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State of Connecticut 

State Geological and Natural History Survey 
BULLETIN NO. 39 



GUIDE 

TO THE 

Insects of Connecticut 

PART V 

The Odonata or Dragonflies 
of Connecticut 



By 

PHILIP GARMAN, Ph.D. 

Assistant Entomologist, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station 




HARTFORD 

Published by the State 
1927 



state of Connecticut 

PUBLIC DOCUMENT No. 47 



State Geological and Natural 
History Survey 

W. E. BRITTON, Superintendent 



BULLETIN NO. 39 




HARTFORD 
Printed for the State Geological and Natural History Survey 

1927 



State Geological and Natural History Survey 



COMMISSIONERS 

John H. Trumbull, Governor of Connecticut 
James Rowland Angell, President of Yale University 
James Lukens McConaughy, President of Wesleyan University 
Remsen Brinckerhoff Ogilby, President of Trinity College 
Charles Lewis Beach, President of Connecticut Agricultural College 
Benjamin Tinkham Marshall, President of Connecticut College for 
Women 

SUPERINTENDENT 

W. E. Britton 

Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven 



DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE AGENT 

George S. Gtodard 

State Library, Hartford 



Publication approved by the Board of Control 






^(N/-r GUIDE 



Insects of Connecticut 



PART V 

The Odonata or Dragonflies 
of Connecticut 

By 
PHILIP GARMAN, Ph.D. 

Assistant Entomologist, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station 




HARTFORD 
Printed for the State Geological and Natural History Survey 

I9?7 



GUIDE TO THE INSECTS OF CONNECTICUT 

Part I. Introduction. By W. E. Britton. Bulletin i6. 

Part II. Euplexoptera and Orthoptera. By B. H. Walden. 

Bulletin i6. 

Part III. Hymenoptera. By H, L. Viereck, Messrs. MacGilliv- 

ray, Brues, Wheeler and Rohwer. 
Bulletin 22. 

Part IV. Hemiptera. By W. E, Britton, Messrs. Abbott, Baker, 

Barber, Davis, De Long, Funkhouser, 
Knight, Maxson, Osborn, Parshley, 
Stearns, Bueno, Van Duzee, Wilson, 
and Miss Patch. Bulletin 34. 

Part V. Odonata. By Philip Garman. Bulletin 39. 



Check List of the Insects of Connecticut. By W. E. Britton. 

Bulletin 31. 



>!**«' 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction •••••..,... ii 

I. Biology and Morphology, Collection and Illustration . .11 

Habits and Life History ....... 11 

Parasites and Enemies ••..... 15 

General Characters of the Odonata 16 

External Anatomy of the Dragonfly 18 

Body Structure ......... 20 

Adult 20 

Nymph .......... 27 

How to Distinguish the Sexes ...... 29 

Variability in the Odonata 29 

Collecting and Preserving ....... 31 

Illustrations .......... 33 

II. Taxonomy 

Suborder Zygoptera ••••.... 35 

Family Coenagrionidae ....... 35 

Family Agrionidae ........ 108 

Suborder Anisoptera . . . . . . . .115 

Family Petaluridae 1 16 

Family Cordulegasteridae . . . . . .118 

Family Gomphidae ........ 124 

Family Aeshnidae ........ 169 

Family Libellulidae ........ 198 

III. Bibliography .......... 295 

Species of Odonata Treated ....... 297 

Statistics ........... 299 

Collectors' Names ......... 299 

Glossary 300 

Acknowledgments ......... 305 

Index ........... 329 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

TEXT FIGURES 

1. Adult Zygopteron (Lestes vigilax) showing parts. 

2. Adult Anisopteron (Anax Junius) showing parts, (Somatochlora 

linearis) portion of wing. 

3. Heads of Odonata viewed from above, (a) Zygoptera, (b) Anisoptera 

( Ophiogomphus ) . 

4. Wing veins of fossil damsel flies, (a) Kennedya mirabilis Till. Tar- 

sophlebiopsis mnyi Till. (c) Chromagrion conditum, a modern 
species for comparison. 

5. Nymph of Zygopteron {Ischnura verticalis) showing parts. 

6. Nymph of Anisopteron (Basiaeschna Janata) showing parts. 

7. Labia of dragonfly nymphs, various species. 

8. Diagram of net for collecting nymphs. 

9. Front wings of different genera of Zygoptera adults. 

10. Anal appendages of Lestes, Agrion, Argia and Amphiagrion. 
[I. Anal appendages of Enallagma, Ischnura, Anomalagrion and Chro- 
magrion. 
12. Mesostigmal plates of the females of Enallagma, Argia and Nehallenia, 
and the last four abdominal segments of Enallagma species. 

Cordulegaster species, structural details and color patterns. 

Structural details of Ophiogomphus species. 

Structural details of Ophiogoviphus m,ainensis Packard. 

Structural details of Ophiogomphus howei B. 

Abdomens of Gomphus nymphs. 

Last four segments of Gomphus spicatus and G. ventricosus. 

Tip of abdomen of Gomphus ventricosus. 

Vulvar lamina of Gomphus species. 

Gomphus, accessory genitalia and anal appendages of the males and 
occipita of the females. 

Gomphus, color pattern of meso- and metathorax. 

Gomphus fratemus, cra-ssus and externus, structural details after Cal- 
vert. 

Tachopteryx thoreyi, ovipositor and anal appendages ; Anax longipes, 
A. Junius, Basiaeschna Janata, Hagenius brevistylus, Gomphaeschna 
furcillata, and Cordulegaster maculatus, anal appendages of the male. 

Aeshna umbrosa, accessory genitalia. 

Aeshna umbrosa, ovipositor. 

Aeshna caerulia septentrionalis, structural details. 

A. juncea, structural details. 

A. canadensis, structural details. 

A. clepsydra, structural details. 

A. eremita, structural details. 

A. interrupta, structural details. 

A. tuberculifera, structural details. 

A. verticalis. structural details. 



8 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

35. A. constricta, structural details. 

36. A. umbrosa, structural details. 
27. A. mutata, structural details. 

38. Aeshna species, color patterns. 

39. Epiaeschna heros, wings, and outline of body. 

40. Libellula and Tetragoneuria, structural details of thorax. 

41. Didymops transversa, wings. 

42. Somatochlora provocans and Tellealagma daeckii, structural details. 

43. and 44. Somatochlora elongata, nymph, and adult structures. 
45, and 46. Somatochlora minor, nymph, and adult structures. 

47. Somatochlora walshii, anal appendages of adult. 

48, and 49. S. williamsoni, nymph, and adult structures. 
50, and 51. 5". linearis, nymph, and adult structures. 

52, and SZ. S. tenebrosa, nymph, and adult structures. 

54. S. forcipata, adult structures. 

55, and 56. 5". franklini, nymph, and adult structures. 
57, and 58. 6". kennedyi, nymph, and adult structures. 
59, and 60. S. albicincta, nymph, and adult structures. 
61, and 62. S. cingulata, nymph, and adult structures. 

63. Libellula, Plathemis, Tetragoneuria and Tramea, structural details of 

adults. 

64. Plathemis lydia, labium of nymph. 

65. Perithemis domitia, labium of nymph. 

66. Erythemis simplicicollis, labium. 

6y. Sympetrum species, accessory appendages and vulvar lamina. 



PLATES 

I. Tracheal gills of Zygoptera nymphs, i. Lestes imguiculatus. 2. 
L. vigilax. 3. L. congener. 4. L. eurinus. 5. L. disjunctus. 

6. L. uncatus. 7. Enallagma geminatum. 8. E. ehrimn. 9. E. 
hageni. 10. E. calverti. 11, E. durum. 12. E. doublcdayi. 

II. Tracheal gills of Zygoptera nymphs, i. Ischnura verticalis. 2. 
Chromagrion conditum. 3. Enallagma carunculatum. 4. E. 
traviatum. 5. E. signatum. 6. Ischnura posita. 7. Anomalag- 
rion hastatum. 8. Enallagma civile. 9. E. exsulans. 10. E. 
vesperum. 

III. Nymphs and exuviae of Anisoptera. i. Aeshna umbrosa. 2. 

Nasiaeschna pentacantha. 3. Basiaeschna Janata. 4. Boyeria 
vinosa. 5. Anax Junius. 6. Dromogomphus spinosus. 7. Gom- 
phus exilis. 8. Hagenius brevistylus. 9. Lanthus albistylus. 

IV. Nymphs and exuviae of Anisoptera. i. Erythemis simplicicollis. 

2. Tramea lacerata. 3. Perithemis domitia. 4. Tetragoneuria 
cynosura. 5. Didymops transversa. 6. Neurocordulia obsoleta. 

7. Platheniis lydia. 8. Epicordulia princeps. 

V. Gomphidae, labia of nymphs, i. Gomphus grasline litis. 2. G. fra- 
ternus. 3. G. plagiatus. 4. Ophiogomphus johannus. 5. Lan- 
f/jMj albistylus. 6. Gomphus pallidus. 7. Progomphus obscurus. 

8. Gomphus villosipes. 9. Dromogomphus spinosus. 10. Gom- 
phus brevis. 11. Ophiogomphus colubrinus. 12. Gomphus nota- 
tus. 13. (j. vastus. 14. G. spiniceps. 15. G. spicatus. 16. C 
lividus. 17. G. amnicola. 18. G. scudderi. 19. Hagenius brev- 
istylus. 

VI. Aeshnidae, labia of nymphs, i. Basiaeschna janata. 2. Epiaeschna 
heros. 3. Aeshna eremita. 4. /i. canadensis. 5. .(4. umbrosa. 
6. Boyeria grafiana. 7. Anax Junius. 8. Boyeria vinosa. 9. 
Aeshna tuberculifera. 

VII. LibelluHdae, labia of nymphs, i. Libellula pulchella. 2. firj;- 
throdiplax berenice. 3. Tetragoneuria cynosura. 4. Sympetrum 
vicinum-. 5. Libellula exusta. 6. Leucorrhinia intacta. 

VIII. Wings. I. Boyeria vinosa. 2. Cordulegaster maculatus. 3. Nasi- 
aeschna pentacantha. 4. Basiaeschna janata. 

IX. Wings. 1. Aeshna sp. 2. ^nour Junius. 3. Gomphus sp. 4. 
Hagenius brevistylus. 

X. Wings. I. Progomphus obscurus. 2. Ophiogomphus rupinsulensis. 

3. Dorocordulia libera. 4. Neurocordulia obsoleta. 

XL Wings. I. Macromia illinoiensis. 2. Cordulia shurtleffi. 

XII. Wings. I. Tetragoneuria cynosura. 2. Nannothemis bella. 3. 
Gomphaeschna furcillata, female. 4. Helocordulia uhleri. 

XIII. Wings. I. Celithemis eponina. 2 and 4. Perithemis domitia, male 

and female. 3. Erythrodiplax berenice. 

XIV. Wings. I. Pachydiplax longipennis. 2. Epicordulia princeps. 3. 

Sympetrum rubicundulum. 4. Somatochlora linearis. 



lO CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

XV. Wings. I. Pantala flavescens. 2. Tramea abdominalis. 3. Libel- 
lula cyanea. 4. Leucorrhinia intacta. 

XVI. Wings. I. Williamsonia lintneri. 2. Tachopteryx thoreyi. 

XVII. Adults of Agrionidae. a. Hetaerina americana. b. Agrion macu- 
latum. c. Enallagma civile. 

XVIII. Aeschnidae adults, a. Nasiaeschna pentacantha. b. Aeshna umbrosa. 

XIX. Gomphidae and Cordulinae. a. Gomphus spicatus. b. Tetrago- 
neuria cynosura. 

XX. Libellulidae. a. Libellula exusta var. jtilia. b. Erythemis simpli- 
cicollis. 

XXI. Libellula and Plathemis. i. Plathejnis lydia, male. 2. L. vibrans 
var. incesta. 3. L. luctuosa. 4. L. quadritnaculaia. 5. L. awrt- 
pennis. 6. L. cyon^a. 7. L. pulchella. 8. L. znbrans var. 
vibrans. 9. L. semifasciata. 

XXII. a. Sympetrutn semicinctum. b. Celithemis elisa. 



Odonata or Dragonflies of Connecticut 

Philip Garman 

INTRODUCTION 

Dragonflies or Odonata form a branch of Insecta frequently 
encountered and often considered in biological work. They have 
been much studied by naturalists, perhaps as completely as any 
other order of insects, and the present work does not purport to 
establish anything especially new or original. Its main purpose 
is to bring together as much information about dragonflies in 
Connecticut as is possible (within reasonable limits) at the present 
stage of our knowledge, and to present it in usable form; and 
as every science is built upon knowledge acquired by previous 
workers, so the present work has been founded upon the work of 
such men as Baron de Selys, Ris, Tillyard, Needham, Calvert, 
Walker, Williamson, and Howe. 

Dragonflies are among the most beautifully colored and deli- 
cately constructed of all insects. They deserve consideration by the 
amateur naturalist, as well as the professional. Moreover, they 
are desirable tenants in mosquito-plagued districts and, if they 
could only be reared in large numbers, would form a natural arm 
of defense against a universal nuisance. Few insects combine such 
a useful career with the natural beauty that we find in dragonflies, 
and so it is hoped that the present small contribution will help 
some one at least to know the dragonfly better and to appreciate 
its many admirable qualities. 



PART I : BIOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY, COLLECTION 
AND ILLUSTRATION 

Habits and Life History 

All except a few dragonflies are aquatic when young. They 
feed mostly upon mosquitoes, small flies and other insects, and 
are beneficial. Cases have been reported where the nymphs fed 
upon small fish, and still others in which trees were injured by 
oviposition, but such instances are rare, and the amount of destruc- 
tion occasioned is negligible. Some work (Wilson, 191 7-18), in 
fact, indicates that the nymphs of Odonata probably never attack 
fish in their native haunts. 

As far as known there is never more than one brood of dragon- 
flies per season in Connecticut, while the larger Aeshnids probably 



12 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

require three or four years to develop. Zygoptera or damsel flies 
begin to emerge early in spring (April), and some species continue 
to emerge until fall (September). Some of the larger Anisoptera 
are more frequently seen in July, August and September, their 
emergence taking place during late summer, Cordulines and 
Gomphines are most abundant in June. 

Most damsel fly nymphs may be taken among vegetation of one 
sort or another, but a few occur under rocks or rotten logs in 
swift currents. The Anisoptera may be found mostly in the mud 
at the bottom of the stream or lake, where they conceal themselves 
by attaching rubbish to their bodies, or by burrowing in the mud 
itself. Some, of course, inhabit floating vegetation. 

Odonata are fond of unpolluted water and do not thrive where 
there is much contamination. Ponds and lakes about which cows 
or horses are allowed to graze are frequently without dragonflies, 
or with only a few of the more hardy species. The gradual pollu- 
tion of fresh water in the New England States and elsewhere has, 
moreover, reduced the relative numbers of dragonflies so that one 
should collect in many localities to obtain a complete collection 
of these interesting creatures. Fortunately many lakes have 
become public property and included in parks and estates, while 
still others have become reservoirs for the supply of towns, cities 
and villages, and the sources of contamination removed or abated. 
For this reason the dragonfly's prospects for the future are better, 
though evidently they are not as numerous as a half -century ago. 

Many families of dragonflies select their environment, and some 
species may nearly always be found under certain ecological con- 
ditions. For instance, the nymphs of the Agrionidae, among 
which the black-wings are perhaps the most common examples, 
are found in clear woodland or meadow brooks. The nymphs 
of Argias are most frequently found in running or moving water 
under stones, logs, etc., and the Lestinae, most frequently in bogs 
or fresh water ponds with considerable vegetation. Among the 
Anisoptera selection of environment is not as evident, but we find 
many Gomphidae in shallow, slow-flowing streams ; a species of 
Libellulid (Erythrodiplax Berenice) confined to brackish water 
along the sea coast ; Sympetrum species frequenting bogs and 
marshes, and so on. Adults of certain species may be found 
fairly close to their nymphal environment, but some wander long 
distances from their former aquatic home. Aeshna species may 
be seen frequently a mile or so from the nearest water, and it seems 
likely that they fly many times this distance away from their 
natural haunts. Other species are known to congregate in sunny 
spots away from the water on the approach of cold weather. Still 
others prefer pasture lands as a hunting ground or the clear 
expanse of a lake or pond. The congregation of species may 
perhaps be connected with the migration of such as Anax Junius, 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT I3 

Libellula pulchella, and Lihellula semifasciata, which takes place 
northwards in spring and southwards in fall. Mr. C. R. Ely 
reports that he has witnessed the migration of dragonflies several 
times at his summer home in East River, Conn., the migrating 
insects being collected in a dense swarm, and moving along the 
sea coast. 

Howe (1921, p. 132) came to the general conclusion that the 
distribution of a species should be stated "in both geographical and 
ecological terms," and that a species "may inhabit one or more, 
often three zones, and even two regions as defined by Merriam." 
It is thus important in determining distribution to note what is 
the nature of its environment if progress is to be made in our 
knowledge of the limits of its distribution. At present little is 
known concerning the factors governing a given species' range, 
but there are doubtless ecological conditions which control this 
phase of activity the same as for plants or other animals. In 
other words, distribution is a function of temperature, moisture, 
sunlight and other conditions, which depend in turn on altitude, 
latitude and the like. Food of the nymphs, conditions of the 
water as regards contamination, the amount of movement in the 
water, air temperature, and many other factors determine whether 
a species will be found in a given locality. To attempt to deter- 
mine whether the necessary ecological conditions exist in Con- 
necticut for each species is obviously impossible, but to compen- 
sate for our lack of knowledge along this line, many species have 
been included which have been captured in neighboring states. 
The chances that species not included in this article will be found 
in the state is thereby lessened considerably, though of course 
importations from long distances may occur. 

Emergence from the water usually takes place late in the after- 
noon or evening, or early in the morning, though a great deal 
depends on the location. Damsel flies emerge throughout the 
day, and require only a few hours to develop enough to fly. The 
Anisoptera require longer, but even they are ready to begin the 
hunt again in an incredibly short time. Many species, however, 
do not obtain their full coloration until some days afterwards, and 
individuals thus immature are known as teneral. 

The food of adult Odonata consists of small insects such as 
mosquitoes, gnats, beetles and moths. The larger Aeshnids are 
particularly active feeders and may be seen to capture insects of 
considerable size. Some species have been known to feed success- 
fully on honey bees. 

The nymphs of all species eat other insects, mainly the larvae 
of small Diptera, but the younger nymphs subsist on protozoa and 
Crustacea, such as Clodocera and Copepoda. Probably others of 
the smaller groups are also eaten. We thus find the damsel fly 
feeding upon mosquito wrigglers in the later nymphal stages and 



14 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

hunting down the mosquito itself when adult. No nymph, how- 
ever, is fastidious in selecting its food, and there is hardly one 
which will not devour with apparent relish the members of its own 
family. Probably some of all aquatic families of insects are eaten 
as well as other aquatic animals not belonging to this class. 

Nearly all damsel flies lay their eggs in the stems of plants. Of 
the Anisoptera, the Aeshnidae lay eggs in plants or soft mud, 
and the Cordulinae lay gelatinous masses containing many eggs 
which are draped over aquatic vegetation or other support.^ The 
remaining families for the most part drop their eggs into the 
water direct. 

The damsel flies often descend several inches below the surface 
of the water, but Lestes are said to oviposit above the surface. 
Libellulidae may frequently be seen skimming close to the water 
and occasionally dipping the tip of the abdomen, thereby releasing 
the &gg, which sinks to the bottom. 

The following interesting account of the oviposition habits of 
Enallagma aspersum is taken from an article in the Maine Natura- 
list II, p. 133, by William Colcord Woods : "After a sufficient trial 
of our patience, we saw a couple 'land' on a pipewort stem near 
by. They alighted head upward. The male released the female 
from his grasp, clung to the stem some ten or fifteen minutes, 
and then flew ofif to join his companions in their patrol, but his 
mate, rapidly executing an about face and folding her wings 
closely about her, hurried fearlessly down the stalk into the water. 
She crawled down the stem, and then explored the weed-grown 
bottom, poking her abdomen here and there, doubtless in the act 
of oviposition. From time to time she thrust her abdomen between 
her wings, which had a glistening silvery appearance under water, 
and we wondered whether she may have used air imprisoned there 
for respiration, for this species can remain under water a remark- 
ably long time for an aerial species. She had ranged at least two 
feet from the stem on which she made her descent, and had been 
submerged more than twenty-five minutes when we disturbed her. 
Would she just stay down there and die? What would be the 
outcome of her plunge? It was not our patience but our noon- 
time which was exhausted, for we had not been sent down there 
to study blue damsel flies, so reluctantly one of us thrust in a stick 
and poked the busy mother. Immediately she loosed her hold, and 
floated at once to the surface, when to our utter astonishment 
down swooped a watchful male, who, catching her by the nape 
of the neck, drew her out of the water. As soon as she had been 
lifted above the surface film, she was abk to use her wings, and 
the pair flew oflf together." 



^ Ent. News 16: 255-7: 1905. 



no. 39] odonata of connecticut 15 

Parasites and Enemies 

The dragonfly, although itoclf predaceous, has enemies. Chief 
among these are fishes and birds. Fishes are particularly fond 
of the nymphs, which are reported to form 25 per cent of the 
food of a bullhead (Baker 191 6) ; 25 per cent of the food of the 
grass pickerel (Esox vermiculatus) ; and about 13 per cent of 
the food of crappies (Pomoxis annularis and P. sparoides) , and 
pirate perch {Aphredoderus sayanus Forbes 1888). The size of 
the fish, however, is important in determining the amount of 
Odonate food eaten. Wilson (1917-18, p. 229) claims that very 
small fish do not eat Odonata nymphs at all but that they are very 
fond of the eggs. Fish under 9 mm. in length eat no nymphs 
whatsoever, while fish such as the large-mouth bass, blue-gill, 
common sun fish, and calico bass, reach 22-25 mm. (about i inch) 
before they begin. Fish 75-105 mm. (3-4 inch) were found by 
Wilson to feed almost entirely on dragonfly nymphs, under some 
conditions. 

Dragonfly nymphs are reported to be in demand as fish bait 
in several localities. Wilson (1917-18, p. 225) says that small 
boys in the vicinity of Torrington, Conn., collect and sell them as 
"perch bait," and in other localities they are used as bait for trout, 
rock-bass and perch. He also reports that adult damsel flies are 
more frequently eaten by fish than is supposed, and that fishes 
will snap up quickly any damsel fly that has been injured and is 
unable to rise from the water. 

Birds are next in importance as enemies of Odonata, and their 
greatest success lies in capturing tenerals. English sparrows, 
robins, red-winged and yellow-headed blackbirds, shrikes, cuckoos, 
king birds, fly-catchers, and herons have been observed by various 
authors to eat Odonata. Herons feed upon the nymphs, the 
remainder upon adults. Shrikes, cuckoos, and king birds, espe- 
cially the last, are said to be quick enough to capture fully mature 
adults. Walker, in fact, reports (1912; p. 36) that the appen- 
dages of Epiaeschna heros, one of the largest and swiftest dragon- 
flies, have been taken from the stomach of the chuck-will's widow. 

Turtles, terrapins and frogs (bullfrogs and cricket frogs) are 
enemies of Odonata. Bullfrogs are reported to feed upon nymphs 
and adults, and the cricket frog upon the adults of damsel flies. 

The larger species of Odonata destroy the smaller and are there- 
fore enemies. Aquatic Hemiptera and Coleoptera are vigorous 
insect feeders and will feed on Odonate nymphs when they 
encounter them. Dytiscus, Z ait ha, Ranatra, B el stoma, and 
Notonecta have been reported in this connection, while ants and 
robber flies (Asilidae) are sometimes able to capture and over- 
power adults. Several egg parasites have been observed (Hymen- 
optera and Diptera), and the eggs of the damsel fly family Lestinae 



1 6 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

are especially liable to attack, being exposed above the water line 
(Needham 1903). 

Spiders are confirmed enemies of most insects and have been 
found to capture dragonflies. 

Several species of water mites (Hydrachnidae) are often found 
clinging to nymphs and adults, especially damsel flies. They 
attach themselves to the nymph while young, crawl from nymph 
to adult at emergence, and gain the water again at oviposition. 
Little or no real harm is experienced by the dragonfly, and the 
mites seem to hang on mainly for the ride, obtaining, of course, 
free transportation from pond to pond. Only one case has been 
reported (Wilson 191 7- 18, p. 225) in which these mites were 
harmful to the host. However, adults have been observed by the 
writer so heavily laden with mites that they were unable to rise 
from the water. A red mite is also said to destroy the eggs of 
Odonata (Lamborn 1890, p. 50). 

The fresh water hydra (H. fusca) was found by Wilson to 
devour recently hatched nymphs (Wilson 191 7- 18, p. 210). 

Nematodes (gregarines) are known to inhabit the alimentary 
canal of dragonflies, but probably do little harm. 

Several species of fungi and algae may be found growing upon 
the nymphs, but usually do little harm. The saprolegnias are 
sometimes injurious and even fatal, especially to crippled or feeble 
nymphs. 

A filaria and a frog-lung fluke have been found in nymphs, 
but have not been reported from America. Likewise the giant 
sundew of Australia (Tillyard 191 7, p. 329) is said to capture 
many damsel flies, but our American sundews are certainly not 
capable of duplicating this performance because of their small size. 



General Characters of the Odonata 

The Odonata include insects, the adults of which have biting 
mouth parts and net-veined wings. The legs are weak and used 
mainly for support when at rest, though sometimes for grasping 
and holding prey. 

All species have an incomplete metamorphosis, the aquatic nymph 
developing by successive stages until the last instar, when the 
insect leaves the water and the adult emerges. The transforma- 
tion in changing from nymph to adult is almost as great as we 
find in orders with complete metamorphosis, but there is no true 
pupal stage and they are known as hemimetabolous (Comstock, 
1920, p. 178). 

Comstock has proposed the term naiad for the aquatic stages 
of Odonata, a term which has advantages. For example, the 
change from aquatic to aerial life necessitates much greater changes 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 17 

in form than occur in many orders, and the term naiad would be 
Hmited to the young of Plecoptera, Ephemerida and Odonata. 
Since the term has not been generally adopted, however, the word 
nymph is used here to designate the young of Odonata. 

Odonata, Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Neuroptera (ant lions and 
dobson flies) are more closely related to one another than to other 
orders of insects ; but although similar in many points, are readily 
distinguished in nymphal and adult stages. The basis of separa- 
tion of adult Odonata from the Neuroptera and also the Ephe- 
merida lies in the presence of the nodus in the wing of all represen- 
tatives of the dragonfly group. The nymphs are easily distin- 
guished from others of similar form and habits by the possession 
of a hinged labium which folds beneath the head and is capable of 
being extended beyond the tip of the latter. The Neuroptera have 
no vestigial wings in the earlier stages, differing in this point 
from the Odonata. 

Geologically, the dragonflies are one of the oldest orders, dating 
back to the Carboniferous period when related forms occurred 
with a wing-spread of more than two feet. Gradations between 
the Neuroptera and Odonata appear in these early periods and 
show with more or less certainty that the ancestors of the order 
were closely related to the Neuroptera of today. 

Among Odonata, the more generalized or simpler condition as 
regards structure seems to be found in the Zygoptera. This theory 
has been questioned by Needham, who holds that Anisoptera are 
really simpler because of their wing venation. Taken as a whole, 
however, it seems probable that the Zygoptera have retained a 
simpler structure in most features. Moreover, the recent dis- 
covery of true Zygoptera in the Kansas Permian leaves no choice 
but to accept the former interpretation. 

Scientists have recognized 2,400 or more species of dragonflies 
throughout the world (Tillyard 1917, p. 300). Muttkowski in 
1910 listed 494 species from North America, and of these, some 
160 occur in New England. Many of them have a wide range 
and may be expected to be found almost anywhere in the United 
States. 

Compared with Coleoptera or beetles, for instance, dragonflies 
are few in numbers. A recent publication has described 1,084 
species of weevils from the northeastern United States, and one 
author states that nearly 4,000 species of beetles probably exist 
in the State of Indiana. Our Check List of Connecticut Insects 
records 1,452 species of Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) 
within the State and only 10 1 Odonata or dragonflies — showing 
the relative scarcity of dragonflies as compared with other insects. 
The number of species of dragonflies captured in Connecticut to 
date totals 112 and leaves about 50 of these herein described yet 
to be found. 



1 8 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

The descriptions of nearly all species listed in subsequent pages 
have been made directly from the specimens themselves and were 
compared with descriptions by other workers, including the orig- 
inal in many cases. Descriptions of the rarer species have in 
some instances been compiled from the work of other authors. 
Every effort has been made to bring the systematic part up to 
date and to make it accurate and reliable. It is to be kept in mind, 
however, that variation among the dragonflies is considerable, and 
it is often impossible to state exactly the limits of these variations 
in terms that the reader will easily grasp. Generic descriptions 
have been made rather full, and care taken within large families to 
include the same characters in each for the sake of comparison. 
They form a summary of the matter contained in the keys rather 
than a reference to the latter. 

Attention is called to a character of some taxonomic value in 
the separation of the Cordulinae and Libellulinae. This is the 
amount of curvature in the mesopleural suture. In all specimens 
examined, the corduline type shows this suture to be practically 
straight from the wing base to the katepisternum (infraepister- 
num) whereas in all Libellulinae examined, there is a decided 
upward bend just before reaching the katepisternum (Fig. 40). 

The Catalogue of Muttkowski has been mainly followed as to 
nomenclature of species and families but is modified in a few 
instances on account of work done since the publication of that 
list. As regards systematic tangles, the Odonata are compara- 
tively free, which is for the most part due to the excellent work 
of Calvert, Walker and Williamson, and to the earlier work of the 
Belgian, Baron de Selys. It is to be hoped that future workers 
follow the lead of these scientists. For the sake of convenience, 
the Anisoptera have been divided into five families instead of two 
as commonly used. This arrangement may be criticised but has 
some precedent in the publication of Hart and Needham (1901) 
and in the statement of Tillyard (1917, P- 258). This also seems 
to be a more natural grouping, since the families show nearly equal 
differentiation in structure. In point of numbers, on the other 
hand, the families are very unequal, but this is held to be no serious 
obstacle to their adoption as families. 



The External Anatomy of the Dragonfly 

The parts of the skeleton of any insect are similar, even in 
widely separated groups ; but through the process of evolution 
many parts have been lost or so modified that they are only to be 
recognized by means of "landmarks" in the structure of the body 
wall. Moreover, the features used in classification are often so 
different in different orders that specialists do not agree as to the 



No. 39] 



ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 



19 




Fig. I. Adult Zygopteron (Lestes vigilax) showing parts. Epimeron of 
this fijjure is the same as epimerum of Fig. 2. 



20 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. I 

proper nomenclature. It is therefore important to note the "land- 
marks" for the recognition of the parts of the skeleton as well 
as to provide a means — with figures and general descriptions — 
for the guidance of the beginner ; so that there may be no loss of | 
time interpreting the English of a description, or confusion because 
of a knowledge of similar parts in other insects. To aid in under- 
standing descriptions, a glossary of terms is appended (p. 300). 
In all descriptions the insect is regarded as in a natural position 
with feet on the ground and body parallel to the surface. 

The body of all Odonata is divided into three main divisions, 
known as head, thorax, and abdomen. Each division is in turn 
composed of a number of rings or segments, more or less modified, 
but homologous with the segments of its wormlike ancestors. The 
external skeleton is provided with pigment and divided into 
sclerites or plates that are similar in different families and sub- 
orders. The lines separating the sclerites are called sutures. 



The Body Structure 
Adult 

Head. — Surrounding the mouth opening are projections of the 
body wall and appendages designed to aid in capturing other insects 
and preparing them for its use. Just above the opening is found 
a broad, emarginate piece known as the labrum, which is about 
twice as broad as long. Above it is a fixed sclerite known as the 
clypeus (Fig. 3, a). 

Above the clypeus and between the large compound eyes occupy- 
ing the sides of the head is an area known as the front. It bears 
the jointed appendages called antennae. The front extends to the 
small ocelli or simple eyes and is usually bounded by a suture on 
each side below the compound eyes. The epicranial suture extends 
from the rear of the head to a joint just behind the ocelli where it 
forks and extends laterad to the compound eyes. The posterior 
surface of the head, on either side of the foramen or body opening, 
is commonly known as the occiput, and contains three sclerites, 
the occiput and two postgenae more or less fused. 

Below the mouth opening there is a hinged organ, the labium, 
which in most individuals covers the entire lower surface of the 
head. Beneath the labium (or above it when the head is in posi- 
tion) are found the two maxillae, one on either side, and between 
the tips of the latter is a circular pad, the hypopharynx. 

The compound eyes are always large, frequently contiguous 
above, and they contain a large number of hexagonal facets, some- 
times of two different sizes. The antennae vary in shape and also 
in the number of segments, there being usually seven. In the 
Odonata the labium is unique because of its large size and great 



No. 39] 



ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 



21 



mobility. It varies in form in different families and is important 
in classification. 

Thorax. — The thorax is composed of four rings or body seg- 
ments. Immediately behind the head is the microthorax, a very 
small incomplete ring composed of a small plate on either side. 
Following this is the prothorax, a larger segment, to which is 
attached the first pair of legs. The region of the prothorax, or 
in fact all parts of the thorax above, on either side, and below, 
may be known in a general way as notum, pleura (singular, 
pleurum) and sternum. The caudal margin of the pronotum is 







Fig. 2. Adult Anisopteron {Anax Junius) showing parts. 

usually provided with a thin transverse edge frequently project- 
ing dorsad — a variable feature of use in classification. The pleura 
are divided into two sclerites by a line extending dorsad from the 
lateral articulations of the coxae or segment of the legs next the 
body. There is also a suture separating notum from pleura, but 
it is often obscure. None of the sclerites of the prothorax are of 
much taxonomic value except the pronotum. 

The mesothorax and metathorax- (following the prothorax) are 



* Sometimes called synthorax (Tillyard 1917, p. 22). 



2? CONNECTICUT GEOL, AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

always fused in Odonata, and the dividing line is traceable with 
difficulty in adults. Except for the attachment of the second and 
third pair of legs and the wings, there is little to separate them to 
a casual observer. 

It is important to bear in mind that the thorax and abdomen of 
all dragonflies are greatly modified and different in many respects 
from other insects. There are, however, the usual "landmarks" 
which facilitate a comparison of the sclerites in different groups. 
In the thorax these consist of processes or points of articulation 
of the appendages, particularly the legs, invaginations of the 
internal skeleton, and breathing pores. 

The proximal segment of the legs, for instance, articulates with 



I ( Ante-clypeus 

Post-clypeus 




, Post-ocular spots 



=P°^5"^^=»>^-V-_Pre.ocular band 
, Antenna 

Xv^ I ^// Compound eye 

^- — - -Occipital spinet 
—Occipital horn 
I ] L Tocellar ridge 

D I I .Occiput 

' Occipital ridge 




Fig. 3. Heads of Odonata from above, (a) Zygoptera, (b) Anisoptera 
( Ophiogomphus ) . 

the body in concave sockets that have lanceolate or somewhat 
circular margins, with a lateral point or projection on each. The 
point may be easily located by following the lateral ridge of the 
coxa to the margin of the socket. Extending upwards from the 
lateral points there is always a suture in the body wall of the 
thorax which is important in separating the two sclerites, epi- 
sternum and epimerum, of pro-, meso-, and metapleura. The 
meso- and metepisterna are divided in Odonata into a dorsal divi- 
sion (anepisternum)^ and a smaller ventral sclerite, the katepi- 
sternum.* The notum of all thoracic segments except the first is 



'Formerly supraepisternum (see Comstock igao, p. si. for proper nomenclature). 
* Formerly infraepisternum. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 23 

very greatly modified, but here again the sclerites corresponding 
to other insects may be traced by means of internal invaginations 
of the skeleton. Close approximation of the legs and reduced 
area of the sterna are also confusing, and since both sternum and 
notum of meso- and metathorax are little used in classification, 
they will not be considered here. Along the anterior margin of 
the mesonotum on either side is a very large spiracle, a long, 
narrow slit near the mid-dorsal line, under the caudal margin of 
the pronotum. Just behind each spiracle in the Zygoptera there 
is a small plate known as the mesostigmal plate or lamina, which 
varies in some genera and afifords a valuable means of determin- 
ing the females of these groups. The most conspicuous spiracle, 
however, is located at a point near the dividing line between meso- 
and metathorax, on the anepisternum of the metathorax. This 
spiracle is smaller in size and elliptical or circular in outline. In 
front of the anterior wing bases are two small plates, the paraptera. 

The wings and legs of Odonata are comparable to other insects, 
and the nature of both appendages is of great importance to 
systematists. The legs are composed of the following segments 
beginning with the proximal: coxa, trochanters (two segments), 
femur, tibia, tarsus (three segments). There are always two 
claws attached to the tip of the tarsus. Various shapes and sizes 
of setae are borne on femora, tibiae and tarsi. 

The wings are apparently complexly veined, but analysis of the 
system of venation proves it to be homologous to that of other 
insects. The great number of supernumerary cross-veins is indeed 
confusing at first sight, but it is possible with a little study to 
follow the course of the larger primary veins and, when once 
acquainted with the general scheme, to find the characters for 
identification. Needham and Comstock attempted to homologize 
the veins with other insects, and their system for the Odonata has 
been accepted until recently. Tillyard and Lameere,'' however, 
believe that the original interpretation of Comstock and Needham 
is in error because of the disappearance of certain veins in the 
center of the wing, and they have modified the original interpreta- 
tion to allow them to fit it more closely to the fossil record and 
also to other orders related to the Odonata. 

Beginning with the fossil cockroaches of the Carboniferous 
period — in all probability the progenitors of modern insects — the 
wings contained a large number of veins. As conditions changed 
at the close of this geological period, the wings of many species 
became narrower, and there was an accompanying decrease in size, 
probably due to changing climatic conditions. At this time the 

" Perhaps the best expression of Tillyard's recent ideas along this line is found in the 
American Journal of Science, Vol. ix: 328-32: 1925, and Vol. x: 68-73: 1925. A 
translation of Lameere's work is found in Psyche xxx: 123-32: 1923. See also Insects 
of Australia and New Zealand, pp. 67-71 : 1926, by R. J. Tillyard. 



24 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

veins became fewer in number, some were lost, and forms appeared 
with venation very similar to those existing to-day. Kennedya 
mirahilis Till., the oldest known dragonfly (recently discovered 
in the Permian of Kansas), has a wing very similar to the Zygop- 
tera of today except that it is narrower and there are fewer 
cross-veins. 

Three general tendencies in wing-vein reduction during the 
period following the Carboniferous may be noted: (i) Reduction 
in the costal area — the costal and anterior radial branches were 
much branched in Carboniferous forms. In later forms there is 
little branching of these veins. (2) Reduction in the number of 
primary veins in the anal area, and (3) the loss of one or two 
veins in the center of the wing by the crowding together of the 
wing at the base. 

As already mentioned, two or more systems have been advanced 
to account for the curious venation of the dragonfly wing. That 
of Tillyard is in reality a modification of Lameere's system. Both 
Lameere's and Tillyard's works are the outcome of the work of 
Comstock and Needham, although important changes have been 
made necessary by the fossil discoveries mentioned. Tillyard's 
system is based primarily upon the presence of convex and con- 
cave wing veins which he is able to trace back through a series of 
forms to the Paleodictyoptera and Carboniferous Protodonata. 
It provides for six convex or plus veins and five concave or minus 
veins, the theory being that simple branches or bifurcations of 
the originals retain the same sign, and that veins appearing 
between these bear the opposite sign. Thus should Radius become 
two-branched, each branch would have the original sign, let us say 
plus (convex). Now should a third branch appear between these 
two and become connected at the base with either, it would bear 
the opposite sign, or in other words, would be a concave vein. 
One difficulty appears to lie in the fusion of veins and the resulting 
sign which the fused vein should receive — and it seems apparent 
that more work is needed, especially in the region of the triangle 
where the veins have been so profoundly altered. It is quite evi- 
dent that Cui has disappeared from the picture (see Fig. 4, a, b) 
and it is probable that the posterior branch of M has also disap- 
peared. It should be noted further that the Rs of Needham is 
not the true Rs of other orders but is a recent development and 
in reality a minor offshoot of R^. The system of Tillyard and 
Lameere probably corresponds more fully with the true develop- 
ment of Odonata from the early geological periods, but since the 
system of Comstock is at present more widely known and gen- 
erally used, and since all descriptions were drawn up before the 
advancement of Tillyard's theories, it is used in this paper. There 
will, no doubt, be a gradual change to the newer nomenclature as 



No. 39] 



ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 



25 



Other fossils are discovered and the work becomes better known. 
To facilitate a comparison, the following table, accompanied by 
the necessary figures (Fig. 4), is shown below. The Selysian 
system is also given. This was the first scheme to be generally 
adopted for wing-vein nomenclature and was devised by Baron de 
Selys-Longchamps. It has been replaced in recent years quite 
generally by the Comstock-Needham system. 




Fig. 4. Wing veins of fossil damselflies. (a) Kennedya mirabilis Till, 
(b) Tarsophlebiopsis mayi Till, (c) Chrotnagrion conditum a modern 
species for comparison. 



26 connecticut geol. and nat. hist. survey [buu. 

Table of Comparison of Venation al Systems in the Orders 

Protodonata and Odonata 

(Convex veins marked +, concave veins — ) 

Name of vein 
Costa (+) 
Subcosta ( — ) 
Radius (+) 

Main stem ( + ) 

Radial sector ( — ) 



Media ( — ) 

Anterior branch (-)-) 
Posterior branch ( — ) 

Cubitus ( — ) 
Anterior branch ( + ) 
PosterixDr branch ( — ) 

Analis ( — ) 

Anterior branch ( + ) 
Posterior branch ( — ) 





Comstock- 




Tillyard 


Needham 


Selys 


C 


c 


Costal Nervure 


Sc 


Sc 


Subcostal Nervure 


R 


R 


Median Nervure 


R, 


R 


Median Nervure 


Rs(-) 


M,-3 


Upper Sector of Arculus 


R.+a(-) 


Ml + 3 


Principal Sector 


R.(-) 


Ml 


Principal Sector 


IR2(+) 


M,. 


