our bad actions ; repeat the verb, and say ; but it depends upon our 

de » ; rdpiter , ; «« «<» 

good or our bad actions. All men are equal; it^ is not birth^, but 

V ' dgaux; N.B. naisaaiice, 

virtue alone (say, it^ is virtue alone) which makes the difference. 

^vertu teule n.b. 7* 

166. Some verbs govern the verbs which follow them, indifferently 

• rigir suiore , indi^iremment 

in the infinitive or (in the) subjunctive; but when any one of these 



au : •** 



verbs governs two verbs, they must be both (in the) same mood ; so, 

, devoir n* au mode; ainsi, 

(it would not be proper to say;) I am glad to see you, and that I 

on ne dirait pas bien ; bien aise de , que 

have an opportunity to tell you so ; you^" must say, and to have uu 

•* occasion *« *» te**; n.b. , de «* 

opportunity to tell you so. Instead of saying : I have ordered the 
»•» «9 le^ Aulieu de »*♦ ; ardonni 

coach to (be got ready), and that they** bring*** it here ; say, I have 

d' appriter^i , que K'B. amener ** ici ; dire, 

ordered the coach to be got ready, and to be brought here ; or, 1 have 

»» - appriteryi »« - «• ,• , 

ordered that the coach be got ready, and that they"® bring it here. 

»« . N.B. M8 a* 



• See note f page 282. f Turn ; to^/el reorfy.ihe coach, and to bring ^c. 



EXERCISE. 346 

GOVERNMENT OF V£KBS« 

167. Passive verbs require De or par before the noun which they 
fiovern. They require or, when the verb expresses an action wholly of 

n^gir, exprimer entieretnent 

the mind ; as. He is blamed by all his friends, and despised by all his 

esprit; « , miprUer 

neighbours. She is commended and esteemed by every body. They 
require par, when the bodily^ faculties participate in the action ; The 

, du corps avoir *** part a ; 

town was besieged by the Austrians, and afterwards taken^^ by the 

^ • assicger ** AutrichienSf ensuite prendre 

French. The houses were plundered by the mob. This news was 

^'^ • pilUr ** populace, nouvelle ■■• 

sent*" to us by my correspondent. The letter is written by a man 

snvoyer (o) correspondant, "* 

who was upon the spot. But instead of these passive expressions, 

»« place. aulieu (hh) »« 

which are foreign to the genius of the french language, (it is better), 
itranger^ gtnie » «i ^ il vant mietix, 

by changing the order of the words, to give to the verb its active sig- 

(hh) changer ordre » *^* *a ** ^ 

r.ification ; thus, All his friends blame him, and all his neighbours 

; aintif , 

despise nim. Every body commends and esteems her. The Austrians &c. 

in^priser ** louer * 

When two verbs occur in**' the same part of a sentence the 

se rencontrer partie 

latter is governed by the former in the infinitive mood, sometimes 

dernier rigxr par premier a infinitif - , ' 

(by the) means of a preposition, and sometimes without it.f 

au moyen , pripotitUm, 

The preposition to, the sign of the infinitive mood in english, ia 

TO, ** signe - eii , — 

expressed by oe, J, or pour, but not indiscriminately. 

tUsprirmrX i » . *•* indiffiremment, 

168. To, before an infinitive is expressed by oe, when it can 

To, ^'^ .' - »*aiprimer X ti pouvolf 

be changed into of or from, and"* the infinitive can be turned into 

• u changer t en op from, et quo - m toumer par 

the gerund or present participle ; this generally occurs when the infi- 
girondif *" participt', * *»» arr'wer 

nitive comes af\er a noun used in a definite sense ; as. You shall have 

employ^ dtfini^* sens; , 



• See note * p. ^86. f Sm oote • page 341. X See N. B. note (ii) p. ^35. 



346 EXERCISE 

GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

the trouble to do it, or (of doing it) over a^n. Will you have 

peine refair^ , • 

the goodness to help, or (of helping) roe ? If you have any desire 

honti aider, « envxe 

to serve mei you have now a fine opportunity to do it. Have the 

servir , aprisent occasion 

complaisance to wait for me. I have not time to stay. It is time to 

*** '' rester, 11 

go, I do not hinder you from going. See, rule 168, a list of the verbs 

partir. empScher wus en aller. , rigle , liste 

and adjectives which require oe before the infinitive that follows them. 

• demanded ** infinitif 7* 

169. To, before an infinitive is expressed by J, when it can be 

To, - s*exprimer* A, il - 

changed into in, and*^' the infinitive can be turned into the gerund, 

$e changei' en I ft, et qtie - $e totimer . par g^rondif, 

or present participle ; this generally occurs after nouns used**' in a 

■• ^. » 184 arriver ' employer 

partitive sense ; He will have some trouble to do it for in doing it) 

partitif^ ; • peine refaire 

over again. He perhaps*** will have somebody to help him. Is there 

t peutetre »» aider lui^ «*« 

no*' risk to go (this way ?) A virtuous man takes pleasure to do good. 
N.B. risque par id ? vertueux V>ien, 

Amuse yourself with reading some instructive book, instead of spend- 
Amuser vous^ *** quelque instructif^ , au lieu ^^ 

ing'** your time in playing. S^e, rule 169, a list of the verbs and 

jouer, , , liste 

adjectives which require 2 before the infinitive that follows them. 

170. To, before an infinitive is expressed by pour, when it can be 

To, - s*eipi'imer • , il ^ 

turned into in order to ; as, I was going to write to you to beg, 

setoumerpar IN order to; , *" aller *'''' (o) demander 

or (in order to beg) a favour of you. You are too civil to refuse me. 

grdce - ** trop refuser 

(I will do any thing) to oblige you. I want money to buy a horse. 

J I n'est Hen queje ne fosse ••® acheter 

1 have not money" enough to buy one. It is not enough to have money 

w.B. assez en 7® un, - suffire ** • 

to get a horse, one must*" have money to keep it. He wants 

se procurer , *•■• — maintenir *** 

to have a horse, in order to make (people believe) that he is rich. 

, croire aux gens 

* See N. B. note (n) page S35. t Over c^ain is expressed by re before faire. 



