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Full text of "A guide to the history of science; a first guide for the study of the history of science, with introductory essays on science and tradition"

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A GUIDE 

to the 

HISTORY 

of 

SCIENCE 



George Sarton was born in Ghent, East Flanders, Belgium, 
on 31 August 1884. His formal education was completed at 
the Athenee and the University of his native city. Soon after 
obtaining his doctorate in mathematics (1911), he decided to 
devote his life to the study of the history of science. He 
founded Isis in 1912. During the first World War he emigrated 
to America. After a few difficult years. Dr. Sarton was ap- 
pointed a research associate of the Carnegie Institution of Wash- 
ington, an appointment which enabled him to accomplish his 
mission. He held it from 1918 to 1949. Dr. Sarton taught 
the history of science at Harvard University from 1916 to 1918, 
and from 1920 to 1951. At present, he does not teach any 
longer but he is still very active in his chosen field and hopes 
to continue his work for many more years. — Dr. Sarton is 
honorary president of the History of Science Society and of 
the Biohistorical Club of Boston, and an honorary member of the 
history of science societies of Belgium, England, Germany, the 
Netherlands, Italy, and Israel. — More information will be found 
in the biography included in the Studies and Essays in the 
History of Science and Learning, edited by M. F. Ashley 
Montagu, offered in homage to him, on the occasion of his 
60th birthday (New York: Schuman). 

Main Publications: Introduction to the History of Science 
(From Homer to the end of the xivth century), 3 vols, in 5, 
4332 p. (Pubfished for the Carnegie Institution of Washington 
by Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1927-48). — The History of 
Science and the New Humanism (New York: Holt, 1931). 
Revised edition (Harvard University Press, 1937). Spanish 
translation (Rosario, 1948). Japanese translation (Tokyo, 1950), 
— The Study of the History of Science (Harvard U. Press, 
1936). — The Study of the History of Mathematics (Harvard U. 
Press, 1936). — The Life of Science: Essays in the History of 
Civilization (New York: Schuman, 1948). — The Incubation of 
Western Science in the Middle East (Washington, D. C.: Li- 
brary of Congress, 1951). — Ancient Science to the Time of 
Epicures (to be pubhshed in 1952 by the Harvard U. Press). 

Founder and Editor of: — Isis, an international review devoted 
to the history of science and civilization (Vol. 1, Wondelgem, 
1913). Vol. 43 is being published in 1952 (Widener Library 
189, Cambridge 38, Massachusetts, U.S.A.). — Osiris, commenta- 
tiones de scientiarum et eruditionis historia rationeque (Vol. 1, 
Bruges, 1936). Vol. 10 including Table of vols. 1-10, will be 
published in 1952 by the St. Catherine Press of Bruges, Belgium. 



HORUS 



/2 

-S': 



A GUIDE 

tc the HISTORY 

of SCIENCE 

A First Guide for the Study of the History of Science 
With Introductory Essays on Science and Tradition 



by George Sarton 

Editor of his and Osiris 
Professor in Harvard University 




1952 
WALTHAM, MASS., U.S.A. 

Published by the Chronica Botanica Company 



Copyright, 1952, by the Chronica Botanica Co. 

All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce 

this book or parts thereof in any form 



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^G^C/^^ 





PREFACE 



iiviDED into two parts which are very different yet com- 
plete each other, this Guide may attract and serve two 
Kinds of readers; on the one hand, scientists and schol- 
ars, on the other hand, historians of science. The first 
and shorter part explains the purpose and meaning of 
the history of science in the form of three lectures de- 
hvered at various European universities; the second, 
much longer part, is a bibliographic summary prepared 
for the guidance of scholars interested in those studies. 
The first part is meant to be read, the second to be 
used as a tool. 

The lectures of the first part were originally thought 
out at the request of the University of London, and they were first delivered in the 
Anatomy Theatre of University College in March 1948. The University had invited 
me twice previously but I had not been able to accept its flattering invitations more 
promptly, because I could not leave the United States before the printing of the 
third volume of my Introduction to the History of Science (Science and Learning 
in the Fourteenth Century) was completed. Freedom to leave Cambridge was not 
in sight -until the end of 1947. 

When a man has devoted the best part of his life to definite studies, he may be 
forgiven if he interrupts his real work for a while in order to explain it to others. 
It is for that reason that when the University of London invited me, I yielded to 
the temptation. 

The problems dealt with in these London lectures were dealt with again in other 
lectures delivered on the Continent. The ideas of the first lecture were discussed 
in English before the Vlaamse Club of Brussels, and in French at the Institut d'his- 
toire des sciences (Faculte des Lettres) of Paris; those of the second lecture were 
explained in French at the University of Liege and at the College de France; those 
of the third were summarized in French before the annual meeting of the Association 
frangaise pour I'Avancement des Sciences in Geneva. 

As all my lectures, whether in English or in French, were dehvered with but a 
minimum of written notes and recreated to some extent for each occasion, the text 
which is printed below does not reproduce them except in a general way. The text 
contains much less than the lectures, but also something more, and it differs from 
each spoken lecture at least as much as each spoken lecture differed from the others 
dealing with the same subject. 

To the lectures has been added a general bibhography meant to provide a kind 
of vade mecum for students. The lectures try to explain tliat it is worth while to 
study the history of science, and indeed that general history is utterly incomplete 
if it be not focussed upon the development of science; the bibliography appended to 
them gives the means of implementing the purpose which they advocate. 

The history of science is slowly coming into its own. Its study has been delayed 
by administrators without imagination, and later it has been sidetracked and jeopard- 
ized by other administrators having more imagination than knowledge, who mis- 
understood the discipline, substituted something else in its place and intrusted the 
study and teaching to scholars who were insufficiently prepared. Historians of 
science must know science and history; the most perfect knowledge of the one is 
insufficient without some understanding of the other. A historian of culture is not 



X Preface 

qualified to discuss the history of science if he lacks any kind of scientific training, 
and the most distinguished men of science are unqualified if they lack historical 
sense and philosophical wisdom. Good intentions are never enough, and they are 
not more acceptable by themselves in this field than in any other. There are but 
few historians of science completely qualified for the task of teaching it ( the whole 
of it) today, but it is possible and even easy to create more of them. That is simply 
a matter of training, a training different from the other kinds of scientific or historical 
training, but not more difficult. As the need of the new kind of scholars increases, 
the necessary training will be better organized, and more historians of science will 
be ready to cultivate the new field, and in their turn to train other investigators, 
perhaps better ones than they are themselves. 

To conclude, I wish to thank the scholars and men of science who sponsored my 
European lectures: first of all. Professor Herbert Dingle of University College, 
London, then, Prof. F. Moreau, President of the Societe beige d' Astronomic and 
M. Paxil Ver Eecke, President of the Comite beige d'histoire des sciences in Brus- 
sels; Prof. Franz de Backer of the University of Ghent and Major-general Dr. 
Irenee Van der Ghinst* of the medical service of the Belgian army, Prof. Armand 
Delatte and Henri Fredericq of the University of Liege, Professor Gaston Bache- 
lard of the Sorbonne, Professor Maurice Janet of the Faculte des Sciences of Paris, 
president of the Societe mathematique de France, Professor Andre Mayer of the 
College de France, M. Henri Berr, president of the Foundation "Pour la Science" 
and of the Centre International de Synthese, Professor Pierre Sergescu, president 
of the International Academy of the History of Science, and his predecessor Professor 
Arnold Reymond, of the University of Lausanne. My thanks are due also to 
many other men and women who made the accomplishment of my task more easy 
and more pleasant, in their several countries, but it is impossible to name them all 
here and now. I am very grateful to all of them, and this book is published in part 
to express my gratitude and to justify their confidence in me. 

The three lectures of Part I have already appeared in French translation, the 
first and third in the Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences (no. 5, p. 10-31, 
Paris 1948; no. 10, p. 3-38, 1950), the second in the Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 
(vol. 2, p. 101-38, Paris 1949). These translations written by myself during a vaca- 
tion in Switzerland and Belgium are relatively free. As I was my own translator, I 
could take liberties with the text without the risk of betraying myself. 

The brief bibliographic guide which constitutes the second part of this book 
was enriched by my friend. Dr. Claudius F. Mayer, Editor of the Index Catalogue, 
Chief Medical Officer of the Army Medical Library in Washington. Not only did 
he fill many gaps passim, but he rewrote Chapter 11 dealing with General Scientific 
Journals, added Chapter 12 enumerating the main Abstracting Journals, and enlarged 
considerably Chapter 20 on the Journals and Serials devoted to the History of 
Science. 

The proofs of the whole book were kindly read by Mrs. Jean P, Brockhurst 
and Mrs. Frans Verdoorn who suggested many corrections. 

The chapters dealing respectively with publications, societies, museums, insti- 
tutes are bound to include duplications, because research, collections, exhibitions, 
publications are but different functions of the same entities. These duplications do 
not matter. Omissions are more serious; some are deliberate, others, maybe the 
worst ones, are not. 

The citing title, Horus, was chosen for the sake of convenience. Such a title 
should be as brief as possible; the briefer it is the easier it is to refer to the book. In 
this case, it will not even be necessary to mention the author's name; it will suffice to 
say "Horus, p. 145," or "Horus 145," without ambiguity. A name should be brief, 
but it should not be arbitrary. Horus was the son of Isis and Osiris; this book is 
the offspring of the two serials, Isis and Osiris, a collection of fifty volumes. It has 
many of the defects as well as the qualities of its parents. What could be more 
natural and more justified than to call it Horus? 

* My old friend, Irenee Van der Ghinst, born in Bruges 1884, died at Watermael, near 
Brussels, on 30 April 1949. 



Preface 



XI 



The falcon reproduced on page iii and elsewhere represents Horus; it is the 
symbol of the God and to the expert that symbol is much clearer than the very word 
Horus. The model which was here reproduced, thanks to the courtesy of the 
Metropolitan Museum and of Dr. Ambrose Lansing, Curator of the Department of 
Egyptian Art, is one of the magnificent hieroglyphics of the Carnarvon collection,* 
hieroglyphics which were used for monumental or decorative purposes. The author 
hopes he will not be considered immodest for his own use of it. 

The Renaissance tail pieces have nearly all been reproduced from Planttn pub- 
lications, the few earlier, as well as the Baroque vignettes, from various sources in 
the Chronica Botanica Archives, while the head piece on page xiii was taken from 
Mem. Ac. Roy. Sci. of 1750. 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 
Widener 185 



The Author 



" Polychrome faience inlay, late dynastic period; height 15.7 cm. See Albert M. Lythgoe 
(Bull. Metropolitan Museiim, Feb. 1927). It has often been reproduced in books dealing with 
Egyptian art, or with pottery and porcelain, e.g., Jean Cap art: Dociunents poui servir a I'etude 
de I'art egyptien (vol. 2, p. 92, pi. 99, Paris 1931). 





TOMK I. FASC. 1. N» I 



ISIS 



REVUE CONSACREE A KHISTOIRE 

DE LA SCIENCE, PUBLll&E PAR 

GEORGE SARTON, D. SC. 



COMlTi: DE PATUOXAOK : 

Svante Arrhenius, direcleur de I'lnslilul scientitique Nobel, Stockholm; Henri 
Berr, directeur de la Revue dc synthase historiqne, Paris; IWorltZ Cantor, professeur 
^merile a I'Univcrsite d'Ueulelbeig ; Franz Cumont, conservateur aux Musces 
royaux, Bruielles; E. Durkhelm, professeur il la Sorbonne, Paris ; Jorge Enger> 
rand, directeur de I'toole inlern.ilionale d'archcologie cl d'ethnographie ain^ricaines, 
Mexico; Ant. Favaro, professeur a rUiiiversile de Padoue; Franz-M. Feldhaus, 
direcleur des QaeUenforschungen znr Geschichte tier Technik und der Natit}-- 
tcissenschaflen, Berlin: John Ferguson, professeur a I'llniversit^ de Glasgow; 
Arnold van Gennep, professeur a rUniversili de Neuiliatel ; E. Goblot, professeur a 
I'Uiiiversile de Lyon ; Ic. Guareschi, professeur a rUniversile de Turin; Siegmund 
GUnther, professeur a I'Ecole lecliniquesuperieureile Munich; Sir Thomas-L. Heath, 
K.C.B., F.R.S., Londres; J.-L. Heiberg, professeur a I'Universil^ de Copenhaguc; 
FrMJrIc Houssay, professeur a la Sorbonne, Paris; Karl Lamprecht, professeur a 
I'Universild de Leipzig ; Jacques Loeb, member of the Rockefeller Institute for 
medical research. New- York; Gino Loria, professeur a I'Univfrsite de Genes; 
Jean Mascart, direct«ur de I'Dbservaloire de Lyon ; Walther May, professeur a 
I'BcoIe technique sup^rieurs da Karlsruhe; G. Mllhaud, professeur tn la Sorbonne, 
faris; Max Neuburger, professeur a I'Universite de Vienne; Wilhelm Ostwald, 
professeur ^m6rite a I'Universite de Leipzig; Henri Polncardf; Em. RadI, pro- 
fesseur d riicolc reale, Prague; Sir William Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S.. Londres; 
Praphulla Chandra Ray, professeur d Presidency College, Calcutta; Abel Rey, 
professeur a I'Universite de Dijon; DavId Eugine'Smlth, professeur a Columbia 
University, New-York; Ludwig Stein, professeur a I'Universite de Beilin ; Karl 
Sudhoff, Direktor des Institutes fur Geschichte der Medizin, Leipzig; E. Waxweller, 
directeur de I'lnstitutde sociologie Solvay, Bruxelles ; H.-G. Zeuthen, professeur d 
rUniversite de Copenhague. 



VVONDELGEM-LEZ- GAND 
(uelgique) 

MARS 1913 

Title page of the first number of Isis issued in 1913. 
— The list of associate editors illustrates the journal's interna- 
tional character. As will be shown in this Guide, the history 
of science is, indeed, a truly international discipline. 




CONTENTS 



The Author iv 

Preface ix 

Contents xiii 

Abbreviations xviii 



Part I — Introductory Essays 

SCIENCE and TRADITION 

(Lectures delivered at University College, London, 1948) 

I. Science and Tradition 

II. The Tradition of Ancient and Mediaeval Science .... 

Appendix — Monumental and Iconographic Tradition vs. Literary 
Tradition 



III. Is It Possible to Teach the History of Science? 



3 

17 

42 
44 



Part II 

A FIRST GUIDE for the STUDY of the 
HISTORY OF SCIENCE 



Preliminary Remarks 



69 



A. History 

1. Historical Methods 72 

2. Historical Tables and Summaries "75 

r 

3. Historical Atlases '^^ 

4. Gazetteers '^'^ 

(xiii) 



xiv Contents 

5. Encyclopaedias 78 

6. Biographical Collections 84 

B. Science 

7. Scientific Methods and Philosophy of Science . . . ; . 86 

8. Science and Society 94 

9. Catalogues of Scientific Literature ......... 98 

10. Union Lists of Scientific Periodicals ......... 100 

11. General Scientific Journals 101 

12. Abstracting and Review Journals ( by Claudius F. Mayer ) • 105 

13. National Academies and National Scientific Societies . . . Ill 

C. History of Science 

14. Chief Reference Books on the History of Science .... 115 

15. Treatises and Handbooks on the History of Science . . . 116 

16. Scientific Instruments 122 

17. History of Science in Special Countries 124 

Argentina 125 

Belgium 125 

Canada 125 

Denmark 125 

France 126 

Germany 126 

Great Britain 126 

India 126 

Italy 126 

Japan 127 

The Netherlands 127 

New Zealand 127 

Poland 127 

Russia 127 

South Africa 128 

Spain 128 

Sweden 128 

Switzerland 128 

United States of America 128 

18. History of Science in Special Cultural Groups 130 

Antiquity in General 130 

Ancient Near East 130 

Egypt 131 

Bahylonia 132 

Classical Antiquity 133 

Middle Ages 137 

Byzantine and Slavonic 139 



Contents xv 

Byzantine 139 

Slavonic 139 

Israel 139 

Islam 140 

India 142 

Far East and Eastern Indies (Indonesia) 145 

China . 146 

Japan 148 

19. History of Special Sciences 149 

Logic 149 

Western Logic 149 

Eastern Logic 150 

Mathematics — Bibliography 150 

History of Mathematics 150 

General Mathematics and Special Subjects Not Covered in 

THE Following Sections 150 

Arithmetic, Algebra, Theory of Numbers 153 

Geometry 154 

Mathematical Analysis 155 

Statistics 155 

Astronomy 156 

Physics 157 

Mechanics, Including Celestial Mechanics 159 

Heat — Thermodynamics 161 

Optics 162 

Electricity and Magnetism 162 

Chemistry 163 

Technology, "Inventions" 167 

Navigation 168 

Metrology 169 

Chronometry and Horology 170 

Photography 171 

General Biology and Natural History 171 

Botany and Agriculture 173 

Zoology 175 

Geodesy and Geography 177 

Geology, Mineralogy, Palaeontology 178 

Meteorology 180 

Anatomy and Physiology 180 

Anthropology, Ethnology, Folklore 181 

Psychology 182 

Philosophy ^ 183 

Medicine 184 

Dentistry 189 

Epidemiology 189 

Gynaecology and Obstetrics 190 

Pharmacy and Toxicology 191 

Veterinary Medicine 191 

Education 192 

Sociology 193 

Prehistoric Archaeology 193 

20. Journals and Serials Concerning the History and Philosophy 

of Science (with the help of Claudius F. Mayer) ... 194 

Appendix — Misleading Titles 246 

Addenda 248 



xvi Contents 

D. Organization of the Study and Teaching 
of the History of Science 

21. National Societies Devoted to the History of Science • . . 249 

22. International Organization of the History of Science . • . 253 

23. The Teaching of the History of Science 257 

24. Institutes, Museums, Libraries 260 

Argentina 261 

Austria 262 

Belgium 262 

CraNA 264 

Czechoslovakia 264 

Denmark 264 

France 265 

Germany 267 

Great Britain 270 

Hungary 274 

Italy 274 

The Netherlands 275 

Norway 276 

Poland 277 

Romania 277 

Soviet Union 277 

Sweden 278 

Switzerland 279 

United States of America 280 

Company Museums 285 

Small Regional or Local Museums 287 

Other Technical Museums 288 

25. International Congresses 290 

History of Science (see also p. 255) 290 

Generalities 291 

Americanists 293 

Anatomists 293 

Anthropology and Ethnology 293 

Prehistoric Anthropology and Archaeology 293 

Archaeology and History 293 

Architects 293 

Astronomical Union 293 

Astronomical Conferences 294 

Biochemistry 294 

BioMETRic Conferences 294 

Botany 294 

Byzantine Research 294 

Chemical Congresses 295 

Conferences of Chemistry 295 

Chronometry 295 

Crystallography 295 

Classical Studies 295 

Entomology 295 

Ethnography 295 

Folklore 296 

Geodesy and Geophysics 296 



Contents 



xvii 



Geogkaphy 296 

Geology 296 

History 296 

History of Art 297 

History of Medicine 297 

History of Religions 297 

History of Science 297 

Mathematicians 297 

Applied Mechanics 297 

Medicine 297 

Ophthalmology 298 

Orientalists 298 

Ornithology 298 

Papyrology 298 

Pharmacy 298 

Philosophy 298 

Philosophy of Sciences 299 

Photography 299 

Physiology 299 

Prehistory and Protohistory 299 

Psychology 299 

Unity of Science 300 

Sociology 300 

Statistics 300 

StTRGERY 300 

Toponymy and Anthroponymy 300 

Veterinary Medicine 300 

Weights and Measures 300 

Zoology 301 

International Organization of Congresses, UNESCO and ICSU 301 

26. Prizes 303 

Index of Proper Names 305 





ABBREVIATIONS 



Archives. — Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences. Paris 
1947f. Continuation of Mieli's Archivio di storia delle 
scienze, later called Archeion (1919-43). 

Introd. — G. Sarton: Introduction to the History of Science and 
Learning (3 vols, in 5, Carnegie Institution, Washington, 
D. C, 1927-48). 

Isis. — Isis: An international review devoted to the history of 
science and civilization. Founded and edited by George 
Sarton. Vol. 1, 1913; vol. 43, 1952 (Harvard University 
Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts). 

Mitt. — Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der Medizin und der Natur- 
wissenschaften (40 vols., Leipzig 1902-43). 

Osiris. — Osiris: Commentationes de scientiarum et eruditionis 
historia rationeque edidit Georgius Sarton. 10 vols. ( St. 
Catherine Press, Bruges 1936-1952). 

Symbols like (IV-2 B.C.), (XIII-1), mean second half of the 
fourth century before Christ, first half of the thirteenth cen- 
tury of our era; their use implies that the subject is dealt 
vi'ith in my Introduction to the History of Science and 
Learning. 



Part I 



INTRODUCTORY 
ESSAYS 




SCIENCE 

and 

TRADITION 




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X, 



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lit: I LIBRARY ]^ 

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I. SCIENCE AND TRADITION 

The title of this group of lectures and particularly of the first one 
is paradoxical. It would seem natural to twist it a little and instead of 
saying Science and Tradition, to say Science versus Tradition. Indeed, 
the two terms are to some extent antithetical. The word tradition sug- 
gests preservation and continuity; on the other hand, science is the most 
revolutionary force in the world. That is obvious enough on the ma- 
terial plane. Why are our domestic and industrial aflFairs, the rhythms of 
our life, essentially different, say, from those of the Napoleonic times, 
or even from those of the Victorian age? The fundamental cause of 
those differences is the fantastic increase of our mechanical power and 
that increase is due to the development of science. The main "cuts" in 
social history are due to inventions and discoveries — such as the compass, 
typography, improvements in mining and navigation, the discovery of 
the new world, steam engines, locomotives and steamships, dynamos and 
motors, telephones and telegraphs, moving and speaking pictures, broad- 
casting, airplanes. These things are too well known to require descrip- 
tion. Moreover, those of us who were fortunate or unfortunate enough 
to be born in the last century, the members of this audience who were 
"fin de siecle" children, need not undertake special investigations to be 
aware of the almost incredible changes which have taken place under 
their own eyes. These changes can be symbolized by a series of revolu- 
tionary discoveries, all of which were the fruits of science. 

If we turn our attention from the material world to the spiritual one, 
the changes are equally revolutionary; they may be less obvious, but they 
are deeper. Think of the "Weltanschauung" or scientific outlook before 
and after Copernicus, before and after Galileo, before and after New- 
ton, before and after Darwin. Each of those great men made a new 
gigantic "cut" in our fundamental conceptions. They did not change the 
world, but they changed so profoundly our viewing of it, that it was as 
if they had moved us into another one. The change might be one of 
size, or structure, or meaning. The Ptolemaic world was much larger 
than that of Anaxagoras, the world of Kepler was much larger still, that 
of Herschel immeasurably larger; this last one, which seemed to chal- 
lenge human imagination beyond the limit, is hopelessly dwarfed by the 
astronomical theories of today. All these changes be it noted are purely 
spiritual ones, not material. The world wherein we actually live has not 
changed its dimensions, or rather it has changed them in the opposite 
way, becoming smaller and smaller as our means of communication were 
accelerated. 

The changes of structure were equally upsetting. Our distant an- 
cestors conceived the possibility of gradual transformation of one kind 
of substance into another, yet their world was relatively stable and con- 




Introduction 



tinuous. When they knocked their fists on a table, they had no doubt 
that that table was solid and without holes. The conception of vacuum 
was repugnant to them, but a day came in 1643 when it became impos- 
sible to duck it. Later the theory of gravitation and the wave theory 
jeopardized the integrity of that vacuum. Later still the new atomic 
theory broke the continuity of matter. It took almost a century to estab- 
lish that theory on a sound basis and no sooner was it established than 
the atoms disintegrated into smaller and smaller particles. For a short 
time it had seemed as if the atoms were the only solid things left in the 
vacuum, and then suddenly the vacuum was rediscovered within the 
atoms themselves. It is not necessary to extend these remarks. Our 
conceptions of the world structure were modified so often with increas- 
ing frequency, that the wisest children of men hardly knew where they 
were. 

The most revolutionary change of all and the one which might be 
used above all others to define "modern" man concerns the very idea of 
science or knowledge. It would take too long to describe how it came 
about, for the revolution, deep as it was, was gradual. Between a sci- 
ence ancillary to theology or to divine revelation and one aimed at dis- 
covering the truth irrespective of consequences, the distance is prodi- 
gious, yet it was bridged by an infinity of small steps. The man of 
science of today loves the truth above everything else and is prepared to 
sacrifice everything to his quest. He is not anxious, however, to discuss 
epistemological difficulties with philosophers, because he is satisfied with 
his own intuition of truth (vs. error) and with his experimental verifica- 
tions of it. He knows that absolute truth is hopelessly beyond his reach, 
but that he can come gradually closer to it by the method of successive 
approximations. Coming closer implies the possibility of having to re- 
ject old conceptions as well as that of accepting new ones, but the honest 
man of science is ready for that and used to it, so much so that it does 
not hurt him any more to have to abandon some of his ideas. That 
is a part of the game which he is playing with so much joy. There are 
no dogmas in science, only methods; the methods themselves are not per- 
fect but indefinitely perfectible. There are no certainties in science, but 
in a sense there are no doubts. Or looking at it from another angle 
everything is doubtful except the feeling that the margin of error de- 
creases gradually, asymptotically. The fact that that margin will never 
be equal to zero does not disturb the man of science but causes him, if 
he be wise enough, to be very humble. 

Men and women untrained in scientific training might believe that 
the conception of science which I have outlined is simply a personal mat- 
ter, somewhat like a personal religion, but it is much more. In spite of 
its gentleness that conception prepares him who harbors it for the ac- 
ceptance of the most shocking conclusions and the most revolutionary 
deeds. 

Let us see what happened in the past. There has been much dis- 
cussion apropos of the causes of the French Revolution. Some of the 
causes were purely material, hunger and misery, others were spiritual. 



Science and Tradition 



misery and hunger. The influence of writers such as Voltaire and 
Rousseau, that is, the influence of their social writings, has been exag- 
gerated, while the influence of science has been underestimated. The 
Old Regime could function only in the darkness; as soon as light was 
being poured into the dark corners, the defects and diseases became 
visible and obnoxious, and the thought of correcting them almost un- 
avoidable. During the eighteenth century science, pure science, grew 
steadily, slowly at first, then faster and faster. The new intellectual tem- 
per which has been referred to above, was shaping itself. The Old 
Regime was established on superstitions, such as the divine right of 
kings, the excessive privileges of the aristocracy and of the high clergy, 
the identity of state and crown. Men of science did countenance such 
superstitions, just as long as they themselves were inhibited by them, 
but not much longer. Their own ideas, scientific ideas, did not have 
much currency to begin with and their field of activity was at first very 
restricted, but in that field, which was steadily growing, their power was 
irresistible. Moreover, these ideas were gradually vulgarized, not only 
by the Encyclopedistes and by Voltaire, but by such inoffensive people 
as BuFFON and the abbe Pluche. 

Diseases, whether of the human body or of the body politic, can exist 
and flourish indefinitely as long as they are hidden, but throw the light 
of knowledge upon them and the situation begins to change; aye, it may 
change so fast that a revolution occurs. The diseases are recognized 
and their danger acknowledged; they are described with increasing pre- 
cision, remedies are contemplated and tried, the experiments are pub- 
lished, the victims are counted and the damages evaluated, the deter- 
mination of fighting the evil and overcoming it is strengthened. The 
struggle becomes more intense and sooner or later the diseases are 
cured if they be curable, or they are abated if they are not. 

Before the Revolution a few personal diseases could be alleviated but 
social diseases were practically incurable, because it was impossible to 
investigate them and to know them sufficiently. In the second half of 
the nineteenth century the conditions of research and healing were de- 
cidedly better. Among the benefactors to whom we owe that improve- 
ment I would like to commemorate one, the Belgian Adolphe Quetelet 
( 1796-1874). Quetelet did not declaim against social evils but he un- 
dertook to make a scientific investigation of them and he was one of the 
first to realize strongly that when the elements to be considered are far 
too numerous to be studied individually, the only method of approach 
is the statistical method. He had been trained to appreciate the value 
and limitations, the difficulties and pitfalls of that method by his studies 
of meteorology and phenology. He discovered that the average num- 
ber of robberies, murders, suicides, births out of wedlock, etc., is con- 
stant in a given community (under normal conditions) and drew the 
conclusion that these crimes and delinquencies must needs divulge reali- 
ties comparable to physical realities, and that the most secret behavior 
of men is submitted to social laws of the same kind as the laws of physics. 
It follows that those crimes and delinquencies are caused partly by the 



6 Introduction 

community and hence that a reform of the community might reduce their 
number. 

QuETELET pubhshed his observations in a book entitled "Sur I'homme 
et le developpement de ses facultes ou Essai de physique sociale" 
(Paris 1835). The book was remarkably successful/ but it fluttered 
the dovecotes of respectability and raised considerable opposition; it 
gave hypocrites a fine opportunity to illustrate their exceptional virtue. 
Nevertheless, Leopold, first king of the Belgians, invited the author soon 
afterwards (in 1836) to teach mathematics to his nephews, the young 
princes, Ernest and Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, and when the 
princes were sent to the University of Bonn in the following year, Quete- 
let continued his teaching in the form of letters dealing with the theory 
of probability and its social applications. One of these princes became 
the husband of Queen Victorl\.. The letters were published in French 
in 1846 and in English translation in 1849.^ A young man who- read 
them in English, Francis Galton (1822-1911), was deeply impressed 
and the directions of his thought were modified accordingly.^ 

I have told this episode at some length, because it deserves to be 
meditated. Though Quetelet found many collaborators and emulators 
and the efforts of other sociologists converged with his, the results which 
have been obtained down to our days fall considerably short of our hopes 
and aspirations. It is true that some diseases, personal or social, have 
been cured or alleviated by the use of scientific knowledge and technical 
means combined with sincerity and moral courage; it will suffice to 
quote venereal diseases, the abuse of intoxicants and narcotics, tubercu- 
losis, slavery . . . Victories have been won but so much remains to 
be done, which could have been done, that honest men of science feel 
humbler and more contrite than ever. There are still millions of men 
and women who are the victims of our greed and hypocrisy rather than 
of their own shortcomings. 

We should not be disheartened, however. It is not quite fair to com- 
pare the present situation with that of our dreams which may be realized 
( or not ) at some f utTire time; or at least we should compare it also with 



^ The Paris edition of 1835, was followed by a pirated one (Bruxelles 1836), and 
by German and English translations (Stuttgart 1838, Edinburgh 1842). In the 
new edition published in Bruxelles, Paris, Saint-Petersbourg in 1869, the title was 
modified, the challenging words "Physique sociale" being printed in large type at 
the beginning of it. Facsimiles and additional information in the Preface to Volume 
XXIII of Isis (1935). 

^ Lettres sur la theorie des probabilites appliquee aux sciences morales et 
pohtiques (Bruxelles 1846), dedicated to Ernest who had become in the mean- 
while the reigning duke of Coburg. 

Harriet H. Shoen: Prince Albert and the application of statistics to problems 
of government (Osiris 5, 276-318, 1938). 

^ Later in life Galton tended to minimize Quetelet's influence upon him. He 
was struck by the fact that Quetelet's promises of 1835 did not bear as much fruit 
as one might expect, but honestly recognized the immense difficulties involved. See 
a letter of his to Florence Nightingale, dated 1891. Karl Pearson: Life, letters 
and labours of Francis Galton (vol. 2, 420, 12, Cambridge 1924; Isis 8, 181-88; 
22, 253-55). 



Science and Tradition 



past situations. The application of scientific methods and points of view 
is still enormously short of what it might be, yet thanks to Quetelet and 
many others so much has already been accomplished that the political 
world in which we are living to-day is as profoundly different from the 
political world of the eighteenth century, as the material equipment of 
today is different from that of the earlier one. By the way, this offers 
another justification for historical research. In order to go forward, we 
must look not only forward, but also backward. The backward view 
gives us confidence and helps us to straighten our course. Every man 
of science knows deep in his heart (and the history of the past is there 
to confirm his knowledge ) that diseases, superstitions, undeserved privi- 
leges can only thrive in darkness and ignorance. In order to eradicate 
them it is necessary to project enough light upon them, but that is not 
enough. Knowledge remains insufficient and sterile if it be not imple- 
mented by corrective deeds and those deeds require an abundance of 
good will, generosity and tenacity. 



Turning our attention now to another aspect of the matter, I would 
like to point out that in spite of the revolutionary nature of science, or 
rather because of it, if we wish to live good and noble lives, we should 
never break with the past. The traditions of evil must be stopped of 
course, but many of our traditions are not evil; they are good, they are 
what is best in us, the accumulated goodness of centuries. Having done 
what we could to destroy the evil traditions we must make certain that 
the other traditions, the good ones, the noble ones, be safeguarded and 
strengthened. That is far from easy but it must be done. I felt so 
deeply the need of it some thirty-five years ago that I dedicated my life 
to that purpose. 

Why is it so difficult? Simply because the very progress of science 
has driven the majority of men of science further and further away from 
their inner citadel, from their city of God, into investigations of greater 
speciality and technicality, of increasing depth and decreasing field. A 
good many of our men of science are not men of science any more in 
the broad sense, but technicians and engineers, or else administrators 
and manipulators, go-getters and nioney-makers. Those men look for- 
ward in their own narrow sector; they will not look backward. What is 
the good of that?, they would say. The past is past and dead. Those 
hard-boiled technicians would fain reject the whole past as "irrelevant." 
And if we make the honest attempt to look at the past with their eyes 
we must admit that they are right, or at least that they have a right to 
their opinion; that it is not irrational and arbitrary. Looking backward 
would hardly have helped the Stephensons, the Edisons, the Marconis 
to solve their particular problems, and to solve them as brilliantly as 
they did. They were definitely breaking with the past, turning their 
back to it and welcoming with open arms a future as glamorous as the 
rising sun. The reading of history could not recommend itself to them 
except as a diversion, and they perhaps knew simpler ways of relaxing 



8 Introduction 

their minds. When a tough technician tells us that he does not care 
for history, that it is all "bunk" — there is really nothing that we can 
answer him. It is as if a deaf man told us that he had no concern with 
music. Why should he concern himself with it? And why should the 
technician bother about history if his mind and heart are closed to it? 

The technician may be so deeply immersed in his problems that the 
rest of the world loses reality in his eyes and that his human interests 
may wither and die. There may then develop in him a new kind of 
radicalism, quiet and cold, but frightening. Plato wished that the 
world were guided by philosophers, we often wish that it were guided 
by wise men of science, but God save us from technocrats! ^ If un- 
checked and unbalanced by humanities, technical radicalism would un- 
dermine civilization — whatever there was left of it — and turn it against 
itself. In order to show that I am not exaggerating I invite you to con- 
template for a moment the terrifying example (and warning) which 
some German technicians have given us during the war. 

Many of us have asked ourselves with anxiety, "How is it that the 
spirit of science, so highly honored in Germany, did not protect that 
country from the Nazi aberration and its inhuman consequences?" You 
might even say to me, "You spoke so warmly of the love of truth and 
the new world which it opens, a world of higher morality and brother- 
hood. That spirit of truth-seeking and truth-loving was abroad in Ger- 
many and stronger there perhaps than anywhere else. And yet what did 
it lead to?" How did Germany succumb to Nazism, how did its proud 
scientists and professors abandon so readily their own lofty ideals to 
accept those of an ignorant mahdi? It is certain that the latter could 
have done nothing without the explicit or implicit confidence and com- 
plicity of the German elite. How could he secure that complicity? 
Its reality has been established beyond the possibility of doubt and 
its mechanism carefully analyzed by Dr. Weinreich, who concluded: 
"Many fields of learning, different ones at different times according to 
the shrewdly appraised needs of Nazi policies, were drawn into the work 
for more than a decade; physical anthropology and biology, all branches 
of the social sciences and the humanities — until the engineers moved in 
to build the gas chambers and crematories." ^ 

* "Technocracy" is a movement which achieved a flare of popularity in the United 
States some fifteen years ago. It is defined as "government or management of the 
whole of society by technical experts, or in accordance with principles established 
by technicians" (Webster Dictionary). The main apostle of it was the physical 
metallurgist, Howard Scott; see his Introduction to technocracy which began to 
appear in 1933. (Fourth printing, 53 p.. New York 1940). I do not know 
whether that movement caused as many ripples on the surface of English opinion 
as it did on that of American opinion. At any rate, it did not last very long, even 
in the United States, but the commotion left mental scars. The "technocrats" were 
obviously right on many technical matters, but the happiness of individuals and 
societies depends very largely on matters which are not amenable to technical 
treatment. The very best of life cannot be "processed" in that way. Mr. Scott is 
still alive and full of propaganda (The New Yorker, June 14, 1947, p. 18). 

^ Max Weinreich: Hitler's professors (291 p., New York, Yivo, 1946, p. 7; Isis 
37, 240). 



Science and Tradition 



The question remains and we ask it with more anxiety than ever. 
"How could such a complete perversion of humanity happen in one of 
the most enlightened countries in the most enlightened age?" I have 
thought long and often on that question and my answer is — I hope it 
will not shock you too much — that the German scientists and engineers 
were partly the victims of their "technical" infatuation. They were 
"technocrats" with a vengeance, and one can see how some of Mr. Hit- 
ler's problems may have excited their technical minds. Absolutely new 
problems, such as this one "What is the simplest and cheapest way of 
destroying human beings, not individually, nor by the hundred, nor by 
the thousands, but by the millions?" The problem included enough 
difficulties, with no precedents for guidance, to challenge the ingenuity 
of the most resourceful technicians. For example, how could one sal- 
vage precious metals? The managers of ordinary slaughterhouses need 
not worry about that because cattle, hogs and sheep do not have gold 
teeth. One of the main difficulties was to establish the human slaughter- 
houses and make their functioning possible without causing too much 
curiosity and without discommoding and infuriating the neighborhood. 
(For after all the majority of Germans were not mad technicians, and 
we may assume that they were not more cruel than the rest of us; more- 
over, even ogres would dislike the smell of slaughterhouses.) German 
technicians solved that problem and gave the means of destroying ruth- 
lessly and unobtrusively millions of innocent people. Their technical 
concentration and the benumbedness and insensibility which proceeded 
from it were carried to such a point that their minds were closed to hu- 
manity and their hearts dulled to mercy.^ 

I beg to apologize for awakening memories, which are perhaps the 
most gruesome in the whole history of mankind. I would prefer to 
drive them out of my mind, or rather out of reality but that cannot be 
done. I feel we should try to forgive them if possible, but it is not desir- 
able that they be forgotten. The past is not dead, it never dies; the 
things that were ever done were done forever, nobody, not even God, 
could undo them. I spoke of those unspeakable atrocities, because they 
afiFord the most telling example of the inhumanity which can be created 
or at least condoned by the kind of technicians who do not look back- 
ward, who do not care for history ( they call it "irrelevant" ) and can no 
longer be restrained by political or religious traditions. 



* The reader might stop me here and say "What about the atomic bomb?" The 
atomic bomb is an instrument of warfare, the latest and deadUest weapon invented 
by men. In a sense war is criminal; it is the greatest moral bankruptcy, yet when 
we are involved in it, there are no alternatives but to beat the adversary or be 
beaten. There is an immense difference between killing men in warfare and mur- 
dering them as a civilian policy. The Nazi slaughterhouses were not instruments 
of war, but instruments of civilian destruction. The fact remains that we have 
many "technocrats" in our midst, an increasing number of technocratic brutes, with- 
out sensibility and without imagination, who do not hesitate to make drastic deci- 
sions on the grounds of technical efficiency alone without any regard for the feel- 
ings of the individuals involved. 



10 Introduction 

The French mathematician, Henri Poincare, once remarked, "I do 
not say, Science is useful because it helps us to build better machines; 
I say. Machines are useful because as they work for us they will leave us 
someday more time for scientific research." Unfortunately, these hopes 
of his have not yet materialized; the machines have perhaps enslaved 
more men than they have freed. This suggests another score against 
Science; many who greeted her with blessings dismissed her with curses. 
It would seem easy to ward ojff those maledictions. It suffices to dis- 
tinguish between men of science and even technicians on one side, and 
business men, industrialists, men of prey on the other. The inventors 
cannot be held responsible; they themselves would protest, for the crimi- 
nal abuses which have been made of their inventions. This type of con- 
troversy has reached a dramatic climax recently apropos of the atomic 
bomb; if the latter were used for the destruction of mankind should we 
condemn or exonerate the physicists and chemists who brought it into 
being? 

That question is too difficult to be solved here. Instead of that let 
us see what could and should be done to vindicate the spirit of science, 
to purify it, and to make sure — or bring nearer — its redemption and ours. 

We have recalled at the beginning of this lecture that science is the 
most powerful agency of change not only in the material world but also 
in the spiritual one; so powerful indeed that it is revolutionary. Our 
Weltanschauung changes as our knowledge of the world and of ourselves 
deepens. The horizon is vaster as we go higher. This is undoubtedly 
the most significant kind of change occurring in the experience of man- 
kind; the history of civilization should be focussed upon it. 

At any rate, that is what I have been repeating ad nauseam for the 
last thirty years. May I confess, that without having lost any part of 
my zeal, I am not as full of confidence today as I was before; I have 
never been very dogmatic ( and therefore am a very poor propagandist ) , 
but I am less dogmatic now than I ever was. There are other ap- 
proaches to the past than mine; there may be better ways (at least for 
other people) of describing the creativeness of the past and of appre- 
ciating our heritage from it — such as the history of religions, the history 
of arts and crafts, the history of philosophy, the history of education, the 
history of laws and institutions. Each of those histories is an avenue 
of approach. Which is the best? And for whom? The history of sci- 
ence has, it is true, a kind of strategic superiority; scientific discoveries 
are objective to a degree unknown and even inconceivable in other 
fields; as they are largely independent of racial and national conditions, 
they are the main instruments of unity and peace; these discoveries are 
cumulative to such an extent that each scientist can so-to-say begin his 
task where his predecessors left oflF ( artists and religious men must al- 
ways begin da capo and their labors are Sisyphean ) ; it is only from the 
point of view of its scientific activities that the comparison of mankind 
with a single man, growing steadily in experience, is legitimate, and this 
evidences once more and more emphatically than anything else the unity 
of mankind; it is only in the field of science that a definite and continuous 



Science and Tradition 11 

progress is tangible and indisputable; we can hardly speak of progress 
in the other fields of human endeavor. 

These arguments are plausible and convincing, but I am not naive 
enough to believe that their power of conviction is transferable to other 
people. They convince me, because I know science and love it, but how 
could they convince other people who do not know it and shrink from 
it, now perhaps more than ever. They might taunt me and say, "Progress 
leading to the atomic bomb, what kind of progress is that?" For a man 
more intensely religious than I am, the history of religion would naturally 
seem more important than the history of science, and to an artist loving 
beauty above aught else, would not the history of art be far more inter- 
esting than the history of religion or the history of science? Indeed, 
those other histories would hardly have a meaning for him and he would 
have little patience with them. 

The history of science is not simply what the title implies, a history 
of our increasing knowledge of the world and of ourselves; it is a story 
not only of the spreading light but also of the contracting darkness. It 
might be conceived as a history of the endless struggle against errors, in- 
nocent or wilful, against superstitions and spiritual crimes. It is also 
the history of growing tolerance and freedom of thought. The historian 
of science must give an example of toleration in admitting the equal 
claims to other minds than his of the history of art or the history of re- 
ligion; he should even be ready to admit the anti-historical attitude of the 
tough-minded technicians. 

It is nevertheless his duty as well as his pleasure to explain as well 
as he can the civilizing and liberating power of science, the humanities 
of science. He must vindicate science from the crimes which have been 
committed in its name or under its cloak; he must commemorate the 
great men of the past especially those which have been deprived of their 
meed; he must justify the man of science in comparison with the saint, 
the philosopher, the artist or the statesman. Each of these is playing 
his part, and it would be foolish to insist that this part or that is more 
important than the others, for all are necessary and none is sufficient. 



Inasmuch as the development of science is the only development in 
human experience which is truly cumulative and progressive, tradition 
acquires a very different meaning in the field of science than in any 
other. Far from there being any conflict between science and tradition, 
one might claim that tradition is the very life of science.'^ The tradition 

' This has been beautifully explained by Herbert Dingle in his inaugural lec- 
ture: "The history of science is inseparable from science itself. Science is essen- 
tially a process, stretching through time, in contrast with the instantaneous or 
eternal character of traditional philosophy. In the first half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury Bradley records the positions of a number of stars. In 1818 his reductions are 
revised by Bessel, and in 1886 again revised by Aijwers. New observations are 
made and the results compared, and after 200 years we learn that certain stars 
have moved in certain directions by a few seconds of arc. Out of such sublime 
patience scientific knowledge emerges. Science may ignore its history, but if so it 



12 Introduction 

of science is the most rational or the least irrational of all traditions. 
The gradual unveiling of the truth is the noblest tradition of mankind as 
well as the clearest, the only one wherein there is nothing to be ashamed 
of. The humanized man of science, he whom I have called the New 
Humanist, is of all men the one who is most conscious of his traditions 
and of the traditions of mankind. 

This is true from the humanistic point of view, but it is also true from 
the purely scientific or philosophic one. For the inveterate and narrow- 
minded technician the only things worth considering are the latest fruits 
of science; the tree is "irrelevant." For the philosophically minded sci- 
entist, however precious the fruits, the tree itself is infinitely more pre- 
cious. It is not the results of today that matter most in his eyes, but 
the curves leading to them and beyond them. For practical, immediate 
purposes the last points or knots, the last discoveries, may be sufficient; 
for true understanding the whole curves must be taken into account. 
This is even more obvious to the historically minded scientist who re- 
alizes more keenly the probable imperfection of the latest results and 
is not so easily taken in by the latest fashion; the immature technician 
is likely to fancy that he is sitting at the top of the world; he does not 
know that later technicians will deride him as heartily as he derides his 
own predecessors. From his parochial angle, the latest results are excep- 
tionally wonderful; from the point of view of eternity they are just points 
on infinite curves. Men of science (excepting perhaps the astrophys- 
icists) do not indulge in extrapolations, but they know that the curves 
have reached neither their climax, nor their end; they know that the 
curves will be continued, though they would be chary of prophesying 
their direction. 

When we contemplate the universe we may adopt one of two points 
of view — horizontal or vertical, geographical or historical; we may con- 
template the side-by-sidedness of things or their one-after-anotherness. 
It would be misleading to say that the second point of view is exclusive 
to the historian, and the first to the naturalist. Both assertions would 
be wrong. In reality, both points of view are necessary and complemen- 
tary. We need geography and history; we need natural history as well 
as physical geography and human history as well as human geography. 

This remark applies also to science itself. Science is not simply the 
top of the tree; it is the whole tree growing upward, downward and in 
every direction; the living tree, alive not only in its periphery but in its 
whole being. The historian of science appreciates as keenly as other 
scientists the "marvels" of modern science, but he is more deeply im- 

fails." And a little further he remarks, "The history of philosophy, in the narrower 
sense of the word, is the history of philosophy, but the history of science is sci- 
ence. Scientific workers may forget this, and, knowing little or nothing of the 
ground on which their edifice rests, may add to its structure and reach positions 
of the highest eminence in their profession, but they are not then educated men. 
To the true scientist they are as the artificer to the artist, the sleep-walker to the 
explorer, the instinctive cry to the pregnant phrase. Such a one may achieve much 
of value, but he is also a potential danger. At the moment he happens to be a pro- 
foundly disquieting menace to our civilization" (p. 3-4, London, Lewis, 1947). 



Science and Tradition 13 

pressed by their genesis than by their occurrence. He admires the won- 
ders of science, but the greatest wonder of all, he reflects, is that man 
revealed them. The infinity of stellar space and the inverse infinity of 
atomic structure are awe-inspiring, yet less so, than their gradual pene- 
tration by the mind of man. 



Many men of science have reached a peculiar mid-way stage. They 
recognize the value (philosophic, scientific, humanistic) of the history 
of science, but lacking historical training they do not understand the 
implications. Let me tell you an anecdote first. A very distinguished 
physicist once told me that physics had become a field of such large 
size that no man could encompass the whole of it, while history was easy 
enough to read up. His remark proved that he was more familiar with 
physics than with history. Both domains being infinite it is foolish to 
say that one is larger than the other. It is certainly easier to read a book 
of history than a book of physics; the superficial difference may be enor- 
mous, for there is no historical book which would be entirely closed to 
an educated man, while many a physical book would be as dark to the 
uninitiated as if it were written in Chinese. The real difference, how- 
ever, between both cases grows smaller, much smaller, as one's familiar- 
ity with them increases. It will be found that the reader will obtain from 
either book as much knowledge — living, integrated knowledge — as his 
previous experience justifies, not more. His ability to judge either book 
will be a function of his knowledge of either subject and of his study of 
many other books covering more or less the same field. 

Reading is but the first stage, the passive stage, of education. If one 
wishes not simply to study the knowledge obtained by others, but also 
to extend that knowledge, strict methods must be used. The methods 
of physical science are pretty well known, the methods of historical re- 
search are less well known ( at least by men of science ) ; they are not so 
easy to define and their application is made especially difficult by their 
subtlety and by the circumstance that human facts are infinitely more 
complex than physical ones. In both fields the specific methods apply- 
ing to them must be abided by and the materials used must be sound ( it 
is a part of the method to determine^ their soundness ) . Here again be- 
ginners (and most scientists who become interested in the history of 
science are beginners ) may have, and generally do have, illusions. They 
known well enough the difficulties of their own field, but as they ig- 
nore or underestimate historical difficulties, they rush in where angels 
fear to tread; they seem to fancy that historical work is comparable 
only to the final stage of scientific work, the writing up of the results! 
They accept uncritically statements published almost anywhere and mix 
them together. As a wit put it, "When five books have been devoted to 
a subject, it is easy enough to write a sixth one." True enough, but what 
is the value of that sixth book? However small the time of writing it, it 
was a waste of time. We must admit that books produced in that easy 
way contain much truth, but as the truth is promiscuously mixed with 



14 Introduction 

error and not differentiable from it, the whole must be considered erro- 
neous. Historical works written by men of science disregarding histori- 
cal methods must necessarily lead to a degradation of spiritual energy.^ 

It is curious that most men of science would recognize the difficulties 
of historical work in other fields than the history of science, say, in the 
fields of Greek history, or mediaeval history, or even English history. If 
they be well educated we may assume that they have a good all-around 
knowledge of the history of their own country, and they may have read 
considerably on that subject throughout the years, yet they would be 
the first to disclaim any authority, and they would never venture to 
publish a book on it. The same modest men might consider themselves 
fully equipped to teach the history of science, though without any 
suitable preparation. What is the explanation of that paradox? Simply 
this that for teaching the history of science the first condition is to know 
science, to have a first-hand knowledge of it; that condition is so hard 
to satisfy, in fact, unattainable for anyone who has not received in his 
youth a scientific training of some kind or another, that it may be thought 
to be sufficient. It is necessary but not sufficient. 

As the importance of the history of science is more generally recog- 
nized not only by men of science, but by educated people in general and 
by "educators"^ there is an increasing need of trained historians of 
science. Auguste Comte had understood that need more than a century 
ago when he observed that as science is becoming more specialized, 
there must needs be one more specialty, the study of the generalities of 
science, the interrelations of its parts, and its wholeness. This new kind 
of specialist must be a historian of science, for knowledge of the tree of 
science ( which is the very knowledge required ) is almost impossible to 
obtain without knowledge of its genesis and development. 

We may thus, or rather we should, intrust that task of unification and 
communication to the historian of science, but the latter will have other 
duties, which may be summed up with the words, he shall be the keeper 
of scientffic memories and the defender of tradition. 

We shall come back to that presently but first let us remark, that the 
work of the historian of science is often misunderstood and even resented 
by the very scientists who need it most, that is, those who are at the 
same time the most specialized and least educated. Those extreme 
specialists, who know everything about a tiny little subject and nothing 
about the rest of the universe, do not like what they might call the 
Olympian attitude of philosophers and historians. Of course, it cannot 
be denied that the latter may be sometimes a bit complacent and offen- 

® Non-historians may do occasionally useful work in quoting a definite statement 
from a good source or a good book, correctly referred to. To know the best source 
or the best book on a topic is almost as good as to know that topic. Such bibli- 
ographical information is not easy to obtain for a great variety of topics and is 
exceedingly complex; the mastery of it in a large field may require a whole life of 
study and meditation. 

* In the United States the title "educator" is assumed not so much by teachers 
and writers, but rather by administrators, such as presidents and deans of colleges, 
trustees, directors of educational conferences and projects, etc. 



Science and Tradition 15 



sive, witness Whewell of whom it was said that science was his forte, 
and omniscience his foible. They should bear in mind, and the historian 
of science himself should never forget it, that he is simply a specialist 
like the others, having a special knowledge and special duties and using 
special methods. He may be good or not so good, and may have all 
kinds of virtues and vices like other people, but that is another question. 
Other scientists must have the grace to admit on their side that investi- 
gations which have occupied their whole life and may have entailed 
numberless sacrifices, may be understood in a relatively short time, and 
that it may be possible for the historian to explain and discuss them with- 
out taking anything away from their merit, but rather the contrary. 
The historian should not take a superior or dominating attitude and 
other scientists should not be unduly jealous of him, nor contemptuous. 
He is a fellow like themselves who may be more or less successful in dis- 
covering new things; if he be honest and modest he deserves their re- 
spect even when he is out of luck. 

The conflict between scientist and historian of science is only one 
example of the temperamental opposition between creator and critic. 
That conflict is far better known in other fields such as literature and 
art. The artist resents the critic and historian yet he needs them more 
deeply than he realizes, the public needs them, and the art itself cannot 
grow without them.^^ It is very significant but not surprising, that his- 
tories of art or of music the writing of which was attempted by great 
artists have generally been mediocre. The qualities required for crea- 
tion and for criticism are not only different but opposite, even mutually 
exclusive. This is as true in science as it is in art. 



The main duty of the historian of science is the defense of tradition. 
The traditions of science are not essentially different as traditions, from 
traditions in other fields, even if we may perhaps flatter ourselves that 
they are generally better and purer. These traditions deserve to be 
known and religiously kept because they are really the best we have; 
they are all that makes life worth living, they are the nobility and the 
goodness of life. Without them we are like animals and without them 
all the technicians and the "wizards" of the world could not lift us from 
the mud of our material desires. We owe gratitude to the benefactors 
of the past, in particular the great men of science who opened the new 
paths, and also the lesser men who helped them, for we are standing on 
their shoulders. While we express our gratitude we feel that we become 
worthy of them, worthy to grasp with our own hands the torches which 
they have brought to us. We are encouraged to continue their task, 

^"Professor Dingle's lecture, referred to in another footnote, above, was given 
by him the challenging title "The missing factor in science." What is the missing 
factor? According to him, it is the internal criticism of science, a criticism largely 
based upon historical knowledge, and without which scientific growth may become 
stupid and dangerous. There can be no real understanding of science, that is, 
there can be no science, without continuous criticism of it. 



16 Introduction 

the main task of mankind, and we know that the work which we are all 
doing together will not be destroyed by wars and other calamities, and 
will not be interrupted by the accident of our own death. This revives 
our faith and joy in our work. 



The fundamental importance of science in human life need not be 
emphasized; that importance will necessarily increase and therefore the 
relative importance of science in education will also increase. That is 
unavoidable and no sensible and rational person would try to deflect the 
trajectory of man's destiny, the irresistible growth of knowledge, of 
science, yea, of techniques. Yet such a growth is not without dangers, 
and it is part of our duty to minimize those dangers and to strengthen 
our resistance to them. 

The Good Society, of which we are dreaming and which each of us 
is trying in his own feeble way to encompass, will need the constant 
help of two kinds of servants, the Statistician and the Historian. We 
have already spoken of the former when we referred to Quetelet. It is 
his business to keep his finger on the pulse of mankind and give the 
necessary warnings when things are not going as they should. Quete- 
let's message was delivered more than a century ago and was long mis- 
interpreted, except by a few people. It is proper to evoke here one of 
the earliest acceptances of that message, by a great English woman, 
Florence Nightingale, 

"Her statistics were more than a study, they were indeed her reli- 
gion. For her, Quetelet was the hero as scientist, and the presentation 
copy of his Physique sociale is annotated by her on every page. Flor- 
ence Nightingale believed — and in all the actions of her life acted upon 
that belief — that the administrator could only be successful if he were 
guided by statistical knowledge. The legislator — to say nothing of the 
politician — too often failed for want of this knowledge. Nay, she went 
further: she held that the universe — including human communities — ^was 
evolving in accordance with a divine plan; that it was man's business to 
endeavour to understand this plan and guide his actions in sympathy 
with it. But to understand God's thoughts, she held we must study 
statistics, for these are the measure of his purpose. Thus the study of 
statistics was for her a religious duty." ^^ 

Since those days the function of the statistician are better understood, 
but he has not yet received his full responsibilities. As to the historian, 
I believe that most educated people understand the need of him for 
political purposes, but not yet for the higher purposes which I have tried 
to outline in this lecture — to wit, the deeper interpretation of science, 
the defense of scientific tradition, the reconciliation of science with the 
humanities, or as you may prefer to call it, the humanization of science, 
the consecration of science to the Good Life. 



"Karl Pearson: The life, letters and labours of Francis Galton (vol. 2, 414, 
1924; Isis, 8, 186; 23, 8). 



II. THE TRADITION OF ANCIENT 
AND MEDIAEVAL SCIENCE 

When men of science become interested in the history of science, 
their interest is generally focussed upon the immediate past, or what we 
might call "modern" science — however this may be defined. They may 
choose to begin it with the western reinvention of typography ( c. 1450 ) , 
or with Copernicus or Ves alius (1543), or with Kepler (1609-19) and 
Galileo (1632-38), or with Newton (1687), or with Volta (1800), or 
with the introduction of astrophysics, or radioactivity, or later still. 
Each of these limits can be justified, and one is as good as another. Al- 
most every man of science, whether he be historically minded or not, is 
obliged to do a certain amount of retrospection, because his own investi- 
gations bring him face to face with the work of some predecessor, or 
because of academic conventions. The historical difficulties of such 
superficial retrospect are not great, the sources are easily obtainable, the 
chronological basis is relatively easy to establish. The fundamental 
questions "When did that happen? where?" are easy to answer. The 
questions "why?" and "how?" are more difficult of course, yet they are 
still comparatively easy for late periods. Men of science whose retro- 
spective insight does not go much deeper than the last century have few 
chronological troubles to speak of ^ and no idea of the vicissitudes of 
tradition. Consider Oersted's famous paper of 1820 which is the foun- 
dation of electromagnetism; originally written in Latin, it was promptly 
translated into French, Italian, German, English, and Danish, and within 
a year every physicist of Europe knew of it and some had already de- 
veloped new experiments on its basis.- Or consider Roentgen's paper 
of 1896 ^ which might well be taken as the opening of the new physics. 
The message which it contains was almost immediately broadcast all 
over the civilized world; the necessary apparatus being available in 
almost every physical laboratory, and the experiments being simple 
enough they were promptly repeated in a hundred places; more than a 
thousand books and papers on X-rays were published within the year 
of their discovery.^ By the end of that year 1896, a physicist admitting 

^ Chronological diflBculties are not completely eliminated. For example, see 
my paper "The discovery of conical refraction by William Rowan Hamilton and 
Humphrey Lloyd in 1833" (Isis 17, 154-70, 1932). 

^ Facsimile reprints of the original Latin text and of the English translation ( Isis, 
10, 435-43, 1928). 

^ The redaction of it was completed on Dec. 28, 1895, and it was immediately 
printed, but it could hardly be distributed before 1896. See facsimile and Sarton's 
analysis (Isis, 26, 349-69, 1937). E. Weil (Isis, 29, 362-65, 1938). 

* List of those 1044 books and papers in Otto Glasser: Roentgen (p. 422-79, 
Springfield, Illinois, 1934; Isis, 22, 256-59). 



18 Introduction 

ignorance of those rays would have branded himself as an ass. In our 
day it is almost impossible for a man who reads but a few journals, to 
escape the knowledge of a new discovery. The problem of tradition 
does hardly exist; the transmission of knowledge from one end of the 
world to the other is almost automatic. Hence the historian of science 
who restricts himself to "modern" science does not think of tradition, he 
takes it for granted.^ Reciprocally, in order to understand the true 
meaning of scientific tradition and its value one has to look backward 
more deeply, and this we shall now proceed to do. 

Think of Greek science of the sixth and fifth centuries, what we 
might perhaps call the "Greek miracle," as do people who have Homer, 
Sophocles or Phidias in mind. The early blossoming of Greek science 
is just as miraculous (i.e., as little explainable) as that of Greek art or 
Greek literature. (Is not each masterpiece a miracle?, you might say. 
Yes, but that is another story.) For Greek science the difficulty of 
explanation or the "miracle" if you prefer to use that word, is of a double 
nature. There is the miracle of creation and the miracle of transmission. 
We know, of course, that a substantial amount of Greek science is lost, 
probably forever; the astonishing thing, however, is not that much has 
been lost, but rather that so much has escaped the vicissitudes of time 
and reached our very hands. 

Take the case of Archimedes, who was killed at the age of 75 during 
the siege of Syracuse by the Romans in 212 B.C. Thus his works were 
written during the period c. 257 (aet. 30) to 212. He was already 
famous in antiquity, but the earliest commentaries on his works known 
to us are those of the Palestinian mathematician, Eutocios of Ascalon 
(VI-1) and these are restricted to three treatises (the sphere and the 
cylinder, measurement of the circle, equilibrium of planes ) . The oldest 
Greek MS. to which definite reference is made was written during the 
Byzantine renaissance of the ninth to the tenth century, initiated by 
Leon of Thessalonica ( IX-1 ), probably at the beginning of that period. 
That MS. contained only seven treatises (the three already mentioned, 
conoids and spheroids, spirals, sand-reckoner, quadrature of the parab- 
ola); it is lost, but the earliest Greek MSS. extant are copies of it made 
toward the end of the fifteenth century and the beginning of the six- 
teenth. Another copy of the lost archetype found its way to Baghdad, 
for we have Arabic translations and commentaries by al-M ahani, Thabit 
iBN QuRRA, YusuF al-Khuri, Ishaq ibn Hunain, all of whom flourished 
in the second half of the ninth century. Another Archimedian treatise, 
the one on floating bodies in two books, not included in the MS. tradition 
just referred to, was translated into Latin by the Flemish Dominican, 
WiLLEM OF Moerbeke, in 1269. His translation of book 1 appeared in 



° His difficulty is rather to account for exceptional failures of transmission. E.g., 
the "Edison effect" discovered in 1884 which remained unnoticed for many years 
until it was exploited by John Ambrose Fleming ( 1905 ) and by Lee De Forest 
in wireless telegraphy. 



Ancient and Mediaeval Science 19 

the Latin edition of Tartaglia^ (Venice 1543) — the first printed Archi- 
medes in any language — ; his translation of both books was printed by 
Troianus Curtius (Venice 1565) and by Federico Commanding (Bo- 
logna 1565) . The Greek text of the "floating bodies" was lost until 1906. 
In that year the Danish philologist, J. L. Heiberg, discovered it in a 
Constantinople palimpsest below a twelfth to fourteenth century eucho- 
logionJ The same palimpsest concealed other Archimedian texts, the 
most precious of all being the Method (IcpoStov), the existence of which 
was known only through a remark of Suidas (X-2).^ That method is 
one of the most important books of antiquity. We have it!, but remem- 
ber that it was preserved only in the most erratic way — as a palimpsest 
— , that is, it was preserved in spite of its being deliberately cancelled, 
and that its recovery happened only within our own lifetime, in 1906. 
An Archimedian monograph on the regular heptagon was preserved in 
the Arabic translation of Thabit ibn Qurra (IX-2) and this was dis- 
covered in a Cairo MS. and published in 1926 by Carl Schoy.^ 

In other words, lost treatises of Archimedes were revealed only in 
1906 and 1926. It is possible that other lost treatises may still be dis- 
covered, chiefly in the second manner. The Greek palimpsests have 
been pretty well examined and there is little hope of repeating Heiberg's 
stroke of genius and luck, but there is much hope on the contrary of find- 
ing Arabic translations of lost Greek scientific books, because many Ara- 
bic libraries are still unexplored and many Arabic MSS, undescribed. 
Some of the classics of Greek science have been revealed in that way, 
notably books V to VII of Apollonios' Conies and various treatises of 
Galen.i" 



" The Latin tradition of some other Archimedian treatises was different. Nicho- 
las V (pope from 1447 to 1455), one of the early patrons of humanism, founder 
of the Vatican Library, caused an Archimedian MS. to be translated into Latin by 
one Jacopo da S. Cassiano of Cremona. A copy of that translation was made c. 
1461 by Regiomontanus, who added marginal glosses derived from Greek MSS. 
Regiomontanus' copy, preserved in Nuremberg, was the source of the Latin version 
added to the Greek princeps by Thomas Gechauff (Basel 1544). 

''A palimpsest is a "rewritten" MS., the first writing having been erased to make 
room for the new one. An euchologion is a book of the Orthodox Church con- 
taining liturgies, etc. As writing materials (parchment or paper) were expensive 
and difficult to obtain, monks would rub off texts of no interest to them to replace 
them by the texts which they needed. We would do the same under similar cir- 
cumstances. Chemical and optical means make it possible to read the erased text. 

® SumAS remarked that Theodosios of Bithynia (I-l B.C.) wrote a commentary 
on the Method. Three propositions are quoted from it in the Metrica of Heron 
OF Alexandria, but the Metrica itself was discovered only in 1896, in a Constanti- 
nople MS., by R. Schone; it was first published in 1903 by the discoverer's son, 
Hermann Schone. 

*Carl Schoy: Graeco-Arabische Studien (Isis, 8, 21-40, 1926). 

^° The Arabic translation of books V to VII of the Conies by Thabit ibn Qurra 
(IX-2) was revised by Abu'l-Fath Mahmud ibn Muhammad al-Isfahani (X-2); 
it was first published in Latin version by Abraham Ecchellensis and Giacomo 
Alfonso Borelli (Florence 1661), then again in Edmund Halley's monumental 
edition of Apollonios (Oxford 1710). The seven books of Galen's anatomy were 



20 Introduction 

My account of the Archimedian tradition is incompleted^ but suffi- 
cient to illustrate many features, the various contingencies, riskiness and 
at best the complexity of such traditions. A Greek text is known to us 
by a MS. preserving it, or by extracts from it or references to it by later 
writers; or by Arabic, Hebrew or Latin versions, commentaries, extracts; 
or by references in each ( or all ) of these languages. The paradoxical 
aspects of tradition are evidenced by the fact that the study of Arabic is 
now, all considered, the most promising method to increase our knowl- 
edge of Greek science! 



Thoughtful readers may well ask themselves two questions: (I) If 
the tradition is so full of risks and adventures, how were any texts pre- 
served, especially mathematical texts which could never interest more 
than a few people? (2) Considering those risks and vicissitudes, how 
can we be sure that the texts which have survived are really what they 
are claimed to be? 

The two questions are pertinent and sufficiently ticklish to be stimu- 
lating. If one bears in mind the number of wars, conflagrations and 
other calamities which have occurred in the Mediterranean world since 
Archimedes' death, how did any one of his writings escape destruction 
and oblivion? When Archimedes composed one of them, say the Epho- 
dion or the Ochumena, the number of students directly interested in it 
must have been exceedingly small and that number remained small 
throughout the ages. It is unlikely that the "first edition" issued by the 
Master himself included many copies. Perhaps a dozen or even less. 
Some of those copies found their way to the libraries of Alexandria and 
Pergamon, but those libraries were destroyed. We have relearned quite 
recently that the safest libraries are not absolutely safe, and the greater 
they are, the greater the loss in case of destruction. Other copies were 
preserved in private libraries, e.g., in the libraries of Archimedes himself, 
of the king of Syracuse Hieron and his son Gelon, of Archimedes' 
friends, Dositheos of Pelusion, Conon of Samos and Eratosthenes 
OF Gyrene (III-2 B.C.), but how insecure they were! Did a copy pre- 
served by the tyrant of Syracuse have a great chance of survival? And 
as to Archimedes himself and his friends, these men were probably poor, 
they were certainly not rich, but even if they had been rich enough to 
live in palaces, what of it? Are any of the private palaces of antiquity 
extant? Have their contents come down to us? How then did the 

edited in Arabic and German by Max Simon (2 vols. Leipzig 1906). Galen on 
medical experience was first published in Arabic and English by Richard Walzer 
(London 1944; Isis, 36, 251-55). 

" Complete accounts of the tradition of a text are generally given by the mod- 
ern editors. Such accounts include a discussion of the relative trust which may be 
placed in each MS. of the original text or of its translations, and in the early edi- 
tions. The filiation of those MSS is symbolized by a genealogical tree or stemma. 
For Archimedes see Heiberg's edition (2nd ed., 3 vols. Leipzig 1910-15) or the 
English translation by T. L. Heath (Cambridge 1897), with supplement (Cam- 
bridge 1912). 



Ancient and Mediaeval Science 21 

Ephodion finally reach us in 1906 after two millennia of hiding? Its 
survival is almost miraculous, and yet it is not as rare an event as one 
might think. Though a large part of the Greek scientific literature is 
lost, what remains constitutes an imposing treasure. How did all those 
books, none of them popular in any degree, none of them ever "pub- 
lished" ^^ in large editions, survive? The only explanation I can think of 
is this. Though very few people could be directly interested in Archi- 
medes' treatises (to return to the example which was our starting point), 
a great many men, whether educated or not, were concerned with them. 
These men — and maybe women also — realized that such MSS were 
precious and deserved every care. They had a kind of superstitious 
respect for every kind of writing^^ and for such esoteric writing in par- 
ticular. We should not deride the superstitions of those ignorant people, 
in the first place because we are benefiting from them, in the second 
place because similar superstitions are abroad among ourselves to this 
day. It is a very strange compensation indeed; in proportion as religious 
superstitions decrease, the superstitions of science (or pseudo-science) 
seem to increase; advertisers, who trade on men's gullibility, know that 
well enough.^'* Are men unable to live without superstitions? At any 
rate, the Greek MSS, even the least comprehensible, those of which the 
average person could make no use whatsoever, were jealously kept and 
transmitted from generation to generation, from owner to robber or 
looter, from looter to new owner, and so on. From time to time they 
fell into the hands of people who were suflBciently appreciative and 
enthusiastic to prepare new copies or new editions, or commentaries, 
translations, commentaries on those translations, amplifications, ab- 
breviations, paraphases, supercommentaries, etc. The Archimedian 
MSS which have finally reached us have not escaped one catastrophe, 
but many. 

Indeed, the risks have been so numerous that the second question 
comes naturally enough to our minds. How can we be sure that the 
treatise on floating bodies which we may read to-day either in the Greek 
edition of Heiberg or in the English version of Sir Thomas Heath, is 
really the text of Archimedes? In this particular case our doubts are 
excited by a remark of Eutocios to the effect that Archimedes wrote in 
the Doric dialect, of which but few traces remain in the Greek text avail- 
able to-day.^^ Eutocios (who flourished nine centuries after Archi- 



" We can speak of the "publication" of books before the age of printing, and 
even before the age of writing. It occurs when a finished text is made available for 
reading or recitation and is thus transmitted to the public, "published." Solomon 
Gandz: The dawn of literature (Osiris 7, 261-522, 1939). 

" That kind of superstition can still be observed ( or could be observed not very 
long ago) among many Oriental peoples, such as Chinese and Muslims. 

" They use such words as "vitamins," "radioactivity," or other scientific terms 
as bait to sell their merchandise. 

^^ The Doric characteristics were already beginning to disappear from the 
Archimedian writings in the time of Eutocios (VI-1). J. L. Heiberg: Uber den 
Dialekt des Archimedes, Interpolationen in den Schriften des Archimedes 
(Jahrbiicher fur classische Philologie, Suppt. 13, 543-577, 1884); De dialecto Archi- 



22 Introduction 

MEDEs) discovered a fragment which seemed genuine to him, because it 
"preserved in part Archimedes' favorite dialect." ^® This means that the 
original text was emended, but we may assume that the emendations 
were purely linguistic. Mathematical treatises, by the way, are much 
more likely than any others to be transmitted in their integrity, because 
of their natural clearness and closely knit structure; one is not tempted 
to interpolate them, or if interpolations be inserted it is relatively easy 
to detect them. On the contrary, medical books, especially herbals and 
pharmacopoeias, invite interpolations and the latter fit in so well that 
they can hardly be revealed except by means of a complex philological 
analysis. If the Archimedian tradition tells us that he made hydrostatic 
experiments and found the principle which we call by his name, we are 
not surprised to read his treatise on floating bodies in the Latin version 
of brother William of Moerbeke.^^ The text agrees with the tradition 
and has an unmistakable Archimedian flavor. Why should it not be 
what it purports to be? If any doubts were left in our minds they were 
removed when the Greek text was discovered in 1906.^^ Two different 
literary traditions confirmed one another; the lacunae and obscurities of 
William's version were neatly healed. A similar thing happened for 
the Method discovered in the same palimpsest. How can we be sure 
that is genuine? Well, according to Suidas that treatise had been com- 
mented upon by Theodosios, and the propositions extracted from it by 
Heron of Alexandria tally sufiiciently with the Greek text revealed 
in 1906.^^ We cannot speak of absolute certainty, of course, but when 
a new found text corresponds with the tradition of it and with the 
references to it or extracts from it made at various times, we may be 
reasonably sure that it is what it claims to be. After all who would care 
to invent a new text corresponding to the general description of it and 
how could that be done without running afoul of references or quota- 
tions as yet undisclosed? 

I have discussed the case of Archimedes but similar arguments would 
apply to every ancient man of science. Our knowledge of the text of 
each book is almost never due to an isolated tradition, but rather to the 
confluence of many. This does not mean that each text which has 
escaped the ravages of time is known to us in its integrity or is accepted 
with the same confidence, as we accept, say, Archimedes' Ephodion. 

medis (Archimedis opera omnia 2, p. x-xviii, 1913); Indices (ibid. 3, 330-448, 
1915). 

" T. L. Heath: The works of Archimedes (p. xxxvi, Cambridge 1897). 

" The Archimedian principle is Prop. 5 of book 1 "Any solid hghter than a 
fluid will ... be so far immersed that its weight will be equal to the weight of the 
fluid displaced." It is said that Archimedes thought of that while he was bathing 
in Syracuse and was so happy that he ran out of the water shouting eCpij/ca, ei!pij/ca 
(I have found, I have found). That story was first told by Vitruvius (1-2 B.C.) in 
the preface to the ninth book of his De architectura. 

^^ The Greek and Latin texts can easily be compared in the Archimedis Opera 
Omnia, edited by Heiberg (2, 317-413, 1913). 

"First edited by Heiberg (Hermes, 42, 243-97, 1907), then in German trans- 
lation with H. G. Zeuthen's commentary (BM 7, 321-63, 1907). New edition of 
the Greek text with Latin translation in Archimedis Opera (2, 425-507, 1913). 



Ancient and Mediaeval Science 23 

There are special difficulties for each of them, obscure passages, con- 
tradictions, gaps, the head or the tail may be missing, etc. This is not 
true only of scientific texts, but also of Biblical and literary ones. The 
mechanism of tradition is exceedingly complex and capricious, involving 
many media — word of mouth, parchment, papyrus, ostraca, paper — 
and generally more than one language; every accident of history may 
modify the tradition or suppress it altogether. Each case must be 
judged on its own merits and the conclusions may vary all the way from 
discredit to reasonable certainty. 

The authorship of an ancient (or mediaeval) book may be difiicult 
to ascertain because of the not-uncommon habit of ascribing it to a 
famous author or to the master of a popular school. There was a great 
deal of ghostwriting then as now but the principles underlying it were 
extremely difiFerent. At present "important" people have books written 
under their name by paid underlings in order to obtain credit for them 
without pains. In the past modest authors would try to pass off their 
own compositions under the name of an illustrious master of an earlier 
time; or else editors would ascribe anonymous books to "plausible" 
authors, a medical book to Hippocrates or Galen, an astronomical one 
to Ptolemy, etc. Hence, the modern critic must always be on his guard; 
the author named in a MS. may be the real one or not; a true authorship 
is proved by convergent traditions (as in the Archimedian examples 
dealt with above ) ; a false authorship is generally proved by chronolog- 
ical inconsistencies. For example, a book which internal criticism shows 
could have been written only in the late Roman period, could not be 
ascribed to Archimedes ( unless the references to a later time are interpo- 
lations, an eventuality which must be considered). The Hippocratic 
corpus, e.g., is not the production of a man but of a school which was 
active for centuries; it even includes books written by outsiders, some 
of them very late ones. It was gradually established by editors and 
librarians who were tempted to lump together all the items which 
seemed to them suflBciently alike; such a corpus has a way of growing 
by deliberate or furtive additions. It owes its existence to the same im- 
pulses which cause the publication today of so many collections of books 
devoted to this or that subject; each item shares to some extent the credit 
of the other items and of the whole; each item helps to sell the others. 
When the time came when knowledge had to be decanted into another 
linguistic vehicle for further transmission, those collections or bodies 
drew the attention of translators; each corpus provided a sufficiently 
large task which could be directed and divided. It was natural enough 
for the master of a school of translators wishing to transmit, say, the 
Hippocratic corpus, or the Galenic one, or the "middle books," ^° to dis- 
tribute various parts to a number of collaborators. Each of them would 
do his own share under his own name or under the name of his director; 

^ The middle books between geometry and astronomy ( Kitab al-mutawassitat 
bain al-handasa wal-hai'a), collection of mathematical and astronomical books to 
be studied in addition to the Elements and the Almagest. Introd. (2, lOOlf. ). 
W. H. Worrell: An interesting collection (Scripta mathematica, 9, 195-96, 1943). 



24 Introduction 

indeed the responsibility as well as the work was shared. As all of these 
scholars were translating texts of the same nature at about the same 
time in the same milieu and under the same guidance, all the translations 
made by a single group or school, have naturally the same philological 
and spiritual characteristics. 

In the case of philosophical writings a new kind of difficulty had to 
be overcome because different traditions coalesced and contaminated 
one another. Thus the Peripatetic tradition was spoiled by Neopla- 
tonic contaminations of various sorts and later by theological interfer- 
ence. The history of Muslim Aristotelism, and of mediaeval Aristotelism 
in general, is to a large extent an account of the gradual recovery of the 
Aristotelian texts in their integrity.^^ 



From the point of view of tradition it is very fortunate that almost all 
of those mediaeval translators (whether Muslims, Jews or Cliristians) 
had one quality in common; they were far more interested in the con- 
tents than in the form; their superstitious reverence for the text to be 
translated was such that their translations were literal and pedantic. 
This is so true that one can easily spot Hellenisms in the Arabic trans- 
lations and Arabicisms in the Latin ones; these literary faults are not 
restricted to words, they extend to phrases and idioms.^^ Some trans- 
lated phrases are so literal indeed that they cannot be correctly under- 
stood without a mental retranslation into the original language, or to 
look at it from another angle, that peculiarities of the original language 
can be inferred without doubt.-^ 

In short, if accidents did not destroy the MSS. in the course of time, 
the masterpieces of antiquity were remarkably well preserved because 
of the slavish faithfulness of oral and written traditions. 

In spite of that we still have many doubts, especially concerning the 
writings of many Greek men of science anterior to Plato. The only 
fragment of Hellenic {i.e., pre- Alexandrian ) geometry which has come 

^ An initial difficulty was due to the fact that the works of Aristotle were not 
finished literary productions like those of Plato but rather in the form of rough 
lecture notes. 

^ The Arabic ( or Latin ) word might reproduce a metaphor of the Greek ( or 
Arabic) or when no word existed in Arabic (or Latin) and none could be easily 
built, the original term might be transliterated into the other language. E.g., the 
word mater in the terms designating the membranes of the brain (dura mater, pia 
mater) is a reproduction of the Arabic metaphor umm al-dimagh. The coccyx was 
called in Arabic al-'us'us and this became in mediaeval Latin alhasos or alhosos (the 
Arabic article was often incorporated as if it were an integral part of the word ) ; the 
wisdom teeth al-najidh, pi., al-nawajidh were called in Latin nuaged, neguegid, etc. 
In the Qanun Ibn Sina dealt with love as a mental disease; the Arabic for sexual 
love, al-'ishq appeared in the Latin version as ilixi or alhasch. These examples 
could be multiplied endlessly. 

^Thus Heiberg translated book 1 of the Ochumena into Greek (Doric) on 
the basis of the Latin version of William of Moerbeke. Archimedis nepl 
dxoviMevwv liber 1 graece restituit Johan Ludwig Heiberg ( Melanges Graux, 689-709, 
Paris 1884) It is very interesting to compare his "reconstruction" with the original 
Greek text which he found some twenty years later in Constantinople. Archimedis 
opera (2, 317-45, 1913). 



Ancient and Mediaeval Science 25 

down to us in its integrity is the text of Hippocrates of Chios (V B.C.) 
on the quadratures of lunules; it is really a fragment of the history 
of geometry of Eudemos (IV-2 B.C.), preserved by Simplicios (VI-1) 
in the latter's commentary on Aristotle's Physics! ^^ Please note the 
tortuousness of that tradition. Thanks to the industry and sagacity of 
many scholars, such as the German Hermann Diels, the Scot John 
Burnet, and the Frenchman Paul Tannery, the fragments and doxog- 
raphy concerning the early Greek "physiologists" are now gathered in 
convenient form and can be scrutinized at leisure. Our doubts are re- 
stricted to definite fragments or quotations or to definite personalities 
and hardly afiFect our conception of the whole, that is, of, let us say, early 
Greek mathematics or astronomy. 

Yet for all that our friends who are investigating Egyptian and 
Babylonian mathematics have the pleasure of triumphing over the 
Hellenists. Though the period which attracts their attention may be 
anterior to the Hellenic period by a thousand years or more, they have 
the privilege of dealing with original documents ( not mediaeval copies ) 
— hieroglyphic papyri or cuneiform tablets. In some cases those docu- 
ments may be contemporary with their authors or even holographs! 
In contrast with the sayings of Anaxagoras of Clazomenae (V B.C.) 
or even with the Ochumena of Archimedes, which we know from MSS. 
a thousand years posterior to Archimedes think of the Papyrus Rhind 
written c. 1650 B.C. (not the text but the papyrus itself) after an older 
work of say the eighteenth century.^^ That mathematical papyrus is 
almost as good as an original while the Ochumena is a copy many 
times removed from its source. This would be a cause of despair, but 
for the faithfulness of ancient and mediaeval traditions which we have 
explained a moment ago, and let it be added, but for the elaborate 
methods of external and internal criticism which enable good scholars 
to make the most of the least documents available to them, and yet 
restrain them from expressing immoderate claims. 



The transmission or tradition of modern science is insured by so 
many agencies that it is almost automatic; the individual man of sci- 
ence need make no efforts to obtain news; indeed, he would have to 
take special pains in order to eschew it, on the contrary the trans- 
mission of scientific news in the ancient world and even in the mediaeval 
one was extremely capricious and uncertain. A scientific book might 
survive and many did, but many more were lost; it is possible that some 
never reached anywhere. It is even conceivable that men of science did 
not trouble to write up their discoveries, because they may have thought 



^ Greek and French edition by Paul Tannery ( Memoires de la Societe des 
sciences de Bordeaux 5, 217-37, 1883), reprinted in Tannery's Memoires (1, 339-70, 
1912). Greek and German edition by Ferdinand Rudio (194 p., Leipzig 1907). 

^T. Eric Peet: The Rhind mathematical papyrus (foHo 136 p. 24 pi., University 
Press, Liverpool, 1923; Isis 6, 553-57). 

A. B. Chace, LuDLOvi' Bull, H. P. Manning, R. C. Archibald: The Rhind 
mathematical papyrus (2 vols. Oberlin, Ohio, 1927-29; Isis, 14, 251-55). 



26 Introduction 

"What is the good of it? Who will read the stu£F, and who will preserve 
it?" Such reticence as opposed to the cacoethes scribendi which is one 
of the diseases of our time, was probably one of the causes of the slow- 
ness of progress in antiquity. The relationship of Ptolemy (II-l) to 
HiPPARCHOs (II-2 B.C.) is like that of a younger contemporary to his 
senior, yet they were separated by almost three centuries. Much knowl- 
edge has failed to reach us because of the silence of the inventors, or of 
their lost pains if they broke it. After all a discovery hardly counts if 
it be not published; the tradition of a discovery is second in importance 
to the discovery itself. 

The history of ancient and mediaeval science is very largely a history 
of traditions. The discoveries and inventions are not many, because the 
laborers were few as compared with to-day and because the progress of 
science is naturally an accelerated one (hence if we look backward the 
acceleration is negative). The enumeration and discussion of those 




riGURE 1 



discoveries are relatively brief; on the other hand, it is very difficult to 
explain their tradition (without which they would be as if they had 
never been) and this requires considerable space. The tradition was 
oral, written or manual; the last one is the most difficult to deal with 
in accurate detail. We can only speak of it in general and infer it from 
the results; it is like an underground river which remains hidden for 
long stretches, yet we can be reasonably certain that the river emerging 
from the earth at a point B is the same as disappeared at another point 
A many miles distant. Much of the knowledge of craftsmen, physicians, 
alchemists, and perhaps their most valuable knowledge, was trans- 
mitted by manual examples to their apprentices. The master would 
say "Watch me, see what I am doing and how I am doing it, and try 
to do the same." 

We might attempt a graphical representation of these views. The 
tradition of each single idea or fact might be symbolized by a line, more 
or less regular, with ups and downs. Some of these lines are interrupted 
because the tradition has ceased for a time to be visible. Sometimes 
the lines cross and their intersections may be indifferent or they may 
correspond to a knot or new discovery (Fig. 1). 



Ancient and Mediaeval Science 



27 



Should we wish to represent the whole tradition, not only the de- 
velopment of single ideas or inventions, but the scientific pattern in its 
totality, the graph would be very different, something like this (Fig. 2). 
The roots of western science, the graph reminds us, are Egyptian, Meso- 
potamian, and to a much smaller amount, Iranian and Hindu. The 
central line represents the Arabic transmission which was for a time, say, 
from the ninth to the eleventh century, the outstanding stream, and re- 
mained until the fourteenth century one of the largest streams of medi- 
aeval thought. 

The diagram makes it easier to explain many things. In the first 
place it shows that the Arabic tradition was a continuation and revivi- 
fication not only of Greek science but also of Iranian and Hindu ideas. 
This is still very imperfectly known and will require many more in- 
vestigations than have hitherto been possible, but we are already well 
aware that two of the fundamental branches of mediaeval science, the 




new arithmetic and the new trigonometry, were due to the mutual 
fertilization of two very different streams of thought, the Greek and the 
Hindu. 

This disposes of the criticism often made by people who ignore 
mediaeval science almost completely, which is bad; or who think that 
they understand it though they lack adequate information, which is 
much worse. They will glibly say "The Arabs simply translated Greek 
writings, they were industrious imitators, and by the way, the transla- 
tions were not made by themselves but by Christians and Jews . . ." 
This is not absolutely untrue, but is such a small part of the truth, that 
when it is allowed to stand alone, it is worse than a lie. 

Let us consider first the particles of truth. It is correct that most 
of the translations were made by non-Arabs, non-Muslims, but how else 
could it be? The latter were to a large extent monoglot, and few if any 
ever knew Greek. In order to translate from one language into another 
one must know very well the two languages involved. The Christians 



28 Introduction 

and the Jews living in the Near East, in the Dar al-islam, were gen- 
erally good linguists, born dragomans; it is clear that if the translations 
were to be made, they would be the men to make them; the translations 
could not be completed without their help. Yet they were made for 
Arabic and Muslim usage, by order of the Muslim rulers. To say that 
there was no Arabic science is like saying that there is no American sci- 
ence; the truth and untruth of both statements are of the same order. 
The Arabs were standing on the shoulders of their Greek forerunners 
just as the Americans are standing on the shoulders of their European 
ones. There is nothing wrong in that. It is the fundamental law of 
evolution. We are all the sons and followers, imitators and critics of 
other men; in most cases we are much smaller than our ancestors, and 
if we have enough intelligence and grace we feel that we are like dwarfs 
standing upon the shoulders of giants. Sometimes the descendants are 
greater than their forefathers. What makes the study of human tradi- 
tion so deeply moving is just that, the multitude and variousness of acci- 
dents and above all, the unpredictable apparition of giants at one time or 
another, here or there. 

Some of the giants of mediaeval times belonged to the Arabic cul- 
ture, mathematicians and astronomers like al-Khwarizmi (IX-1), al- 
Farghani (IX-1), al-Battani (IX-2), Abu-l-Wafa' (X-2), 'Umar 
Khayyam (XI-1), AL-BmiJNi (XI-1); philosophers like al-Farabi 
(X-1), al-Ghazzali (XI-2), Ibn Rushd (XII-2), Ibn Khaldun (XIV-2), 
physicians like al-Razi (IX-2), Ishaq al-Israili (X-1),'Ali ibn 'Abbas 
(X-2), Abu-l-Qasim (X-2), Ibn SIna (XI-1), Maimonides (XII-2). 
This enumeration could be greatly extended. Few of these men were 
Arabs and not all of them were Muslims, but they all belonged essen- 
tially to the same cultural group, and their language was Arabic. This 
illustrates the absurdity of trying to appraise mediaeval thought on the 
basis of Latin writings alone. For centuries the Latin scientific books 
hardly counted; they were out-of-date and outlandish. Arabic was the 
international language of science to a degree which had never been 
equalled by another language before (except Greek) and has never 
been repeated since. It was the language not of one people, one na- 
tion, one faith, but of many peoples, many nations, many faiths. 

The best Arabic scientists were not satisfied with the Greek and 
Hindu science which they inherited. They admired and respected the 
treasures which had fallen into their hands, but they were just as 
"modern" and greedy as we are, and wanted more. They criticized 
Euclid, Apollonios and Archimedes, discussed Ptolemy, tried to im- 
prove the astronomical tables and to get rid of the causes of error lurk- 
ing in the accepted theories. They facilitated the evolution of algebra 
and trigonometry and prepared the way for the European algebraists 
of the sixteenth century. Occasionally they were able to define new 
concepts, to state new problems, to tie new knots in the network of 
earlier traditions. 

That network, Oriental-Greek-Arabic, is our network. The neglect 
of Arabic science and the corresponding misunderstanding of our own 



Ancient and Mediaeval Science 29 

mediaeval traditions was partly due to the fact that Arabic studies were 
considered a part of Oriental studies. The Arabists were left alone or 
else in the company of other orientalists, such as Sanskrit, Chinese or 
Malay scholars. That was not wrong but highly misleading. It is true 
the network, our network, included other Oriental elements than the 
Arabic or Hebrew, such as the Hindu ones to which reference has 
already been made, but the largest part for centuries was woven with 
Arabic threads. If all these threads were plucked out, the network 
would break in the middle. 

Much in the field of orientalism is definitely exotic as far as we are 
concerned, but the religious Hebrew traditions and the scientific Arabic 
ones are not exotic, they are an integral part of our network today, they 
are part and parcel of our spiritual existence. The Arabic side of our 
culture cannot even be called Eastern, for a substantial part of it was 
definitely Western. The Muslim Ibn Rushd and the Jew MAiMONmES 
were born in Cordova within a few years of one another (1126, 1135); 
al-Idrisi (XII-2), born in Ceuta, flourished in Sicily; Ibn Khaldun 
(XIV-2), was a Tunisian; Ibn Battltta (XIV-2), a Moroccan. The list 
of Moorish scientists and scholars is a very long one. Spain is proud 
of them but without right, for she treated them, like a harsh stepmother, 
without justice and without mercy. 

The Arabic culture^^ is of a singular interest to the student of human 
traditions in general, to those whose greatest task it seems to them is 
the rebuilding of human integrity in the face of national and inter- 
national disasters, because it was, and to some extent still is, a bridge, 
the main bridge between East and West. It is through that bridge that 
the Hindu numerals, sines and chess, and the Chinese silk,^^ paper, and 
porcelain reached Europe. Latin culture was Western, Chinese culture 
was Eastern, but Arabic culture was both, for it extended all the way 
from the Maghrib al-aqsa' to the Mashriq al-aqsa.^^ Latin culture 
was Mediterranean and Atlantic, Hindu culture was bathed in the 
Indian Ocean, Far Eastern culture in the Pacific; the Arabic sailors, 
however, were as ubiquitous in all the oceans of the Middle Ages as the 
English are in those of to-day. The Latin and Greek cultures were 
Christian, Hebrew culture was Jewish, Eastern Asia was Buddhist; the 
Arabic culture was primarily but not exclusively Islamic; it was stretched 
out between the Christianism of the West and the Buddhism of the East 
and touched both. 

Christendom was born in the Near East, its cradle being near the 
cradle of its predecessor, Israel, and not very far from that of their oflF- 

^ The word "culture" is used here and further on instead of science or knowl- 
edge in order to give more generality to my statements, a generality which is not 
needed for my argument but is too interesting to be abandoned. 

^ Silk was the first Chinese gift to reach Europe (before the Christian era), yet 
the art of producing silk and of using it was very largely transmitted by the Arabs. 
T. F. Carter: Invention of printing (p. 88, New York 1925; Isis, 8, 361-73; 19, 
426). 

^That is, from the Far West to the Far East, both terms having then an 
absolute meaning which they have lost. 



30 Introduction 

spring, Islam. St. Paul, however, brought it to the West, and it de- 
veloped mainly as a Western religion. On the contrary. Buddhism, 
born in India, travelled Eastward. The history of Buddhism is as essen- 
tial for the understanding of the growth of Far Eastern culture as the 
history of Christianity for the development of our own culture. In both 
cases science was carried around the earth upon the wings of religion. 
The Islamic evangel was a revival of Jewish unitarianism-^ which had 
been temporarily pushed back by Trinitarian ideals; it was enormously 
successful and penetrated deeply into the territories of the Christian 
West and the Buddhist East. 

In spite of occasional contacts Hindu culture, and even more so 
Chinese culture, remained exotic, while the Arabic culture was inextri- 
cably mixed up with the Latin one. When we try to explain our own 
culture we may leave out almost completely Hindu and Chinese develop- 
ments, but we cannot leave out the Arabic ones without spoiling the 
whole story and making it unintelligible. Does this mean that we 
should neglect the study of Hindu and Chinese history? Certainly not, 
but that is another kind of study, call it exotic or outlandish if you 
please. The Arabic story helps us to understand our own because it is 
an intrinsic part of it; the Chinese and Hindu stories help us to under- 
stand our own also but in a very different way. They help us to con- 
ceive the possibility and reality of different developments, of different 
patterns. The same fundamental problems (mathematical, astronomi- 
cal, physical, chemical, biological, medical) had to be solved by them 
as had been solved by our own ancestors; the Hindus and Chinese are 
essentially the same kind of beings as we are, having the same needs and 
similar aspirations, but as their conditions of life were very different 
from ours, their solutions of those problems were also different ( in some 
respects, not in all respects ) . It is extremely interesting for the philoso- 
pher or the anthropologist to compare those different solutions attained 
by similar beings under different circumstances. Chinese culture is a 
"control" for our own; that is very important.^*^ 

The practical conclusion of all this is that the investigator of medi- 



^The Muslim unitarianism might be considered a Jewish heresy or a Christian 
one, and this was done by mediaeval writers. Its success was partly caused by 
Christian disintegration, and especially by the lack of unity on fundamental doc- 
trines, e.g., on Christology. The Monophysites on the one hand and the Nestorians 
on the other had been thrown out of the central Orthodox church to the right and 
left. In the West (when we speak of Islam, we must always deal with the West 
as well as with the East), the conquest of Spain was facilitated by the fact that the 
Visigoths (like all the Goths) had remained Arians; it is true the Visigothic hierarchy 
was converted to Catholicism in 589 but did the rank and file follow suit? Centuries 
of Arian tradition could not be blotted out easily. That tradition was to some ex- 
tent unitarian; it was thus possible for the Muslim invaders to take advantage of 
anti-Trinitarian prejudices and they did so. 

^ Our remarks concerning the Chinese and Hindu cultures would apply with 
greater strength to the aboriginal American culture which before 1492 was as 
separate from our own as if it had developed on another planet; unfortunately, our 
knowledge of American science is very imperfect because of the scarcity or lack of 
autochthonous writings. 



Ancient and Mediaeval Science 31 

aeval science should be as well acquainted with Arabic as possible; 
Arabic is as necessary for him as Greek for the student of antiquity .^^ 
Mediaeval science and philosophy were written primarily in four lan- 
guages, Greek, Arabic, Latin, Hebrew, all of which are important, but 
none more so ( at least before the thirteenth century ) than Arabic. 

The Latin writers of the West had been weaned from the Greek 
sources, because Europe was cut in two by a wall separating the Catho- 
lic world from the Orthodox. The Latins had drifted away from 
the Greeks since the fifth century, and the separation was already com- 
plete and unhealable three centuries later. Their distrust of Greek 
Christianity was superimposed upon their distrust of Greek paganism; 
their knowledge of Greek almost vanished and thus they lost all points 
of contact with the main fountain of science. Instead of being able 
to continue the work of the ancients and to start from where the latter 
had left, they had to start as it were from the beginning. That would 
have been too heavy a task for them, even if they had had more aptitude 
for scientific study than they had. They had to do again the Greek work 
without the Greek genius. 

It is one of the paradoxes of history that the abyss cloven between 
the two halves of Christendom was bridged by the Asiatic representa- 
tives of another faith, speaking an alien language absolutely unrelated 
to their own. The Latins would not read Greek, the language of the 
Orthodox church, but they were finally obliged to read Arabic, the 
language of Islam. This evolution required some time though less than 
one would imagine. By the end of the eighth century the Mediterra- 
nean Sea had become a Muslim lake and Carolingian power and culture 
were withdrawing northward. At that time, we should remember, 
Arabic science had not yet blossomed. Its golden age lasted some three 
centuries, from the ninth to the eleventh century, and it was only 
toward the end of that period ( a little earlier in Spain ) that the Latins 
became aware of the importance of Arabic science. They were fully 
aware of course of the material power of Islam, though it took two or 
three centuries of crusades to convince them of their own military in- 
feriority. A nun of Gandersheim (in the duchy of Brunswick), Hros- 
viTHA (X-2) spoke of Cordova as the ornament of the world.^- 

To appreciate Arabic culture in general was one thing, an easy one, 
unless one was blinded by religious hatred; to appreciate Arabic science 
was another, far less obvious, far more diflBcult. Even as the early 



^ The comparison is apposite because the duty is of the same order in both 
cases, and its limitations are similar. We don't expect the historian of science to 
be able, let us say, to edit a Greek (or Arabic) text from the MSS; that is a task 
for the philologist and the edition of a single text may engross the latter's energy for 
years; but the historian should be able to read those texts or to refer to their main 
technical points, otherwise he could not properly discuss those points. Some his- 
torians of science have edited scientific texts, e.g., Tannery, Greek ones, Julius 
RusKA, Henry Ernest Stapleton, Eric John Holmyard, and Carra da Vaux, 
Arabic ones. 

^''Decus orbis, in her Passio sancti Pelagii (1.12). Karolus Strecker: 
Hrotsvithae Opera (p. 54, Leipzig 1930). 



32 Introduction 

Muslims had realized the need of science, mainly Greek science, in 
order to establish their own culture and to consolidate their dominion, 
even so the Latins realized the need of science, Arabic science, in order 
to be able to light Islam with equal arms and vindicate their own aspira- 
tions. For the most intelligent Spaniards and Englishmen the obligation 
to know Arabic was as clear as the obligation to know English, French 
or German for the Japanese of the Meiji era. Science is power. The 
Muslim rulers knew that from the beginning, the Latin leaders had to 
learn it, somewhat reluctantly, but they finally did learn it. The prestige 
of Arabic science began relatively late in the West, say in the twelfth 
century, and it increased gradually at the time when Arabic science was 
already degenerating. The two movements, the Arabic progress and 
the Latin one, were out of phase. This is a general rule of life, by the 
way, rather than an exception, and it applies to individuals as well as 
to nations. A man generally does his best in comparative obscurity 
and becomes famous only when his vigor is diminishing; that is all right 
as far as he is concerned, for it is clear that solitude and silence are the 
best conditions of good, enduring, work. 

The scientific tradition as it was poured from Arabic vessels into 
Latin ones was often perverted. The new translators did not have the 
advantage which the Arabic translators had enjoyed; the latter had been 
able to see Greek culture in the perspective of a thousand years or 
more; the Latin translators could not see the Arabic novelties from a 
sufficient distance, and they could not always choose intelligently be- 
tween them. As to the Greek classics they came to them with a double 
prestige, Greek and Arabic. It is as if the Greek treasures, of which 
Latin scholars were now dimly conscious, were more valuable in their 
Arabic form; they had certainly become more glamorous. The trans- 
lation of the Almagest made c. 1175 by Gerard of Cremona (XII-2) 
from the Arabic, superseded a translation made directly from the Greek 
in Sicily fifteen years earlier! 

To return to the Arabic writings ( as distinct from Arabic translations 
of Greek writings ) some of the best were translated such as the works of 
al-Khwarizmi, al-Razi, al-Farghani, al-Battani, Ibn STna; others 
of equal value escaped attention, e.g., some books of 'Umar al- 
Khayyam, al-BirunT, Nasir al-din AL-Tusi; others still appeared too late 
to be considered, this is the case of the great Arabic authors of the 
fourteenth century .^^ By that time Latin science had become inde- 
pendent of the contemporary Arabic writings and contemptuous of 
them. On the other hand, the Latin (and Hebrew) translations from 
the Arabic include a shockingly large mass of astrological and alchemical 
treatises and other rubbish. Some of the astrological and alchemical 
writings, it should be noted, are valuable or contain valuable materials 
and are to some extent the forerunners of our own astronomical and 
chemical literature, but many others are worthless, or rather worse than 

^ The only translations taken into account here are those composed in the Middle 
Ages for actual use, not the translations made by philologists in the seventeenth 
century or later for archaeological reasons. 



Ancient and Mediaeval Science 33 

worthless, dangerous and subversive. Even so we should not be too 
severe in judging those aberrations, for we have not yet succeeded in 
overcoming them and but for the control of scientific societies and acade- 
mies, the incessant criticism coming from the scientific press and the 
university chairs, our own civilization would soon be overrun and smoth- 
ered by superstitions and lies.^^ 



Our judgment of mediaeval science in general must always be tem- 
pered by the considerations which have just been offered and by due and 
profound humility. We may be great scientists (I mean, we modem 
men), but we are also great barbarians. We know, or seem to know, 
everything, except the essential. We have thrown religion out of doors 
but allowed superstitions, prejudices and lies to come in through the 
windows. We drum our chests in the best gorilla fashion saying (or 
thinking) "We can do this . . . we can do that . . . yea, we can even 
blow the world to smithereens," but what of it? Does that prove that 
we are civilized? Material power can be as dangerous as it is useful; 
it all depends on the men using it and on their manner of using it. 
Good or evil are in ourselves; material power does not create it but can 
multiply it indefinitely. 

To return to the Middle Ages it was a long period not of darkness 
and sterility but of gestation. To call it sterile would be just as foolish 
as to call a pregnant woman, sterile. Wait and see! It takes nine 
months of patience in one case and nine centuries in another but time 
does not matter. Mediaeval developments were undoubtedly slow as 
compared with our own tempo, but are we not going too fast? Our 
speed is not necessarily a good thing, nor very admirable; it is largely 
due to accumulated inertia. It would require unusual wisdom to brake 
it, and we are short on wisdom. 

The essential weakness of mediaeval thought was due to the lack 
of understanding of the experimental method and of the experimental 
point of view. Once that "open sesame" had been found, discoveries 
followed one another, almost automatically in some cases, with increas- 
ing speed. Modern science is the fruit of three centuries of that method. 
Its early development was exceedingly slow. Even the Greeks, so full 
of genius, had failed to discover it, though some of them had applied 
it in particular cases.^^ A few Muslim, Christian and Jewish scientists 
of the Middle Ages applied it too, but with the exception of Roger 
Bacon (XIII-2), nobody formulated it nor recognized its generality and 
its astounding potency .^^ 

** See review of a new edition of Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos for practical use, 
Chicago 1936 (Isis, 35, 181). 

^ Ptolemy ( II-l ) in his study of refraction, Galen ( II-2 ) in his experiments 
to determine the function of the kidneys, and of the cerebrum and spinal chord at 
difiFerent levels. 

^ Roger Bacon's formulation constitutes the sixth part ( out of seven ) of the 
Opus majus written in 1268. It can easily be read in Robert Belle Burke's trans- 
lation (p. 583-634, Philadelphia 1928; Isis, 11, 138-41). The letter on the magnet 



34 Introduction 

After three and a half centuries of additional gestation and many more 
experiments in various fields, Bacon's formulation and vindication of the 
experimental method was renewed with greater light and strength by his 
countryman and namesake Francis Bacon. In the Advancement of 
Learning ( 1605 ) and even more so in the Novum organum ( 1620 ) the 
second Bacon brought a new charter to the men of science, an invita- 
tion to apply the new method of truthseeking to all the problems of sci- 
ence and life. Bacon was much less a prophet than an eloquent advo- 
cate of the spirit of his time. The experimental method had finally 
reached maturity. Galileo's writings were even more influential than 
Bacon's for the latter 's were purely rhetorical while Galileo's 
were accompanied by great deeds, revolutionary discoveries. Bacon 
preached but Galileo wrought. 

Bacon's and Galileo's ideas were so timely and so readily under- 
stood by many eager minds that new societies were created for the very 
purpose of implementing them. The earliest of those societies were 
established under Galileo's influence in Italy, the Accademia dei Lincei 
(1603-30) in Rome and after his death the Accademia del Cimento 
( 1657-67 ) in Florence. Note their titles, the Academy of the lynxes and 
the Academy of experiment. The first title continued the allegorical 
habits of earlier academies, but the references to lynxes, animals who see 
in the dark, was significant; the symbolic meaning was accentuated in 
the Academy's device, a lynx tearing Cerberus with its claws, the struggle 
of truth with superstition. The second title was even more significant. 
The Academy of experiment!; its members gathered for the purpose 
of experimenting and of discovering the truth by the experimental 
method.^'^ 

Both academies were shortlived, for the Italian climate of that time 
was not favorable to the development of untrammelled truthseeking, but 
their efforts were continued in exemplary fashion by two other academies 
established in England and France before the closing of the Accademia 
del Cimento. The reader knows that I am referring to the Royal 
Society founded in London in 1662, and the Academic des Sciences 
founded in Paris in 1666. These two academies are still functioning 
to-day but never were their activities more necessary and more pregnant 
than in their early years. The academies of the seventeenth century 
marked the triumph of the experimental method and the birth of mod- 

which is one of the most remarkable examples of experimental science in the Middle 
Ages, was written by Peter the Stranger (XIII-2) at almost the same time, 1269. 
It does not speak of the method, except a few lines in chapter 2. 

^ The Accademia del cimento fully justified its title and accomplished its pur- 
pose. Its deeds were published by its second and last secretary, Lorenzo Maga- 
lotti (1637-1712), in a beautiful folio volume Saggi di naturali esperienze (Firenze 
1667). This was Englished by Richard Waller (c. 1650-1715) and pubHshed by 
order of the Royal Society, Essayes of natural experiments made in the Academie del 
Cimento (London 1684). Sixty-four years after the original publication it was 
translated into Latin by the Dutch physicist, Pieter van Musschenbroek (1692- 
1761), Tentamina experimentorum naturalium captorum in Academia del Cimento 
(474 p., 32 pi., Leiden 1731), with additions and a discourse on experimental 
method by the translator. 



Ancient and Mediaeval Science 35 



em science; together with other academies estabhshed on similar pat- 
terns, they remained until the end of the eighteenth century the main 
agencies of scientific progress; it is impossible to exaggerate their im- 
portance. 

Yet we should remember two things. First these seventeenth cen- 
tury academicians could not have done what they did but for the long 
mediaeval gestation. They themselves did not realize that and some of 
the early academicians were tempted to believe that they were directly 
continuing the traditions not of the Middle Ages but of Greek antiquity. 
Their illusion is now exposed without the possibility of doubt. When- 
ever one investigates carefully the origins of "modern" thought, even in 
the minds of its most original forerunners (say, Leonardo da Vinci, 
Galileo, Descartes, Newton) one finds an abundance of mediaeval 
roots. The seventeenth century men of science were standing upon the 
shoulders of mediaeval giants; irrespective of their own sizes they were 
that much taller. 

In the second place, while it is obvious that our scientists have fully 
understood and exploited the experimental method, this is not true of 
the great majority of modern men who persist in preferring irrational 
methods to rational ones (e.g., in the treatment of political and social 
problems), or else who attach more importance to a priori reasoning 
than to the a posteriori reasoning which is the very essence of the experi- 
mental spirit. This point deserves elaboration by means of an example. 

The discovery of the sexuality of higher plants by Camerarius in 
1694 could have been made two thousand years earlier, if the experimen- 
tal method had been applied to it.^^ It was retarded by non-experimen- 
tal thinking and by prejudices, and after its publication it was rejected and 
its general acceptance was delayed for half a century because of the 
same prejudices. Similar remarks could be offered with regard to almost 
every fundamental discovery of modern science down to the theory of 
evolution ( 1859 ) . Each discovery was delayed by a kind of intellectual 
inertia, and when it was finally made, its acceptance was delayed by the 
same inertia, the refusal to experiment ( or even to observe ) and to abide 
by the experimental results. 

The experimental method is now explained in philosophical courses 
(one might even say, it is explained nowhere else, for the teachers of 
science are satisfied to show it in action), but there are many philoso- 
phers, even among the greatest, who have never understood it. More- 
over, its beneficial value is often minimized and even obliterated by the 
abuse of purely dialectical methods. Scholasticism ( or the abuse of dia- 
lectics ) is not by any means a mediaeval disease, nor is it a Latin one, 
as is too readily asserted by people who can think only of Catholic scho- 
lasticism, Thomism or neo-Thomism. That is one species of scholasti- 
cism, but there are many others and the genus is scattered all over the 
world. Scholasticism is a mental disease which can be diagnosed in 
Hindu and Chinese minds, as well as in Latin, Greek, Arabic, or He- 



ss, 



'G. Sarton: The artificial fertilization of date-palms in the time of Ashur- 
NAsiR-PAL 885-60 B.C. (Isis, 21, 8-13, 4 pi., 1934). 



36 Introduction 

brew ones. Few philosophers have been able to shake it off completely. 
Scholasticism it should be noted is not at all a denial of the value of 
observation and experiment but a tendency to exaggerate deductive 
reasoning on a given experimental basis. The experimental basis of 
mediaeval schoolmen was pitifully, ridiculously, small, but the main 
point is this, that no matter how large that basis be its fertility and 
eflScacy are limited. Deductive reasoning, even of the purest kind as 
in mathematical physics, needs periodic checking by experimental 
means, or else it may degenerate into fallacies or nonsense. 

Many of the discussions of modern astrophysics seem to be based on 
an insufficient experimental basis; at any rate, their theoretical construc- 
tions are so gigantic that the experimental basis seems infinitesimal. We 
need more than a red-shift "^ of spectral lines to agree to the prodigious 
theory of the expanding universe, and more than a beautiful system of 
equations to accept as a reality canon Georges Lemaitre's ingenious 
idea of a cosmic egg. Everybody who is not an astrophysicist would 
require additional evidence, not one set of observations interpreted in 
agreement with the theory of relativity, but convergent sets of different 
kinds of observation. The old astronomical theories were not as adven- 
turous; they could be tested in many ways. The gradual development 
of celestial mechanics and the elaboration of appropriate tables made 
continual tests possible. Every observatory was a testing ground and 
every eclipse or transit, a new challenge. Do the astrophysicists not 
need cross-examinations? One would think that they could not rest 
until their grandiose ideas had been checked and counterchecked in 
every possible manner, yet they proceed cheerfully from one audacious 
structure to another which is more audacious still and so on. Happily, 
they restrict their extrapolations to their own field and do not try to legis- 
late for the microscopic human world. 

Metaphysicians are less restrained and tend to offer their conclusions 
in the most general and peremptory form. In his discussion of Plato's 
Republic the illustrious Kant remarked, "Nothing can be more mischie- 
vous and more unworthy a philosopher than the vulgar appeal to what 
is called adverse experience, which possibly might never have existed, 
if at the proper time institutions had been framed according to those 



^ "Red-shift" is short for shift of spectral lines toward the red end of the 
spectrum. According to the Doppler principle such a shift toward the longer wave 
length side represents a moving away of the radiating object from the observer. 
But is the red-shift really a velocity-shift, or does it bear another interpretation? 
For discussion of these puzzling matters see Arthur Eddington: The expanding 
universe (Cambridge University, 1933); Edwin Hubble: The realm of the nebulae 
(Yale Press, New Haven 1936); The observational approach to cosmology (Claren- 
don Press, Oxford 1937). Harlow Shapley: Galaxies (Philadelphia 1943). Both 
Hubble and Shapley are cautious and uneasy; Sir Arthur is more reckless. My 
criticism does not apply to them but only to astronomers who speak too glibly 
of the expanding universe. See also the excellent paper of Percy W. Bridgman: 
On the nature and the limitations of cosmical inquiries (Scientific Monthly 37, 
385-97, 1933). 



Ancient and Mediaeval Science 37 

ideas, and not according to crude concepts, which, because they were 
derived from experience only, have marred all good intentions." ^° 

Another German philosopher, Hegel, who was a dictator of European 
( and American ) thought for a good part of the nineteenth century, be- 
gan his career in a manner which was prophetic of his own unwisdom. 
His Dissertatio philosophica de orbitis planetarum ( 1801 ) was a "philo- 
sophical" attack on Newtonian astronomy. Hegel "proved" that there 
could not be more than seven planets.^^ That remarkable thesis was 
published soon after the discovery of Ceres by Giuseppe Piazzi! ^- 

Hegelian doctrine and method influenced deeply such men as Karl 
Marx (1818-83) and Friedrich Engels (1820-95) and some of Hegel's 
poison penetrated their own philosophy, the dialectical materialism and 
historical materialism, which in its turn is influencing many men and 
women of our own times."^^ 

This shows that there is always a strong tendency, due no doubt to 
the intrinsic qualities of the human mind, to add dialectics, enough or 
too much, in season or out of season, to experience, a perverse desire to 
transcend experience. Even the greatest men of science are not immune 
from that weakness, witness one of the best known of our own contem- 
poraries — you have already named him in your own minds — the late 
Arthur Stanley Eddington. During the last period of his life ( 1921- 
44 ) , Eddington developed the astounding doctrine that the structure of 
the universe can be established on an a priori basis because of the struc- 
ture of our own mind.'*^ It is true that the agreement between the value 

*° Critique of pure reason. Transcendental dialectic, Book I, section 1, p, 275 in 
Max MiJLLER's translation (London 1881). 

" The duke Ernest of Saxony-Gotha sent a copy of Hegel's thesis to the 
astronomer Franz Xaver von Zach with the inscription "Monumentum insaniae 
saecuh decimi noni" (Rudolf Wolf: Geschichte der Astronomic, p. 685, Miinchen 
1877). In 1801, Hegel was no longer a child, he was 31 years old. The text of 
his Dissertatio "pro licentia docendi" may be found in his Samtliche Werke, 
Glockner's edition (vol. 1, 3-29, 1927). 

^ Piazzi observed Ceres for the first time on the first evening of the nine- 
teenth century, Jan. 1, 1801; the news reached Bode in Berlin only on March 20, but 
created at once a commotion among astronomers. Hegel defended his thesis in 
Jena, on August 27, 1801. 

** For good illustrations of that sinister influence on men of science, to wit, 
botanists, see Trofim Denisovich LyseNko: Heredity and its variabihty (65 p., 
New York 1946; Isis 37, 108); P. S. Hudson and R. H. Richens: The new genetics 
in the Soviet Union (88 p., Cambridge 1946; Isis 37, 106-8); Conway Zirkle: The 
death of a science in Russia (334 p., Philadelphia 1949; Isis 41, 238-39). Julian 
Huxley: Heredity, East and West (256 p., New York 1949; Isis 41, 239). The 
words "dialectical materialism" are used so frequently behind the Iron Curtain, that 
it has been necessary there to coin the abbreviation "diamat." 

^ Sir Arthur summarized his views as follows: "An intelligence, unacquainted 
with our universe, but acquainted with the system of thought by which the human 
mind interprets to itself the content of its sensory experience, should be able to 
attain all the knowledge of physics that we have attained by experiment. He 
would not deduce the particular events and objects of our experience, but he 
would deduce the generalizations we have based on them. For example, he would 
infer the existence and properties of radium, but not the dimensions of the 
Earth." (Nature, 154, 759, 1944). 



38 Introduction 

of observed universal constants and their value found by his "pure rea- 
soning" was impressively close. And yet the undertaking frightens us 
beyond words.^^ 

We must philosophize, but it is safer never to lose sight of experience. 
We must go back to the concrete and tangible facts as often as possible 
to keep our strength and our sanity. Like Antaeos we are safe only 
as long as we remain in touch with the good earth. We must not extra- 
polate too far; in such matters it is safer to imitate the plain terrestrial 
physicists than the astrophysicists. With the disturbing exception of 
Eddington, the majority of scientists of our time avoid superrationalism 
and fantastic extrapolations. It is not that they are wiser than their 
mediaeval ancestors, but centuries of experimental success and failure 
have sobered their thoughts. In a curious way Eddington helps us to 
be more tolerant with mediaeval scholasticism, for he shows us how diffi- 
cult it is to follow the narijow road between irrationalism and excessive 
rationalism. 



The mediaeval gestation was necessary; it would have had to occur 
in one way or another. It might have been faster, but we cannot explain 
why things happen as they do, and in particular their tempo defies analy- 
sis; it is futile to consider imaginary sequences different from the real 
ones. 

Young historians of science, who know only the bare outline as may 
be read in a short primer, may fancy that the development of science was 
much simpler than it really was; that it was logical, continuous, straight- 
forward. Nothing is further from the truth. To begin with, the march 
of science was often thwarted and deflected by general principles or 
prejudices, not to speak of physical or human calamities ( such as earth- 
quakes, epidemics, wars). The notion that the trajectories of planets 
must be circular retarded Kepler's discovery for centuries, though Apol- 
LONios had prepared the mathematical basis of it. That is tlie classical 
example of inertia due to prejudice, but there are plenty of others. 
Each great discovery of the past has been retarded by a similar inertia. 
In a particular case that spiritual inertia is still blocking the way. I am 
referring to the metric system. One of its two fundamental ideas^^ — 
that the system of weights, measures and moneys should be built on 
the same basis as our number system — was hit upon by Sumerian mathe- 
maticians more than five thousand years ago. It was reasserted very 
clearly by the Flemish mathematician, Simon Stevin in 1585. The 
metric system was established in 1795.^'^ It has since been accepted by 
the majority of civilized nations, but not by England nor America. 

*^For further discussion of this, see Max Born: Experiment and theory in 
physics (44 p., Cambridge University Press, 1943; Isis 35, 261, 263) and Dingle's 
inaugural lecture (1947). 

*^ The other one concerns the choice of units; the independent units should be as 
few and as universal as possible. 

■'■'Sarton: The first explanation of decimal fractions and measures, together vi'ith 
a history of the decimal idea (Isis, 23, 153-244, 1935). 



Ancient and Mediaeval Science 39 

Leaving out of account calamities and prejudices, how could one 
expect the path between one discovery and the following to be the 
shortest one? How could one determine the shortest distance from A 
to B as long as B is unknown (Fig. 3)? What happens, of course, is 
that men of science having reached the point A are wondering what 
to do next; they feel their way around A and after more or less beating 
about the bush, after many circumvolutions, hesitations, retrogradations, 
one of them may finally discover B. When B has been sufficiently recon- 
noitred and its coordinates are known but not before, it is easy to de- 
termine the shortest distance to it. After that the shortest distance from 
A to B will be the way from A to B and investigators will be carried as 
rapidly as possible to this new outpost and be prepared to continue their 
exploration further on. There are thus always at least two roads from 
A to B, the long "historical" one which leads to the discovery of B, and 
the "dogmatic" one which leads from A to B in the simplest and quick- 
est manner. Any discovery is a new outpost and a new starting point; 
nobody can tell what may still be discovered beyond it; it may be little 
or nothing or else a new world may be hidden behind it. This is espe- 




FIGURE3 



cially tangible when the discovery is a new instrument, multiplying the 
sensitiveness of our senses or perhaps creating new ones, but it is equally 
true when it is simply an idea, for a scientific idea is like a scientific in- 
strument, a new means of exploration. 

One might claim that Christopher Columbus did not discover Amer- 
ica because he never thought of a new world but remained convinced 
until the end of his life that he had simply found a westward road to the 
Far East. Our language perpetuates that illusion of his, for we still call 
the aboriginal Americans "Indians" and the Islands off the western Amer- 
ican coast "West Indies." To me that claim seems a bit pedantic, and 
if applied to Columbus one might apply it just as well to many other 
discoverers, who could not possibly know their Americas. They dis- 
covered some islands off the coast but as they were not prophets, they 
could not possibly guess where the mainland lay or what it really was. 
In a strict sense they could discover only what they saw, they could not 
discover the things as yet unseen to which they had opened a path; they 
were the masters of to-day, not of to-morrow. If Columbus did not dis- 
cover America, then Faraday is not the father of electrotechnics nor 
Galois, the father of the theory of groups. Should we credit a man with 
the whole of his posterity or only with his immediate children? 



40 Introduction 

The logical investigation of science has tempted many scholars'*^ and 
the more optimistic, such as the physico-chemist, Wilhelm Ostwald 
(1853-1932),^^ believed that it might facilitate new discoveries. It is 
true that an experienced investigator may obtain stimulating "hints" 
from the reading of ancient memoirs, but he might obtain similar "hints" 
in many other ways. The most unexpected and bizarre occurrence may 
excite a mind which is on the alert, sensitive and vigorous. The deeper 
methods of discovery are not more patient of analysis than the methods 
of artistic creation. Or to put it otherwise we may analyze them as 
much as we please, the essential is bound to escape us. It does not fol- 
low that the analysis is useless but simply that its usefulness is uncertain, 
unpredictable and at best small. 

The historian of science is not satisfied with such a statement as "Bec- 
QUEREL discovered the radioactivity of uranium in 1896." He wants to 
know much more "How did that happen? Why did it happen in 1896 
and not before? What caused or occasioned the discovery? Who was 
Becquerel and why was he following that particular track? . . ." The 
answers to such questions are not likely to reveal secrets of discovery; 
their heuristic value is negligible; they reveal something less practical 
and less pregnant but perhaps more interesting and more moving — the 
human sources and contingencies of scientific development. The word 
"reveal" is not excessive; if men of science are properly attuned to it this 
kind of knowledge comes to them as a revelation of something they could 
hardly have imagined. Indeed, as long as we study science in the trea- 
tises ( and we must begin that way ) or in technical monographs we have 
an entirely false view of it as a growing thing, in its genesis and becom- 
ing. The treatise gives us the scientific knowledge we need and it gives 
it in the simplest and most direct manner, without unnecessary detours 
and digressions; it is unavoidably dogmatic and anti-historical; it has to 
put in the first place not the oldest notions but the most fundamental, and 
these are likely to be the latest or at least very recent. In fact the dis- 
covery of a new fundamental notion invites the redaction of a new treatise 
properly focussed upon that very notion. 

A complete body of science, or one that seems to be complete, we 
might say, one that is sufficiently complete, as is oflFered to us in a well 
written treatise, such a body is beautiful to look at, so beautiful that it 
may excite the enthusiasm of a neophyte and determine his career. It 
is very abstract, almost superhuman or inhuman, but it is in reality — im- 
plicitly — very human. The neophyte, if he has imagination and sensi- 
bility, feels that even as he would feel a living faith in spite of rite and 
ceremonial. 

After all a discovery, even the most abstract, let us say, a mathemati- 
cal or physical theorem, is abstract only in its final shape. Was it not 



*^E.g., Frederick Barry: The scientific habit of thought (372 p., New York 
1927; Isis, 14, 265-68); various others are enumerated in Sarton: The study of the 
history of science (56-57, Cambridge, Mass., 1936), and in chapter 7 in the bibh- 
ography below. 

*«Isis (1, 27). 



Ancient and Mediaeval Science 41 

due to the observations and meditations of a living individual, a being as 
limited and imperfect as ourselves? However abstract from the outside, 
it is very concrete from the inside. 