Postnodal Sector 


R3(-) 


M, 


Nodal Sector 


IR3(+) 


R» 


Subnodal Sector 


R.+ 6(-) 


M3 


Median Sector 


M 


M ( fused basallywith R) Median 






Nervure 


MA 


M. 


Lower Sector of Arculus 


MP* 




(Short Sector) 


Cu 


Cu 


Submedian Nervure 


Cui* 






CU2 


Cui 


Superior Sector of Triangle 


lA 


CU2 


Inferior Sector of Triangle 


A' 


A 





* Regarded as absent except in the Protagriidae, a group of primitive Odonata from 
which the Agrionidae were probably derived. 

The relative position of the different families in our scheme of 
classification has been outlined in the Zygoptera of Illinois, p. 463, 
191 7. It will be seen that the Agrionidae and Coenagrionidae are 
very close in point of specialization. Since this work was pub- 
lished it has become apparent from the work of Kennedy and 
Tillyard, who have considered the relationships from morphologi- 
cal and paleontological evidence that the original position of the 
Agrionidae as the most generalized and hence at the bottom of 
the list, is open to question. The structure of the genitalia and 
the discovery of Kennedya in the Permian of Kansas casts con- 
siderable doubt on the hitherto-accepted interpretation. There still 
remain, however, points which need clearing up. These are found 
in the important retention of the interpleural suture in the adult 
Agrionidae and the cleft and primitive condition of the labium 
of the Agrionid nymph. These facts, together with the fact that 
so few fossils are known from the Permian, would indicate that 
any position taken in regard to the relative generalization of these 
two families may be easily overthrown by future discoveries in 
paleontology or extensive work upon the morphology. Possibly 
the origin of both Agrionidae and Coenagrionidae may be carried 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 27 

Still further back into the Carboniferous and they may have arisen 
at approximately the same period. In view, however, of the evi- 
dence available at the present time, the original order of the 
families, Agrionidae and Coenagrionidae, is reversed, but this does 
not mean necessarily that either is more generalized. 

The abdomen is composed of ten complete rings or segments 
variously modified and pigmented. The spiracles of the segments 
(except the first) are hidden completely by the overhanging terga 
and the pleura reduced to small membranes beneath the lateral 
edges. The sterna or sclerites of the ventral surface are often 
reduced to a line, or hidden entirely by the approximated terga, 
while on segments two and nine the sterna are modified to form 
the genitalia. The male genitalia of segment two, known as acces- 
sory, are unique, being found in no other order of insects. Their 



---HEAO*p-- 


THORAX — 


»i« — 





- ABDOMEN 




1 , 1 








1 ' ^ 


1 ! 1 a 






































1 


2 « 




« s 




1 1 °- 


te£ 




J ? 
3 ? 
1 i 






Fig. 5. Nymph of Zygopteron (Ischnura verticalis) showing parts. 

structure, represented in Fig. 20, affords an important means of 
classification. 

The ovipositor of the female, situated on segment nine, is shown 
in Fig. 26. The ovipositor, however, is frequently reduced to two 
small plates on the ventral surface (see Fig. 19). Attached to 
the tip of the tenth segment are the anal appendages. Their 
structure varies a great deal in the male sex and offers another 
important feature of classification. 



Nymph 

The nymph differs from the adult in many features. In the 
head, the appendages surrounding the mouth are essentially the 
same, but the labium is different, especially the shape of the labial 
palpi (Fig. 7). The marginal setae, mental setae, setae of the 
labial palpi and general form of the mentum are important in 



CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



[Bull. 



classification. The ocelli are never present in the nymph and the 
compound eyes not often contiguous. The antennae are also 
different from the adult, especially in the families Gomphidae and 
Agrionidae, where certain segments are greatly enlarged. 

Thorax. — The prothorax usually consists of a simple ring with 
a pair of legs attached. An indistinct line on the mid-dorsum 
divides the pronotum. The pleura are divided by a line running 



^ Labrum Ciypeus 




I appendage 



Fig. 6. Nymph of Anisopteron (Basia^schna Janata) showing parts. 



dorsad from the coxal processes. The legs are not usually pro- 
vided with heavy setae as in the adult, but the tibiae sometimes 
possess small scales at the tip. Meso- and metathorax are essen- 
tially the same as the adult in form, though sutures are not usually 
as distinct and the wings are, of course, undeveloped. All signs 
of wings are wanting in the first instars. 

Abdomen. — The lateral margins of the abdomen are produced 
in the form of keels and variously adorned with spines and setae. 



No, 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 29 

The mid-dorsal line is likewise produced and sometimes orna- 
mented with very large hooks. At the tip of the abdomen there 
may be found either short, spine-like projections or long, leaf-like 
gills. 

It should be remembered in studying dragonfly nymphs that 
there is more variation in the younger stages of a species than is 
usually found in the adult and that in species the adults of which 
are closely allied, there is no feature known which will put the 
nymph in its proper place. It therefore behooves the student, if 
he desires a more accurate determination, to rear the specimen 
considered, whenever the individual belongs to a group of closely 
related species. Characters are now available, however, which 
enable one to refer most species to their proper families and 
genera with certainty, and it is probable that continued study will 
show constant characters of sufficient importance to enable separa- 
tion of the more closely related species, in the earlier stages. 



How TO Distinguish the Sexes 

Separate keys to the sexes are found in many places below, and 
it is important to know the male and female in order to make 
satisfactory determinations. The male is easily recognized by the 
presence of accessory genital appendages on the ventral surface 
of the second abdominal segment. This character is always pres- 
ent and easily found. The anal or terminal appendages of the 
male consist either of two upper and two lower, or two upper and 
one lower of characteristic shape. The males of some groups 
possess an anal triangle (Fig. 4, b), a secondary character. 
Females usually have a prominent ovipositor, though this is some- 
times modified and frequently reduced. There are no accessory 
genitalia and the anal appendages consist of simple cerci and 
larger ventral processes. 



Variability in the Odonata 

There is sometimes considerable variation in the Odonata, both 
in color and size. Specimens described from Connecticut may be 
smaller or larger than those found in other localities, but as a 
rule this variation should be within five millimeters of the dimen- 
sions given. Occasional examples will naturally occur that may 
be stunted from lack of food or, having found conditions more 
favorable, may be larger than those described. Even wing veins 
show variation in number, especially cross-veins, which is to be 
expected, since this part of the dragonfly has undergone rapid 
evolution. It is well known that dragonflies change color as they 
become older, the brighter colors being replaced by duller hues, 



3° CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 




Fig. 7. Labia of nymphs. — l. Cordulegaster sp. 2. Basiaeschna Janata 
labial palpus. 3. Gomphtcs sp., palpus and distal margin of mentum. 4. 
Lestes vigilax, labium. 5. Aeshna umbrosa, palpus. 6. Boyeria vinosa, 
palpus and distal margin of mentum. 7. Basiaeschna Janata, distal margin 
of mentum. 8. Leucorrhinia intacta, palpus. 9. Didymops transversa. 10. 
Agrion maculatum, labium. 



No. 39] 



ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 



3' 



which in turn often become polHnose, due to waxy secretions. 
Preserved specimens may also present a totally different appear- 
ance from the freshly collected specimens, especially if means are 
not taken to prevent discoloration. Such variations in the Odonata 
should make one cautious about determinations, and he should base 
them primarily upon structure wherever possible. 

Collecting and Preserving 

To collect adult dragonflies, a light and stout net should be avail- 
able. Landing nets of convenient size are on the market, the 
best of which consist of a handle of two sections and two flat 
pieces of spring steel which fold together longitudinally and open 
out to make the rim of the net. This net is about fourteen inches 




^ ft 




„ , Sliding ferrule 

1— ■ : I --1 



Fig. 8. Diagram of net for collecting nymphs designed by Mr. B. H. 
Walden. 



in diameter with a handle two to four feet long according as one 
or two sections are used. The bag itself should have a margin 
of heavy cloth to fit over the rim, since most of the wear comes 
at this point, and should be composed of good quality bobbinet or 
bolting cloth. Bolting cloth makes a very satisfactory outfit. 
Such a net should be about eighteen inches in length and should 
taper gradually from mouth to tip. 

For collecting nymphs, a fixed, solid, semicircular rim is pre- 
ferred to a jointed one such as the landing net just described. 
This may be welded to a piece of two and one-fourth inch coupling 
and a pole screwed into the pipe, or may be attached to the handle, 
preferably a long one, by various means. A simple and easily con- 
structed water net designed by Mr. B. H. Walden is shown in 
Fig. 8. 



32 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

If much collecting is done, some sort of carrying satchel should 
be provided. Williamson constructed an ideal bag which is com- 
posed of a leather case (7^ x 11 inches by 8^ inches high) into 
which he fits a series of tin boxes of assorted sizes, allowing him 
to shift them with ease and still keep his material separate. He 
has attached to the rear of the bag a ring which fastens to the belt 
and keeps the bag at the back when stooping or running. Small 
hunting bags which serve the purpose fairly well may be had on 
the market and are suitable for collecting dragonflies. 

It is well to give more attention to preserving specimens after 
they are collected, however, than to waste too much thought and 
time over the manner of collecting. 

Nymphs are well preserved in 80% alcohol. Formalin should 
not be used, or heat, except perhaps 1% formalin in 80% alcohol. 
Adults, if placed in 80% alcohol, are preserved admirably, includ- 
ing colors. Reared specimens should be preserved in alcohol, 
since nymphal skin and adult may be kept together more easily 
than if pinned. Dr. Calvert, however, mounts exuviae of damsel 
fly nymphs on a square of mica, covering the whole with trans- 
parent cement, and pins it with the adult. If specimens are reared, 
care must be taken to allow full color to develop in the adult. 
Some workers while collecting keep on the alert for emerging 
nymphs, which may often be found along the banks, on weeds and 
shrubs ; these they place in paper bags until fully colored and 
developed and do not kill until then. One cannot be too careful, 
however, in this kind of collecting to associate the proper exuviae 
with the adult that emerged from it. 

For killing adults, bottles about two inches in diameter and 
four in height should be obtained. Sodium cyanide in pieces the 
size of a pea or smaller should be scattered over the bottom and 
sealed in place by pouring in plaster of paris and water about the 
thickness of cream. If desired, sawdust may be placed over the 
cyanide and held in place with circles of cardboard. Smaller 
killing bottles may be constructed of thick-walled test tubes with 
sawdust and cyanide kept in place with cardboard or heavy blotting 
paper cut with a gun-wad punch. 

Care must be taken not to allow killing bottles to become moist, 
since dragonflies coming in contact with moisture saturated v/ith 
cyanide are quickly spoiled. To this end bottles should be aired 
before using, allowing the plaster to set and become hard and the 
excess moisture to escape. Still further care should be taken to 
clear out the cyanide bottle or tube frequently while collecting, 
removing the contents to envelopes or small boxes. 

After killing, all specimens must be dried thoroughly and may 
be stored then in boxes or triangles of paper. If it is desirable 
to spread the wings, a setting board such as is used for moths 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 33 

and butterflies is convenient. The length of time required to 
thoroughly fix the wings depends upon the size of the specimens 
and the place where they are kept ; but the process may be hastened 
by placing in an oven and heating gently. If heat is not applied, 
at least two weeks should be allowed for the specimen to dry. It 
is essential to dry all specimens quickly in order to preserve their 
colors, and drying by artificial heat is to be recommended for this 
reason. It is important, before finally mounting, to support the 
body by running a fine bristle or pin through the head, thorax and 
abdomen. This keeps the various sections of the body together 
and prevents breakage, which is one of the worst troubles in 
maintaining a collection of dragonflies. 

Williamson dries all specimens in triangles of paper, later pin- 
ning those which he desires through the base of the wings. To 
dry specimens while on collecting trips, he has constructed a box 
with a funnel-shaped cloth which fits on the bottom. This he 
hangs on a tree over a lantern. 

For rearing Zygoptera, jelly tumblers may be used conveniently 
and successfully. There should not be more than one individual 
in each tumbler, since the nymphs will kill one another, and a 
small piece of water weed taken from the habitat of the nymph 
should be placed in the water. Sphagnum moss also serves this 
purpose, and is adapted to the needs of Zygoptera. Anisoptera 
require larger jars or cages, but unless the cage is large, only one 
individual should be placed in each. Various kinds of cages have 
been used in rearing dragonflies in the field, most of them con- 
sisting of a simple wire cage placed in shallow water. 

Mosquito larvae may be used for food for the nymphs, or any 
soft-bodied aquatic larvae. Ephemerids are particularly desired 
by many species. Full-grown nymphs are better for rearing than 
the younger stages and may be distinguished from the latter by 
means of the wing pads, which are well filled out in the older 
stages. Some workers have reported the successful use of angle- 
worms for food, and the larger species of dragonflies will take 
live, soft-bodied insects such as flies, roaches, spiders, or small 
caterpillars, if held before them. 



Illustrations 

For photographing tracheal gills, the writer has used the fol- 
lowing method : The gills are detached and mounted in water, 
using gills from newly captured nymphs if possible. They are 
then placed beneath the camera provided with a 48 mm. or 32 mm. 
lens, are lighted from below with a mirror or incandescent light, 
and photographed. Wings have been successfully photographed 
by removing from the ■ insect, mounting between lantern-slide 



34 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

cover glasses and then placing in an enlarging camera with a 
300-watt light and reflector, the image being thrown upon a 5 x 7 
plate. This gives a sharp image from which prints may be made 
the same as with direct photography. Photographs have been 
made of the wings of more valuable specimens by placing them on 
a sheet of white paper and making the exposure. In photograph- 
ing mounted labia in balsam or damar, it is advisable to use a 
color screen, preferably a yellowish green or light brown. 

Drawings may be made with the aid of an ocular net microm- 
eter and cross-section paper, allowing each square of the cross- 
section paper to correspond to a square of the net micrometer 
placed in the ocular of the microscope. A few photographic trac- 
ings have also been made, the image being bleached out after ink 
was applied. The camera lucida is also useful in making illustra- 
tions, and there are other mechanical devices which aid materially 
in the process. All of them, however, must be supplemented by 
some personal efforts, for otherwise satisfactory results will not be 
obtained. 

All illustrations used herein are original unless otherwise 
credited. 



PART II: TAXONOMY 

Key to Suborders 
Nymphs 

I. Nymphs with three caudal tracheal gills attached to the tip of 
the abdomen, consisting of flat plates traversed by tracheae 

Zygoptera, p. 35 
Nymphs without caudal tracheal gills, usually with small spinose 
appendages at the tip of the abdomen Anisoptera, p. 115 

Adults 

I. Front and hind wings nearly similar in shape, their greatest width 
nearly or quite the same; anal appendages of the male always 
four in number, two superior and two inferior ...Zygoptera, p. 35 
Front and hind wings not at all similar in shape ; greatest width 
of the hind wings more than the greatest width of the front. 
Anal appendages of the male usually three in number, two 
superior and a single broad inferior' Anisoptera, p. 115 

Suborder Zygoptera Selys 

Zygoptera or damsel flies may be recognized by their delicate 
form, the abdomen being slender in proportion to the rest of the 
body. Their flight is slow and uncertain because of the lack of 
rigidity in their wings, owing to the presence of few cross-veins. 
When at rest, the wings are held vertically, except in the genus 
Lestes, the species of which alight with half-open wings. 

The nymphs are also slender in form, and possess long flattened 
tracheal gills attached to the tip of the abdomen. 

Key to Families 

Nymphs 

I. Lateral gills triquetal or three-sided; first antennal segment as 

long as the remaining segments together . . . . AGRIONIDAE, p. 108 
Lateral gills flat, not three-sided; first segment of the antennae 

shorter than the remaining segments together 

COENAGRIONIDAE, p. 35 
Adults 

I. Interpleural suture well developed (distinct as far cephalad as the 
metathoracic spiracle and usually visible beyond this point) ; 
bright metallic colors frequently present ....AGRIONIDAE, p. 108 
Interpleural suture only partly or not at all developed; bright 
metallic colors rarely present COENAGRIONIDAE, p. 35 

Family COENAGRIONIDAE Kirby 

The nymphs have only flattened tracheal gills and the mentum 

is never cleft as far proximad as the articulation of the labial palpi. 

Adults of this family are frequently marked with bright blue or 

" According to Crampton, the inferior appendage of Anisoptera is not homologous 
to the inferiors of the Zygoptera. See Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 13: 49-68: 191 8, pis. 2-7. 



36 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

green. The antenodal cross-veins are never more than two in 
number in our species and the nodus is usually from one-third to 
one-fifth the distance from the base to tip of the wing. 

Key to Subfamilies 

Nymphs 

I. Labium much contracted at base, not triangular in outline, the 
contracted portion as long as the expanded; gills as in Plate i. 
Figs. 1-6, usually smoky or brown, and the tracheal branches 

inconspicuous Lestinae, p. 93 

Labium not contracted at base, triangular in outline ; gills usually 
clear or with smoky cross-bands, the tracheae much branched 
and frequently conspicuous Coenagrioninae, p. 36 

Adults 

I. Ms arising much nearer the arculus than the nodus or subnodus ; 
supplementary sectors present between Rs and M3 and between 
M3 and M4 ; anal appendages of the male f orcipate and usually 

much longer than the tenth abdominal segment Lestinae, p. 93 

Ms arising much nearer the nodus or subnodus than the arculus : no 
supplementary sectors between M3 and M4 ; anal appendages of 
the male not forcipate and not exceeding the tenth abdominal 
segment in length Coenagrioninae, p. 36 

Subfamily Coenagrioninae Kirby 

The nymphal gills differ from those of the Agrioninae and 
Lestinae, usually possessing more conspicuous tracheae. The 
abdomen is less slender, and the median lobe of labium is more 
nearly triangular and not greatly contracted, proximad in our 
species. 

Adults of the subfamily are usually marked with stripes or 
spots of blue, or yellow, but a few species are uniform metallic 
green above. The wings contain fewer irregular cells than the 
Lestinae and nearly all primary veins are straight almost to the 
margin of the wings. 

Key to Genera 

Nymphs 

1. Gills half as broad as long; labium without mental setae Argia, p. 85 
Gills not more than one-third as broad as long; labium provided 

with mental setae 2 

2. Caudo-lateral angles of the head projecting and forming a blunt 

tubercle, the margins of the head much contracted between the 

tubercles and the eyes 3 

Caudo-lateral angles of the head not projecting and forming a 
blunt tubercle ; the margins of the head not contracted between 
the tubercles and the eyes 4 

3. Gills without cuticular pigment; one-third as broad as long, the 

margins thickly provided with heavy setae which extend from 

the base to the apex of each Amphiagrion, p. 48 

Gills with considerable cuticular pigment; not more than one-sixth 
as broad as long, the margins sparsely setose (PI. 11, Fig. 2) 

Chromagrion, p. 46 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 37 

4. Gills with tracheal branches much more numerous at the widest 

portion of the gill ; abdomen with small white spots on a dark 

background Nehallenia, p. 49 

Gills with tracheal branches equally distributed throughout the 
length of the gill ; abdomen with brown spots on a light back- 
ground 5 

5. Gills with blunt points, or if with long points, then the cuticular 

pigment other than in cross bands ; mental setae usually three, 
or three with a minute fourth (four in E. cah'crti and E. 

cyaihigeriini) Enallagma, p. 54 

Gills with long tapering points ; the cuticular pigment, if present, 
always in cross bands ; mental setae of the labium usually four 6 

6. Gills without cuticular pigment; no dark spots at bases of abdom- 

inal spines ; nymphs of small size, full-grown individuals rarely 
more than 14 mm. in length including gills (PI. 11, Fig. 7) 

Anomalagrion, p. 38 
Gills usually with cuticular pigment in the form of arcuate cross 
bands ; cuticular spots present and prominent on abdomen and 
keels ; nymphs larger, when full grown 16.5-20 mm. in length 
including gills Ischnura, p. 40 



Adults 

1. Cephalic row of setae of middle and hind tibiae twice as long as 

the intervals between their bases ; postnodal cross-veins of the 
front wing twelve or more in number ; M2 arising between cross- 
vein 5 and 9 in the front wing Argia, p. 85 

Cephalic row of setae of middle and hind tibiae less than twice as 
long as the intervals between their bases ; postnodal cross-veins 
of the front wings usually less than twelve in number;" M2 
arising between the third and fifth, rarely sixth postnodal cross- 
veins in the front wing 2 

2. Dorsum of thorax metallic green or bronze Nehallenia, p. 49 

Dorsum of thorax not metallic green or bronze 3 

3. Postocular spots wanting ; mesopleural suture without a black 

stripe • 4 

Postocular spots present ; mesopleural suture with a black or dark 
brown stripe 5 

4. Dorsum of abdominal terga 1-6 entirely reddish or buff; female 

with a heavy spine on caudal margin of the eighth sternmn 

Amphiagrion, p. 48 
Dorsum of abdominal terga 1-6 black ; female without a heavy 

spine on the caudal margin of the eighth sternum 

Chromagrion, p. 46 

5. Mo usually arising between the fourth and sixth postnodal cross- 

veins in the front wings and between the third and sixth in the 

hind (Fig. 9, No. 3) 7 

M2 usually arising between the third and fourth postnodal cross- 
veins in the front wings and between the second and third in 
the hind 6 

6. Dorsum of the fourth abdominal tergum black, except a narrow 

basal ring; stigma of the front wing of the male not remote 

from the margin (Fig. 9, No. 7) Ischnura, p. 40 

Dorsum of the fourth abdominal tergum yellow with the exception 
of a basal and apical spot in the male and a small apical spot in 
the female ; stigma of the front wing of the male remote from 
the margin (Fig. 9, No. 8) Anomalagrion, p. 38 



^ More than 12 in Chromagrion and occasionally in Enallagma. 



38 



CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



[Bull. 



7. Cu2 terminating between nodus and origin of M^; length of male 

abdomen 35 mm. ( Fig. 42, No. i ) Teleallagma, p. 53 

Cu: terminating at or beyond the origin of M-; length of male 
abdomen not over 30 mm. (Fig. 9, No. 3) Enallagma, p. 54 

Genus Anomalagrion Selys 

Nymphs. — Head with rounded caudo-lateral margins, the 
labium with mental setae ; lateral keels usually spinulose ; abdom- 




FiG. 9. Front wings of 8 dififerent genera of Coenagrionidae. 

inal cuticle brown, very faintly spotted or not at all; gills less 
than half as wide as long, usually without cuticular pigment, but 
with comparatively inconspicuous tracheae, the latter not more 
numerous at the widest portion of the gill ; gills with long taper- 
ing points; total length including gills (fvill grown) about 14 mm. 
Adults. — Postocular spots present ; wings with 6-9 postnodal 
cross-veins in the front wings and M, arising between the third 
and fourth of these ; stigma of male remote from the margin ; 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 39 

dorsum of thorax not entirely metallic green, usually yellow and 
black, and the caudal margin of the prothorax entire ; tibial setae 
(middle and hind) shorter than the intervals between them and 
the mesopleural suture usually lined with black; abdomen with 
terga i-6 orange or yellow and black; female with a ventral spine 
on segment 8. 

Anornalagrion nymphs are difficult to distinguish from the 
nymphs of Ischnura, but are usually of smaller size; the lateral 
setae are five in number and the abdomen is not as prominently 
spotted. In addition, the smaller tracheae of the gills are incon- 
spicuous, especially towards the margins of the widest portions, 
as shown in PI. ii. Fig. 7. Of the Ischnuras the species posita 
gives the most trouble, and apparently the only satisfactory char- 
acter for separating them is found in the gills, which are much 
more prominently banded than in other members of the genus or 
the genus Anonialagrion. 

The only adults of this genus which I have collected in Con- 
necticut were found near brackish water not far from Long Island 
Sound. It does not seem, however, that this is the normal habitat 
of the adult. It has been seen and collected by others in quite 
different localities and the nymphs are known to inhabit small 
fresh-water pools or ponds. 

Anomalagrion hastatum (Say) 

• Tournal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8 : 38 : 
1830. 

Nymph. — Color green or buff. 

Head : with rounded caudo-lateral angles ; antennae with first 
two segments brown in color, the remaining ones lighter ; labium 
not extending caudad of the procoxae, the median lobe about as 
broad as long; mental setae 4, lateral setae 5. 

Thorax : legs without dark rings ; wing-cases extending nearly 
to the fourth abdominal segment. 

Abdomen : lateral keels feebly developed and with minute 
spines, gills (PI. 11, Fig. 7) lanceolate and with a long point; dorsal 
marginal spines of the median gill consisting of a thick row, 
extending about one-third the length of the gill from the base; 
ventral marginal spines of the lateral gills extending slightly 
further from the base than the dorsal row ; ovipositor extending 
to the caudal margin of the tenth abdominal segment. 

Measurements : length, 9.5 mm. ; length of abdomen, 5.5 mm. ; 
length of gills, 4.5 mm. ; width of gills, i.o mm. ; length of median 
lobe, 1.6 mm.; width of median lobe, 0.5-2.0 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color pale lemon-yellow and black. 

Head : lemon-yellow and metallic black or green ; antennae 
brown except the proximal segment, which has a pale stripe from 
the base to the apex ; postclypeus black, lateral margins sometimes 



40 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

pale ; anteclypeus pale, labruni with a transverse black stripe on 
the dorsal margin, the remainder yellow ; exposed portion of the 
mandibles, their trochantins, genae, and front above the clypeus 
to bases of the antennae yellow ; remainder of front dark ; post- 
ocular spots very small, nearly circular, and not connected with the 
postocellar stripe ; occiput and postgenae mostly yellow. 

Thorax : dark metallic green and yellow ; pronotum dark, the 
cephalic lobe lined with yellow and the caudal lobe with three 
yellow spots ; mesepisterna dark with a narrow greenish line 
above the mesopleural suture ; dorsal half of the katepisterna and 
the epimera dark; metathorax and ventral surface of the thorax 
pale yellow ; legs yellow with a short dark dash on each femur 
near the apex ; tibiae mostly pale ; tarsi and claws pale, darker 
at tips ; wings delicate, postnodal cross-veins 5-9 in the front 
wings, and 4-6 in the hind ; stigma of the front wing ovoid and 
remote from the margin but connected with it by a cross-vein. 

Abdomen : yellow or orange, and black, with black longitudinal 
bands on terga 1-3 and 7, those on 3 and 6 being reduced to basal 
and apical spots; terga 8-10 yellow; tenth tergum with a long 
process bifid at tip, and about as long as the segment itself. Anal 
appendages (Fig. 10, No. 20) small, the superiors bifurcate, each 
with a broad rounded mesal lobe and slender lateral one; infe- 
riors conical, slightly longer than the superiors. 

Female. — Color orange and black or dark brown. 

Head : differing from the male in having the black of the post- 
clypeus reduced to a dorsal line and that of the labrum to lateral 
spots ; postocular spots wanting ; occiput and postgenae pale. 

Thorax : dorsal black stripe covering half of each episterna ; 
mesopleural suture with a pale line, remainder of thorax orange 
or buff. Wings with stigma in contact with the margin. 

Abdomen : orange with narrow basal black rings on terga 2-4 
inclusive; a longitudinal dark stripe on the caudal three-fourths 
of 5, similar stripes extending the full length of 6, 7 and 8; tenth 
tergum with a short blunt projection; ovipositor extending beyond 
the anal appendages. 

Measurements : total length, male 23-24, female 24 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 17-19, female 19 mm.; length of hind wings, 
male 10, female 14 mm.; width of hind wings, male 2, female 
2-2.5 ^'''"^^• 

Connecticut. — East Haven, 29 July, 1921 (B. H. W.) ; Branford, 11 
August, 1921 (P. G.). 

New England. — June 22-August 20. 

Genus Ischnura Charpentier 

Nymphs. — Head with rounded caudo-lateral angles, the labium 
with mental setae ; abdomen with spinulose lateral keels ; gills 
less than half as broad as long, with or without cuticular pigment, 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 41 

but usually with pigment in arcuate cross-bands ; gills with long 
tapering points; length when grown (including gills) about 
20 mm. 

Adults. — Head with postocular spots ; wings with 7-9 post- 
nodal cross-veins ; the stigma about as wide as long and never 
remote from the margin in the male ; dorsum of thorax never 
entirely metallic green, and the caudal margin of prothorax entire ; 
tibial setae usually shorter than the intervals between them, never 
twice as long ; mesopleural suture covered with black ; abdominal 
terga 1-6 never entirely red or buff, usually black with pale rings, 
the basal segments sometimes red ; female with or without a 
ventral spine on 8. 

A genus commonly found in Connecticut although there are 
only four species represented. This is a small-pond and weedy- 
lake genus, and all of the species with the possible exception of 
kelHcotti may be found near such bodies of water. The eggs are 
probably laid in the stems of plants below water. 

Key to Species 

Nymphs 

I. Gills with usually more than two distinct arcuate cross-bands and 

a blotch on the tip of the gill ; lateral setae of the labium five .posita 
Gills with one or two cross-bands or none — ^never with four ; 
lateral setae of the labium usually six verticalis 

Adults 
Males and Females 

1. Mesopleural pale stripe interrupted at the caudal third to form a 

distinct exclamation point posita 

Mesopleural pale stripe not interrupted at the caudal third to form 
a distinct exclamation point 2 

2. Eighth sternum of female with a long spine ; dorsum of ninth 

tergum black ramburii 

Eighth sternum of female without a long spine ; dorsum of ninth 
tergum blue or black 3 

3. Seventh tergum with more or less blue on the dorsum; stigma 

usually blue beneath ; anal appendages as in Fig. 10, No. 16 . . . 

[kellicotti] 
Seventh tergum black; stigma not usually blue beneath verticalis 

Ischnura posita (Hagen) 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 77: 1861. 

Nymph. — Color usually dark brown. 

Head : with few spinules on the caudo-lateral margins, the 
margins evenly rounded, not projecting ; second antennal segment 
light at tip; labium extending between or slightly behind the 
procoxae. Mental setae 4, sometimes a small fifth ; lateral setae 5. 

Thorax : femora with rows of heavy setae, tarsi pale, the apices 
of the third segments brown ; metathoracic wing-cases extending 
to the fourth abdominal segment. 



42 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Abdomen: cuticle provided with numerous small black spots, 
each bearing a single seta; lateral keels without spines, except 
those of the segments 4 or 5 to 8 ; gills (PI. 11, Fig. 6) lanceolate, 
broadest beyond the middle, and usually with 4 crescentic brownish 
bands, of which the 3 apical ones are paler ; median gill with 
a dorsal row of about 14 spines extending one-third the length 
of the gill from the base ; ovipositor extending to the apex of the 
tenth abdominal segment. 

Measurements : length, 11. 5 mm. ; length of abdomen, 7.5 mm. ; 
length of gills, 5-5.5 mm.; width of gills, 1.6 mm.; length of 
median lobes, 2.0 mm.; width of median lobe, .5-1.6 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color black and yellow. 

Head : antennae uniform dark brown ; labrum black on the 
dorsal border, the black area projecting ventrad a little on the 
meson ; genae, mandibles, and the front to the antennae yellow ; 
remainder of the front and vertex black, the postocular spots 
yellow and almost circular ; postgenae and occiput yellow. 

Thorax : black and yellow ; mesepisterna with short yellow 
stripes and spots adjacent to the paraptera, the two forming an 
exclamation point on each side of the dorsal carina ; thorax yellow 
below ; legs black and yellow, the femora pale with a dorsal black 
stripe on each from bases to apices, the stripe wddened subapically ; 
tibiae with a dorsal stripe on each from bases to the apices, 
the stripes fading into brown at apices ; tarsi and claws pale, 
darker at tips ; wings with 6 to 8 postnodal cross-veins in the 
front wing and M^ arising between the third and fourth postnodal 
veins in the front and between the second and third in the hind. 

Abdomen: black and yellow; terga i-io dull black with excep- 
tion of a narrow basal ring on segments 3-7, the stripe narrowed 
on segment 2 at apex and widened on 3-6, lateral margins of the 
terga pale; apex of the tenth tergum with a mesal elevation, the 
elevation forming two small tubercles; anal appendages (Fig. 10, 
No. 12) small, orange in color, the superiors large and blunt, the 
inferiors bilobed, the superior lobe with small teeth. 

Female. — -Color pale blue and black. 

Head : postocular spots blue. 

Thorax : pale blue and black, sometimes lacking the black 
stripes on the metapleural sutures ; occiput usually yellow, some- 
times pardy black ; mesostigmal plates without an elevated ridge. 

Thorax : black and yellow ; pronotum mostly black, the cephalic 
lobe sometimes partly yellow and the caudal lobe with a pale spot 
on each lateral angle ; mesepisterna with yellow stripes. and_ spots 
adjacent to the wing bases, the two together forming a distinct 
exclamation point on each side; dorsal half of the mesepimera 
black, the black stripe widened just behind the katepistema ; meta- 
thorax and the postcoxal areas yellow ; legs black and yellow ; 
tarsi and claws pale, darker at tips ; wings short. 6-9 postnodals 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 43 

in the front wing and M, arising between 3 and 4 in the front 
wing' and between 2 and 3 in the hind ; abdomen with the pale 
and black markings similar to those of the male, but there is a 
tendency for the terga to become pollinose. 

Measurements : total length, male 24-27, female 27-29 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 19-21, female 18-22 mm.; length of 
hind wings, male 12-13, female 13-16 mm.; width of hind wings, 
male 2.5, female 2.5-3.5 ^'^^■ 

Connecticut. — Stratford, 9 July, 1920; Guilford, 13 July, 1920 (P. G.) ; 
New London, 8-22 June, 1921 (R. H. H.). 

New England. — May 25-September 18. 

Ischnura ramburii Sel} s 

Revue des Odonates ou Libellules d'Europe: 186: 1850. 

Nymph. — Unknown. 

Adult, male. — Color green and yellow, and black. 

Head : labium and face below the basal segments of the 
antennae yellow, with postclypeus and dorsal margins of labium 
black ; basal segment of the antennae with a pale yellow spot, 
remainder black ; dorsum of head above the antennae very dark 
green, the postocular spots circular, and pale blue; rear of head 
yellow, black on each side of occipital foramen. 

Thorax : yellowish green and very dark green, the pronotum 
dark with pale lateral spots and cephalic margin ; coxae mostly 
pale ; femora black above, pale below ; tibiae and tarsi black or 
very dark brown, claws darkest at tips. Mesothorax dark, with 
a very narrow pale line on each anepisternum, the epimera with 
ventro-lateral margins pale; each metapleura yellow with a black 
line on the metapleural suture; venter of thorax pale. 

Abdomen : dark green, nearly black, the first two terga greenish 
on sides, 3-7 inclusive with lateral margins yellow ; narrow pale 
basal rings on 3-6 or 7, the rings interrupted on the dorsum ; 
tergum 8 entirely blue, 9 black above, blue on sides, 10 black, the 
segment, however, yellow beneath; anal appendage (Fig. 10, 
No. 8) dark brown, the inferiors paler at base. 

Female. — One specimen in our collection has markings iden- 
tical to the male in nearly all particulars. In some, however, the 
thorax is a reddish-orange color, and the head is also of this same 
color. The first abdominal segment and base of the second is 
also orange.^ In the orange female there is a mid-dorsal but no 
lateral thoracic stripe. Mesostigmal plates each with transverse 
ridge, the mesal half being somewhat higher, the lateral half of 
plate pale. 

^vTeasurements : total length, male 31, female 34 nmi. ; length 
of abdomen, male 24, female 26 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 



'Calvert, P. P., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, xx, 240; 180.I. 



44 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

i6, female i8 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 3.5, female 4 mm. ; 
length of pterostigma, .75-1 mm. 

Connecticut. — Collected at Branford (Indian Neck), August 11, 1921 
(P. G.), and at North Haven, August 10, 1921, by Dr. Britton. 
New England. — July 20-October 2. 

Ischnura verticalis (Say) 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8 : Zl- 

Nymph. — Color green or brown. 

Head : caudo-lateral margins with spines, first two antennal 
segments and proximal third of 3 dark in color, remainder pale; 
labium extending caudad of the procoxae ; median lobe with 4 or 
5 mental setae and 6 lateral setae on palpi. 

Thorax : femora with preapical brown rings ; metathoracic 
wing-cases extending to the middle of the fourth, sometimes 
nearly to the fifth abdominal segment. 

Abdomen : with lateral keels, cephalic two-thirds of the dorsum 
of which are provided with small setae evenly distributed over the 
keel ; the keels of segments 2-7 are light at the apices ; cuticle 
thickly provided with small black dots, each bearing a small seta, 
the caudal margin of each segment, however, without setae, but 
with short, white longtitudinal dashes, especially marked on the 
venter; gills (PI. 11, Fig. i) with long tapering points; the spines 
of the median gill extending less than half the length of the gill 
from the base; apices of the gills with long hairs; gill pigment 
usually in the form of arcuate cross-bands, of which there are 
usually two, but they may be entirely wanting, especially in 
yoimger nymphs ; ovipositor of female extending to the middle 
of abdominal segment 10 or a little beyond. 

Measurements: length (without gills), 13-14 mm.; length of 
abdomen, 9-10 mm. ; length of gills, 6-7 mm. ; width of gills, 
1-1.3 mm.; length of median lobe, 1.8 mm.; width of median 
lobe, .6-1.6 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color black or dark metallic green and pale 
green. 

Head: black and yellowish green; postclypeus black, shining; 
anteclypeus. labrum, mandibles, their trochantins, genae and front 
above the clypeus, largely yellowish green ; postocular spots large 
and subcircular ; vertex and front except the transverse area 
above the clypeus dull black ; occiput black and greenish yellow. 

Thorax : greenish black and greenish yellow ; pronotum shin- 
ing black, except the front lobe; propleura largely yellow, meso- 
thorax shining black wdth a yellowish stripe just above the meso- 
pleural suture; ventral half or two-thirds and the cephalic 
shoulder of the mesepimera yellow ; paraptera with a yellow spot 
ventrad of the lateral angles, the remainder black ; mesostigmal 
plates black, the caudal margins elevated and yellow ; metathorax 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 45 

including the postcoxal areas greenish yellow, the metapleural 
suture, however, sometimes black ; legs striped, the femora black 
or dark above, the dorsal stripes of the tibiae narrower ; tarsi and 
claws pale, darker at apices ; wings with 6-9 postnodals, and Mj 
usually arising between the third and fourth postnodal (occa- 
sionally beyond) in the front wing and between the second and 
third in the hind. 

Abdomen : shining black or green, and yellowish green, dorsum 
of terga 1-7 black or green, with pale basal rings and lateral 
margins ; dorsum of 8 and 9 blue with dark lateral dashes, one 
on each side, the dash extending about three-fourths the length 
of the segment from the cephalic margin; anal appendages (Fig. 
10, No. 4) composed of flattened, almost vertically placed supe- 
riors, the inferiors longer; dorsum of segment 10 strongly ele- 
vated and with two small tubercles. 

Female. — Color orange and black or entirely black, tip of abdo- 
men sometimes with blue ; all markings often obscured with pollen 
in older specimens. Mesostigmal plates and hind margin of 
pronotum as in Fig. 11, No. 12. 

Orange variety. — Head and thorax similar to the male except 
that all pale marks are orange instead of greenish yellow ; post- 
ocular spots large, sometimes connected with pale color of occiput ; 
femora usually pale above ; abdomen with first two, and four- 
fifths of the third terga orange, remaining terga black above. 

Black variety. — Similar to the male except that the dorsa of all 
terga are black. 

Blue-tipped variety. — Greenish yellow of the male replaced by 
pale blue, the dorsa of terga 8 and 9 marked with bright blue, in 
some similar to the male, with a black stripe on each side ; in 
others with irregular blue spots above. 

The black and orange varieties of the female are regarded by 
some as different stages in the development of the insect, and the 
blue-tipped form may also represent an early stage. A majority 
of the specimens taken in midsummer will be found to be the black 
or pollinose variety, in which state it is necessary to rely on wing 
veins and the mesostigmal plate for determination. The plate in 
all varieties is black, with pale lateral angles, and the caudal 
margin elevated and forming a conspicuous ridge the full width 
of the plate (Fig. 11, No. 12). The caudal lobe of the pronotum 
is also different from Enallagmas, being provided with a double 
margin of peculiar form. 

Measurements : total length, male 23-30, female 26-30 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 18-25, female 23-24 mm.; length of 
hind wings, male 11-17, female 16-17 mm.; width of hind wings, 
male 2-3.5, female 3-3.5 mm. 

Connecticut. — South Manchester, 3 August, 1896 (W. C. S.) ; Mount 
Carmel, 2^ June, 1902 (E. J. S. M.) ; Poquonock, 9 July, 1903 (W. E. B.) ; 



46 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Hamden (Lake Whitney). 17 June, 1904 (H. L. V.), 23 May, 1906 
(B. H. W.). 28 May. 28 June. 4, 18 Tulv. 1920 (P. G.) : West Thompson, 
12 July, 190S (H. L. V.) ; Portland, 15 August, 1913 (B. H. W.) ; Strat- 
ford, 9 July, 1920; North Colebrook, 19 June, 1920 (P. G.) ; New London, 
6-22 June, 1 921 (R. H. H.). 

New England. — May 14-September 26. 

Genus Chromagrion Needham 

Nymphs.— Head with caudo-lateral angles projecting and 
forming a blunt tubercle ; labium with mental setae ; lateral keels 
not spinulose; gills less than half as broad as long, with consider- 
able cuticular pigment and without conspicuous tracheae ; with 
tapering points; length (including gills) full grown about 20 mm. 

Adults. — Head without postocular spots; wings with 10-14 
postnodal cross-veins; width of stigma less than its length, and 
not remote from the margin in the male. Dorsum of thorax 
never entirely metallic green, black and blue, and the mesopleural 
suture without a dark stripe : caudal margin of prothorax of 
female broken but not trilobed ; tibial setae never longer than the 
intervals between their bases ; abdomen with terga 1-6 black, with 
blue or yellow on the sides, and the female without a spine on 
sternum of 8. 