EXERCISE. 347 

OOVERNMBNT OF VERBS. 

N. B. The english gerund preceded by the preposition for, explain- 

■* i^ondif *" FOR, servant 

ing the motive of an action, is also expressed by the infinitive 

3 expliquer motif > - *"* s*exprimer par infinitif 

with pour; He has been taken up for having fought a duel. Is 

j arreter - $^Stre^ battre en duel, - 

that"* sufficient for arresting a man ? He was not arrested for fighting, 

£9 tuffire »*» ^"^ i'etrebattu, 

but for robbing and ill using the man whom he had®' fought with. 

avoir voU maltra%i6 '• i'^tait «03 

171, The infinitive is used without a preposition in french, when 

- 8*employer - en , 

it is the nominative of a verb ; as, To love and to be loved are the 

; , aimer 

greatest pleasures in life'. To love without measure is a folly, not^^ 

** *• vie, mesure folie, n.b. 

to love at all, is insensibility. To do to others as we would wish 
du tout J insensibility, d autrui ce que vouhir 

(to be'* done to), is to follow the law of reason, 

qu*on nous fit, c*est - loi h'aison, 

172. The infinitive is also used without a preposition after the verbs 

- s*employei' - 

Aimer mieux^ raloir mieuxy Alter, venir. Assurer^ croire, compter, 

9 r 7 » f r 

Duigner, oMarer, Devoir, Entendre, Envoyer, ssperer, valloir, inna* 
giner, Laisser, osen paraitre, penser, pretendre, pouvoir. Reconnoitre, 
negarder, netourner savoir, sembler, aouhaiter, soutenir, vouloir, 

» » 9 t 9 » 9 

voir, ^percevoir; as, I am going to embark for America. When do 

, ; , m^embarquer '^AnUrique, 

you intend to go ? I want*® to (set out) as soon as I can. I hope you 
compter partirf sauhaiter partir "■ *** 

will come to see us before you go. I do not think I shall (be able) 

■*• partir *** pouvoir ^*^ 

to call**' before I go; but I expect to see you often when I have"* 

passer •*• partir; esp6rer ** 

returned. You seem to have a great desire to^ go. No; I would 

*•* enviB y70 aller. ; aimef 

rather stay than go; but I do not*" know what to do here. It is 

mieux rester (U) y aller ; k.b. savoir * J I vaut 

better to gain a little than to gain nothing. I would rather gain 
mieux gagner - pet* (U) •• aimer mieux 

nothing than to toil myself for so little. See the 1 72nd rule. 

(It) tourmenter me^ si peu de cAeie. rigkm 



343 EXERCISE. 

REMARKS ON THE VERBS. 

173. Will, would. If by the words will, would* you wisli to 

WjLLy WOULD, , fav WILL, WOULD f- VOubir »71 

denote will, wish desire, inclination^ you'** must express them by 

designer volonti, souhait, lUtir, , ii k.b. faut exprimer 

the verb rouloir, and put the following verb in the infinitive; if you 

, mettre a ; 

wish to denote a determination, (will, would must be considered) 

*'■ , il fant emuidtrer WILL, would 

only as the signs of the future, or of the conditional of the verb which 

comme futur, eonditionjiel 

follows them ; as. Will you do me the favour to call** upon me ? I 

; , • faire grace ^^ ** 

\.ill call, if I can. Would you do me the favour to call upon me? 

, jxmooir, • *•• 

I would call, if I could. Will you bring your sister with you? I will 

pouvoir, * ameiier avec 

bring her, if she will come. W^ould you bring your sister with you ? 

144 • 8a« "^ 

I would bring her, if she would come. My sister will not come ; sLe 

amener , *** • 

will stay at home. My sister would not come; she would stay at home. 

, r ester au logis. { 

174. Will have, would have. When will have, would have 
Will have, would hafs, will have, wouid have 

are used to denote the wish to possess, will, would are expressed 

- i employer "• diugner desir ^^ poss4der, WILL, WOULD - i' exprimer 

by the verb rouloir, and have is left out ; if will have, would 

, HAVE •'S^omettre; will have, would 

HAVE are used to denote not the wish, but the certainty to possess, 
HAVE •* s^employer "• non , certitude *** , 

they are expressed by the future, or by the conditional of Avoir; as, 
- s*eiprimer futur, conditionnel ; , 

My brother will have a horse. He will have one (cost what it will.) 
f en "^^ * un. coute qui caute. 

My brother would have a horse. H^ would have one (at any rate.) 

• • • d quelque prix qtte ce fut. 

He will have a watch too. He would have a watch too. He will 

• montre austi. • en^^ 

have one, if he learns well. He would have one, if he learned well. 

, apprendre en^^ , 

He will have none, if he wilLjiot have this"'. He would have none, 

if he would not have this. He will have one like yours. 
"* «»'»• une •* 

..III I ■ ■ I ,, ^ 

* These sentences may be expressed t\ra ways, bnt each way denotes a different idea, and this ide« 
ran lie determined onlv by the speaker or writer. See the examples under ra!es 173, 17^. See abo tbs 
different notes on IFifl, frould» page 143, 2S8, and 33^. 



EXERCISE. 349 

n£M4.RKS ON THE VERBST. 

N. B' If WILL HAVE, vrouLD HAVE, ill the sense of wish, are fol- 

f»'/LL BAFEf WOULD HAVE, WtSH, ««»- 

lowed by another verb, the object of have becomes the nominative of 

>,w suo ohifiA HAVE tUvenir nominatif 



VIS 



objet HAVE devenir nominatif 



the following verb which must be (in the) subjunctive in french; 

suivant ^ devoir au tn ; 

What will you have me do ? What will you have my brother do ? 

" • fairef • fairef 

I will have you learn Italian', and I will have him learn French''. 

+ Italien, t Fran^ais. 