The hard-boiled physicist may retort that he is interested only in the 
results, the technical results, and not at all in the men who obtained 
them, nor in the contingencies of discovery. His historical curiosity, if 
he has any, is restricted to the sequences of technical points, as were 
enumerated by Hoppe,^*^ or for that matter by anyone who is charged 
to relate past events in the briefest time and space; the inventors are 
named, barely named, and possibly a few dates are hooked to the names; 
that is all. The names might almost be replaced by mute symbols, for 
without further explanation they are meaningless. One reads, "In 1828 
NicoL invented a prism enabling one to obtain a single pencil of white 
polarized light." Who was Nicol? Nicol is the man who invented the 
Nicol prism. Not very helpful. Such historical outlines are almost as 
abstract as the ideas which they list, but this is due only to their incom- 
pleteness. If one empties all the humanities from a story, that story is 
pretty inhuman, but it is not a real story, only the ghost of one. 

The humanist on the contrary is not satisfied unless he be able not 
only to set forth the discoveries in their chronological sequence, but also 
to explain the long travail and maybe the sufferings which led to each 
of them, the mistakes which were made, the false tracks which were fol- 
lowed, the misunderstandings, the quarrels, the victories and the failures; 
he rejoices in the gradual unveiling of all the contingencies and hazards 
which constitute the warp and woof of living science. He loves the ab- 
stractions of science, the final or latest results, to be sure, but he loves 
also the human elements mixed with them. He loves science, but he 
loves men more and men of science, best. He is full of gratitude and 
wonder, but his wonder occurs as it were on three different levels, first, 
the wonders of nature, second, the wonders of science, and third, best 
of all, the wonders of scientific discovery — the wonder that such wonders 
have been discovered by men, men like ourselves.*^^ Therefore, he often 
takes more interest in the process of discovery or in the discoverer than 
in the thing discovered. The latter in many cases, whether it be the 
temperature of a star or the behavior of a louse's louse, leaves him cold. 
Looked at from that angle, the history of science is a part and perhaps 
the best part, of the divine comedy, or the human comedy, in which we 
all participate. We love the truth in itself and for itself. Yet we are 
eager to know how we reached whatever we reached of it, and thus be 
able to direct our gratitude to the seekers, the rebels, the fighters, all 
those who helped us to obtain our main treasures. 

The account of these spiritual conquests and of our gradual liberation 
from errors, doubts, superstitions and fears, fills the best pages in the 

"* Edmund Hoppe (1854-1928): Geschichte der Physik (Braunschweig 1926; 
Isis, 9, 571; 13, 45-50). 

" For example, the nebulae themselves are wonderful; stellar astronomy is more 
wonderful, but most wonderful of all is the fact that that astronomy has been dis- 
covered and described by infinitesimal creatures. 



42 Introduction 

archives of mankind. We are happy and proud to be able to write a 
few of those pages, and we love to read the pages which others have 
already written; — to read them quietly and thoroughly with all the foot- 
notes. Those pages touch our hearts, not simply our brains; they repre- 
sent our noblest tradition, the best that is in us. Some of those traditions 
take us back to ancient or mediaeval times, others date from yesterday, 
but whether old or young, they give us pride in the past and faith in the 
future. They help us to be better men, wiser, kinder and humbler, even 
more cheerful. 

The historian of science in Antiquity and the Middle Ages is better 
able to appreciate tradition because the latter takes of necessity as much 
place in his account as the discoveries and the inventions; the historian 
of modern science takes tradition for granted, yet it exists and is as fun- 
damental as ever. Discoveries would be useless if they were not trans- 
mitted to others, and eventually to the whole of mankind. When we 
study the distant past every document is important because only a few 
have survived, and it is our duty to make the most of them. Historians 
who will be charged to write the history of, say, twentieth century sci- 
ence will face difficulties of a very different kind. They will be as it 
were buried under an avalanche of documents, far more than they could 
possibly examine, let alone read or study. Therefore, they will have 
to select as well as possible relatively few documents out of the enormous 
mass and focus their attention upon these few. In the case of ancient and 
mediaeval science, that preparation has been done by Father Time with 
splendid indifference and arbitrariness. Future historians will have to 
replace that random selection by one as rational, impartial and careful 
as possible. That will require an elaborate division of labor between 
them, a matter which cannot be explained here and now.^- 

The tradition of experience and knowledge takes another form in 
modern times than it did in the past, but it loses nothing of its importance 
and necessity. It is the best part today of our inheritance and tomorrow 
of our legacy, and we must be worthy of it. 



Appendix 

MONUMENTAL AND ICONOGRAPHIC TRADITION 
VS. LITERARY TRADITION 

Scientific ideas and remembrances are transmitted not only by literary texts but 
also by monuments, such as buildings, tombstones, instruments and objects of many 
kinds. In a sense all the ancient buildings and monuments, irrespective of their 
original purpose, are witnesses of the ancient men's knowledge as well as of their 

^'' See preliminary views in the author's Remarks concerning the history of 
twentieth century science (Isis, 26, 53-62, 1936). 



Ancient and Mediaeval Science 43 

arts and crafts. The historian of science cannot examine the Parthenon, Hagia 
Sophia, or the cathedral of Chartres without deep emotion and without the oppor- 
tunity of learning much concerning the science of their builders. 

Instruments and other small objects may be found in the musetims and especially 
in the museums of science such as exist in Haarlem and Leiden, Paris, South Kensing- 
ton, Oxford and Cambridge, Munich, Washington and Chicago, etc. The authen- 
ticity of each item requires a special demonstration but for the purpose of study or 
teaching, copies of duly accredited items are generally as good as the originals. 

Iconographic documents are pictures or images representing the original items. 
When those items are extant, the pictures of them are comparable to other copies, 
and have almost as much documentary value as the originals. When the items are 
lost, the reliability of each image must be appraised separately. Some drawings or 
printed images are tfiemselves original documents, e.g., the engineering sketches of 
Leonardo da Vinci or the printed placards of ancient universities. 

The most attractive of the monuments are statues, busts, or painted portraits; 
the most attractive of the iconographic documents are drawn, engraved or printed 
portraits. The tradition of portraits anterior to the fifteenth century is exceedingly 
diflBcult to establish. It is precarious at best, for it can hardly bear any solution of 
continuity between the living man at one end and the document in our hand at 
the other. Even in the case of modern men of science their iconographic tradition 
can be easily broken or jeopardized (e.g., when the legends of two portraits are 
accidentally interchanged in an article or a book). 

There is no reason whatsoever to believe in the genuineness of any bust or statue 
of any ancient man of science. The busts bearing such names as Plato, Euclid, 
etc., are impostures. Mediaeval likenesses of contemporary men of science are al- 
most equally unreliable, except in the case of a few illuminated MSS. When a lim- 
ner was asked to illustrate and illuminate a given text he sometimes added the portrait 
of the author (e.g., the author ofiFering his book to his patron, a kind of iconographic 
dedication). It is possible that some of these portraits are real portraits, yet it is 
almost impossible to prove their genuineness. 

Statues of modern men of science have generally no value as iconographic evi- 
dence, and should not be reproduced as portraits, except faute de mieux. Indeed, 
most statues are posthumous, hence second hand, and a statue derived from a two 
dimensional portrait may be very far removed from reality. 

Similar remarks apply to medals; almost every portrait in medallic form is posthu- 
mous and second-hand or n-th hand. Such medals are valuable witnesses of a man's 
fame, of memorial ceremonies or other events. 

Historians of science should always deal with the available monuments as well 
as with the texts, and they should never neglect the iconographic traditions. They 
should bear in mind, however, the fragility of such traditions and be extremely 
cautious. 

For additional information on this topic see Sarton: Iconographic honesty (Isis, 
30, 222-35, 1939); Portraits of ancient men of science (Lychnos, 249-56, 1 fig., 
Uppsala 1945). Paul Schrecker (Isis, 32, 126). 



III. IS IT POSSIBLE TO TEACH 
THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE? 

The first two lectures have considered the question "Is it worthwhile 
to teach the history of science?", and I trust have prompted you to an- 
swer it in the affirmative. The writer is not naive enough to imagine 
that such a decision will be universal, or even general. Much hostility 
or inertia will stop our advance or slow it up. Let me briefly reiterate 
the main sources of opposition and indifference. 

There are, in the first place, those who would reject the whole past. 
The past is finished, irremediable, permanent; there is nothing we can 
do about it, and hence it is better not to worry about it. In the second 
place, some men of science will admit interest in history and realize its 
importance and difficulties, but they are not interested in the history of 
science. Science, they would say, need not concern itself with its own 
past; artists may study the history of art, because the art of the past is, 
or may be, as up-to-date, as new, as their own; the science of the past, 
on the contrary, is definitely inferior to our own and has been superseded 
by it. Our new scientific books contain all that is worthwhile in the 
old, less the rubbish. The very perfectibility of science causes its past 
efforts to be negligible. 

There is no hope of overcoming the animosity of these two groups; 
they are historically blind. Let us now introduce a third group, not of 
enemies but of ignorant and dangerous friends. You may remember 
Voltaire's saying "God help me against my friends. I can take care 
of my enemies." That "cri du coeur" has often been repeated, I am 
sure, with less impertinence but with equal poignancy. There is a large 
group of men of science, perhaps a majority, who are interested in the 
history of science, nay, enthusiastic about it, but hardly see the necessity 
of studying it. "It is all so simple and so easy, hardly a man's job." 
They know well enough scientific [their own] difficulties but have no 
idea whatsoever of historical methods and pitfalls. History is easy to 
read, but it does not follow that it is easy to write. Indeed, it is very 
difficult to find the truth in historical matters, and having found it, to 
express it clearly. How difficult is it? Is it more difficult than, say, the 
theory of functions or spectral analysis? Is it more difficult to walk on 
a tight rope than to play the violin? Foolish questions all. Each of 
these things is not only difficult but impossible for those who are not 
sufficiently prepared for it by nature and training. Historical investiga- 
tions remain difficult even for those who have received the best prepara- 
tion; the absence of difficulties is apparent only to those who are unpre- 
pared and ignorant. Many of our friends, distinguished men of science, 
well-meaning but injudicious when the past is concerned, love the history 
of science so much that they accept as good any book on the subject 



To Teach the History of Science? 45 

without criticism of any kind, and thus instead of helping us they hasten 
the disintegration of our studies, — the spiritual degradation to which I 
referred before — or a least they make the upbuilding more difficult. 

These dangerous friends would have no hesitation in answering the 
second question "Is it possible to teach the history of science?" It is not 
only possible, they would say, but very easy, too easy, — a task to be left 
to second-rate or third-rate minds. 

There is no time for me to explain here and now the diflBculties of 
the historical method in general or of the history of science in particular. 
That cannot be done even in a course in the history of science in which 
the instructor has hardly time enough to describe the main results of 
research, but certainly none to explain how those results were obtained. 
A few difficulties have been indicated, however, in the two previous lec- 
tures and for the others I must ask your indulgence and your confidence. 
The great men to whom we owe a good part of our knowledge, Moritz 
Cantor, Karl Sudhoff, Paul Tannery, Pierre Duhem, Sir Thomas 
Heath, Lippmann, Ruska, and tutti qtianti, spent their lives working 
with zeal and patience, grappling with one problem after another, clear- 
ing up riddles and obscurities, and sometimes they ventured to compose 
a synthesis of all the knowledge they had managed to unravel and to put 
in order, making it possible for their successors to continue their task and 
to improve it; would you say they wrestled with shadows? 

History as an art is as old as medicine, which is but another way of 
saying that it is extremely old. Some of the earliest writings of every 
cultural group are historical in pm-pose. Moreover there were great his- 
torians in ancient and mediaeval times. I need not mention their names 
for you know them; nevertheless, historical methods were not established 
much before the last century and that century has seen the birth of his- 
torical science as well as of medical science. At first, history was pri- 
marily concerned with political and military matters, the history of dy- 
nasties, kings and generals. Then the field was gradually expanded as 
well as diversified; we were invited to study or to consider economic 
history, social history, the history of the people, of the common man, the 
history of agriculture and of commerce, the history of literatures, etc. 
Among these many branches of the historical tree, three deserve to arrest 
our attention: our own, the history of science, and two others sufficiently 
close to it to incite comparison, the history of religion and the history of 
art. The two last-named are (in their modern form) very young but 
not quite as young as the history of science, and hence they may help to 
guide the development of the latter. 

Writing in 1905, the distinguished French art historian, Andre Mi- 
chel, declared,^^ "The history of art has been the last of the historical 
sciences to be constituted, and as such it can now claim a share in their 
methods and take its place in their company. The nature and complex- 
ity of facts that it is its duty to analyze and to classify would suffice to 
explain the slowness of its ascension." He then refers to the fantasies 

^ In his preface to the Histoire de I'art of which he had assumed direction ( Paris 
1905^.). 



46 Introduction 

of Hegel and to the meditations of Taine and explains that in order to 
reach maturity the history of art hke every other historical science re- 
quired the slow and painful elaboration of a large number of special 
investigations. You can hardly speak of science before a system or syn- 
thesis has been created, and on the other hand, the synthesis will hardly 
be possible before the monographs have been completed. Does this 
mean that the synthesis must be postponed until the Greek calends? 
Surely not. Tentative syntheses must be prepared from time to time 
to make possible further advances; no synthesis is premature which is 
effected without extravagant claims, humbly and honestly. Each such 
synthesis is like an encampment in a long, endless march, the march 
toward truth. Last century, the critical methods of the historian of art 
were still unknown to the educated public and to the administrators of 
our colleges, and a man might be called to teach that history on the 
strength of his familiarity with the great museums and of his "good taste" 
and his ability to express generalities in the manner of Walter Pater 
or in the manner of Taine. That time is past. Good taste and good 
letters are still essential but no longer sufficient. The departments of 
the history of art of our universities are now manned by well-trained 
scholars. Their task is admittedly so considerable that it is divided 
between them — some are experts on early oriental art or Greek art or 
they deal only with the Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, or Dada period 
( the last-named being, I regret to say, our own ) . The field is too large 
for one man, although one cannot help hoping that there will appear 
from time to time a man big enough and bold enough to encompass the 
whole of it. 

The task of those new historians was facilitated by their friendly ri- 
valry and their keen emulation. Each one of them might conceive a new 
method or a new approach, he might discover a lost masterpiece or bring 
to light forgotten documents. The fruits of their efforts appeared in their 
publications and they were discussed in seminaries with their students, in 
colloquia with their rivals, in academic meetings and national and inter- 
national congresses. To speak only of the latter, for the smaller gather- 
ings are too numerous to be recalled, the first international congress 
for the history of art was called to order in Vienna in 1873. Judging 
from its proceedings, published in the following year, it was a very mod- 
est undertaking but the first of a long series. The fifteenth congress took 
place in London, in July 1939, just before the outbreak of the second 
World War. In these assemblies, historians of art belonging to many 
countries exhibit their latest discoveries, ventilate their theories, present 
and compare their results and their methods. Each participant returns 
to his home and study a little richer in knowledge, surer in his grasp, 
clearer in his mind, more conscious of the general aim and work, and 
of his own share in it; sometimes, his education is of a different kind, for 
his convictions are shaken by the arguments of colleagues who see things 
in a different light; sometimes, his immature convictions are replaced by 
doubts, certainties are disturbed by new convictions or new enigmas; 
that is just as good if not better. In any case, the discipline to which 



To Teach the History of Science? 47 

he and the others have devoted their hves is shaping itself with greater 
clearness and rigor. During the last half century, the history of art has 
become gradually a solid body of knowledge much more severe than it 
was but also more rewarding and altogether more pleasant. Many 
problems have been solved but many more have been evoked, and the 
historian of art has been kept very busy, learning and unlearning, search- 
ing for better knowledge and a deeper understanding of his own position 
or of the whole field. That field is larger and richer. There is more 
truth in it than before and more beauty. 



The history of religion reached its period of adolescence at about the 
same time as the history of art, say, about the last quarter of the century. 
The main historical difficulties seem to have lain in the correct definition 
of the field. This was more difficult than for the history of art which 
shaped itself naturally. Take the history of painting or the history of 
music. We start with a collection of masterpieces — paintings or parti- 
tions. These are concrete, dated or datable objects; it is not too difficult 
to put them, or most of them, in a chronological sequence, and there you 
have the skeleton of your history. The history of religion, on the other 
hand, is a history of emotions and of ideas, the origin of which may be 
extremely difficult to perceive or to date. It is a history of creeds and 
beliefs, of rites and institutions, and much of that is difficult to analyze 
and describe, because it does not happen once but flows and continues. 
The scholars who undertook those studies spent much time in discussing 
religion, various religions, the comparativeness of religions, the science 
of religion, the birth and development of religious institutions, etc. The 
subject was so full of controversies and so widely open to prejudice that 
it took them a relatively long time to realize the value of purely historical 
investigations conducted as other historical investigations are, without 
parti pris or without desire of either apologetics or disparagement. The 
history of that discipline is well known, because of the methodical writ- 
ings of many scholars^^ and of the lectures delivered at the international 
congresses of the history of religion. 

The first of these congresses took place in Paris, in 1900,^^ and the 
latest one in Amsterdam, in 1950. These congresses were more impor- 
tant than the art congresses, because they attracted the attention of more 
scholars, indeed, there are far more men professionally concerned with 
religion and its past than there are concerned with the history of art. 
Moreover, every religious man is obliged to think historically, if only 
because he is always obliged to look back to the origin of his religion, 
while creative artists are more exclusively concerned with their own 



"E.g., the Belgian, Count Goblet d'Alviella (1846-1925) in his collected 
essays, Croyances, rites, institutions (3 vols., Paris 1911); in vols. 2 and 3. 

^An earlier congress "The world's first parliament of religions," had been held 
in Chicago in 1893, but that vv^as something very different in purpose and in realiza- 
tion, a noble appeal to religious toleration rather than to impartial scholarship. The 
Chicago Congress vi^as philanthropic rather than scientific. 



48 , Introduction 

creations and with their own ideas rather than earlier ideas. Every 
theologian is a scholar ipso facto, while very few artists are scholarly 
minded. 

This is the second time that I mention international congresses, be- 
cause these played a great part in the organization of science and espe- 
cially in the definition of new disciplines and the formulation of their 
methods. Such congresses are very useful but not sufficient. The new 
discipline will scarcely flourish, unless the scholars devoting themselves 
to it are given opportunities to do their work, to earn a living, and to 
train apprentices. That condition was fulfilled, both for the history of 
art and the history of religion. Professors were appointed to teach the 
history of religion in the four Dutch universities in 1877 and very soon 
afterwards in Switzerland, Belgium and France. A special chair was 
established at the College de France in 1879. Before the end of the last 
century, there were a good number of professors of the history of religion 
or of the science of comparative religion, etc., in the leading universities 
of the world. The situation was even more favorable to the history of 
art, for, in addition to professorships in the leading universities, the mu- 
seums needing curators and experts offered tempting positions to hun- 
dreds of scholars. 

The third discipline, the history of science, was not so fortunate. It 
is true, international congresses were organized as early as 1900, but they 
enjoyed neither the importance nor the popularity of the congresses of 
the history of art and the history of religion, and their desiderata were 
not implemented by the creation of professorships.^*^ What is even 
more tragic, when a professorship was finally created at the College de 
France in 1892, the history of science was so badly understood that the 
professorship was awarded to incompetent persons and did more harm 
than good.^^ Even today, more than half a century later, the number 
of professorships in the history of science is still exceedingly small. This 
suggests that my queries are pertinent. "Is it worthwhile and possible 
to teach the history of science?" If the general answer of administrators 
and educators had been yes, the number of professorships would be 
much greater than it is. How shall we account for the fact that there 
is, at least, one professor of the history of art and one professor of the 
history of religion in almost every university and a professor of the his- 
tory of science in almost none. 



To begin with, let us clear up a misunderstanding, the confusion 
between the history of science and the history of particular sciences. 
That confusion is ancient. If we leave out of account various histories 
written in the 18th century which are too superficial and discursive and 



^ For congresses on the history of science, see Guide below, Chapter 24. 
^ That story is told with some detail in my article Paui,, Jules and Marie Tan- 
nery (Isis 38, 33-51,1947). 



To Teach the History of Science? 49 

even Montucla's history of mathematics ( which was in reahty a history 
of mathematical and physical sciences ) ,^^ the first modern history is the 
history of the inductive sciences by the Reverend William Whewell ( 3 
vols., London 1837), a book which maintained the dignity of a classic 
in English libraries and colleges during the whole of the Victorian age 
and even beyond.^^ Now this work was curiously built, and it is instruc- 
tive to examine its structure. It is divided into 18 books. The first 5, 
constituting volume 1, deal respectively with: (1) Greek philosophy; (2) 
Greek physics; (3) Greek astronomy (the final section of which is en- 
titled Arabic Astronomy, or From Ptolemy to Copernicus; all that in 10 
pages); (4) Mediaeval Physics; (5) Formal astronomy after the station- 
ary period, or From Copernicus to Kepler. Volume 2 bearing the sub- 
title "mechanical sciences" is also divided into 5 chapters, that is (6) 
Mechanics; (7) Astronomy; (8) Acoustics; (9) Optics; (10) Thermotics 
and atmology, i.e., the study of heat and vapors. The subdivision of 
volume 3 is more complicated. That volume deals with 8 sciences, di- 
vided into 6 groups. The subdivision will appear more clearly, if we 
begin a new paragraph for each group. 

The mechanico-chemical sciences: (11) Electricity; (12) Magnetism; 
(13) Galvanism or Voltaic electricity (last pages 98-101, transition to 
chemical science). 

The analytical science: (14) Chemistry. 

The analytico-classificatory science: (15) Mineralogy and crystal- 
lography. 

Classificatory sciences : (16) Systematic botany and zoology. 

Organical sciences: (17) Physiology and comparative anatomy. 

The palaetiological sciences: (18) Geology. 

There would be much more to say about Whewell's cumbrous and 
artificial classification, but that would lead us too far afield. It will suf- 
fice to remark that Whewell's purpose was philosophical rather than 
historical. The master of Trinity was following in the footsteps of Fran- 
cis Bacon and was dreaming of "a renovation of sound philosophy di- 
rected by the light which the history of science sheds" ( his own Preface, 



^* George Sarton: Montucla (Osiris 1, 519-67, 12 figs., 1936). 

^ Whewell's History was published in the very year of the Queen's accession. 
Its influence was considerable in the English world, much less so, I think, on the 
Continent. It is true it was translated into German (by the astronomer, J. J. v. 
LiTTROW, Stuttgart 1840-41 ) but not into French. I seldom noticed references to 
it in Continental books. Though I bought a copy of it as early as 1911 (I have just 
examined it ) , I must confess that I have never read it, or much of it. Indeed, when 
I began my own studies, better books were available. I owe a debt to Whewell's 
book, however, the telhng of which may amuse the reader. My first opportunity for 
teaching the history of science in the United States occurred in 1915 when I was 
invited to lecture at the summer school of the University of Illinois in Urbana. That 
invitation was extended to me thanks to the Carnegie Endowment for International 
Peace and to the personal interest of Mr. Edmund Janes James (1855-1925), who 
was then president of that University. Mr. James showed much kindness to me, 
which I remember with gratitude. He had been trained as an economist; he told 
me that his interest in the history of science, and indirectly in me, was due to his 
reading Whewell's book, which by that time I myself had almost forgotten. 



50 Introduction 

p. ix). He was influenced also by the "Preliminary discourse on the 
study of natural philosophy" which his friend, Sir John Herschel, 
had published a few years previously (1830, 1831).''° For such philo- 
sophical and pedagogical tendencies a classification was necessary. The 
result of it, irrespective of its value, was that his work was not an inte- 
grated history of science but a collection of separate histories printed 
under one cover. Each of the chapters, 6 to 18, deals with a branch of 
science from the beginning of the seventeenth century to his own time. 
Whewell's work was not historically up-to-date at the time of its first 
publication; it is at present almost entirely out-of-date. It is a dangerous 
book for young students of the history of science, but it has itself become 
a document of great value enabling us to recapture the scientific outlook 
of a hundred years ago. Nothing illustrates better the backwardness 
of our studies than the fact that Whewell's book was still commanding 
the respect of many thoughtful readers at the beginning of this century. 

If the French readers of last century were immune to Whewell's 
teaching, they were submitted to that of Ferdinand Hoefer (1811-78), 
a German exile who spent the best part of his life in Paris and published 
a series of books dealing each of them with the history of a particular 
science or group of sciences.^^ The best of them was his history of 
chemistry which continued an old German tradition. It first appeared 
in 1842-43 and devoted 1046 pages to that history as against the 80 pages 
of chapter 14 in Whewell's treatise. It was reprinted with a new final 
chapter ( 1868-69 ) . Instead of improving his knowledge of the history 
of chemistry, a field in which he might have become a master comparable 
to his great rival, Herrmann Kopp,*'- he allowed himself to become a 
bookseller's hack and published in quick succession a history of physics 
and chemistry ( 1872 ) , a history of botany, mineralogy and geology 
(1872), a history of zoology (1872), a history of astronomy (1873), a 
history of mathematics ( 1874). These books became standard books in 
the French world, were frequently reprinted, and are found to this day 
on the reference shelves of French libraries. Their influence was not 
good. 

It is curious to note that the Whewellian-Hoeferian method of deal- 
ing with each branch of science separately, instead of attempting to take 
them all together in a straight chronological order, is still followed today 
to some extent by Abraham Wolf, sometime professor in the University 
of London.^^ 



*" Herschel's book was philosophical and methodological rather than historical 
in purpose; yet it included a number of historical remarks. It was far more popular 
on the Continent than Whewell's, for it was translated into French (1834) and 
Itahan (1840). Whewell's work was dedicated to Herschel, who was working 
at that time at the Observatory of Feldhausen near Cape Town. 

®^ Sarton: Hoefer and Chevreul (Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 8, 
419-45, Baltimore, 1940). 

"'Max Speter: Vater Kopp (Osiris, 5, 392-460, 1938). 

*^ Abraham Wolf: History of science, technology and philosophy in the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries. With the cooperation of F. Dannemann and A. 
Armitage (720 p., 316 ill., London 1935; Isis, 24, 164-67); History of science, tech- 



To Teach the History of Science? 51 

The first satisfactory textbook dealing with the history of science as 
a whole was the German work issued in 4 volumes by the late Friedrich 
Dannemann.^^ The term satisfactory should be understood in a rela- 
tive sense; that textbook was sufficiently comprehensive when it ap- 
peared, and much of it was based on original documents. Indeed, it 
was composed partly to serve as a kind of framework to the Klassiker der 
exakten Wissenschaften, edited by the German physico-chemist, Wil- 
HELM OsTWALD.^^ Brief as it is, even sketchy in many parts and incom- 
plete, it is, nevertheless, the most elaborate work of its kind in any lan- 
guage. This statement is less a praise of Dannemann's achievement 
than a proof of the infancy of our studies and of the immense amount 
of work which remains to be done. 

Dannemann's main merit lies in the fact that he really tried to ex- 
plain, as the title put it, "science in its evolution and 'hanging together' 
(wholeness)." Instead of dividing the subject into large scientific 
groups ( mechanics, astronomy, physics, etc. ) as Whewell and Hoefer 
had done, and as Wolf continued to do, he divided it into short chapters 
each of them dealing with a scientific topic, and as he avoided putting all 
the mechanical topics together or all the astronomical ones and so on 
but arranged his chapters in the rough chronological order of their cen- 
ters of gravity, he managed to give his readers a deep impression of 
unity. 

That is very important. The history of science is much more than 
the juxtaposition of all the histories of the special sciences, for its main 
purpose is to explain the interrelation of all the sciences, their coopera- 
tive efforts, and their common aims and methods. The division of sci- 
ence into sciences is to a large extent artificial and apparent only in con- 
crete cases. It is clear that a collector of butterflies need not study ther- 
modynamics, and that an observer of meteors can do very well without 
botany or palaeontology. It is also clear that the great mass of our sci- 
entists and technicians are so deeply specialized that they can no longer 
see the wood for the trees, or the tree for the twigs. They are like birds 
standing upon peripheral twigs who fancy their twig is the thing, and 
nothing else matters. 

These facts explain the difficulty of making the history of science ac- 
ceptable to men of science and also the very necessity and urgency of 
doing so. Can there be a more natural way of opposing excessive spe- 

nology and philosophy in the eighteenth century (814 p., 345 ill., London 1938; Isis, 
31, 450). 

** Friedrich Dannemann (1859-1936): Die Naturwissenschaften in ihrer En- 
twicklung und in ihrem Zusammenhange (4 vols., 1910-13; Isis, 2, 218-22; second 
edition, 4 vols., 1920-23; Isis, 4, 110, 563; 6, 115-16). 

^ The Klassiker der exakten Wissenschaften were founded and edited by Wil- 
HELM OsTvvALD (1853-1932), and their publication was begun by W. Engelmann 
in Leipzig, 1899 (Isis, 1, 99, 706; 2, 153). It is the largest collection of original 
scientific texts ever published; the texts are published in German translation with 
commentaries by speciaHsts. More than 200 volumes have appeared; the latest was, 
I think, the one devoted to Max von Laue (no. 204, 1923; Isis, 5, 526). As Dan- 
nemann's history was largely based upon the Klassiker, it tended to ignore or mini- 
mize the discoveries omitted in that collection, e.g., those of Claude BernardI 



52 Introduction 

cialization than by showing that all those twigs belong to the same tree, 
the old tree of knowledge, which stood in the garden of Eden? And 
how best can we show that than by describing the growth of the tree? — 
Now the growth of that tree, that is the history of science. 

We remarked that that history is much more than the sum of special 
histories; it is also much less. The special histories are, of necessity, far 
more technical, while in the general history, the humanistic and social 
elements are much stronger; for that history deals not only with every 
branch of science and with their various interrelations and mutual reper- 
cussions but also with the impact of all the social and philosophical in- 
fluences to which they are all submitted. Every great discovery over- 
flows its original field in many ways. The history of instruments implies 
the history of physics and chemistry, irrespective of their uses. The 
microscope is built by physicists and used by biologists, physicians, crys- 
tallographers, chemists, etc. The chemical revolution was also a physio- 
logical revolution. The development of thermodynamics did not simply 
affect the physical sciences, it influenced deeply our philosophy. The 
theory of evolution dominates the whole of modern thought. The de- 
velopment of, say, photographic or statistical methods concerns all the 
sciences. This list might be extended endlessly. There are, it is true, 
discoveries which are so small that they cause no stir outside of their 
own little field; they may be abandoned to the historian of that field; 
such discoveries do not affect the tree but only a few twigs; the historian 
of science may safely overlook them. 

From this point of view there are interesting resemblances and dif- 
ferences between the history of science, on the one hand, and the history 
of religion, on the other. The last-named discipline was unsectarian 
from the beginning; in fact, its purpose was more often anti-sectarian 
than pro-sectarian. The first historians of religion were anxious to study 
religion per se as a general attribute and desire of the human spirit al- 
ways and everywhere. This led naturally to the study of what was 
called comparative religion, and for the most scholarly minded it led 
also to impartial history. On the other hand, each religion developed 
very much within its own field; Buddhism was not influenced by Chris- 
tianity, nor Parseeism by Islam. The situation is very different from 
that of science, for every science may influence willy-nilly all the others, 
and the synthesis is unavoidable. Visit the great laboratories and ob- 
servatories, and you will find scientists of many kinds working together, 
needing one another. In a modern observatory, there are, of course, 
astronomers but also mathematicians, physicists, chemists, and some- 
times biologists and geologists are called in consultation. 

The arts grow together, too, but they are not bound together as 
closely as the sciences. Their integration is tangible enough in a cathe- 
dral the building of which required the collaboration of architects, sculp- 
tors, painters, and decorators, while fulfillment of the offices and rites 
called for musicians and stage managers. In spite of that, the arts 
developed, to a large extent, independently and each is autonomous. 
Hence, one may study the past of one of them very profitably, say, the 



To Teach the History of Science? 53 

history of painting or the history of music. Each of these histories is 
much more complete and much more reveahng, not only of the whole 
artistic but also of the whole social life, than the history of any particular 
science could possibly be. Moreover, art is so deeply connected with 
sentiments and feelings that it is much more justified to study its na- 
tional development than to study the national development of any 
science. A history of Russian or Italian science would be somewhat 
artificial; while the histories of Russian music or Italian painting are 
relatively self-contained. 

The history of special sciences is very useful for many purposes, tech- 
nical and philosophical, but totally insujSicient, if our purpose is to ex- 
plain the development of mankind or the organization of knowledge. 



The main objection that one can make to the history of science is 
that it is far too big a subject. Think of it! The history of all knowl- 
edge everywhere and throughout the ages. Is it possible to encompass 
such a field?, ask the sceptics. Their doubts are fully justified. It is 
not yet possible, or it is possible only in a first approximation, but this 
does not mean that it is worthless to try. Moreover, many scientists 
resent the preposterous ambition of the historians — to know the whole 
of science plus the whole of history. How could anybody do it? His- 
torians may seem to be soaring high up in the clouds "au dessus de la 
melee." What do they really know?, would the scientist ask. What 
do they know down to brass tacks? What could they do with their 
knowledge? Could they use this instrument and make correct measure- 
ments with it? Could they solve this particular problem? The his- 
torian might answer that he does not try to know things "down to brass 
tacks" — but down to the roots which is very different; he does not try 
to know for the sake of solving individual problems but rather for the 
sake of understanding the general situation; he does not try to apply his 
knowledge to practical and immediate purposes, but he tries to under- 
stand the relationship of ideas as deeply as possible. Of course, his way 
of doing this may be offensive; his own knowledge (however he may 
define it) may be inadequate and superficial; he may be conceited and 
too easily satisfied with insuflBcient surveys. We are not dealing here, 
however, with the shortcomings of historians of science which are as 
varied and numerous as the shortcomings of other men. Our concern is 
different: is it possible to have a general knowledge of science and his- 
tory, that is, of nature and of man? Is it possible to unravel the spiritual 
vicissitudes of the men of every age and climate who faced nature, tried 
to solve its riddles, to understand its mysteries and take advantage of 
them, to grasp its wholeness, to guess its purpose, and to adapt them- 
selves to it? I believe it is possible and my faith is strengthened by the 
successful efforts of many great scholars. 

General knowledge, it should be noted, is not the same as universal 
knowledge. The latter is beyond human reach, the former not. When 
I read a scientific or learned journal, I am always impressed by the large 



54 Introduction 

number of facts with which I am unfamiliar; yet, I do not feel disqualified 
from understanding a subject, because I do not know every detail of it. 
Let us take a simple example. Consider two teachers of geography, the 
former teaches the geography of England and the second the geography 
of the world. The former could make fun of the latter saying, "I have 
spent my life studying the geography of England, and in spite of that, 
I am still learning new facts every day. Think of my colleague who 
presumes to teach the geography of the whole world. He has seen only 
a small part of it, and as you know, there are some parts which no scholar 
has ever seen." His fallacy lies in believing that the geography of the 
world is a larger subject than the geography of England. It is not. 
Both subjects are equally inexhaustible; they are equal in infinitude. 
All that we can say is that the two subjects are very different. It is 
probable that both instructors teach in the same time the same number 
of facts; their two collections of facts are different but about equal. Not 
only does the world geographer abandon many of the facts of the Eng- 
lish geographer, but he would give proof of ignorance and stupidity if 
he introduced them in his own survey. 

This example is perhaps too simple to be convincing; yet, it suffices 
to illustrate the general truth. One may know a general field without 
knowing every detail of it. Such knowledge may be almost worthless 
for practical work in that very field, but it is sufficient to realize the na- 
ture and peculiarities of that field and its relationship to other fields. 
One thing is certain: our two geographers must know the basic facts of 
geography. They cannot know them too well; in the same way, the 
historian of science must know the general facts and theories of science, 
he must be as familiar as possible with at least one branch of it or he 
will remain unable to understand anything clearly. We shall come back 
to that presently. After all, is that situation different from any other 
in education? Can one expect the man who teaches chemistry to have 
a first-hand knowledge of the whole of chemistry? Of course not, but 
why should he? All that we claim is that he should have a first-hand 
knowledge of a part of his field. 



As our studies are still in the pioneer stage, they must necessarily suf- 
fer from pioneer imperfections and crudities. If it be your lot to live 
on the frontier, you must do without many conveniences; but that should 
not prevent you from living a well integrated life. As the laborers are 
few, historians of science are, more often than not, alone in their uni- 
versity, and this obliges them to be like the frontiersmen, jacks of all 
trades. When we bear in mind the specialization of tasks in our history 
departments (ancient history, classical antiquity, middle ages. Renais- 
sance, colonial history), each jealously guarded against trespassers, it 
seems foolish to expect one scholar to be equally familiar with every 
period of history plus the whole of science. It cannot be done. It is 
absurd, quoth the sceptic. And yet in this pioneer stage, it must be 
done, and it can be done. 



To Teach the History of Science? 55 

Let me give you an example. I trust you will allow me to relate the 
results of my own experience. I do not choose it because it is my own, 
but simply because it is the one which I know by far the best. It has 
been my privilege to teach the history of science in Harvard University 
for many years, more than thirty, a lifetime. In the course of that long 
period, I have lectured on almost every aspect and problem of science; 
I have delivered many hundreds of diflFerent lectures. Some subjects 
are so important that I have come back to them repeatedly; yet, as at 
least two years would elapse before I could come back to the same topic 
and as I was attentive to every novelty concerning it and never stopped 
gathering new ideas, asking myself new questions, evoking new doubts 
or solving old ones, when I finally came back to that topic, both the topic 
and myself were somewhat different; the canvas of my lecture remained 
perhaps the same, but it was not filled in exactly in the same way. The 
accent was not put on the same details nor the emphasis in the same 
places. I am not expressing here vague generalities. As I have gener- 
ally preserved old lecture notes, I could reconstruct, if it were worth- 
while, which it is not, the evolution of my views on every important 
subject, say, Faraday, Darwin, or Pasteur, the discovery of analytical 
geometry, or of the calculus, the circulation of the blood, or the periodic 
system. Between one lecture on any one of those subjects and the next, 
many things might occur, and some of them did occur, for example, the 
publication of unknown documents, or of a new biography, or a new 
discovery throwing new light upon the old one, contradicting it, or on 
the contrary, justifying it, or amplifying it, putting it altogether in a new 
perspective. It has been truly said of political history that even the 
best books have no finality; for, on the one hand, new facts are constantly 
exhumed which may modify our knowledge of the past, even of the most 
distant past,^^ and on the other hand, we see the past in a different light 
as our experience increases. The past, as we know it, is not irremediable 
and final. It could be so only in the eyes of an omniscient god, knowing 
not only the whole past but the whole future as well. If that be true 
of political history, it is even more true of the history of science. Think 
of the theories of light. At the end of last century, the wave theory 
seemed to be established forever. Crucial experiments had proved its 
correctness; the electro-magnetic theory had brought a beautiful confir- 
mation. The judgment of any historian writing at that time would have 
been different from our own. A similar remark would apply to the his- 
tory of the periodic system; the introduction of the idea of atomic num- 
bers threw an entirely new light on it. And to take an earlier example, 
Galileo's discussion showing that the number of square numbers is as 
large as the number of positive integers was intriguing,*"^ but it did not 
assume its full interest until the theory of infinite aggregates had been 

™ Indeed, our knowledge of pre-Hellenic times in the Near East has been deeply 
modified within our own days. Much of it was entirely unknown before, and the 
rest is almost entirely renewed or reinterpreted. 

®^ Discor^i e dimostrazioni matematiche intorno a due nuoue scienze (p. 78, Leida 
1638). 



56 Introduction 

completed by Georg Cantor ( 1845-1918). It is always the same thing. 
We only see what we already know, hence our appreciation of the past 
changes as the future unrolls. Scholars of the seventeenth century who 
were more familiar with the Greek language than we are could not un- 
derstand Greek science as well as we do, but our knowledge of it is 
not by any means completed. As to mediaeval science, we are only 
beginning to appreciate its true value without exaggeration of praise or 
disparagement. The darkness of the Dark Ages of which uneducated 
scientists speak so glibly is partly the darkness of their own ignorance 
and unwisdom. 

Now to return to my own experience. After many tentatives in var- 
ious directions, such as an attempt to review the whole field in a single 
course ( of, say, thirty-five lectures ) or of dealing within the same orbit 
with a relatively brief period (say, the Renaissance) or with a single 
branch of science ( say, mathematics or physics ) , I have come to the con- 
clusion that the needs of honest students in a good college are satisfied 
best with the following arrangement. My general course on the history 
of science is a combination of four courses of about thirty-five lectures 
each, dealing respectively with (i) antiquity, (2) Middle Ages, (3) the 
fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, (4) the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries with glimpses of the twentieth. These courses are 
independent. Few students attend the four of them, and fewer still are 
able to take them in the proper order. Classical students may take only 
the first, mediaevalists only the second, scientific students only the third 
and fourth or only the fourth. I offer only two such courses each year, 
never more, but sometimes less. Hence, two years at least will elapse 
before I come back to the same subject.*'^ This interval is long enough 
to make possible a partial renewal not only of that subject but of myself. 

To be sure, each of these courses is a summary, but it is perhaps of 
sufficient length to satisfy the majority of the students and to encourage 
a few of them to go ahead and seek more knowledge either with my help 
or without. Consider the case of ancient science. I doubt whether it 
would be possible to give a fair idea of its richness and diversity and to 
place it clearly in its cultural background in much less than thirty or 
thirty-five lectures. One must devote one lecture to the pre-historic 
beginnings, two or three more to Egyptian and Babylonian antiquities. 
(This is running at full speed. ) There remain then some thirty lectures, 
or less, for the whole of Hellenic, Hellenistic and Roman culture, from 
Homer down to Proclos, a stretch of at least fourteen centuries. Dur- 
ing those centuries, not only did science develop in many directions but 
the cultural, philosophical, social, and religious background was con- 
stantly modified. Whenever I try to explain such momentous changes 
in thirty lectures, I cannot help feeling that my speed is dangerous. A 
little more speed and everything would vanish. The survey would be- 
come almost meaningless. This is the more true, because a great num- 

** Not necessarily to every subject, for the contents of each course varies somewhat 
from each offering to the next one. As the total of lectures is fixed, it is not possible 
to introduce a new subject without dropping an old one. 



To Teach the History of Science? 57 

ber of my students have no classical education whatsoever, and except 
w^hen they are of Greek descent, have no knowledge of Greek. My 
course on ancient science is sometimes their classical initiation; in such 
cases, it is utterly insufficient, yet I hope that even then it may possibly 
awaken a dormant interest, not only in science but also in ancient 
wisdom. 

I need not discuss mediaeval science, because I have already spoken 
of it in my second lecture, but it is worthwhile to insist once more upon 
my attitude concerning oriental science. Arabic science must be dealt 
with some fulness, because it is an intrinsic part of our own traditions. 
As to Hindu and Chinese science, important as they undoubtedly are, 
there is no time to discuss them in the usual courses, for anv such dis- 
cussion would be a digression taking us too far away from the main 
tracks. It is well, however, to speak sometimes of India and China, if 
only by way of contrast and comparison and to make the students realize 
the coexistence of scientific efforts which, insofar as they reached a part 
of the truth, converged with the western efforts. The men of science of 
India and China were trying to solve problems which were essentially 
the same as ours; their solutions were sometimes the same as ours, some- 
times curiously different; the differences are as instructive as the resem- 
blances. I only wish such comparisons might be made more often and 
more thoroughly, but then our courses would be incomplete in other 
respects or altogether disjointed. 

It all comes down to this, that even a course like mine extending to 
140 lectures is barely sufficient to give the student a bird's-eye view of 
science. And yet, I am told that many teachers are expected to cover 
the whole field in half that time, or even in a third or a quarter of it. 
What happens then? 

We shall come back to that presently, but I must first complete the 
account of my experience with a sad confession. I have never given 
a lecture which satisfied me, because I have hardly ever had that feeling 
of security and happiness, which is a scholar's best reward when he has 
finally succeeded in checking every statement down to its ultimate 
sources. This failure is due to the fact that I had to deal not with one 
separate subject which I would have leisure to study thoroughly but with 
hundreds of subjects jostling each other. It was also due to the imma- 
turity of our studies. The situation is vastly different in older fields, 
such as English history, or English literature, in which elaborate mono- 
graphs are available for every point of importance. On the contrary, 
if an expert opens any "history of science," wherein everything seems 
to be neatly explained, he recognizes unwarranted statements on almost 
every page. If he be honest, he will do his best to trace those statements 
to their sources, to prove them or disprove them, and finally to present 
a new statement nearer to the truth. He can do that to his satisfaction 
in some instances, but if he be a teacher of the history of science in 
general, he is soon obliged to move on. In other words, thousands of 
investigations remain to be made, and the writing of the history of 
science will improve gradually in proportion as those investigations are 



58 Introduction 

carried through. No one scholar is competent or has time enough to 
make them all. For every period, for every science or branch of 
science, for every country or cultural group, there is plenty of work left 
for many generations of scholars. This does not matter so much as long 
as we are fully aware of the imperfections of our knowledge; more 
work for our successors means also more joy for them. 



It is hard and tantalizing to cover the whole field in, say, a series of 
130 to 150 lectures. What would be the fate of a teacher who was ex- 
pected to cover it in 60 lectures or 40 or even less? There is a way out, 
however, and that is simply not to attempt to cover the whole of it. 
After all, if any teacher finds that the subject is too vast, he can always, 
to some extent, restrict it. As the most interesting part of the history 
of science for young men of science of today is naturally modern science, 
a teacher could hardly leave that out; he could focus his lectures on 
modern science or rather on particular topics to which the very progress 
of science is giving a new significance. 

Indeed, the history of nineteenth and twentieth century science is so 
enormous that it can only be dealt with in a given course in one of two 
ways. Either the instructor may attempt to cover the whole of it, and 
that will oblige him to give a catalogue of facts so bare as to lose mean- 
ing,^^ or he will select only a few examples and treat them as fully as 
possible.^^ The second solution is undoubtedly the better one, and it 
implies the teacher's salvation. The samples should be selected in dif- 
ferent parts of the field in order to give of it as comprehensive a view as 
possible. Yet the teacher will be guided, to some extent, by his own 
merits and shortcomings. It would be fair for himself and the students 
to select the subjects which he knows best, and, which is more impor- 
tant, to leave out the subjects that he does not feel competent to deal 
with. The main thing is that the students be made to realize the com- 
plexity and wealth, the diversity of methods, the social implications of 
modern science. 

As to the more distant past (however you define that), it may pos- 
sibly be sacrificed. It is, in fact, what most teachers do. They either 
leave it completely out or reach the sixteenth century in a few gigantic 
jumps. That is deplorable, but if the teacher is assigned the task of 



°^ A good example of highly compressed history is that given by Siegmund 
GiJNTHER (1848-1923): Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften {2nd ed., 2 Uttle vols, 
of the Philipp Reclams Universal-Bibliothek which were seUing at 20 Pf. each, 136 
p., 290 p., ill., Leipzig 1909). The limit in that direction was attained in the Hand- 
buch zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik, edited by Ludwig 
Darmstaedter (1846-1927) (2nd edition, 1273 p., Berhn 1908); this is simply a 
list of discoveries and inventions in chronological order from 3500 B.C. to 1908 A.D., 
a very useful work which ought to be improved and continued (Isis 26, 56-58, 
1936). 

™ This was done very well by James B. Conant: On understanding science. An 
historical approach ( 162 p., 10 figs., Terry Lectures, New Haven, Yale Press 1947; 
Isis 38, 125-27). 



To Teach the History of Science? 59 

teaching the history of science in, say, 60 lectures and is warned to give 
due importance to modern science, what else can he do? He will prob- 
ably devote 40 to 50 lessons to modern science and the small remainder 
to the whole past. This is bad, but not as terrible as it might seem. 
The main point is to teach well what he teaches, and always to warn the 
students that much, very much, is unavoidably left out. 

If the whole of science is considered as a continuous living body, 
which it is, moving with us toward the future, head forward, of course, 
and the tail trailing back to the beginnings, and if we have no time to 
study the whole beast, then we must concentrate our attention on the 
head rather than the tail. If we must let something go, let it be the past, 
the more distant past. Yet, it is a pity, a thousand pities. 

As a historian of ancient and mediaeval science, I may be suspected 
of prejudice in their favor, yet I have made many investigations concern- 
ing modern science and devoted many more lectures to it, hundreds of 
them, than to the rest. I can assure you that the history of ancient and 
mediaeval science is not only very interesting, even from the most 
modern point of view, but that it can be used to fulfill the main purpose 
of our teaching, to wit, to explain the meaning of science, its function, 
its methods, its logical, psychological and social implications, its deep 
humanity, its importance for the purification of thought and the integra- 
tion of our culture."^^ 

The problems of ancient and mediaeval science have this advantage 
over those of modern science that they are on the whole simpler, more 
free of disturbing technicalities and easier to discuss before a nontechni- 
cal audience; yet many of those problems are fundamental. 



In the selection of professors in charge of a new discipline, the most 
important factor to be considered is the man himself and his singular 
gifts. Of course, one whose knowledge is too special and esoteric could 
hardly be selected except as a second man, another being responsible for 
the main teaching; but barring extreme cases, it would be easier to adapt 
the program to the man rather than do the opposite. The best candi- 
date might be a physician, more familiar with medical and biological 
matters than with the mathematical sciences. That would be regrettable, 
yet might be better than to take a poorer candidate who knows mathe- 
matics. The teaching of the former might be excellent within its limita- 
tions. The professor of the history of science in small universities, 
where there can be only one, might be a physician at one time and be 
succeeded by an astronomer and the latter by a chemist. The teaching 
would thus vary from man to man, yet if they were good men, each 
would be able to teach the outstanding messages of science and tradi- 
tion, knowledge and humanity. 

Or the apostolic succession might imply other difficulties. At one 

"^ It is noteworthy that my courses on ancient and mediaeval science are as 
well attended as my other courses, in spite of the fact that the majority of my students 
are scientific or premedical. 



60 Introduction 

time, the teacher might be a student of technology, primarily interested 
in the technical wonders of our age; his successor might be a classical 
scholar more at home in the Greek writings; the third might be a medi- 
aevalist, etc. 

The Hellenist and the mediaevalist would not be as much out of step 
as one might think, because every teacher would have to satisfy one 
indispensable requirement. He should be deeply familiar with at least 
one branch of today's science and he should have a more superficial 
acquaintance with various other branches. By deep familiarity is meant 
work at the front, experimental work in the laboratory or observational 
work in the observatory or in the field. If he met that requirement, his 
other learning, whether classical, mediaeval or oriental would not tend to 
sidetrack him completely. He would remain, first of all, not a historian 
or a philologist but a historian of science. His scientific training and 
experience would guarantee his adequate treatment of scientific subjects 
and would give him the needed authority to talk about them in the 
presence of young scientists. Nothing can be worse in the teaching of 
the history of science than learned discussion of topics of which the 
instructor has no inward knowledge; the more learned, the worse it is. 

Just how detailed should the discussion of a scientific topic be? It 
is not possible to give a general answer to this question. Each topic 
will require separate treatment. This much can be said, the students 
must be given a feeling of concreteness and genuineness which implies 
a certain amount of detail. Why is precise knowledge always desirable? 
Simply because we can never be sure of anything unless we know it 
as exactly as possible. The procedure of our criminal courts is very 
instructive in that respect. A man cannot be convicted of a murder un- 
less the circumstances of that murder have been minutely described. 
The same procedure must be followed in the discovery of truth. A 
general statement may be right or wrong: the necessary checking is 
possible only if we come to well defined facts. The history of science 
is a good means of illustrating that point of view not only for its own 
sake but also for the strengthening of knowledge and for the unification 
of mankind. Whatever be the utility of mystical ideas in religion, man- 
kind cannot be unified on a mystical basis but only on tangible facts, 
objective, impartial, and controllable knowledge. Darkness covers too 
many crimes and opens too many opportunities to trouble-makers; truth- 
fulness and light are the first conditions of social health. 

The teaching of the history of science should be as concrete and 
clear as possible rather than philosophical and foggy. Its concreteness 
will be easier to attain if the instructor is given facilities to make a few 
simple experiments and to illustrate his course with maps, charts and 
other exhibits. E.g., he should be able to show the students some of 
the old instruments and demonstrate their use."^^ Such equipment 

'^ It is difficult to explain simple problems, let us say, of mathematical geography 
or astronomy without models. I have always been embarrassed by the lack of 
models when I discussed the ancient theories of homocentric spheres, of eccentrics 
and epicycles. The necessary models should be easily available to the instructor. 



To Teach the History of Science? 61 

mi^ht be borrowed from a technical museum or else the old instruments 
might be replaced by new copies, less impressive perhaps than the origi- 
nals but just as good for the sake of demonstration. 

The main qualification of a teacher, it is worthwhile repeating it, is 
a sufficient familiarity with the scientific problems and methods of today, 
a familiarity which no one can acquire except in the laboratory, the 
observatory or the hospital. The necessity of that qualification is ob- 
vious enough when the teacher must deal with modern or contemporary 
science, which is the general case, but it exists in every case. A good 
and broad scientific training is needed to explain properly the history 
not only of modern science but also of ancient and mediaeval science. 

That qualification is necessary but far from sufficient. The time is 
past when courses on the history or philosophy of science were organ- 
ized to satisfy the historical dilettantism of a distinguished man of 
science. The teacher should be historically minded and should have 
a sufficient grasp of historical methods. He should be philosophically 
minded and sufficiently polyglot. Moreover, his value, like that of any 
other teacher, is partly measured by his own investigations and his 
ability to train other investigators (not the ability of a parrot to train 
other parrots). It becomes clear that a professor of the history of 
science should be selected on the same basis as, say, a professor of Greek 
or a professor of botany. Their qualifications are proved by their pub- 
lications in their respective fields. There are, of course, many ways of 
distinguishing oneself as a botanist but the prospective teacher must 
have distinguished himself in at least one of these ways. No other kind 
of distinction will be acceptable as a substitute. His main qualifications 
are his botanical publications and his ability to advance botanical knowl- 
edge and to inspire and guide his students. 

Impromptu lectures on the basis of one or a few incomplete text- 
books, there are no others, will not do any longer. The scholar who is 
privileged to teach the history of science must be prepared to speak 
from the abundance of his knowledge and experience. His teaching 
must be a kind of overflow or otherwise it is not worth having. He is 
obliged to simplify a great deal, because the subject is so large, the time 
so short, and the students have many other things to study. I believe 
his teaching should be as simple as -possible, but a simplification without 
an adequate knowledge of a multitude of unmentioned details is spuri- 
ous and misleading. Teaching is like paper money which is worth 
nothing without a gold reserve or other guarantee, hidden but sub- 
stantial. 

It may be objected that the qualifications which have been enumer- 
ated are so heavy that few candidates will be found. There will be 
few candidates at the beginning, but the jobs are equally few; as these 
increase in number, more candidates will have obtained the necessary 
training and will become available. With regard to the purely scien- 
tific qualifications, I would say that as the technicalities of science in- 
crease there will be more and more men whose technical ability and 
interest will not be equal to their love of science and to whom the work 



62 Introduction 

and meditation of a historian will appeal more strongly than research in a 
laboratory. It is highly probable that laboratory work will be organ- 
ized more and more on a group basis and such work will not be agree- 
able to some individuals or will be made disagreeable by rude officers. 
Thus, some individuals will lose interest in laboratories without there- 
fore losing interest in science or their knowledge of it. The more time 
they will have spent in the laboratory before abandoning it the better 
it will be for their teaching. Dislike of laboratory work may bring back 
scientists to the humanities but is not a quality in itself. Those deserters 
will not be welcome in our camp unless they meet other requirements. 
Two fundamental ones, historical interest and philosophical interest, 
are really qualities with which a man is born and which grow with him. 
If a man have them, they will take care of themselves; if he lacks them, 
he is out. 

A sufficient linguistic ability, let us say, the ability to read Latin and 
the outstanding languages of today is also a gift, yet it may be acquired, 
and can be greatly increased. The main difficulty is the lack or the 
weakness of Latin. We are beginning to suffer for our neglect of Latin 
in high schools and in colleges. Short-sighted administrators or edu- 
cators who are driving Latin out do not realize that they are burning 
behind us the ships that brought us where we are. 

The teacher of the history of science in the larger universities must 
be prepared to face a paradoxical situation. As his students are re- 
cruited from every department, the largest common denominator of 
scientific knowledge is necessarily low, and he must avoid technicalities; 
on the other hand, some of the students may be taking very advanced 
scientific courses and will prick their ears whenever he approaches their 
own field. He must be prepared to meet their questions and will not 
retain their confidence unless he can answer most of them. If he be 
well prepared those advanced students will stimulate him and actually 
help him to give better lectures and to write better books. The cooper- 
ation thus obtained is of the highest value but he must deserve it. 



The following anecdote will illustrate the point which has just been 
made. When I am lecturing on Euclid, I seldom fail to quote his very 
ingenious proof of the theorem that there are an infinite number of prime 
numbers. As I like to connect ancient knowledge with the new, even 
with the very newest (the past explains the present and vice versa), I 
could not resist the temptation in one of my Euclidean lectures to refer 
to prime pairs not mentioned by Euclid ( i.e., prime numbers of the form 
2n+l, 2n-|-3 like 11 and 13, 17 and 19, 41 and 43 ) . Like the primes 
themselves, the prime pairs have the peculiarity of becoming rarer and 
rarer as one passes from smaller numbers to larger ones; the prime pairs 
become exceedingly rare indeed. In spite of that, we have the feeling 
that there are an infinite number of them. I proceeded to say that this 
proposition had remained imcertain until recently when Dr. Charles 
N. Moore, professor at the University of Cincinnati, had presented an 



To Teach the History of Science? 63 

involved but convincing proof of itJ^ After my lecture, one of the 
students came to me and told me very gently that I was mistaken and 
that the infinity of prime pairs had not yet been proved. I bade him to 
come to my study to discuss the matter. The upshot of our discussion 
was that the proof by Professor Moore had been shown to be imperfect; 
arguments used in the theory of numbers are often very subtle and 
tricky. I had read in Science tbe announcement of Moore's discovery, 
but the disproof of it had not been registered in Science or I had failed 
to notice it. The student who gave me that valuable information was a 
graduate student who had been studying prime pairs for the last two 
years and knew more about them than anyone else in the university. 

This is the most striking example in my experience of the cooperation 
which may exist, and should exist, between the teacher and some, at 
least, of his students. In this case, the student knew very well the topic 
discussed; in the majority of cases, however, the student does not, but 
if he be intelligent his queries and his doubts may be very stimulating 
and oblige the teacher to consider the subject from a new angle. Many 
of my lectures have been modified because of such queries. Moreover, 
whenever a student has evoked a point requiring additional explanation 
or emphasis, I have given the necessary explanation to the whole class,'''"* 
being careful to name and to thank the student who had prompted me. 



Courses on the history of science have often been intrusted to pro- 
fessors whose main function was to teach other subjects. Readers who 
have followed me thus far will realize the utter unwisdom of that prac- 
tice. The teaching of the history of science is far too important and too 
difficult to be treated that way. The very fact that it is not yet stand- 
ardized as is the case for older disciplines ( say, political and diplomatic 
history, or Greek literature ) increases its difiiculty. The teacher cannot 
depend, as many of his colleagues do, on excellent textbooks, each of 
which is the fruit of a long evolution and of continued selection and 
correction. 

It is generally understood by the administrators of universities that a 
professor is expected to give about half of his time to teaching and 
complementary activities, and the other half to research. In this new 
field, where so much remains to be done and where the work is often 
slowed up by the absence or the inadequacy of tools, it would be a good 
policy to allow more than half the time to research. In any case, 
research would be a very important part of the man's work. It should 
be realized that the work done by honest historians is difiBcult and slow;"^^ 

""^ The proof was presented at the Wellesley meeting of the American Mathe- 
matical Association in the summer of 1944. 

''* Except, of course, when the point was not significant enough to be explained 
publicly or when it was too technical to be explained in the available time. Queries 
the scope of which is too narrow are generally answered by me in writing. 

''° This statement may seem commonplace to historians; I am making it here for 
the scientific readers who appreciate well enough scientific difficulties, but not at 
all historical ones 



64 Introduction 

it is thus expensive in time and money. Such honest work brings us 
nearer to the goal — slowly, very slowly, "pedetemptim"; careless, dis- 
honest work is much faster but it leads nowhere; it is apparently cheap, 
yet wasteful. It leads downward, not upward. The results of it (books 
or articles) are hopeless mixtures of good and evil, truth and. error, 
wherein the good and true can no longer be separated from the wrong. 
Though I have spent thirty-five years of my life doing naught but 
studying the history of science, I am only beginning to know it. Study- 
ing and teaching the history of science is a full-time job. If adminis- 
trators cannot afford to intrust the teaching to specialists and to give the 
latter full-time for it, it would be better for all concerned to abandon it. 
No teaching at all is much cheaper and far less dangerous than bad 
teaching. 



Whom will the teacher reach? Who will come to him? Most of 
my students are scientific or pre-medical students, but a few are at- 
tracted from the other departments. As always happens, many will 
select such courses with little reason and without profit, but to others, 
a very small minority, these lectures will remain a source of inspiration, 
perhaps the deepest of their college life. The profession of historian 
of science hardly exists, and hence it would not be fair to encourage 
students, except a very few, to prepare themselves for it. However, the 
study of the history of science will help to qualify good men or women 
for many other para-scientific professions. I mean by that, the literary, 
historical, philosophical, or even administrative, professions connected 
with scientific investigations or with scientific teaching, scientific libra- 
ries and museums, the editing of scientific periodicals or the writing of 
scientific books. These para-scientific professions are already numerous, 
and they require every day more men and better men. 



The responsibilities of the historian of science are greater than they 
appear on the surface. To write or teach a good account of the devel- 
opment of science is necessary but not sufficient, or rather it is only a 
means to an end. The end is to help the integration of scientific teach- 
ing in all its forms and the integration of our spiritual life. 

The teacher of the history of science has the opportunity of showing 
the interrelation of the branches of science, the profound unity of science 
behind its infinite variety. In particular, he may show bewildered 
students how all the courses which they have taken are related to each 
other and all the things they have learned hang together; such teaching 
may be for them the best viaticum, a reassurance; the feeling of the 
unity of science will strengthen their own integrity. 

His opportunity, or call it his duty, is even greater, for he must teach 
the unity not only of science but also of mankind. Men are united by 
their highest purposes, such as the search for truth. There obtains, 
therefore, between them a profound unity, in spite of endless differences 



To Teach the History of Science? 65 

and disagreements, in spite of greed for power and money among the 
most rapacious, in spite of the natural hatreds of some men for other 
men, in spite of intolerance, superstition and cruelty, in spite of wars and 
revolutions. That underlying unity must be revealed by the teacher as 
frequently and as fully as possible. Within his own immediate milieu, it 
is his duty to provide links between a whole gamut of leaders, from the 
technical barbarians at the extreme left to the well-meaning but ignorant 
and inefficient humanists at the extreme right. He should help to inte- 
grate our spiritual life, on the one hand, by explaining scientific facts and 
points of view and methods to the humanists, politicians, administrators, 
and on the other hand, by humanizing the men of science and engineers 
and reminding them always of the traditions without which our lives, 
however efficient, remain ugly and meaningless. 

His main business is to build bridges — to build bridges between the 
nations and what is equally important, within each nation, between life, 
the good life, and technology, between the humanities and science. 



The main value of the history of science to the philosophically 
minded scientist, the scientist who wishes to understand the indebted- 
ness of his knowledge, lies in its moderating influence. Retrospective 
views enable him to keep his balance between dogmatism on the one 
hand, and scepticism and discouragement on the other. They help him 
to be patient in the words of Robert E. Lee: 

"The march of Providence is so slow, and our desires so impatient, 
the work of progress is so immense, and our means of aiding it so feeble, 
the life of humanity is so long, and that of the individual so brief, that we 
often see only the ebb of the advancing wave, and are thus discouraged. 
It is history that teaches us to hope." '^'^ 

That statement is curious in the mouth of a general, especially of a 
defeated one. It is more applicable to scientific than to political and 
military matters. One might sometimes despair of political progress, 
but there is no reason for good men ever to despair or to be ashamed of 
science. 

Above all, the history of science teaches humility. Some of our 
inventors and technicians may boast as much as they please. By so 



™ These beautiful words are quoted by Thomas Barbour : Naturalist at large ( p. 
287, 1943; Isis, 35, 343). I tried to trace them in Lee's works but failed. I then 
applied to Lee's foremost biographer, Douglas Southall Freeman: R. E. Lee (4 
vols.. New York, 1934-35), who kindly wrote to me from Richmond, Virginia, 27 
March, 1947: 

"If I could answer the question in your letter of March 17th I would be very 
happy. The quotation from General Lee first was pubhshed in an address delivered 
by Colonel Charles Marshall at the laying of the cornerstone of the Lee Monu- 
ment in Richmond, about 1887. Presumably the paragraph was one of those that 
General Lee had written down, according to a practice of his, during the war. I 
have always wondered whether he wrote it or found it somewhere and copied it, 
but I never have been able to answer that question. You will find it quoted at 
length in my 'R. E. Lee,' Volume IV, page 484." 



66 Introduction 

doing they only reveal their ignorance and arrogance. Men of science 
have a better right to be proud of the growth of science, but the greatest 
of them are singularly humble, for they realize that much as has been 
done, much more remains to be done. The universe is infinitely mys- 
terious. Light and charity are increasing in some places, but there is 
still an abundance of darkness, injustice, and suffering. Great wars are 
not only material calamities, they are fantastic retrogressions. Every 
good scientist is so far from boasting that he would rather walk in sack- 
cloth and ashes. Though he may say to himself that the inventor of 
new tools cannot be held responsible for the misuses of them by men 
of prey, he is not quite convinced of that. He is, perhaps, more guilty 
than he thinks, and in any case he prefers to assume more guilt rather 
than less. 

It is certain that whatever spiritual progress we may be privileged to 
enjoy, it is due less to our own efforts than to the accumulated efforts of 
our ancestors. Should we forget that and become too pleased with our- 
selves, we would soon fall into scepticism and cynicism. Indeed, we 
are never so much in danger of losing our spiritual freedom as when we 
boast too much of it. Nobody can teach men of science better than the 
historian of science the need of reverence for the past, humility for the 
present, confidence in the future; nobody can give him more strength to 
follow his path honestly and courageously, to bear evil and suffering, to 
do his best to alleviate them, to find and publish the truth. 



Part II 




A FIRST GUIDE /or the 

STUDY of tlie HISTORY 

0/ SCIENCE 




1 ) The select bibliography which follows is a great amplification of 
the one which was published in an appendix to the author's Study of the 
History of Science (p. 53-70, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1936). In 
spite of the fact that it is considerably larger than the list of 1936, it is 
still very short when one takes into account the immensity of the field. 

It is based primarily upon the author's own library and that is not 
only a cause of strength but also of weakness. No library is perfect and 
one which like my own is used not only by myself but by many col- 
leagues and students is bound to have lacunas. A not unimportant book 
may have escaped my attention, because it was "out" when I examined 
the shelf where it ought to have been or because it has been mislaid by 
a careless scholar. Moreover, important books sent to me by the author 
or publishers are given to collaborators for review in Isis. Sometimes, 
I have replaced the book by buying a new copy of it, sometimes not, 
when I had no particular need of it. In that case, there is no witness 
left of its existence, except the review ( if the reviewer was faithful ) . I 
am thus bound to rediscover it, because this bibliography is built sec- 
ondarily upon Isis. This will give the reader an idea of its condensation. 
For the items published in the seventy-five Critical Bibliographies must 
number at least seventy-five thousand.'^^ 

2) The Bibliography is divided into four parts, and each of these 
parts into 6-8 chapters (see Table of Contents). The chapters are not 
mutually exclusive and parts of their areas overlap. It must thus hap- 
pen that an item listed in one chapter is listed again in another chapter 
or might have been listed. In some cases, duplication seemed more ex- 
pedient than cross-reference. 

3) As this book is written in English and will be used mainly by 
English-reading students, their needs were given priority. More Eng- 
lish books are listed than non-English; when a non-English book was 
translated into English, the English translation is listed, but the other 
translations ( if any ) are not; if the non-English book was not translated 
into English but, say, into French or German, that translation is listed for 
the sake of readers more familiar with French (or German) than with 
the original language. 

Many books originally published in England are also published in 

" Moreover, these 75,000 notes refer to books or papers published within the 
last forty years, while the "First Guide" refers to the main pubhcations irrespective 
of time. 



70 Preliminary Remarks 

America (and vice versa). I have listed the edition available to me 
which was sometimes the English, edition, sometimes the American. 
When the place quoted is New York or Boston, the experienced reader 
knows that it might as well be London. 

Sometimes the same book has different titles in the English and 
American editions. The fact has been mentioned whenever I was aware 
of it. 

Some authors will entitle their book, say "The history of biology." 
Others seem to think that it is more modest to phrase the title "A history 
of biology." Either article is superfluous and it has generally been left 
out. It is quite enough to write "History of biology." 

I have tried to give an idea of the size of each item, because it makes 
a great difference to the student whether an item covers a hundred pages 
or a thousand, but it suffices to indicate that size grosso modo. E.g., if 
a book has iv + 256 p. it is simply stated 260 p. That indication is but 
an approximation. For what matters is the length (or capacity) of a 
book, and that length is very incompletely measured by the number of 
pages. 

4) It was tempting to add critical remarks to each item, and thus to 
help the reader to select one book among twenty devoted, say, to the 
history of physics. It was not possible to indulge that temptation to any 
extent, because it is very difficult to compare twenty books dealing with 
the same subject, without unfairness. To begin with, they seldom deal 
with the self-same subject. Even when their subject is defined by the 
same title "History of mathematics," the areas covered by each author 
are not the same; they may overlap considerably but are never identical. 

The author has examined almost every book listed by him, but he 
did not examine them at the same time. He may have read the one 
thirty years ago and the other yesterday; under those conditions it is 
clear that comparisons between them would be adventurous and un- 
reliable. The best that he could do was to refer to reviews or shorter 
notices in Isis, whenever possible. References to the Critical Bibliog- 
raphies of Isis have the additional advantage of bringing the reader in 
touch not only with the item he is particularly interested in but also with 
many others. It is like hunting for a book in a library where the books 
are well classified by subjects: sometimes one does not find the book one 
is hunting for, but one may find a better one, that is, one better adapted 
to his immediate purpose. 

5) The choice of books dealing with a large subject, say, the history 
of mathematics is difficult, because the best books generally do not deal 
with the whole subject but only with a part of it, and because the sub- 
ject may be (and is actually) divided and subdivided in many ways 
which do not tally. For example, one book is devoted to the history of 
trigonometry, another to the history of mathematics in Germany, a third 
one to the history of algebra in Italy, a fourth to the history of trigo- 
nometry in the sixteenth century, a fifth to the history of reckoning in 
England during the Middle Ages. 

Some books are too special to be listed; yet, those books may be the 



Preliminary Remarks 71 

most valuable of all in their own field. Nothing is more instructive than 
a good biography, and when a good biography is not available, the 
scholar should be ready to use one which is less good yet will answer his 
need. It was impossible to mention biographies, because a sufficient list 
of them would require considerable labor and space. Moreover, that 
is not necessary. It must suffice to warn the reader, that when he is 
exploring any field ( defined by topic, place and time ) , he should make 
for himself a list of the great men dominating it and then try to find 
biographies of them. Some of those biographies might be his best tools. 
A general bibliography like this one, a first guide, cannot do more 
than facilitate for every scholar the preparation of his own. Every 
investigation must begin with a bibliography, and it must end with a 
better bibliography. 

6) Even within its modest scope, this first guide cannot be as good 
as it might be, because in spite of every effort the author is bound to 
overlook some items or ( and this is equally bad if not worse ) to include 
items which it would have been better to leave out. Every bibliography 
contains errors by omission or commission and at best it is bound to be 
vitiated by an irreducible minimum of accidental arbitrariness. Critics 
should bear in mind that they are subject to similar accidents. A man 
had spent many years in France and travelled considerably about the 
country. He thought that he knew it pretty well, but a friend said to 
him "Have you been to Rocamadour? " The man admitted that he had 
not. His friend exclaimed "What a shame! If you have not seen 
Rocamadour, you have missed the essential, you do not really know 
France ..." I can only hope that my own critics will not reproach me 
for having forgotten Rocamadour and condemn my book on that basis. 

I remember with pain that a colleague of mine became unfriendly 
to me, because I had forgotten to mention a book of his, and he assumed 
that my omission of it was deliberate. What a mean and unjust suppo- 
sition! If I had an enemy and he wrote a good book, I would be anxious 
to mention it; I would mention it with special emphasis, and nothing 
could please me more than the opportunity of praising it. 

7) Many chapters of this bibliography, especially chapter 20, deal- 
ing with Journals and Serials on the History (and Philosophy) of 
Science, were much enriched thanks to the collaboration of Dr. 
Claudius F. Mayer of Washington, D.C. My gratitude is expressed to 
him here and again with more precision, in the preface to that particular 
chapter. 

Various additions to the Bibliography have been kindly suggested by 
Prof. I. Bernard Cohen, who is my colleague in Harvard University. 




[;- : LIBRARY 



A. HISTORY 
1. HISTORICAL METHODS 

The best known of general treatises on historical methods are those of Bernheim 
and Langlois-Seignobos: 

Ernst Bernheim (1850- ). Lehrbuch der historischen Methode (Leipzig 
1889). Second edition 1894; third and fourth, 1903; fifth and sixth 1908. Photo- 
graphic reprint 1914. I have used the fifth edition entitled Lehrbuch der his- 
torischen Methode und der Geschichtsphilosophie. Mit Nachweis der wichtigsten 
Quellen und Hilfsmittel zum Studium der Geschichte (852 p., Leipzig, Duncker & 
Humblot, 1908). The book is divided into six parts: (1) Concept and essence of 
historiography, (2) Methodology, (3) Knowledge of sources (heuristic), (4) 
criticism, (5) Interpretation ( Auff assung ) , (6) Representation ( Darstellung ) , that 
is, the final redaction. 

Charles Victor Langlois (1863-1929) and Charles Seignobos (1854-1942): 
Introduction aux etudes historiques (Preface dated August 1897; first edition, Paris 
1898). Second edition 1899, third 1905. I have before me an edition called the 
fifth, undated, 1913 (?). English translation entitled Introduction to the study of 
history, by G. G. Berry. First published, London 1898, reprinted 1907, 1912, 
1925, 1926, 1932. 

The work is divided into three books. 7. Preliminary studies (search for docu- 
ments, auxiliary sciences), II. Analytical operations (external and internal criticism), 
1/7. Synthetic operations (construction, exposition). Two appendices concern the 
teaching of history in the French high schools and universities. 

Ch. V. Langlois: Manuel de bibliographic historique. In two parts. The first 
part was first published in Paris 1896, then again in 1901; the second part was first 
published in 1904. The second edition of the first part and the first of the second 
form a volume of 634 p. (Paris 1901-4). 

The first part deals with bibliographical tools, the second with the history and 
organization of historical studies in various countries from the Renaissance to the 
end of the nineteenth century. 

Note that the three works mentioned above cover two fields, and even three 
fields, which are separate yet related in various ways (A) Historical methods and 
philosophy of history, (B) Historical tools, (C) History of historiography. Bern- 
heim covers A and B, Langlois and Seignobos A, Langlois B and C. 

Gilbert Joseph Garraghan (S.J.) : ( 1871- ) : A guide to historical method, 

edited by Jean Delanglez (S.J.) (546 p., Fordham University, New York 1946; 
Isis 41, 139-43). Bound with it by the pubHsher is Livia Appel: Bibliographical 
citation in the social sciences. A handbook of style (30 p.. University of Wisconsin, 
Madison). The book of Father Garraghan and Delanglez is well documented 
and full of examples; p. 427-31 contain a bibliography of historical method to 1939. 
Miss Appel's supplement deals with "style," mechanical details of writing and 
printing. These details are important but the less one fusses about them the 
better; each student should learn them by himself, and nobody should bother to 
teach him, certainly not in college; he ought to know them just as he ought to 
know how to spell and how to blow his nose. 

Mile Louise Noelle Malcles is preparing a new bibliographic guide, Les 



Historical Methods 73 



sources du travail bibliographique. Vol. 1, Bibliographies generales has appeared 
(384 p., Geneve 1950); vol. 2 will list special bibliographies relative to Sciences 
humaines and to Sciences exactes et techniques. 

There are many other vi'orks answering the general purpose of the books already 
mentioned, but it would take too long to enumerate them. There are also books 
of the same kind but of a less general scope. The following three examples may 
suffice. 

Giuseppe Gabrieli (1872-1943): Manuale di bibliografia musulmana. Parte 
prima. Bibliografia generale (501 p., Roma 1916; Isis 5, 449-50). Bibliography 
concerned with Islamic studies. Part 1 was the only part published. 

Louis John Paetow (1880-1928): A guide to the student of medieval history 
(Berkeley 1917). Revised edition prepared by the Medieval Academy of America 
(660 p.. New York 1931). 

Gino Loria: Guida alio studio della storia delle matematiche. Generalita, 
didattica, bibliografia. Appendice: Questioni storiche concernenti le scienze esatte. 
Seconda edizione rifusa ed aumentata (416 p., Milano 1946; Isis 37, 254). First 
edition, Milano 1916 (Isis 3, 142). This brings us very close to our own field, the 
history of science, of which the history of mathematics is an essential part. In the 
absence of a manual for the special use of the historian of science, Loria's Guida is 
indispensable to the latter. It is divided into two books plus the four appendices 
cited in the title: 

Book I: Preparation for research in the history of mathematics. (I) Generalities, historical 
method. (2) Principal works concerning the history of mathematics. (3) Periodicals and 
societies. 

Book II: Auxiliary tools, (i) Generalities. (2) MSS, especially oriental. (3) Greek 
and Roman mathematics. (4) Mathematics of ancient non-European nations. (5) Bibliography 
and biographical collections relative to modern times. (6) Other biographical sources. (7) 
Complete works and letters. (8) Catalogues and bibliographies, general and mathematical. 
(9) Reviews and critics of mathematical writings. (10) Various kinds of historical writings. 

Epilogue: Evolution of mathematical historiography. Appendices: (J) What 
is the history of science? (2) The history of mathematics as a branch of teaching 
in universities. (3) Has mathematical teaching developed in a regular way? (4) 
Unity of mathematics. 

George Sarton: The history of science and the new humanism (New York 
1931; reprinted with additions, 216 p.. Harvard University, Cambridge 1937); The 
study of the history of mathematics (114 p.. Harvard University 1936); The study 
of the history of science (76 p.. Harvard University, 1936). The purpose of these 
three volumes is largely methodological, but the two last named are followed by 
select bibliographies. The mathematical bibliography is of course much smaller than 
Loria's. 

Many nations of Europe and America have encouraged the publication of guides 
for the study of their national history in all its ramifications. Some of these guides 
are extremely elaborate and historians of science will be well advised to consult 
them. If they have to investigate a French item, they should consult Auguste 
Molinier (1851-1904) and others: Les sources de I'histoire de France des origines 
jusqu'en 1815 (17 vols., Paris 1901-34); if a German one, Dahlmann-Waitz : 
Quellenkunde der deutschen Geschichte. First edition by Friedrich Christoph 
Dahlmann (1785-1860) (70 p., Gottingen 1830), Srd ed. by Georg Waitz 
(242 p., Gottingen 1869), 8th ed. by Paul Herre (1310 p., Leipzig 1912; Isis 1, 
537, 9th ed. by Hermann Haering (1332 p., Leipzig 1931-32). Critical lists of 
such national bibliographies will be found in Bernheim, Langlois, Paetow, Loria. 

Historical methods can be learned only by personal experience in their use. 
Books like those of Bernheim and Langlois are useful, however, because they 



74 



Historical Methods 



attract the reader's attention to various possibilities of error, of which he might be 
unaware. It is well to study or to read one of those guides from time to time, as 
one's experience and caution increase. ' Experience is necessary but insufficient. 
One's critical sense should be periodically resharpened. Moreover, one's knowl- 
edge of valuable tools is never complete, not only because new tools are published 
almost every year, but also because no matter how diligent a scholar may be there 
are always some ancient tools which he managed to overlook. I have realized this 
more than once to my mortification. 




2. HISTORICAL TABLES AND SUMMARIES 



Many historical tables have been compiled from time to time and for various 
pm-poses. Historical books often include synchronic tables, which serve as sum- 
maries and index. 

I have often referred to the Time table of modern history A.D. 400-1870, com- 
piled and arranged by M. Morison {2nd ed., album 31 X 38 cm., London 1908). 
First ed. 1901. 

The best summary knovi'n to me is the Encyclopaedia of world history. A re- 
vised and modernized version of Ploetz's Epitome. Compiled and edited by 
WiLLiAJ^i L. Langer (1250 p., Boston 1940; Isis 33, 164; revised edition 1948). 

A. M. H. J. Stokvis: Manuel d'histoire, de genealogie et de chronologie de tous 
les etats du globe (3 vols., Leiden 1888, 1889, 1893). On Stokvis see Isis (39, 
237). 

The student of special areas or periods should compile his own tables ad hoc and 
always be ready to revise them and keep them up-to-date. Those tables would 
become one of his best tools. 



3. HISTORICAL ATLASES 

William R. Shepherd: Historical atlas (Seventh edition revised and enlarged. 
New York 1929). This is an unpretentious school atlas, first published in 1911, 
which I have been using profitably for many years. It is partly derived from the 
atlas of Friedrich Wilhelm Putzger (1849- ), very popular in Germany (first 
ed., Bielefeld 1878; 50th ed. 1931). 

There are many other atlases, many more detailed, but Shepherd's will answer 
the average queries. The historian interested in a definite country or period should 
consult the special atlases devoted to them. Indeed, each civilized country has 
published its own atlases (geographical, historical, economic, etc.). If his needs 
are very special, he should prepare his own maps and keep them within sight or 
within immediate reach. 

Reginald Francis Treharne ( 1901- ) : Bibliography of historical atlases and 
hand-maps for use in schools (24 p., Historical Association, London 1939); Hand- 
list of historical wall-maps (72 p., Historical Association, London 1945), 

One should also consult plain geographical atlases for a better understanding 
of the past; indeed, administrative boundaries have changed but geographical 
realities have remained pretty much the same. There are many general atlases 
covering the whole world and others covering only (or chiefly) definite countries. 
The general atlases devote more attention to their own country of origin and its 
dependencies than to the other countries. For the study of a French topic it is 
naturally better to consult a French atlas, and so on. 

The maps and notices published in guide books such as Baedekers and Blue 
Guides often contain information not available elsewhere. 

Historical students should never deal with any event without ascertaining as 
exactly as possible its location in space and time. They should try to realize also 
contemporary events and contiguous places. If they are not able to visit those 
places, they should try to obtain as good a knowledge of them as possible by means 
of maps, photographs and descriptions. 



4. GAZETTEERS 

The problem of gazetteers is as complex for the historian of science as the prob- 
lem of encyclopaedias. In both cases, he cannot be satisfied with up-to-date in- 
formation, he needs information relative to lower chronological levels. 

George Goudie Chisholm (1850-1930): Longmans' Gazetteer of the world 

(1800 p., London 1895). New impressions 1899, 1902, 1906, 1920. 

Ritters geographisch-statistisches Lexikon {9th ed., 2 vols., Leipzig 1905-6). 
Third ed. 1847. The first editions were compiled by Karl Ritter (1779-1859). 

GoTTARDO Garollo (1850-1917): Dizionario geografico universale {5th ed., 2 
vols., 2204 p., Milano, HoepU 1929-32). 

Lippincott's Complete pronouncing gazetteer (2116 p., Philadelphia 1931), first 
published in 1855. Originally edited by Joseph Thomas and Thomas Baldwin. 
Many editions under slightly diflEerent titles. 

For older times, see the encyclopaedias such as Pauly-Wissowa, the Encyclopae- 
dia of Islam, the Jewish Encyclopaedia, etc. 

JoHANN G. Th. Graesse: Orbis latinus oder Verzeichnis der wichtigsten lateini- 
schen Orts- und Landernamen {Srd ed., 348 p., BerHn 1922). First ed., 1860; 2nd, 
1909. Contains only the Latin names with German equivalent and brief identifica- 
tion. 

FiLiPPO Ferrari (d. 1626): Novum lexicon geographicum. New edition by 
Michael Antonius Baudrand (1633-1700) (2 vols., folio, Padua 1695-97). 
Ferrari's work was first published in Milano 1627, later in Paris 1670. The 
Ferrari-Baudrand gazetteer is one of my standard reference books; it is always 
near to my hand. Yet, I am not sure that it is really the best book of its class 
and time, because I have not been able to make the necessary comparisons. A 
reassessment of early gazetteers would be worthwhile. 

Antoine Augustin Bruzen de la Martiniere (1683-1749): Grand diction- 
naire geographique, historique et critique (6 vols, folio, Paris 1768). First edition 
9 vols.. La Haye 1726-36. 

For more details it may be necessary to refer to national, provincial or local 
gazetteers, whose number is considerable. Reference to guide-books, such as 
Baedekers and Blue Guides, is convenient and often rewarding. Some of the 
Baedekers were compiled with extraordinary care. 

Oriental gazetteers are not mentioned here, because the various kinds of 
orientalists know which reference books are available to them, and such information 
is of no use to people without sufficient philological preparation. We may just 
remark that gazetteers occupy a considerable place in Chinese literature and are 
very numerous. For more details, ad hoc, see my Introd. (3, 204). 

The latest gazetteer, the Webster Geographical Dictionary: A dictionary of names 
of places with geographical and historical information and pronounciation, was pub- 
hshed by the Merriam Co. of Springfield, Mass. at the end of 1949 ( 1325 p., 40,000 
entries, 177 maps). This is truly an excellent work, the best of its size at present 
available. The standards of admission in it of a place were lower for the United 
States and Canada than they were for the rest of the world, but every gazetteer 
favors in a similar way the country where it was produced. Therefore, for in- 
formation concerning places one should always refer to a special gazetteer of the 
country involved or to a general gazetteer published in that country. 

(77) 



5. ENCYCLOPAEDIAS 

It is wise to refer to encyclopaedias for first guidance; it is priggish to disregard 
them; it is foohsh to depend too much on them. Information obtained from encyclo- 
paedias, even from the best, should always be controlled, and should not be stated 
as such except when the responsible author of the article referred to can be 
named. The leading modern encyclopaedias are able to enlist the services of out- 
standing scholars, but it does not follow that every one of their articles is written by 
an authority. On the contrary, it must necessarily happen that many articles re- 
main undistributed and must be composed somehow by the office staff. The very 
articles written by "authorities" do not escape editorial revision, and that revision 
is not always skilful; some good articles are shortened and the shortening, however 
necessary, may be done badly; the proofreading may be insufficient. It would be 
easy to quote examples of such accidents in the latest editions of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica in spite of their relative goodness. 

The student of ancient science should consult first of all Pauly-Wissowa,''' then 
indices, such as Littre's index to the Hippocratic corpus (1861), the Aristotelian 
indexes, — Hermann Bonitz' Index aristotelicus (1870), the indices to the Oxford 
Aristotle in EngUsh, Troy Wilson Organ: Index to Aristotle (Princeton 1949; Isis 
40, 357), indices to Pliny's Natural History or to other classics. For mediaeval 
science up to 1400, Sarton's Introduction will probably be the first guide. A 
number of encyclopaedias or encyclopaedic treatises were published during the 
Middle Ages and later, but there is no place to enumerate them here. 

Modern encyclopaedias, generally arranged in alphabetical order of topics, may 
be said to begin in the eighteenth century. At any rate, it is not worthwhile here 
to mention earlier ones,™ except the two "fin de siecle" ones which follow. 

Before speaking of the main eighteenth century encyclopaedias, it is well to 
mention two first published in the preceding century but whose influence was 
great in the eighteenth century and were frequently reprinted with additions and 
corrections during that century. Both are restricted to history, religion, philosophy 
and the humanities; they are equally poor on scientific topics, yet the historian of 
science may find it profitable to consult them. 

Louis Moreri ( 1613-80) compiled the first encyclopaedia of the pure alphabetical 
type, the Grand dictionnaire historique, ou Melange curieux de rhistoire sacree et 
profane (1 vol., Lyon 1674). Twentieth and last edition (10 vols., Paris, 1759), 
Spanish translation (8 vols, in 10, Paris 1753). Moreri's erudition was copious 
but uncritical; he made many errors, even in his treatment of topics (pagan ones) 
to which his prejudices did not apply. 

The Dictionnaire historique et critique of Pierre Bayle (1647-1706) appeared 
when the success of Moreri's Grand dictionnaire was already well established by 
seven editions; its pubfication (2 vols., Rotterdam 1697) was largely determined by 
tlie existence of Moreri's work and the need of a reaction against it. Moreri de- 
fended in everything Catholic orthodoxy, tradition and prejudice; Bayle's point 
of view was liberal, tolerant, skeptical, sometimes cynical. His Dictionnaire was 
an anticipation of the eighteenth century rationalism. Its success was even greater 
than Moreri's, and it lasted much longer. The 11th ed. in 16 vols, appeared in 
Paris as late as 1820-24. English translations of it were published in 1709, 1710, 



''^ Pauly-Wissowa (1894- ). Paaly's Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Altertnms- 

wissenschaft. Neue Bearbeitiing herausgegeben von Georg Wissowa. Metzler, Stuttgart. 
1894-1938. First series, 38 half volumes, Aal to Philon. 1914-39. Second series, 13 half vol- 
umes, Ra to M. Tullius Cicero. 1903-35. Siipplement 6 vols. Abbr. PW. 

™ A student of, say, the seventeenth century, should establish for himself a list of encyclo- 
paedias or encyclopaedic treatises published during that century, as well as a list of the works 
and correspondence of the leading men of science of that period. If possible, he should work in 
close neighborhood of a collection of these books; or keep always a list of them before his eyes. 



Encyclopaedias 79 

1734-41, 1734-38 (that is a different edition from the previous one). Though 
Bayle died at the beginning of the eighteenth century (in 1706) he influenced very 
deeply the whole of that century.^ 

Let us now consider the encyclopaedias born in the eighteenth century, dealing 
with them in the chronological order of their first editions. 

The first is Ephraim Chambers (d. 1740): Cyclopaedia, or An universal dic- 
tionary of arts and sciences (2 vols. London 1728). Second edition ( 1738). Italian 
translation (Venice 1748-49). Seventh edition (2 vols. 1751-52), with supplement 
by George Lewis Scott (2 vols. 1753). Eighth edition of the text, supplement, 
and a great many additions arranged in one alphabet, by Abraham Rees (4 vols. 
London 1778-88), a fifth volume was added in 1788. We may say that Chambers' 
dictionary was used from 1728 to the end of the century. We remember it today, 
however, less for its own virtues than because it was the indirect cause of the 
Encyclopedic. 

The Encyclopedic was preceded by a German work, remarkable because of its 
gigantic size, the Grosses voUstandiges Universal Lexicon ( 64 vols, folio, Halle 
1732-50), Nothige Supplemente (4 vols., A-Caq, Leipzig 1751-54), edited or pub- 
lished by Johann Heinrich Zedler of Breslau (1706-63). 

Young Denis Diderot (1713-84) having undertaken to translate Chambers' 
Cyclopaedia for a Paris publisher realized that something much better could be 
done and should be attempted. The result was L'EncycIopedie, ou Dictionnaire 
raisonne des sciences, des arts et des metiers, par une societe de gens de lettres. 
Mis en ordre et public par M. Diderot . . . et quant a la partie mathematique par 
M. d'Alembert (17 vols. Paris 1751-65), Supplement (4 vols. Amsterdam 1776- 
77), Recueil de planches sur les sciences, les arts liberaux et les arts mechaniques 
avec leur explication (11 vols, of plates, Paris 1762-72), Suite du recueil de 
planches (Paris, Panckoucke 1777). Table analytique et raisonnee des matieres 
contenues dans les XXXIII volumes in folio du Dictionnaire etc. (2 vols. Paris, 
Panckoucke 1780). Note the accent on science in the title. The Encyclopedic was 
perhaps the most powerful intellectual force of the century, not only from the 
social or political point of view but also from our point of view, the interpretation 
and diffusion of science. 

Various reprints of this or that volume or of whole sets were made in different 
locahties; the bibliography of that is difficult and not necessary here. Mention must 
be made however of the Encyclopedie methodique undertaken in 1781 by the book- 
seller Charles Joseph Panckoucke (1736-98) of Paris, who had taken part in the 
diffusion of the old Encyclopedie itself ( see above ) . The Encyclopedie methodique 
was an enormous undertaking; begun in 1781, it was not yet completed haff a century 
later (1832) when it was stopped; 166 volumes had already appeared and the 
work was still unfinished. Some articles mostly by Diderot and d'Alembert were 
borrowed from the old Encyclopedie, but very much was added. Panckoucke's 
main idea was to divide the work into a series of partial encyclopaedias each dealing 
with a branch of knowledge or technology {e.g., agriculture, 7 vols.; anatomy, 4 
vols.; botany, 11 vols.; chemistry, 4 vols-.). This idea was interesting, and has been 
frequently imitated even in our own time. To my mind it is a perversion of the ency- 
clopaedic purpose. An alphabetic encyclopaedia is exceedingly useful in every age 
for quick reference. Partial encyclopaedias are less useful, for the equivalent is 
found in systematic treatises dealing with the same subjects; the indices of those 
treatises serve the same purpose as the alphabetical arrangement of the partial en- 
cyclopaedias and the explanations available in the treatises are more satisfying and 
more complete because each is placed in its proper logical context. 

The Encyclopaedia Metropolitana (29 vols., London 1845; 2nd ed. 40 vols. 1848- 
58) went a step further than the Encyclopedie methodique in trying to explain all 
the arts and sciences in a single natural sequence. The plan had been proposed by 
the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge ( 1772-1834) whose essay on method was pub- 
lished in the first volume as a general introduction. It was divided into four main 



*° Sarton: Boyle and Bayle. The Sceptical Chemist and the Sceptical Historian (Chymia 
3, 155-89, H fig., 1950). See also Isis 31, 442-44. 



80 Encyclopaedias 

parts. I. Pure science, II. Mixed and applied sciences, III. History and biography, 
IV. Miscellaneous. Part I and II include many authoritative articles which still de- 
serve the attention of historians of science. 

The most popular and useful of all encyclopaedias, and vi^e might perhaps say, 
the best for general purposes, the Encyclopaedia Britannica, is also a child of the 
eighteenth century. Its first edition began to appear in serial form (6d. per num- 
ber!) in 1768 and was completed in 1771. Let us list here the following editions: 
2nd in 1778-83, 3rd in 1788-97; 4th in 1801-10; 5th in 1815-24; 6th in 1823; 7th 
in 1830-42; 8th in 1853-61; 9th in 1875-89 (reprinted in 1898); lOth in 1902; llth 
in 1910-11; 12th in 1922; 13^/i in 1926; 14th in 1929,^ later Chicago editions 
1943 ff. 

The most ambitious encyclopaedic eflFort of the nineteenth century was made by 
JoHANN Samuel Ersch (1766-1828) and Johann Gottfried Gruber (1774-1851). 
Their AUgemeine Encyclopadie der Wissenschaften und Kiinste began to appear in 
Leipzig in 1818; by 1889, 167 volumes had been pubhshed and the work was 
stopped before being completed. In order to hasten its publication, it was divided 
into three series A-G, H-N, O-Z. Only the first A-G was completed (99 vols., 1818- 
82); the second H-N, stopped at the entry 'ligature' (43 vols. 1827-89), the third 
stopped at the entry 'Phyxios' (1830-50). Some articles were monographs of con- 
siderable size. E.g., vol. 27 of the second series included an "article" by Moritz 
Steinschneider on Jewish literature (printed 1850). That article was Englished 
by the mathematician and physicist, William Spottiswoode (1825-83), revised by 
the author and published in book form "Jewish literature from the eighth to the 
eighteenth century" (414 p., London 1857); an index to the 1600 Jewish writers 
dealt with was published much later (52 p., Frankfurt a. M., 1893). The Ersch 
and Gruber purpose was defeated by its own magnitude, and that immense work is 
almost forgotten today, at least outside of German lands. 

A briefer enumeration of the nineteenth and twentieth century encyclopaedias 
will suffice as the reader is familiar with them. Instead of dealing with them 
in straight chronological order, it is simpler to divide them into four linguistic 
groups, German, French, Spanish, Italian. 

The first "new" encyclopaedia of importance in the German world was established 
by the firm Brockhaus of Leipzig, the founder of which was Friedrich Arnold 
Brockhaus (1772-1823), and the first edition of the Brockhaus' Konversations-Lexi- 
kon (as different from an older Lexikon, dating back to 1796-1808, out of which 
it developed) is the one dated 1809-11, second edition 1812-19. 15th ed., called 
Der Crosse Brockhaus (20 vols. Leipzig 1928-35, supt. vol. 21, 1935); revision (20 
vols., plus atlas, Leipzig 1939). 

Meyers Crosses Konversations-Lexikon was first pubhshed in 46 vols. (Leipzig 
1840-55), seventh edition (12 vols. Leipzig 1924-30, supp. vols. 13-15, 1931-33; atlas 
1933, gazetteer 1935). 

Herders Konversations-Lexikon was first published in 5 vols. ( Freiburg im Breis- 
gau 1853-57). Third edition (8 vols., 1902-07; supt. 1, 1910, supt. 2, 1921-22). 

After the German debacle a new Lexikon, to be completed in 7 volumes, was 
undertaken in Switzerland. (7 vols., Schweizer Lexikon Zurich 1945-48). 

The leader of encyclopaedic endeavor in France was the grammarian, Pierre 
Larousse (1817-75), whose family name has almost become a common name 
wherever French language is used. The main work edited or published by him 
was Le grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siecle ( 15 very large vols., Paris 
1866-76; suppt. 2 vols., 1878-90). This is the combination of a French dictionary 
with an encyclopaedia. Nouveau Larousse illustre, edited by Claude Auge (8 
vols., Paris 1897-1904; Supplement et Complement 1906-7). Larousse du XXe 



^ Some of these editions were not completely new but constituted by the volumes of the 
preceding editions plus supplementary volumes; annual supplements were also published from 
time to time, like the Britannica Year-Book of 1913 (Isis 1, 290-92) but these things do not 
matter much in retrospect. The main point is that there are 15 editions of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, 3 of these in the eighteenth century, 6 in the nineteenth, 6 in the twentieth. There 
is no other "encyclopaedic" lecord comparable to that, that is, if size, authoritativeness and 
frequency of publication are all taken into account. 



Encyclopaedias 81 

siecle, edited by Paul Auge (6 vols., 1928-33). The Larousse house has also pub- 
lished many special encyclopaedias (agriculture, medicine, etc.). 

Grande Encyclopedia (31 vols., Paris 1886-1902). Some of the signed articles 
are excellent. Many articles on the history of science contributed by Paul Tannery 
are reprinted in his Memoires scientifiques. 

The most ambitious of French undertakings as well as the most recent is the 
Encyclopedia frangaisa conceived in 1932, edited by Lucien Febvre, the publica- 
tion of which began in Paris in 1935 and is still very incomplete. Out of 21 
volumes only 11 have appeared (1, 4-8, 10, 15-18). The general idea was to avoid 
the highly arbitrary alphabetical order and explain the whole of knowledge in 
logical order. For ex., vol. I entitled "L'outillage mental" deals with the evolution 
of thought (A. primitive, B. logical), language and mathematics. II-III. Matter, 
energy, astronomy, IV-V. Life and the living world, VI-VII. Anthropology, VIII-IX. 
History, X-XI. Government, XII-XIII. Economics, XIV-XV. Games, sports, recrea- 
tions, XVI-XVII. Arts and literatures, XVIII. Religion and philosophies, XIX-XX. 
Technology, XXI. Conclusions (or Introduction). Each volume includes a brief 
alphabetical table of topics. Beginning with 1937 quarterly supplements provided 
additional pages or new pages to replace the original ones ( a tempting but danger- 
ous method).*^ The undertaking was too ambitious and to my mind superfluous. 
Textbooks are meant to give accounts of the knowledge available in this or that 
field and to integrate that knowledge as well as possible. The Encyclopedie fran- 
gaise imphed an excess of integration, defeating its own piu-pose. The articles of an 
ordinary encyclopaedia will retain their practical and theoretical value much longer 
than an integrated whole. In spite of the insertion of additional or substituted leaves, 
each part of the Encyclopedie frangaise is bound to be replaced sooner or later by 
a new textbook. 

The idea of an integrated or logical (vs. alphabetical) encyclopaedia has been 
reahzed more modestly in such books as the Grand Memento Encyclopedique 
Larousse, edited by Paul Auge (2 vols., Paris 1936-37), and by many other works 
of the same kind, summaries of knowledge arranged in a definite order. 

The Encyclopedie frangaise reminds us of other efforts made for the integration 
of knowledge. Various collections of books have been planned upon an encyclo- 
paedic pattern. E.g., the Encyclopedia scientifiqua, published by Doin, Paris; chief 
editor Edouard Toulouse. It is divided into 40 sections and will include about a 
thousand volumes. An even more ambitious project was Die Kultur der Gegenwart, 
begun c. 1906, published by Teubner, Leipzig; chief editor, P. Hinneberg. Such 
collections are not essentially different from the other collections published, less 
systematically, by the largest publishing houses. An alphabetic encyclopaedia is 
an indivisible whole, all the volumes of which however numerous are kept on the 
same shelves. On the other hand, the volumes of such collections as Die Kultur der 
Gegenwart and the Encyclopedie scientifique are often bought separately; even when 
they are bought together by a continuous subscription, the volumes are soon sepa- 
rated and placed upon different shelves. The integration exists only in the mind 
of the chief editor. 

On the other hand, the philosophical integration may be stressed even more 
deeply than is the case of the Encyclopedie frangaise. This occurred in the Encyclo- 
padie der philosophischen Wissenschaften, edited by Wilhelm Windelband ( 1848- 
1910) and Arnold Ruge, begun in 1912 (Isis 2, 284). Only one volume appeared 
dealing with logic (Tiibingen 1912) and including contributions by Windelband, 
Josiah Royce, Louis Couturat, Benedetto Croce, Federigo Enriques and Nicolaj 
LossKij. A more ambitious attempt of the same kind was begun by Otto Neurath, 
International encyclopaedia of unified science, the publication of which began in 
Chicago in 1938 (Isis 32, 340-44; 33, 721-23; 37, 104). 

Spanish encyclopaedia. — Enciclopadia universal ilustrada europeo-americana (70 
vols., Madrid 1912-30; appendix, 10 vols. 1930-33; annual suppts., 7 vols. 1934-48). 

*^ The inserted page is convenient for the regular and careful subscriber, but how can readers 
in a public library know when and where leaves have been inserted or should have been 
inserted? 



82 Encyclopaedias 

Italian encyclopaedias. — Nuova enciclopedia italiana (14 vols. 1841-51). Re- 
vised 6th edition (30 vols. 1875-99). One of the greatest achievements of the Fascist 
regime was the preparation and rapid completion of the Enciclopedia italiana di 
scienze, lettere ed arti (37 vols., Rome 1929-39; 2 vol. suppt. 1948). The philoso- 
pher, Giovanni Gentile (1875- ), was chief editor. That encyclopaedia is 
less important than the Britannica but very full, well documented and admirably il- 
lustrated. 

There are many other encyclopaedias in other languages, Russian, Dutch, Danish, 
Norwegian, Swedish, Portuguese, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, Japanese, etc., partly be- 
cause the publication of an encyclopaedia has become an essential element of the 
national aspirations of each country and of the linguistic aspirations of each 
linguistic group. Some of these encyclopaedias are excellent, but there is no need 
of mentioning them here, because they are of no use except to readers understanding 
their particular language, and those readers are fully aware of their existence. 

However impartial the editors of encyclopaedias may be, they are bound to give 
more importance to the topics concerning their own national or linguistic area and 
that is all right if that natural partiality is not carried too far. The encyclopaedias 
written in "small" ^ languages are particularly valuable for what concerns their 
area which may be somewhat neglected in the encyclopaedias published in other, 
larger, areas. 

In addition to the encyclopaedias already quoted, which however international 
they may be, have a natural predilection for a national or linguistic area, there are 
other encyclopaedias of which the area is primarily religious; that is, they are also 
international or supranational, but in a difFerent way. Here are a few which I am 
using constantly: 

Encyclopaedia of religion and ethics (13 vols., New York 1908-27). 

Catholic. — Dictionnaire de theologie catholique ( 15 vols., to "theologie," Paris 
1903-43). Catholic encyclopaedia (16 vols., New York 1907-13). 

Jewish. — Jewish encyclopaedia (12 vols.. New York 1901-6). Encyclopaedia 
judaica ( 10 vols, to "Lyra," Berlin 1928-34 ) in German, interrupted because of Ger- 
man anti-Semitism. There is also an edition in Hebrew. 

Muslim. — Encyclopaedia of Islam (4 vols., suppt. 1 vol., Leiden 1908-38). Edi- 
tions in English, German, French; also in Arabic and Turkish. 

Buddhist. — Hobogirin (Tokyo 1929 etc.), interrupted by the war (Introd. 3, p. 
1889). 

For classical antiquity, see Pauly-Wissowa mentioned at the beginning of this 
chapter. 

The indications given above on encyclopaedias are rudimentary, but amply suf- 
ficient for ordinary usage. A scholar should never be ashamed to consult encyclo- 
paedias but he should do so carefully. Such consultation is very often the best way 
to begin an investigation. If one has to deal with a topic having national or linguis- 
tic implications, it is well to consult in the first place an encyclopaedia covering 
particularly that national or hnguistic area, but then to consult also encyclopaedias 
covering other areas, rival areas. This gives one a preliminary view of that topic, 
which is many-sided and sufficiently objective. 

A complete bibliography of encyclopaedias would be very long and difficult, and 
not useful for our purpose. Even the exact and complete bibliography of a single 
encyclopaedia, such as the Britannica or Brockhaus, would require much labor and 
space. Most encyclopaedias contain articles on "encyclopaedias" and generally a 
history of their own endeavor. There is a good unsigned article in the Britannica 
(8,424-31, 1929). 

Up-to-date encyclopaedias are of very great service to scientists and scholars of 
every kind for first aid on many subjects (chiefly on subjects with which they are 
not familiar ) . Historians of science need not only the latest encyclopaedias but also 
the old ones, as such offer one of the simplest means of recapturing the educated 

^ The word "small' is not used here in a bad sense. We call "small" languages those which 
are used only by a relatively small population, and have no international currency. They may 
be, and often are, "great" languages in other respects. Sarton: The tower of Babel (Isis 39, 
3-15, 1948). 



Encyclopaedias 



83 



opinion of earlier times. Unfortunately, the old encyclopaedias are difficult to con- 
sult, because even when they are available as they are in the larger libraries, they 
are generally hidden away on the theory that they are obsolete and superseded and 
that nobody will ever want to consult them.** That practice is certainly wrong 
as far as the historian of science is concerned. Indeed, encyclopaedias are not avail- 
able except when they are completely available on open shelves. When the historian 
wishes to consult them to investigate the evolution of ideas (say, on the speed of 
light), he will generally wish to consult not one of them but a whole series, and in 
many cases he will not know which particular volume to ask for (the information 
ad hoc might be given under fight, or optics, or speed of light, or even elsewhere). 
It would be impracticable to borrow every one of those bulky series, each time that 
a similar investigation had to be made. 

An Institute for the history of science should include an "encyclopaedia room" 
where all the new as well as the old encyclopaedias could be easily consulted. For 
example, there ought to be a full set of all the Britannicas. The same room might 
contain also ( if space permitted ) other reference books such as the biographical col- 
lections (to be described presently), gazetteers, dictionaries and grammars. 

** Many of the old encyclopaedias owned by the Harvard Library are stored away in the Deposit 
Library across the river, and cannot be consulted except after their return from Deposit to 
Widener; this may take a few days. 




6. BIOGRAPHICAL COLLECTIONS 

The older encyclopaedias did not always include biographies, because a distinc- 
tion was made between encyclopaedias deahng with scientific topics of various kinds 
on the one hand and historical dictionaries (like Moreri's and Bayle's) on the 
other. The first edition of the Britannica ( 1768-71 ) did not include biographies, but 
the second (1778-83) and all the following did. At present, every alphabetical en- 
cyclopaedia includes biographies, but on account of the competition for space of 
many other items, those biographies are brief and relatively few in number. 

There is thus a need in addition to the encyclopaedias for biographical collections. 

First aid is obtainable in such books as Gottardo Garollo (1850-1917): Di- 
zionario biografico universale (2 vols., 2126 p., Milano, Hoepli 1907); the Universal 
pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology by Joseph Thomas (1811-91). 
New 4th ed. revised (2550 p., London and Philadelphia 1915), the first edition had 
appeared in 1870; Webster's Biographical dictionary ( 1733 p., Springfield, Mass., 
1943). 

Of the earlier biographical collections only one must be quoted here, the one 
begun by Christian Gottlieb Jocher (1694-1758), born in Leipzig, professor in 
the university of that city and director of its library, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon 
(11 vols., Leipzig 1750-1819, 1897). The first four volumes, covering the whole 
alphabet, are Jocher's work (1750-51), the following six volumes (1784-1819) are 
supplements provided by Johann Christoph Adelung (1732-1806) to the letter J, 
and for the rest by Heinrich Wilhelm Rotermund (1761-1848). A final supple- 
ment edited by Otto Gtjnther appeared much later (1897). These volumes are 
still worth consulting, especially for personalities of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. 

Two very large biographical collections appeared last century, both in France. 
Joseph Michaud (1767-1839) and Louis Gabriel Michaud (1773-1858): Biogra- 
phic universelle (85 vols., Paris 1811-62). Italian translation with additions, Bi- 
ografia universale (65 vols., Venezia 1822-31). 

The second and better is the one begun forty years later by Ferdinand Hoefer 
(1811-78):*^ Nouvelle biographie generale (46 vols., Paris 1855-66). 

The historical standards of the national collections are generally higher than those 
of the universal collections, because their scope is less ambitious, they are more homo- 
geneous, the collaborators use to some extent the same sources and to a large extent 
the same methods. The best known of those national biographies are: 

Allgemeine deutsche Biographie (55 vols., Leipzig 1871-1910). Abbreviated 
ADB. Vol. 56 published in 1912 is a general index, very convenient. This bibli- 
ography is periodically continued by the Biographisches Jahrbuch und deutscher 
Nekrolog (18 vols, for 1896 to 1913, pubhshed in Berlin 1897-1917) and then by 
the Deutsches biographisches Jahrbuch herausgegeben vom Verbande der deutschen 
Akademien (vol. 1, for 1914-16, published in 1925; vol. 11 for 1929, pubhshed in 
1932). 

The ADB contains biographies not only of Germans but of many other people, 
Dutchmen, Belgians, Swiss, Poles, whom the editors saw fit to annex. E.g., it con- 
tains elaborate biographies of Rembrandt, Vesalius, Jacob Steiner and Coperni- 
cus. 

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) contains biographies of people 
born in Great Britain, Ireland, the British Commonwealth and colonies, and of Eng- 
lishmen born abroad. It was begun in 1885 and the last (63 d. ) volume appeared 
in 1900. It was reprinted in 22 volumes. Various supplements cover the period 
1901-40; they include biographies of people who died before 1941. A "concise dic- 
tionary," wherein the articles are reduced to one-fourteenth of their original length 



^ Sarton, Hoefer and Chevreul (Bulletin of the history of medicine, 8, 419-45, 1940). 



Biographical Collections 85 

was published in 1917 and the supplements have been or will be abbreviated in 
the same manner. 

The Dictionary of American Biography (DAB) began to appear in 1928, and 
was completed in 20 vols, in 1936. Index to vols. 1-20, 1937. Supplement includ- 
ing biographies of men who died before 1935 (1944). Some articles of DAB rela- 
tive to the colonial period duplicate articles of DNB, but are posterior to them, and 
hence presumably better. 

The French biography, Dictionnaire de biographie frangaise, is still too far from 
completion to be very useful. Vol. 1 is dated 1933; vol. 3, pubUshed in 1939, stops 
at Aubermesnil. Latest part seen, fasc. 27 to Bassot (Paris 1950). 

Biographie nationale de Belgique. 27 vols. (Bruxelles 1866-1938). Vol. 28, 
General Table (1944). 

Dictionnaire historique et biographique de la Suisse (7 vols., Neuchatel 1921-33; 
suppt. 1934). 

Splendid biographical collections have been published in the Netherlands and in 
Scandinavia, but as they are printed in Dutch, Swedish, etc. they are not generally 
available to foreign scholars. 

Bibliography of biographical dictionaries classified by countries in the Enciclo- 
pedia italiana (7, 47-49, 1930). 

The two most important collections of scientific biographies are 

JoHANN Christian Poggendorff (1796-1877): Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch zur Geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften (2 vols., Leipzig 1863). 
Supplements: vol. 3, for 1858-83 (1898); vol. 4, for 1883-1903 (1904); vol. 5, for 
1904-22 (1926); vol. 6, for 1923-1931 (1936-40). Facsimile reprint of the whole 
set in 10 vols. (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1945). The biographical information given in 
these volumes is very brief, the purpose being rather to give the complete bibliog- 
raphy of each author. 

Ernst Gurlt, Agathon Wernich and August Hirsch: Biographisches Lexikon 
der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker (6 vols., Wien 1884-88). Re- 
vised edition by Wilhelm Haberling, Franz Hubotter and Hermann Vierordt 
(5 vols., Berlin 1929-34; Suppt. 1935). Though this collection is restricted to physi- 
cians, it is more general; indeed, a great many men of science of the past, especially 
the naturalists, practiced medicine or at least had a medical degree. 

James Britten and George S. Boulger: Biographical index of deceased British 
and Irish botanists {2nd ed., 364 p., London 1931; Isis 36, 229). 

Some of the most valuable biographies of men of science are to be found in 
academic publications, but a list of these would involve too long a digression. It 
is hoped that a bibliography of all of these academic biographies will eventually 
be compiled and then kept up to date in periodical supplements. 

Thomas James Higgins: The function of biography in engineering education 
(Journal of engineering education 32, 82-92, 1941); Biographies and collected works 
of mathematicians (American mathematical monthly 51, 433-45, 1944); Book -length 
biographies of chemists (School science and mathematics 650-65, 1944); Book-length 
biographies of physicists and astronomers (American Journal of physics 12, 234-36, 
1944); Book-length biographies of engineers, metallurgists and industrialists (14 p., 
reprinted from Bulletin of Bibliography, vols. 18-19, 1946-47); Biographies of 
engineers and scientists (Research Publ. of 111. Inst. Tech., vol. 7, no. 1, 62 p., 1949); 
Biographies and collected works of mathematicians (Am. math. mly. 56, 310-12, 
1949). 



B. SCIENCE 

7. SCIENTIFIC METHODS AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 

It is generally difficult to separate books dealing with scientific methods from 
those dealing with the philosophy of science. The difference is one between means 
and purpose, but means and purpose are as closely related as the obverse and the 
reverse of a medal. It is "means," one might say, if you look from the left, and "pur- 
pose" if you look from the right. It is only when one has a purpose in mind that one 
can conceive means of attaining it, and if means are used, a purpose is implied. 

The only way to study scientific methods thoroughly is to work in a special field 
of science, and to carry on as many experiments and investigations as possible. 
Book knowledge cannot possibly replace the experimental knowledge obtained in 
the laboratory. Of course this is true also of historical methods, which can only be 
mastered by long practice. 

However, for the historian of science, the experimental knowledge, indispensable 
as it is, is not sufficient. He must be more fully aware of the methods which scien- 
tists are applying to their purpose, and be able to analyze them. 

It is noteworthy that scientific methods are not taught systematically in scientific 
courses but rather in philosophical courses. Teachers of science may refer to them 
but generally take them for granted and are satisfied to insist upon the rules and 
precautions of definite experiments. After having completed a cycle of, say, physical 
experiments, students are aware of general methods ( in addition to the special ones ) , 
but their awareness may remain largely unconscious or unformulated. 

There are a great many books dealing with the philosophy and methods of sci- 
ence, and I could not tell which are the best, as I have read only a few. A good 
part of the subject is already standardized and explained sufficiently well in every 
book. Each author throws emphasis on certain aspects of the subject; a comparison 
between their books would imply a comparison of these aspects the relative impor- 
tance of which cannot be weighed, except in a few cases. 

Early nineteenth century writers like Baden Powell, Whewell * and Her- 
SCHEL have been mentioned in the text above and many more might easily be, such 
as CoMTE, CouRNOT and Spencer, but that would lead us too far. There are 
three men of science of the second half of the nineteenth century who stand out 
above the others for the present purpose, Bernard, Mach, and Pearson. 

The Introduction a I'etude de la medecine experimentale ( Paris 1865 ) by Claude 
Bernard ( 1813-78) is still the most important book ever written by a man of science 
to explain the genesis and development of his own methods of investigation. Eng- 
lish translation, An introduction to the study of experimental medicine, by Henry 
Copley Greene (250 p.. New York 1927; reprinted 1949). 

Bernard was a physiologist; Mach, a physicist deeply concerned for philosophi- 
cal problems and realizing that such problems could not be solved without historical 
investigations. One cannot understand the meaning of a concept if one does not 
know its origin and development. 

The main works of Ernst Mach (1838-1916) are Die Mechanik in ihrer 
Entwicklung historisch-kritisch dargestellt (Leipzig 1883; 7th ed., 1912), Englished 
under the title The science of mechanics (Chicago 1893; 3rd ed., Chicago 1907; 
supplement by Philip E. B. Jourdain, Chicago 1915; 4th ed. Chicago 1914, 5th, 
La Salle, 111., 1942). 



^ In addition to his History of the inductive sciences (3 vols., London 1837), Whewell pub- 
lished a few years later The philosophy of the inductive sciences founded upon their history 
(2 vols., London 1840; revised ed. 1847). History of scientific ideas. Being the first part of 
The philosophy of the inductive sciences. Third ed. (2 vols., London 1858). 



Methods and Philosophy 87 

Die Analyse der Empfindungen und das Verhaltniss des Physischen zum Psychi- 
schen {1st ed.?; 2nd, Jena 1900; 6th, 1911); Analysis of sensations and the relation 
of the physical to the psychical (Chicago 1897; revised 1914; Isis 3, 369). 

Erkenntnis und Irrtum. Skizzen zur Psychologic der Forschung (Leipzig 1905, 
5th ed. 1926). 

As to the third one, Karl Pearson (1857-1936), he was a mathematician, but 
one with very broad scientific interests, and one of the first to try to apply mathe- 
matical methods to biology (Biometrika 1901-35). His Grammar of science was 
first published in London 1892; increased editions in 1900, 1911. A somewhat re- 
duced edition was included in Everyman's library in 1937. 

The books published in the twentieth century will be listed in the alphabetical 
order of the authors' names. Such an order is logical disorder, but any kind of logical 
order would introduce superfluous difficulties. Books on the methods and philosophy 
of science cover a very long range, the whole gamut extending from philosophy 
( epistemology, logic, metaphysics) on one end to technicalities at the other; more- 
over, their philosophical points of view vary greatly, to the point of mutual contradic- 
tion. 

Many of the books listed below seem to be restricted to physics, but the scope 
of physics is so broad that such books are really concerned with the philosophy of 
science, or, at any rate, with the philosophy of inorganic sciences. 

Abro, A. d': 

1927: The evolution of scientific thought from Newton to Einstein (revised ed. 
New York 1950; Isis 42, 70). 

1939: The decline of mechanism in modern physics (988 p.. New York; Isis 32, 
380-82). 

Bachelard, Gaston (1884- ): 

1927: Essai sur la connaissance approchee (312 p., Paris; Isis 11, 522). 

1932: Le pluralisme coherent de la chimie moderne (Paris; Isis 19, 233-35). 

1933: Les intuitions atomistiques (162 p., Paris; Isis 21, 443). 

1934: Le nouvel esprit scientifique (180 p., Paris). — Reprinted 1937. 

1938: La formation de I'esprit scientifique, contribution a une psychoanalyse de 
la connaissance objective (256 p., Paris; Isis 40, 283-85). — Reprinted 1947. 

1940: La philosophic du non, essai d'une philosophic du nouvel esprit scientifique 
(145 p., Paris). 

Bachelard is professor of the history and philosophy of science at the Sorbonne. 

Barry, Frederick (1876-1943): 

1927: The scientific habit of thought. An informal discussion of the source and 
character of dependable knowledge (371 p.. New York; Isis 14, 265-68; 34, 339-40). 

The author was trained as a chemist and taught the history of science in Columbia 
University. 

Bavink, Bemhard (1879-1947): 

1932: The natural sciences. An introduction to the scientific philosophy of to- 
day. Translated from the 4th German edition with additional notes (696 p., 87 ill.. 
New York; Isis 26, 565). 

The original German text was first pubfished in 1914; 2nd ed. 1921, 5th ed. 
1933, 8th ed. 1945, 9*^ ed. (822 p., Ziirich 1948), posthumously edited by M. Fierz. 

Benjamin, A. Cornelius: 

1936: The logical structure of science (344 p., London; Isis 29, 461-64). 
1937: Introduction to the philosophy of science (485 p., New York; Isis 29, 
464-69). 

The author is professor of philosophy in the University of Chicago. 

Bom, Max ( 1882- ) : 

1943: Experiment and theory in physics (48 p., Cambridge; Isis 35, 261, 263). 
1949: Natural philosophy of cause and change (224 p., London). 
The author is a German physicist. 



88 Methods and Philosophy 

Bridgman, Percy Williams (Isis 37, 128-31, portr.): 
1922: Dimensional analysis (New Haven). 
1927: Logic of modern physics (New York). 
1936: Nature of physical theory (Princeton). 
1941: Nature of thermodynamics (Cambridge, Massachusetts). 
The author is an American physicist. 

Brown, Guy Bumiston: 

1950: Science. Its method and its philosophy (190 p., 8 pi., London). 
The author is an English physicist. 

Brunschvieg, L^on ( 1869-1944) : 

1922: L'experience humaine et la causalite physique (691 p., Paris; Isis 5, 
479-83). 

The author is a French philosopher. 

Caldin, E. F.: 

1949: The power and limits of science. A philosophical study (205 p., London). 

Campbell, Norman Robert (1880-1949): 

1928: An account of the principles of measurement and calculation (304 p., 
London ) . 

The author was a physicist, engaged in industrial research. 

Cannon, Walter Bradford (1871-1945): 

1945: The way of an investigator. A scientist's experiences in medical research 
(229 p., New York; Isis 36, 259 p., portrait). 

Cannon, professor of physiology in Harvard, was naturally influenced by Ber- 
nard in many ways and particularly in the writing of these autiobiographical remi- 
niscences. I would advise every student who has read Bernard's Introduction, to 
read also Cannon's book. 

This book suggests that many other biographies and autobiographies of men of 
science contain valuable information concerning not only the history of science (that 
is obvious ) but also its philosophy and methodology. The best of those biographies 
enable one to study various methods in action. A critical list of such biographies 
would be very helpful but cannot be provided here and now. 

Carmichael, Robert Daniel ( 1879- ) : 

1930: The logic of discovery (290 p., Chicago; Isis 15, 373-76). 
The author is an American mathematician. 

Cohen, Moris Raphael (1880-1947) and Nagel, Ernest: 

1934: Introduction to logic and scientific method (479 p.. New York; Isis 23, 
284-87). 

Both authors are philosophers and logicians. 

Davis, Harold Thayer: 

1931: Philosophy and modern science (350 p., Bloomington, Indiana; Isis 18, 
204-6). 

Davis is a mathematician, statistician, econometrist. 

Dingle, Herbert 

1931: Science and human experience (141 p., London). 
1937: Through science to philosophy (New York; Isis 29, 160-63). 
Dingle is an astrophysicist, now professor of the history of science in University- 
College, London (Isis 37, 77). 

Dingier, Hugo ( 1881- ) : 

1921: Physik und Hypothese (211 p., Berlin 1921; Isis 4, 385). 

1923: Die Grundlagen der Physik (350 p., Berlin; Isis 6, 572-73). 

1924: Die Grundgedanken der Machschen Philosophic mit Erstveroffentlichungen 



Methods and Philosophy 89 

aus seinen wissenschaftlichen Tagebiichern (106 p., Leipzig; Isis 7, 603, 339). 

1926: Der Zusammenbruch der Wissenschaft und das Primat der Philosophie 
(400 p., Miinchen). 

1928: Das Experiment. Sein Wesen und seine Geschichte (272 p., Miinchen). 

1931: Philosophie der Logik und Arithmetik (198 p., Miinchen). 