Adults of this genus have been found in woodlands near shaded 
pools, and the nymphs have been found in the waters of these 
pools. The one species of the genus in Connecticut seems to have 
a retiring habit and is well protected by its natural coloring. The 
nymphs collected were dredged from the bottom near the shore, 
in dead leaves and trash, well shaded. 

Chromagrion conditum (Hagen) 

Bulletin de TAcademle royale . . . de Belgique, 41: 1305: 1876. 

Nymph. — Color dark brown. 

Head : more than half as long as wide, the caudo-lateral angles 
projecting strongly; labium when folded extending to the meso- 
coxae ; mental setae 3, sometimes a small fourth ; lateral setae 5 ; 
proximal segment of the palpus with a distinct hook at the apex 
of the mesal process; antennae conspicuously annulate, segments 
3, 4, and 6 each with a single dark ring, segment 2 dark at base 
and apex, segment i nearly all dark. 

Thorax : front and middle femora each with two dark rings ; 
tibiae with a basal ring; wing-cases extending to the fifth or 
caudal margin of the fourth abdominal segment. 

Abdomen: lateral keels without spines ; cuticle often dark with 
white spots; gills (PL 11, Fig. 2) long and slender, widening 
gradually to near the apices, then contracted, the margins setose, 
the setae far apart and increasing in size distad. Color of gills 
dark brown, except the tips, which are light; indistinct blotches 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 47 

of darker pigment occur around the margins of the g-iUs ; smaller 
tracheae transparent and indistinct. 

Measurements: length (excluding gills), 12-17 mm.; length 
of abdomen. 8-10 mm.; length of gills, d-'j mm.; width of gills, 
I mm. ; length of median lobe, 2 mm. ; width of median lobe, 
.6-1.6 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color blue, black, and yellowish orange. 

Head : black or dark brown and blue ; mouth parts yellowish ; 
antennae black, the first segment with a blue ring; postclypeus 
black, the anteclypeus, labrum, mandibles, their trochantins, genae 
and the front above the clypeus to the level of the antennae, green- 
ish blue; remainder of vertex, occiput and postgenae black. 

Thorax : black and blue, yellow on the sides ; pronotum largely 
black, marked with blue on sides ; mesepisterna with a broad 
dorsal stripe which is as wide as the two episterna together adjoin- 
ing the wing bases, but contracts suddenly cephalad of this, and 
again about half way to the cephalic margins ; katepistema black 
and blue ; metepisterna and mesepimera blue with black caudal 
margins, and a brownish spot on the mesepimera behind the kate- 
pistema ; postcoxal areas yellowish buff or pollinose, the lateral 
margins of the intersternum and sometimes the ventral marg"ins 
of the metepimera dark ; metepimera bright yellow, legs mostly 
black, the femora each with a broad dorsal black stripe which 
encircles the segment at the apex ; tibiae pale buff, with darker 
stripe on the ventral surface; tarsi black; wings with 10-13 post- 
nodal cross-veins in the front wing; stigma usually surmounting 
a single cell. 

Abdomen : blue and black, the first tergum with a short basal 
black spot on the dorsum and cephalic angles ; tergum 2 with 
broad, black dorsal stripe and apical ring; terga 3-7 black with 
blue basal rings and pale lateral margins ; terga 8 and 9 largely 
blue, with narrow, lateral black margins and a black mesal line on 
dorsum of each (sometimes very faint or interrupted), the line 
being about three-fourths the length of the segment and with two 
small dots, one on each side of the caudal end ; terga 10 black 
except the two small blue spots on the dorsum ; anal appendages 
black, the superiors longer than the inferiors, swollen at their 
apices and the mesal surfaces densely hairy; inferiors short, 
pointed at the tips, the dorsal surface flat. Fig. 10, No. 24. 

Female. — The blue of the male is replaced by yellow or Isuff. 

Thorax : pronotum curiously modified, the caudal margins not 
continuous, and the median lobes with a flat, curved, elevated area 
on each ; mesostigmal plates broad, the caudal margins curved, 
the lateral angles pointed and the caudo-lateral margins elevated. 

Abdomen : buff and black, terga 7-10 black above, the sides 
pale; ovipositor reaching the apex of segment 10. 

Measurements : total length, male 34-35, female 33-36 mm. ; 



48 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

length of abdomen, male 27-29, female 27-30 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 20-21, female 22 mm.; width of hind wings, male 
and female, 4 mm. 

Connecticut.— Hamden, 4, 18 July, 1920 (P. G.) ; New London, 6-14 
June, 1921 (R. H. H.). 

New England.— May 30-July 18. 

Genus Amphiagrion Selys 

Nymph, — Caudo-lateral margin of the head projecting and 
forming a decided angle; labium with mental setae; abdomen 
without spinulose lateral keels, the gills less than half as broad as 
long, and without a long tapering point; length when grown 
including gills about 16-20 mm. 

Adult. — Head without postocular spots ; front wings with 
about 9 postnodals and AL arising between the third and fifth of 
these; stigma of male not remote from the margin; dorsum of 
thorax brown, the mesopleural suture not covered with black; 
caudal margin of female prothorax entire ; tibial setae of middle 
and hind tibiae about equal to the intervals between them ; abdo- 
men with terga 1-6 reddish or brown, the female with a spine on 
apex of the eighth sternum. 

Adults of this genus have been found near small streams and it 
is probable that the nymphs live in such streams rather than in 
ponds or lakes. Not much, however, is known of the habits of 
the nymphs. 

Amphiagrion saucium (Burmeister) 

Handbuch der Entomologie, 2: 819: 1839. 

Nymph. — Color dark brown. 

Head : pentagonal and with strongly projecting caudo-lateral 
angles ; labium broad, and extending to the metacoxae, the median 
lobe with 3 or 4 mental setae; 6 lateral on the palpi. 

Thorax : legs uniform brown and without darker rings ; wing- 
cases extending to the fourth or fifth abdominal segment. 

Abdomen : lateral keels absent or feebly developed and without 
spinules ; ovipositor of female nearly reaching the apex of the 
tenth segment in full-grown nymphs ; gills transparent ovate- 
lanceolate, the tips gradually narrowed to a sharp point ; margins 
of the gills setose from proximal to distal end, the setae placed 
close together and increasing in length towards the apices ; tracheal 
trunks sometimes dividing and forming a number of large 
branches near the proximal fourth of the gill. 

Measurements: length, 11-14 mm.; length of abdomen, 7-10 
mm. ; length of gills, 4.5 mm. ; width of gills, 1.5 mm. ; length of 
median lobe, 1.75-2.0 mm.; width of median lobe, i. 25-1. 5 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color, very dark brown and deep orange-red. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 49 

Head : dark brown or black to reddish above, mouth parts and 
surrounding regions brown or buff; antennae buff or brown. 

Thorax : dark brown above ; color sometimes brick red or 
almost black ; no definite stripes or spots present ; legs brown ; 
tibial spines but little longer than the intervals between them ; 
wings with about nine postnodal cross-veins in the front wing ; M2 
arising between the fourth and sixth postnodal in the front wing 
and between third and fifth in the hind ; stigma surmounting less 
than one cell, the caudal margin usually shorter than the cephalic. 

Abdomen: red and black or nearly black; segments 1-6 red, 
7-10 nearly black on the dorsum with paler basal rings and pale 
on sides and below; anal appendages (Fig. 12, Nos. 14 and 15) 
consisting of flat depressed superiors ; inferiors longer, acute, 
subconical, the tips directed dorso-mesad. Apical margin of the 
tenth segment with a deep rounded pit on the dorsum. 

Female. — Color usually lighter than the male. 

Thorax : not dark above as in the male. 

Abdomen: terga 1-4 reddish; 5-6 mostly red, sometimes with 
black spots on each near the caudal fourth ; terga 7-9 each with 
two dorsal black stripes which may, however, be fused; tergum 10 
entirely pale ; eighth sternum with a long spine, ovipositor brown. 

Measurements: total length, male 23-26, female 24-26 mm.; 
length of abdomen, male 19-21, female 19-21 mm.; length of hind 
wings, male 13-16, female 15-16 mm.; width of hind wings, male 
3-3.5, female 3.5 mm. 

Connecticut. — New Haven, 25, 26 May, 1904 (H. L. Y.), 20 July, 1904 
(B. H. W.), 27 June, 1905 (W. E. B.) ; New London, 8, 9 June, 1921 
(R. H. H.) ; Middletown, 18 June, 1904 (W. E. B.), 14 July, 1921 (P. G.). 

New England. — May 25- July 29. 

Genus Nehallenia Selys 

Nymphs. — Caudo-lateral margins of the head rounded ; labium 
with mental setae ; abdomen with spinulose lateral keels, the gills 
with moderately sharp points, the tracheae more numerous at the 
widest part of the gill; total length including gills, about 15 mm. 
when grown. 

Adults. — Head without postocular spots ; wings with about 1 1 
postnodals ; and M, arising between the third and fifth postnodal 
cross-vein in the front wing ; stigma of male not remote from the 
margin ; dorsum of thorax entirely metallic green, the caudal 
margin of the female prothorax hi- or trilobed or entire; tibial 
setae mostly shorter than the intervals between their bases ; meso- 
plcural suture covered with green ; abdomen with terga 1-6 green 
and the female without a ventral spine on 8. 

The adults of this genus may be found usually near small ponds 
or sphagum bogs. The nymphs are not commonly collected but 
have been taken in a small open pond at Mt. Carmel. 



so CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

For literature dealing with adults of this genus, see : Calvert, P. P. 
Entomological News, 24: 310-316: 1913; also pages 373-4- 

Key to Species 

Adults 

Males and Females 

1. Caudal margin of female pronotum entire; superior anal appen- 

dages of the male longer than the inferiors integricoUis 

Caudal margin of female pronotum bi- or trilobed; superior anal 
appendages of the male shorter than the inferiors 2 

2. Terga 9 and 10 of the abdomen, and most of 8 entirely blue in 

the male ; pronotum of female bilobed gracilis 

Terga 8 and 9 with considerable black on dorsum and sides ; pro- 
notum of female trilobed irene 

In addition to the species mentioned, Miss Butler has described a species, 
Nehallenia carlotta, from Saranac Inn, New York, which is said to differ 
from gracilis in the shape of the anal appendages. (Can. Ent. 46; p. 346 
figs, e, f ; 1914.) These, according to the figures, are slightly more pointed 
than those of gracilis. 

Nehallenia integricoUis Calvert 

Entomological News 24: 312, 373-4: 1913. 

Nymph. — Unknown. 

Adult, male. — Predominating color dark green or bronze. 

Head : labrum about half blue ; postclypeus black, anteclypeus 
blue ; blue on sides of head below the eyes and a pale transverse 
stripe above clypeus, the pale color below the eyes extending onto 
the postgenae in a broad vertical stripe ; second antennal segment 
with a pale ring at middle. 

Thorax : greenish bronze above, blue or pale on sides and 
below ; a straight line from base of the hind wings to the middle 
of the katepisternum of the mesothorax marks lateral boundary 
of the dark color ; wings with two antenodal cells, or one antenodal 
cross-vein. 

Abdomen : bronzy green, pale blue or orange color along the 
lateral margins and below ; segments 9 and 10 pale blue, 9 with 
two dark triangles at base above (sometimes confluent), 10 some- 
times with dark transverse stripe; inferiors a little longer than 
the superiors with two teeth-like projections and one tooth on 
the superior. 

Female. — Similar in color to the male. 

Thorax: hind margin of the pronotum (Fig. 11, No. 18) entire, 
being neither bi- nor trilobed. 

Abdomen : segment 10 blue, 9 black with blue triangle on dorso- 
meson, the sides pale. 

Measurements : total length, male 22.5. female 24-28 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 18.4, female 24.5 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 12.5, female 13. 5-16.5 mm. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COEN AGRIONIDAE 5 I 

Nehallenia gracilis Morse 

Psyche 7 : 274: 1895. 

Nymph. — The nymphs of this species are said by Walker 
(Canadian Entomologist 45: 161-2: 1913) to lack the dark spots 
on the gills, present in ircuc and to have fewer spines on the rear 
of the head (4-6 compared with 12 or more in Irene). 

^leasurements : total length. 11 to 13 mm.; length of gills, 
2,-2>-7 '"""1- ; length of hind wing-cases, 2.2-2.7 "^"i- 5 length of 
hind femora, 2-2.3 ^^"''• 

Adult, male. — Color green and blue. 

Head : greenish bronze above ; pale blue postocular spots 
apparently formed by continuations of the postocellar stripe ; face 
below the compound eyes also blue ; second antennal segment with 
pale ring at middle. 

Thoracic dorsum metallic green, the green color extending 
beyond the mesopleural suture ; wings with three antenodal cells 
or two antenodal cross-veins ; caudal margin of the pronotum 
entire. 

Abdominal segment 8 blue, except a very narrow transverse 
basal band, 9 and 10 all blue ; superior anal appendages nearly 
as long as the inferiors, the latter each with a sharp tooth at the 
caudo-dorsal angles when viewed in profile. 

Female. — Pronotum with the caudal margin bilobed, the 
median incision with a small erect process (Fig. 11, No. 19) ; 
abdomen with a large triangular spot on segment 9 and all of 
segment 10 blue; spot on 9 sometimes produced to base and the 
dorsum of 8 nearly or entirely blue, with a black band on each 
side in the cephalic half of the segment. 

Measurements : length of abdomen, male 20-22, female 20-22 
mm. ; length of hind wings, male 13-14.5, female 14-15 mm. 

Reported from Canada, Massachusetts, New Jersey and New 
York. 

New England. — June 19- July 19. 

Nehallenia irene Hagen 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 74: 1861. 

Nymph. — Color brown or green. 

Head : caudo-lateral margins with few spines ; second antennal 
segment longer than the first, the second segment and the prox- 
imal third of number 3, dark brown ; remainder of the antennae 
lighter ; labium extending nearly to the mesocoxae ; each side of 
the median lobe with a large mental seta and smaller one along- 
side ; lateral setae six. 

Thorax : femora and tibiae with sparsely placed rows of setae, 
the preapical brown femoral rings distinct : wing-cases extending 
nearly to the apex of fourth abdominal segment, in some to the 
middle of 5. 



52 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

Abdomen : lateral keels of segments 6-8, with not more than 6-7 
spinules, that of the first segment usually without any; cuticle of 
the abdomen with small whitish spots on a darker background; 
gills broader beyond the middle, the lateral gills with 10-12 black 
spots on the margins and sometimes a distinct arcuate cross-band 
beyond the middle ; tracheal branches more numerous beyond the 
middle ; marginal spines of lateral gills well separated, the proxi- 
mal ventral row of heavy spines extending beyond the middle of 
the lateral gills ; ovipositor usually extending beyond the apex of 
the tenth segment. 

Measurements: length, lo-ii mm.; length of abdomen, 7-8 
mm. ; length of gills, 4-4.5 mm. ; width of gills, i mm. ; length 
of median lobe, i. 5-1.7 mm. 

Adult, male, — Color bright metallic green, yellow, and some- 
times pale blue. 

Head : metallic green, pale below ; mouth-parts, ventral half or 
two-thirds of labruni, genae and front to clypeo-frontal suture, 
yellow ; dorsal half or third of labrum usually black ; postclypeus 
black or green ; remainder of head including vertex, occiput, and 
postgenae mostly metallic green ; second segment of the antennae 
with a pale ring at middle. 

Thorax : pronotum green, propleura pale ; mesothorax with 
black dorsal carina ; episterna green except the ventral third of 
the katepisterna and a pale line on its dorsal border ; mesepimera 
mostly green, their cephalic shoulders pale; metapleura pale 
yellow, except for the caudo-dorsal angles of the episterna and a 
small black spot on the metapleural suture near the wing-bases ; 
postcoxal areas yellow ; legs striped but mostly pale yellow, the 
femora all with a distinct dorsal vitta, the tibiae also with a nar- 
rower stripe above but not usually extending the full length of 
the segment ; tarsi and claws pale except at their apices ; wings 
with 9-11 postnodal cross-veins in the front wing, M2 arising 
usually between the fourth and fifth of these in the front wing 
and between the third and fourth in the hind. 

Abdomen : metallic green above the lateral margins of the 
terga, pale yellow or blue; dorsum of 1-8 green above, usually 
blue on sides of 2 and 8. the remaining terga usually with yellow 
margins, terga 9 and 10 blue with green basal, somewhat trian- 
gular areas on each side of the meson ; anal appendages mostly 
pale, the superiors small, the inferiors toothed at their apices. 

Female. — Color metallic green or bronze and yellow. 

Thorax: pronotum (Fig. 11, No. 17) differing from the 
male in having the caudal lobe emarginate on each side of the 
meson, the piece being trilobed in consequence ; the mesostigmal 
plates have the mesal margins strongly elevated. 

Abdomen : ninth tergum green above with an apical blue or 
brown triangle and blue lateral margins; tergum 10 blue, with 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 53 

two small green triangles at the base ; ovipositor including styli 
extending beyond the apices of anal appendages. 

^leasurements : total length, male 25-27, female 26-29 nim. ; 
length of abdomen, male 21, female 21-22 mm.; length of hind 
wings, male 13. 5-15, female 14-17 mm.; width of hind wing, male 
3-4. female 3-4 mm. 

Connecticut. — West Haven, 29 June, 1905 (H. L. V.) ; Stratford, 9 
July, 1920; Hamden, 28 June, 4 July, 1920; New Haven, 3 July, 1920 
(P. G.) ; New^ London, 17 June, 1921 (R. H. H.) ; Litchfield, 5 July, 1911 
(L. B. W.). 

New England. — May 28-August 23. 

Geiius Teleallagma Kennedy 

Adults. — Postocular spots present; postnodal cross-veins 11-12 
in the front wing ; M, arising between the fifth and sixth of these ; 
stigma of the male not remote from the margin ; Cug terminating 
in the hind margin of the front wing between the nodus and origin 
of M2 ; dorsum of thorax not metallic green, but brown or blue ; 
tibial setae shorter than the distances between them ; mesopleural 
suture marked with black; abdomen very slender with terga 1-5 
never entirely red or yellow, but blue or green on sides, with black 
dorsal stripes ; vulvar spine present in the female. 

The only representative of this genus in the United States was 
placed doubtfully in Telagridn by Calvert (Ent. News 14, 36-39: 
1903). Since then Kennedy (Ohio Journal of Science xxi: 87: 
1920), who has studied the genera of Zygoptera critically, erected 
the genus Teleallagma for this species and states his reasons for 
the change in correspondence; namely, that the female of Tela- 
grion Selys lacks the vulvar spine present in T. daeckii, which is 
enough in itself to separate daeckii from this genus. Daeckii is 
furthermore a close relative of the Enallagmas both in anal and 
accessory appendages, but differs enough in wing venation and 
general form to stand under a different genus. Thus being 
excluded from both Enallagma and Telagrion a new genus is the 
only alternative, hence the name Teleallagma. All this informa- 
tion together with the uncertainty with which Calvert placed the 
species in Telagrion has led to the adoption of the new name. 

Teleallagma daeckii (Calvert) 

Entomological News, 14: 36-39: 1903. 

Adult, male (Fig. 42, Nos. i, 3, 4 and 5). — Color pale blue and 
black. 

Head : mostly blue with black as follows : mid-dorsal spot on 
labrum ; postclypeus with a spot each side sometimes connected 
and a basal line; short narrow stripe in front of median ocellus 
and another zigzag stripe behind it ; a spot behind base of each 



54 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

antenna; mesal margins of lateral ocelli, and narrow margins of 
the large postocular spots. 

Thorax : pale blue ; median pronotal lobes with a curved black 
spot on each side, and another short dash on each side below it, 
extending onto the sides of the prothorax ; dorsal carina of meso- 
thorax with a very narrow dark line on each side, hardly wider 
than the carina itself ; mesopleural suture with a thin line of dark 
pigment, much widened at middle and at either end ; dorsal and 
caudal margins of katepisternum dark ; hind tibia with six spines 
below on the outer side, and a dorsal dark stripe from base to 
apex ; wings as in Fig. 42. 

Abdomen : blue or greenish yellow with narrow dorsal dark 
stripes on terga 1-7, that on 7 narrowed to a line, the caudal 
fourth or fifth of the segment mostly blue, segments 8, 9, and 10 
entirely blue. Superior anal appendages (Fig. 42, Nos. 3, 4) with 
a rounded ventral lobe, and a truncate distal projection, the 
inferiors slightly longer. 

Female. — Blue of male replaced by brown or greenish yellow, 
that of the head by brown. Color of abdomen differs from the 
male in having dorsal stripes on segments 1-8 inclusive, segments 
9-10 blue. 

Measurements: total length, male 41, female 35 mm.; length 
of abdomen, male 35, female 29 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
22, female 20 mm. 

Described from a pair obtained through the courtesy of Mr. 
Wm. T. Davis, collected at Southern Pines, North Carolina, June 
9, 1920. The species has not yet been found in Connecticut, but 
occurs in New Jersey and southward as far as the Carolinas. 

Genus Enallagma Charpentier 

Nymphs. — Head without projecting caudo-lateral margins, the 
latter rounded instead ; labium with mental setae ; abdomen with 
spinulose lateral keels ; gills less than half as broad as long, with 
or without cuticular pigment, but usually with conspicuous 
tracheae, and generally with blunt points, not, however, as rounded 
as those of some Argias; length when grown about 20 mm. 

Adults. — Postocular spots present ; wings usually with less 
than 12 postnodal cross-veins, and M^ arising between the 4th 
and 6th in the front wings ; width of stigma nearly equal its 
length or much less ; dorsum of thorax never entirely metallic 
green, usually brown or black with lighter-colored stripes ; caudal 
margin of the female pronotum never trilobed ; the tibial setae 
never twice as long as the intervals between their bases (scales or 
flattened setae excepted) ; mesopleural suture usually with a 
black or dark brown stripe ; abdomen with terga 1-6 never entirely 
red or yellow, and the female with a spine on sternum of 8. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 55 

A comparatively large genus represented in New England by 
about 1 8 species. 

For literature on adults, see : 
Calvert, P. P. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, XLV : 
373-392: 1919, Plate XXXIII (limited to vesperum group). 

Biologia Centrali Americana, 1902, 103: 379, etc. 

See also publications of Calvert, Garman, Howe, Kellicott, and Needham. 

Synopses and treatises on the nymphs have been published by: 
Garman, P. Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History, 

XII: 517-559: 1917- 
Howe, R. H. Memoir of the Thoreau Museum of Natural History, II: 

110-113: 1921. 
Needham, J. G. New York State Museum Bulletin 68: 250-258: 1903. 

In general the Enallagiiias of New England may be grouped 
together in several divisions as follows : 

1. The vesperuin-signatum group, containing signatum, pictum and ves- 

perum. Probably the most distinct of all the groups and charac- 
terized by the frequent occurrence of yellow or orange pigment in 
the adult, by the peculiar shape of the mesostigmal lamina, and the 
structure of the nymphal abdomen and gills (p. 61). 

2. The civile-canmculatum group, containing civile, carunculatiim, double- 

dayi and possibly also calverti and cyathigerum, although the latter 
may belong to another division (p. 65). 

3. The hageni-cbrium group, to which recurvatum, laterale and probably 

geminatum and minus ciiliiin also belong (p. 71). 

4. The exsidans-traviatwn group, composed of exsulans, traviuium and 

divagans and characterized by the color pattern of the thorax, which 
shows a modified or divided stripe over the mesopleural suture, and 
the peculiar shape and pigmentation of the gills of the nymph (p. 79). 

5. Durum apparently distinct from all other groups at least in the adult. 

6. Aspcrsum, possibly belonging to one of the other groups above but 

fairly distinct in the adult stage (p. 84). 

The different groups of Enallagmas are fairly distinct in habits, and 
continued study of this phase of the question will reveal many more points 
of difference than can be listed here. Thus group i is, in general, a small 
clear-lake-loving group. Group 2 inhabits for the most part small ponds 
and weedy pools, while group 3 is also a lake-pond group. The exsulans- 
traviatum group are frequenters of small streams, usually slow flowing, but 
are sometimes encountered in other localities. The only specimens of 
group 5 that have been collected in Connecticut have been found near 
brackish water, and it is probable that the species requires such an environ- 
ment. The eggs of most species are laid on the stems of plants beneath 
the surface, but this habit is not universal as indicated by the quotation 
from Woods on page 14. 

Key to Species 

Nymphs' 

I. Gills without pigment except in tracheae and sometimes a trace 

along the axes 2 

Gills with pigment other than in tracheae, usually in cross-bands 7 



* This key is based primarily on the characters of the final stages with well-developed 
wing-cases. The species hageni, ebriutn, geminatum. civile, and doubledayi are very 
closely related and this part of the key should be used with caution. 





6 traviatu 





3 geminatu 






4 Ischnura vorllca 




8 rambu 









20 

Anomalagrion hastatun 





22signatur, 




IP 

24 Chromagrlon conditum 







28 ' 29 

doubledayj civile 

Fig. 10. Anal appendages of Enallagma, Ischnura, Chromagrion and 
Anomalagrion. i. Enallagma civile, dorsal view. 2. E. aspersum. 3. E. 
gemitiatum. 4. Ischnura verticalis. 5. Enallagma civile. 6. E. traviatum. 
7. E. geminatum, dorsal view. 8. Ischnura ramburii. 9. E. carunculatum. 
10. E. minusculmn. 11. E. hageni. 12. Ischnura posita. 13. Enallagma 
exsulans. 14. E. vesperum. 15. E. cyathigerum. 16. Ischnura kcllicotti. 
17. Enallagma ebriuni. 18. E. durum. 19. E. cyathigerum, dorsal view. 
20. Anomalagrion hastatum. 21. Enallagma laterale. 22. E. signafnm. 23. 
E. calverti. 24. Chromagrion conditum. 25. Enallagma doubledayi. 26. 
£. picfum. 27. £. divagans. 28. £. doubledayi, right superior appendage 
from the left and above. 29. Same of E. cimle. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 57 

2. Tracheae of gills in alga-like patches (PI. i, Figs. 8 and 9) j- g^j^uj^ 

Tracheae of gills not in alga-like patches 3 

3. Lateral keels of the first abdominal segment with o to 2 spines ; 

axes of the gills clear .• • • • 4 

Lateral keels of the first abdominal segment with 2 to 4 spines ; 
axes of the gills more or less clouded carunculatum 

4. Dorsal marginal spines of the median gill usually less than 20 in 

full-grown nymphs ; all of the third antennal segment dark 
brown; gills rarely more than 4.5 mm. in length (PI. i, Fig. 7) 

geminatum' 
Dorsal marginal spines of the median gill more than 20 in full- 
grown nymphs ; only the proximal third of the third antennal 
segment dark brown ; gills 5.5 to 6 mm. in length 5 

5. Marginal spines of both lateral and median gills not reaching the 

middle of the gill civile 

Marginal spines of both lateral and median gills reaching much 
beyond the middle 6 

6. Tracheae of the gills numerous (PI. i, Fig. 11) durum 

Tracheae few (PI. i, Fig. 12) doubledayi 

7. Tracheal branches of the gills in alga-like patches ; caudo-lateral 

margins of the head behind the eyes greater than half the distance 

between the antennae 8 

Tracheal branches of the gills not in alga-like patches ; caudo- 
lateral margins of the head behind the eyes less than half the 
distance between the antennae 9 

8. Dark portion of the base of the gills less than half their length 

(PI. II, Fig. 4) traviatum 

Dark portion of the base of the gills extending more than half 
the length of the gill (PI. 11, Fig. 9) exsulans 

9. Spines of the lateral abdominal keels not grouped conspicuously 

near the caudal ends of the keels on each segment ; gills as in 

P-.Ftex' : } '"""Xe"" 

Spines of the lateral abdominal keels grouped conspicuously near 
the caudal ends of the keels on each segment; gills as in PL 11, 

Figs. 5, 10 10 

10. Median gill with a bunch of heavy spines on the dorsal margin 
proximad of the first transverse cross-band; distal cross-bands 
of about the same degree of blackness as the proximal ones ; 
median gills not expanded greatly distad of the first cross-band 
(PI. II, Fig. 5) signatum 

Median gills without a bunch of spines on the dorsal margin proxi- 
mad of the first transverse cross-band, sometimes with a few 
weak, well-distributed spines ; distal cross-bands much lighter 
in color than the proximal ones, and sometimes wanting ; median 
gill usually well expanded distad of the first transverse cross- 
band (PI. II, Fig. 10) vesperum 

Adults, Males 

I. Three cross-veins in both wings between M* and Cui between the 

subnodus and the quadrangle durum 

Two cross-veins in both wings between Mi and Cui between the 
subnodus and the quadrangle 2 



^ An exuviae, possibly minusculum, received from Dr. Calvert differs from geminatutn 
in having no spines on the keels of segments i to ?.. This was referred by Dr. Calvert 
to vesperum but is doubtfully that species. (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xlv, 384-385; 1919.) 



58 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

2. Dorsum of the second abdominal segment with black spot occupy- 

ing at most half the segment, usually less 3 

Dorsum of the second abdominal segment with black spot occupy- 
ing more than half the length of the segment, usually as long 
as the segment 13 

3. Caudal half of the seventh abdominal tergum blue aspersum 

Caudal half of the seventh abdominal tergum black 4 

4. Dorsum of the fourth and fifth abdominal terga more than half 

black 5 

Dorsum of the fourth and fifth abdominal terga less than half 
black 7 

5. M2 of the hind wing arising between the third and fourth post- 

nodal cross-vein 6 

Ms of tlie hind wing arising beyond the fourth postnodal cross- 
vein carunculatum 

6. Superior anal appendages with a large rounded ventral lobe (Fig. 

10, No. 10) minusculum 

Superior anal appendages without a rounded ventral lobe ; similar 
to hageni but the tips upturned recurvatum 

7. Superior anal appendages bifurcate, their arms separated by an 

obtusely rounded notch 8 

Superior anal appendages not bifurcate, sometimes notched, the 
notch acute 9 

8. Tergum 8 blue with black stripe on each side laterale 

Tergum 8 entirely blue ebrium 

9. Inferior anal appendages longer than the superiors 10 

Inferior anal appendages shorter than the superiors 12 

10. M2 usually arising between the third and fourth postnodal cross- 

vein in the hind wings; anal appendages as in Fig. 10, No. 11 hageni 
M2 arising between the fourth and fifth postnodal cross-vein in the 
hind wings 1 1 

11. Superior anal appendages blunt; lateral profile as shown in Fig. 10, 

No. 23 calverti 

Superior anal appendages acute; lateral profile as shown in Fig. 10, 
No. 15 cyathigerum 

12. Superior anal appendages with the apical tubercle or lobe project- 

ing noticeably beyond the dor so-caudal angles when viewed from 

the side (Fig. 10, Nos. 25, 28) doubledayi 

Superior anal appendages with the apical tubercles not projecting 
noticeably beyond the dor so-caudal angles when viewed from tlie 
side ( Fig. 10, Nos. i, 5, 29) civile 

13. Second antennal segment pale except the distal third, which is fre- 

quently dark brown 14 

Second antennal segment entirely dark brown or black 16 

14. Dark stripe of the mesopleural suture paler in color than the dorsal 

stripe covering the carina, or reduced to a line ; anal appendages 

as in Fig. 10, No. 14 vesperum 

Dark stripe of the mesopleural suture not paler in color than the 
dorsal stripe covering the carina 15 

15. Superior anal appendages without a ventral tooth (Fig. 10, No. 

26) ; dorsum of abdominal segment 9 black pictum 

Superior anal appendages with a ventral tooth (Fig. 10, No. 22) ; 
dorsum of abdominal segment 9 pale signatum 

16. Front with blue color extending to the median ocellus; postocular 

spots large, each forming an equilateral triangle in shape ; black 
stripe of the mesopleural suture narrow, indistinct or wanting 

traviatum 
Front with blue or pale color not extending dorsad to the median 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 59 

ocellus, not dorsad of the antennal fossae ; postocular spots each 
forming a wedge-shaped figure or comma ; black stripe of the 
mesopleural suture distinct, never wanting 17 

17. Secx)nd abdominal tergum with a dark longitudinal stripe just 

above the lateral margins on each side geminatum 

Second abdominal tergum without a dark longitudinal stripe 18 

18. Caudal half of tergum 7 blue; dorsal arm of superior much longer 

than ventral arm in lateral profile aspersum 

Caudal half of tergum 7 black; dorsal arm of superior shorter 
than ventral arm 19 

19. Dorsum of tergum 8 black from base to apex ; anal appendages 

as in Fig. 10, No. 13 exsulans 

Dorsum of tergum 8 with only a black spot at base ; anal appen- 
dages as in Fig. 10, No. 2"] divagans 

Females" 

1. Three cross-veins present in the wings between M4 and Cui and 

between the subnodus and quadrangle durum 

Only two cross-veins between subnodus and quadrangle 2 

2. Prominent pits present in the pronotum. one on each of median 

lobes 3 

No prominent pits present in the pronotum 8 

3. Antennal segment 2 pale at base ; mesostigmal lamina reaching the 

mesopleural suture, the entire lateral end in contact with the 

katepisternum 4 

Antennal segment 2 not pale at base ; lateral end of the mesostig- 
mal lamina touching the mesopleural suture at a single point only 6 

4. Black stripe of the mesopleural suture reduced in width to a line 

vesperum 
Black stripe of the mesopleural suture not reduced in width to a 
line 5 

5. Black stripe of the mesopleural suture touching the ventro-lateral 

end of the mesostigmal lamina (Fig. 11, No. 2) signatum 

Black stripe of the mesopleural suture not touching the ventro- 
lateral end of the mesostigmal lamina pictum 

6. Abdominal tergum 8 with a large pale spot on each side ; black 

stripe present just above the ventro-lateral margin of the second 

tergum (sometimes brown or wanting) geminatum 

Abdominal tergum 8 without a large pale spot on each side ; with- 
out stripe just above ventro-lateral margin of the second tergum 7 

7. Mesostigmal lamina narrowed at middle; caudal and lateral 

margins not elevated (Fig. 1 1, No. 5) ebrium 

Mesostigmal lamina widened at middle ; caudal and lateral margins 
elevated (Fig. 11, No. 6) , hageni 

8. Pronotum with mound-like elevation on the caudal lobe, the caudal 

lamina conspicuously thickened at the middle ; stripe of the meso- 
pleural suture reduced in width, and either divided by brown 

color over the suture or with brown margins 9 

Pronotum without a mound-like elevation on the caudal lobe; stripe 
of the mesopleural suture uniform black and not reduced in 
width 11 

9. Pale color of the face extending dorsad above the antennae ; black 

of the eighth abdominal segment reduced to a small basal dasli or 

stripe traviatum 

Pale color of the face not extending dorsad above the antennae; 
black of the eighth never reduced to a small basal dash 10 



'' Females of recurvatuin and laterale not available. 




20 Enallagma aspersum 



23 carunculatum 



21 traviatum 



24 civile 



22 geminatum 



25 cyathlgerun 



Fig. II. Portion of the thorax showing caudal margin of pronotum, 
mesostigmal plates and mesothorax of Enallagma, Ischinira. Argia and 
Nehallenia, and abdominal color pattern of females of Enallagma. i. 
Enallagma carunculatum. 2. E. signatum. 3. E. civile. 4. E. vesperuni. 
5. E. ebriimi. 6. E. hageni. 7. E. durum. 8. E. traviatum. 9. E. exsulans. 
10. E. aspersum. 11. E. cyathigerum. 12. Ischnura verticalis. 13. Enal- 
lagma geminatum. 14. Argia translata. 15. A. moesta. 16. A. violacea. 
17. Nehallenia irene. 18. iV. integricollis, hind margin of the pronotum. 
19. Same of A'', gracilis. 20. Enallagma aspersum, color pattern of the last 
five abdominal segments. 21. E. traviatum. 22. E. geminatum. 23. E. 
cartmculatum. 24. E. civile. 25. E. cyathigerum. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 6 1 

10.' Pronotum without two approximate median spots on the median 
lobe ; tergum 8 with two pale blue spots on the caudal margin ; 
stripe of the mesopleural suture not usually divided by brown as 

far forward as the katepisternum divagans 

Pronotum with two small pale spots on the dorso-meson ; tergum 
8 with dorsum entirely black; stripe of the mesopleural suture 
usually divided by brown as far forward as the katepisternum 

exsulans 

11. Eighth tergum, either largely blue or with a large blue or pale 

spot on each side 12 

Eighth tergum neither largely blue nor with a large blue or pale 
spot on each side .' 14 

12. Seventh abdominal tergum mostly pale blue, the black confined to a 

small spot on caudal margin and mid-dorsal line aspersum 

Seventh abdominal tergum black above, pale on sides, the black 
not confined to a small spot and mid-dorsal line 13 

13. Cephalo-mesal angles of mesostigmal lamina hollowed out (Fig. 

II, No. 11) cyathigerum 

Cephalo-mesal angles of mesostigmal lamina not hollowed out calverti 

14. Adults of small size, abdomen not over 20 mrn. ; pronotum entirely 

black ; M; arising proximad of the 4th postnodal cross-vein in 

the hind wings minusculum 

Adults of larger size, abdomen more than 20 mm. ; pronotum not 
entirely black ; M2 distad of the 4th postnodal cross-vein in the 
hind wing 15 

15. Mesostigmal lamina each with a diagonal ridge; black of abdom- 

inal segments 4-7 considerably reduced near the front margin, 

and often not reaching the cephalic border carunculatum 

Mesostigmal lamina without diagonal ridges ; black of abdominal 
segments 4-7 not greatly reduced near the front margin, and 
usually reaching the cephalic border doubledayi; civile 

Group I Vesperum-signatum Group 

Enallagma pictum Morse 

Psyche. 7: .•^07: 1895;. 

Nymph. — Unkno\^•n. 

Adult, male. — Color reddish brown or yellow and black. 

Head : reddish brown or yellow and black ; first two antennal 
segments pale; postocular spots narrow, the lateral ends hardly 
widened, the mesal ends connected with the postocellar stripe. 

Thorax : yellow or orange and black ; legs pale ; wings with 
10 to II postnodal cross-veins in the front wing and about lo in 
the hind wing; M, arising near the fifth postnodal cross-vein 
in the front wing and between the fourth and fifth in the hind. 

Abdomen : yellow or orange and black ; black as follows : 
dorsum of i and 2, the cephaHc half of the dorsal stripe of this 
segment considerably narrowed; dorsum of terga 3 to 10 except 
narrow basal rings; anal appendages as in Fig. 10, No. 26. and 
differing from signatuni in having the superiors shorter, more 
rounded at the tips, and without the ventral tooth of signatum. 

~ This separation of divagans and exsulans is not entirely reliable and the females 
are so closely related that they can not be easily determined. Divagans is, however, a 
rare species in Connecticut. 



62 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Female. — In general similar to the male in color; black stripe 
of the niesopleural suture touching the lateral ends of the meso- 
stigmal plates ; mesepisternal tubercles present at margins of the 
mesostigmal plates ; pale stripe of the mesepisternum narrower 
than the black stripe covering the niesopleural suture. 

Measurements: total length, male 30-31 mm.; length of abdo- 
men, male 24-26, female 25-26 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
15-17, female 17-18 mm. 

New England. — July 27-August 23. 

Enallagma signatum (Hagen) 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 84: 1861. 

Nymph.— Color buff or greenish. 

Head: elHptical in outline, caudo-lateral angles not projecting; 
first 2 segments of the antennae dark in color, nearly equal in 
length, the second slightly shorter, the third longest, the remaining 
ones decreasing successively in length ; labium extending caudad 
of procoxae, with 3 mental setae and 5 laterals. 

Thorax : legs light in color except a dark ring on each femur ; 
tips of third tarsal segments dark ; metathoracic wing-cases 
extending nearly to the fifth abdominal segment. 

Abdomen : segments of abdomen appear to have a greater 
transverse diameter near the apical fourth on account of the pro- 
jecting lateral keels ; the keels are well developed and setose, the 
heavier setae being grouped mainly at one point near the apex of 
each keel; dorsum of segments 4-8 with short heavy spines at 
apices, terga 9 and 10 with more spines, usually extending onto 
the venter ; sterna 2, 3 and 4 with a cluster of small thick spines 
on the apical third, and the venter with a black line from basal 
segment to segment 9; gills (PI. 11, Fig. 5) lanceolate, the dorso- 
marginal spines of the median gill usually much heavier, just 
proximad of the first transverse band of pigment; beyond the 
ventral marginal row of setae, the margins of the lateral gills are 
emarginate; the pigmentation of the gills consists of 3-5 broad 
black cross-bands and a broad axial band from bases to the apices ; 
ovipositor of female extending to the middle of abdominal seg- 
ment 10. 

Measurements: length, 16-18 mm.; length of abdomen, 10.5- 
12.5 mm.; length of gills, 5.5-6 mm.; width of gills, 1.6 mm.; 
length of metathoracic wing-cases, 4 mm. ; length of median lobe, 
2 mm. ; width, .5-1.8 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color pale blue or orange and black. 

Head : blue or orange and black ; first two segments of antennae 
pale, at least much paler than the distal ones, the second segment 
darker at the tip ; postclypeus black, sometimes with two median 
pale spots, one on each side of the meson ; anteclypeus pale ; 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 63 

labrum pale, the dorsal margin with a niesal black spot and two 
lateral, or with a transverse stripe of black including the three 
spots; pale transverse area above the clypeus extending slightly 
dorsad of the antennae, orange or blue; remainder of the front 
and vertex black ; postocular spots large, cuneiform, and yellow 
or blue; postgenae and the occiput largely yellow. 