Would you have us do"». nothing but study?. Must we never play? 

t ' faire ^ qiC ^tudierl ' «i va im jQ^er 

Yes, I would have you learn your lessons first, and I would 

, *** Ucon premierement, 

have you play afterwards. I will not have any of you be idle. I 

»« ensuiie. ^^ oisif. 

m 

will have every one of you do his duty before he does any thing else. 
'>w devair *^' *" autre chose, 

175. Would have in the sense of chosen, been willing, followed 
Would have chosen, been willing, suicre^^^ 

by a past participle is expressed by the imperfect or by the condi- 

"^ " - s^exprimer jwr imparfait ' condi" 

lional of Avoirt with the participle roulu, viz. Avais roulii^ Aiiraia 

tionnel , , c*estmd'^ire 

rouble and the english participle is expressed by the infinitive in french ; 
, '* - i'exprimer en ; 

If you would have let me go, I should have been back long since. 

laisser , de retour il y a long-terns* 

This would have been done in time, if he would have helped me. 

■• ^ finir a tenu, aider 

I asked*^ him to help me, and he would not. I would not have 

pricr ** , ^^ 

helped you for ever so much. Why did you not tell me so before 

rien aa monde. ^^ ** cela *'* 

I began ? If I had told you so, you would not have come. If any 

t ** ie*», ^ tout 

body but you had told me so, I certainly would not have believed him. 

autre qiu X a» /^55^ im 

176. Should; When should, which is generally a sign of the con- 
Shovld. should, ngriB 

ditional tense, is used in the sense of otwwiT, it is expressed by the 

- , - s' employer ought ^ - **exprimer 

• Tuni. What will vou that I do? What will votx that my brother do f for it is not the petion whom 
yoa w'xiK bat yoa voUh that the penon ihoiild perfurm some actioa. 

t Turn, I will that you learm Itilian, and I will that he learn frcnah. IViufd yoa that trtf shonld do 
w>thin/( bat atody-? and ■. on with other sent^nceti of thia kind. ♦ S^e note t pai^ 337. 



350 EXERCISE. 

REMilRKS ON THE VERBS. 

conditional of the verb Devoir, viz. Dtvrais; as, ycu shobtd take 



more 

N 



e' pains than you do. Children should learn, every day, something 

.S' peine ^ faire, ' , touts les jours, * 

by heart They should (get up) (sooner in the morning) than they do. 

jutr cceur, se lever pltu <- matin ^ 

177. Should have, ouoht to have, followed by a past participle, 

SHGULJt HAVE, OUGHT tO HAVE, *» •* 

are expressed by the conditional of AVoir, with the participle d4, viz. 

• par , iMi, 

Aurais dH, and the en^ish participle is expressed by the infinitive 
in french ; Tou should have gone (viz. ought to have gone) with your 

en ; aller 

brothers. You should not have let them go alone. They ought not 

laisser seul *•. 

to have gone without leave. They should not have stayed so long. 

yJ" permission. rester si long-tems. 

You ought to have told them** so. You have not acted as you should. 

dire (f) p. 79. le *» agir 

178* May, might. If may, might are used to denote the power 
May, might, may, might - • iw designer pouvoii^ 

of doing a thing, may is expressed by the present of the verb pou" 
»»* , may - • 

voir, viz, puis, Sfc, and might by the conditional pourrats, which 

, , , ^C. MIGHT , 

govern the following verb in the infinitive ; If may, might denote the 

rigir a * ; MAY, MIGHT 

mere possibility of doing a thing, they may be expressed by the sub- 

simple possibilitS *** , t — * 

junctive of pouvoir, or by the subjunctive of the following verb ; Any 

, qui suit ^* ; 

body may do that ; (i. e. can or is able) to do that. Yoi| may do it, 

io» t (bb) ; »^ faire , ' 

(i. e. You can or are able) to do it, if you like. I will shew you 

, vouloir, ^ montrer 

how it may be done ; (i. e. how one catit or is able to do it.) Leave 

M ; , Laisser 

it her«, that I matf try ; (i. e. that it may he possible for me to 

«« , afinque essay er ; ^7« 

try.) I will lend it** you, that you may learn ; (i. e. that it may 

prfier *• , afin que ; 

be possible for yoa' to learn.) Any body might do that ; (i. e. 

IM 



• SpeN.B.note'iOpa^SSS. f Sm Bote • page 138, N B. p. 139L } Se«Mtaf p.31«. 



EXERCISE. 351 

REMARKS ON THE VERBS. 

would be able) to do that. You might do it, (i. e. you could or 

faire , • 

would be able) to do it, if you had"* a mind. I will shew you how 
it might be done ; (i. e. how one could do it.) I left^^ it here that 

•* ; • laisser ** q/in qia 

you might try ; (i. e. that it might be possible for you to try.) 

179. Could have, might have. When could have, might have 
Could have, might have, could have, might have 

are followed by a past participle, Ihey are expressed by the imperfect 

i!» ^ sa , -. J imparfait 

or by the conditional of Avoir, with the participle pu, viz. Avais pUy 

conditionnel , , , 

durais pu, agreeably to the tense, and the en^lish participle is ex- 

, suivunt "" » *- 

pressed by the infinitive in french ; If I could have done it, (i. e. ii 

t en ; * faire , 

I had (been able) to do it,) I wuuld not have asked*" you to help 

iw pu ^72 ^ prier *®® aider 

nie. You might have done it (i. e. you would have been able to do 
it) as well as I". I could not have done it so soon ; (i. e. I should 

43 48 • 

not have been able to do it so soon.) You perhaps*** could not, (or 

St tot, peut'itre . , 

would not have been able to do it) but you might have tried ; (i. e. 

essay ei' ; 

you would have been able to try.) I might have tried, (i. e. I should 
have been able to try) as you say ; but I am sure that I could not 

comme ; sur 

have succeeded ; (i. e. that I should not have been able to succeed.) 

riussir ; • 

180. JViSH. The present tense of the verb wish, followed by another 
Wish, - wish, «» 

verb in the imperfect or (in the) conditional is expressed by the con^ 

it au ^ X 

ditional of aouhaiter^ viz. souhaiterais, and the verb which is in the 

, c'est^-dire, , d 

imperfect or (in the) conditional in english, must be (in the) perfect 

au en , devoir (hk) au par fait 

of the subjunctive in french ; as, T wish that was done. I wish 

subjonctif ; , «» ' (bb) «» 

•^' • • ' III. ._ — - — _ — >— ' « » 

* S«e the different nae of Couldt page 13B. f See note t p. 313. X See K. B. note (tt) p. 235. 