1932: Geschichte der Naturphilosophie (174 p., BerUn; Isis 22, 284-85). 

1938: Die Methode der Physik (422 p., Munchen; Isis 32, 203-5). 

Duhem, Pierre (1861-1916): 

1908: Essai sur la notion de theorie physique de Platon a Galilee (Annales 
de philosophie chretienne; reprint of 144 p., Paris). 

1905-6: Origines de la statique (2 vols., Paris). 

1906-13: Etudes sur Leonard de Vinci (3 vols., Paris). 

1913-17: Le systeme du monde (5 vols., Paris; Isis 2, 203; 3, 125; 26, 302-3). 

The author was a physico-chemist, and wrote very important studies on the his- 
tory of science. Biographies of him have been pubhshed by Pierre Humbert ( Paris 
1932; Isis 21, 399) and by his daughter, Helene Pierre-Duhem (Paris 1936; Isis 
27, 161). 

Eddington, Arthur Stanley (1882-1944): 

1928: The nature of the physical world (380 p., Cambridge). 

1933: The expanding universe (190 p.. New York; Isis 21, 322-26). 

1935: New pathways in science (348 p., 4 pis., Cambridge). 

1939: The philosophy of physicial science (239 p., Cambridge; Isis 33, 79-80). 

1946: Fundamental theory (300 p., Cambridge). 

Enghsh Astrophysicist and philosopher. 

Einstein, Albert ( 1879- ) : 

1922: The meaning of relativity (128 p., Princeton; enlarged ed. 135 p., Prince- 
ton 1945; Isis 37, 154). 

1934: The world as I see it (325 p., London; Isis 23, 277-80). 

1938: (with Leopold Infeld). The evolution of physics, the growth of ideas 
from early concepts to relativity and quanta (330 p.. New York; Isis 30, 124-25). 

1950: Out of my later years (300 p.. New York). 

Mathematician and physicist, discoverer of the theories of relativity. 

Enriques,Federigo (1871-1946): 

1906: Problemi della scienza (Bologna) English translation by Katherine 
Royce with preface by Josiah Royce, Problems of science (408 p., Chicago 1914; 
Isis 3, 368). 

1922: Per la storia della logica, i principii e I'ordine della scienza nel concetto 
dei pensatori matematici (302 p., Bologna; Isis 5, 469-70). 

1938: Le matematiche nella storia e nella cultura (340 p., 22 pi., Bologna; Isis 
31, 108-9). 

Enriques was a mathematician and director of the institute for the history of 
science attached to the University of Rome. 

Frank, Philipp: 

1932: Das Kausalgesetz und seine Grenzen (323 p., 4 fig., Wien). 
1941: Between physics and philosophy (238 p., Cambridge, Massachusetts; Isis 
34, 180). 

1946: Foundations of physics (84 p., Chicago; Isis 37, 104). 

1949: Modern science and its philosophy (338 p., Harvard, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Frank is a mathematician and physicist. 

Friend, Julius Weis and Feibleman, James: 

1933: Science and the spirit of man, a new ordering of experience (336 p., Lon- 
don ) . 

1937: What science really means. An explanation of the history and empirical 
method of general science (222 p., London; Isis 31, 105-8). 



90 Methods and Philosophy 

George, William Herbert: 

1936: The scientist in action, a scientific study of his methods (364 p., London; 
Isis 29, 159). 

Gonseth, Ferdinand ( 1890- ) : 

194?: Determinisme et Hbre arbitre. Entretiens presides par Gonseth, recueillis 
et rediges par H. S. Gagnebin (185 p., Neuchatel). 

Hartmann, Max (1876- ): 

1948: Die philosophischen Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, Erkenntnis- 
theorie und Methodologie (250 p., Jena). 

Howells, Thomas H.: 

1940: Hunger for wholiness (307 p., Denver 1940; Isis 33, 288-89). 
Psychologist. 

Jeans, Sir James Hopwood (1877-1946): 

1928: Astronomy and cosmogony (430 p., Cambridge). 

1929: The universe around us (362 p., 24 pi., Cambridge; 4th ed., 1944). 

1930: The mysterious universe (163 p., 2 pL, Cambridge). 

1931: The stars in their courses (200 p., 47 pi., Cambridge). 

1933: The new background of science (309 p., New York; Isis 21, 326-28). 

1934: Through space and time (238 p., 53 pi., Cambridge). 

1942: Physics and philosophy (229 p., Cambridge). 

Enghsh astronomer, physicist, philosopher. 

Jevons, William Stanley (1835-1882): 

1874: The principles of science, a treatise on logic and scientific method (2 vols., 
London). — Stereotyped ed., 830 p., London 1883. Often reprinted. 

English economist and logician. 

Joad, Cyril Edwin Mitchinson ( 1891- ) : 

1928: The future of Me, a tlieory of vitalism (London). 

1932: Philosophical aspects of modern science (London; reprinted 1934; 344 p., 
1943; Isis 40, 77). 

The author is a philosopher and publicist. 

Johnson, Martin Christopher ( 1896- ) : 

1944: Art and scientific thought, historical studies toward a modern revision of 
their antagonism (200 p., London; Isis 37, 122). — Reprinted New York, Columbia 
University 1949 (Isis 37, 122; 41, 85). 

1945: Time, knowledge and the nebulae, an introduction to the meaning of time 
in physics, astronomy and philosophy, and the relativities of Einstein and Milne 
(180 p., London). 

1946: Science and the meaning of truth (180 p., London; Isis 38, 129). 

Lamouche, Andre: 

1924: La methode generale des sciences pures et appliquees (298 p., Paris). 
The author is an engineer in the French army. 

Le Chatelier, Henri (1850-1936): 

1936: De la methode dans les sciences experimentales (319 p., Paris; Isis 27, 
519-22). 

Industrial chemist, discoverer of Le Chatelier's law. Some of his views are 
obsolete (e.g., against relativity or quanta). He edited some classics of physics and 
chemistry (1913, 1914; Isis 1, 770; 2, 277; 4, 156). 

Lecomte du Nouy, Pierre ( 1883-1947): 

1936: Le temps et la vie (267 p., Paris); translation entitled Biological time 
(New York 1936). 

1939: L'homme devant la science (Paris). 

1941: L'avenir de I'esprit (Paris). 



Methods and Philosophy 91 

1944: La dignite humaine (332 p., New York); translation entitled: Human 
destiny (New York, 1947). 

Biologist, chemist, philosopher. 

Lenzen, Victor Fritz: 

1931: The nature of physical theory, a study in the theory of knowledge (314 
p., New York; Isis 20, 488-91). 

1938: Procedures of empirical science (62 p., International encyclopedia of uni- 
fied science 1 no. 5, Chicago). 

Lenzen is professor of physics at the University of California and author of 
many reviews of books on the philosophy of science in Isis. 

L^vy, H.: 

1933: The universe of science (238 p., London: Isis 21, 328-30). 

Margenau, Henry: 

1950: The nature of physical reality. A philosophy of modern physics (486 p., 
13 fig., New York; Isis 42, 69). 

Metzger-Briihl, Helene (1889-1944): 

1926: Les concepts scientifiques (195 p., Paris; Isis 9, 467-70). 

Student of mineralogy, chemistry, and general science, chiefly in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries (Isis 36, 133). 

Meyerson, Emile (1859-1933): 

1908: Identite et realite (3rd ed., Paris, 1926; Isis 9, 470-72 ) .—English transla- 
tion (London 1930). 

1921: De I'exphcation dans les sciences (2 vols., 852 p., Paris; Isis 4, 382-85). 

1925: La deduction relativiste (412 p., Paris; Isis 7, 517-20). 

1931: Du cheminement de la pensee (3 vols., 1064 p., Paris; Isis 17, 444-45). 

1936: Essais (272 p., Paris). Posthumous publication. 

Meyerson had studied the history of chemistry under Hermann Kopp and he 
remained deeply interested in the history of science, but he was primarily a phi- 
losopher. 

Neurath, Otto (editor): 

1938f: International encyclopaedia of unified science (University of Chicago, Isis 
83, 721-23; 37, 104; etc.). 

Nicolle, Charles (1866-1936): 

1932: Biologie de I'invention (178 p., Paris; Isis 19, 301). 

1934: La nature, conception et morale biologique (134 p., Paris). 

1936: La destinee humaine (106 p., Paris). 

Bacteriologist. 

Nippoldt, Alfred (1874-1936): 

1923: Anleitung zu wissenschaftlich^n Denken (Srd ed., 222 p., Potsdam). — 
66th-75th ed., 232 p., Potsdam 1943. 

The author is a German student of terrestrial magnetism. 

Northrop, Filmer Stuart Cuckow ( 1893- ) : 

1931: Science and first principles (314 p.. New York; Isis 17, 273-77). 
American philosopher and educator. 

Pelseneer, Jean: 

1947: L'evolution de la notion de phenomene physique, des primitifs a Bohr 
et Louis de Broglie (177 p., Bruxelles; Isis 39, 194-96). 

The author teaches the history of science at the University of Brussels, and was 
for some years attached to the history of science section of UNESCO. 

Planck, Max (1858-1947): 

1922: Physikalische Rundblicke (168 p., Leipzig), essays dealing with the 



92 Methods and Philosophy 

philosophy of science. — Enghshed under the title: A survey of physics (191 p., 
London 1925). — Expanded edition entitled: Wege zur physikalischen Erkenntnis 
i2nd ed., 1934; 4th, Leipzig 1944). 

1931: The universe in the light of modern physics (110 p., London). — Increased 
ed. (140 p., London 1937). 

1932: Where is science going? (222 p., New^ York). 

1936: The philosophy of physics (128 p., London). 

Planck was the discoverer of the quanta theory; one of the founders of modern 
physics. Portrait in Isis (38, facing p. 135). 

Poincar^, Henri ( 1854-1912) : 

1908: La science et I'hypothese (Paris). 

1909: La valeur de la science (Paris). 

1909: Science et methode (Paris). 

English translation of the three volumes by George Bruce Halsted, with special 
preface by Poincare and introduction by Joseph Royce (one vol. with index, 
566 p., New York 1913), reprinted 1921, 1929. 

Ramsperger, Albert Gustav: 

1942: Philosophies of science (315 p., New York; Isis 34, 270). 
The author is a philosopher. 

Reichenbach, Hans (1891- ) : 

1928: Philosophic der Raum-Zeit-Lehre (386 p., Berlin). 

1932: Atoms and cosmos, the world of modern physics (300 p., London). 

German original, Berlin 1930. 

1938: Experience and prediction, an analysis of the foundations and the structure 
of knowledge (420 p., Chicago University). — Reprinted 1949. 

1942: From Copernicus to Einstein (123 p., New York). — German original, 
Berhn 1927. 

1944: Philosophic foundations of quantum-mechanics (192 p., Berkeley, Calif.). 

Rey, Abel (1873-1940): 

1907: La theorie de la physique chez les physiciens contemporains (Paris; 2nd 
revised ed., 1923, Isis 5, 484-85; Srd ed., 1930). 

1927: Le retour eternel et la philosophic de la physique (320 p., Paris 1927; 
Isis 9, 477-79). 

The author is a philosopher who was director of the institute for the history of 
science at the University of Paris; he was succeeded by Bachelard, listed above. 

Ritchie, Arthur David: 

1923: Scientific method. An inquiry into the character and validity of natural 
laws (London). 

The author is a chemical physiologist. 

Russell, Bertrand ( 1872- ) : 

1948: Human knowledge: its scope and limits (540 p., London). 
English mathematician and philosopher. 

Sehrodinger, Erwin (1887- ): 

1935: Science and the human temperament (154 p., London). 
1945: What is life? (100 p., Cambridge; Isis 36, 229). 
The author is a mathematician and physicist. 

Smuts, )an Christiaan (1870-1950): 

1926: Holism and evolution (300 p., London). 
South African soldier, statesman, philosopher. 

Weizsacker, Carl Friedrich von: 

1949: The history of nature (198 p.. University of Chicago; Isis 41, 393).— First 
pubhshed in German: Die Geschichte der Natur ( 170 p., Ziirich 1948). 



Methods and Philosophy 93 

Werkmeister, William Henry: 

1940: A philosophy of science (576 p., New York; Isis 33, 144). 

1948: The basis and structure of knowledge (462 p., New York; Isis 42, 68). 

The author is a professor of philosophy. 

Westaway, Frederic William: 

1912: Scientific method, its philosophical basis and its modes of application 
(London, later editions 1919; Isis 4, 119-22; 1924, 1931; 1937, Isis 28, 579). 

1920: Science and theology, their common aims and methods (350 p., London; 
Isis 4, 119-22; new ed., 1932). 

1942: Science in the dock: guilty or not guilty? (143 p., London). 

The author was formerly an inspector of Enghsh schools. 

Weyl, Hermann: 

1932: The open world, three lectures on the metaphysical imphcations of science 
(88 p.. New Haven; Isis 23, 281-84). 

1934: Mind and nature (106 p., Philadelphia; Isis 23, 281). 

1949: Philosophy of mathematics and natural science (320 p., Princeton; Isis 41, 

236-37). 

Whitehead, Alfred North (1861-1947): 

1919: Enquiry concerning the principles of natural knowledge (212 p., Cam- 
bridge ) . — Reprinted 1 925. 

1920: The concept of nature (212 p., Cambridge; Isis 4, 212). — Reprinted 1926, 
1930. 

1925: Science and the modern world (308 p., Cambridge). — Often reprinted. 

1938: Modes of thought (New York; Isis 32, 239). 

Whitehead was a mathematician and philosopher. 

Wolf, Abraham ( 1876- ): 

1925: Essentials of scientific method (160 p., London; Isis 8, 604). — Often re- 
printed. 

The author was professor of the subject in the University of London and wrote 
books on the history of science. 

This list is very incomplete; it includes only the books which have come to the 
author's knowledge and which he has remembered. The books mentioned illustrate 
a great variety of purposes and offer a sufficient choice to meet the reader's first 
needs, whichever they be. 

See the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 18 Philosophy of Science. 



8. SCIENCE AND SOCIETY 

Some historians of science are interested in the many complex questions con- 
cerned with the impact of society upon science and with the impact of science upon 
society. The following books deal with those questions, but they are not absolutely 
separate from the books deaUng with the philosophy of science. The philosophy of 
science and the sociology of science^ are two overlapping fields; the nature and 
extent of the overlapping vary with each author. 

Baker, John Randal ( 1900- ) : 

1943: The scientific life (154 p.. New York; Isis 35, 191-92). 

1945: Science and the planned state ( 120 p., London; Isis 36, 224; 37, 250). 

English biochemist, leading opponent of "planning" in science. — See also Mees. 

Bennett, Jesse Lee ( 1885- ) : 

1942: The diffusion of science ( 150 p., Baltimore; Isis 34, 374). 

Bernal, John Desmond ( 1901- ) : 

1929: The world, the flesh and the devil; an enquiry into the future of the three 
enemies of the rational soul (96 p., London). 

1939: The social function of science (498 p., London). 

1949: The freedom of necessity (448 p., London). 

English physicist, Marxist. 

Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart: 

1949: Fear, war and the bomb, military and political consequences of atomic 
energy (252 p., New York; Isis 41, 86). 
English physicist. 

Bridgman, Percy Williams ( 1882- ) : 

1938: The intelligent individual and society (312 p.. New York; Isis 30, 310-12, 
37, 128). 

American physicist. 

Bryson, Lyman ( 1888- ) : 

1947: Science and freedom (202 p.. New York). 
American educator. 

Bush, Vannevar ( 1890- ) : 

1946: Endless horizons (191 p., Washington, D. C; Isis 37, 250). 

The author is a mathematician and engineer, president of the Carnegie Institute 
of Washington. 

Coates, J. B.: 

1949: The crisis of the human person (256 p., London). 

Cohen, I. Bernard ( 1914- ) : 

1948: Science, servant of man. A layman's primer for the age of science (376 p., 
8 pi., Boston; Isis 40, 73-75). 

The author is professor of the history of science in Harvard University. 

Crowther, James Gerald ( 1899- ) : 

1930: Science in Soviet Russia (128 p., 13 pi., London), 
1936: Soviet science (352 p., London; Isis 27, 90-92). 



^ What I call here sociology of science is implicitly defined in the preceding sentence; it is 
somewhat different from the Wissenssoziologie about which see Robert K. Merton: The sociology 
of knowledge (Isis 27, 493-503, 1937). Wissenssoziologie is more ambitious from the meta- 
physical and epistemological point of view than my sociology of science. 



Science and Society 95 

1935: British scientists of the nineteenth century (345 p., 12 pL, London; Isis 28, 
507-08). 

1937: Famous American men of science (430 p., New York; Isis 28, 507-08). 

These two books containing 9 biographies of physicists (5 EngUsh and 4 Ameri- 
can) are quoted because of the social theory which inspires them. 

1941: The social relations of science (697 p., New York; Isis 33, 345-47). 

English scientific journalist. 

Darlington, Cyril Dean ( 1903- ) : 

1948. The conflict of science and society. Conway Memorial Lecture (61 p., 
London; Isis 41, 319). 

English geneticist, director of the John Innes Horticultural Institution. 

Gellhorn, Walter (1906- ): 

1950: Security, loyalty and science (Cornell, Ithaca, NY.). 

Haldane, John Burdon Sanderson (1892- ): 

1923: Daedalus, or science and the future (100 p., London). 

1938: The Marxist philosophy and the sciences (183 p., London). 

1938: Heredity and politics (202 p.. New York; Isis 29, 565). 

1940: Science and everyday Bfe (284 p., New York; Isis 33, 142). 

1940: Adventures of a biologist (290 p.. New York; Isis 33, 297-98, 524-25). 

1947: What is life? (251 p., New York). 

English biologist, Marxist. 

Hogben, Lancelot ( 1895- ) : 

1937: Mathematics for the million (660 p., New York; Isis 28, 138-40). 
1938: Science for the citizen (1114 p.. New York; Isis, 31, 467-69). 
1940: Dangerous thoughts (285 p.. New York; Isis 33, 144). 
English physiologist, biologist. 

Huxley, Julian Sorell 1887- ): 

1923: Essays of a biologist (321 p., London). 

1931: What dare I think? The challenge of modern science to human action 
and belief (287 p., London). 

1934: Scientific research and social needs (304 p., 40 pi., London). — American 
edition titled: Science and social needs (304 p.. New York 1935; Isis 24, 188). 

1936: Africa view (463 p., London; Isis 28, 150-51). Impact of science on 
colonial administration. 

1941: The uniqueness of man (313 p., London). — American edition titled: Man 
stands alone (307 p.. New York 1941; Isis 33, 409). 

1944 (editor) : Reshaping man's heritage. Biology in the service of man (96 p., 
7 pi., London; Isis 36, 59). 

1944: On living in a revolution (256 p., ill.. New York). 

1946: UNESCO, its purpose and philosophy (63 p., London; Washington, D.C. 
1947; Isis 39, 116). 

1947: Man in the modern world (281 p., London). 

The author is an English biologist and was the first general director of UNESCO, 
hence very well placed to study the impact of science on international life. 

Lilley, Samuel: 

1948: Man, machines and history, a short history of tools and machines in relation 
to social progress (240 p., ill., London). 

1949: Social aspects of the history of science (Archives internationales d'histoire 
des sciences, 28, 378-443). 

Report prepared for the International Union of the History of Science. The 
author is an English historian of physics. 

Lindsay, Jack ( 1900- ) : 

1949: Marxism and contemporary science, or the Fullness of life (261 p., Lon- 
don; Isis 41, 320). 



96 Science and Society 

Mees, Charles Edward Kenneth (1882- ) (with the cooperation of John R. 

Baker): 

1946: The path of science (262 p., New York; Isis 37, 251). 

The author is Vice-president in charge of research of the Eastman Kodak Co., 
Rochester, N. Y. His field of research is photography. 

Marten, Robert King: 

1938: Science, technology and society in seventeenth century England (Osiris 
4, 360-632; Bruges). 

The author is professor of sociology in Columbia University, New York. 

Nathanson, Jerome ( editor ) : 

1946: Science for democracy (180 p.. New York; Isis 40, 385). 

Needham, Joseph ( 1900- ) : 

1944: An international science cooperation service (Nature 154, 657-60). 

1945: The place of science and international scientific cooperation in post-war 
world organization. Memorandum III (42 typewritten pages, Chungking; Isis 37, 
251). 

The author is an English biochemist, who has done service in China and in 
UNESCO and is very alert concerning the social and international implications of 
science. 

Pla, Cortes (1898- ): 

1950: Ciencia y sociedad (230 p., Buenos Aires). 

Science and Society, a Marxian quarterly. Vol. 1, no. 1, 126 p., Cambridge, Mass., 

1936 (Isis 27, 165). 

The existence of this journal, is a witneess of the efforts made by Marxist scien- 
tists to diffuse their views on the sociology of science. 

Sigerist, Henry Ernest ( 1891- ): 

1932: Man and medicine (350 p., New York; Isis 21, 337-38). — First published 
in German, under title: Einfiihrung in die Medizin (412 p., 1931). 

1941: Medicine and human welfare (161 p., 20 ills.. New Haven; Isis 33, 553). 

1943: Civilization and disease (266 p., ill., Ithaca, N. Y.; Isis 35, 220). 

1946: The university at the crossroads (171 p.. New York; Isis 37, 275). 

1947: Medicine and health in the Soviet Union (383 p.. New York; Isis 39, 202- 
03). 

The author is a Swiss historian of medicine, whose teaching leads to a sociology 
of medicine, largely based upon historical knowledge. The Marxist interpretation 
of history appeals very much to him. 

Soddy, Frederick ( 1877- ): 

1920: Science and life (242 p., London). 

c. 1922: Cartesian economics. The bearing of physical science upon state 
stewardship (32 p., London). 

1924: The inversion of science and a scheme of scientific reformation (54 p., 
London ) . 

1935: (editor) The frustration of science (144 p.. New York; Isis 25, 274). 

English chemist and physicist. 

Thornton, Jesse Earl ( editor ) : 

1939: Science and social change (readings, 588 p., Washington, D.C.; Isis 32, 
465). 

Watson, David Lindsay ( 1901- ) : 

1938: Scientists are human (269 p., London; Isis 31, 466-67). 

American physico-chemist, born in Scotland; interested in the philosophy of 
natural and social sciences. 



Science and Society 



97 



Weaver, Warren (editor) (1894- ): 

1947: The scientists speak (382 p., New York; Isis 39, 191-92). 

Collection of radio talks by 81 eminent scientists, explaining their views of the 
present and future of science. The editor is director for the natural sciences of the 
Rockefeller Foundation, New York. 

Znaniecki, Florjan ( 1882- ) : 

1940: The social role of the man of knowledge (216 p.. New York, Columbia; 
Isis 33, 395). 

Sociologist of Polish birth, professor of sociology in the University of Ilhnois. 

See the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, sections 17. Organization of science, 
43. Sociology, jurisprudence and positive polity, 48. History of philosophy. 




9. CATALOGUES OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE 

JoHANN Christian Poggendorff (1796-1877): Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch (1863-1940; reprint 10 vols. Ann Arbor 1945). For more details, see 
end of section 6 above. 

Royal Society of London, Catalogue of Scientific Papers, 1800-1900 (Cam- 
bridge, 1867-1925, 19 vols. ). Subject index ( 1908-14, 4 vols. ). 

This work is so important that we must pause a moment to describe it. Its com- 
pilation was first suggested at the Glasgow meeting of the B.A.A.S. in 1855 by 
Joseph Henry (1797-1878), secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and the plan 
was drawn up in 1857. After many years of preparation and considerable expendi- 
ture, the first volume appeared in 1867, and the publication continued as follows: 

First series. Vols, i-vi, cataloguing the papers of 1800-63, 1867-77. 

Second series. Vols, vii-viii, literature of 1864-73, 1877-79. 

Third series. Vols, ix-xi, literature of 1874-83, 1891-96. 

Vol. xii. Supplement to the previous volumes, 1902. 

Fourth series. Vols, xiii-xix, literature of 1884-1900, 1914-25. 

To give an idea of the size of this catalogue it will suffice to remark that the 
papers catalogued in the fourth series alone, for the period 1884-1900, number 
384,478, by 68,577 authors. 

The compilation of a subject index, without which the work loses much of its 
value, was already contemplated in the first plan (1857). It was finally decided to 
arrange it in accordance with the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature 
{see below). This meant that it would include seventeen volumes, one for each of 
the seventeen sciences recognized in that catalogue. The first volume. Pure Mathe- 
matics, appeared in 1908; the second. Mechanics, in 1909, the third, Physics, in two 
instalments. Generalities, Heat, Light, Sound in 1912, Electricity and Magnetism 
in 1914. The publication seems to have been finally discontinued, which is a great 
pity. Whatever the fate of the International Catalogue may be, there is no justifi- 
cation for leaving the Royal Society Catalogue essentially incomplete, and thus nul- 
lifying a large part of the past labor and expenditure. 

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature. Published for the International 
Council by the Royal Society of London. 

This is an outgrowth of the Royal Society Catalogue, as it was felt that the 
scientific literature of our century was too extensive to be dealt with by a single 
scientific society. Its organization was arranged at the initiative of the Royal Society 
by an international conference which met in London in 1896, then again in 1898, 
in 1900, etc. It was decided to divide science into seventeen branches: 

A. Mathematics. 

B. Mechanics. 

C. Physics. 

D. Chemistry. 

E. Astronomy. 

F. Meteorology (incl. Terrestrial magnetism). 

G. Mineralogy (incl. Petrology and Crystallography). 
H. Geology. 

J. Geography (mathematical and physical). 
K. Palaeontology. 
L. General biology. 
M. Botany. 
N. Zoology. 
O. Human anatomy. 
P. Physical anthropology. 
Q. Physiology (incl. experimental Psychology, Pharmacology, and experimental 

Pathology ) . 
R. Bacteriology. 



Catalogues of Scientific Literature 



99 



A large number of annual volumes were actually published from 1902 to 1916, 
but the gigantic undertaking was a victim of the first World War and of the national 
selfishness and loss of ideahsm which the War induced. The volumes pubhshed 
cover the scientific literature for the period from 1901 to about 1913.®* 

** The publication includes 254 octavo volumes, varying in thickness from half an inch to 
two inches, and the original price was about £,260. The stock has been sold to William Daw- 
son and Sons, London, who oflFered a complete set for the price of £ 60 unbound, or £. 100 
bound (November 1935). Unfortunately most of Messrs. Dawson's stock was lost, by enemy 
action, during the second World War and these voliunes are now almost unobtainable. 




10. UNION LISTS OF SCIENTIFIC PERIODICALS 



The two most important lists of that kind are: 

J ) The Union List of Serials in Libraries of the United States and Canada ( New 

York, 1927, one very large quarto volume of 1588 p.). 

Registering some 70,000 journals and serials, of every kind, dead or alive, pub- 
hshed in some 70 languages, and available in some 225 American libraries. Two 
supplements have already appeared, bringing the list down to 1932. 

Second edition by the same editor, Winifred Gregory (3065 p.. New York 
1943). This lists between 115 and 120,000 items. Supplement to the end of 1943 
(New York 1945). 

2) A World List of Scientific Periodicals published in the years 1900-1921 (2 vols. 
London 1925-27), hsting over 24,000 periodicals. Second edition for the years 
1900-34 ( 1 vol. 794 p., London 1934). Item 2 is less comprehensive than 1 because 
it is restricted to contemporary scientific pubhcations, it includes some 36,000 entries 
in 18 languages (for statistics, see Isis, vol. 23, p. 578). A new edition is in prepa- 
ration. 

These two lists are useful, first, to identify a certain journal, secondly, to find 
in what libraries ( British or American ) sets of it are available, and, finally, to judge 
of its importance, or at least of its popularity, by the number of sets available in the 
English-speaking world. This last judgment is possible only in the case of publi- 
cations which are not distributed mostly by gift or exchange. 



11. GENERAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS 

For the study of modern science and the determination of the main impulses 
and tendencies of modern contemporary research, it is necessary to consult journals 
devoted to science in general. The leading journals of that kind are listed below 
in chronological order, and under their original or main title. The titles of some 
journals were changed more than once but a record of such changes is not in scope 
of our list. Should the reader wish for such information he would find it conven- 
iently in the Union List of Serials (ULS) or in bibliographical Usts of serial publi- 
cations. 

Since the purpose of such a list is to enable the historian of science to obtain 
quickly a general view of scientific problems and novelties at a definite chronological 
level some of the older and now deceased publications are also included. 

XVIIth and XVIIIth Century Periodicals 

1665- : Journal des savants. Paris. 

A new series of the journal began in 1903. There has been a 'pirate' edition 
of this periodical running from 1665 to 1763, issued from Amsterdam. It has 164 
volumes. 

1682-1779: Acta eruditorum. Leipzig. 

After 1732 its title was "Nova acta eruditorum." It has several supplements 
and a 6-volume index. 

1772-1787: Allgemeines Schwedisches Gelehrsamkeits-Archiv. Leipzig. Edited by 
C. W. LuDEKE; complete in 7 volumes. 

1798- : Philosophical magazine and Journal of science. London. 

After 1850 it is called The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Maga- 
zin, etc. It is still current and comprises now several hundred volumes in seven 
series. 

XIXth Century Periodicals 

1817-1835: Isis; oder, Enzyklopaedische Zeitung. Jena & Leipzig. Edited by 

L. Oken; comprises 23 volumes. 

Originally a poHtical periodical vmtil 1824, it changed title to Enzyklopadische 
Zeitschrift vorziighch fiir Naturgeschichte, etc. As a supplement it had a "Litera- 
rischer Anzeiger." 

1818- : American journal of science (Silliman's journal). New Haven. 

Vol. 50 is an index to vols. 1-49, after that every tenth volume contains an index 
to ten volumes. 

1823-1831: Bulletin des aimonces et des nouvelles scientifiques. Paris. 

Title varies: Bulletin universel (des sciences et de I'industrie); divided into sec- 
tions according to branches of science. 

1845-1921: Scientific American. New York. 

Merged in 1921 with the Scientific American monthly. 

1846- : Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles; Biblioth^que universelle. 

Geneve. 

(101) 



102 General Scientific Journals 

1850- : Natuurwetenschappelijk tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indie. Batavia, 
Weltevreden. 
Later called Chronica naturae. Index v. 1-60, 1850-1900; v. 61-90, 1901-30. 

1853-1918: Zeitschrift fur Naturwissenschaften. Halle & Leipzig. Edited by 
GiEBEL, SiEWERT, et ol.; 86 volumes; slight variation in title. 

1857-1875: Ann^e (L') scientifique et industrielle. Paris. 

1857- : Moniteur scientifique du Dr Quesneville; journal des sciences pures et 
appliquees. Vol. 100 was pubHshed in 1928. 

1863- : Revue scientifique (Revue rose illustr^e) Paris. Index 1863-81. 

1866- : Archives n^erlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles. Haarlem. 
Its 3rd series started in 1911 with three divisions: 3A for exact sciences, 3B for 

natural sciences and 3C for physiology. 

1867- : The American naturalist. Boston & New York. 

Beginning with vol. 85, 1951, it became the official journal of the American So- 
ciety of Naturalists. 

1869- : Nature. London. 

1869- : Term^szettudomanyi kozlony (Naturwissenschaftlicher Anzeiger). Bu- 
dapest. 

1872-1915: Popular science monthly. New York. 

Weekly; continued as Scientific Monthly; index vol., 1-40, 1872-92. 

1873- : La Nature. Paris. Four decennial indices for the period 1873-1912. 

1876- : Scientific American supplement (1876-1919) New York. 
Continued by Scientific American monthly (1920-21). In Nov. 1921, merged 

into Scientific American; rejuvenated in May 1948 (vol. 178, 5). Index: 1876-1910. 

1877- : Revue des questions scientifiques. Louvain. Indices: v. 1-50, 1877- 
1901; V. 51-80, 1902-21; v. 81-110, 1922-36. 

1883- : Science. Cambridge, Mass., & New York. 

1886-1912: Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau. Braunschweig. Complete in 27 
vol.; continued as Die Naturwissenschaften. 

1887- : Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift. Edited by H. Potonie; vol. 
37, 1922. 

1890- : Revue g^n^rale des sciences pures et appliquees. Paris. Index: v. 
1-25, 1890-1914, issued in vol. 25. 

1890-1920: Prometheus; illustrierte Wochenschrift fiir die Fortschritte (der ange- 
wandten Naturwissenschaften) in Gewerbe, Industrie und Wissenschaft. Berlin. 
In 1921, merged into Umschau; completed in 31 vols. 

1897- : Umschau; Ubersicht iiber die Fortschritte und Bewegungen auf dem Ge- 
samtgebiete des Wissenschaft, Technik, etc. Frankfurt a.M. Edited by J. H. 
Bechhold. 

XXth Century Periodicals 

1903- : South African journal of science. Cape Town. 

1906- : Science progress in the twentieth century. London. 

1907- : Scientia. Bologna. Index: 1907-29. 



General Scientific Journals 



103 



1909-1914: Natura; rivista di scienze naturali. Pavia. 

1912- : Priroda. Leningrad. 

1913- : American scientist; Sigma XI quarterly. Champaign, Illinois. 

1913- : Naturwissenschaften. Berlin. 

Continues Naturwissenschatfliche Rundschau (1886-1912). 

1915- : Scientific monthly. New York & Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 

1915- : K'o-hsiieh [Science]. Shanghai. 

Monthly; contains bibliographies, progress reports and reviews in Chinese. 

1918- : Nauka polska. Warszawa. 
For progress of science in Poland. 



1920- 

1922- 

Annual 

1925- 

1932- 

1934- 

1935- 

1938- 

1940- 

ico, D. 
1942- 

1942- 

1945- 

1946- 

1948- 

1949- 



Discovery. London. 

Ergebnisse der exakten Naturwissenschaften. Berlin. 

long reviews on progress of certain problems of exact sciences. 

Forschungen und Fortschritte. Berlin. 

Current science. Bangalore, Mysore. 

Ciencias; revista trimestrial. Madrid. 

Science and culture. Calcutta. 

Australian journal of science. Sidney. 

Ciencia; revista hispano-americana de ciencias puras y aplicadas. Mex- 
F. 
Endeavour. London.** 

Experientia. Basel. 

Ciencia e investigacion. Buenos Aires. 

Zeitschrift fiir Naturforschung. Wiesbaden. 

Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau. Stuttgart. 

Ciencia e cultura. Sao Paulo. 



The most convenient of all these journals is probably Nature, but it began only 
in 1869 and has no general indices. One must consult the indices of each volume, 
which is a tedious process (by the end of 1950, 166 volumes had appeared). Com- 
plete sets of these journals are very bulky and the historian of modern science can 
hardly have them near him, but he should try to keep close at hand a few general 
indices. (N.B. The present efforts of modern technicians to reduce the bulk of 
accumulated literature by means of microfilms, microprints and similar other devices 
will have but little practical value for historians of any kind. ) (C. F. M. ) 

In many cases, the historian of science would be obliged to consult also journals 
devoted to special sciences, or the abstracting journak concerned with special sub- 
jects. Any attempt to enumerate all these journals would be futile and outside the 
scope of this guide-book. Every speciafized man of science is familiar with the jour- 
nals devoted to his special studies. Moreover, there are many special lists of sci- 



*» "Endeavour, a quarterly review designed to record the progress of the sciences in the 
service of mankind," is published by the Imperial Chemical Industries, London. It serves 
as a means of propaganda for British science and industry, but the articles are as impartial as 
they would be in any scientific journal; they are admirably illustrated. In addition to the 
English edition of Endeavour, there are also editions in French, Spanish, German and 
(beginning with vol. VII, no. 25, Jan. 1948) Italian. 



104 



General Scientific Journals 



entific journals available, in addition to the union catalogs and world lists, which 
contain the needed references to such special serials. 

Many more journals could be quoted in various languages, not counting the 
publications of the academies and learned societies, but those quoted are more than 
sufficient for the general purpose.'* If a historian wished to have a general view of 
science in 1895, the simplest way of obtaining it would be to consult the periodicals 
which appeared in that year. Many of these periodicals, if not all of them, are 
available in every good research library. 

*" Some journals which ran only for a few years and have long been out of circulation and 
forgotten ( in spite of their goodness ) have been omitted, because they are difiBcult to find except 
in the oldest and largest libraries. 




12. ABSTRACTING AND REVIEW JOURNALS 

{by Claudius F. Mayer) 

For the historian of any branch of science the so-called abstracting journals are 
very convenient indicators, first-aid tools in a quick approach to past decades or 
centuries. While they help him in his effort to revive the contemporary ideology 
of a chosen subject and to re-create the scientific atmosphere of any era of his 
choice, they are not more than indicators to be used with proper criticism. The 
information that they convey should never be accepted without an ultimate recourse 
to the original sources. For the historian who is engaged in specific bio-bibUograph- 
ical studies the abstracting journals are especially valuable because they may help 
him to detect many details in the literary activities and in the fife histories of even 
the lesser stars of science. 

The historian has to be reminded, however, that the Uterature of any scientific 
subject is much wider and the literary production of any man is much larger than 
it could be revealed by any abstracting journal. Repeated statistical studies showed 
that it is not more than about 20% of the world's current scientific literature which 
the current abstracting journals are able to comprehend. The percentage of ab- 
stracted literature may be higher and the value of older abstracting journals may be 
greater for earher decades and centuries when the bulk of scientific pubfishing has 
been small. The value of these journals as secondary sources for the historian 
to prepare bio-bibliographies depends also upon the professional education of the 
makers of the abstracting journals and subject bibliographies. If the compiler or 
editor was a scientist, expert in his subject, the historian may be assured of the com- 
pleteness and accuracy of the subject bibliographies and the abstracts though they 
are secondary records only. 

The abstracting journal is by no means a 20th century innovation of scientific 
journalism, though this century may have an increased demand for it. Indeed, the 
precursors of the modern abstracting journals could be retraced to the earliest printed 
magazines, and, even beyond those, to the medieval encyclopedias, formularies, pan- 
dects, furthermore to the various written collections of scientific knowledge made 
already a couple of thousand years B.C. 

The earhest scientific periodicals as well as many publications of the first scientific 
societies in the 17 th and 18f^ centuries either consisted exclusively of abstracts and 
digests or included much of these to form a large part of an issue. Many of the 
general scientific periodicals fisted above in this chapter do the same. In Chapter 
20 there are special journals for the historian of science; many of them abound in 
abstracts of articles related to the history of sciences. At the end of Chapter 20 
( p. 246-48 ) there is a short appendix of journal titles; in a way, most of those jour- 
nals were chiefly filled with abstracts. 

There is a steady growth in the number of journals that are devoted exclusively 
to abstracting the contents of other scientific periodicals. At the begiiming of 1951 
there were some 300 of them. A correct count is almost impossible, and not needed. 
Many more may be in existence, and many are defunct now. Recently, D. E. Gray 
fisted 145 current abstracting (and indexing) services for the field of physics alone 
(Am. J. Physics, 1950, 18: 274-99; 417-24). Yet, only two of these journals have 
been used by more than 90% of the people he questioned. 

Besides Gray's article there are very few other publications for fisting such 
journals. A fist was prepared by Ruth Cobb with the title Periodical bibliographies 
and abstracts for scientific and technological journals of the world (Washington, 
U. S. National Research Council, 1920). The Library Association of Great Britain 
has pubfished a Class Catalogue, &c. (Lond., 1912; 38p.). The latest of such fists 
is a document of the International Federation for Documentation, under the title 
List of current specialized abstracting and indexing services (The Hague, 1949). 



106 Abstracting and Review Journals 

It is a very tentative list which excuses itself with the sentence that "The present 
status of the abstracting work in the whole world is still very confusing." 

The following selective alphabetical hst includes a few abstracting journals 
chiefly of older vintage or of long standing which, in the opinion of the compiler, 
are of some value as secondary indicative sources for the historian of science. 

(1785)1793- (1800)1807: AUgemeines Repertorium der Literatur. Jena; Weimar. 
Edited by J. S. Ersch; 3 series; in many sections. 

1827-1844: AUgemeines Repertorium der gesamten deutschen medizinisch-chirur- 
gischen Journalistik. Leipzig. Edited by C. F. Kleinert; 18 vols; ca 5,000 
references a year. 

( 1825- ) 1829- : American journal of pharmacy. Philadelphia. 

1876- : Analyst. Cambridge, Engl. 

1886- : Anatomischer Anzeiger. Jena. 

1895- : Armee (L') biologique. Paris. 

1862-1877: Ann^e (L') geographique. Paris. 

1850-1871: Annual (The) of scientific discovery. Boston. 
Limited to discoveries in the U. S. only. 

1890- : Anthropologie. Paris. 

1906- : Anthropos. St Gabriel; Freiburg (Sw.). 

(1827)1828- (1837)1838: Arcana of science [and art]. London. 

1822- : Archiv der Pharmazie. Berhn. 

1834-1914: Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte. Berlin. 

1882- : Archives italiermes de biologic. Pisa. 

1922- : Australian science abstracts. Sydney. 

From v. 17, 1938, issued as supplement of Australian journal of science. 

1877-1919: Beiblatter; Annalen der Physik. Leipzig. 
In 1920, continued as Physikahsche Berichte. 

1893-1913: Bibliographia physiologica . . . repertoire des travaux de physiologic 
de I'annee. Bruxelles; Wien. Edited by Richet; in 3 series. 

1697-1699: Bibliotheca librorum novorum. Utrecht. 

Five vol. in 3; issued bimonthly from Apr./May 1697 to Nov./Dec. 1699; per- 
haps the earliest book-review journal; edited by Ludolph Kuster(=Neocorus) 
and Henrek Sikio(=Sickius). 

1851-1887: Bibliotheca historico-naturalis et physicochemica [et mathematical. 
Gottingen. 

1796-1835: Bibliotheque britannique. Geneve. 

First series, 1796-1816, in three sections: a) litterature, 60v., b) sciences et arts, 
60v., c) agriculture, 20v., plus 4v. index. Continued as Bibliotheque universelle des 
sciences, and had another series from 1816 to 1835; a third series began in 1858. 

1902-1910: Biochemisches Zentralblatt. Berhn. 

1881- : Biologisches Zentralblatt. Leipzig. 

1918-1926: Botanical abstracts. Baltimore. 

Continued as part of Biological Abstracts (1926- ). 



Abstracting and Review Journals 107 

1880- : Botanisches Zentralblatt. Kassel; Jena, &c. 

1843-1910: Botanische Zeitung. Berlin; Leipzig. 

1757-1763: Bremisches Magazin zur Ausbreitung der Wissenschaften. Hannover. 

1836-1877: British and foreign medical [medico-chirurgical] review. London. 

1855-1861: Bulletin de bibliographie, d'histoire et de biographic mathematiques. 

Paris. Edited by Terquem; 6 vols. 



1903- 
1854- 
1858- 



Bulletin de I'lnstitut Pasteur. Paris. 

Bulletin de la Societe botanique de France. Paris. 

Bulletin de la Societe chimique de France. Paris. 



From 1858 to 1863: Repertoire de chimie, &c. 

1809-1813: Bulletin des neuesten und wissenswiirdigsten aus den Naturwissenschaf- 
ten. Berlin. 



1870- 



Bidletin des sciences mathematiques. Paris. 



1907- : Chemical abstracts. Columbus; Washington. 

1830- : Chemisches Zentralblatt. Berlin. 

1830-1849: Pharmaceutisches Centralblatt; 1850-1858: Chemisch-pharmaceu- 
tisches Centralblatt. 

1862-1901: Chemisch-technisches Repertorium. Berlin. 

1752-1798: Commentarii de rebus in scientia natiu'ali et medicina gestis. Leipzig. 

1913- : Critical bibliography of the history and philosophy of science. (Pub- 
lished in his). 

1897-1920: Dermatologisches Zentralblatt. Leipzig. 

1712-1739: Deutsche acta eruditorum, oder Geschichte der Gelehrten. Leipzig. 
240 nos. in 20 vols. 

1880- : Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift. Berlin. 

1772-1814: Esprit(L') des joiu-naux frangais et etrangers. Liege; Paris; Bruxelles. 
480 vols, for 23 years. 

(1891)1892-1929: Excerpta medica; monatliche Journalausziige. Leipzig; Basel. 

1904- : Folia haematologica. Berlin; Leipzig. 

1902- : Folia otolaryngologica. Leipzig. 

1910-1932: Fortschritte der naturwissenschaftlichen Forschung. Berlin, &c. 

(1845)1847- (1918)1919: Fortschritte der Physik. Berlin; Braunschweig. 
Continued as Physikalische Berichte (1920- ). 

(1874)1875- (1884)1889: Geological record. London. 

1901- : Geologisches Zentralblatt. Leipzig; Berlin. 

1739-1860: Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen. Gottingen. 
1753-1802: Gottingischer Anzeiger von gelehrten Sachen. 

1907-1917: Gynaekologische Rundschau. Berlin. 

1852- : Hedwigia; Organ fiir Kryptogamenkunde und Phytopathologie nebst 
Repertorium fiir Literatur. Dresden. 



108 Abstracting and Review Journals 

1687(Sept. )- 1709(June): Histoire des ouvrages des scavans. Rotterdam. 

1891-1922: Hygienische Rundschau. Berlin. 

1859- : Ibis; a quarterly journal of ornithology. London. 

1935- : Indian science abstracts. Calcutta. 

1908-1923: Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie and Hydrographie. 

Leipzig. 

1884-1922: Internationales Zentralblatt fiir Laryngologie, etc. Berlin. 

1918- : Italia che scrive. Roma. 

1865-1901: Jahrbuch der Erfindungen und Fortschritte aus dem Gebiete der Physik, 
Chemie und chemischen Technologie, der Astronomie und Meteorologie. Leip- 
zig. 

(1868)1871- : Jahrbuch uber die Fortschritte der Mathematik. Berlin. 

1867-1919: Jahresbericht iiber die Leistungen und Fortschritte in der gesamten 
Medicin. Berlin. 

1863- : Journal of botany. London. 

1809- : Journal de pharmacie et de chimie. Paris. 

1. ser., 1809-1814: Bulletin de pharmacie et des sciences accessoires; in many 
volumes, grouped into several sets, each with its own cumulative index. 

1872- : Journal de physique et le radium. Paris. 

1912- : Kongresszentralblatt fiir die gesamte innere Medizin. Berlin. 

1843-1860: Leipziger Repertorium der deutschen und auslandischen Literatur. 

Leipzig. 

1850- : Literarisches Zentralblatt fiir Deutschland. Leipzig. 

1901- : Man; a monthly record of anthropological science. London. 

1781-1794: Medicinische Litteratur. Leipzig. Edited by J. C. T. Schlegel. 

1876- : Mind; a quarterly review of psychology and philosophy. London. 

1876- : Mineralogical magazine. London. 

1715-1797: Neue Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachen. Leipzig. Edited by Joh. 
GoTTL. Krause and O. Mencke; a rival of the Acta eruditorum; includes reviews 
of articles on science and hterature. 

1882-1921: Neurologisches Zentralblatt. Berlin. 

1821-1849: Notizen aus dem Gebiete der Natur- und Heilkunde. Erfurt; Weimar; 
Jena. Edited by L. F. v. Froriep; 101 vols, in 3 series. 

1733-1736: Niitzliche und auserlesene Arbeiten der Gelehrten im Reich. Niirnberg. 

1898- : Orientalistische Literaturzeitung. Berlin; Leipzig. 

1893- : Omithologische Monatsberichte. Berlin. 

1855- : Petermanns (Dr. A.) Mitteilungen aus Justus Perthes' Geographischer 
Anstalt. Gotha. 

1859- : Pharmazeutische Zentralhalle. Berlin; Dresden. 

1921- : Photographic abstracts. London. 



Abstracting and Review Journals 109 

1895-1904: Photographisches Zentralblatt. Miinchen. 

1893- : Physical review. New York, etc. 

1904-1909: Physikalisch-chemisches Zentralblatt. Leipzig. 

1920- : Physikalische Berichte. Braunschweig. 

Continuation of Fortschritte der Physik; begins with reviews of 1918 literature. 

1916-1938: Physiological abstracts. London. 

1907-1917: Progressus rei botanicae. Jena. 

Founded by Joh. Paulus lotsy (1867-1931); also called Fortschritte der 
Botanik; 5 vols. 

(1872)1873- (1879)1886: Repertorium annuum literaturae botanicae periodica,e. 
Haarlem. Edited by J. A. van Bemmelen and others; 8 vols. 

1822-1825: Repertorium der mathematischen Literatur. Augsburg; Leipzig. 

1869-1871: Repertorium der technischen, mathematischen und natvirwissenschaft- 
lichen Journal-Literatur. Berlin. 

(1823)-1912: Repertorium der technischen Literatur, Berlin. 
In 1909, title reads: Fortschritte der Technik (1909-1912). 

1840-1893: Repertorium der Tierheilkunde. Stuttgart. 

1815-1851: Repertorium der Pharmacie. Niirnberg. 

(1805)1806- (1813)1815: Retrospect of philosophical, mechanical, chemical and 
agricultural discoveries. London. 

1840-1901: Retrospect of practical medicine [and surgery]. London. 

1913- : Review of applied entomology. London. Ser. A: Agricultural; Ser. B: 

Medical and veterinary. 

1890-1936: Review of reviews. London. 

1866-1935: Revue critique d'histoire et de litterature. Paris. 

1873-1898: Revue des sciences medicales en France et a I'etranger. Paris. Edited 
by G. Hayem; 52 vols. 

1862-1880: Revue des societes savantes. Paris. 

1856-1882: Revue des societes savantes des departements. Paris. 

1917- : Revue generale de I'electricite. Paris. 

1893-1934: Revue semestrielle des publications mathematiques. Amsterdam; 
Leipzig. 

1907- : Rivista delle riviste. (In: Scientia. Bologna). 

1834-1922: Schmidt's Jahrbiicher der in- und auslandischen gesamten Medizin. 

Leipzig; Bonn. 

V. 1-40, 1834-1843, as Jahrbiicher . . . ; 341 vols, in 9 series; includes ca 
800,000 abstracts and references. 

1898- : Science abstracts. London. 

From 1903, it runs in two sections (physics, electrical engineering). 

1916- : Science et industrie. Paris. 

1828-1843: Summarium des neusten aus der [gesammten] Medicin. Leipzig. 



110 Abstracting and Review Journals 

1908- : Technique (La) moderne; revue universelle des sciences appliquees a 
I'industrie. Paris. 

1912- : Tropical diseases bulletin. London. 

1740-1759: Wochentliche Nachrichten von gelehrten Sachen. Regensburg. 

A rarity and curiosity; includes revievi's, abstracts, personal notices, etc.; copy 
in British Museum. 

1913- : Zeitschrift fiir ophthalmologische Optik. Berlin. 

1884- : Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Mikroskopie. Leipzig. 

1882-1919: Zentralblatt fiir allgemeine Gesundheitspflege. Bonn. 

1890- : Zentralblatt fiir allgemeine Pathologic und pathologische Anatomic. 

Jena. 

1896-1912: Zentralblatt fiir Anthropologic, Ethnologic, und Urgeschichtc. Jena. 

1887- : Zentralblatt fiir Bakteriologie. Jena. 

Later in two sections, one of them running in 2 parts (Originale, Referate). 

1874- : Zentralblatt fiir Chirurgic. Leipzig. 

1911-1930: Zentralblatt fiir die gesamte Kinderhcilkundc. Berlin. 

1900-1911: Zentralblatt fiir die gesamte Physiologic und Pathologic des StofFwech- 
scls. Berlin; etc. 

1889-1906: Zentralblatt fiir die Krankheiten der Ham- und Scxualorgane. Ham- 
burg, etc. 

1863-1915: Zentralblatt fiir die medizinischen Wissenschaften. Berlin. 

1877- : Zentralblatt fiir Gynackologie. Leipzig. 

1931- : Zentralblatt fiir Mathcmatik und ihre Grenzgebictc. Berlin. 

1878-1910: Zentralblatt fiir Ncrvcnheilkunde und Psychiatric. Leipzig. 

1904-1914: Zentralblatt fiir normale und pathologische Anatomic. Berlin; Wien. 

1887-1921: Zentralblatt fur Physiologic. Leipzig; Wien. 

1877-1919: Zentralblatt fiir praktischc Augcnheilkundc. Leipzig. 

1910-1919: Zentralblatt fiir Rontgenstrahlcn, Radium und vcrwandtc Gebictc. 

Wiesbaden. 

1913- : Zcntralorgan fiir die gesamte Chirurgic. Berlin; Leipzig. 

Title varies. 

1864- : Zoological record. London. 

V. 1-6, 1864-1869, as Record of zoological literature. 

1878-1896: Zoologischer Anzciger. Leipzig; Ziirich. 
1896-1914, V. 1-25, as Bibliographia zoologica. 

1894-1918: Zoologisches Zentralblatt. Leipzig. 

Title of last six volumes: Zentralblatt fiir Zoologie. 



13. NATIONAL ACADEMIES 
AND NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES 

The scientific academies created in the seventeenth century and later, being sup- 
ported by the prince or government took naturally a national aspect. Thus, the 
Accademia dei Lincei became eventually (much later) the outstanding academy of 
Italy, the Academie des Sciences and the Royal Society became the scientific acade- 
mies of France and of England, etc. Those academies took some interest in the 
history of science, chiefly but not exclusively, as far as it had developed in their own 
territory. Thus, the Institut de France prepared by order of Napoleon reports on 
the progress of science from 1789 to 1810. 

J. B. J. Delambre, Rapport historique sur les progres des sciences mathematiques 
depuis 1789 et sur leur etat actual (272 pp.). Including mechanics, astronomy, 
geography, arts and industries. Georges Cxjvier, Rapport historique sur les progres 
des sciences naturelles ( 298 pp. ) . Including chemistry, physics, physiology, natural 
history, medicine, agriculture. Bon Joseph Dacier, Rapport historique sur les 
progres de rhistoire et de la litterature ancienne ( 263 pp. ) . The three quarto vol- 
umes were published at Paris in 1810. 

The series of books on the history of science viritten at the initiative of the 
Academy of Bavaria is so important that a complete description of it is given on 
p. 124-25. 

Moreover, as the early academies grew older, they became naturally more con- 
cerned with their own glorious past, with the history of their achievements and 
institutions and the biographies of their members, and this has often induced them 
to promote historical investigations. The jubilee publications of those bodies some- 
times contain historical memoirs of real value, which do not always receive the 
pubhcity they deserve and thus are relatively unknown. 

A history of the main academies, however brief, would take too much space 
here. We have already spoken of the oldest ones, the Accademia dei Lincei, the 
Accademia del Cimento, the Academie des Sciences, the Royal Society. There are 
various historical accounts of each of them, so many in fact, that the history of each 
academy requires a bibliography of its own. The same remark applies to the other 
national academies, many of which are a century or two old. More of them were 
created in the twentieth century and at present there are almost as many national 
academies as there are nations in the United Nations. The creation of the younger 
academies was due partly to the feeling that national prestige required their existence 
and partly to the requirement of the International Union of Academies. 

It is impossible to give here a complete bibliography of academies, or even to 
enumerate them and for each of them the main historical publications. We must 
limit ourselves to mentioning a few general studies. 

Martha Ornstein: The role of scientific societies in the seventeenth century 
(second ed., University of Chicago 1928; Isis 12, 154-56). The first edition appeared 
in 1913; the second edition was reprinted in 1938 (322 p.; Isis 31, 87-89). Har- 
couRT Brown: Scientific organizations in seventeenth century France, 1620-80 (328 
p., Baltimore 1934; Isis 22, 542). 

The Royal Society of London publishes a journal "Notes and Records" which 
contains many historical articles in addition to other news of social, non-technical 
interest. Vol. 1, no. 1 appeared in April 1938, vol. 8, no. 1 in October 1950. Ad- 
dress: Royal Society, Burlington House, London W.l. 

In addition to their national academies many countries have another kind of 
national organization of their men of science. This takes the form of an annual 
scientific congress, meeting each year in another city of the national (or colonial) 
territory. Academies are exclusive organizations, the membership of which is gen- 
erally restricted to elected fellows. The number of members may be very small as 
in the Academie des sciences, or larger as in the Royal Society; in any case, it is 



112 Academies and Societies 

limited, and nobody can join the Academy without a formal invitation after a regular 
election."' The annual congresses are far more democratic; their purpose is to 
bring together each year in one place as many men of science as possible. 

The initiative of those annual congresses was taken in Switzerland. In 1797, 
some scientist? of Bern invited Swiss men of science to meet at Herzogenbuchsee, and 
they constituted the Societe generale helvetique des amis des sciences physiques et 
naturelles. Political events ofiscouraged further meetings. In 1801 a similar effort 
was made, by German men of science, in Stuttgart and was equally abortive. 

The Swiss idea was renewed and realized in 1815 by Henri Albert Gosse and 
meetings held on Oct. 6 at Mornex and Geneva. We may thus place the Swiss 
Society at the head of our list. 

J) 1815: Societe helvetique des sciences naturelles (the title occurs also in 
German, Italian, and Romansh). Since 1915, annual meetings have taken place 
each year in a different city. The centenary was celebrated at the birthplace of 
the society, Geneva, in 1915. The proceedings of that centenary appeared in vol. 
L of the Nouveaux memoires de la Societe helvetique (Ziirich 1915); they contain 
a history of the Swiss organization. Shorter account by Theophile Sttjder in Paul 
Seippel (editor): La Suisse au dix-neuvieme siecle (3 vols., Lausanne 1899-1901; 
vol. 2, 195-200, 1900 ) . — The 129th annual meeting occurred in Lausanne, 1949. 

Inspired by the Swiss organization, Lorenz Oken ( 1779-1851; editor of Isis 
from 1817 to 1848) proposed in 1820 to the Kaiserlich Leopoldinische Akademie der 
Naturforscher to constitute a similar one in Germany. The Leopoldina dechned to 
do so, but the German society was constituted two years later. 

2) 1822: (GDNA) Gesellschaft deutscher Naturforscher und Arzte. — First 
meeting in Leipzig in 1822. Accounts of meetings 1 to 8 appeared in Oken's Isis; 
reports of later meetings in the Amtlicher Bericht, Tageblatt der Versammlung, etc.; 
since 1924, they appear as supplements to Die Naturwissenschaften. Karl Sud- 
hoff: Hundert Jahre Deutscher Natiu-forscher Versammlungen (80 p., Leipzig 
1922). This booklet, published to celebrate the centenary of the German society, 
contains a history of the society and a list of its meetings, the main discourses of 
each being mentioned, from the first, Leipzig 1822 to the 86th, Bad Nauheim 1920. 
The centennial meeting of Leipzig 1922 was not the hundredth one, but the 87th, 
some annual meetings having been omitted because of war or unrest. 

5) 1831: (BAAS) British Association for the Advancement of Science. This 
association met for the first time at York in 1831, and has met almost every year 
since in a different town of Great Britain, the British Empire or Ireland. The Re- 
ports pubhshed annually in separate volumes since 1831, constitute a valuable col- 
lection for the historian of science (as opposed to the German reports which being 
scattered and irregularly published are so difiicult to consult in their entirety that 
one does not try to do so). Vols. 1 to 108 of the Reports were published from 
1831 to 1938 (no meetings in 1917, 1918); two volumes of general indexes cover 
respectively the years 1831-60, 1861-90. From 1939, the Reports appear under a 
new title "The advancement of science" in the form not of an annual but of a 
quarterly. Vol. 1, part 1, Oct. 1939, part 4, July 1940. 

Address: Burlington House, London W.l. The official residence of the Perma- 
nent Secretary is now at Down House, at Downe, Kent, formerly Darvitn's home 
(Isis 23, 533, 534). 

4) 1848: (AAAS) American Association for the Advancement of Science. 
Proceedings published in annual volumes since the first meeting (Philadelphia 1848) 
until 1910. Since then the full proceedings appear in Science, and only Sum- 
marized Prooceedings from time to time in book form. E.g., summarized Proceed- 
ings for the period from Jan. 1934 to Jan. 1940 with Directory of members as of 
July 1, 1940 (1120 p., Washington, D. C, 1940). That volume contains a brief 
history of AAAS from 1848 to 1940 (p. 1-87). 

Address of the Permanent Secretary: Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 



^ In America, the name "academy" has been assumed by at least one society of vi^hich 
almost anybody can become a member by paying the annual subscription. That form of exploita- 
tion of snobbishness is certainly wrong. 



Academies and Societies 113 

In 1920, a special section (L) was devoted to the "Historical and philological 
sciences." The original idea, promoted by Frederick E. Brasch was to have a sec- 
tion devoted to the "history of science," but the AAAS considered that the history of 
science was too small a subject to have a section for itself and entitled the new sec- 
tion "Historical and philological sciences." It was as if it were making a sub- 
section of the American Historical Association and of the Philological Association — 
the whole of history and philology was only a part of the AAAS. A section devoted 
to the "history of science" would have been very natural, this one was preposterous. 
It must be added, however, that the great majority of the papers read before section 
L were papers on the history of science. 

Frederick E. Brasch (Science 52, 559-62, 1920; 53, 315-18, 1921). 

5) 1872: (AFAS) Association fran^aise pour ravancement des Sciences. First 
annual meeting in Bordeaux 1872. Meetings are held almost every year in a dif- 
ferent French-speaking town. The 67th meeting took place in Geneva (Switzer- 
land) in 1948. 

Comptes rendus of the annual meetings appear in book form; those of the first 
meeting (Bordeaux 1872) in Paris 1873; those of the 63rd meeting (Liege, Belgium, 
1939) in 1941. 

There is also a Revue de I'Association etc. entitled Sciences giving miscellaneous 
information. I have seen no. 59, 75. annee, juillet-sept. 1948, p. 433-51, i-ix. 75th 
year refers to the age of the AFAS, not of "Sciences." 

Address of the Secretary: 28 rue Serpente, Paris 6. 

As in the case for the other national societies, the actual foundation was pre- 
ceded by tentatives which are traced back to 1864 (Leverrier) and 1865 (Frederic 
Kuhlmann). The Association was constituted at a meeting held in Paris on 22 
April 1872 under the presidency of Claude Bernard. 

6) 1907: (SIPS) Societa italiana per il progresso delle scienze. The first 
annual meeting took place in Parma 1907. Annual meetings have taken place 
since then almost every year, each time in a difi^erent Itahan town. 

The proceedings are pubhshed in book form, Atti della Societa, etc. (vol. 1, 
Roma 1908). The Atti of the first 18 annual meetings from 1907 to 1929 ap- 
peared in 18 volumes. A new series of the Atti began with the meeting of Florence 
1929 (2 vols., 1930). The 28th meeting took place in Pisa 1939, and its Atti 
edited by Lucio Silla bear the subtitle Celebrazione del 1° centenario. See also: — 

Lucio Sella (editor): Un secolo di progresso scientifico italiano, 1839-1939 (7 
vols., Roma 1939-40; Isis 35, 190; 36, 223). This very useful but disingenuous work 
bears a misleading subtitle "Societa italiana per il progresso delle scienze. Anno 100° 
della prima riunione degli scienziati italiani." Hasty readers might conclude that 
these volumes celebrate the centenary of the Societa, which in 1939 was only 32 
years old. The subtitle refers to a meeting of the "Congresso dei dotti," which took 
place in Pisa 1839. That Congresso having taken a patriotic and revolutionary char- 
acter (we must remember that Italy was not unified until 1870), it was suppressed 
after its ninth meeting held in Venice 1847. ItaUan scientists met again in Siena 
1862, Rome 1873, Palermo 1875. In short, Itahan scientists held twelve annual 
meetings during the period 1839-1907, or forty during the period 1839-1939. 

General indexes to the Atti. Indici della prima serie (vol. I-X, 1907-19; 1926), 
della seconda serie (riun. 11-20, 1921-31; 1932). 

The Societa also publishes an Annuario containing the list of its members (last 
vol. seen 1935-XIII); it began in 1937 the publication of Scienza e Tecnica, a 
monthly supplement to the Atti; vol. 2 (1938) was issued independently with sub- 
title Rivista generale di informazione scientifica. 

Address of SIPS: Piazzale delle Scienze 7, Palazzo del Consigfio Nazionale delle 
Ricerche, Roma. 

The description of these six associations must suffice; they are still the most 
important, the first because of chronological precedence and the five others because 
of the great achievements of German, Enghsh, American, French and Italian men 
of science. Similar associations have been created in many countries in order to 
satisfy national ambitions, or sometimes the ambitions of a linguistic group. For 
example, the Flemish congress of science and medicine was created by Jxilius Mac- 



114 



Academies and Societies 



Leod in Gent, 1897 (ten years before the Italian congress!). The history of that 
Flemish congress from 1897 to 1944 was told in Dutch by one of the founders, 
A. J. J. Van de Velde (Antwerpen 1944; Isis 39, 116). 

The publications of these national congresses constitute an important docu- 
mentation for the study of the history of science, chiefly (but not exclusively) in 
the countries concerned. The publications of the Swiss, German, British, American, 
French and Italian congresses have also some international significance, because each 
of these congresses invited or welcomed foreign guests. The scientific achieve- 
ments of the nations using languages of international currency (chiefly EFGILS)'^ 
are so considerable that the annual discussions of them are of interest not only to 
the countries immediately concerned but also to a very large part of the civilized 
world. 



mSarton: Tower of Babel (Isis 39, 3-15, 1948). 




C. HISTORY OF SCIENCE 



14. CHIEF REFERENCE BOOKS 
ON THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE 



LtiDwiG Darmstaedter (1846-1927): Handbuch zur Geschichte der Natur- 
wissenschaften und der Technik (Zweite Auflage, 1272 p., Berlin 1908). Chrono- 
logical list of discoveries year by year. Valuable, but to be used with caution. 

George Sarton: Introduction to the History of Science. Vol. 1, From Homer 
to Omar Khayyam (Baltimore, 1927). Vol. 2, in two parts. From Rabbi ben 
Ezra to Roger Bacon (1931). Vol. 3, in two parts. Science and Learning in the 
Fourteenth Century (1948). 

This is a very elaborate treatise and bibliography, but it extends only to the 
year 1400. It is closely interlocked with Isis; there are references to Isis on almost 
every page, enabling the reader to obtain rapidly more information; on the other 
hand, errata and addenda are published from time to time in the Critical Bibliogra- 
phies of Isis. 

See also biographical collections, especially those concerning men of science, 
dealt with in section 6. 



15. TREATISES AND HANDBOOKS 
ON THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

The need of explaining the work accomplished by one's predecessors in any 
philosophic or scientific field and of recapitulating the results already obtained is 
natural enough. Every scholar who has raised himself above the lowest techni- 
cal stage must have realized it, though he may have been unable to satisfy it. 
That need was felt just as soon as the development of knowledge had assumed suf- 
ficient complexity. Young students of the history of science may be astonished to 
find "historical outlines" even in early times, but there is nothing astonishing in 
that as long as one understands that those early times were not early at all from 
the contemporary point of view. The "father of medicine" Hippocrates was a 
very sophisticated physician, who had been preceded by many generations of other 
physicians and thought of himself as a modern doctor. When we look backward 
from our privileged position, we see him standing, not at the beginning of a long 
line of physicians, but rather about half-way between our earliest Egyptian col- 
leagues and ourselves. One of the early Hippocratic treatises deals with "ancient 
medicine." "^ The first book of Aristotle's Metaphysics contains a history of early 
Greek philosophy; various philosophical problems are introduced as it were in their 
chronological order of appearance, a method which has been followed by many 
philosophers and is still popular in the teaching of philosophy. The history of 
philosophy is used to explain philosophy itself; in the same way, the history of sci- 
ence might be used to explain science, if one had time enough for that."* Science 
is so vast and complex that the teachers must use the shortest avenues of approach 
instead of the historical one which may be the most natural but is certainly the 
longest. This explains a paradoxical situation: while courses on the history of 
science are still very rare, courses on the history of philosophy are an intrinsic part 
of every philosophical curriculum. 

To return to early histories of science the best examples of it were given by 
EuDEMOs OF Rhodes (IV-2 B.C.), who tried to explain the historical development 
of arithmetic, geometry and astronomy. Eudemos' histories are lost but many frag- 
ments of them have been preserved in later writings."^ Unfortunately, that example 
was not as fruitful as the one given by Aristotle and the history of science was not 
cultivated as it might have been. The decadence and fall of ancient science and the 
very slow and precarious revival in mediaeval times may be the cause of the historical 
silence. There are some mediaeval books which might be considered attempts in 
the direction of the history of science, but such attempts are rare and weak. The 
best work in that line was done by Arabic scholars such as the Andalusian, Ibn 
Sa'id (XI-2), the Egyptian, Ibn al-Qifti (XIII-1), the Syrian, Ibn abi Usaibi'a 
(XIII-1). These books stem from the Arabic interest in the classification of the 
sciences, in bibliography, and in biography; they are hardly more than lists of sci- 
entific books (very precious indeed) with short biographical notes on their authors. 

A fairly large number of books on the history of this or that science, or on the 
history of science in general, appeared in the eighteenth century. Their purpose was 
the popularization of science, and the historical approach being as natural as it is, 



»3 n Epl &Qy_a'[.r\z IriTpixfi;. Text with French translation in Littre (vol. 1, 1839); text with 
English translation by W. H. S. Jones in the Hippocrates of the Loeb collection (vol. 1, 3-64, 
1923). 

^^ This was tried by many people, the most successful attempt being that of Poul LACOtni and 
Jacob Appkl: Historisk fysik (in Danish, 2 vols., Copenhagen 1896-7; German translation, 
2 vols., Braunschweig 1905). The method is excellent to teach the elements of science, but 
beyond that point it breaks down because science is far too complex. Still, historical digressions 
will often help teachers of science in their task. 

^ Leonardus Spengel: Eudemi Rhodii peripatetici fragmenta quae supersunt (188 p., 
Berlin 1866). Hermann Diels: In Aristotelis physicorum libros commentaria (Commentaria 
in Aristotelem graeca, 9, 10; 2 vols., Berlin 1882-95). 



Treatises and Handbooks 117 

it was often resorted to. The authors were not critical historians but they often had 
the advantage of being relatively close to the events which they described; they 
were able to tell stories taken from the lips of contemporaries. Therefore, the best 
of those eighteenth century histories {e.g., those of Priestley and Montucla) are 
valuable sources of information to this day. 

The following list includes large treatises and smaller handbooks; it did not seem 
practical to separate the latter from the former. Therefore, they are all listed to- 
gether in the alphabetic order of the authors' names. I am unable to choose between 
them, because there are many which I have not read, and some of which I have 
never used. When a wise and experienced scholar writes an elementary book, we 
may be sure that it contains worthwhile novelties, yet those novelties are neces- 
sarily lost in a mass of commonplace. Such books are written for novices and old 
scholars can hardly be expected to read them for the sake of finding a few novelties. 

When scholars are beginning to take an interest in our studies, their first query 
is, naturally enough, "Could you recommend a single volume giving an outline of 
the whole subject?" Such a volume does not yet exist, and this is not surprising 
when one knows how the matter stands with regard to treatises. Elementary books 
can only be written in a satisfactory way when elaborate treatises are available. 
It is possible to-day to vn-ite a httle book covering the whole of, say English litera- 
ture, or the Reformation, or any other standardized subject, and to be confident that, 
however small the scale, nothing essential, from the standpoint of that scale, is likely 
to be overlooked. For the history of science such a feat of selection and com- 
pression is still impossible, because the introductory analyses and surveys have not 
yet been completed; or, if not impossible, it is very much of a wager and a gamble. 

If we had to select a guidebook to Europe, purporting to indicate and to 
explain within the covers of a single volume the chief curiosities of the whole con- 
tinent, our first question would concern the personality of the author. Of course 
we should have more confidence in him if we knew he had himself travelled all 
over Europe than if we discovered that he had compiled his guide in the New York 
Public Library. In a similar way, for the appreciation of a handbook on the history 
of science, the prime consideration must be the wisdom and experience . of the 
writer. Therefore, we shall try to indicate in each case the author's background, as 
much as this can be done in a few words. 

Baden-Powell: see Powell, Baden. 

Boynton, Holmes (editor): 

1948: The beginnings of modern science. Scientific writers of the IGth, 11th 
and I8th centuries (655 p., New York; Isis 40, 163). 

Butterfield, Herbert: 

1949: The origins of modern science 1300-1800 (228 p., London; Isis 41, 
231-33). 

The author is a professor of history in Cambridge. 

CandoUe, Alphonse de (1806-93): 

1873: Histoire des sciences et des savants depuis deux siecles. (489 p., Geneve). 
— German translation by Wilhelm Ostwald (Grosse Manner, vol. 2; 486 p., Leipzig 
1911; Isis 1, 132). 

Alphonse de Candolle was a Swiss (Genevese) botanist. 

Conant, James B.: 

1947: On understanding science. An historical approach (160 p., 10 fig.. New 
Haven; Isis 38, 125-27). 

Examination of a few "cases" illustrating the methods and progress of sci- 
ence. Dr. Conant was trained as a chemist. He was for a time professor of 
organic chemistry in Harvard University, and is now the president of that university. 

1950/.: Harvard case histories in experimental science (Harvard, Cambridge, 
Mass.; Isis 42, 65). Thus far, four case histories have been published, nos. 1-2 
edited by Conant, 3 by Duane Roller, and 4 by Leonard K. Nash). 



118 Treatises and Handbooks 

Cuvier, Georges (1769-1832): 

1841-45: Histoire des sciences naturelles depuis leur origine jusqu'a nos jours 
chez tous les peuples connus (5 vols. Paris). 

Completed by T. Magdeleine de Saint Agy. Cuvier was the greatest naturalist 
of his age. 

Dampier, Sir William Cecil ( 1867- ) : 

1912 (with his wife Catherine Durning Whetham): Science and the human 
mind (304 p., Cambridge; Isis 1, 125-32). 

1924 (with his daughter, Margaret Dampier Whetham): Cambridge Readings 
in the history of science (288 p., 8 pi., Cambridge). 

1929: History of science and its relations with philosophy and religion (535 p., 
14 fig., Cambridge; Isis 14, 263-65). Third edition revised and enlarged (598 p., 
Cambridge 1942; Isis 34,448). Fourth edition, 1949. 

1944: Shorter history of science (200 p., 9 pi., Cambridge; Isis 36, 50). 

The author's name was originally William Cecil Dampier Whetham; it was 
classified under Whetham, later under Dampier-Whetham, finally under Dampier. 
Sir William is an English physico-chemist, but for the last forty years he had de- 
voted much time and thought to the history and cultural aspects of science. 

Dannemann, Friedrich (1859-1936): 

1910-13: Die Naturwissenschaften in ihrer Entwicklung und in ihrem Zusammen- 
hange (4 vols., Leipzig; 2nd ed., 4 vols., 1920-23; Isis 2, 218-22; 4, 110, 563; 6, 115). 

Strange to say, this is still today the largest history of science available in any 
language. It is elementary and imperfect, yet Dannemann was a pioneer and de- 
serves our gratitude. Wolf's work is partly derived from it. 

Draper, John William (1811-82): 

1874: History of the conflict between religion and science (395 p., New York). 
Man of science, historian, educator. 

Enriques, Federigo (1871-1946); Santillana, George de: 

1937: Compendio di storia del pensiero scientifico (487 p., Bologna; Isis 28, 
577). 

Enriques was a distinguished mathematician and the founder of the institute 
for the history and philosophy of science at the University of Rome; Santillana was 
an assistant of his in Rome and now teaches the history of science and the humanities 
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Francesco, (Mrs.) Grete de: 

1939: The power of the charlatan (296 p., ill.. New Haven, Yale University Press; 
Isis 32, 406-08). Translated from the German: Die Macht des Charlatans (258 
p., ill., Basel 1937). 

Ginzburg, Benjamin: 

1930: The adventure of science (504 p., 8 port.. New York; Isis 16, 157-58). 
The author is a scientific journalist and teacher in the New School for Social 
Research in New York City. 

Gunther, Siegmund (1848-1923): 

1909: Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften (2 vols, in 1, 16 pi., Leipzig). That 
is the 2nd ed.; Srd ed., 1917-19. 

Little book containing so many facts that it is unreadable. It is as if one 
crowded too many names on a small map. Gunther was one of the founders of 
the history of science in Germany, and the author of many books and memoirs on 
the history of mathematical and physical sciences. 

Hannequin, Arthur (1856-1905): 

1908: Etudes d'histoire des sciences et d'histoire de la philosophic (2 vols., 
Paris ) . 

Including biography and portrait of the author, a French philosopher. 



Treatises and Handbooks 119 

Jastrow, Joseph (1863- ), editor: 

1936: The story of human error (464 p.. New York; Isis 30, 545-47) . 
American psychologist. 

Laminne, Jacques (1864-1924): 

1903-4: Les quatre elements. Le feu, I'air, I'eau, la terre. (Memoires cou- 
ronnes de 1' Academic royale de Bruxelles, vol. 65, 194 p.) 

Lange, Friedrich Albert (1828-75): 

1879-81: History of materialism and criticism of its present importance (3 vols., 
London). — Third ed., 1925. The German original appeared in Iserlohn 1866 and 
was often reprinted and expanded; 9th ed., 2 vols., Leipzig 1914-15. 

German philosopher. 

Lasswitz, Kurd (1848-1910): 

1890: Geschichte der Atomistik vom Mittelalter bis Newton (2 vols., Hamburg). 
— New edition 1926. 

German philosopher. 

Le Lionnais, Francois ( 1902- ) : 

1950: Les sciences (in Cinquante Armees de decouvertes. Bilan 1900-50. 
Paris, p. 173-326). 

The same volume contains surveys of Hterature, philosophy, music and dance, 
arts and movies, technology. The last-named subject was dealt with by Jacques 
Bergier. 

Lenard, PhiHpp (1862-1947): 

1933: Great men of science, a history of scientific progress (410 p., portrait. New 
York; Isis 22, 596). The German original appeared in 1929. 

German physicist. 

Libby, Walter ( 1867- ) : 

1917: Introduction to the history of science (300 p., 8 pi., Boston; Isis 5, 478-79). 

Mabilleau, Leopold ( 1853- ) : 

1895: Histoire de la philosophic atomistique (568 p., Paris), 
French philosopher. 

Merz, John Theodore (1840-1922): 

1896-1914: A history of European thought in the nineteenth century (4 vols.). 
Vol. 1 first printed 1896, second ed. 1904; vol. 2, 1903; vol. 3, 1912; vol. 4, 1914. 
Vols. 1-2 deal with science; vols. 3-4 with philosophy (Isis 5, 524). 

This does not really cover the whole century, because the author's scientific 
documentation ceased to be creative long before the end of the century. Merz 
was primarily a philosopher. 

Milhaud, Gaston (1858-1918; Isis 3, 391-95, portr.): 

1906: Etudes svur la pensee scientifique chez les Grecs et chez les modernes 
(275 p., Paris). 

1911: Nouvelles etudes sur I'histoire de la pensee scientifique (237 p., Paris). 

Milhaud was professor of philosophy in Montpellier, later at the Sorbonne. 

Montucla, Jean Etienne (1725-99): 

1758: Histoire des mathematiques (to the end of the seventeenth century, 2 
vols., Paris).— Second ed. (2 vols., Paris 1799). 

1802: Vols. 3-4 to end of the eighteenth century (2 vols., Paris). 

In spite of its title, this book deals not only with mathematics, but also with 
mechanics, physics and astronomy. It is a history of the physical sciences cen- 
tered upon their mathematical nucleus. See my study on Montucla (Osiris 1, 
519-67, 1936). 



120 Treatises and Handbooks 

Pledge, Humphry Thomas: 

1939: Science since 1500. A short history of mathematics, physics, chemistry 
and biology (359 p., 15 pi., 6 charts, 6 maps, London; Isis 33, 74). 

The author is librarian of the Science Museum, Kensington, London, and has 
been able to avail himself of its rich collections. 

Powell, Baden (1796-1860): 

1834: Historical view of the progress of the physical and mathematical sciences 
from the earhest ages to the present time (412 p. London). In Dionysius Lardner 
(1793-1859), Cabinet cyclopaedia. Natural philosophy. New edition, 1837. 

Pioneer history of mathematical and physical sciences, preceding Whewell's. 
The author was Savilian professor of geometry in Oxford from 1827 to 1860. His 
children adopted the surname Baden-Powell; one of them. Lord Robert Baden- 
Powell (1857-1941) inaugurated the Boy Scout movement in 1908 and his sister, 
Agnes, the Girl Guides in 1910. 

Rossiter, Arthur Percival: 

1939: The growth of science. An outline history (372 p., Cambridge Ortho- 
logical Institute; Isis 33, 74). 

The author is concerned chiefly with the relations of science and society; his 
book is viTitten in Basic English. 

Sedgwick, William Thompson (1855-1921); Tyler, Harry Walter (1863-1938): 
1917: A short history of science (New York). — This unsatisfactory primer was 

considerably improved in the second edition prepared after Sedgwick's death by 

Tyler with Robert Payne Bigelow (1863- ) (New York 1939; Isis 32, 464; 

33, 74). 

Sedgwick and Bigelow were professors of biology and Tyler, of mathematics, 

in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Sedgwick 

and Tyler gave one of the pioneer courses in the history of science in that institute. 

Biography of Tyler by Bigelow in Isis (31, 60-64, 1939). 

Singer, Charles: 

1941: A short history of science to the nineteenth century (414 p., 94 ills., 
Oxford, Clarendon Press; Isis 34, 177-80). 

Singer is the leading historian of science in the British Empire; his scientific 
training was in medicine and biology. 

Tannery, Paul ( 1843-1904 ) : 

1912-43: Memoires scientifiques, edited by Marie Tannery and others (16 vols.; 
for reviews see Isis 38, 49 or Introd. 3, 1906). 

The French mathematician. Tannery, was one of the earliest and greatest his- 
torians of science. His main investigations concerned ancient science, mediaeval 
science and the seventeenth century, but his range of knowledge was truly en- 
cyclopaedic. See biography by Sarton (Isis 38, 33-51, 1947). 

Taylor, Frank Sherwood ( 1897- ) : 

1939: Short history of science (334 p., 14 pi., 36 fig., London). — The Ameri- 
can edition has an additional title: The march of mind (New York 1939; Isis 32. 
465; 34, 74). New edition 1949 (Isis 41, 391). 

1945: Science, past and present (275 p., ill., London). 

Taylor is a chemist and classical scholar and is much interested in the vulgariza- 
tion of science, and the relations of science with religion, especially with Catholicism. 
He was director of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford and is now director of the 
Science Museum in London. 

Thomdike, Lynn ( 1882- ) : 

1923-41: A history of magic and experimental science during the first thirteen 
centuries of our era (2 vols.. New York: Isis 6, 74-89); ... in the fifteenth century 
(2 vols.. New York 1934; Isis 23, 471-75); The sixteenth century (2 vols., New 
York 1941; Isis 33, 691-712). 



Treatises and Handbooks 121 



The author is a mediaevalist who has edited an extraordinary large number of 
MSS concerning science and magic. He was professor of mediaeval history in Co- 
lumbia University, New York. Apart from these six heavy volumes he had pub- 
lished a great many papers, some of which are listed in almost every Critical 
Bibhography of Isis. 

Uccelli, Arturo (1889- ), editor: 

1941: Enciclopedia storica delle scienze e delle loro applicazioni. Vol. 1, Le 
scienze fisiche e matematiche (folio 753 p., 1788 figs., 9 pi, Milano; Isis 36, 51). 

Book of the same kind as the French one by Urbain and Boll, including a large 
number of illustrations of historical interest. 

1946: Scienza e tecnica del tempo nostro (Milano). — Originally planned as vol. 
2 of the Enciclopedia storica (vol. 1, 846 p. 2137 ill., 6 pi., Milano; Isis 41, 85). 

Urbain, Georges (1872-1938); Boll, Marcel (editors): 

1933-34: La science, ses progres, ses applications (2 folio vols, of the Larousse 
collection, richly illustrated, Paris; Isis 22, 397; 23, 578). Includes some 2500 
illustrations a great many of which are historical documents. 

Whetham, see Dampier. 

Whewell, William (1794-1866): 

1837: History of the inductive sciences from the earliest to the present times (3 
vols. London). — Revised ed., 1847; 3. ed., 1857. Pioneer work which has been 
discussed in the text above. 

White, Andrew Dickson ( 1 832- 1 9 1 8 ) : 

1896: History of the warfare of science with theology in Christendom (2 vols., 
New York).— Reprinted in 1923. 

White was an educator and diplomat, the first president of Cornell University in 
Ithaca, New York. He was deeply interested in cultural history, and we might 
even say in the history of science. He received much help from his former 
student, George Lincoln Burr (1857-1938), himself a very distinguished Ameri- 
can historian (Isis 35, 147-52, 1944). 

Wightman, William P. D.: 

1934: Science and monism (416 p., London). 

1950: The growth of scientific ideas (508 p., 8 pi., Edinburgh; Isis 42). 

Wolf, Abraham ( 1876- ) : 

1935-39: History of science, technology and philosophy in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. With the cooperation of F. Dannemann and A. Armitage 
(719 p., 316 illus., London; Isis 24, 164-67); idem in the eighteenth century (814 
p., ill., London 1939; Isis 31, 450-51). 

This work, stemming out of the Dannemann one quoted above, deals only with 
three centuries, the sixteenth to the eighteenth. 

See in the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 16. History of science. 



16. SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 

Bell, Louis (1864-1923): 

1922: The telescope (296 p.. New York; Isis 5, 280). Popular account; the 
first 56 p. are historical. 

Boffito, Giuseppe (1869-1944): 

1929: Gh strumenti della scienza e la scienza degli strumenti, con I'illustrazione 
della Tribuna di Galileo (234 p., 136 pi., Firenze). 

Clay, Reginald Stanley; Court, Thomas H.: 

1932: History of the microscope up to the introduction of the achromatic micro- 
scope (280 p., 164 fig., London; Isis 21, 227-30). 

Disney, Alfred N.; with Hill, Cyril F. and Baker, Wilfred E. Watson: 

1928: Origin and development of the microscope (303 p., 30 pi., 36 fig., Royal 
Microscopical Society, London; Isis 20, 495-97). 

Garcia Franco, Salvador (1884- ): 

1945: Catalogo critico de astrolabios existentes en Espafia (454 p., 84 fig., 
Madrid; Isis 40, 168). 

Greeff, Richard ( 1862- ) : 

1921: Die Erfindung der Augenglaser. Kulturgeschichtliche Darstellungen nach 
urkundlichen Quellen (120 p., 10 pi., Berlin). 

Gunther, Robert Theodore (1869-1940): 

1932: The astrolabes of the world (quarto, 2 vols., ill. University Press, Ox- 
ford). Vol. 1, Eastern astrolabes; vol. 2, Western ones (Isis 20, 310-16, 492-95). 

Michel, Henri: 

1939: Introduction k I'etude d'une collection d'instruments anciens (quarto, 110 
p., 15 pi., Anvers; Isis 32, 468). 

1947: Traite de I'astrolabe (quarto 210 p., 24 pi., Paris; Isis 39, 194). 

Pendray, Edward ( 1901- ) : 

1935: Men, mirrors and stars (New York). Rev. ed. 1946, 345 p., ill. 

Repsold, Johann Adolf ( 1838- ) : 

1908: Zur Geschichte der astronomischen Messwerkzeuge von Purbach bis 
Reichenbach, 1450 bis 1830. (140 p., 128 pi., Leipzig). 

Rohde, Alfred ( 1892- ) : 

1923: Die Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Instrvunente vom Beginn der Re- 
naissance bis zum Ausgang des 18. Jahrhunderts. ( Monographien des Kunstge- 
werbes, XVI; 125 p., 139 fig., Leipzig). 

Rohr, Moritz v. ( 1868-1940) : 

1907: Die binokularen Instrumente (228 p., Berlin). — 2nd ed., 320 p., Berlin 
1920. 

1908: Abhandlungen zur Geschichte des Stereoskops (Ostwald's Klassiker no. 
168; 130 p., 4 pi.). 

1911: Die Brille als optisches Instrument (182 p.). — Second ed. (268 p., 112 fig., 
Berlin 1921). 

1927-28: Aus der Geschichte der Brille mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung der auf 
der GreefFschen beruhenden Jenaischen Sammlung (Beitrage zur Geschichte der 
Technik 17, 30-50, 20 fig.; 18, 95-117, 34 fig., 1928; Isis 13, 546). 



Scientific Instruments 



123 



1934: (with Hans Boegehold): Das Brillenglass als optisches Instrument (291 
p., 119 fig., Berlin). This is a complete revision of the book first published in 1911. 

Rouyer, Joseph: 

1901: Coup d'oeil retrospectif sur la lunetterie. Precede de recherches sur 
I'origine du verre lenticulaire et sur les instruments servant a la vision (275 p., Paris). 

Schmidt, Fritz ( of Neustadt a. d. H. ) : 

1935: Geschichte der geodatischen Instrumente und Verfahren im Altertum und 
Mittelalter (400 p., 26 pi., Neustadt a. d. H.; Isis 26, 224-28). 

Thompson, Charles John Samuel (1862-1943): 

1942: History and evolution of surgical instrtmients (113 p., 115 fig., Nevi^ York). 

See also sections devoted to Photography and to Chronometry and Horology. 




17. HISTORY OF SCIENCE IN SPECIAL COUNTRIES 

Before enumerating books devoted to the history of science in this or that country, 
we should speak of one national achievement of that kind which assumed interna- 
tional importance. That is the collection of books written by order and under the 
auspicies of the Royal Academy of Bavaria. Its general title was: Geschichte der 
Wissenschaften in Deutschland. Neuere Zeit. Herausgegeben durch die historische 
Commission bei der konigl. Academic der Wissenschaften, Miinchen. 

As the title indicates, the general purpose, the publication of histories of all the 
sciences ( "Wissenschaften" in the broadest meaning; science and learning ) , was lim- 
ited in two ways. It was restricted ( i ) to Germany, ( 2 ) to modern times. These 
restrictions were understood differently in each volume, according to the subject and 
to the author. The temporal restrictions can easily be applied: one can decide to 
begin one's account in the sixteenth century or later (with or without restrospective 
intermezzi in the text or footnotes); on the other hand, it is generally impossible to 
give an intelligible account of the development of science in one country without 
referring to work done in other countries. Many of the Bavarian books were of 
international interest and received international recognition. The first volume ap- 
peared in 1864 and the twenty-fourth and last in 1913. The delay in publication 
of this last volume was accidental, however (Isis 1, 527-29); the whole collection 
appeared within the nineteenth century, except the last part of the book on the 
German study of law (delayed until 1910) and the book on the history of physics 
(delayed until 1913). As this collection is the most ambitious effort of its kind, 
we give the Hst of these 24 works in chronological order of pubUcation. For each 
work we name the author, then his subject (botany means history of botany) with 
its temporal restriction as indicated in the title, finally the date of first edition. 

1. JoHANN Caspar Bluntschli. Constitutipnal law and politics, from the six- 
teenth century. 1864. 

2.* Franz KoBELL (1803-82). Mineralogy 1650-1860. 1864. 

3.' Karl Fraas (1810-75). Agriculture and forestry from the sixteenth century. 
1865. 

4.* Oscar Peschel (1826-75). Geography to Alexander von Humboldt and 
Carl Ritter. 1865 (revised 1877). 

5. Isaac August Dorner. Protestant theology. 1867. 

6. Karl Werner. Catholic theology from the Council of Trent. 1866. 

7. Hermann Lotze. Aesthetics. 1868. 

8. Theodor Benfey. "Sprachwissenschaft" and oriental philology from the be- 
ginning of the nineteenth centvu-y with retrospective views. 1869. 

9. Rudolf von Raumer. Germanic philology. 1870. 
10.* Hermann Kopp (1817-92). Chemistry. 1873. 

11.* Karl Karmarsch (1803-79). Technology from the middle of the eighteenth 

century. 1872. 
12.* Julius Victor Carus ( 1823-1903). Zoology until Joh. Muller and Darwin. 

1872. 

13. Eduard Zeller. German philosophy from Leibniz. 1873. 

14. Wilhelm Roscher. National economy. 1874. 

15.* Julius von Sachs (1832-97). Botany from the sixteenth century until 1860. 

1875. 
16.* Rudolf Wolf (1816-93). Astronomy. 1877. 
17.* Karl I^^MANUEL Gerhardt (1816-99). Mathematics. 1877. 

18. Roderick Stintzing. German law (3 vols, in 5). 1880-1910. 

19. KoNRAD BuRSiAN. Classical philology in Germany from its beginning ( 2 vols. ) . 
1883. 



Argentina — Denmark 125 

20. Franz Xaver von Wegele. German historiography from the beginning of 

humanism. 1885. 
21.* Max Jahns (1837-1900). Mihtary science (3 vols.). 1889-91. 
22." August Hirsch (1817-94). Medicine. 1893. 

23." Karl Alfred von Zittel (1839-1904). Geology and paleontology. 1899. 
24." Ernst Gerland (1838-1910). Physics from the earliest times to the end of 
the eighteenth centm'y. 1913 (Isis 1, 527-29). 

The items which concern more directly the history of science ( as we understand 
it) have been marked with an asterisk; there are 13 of them out of 24. Some of 
these thirteen works were translated into English or into French; many were re- 
printed. These thirteen works belong to the general literature of our field. 

For books dealing with the history of science in special countries, it will be con- 
venient to list them in alphabetical order of these countries. It should be noted that 
the largest of those histories ( as for example the French one ) are also of international 
interest. This is unavoidable. It is always worth while to consult the history of 
science of a special nation ( as well as national bibliographies, encyclopaedias, atlases 
and gazetteers) whenever one has to investigate persons or events concerning that 
particular nation. 

America, see United States of America, see also Canada. 

For pre-Columbian America, see in the Critical Bibliographies of Isis the section 
entitled Ethnology (Primitive and popular science) and (beginning with the 60th 
Critical Bibliography in vol. 33, 1941) the section entitled America (part 2, IV A). 

— Argentina — 

Babini, Jose (1897- ): 

1949: Historia de la ciencia argentina (218 p., Mexico; Isis 41, 84). 

— Belgium — 

Quetelet, Adolphe (1796-1874): 

1864: Histoire des sciences mathematiques et physiques chez les Beiges (480 p., 
Bruxelles). 

1866: Sciences mathematiques et physiques chez les Beiges au commencement 
du XIXe siecle (760 p., Bruxelles). 

Van Overbergh, Cyrille: 

1907-1908: Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique, 1830-1905 (2 vols., Bru- 
xelles ) . 

Account prepared by order of the Belgian government for the International Exhi- 
bition of Liege, 1905. 

Vincent, Augusta: 

1938: Histoire des sciences en Belgique jusqu'a la fin du XVIIIe siecle (160 p., 
Bruxelles ) . 

This is only the catalogue of an exhibition organized by the Bibliotheque Royale, 
but it may be useful (Isis 29, 526). 

— Canada — 

Tory, Henry Marshall {editor): 

'1939: A history of science in Canada ( 152 p., 9 ill., Toronto; Isis 33, 142). 

Wallace, William Stewart ( 1884- ) {editor): 

1949: Centennial volume of the Royal Canadian Institute (241 p., ill., Toronto). 

— Denmark — 

Meisen, V. {editor): 

1932: Prominent Danish scientists through the ages, with facsimiles from their 



126 Special Countries 

work (195 p., Copenhagen 1932; Isis 23, 276-78). 

This is an exemplary publication. The method followed would not be suitable 
for the larger countries, but it is excellent for the smaller ones. 

England, see Great Britain 

— France — 

1915: La science frangaise (2 vols., Paris). 

These two volumes were published by the Ministere de I'education publique at 
the time of the International Exhibition of San Francisco. No editor is named but 
the general preface is written by Lucien Poincare. Many portraits and bibliogra- 
phies. Science is taken in a general sense, it includes all the sciences and the hu- 
manities. Each article is written by a master of the subject. 

1924: Histoire des sciences en France (2 vols, quarto, illustr., being vols. 14 and 
15 of the Histoire de la Nation frangaise edited by Gabriel Hanotaux, Paris; Isis 
7, 514-16; 8, 602). General preface by Emile Picard. Vol. 1 dealing with mathe- 
matical and physical sciences was written by Henri Andoyer, Charles Fabry, 
Pierre Humbert, Albert Colson; vol. 2 contains the history of biological sciences 
by Maurice Caullery, and the history of philosophy by Rene Lote. 

Caullery, Maurice: 

1933: La science frangaise depuis le XVIIe siecle (214 p., Paris; Isis 22, 395). 
1934: French science and its principal discoveries since the seventeenth century 
(240 p.. New York; Isis 24, 266). 

— Germany — 

See the note at the beginning of this chapter describing the Geschichte der Wis- 
senschaften in Deutschland (Munich 1864-1913), edited by the Bavarian Academy. 

Abb, Gustav {editor): 

1930: Aus fiinfzig Jahren deutscher Wissenschaft. Die Entwicklung ihrer Fach- 
gebiete in Einzeldarstellungen (508 p., Berlin). 

This description of German science and learning in the period just preceding the 
Nazi destruction was prepared in the form of a Festschrift dedicated to Friedrich 
Schmidt-Ott. 

Schnabel, Franz ( 1887- ) : 

1949: Deutsche Geschichte im neunzehnten Jahrhundert. Band 3, Erfahrungs- 
wissenschaften und Technik, Freiburg im Breisgau). 

I have seen only the first edition of the whole work (4 vols., 1929-37). The 
first edition of vol. 3 appeared in 1934. It begins with a chapter on Hegel and 
his time. 

— Great Britain — 

Schuster, Arthur (1851-1934) and Shipley, Arthur E.: 

1917: Britain's heritage of science (350 p., 15 ports., London). 

Gunther, Robert Theodore (1869-1940): 

1920-45: Early science in Oxford (14 vols. Oxford). 

1937: Early science in Cambridge (525 p., Oxford; Introd. 3, 1886). 

Holland, see the Netherlands. 

— India — 

See next chapter under India; for Pakistan, see next chapter under India and also 
under Islam. 

— Italy — 

Cavemi, RaEFaello (1837-1900): 

1891-1900: Storia del metodo sperimentale in Italia (6 vols., Firenze). 



France — Russia 127 

Savorgnan di Brazza, Francesco ( 1883- ) : 

1933: Da Leonardo a Marconi, invenzioni e scoperte italiane (357 p., 48 pi., 
Milano ) . 

Silla, Lucio ( editor ) : 

1939-40: Societa italiana per il progresso delle scienze. Un secolo di progresso 
scientifico italiano 1839-1939 (7 vols., Roma; Isis 35, 190; 36, 223). 

— Japan — 
See next chapter under Far East. 

— The Netherlands — 

Barnouw, A. J.; Landheer, B. (editors): 

1943: The contribution of Holland to the sciences. (400 p., 13 ills., New York; 
Isis 35, 189-90). 

Sevensma, T. P. (editor): 

1946:Nederlandsche helden der wetenschap (351 p., Amsterdam; Isis 40, 164). 

Biographies with portraits of the nine Dutch scientists who received the Nobel 
prize, a large number for so small a country. 

Gerrits, G. C.: 

1948: Grote Nederlanders bij de opbouw der natuurwetenschappen (530 p., ill., 
Leiden). 

For the Netherlands Indies, see next chapter under Far East. 

— New Zealand — 

Jenkinson, Sidney Hartley: 

1940: New Zealanders and science (176 p., 9 ill, Wellington, N. Z.). 

— Poland — 

A collection of 34 pamphlets dealing with the history of various sciences and 
branches of learning in Poland is being pubHshed in Krakow 1948-49 under the gen- 
eral title Historia nauki polskiej w monografiach ( History of Polish science in mono- 
graphs ) under the auspices of the Polska akademia umiej§tnosci ( Polish Academy of 
Sciences). I have seen 26 of these pamphlets. Each is written by a separate author 
and followed by a French summary. These pamphlets are enumerated in the 76th 
Critical Bibliography (Isis 41, 394 etc.), each in its section: mathematics, physics, 
chemistry, etc. 

I owe communication of these 26 pamphlets to the friendhness of Professor 
MiECZYSLAw Choynowski (Isis 37, 78) president of the Konwersatorium naukoz- 
nawcze (Cercle pour la science de la science) of Krakow. Seven pamphlets (out 
of the 34) are in preparation or printing (July 1949). 

— Russia — 

Congress of American- Soviet Friendship, Second Congress, New York 1943: 

1944: Science in Soviet Russia. Preface by Walter B. Cannon (1871-1945; 
Isis 36, 258-59, portr.) (108 p., Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Isis 36, 39). 

Crowther, James Gerald ( 1899- ) : 

1930: Science in Soviet Russia (128 p., London). 

1936: Soviet Science (352 p., 16 pi., New York; Isis 27, 90-92). 

1942: Soviet science (191 p.. New York, Penguin). 

Needham, Joseph ( 1900- ) (editor): 

1942: Science in Soviet Russia by seven British scientists (65 p., London). 

Petrunkeviteh, Alexander Ivanovitch ( 1875- ) : 

1920: Russia's contribution to science (Transactions of the Connecticut Academy, 
vol. 23, 211-41, New Haven). 



128 Special Countries 

Sigerist, Henry Ernest (1891- ) : 

1947: Medicine and health in the Soviet Union. With the cooperation of Julia 
Older (383 p.. New York; Isis 39, 202-03). 

— South Africa — 

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: 

1949: Science in South Africa (176 p., Pretoria). 

— Spain — 

Carracido, Jose Rodriguez: 

1917: Estudios historico-criticos de la ciencia espariola {2nd ed., 422 p., Madrid). 

1935: Associacion nacional de historiadores de la ciencia espaiiola. Estudios 
sobre la ciencia espanola del siglo XVII. Prologo de S. E. Don Niceto Alcala- 
Zamora (686 p., Madrid). 

Menendez y Pelayo, Marcelino: 

1887-88: La ciencia espanola {Srd ed., 3 vols., Madrid). 

Collected essays which hardly cover the ground; they deal with a few points of 
the history of learning, rather than science. First edition of vol. 1, 1876. 

Millas Vallicrosa, Jose Maria: 

1949: Estudios sobre historia de la ciencia espanola (512 p., 16 pi., Barcelona; 
Isis 41, 229). 

Dealing only with the Middle Ages. 

— Sweden — 

An elaborate history of science in Sweden is being prepared under the direction 
of Johann Nordstrom of Uppsala. 

SvtaTZERLAND 

Fueter, Eduard: 

1939: Crosse Schweizer Forscher (308 p., ill, Zurich; Isis 32, 193-97); second 
edition (340 p., Zurich 1941; Isis 37, 247). 

1941: Ceschichte der exakten Wissenschaften in der schweizerischen Aufklarung, 
1680-1780 (352 p., Aarau; Isis 34, 32). 

Turkey, see Islam in next chapter. 

United Kingdom, see Creat Britain. 

— United States of America — 

Youmans, William Jay ( 1838-1901 ) : 

1896: Pioneers of science in America. Sketches of their lives and scientific work 
(New York). 

Goode, George Brown (1851-1896): 

1897: The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1946 (866 p., ill., Washington). 

1901: A memorial of him together with a selection of his papers on museums and 
on the history of science in America (527 p., ill., Washington, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion ) . 

Jordan, David Starr (1851-1931): 

1910: Leading American men of science (New York). 

Dana, Edward Salisbury (1849-1935) (et alii): 

1918: A century of science in America with special reference to the American 
Journal of Science 1818-1918 (458 p.. New Haven, Yale). 

JafiFe, Bernard: 

1944: Men of science in America (640 p., ill. New York; Isis 36, 73-74). — Trans- 
lated into French (s.a., Isis 37, 248); into German (Isis 39, 114); into Italian (s.a., 
Isis 37, 248). 



South Africa — United States 129 

Struik, Dirk J.: 

1948: Yankee science in the making (445 p., Boston; Isis 40, 62-64). 

This hst could be indefinitely extended if to the books dealing with the history 
of science in separate countries were added those devoted to special provinces or 
cities, or to academies, universities, museums, scientific societies, etc. A few excep- 
tions were made faute de mieux for the history of the Italian scientific congress ( the 
Italian equivalent of AAAS) under Italy, and for Gunther's books under Great 
Britain. 

The bibhography of the history of science relative to each country is made difficult 
by the confusion of two ideas. For example, history of science in Poland may be 
understood in two very different ways, which are symbolized by the formulas 

1) (history of science) in Poland 

2) history of (science in Poland). 

Under ( I ) would be classified papers or books concerning the teaching and the 
study of the history of science ( universal science ) in Poland, under ( 2 ) the contribu- 
tions made by Polish men of science, the biographies of these men, the development 
of each branch of science in Poland, etc. 




18. HISTORY OF SCIENCE 
IN SPECIAL CULTURAL GROUPS 

This chapter completes the preceding one. The national subdivision does not 
suffice, for in addition to the many books dealing with the history of science in this 
or that country, there are many more dealing with cultural rather than national (or 
geographical ) entities. 

The items are classified under the following headings: 

Antiquity (in general) 

Ancient Near East (generalities, Egypt, Babylonia) 

Classical Antiquity 

Middle Ages 

Byzantine and Slavonic 

Israel 

Islam 

India 

Far East and Eastern Indies (Indonesia) 

China 

Japan 

ANTIQUITY (in general) 

Forbes, Robert James: 

1936: Bitimien and petroleum in antiquity ( 109 p., 6 tables, 2 maps, 54 fig., 
Leiden; Isis 26, 536). 

1940- : Bibliographia antiqua. Philosophia naturafis. I. Mining and geology, 
1940. II. Metallurgy, 1942. III. Building Materials, 1944. IV. Pottery, faience, 
glass, glazes, beads, 1944. Nederlandsch Instituut voor het Nabije Gosten, Leiden 
(Isis 36, 208). Parts V to X published in 1949-50. 

1950: Metallurgy in antiquity (490 p., 98 ill., Leiden). 

Partington, James Riddick ( 1886- ) : 

1935: Origins and development of applied chemistry (610 p., London; Isis 25, 
504-07). 

ANCIENT NEAR EAST 

Archibald, Raymond Clare: 

1929: Bibliography of Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics. Appended to the 
edition of the Rhind mathematical papyrus (vol. 2), see Chace, A. B. in the section 
on Egypt. 

Neugebauer, Otto: 

1934: Vorlesungen Uber Geschichte der antiken mathematischen Wissenschaften. 
1. Band. Vorgriechische Mathematik (224 p., Berhn; Isis 24, 151-53). 

Peet, Thomas Eric (1882-1934): 

1931 : Comparative study of the literatures of Egypt, Palestine and Mesopotamia. 
Egypt's contribution to the literature of the ancient world ( 144 p., London; Isis 21, 
305-16). 

Pritchard, James B. (editor): 

1950: Ancient Near Eastern texts relating to the Old Testament (quarto 548 p., 
Princeton; Isis 42, 75). 

See in the Critical Bibhography of Isis the section 1. Antiquity, and 8. Asia, 
Western Asia. 



Antiquity — Egypt 131 

— Egypt — 

Breasted, James Henry (1865-1935; Isis 34, 289-91, portr.): 

1930: The Edwin Smith surgical papyrus. Pubhshed in facsimile with trans- 
literation, translation and commentary (2 vols., Oriental Institute, Chicago; Isis 15, 
355-67). 

1933: The dawn of conscience (460 p.. New York; Isis 21, 305-16). 

Chace, Arnold BufiFum ( 1845-1932); Bull, Ludlow; Manning, Henry Parker ( 1859- ); 
Archibald, Raymond Clare: 

1927-29: The Rhind mathematical papyrus (2 vols. Mathematical Association of 
America, Oberhn, Ohio; Isis 14, 251-55). 

Includes Archibald's bibliography of Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics in 
both volumes. 

Clarke, Somers (1841-1926): 

1930: Ancient Egyptian masonry. The building craft (258 p., 269 ill., London). 

Cumont, Franz (1868-1947): 

1937: L'Egypte des astrologues (254 p., Bruxelles; Isis 29, 511). 

Engelbach, Reginald (1888-1946): 

1923: The problem of the obelisks, from a study of the unfinished obelisk at 
Aswan (134 p., 21 pi., London). 

Gillain, O.: 

1927: La science egyptienne. L'arithmetique au moyen empire (342 p., Bru- 
xelles; Isis, 11, 395-98). 

Glanville, Stephen Ranulph Kingdon ( 1900- ) (editor): 

1942: The legacy of Egypt (444 p., 34 pi.. Clarendon Press, Oxford; Isis 34, 
441). 

Grinsell, Leslie V.: 

1947: Egyptian pyramids (194 p., 14 pis., 27 fig., 8 maps, Gloucester; Isis 41, 
76). 

Hurry, Jamieson Boyd (1857-1930): 

1928: Imhotep. The vizier and physician of King Zoser and afterwards the 
Egyptian god of medicine (Znd ed., 227 p., 26 ill, Oxford; Isis 13, 373-75; 14, 226, 
1 pi.).— First ed., 1926, 134 p., ill. 

Lexa, FranQois ( 1876- ) : 

1925: La magie dans I'Egypte antique de I'ancien empire jusqu'a I'epoque copte 
(3 vols., Paris; Isis 9, 450-52). 

Lucas, Alfred ( 1867-1945 ) : 

1926: Ancient Egyptian materials and industries (250 p., London). — 2nd ed. 
revised (459 p., London 1934). — Srd ed. revised (582 p., London 1948). 

Petrie (Sir William Matthew) Flinders (1853-1942): 

1940: Wisdom of the Egyptians (178 p., 128 figs., London; Isis 34, 261). 

Pratt, Ida Augusta: 

1925: Ancient Egypt. Sources of information in the New York Public Library 
(502 p.. New York). 

Bibliography of science covers p. 220 to 238 (astronomy, geology, metals, botany, 
zoology, mathematics, medicine and anatomy, metrology, industries and chemistry). 

1942: Supplement 1925-41 (347 p.. New York). Science, same classification 
(p. 168-82). 



132 Special Cultural Groups 

Wainwright, Gerald Averay: 

1938: The sky-religion in Egypt (137 p., Cambridge University; Isis 33, 126). 
See in the Critical Bibliography of Isis section 2. Egypt. 

— Babylonia — 

This term is not quite correct in the present acception, Mesopotamia and its neighborhood; 
scholars investigating that field are often called "Assyriologists" which is another incorrectness 
of the same kind, to wit, the designation of a whole by one of its parts. 

Boissier, Alfred: 

1905-6: Choix de textes relatifs a la divination assyro-babylonienne (2 vols., 
Geneve ) . 

1935: Mantique babylonienne et mantique hittite (80 p., 5 pi., Paris; Introd. 3, 
1103). 

Budge, Sir E. A. Wallis (1857-1934): 

1925: Rise and progress of Assyriology (340 p., 32 pi., London; Isis 9, 547). 

Contenau, Georges ( 1877- ) : 

1927-47: Manuel d'archeologie orientale (4 vols., 2378 p., ill., Paris; Isis 20, 
474-78; 40, 153). For science, see p. 1871-1927. 

1938: La medecine en Assyrie et en Babylonie (234 p., 60 fig., 1 map, Paris; Isis 
31, 99-101). 

1940: La divination chez les Assyriens et les Babylonians (380 p., 8 pi., Paris). 

1947: La magie chez les Assyriens et les Babyloniens (298 p., ill., Paris). 

Gadd, Cyril John ( 1893- ) : 

1936: The stones of Assyria. The surviving remains of Assyrian sculpture, their 
recovery and their original position (285 p., 47 pi., 2 plans, London; Isis 27, 152). 

This is a chapter of the history of Assyriology. 

Kugler, Franz Xaver (1862-1929): 

1907-35: Sternkunst und Sterndienst in Babel. Buch I, II und Erganzungsheften 
(Munster i. W.; Isis 25, 473-76). 

Vol. 1 appeared in 1907, vol. 2 in 3 parts, 1909, 1912, 1924. Two supplements 
were pubUshed by Kugler in 1913 and 1914, a third supplement, posthumous, by 

JOHANN SCHAUMBERGER in 1935. 

Meissner, Bruno ( 1868- ) : 

1920-25: Babylonien und Assyrien (2 vols., Heidelberg; Isis 8, 195-98). 

Neugebauer, Otto: 

1935-37: Mathematische Keilschrift-Texte herausgegeben und bearbeitet (3 vols., 
Berlin; Isis 26, 63-81; 28, 490-91). 

1945: Mathematical cuneiform texts (with the assistance of A. Sachs and A. 
Goetze) (187 p., 49 pi., New Haven, Connecticut; Isis 37, 96-97, 231). 

Pratt, Ida Augusta: 

1918: Assyria and Babylonia, a hst of references in the New York Public Library 
(148 p.. New York). For science, see p. 57-63. 

Thureau-Dangin, Frangois (1872-1944): 

1938: Te-xtes mathematiques babyloniens transcrits et traduits (283 p., Leiden; 
Isis 31, 398-425). 

1939: Sketch of a history of the sexagesimal system (Osiris 7, 95-141). 

Thompson, Reginald Campbell ( 1876-1941 ) : 

1936: Dictionary of Assyrian chemistry and geology (314 p., Oxford, Clarendon; 
Isis 26, 477-80). 

Weidner, Ernst Friedrich: 

1915: Handbuch der babylonischen Astronomic (vol. 1, 146 p., Leipzig). 

See in the Critical BibUography of Isis the section 3. Babylonia and Assyria. 



Babylonia — Classical Antiquity 133 

CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY 

AUbutt, Sir Thomas Clifford (1836-1925): 

1921: Greek medicine in Rome. With other historical essays (647 p. London; 
Isis, 4, 355-57). 

Greek and Byzantine medicine cover 424 pages; the rest of the book is devoted 
to other medico-historical essays. 

Ashby, Thomas ( 1874-1931 ) : 

1935: The aqueducts of ancient Rome (356 p., ill., Oxford, Clarendon). 

Bailey, Cyril ( 1871- ) (editor): 

1924: The legacy of Rome (524 p., 76 ill.. Clarendon Press, Oxford). 

BaUly, Jean Sylvain (1736-93; Isis 11, 393-95): 

1775: Histoire de I'astronomie ancienne depuis son origine jusqu'a I'etablisse- 
ment de I'ecole d'Alexandrie (550 p., Paris). — Second ed., 1781. 

Berger, Hugo (1836-1904): 

1903: Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (2nd ed. 666 p., 
19 fig., Leipzig). — First ed. in 4 parts, Leipzig 1887-93. 

Berthelot, Marcelin (1827-1907): 

1888: Collection des anciens alchimistes grecs (4 vols., ill., Paris). 

Blake, Marion Elizabeth: 

1947: Ancient Roman construction in Italy from the prehistoric period to Au- 
gustus ( quarto 444 p., 57 pi. Washington, Carnegie Institution; Isis 40, 279 ) . 

Boll, Franz (1867-1924): 

1903: Sphaera. Neue griechische Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der 
Sternbilder (576 p., ill., Leipzig). 

1910-20: Griechische Kalender, herausgegeben und erlautert (5 vols., pi., Heidel- 
berg). 

1914-1930: Stoicheia. Studien zur Geschichte des antiken Weltbildes und der 
griechischen Wissenschaft (9 vols., Leipzig). Vols. 1 to 7 vi'ere edited by him. 

1917: Sternglaube und Sterndeutung. Die Geschichte und das Wesen der 
Astrologie (Leipzig). 

Not seen the first edition. Second ed. vi'ith the collaboration of Carl Bezold 
(1859-1922) (120 p., 1 map, 20 fig., Leipzig 1919; Isis 3, 482), Srd ed. (posthu- 
mous) prepared by Wilhelm Gundel (1880-1945) (234 p., 48 fig., 20 pi., 1 map, 
1926; Isis 9, 476-77), 4th ed. (1931). 

Bouche-Leclerc, Auguste (1842-1923): 

1879-82: Histoire de la divination dans I'antiquite (4 vols., Paris). 
1899: L'astrologie grecque (678 p., Paris). 

Brunet, Pierre (1893-1950); Mieli, Aldo (1879-1950): 

1935: Histoire des sciences. Antiquite ( 1224 p., 109 fig., Paris; Isis 24, 444-47 ). 
Anthology of selected extracts in French translation with commentaries. 

Bunbury, Sir Edward Herbert (1811-95): 

1879: History of ancient geography among the Greeks and Romans till the fall 
of the Roman Empire (2 vols., 20 maps, London). — Second ed. 1883. 

Cohen, Morris (1880-1947); Drabkin, Israel Edward (1905- ): 

1948: Source book in Greek science (600 p., ill.. New York; Isis 40, 277). 

Cozzo, Giuseppe: 

1928: Ingegneria romana (320 p., ill., Roma). 



134 Special Cultui'al Groups 

Cumont, Franz (1868-1947): 

1912: Astrology and religion among the Greeks and the Romans (235 p., New 
York). 

1949: Lux perpetua (558 p., portrait, Paris; Isis 41, 371). 

Davies, Oliver: 

1935: Roman mines in Europe (303 p., ill., 6 maps, London; Isis 25, 251). 

Delambre, Jean Baptiste Joseph (1749-1822): 

1817: Histoire de I'astronomie ancienne (2 vols., Paris). 

Delatte, Armand ( 1886- ) : 

1936: Herbarius. Recueil sur le ceremonial usite chez les anciens pour la cueil- 
lette des simples et des plantes magiques (Bulletin de TAcademie de Belgique, 
classe des lettres, 22, 227-348, Bruxelles) (Isis 27, 531-32). — Second ed. (177 p. 
Liege 1938; Isis 30, 395). 

Diepgen, Paul (1878- ): 

1937: Geschichte der Frauenheilkunde (Handbuch der Gynakologie, hrg. v. W. 
Stoeckel; vol. 12, Miinchen). 1. Teil, Paul Diepgen: Die Frauenheilkunde der 
Alten Welt (358 p., ill.; Isis 28, 123-26). 

Enriques, Federigo (1871-1946); Santillana, Giorgio de: 

1932: Storia del pensiero scientifico. Vol. 1, II mondo antico (682 p., 120 ill., 
Milano; Isis 23, 467-69). 

Farrington, Benjamin (1891- ) : 

1936: Science in antiquity (London, Home University Library). — Reprinted 
1947. 

1939: Science and politics in the ancient world (243 p., London; Isis 33, 
270-73). 

1944: Greek science, its meaning for us ( 143 p., London, Penguin Books). 

Gest, Alexander Purves ( 1853- ) : 

1930: Engineering (Our debt to Greece and Rome, 236 p.. New York). 

Gilbert, Otto (1839-1911): 

1907: Die meteorologischen Theorien des griechischen Altertums (750 p., Leip- 
zig)- 

Gunther, Siegmund (1848-1928); Windelband, Wilhelm (1848-1915): 

1888: Geschichte der antiken Naturwissenschaft und Philosophic (Handbuch der 

klassischen Altertums-Wissenschaft 5, 1; 344 p., Nordlingen). 

The second ed. (322 p., Miinchen 1894) bears the title "Geschichte der alten 

Philosophic von W. Windelband," GCnther's summary of the history of ancient 

science being published in the form of an appendix. 

Gundel, Wilhelm (1880-1945; Isis 39, 103): 

1922: Sterne und Sternbilder im Glauben des Altertums und der Neuzeit (Bonn). 

1933: Sternglaube, Sternrehgion und Sternorakel (Leipzig). 

1934: Astror;omie, Astralreligion, Astralmythologie und Astrologie ( Jahresbericht 
iiber die Forschritte der klass. Altertumswissenschaft, vol. 243, 1-162). 

1936: Dekane und Dekansternbilder. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Stern- 
bilder der Kulturvblker. Mit einer Untersuchung iiber die altagyptischen Sternbilder 
und Gottheiten der Dekane von S. Schott (462 p., 33 pi., Bibliothek Warburg, Ham- 
burg 1936; Isis 27, 344-48). 

1950: Planeten (PW col. 2017-86). Completed by his son, H. Gundel. 

Heath, Sir Thomas ( 1861-1940; Osiris 2, portr.) : 

1921: History of Greek mathematics (2 vols., Oxford, Clarendon Press; Isis 4, 

532-35). 



Classical Antiquity 135 

1931: Manual of Greek mathematics (568 p., Oxford, Clarendon Press; Isis 16, 
450-51). 

1932: Greek astronomy (250 p., London; Isis 22, 585). 
Translated selections from the Greek astronomical writings. 

Heiberg, Johan Ludvig (1854-1928; Isis 11, 367-74, port.): 

1922: Mathematics and physical science in classical antiquity (110 p., Oxford; 
Isis 5,531). 

Original German text published in Leipzig 1912, 2nd ed. 1920. 

Heidel, William Arthur ( 1868-1941 ) : 

1933: The heroic age of science; the conception, ideals and methods of science 
among the ancient Greeks (210 p., Washington, Carnegie Institution; Isis 21, 220-24). 

Honigmann, Ernst ( 1892- ) : 

1929: Die sieben Klimata und die noKeis eiri<TT)fj.oi. Eine Untersuchung zur 
Geschichte der Geographic und Astrologie im Altertum und Mittelalter. (247 p., 4 
fig., Heidelberg; Isis 14, 270-76). 

Hultsch, Friedrich (1833-1906): 

1862: Griechische und romische Metrologie (338 p., Berhn). — Second ed. much 
enlarged (760 p., Berhn 1882). 

Jaeger, Werner Wilhelm ( 1888- ) : 

1939-44: Paideia, the ideals of Greek culture (3 vols., Oxford University Press: 
Isis 32, 375-76; 35, 188-89; 37, 99-100).— Translated from the German (1934ff.). 

Jennison, Madge: 

1949: Roads (370 p., London). 
History of roads in antiquity. 

Lenz, Harald Othmar (1799-1870): 

1856: Zoologie der alten Griechen und Romer (680 p., Gotha). 

Livingstone, Sir Richard Winn (1880- ) (editor): 

1922: The legacy of Greece (436 p., 36 ill., Clarendon Press, Oxford). 

Loria, Gino: 

1914: Le scienze esatte nell'antica greca (2nd ed., 997 p., 122 ill., Milano; Isis 
1, 714-16). 

Marrou, Henri Irenee: 

1948: Histoire de I'education dans I'antiquite (595 p., Paris; Isis 40, 295). 

Michel, Paul-Henri: 

1950: De Pythagore a Euchde. Contribution a I'histoire des mathematiques 
preeuclidiennes (700 p., Paris; Isis 42, 61). 

Milhaud, Gaston (1858-1918): 

1893: Legons sur les origines de la science grecque (306 p., Paris). 

1900: Les philosophes geometres de la Grece, Platon et ses predecesseurs 
(388 p., Paris). 

Neuburger, Albert (1867- ): 

1930: The technical arts and sciences of the ancients (550 p., 676 ill., London). — 
German original, Leipzig 1919; 2nd ed. 1921 (Isis 4, 423; 6, 129-31). 

Ninck, Martin: 

1945: Die Entdeckung von Europa durch die Griechen (287 p., 36 fig., Basel; 
Isis 39, 105). 

Rey, Abel (1873-1940): 

1930-46: La science dans I'antiquite (Paris). Four volumes have appeared in 
Henri Berr's collection: L'evolution de I'humanite. 



136 Special Cultural Groups 

Vol. 1, 1930: La science orientale avant les Grecs. 

Vol. 2, 1933: La Jeunesse de la science grecque (that is, the period from 600 to 
450; Isis 21, 224-26). 

Vol. 3, 1932: La maturite de la pensee scientifique en Grece (down to Aristotle 
included; Isis 32, 167). 

Vol. 4, 1946: L'apogee de la science technique grecque (Isis 40, 70). 

These four volumes do not complete the history of Greek science; the last, post- 
humously published, is very unbalanced: mathematics is explained only dow^n to 
Plato, but astronomy down to Hipp arch, etc. 

Reymond, Arnold: 

1927: History of the sciences in Greco-Roman antiquity (255 p., London). 
— Translated from the French (Paris 1924; Isis 7, 252). 

Robin, Leon ( 1866- ) : 

1928: Greek thought and the origins of the scientific spirit (429 p., map, Lon- 
don). — Translated from the French original (504 p., Paris 1923; Isis 6, 557-59); 
revised ed. 1928. 

1942: La pensee hellenique des origines a Epicure. Questions de methode, de 
critique et d'histoire (554 p., Paris). 

Rochas d'Aiglun, Albert de (1837-1914): 

1883: La science dans I'antiquite. Les origines de la science et ses premieres 
apphcations (290 p., 117 fig., Paris). 

Sarton, George: 

1952: Ancient science to Epictmos (the book is completed but not yet pub- 
hshed; Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.). 

Schiaparelli, Giovanni Virginio (1835-1910): 

1925: Scritti sulla storia della astronomia antica. Parte prima. Scritti editi 
(470 p., port., Bologna; Isis 8, 503-6). 