Thorax : orange or blue and black ; pronotum black, the 
cephalic lobe, a subcircular spot on each median lobe, and the 
caudal lobe blue or yellow ; the spots on the median lobes are 
variable, being frequently subcircular with an emargination on 
one side; in younger individuals there are also two smaller spots 
mesad of the large spots on each mesal lobe ; proepimera blue or 
yellow, darker above ; mesopleural suture also with a broad black 
stripe which is widest caudad of the katepisternum and extends 
cephalad and covers the dorsal third of that sclerite ; the remainder 
of the thorax is pale blue or orange, bufif-colored below ; legs 
usually bufif, the femora each with an indefinite dorsal brown line 
and row of spots, the tibiae with a faint dorsal line or row of 
dashes; tarsi pale, darker at apices; wings with 9-1 1 postnodal 
cross-veins in the front wing; M^ usually arising near the fifth 
postnodal vein in the front wing, between the fourth and fifth, or 
third and fourth in the hind, usually near the fourth. 

Abdomen: orange or blue and black; dorsum of terga 1-8 
inclusive, black, except interrupted basal rings on 3-7, lateral sur- 
faces of I and 2, and the lateral margins of 3-8 ; all of tergum 9 
and the lateral surfaces of the tenth orange or blue, the dorsum 
of 10 being black; anal appendages dark brown (Fig. 10, No. 22) 
the superiors longer than the inferiors and blunt at the apices, the 
lateral surfaces convex, the mesal surfaces somewhat concave, 
tips dark ; inferiors about half as long as the superiors, sub- 
conical, the tips black and directed mesad. 

Female. — Color pale blue or orange, sometimes greenish and 
black. 

Head : similar to that of the male. 

Thorax : similar to the male ; the orange females are, however, 
less frequent; mesostigmal plates (Fig. 11, No. 2) long, the 
lateral margins rounded, and depressed, and a pale diagonal stripe 
across the plates ; the lateral margins reach the katepisterna. 

Abdomen: blue or orange and black; terga 1-9 with black, 
dorsal, longitudinal stripes from bases to the apices, stripes 
widened near the apex on 2-7 and narrowed on 9, lateral surfaces 
of all terga, basal rings on 3-7, and apical ring on i yellow or 
bluish; all of segment 10 yellow or blue. 

Measurements : total length, male 32-35, female 34-35 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 26-28, female 26-28 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 17, female 18-20 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 3.5, 
female 3.5-4. 



64 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Connecticut. — West Thompson, 12 July, 1905 (H. L. V.) ; Hamden, 18 
July, 3 August, 1920; Guilford, 27 July, 1920 (P. G.). 
New England. — June 17-September 2. 

Enallagma vesperum Calvert ^ 

Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 45: 380: 1919. 

Nymph. — Color green or buff. 

Head : about twice as broad as long, the caudo-lateral angles 
projecting slightly and with but few spines; first antennal seg- 
ment dark, remaining ones paler; three mental setae, and five 
laterals. 

Thorax : femora with preapical brown rings ; . metathoracic 
wing-cases reaching the middle of the third abdominal segment or 
beyond. 

Abdomen : with strongly developed lateral keels, the spines 
grouped conspicuotisly at the apices of the keels, especially on 
segments 2-6; gills (PI. 11, Fig. 10) lanceolate, frequently greatly 
widened beyond the middle, usually with two more or less fused 
cross-bands near the proximal third, and three lighter crescentic 
ones beyond, which are sometimes wanting; axis dark; median 
gill without heavy dorsal spines as in signatum, the ventral margin 
of the lateral gills with a thick row from base to the first cross- 
band. 

INIeasurements : length, 5.5 mm. ; length of abdomen, 9 mm. ; 
length of gills, 5.5 mm.; length of metathoracic wing-cases, 4.1 
mm.; length of median lobe, 1.8 mm.; width of median lobe, 
.5-1.5 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color lemon-yellow, or very pale blue and black 
(the majority of the specimens are yellow and the blue tenerals 
are infrequent). 

Head : yellow and black ; labitmi yellow ; antennae brown and 
pale, the first and basal two-thirds of the second pale, remainder 
dark brown ; postclypeus almost entirely black or dark, the black 
usually enclosing two small yellow spots ; anteclypeus and labrum 
yellow, the latter with a small dorso-mesal black spot and a lateral 
one on each side; front above the clypeus nearly to the median 
ocellus, yellow ; remainder of the front black except a small spot 
cephalo-ventrad of each lateral ocellus. Postocular spots large, 
cuneiform, connected with the narrow stripe behind the ocellar 
area ; occiput and postgenae largely yellow. 

Thorax : yellow and black ; pronotum, with yellow cephalic 
lobe, a large spot on each median lobe and smaller near the mesal 
line (four in all); caudal lobe with pale margin; proepimera 
mostly yellow ; mesothorax with black mid-dorsal stripe, the mar- 
gins of which often fade into brown ; dark stripe of the meso- 



* pollutum Hagen. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 65 

pleural suture often reduced to an indefinite brown area near the 
middle of the horizontal portion of the suture, black spots adjacent 
to the dorsal margin of the katepisterna and cephalad of the wing 
bases ; dorsal third of the mesokatepisterna with crescentic dark 
marks; metapleural suture with black spot cephalad of the wing 
bases ; remainder of the mesopleura and metapleura yellow ; legs 
mostly yellow, the coxae and trochanters pale, femora with a faint 
dorsal line, the tibiae also with a faint dorsal line or row of dashes ; 
tarsi and claws tipped with brown, wings with 9-1 1 postnodal 
cross-veins in the front wing, and M2 arising between the fourth 
and fifth of these. 

Abdomen: yellow and black, the dorsum of terga i-8 inclusive 
with black longitudinal stripes from near their bases to apices; 
lateral margins of 1-8, basal rings on 3-7, and a narrow apical 
ring on i, yellow; all of the ninth and tenth terga blue, except a 
narrow niesal stripe on the tenth; anal appendages (Fig. lo. No. 
14) brown, the superiors longer than the inferiors, broad at their 
apices ; inferiors yellow, their black apices directed mesad. 

Female. — Color lemon-yellow or pale blue, and black. 

Head : as in the male. 

Thorax: mesostigmal plates (Fig. ii. No. 4) with rounded 
lateral margins which are contiguous with the katepisterna. 
Mesopleural stripes of the suture less distinct than in the male. 

Abdomen : similar to the male except that terga 9 and 10 are 
usually yellow, the ninth having a triangular black dorsal spot. 

Measurements : total length, male 32-34, female 32-34 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 26-28, female 26-28 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 17-19, female 18-21 mm.; width of hind wings, male 
3.5-4, female 3-3.5 mm. 

Connecticut. — Hamden, 18 July, 1920; Litchfield, 22. July, 1920; Guil- 
ford, 13, 27 July, 1920; North Branford, 22 June, 1922 (P. G.). 
New England. — June 8- September 6. 

Group 2 CiviLE-CARUNCULATUM Group. 
Enallagma calverti Morse 

Psyche, 7 : 208 : 1895. 

Nymph. — Color buff. 

Head : labium extending to the second pair of coxae ; mental 
setae 4 ; lateral setae 6 ; marginal setae of the mentum 4 or 5. 

Thorax : metathoracic wing-cases extending to the middle of 
abdominal segment 4 in some nymphs. 

Abdomen : segments 3-10 with dorsal transverse rows of setae 
at the caudal margin, lateral keels strongly developed, setose, the 
keel of the first segment with a number of spinules (3), the second 
keel with 8 or 9, 3-8 with 10-12 spinules, and 9 with a row in line 
with the preceding lateral keels ; gills very long, somewhat spatu- 



66 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

late, the points mostly blunt, and the dorsal marginal row of setae 
of the median gill extending much beyond the middle ; three 
narrow transverse bands sometimes occur just beyond the middle; 
they are usually placed close together, but the bands may be 
reduced in number or wanting. 

Measurements: length, 15 mm.; length of abdomen, 9 mm.; 
length of gills, 1.8 mm.; width of gills, 1.8 mm.; length of 
median lobe, 2.3, width, .8-1.6 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color blue and black. 

Head: face below the antennae pale except the postclypeus, 
which is mostly black ; dorsum of head dark, the lateral ocelli with 
a blue spot in front of each, the postocular spots large, cuneiform, 
sometimes connected with the narrow blue postocellar stripe ; rear 
of head pale. 

Thorax : blue and black ; pronotum mostly black with a large 
blue spot on each median lobe, the caudal margin and the cephalic 
also blue ; proepimera blue or pale below, black above. Meso- 
thorax sometimes with a blue dorsal carina, the black on each side 
about half the width of the anepisternum ; black stripe of the 
mesopleural suture considerably narrowed caudad ; remainder of 
the pleura except small spots near the wing-bases on the sutures, 
blue ; femora dark above ; tibiae with a dorsal line including the 
cephalic row of setae; tarsi brown, darker at tips; wings clear, 
M^ usually arising between postnodal cross-veins 4 and 5 in the 
hind wings. 

Abdomen: blue and black; terga 1-5 inclusive with a black 
spot at base of i, subapical spot and apical ring on 2 and apical 
spots and rings on 3-5 ; caudal half of 6 and three-fourths of 7 
black; 8 and 9 blue; segment 10 black above, pale below. Anal 
appendages (Fig. 10, No. 23) short, the superiors rounded when 
viewed in profile, inferiors much longer, slender, acute and black 
at their tips. 

Female. — Color blue and black, the blue, however, frequently 
replaced with buff. Mesostigmal lamina black, with a pale spot 
on the lateral angles, the cephalo-mesal angle of each not rounded 
and hollowed out, as in cyathigcriun. 

Abdomen: as in cyathigerum (Fig. 11, No. 25). First tergum 
as in male, second segment with an apical spot and dorso-mesal 
line ; 3-6 with dorsal stripes widened subapically ; caudal half of 
8 and all of the dorsum of 9 and 10 black; 8 variable in amount 
of black. 

Measurements: total length, male 33-35. female 34 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 26, female 26 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
19, female 21 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 4, female 4-4-5 mm- 

Though we have no very definite record of this species from Connecticut, 
I have seen several specimens collected in the vicinity of Storrs which are 
undoubtedly calverti. 

New England. — May 12-August 12. 



No. 39J ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 67 

Enallagma carunculatum Morse 

Psyche, 7 : 208: 1895. 
Nymph. — Color green or buff. 

Head : about twice as broad as long, the caudo-lateral margins 
with a few spinules. Mental setae three, sometimes a small fourth 
on each side ; labium extending between the first and second pair 
of coxae; first two antennal segments and proximal third of 
number 3 dark brown. 

Thorax : legs pale, the apical ring of the femora faint or absent ; 
metathoracic wing-cases extending about to the middle of the 
fourth abdominal segment. 

Abdomen : with well-developed lateral keels, those of the first 
segment with 4 or 5 spines each, the second with 8 to 12 each, five 
and six with 18-20, and the seventh and eighth with about 14 each; 
spines of the fifth and sixth keel bunched at the apex; sometimes 
as many as three together ; usually without small setae on the 
venter of cephalic segments, but usually with long hairs on dorsum 
of 2, 3 and 4. In mature nymphs there is an indefinite dark dorsal 
stripe extending from near the apex of the third segment to the 
seventh or eighth; gills (PI. 11, Fig. 3) transparent, lanceolate 
with a broad opaque area along the axis from base to near the 
tip; dorsal marginal spines of the median gill more than 20 in 
number, and extending one-third to one-half the length of the gill 
from the base ; the ventral spines of the same gill consisting of 
only a few ; ventral spines of lateral gills similar to the dorsal 
spines of the median ; ovipositor of the female extending to the 
middle of the tenth segment. 

Measurements: total length, 13. 5-14 mm.; length of abdomen, 
8-9 mm.; length of gills, 5.5-6 mm.; width of gills, 1.2 mm.; 
length of metathoracic wing-cases, 3.6 mm. ; length of median 
lobe, 2.5, width .5-2 mm. 

Adult, male, — Color dark blue or buff, and black. 
Head : blue or buff and black, the labium buff, antennae black, 
the first segment sometimes paler at apex; postclypeus with a 
large, shining black spot, the ventro-lateral margins pale ; ante- 
clypeus and labrum except a dorso-mesal black spot and a lateral 
spot on each side, pale ; front above the clypeus to the bases of 
the antennae pale, remainder black; postocular spots oval buff 
or blue, and not usually connected with transverse line caudad of 
the ocelli ; occiput and postgenae mostly pale. 

Thorax: blue or buff, and black, the pronotum black with 
cephalic lobe, caudal margin of the caudal lobe, and small spots 
on the lateral margins of the median lobes blue or buff; pale 
stripe of the anepisterna of mesothorax regular, the margins 
nearly parallel and straight, the stripe extending from the cephalic 
margin nearly to the wing-bases ; black stripe of the meso- 
pleural suture widest caudad of the katepisterna, extending onto 



68 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

and covering about the dorsal third of that sclerite; metapleural 
suture with a black spot adjacent to the wing- bases; remainder 
of the pleura and the venter, blue or buff ; legs striped, the coxae 
and trochanters usually pale, the femora with broad dark dorsal 
stripes ; tibiae with dorsal stripes covering about half the dorsal 
surface of each, and including the cephalo-ventral row of spines ; 
tarsi and claws pale, usually black at tips; front wings with 9-13 
postnodal cross-veins and M2 arising between the fifth and sixth 
of these. 

Abdomen: black and blue or buflf; terga 1-6 inclusive blue or 
bufif and black; a small black spot on i, apical ring and dorsal 
spot occupying half the second and third, more than half the 
fourth, and two-thirds of the fifth and sixth ; seventh tergum 
black except narrow lateral margins and a basal ring ; terga 8 and 
9 blue, dorsum of 10 black; anal appendages (Fig. 10, No. 9) 
short, the superiors usually black, blunt and with a narrow notch 
on the dorsum cephalad of, but near the caudo-dorsal angle; 
inferiors pale, the black apices directed dorsad and frequently in 
contact with the superiors. 

Female. — Color similar to the male. Mesostigmal plates as in 
Fig. II, No. I. 

Abdomen: as in Fig. 11, No. 23, the black of the dorsum fre- 
quently not reaching the cephalic margins of the terga. 

Measurements: total length, male 31-33, female 29-32 mm.; 
length of abdomen, male 26, female 25 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 19, female 19 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 4, 
female 4 mm. 

Connecticut. — North Colebrook, 19 June, 1920; Salisbury, 20 August, 
1921 (P. G.). 

New England. — June 19- August 20. 

Enallagma civile (Hagen) 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 88: 1861. 

Nymph. — Color green or buff. 

Head : about twice as broad as long, the caudo-lateral angles 
not projecting caudad or laterad, conspicuously; antennae with 
third segment longest, the first two segments and proximal por- 
tion of 3 dark brown, the remainder of 3 and segments beyond 
pale; median lobe of labium with four mental setae, labial palpi 
with five or six. 

Thorax : buff or green ; legs pale, the preapical femoral rings 
indistinct ; metathoracic wing-cases extending about to the middle 
of abdominal segment 4. 

Abdomen : pale bufif or green, frequently with an indefinite 
darker stripe on segments 3-7 ; dorsum of terga 2, 3 and 4 with 
long hairs ; lateral keels setose, the first, however, without setae ; 



Xo. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 69 

segments 2-9 with from 9-20 on each. Gills (PI. 11, Fig. 8) 
lanceolate, colorless and usually without pigment except in the 
smaller tracheae, the margins very transparent ; dorsal marginal 
spines of the median gill extending less than half the length of the 
gill from its base; ventral row of lateral gills slightly longer. 
Female ovipositor extending to the middle of the tenth abdominal 
segment. 

Measurements: length 15 mm.; length of abdomen 10 mm.; 
length of gills 6 mm. ; width of gills i. 8-2.1 mm. ; length of meta- 
thoracic wing-cases 4.5 mm.; length of median lobe 3.1 mm.; 
width of median lobe .8-2.3 mm. 

Adult, male (PI. xvii, c). — Color blue and black. 

Head : blue and black ; mouth-parts bufif ; antennae dark brown 
or black; postclypeus with a shining black spot, margins pale; 
anteclypeus shining yellow or blue ; labrum shining yellow or blue, 
with a small, black dorso-mesal spot; area above the clypeus to 
the antennae pale ; remainder of front and the vertex dull black ; 
postocular spots oval or subcuneiform, the pale line behind the 
ocelli indistinct; occiput and postgenae yellow, except the area 
caudoventrad of the postocular spots. 

Thorax : blue and black ; pronotum black, except the pale 
cephalic and caudal margins and a spot on each median lobe on 
the lateral margins ; proepimera black above, pale below ; meso- 
thorax, lateral half or third of the mesostigmal plates usually 
yellow ; dorsal black stripe covering nearly half of each anepi- 
sterna; pale stripe of anepisterna broadest dorsad of the kat- 
episterna and extending nearly to the wing bases. Mesopleural 
black stripe of the suture narrowed cephalad of the wing-bases, 
and broadest caudad of the katepisterna, the dorsal third of which 
is covered by the stripe. Metapleural suture with a black spot 
cephalad of the wing bases, remainder of the pleura blue and 
buff ; postcoxal areas buff, becoming pollinose ; legs striped, the 
coxae and trochanters pale, the femora with black on the dorsum, 
the tibia with about half the dorsa black; tarsi and claws pale, 
darker at tips; front wings with 9-13 postnodal cross-veins, the 
vein M2 arising between the fourth and sixth of these. 

Abdomen : blue and black, the cephalic terga largely blue, the 
caudal ones darker and frequently pollinose with age; terga 1-6 
inclusive blue except a basal spot on the dorsum of i, and shield- 
shaped apical spots on 2-6 ; black of 6 occupying half the dorsum 
or more ; that of 2 to 5 about one-fourth ; terga 7 and 10 black, 
except the lateral margins, 8 and 9 blue ; anal appendages ( Fig. 
10, Nos. I, 5, 29) short, the superiors blunt and with a narrow 
cleft or notch ventrad of the dorso-apical angle ; inferiors usually 
black and shorter, the black tips directed caudo-dorsad and fre- 
quently in contact with the superiors. 



70 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

Female. — Color similar to the male though usually darker in 
general appearance. 

Thorax : legs usually lighter than those of the male. Meso- 
stigmal plates as in Fig. ii, No. 3. 

Abdomen : lateral margins of the terga yellowish, the basal 
rings on 2-6 (Fig. 11, No. 24) usually not connected across the 
dorsum as in carunculatum. 

Measurements : total length, male 29-33, female 30-32 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 23-27, female 23-27 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 17-20, female 19-20 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 
and female 3.5-4 mm. 

Connecticut. — New Haven, 23 June, 1904 (H. L. V.), 3, 20 July, 1904 
(W. E. B.) ; Whitneyville, 11 August, 1904 (P. L. B.) ; Hamden, 18 July, 
1920: Branford, 21 July, 11 August, 1921 ; Guilford, 13, 27 July, 1920 
(P. G.) ; New London, 7-22 June, 1921 (R. H. H.). 

New England. — May-September 22. 

Enallagma cyathigerum (Charpentier) 

Libellulas Europas, 163: 1840. 

Nymph. — This species has not been reared in America and it 
may be found to differ from that obtained from Europe and 
described in the Zygoptera of Illinois, pp. 534-535. It will 
undoubtedly be found to be closely related to the nymph of calverti 
and has been placed at the same point in the specific key. 

Adult, male. — Color blue and black. 

Head : blue and black ; postclypeus black ; antennae black ; 
postocular spots large, rounded, and sometimes connected with 
the pale color of the occiput. 

Thorax : blue and black ; legs black above, pale beneath ; black 
stripe of the mesopleural suture narrowed caudad ; wings with 10 
to II postnodal cross-veins in the front wing and 10 in the hind; 
postnodal cross-veins arising near the fifth postnodal vein or 
beyond in the front and between 4 and 5 in the hind. 

Abdomen : blue wath black as follows : spot at base of i ; spots 
at apices of terga 2 to 5 inclusive; caudal half or three-fourths of 
dorsum of 6 ; nearly all of seventh dorsum and all of the tenth ; 
segments 8 and 9 blue; anal appendages as in Fig. 10, No. 15, the 
superiors black or quite dark, inferiors pale. 

Female. — Similar to the male in color ; pronotum without con- 
spicuous pits; mesostigmal plates (Fig. 11, No. 11) hollowed at 
the cephalo-mesal angles. Color pattern as in Fig. 12, No. 25. 

Measurements : total length, male 30-32, female 31-32 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 24-26, female 25-26 mm. ; length of 
hind wings, male 16-21, female 19-20 mm. 

Connecticut. — Orange, 2 June, 1920; Stratford, 9 July, 1920; Hamden, 
18 July, 1920; Twin Lakes, 13 June, 1926 (P. G.). 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 71 

Enallagma doubledayi Selys 

Revue des Odonates ou Libellules d'Europe, 209: 1850. 

Nymph. — Gills (PI. i, Fig. 12) transparent, the tracheae almost 
entirely without small branches, and the marginal spines extend- 
ing well beyond tbe middle of the gills; dorsum of abdominal 
segments 2, 3, and the base of 4 hairy; mental setae 3, and a 
small fourth, laterals 5 ; lateral keels with a single row of spines 
increased to two at the apices ; caudo-lateral margins of the head 
rounded and with a few spines. 

Measurements: length of gills, 5.5-6 mm.; width, 1.25-1.5 mm. 

Notes made from a nymph reared by Dr. R. H. Howe, Jr. 

Adult, male. — Color blue and black. 

Head : blue and yellowish and black ; antennae brown ; ante- 
clypeus and labrum yellow ; postocular spots small and a narrow 
stripe caudad of the ocelli distinct. 

Thorax : black, blue and yellowish green ; mesothorax with a 
broad black dorsal stripe, the stripe covering about one-third of the 
katepisterna on each side ; legs black and yellow, the femora and 
tibiae each with a black stripe on dorsum or cephalic surface, 
wings with about 10 postnodal cross-veins in the front wing and 
8 in the hind; M^ arising between the fifth and sixth postnodal 
cross-veins in the front wing and between the fourth and fifth in 
the hind wing. 

Abdomen: blue and black; terga i-io blue except a small basal 
spot on the first, and apical spot and marginal ring on the second 
to the fifth, apical half or two-fifths of the dorsum of the sixth ; 
dorsum of the seventh except a narrow interrupted basal ring, and 
the tenth, which are black; dorsum of segments 8 and 9 blue; 
anal appendages similar to carunculatum and civile but the supe- 
riors differ especially in dorsal view (Fig. 10, Nos. 25, 28). 

Female. — Abdomen with terga i to 10 with broad dorsal dark 
stripes and basal interrupted rings, the lateral margins pale. 

Measurements: total length, male 28-31, female 30-31 mm.; 
length of abdomen, male 22-25, female 24 mm.; length of hind 
wings, male 17; female 18 mm. 

New England. — June 28-September 13. 

Group 3 Hageni-ebrium Group 

Enallagma ebrium (Hagen) 
Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 89: 1861. 
Nymph, — Color usually green. 

Head : elliptical in outline, with a few spines on the caudo- 
lateral surfaces; antennae with the first segment brown, also half 
the second and one-third the third ; third segment longest, number 
2 longer than i ; labium extending between pro- and mesocoxae 



72 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

when folded ; mental setae three and a small fourth ; lateral setae 
five. 

Thorax: femora with dark subapical rings, sometimes the tips 
of the tibiae and tarsi faintly darker ; metathoracic wing-cases 
extending to the middle of abdominal segment 4, sometimes to 5. 

Abdomen: with conspicuous spots on segments 1-7, two on 
each segment, one above and one below the lateral keel ; there is 
also a similar spot on each side of segment 8 above the lateral 
keels ; dorsum of terga 2, 3 and 4 densely hairy, lateral keels 2-8 
with spinules and minute setae, the spines grouped at apices of 
2-5 and not usually more than 7 or 8 on these segments ; keel of 
segment i without spinules or setae. 

Gills (PI. I, Fig. 8) : clear, with some transparent and some 
black tracheae, the black tracheae frequently separated from the 
main axis by clear stretches ; in others forming alga-like patches 
as in exulans; tips of gills comparatively blunt, the dorsal and 
ventral marginal spines not usually reaching beyond the middle of 
the gills, although in one reared specimen the spines extend well 
beyond the middle. 

Measurements : length, 12-13 "^"i- 5 length of abdomen, 8 mm. ; 
length of gills, 4-5 mm. ; length of metathoracic wing-cases, 
2,.y mm. ; length of median lobe, 2 mm. ; width of median lobe, 
.5-1.5 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color blue and black. 

Head : black and blue ; antennae black except the tip of the first 
and second segments ; postclypeus black except sometimes the 
front margin ; front above clypeus to bases of the antennae 
pale; remainder of the front and vertex black; postocular spots 
large, subcuneiform, the margins irregular; occiput and post- 
genae pale except a transverse black area behind the postocular 
spots. 

Thorax : blue and black ; pronotum black, cephalic lobe pale, 
median lobes with a pale spot on each lateral margin, and caudal 
lamina also pale ; propleura black above, pale below ; dorsal meso- 
thoracic black stripe occupying one-third to one-half of each 
anepisternum, the lateral margins parallel ; pale stripe of the 
anepistema extending from cephalic margin to near the wing 
bases, widest above the katepisterna ; black stripe of the meso- 
pleural suture widest caudad of katepisterna ; a black spot on the 
metapleural suture cephalad of the wing bases ; remainder of the 
pleura blue, the postcoxal areas blue or buff; legs striped black 
and blue or buff, femora black above with a pale spot at base, 
appearing as an emargination of the black band but obscured in 
older specimens ; cephalic half of the dorsum of the tibiae black ; 
tarsi and claws brown, darker at the tips of the segments ; wings 
with 9-1 1 postnodal cross-veins in the front wing, and Mj arising 
between the fourth and fifth of these. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 73 

Abdomen: blue and black; terga largely blue, with black spot 
on base of i, and apices of 2-6 inclusive, all of the dorsum of 7 
black except a basal interrupted ring; dorsum of 10 black; terga 
8 and 9 blue; anal appendages (Fig. 10, No. 17) short, black, the 
superiors bifid, the two arms equal in length ; dorsal arm of supe- 
rior appendages black at tip and forming a blunt hook when 
viewed from above ; inferior appendages pale, dark at tips and 
about as long as the superiors. 

Female. — Color black and yellow or blue. 

Head : with the blue of the male sometimes replaced with yellow. 

Thorax : similar to the male ; mesostigmal plates as in Fig. 1 1 , 
No. 5. 

Abdomen: broad dorsal black stripes on segments 2-10, the 
stripes contracted at the meson on the bases of terga 3-7 inclusive, 
widened subapically on terga 2-7 ; first tergum with black basal 
spot. 

Measurements: total length, male 27-31, female 27-31 mm.; 
length of abdomen, male 21-25, female 22-24 n^"^- 5 length of hind 
wings, male 15-17, female 16-18 mm.; width of hind wings, male 
and female 3-4 mm. 

Connecticut. — West Thompson, 12 July, 1905 (H. L. V.) ; New Haven, 
II June, IQ14 (B. H. W.) ; Guilford, 13, 27 July. 1920; Hamden, 4 July, 
3 August, 1920. 30 May, 1922; Litchfield, 22 July, 1920; Branford, 21 
July, 1920 (P. G.) ; New London, 8-22 June, 1921 (R. H. H.). 

New England. — May 26-August 30. 

Enallagma geminatum Kellicott 

Entomological News, 6: 239: 1895. 

Nymph. — Color usually green. 

Head : about three times as broad as long, elliptical ; the caudo- 
lateral angles not projecting, and possessing few spines ; third 
antennal segment longest, the second longer than the first, seg- 
ments 1-3 or 1-4 dark in color; median lobe of the labium with 3 
mental setae and sometimes a small fourth ; 5 lateral setae. 

Thorax: femora without dark rings near the apex, or with 
very faint ones ; tarsal claws dark at the tips. 

Abdomen: with lateral keels on segments 1-8, the first without 
spines or with 2 ; second with 3-5, third with an irregular single 
row, 4-8 with irregular single rows with sometimes 2 spines at 
their apices ; segment 9 has an irregular row of setae in line with 
the keels of the preceding segments ; dorsum of segments 2, 3 
and 4 hairy ; a darker line present just below the lateral keels on 
segments 1-8; few or no spines on venter of 1-4. 

Gills: spatulate to lanceolate (PI. i. Fig. 7) without pigment 
except in the smaller tracheae, and sometimes a trace along the 
axes ; dorsal marginal spines of the median gill and ventral spines 
of the lateral gills extending much less than half the length of the 



74 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

gills from their bases, and usually less than 20 spines on dorsal 
margin of the median gill. 

Measurements : length, 11-12 mm. ; length of abdomen, 9 mm. ; 
length of gills, 4.7 mm. ; width of gills, 1.3 mm. ; length of meta- 
thoracic wing-cases, 2 mm. ; length of median lobe of labium, 2 ; 
width, .6-1.5 ^^• 

Adult, male. — Color pale blue, black and buff. 

Head : blue and black, mouth-parts buff, with a tinge of blue in 
fresh specimens ; antennae dark brown or black, the tips of the 
first and second segments sometimes pale; postclypeus shining 
black, except the lateral angles which are blue; anteclypeus and 
labrum blue, the labrum with a dorso-mesal black spot; frontal 
area above the clypeus to the level of the antennae blue, remainder 
of the front black ; postocular spots large, blue, rather irregular, 
and frequently with serrated margins ; pale stripe caudad of ocelli 
wanting; occiput and postgenae mostly buff, compound eyes 
brown above, pale below. 

Thorax : blue and black, buff below ; pronotum black, the 
cephalic and caudal lobes mostly blue, median lobes black; pro- 
epimera largely blue, mesostigmal plates, with blue lateral angles 
and caudal margins ; mesothorax with the dorsal black stripe 
covering half or one-third of each anepisternum, the blue stripe 
of that sclerite contracted at the caudal third or fourth, and occa- 
sionally interrupted, forming an exclamation point; black stripe 
of the mesopleural suture widest adjacent to the katepi sternum, 
and covering the dorsal half of that sclerite; metapleural suture 
black ; ventral half of the mesepimera, and the metapleura blue ; 
postcoxal areas pale or buff; legs striped, black and blue or buff; 
tarsi and claws black, pale in tenerals; wings with 7-10 postnodal 
cross-veins in the front wing, and M^ arising between the fourth 
and fifth of these. 

Abdomen: blue, buff, and black; tergum i, blue with a black 
basal spot ; second tergum blue with black dorsal spot, apical ring 
and lateral stripe on each side near the margin ; terga 3-7 with 
longitudinal black stripes on the dorsum from the bases to the 
apices, the stripes widened subapically, connected with the apical 
rings which reach the lateral margins of the sclerites ; dorsum 
of 10, narrowed lateral margins of 8 and 9, black or dark brown ; 
dorsum of 8 and 9 blue ; basal rings, usually interrupted on the 
meson in 5-7, pale yellow or blue. Anal appendages (Fig. 10, 
Nos. 3, 7) black and buff, the superiors black with paler tips, 
inferiors slightly longer than the superiors, yellowish, with the 
black tips directed mesad. 

Female. — Color similar to the male. 

Head: dorsal half of labrum usually brown. 

Thorax: mesostigmal plates as in Fig. 11, No. 13. 

Abdomen: with broader black stripes on 2-7; terga 9 and 10 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 75 

brown or black, lateral margins pale; 8, brown or black with 
large blue spots occupying the larger portion of the sclerite and 
separated from one another by a mesal line of black (Fig. ii, No. 
22) ; dorso-apical margin of 7 and 8 blue. 

Measurements : total length, male 26-27, female 26-27 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 20-21, female 21 mm.; length of hind 
wings, male 15, female 16 mm.; width of hind wings, male 3.5, 
female 3-4 mm. 

Connecticut. — Mount Carmel, 23 June, 1902 (E. J. S. M.) ; New Haven, 
26 June, 1902 (E. J. S. M.), 23 June, 1904 (H. L. V.), 11 June, 1914 
(B. H. W.) ; I June, 1921 (M. P. Z.) ; Guilford, 30 July, 1920; Hamden, 
30 May, 1922 (P. G.), 6 July, 1922 (J. L. R.) ; New London, 22 June, 
1921 (R. H. H.). 

New England. — June 15-October 2. 

Enallagma hageni Walsh 

Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia, 2: 234: 1863. 

Nymph. — Color buff or greenish. 

Head ; subelliptical, the caudo-lateral angles projecting slightly 
caudad and armed with a few heavy setae ; antennae with the 
third segment longest, the second longer than the first; labium 
extending to the second pair of coxae, the mental setae of the 
median lobe three, the lateral setae usually five, and the marginal 
setae usually three or four. 

Thorax : legs with faint preapical femoral rings of brown ; 
tarsi and claws pale ; metathoracic wing-cases extending to the 
middle of the fourth abdominal segment. 

Abdomen : a row of spots on the cephalo-lateral angles of the 
terga and sterna of segments 2-9 ; lateral keels strongly developed, 
setose, the first keel usually without setae, the second, third and 
fourth with a bunch of four or five at the apices, the fifth with 
about five apical setae and a weaker row extending to the base of 
the segment ; sixth, seventh and eighth keels with six setae at the 
apices and a proximal row of about nine setae on each ; segment 
9 without lateral keel, but with a row of setae along the line of 
the lateral keels, composed of two heavy setae near the caudal 
margin and a straight row of six smaller setae extending cephalad 
to the margin of the segment; cuticle of the abdomen without 
dark spots at the bases of the minute setae which cover the sur- 
face ; dorsum of segments 2, 3, and base of 4 with long hairs ; 
gills (PI. I, Fig. 9) lanceolate, almost colorless, widest beyond 
the middle and rather obtusely pointed; tracheae pigmented in 
certain areas which form about twelve alga-like patches around 
the margins of the gills ; dorsal marginal setae of the median gill 
extending half way from the base to the tip and composed of more 
than twenty setae ; ventral setae of the lateral gills extending more 
than half-way from the base to the tips of the gills; apical 
margins with a few scattered hairs. 



76 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Measurements: length, 14-15 mm. ; length of abdomen, 9 mm. ; 
length of gills, 5 mm.; width of gills, 1.8 mm.; dimensions of 
median lobe, 2 mm. by .7-1 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color blue and black. 

Head : face below antennae pale except a black spot on post- 
clypeus ; dorsum of head black ; postocular spots large, subcunei- 
f orm, and not connected with the postocellar stripe. 

Thorax: black and blue or buff; pronotum dark with pale 
cephalic and caudal margins and a semicircular spot on each side 
near lateral margins. Coxae and trochanters pale ; femora brown 
above with a pale spot on one side at base; tibia with cephalic 
half of dorsum black; tarsi and claws brown, sometimes pale 
above. Mesothorax with a heavy black stripe on the suture, 
widened at the hind margin of anepisternum ; remainder of meso- 
and metapleura pale except a small black spot on metapleural 
suture near wing bases ; venter pale. Wings clear, M^ arising 
between postnodal cross-veins 3 to 5 in the front, and 3 to 4 in the 
hind wings. 

Abdomen: blue and black, the terga with black as follows: 
basal spot on i, apical spots and rings on terga 2-6 inclusive, the 
spots not over one-fourth or one-fifth*^ as long as the segments 
(on 3-6), all of 7, and dorsum of 10 also black; terga 8 and 9 
blue. Anal appendages (Fig. 10, No. 11) consisting of flattened 
superiors and longer inferiors. 

Female. — Color similar to the male ; mesostigmal plates broad 
(Fig. II, No. 6), the caudal margin rounded and elevated; pro- 
notum with two conspicuous pits, caudad of the middle one on 
each side and usually just behind the pale lateral spots. 

Measurements : total length, male 30, female 28 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 22, female 22 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
17, female 18 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 3.5, female 3.5 mm. 

Connecticut. — Salisbury, 13 June, 1926 (P. G.) ; 14 July, 1926 
(W. E. B.). 

New England. — May 30-August 10. 

Enallagma laterale Morse 

Psyche, 7: 274: 1895. 

Nymph. — Not available for study. 

Adult, male. — Color blue and black. 

Head : pale below the antennae except a transverse black stripe 
on the postclypeus ; dorsum of head black, pale postocular spots 
comma-like; rear of head mostly pale. 

Thorax : pronotum black, the cephalic margin pale ; propleura 
pale below ; femora dark above, pale below, tibiae with dark line 
covering the cephalic setae. Tarsi and claws brown, darker at 



•Walker (Can. Ent. 56, 173: 1924) describes a specimen with dark abdomen, but this 
seems to be unusual. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 77 

tips ; meso- and metathorax with usual mesepisternal pale stripe, 
and black stripe on the suture, metapleura and venter of thorax 
mostly pale; M, of the hind wing arising between post-nodal 
cross-veins 3 and 4. 

Abdomen: mostly pale (blue?), black as follows: basal spot 
on I ; apical spot and ring on 2-5 inclusive ; about two-thirds of 
terga 6, and all of dorsum of 7 except an interrupted basal ring, 
black; terga 8, blue with black lateral dashes. 9 entirely blue; 
segment 10 black on dorsum, yellow below; anal appendages 
short, the superiors blunt and feebly emarginate in lateral profile 
(Fig. 10, No. 21), the inferiors pale, darker at tips, and a little 
longer than the superiors. 

Measurements : total length, male 25 mm. ; length of abdomen, 
male 19 mm. ; length of hind wing, male 16 mm. ; width of hind 
wing, male 3 mm. 

Connecticut. — A single male collected by Dr. R. H. Howe at New 
London, June 6, 1921, belongs here. 

Enallagma minusculum Morse 

Psyche, 7 : 207 : 1895. 

Nymph. — Unknown. 

Adult, male. — Color blue or bufif and black. 

Head : face pale below the antennae except for a transverse 
black spot on the postclypeus ; dorsum of head black ; postocular 
spots subcuneiform (comma-shaped), postocellar stripe wanting 
or very narrow. 

Thorax : pronotum black, except the cephalic margin, the pro- 
pleura pale below ; dorsum of femora and cephalic stripe on the 
tibiae black ; tarsi pale, darker at tips ; pale stripe of the meso- 
thorax a trifle narrowed caudad, the black stripe of the meso- 
pleural suture a little wider than the pale stripe, and widest just 
behind the katepisterna ; remainder of the pleura, except small 
spots near wing-bases on the sutures, blue or pale brown ; venter 
of thorax pale; M^ arising between postnodal veins 3 and 4 in 
the hind wing. 

Abdomen : mostly black, the first segment with large lateral 
blue spot and a smaller blue spot on the dorsum at apex ; 2 with 
cephalic half and lateral margins blue ; 3-7 with blue cephalic 
portions, the blue decreasing successively caudad, occupying a 
little less than one-half of 3, and reduced to a small spot on 7; 8 
and 9 entirely blue; 10 black above, pale below; anal appendages 
black (Fig. 10, No. 10), the superiors with a large ventral lol^e 
when viewed in lateral profile, the inferiors slender and but little 
longer than the superiors. 

Female. — Color similar to the male. 

Head : similar to male. 



78 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

Thorax : pronotum without pits or yellow spots on the entirely 
black median lobe. The mesostigmal plates are narrow, the 
caudal margins almost straight, and have a pale spot on the lateral 
angle sometimes occupying more than half the plate. The meso- 
pleural pale stripe is much contracted at the mesostigmal plates 
and is in contact with them only at the lateral angles. 

Abdomen : terga with dorsa of i-io black or dark from base to 
apex. 

Measurements : total length, male 25-26, female 25 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 20, female 19 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
14-15, female 15 mm.; width of hind wings, male 3.5, female 
4 mm. 

Described from three males obtained through the kindness of 
Dr. R. H. Howe, and a female from Dr. P. P. Calvert. 

Enallagma recurvatum Davis 

Journal New York Entomological Society, 21: 15-16: 1913. 

Nymph. — Unknown. 

Adult, male. — Color blue and black. 

Head : labrum blue ; anteclypeus blue, postclypeus mostly black ; 
face blue to the level of the antennae; postocular spots oval or 
comma-shaped ; postocellar stripe wanting ; rear of head mostly 
pale. 

Thorax : pronotum entirely black except small spots on the 
lateral angles of the caudal lobe ; propleura largely pale ; meso- 
and metathorax with narrow blue stripe on each mesepisterna, the 
stripe contracted and sometimes interrupted, forming an exclama- 
tion point ; ventral half of the mesepimera and all of the meta- 
pleura blue, except a small black spot on the metapleural suture 
at the wing bases ; legs with femora dark above, the tibiae with 
black stripe, tarsi dark brown or black, the claws with ventral 
tooth well beyond the mid point, near the distal fourth ; wings with 
Mo arising near the fourth postnodal cross-vein in the front wing 
but usually well proximad of this point in the hind wing. 

Abdomen : tergum i with basal half of dorsum black, remainder 
blue; 2 blue except a black spot covering the caudal half of the 
dorsum ; 3 blue with dorsal spot occupying caudal third or a little 
more ; 4 with dorsal spot covering about half the dorsum ; 5 and 
6 with similar spots covering nearly four-fifths of each ; 7 black 
except basal rings and lateral margins ; 8 and 9 blue, 8 sometimes 
with a narrow black line on the sides ; 10 black above, pale on 
sides ; anal appendages with the superiors strongly upturned at 
tip in lateral profile, the inferiors considerably longer. 

Measurements : total length, 26-27 mm. ; length of abdomen, 
20-22 mm.; length of the hind wings. 14-15 mm. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 79 

Three male specimens received from Mr. Wm. T. Davis, and 
collected at Wyandanch, Long Island, New York. No females 
of this species have been seen ; all supposed females thus far 
examined have proved to belong to other species. 

Group 4 ExsuLANS-TRAViATUM Group 

Enallagma divagans Selys 

Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique, 41 : 521 : 1876. 

Nymph. — Unknown. 

Adult, male. — Color blue and black. 

Head : face blue to the level of the antennae, except the post- 
clypeus and spot on labrum, which are black; postocular spots 
large, blue, very narrowly separated from the postocellar stripe; 
rear of head mostly pale, black on each side of the occipital 
foramen. 