352 EXERCISE. 

REMARKS ON THE VERBS. 

your sistei would come. I wish somebody would help me. I wish 

«i w aider 

I had never attempted it I am glad that I have done (with it.) 

'Cnn) entreprendre ** ** - -(nn)et*'e d4harrauk <«** 

181. Must. The verb mcst is conjugated with the three different 
Must, mvsi - seconjuguer* *• *■ 

persons^ viz. I must, thou must, he must, &c. but the verb which 

, I MUST, THOU MUST, HE MUSTy 6^C. 

represents it, has only the third person singular of each tense, with 

, au singulier *** , 

// for nominative, viz. il fuuU il Fallait, 8^'c. (see page 174.) then 
the nominative of must becomes the nominative of the following verb 

MUST devenir 

which is always (in the) subjunctive in french ; as, I must see (turn ; 

au en i , ; 

it must that I see) that man. Thou must not go alone. He must 

• t «««/. 

come himself. Your brother must go with you. You must not stay 

(m) N.B. « t 

long. Must we not speak to him ? Must not his friends know it ? 

long-tems. f (o) ** t savoir f 

N. B. When the nominative of must is indefinite, i. e, when it does 

MUST ind^fini, 

not relate to any particular" person, it is generally left out in french, 

se rapporier en partkulier , - *■* i'omettre • , 

and the following verb is put in the infinitive; How many® times 

-. ♦ ^ J N.B. «8« 

must one tell you the same thing? We must employ our time 

dire ' le 

usefully. People must never be idle. They must help one another, 
utilejnent. oiaif, Braider ^*^ 

182. Must have meaning to be in need, is expressed by il pattt. 
Must have dtsigner to be in need, - •• , 

but HAVE is left out, and (the nominative of must is made) the object 

HAVE ^ * , on fait diinominatif de MUST * 

of Faiit; thus, I must have, il me faut; thou must have, il te 

; ainsi, 1 MUST HAVE, J 7^017 MUST HAVE, 

faut; he must have, il lui fauf, Sfc, (see page 175.) I must have a 

; HE MUST HAVE, , &iC, J 

horse. He must have a saddle. My brother must have a wife. My 

t selte. J femme, 

sister must have a husband. These children must have clothes. 

mart, habit, 

. _ ^ 

• See N. B. note (it) page 235. f Sm MUST used nefftUively, p. 174. t See MUST HAVE, p. 175. 



EXERCISE. 353 

VERB. 
RECAPITULATORY cxevcise 071 the foregoing rules* 
I have done. Have you done? Has your brotner done? Haj3 

finir. 

your sister done? My brother has sun^ a song. My sister has sung 

chanter chanson, 

a song. My brothers have sung a song. My sisters have sung a 
song. Have you heard the song which my brother has sung ? Have 

entendre 7* 

you heard the song which my sister has sung ? Have you heard the 
song which my brothers have sung ? Have you heard the song which 
my sisters have sung? They are gone. Are they gone? Are your 

pariir, 

brothers gone ? Are your sisters gone ? How do they do"^ ? How 

/ iM iM seportei'f ^^ 

does your mother do ? Is all your family well ? Is your sister 

«^i «" » famille i« ' 

returned from Bath? Have the baths been of service to her? I 

** Bath? bain faire du bien (o) 

think they have. She looks*" much better than she did before 

•** t avoir mine % ^""^ avoir *^^ 

she went. I am glad ^ you are come ; I wanted to see you. If 

y alter, bien aise ; ■•• 

you had not come, I would have called upon you. I have some 



MS 



news to tell you. Do you know that Mrs. B. is here? No, 

nouvelles plur. savoir ici f ^*^ 

1 did not know it. When did^ she come ? She came this morning. 

Quand ** matin, 

1 have just received this note from her. I am glad she is come 

■** recevoir billet ^ 

(at last), for I longed^^^^ much to see her. I will wait upon her 

enfin, car see p. 175. fort passer chez ^ 

to-morrow morning. Will you come with me? I do not think I 

demain matin, *® *** 

shall (be able) to go, I (am -afraid) my mother will not be able to 

pouvoir y^^ craindre ^^ 

spare*^ me. Since she has been ill, she wishes me to be always 

se paster de ^ Depuis que § malade, voutoir || 

• See note * p. 881, and add to it that the whole of this exercise on the verbs most be well understood 
before the exercise is left olf. 

t Yoa may express, I ihmk thejr have^ hvje pense qrC out ; or if yoa express haffe, you most add the 
rest of the i(ent«>Dce and say ; je pease qu' its lui en ontfait, 

\ Turn this sentence. She has vutch better look than she had ^e. 

f Has been ill. The English often Uite this past tense to express an action or a state of beingf which 



354 EXERCISE 

VERB. 

aECAPiTULATORY exercise on the foregoing rules, 
with her. She will not let me (go out) for fear^ I should slay too 

* (kk)lais$er sortir de peiir que resttr 

long^. Do you wish me to go ? Yes, I do'^ Well ; I will call, 

hng^tenu, * y''^ i , »•»• Eh bien ; paster, 

if I can. You may call, if jou will ; it is not so far. I do not think 

pouvoir , ; •*• loin, *** 

your mother will refuse you to (go out) for such a short^ time. I will 

tortir si - peu h-b. 

ask her. Do?®; i. e. ask her, I wish you would lend me the book which 

Ul (Op. 7^9. H.B. Ml (kkjpreter 

you promised me the last time I was at*^ your house. I promised 

(t) H.B. 

to send it to my cousin a^er I have read it. She has nothing to 

f. aprhque •• •• 

do now, and it is better she. should do that than do nothing. 

d pritent, vahir mieux*^ • (U) 

I will lend it you now. I wish you (very much) to read it. I did 
§ •• " , li ^rt 

not lend it you then, for fear®* you would not return** it to me in 
09 M alorSf depeurque - w.b. A 

time. I (was afraid) that you would keep it too long. I have long 
terns, craindre^^ -^'^ garder •• long-terns, 

wished to read it. I could not lend it you, before you asked me for 
it. Here*'? it is. I wish*^ it may amuse you (as much) as it has 