Schuhl, Pierre Maxime: 

1934: Essai sur la formation de la pensee grecque. Introduction historique a 
une etude de la philosophic platonicienne (475 p., Paris; Isis 23, 469-70). — Second 
edition with 30 additional pages (Paris 1949; Isis 41, 227). 

Simon, Maximilian (1844-1918): 

1909: Geschichte der Mathematik im Altertum in Verbindung mit antiker Kul- 
turgeschichte (418 p., Berhn). 

Singer, Charles: 

1922: Greek biology and Greek medicine (128 p., ill., Oxford; Isis 5, 532). 
1927: The herbal in antiquity (Journal of Hellenic studies 47, 1-52, 10 pi., 46 
fig.; Isis 10, 519-21). 

Smith, David Eugene ( 1860-1944) : 

1923: Mathematics (Our debt to Greece and Rome; 185 p., Boston: Isis 6, 188). 

Tannery, Paul (1843-1904; Isis 38, 33-51): 

1887: Pour I'histoire de la science hellene. De Thales a Empedocle (404 p., 
Paris).— Revised edition by A. Dies (460 p., Paris 1930; Isis 15, 179-80). 

1887: La geometric grecque. Comment son histoire nous est parvenue et ce que 
nous en savons ( 196 p., Paris). 

1893: Recherches sur I'histoire de I'astronomie ancienne (378 p., Paris). 

Taylor, Henry Osbom ( 1856-1941 ) : 

1922: Greek biology and medicine (166 p., London; Isis 5, 532). 

Thirion, Julien (1852-1918): 

1900: Evolution de I'astronomie chez les Grecs (286 p., 5 ill., Bruxelles). 



Classical Antiquity and Middle Ages 137 

Thomas, Ivor ( 1905- ) : 

1939-41: Selections illustrating the history of Greek mathematics, with English 
translation (2 vols., Loeb Classical Library, Cambrige, Harvard University Press). 

Thomson, J. Oliver: 

1948: History of ancient geography (436 p., 2 pi., 66 fig., Cambridge University; 
Isis40, 244). 

Tozer, Henry Fanshawe ( 1829-1916) : 

1897: History of ancient geography (406 p., 10 maps, Cambridge University). — 
Second edition in 1935 with 34 p. of notes by Max Cary (Isis 26, 537). 

Van Deman, Esther Bose (1862-1937): 

1934: The building of the Roman aqueducts (quarto, 452 p., ill., Washington, 
Carnegie Institution; Isis 23, 470-71). 

Viedebantt, Oskar ( 1883- ) : 

1923: Antike Gewichtsnormen und Miinzfiisse (172 p., Berhn). 

Warmington, Eric Herbert (1898- ): 

1934: Greek geography (317 p., London). 

Anthology of translated fragments of the Greek geographers. 

Wycherley, R. E.: 

1949: How the Greeks built cities (250 p., 52 ill., 16 pi., London). 

Zeuthen, Hieronymus Georg (1839-1920): 

1896: Geschichte der Mathematik im Altertum und Mittelalter (350 p., ill., 
Copenhagen). — First pubhshed in Danish (Copenhagen 1893); reprint of the Danish 
edition with additions by O. Neugebauer (Copenhagen 1949; Isis 42). French 
translation by Jean Mascart (310 p., 31 ill., Paris 1902). 

See in the Critical Bibliography of Isis the sections entitled 1. Antiquity, 4. 
Greece, 5. Rome. 

MIDDLE AGES 

Beazley, Sir Charles Raymond ( 1868- ) : 

1897-1906: The dawn of modern geography (3 vols., London). 

Berthelot, Marcelin ( 1827-1907 ) : 

1893: Histoire des sciences. La chimie au Moyen age (3 vols., Paris). 

Chevalier, Ulysse (1841-1923): 

1894-1903: Repertoire des sources historiques du Moyen age. Topobibliographie 
(2 vols., Montbeliard ) . 

1905-7: Repertoire des sources historiques du Moyen age. Biobibliographie 
(4832 col. in 2 vols., Paris). 

Crump, Charles George (1862-1935); Jacob, Ernest Eraser (1894- ): 

1926: The legacy of the Middle Ages (562 p., 42 pi., Clarendon Press, Oxford). 

De Bruyne, Edgar: 

1946: Etudes d'esthetique medievale (3 vols., 795 p., Bruges; Isis 39, 188-90). 

Delambre, Jean Baptists Joseph ( 1749-1822) : 

1819: Histoire de I'astronomie au Moyen age (774 p., Paris). 

De Wulf, Maurice (1867-1947): 

1909: History of medieval philosophy (532 p., London). — New ed., 2 vol. 1926, 
Srd ed. 1935-38. Original French ed., Louvain (488 p., 1900); 2nd ed., 3 vols., 
Louvain 1934-47. 

Fischer, Hermann ( 1884- ) : 

1929: Mittelalterhche Pflanzenkunde (334 p., 70 ill., Miinchen; Isis 15, 365-70). 



138 Special Cultural Groups 

Gilson, Etienne (1884- ): 

1922: La philosophie au Moyen age (2 small vols., 326 p., Paris; Isis 5, 537). — 
Second ed. revised and much increased (782 p., Paris 1944). 

1936: The spirit of mediaeval philosophy (Gifford Lectures 1931-32, 500 p., 
New York ) . 

Original French edition (299 p., Paris 1932); 2nd ed. (450 p., Paris 1944). 

Haskins, Charles Homer (1870-1937; Isis 28, 53-56, portr.): 

1924: Studies in the history of mediaeval science (425 p., Cambridge, Harvard; 
Isis 7, 121-24).— Second ed., 1927. 

1929: Studies in mediaeval culture (303 p., Oxford; Isis 14, 433-36). 

Hecker, Justus Friedrich Karl ( 1795-1850) : 

1835: Epidemics of the Middle Ages (London, Sydenham Society). — Re- 
printed 1837, 1844, 1846, 1859. German edition by August Hirsch, Berlin 1865. 

Kibre, Pearl: 

1948: The nations in mediaeval universities (252 p.. Mediaeval Academy, Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts ) . 

Kimble, George Herbert Tinsley ( 1908- ) : 

1938: Geography in the Middle Ages (284 p., 20 pi., London; Isis 30, 540-42). 

Klebs, Arnold Carl (1870-1943): 

1938: Incunabula scientifica et medica. Short title list (Osiris 4, 1-359). 

Lacroix, Paid ( Bibliopliile Jacob, 1806-84): 

1878: Science and literature in the Middle Ages and at the period of the Renais- 
sance (quarto, 569 p., over 400 woodcuts, port., maps, London). — The French 
original: Sciences et lettres au Moyen age {2nd ed., quarto, 616 p., ill.) was pub- 
lished in Paris, 1877. 

Lelewel, Joachim ( 1786-1861 ) : 

1850-52: Geographic du Moyen age (4 vols, in 2, atlas of 50 pi., Bruxelles). 
1857: Epilogue (316 p., 8 pi., Bruxelles). 

Nordenskiold, Adolf Erik ( 1832-1901 ) : 

1897: Periplus. An essay on the early history of charts and sailing directions 
(Folio, 218 p., 100 ill., 60 maps, Stockholm). 

Picavet, Francois (1851-1921): 

1905: Esquisse d'une histoire generale et comparee des philosophies medievales 
(400 p., Paris). 

Sarton, George: 

1927-48: Introduction to the history of science (3 vols, in 5, Baltimore). 
Covers the Middle Ages, East and West, down to 1400. 

1938: The scientific literature transmitted through the incunabula (Osiris 5, 
41-245, 60 facs., Bruges). Study based on Klebs (1938). 

Singer, Charles ( 1876- ) : 

1928: From magic to science, essays on the scientific twilight (272 p., 14 pi., 
108 fig., London; Isis 13, 225). 

Strunz, Franz ( 1875- ) : 

1910: Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften im Mittelalter (126 p., 1 fig., 
Stuttgart). 

Sudhoflf, Karl (1853-1938): 

1908: Deutsche medizinische Inkunabeln (Studien zur Geschichte der Medizin, 
nos. 2/3) (302 p., 40 fig., Leipzig). 

1908: Beitrag zur Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter, speziell der ana- 
tomischen Graphik nach Handschriften des 9. bis 15. Jahrh. (Studien zur Geschi- 
chte der Medizin, no. 4: 94 p., 3 fig., 24 pi., Leipzig). 



139 



Middle Ages — Israel 

1914-18: Beitriige zur Geschichte der Chirurgie im Mittelalter. Graphische 
und Textliche Untersuchungen in mittelalterlichen Handschriften (Studien zur 
Geschichte der Medizin, nos. 10-12; 956 p., ill., 95 pi., Leipzig). 

Thompson, James Westfall ( 1869-1941 ) : 

1939: The medieval hbrary (700 p., University of Chicago Press, Chicago; Isis 
32, 175-77). 

Thomdike, Lynn: 

1923-41: History of magic and experimental science ( 6 vols., Columbia University 
Press, New York). 

1923: Vols. 1, 2, First thirteen centuries of our era (Isis 6, 74-89). — Reprinted 
with corrections, 1929. 

1934: Vols. 3, 4, Fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (Isis 23, 471-75). 

1941: Vols. 5, 6, The sixteenth century (Isis 33, 691-712). 

1929: Science and thought in the fifteenth century (402 p., New York; Isis 14, 

235-40). 

1944: University records and fife in the Middle Ages (Records of civihzation, 
no. 38) (493 p., 1 map, Columbia University Press, New York; Isis 36, 211). 

Wickersheimer, Ernest (1880- ): 

1936: Dictionnaire biographique des medecins en France au Moyen age (878 
p., Paris; Isis 26, 187-89). 

Wright, John Kirtland ( 1891- ) : 

1925: Geographical lore of the time of the Crusades (584 p., American Geo- 
graphical Society, New York; Isis 7, 495-98). 

See in the Critical Bibliography of Isis, section 6. Middle Ages. 

BYZANTINE AND SLAVONIC 

Byzantine 

Baynes, Norman Hepburn (1877- ); Moss, Henry St. L. B. (editors): 

1948: Byzantium. An introduction to East Roman civilization (468 p., 48 pi., 
3 maps, Clarendon Press, Oxford; Isis 41, 78). 

Delatte, Armand: 

1927-29: Anecdota atheniensia. ( Bibliotheque de la Faculte de philosophie et 
lettres de l'Universit6 de Liege.) 2 vols.— 1927: Vol. 1, 748 p. (Isis 12, 328-30). 
—1939: Vol. 2, 512 p. (Isis 33, 274-78). 

1947: Les portulans grecs (433 p., Liege; Isis 40, 71-72). 

Krumbacher, Karl ( 1856-1909 ) : 

1897: Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur von Justinian bis zum Ende des 
Ostromischen Reiches, 527-1453 (Handbuch der klassichen Altertumswissenschaft, 
9. Bd., 1. Abt.; Zweite Aufl., 1213 p., Munchen).— First edition 1891, 506 p. 

See in the Critical Bibliographies of Isis the section 7. Byzantium. 

Slavonic 

See the section on Russia in chapter 15. For a general, if brief, account of the scientific 
contributions of Slavonic peoples, see Joseph S. Roucek: Slavonic Encyclopaedia (p. 1116-33, 
New York 1949; Isis 41, 96). That article deals with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Russia, 
USSR, Ukraine, Yugoslavia. 

ISRAEL 

Bevan, Edwyn R.; Singer, Charles (editors): 

1927: The legacy of Israel (592 p., 83 fig., Oxford, Clarendon). 

Ebstein, Wilhelm (1836-1912): 

1901: Die Medizin im Alten Testament (192 p., Stuttgart). 

1903: Die Medizin im Neuen Testament und im Talmud (345 p., Stuttgart). 



140 Special Cultural Groups 

Encyclopaedia Judaica: 

1928-34: 10 vols, published (to Lyra). Edited by Jacob Klatzkin (Berlin). 
Abbr. EJ. 

Feldman, William Moses ( 1879- ) : 

1931: Rabbinical mathematics and astronomy (252 p., London; Isis 19, 208-12) 

Friedenwald, Harry (1864-1950): 

1944: The Jews and medicine (2 vols., 1242 p., Baltimore; Isis 35, 346). 

1946: Jewish limiinaries in medical history and a Catalogue of works bearing on 
the subject (208 p., Baltimore; Isis 37, 239). 

Gandz, Solomon (1887- ): 

1932: The Mishnat ha-middot, the first Hebrew geometry of about 150 C.E. and 
the geometry of Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khowarizmi, the first Arabic geometry 
(c. 820) representing the Arabic version of the Mishnat ha-middot. Edition of the 
Hebrew and Arabic texts with introduction, translation and notes (Quellen und 
Studien zur Geschichte der Mathematik, A 2; 104 p., 14 fig., 4 pi. Berlin; Isis 20, 
274-80). 

1932-33: Hebrew numerals (Proceedings American Academy for Jewish re- 
search 4, 53-112; Isis 22, 390). 

Jewish Encyclopaedia: 

1901-6: 12 vols, edited by Cyrus Adler, Isidore Singer, etc. (Funk and Wag- 
nails, New York). Abbr. JE. 

Krauss, Samuel ( 1866- ) : 

1910-12: Talmudische Archaologie (3 vols., Leipzig). 

Does not deal with science proper but there are chapters in vol. 2 (1911) on 
agriculture, arts and industries, metrology, in vol. 3 (1912) on writing, books and 
education. 

Low, Immanuel (1854-1944): 

1926-34: Flora der Juden (4 vols.; Isis 6, 428; 8, 210; 23, 573). 

Meyerhof, Max (1874-1945; see Osiris 9): 

1938: Mediaeval Jewish physicians in the Near East, from Arabic sources (Isis 
28, 432-60). 

Preuss, Julius (1861- ): 

1911: Biblisch-talmudische Medizin (742 p., Berhn). 

Roback, Abraham Aaron (1890- ): 

1929: Jewish influence in modem thought (506 p., Cambridge, Massachusetts; 
Isis 13, 522). 

Roth, Cecil (1899- ): 

1938: The Jewish contribution to civiUsation (372 p., 8 pi., London). 

Schleiden, Matthias Jakob (1804-81): 

1877: Die Bedeutung der Juden fiir Erhaltung und Wiederbelebung der 
Wissenschaften im Mittelalter (41 p., Leipzig). — Fifth ed., 54 p., Leipzig 1912. 

Schleiden was one of the founders of the cellular theory ( 1838), as well as one 
of the founders of modern botany. 

Snowman, Jacob (1871- ): 

1935: Short history of Talmudic medicine (94 p., London; Isis 25, 265). 

See also in the Critical bibUographies of Isis section 12. Israel. 

isl;(m 

Adnan (-Adivar), Abdulhak: 

1939: La science chez les Turcs Ottomans (182 p., Paris; Isis 32, 186-89. — Re- 



Israel and Islam 141 

vised and amplified translation into Turkish (225 p., 3 pi., Istanbul 1943; Isis 38, 
121-25). 

Arnold, Sir Thomas Walker (1864-1930); Guillaume, Alfred (editors) : 
1931: The legacy of Islam (432 p., 42 pi.. Clarendon Press, Oxford). 

Brockelmann, Carl (1868- ): 

1898-42: Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur. — 1898: Vol. 1 (540 p., Weimar). 
—1902: Vol. 2 (726 p., Berlin).— 1937: Suppt. to vol. 1 (993 p., Leiden).— 1938: 
Suppt. to vol. 2 (1066 p., Leiden).— 1939-42: Suppt. vol. 3 1338 p., Leiden). 

This volume deals with modern Arabic hterature but includes (p. 1191-1326) 
addenda and errata to vols. 1 and 2. 

1943: Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur. Zweite den Supplement-banden 
angepasste Auflage (Leiden).— 1943: Vol. 1 (686 p..).— 1944-49: Vol. 2 (702 p.). 

This is mainly what the title says, a reprint of the first edition, the additions of 
the supplements being inserted in their proper places. 

Browne, Edward GranvUle (1862-1926): 

1906-24: Literary history of Persia (4 vols. University Press, Cambridge). — 
1908, reprinted 1909: Vol. 1, From the earliest times until FmoAwsi. — 1906: Re- 
printed 1915. Vol. 2, From Firdawsi to Sa'di.— 1920: Reprinted 1928. Vol. 3, 
Tartar dominion. 1265-1502.-1924: Reprinted 1928. Vol. 4, Modern times. 
1500-1924. 

1921: Arabian medicine. Being the Fitzpatrick lectures delivered at the Col- 
lege of Physicians in November 1919 and November 1920. (146 p., 1 pi., Uni- 
versity Press, Cambridge; Isis 4, 349-50). 

1933: La medecine arabe. Edition frangaise mise a jour et annotee par H. P. J. 
Renaud (186 p., Paris; Isis 21, 435). 

Campbell, Donald (1883- ): 

1926: Arabian medicine and its influence on the Middle Ages (2 vols., 458 p., 
London; Isis 9, 559). 

Carra de Vaux, Bernard (1867- ): 

1921-26: Penseurs de ITslam (5 vols., Paris). 

1921: Vol. 1, Les souverains. L'histoire et la philosophic politique (Isis 4, 618). 

1921: Vol. 2, Les geographes, les sciences mathematiques et naturelles (Isis 5, 
165-67). 

1923: Vol. 3, L'exegese. La tradition et la jurisprudence (Isis 7, 272). 

1923: Vol. 4, La scolastique, la theologie et la mystique. La musique (Isis 8, 
598). 

1926: Vol. 5, Les sectes. Le liberahsme moderne (Isis 10, 245). 

Encyclopaedia of Islam: 

1908-38: A dictionary of the geography, ethnography and biography of the 
Muhammedan peoples. Edited by M. Th. Houtsma, T. W. Arnold, R. Basset, 
R. Hartmann, a. J. Wensinck, W. Heffening, E. LEvi-PROVENgAL, H. A. R. Gibb 
(4 vols, plus supplement, Leiden and London). 

Erlanger, Rodolphe d' ( 1872- ) : 

1930-39: La musique arabe (4 vols., Paris; Isis 20, 280-82; 26, 552; 30, 334; 
32, 458). 

Farmer, Henry George (1882- ): 

1929: History of Arabian music to the thirteenth century (280 p., 3 pi., Lon- 
don; Isis 13, 375-76). 

1930: Historical facts for the Arabian music influence (388 p., London; Isis 15, 
370-72). 

1940: The sources of Arabian music. Annotated bibliography of Arabic MSS 
(100 p., Bearsden, Scotland; Isis 32, 458). 



142 Special Cultural Groups 

Ferrand, Gabriel ( 1864-C.1935) (editor): 

1928: Introduction a I'astronomie nautique arabe (284 p., Paris; Isis 13, 127). 

Fonahn, Adolf Mauritz (1873-1940): 

1910: Zur Quellenkunde der persischen Medizin. (158 p., Leipzig). 

1922: Arabic and Latin anatomical terminology chiefly from the Middle Ages. 
(Norwegian Academy, hist, class., 1921, no. 7). (176 p., Kristiania; Isis 5 170-72; 
37, 81). 

Hirschberg, Julius (1843-1925): 

1905: Die arabischen Lehrbiicher der Augenheilkunde. Unter Mitwirkung von 
J. LiPPERT und EuGEN MiTTvvocH (1876-1942) (117 p., Abh., Preuss. Akad., 
Berlin). 

Khairallah, Amin A.: 

1946: Outline of Arabic contributions to medicine and the allied sciences (228 
p., ill., Beirut; Isis 40, 381). 

Leclerc, Lucien (1816- ): 

1876: Histoire de la medecine arabe (2 vols., Paris). 

Meyerhof, Max (1874-1945; Osiris 9): 

1919: Die Optik der Araber (Zeitschrift fiir ophthalmologische Optik, vol. 8, 
16-29, 42-54, 86-90, Berlin; Isis 4, 431). 

1940: Un glossaire de matiere medicale de Maimonide, edite et traduit (403 p., 
Le Caire; Isis 33, 527-29). 

Mieli, Aide (1879-1950): 

1939: La science arabe et son role dans revolution scientilique mondiale. (408 
p., Leiden; Isis 30, 291-95). 

Miles, George Carpenter (1904- ): 

1948: Early Arabic glass weights and stamps (174 p., American Numismatic 
Society, New York; Isis 40, 381). 

Nallino, Carlo Alfonso (1872-1938): 

1944: Raccolta di scritti editi e inediti. Vol. 5. Astrologia, astronomia, geo- 
grafia (558 p., Roma; Isis 38, 120). 

The Raccolta fills 6 vols. ( 1939-48 ) ; vol. 6 includes an index to vols. 3 to 6 and 
Nalhno's biography (Isis 34, 177; 40, 161). 

Pines, Salomon (1908- ): 

1936: Beitrage zur islamischen Atomenlehre (150 p., Berlin; Isis 26, 557). 

Ribera y Tarrago, Julian (1858-1934): 

1929: Music in ancient Arabia and Spain. Translated by Eleanor Hague and 
Marion Leffingwell (296 p., Stanford University; Isis 34, 46). 

Abridged translation of La musica de las cantigas (Madrid 1922). For this 
work and others by Ribera on Andalusian and Arabic music see Isis (11, 496-97; 
12, 163). 

Suter, Heinrich (1848-1922) (Isis 18, 166-83): 

1900: Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber und ihre Werke. ( Abhand- 
lungen zur Geschichte der mathematischen Wissenschaften, Heft 10) (288 p., 
Leipzig ) . 

1902: Nachtrage und Berichtigungen. ( Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der 
mathematischen Wissenschaften, Heft 14, p. 155-85). (Leipzig; Isis 5, 409-17). 

See in the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 14. Islam. 

INDIA 

Bamett, Lionel David (1871- ): 

1913: Antiquities of India. An account of the history and culture of ancient 



Islam and India 143 

Hindustan (322 p., 25 pi, 3 maps, London; Isis 2, 408-10). 
Chapters 6 to 9, p. 188-231, deal with science. 

Behanan, Kovoor Thomas: 

1938: Yoga. A scientific evaluation (292 p., London; Isis 32, 451). 

Brennand, W.: 

1896: Hindu astronomy (346 p., London). 

Chakraberty, Chandra: 

1923: Interpretation of Hindu medicine (620 p., Calcutta; Isis 7, 267). 
1923: Comparative Hindu materia medica (208 p., Calcutta; Isis 7, 266). 

Cultural Heritage: 

1936-37: The Cultural heritage of India. Sri Ramakrishna centenary memorial. 

A symposium by some 100 authors (Quarto, 3 vols., c. 1950 p., 164 ill., Calcutta). 

Only a part of vol. 3 (p. 337-481) deals with science proper; the main em- 

J)hasis is on religion, philosophy, art. Sri Ramakrishna (1836-86) is a religious 
eader who has exerted a deep influence upon his countrymen (Isis 36, 214, 215). 

Gumming, Sir John (1868- ) (editor): 

1939: Revealing India's past. A cooperative record of archaeological conserva- 
tion and exploration in India and beyond by 22 authorities British, Indian and 
continental (394 p., 33 pi., 1 map, 2 fig., London). 

Cunningham, Sir Alexander (1814-93): 

1871: Ancient geography of India (609 p., 13 maps, London). — New edition 
by SuRENDRANATH Majumdar Sastri (842 p., map, Calcutta 1924). 

Dasgupta, Surendra Nath ( 1887- ) : 

1922-49: History of Indian philosophy (4 vols., Cambridge University). — Vol. 1 
reprinted in 1932; vol. 4, 1949 (Isis 41, 79). 

1924: Yoga as philosophy and rehgion (210 p. London). 

1930: Yoga philosophy in relation to other systems of Indian thought (390 p., 
Calcutta). 

Datta, Bibhutibhusan: 

1932: The science of sulba. A study in early Hindu geometry (256 p.. Uni- 
versity of Calcutta; Isis 22, 272-77). 

1935-38 ( with Singh, Avadhesh Narayan ) : History of Hindu mathematics. A 
source book. Part 1. Numeral notations and arithmetic (282 p., Lahore; Isis 25, 
478-88). Part 2. Algebra (330 p., Lahore). 

Dey, Nundo Lai: 

1927: Geographical Dictionary of, ancient and mediaeval India. (Calcutta 
Oriental series, no. 21, E. 13.). Second ed., quarto (272 p., London). 

First edition, Calcutta 1899. Second edition printed in sheets in The Indian 
antiquary, issued as a volume by Quaritch, London 1921. The edition of 1927 
was printed in Bombay; the preface is dated Chinsurah 1922. 

Edgerton, Franklin: 

1931: The elephant lore of the Hindus. The elephant sport of Nilakantha (148 
p., New Haven; Isis 41, 120-23). 

Eliade, Mircea (1907- ): 

1936: Yoga. Essai sur les origines de la mystique indienne ( Bibliotheque de 
philosophic roumaine) (255 p., Paris). 

The book is more comprehensive than its title indicates, for it contains a com- 
parative study of yoga theories and practices, not only in India but all over the 
world. 



144 Special Cultural Groups 

Finot, Louis (1864-1935): 

1896: Les lapidaires indiens ( Bibliotheque de I'Ecole des hautes etudes, fasc. 
Ill; 336 p., Paris). 

Garratt, GeofiFrey Theodore (1888- ) (editor): 

1937: The legacy of India (446 p., 24 pL, 1 map, Clarendon Press, Oxford). 

Hoernle, August Friedrich Rudolf (1841-1918): 

1907: Studies in the medicine of ancient India. Vol. 1, Osteology (264 p., 
Oxford). — No others published. 

Keith, Arthur Berriedale ( 1879- ) : 

1921: Indian logic and atomism. An exposition of the Nyiiya and Vaigesika 
systems. (291 p.. Clarendon Press, Oxford; Isis 4, 535-36). 

1928: History of Sanskrit hterature. (612 p., Clarendon Press, Oxford). 

Law, Narendra Nath: 

1915: Promotion of learning in India by early European settlers, up to c. 1800 
(188 p., 2 fig., London). 

1916: Promotion of learning in India during Muhammadan rule, by Muham- 
madans (308 p., ill., London). 

1921: Aspects of ancient Indian polity (248 p., Oxford, Clarendon; Isis 5, 
164-65). 

Majumdar, Girija Frasanna: 

1927: Vanaspati. Plants and plant life as in Indian treatises and traditions. 
(276 p., Calcutta; Isis 25, 259, 198). 

Mariadassou, see Paramananda. 

Markham, Sir Clements (1830-1916): 

1871: Memoir of the Indian Surveys (328 p., 4 fold, maps and charts, London). 
— Second ed. 1878 (510 p., 5 fold, maps and charts, London). 

Masson-Oursel, Paul: 

1920: Bibliographic sommaire de ITndianisme (Isis 3, 171-218). 

Mookerji, Radhakumud (1884- ): 

1912: Indian shipping. History of the seaborne trade and maritime activity 
of the Indians from the earliest times (310 p., 20 pi., London). 

1947: Ancient Indian education (691 p., 26 pi., London). 

Paramananda Mariadassou: 

1906: Moeurs medicales de I'lnde et leurs rapports avec la medecine europeenne 
(178 p., Pondichery). 

1913: Le jardin des simples de I'lnde (286 p., Pondichery). 
1934-35: Medecine traditionnelle de ITnde (3 vols., Pondichery). 

Phillimore, Reginald Henry (1879- ): 

1945- : Historical records of the Survey of India. Vol. 1, 18th century (436 
p., 21 pi., Dehra Dun; Isis 37, 207). 

Radhakumuda Mukhopadhyaya, see Mookerji, Radhakumud. 

Ramakrishna, Sri ( 1836-86; Isis 36, 214-15): 
See Cultural heritage. 

Ray, Dhirendra Nathr 

1937: The principle of trido§a in Ayurveda (376 p., Calcutta; Isis 34, 174-177). 

Ray, Praphulla Chandra (1861-1944) (Isis 27, 515-16): 

1902-9: History of Hindu chemistry from the earliest times to the middle of 
the sixteenth century (2 vols., Calcutta; Isis 3, 68-73). — Second ed. of vol. 1, 1903. 



India and Far East 145 

Sarkar, Benoy Kumar ( 1887- ) : 

1914: The positive background of Hindu sociology. Book 1. Non political 
(390 p., Allahabad; Isis 3, 63-64). With appendices by B. Seal. 

1918: Hindu achievements in exact sciences (98 p., London; Isis 3, 139). 

Seal, Sir Brajendranath (1864-1938): 

1915: The positive sciences of the ancient Hindus (304 p., London; Isis 3, 
139, 474). 

Sewell, Robert (1845-1925): 

1896: (vdth Sankara Balkrishna Dikshit) The Indian calendar, wdth tables 
for the conversion of Hindu and Muhammadan into A.D. dates and vice versa. With 
tables of eclipses visible in India by Robert Schram (318 p., London). 

1898: Eclipses of the moon in India (quarto, 74 p., London). 

1912: Indian chronography. An extension of the "Indian calendar" with 
working examples (quarto, 200 p., London). 

Thomas, Edward (1813-86): 

1874: Ancient Indian weights (82 p., London). 

Winternitz, Moriz (1863-1937): 

1907-22: Geschichte der indischen Litteratur (3 vols., Leipzig). 

1907: Vol. 1, Einleitung. Der Veda. Die volkstiimlichen Epen und die 
Puranas. Zweite Ausgabe (520 p.). 

1920: Vol. 2, Die buddhistische Litteratur und die heiligen Texte der Jainas. 
(416 p.). 

1922: Vol. 3, Die Kunstdichtung. Die wissenschaftliche Litteratur. Neu- 
indische Litteratur. Nachtrage zu alien drei Banden (710 p.). 

1927-33: A history of Indian literature. Enghsh translation by Mrs. Shridar 
Venkatesh Ketkar and her sister, Helen Kohn, revised by the author (Univer- 
sity of Calcutta). 

1927: Vol. 1, Introduction. Veda, national epics, puranas and tantras. (654 
p.). 

1933: Vol. 2, Buddhist and Jaina literature (693 p.). 

Zimmer, Henry R. (1890-1943): 

1948: Hindu medicine (275 p., Baltimore; Isis 41, 120-23). 

For Hindu logic as preserved in the Buddhist world, see in chapter 17, the sec- 
tion on Logic, Eastern Logic. For Pakistan and more generally for Muslim 
India, see also Islam. 

See also in the Critical Bibliographies of Isis the section 9. India. 

FAR EAST AND EASTERN INDIES (INDONESIA) 

Chikashige Masumi (1870- ): 

1936: Alchemy and other chemical achievements of the ancient orient (112 p., 
ill., Tokyo; Isis 27, 79). 

Cordier, Henri (1849-1925): 

1912-32: Bibhotheca indosinica (5 vols., Paris; Introd. 3, 1879). 

Duong-Ba Banh: 

1947: Histoire de la medecine du Viet-Nam (88 p., Hanoi; Isis 41, 380; 42, 64). 

Gimlette, John D. (1867-1934): 

1939: Dictionary of Malayan medicine. Edited and completed by H. W. 
Thomson (275 p., London; Isis 33, 130). 

Honig, Pieter; Verdoom, Frans ( editors ) : 

1945: Science and scientists in the Netherlands Indies (514 p., 134 fig., New 
York; Isis 36, 260-61). 



146 Special Cultural Groups 

Huard, Pierre: 

1949: La science et I'Extreme Orient (68 p., Hanoi; Isis 41, 380). 

Mikami Yoshio: 

1913: The development of mathematics in China and Japan (355 p., Leipzig). 

Rutten, Louis Martin Robert (1884-1946): 

1929: Science in the Netherlands East Indies (440 p., Amsterdam; Isis 25, 564). 

Book prepared under the auspices of the Koninklijke Akademie van Weten- 
schappen (Royal Dutch Academy, Amsterdam) on the occasion of the Fourth 
Pacific Science Congress, Java. 

Sallet, Albert: 

1931: L'officine sino-annamite en Annam. 1. Le medecin annamite et la 
preparation des remedes (170 p., 16 pi, Paris; Isis 22, 267-72). 

Week, Wolfgang ( 1881- ) : 

1937: Heilkunde und Volkstum auf Bali (260 p., 27 fig., Stuttgart; Isis 28, 
235). 

See in the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 8. Asia, Eastern Asia. 

CHINA 

Carter, Thomas Francis (1882-1925): 

1925: The invention of printing in China and its spread westward (300 p., 
ill., New York; Isis 8, 361-73).— New ed. 1931 (308 p., 40 ill.. New York; Isis 19, 
426). 

Cordier, Henri (1849-1925): 

1904-24: Bibhotheca sinica (2nd ed., 5 vols., Paris; Introd. 3, 1879). 

Coaling, Samuel (1859-1922): 

1917: Encyclopaedia Sinica (642 p., London). 

Forke, Alfred (1867-1944): 

1925: The world conception of the Chinese. Their astronomical, cosmologi- 
cal and physico-philosophical speculations (314 p., London; Isis 8, 373-75). 

Fung (Feng) Yu-lan (1895- ): 

1937: History of Chinese philosophy. Vol. 1 translated by Derx Bodde 
(Peiping). The second volume is available only in the Chinese original (2 vols., 
Peiping 1934). 

1947: The spirit of Chinese philosophy. Translated by E. R. Hughes (238 
p., London; Isis 40, 159). 

1948: Short history of Chinese philosophy. Edited by Derk Bodde (388 p., 
New York; Isis 40, 158). 

Hartner, Willy: 

1941-42: Heilkunde im alten China (Extract from Sinica, vols. 16 and 17; 120 
p., ill.; Isis 41, 230). 

Hommel, Rudolf P.: 

1937: China at work. An illustrated record of the primitive industries of 
China's masses whose life is toil, and thus an account of Chinese civilization 
(Quarto, 378 p., 536 ill., Bucks County Historical Society, Doylestown, Penn- 
sylvania; Isis 31, 219). 

Hubotter, Franz (1881- ): 

1913: Beitrage zur Kenntnis der chinesischen sowie der tibetisch-mongolischen 
Pharmakologie (Quarto, mimeographed copy of author's handwriting, 324 p., 
Berlin). 

1929: Die chinesische Medizin zu Beginn des XX. Jahrhunderts und ihr 



Far East and China 147 

historischer Entwicklungsgang (Quarto mimeographed copy of typewriting, 356 p., 
ill., Leipzig; Isis 14, 255-63). 

Hughes, Ernest Richard (1883- ): 

1937: The invasion of China by the Western world (340 p., London). 

Johnson, Obed Simon (1881- ): 

1928: Study of Chinese alchemy (170 p., Shanghai; Isis 12, 330-32). 

Li Ch'iao-p'ing: 

1948: Chemical arts of old China (226 p., ill., Easton, Pennsylvania; Isis 40, 
281). 

Mely, Femand de (1851- ): 

1896: Les lapidaires chinois. Introduction, texte et traduction avec la col- 
laboration de M. H. CouREL (Les lapidaires de I'antiquite et du moyen age, 
tome 1; 366 p., 144 p. in Chinese, Paris). 

Needham, Joseph (1900- ): 

1945: Chinese science (80 p., 95 ill., London; Isis 37, 238). 

Needham, Joseph and Dorothy (editors): 

1948: Science outpost. Papers of the Sino-British co-operation office (British 
Council Scientific Ofiice in China) 1942-46 (313 p., 60 ill., 3 maps, London; Isis 
40, 159). 

The two Needham books deal with science in China now; yet they may be 
useful to the historians of old Chinese science. 

Needham is preparing an elaborate work to be entitled Science and civihsation 
in China; the table of contents has appeared in the Archives intern, hist. sci. (30, 
280-94, 1951). 

Peake, Cyrus Henderson ( 1900- ) : 

1932: Nationalism and education in modem China, 1860-1929 (254 p.. New 
York; Isis 36, 217). 

1934: Some aspects of the introduction of modern science into China (Isis 22, 
173-219). 

Purcell, Victor ( 1896- ) : 

1936: Problems of Chinese education (270 p., London). 

Read, Bernard Emms (1887-1949): 

1931-39: Chinese materia medica. Animal drugs (9 parts published by the 
Peking Natural History Bulletin, Peking; Isis 20, 584). 

1936: Chinese medicinal plants from the Pen ts'ao kang mu, 1596. Third ed. 
of a botanical, chemical and pharmacological reference list (406 p., Peking 
Natural History Bulletin, Peiping). — Second ed. 1927. 

1936: Compendium of minerals and stones from the Pen ts'ao kang mu {2nd 
ed., 106 p., Peking Natural History Bulletin, Peiping. — First ed. 1928. 

1946: Famine foods fisted in the Chiu huang pen ts'ao (90 p., Shanghai; Isis 
39,248). 

Saussure, Leopold de (1866-1925; Isis 27, 286-305, port.): 

1930: Les origines de Tastronomie chinoise (608 p., Paris; Isis 17, 267-71). 

Schlegel, Gustave (1840-1903): 

1875: Uranographie chinoise (944 p., plus atlas of 7 pi., La Haye). 

Sowerby, Arthur de Carle (1885- ): 

1940: Nature in Chinese art (204 p., ill.; New York, Isis 34, 68). 

Stuart, G. A.: 

1911: Chinese materia medica. Vegetable kingdom. Extensively revised from 
the work of F. Porter Smith (568 p., Shanghai). 



148 Special Cultural Groups 

Wong, K. Chimin; Wu Lien-teh ( 1879- ) : 

1932: History of Chinese medicine (724 p., 93 ill., map. Tientsin; Isis 20, 
480-82).— Second ed. 1936 (934 p., iU., Shanghai; Isis 27, 341-42). 

Yule, Sir Henry (1820-89): 

1913-16: Cathay and the way thither, being a collection of medieval notices of 
China. Second ed. revised by Henri Cordier (4 vols., Hakluyt Society, Lon- 
don; Introd. 3, 1910)— First ed. 1866 (2 vols., London). 

See in the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 10. China. 

JAPAN 

Cordier, Henri (1849-1925): 

1912: Bibliotheca japonica (762 col., Paris). 

Fujikawa Yu (d. 1940): 

1934: Japanese medicine. Translated from the German (Tokyo 1911) by 
John Ruhrah, with a note on the recent history of medicine in Japan by Amano, 
Kageyas Wat (1899- ) (128 p., 8 ill., New York). 

For Fujikawa, see Isis 24, 510; 29, 247. 

Keenleyside, Hugh Llewellyn (1898- ); Thomas, Andrew Frank (1896- ): 

1937: History of Japanese education and present educational system (378 p., 
Tokyo ) . 

Shinjo, Shinzo (editor): 

1926: Scientific Japan past and present. Prepared in connection with the 
Third Pan-Pacific Science Congress (368 p., 47 pi., 2 maps, Tokyo 1926; Isis 10, 
83-88). 

Smith, David Eugene (1860-1944); Mikami Yoshio: 

1914: History of Japanese mathematics (294 p., Chicago; Isis 2, 410-13). 

See in the Critical Bibliographies of Isis the section 11. Japan. 




19. HISTORY OF SPECIAL SCIENCES 

We now offer our readers a selection of books dealing with special sciences, 
and sometimes with special branches of those sciences. For example, some books 
cover the whole history of mathematics, others deal only with the history of 
geometry, others are restricted to the history of projective geometry, others still 
discuss but one aspect of that geometry, the introduction of imaginary elements. 
It is impossible to extend this bibliography to every ramification of each subject, 
nor is that necessary. The relatively few items mentioned will suffice to enable 
ingenious students to continue their bibliographical investigations as far as they 
may wish; the references to Isis will enable them to find a great many additional 
items classified together with the items specifically referred to. 

This chapter is subdivided very much like Part III in the Critical Bibliography 
of Isis, except that a number of sections dealing with marginal subjects have been 
omitted, as well as the whole of the first group "Science in general" to which 
other chapters are devoted (for Bibhography of science, see chapters 9 to 12, for 
History of science, chapters 14 and 15, for Organization of science, chapter 8, for 
Philosophy of science, chapter 7). For the history of special instruments (tele- 
scope, microscope, etc. ) see chapter 16. Photography and Chronometry, however, 
are dealt with below after Technology. 

LOGIC 

Historians of logic are seldom able to isolate their subject sufficiently from 
the history of epistemology or of other branches of philosophy. Any scholar in- 
terested in the history of logic would be obliged to use many books dealing with 
the history of philosophy (books which cannot be enumerated here). Historians 
of science who pay special attention to the logical problems will find pertinent 
data in the books deahng with the philosophy of science {see section 7). 

WESTERN LOGIC 

Adamson, Robert (1852-1902): 

1911: A short history of logic (276 p., Edinburgh). 

Boll, Marcel ( 1886- ) : 

1948: Manuel de logique scientifique (554 p., 192 fig., tables, Paris). 

Amplification of the author's Elements de logique scientifique (250 p., Paris 
1942). 

Church, Alonzo (1903- ): 

1936: Bibliography of symbolic logic (from 1666 to 1935). 

Reprinted from the Journal of Symbohc Logic ( 1, 121-218, Menasha, Wis- 
consin). 

Enriques, Federigo (1871-1946): 

1922: Per la storia della logica: I principii e I'ordine della scienza nel concetto 
dei pensatori matematici (302 p., Bologna; Isis 5, 469). — French translation (Paris 
1926). — German translation (Leipzig 1927). — EngUsh translation (282 p., New 
York 1929). 

Prantl, Carl von (1820-88): 

1855-70: Geschichte der Logik im Abendlande (4 vols., Leipzig). 

Scholz, Heinrich: 

1931: Geschichte der Logik (86 p., Berlin). 



150 History of Special Sciences 

Uberweg, Friedrich ( 1826-71 ) : 

1871: System of logic and history of logical doctrines. Translated from the 
German with notes and appendices by Thomas M. Lindsay (610 p., London). — 
German ed., Bonn 1857; 5th ed. 1882. 

EASTsERN LOGIC 

Keith, Arthur Berriedale (1879-1944): 

1921: Indian logic and atomism. An exposition of the Nyaya and Vai^esika 
systems (291 p., Clarendon Press; Oxford; Isis 4, 535-36). 

Shcherbatskii, Feodor Ippolitovich (in French, Th. Stcherbatsky ) : 

1926: La theorie de la connaissance et la logique chez les Bouddhistes tardifs, 
traduit par Madame I. de Manziarly et Paul Masson-Oursel (Annales du 
Musee Guimet, vol. 36, 267 p., Paris). 

The Russian original text appeared in 1909 as an introduction to the Russian 
translation of the Nyayabindu (Introd. 1, 473) and is especially important for the 
interpretation of Dignaga (IV-2) and Dharmakirti (VII-1). The French trans- 
lation was ready in 1914, but publication was delayed on account of the war; a 
German translation appeared in Munich 1924. The work deals with metaphysics 
rather than with logic. 

1930-32: Buddhist logic (2 vols, of the Bibliotheca Buddhica, 26, Leningrad; 
also 2 vols. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1934; Isis 24, 508). 

This is a more elaborate work than the one which was translated into German 
and French. It includes an Enghsh translation of the Nyayabindu of Dharmakirti 
(VII-1) and of its commentary (tika) by Dharmottara, 

Sugiura Sadajiro: 

1900: Hindu logic as preserved in China and Japan (114 p., University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia). 

Vidyabhusana, Satis Chandra: 

1921: A history of Indian logic (692 p., Calcutta University; Isis 10, 214). 

See the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 19. Logic. 

MATHEMATICS — BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Loria, Gino: 

1946: Guida alio studio della storia delle matematiche {2nd ed. revised and 
augmented, 405 p., Milano; Isis 37, 254). — First edition 1916 (244 p., Milano; 
Isis 3, 142). 

Muller, Felix (1843-1928): 

1909: Fiihrer durch die mathematische Literatur, mit besonderer Beriicksichti- 
gung der historisch wichtigen Schriften (262 p., Leipzig). 

Sarton, George: 

1936: The study of the history of mathematics (114 p.. Harvard University 
Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts). 

HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS 

General Mathematics and special subjects 
not covered in the following sections. 

Archibald, Raymond Clare (1875- ): 

1932-49: Outline of the history of mathematics. First ed. 1932 (53 p.; Isis 
19, 434).— Second ed. 1934 (58 p., Oberhn, Ohio; Isis 23, 582).— Third ed. 1936 
(62 p., Oberlin, Ohio; Isis 27, 172).— Fourth ed. 1939 (66 p., Oberlin, Ohio; 
Isis 31, 237).— Fifth ed. 1941 (76 p., Oberlin, Ohio; Isis 34, 73).— Sixth ed. 1949 
(114 p., American Mathematical Monthly 56; Isis 40, 289). 



Logic, Mathematics 151 

Ball, Walter William Rouse (1850-1925; Isis 8, 321-24): 

1888: Short account of the history of mathematics (London). — Fifth ed. 1912 
(546 p.; Isis 1, 561).— Sixth ed. 1915.— Stereotyped ed. 1919. 

Bell, Eric Temple: 

1937: Men of mathematics (613 p., 29 ill., New York; Isis 28, 510-13). 
1940: The development of mathematics (598 p., New York; Isis 33, 291-93). — 
Second ed. enlarged (651 p., 1945). 

Bouligand, Georges (1889- ): 

1935: L'evolution des sciences physiques et mathematiques (Paris). 

1949: Le declin des absolus mathematico-logiques (Paris; Isis 42, 71 ), with Jean 
Desgranges. 

Boutroux, Pierre (1880-1922): 

1914-19: Les principes de I'analyse mathematique. Expose historique et 
critique (2 vols., Paris; Isis 1, 577-89, 734-42; 4, 96-107). 

1920: L'ideal scientifique des mathematiciens (274 p., Paris; Isis 4, 93-96). — 
German translation (Leipzig 1927; Isis 11, 236). 

Braunmuhl, Anton von (1853-1908): 

1900-03: Vorlesungen iiber Geschichte der Trigonometric (2 vols., Leipzig). 

Cajori, Florian (1859-1930; Isis 17, 384-407): 

1894: History of mathematics (436 p.. New York). Reprinted 1895, 1897, 
1901, 1909.— Second ed. revised (516 p., New York 1919). 

Almost half of the book (p. 278-516) deals with the nineteenth century. 

1928-29: History of mathematical notations (2 vols., Chicago; Isis 12, 232-36; 
13, 129-30). 

Cantor, Moritz (1829-1920): 

1880-1908: Vorlesungen iiber Geschichte der Mathematik (4 vols. Leipzig, 
Teubner).— Vol. 1, from the beginning to 1200. First ed. 1880; 2nd, 1894; 3rd, 
1907.— Vol. 2, from 1200 to 1668. First ed. 1892, 2nd, 1899-1900; (reprinted 
1913).— Vol. 3, from 1668 to 1758. First ed. 1898, 2nd, with only a few correc- 
tions, 1901.— Vol. 4, from 1759 to 1799. Published in 1908 by a group of spe- 
cialists under Cantor's direction, his own contribution being restricted to a brief 
conclusion. 

These volumes at the time of their publication were almost as good as any 
history can ever hope to be. To be sure, there were many mistakes concerning 
details, some of which were gradually corrected by Gustaf Enestrom ( 1852- 
1923; Isis 8, 313-20 portrait) and his collaborators in Bibhotheca Mathematica, 
but the general lines were remarkably sound. Since that time much progress has 
been made, especially with regard to the ancient and mediaeval period and 
oriental mathematics in general, and Cantor has now become very insufficient in 
those respects. If these defects were Jess fundamental, they might be corrected in 
a new edition; as it is, at least the history of ancient and mediaeval times must be 
entirely rewTritten. 

CooHdge, Julian Lowell: 

1949: The mathematics of great amateiurs (220 p.. Clarendon Press, Oxford; 
Isis 41, 234-36). 

Enriques, Federigo (1871-1946): 

1938: Le matematiche nella storia e nella cultura (340 p., 22 pi., Bologna; Isis 
31, 108-9). 

Gunther, Siegmund (1848-1923): 

1908: Geschichte der Mathematik bis Cartesius (428 p., Leipzig). Continued 

by WiELEITNER, q.v. 



152 History of Special Sciences 

Heilbronner, Johann Christoph (1706-C.47): 

1742: Historia matheseos universae a mundo condito ad seculum P.C.N. XVI. 
Praecipuorum mathematicorum vitas, dogmata, scripta et manuscripta complexa. 
Accedit recensio elementorum, compendiorum et operum mathematicorum atque 
historia arithmetices ad nostra tempora (Quarto, 930 p. + elab. indices, Leipzig). 

Hooper, Alfred: 

1948: Makers of mathematics (402 p. London). 

Kastner, Abraham Gotthelf (1719-1800): 

1796-1800: Geschichte der Mathematik seit der Wiederherstellung der Wissen- 
schaften bis an das Ende des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts (4 vols., Gottingen). 

The title of this vi'ork is misleading. Vols. 1 and 2 (1786-97) deal with 
mathematics and mathematical sciences to the end of the sixteenth century, vol. 
3 (1799) with mathematics to Cartesius, vol. 4 (1800) with mechanics, optics, 
astronomy from 1600 to 1650. 

Klein, Felix (1849-1925): 

1926-27: Vorlesungen iiber die Entwicklung der Mathematik im 19. Jahrhun- 
dert (2 vols., 608 p., Berlin, Springer; Isis 9, 447-49; 10, 505). 

Le Lionnais, F. (editor): 

1948: Les grands courants de la pensee mathematique (533 p., Cahiers du Sud, 
France; Isis 40, 78). 

Loria, Gino (1862- ; Osiris 7, 1939): 

1929-33: Storia delle matematiche (3 vols. Torino; Isis 13, 228; 19, 231; 22, 
598). Revised ed. in 1 vol. (1012 p., Milano 1950; Isis 42, 63). 

1937: Scritti, conferenze, discorsi suUa storia delle matematiche (614 p., 
Padova; Isis 27, 522-24). 

Marie, Maximilien (1819-91): 

1883-88: Histoire des sciences mathematiques et physiques (12 vols., Paris). 

Montucla, Jean Etienne (1725-99; Osiris 1, 519-67): 

1758-1802: Histoire des mathematiques (2 vols., Paris 1758). Vol. 1 deals 
with the history down to 1600, vol. 2 with the seventeenth century. — New edition 
completed by Jerome de Lalande (1732-1807), with two more volumes covering 
the eighteenth century (4 vols., Paris 1799-1802). 

This is the best of the early histories; it deals not only with mathematics but 
also less elaborately with mathematical sciences (mechanics, physics, astronomy). 
It is especially valuable for the study of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 

MuUer, Felix (1843-1928): 

1892: Zeittafeln zur Geschichte der Mathematik, Physik und Astronomie bis 
zimi Jahre 1500 (108 p., Leipzig). 

Prasad, Ganesh (1876- ): 

1933: Some great mathematicians of the nineteenth century. Their lives and 
their works ( Benares ) .—Vol. 1, 364 p., 1933 (Isis 22, 359).— Vol. 2, 342 p., 1934 
Isis 22, 575). — No others pubhshed. 

Sanford, Vera: 

1930: Short history of mathematics (414 p., Boston; Isis 15, 293). 

Schaaf, William L. (editor): 

1948: Mathematics: our great heritage. Essays on the nature and cultural 
significance of mathematics (300 p.. New York; Isis 40, 167) . 

Sergescu, Petre (1893- ): 

1933: Les sciences mathematiques (182 p., extrait du Tableau du XXe siecle, 
Paris; Isis 23, 539). 

XXth century mathematics in France. 



Mathematics, Arithmetic 153 

Smith, David Eugene (1860-1944; Osiris 1, 1936): 

1923-25: History of mathematics (2 vols., Boston; Isis 6, 440-44; 8, 221-25).— 
Revised edition 1928-30. 

1929: Som'ce book in mathematics (718 p., ill., New York; Isis 14, 268-70). 

Sterner, Matthaus: 

1891: Geschichte der Rechenkunst (545 p., Miinchen). 

Struik, Dirk Jan: 

1949: Concise history of mathematics (2 vols., 318 p., ill.. New York; Isis 40, 
287-89). 

Suter, Heinrich (1848-1922; Isis 5, 409-17): 

1873-75: Geschichte der mathematischen Wissenschaften (2 vols, in 1, 590 p., 
Ziirich ) . 

Taton, Ren^: 

1948: Histoire du calcul (127 p., Paris; Isis 40, 167). 
1949: Le calcul mechanique (126 p., Paris; Isis 41, 395). 

Tropfke, Johannes (1866-1939): 

Geschichte der Elementar-Mathematik in systematischer Darstellung mit be- 
sonderer Beriicksichtigung der Fachworter. — 1930: Vol. 1', Rechnen. — 1933: Vol. 
2^ Allgemeine Arithmetik. — 1937: Vol. 3', Proportionen, Gleichungen. — 1923: 
Vol. 4^ Ebene Geometric. — 1923: Vol. 5^ Ebene Trigonometric, Spharik und 
spharische Trigonometric. — 1924: Vol. 6^ Analysis. Analytische Geometric. — 1924: 
Vol. 7 ^ Stereometric. Verzeichnisse. 

First edition, 2 volumes, Leipzig 1902-3. Second edition, 7 volumes, Berlin 
1921-24 (Isis 5, 182-86, 553; 6, 229; 7, 314). Third edition of volumes 1 to 3, 
Berlin 1930-37 (Isis 21, 451; 29, 167-69). 

I cite the number of the volume with an exponent indicating the edition. 

Wieleitner, Heinrich (1874-1931; Isis 18, 150-65): 

1911-21: Geschichte der Mathematik von Cartesius bis zur Wende des 18. 
Jahrhunderts (2 parts, 486 p., Leipzig). 

Continuation of the history by Gunther. 

1927-29: Mathematische Quellenbiicher (4 small vols., Berlin; Isis 11, 240; 12, 
413). 

Zeuthen, Hieronymus Georg (1839-1920): 

1896: Geschichte der Mathematik im Altertum und Mittelalter (350 p., Copen- 
hagen). — French translation by Jean Mascart, revised by the author (Paris 1902). 

Not to be confused with an abridged ed. called Die Mathematik im Altertum 
und im Mittelalter (95 p. Berlin 1912; Isis 1, 719-21). 

1903: Geschichte der Mathematik im XVI. und XVII. Jahrhundert (442 p., 
Leipzig, Teubner). 

ARITHMETIC, ALGEBRA, THEORY OF NUMBERS 

Brown, Richard ( 1856- ): 

1905: History of accounting and accountants (475 p., ill., Edinburgh). 

Conant, Levi Leonard (1857-1916): 

1896: The number concept; its origin and development (226 p., New York). 

Dantzig, Tobias: 

1930: Number, the language of science (272 p., 11 pi., New York, 1930; Isis 
16, 455-59).— Second ed., revised (1933; Isis 20, 592).— Third ed. (1939; Isis 31, 
475-76).— French translation (1931; Isis 18, 495). 

Dickson, Leonard Eugene ( 1874- ) : 

1919-23: History of the theory of numbers (3 vols., Carnegie Institution of 
Washington; Isis 3, 446-48; 4, 107-8; 6, 96-98). 



154 History of Special Sciences 

Hartner, Willy: 

1943: Zahlen und Zahlensystem bei Primitiv- und Hochkulturvolkern (Paideuma, 
Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde, 2, 268-326, Leipzig; Isis 41, 87). 

Karpinski, Louis Charles: 

1925: The history of arithmetic (212 p., Chicago; Isis 8, 231-32). 
See Smith, D. E. 

Matthiessen, Ludwig (1830-1906): 

1878: Grundziige der antiken und modernen Algebra der htteralen Gleichungen 
(1018 p., Leipzig; 2nd ed., 1896). 

Muir, Sir Thomas (1844-1934): 

1906-30: The theory of determinants in historical order of development (4 vols., 
London 1906-23; supplement London 1930; Isis 4, 199; 16, 510). 

Ore, 0ystein ( 1899- ) : 

1948: Number theory and its history (380 p., 22 fig., New York; Isis 41, 88). 

Smith, David Eugene (1860-1944; Osiris 1, 1936): 

1908: Kara arithmetica (524 p., 246 fig., Boston). Addenda (62 p., 20 fig., 
Boston 1939; Isis 32, 468). 

1911 (wih L. C. Karpinski): The Hindu-Arabic numerals (164 p., Boston). 

Yeldham, Florence A. (1877-1945): 

1926: The story of reckoning in the Middle Ages (96 p., ill., London; Isis 10, 
259). 

1936: The teaching of arithmetic through four hundred years, 1535-1935 ( 143 
p., ill., London; Isis 27, 92-94). 

GEOMETRY 

Amodeo, Federico (1859- ): 

1939: Origine e sviluppo della geometria proiettiva (175 p., Napoli). — Spanish 
translation (217 p., Rosario, Argentina, 1939). 

1945: Sintesi storico-critica della geometria delle curve algebriche (420 p., 30 
port., NapoH). 

Bonola, Roberto (1874-1911): 

1912: Non-Euclidean geometry, a critical and historical study of its development 
(280 p., Chicago). — Originally published in Italian (220 p., Bologna 1906).— Ger- 
man translation (Leipzig 1908, 2nd ed. 1919, 1921). — Second ed. of English transla- 
tion (La Salle, Illinois, 1938). 

Chasles, Michel ( 1793-1880; Osiris 1, 421-50) : 

1837: Apergu historique sur I'origine et le developpement des methodes en geo- 
metric (Bruxelles). — Second ed. (Paris 1875). 

1870: Rapport sur les progres de la geometrie (388 p., Paris). 

Coolidge, Julian Lowell: 

1940: History of geometrical methods (468 p.. Clarendon Press, Oxford; Isis 33, 
347-50). 

1945: History of the conic sections and quadric surfaces (225 p.. Clarendon 
Press, Oxford; Isis 37, 253). 

Engel, Friedrich (1861- ); Stackel, Paul (1862-1919): 

1895: Die Theorie der Parallellinien von Euklid bis auf Gauss (336 p., Leipzig). 

1898-1913: Urkunden zur Geschichte der nichteuklidischen Geometrie (2 vols., 
Leipzig). 

Kotter, Ernst: 

1898-1901: Die Entwicklung der synthetischen Geometrie. Vol. 1. Von Monge 



Geometry, Analysis, Statistics 155 

bis auf Staudt, 1847 ( Jahresbericht der Deutschen Mathematiker Vereinigung, vol. 
5, pt. 2, 514 p., Leipzig). 

Loria, Gino ( 1862- ; Osiris 7, 1939 ) : 

1921: Storia della geometrica descrittiva dalle origini sino ai giorni nostri (Mi- 
lano; Isis 5, 181-82). 

1931: II passato e il presente delle principali teorie geometriche. Storie e bib- 
liografia. — ith ed. totalmente rifatta (490 p., Padua; Isis 19, 229-31). — First ed., 
1887; 2nd ed. 1897; Srd ed., 1907. Partial English translation of Srd ed. by G. B. 
Halsted (1902-3). 

Sommerville, Duncan M'Laren Young ( 1879- ) : 

1911: Bibliography of non-Euclidean geometry, including the theory of parallels, 
the foundation of geometry and space of n dimensions (415 p., London). 

MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS 

Beyer, Carl Benjamin ( 1906- ) 

1939: The concepts of the calculus (352 p.. New York, Columbia; Isis 32, 
205-10).— Beprinted, New York 1949 (Isis 41, 87). 

Casorati, Felice (1835-90): 

1868: Teorica delle funzioni di variabili complesse (Vol. 1, Pavia). 
History of the subject down to 1865, 143 p. 

Geymonat, Ludovico: 

1947: Storia e filosofia dell'anahsi infinitesimale (352 p., Torino). 

Loria, Gino (1862- ; Osiris 7, 1939): 

1930: Curve piane speciali algebriche e trascendenti (2 vols., Milano; Isis 14, 
542; 15, 467), — First pubUshed in German (2 vols.; Leipzig 1910-11). 

Picard, Emile (1856-1941): 

1905: Sur le developpement de I'analyse et ses rapports avec diverses sciences. 
Conferences faites en Amerique (174 p., Paris). Partial English translation by 
George Bruce Halsted (Congress of Arts and Sciences, St. Louis 1904, vol. 1, 
497-517, Boston 1905). 

Todhunter, Isaac (1820-84): 

1861: History of the calculus of variations during the nineteenth century (544 
p., Cambridge University). 

Weissenbom, Hermann (1830-96): 

1856: Die Principien der hoheren Analysis in ihrer Entwickelung von Leibniz 
bis auf Lagrange (176 p., 3 folding pis., Halle a.S.). 

See the Critical BibUographies of Isis, Section 20. Mathematics. 

STATISTICS 

Information on the history of statistical methods is found in books of very different 
character, the two extreme kinds being the history of the calculus of probabihties 
at the one end and the history of statistical investigations in various countries at the 
other. 

Funkhouser, Howard Gray: 

1937: Historical development of the graphical representation of statistical data 
(Osiris 3, 269-404, Bruges). 

Keren, John: 

1918: The history of statistics. Their development and progress in many coun- 
tries (785 p.. New York; Isis 4, 387-89). 

Meitzen, August (1822-1910): 

1891: History, theory and technique of statistics (2 vols., 243 p., Philadelphia).— 



156 History of Special Sciences 

Translated from the first German edition 1886; second German edition, Stuttgart 
1903. 

Todhunter, Isaac (1820-84): 

1865: History of the mathematical theory of probability from the time of Pascal 
to that of Laplace (640 p., Cambridge). — Reprinted New Yoork 1931. 

Walker, Helen Mary: 

1929: Studies in the history of statistical method (237 p., Baltimore; Isis 13, 
382-83). 

Wester gaard, Harald: 

1932: Contributions to the history of statistics (288 p., London), 

See the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 21. Statistics. 

ASTRONOMY 

Abetti, Giorgio ( 1882- ) : 

1946: Storia dell'astronomia (370 p., 32 pi., Florence; Isis 42, 72). 

Armitage, Angus ( 1902- ) : 

1950: A century of astronomy (272 p., London). 

Bailly, Jean Sylvain (1736-1793; Isis 11, 393-95): 

1775: Histoire de I'astronomie ancienne depuis son origine jusqu'a I'etabHssement 
de I'ecole d'Alexandrie (549 p., Paris). — Second ed., 1781. 

1785: Histoire de I'astronomie moderne depuis la fondation de I'ecole d'Alexan- 
drie jusqu'a 1732. New edition (3 vols., Paris). First ed. of vol. 1, 1782. — German 
translation (2 vols., Leipzig 1796-97). 

1787: Traite de I'astronomie indienne et orientale (607 p., Paris). 

Berry, Arthur (1862-1929; Isis 28, 418-20): 

1898: A short history of astronomy (470 p., ill, London). — Often reprinted, 
my copy is dated 1910. 

Bigourdan, Guillaume (1851-1932): 

1911: L'astronomie, evolution des idees et des methodes (406 p., 50 figs., Paris). 

Gierke, Agnes Mary (1842-1907): 

1885: Popular history of astronomy during the nineteenth century (Edinburg). — 
Second ed. 1887 (518 p.); Srd ed. 1893; 4th ed. 1902, reprinted in 1908 (505 p.). 

Davidson, Martin: 

1948: The stars and the mind (220 p., London; Isis 40, 386). 

Delambre, Jean Baptiste Joseph (1749-1822): 

1817: Histoire de I'astronomie ancienne (2 vols., Paris). 

1819: Histoire de I'astronomie au Moyen age (774 p., Paris). 

1821: Histoire de I'astronomie moderne (2 vols., Paris). 

1827: Histoire de I'astronomie au dix-huitieme siecle (800 p., Paris). 

Doig, Peter ( 1882- ) : 

1950: Concise history of astronomy (326 p., London; Isis 42, 73). 

Doublet, Edouard Lucien ( 1855- ) : 

1922: Histoire de I'astronomie (580 p., Paris; Isis 5, 172). 

Dreyer, John Louis Emil (1852-1926): 

1906: History of the planetary systems from Thales to Kepler (442 p., Cam- 
bridge University). 

Duhem, Pierre (1861-1916): 

1913-17: Le systeme du monde. Histoire des doctrines cosmologiques de Pla- 
TON a CoPERNic (5 vols., Paris; Isis 2, 203-04; 3, 125; 26, 302-03). 



Astronomy and Physics 157 

Eisler, Robert (1882-1949): 

1946: The royal art of astrology (296 p., 16 pi, 48 ill., London; Isis 40, 79-81), 

Grant, Robert (1814-92): 

1852: History of physical astronomy (657 p., London). 

Houzeau, Jean Charles (1820-88); Lancaster, Albert (1849-1908): 

1882-89: Bibhographie generale de I'astronomie (2 vols, in 3, Bruxelles). 

Humbert, Pierre ( 1891- ) : 

1948: Histoire des decouvertes astronomiques (273 p., Paris). 

Makemson, Maud Worcester ( 1891- ) : 

1941: The morning star rises. An account of Polynesian astronomy (313 p., 5 
fig.. New Haven, Yale; Isis 34, 71 ). 

Mitchell, Samuel Alfred ( 1874- ) : 

1935: Eclipses of the sun i4th ed., 530 p., ill.. New York; Isis 25, 496-504).— 
First ed. 1923, Srd ed. 1932. 

Sageret, Jules ( 1861- ) : 

1913: Le systeme du monde des Chaldeens a Neviton (280 p., ill., Paris). 
1931: Le systeme du monde de Pythagore a Eddington (346 p., Paris). 

Shapley, Harlow; Howarth, Helen E.: 

1929: Source book in astronomy (428 p., ill. New York, Isis 13, 130-34). 

Waterfield, Reginald L.: 

1938: A hundred years of astronomy (526 p., London; Isis 31, 109-12). 

Whitrow, G. J.: 

1949: Structure of the universe. Introduction to cosmology (172 p., London). 

Wolf, Rudolf (1816-1893): 

1877: Geschichte der Astronomie (832 p., 36 ill., Munich). 

Zinner, Ernst ( 1886- ) : 

1925: Verzeichnis der astronomischen Handschriften des deutschen Kulturge- 
bietes (foUo, 544 p., lithographed, Munchen; Isis 8, 801; 15, 193-95). 

1931: Die Geschichte der Sternkunde (684 p., Berlin; Isis 16, 161-67). 

1941: Geschichte und Bibhographie der astronomischen Literatur in Deutschland 
zur Zeit der Renaissance (456 p., Leipzig; Isis 36, 261-66). 

1943: Entstehung und Ausbreitung der Coppernicanischen Lehre ( Sitzungsber. 
der Physik.-mediz. Societat zu Erlangen, 606 p., Erlangen; Isis 35, 61; 36, 261-66). 

See the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 23. Astronomy. 

PRYSICS 

Books on the history of physics in general, and on special topics except those 
included in the following subsections entitled Mechanics, Heat and Thermodynamics, 
Optics, Electricity and Magnetism. Various books dealing with the history or 
philosophy of physical theories concern not only physics, but the physical sciences, 
and are Hsted in the sections on the Philosophy of Science, or on the History of 
Science. 

Auerbach, Felix ( 1856-1933 ) : 

1910: Geschichtstafeln der Physik (150 p., Leipzig). 

1923: Entwicklungsgeschichte der modernen Physik (352 p., Berlin; Isis 6, 
444-47). 

Buckley, H.: 

1927: Short history of physics (275 p., London). 



158 History of Special Sciences 

Cajori, Florian (1859-1930; Isis 17, 384-407): 

1899: History of physics in its elementary branches including the evolution of 
physical laboratories (330 p., 18 ill. New York). Reprinted 1924. Revised edition 
(438 p., ill. 1929). 

Charbonnier, Prosper: 

1928: Essais sur I'histoire de la balistique (334 p., Paris; Isis 15, 376-80). 

Chase, Carl Trueblood: 

1932: History of experimental physics (195 p., ill., New York; Isis 31, 240). 
1947: The evolution of modern physics (300 p., New York; Isis 40, 169). 

Crew, Henry (1859- ) : 

1928: The rise of modern physics (471 p., Baltimore; Isis 11, 530). — Second edi- 
tion (454 p., 1935; Isis 24, 449-50). 

De Waard, Cornelis ( 1879- ) : 

1936: L'experience barometrique. Ses antecedents et ses applications ( 198 p., 
1 pi., Thouars; Isis 26, 212-15). 

Duckworth, W. Wilson: 

1950: A hundred years of physics (320 p., London). 

Duhem, Pierre (1861-1916): 

1906-13: Etudes sur Leonard de Vinci. Ceux qu'il a lus et ceux qui I'ont lu (3 
vols. Paris). 

1908: Essai sur la notion de theorie physique de Platon a Galilee (144 p., 
Paris ) . 

Einstein, Albert ( 1879- ); Inf eld, Leopold (1898- ): 

1938: The evolution of physics. The growth of ideas from early concepts to 
relativity and quanta (330 p.. New York; Isis 30, 124-25). 

Fischer, Johann Karl (1761-1833): 

1801-8: Geschichte der Physik seit Wiederherstellung der Kiinste und Wissen- 
schaften bis auf die neuesten Zeiten (8 vols., 33 fol. pi., Gottingen). 

Eraser, Charles C: 

1948: Half hoiurs with great scientists. The story of physics (547 p.. University 
of Toronto; Isis 41, 89). 

Gerland, Ernst (1838-1910): 

1913: Geschichte der Physik von den altesten Zeiten bis zum Ausgange des 
achtzehnten Jahrhunderts (772 p., Munich; Isis 1, 527-29). 

Gerland, Ernst; TraumuUer, Friedrich (1845-1906): 

1899: Geschichte der physikaUschen Experimentierkunst (458 p., 425 ill., Leip- 
zig)- 

Heller, August (1843-1902): 

1882-84: Geschichte der Physik bis R. Mayer (2 vols., 1192 p., Stuttgart). 

Hoppe, Edmund (1854-1928; Isis 13, 45-50): 

1926: Geschichte der Physik (544 p., Braunschweig; Isis 9, 571). — French trans- 
lation (671 p., Paris 1928). 

1926: Geschichte der Physik (Handbuch der Physik, edited by H. Geiger and 
Karl Scheel, vol. 1, p. 1-179, Berlin; Isis 12, 416). 

Historical summary in chronological order, while the preceding volume written 
by the same author, same title, same year, is arranged in systematic order: mechanics, 
heat, light, etc. 

Jeans, Sir James (1877-1946): 

1948: The growth of physical science (374 p., 9 pi., 39 fig., Cambridge Univer- 
sity; Isis 40, 81). 



Physics and Mechanics 159 

La Cour, Poul (1846-1908); Appel, Jakob: 

1905: Die Physik auf Grund ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung (2 vols., ill., 
Braunschweig ) . 

The original Danish edition was published in Copenhagen (1896-97). This 
book is hsted, because it was a remarkable attempt to teach physics by means of the 
history of physics. 

Laue, Max von ( 1879- ) : 

1946: Geschichte der Physik (176 p. Bonn; Isis 38, 258-60).— Second ed. 1947 
(Isis 40, 169). 

Magie, William Francis: 

1935: A source book in physics (634 p., iU., New York; Isis 26, 176). 

Massain, Robert 

1948: Physique et physiciens (400 p., 52 ill., Paris; Isis 41, 89). 
Anthology. First edition 1939. 

Miller, Dayton Clarence ( 1866-1941 ) : 

1935: Anecdotal history of the science of sound (126 p., 15 pi.. New York; Isis 
26, 569). 

Poggendorff, Johann Christian (1796-1877): 

1879: Geschichte der Physik (937 p., Leipzig). 
Stops at the beginning of the nineteenth century. 

Rosenberger, Ferdinand (1845-99): 

1882-90: Geschichte der Physik in Grundziigen mit synchronistischen Tabellen 
(3 vols. 1439 p., Braunschweig). Up to ca. 1880. 

Schurmann, Paul F.: 

1946: Historia de la fisica (2 vols., 1078 p., Buenos Aires). — First ed. Montevideo 
1936 (Isis 29, 172-76). 

Todhunter, Isaac ( 1820-84 ) : 

1886-93: History of the theory of elasticity and of the strength of materials from 
Galilei to the present time. Edited and completed by Karl Pearson (2 vols., 
Cambridge University). 

MECHANICS, INCLUDING CELESTIAL MECHANICS 

Borel, Emile ( 1871- ) : 

1943: L'evolution de la mecanique (227 p., 26 ill., Paris). 

Brunet, Pierre (1893-1950: 

1938: Etude historique sur le principe de la moindre action (113 p., Paris; Isis 
33,329-34). 

Chapuis, Alfred (1880- ); Gelis, Edouard: 

1928: Le monde des automates. Etude historique et technique (2 vols., 700 p., 
Neuchatel ) . 

Dircks, Henry (1806-73): 

1861 : Perpetuum mobile, or Search for self -motive power during the seventeenth, 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (600 p., London). 

1870: Perpetuum mobile, or a History of the search for self -motive power from 
the thirteenth to the nineteenth centuries. Second series (400 p., London). 

Diihring, Eugen Karl (1833-1921): 

1873: Kritische Geschichte der allgemeinen Principien der Mechanik (544 p., 
Berhn).— Second ed., 582 p., 1877.— Third ed., 638 p., 1887. 

Dugas, Rene: 

1950: Histoire de la mecanique (650 p., 116 fig., Neuchatel; Isis 42). 



160 History of Special Sciences 

Duhem, Pierre (1861-1916): 

1905: L'evolution de la mecanique (348 p., Paris). 
1905-6: Origines de la statique (2 vols., Paris). 

Einstein, Albrecht: 

1922: The meaning of relativity. Four lectures delivered at Princeton Univer- 
sity, May 1921 (128 p., Princeton ) .—New ed. 141 p., Princeton 1945 (Isis 36, 203; 
37, 254). 

Frank, Philipp ( 1884- ) : 

1950: Relativity, a richer truth (158 p., Boston). 

Gent, Werner ( 1878- ) : 

1926: Die Philosophic des Raumes und der Zeit. Die Geschichte der BegrifiFe 
des Raumes und der Zeit von Aristoteles bis zum vorkritischen Kant, 1768 (285 
p., Bonn; Isis 10, 261). 

1934: Das Problem der Zeit (200 p., Frankfurt a.M.). 

Girvin, Harvey F.: 

1948: Historical appraisal of mechanics (284 p., Scranton, Pennsylvania; Isis 40, 
168). 

Gunn, John Alexander (1896- ): 

1929: The problem of time, an historical and critical study (460 p., London). 

Haas, Arthur Erich ( 1884- ) : 

1914: Die Grundgleichungen der Mechanik, dargestellt auf Grund der geschichtli- 
chen Entwicklung (220 p., 45 fig., Leipzig). 

Hertz, Heinrich (1857-94): 

1899: The principles of mechanics presented in a new form (304 p., London). 

The German text appeared in Hertz's Gesammelte Werke (vol. 3, Leipzig 1894) 
with a preface by Hermann v. Helmholtz, edited by Philipp Lenard. 

Jouguet, Emile (1871-1943): 

1924: Lectures de mecanique. La mecanique enseignee par les auteurs originaux 

(2 parts, 577 p., Paris; Isis 7, 156-58.— First edition in 1908-9. 

s 
Jourdain, Philip Edward Bertrand (1879-1919; Isis 5, 129-33, port.): 

1913: The principle of least action (84 p., reprinted from the Monist 1912, 1913, 
Chicago; Isis 1, 278, 527). 

Lagrange, Louis (1736-1813): 

1788: Mechanique analitique (quarto 524 p., Paris). 
Important historical notes on p. 1-12, 122-30, 158-89, 428-37. 

Lecat, Maurice (1884- ): 

1924: Bibliographic de la relativite (352 p., Bruxelles; Isis 6, 567-68). 

Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon (1853-1928): 

1923: The principle of relativity, a collection of original memoirs on the special 
and general theory (New York). — First published in German (Leipzig 1913); Qrd 
ed. 1920; 5th ed. 1923. 

Mach, Ernst (1838-1916): 

1893: The science of mechanics (Chicago). — The German original appeared in 
Leipzig 1889; Srd ed. 1897; 4th, 1901; 7th, 1912. The English edition was many 
times revised; 2nd ed. 1902; Srd, 1907, 4th, 1919; 5th, 1942. Supplement to third 
English edition by Philip E. B. Jourdain (120 p., Chicago 1915). French transla- 
tion, Paris 1904. 

Marcolongo, Roberto ( 1862- ) : 

1919: II problema dei tre corpi da Newton (1686) ai nostri giorni (173 p., 
Milano; Isis 3, 483). 



Mechanics and Thermodynamics 161 

Michel, J.: 

1927: Mouvements perpetuels. Leiir histoire et leurs particularites depuis les 
premieres tentatives du Xlle siecle jusqu'aiix engins des inventeurs modernes ( 60 p., 
82 fig., Paris; Isis 12,414). 

Ruhlmann, Moritz (1811-96): 

1885: Vortrage iiber Geschichte der technischen Mechanik und theoretischen 
Maschinenlehre sowie der damit in Zusammenhand stehenden mathematischen Wis- 
senschaften. 1. Theil. Technische Mechanik (565 p., 85 ill., portr., Leipzig). 

No others published. 

Schneider, Ilse ( now Mrs. Rosenthal-Schneider): 

1921: Das Raum-Zeit Problem bei Kant und Einstein (78 p., Berlin., Isis 37, 
255). 

Todhunter, Isaac ( 1820-84 ) : 

1873: History of the mathematical theories of attraction and the figure of the 
Earth from the time of Newton to that of Laplace (2 vols., London). 

Windred, G.: 

1933: History of mathematical time (Isis 19, 121-53; 20, 192-219). 

Wintner, Aurel: 

1941: The analytical foundations of celestial mechanics (460 p., Princeton; Isis 
34, 230). 

HEAT — THERMODYNAMICS 

Bachelard, Gaston: 

1927: Etude sur revolution d'un probleme de physique, la propagation thermique 
dans les solides (184 p., Paris; Isis 12, 415). 

Hardin, Willett Lepley: 

1899: The rise and development of the liquefaction of gases (258 p., 42 fig.. New 
York). 

Mach, Ernst (1838-1916): 

1896: Die Principien der Warmelehre historisch-kritisch entwickelt (480 p., 105 
fig., Leipzig).— Second ed. 1900, 3rd ed. 1919, 4th ed. 1923. 

McKie, Douglas; Heathcote, Niels H. de V.: 

1935: The discovery of specific and latent heats (152 p., 6 pi., 2 fig., London; 

Isis 25,227). 

Matschoss, Conrad (1871-1942): 

1908: Die Entwicklung der Dampfmaschine (2 vols., 37 portr., Berlin). 

Meyer, Kristine ( nee Bjerrum ) : 

1913: Die Entwicklung des TemperaturbegrifFs im Laufe der Zeiten sowie dessen 
Zusammenhang mit den wechselnden Vorstellungen iiber die Natur der Warme ( 168 
p., Braunschweig). 

Pictet, Raoul (1846- ): 

1907: Die Entwicklung der Theorien und der Verfassungsweisen bei der Her- 
stellung der fliissigen Luft (137 p., Weimar). 

1914: Evolution des procedes concernant la separation de I'air atmospherique en 
ses elements (288 p., Geneve). 

Planck, Max (1858-1947): 

1887: Das Prinzip der Erhaltimg der Energie (260 p., Leipzig). — Second ed. 
1908, 5th ed. 1924. 

Rey, Abel (1873-1940): 

1927: Le retour etemel et la philosophic de la physique (320 p., Paris; Isis 9, 
477-79). 



162 History of Special Sciences 

OPTICS 

Hoppe, Edmund ( 1854-1928; Isis 13, 45-50, port.): 
1926: Geschichte der Optik (270 p., Leipzig). 

Mach, Emest ( 1838-1916) : 

1926: The principles of physical optics (335 p., 10 pi., London). 

The German original was published in Leipzig 1921 (454 p., ill.; Isis 4, 560-62). 

Mallik, D. N.: 

1917: Optical theories (181 p., Cambridge University). — Second ed. rev. (210 
p., 1921). 

Maseres, Francis (1731-1824): 

1823: Scriptores optici, or a collection of tracts relating to optics. Edited by 
Charles Babbage (1792-1871) (523 p., London). 

Pla, Cortes: 

1949: La enigma de la luz (328 p., 15 pi., 48 fig., Buenos Aires; Isis 42, 164). 

Priestley, Joseph (1733-1804): 

1772: History and present state of discoveries relating to vision, light and colours 
(828 p., pis., London). 

Ronchi, Vasco: 

1939: Storia della luce (217 p., Bologna; Isis 33, 294-96). 

Verdet, Emile: 

1869-70: Legons d'optique physique (2 vols., 1238 p., ill., Paris; vols. 5-6 of the 
Oeuvres de Verdet ) . — Including elaborate historical notes. 

Wilde, Emil (1793-1859): 

1838-43: Geschichte der Optik (Berlin, 2 vols.). 

Stops at Euler. The work w^as planned in 3 vols., but the third did not 
materialize, 

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 

Appleyard, Rollo: 

1930: Pioneers of electrical communication (356 p., London). 

Bauer, Edmond: 

1949: L'electromagnetisme. Hier et aujourd'hui (348 p., ill., Paris; Isis 42). 

Becquerel, Antoine Cesar (1788-1878); Becquerel, Alexandre Edmond (1820-91) 
( father and son ) : 
1858: Resume de I'histoire de I'electricite et du magnetisme (316 p., Paris). 

Benjamin, Park (1849-1922): 

1895: The intellectual rise in electricity (down to Franklin; 612 p., New York). 
—Reprinted 1898. 

British Association for the Advancement of Science: 

1913: Reports of the Committee on electrical standards. A record of the history 
of absolute units and of Lord Kelvin's work in connection with these (807 p., Cam- 
bridge University; Isis 2, 217). 

Frohlich, C: 

1905: Die Entwicklung der elektrischen Messungen (204 p., 124 fig., Braun- 
schweig ) . 

Gliozzi, Mario: 

1937: L'elettrologia fine al Volta (2 vols., 523 p., Napoli; Isis 28, 516-20). 



Optics, Electricity and Chemistry 163 

Helm, Georg ( 1851- ) : 

1904: Die Theorien der ElektrodjTiamik nach ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung 
(172 p., Leipzig). 

Hoppe, Edmund (1854-1928; Isis 13, 45-50, portr.): 
1884: Geschichte der Elektrizitat (642 p., Leipzig). 

Miller, Dayton Clarence (1866-1941): 

1939: Sparks, lightning, cosmic rays. An anecdotal history of electricity (210 
p., illus.. New York; Isis 32, 382-83). 

Mottelay, Paul Fleury (1841-1922): 

1922: Bibliographical history of electricity and magnetism, chronologically ar- 
ranged (693 p., London; Isis 6, 104-7). 

O'Reilly, Michael Francis (Brother Potamian 1847-1917) and Walsh, James J.: 

1909: Makers of electricity (408 p., ill. New York, Fordham). 

Potamian, religious name of O'Reilly, M. F. 

Priestley, Joseph (1733-1804): 

1767: History and present state of electricity with original experiments (768 p.. 
7 pi., London). 

Ronalds, Sir Francis (1788-1873): 

1880: Catalogue of books relating to electricity, magnetism, the electric telegraph, 
etc. (591 p., London). 

Sartiaux, Eugene; Aliamet. Maurice: 

1903: Principales decouvertes et publications concernant I'electricite de 1562 a 
1900 (278 p., 278 fig., Paris). 

Turner, Dorothy M.: 

1927: Makers of science. Electricity and magnetism (200 p., 65 ill., Oxford; Isis 
10, 266). 

Weaver, William Dixon ( 1857-1919 ) : 

1909: Catalogue of the [Schuyler Skaats] Wheeler gift of books, pamphlets and 
periodicals to the Library of the American Institute of Civil Electrical Engineers (2 
vols., 980 p., ill.. New York; Isis 6, 104-7). 

Whittaker, Edmund Taylor ( 1873- ) : 

1910: History of the theories of aether and electricity from the age of Descartes 
to the close of the nineteenth centvury (480 p., London; Isis 2, 222-24). 

Witz, Aime (1848-1926): 

1921: L'electricite. Ses hypotheses et ses theories successives (174 p., Louvain; 
Isis 5, 561). 

See Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 22. Mechanics, 24. Physics. 

CHEMISTRY 

Berry, Arthur John ( 1886- ) : 

1948: Modern chemistry, some sketches of its historical development (250 p., 
Cambridge University). 

Berthelot, Marcelin (1827-1907): 

1885: Les origines de I'alchimie (465 p., Paris). — Photographic reprint 1938. 

1889: Introduction a I'etude de la chimie des anciens et du moyen age (342 p., 
ill., Paris). — German translation (140 p., ill., Leipzig 1909). — Photographic reprint 
of the French original edition (Paris 1938). 

Bolton, Henry Carrington (1843-1903): 

1893-1904: Select bibliography of chemistry, 1482-1892 (1225 p., Washington, 



164 History of Special Sciences 

Smithsonian Institution 1893). Supt. 1, 1899, 498 p.; suppt. 2, 464 p., 1904 (same 
publishers ) . 

Brown, James Campbell (1843-1910): 

1913: History of chemistry (574 p., 107 ill., London; Isis 1, 279-80). 

Browne, Charles Albert (1870-1947): 

1944: Source book of agricultural chemistry (300 p., Charonica Botanica, vol. 8, 
Waltham, Massachusetts; Isis 39, 149). 

Bugge, Gunther {editor; 1885-1944): 

1929-30: Das Buch der grossen Chemiker (2 vols., Berlin, 1929-30; Isis 15, 298). 

Colson, Albert ( 1853- ) : 

1910: Contribution a I'etude de la chimie a propos du livre de Albert Laden- 
burg (130 p., Paris). 

Delacre, Maurice (1862-1938): 

1920: Histoire de la chimie (648 p., Paris; Isis 4, 84). 

Dumas, Jean Baptists ( 1800-84) : 

1837: Legons sur la philosophic chimique, professees au College de France 
(430 p., Paris). Reprinted in 1878 and 1937. German translation, Berlin 1839. 

Duveen, Denis I.: 

1949: Bibliotheca alchemica et chemica (677 p., 16 pi., London; Isis 40, 387). 

Faerber, Eduard ( 1892- ) : 

1921: Die geschichtliche Entwicklung der Chemie (324 p., 4 pi. Berlin; Isis 5, 
465-66). 

The author's name is now spelled Edward Farber. 

Farber, Edward, see Faerber, Eduard. 

Ferchl, Fritz; SUssenguth, Armin ( 1880- ) : 

1939: A pictorial history of chemistry (222 p., London; Isis 37, 257). Trans- 
lated from the German edition of 1936 (Isis 28, 262). 

Ferguson, John (1837-1916; Isis 39, 60-61): 

1906: Bibliotheca chemica. A catalogue of the alchemical, chemical and phar- 
maceutical books in the collection of the late James Young (2 vols., Glasgow). 

Fester, Gustav ( 1886- ) : 

1923: Die Entwicklung der chemischen Technik bis zu den Anfangen der 
Grossindustrie (234 p., Berlin; Isis 6, 89-90). 

Fierz-David, Hans Eduard ( 1882- ) : 

1945: Die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Chemie (440 p., 106 fig., 4 tables, Basel; 
Isis 37, 105-06). 

Findlay, Alexander ( 1874- ) : 

1937: A hundred years of chemistry (352 p., 11 fig.. New York; Isis 29, 176-79). 
Second ed. 1948. 

Forbes, Robert James: 

1948: Short history of the art of distillation, from the beginnings up to the death 
of Cellier Blumenthal (410 p., 203 ill., Leiden; Isis 41, 131-33). 

Graebe, Carl (1841-1927): 

1920: Geschichte der organischen Chemie (vol. 1, to 1890, 426 p., Berlin; Isis 4, 
361-65). 

No others published. 



Chemistry 165 

Hjelt, Edvard ( 1855-1921 ) : 

1916: Geschichte der organischen Chemie von altester Zeit bis zur Gegenwart 
(568 p., Braunschweig; Isis 3, 440-43). 

Hoefer, Ferdinand (1811-78): 

1866-69: Histoire de la chimie (2 vols., Paris, Didot). — First edition 1842-43. 

Jaffa Bernard ( 1896- ) : 

1930: Crucibles. The lives and achievements of the great chemists (377 p., ill., 
New York). — Sixth and seventh printings 1936. — New edition under title Crucibles: 
the story of chemistry from ancient alchemy to nuclear fission (492 p., New York; 
Isis 41, 133). 

Kopp, Hermann (1817-92; Osiris 5, 392-460): 

1843-47: Geschichte der Chemie (4 vols. Braunschweig). 

1873: Die Entwickelung der Chemie in der neueren Zeit (876 p., Miinchen). 

1886: Die Alchemie in alterer und neuerer Zeit (2 vols., Heidelberg). 

Ladenburg, Albert ( 1842-1911 ) : 

1900: Lectures on the history of the development of chemistry since the time of 
Lavoisier. (388 p., Edinburgh, Alembic Club). — First German ed. 1869; 2nd ed., 
1887; Srd ed. 1902; 4th ed. 1907 — French translation, 1907; 2nd ed. 1911; see 

COLSON. 

Lasswitz, Kurd (1848-1910): 

1890: Geschichte der Atomistik vom Mittelalter bis Newton (2 vols., Hamburg). 

Li Ch'iao-p'ing: 

1948: The chemical arts of old China (225 p., ill., Easton, Pennsylvania; Isis 
40, 281). 

Lieben, Fritz ( 1890- ) : 

1935: Geschichte der physiologischen Chemie (752 p., Leipzig; Isis 25, 164-66). 

Lippmann, Edmund O. von (1857-1940; Osiris 3): 

1919-31: Entstehung und Ausbreitung der Alchemie. Mit einem Anhange: Zur 
alteren Geschichte der Metalle (758 p., 1919; Berlin; Isis 3, 302-05). Zweiter Band, 
Ein Lese- und Nachschlage-Buch (266 p., Berlin 1931; Isis 16, 462-63). 

1921: Zeittafeln zur Geschichte der organischen Chemie, 1500-1890 (76 p., 
Berlin; Isis 4, 548). 

Lowry, Thomas Martin (1874-1936): 

1915: Historical introduction to chemistry (596 p., 57 ill. London). — Third ed. 
596 p., 57 ill, 1936. 

Liidy, Fritz, Jr.: 

1928: Alchemistische und chemische Zeichen (57 p., 127 pi., Gesellschaft fiir 
Geschichte der Pharmazie; Isis 13, 232). 

Mabilleau, Leopold ( 1853- ) : 

1895: Histoire de la philosophic atomistique (568 p., Paris). 

Meyer, Ernst von ( 1847-1916) : 

1891: History of chemistry (578 p., London). — The original German text ap- 
peared in Leipzig 1889.— 2nd German ed., 1895; Srd, 1905, 4th, 1914 (630 p., 
Leipzig; Isis 4, 360-61).— Second ed. of English translation 1898, Srd, 1906. 

Mittasch, Alwin ( 1869- ) : 

1939: Kurze Geschichte der Katalyse in Praxis und Theorie (148 p., Berlin; Isis 
32, 389). 

Moore, Forris Jewett (1867-1926): 

1918: History of chemistry (306 p.. New York; Isis 4, 193).— Second ed. 1931. 
Srded. 1939 (Isis 32, 384). 



166 History of Special Sciences 

Ostwald, Wilhelm ( 1853-1932) : 

1896: Elektrochemie, ihre Geschichte und Lehre (1166 p., ill., Leipzig). 

1906: Leitlinien der Chemie (313 p., Leipzig). — French translation (Paris 
1909). 

Muir, Matthew Moncrieff Pattison ( 1848- ) : 

1907: History of chemical theories and laws (575 p., New York). 

Partington, James Riddick (1886- ): 

1935: Origins and development of applied chemistry (610 p., London; Isis 25, 
504-07). 

1937: A short history of chemistry (400 p., ill., New York; Isis 29, 179-81). 

Ramsay, Sir William (1852-1916): 

1896: The gases of the atmosphere, the history of their discovery (248 p., 7 
portr., London).— Second ed. 1902; 3rd ed. 309 p., 8 portr., 1905. 

Read, John (1884- ): 

1937: Prelude to chemistry. An outline of alchemy, its literature and relation- 
ship (344 p., ill.. New York; Isis 27, 528-31). 

1947: The alchemist in life, literature and art (112 p., London). 

1947: Humour and humanism in chemistry (411 p., ill., London). 

Schmieder, Karl Christoph (1778-1850): 

1832: Geschichte der Alchemic (623 p., Halle). 

Facsimile reprint with preface by Franz Strunz, Miinchen-Planegg 1927. 

Singer, Charles: 

1948: The earliest chemical industry. An essay in the historical relations of 
economics and technology illustrated from the alum trade (folio 352 p., ill., London; 
Isis 41, 128-31). 

Smith, Henry Monmouth 

1949: Torchbearers of chemistry (270 p., 253 ill.. New York; Isis 41, 90). 

Soddy, Frederick ( 1877- ) : 

1949: The story of atomic energy (144 p., London). 

Stillman, John Maxon (1852-1923; Isis 34, 142-46): 

1924: The story of early chemistry (580 p., New York; Isis 7, 295). 

Taylor, Frank Sherwood ( 1897- ) : 

1949: The alchemists. Founders of modern chemistry (256 p., ill.. New York; 

Isis 41, 237). 

Testi, Gino (1892- ): 

1950: Dizionario di alchimia e di chimica antiquaria (202 p., Roma). 

Thorpe, Sir (Thomas) Edward (1845-1925): 

1894: Essays in historical chemistry (392 p. London). — Second ed. 1902, 3rd ed. 
1911, reprinted 1923 (614 p.). 

1909-10: History of chemistry (2 small vols., New York). 

Venable, Francis Preston (1856-1934): 

1894: Short history of chemistry (172 p., Boston). 2nd ed. 1896, Srd 1901, 
reprinted 1909. 

Weeks, Mary Elvira (1892- ): 

1945: Discovery of the elements. Fifth edition (592 p.. Journal of chemical 
education, Easton, Pennsylvania; Isis 36, 227). — First edition 1933 (366 p.; Isis 21, 
455); 2nded., 1934; 3rd ed., 1935; 4th ed. 1939 (Isis 32, 386-89). 



Chemistry and Technology 167 

White, John Henry: 

1932: History of the phlogiston theory ( 192 p., London; Isis 19, 593). 
See the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 25. Chemistry. 

TECHNOLOGY, "INVENTIONS " 

Beckmann, Johann (1739-1811): 

1797-180?: History of inventions and discoveries (4 vols., London). — Second 
ed., 4 vols., 1814; Srd ed., 4 vols., 1817; 4th ed., 2 vols., 1846.— German original, 
Beitrage zur Geschichte der Erfindungen (5 vols., Leipzig 1780, 1786-1805). 

Cressy, Edward: 

1937: A hundred years of mechanical engineering (340 p., 64 pi.. New York; 
Isis 31, 94-95). 

Ducasse, Pierre: 

1945: Histoire des techniques (136 p., Paris; Isis 36, 228). 

Feldhaus, Franz Maria (1874- ): 

1910: Ruhmesblatter der Technik von den Urfindungen bis zur Gegenwart 
(639 p., 232 fig., Leipzig). 

1914: Die Technik der Vorzeit, der geschichthchen Zeit und der Naturvolker. 
(xvi p., 1400 col., 873 ill., Leipzig). 

1931: Die Technik der Antike und des Mittelalters (442 p., 452 ill., 15 pi., Pots- 
dam; Isis 16, 167-69). 

Fleming, Arthur Percy Morris; Brocklehurst, Harold John Stanley: 

1925: History of engineering (320 p., London). 

Forbes, Robert James: 

1950: Man the maker. History of technology and engineering (376 p., ill.. New 
York; Isis 42, 79), 

Gilfillan, Seabury Columba ( 1889- ) : 

1935: Inventing the ship. Study of the inventions made in her history be- 
tween floating log and rotorship (294 p., 80 fig., Chicago; Isis 24, 450-53). 

1935: The sociology of invention (204 p., Chicago; Isis 25, 166-67), 

Kaempffert, Waldemar (1877- ): 

1924: Popular history of American inventions (2 vols.. New York). 

Karmarsch, Karl: 

1872: Geschichte der Technologic seit der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (940 p., 
Munich ) . 

Knight, Edward Henry (1824-83): 

1874-77: American mechanical dictionary. A description of tools, instruments, 
machines, processes and engineering; history of inventions, general technological 
vocabulary (3 vols., 2831 p., 7000 ill.. New York). 

1882-84: New Mechanical dictionary. A supplement to the former work (1 vol. 
in 4 parts, 968 p., 2549 ill., 56 pi., Boston). 

These almost forgotten volumes contain an immense amount of valuable informa- 
tion. The author was a patent attorney of EngUsh birth (DAB 10, 464). 

Kraemer, Hans (1870- ) (editor): 

1902-04: Weltall und Menschheit. Geschichte der Erforschung der Natur und 
der Verwertung der Naturkrafte im Dienste der Volker (5 vols., Berlin), 

Mason, Otis Tufton (1838-1908): 

1895: The origins of invention, A study of industry among primitive peoples 
(419 p., ill., London). 



168 History of Special Sciences 

Neuburger, Albert (1867- ): 

1930: The technical arts and sciences of the ancients (550 p., 676 ill., London). 
—German original, Leipzig 1919; 2nd ed. 1921 (Isis 4, 423; 6, 129-31). 

Neudeck, Georg ( 1866- ) : 

1923: Geschichte der Technik (496 p., 550 ill., Stuttgart; Isis 6, 129-31). 

Parsons, William Barclay (1859-1932): 

1939: Engineers and engineering in the Renaissance (681 p., ill., Baltimore; Isis 
32, 354-56). 

Rogers, Agnes ( 1893- ) : 

1941: From man to machine. A pictorial history of invention (quarto, 160 p., 
ill., Boston). 

Straub, Hans (1892- ): 

1949: Die Geschichte der Bauingenieurkunst (300 p., 78 fig., 32 pi., Basel). 

Thompson, Holland (1873-1940): 

1921: The age of invention; a chronicle of mechanical conquest (280 p., ill., 
New Haven, Yale; Isis 4, 517-19). 

Thurston, Robert Henry (1839-1903): 

1939: History of the grovs^h of the steam engine. Centennial edition. With a 
supplementary chapter by William Nichols Barnard (568 p., 181 figures, Ithaca; 
Isis 32, 473).— First published in 1878; 2nd ed. 1884; 3rd ed. 1893; 4th ed. 1897. 

Uccelli, Arturo (1889- ) (editor): 

1944: Storia della tecnica dal medio evo ai nostri giorni (946 p., 30.5 cm., 2717 
ill, Milano; Isis 41, 91).— Reprinted in 1945. 

1946: Scienza e tecnica del tempo nostro nei principii e nelle applicazioni 
(30.5 cm., 846 p., 2137 iU., 6 pi. Milano; Isis 41, 85). 

Usher, Abbot Payson (1883- ): 

1929: History of mechanical inventions (412 p.. New York; Isis 24, 177-80). — 
Spanish translation (Mexico 1941; Isis 34, 272). 

See Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 26. Technology. 

NAVIGATION 

Koster, August (1873- ): 

1923: Das antike Seevi'esen (254 p., 104 ill., Berlin). 

1934: Studien zur Geschichte des antiken Seewesens (Kho, Beiheft 32; 156 p., 
1 pi., 16 fig., Leipzig). 

Lefebvre des Noettes, Richard (1856- ): 

1935: De la marine antique a la marine moderne. La revolution du gouvernail. 
Contribution a I'histoire de I'esclavage (152 p., Paris; Isis 26, 484-86). 

Marguet, Frederic (1874-1951): 

1931: Histoire generale de la navigation du XV au XX' siecle (306 p., ill., 
Paris; Isis 19, 235-37). 

Stevenson, WilUam (1772-1829): 

1824: Historical sketch of the progress of discovery, navigation and commerce, 
from the earhest records to the beginning of the nineteenth centiury (644 p., Edin- 
burgh). 



Technology, Navigation and Metrology 169 

METROLOGY 

A few older books in chronological order: — 

Pasi, Bartolommeo di: 

1540: Tariffa de i pesi e misure correspondent! dal levante all ponente (200 f., 
Venice ) . 

Cappel, Jacques (1570-1624): 

1606-07: De ponder ibus nummis et mensuris libri V (Frankfurt a. M.). 

Roberts, Lewes ( 1596-1640 ) : 

1638: The merchants mappe of commerce (London). 

Paucton, Alexis Jean Pierre (1732-98): 

1780: Metrologie (970 p., tables, 26 cm., Paris). 

More recent books in alphabetical order: — 

Bigourdan, Guillaume (1851-1932): 

1901: Le systeme metrique des poids et mesures (464 p., ill., Paris). 

Decourdemanche, Jean Adolphe (1844-1914?): 

1909: Traite pratique des poids et mesures des peuples anciens et des Arabes 
(152 p., Paris). 

1913: Traite des monnaies, mesures et poids anciens et modernes de ITnde et de 
la Chine (172 p., Paris). 

Doring, Eduard: 

1862: Handbuch der Miinz-, Wechsel-, Mass- und Gewichtskunde (2. verm. 
Aufl., 543 p., Coblenz). 

Doursther, Horace: 

1840: Dictionnaire universel des poids et mesures anciens et modernes (610 p., 
Bruxelles ) . 

Favre, Adrien: 

1931: Les origines du systeme metrique (252 p., Paris; Isis 16, 449-50). 

Hultsch, Friedrich (1833-1906): 

1862: Griechische und romische Metrologie (328 p., Berhn). — Second ed. much 
enlarged (760 p., Berlin 1882). 

Kennelly, Arthur Edwin (1861-1939): 

1928: Vestiges of pre-metric weights and measures persisting in metric Europa 
(200 p.. New York; Isis 24, 272). 

Klimpert, Richard (1847- ): 

1896: Lexikon der Miinzen, Masse, Gewichte, Zahlarten und Zeitgrossen aller 
Lander der Erde (2. verm. Aufl., Berlin). — First ed., Berlin 1885. 

Lemale, Alexis Guislain: 

1875: Monnaies, poids, mesures et usages commerciaux de tous les etats du 
monde {2nd ed. ref., 394 p., Paris). 

Miles, George Carpenter (1904- ): 

1948: Early Arabic glass weights and stamps (176 p., American Numismatic 
Society, New York; Isis 40, 381). 

Nicholson, Edward: 

1912: Men and measures. A history of weights and measures (325 p., London). 

Petrie, Sir Flinders (1853-1942): 

1877: Inductive metrology, or. The recovery of ancient measures from the monu- 
ments (166 p., London). 



170 History of Special Sciences 

Robertson, Eben William (1815-74): 

1872: Historical essays in connection with the land, the church, etc. (342 p. 
Edinburgh ) . — Deals with standards of the past in weight and currency, land measure- 
ments in Great Britain and Ireland. 

Thomas, Edward (1813-86): 

1874: Ancient Indian weights (82 p., London). 

Vazquez Queipo, Vicente (1804-93): 

1859: Essai sur les systemes metriques et monetaires des anciens peuples depuis 
les premiers temps historiques jusqu'a la fin du Khalifat d'Orient (3 vol. in 4, 24 cm., 
Paris). 

Viedebantt, Oskar (1883- ): 

1923: Antike Gewichtsnormen und Miinzfiisse (172 p., BerUn). 

Woolhouse, Wesley Stoker Barker ( 1809-93) : 

1890: Measures, weights and moneys of all nations {1th ed. rev., 300 p., Lon- 
don) 2nd ed. 1859, 6th 1881. 

CHRONOMETRY AND HOROLOGY 

Archer, Peter (S. J.): 

1941: The Christian calendar and the Gregorian reform (135 p., New York). 

Bassermann- Jordan, Ernst von (1876- ) (editor): 

1920-25: Die Geschichte der Zeitmessung und der Uhren (folio, Berlin). 

This work is listed here though it remained very incomplete. As far as I know, 
only three volumes were published. — B I, B, Ludwig Borchardt: Altagyptische 
Zeitmessung (70 p., 18 pi., 25 fig., 1920; Isis 4, 612).— B I, E, Joseph Drecker: 
Theorie der Sonnenuhren (112 p., 140 ill, 1925; Isis 11, 241.— B I, F, Karl Schoy: 
Gnomonik der Araber (95 p., 30 fig., 1923; Isis 5, 534). 

Cunynghame, Sir Henry Hardinge (1848-1935): 

1906: Time and clocks. (200 p., 82 ill., New York). 

Ginzel, Friedrich Karl (1850-1926): 

1906-14: Handbuch der mathematischen und technischen Chronologic. Das 
Zeitrechnungswesen der Volker (3 vols. Leipzig). 

1906: Vol. 1, Zeitrechnung der Babylonier, Agypter, Mohammedaner, Perser, 
Inder, Siidostasiaten, Chinesen, Japaner und Zentralamerikaner (596 p., 6 fig., tables 
and map ) . 

1911: Vol. 2, Zeitrechnung der Juden, der Naturvolker, der Romer und Griechen, 
sowie Nachtrage zum 1. Bande (604 p.). 

1914: Vol. 3, Zeitrechnung der Makedonier, Kleinasier und Syrier, der Germanen 
und Kelten, des Mittelalters, der Byzantiner (und Russen), Armenier, Kopten, 
Abessinier, Zeitrechnung der neureren Zeit, sowie Nachtrage zu den drei Banden 
(452 p., 6 fig., 1 pi., chronological tables). 

Gould, Rupert Thomas (1890- ): 

1923: The marine chronometer, its history and development (304 p., 39 pi, 85 
fig., London; Isis 6, 122-29). 

Milham, Willis Isbister (1874- ): 

1923: Time and timekeepers (629 p., 339 fig. New York; Isis 7, 347).— Re- 
printed 1941. 

Robertson, John Drummond (1857- ): 

1931: The evolution of clockwork, with a special section on the clocks of Japan 
(374 p., 101 ill, London; Isis 27, 179). 



Chronometry, Photography and Biology 171 

Saunier, Claudius (1816-1896): 

1902-04: Die Geschichte der Zeitmesskunst (1118 p., 216 ill., Bautzen).— 
Translated from the French. 

Ungerer, Alfred: 

1931: Les horloges astronomiques et monumentales les plus remarquables 
(514 p., ill., Strasbourg). 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

Eder, Josef Maria (1855- ): 

1945: History of photography. Translated by Edward Epstean (880 p.. New 
York, Columbia University; Isis 37, 103-04). — Translated from the German, 
Geschichte der Photographic, 3rd ed. 1905; 4th 1932. 

Moholy, Lucia: 

1939: A hundred years of photography ( 182 p., 40 ill., Harmondsworth, Pelican; 
Isis 32, 471). 

Newhall, Beaumont: 

1938: Photography. A short critical history (220 p., incl. 95 pi., New York, 
Museum of Modern Art; Isis 30, 127-128). — First ed. 1937. 

Potonniee, Georges: 

1925: Histoire de la decouverte de la photographic (322 p., ill., Paris; Isis 8, 
511-13). 

1936: Enghsh translation by Edward Epstean (282 p.. New York). 

Rohr, Moritz von (1868-1940): 

1899: Theorie und Geschichte des photographischen Objectivs (455 p., 148 fig., 
Berhn). 

GENERAL BIOLOGY AND NAT.URAL HISTORY 

Aim quist, Ernst Bernhard (1852- ): 

1931 : Grosse Biologen, cine Geschichte der Biologic und ihrer Erforscher ( 143 p., 
23 port., Munich; Isis 18, 206-07). 

Anker, Jean; Dahl, Svend: 

1938: Werdegang der Biologie (312 p., 8 pi., Leipzig). — The original Danish 
edition appeared in 1934. 

AschofiF, Ludwig (1866-1942); Kuster, E.; Schmidt, W. J.: 

1938: Hundert Jahre Zellforschung (296 p., Berlin; Isis 32, 393-94). 

Bates, Marston ( 1906- ): 

1950: The nature of natural history (310 p.. New York; Isis 42, 164). 

Blainville, Henri de (1777-1850): 

1845: Histoire des sciences de I'organisation et de leurs progres comme base de 
la philosophic (3 vols., Paris). 

Bohner, Konrad: 

1933-35: Geschichte der Cecidologie. Mit einer Vorgeschichte von Felix von 
Ofele (2 vols., Gesellschaft fiir Geschichte der Pharmazie, Mittenwald, Bayem; 
Isis 24, 180-83). 

Brewster, Edwin Tenney (1866- ): 

1927: Creation. History of non-evolutionary theories (295 p., ill., Indianapolis; 
Isis 9,462-65). 



172 History of Special Sciences 

Clay, Reginald S.; Court, Thomas H.: 

1932: History of the microscope up to the introduction of the achromatic micro- 
scope (280 p., 164 fig. London; Isis 21, 227-30). 

Clodd, Edward (1840-1930): 

1897: Pioneers of evolution from Thales to Huxley (260 p., London). 

Conn, Harold Joel (editor) (1886- ): 

1933: History of staining ( 141 p., Geneva, N. Y.; Isis 22, 403). 

Daudin, Henri (1881-1947): 

1926: Etudes d'histoire des sciences naturelles. — L De Linne a Jussieu. 
Methodes de la classification et idee de serie en botanique et en zoologie, 1740-90 
(266 p.). — II. CuviER et Lamarck. Les classes zoologiques et I'idee de serie 
animale (2 vols., 811 p., in all 3 vols., Paris; Isis 10, 502-05). 

Disney, Alfred N.; with Hill, Cyril F. and Baker, Wilfred E. Watson: 

1928: Origin and development of the microscope (303 p., 30 pi., 36 fig. 
Royal Microscopical Society, London; Isis 20, 495-97). 

Guyenot, Emile (1885- ): 

1941:L'evolution de la pensee scientifique. Les sciences de la vie au XVIIe 
et XVIIIe siecles. L'idee d'evolution (484 p., Paris). 

Locy, William Albert (1857-1924): 

1908: Biology and its makers (495 p., ill., New York). — Third ed. rev. (504 p., 
ill., London, 1915). 

1925: The growth of biology. Zoology from Aristotle to Ctjvier. Botany 
from Theophrastos to Hofmeister. Physiology from Harvey to Claude Bernard 
(496 p., ill., London; Isis 8, 513-14). 

Meyer-Abich, Adolf: 

1934: Ideen und Ideale der biologischen Erkenntnis (Bios 1; 215 p.; Leipzig; 
Isis 22, 546-48). 

Miall, Louis Compton (1842-1921) 

1912: The early naturalists. Their lives and work, 1530-1789 (408 p., London). 

Nordenskiold, Erik (1872-1933) (Isis 38, 103-06, portr.) 

1928: History of biology (656 p., ill., New York; Isis 12, 336-40 ) .—Reprinted 
1932, 1935. First published in Swedish (3 vols., Stockholm 1920-24), then in Ger- 
man (661 p., Jena 1926). 

Osbom, Henry Fairfield: 

1896: From the Greeks to Darwin. Outline of the development of the evolu- 
tion idea (269 p., Columbia University Press, New York). — First printing 1894. 
1929: Second ed. (414 p., New York; Isis 13, 386-88). 

Peattie, Donald Culross: 

1936: Green laurels. The lives and achievements of the great natiuralists (392 p., 
30 pi., New York; Isis 27, 95). 

Pemberton, Henry (1826-1911): 

1902: The path of evolution through ancient thought and modern science 
(403 p., Philadelphia). 

Radl, Emanuel (1873-1942): 

1905-1909. Geschichte der biologischen Theorien (2 vols., Leipzig). — Revised 
ed. of vol. 1, 1913. 

1930: History of biological theories (420 p.. New York; Isis 15, 195-96). — This 
is an Enghsh translation and adaptation of the German text in vol. 2 (107-580). 

Schmidt, Eduard Oscar (1823-86): 

1875: The doctrine of descent and Darwinism (340 p., ill., London). — German 



Biology and Botany 173 

original ed. Leipzig 1873. The English translation was reprinted in 1877, 1882, 
1888, 1896. 

Singer, Charles (1876- ): 

1931: The story of hving things. A short account of the evolution of the bio- 
logical sciences (607 p., ill.. New York; Isis 22, 298-300 ) .—The English edition of 
the same book was entitled: — 

1931: A short history of biology. A general introduction to the study of living 
things (607 p., ill., Oxford, Clarendon). 

The two editions are otherwise identical. 

1950: History of biology (Revised edition of same work under third title, 579 p., 
194 figs., New York; Isis 42, 82). 

Zirkle, Conway (1895- ): 

1941: Natural selection before the "Origin of Species" (Proc, American Philo- 
sophical Society 84, 71-123; Isis 33, 403). 

1946: Early history of the idea of inheritance of acquired characters and of 
pangenesis (Trans., American Philosophical Society 35, 91-151; Isis 37, 259). 

See the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 27. Biology. 

BOTANY AND AGRICULTURE 

Arber, Agnes (Mrs. E. A. Newell Arber; Agnes Robertson) ( 1879- ) : 

1938: Herbals, their origin and evolution, 1470-1670. New edition rewritten 

(360 p., 27 pi., 131 fig., Cambridge University Press; Isis 30, 131-32).— The first 

edition, much smaller, appeared in 1912 (Isis 1, 281-82). 

1950: The natural philosophy of plant form (260 p., ill., Cambridge University; 

Isis 41, 322-23). 

Aslin, Mary S.: 

1926: Catalogue of the printed books on agriculture 1471-1840. Rothamsted 
Experimental Station Library (332 p., Rothamsted, England; Isis 9, 578). 

Fischer, Hermann (1884- ): 

1929: Mittelalterliche Pflanzenkunde (334 p., 70 ill., Munchen; Isis 15, 367-70). 

Gager, Charles Stuart (1872-1943): 

1937: Botanic gardens in the world. Materials for a history. Brooklyn Botanic 
Garden Record (26, 149-353; Isis 29, 185). 

Gibault, Georges: 

1912: Histoire des legtunes (412 p., Paris). 

Gras, Norman Scott Brien (1884- ): 

1940: History of agriculture in Europe and America {2nd ed., 496 p., New 
York; Isis 33, 81).— First ed. 1925, 461 p. 

Deals only with the economic, not the botanic, aspects of agriculture. 

Green, Joseph Reynolds (1848-1914): 

1909: History of botany, 1860-1900, being a continuation of Sachs' History 
(543 p., Oxford, Clarendon). 

Greene, Edward Lee (1843-1915): 

1909: Landmarks of botanical history. Vol. 1 to 1562. (330 p., Washington, 
Smithsonian Institution ) . 

No others published, though much was ready in MS when Greene died. 

Guerin, L. 

1869: Precis de Thistoire de la botanique par L. G. (535 p., Paris). 

Volume 17 of Le regne vegetal edited by Aristide Dupuis, Frederic Gerard, 
Oscar Reveil, etc. (17 vols., ill., Paris 1864-69). About authorship, see Sarton, 
Query 124 (Isis 41, 54); the author is not Louis Gerard. 



174 History of Special Sciences 

Haller, Albrecht v. (1708-77): 

1771-72: Bibliotheca botanica. Quae scripta ad rem herbariam facientia a rerum 
initiis recensentur (2 vols., London). 

1908: Idem. Index emendatus. Perfecit J. Christian Bay. Ad diem natalem 
Albert! de Haller ante hos ducentos annos Bernae nati celebrandum . . . edidit 
Societas bernensis rerum naturae peritorum (57 p., Bern). With preface in 
German. 

Harvey-Gibson, Robert John ( 1860- ) : 

1919: Outbnes of the history of botany (284 p., London; Isis 3, 297-99). 

lessen, Karl Friedrich Wilhelm (1821-89): 

1864: Botanik der Gegenwart und Vorzeit in culturhistorischer Entwicklung 
(517 p., Leipzig). 

Photographic reprint by Chronica Botanica, Waltham, Massachusetts, 1948 (Isis 
40, 82). 

Joret, Charles (1839-1914): 

1897-1904: Les plantes dans I'antiquite et au moyen age; histoire, usages et 
symbolisme (vol. 1, 520 p., Paris 1897; vol. 2, 672 p., 1904). 

Not completed. The parts pubhshed deal only with classical antiquity, the 
ancient Near East, Iran and India. 

Large, Ernest Charles: 

1940: The advance of the fungi. (488 p., ill., New York; Isis 34, 231-32). 

Lotsy, Johannes Paulas ( 1867- ) : 

1906-08: Vorlesungen iiber Descendenztheorien mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung 
der botanischen Seite der Frage (2 vols., ill., Jena). 

Liitjeharms, Wilhelm Jan: 

1936: Zur Geschichte der Mykologie. Das XVIII. Jahrhundert (284 p., 2 pi., 
Gouda; Isis 34, 78). 

The book deals with a larger field than the title suggests; it is not restricted to 
the eighteenth century. 

Marzell, Heinrich ( 1885- ) : 

1922: Unsere Heilpflanzen, ihre Geschichte und ihre Stellung in der Volks- 
kunde (268 p., 38 ill, Freiburg im Breisgau; Isis 5, 456-57). 

Meyer, Ernst Heinrich Friedrich (1791-1858): 

1854-57: Geschichte der Botanik (4 vols., Konigsberg). 

Mobius, Martin ( 1859- ) : 

1937: Geschichte der Botanik (464 p., Jena; Isis 30, 304-06). 

Pickering, Charles (1805-78): 

1879: Chronological history of plants. Man's record of his own existence illus- 
trated through their names, uses and companionship (quarto, 1238 p., Boston). 

Pickering devoted the last 16 years of his life to this immense and fantastic 
compilation which is quoted here, because it may possibly be of some use to certain 
scholars. 

Pritzel, Georg August (1815-74): 

1851: Thesaurus literaturae botanicae omnium gentium, inde a rerum botani- 
corum initiis ad nostra usque tempora quindecim millia operum recensens (555 p., 
Leipzig). 

Editio nova reformata (580 p., Leipzig 1872-77). The second part of the 
book was edited after the author's death by Karl Jessen. The Editio nova was 
reprinted in 1924 and again recently in Milan. 



Botany and Zoology 175 

Reed, Howard Sprague (1876-1950): 

1942: Short history of the plant sciences (325 p., ill., Waltham, Mass.; Isis 34, 
36). 

Roberts, Herbert Fuller ( 1870- ) : 

1929: Plant hybridization before Mendel (390 p., ill., Princeton University). 

Sachs, Julius von (1832-97): 

1890: History of botany, 1530-1860. (583 p., Oxford, Clarendon). 

The original German ed. was published in Munich 1875. The English trans- 
lation was reprinted in 1906. For continuation, see Green. 

Salaman, Redcliffe Nathan ( 1874- ) : 

1949: History and social influence of the potato (710 p., 32 pi., Cambridge 
University; Isis 42, 85). 

Sprengel, Kurt Polycarp Joachim (1766-1833): 

1817-18: Geschichte der Botanik (2 vols., Altenburg). 

Revised edition of his work first published in Latin, Historia rei herbariae 
(Amsterdam 1807-08). 

Tolkowsky, Samuel (1886- ): 

1938: Hesperides. History of the culture and use of citrus fruits (391 p., 113 
pL, 10 fig. London; Isis 31, 249). 

Weevers, Theodorus (1875- ): 

1949: Fifty years of plant physiology (320 p., Amsterdam; Isis 42, 165). 

Whetzel, Herbert Hice (1877-1945): 

1918: Outhne of the history of phytopathology (130 p., ill., Philadelphia; Isis 
5, 461-64). 

Zirkle, Conway: 

1935: The beginnings of plant hybridization (244 p., ill., Philadelphia; Isis 25, 
507-08). 

See the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 28. Botany. 

ZOOLOGY 

Anker, Jean ( 1892- ) : 

1938: Bird books and bird art. Outline of the literary history and iconography 
of descriptive ornithology (Quarto 270 p., ill., Copenhagen; Isis 33, 155). 

Bodenheimer, Friedrich Simon ( 1897- ) : 

1928-29: Materiahen zur Geschichte der Entomologie (2 vols., 1000 p., ill., 
Berhn; Isis 13, 388-92; 14, 454-56). 

Boubier, Maurice: 

1925: L evolution de Tornithologie (310 p., Paris; Isis 8, 515-17). 

Carus, Julius Victor (1823-1903): 

1872: Geschichte der Zoologie bis auf Joh. Mijller und Charl. Darwin (752 
p., Munich). 

1880: Histoire de la zoologie (632 p., Paris). 

Cole, Francis Joseph ( 1872- ) : 

1926: History of protozoology (64 p., London; Isis 9, 198). 

1930: Early theories of sexual generation (240 p., ill., Oxford, Clarendon; Isis 16, 
463-65). 

Dean, Bashford (1867-1928): 

1916-23: Bibhography of fishes (3 vols., American Museum of Natural History, 
New York; Isis 6, 456-59). 



176 History of Special Sciences 

Vol. 3 contains pre-Linnaean literature compiled by Eugene Willis Gudger, 
and an elaborate index. 

Essig, Edward Oliver ( 1884- ) : 

1931: History of entomology (1039 p., 263 fig., New York; Isis 17, 447-50). 
1936: Sketch history of entomology (Osiris 2, 80-123). 

Gubernatis, Angelo de ( 1840-1913) : 

1872: Zoological mythology (2 vols., London). 

Gudger, Eugene Willis (1866- ): 
See Dean, B. 

Gurney, John Henry (1848-1922): 

1921: Early annals of ornithology (244 p., ill., London; Isis 4, 646). 

Howard, Leland Ossian ( 1857-1950 ) : 

1930: History of applied entomology, somewhat anecdotal (572 p., 51 pi.; 
Washington, Smithsonian Institution; Isis 16, 169-73). 

Loisel, Gustave (1864- ): 

1912: Histoire des menageries de I'antiquite a nos jours (3 vols., Paris). 

Oudemans, Anthonie Cornelius (1858-1943):'* 

1926-37: Kritisch-historisch overzicht der acarologie (to 1850; in Dutch, 9 parts, 
4797 p., ill.. The Hague; Isis 15, 381-86; 27, 182; 28, 206, 271). 

Pellett, Frank Chapman ( 1879- ) : 

1938: History of American beekeeping (222 p., Ames, Iowa). 

Perrier, Edmond ( 1844-1921 ) : 

1896: La philosophic zoologique avant Darwin {Srd ed., 304 p., Paris). — First 
ed., 1884. 

Radcliffe, William ( 1856- ) : 

1921: Fishing from the earliest times (496 p., ill; Isis 4, 568-71). 

Bansome, Hilda M.: 

1937: The sacred bee in ancient times and folklore (308 p., 12 pi., 35 fig., Lon- 
don; Isis 28, 271). 

Romanoff (Alexis Lawrence and Anastasia J.): 

1949: The avian egg (932 p., 424 ill.. New York; Isis 41, 134). 

Ruch, Theodore Cedric ( 1906- ) : 

1941: Bibliographia primatologica, a classified bibhography of primates other 
than man (268 p., Yale Medical Library no. 4; Springfield, Illinois, Isis 34, 79). 

Strong, Reuben Myron ( 1872- ) : 

1939-46: Bibhography of birds (3 vols., Chicago, Field Museum; Isis 39, 23). 

Wood, Casey Albert (1856-1942): 

1931 : Introduction to the literature of vertebrate zoology. Based chiefly on the 
titles of various libraries in McGill University, Montreal (quarto, 663 p., London; 
Isis 18,207). 

Zimmer, John Todd ( 1889- ): 

1926: Catalogue of the Edward E. Ayer ornithological hbrary (2 vols., 716 p., 
12 pi., Chicago Field Museum; Isis 10, 94). 

See the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 29. Zoology. 

i^The dates given in Isis (21, 577), 1831-95, are wrong. They refer to his namesake (I 
believe, his father). 



Zoology, Geodesy and Geography 177 

GEODESY AND GEOGRAPHY 

Baker, John Norman Leonard: 

1931: History of geographical discovery and exploration (544 p., ill., London; 
Isis 19, 601). 

Beazley, Sir Charles Raymond ( 1868- ) : 

1897-1906: The dawn of modern geography (3 vols., London). 

Brown, Lloyd Arnold: 

1949: The story of maps (417 p., ill.; Boston; Isis 41, 243). 

Dickinson, Robert Eric (1905- ); Howarth, O. J. R.: 

1933: The making of geography (268 p., 5 pi., 30 fig., Oxford, Clarendon; Isis 
23, 294-95). 

Dussieux, Louis (1815-94) (editor): 

1882-83: Les grands faits de I'histoire de la geographic. Recueil de documents 
(5 vols., Paris). 

Gunther, Siegmund (1848-1923): 

1904: Geschichte der Erdkunde (355 p., Leipzig). 

Heawood, Edward (1863-1949): 

1912: History of geographical discovery in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies (488 p., ill., Cambridge University Press). 

Hennig, Richard (1874- ) : 

1936-39: Terrae incognitae. Eine Zusammenstellung und kritische Bewertung 
der wichtigsten vorcolimibischen Entdeckungsreisen an Hand der dariiber vorhegen- 
den Originalberichte (4 vols., Leiden; Isis 29, 188-89, 537). 

Herdman, Sir William Abbott (1858-1924): 

1923: Founders of oceanography. An introduction to the science of the sea (352 
p., ill., London; Isis 6, 91-95). 