Thorax: pronotum mostly black, the cephalic lobe, a spot on 
each side of the median lobes, and a spot on middle and one on 
each side of the caudal lobe, blue; meso- and metathorax blue, 
the black stripe of the mesopleural suture a trifle wider than the 
pale stripe of the episternum, the pale stripe widened a little at 
both ends, narrowed at middle ; legs pale, the femora each with a 
black dorsal stripe, the tibiae pale with a faint streak on the front 
and middle tibiae, the hind tibiae with only a faint row of dashes ; 
tarsal segments and claws pale, darker at tips ; wings with M^ 
usually arising between the third and fourth postnodal cross-vein 
in the hind wings. 

Abdomen: mostly black, blue on sides; 1-7 inclusive, black 
above ; dorsal black stripe of 2 widened subapically ; terga 8 and 
9 entirely blue except sometimes a small spot at base of 8 on the 
dorso-meson ; 10 black above, blue on sides ; anal appendages 
dark brown or black, the superiors in lateral profile not distinctly 
bifurcate, but with a lobe extending ventrad (Fig. 10, No. 27). 

Female. — Color similar to the male. 

Thorax : mesostigmal plates similar to those of exsulans except 
that the caudal margins are more nearly at right angles to the 
meson. 

Abdomen: eighth tergum black with two pale blue spots on 
the caudal margin ; sides sometimes pale also ; 9 with two short 
dorso-lateral black stripes or triangular spots which fuse at the 
base on the meson ; 10 blue. 

Measurements : total length, male 29-33, female 32 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 24-28, female 26 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 17-18, female 18 mm.; width of hind wings, male 3-3.5, 
female 3.5 mm. 

Connecticut. — Hamden, 11 June, 1927 (P. G.). 



8o CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Enallagma exsulans (Hagen) 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 82: 1861. 

Nymph. — Color dark brown or greenish. 

Head : shghtly broader than long, the caudo-lateral angles pro- 
jecting strongly caudad; second antennal segment shorter than 
the first, the first two darker than the remaining ones and pilose ; 
mental setae three, laterals usually four, occasionally five. 

Thorax : femora with the usual preapical brown rings ; apices 
of the third tarsal segments and the apices of the claws dark; 
metathoracic wing-cases extending to the fourth abdominal seg- 
ment. 

Abdomen : cuticle with minute dark spots and setae, the cuticle, 
however, uniform brown in some; lateral keels on segments 4-8 
and lateral apex of segment 9 with groups of 2-6 spines ; dorsal 
surface of keels with minute setae ; gills (PL 11, Fig. 9) lanceolate, 
broadest beyond middle, usually heavily pigmented on the proxi- 
mal two-thirds, the infuscation being followed by two large clear 
spots on each side of the axis ; tip of gills dark except the extreme 
tip; dorsal spines of median gill and ventral marginal spines of 
the laterals extending nearly two-thirds the length of the gills 
from their bases. Smaller trachea forming alga-like patches. 
Pigmentation of the gills of younger nymphs is not distinct except 
for the alga-like patches. 

Measurements: length, 12-13. 5 mm.; length of abdomen, 9-10 
mm.; length of gills, 5.5-7 mm.; width of gills, 1.3-2; length of 
median lobe, 2 mm.; width, .6-1.8 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color blue, black and brown. 

Head: blue and black; antennae black; postclypeus shining 
black, the anteclypeus pale, and the labrum with a transverse black 
stripe on the dorsal margin ; front above clypeus to the antennae 
pale, remainder of the front and vertex black ; postocular spots 
and postgenae yellow or blue. 

Thorax : blue and black ; pronotum black, the cephalic lobe 
blue ; large spots on the mesal lobes and smaller ones on the same 
near the meson ; also a blue mesal spot on the caudal lamina ; pro- 
pleura black along the dorsal border, blue below; mesostigmal 
plates with the lateral angles blue ; black stripe of the dorsum of 
mesothorax occupying about half of each anepisterna; blue stripe 
of the anepisterna narrowed at the caudal end widest above the 
katepisterna ; black stripe of the mesopleural suture broad extend- 
ing onto the katepisterna and in younger specimens divided by a 
brown line directly over the suture ; black spots on the metapleural 
suture near the wing bases, the remainder of the pleura blue; 
postcoxal areas bufif ; legs pale blue or brown and black ; femora 
black above, usually with a pale spot at base ; tarsi and claws pale, 
dark at tips ; wings with 10-12 postnodal cross-veins in the front 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 8l 

wings and M2 usually arising between the fourth and fifth of 
these. 

Abdomen: blue and black, dorsum of terga 1-9 and 10 with 
longitudinal black stripes from base to apex, widened subapically 
on 2-7, and narrowed to the meson on 8 at the hind margin ; lateral 
surfaces of terga 1-8, 10, all of 9, narrow apical ring on i and 
broad basal rings on 4, 5 and 6, blue or pale; anal appendages 
(Fig. 10, No. 13) black, the superiors bifurcate, the dorsal arms 
shortest ; inferiors usually paler and shorter than the superiors. 

Female. — Color pale green, black and brown ; tip of abdomen 
blue. 

Head : postocular spots usually connected with the narrow 
stripe behind the ocelli ; genae and area above the clypeus more 
or less orange in color. 

Thorax : with the brown of the mesopleural dark stripe more 
conspicuous and persistent than in the male. Mesostigmal plates 
as in Fig. ii, No. 9, not reaching the katepisterna on the sides. 

Abdomen : with broad dorsal stripes on segments 1-8, the stripe 
on 9 being reduced to two triangular spots (sometimes united) at 
the base of the tergum, the remainder blue in color; tergum 10 
blue ; lateral surfaces of 2-8 and narrow basal rings on 3-8 usually 
pale green. 

Measurements: total length, male 31-35, female 30-32 mm.; 
length of abdomen, male 26-29, female 24-26 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 17-19, female 20-23 mm.; width of hind wings, male 
3-4, female 3.5-4 mm. 

Connecticut. — Putnam, 12 July, 1905 (H. L. V.) ; Stratford, 9 July, 
1920; Guilford, 27 July, 1920 (P. G.). 
New England. — May 28-August 27. 

Enallagma traviatum Selys 

Bulletin de TAcademie royale . . . de Belgique, 41: 517: 1876. 

Nymph. — Color very dark brown. 

Head : caudo-lateral margins projecting, antennae slender, the 
first two segments setose and their diameter much greater than the 
remaining ones; labium extending behind the first pair of coxae; 
mental setae two, sometimes a small third ; lateral setae four. 

Thorax : lateral portion of the prothorax and the metapleura 
darker than the dorsum of the thorax ; femora with distinct pre- 
apical brown rings, tarsi pale. 

Abdomen : brown, darker immediately above and below the 
lateral keels ; cuticle without small black spots at the bases of the 
setae; keels with a few (usually i or 2) spines near the apices; 
gills (PI. II, Fig. 4) rather narrowly lanceolate, the median gill 
without heavy spines on the dorsal margin ; lateral gills with 
ventral marginal row of spines extending one-half or less of the 



82 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

length of the gill ; basal two-fifths or one-half of the gills uniform 
dark brown, the pigmented area followed by a broad clear band ; 
beyond the clear portion are frequently one or two brown trans- 
verse stripes, the apices of the gills being without pigment. 

Measurements : length, 1 1 mm. ; length of abdomen, 8 mm. ; 
length of gills, 6 mm. ; width of gills, i mm. ; length of meta- 
thoracic wing-cases, 3.5 mm. ; length of median lobe, 2 mm., 
width, .5-1.3 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color pale blue and black. 

Head : blue and black ; antennae brown, the first segment some- 
times with the cephalic half blue; postclypeus blue with a black 
spot on each side; anteclypeus blue; labrum blue, with a black 
dorso-mesal spot, sometimes a lateral spot on each side, the three 
sometimes connected; front above the labrum to the median 
ocellus blue; ocelli with small blue spots ventrad; remainder of 
the front black; postocular spots very large, forming equilateral 
triangles, and occupying most of the dorsal portion of the occiput ; 
occiput and postgenae pale blue ; eyes blue in life. 

Thorax : blue and black ; pronotum with elongate blue spots 
on the median lobe, contiguous on the meson, and somewhat cres- 
centic spots of the same color on the sides ; proepimera and pro- 
episterna brown or blue ; mesothorax with a black stripe covering 
the dorsal carina frequently divided by a line of brown on the 
carina ; black stripe of the mesopleural suture sometimes reduced 
to a line ; mesokatepisterna with crescentic marks on the dorsal 
borders ; remainder of the mesopleura and metapleura (except small 
spots on interpleural folds and metapleural sutures) blue; postcoxal 
areas pale ; legs striped pale blue or bufT and black, the coxae and 
trochanters blue, femora blue with broad dorsal black stripes fre- 
quently interrupted at the base by a pale spot; tibiae pale blue 
and bufT with a short dorsal black stripe or none, the tarsi pale, 
black at tips; wings with 10-12 postnodal cross-veins in the front 
wings and 7-10 in the hind; M^ arising between the fourth and 
fifth postnodal cross-veins in the front wing and between 3 and 4 
in the hind; pterostigma small, subelliptical. and surmounting less 
than a single cell. 

Abdomen: blue and metallic black, the dorsum of the first 
tergum with a small black basal spot about half its length ; second 
tergum with a black apical shield-shaped spot, the spot extending 
to the cephalic margin and narrowed at this point to a line on the 
meson ; terga 3-7 inclusive, with longitudinal black stripes widened 
subapically and narrowed basally, the lateral margins of the terga 
pale; terga 8 and 9 usually entirely blue, the eighth sometimes 
with a dark basal spot on the dorsum ; tergum 10 black ; anal 
appendages (Fig. 10, No. 6) short and black, the superiors longer 
than the inferiors and appearing slightly knobbed at the apices 
when seen in lateral profile; viewed from above, the superior 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT : COENAGRIONIDAE 83 

appendages are seen to have broad basal lobes, which are often 
contiguous ; inferior appendages short, subcorneal, and directed 
obliquely dorsad ; tenth sternum pale. 

Female. — Color similar to the male. 

Head : front with more blue, and the spots ventrad of the ocelli 
larger than in the male and sometimes connected with the blue 
area of the front. 

Thorax : dorsal black stripe divided by a brown line on the 
meson; mesostigmal plates (Fig. ii, No. 8) pale blue, the lateral 
angles elevated and not reaching the katepisterna. 

Abdomen: (Fig. ii. No. 21) dorsum of tergum i with a black 
basal spot, 2-7 inclusive with longitudinal dorsal black stripes 
widened suddenly near the caudal margins, and narrowed to the 
meson near the cephalic margins ; tergum 8 blue with a narrow 
dorsal stripe extending a little over half the length of the tergum 
from the base; terga 9 and 10 blue, 9 sometimes with two black 
basal triangles. 

Measurements: total length, male 27-31, female 29-31 mm.; 
length of abdomen, male 22-25, female 23-25 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 17, female 17-18.5 mm.; width of hind wings, male 
3.25, female 3 mm. 

Connecticut. — Guilford (Pistapaug Pond), 27 July, 1920 (P. G.). 
New England. — June 19-August 19. 

Group 5 

Enallagma durum Hagen 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 87: 1861. 

Nymph. — Mental setae 3, laterals 4. Lateral keels of the abdo- 
men sparsely setose, the setae not rounded conspicuously at the 
apices; gills long and narrow (PI. i, Fig. 11), thickly provided 
with tracheae and having a brownish tint along the axis. 

Measurements: length of gills, about 7.5 mm.; width, 1.5 mm. 

Described from one nymph obtained from Howe and several 
others, identified by comparison, obtained at East Haven, Conn, 

Adult, male. — Color blue Or buff (teneral) and black. 

Head : labium buff ; labrum, mandibles, genae, anteclypeus, 
cephalic margin of the postclypeus, and the front dorsad of the 
clypeus to the antennal fossae, blue or pale; vertex black; post- 
ocular spots cuneiform, connected with the postocellar pale stripe; 
occiput and postgenae pale. 

Thorax : pronotum black, the cephalic lobe largely blue, large 
lateral spots on the median lobes and the caudal margin, which 
are also blue ; mesostigmal plates triangular, the lateral angles 
and caudal margins blue; dorsal carina blue, bordered on each 
side by broad black stripes occupying half the anepistema; pale 
stripe of the anepisterna very little broader over the katepisterna, 



84 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

the margins nearly parallel ; black stripes of the mesopleural suture 
widest adjacent to the katepisterna and a little contracted just 
cephalad of the wing bases ; remainder of the thorax blue, except 
small spots on the metapleural sutures adjacent to the wing bases : 
legs blue, including coxae and trochanters, the dorsum of the 
femora black, the tibiae with a black stripe on each which includes 
the cephalo-ventral row of setae; tarsi and claws pale, darker at 
tips: wings with 11-13 postnodals in the front wing and M^ aris- 
ing between 5 and 6 ; there are three cross-veins between M^ and 
Cuj, proximad of the nodus, and this species differs in this respect 
from all other Enallagmas. 

Abdomen : blue and black ; dorsum of tergum i black at base ; 
terga 2 black above, 3, 4, and 5 with an apical ring and spot, the 
spot on each extending cephalad and contracted to a line on the 
meson ; a little more than half the dorsum of 6, and all of 7 except 
a basal ring, black; terga 8, 9 and 10 blue except the dorsum of 
10, which is black; superior anal appendages (Fig. 10, No. 18) 
blunt, shorter than the inferiors, with short dorso-lateral tubercles 
and a pale rounded tubercle on the ventro-mesal angles ; inferiors 
blue with black tips, the tips slender and acute. 

Female. — Color darker than the male. 

Head and thorax similar to the male, but the abdomen differs 
in having the dorsum of terga 1-8 with black from bases to apices ; 
terminal segments obscurely marked in some specimens. Meso- 
stigmal plates as in Fig. 11, No. 7. 

Measurements: length, male 38, female 38 mm.; length of 
abdomen, male 30, female 29 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
20-21. female 22 mm.; width of hind wing, male 4-4-5. female 
4.5 mm. 

Connecticut.— Woodmont, 23 July, 1904; Branford, 2q July, 1904 
(P. L. B.); North Haven, 10 August, 1921 (W. E. B.) (P. G.) ; New 
London, 7-15 June, 1921 (R. H. H.). 

New England. — July 23-August 25. 

Group 6 

Enallagma aspersum (Hagen) 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 97: 1861. 

Nymph. — Unknown. 

Adult, male. — Color blue and black. 

Head : blue and black ; antennae black ; postclypeus black, the 
cephalic margin sometimes blue; anteclypeus and labrum brown 
or buff and blue, the front blue above the clypeus to the base of 
the antennae; remainder of the front and vertex black; post- 
ocular spots blue, the blue connected with the blue of the occiput 
and postgenae. 

Thorax: blue and black; pronotum black except the narrow 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT : COENAGRIONIDAE 85 

cephalic lobe, and in some specimens a small blue spot on each 
side on the median lobes, caudal margin also blue; proepimera 
black above, pale or blue below ; mesostigmal plates about half 
blue. Alesothorax with a broad dorsal stripe, covering the carina 
and also half of the mesanepisterna on either side; this is fol- 
lowed by a blue stripe which occupies most of the remaining por- 
tion of the anepisterna of the mesothorax ; mesopleural suture 
covered with a black stripe which is considerably widened near 
the caudal margin of the katepisternum and extends over that 
sclerite covering the dorsal half or third ; remainder of the thorax 
blue or buff ; legs black and bufif, the coxae and trochanters pale, 
the femora with a dorsal black stripe including one row of setae ; 
tarsi and claws black, shining; front wings with 9-1 1 postnodal 
cross-veins, and M, arising between the fourth and sixth of these, 
usually near the fifth. 

Abdomen : blue and black ; a basal spot on the first, a dorsal 
apical spot and ring on the second, apical three-fourths of the dor- 
sum of the third, dorsum of 4, all of 5 and 6 except narrow basal 
rings and lateral margins, cephalic half of 7, and all of the dorsum 
of 10 are black; caudal half of 7, all of 8 and 9, and sides of 10 
blue ; there is some variation in the amount of blue on the prox- 
imal segments ; anal appendages black, the superiors longer than 
the inferiors and with a ventral basal tubercle (Fig. 10, No. 2), 
the apices blunt and directed ventrad ; inferiors conical, sharply 
pointed, and directed obliquely dorsad, about half as long as the 
superiors. 

Female. — Color similar to the male. 

Head : with postocular spots sometimes separated from the 
blue of the occiput. 

Thorax : mesostigmal plates black. 

Abdomen (Fig. 11, No. 20) : with terga 1-6 as in male, 7 with 
a dorsal stripe reduced to a mesal line on the basal three-fourths 
but suddenly widened at the apex ; eighth tergum black, with two 
basal spots connecting with the pale lateral margins; dorsum of 
9 and 10 black. 

Measurements : total length, male 27-32, female 30-34 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 22-25, female 23-26 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 16-18, female 18-20 mm.; width of hind wings, male 
3-3.7, female 3.5-4 mm. 

Connecticut.— Branford, 21 July, 1920 (P. G.) ; Ellington, 8 July. 1026 
(J. L. R.). 



Genus Argia Rambur 

Nymphs. — Caudo-lateral margins of the head not angulate; 
labium without mental setae; abdomen without spinulose lateral 
keels; gills half as broad as long, with cuticular pigment, the 



86 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

tracheae more or less obscured ; gills usually with blunt points ; 
length including gills 15-20 mm. 

Adults. — Head with or without postocular spots; wings with 
12 or more postnodal cross-veins ; M, arising between the fifth 
and ninth postnodal; width of stigma between C and R not 
greater than its length ; stigma of male not remote from margin ; 
dorsum of thorax with more or less brown or black, never entirely 
metallic green, the caudal margin of female prothorax entire; 
tibial setae longer than the intervals between their bases ; meso- 
pleural suture usually with a black stripe immediately below; 
abdominal terga 1-6 never red or yellow, usually black with 
median stripes of brown or purple, or entirely black with pale basal 
rings ; female without a ventral spine on segment 8. 

The Argias seem to be well differentiated in their habits at least 
as far as Connecticut species are concerned. Violacea and trans- 
lata are pond and small-lake species, and the nymphs may be found 
around the borders of such ponds. The only place where trans- 
lata has been found is a small reservoir supplying the town of 
Wallingford, the adults being taken along the east shore, at the 
base of a high hill which rises directly out of the water. The 
entire east side of the lake is protected, and there is another hill 
protecting the north end, the elevation of the pond itself being 
about 300 feet. Moesta is a swift-stream species and is most fre- 
quently found near such places. The eggs of all species are prob- 
ably laid in dead plants or wood near the edge of the water. 

For literature dealing with adults, consult : 
Calvert, P. P. Biologia Central! Americana, pages 69-72: 1901. 
Also works of Carman (1917), Howe (1912), Kellicott (1899), Needham 
(1Q03), and Williamson (1899). (See appended list.) 
For literature dealing with the nymphs, see: 
Needham, J. G. Bulletin 68, New York State Museum, pages 237-245 : 

1903. 
Garman, P. Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History, 

XII, 501-517: 1917- 

Howe, R. H. Memoir of the Thoreau Museum of Natural History. 11, 
page no: 1921. 



Key to Species 
Nymphs 

Labial palpi with a single weak seta on the proximal segment ; 
gills broad at the tip, the margins parallel for a considerable dis- 
tance; without light cross-bands and not coarsely spotted ..moesta 

Labial palpi with two or more setae on the proximal segment; 
gills not with parallel margins, and usually coarsely spotted with 
pigment 2 

Gills broadest beyond the middle, decidedly ovate, sharply pointed 
and frequently with a V-shaped clear area near the apex . .violacea 

Gills not broadest beyond the middle nor sharply pointed at tips 

translata 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 87 

Adults, Males 

1. Wings smoky (fumipennis) 

Wings clear 2 

2. Stigma surmounting more than one cell in both wings moesta 

Stigma surmounting one cell or less in both wings 3 

3. Proximal segments of the abdomen purplish or reddish violet violacea 
Proximal segments of the abdomen never with purplish or reddish 

violet 4 

4. Proximal segments of the abdomen mostly pale blue with dark 

apical rings bipunctulata 

Proximal segments of the abdomen either entirely black with 
narrow apical pale rings or with longitudinal stripes of dark 
color on either side of each segment 5 

5. Dorsum of the mesothorax mostly pale; dorsal stripe covering the 

carina reduced to a line (apicalis) 

Dorsimi of the mesothorax mostly black, or with a broad black 
stripe on the dorsal carina 6 

6. Dorsum of the thorax nearly or entirely black; segments 8 and 9 

of the abdomen black translata 

Dorsum of the thorax with some paler marks ; segments 8 and 9 
blue 7 

7. Ventral arm of each inferior anal appendage exceeding the dorsal 

arm considerably sedula 

Ventral arm of each inferior appendage not exceeding the dorsal 
arm in length (tibialis) 

Females 

1. Wings smoky (fumipennis) 

Wings clear 2 

2. Thorax with a broad black stripe ventrad of the mesopleural 

suture 5 

Thorax without a broad black stripe ventrad of the mesopleural 
suture 3 

3. Mesostigmal plates with a sharp median caudal projection (Fig. 

II, No. 15) ; stigma surmounting more than one cell in both 

wings moesta 

Mesostigmal plates without a sharp median projection ; stigma sur- 
mounting one cell or less in both wings 4 

4. Front vertex and occiput wholly brown ; caudal margins of the 

mesostigmal plates forming a thin blade which projects dorsad 

sedula 
Front vertex and occiput not wholly brown; caudal margins of 
the mesostigmal plates not forming a thin blade which projects 
dorsad (apicalis) 

5. Mesostigmal plates each with a rounded lobe at the mesal angle 

(Fig. II, No. 16) 6 

Mesostigmal plates each without a rounded lobe at the mesal angle 7 

6. Terga 1-5 with a pale mid-dorsal stripe much broader than the 

black stripes on either side, the latter sometimes wanting or 

reduced to apical spots violacea 

Terga 1-5 with the pale mid-dorsal stripe not so wide as the black 
stripes on either side translata 

7. Dorsum of the eighth tergum only, pale; black stripe below the 

mesopleural suture reaching the wing bases, and in contact with 

the suture for its entire length bipunctulata 

Dorsum of segments 8 and 9 black or dark brown ; stripe below 
the mesopleural suture not reaching the wing bases and separat- 
ing from the suture near its caudal end (tibialis) 



88 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST, SURVEY [BulL 

Argia bipunctulata (Hagen) 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 90: 1861. 

Nymph. — Unknown. 

Adult, male. — Color very light blue and black. 

Head : labrum blue with mesal spot on the caudal margin ; 
clypeus bhie with a black spot on each side of the postclypeus; 
genae and front to the antennae blue ; vertex black with pale post- 
ocellar stripe and a small spot cephalo-laterad of each lateral 
ocellus ; rear of head black on each side of the occipital foramen, 
pale next the eyes and above. 

Thorax : pronotum black ; median lobe with a spot on each side 
near the lateral margin, the lateral angles of the caudal lobe also 
pale, propleura mostly pale; mesothorax with a narrow pale 
stripe on the mesepisternum, the stripe about half as wide as the 
black stripe below the mesopleural suture; metapleural suture 
lined with black and with a spot near wing bases ; remainder of 
pleura and sterna pale ; legs with pale dorsal carina on the femora, 
the latter largely black above; tibiae black or brown below, pale 
above ; tarsi and claws dark brown to black ; wings with stigma 
surmounting a single cell, and M^ arising between the fifth and 
sixth postnodal cross-vein in the front wings and between the 
fourth and fifth in the hind. 

Abdomen : tergum i pale, black at base ; 2 blue, with two 
dorsal spots near the caudal margin and an apical ring black; 3 
blue, with caudal fourth black, the black surrounding a small pale 
spot on each side, 4 and 5 blue, with caudal third black ; 6 and 7 
black, with blue basal spots; 8, 9 and 10 blue, 10 with brown in 
the sides ; anal appendages dark brown, the superiors entire, 
inferiors with ventral arm hardly longer than the dorsal, the 
ventral pale at tip; a pale-blue bifurcate process between the 
superiors. 

Female. — Blue color replaced by yellow, darker than the male 
in general appearance. 

Thorax : with the black stripe below the mesopleural suture 
continuing to the wing bases, not separating from the suture near 
the cattdal end as in apicalis. 

Abdomen : terga mostly black ; i and 2 with sides pale ; 3 and 
4 with lateral pale stripes about three-fourths the length of the 
segment, the black of the dorsum extending to the lateral margins 
at the apex of each and enclosing there a small yellow spot ; 5 with 
basal ring and lateral basal pale stripes half the length of the 
segment ; 6 and 7 black with pale basal rings ; 8 pale above, black 
on the sides ; 9 and 10 entirely black. 

Measurements : total length, male 26, female 28 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 21, female 22 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
14-15, female 16 mm. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 89 

This species has not been taken in Connecticut, but occurs in 
New Jersey and Maryland. It is a striking form, very different 
from other Argia species, the male resembling an Enallagma 
strongly in color and size. 

Described from specimens received through the kindness of 
William T. Davis. 

Argia moesta (Hagen) 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 94: 1861. 

Nymph. — Color dark brown. 

Head : broad and flat, pentagonal, the caudo-lateral margins 
projecting and with a few short setae; antennal segments dark 
except the first, which is pale ; labium, with slightly narrowed 
median lobe, the apical margin projecting strongly between the 
palpi; mental setae absent; lateral marginal setae, about 12 in 
number ; palpi with two fixed hooks on the proximal segment ; 
setae of the palpi reduced to a single weak hair. 

Thorax: brown; pronotum projecting strongly laterad ; legs 
not conspicuously banded but the femora with a faint preapical 
ring and the proximal two-thirds evenly infuscated; tibiae with 
dark spines, tarsi mostly pale ; wing-cases extending to the middle 
of the fourth abdominal segment or beyond. 

Abdomen : uniform brown, the lateral keels feebly developed 
and without spines ; styli of the male long, nearly reaching the 
apex of the tenth segment; apical margin of 10 cleft nearly to 
its base; gills uniform dark gray or nearly black, paler at the 
tip, the margins parallel for a considerable distance. 

Measurements (young nymphs): length, 14 mm.; length of 
abdomen, 9 mm. ; length of gills, 5-6 mm. ; width of gills, 3 mm. ; 
length of metathoracic wing-cases, 4 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color, black and cinnamon-buff, older specimens 
pollinose. 

Head : very dark brown above, shading into a lighter brown on 
the labrum and surrounding parts ; postclypeus with two indefi- 
nite dark spots ; black of the vertex often indefinite in extent, and 
the whole dorsum of the head pollinose in older specimens. 

Thorax : pronotum dark brown with large pale spots on each 
median lobe, the prothorax pollinose on the sides ; dorsal carina 
of the mesothorax usually black, and the black of the episterna 
occupying about half the width of each ; mesopleural suture black ; 
mesepimerum nearly covered with black or dark brown, the stripe 
separated from the mesopleural suture caudad; cephalic shoulders 
of mesepimera brown ; metapleural suture black ; remainder of 
thorax brown ; the whole of the meso- and metathorax becomes 
pollinose, especially the dorsum ; legs striped, tarsi and claws 
black; wings clear, with 15-19 postnodal cross-veins in the front 



9© CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

wing ; stigma surmounting one and one-half to two cells ; M^ 
arising between the sixth and ninth postnodal in the front wing 
and between the fifth and eighth in the hind. 

Abdomen: black (sometimes greenish) with pale basal rings 
on segments 3-7 inclusive; last two segments become poUinose; 
anal appendages (Fig. 12, No. 20) consisting of short club-like 
superiors, and broad inferiors. 

Female. — Color light blue or olive, buff and black. 

Head : front genae and vertex pale blue or buff, the vertex with 
indefinite black areas around the ocelli. 

Thorax : usually brown, sometimes blue ; mesostigmal plates 
(Fig. II, No. 15) each with a short median somewhat acute 
process projecting caudad over the cephalic margin of the epi- 
sterna; mesepisterna and mesepimera without the broad dark 
stripes of the male. 

Abdomen: black and blue or brown, the dorsum of terga 1-9 
frequently with brown stripes. 

Measurements : total length, male 37-42, female 38-41 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 28-33, female 29-32 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 23-26; female 25-26 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 
4.5-5.5, female 4-5-5-5 mm. 

Connecticut. — Putnam, 12 July, 1905 (H. L. V.) ; Shelton, 9 July, 1920; 
Stratford, q July 1920 (P. G.) ; Litchfield, 6 July. 1913. 2S July. 1914, 16 
July, 1916 (L. B. W.). 

New England. — June i6-August 30. 

Argia translata Hagen 

Bulletin de rAcademie royale . . . de Belgique (2), 20: 410: 1865. 

Nymph. — Color dark brown. 

Head : antennal segments brown ; lateral and mental setae 
wanting; median lobe projecting strongly between the palpi. 

Thorax : legs with two femoral and three tibial brownish rings ; 
wing-cases extending to about segment 4 in exuviae. 

Abdomen : with a pale dorsal longitudinal stripe, the cuticle 
brown and with few setae; gills uniform dark brown, coarsely 
granular when magnified ; some with a paler band at middle as 
in tibialis or apicalis. 

Measurements: length of gills, 4-4.5 mm.; width, 1-1.5 mm.; 
length of median lobe, 3 mm. 

The nymph differs from moesta and violacea in having three 
broad, dark tibial bands, being similar in this respect to tibialis 
and apicalis. The gills are uniform brown and considerably nar- 
rower than other species. Described from four exuviae obtained 
at Pistapaug Pond July 8, 192 1 ; no other Argias were found at 
this pond and the exuviae, therefore, were assumed to be that of 
translata. 

Adult, male. — Color black and brown. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 91 

Head : almost entirely black in older specimens, marked with 
brown in younger ; postocular spots subcircular, brown or bluish ; 
setae of labium, clypeus and front long and black or very dark; 
genae, mandibles, occiput and postgenae, brown in tenerals, black 
or poUinose in others. 

Thorax: pronotum uniformly dark, the caudal lamina thin, 
unbroken, and projecting dorsad ; pleura and sterna light in color ; 
dorsum of meso- and metathorax entirely black in older specimens, 
the sides and venter pollinose, legs also black except the dorsal 
surface of the tibiae ; tenerals have a pale dorsal carina flanked 
on either side by a broad dark stripe ; mesopleura each with two 
pale stripes, one above and one below the mesopleural suture; 
legs mostly dark brown; front wings with 14-15 postnodal cross- 
veins, M, arising between 6 and 8; stigma usually surmounting 
one cell. 

Abdomen : black or very dark, segment i with dorso-apical and 
lateral apical yellow spots ; 2 with lateral stripe and dorsal excla- 
mation mark : all marks on first and second terga obscured with 
pollen in older individuals ; tergum 3-5 with narrow basal ring 
and lateral stripes; 6-8 black with basal rings only; 8 with a 
broad lateral spot on each side at base, the two connected in some 
individuals; terga 10 mostly dark in color; anal appendages (Fig. 
12, Nos. 18 and 19) dark. In older specimens the abdomen 
appears entirely black, with narrow basal rings on 3-8; anal 
appendages black, superiors decurved, inferiors with a ventral 
extended lobe. 

Adult, female. — Color similar to the male; postocular and 
postocellar spots present, and the pale area of the front above 
clypeus is divided by a dark line on the meson. 

Thorax : similar in color to the male ; the pale stripe above and 
below the mesopleural suture much more conspicuous than in the 
male; mesostigmal plates (Fig. 11, No. 14) with a large rounded 
lobe on caudo-mesal angles; abdomen with a pale median dorsal 
line in younger specimens, and lateral, usually interrupted stripes 
on 2-6 and 8-9 ; 10 pale on sides. 

Measurements : total length, male 34-36, female 32-33 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 27-33, female 25-29 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 18.5-23, female 20-23 "i"^- > width of hind wings, 
male 4-4.5, female 4.5 mm. 

Connecticut. — North Guilford (Pistapaug Pond), 27 July, 1920, 8 July, 
1921 (P. G.). 

Argia violacea (Hagen) 
Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 90: 1861. 
Nymph. — Color very dark brown. 

Head : proximal segment of the antennae light in color ; labium 
with two or three lateral setae on the palpi ; the median lobe about 



92 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

two-thirds as long as broad ; palpi with simple hooks besides the 
movable distal segment. 

Thorax : dark brown ; legs with coxae and trochanters dark, 
the femora with fuscous bases and apices and usually two broad 
rings in addition ; tibiae dark brown at base and apex, and a ring 
just proximad of the middle; tarsi dark. 

Abdomen : dark brown with a pale mesal stripe ; lateral keels 
feebly developed and without or with minute setae; gills ovate, 
uniform dark brown, or sometimes having a V-shaped mark on 
each near the apex ; ovipositor of the female extending to apex 
of the tenth abdominal segment or beyond. 

Measurements: length (with gills), 17 mm.; length of abdo- 
men, 7 mm. ; length of gills, 4.5-5 mm. ; width of gills, 2-2.5 ^"^- ' 
length of median lobe, 1-2 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown or purple. 

Head : antennae with the basal segment and sometimes the 
proximal end of the second segment buff, remainder black ; clypeus 
and labrum pale brown, the front, vertex and postocular regions 
also largely pale but becoming violet with age, the black confined 
to a broad transverse band embracing the lateral ocelli, a T-shaped 
mark ventrad of the median ocellus and narrow lines extending 
from the ends of the transverse band to the compound eyes and 
to the caudal margins of the head ; caudo-dorsal margins of the 
head with a black line. 

Thorax : brown or violet, and black, median lobe of the prono- 
tum with large brown or purple spots ; dorsal carina black, the 
stripe on each side about one-third the width of the anepisterna ; 
a black stripe present just below the mesopleural suture, the stripe 
contiguous with the cephalic half of the longitudinal part of 
suture ; metapleural suture lined with black ; metepimera and 
postcoxal areas buff, legs striped, tarsi and claws black; wings 
clear, the stigma surmounting a single cell or less ; postnodal 
cross-veins of the front wing 11-15, and M2 arising between the 
fifth and seventh of these. 

Abdomen : purple and black or brown and black ; basal half 
of first tergum black ; second tergum with lateral spots extending 
from cephalic margin nearly to apex of the segment ; 3 and 4 
brown or purple, with exception of a caudo-lateral dark spot on 
either side ; terga 5 and 6 with a dark apical ring and sometimes 
narrow lateral black stripes; 7 black, 8, 9 and 10 blue on dorsum, 
black on lateral surfaces; anal appendages (Fig. 12, No. 16) 
consisting of short blunt superiors and longer inferiors. 

Female. — Color dark brown or dull violet. 

Head : similar to the male. 

Thorax: mesostigmal plates with rounded lobes on the caudo- 
mesal angles (Fig. 11, No. 16) ; abdomen with more black than 
the male; terga 2-9 with dorso-lateral dark stripes which are 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT : COENAGRIONIDAE 93 

broad enough on the seventh and eighth terga to fuse on the 
meson, though sometimes interrupted on the various segments, 
forming a series of exclamation marks ; lateral surface of tergum 
9 and all of 10 buff. 

Measurements: total length, male 32, female 31-33 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 24-27, female 24-26 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 20, female 20-22 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 4, female 
5 mm. 

Connecticut. — Orange, 21 July, 1905 (W. E. B.) ; Portland, 8 August, 
1913 (B. H. W.) ; Guilford, 1.^ July. 1920; Twin Lakes, 20 August, 1921 ; 
Hamden, 3 August, 1920 (P. G.) ; New London, 8-22 June. 1921 (R. H. H.). 

New England. — June 6-September 26. 

The species tibialis and apicalis do not occur in New England, 
but may be distinguished from the species herein described by the 
following: Nymphs of tibialis and apicalis have long ovate gills 
coarsely spotted with dark pigment and usually with a pale trans- 
verse stripe. Female adults of tibialis and apicalis are charac- 
terized by the lack of caudal projections on the mesostigmal plates 
(tibialis) or a very short pointed projection at the caudo-mesal 
angles (apicalis). The males are not easily distinguished, but 
differ in the anal appendages and color of the thorax and abdomen. 
Tibialis is perhaps most closely related to translata, but may be 
distinguished by the greater amount of pale color on the sides of 
the thorax and the different anal appendages. Apicalis is a much 
lighter colored species than translata and possesses considerable 
blue pigment. 

Argia fumipennis is a southern species with clouded wings. 

Subfamily Lestinae Needham 

The nymphs have long slender bodies and are furnished with 
characteristic gills (PI. i, Figs. 1-6). The mentum is frequently 
contracted at the proximal end, much more so than in the 
Coenagrioninae. 

This family is represented in Connecticut by a single genus, 
Lestes. In addition to characters stated in the key, the presence 
of long tibial spines, which are much longer than the intervals 
between their bases, is important. Only two other genera are 
known from the United States, one of which is tropical in its 
distribution, the other occurring in the Rockies and far west. 

The different members of the genus Lestes, the only representa- 
tive of the subfamily, are all pond or small-lake species and their 
nymphs may be found often in considerable abundance among the 
weeds bordering these places. The adults of the species with 
brown thoraces such as forcipatus and disjunctus, are frequently of 
retiring habit and well protected by their coloration. The adults 
of the brighter species such as inaequalis, uncatus and vigilax, 
however, love the open and may be found skimming near the 



94 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

surface of ponds and alighting on lily pads or other plants. It is 
reported that the eggs are laid in plants above the surface of the 
water. 

Genus Lestes Leach 

The nymphs are characterized by the form of the labial palpus, 
which is represented in Fig. 7, No. 4, and by the figuration of the 
gills (PI. I, Figs. 1-6). They are extremely active insects when 
disturbed, but usually remain quiet and are hidden perfectly by 
form and color when in their natural environment. 

The adults of the genus comprise mostly dull-colored species of 
elongate form and retiring habit. They are found frequently 
along the edges of woodland pools where they are inconspicuous 
because of their protective coloration. The wings of the adult 
possess numerous pentagonal and some hexagonal cells ; and Mj 
always arises several cells beyond the subnodus. 

For literature on the adults of Lestes, see: 
Selys, E. de. Revue d'Odonata, 1850, page 146. 

Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique, 16: 210: 1862. 

Also general works of Calvert (1893); Howe (1917) ; Garman (1917) J 
Kellicott (1899); Williamson (1900). 

For literature dealing with nymphs, see : 
Garman, P. Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History, 

XH: 477-499: 1917- 
Howe, R. H. Memoirs of the Thoreau Museum of Natural History, H : 

107-109: 1921. 
Needham, J. G. New York State Museum Bulletin 68: 228-236: 1903. 
Walker, E. M. Canadian Entomologist, 46: 189-200, 349-350: 1914, Plates 

13, 14, 23. 

Key to Species 
Nymphs 

1. Distal segment of the labial palpus with three setae ; labium broad 

at the proximal end, the contracted portion of the median lobe 
hardly longer than the expanded portion and about one-third as 

broad congener 

Distal segment of the labial palpus with only two setae or rarely 
three (uncatus) ; labium narrow at the proximal end, the con- 
tracted portion much longer than the expanded portion and less 
than one-third the width of the latter 2 

2. Lateral gills tapering to sharp points ; venter of abdomen without 

a median row of black spots 3 

Lateral gills not sharply pointed; venter of abdomen usually with 
a median row of black spots 4 

3. Ovipositor of female extending beyond the proximal segment of 

the gills; lateral gills not; distal segment of the palpus with 

three setae uncatus 

Ovipositor of female not extending beyond the proximal segment 
of the gills ; distal segment of the palpus with two setae 

unguiculatus 

4. Lateral keels of segments 1-9 or 2-9 with long apical spines; gills 

about equal in width throughout, not usually narrowed beyond 
the middle vigilax 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 95 

Lateral keels of segments 3-9 or 4-9 with apical spines ; gills 
unequal in width and usually narrowed considerably beyond the 

middle forcipatus 

rectangularis 

Adults, Males 

1. Dorsum of thorax and usually abdomen, metallic green 2 

Dorsum of thorax and abdomen dark brown or black 5 

2. Inferior appendages more than half the length of the superiors, 

but never longer than the latter 3 

Inferiors either longer than the superiors or less than half their 
length • . 4 

3. Inferiors long and slender; length of abdomen 34-38 mm vigilax 

Inferiors broad and flat; length of abdomen 26-28 mm uncatus 

4. Inferiors less than half the length of the superiors; wings flaves- 

cent" eurinus 

Inferiors longer than the superiors (Fig. 12, No. 9) ; wings not 
flavescent inaequalis 

5. Inferiors shorter than half the length of the superiors (Fig. 12, 

Nos. I and 2) ; metepimera with black spots near the latero- 

ventral carinae congener 

Inferiors more than half the length of the superiors ; metepimera 
without black spots near the latero-ventral carinae 6 

6. Inferiors sigmoid, the apical two-thirds curved in an opposite 

direction from the superiors unguiculatus 

Inferiors not sigmoid, the apical two-thirds not curved in an oppo- 
site direction to the superiors 7 

7. Metapleural suture covered with a sooty black stripe disjunctus 

Metapleural suture not covered with a sooty black stripe 8 

8. Basal tooth of the mesal margin of the superiors longer than the 

tooth of the distal third forcipatus 

Basal tooth of the mesal margin of the superiors shorter than the 
tooth of the distal third (Fig. 12, Nos. 11 and 12) ...rectangularis 



Females 

1. Dorsum of thorax green in color, or with green stripes 2 

Dorsum of thorax black or dark brown, never green 5 

2. Greatest width of thorax in dorsal view 3.75-4 mm. ; green stripe 

of mesepisterna not so wide as the brown stripe covering the 

dorsal carina eurinus 

Greatest width of thorax less than 3.75 mm. ; green stripe of each 
mesepisterna wider than the brown stripe of the carina 3 

3. Occiput and postgenae pale inaequalis 

Occiput and postgenae black, or green 4 

4. Total length about 35 mm. ; stigma always surmounting less than 

three cells uncatus 

Total length 43-47 mm. ; stigma usually surmounting three or 
more cells vigilax 

5. Metepimera with a black spot above and below the latero-ventral 

carinae congener 

Note. — Lestes eurinus has not been included in the key to nymphs, although the 
nymph is known and has been reared by Walker. According to that author it differs 
from those mentioned in the key in being much larger, and the mentum being provided 
with 7 to 8 mental setae instead of 6 to 7 in most others. Disjunctus is also omitted, 
which seems to be most closely related to uncatus, though differing in the length of the 
female ovipositor. 