•■ w.B. •« amuter autant que •• 

amused me. Do you think vour cousin would come, if I sent for 

M tzf cousine , envoyer ehercher 

her? I do not think she can. She told me that she expects a friend 

"^ ?*^ attendre 

who promised to call upon her this aflernoon. Did she tell you that 

•'• apris'4nidi, 

I drank 'tea with her yesterday*" ? Yes, she did.?* I wish™ you had 
prendre ihi hier hb. h.b. iw 

been there. I wish I had. She is coming to spend the evening with 

yW(e)p.74. •• «7i »* ° 

me (to-morrow,'**) will you come with* her? I wish I could; but I 

demain, v.b, (kkj iw (nn)^^ ; 

can not. I am engaged at Mrs. A's. We will meet some other day. 
?* *•' serencontrerquelque >** 

^ -------- — — ■ -u, -, n _r-ij i_r_ 

• Turn ; do you wish Uiat I got see * p. 839, which is also applicable to wish, 
f The verb Alter, to go. reqnires a place mentioned after it ; if the place has been mtntioncd b*ford 
re always add to Jiler the adverbial pronoon F, there ; see note (e) p. 74. 
X Add here, in french, the pronoun Le^ it. f See note f page 312. 

^ Turn ; I with much that you read it ; see note * p. S89, whieh is also applicable to wiih* 
if Turn ; it ii long iince I wish fjfc. see note ) page 353. 
** Instead of repeating this verb in french we should wy.Je le souhnite aussi. 



EXERCISE. 355 

VERB. 

RECAPITULATORY exercUe on the foregoing ruleif. 
I have just heard that Miss B. is very ill. Who told you bo ? 

venir de •** apprendre malade, dire ' ** U ** 

Miss C. told me so. How"^ long has she been ill ? She was taken 

le ^ CombUn y a't^il qu§ * iombsr 

ill this morning. They^ say she is very ill. I must send to inquire 

malade m k.b. mi tnHnfarmtr 

how she is now. I think it is better that I go myself. It (is 

•*^ •* vahir mitux (m) n.b. 

necessary) that I should see her. It (is becoming) that I pay her a visit. 

falloir ^*' convtnir *•* rendre *•' •* visite. 

Did you hear that Mrs. C. is dead ? Indeed ! When did she die ? 

entendre (bb^v-^' mourirl ! ** 

I was with her last night. She seemed (well enough) when I left 

^^ paraitre en aitet bonne mnti quitter 

her. She was taken ill suddenly in the night, and she died this 

11 hd prit dm mal tuhitement , *^ 

morning. I am very sorry she is dead. She was the most estimable 

fdchS Ml M w 

woman that I knew^. I had invited her daughter to come and spend 

eonnaitre. (nn) *^^ 

(a few) days with me, but I do not think she will come now that 

quelquet *, •■' 

her mother is dead. Were you at the play lately? Yes, my siste^ 

comedie depuispeuf , 
and I went there (the night before last), to see a new actress. We 

»«7 y»4 avant'hierautoir, nonvelle actrice. 

had expected some amusement, but we were greatly disappointed. The 

attendre , bien tromper, 

players were very bad. I never saw a worse^ set, Was it a good 

com^diens mauvais, mauvais troupe, Y avait-il beaucoup 

house ? Yes, the house was pretty full*. The lower" boxes 

de mondet t , salle passablement plein» premier lege 

were not full, but the upper boxes and the pit were very full, 

' • , i parterre •* 

Was my cousin there ? I do not know. I did not see her. I met 
f. y»* 

her yesterday, as I was going to take'^ a walk, and I went to drink 

hier, ir.B. ^ ^ 

tea with her. Afler we had drunk tea, we went into the fields, and 
at J «. ^ 

we picked several curious" flowers which I intend to draw, and 
cueiUir eUrieut (g) avoir dentin dessiner, 

* See note f p. 368. t This sentence van not be expressed in frenoh aeoording to its literal 

senM: it mitst be expressed as if the wordx were, fFere there many people f 

X The different sets of boxes arc distinfuished In frtnch by the names of fremieref. $eeondety ¥ro\nhnei^ 
4«. loget. 

i Speaking of drinking tea, coffee, &e. as a meal, we nse Prendre instead of Botre, 

z2 



356 EXERCISE 

VERH. 

RECAPITULATORY txercisB Oil ike foregoing rules. 
send to you. I must make you some little present that*** you may 

Co J quelque afin que 

remember me. Do you think I need any thing to make me 

ie souvenir*^ *' •* awirbesoinde *" ^^o 

remember you? I will not forgfet you (as long) as I live. I was 

** *• oublier tant que 

in«" London since I saw you. Did you see the curiosities? I saw 

N.B. Londres dspuis que ^®' curiosiUf 

the Tower, St. Paul's, and the Museum, but I did not find (so many®) 

TouTf , Museum, tant w-b. 

curiosities as I had expected. Did you ever see the Museum ? Yes ; 

que ^^ s*y attendre, ; 

I have seen it several times. Did you hear that my brother is gone 
** *• entendre 

to France? No, I did not7«. When did he go? He (set out) this 

e loi ^ jj.B «3e partir f *» partir 

morning. Were you ever in France? No, I never was there. I 

»»• y "(e) p. 74. 

never had an opportunity to go. I should like to see that country of 

■* occasion y70 • ^jjj sso 

which I have heard (so much). I will go the first opportunity 

7* entendre parler tant ** t/ ^*' * d (sj 

I can find. And you, were you ever there? I lived in France 

, y ** demeurer 

several years. I have been nearly all over the country. Was 

plusieurs f pretque f m tao Y avait-il 

any body with you? Yes, Mr. B. was with me. How did you travel ? 

**• , ** ^®* voyager? 

We travelled sometimes in a coach, sometimes in a gig, and some- 

qtielquefoU en - carroseet ■* cabrioletf 

times on (horseback), as it suited us. When did you return ?. I 

d chevaly comme cela convenir ** aae «65 

returned about three weeks or a month ago. Which way did you 

«w ily a **^ environ **«- Par^^ route 

(come back) ? I came through Havre de Grace and Southampton. 

revenir t par (b) 

Did you speak french when you went to France ? I spoke it a little. 