Hugues, Luigi ( 1836- ) : 

1903: Cronologia delle scoperte e delle esplorazioni geografiche dall' anno 1492 
a tutto il secolo XIX (496 p., Milano). 

Keltic, John Scott (1840-1927); Howarth, Osbert John RadcHffe (1877- ): 

1913: History of geography (215 p., ill., New York). 

Kimble, George Herbert Tinley ( 1908- ) : 

1938: Geography in the Middle Ages (284 p., 20 pi., London; Isis 30, 540-42). 

La Ronciere, Charles de ( 1870-1941 ) : 

1939: Histoire de la decouverte de la terre, explorateurs et conquerants (312 p., 
586 photos., 8 pL, Paris). 

Markham, Sir Clements Robert (1830-1916): 

1921: The lands of silence. History of Arctic and Antarctic exploration (551 p., 
ill., Cambridge University Press; Isis 4, 365-67). 

Mirsky, Jeannette ( 1903- ) : 

1934: To the North! The story of Arctic exploration (306 p., 16 pi., 13 maps, 
9 fig. New York; Isis 33, 483-85). 

The English edition of the same book was entitled Northern conquest (406 p., 
ill., London 1934). — Revised edition under the title To the Arctic! (374 p., ill.. 
New York, 1948). 

Nansen, Fridtjof (1861-1930): 

1911: In northern mists. History of Arctic exploration in early times (2 vols., 
ill., London). 



178 History of Special Sciences 

Nordenskiold, Adolf Erik ( 1832-1901 ) : 

1897: Periplus. Early history of charts and saihng directions (folio 218 p., 100 
ill., 60 maps, Stockholm). 

Olsen, prjan ( 1855- ) : 

1933-37: La conquete de la terre (6 vols., Paris). — Original Norwegian edition 
(6 vols., Oslo 1929-31; Isis 27, 532-34). 

Perrier, Georges (1872-1946): 

1939: Petite histoire de la geodesie. Comment I'homme a mesure et pese la 
Terre (188 p., Paris; Isis 36, 231). 

Peschel, Oscar (1826-75): 

1877: Geschichte der Geographic bis auf Alexander von Humboldt und Carl 
RiTTER (854 p., ill., Munich).— First ed. 1865 (726 p.). 

Phillips, Philip Lee (1857-1924): 

1909-20: A list of geographical atlases in the Library of Congress. 4 vols. U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington. — 1909: Vol. 1, Atlases, xiv -f 1208 p. — 
1909: Vol. 2, Author list; index, p. 1209-1659.— 1914: Vol. 3, Supplement, titles 
3266-4087, cxxxvii + 1030 p.— 1920: Vol. 4, Second supplement, titles 4088-5324, 
clviii + 639 p. 

Vol. 4 includes author list and index to the whole work, all the titles listed being 
numbered consecutively from 1 to 5324. 

Segal, Louis ( 1887- ) : 

1939: The conquest of the Arctic (284 p., London; Isis 32, 398). 

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur ( editor ) : 

1947: Great adventures and explorations, as told by the explorers themselves. 
With the collaboration of Olive Rathbun Wilcox (788 p., ill., maps. New York; 
Isis 39, 124). 

Stevenson, Edward Luther (1859-1944): 

1921 : Terrestrial and celestial globes ( 2 vols., New Haven, Yale; Isis 4, 549-53 ) . 

Sykes, Sir Percy Molesworth (1867-1945): 

1950: History of exploration from the earliest times to the present day (3rd ed., 
440 p.. New York). 

1st ed., 388 p., 25 pi., London 1934; Isis 26, 580; 2nd ed., 1936. 

Thomson, James Oliver: 

1948: History of ancient geography (438 p., Cambridge University; Isis 41, 244). 

Tozer, Henry Fanshawe (1829-1916): 

1897: History of ancient geography (406 p., 10 maps, Cambridge University 
Press ) . 

1935: Second ed. with notes by Max Gary (same text plus 34 p. of notes). 

Vivien de Saint Martin, Louis (1802-97): 

1873-74: Histoire de la geographic et des decouvertes geographiques (632 p., 
atlas of 13 pi., Paris). 

Weule, Karl (1864-1926): 

1904: Geschichte der Erdkenntnis und der geographischen Forschung (448 p., 
40 pi., 190 ill., Berhn). 

See the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, sections 30. Geodesy, 31. Geography 
and Oceanography. 

GFOLOGY, MINERALOGY, PALAEONTOLOGY 

Adams, Frank Dawson (1859-1942): 

1938: The birth and development of the geological sciences (510 p., 14 pi., Balti- 
more; Isis 32, 218-20). 



Geography and Geology 179 

Brewster, Edwin Tenney ( 1866- ) : 

1928: This puzzling planet. The earth's unfinished story; How men have read 
it in the past and the wayfarer may read it now (328 p., ill., Indianapolis; Isis 12, 
341-43). 

Cline, Walter: 

1937: Mining and metallurgy in Negro Africa ( 155 p., Menasha, Wisconsin; Isis 
28, 522-28). 

Davison, Charles (1858-1940): 

1927: The founders of seismology (254 p., Cambridge University; Isis 11, 254). 

Geikie, Sir Archibald (1835-1924): 

1905: The founders of geology. (2. ed. much increased, 498 p.; London). — 
First edition (307 p., London 1897; Baltimore 1901). 

Groth, Paul von ( 1843-1927 ) : 

1926: Entwicklungsgeschichte der mineralogischen Wissenschaften (266 p., 5 
fig., Berhn). 

Kobell, Franz von (1803-82): 

1864: Geschichte der Mineralogie, 1650-1860 (720 p., 50 fig., Munich). 

Launay, Louis de ( 1860-1938 ) : 

1905: La science geologique. Ses methodes, ses resultats, ses problemes, son 
histoire (750 p., Paris). 

1908: La conquete minerale (390 p., Paris). 

Mather, Kirtley F.; Mason, Shirley L.: 

1939: A source book in geology (724 p.. New York; Isis 31, 578). 

Margerie, Emmanuel de ( 1862- ) : 

1896: Catalogue des bibliographies geologiques (754 p., Paris). 

1943-48: Critique et geologic. Contribution a I'histoire des sciences de la terra 
(4 vols. Paris; Isis 36, 74-75; 38, 263; 40, 390). 

Metzger, Helena ( 1889-1944 ) : 

1918: La genese de la science des cristaux (248 p., Paris; Isis 3, 445-46). 

Meunier, Stanislas (1843-1925): 

1911: L'evolution des theories geologiques (364 p., Paris). 

Montessus de Ballore, Fernand de (1851-1923): 

1923: Ethnographic sismique et volcanique, ou Les tremblements de terre et les 
volcans dans la rehgion la mythologie et le folklore de tous les peuples (214 p., 
Paris). 

Rickard, Thomas Arthur ( 1864- ) : 

1932: Man and metals. History of mining in relation to the development of civi- 
lization (2 vols., 1080 p., ill., New York; Isis 21, 334-36). 

Tertsch, Hermann (1880- ): 

1947: Das Geheimnis der Kristallwelt (391 p., 12 pi, 48 fig., Wien). 

Zittel, Karl Alfred von (1839-1904): 

1901: History of geology and palaeontology to the end of the nineteenth century 
(575 p., 13 port., London). 

Translation of the German original text (Munich 1899). 

See the Critical BibUographies of Isis, section 32. Geology. 



180 History of Special Sciences 

METEOROLOGY 

Gilbert, Otto ( 1839- ) : 

1907: Die meteorologischen Theorien des griechischen Altertums (750 p., Leip- 
zig)- 

Hellmann, Gustav (1854-1934): 

1883: Reportorium der deutschen Meteorologie (22 p., 996 col., Leipzig). 

1921: Die Meteorologie in den deutschen Flugschriften und Flugblattern des 16. 
Jahrhunderts (96 p., Berlin; Isis 5, 224). 

1914-22: Beitrage zur Geschichte der Meteorologie (15 parts in 3 vols., Berlin; 
Isis, vols. 4 and 7, passim). 

Shaw, Sir William Napier (1854-1945): 

1926: Manual of meteorology. Vol. 1. Meteorology in history (359 p., 18 pi., 
Cambridge University Press). — New edition in 1932, reprinted in 1942. 

See Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 33. Meteorology. 

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 

Bastholm, E.: 

1950: History of muscle physiology (Acta historica scientiarum naturalium, vol. 
7,257 p. Copenhagen; Isis 42). 

Choulant, Ludwig (1791-1861): 

1920: History and bibhography of anatomic illustration in its relation to anatomic 
science and the graphic arts. Translated and edited by Mortimer Frank (quarto, 
463 p., ill., Chicago; Isis 4, 357-59). 

The original German edition appeared in 1852. 

Cole, Francis Joseph ( 1872- ) : 

1944: History of comparative anatomy from Aristotle to the eighteenth century. 
(532 p., ill., London; Isis 37, 112-14; 38, 264-66). 

Curtis-Bennett, Sir Noel: 

1949: The food of the people (320 p., 30 Hg., London). 

Duval, Mathias ( 1844-1907 ) : 

1898: Histoire de I'anatomie plastique. Les maitres, les hvres et les ecorches 
(364 p., 118 ill., Paris). 

Foster, Sir Michael (1836-1907): 

1901: Lectures on the history of physiology during the sixteenth, seventeenth, 
and eighteenth centuries (310 p., Cambridge University). 

These lectures were first delivered at the Cooper Medical College, San Francisco, 
1900. 

Franklin, Kenneth James (1897- ): 

1949: Short history of physiology (140 p., 16 ill., London; Isis 41, 404). First 
edition 1933 (Isis 24, 283). 

Fulton, John Farquhar ( 1899- ) : 

1930: Selected readings in the history of physiology (337 p., Springfield, Illinois; 
Isis 15, 386-88). 

1931: Physiology (Clio Medica 5, 158 p., 8 ill. New York; Isis 16, 174-76). 

Haller, Albrecht von (1708-77): 

1774-77: Bibliotheca anatomica. Quae scripta ad anatomen et physiologiam 
facientia a rerum initiis recensentur (2 vols., Ziirich). 

Hollander, Eugen ( 1867- ) : 

1921 : Wunder, Wundergeburt und Wundergestalt in Einblattdrucken des 15. bis 
18. Jahrhunderts (quarto, 390 p., 202 ill., Stuttgart; Isis 4, 506-07). 



Meteorology, Anatomy and Anthropology 181 

Hyrtl, Joseph (1811-94): 

1835: Antiquitates anatomicae rariores (121 p., Wien), 

Meyer, Arthur William ( 1873- ) : 

1939: The rise of embryology (384 p., Stanford University; Isis 32, 396-98, 478). 

Mondor, Henri ( 1885- ): . 

1949: Anatomistes et chirurgiens (546 p., Paris). 

Needham, Joseph ( 1900- ) : 

1934: History of embryology (292 p., ill., Cambridge; Isis 27, 98-102). 

Neuburger, Max ( 1868- ) : 

1897: Die historische Entwicklung der experimentellen Gehirn- und Riicken- 
marksphysiologie vor Flourens (387 p., Stuttgart). 

Schmidt, Eduard Oscar (1823-1886): 

1855: Die Entwicklung der vergleichenden Anatomic (146 p., Jena). 

Singer, Charles ( 1876- ) : 

1926: Evolution of anatomy. Short history of anatomical and physiological dis- 
covery to Harvey (Nevi: York; Isis 10, 521-24). 

Wegner, Richard N.: 

1939: Das Anatomenbildnis. Seine Entwicklung im Zusammenhang mit der 
anatomischen Abbildung (199 p., 105 fig., Basel). 

Weindler, Fritz: 

1908: Geschichte der gynakologisch-anatomischen Abbildung (202 p., 122 ill., 
Dresden). 

Willius, Frederick Arthur; Dry, Thomas J.: 

1948: History of the heart and the circulation (474 p., ill., Philadelphia; Isis 
40,392). 

See Critical Bibliographies of Isis, sections 34. Anatomy, 35. Physiology. 

ANTHROPOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, FOLKLORE 

For books dealing with the beginnings of definite sciences, say, astronomy or 
medicine, see the bibliographies relative to those sciences. 

Casson, Stanley (1889-1944): 

1939: The discovery of man. The story of the inquiry into human origins (339 
p., ill., London; Isis 33, 302-03). 

Count, Earl Wendel ( 1899- ) : 

1950: This is race, an anthology selected from the international literature on the 
races of man (775 p.. New York; Isis 41, 403). 

Dieserud, Juul: 

1908: Scope and content of the science of anthropology. Historical review, 
library classification and select, annotated bibliography (200 p., Chicago). 

Haddon, Alfred Cort ( 1855-1940; Isis 35, 36-37 ) : 

1910: History of anthropology (226 p., ill., London). 

1934: Revised edition in the Thinker's Library, no. 42 (158 p., ill., London; Isis 
25,291). 

Kroeber, Alfred Louis (1876- ): 

1944: Configurations of culture grovvth (892 p., Berkeley, Calif.; Isis 37, 118-19). 

Lovrie, Robert Harry ( 1883- ) : 

1937: History of ethnological theory (308 p.. New York; Isis 29, 475-77). 



182 History of Special Sciences 

Muehlmann, Wilhelm Emil ( 1904- ) : 

1948: Geschichte der Anthropologic (274 p., Bonn; Isis 41, 403). 

Penniman, Thomas Kenneth: 

1935: A hundred years of anthropology (400 p., London; Isis 26, 229-32) 

Quatrefages, Armand de ( 1810-92) : 

1867: Rapport sur les progres de I'anthropologie (574 p., Paris). 

Thompson, Stith ( 1885- ): 

1932-36: Motif-index of folk-literature. A classification of narrative elements in 
folktales, ballads, myths, fables, mediaeval romances, examples, fabliaux, jest-books 
and local legends ( 6 vols. Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana; Isis 20, 607; 28. 
602). 

1946: The folktale (520 p., New York; Isis 37, 267). 

See the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, sections 35. Physical Anthropology, 39. Pre- 
history, 40. Ethnology, 41, Superstitution and Occultism. 

PSYCHOLOGY 

Baldwin, James Mark (1861-1934): 

1913: History of psychology (2 small vols. New York). 

Boring, Edwin Garrigues ( 1886- ) : 

1929: History of experimental psychology (715 p., New York). Revised ed. 
(777 p., New York 1950). 

1942: Sensation and perception in the history of experimental psychology (660 
p.. New York). 

Brett, George Sidney (1879-1944; Isis 36, 110-14): 

1912-21: History of psychology (3 vols., London; Isis 4, 376-78). 

Dennis, Wayne (1905- ) (editor): 

1948: Readings in the history of psychology (598 p., tables, New York). 

Dessoir, Max (1867- ): 

1912: Outlines of the history of psychology (308 p.. New York). — German origi- 
nal (Heidelberg 1911). 

Flugel, John Carl ( 1884- ) : 

1933: A hundred years of psychology, 1833-1933 (384 p., New York; Isis 23, 
597). 

Hall, Granville Stanley (1844-1924): 

1912: Founders of modern psychology (475 p., New York). — Reprinted 1924. 

Hulin, Wilbur Schofield ( 1899- ) : 

1934: Short history of psychology ( 195 p., New York). 

Klemm, Otto ( 1884- ) : 

1914: History of psychology (394 p.. New York). — German original edition (398 
p., Berlin 1911). 

Mercier, Desir^ (cardinal, 1851-1926): 

1918: Origins of contemporary psychology (New York). — French original ed. 
(498 p., Louvain 1897); 2nd ed. 1908. 

Muller-Freienfels, Richard ( 1882- ) : 

1935: Evolution of modern psychology (New Haven, Yale). — German original 
ed. (Leipzig 1929). 

Murphy, Gardner ( 1895- ) : 

1929: Historical introduction to modern psychology (New York). — Rev. ed. 1949 
(480 p., New York). 



Psychology and Philosophy 183 

Pillsbury, Walter Bowers ( 1872- ) : 

1929: History of psychology (326 p., New York). 

See the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 37. Psychology. 

PHILOSOPHY 

Out of a great many books only a few could be listed here for the convenience 
not of the historian of philosophy but rather of the historian of science. 

Alexander, Archibald Browning Drysdale ( 1855-1931 ) : 

1907: Short history of philosophy (624 p., Glasgow). — Second enlarged ed. (664 
p., Glasgow 1922), reprinted 1934. 

Br^hier, Emile ( 1876- ) : 

1926-38: Histoire de la philosophic (8 parts, Paris; Isis 19, 557, etc.). 

De Wulf, Maurice ( 1867-1947) : 

1909: History of medieval philosophy (532 p., London). — New ed., 2 vol. 1926, 
Srd ed. 1935-38.— Original French ed. Louvain (488 p., 1900), 6th ed. 3 vols. 
Louvain 1934-47. 

Fischer, Kuno (1824-1907): 

1854-77: Geschichte der neuern Philosophic (6 vols., Mannheim). Second 
ed. (6 vols., Heidelberg 1865-77). Later ed. (10 vols., Heidelberg 1897-1911). 

Fuller, Benjamin Apthorp Gould (1879- ): 

1938: History of philosophy (2 pts. 1105 p.. New York).— Rev. ed. 1945 
(1000 p.). 

Gilson, Etienne ( 1884- ) : 

1922: La philosophic au Moyen age (2 small vols. 326 p., Paris; Isis 5, 537). — 
Second ed. revised and much increased (782 p., Paris 1944). 

1936: The spirit of mediaeval philosophy (GiflFord Lectures 1931-32, 500 p.. 
New York).— Original French ed. (299 p., Paris 1932); 2nd ed. (450 p., Paris 1944). 

H0ffding, Harald ( 1843-1931 ) : 

1900-8: History of modern philosophy (2 vols. London). — Reprinted 1915, 1924. 
— First published in Danish (2 vols. Copenhagen 1894-95). 

1915: Modern philosophers (320 p., London). — Lectures delivered in Copen- 
hagen in 1902, 1913. 

Masson-Oursel, Paul ( 1882- ) : 

1926: Comparative philosophy (218 p., London). — French original, Paris 1923 
(Isis 6, 99-104). 

Papillon, Fernand (1847-74): 

1876: Histoire de la philosophie pioderne dans ses rapports avec le developpe- 
ment des sciences de la nature. Ouvrage posthume, public par Charles Leveque, 
avec une notice biographique (2 vols., 830 p., Paris). 

Remarkable work vnritten by a very young man under the influence of Leibnez. 

Picavet, Francois ( 1851-1921 ) : 

1905: Esquisse d'une histoire generale et comparee des philosophies m^dievales 
(400 p., Paris). 

Russell, Bertrand Arthur William ( 1872- ) : 

1945: History of Western philosophy (918 p.. New York; Isis 38, 268-70). 

Sortais, Gaston (S. J.): 

1912: Histoire de la philosophie ancienne (645 p., Paris). 

Extends to the Renaissance, included. 

1920-22: La philosophie moderne depuis Bacon jusqua Leibniz (2 vols. Paris). 



184 History of Special Sciences 

Incomplete. The author deals with the sixteenth century then with Bacon, Gas- 

SENDI and HOBBES. 

Ueberweg, Friedrich (1826-71): 

1863-66: Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophic von Thales bis auf die Gegen- 
wart (3 vols., BerHn). 

Many editions more and more elaborate. 12th ed. in 5 vols. 1923-28. The 4th 
ed. was translated into Enghsh (2 vols.. New York 1871-73; reprinted 1903). For 
up-to-date information, one must refer to the German text. 

Weber, Alfred (1835-1914): 

1896: History of philosophy. Translated from the 5th French ed. ( 642 p., New 
York). — New edition of that translation completed by Ralph Barton Perry (628 
p., New York 1925).— First French ed. (610 p., Paris 1872); 9th ed. 1925. 

See the Critical Bibhographies of Isis, section 48. Philosophy. 

MEDICINE 

History of general medicine and also of a few medical branches, except Dentis- 
try, Epidemics, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Pharmacy, Veterinary Medicine, dealt 
with separately below. 

Artelt, Walter ( 1906- ): 

1949: Einfiihrung in die Medizinhistorisk. Ihr Wesen, ihre Arbeitsweise und 
ihre Hilfsmittel. (248 p., Stuttgart; Isis 42). 

Baas, Johann Hermann ( 1838-1909) : 

1889: Outlines of the history of medicine and the medical profession (1183 p., 
New York). 

The original German edition appeared in Stuttgart, 1876. 

1896: Die geschichtliche Entwicklung des arztlichen Standes und der medizini- 
schen Wissenschaften (492 p., ill., Berlin). 

Bartels, Max (1843-1904): 

1893: Die Medizin der Naturvolker (373 p., 175 ill., Leipzig). 

Buck, Albert Henry (1842-1922): 

1917: The growth of medicine to 1800 (600 p., ill., New Haven). 

1920: The dawn of modern medicine (308 p., ill.. New Haven). — Deals with 
XVIII (2), XIX (1). 

Bullock, William ( 1868-1941 ) : 

1938: History of bacteriology (434 p., ill., London; Isis 31, 480-82). 

Castiglioni, Arturo (1874- ; Isis 36, 61; 38, 131): 

1927: Storia della medicina (972 p., 389 fig., Milano; Isis 13, 251). 

1931: Histoire de la medecine (781 p., 279 fig., Paris; Isis 16, 468-71). 

1936: Storia della medicina (857 p., ill., Milano; Isis 27, 536-38). 

1941: History of medicine (1036 p., 40 pi., New York). — Revised edition (1283 
p., New York 1947). 

1948: Storia della medicina (revised ed. in 2 vols., 1018 p., 516 fig., 10 col. pi., 
Verona ) . 

Choulant, Johann Ludwig ( 1791-1861 ) : 

1828: Handbuch der Biicherkunde fiir die altere Medizin (212 p., Leipzig), 2nd 
ed. (455 p., Leipzig 1841). Anastatic reprint of that edition (Miinchen 1926). 

1842: Bibliotheca medico-historica; sive, Catalogus librorum historicum de re 
medica et scientia naturali systematicus ( 279 p., Leipzig ) . 

Cumston, Charles Greene ( 1868-1928) : 

1926: Introduction to the history of medicine to the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury (422 p., 24 pi., London; Isis 10, 303). 



Medicine 185 

Gushing, Harvey (1869-1939; Isis 37, 92-93): 

1943: The Harvey Gushing Gollection of books and manuscripts (223 p., New 
York; Isis 35, 338-41). 

Daremberg, Gharles Victor (1817-72): 

1865: La medecine, histoire et doctrines. Second ed. (516 p., Paris). 
1870. Histoire des sciences medicales (2 vols., Paris). 

Desnos, Ernest ( 1852- ) : 

1914: Histoire de I'urologie (Encyclopedic frangaise d'urologie, tome 1, 294 p., 
ill., Paris; Isis 2, 466). 

Diepgen, Paul (1878- ): 

1913-28: Geschichte der Medizin (5 little vols, of the ^ammlung Goschen, 
Berlin). 

1949: Geschichte der Medizin. Die historische Entwicklung der Heilkunde und 
des arztlichen Lebens. 1. Band. Von den Anfangen bis zur Mitte des 18. Jahr- 
hunderts (355 p., 29 fig., Berlin 1949; Isis 42, 166). 

Dock, Lavinia L.: 

1920: Short history of nursing (New York ) .—Second ed. 1925; Srd ed. 1931 
(418 p.; Isis 4, 635). 

Abridgment of the history of nursing by Nutting and Dock. 

Dumesnil, Rene (1879- ); Bonnet-Roy, Flavien (editors): 

1947: Les medecins celebres (quarto, 372 p., ill., Geneve). 

Duncum, Barbara M.: 

1947: Development of inhalation anaesthesia (656 p., ill., Wellcome Museum, 
London; Isis 38, 131-33). 

Freind, John ( 1675-1728) (Isis 27, 453-71; 29, 100): 

1725-26: History of physick to the beginning of the sixteenth century (2 vols., 
London). — Vol. 1, 1725 is a 2nd ed. corrected; 4th ed. (2 vols. 1750). 

Galdston, lago (editor): 

1949: Social medicine (310 p.. New York; Isis 40, 397). 

Garrison, Fielding Hudson (1870-1935): 

1913: Introduction to the history of medicine (763 p., Philadelphia). — Third ed. 
1921 (942 p., 237 fig., Philadelphia; Isis 4, 554-56); 4th ed. 1929 (996 p., 286 fig., 
Philadelphia; Isis 13, 137-38). 

Graham, Harvey: 

1939: The story of surgery (425 p., 23 pi.. New York; Isis 32, 489). 
Graham is the pseudonym of an English physician Isaac Harvey Flack 
(1912- ). 

Grasset, Hector: 

1911: La medecine naturiste a travers les siecles. Histoire de la physiotherapie 
(468 p., Paris). 

Gurlt, Ernst Julius ( 1825-1899 ) : 

1898: Geschichte der Ghirurgie (3 vols., Berlin). 

Guthrie, Douglas ( 1885- ) : 

1945: History of medicine (464 p., 72 pi., London). 

Haagensen, Gushman Davis ( 1900- ) ; Lloyd, Wyndham Edward Buckley: 

1943: A hundred years of medicine. New edition (456 p.. New York). — First 
ed. 1936, by Lloyd alone. 

Haeser, Heinrich (1811-84): 

1845: Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Medizin und der Volkskrankheiten (955 p., 



186 History of Special Sciences 

Jena).— Second ed. (2 vols. Jena 1853-65); 3rd ed. (3 vols. Jena 1875-82). Vol. 1, 
1875, antiquity and middle ages; vol. 2, 1881, modern times; vol. 3, 1882 epidemics. 

Haller, Albrecht von (1708-77): 

1774-75: Bibliotheca chirurgica. Quae scripta ad artem chirurgicam facientia 
a rerum initiis recensentur (2 vols. Bern). Vol. 1, to 1710; vol. 2, 1710 to 1774. 

1776-88: Bibliotheca medicinae practicae, Quae scripta ad partem medicinae 
practicam facientia a rerum initiis . . . recensentur (4 vols., Bern). 

Harley, George Way: 

1941: Native African medicine (310 p., Cambridge, Mass.; Isis 34, 187-89). 

Hemmeter, John Conrad ( 1864-1931 ) : 

1927: Master minds in medicine (794 p., ill., New York). 

Herrick, James Bryan (1861- ): 

1942: Short history of cardiology (274 p., 48 pi., Springfield, Ilhnois; Isis 34, 
530). 

Hirschberg, Julius (1843-1925): 

1899-1915: Geschichte der Augenheilkunde (Leipzig). 

Pubhshed passim in the Graefe-Saemisch Handbuch der gesamten Augenheil- 
kunde. 

Hofler, Max (1848-1914): 

1908: Die volksmedizinische Organotherapie und ihr Verhaltnis zum Kultopfer 
(310 p., Stuttgart). 

Hollander, Eugen ( 1867- ) : 

1903: Die Medizin in der klassischen Malerei (288 p., 165 ill., 30 cm., Stuttgart). 
—Second ed. 1913 (497 p., ill, Stuttgart); 3rd ed. 1923 (502 p., 307 ill. Stuttgart). 

1905: Die Karikatur und Satire in der Medizin. Mediko-kunsthistorische Studie 
(370 p., 223 ill., 30 cm., Stuttgart ) .—Second ed. 1921 (420 p., 11 pi., 251 fig., 
Stuttgart; Isis 4, 370). 

1912: Plastik und Medizin (584 p., 434 ill., Stuttgart). 

1928: Askulap und Venus (495 p., 330 ill., Berlin; Isis 11, 560). 

Hovorka, Oskar von (1866- ): 

1915: Geist der Medizin. Analytische Studien iiber die Grundideen der Vor- 
medizin, Urmedizin, Volksmedizin, Zaubermedizin, Berufsmedizin ( 372 p., Wien; Isis 
4, 202). 

Hovorka, Oskar von; Kronfeld, A. (editors): 

1908-9: Vergleichende Volksmedizin (2 vols., Stuttgart). 

Hubotter, Franz: 

1920: 3000 Jahre Medizin (Quarto, 536 p., ill. handwriting mimeographed, Ber- 
lin; Isis 4, 369-70). 

Keys, Thomas Edward ( 1908- ) : 

1945: The history of surgical anesthesia (221 p.. New York; Isis 37, 122). 

Laignel-Lavastine, Maxima (1875- ) (editor): 

1936-49: Histoire generale de la medecine, de la pharmacie, de I'art dentaire et 
de I'art veterinaire (quarto, 3 vols., richly ill., Paris). 

Libby, Walter ( 1867- ) : 

1922: History of medicine in its salient features (438 p., 9 pi., Boston; Isis 5, 
478-79). 

Long, Esmond Ray ( 1890- ) : 

1928: History of pathology (315 p., Baltimore; Isis 12, 436). 

1929: Selected readings in pathology from Hippocrates to VmcHOw (315 p., 
25 pL, Springfield, Illinois; Isis 15, 490). 



Medicine 187 

Major, Ralph Hermon (1884- ): 

1932: Classic descriptions of disease (660 p., 127 ill., Springfield, Illinois; Isis 19, 
518-20).— Third ed. (711 p., 1945; Isis 36, 237). 

Mettler, Cecilia Charlotte (1909-43): 

1947: History of medicine. A correlative text arranged according to subjects 
(1244 p., 16 ill., Philadelphia; Isis 40, 88-90). 

Meunier, Louis ( 1870- ) : 

1911: Histoire de la medecine (648 p., Paris). 

Meyer-Steineg, Theodor (1873- ); SudhofI, Karl: 

1921: Geschichte der Medizin im Uberblick mit Abbildungen (444 p., 208 ill., 
Jena; Isis 4, 368).— Second ed. 1922 (450 p., ill., Jena; Isis 5, 188). 3rd ed., 1928. 

Neuburger, Max ( 1868- ) : 

1901-5: (editor with JtrLius Pagel). Handbuch der Geschichte der Medizin 
(3 vols., Jena). 

Elaborate textbook of medical history founded by Theodor Puschmann ( 1847- 
99). Vol. 1, 1902. Antiquity and Middle Ages, vols. 2-3, 1903-5. Modern times. 

1906-11: Geschichte der Medizin (2 vols., Stuttgart). — To the fifteenth century, 
no others published. 

1910-25: History of medicine (2 vols., London; Isis 9, 486-89). — Partial and re- 
vised translation of the German text. 

Nutting, Mary Adelaide (1858- ); Dock, Lavinia L.: 

1907'-12: History of nursing (4 vols.. New York), 

Osier, Sir William ( 1849-1919; Isis 8, 358-61 ) : 

1921: The evolution of modern medicine. Yale lectures (260 p., ill.. New 
Haven; Isis 4, 556-57). 

1929: Bibliotheca Osleriana, a catalogue of books illustrating the history of medi- 
cine and of science (822 p., Oxford). 

Pagel, Julius Leopold ( 1851-1912 ) : 

1898: Geschichte der Medizin (2 vols., Berlin). 

1908: Zeittafeln zur Geschichte der Medizin (Berlin). 

1915: Einfiihrung in die Geschichte der Medizin. 2te. Aufl. durchgesehen 
durch Karl Sudhoff (632 p., BerUn; Isis 4, 202). 

1922: Third ed. appearing imder Sudhoff's name (542 p., Berhn; Isis 5, 188). 

See Neuburger, above. 

Pazzini, Adalberto: 

1947: Storia della medicina (2 vols., ill., Milano). 

Politzer, Adam (1835-1920): 

1907-13: Geschichte der Ohrenheilkunde (2 vols., Stuttgart). 

Power, Sir D'Arcy ( 1855-1941 ) : 

1923: Chronologia medica (282 p., ill., London). 

Pusey, William Allen (1865-1940): 

1933: History of dermatology (240 p., ill., Springfield, Illinois; Isis 20, 504-05). 

Rosen, George: 

1943: History of miners' diseases (490 p., ill.. New York; Isis 36, 239). 
1947 (with Beate Caspari-Rosen ) : 400 Years of a doctor's life (446 p., New 
York; Isis 39, 130). 

Ruhrah, John (1872-1935): 

1925: Pediatrics of the past (617 p., 18 pi. 54 fig.. New York; Isis 8, 386-88). 



188 History of Special Sciences 

Sand, Rene: 

1948: Vers la medecine sociale (672 p., Paris; Isis 40, 90). 

Schullian, Dorothy M,; Schoen, Max (editors): 

1948: Music and medicine (509 p., 18 ill., New York; Isis 40, 299). 

Schwalbe, Ernst: 

1905: Vorlesungen iiber Geschichte der Medizin (Jena). — Second ed. 1909; 3rd 
ed. 1920 (191 p.; Isis 4, 557). — Very simplified account. 

Scott, Henry Harold: 

1939: History of tropical medicine (2 vols., London; Isis 32, 490). 

Shryock, Richard Harrison ( 1893- ) : 

1936: The development of modern medicine, an interpretation of the social and 
scientific factors involved (458 p., 7 ill., Philadelphia; Isis 27, 538-39). 

1947: American medical research, past and present (364 p.. New York; Isis 39, 
201-02). 

Sigerist, Henry Ernest ( 1891- ) : 

1933: The great doctors (436 p., New York). — Translated from the German 
(Miinchen 1932). 

1951: History of medicine (vol. 1, 586 p., 104 ill.. New York; Isis 42). 

Work to be completed in 8 volumes. Vol. 1 deals with primitive and archaic 
(Egyptian, Mesopotamian ) medicine. 

Singer, Charles ( 1876- ) : 

1928: Short history of medicine (392 p., 142 ill., Oxford, Clarendon Press; Isis 
13,254). 

Sprengel, Kurt Polykarp Joachim (1766-1833): 

1821-37: Versuch einer pragmatischen Geschichte der Arzneykunde (Srd ed., 
6 vols, in 7, Halle). 4th ed. of vol. 1 (662 p., Leipzig 1846). 

Sudhoff, Karl (1853-1938): 

1922: Kurzes Handbuch der Geschichte der Medizin. 3. und 4. Auflage von 
J. L. Pagels Einfiihrung (542 p., Berhn; Isis 5, 188). 

Wrote two treatises on the history of medicine, the first in collaboration with 
Meyer-Steineg, the second in the form of a revised edition of Pagel's treatise. See 
notes on Meyer-Steineg and Pagel. 

Thompson, Charles John Samuel (1862-1943): 

1928: The quacks of old London (356 p., London). 

Vierordt, Hermann (1853-1943): 

1916: Medizin-geschichtliches Hilfsbuch mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung der 
Entdeckungsgeschichte und der Biographic (469 p., Tiibingen; Isis 3, 365). 

Walsh, James Joseph (1865-1942): 

1912: Psychotherapy, including the history of the use of mental influence . . . 
in heahng ... (821 p.. New York ) .—Revised ed. (875 p.. New York, 1923). 

Weyl, Theodor (1851-1913): 

1904: Zur Geschichte der sozialen Hygiene (Handbuch der Hygiene, 4. Supp. 
Bd., 791-1046, 8 ill., 2 pi, Jena). 

1910: Histoire de I'hygiene sociale (480 p., 8 ill., 2 pi., Paris). — French transla- 
tion of the German work. 

Willius, Frederick Arthur: 

1941 (with Thomas E. Keyes): Cardiac classics. A collection of classic works 
on the heart and circulation (878 p., St. Louis). 

1948 (with Thomas J. Dry): History of the heart and the circulation (456 p., 
170 ill., Philadelphia). 



Medicine, Dentistry and Epidemiology 189 

Wise, Thomas Alexander (1801-89): 

1867: Review of the history of medicine (2 vols., London). 
Running title: History of medicine among the Asiatics. 

Withington, Edward Theodore: 

1894: Medical history from the earhest times (432 p., London). 

Wright, Jonathan ( 1860-1928 ) : 

1914: History of laryngology and rhinology. — Second ed. revised (358 p., Phila- 
delphia). 

DENTISTRY 

Geist-Jacobi, George Pierce: 

1896: Geschichte der Zahnheilkunde (262 p., ill., Tiibingen). 

Guerini, Vincenzo: 

1909: A history of dentistry until the end of the eighteenth century (355 p., 
104 fig., 20 pi., Philadelphia). 

Koch, Charles Rudolph Edward (editor): 

1909: History of dental surgery (2 vols., Chicago). 

Lufkin, Arthur Ward: 

1948: History of dentistry {2nd ed. rev., 367 p., 104 ill., Philadelphia ) .—First 
ed. 1938 (255 p., 90 ill.). 

SudhofiF, Karl ( 1853-1938) : 

1926: Geschichte der Zahnheilkunde (Znd ed., 230 p., 134 fig., Leipzig; Isis 9, 
599). First ed., 1921. 

Weinberger, Bemhard Wolf: 

1948: Introduction to the history of dentistry (2 vols., 922 p., 430 ill., St. Louis; 
Isis 40, 299-301). — Vol. 2 deals with the history of dentistry in America. 

EPIDEMIOLOGY 

Creighton, Charles ( 1847-1927 ) : 

1891-94: History of epidemics in Great Britain (2 vols., Cambridge). 

Haeser, Heinrich (1811-84): 

1862: Bibliotheca epidemiographica, sive, Catalogus librorum de historia mor- 
borum epidemicorum cum generali tum speciali conscriptorum. Editio altera aucta 
at prorsus recognita (245 p., Greifswald). — First ed. Jena 1843. 

1882: Geschichte der epidemischen Krankheiten (Third vol. of his Lehrbuch der 
Geschichte der Medizin, 1875-82; 911 p., Jena). 

Hecker, Justus Friedrich Karl ( 1795-1850) : 

1835: Epidemics of the Middle Ages (London, Sydenham Society). — Reprinted 
1837, 1844, 1846, 1849.— German edition by August Hirsch, Berlin 1865. 

Newsholme, Sir Arthur ( 1857- ) : 

1927: The evolution of preventive medicine (242 p., Baltimore). 

1929: The story of modern preventive medicine (308 p., Baltimore). Continu- 
ation of the preceding work. 

Prinzing, Friedrich ( 1859- ) : 

1916: Epidemics resulting from wars (352 p., edited by Harald Westergaard. 
Oxford, Clarendon Press; Isis 5, 297). 

Proksch, Johann Karl ( 1840- ) : 

1895: Die Geschichte der venerischen Krankheiten (2 vols., Bonn). 



190 History of Special Sciences 

Stearn, Esther (Wagner); Steam, Allen Edwin: 

1945: The effect of smallpox on the destiny of the Amerindian (153 p., Boston; 
Isis37, 124). 

Sticker, Georg (1860- ): 

1908-12: Abhandlungen aus der Seuchengeschichte und Seuchenlehre (2 vol. in 
3, Giessen).— Vol. 1 in 2 parts, 1908-10, History of the plague.— Vol. 2, 596 p., 1912. 
History of cholera. 

Winslow, Charles Edward Amory (1877- ): 

1943: The conquest of epidemic disease (424 p., Princeton, N. J., Isis 35, 347). 

Zinsser, Hans (1878-1940): 

1935: Rats, lice and history (312 p., Boston). History of typhus fever. 

GYNAECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS 

Diepgen, Paul ( 1878- ) : 

1937: Geschichte der Frauenheilkunde (Handbuch der Gynakologie, hrg. v. W. 
Stoeckel; vol. 12, Miinchen). — 1. Teil, Die Frauenheilkunde der alten Welt (358 p., 
ill.; Isis 28, 123-26). 

Engelmann, Georg Julius (1847-1903): 

1883: Labor among primitive peoples {2nd ed. rev. 246 p., St. Louis). — German 
transl. (212 p., Wien 1884). 

Fasbender, Heinrich (1843-1914): 

1906: Geschichte der Geburtshilfe (1044 p., Jena). — ^Very elaborate history. 

Findley, Palmer ( 1868- ) : 

1939: Priests of Lucina (436 p., ill., Boston; Isis 32, 489). 

La Torre, Felice (1846-1923): 

1917: L'utero attraverso i secoh (852 p., ill., Citta di Castello; Isis 5, 279). 

Leonardo, Richard A.: 

1944: History of gynecology (454 p., 25 pi., New York; Isis 37, 123). 

Ricci, James Vincent (1890- ): 

1949: The development of gynaecological surgery and instruments (604 p., 
Philadelphia; Isis 42). 

1950: The genealogy of gynaecology. History of the development of gynaecology 
(599 p., Philadelphia; Isis 42). 

Siebold, Eduard Kaspar Jakob v. ( 1801-61 ) : 

1839-45: Versuch einer Geschichte der Geburtshiilfe (2 vols. Berlin). — Revised 
ed. (2 vols. Tiibingen 1901-2). — Continuation by Rudolf Dohrn, for the period 
1840-80, forming vol. 3 (in 2 parts, Tubingen 1903-4). 

Thorns, Herbert ( 1885- ) : 

1935: Classical contributions to obstetrics and gynecology (289 p., ill., Spring- 
field, Illinois; Isis 25, 174-75). 

Weindler, Fritz: 

1908: Geschichte der gynakologisch-anatomischen Abbildungen (202 p., ill., 
Dresden ) . 

Witkowski, Gustave Joseph (1844- ): 

1887: Histoire des accouchements chez tons les peuples (728 p., 1584 fig. Paris). 

The author wrote many other books dealing with obstetrics and medicine from 
the anecdotic and iconographic points of view. 



Gynaecology, Pharmacy and Vet. Medicine 191 

PHARMACY AND TOXICOLOGY 

Andre-Pontier, L.: 

1900: Histoire de la pharmacie (750 p., Paris). 

Benedicenti, Alberico: 

1924-25: Malati, medici e farmacisti. Storia dei remedi traverse i secoli e delle 
teorie che ne spiegano I'azione suH'organismo (2 vols., Milano; Isis 8, 650; 13, 257). 
2nd ed., 1946. 

Berendes, Julius (1836-1914): 

1891: Die Pharmacie bei den alten Culturvolkern (2 vols., Halle a. S.). 
1907: Das Apothekenwesen (378 p., Stuttgart). 

Kremers, Edward (1865-1941); Urdang, George: 

1940: History of pharmacy (476 p., 30 ill., Philadelphia; Isis 33, 307-08). 

Lewin, Louis ( 1850- ) : 

1920: Die Gifte in der Weltgeschichte (612 p., Berlin; Isis 4, 371-73). 

1931: Phantastica, narcotic and stimulating drugs (346 p.. New York). — German 
original ed. (Berlin 1924). 

Peters, Hermann (1847-1920): 

1886-89: Aus pharmazeutischer Vorzeit (2 vols., 532 p., Berlin). — Third ed., 
vol. 1, Berlin 1910. — Partial English translation of vol. 1 by William Netter: 
Pictorial history of ancient pharmacy (200 p., Chicago 1889). 

PhiUippe, Adrien (1801-58): 

1853: Histoire des apothicaires chez les principaux peuples du monde (460 p., 
Paris ) . 

Schelenz, Hermann (1848-1922): 

1904: Geschichte der Pharmazie (944 p., Berlin). 

Wootton, A. C.: 

1910: Chronicles of pharmacy (2 vols., ill., London). 

VETERINARY MEDICINE 

Eichbaum, Friedrich: 

1885: Grundriss der Geschichte der Thierheilkunde (336 p., Berhn). — Mostly 
bibliography. 

Leclainche, Emmanuel (1861- ): 

1936: Histoire de la medecine veterinaire (828 p., Toulouse; Isis 27, 360-63). 

Moule, Leon (1849-1922): 

1891-1911: Histoire de la medecineveterinaire jusqu'au XVI. siecle (in 4 parts, 

684 p., Paris). 

Postolka, August: 

1887: Geschichte der Thierheilkunde (2nd ed., 409 p., Wien). 

Smith, Sir Frederick (1857- ): 

1919-30: Early history of veterinary literature and its British development to 
1700 (vol. 1, 378 p., 27 fig., London, Isis 3, 307).— Vol. 1 goes to the seventeenth 
century, inclusive. 3 vols, published. 

See the Critical Bibfiographies of Isis, sections 50 to 53. 



192 History of Special Sciences 

EDUCATION 

There are many recent textbooks on the history of education, too many to be 
quoted here. Those listed will be more than sufficient for the reader's general 
purpose. For the history of universities, see Rashdall and Irsay. A great many 
books are devoted to the history of each separate university. Scholars studying the 
life and work of a man of science are advised to consult the histories of the universi- 
ties and academies of which he was a member. 

Boyd, William: 

1921: History of western education (454 p., London). — Fourth ed., 1947. 

Cubberley, Ellwood Patterson (1868- ): 

1920: History of education (873 p., ill., Boston). 

1920: Readings in the history of education (710 p., ill., Boston). 

1922: Brief history of education (484 p., ill., Boston). 

De Hovre, Frans (1884- ); Breckx, Leon: 

1936: Les maitres de la pedagogie contemporaine (590 p., ill., Bruges). 

Graves, Frank Pierrepont ( 1869- ): 

1909: History of education before the Middle Ages (318 p., New York). 

1910: History of education during the Middle Ages and the transition to modern 
times (343 p.. New York). 

1913: History of education in modern times (425 p.. New York). 

1915: A student's history of education (478 p.. New York). 

Hambly, Wilfrid Dyson (1886- ): 

1926: Origins of education among primitive peoples, a comparative study in 
racial development ( London ) . 

Irsay, Stephen d' ( 1894-1934; Isis 24, 370-74) : 

1933-35: Histoire des universites frangaises et etrangeres des origines a nos jours. 
(2 vols., Paris). 

1933: Vol. 1, Moyen Age et Renaissance. 

1935: Vol. 2, Du XVIe siecle a 1860. 

Monroe, Paul (1869-1947): 

1905: Textbook in the history of education (795 p., ill.. New York). — Often 
reprinted. 

1907: A brief course in the history of education (431 p., ill.. New York). — Often 
reprinted. 

Rashdall, Hastings (1858-1924): 

1936: The universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. New ed. in 3 vols, by 
F. M. PowiCKE and A. B. Emden (Clarendon Press, Oxford). 

Vol. 1, Salerno, Bologna, Paris. Vol. 2, Italy, Spain, France, Germany, Scotland, 
etc. Vol. 3, English universities. Student life. — First edition 1895, 2 vols, in 3. 

Schroteler, Joseph (1886- ) {editor): 

1934: Die Padagogik der nichtchristlichen Kulturvolker (399 p., Miinchen). 

Ulich, Robert (1890- ): 

1945: History of educational thought (424 p., New York). 

1947: Three thousand years of educational wisdom. Selections from great docu- 
ments (624 p., Cambridge, Harvard University; Isis 38, 272). 

Woody, Thomas (1897- ): 

1949: Life and education in early societies (825 p., ill.. New York). 

See the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, sections 54 to 57. 



Education, Sociology and Preh. Archaeology 193 

SOCIOLOG Y 

Ayala, Francisco (1906- ): 

1947: Historia de la sociologia (3 vols., Buenos Aires). 

Barnes, Harry Elmer ( 1889- ) (editor): 

1938: Social thought from lore to science (2 vols. Boston). 
1948: Introduction to the history of sociology (976 p., Chicago). 

Bogardus, Emery Stephen (1882- ): 

1940: Development of social thought (572 p., New York; 2d ed. 608 p., 1949). 

De Greef, Guillaume (1842-1924): 

1895: Evolution des croyances et des doctrines politiques (330 p., Bruxelles). 

Ellwood, Charles Abram (1873-1946): 

1938: Story of social philosophy (592 p.. New York). — Reprinted 1947. 

Furfey, Paul Hanly (1896- ): 

1942: History of social thought (480 p., New York). 

Lichtenberger, James Pendleton (1870- ): 

1923: Development of social theory (495 p.. New York). — Reprinted 1925, 1938. 

Muller-Lyer, Franz (1857-1916): 

1920: History of social development (362 p., London). — Reprinted 1935. 

Sarkar, Benoy Kumar (1887- ): 

1922: The political institutions and theories of the Hindus, a study in compara- 
tive pohtics (266 p., Leipzig). 

1928: The political philosophies [in India] since 1905 (404 p., Madras). 

Todd, Arthur James (1878-1948): 

1918: Theories of social progress (592 p., New York). — Reprinted in 1922. 
See the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 43. Sociology. 

PREHISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY 

Daniel, Glyn E.: 

1950: A hundred years of archaeology (344 p., New York; Isis 41, 405). 
See the Critical Bibliographies of Isis, section 39. Prehistory. 



20. JOURNALS AND SERIALS CONCERNING THE HISTORY 
(AND PHILOSOPHY) OF SCIENCE 

(by George Sarton and Claudius F. Mayer) 

This is an edition revised and considerably extended of the Bibliographie 
synthetique des revues et des collections de livres (Isis 2, 125-61, 1914). The ar- 
rangement is different: the items were subdivided by general subjects in the list of 
1914; in the present list they are put in alphabetical order of titles. The items 
described are called journals and serials, not periodicals; indeed, though some of 
them appeared periodically, many others were aperiodic, or their periodicity was 
very irregular. 

The reader may be astonished by the great number of items recorded in this list, 
yet it is ahnost certainly incomplete. We are confident that the most important items 
have been included ( almost all of them have been examined by one of us ) ; it is prob- 
able that in spite of every effort some items have eluded the authors' attention; it is 
highly probable that those unmentioned are not very important, at any rate, as far 
as the international reader is concerned ( indeed, the omitted items are very likely to 
be written in languages which do not enjoy any international currency ) . 

Such a list should be used critically. The author does not wish to separate the 
important items from the unimportant ones, or the more important from the less 
important, because such a distinction is always somewhat subjective. The reader 
must be warned that the length of a description is independent of the merit of an 
item. Poor items often require a longer description than rich ones. The edition 
and publication of journals or series often imphed many irregularities (changes of 
title or subtitle, editors, publishers, purpose, scope, periodicity); it would require 
much space to indicate these irregularities even in an abbreviated and imperfect 
manner; to describe them completely would be endless. 

The hst includes only (with few exceptions) series exclusively devoted to the 
history of science; other series whose scope is wider are not included in spite of the 
fact that they may be richer in studies on the history of science than some other series 
which are included. For example, the Carnegie Institution of Washington has pub- 
lished many worthwhile books on the history of science, but as those books were not 
grouped together in a special collection they could not be mentioned here ( see list of 
them in Osiris 9, 634-38, 1950). 

The bibliography of series of books is more difficult than that of periodicals. 
All the numbers of each periodical are classified together, while in most libraries the 
books of each series are scattered, each book being classified with other books 
(wherever published) dealing with the same subjects. The matter is simplified 
when the books of a series are well numbered and no. k of the series bears a list of 
books no. 1 to (k-1); unfortunately, that precaution is often neglected. 

Many series of books are purely commercial undertakings and represent only the 
personal fancy of a publisher or editor. When success does not reward their efforts, 
when the series "does not pay," it is stopped. Nevertheless, we must recognize its 
existence. Such abortive series may contain important books. 

In the following list the title of each journal or serial is preceded by the date of 
its birth; if publication has come to an end, the title is preceded by two dates, those 
of birth and death. The first of these dates is always known, the second is some- 
times uncertain. A series may be resurrected after a long interval.'" No attempt 
has been made to describe completely each item, but for living journals we have tried 
to quote the present editor and publisher and their address. The purpose of the 
journal is generally indicated in its title or subtitle; further indications have been 
added whenever necessary, also references to Isis where more information is available. 

^ The best example known to me is that of the Memoirs of the Philadelphia Society for 
promoting Agriculture. Vols. 1 to 5 appeared from 1808 to 1826; vol. 6, in 1939 after an 
interval of 113 years; vol. 7 has not yet appeared (Isis 32, 476). 



Journals and Serials 195 

Many of the journals published in or after 1912 have been analyzed in the Critical 
Bibliographies of Isis. It is possible that those Bibliographies include occasional 
references to other journals which might have been listed below but were accidentally 
omitted. 

References to Isis have been added to many items; when no such reference occurs 
it does not by any means follow that the item has not been reviewed or listed in 
Isis. 

After having completed my task, I submitted the notes assembled by me to Dr. 
Claudius F. Mayer, Editor of the Index-Catalogue (Isis 40, 119; 1949), Chief 
Medical Officer, Army Medical Library, Washington, D. C. Dr. Mayer was kind 
enough to revise them. He not only corrected or brought up to date many of the 
items mentioned by me, but he added many more which I had omitted. As his 
efforts have doubled the list, it is fair to consider him as co-author. His initials are 
put at the end of items entirely or chiefly contributed by him, but it should be under- 
stood that the other items may have been revised and partly rewritten by him. 

Dr. Mayer was able to add many items partly because of his superior bibliograph- 
ical knowledge, partly because of his greater cathoHcity. On the other hand, his 
long experience has enabled him to discard many items, the title of which suggests 
that they concern the history of science, but which are nevertheless irrelevant. A 
list of these discarded items being in itself very instructive has been printed in the 
appendix at the end of this chapter. 

G. S. 

1925-1936: Abhandlungen aus der Geschichte der Veterinarmedizin. 

Edited by the Gesellschaft fiir Geschichte und Literatur der Veterinarmedizin; 

published in Leipzig-Molkau by W. Richter. 

Numbered serial of monographs devoted to the history of veterinary medicine. 
Heft 30 was never published. Heft 31 (1935) is the last one recorded; it is a work 
on the development of veterinary services in a German town, written by K, Un- 

TEUTSCH. 

Other serials issued by the German Society of veterinary historians and listed be- 
low are : Beitrage zur Geschichte der Veterinarmedizin, Cheiron, Veterinarhistorisches 
Jahrbuch, and Veterinarhistorische Mitteilungen. (C. F. M.) 

1929- : Abhandlungen und Berichte des Deutschen Museums. Edited by 

E. SoRENSEN (Augsburg) and J. Zenneck (Miinchen); published first by the 

Verein deutscher Ingenieure at Berlin, later by the Leibniz Verlag in Miinchen. 

Irregularly issued fittle books (21cm X 15cm) containing articles related to the 

history of technics such as on the development of telescopes (1931), biographies of 

physicists and industriafists, etc., the chief source of the material being the Deutsches 

Museum von Meisterwerken der Naturwissenschaft und Technik (German Museum 

of masterpieces of science and technic). Some 28 volumes had appeared by the end 

of 1932. The last Jahrgang recorded is that of 1948. (C. F. M.) 

1904-1929: Abhandlungen zur Didaktik und Philosophie der Naturwissenschaften. 

Edited by F. Poske {et ah); published in Berlin. 

Irregularly issued numbered serial forming supplements to the Zeitschrift fiir den 
physikalischen und chemischen Unterricht; devoted to the philosophy of natural 
sciences. It was not published from 1912 to 1926. The serial seems to end with 
Heft 14. Heft 1 to Heft 11 are arranged in two volumes. (C. F. M.) 

1877-1913: Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der mathematischen Wissenschaften mit 

Einschluss ihrer Anwendungen. Edited by Moritz Cantor, and published by 

Teubner, Leipzig. 

See Isis 2: 134, 205. 

Parts 1 to 10 were published as supplements to the Zeitschrift fiir Mathematik 
und Physik, vols. 22 ( 1877) to 45 ( 1900). Parts 11 to 30 were published independ- 
ently from 1901 to 1913. Part 29 (Festschrift for the centenary of Eduard 
Kummer) appeared in 1910. Part 30, the last (1913) was the work of a Japanese 
historian, Yoshio Mikami, in EngUsh version. 



196 Journals and Serials 

1902-1906: Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Medizin. 18 parts edited by Hugo 
Magnus ( 1842-1907), with the assistance of Max Neuburger and Karl Sudhoff. 
Breslau, J. U. Kern's Verlag (Max MUUer). 
See Isis 2: 147. 

1934-1940: Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Medizin und Naturwissenschaften. 

Edited by Paul Diepgen, Julius Ruska, Julius Schuster. Verlag Emil 
Ebering, Berlin. 

A serial of medico-historical and biographical monographs. It ends with Heft 36 
(1940). 

1922-25: Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Medizin. 

Eight parts edited by Oskar Schxjlz ( Erlangen ) and published by Max Mencke, 

Erlangen. 

See Isis 5: 563; 8: 743. 

1942- : Acta historica scientiarum naturalium et medicinalium. Edited by the 
University Library of Copenhagen and pubhshed by Ejnar Munksgaard in that 
city, 6, Norregade. 

Monographs issued at irregular intervals; written in Danish, German, English or 
other languages. Each volume is devoted to a special topic. Vol. 1: Oldtidens 
laere om hjerte (etc.); by E. Gotfredsen (see Isis 37, 247). Vol. 2: Otto Fri- 
derich MiJLLER (pt. 1); by J. Anker (Isis 35, 356). Vol. 3: Middelalderens 
laegekunst i Danmark; by V. M0ller-Christensen (Isis 37, 234). Vol. 4 (1948): 
Ktesibios, Philon and Heron; by A. G. Drachmann. Vol. 5-6 (1950): Thomas 
Bartholin; by A. Garboe. Vol. 7 (1950): The history of muscle physiology from 
the natural philosophers to Albrecht von Haller; by E. Bastholm (257 p.). 

1930-32: Acta Paracelsica. Edited for the Paracelsus-Gesellschaft by Ernst 
Darmstadter, Richard Koch and Manfred Schroeter. Miinchen, Paracelsus- 
Gesellschaft. 
5 parts (Heft) published, 142 p.; plus Beilage: Nachweise zur Paracelsus- 

Literatur Nr. 1-1089, by Karl Sudhoff, 68 p.; separately paginated (Isis 15: 230). 
For the Paracelsus-Gesellschaft see undated circular reprinted in Isis ( 13: 361-62). 
See also Nova Acta Paracelsica. 

1934- : Actas Ciba. Published by the Brazilian branch of the Ciba Co.; edited 
by G. A. DE Lima Torpies, Avenida Venezuela 110, Rio de Janeiro; printed in the 
same city by the Irmaos Barthel. 
Monthly issues with similar contents as that of the Ciba Zeitschrift. Latest issue 

on record: vol. 13, 1946, (C. F. M.) 

1947- : Actas Ciba. Published in Spanish by the Productos quimicos Ciba in 

Buenos Aires; printed in the same city by Piatt, S. A. 

Monthly serial containing medico-historical, anthropological and pharmaco- 
historical articles; resembling the English issues of Ciba Symposia (q.v.). Latest 
issue seen: Nov. 1948. Independent from other Ciba publications. 

See also Ciba. 

1911- : Aesculape; revue mensuelle illustree. Published by the Societe inter- 

nationale d'histoire de la medecine since 1923; edited by Benjamin Bord; issued 
by M. AvALON, Paris (old series published by A. Rouzaud, Paris). 
See Isis 2: 150. 

Vol. 1 (1911) to vol. 4 (1914) is also mentioned as the first (or old) series; of 
folio size (35 cm X 28 cm). Vol. 5 to vol. 12 do not exist. Vol. 13 ( 1923) to vol. 
30 (1940) is also known as the new series; of quarto size. The new series was the 
official organ of the Societe internationale d'histoire de la medecine which was es- 
tablished in 1921 in Paris. PubUshed monthly; the last issue is No. 4, May 1940. 

Aesculape is published again under the editorship of Jean Avalon, 89 Avenue 
Denfert-Rochereau, Paris 14. No. 1-2 of vol. 30 (new series) was issued in Nov.- 



Journals and Serials 197 

Dec. 1949. This was the first post-war issue; it is strange that the pagination of 
no. 1 begins with p. 97. 

The nature of the serial is expressed by its subtitles. The old series calls itself 
"latero-medicale" while the new series reads : "revue . . . des lettres et des arts dans 
leurs rapports avec les sciences et la medecine." It is especially valued for its illus- 
trative material: reproductions of art objects to serve as source material for history. 
Its articles are more or less in the easy style of feuilletons on such topics as health 
and medicine in old and contemporary art, artistic hobbies of physicians, diseases in 
history and art, numismatics, patron saints, history of balneography, of dentistry, etc. 
(C. F. M.) 

1908-1909: The Aesculapian: a quarterly journal of medical history, literature and 
art. Edited by Albert Tracy Huntington. 1 vol. Brooklyn, New York. 
Only 4 nos. issued between December 1908 and September 1909. Continua- 
tion of Medical Library and Historical Journal. See Isis 2: 149. 

1927- : Agricultural history. Published by the Agricultiu-al History Society, 

Chicago & Baltimore. 

The first volume of 1927 was preceded by the Papers of the Agricultural History 
Society; it was issued from Washington, vol. 1 (1918) to vol. 3 (1920), and con- 
tained articles reprinted from the Annual Report of the American Historical Society. 
(C. F. M.) 

Vol. 25 appeared in 1950. For subscriptions apply to Agricultural History 
Society, Room 3906, South Agriculture Building, U. S. Bureau of Agricultural Eco- 
nomics, Washington 25, D. C. An abbreviated table of contents of vols. 1 to 25 
can be obtained from that office. 

1947- : Akademiia nauk SSSR. Institut istorii estestvoznaniia. Trudy. 

Thanks to the gracious collaboration of David A. Jonah, Librarian of Brown 
University, Providence, R. I., vols. 1 to 3 (1947-49) of those Trudy will be 
analyzed in the 77th Critical Bibliography ( Isis 42 ) , and subsequent volumes in the 
following bibliographies. 

These volimies contain many memoirs on the history of science in Russia and 
elsewhere. Vol. 1 has a bibliography of Russian works on the history of science 
pubfished in 1939-44; that bibliography is continued in the following volumes. 

1938-1945: Alcmeone; revista trimestrale di storia della medicina. Edited by 

Giovanni P. Arcieri; published in New York. 

Vol. 1 was published in 1938-39, and vol. 2 in 1940. The publication as well 
as the editor met with some difficulties, and, after no. 3 of vol. 2 (July/September) 
the serial was forced to rest. In 1945, on No. 1 of vol. 7, its title reads: Alcmeone, 
journal of history of medicine. It was issued as an annex of the first volume of 
the newly founded Journal of Cardiorespiratory Diseases, a bilingual quarterly. 
Latest no. seen, Vol. 9, no. 1, 1947. {Q. F. M.) 

1898-1933: Alembic Club Reprints. Published for the Alembic Club by James 

Thin. 55 South Bridge, Edinburgh. 

Collection of booklets (18 cm X 12 cm) each of which contains the reprint of a 
short classic of physical or chemical science. No. 1 (Joseph Black) appeared in 
1898; last number seen. No. 21 (Archibald Scott Couper) in 1933. List of nos. 
1 to 17 in Isis 2: 168. Publication was suspended from 1912 to 1928. 

No. 21 was really the last no.; the fist of all the items 1 to 21 is included in 
Denis I. Duveen: Bibliotheca alchemica (p. 14, 1949; Isis 40, 387). 

The whole series has been recently reprinted. 

1747-1774: AUgemeine Historie der Reisen zu Wasser und zu Lande. Published 

by Arkstee, in Amsterdam. 

Twenty-one volumes in quarto; contains source material for the history of geog- 
raphy. (C. F. M.) 



198 Journals and Serials 

1910-12: Alte Meister der Medizin und Naturkunde in Facsimile-Ausgaben und 
Neudrucken. Edited by Prof. Dr. Gustav Klein. Miinchen, Kuhn, 1910. 
Only five vols, published; for vols. 4-5 see Isis 1, 271-73. Gustav Klein 
(1863-1920), obituary by Karl Sudhoff (Mitt. 19: 224). Facsimile reprints of 
early books by Ortolff von Bayerland, Eucharius Rosslin, Hieronymus 
BRUNSCHwac, early viriters on syphilis (Sudhoff), Thomas of Cantimpre. 

1937- : Ambix; being the Journal of the Society for the study of alchemy and 

early chemistry. Quarterly. Edited by F. Sherwood Taylor. Published by 
Taylor and Francis, London. 
See Isis 28: 262. Vol. 1 in 3 parts (202 p., 1937-38); vol. 2 in 4 parts (198 p., 

1938-46); vol. 3 in 2 parts called 1-2, 3-4 (156 p., 1948-49). 

1919-1921: Analecta Ambrosiana. Issued by the Biblioteca Ambrosiana and ed- 
ited by LuiGi Gramatica, the director of the Library. Published by Alfieri 
and Lacroix, Milano. 
Numbered series of monographs dealing with Leonardo da Vinci. Complete 

in seven numbers. No. 1: Le memorie di Leonardo da Vinci (A. Mazenta); 

No. 3: II cenacolo di L. da Vinci (G. Galbiati). (C. F. M.) 

1939- : Anales de la Sociedad Peruana de Historia de la Medicina. Lima. 

Journal dealing with the history of medicine in general and more particularly 
with South American, Peruvian medicine. 

Vol. 1, 1939, 96 p. Vol. 2, 1940, 182 -1- Ix p., 1942. Vol. 3, 1941, 92 p. Vol. 
4, 1942 (Periodo 1942-44) 140 p. First page bears the mention Vol. IV. Lima 
1942. Fasc. 1; the cover, wrongly, 1943 (Fasc. 1). The following book Juan B. 
Lastres: Vida y obras de Miguel Tafur (xxxvi -\- 136 p., Lima 1943; Isis 37: 216) 
served as fasc. 2 of that year. Vol. 5, 1942-43, 48 p. Vol. 6, 1944, 138 p. Vol. 7, 
1945, 200 p. Vol. 8, 1946, 80 p. Vol. 9, 1947, 70 -\- xUv p. This latest no. was 
printed by Casa Editorial Emp. Edit. Rimac, Padre Jeronimo 427, Lima (no other 
address being given). 

1804-1870: Annales des voyages, de la geographie et de I'histoire; ou, Collection 
des voyages nouveaux . . . et des memoires historiques sur I'origine, la langue, 
les moeurs et les arts des peuples, Paris. 

The older set under the above title makes 24 volumes which were published 
from 1804 to 1814 under the editorship of Malte-Brun (1775-1826). A general 
index to the first 20 volumes was issued in 1813. Publication was suspended from 
1815 to 1818. Under the title "Nouvelles annales des voyages" publication was 
resumed in 1819 and continued through several series until 1870. The new title 
runs through 188 volumes, with slight variations of the subtitle and with many 
changes in the editorial chair (Eyries, Larenaudiere, Klaproth, Humboldt, 
Arago, Marmier, Malte-Brun, etc.) (C. F. M.) 

1927: Annali del Istituto di storia della medicina. Napoli. Only the first volume 
was issued; contains medico-historical studies by the staff of the institute. 
(C. F. M.) 

1917-42: Annals of medical history. Edited by Francis R. Packard, published by 

Paul B. Hoeber, New York. 

Vol. 1 appeared in 1917-1919; 24 volumes were published between April 1917 
and Nov. 1942. These volumes are numbered First series 1 to 10, Second series 
1 to 10, Third series 1 to 4. 

A general index to the 24 vols., compiled by Hilda C. Lipkin, was published in 
1946 by Henry Schuman, New York. 

1936- : Annals of science: a quarterly review of the history of science since the 
Renaissance. Edited by Douglas McKie, Harcoxirt Brown and Henry W. 
Robinson. Published by Taylor and Francis, London. 
Vol. 1, No. 1: Jan. 15, 1936 (Isis 25: 488); that vol. was completed in the 

same year. Vol. 5, 1941-47. Vol. 6 began to appear in October 1948. 



Journals and Serials , 199 

1919-1923: Antichi scrittori d'idraulica veneta. Issued by the R. Magistrate alle 
acque, Ufficio idrografico, of Venezia. Edited by G. Ferrari. 
Large size (32 cm X 22 cm) numbered volumes, being the reprints of early 
monographs related to engineering problems in Venice. Vol. 1 (1919): Scritture 
sulla laguna; written by M. Cornaro (1412-1469) and edited by G. Pavanello. 
The latest volume on record is vol. 4: Discorso sopra I'acre di Venezia, written by 
A. Marini about 1566. Vol. 4 was issued in 1923 (not in 1930). (C. F. M.) 

1924-1926: Arbeiten aus dem Institut fiir Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften. 

Edited by J. Ruska in Heidelberg, and published in the same city by C. Winter. 

There were four numbered volumes published within the framework of another 
series ( Heidelberger Akten der von-Portheim Stiftung). The activities of the 
institute ceased when Ruska moved to BerUn. No. 3 (1925): Ein Astrolab aus 
dem Indischen Mogulreiche (J. Frank & M. Meyerhof; Isis 8: 612). (C. F. M.) 

1930-1932: Arbeiten des Instituts fiir Geschichte der Medizin an der Universitat 
Leipzig. Edited by Henry E. Sigerist and pubUshed by Georg Thieme, 
Leipzig. 

Monographs of 21 cm X 14 cm numbered volumes. Only two volumes were 
published. The serial ceased when its editor moved to Baltimore. Bd. 1 ( 1930 ) : 
Albrecht von Haller (St. dTrsay; Isis 16, 501). Bd. 2 (1932): Die Embry- 
ologie im Zeitalter des Barock und des Rokoko (T. Bilikiewicz; Isis 20, 604). 
(C. F. M.) 

1929-33: Arbeiten zur Kenntnis der Geschichte der Medizin im Rheinland und in 
Westphalen. Edited by Paul Krause; published by Fischer in Jena. 
Issued in numbered octavo pamphlets, at irregular intervals. The first no. bears 

the title: Arbeiten (etc.) Geschichte der westfahschen Medizin. The last no. was 

no. 12 (1933): Die Gesundheitspflege in . . . Westfalen, by R. Rumpe (136 p.) 

(C. F. M.) 

1928- : Archeion. 

See 1919 Archivio di storia della scienza. 

1823: Archiv for laegevidenskabens historic i Danmark. Edited by J. D. Her- 

HOLDT. Published by Andreas Seidelin in Copenhagen. 

The first number of the first volume, an octavo volume of 192 p., is the only 
one pubhshed. It contains biographies of old physicians and medical professors, 
articles on medical history, hospital history, old statutes of surgeons, a finding list 
of portraits, etc., chiefly of the period of 1478 to 1588. Continued as Samlinger(?) 
(C. F. M.) 

1790: Archiv fiir die Geschichte der Arzneykunde in ihrem ganzen Umfange. I. 

Bd., 1. St. hrg. von Phillip Ludwig Wittwer [1752-92]. Pubhshed by 

Ernst Christoph Grattenauer in Niirnberg. 

Vol. 1, part 1 was the only part to appear because of the editor's premature 
death (BL 5, 976). Contents in Isis 2: 152. The purpose of the serial was to 
publish historical, biographical and bibliographical data, also articles on medical 
travel, on art objects of medical interest, on numismatics etc. 

1907-1943: Archiv fiir die Geschichte der Medizin. Edited by Kakl Sudhoff. 

Pubhshed by the Puschmann-Stiftung an der Universitat Leipzig. Leipzig, 

Johann Ambrosius Barth. 

Cf. Isis 2: 148. 

Six numbers were issued a year. Vols. 18 to 20 were edited by Karl Sxtohoff 
and Henry E. Sigerist. Vol. 21 (1925) to 26 bore the title Sudhofis Archiv fiir 
Geschichte der Medizin and were edited by Sigerist alone. From vol. 27, 1934-35, 
on the title was changed to Sudhoffs Archiv fiir Geschichte der Medizin und der 
Naturwissenschaften, zugleich Fortsetzung der Zoologischen Annalen. Edited by 
I. D. Achelis, Ad. Meyer, K. Sudhoff. The editors of vol. 28 were Ad. Meyer 
and K. Sudhoff; those of vol. 29, W. v. Brunn and Ad. Meyer; those of vol. 30, 



200 Journals and Serials 

1938, etc. W. V. Brunn and R, Zaunick. Last no. published was vol, 36 (1-2, 
June 1943). 

1909-31: Archiv fur die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik. 

Vol. 1 edited by Karl von Buchker, Hermann Stabler, Karl Sudhoff. 

Published by F. C. W. Vogel, Leipzig 1909; vol. 8, 1918, edited by Siegmund 

Gunther, Arthitr Haas, Georg Lockeman, Sudhoff and Stadler; vol. 9, 

1920, only 126 p. 

Beginning with vol. 10 in 1927 the title was changed to Archiv fiir Geschichte 
der Mathematik, der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik. Edited by Julius 
Schuster, same publisher. Last volume, 13, 1930-31, same editor and publisher. 
For the earlier volumes see Isis 2: 154. 

With the change in title, vol. 10 to vol. 13 is also numbered as "neue Folge" 
vol. 1 to vol. 4. Continued as Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Naturwis- 
senschaften und der Medizin (q.v.). 

1913-1931: Archiv fiir Fischereigeschichte; Darstellungen und Quellen. Edited by 
E. Uhles; published by the Deutscher Fischerei-Verein in Berlin. 
Numbered monographs of octavo size devoted to the history of fishing and 

history of the right of fishing. The last number on record is Heft 16, 1931. 

(C. F. M.) 

1927-1931: Archiv fiir Geschichte der Mathematik, der Naturwissenschaften und 
der Technik. 

See Archiv fiir die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik. 

1911: Archiv fiir Geschichte der Pharmazie. Hrsg. von H. Guntzel. 

Isis 2, 152. The first no. of this monthly journal was to appear on 1 Jan. 1911. 
Was it actually pubhshed, and were other nos. published? (The journal remained 
just an idea. No trace of it can be found in any library. C. F. M.) 

1888-1932: Archiv fiir Geschichte der Philosophic. Edited by Ludwig Stein 
(1859-1930) and others. Published by C. Heymann in BerHn. 
In 1894 it became the Abteilung 1 of Archiv fiir Philosophic (und Soziologie); 

as such it is considered a "neue Folge" to the first set of seven volumes. Publication 

ceased with vol. 41 (n. F. 34) 1932. (C. F. M.) 

1947- : Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences. Publication trimestrielle 

de I'Union internationale des sciences. Nouvelle serie d'Archeion. Vol. 1, no. 

1, October 1947. 

Edited by Aldo Mieli and Pierre Brunet, aided by an international committee 
the most active member of which is Pierre Sergescu of Bucuregti, now in Paris. 
Published by the Academic internationale d'histoire des sciences, 12 rue Colbert, 
Paris 2. On part 3 of vol. 1, the address of another publisher was added Hermann, 
Paris, and this vol. 1 was also called vol. XXVII of Archeion. This is puzzling, 
because the last part of Archeion was vol. XXV, no. 2/3. I do not know of any 
vol. XXVI. 

Vol. 2 is being published in 1949. 

For the earlier avatars of this journal see 1919 Archivio di storia della scienza. 

It was explained by Prof. Sergescu to me that the no. 1 of Oct. 1947 would 
count as vol. 26 (1947); the rest pubhshed in 1948 would count as vol. 27 (1948); 
vols. 26 and 27 have but one pagination between them. 

1896-1941: Archives internationales pour Thistoire de la medecine et pour la geo- 
graphic medicalc. 
Subtitle of Janus (q.v.) 

1919-1943: Archivio di storia dcUe scienzc. Edited by Aldo Mieli, Roma; pub- 
hshed by Attilio Nardecchia. 
Part 1 appeared in April 1919, part 4, completing vol. 1, in August 1920. It 

became the organ of the International Academy of science in 1928 (vol. 9, fasc. 4, 



Journals and Serials 201 

Jan. 1929) when that Academy was founded by the editor of the Archivio. With 
vol. 8, fasc. 3, Oct. 1927, the journal assumed the title Archeion, the original title 
becoming a subtitle. 

Vol. 10, fasc. 1 (Dec. 1929) is an index to the years 1919-29 (Indice undecen- 
nale). That volume was completed in April 1937 by a second fasc. called "vol. X 
et XX. Index des vingt premiers volumes de la revue, 1919-37." This whole 
volume (X and XX) covers 132 p. Beginning with vol. XXII Archeion was pub- 
lished by the Universidad nacional del literal in Santa Fe, Republica Argentina. 
The last number of the Argentine series was "vol. XXV, 1943 N. 2/3. Nueva serie 
T. IV," dated 3 Sept. 1943. Further pubHcation was forbidden by the Universidad 
nacional del htoral. But in some copies of that number it was possible to add a 
general index for the year covering XII supplementary pages. The no. itself 
covers p. 101-292. (Information kindly given by Dr. A. Mieli, in a letter dated 
Florida, Prov. Buenos Aires, 22 Dec. 1948). 

Archeion has been revived in 1947 under a new title Archives Internationales 
d'histoire des sciences. 

1926-1927: Archivio per gli studi storici della medicina e delle scienze naturali. 

Editor-in-chief: Demetrio B. Roncali; edited by Maurizio Mastrorilli. 

Published in NapoU. 

Short-hved publication of 33.5 cm X 24 cm size. Its first number was issued 
April 21, 1926 or "2679 ab Urbe condita." Its last issue was No. 1/3, of vol. 2, 
April-August, 1927 (or "2680 ab Urbe condita"). The publication was dedi- 
cated to Mussolini and to fascism; "una pubblicazione bluffistica" as Aldo Mieli 
called it (cf. Archeion, 1926, 7: 201). (C. F. M.) 

1944- : Archives argentinos de historia de la medicina. Published in La Plata. 
Journal issued by the Sociedad de historia de la medicina de La Plata, Calle 50, 
No. 374, La Plata, Argentina, according to Chevalier L. Jackson ( Bull. Hist. Med., 
22, 838, 1948). Editor: Enrique Luis Carri. 

1886-1923: Archives de historia de medicina portuguesa. Periodico bi-mensal. 

Edited by Maximiano Lemos. Published in Porto by Lemos. 

Journal devoted to the history of Portuguese medicine. Vol. 1 (1886-87) 1887; 
vol. 2 (1887-88) 1888; vol. 3 (1888-89) 1889; vol. 4, 1894; vol. 5, 1895; vol. 6, 
1896. Each volume has 192 p., except vol. 1, 116 p. Note the five year gap 
between vol. 3, 1889 and vol. 4, 1894. A longer gap occurred after the publication 
of vol. 6. 

A new series bearing the same title began with a new vol. 1 in 1910. It was ed- 
ited by M. Lemos and Joao de Meira. In 1912 it became Arquivos. After the 
14th volume in 1923 it ceased publication. 

1934-1935: Archives de historia medica de Venezuela. Caracas. 
Only two volumes have been published. (C. F. M.) 

1924-1932: Archiwum historij i filezefij medycyny. Published by the Polish Sci- 
ence History Society in Poznan. 
The latest volume on record is vol. 12, 1932. Apparently its publication ended 

with that volimie. (C. F. M.) 

1933- : Arkhiv isterii nauki i tekhniki. See Trudy Instituta istorii nauki i 
tekhniki. 

1926-1938: Argonaut Press Publications, London. 

A publisher's numbered series of de-luxe reprints related to the history of 
geography. No. 1 (1926): The world encompassed (Sir F. Drake); No. 2 (1927): 
A new voyage round the world (W. Dampier). The last is No. 16 (1938): 
Northern Najd; a journey from Jerusalem to Anaiza in Qasim (C. Guarmani). 
(C. F. M.) 

1926- : Aristete; science et medecine; revue reservee au corps medical. Ed- 
ited by J. Ravily; published by G. de Malherbe & cie, Paris. 



202 Journals and Serials 

Monthly publication with much irregularity in issue; vol. 6, 1931; vol. 7, 1932, 
contains numbers 59 to 63. Last volume on my record is vol. 8, 1933. It is a serial 
devoted to curiosities in medicine, and in medical history; it resembles Aesculape in 
contents, with its "paramedical" tendencies, articles on Mme Sevigne, Rousseau, 
the Chevalier (or Chevaliere) d'Eon, etc. (C. F. M.) 

1912-1923: Arquivos de historia de medicina portugu^sa. 
See Archives . . . (C. F. M.) 

1907- : Atti della riunione; Societa italiana di storia critica delle scienze mediche 
e naturali. 

Vol. 1 contains the proceedings of the meetings of Perugia (1907) and Faenza 
(1908), published in Faenza 1909. The proceedings of the meeting of Venezia 
(1909) were published in Venezia 1909. Atti del I Congresso nazionale, Roma 
1912, general secretary V. Pensuti, Grottaferrata, Tipografia S. Nilo 1913. 

Atti del III Congresso nazionale (Venezia 1925), general secretary A. Corsini, 
Siena, Tipog. S. Bernardino 1926. 

See also 1910 Rivista. Cf. Isis 2: 154. 

1935- : Atti e memorie dell' Accademia di storia dell'arte sanitaria. Roma. 

The Accademia was founded in 1920 under the name Istituto storico italiano 
dell'arte sanitaria. It assumed its present name in 1935. The publication of the 
institute was a Bollettino (q.v.), vol. 1-14, 1921-1934; with the new name of the 
institute the title of the publication also changed to Atti which is considered 
the second series; vol. 1 was published in 1935; last volume on record is vol. 46 
(fasc. 4, Oct. -Dec. ) 1947. Edited in 1947 by Silvestro Baglioni. 

See Bollettino dell'Istituto storico dell'arte sanitaria. ((C. F. M.) 

1937/38- : Atti e memorie del Istituto italiano di storia della chimica. Edited 

by GiULio Provenzal and Gino Testi in Rome. 

A numbered series of volumes containing reprints from the journal La Chimica. 
Vol. 1 to 4 called also series no. 1. The latest is vol. 6. (C. F. M.) 

1947- : Beihefte zur Zeitschrift Elemente der Mathematik. Verlag Birkhauser, 

Basel. 

Under the editorship of L. Locher-Ernst each of these Beihefte, beginning 
with no. 2 ( 1947 ) contains the biography of a mathematician. Have thus far ap- 
peared, or will appear shortly, the biographies of Steiner, Euler, Lxjdwig Schlafli, 
BuRGi, Johann and Jakob Bernoulli, Galois, Abel, Monge, Fermat. Each Heft 
covers 24 pages and costs Sw. Fr. 3.50. 

1903-1925: Beitrage aus dem Grenzgebiet zwisehen Medizingeschichte und Kunst, 
Kultur, Literatur. Published by Ferdinand Enke in Stuttgart. 
Richly illustrated quarto volumes, all being the works of the single author Eugen 
Hollander. Several volumes were re-issued repeatedly. Vol. 1: Die Medizin in 
der klassischen Malerei (1st ed. 1903; 2nd ed. 1913; Srd ed. 1923). Vol. 2: Die 
Karikatur und Satire in der Medizin {1st ed. 1905; 2nd ed. 1921). Vol. 3: Plastik 
und Medizin. Vol. 4: Wunder, Wundergeburt (etc.). {1st ed. 1921; 2nd ed. 
1922). Vol. 5: Anekdoten aus der medizinischen Weltgeschichte (1925). (C. 
F. M.) 

1873-1881: Beitrage zur Entdeckungsgeschichte Afrikas. Issued by the Gesellschaft 
fijr Erdkunde in Berlin; published by D. Reimer in the same city. 
Numbered series of monographs related to the geographical history of Africa. 

Only four numbers were issued. No. 1: Erlauterungen (H. Kiepert); No. 3: 

Tagebuch (P. Pogge); No. 4: Reisen (Schutt). (C, F. M.) 

1935- : Beitrage zur Geschichte der Astrologie. Published in Heidelberg. 

Only one volume is known to be on record. (C. F. M.) 



Journals and Serials 203 

1794-96: Beitrage zur Geschichte der Medizin. Edited by Ktmr Sprengel (1766- 
1837). Only one volume published, in 3 parts: 1, 239 p., 1794; 2, 244 p., 1795; 
3, 270 p., 1796. Halle a. S., Rengersche Buchhandlung. See Isis 2: 142. 
Each fascicle is dedicated to a scholar: No. 1 to Hensler, No. 2 to Bottiger and 
No. 3 to Weigel. The first fascicle contains many of the editor's unpublished 
writings (history of smallpox in Western Europe, the Black Death of 1349-1350, 
letters on Galen's philosophical system, anecdotes from the times of Louis XI, etc.) 
The 2nd fascicle contains an article of Hellmuth on the yellow fever in Philadel- 
phia. The third number deals with the alleged southwestern African origin of 
syphilis, contains a treatise of Ibn Sina on nerves in Arabic original with German 
translation, also an essay of G. F. Harless on the history of physiology of the blood 
in classical antiquity. (C. F. M.) 

1911-1927: Beitrage zur Geschichte der Medizin. Edited by Adolf Kronfeld. 

Published by M. Perles in Wien. 

Irregularly pubHshed numbers, being reprints of single or several medico-historical 
articles originally issued in the Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift. No. 1 (1911): 
Zur Geschichte der Syphilis; ein antikes Votivbild; eine Poliklinik aus dem V. 
Jahrhundert (A. Kronfeld); No. 2 (1912): Die Entwicklung des Anatomiebildes 
seit 1632 (A. Kronfeld); Dr. Pasqual Josef Ferro (O. Steinhaus); No. 3 
(1923): Erinnerungen an Leopold v. Dietl. The last number is No. 4 (1927). 
(C. F. M.). 

1925-1926: Beitrage zur Geschichte der Medizin. Edited by Henry E. Sigerist; 

published by Orell Fiissli in Ziirich. 

A short series of monographs, 25 cm X 16 cm, comprising only 3 nos. issued for 
the Institut fiir Geschichte der Medizin in Leipzig. No. 1 ( 1925 ) : Friihmittelalter- 
liche Rezeptarien (J. Jorimann); No. 2 (1925): Die lateinischen Handschriften 
Pseudogalens (H. Leisinger); No. 3 (1926): Zur Kenntnis der Medizinhistorie in 
der deutschen Romantik (H. v. Seemen). (G. F. M.) 

1948- : Beitrage zur Geschichte der Medizin. Edited by L. Schonbaxjer, and 

published by F. Deuticke in Wien. 

Numbered and illustrated monographs, 23 cm, issued from the Institut fiir 
Geschichte der Medizin in Wien. Nos. 1-4 were written by the editor on such topics 
as the importance of Austrian surgery, the Austrian military medicine, history of 
anesthesia, wound treatment ( history of antisepsis and asepsis ) . Hefte 5 and 6 are 
M. Jantsch on history of goiter, and history of malaria. Latest no. on record 
Heft 6 (1948). (C. F. M.) 

1902-1929: Beitrage zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften, by Eilhard Wiede- 
mann, Erlangen. 
See Sitzungsberichte der Physikalisch-medizinischen Sozietat zu Erlangen. 

1891- : Beitrage zur Geschichte der Philosophie (und Theologie) des Mittelal- 
ters; Texte und Untersuchungen. Estabhshed by Glement Baumker; edited 
by Martin Grabmann. Published in Miinster by AschendorflF. 
A series of numbered monographs, 24 cm X 16 cm, of great importance for the 
history of medieval sciences though it is chiefly devoted to philosophy (and the- 
ology). No. 15 and No. 16 (1916-1920): De animahbus (text of Albertus 
Magnus). Band 31, No. 2 (1934): Die Quaestiones naturales des Adelardus von 
Bath (M. Miiller). Last volume on record is Bd. 36, No. 1, 1940. There are also 
supplements, vol. 1 being from 1913. (G. F. M.) 

1923: Beitrage zur Geschichte der Syphilis. Tokyo. 

The serial ended with its first number. (Since the pubHcation was not in my 
hand, it is questionable whether it is a true serial or a monograph). (C.F.M.). 

1909- : Beitrage zur Geschichte der Technik und Industrie. Jahrbuch des 
Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure. Edited by Conrad Matschoss, Berlin. 
Annual publication containing papers on the history of technology and industry. 



204 Journals and Serials 

Vols. 1 to 5 (1909-13) briefly described in Isis 2: 140. Vol. 21 concerned the year 
1931-32. Vol. 22 (1933) appeared with a new title Technik-Geschichte, the old 
title becoming a subtitle. Latest volume on record vol. 30 (1941), 1943. 

1909: Beitrage zur Geschichte der Tierheilkunde. Ed. by Friedrich Freytag. 
H. 1, 72 p., Magdeburg, Verlag Erika. 
This is the only pubhshed part, including a single memoir (Isis 2: 152). 

1905- : Beitrage zur Geschichte der Universitat Jena. Issued within the Zeit- 
schrift des Vereins fiir thiiringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde. Published 
by Fischer in Jena. 

Numbered volumes of monographs forming supplements to the above mentioned 
periodical. No. 6 (1937): Die Geschichtswissenschaften an der Universitat Jena 
in der Zeit der Polyhistorie (1674-1763) (L. Hiller), which is Beiheft 18 of the 
Zeitschrift. No. 7: Astronomic an der Universitat Jena (O. Knopf). No. 8: Ernst 
Abbe (M. Rohr), issued as Beiheft 21. This is the latest issue known to me. 
(C. F. M.) 

1938- : Beitrage zur Geschichte der Veterinarmedizin. For the Reichsarzte- 
kammer edited by Reinhard Froehner, W. Rieck and E. Weber. Published 
by R. Schoetz in Berlin. 
Six numbers form an annual voliune. The serial is the direct continuation of 

Cheiron (q.v.). Vol. 1, 1938; it is also considered the 18th vol. of Veterinar- 

historische Mitteilungen. Vol. 2, 1939/40; vol. 3, for 1940/41, was issued in 1941. 

Latest vol. on record is vol. 6, 1943/44. (C. F. M.) 

1943- : Bemer Beitrage zur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaf- 
ten. Edited by E. Hintzsche, W. Rytz and A. Schmid. Published by P. 
Haupt in Bern. 

Numbered short monographs. No. 2: Ein deutscher anatomischer Text (E. 
Hintzsche). No. 3 (1944): Alfonso Corti (1822-1876) (E. Hintzsche), also 
Das medizinische Institut in Bern (1797-1805) (R. Jaussi). The latest on record 
is No. 6, 1946. (C. F. M.) 

1929-1933: Biblioteca hebraico-catalana. Barcelona. 

Numbered monographic series of Hebrew-Catalan critical editions of 22 cm X 
14 cm format. No. 1 (1929): Lhbre revelador; Meguillat ha-megalle of Abraham 
Bar Hija; No. 2 (1931) a work of Joseph Ben Meir; No. 3 (1931): Llibre de 
geometria; Hibbur hameixiha uehatixboret by Abraham Bar Hija. The latest 
issue known is No. 4, 1933: Tractat de I'assafea d'Azarquiel (by Don Profeit Tib- 
bon). (C. F. M.). 

1926- : Biblioteca medico-istorica. Edited by Jules Guiart and Valeriu L. 

BoLOGA; pubhshed by the Institutul de istoria medicinii §i farmaciei in Cluj 

( Kolozsvar ) . 

Series in Romanian language, of size 23.5 cm X 16 cm. Two items only are 
known to us, Jules Guiart: Medicine in the age of the Pharaos (51 p. in Romanian 
1926; Isis 23, 545). Valeriu L. Bologa: Contributions to the history of medicine 
in Transylvania (102 p. in Romanian, 1927; Isis 23, 603). 

1925-1930: Biblioteca Scientia. Edited by J. Rey Pastor and published by A. 

Medina in Madrid, later in Toledo. 

Pubhsher's nmnbered series, 19 cm X 12.5 cm. No. 2 (1926): Los matematicos 
espanoles del siglo XVI (J. R. Pastor). (C. F. M.) 

1944- : Biblioteca Teoria e historia de las ciencias. Published by the Editorial 
Losada in Buenos Aires. 

Unnumbered publisher's series containing histories of the theory of science, bi- 
ographies of scientists, etc. F. Vera: Puntos criticos de la matematica contempo- 
ranea (1944); E. T. Bell: La reina de las ciencias (1944); G. Schiaparelli: La 
astronomia en el antiguo Testamento (1945); also life of Galilei (1945), of Huy- 
GHENs(1945), (C. F. M.) 



Journals and Serials 205 

1923- : Biblioteka puteshestvii. Published in Moskva and Leningrad. 

This series contains descriptions of expeditions and monographs related to the 
history of geography. There are several series. No. 1 of the 3rd series was issued 
in 1923. It is N. K. Lebedev's Zavoevanie zemh, popularnaia istoria geograficheskikh 
okrytii i puteshestvii. (Is it still current? C. F. M.) 

1936- : Bibliotheca humanitatis historica. Issued by the Hungarian National 
Museum (Magyar Nemzeti Muzeum), and edited by Count Istvan Zichy. 
Budapest. 

No. 1 is history of the Dance of Death (A halaltancok tortenete) by Kozaky. 
Was the series continued? (C. F. M.) 

1884-1914: Bibliotheca mathematica. Edited by Gustav Enestrom [1852-1923]. 

Three series have appeared. First series, 3 vols, quarto printed in 2 columns, as 
supplement to Acta mathematica, Stockholm, Berlin, Paris, 1884-86. 

Second series, 13 vols, octavo, Stockholm, Berhn, Paris, 1887-99. Subtitle in 
German and French, Zeitschrift fiir Geschichte der Mathematik. 

Third series, 14 vols, octavo, subtitle in German only, Zeitschrift fiir Geschichte 
der mathematischen Wissenschaften. Leipzig, Teubner, 1900-14. 

In all, thirty volumes have appeared which are a mine of information on the 
history of mathematics. They include practically the whole literature ad hoc from 
1884 to 1914; the bibliography was continued in Isis. For more details see Isis 2: 
135-36, and the biography of Enestrom (Isis 8, 313-20, 1926). 

Not to be confused with the Bibhotheca mathematica of A. Erlecke (307 p., 
Halle 1872-73) which is a German mathematical bibhography up to 1870. 

1937- : Bibliotheca medica Americana. Baltimore. 

This is the title of the Ath series of the Pubhcations of the Institute of History of 
Medicine, of Baltimore. Cf. Publications (etc.) (C. F. M.) 

1868-1881: Bibliothek geographischer Reisen und Entdeckungen alterer und neuerer 
Zeit. Pubhshed by the Griesbach Verlag in Gera, later by Costenoble in Jena. 
Numbered series of monographs of octavo size. Complete in 12 numbers. It 

contains description of expeditions (chiefly contemporary). No. 1 (1868): Das 

offene Polar-Meer (J. J. Hayes). No. 2: Abenteuerhche Reise durch China (by 

Pinto). (C. F. M.) 

1894: Bibliothek medizinischer Klassiker. Edited by J. C. Hubert; pubhshed by 

J. F. Lehmann in Miinchen. 

It ceased pubhcation after No. 1 which is: Die Gynakologie des Soranus von 
Ephesus. (C. F. M.) 

1895-1898: Bibliotheque de voyages anciens. Paris, Ernest Leroux. 

Only three volumes: vol. 1 (Alvise Ca da Mosto 1895); vol. 3 (Henri Cordier: 
Centenaire de Marco Polo 1896). (C. F. M.). 

1932- : Bibliotheque d'histoire de la philosophie. Pubhshed by J. Vrin in Paris. 
Unnumbered series of the pubhsher, of size 25.5 cm by 16 cm. It first comes 
upon the record in 1932 with R. Poirier's Essai sur quelques caracteres des notions 
d'espace et de temps. Is it still current? (C. F. M.) 

1909: Bibliotheque d'histoire scientifique. Pubhshed by Guibnoto in Paris. 

Only two volumes were published, both of them written by E. T. Hamy. Tome 
1: Correspondance d'A. de Humboldt avec Fr. Arago; tome 2: Les debuts de 
Lamarck. (C. F. M.) 

1901-1914: Bibliotheque historique de La France Medicale. Edited by the editor 

of the France medicale; published by Champion in Paris. 

It is an unnumbered series of octavo monographs. The set is complete in 51 
volumes. It contains such works as the following: D. R. Neveu: Le culte d'Esculape 
dans I'Afrique romaine (1910); E. Beluze: La Creche Saint-Gervais (1911); Bois- 
moreau: Coutumes medicales . . . (1911). (C. F. M.) 



206 Journals and Serials 

19 ? - : Bibliotheque de philosophie scientifique, dirigee par le Dr. Gustave Le 
Bon (1841-1931). Paris, Ernest Flammarion. 

1921- : Bijdragen tot de geschiedenis der geneeskunde. Edited by G. van 

RijNBERK. Published by the Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, Am- 
sterdam. 

Published originally in the Nederlandsch tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, then 
irregularly issued also as a separate publication. Present pubhsher: Heirs of F. Bohn 
N. v., Haarlem. 

Octavo serial with 4 irregularly issued numbers to a year. It contains original 
studies, book reviews, feuilletons, and archival material prepared by members of the 
Genootschap voor Geschiedenis der Geneeskunde, Wiskunde en Natuurwetenschap- 
pen. Volume 1 was issued in 1921. Latest volume, published in 1949, includes 
two years' material: v. 27 for 1947 and v. 28 for 1948. (Also pubhshed in vol. 91 
and vol. 92 of the journal mentioned above. ) 

See also 1907 Opuscula selecta Neerlandicorum de arte medica. 

1927- : Les Biographies medicales; notes pour servir a I'histoire de la medecine 
et des grands medecins. Founded by P. Busquet and A. Gilbert; published by 
J. B. BaiHiere et fils, in Paris. 

An illustrated monthly review issued in a "simple" and a "de-luxe" edition; each 
number contains a biography, with portraits, of a famous I8th or 19th century 
physician. Vol. 1 ( 1927) includes the lives of Alibert, Double, Chaussier, Brous- 
SAis, Laennec, Corvisart, Bourdois, Dumeril, Desgenettes, Esquirol, etc. The 
latest issue seen is No. 5 (June-July) of vol. 13, 1939. (C. F. M.) 

1947- : Biologia, an International Year-Book devoted to the pure and applied 
plant and animal sciences is now being issued, once a year, as a special number 
of Chronica Botanica, under the auspices of the International Union of Biologi- 
cal Sciences. 

It contains: (i) An Annotated list of all international organizations concerned 
with the plant and animal sciences, followed by: (2) The Forum — articles and dis- 
cussions on international relations, historical and methodological subjects; (3) Flori- 
legium Biologicum (Quotations); (4) Reviews, Notes, Queries, etc.; (5) Many 
illustrations, both modern and old, often on special plates or in a 'portfolio.' 

Edited by Frans Verdoorn and published by the Clironica Botanica Co., 
Waltham, Mass. 

Biologia I ( 1947 ) was issued as a newsletter and consists of six issues. 

1932-1939: Blatter fiir Technikgeschichte. Edited by Ludwig Erhard; pubhshed 

by Springer in Wien. 

Numbered series of octavo pamphlets issued for the Forschungsinstitut fiir Tech- 
nikgeschichte in Wien. Seven numbers make a complete set. No. 1 to No. 5 have 
the title: Geschichte der Technik. (C. F. M.) 

1937- : Boletfn bibliografico de antropologia americana. Founded by Alfonso 
Caso; edited by Wigberto Jimenez Moreno. Published by the Instituto pana- 
mericano de geografia e historia in Mexico, D. F. 
Irregular serial pubhcation containing progress reports on existing research rather 

than original articles; yet, it contains much material and revelation of sources for the 

history of precolumbian science or the history of colonial period as they exist in 

Spanish and Portuguese libraries and archives. (C. F. M.) 

1921- : BoIIettino dellTstituto storico italiano dell'arte sanitaria. Edited by G. 

Carbonelli and Pietro Capparoni, later by G. Bilancioni, Roma. 

The Istituto storico was established in 1920. Its BoIIettino was published six 
times a year as a supplement to Rassegna di clinica, terapia e scienze affini. In this 
form it ended with volume 14 in 1934. Then, the Istituto was renamed as Accade- 
mia di storia dell'arte sanitaria. The newly named institution began to publish its 
Atti e Memorie in 1935 (known as series 2). The latest issue of the Atti on record 
is from 1945. (C. F. M.) 



Journals and Serials 207 

1898-1921: BoUettino di bibliografia e storia delle scienze matematiche. Edited by 

GiNO LoRiA, 21 vols, (in two series, series 1, vols. 1-19, 1898-1917; series 2, 3 

vols., 1918-21 ). Torino & Palermo. 

After 1921 Loria's BoUettino lost its independence and became a section of the 
new series of BoUettino di matematica (v. 1, 1922) edited by Alberto Conti in 
Roma and Bologna. That section (sezione storico-bibliografica ) continued to be 
edited by Gino Loria. It was smaller than the original BoUettino but not essentially 
different. 

See Isis 2: 138. Gino Loria: Guido alio studio della storia delle matematiche 
(2nd ed., p. 84-86, Milano 1946; Isis 37: 254). 

1892-1897: BoUettino di storia e bibliografia matematica. Napoli. 

Six volumes published as supplements to the Giornale de matematiche, edited by 
G. Battaglini and published in Napoh. This serial is considered as a predecessor 
of the BoUettino of Loria (cf. above). 

See also BuUettino. (C. F. M.) 

1881- : Botanische Jahrbiicher fiir Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflan- 
zengeographie. Edited by Adolf Engler; pubUshed by Wilhelm Engelinann 
in Leipzig. 
Vol. 57, 1920; vol. 72, 1942. Index to v. 1-30, 1880-1900, and to v. 31-66, 

1901-34. (C. F. M.) 

1950- : British journal for the philosophy of science. Edinburgh, Thomas Nelson 

& Sons, Parkside Works. 

Quarterly to be issued February, May, August and November; small octavo 
serial containing original articles and the summaries of proceedings of the Philosophy 
and Science Group of the British Society for the History of Science. Its general 
editor is A. C. Crombie, University College, Gower St., London W. C. I. Vol. 1, 
no. 1, was issued in May 1950. (C. F. M.) 

1852-1862: Bulletin de bibliographic, d'histoire et de biographic mathematiqucs. 

Edited by Olry Terquem ( 1782-1862), as a supplement to the Nouvelles annales 

de mathematiqucs, journal des candidats aux ecoles polytechnique et normale. 

(Founded in 1842, edited by Terquem and Camille Christophe Gerono). 

The Bulletin began to appear in vol. 14, 1855 and continued to vol. 20, 1861, then 
in 2nd series, vol. 1, 1862, pubhshed by Mallet-Bachelier, Paris. 

After 8 volumes, the BuUetin stopped in 1862 because of Terquem's death. See 
Isis 2: 133. 

1926-1930: Bulletin de la Section dc synthese historique. Published by the Centre 

international de synthese in Paris. 

Complete in 10 volumes which form supplements to the Revue de synthese his- 
torique. C/. Revue. (C. F. M.) 

1913-1930: Bulletin de la Societe d'histoire de la pharmacie. Paris, 7, rue de Jouy. 

Edited by the secretary of the society, Eugene-Humbert Guitard. 

The Society was founded in 1913 (Isis 1, 250; 2, 152). The complete set of the 
bulletin consists of 17 volumes. After 1930 the Society began to pubhsh its Revue 
(q.v.) and the serial Dionysos (q.v.). (C. F. M.) 

1902-1942: Bulletin de la Societe fran^aise d'histoire de la medecine. Edited by 

Albert Prieur. 

Vol. 1, no. 1, 1902, Alphonse Picard, Paris. Last no. published, no. 1 of 
vol. 36, January-June 1942. Description of early volumes in Isis 2, 147. 

Continued under the title Memoires de la Societe frangaise d'histoire de la mede- 
cine. See also PubUcations. 

1910: Bulletin de la Societe medico-historique. 1 vol. Paris, Ch. Boulange, 1910. 

One volume published ( 271 p. ) including the works of that Society during 1909- 
10. (Isis 2, 150.) This is a single volume for years 1909-1910. The society was 



208 Journals and Serials 

founded on 2 March, 1908, at the initiative of Dr. Cabanes. The small octavo 
volume contains 19 articles which relate chiefly to French medicine. (I do not 
know of further volumes; neither is any recorded in catalogs. ) 

1870- : Bulletin des sciences mathematiques. Edited by Gaston Darboux 

[1842-1917] and Emile Picard [1856-1941]. Paris, Gauthier-Villars. 
Vols. 1-19 (1870-84) were entitled Bulletin des sciences mathematiques et as- 

tronomiques; after that the astronomical part was published separately in the Bulletin 

astronomique. The latest volume seen was that of 1948. General tables for 1870- 

76, 1877-1906. See Isis 2, 134. 

Vol. 1-11, 1870-1876, form series No. 1; series 2, begins with vol. 1, 1877. The 

serial is issued from the Ecole pratique des hautes etudes in Paris. 

1939- : Bulletin of the history of medicine. Baltimore. 

From vol. 7, 1939, on, this is the current title of the Bulletin of the Institute of 
the History of Medicine. ( C. F. M. ) 

1933- (1938): Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine. Edited by 

Henry E. SiGEmsT. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press. 

Vol. 1 appeared in 1933. Latest no. seen vol. 24, 6 (December 1950). Supple- 
ments to the Bulletin began to appear in 1943, also edited by Sigerist. These sup- 
plements dealing with special subjects were reviewed or listed in Isis under their 
authors' names. E.g., no. 1, Ludwig Edelstein, Baltimore 1943 (Isis 33, 53), no. 
9, Benjamin Spector, 1947 (Isis 40). 

The title of the publication was changed to Bulletin of the History of Medicine 
in 1939 (with vol. 7). 

1900-1912: Bulletin of the Lloyd Library of botany, pharmacy and materia medica. 

Cincinnati. 

Complete in 20 numbers of octavo size. Edited by John Uri Lloyd, and related 
to the history of botany and pharmacy. No. 11 (1909): Life and discoveries of 
Sam. Thomson; No. 12: The eclectic alkaloids; No. 13: History of the vegetable drugs 
of the U.S.?. (J. U. Lloyd): No. 19 (1912): Biographies (H. W. Felter). 
(C. F. M.) 

1941-1943: Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. Menasha, Wisconsin. 

According to its editors the character of this publication changed. It usually con- 
tains association aflFairs. In vol. 30 and vol. 31 ( 1941-1943), under the management 
of Claudius F. Mayer, its associate and managing editor, the journal was also pub- 
lishing "contributions of value to . . . the history of medicine in its bibliographical 
aspect." A special section was devoted to rare books and exhibits, and another to 
medical bibliography. (C. F. M.) 

1911- : Bulletin of the Society of Medical History of Chicago. Published in 

Chicago. 

This is a very irregularly issued medico-historical journal containing the papers 
of the Society (founded February 1910). It has a few general articles, and many 
biographies, local (Chicago and Illinois) histories. 

An unusual example of slow motion publishing. Vol. 1 includes four numbers 
which were issued as follows: No. 1, Oct. 1911; No. 2, Aug. 1912; No. 3, March 
1913; No. 4. Jan. 1916. Five nos. of vol. 2 were pubHshed from Jan. 1917 to March 
1922. Vol. 3 in 4 Nos., Jan. 1923 to Sept. 1925. Vol. 4 from April 1928 on. Vol. 
5, from Jan. 1937 to June 1946. The latest is No. 5 of vol. 5. There is an Index 
to vol 1 to 4. (C. F. M.) 

1868-1887: BuUettino di bibliografia e di storia delle scienze matematiche e fisiche. 

Edited by Baldassare Boncompagni [1821-94]. 20 vols, folio. Roma. 

At the end of vol. 20 (p. 697-748), elaborate tables to the 20 vols. I have a 
separate copy of these tables dated Roma 1890. The Index was also separately re- 
printed in the Serie di Indici generaU di Opere periodiche italiane estinte; edited by 
Attilio Nardecchia (^Roma, 1915). 



Journals and Serials 209 

This is a very rich collection, a model of its kind, indispensable in any library of 
mathematical history. There are variations in the text of different copies; this is 
explained in Isis 2: 133. 

See also Bollettino above. 

1933 (?)- : The Cams mathematical monographs. Chicago, Open Court Pub- 
lishing Company. 
Numbered series of 19 cm by 13 cm volumes; some of them dealing with history 

of mathematics. No. 5 (1934): A history of mathematics in America before 1900 

(D. E. Smith & J. GiNSBtrRc). (C. F. M.) 

1945- : Castalia; rivista di storia della medicina. Edited by Nicola Lattro- 

Nico; published in Milano (Via Gran Sasso 5). 

Bimonthly publication from July 1945 to the end of 1946. Only one number 
vi'as published in 1947 (i.e., vol. 3). The latest volume on record is vol. 4, 1948. 
It contains pubhcations from the medico-historical school of the University of Milano. 
No. 3-6 (1947): La Cava, A. F., Quattro mostruosita fetali inedite osservate nei 
sec. XIV e XV. (N. B. Castalia was the name of the sacred spring of the Delphi 
oracle at the foot of Parnassus. Its water would give inspiration to poets.) 
(C. F. M.) 

1950- : Centavinis. International magazine of the history of science and medi- 

cine. Edited by Jean Anker, Director, University Library ( Scientific and medi- 
cal department) and published by Ejnar Munksgaard, Copenhagen. 
Quarterly, about 400 p. per year, illustrated, annual subscription 40 Danish 

crowns ($6). Articles in English, French or German. 

1922-1925: Chapters in the history of science. Edited by Charles Singer; pub- 

hshed by the Oxford University Press in London. 

Numbered monographic series, 18 1/2 cm by 12 cm, complete in 4 issues. No. 
1: Greek biology and Greek medicine (C. Singer). No. 2: Mathematical and 
physical science in classical antiquity (J. L. Heiberg). No. 3: Chemistry to the 
time of Dalton (E. J. Holmyard). No. 4: The history of mathematics in Europe 
(J. W. N. Sullivan). (C. F. M.) 

1936-1938: Cheiron; veterinarhistorisches Jahrbuch. Issued by the Gesellschaft fiir 
Geschichte und Literatur der Veterinarmedizin; edited by Reinhard Froehner 
(et al.); pubhshed by W. Richter in MoDcau, and by R. Schoetz in Berlin. 
This is the direct continuation of Veterinarhistorisches Jahrbuch (q.v.) which 
had its vol. 1-7 from 1925 to 1935. With volume 8, 1936, the change in title oc- 
curred. Vol. 9, 1937 and vol. 10, 1938, were pubhshed in Berlin. Vol. 10 includes 
such articles as History of rabies. Discussion of Degli Albertis' De equo animante 
libellus, the Hippiatrica of Albertus Magnus, etc. 

Continued as Beitrage zur Geschichte der Veterinarmedizin (q.v.), (C. F. M.) 

1930- : La Chimica. Edited by Argeo Angiolani; published in Rome. 

Includes also a historical section which is edited by Giulio Provenzal; related 
to the Societa italiana di storia della chimica pura ed applicata which was founded 
in 1931. It contains also the original articles which make up the Atti e Memorie 
del Istituto italiano di storia della chimica (q.v.). (C. F. M.) 

1947- : Chinese Journal of Medical History. Published quarterly by the Chi- 
nese Medical History Society, 41 Tze ki Road, Shanghai 9. 
Summary of vol. 2, 1948 in Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences (no. 

6, 542-43, Jan. 1949). 

1935- : Chronica Botanica, an International Collection of Studies in the Method 
and History of Biology and Agriculture, founded and edited by Frans and 
Johanna G. Verdoorn, Waltham, Mass., U. S. A. 
Aims primarily at the promotion of: (i) International relations and cooperation 

in the biological sciences, (2) studies in the method, philosophy, and history of pure 



210 Journals and Serials 

and applied biology, (3) a better understanding among specialists in the various 
branches of biology and agriculture, and the improvement of their relations with the 
world at large. 

The first volumes of Chronica Botanica ( 1935-1937) were published as annual 
records and reviews of current research, activities and events in the plant sciences. 
They constitute the first international census of current research in any field of the 
natural sciences. — Vols. 4-7 (1938-1942) were published as an 'international plant 
science newsmagazine.' From Vol. 8 ( 1944 ) to the present. Chronica Botanica 
contains more material than formerly, dealing with the basic humaniora of the plant 
sciences: history, methodology, and philosophy. 

An annual volume of Chronica Botanica consists of six numbers (3 or more 
issues ) with memoirs, international directories, reprints of classical papers, Biologia 
(q.v.), and smaller issues dealing with timely subjects. 

The current volume is Vol. 14 (1950-1951). 

See also Pallas. 

1894-1938: La chronique medicale. Revue bimensuelle de medecine historique, 
litteraire et anecdotique. Founded and edited by Augustin Cabanes [1862- 
1928]. Paris, 15 rue Lacepede. 

Published twice a month (not every two months), see Isis, 2, 146. Dr. Cabanes 
was a master of anecdotic medicine, and his journal was anecdotic rather than histori- 
cal in a deeper sense. Pubfication ceased with volume 45, 1938. 

1948- : Chymia: annual studies in the history of chemistry. Published by the 
Edgar F. Smith Memorial Collection, University of Pennsylvania. Edited by 
Tenney L. Davis (1890-1949): University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. 
Vol. 1 (204 p., illust., 1948); vol. 2, 1949; vol. 3, 1950. 
After Davis' death Henry M. Leicester, of San Francisco, was appointed editor, 

and John Read, of St. Andrews, associate editor. 

a 

1939- : Ciba symposia. Monthly publication in English of the Ciba Pharma- 

ceutical Products, Lafayette Park, Summit, New Jersey. 
It began in September 1939 and is a companion journal to the Swiss-German 

monthly Ciba Zeitschrift fisted below and to several others. Deals with the history 

of medicine and science, also with medical anthropology and ethnology. In 1948, 

it was edited by B. Caspari-Rosen. 
See also Actas Ciba. 

1938- : Ciba-tijdschrift. Published by the Ciba Pharmaceutical Products in 

Basel. 

Companion journal of Ciba Zeitschrift; in Dutch language. No. 1 was issued in 
1938; latest number on record: No. 29 Feb. 1948. (C. F. M.) 

1933- : Ciba Zeitschrift. Pubfished monthly since 1933 by the Society of the 
Chemical Industry (Ciba pharmaceutical products), in Basel, Switzerland. 
Though the main purpose of this journal is to advertise the Society pubfishing it, 
it is very well edited and contains a number of valuable studies, richly illustrated, 
on the history of medicine and science. This journal was not known to the editor 
of Isis until very late (end of 1948) and therefore the contents of only the latest nos. 
were listed in Isis. 

Latest volume seen is volume 8, 1942. There are several companion journals 
issued by various national branches of the same manufacturing company in Brazil, 
Argentina, U. S., the Netherlands. For these see Actas Ciba, Ciba symposia, Ciba- 
tijdschrift. (C. F. M.) 

1946- : Clasicos de la medicina. Edited by Pedro Lain Entralgo in Madrid, 
according to Henry E. Sigerist (cf. his History of Medicine, N. Y., 1951, vol. 1, 
p. 519). (C. F. M.) 

1923- : Classici della scienza. Pubfished by the Casa Editrice Leonardo da 
Vinci in Roma. 



Journals and Serials 211 

This is but a title of a subseries of the monographic series Universitas scriptorum 
(q.v.). (C. F. M.) 

1940- : Classici della scienza. Pubhshed by the R. Accademia d'ltaUa. 

Printed by Bardi, Roma. 

This monographic series is in 4° size; it difiFers from the previous one of the same 
name. No. 1: Cestoni, G. Epistolario ad Antonio Vallisnieri. (Pt 1: 436 p., 
1940; Pt 2: publ. in 1941.) (C.F.M.) 

1914: Classici delle Scienze e della Filosofia. Edited by Aldo Mieli and Erminio 
Troilo. Serie scientifica. Bari, Societa tipografica editrice Barese, 1914 
(1913). 
The three volumes announced in Isis (1, 99-100, 246) were actually published 

in 1914 (Isis 2, 90-99, 209-13). 

1930- : Classici italiani della medicina. Published by the Casa editrice L. 

Cappelli, Bologna. 

Monographic series of large quarto volumes. Vol. 1, Mondino de' Liucci: Ana- 
tomia ( 1930; Introd. 3, 845). Latest volume on record: No. 3, Putti, V.: Berenga- 
Hio DA Carpi (1937). 

1924: Classics of medicine. Edited by Charles Singer. London, John Bale, Sons 

and Danielsson. 

Vol. 1: Selections from the works of Ambroise Pare, by Dorothea Waley 

Singer (1924; Isis 7, 208). No further volumes on record. 

1922: Classics of scientific method. Edited by E. R. Thomas. London, G. Bell 

and Sons. 

Collection of little volumes each devoted to the history of a definite scientific 
problem: circulation of the blood (Isis 5, 194), nature of the air, Joxjle and the 
study of energy, composition of water, origin of colors, etc. 

1937-1938: Classiques (Les) de la decouverte scientifique (Memoires de chimie). 

Published by Gauthier-Villars, 55 Quai des Grands-Augustins, Paris (6®). 

Publisher's unnumbered, irregularly issued series of small octavo volumes ( 19 cm 
X 13 cm) containing the basic, classical works, lectures and articles of modern 
chemistry; each ( polygraphic ) volume is edited by an expert. Under the general 
direction of A. Damiens, professor at the Pharmaceutical Faculty of the Univ. of 
Paris. Works of Avogadro, Ampere, Berthelot, Gerhardt, Pastexjr, etc., are 
included. About 8 volimnes have been published both in an ordinary and in a 
deluxe edition. (C. F. M.) 

1913-1923: Classiques de la science. Edited by H. Abraham, H. Gautier, H. Le 

Chatelier, J. Lemoine. Paris, Armand CoHn. 

Collection of books each of them reprinting classical memoirs devoted to a single 
topic such as air, carbonic acid and water; the speed of light; molecules, etc. The 
first four volumes were analyzed in Isis ( 1, 707, 770; 2, 277, 279). Vols. 1-4, 1913; 
vols. 5-7, 1914; vol. 8, 1923. 

1931: Classiques de la science mondiale. Published by the Editions regionales in 

Leningrad. 

Unnumbered monographs, 20 cm by 15 cm, in Russian language; e.g., in 1931 
a number on Lavoisier, edited and translated by E. and N. Tropovsky. (When it 
started and ended is not known to me). (C. F. M.) 

1930- : Clio medica; a series of primers on the history of medicine. Edited by 
E. B. Krumbhaar; published by P. B. Hoeber in New York. 
Small monographs, 17 cm by 11 cm, in a numbered series. Vol. 1 (1930): The 
beginnings: Egypt and Assyria (W. R. Dawson). Vol. 11 (1934): Chinese medi- 
cine (W. R. Morse). The latest volume on record is no. 22. (C. F. M.) 

1927-1932: Coleccion de documentos ineditos para la historia de Hispano- America. 

14 vols., Madrid. (C. F. M.) 



212 Journals and Serials 

1864-1932: Coleccion de documentos in^ditos relatives al descubrimiento, conquista 
y organizacion de las antiguas posesiones espanoles ( etc. ) Madrid. 
The first set of this monumental series on the history of American and other trans- 
marine colonies of Spain was published from 1864 to 1884; it comprises 42 volumes. 
The second series includes 25 volumes, 1885-1932. Important for the history of 
geography. (C. F. M.) 

1945- : Coleccion de la ciencia. Published by Emece Editores in Buenos Aires. 
Unnumbered series for reprint of classics of sciences; e.g., Spallanzani, L. 
Experiencias sobre las generaciones. (C. F. M.) 

1920- : Coleccion de libros referentes a la ciencia Hispano-Americana. Edited 

by H. J. Paoli; published in Buenos Aires. 

Numbered series of reprints of old texts important for the history of science, tech- 
nology, medicine. No. 1 (1920): Barba, A. A. Arte de los metales/Madr., 1729/, 
No. 2 ( 1920) : Monardes, N. Primera y secunda y tercera partes de la Historia me- 
dicinal/Sevilla 1580/. No. 3 ( 1920 ) : Peres de Vergas. Los nueve libros de re 
metallica/Madr. 2. ed., 1569/. Any more? (C. F. M.) 

1945- : Coleccion de los viajes y descubrimientos que hicieron per mar los Espa- 
noles. Published by the Editorial Guarania in Buenos Aires. 
Numbered series related to the history of geography; vol. 1, 1945. (C. F. M. ) 

1922(?)- : Coleccion de publicaciones medicas historico-artisticas de los Labora- 
torios de Norte de Espana. Edited by J. Cusi; published at Figueras and 
Masnou. 

Richly illustrated numbered monographic studies, 22 cm by 14 cm, with repro- 
duction of rare fragments of manuscripts; of medico-historical contents. No. 1: 
Johannes de Carso: Tractus de conservatione visus. No. 2: Arnaldus de 
Villanova: LibeUus regiminis de confortatione visus. No. 3: Anonymus: Tractatus 
de egritudinibus oculorum. No. 4 (1924): Arte y humor en medicina. No. 5 
( 1928) : J. Fabricio ab Aquapendente : De la sufusion o cataracta. Latest number 
known to me: No. 9, Las viejas antiparras (1934). (C. F. M.) 

1945- : Coleccion historia y filosofia de la ciencia. Edited by Jxjlio Key 

Pastor. Espasa-Calpe Argentina, Buenos Aires-Mexico. 

Two series are published. Smaller volumes called Serie menor, the first being 
Aldo Mieli: El mundo antiguo (1945), and larger volumes called Serie mayor, the 
first of these being Desiderio Papp: Historia de la fisica (1945). 

1945- : CoUana di studi di storia della medicina. Edited by N. Latronico, of 

Milano; published by U. Hoepli, Milano. 

Numbered monographs issued irregularly. Vol. 1 (1945): La chirurgia del 
pulmone attraverso i tempi, by A. Bottero. The latest issue is vol. 8 ( 1947 ) : 
Gerolamo Cardano, by A. Bellini. (C. F. M.) 

1947- : CoUana di vite medici e naturalisti celebri. Edited by Andrea Corsini 
and LoRis Premuda. Published by Floriano Zigiotti, in Trieste, Galleria del 
Corso No. 4. 

Irregularly published, numbered series of the publisher; it contains small octavo 
monographs. The set also carries the title: Series I Monografia. No. 1: Giovanni 
Alfonso Borelli, by E. Barbensi. No. 2: Paolo Assalini, by F. La Cava 
(1947). No. 3 (1948): Fracastoro, by F. Pellegrini. No. 4: Bernardino 
Ramazzini, by Pazzini. No. 5: Marcello Malpighi, by N. Latronico. No. 6: 
Asclepiade, by L. Premuda. (C. F. M.) 

1942- : Collana storica di storia della chimica. Edited by Angelo Tarchi, 
Director of the Istituto Italiano di Storia della Chimica. Published by Casa- 
Editrice Mediterranea Tipogr. Castaldi, Roma. 
Irregular octavo series of monographs. No. 3 (1942): Testi G., Paracelso. 

(C. F. M.) 



Journals and Serials 213 

1903-1933: Collectio ophtalmologica veterum auctorum. Edited by P, Pansier; 

published by J. B. Bailliere in Paris. 

Reprints of ophthalmological classics in numbered fascicles of 25 cm by 16 cm 
size. Seven fascicles make the set. Fasc. 1 includes a) Arnaldus de Villanova: 
Libellus regiminis de confortatione visus, and b) Johannes de Carso: Tractatus de 
conservatione visus. Fasc. 2: Alcoatim: Congregatio sive liber de oculis. Fasc. 7 
(1933): CoNSTANTiNus Africanus: Liber de oculis (Isis 24, 198, 212). (C. F. M.) 

1884- : Collection de memoires sur la physique. Paris, Gauthier Villars. 

First series, 8 vols. 1884-91. Second series, vol. 1 (ions, electrons, corpuscules) 
(1154 p., 1905). List of these six volumes in Isis 1, 706-07. 

Other books appeared in the same collection, second series, without serial num- 
ber: Les idees modernes de la constitution de la matiere (1913), Le progres de la 
physique mo leculaire (1914). 

1948- : Collection de travaux de 1' Academic internationale d'histoire des 

sciences. Pubhshed for the Academy, 12 rue Colbert, Paris 2, by Hermann et 

Cie. 

Vol. 1. Paul Ver Eecke: Proclus de Lycie (1948; Isis 40, 256). 

Vol. 2. Actes de We congres. international d'histoire des sciences, Lausanne 1947 
(288 p.). 

See 1947 Archives internationales. 

1920-1925: Collection des maitres de la pensee scientifique. Paris. 
See Maitres de la pensee scientifique. 

1902-1910: CoUezione storica Villari. Published by U. Hoepli, in Milano. 

This is a so-called publisher's series. Only the follovi'ing member of the collec- 
tion could be 'excavated': Carlo Errera: L'epoca delle grandi scoperte geografiche 
(1902; 2nd ed. 1910). (C. F. M.) 

1947- : Connaitre; cahiers de I'humanisme medical; revue bimestrielle. Foun- 
ded and edited by E. and H. Biancani. Pubhshed by Le Concours Medical in 
Paris. 

Bimonthly publications. No. 1 was issued in 1947. Each number is devoted to 
a special topic such as folklore and medicine (no. 11, 1948) or mysticism and medi- 
cine (no. 12, 1948). The serial also contains a section on medical history, and it 
gives many illustrations of historical interest; it also discusses old medical books. 
(Not to be confused with another publication of the same title which was issued at 
Salonica in 1924). (C. F. M.) 

1914- : Corpus medicorum Graecorum. Published by Teubner in Leipzig and 

Berhn. 

An undertaking for the critical restoration of the authentic text of classical Greek 
medical authors. Very irregularly published and very elaborately numbered; vol. 5, 
no. 9, pt. 1, one of Galen's commentar.ies to Hippocrates, was published in 1914 
while the issue marked vol. 1 was published in 1927. 