'" Sometimes with little or no coloration. 




Fig. 12. Anal appendages of Lestes, Agrion, Argia, and Amphtagrion; 
pterostigma of Agrion. i. Lestes congener, dorsal view of anal appendages. 
2. L. congener, lateral view. 3 and 4- Agrion maculatmn. 5- A. aequabile. 
6. A. maculatmn, pterostigma of front wing of female. 7- Same of A. 
aequabile. 8. Lestes eurinus, anal appendages from above 9. L tnaequalis. 
10 and II. L. rectangularis. 12 and 13. L. vigilax. 14 and 15- Amphtagrion 
saucium. 16 and 17. Argia violacea. 18 and 19. A. translata. 20. ^. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 97 

Metepimera without a black spot above and below the latero- 
ventral carinae 6 

6. Ovipositor extending about as far beyond the tip of segment lO as 

tlie ventral length of that segment — considerably beyond the 

ventral anal appendage forcipatus 

Ovipositor not extending as far beyond the tip of segment lo 7 

7. Occiput and postgenae mostly pale unguiculatus 

Occiput and postgenae black or dark 8 

8. Tarsi black above ; abdomen less than 30 mm. long dis junctus 

Tarsi pale above; abdomen more than 30 mm. long rectangularis 

Lestes congener Hagen 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 67: 1861. 

Nymph. — Color pale brown or greenish. 

Head : labium with the median lobe comparatively broad at 
base, the contracted portion one-third as broad as the expanded 
and about as long; mental setae usually 6, sometimes a small 
seventh on each side ; lateral setae four or five ; labium when 
folded extending between the metacoxae. 

Thorax : distances between pro- and mesocoxae, and between 
meso- and metacoxae about equal ; all femora with faint preapical 
brown rings; wing-cases hardly extending caudad of the second 
abdominal segment. 

Abdomen : with poorly developed lateral keels, which are pro- 
vided wnth apical spines on segments 5-9; gills broad, bluntly 
pointed and with three cross-bands of dark pigment (PI. i. Fig. 
3) ; ovipositor of the female reaching slightly beyond the apex of 
the tenth segment. 

Measurements: length, 16 mm.; length of abdomen, 12 mm.; 
length of gills, 8 mm.; width of gills, 2 mm.; length of meta- 
thoracic wing-cases, 5 mm. ; length of median lobe, 3 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color dull brown and buff or yellow. 

Head : black, buff below ; postclypeus black or dark brown, the 
anteclypeus, labrum, and genae, to the level of the fronto-clypeal 
suture, yellow ; lateral ocelli sometimes with small yellow spots 
alongside ; front, remainder of the vertex, occiput, except occa- 
sionally a transverse yellow stripe from the occipital foramen to 
the compound eyes, black ; eyes blue. 

Thorax : dark brown and yellowish buff, the prothorax dark 
brown, the median lobes of the pronotum with pale lateral margins 
and mesal spots near the caudal margin, the black areas spreading 
with age and occupying most of the lobes ; caudal lobe and pro- 
epimera black or dark brown ; dorsal carina usually with a pale 
line, the mesepisterna except the ventral half of the katepisternum 
black or dark brown, usually with a greenish tinge ; caudo-dorsal 
angle of metepi sterna dark brown or black ; metepimera each with 
an elongate black spot near the ventro-lateral carina (sometimes 
two spots) and a similar spot just below the carina; legs striped, 



98 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

the coxae buff, trochanters black above, the femora black, with a 
narrow pale stripe including the cephalo-ventral row of setae, and 
a broad dorsal stripe frequently divided by a faint row of spots ; 
tibiae yellow, with a dark stripe including the cephalo-ventral row 
of setae; tarsi and claws black; wings clear, 9-1 1 postnodals in 
the front and 8-10 in the hind wings; stigma brown surmounting 
one and one-half to two and one-half cells ; M^ arising between 
the third and fourth postnodal cross-vein in the front wing, and 
between the second and third in the hind. 

Abdomen: black and buff; terga i-io with broad dorsal brown 
or black stripes, the lateral margins with broad pale stripes, the 
pale color extending well to the dorso-meson in basal rings on 
segments Tf-y inclusive ; first tergum with a dark spot near latero- 
ventral margins, anal appendages black (Fig. 12, Nos. i and 2) 
and reddish, the superiors depressed, the ventro-mesal margins 
with large sub-basal teeth and setae beyond these to the apical 
third ; inferiors usually less than half the length of the superiors, 
bluntly rounded, with a fine brush of silken hairs at tips. 

Female. — Color similar to the male. 

Head and thorax : similar to the male. 

Abdomen : interrupted basal rings on terga 3-6 inclusive, the 
lateral stripes broader than those of the male; ovipositor black 
along the ventral margins ; styli dark, and nearly straight ; ventral 
margins of ninth tergum black immediately above the ovipositor. 

Measurements : total length, male 34-35, female 32-36 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 26-28, female 24-29 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 17-20, female 19-22 mm.; width of hind wings, male 
3.5-4, female 4 mm. 

Connecticut. — Branford, 3 September, 1904 (H. L. V.) ; Westville, 4 
July, 1905 (W. E. B.) ; New Canaan, 10 September, 1919 (P. G.) ; 
Hamden, 3 August, 1920 (P. G.) ; Litchfield, 19 August, 1917 (L. B. W.). 

Lestes disjunctus Selys 

Bulletin de TAcademie royale . . . de Belgique, 16: 210: 1862. 

Adult, male. — Color blackish brown and yellow. 

Head : blackish brown above, pale below ; antennae black ; post- 
clypeus black ; anteclypeus, labrum, trochantins of the mandibles 
and genae yellowish green. Occipital and postgenal regions black 
or metallic, becoming pollinose with age ; eyes brown. 

Thorax : prothorax black, pollinose in older specimens ; meso- 
stigmal plates usually black ; mesokatepisterna largely or entirely 
black ; mesopleural pale stripe, little narrowed at the caudal end, 
reduced to two-thirds its width in front; shoulders of the mes- 
epimera yellow ; metepisterna largely yellow, becoming more or 
less black with age from the spreading of the black stripe on the 
metapleural suture ; stripes of the metapleural sutures covering 
about two-thirds of the metepimerum, the remainder of that sclerite 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 99 

yellow, post-coxal areas buff without black marks ; femora striped, 
tibiae with a single dark stripe which covers the segment distally ; 
wings clear; postnodals 11-14 and M^ usually arising between the 
second and third postnodal in each wing ; stigma surmounting two 
cells. 

Abdomen: brown to black (sometimes with a greenish tint) 
and yellow; dorsum of terga 1-7 more or less dark in color, the 
lateral margins pale, terga 8-10 black; anal appendages blackish 
brown, the superiors with spinose lateral surfaces, the mesal 
margins having two nearly equal teeth ; inferiors flat, placed hori- 
zontally and slightly swollen at the base and apex. 

Female. — Color similar to the male. 

Head : similar to the male. 

Thorax : without the black mark on the metapleural suture, and 
the mesokatepisternum largely pale. 

Abdomen : the brown of the terga more confined to the dorsal 
surfaces, the lateral surfaces mostly yellow ; ovipositor extending 
to or well beyond the apex of segment 10. 

Measurements : total length, male 32-37, female 35-37 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 25-30. female 27-28 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 17-20, female 19-22 mm.; width of hind wings, male 
4-4.5, female 4.5 mm. 

Older males are sufficiently characterized by the black mark on 
the metapleural suture, but this may be wanting in younger indi- 
viduals and in the female. The pale stripe of the mesopleural 
suture is not usually contracted caudad as in forcipatus and rectan- 
gularis, the nearest allies. PI. i, Fig. 5 shows a tracheal gill of 
a nymph obtained from Dr. Howe, 

Connecticut. — West Thompson, 12 July, 1905 (H. L. V.). 
New England. — June 21-September 23. 

Lestes eurinus. Say 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8: 36: i839- 

Nymph. — Gills similar in shape to L. vigilax (PL i. Fig. 4) ; 
lateral keels with apical spines on 3-9 ; mental setae 5, laterals 3 ; 
mentum narrow at base ; teeth of the distal margin of median lobe 
truncate at apices. 

Measurements : length of gills, 9.5 mm. ; width of gills, about 
1.5 mm. 

Adult, male, — Color metallic green and yellowish buff. 

Head : metallic green ; mouth parts buff ; postclypeus black ; 
anteclypeus, exposed portions of the mandibles, and genae, brown 
or greenish yellow ; front, vertex, and all of the occiput and post- 
genae. metallic green or black ; eyes dark brown. 

Thorax : metallic green and buff ; pronotum metallic green, 
sometimes poUinose, the caudal and cephalic lobes black with age ; 



lOO CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

mesostigmal plates black; dorsal carina brown, the mesanepi- 
sternum metallic green ; mesopleural suture brownish, the dorsal 
half of the mesokatepisterna black; mesepimera black or green, 
the dark color sometimes extending onto the metepisterna or 
epimera ; remainder of the metapleura and metasternum yellow, 
sometimes poUinose and obscurely marked with black ; legs with 
striped femora and tibiae, the tarsi and claws dark brown, the 
latter deeply notched; wings usually flavescent and with 13-15 
postnodal cross-veins in the front wing and 12-15 in the hind. 
Mj arising between the third and fourth postnodal in the front and 
between the second and third in the hind ; stigma surmounting 
two and one-half to three and one-half cells in both wings. 

Abdomen : metallic green and black and buff ; dorsum or terga 
1-8 inclusive green, their lateral margins buff; terminal sterna 
pollinose with age; anal appendages (Fig. 12, No. 8) black, the 
superiors long and curved, with lateral surfaces coarsely tubercu- 
late or spinose, the meso-ventral margins of each with a single 
sharp basal tooth and a submedian projection which has several 
smaller teeth ; inferiors blunt, very short, and each wdth a brush 
of fine setae. 

Female. — Color metallic green and yellow and black. 

Head : similar to the male. 

Thorax : mesothorax with a broad, brownish or blackish stripe 
covering the dorsal carina, and a green longitudinal stripe in the 
middle of each anepisternum ; mesopleural suture with a broad 
brownish or blackish stripe which extends across the katepi- 
sternum ; metepimera with indefinite brown oblique stripe, the 
remainder usually yellow; stigma surmounting as many as four 
cells in both wings. 

Abdomen : ovipositor with broad black or nearly black lateral 
valves, the ventral margins finely toothed and the valves separated 
from the tenth segment by a considerable interval ; eighth sternites 
large and black, caudo-dorsal angles rounded. 

Measurements: total length, male 48-51, female 47-49 mm.; 
length of abdomen, male 36-40, female 36-37 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 28-30, female 28-31 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 
5.5-6.5, female 5.5-6 mm. 

This species is most closely related to vigilax and inaequalis, but 
is more robust and the wings are noticeably flavescent. 

Connecticut. — East Haven, 21 July, 1920 (P. G.). 
New England. — June i-July 21. 



Lestes forcipatus Rambur 

Histoire naturelle des insectes. Neuropteres, 246: 1842. 

Nymph. — Color buff or green. 

Head : brown and buff ; labium when folded extending caudad 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE lOI 

of the mesocoxae, not usually reaching the metacoxae; mental 
setae 5-6, laterals 3. 

Thorax : about as long as broad, brown ; legs slender, femora 
all with subapical rings and several rows of setae ; tibiae with 
dark brown apices ; tarsi with apical half or more of the last 
segment, also the claws, dark brown; metathoracic wing-cases 
extending to the middle of the third abdominal segment. 

Abdomen: lateral keels with apical spines on segments 5-9; 
terga darker than sterna, the venter with a dark line beneath each 
lateral keel, two spots at apex of 3-8 or 1-8; sternum of segment 
10 hairy; gills spatulate, broadest just proximad of the middle, 
three or four times as long as broad ; tips rounded or obtusely 
pointed and dark, and two dark cross-bands proximad of the tip; 
gills sometimes nearly black. 

Measurements : length, 19-20 mm. ; length of abdomen, 14 mm. ; 
length of gills, 7-9 mm. ; width of gills, 2-3 mm. ; length of 
median lobe, 3.5-4 mm.; width of median lobe, .5-1.7 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown and yellow. 

Head : brown and buff. Antennae dark brown with a short 
basal segment and a much longer second segment; anteclypeus 
and labrum pale yellow or greenish, also mandibles and trochan- 
tins, genae and front to the f ronto-clypeal suture ; vertex and 
remainder of front dark brown ; occipital and postgenal regions 
largely dark brown or black, pollinose with age. 

Thorax : brown and yellow ; median lobes of the pronotum 
each with an irregular H-shaped mark ; stigmal plates brown and 
black ; pleural sutures and dorsal carina pale, the mesopleural pale, 
stripe but little contracted caudad and becoming bluish with age ; 
legs striped yellow and black, the tarsi and claws uniform brown 
or black; wings with lo-ii postnodal cross-veins, and M^ arising 
between the third and fourth of these in the front wing. 

Abdomen : dark brown, often with a trace of metallic green ; 
dorsum of terga i-io brown, the brown widened subapically on 
2-6, enclosing a lateral yellow spot on 3-6 ; segment 9 black except 
small lateral yellow spots; anal appendages consisting of broad 
superiors which are coarsely tuberculate laterally and have two 
strong mesal teeth ; inferiors nearly as long as superiors, flattened 
and placed horizontally, and slightly swollen at apices. 

Female. — Color similar to the male. 

Abdomen : without the lateral enclosed yellow spots of 3-6 ; 
ovipositor extending caudad of segment 10. 

Measurements : total length, male 44, female 39-41 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 30, female 29-32 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 23-24, female 24 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 5, female 
5 mm. 

Connecticut. — New Haven, 26 June, 1902 (E. J. S. M.), 20 July, 1904 
(W. E. B.) ; Hamden (Lake Whitney), 17 June, 1904 (H. L. V.). 
New England. — June 17-September 5. 



I02 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Lestes inaequalis Walsh 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 385 : 
1862. 

Nymph. — Unknown. 

Adult, male. — Color metallic green, bronze and black; yellow 
below. 

Head : green and yellow ; postclypeus metallic green or black, 
the anteclypeus and labrum, except short black stripes on the 
lateral margins, pale yellowish green ; exposed portions of the 
mandibles, the genae as far dorsad as the fronto-clypeal suture 
yellow, the remainder of the front and vertex green; occiput and 
postgenae largely yellow ; eyes brown. 

Thorax : metallic green above, yellow or buff below ; pronotum 
usually black and green, becoming pollinose; mesopleural suture 
and dorsal carina black in older specimens ; mesepimera green 
except the cephalo-ventral shoulders, which are yellow ; caudo- 
dorsal angle of the metepisterna green; the remainder of the 
metapleura, and the venter of thorax yellow ; legs striped, the 
femora with pale dorsal carina, the tibiae pale above except at 
tip, and the tarsi and claws black ; wings usually clear,^^ with 
13-16 postnodal cross-veins in the front wing, 12-14 in the hind; 
M2 arising between 3 and 5 in the front wing, and between 2 and 
4 in the hind ; stigma surmounting 2-3 cells. 

Abdomen : metallic green or bronze, the apical segments dull 
black, segment 9 pollinose in older specimens ; lateral margins of 
terga i-io yellow or pale, sterna black; superior anal appendages 
(Fig. 12, No. 9) long, black, a little paler at base, the ventro-mesal 
margins with a large basal tooth and a number of small spines 
distad of this; inferiors dark at tips, pale at base; longer than 
the superiors, swollen at base, the tips with numerous pale silken 
hairs. 

Female. — Color similar to the male though usually lighter. 

Ovipositor with the lateral plates widely separated from seg- 
ment 10, the ventral half black; sternites of the eighth segment 
with angulate caudal margins. 

Measurements : total length, male 46-48, female 47-49 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 37-38, female 35-38 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 25-29, female 25-28 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 
5-6.5. female 5-5.5 mm. 

A near relative of eurinus and uncatus, but longer or more 
slender than either of these. 

Connecticut. — Stratford, 9 July, 1920; Litchfield, 22 July, 1920 (P. G.) ; 
New London, 16-22 June, 1921 (R. H. H.) ; Litchfield, 3 July, 1915 
(L. B. W.). 

New England. — June 17-September 19. 



" One specimen in Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station collection has fla- 
:scent winKS. 



vescent wings. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE I03 

Lestes rectangularis Say 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8 : 34 : 1839. 

Nymph. — Color buff or green. 

Head: wider than long, caudo-lateral margins of the head 
without or with few setae ; labium extending between the meta- 
coxae ; mental setae usually 6 ; lateral 3. 

Thorax : legs with rows of spines, the apices of the femora 
fuscous and with a subapical dark ring; apices of the tibiae and 
distal half of the third tarsal segment fuscous. 

Abdomen : lateral keels with apical spines on 5-9 ; sterna with 
a double row of median apical spots, two to each segment ; seg- 
ment 10 hairy beneath ; gills similar to those of forcipatus, usually 
brown, sometimes nearly black, and with at least 3 cross-bands 
on each. 

Measurements: length, 22 mm.; length of abdomen, 17 mm.; 
length of gills, 9.5 mm. ; width of gills, 2.3 mm. ; length of 
median lobe, 4 mm. ; width of median lobe, .5-2.0 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown (metallic bronze) to black, 
and sulphur yellow. 

Head : brown and yellow, labium pale ; antennae brown ; post- 
clypeus dark brown, sometimes metallic; anteclypeus, labrum, 
exposed portion of the mandibles, their trochantins and the genae 
yellow ; front and vertex dull brown or bronze, nearly black ; 
occiput and postgenae black, pollinose with age. 

Thorax : brown and yellowish ; pronotum yellowish buff, the 
cephalic lobe with a median brown spot, the median lobes each 
with an irregular H-shaped mark, which may cover most of the 
lobe; anepisterna of the mesothorax each largely covered by a 
brown longitudinal stripe; pale stripe of the mesopleural suture 
widest near the pronotum, narrowed near the wing bases and 
often bluish in color ; mesepimera with longitudinal brown stripes 
from caudal margin to cephalic shoulder, widened and in contact 
with the mesopleural suture adjacent to the wing bases, narrowed 
cephalad and coming to a rather abrupt end on the cephalic 
shoulder; margins of the stripe irregular; metepisterna pale 
yellow with a triangular brown spot on caudo-dorsal angle; 
remainder of the pleura and the intersternum yellow or buff ; legs 
striped ; tarsi and claws brown, the dorsum of the tarsal segments 
usually yellow; front wings with ii to 15 postnodal cross-veins 
Mo arising between the third and fifth in the front wing, and 
between the second and fourth in the hind; stigma surmounting 
slightly more than two cells in both wings. 

Abdomen : brown and yellowish, sometimes faintly metallic, 
long and slender; terga i and 2 brown on dorsum, pale on the 
sides, the stripe on 2 contracted near the middle or completely 
interrupted ; terga 3-7 with yellow lateral margins ; narrow basal 



I04 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

rings and longitudinal stripes on 8 and lo. and a triangular lateral 
apical spot on each side of 9 ; anal appendages brown or blackish, 
the superiors mostly smooth and not tuberculate or spinose on the 
lateral surfaces (only two small spines in some), the basal mesal 
tooth smaller than the tooth at the distal third; inferiors more 
than half the length of the superiors, black, the tips laterally 
compressed. 

Female. — Color similar to the male. 

Abdomen : shorter than the male ; ventral half of the lateral 
valves of ovipositor usually black. 

Measurements : total length, male 46-52, female 43-46 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 33-42, female 31-34 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 18.5-24, female 20-23 mm. ; width of hind wing, 
male 4.5-5, female 4.5-5 mm. 

Connecticut. — New Haven, 27 July, 1904 (P. L. B.) ; Branford, 6 July, 
190S (H. W. W.). II August, 1921 ; Stratford, 9 July, 1920; Easton, 6 
July, 1922 (P. G.). 

New England. — June 20-September 19. 

Lestes uncatus Kirby 

Catalogue of Odonata, 160: 1890. 

Nymph. — Color buflf or green. 

Head : mental setae 6 or 7 on each side ; lateral setae 3 (rarely 
4) ; marginal setae of the mentum extending to the base of the 
expanded portion ; labium, when folded, extending caudad of the 
metacoxae. 

Thorax : legs with apices of the femora and the apices of the 
tibiae and the distal half of the third tarsal segment brown ; wing 
cases extending to the middle of the fourth abdominal segment. 

Abdomen : with well-developed lateral keels, which are provided 
with apical spines on segments 5 or 6-9; dorsum of segments 9 
and 10 and venter of 10 with long silken hairs; female ovipositor 
extending beyond the apex of the proximal gill segment ; gills 
contracted beyond the middle as in rectangiilaris and forcipatus, 
rather sharply pointed at apices, the point similar to those of 
unguiculatus. 

Measurements : length, 18-24 mm. ; length of abdomen, 11 mm.; 
length of gills, 8-10 mm. ; width of gills, 2 mm. ; length of median 
lobe, 5.5 mm.; width of median lobe, .3-1.6 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color bright metallic green and pale yellow. 

Head : dark green above, pale below ; occiput and postgenae 
black and green ; antennae black ; postclypeus green or black, the 
anteclypeus, labrum, exposed portions of the mandibles, their 
trochantins and the genae pale yellow ; front, vertex, clypeus and 
labrum pilose, the hairs pale ; a pale spot present beside each of 
the lateral ocelli and one in front of the median. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE 105 

Thorax : metallic green, black or yellow ; pronotum green, pro- 
epimera and episterna black, or pollinose in older specimens; 
dorsal carina of mesothorax black, anepisterna green, the katepi- 
sternum and mesopleural suture largely black ; mesepimerum green 
except the cephalo-ventral shoulders ; metapleural suture usually 
black, the stripe indefinite, increasing with age and covering a 
large portion of the metepimera (probably absent in tenerals) ; 
postcoxal areas bufif ; legs black and buff, striped, tarsi and claws 
black; wings clear; postnodal cross-veins 10-12, the stigma of 
the front wings surmounting 2 cells or less ; M^ arising between 
the second and fourth postnodal cross-vein in the front wing. 

Abdomen : metallic green ; dorsum of the first tergum green, 
sometimes pollinose; tergum 2 green, the latero-ventral margins 
pale or pollinose; 3-7 with dorsa green, and lateral margins and 
interrupted basal rings, yellow ; terga 8, 9, and 10 black or bronze 
above, black and pollinose on the sides ; superior anal appendages 
black at tips or entirely black, the lateral surfaces tuberculate, the 
mesal margins with a large basal tooth, and smaller ones beyond 
to the distal third ; inferiors broad, black, expanded at apices, 
flattened and nearly in a horizontal plane. 

Female. — Color metallic green and yellow. 

Thorax : usually lacking the metapleural black stripe. 

Abdomen : proximal half of the first tergum with dorsum pale ; 
terga 8-10 with lateral margins pale; ovipositor with lateral plates 
black on the ventral half, the apex extending well behind the tenth 
segment. 

Measurements : total length, male 34-36, female 39 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 26-28, female 29 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 21, female 23 mm.; width of hind wings, male 4.5, female 
4.5 mm. 

Connecticut. — Stratford, 9 July, 1920; Hamden, 4 July, 1921 (P. O.- 
Windsor, 20 June, 1926 (J. L. R.). 
New England. — May 30-September. 

Lestes unguiculatus Hagen 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 70: 1861. 

Nymph. — Color light brown or green. 

Head: second antennal segment longer than the first; labium 
extending between meso- and metacoxae; mental setae usually 
seven, laterals three; lateral marginal setae of the median lobe 
extending from the articulation of the palpus to the base of the 
expanded portion. 

Thorax : legs slender, the femora with rows of short setae and 
faint preapical rings of brown ; tibiae brown at the apices ; apical 
half of the third tarsal segment and the claws, brown; meta- 
thoracic wing-cases extending to the apex of 3 or middle of fourth 
abdominal segment. 



Io6 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Abdomen : with apical spines on the lateral keels of segments 
5-9, venter of the abdomen often with dark stripes beneath the 
lateral keels, and the caudo-lateral angles of terga 1-8 with dark 
spots above the lateral keels; gills (PI. i, Fig. i) widest near 
the base, and gradually tapering to a point at apex, not contracted 
beyond the middle and widened again beyond as in rectangidaris 
and forcipatus; ovipositor extending to the apex of the tenth 
segment. 

Measurements: length, 19 mm.; length of abdomen, 14 mm.; 
length of gills, 9 mm.; width of gills, 1.5-2 mm.; length of 
median lobe, 4 mm. ; width of median lobe, .5-1.5 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color dull brown or metallic green, and yellow. 

Head : metallic green and brown, often more or less bronzed ; 
proximal segment of the antennae pale at apex ; occiput and post- 
genal regions wholly or in part yellow ; poUinose or nearly black 
in older individuals. 

Thorax : dull brown and yellow, sometimes partly metallic, but 
never uniform bright green ; pronotum with irregular H-shaped 
marks on the median lobes or entirely dark and pollinose; meso- 
thorax brown or greenish, with yellow dorsal carina, mesopleural 
suture, and cephalic shoulder of the epimerum ; the katepisterna 
are yellow and brown or black ; metathorax usually yellow except 
a triangle of brown on caudo-dorsal angles of the episterna ; some- 
times obscurely blackened and pollinose; wings clear, the post- 
nodal cross-veins 9-1 1 and Mg arising between the second and 
third of these in the front wing, usually near the second in the 
hind. 

Abdomen : mostly yellow in tenerals, dark metallic green or 
brown in older specimens ; dorsum of terga i brown on caudal 
half, or pollinose; terga 2-10 all dark on dorsum, 2-7 sometimes 
green, lateral margins of 2-7 pale; sides of 2 and 8, and nearly 
all of 9 and 10 frequently pollinose; anal appendages dark, the 
superiors pale at base, the ventro-mesal margins with a spine near 
base and a row of spinules beyond to the distal third of the appen- 
dage ; inferiors S-shaped, the apical portions curved in an opposite 
direction from the superiors. 

Female. — Color similar to the male. 

Abdomen : with wider lateral stripes on the terga, and polli- 
nosity usually undeveloped ; ovipositor reaching the apex of the 
tenth segment, the lateral valves black on about the ventral third, 
and ventral margins of terga also black. 

Measurements : length, male 36-39, female 35 mm. ; length of 
abdomen, male 27, female 26-27 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
18-21, female 21-22 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 4.5-5, female 
4.5-5 mm. 

Connecticut. — Stratford, 9 July, 1920; Guilford, 27 July, 1920 (P. G.). 
New England. — June iS-September 8. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COENAGRIONIDAE I ©7 

Lestes vigilax Hagen 

Bulletin de rAcademie royale . . . de Belgique. i6: 214: 1862. 

Nymph. — Color light green or brown. 

Head: labium (Fig. 7, No. 4) when folded extending nearly 
to or between the metacoxae; mental setae five or six, laterals 
usually three ; marginal spinules of the mentum apparently want- 
ing or few in number ; teeth of the distal margin of the median 
lobe and the niesal margins of the palpi are square-tipped, and 
the furrow representing the median cleft of the median lobe is 
conspicuous and extends proximad about one-third the length of 
the expanded portion. 

Thorax : femora and tibiae with rows of short setae, the femora 
with subapical brown rings, the tips of the tibiae and apical half 
of the third tarsal segment dark ; wing cases extending about to 
the middle of the third abdominal segment. 

Abdomen : lateral keels with apical spines on segments 1-9, 
the spine on segment 9 especially long; gills (PI. i. Fig. 2) long 
and slender, about equal in width throughout, the apices bluntly 
pointed ; median gill frequently shorter than the laterals ; ovi- 
positor nearly reaching the apex of segment 10. 

Measurements: length, 21-30 mm.; length of abdomen, 17- 
22 mm.; length of gills. 9-11 mm.; width of gills, 1.25-1.75 
mm. ; length of median lobe, 3.3-4 mm. ; width of median lobe, 
1.5-2 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color dull metallic green, and buff or yellow. 

Head : dull greenish or black ; labrum brown or blue ; front 
and vertex metallic green ; occiput and postgenae mostly metallic 
green, sometimes black and pollinose. 

Thorax : metallic green, yellow below ; prothorax largely black, 
or metallic green and brown (tenerals) ; mesothorax with green 
anepisterna and epimera, the mesopleural suture with a brown 
stripe which becomes black; dorsal carina brown (teneral), black 
in older specimens ; metathorax yellow except the caudo-dorsal 
angles of the epistema, but older specimen's frequently obscurely 
marked with black, and pollinose; legs striped, the coxae and 
trochanters usually pale; tarsi and claws black, and frequently 
the tibia also; wings with 15-17 postnodal cross-veins in the front 
wing ; stigma surmounting two and one-half to three cells. 

Abdomen: green above on terga 1-7 or 8, lateral margins of 
1-6 pale; segments 9 and 10 usually dark brown or black, 9 and 
10 becoming pollinose; superior anal appendages (Fig. 12, Nos. 
12 and 13) dark brown or black, the ventro-mesal margins each 
with a large subbasal tooth and a rounded indentation about the 
middle ; between the basal tooth and the indentation are a number 
of small spinules ; there is a second indentation beyond the median 
one; inferiors slender, about three-fourths as long as the supe- 
riors, the basal third greatly enlarged. 



Xo8 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST, SURVEY [Bull. 

Female. — Color similar to the male. 

Thorax : mesopleural pale stripe not becoming black, usually 
remaining brown and contracted near the wing bases ; dorsal 
carina brown; metathorax remaining yellow for the most part 
and usually not pollinose. 

Abdomen: dorsum of terga 1-9 green, the lateral margins 
yellow, fading into brown, segment 10 brown ; ovipositor extend- 
ing caudad of segment 10, the ventral margins of the lateral 
valves usually brown. 

Measurements : total length, male 43-47, female 43-45 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 34-38, female 34-36 mm. ; length of 
hind wings, male 21-25, female 24-27 mm.; width of hind wings, 
male 4.5-5, female 5-6 mm. 

Connecticut. — New Haven, 4 July, 1905 (H. L. V.) ; Hamden, 28 June, 
13, 27 July, ^ August. IQ20 (P. G.) ; Guilford, 22 July, 1920 (P. G.) ; 
New London, 7-22 June, 1921 (R. H. H.) ; Litchfield, 25 July, 1915 
(L. B. W). 

New England. — May 28-September 7. 

Family AGRIONIDAE Leach 

The nymphs are sprawling in appearance and easily recognized 
among Zygoptera by means of labial and gill characters. The 
two lateral gills are three-sided, and the labium possesses a deep 
median cleft. 

The adults include the black-winged Calopteryx or Agrion, a 
widely distributed species commonly found along small brooks. 
Their wings possess a great many more cross-veins in all parts 
than are found in other Zygoptera. 

Key to Genera 

Nymphs 

I. Median cleft of median lobe of labium extending proximad of the 

articulations of the labial palpi (Fig. 7, No. 10) Agrion, p. 108 

Median cleft .of the median lobe extending only to the base of the 
articulation of the labial palpi Hetaerina, p. 113 

Adults 

I. Wings with basilar space without cross-veins ; metapleural suture 
only with a pale stripe ; often the entire pleura without pale 

marks Agrion, p. 108 

Wings with cross-veins in the basilar space; mesopleural, inter- 
pleural and metapleural sutures with pale stripes. .Hetaerina, p. 113 

Genus Agrion Fabricius 

The nymphs are dark in color, including the gills which, how- 
ever, have light bands across the middle. The femora of all the 
legs also have light bands at about the distal third. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AGRIONIDAE 109 

The adults are dark species, the cuticle being blue or green and 
shiny or metallic in appearance ; wings with a great many cross- 
veins and few hexagonal or pentagonal cells. 

Nymphs of the genus are found in small meadow or wood- 
land brooks commonly among the roots of willow trees. The 
adults are remarkable for their bright metallic coloration and their 
dark wings, which make them conspicuous when in flight; and 
they are sometimes known as "blackwings." Calopteryx is a 
synonym of Agrion. 

The members of this genus are all stream-inhabiting species. 

Key to Species 
Nymphs 

The nymphs known at the present time do not possess charac- 
ters enabling one to prepare a key to species. The basal segment 
of the antennae in aequahile is longer than the head, while in most 
specimens of maculatum it is slightly shorter. 

Adults, Males 

1. Wings entirely smoky or opaque maculatum 

Wings with apical fourth or sixth only, smoky, the remainder 

hyaline, transparent 2 

2. Occiput without a prominent tubercle on each side aequabile 

Occiput with a prominent tubercle on each side behind the eyes ... 3 

3. Wings with apical fifth or sixth black; antenodal cross-veins 

18-24 dimidiatum apicale 

Wings with apical fourth brown; antenodals about 30 amatum 

Females 

1. Pterostigma without cross-veins ; occiput without prominent 

tubercles; dorsum of segment 10 of abdomen with a sharp spine 2 
Pterostigma with cross-veins ; occiput with prominent tubercles . . 3 

2. Hind wings not over 36 mm. in length by 9 to 9.5 mm. in width 

aequabile 
Hind wings more than 36 mm. in length by 8 to 9 mm. in width 

amatum 

3. Pterostigma with 6-12 cells; wings uniformly smoky, sometimes 

slightly darker at tip maculatum 

Pterostigma with less than 6 cells ; wings not uniformly smoky, 
the apical fourth or sixth darker than the rest 4 

4. Stigma white ; length of hind wings about 30 mm. dimidiatum apicale 
Stigma yellow ; length of hind wings 38 to 40 mm amatum 



Agrion aequabile (Say) 
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 8 : 33 : 1839. 
Nymph. — Color dark or light brown. 

Head : basal segment of the antennae longer than the head, the 
distal segments together about two-thirds the length of the prox- 



no CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

imal ; hind margins of the head bluntly angulate ; labium similar 
to that of maculatum (Fig. 7, No. 10), the median cleft extending 
half its length proximad of the labial palpi. 

Thorax: in some specimens marked with black on the sides; 
metathoracic wing-cases extending to the middle or hind margin 
of segment 4, hind femora to the middle of segment 5 or 6. 

Abdomen: uniform brown or the caudal margins of the seg- 
ments dark ; gills dark, usually with paler band at the middle, the 
median gill with two pale cross-stripes. 

Measurements ; full grown nymph : total length including gills, 
40 mm. ; length of hind femora, 8.5 mm. ; metathoracic wing- 
cases, 6 mm. ; length of abdomen, 19 mm. ; tracheal gills, 13 
mm. ; length of basal segment of antennae, 4.5 mm. Young 
nymph : total length, 26 mm. ; length of hind femora, 8 mm. ; 
metathoracic wing-cases, 4.5 mm. ; length of abdomen, 12 mm. ; 
gills, 8.5 mm. 

Described from a nymph obtained from Dr. R. H. Howe, and 
another identified by comparison, in the collection of the Con- 
necticut Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Adult, male. — ^Color metallic green, sometimes blue. 

Head : mouth-parts black ; antennae entirely black ; labrum 
and sometimes the clypeus black; clypeus, front, and genae 
metallic green, and clothed with dark hairs. 

Thorax : metallic green, black and green below ; caudal lobe 
of the pronotum convex, the margin entire; intersternum green; 
legs entirely black, the ventral setae much longer than the intervals 
between them ; wings transparent, except the apical third of each 
which is smoky ; stigma wanting ; antenodal cross-veins variable, 
26 in Connecticut specimens. 

Abdomen: green and blue; anal appendages (Fig. 12, No. 5) 
mostly black, the superiors wholly black, long and curved, spinose 
on the lateral surfaces, and emarginate on the mesal margins at 
middle; inferiors black at apex, paler at base, nearly as long as 
the superiors and each provided with a small apical tooth directed 
mesad. 

Female. — Color metallic green and buflf. 

Head: proximal half of the second antennal segment with a 
pale lateral spot ; labrum buff -colored on each side ; exposed por- 
tions of the mouth-parts including mandibles and their trochantins, 
bufif. 

Thorax: latero-ventral margins pale, including the cephalo- 
ventral margins of the mesanepisternum, caudal half of the meta- 
katepisternum, a stripe along the metapleural suture extending 
more than half way from the cephalic margin to the wing bases, 
and the ventral and cephalic margins of the metepimera. and inter- 
sternum green ; wings slightly smoky, but not darker on the 
apical third; stigma present, composed of one cell (Fig. 12, No. 
7), white. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AGRIONIDAE III 

Abdomen : metallic green and black, the apical portion dull and 
paler below ; tergum of segment lo with a mesal ridge produced 
in a spine at the apex of the segment; ovipositor reaching the 
middle of segment lo. 

Measurements : total length, male 51, female 46-49 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 38-39, female 36-38 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 32 mm. ; female 32-35 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 9, 
female 9.5 mm. 

Variations According to Different Authors 

Length Abdomen Hind Wings 

Male 49-51 mm- 34-40 mm. 27-32 mm. 

Female 44-49 mm. 30-41.5 mm. 29-35 i^^^^- 

Connecticut. — Mount Carmel, 2 June, 1906, 6 June, 1908 (B. H. W.) ; 
New London, 8 June, 1921 (R. H. H.) ; Litchfield, 5 July, 1909, 2, 4 July, 
1916 (L. B. W.). 

New England. — May 10- July 21. 

Agrion amatum Hagen 

Psyche, 5: 244-245: 1889. 

Nymph. — Unknown. 

Adult, male. — Color metallic green and bronze. 

Head : dark green or metallic bronze ; labium pale at sides, 
labrum pale with dark spots above and below on margins at 
lueson ; first antennal segment pale ; rear of head angulate but 
not as decidedly tuberculate as in apicale. 

Thorax : green, pale below, bluish pollinose in some specimens ; 
legs black; wings with about the apical fourth brown in hind 
wings only. 

Abdomen : metallic green, darker below ; anal appendages 
black, the inferiors about three-fourths the length of the superiors, 
the superiors in dorsal view with a blunt tooth just beyond the 
middle on the mesal margin and with large spines on the exterior 
surfaces. 

Female. — With a prominent spine and ridge on the dorsum of 
segment 10. 

Measurements : total length, male 56, female 52 mm. ; abdo- 
men, male 42, female 40 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 37, 
female 38-39 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 8, female 8-9 mm. 

Description based on specimens in the Cambridge Museum of 
Comparative Zoology. 

Connecticut. — Litchfield, June 30, July 4, 1913; 3 June, 1925 (L. B. W.). 

Agrion dimidiatum apicale (Burmeister) 
Handbuch der EntomoLogie, 2: 827: 1839. 

Adult, male. — Color bright metallic green, wings tipped with 
brown. 



112 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

Head : labium and antennae black ; labrum, clypeus, front ver- 
tex, occiput and postgenae green; rear of head with prominent 
tubercle on each side. 

Thorax : green, black below ; legs black ; wings narrow, their 
apices infuscated for 5 mm. to 6 mm. from the tip or less. 

Abdomen: uniform metallic green; anal appendages black, 
similar to those of maculatum. 

Female. — Stigma white, provided with 2-5 cells; the wings 
usually without dark tips ; a prominent ridge and blunt spine on 
dorsum of segment 10. 

Measurements : total length, male 43-45, female 37-41 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 34, female 30-33 mm.; length of hind 
wings, male 26-27, female 27 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 7, 
female 7-7.5 mm. 

A male specimen in the Yale University collection taken at "So. 
Reading" belongs here. 

New England. — June 21-July 21. 

Agrion maculatum Beauvois 

Insectes recueillis en Afrique et en Amerique, etc., 85 : plate 7, f , 3 : 1805. 

Nymph. — Color dark brown. 

Head : pentagonal, a little contracted behind the eyes ; eyes 
black, a black stripe nearly the width of the eye extending to the 
caudal margin of the head, and another stripe extending from the 
antennal fossae to the eyes ; proximal segment of the antennae 
thick, about as long as the head, and usually longer than all the 
remaining segments together; labium (Fig. 7, No. 10) with 
deeply cleft median lobe, the cleft extending proximad of the 
articulations of the palpi ; proximal segment of the palpus with 
3 immovable end-hooks and 2 small setae near the base of the 
distal segment. 

Thorax: prothorax with a broad dark line on each lateral 
margin which is continuous with the dark line on the side of the 
head ; legs with whitish femoral bands on the apical third of each, 
beyond which the femur is brown ; also a brown band proximad 
of the white one. 

Abdomen : subcylindrical, dark, and without prominent lateral 
keels ; apical margins of the terga with about four dark spots on 
the dorsum; lateral tracheal gills three-sided, somewhat blunt, 
with a white transverse band near the middle; median gill flat, 
shorter, with a similar white band at the middle and another faint 
one beyond; marginal setae of the gill long and slender and 
extending entirely around it. 

Measurements: length, 20 mm.; length of abdomen, 15 mm.; 
length of lateral gills, 10-12 mm. ; length of metathoracic wing- 
cases, 6 mm. ; length of median lobe, 4.5 mm. ; width of median 
lobe, 1.3-3 mm. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AGRIONIDAE II3 

Adult, male (PL xvii, a). — Color metallic blue or green. 

Head : green or blue ; labium black, antennae black ; clypeus 
and labrum metallic green or blue ; front together with the clypeus 
and labrum thinly pilose ; eyes black or slate-colored. 

Thorax : green or blue above, black below ; pronotum with the 
caudal lobe convex ; dorsal carina of mesothorax black ; paraptera 
subquadrangular, the caudal margins emarginate or sinuate ; ven- 
tral portion of the metepimera and the intersternum wholly black 
and subshining ; legs black, the setae also black and longer than 
the intervals between their bases; anterior femoral setae 14 or 15 
on each side, tarsi black; wings very dark, almost opaque and 
about one-third as wide as long (sometimes variable, parts of the 
wing being smoky and not opaque) ; stigma wanting; antenodal 
cross-veins 24-28. 