X fran^ait m. « % ^ un peu, 

I spoke it enough to make myself understood. But I knew grammar 

t •■ assez ^70 entendre, savoir "^grammaire 

♦ See note t p. 354. + Express been over by the v?rb parcourir, 

X Did speak and spoJte require here an exD.anation. For instance, if I were to say, I met a gentle- 
man in the street yesterday and I tpoJie french to him ; I should say, I'tf rencontrai hierun monsieur dans 
la rue, et je lui PARhA.1 frangais, becanMe I then wish to express what I did, viz. that I spoke fr*nch. 
But in the example here (riven, I do not want to know whether ihe person upoke french or not, but whether 
he knew the language, which bein^ mere knewledgeor a description of the njJnd, must, agreeably to 140th 
rule, be expressed by the iraperfest parlaisy^c. 



EXERCISE. 357 

VERB. 

RECAPITULATORY cxercise on the foregoing rules, 
pretty welP", and I soon learned to speak it well. I now speak it 

asses bien n.b., i*» / •* *•* 

as fluently as my native" lan^age. Did you never meet with 
*■ coiiiamment *■ maternel^ langue *•• rencentrer ■•* 

people who spoke endish? Yes, sometimes, but not so often as I 
wished. Were you in France when the revolution began? No, I 

commencer ? , 

was in Holland. Were the Dutch fflad* (of it) ? Some were glad 

HoUande» HoUandais - bien aise en ** •* "• 

(of it), and some ^'were not. Some (were of opinion) that it would do 
a (great deal) of good, others thought that it would do a great deal of 

- beaucoup bien, ^* penser •■ - 

harm. I did not stay long in Holland; I went to Germany and Italy. 

mat. Tester • ; • AUetnagne *** 

1 have been to Ireland too, since**® I saw yon. Well ; how do you like 

• Irlande aussi^ depuis que Eh bien ; *" 

that country? I like it (very much) ; it is a very fine country ; but I 
no t88 «s beaucoup ; •* ; 

will not (go again,) unless, as the Irishman in London says, I can* ^ 

y retounier, ^ •*■ , camme Irlandais d. Londres • n. ' 

go by land. I was*^ very sick. I never was so sick in my life 

(kk)y'f^ par terre, w.d. tnalade. '^« de vie 

Indeed, every body on board was sick. It* is true that it blew 

2 la viviU, !•• d bord w.b. vrai faire 

a tempest. One of our masts fell over board, and we lost almost 

tempete, mdt tomber par-dessus ^ f perdre 

all our sails. We expected every moment that we should go and 

voile, attendre Hi tout - (nn) 

sup with the god of the waves. However afler a deal of toil 

souper dieu flat, Cependant - beaucoup peine 

and fatigue, we arrived at Cork '"^harbour. We landed as soon as 

*°* , ^ Havre, dibarquer *• *• 

we could, and we were very well received by our friends who were 

pouvoir, recevoir 

waiting for us. We soon forgot the perils of the sea, and we be^an 

«» »« oublier 

to divert ourselves (in the best manner) we could. (Next day) I went 

divertir du mieux que ^Lendenuxin. 

to my friend Mr. D.'s (country seat.) The weather was*** bad i^r 

*^chdteau, ^^ k.b. 



some days, but one morning it grew fine. I (got up) early, and 

, »» n deveinr se lever de bonne heure, 

* In A parentlinns, the French generally put the nominative after the verb; so, turn this sentence thus, 
as sat/s the Irishman ta Jjondom, 



358 EXERCISE. 

VERB. 

RECAPITULATORY exeTcUe on the foregoing rules. 
1 went by myself to take*^' a walk in the fields, while the family 

W N.B. N.B. J pendant qM 

(were asleep.) I never saw nature more sublime than it"* was at that 

dofwtir.»«» le^o dans 

moment. The sun had just risen, and the dew which was on the grass 

*** se Uoer, rosSe herbe 

appeared like pearls. I advanced a little into the country, but the 

reutmbler d ^perle, s'avancer un pen *"* , ** 

more I advanced, the more I felt inclined to advance. 1 saw on all 

, ** »e tentir p&rti de 

sides trees loaded with friiit which was beginniilg to ripen; an in- 

eotS • *** commence!' murir , in- 

finite number of birds singing*** and warbling on the branches ; cattle 
Hni ®* • oiseau n.b. gatouiUer ^* ; ^b^tail 

grazing^, or wandering through the meadows; hills and dales covered 

paitre, v.s. errer d. travers prairie ; ^coUine ^vallee 

With com which began to (turn yellow) 3 in short every thing indicated 

*<w bU jaunir ; en un mot '^ annoncer 

abundance and prosperity. I was*'^* so delighted with my walk, that I 

^abondance ^ 4 6. n.b. eharme ^'^ , 

(went again) every morning that the weather was fine. I stayed there 

y ^ retoumer touts tes matins **• rester y ** 

six weeks, and I do not think it* is possible to spend six weeks 

, 8*1 MB. VI 

more agreeably than I did. Did you see Mr. A. lately ? I saw hini 

*7 le "^^ fuire, depuis pen f 

this morning. I met him as I was going along the street Ho 

renconirer comme passer le long de 

told me that he had called upon you, but that you were not in. He 
desired me to tell you that he wanted to see you. If you see him 

AM a«o reooir 

aorain, tell him that I will call upon him as soon as I have dined« 

^ W 268 as 48 48 

I will.'* Did you not go a shooting together yesterday? Yes, w« 

W'B. it la chasse au fusil ensemble ^** w.b. , 

did.** Was your excursion successful"? Not very. The ground 

K.B. chasse heureux(g)f Passablement, terre 

was wet, and the game was very wild. We killed only six brace of 

humide, gibier sa-uvage, titer couple 

partridges, two hares and four woodcocks. Were there no» pheasants? 

perdrix, lieure bhasse, **• *••■• faisan f 

There were plenty ; but they were in some gentlemen's plantations, 

■*• aboftdance; *** t messieurs ^ ^ 

Family being sbtgtdar, the verb can not be plnral in freneh. i See Bote f p. 888. 



EXERCISE. 359 

VERB. 