There is a main series and a supplemental series. The main series progressed 
up to vol. 11. The supplemental series started in 1931 with vol. 1, and it reached its 
vol. 2. (C. F. M.) See Isis 42, 150. 

1915-1928: Corpus medicorum Latinorum. Published in Leipzig for the Pusch- 

mannstiftung. 

A numbered series of critical reprints of classical Latin authors of medicine. 
Eight volumes make the series which ends with No. 1, vol. 8. Vol. 2, no. 1-2 and 
vol. 3, no. 6-7 were never pubhshed. The series includes Celsus (vol. 1, 1915), 
Serenus Sammgnicus (vol. 2, 1916). Marcellus EMPraicus (vol. 5, 1916), etc. 
(C. F. M.) 

1928- : I curiosi della natura. Edited by Giovanni Cau; pubhshed by AgneUi 
in Milano. 



214 Journals and Serials 

A series of unnumbered monographs dealing with the life of great scientists. 
The booklets are 18 1/2 cm by 13 cm. In the order of their appearance they are 
1. Cau G: Antonio Pacinotti; la storia della dinamo (1928); 2. Montalenti, G. 
Lazzaro Spallanzani (1928); 3. Loria, G.: Archimede (1928); 4. Abetti, G. 
Angelo Secchi (1928); 5. Corsini, A.: Antonio Cocchi (1928); 6. Di Brazza, F. 
S.: Antonio Stoppani (1929). Any more? (C. F. M.) 

1934- : Dansk veterinaerhistorisk aarbog. Published in Skive. 

Annual volumes for history of veterinary medicine; published by the Dansk 
veterinaerhistorisk samfund. (C. F. M.) 

1878-1885: Deutsches Archiv fur Geschichte der Medizin und medicinische Geog- 
raphie. Edited by Heinrich Rohlfs ( 1827- ) and Gerhard Rohlfs [1831- 

96]. Eight volumes published by C. L. Hirschfeld, Leipzig. 
Vols. 1, 2, 3 (187G-80) were edited by both brothers: Heinrich, physician and 
historian of medicine, Gerhard, explorer and geographer. In 1884, Gerhard with- 
drew. Long extracts from the original program "Was wir wollen," signed by both 
brothers, were reprinted in Isis 2, 144-45. 

Deutsches Museum. 

See Abhandlungen und Berichte. 

1948- : Dialectica. A quarterly journal devoted to the philosophy of knowledge. 
Latest volume on record: vol. 2, 1949. Pubhshed in Neuchatel (subscriptions at 
H. K. Lewis, 136 Gower St., London, W. C. 1). (C. F. M.) 

1932- : Dionysos; gazette du praticien, ami des lettres, des arts et du theatre. 
Supplement to the Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie (q.v.). Published by the 
Societe d'histoire de la pharmacie; edited and founded by E. H. Guitard. Pub- 
lished at Paris VI, 14 Ave. de TObservatoire. 
Irregularly issued, first as a separate journal; with No. 10, March 1934, it became 

a separately numbered part of the original revue. Latest number seen: No. 35, 1940 

as supplement to No. 110 of the Revue. (C. F. M.) 
See also Bulletin; Revue. 

1925-1928: Documents scientifiques du XVe siecle. Edited by A. C. Klebs; pub- 
lished by E. Droz in Paris. 

Numbered series of facsimile volumes related to the history of various sciences. 
Four volumes complete the set. Tome 1 (1925): Remedes contre la peste; taken 
from various manuscripts and incunabula. Tome 2 (1925): Helin, M., La clef des 
songes. Tome 3 ( 1926) : Wickersheimer, E., Anatomies de Mondino dei Lirazi et 
de GuiDO de Vigevano. Tome 4 (1928): Smith, D. E., Le comput manuel de 
Magister Anianus. (C. F. M.) 

1884-1887: Drugs and medicine of North America; a quarterly devoted to the his- 
torical and scientific discussion of the botany, pharmacy, chemistry and thera- 
peutics of the medicinal plants of North America, their constituents, products and 
sophistications. Edited by John Uri Lloyd and C. G. Lloyd; printed by Robert 
Clarke and Co. in Cincinnati. 

A true journal of quarto size of which the first number was published April 1884. 
Vol. 1 includes nine numbers, the 9th issued March 1886. The journal progressed 
to No. 5, vol. 2 (April 1887). As the introduction states: "it will be neither a 
medical nor a pharmaceutical journal." It is chiefly the work of the Lloyd brothers 
though other contributors wrote also. The first volume is entirely devoted to the 
historical description of Ranunculaceae. (C. F. M. ) 

1923-1945: Early science in Oxford. Edited by R. T. Gunther (1869-1940). 

Privately printed in Oxford. 

A 14-volume set on history of science in England and on the activities of Oxford 
men of science. Vol. 1, on chemistry, physics, mathematics and surveying. There 
are five vols, on Robert Hooke (v. 6, 7, 8, 10, 13). Vol. 9 is a facsimile edition of 



Journals and Serials 215 

Richard Lower's De corde (Lond., 1669) with translation by K. J. Franklin. Vol. 
14 (1945) is the life and letters of Edward Llwyd (Introd. 3, 1886). (C. F. M.) 

1941: Eudemus. An international journal devoted to the history of mathematics 
and astronomy. PubUshed by Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, 
U. S. A. With assistance from income of the Arnold Buffum Chace Fund of the 
Mathematical Association of America. Edited by Otto Neugebauer and Ray- 
mond Clare Archibald. 
Vol. 1, 48 p. Pubhshed for Brown University by Ejnar Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 

1941. No more pubhshed (Isis 34, 74). 

1922-1925: Evolucion de las ciencias en la Republica Argentina. Published by 

Editorial Coni in Buenos Aires. 

Numbered monographs of 26 cm by 17 cm. The serial started on occasion of 
the 50th anniversary of the Sociedad cientifica argentina. No. 2 ( 1924 ) : La evolu- 
cion de la fisica (R. G. Loyarte). No. 6 (1925): Los estiidios botanicos (Hicken, 
CM.). (C. F. M.) 

1920- : L'Evolution de rhumanite. Edited by Henri Berr; pubhshed by La 
Renaissance du Livre in Paris. 
See Bibhotheque de synthese historique. (C. F. M.) 

1922- : II Facsimile. Published by Seeber in Firenze. 

A series of texts and documents related to the history of graphic arts and sciences; 
25 cm by 17 1/2 cm volumes edited in facsimile, described, transcribed and illus- 
trated. Irregularly published. Most volumes were edited by G. Boffito, with the 
aid of others. No. 1 ( 1922 ) : II quadrante d'Israele ( with G. Fumagalli ) ; No. 3 
(1925): Iniziah istoriate; No. 5 (1929): Gh strumenti della scienza; No. 6 (1931): 
II primo compasso. (C. F. M.) 

1926-1940: Facsimile reproductions of scientific classics. 

This title was given retroactively to a series of papers published in Isis, the first 
in vol. 8, 671-84, 1926 (Abraham de Moivre), the twenty-first in vol. 31, 327-79, 
1940 (Roemer). The series was discontinued, because Isis was overcrowded with 
other contributions; it is hoped to renew it sooner or later. 

1885-1904: Fiziko-matematicheskaya nauki v ikh nastoyashchem i proshedshem. 

(The physico-mathematical sciences in their present and their past). Journal 

edited by V. V. Bobynin. Moskva. 

Victor Victorovich Bobynin ( 1849- ) was the author of a Russian bibliog- 

raphy of physics and mathematics (Russkaia fiziko-matematicheskaya bibliografia) 
pubhshed in 13 parts forming 3 vols. Moskva, 1886-1900). Vol. 1 deals with the 
period 1587-1763; vol. 2 with 1764-1799; vol. 3 with 1800-98. He wrote many 
papers (in Russian and French) on the history of mathematics and contributed to 
vol. 4 of Cantor's Vorlesungen. He founded this Russian journal on the history of 
mathematics and physics in 1885; 13 volumes appeared between 1885 and 1898; 
from 1899 to 1904, a final volume which might be called vol. 14 or the single vol. of 
series 2 appeared under a somewhat difi^erent title: Fiziko-matematicheskaya nauki 
v khode ikh razvitiya (The physico-mathematical sciences in the course of their 
development. ) . 

I wonder whether the Russian bibliography did not first appear in Bobynin's 
journal; this is suggested by the fact that it appeared in 13 parts and that the journal 
filled 13 volumes. 

Cf. Isis 2, 136-7. 

1928-1940: Forschungen zur Geschichte der Optik ( Beilagehefte zur Zeitschrift 
fiir Instrumentenkunde). Edited by Moritz von Rohr. Pubhshed by J. 
Springer, Berlin. 

Vol. 1, 1 Dec. 1928. Suspended Nov. 1930 to Oct. 1935. Supplements to the 
Zeitschrift fiir Instrumentenkunde which began in 1881. Latest vol. of the Zeit- 
schrift: vol. 60, 1940. 



216 Journals and Serials 

1900-1914: France Medicale; Revue d'histoire de la medecine. Edited by Albert 

Prieuk. Paris, 1 Place des Vosges. 

Journal founded in 1854, but before 1900 it dealt with medicine in general. 
From 1900 on under the direction of Dr. Prieur it became a medico-historical jour- 
nal. Isis 2, 146. It ends with vol. 61, 1914. 

1938-1939: Freiburger Forschungen zur Medizingeschichte. Edited by L. Aschoff; 

published by Hans Speyer in Freiburg i. B. 

Series of medico-historical monographs and reprint of classical texts. Only two 
numbers are on record. No. 1: Ueber die Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufes (L. 
Aschoff) (1938); No. 2: contains Marcello Malpighi's De polypo cordis dissertatio 
(1939). (C. F. M.) 

1940- : Gazzetta internazionale di medicina e chirurgia. Roma. 
For its medico-historical supplement see Humana studia. 

1942-1943: Geistiges Europa. Edited by Albert Erich Brinckmann; published 

by Hoffmann & Campe in Hamburg. 

An unnumbered series of the publisher containing books "iiber geistige 
Beziehungen europaischen Nationen." W. Linden: Alexander v. Hltmboldt; 
Weltbild der Naturwissenschaft ( 1942); P. Stocklein: Carl Gustav Carus ( 1943). 
No later issue could be found. (C. F. M.) 

1721-1725: Das Gelahrte Preussen, aus neuen und alten, gedruckten und unge- 
druckten Schriften, wie auch der gelahrten Manner, welche in Preussen geboren 
oder daselbst gelebt . . . Leben, wochentlich vorgestellt. Published in Thorn. 
There are five volumes ("Teil"), the fifth in 4 parts. A weekly biographical 

periodical related chiefly to Prussian men of science. Not seen. (C. F. M.) 

1932-1937: Geschichte der Technik. Wien. 

See Blatter fiir Technikgeschichte. (C. F. M.) 

1864-1913: Geschichte der Wissenschaften in Deutschland. Edited by the His- 
torische Kommission of the K. Akademie der Wissenschaften in Miinchen; pub- 
lished by the Koehler Verlag in Leipzig. 
Monumental set on history of German science. Complete in 24 volumes. 

(C. F. M.) 

1928-1932: Geschichtliche Einzeldarstellungen aus der Elektrotechnik, Published 
by the Elektrotechnischer Verein. Berlin, v. 1-4 (C. F. M.) 

1914-1927: Geschichtsblatter fiir Technik, Industrie [und Gewerbe]; illustrierte 

Monatschrift. Edited by Count Carl v. Klinckowstroem, Munich and Franz 

M. Feldhaus, Berlin. Berhn -Friedenau, Fr. Zillessen. 

Vol. 1, xi -f- 260 p., 65 fig. (Isis 11, 459); ceases publication with part 4 of vol. 11 
(then a quarterly) 1927. Same editors, but published by Verlag QueJlenforschungen 
zur Geschichte der Technik und Industrie, Berlin-Tempelhof. 

This was an annual pubHcation issued by the society called "Geschichte der 
Technik." It was not published in 1924-1926. 

1943- : Gesnerus; Vierteljahrsschrift fiir Geschichte der Medizin und der 
Naturwissenchaften. Founded by J. Strohl. Edited by H. Fischer, Ziirich, 
E. Olivier, Lausanne, G. Piotet, Nyon, Rolin Wavre, Geneve. Published by 
H. R. Sauerlander, Aarau, Aargau. 
The first part appeared in 1943, vol. 1 (in 4 parts) was completed in Sept. 1944 

(Isis 37, 248). It is the official organ of the Schweizerische Gesellschaft fiir 

Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften. Latest issue: fasc. 3/4 

December, vol. 5, 1948. 

1793-1800: Giornale per servire alia storia ragionata della medicina di questo secolo, 
13 vols., Venezia. 
This item should not be included in the present list, but having been included 



Journals and Serials 217 

erroneously in the previous list, the present note is meant to correct that error and 
also to serve as vi^arning. In the previous list ( Isis 2, 142 ) it was cautiously remarked 
"I have not seen that journal which I know only by title, and I am not by any means 
certain that it is a historical journal in our sense of the word. In the past history 
and bibhography were often confused. From that point of view every scientific 
journal is also a historical journal; their editors are the annalists of contemporary 
science." 

Dr. Claudius F. Mayer has kindly examined the set and reports as follows 
(letter of 11 Jan. 1949) : "The Giornale is not an organ for the publication of medico- 
historical articles, but an ordinary medical monthly. I examined every volume care- 
fully as to its contents. The journal claims to be the first Italian medical monthly 
(NB. It was, however, the second) and it was edited by Francesco Aglietti, the 
secretary of the Societa medica di Venezia. It contains abstracts or digests of cur- 
rent medical book and journal literature, such as the transactions of the scientific or 
medical societies of Paris, Uppsala, London, etc., with many lengthy book-reviews 
and occasional original letters written to the editor, discussing a few medical case- 
histories. The journal is a treasure house of little known Italian pamphlets of the late 
18th century. Its main arrangement includes sections for such subjects as anatomy, 
theoretical and practical medicine, medical chemistry, surgery, and miscellaneous. 
I do not want to say much about its publishing history since it should not be in- 
cluded in your fist. Vol. 1 was published in 1783 in Venezia, in the house of 
Pasquali; the same pubhshers brought out the other volumes, with some difficulties 
on account of 'international' troubles. The latest volume bears the year 1800; it is 
the 13th volume. The Army Med. Libr. has vols. 1-12. (The 13*^ vol. was 
recently microfilmed)." 

1923(?) : Los grandes viajes clasicos. Published by Espasa-Calpe in Madrid. 

Only a fragment of this monographic series came to my attention. In 1923 the 
reports of Cieza de Leon were reprinted in a volume. (C. F. M.) 

ca 1940- : I Grandi Italiani, collana di biografie. Edited by Luigi Feder- 
zoNi, president of the R. Accademia dTtaha. Pubfished by Unione Tipografica- 
Editrice Torinese, Torino. 
Irregularly issued, numbered series of biographies; octavo. It includes all 

branches of science. No. 14 (1914): Giordano, D., Giambattista Morgagni, 

268 p. No. 15 (1941): Pession, G., Guglielmo Marconi, 204 p. No. (?) 

(1941): Capparoni, P., Spallanzani, 282 p. (C. F. M.) 

1906-1908: Grenzfragen der Literatvir und Medizin in Einzeldarstellungen. Edited 

by S. Rahmer; pubhshed by E. Reinhardt in Miinchen. 

Numbered octavo monographs discussing the role of medicine in the writings of 
fight fiterature. Eight numbers complete the set. (C. F. M. ) 

1910-1932: Crosse Manner; Studien zur Biologic des Genies. Founded by Wilhelm 
OsTWALD; published by the Akademische Verlagsbuchhandlung in Leipzig. 
Numbered series of mostly biographical material. No. 1 & 2: de Candolle, A. 
Zur Geschichte der Wissenschaften (1910; Isis 1: 132). Other volumes include the 
fife of Jacobus Henr. van't Hoff (no. 3), Victor Meyer (no. 4), E. Abbe (no. 5), 
E. Rathenau (no. 6), W. Hofmeister (no 7), Johannes Muller (no. 8, 1924). 
The series ended with no. 12 (1932), Robert Koch, part 1, by B. Heymann. 
(C. F. M.) 

1919-1928: Guide "Ics"; profiU bibliografici de "LTtalia che scrive." Edited by 

FopMiGGiNi; published by the Istituto per la propagazione della cultura italiana 

(Fondazione Leonardo) in Rome. 

Numbered series of small, 16° or 24°, volumes related to bibliography and 
history of various sciences. There is a series 1, containing 45 nos., pubhshed from 
1919 to 1928. No. 1 ( 1919) : Almagia, R., Geografia; No. 3 ( 1920) : Beguinot, A., 
La botanica; No. 4 (1920): Bilancioni, G., La storia della medicina. 

In 1935 a new series was started by the institute, both the series and the institute 



218 Journals and Serials 

assuming a new title (and a new character): Guide bibliografiche, by the Istituto 
nazionale di cultura fascista. (C. F. M.) 

1847- : Hakluyt Society Works. Society estabhshed in London in 1846 for the 

pubhcation of original narratives of important voyages, travels, expeditions and 

other geographical works. 

It was named after Richard Hakluyt (1552-1616) who was one of the first 
to collect and pubhsh such narratives. 100 volumes (forming series I) were 
issued from 1847 to 1898. A second series was begun in 1899; vols. 97-98 (issued 
for 1948) were received in December 1948. The honorary secretary has his office 
in the British Museimi; the honorary secretary for the United States, in the Athe- 
naeum, Boston, Mass. 

An extra-series of 33 vols, has been pubfished by the Society from 1903 to 1905. 
This includes Richard Hakluyt's Principal Navigations (vols. 1-12, Glasgow 
1903-5), the texts and versions of John de Plano Carping and William de 
RuBRUQUis (vol. 13, Cambridge 1903), Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pil- 
grimes (vols. 14-33, Glasgow 1905-7). 

Edward Lynam: Richard Hakluyt and his successors. A volume issued to 
commemorate the centenary of the Hakluyt Society (vol. 93 of second series, Lon- 
don 1946; Isis 38, 130). This includes a history of the society and a list of all the 
Hakluyt editions and maps, well indexed. 

1898-1899: Harper's scientific memoirs. 
See Scientific memoirs. (C. F. M.) 

1922- : Heidelberger Akten der von-Portheim Stiftung. Pubfished by C. Win- 
ter in Heidelberg. 

Numbered series of monographs, 26 cm by 18 cm; it includes the Arbeiten aus 
dem Institut fiir Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften, all numbers of the subseries 
edited and/or written by J. Ruska. No. 6(1924): Arabische Alchemisten; no. 10 
(1924): the same topic; no. 16 (1926): Tabula smaragdina. The latest issue on 
record is vol. 25. (C. F. M.) 

1934- : The Hideyo Noguchi Lectures. 

This is the specific title of the 3rd series of the Publications of the Institute of 
Medicine, Baltimore (q.v.). (C. F. M.) 

1898-1899: Hippocrate; revue mensuelle de medecine historique, patriotique, an- 
ecdotique. Edited by Dr. Socrate Lagoudaky and Hector Raveau; pub- 
lished by Pairault & cie in Paris. 

It is a single volume of 416 p., made up of 14 monthly issues. The first number 
was published February 1898, the last issue is no. 13/14, March 1899 ("2. annee"). 
The editor's preface states: "nous pubfierons des travaux historiques, patriotiques, 
litteraires ecrits par des Grecs ou par des philhellenes." And so, it is a melange of 
biography of Greek national heroes, French translation of Hippocratic works ( Apho- 
risms), the Hippocratic Oath, history of Greek medicine, also current medical 
articles, and news from Macedonia and Crete, etc. (C. F. M.) 

1935 (?)- : Hippocrate (Collection). Edited by Prof. Laignel-Lavastine. 

Published by Le Frangois, in Paris. 

Unnumbered series of the pubUsher, including vols, of 24 cm by 1552 cm size; 
e.g., P. Delaunay: La vie medicale aux 16e, 17e et 18e siecle (1935). Any more? 
(C. F. M.) 

1926-1944: Historia medicinae. Once edited by Victor Robinson; pubfished by 

the Froben Press, New York. 

This is a publisher's series of unnumbered monographs. There are autobiogra- 
phies, histories of specialties, essays in the history of medicine (Max Neuburger), 
medical practice in foreign countries, etc. Latest issue on record is from 1944. Up 
to that time 24 volumes were published. Vols. 1, 2, & 4 were also advertised as 
Library of medical history. (C. F. M.) 



Journals and Serials 219 

1936- : Historical bulletin. Issued quarterly by Calgary Associate Clinic as a 
supplement to its monthly "Historical Nights." Pubhshed in Calgary, Alberta, 
Canada. 

Small octavo quarterly with notes and abstracts related to medical history. Latest 
issue is no. 3, November, vol. 13, 1948/49; it contains articles on the history of 
Canadian medical schools (W. T. Connell), history of gout (A. P. C. Clark), 
medical pioneering in Alberta (A. W. Park), etc. (C. F. M.) 

1935- : Historical notes and papers. Commimications from the Astronomical 

Observatory, Lund, Sweden. 

These booklets dealing with the history of astronomy are separate numbers of 
the "Meddelande fran Lunds Astronomiska Observatorium, Ser. II." Nos. 1 to 15 
being respectively no. 72, 73, 77, 78, 80, 82-85, 88, 89, 91, 96, 101, 102 of the 
general series. No. 15 appeared in 1939; no. 22 in 1949. 

Each number contains a single memoir. 

All these memoirs have been listed in Isis under the author's names : Knitt Lund- 
mark (4 items). Bjorn Svenonius (3), Per Collinder (3), Ake Ohlmarks, 
Abdel Hamid Samaha (2), Lewis A. R. Wallace, D. Kotsakis, etc. 

1841: Historical society of science. 2 vols. Printed for the Society, by R. and J. E. 

Taylor, London. 

Only two volumes were published, both in 1841. 1. James Orchard Halliwell 
( -Phillipps ) : Collection of letters illustrative of the progress of science in England 
from the reign of Queen Elizabeth to that of Charles II (144 p.). 2. Thomas 
Wright: Popular treatises on science written during the Middle Ages in Anglo- 
Saxon, Anglo-Norman and English (156 p.). At the end of volume 1, one may 
find a hst of 12 additional vols. (nos. 3 to 15) suggested for publication. (Isis 18, 
127-32). 

1929-1938: Historische bibliotheek voor de exacte wetenschappen. Published by 

P. Noordhofi^ in Groningen. 

Six numbered volumes complete the set. No. 1: (1929): De elementen van 
Euclides (E. J. DijKSTERHUis ) ; No. 2 (1929): Inleiding in de niet-Euclidische 
meetkunde op historischen grondslag (H. J. E. Beth). (C. F. M.) 

1889-1896: Historische Studien aus dem Pharmakologischen Institute der K. Uni- 
versitat zu Dorpat. vol. 1-5. Published in Halle a. S. (C. F. M.) 

1838-1840: Historisch-literarisches Jahrbuch fiir die deutsche Medizin. Published 

by Voss in Leipzig. 

Three octavo volumes chiefly written by Lxhjwig Choulant; they contain analy- 
sis of the German medical bibliography for the years 1837-1839, with many valu- 
able medico-historical notes related to ancient and medieval medicine. (C. F. M.). 

1930- : History of medicine series. Published by the New York Academy of 

Medicine Library in New York. 

Vol. 1 was issued in 1930. The series progressed as far as no. 6. It includes 
also a magnificent folio of Vesalian works with many illustrations from the original 
woodcuts. (C. F. M.) 

1909- : A History of the Sciences; collection of small illustrated volumes pub- 
lished by the Rationahst Press Association, London; G. P. Putnam's Sons, New 
York. 

George Forbes: History of astronomy (1909). 
Sir Thomas Thorpe: History of chemistry (2 vols. 1909-10). 
Horace Bolingbroke Woodward: History of geology (1911). 
James Mark Baldwtn: History of psychology (2 vols. 1913). 
John Scott Keltie: History of geography (1913). 

History of Science Society Publications. — In addition to Isis, the Society has pub- 
lished many books or patronized their publication. The bibliography of this 



220 Journals and Serials 

is even more difficult than that of other series, because the nine works ( 12 vols.) 
pubhshed from 1928 to 1936, were issued by five different publishers in five 
different cities. Full Ust in Isis (34, 411). 

The Secretary-Treasurer of the HSS is Mr. Fred, G. Kilgour (Yale Medical 
Library, New Haven, Conn.) 

1940- : Humana studia; contributi dellTstituto di storia della medicina della R. 

Universita di Roma. Edited by Adalberto Pazzini. Published in the Gazzetta 

intemazionale di medicina e chirurgia; Roma, Societa anonima Edizioni Scien- 

tifiche, via Nomentana 216. 

Foho-sized biweekly publication; it appeared first as a special column ( 'rubrica' ) 
of the main journal; now it is an Appendix, without separate pagination but with a 
title-page of its own. Each issue contains 8-10 pages of original articles, also repro- 
ductions of portraits related to history of medicine. Its publication started in vol. 
49, 1940, of the Gazzetta. (C. F. M.) 

1936- : Humanior; biblioteca del Americanista moderno. Edited by J. Imbel- 

LONi; pubhshed in Buenos Aires. 

There are three different series published under this title: ser. A, Propedeutica; 
ser. B, Razas y migraciones, and ser. C. Patrimonio cultural indiana. The last 
named series brought forth its vol. 1 in 1936; it deals with cultural history and 
folklore of science. Vol. 3 (1937): Medicina aborigen Americana (R. Pardal). 
(C. F. M.) 

1919-1932: L'illustrazione medica italiana. Genova. 

Monthly serial rich in illustrative material and in para-medical articles related 
to history of Itahan medicine and Italian art. Vol. 1, 1919; vol. 2, 1920. Last 
volume: v. 14, 1932. (C. F. M.) 

1940: Illustrierte Monographien zur Geschichte der Medizin. Issued by Senken- 
bergisches Institut fiir die Geschichte der Medizin an der Universitat Frankfurt 
a.M.; pubhshed by J. A. Barth in Leipzig. 
There is apparently nothing more than the first volume: No. 1 ( 1940) : Christina 

Mentzel (W. Artelt). (C. F. M.) 

1935- : Imago mundi. Jahrbuch der alten Kartographie. Edited by Leo 

Bagrow. 

Vol. 1, 84 p., ill., Published by Bibliographikon, Berhn 1935 (Isis 26, 285). 
Vol. 2, 111 p., ill., 1937 (Isis 30, 181). Vol. 3, 117 p., ill., 1939. Vol. 2 and 3 
were edited with the help of Edward Lynam and published by Henry Stevens, 
London. Latest volume: Vol. 5, 110 p., ill., Kartografiska Sallskapet, Stockholm, 
1948. 

1950- : Impact of Science on Society. Paris. 

Pubhshed by UNESCO, 19 Avenue Kleber, Paris 16. Vol. 1, no. 1, April-June 
1950; no 2, July-September 1950. 

1880- : Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office. United 

States Army (Army Medical Library), Government Printing Office, Washington, 

D. C. 

It may seem odd to include a catalogue among serials, but the inclusion of this 
one is fully justified because of its intrinsic importance and of its periodicity. This 
Index-Catalogue contains fairly complete lists by authors and subjects of every kind 
of medical literature, the historical kind as well as the others. 

First Series, vols. 1-16, 1880-95, edited by Robert Fletcher. 

Second Series, vols. 1-17, 1896-1912, edited by Fletcher, vol. 18-21, 1913-16, 
edited by Fielding H. Garrison. 

Third Series, vols. 1-2, 1918-20, edited by Garrison; vols 3-10 edited by Albert 
Allemann. 

Fourth Series, vols. 1-10, 1936-48, edited by Claudius F. Mayer. The latter 
began in vol. 6 a Bio-bibliography of XVI. century medical authors (67 p., 1941); 



Journals and Serials 221 

first half of letter A. Vol. 10 of the Fovirth Series is vol. 57 of the whole collection, 
the largest of its kind in existence. 

See description of the AML and its Index-Catalogue by Maj. Gen. Edgar Erskine 
Hume (Isis 26, 423-27, 2 portraits, 1936). See also Isis 33, 726-27; 40, 119. 

1921: Invenzioni, scoperte. PubUshed by G. Barbera in Firenze. 

Series of octavo volumes. No. 1 ( 1921 ) : II volo in Italia; storia documentata 
(etc.) (G. BoFFiTo). Any more? (C. F. M.) 

1913- : Isis. Revue consacree a I'histoire de la science, publiee par George 
Sarton. Wondelgem-lez-Gand, Belgique. The first article (Sarton's pro- 
gram) written in Nov. 1912, appeared before the end of that year. First no., 
March 1913, first vol. completed in 1914. The subtitle of Isis has been changed 
repeatedly, the general meaning remaining the same. It now is (vol. 40, 1949) 
"an international review devoted to the history of science and civilization, official 
quarterly of the History of Science Society." The editor is still Sarton, the 
managing editor I. Bernard Cohen ( Harvard Library 189, Cambridge 38, Mas- 
sachusetts, U. S. A.), many associate editors. 

This is the chief journal devoted to the history of science and the most compre- 
hensive. It includes new contributions, reviews, notes, abundant illustrations, and 
a very elaborate critical bibliography covering the whole field. That bibliography 
is arranged in the same order as Sarton's Introduction; it corrects and keeps up to 
date the volumes of the Introduction already published and accumulates materials 
in their proper sequence for the ulterior volumes. 
See also Isis 2, 156. 
See History of Science Society Publications. 

1935- : Istanbul tJniversite; Tip Tarihi enstitii. 

See Yaymlarmdan. (C. F. M.) 

1928-1940: Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft fiir die Geschichte und Bibliographie des 

Brauwesens. Berlin. 

Annual volumes on the history of the brewing industry. Vol. 8, 1935. The 
latest volume on record is vol. 12, for 1939-40, pubfished in 1940. (C. F. M.) 

1902- : Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft fiir Geschichte und Literatur der Landwirt- 
schaft. Edited by Max Guntz and Wilhelm Seedorf. Pubfished in Vippach- 
Edelhausen. 
Annual volumes on the history of agriculture. Vols. 1-11 were published under 

the title: Landwirtschaftlich-historische Blatter. The latest issue on record is Heft 

3, vol. 41, 1942, (C. F. M.) 

1892- : Jahresbericht der Deutschen Mathematiker Vereinigung. Published by 

Teubner in Berfin and Leipzig. 

Vol. 1 edited by G. Cantor, W. Dyck, E. Lampe appeared in 1892. Vol. 49 
edited by E. Sperner, in 1939/40. Vol. 10 (1901-4) was divided into two parts; 
the first part published in 1904 included a history of the German society of mathema- 
ticians and tables to vols. 1 to 12 (sic); that part was pubhshed at the time of the 
III. International Congress of Mathematicians in Heidelberg, August 1904. Publica- 
tion was suspended from 1915 to 1929. 

Erganzungsbande ( Supplementary volumes ) , vol. 1, 1906; vol. 6, 1930 (the last?) 

It is a moot question whether this annual publication and its supplements should 
be included. They certainly contain a relatively large number of papers concerning 
the history of mathematics, biographies of mathematicians, retrospective bibliogra- 
phies. Some of the supplements are important contributions to the history of mathe- 
matics; it will suffice to mention one item, Gustav Enestrom: Verzeichnis der 
Schriften Leonhard Eulers (Erganzungsbande IV, 1-2, 388 p. Leipzig 1910-13), 
basis of the Euler edition. Latest vol. on record is vol. 53, 1943, containing three 
nimibers. 



222 Journals and Serials 

1928-1930: Jahresbericht des Forschungsinstituts fiir Geschichte der Naturwissen- 

schaften. Edited by J. Ruska; published in Berlin. 

This annual report is the continuation of the next entry. Only three volumes 
were published. (C. F. M.) 

1925-1927: Jahresbericht des Instituts fiir Geschichte der Nattirwissenschaften. Ed- 
ited by J. Ruska; published in Heidelberg. 
Annual reports of the Heidelberg Institute comprise only three volumes. Cf. 

preceding entry. (C. F. M.) 

1846-1848: Janus (I); Zeitschrift fiir Geschichte und Literatur der Medizin. Edited 

by A. W. E. Th. Henschel (1790-1856). Three volumes published, Breslau, 

Eduard Trewendt. 

Vol. 1, 884 p., 1846; 2, 830 p., 1847; 3, 842 p., 1848 (Isis 2, 143). 

Photographic reprint published by the Alfred Lorentz Buchhandlung (3 vols. 
Leipzig 1929) with new preface by Karl Sudhoff and dedication to William 
Henry Welch apropos of the inauguration of the Welch Medical Library in Balti- 
more, Maryland. 

N.B. At the same time, from 1847 to 1848, there has been issued another 'Janus' 
(Jahrbiicher deutscher Gesinnung), a revolutionist biweekly, edited by V. A. Huber 
and published in Halle & Berlin. (C. F. M.) 

1851-1853: Janus (II); Central-Magazin fiir Geschichte und Literargeschichte der 
Medizin, arztliche Biographik, Epidemiographik, medicinische Geographic und 
Slatistik. Edited by H. Bretschneider of Gotha, A. W. E. Th. Henschel of 
Breslau, C. Fr. Heusinger of Marburg, J. C. Thierfelder of Meissen. 2 vols. 
Gotha, J. G. Miiller. 

Vol. 1, 322 p., 1851; vol. 2, 664 p., 1853 (Isis 2, 143). 

A separate note is devoted to Janus ( II ) , because it began to appear three years 
after the demise of Janus (I) and also because its scope was much wider than that 
of its predecessor. It did not concern only the history and literature of medicine, but 
also epidemiology, medical geography and statistics. This confusion has been con- 
tinued in other medical books and journals, especially in Janus (III). The tradition 
of Janus (I) was continued in Janus (II) by one of the editors, Henschel, who 
wrote the keynote essay introducing the new series. 

Photographic reprint in one vol. issued by Alfred Lorentz, Leipzig, in 1929. 

1896-1941: Janus (III). Archives internationales pour I'histoire de la medecine et 

la geographic medicale. Amsterdam, Leyden, Haarlem, De erven v. F. Bohn. 

Founded and edited by H. F. A. Peypers (1853-1904). After his death, vols. 9 
and 10 were edited by C. L. van der Burg; vol. 11, 1906, was edited by A. W. 
Nieuwenhuis and E. C. van Leersum. 

Index to the years 1896-1905, published in 1907 (Isis 2, 146). 

Last no. seen, no. 1/3. 45th year April to June 1941. No others published. 

N.B. In 1950 a French monthly assumed the title 'Janus; la jeune poesie fran- 
gaise et americaine.' (C. F. M.) 

1912-1932: Jenaer medizin-historische Beitrage. Edited by Theodor Meyer- 

Steineg; pubhshed by G. Fischer in Jena. 

Monographic series, 24 cm by 16 cm. Complete in 15 volumes. Publication 
was suspended in 1921-1927. No. 1 (1912): Chirurgische Instrumente des Alter- 
tums (T. Meyer-Steineg). No. 2 (1912): Darstellung normaler und krankhaft 
veranderter Korperteile an antiken Weihgaben (T. Meyer-Steineg). No. 5 ( 1913) : 
Zur Geschichte des Ammenwesens im klassischen Altertum (W. Braams). No. 13 
(1930): Piidiatrie in Hellas und Rom (S. Ghino-Poulos ) . No. 15 (1932): 
Sinnesempfindungen in Ilias und Odyssee (C. Korner). (C. F. M.) 

1940- : Journal of the history of ideas. See p. 248. 

1904-1920: The Journal of philosophy [psychology and scientific methods]. Vol. 
1-16. Published in Lancaster and New York. (C. F. M.) 



Journals and Serials 223 

1946- : Journal of the History of medicine and allied sciences. Published by 
Henry Schuman, New York; London, Wm. Heinemann. 
Vol. 1 appeared in 1946; vol. 3 in 1948. 

1936- : Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History. Pub- 
lished by the Society, British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, Lon- 
don S. W. 7. 

Vol. 1, 12 nos. appeared from 1936 to 1943. Vol. 2, began to appear in Decem- 
ber 1943; Vol. 2, part 4 was published on 3 November 1948 (Isis 36, 54). 

1889- : Klassiker der exakten Naturwissenschaften. Founded by Wilhelm 
OsTWALD (1853-1932). and edited by Arthtjr von Oettingen. Pubhshed by 
Wilhelm Engebnann, Leipzig; later by Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig. 
Vols. 238-39 appeared in 1934. Latest vol. (244) was published in 1938. 
Each volume contains the text of one of the classics of science in German trans- 
lation, with notes. Sometimes a whole book is translated, sometimes only the perti- 
nent parts. Some volumes contain many short texts concerning a single topic, e.g., 
the papers of Lothab Meyer and D. Mendeleev on the Periodic Law (no. 68, 
1913; Isis 1: 771). 

1910-1942: Klassiker der Medizin, hrsg. von Dr. Karl Sudhoff. Leipzig, Johann 

Ambrosius Barth. 

See Isis 2, 150. Twenty volumes, each devoted to a medical classic had already 
appeared in 1914. Latest volume seen by me (no. 27) deals with Albrecht von 
Haller's memoirs of 1752 edited by Karl Sudhoff (1922; Isis 5, 234). No. 29 
( 1923 ) : The German translation of Fare's work on the treatment of gunshot wounds; 
edited by H. E. Sigerist. 

No. 30 is Pasteur's work on the fowl cholera publ. in 1923. No. 32 appeared in 
1927, while the last no. 33 was pubhshed in 1942. (C. F. M.) 

1913- : Klassiker der Naturwissenschaft und der Technik. Edited by Graf 
Karl von Klinckowstroem and Franz Strunz. Jena, Diederichs, 1913. 
The series started with Franz Strunz' work: Die Vergangenheit der Naturfor- 

schung (1913). It was enlarged in 1915 by a reprint of Lamarck, and in 1918 by 

a reprint of Kepler. 

Isis 1, 246; 2, 155, 216-17. (C. F. M.) 

1905: Klassiker der Naturwissenschaften, herausgegeben von Lothar Brieger- 

Wasservogel. Leipzig, F. Thomas. 

Six volimies pubhshed all in 1905, deahng with J. R. Mayer, Darwin, K. E. v. 
Baer, Varenius, Plato and Aristotle. 

1935- : Klassild biologii i mediciny. Pubhshed by OGIZ, in Moskva & Lenin- 
grad, according to Henry E. Sigerist (History of Medicine, N. Y., 1951, vol. 1, 
p. 519). (C. F. M.) 

1920?- : Klassild prirodnykh nauk (Classics of natural sciences). Edited by 

B. Menshutkin. 

Of this Russian series of reprints of science classics there is but little informa- 
tion available. The series includes works of Mendeleev, of Lomonossov, etc. 
(C. F. M.) 

1940- : Klassisk dansk medicin. Edited by Axel Hansen; published by L0vens 
Kemiske Fabrik. Printed by J. D. Qvist & Co., in K0benhavn. 
We have seen the Srd vol. of this monographic series which is the Danish re- 
print of Thomas Bartholin's writings on the lymphatic system; it was edited by 
G. Tryde ( 282 p. ) . Any more? ( C. F. M. ) 

1915-1937: Komisja do badania historii filozofii w Polsce (Commission on the history 
of philosophy in Poland). Issued by the Akademja umiejetnosci in Krakow. 
There are 6 volumes in 8 parts in print. (C. F. M.) 



224 Journals and Serials 

1877-1886: Kosmos; Zeitschrift fiir einheitliche Weltanschauung auf Grund der 

Entwicklungslehre. Leipzig. 

Typical serial for the darwinistic philosophy of science. 19 volumes complete 
the set. (C. F. M.) 

1913-1926: Kulturgeschichte der Zahnheilkunde in Einzeldarstellungen. Edited by 

Curt Proskauer. Published by H. Meusser in Berhn. 

Complete in 4 volumes. Monographs of 28.5 cm by 22 cm size. No. 1: Das 
Zahnsticher und seine Geschichte (H. Sachs). No. 4 (1926): Iconographia 
odontologica (C. Proskauer). (C. F. M.) 

Cf. Isis 2: 151. 

ca 1931: Kulturgeschichtliche Beitrage; aus dem Forschungsinstitut fiir Geschichte 
der Zahnheilkunde des Reichsverbandes der Zahnarzte Deutschlands, E. V. 
Edited by Dr. Curt Proskauer, in Breslau. 
Issued as part of Zahnarztliche Mitteilvmgen (only evidence is No. 31, 1931 of 

this dental journal). No more? (C. F. M.) 

1928-1932: Kyklos; Jahrbuch des Instituts fiir Geschichte der Medizin an der 

Universitat Leipzig. Edited by Henry E. SiGEmsT, published by Georg Thieme, 

Leipzig. Vol. 1, 1928; vol. 2, 1929; vol. 3, 1930; vol. 4, 1932. 

Vol. 2 dedicated to Wm. H. Welch, contains a) papers from the Institute, 

b) research in medical history and c) activities of the Institute. Typical papers: 

O. Temkin: Studien zum Sinn-Begriff in der Medizin: E. Herschfeld: Virchow; 

E. Irsay: a physiological synthesis; C. F. Mayer: Die Personallehre in der Natur- 

philosophie von Ai.hertus Magnus; A. W. Bock: Dietetische Wundbehandlung im 

Mittelalter, etc. (C. F. M.) 

1902-1913: Landwirtschaftlich-historische Blatter. Organ der Gesellschaft fiir 
Geschichte und Literatur der Landwirtschaft. Edited by Max Guntz, Weimar. 
Small monthly publication. In 1913 it was changed into a quarterly with a new 

title Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft fiir Geschichte und Literatur der Landwirtschaft 

iq.v.). 

Isis 2, 141. 

1936- : Lavori del Istituto di storia della medicina della Universita di Roma. 

Series of annual volumes, the first one for 1936/37, published in 1938. Each 
volume has also a separate significant title; e.g., vol. 1: Per il sacrario di Asclepio. 
(C. F. M.) 

1819-1826: Leben und Lehrmeinungen beriihmter Physiker am Ende des XVI. und 
am Anfange des XVII. Jahrhunderten als Beitrage zur Geschichte der Physi- 
ologic in engerer und weiterer Bedeutung. Edited and written by Thaddaeus 
Anselm Rixner and Thaddeus Siber. Published in Sulzbach. 
There are 7 fascicles. Each fascicle contains a single biography: Heft 1 
Paracelsus (1819; 2. ed., 1829); H. 2: GmoLAMO Cardano (1820); H. 3 
Bernardinus Talesius (1820); H. 4: Franciscus Patricius (1823); H. 5 
Giordano Bruno (1824); H. 6: Thomas Campanella (1826); H. 7: J. B. v. 
Helmont (1826). (C. F. M.) 

1927- : Legacy series. Published by the Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

Pubhsher's series of unnumbered volumes issued at irregular intervals. The 
earliest volume is the one written by Edwyn Bevan and Charles Singer on Legacy 
of Israel. Other volumes are: Legacy of Islam (T. W. Arnold), Legacy of Rome 
(C. Baily), Legacy of the Middle Ages (C. G. Crump), Legacy of India (G. T. 
Garratt), Legacy of Egypt (S. R. K. Glanville), Legacy of Greece (R. W. Lrv- 
ingstone). (C. F. M.) 

(1920)1921: Liber memorialis; premier congres de I'histoire de I'art de guerir 

(Anvers, 7-12 Aug. 1920). 

This is the "comptes-rendus" of the first congress devoted exclusively to medical 
history. Many others followed. (C. F. M.) 



Journals and Serials 225 

1926-1927: Library of medical history. New York. 
See Historia medicinae. (C. F. M.) 

1948- : The Life of Science library. Collection of books on the history of 

science published by Henry Schuman, New York. 

Keynote volume The Life of Science, Essays in the history of civilization by 
George Sarton ( 1948; Isis 40). Thus far, 14 volumes have appeared, each dealing 
with a great man of science (Benjamin Silliman, Copernicus, Archimedes, 
Claude Bernard, etc.), the history of an idea or a technique (anaesthesia, the 
ships, . . .) or the history of a scientific institution (the Royal Society, the Smith- 
sonian Institution . . .). The latest volume (the 14th) is R. J. Forbes: Man the 
Maker, a History of Technology and Engineering (1950). 

1803-1805: Lucine frangaise; ou, Recueil d'observations medicales, chirurgicales, 
pharmaceutiques, historiques, critiques et litteraires, relatives a la science des 
accouchemens. Edited, and chiefly written, by Jean FRANgois Sacombe; pub- 
lished in Paris. 

A very curious publication, being a mixture of truly synthetical history and 
obstetrical practice, including a history of obstetrics, history of Cesarean section 
(vol. 1), and a pecuhar drama in three acts entitled: Henri et Jeanne de Sey- 
mour, premiere victime de I'operation Caesarienne. Three volumes make the set. 
(C. F. M.) 

1936- : Lychnos. Lardomshistoriska samfundets arsbok ( Annual of the Swedish 
history of learning society). Edited by Johann Nordstrom, professor at the 
University of Uppsala; pubUshed by Almquist and Wiksells, Uppsala and Stock- 
holm. Pubhshed normally once a year, vol. 1 appeared in 1936 (560 p., ill.; 
Isis 28, 177-80); the latest volume received was the one for 1950-51, published 
in 1951. 
The Society was founded in 1934; its first meeting was held in 1935. 

1936- : Lychnos-bibliotek; studier och kallskrifter (studies and sources). Is- 
sued by the Lardomshistoriska samfundet; published by Almqvist-Wiksells in 
Uppsala. 
Unnumbered series, each volume xlevoted to a special topic: reviewed in Isis as 

it appeared. No. 1: N. v. E. Nordenmark: Anders Celsius professor i Uppsala, 

1701-44. {See Isis 26: 177-80). (C. F. M.) 

1802-1806: Magazin der beriihmtesten und interessantesten See- und Landreisen, 
Entdeckungen und Schiffbriiche von Columbus Zeiten. Pubhshed by Sommer 
in Leipzig. 
Complete in 6 volumes (each of 4 numbers) and no. 1 & 2 of the 7th vol. 

(C.F. M.) 

1920-1925: Les Maitres de la pensee scientifique; collection de memoires publics 
par les soins de Maurice Solovine: Paris, Gauthier-Villars. 
Each 16° volume is devoted to a man of science: d'Alembert, Ampere, Pierre 
BouGUER, Lazare Carnot, Clairaut, Rene Dutrochet, Spallanzani, Einstein, 
Huyghens, Laplace, Lavoisier, Mariotte, Monge, Painleve (the great majority 
are French). 

Publisher's unnumbered, irregularly issued series of volumes containing basic 
memoirs and works of contemporary or older investigators; under the general direc- 
tion of Maurice Solovine who is also the translator of some volumes. Of general 
interest to all branches, including methodology and philosophy of science. Latest 
vol. on my record is from 1925: Einstein, A., Sur I'electrodynamique des corps en 
mouvement. 

1892-1893: Maitres de la science; bibliotheque retrospective. Pubhshed by Masson 
in Paris. 
Ten volumes of 12Tno size edited by Charles Richet. ( C. F. M. ) 



226 Journals and Serials 

1923- : Makers of science. Edited by Charles Singer; published by the Ox- 
ford University Press in London. 
Unnumbered series of volumes 18 cm by 12 cm. The volumes have the word 

"Makers" in their titles; they include mathematics, physics and astronomy (I. B. 

Hart, 1923), electricity and magnetism (D. M. Turner, 1927), chemistry (E. J. 

HoLMYARD, 1931), etc. (C. F. M.). 

1927- : Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlich-technische Biicherei. Edited by E. 

Wasserloss and Georg Wolff; published by Otto Salle in Berlin. 

Numbered series of volumes, 19 cm by 13.5 cm. Many of the numbers are on 
history of a science. Bd. 4 ( 1927 ) : Galilei ( A. Wenzel ) . Bd. 7 ( 1927 ) : Otto von 
GuERiCKE (E. Hoppe). Bd. 20-21 (1928): Kulturgeschichte der Technik (F. M. 
Feldhaus). Bd. 24 (1928): Mathematische Quellenbiicher (H. Wieleitner ) , 
(C. F. M.) 

1936- : La Medecine k travers le temps et I'espace. Pubhshed in Paris. 
No. 1 published in 1936; no. 2, 1938. Any more? (C. F. M.) 

1947-1948: Medical Bookman and Historian. Issued monthly, later bimonthly. 

Edited by F. Croxon-Deller and W. R. Bett. Publishers, Harvey and Blythe, 

Hanover Square, London W. 1 

The journal had two sections: a) historical section, edited by W. R. Bett, and 
b) bookman section, edited by F. Croxon-Deller. The last issue is no. 10-11, 
Oct.-Nov., 1948. It is continued as Medicine Illustrated (q.v.), a monthly. 
(C. F. M.) 

1887-1889: Medical classics. Edited by Ferdinand Seeger and John Macmullen; 

pubhshed in New York. 

Vol. 1 appeared June 1887, and the last number was no. 4, vol. 3 December 
1889; a bimonthly periodical which may be called a "medico-historical' journal inas- 
much as it reprinted old texts, e.g., treatises of Cullen on the Peruvian Bark ( 1789). 
or a curious treatise on the tobacco written by T. Venner in 1637, etc.; but the old 
material was used as a bait for gaining respectabihty and a good sale of advertising- 
space. Quack medical history! (C. F. M.) 

1936-1941 : Medical classics. Compiled by Emerson C. Kelly; published in Balti- 
more. 
Five volumes complete the set of quarto numbers. The last volume appeared in 

1940-1941. Many classical texts are included in the form of reprint (Holmes, Pott, 

Paget, Lister, Smith, etc.). (C. F. M.) 

1937-1943: Medical leaves. Edited by Abraham Levinson and others; published 

by a corporation in Chicago. 

As the subtitle reads this serial is a review of the Jewish medical world and 
medical history. Publication ceased on account of the war. (C. F. M.) 

1903-1907: Medical library and historical journal. Published by the Association of 
Medical Librarians. Edited by Albert Tracy Huntington and John Smart 
Browne. 5 vols. Brooklyn (Bedford Ave., 1313). 
Isis 2, 148. 

1920-1938: Medical life. Edited by Victor Robinson; pubhshed by the Froben 

Press in New York. 

Monthly issues each of which is numbered. There are 214 numbers, polygraphs 
as well as monographs, on many medical men and on various medical topics, from 
the point of view of a historian, but more often for entertainment and less frequently 
for serious study. 

Some of the specially "named" issues are on Pasteur, Mechnikov, intravenous 
medication, Gorgas, goiter, acidosis, American surgery, primitive medicine, Ber- 
ZELius, Army Medical Library Centennary, etc. (C. F. M.). 



Journals and Serials 227 

1915-1927: Medical Pickwick; a monthly literary magazine of wit and wisdom. 

Edited by Samtjel M. Brickner, later by Philip Frank; published at Saranac 

Lake, later at St. Louis. 

There are 13 volumes in a complete set. It is a mixture of facetiae, anecdotes, 
witty poems, medical cartoons, fiction, also some history and biography, e.g., history 
of uromancy (A. Allemann), life of Surgeon-General Gorgas, etc. (C. F. M.). 

1937- : Medical sketches. Published by Lobica Laboratories, Inc., in New 

York. 

Monthly publication for the advertisement of a pharmaceutical laboratory. It 
contains light essays or notes of medico-historical interest, biographies of famous 
physicians, anecdotes, medicine in art, hobbies of physicians, and other paramedical 
affairs. (C. F. M.) 

1940- : Medicinalhistoriske dokumenter til belysning af laegevaesenets eg phar- 
maciens udvikling i Danmark. Published by H. Lundbeck & Co., in K0benhavn. 
Small, irregularly issued, numbered pamphlets, each one containing old Danish 

laws related to medicine, pharmacopoeias, medical notebooks, etc. Until 1944, 

there have been five issues. (C. F. M.) 

1949- : Medicine illustrated. Pubhshed by Harvey & Blythe in London. 

This is the new monthly that continues the Medical Bookman and Historian 
(q.v.). (C. F. M.) 

1838-1846: Medicinische Unterhaltungs-Bibliothek; oder, Collectiv-Blatter von 
heiterem und emstem Colorite fiir alte und junge Aerzte. Published by Wil- 
hekn Engelmann in Nordhausen and Leipzig. 

The journal has seven sections (as seen in vol. 9, 1842); among them there 
is one for biographies, another for such "sketches" as Napoleon's last sickness and 
death, then a section is devoted to medical geography and folklore; others are 
for poetry, miscellanea, aphorisms, and anecdotes. (C. F. M.) 

1912-1917: Medicinsk-historiske smaaskrifter. Edited by Vilhelm Maar. Co- 
penhagen, V. Tryde. 
Isis 2, 151. Vilhelm Maar (1871-1940), obituary in Mitteilungen (39, 212- 

13). See also note in Mitt. (12, 319) announcing the collection, and naming the 

first two titles. The series is complete in three volumes. 

1941: Medico-historisches Jahrbuch. Published by Mentzen in Berlin. Complete 
in one octavo volume; 96 p. (C. F. M. ) 

1821-1833: Medicorum Graecorum opera quae extant. Edited by Carl Gottlob 

KiJHN; published in Leipzig. 

Complete in 28 octavo volumes; vol. 1-20, Galen; vol. 21-23, Hippocrates; 
vol. 24, Aretaeus; vol. 25-26, Dioscorides. (C. F. M.) 

1921-1925: Meister der Heilkunde. Edited by Max Neuburger; published by the 

Rikola-Verlag in Wien and Berlin. 

Seven volumes complete the set; 21 cm by 14 cm. No. 1 ( 1921 ) : VmcHOW (by 
C. Posner); No. 2 (1922): Ehrlich (by A. Lazarus). (C. F. M.) 

1945- : Memoires de la Societe frangaise d'histoire de la medecine et de ses 

filiales. Tome 1. Chez le Secretaire general, 66 Boulevard Raspail, Paris 6. 

Vol. 3, 1947, same address. 

Continuation of the Bulletin de la Societe frangaise d'histoire de la medecine. 

Separately paged, irregularly issued volumes. Tome 1, 1945, 86 p.; tome 2, 
1946, 107 p., tome 3, 1947, 222 p. (C. F. M.) 

1775: Memoires litteraires, critiques, philologiques, biographiques et bibliogra- 
phiques, pour servir a I'histoire ancienne et moderne de la medicine. Ed- 
ited by GouLiN; printed by the Imprimerie de Grange for Pyre & Bastien, in Paris. 



228 Journals and Serials 

A truly medico-historical periodical. Issued every 1. and 15. of the month in 
small fascicles of 4 leaves; each fascicle is marked at the bottom of its first page with 
a distinct number. There are 52 numbers for "annee 1775"; the first fascicle of the 
year 1776 was also issued. The volume was dedicated to Monseigneur Hue de 
MiROMENiL, le Garde des Sceaux. 

The volume of 1775 contains 14 major articles: on origin of medicine, on Pietro 
D'Abano, history of anatomy, bibliographical notes and a letter to the editor of 
the memoirs; there is a biography of J. F. Borri, notes on the history of the Sebizius 
family, on history of inoculations, on life of Asclepiades, Themison, Tryphon, 
Cassius and other ancient physicians; contemporary notes, bibliography also. 
(C. F. M.) 

1701-1774: Memoires pour I'histoire des sciences et des beaux arts. Published at 

various places, also in Trevoux. 

It is also called Joiu"nal de Trevoux or Memoires de Trevoux. Small-size serial 
in 166 volimies. Table by Carlos Summervogel (3 vols., Paris 1864-65). Introd. 
(3, 1871). 

1919-1935: Memoires presentes a la Societe Sultanieh de geographie. Published 
under the auspices of Ahmed Fouad, sultan of Egypt. Fofio volumes pub- 
lished by the Imprimerie de I'lnstitut frangais d'archeologie orientale, Le Caire. 
Each volume ( or group of volumes ) deals with a historical subject, or much im- 
portance is given to the history of the subject. E.g., volume 1 is devoted to the 
Suez harbor, the history of which is given. The following volumes are more 
definitely and completely historical in scope. 

Later, the title was changed to Memoires de la Societe royale de geographie 
d'Egypte (sous les auspices de sa Majeste Fouad I-er roi d'Egypte). 

Last volumes published: 15-16, Albert Kammerer: La Mer Rouge, I'Abyssinie 
et I'Arabie depuis I'antiquite (2 heavy folios, Cairo 1929-35). (Introd. 3, 1891). 

1943- : Memoria de sus trabajos de la Sociedad peruana de historia de la 

medicina. Published in Lima. 

This seems to be the first volume, of 48 p. issued for the 1942-43 year. Any 
more? (C. F. M.) 

1922- : Memorie e documenti per la storia della Universita di Padova. Issued 
by the Istituto per la storia della U. di Padova; published by La Garangola in 
Padova. 
Series of unnumbered (?) monographs and polygraphs related to the history of 

science in Padova and at the University of Padova. In 1922: E. Morpltrgo: Lo 

studio di Padova, le epidemic, i contagi. (C. F. M.) 

1947- : Mesicnik Ciba. PubUshed by the Czechoslovak branch of the Ciba 
Company. Partly translation of earlier numbers of the Ciba Zeitschrift. Printed 
in Praha. 
First number was issued October 1947. No. 3, January 1948 is identical in 

contents with the 1942 September issue of Ciba Zeitschrift. Last number on record: 

No. 7, 1948. (C. F. M.) 

1945- : Metaux et civilisations; les metaux dans I'histoire, les techniques, les 
arts. Edited by Louis Delville. Editions Metaux, 32 rue du Marechal- 
Joffre, St. Germain-en-Laye, Seine-et-Oise. 
Vol. 1, was pubhshed in 6 quarto parts, 132 p., ill. 

1909- : Minerva medica. Published in Torino. 

Regular monthly journal of medicine which contains a section called "Varia." 
This section often contains medico-historical curiosities and anecdotes; e.g., in vol. 
32, 1941, it discussed miraculous waters, alcoholism in ancient Egypt, Francesco 
Alforti, historical notes on cancer, leprosy in the Middle Ages, etc. (C. F. M.) 



Journals and Serials 229 

1902-1942: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften. 

Published by the Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Geschichte der Medizin und der 
Naturwissenschaften. 

Vol. 1, 1902, edited by George W. A. Kahlbaum, Max Neuburger and Karl 
SuDHOFF. The last volume pubUshed was vol. 40, 1941-42, 372 p. (Isis 39, 70); 
this volume covers really the years 1941-43, the last years of the Germany which 
Hitler destroyed. The editor of vol. 40 was Rudolph Zaunick of Dresden. Vols. 
1 to 40 published by Leopold Voss, Leipzig. Ceased publication. 

This journal was almost exclusively bibliographical; practically all the German 
publications concerning the history of science and a good many foreign ones, for 
the period 1900-42, are recorded. For an account of the earlier vols., see Isis 2, 
153. 

1890-1936: The Monist; a quarterly magazine devoted to philosophy of science. 

Published by the Open Court Pubhshing Company in Chicago. 

First vol. was pubhshed in 1890; the last issue was No. 2, vol. 46, July 1936. 
There is an index to the first 30 vols. (1890-1920). (C. F. M.) 

1919- : Monografie Vinciane; pubbUcazioni del Istituto Vinciano in Roma. 

Edited by Mario Carmenati; published by Zanichelli in Bologna. 

Numbered series of Leonardo studies. No. 1(1919): La critica e I'arte di 
Leonardo da Vinci (L. Venturi). No. 3 (1920): Leonardo da Vinci e la 
geologia (De Lorenzo). No. 5, 1922. Any more? (C. F. M.) 

1897-1904: Monographien aus der Geschichte der Chemie. Edited by Georg 
W. A. Kahlbaum of Basel [1853-1905], 8 parts, Leipzig, J. A. Barth. 
Each part deals with a special chemical subject such as Lavoisier, Dalton, 

Berzelius, Schonbein, Liebig, Friedrich Mohr. 

1923-1928: Monumenta medica. Edited by Henry E. Sigerist; published by Lier 

& Co., in Milano, and Firenze. 

Numbered volumes, of various sizes, being the facsimile re-editions of book 
rarities or publications of manuscripts. The series includes works of Jenner, 
Ketham, Canano, Harvey (1928), and the early prints on syphiHs edited by 
K. SuDHOFF (1924-25). (C. F. M.) 

1914-1915: Monumenta pharmaceutica. Published by D. B. Centen in Amsterdam. 
The series includes five numbers; each number contains several articles related 
to the history of pharmacy. (C. F. M.) 

1926-1930: Munchener Beitrage zur Geschichte und Literatur der Naturwissen- 
schaften und der Medizin. Edited by Ernst Darmstaedter. Verlag der 
Miinchener Drucke, Miinchen. 

Numbered series of monographs, biographies and reprints related to the history 
of the natural sciences; vols, of 23 cm by 15 cm size. Heft 1 (1926): Georg 
Agricola (E. Darmstaedter). Heft 7-8 (1927): Die heilige Hildegard von 
BiNGEN (H. Fischer). Heft 11-12 (1928): Albertus Magnus als Zoologe (H. 
Balss). Heft 19 is the last one pubhshed. 

There is also a secondary series of extra volumes ( "Sonderheft" ) consisting of 
5 numbers issued in 1926-1928. Heft 1 (1926): Des Walafrid von der Reich- 
enau Hortulus (K. SudhoflF). Heft 2 (1927): reprint of a work of Ulrich Ellen- 
bog (F. Koelsch). (C. F. M.) 
Cf. Isis 10: 252. 

1893-1904: Neudrucke von Schriften und Karten uber Meteorologie und Erdmag- 
netismus. Edited by Gustav Hellmann (1854- ). Berlin, Asher. 

Fifteen parts, the last of which contains addenda and errata to the whole series. 

Isis 1, 706; 2, 139. 

1930- : New York Academy of Medicine Library. See History of medicine 
series. (C. F. M.) 



230 Journals and Serials 

1938- : Notes and Records of the Royal Society. Vol. 1, no. 1 April 1938, pub- 
lished by the Royal Society of London, Burhngton House, London W. 1. 
See Isis 30, 383. Last no. seen, vol. 8, no. 2, April 1951. 

This is a continuation and expansion of the Occasional notes ( 1937 ) . The Notes 
and Records will include the "occasional notes" concerning F. R. S., but also matters 
of historical interest wliich could not be printed in either Philosophical Transactions 
or Proceedings. The format is similar to that of the Proceedings. The articles 
concern the history, chieHy but not exclusively, of the Royal Society. 

1918- : Nouvelles annales des voyages. 

See Annales des voyages. (C. F. M. ) 

1944- : Nova acta Paracelsica; Jahrbuch der Schweizerischen Paracelsus-Gesell- 

schaft. Verlag Birkhiiuser, Basel. 

Vol. 1, 192 p., ill., 1944; vol. 2, 199 p., ill., 1945; vol. 3, 194 p., ill., 1946 (Isis 
39, 82), vol. 4, 138 p., ill., 1947. 

See Acta Paracelsica. 

1823-1845: Nuova raccolta ed opuscoH idraulici diversi. Published in Bologna. 
Seven volumes. Cf. Raccolta. (C. F. M.) 

1927-1930: Ocherki po istorii znanii (Studies in history of science), issued by the 

Leningrad Academy of Sciences. 

Eight numbers complete the series which includes several biographies ( Newton, 
Kastren, Berthelot, etc.) No. 4 (1928): Ocherk istorii russkoi geograficheskoi 
nauki (L. F. Berg). (C. F. M.) 

(1926?)- : Old Asmolean Reprints. Oxford. 

Collection of facsimile reprints of old scientific books concerning the history of 
science in Oxford. The collection was edited by R. T. Gunther. No. 1, Museum 
Tradescentium, 2. Ashmole's diary, 3. L. Digges, 4. J. Digges, 5. Mayow, 6. Hooke, 
7. Boyle. 

1915(?)- : The Open Court classics of science and philosophy. Published in 
Chicago and London by the Open Court Pubhshing Company. 
Unnumbered series of a publisher, containing small booklets (19 cm by 13 cm) 
related chiefly to the history of exact sciences, especially mathematics and geometry. 
It also includes translations or reprints of early philosophers. In 1915: Selections 
from the Scottish philosophy of common sense (G. A. Johnston). In 1919: A 
history of the conceptions of limits and fluxions in Great Britain ( F. Cajori ) . Last 
issue (?): History of mathematical notations by F. Cajori (2 vols. 1928-29). 
(C. F. M.) 

1923- : Opuscoli Vinciani. Issued by the Istituto di studi Vinciani in Roma; 

published by Maglione & Stoini. 

No. 1 (1923): Gli studi intorno a Leonardo da Vinci nell'ultimo cinquantennio 
(E. Verga). Any more? (C. F. M.) 

1907-1943: Opuscula selecta Neerlandicorum de arte medica. Collection of medical 
works written by Dutch men of science, edited by the Dutch medical journal 
Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, Amsterdam. Vol. 1, 1907; vol. 17, 
1943. Pubhshed by De erven v. F. Bohn, Haarlem. Irregularly issued. 
See Isis 7, 595; 10, 304; 11, 267; 12, 152; 16, 567; 20, 600; 23, 606; 25, 600; 

28, 294; 35, 357; 39, 130. 

See Bijdragen tot de geschiedenis der geneeskunde. 

1936- : Organon. International review, published by the Mianowski Institute 
for the promotion of science and letters. Editor: Stanislaw Michalski, War- 
saw, Staszic Palace. 
Organon is devoted to the 'science' of science, the explanation of general science 

and the history of Pohsh science. Vol. 1, 312 p., 1936 (Isis 26, 562), vol. 2, 302 p., 

1938 (Isis 30, 297-98). 



Journals and Serials 231 

1925-1929: Orvostortenelmi jegyzetek (Medico-historical notes). Edited and 
written by Claudius F. Mayer; published by the Orvosi Hetilap (Medical 
Weekly), Budapest. 
A series of about 20 reprints of articles dealing with medico-historical topics, 

including the analysis of the Oribasius codex of the Hungarian National Museum, and 

other medieval manuscripts, the gynecological works of Cleopatra, history of the 

treatment of syphilis, etc. (C. F. M.) 

1936- : Osiris. Studies on the History and Philosophy of Science, and on the 
History of Learning and Culture. Edited by George Sarton with the help of 
Alexander Pogo. Vol. 1, 1936; vol. 9, 1950. Pubhshed by Saint Catherine 
Press in Bruges, Belgium. 

This series is supplementary to Isis. It includes volumes devoted to a single 
subject or group of subjects (as vol. 1, devoted to the history of mathematics) and 
the longer and more technical papers; Isis is for the shorter ones, the reviews, notes, 
queries, and critical bibhography. Each volume of Osiris is dedicated to a historian 
of science and includes his biography, bibliography and portrait. Vols. 1 to 9 are 
thus dedicated to D. E. Smith, Sir Thomas Heath, E. O. von Lippmann, Julius 
Ruska, Joseph Bidez, Gino Loria, P. Ver Eecke, and Max Meyerhof. 

1889- : Ostwald's Klassiker der exakten Wissenschaften. Leipzig, Engelmann. 
See Klassiker. 

1925: Pagine di scienza. Published by Mondadori in Milano. 

Numbered series of monographs, 21 cm by 14 cm, each volume being an 
anthology of the writings of a famous physicist, chemist, biologist, etc. No. 1 ( 1925 ) : 
Leonardo (by S. Timpanaro). No. 2 (1925): Galileo (S. Timpanaro). Any 
more? (C. F. M.) 

1946- : Pagine di storia della scienza. See p. 248. 

1940- : Pallas. Edited by Frans Verdoorn; published by the Chronica Bo- 

tanica in Waltham, Mass. 

Numbered reprints of rare historical reference works of botany. No. 1 (1948): 
K. F. W. Jessen: Botanik der Gegenwart und Vorzeit in culturhistorischer Entwicke- 
lung (Isis 40, 82). No. 2 ( 1952) : C. Darwin: Journal of Researches, ed. 1 ( 1839). 
(C. F. M.). 

1918-1920: Papers of the Agricultural Historical Society, Washington. 

These are volumes of reprints from the annual reports of the American Histori- 
cal Society. Only 3 vols, were pubhshed. For continuation see Agricultural 
History. (C. F. M.) 

1886- : Periodico di matematiche, storia, didattica, filosofia. Edited by F. 

Enriques and G. Lazzeri; published by various pubhshers in Roma, Bologna 

and Livorno. Issued for the Associazione Mathesis. 

Current in its fourth series now. Ser. 1, v. 1-13, 1886-1898; ser. 2, vol. 1-5, 
1899-1903; ser. 3, v. 1-15, 1903-1918; ser. 4, v. 1, 1921: vol. 10, 1930. 

There is also a set of supplements, vol. 1-20, 1898-1917. (C. F. M.) 

1924-1932: Per la storia e la filosofia delle matematiche. Edited by F. Enriq^tes; 

pubhshed by Stock in Roma, and later by Zanichelli in Bologna. Issued for the 

Istituto nazionale per la storia delle scienze fisiche e matematiche. 

Numbered series of volumes, 20 cm by 14 1/2 cm. No. 3: Newton, I. Principi 

di filosofia naturale (ed. F. Enriques). No. 7 (1929): Bombelli, R. Algebra 

(Isis 14, 425). No. 9 (1931): Galileo. Last one is No. 11, 1932(?) (C. F. M.) 

1937- : Petrus Nonius: publicagao do grupo Portuges da historia das ciencias. 
Review of the Portuguese group of the history of sciences, edited by Arlindo 
Camilo MONTEmO. 

The first volume was pubhshed in Lisbon 1937-38, the first part of vol. 7 
reached me in July 1949. The address of the editor is now Caixa Postal 2581, Rio 
de Janeiro, Brazil. 

Isis 29, 255. 



232 Journals and Serials 

1926-1930: Philosophes et savants frangais du XX^ siecle. Extraits et notices. 

Published by Alcan, in Paris. 

Publisher's irregular, numbered series in 16mo. No. 1 (1926): Philosophie de 
la science, by R. Poirier. Last issue seen, No. 5 (1930). (C. F. M.) 

1934- : Philosophie et histoire de la pensee scientifique: exposes edited by 
Federigo Enriques; published by Hermann & Cie in Paris. 
Booklets of 17 cm by 15 cm size. No. 1: F. Enriques: Signification de I'histoire 

de la pensee scientifique. (C. F. M. ) 

1934- : Philosophy of science. Published quarterly for the Philosophy of Sci- 
ence Association by the Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Maryland. Founded 
by William Marias Mallisoff (1895-1947). Edited by C. W. Churchman. 
Latest current volume is vol. 16, 1949. 

1942- : Physis. Beitrage zur naturwissenschaftlichen Synthese. Edited by 

Adolf Meyer-Abich. 

Seen only vol. 2-3 (206 p., ill. Hippokrates-Verlag, Stuttgart, 1949; Isis 41, 393). 
The editor vv'as formerly known under the name Adolf Meyer. 

1919- : Pioneers of progress; man of science. Published by the Society for 

Promoting Christian Knovv^ledge, in London. 

Booklets of 16mo size; pubhsher's unnumbered series of biographies of famous 
men of science. In 1919: Joseph Priestley (by H. Peacock). Other volumes 
describe Galileo, Faraday, Herschel, etc. The society vi'as still active in 1940. 
(C. F. M.) 

1902- : Proceedings of the Charaka Club (New^ York). Published by the 

Williams & Wilkins Company in Baltimore. 

Very irregularly published; hmited to ca. 500 copies for the club members. It 
discusses the literary, artistic and historical aspects of medicine. Vol. 1, 1902; vol. 
2, 1906; vol. 3, 1910; vol. 4, 1916; vol. 5, 1919; vol. 7, 1931; vol. 10, 1941 (the last). 
Vol. 10 includes the story of Barbara Fritchie, Figleaves for Shakespeare and 
Montaigne, Galen on malingering, the mystery of Robert Seymour, etc. 
(C. F. M.) 

1913- : Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, Section of the History of 
Medicine. London W., Royal Society of Medicine, Longmans, Green and Co. 
Isis 2, 151. The Section of the History of Medicine was inaugurated on Nov. 
20, 1912, Sir William Osler, Bt., President of the Section, in the chair. The re- 
ports of that section began to appear in vol. 6 of the Proceedings of the Royal 
Society of Medicine; Reports of the first year 1912-13, in that vol. 6 cover 246 p. 
Vol. 38 contains the reports of the historical section for 1944-45, p. 1-18, 409-12, 
485-94, 697-706. 

(1916)- : Profili. Published by Formiggini in Roma. 

A series of small booklets, 17 cm by 10 1/2 cm, numbered. Single volumes deal 
with biographies of scientists. No. 42 (1916): Lavoisier (A. Mieli; 2nd ed., 
1926). No. 46 (1918): Cristoforo Colombo (R. Almagia; 2nd ed. 1927). 
No. 62 (1922): Giambattistia Morgagni (G. Bilancioni). No. 91 (1927): 
VoLTA (A. Mieli). Any more? (C. F. M.) 

1919-1928: Profili bibliografici de "L'ltalia che scrive." 

See Guide Ics. (C. F. M.) 

1828- : Proteus; Zeitschrift fiir Geschichte der gesammten Naturlehre. Ed- 
ited by Karl Wilhelm Kastner; published in Erlangen. 
One volume, two numbers only. Its historical nature remains to be seen. 

(C. F. M.) 

1931-1937: Proteus. Verhandlungsberichte der Rheinischen Gesellschaft fiir Ge- 
schichte der Naturwissenschaft, Medizin und Technik. Edited by Paul Dier- 
gart, 2 vols. Pubhshed Bonn 1931-37. 



Journals and Serials 233 

Pubblicazioni del Istituto di storia della medicina della R. Universita di Roma. 

Edited by Adalberto Pazzini. Published by V. Ferri in Roma. 

Includes several series. The 'C Collection is: Studi e ricerche storico-mediche. 
It is an unnumbered series. It includes C. Grassi: Storia dei tumori nella antichita 
Greco-Romana (1941). (C. F. M.) 

1919-1926: Pubblicazioni del Istituto Vinciano in Roma. Edited by M. Cer- 

MENATI. 

It includes two diflFerent series, or two different titles. Ser. 1, Studi e testi 
Vinciani, vol. 1-7, 1919-1926. Ser. 2, Testi Vinciani, vol. 1, 1923 (the only vol- 
ume). All volimies deal with an aspect of the genius of Leonardo. (C. F. M.) 

1938- : Publicaciones; Catedra de historia de la medicina; Facultad de ciencias 
medicas. Edited by Juan Ramon Beltran; published in Buenos Aires. 
Vol. 6 was published in 1943; latest vol. seen, vol. 7, 1944. (C. F. M.) 

1913-1914: Publications de la Society frangaise d'histoire de la medecine. Paris, 

chez le secretaire general, 16, rue Bonaparte, 1913. 

Monographs concerning the history of medicine. I know only two volumes. 
Vol. 1, Paul Dorveaux (1913; Isis 1, 517-18); vol. 2, Louis Dubreuil-Cham- 
bardel (1914; Isis 2, 438). 

Cj. Bulletin; Memoires. 

1848- : Publications of the Hakluyt Society. 
See Hakluyt Society. (C. F. M.) 

1934- : Publications of the Institute of the History of Medicine. Johns Hopkins 

University, Baltimore. Edited by Henry E. Sigerist and successors. 

There are four different series included under the general title of this periodical 
pubhcation. 

Series 1, Monographs; e.g.. No. 1: Ornithologists of the U. S. Army Medical 
Corps (E. E. Hume). 

Series 2, Texts and documents; e.g.. No. 1: Four treatises of Theophrastus von 

HOHENHEIM. 

Series 3, The H. Noguchi Lectures, e.g.. No. 1 (1934): The renaissance of medi- 
cine in Italy (A. Castiglioni ) . 

Series 4, Bibhotheca medica Americana; e.g.. No. 1 (1937): A brief rule to 
guide the common people of New England (reprint of the 1671 work of T. 
Thacher). This series includes reprints of works of Morgan, W. H. Welch, 
Beaumont, B. Waterhouse, etc. (C. F. M.) 

1844- : Publications of the Ray Society. 
See Ray Society. 

( 1941- ) : Quaderni dell'Impero, scienza e tecnica ai tempi di Roma Imperiale. 

Pubhshed by the Istituto di Studi Romani, Roma; printed in Spoleto, by Panetto 

& Petrelli. 

Octavo volumes in a nvunbered but irregularly issued series; related to history of 
sciences and technic. No. 16 ( 1941 ) : De Vecchis, B., La odontoiatria e la protesi 
dentaria ai tempi dell'Impero Romano, 20 p. (C, F. M. ) 

1925-1927: Quaderni di storia della scienza. Published by the Casa Editrice 

Leonardo da Vinci in Roma. 

Numbered series of monographs on history of science; each volume 26 cm by 
17 cm. No. 3 (1926): Medicazioni strane (&c.) (D. Giordano). No. 6 (1926): 
Punti interrogativi nella storia delle matematiche (G. Loria). No. 7 (1927): II 
sistema aristoteUco della generazione degU animali (G. Montalenti). (C. F. M.) 

Quellenbiicher, see Voigtlanders Quellenbiicher. 

1921-1922: Quellen und Beitrage zur Geschichte der Zahnheilkunde. Edited by 
Curt Proskauer; pubhshed by H. Meusser in Berlin. 



234 Journals and Serials 

Only two numbers were published. No. 1 is a reprint of A. Tylkowski's Dis- 
quisitio physica (1624). No. 2 is a 1530 dental booklet: Zene Arznei. (C. F. M.) 

1901-1918: Quellen und Forschungen zur alten Geschichte und Geographic. Ed- 
ited by W. SiEGLiN; pubhshed in Leipzig by E. Avenarius, later in Berhn by 
Weidrnann. 

Thirty volumes make a complete set, but vol. 16 and vol. 20 M^ere not pub- 
lished. Bd 8(1904): Die Entdeckung des germanischen Nordens im Altertum 
(Detlefsen). No. 9 (1904): Plinius: Die geographischen Biicher der naturalis 
historia (Detlefsen). (C. F. M.) 

1909-1934: Quellen und Forschungen zur Erd- und Kulturkunde. Edited by R. 

Stube and C. F. Andreas. Leipzig, Otto Wigand, later W. Heims. 

Eight volumes published by 1914 (Isis 2, 141). Vol. 13 (Leipzig, Heims, 1934). 
This is the last volume published. Publication was suspended during 1922-1929. 

Paul Schwarz: Iran im Mittelalter nach den arabischen Geographen (9 vols., 
Leipzig, Harrassowitz 1896-36). Vol. 1 published as Habilitationschrift, Leipzig 
1896; vols. 2 to 4 form vols. 3, 6, 9 of the series Quellen und Forschungen zur Erd- 
und Kulturkunde 1910, 1912, 1921 (Isis 5, 275); vols. 5-7 are vols. 1-3 in the 
series Quellen und Forschungen zur Kultur- und Religionsgeschichte 1925, 1926, 
1929. Index to vols. 1-7 (Leipzig 1929). Vols. 8-9, mimeographed handwriting, 
Zwickau in Sachsen, F. Ullmann 1932-36. Single pagination through the nine 
volumes, 1600 p., except the index to vols. 1-7, paginated separately 94 p. This 
example has been described to illustrate the bibliographic difficulties caused by 
erratic editorship of series. 

1938- : Quellen und Forschungen ziu* Geschichte der Geographie und Volker- 
kunde. Edited by Albert Herrmann; Leipzig, K. F. Koehler. 
Numbered series of monographs. No. 1 ( 1938 ) : Das Land der Seide und Tibet 

im Lichte der Antike (A. Herrmann). No. 7 (1941): Am Hofe des persischen 

Grosskonigs, 1684-85 (E. Kampfer). 

1930-1938: Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Mathematik, Astronomic und 
Physik. Herausgegeben von O. Neugebauer, J. Stenzel, und O. Toeplitz. 
Published by Springer in Berfin (Isis 13, 541). 

Section A, Quellen, began to appear in 1930, the last part seen by me is called 
4. Band (80 p. 1936; Isis 27, 120). Vol. 3 containing Neugebauer's studies on 
mathematical texts in cuneiform writing (Isis 28, 490-91) is divided into three 
parts (1935, 1935, 1937), the last two of which are of very large size (34 cm 
high) and hence bound separately. Section B, Studien, began to appear in 1931. 
Vol. 4 (in 4 parts) was published in 1938. 

1931-1942: Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der 
Medizin. Edited by Paul Diepgen and Julius Ruska. Continuation of the 
Archiv fiir die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik ( 1909-30, 
see above). Vol. 1 appeared in 1931. Last part received vol. 8, Heft 3/4, 1942. 
Berlin, Julius Springer. 

1765-1845: Raccolta d'autori italiani che trattano del moto dell'acque. Bologna. 

Reprint of historical texts on hydrodynamics and hydrology. There is an older 
series of nine volumes published 1765 to 1774. Several of the volumes were often 
reprinted. The newer series has the title: Nuova raccolta ed opuscoli idraulici 
diversi; it is composed of seven volumes published from 1823 to 1845. 

It seems however that the old series still continued after 1823. A vol. 10 is on 
record from 1826; it is the reprint of Leonardo da Vinci's Del moto e misura 
dell'acqua, edited by Cardinall (C. F. M.) 

1905-1934: Raccolta Vinciana. Founded by Luca Beltrami; edited by Ettore 
Verga (1867- ); published by the Archivo storico e civico in the Castello 

Sforzesco of Milano. 
Numbered fascicles devoted to the study of Leonardo da Vinci; irregularly 



Journals and Serials 235 

published. Each fascicle contains several articles and elaborate bibhography. 
Fasc. 1, 1905; fasc. 8 (1912) 1913; fasc. 14, 1930-1934; fasc. 15-16, 1935-39. 

1929- : Rassegna per la storia deH'Universitk di Modena. Published by the 
University. Fasc. 1, 1929. (C. F. M.) 

1844- : The Ray Society Publications. 

The Society was founded in London in 1844 for the publication of works on 
natural society. It is named after the English naturalist, John Ray (1627-1705). 
Some of the works published by the Society concern the history of natural history, 
e.g., Louis Agassiz: Bibliographia zoologiae et geologiae (4 vols. 1848-54). 
Memorials of John Ray (1846). The correspondence of John Ray (1848). 
Miscellaneous botanical works of Robert Brown (1886-68). Classical works of 
J. J. S. Steenstrup, Wilhelm Hofmeister. No. Ill: K. von Goebel: Life of 
WiLHELM Hofmeister (1926). No. 114: Further correspondence of John Ray, 
edited by Robert W. T. Gunther (1928). No. 132: Thomas Pennant: Tour on 
the continent 1765 (1948). The books can be obtained from Messrs. Bernard 
Quaritch, Grafton St., London W. 1. 

1882-1923: Recueil de voyages et de documents pour servir a I'histoire de la geogra- 
phic depuis le Xllle jusqu'a la fin du XVIe siecle. Edited by Charles Schefer 
and Henri Cordier. Paris, Ernest Leroux. 
In 1914, 22 octavo volumes had appeared, plus 3 atlases of maps (Serie car- 

tographique), in folio (Isis 2, 140, 169). 

Vol. 1 (Henry Harrisse 1882); last vol. 24 (Antonio Pigafetta 1923). 
Section cartographique (Gabriel Millet 1896). 

1929- : Report of the Science Museum, London. 

Numbered series which includes also handbooks and monographs for the historian 
of science. No. 1 is the report for 1927-1928. No. 3 (1930): Handbook of the 
collections illustrating aeronautics (M. J. B. Davy). (C. F. M.) 

1922- : Research series of the American Geographical Society. Published in 

New York. 

Numbered series of 19 cm by 12 cm volumes related to the history of geography. 
No. 1 ( 1922) and N. 2: Bering's voyages. No. 3 ( 1922) : Legendary islands of the 
Atlantic; a study in medieval geography (W. H. Babcock; Isis 5, 167-70). No. 15 
(1925): The geographical lore of the time of the Crusades (J. K. Wright; Isis 7, 
495-98). (C. F. M.). 

1922-1925: Research studies in medical history. 

See Wellcome Historical Medical Museum. 

1942- : Revista argentina de historia de la medicina; publicaci6n cuatrimestral; 

organo oficial del Ateneo de historia de la medicina. Edited by Juan Ramon 

Beltran. Echeverria 1606, Buenos Aires. 

First year in 3 parts, with separate pagination, 1942. Second year in 3 parts, 
1943. Alio 5, 1946. 

1949- : Revista brasileira de historia de medicina. PubUshed in Rio de Janeiro, 
Rua Mexico 164. Vol. 1, 1949. (C. F. M.) 

1945- : Revista de la Sociedad venezolana de historia de la medicina. Caracas. 
No. 1, vol. 1, published in 1945. (C. F. M.) 

(1936?)- : Revue Ciba. Published by the Ciba Pharmaceutical Company. 

Basel. 

Is this the French companion of Ciba Zeitschrift? No. 56 is cited from 1947. 
(C. F. M.) 

1931- : Revue de synthese; organe de la Fondation "Pour la Science"; Centre 
international de synthese. Edited by Henri Berr, published by La Renaissance 
du Livre, Paris. 



236 Journals and Serials 

This is a continuation of the Revue de synthese historique; vol. 1 of the Revue 
de synthese is called vol. 51 of the Revue de synthese historique. The change of 
title indicates a broadening of purpose: not historical synthesis only, but general 
synthesis of knowledge. 

Vol. 21 (62 of the general series), second half of 1947, is divided into two parts 
entitled respectively "Sciences de la nature et synthese generale," "Synthese his- 
torique." Last part seen vol. 22, 1 (63"* of the general series), 1948, first half, is 
entitled Synthese generale and is largely devoted to Descartes. During proof- 
reading received vol. 26 (or 67), 240 p., Paris, Janvier-juin 1950 which was pub- 
hshed to celebrate three anniversaries, the 50th of the Revue de Synthese, the 25th 
of the Centre de Synthese, and the 15th of the Semaine de Synthese. It includes 
the history of these three dovetailed undertakings, all of which were created by the 
same man, Henri Berr (Isis 42, 381; Osiris 10). 

1900-30: Revue de synthese historique (50 vols, in 38). Edited by Henri Berr. 

Pubhshed in Paris, by Cerf 1900-22, then by La Renaissance du Livre 1923-30. 

Table for the years 1900-10 (1912). 

As the title indicates, this was a general review of history but the editor attached 
from the beginning much importance to the history of science and enlisted for that 
purpose such collaborators as Paul Tannery, Andre Lalande, Lucien Poincare, 
Abel Rey, Maurice Caullery. Tannery's inaugural lesson, never delivered, ap- 
peared in vol. 8 (Isis 38, 31-51, 1947). I am especially grateful to Berr's Revue 
because it provided a part of my initiation. 

The 50 vols, make two series: series 1, vol. 1-26, 1900-1913; ser. 2, vol. 1-24, 
1913-1930. Continued by the preceding title. Revue de synthese. 

1948- : Revue d'histoire de la medecine hebrai'que. Edited by I. Simon, Paris 
9', 55, rue de Clichy; published by the Societe d'histoire de la medecine 
hebrai'que in Paris. 
Irregularly pubhshed. No. 1 was issued in June 1948; No. 2 is the latest on 

record (Sept. -Dec, 1948). The Society was founded by I. Simon and others in 

1936; it was inactive during the war (1939-1947); activities resumed in June 1947. 

The society also wants to establish a library for the history of Hebrew medicine and 

science. (C. F. M.) 

1913- : Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie. Issued by the Societe d'histoire de la 

pharmacie which was founded February 1913. Edited by E. H. Guitard, Paris, 

VI, 4 Ave. de I'Observatoire. 

Vol. 1-17, 1913-1930, pubhshed as Bulletin (q.v.). Issued quarterly; single num- 
bers are marked by continued notation of volume, whole-numbering and special 
numbering of Revue issues; e.g., vol. 22, No. 100 is also No. 34 of the revue, issued 
December 1937. No. 110 was published June 1940. Thereafter, during the turbu- 
lent period of the war, it was temporarily replaced by an annual pubhcation called 
Seances et travaux de la Societe d'histoire de la pharmacie. With No. 117, the title 
of Revue was again assumed and the frequency made quarterly. No. 117, March 
1947, annee 35; No. 121 (part of annee 36) is the issue for June-September 1948. 
For its hterature review see Dionysos. (C. F. M.) 

Cf. Bulletin . . . ; Seances et travaux . . . 

1926-1939: Revue d'histoire de la philosophie (et d'histoire generale de la civilisa- 
tion). Published by the Libraire universitaire in Paris. 
Quarterly. Series 1 is of five vols. 1926-1931. A new series was pubhshed in 

seven volumes from 1933 to 1939. (C. F. M.) 



^ I first thought that 62 and 63 were misprints for 72 and 73, but Mile. Suzanne Delorme 
kindly informed me (Paris 29 Jan. 1949): "Les volumes 21-22 de la nouvelle collection s'ap- 
pellent 62 et 63 de I'ancienne revue (et non 72-73). C'est qu'il s'agit des volumes de synthase 
historique, alors que la nouvelle collection comprend en outre dix volumes de synthese generale des 
sciences de la nature qui" ne comptent pas dans I'ancienne tomaison. La serie complete ne com- 
prend que la synthese historique." 



Journals and Serials 237 

1947- : Revue d'histoire des sciences et leurs applications; organe de la Section 

d'histoire des sciences. Edited by Pierre Brunet (Centre international de syn- 
these, Fonda teur-directeur : Henri Berr). Presses Universitaires de France. 
Each volume contains 4 parts. Seen vol. 1, no. 1, Sept. 1947 to no. 3 March 
1948; vol. 2, 1948-49 (the latest on record). 

In the first editorial (vol. 1, 5-8) Henri Berr recalls that this Revue is to some 
extent a continuation of the Revue de synthese historique founded by him in 1900, 
which included a number of articles on the history of science. The collection of 
books founded by him a little later L'evolution de I'humanite (1912) contains also 
many books on the history of ancient science by Abel Rey ( 1873-1940). Rey died 
before he could begin his synthesis of medieval science. 

1904-05: Revue historique et m^dicale. Edited by Paul Triaire, Paris. 

Monthly journal which began to appear in Nov. 1904; died at the age of three 
months. Isis 2, 148. 

1910- : Rivista di storia (critica) delle scienze mediche e natural!. Official organ 
of the Italian Society for the History of Science that was founded in 1907. 
The first preface was signed by D. Barduzzi and V. Pensuti. The putting in 
order of that publication is made difficult by two serial numbers relative to years 
and volumes. Thus vol. 1 covers the years 1910 to 1912. The numbers published 
in 1950 represent the year 50 (8th series). Address of the editor: Museo di storia 
delle scienze. Piazza dei Giudici, Firenze. Publisher: Leo S. Olschki, Firenze. The 
earliest volumes were published from Faenza and Sienna. 

For a previous publication of the same Italian society see Atti . . . 1907 sq. 
For the earher volumes of the Rivista see Isis 2, 155. 

( 1942 ) : Schriften der Arbeitsgemeinschaft fiir Technikgeschichte des Vereins 

deutscher Ingenieure im NSBDT. Published by the Verein deutscher Ingenieure- 

Verlag in Berlin. 

A numbered series of history of technology. The date of the first volume remains 
to be seen. No. 18 was issued in 1942; it is K. Hradecky's Geschichte und Schrift- 
tum der Edelmetallstrichprobe. Any more? 

NB. The NSBDT is a symbol of the Nazionalsoziafistischer Bund deutscher 
Techniker. 

See also Schriftenreihe der Fachgruppe (etc.). 

1921- : Schriften zur Karitaswissenschaft. Issued by the Deutscher Caritasver- 
band; edited by Heinrich Auer and others; published in Freiburg i. B. 
Bd 1 (1921): Caritas und Volksepidemien (F. Meffert). Bd. 4: Mittelalter- 

liche Caritas (F. Zoepfl). Latest vol. on record is Bd 5. (C. F. M.) 

(1933)- : Schriftenreihe der Fachgruppe fiir Geschichte der Technik beim Ve- 
rein deutscher Ingenieure. Published by the German Society of Engineers in 
Berlin. 
Unnumbered monographs related to "the history of engineering. In 1933: e.g., 

Lotns de Geer, 1587-1652 (O. Johannsen). 

See also Schriften der Arbeitsgemeinschaft (etc.). (C. F. M.) 

1946(?)- : Science in Britain. Published by Longmans-Green & Co. in Lon- 
don. 

Unnumbered series of the pubfisher. Date of first issue not known. Each vol- 
ume is of 22 cm size. In 1946 the following titles were issued: A. H. Gibson: 
Osborne Reynolds and his work; L. Bragg: History of X-ray analysis; W. L. Ran- 
dell: De Ferranti and his influence upon electrical development {2nd ed. ); F. 
H. A. Marshall: The science of animal breeding in Britain; a short history. In 
1947: G. Lee: Oliver Heaviside. (C. F. M.) 

Science Museum, London. 

See Report. 



238 Journals and Serials 

1898-1901: Scientific memoirs. Edited by Joseph Sweetman Ames (1864-1943). 

15 vols. New York, American Book Co. Vols. 1-7, title reads Harper's Scientific 

Memoirs. 

Each volume contains various papers dealing -with one physical or chemical sub- 
ject: free expansion of gases, prismatic and difiFraction spectra. X-rays, law of radia- 
tion and absorption, stereo-chemistry, etc. 

1921-1923: Gli scienziati italiani daU'inizio del medio evo ai nostri giomi. Re- 

pertorio bio-bibliografico dei filosofi, matematici (etc.). Edited by Aldo Mieli 
and published by A. Nardecchia in Roma. 

One volume published in two parts (474 p., ill.) including 58 biographies (Isis 
4,112-14). (C. F. M.) 

1932- : Scripta mathematica; a quarterly journal devoted to the philosophy, 
history and expository treatment of mathematics. Edited by Jekuthiel Gins- 
BURG; pubhshed by Yeshiva College, Amsterdam Avenue and 186th St., New 
York. Volume 1 appeared in 1932-33; vol. 14, in 1948. 
The first no. of vol. 1 (92 p.) appeared in September 1932 (Isis 19, 589). 
The journal has two numbered sets of monographs. One is the Scripta Mathe- 
matica Library the vol. 1 of which appeared in 1934; it is D. E. Smith's The poetry 
of mathematics and other essays. The other set is complete in one number pub- 
lished in 1936; its title is Scripta Mathematica Studies. 

1941-1946: Seances et Travaux de la Societe d'histoire de la pharmacie. Published 
at Paris, 4 Avenue de I'Observatoire; also at Toulouse, 14 rue Peyras. 
Annual publication containing the writings of members; it temporarily replaced 
the Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie which was last published in June 1940. Num- 
bering is, however, unchanged. Hence, No. Ill is the first annual issue, containing 
the papers read during 1941; it was pubhshed in 1942. No. 112, for 1942, ap- 
peared in 1943. No. 113, for 1943, the year of German occupation, was printed 
in 1945. Latest number seen is No. 116, 1946, annee 34. With No. 117 (March 
1947) the publication resumed its original form as Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie 
(q.v.). (C. F. M.) 

1869- : Sitzungsberichte der Physikalisch-medizinischen Sozietat zu Erlangen. 

It is out of the question to list the academic serials, but an exception may perhaps 
be made in favor of the Erlangen society because it includes a long series of papers 
on Arabic science by Eilhakd Wiedemann (1852-1928; Isis 14, 168-86) and some 
of his disciples. These articles appeared under the general title Beitrage zur Ge- 
schichte der Naturwissenschaften (no. 1, 1902 to no. 79, 1929). There is a complete 
set of these Beitrage, two bound volumes, in the Sarton Library. The same 
society also published Ernst Zinner: Entstehung und Ausbreitung der Copperni- 
canischen Lehre (1943; Isis 35, 61; 36, 261-66). 

1929- : Source books in the history of the sciences. Edited by Gregory D. 

Walcott. New York, McGraw-Hill. 

Harlow Shapley: Astronomy (1929; Isis 13, 130-34); David Eugene Smith: 
Mathematics (1929; Isis 14, 268-70); W. F. Magie; Physics (1935; Isis 26, 176); 
KiRTLEY F. Mather: Geology (1939; Isis 31, 578); Morris R. Cohen and I. E. 
Drabkin: Greek science (1948; Isis 40, 277). 

1914-1930: Stoicheia. Studien zur Geschichte der antiken Weltbildes und der grie- 

chischen Wissenschaft (Leipzig, Teubner). 9 thin vols. 

Vol. 1 to 7, (1914-25) were edited by Franz Boll (1867-1924); vols. 8-9 pub- 
hshed in 1927 and 1&30, still bear his name as founder of the collection, no other 
editor being named. 

1911-1933: Storia delle scienze. Societa tipografico-editrice nazionale (Sten), To- 
rino. 

Complete in eight volumes, 
i) Sir Edoardo Thorpe: Chimica (1911; Isis 1, 565). 2) Rinaldo Pitoni: 



Journals and Serials 239 

Fisica (1913; Isis 1, 742-44). 3) Ottavio Zanotti-Bianco (1852- ): Astrono- 

mia (1913). 6-8) Gino Loria: Storia delle matematiche (3 vols. 1929, 1931, 1933; 
Isis 13, 228; 19, 231; 22, 598). 

This collection was probably suggested by the English series 'A history of the 
sciences,' witness the title, date, and choice of first volume. 

1919-1926: Studi i testi Vinciani. 

See Pubbhcazioni del Istituto Vinciano, (C. F. M.) 

1947- : Studi di storia della medicina. Edited by Nicola Latronico. Pub- 
lished by U. Hoeph, Milano. 

Publisher's numbered, irregularly issued series in octavo. No. 8 (1947): Bel- 
lini, A., Gerolamo Cardano, 327 p. No. 9 (1947): Bottero, A., Carlo Forla- 
NiNi, inventore del pneumotorace artificiale, 131 p. (C. F. M.) 

1920: Studi di storia della scienza. Edited and published by Nardecchia in Roma. 
Numbered series. No. 1 ( 1920 ) : L'orecchio e il naso nel sistema antropometrico 
di Leonardo da Vinci (G. Biliancioni). Any more? (C. F. M.) 

1922-1926: Studi di storia del pensiero scientifico. Collection edited by Aldo Mieli 

and published by the Casa Editrice "Leonardo da Vinci" Roma. 

I)A. Mieli: Pagine di storia delle chimica (277 p., ill., 1922; Isis 5, 173-74). 
2) GuGLiELMO Bilancioni: Veteris vestigia flammae (560 p., ill. 1922; Isis 5, 475- 
77), etc. 

Five volumes were announced in 1932. Mieli's programs were often modified. 
For example vol. 1 of his I prearistotelici (Firenze 1916; Isis 4, 347) appeared as 
first volume of a Storia del pensiero scientifico dalle origini a tutto il secolo XVIII; 
vol. 2 of I prearistotehci was announced as vol. 5 of the Studi di storia del pensiero. 
It did not appear in either series. In 1925, the series was stabilized as follows. 

Vol. 1 and 2 as above. 

Vol. 3. Quiring Celli: La medicina greca nella tradizione mitologica ed omerica 
(260 p., iU., 1923; Isis 6, 196). 

Vol. 4. A. Mieli: I Prearistotelici I. (522 p., 1916; Isis 4, 347). 

Vol. 5. A. Mieli: Manuale di storia della scienza. Antichita (610 p., ill., 1925; 
Isis 8, 578). 

Vol. 6. Alfred Schmidt: Droghe e commercio delle droghe nell'antichita. — 
Did this book actually appear? It did appear in German, Drogen und Drogenhandel 
im Altertum (144 p., Leipzig 1924; Isis 7, 252; 8, 192). 

1942- : Studi e Ricerche storico-mediche. Published by the Istituto di storia 

della medicina dell'Universita di Roma. 

Small 167710 series of medico-historical monographs; unnumbered (?) . Baffoni, 
A., Storia delle pleuriti, 177 p. (1947). (C. F. M.) 

1907-1937: Studien zur Geschichte der Medizin. Published by the Puschmann 

Foundation at the University of Leipzig. Edited by Karl Sudhoff, later by 

H. E. SiGERisT, et al. Leipzig, Johahn Ambrosius Barth. 

Collection meant to include the memoirs too bulky for the Archiv fiir die Ge- 
schichte der Medizin. See Isis 2, 149. 

Last no. pubUshed Heft 23, 1937 (Isis 35, 249 under Artelt, Walter). Com- 
plete in 23 numbers. 

List of parts 1 to 14 (1907-25) on the back cover of part 15; list of parts 15 to 
23 (1926-37) on the back cover of part 23. Parts 1 to 6 and 8 to 12 (1907-18) 
were written by Sudhoff himself. 

1917-1921: Studies in the history and method of science. Edited by Charles 
Singer. Only 2 vols, published, quarto, richly illustrated. Clarendon Press, 
Oxford. 

Vol. 1 includes articles on St. Hildegard, vitaUsm, Manfredi, cramp rings, J. 
Weyer, a treatise of Maimonides, etc. Vol. 2 has articles on the history of biology, 
astronomy, Roger Bacon, Leonardo, Asclepiades, Galileo, paleobotany, etc. 



240 Journals and Serials 

1907-1938: Studi i memorie per la storia dell' Universita di Bologna. 

Complete in 14 volumes. It forms series 1 of Pubblicazioni of the Historical 
Commission of the Bologna University. (C. F. M.) 

1925-1943: Sudhoffs Archiv, see Archiv fiir die Geschichte der Medizin. 

1844-1857: Sydenham Society. Publications. The society was instituted in Lon- 
don in 1843. 

Pubhshed early medical texts in English translation and other books dealing with 
the history of medicine. Forty vols, and one atlas appeared between 1844 and 
1857. They include works of Hippocrates, Aretaeos, Paulos Aegineta, al-Razi, 
Harvey, Sydenham, W. Hunter, Dupuytren, Theodor Schwann, J. F. K. Hecker 
( Epidemics of the Middle Ages ) , collections of papers on puerperal fever, aneurism, 
etc. 

The activities of the society were continued by the New Sydenham Society which 
pubhshed 194 volumes from 1859 to 1906. 

1936: Symposium on prehistoric agriculture; held April 1936 at Flagstaff, Arizona. 
The report of this meeting forms No. 296 of the University of Mexico Bulletin. 
(C. F. M.) 

1921-1926: Tage der Technik; illustrierter technisch-historischer Abreiss-Kalender. 
Edited by F. M. Feldhaus; published by R. Oldenbourg in Miinchen. 
Six years were published, from 1921 (for 1922) to 1926 (for 1927). (C. F. M.) 

1932- : Technik-Geschichte. Berlin. 
See Beitrage zur Geschichte der Technik. 

1923: Testi Vinciani. Edited by Mario Cermenati; issued for the Istituto Vin- 

ciano in Roma; published by Zanichelli in Bologna. 

The only volume of this series was Del moto e misura dell'acqua of Leonardo, 
edited by L. M. Arconati. 

C/. Pubblicazioni. (C. F. M.) 

(1929)- : Textes et traductions pour servir a I'histoire de la pensee moderne. 

Edited by Abel Rey; published by Alcan in Paris. 

Unnumbered octavo volumes, being the reprints or translations of historical texts 
from science, philosophy, etc. In 1929: Cesalpino: Questions peripateticiennes. 
In 1930: Nicolas de Cusa: De la docte ignorance; also Giordano Bruno: Cause, 
principe et unite. Any more? (C. F. M.) 

1940- : Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften. 

Edited by Julius Schuster; published by Triltsch in Wiirzburg. 
No. 1 (1940): Hermannus de Sancto Portu: Der Herbarius communis (edited 
by H. Ebel). This number is the latest on record. (C. F. M.) 

1934-1940: Thales. Recueil annuel des travaux de ITnstitut d'histoire des sciences 
et des techniques de I'Universite de Paris. 5 vols, published, Paris 1934-48. 
Presses universitaires de France. Edited by Abel Rey (1873-1940), Pierre 
DucAssE, Lucien Brunet (Isis 25, 272). 

1933- : Trabajos de la Catedra de historia critica de la medicina. Edited by 
Eduardo GarcIa del Real. Published in Madrid. 

Vol. 1 for 1932/33 was pubhshed in 1933. It contains history of obstetric for- 
ceps, treatment of toothache, Arnaldus of Villanova, history of Caesarean section, 
of podahc version, Juan de Avinon, Gimbernat, G. Casal, history of vitamines, of 
angina pectoris, etc. (I have not seen later issues). (C. F. M.) 

1922- : Transactions of the Newcomen Society for the study of the history of 

engineering and technology. Vol. 1, 1920-21, Printed for the Society by Courier 
Press, Leamington Spa, 1922. 
See Isis 4, 496-98; 5, 312. 



Journals and Serials 241 

The Newcomen Society, founded in 1919, also issues Extra Publications, that is, 
separate volumes, different from the Transactions, devoted to special subjects. These 
volumes are analyzed or listed in Isis under their authors' names {e.g., 12, 372; 15, 
349-50). 

General index to vols, 1 to 10, 1920-30. General index to vols. 11 to 20 and 
extra publ. nos. 1 to 4. 

The American branch of the Newcomen Society has issued a relatively large 
number of publications of a showy kind, many of them worthless, and badly in- 
tegrated. 

1945- : Tratados fundamentales. Coleccion dirigada por Gregorio Weinberg 

(y Manuel Sadosky). Lautaro, Buenos-Aires. 

Series of translations of books concerning philosophy and science. See list by 
Aldo Mieli in Archives internationales (Oct. 1948, p. 212-14). 

1941- : Trattato enciclopedico di storia della medicina. Under the direction of 

Adalberto Pazzini. Roma & Milano. 

Though apparently an encyclopedia of medical history, this work is an irregularly 
published monographic series. No. 1 ( 1941 ) : Pazzini, A., La medicina primitiva, 
366p. Further volumes are planned and announced to be published as follows: 
No. 2: Tergolina, U., Fonti antiche per lo studio dell'Arte Sanitaria. No. 3 
(listed as No. 8; 1943 ) : Casarini, A., Storia della medicina militare. Any more? 
(C.F. M.) 

1933- : Trudy Instituta istorii nauki i tekhniki (Transactions of the Institute for 

the history of science and technology). Published by the Akademiya Nauk 

SSSR (Academy of sciences of the Soviet Union) in three series all printed by 

the Soviet Academy Press, Moscow and Leningrad. 

The Institute for the History of Science being an intrinsic part of the USSR Acad- 
emy, its publications are publications of the Academy. 

1933: First Series: Arkhiv istorii nauki i tekhniki (Archives for the history of 
science and technology). Edited by Academician N. I. Bukharin with various col- 
leagues of his. 

Vol. 1 appeared in 1933; last vol. seen, vol. 9, 1936. These nine volumes were 
analyzed in Isis. 

1935: Second series with the general title Trudy instituta istorii nauki i tekhniki. 
There is no special title for the series. Each volume deals with a separate subject 
and has its own title. E.g., I. Smorgonsky: Foreign shipbuilding terms in the Rus- 
sian language (195 p., 1936; Isis 25, 592). 

Vol. 1 (1935) Leonard Euler (Isis 25, 219). Vol. 4 (1935) S. G. Strumi- 
lin: Siderurgy in USSR. Technical progress in 300 years (Isis 25, 285). 

Vol. 7 ( 1936) P. P. Zabarinskiy: The first fire engines at the port of Cronstadt 
(Isis 26, 524). 

Vol. 9 (1936) E. A. Zeitlin: The technical revolution in flax-spinning (Isis 27, 
180). 

(All these publications are in Russian). 

1934: Third series with the same general title Trudy etc. No special title for the 
series. Each volume deals with a special subject and has its own title. 

Vol. 1 (1934). History of the dynamo; vol. 2 (1936) History of the electric 
motor. Both volumes compiled by D. V. Efremov and M. I. Radovskij, edited by 
V. Th. Mitkevitch (Isis 24, 518; 25, 590). 

Other books on the history of science were published by the Soviet Academy of 
Sciences, but without serial numbers and without mention on the title pages of the 
Institute for the history of science. 

M. N. Mladentsev and V. E. Tishchenko: Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev. 
Vol. 1, parts 1-2 (1938). 

S. I. Vavilov: Symposium on Newton (1943; Isis 35, 232). 

The Academy has published elaborate bibUographical studies which may interest 
historians of science. 



242 Journals and Serials 

Geological literature. Vol. 1. Geology in the publications of the Academy, edited 
by J. S. Edelstein (vol. 1, 1938). 

Bibliography of Ignatii Julianovich Krachkovski (1930; Isis 28, 572). Bibli- 
ography of Alexandr Petrovich Karpinski (1938; Isis 33, 117). 

The works of Mikhailo Vasilievich Lomonosov were edited for the Academy 
by Boris Nikolaevich Menshutkin ( 1936; Isis 28, 106-09 ) and the same author 
wrote a biography of Lomonosov ( 1711-65) included in the "popular science series" 
of the Academy (1937; Isis 29, 226). 

This bibliography is incomplete but such as it is it is sufficient to show the 
variety and greatness of the efforts already made by the Soviet Academy to promote 
the study of the history of science. See also Isis 37, 77. 

See also, above, Akademiia nauk SSSR. Institut istorii estestvoznaniia, 1947 ff. 

1927-1931: Trudy; Komissia po istorii znanii (Proceedings of the Commission on 
history of science). Published by the Leningrad Academy of Sciences. 
Numbered series of monographs complete in 11 volumes (?). No. 1 (1927): 
V. Vernadsky's work on the actual importance of the history of sciences. No. 2 
(1927): The Baer jubilee volume. No. 3 (1927): B. Turaev's bibliography of 
Russian scientific works on the classical Orient. No. 11 (1931): Obruchev's His- 
tory of geological researches iu Siberia. 

Continued as preceding entry (Trudy Instituta istorii nauki, etc.). (C. F. M.) 

1935- : Tiirk tip tarihi arkivi (Archives of history of Tvirkish medicine). Edited 
by A. SiJHEYL Unver and F. Nafiz Uzlik. Published by Kader in Istanbul. 
Numbered but irregularly issued series. Numbering is continuous, but it is 
grouped by arbitrary volume numbering. Vol. 1, no. 1 was issued March 1935. 
No. 5 to no. 9 make vol. 2, 1937-1938 (partly edited by Metine Belger). No. 10 
(1938) and no. 11 & 12 (1939) complete vol. 3. Vol. 4 includes nos. 13 to 16, 1939- 
1940. Vol. 5 includes nos. 17, 18 and 19/20, pubhshed in 1940 to 1942. Latest 
volume on record is the 6th, with no. 21/22 pubhshed in 1943. (C. F. M.). 

1922: Unanue. Founded and edited by Hermilio Valdizan. Pubhshed in Lima. 
Only no. 1, vol. 1 (March) and no. 2, vol. 1 (June) were pubhshed. The 
periodical is dedicated to the medical history of Peru. No more. Jose Hipolito 
Unanue (13 Aug. 1775-15 July 1833) is called "padre de la medicina Americana." 
His chief work was the 'Observaciones sobre el clima de Lima' {2nd ed., Madrid, 
1815). Cf. Isis, 1941-42, 33:636-8. (C. F. M.) 

1923-1928: Universitas scriptorum. Pubhshed by the Casa Editrice Leonardo da 

Vinci in Roma. 

Numbered series of small reprints of historical classics of science; volume size 
15 1/2 cm by 13 cm. Certain numbers form the subseries Classici della scienza. 
No. 2/3 (1924): Viaggi di Russia (F. Algarotti). No. 12/13 (1926): Gh 
Aforismi (Hippocrates), this number forms no. 3/4 ot the mentioned subseries. 
No. 14/15 (1928): Alessandro Volta; forms no. 5/5 of subseries. Latest known 
issue is no. 16/17 (1928): Prodrome . . . sui corpi solidi (N. Steno); forms no. 
7/8 of subseries. ( C. F. M. ) 

(1935)- : Untersuchungen zur Astronomie der Maya. Published in Berlin. 

Numbered series, partly composed by Hans Ludendorff. This is a series of 
reprints on Maya astronomy taken from the Sitzungsberichte of the physico-mathe- 
matical class of the Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. No. 9, 1935; No. 
10,1936. (C. F. M.) 

1907: Urkunden zur Geschichte der Mathematik im Altertume. Published by B. G. 

Teubner, in Leipzig. 

Only the first no. was pubhshed: Der Bericht des Simphcius iiber die Quadraturen 
des Antiphon; by F. Rxxdio. (C. F. M.) 

1922- : Veroffentlichungen der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft fiir Geschichte der 
Medizin und der Natiirwissenschaften. Pubhcations de la Societe Suisse d'histoire 
de la medecine et des sciences naturelles. Aarau, H. R. Sauerlander. 



Journals and Serials 



243 




The following volumes have appeared. Only the authors and dates are given 
which suffices for identification. 

1. Conrad Brunner (Isis 5, 450-51), 1922 

2. G. A. Wehru (Isis 7, 209), 1923 

3. O. Bernhard, 1924 

4. Arthur Troendle (Isis 8, 806), 1925 

5. O. Bernhard (Isis 7, 250), 1926 

6. Bernhard Peyer, H. R. Remund, 1928 

7. Andr^ Guisan, 1930 

8. GusTAV Senn (Isis 27, 68-69), 1933 

9. A. MoRiTzi (1806-50), 1934 

10. Fabricius Hildanus, 1936 

11. Paul Aebischer, Eugene Olivier (Isis 29, 487), 1938 

12. Eduard Fueter (Isis 34, 32), 1941 

13. Hans Fischer, Bernard and Heinrich Peyer. (Lychnos 417, 1943) 

14. P. NiGGLi. Kristallologia of Hottinger, 1946 

15. Heinrich Buess (Isis 38, 111-14) 1946 

16. Henry Nigst, 1946 

17. Hans Buscher, 1947 

18. GwER Reichen, 1949 

The society also publishes (since 1944) the periodical Gesnerus (q.v.). 

1921-1938: Veterinarhistorische Mitteilungen. Issued by the Gesellschaft fiir Ge- 

schichte und Literatur der Veterinarmedizin (founded 1920). Edited by Wil- 

HELM Rieck; pubhshed by M. & H. Schaper in Hannover. 

Irregularly pubhshed, numbered Beilage to Deutsche tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 
Twelve numbers to a volume. 

Vol. 18 (for 1938/39) pubhshed in 1938 becomes vol. 1 of Beitrage zur 
Geschichte der Veterinarmedizin (q.v.). (C. F. M.) 

1925-1935: Veterinarhistorisches Jahrbuch. Issued by the Gesellschaft fiir Ge- 
schichte und Literature der Veterinarmedizin; edited by W. Rieck, and R. 
Frohner. Published in Leipzig-Molkau. 

Vol. 1-7, 1925-1935. With vol. 8, 1936 the title of this annual changed to 
Cheiron (q.v.). Each volume contains shorter and longer articles such as Zur 
Mulomedicina Chironis (K. Hoppe), Die alteste Myologie des Hundes (Rieck), Die 
Tierheilkunde des Abu Bekr ibn Bedr (Frohner), Die Entwicklung der veteri- 
narhistorischen Forschung (W. Rieck), etc. (C. F. M.) 
Cf. Cheiron. 

1928-1932: Viaggi e scoperte degli navigatori ed esploratori italiani. Published 

by the Edizioni Alpes in Milano. 

Unnumbered series of monographs related to the history of geography; 20 1/2 
cm by 15 1/2 cm. Complete in 18 volumes. The first book of the set is Viaggio 
a Tartari by Fra Giovanni da Pian del Carpino ( 1928). (C. F. M. ) 

1923-1925: Vinciani d'ltalia; biografie e scritti. Issued by the Istituto di studi 
Vinciani in Roma (founded 1919); pubhshed by Maglione & Strini in Roma. 
This is a short set of volumes on Italians who studied and admired Leonardo 

DA Vinci. Numbered series of monographs, 17 cm by 24 cm. No. 1 (1923): 

GiLBERTo Govi, 1826-1889 (A. Favaro). No. 2 (1924): Giambattista Venturi 

(G. B. DeTorri). Latest issue is vol. 3, 1925. (C. F. M.) 

1914-1915: Vite dei medici e naturalisti celebri. Published by the Instituto di 

micrographia italiana in Firenze. 

Short series of 16° booklets. No. 2 (1914): Francesco Redi (M. Cardini). 
No. 3 (1915): Ugolino da Montecatini (D. Barduzzi). No further trace of this 
serial. (C. F. M.) 

1912-1915: Voigtlanders Quellenbucher. Collection of little books illustrated, many 
of them dealing with the history of science. R. Voigtlanders Verlag, Leipzig. 
A number of titles are quoted in Isis 1, 476-77. Vol. 88, 1915 (Isis 4, 440). 

This is the last vol. on record. 



244 Journals and Serials 

The main purpose of the collection was to invite the reader to return to the 
som-ces; this was done well and the volumes were sold at a low price. A very fine 
effort for the sound popularization of knowledge and of the history of science. 

1931-1936: Vortrage der Hauptversammlung der Cesellschaft fiir Geschichte der 

Pharmazie. Published by Nemayer in Mittenwald. 

This is the set of papers of the annual conventions of the Society for History of 
Pharmacy. The latest volume on record is for the year 1936. (C. F. M.) 

1928-1932: Vortrage des Instituts fiir Geschichte der Medizin an der Universitat 

Leipzig. Edited by Henry E. Sigerist; published by G. Thieme in Leipzig. 

Numbered volumes of essays related to history, philosophy or sociology of medi- 
cine. Bd. 1 : Grundlagen und Ziele der Medizin der Gegenwart, contains articles on 
the anatomical idea, the functional idea, the clinic, the medical practice and the 
neurologist. Bd. 2 discusses the problems and relations of physician and state (Der 
Arzt und der Staat). Last volume is Bd. 4. (C. F. M.) 

1907-1923: Vortrage und Berichte; Deutsches Museum von Meisterwerken der Na- 
turwissenschaften und Technik. Published in Miinchen. 
Complete in 20 volumes. 
Cf. Abhandlungen und Berichte (etc.). (C. F. M.) 

1922- : Wellcome Historical Medical Museum. Present address: 28 Portman 

Square, London W. 1. 

Three volumes were pubhshed in 1922-25 under the general title Research studies 
in medical history. 

1. John Arderne: De arte phisicaH (60 p., 1922). 

2. Pietro Capparoni: Magistri Salernitani nondum cogniti (68 p., 1923). 

3. M. H. Spielmann: The iconography of Vesalius (243 p., 1925). 

Without serial number: J. D. Comrie: History of Scottish medicine (304 p., 
1927; 2nd ed. 2 vols., 1932). Spanish influence on the progress of medical science 
(121 p., 1935), also in French, Italian and Spanish translations. 

Guide to the WHMM (100 p., 1926?); plus various other guides. We list only 
the following: 

Lister Centenary Exhibition Handbook (1927, 216 p.). 

Lister Centenary Celebration. American College of Siugeons, Detroit ( 1927, 
140 p.). 

Cinchona Tercentenary Exhibition (1930, 115 p.). 

Hickman Centenary Exhibition (1930, 86 p.). 

New series: 

1. Charles Singer and C. Rabin: A prelude to modern science; the Tabulae 
anatomicae sex of Vesalius ( 144 p., 59 figs., 1946; Isis 38, 109-11 ). 

2. Barbara M. Dxjncum: Development of inhalation anesthesia (656 p., 161 
figs., 1947; Isis 38, 131-33). 

1947- : Wiener Beitrage zur Geschichte der Medizin, edited by Emmanuel 

Berghoff. Published by Wilhelm Maudrich, Wien. 

Vol. 1. E. Bergmann: Entwicklungsgeschichte des Krankheitsbegriffes (1947); 
vol. 2, Festschrift Max Neubxtrger (1948); vol. 3. E. Berghoff: Max Neuburger. 
See also Beitrage zur Geschichte der Medizin. (C. F. M.) 

1935-1937: Wiener medizingeschichtliche Beitrage. Published by the Ars Medici 

Verlag. IX. Spitalgasse 1 a, Wien. 

Numbered series of monographs; 22 1/2 cm by 15 1/2 cm. Complete in 3 vols. 
No. 1 (1935): Wiens Mediziner und die Freiheitsbewegung des Jahres 1848 
(I. Fischer). No. 2 (1935): Laboratoriumpestfalle in Wien (I. Schilder). No. 
3 (1937): Beitrag zur Geschichte der Pockenschutzimpfung in Wien (E. Stransky). 
(C. F. M.) 



Journals and Serials 245 

1880-1884: The Willughby Society for the reprinting of scarce ornithological works. 

The Society was founded in London in 1879 by Alfred Newton and William 
Bernhard Tegetmeier, editors of The Ibis. Twelve volumes were published. 

The Society was called after the early English zoologist, Francis Willughby 
(1635-72). 

1935- : Yayinlanndan; Istanbul iiniversite Tip tarihi enstitii (Publications; 

Istanbul University; Medico-historical Institute). Edited by Suheyl Onver, the 

director of the Institute; published in Istanbul. 

Numbered series published irregularly. Each number ("aded" or "sayi") is 
either a collection of offprints from other journals or a monograph, with occasional 
summaries in western languages. No. 2, 1935; no. 4, 1936; no. 6, 1937; no. 11, 
1938; no. 15, 1939; no. 16, 1939; no. 19, 1940 have been analyzed in Isis. No. 12 
(1939): Kitabiil Cerrahname, 870-1465 (S. Sabuncuoglu ) . No. 25 (1943): Tip 
tarihi (Medical history; 308 p.) (S. Unver). Latest issue on record is no. 29, 1945. 

C/. Tiirk, etc. (C .F .M.) 

1924: Yperman. Issued by the Societe beige d'histoire de la medecine. Edited by 

TmCOT-ROYER. 

It is reported that one volume of the Belgian medico-historical journal has been 
published in 1924. I have no record of the journal. Is there any more? (C. F. M.) 

1935-1940: Zeitschrift fiir die gesamte Naturwissenschaft einschliesslich Naturphi- 
losophie und Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften. Edited by A. Benninghoff, 
K. Beurlen, K. Hildebrandt and K. Wolf. Published in Braunschweig, later 
in Berlin. 
The first number was issued in April 1935. It was a monthly publication. Yet 

vol. 2 appeared in two years. Vol. 5, 1939, has only nine nos. Ceased publication 

with vol. 6, 1940. (C. F. M.) 

1856-1917: Zeitschrift fiir Mathematik und Physik, Published in Leipzig. 

Complete in 64 volumes. Vol. 1-45, 1856-1900, with a special section for the 
history and bibliography of mathematics and physics; the section was called "Litera- 
turzeitung" in the first 19 volumes; in later volumes it was "Historisch-literarische 
Abteilung." 

The Abhandlungen (q.v.) zur Geschichte der mathematischen Wissenschaften is 
the supplement of this serial. (C. F. M.) 

1904-1919: Zoologische Annalen; Zeitschrift fiir Geschichte der Zoologie. Edited 
by Max Braun, published by A. Stuber's Verlag (C. Kabitzsch) in Wiirzburg. 
Seven volumes 1904 to 1916 (the seventh and last volume appeared in 4 parts 
dated 1915, 1916, 1916 and 1919; the table of contents of the whole does not 
contain references to a fourth part). 
Isis 2: 142. 
See Archiv fiir die Geschichte der Medizin, vol. 27, 1934 ff. 

1924- : Ziircher medizingeschichtliche Abhandlungen. Published by Or ell 

Fiissli, later by Leemann in Ziirich. 

Numbered monographs; 23 1/2 cm. Irregularly published. No. 1 (1924): 
Theodor Billroth in Ziirich (Hubert). No. 2 (1924): Der medizinische Inhalt 
der schweizerischen Volkskalender (Lombard). No. 6 (1926): Gesundheitspflege 
im mittelalterlichen Basel ( Baas ) . No. 7 ( 1926 ) : Pestprophylaxe im alten Ziirich 
(Treichler). No. 12 (1927): Missgeburten und Wundergestalten in Einblatt- 
drucken und Handzeichnungen des 16. Jahrhunderts ( Sonderegger ) . No. 19 
(1943): Beitrag zur Geschichte der Wohnungshygiene der Stadt Basel (O. Mau- 
DERLI ) . 

The latest issue known to me is no. 20 (1943): Uber die Cholera asiatica in 
Kanton Aargau anno 1854 (W. Witz). (C. F. M.) 



246 Journals and Serials 

1910-1914: Zur historischen Biologic der Krankheitserreger. Materialien, Studien 
und Abhandlungen, gemeinsam mit V. Fossel, Tiberius Gyory, W. His, hrsg. 
von Karl Sudhoff und Georg Sticker. Giessen, Alfred Topebnann. 
Isis 2, 150. Seven thin parts appeared between 1910 and 1914. The main 
authors were the two editors Sudhoff and Sticj^er. Short memoirs were con- 
tributed also by Grafton Elliot Smith and Marc Armand Buffer, Gyory and 
Arnold Klebs, 

MISLEADING TITLES 
APPENDIX TO CHAPTER 20 

by Claudius F. Mayer 

A glance into the Index-Catalogue under any subject of medico-historical research 
reveals many references in journals not primarily of medico-historical nature. It 
often happens that, with the change of editorship, a periodical publication assumes 
a new character, opens perhaps a new historical section, or closes it. 