Abdomen: nearly cylindrical, glabrous, and striated trans- 
versely ; superior anal appendages long and black, the lateral sur- 
faces subcircular in outline, the mesal surfaces emarginate about 
the middle ; inferiors as long as the superiors, straight, and with 
a small apical hook directed mesad (Fig. 12, Nos. 3, 4). 

Female. — Color metallic green. 

Head : as in male. 

Thorax: wings pale brown, darker at tips and transparent; 
stigma present, white (Fig. 12, No. 6) ; antenodal cross-veins 
23-26. 

Measurements: length, male 43-46, female 41-42 mm.; length 
of abdomen, male 32-38, female 32-33 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 28-29, female 29-30 mm. ; width of hind wings, male, 9.5-10, 
female 10 mm. 

Connecticut. — Scotland, 25 July, 1904 (B. H. W.) ; Mount Carmel, 27 
August, 1904 (P. L. B.) ; Orange, 21 July, 1905 (W. E. B.) ; Branford, 
28 July, 1905 (H. L. v.), 5 July, 14 August, 1905 (H. W. W.) ; Goshen, 
6 July, 1919 (M. P. Z.) ; New London, 6-16 June, 1921 (R. H. H.) ; 
Litchfield, 26 July, 1916 (L. B. W.). 

New England. — April i6-August 2rj. 

Genus Hetaerina Hagen 

The nymphs are similar in structure but much lighter in color 
than those of Agrion. The median cleft of the mentum does not 
extend proximad of the articulation of the labial palpi; and the 
gills are also much lighter in color than those of Agrion. 

Adults of this genus are distinguishable by means of the bright 
carmine patch at the base of the wings in the male. The cuticle 
is dark green or bronze, but rarely as dark as the cuticle in the 
genus Agrion. 

Only one species (americmm) is known from the New England 
States, but a second (titia) occurs in the Middle West. The latter 
species, however, is easily distinguished from americana by the 
brown color at the base of the hind wings of the male and the 



114 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST, SURVEY [BuU. 

color of the legs, which are entirely dark in titia. The nymph of 
titia is unknown. 

The genus contains another stream-inhabiting species in Con- 
necticut, and this has only been collected in two localities. Strange 
to say, both of these collections were made within a few days of 
one another near the last of August, but it is known to fly late 
in the summer, being reported from Illinois as late as October 22. 

Hetaerina americana Fabricius 

Entomologia Systematica, Supplement, 287: 1798. 

Nymph. — Color brown or greenish. 

Head : pentagonal ; proximal segment of the antennae nearly 
as long as the remaining segments of each ; labium, with median 
cleft hardly extending proximad of the articulations of the labial 
palpi; palpi with three end-hooks and five or six (3 prominent 
setae) small setae at the base of the distal segment or hook, caudo- 
lateral margins of the head forming a blunt tubercle. 

Thorax: lateral margins of pronotum elevated, scalloped and 
the margins produced at two points on each side. In younger 
specimens the proximal half of each femur is dark brown, which 
is followed by a light band beyond which the tip is again dark; 
tibiae with three faint dark rings, and with dark bases and apices ; 
apical half of third tarsal segment dark, claws dark. 

Abdomen: lateral keels not armed with spines though ending 
in blunt tubercles on segments 8 and 9; lateral gills three-sided, 
the median one flat and shorter than the lateral ; median gill with 
dark axis and three dark cross-bands; lateral gills buflf-colored, 
the three margins each with three dark spots and three to four 
lighter colored areas. 

Measurements: length (excluding gills), 23 mm.; length of 
abdomen, 12 mm.; length of lateral gills, 8.5-10 mm.; length of 
metathoracic wing-cases, 6 mm. ; length of median lobe of labium, 
4 mm.; width 1.3-3 ^^• 

Adult, male (PI. xvii. Fig. a). — Color bronze and metallic 
green, bases of the wings carmine. 

Head : labium and labrum brown, the labrum with a black spot 
at middle of the dorsal border; ventral margin of clypeus and 
basal segment of the antennae also brown, the latter with a dark 
spot at middle; remainder of the head bronze or metallic green. 

Thorax : bronzy green, the lateral sutures lined with pale color ; 
mesopleural suture frequently black ; venter pale ; legs dark brown 
to black; the coxae mostly pale, femora below and tibiae above 
pale ; tarsi and claws black ; wings clear, the bases of each carmine 
from base half way to nodus; hind wings brown along costal 
border in front of the carmine color. 

Abdomen: metallic green, bronze or very dark brown towards 
the tip ; the lateral margins of terga 1-6 inclusive and basal rings 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AGRIONIDAE II5 

of 3-6 pale. Anal appendage with superiors about three times as 
long as the blunt inferiors, and pale at bases, darker towards their 
apices ; the ventro-mesal margins of each with two rounded lobes 
just beyond the middle. 

Female. — Color bright metallic green, the bases of the wings 
not carmine as in the male. There is considerably more pale color 
on the thorax, and abdominal terga i-io are broadly margined 
with yellow ; ovipositor yellow. 

Measurements : total length, male 44-46, female 40-45 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 33-35, female 30-35 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 28, female 28-30 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 
5.5, female 6-6.5 mm. ; length of pterostigma, male and female 
.5-1 mm. 

Connecticut. — Kent, 31 August, 1904 (W. E. B.) ; Windsor, 29 August, 
192s (L. B. W.). 



Suborder Anisoptera Selys 

The nymphs of the Anisoptera lack caudal tracheal gills but are 
provided with rectal gills which supply the necessary oxygen to 
the blood. They are much more robust than the nymphs of 
Zygoptera. 

Adults of this suborder are larger in every way than the adults 
of Zygoptera, their flight is much more rapid and certain, and they 
rest without exception with wings spread horizontally. 

Key to Families 
Nymphs 

1. Labium forming a more or less spoon-like mask for the ventral 

surface of the head ; the mentum never with two large teeth at 

the middle of the distal margin LIBELLULIDAE, p. 198 

Labium flat, not forming a spoon-like mask for the ventral part 
of the head ; or if spoon-like, then the mentum produced triangu- 
larly in front with two teeth at the middle of the distal margin 2 

2. Distal margin of the mentum cleft ; front and middle tarsi with 

three segments 3 

Distal margin of the mentum continuous ; front and middle tarsi 
with two segments GOMPHIDAE, p. 124 

3. Labium spoon-like and covering the ventral and cephalic surfaces 

of the head up to the antennae; median lobe angularly pro- 
duced with two teeth at the apex (Fig. 7, No. i) ; wing-cases 

of nymphs (not exuviae) strongly divergent 

CORDULEGASTERIDAE, p. 118 
Labium not spoon-like or covering the ventral and cephalic sur- 
faces of the head to the antennae ; median lobe not angularly 
produced or with teeth at the apex ; wing-cases of nymphs not 
strongly divergent 4 

4. Antenna! segments shorter than wide; mentum with a broad 

shallow cleft PETALURIDAE, p. 116 

Antenna! segments longer than wide ; mentum with a narrow cleft 
usually reduced to a line AESHNIDAE, p. 169 



I 



i 



Il6 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Adults 

1. Labial palpi meeting in a line on the meson; antenodal cross-veins 

of the first and second series usually"^ corresponding or in line 

with one another LIBELLULIDAE, p. 198 

Labial palpi not meeting in a line on the meson ; antenodal cross- 
veins of the first and second series not corresponding or in line 
with one another except the first and usually one other, which 
varies in position 2 

2. Compound eyes contiguous for a considerable distance above . . . 

AESHNIDAE, p. 169 
Compound eyes touching at a single point only, or widely separated 3 

3. Compound eyes subcontiguous or contiguous at a single point ; 

some of the spines of the middle and hind tibiae of the male 
replaced by small tubercles, each with a small seta alongside ; 
stigma without an oblique or with a very slightly oblique cross- 
vein caudad of its proximal end and not more oblique than other 
cross-veins in that vicinity . . . .CORDULEGASTERIDAE, p. 118 
Compound eyes widely separated, the distance between them being 
as much or more than half the distance between the antennae; 
spines of the second and third tibiae of the male not replaced by 
small tubercles 4 

4. Labium (mentum) bifid; female with a long ovipositor (Fig. 24, 

No. i) PETALURIDAE, p. 116 

Labium entire ; female without a long ovipositor, the latter greatly 
reduced and not extending to the caudal margin of segment g 

GOMPHIDAE, p. 124 

Family PETALURIDAE 

Adults and Nymphs 

This family is represented in North America by a single genus 
Tachopteryx, including only two species in the United States. 
The adults have a bifid labium and the nymphs are characterized 
by the possession of antennae with subequal segments, these seg- 
ments being wider than long. 

Genus Tachopteryx Selys 

The nymphs are provided with thick stout legs. The labium is 
broad and has a shallow cleft at tip of median lobe, the distal 
margin of which is provided with very small teeth. 

Adults of this genus have a very oblique cross-vein supporting 
the proximal end of the long narrow stigma. 

Very little is known of the habits of the only species of this 
genus in the eastern United States. It has usually been observed 
resting on trees or fences near streams or marshy areas. 

Tachopteryx thoreyi Hagen 

Monographie des Gomphines, Z72 '• 1858. 

Nymph. — The following description is taken from Williamson, 
Ent. News, 12: 1-3: 1901 : 

"In Tratnea (Libellulidae) these veins frequently do not correspond (PI. xv, Fig. 2). 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: PETALURIDAE I 17 

"Head : wide, angular, square, convex in front, concave behind, 
the eyes placed in the outer anterior corners ; roughened, generally 
sparsely hairy, edges and tubercles with dense bristle-like hairs; 
on each side, back of the eyes, two prominent edges and a less 
developed one above ; face in front of base of antennae vertical ; 
antennae 3.5 mm. long, hairy, flattened, the basal joint largest, 
terete, with the external edge angular; last joint small, apex irreg- 
ular; other joints about equal in size, slightly larger basally, 
about half as long as wide. Labium short and broad ; middle lobe 
square, 4.5 mm. long and 5.5 mm. wide, abruptly narrower near 
the posterior end ; anterior edge with a larger tooth on either side 
of the median line and about ten smaller ones on either side ; 
extending posteriorly to half way between the bases of the first 
and second pairs of legs ; lateral lobes wide, opposed edges 
straight, notched with small serrations. 

"Prothorax angular, high, dorsum and sides meeting at nearly a 
right angle, the edge produced laterally and clothed with bristly 
hairs ; all of thorax scantily clothed with short hairs. The thorax 
widens and deepens from the prothorax to the metathorax at the 
base of the third pair of legs where it is as wide as the abdomen 
in its widest part. The front wing-cases extend to the posterior 
edge of the fourth abdominal segment ; apparently the costas lie 
almost parallel ; the cases of the hind wings reach to the middle 
of the fifth segment. Legs very robust, strongly formed, angular, 
especially the femora, the edges clothed with bristles ; a deep 
depression in the mesosternum, between the second pair of legs 
to accommodate the hinge of the labium. 

"Abdomen spindle-shaped, 23 mm. long, widest at the fifth seg- 
ment where its width equals one-half its length, low, flattened, the 
sterna scarcely convex, terga convex, width of fifth segment 11 
mm., depth 5 mm. Segment nine with a lateral posterior spine; 
on segments anterior this spine grows successively smaller, not 
present on first three segments. The mark, on the sternum of 
the ninth segment, of the ovipositor of the imago is conspicuous. 
On dorsum of segment five are two tufts of bristles, one on either 
side, separated from each other by about one-third the width of 
the segment, and placed a little nearer the posterior than the 
anterior margin of the segment; these tufts persist from the fifth 
to the ninth segments, the tufts on each segment successively 
approaching each other more closely till on the ninth they stand 
just on either side of the median line ; each tuft is placed on an 
irregular elevation and in some cases seems to be double. Appen- 
dages short, middle one tapering ; apex truncate, on either side 
produced to form a short tooth ; laterals shorter, conical ; inferiors 
compressed, wide, rounded triangular, longer than the middle 
appendage, the lower edges and the posterior ventral edge of the 
tenth segment between them bearing many long stiff, yellowish 
hairs. 



Il8 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

"Length : 38 mm., including abdominal appendages ; tarsi 3-3-3 ; 
antennae 7-jointed." 

Adult, male. — Color gray with a bluish tint (lilac), sometimes 
with yellow. 

Head : face pale, anteclypeus black, ventral margin and median 
spot on labrum, black ; labium with bifid mentum ; no postocellar 
ridge or occipital ridge as in Gomphidae ; occiput pale with a black 
transverse stripe. 

Thorax : mostly bluish gray, obscurely marked with brown ; 
darker stripes on meso- and metapleural sutures and lateral carinae 
between venter and metepimera; wings with a long stigma 8-9.5 
mm. long by less than i mm. wide; triangle with i to 2 cross- 
veins in front and hind wings, sectors of arculus (M3 and M4) 
well separated, the caudal section of the arculus longer. 

Abdomen: terga 1-2 pale, pilose; 2 with 4 dark dorsal spots 
and a lateral spot on each side, caudal margin black ; 3 with 2 
dorsal spots and lateral margin pale; 4 with 2 dorsal black spots 
and black lateral margins, the caudal spot much wider ; 3-7 similar 
to 4, the dark marks connecting with the blacker caudal margin ; 
terga 8, 9 and 10 almost entirely black, obscurely pale; a trans- 
verse carina on terga 2-7 inclusive; anal appendages black or 
dark brown (Fig. 24, Nos. 2, 3). 

Female. — With a broad well-developed ovipositor (Fig. 24, 
No. i). 

Measurements: total length, male 72-75, female 75 mm.; 
length of abdomen, male 50-58, female 54-55 mm. ; length of 
hind wings, male 50-51, female 51-53 mm.; width of hind wings, 
male 15-16 mm. 



Family CORDULEGASTERIDAE 

This family is represented in the northeastern United States by 
a single genus, Cordulegaster. The adults are relatively slow 
fliers, and the nymphs inhabit small streams. 

Genus Cordulegaster Leach 

The nymphs differ from all others in the characters of the 
labium, the labial palpi being provided with large teeth on the 
mesal margin; and the median lobe with two large teeth on the 
distal margin (Fig. 7, No. i). 

In the adult the triangle is similar in both wings, and the super- 
triangle is frequently without cross-veins ; the stigma is supported 
by a cross-vein at its proximal end, the cross-vein being only 
slightly obUque; M3 and M4 are well separated at the arculus; 
anal margin of the hind wings of the male angular ; female pro- 
vided with a very long ovipositor, and the thorax with three con- 
spicuous yellow stripes on each side. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: CORDULEGASTERIDAE II9 

The nymphs of this genus are almost without exception found 
in small streams, the adults usually near the habitat of the nymph. 
The reared nymphs of maciilatus, the only species which we have 
been successful in bringing through, were both found in small, 
rapidly flowing streams in shady locations. The adults are com- 
paratively slow on the wing and more easily captured than the 
various Aeshnas or Libellulas. In captivity the nymphs will 
burrow into sand, leaving only the tip of the abdomen and the 
head protruding, and are very quick at capturing a struggling 
insect if brought within range of the labium. 

For literature dealing witli adults of the genus, see Needham, J. G., New 
York State Museum Bulletin 47: 474-478: 1901. 

Key to Species 

Adults " 

Males and Females 

1. Abdomen with a mid-dorsal line of yellow spots, those on seg- 

ments 3-8 arrow-shaped obliquus 

Abdomen without a mid-dorsal line of yellow spots ; either with 
a double row of yellow spots or with transverse yellow bands . . 2 

2. Abdomen with transverse yellow bands, at or about the middle of 

terga 3-8 3 

Abdomen without transverse yellow bands, but with yellow spots 
on either side of the meson 4 

3. Face yellow ; eyes not contiiguous [sayil 

Face blackish ; eyes contiguous at a single point on the meson erroneus 

4. Terga 2, 3 and 4 each with 4 small, somewhat circular yellow 

spots ; eyes cxjntiguous on the meson maculatus 

Terga 2, 3 and 4 each with 4 small elongate yellow spots, the spots 
on each side of the meson in line, and contiguous on the different 
segments ; eyes well separated at the meson diastatops 



Cordulegaster diastatops Selys 

Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique (2), 21: loi : 1854. 

Adult, male. — Color brown, marked with yellow. 

Head : labium brown ; labrum, postclypeus, front and vertex, 
except the brown caudal margin, yellow ; anteclypeus, preocular 
stripe and frontal vesicle, dark brown or black ; rear of head light 
brown and yellow, dorsal margin behind the compound eyes shiny 
black ; eyes separated by about .5 mm. on the dorso-meson. 

Thorax : prothorax light brown, the caudal margin darker, 
meso- and metathorax brown with 3 yellow stripes, the dorsal 
stripe cuneiform, i mm. wide, the upper end rounded, lower end 
tapering; first lateral or mesepimeral pale stripe 1.5 mm. wide by 
5-6 long, metepimeral about the same dimensions, the sides nearly 
parallel and the ends rounded ; legs dark brown or black, the 
trochanters with an irregular glabrous area beneath, femora with 



Only the nymph of maculattts has been reared; key adapted from Needham. 



CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



[Bull. 



two irregular rows of short spines, often several abreast in each 
row; front row of spines of the middle and hind tibiae replaced 
by small rounded tubercles, each with small seta of about the same 
length placed distad of it and united with the tubercle at base; 
tarsi with distal segment about as long as the two proximal ones 
together, the claws with ventral tooth about the middle; claws 
about as long as the middle tarsal segment ; wings clear ; stigma 
brown, supported by 3-4 cross-veins; cubito-anal cross-veins 3;. 
triangle with one cross-vein ; anal triangle with 4-5 cells. 




Fig. 13. Cordulegaster sp., structural details and color pattern of abdo- 
men. Nos. I to 4, dorsal view of abdomens of diastatops, maculatus, 
obliquus and crroneus. 5. Tibia of male obliquus showing tubercles on 
ventral surface. 6. Ovipositor and terminal segments of diastatops. 



Abdomen (Fig. 13, No. i) : brown with yellow spots as fol- 
lows: 6 on second tergum, two being on the ventral margin (on 
each side) and two on each side above the auricles ; two cuneiform 
spots on each side of segment 3 ; median lateral triangular spots 
on the sides of 4-8 ; a minute dot at base of 9 ; lateral and dorsal 
carinae lacking on all terga, but the terga contiguous on the ventro- 
meson on segments 3-8; anal appendages consisting of a broad 
inferior which is wider at apex than at base; superiors 1.2 mm. 
long, the tips obliquely truncate, and the ventral surface with a 
median tooth ; accessory genital appendages consisting of promi- 
nent, bluntly pointed cephalic lamina with an elongate lateral 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: CORDULEGASTERIDAE 121 

depression; hamules hook-like, slender, "genital lobe projecting' 
but slightly and with short spines and delicate marginal setae. 

Female. — Similar to the male in general color; tibiae without 
the small tubercles of the male; compound eyes separated by 
.6 mm. ; wings without anal triangle, somewhat flavescent, dorsal 
lateral spots on abdominal terg^a 2, 3 and 4 continuous and form- 
ing a yellow stripe on each side ; anal appendages short, the supe- 
rior slender, barely exceeding the inferior in length; ovipositor 
yellowish brown at base, darker, measuring about 5 mm. and 
extending beyond the anal appendages considerably. 

Measurements : total length, male 56, female 65 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 42, female 48 mm. ; length of hind win^s, male 
'},'/, female 42 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 8-10, female 12 mm. 

Connecticut. — Rainbow, 5 June, 1912 (H. B. K.) ; Killingworth, 27 
June, 1920 (W. E. B.) ; New London, 8 June, 1921 (R. H. H.) ; Litchfield, 
4 July, 1913, 4 June, 1925 (L. B. W.). 

New England.— May 28-August. 

Cordulegaster erroneus Hagen 

Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique (2), 46: 688: 1878. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown, marked with yellow. 

Head : labium light brown ; labrum yellow with black ventral 
border ; anteclypeus black, postclypeus yellow ; front brown to 
black ; vertex brown ; occiput and postgenae yellow except the 
dorsal region below the caudal margin of the compound eyes, 
which is black; compound eyes meeting in a single point on the 
dorso-meson. 

Thorax : dark brown with yellow stripes, venter lighter ; pro- 
thorax, brown ; dorsal cuneiform stripes of the mesepistema 
entire, i mm. wide by 4 mm. long and rounded at the upper end ; 
first lateral or mesepimeral stripe 1.5 by 6 mm., the second lateral 
1.5 by 5 mm.; legs black with the usual spines and setae; wings 
with 3 cells in the anal triangle; antenodal cross-veins 19-20 in 
front and 14 in hind wing. 

Abdomen (Fig. 13, No. 4) : dark brown; second tergum with 
an obscure yellow ring and yellow caudo-ventral angles ; there is 
also a small yellow spot on the caudal margin on either side about 
I mm. from the dorso-meson ; tergum 3 with a transverse mesal 
stripe which sends an offshoot to the cephalo-ventral angles ; terga 
4-8 with transverse stripes 1.5 mm. wide which appear as com- 
plete (often interrupted on meson) yellow rings on these seg- 
ments ; gth tergum with a touch of yellow along the cephalic 
margin on each side ; loth entirely black ; superior anal appen- 
dages 1.5 mm. long, black, the tips pointed; ventro-mesal margin 
with a tooth at proximal 3d, and a basal lateral tooth beneath the 
overhanging margin of segment 10; accessory appendages with 
the anterior lamina wrinkled, bluntly pointed, the lateral depres- 
sion, however, not definitely limited; hamules slender, hook-like, 



122 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

about 1.3 mm. long-; genital lobes broad with small marginal 
spines and delicate setae. 

Female. — Transverse stripes on abdominal segments 4-7 inter- 
rupted on meson ; ovipositor 6.5 mm. long. 

Measurements : total length, male 66-75 ^n^- > length of abdo- 
men, male 51-57 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 45 mm. ; width 
of hind wing, male 11-12 mm. 

Connecticut. — Wallingford, 8 June, 191 1 (B. H. W.). 

Cordulegaster maculatus Selys 
Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique (2), 21: 105: 1854. 
Nymph. — Color dark brown. 

Head : labium with five lateral setae, and ten to eleven mental 
setae on each side, the latter composed of six longer setae on each 
side and four to five smaller ones ; teeth at apex of median lobe 
each with a well-chitinized point directed laterad and the lateral 
margins strongly incised ; mesal margins of the labial palpi each 
with eight to ten strong teeth ; a projecting setose ridge present 
between the antennae ; dorsum of the head behind the eyes finely 
tuberculate. 

Thorax : legs hairy ; femora short, the hind femora not extend- 
ing behind segment 3 of the abdomen ; wing cases extending to 
the caudal margins of segment 3. 

Abdomen : segments 8 and 9 with small lateral spines not over 
one-fifth the length of the segments; ovipositor extending almost 
to the caudal margin of segment 9 ; terminal appendages of usual 
form, the laterals slightly less than one-fourth the length of the 
ventrals and the superior. 

Measurements : total length, 37-40 mm. ; length of lateral wing- 
cases, 7-8 mm. ; length of hind femora, 6 mm. ; length of median 
lobe of labium, 5-6.2 mm. 

Described from one male and one female exuviae from reared 
specimens ; one collected at Derby and emerging May 30, 1926, 
the other at Branford and emerging May 16, 1926. 

Adult, male. — Color brown, marked with yellow. 

Head: labium, postclypeus and sometimes dorsum of front 
brown ; labrum yellow with brown ventral margin ; postclypeus 
and cephalic surface of front yellow ; vertex and dorsal margins 
of rear of head dark brown to black ; remainder of caudal surface 
yellow; eyes meeting on dorso-meson in a single point, not sepa- 
rated. 

Thorax : dark brown, with 3 yellow stripes on each side. Pro- 
thorax dark brown, the caudal margin entire ; dorsal yellow stripes 
cuneiform, 4 mm. long, upper end widest and measuring i mm. 
across ; mesepimeral or first lateral stripe 5.5 mm. long by 1.2 mm. 
wide, the sides parallel, ends rounded ; metepimeral stripe 5 mm. 
long by 1.5 mm. wide, also with rounded ends and parallel sides; 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: COIIDULEGASTERIDAE 1 23 

venter of thorax and intersternum lighter brown than the sides; 
legs black, the femora, trochanters and coxae sometimes lighter, 
femora with two rows of irregular setae ; tarsi with distal seg- 
ment as long as the median and proximal together, claws about as 
long as the median; wings (PI. viii, Fig. 2) slightly flavescent; 
anal triangle composed of three to four cells ; 2-3 cubito-anal 
cross-veins and a cross-vein in each triangle; supertriangle and 
basilar space usually free; antenodal cross-veins 17-21 in front 
wing and 12-15 "^ the hind; post-nodals 12-14 in each wing; 
stigma supported by 3-4 cross-veins. 

Abdomen (Fig. 13, No. 2) : brown or black, the following 
yellow: auricles of segment 2; four dorso-lateral spots (two 
median and two apical) on terga 2, 3 and 4, the median spots 
separated from each other by much less than i mm. ; terga 5-8 
with median spots only, though these are small dots at the apex 
of 5 ; cephalic margin of tergum 9 with a small transverse dash 
on each side; segment 10 entirely black; terga contiguous on 
the ventro-meson in segments 4-8. Superior anal appendages 
black, 1.5 mm. long, and with a large ventro-mesal tooth at middle, 
and another ventro-lateral tooth at base; inferior anal appendage 
about as wide at apex as at base ; accessory appendages composed 
of blunt, deeply impressed cephalic lamina, and narrow hook-like 
hamules 1.5 mm. long. 

Female. — Ovipositor about twice as long as abdominal segments 
9 and 10 together. Thorax with small yellow spot behind the 
metathoracic spiracle. 

Measurements : total length, male 65-70, female 75 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 50-53, female 54 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 40, female 39-45 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 9-10, 
female 11-12.5 mm. 

Connecticut. — Rainbow, s June, 1912 (H. B. K.) ; New London, 9 
June, 1 921 (R. H. H.) ; Orange, 29 May, 1922 (M. P. Z.) ; Storrs, 5 
October, 1923, J. Cronin; Litchfield, 3, 6, and 20 June, 1925 (L. B. W.). 
New England. — May 29-October 5. 

Cordulegaster obliquus Say 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8: 15: 1839. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown marked with yellow. 

Head : labium light brown ; labrum yellow with a black ventral 
border ; anteclypeus black, postclypeus yellow, front yellow with 
black ventral border which is continuous with a broad, brown, 
preocellar stripe ; vertex, occiput and postgenae, except the dorsal 
border behind the compound eyes, yellow. 

Thorax : dark brown ; venter somewhat lighter ; prothorax dark, 
mesepisternal or dorsal yellow stripes cuneiform, 3.5 mm. long by 
1.5 mm. wide at upper end; first lateral or mesepimeral stripe 
5-6 mm. long by 1-1.7 wide, the ends rounded, metepimeral 



124 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

similar in shape, 5 mm. by 1.5 mm.; mesonotum with a single 
oval spot, metanotum with two similar contiguous spots ; wings 
clear ; anal triangle 2,-3 celled ; 2 cubito-anal cross-veins, i cross- 
vein in the triangle, supertriangle and basilar spaces usually free, 
antenodal cross-veins 18-20 in front wing and 14-15 in the hind; 
postnodals 12-15 ^^ front wing; legs black, lighter at base; femora 
with 2 irregular rows of short spinules, the front tibiae with the 
usual flat scales ; middle and hind tibiae with the cephalic row of 
setae replaced by small tubercles with a small seta alongside ; tarsi 
with apical segment as long as the two basal ; tarsal claws about 
as long as the median tarsal segment, the ventral tooth placed 
beyond the middle. 

Abdomen (Fig. 13, No. 3) ; dark brown with a yellow spot on 
the auricles of segment 2, and arrow-shaped yellow spots on the 
dorso-meson of segments 2-8 ; a small subcircular spot on i and 
the base of 9; segment 10 entirely black; venter of 8 with a pale 
spot ; terga contiguous on the ventro-meson in segments 3-8 ; 
superior anal appendages short, with a ventral tooth ; inferior 
appendage about as broad at tip as at base, the lateral angles each 
with two small recurved dorsal teeth ; accessory appendages with 
cephalic lobes much wrinkled but without the distinct lateral 
depression; hamules slender, hook-like; genital lobes with short 
marginal spinules and delicate hairs. 

Female. — Similar in nearly all points to the male; ovipositor 
about twice as long as segments 9 and 10 together. 

Measurements: total length, male 63-75, female 75-78 mm.; 
length of abdomen, male 47-56, female 55 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 42-46, female 50 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 11- 
13, female 14 mm. 

Connecticut. — Westville, 10 June, 1905 (W. E. B.) ; Orange, 13 June, 
1922; Hamden, 19 June, 1922 (P. G.). 
New England. — May 27-July 7. 



Family GOMPHIDAE 

Nymphs. — Flat, sprawling insects inhabiting the bottoms of 
slow streams and small lakes ; labium flat, the mentum without a 
median cleft ; antennae usually composed of about four segments, 
of which the third is greatly modified, being either much longer 
than any of the other segments or both longer and wider, and in 
some cases almost spoon-shaped ; abdomen usually tapering at the 
caudal end, sometimes broad and flat. 

Adults. — With widely separated compound eyes ; the labium 
with mentum entire, and without a median notch; tibial spines 
always simple and in no case replaced by small tubercles ; wings 
always with an oblique cross-vein behind the proximal end of the 
stigma; female without a long ovipositor, the vulvar lamina con- 
sisting of small lobes or plates on the ninth sternum. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 1 25 

For literature pertaining to the family see : 
Selys, E. de, and Hagen, H. Monograph des Gomphines, 1858 : 8-460. 

Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique (2) 7 : 530-552 : 1859 ; 

8: 162-208; 1869; 35: '72>'2-'7TA: 1859; 36: 492-531: 1873 1 46: 408- 
471 : 1878. 
Needham, J. G. — Canadian Entomologist, 29: 164-168: 1897; 29: 181-186: 
1897: pi. 7- 

Key to Genera 

Nymphs 

1. Third segment of antennae thin and flat, almost circular in outline 2 
Third segment of antennae not thin and flat or greatly different 

from the other segments except in length" 3 

2. Abdomen nearly as broad as long, and thin and flat, with promi- 

nent dorsal hooks (PI. iii, Fig. 8) Hagenius, p. 127 

Abdomen not nearly as broad, or thin and flat, and without dorsal 
hooks or prominences 5 

3. Middle coxae more approximate than the front coxae; proximal 

segment of the palpi not serrate on the mesal margins (PI. v, 
Fig. 7); terminal segment of the antennae long, recurved ... 

Progomphus, p. 125 
Middle coxae not more approximate than the front coxae ; proxi- 
mal segment of the palpi serrate on the mesal margins; terminal 
segment of the antennae short and not recurved 4 

4. Proximal segment of the labial palpi blunt at apices 

Ophiogomphus, p. 129 
Proximal segment of the labial palpi with a hook at apex of the 
proximal segment or the apex decidedly pointed 5 

5. Ninth abdominal segment with an acute dorsal ridge and spine at 

apex ; this segment never as long as wide at base 

Dromogomphus, p. 167 
Ninth abdominal segment rounded and without a sharp apical spine, 
if with a dorsal carina, then the segment as long or longer than 
wide at base Lanthus; Gomphus, pp. 138, 141, 142 

Adults 

1. Anal loop present in the hind wing and composed of more than 

two cells ( PL X, Fig. 2) 2 

Anal loop absent in hind wings; composed of one or two cells (PI. 
IX, Fig. 3) 3 

2. Triangles of both wings without cross-veins ; length usually less 

than 50 mm Ophiogomphus, p. 129 

Triangles of both wings with a single cross-vein; length 70 mm. 
or more Hagenius, p. 127 

3. Triangles with cross-veins ; subcostal cross-vein present 

Progomphus, p. 125 
Triangles without cross-veins ; subcostal cross-vein absent 4 

4. Hind femora with long spines interspersed with shorter ones . . . 

Dromogomphus, p. 167 
Hind femora naked or with rows of short spines, either uniform 
in length or gradually increasing in length from base to apex, 

never with long spines and shorter ones between 

Lanthus; Gomphus, pp. 138, 141, 142 

Genus Progomphus Selys^^ 
Nymphs. — Proximal segment of labial palpus rounded at apex ; 
third segment of antennae cylindrical, the fourth about as long 

" The third scRment in Ophiogomphus is sliRhtly flattened. 

'^' Erpeto gomphus, including several Southern species, is distinguished mainly by 
the long, upcurved, contiguous, inferior appendages of the male. 
'^ Gomphoides Selys. 



126 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

as the third is wide; middle coxae more approximate than the 
front; abdomen much longer than broad; the ninth abdominal 
segment with or without an acute dorsal spine at apex. 

Adults. — Subcostal vein present ; triangles with cross-veins ; 
anal loop absent or indistinct ; occiput with an elevated ridge 
between the compound eyes. Hind femora at most with short 
spines, the femora not quite reaching the hind margin of the first 
abdominal segment; inferior anal appendage of the male cleft or 
bifid, not with divaricate arms. 

Progomphus obscurus (Rambur) 

Histoire naturelle des insects. Neuropteres, 170: 1842. 

Nymph. — Head with terminal segment of the antennae long, 
recurved, and about as long as the width of the preceding segment ; 
labium as in PI. v, Fig. 7. 

Thorax : legs short, the middle coxae more approximate than 
the front or hind coxae; wing cases extending to the fifth 
abdominal segment. 

Abdomen: lateral spines on segments 5 to 9 and dorsal apical 
hooks on 2 to 9 ; segment 9 about as long as wide. 

Measurements: total length 27 mm.; length of abdomen 16 
mm. ; hind femora 2.5 mm. 

Described from material in the Cambridge Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, and a nymph received from Dr. H. Garman, 
and still another in the collection of William T. Davis. 

Adult, male. — Entire face brown or straw color ; ocellar area 
brown; occiput mostly brown. 

Thorax : mesepisternum with a narrow pale stripe about .5 mm. 
wide or less, not connected at either end with any other pale 
color ; broad pale stripe present on the mesepimera and a small 
pale spot just behind the metathoracic spiracle ; all of metepimera 
pale except the dorsal margin. 

Abdomen : segment i brown ; 2 with cephalic half pale, caudal 
half with a divided brown spot ; 3 and 4 with narrow bilobed spots 
on the mid-dorsum, the cephalic lobe wider ; 5 and 6 the same 
as 3 and 4 except that the spot in front is wider ; 7 with spot 
reaching the lateral margins in front ; 8 dark brown, obscurely 
marked on the sides ; 9 and 10 dark brown ; anal appendages with 
the superiors pale (straw color), darker at base, 2.5 mm. long; 
inferiors dark brown, about half as long as the superiors; in 
lateral profile the inferiors with a dorsal hook shortly in front of 
the apices ; hamules of the second segment with curved distal hook 
and a transverse row of short tubercles near the base when viewed 
from below. 

Adult, female. — Color dark brown marked with greenish 
yellow or olive. 

Head : brown, vertex without a definite postocellar ridge as in 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 1 27 

Goinphus. Occiput without spines, the occipital carina not sharply 
defined ; postg'enae brown. 

Thorax : prothorax uniform brown, paler on sides ; mesepistema 
with a yellow stripe at middle and a narrower, sometimes inter- 
rupted one above the mesopleural suture ; metepisterna and 
epimera indefinitely yellow or green and brown ; les^s brown, paler 
at base, the front femora olive beneath ; femora with short spines 
scattered irre^larly over the ventral surfaces, but arrans^ed in 
two rows distally on the hind femora ; tibiae carinate above and 
below and with two ventral rows of spines ; tarsi with the third 
seg^ment longer than the first two together, the claws with ventral 
teeth beyond the middle ; wings clear with a short basal streak 
of brown; antenodals about 15; postnodals 9 in the front wings; 
stigtna surmounting 6 cells in the front wing; triangle composed 
of 3 cells in the front and 2 in the hind wing. 

Abdomen : brown with yellow spot on sides of 2 and a streak 
on dorsum ; terga 3 with dorsal streak, 4-7 inclusive with basal 
spots on dorso-meson, that on 7 largest ; lateral margins of 1-5 
and spots on the margin of 6-8 pale; vulvar lamina composed of 
short, broad setose plates with an obtuse median notch ; superior 
anal appendages pale yellowish, the tips darker, inferiors brown. 

Measurements : total length, male 54, female 49-53 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 39-43, female 36-43 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 32, female 31-33 mm., width of hind wings, male and female 
9; length of stigma, 5 mm. 

New England. — June 5-August 9. 

Genus Hagenius Selys 

Nymphs. — Proximal segment of labial palpus rounded and 
without hook at apex ; third segment of the antennae subcircular 
in outline ; abdomen nearly as broad as long and with median 
dorsal hooks on segments 2-7 ; ninth abdominal segment without 
an acute apical spine on dorso-meson. 

The caudo-lateral margins of the head have acute, tooth-like 
dorsal projections. 

Adults. — Subcostal cross-vein absent ; triangles with cross- 
veins ; anal loop present consisting of 3-4 cells ; vertex without 
an acute elevated ridge between compound eyes ; dorsum of thorax 
brown with yellow stripes ; hind femora short, extending beyond 
caudal margin of second abdominal segment ; inferior appendage 
of male entire, subquadrangular caudal margin concave. 

The nymphs of the one representative of this genus have been 
collected in small meadow brooks, though one emerging specimen 
was found near a small pond in the northern part of the state. 
The adults are strong fliers and not easily captured. 



128 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Hagenius brevistylus Selys 

Bulletin de rAcademie royale . . . de Belgique, 21: 82: 1854. 

Nymph (PI. iii, Fig. 8). — Color uniform dark brown or black. 

Head : front declivous and with the flattened segments of the 
antennae forming a sort of shovel ; labium with mentum as broad 
as long ; eyes with a sharp angle on the dorsum of the head ; 
caudo-lateral margins of the head with a flattened, dorsally pro- 
jecting tooth and two smaller tubercles between these ; a small 
angular projection beneath each compound eye on each side of 
the mentum. Labium as in PI. v, Fig. 19. 

Thorax: prothorax with flattened pronotum, the projecting 
lateral margins of which are slightly upturned; venter with a 
tooth beneath each coxa and a transverse ridge between them ; 
mesosternum with a blunt tooth beneath each coxa and a trans- 
verse ridge between ; there is also a sharper tooth above each 
mesocoxa; metacoxae with only a slight projection beneath and 
a ridge extending mesad from these but ending on each side about 
as far mesad as the inner margin of the mesocoxae ; wing pads 
extending about to the middle of abdominal segment 4 ; legs with 
femora and tibiae triangular in cross-section, the procoxae winged 
below ; all parts entirely without setae or spines ; tarsi brown, 
darker at tips, the remaining portions of the legs black or brown ; 
hind femora extending caudad to middle of the sixth abdominal 
segment ; hind tarsi with three segments. 

Abdomen : flat with lateral spines on segments 2-8, the abdomen 
suddenly contracted to the tip of the abdomen behind segment 8; 
anal appendages short, the superior flat and broad at base ; the 
laterals about half as long as the superior and inferior appendages. 

Nymph described from a female cast skin obtained at North 
Colebrook, Conn. The adult was found a few inches away, above 
the cast skin, on a tree stump. Nymphs were also taken at Orange. 

Measurements: total length, 36-38 mm.; abdomen, 23 mm. ; 
width of abdomen, 20 mm.; length hind femora, 12-13 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color black or dark brown, marked with green- 
ish yellow. 

Head: mouth parts, labrum, clypeus, genae, front nearly to 
the level of the antennae, and a short transverse stripe on the 
occiput, just below the vertical ridge, yellow ; remainder of the 
head black ; dorso-mesal angles of the eyes pale ; lateral ocelli 
each with a large pilose tubercle behind it. 

Thorax : prothorax black with two small yellow spots on the 
dorso-meson and a spot on the pleura just above the coxae ; meso- 
and metathorax black or dark brown with ridges behind meso- 
stigmal plates, dorsal carina, a stripe about i mm. wide from the 
paraptera to within i mm. of the mesostigmal ridges on the mes- 
anepisterna, yellow; another much narrower yellow stripe on the 
anepisterna near ventral border and interrupted at its caudal end; 



No. 39] ODOXATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 1 29 

katepisterna with ventral half yellow and a small yellow spot near 
dorsal border ; epimerum with a stripe 2 mm. wide from wing 
'paraptera to near cephalic margin, and a .5 mm. stripe below it 
to within a short distance of the spiracle ; margin just above the 
katepisterna yellow ; about ventral third of katepisterna also yel- 
low; metepimera entirely yellow except a stripe 1-.5 mm. wide 
on dorsal border and the black latero-ventral margins ; inter- 
sternum yellow ; lateral surfaces of coxae yellow or partly yellow, 
remainder of legs black; all femora with short spines irregularly 
placed, most of them on ventral surfaces ; tibiae with two rows 
of longer setae beneath and two shorter rows above. Tarsal claws 
with a tooth below nearly two-thirds the length of the claw from 
the base ; wings as shown in PI. ix, Fig. 4. 

Abdomen: black with a mid-dorsal line of yellow on 1-7, wider 
on I and 2, and a spot on basal half of 8; caudal half of dorsal 
stripes sometimes obsolete. Ventral half of sides of terga i and 
2 yellow; ventral margins of all terga except 10 with more or less 
yellow; ventral margins of terga 8 and 9 projecting ventrad 
much below the surface of the sterna. Anal appendages as in Fig. 
24, Nos. 7 and 8. 

Female. — Coloration similar in most features to the male but 
the thorax usually has more yellow ; the anal margins of the wing 
are rounded. Ventral margins of ninth tergum separated by 4.5-5 
mm. ; vulvar lamina consisting of 2 broad triangular lobes 1.5 mm. 
long by I mm. wide. 

Measurements : total length, male 74, female 74 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 54, female 53 mm. ; length of hind wing, male 
49, female 49-51 mm.; width of hind wing, male 13-14 mm.; 
female 12-13 mm.; length of stigma, male 5.5, female 5.5-6 mm. 