RECAPITULATORY txercise on the foregoing rules. 
and we dared not touch them. Did you walk or ride? We 

OKT (hk) toucher y ** alter it pied ou d cheoal f 

rode as far as R. where we left our horses at a smalL inn there, 

atler a cheoal jusqu'd, otl laisaer a auberge qui y e$tt 

and afler we had refreshed ourselves a little, we began our excursion. 

aprh qu£ ^afraichir » ' tin pen, chasse. 

We (went over) I do not know*^ (how many) heaths, fields and coppices. 

parcourir n.b. combien^Jf-^* bruyere, *** taillis, 

I dare say we walked 20 miles* When we arrived at the inn, we were 

pouvolr •" *•* mille, , 

80 tired that we could not return home that night. We slept there, 

fatiguer (hk) ** au logis " soir-lH, coucher y •♦ 

and we (came home) this morning. We intend to try again to-morrow. 

revenir essayer encore demain. 

Will you come with us, if we go ? I will go, if you will promise 
me to return in time for dinner. If we find that it is too late, we 

*** it terns dine^. trap , 

may dine in the country. 1 can not stay. We shall have company 

pouvoir t ''^® (^^) Tester. • 

to dinner, and I must be there. Then I think it is better for 

, y ** Doiic *®* *^ il vaxit mietix qtie 

us to go aflLer dinner. We may set out as soon, as the dinner is 

t y7®» . pottvoiri *» « 

over* We generally*** dine late ; I am afraid it" will be too late to 

fini. ardinairement tard; «i w*b. iw »7d 

go then. I think the best thing we can do, is to (put it^ ofi) 

y 7« alors. ^^ (s) *© , ' c'est d4 remettre 

till afler to-morrow. We may then take our own time. We shall 

jusqu*iiaprh t alors - 

(set out) as early as you please. I wish your cousin would come 

partir d^aussi bonne heure qu* il pluire §, '^^ 

with us. I wish you would send somebody to let**' him know. I do 

"* »* M.B. II 

not know a man whose company is more pleasant. Bring him with 

''* ' agriable, "e «« 

you, if he will come. I see him coming, I will ask him»*. Your 

IT II , ' 

cousin and I go a shooting the day afler to*morrow, will you be one 

M J«r a la chasse au fusil - - , f^^) "■ 

of the party ? I should be very happy to accompany you, but T do 

partief hien aise accompagner , 

• See note t p. 854. + The french would here use tlffkivre. ^ 

t Turn ; It it better that we go. 

I ¥fi'? ^^^ \^^ Please impereonal, and expn-ss Ton please, as if the enulish was, it will tleaite wm. 
1 Add here the pronoun Le, and say Le lui. 70 rule. ^ See note t p. SIS 



360 EXERCISE. 

VERB. 

SEGAPiTULATORY excrcise on the foregoing rules. 
not think that I can. We shall not go further than you like. You 

may come, if you will. You might come, if you would. I will 

pouvoir , pouvoir ^ 

consider (of it). I should like to go (very much)***. I will let**' you 

penser y ** • , fort n.b. f »•»• 

know to-night, if I can go. Why did you not call yesterday ? I could 
not. I went a hunting. Who was with you ? (Was there) any body 

d la chaste. ^ »«» 

(that I know?) Yes, (there were) several of our friends. What time 

de ma connaistajice ? , *^ plusieurs A ^* heart 

did you go? We (set out) at six o'clock. Did you catch any thing? 

partirt partir d prendre **^ 

We caught a fox. Had you a (great deal) of sport ? Yes, we had'*. 

renard, - beaiicoup plaisir 1 , v.s. j 

I wish I had been with you. If I had known it, I would have gone. 

(im) § tavoir , *« •?» 

Why did you not let*^ me know ? I did not know that you could go. 

K.B. le^^ ' pouvoir •'7^ 

I was^ at home the whole day, and I had nothing to do. The next 

v.B. au logis ^ » 140 M prochaine 

time you ^o^ do not fail to let»*» me know. I will not ; i. e. fait^. 

»«C»J( • , manquer m.d. icf® y'^® • , »•»• 

I have got a new horse. When did you buy it ? I bought it (his 

*7® nouveau || acheter 

morning. (How much) did you give (for it) ? I gave a hundred 

contbien en ** en 7® ** 

guineas. It" is a (great deal) of money. How old is«» it ? It is*" 

guinie, »•"• - beaucoup k.b. k.b. 

four years old. Will you come to look at it? Now; what do yon 

voir ** > "* « 

think (of it) ? Do you not think that I got it ch*eap ? I do not 

en^* avoir dbonmarchif 

think it is dear. It is a very good horse. I wish it may answer**" 

*" '* ««^ rSpondrea 

your expectation, I will buy one too, : as soon as I have a little 

^ attetite, en ^^ un aussi, ** tot ** tt»i pen 

more* money. Do you think I can get a good one for My guineas? 

I think you may. When I have one, I will lend it you when you 

«^ 7* en 70 „„ / preter ** *• 



• Seer note t p. 354. t See note % P- 241. % Add, a good deal of it. 

\ See note f p. 337* | Pat thu> adjective before the noun. 



EXERCISE. 361 

VERB 

RECAPITULATORY exevcist Oil the foregoing rules. 
want *• it. Will you take *<» a walk when your letter is finished ? 

avoir besoin en ** n.b. 

I can not ; I must take it to the (post office) as fast as I can. It 
must go to-ni^ht. I am afraid it will be too late when I am 

partir »* « »» tard 

there. I will go with you, if you will wait for me. I can not wait ; 

y»* alter , «« (hk) ; 

I must ^o directly. Will you call upon me when you (come back) ? 
y 7- tout d Vheure, *•• revenir f 

I do not think I can. My sisters go to the play ; they will have^'^ me 

«*» T? comedie; w.b. 

go with them, and I must go. Will you call when you come back 
* , 7* passer 

from the play ? I will see. I will call, if it is not too late when the 

de 



play is over. Why did you not call in (coming back) from hunting? 

finie, • ■•• en revenir de Uhasse^ 

I could not. It^ was late, the weather was bad, and I was tired. 