There are many serials whose title is misleading. Without the examination of 
a publication nothing should be said about its true nature. In the late 18th and 
early 19th centuries, the meaning of the terms "philosophy" and "history" was also 
different, and the occurrence of these terms in the title or the subtitle of a publication 
may lead the 20th century man to wrong assumptions. "Philosophy" often means 
"theoretical discussion," while "history" can be either "natural history" or the record 
of any current event. 

Another way of being misled is by believing that a generic name commonly asso- 
ciated with a serial polygraphic publication is always the label of a journal or periodi- 
cal. In the literature of science the words "Beitrage," "Abhandlungen," or "Vor- 
trage," or "Transactions" do not mean necessarily that we are dealing with a journal. 

In order to avoid the pitfalls of terminology and to save time for those who should 
like to enlarge this list of true historico-scientific serials the following roll of journals 
is published as a warning! 

Acta mcdica ct philosophica Hafniensia. Copenhagen, v. 1-5 (1671) 1673-(1679) 

1680. 

It has nothing to do with medical philosophy. 
Annali di Ippocrate. Milano, v. 1-7, 1906-1912. 

A journal of clinical medicine; not historical. 
Annals of medicine; exhibiting a concise view of the latest and most important dis- 
coveries in medicine and medical philosophy. Edinburgh, ser. 1, v. 1-5, 1796- 

1800; ser. 2, v. 1-3, 1801-1804. 

Neither medical history nor philosophy of medicine. 
Ars mcdica. Barcelona, v. 1-12, 1925-1936. 

Clinical medicine. 
Ars mcdici. Wien, v. 1, 1911- 

Clinical medicine. 
Asclepios. La Habana, v. 1-14, 1915-1928. 

Clinical medicine. 
Aus dcm Archiv F. A. Brockhaus; Zeugnissc zur Geschichte geistigen SchafiFens; ed. 

by Hermann Michel. Leipzig, v. 1-4, 1926-1929. 

Not history of science. 
Beitrage zur bayerischen Kulturgeschichte. Miinchen, v. 1, 1927. 

Not history of science. 
Beitrage zur Geschichte der Chemie. Braunschweig, v. 1, 1869, etc. 

Not a serial but a collection of various writings of the single author ( Dr. Kopp ) 
on a single topic. 
Beitrage zur Geschichte der Erfindungen (or, Erfindungskunst). Leipzig, Bd 1-5, 

1780-1805. 

Not a true serial but the work of a single author (J. Beckmann). 



Journals and Serials 247 

Beitriige zur Geschichte der Meteorologie. Berlin, no. 1-5, 1914. 

The single work of a single author, G. Hellmann; forms no. 273 of VeroflFent- 
lichungen des K. Preussischen meteorologischen Instituts. 

Beitrage zur Kulturgeschichte des Mittelalters und der Renaissance. Leipzig, Heft 
1-55, 1908-1939. 

It contains little of importance to the historian of science. 
Bibliotheque des philosophes (chimiques) (ou Recueil des oeuvres des auteurs des 

plus approuvez qui ont ecrit de la pierre philosophale). Paris, 1741-54. 

Not a true serial; it is a collection of alchemic works compiled by William 
Salmon, M.D.; originally pubhshed in 1672. 
Le Censeur medical; journal de litterature, de philosophic et de bibliographie 

medicales, frangaises et etrangeres. Paris, vol. 1, 1834. 

Does not contain anything medico-historical or philosophical; discusses current 
events only. 
Chiron; eine der theoretischen, praktischen, literarischen und historischen Bearbeitung 

der Chirurgie gewidmete Zeitschrift. Edited by Johann Barthel von Siebold. 

Niirnberg & Sulzbach, v. 1-3, 1805-1812/13. 

Though one of the five sections of the journal is supposedly historical, the section 
discusses only current events, biographies and anecdotes; medico-historical matters 
are found only as introductions of clinical articles or occasional historical additions 
of the editor. Vol. 1 was pubhshed in 1805-1806; vol. 2, 1806; vol. 3, 1812-13. 
Deutsche Studien zur Geistesgeschichte. Wiirzburg, Triltsch, vol. 1, 1936- 

This and similar serial titles have no relationship to the history of science as de- 
fined for the purposes of this guide. 
Dioscorides. Bruxelles, v. 1, 1937- 

A historical name for a mihtary medical journal. 
Erlautertes Preussen. Konigsberg, v. 1-5, 1724-42. 

Devoted to contemporary science ("Gelehrten-Historie"). 
Historisches Taschenbuch fiir Aerzte, Chemiker und Pharmazeutiker. 

Erfurt, vol. 1-3, 1803-1805. 

This is but an almanac without any historical article in it; compiled by Joh. 
Barth. Trommsdorff. 
History of Learning; giving a succinct account and narrative of the choicest new 

books (etc.) London, no. 1, 1694. 

Just a record of contemporary printing. 
Hygie (Gazette de sante) . . . melanges critiques, historiques et philosophiques; 

revue generale des journaux de medecine (etc.) Bruxelles & Paris, 1823-1843. 

Of no medico-historical value; contains contemporary aflFairs. 
Journal complementaire du Dictionnaire des sciences medicales. 

Paris. V. 1-44, 1818-1832. 

Not on history of medicine. 
Journal de ITnstitut historique. Paris, v. 1-12, 1934-40. 

Not important for the history of science. 
Journal der Erfindungen, Theorien und Widerspriiche in der Natur- und Arzneiwis- 

senschaft. Gotha, v. 1-11, 1792-1809. 

Neither history nor philosophy of science. 
Journal of Ayurveda; or, the Hindu system of medicine. Calcutta, v. 1, 1924- 

Discusses current affairs and practice of the Ayurvedist physicians of India. 
Journal of the Pierre Fauchard Academy. Minneapolis, vol. 1, 1943- 

A regular dental journal of a practical dental society; not for dental history. 
Maimonides bulletin. Detroit, v. 1-7, 1925-1931. 

A journal for medical practice; not historical. 
Medical commentaries . . . exhibiting a concise view of the latest and most impor- 
tant discoveries in medicine and medical philosophy. London & Edinburgh, 

1783-1795. 

Not on philosophy of medicine. 
Medical world; biographical sketches. New York, Bentley Pub. Co., 1915. 

Not a serial. 



248 Journals and Serials 

Medicina misontologica; opera periodica, Milano, 1840. 

Work of F. G. Geromini issued in parts; not a true serial. 
Medicinische Denkwiirdigkeiten aus der Vergangenheit und Gegenwart. Berlin, 

Aug. Hirschwald, 1834. 

Numbered abstracts only, taken from old and current journals as well as from old 
books (e.g., from the 1595 edition of Hippocrates). 
Medicinisches Journal. Edited by E. G. Baldinger. Gottingen, 1784-1796. 

Not medical history. 
Medycyna i kronika lekarska. Warszawa, vol. 1-49, 1873-1914. 

Not historical. 
Memorabilien der Heilkunde, Staatsarzneiwissenschaft und Thierheilkunst. Edited 

by J. J. Kausch. Ziillichau, v. 1-3, 1813-1819. 

Current veterinary medicine. 
Miscellanea physico-medico-mathematica. Erfurt, 1727-1732. 

Nothing on medical history. 
Monatsblatt fiir Menschenkunde . . . und Geschichte. Zwickau, 1829. 

Not on history of medicine. 
New York medical and philosophical journal and review. New York, v. 1-3, 1809- 

11. 

Nothing philosophical about it. But, it contains abstracts from the Philosophical 
Transactions. 
Ospedale maggiore; rivista mensile illustrata di storia. Milano, ser, 2, vol. 1-4, 1913- 

16. 

Not medico-historical. 
Der Philosophische Arzt. Frankfurt, Hanau & Leipzig, vol. 1-4, 1775-1777; n. ser., 

vol. 1-3, 1798-99. 

An early neurological journal, not philosophy of medicine. 
Producteur; journal philosophique de I'industrie, des sciences et des beaux-arts. 

Paris, vol. 1, 1826. 

Not philosophy of science. 
Raccolta d'opuscoli scientilici. Venezia, 51 vol., 1728-1757. 

Contemporary science only. 
Revue medicale historique et philosophique. Paris, 6 vols., 1820-21. 

Current material only; nothing historical, or philosophical. 
Sammlung von Natur- und Medicin-, wie auch hierzu gehorigen Kunst- und Litera- 

tur-Geschichten, etc. Leipzig, 19 vols., 1717-26. 

Contemporary science only. 
La Scienza italiana. Bologna, vol. 1, 1876. 

Not history of science. 
Studi sassaresi. Sassari, vol. 1, 1901. 

Chnical medicine, not history of medicine. 



Addenda to the Journals and 
Serials concerning the History of Science 



1940- : Journal of the History of Ideas. A quarterly devoted to intellectual his- 
tory founded by ARxmrn O. Lovejoy (Isis 32, 483). Editor: John Herman 
Randall, jr. 
Published by the College of the City of New York. Vol. 12, no. 2 appeared in 

April 1951. 

1946- : Pagine di storia della scienza e delle tecnica. Published by the Centro 
di storia della scienza, della tecnica e del lavoro, under the auspices of the 
Ministerio della Marina, Roma. 
Issued as supplement to Annali di medicina navale e coloniale. Only 1946 

issues seen. 



D. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY AND TEACH- 
ING OF THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

21. NATIONAL SOCIETIES 
DEVOTED TO THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

There is generally but one society concerning the history of science in each coun- 
try, though in the larger countries it may be necessary to establish local sections or 
branches in various districts. In addition to the society devoted to the history of 
science, there may be others devoted to the history of medicine, the history of chem- 
istry, etc. We shall not attempt to enumerate those other societies but restrict our- 
selves to the main societies defined by our title. 

The term "national" in that title should not be understood in the sense of "official" 
(approved and supported by the government ) ; the societies enumerated by us are not 
official, or they are official only in an indirect way. 

The earliest of these societies is an English one founded in London in 1841, but 
it soon ceased to exist. It is mentioned here pro memoria. 

1841: Historical Society of Science. — Founded by James Orchard Halliwell 
(- Phillipps) in London 1841, it lasted only a year or two. For its publication 
(2 vols.) see list of serials under the Society's name. The Society was duly con- 
stituted under the presidency of the Duke of Sussex assisted by an imposing 
council; Halliwell was the secretary. At the end of its vol. 1 (out of 2) one 
may find its by-laws and a list of members. 
H. W. Dickinson: J. O. Halliwell and the Historical Society of Science, 

London 1841 (Isis 18, 126-32, 1932). 

The first society which survived was the German one, born in 1901. We may 

thus say that the existing societies devoted to the history of science are all creations 

of the twentieth century. 

1901 : Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaf- 
ten. — Founded at Hamburg, Sept. 25, 1901, by Karl Sudhoff and others. Pub- 
lishes the Mitteilungen ((/.«.). 

The German Society met each year with the Versammlung Deutscher Natur- 
forscher und Aerzte. Reports of its proceedings were issued by a German medical 
journal ( name not indicated on the offprints ) and also by Janus. I have reports of 
the 9th to 12th annual meetings, 1910-14, which were parts of the 82nd to 85th 
meetings of the Deutsche Naturforscher. I also have reports of the meetings which 
took place from 1920 to 1922, from 1926 to 1932. 

The German Society became in 1932 a group of the Academic. 
The Deutsche Gesellschaft has been recently reorganized under the sfightly 
different name Deutsche Vereinigung der Medizin, Naturwissenschaft und Technik. 
Its first meeting was held on 24 September 1949. The president is Paul Diepgen, 
director of the Medizinhistorisches Institut der Johannes Gutenberg Universitat in 
Mainz, and the secretary, Dr. Johannes Stendel, (22c) Bonn, Reuterstr. 2 B. 

1907: Societa Italiana di Storia Critica delle Scienze Mediche e Naturali. — Founded 

at Perugia, October 9, 1907 by Domenico Barduzzi ( 1847-1929) and others. 

See our notes on the 1907 Atti della Societa and on the 1910 Rivista di storia 
critica delle scienze ... 

LuiGi Castaldi and Umberto Tergolina: Trent' anni di vita della Societa 
. . . (Ott. 1907-Ott. 1937). Cenni illustrativi e indice delle publicazioni sociali. 
A cura dell' Ufficio stampa medica itafiana (122 p., Siena 1938). 

Address care of Museo di storia delle scienze, Piazza dei Giudici, 1, Firenze. 



250 National Societies 

1913: Genootschap voor Geschiedenis der Geneeskunde, Wiskunde en Natuur- 
wetenschappen (Society for the History of Medicine, Mathematics and Natural 
Sciences). — The Dutch society was founded in June 1913, in Leiden, at the 
initiative of E. C. van Leersum and J. A. Vollgraff. A history of its activities 
during the first thirty-five years (1913-48) was prepared by the secretary 
D. Burger: Gedenkboekje (44 p., many portraits, Amsterdam 1948). 
The annual reports of the Society are published in the Dutch journal of medicine 
(Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde). 

The address of the Society is c/o the University of Leiden, The Netherlands. 
The address of the Secretary, D. Burger, is Statensingel 183a, Rotterdam, Nether- 
lands. 

1922: Schweizerische Gesellschaft fiir Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwis- 
senschaften ( Societe Suisse d'Histoire de la Medecine et des Sciences Naturelles). 
— The Society publishes Veroffentlichungen (q.v.) and Gesnerus (q.v.). 
The secretary (Jan. 1949) is Prof. Hans Fischer, Pharmakologisches Institut der 

Universitat, Gloriastr., Ziirich 6. 

1924: History of Science Society. — This society was founded in Boston on Jan. 12, 

1924 and the international journal, Isis, became its organ from vol. 6 on (1924). 

The history of the foundation of the HSS is told at the beginning of that volume. 

It should be noted that the Society is international, though on account of its 
location and of the preponderant use of English, the great majority of its members are 
Americans. 

In addition to Isis, it has published a number of books (thus far 9, listed in Isis 
34, 411 ). The publication of other books has been encouraged by the Society. 

The present secretary of the HSS is Mr. Fred Kilgour (Yale Medical Library, 
New Haven, Conn. ) . 

The dues are now $6 a year. Members receive Isis free of charge. 

Original statutes of the HSS (Isis 6, 521-22, 1924). Revisions, 1931 (Isis 16, 
125), 1942 (Isis 33, 731-32), 1943 (Isis 35, 51-52); reprinted 1949 (Isis 40, 195-97). 

The annual meetings of the HSS take place generally either with the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science or the American Historical Association; 
in Dec. 1948, the HSS met with the Modern Language Association of America; in 
1951 it will meet separately in Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. 

1931: Groupe Frangais d'Histoire des Sciences. — That group has been constituted 

informally on 13 May 1931, at the address which has remained the same until at 

present 12 rue Colbert, Paris 2. 

Its officers have first been appointed in 1935. Proceedings have appeared in the 
Revue de synthese, in Thales, and now in the group's organ. Revue d'histoire des 
sciences. 

The present secretary is Rene Taton, 12 rue Colbert, Paris 2 (Isis 39, 66). 

1933 Comite Beige d'Histoire des Sciences ( Constituted on 10 June 1933 ) . — Reports 
of their proceedings have sometimes appeared in Isis (29, 410; 32, 129-30; 38, 
245, etc.). 
The secretary is Jean Pelseneer, 51 Avenue Winston Churchill, Uccle-Bruxelles. 

1934: Lardomshistoriska Samfundet (Swedish Society for the History of Learning). 

— Founded at Uppsala on 12 May 1934. Publishes an annual volume Lychnos 

(1936) and a collection of books Lychnos-Bibliotek (1936) each of which deals 

with a separate subject. 

Founder and secretary Johan Nordstrom. For an account of the foundation, 
statutes, charter members etc., see Lychnos (vol. 1, 483-543, 1936). 

Address: Kyrkogardsgatan 25, Uppsala, Sweden. 

This society was and still is the most successful of all the societies devoted to the 
history of science; its membership was already well over 2,000 in 1936, in spite of the 
fact that the main language of its publications, Swedish, is httle understood outside of 
Scandinavia (Isis 26, 177-80). 



National Societies 



251 



Note that the Swedish Society is devoted to the history of learning, but that is 
made to include science (like the German word die Wissenschaft ) . The Swedish 
society is a group of the Academic since 1936. 

1937: Grupo Portugues da Historia das Ciencias (Portuguese Group of the History 
of Science, founded in 1937). — It publishes the review Petrus Nonius (q.v.). 
The national grupo or society has sections in Lisbon, Porto and Coimbra. 
Secretary, Dr. Carlos Teixeira, Faculdade de Ciencias, Lisboa. 

1941: Japanese Society for the History of Science. — Founded on 22 April 1941 
(Isis 33, 338). The title and address are not known to me. 

The society published Studies in the history of science, in Japanese (Isis 40, 160; 
41, 197). 

1947: British Society for the History of Science. — Constituted in London, 12 Feb. 

1947. 

Secretary: F. H. C. Butler, 10 Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London 
S. W. 7 (Isis 37, 182; 38, 102). 

The Society pubUshes a Bulletin, vol. 1, no. 1, January 1949, Vol. 1, no. 4, 
October 1950. 

Summary — The eleven earliest national societies (or groups) *: 



7. « Belgium 1933 
6. • France 1931 

1. Germany 1901 

11. Great Britain 1947 

2. Italy 1907 
10. Japan 1941 



3. The Netherlands 1913 
9. » Portugal 1937 

8. Sweden 1934 

4. Switzerland 1922 

5. United States 1924 



After the establishment of the Academic internationale d'histoire des sciences in 
1928, various national groups were constituted in order to satisfy the academy's 
regulations and make possible the nomination of members belonging to their nation. 
The French, Belgian and Portuguese groups mentioned above were constituted, re- 
spectively in 1931, 1933, 1937 for that very purpose. It is not necessary to speak 
now of other national groups for the majority of those groups have only a derivative 
academic function and their proceedings are practically unknown to the rest of the 
world. The Academy will be described in the following chapter, and the national 
groups related to it will then be enumerated. 

Some national societies (whether founded before 1928 or after) are identified 
with national groups of the Academy, others are not. 

Some national societies are identified with a section of the national scientific 
societies, others are not; their mutual connections vary from case to case. The con- 
nection is closest in the German case; it is loose in the case of the History of Science 
Society. There is no need of worrying our readers with such details which concern 
the administrative history of each society (or each group) and have no influence on 
the progress of learning. 

Alphabetical list of a few other national societies: — 

1927: American Association of the History of Medicine. — 22n<i annual meeting, 
Lexington, Kentucky, May 1949. See Bull, of the History of Medicine, vol. 22, 
837, 1949. Previous meetings have been reviewed in the same journal. 

1937: Chinese Medical History Society. — The Society was organized in Shanghai 

during a conference of the Chinese Medical Association in April 1937 (Isis 34, 

28). President (in 1948), Dr. K. Chimin Wong. 

Pubhshes the Chinese Journal of medical history (q.v.). See Archives (30, 843- 
46, 1951). 

Address (Jan. 1949): 41 Tzeki Road, Shanghai 9. 

1926: Gesellschaft fiir Geschichte der Pharmazie. — Founded in Innsbruck (Austria) 
on 18 August 1926 to serve as an international center for the history of pharmacy; 
estabhshed in Berlin. 
The organization is described in Mitteilungen (25, 342, 1926). The society has 



252 National Societies 

sponsored the publication of some 40 books and pamphlets dealing with the history 
of pharmacy and chemistry. 

Examples of its publications: — 

Fritz Ludy, jr. : Alchemistische und Chemische Zeichen ( 1928; Isis 13, 232 ) . 

Facsimile of the Dispensatorium of Valerius Cordus 1546, this being the earliest 
printed pharmacopoeia. (Mittenwald 1934; Isis 24, 215). 

Otto Zekert: Carl Wilhelm Scheele (in 7 parts, Mittenwald 1931-35; 

Isis 24, 226). 

Fritz Ferl; A Sussenguth: Kurzgeschichte der Chemie mit 200 Abb. (Mitten- 
wald 1936; Isis 28, 262), English translation entitled Pictorial history of chemistry 
(London 1939; Isis 37, 257). 

Dispensatorium pro pharmacopoeis Viennensibus 1570 (Berlin 1938; Isis 31, 163). 

The Gesellschaft also published Mitteilungen, a few small nos. a year describing 
its activities, and Vortrage including the lectures and proceedings of the general 
assemblies. I have before me two volumes of Vortrage published in 1934 and 1936. 
The editor before the war was Dr. F. Ferchl, Mittenwald, and the publisher, Verlag 
Arthur Nemayer, Mittenwald, Bayern. 

An international meeting of the Society took place in Basel 1934. The first post- 
war meeting was held in Hamburg 1949; the second in Rothenburg ob der Tauber, 
Bavaria, 1950. 

1921: Miinchener Vereinigung fur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der 
Medizin. — Founded in Munich, 5 Nov. 1921 by Siegmund Gijnther, Ernst 
Darmstaedter and others. 
Mitteilungen 25, 343, 1926. 

1920: Newcomen Society for the Study of the History of Engineering and Technol- 
ogy. — Founded in London 1920. Publishes Transactions (q.u. ). See Isis 
(4,496-98; 5, 312). 
Address: The Science Museum, South Kensington, London, S. W. 7. 

1947: Palestine Society for Medical History. — Founded in Jerusalem, April 1947. 
Address: Baltinester House, Street of the Prophets, Jerusalem (Isis 37, 182). 

Russian Society. — The need of a Russian society and of a Russian institute for the 
history of science was explained by Prof. P. P. Lasarev, member of the Russian 
Academy on 2 Dec. 1926 ( Mitteilungen 26, 227-31, 281-82, 1927). These needs 
are now satisfied by a department of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. See 
chapter 22. 

Scottish Society of the History of Medicine. — Its third meeting was held in tlie 
hall of the Royal Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons, Glasgow, Dr. Douglas 
Gltthrie in the chair. An account of that undated meeting is given in the Jour- 
nal of the History of Medicine (4, 112, 1949). 

1902: Societe fran?aise d'Histoire de la Medecine. — Published from 1902 to 1942 
a Bulletin de la Societe (q.v.), and since 1945 Memoires (q.v.). Vol. 3 1947. 
Secretaire general, 66 Boulevard Raspail, Paris 6. The meetings take place at 
the Faculte de Medecine of Paris. 

1913: Societe d'Histoire de la Pharmacie. — See Isis 1, 250; 2, 152. Publishes the 
Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie ( q.v. ) . Secretaire perpetuel, Eugene Guitard 
(Isis 1, 529-30). See Archives (28, 1262-66, 1949). 
Address: Faculte de Pharmacie, 4 Avenue de I'Observatoire, Paris 6. 

The names of more societies could be deducted from the list of journals and 
serials in the preceding chapter. A society is less tangible than a journal and it is 
often far easier to remember the latter's name. For example, it is easier to remember 
the name Gesnerus than the longish name of the Swiss society publishing that re- 
view; in that particular case, the difficulty is increased by the circumstance that the 
Swiss society has four names (one in each of the four national languages); the 
Swiss society has four long names, but its journal has but one short name, Gesnerus. 



22. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION 
OF THE STUDY OF THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

The first international organization for the study of the history of science was the 
History of Science Society founded in Boston, Massachusetts, on 12 January 1924 at 
the initiative of David Eugene Smith (1860-1944), about whose hfe and work see 
Osiris 1, 1936. The society was estabhshed primarily in order to promote the 
journal Isis, which had been founded by George Sarton in 1913 and was then in 
jeopardy. Isis was always an international journal published in the six international 
languages (EFGILS), but during the first years of its existence, when its editor lived 
in Belgium, the French language was naturally predominant; later, when the editor 
settled in the United States and the responsibility of publication was partly taken over 
by the History of Science Society, English became the main language. Nevertheless, 
Isis has always preserved its international character; its subtitle reads "an interna- 
tional review devoted to the history of science and civilization." It is an inter- 
national journal pubHshed mainly in English, which is the language of greatest inter- 
national currency. 

It is a mistake to confuse internationalism with polyglottism. Consider the 
query: Which journal is likely to be the most international, the one (A) written al- 
most exclusively in English, or the other (B) written in six languages (EFGILS): 
Will more readers of more nations read (B) than (A)? By reading, we mean of 
course reading the whole of it, or at least most of it. Obviously, there are far more 
people all over the world capable of reading English, than there are people capable 
of reading Engfish, plus French, German, Italian, Latin and Spanish. Yet, some 
men are not satisfied with those six languages; they would want the addition of other 
languages, particularly of their own; they are like those idiots who would want the 
international express to stop in their own bailiwick. If all those wishes were granted, 
the famous express would become an omnibus train. If too many languages are 
used, nobody is properly served. 

The History of Science Society, however, is less international than its own organ 
Isis. Indeed, that organ can circulate equally well everywhere, and it can find 
readers and collaborators in many nations; the nationality of an author has never 
been considered by the editor, that would be irrelevant to his purpose. On the 
other hand, the majority of members and officers of the History of Science Society 
dwell in the United States. Its annual meetings have always taken place in the 
United States, and it cannot help being more sensitive to American than to foreign 
opinions. As far as location is concerned, one must bear in mind that every inter- 
national society is obliged to have a central office within the territory of a definite 
nation, and it is submitted because of that to more influences emanating from that 
nation than from any other. 

Perhaps the fairest summary of the matter would be to say that the History of 
Science Society, in spite of its being born in a foreign cradle, is a national society. 
It is a national society with genuine international concerns, and its foreign member- 
ship is relatively large.*** 

We may now consider another organization, primarily and deliberately inter- 
national, the Academie Internationale d'Histoire des Sciences, the existence of which 
we owe to the foresight and devotion of Audo Mieli.^"" The latte had organized 
in 1927 a committee which arranged for the discussion of the subject at the Inter- 
national Historical Congress of Oslo in 1928. The section of the history of science 



^ The number of articles in Isis devoted to "American science" is remarkably small. The 
editor is always pleased to include such articles but makes no efiFort to increase their number. His 
point of view is international. 

'Tor Aldo Mieli (1879-1950), see Isis 41, 57, with portrait, and the biography by his 
successor Pierre Sergescu in the Archives Internationales d'histoire des sciences (29, 519-35, 
1950), with portrait. 



254 



International Organization 



of that congress intrusted the creation of the Academy to a committee of seven mem- 
bers: Aldo Mieli, Abel Rey, George Sarton, Henry E. Sigerist, Charles Singer, 
Karl Sudhoff, and Lynn Thorndike. The Academy was constituted in August 
1928 and the seven men just named were its first members. The first meeting of 
the executive committee took place in Paris in May 1929; the first annual meeting 
in Paris in May 1930. The seat of the Academy is 12 rue Colbert, Paris 2 (close to 
the Bibliotheque Nationale). Aldo Mieli was from the beginning its permanent 
secretary; he was succeeded in 1950 by Pierre Sergescu. 

For more information on the Academy see its official organ, Archeion,^''^ now 
called Archives internationales, and also the Annuaire de I'Academie {Srd ed. 1936). 

The purpose of the Academy was to organize the study and teaching of the 
history of science on an international basis. In order to implement that purpose 
it was necessary to organize national committees in as many countries as possible. 

There are at present some 27 national groups.^"' Their names are given below 
in alphabetical order, together with the dates of constitution and of their affiliation 
to the Academy as far as known to me. These dates are not always unambiguously 
known because the definition and constitution of a group is not always clear or may 
be challenged by another group in the same country, etc. The dates given below 
are tentative.^'"' It is possible that some of those national groups either do not func- 
tion at present, or do not communicate regularly with the Academy. To the usual 
difficulties caused by the creation of a new society relative to a new discipline must 
be added the chaos resulting from wars and revolutions. 



National groups affiliated to the International Academy: — 



Argentina 


1933 


1948 


Luxemburg 




1948 


Belgium 


1933 


1947 


Morocco ( French ) 


1932 




Brazil 




1947 


Netherlands 




1948 


Czechoslovakia 


1930 


1947 


Palestine 


1935 


1947 «>* 


Denmark 




1949 


Poland 


1933 




Egypt 




1950 


Portugal 


1932 


1947 


France 


1931 


1947 


Romania 


1932 


1947 


Germany 


1932 




Spain 1931 


1936 




Great Britain 




1947 


Sweden 


1948 


1950 


Greece 


1935 




Switzerland 


1935 


1947 


Hungary 




1948 


Turkey 




1950 


India 




1950 


United States 




1949 


Israel 




1950 


Uruguay 


1935 


1948 


Italy 


1931 


1948 









Reports from each national group appear periodically in the Archives. In addi- 
tion, information is given concerning groups in process of organization. 

For example, consider India. A national committee for the study of the history 
of science in India was convened on 2nd Jan. 1949 at Muir Central College, by 
Professor A. C. Bannerji, president of the National Academy of Sciences. This 
will probably lead to the constitution of a National Group or Society for the History 
of Science. Details of the proceedings may be read in the Archives internationales 
(28, 812-14, 1949). 

The Academy was reorganized in December 1948 in order to harmonize its 
activities with those of two overall international organizations UNESCO and ICSU 
(the first is the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, 
the second the International Council of Scientific Unions). 

1"! The existence of Archeion (under the name Archivio) preceded that of the Academie ( 1919, 
1928) even as the existence of Isis preceded that of the History of Science Society (1913, 1924). 

^"2 Strictly speaking the number of national groups ofBcially recognized by the International 
Union in October 1950 was 19. The figure given by me is larger, because it includes groups 
which have vanished, say, Palestine replaced by Israel, or whose official link is in abeyance 
because of the late war. For example, the German group was affiliated in 1932, the affiliation 
is temporarily broken, but it will soon be renewed. 

103 When many dates are given they refer to different steps in organization, the last date is that 
of formal reorganization. 

^"^ The ambiguity Palestine-Israel is caused by the fact that the group was first affiliated during 
the British mandate; if I remember right the first (Palestinian) group included Arabic and Jewish 
members. 



International Organization 255 

For a general account of UNESCO, see Jxjlian Huxley (its first director, from 
1946 to 1948 incl. ) : UNESCO, its purpose and its philosophy ( 62 p. American 
Council on Pubhc Affairs, 1947). For the UNESCO concern with history of sci- 
ence, see Armando Cortesao: L'UNESCO, sa tache et son but concernant les 
sciences et leur developpement historique (Archives 1, 211-21, 1947-48, reprinted 
in Actes du Ve Congres, p. 25-35, 1948). 

The latest list of members of the Academy may be found in Archives ( 1, 188-204, 
Oct. 1947). That list contains unfortunately many errors caused by lack of com- 
munications in war time and post-war chaos. 

Latest constitution of the Academic (Archives 1, 142-45, Oct. 1947). 

At first, the members of the Academic were elected exclusively on the basis of 
work done in the history of science, but it was soon recognized that on that basis 
the great majority of the members would belong to a few leading countries where 
studies in that field have been encouraged. Some restrictions were then introduced 
in the rules in order to facilitate the election of members belonging to other countries, 
yet that was not enough to insure the representation of every (UNESCO) country. 
It is clear that if elections were arranged in such a way that every country were 
represented, the intellectual level of the Academy would be degraded, and the 
Academy would cease to be an Academy in the ordinary sense of the term ( a limited 
group of men selected on the basis of individual merit). In order to solve that 
dilemma a new international organization was created. L'Union Internationale d'his- 
toire des Sciences was established in Paris in 1947, and its constitution may be 
read in Archives (1, 145-46, 1947). 

The first article of the Academy's new constitution (1947) reads "The inter- 
national organization of the study of the history of science includes two institutions 
closely bound together, the International Academy and the International Union." 

According to other articles (2) the Academy is located in Paris, (3) it counts 
50 effective and 100 corresponding members. A minimum number of places is 
reserved for historians of science of countries which could not be represented other- 
wise. 

According to the Union's constitution (1947), article 1, "The Union's purpose 
is to cooperate directly with UNESCO and ICSU, in the field of the history of sci- 
ence," article 2. "The Union recognizes the Academy as the directive organ of its 
scientific activity." 

The Academy organizes international congresses, the meetings of which have 
taken place as follows. For each meeting we indicate the corresponding publica- 
tion, and name the President. In each case, the President of the Academy was ipso 
facto the president of the congress. 

1.1929: Paris, 20-25 May. President: GiNO Loria of Genoa. Accounts in 
Archeion, vol. II, p. i-cix, 1929. 

11.1931: London, 30 June-4 July. President: Charles Singer of London. 
Accounts in Archeion, vols. 13-14. An English translation of the Russian papers 
was pubhshed in book form. Science at the Cross Roads (London, Kniga, 1931; 
Isis 20, 591, 535). 

III. 1934: Porto and Coimbra, 30 Sept. -6 Oct. President: Karl Sudhoff of 
Leipzig, who was not able to come. The acting president was George Sarton of 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. Accounts in Archeion 16, 335-72, 1934. Congres du 
Portugal. Actes, conferences et communications (xlix-|-462 p., pi., maps, Lisboa 
1936; Isis 28, 135-38). 

IV.1937: Praha (Prague). 22-27 Sept. President: Quroo Vetter of Prague. 
Accounts in Archeion (vol. 19, 390-96). 

V.1947: Lausanne. 30 Sept. -6 Oct. President: Arnold Reymond of Lausanne. 
Actes du Ve Congres, in Collection de travaux de I'Academie (no. 2, 288 p.. 
Academic, also Hermann, Paris 1948). The papers reprinted in the Actes were 
first printed in the Archives. 

VI. 1950: Amsterdam. August 1950. President: P. Sergescu of Paris. The 
Proceedings will be published in 1951. 

At the VI. International Congress of the History of Science (Amsterdam, August 



256 International Organization 

1950) the following presidents were appointed, for the Academy, Dr. J. A. Voll- 
GRAFF of Leiden, for the Union, George Sarton of Cambridge, Mass. 

The Perpetual Secretary is Prof. Pierre Sergescu. The offices of the Academy 
and of the Union are located 12 Colbert, Paris 2 (near the Bibhotheque Nationale). 

There may be other international organizations devoted to the history of sci- 
ence in general, or the history of particular sciences. The line between a national 
organization and an international one is not always easy to draw as we exemplified in 
the case of the History of Science Society. In the first place, national societies may 
recruit members in other nations, and if their publications are made in one of the 
international languages (EFGILS) and are sufficiently useful, the number of for- 
eign members may exceed that of the domestic ones. On the other hand, every 
international organization is of necessity established and domiciliated in a definite 
country and cannot help being more or less nationalized, because its contacts with 
that country are more frequent and more intense than with any other.^"'^ 

1921: Societe Internationale d'Histoire de la Medecine. — Founded in Paris on 
8 October 1921 by Joseph Tricot-Royer of Antwerp, and others, at the meeting 
of the permanent committee of the International Congress of the history of medicine. 
Its official organ was first the Bulletin de la Societe frangaise d'histoire de la medecine 
(see 1921, 15: 312-13). When Aesculape resumed its publication in 1923 with 
vol. 13 it became the organ of the society and remained so until 1940 when it 
ceased to appear. The Societe also published Archives (?), no. 4 of which is said 
to have appeared in 1938. Not seen. 

The permanent committee of the Societe meets at the Faculty of Medicine of 
Paris. President, Prof. Laignel-Lavastine, general secretary, Jules Guiart (Ar- 
chives intern, d'hist. des sciences 28, 733-35; 29, 154-56; etc.). 

1948: International Plant Science Relations and Phytohistorical Commission of 
the International Union of Biological Sciences. — Founded by, and under the 
chairmanship of, Frans Verdoorn, Chronica Botanica House, Waltham, Mass. 
Chiefly concerned with the preparation of ( i ) the World List of Plant Science In- 
stitutions and Societies (ed. 21, 1952), (2) Biologia, an international year-book 
(vol. 3, in press, includes the Verdoorns' eleventh report on International Coopera- 
tion in the Pure and Applied Plant and Animal Sciences and emphasizes work on 
the borderland between the natural sciences and the humanities), (3) the Index 
BoTANicoRUM, a biographical dictionary of plant scientists of all times. The Com- 
mission also maintains a card index of current research projects concerned with 
the history of any branch of the pure and applied plant sciences. 

See Leaflet 2 (May 1950), Botanical Section, Int. Union of Biological Sciences. 

Further information on the Index Botanicorum will be found in Chronica 
Botanica 8, 425-448, 1944. A four-page progress report, with a list of collaborators, 
was issued in 1948. The commission is at present preparing a three-volume Concise 
Dictionary of Botanical Biography (a prodromus to the Index Botanicorum.). 

los This would be the case even if the small territory occupied by the international organization 
was internationalized. The Popes of Avignon were influenced by the French environment even 
as the Popes of Rome by an Italian one. 



23. THE TEACHING OF THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

Institutes for the history of science will be dealt with in the next section; insti- 
tutes are often integral parts of universities and in such cases whatever teaching is 
organized is done in those institutes or with their cooperation. The next section 
dealing with institutes should thus be consulted with reference to teaching. 

What kind of teaching is given in various universities? And where does that 
teaching lead? To which degrees or positions? At its executive meeting held in 
Paris in May 1948 the International Academy charged one of its members. Dr. E. J. 
DijKSTERHUis of Oistcrwijlc (Netherlands) to make investigations concerning the 
teaching of the history of science all over the world, and his report was published 
under the title. La place de I'histoire des sciences dans I'instruction superieure (Ar- 
chives internationales d'histoire des sciences 29, 39-76, 1950). This is only a first 
approximation, however, for it is not very helpful to know that Prof. John Doe 
gives a course on the history of science in the University of Podunk. One would 
like to know what kind of a covuse he is giving and what are his own qualifications. 
Is John Doe really a historian of science, or simply a schoolteacher or a charlatan? 
The total number of courses does hardly matter, but one would fike to know how 
many courses are offered by competent scholars who have a technical knowledge of 
science, of history, of historical methods, and of the history of science. 

The teaching of the history of science has been used for nationalistic purposes, as 
a means of stimulating the national pride of students. That was done in Italy dur- 
ing the fascist regime. See Alfred Perna: Les cours d'histoire des sciences en 
Italic (Ille Congres international d'histoire des sciences, 1934, p. 113-20, Lisboa 
1936). It is of course natural that teachers should pay special attention to the 
great men of science of their own country; that is legitimate if done with modera- 
tion and frankly. It is to be hoped, however, that the teaching of the history of 
science will be as international, or supernational as possible, for it is only then 
that it acquires its full value from the point of view of humanistic education. The 
history of science must be a means of uniting men, rather than of increasing their 
self-conceit and their separation from other men. In that respect, students of the 
New World are privileged, for it is relatively easy for their teachers to be inter- 
nationally-minded in their account of the progress of science before modern times. 

Notes concerning the teaching of the history of science in various countries or 
universities are frequently published in Isis. See, e.g., for Switzerland, Isis 38, 244; 
for the Netherlands, Isis 38, 98; 39, 67. 

It is now possible to obtain a doctor's degree in the history of science in various 
universities, e.g., in London, Harvard, Cornell, Columbia, Univ. of Wise. The field 
of the history of science is so immense and so complex that in order to guide 
doctoral work it is necessary to estabfish a committee ad hoc estabfishing a special 
program for each candidate. See Regulations for the degree of Ph.D. in the history 
of science and learning (Official register t)f Harvard University, vol. 32, no. 30, 8 p., 
June 22, 1935). Such a committee should be made up in the following way: one 
half of the members to be professors or teachers of science, medicine, engineering, 
the other half to be professors of the humanities; a professor of the history of sci- 
ence to be the chairman. It should be noted that while such a committee is needed 
to organize examinations in the history of science, it is superfluous for the history 
of learning. The regular scientific departments are not qualified to conduct ex- 
aminations in the history of science, because their members have generally no techni- 
cal knowledge of history, and what is worse, have no idea of historical methods; they 
are hardly aware of the existence of such methods. On the contrary, every de- 
partment of learning is ipso facto a historical department; every historian or philolo- 
gist is acquainted with historical methods. Should a student wish to study the 
history of Thucydidean scholarship he would find all the help he might need in 
the classical department and nowhere else. 



258 Teaching the History of Science 

Teaching the history of science in a university should be a full-time position. 
It is foolish to expect a professor of science to teach the history of science as a 
secondary job, for he will have to neglect his scientific research and teaching, or 
else his teaching of the history of science will remain mediocre and sterile. This 
will be realized more keenly when we consider the qualifications of a teacher of 
the history of science. These qualifications may be summarized under five heads: 

1 ) Deep knowledge and long experience ( including laboratory experience ) in 
one field of science. 

2) More superficial knowledge of various other branches of science. 

5) Knowledge of history in general and familiarity with historical methods. 
Historical spirit. 

4) Knowledge of philosophy, and especially of the philosophy of science. Philo- 
sophical spirit. 

5) Good knowledge of many European languages, including Latin (and if 
possible, Greek or Arabic). 

The prospective teacher must have proved his ability by a "masterpiece" (in 
the mediaeval sense), that is, by the publication of a genuine piece of research in 
a particular field of the history of science. A botanist can hardly hope to obtain 
a good teaching position without having proved that he has an overall knowledge 
of botany, experience in one special branch of it, ability to promote botanical 
knowledge and to train other students; even so, a historian of science must have 
proved his familiarity with the whole field, his deeper experience of one part of 
it, his power to increase knowledge and to transmit it to others. 

The training of a historian of science is so complex that it requires a long time. 
On the other hand, teaching positions are thus far very few. Fortunately, such 
training is excellent not only for this purpose but for many others. It affords per- 
haps the best kind of preparation for many para-scientific professions, all the literary, 
historical, philosophical or even administrative activities connected with scientific 
investigations, or with scientific teaching, scientific fibraries and museums, the editing 
of scientific periodicals or the writing of scientific books. Such activities are already 
numerous and their number is steadily increasing. 

The teacher should be ready to teach the whole history of science, or at least 
the essential parts of it, from prehistoric days down to our own. If he secures an 
appointment in a larger university where his work is shared with other men he may 
be permitted to focus his attention on a part of the field, but even then a preliminary 
knowledge of the whole field will be of great advantage to him. 

Some teachers may qualify for the teaching not of the history of science in 
general, but rather of the teaching the history of one particular science (or group of 
sciences) such as mathematics, physics, biology or geology. Even in such cases 
familiarity with the history of science in general would enable them to accomplish 
their own task better. 

When the size and resources of a university make it possible to divide the work 
between many teachers, the division of labor might be accomplished in many ways, 
according to the general program and to the several qualifications of the teachers. 
Let us assume, e.g., that four teachers are employed. A, B, C, D. A might teach 
the history of ancient science, and also the history of mathematics; B might ex- 
plain mediaeval science, and also the history of geography and anthropology; C, 
the history of biology, and also the history of science during the fifteenth to the 
seventeenth centuries; D the history of physics (or of chemistry), and also the history 
of modern science. 

Most universities and colleges will have to be satisfied with one teacher and that 
teacher must be able to teach the whole history of science. It is much to be hoped 
that one university at least will have enough courage and vision to establish a kind 
of normal school for the history of science, with from four to ten teachers of vari- 
ous standing — from instructor to full professor. This would become the cradle 
of good teachers for the whole nation and even for other nations. It is easier to 
raise the standards of research in a place where many men are working together 
and where there develops naturally a keen emulation between them. 



Teaching the History of Science 



259 



For more details, see George Sarton: Qualifications of teachers of the history of 
science (Isis 37, 5-7, 1947; 40, 311-13, 1949). 

Hendrik Bode, Frederick Mosteller, John Tukey, Charles Winsor: The 
education of a scientific generalist (Science 109, 553-58, 1949). This article is 
mentioned as a witness of the need for men of science having a general training in 
science rather than a special one, but in its tentative program of a curriculum of 
40 semester courses, the humanities are represented only by two courses in English, 
and by seven or eight courses which are left undefined under the general label "dis- 
tribution." As far as the purely scientific instruction is concerned that curriculum 
would be a very good one for a future historian of science. 

Henry Guerlac: Development and present prospects of the history of science 
(Report submitted to the 9th International Historical Congress, Paris 1950). 




24. INSTITUTES, MUSEUMS, LIBRARIES 

This section contains an enumeration of all the places where research (as dis- 
tinguished from plain teaching) is carried on. The words museums and libraries 
need no definition, except to say that the only museums and libraries dealt with are 
those relative to the history of science or technology. The term institute is vaguer 
and it has often been abused. In European universities, an institute for this or 
that, often means no more than that a room or two have been set apart in one of the 
academic buildings for Dr. So-and-So, who studies or/and teaches the history of 
science. Those rooms may contain a small library and are eventually used for 
lectures, conferences or seminars. The rooms which I occupy in Widener ( 185- 
189) house what is perhaps the richest collection of pamphlets and archives on 
the subject; they have often been used for discussions, conferences, seminars; they 
are the publication center of Isis, yet it has never occurred to me to call them 
"Institute." A good many so-called institutes are far less important, but we do not 
wish to go into that. 

Ambiguities of the same kind concern the libraries and museums. A list of spe- 
cial libraries of whichever kind might include all the largest general libraries as 
well, say, all the libraries of over a million volumes. Those immense libraries 
often contain more items on any special subject than the libraries exclusively de- 
voted to that subject; these items, however, are not assembled but are scattered and 
may be very difficult to consult and to collate. There is no need of enumerating 
the largest general libraries, each scholar knows those which are available to him. 

In a similar way, every large museum of antiquities contains a number of sci- 
entific objects: celestial and terrestrial globes, quadrants, astrolabes, weights and 
measures, scales, instruments conceived for various kinds of observation or measure- 
ment, or for teaching and demonstration; physical, astronomical, mathematical, 
chemical and surgical instruments, pharmaceutical pots and vases, all kinds of 
tools.'"* Every large museum has more than enough of such items to devote 
(if it chose to do so) one or two halls to the history of science, either local, 
regional or international. 

Similar remarks might be made apropos of the War Museums, established in 
many cities. These Museums always contain a number of exhibits illustrating sci- 
entific or technical aspects of warfare. These exhibits might be included in a 
museum on the history of science and technology, but it is perhaps better to leave 
them where they are. 

Museums of natural history also contain a number of objects of historical interest, 
objects illustrating investigations or explorations of the past, or objects which were 
wrongly labelled in the light of ancient knowledge and have become as it were 
witnesses of that knowledge. We cannot enumerate the "potential" collections in- 
cluded and "lost" in the larger collections, nor can we hope to enumerate all the 
collections, small or large, devoted to our studies. Our enumeration, however, will 
be sufficient to show what has been done and what is already available to students, 
and also to suggest what might be done in many places where all that is needed 
is a modicum of initiative, intelligence, and perseverance; the objects are there, 
waiting to be gathered and to be put in order. 

Every scientific museum or library of sufficient size is potentially an institute for 
the history of science, even if it has not yet been exploited for that purpose, and if 
the curators are obliged to devote all of their time and energy to the proper 
registration, classification, and exhibition of the items intrusted to their care. Sooner 
or later, those museums and fibraries will be fully used, and if they be kept in 
good order, they can be used profitably at any time by any competent person. 



^^ Scientific objects of various kinds are particularly abundant in cities where universities or 
other colleges, academies and scientific societies are (or were) located. 



Institutes, Museums, Libraries 261 

Universities, academies and other scientific societies/*" observatories and labo- 
ratories, botanic gardens, etc. own objects of historical interest, for example, 
objects vi'hich illustrate their creation and early days, portraits of their presidents 
and famous members, etc. but these objects, scattered in the public and private 
rooms, do not constitute museums and are not generally accessible to the public. 

The situation with regard to museums is the same as for periodicals and serials 
and for the same reason: the history of science is not yet a well-known and recog- 
nized discipline; few periodicals, or museums are exclusively devoted to it, but 
abnost every learned periodical, and almost every serious museum, may contain 
items of interest to us. Museums may be divided into the following categories: 
museums of art, museums of archaeology or history (national, provincial, regional, 
local), museums of natural history, museimis of anthropology and ethnology, 
museums of science and industry. The last-named deal generally with modern, con- 
temporary, conditions, but they often include historical exhibits. The other 
museums may also contain items (and sometimes very important ones) concerning 
the history of science. For example, some of the best portraits of men of science 
and other iconographical monuments are to be found in the museums of art. 

It is to be hoped that for each country or region catalogues of the main docu- 
ments and monuments available will eventually be compiled, and that their un- 
avoidable dispersion will thus be compensated. Such catalogues would be easier 
to compile for special objects, such as surgical instruments, astrolabes, clocks. A 
great many Roman surgical instruments are scattered in museums devoted to classical 
archaeology. Astrolabes and clocks have often been collected for their beauty and 
found their place in art museums. For example the Wallace Collection of London 
boasts a fine series of eighteenth century French clocks. 

The function of institutes for research has been examined in all its aspects in 
the work edited by Ludolph Brauer, Albert Mendelssohn Bartholdy and 
Adolf Meyer: Forschungsinstitute, ihre Geschichte, Organisation und Ziele (2 vols., 
ills., Hamburg 1930). These two splendid volumes are a memorial of the great 
Germany destroyed by Hitler. The problems concerning the history of science 
were discussed by Henry E. Sigerist (vol. 1, 391-405). 

When a professorship in the history of science or medicine is established, the 
foundation should include enough funds for the creation of an institute ad hoc. This 
has been done in some countries (Germany, Poland) with regard to the history of 
medicine. A professor of the history of science without a special library (with 
archives and other collections) is very much like a professor of science without a 
laboratory, without staflF and budget; his activities are doomed to second-handedness 
and mediocrity. 

Without an institute where all the necessary information is steadily collected there 
can be no continuity in the work done, no creative tradition. 

George Sarton: An institute for the history of science. Three articles (I. Sci- 
ence 45, 284-88, 1917; II. Science 46, 399-402, 1917; III. Isis 28, 7-17, 1938). The 
third article was partly reprinted in Sarton: The hfe of science (p. 169-74, New 
York 1949). 

The following notes are arranged in alphabetical order of countries (English 
names) and for each country in alphabetical order of cities: 

argentina 

— Buenos Aires — 

Ateneo de historia de la medicina: 

Institute founded and directed by Prof. Dr. Juan Ramon Beltran for the study 
of the history of medicine. It issues Publicaciones de la catedra de historia de la 
medicina (vol. 1, 1938; vol. 4, 1940) and Revista argentina de historia de la medicina 

(1942^.). 

Address: Edison 548-80, Martinez. 



I*' Consider the objects decorating the rooms of the Royal Society, the Academie des Sciences, 
or the Lincei. 



262 Institutes, Museums, Libraries 

Institucion Cultural Espanola ( Calle Bernardo Irigoyen 672 ) : 

This institute deserves to be listed in spite of the fact that it is not primarily con- 
cerned with the history of science, because when the government arbitrarily closed 
MiELi's institute in Sante Fe in 1943, the Institucion Cultural Espaiiola had the gen- 
erosity and wisdom of offering asylum to him and his library. Moreover, it enabled 
him in 1945 to realize his first "coloquio" (colloquy, symposium) on the history 
and philosophy of science, and promoted his publications (except Archeion which 
was forbidden). 

Jose Babini: Historia de la ciencia argentina (p. 184-87, Mexico 1949; Isis 41, 
84). 

— Santa Fe — 

1938-1943: Institute de historia y filosofia de la ciencia: 

Institute established as a part of the Universidad Nacional del Litoral in 1938 
at the instance of Aldo Mieli, who was brought from Paris to Santa Fe in order 
to take charge of it. At the same time Mieli transferred the editorial office of 
Archeion (Archivio di storia della scienza, q.v.) from Paris to Santa Fe. Unfortu- 
nately, MiELi's Instituto was one of the first victims of the political intolerance and 
stupidity which dominated the Argentine nation; the government closed it in 1943 
and stopped the publication of Archeion. 

Asylum was given to Mieli by the Institucion cultural espaiiola in Buenos Aires. 

Aldo Mieli: La historia y la filosofia de la ciencia (Suppl. to the Bulletin of 
the history of medicine, no. 3, Castiglioni Festschrift, p. 205-16, Baltimore 1944). 
In the Italian appendix to this Spanish paper Mieli describes the persecution of 
which he was the victim. Cortes Pla: Aldo Mieli en la Argentina (Archives 29, 
907-12, 1950). 

AUSTRIA 

— Vienna (Wien) — 

1907: Institut fiir Geschichte der Medizin: 

This institute for the history of medicine was created at the instance of Robert 
VON ToEPLi ( 1856- ) and Max Neuburger in 1906; it was opened modestly 

in 1907. In 1918, it was moved to the Josephinum, where it was close to a rich 
library. Six rooms were added to it in 1935-38. The Institute including a museum 
and library is very largely the creation of Max Neuburger, who was professor of 
the history of medicine in the University of Venna. 

Emanuel Berghoff: Max Neuburger. Werden und Wirken eines Oesterreichi- 
schen Gelehrten (Wien 1948; Isis 41, 97), description of the museum on pp. 66-95, 
many objects being reproduced. 

BELGIUM 

ANTViTERPEN 

Musee Plantin-Moretus: 

This museum concerning the history of early typography and graphic arts in 
Antwerpen is established in the very buildings which were occupied for three cen- 
turies (1576-1876) by the illustrious printer, Christopher Plantin (1520-89), his 
son-in-law, John Moerentorf or Moretus (1543-1610), and their descendants. 

Many editions of the Catalogue have appeared in French, Dutch and English. 
I have used the second English edition of the Catalogue by Max Rooses (Antwerpen 
1909). 

The Museum has published many books and prints concerning its own collections 
or the lives and activities of the Plantin and Moretus printers. Many other books 
on the same subject have appeared elsewhere. A full Plantin-Moretus bibliog- 
raphy would require much space. Good general account by Maurice Sabbe: 
L'oeuvre de Christophe Plantin et de ses successeurs (210 p., Bruxelles, 1937). 

There are in other European cities many museums or collections concerning the 
history of typography, but no attempt has been made to list them here. The Musee 



Institutes, Museums, Libraries 263 

Plantin must stand as an example of a relatively large class of collections, which im- 
portant as they be, do not concern the historian of science as much as the historian 
of arts and crafts. 

— Bruxelles — 

Institut international des sciences theoriques: 

This Institute was created about 1948 to organize research work in the 
field of the philosophy (not history) of science, yet its publications may interest 
historians of science. 

The Archives de ITnstitut international des sciences theoriques are published in 
separate parts of the Actualites scientifiques et industrielles ( Paris, Hermann ) . One 
of the series ( A ) has the subtitle Bulletin de I'Academie internationale de philosophic 
des sciences. 

Director: I. DocKX; address of the secretary, 221 Avenue de Tervueren (Isis 40, 
119). 

The House of Erasmus (1466P-1536) in Anderlecht: 

Catalogue de la Maison d'Erasme (600 items, 38 p., Isis 27, 416). 

Daniel Van Damme: Ephemeride illustree de la vie d'ERASME (64 p. quarto 

ill., Anderlecht 1936; Isis 26, 463-64; 27, 416-29, 4 ill., 1937). 

Musee Stas: 

Collection of objects, MSS, etc. concerning the chemist, Jean Stas (1813-91), 
in a special room of the main building of the University of Brussels (Avenue des 
Nations). Catalogue by Jean Pelseneer (BuU. Societe chimique de Belgique t. 
48, 1937, 10 p.; Isis 28, 95). 

Collection Michel: 

A collection of astrolabes and other astronomical instruments has been made by 
the engineer, Henri Michel in Brussels. Partial catalogue by himself, Introduction 
a I'etude d'une collection d'instruments anciens (quarto 112 p., 15 pi., Anvers 1939), 
see also his Traite de I'astrolabe (quarto, 210 p., 24 pi., Paris 1947; Isis 39, 194). 

— Gent — 

Museum of the history of science in the old Byloke Abbey: 

This museum which I was privileged to visit on 4 May 1948 before its opening 
has been organized by Professor A. J. J. Van de Velde. 

The Byloke abbey is devoted to the exhibition of objects illustrating the history, 
archaeology and folklore of Gent and East Flanders; a part of it has been set aside 
for the history of science. That part contains a number of instruments and memo- 
rials concerning the scientific professions in Flanders and scientific teaching and 
research in the University of Gent. It was formally inaugurated on Sunday 28 No- 
vember 1948. The opening speech by Prof. Van de Velde (7 p. in Dutch) was 
published in the Jaarboek 1948 van de Kon. Vlaamse Academie voor Wetenschappen 
van Belgie. No catalogue is yet available. 

Since the vn-iting of this note the Museum has been moved to the Museum of 
Fine Arts. It was reinaugurated in its new location on Dec. 10, 1950. 

— Liege — 

Collection Max Elskamp: 

Collection of mathematical and astronomical instruments made by the Belgian- 
French poet. Max Elskamp. It is now preserved in the Musee de la vie wallonne, 
a museum devoted to every aspect of Liegeois and Walloon history and folklore. 

— Saint Nicholas — 

Saint Nicholas is a small tovra in the Land of Waes, eastern Flanders. Its local 
museum includes a room dedicated to the Flemish geographer, Gerhardus Merca- 
TOR (1512-94). 



264 ^ Institutes, Museums, Libraries 

CHINA 

— Shanghai — 

Medical History Museum: 

Organized by the Chinese Medical History Society; opened in 1938. K. C. Wong 
(Arch, internat. hist, of science 1949, 2, 545-51; 1951, 4, 845). 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA 

— Prague — 

Technical Museum: 

This museum includes historical exhibits, notably the reconstruction of an alchemi- 
cal laboratory of the sixteenth century and many objects illustrating the history of 
geography, geodesy, mining, technology, arts and crafts. The alchemical labora- 
tory was briefly described and illustrated in Svetozor (cislo 14, rocnik XIV, Praha 
1914?). 

Professor Q. Vetter wrote to me (Praha, 26 Oct. 1949) that there are museums 
in almost every city of Czechoslovakia, and that almost every one of those museums 
includes objects which may interest historians of science. He kindly wrote again 
(Praha, 6 January 1950), after having obtained the help of the Svaz ceskych musei 
( union of Czech museums ) which circulated my queries among its members. This 
enabled him to send me a list of some sixty regional museums, which contain exhibits 
which would interest historians of science. It is not possible to print the list here, 
because it would take too much space and because I could not do for Czechoslovakia 
what I did not do for other countries (similar hsts for the United States would fill 
a good sized volume, see the publications by L. V. Coleman quoted below). 

Dr. Vetter's list includes collections concerning the history of mining (Banska 
Stiavnice, Slova; Kutna Hora, Boh.; Ostraya, Mor.; Stfibro, Boh.), the history of 
pharmacy and medicine (Benesov u Prahy; Bojkovice, Mor.; Klatovy, Boh.; Polna, 
Boh.; Praha, Narodni museum; Prostejov, Boh.; Znojmo, Mor.); the history of astron- 
omy, physics and mathematics (Duchcov, Boh.; Plzen, Boh.; Praha, Observatory; 
Praha, Library of the Strahov monastery; Tepla, Boh.; Vyssi Brod, Boh.), the history 
of cartography (Praha, University Library). There are also in Czechoslovakia many 
exhibits or museums illustrating regional arts, crafts, and industries; some are the 
equivalent of the American "company museums" and were probably such at the 
beginning even if they have now become national or municipal responsibihties. 

In addition to his letter. Dr. Vetter also sent me a few printed catalogues. 

Institute of the History of Medicine: 

Including library and collection of portraits. 

Medical Museum: 

Collects documents and objects concerning the history of medicine in Czechoslo- 
vakia, and a medico-numismatic collection. 

Museum of Pharmacology: 

Collection of old apothecary shops attached to the Purkine Institute. 

DENMARK 

— Copenhagen — 

Medico-historical Museum: 

This museum was founded in 1907 as a private institution; it became a university 
institute in 1918. It collects everything concerning medical history. The main col- 
lections are ( 1 ) surgery, ( 2 ) X-ray, ( 3 ) pharmacy, ( 4 ) dentistry, ( 5 ) library. 
There is no printed catalogue. 

The museum is estabhshed in the old Royal Academy of Surgery, founded in 1785 
and abolished in 1942. 

Ida Rich in Sudhoff's Archiv (31, 61, 1938). 

This information was given to me by Dr. Edv. Gotfredsen, historian of medicine, 
in his kind letter dated Copenhagen, 20 Feb. 1949. 



Institutes, Museums, Libraries 265 

Open-air Museums.— See the letter of Dr. Jean Anker, printed below under 
"Norway." 

FRANCE 

— Dole, ]vha — 

Maison natale de Pasteur: 

The house where Louis Pasteur was born on 27 Dec. 1822 is now a national 
museum. 

Illustrations of it may be found in Pasteur Vallery-Radot: Pasteur. Images 
de sa vie (Paris 1947; Isis 39, 99). 

— Lyon — 

Bibliotheque et musee d'histoire de la medecine: 

Organized by Prof. Jules Guiart at the University of Lyon. 

Jules Guiart: L'Ecole medicale lyonnaise. Catalogue commente de la section 
regionale du musee historique de la Faculte mixte de medecine et de pharmacie de 
Lvon^'"' (Annales de I'Universite de Lyon, 3. series, medecine, fasc. 2, 272 p., 16 
pi., Paris 1941). 

— Paris — 

1925: Centre international de synthese, "Pour la science." 

Created by Henri Berr, who 25 years earher had founded the Revue de Synthese 
historique. For a history of both undertakings see vol. 26 ( 67 ) of that Revue pub- 
hshed in Paris 1950. The Centre is located 12 rue Colbert, Paris 2 (close to the 
Bibliotheque Nationale ) . 

1928: Academic internationale d'histoire des sciences, for which see chapter 22. 

The Academic is located 12 rue Colbert, Paris 2. 

The Academic and Centre have close connections; reports of both were published 
in Archeion (vol. 9, 497-512, 1928; vol. 11, 22 p., 1929, vol. 12, 368-89, 1930, etc.). 
At present reports of the Centre appear regularly in the Revue de synthese, those of 
the Academic in the Archives Internationales d'histoire des sciences. 

Institut d'histoire des sciences et des techniques ( 13 rue du Four, Paris 6) : 

Estabhshed as a part of the University of Paris. The first director was Abel 

Rey; the second Gaston Bachelard. 
It publishes Thales (5 vols. 1934-48). 

1794: Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers (rue Reaumur): 

Museum created by the Convention nationale on 19 vendemiaire an III ( 10 Oct. 
1794), the earhest collection of its kind and size in the world. It should be noted, 
however, that the purpose was less historical than educational. It realized Des- 
cartes' views that students of science and artisans should be able to see instruments 
and mechanical objects ( This was even more necessary in the seventeenth and eight- 
eenth centuries than it is today, because graphic illustrations were less abundant 
and less cheap than they are now). The confusion of purposes is perhaps unavoid- 
able and exists to this day in every museum of science and industry : these museums 
are often historical "par la force des choses" but the main purpose of the organizers 
is generally to popularize science, to familiarize the pubUc with its tools and methods, 
and to lire the enthusiasm of potential inventors and future men of science. At any 
rate, every scientific collection, whichever be its purpose, obtains more and more 
historical value as time passes. 

On 26 floreal an VI ( 15 May 1798) the Conseil des Cinq-Cents set aside a large 
part of the priory of Saint-Martin-des-Champs for the Conservatoire. 

The early organizers of the Conservatoire were Jacques de Vaucanson ( 1709- 
82), Charles Auguste Vandermonde (1735-96), Nicolas Jacques Conte (1755- 
1805), Joseph Michel Montgolfier (1740-1810), Francois Emmanuel Molard 
(1774-1829). The first Catalogue des Collections du Conservatoire was pubUshed 

107a What a titlel 



266 Institutes, Museums, Libraries 

in 1817. Third edition by A. Morin (327 p., Neuilly 1859). Eighth edition in 6 
parts: I. Mecanique 1905; II. Physique 1905; III. Geometric, geodesic, cosmographie, 
astronomic, science nautique, chronometric, instruments de calcul, poids ct mesures, 
1906; IV. Arts chimiqucs, matiercs colorantes ct tcinture, ceramique et vcrrerie 1908; 
V. Arts graphiqucs, photographic, filature ct tissage, mines, metalkirgie et travail dcs 
metaux 1908; VI. Art dcs constructions ct genie civil, art applique aux metiers, econo- 
mic domestiquc, hygiene, statistiquc, agriculture ct genie rural 1910. 

The Conservatoire is not simply a museum; it is also a technical school including 
laboratories, workshops, a library. 

AiME Laussedat: Le Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers (folio, 24 p., ill., France 
Artistique et Monumentale Paris s. a., c. 1894). 

Anatole de Monzie: Le conservatoire du peuple (154 p., Paris 1948). 

1937: Palais de la Decouverte: 

This museum was created as a part of the Exposition intcrnationalc dcs Arts et 
Metiers in 1937. Since that time it has been attached to the University of Paris. 
It realizes the general conception of Jean Perrin (1870-1942). 

Like the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers which it supersedes, its main purpose 
is not historical but educational in the broadest sense. History comes in unavoid- 
ably; historical outlines arc not only interesting (even to non-historians) but educa- 
tive. Its purpose is to show not only what has been done, but also what is being 
done today and what might be done tomorrow. It is meant to be a living bridge 
between the public and the laboratories. It is divided into eight sections: mathe- 
matics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, surgery, microbiology. 
Special exhibitions are organized from time to time, some of them historical (La- 
voisier, Davy and Faraday, discoveries of Hertzian waves, of radium, etc. ) Lec- 
tures and demonstrations are given frequently. Everything is done to attract the 
public, interest it and teach it as much as possible. 

The Palais de la decouverte is already immense (50 rooms or halls in 1948) but 
it is planned to increase it considerably. 

A few rooms have been recently opened (Isis 40: 353) which are devoted more 
specifically to the history of science. 

The director is A. Leveille, who WTote a short description of it in Experientia 
(vol. 1, 345-46, Basel 1945). 

Musee et bibliotheque d'histoire de la medecine ( Faculte dc medecine, rue de I'Ecole 

de medecine. Boulevard St. Germain): 

The Musee Orfila includes old surgical instruments and other historical objects, 
but it is mainly a collection of pathological anatomy founded in 1835 by the physician 
and toxicologist Mathieu Orfila of Minorca (1787-1853). 

Institut Pasteur ( rue Dutot, Paris 15 ) : 

The Institut was inaugurated on 4 Nov. 1888; Pasteur died in 1895. The crypt 
of the Institut contains his tomb and that of his wife, Marie. 

From the point of view of the historian of science, this is one of the most impres- 
sive shrines in the whole world. Would that more people visited it than there are 
who visit the tomb of Napoleon in the Hotel des Invalides. 

Musee de Cluny: 

This very rich museum has relatively few objects concerning the historian of 
science proper, rather than the historian of arts and crafts. It has clocks, astrolabes, 
and the large wire-drawing bench made in 1565 for the Elector Augustus of Saxony 
{see note on Dresden below). The bench is described in the Catalogue general. 
Bois sculptes ct meubles by Edmond Haraucourt and Montremy (no. 638, Paris 
1925). 

Musee d'histoire de la pharmacie (4 Avenue de I'Observatoirc ) : See Arch, intern, 
hist. sci. 1949, 2, 810. 



Institutes, Museums, Libraries 267 

ROXJEN 

Musee Flaubert et d'histoire de la medecine: 

Located in the Hotel-Dieu (51 rue de Lecat). Catalogue published by R. M. 
Martin (Rouen 1947). Arch, internat. hist. sci. 1949, 2, 807. 

GERMANY 

— Berlin — 

1928: Forschungsinstitut fiir Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften: 

This institute founded in 1928 is an expansion of the Heidelberg institute organ- 
ized by RusKA. The first director of the Berlin institute was also Julius Ruska. 

The first annual report was published in Berfin, 1928, the second and third in 
1929 and 1930. I have no other (official) report. As the name "Forschungsinsti- 
tut" indicates, the institute was conceived as a "research institute" (with emphasis 
on "research"; of course, every decent institute is a research institute. What else 
could it be? commercial? ) ; it was also conceived as a kind of German super-institute 
on a grand scale, and it was equipped in the best manner. 

In 1929, this Institute was merged with a medical institute under the common 
title Institut fiir Geschichte der Medizin und der Natxirwissenschaften ( note that the 
word Forschungsinstitut has been replaced by Institut). Paul Diepgen, who was 
professor of the history of medicine in Freiburg i. Br. was called on 2 Oct. 1929 to 
direct the new institute. 

According to a statement by Walter Artelt (Mitt. 36, 281-84, 1937), the 
Institute located in Universitatstrasse Sb (close to the Preussische Staatsbibliothek 
and to the Universitatsbibhothek ) , extended to 21 rooms, and the staff consisted of a 
Director (Diepgen), 3 divisional chiefs, 2 assistants, 2 sub-assistants, 1 librarian, 
2 secretaries and 1 helper; it had a library of c. 30,000 volumes. The three divi- 
sions were ( 1 ) history of medicine, ( 2 ) history of inorganic sciences, ( 3 ) history 
of organic sciences. Prof. Ruska is not named, but it is assumed that he was the 
head of the second division. 

The Institute is sufficiently near to the Kaiserin Friedrich Haus to use the 
latter 's auditorium and its medico-historical collection. 

Considering the encyclopaedic plan of the Institute partly due to the initiative of 
Kultusminister Carl Heinrich Becker^"^ (Isis 6, 559-61), it is strange that the 
history of science was subordinated to the history of medicine. This is typical how- 
ever of German efforts in our field and may be ascribed to the domineering influence 
of Karl Sudhoff, and also no doubt to the importance of the medical profession, 
and to the fact that more physicians were interested in the history of science than 
other scientists. 

Staatliche Mediko-historische Sammlung: 

Located in the Kaiserin-Friedrich-Haus fiir das arzthche Fortbildungswesen. 

— Cassel (Kassel) — 

1779: Kgl. Museum Fridericianum, Hessisches Landesmuseum zu Cassel: 

This Museum of fine and apphed arts, archaeology and history was founded in 
1779 by the Landgraf of Hesse-Cassel Friedrich II (ruling 1760-85). It includes 
a rich collection of clocks, mathematical, physical and astronomical instruments 
which illustrates the scientific interests of the rulers of Hessen from the sixteenth to 
the eighteenth century. 

The scientific instruments were first exhibited in five rooms of the old Kunsthaus; 
they were brought to the new museum when the latter was built in 1911-13. Some 
of the instruments go back to the sixteenth century and were actually used by the 
Landgraf Wilhelm IV (ruling 1567-92) and by the men of science who worked 
under his patronage. 

A. Coster and Ernst Gerland: Beschreibung der Sammlung astronomischer, 

108 Preussischer Minister fiir Wissenschaft, Kunst und Volksbildung. 



268 Institutes, Museums, Libraries 

geodatischer und physikalischer Apparate im Koniglichen Museum (Festgabe fiir 
die 51. Naturforscher-Versammlung, Cassel 1878). Briefer description in the 
Fiihrer durch die historischen und Kunstsammlungen (p. 7-17, Marburg 1913?). 
The name Cassel is now spelled Kassel. 

— Dresden — 

Mathematisch-physikalischer Salon: 

Collection kept in the NW angle of the Zwinger. Its nucleus was a part of the 
Kunstkammer of Augustus I, elector of Saxony (1553-86); it was gradually in- 
creased by his successors. It includes mathematical, surveying, astronomical, physi- 
cal, meteorological, surgical, instruments, geographical and astronomical globes; 
tools used by Augustus I. It is especially valuable because of the relatively large 
number of early instruments. 

Some of the early objects have been alienated, e.g., the giant wire-drawing bench 
made in 1565 for the elector Augustus is now in the Cluny Museum, Paris (F. M. 
Feldhaus: Die Technik, 203, 1914). 

Adolf Drechsler: Katalog der Sammlung des Konigl. mathematisch-physikali- 
schen Salons (68 p., Dresden 1874). 

There was another collection in Dresden, the Modell-Kammer created in 1691 by 
Georg IV, elector of Saxony, to include models of all kinds of machines, bridges, etc. 
A ms. inventory of it dating from 1827 exists in the Mathem-phys. Salon. Parts of 
the collection were auctioned off and dispersed in 1829, and following years. 

W. G. Lohrmann: Die Sammlung der Instrumente auf der Modelkammer in 
Dresden (Dresden 1835). 

Deutsches Hygiene-Museum: 

Its medico-historical and pharmaco-historical collection was started at the initia- 
tive of Karl Sudhoff, who compiled the first catalogue. 

DiJSSELDORF — 

1931: Institut fiir Geschichte der Medizin an der Medizinischen Akademie: 

Opened in April 1931 to celebrate the 60th anniversary of its first director, 
WiLHELM Haberling. It is locatcd in two rooms of the Institute for social hygiene. 
W. Haberling ( Mitteilungen 36, 145-47, 1937). 

— Eisenach — 

Thiiringer Museum: 

This provincial museum includes a "Pharmaziegeschichtliche Sammlung." 
W. Fiek's booklet in the Veroffentlichungen d. Ges. f. Gesch. der Pharmazie de- 
scribes it (n.d.). 

— Frankfurt am Main — 

1943: Institut fiir Geschichte der Natvirwissenschaften (Institut des physikalischen 
Vereins Frankfurt a. M. Director: Prof. Dr. Willy Hartner): 
The address at the time of writing (June 1949) is Feldbergstr. 47, but the In- 
stitute will probably be moved to the third floor of the reconstructed Senckenberg 
Library, adjoining the main building of the University this year (1949). 

The Institut was founded in 1943 by the City of Frankfurt, independently of the 
university. It was located on Robert Mayerstr. 2-4, but was destroyed by air raid 
in May 18-22, 1944. The major part of the library was saved, and later the library 
and archives of the late Paul Diergart of Bonn were acquired; it is hoped to obtain 
the chemical library of the late Gunther Bugge (Isis 15, 298). 
The purpose of the Institute is teaching and research. 
Librarian: Dr. Hertha von Deehend; secretary, Ruth Martin. 

Institut fiir Geschichte der Medizin: 

Director, Prof. Walter Artelt. The institute will probably be located before 
the end of 1949 on the third floor of the reconstructed Senckenberg Library. 

The Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften, der Medizin 
und der Technik, recently refounded, will probably have an oflBce on the same floor. 



Institutes, Museums, Libraries 269 

— Heidelberg — 

1922-27: Institut fur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften: 

This institute was created on 22 Nov. 1922 by the J. und E. v. Portheim-Stiftung. 
Its first and last director was Julius Ruska. The first annual report appeared in 
1925 (4 p., Carl Winter's Universitatsbuchhandlung ) ; the second in 1926, the third 
and last in 1927. The Heidelberg institute was then merged with the Berlin one. 

The publications of the institute listed in those three reports appeared in the 
Heidelberger Akten der von Portheim-Stiftung and in other series or journals. 

— Jena — 

Institut fiir Geschichte der Medizin: 

Includes a collection rich in Graeco-Roman classical antiquities established by 
Theodor Meyer-Steineg (1873-1936). 

— Leipzig — 

1905: Institut fiir Geschichte der Medizin an der Universitat Leipzig: 

The Leipzig institute was founded in 1905, the widow of Theodor Puschmann 
having bequeathed to the University of Leipzig a fund ( Puschmann-Stiftung ) "to 
promote scientific research in the history of medicine." A chair for the history of 
medicine was created at the University at the same time; the first incumbent of it 
and first director of the institute was Karl Sudhoff. 

The institute includes a large library, archives, films, portraits, medals, etc. 
During the years 1905-25, under Sudhoff's direction, its activities were astounding, 
witness the master's own publications, some 200 theses by students and many serials 
which are described in another chapter ( Mitteilungen, Archiv fiir Geschichte der 
Medizin, Studien zur Geschichte der Medizin). 

In 1925, the direction and professorship were given to Henry E. Sigerist and 
the activities were considerably modified, because of the new ideas which were now 
dominating medicine, medical teaching, medical duties to the people and medical 
history. The main organ of the Leipzig institute was now Kyklos (q.v.). 

See Sigerist's account in Forschungsinstitute (vol. 1, 391-402, 1930). 

Sigerist resigned in 1932 in order to assume the direction of the Baltimore In- 
stitute for the history of medicine. After an interregnum of 2 1/2 years, the direction 
of the Leipzig Institute was intrusted to Dr. Walter von Brunn, and the Institute 
moved to a new address, in the Zoological Institute, Talstr. 33, second floor. De- 
scription of the new institute by Walter von Brunn in Mitteilungen (36, 1-4, 1937). 

The library of the Leipzig Institute houses the only copy of a card catalogue of 
all the notes published in Mitteilungen, that is, a catalogue of publications on the 
history of science since 1900-02, practically all the Gemian ones and a very large 
number of non-German ones. 

— Mainz — 

Medizinhistorisches Institut der Johannes "Gutenberg Universitat: 

Director: Paul Diepgen (formerly director of the Berfin institute). 

— Munich — 

1903: Deutsches Museum von Meisterwerken der Naturwissenschaft und Technik 

(often called, for short, Deutsches Museum ) : 

This museum was founded in 1903, the ceremony of inauguration taking place 
on 28 June in the aula of the Royal Bavarian Academy. In 1906 a part of the col- 
lections was opened to the public and the construction of a special, enormous, build- 
ing begun. The building should have been ready by 1916 but was delayed by the 
first war. It was finally inaugurated on 7 May 1925. The main founder and or- 
ganizer of the Museum was Oskar von Miller ( 1855-1934), electrical engineer. 

It is the largest museum of science and technology in Germany and one of the 
largest ( if not the very largest? ) in the world. It owns a very large library and rich 
archives and has sponsored a great many publications. 



270 Institutes, Museums, Libraries 

Elaborate description in Das Deutsche Museum, Geschichte, Aufgaben, Ziele 
(2. ed., VDI, Berlin 1929). Chronik des Deutschen Museums, 1903-25. 

Guides: Rundgang durch das Deutsche Museum, Amtliche Ausgabe (94 p., ill., 
1931). Rundgang durch die Sammlungen (small album), available also in English. 

Verwaltungsberichte. Administrative annual reports. 

Special pubhcations. Walther von Dyck: Georg von Reichenbach (1912; 
Isis 1, 275-76). G. Agricola: De re metallica in German translation ( 1928; Isis 13, 
113-16). Technische Kulturdenkmale (Miinchen 1932). 

1926: Abhandlungen und Berichte. See list of serials. 

Criticism by Feldhaus (Archeion 11, 353, 1929). 

1937: Deutsches Apotheker Museum: 

Created by Fritz Ferchl, then President of the Bayerische Apotheker-Kammer, 
and by Armin Sijssenguth. Partly destroyed by enemy action in 1945. The re- 
mainder has been rearranged by Dr. Ferchl in six rooms of the "Hofkiiche der 
neuen Residenz" in Bamberg. 

There exists another collection illustrating the history of pharmacy in Waldenbuch 
(near Stuttgart), brought togetlier and owned by Walther Dorr (George Urdang: 
American Journal of pharmaceutical education 14, 577, 1950). 

— Wurzburg — 

1921: Institut fiir Geschichte der Medizin an der Universitat Wiirzburg: 

Founded in 1921 by Dr. Georg Sticker, then ordinary professor of the history 
of medicine, and established in a small room of the Pathological Institute, Bau 21 
des Luitpoldkrankenhauses. 

Georg Sticker (Mit. 36, 5, 1937), 

Another institute for the history of medicine was established in the University of 
Jena (Prof. Theodor Meyer-Steineg ) and seminars for the history of medicine in 
the Universities of Frankfurt am Main (Prof. Richard Koch) and Freiburg im 
Breisgau (Prof. Paul Diepgen). 

Sigerist: Forschungsinstitute (vol. 1, 402, 1930). 

GREAT BRITAIN 

— Cambridge — 

Museum of the history of science: 

This museum is not yet formally estabUshed but the elements of it have been 
gathered and shown to the public. "An exhibition of historic scientific instruments 
and books in the East Room of the Old Schools, 4-11 Nov. 1944" (20 p., Cambridge 
1944). 

The exhibition was arranged by the History of Science Lectures Committee. 
The exhibits were drawn from the collection which R. S. Whipple is presenting to 
the University. As soon as the collection is permanently housed, it will be much 
increased (as happened in Oxford) by donations from various sources, chiefly the 
old Cambridge colleges. 

— Glasgow — 

There are in Glasglow two important collections of books concerning the history 
of chemistry. 

The first was built by James Young ( 1811-83) and was the basis of an elaborate 
bibliography by John Ferguson (1837-1916), about whom see Isis (39, 60-61, 
1948, portrait), Bibliotheca Chemica (2 vols. Glasgow 1906). The Young collection 
is now preserved in the Royal Technical College. 

The second was built by Ferguson himself and is preserved in the Library of the 
University. Catalogue (2 vols. Glasgow 1943; Isis 35, 263). This collection in- 
cludes many unpublished papers of John Ferguson (Isis 39, 61). 

— Greenwich — 

1934: National Maritime Museum: 

Established in the Queen's House with its wing buildings, the collections includ- 



Institutes, Museums, Libraries 271 

ing those of the old Royal Naval Museum and those made and given by Sir James 
Cairo. The Queen's House was restored to the condition in which Charles I had 
finished it for Henrietta Maria in 1635. The Museum was formally inaugurated 
on 27 April 1937, 

Much in the Museum concerns naval history, yet there is also every kind of object 
illustrating maritime life in all its aspects. There are many instruments and tools 
needed for navigation, astrolabes, quadrants, sextants, etc. and also chronometers, 
from the earliest ones made by John Harrison (1693-1776). 

Greenwich Palace. A history of what is now the Royal Naval College and the 
National Maritime Museum from earliest times to 1939 (quarto 50 p., 10 pi.) 

Rupert Thomas Go\jld: The marine chronometer (303 p., 39 pi., 85 fig. London 
1923; Isis 6, 122-29); John Harrison and his timekeepers (Mariner's mirror 21, 
1935; 24 pi., 9 pi.). 

National Maritime Museum. Catalogue (260 p., ill., 1937). 

Wren Society (vol. 6, 1930; Isis 15, 239). The Wren Society was founded in 
England to reproduce architectural drawings and other documents concerning Sir 
Christopher Wren (1632-1723); its first volume appeared in 1924 (Isis 8, 553). 
Vol. 6 deals with the Royal Hospital for Seamen at Greenwich 1674-1728. 

— London — 

Science Museum (South Kensington ) : 

The Museum was founded in 1853 but remained until 1909 a department of the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. It is the "national museum of science and its applica- 
tions to industry." It is one of the largest museums of its kind in the world. 

Its publications are very numerous and there is no complete list of them. The 
mimeographed lists (themselves very long) mention only the items which are still 
available. 

The exhibits have been described in a series of handbooks and descriptive cata- 
logues, such as Chemistry (1937, reprinted 1947), Mechanical road vehicles (1936), 
Pumping machinery (1932-33), Railway locomotives and rolling stock (1931, 
reprinted 1947), Sailing ships (1932), Time measurement, etc. 

In addition, there are many special publications such as H. T. Pledge: Science 
since 1500 ( 1939; reprinted 1946; Isis 33, 74), and the Annual reports, photographic 
prints, postcards, photographs and lantern sfides. 

Director since 1950, F. Sherwood Taylor. 

1800: Royal College of Surgeons: 

The present building on the S. side of Lincoln's Inn Fields was erected in 1835. 
The collections are mainly anatomical, anthropological, and pathological but some 
concern more directly the historian of science. These are gathered mainly in the 
Historical Room, the Instrument Room and the Library. 

Charles John Samuel Thompson (1862-1943): Guide to the surgical instru- 
ments and objects in the historical series (92 p., London 1930; Isis 16, 570). 

The Wellcome Historical Medical Museum: 

At the turn of the century Sir Henry Wellcome (1854-1936) began to collect 
books and objects of every kind illustrating any and every aspect of medical history. 
At the time of the International Congress of medicine which took place in London 
in 1913 and included a section devoted to the history of medicine he was persuaded 
to exhibit a part of his immense treasures. The exhibition was remarkably success- 
ful, and Sir Henry was later induced to put up the material in the form of a small 
permanent introductory collection. He obtained premises for this purpose at Wig- 
more Street, and this remained the headquarters of the Museum until 1932 when 
the collection was removed to new premises in Euston Road. This fine building was 
built essentially for the accomodation of a few of Sir Henry Wellcome's scientific 
interests. It was hoped that the permanent collection would be exhibited on three 
floors, comprising ten large galleries. Before the war and after it ceased, work 
proceeded on the setting up of these galleries but rather slowly as a great deal of 
research was entailed. 



272 Institutes, Museums, Libraries 

The collection is vast, and the Euston Road premises were capable of housing 
only those sections of the Museum material which ouglit to be available for study 
purposes. Material which was hkely to be used less frequently was put in store 
elsewhere. 

As a result of great accommodation difficulties which have arisen directly as a 
result of the war, major changes of policy and procedure have had to be adopted. 
The headquarters of the Wellcome Historical Museum have been removed to 28, 
Portman Square, London, W.l. which is now its final address. It is impracticable 
in these premises to devote more than a small room for permanent exhibition pur- 
poses, but it is hoped to permit of certain small sections of the Museum material 
being seen by the public from time to time at contemporary exhibitions on subjects 
which may be of interest at that particular time. For example, in October, 1946, 
a special exhibition on the History of Anaesthesia was opened to commemorate the 
centenary of Morton's operation. This exhibition covered the whole field and 
continued until 1st January, 1947. At the request of the Officials of the Inter- 
national Congress of Surgery which met in London from September 15th-20th the 
Wellcome Museum put up an exhibition illustrating the History of Surgery. This 
exhibition is in a gallery of the Science Museum at South Kensington which has 
been lent by the Director of that museum for this purpose. The History of Surgery 
Exhibition will remain open until February 1st. 

The Library of the Museum is very rich especially in the earlier periods. It 
contains approximately 200,000 printed books. There are between 600 and 700 in- 
cunabula, and most of the great works of the early periods are represented. 

For publications, see chapter 20, under Wellcome. 

Director: E. Ashworth Underwood. 

The Horniman Museum and Library (Forest Hill, London S.E.): 

Founded in 1890 by Frederick J. Horniman (1835-1906), tea merchant, and 
presented by him to the London County Council in 1901. It is devoted mainly 
to ethnology, archaeology, and zoology. Some of the ethnological collections are 
oriented towards the study of early technology. 

Handbooks: From stone to steel; War and the Chase {2nd ed. 1929); Stages in 
the evolution of domestic arts (2 parts, 2nd ed. 1924-25); Simple means of travel 
and transport by land and water (1925), etc. 

This suggests that other ethnological museums might be consulted for the same 
purposes. 

The Horniman Museum has also very interesting (but unpublished) collections 
illustrating the superstitions of many peoples and many times (including our own). 

1905: The Warburg Institute, University of London (Imperial Institute Buildings, 

South Kensington, London S.W.7): 

Library and research institute founded in Hamburg by Aby Warburg ( 1866- 
1929), for the study of the survival and revival of classic antiquity during the 
Middle Ages, the Renaissance and later. The date of foundation is difficult to 
determine, because what was originally Warburg's private library developed 
gradually into a public institute. The date of foundation generally given by the 
Institute itself is 1905, when Warburg's collecting became more systematic than it 
had been. In 1921 the Hbrarian, Fritz Saxl, began a card index, as well as a 
series of lectures and publications. The Institute was then called the Bibliothek 
Warburg. It remained in possession of the Warburg family until 1933, when the 
fear of Nazi persecution and confiscation caused its moving to Thames House, 
London. It was moved to the Imperial Institute in 1937 and was incorporated in 
London University in 1944. 

Fritz Saxl (1890-1948) was hbrarian since 1913; at the time of Warburg's 
death (1929), Saxl became director. After Saxl's death. Dr. Gertrud Ring was 
acting director; Henri Frankfort of Chicago became director in May 1949. 

For an account of the early years in Hamburg see Fritz Saxl in Forschungs- 
institute (2, 355-62, 1930). When the Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Geschichte der 
Medizin usw, met in Hamburg in 1928 it visited the Bibfiothek Warburg. 



Institutes, Museums, Libraries 273 

The library is very rich; though its section on the history of science is a sub- 
ordinate one, it is very useful, and for many investigations the Warburg Institute 
is one of the best working places in London. 

Publications: Vortrage, edited by Fritz Saxl, 1921-31 (9 vols. Leipzig 1923-32; 
Isis 6, 236; 10, 301). 

Studien der BibUothek Warburg, edited by Fritz Saxl (24 vols., Leipzig 
1922-32). Followed by Studies of the Warburg Institute edited by Fritz Saxl, 
pubhshed in London since 1936 (16 vols, had appeared by the beginning of 1949). 

Kulturwissenschafthche Bibliographie zum Nachleben der Antike (vol. 1, for 
the year 1931, Leipzig-London 1934). Vol 2 was published in Enghsh, A bibliog- 
raphy of the survivals of the classics (London 1938). 

Aby Warbxirg: Gesammelte Schriften. Die Erneuerung der heidnischen Antike, 
Beitrage zur Geschichte der europaischen Renaissance, edited by Gertrud Bing 
(2 vols., 745 p., Leipzig 1932; Isis 23, 602). This contains all of Warburg's pub- 
lished writings. The editor, Dr. Bing, is planning an additional volume which will 
include a selection of Warburg's letters and notes and a biography. 

Corpus platonicum Medii aevi. Raymond Klibansky: The continuity of the 
Platonic tradition during the Middle Ages (58 p., 5 pi. 1939; Isis 33, 129). Ray- 
mond Klibansky: Plato Latinus, vol. 1. Meno (114 p., 1940; Isis 33, 86). Franz 
Rosenthal and Richard Walzer: Plato Arabus. Vol. 2. Alfarabius (1943; Isis 
34, 425). 

Journal of the Warburg Institute, edited by Edgar Wind and Rudolf Witt- 
kower, later called Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes ( 1937, 8 vols, 
to 1949). 

Mediaeval and Renaissance Studies edited by Richard Hunt and Raymond 
Klibansky (vol. 1, 1941). 

Annual reports of the Institute are published in pamphlet form. 

— Manchester — 

1781: Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society (36 George Street): 

The Manchester Society is the oldest scientific society in England, next to the 
Royal Society. Its beautiful home was destroyed by enemy action on Dec. 24, 
1940. It contained many relics of John Dalton, Thomas Percival, Charles 
White, Robert Owen, James Prescott Joule, Sturgeon, Roscoe, Williamson, 
Balfour Stewart, Osborne Reynolds, Schuster, Horace Lamb, Elliot Smith, 
Rutherford and others. Most of that has perished. The Dalton collection was 
especially rich. 

List of articles salvaged (Memoirs and Proceedings of the Society, 1939-41, p. 
xxxiv-xxxvii ) . 

— Oxford — 

1926: Museum of the History of Science (Old Ashmolean Building, Broad Street): 
The Ashmolean Museum, the oldest British Museum of Natural History, was 
founded in 1683 by Elias Ashmole ( 1617-92); the collections having been gathered 
largely by John Tradescant sr. (d. 1637?) and his son, John Tradescant, jr. 
( 1608-62), who published a description of them, Museum Tradescantianum (1656). 
Robert Theodore Gunther: Early science in Oxford (chiefly vol. 3, Oxford 1925; 
Isis 8, 375-77); The Old Ashmolean. Prepared for the 250th anniversary of its 
opening (156 p., Oxford 1933). 

In 1924, the Old Ashmolean was reopened to house the collections relative to the 
history of science, most of them given to the university by Lewis Evans, others 
donated by several Oxford colleges. In 1935, the Lewis Evans Collection became 
the Museum of the History of Science. The first curator was Robert Theodore 
Gunther (1869-1940), who made considerable use of them for his work Early sci- 
ence in Oxford (14 vols. Oxford 1920-45; Introd. 3, 1886), and his Astrolabes of 
the world (2 vols., Oxford 1932; Isis 20, 310-16, 492-95). See also Gunther's 
Handbook of the Museum of the history of science (162 p., Oxford 1935). Gun- 
ther has published a series of Old Ashmolean Reprints. 

Gunther's successor as curator of the museum until 1950 was F. Sherwood 



274 Institutes, Museums, Libraries 

Taylor, who described the museum in Endeavour (vol. 1, no. 2, 3 p., April 1942) 
and published the Catalogue of an exhibition of scientific apparatus pertaining to 
medicine and surgery (840 items, 36 p., Oxford 1947). Dr. Taylor was assisted 
by Dr. S. F, Mason. See Taylor's note in Nature (164, 738-39, 1949). 

HUNGARY 

— Budapest — 

Historical section of the museum for hygiene: 

The section was directed by Professor Tibor Gyory of Nadxtovar (1869-1938). 

The present situation of the museum is not known to me, because a pohte request 
for information addressed to the Director on 15 Feb. 1949 received no answer. 

The following note was kindly sent to me by Claudius F. Mayer in March 1951. 

The full title of the museum was Nepegeszsegiigyi Intezet es Muzeum (Public 
Health Institute and Museum). Address: Eotvbs ucca 4, Budapest. The museum 
was intended to be an exhibit for health education. It was very rich in material 
related to industrial hygiene and industrial medicine. It was under the direction of 
Georg Gortvay, M.D., a public health officer and a medical officer of the Health 
Ministry of Hungary. 

The museum had a small collection of old medical and surgical instruments which 
was much enlarged at the time of an International Exposition held in 1927. The 
enlargement was chiefly by collection of material on Hungarian medical folklore, 
again for purposes of public health-education. A special exhibit was arranged for 
showing the history of quackery. This exhibit was under my immediate direction 
and arrangements (in 1927-29). 

I do not know what happened in recent years. I met Gortvay in 1937 but, at 
that time, he was already the head of another group in the State Health Insurance 
system of Hungary. Gyory died next year; but he had very little to do with the 
museum, except as a higher government employee in matters of supervision. 

ITALY 

— Florence — 

Istituto e Museo di storia della scienza (Palazzo Castellani, Piazza dei Giudici, 

Firenze ) : 

The Museum owns a very rich collection of instruments, some of them used by 
Galileo, Torricelli, members of the Accademia del cimento, etc. 

The director is Prof. Dott. Andrea Corsini, assisted by Dott. Maria LmsA 
BoNELLi. The latter pubfished an illustrated description of it in the Archives in- 
ternationales (no. 6, Janv. 1949, p. 452-56, 2 pi.). 

— Pavia — 
Istituto di farmacologia: 

Includes a Raccolta di storia della farmacia, described by P. Mascherpa in 
Chimica 1943, no. 8, 34 p. 

— Rome — 

Musaeum Kircherianum: 

This museum was created about the middle of the seventeenth century by the 
Jesuit father Athanasius Kircher (1602-80). According to Kircher's encyclo- 
paedic tendencies, the museum included objects of every kind — antiquities, archae- 
ology, ethnography, natural history, etc. It also included a number of mathematical 
and physical instruments. The Museum does not exist any more as such, its collec- 
tions having been divided among the other Roman museums; it is possible, how- 
ever, to reconstruct it in one's imagination, because of the elaborate description 
of it by another Jesuit, Filippo Buonanni or Bonanni (1638-1735): Musaeum 
Kircherianum (522 p., foho, with 169 engraved plates, Roma 1709). Pp. 302-12, 
fig. 65-81, describe the Instrumenta mathematica. 

Information kindly obtained from Giorgio Levi della Vida and Pietro Baro- 



Institutes, Museums, Libraries 275 

CELLi, both of Rome. I was not able to ascertain whether the scientific instru- 
ments of the Kircher Museum still exist, and if so where they are at present. 

Istituto di storia della scienza dell'Universita. 

Institute which is a part of the University of Rome. The first director was the 
mathematician, Federigo Enriques (1871-1946), who began in 1932 (with Giorgio 
DE Santillana) the publication of a general history of science. The first vol. 
only was published (antiquity; Isis 23, 467-69). 

1920-1936: Istituto storico italiano dell'arte sanitaria. 

Established in Rome in 1920. Published a Bollettino (q.v.) from 1921 to 1934. 
The Istituto then became the Accademia di storia dell'arte sanitaria, and the Bullet- 
tino became Atti e memorie (q.v.). It was replaced in 1936 by the Instituto di 
storia della medicina. 

1936: Istituto di storia della medicina deH'Universita di Roma. 

Institute which is a definite part of the faculty of medicine and is organized for 
study, teaching, bibliographic documentation. It includes library, archives, museum, 
and is responsible for many publications. 

The director is Prof. Adalberto Pazzini; assistant, Luigi Stroppiana. 

A. Pazzini: I primi dieci anni d'insegnamento e di attivita dellTstituto (Annali 
di medicina navale e coloniale, vol. 3, 44 p., ill., Ministero della marina militare, 
1946), with full bibliography. 

THE NETHERLANDS 

— Haarlem — 
Teylers Stichting ( Teyler Foundation ) : 

Foundation established by the bequest of Pieter Teyler van der Hulst in 
1778; it provided for two societies, the first called "Societe theologique," the second, 
"la Seconde Societe de Teyler," dedicated to the study (in the order given) of 
physics, poetry, history, painting, numismatics. In order to realize that second pur- 
pose a Museum was founded containing collections of physical instruments, natural 
curiosities, drawings and medals. 

Martinus van Marum: Description d'une tres grande machine electrique placee 
dans le Museum de Teyler et des experiments (sic) faits par le moyen de cette 
machine (quarto, 235 p., pis., Haarlem 1785; supplement 11 p., 1787); Premiere 
continuation des experiences faites par le moyen de la machine electrique teylerienne 
(quarto, 286 p., 1787). Both volumes in Dutch and French. 

Guide for visitors to the Museum by Adriaan Daniel Fokker and A. M. 
Muntendam (not seen, date unknown). 

The most interesting among early "natural curiosities" is the giant fossil sala- 
mander which the Swiss palaeontologist, Johann Jakob Scheuchzer (1672-1733) 
mistook for "homo diluvii testis." 

— Leiden — 

Rijksmuseum voor de geschiedenis der natuurwetenschappen ( National Museum for 

the History of Science at Leiden, Steenstraat 1 A): 

This museum, not connected with the Leiden University, was started by a private 
Foundation on the initiative of Dr. Claude August Crommelin, Lecturer on Physics 
at the Leiden University and opened the 5th of June 1931 under the directorship of 
Dr. Croimmelin and the vice-directorship of Prof. Dr. C. J. van der Klaauw, 
Professor of Zoology at the Leiden University. Dr. Crommelin's inaugural address 
was published in Dutch in Physica 11 (1931) p. 152 (German translation in Die 
Naturwissenschaften 19 (1931) p. 673). A guide for visitors was published by 
him and the Conservator Dr. Maria Rooseboom in 1947. Dr. Crommelin has 
devoted many articles to individual instruments, physical and astronomical, to the 
Dutch instrumentmaking in the 17th and 18th centuries, etc. 

Since the 1st of January 1947 the museum is organized on a national basis and 
bears the above name. Dr. Crommelin retired from the Directorship the 1st 
of January 1949 and was succeeded by Dr. Rooseboom. 



276 Institutes, Museums, Libraries 

This museum contains a large number of scientific and medical instruments, 
memorials and manuscripts which illustrate the development of Dutch science from 
the seventeenth century on. A section is devoted to Christian Huygens. Dr. 
Crommelin has published recently a catalogue of the Huygens collection (32 p., 
4 pi., Leiden 1949). Maria Rooseboom: The National Museum of the history of 
science (Archives intern, d'hist. des sci. 29, 129-35, ill., 1950). 

In addition to its publications it has for sale a large number of photographs repre- 
senting objects on exhibition, portraits, autographs, etc. Typewritten list (May 
1949). 

Instituut voor geschiedenis der geneeskunde, wiskuhde en natuurwetenschappen 

(Institute for the history of medicine, mathematics, and natural sciences ) : 
This institute was established in 1913; it is attached to the University of Leiden, 
to the Museum described above and to the Dutch society for the history of science. 
A special committee is in charge of contacts with the University. The library was 
established in 1928, and a collection of medals (Scientia medica et naturalis in 
nummis ) in 1942. The institute is located in the Museum. Its proceedings appear 
in the Bijdragen voor de geschiedenis der geneeskunde. 

D. Burger: Gedenboek by het 35-jarig bestaan van het Genootschap (Amster- 
dam 1949); Institut d'histoire de la medecine, des mathematiques et des sciences 
(Archives 1, 513-16, 1948). 

— The Haglte — 

Het Nederlandse Postmuseum ( Netherlandish Postal Museum ) : 

Postal museum including not only post stamps but a number of objects illus- 
trating every aspect of postal, telegraphic and telephonic communications. Its in- 
ception goes back to 1924, but its development was stopped by the war. The 
director. Dr. R. E. J. Weber, described its purpose and realization in a Dutch 
brochure Karakter en ontwikkeling van het Nederlandse Postmuseum, reprinted from 
Het PTT-bedrijf (Jaargang 1, no. 2, p. 60-68), not dated but Dr. Weber's covering 
letter was dated June 1950. 

NORWAY 

Norway's main contribution was the invention of "open-air museums" which 
have developed considerably in Scandinavia. These collections of old buildings 
(churches, public and private houses) are very important for the study of archi- 
tecture and folkarts; they always include exhibits illustrating the history, if not of 
science, at least of agriculture and technology. 

One of the first "open-air museums" was created at Maihaugen, Lillehammer, by 
Anders Sandvig (1862-1950). It contains over 100 buildings. 

Dr. Jean Anker, Editor of Centaurus, in a letter dated Copenhagen 3 Oct. 1950, has kindly 
added the following correction: — 

"It is not quite right to say that Anders Sandvig was the pioneer of the 'open-air' museum, 
although he was one of the pioneers for the idea in Scandinavia. 

"The idea on which the open-air museum is based, viz., an endeavour to preserve historical 
buildings by moving them to an undisturbed place, can undoubtedly be traced far back. Thus in 
the 16th century the Danish King Frederik II had a log house moved from Halland (a part 
of South Sweden, at that time belonging to Denmark) to Zealand; in 1528 Francois I is said to 
have moved a dwelling-house from Morel near Fontainebleau to Cours-la-Reine near Paris, etc. 
In 1844 Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia moved Vang's old 'stave-kirk' from Telemarken in 
Norway to Briickenberg in Riesengebirge ( Silesia ) , where I have seen it myself. 

"World exhibitions have also contributed to the furtherance of this idea, e.g., when the Crystal 
Palace of the first exhibition in London in 1851, in 1854, after having been moved to Sydenham, 
was reopened with a number of courts containing reproductions in reduced size of the prominent 
buildings of the civilized world. 

"The idea proper of real 'open-air museums' (park museums) originates from Scandinavia, 
however, and Norway seems to have shown the way, while to Sweden belongs the honour of having 
created the first real collections in this form. 

"This much, however, can be stated that already in 1881 Gol's old 'stave-kirk' together with 
another building from Telemarken was moved to Bygdo near Oslo, and at the same place the 
Norwegian Popular Museum (Norske Folkemuseum ) in 1898 acquired a large area for an open- 
air museum, which in 1907 was united with the above-mentioned and other buildings. 

"It was probably the Bygdo Museum you have seen on your visit to Norway, that is if it was 



Institutes, Museums, Libraries 277 

not the Sandvigske collections near Lillehammer, which in 1902 was taken over by 'the Society 
of the Welfare of the Town of LiUehammer.' 

"The oldest and one of the biggest open-air museums is 'Skansen' in Stockholm which was 
founded in 1891 by Arthur Hazelius as a branch of the Nordic Museum (Nordiska Museum). 

"1895 saw the first preparations for an open-air museum in Denmark, and in 1897 the first 
building for the ptupose was erected in Rosenborg Garden in Copenhagen. The place was unsuit- 
able, however, and the museum did not acquire the desired conditions until 1901, when the 
Folkemuseum opened its open-air museum near Lyngby north of Copenhagen, where it is still to 
be found. It has developed into a very large museum with a great number of buildings from 
the whole country as well as from our former Swedish and German provinces. 

"The museum near Lyngby ( Sorgenfri ) is the greatest, but gradually we have developed quite 
a number scattered all over the country. The best known is our Town Museum, 'Den gamle By,' 
in Arhus. A number of open-air museums is now to be found also in Sweden and Norway. 

"As far as I know, no review of the history of individual open-air museums exists (I just 
asked the head of the Lyngby Museum, Dr. Ulldal ) ; we have, however, a number of publica- 
tions about the individual museums. From the Swedish literature the following may be men- 
tioned: L. Svensson: Hembygdens arv (1929); Fran landskapsmuseer och hembygdsgarder (in 
'Fataburen' 1931, sqq. ); G. Berg: Arthur Hazelius (1933); S. Erixon & A, Campbell: 
Svensk bygd och folkkultur, 1-4 (1946-48)." 

POLAND 

After the reconstitution of Poland in 1919, chairs for the history of medicine, each 
of them connected with an institute ad hoc, were estabhshed in the five Pohsh 
Universities : 

Cracovia (Krakow). — Institute directed by Professor W. Szumowski (Isis 31, 
183). 

PosEN. — Institute directed by Professor Adam Wrzosek (Isis 31, 184, 190). 

WiLNO (Vilna). — Institute directed by Professor S. Trzebinski (Isis 7, 243; 8, 
559; 31, 184). 

Varsaw (Warszawa). — Institute directed by Professor Franciszek Giedroyc 
(Isis 11, 564; 12, 437). 

Lwow (Lemberg). — No information. 

H. E. Sigerist: Forschungsinstitute (vol. 1, 402, 1930). 

Polite letters of inquiry addressed on 10 June 1949 to the five Polish universities 
remained unanswered. 

ROMANIA 

— Bucharest — 

National Institute of the History of Medicine: 

The institute of Bucuresti was founded by V. Gomoiu in 1935. Includes library, 
archives, and objects concerning the history of medicine and pharmacy (Isis 40, 182). 

— Cluj — 

1921: Institutul de istoria medicinei si farmaciei si de folklor medical (Institute for 

the history of medicine, pharmacy, and medical folklore ) : 

Founded in 1921 by Dr. Jules Guiart of Lyon; directed by Dr. Valeriu L. 
BoLOGA. Publishes the Biblioteca medico-istorica; studies by members of the insti- 
tute are published also in medical journals, Romanian or French. Descriptions by 
BoLOGA in Archeion (9, 517-20, 1928). 

Cluj, the main city of Transylvania, was called in Latin, Claudiopolis; in German, 
Klausenburg; in Hungarian Kolozsvar. Cluj is the official (Romanian) name since 
1918. 

SOVIET UNION 

— Leningrad — 

Institute for the history of science: 

The All-Union Institute for experimental medicine in Leningrad organized in 
1933 a Bureau of the history of science (President, Prof. K. M. Bykov). The activi- 
ties of that bureau are the same as that of an institute: Library and museum activities, 
organization of research, various types of publications. 

Henry E. Sigerist (Bull, of the Institute of the history of medicine 3, 92-93, 
1935). 



278 Institutes, Museums, Libraries 

The following information which we owe Semyon P. Rudnykh was first published 
in Isis (37, 77), but is so relevant that we reprint it in extenso: 

"The study of the history of science, with a special emphasis on the history 
of science in Russia, is to be concentrated in a special institute of the Academy of 
Sciences of the USSR set up by decision of the Soviet Government in the end of 
1944. The Institute is headed by Academician V. L. Komabov, President of the 
Academy of Sciences, and a Council consisting of Honorary Academician, N. A. 
MoROZov; Academicians S. I. Vavilov, V. P. Volgin, B. D. Grekov, A. M. Deborin, 
N. D. Zelinsky, a. N. Krylov, L. A. Orbeli, V. P. Potemkin and E. V. Tarle; 
Corresponding Members of the Academy L. S. Berg and H. S. Koshtoyantz, and 
Professors G. F. Alexandrov, V. G. Kuznetsov (Assistant Director), T. I. Rainov 
and V. I. SvETLOV. 

"The study of the history of science in general will be combined with the study 
of particular branches of science (physics, astronomy, mathematics, mechanics, 
chemistry, biology, etc.). One of the aims of the Institute is to spread knowledge 
on the history of science among the people, particularly among the youth. The 
Institute will have a museum, library and bibliographical bureau. 

"The Institute for the Study of the History of Science plans to issue the following 
publications : 

" 'Scientific Heritage,' collection of hitherto unpublished or little known docu- 
ments relating to the history of science in Russia and abroad. The first volume, now 
being prepared for the press, contains unpublished documents of general interest, 
including a manuscript by Mendeleyev discovered shortly before the present war 
and some unpublished manuscripts of outstanding West-European scientists; 

" 'Transactions,' a periodical in which will be published articles and essays on 
questions of the history of science; 

" 'Classics of Russian science'; 

" 'History of Russian science,' a collective work in several volumes; 

" 'Coryphaei of Russian science' — series of volumes, each containing the selected 
works of a Russian scientist, a life of the scientist, bibliography, and comments; 

" 'Classics of natural sciences' — individual classical works which are landmarks 
in the history of science, with comments and notes. 

"Monographs dealing with individual questions of the development of science 
in Russia and in the West. 

"Textbooks for colleges and popular publications. 

"The Institute is preparing to produce a work of many volumes on the general 
history of science, to publish critical and bibliographical works, collect exhibits and 
documents and hold conferences on the history of science." 

For publications, see chapter 20, under Trudy. 



SWEDEN 

My information on Swedish Museums was largely obtained thanks to the courtesy 
of Dr. Arne Holmberg, Librarian of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science. The 
courtesies of other colleagues are mentioned in separate notes. 

— Falun, Dalarne ( Dalecarlia ) — 

Bergslagets Museum (Mining Museum) founded c. 1898: 

Owned by Stora kopparbergs Bergslags A. B. (Stora kopparbergs mining district 
Co., inc.), superintendent: Dr. Alvar Silow. 

Mining in that district of Dalecarlia began at least as early as the thirteenth cen- 
tury; the museum contains documents dated 1288, 1347. 

Brief guide in Swedish (24 p., Falun 1947; Isis 39, 124). Reprinted 1949. 

History by Sven Tunberg: Stora kopparbergets historia. I. Forberedande 
Undersokningar (198 p., 39 ill., Uppsala 1922; Isis 39, 124). Introd. (3, 219). 

Information kindly communicated to me by Dr. Andries MacLeod of Vintjarn, 
Dalarne, and Dr. Alvar Silow of Falun. 



Institutes, Museums, Libraries 279 

— Stockholm — 

1921 : Museet for de exakta vetenskapernas historia ( Museum for the history of exact 

sciences ) : 

Founded in 1921 and owned by the Royal Academy of Sciences. It is not yet 
open to the pubhc and is temporarily housed in the Riksmuseum, Stockholm 50. 
Superintendent: Prof. Gustaf Ising. 

Annual reports in the Annual of the Academy (K. Svenska vetenskapsakademiens 
Arsbok) beginning in 1922. Thanks to the great kindness of Dr. Abne Holmberg 
I obtained the collection of those reports from 1922 (for 1921) to 1948 (for 1947); 
each of them is an offprint from tlie Academy's yearbook, varying in length from 
a few pages to some 60. The longest one, for 1927 (Yearbook 1928, p. 259-316) 
contains an account of other museums on the history of science such as those of Lon- 
don, Paris, Prague, Vienna, Munich, Nuremberg, Dresden. 

1897: The Berzelius Museum of the Royal Academy of Sciences: 

Founded in 1897. Located in the Academy's building, Stockholm 50. Superin- 
tendent: Prof. Arne Westgren, 

Kungl. vetenskapsakademiens Berzelius-Museum (21 p., Uppsala 1928). 

This Museum collects books, MSS and memorials of every kind concerning the 
chemist Berzelius (1779-1848). The Academy has published an elaborate biog- 
raphy of Berzelius (3 vols., 1929-31) and his correspondence, and has devoted 
various other books to his memory (summary in Isis 36, 134-35). 

1924: Tekniska museet (Museum of technology): 

Private institution founded in 1924. The present Museum is estabUshed in a 
building of very large size and itself of great technical interest, built in 1934-36. 

From the description I gather that the aim is primarily technical ( to illustrate and 
explain modern technicalities) but there are various exhibits of historical interest, 
for example, those concerning "the father of Swedish technology," Christopher 
PoLHEM ( 1661-1751 ) and his disciples. 

Superintendent: Torsten Althin. 

S. Soderberg: Tekniska museet (Industria 1947); Tekniska museet (undated 
guide, Stockholm). 

Jarnvagsmuseum ( Railway museum ) : 

Opened in 1915. One part of it is at the Central Railway Station in Stockholm 
(temporarily closed since 1946), another part at Tomteboda Station, 3 km. north. 

Includes remains of the first Swedish-built engine, 1853 (the first Swedish rail- 
way for steam engine traction was opened in 1856). There are many other engines, 
passenger cars, the first autobus, signal installations, etc. 

Jarnvagsmuseum (Stockholm 1946). Das Eisenbahnmuseum (Stockholm 1939). 
The Swedish Railway museum (Stockholm 1939). 

Telegraf museet (Telegraph museum). 
Open since 1937. No fiterature. 

Open-air Museums. — See the letter of Jean Anker, printed above under "Norway." 

switzerland 

— Basel — 

Historisches Museum ( Steinenberg, 4 ) : 

There is as yet no section of the history of science in this museum, but I under- 
stand that one may be organized in the near future (Letter from Dr. Wolfgang 
Schneewind, assistant curator, dated 27 Dec. 1948). The Museum owns two Mer- 
cator globes, terrestrial and celestial, dated 1541 and 1551, plus other globes, tele- 
scopes, etc. It also owns three sixteenth century reckoning tables, which are very 
rare objects (Francis Pierrepont Barnard: The casting-counter and the counting 
board, p. 231, Oxford 1916; Isis 5, 553). 



280 Institutes, Museums, Libraries 

Die Schweizerische Sammlung fiir historisches Apothekenwesen an der Universitat 
Basel: 

The nucleus of this museum is the private collection of Dr. Josef Anton Hafli- 
GER, who became in 1926 Privatdozent at the University for the history of pharmacy. 
In 1927 the collection was taken over by the Swiss "Apothekerverein," and greatly 
increased by the acquisition of another private collection gathered by Dr. Th. Engel- 
MANN. Elaborate catalogue by J. A. Halfliger: Pharmazeutische Altertumskunde 
(204 p., 53 ill., Ziirich 1931). The Museum is housed in the Pharmaceutical 
Institute of the University. 

In Hafliger's book (p. 27-40) there is a long list of collections relative to the 
history of pharmacy. Many of these collections are included in large museums of 
a much wider scope; others are to be found in the old pharmacies which have been 
preserved in many European cities. 

My attention was first drawn to the Basel collection by Dr. Emil Walter of 
Ziirich (his letter of 30 Dec. 1947). 

— Zurich — 

Medizingeschichtliche Sammlung der Universitat Ziirich: 

The nucleus of this museum was the private collection of Dr. G. A. Wehrli 
(1888-1949) begun in 1915. It was acquired by the canton of Ziirich in 1932 and 
is housed in one of the University buildings. It concerns the history of medicine in 
all its aspects, not only scientific medicine but also medical folklore and charlatanry. 

Information received from Dr. Emil Walter (his letter of 30 Dec. 1947; Isis 
41, 57). 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

— Baltimore, Maryland — 

1927: Institute for the History of Medicine: 

This institute was created as a part of the Johns Hopkins University at the 
initiative of Dr. William Henry Welch, about 1927-28. The organization of the 
institute was inspired by that of the Leipzig institute which Welch visited in 1927. 
It includes a fairly large library, the Welch Memorial Library, partly collected by 
Welch himself. Dr. Sigerist was director of the institute from 1932 to 1947; Prof. 
Richard H. Shryock succeeded him in 1949. 

The institute pubhshes a Bulletin (q.v.) and various series of books. For its 
history, see Simon Flexner: W. H. Welch (425, 443; New York 1941; Isis 34, 
381). 

— Cambridge, Massachusetts — 

1918-49: Section of the history of science of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 
in Cambridge, Massachusetts: 

The work of this section began with George Sarton's appointment on July 1, 
1918 and ended with his retirement on August 31, 1949. 

This section was the center for the study of the history of science in America. 
The main publication is Sarton's Introduction to the history of science (3 vols, in 
5, 1927-48). 

The Carnegie Institution sponsored the publication of various other books on 
the history of science the list of which appeared in Osiris (9:624-38, 1950). 

Progress of the work done by Sarton year by year may be read in the Year 
Books of the Institution beginning with no. 18 (for 1919) and ending with no. 48 
(for 1948-49). 

Sarton works in the Harvard (Widener) Library, rooms 185-189. His library 
and apparatus have been given to that library; the books bought for him by the 
Carnegie Institution have also been given to Harvard and will thus remain mixed 
with the other books used by him (books bought with his own money or presented 
to him). 

This hbrary includes a card catalogue of all the notes published in Isis; that is, 



Institutes, Museums, Libraries 281 

a bibliography of the history of science all over the world from about 1910. The 
cards fill 72 drawers of the standard size. 

This section was entirely supported by the Carnegie Institution, Harvard provid- 
ing two rooms in Widener Library for its collections. At the time of Sarton's 
retirement from the Carnegie Institution an arrangement was made with Harvard 
University and with the Widener Library making the continuation of Sarton's work 
possible for a few more years. 

1949: Harvard Museum of the History of Science: 

An exhibition of scientific instrvmients used at Harvard in the eighteenth century 
and later, was held in the Edward Mallinckrodt Chemical Laboratory, on Oxford 
Street, from 12 February 1949 on. 

The exhibition has been arranged by David P. Wheatland, I. Bernard Cohen 
and Samuel Eliot Morison. It is probably the nucleus of a permanent museum. 

The period covered is 1764-1837. There are no instruments anterior to 1764, 
for a conflagration occurring in that year destroyed Harvard Hall which included the 
"philosophical chambers" (where the instruments were kept) as well as the college 
library. 

Isis (6, 543). David Pingree Wheatland and I. Bernard Cohen: Some early 
scientific instruments at Harvard University (32 p., ill., Harvard University Press 
1949). I. B. Cohen: Some early tools of American science. An account of the 
early scientific instruments and mineralogical and biological collections in Harvard 
University (222 p., 32 pi., Harvard University Press 1950; Isis 41, 233-34). 

— Chicago, Illinois — 

1933 : Museum of Science and Industry ( 57th Street at Lake Michigan ) : 

Founded by Julius Rosenwald; its exhibits were opened to the public in 1933 
in the reconstructed Fine Arts Building, an immense palace which had originally 
been built in stucco for the Chicago Fair of 1893. Total floor area, 14 acres. The 
Museum was partly inspired by the Deutsches Museum of Munich, e.g., it includes 
like the latter a coal mine wherein visitors can obtain some idea of what a real mine 
is and how it functions. It is a museum of science rather than of the history of 
science, yet many exhibits are ( or will be ) of historical interest. 

The organizer and first director of the Museum was Waldemar Bernhard 
Kaempffert, author of A popular history of American invention (2 vols.. New York 
1924; improved German translation Berlin 1927; Isis 11, 533). Kaempffert de- 
nied the imitation of the Deutsches Museum and claimed that the Chicago museum 
was the development of new ideas. See his paper Revealing the technical ascent 
of man in the Rosenwald Industrial Museum ( Scientific Monthly 28, 481-98, 10 ill., 
1929). 

No pubhcations except a short guide (Exhibit finder, 16 p.) for visitors. 

1930: Adler Planetarium and Astronomical Museum (Chicago Park District): 

The building specially made to accommodate a planetarium made in Jena ( the first 
of its kind in America) and given by Max Adler, was opened to the public on 12 
May 1930. It includes in the rooms around and below the planetarium, a large 
collection of astronomical instruments which was brought together and described by 
Philip Fox (1878-1944). See the Brief guide prepared by him 4th ed., 64 p., ill., 
Chicago, Sept. 1937; Isis 34, 450). 

Of course, collections of astrolabes, ancient telescopes and other instruments, old 
books, may be found in many observatories, such as the Harvard Observatory in 
Cambridge, Mass., or the Library of the Mount Wilson Observatory, Pasadena, Calif., 
or in other planetariums such as the one attached to the American Museum of Natural 
History, in New York (like every great museum of natural history, the American 
Museum contains a good many historical exhibits). 

— Cincinnati, Ohio — 

Lloyd Library and Museum (309 West Court St., Cincinnati 2): 

These collections were begun in 1864 by the two brothers, John Uri Lloyd 
(1849-1936) and Curtis Gates Lloyd. 



282 Institutes, Museums, Libraries 

The publications are most of them scientific ( mycological, pharmaceutical, botani- 
cal, entomological) but they include also a "reproduction series" begun in 1900 (nine 
nos. by 1931, reproducing older works), a number of botanical bibliographies and 
books on the history of pharmacy. 

Caswell A. Mayo: The Lloyd library and its makers (Bull. no. 28 of the Lloyd 
Library, 72 p., ill., 1928), Mrs. Corinne Miller Simons: Lloyd Library and 
Museum. A history of its resources. (Special libraries p. 481-86, Dec. 1943). 

— Cleveland, Ohio — 

Museum of historical and cultural medicine (11,000 Euclid Avenue): 

This museum is owned by the Cleveland Medical Library Association. It was 
initiated by D. P. Allen and developed by H. Dittrick, as described by himself in 
Bull. Hist. Med. (1940, 8, 1214-45). 

— DoYLESTOWN ( near Philadelphia ) , Pennsylvania — 

1916: Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society: 

The Society was organized in 1880 and incorporated in Pennsylvania in 1885. 
The main collections were gathered by one of its charter members, Henry Chapman 
Mercer (1856-1930; Isis 14, 424). He presented the existing building in 1916, 
and additions were made to it in 1933 and 1936. 

The objects exhibited are chiefly tools and utensils of every kind, age and prov- 
enance; added to them are other objects of archaeological interest illustrating the 
life of the people using those tools. 

There are other historical and folkloric societies and museums in Pennsylvania, 
which evoke the hfe and activities of the old "Dutch" (German) settlers: the 
Schwenkfelder Historical Library at Pennsburg, the Pennsylvania State Museum 
at Harrisburg, the Berks County Historical Society at Reading, the Hershey Museum 
at Hershey, the Landis Valley Museum at Lancaster. The last-named one boasts 
a large collection of Lancaster Rifles (the Pennsylvania German rifles). The other 
museums contain many tools and instruments similar to those of the Mercer Museum, 
but less numerous and generally restricted to the local varieties. 

A description of all of those museums was published by the Pennsylvania Ger- 
man Folklore Society (vol. 7, 1942), with many illustrations. 

The Mercer Museum has published many books and papers explaining some parts 
of the collections, e.g., H. C. Mercer: Ancient carpenter tools (1929; Isis 18, 400), 
Light and fire making (1898), Tools of the nation maker (1897); Rudolf P. Hom- 
mel: China at work (1937; Isis 31, 219). 

There are small guides for visitors, e.g., subject 1, Food (4 p., 1921), subject 2, 
Tools (4 p., 1923). 

Henry Chapman Mercer (1856-1930) Memorial services (40 p., ill., Doyles- 
tovra, 1930). 

— Kansas City, Kansas — 

Department of medical history: 

Includes a small collection of medico-historical objects founded by Logan 
Clendening (1884-1945), autlior of popular books on medicine and the history of 
medicine. Bull. Hist. Med. (1940, 8, 742-48). 

— Madison, Wisconsin — 

1941 : American Institute for the History of pharmacy: 

The institute was founded on 22 Jan. 1941, but its organization had been pre- 
pared many years before by the teaching and collecting of Dr. Edward Kremers 
(1865-1941), the building up of the pharmaceutical section of the Library of the 
University of Wisconsin (that section is very rich, not second even to the Lloyd 
Library), the collections of Dr. Richtmann, and other collections preserved within 
the Museum of the Wisconsin Historical Society. 

The organizer and director of the Institute is Dr. George Urdang, who collabo- 



Institutes, Museums, Libraries 283 

rated with Dr. Kremers and continued the latter's teaching in the history of phar- 
macy. 

The museum of the Institute was described by Dr. Urdang in The scope of 
pharmacy. An exhibit (61 p., ill., Madison, 1946). 

— New Haven, Connecticut — 

1940: Historical Library of the Yale University, School of Medicine: 

The Library was created by the bequest of Dr. Harvey Gushing (1869-1939); 
it includes CusmNc's own hbrary and that of Arnold C. Klebs (1870-1943). The 
organizer and first director is Dr. John F. Fulton. The Yale Historical Library 
is not only a collection of books, MSS and other documents and monuments relative 
to the history of medicine, it is also a center of research and publication. 

See the Reports of the Historical Library for 1940-41, 1941-44, 1944-45, 1945-46, 
1947-48, etc. 