7« H.B. tard, tern wo ^ las i 

I am tired of those violent^ exercises. I must get a wife. Marry ,*«* 

ennuy6 1 ^ exerdce, prendre se marier, X 

says a proverb, you will do well ; do not marry, you will do better 

proverbe^ ; % , (b)p.7l?, 

I do not care for your proverbs. I must have a wife. I will have 

se soticier *• *■* || 

one who is tolerably handsome, who has some common sense and a 

passablement , ' commun^ un 

little' fortune. Do you think you can find a woman who is so 

pen ^••B. bien, ■** trouver 

accomplished ? If I thought that I could not find one, I would never 

accomplirf % pouvoir en^® ^ne, 

be married. I like your sister. Do you think she will go to the 

- se marier •^^ **^ 

assembly to-night ? If I hear that she goes, I will send you word. 

assembUe ■** cpprendre ••jo^ lefaire ** savoir, 

I do not think she wilU®. She has not been well for some time, 

M» •• K.B. »7 «i depuis quelque 



* Did refers hen to the period of hanting:, which was yesterday. 

t Tiredf— La5, Ennuye' Lea is said of the body ; Ennuyi ia said of the ntiuf. 

t See the tmperattTe ol a r^/lecttve verb, p. 114. 

H fFill have may here be expressed two ways, aipreeably to the idea which ]f-0Q wish to express. 

If yoa wibh to denote that yoa know the person yoa describe, and are certain to have her, you express 
fKitl have one by J*en aarai une ifC. with the following^ verbs in the UtUcative. 

If yon want to denote that you wi^h to find sach a person as yoa describe, yon mast express ffiU have 
one liy J'en veux «««, with the following^ verbs in the tubjunetive. See 174 rule. 

^ See note f p. 337. •• See note f p. 354. 



862 EXERCISE* 

VERB. 

RECAPITULATORY exerciae on the foregoing rules. 
and she (is afraid) of f^oing out), for fear of (catching cold). I am 

craindre sortir, d$ peur de s*enrhumer. 

sorry*** she does not come, for I intended to dance with her. She is 

^dchi , avoir dessein * •* 

the most agreeable woman that I ever '^knew. When did you see her? 

44 ta Jamais ** 

I saw her this morning. She called at*^ our house, but she did not 
stop. Did she give you the book which I sent you ? Yes, she did'^ ; 

ruter» '* , h.b. 

1. e. give it nufl^» Did you read it ? Yes; I read a good part (of it). 

ir.B. , partie «i** 

How do you like it? Did it entertain you ? I like it very well ; 

IBS 988 0S amuser •■ ; 

it entertained me (very much). I never read a book which entertained 
me more. Do you think the foreign*" mail will arrive to-day ? It 

iw »i Stranger ^ malle ' aujourd'huif «• 

is arrived. It arrived early this morning. I wonder that (there is) 

•* ** rfe boniu hdure *** s^dtonner ■*• 

210* letter for me« I am afraid my friends have forgotten me. I wsote 
K.B. » »» »w oubSer " 

to them (long ago). It is time that I should hear from them. I 

(o) (il y a Umg'temsJ. II terns V* t 

wish they would write to me. I will not write to them again, 



281 



(oj ricrire (o) 



» 



until *>* I have heard from them. I think they do not wish me to 
iusqa' iLce qus aja . t *** % 

know what is passing at home. I am afraid they will think that I 

tavoir •* - ic "passer au logis, ■■* *•• 

stay here too long. I suppose they wish me to come*** home, but 
rester id long-terns. *** ■*' || i^en retoumer,^^ 

J do not intend to go back yet. I will stay here as long as I can. 
avoir dessein s*en tetourner encore,* *• <■ 

We are going to drink tea, will you take a cup with us ? I do not 

prendre Hh6, ^o jj„j j, i^ ^^^^^^ 

care. I was going to Mrs. D.'s, but I (may as well) stay here. I 
bien,\ •* » (ferai aum bien) de 

can not be in better company. What were you looking for when 
(hk) «••»**» 

I met you ? I was looking for my little boy who has been wander- 

■•* garfon errer 

• See note * p. 825. f Expr^s /rom tKem hy de lews uomeeUes^ or bj des uouveUes Seu» 

t Tarn ; they do not wi'M that I know tfC. | See note • page 839, wUcH is also appHcabie to visk 
Y We ooald not say in this sense, j« ne m'en soueiepas^ for I do not care. 



EXERCISE. 368 

VERd. 

AECAPiTULATORV exercUe on the foregoing rules. 
ing about all the aflernoon. I saw. him playing with the other 

fa e*. Id apriS'Tnidi. i>> 

children, as I was passing by your house. Your l;^ouse is well built, 

, nomme ^ " bdtir, 

but it is not well situated. It is (too much) exposed to the wind. 

•* situer. '^ trap exposer vent. 

We had planted a great number of trees round, it, but the drought 

planter autour •*, Uchereae 

has nearly killed them all. Is it** the house which your father 

presque faire mourir ** k.b. 7* 

got built? No, it« is not; he has sold it", and has bought this»». 

faire bdtir f , k.b. 70 . vendre **, acheter n.b 

Have you seen (the one) wliich he has begun to build ? No, I have 

celle* 7* commencer , 

not**. You have a nice* library; may I look at it**? Surely, 

"•B. joli^ biblioth^qiie ; pouvoir voir - •* Assurimentj 

you may. These books are well bound, but they are very badly 

^* relier, mal 

printed. I have lately read some very entertaining ones. I will 

tmprimer* - depuis peu f ■ ^^ . amusant en ** ^ 

shew you the books which I have read. I have also bought several 

'^* pLusieun 

curious* things. See the fine things which I have bought. I want 

eurieui^Cg) belle ««<> 

to shew them to your sister. How long is it since you saw her? 

**» que IM 

I saw her as she was coming to town. I am glad^^ you are cume, 

eomme ' bien ai$e 

and that your sister is coming too. I am surprised she has written 

austi, ^^ 

to you, and has not mentioned it. Have you sent the books which 

(o) , Ml purler en** 7* 

you were speaking of into the country**? No, I have not sent them 

i03 813 1S8 

yet'*. I will send them this evening. Did you lend your co