See also Fulton's biography of Gushing (Springfield, 111., 1946; Isis 37, 92-93). 

1947: Yale Museum of Science: 

A catalogue of surviving early scientific instruments of Yale GoUege. Placed on 
display in the Sterfing Memorial Library, October 1947 (12 p.). 
Many of the items are now preserved in the Historical Library. 

— Newport News, Virginia — 

1930: The Mariner's Museum: 

Founded by Archer M. Huntington "It is devoted to the culture of the sea 
and its tributaries, its conquest by man, and its influence on civilization." It in- 
cludes many objects concerning the history of navigation, etc. 

There is no general guide but the Museum has published some twenty booklets 
describing separate exhibits, historical ships or places, etc. 

— New York, New York — 

New York Academy of Medicine (2 East 103rd St., New York 29): 

In addition to its rich collection of books, prints, medals, the Academy has for 
a good many years been accumulating old instruments and other objects illustrating 
medical research and practice. There is enough material for a medical museum, but 
the latter is not organized and ready for pubhc exhibition (Letter from Miss Janet 
Doe, hbrarian, dated Feb. 8, 1949). 

Museum of the Peaceful Arts in the City of New York: 

This Museum is quoted here only pro memoria. The idea was originated by 
George Frederick Kunz (1856-1932): The projected Museum of the peaceful arts 
(paper read before the American Museum Association's meeting. New York 1912, 12 
p.). Great efforts were made to obtain sufficient capital but failed. It was more 
or less replaced by the New York Museum of Science and Industry. 

G. Sarton has in his archives a considerable correspondence on the subject. 

New York Museum of Science and Industry (RCA Building, Rockefeller Center): 
This Museum is more concerned with the exhibition of modern discoveries and 

inventions than with their history. 

It was founded by a bequest of Henry R. Towne in 1924 and opened to the 

pubhc in 1927. 

— Philadelphia, Pa. — 

The Henry Charles Lea Library and Reading Room (University of Pennsylvania, 

34th and Locust St. ) : 

This is the library collected and used by Henry Charles Lea (1825-1909), 
historian of the Inquisition and witchcraft, and given to the University by his chil- 
dren. 

It is a rich collection of books and MSS deafing with the subjects to which Lea 
devoted a good part of his fife. 

Edward Sculley Bradley: H. G. Lea (Philadelphia 1931), including bibhog- 



284 Institutes, Museums, Libraries 

raphy of Lea's writings. H. C. Lea: Materials toward a history of witchcraft, edited 
by Arthur C. Rowland, introduction by George Lincoln Burr (3 vols., 1592 p., 
Philadelphia 1939; Isis 34, 235-36); Minor historical writings edited by the same 
(420 p., Philadelphia 1942; Isis 34, 235-36). 

There is a Lea Professorship of History in the University of Pennsylvania. The 
present incumbent, John L. La Monte, is more interested in the Crusades than in 
the Inquisition, yet he kindly wrote to me (9 Feb. 1949) that the Library is always 
open to special students and visiting scholars. Dr. Howland, emeritus professor 
and curator of the Lea Library, is cataloguing and analyzing the Lea MSS and other 
items, and the library is kept up-to-date. La Monte died in 1949 (Isis 41, 202). 

1931: Edgar Fahs Smith Memorial Collection (University of Pennsylvania): 

Collection of books, MSS and prints relative to the history of chemistry, made by 

Edgar F. Smith (1854-1928), professor of chemistry and sometime provost of the 

university. It was reorganized in 1931 as an institute for research in the history of 

chemistry, and publishes Chymia (vol. 1, 1948). 
Curator and secretary, Eva V. Armstrong. 

1933: The Franklin Institute: 

The Institute dates from 1824; the idea of building a Museum of science origi- 
nated in 1928 and the Museum was opened in 1933. The Museum includes the Fels 
Planetarium and many exhibits illustrating the wonders of modern science and tech- 
nology. Many of the exhibits are of historical interest, the chief of them being 
Franklin's printing shop and other Frankhniana, early machines, tools, and instru- 
ments of every kind. 

Sydney L. Wright: The story of the Frankhn Institute (105 p., ill., 1938). 
Brief guide to the Museum (62 p., ill., no date). 

See also Doylestown, Pa. 

— Waltham, Massachusetts — 

Chronica Botanica Library and Archives ( 977 Main Street and 79 Sartell Road ) : 

One of the largest biological historical libraries in private hands and an institute 
for the history of biology in statu nascendi. Special sections include: (I) History 
of botanical gardens, (2) Botanical exploration, (3) Method and philosophy of the 
natural sciences, {4) Emblem books of a biological interest, (5) Chinese and Japa- 
nese classics, (6) Natural history poetry, (7) Early horticulture. 

Chronica Botanica Archives (at Sartell Road): (J) Autographs, (2) Portraits, 
(3) Various memorabiha, (4) Older nursery catalogues, (5) Prints of gardens, and 
( 6 ) Early plant geographical maps. 

Card indices: ( 1 ) References to published ( as well as unpublished ) biographical 
data about plant scientists of the past (ca. 3 million cards), (2) Literature of the 
history of biology, (3) Bibliography of collective biographical literature, (4) Data 
on the history of botanical gardens, ( 5 ) Literature of historical plant geography, ( 6 ) 
Literature of biological methodology, museum, and garden technique, ( 7 ) Literature 
of hepaticology. 

See Arch. Int. Hist. Sci. 29: 785-787, 1950. 

— Washington, D. C. — 

Army Medical Library and Army Medical Museum (also called Surgeon General's 

Library and Museum ) : 

The Library and Museum are two separate institutions, once located in the same 
building (7th St. and Independence Ave., Washington 25) and operated as depart- 
ments of the U. S. Army Medical Services under the authority of the Surgeon General. 

The hbrary is perhaps the richest medical library in the world, and it is known 
everywhere because of its Index Catalogue which is one of the fundamental tools 
of the medical historian. Edgar Erskine Hume: The Army medical library (Isis 
26, 423-47, 2 portr., 1937). See also Claudius F. Mayer ('isis 40, 119). 

The museum is rather a museum of medicine than of the history of medicine, yet 
it includes a number of exhibits illustrating the development of medicine and of 



Institutes, Museums, Libraries 285 

medical instruments (stethoscopes, microscopes, hearing aids, syringes, surgical and 
dental instruments, military medical kits, etc.). There is also a fine collection of 
coins, stamps, medals and plaquettes of medical interest. The collections are well 
catalogued and classified, but there is no general description of them. 

The Army Medical Museum is now a subdivision of the Armed Forces Institute 
of Pathology which unites under one general head: a) Institute of pathology (at old 
address); b) Army Medical Museum (old address but in another building, on other 
side of the street); c) Registry of Pathology (at old address), and d) Medical Illus- 
tration Service (in building of the museum). Both museum and library originated 
after the Civil War and were developed by John Shaw Billings (1838-1913), 
about whom see the article in Isis 26 referred to above. 

Smithsonian Institution — United States National Museum: 

Collections concerning the history of science and technology are found in at least 
three departments. Ethnology or Anthropology, Engineering and Industries, and the 
recently created National Air Museum. Reports concerning the activities of these 
departments appear every year in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution. 

The activities of the first-named of these departments are well illustrated by its 
publications. Otis T. Mason (Curator of Ethnology): The origins of invention 
(419 p., ill., London 1895). Walter Hough (Curator of Anthropology): Synoptic 
series of objects in the U. S. National Museum illustrating the history of inventions 
(Proc. USNM, 60, art. 9, 47 p., 56 pi., 1922), Fire as an agent in human culture 
(USNM, Bull. 139, 284 p., 41 pi., 1926); Collection of heating and lighting utensils 
(USNM, Bull. 141, 118 p., 99 pi., 1928); Fire-making apparatus (Proc. USNM, vol. 
73, art. 14, 72 p., 11 pi., 1928), etc. 

The Museum of engineering and industries is one of the four divisions of the 
Department of Engineering and Industries. It has a very large collection of objects 
and instruments illustrating technical inventions, chiefly those made within the nation 
after the Revolution. Some of the early items are models such as were necessary 
at the beginning of last century in support of an application for a U. S. patent. Par- 
ticular items or groups of items have been described by the former curator, Carl W. 
MiTMAN, or by his assistants, in engineering or industrial journals, but there is no 
general catalogue. 

Though the Department collections include some of the earliest accessions of the 
Smithsonian Institution (founded in 1846), its history begins about 1880; its organi- 
zation was conceived by G. Brown Goode, who was much interested in the history 
of American science. The present curator is Frank A. Taylor. See his articles 
The background of the Smithsonian Institution's Museum of engineering and industry 
(Science 104, 130-32, 1946); A National Museum of science, engineering and indus- 
try (Scientific Monthly 63, 359-65, 1946), plans for a larger Museum to be built in 
Washington. 

The National Air Museum: 

The objects illustrating ballooning and aviation were detached in 1946 from 
the Department of Engineering and Industry, in order to constitute the kernel of a 
new museum (Public Law 722, 22 August 1946). 

The present curator is Carl Weaver Mitman "Assistant to the Secretary [of tlie 
Smithsonian Institution] for the National Air Museum." 

Carnegie Institution. See Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

COMPANY MUSEUMS 

A good'many industrial firms have established museums relative to their own past 
achievements or to the achievements of the branch of industry which they represent. 
That custom originated in Germany where intense industrial activities were com- 
bined with a deep sense of tradition and a genuine historical spirit. It was strength- 
ened by the zeal of Franz Maria Feldhaus,"*^ who organized investigations in the 

1°^ His methods are explained and illustrated in his journal Geschichtsblatter fiir Technik, 
Industrie und Gewerbe (vol. 11, 1-10, 1927). 



286 Institutes, Museums, Libraries 

history of technology on a commercial basis and produced a number of studies to 
celebrate the jubilee of various German companies. Many of these studies have been 
listed in Isis {e.g., 4, 216-17; 26, 572; 28, 585). 

According to Laurence Vail Coleman:"" Company museums (1943), there 
were at the time of his writing 80 company museums in the United States and Can- 
ada, some of them, it is true, very small and not open to the public, others on the 
contrary quite considerable. Each of those museums is important, for it helps to pre- 
serve more accurately some technological and industrial traditions. Coleman's book 
contains a brief description of each and all of them. It will suflBce here to enumerate 
a few in alphabetical order of subjects: 

Abrasives. — Norton Co., Norton Hall Museum (Worcester, Mass.). 

Agricultural T77achinerij. — J. I. Case Co. Farm machinery collection (Racine, 
Wise). 

Aluminum. — Aluminum Co. of America. Aluminum Museum ( 230 Park Ave., 
New York). 

Arithmetical machines. — Felt & Tarrant Mfg. Co. ( 1735 N. Paulina St., Chicago, 
111.). 

Asbestos. — Asbestos Ltd. (8 W. 40 St., New York). 

Automobiles. — Ford Motor Co. Ford Rotunda (Dearborn, Mich.). 

Studebaker Museum (South Bend, Ind. ). 

General Motors Corporation. Parade of progress (traveling exhibits, headquar- 
ters, 1775 Broadway, New York). 

Chemistry. — Rumford Chemical Works. Rumford Museum (Rumford, R. I.). 

Fisher Scientific Co., Fisher Collection of alchemical and historical pictures (711 
Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa.). 

Electricity. — The Old Edison Laboratory (West Orange, N. Y. ), estabhshed 
soon after the death of Thomas Alva Edison in 1931. This is the most important 
museum of its kind in America. 

General Electric Co. Research Laboratory Exhibits (Schenectady, N. Y. ). 

Explosives. — E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. Du Pont Museum (Wilmington, 
Del.). 

Firearms. — Colt's Patent Fire Arms Manufacturing Co. Colt Museum ( Hart- 
ford, Conn.). 

Charles T. Haven and Frank A. Belden: History of the Colt revolver and 
other arms (711 p., ill., 1940). 

Fire engines. — The Home Insurance Co., The H. V. Smith Museum (59 Maiden 
Lane, New York, N. Y. ). Insurance Co. of North America (1600 Arch St., Phila- 
delphia). 

Forestry. — See Logging equipment. 

Fur trade. — Hudson's Bay Co. (Winnipeg, Manitoba). 

Gla3s. — United States Glass Co. (Tiffin, Ohio). Libbey Glass Co. (Foot of Ash 
St., Toledo, Ohio). 

Gyroscopes. — Sperry Gyroscope Co. ( Manhattan Bridge Plaza, Brooklyn, N. Y. ) . 

Logging equipment. — Wisconsin Land & Lumber Co. Paul Bunyan Museum 
(Blaney Park, Blaney, Mich.). 

Meteorological instruments. — Taylor Instrvmient Co. (Rochester, N. Y. ). The 
News Syndicate Co. The News Lobby Exhibit (220 E. 42nd St., New York). 

Mining. — See Rock drilling. 

Paper. — Crane & Co., Crane Museum (Dalton, Mass.). Hammermill Paper Co. 
(Erie, Pa.). 

Pharmacy. — Burroughs Wellcome & Co., Wellcome exhibition galleries (11 E. 41 
St. New York). These galleries were discontinued about 1946. 

Two catalogues of special exhibitions were pubhshed. The romance of ex- 
ploration and emergency first-aid from Stanley to Byrd ( 160 p., ill, Chicago, Cen- 

noWe owe to Coleman a whole series of important reference books on American museums: 
Manual for small Museums (New York, Putnam 1927). Directory of Museums in South America 
(1929). Historic House Museums (1933). The Museums in America (3 vols. 1939). College 
and University Museums (1942). Company Museums (1943). All these books, except the first, 
published by the American Association of Museums, Washington, D. C. 



Institutes, Museums, Libraries 287 

tury of Progress Exhibition 1934). The Reichert Collection illustrative of the 
evolution and development of diagnostic instruments (70 p., 1942). 

The Squibb ancient pharmacy (Squibb Building, corner of 58th St. & Fifth Ave., 
New York City, 28th floor). 

Collection made in Europe for E. R. Squibb and Sons, manufacturing chemists, 
and brought to America in 1932. George Ordang and F. W. Nitardy: The Squibb 
ancient pharmacy (190 p., ill.. New York, Squibb, 1940; Isis 32, 493). There are 
many such collections in Europe, but this is the largest available in America. For 
a list of other collections, too many to be enumerated here, see Josef Anton 
Hafliger: Pharmazeutische Altertumskunde (p. 27-39, Ziirich 1931). 

Photography. — Eastman Kodak Co. (Kodak Park, Rochester, N. Y. ). 

Printing and Publication. — The New York Times, The John H. Finley Museum 
of the Recorded Word (229 W. 43rd St., New York). Chilhcothe Newspapers 
(Chilhcothe, Ohio). See also typesetting. 

Railroads. — The Baltimore & Ohio Co. ( Bailey's Roundhouse, Baltimore, Md. ) . 

Union Pacific System (Headquarters Bldg., Omaha, Neb.). 

Norfolk & Western Railway (Roanoke, Va. ). 

Rock drilling. — IngersoU-Rand Co. Rock Drill Museum ( Phillipsburg, N. J.). 

Scales. — Toledo Scale Museum (Telegraph Rd., Toledo, Ohio). 

Shoes. — United Shoe Machinery Corporation Shoe Museum ( 140 Federal St., 
Boston, Mass.). 

George E. Keith Co., Old Red Shop (Campello, Brockton, Mass.). 

Steel. — Worcester Pressed Steel Co., John Woodman Higgins Steel Museum 
(Worcester, Mass.). 

The Museum is located on 100 Barber Avenue in Worcester. It was briefly de- 
scribed by John W. Higgins: The industrial museum (Industrial Education Mag., 
March 1935). 

Bethlehem Steel Exhibit ( Bethlehem, Pa. ) . See also Wires. 

Surgical instruments. — V. Mueller & Co. (408 S. Honore St., Chicago). 

Telegraph. — Western Union Telegraph Co. Engineering Museum ( 60 Hud- 
son St., New York). 

Telephone. — Bell System Historical Museum (463 West St., New York). 
Museum established in 1913, controlled by the American Telephone and Telegraph 
Company, illustrating the history of electrical communications. 

William Chauncey Langdon: The American Telephone Historical Collection 
(Bell Telephone Quarterly, Jan. 1924, 12 p.); The growth of the historical collec- 
tion (ib., April 1925, 14 p.). W. C. Farnell: The Bell System historical museum 
(50 p., ill., Bell Telephone Laboratories, Dec. 1936), this is a guide to the main 
exhibits. 

The Bell Telephone Co. of Canada. Telephone Museum ( 1050 Beaver Hall Hill, 
Montreal, P. Q.). 

Textiles. — Crompton & Knowles Loom Works (Worcester, Mass.). 

Typesetting. — Mergenthaler Linotype Co. ( Park Ave. & Ryerson St., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y.). 

Typewriters. — Underwood Elliott Fisher Co. (Hartford, Conn.). 

Watches. — Elgin National Watch Co. (Elgin, III). Waltham Watch Co., 
FrankHn Dennison Collection (Waltham, Mass.). 

Wires. — American Steel and Wire Co. (Worcester, Mass.). 

SMALL REGIONAL OR LOCAL MUSEUMS 

To these "company museums" should be added a few of the "local" museums, 
of which there are now many thousands in the United States. The purpose of 
these museums is to exhibit objects illustrating the history and archaeology of a 
definite locality and of the region surrounding it. When that region was the cradle 
of a definite industry, the local history of that industry will in all probability be rep- 
resented. For example, I remember seeing industrial exhibits in the Museum of 
Rochester, N. Y., and of course many of them in the two regional historical 
museums of New York City, the Museum of the City of New York (Fifth Ave. at 



288 Institutes, Museums, Libraries 

104th St.) and the Museum of the New York Historical Society (Central Park W., 
between 76 and 77th Sts.). Some of the Massachusetts Museums illustrate maritime 
industries and fishing. For example, the Peabody Museimi in Salem, and the two 
whaling museums of New Bedford and of Nantucket (see Isis 16, 115-23, 1931). 
We may refer again to the Mariners' Museum in Newport News, Virginia to which 
a separate note is devoted above. 

HISTORICAL HOUSES OF INTEREST 
TO THE HISTORIAN OF SCIENCE 

The only houses hsted below are those open to the public and including collec- 
tions or at least a few memorabilia. All of them, except Bartram, are hsted 
among a great many others (some 400) which do not concern the historian of 
science in L. V. Coleman: Historic House Museums (Washington, D. C. 1933); 
the account of each house in Coleman's book is far too meager. 

The houses are listed in the alphabetic order of their localities. 

Fredericksburg, Virginia: 

Mercer Apothecary shop (c. 1750). 

Greenfield Village, Michigan: 

The Menlo Park group of houses, moved from Menlo Park, New Jersey. Edi- 
son's Laboratory, Edison's Office Library, carbon shed, carpenter shop, glass house, 
machine shop. 

Edison's Fort Myers Laboratory (moved from Fort Myers, Florida). For other 
Edison memorabilia see West Orange. 

Sandwich Glass Plant. 

Village blacksmith shop, etc. 

Ford's shop (moved from Detroit). 

Steintvietz cottage ( moved from Schenectady, N. Y. ) . 

The whole of Greenfield Village, which includes many American houses and 
two English ones, was developed by Henry Ford. It is a very large open-air 
museum, hke the Scandinavian museums briefly described by Dr. Jean Anker, 
above, in the section devoted to Norway. 

Hastings-on-Hudson, New York: 

Observatory Cottage of Henry Draper (1837-82). 

Mitchell, Indiana: 

Apothecary shop of c. 1830. 

Nantucket, Massachusetts: 

Birthplace of Maria Mitchell (1818-89), astronomer. 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 

House of the botanist, John Bartram (1699-1777), in Bartram's garden on 
the W. bank of the Schuylkill. 

West Orange, New Jersey: 

The old Edison laboratory, organized some time after the death of Thomas 
Alva Edison (1847-1931). 

Wohurn, Massachusetts: 

Birthplace of Benjamin Thompson, count Rumford (1753-1814). 

OTHER TECHNICAL MUSEUMS 

F. M. Feldhaus published in Archeion (11, 348-357, 1927) a short list of 46 
technical museums, many of which do not exist any more, and are represented only 
by old catalogues or references in literature. For example, the museum of the 
Jesuit father Athanasius KmcHER is known through the catalogue of Father Filippo 
Buonanni, Musaeum Kircherianum (Rome 1709), the collection of Nicolas 



Institutes, Museums, Libraries 



289 



Grollier de Servieres made at Lyon c. 1675 was described by his grandson, 
Gaspard Grollier de Servieres: Recueil d'ouvrages curieux de mathematique et de 
xnecanique (quarto 111 p., pi. fig., Lyon 1719; 2nd ed., Lyon 1733; 3d ed. Paris 
1751). The objects included in the old collections have often been dispersed, and 
some of them (sometimes a great many of them) reappear sooner or later in the 
other larger museums. For example, a vi^ire dravi^ing bench of the Dresden land- 
gravian collection is now in the Musee de Cluny, Paris; a terrestrial sphere of 1725 
previously kept in the Gottorp castle of the duke Friedrich III of Schleswig is now 
in Leningrad; some of the objects originally collected by the archduke Ferdinand 
of Tirol c. 1581 and kept in Ambras Castle (near Innsbruck) were moved to the 
Kunsthistorische Sammlungen, Burgring, Vienna; etc. 

Each large museum is a collection of collections. It might be worthwhile even- 
tually to compile a list of all the historical collections which have thus lost their 
identity in larger assemblages. This was done for collections of natural history by 
Charles Da vies Sherhorn: Where is the . . . Collection (148 p., Cambridge 
1940; Isis 36, 77-78, 229). 




25. INTERNATIONAL CONGRESSES 

International congresses of the history of science have been organized from time 
to time by the International Academy; a list of them and of their publications is 
given on p. 255. Let us repeat briefly that there have been thus far six such 
congresses, to wit: 

I. Paris 1929 V. Lausanne 1947 

II. London 1931 VI. Amsterdam 1950 

III. Portugal 1934 (VII. Jerusalem, Israel 1953) 

IV. Prague 1937 

Other international congresses of the history of science have been organized as 
sections of international congresses devoted to philosophy, to history, or to particular 
sciences. In spite of being "sections" of other congresses instead of being inde- 
pendent, some of these congresses have been very important. That is especially 
true of the tliree congresses organized in Paris 1900 and Geneva 1904 as parts of 
the first and second congresses of philosophy, and in Rome 1903, as a part of the 
second congress of history. These particular congresses were so important (and 
they all met before the first congress of the Academy) that they might be called 
the first three international congresses of the history of science. Let us give some 
information about them. 

I. Paris 1900: Congres international de philosophie. 

The proceedings were published in four thick volumes. Vol. 1. Philosophie 
generale et metaphysique (1900). Vol. 2. Morale generale. La philosophie de la 
paix. Les societes d'enseignement populaire (1903). Vol. 3. Logique et histoire 
des sciences (688 p., 1901). Vol. 4. Histoire de la philosophie (1902). 

In vol. 3, the papers devoted to the logic of the sciences are far more numerous 
than those on the history of the sciences. Yet, the latter were delivered by such 
men as Moritz Cantor, Gaston Milhaud, Siegmund Gunther and Henri 
BouAssE. P. Tannery took part in these deliberations but his own paper (on 
Aristotelian science ) was included among those relative to the history of philosophy. 

II. Rome 1903: II. Congresso intemazionale di scienze storiche. 

The proceedings, Atti, fill 12 volumes (Roma 1904-07). Vol. X. History of 
geography and geography of history. Vol. XI. History of philosophy and history of 
religions. Vol. XII. History of physical, mathematical, natural and medical sciences 
(354 p., Roma 1904). The nine meetings of that section were presided over by 
PiETRO Blaserna, Paxjl Tannery, Karl Sxtohoff, Raphael Blanchard, Siegmund 
GiJNTHER, Emil Lampe, K. Benedikt. 

III. Geneve 1904: He Congres international de philosophie. 

Rapports et comptes rendus pubhes par Ed. Claparede (Geneve 1905). The 
congress was divided into the following sections. 1 ) History of philosophy, 2 ) 
General philosophy and psychology, 3 ) Applied philosophy, 4 ) Logic and philosophy 
of sciences (p. 675-772). 5) History of sciences (p. 773-964). Paijl Tannery 
was the leader of section 5 and papers were read by H. Berr, P. Duhem, V. Mortet, 
K. SuDHOFF, H. G. Zeuthen, etc. The proceedings of that fifth section bear the 
title "Histoire des sciences" ( lllme Congres international d'histoire des sciences ) . 

If that designation of the Geneve congress of 1904 as "third international con- 
gress" were internationally accepted, then the ordinal number of each congress listed 
above would have to be increased by three units (the Amsterdam congress of 1950 
would then be not the sixth but the ninth). 

On account of the two world wars which broke the family of nations in two or 
rnbre groups, similar difficulties occur in the enumeration of many other congresses, 



International Congresses 291 

e.g., the mathematical congresses. As historians are primarily interested in the 
existence of congresses and their sequence, and only secondarily in their official enu- 
meration, an effort has been made to give a list of the congresses without bothering 
about the different methods of enumerating them. 

As most international congresses of science and learning devote some attention 
to the history of their own disciphne, we publish here a fist of the most important. 
Even when an international congress, say, of chemistry, did not include a special 
historical section, its publications are still valuable for the historian of chemistry, 
for they reveal the intellectual climate obtaining at the time of its meeting. Presi- 
dential and other general addresses are often reminiscent, retrospective, and in vari- 
ous degrees historical and philosophical. An examination of the archives of a series 
of international congresses of a definite science or disciphne, enables one to under- 
stand better the evolution of that science or discipline, its development into more 
and more branches, or on the contrary its unification under a new synthetic point 
of view. Of course, the international congresses enable one to measure the progress 
of international cooperation and integration. It is of great interest also for historians 
to know which were at this or that date the central or leading problems. The pro- 
ceedings of the international congresses help to answer such questions. 

The periodic meeting of international congresses of any kind implies the existence 
of a central office preserving the continuity of the meetings within a definite ( though 
changeable ) frame, implementing the decisions and wishes of each congress and pre- 
paring carefully the defiberations of the next one. Sometimes, international con- 
gresses have been organized "hors serie," "^ outside of the frame already provided 
for them; such irregularities, which may be due to national, regional or linguistic 
vindications or to jealousies between various groups or schools, should be deprecated. 
If the creation of a new discipline requires the organization of a congress ad hoc, 
one should give the new congress a name sufficiently different from other names 
already in use in order to prevent ambiguities or confusions. 

Some of the congresses had too broad a scope to be truly useful, that was the 
case for the Congress of arts and sciences of St. Louis (1904) and for congresses 
organized to celebrate the centenary of universities. "Qui trop embrasse mal 
etreint." On the other hand, many congresses have too narrow a scope to be of 
interest to others than the specialists taking part in them. However important they 
may be within their own sector, the historian of science and the philosopher cannot 
be expected to study their publications. Moreover, such very special congresses"^ 
are far too numerous to be enumerated here. 

Irrespective of their scope or even of their subject some international congresses 
have been far more successful than others, while other congresses have failed to 
establish themselves. The miscarriages were generally due to bad organization, or 
to jealousies or at least lack of cooperation between the leaders. Success was 
generally due to the personal qualities of skilful organizers, as well as to the relative 
popularity of certain disciplines. 

It is noteworthy tliat the longest traditions (in number of meetings) were built 
by the Americanists (29 congresses, 1875-1949), the Botanists (28 congresses 
1864-1954), the Orientalists (21 congresses 1873-1948). Then follow the Chem- 
ists (20 congresses, 1860-93, 1894-1938), the Prehistorians (18 congresses, 1866- 
1939), the Geologists (18 congresses, 1878-1948), the Physicians (17 congresses, 
1867-1913), the Physiologists (18 congresses, 1889-1950), the Architects (16 con- 
gresses, 1867-1949), the Geographers (16 congresses 1871-1949), the Historians of 
art (15 congresses 1873-1939), the Ophthalmologists (16 congresses, 1857-1950), 
the Veterinarians (14 congresses, 1863-1949), the Historians of medicine (13 con- 
gresses, 1920-50), the Surgeons (13 congresses, 1905-49), the Psychologists (12 
congresses, 1889-1940), the Zoologists (12 congresses, 1889-1935), the Pharma- 
cists (12 congresses 1865-1935), tlie Mathematicians (11 congresses, 1897-1950). 

"^ For example, see congresses of the history of religion and congresses of philosophy, below. 

1^2 E.g., many medical congresses dealing with special problems or diseases, such as gout, 
blood transfusion, cancer, brucellosis, etc. Of cotirse, the historian of each of those problems 
or diseases will have to consult the publications of those special congresses, but he will be led 
to that natiu-ally without need of our help. 



292 International Congresses 

The following congresses began in the nineteenth century (but some of them 
did not continue until now): 

1853 Statistics 1875 Americanism 

1857 Ophthalmology 1878 Geology 

1860 Chemistry 1884 Ornithology 

1863 Veterinary Art 1889 Folklore 

1864 Botany 1889 Photography 

1865 Pharmacy 1889 Physiology 

1866 Prehistory 1889 Psychology 

1867 Architecture 1889 Zoology 
1867 Medicine 1897 Mathematics 
1871 Geography 1900 History 
1873 Orientalism 1900 Philosophy "» 

1873 History of Art 1900 History of Religions "* 

The titles of congresses are generally given in many languages, but even in any 
one language they vary from time to time;"^ in the list below we do not try to give 
exact titles but simply indicate the general subject ( chemistry, medicine, etc. ) , and 
the congresses are listed for the reader's convenience in alphabetical order of those 
subjects. The names of cities are generally given in English; to give them in the 
language of each country would have caused difficulties (even typographical ones, 
in the case of Copenhagen). 

No attempt has been made to mention the official publications of each congress, 
for that would extend our hst considerably. When the reader knows that a con- 
gress of physiology took place say, in Cambridge 1898, he may take for granted 
that the proceedings were actually pubfished within a few years, and he will trace 
them without too much trouble in the catalogue of any large library. He may 
find bibliographical references also in International congresses and conferences 
1840-1937. Union list, edited by Winifred Gregory (folio 229 p., New York, 
Wilson 1938), or more briefly in the hst compiled for the Army Medical Library by 
Claudius F. Mayer: Congresses. Tentative chronological and bibliographical 
reference hst of national and international meetings of physicians, scientists and 
experts (288 p., Index-Catalogue, 2nd Suppt., 4th series, Washington 1938; First 
addition, p. 29-51, Index-Catalogue, vol. 3, 4th series). 

The following list is restricted to only a few international congresses, those 
which are the most interesting for historians of science. 

The publications of those congresses contain a large number of papers concern- 
ing our studies, which are somewhat forgotten (as are the papers published in 
Festschriften ) ; at any rate, they cannot be as well known as the papers published 
in jovunals devoted to the history of science. It would be worthwhile to compile 
a bibliography of them and thus rescue them from oblivion and integrate them in 
the general bibhography of the history of science. 

As the congresses are listed below for the student's convenience in alphabetical 
order, a methodical classification of them will be useful (the capitalized word deter- 
mines the alphabetical order ) : 

I. Mathematics 

II. Physical sciences: Astronomy, applied Mechanics, Crystallography, Chemistry, Biochem- 
istry. Geodesy and geophysics, Geography, Geology. Photography. Architecture. Weights and 
measures. Chronometry. 

III. Natural sciences: Botany, Zoology, Entomology, Ornithology. 

IV. Medical sciences: Anatomy, Physiology, Medicine, Siu-gery, Ophthalmology, Pharmacy, 
Veterinary medicine. 

V. Anthropology and archaeology: Anthropology and ethnology, prehistoric Anthropology 
and archaeology. Archaeology and history. Prehistory and protohistory. Americanism. Folklore. 



^^8 Including the first congress of the history of science. 

11* The inception of so many congresses in 1889 and 1900 was caused by the International 
Fairs held in Paris in those years. The three congresses of 1900 took place in Paris, as well 
as four of 1889 (the congress of physiology, however, began in that year not in Paris but in 
Basel). 

1^5 E.g., some congresses of the history of medicine were called in French Congres de I'histoire 
de Part de guerir! The effort to preserve those subtleties in our list would distract the reader 
instead of helping him. 



International Congresses 



293 



VI. History: History, History of art, History of medicine. History of religion. History of 
science. Orientalism. Byzantine history. Classical studies. Papyrology. Toponymy and an- 
throponymy. 

VII. Sociology: Statistics, Sociology. 
Vin. Philosophy: Philosophy, Psychology, unity of Science. Philosophy of sciences. 



International Congresses of Americanists: 



Nancy 1875 
Luxemburg 1877 

III. Bruxelles 1879 

IV. Madrid 1881 

V. Copenhagen 1883 
VI. Torino 1886 
Berlin 1888 
Paris 1890 
Huelva 1892 
Stockholm 1894 
Mexico 1895 
XII. Paris 1900 
XIII. New York 1902 
Stuttgart 1904 
Quebec 1906 



I. 
II. 



VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 



XIV. 
XV. 



XVI. 


Vienna 1908 


XVII. 


Buenos Aires 1910 


XVIII. 


London 1912 


XIX. 


Washington 1915 


XX. 


Rio de Janeiro 1922 


XXI. 


Goteborg 1924 


XXII. 


Roma 1926 


XXIII. 


New York 1928 


XXIV. 


Hamburg 1930 


XXV. 


La Plata 1932 


XXVI. 


Seville 1935 


XXVII. 


Mexico and Lima 1939 


XXVIII. 


Chile 1942? 


XXIX. 


New York 1949 



International Congresses of Anatomists: 

I. Geneve 1905 
II. Bruxelles 1910 
III. Amsterdam 1930 



IV. MiLANO 1936 
V. Oxford 1950 
VI. Alger 1935 



International Congresses of Anthropology and Ethnology: 

Unnumbered congresses in Paris 1878, Vienna 1889, Chicago 1893, Cologne 
1907, Basel 1933. 



I. London 1934 



II. Copenhagen 1938 



International Congresses of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archaeology: 



I. Neuchatel 1866 
II. Paris 1867 

III. Norwich & London 1868 

IV. Copenhagen 1869 
V. Bologna 1871 

VI. Bruxelles 1872 
VII. Stockholm 1874 
VIII. Budapest 1876 
IX. Lisbon 1880 



X. Paris 1889 
XI. Moscow 1892 
XII. Paris 1900 

XIII. Monaco 1906 

XIV. Geneve 1912 

XV. CoiMBRA, Lisbon 1930 
XVI. Bruxelles 1935 
XVII. Bucharest 1937 
XVIII. Istanbul 1939 



See below. Congresses of Prehistory and Protohistory 
International Congresses of Archaeology and History: 



I. Bonn 1868 
II. Rome 1912 



III. Alger 1930 



For art, see history of art, below. 
International Congresses of Architects: 



I. Paris 1867 

II. Paris 1878 

III. Paris 1889 

IV. Bruxelles 1897 
V. Paris 1900 

VI. Madrid 1904 

VII. London 1906 

VIII. Vienna 1908 



IX. Rome 1911 
X. Bruxelles 1922 
XI. Netherlands 1927 
XII. Budapest 1930 

XIII. Rome 1935 

XIV. Paris 1937 
XV ."9 Paris 1942 

XVI. Cairo 1949 



International Astronomical Union: 

This union does not organize international congresses but is very active in organ- 
izing international collaboration in various undertakings (including the history and 
bibliography of astronomy ) . There are international conferences from time to time, 
but no congresses as is the case for other branches of science. 



"•The 15th Congress was announced to take place in Washington 1939 but did not materialize. 



294 



International Congresses 



An international congress of astronomical societies took place in Paris, in 1914. 

Comite international permanent pour I'execution de la carte photographique du 
ciel (1889-1909). Conference internationale des etoiles fondamentales 1896. 
Congres astrophotographique international 1887. Congres international des ephe- 
merides astronomiques 1911. Congres international des societes astronomiques 
1914. 



International Astronomical Conferences: 

I. Rome 1922 
II. Cambridge 1925 

III. Leyden 1928 

IV. Cambridge, Mass. 1932 

International Congresses of Biochemistry: 

I. Cambridge 1949 

International Biometric Conferences: 

I. Woods Hole, Massachusetts 1947 ( 1 ) 

II. Geneva 1949 



V. Paris 1935 
VI. Stockholm 1938 
VII. Zurich 1948 



II. Paris 1952 



III. Italy 1953 (2) 



( 1 ) At that time the Biometric Society was formed. An international society 
devoted to the mathematical and statistical aspects of biology. Secretary: Box 1106, 
New Haven 4, Connecticut. 

(2) A Biometric Symposium will take place somewhere in India in 1951 and 
help prepare the third congress. 

International Botanical Congresses: 

Some of the early congresses were called international congresses of horticulture 
and botany. About twenty meetings took place between 1864 and 1892: 



I. Brussels 1864 
II. Amsterdam 1865 

III. London 1866 

IV. Paris 1867 

V. St. Petersburg 1869 
VI. London 1871 
VII. Ghent and Vienna 1873 
VIII. Florence 1874 
IX. Cologne 1875 
X. Brussels 1876 

A new series began in 1900: 

I. Paris 1900 
II. Vienna 1905 

III. Brussels 1910 

IV. Ithaca, N. Y. 1926 



XI. Amsterdam 1877 
XII. Paris 1878 

XIII. Leyden 1879 

XIV. Brussels 1880 
XV. Antwerp 1881 

XVI. Ghent and Paris 1883 
St. Petersburg 1884 
Antwerp 1885 
Paris 1889 
Genoa 1892 



XVII 

XVIII 

XIX 

XX 



V. Cambridge 1930 

VI. Amsterdam 1935 

VII. Stockholm 1950 

(Vin. Paris 1954) 



Secretary of the Interim Commission (Botanical Section of the International 
Union of Biological Sciences ) : Frans Verdoorn, Chronica Botanica House, 
Waltham, Mass. Dr. Verdoorn recently prepared a historical review of the plant 
science congresses which will be pubHshed in the Proceedings of the Stockholm 
Congress. This congress passed a resolution, proposed by Verdoorn, according to 
which future international botanical congresses will have a special section for the 
history of tlie plant sciences. 



International Congresses of Byzantine Research: 



I. Bucharest 1924 
II. Belgrade 1927 

III. Athens 1930 

IV. Sofia 1934 



V. Rome 1936 
VI. Paris 1948 
VII. Bruxelles 1948 
VIII. Palermo 1951 



The Vlth Congress replaced the one which was scheduled to meet in Alger 1939; 
it took place in Paris from July 27 to August 2, 1948, and was immediately followed 
by the Vllth Congress in Bruxelles from 4 to 15 August same year. This is the 
only example of two international congresses of the same series taking place in im- 



International Congresses 295 

mediate succession in two different countries. It was done to compensate for the 
very long interruption caused by the war. 

International Chemical Congresses: 

I. Karlsruhe 1860 VI. Paris 1878 

II. Paris 1867 VII. Dusseldorf 1880 

III. Moscow 1872 VIII. Milano 1881 

IV. Vienna 1873 IX. Paris 1889 

V. Philadelphia 1876 X. Chicago 1893 

Succeeded by the International Congresses of pure and apphed Chemistry: 

I. Bruxelles 1894 VII. London 1909 

II. Paris 1896 VIII. Washington & New York 1912 

III. Vienna 1898 IX. Madrid 1934 

IV. Paris 1900 X. Roma 1938 

V. Berlin 1903 XI. New York & Washington 1950 

VI. Roma 1906 

The congress organized in Karlsruhe in Sept. 1860 upon Kekule's initiative was 
one of the first scientific congresses; it was very small (some 140 members) but it is 
very important in the history of the atomic theory (Isis 9, 373). 

International Conferences of Chemistry: 

I. Roma 1920 VIII. Warsaw 1927 

II. Bruxelles 1921 IX. The Hague 1928 

III. Lyon 1922 X. Liege 1930 

IV. Cambridge 1923 XI. Madrid 1934 

V. Copenhagen 1924 XII. Luzern & Zurich 1936 
VI. Bucharest 1925 

VII. Washington 1926 XV. Amsterdam 1949 



XVI. New York, Washington 1951 



International Congresses of Chronometry: 



1. Paris 1889 (x). Paris 1949. 

2. Paris 1900 

To these meetings must be added the annual meetings of the Conference Inter- 
nationale de I'heure, organized by the Bureau des longitudes, Paris 1912. The 
Bureau international de I'heure is located since 1913 (officially 1919) in the Obser- 
vatoire of Paris. 

For the meeting of 1949 see Revue des questions scientifiques (10, 408-10, 1949). 

International Congresses of Crystallography: 

The first congress of the International union of crystallography took place in 
Cambridge, Mass., in 1948. The proceedings of it are published in the Acta 
crystallographica. 

The second congress will be held in Stockholm in 1951. 

Address: Dr. R. C. Evans, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, England. 

International Congresses of Classical Studies: 

The first congress took place in Paris 28 August — 3 Sept. 1950 in connection 
with the IXth International Congress of historical studies. The original French title 
is Premier congres de la Federation internationale des Associations d'Etudes clas- 
siques. 

Secretary: M. A. Dain, 42 rue de Dantzig, Paris 15. 

International Congresses of Entomology: 

I. Bruxelles 1910 VI. Madrid 1935 
II. Oxford 1912 VII. Berlin 1938 

III. Zurich 1925 VIII. Stockholm 1948 

IV. Ithaca, N. Y. 1928 IX. Amsterdam 1951 
V. Paris 1932 

International Congresses of Ethnography: 

I. Paris 1878 III. Paris 1900 

II. Paris 1889 



296 



International Congresses 



International Congresses of Folklore ( Congres des traditions populaires ) 
I. Paris 1889 III. Chicago 1893 



II. London 1891 



IV. Paris 1900 



At that time the continuity was broken. An International Congress for Folktale 
Study was held at Lund, Sweden, in 1935. As a result of the Lund meeting a more 
general folklore congress called International Congress for European Ethnology and 
Folklore was held at Edinburgh in 1937. In the same year an International Folk- 
lore Congress took place in Paris. The Continuation Committee appointed at the 
Paris congress of 1937 never had the opportunity to function. 

A Mid-century International Folklore Conference was held at Indiana University, 
Bloomington, Indiana in 1950. Another International Congress is annoxmced to take 
place in Stockholm, 1951. (Part of the information was kindly provided by Profes- 
sor Stith Thompson in letters dated Bloomington, Ind., 15 Nov., 16 Dec. 1950). 

International Congresses of Geodesy and Geophysics: 

First conference in Berlin 1864, 17th in Hamburg 1912. 

After the First War, astronomers, geodesists and geophysicians meeting in Rome 
decided upon the creation of two international unions ( i ) the International Astro- 
nomical Union, (2) the International Geodetic and Geophysical Union. 

The second of these unions has organized congresses in 



I. Rome 1922 

II. Madrid 1924 

III. Prague 1927 

IV. Stockholm 1930 
V. Lisbon 1933 



VI. Edinburgh 1936 
VII. Washington 1939 
VIII. Oslo 1948 
IX. Bruxelles 1951 



General Secretary, Dr. J, M. Stagg, 34 King's Road, Richmond, Surrey, England. 

The union is divided into seven sections: Geodesy, Seismology, Meteorology, At- 
mospheric Electricity and Magnetism, Physical oceanography, Volcanology, Hy- 
drology. 



International Congresses of Geography: 



I. Antwerpen 1871 
II. Paris 1875 

III. Venezia 1881 

IV. Paris 1889 
V. Bern 1891 

VI. London 1895 
VII. Berlin 1899 
VIII. St. Louis 1904 



IX. Geneve 1908 
X. Roma 1913 
XI. Cairo 1925 
XII. London & Cambridge 1928 

XIII. Paris 1931 

XIV. Warsaw 1934 
XV. Amsterdam 1938 

XVI. Lisbon 1949 
XVII. Washington 1952 



An international congress of historical geography took place in Bruxelles in 1930. 



International Congresses of Geology: 

L Paris 1878 

II. Bologna 1881 

III. Berlin 1885 

IV. London 1888 

V. Washington 1891 

VI. Zurich 1894 

VII. St. Petersburg 1897 

VIII. Paris 1900 

IX. Vienna 1903 



X. Mexico 1906 
XI. Stockholm 1910 
XII. Toronto 1913 

XIII. Bruxelles 1922 

XIV. Madrid 1926 

XV. South Africa 1929 
XVI. Washington 1933 
XVII. Moscow 1937 
XVIII. London 1948 
XIX. Algiers 1952 



International Congresses of History: 

In addition to two international meetings — at Chicago 1893 and The Hague 1898 
— which are not counted in the regular series, the international congresses of histori- 
cal sciences have taken place as follows: 



I. Paris 1900 
II. Rome 1903 

III. Berlin 1908 

IV. London 1913 

V. Bruxelles 1923 



VI. Oslo 1928 
VII. Warsaw 1933 
VIII. Zurich 1938 

IX. Paris 1950 



International Congresses 297 

International Congresses of the History of Art: 

I. Vienna 1873 IX. Munich 1909 

II. Nuremberg 1893 X. Rome 1912 

III. Cologne 1894 XI. Paris 1916 (1921)"' 

rV. Budapest 1896 XII. Buuxelles 1930 

V. Amsterdam 1898 XIII. Stockhoi^m 1933 

VI. LiJBECK 1900 XIV. Switzerland 1936 

VII. Innsbruck 1902 XV. London 1939 
VIII. Darmstadt 1907 

International Congresses of the History of Medicine (Congres de I'Histoire de I'Art 
de Guerir): 

I. Antwerpen 1920 »s VIII. Roma 1930 

II. Paris 1921 XI. Bucharest 1932 

III. London 1922 X. Madrid 1935 

IV. Bruxelles 1923 XL Yugoslavia 1938 "» 

V. Geneve 1925 XII. Nice 1949 

VI. Leiden & Amsterdam 1927 XIII. Amsterdam 1950 '=o 
VII. Oslo 1928 

International Congresses of the History of Religions: 

I. Paris 1900 V. Lund 1929 

II. Basel 1904 VI. Bruxelles 1935 

III. Oxford 1908 VII. Amsterdam 1950 

IV. Leiden 1912 

The Congress held in Paris in 1923 under the title Congres international des 

religions (Societe Ernest Renan) was not a regular meeting of the international 
organization. 

International Congresses of the History of Science: 

See p. 255, 290. 

International Congresses of Mathematicians: 

I. Zurich 1897 VII. Toronto 1924 

II. Paris 1900 VIII. Bologna 1928 

III. Heidelberg 1904 IX. Zurich 1932 

IV. Roma 1908 X. Oslo 1936 

V. Cambridge 1912 XL Cambridge, Mass. 1950 

VI. STRASBOtTRG 1920 XII. AMSTERDAM 1954 

International Congress of Applied Mechanics: 

First series: Paris 1889, 1900. 
Second series: 

I. Delft 1924 V. Cambridge, Mass. 1938 

II. Zurich 1926 VI. Paris 1946 

III. Stockholm 1930 VII. London 1948 

IV. Cambridge 1934 VIII. Istanbul 1952 

International Congresses of Medicine: 

I. Paris 1867 X. Berlin 1890 

IL Florence 1869 XI. Rome 1894 

III. Vienna 1873 "" XII. Moscow 1897 

IV. Bruxelles 1875 XIII. Paris 1900 
V. Geneve 1877 XIV. Madrid 1903 

VI. Amsterdam 1879 XV. Lisbon 1906 

VII. London 1881 XVI. Budapest 1909 

VIII. Copenhagen 1884 XVII. London 1913^21 
IX. Washington 1887 



1" The congress of 1916 was indefinitely postponed on account of the war; it was replaced 
by another congress held in Paris in 1921. 

"* A previous congress was held in London 1913, being section XXIII of the 17th Con- 
gress of Medicine. 

119 Congresses XII and XIII planned to be held in Berlin 1940, Rome 1942 did not take 
place, or were not international. 

lao The meeting of Amsterdam was in the form of a section of the VI. Congress of the History 
of Science. 

1^ Special volume for the history of medicine Section XXIII (475 p., London 1914), ana- 
lyzed in the Vth Critical Bibliography (Isis, 2, 248-310). Only the XVIIt^ congress had a 
special section for the history of medicine; the history of medicine was taken care of later in 
a congress ad hoc; see under history, above. 



298 



International Congresses 



International Congresses of Ophthalmology: 



I. Bruxelles 1857 
II. Paris 1862 

III. Paris 1867 

IV. London 1872 
V. New York 1876 

VI. MiLANO 1880 
VII. Heidelberg 1888 
VIII. Edinburgh 1894 



IX. Utrecht 1899 
X. Lucerne 1904 
XI. Naples 1909 
XII. Washington 1922 

XIII. Amsterdam, The Hague 1929 

XIV. Madrid 1933 
XV. Cairo 1937 

XVI. London 1950 



Confusion is caused by a meeting held in May 1947 which was called the 4th 
international. (C. F. M.) 

International Congresses of Orientalists: 



I. 


Paris 1873 




XII. 


Rome 1899 


II. 


London 1874 




XIII. 


Hamburg 1902 


III. 


St. Petersburg 


1876 


XIV. 


Algiers 1905 


IV. 


Florence 1878 




XV. 


Copenhagen 1908 


V. 


Berlin 1881 




XVI. 


Athens 1912 


VI. 


Leyden 1883 




XVII. 


Oxford 1928 


VII. 


Vienna 1886 




XVIII. 


Leyden 1931 


/III. 


Stockholm and 


Oslo 1889 


XIX. 


Rome 1935 


IX. 


London 1892 




XX. 


Bruxelles 1938 


X. 


Geneva 1894 




XXI. 


Paris 1948 


XI. 


Paris 1897 




XXII. 


Istanbul 1951 



International Congresses of Ornithology: 



I. Vienna 1884 
II. Budapest 1891 

III. Paris 1900 

IV. London 1905 
V. Berlin 1910 

VI. Copenhagen 1926 



VII. Amsterdam 1930 
VIII. Oxford 1934 
IX. Rouen, Paris 1938 
X. Uppsala 1950 
XI. Switzerland 1954 



International Congresses of Papyrology: 



I. Bruxelles 1930 (as a part of the Semaine egyptologique ) 
II. Leyden 1931 (as a part of the 18th Congress of Orientalists) 

III. Munich 1933 (first independent meeting) 

IV. Firenze 1935 
V. Oxford 1937 

VI. Paris 1949. 



International Congresses of Pharmacy: 



I. Braunschweig 1865 
II. Paris 1867 

III. Vienna 1869 

IV. St. Petersburg 1874 
V. London 1881 

VI. Bruxelles 1885 



VII. Chicago 1893 
VIII. Bruxelles 1897 
IX. Paris 1900 
X. Bruxelles 1910 
XI. The Hague 1913 
XII. Bruxelles 1935 



An international congress for the history of pharmacy was held in Basel 1934. 
It was called international because it was held in Switzerland, not in Germany, but 
it was chiefly German. 

The International Federation of Pharmacists began to hold meetings in 1925. 
These meetings were also called International Congresses of Pharmacists; of these 
the 12f/i was held in Zurich 1947. (C. F. M.) 

International Congresses of Philosophy: 



I. Paris 1900 

II. Geneva 1904 
HI. Heidelberg 1908 
IV. Bologna 1911 

V. Naples 1924 
VI. Cambridge, Mass. 1926 



VII. Oxford 1930 
VIII. Prague 1934 
IX. Paris 1937 
X. Amsterdam 1948 
XI. Britxelles 1952 



The so-called international congresses of philosophy held in Rome in November 
1946 and in Barcelona in October 1949 were "hors serie." Of course, it is easy 
enough to organize in any large city meetings or symposia where representatives of 
many nations are gathered, but such meetings are not international congresses in the 



International Congresses 299 

technical sense. An international congress, one should bear in mind, is a congress 
organized by an international committee ad hoc, it is one of many congresses organ- 
ized more or less periodically by the same committee for the same general purpose. 
As an example of meetings, gathered in a small city, year after year and truly 
international in scope, consider Eranos, a philosophical symposium taking place every 
summer in Ascona (Ticino, Switzerland) since 1933 (Isis 41, 97, 138, 410). There 
is no limit to the number of meetings which might thus be organized almost any- 
where by private or local initiative, but regardless of their interest or importance, 
we should not call them "international congresses of philosophy," for that phrase 
has a technical meaning estabUshed by a long tradition. 

International Congress of the Philosophy of Sciences: 

Congress announced to meet in Paris, 17-22 Oct. 1949. As its prospectus refers 
to no preceding meeting, it is presumably the first of a new series. It is organized 
by the Institut International de Philosophic in Paris, Administrateur permanent; Ray- 
mond Bayer. 

The Congress is divided into eleven sections: Logic, Mathematical Philosophy, 
Calculus of probabilities, Mechanics and astronomy. Theoretical physics, Physico- 
chemistry. Biology, Earth sciences, Epistemology, History of sciences. Pedagogy of 
sciences. General synthesis. (Archives internationales 28, 1270-71, 1949). 

Mile. Suzanne Delorme, Secretary of the Institut International de Philosophic, 
is also Secretary of the Congress. Address: 61 rue du Mont Cenis, Paris 18. 

The Secretary of the section devoted to the history of science is Rene Taton, 
64 rue Gay-Lussac, Paris 5. 

For the philosophy of science see also the Congresses on the Unity of Science, 
below. 

International Congresses of Photography: 

I. Paris 1889 VI. Paris 1925 

II. Bhuxelles 1891 VII. London 1928 

m. Paris 1900 VIII. Dresden 1931 
IV. Lii:GE 1905 IX. Paris 1935 

V. Bruxelles 1910 

International Congresses of Physiology: 

I. Basel 1889 XI. Edinburgh 1923 

II. Ltege 1892 XII. Stockholm 1926 

III. Bern 1895 XIII. Boston 1929 

IV. Cambridge 1898 XIV. Rome 1932 

V. Torino 1901 XV. Leningrad & Moscow 1935 

VI. Bruxelles 1904 XVI. Zurich 1938 

VII. Heidelberg 1907 XVII. Oxford 1947 

VIII. Vienna 1910 XVIII. Copenhagen 1950 

IX. Groningen 1913 XIX. Montreal 1953 
X. Paris 1920 

International Congresses of Prehistory and Protohistory: 

I. London 1932 [III. Budapest 1949] ^^2 

II. Oslo 1936 III. Zurich 1950 

See above. Congresses of Prehistoric Archaeology. 

International Congresses of Psychology: 

L Paris 1889 VII. Oxford 1923 

II. London 1892 VIII. Groningen 1926 

III. Munich 1896 IX. New Haven, Conn. 1929 

IV. Paris 1900 X. Copenhagen 1932 
V. Rome 1905 XL Paris 1937 

VI. Geneve 1909 XII. Vienna 1940 

For religion, see under history of religion above. 



1=2 Withdrawn! 



300 



International Congresses 



International Congress for the Unity of Science: 



I. Paris 1935 

II. COPHENHAGEN 1936 

III. Paris 1937 

International Congresses of Sociology: 

I. Torino 1921 

II. Vienna 1922 

International Congresses of Statistics: 

I. Bruxelles 1853 

II. Paris 1855 

III. Vienna 1857 

IV. London 1860 
V. Berlin 1863 



IV. Cambridge 1938 
V. Cambridge, Mass., 1939 (Isis 32, 340-44) 



III. Roma 1924 

IV. Panama 1926 



VI. Florence 1867 
VII. The Hague 1869 
VIII. St. Petersburg 1872 
IX. Budapest 1876 
X. Paris 1878 



In 1885, the International Statistical Institute was founded with organized bi- 
ennial sessions, Roma 1887, etc. 

The Belgian Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874) was the president of the first of 
these congresses, of the third, the fourth, the fifth, the sixth, the seventh and the 
eighth; he could not preside over the second congress because of illness, and over the 
ninth because he had died in the meanwhile. This is a unique example in the inter- 
national organization of science; it proves that Quetelet was really recognized as the 
founder and the great master, without peer (Isis 23, 10). Quetelet did not origi- 
nate only the congresses of statistics, for the example which he had given was fol- 
lowed gradually by the representatives of other studies {see table p. 292); he may 
be called tlie founder of international scientific congresses. 

International Congresses of Surgery: 



I. Bruxelles 1905 
II. Bruxelles 1908 

III. Bruxelles 1911 

IV. New York 1914 
V. Paris 1920 

VI. London 1923 
VII. Roma 1926 



VIII. Warsaw 1929 
IX. Madrid 1932 
X. Cairo 1936 
XL Bruxelles 1938 
XII. London 19471" 
XIII. New Orleans 1949 



International Congresses of Toponymy and Anthroponymy: 

I. Paris 1938 III. Britxelles 1949 

II. Paris 1947 
For more information see the journal Onomastica which began to appear in 1947 
under the direction of Albert Dauzat, 10 rue de I'Eperon, Paris 6. The interna- 
tional center is now at the University of Louvain. 

International Congresses of Veterinary Medicine: » 



I. 


Hamburg 1863 


VIII. 


Budapest 1905 


II. 


Vienna 1865 


IX. 


The Hague 1909 


m. 


Zurich 1867 


X. 


London 1914 


IV. 


Bruxelles 1883 


XL 


London 1930 


V. 


Paris 1889 


XII. 


New York 1934 


VI. 


Bern 1895 


XIII. 


Zurich, Interlaken 1938 


VII. 


Baden-Baden 1899 


XIV. 


London 1949 



Weights and Measures: 

The Commission internationale du metre met in Paris 1869, 1870, 1872. 

The Comite international des poids et mesures met yearly in Paris from 1875/76 
on. No meetings in 1893, 1896, 1898. 

The Congres international povir I'unification des poids et mesures met in Paris 
in 1878. 



123 xhis rnight be called Congress of the Philosophy of Science. Of course, every Congress 
of Philosophy devotes at least one of its sections to the Philosophy of Science. 

i^* The London meeting replaced a meeting planned to be held in Stockholm 1941. The 
Stockholm meeting did not materialize; a meeting was held in that year 1941 in Boston, hers 



International Congresses 301 

The Conference generale des poids et mesures met in Paris 1889, 1895, 1901, 
1907, 1913, 1921, 1927, 1933, 1948. 

The Congres international pour I'unification des titres de Tor et de I'argent met 
in Paris in 1900. 

International Congresses of Zoology: 

I. Paris 1889 VII. Boston 1907 

II. Moscow 1892 VIII. Graz 1910 
m. Leiden 1895 IX. Monaco 1913 

IV. Cambridge 1898 X. Budapest 1927 

V. Berlin 1901 XI. Padua 1930 

VI. Bern 1904 XII. Lisbon 1935. 



The organization of the international congresses, especially the early ones, was 
largely due to the initiative of enthusiastic individuals such as Kekule or Quetelet. 
Their eflForts were facilitated by the existence of national or international societies, 
and in many cases by goverrunental help. Indeed, during the nineteenth century 
the national (governmental) organization of science was extended considerably. 
Some kind of governmental influence had existed from the seventeenth century on, 
as is shown by the history of the Royal Society, and more obviously by that of the 
Academic des Sciences, by the creation of the first Observatories and the planning 
of cartography on a national scale. In the nineteenth century a number of geological 
surveys were established (Isis 2, 369-79). While the national organizations were 
developing, the international organization began, first in fields wherein international 
cooperation was essential for everybody's advantage (e.g., meteorology, astronomy, 
statistics, geodesy, oceanography), later in almost every field of knowledge. The 
international congresses were only a part albeit an important one, of the international 
organization. 

Special bodies were created to establish the international cooperation as efficiently 
as possible. It will suffice to name the International Geodetic Association (1864), 
the International Seismological Association (1901), etc. The international organi- 
zation was not by any means restricted to science and learning, a network of good 
will was gradually spreading over the whole earth, and just before the first World 
War it was already so extensive and so complex that an enormous volume was needed 
in order to describe it. I am referring to the Annuaire de la Vie Internationale^^ 
edited by Albert Marinus under the leadership of Henri La Fontaine.^^ The 
organization of scientific research was more naturally international, however, than 
that of every other activity, and therefore the history of science is essentially the 
history not of any one nation but of mankind.^^ The network was broken and the 
good will partly lost or shattered after the First War. 

In order to reestabfish them two new overall international bodies were created 
in 1919, the Union Academique Internationale (International Union of Academies) 
and the International Research Council.^^ The later was inaugvu-ated at Brussels in 
July 1919, "Each state was advised to set up or recognize a central scientific body 
capable of representing the country in the International Council. International 
Unions were also organized in the major fields of science to co-ordinate and develop 
activities hitherto scattered among numerous small international societies with over- 
lapping functions and membership. There are at present ten International Unions, 
namely: Astronomical Union, Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, and Union of 



125 Annuaire de la Vie Internationale publie pour TUnion des Associations Internationales avec 
le concours de la Fondation Carnegie pour la Paix intemationale et de I'lnstitut international de 
la Paix (vol. 2, 2,652 p., Bruxelles 1912; Isis 1, 289-90). 

1^ Henri La Fontaine (1854-1943), Belgian senator and statesman, one of the main advo- 
cates of international arbitration and of the Permanent Court of International Justice, who was 
awarded the Nobel prize for peace in 1912-13 (Isis 34, 412). 

12T I explained those views just before the first World War, L'histoire de la science et I'organisa- 
tion intemationale (Bruxelles 1913) and reprinted my appeal twenty-five years later before the 
second World War (Isis 29, 311-25, 1938). 

128 Renamed Conseil International des Unions scientifiques. International Council of Scientific 
Unions (ICSU) in 1932. 



302 International Congresses 

Chemistry, all organized in 1919; Scientific Radio Union, Union of Pirre and Ap- 
plied Physics, Union of Biological Sciences, and Union of Geography, organized in 
1922, and in 1925 after provisional meetings earlier; Union of Crystallography, 
Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and Union of History of Science, 
added in 1947 after preHminary meetings in 1947." ^^ 

An International Union of Mathematics organized in 1922, was discontinued in 
1932; it is planned to reestablish it (in 1952?). It is also planned to establish an 
International Union of Physiology (in 1952?). Applications for the organization of 
new unions must be passed upon by the executive board of ICSU. The present 
tendency of ICSU is to restrict the number of unions and to organize joint commis- 
sions covering a larger field. For example the History of Science has been amal- 
gamated with the Philosophy of Science. 

All this concerns the administration of science rather than research itself, but 
the hne is not always easy to draw and it is clear that the future development of 
science will imply collective efforts of greater and greater complexity, and that 
means more and more administration. This is very sad, yet unavoidable, and we 
must make the best of it. There will be a growing body of administrators, or of 
men whose points of view are administrative rather than purely scientific or indi- 
vidual, yet there will always be room for men of initiative and of genius. 

To return to our main subject, the international congresses, their organization 
will be regulated more and more (if only for financial reasons) by the ICSU, through 
whose intermediary the necessary subsidies may be obtained. 

The historian of science is not concerned with the organization of international 
congresses but with their publications which provide convenient syntheses of this or 
that discipline at regular intervals. However, it may be worth his while to know 
how the international congresses are organized and managed; the ICSU or any 
special scientific union, or their committees in his own nation will give him all the 
information which he may need at any time. Americans may obtain information 
from the National Research Council, Division of International Relations, Washington, 
D. C. 

Unesco has recently published a Directory of International Scientific Organiza- 
tions (238 p., Paris, May 1950). 

129 This statement is taken from the memorandum prepared on 19 December 1949 by the 
Committee on International Scientific Unions (chairman. Dr. John A. Fleming) of the U. S. 
National Research Council. Additional information kindly provided by Dr. Fleming in a 
private letter (Washington, D. C, 17 Jan. 1951). 



26. PRIZES 

I. Prix Binoux (1889) for the History or Philosophy of Science. — Founded by 
bequest of Louis FRANgois Binoux to the Academic des Sciences, Paris, to reward 
outstanding work in the history and philosophy of the sciences. It was given for 
the first time in 1903 (to H. G. Zeuthen). For the prizes awarded from 1903 to 
1924, see Isis 8, 161-63, from 1925 to 1935, Isis 25, 136-37, from 1936 to 1945, Isis 
37, 79, from 1945 to 1949, Isis 41, 303. 

II. Sudhoff Medal (1923). — Medal awarded by the German Society of the 
history of science. At the time of Sudhoff's seventieth birthday ( 1923; see Mit. 
22, 305-07, 1923), a plaquette was published in his honor. Later, his portrait (as 
it was in that plaquette) was pubhshed in medal form to be given to eminent his- 
torians of science. I do not know when the first award was made. 

III. Dutch Medal ( 1940 ) . — Medal awarded by the Dutch Society of the History 
of Science. A medal of honor is awarded by the Dutch Society at irregular intervals. 
It was first awarded in 1940, then in 1941; three medals were given in 1946 
(Archives 1, 514, 1948). 

IV. Prix Arnold Reymond for Philosophy of Science (1941). — The full name of 
the prize is "Prix Arnold Reymond, foundation Charles Eugene Guye." It was 
founded by Guye's bequest to the University of Lausanne (15 May 1941). 
Charles Eugene Guye (1866-1942) was a Swiss physico-chemist, professor of 
physics at the University of Geneva, much interested in the philosophy of science; 
the prize was named in honor of Arnold Reymond, professor of philosophy in Lau- 
sanne, president of the Academy from 1937 to 1947. 

This prize is meant to reward the memoir "which explains in the clearest and 
most impartial manner the progress and tendencies during the last ten years of scien- 
tific philosophy in its wholeness or in one of its fields." It will be awarded by the 
University of Lausanne. 

The first award was made in 1944 to Pierre Lecomte du Nouy ( 1883-1947; 
Isis 38, 246). Further awards will be made at intervals of five to ten years. More 
details in Archives (1, 156, 1947). 

V. Prizes for Students ( 1947). — In order to encourage the study of the history of 
science among university students the History of Science Society was enabled by the 
generosity of one of its members to offer each year a "History of Science Essay Prize" 
of one hundred dollars. 

The prize was awarded for the first time in October 1947. It is restricted to 
undergraduates or first year graduate students in American and Canadian colleges. 
For more details see the advertisements appearing frequently in Isis (the first one 
in Isis 37, p. 4). 



INDEX * 



Abb, G., 126 
AbetH, G., 156 
Abraham, H., 211 
Abro, A. d', 87 
Adams, F. D., 178 
Adamson, R., 149 
Adelung, J. C, 84 
Adler, C, 140 
Adler, M., 281 
Adnan (-Adivar), A., 140 
Aglietti, F., 217 
Aericola, G., 270 
Albert of Saxe-Coburg, 6 
Alembert, J. d', 79 
Alexander, A. B. D., 183 
'All ibn 'Abbas, 28 
Aliamet, M., 163 
AUbutt, Sir T. C, 133 
AUemann, A., 220 
Allen, D. P., 282 
Almquist, E. B., 171 
Althin, T., 279 
Amano, K. W., 148 
Ames, J. S., 238 
Amodeo, F., 154 
Anaxagoras, 3, 25 
Andoyer, H., 126 
Andre-Pontier, L., 191 
Andreas, C. F., 234 
Angiolani, A., 209 
Anker, J., 171, 175, 196, 

209, 276 
Appel, J., 116, 159 
Appel, L., 72 
Appleyard, R., 162 
ApoUonios, 19, 28, 38 
Arber, A., 173 
Archer, P., 170 
Archibald, R. C., 25, 130, 

131, 150, 215 
Archimedes, 18, 20, 21, 23, 

25,28 
Arcieri, G. P., 197 
Aristotle, 24, 25, 116, 136, 

160, 172, 201 
Armitage, A., 50, 121, 156 
Armstrong, E. V., 284 
Arnold, T. W., 141 
Artelt, W., 184, 267, 268 



Aschoff, L., 171, 216 
Ashby, T., 133 
Ashmole, E., 273 
Ashur-Nasir-Pal, 35 
Aslin, M. S., 173 
Auer, H., 237 
Auerbach, F., 157 
Auge, C., 80 
Auge, P., 81 
Augustus I of Saxony, 266, 

268 
Auwers, 11 
Avalon, J., 196 
Ayala, F., 193 
Ayurveda, 247 
Ayer, E. E., 176 

Baas, J. H., 184 
Babbage, C., 162 
Babini, J., 125, 262 
Bachelard, G., 87, 161, 265 
Bacon, F., 34, 49, 184 
Bacon, R., 33 

Baden-Powell, R., 117, 120 
Baedeker, 76, 77 
Baumker, C., 203 
Baglioni, S., 202 
Bagrow, L., 220 
Bailey, G., 133 
Bailly, J. S., 133, 156 
Baker, J. N. L., 177 
Baker, J. R., 94, 96 
Baker, W. E. W., 122, 172 
Baldinger, E. G., 248 
Baldwin, J. M., 182 
Baldwin, T., 77 
Ball, W. W. R., 151 
Bannerji, A. C., 254 
Barbour, T., 65 
Barduzzi, D., 237, 249 
Barnard, F. P., 279 
Barnard, W. N., 168 
Barnes, H. E., 193 
Barnett, L. D., 142 
Barnouw, A. J., 127 
BaroceUi, P., 274 
Barry, F., 40, 87 
Bartels, M., 184 
Bartholin, T., 196 



Bartram, J., 288 
Bassermann-Jordan, E. v., 

170 
Basset, R., 141 
Bastholm, E., 180, 196 
Bates, M., 171 
Battaglini, G., 207 
Battani, 28, 32 
Battuta, 29 
Baudrand, M. A., 77 
Bauer, E., 162 
Bavink, B., 87 
Bay, J. G., 174 
Bayer, R., 299 
Bayle, P., 78, 79 
Baynes, N. H., 139 
Beazley, Sir G. R., 137, 

177 
Bechold, J. H., 102 
Becker, C. H., 267 
Beckmann, J., 167, 246 
Becquerel, A. E., 162 
Becquerel, A. G., 162 
Becquerel, H., 40 
Behanan, K. T., 143 
Belden, F. A., 286 
Bell, E. T., 151 
Bell, L., 122 
Beltrami, L., 234 
Beltran, J. R., 233, 235, 

261 
Benedicenti, A., 191 
Benedikt, K., 290 
Benfey, T., 124 
Benjamin, A. G., 87 
Benjamin, P., 162 
Bennett, J. L., 94 
BenninghofF, A., 245 
Berendes, J., 191 
Berger, H., 133 
Berghoff, E., 244, 262 
Bergier, J., 119 
Bernal, J. D., 94 
Bernard, G., 50, 86, 113, 

172 
Bemheim, E., 72 
Bert, H., 215, 235, 237, 

265, 290 
Berry, A. J., 156, 163 



* Prepared by Frances Siegel. 



306 



Index 



Berry G. G., 72 
Berthelot, M., 133, 137, 

163 
Berzelius, A., 277, 279 
Bessel, 11 
Bett, W. R., 226 
Beurlen, K., 245 
Bevan, E. R., 139 
Bezold, C, 133 
Biancani, E., 213 
Biancani, H., 213 
Bigelow, R. P., 120 
Bigourdan, G., 156, 169 
Bifan, 119 
Billings, J. S., 285 
Bing, G., 272, 273 
Binoux, L. F., 303 
BIrunI, 28, 32 
Black, J., 197 
Blackett, P. M. S., 94 
Blainville, H., 171 
Blake, M. E., 133 
Blanchard, R., 290 
Blaserna, P., 290 
Blumenthal, C., 164 
Bluntschli, J. C., 124 
Bobynin, V. V., 215 
Bodde, D., 146 
Bode, H., 37, 259 
Bodenheimer, F. S., 175 
Boegehold, H., 123 
Bohner, K., 171 
Boffito, G., 122, 215 
Bogardus, E. S., 193 
Bohr, N., 91 
Boissier, A., 132 
Boll, F., 133, 238 
Boll, M., 121, 149 
Bologa, V. L., 204, 277 
Bolton, H. C., 163 
Boncompagni, B., 208 
Bonelli, M. L., 274 
Bonitz, H., 78 
Bonnet-Roy, F., 185 
Bonola, R., 154 
Borchardt, L., 170 
Bord, B., 196 
Borel, E., 159 
Borelli, G. A., 19 
Boring, E. G., 182 
Born, M., 38, 87 
Bouasse, H., 290 
Boubier, M., 175 
Bouche-Leclerc, 133 
Boulger, G. S., 85 
Bouligand, G., 151 
Boutroux, P., 151 
Boyd, W., 192 
Boyer, C. B., 155 



Boyle, R., 79 
Boynton, H., 117 
Bradley, E. S., 283 
Bradley, J., 11 
Brasch, F. E., 113 
Brauer, L., 261 
Braun, M., 245 
Braunmiihl, A. v., 151 
Breasted, J. H., 131 
Breckx, L., 192 
Brehier, E., 183 
Brennand, W., 143 
Bretschneider, H., 222 
Brett, G. S., 182 
Brewster, E. T., 171, 179 
Brickner, S. M., 227 
Bridgman, P. W., 36, 88, 

94 
Brieger-Wasservogel, L., 

223 
Brinckmann, A. E., 216 
Britten, J., 85 
Brockelmann, C., 141 
Brockhaus, F. A., 80, 246 
Brocklehurst, H. J. S., 167 
Broglie, L. de, 91 
Brown, G. B., 88 
Brown, H., Ill, 198 
Brown, J. C., 164 
Brown, L. A., 177 
Brown, R., 153 
Browne, C. A., 164 
Browne, E. G., 141 
Browne, J. S., 226 
Brunet, P., 133, 159, 200, 

237 
Brunet, L., 240 
Brunn, W. v., 269 
Brunschvicg, L., 88 
Bruzen de la Martiniere, 

A. A., 77 
Bryson, L., 94 
Buchker, K. v., 200 
Buck, A. H., 184 
Buckley, E., 185 
Buckley, H., 157 • 
Budge, Sir E. A. W., 132 
Buffon, 5 

Bugge, G., 164, 268 
Bukharin, N. I., 241 
Bull, L., 25, 131 
Bullock, W., 184 
Bunbury, Sir E. H., 133 
Buonanni, F., 274, 288 
Burger, D., 250, 276 
Burke, R. B., 33 
Burnet, J., 25 
Burr, G. L., 121, 284 
Bush, v., 94 



Bursian, K., 124 
Busquet, P., 206 
Butler, F. H. C., 251 
Butterfield, H., 117 
Bykov, K. M., 277 

Cabanes, a., 208, 210 
Caird, J., 271 
Cajori, F., 151, 158 
Caldin, E. F., 88 
Camerarius, 35 
Campbell, D., 141 
Campbell, N. R., 88 
Candolle, A. de, 117 
Cannon, W. B., 88, 127 
Cantor, G., 56, 221 
Cantor, M., 45, 151, 195, 

290 
Capparoni, P., 206 
Cappel, J., 169 
Carbonelli, G., 206 
Carmenati, M., 229 
Carmichael, R. D., 88 
Carra da Vaux, B., 31, 141 
Carracido, J. R., 128 
Carri, E. L., 201 
Carter, T. F., 29, 146 
Carus, J. v., 124, 175 
Cams, P., 209, 230 
Gary, M., 137, 178 
Caso, A., 206 
Casorati, F., 155 
Caspari-Rosen, B., 187, 

210 
Casson, S., 181 
Castaldi, L., 249 
Castiglioni, A., 184 
Cau, G., 213 
CauUery, M., 126 
Caverni, R., 126 
Cermenati, M., 233, 240 
Chace, A. B., 25, 131 
Chakraberty, C, 143 
Chambers, E., 79 
Chapuis, A., 159 
Charbonnier, P., 158 
Chase, C. T., 158 
Chasles, M., 154 
Chevalier, U., 137 
Chevreul, 50, 84 
Chikashige, M., 145 
Chisholm, G. G., 77 
Choulant, J. L., 184 
Choulant, L., 180, 219 
Choynowski, M., 127 
Church, A., 149 
Claparede, E., 290 
Clarke, S., 131 
Clay, R. S., 122, 172 



Index 



307 



Clendening, L., 282 
Gierke, A. M., 156 
Cline, W., 179 
Clodd, E., 172 
Coates, J. B., 94 
Cobb, R., 105 
Coster, A., 267 
Cohen, I. B., 94, 221, 

281 
Cohen, M. R., 88, 133 
Cole, F. J., 175, 180 
Coleman, L. V., 286 
Coleridge, S. T., 79 
Colson, A., 126, 164 
Columbus, C, 39 
Commandino, F., 19 
Comte, A., 14 
Conant, J. B., 58, 117 
Conant, L. L., 153 
Conn, H. J., 172 
Conon of Samos, 20 
Conte, N. J., 265 
Contenau, C, 132 
Conti, A., 207 
Coolidge, J. L., 151, 154 
Copernicus, 3, 17, 49, 92, 

156 
Cordier, H., 145, 146, 148, 

235 
Corsini, A., 202, 212, 274 
Cortesao, A., 255 
Couling, S., 146 
Count, E. W., 181 
Couper, A. S., 197 
Courel, M. H., 147 
Court, T. H., 122, 172 
Couturat, L., 81 
Cozzo, C, 133 
Creighton, C, 189 
Cressy, E., 167 
Crew, H., 158 
Croce, B., 81 
Crombie, A. C, 207 
Crommelin, C. A., 275 
Crowther, J. C, 94, 127 
Croxon-Deller, F., 226 
Crump, C. C, 137 
Cubberley, E. P., 192 
Cumming, Sir J., 143 
Cumont, F., 131, 134 
Cumston, C. C, 184 
Cunningham, Sir A., 143 
Cunynghame, Sir H. H., 

170 
Curtis-Bennett, Sir N., 180 
Curtius, T., 19 
Cushing, H., 185, 283 
Cusi, J., 212 
Cuvier, G., Ill, 118, 172 



Dacier, B. J., Ill 
Dahl, S., 171 
Dahlmann, F. C, 73 
Dahlmann-Waitz, 73 
Dain, M. A., 295 
Dalton, J., 273 
Damiens, A., 211 
Dampier, Sir W. C, 118 
Dana, E. S., 128 
Daniel, G. E., 193 
Dannemann, F., 50, 51, 

118, 121 
Dantzig, T., 153 
Darboux, G., 208 
Daremberg, C. V., 185 
Darlington, C. D., 95 
Darmstadter, E., 196, 229, 

252 
Darmstaedter, L., 58, 115 
Darwin, G., 3, 112, 124, 

172, 173, 175, 176 
Dasgupta, S. N., 143 
Datta, B., 143 
Daudin, H., 172 
Dauzat, A., 300 
Davidson, M., 156 
Davies, O., 134 
Davis, H. T., 88 
Davis, T. L., 210 
Davison, C, 179 
Dean, B., 175 
De Bruyne, E., 137 
Decourdemanche, J. A., 

169 
Deehend, H. v., 268 
De Forest, L., 18 
De Greef, G., 193 
De Hovre, F., 192 
Delacre, M., 164 
Delambre, J. B. J., Ill, 

134, 137, 156 
Delanglez, J., 72 
Delatte, A., 134, 139 
Delorme, S., 299 
DelviUe, L., 228 
Dennis, W., 182 
Dennison, F., 287 
Descartes, 35, 163, 265 
Desgranges, J., 151 
Desnos, E., 185 
Dessoir, M., 182 
De Waard, G., 158 
De Wulf, M., 137, 183 
Dey, N. L., 143 
Dharmakirti, 150 
Dharmottara, 150 
Dickinson, H. W., 249 
Dickinson, R. E., 177 
Dickson, L. E., 153 



Diderot, D., 79 
Diels, H., 25, 116 
Diepgen, P., 134, 185, 190, 

196, 234, 249, 267, 269, 

270 
Diergart, P., 232, 268 
Dies, A., 136 
Dieserud, J., 181 
Dignaga, 150 
Dijksterhuis, E. J., 257 
Dikshit, S. B., 145 
Dingle, H., 11, 15, 38, 

88 
Dingier, H., 88 
Dioscorides, 247 
Dircks, H., 159 
Disney, A. N., 122, 172 
Dittrick, H., 282 
Dock, L. L., 185, 187 
Dockx, I., 263 
Doe, J., 283 
Doring, E., 169 
Dorr, W., 270 
Dohrn, R., 190 
Doig, P., 156 
Doppler, 36 
Dorner, I. A., 124 
Dositheos of Pelusion, 20 
Doublet, E. L., 156 
Doursther, H., 169 
Drabkin, I. E., 133 
Drachmann, A. G., 196 
Draper, H., 288 
Draper, J. W., 118 
Drechsler, A., 268 
Drecker, J., 170 
Dry, T. J., 181, 188 
Dreyer, J. L. E., 156 
Ducasse, P., 167, 240 
Duckworth, W. W., 158 
Diihring, E. K., 159 
Dugas, R., 159 
Duhem, P., 45, 89, 156, 

158, 160, 290 
Dumas, J. B., 164 
Dumesnil, R., 185 
Duncum, B. M., 185 
Duong-Ba'Banh, 145 
Dussieux, L., 177 
Duval, M., 180 
Duveen, D. L., 164 
Dyck, W., 221, 270 

Ebstein, W., 139 
Ecchellensis, A., 19 
Eddington, A. S., 36, 37, 

89 
Eder, J. M., 171 
Edgerton, F., 143 



308 



Index 



Edison, T. A., 7, 18, 286, 

288 
Eichbaum, P., 191 
Einstein, A., 87, 89, 90, 92, 

158, 160, 161 
Eisler, R., 157 
Eliade, M., 143 
Ellwood, C. A., 193 
Elskamp, M., 263 
Emden, A. B., 192 
Empedocle, 136 
Enestrom, G., 151, 205, 

221 
Engel, P., 154 
Engelbach, R., 131 , 
Engelmann, G. J., 190 
Engelmann, T., 280 
Engels, P., 37 
Engler, A., 207 
Enke, P., 202 
Enriques, P., 81, 89, 118, 

134, 149, 151, 231, 232, 

275 
Erasmus, 263 
Eratosthenes, 20 
Erhard, L., 206 
Erlanger, R. d', 141 
Erlecke, A., 205 
Ernest of Saxe-Coburg, 6 
Ernest of Saxony-Gotha, 37 
Ersch, J. S., 80, 106 
Essig, E. O., 176 
Euclid, 28, 43, 62, 135, 

154 
Eudemos of Rhodes, 25, 

116 
Euler, 162, 221 
Eutocios, 18, 21 
Evans, L., 273 
Evans, R. C., 295 

Pabry, C., 126 
Paerber, E., 164 
FarabI, 28 
Paraday, M., 39 
Parber, E., see Paerber, E. 
Farghanl, al-, 28, 32 
Parmer, H. G., 141 
Parnell, W. C., 287 
Parrand, G., 142 
Parrington, B., 134 
Pasbender, H., 190 
Pauchard, P., 247 
Pavre, A., 169 
Pebvre, L., 81 
Pederzoni, L., 217 
Peibleman, J., 89 
Peldhaus, P. M., 167, 216, 
240, 285, 288 



Peldman, W. M., 140 
Peng, see Pung 
Perchl, P., 164, 252, 270 
Perdinand of Tirol, 289 
Perguson, J., 164, 270 
Perrari, P., 77 
Perrari, G., 199 
Pester, G., 164 
Piek, W., 268 
Pierz-David, H. E., 164 
Pindlay, A., 164 
Pindley, P., 190 
Pinley, J. H., 287 
Pinot, L., 144 
Pischer, H(ans), 216, 250 
Pischer, H(ermann), 137, 

173 
Pischer, J. K., 158 
Pischer, K., 183 
Plack, I. H., 185 
Plaubert, 267 
Pleming, A. P. M., 167 
Pleming, J. A., 18, 302 
Pletcher, R., 220 
Plexner, S., 280 
Plourens, 181 
Pliigel, J. C., 182 
Pokker, A. D., 275 
Ponahn, A. M., 142 
Porbes, R. J., 130, 164, 167 
Pord, H., 288 
Porke, A., 146 
Pormiggini, 217 
Poster, Sir M., 180 
Pox, P., 281 
Praas, K., 124 
Prancesco, G. de, 118 
Prank, M., 180 
Prank, P., 89, 160, 227 
Frankfort, H., 272 
Frankhn, B., 162, 284 
PrankUn, K. J., 180 
Praser, C. G., 158 
Freeman, D. S., 65 
Preind, J., 185 
Prey tag. P., 204 
Priedenwald, H., 140 
Priedrich II, Hesse-Cassel, 

267 
Priedrich III of Schleswig, 

289 
Friend, J. W., 89 
Frohhch, O., 162 
Froehner, R., 204, 209, 243 
Froriep, L, P. v., 108 
Pueter, E.,' 128 
Fujikawa Yu, 148 
Fuller, B. A. G., 183 
Pulton, J. P., 180, 283 



Pung Yu-lan, 146 
Punkhouser, H. G., 155 
Purfey, P. H., 193 

Gabrieli, G., 73 
Gadd, C. J., 132 
Gager, C. S., 173 
Galdston, I., 185 
Galileo, 3, 17, 19, 23, 33, 

34, 35, 55, 89, 158, 159, 

274 
Galois, 39 
Galton, P., 6 
Gandz, S., 21, 140 
Garboe, A., 196 
Garcia del Real, E., 240 
Garcia Franco, S., 122 
Garollo, G., 77, 84 
Garraghan, G. J., 72 
Garratt, G. T., 144 
Garrison, P. H., 185, 220 
Gassendi, 184 
Gauss, 154 
Gautier, H., 211 
GechauflF, T., 19 
Geikie, Sir A., 179 
Geist-Jacobi, G. P., 189 
Gelis, E., 159 
Gellhorn, W., 95 
Gelon, 20 
Gent, W., 160 
Gentile, G., 82 
George IV of Saxony, 268 
George, W. H., 90 
Gerard, L., 173 
Gerard of Cremona, 32 
Gerhardt, K. I., 124 
Gerland, E., 125, 158, 267 
Geromini, P. G., 248 
Gerono, C. C., 207 
Gerrits, G. C., 127 
Gest, A. P., 134 
Geymonat, L., 155 
Ghazzali, 28 
Gibault, G., 173 
Gibb, H. A. R., 141 
Giebel, 102 
Giedroyc, P., 277 
Gilbert, A., 206 
Gilbert, O., 134, 180 
Gilfillan, S. C., 167 
Gillain, O., 131 
Gilson, E., 138, 183 
Gimlette, J. D., 145 
Ginsburg, J., 238 
Ginzburg, B., 118 
Ginzel, P. K., 170 
Girvin, H. P., 160 
GlanviUe, S. R. K., 131 



Index 



309 



Glasser, O., 17 
Gliozzi, M., 162 
Goblet d'Alviella, 47 
Gomoiu, v., 277 
Gonseth, F., 90 
Goode, G. B., 128, 285 
Gortvay, G., 274 
Goose, H. A., 112 
Gotfredsen, E., 196, 264 
Gould, R. T., 170, 271 
Goulin, 227 
Grabmann, M., 203 
Graebe, G., 164 
Graesse, J. G. T., 77 
Graham, H., 185 
Gramatica, L., 198 
Grant, R., 157 
Gras, N. S. B., 173 
Grasset, H., 185 
Graves, F. P., 192 
Gray, D. E., 105 
Greeff, R., 122 
Green, J. R., 173 
Greene, E. L., 173 
Greene, H. G., 86 
Gregory, W., 100, 292 
Grinsell, L. V., 131 
Grollier de Servieres, N., 

289 
Groth, P. v., 179 
Gruber, J. G., 80 
Gubernatis, A. de, 176 
Gudger, E. W., 176 
Giinther, O., 84 
Gunther, S., 58, 118, 134, 

151, 177, 200, 252, 290 
Giintz, M., 221, 224 
Giintzel, H., 200 
Giierin, L., 173 
Guerini, V., 189 
Guerlac, H. E., 259 
Guiart, J., 204, 256, 265, 

277 
Guillaume, A., 141 
Guitard, E. H., 207, 214, 

236, 252 
Gundel, W., 133, 134 
Gunn, J. A., 160 
Gunther, R. T., 122, 126, 

214, 230, 273 
Gurlt, E. J., 85, 185 
Gurney, J. H., 176 
Guthrie, D., 185, 252 
Guye, C. E., 303 
Guyenot, E., 172 
Gyory, T., 274 

Haagensen, G. D., 185 
Haas, A. E., 160, 200 



HaberUng, W., 85, 268 
Haddon, A. C, 181 
Hafliger, J. A., 280, 287 
Haering, H., 73, 185, 189 
Hakluyt, R., 218 
Haldane, J. B. S., 95 
HaU, G. S., 182 
Haller, A. v., 174, 180, 186, 

196 
Halley, E., 19 
HaUiwell, J. O., 219, 249 
Halsted, G. B., 92, 155 
Hambly, W. D., 192 
Hamilton, W. R., 17 
Hamy, E. T., 205 
Hannequin, A., 118 
Hanotaux, G., 126 
Hansen, A., 223 
Haracourt, E., 266 
Hardin, W. L., 161 
Harley, G. W., 186 
Harrison, J., 271 
Hartmann, M., 90 
Hartmann, R., 141 
Hartner, W., 146, 154, 268 
Harvey, 172, 181 
Harvey-Gibson, R. J., 174 
Haskins, C. H., 138 
Haven, G. T., 286 
Hayem, G., 109 
Heath, T. L., 20, 21, 45, 

134 
Heathcote, N, H. de V., 

161 
Heawood, E., 177 
Hecker, J. F. K., 138, 189 
Heffening, W., 141 
Hegel, 37, 46, 126 
Heiberg, J. L., 19, 21, 24, 

135 
Heidel, W. A., 135 
Heilbronner, J. G., 152 
Heller, A., 158 
Hellmann, G., 180, 229, 

247 
Hebn, G., 163 
Helmholtz, H. v., 160 
Hemmeter, J. C, 186 
Hennig, R., 177 
Henry, J., 98 
Henschel, A. W. E. T., 

222 
Herder, 80 

Herdman, Sir W. A., 177 
Herholdt, J. D., 199 
Heron of Alexandria, 19, 

22, 196 
Herre, P., 73 
Herrick, J. B., 186 



Herrmann, A., 234 
Herschel, J., 3, 50 
Hertz, Heinrich, 160 
Heusinger, C. F., 222 
Hieron, 20 
Higgins, J. W., 287 
Higgins, T. J., 85 
Hildebrandt, K., 245 
Hill, C. F., 122, 172 
Hinneberg, P., 81 
Hintzsche, E., 204 
Hipparchos, 26, 136 
Hippocrates, 23, 25, 116, 

218, 246 
Hirsch, A., 85, 125, 189 
Hirschberg, J., 142, 186 
Hitler, 8, 9 
Hjelt, E., 165 
Hobbes, 184 
Hoefer, F., 50, 84, 165 
H0ffding, H., 183 
HoflFen, M., 186 
Hoemle, A. F. R., 144 
Hofmeister, 172 
Hogben, L., 95 
Hollander, E., 180, 186, 

202 
Holmberg, A., 278, 279 
Hobnyard, E. J., 31 
Homer, 18 

Hommel, R. P., 146, 282 
Honig, P., 145 
Honigmann, E., 135 
Hooper, A., 152 
Hoppe, E., 41, 158, 162, 

163 
Horniman, F. J., 272 
Hough, W., 285 
Houtsma, M. T., 141 
Houzeau, J. C., 157 
Hovorka, O. v., 186 
Howard, L. O., 176 
Howarth, H. E., 157 
Howarth, O. J. R., 177 
Howells, T. H., 90 
Howland, A. C., 284 
Hrosvitha, 31 
Huard, P., 146 
Hubble, E., 36 
Huber, V. A., 222 
Hubert, J. C., 205 
Hudson, P. S., 37 
Hiibotter, F., 85, 146, 186 
Hughes, E. R., 146, 147 
Hugues, L., 177 
Hulin, W. S., 182 
Hultsch, F., 135, 169 
Humbert, P., 89, 126, 157 
Humboldt, A. v., 124 



310 



Index 



Hume, E. E., 221, 284 
Humboldt, A. v., 178 
Hunt, R., 273 
Huntington, A. T., 197, 

226 
Huntington, A. M., 283 
Hurry, J. B., 13l 
Huxley, J., 37, 95, 255 
Huxley, T. H., 172 
Huygens, C, 276 
Hyrtle, J., 181 

Idrisi, 29 
Imbelloni, J., 220 
Imhotep, 131 
Infeld, L., 89, 158 
Irsay, S. d', 192 
Ishaq ibn Hunain, 18 
Ishaq al-Isra'ili, 28 
Ising, G., 279 

Jacob, Bibliophile, 138 
Jacob, E. P., 137 
Jacopo da S. Cassiano, 19 
Jaeger, W. W., 135 
Jiilins, M., 125 
Jaffe, B., 128, 165 
James, E. J., 49 
Jastrow, J., 119 
Jeans, J. H., 90 
Jenkinson, S. H., 127 
Jennison, M., 135 
Jessen, K. F. W., 174 
Jevons, W. S., 90 
Jimenez Moreno, W., 206 
Joad, C. E. M., 90 
Jocher, C. G., 84 
Johnson, M. C., 90 
Johnson, O. S., 147 
Jonah, D. A., 197 
Jones, W. H. S., 116 
Jordan, D. S., 128 
Joret, C., 174 
Jouguet, E., 160 
Joule, J. P., 273 
Jourdain, P. E. B., 86, 160 
Jussieu, 172 

Kaempffert, W., 167, 281 
Kastner, A. G., 152 
Kahlbaum, G. W. A., 229 
Kant, 36, 160, 161 
Karmarsch, K., 124, 167 
Karpinski, L. C., 154 
Kastner, K. W., 232 
Kausch, J. J., 248 
Keith, A. B., 144, 150 
Kekule, 295 



Kelly, E. C., 226 
Keltie, J. S., 177 
Kelvin, 162 

Kenleyside, H. L., 148 
Kennelly, A. E., 169 
Kepler, 3, 17, 38, 49 
Keys, T. E., 186, 188 
Khairallah, A. A., 142 
Khaldiin, ibn, 28, 29 
Khwarizmi, 28, 32, 140 
Kibre, P., 138 
Kilgour, F. G., 220, 250 
Kimble, G. H. T., 138, 177 
Kircher, A., 274, 288 
Klatzkin, J., 140 
Klebs, A. C., 138, 214, 283 
Klein, F., 152 
Klein, G., 198 
Kleinert, C. F., 106 
Klemm, O., 182 
Klibansky, R., 273 
Klimpert, R., 169 
Klinckowstroem, C. v., 216, 

223 
Knight, E. H., 167 
Kobell, F., 124, 179 
Koch, C. R. E., 189 
Koch, R., 196, 270 
Koster, A., 168 
Kotter, E., 154 
Komarov, V. L., 278 
Kopp, Hermann, 50, 124, 

165, 246 
Koren, J., 155 
Kraemer, H., 167 
Krause, J. G., 108 
Krause, P., 199 
Krauss, S., 140 
Kremers, E., 191, 282 
Kroeber, A. L., 181 
Kronfeld, A., 186, 203 
Krumbacher, K., 139 
Krumbhaar, E. B., 211 
Ktesibios, 196 
Kiihn, C. G., 227 
Kiister, E., 171 
Kiister (-Neocorus), L., 

106 
Kugler, F. X., 132 
Kuhhnann, F., 113 
Kumer, E., 195 
Kunz, G. F., 283 

Lacour, p., 116, 159 
Lacroix, P., 138 
Ladenburg, A., 164, 165 
La Fontaine, H., 301 
Lagoudaky, S., 218 
Lagrange, L., 155, 160 



Laignel-Lavastine, M., 186, 

218, 256 
Lain Entralgo, P., 210 
Lamarck, 172 
Lamine, J., 119 
La Monte, J. L., 284 
Lamouche, A., 90 
Lampe, E., 221, 290 
Lancaster, A., 157 
Landheer, B., 127 
Langdon, W. C., 287 
Lange, F. A., 119 
Langer, W. L., 75 
Langlois, C. V., 72 
Laplace, 161 
Lardner, D., 120 
Large, E. C., 174 
La Ronciere, C. de, 177 
Larousse, P., 80 
Lasarev, P. P., 252 
Lasswitz, K., 119, 165 
La Torre, F., 190 
Lattronico, N., 209, 212, 

239 
Laue, M. v., 51, 159 
Launay, L. de, 179 
Laussedat, A., 266 
Lavoisier, 165 
Law, N. N., 144 
Lazzeri, G., 231 
Lea, H. C., 283 
Le Bon, G., 206 
Lecat, M., 160 
Le Chatelier, H., 90, 211 
Leclainche, E., 191 
Leclerc, L., 142 
Lecomte du Nouy, P., 90, 

303 
Lee, R. E., 65 
Lefebvre des Noettes, R., 

168 
Leibniz, 124, 155, 183 
Leicester, H. M., 210 
Lelewel, J., 138 
Le Lionnais, F., 119, 152 
Lemaitre, G., 36 
Lemale, A. G., 169 
Lemoine, J., 211 
Lemos, M., 201 
Lenard, P., 119, 160 
Lenz, H. O., 135 
Lenzen, V. F., 91 
Leon of Thessalonica, 18 
Leonardo, R. A., 190 
Leonardo da Vinci, 35, 43, 

89, 127, 158, 198, 234, 

239, 240, 243 
Leopold of the Belgians, 6 
Leveille, A., 266 



Index 



311 



Leveque, C, 183 

Leverrier, 113 

Levi della Vida, G., 274 

Levi-Provengal, E., 141 

Levinson, A., 226 

Levy, H., 91 

Lewin, L., 191 

Lexa, F., 131 

Libby, W., 119, 186 

Li Ch'iao-p'ing, 147, 165 

Lichtenberger, J. P., 193 

Lieben, F., 165 

Lilley, S., 95 

Lima, G. A. de, 196 

Lindsay, J., 95 

Lindsay, T. M., 150 

Linnaeus, 172 

Lipbn, H. C, 198 

Lippert, J., 142 

Lippmann, E. O. v., 45, 

165 
Littre, 78, 116 
Littrow, J. J. v., 49 
Livingstone, Sir R. W., 135 
Lloyd, C. G., 214, 281 
Lloyd, H., 17 
Lloyd, J. U., 208, 214, 281 
Lloyd, W. E. B., 185 
Locher-Ernst, L., 202 
Lockeman, G., 200 
Locy, W. A., 172 
Low, L, 140 
Lohrmann, W. G., 268 
Loisel, G., 176 
Lomonosov, M. V., 242 
Long, E. R., 186 
Lorentz, H. A., 160 
Loria, G., 73, 135, 150, 

152, 155, 207, 255 
Losskij, N., 81 
Lote, R., 126 
Lotsy, J. P., 109, 174 
Lotze, H., 124 
Lovejoy, A. O., 248 
Lovi^ie, R. H., 181 
Lowry, T. M., 165 
Lucas, A., 131 
Ludendorff, H., 242 
Liideke, C. W., 101 
Liidy, F., Jr., 165 
Liitjeharms, W. J., 174 
Lufkin, A. W., 189 
Lynam, E., 218, 220 
Lysenko, T. D., 37 

Maar, v., 227 
Mabilleau, L., 119, 165 
Mach, E., 86, 160, 161, 
162 



MacLeod, A., 278 
MacLeod, J., 113 
Macmullen, J., 226 
Magalotti, L., 34 
Magie, W. F., 159 
Magnus, H., 196 
Mahani, 18 
Mahmud ibn Muhammad 

al-Isfahani, 19 
Maimonides, 28, 29, 142, 

247 
Major, R. H., 187 
Majumdar, G. P., 144 
Makemson, M. W., 157 
Malcles, L. N., 72 
Mallik, D. N., 162 
Mallinckrodt, E., 281 
Mallisoff, W. M., 232 
Malte-Brun, 198 
McKie, D., 161, 198 
Manning, H. P., 25, 131 
Marcolongo, R., 160 
Marconi, 7, 127 
Margenau, H., 91 
Margerie, E. de, 179 
Marguet, F., 168 
Mariadassou, 144 
Marie, M., 152 
Marinus, A., 301 
Markham, Sir C., 144, 177 
Marrou, H. L, 135 
Marshall, C., 65 
Martin, R., 268 
Martin, R. M., 267 
Marum, M. van, 275 
Marx, K., 37 
Marzell, H., 174 
Mascart, J., 153 
Mascherpa, P., 274 
Maseres, F., 162 
Mason, O. T., 167, 285 
Mason, S. F., 274 
Mason, S. L., 179 
Massain, R., 159 
Masson-Oursel, P., 144, 

183 
Mastrorilh, M., 201 
Mather, K. F., 179 
Matschoss, C., 161, 203 
Matthiessen, L., 154 
Mayer, C. F., 105, 194, 

195, 208, 220, 231, 274, 

284, 292 
Mayer, R., 158 
Mayo, C. A., 282 
Mees, C. E. K., 96 
Meira, J. de, 201 
Meisen, V., 125 
Meissner, B., 132 



Meitzen, A., 155 
Mely, F. de, 147 
Mencke, O., 108 
Mendel, 175 
Mendeleyev, 278 
Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, A., 

261 
Menendez y Pelayo, M., 

128 
Menshutkin, B. N., 223, 

242 
Mercator, G., 263 
Mercer, H. C., 282 
Mercier, D., 182 
Merton, R. K., 94, 96 
Merz, J. T., 119 
Mettler, C. C., 187 
Metzger-Briihl, H., 91, 179 
Meunier, L., 187 
Meunier, S., 179 
Meyer, A., 261 
Meyer, A. W., 181 
Meyer, E. H. F. v., 165, 

174 
Meyer, K., 161 
Meyer-Abich, A., 172, 232 
Meyer-Steineg, T., 187, 

222, 269, 270 
Meyerhof, M., 140, 142 
Meyer's Lexikon, 80 
Meyerson, E., 91 
Miall, L. C., 172 
Michalski, S., 230 
Michaud, J., 84 
Michaud, L. G., 84 
Michel, A., 45 
Michel, H., 122, 263 
Michel, J., 161 
Michel, P. H., 135 
Mieli, A., 133, 142, 200, 

211, 238, 239, 253, 262 
Mikami, Y., 146, 148, 195 
Miles, G. C., 142, 169 
MiDiam, W. L, 170 
Milhaud, G., 119, 135, 290 
Millas Vallicrosa, J. M., 

128 
Miller, D. C., 159, 163 
Miller, O. v., 269 
Milne, 90 
Mirsky, J., 177 
Mitchell, M., 288 
Mitchell, S. A., 157 
Mitman, C. W., 285 
Mittasch, A., 165 
Mittwoch, E., 142 
Mobius, M., 174 
M0ller-Christensen, V., 196 
Moerbeke, William of, 22 



312 



Index 



Moholy, L., 171 
Molard, F. E., 265 
Molinier, A., 73 
Mondor, H., 181 
Monge, 154 
Monroe, P., 192 
Monteiro, A. C, 231 
Montessus de Ballore, F. 

de, 179 
Montgolfier, J. M., 265 
Montremy, 266 
Montucla, J. E., 49, 117, 

119, 152 
Monzie, A. de, 266 
Mookerji, R., 144 
Moore, C. N., 62 
Moore, F. J., 165 
Moreri, L., 78 
Moretus, J., 262 
Morison, M., 75 
Morison, S. E., 281 
Mortet, v., 290 
Moss, H. St. L. B., 139 
Mosteller, F., 259 
Mottelay, P. F., 163 
Moule, L., 191 
Muehlmann, W. E., 182 
Miiller, F., 150, 152 
Miiller, J., 124, 175 
Miiller, O. F., 196 
Miiller-Freienfels, R., 182 
Miiller-Lyer, F., 193 
Muir, M. M. P., 166 
Muir, Sir T., 154 
Muntendam, A. M., 275 
Murphy, G., 182 
Musschenbroek, P. van, 34 



Nagel, E., 88 
Nallino, C. A., 142 
Nansen, F., 177 
Napoleon, 111 
Nash, L. K., 117 
Nasir al-din al-Tusi, 32 
Nathanson, J., 96 
Needham, D., 147 
Needham, J., 96, 127, 147, 

181 
Neuburger, A., 135, 168 
Neuburger, Max, 181, 187, 

196, 229, 227, 262 
Neudeck, G., 168 
Neugebauer, O., 130, 132, 

215, 234 
Neurath, O., 81, 91 
Newhall, B., 171 
Newshobne, Sir A., 189 
Newton, A., 245 



Newton, I., 3, 17, 35, 87, 
119, 160, 161, 165 

Nicholas V, 19 

Nicholson, E., 169 

Nicol, 41 

Nicolle, C., 91 

Nieuwenhuis, A. W., 222 

Nightingale, F., 6, 16 

Ninck, M., 135 

Nippoldt, A., 91 

Nitardy, F. W., 287 

Nordenskiold, A. E., 138, 
172, 178 

Nordstrom, J., 128, 225, 
250 

Northrop, F. S. C., 91 

Nutting, M. A., 187 

Ofele, F. v., 171 
Oersted, 17 
Oettingen, A. v., 223 
Oken, L., 101, 112 
Older, J., 128 
Olivier, E., 216 
Olsen, 0., 178 
Ore, 0., 154 
O'Reilly, M. F., 163 
Orfila, M., 266 
Organ, T. W., 78 
Omstein, M., Ill 
Osbom, H. F., 172 
Osier, Sir W., 187, 232 
Ostwald, W., 40, 51, 117, 

166, 217, 223 
Oudemans, A. C., 176 

Packard, F. R., 198 
Paetow, L. J., 73 
Pagel, J. L., 187 
Panckoucke, C. J., 79 
Pansier, P., 213 
Paoli, H. J., 212 
Papillon, F., 183 
Paracelsus, 196, 230 
Paramananda Mariadassou, 

144 
Parsons, W. B., 168 
Partington, J. R., 130, 166 
Pasi, B. di, 169 
Pasteur, L., 265, 266 
Pater, W., 46 
Paucton, A. J. P., 169 
Paul, St., 30 
Pauly-Wissowa, 78 
Pazzini, A., 187, 220, 241, 

233, 275 
Peake, C. H., 147 
Pearson, K., 6, 16, 87, 159 
Peattie, D. C., 172 



Peet, T. E., 25, 130 
Pellett, F. C., 176 
Pelseneer, J., 91, 250, 263 
Pemberton, H., 172 
Pendray, E., 122 
Penniman, T. K., 182 
Pensuti, V., 202, 237 
Perna, A., 257 
Perrier, E., 176 
Perrier, G., 178 
Perrin, J., 266 
Perry, R. B., 184 
Perthes, J., 108 
Peschel, O., 124, 178 
Peter the Stranger, 34 
Peters, H., 191 
Petrie. Sir W. M. F., 131, 

169 
Petrunkevitch, A. I., 127 
Peypers, H. F. A., 222 
Phidias, 18 
PhiUimore, R. H., 144 
Phillippe, A., 191 
Phillips, P. L., 178 
Philon, 196 
Piazzi, G., 37 

Picard, E., 126, 155, 208 
Picavet, F., 138, 183 
Pickering, C., 174 
Pictet, R., 161 
Pillsbury, W. B., 183 
Pines, S., 142, 216 
Pla, C., 96, 162, 262 
Planck, M., 91, 161 
Plantin, C., 262 
Plato, 8, 24, 36, 43, 89, 

135, 136, 156, 158 
Pledge, H. T., 120, 271 
Phny, 78 
Ploetz, 75 
Pluche, 5 
Poggendorf, J. C., 85, 98, 

159 
Pogo, A., 231 
Poincare, H., 10, 92 
Poincare, L., 126 
Polhem, C., 279 
Politzer, A., 187 
Pontonniee, G., 171 
Portheim-Stiftung, J., 269 
Poske, F., 195 
Postolka, A., 191 
Potamian, 163 
Potonie, H., 102 
Powell, B., 120 
Power, Sir D'A., 187 
Powicke, F. M., 192 
Prantl, C. v., 149 
Prasad, G., 152 



Index 



313 



Pratt, I. A., 131, 132 
Premuda, L., 212 
Preuss, J., 140 
Priestley, J., 117, 162, 163 
Prieur, A., 207, 216 
Prinzing, F., 189 
Pritchard, J. B., 130 
Pritzel, G. A., 174 
Proksch, J. K., 189 
Proskauer, C, 224, 233 
Provenzal, G., 202, 209 
Ptolemy, 3, 23, 26, 28, 33 
Purbach, 122 
Purcell, v., 147 
Purkine, 264 
Puschmann, T., 187, 269 
Pusey, W. A., 187 
Putzger, F. W., 76 
Pythagoras, 135 

QaSLM, ABU-L-, 28 

QiftI, al-, 116 
Quatregas, A. de, 182 
Quesneville, 102 
Quetelet, A., 5, 6, 7, 16, 
125, 300 

Radcliffe, W., 176 
Radhakumuda, 144 
Radl, E., 172 
Rahmer, S., 217 
Ramakrishna, S., 143, 144 
Ramsay, Sir W., 166 
Ramsperger, A. G., 92 
Randall, J. H., Jr., 248 
Ransome, H. M., 176 
Rashdall, H., 192 
Raumer, R. v., 124 
Raveau, H., 218 
Ravily, J., 201 
Ray, D. N., 144 
Ray, J., 235 
Ray, P. C, 144 
Razi, al, 28, 32 
Read, B. E., 147 
Read, J., 166, 210 
Reed, H. S., 175 
Rees, A., 79 
Regiomontanus, 19 
Reichenbach, G. v., 270 
Reichenbach, H., 92, 122 
Renan, E., 297 
Renaud, H. P. J., 141 
Repsold, J. A., 122 
Rey, Abel, 92, 161, 237, 

240, 254, 265 
Rey Pastor, J., 204, 212 
Reymond, A., 136, 255, 

303 



Ribera y Tarrago, J., 142 
Ricci, J. v., 190 
Rich, I., 264 
Richens, R. H., 37 
Richet, C., 106, 225 
Richtmann, Dr., 282 
Rickard, T. A., 179 
Rieck, W., 204, 243 
Rijnberk, G. van, 206 
Ritchie, A. D., 92 
Ritter, C., 77, 124, 178 
Rixner, T. A., 224 
Roback, A. A., 140 
Roberts, H. F., 175 
Roberts, L., 169 
Robertson, E. W., 170 
Robertson, J. D., 170 
Robin, L., 136 
Robinson, H. W., 198 
Robinson, V., 218, 226 
Rochas d'Aiglun, A. de, 

136 
Roentgen, 17 
Rogers, A., 168 
Rohde, A., 122 
Rohlfs, G., 214 
Rohlfs, H., 214 
Rohr, M. v., 122, 171, 215 
Roller, D., 117 
Romanoff, A. L., 176 
Ronalds, Sir F., 163 
Roncali, D. B., 201 
Ronchi, v., 162 
Rooseboom, M., 275 
Rooses, M., 262 
Roscher, W., 124 
Rosen, G., 187 
Rosenberger, F., 159 
Rosenthal, F., 273 
Rosenthal-Schneider, I., 

161 
Rosenwald, J., 281 
Rossiter, A. P., 120 
Rotermund, H. W., 84 
Roth, C., 140 
Roucek, J. S., 139 
Rousseau, 5 
Rouyer, J., 123 
Royce, J., 81, 92 
Ruch, T. C., 176 
Rudio, F., 25, 242 
Rudnykh, S. P., 278 
Riihlinann, M., 161 
Ruge, A., 81 
Ruhrah, J., 187 
Rumford, B., 288 
Rushd, ibn, 28, 29 
Ruska, J., 31, 45, 196, 199, 

218, 222, 234, 267, 269 



Russell, B. A. W., 183 
Rutherford, 273 
Rutten, L. M. R., 146 
Rytz, W., 204 



Sabbe, M., 262 

Sachs, J. v., 124, 175 

Sacombe, J. F., 225 

Sadosky, M., 241 

Sageret, J., 157 

Sa'id, ibn, 116 

Salaman, R. N., 175 

Sallet, A., 146 

Salmon, W., 247 

Sand, R., 188 

Sandvig, A., 276 

Sanford, V., 152 

Santillana, G. de, 118, 134, 
275 

Sarkar, B. K., 145, 193 

Sartiaux, E., 163 

Sarton, G., 17, 35, 38, 40, 
43, 49, 50, 73, 78, 79, 
82, 115, 136, 138, 150, 
221, 231, 254, 255, 256 

Saunier, C., 171 

Saussure, L. de, 147 

Savorgnan di Brazza, F., 
127 

Saxl, F., 272, 273 

Schaaf, W. L., 152 

Schaumberger, J., 132 

Schelenz, H., 191 

Scheuchzer, J. J., 275 

SchiapareUi, G. V., 136 

Schiefer, C., 235 

Schlegel, G., 147 

Schleiden, M. J., 140 

Schmid, A., 204 

Schmidt, E. O., 172, 181 

Schmidt, F., 123 

Schmidt, W. J., 171 

Schmidt-Ott, F., 126 

Schmidt's Jahrbiicher, 109 

Schmieder, K. C., 166 

Schnabel, F., 126 

Schneewind, W., 279 

Schneider, I., 161 

Schoen, M., 188 

Schonbauer, L., 203 

Schone, H., 19 

Schone, R., 19 

Scholz, H., 149 

Schoy, K., 170 

Schram, R., 145 

Schrodinger, E., 92 

Schrbteler, J., 192 

Schroeter, M., 196 



314 



Index 



Schuhl, P. M., 136 

Schullian, D. M., 188 

Schulz, O., 196 

Schurmann, P. F., 159 

Schuster, A., 126 

Schuster, J., 196, 200, 
240 

Schwalbe, E., 188 

Schwarz, P., 234 

Scott, G. L., 79 

Scott, H., 8 

Schoy, C, 19 

Schrecker, P., 43 

Scott, H. H., 188 

Seal, Sir B., 145 

Sedgwick, W. T., 120 

Seedorf, W., 221 

Seeger, F., 226 

Segal, L., 178 

Seippel, P., 112 

Sergescu, P., 152, 200, 253, 
255, 256 

Sevensma, T. P., 127 

Sewell, R., 145 

Shapley, H., 36, 157 

Shaw, Sir W. N., 180 

Shcherbatskii, F. I., 150 

Shepherd, W. R., 76 

Sherborn, C. D., 289 

Shinjo, S., 148 

Shipley, A. E., 126 

Shoen, H. H., 6 

Shryock, R. H., 188, 280 

Siber, T., 224 

Siebold, E. K. J. v., 190 

Siebold, J. B. v., 247 

Sieglin, W., 234 

Siewert, 102 

Sigerist, H. E., 96, 128, 
188, 199, 203, 208, 224, 
229, 233, 239, 244, 254, 
261, 269, 277, 280 

Sikio (-Sickius), H., 106 

Silla, L., 113, 127 

Silliman, 101 

Silow, A., 278 

Simon, I., 236 

Simon, M., 20, 136 

Simons, C. M., 282 

Simplicios, 25 

Sina, ibn, 24, 28, 32 

Singer, C, 120, 136, 138, 
139, 166, 173, 181, 188, 
209, 211, 226, 239, 254, 
255 

Singer, I., 140 

Singh, A. N., 143 

Smith, D. E., 136, 148, 
153, 154, 253 



Smidi, E. F., 210, 284 
Smith, E., 131 
Smith, Sir F., 191 
Smith, F. P., 147 
Smith, H. M., 166 
Smuts, J. C, 92 
Snowman, J., 140 
Soddy, F., 96, 166 
Soderberg, S., 279 
Sorensen, E., 195 
Solovine, M., 225 
Sommerville, D, M'L. Y., 

155 
Sophocles, 18 
Sortais, G. (S.J.), 183 
Sowerby, A. de C., 147 
Spengel, L., 116 
Sperner, E., 221 
Speter, M., 50 
Spottiswoode, W., 80 
Sprengel, K. P. J., 175, 188, 

203 
Stadler, H., 200 
Stackel, P., 154 
Stagg, J. M., 296 
Stapleton, H. E., 31 
Stas, J., 263 
Staudt, 155 
Stcherbalsky, T., 150 
Steam, A. E., 190 
Steam, E. W., 190 
Stefansson, V., 178 
Stein, L., 200 
Steinmetz, 288 
Steinschneider, M., 80 
Stendel, J., 249 
Stenzel, J., 234 
Stephenson, 7 
Stemer, M., 153 
Stevenson, E. L., 178 
Stevenson, W., 168 
Stevin, S., 38 

Sticker, G., 190, 246, 270 
Stillman, J. M., 166 
Stintzing, R., 124 
Stoeckel, W., 190 
Stokvis, A. M. H. J., 75 
Straub, H., 168 
Strecker, K., 31 
Strohl, J., 216 
Strong, R. M., 176 
Stroppiana, L., 275 
Struik, D. J., 153 
Strunz, F., 138, 166, 223 
Stuart, G. A., 147 
Studer, T., 112 
Stiibe, R., 234 
Sudhoff, K., 45, 112, 138, 

187, 188, 189, 196, 199. 



200, 223, 229, 239, 246, 
249, 254, 255, 268, 269, 
290, 303 

Siissenguth, A., 164, 270 

Sugiura, S., 150 

Suidas, 19, 22 

Summervogel, C., 228 

Suter, H., 142, 153 

Sydenham, 240 

Sykes, Sir P. M., 178 

Szumowski, W., 277 

Taine, 46 
Tannery, M., 120 
Tannery, P., 25, 31, 45, 48, 

81, 120, 136, 290 
Tarchi, A., 212 
Tartaglia, 19 
Taton, R., 153, 250, 299 
Taylor, F. A., 285 
Taylor, F. S., 120, 166, 

198, 271, 274 
Taylor, H. O., 136 
Tegetmeier, W. B., 245 
TeLxeira, C., 251 
Tergohna, U., 249 
Terquem, O., 107, 207 
Tertsch, H., 179 
Testi, G., 166, 202 
Teyler, P., 275 
Thabit ibn Qurra, 18, 19 
Thales, 136, 172 
Theodosios of Bithynia, 19, 

22 
Theophrastos, 172 
Thierfelder, J. C., 222 
Thirion, J., 136 
Thomas, A. F., 148 
Thomas, E., 145, 170 
Thomas, E. R., 211 
Thomas, I., 137 
Thomas, J., 77, 84 
Thomas, St., 35 
Thompson, C. J. S., 123, 

188, 271 
Thompson, H., 168 
Thompson, J. W., 139 
Thompson, R. C., 132 
Thompson, S., 182, 296 
Thoms, H., 190 
Thomson, H. W., 145 
Thomson, J. O., 137, 178 
Thomdike, L., 120, 139, 

254 
Thornton, J. E., 96 
Thorpe, Sir T. E., 166 
Thureau-Dangin, F., 132 
Thurston, R. H., 168 
Todd, A. J., 193 



Index 



315 



Todhunter, I., 155, 156, 

159, 161 
Toepli, R. v., 262 
Toeplitz, O., 234 
Tolkowsky, S., 175 
Torricelli, 274 
Tory, H. M., 125 
Toulouse, E., 81 
Towne, H. R., 283 
Tozer, H. F., 137, 178 
Tradescant, Sr. J., 273 
Traumiiller, F., 158 
Treharne, R. F., 76 
Triaire, P., 237 
Tricot-Royer, J., 245, 256 
Troilo, E., 211 
TrommsdorflF, J. B., 247 
Tropfke, J., 153 
Trzebinski, S., 277 
Tukey, J., 259 
Tunberg, S., 278 
Turner, D. M., 163 
Tyler, H. W., 120 

UccELLi, A,, 121, 168 
Ueberweg, F., 150, 184 
Onver, A. S., 242, 245 
Uhles, E., 200 
Ulich, R., 192 
Ulldal, Dr., 277 
'Umar Khayyam, 28, 32 
Unanue, J. H., 242 
Underwood, E. A., 272 
lingerer. A., 171 
Unteutsch, K., 195 
Urbain, G., 121 
Urdang, G., 191, 282, 287 
Usaibi'a, ibn abi, 116 
Usher, A. P., 168 
Uzlik, F. N., 242 

Valdizan, H., 242 
Vallery-Radot, P., 265 
Van Bemmelen, J. A., 109 
Van Damme, D., 263 
Van Deman, E. B., 137 
Van der Burg, C. L., 222 
Van der Klaauw, C. J., 275 
Vandermonde, C. A., 265 
Van de Velde, A. J. J., 114, 

263 
van Leersum, E. C, 222, 

250 
Van Overbergh, C, 125 
Vaucanson, J. de, 265 
Vazquez Queipo, V., 170 
Venable, F. P., 166 
Verdet, E., 162 



Verdoorn, F., 145, 206, 
209, 231, 256, 284, 294 

Verdoorn, J. G., 209 

Verga, E., 234 

Vesalius, 17 

Vetter, Q., 255, 264 

Victoria, 6 

Vidyabhusana, S. C., 150 

Viedebantt, O., 137, 170 

Vierordt, H., 85, 188 

Vincent, A., 125 

Vitruvius, 22 

Vivien de Saint Martin, L., 
178 

VoUgraff, J. A., 250, 256 

Volta, 17, 162 

Voltaire, 5, 44 

WaFa', ABU-L-, 28 

Wainwright, G. A., 132 
Waitz, G., 73 
Walcott, G. D., 238 
Walker, H. M., 156 
Wallace, W. S., 125 
Waller, R., 34 
Walsh, J. J., 163, 188 
Walter, E., 280 
Walzer, R., 20, 273 
Warburg, A., 272, 273 
Warmington, E. H., 137 
Wasserloss, E., 226 
Waterfield, R. L., 157 
Watson, D. L., 96 
Wavre, R., 216 
Weaver, W., 97 
Weaver, W. D., 163 
Weber, A., 184 
Weber, E., 204 
Weber, R. E. J., 276 
Webster, 77, 84 
Week, W., 146 
Weeks, M. E., 166 
Weevers, T., 175 
Wegele, F. X., 125 
Wegner, R. N., 181 
Wehrh, G. A., 280 
Weidner, E. F., 132 
Weil, E., 17 
Weinberg, G., 241 
Weinberger, B. W., 189 
Weindler, F., 181, 190 
Weinreich, M., 8 
Weissenborn, H., 155 
Weizsacker, C. F. v., 92 
Welch, W. H., 222, 280 
Wellcome, Sir H., 271 
Wensinck, A. J., 141 
Werkmeister, W. H., 93 
Werner, K., 124 



Wernich, A., 85 
Westaway, F. W., 93 
Westergaard, H., 156 
Westgren, A., 279 
Weule, K., 178 
Weyl, H., 93 
Weyl, T., 188 
Wheatland, D. P., 281 
Wheeler, S. S., 163 
Whetham, C. D., 118 
Whetham, M. D., 118 
Whetham, see Dampier 
Whetzel, H. H., 175 
Whewell, W., 15, 49, 86, 

121 
Whipple, R. S., 270 
White, A. D., 121 
White, J. H., 167 
Whitehead, A. N., 93 
Whitrow, G. J., 157 
Whittaker, E. T., 163 
Wickersheimer, E., 139 
Wiedemann, E., 203, 238 
Wieleitner, H., 153 
Wightman, W. P. D., 121 
Wilcox, O. R., 178 
Wilde, E., 162 
Wilhelm, IV, Landgraf, 

267 
Willem of Moerbeke, 18, 

24 
Willius, F. A., 181, 188 
WiUughby, F., 245 
Wind, E., 273 
Windelband, W., 81, 134 
Windred, G., 161 
Winslow, G. E. A., 190 
Winsor, C., 259 
Wintner, A., 161 
Winternitz, M., 145 
Wise, T. A., 189 
Wissowa, G., 78 
Withington, E. T., 189 
Witkowski, G. J., 190 
Wittkower, R., 273 
Wittwer, P. L., 199 
Witz, A., 163 
Wolf, A., 50, 93, 121 
Wolf, K., 245 
Wolf, R., 37, 124, 157 
Wolff, G., 226 
Wong, K. C., 148, 251, 264 
Wood, C. A., 176 
Woody, T., 192 
Woolhouse, W. S. B., 170 
Wootton, A. C., 191 
Worrell, W. H., 23 
Wren, G., 271 
Wright, J. K., 139 



316 



Index 



Wright, J., 189 
Wright, S. L., 284 
Wright, T., 219 
Wrzosek, A., 277 
Wu Lien-teh, 148 
Wycherley, R. E., 137 



Yeldham, F. a., 154 
Youmans, W. J., 128 



Young, J., 164, 270 
Yperman, 245 
Yule, Sir H., 148 
Yusuf al-Khuri, 18 

Zach, F. X. v., 37 
Zaunick, R., 229 
Zedler, J. H., 79 
ZeUer, E., 124 
Zenneck, J., 195 



Zeuthen, H. G., 22, 137, 

153, 290, 303 
Zichy, I., 205 
Zimmer, H. R., 145 
Zimmer, J. T., 176 
Zinner, E., 157, 238 
Zinsser, H., 190 
Zirkle, C, 37, 173, 175 
Zittel, K. A., 125, 179 
Znaniecki, F., 97