Connecticut.— East Haven, 19, 24 June, 1908 (B. H. W.) ; North Cole- 
brook, 19 June, 1920 (P. G.) ; Litchfield, 17 July, 1910, 3 July. I9i6 
(L. B. W.). 

New England. — June 15-September 3. 

Genus Ophiogomphus Selys 

Nymphs. — Proximal segment of the labial palpus rounded at 
apex; third segment of antennae flattened, nearly equal in width 
throughout ; fourth segment short, its length not equal the width 
of the third segment ; middle legs not more approximate than the 
front legs; abdomen considerably longer than broad, and with 
very small dorsal projections sometimes with hooks; ninth abdom- 
inal segment without an acute dorsal apical spine. 

Adults. — Wings without subcostal vein ; triangles without cross- 
veins ; anal loop consisting of three to four cells ; occiput with a 
distinct occipital ridge between the compound eyes, and sometimes 
tooth-like projections besides; dorsum of thorax green or yellow 
with brown markings : hind femora with very short spines, and 



130 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST, SURVEY [Bull. 

reaching only to caudal margin of the first abdominal segment; 
inferior anal appendag^es of the male bifid. 

Literature dealing with Ophiogomphiis has been published by: 
Woodruff, L. B. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, XXII : 

61-63: 1914 (Nymph). 
Needham, J. G. Canadian Entomologist 29: 166: 1897, pi. vii : 31: 233- 

238: 1899, pi. V. 
Bromley, S. W. Entomological News 35 : 343-344 : 1924, pi. xi. 
Calvert, P. P. Entomological News 3^: .34.'?-346: 1924, pi. xi. 

The classification of this genus is in a very unsatisfactory con- 
dition, probably due to the unusual variation in the characters 
commonly relied upon. A thorough study of the group is needed, 
based on numerous specimens of each species, which should include 
both sexes properly associated. Until this is done the identifica- 
tion of our Eastern Ophiogomphi will remain a very uncertain 
proposition. 

Like other members of the family, the genus Ophiogomphus has 
the peculiar habit of apparently emerging in large numbers in 
certain localities and then disappearing quickly — a sort of explosive 
dispersal or disappearance. Only in a few cases have they been 
found in large numbers. According to Woodruff the nymphs 
inhabit small clear brooks with sandy bottoms. 

Key to Species 

Nymphs" 

I. Dorsal spines rudimentary aspersus 

rupinsulensis 
carolus 

Dorsal spines prominent colubrinus 

mainensis 

Adults, Males" 

1. Inferior anal appendage viewed from below with arms not greatly 

widened at apices and without an angle on the dorsal surface in 

lateral view 2 

Inferior anal appendage viewed from below with arms greatly 
widened at apices ; or with an angle on dorsal surface in lateral 
view 3 

2. Accessory genitalia as in Fig. 16, No. 7; wings slightly flavescent 

or yellowish howei 

Accessory genitalia as in Fig. 14, No. 10; wings clear anomalus 

3. Inferior anal appendages narrower than the superiors and invisible 

when viewed from above 4 

Inferior anal appendages wider than the superiors and visible from 
above 5 

4. Metapleural suture lined with black; superior anal appendages as 

in Fig. 14, No. 3 aspersus 

Metapleural suture not lined with black; superior anal appendages 
as in Fig. 14, No. 2 rupinsulensis 



^* Nymphs of howei and anomalus are unknown. 

1' Colubrinus adults are distinguished from others mainly by the black stripe present 
on the front at base of antennae. 



I 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 



131 



Inferiors either without strongly upturned teeth or the margin 
between the teeth very irregular ; internal angles of inferiors 
entire • carolus 

Inferiors with strongly upturned teeth, the margin between them 
regular in fully mature specimens ; inferiors appendages with 
tuberculate internal angles mainensis 




anomalus 



Fig. 14. Ophiugoiiiphus, structural details, i. O. carolus, anal append- 
ages. 2. 0. rupinsulensis, anal appendages. 3. O. aspersus, anal append- 
ages. 4. O. vtainensis, anal appendages. 5. O. anoinalus, anal appendages. 
6. O. johannus ? vulvar lamina of supposed female in collection of Phila- 
delphia Acad. Nat. Sciences. 7. Occiput of same. 8. O. rupinsulensis, 
occiput. 9. O. aspersus, ventral view of anal appendages. 10. O. anomalus, 
accessory appendages, lateral view. 11. O. aspersus, accessory appendages 
in lateral view. 



Females 

Occiput with long, usually contiguous spines (Fig. 16, A) 2 

Occiput without long contiguous spines 3 

Terga 8 and 9 with U-shaped spots anomalus 

Terga 8 and 9 without U-shaped spots mainensis 



132 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST, SURVEY [Bull. 

3. Postgenae with conspicuous horns (Fig. 14, No. 8) rupinsulensis 

Postgenae without conspicuous horns 4 

4. Wings flavescent ; length of abdomen 22 mm howei 

Wings clear ; length of abdomen 32-35 mm 5 

5. Black stripe present on the metapleural suture aspersus 

No black stripe present on the metapleural suture carolus 

Ophiogomphus aspersus Morse 

Psyche, 7: 209: 1895. 

Nymph. — Rudimentary dorsal hooks on abdominal segments 2 
to 9, longest on 2; wing-pads extending to the middle of seg- 
ment 4. 

Measurements: total length. 24 mm.; length of abdomen, 15 
mm. ; greatest width of abdomen, 7 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color yellow or greenish and black. 

Head : yellow except the ocellar area and stripe on front, which 
are dark. 

Thorax : pale with a narrow dark stripe on the mesopleural 
suture and another a little above on the episternum, the latter not 
reaching the wing bases, sometimes shoulders of mesepimera dark ; 
metapleural suture dark ; middle and hind femora pale on cephalic 
surfaces, darker at tips, and with short spines below not in rows ; 
tibiae brown or sometimes black, lighter above, with double row 
of spines beneath, and two spinigerous ridges above ; tarsi and 
claws black ; wings clear, slightly smoky. 

Abdomen : with yellowish green dorsal marks, widened consid- 
erably on terga 2-9 at the base but not reaching the apices of those 
segments; segment 10 and the anal appendages brown, 10 some- 
times with a lanceolate yellow dorsal spot nearly as long as the 
segment ; terga 8 and 9 with large lateral spots on each, the mar- 
gins of 3-7 streaked with yellow ; sides of i and 2 also pale ; 
superior anal appendages (Fig. 14, Nos. 3 and 9) denticulate 
beneath ; the inferiors bifurcate, each arm being narrow at tip, 
and blunt, not broadened. Accessory appendages are shown in 
Fig. 14, No. II. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina two-thirds as long as 9, bifid for a 
little more than half its length ; occipital horns slender, brown ; 
occipital spines present in contact or very near the compound eyes. 

Measurements : total length, male 45-49, female 44 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 32-35, female 30-32 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 26-28, female 26-27 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 8-8.5, 
female 8 mm. 

Described from a male taken at Saranac, N. Y., July 27, 1900, 
by L. W. Sweet, sent to the writer by Mr, C. W. Johnson ; notes 
on additional material in collection of Dr, Calvert, 

New England,— May 26-August 29, 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE I33 

Ophiogomphus colubrinus Selys 

Bulletin de rAcademie royale . . . de Belgique, 21: 40: 1854. 

Nymph. — Similar to mainensis. Labium as in PI. v, Fig. ii. 

Adult, male. — Color black and yellow or green. 

Head : yellow, front with black transverse stripe at middle, 
lower margin also black. 

Thorax : pale stripe of the mesepisterna broad, and connected 
at the posterior end with the pale streak above the suture ; femora 
pale, the dorsal carinae and tips only black. 

Abdomen : pale spots on dorsum of segments i to lo and also 
on the lateral margins of the segments, that on segment 9 
U-shaped ; inferior anal appendage with contiguous arms, the tips 
upcurved ; accessories with tips of the hamules about the same 
length as the basal broader portion and only slightly curved. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina about three-fourths the length of seg- 
ment 9, the tips in contact ; occipital spines not in contact and not 
separated by their own length at base. 

Measurements: total length, male 41, female 42 mm.; length 
of abdomen, male 26, female 25 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
27, female 29 mm. 

The male differs from most other species of the genus in the 
accessories, which are similar to aspersus. The black stripe on 
the front is characteristic of both sexes. 

Described from a male and female in the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology collection. 

Ophiogomphus anomalus Harvey 

Entomological News, 9: 60: 1898. 

Adult, male. — Color yellow or greenish and black. 

Head : pale, black as follows : all of labrum except large lateral 
spots, frontoclypeal suture, a transverse stripe on the front, and 
another on the dorsum in front of the ocelli; ocellar area dark; 
occiput pale. 

Thorax : pale, with brown mid-dorsal stripe, a brown stripe at 
mesopleural suture enclosing a pale streak, and brown mesepimeral 
shoulders; brown marks of the shoulders, extending caudad to the 
spiracle ; coxae pale, remainder of the legs brown. Wings slightly 
clouded. 

Abdomen : dark brown with yellow on terga as follows : sides 
of I, auricles and margins of 2; cephalo-lateral angles of 8, a 
U-shaped mark on sides of 9; sides and venter of segment 10 
pale; dorso-mesal pale spots on 8, 9 and 10 also yellow, variable; 
superior anal appendages (Fig. 14, No. 5) tuberculate below; 
arms of the inferior viewed from below entire, not much wider 
at tips than at base. Accessory appendages as in Fig. 14, No. 10, 

Female. — Occiput with two long, very closely placed spines on 



134 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

occiput, and small spines on the postgenae behind the occipital 
ridge ; wings clear. Some females have pale streaks on the lateral 
margins and dorsum of terga 2-8 inclusive, and the spot on the 
margin of 9 is not U-shaped as in the male. 

Measurements : total length, male 39-44, female 39-44 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 30, female 28-30 mm.; length of hind 
wing, male 24, female 25-26 mm. 

New England. — June 6-June 15. 



Ophiogomphus carolus^* Needham 

Canadian Entomologist, 29: 183: 1897. 

Adult, male. — Color yellow or greenish and black. 

Head: greenish yellow; the vertex and caudal margin of the 
front black ; occiput yellow. 

Thorax : yellow with dark stripe on the dorsal carina, another 
on mesopleural suture, and a shorter one just above the latter on 
the mesepisternum, not, however, reaching the wing bases ; 
shoulders of the mesepimera also dark. 

Abdomen: with yellowish green dorsal marks widened con- 
siderably at base on terga 2-9, but not reaching the apices of those 
segments; segment 10 yellow with basal dark spot on dorsum, 9 
with a large lateral spot on each side ; anal appendages spinose 
beneath ; arms of the inferior appendage much wider at tip than 
at base, and with a lateral tubercle. 

Female. — Occiput with two rather closely placed spines which 
may, however, be wanting (Needham, Can. Ent. 29, PI. vii, Figs. 
1-4; 1897). 

Measurements : total length, male 43, female 45 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 30, female 30 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
24, female 27 mm. ; width of hind wings, female 8 mm. 



1* Woodruff collected in Connecticut a large series of supposed Ophiogomphus 
johannus Needham. On examination I was surprised to find that the females of the 
series did not run to johannus, in a key based on specimens in the Philadelphia Academy 
of Natural Sciences and the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge. Speci- 
mens were sent to Dr. Calvert and as a result of his findings as well as due consideration 
the following notes were made: 

Ophiogomphus johannus — Differs from carolus mainly in the shape of the hamules. 
Female in Philadelphia collection may not be johannus, but carolus, except for the 
denticles between the occipital spines. Referred to johannus by Harvey on supposition. 
Figures of male appendages given by Williamson, Ent. News 13, pi. iii, Figs. 3-5. 

Ophiogomphus carolus — Differs from johannus in accessories; female apparently 
different from mainensis in occipital spines which are not contiguous (Needham Can. 
Ent. 29, pi. vii, Figs. 1-4). 

Ophiogomphus maninensis — Occiput of female type near Woodruff's specimens except 
for occipital horn, which is, however, similar to some specimens of Woodruff's which 
have a small horn. Male not known certainly. Supposed male in M. C. Z. collection 
is the same as carolus. Female may be either anomalus or johannus but rejected by 
Calvert from anomalus because of character of occipital spines. 

O. johannus described from male only. Female not known certainly. Woodruff had 
both sexes. 

O. mainensis described from female only. Male not known certainly. 

O. carolus, both sexes described, both differing from johannus and mainensis according 
to various authors. 

The only way out of the difficulty (pending further researches) seems to lie in the 
elimination of one of these species, which should probably be johannus. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 



135 



Needham's measurements of the types are : length, 40-42 mm. ; 
abdomen, 28-31; hind wing, 24-26 mm. Can. Ent. 29: 183: 

1897. 




Fig. 15. Ophiogomphns mainensis. A. Dorsum of head behind the ocelli 
showing occipital spines. B. Vulvar lamina of female. C. Lateral view of 
male anal appendages (teneral) ; the tips of the inferiors of mature speci- 
mens are better represented in Fig. 14, No. 4. D. Accessory appendages of 
male. E. Lateral view of female showing color pattern of thorax and 
abdomen. 



Ophiogomphus howei Bromley 

Entomological News 35 : 343-347 : 1924, PI- xi. 

A species closely related to anomalus but much smaller. The 
original figures are reprodticed in Fig. 16. Recorded from Mas- 
sachusetts and Pennsylvania. 



136 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 




Fig. 16. Ophiogomphus howei. i. Dorsal aspect, showing color pattern. 
2. Lateral aspect of thorax and abdomen showing color. 3. Vulvar lamina. 
4. Frontal aspect of head, showing position of occipital horns. 5- Left 
lateral aspect of the hind end of the abdomen ; the dotted line on segment 9 
shows the outline of the yellow spot. 6. Caudal aspect of the same, ventral 
parts only. 7. Left lateral aspect of the genitalia of the second abdominal 
segment. 8. Dorsal aspect of the hind end of the abdomen. In figs. 5, 6, 
and 8 the black-tipped apices of the inferior appendage furnish good land- 
marks for comparison; sba, subanal lamina; spra, supra-anal lamina. (From 
Calvert and Bromley.) 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 137 

Ophiogomphus mainensis Packard ^^ 

Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia, 2: 255: 1863. 

Nymph. — Labium as in PI. v, Fig. 4; third antennal segment 
almost oval, the fourth segment rudimentary; dorsal surface of 
the head minutely tuberculate. 

Thorax : legs short, very hairy, the hind femora each with a 
glabrous scar on the external surface from base to near the distal 
end. 

Abdomen : without prominent hooks but with knobs on 2, 3, 
and 4, those on segments 5 to 9 projecting a little more and resem- 
bling hooks or teeth, but not reaching the caudal margin of the 
segments except that of 9 ; lateral spines wanting, but replaced 
by blunt projections on segments 8, 9 and 10; lateral terminals 
very wide at base, a little more than half as long as the superiors 
and inferiors, which are about equal in length ; abdomen in front 
of segment 10 divided into thirds by two longitudinal impressed 
lines on the ventral surface. 

Measurements: total length, 23-25 mm.; abdomen, 14-15 mm.; 
width of abdomen, 7 mm. ; length of hind femora, 4-5 mm. ; 
dimensions of segment 9, 5 mm. broad by 1.25 mm. long. 

Adult, male. — Color yellow and dark brown or black. 

Head : labrum pale with brown or black margins ; a dark 
streak on the front at ocelli ; ocellar area dark ; occiput yellow. 

Thorax : yellow, with a dark mid-dorsal stripe, another over the 
mesopleural suture and another shortly dorsad, which may or may 
not be united with the sutural stripe ; metapleural suture narrowly 
lined with black; wings clear, or smoky. 

Abdomen: sides of terga i and 2 pale on sides, 3 pale on sides 
at base, pale dorsal stripes on 1-3, dorsal streaks or spots on 4-8, 
sides of 8, 9 and 10 broadly pale, the pale spots sometimes includ- 
ing a black spot on 8 and 9 ; anal appendages denticulate or tuber- 
culate below ; arms of the inferior appendage straight, cylindrical, 
seen from below the apices considerably widened, divided at tips 
(Fig. 15, C). 

Female (Fig. 15, E). — Occiput as in Fig. 15, A, the spines 
long and contiguous a short distance from the bases, though vary- 
ing in this respect, being more nearly parallel or the tips crossed 
in some preserved specimens; vulvar lamina (Fig. 15, B) nearly 
as long as segment 9, the median notch a little more than half the 
length of the plates. 

Measurements : total length, male 42-45, female 43-46 mm. ; 

length of abdomen, male 28-30, female 30-31 mm.; length hind 

wings, male 25-26, female 27-28 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 

7-8, female 8.5-9 ^^^ 

Connecticut. — Litchfield, 4 June, 1925, and various other dates (L.B.W.) ; 
Milford, 13 June, 1922 (W. E. B.). 
New England. — May 27-July 11. 

'^^ J ohannus Needham, Can. Ent. 29: 182: 1897. See footnote, p. 134, 



138 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Ophiogomphus rupinsulensis (Walsh) 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 388: 
1862. 

Adult, male. — Color yellow or greenish and black. 

Head : yellow except ocellar area, which is dark brown ; labium 
pale. 

Thorax : pale with exception of a narrow dark stripe on the 
mesopleural suture and another above on the anepisternum, the 
latter not reaching the wing bases ; femora light at base, darker 
at tips, and with short spines below, not in rows at bases ; tibiae 
brown, lighter above, with a double row of spines beneath, and 
two spinigerous ridges above ; tarsi and claw black ; wings clear. 

Abdomen : yellow, obscurely marked with black near the apices 
and along the sides of the terga; terga 8 and 9 much expanded 
and in some specimens 5 to 6 times as wide as 3 and 4; anal 
appendages as in Fig. 14, No. 2, yellow ; superior anal appendages 
spinose beneath. 

Female. — Color similar to the male. 

Head : occiput with two widely separated spines on the dorsal 
surface (Fig. 14, No. 8) and two very heavy projections below 
the occipital ridge on each side; vulvar lamina a Httle more than 
three-fourths as long as the ninth sternum, and with a median cleft 
about half their length. 

Measurements : total length, male 50-52, female 45-47 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 35-36, female 32-34 mm. ; length of 
hind wings, male 28-30, female 29-30 mm. ; width of hind wings, 
male and female, 9 mm. 

Described from specimens in collection of P. P. Calvert, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Connecticut. — Salisbury, 13 June, 1926 (P. G.). 

New England. — June 13-August. 

Genus Lanthus Needham 

Nymphs.- — Proximal segment of labial palpus not truncate ; 
third antennal segment flattened conspicuously ; middle coxae not 
more approximate than the front; no dorsal projections on abdo- 
men ; ninth segment without an acute spine at apex. 

Adults. — Subcostal vein absent ; triangles without cross-veins ; 
anal loop indistinct ; vertex without acute ridge between compound 
eyes; dorsum of thorax brown; hind femora extending beyond 
the caudal margin of the first abdominal segment; inferior anal 
appendages of the male with widely divaricate arms. 

Adults of Lanthus are so closely allied to Gomphus species that 
they are separated only with difficulty. The nymphs, however, 
are fairly distinct and the genus is retained mainly on this account. 

For key to species see combined key p. 142 of Gomphus and 
Lanthus. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 139 

The nymphs of this ^enus are found in small swift-flowing 
brooks, usually in shady situations. Adults are apparently rarer 
than the nymphs and it is probable that the species have the 
explosive dispersal habit of their near relatives. 

Lanthus albistylus Hagen 

Bulletin de rAcademie royale . . . de Belgique, 46 : 460 : 1878. 

Nymph (PL iii, Fig. 9). — Color dark brown. 

Head : median lobe of labium gradually contracted behind the 
middle; apical tooth of the proximal segment of the labial palpi 
not produced and hardly distinguishable from the teeth of the 
mesal margin (PI. v, Fig. 5). Third segments of the antennae 
greatly enlarged, spoon-like, and about three times the width of 
the proximal segments, the fourth segment minute and incon- 
spicuous. 

Thorax : legs with tips of femora pale, the wing-cases extend- 
ing to the middle of the fourth abdominal segment in full-grown 
specimens. 

Abdomen : flattened, with only rudimentary lateral spines on 
segments 8 and 9 ; width of the ninth abdominal segment more 
than twice as great at front margin as at the hind ; no dorsal 
spines or prominences. 

Measurements: total length, 19 mm.; length of abdomen, 11 
mm. ; length of hind femora, 2 mm. ; length of median lobe of 
labium, 2 mm. long by 1.8 mm. wide. 

Described from a male exuviae, the adult emerging June 3, 
1922; collected at Orange, Conn. 

Adult, male. — Color yellow and black. 

Plead : yellow and black, the following black : ventral and dorsal 
margins of the labrum, and a mark on the meson half the length 
of the sclerite ; furrows between ante- and postclypeus ; all of 
front including ocellar area, except an elongate transverse area in 
front of the antennae (2 by .5 mm.) ; and all of vertex except 
a small spot on caudal surface between the compound eyes and 
another caudad of the ocelli on the vertex, the latter sometimes 
absent ; all of occiput and postgenae dark ; compound eyes sep- 
arated by .9 mm., measured on the transverse epicranial suture. 

Thorax : pronotum black with two small mesal spots, a lateral 
spot on each side and portions of the cephalic margin green ; pro- 
pleura pale; meso- and metathorax mostly yellow ; anepisterna of 
mesothorax dark brown, with two yellow stripes, and a yellow 
collar, the dorsal stripe 1.5 mm. long by .4 mm. wide, the lateral 
stripe 2 by .3 mm., and contracted in the middle, sometimes inter- 
rupted ; mesopleural suture sometimes with a pale line ; ventral 
half of the katepisterna yellowish green; mesepimera entirely 
green except the narrow brown margins ; metapleura green ; 
venter pale (Fig. 22, No. 18) ; legs black, with coxae and tro- 



140 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

chanters pale, the front femora pale below ; venter of femora v^ith 
scattered spines not in definite rows; wings clear with 10-12 ante- 
nodals in the front wing, 6-7 in the hind; 6-9 postnodals in front 
and 6-9 in the hind wing. 

Abdomen: black or dark brown, the following pale: ventral 
half of the lateral surface of terga i and 2 ; a dorsal mesal stripe 
on I and 2 and a basal spot on 3 ; lateral spots at the base of terga 
4-8, the lateral areas on 7 and 8 sometimes indefinite; superior 
anal appendages yellow, the tips sometimes greenish, the two 
together forming a distinct lyre-shaped figure; inferior appen- 
dage brown, nearly as long as the superiors, each of the two arms 
half as long as the entire appendage. 

Female. — Yellow of the male usually replaced by green or 
greenish yellow. Vulvar lamina (Fig. 20, No. 3) consisting of 
two short lobes (.3 mm. long) united on the meson for half their 
length, their tips evenly rounded ; ventral margins of terga 9 sep- 
arated by .7 to i.o mm.; superior anal appendages green or pale, 
.5 mm. long and pointed at tips; length of terga 7, 8, 9 and 10 
measured on the dorso-meson, 2.5, 1.5, i and .5 mm. respectively. 

Measurements: total length, male 35, female 31 mm.; length 
of abdomen, male 24-25, female 21-25 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 20, female 20 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 6.5, female 
7 mm. 

Connecticut.— Guilford, 13 July, 1920; Orange, May, 1922 (P. G.). 

New England. — June 24- August i. 



Lanthus parvulus (Selys) 

Bulletin de rAcademie royale . . . de Belgique, 21 : 56 : 1854. 

Adult, male. — Color yellowish green and black. 

Head: yellow with dorsal and ventral margins of the labrum 
and a stripe between front and clypeus black ; vertex and occiput 
mostly black, with pale spots in front of the ocelH, and small spot 
on caudal surface of the occiput. 

Thorax: pronotum black, with two small mesal spots, a lateral 
spot on each side and portions of the cephalic margin pale; meso- 
thorax with less yellow or green than albistylus, with a median 
streak and caudal spot on each episterna, and a faint yellow line 
above the mesopleural suture ; legs entirely black, wings clear. 

Abdomen: nearly all black, with yellow on the sides of seg- 
ments I and 2, and sometimes a trace on 9; anal appendages 
black; in lateral profile the dorsal surface of the superiors is 
nearly straight, the ventral surface has a basal tubercle ; in dorsal 
view the lateral surfaces are gently curved but never sigmoid as 
in albistylus. 

Female. — The vulvar lamina (Fig. 20, No. 2) are nearly two- 
thirds as long as the ninth sternum, the median notch is broad and 
the apical points well separated ; length about i mm. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 141 

Measurements : total length, male 35-36, female 40 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 26-28. female 28 mm.; length of hind wings, 
male 22-26, female 25-26 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 7, 
female 8 mm. 

Described from one female and two males in the collection of 
P. P. Calvert, Philadelphia Academy of Sciences. 

Connecticut. — Cornwall, 16 Tulv, 1013, 28 June, 1918, 8 Tune. I02'? 
(L. B. W.). 

New England. — May 26-July i. 

Genus Gomphus Leach 

Nymphs, — Proximal segment of labial palpus not truncate; 
third antennal segment cylindrical ; middle coxae not more approx- 
imate than the front; no dorsal projections on abdomen; ninth 
segment without an acute spine at apex. 

Adults. — Subcostal vein absent ; triangles without cross-veins ; 
anal loop indistinct or consisting of a single cell ; vertex with or 
without an acute ridge between compound eyes ; dorsum of thorax 
brown, with green or yellow stripes or yellow with brown stripes ; 
hind femora with short spines of nearly equal length ; hind femora 
extending beyond the caudal margin of the first abdominal seg- 
ment; inferior anal appendages of the male bifurcate, the arms 
usually widely divaricate. 

Another genus with the rapid dispersal habit. Cast exuviae 
have been frequently seen in large numbers along the borders of 
streams or small lakes, but no amount of collecting would appar- 
ently reveal the adult. The nymphs most commonly inhabit small 
streams with muddy bottoms into which they burrow and attach 
to their bodies all manner of rubbish for the purpose of conceal- 
ment. They are with a few exceptions found on the wing early 
in summer — May, June or early July — and are most commonly 
encountered near the streams where the nymphs are found. The 
eggs of most species are probably laid by the dipping process while 
the insect is in flight. 

Various authors have attempted to divide Gomphus into a num- 
ber of groups, but thus far the subdivisions are apparently not dis- 
tinct enough to warrant splitting the genus. The following 
groups are offered as an aid to making determinations, but it is 
realized that they do not agree fully with those of previous authors. 
They apply only to species found in the northeastern United States. 

1. Brevis and abbreviatus fall into one group, distinguished by small 

size and color pattern, and structure of the nymph (p. 149). 

2. A miscellaneous and not entirely homogeneous group comprising 

exilis, descriptus, spiccitus, and Itvidus, distinguished by the fairly 
slender abdomen of the adults, not at all expanded. Nymphs of 
typical form shown in PI. in. Fig. 7 (p. 151). 

3. The pale thorax types including villosipes, furcifer, pallidus, and 

possibly borealis, though the latter may belong in 2. The nymphs 
of this group have comparatively long teeth on the labial palpi 
(p. 157). 



142 



CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



[Bull. 



4. A group comprising scudderi, amnicola and notatus, in which the 

median pale stripe of the mesepisternum is isolated and not con- 
nected with the pale thoracic collar, and the njTnphs of which 
are provided with obliquely truncate teeth on the labial palpi 
(PI. V, Figs. 12, 17, 18; p. 160). 

5. The expanded abdomen types including crassus, graslinellus, fra- 

ternus, ventricosus, vastus, and extermis. The nymphs are pro- 
vided with prominent lateral spines and the ninth segment is not 
elongate, but wide in proportion to its length. Probably dilata- 
tiis, lineatifrons and quadricolor also belong here (p. 162). 

6. A group containing plagiatus and spiniceps, characterized by their 

very long slender abdomens in the adult stage, and the elongate 
terminal segments of the nymphal abdomen, particularly seg- 
ment 9 (p. 166). 

The species G. abditus described by Miss Butler from Massachusetts is 
apparently most closely related to lividus but it is difficult to determine just 
where it belongs from the original description. No collectors have taken 
this species since its description in 1914 (Can. Ent. 46: pp. 347-348). It is 
omitted from the present paper. Quadricolor and adelphus are also omitted. 






Fig. 17. Tips of abdomens of Gomphus nymphs (A, B, and C, after 
Needham). A. G.fraternus. B. G. pallidus. C. G. spiniceps. D. G. lividus. 



Gomphus and Lanthus 

Key to Species 
Nymphs 

Third antenna! segment subcircular; no dorsal hooks, ridges or 
prominences on the abdomen 2 

Third antennal segment not subcircular; either dorsal hooks, 
ridges or prominences usually present on the abdomen 3 

Length full grown about 19 mm. (PI. iii. Fig. 9) 

(Lanthus) albistylus 

Length full grown about 23 mm (Lanthus) parvulus 

Segment 9 twice as long as wide at base ; length full grown over 
40 mm spiniceps 

Segment 9 never twice as long as wide at base ; length full grown 
less than 40 mm 4 

Dorsal ridge present on caudal abdominal segments ; teeth of palpi 
long, sharp, and about equal in length to the terminal fixed 
hook ; segment 9 as long as wide or only slightly shorter 5 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE I43 

Dorsal ridge absent on caudal abdominal segments ; teeth of palpi 
short, sometimes blunt, and not equal in length to the terminal 
fixed hook ; length of segment 9 never more than three-fourths 
the width at base 7 

5. Palpi each with 6 teeth (PI. v, Fig. 8) villosipes 

Palpi each with 7 teeth (PI. v. Fig. 6) _ 6 

6. Length of segment 10 half that of segment 9 pallidus 

Length of segment 10 more than half segment 9 furcifer 

7. Dorsal prominences only on segment 9 ; teeth of palpi usually less 

than 6 and obliquely truncate 8 

Dorsal prominences on segments 3, 6, 7, or 8 to 9 ; if indistinct on 
8 and 9 and not present on other segments, then the teeth of 
labial palpi not obliquely truncate; teeth of palpi usually more 
than 6 10 

8. Distal margin of mentum between the palpi concave (curving 

proximad) plagiatus 

Distal margin of mentum straight 9 

9. 3 teeth on palpi (PI. v. Fig. 12) notatus 

4 teeth on palpi (PI. v, Fig. 18) scudderi 

5 to 6 teeth on palpi (PI. v, Fig. 17) amnicola 

10. Lateral spines of segment 9 as long or longer than segment 10 . . . 11 
Lateral spines of segment 9 shorter than segment 10 15 

11. Lateral spines of abdominal segment 9 twice as long as those of 8; 

abdomen more than three times as long as broad 13 

Lateral spines of abdominal segment 9 equal in length to those of 
8; abdomen about twice as long as broad, never three times ... 12 

12. Lateral spine on the sixth abdominal segment less than half the 

length of the one on the seventh segment abbreviatus 

Lateral spine on the sixth abdominal segment more than half the 
length of the one on the seventh segment brevis 

13. Terminal fixed hook of palpus not well developed (PL v, Fig. 2) 14 
Terminal fixed hook of palpus well developed (PI. v, Fig. 13).. 

vastus; crassus 

14. Lateral spines of segment 9 more than twice as long as segment 

ID ; distal margin of the mentum convex (externus) 

Lateral spines of segment 9 less than twice as long as segment 10; 
distal margin of the mentum straight fraternus 

15. Dorsal prominences on abdominal segments 3 or 4 to 9 16 

Dorsal prominences on abdominal segments 6 or 7 to 9 17 

16. Teeth of labial palpi 6-8 lividus 

Teeth of labial palpi 8-10 descriptus; graslinellus 

17. Length full grown 28-31 mm.; teeth on labial palpi 6-9 spicatus 

Length full grown 19-24 mm. ; teeth on labial palpi 4 exilis 

Adults, Males 

1. Compound eyes i mm. apart at the dorso-mesal angles or less ; 

occipital ridge absent or represented by a line of hairs in some 2 
Compound eyes more than i mm. apart at the dorso-mesal angles ; 
occipital ridge present, distinct 4 

2. Superior anal appendages toothed below in lateral profile brevis 

Superior anal appendages not toothed below 3 

3. Superior anal appendages pale ; viewed from above the lateral 

margins are sigmoid (Lanthus) albistylus 

Superior anal appendages black ; viewed from above the lateral 
margins are not sigmoid (Lanthus) parvulus 

4. Abdomen not over 32 mm. long 5 

Abdomen more than 32 mm. long 7 

5. Ventral margins of the superior anal appendages, seen from the 

side, entire exilis 



144 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT, HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Ventral margins of the superior anal appendages seen from the 
side with a tooth (Fig. 21, Nos. 15, 18) 6 

6. Superior anal appendages as in Fig. 21, No. 15; occipital ridge 

prominent abbreviatus 

Superior anal appendages as in Fig. 21, No. 18 ; occipital ridge not 
prominent brevis 

7. Ventral margins of terga 8 and 9 convexly rounded, extending 

ventrad considerably and not in line with the margins of segments 

3 to 6 (Fig. 18, b), terminal segments expanded 14 

Ventral margins of terga 8 and 9 not extending ventrad, noticeably, 
and in line with the margins of 3 to 6 (Fig. 18, a) ; terminal 
segments not or very little expanded 8 

8. Abdomen 45 mm. long or more 9 

Abdomen less than 45 mm. long 10 

9. Last three segments of the abdomen reddish brown; superior 

appendages of the male with a lateral angle in dorsal view plagiatus 
Last three segments not entirely reddish brown; superior appen- 
dages of the male without a lateral angle in dorsal view ..spiniceps 
10. Superior anal appendages without sharp teeth on lateral, ventral or 
mesal surfaces ; without a distinct angle on lateral surfaces when 

viewed from above exilis 

Superior anal appendages with a tooth on either lateral, ventral or 
mesal surfaces; if without conspicuous teeth, then with- a decided 
angle on lateral surfaces when viewed from above il 





a Gomphus spicatus bGomphus 

Fig. 18. Last four segments of males of Gomphus spicatus and G. ven- 
tricosus, showing differences in the structure of segment 8. 

11. Superior anal appendages show a tooth on the venter when viewed 

in lateral profile 12 

Superior anal appendages do not show a tooth on the venter, when 
viewed in lateral profile lividus 

12. Dorsal view of the superiors shows a tooth on side of each, none 

on the mesal surfaces spicatus 

Dorsal view of the superiors shows teeth on the sides and also on 
the mesal surfaces 13 

13. Mesal tooth of the superiors sharp borealis 

Mesal tooth of the superiors rounded descriptus 

14. Mesepisterna dark with pale stripes (half, or more than half dark) 17 
Mesepisterna pale with dark stripes 15 

15. Occiput with a sharp elevation at center villosipes 

Occiput without a sharp elevation at center 16 

16. Hind femora pale pallidas 

Hind femora black furcif er 

17. Dorsal pale stripes of the mesepisterna not connected with the 

mesothoracic half collar 18 

Dorsal pale stripes of the mesepisterna connected with the meso- 
thoracic half collar 20 

18. Abdomen with basal pale rings on segments 3-6 scudderi 

Abdomen without basal pale rings on segments 3-6 19 

19. Lateral pale stripe of the mesepisterna reduced to a line of dots or 

wanting amnicola 

Lateral pale stripe of the mesepisterna very distinct notatus 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT! GOMPHIDAE MS 

20. Metepisterna infuscated; dorsum of abdominal segment 9 with a 

broad yellow dorsal stripe graslinellus 

Metepisterna not infuscated; dorsum of abdominal segment 9 with- 
out a broad yellow dorsal stripe 21 

21. Fronto-clypeal suture usually with a black stripe; labrum with 

black ; yellow spots of abdominal segment 8 less than half the 
length of that segment ; anal appendages as in Fig. 23, Nos. 

14, 15 crassus 

Fronto-clypeal suture without a black stripe ; no black on the 
labrum or very little ; yellow spot on abdominal segment 8 more 
than half the length of that segment 22 

22. Pale stripes of the mesepisterna about equal in width vastus 

Pale stripes of the mesepisterna very unequal in width 23 

23. Hamule of the second abdominal segment with a prominent angle 

at middle when viewed from the side (Fig. 21, No. 5) fraternus 

Hamule of the second abdominal segment without a prominent 
angle at middle when viewed from the side 24 

24. Superior anal appendages as in Fig. 23, Nos, 12, 17 (externus) 

Superior anal appendages as in Fig. 21, No. 9 ventricosus 




Fig. 19. Tip of abdomen of Gomphus ventricosus from above showing 
expanded condition and color pattern. 



Females 

1. Occiput rounded and without a distinct superior transverse ridge.. 2 
Occiput with a distinct superior transverse ridge S 

2. Compound eyes i mm. apart or less at their dorso-mesal angles . . 3 
Compound eyes more than i mm. apart at their dorso-mesal angles 4 

3. Superior anal appendages black ; vulvar lamina more than half as 

long as the ninth sternum (Fig. 20, No. 2) ...(Lanthus) parvulus 
Superior anal appendages pale ; vulvar lamina less than half as 
long as the ninth sternum (Fig. 20, No. 3) . . (Lanthus) albistylus 

4. Vulvar lamina more than half as long as the ninth sternum, the 

sides concave and the plates slender distad (Fig. 20, No. 4) ; a 

black stripe on the fronto-clypeal suture brevis 

Vulvar lamina less than half as long as the ninth sternum, the 
sides convex and not more slender distad (Fig. 20, No. i) ; no 
black stripe on the fronto-clypeal suture abbreviatus 

5. Abdomen 45 mm. or more in length spiniceps'* 

Abdomen less than 45 mm. in length 6 

6. Ventral margins of terga 8 and 9 nearly straight, when viewed 

from the side, not extending further ventrad than 3 to 6 and 
usually parallel with the margins of those segments 14 

^Vulvar lamina longer than broad, the tips rounded lineatifrons 

Vulvar lamina broader than long spiniceps 

Plagiatus also falls here but is distinguished by the reddish-brown color of the abdo- 
men, the caudal segments being nearly uniform brown. Externus is a western species 
not found in New England. 




Fig. 20. Vulvar lamina of Gomphus and Lanfhus species, i. Gomplms 

ak. n r 4 •?• ^''^^^"^^/"^- 7: G. extlis. 8. G. spicatus. g. G. bore- 
alls. 10 G. furcifer. ii. G. mllostpes. 12. G. pallidus. 13. G describtus 
14. G. fraternus. 15. G. externus. 16. G. ventricosus. 17 G scuddTri 
18. G. crassus 19. G vastus. These structures will be found on the ventral 
surface of abdominal segment 9 of the different species. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 1 47 

Ventral margins of terga 8 and g not straight, when viewed from 
the side but convexly rounded and the margins of 8 and usually 
9 extending ventrad further than the preceding segments ; the 
lateral margins of 8 and g not parallel with the margins of 3 to 6 7 

7. Vulvar lamina wider than long ; mesal stripes of mesepisterna not 

connected with mesothoracic collar (Fig. 22, No. 2, 4, 6) 12 

Vulvar lamina decidedly longer than wide ; stripes of mesepisterna 
connected with mesothoracic collar 8 

8. Lateral margins of the vulvar lamina with a median notch or 

indentation, constricted at one-third their length (Fig. 20, No. 18) 

crassus 
Lateral margins of the vulvar lamina without a median notch, not 
constricted at one-third their length 9 

9. Tips of the vulvar lamina directed strongly laterad fraternus 

Tips of the vulvar lamina not directed strongly laterad 10 

10. Tips of the vulvar lamina in contact vastus 

Tips of the vulvar lamina distinctly separated at tips 11 

11. Vulvar lamina half or two-thirds as long as segment 9 . . . (externus) 
Vulvar lamina less than half as long as segment 9 ventricosus 

12. Abdomen with pale basal rings on segments 3 to 6 ; thorax with 

most of the metapleura infuscated (Fig. 22, No. 6) scudderi 

Abdomen without pale basal rings on segments 3 to 6; thorax with 
most of the metapleura pale (Fig. 22, No. 4) 13 

13. Metapleural suture with a dark line; dorsal basal spots of terga 

3 to 8 very small notatus 

Metapleural suture without a dark line ; dorsal spots on base of 
terga 3 to 8 elongate and with a tendency to form stripes on the 
dorso-meson amnicola 

14. Mesepisterna pale with darker stripes, more than half dark 15 

Mesepisterna dark with pale stripes, more than half pale 18 

15. Occipital ridge depressed at center (Fig. 21, No. 21) borealis 

Occipital ridge not depressed at center 16 

16. Occipital ridge usually with a denticulate spine at middle . . .villosipes 
Occipital ridge without a denticulate spine at middle 17 

17. Transverse ocellar ridge not as long as the anterior margin of the 

occiput and not as long as the transverse line connecting the 

outer (lateral) margins of the two lateral ocelli furcifer 

Transverse ocellar ridge as long as the anterior margin of the 
occiput and as long as the transverse line connecting the outer 
(lateral) margins of the two lateral ocelli pallidus 

18. Length of the abdomen not over 31 mm exilis 

Length of the abdomen more than 31 mm 19 

19. Each plate of the vulvar lamina longer than wide (Fig. 20. No. 7) ; 

without a broad median notch between the two plates 20 

Each plate of the vulvar lamina shorter than wide (Fig. 20, No. 

S) ; with a broad median notch between the two plates 23 

20. Occiput as in Fig. 21, Nos. 19, 21, the ridge depressed at center .. 21 
Occiput as in Fig. 21, No. 20, the ridge not depressed at center .. 22 

21. Pale stripe of the mesepisterna more than half the width of that 

sclerite; metepisterna heavily infuscated; occiput as in Fig. 21, 

No. 19 descriptus 

Pale stripe of the mesepisterna less than half the width of that 
sclerite; metepisterna not heavily infuscated; occiput as in Fig. 
21, No. 21 borealis 

22. Occipital ridge nearly straight; a pointed tubercle laterad of each 

lateral ocellus ; length of abdomen 28 to 32 mm exilis 

Occipital ridge elevated at center; pointed tubercle beside each 
lateral ocellus usually absent ; length of abdomen 33-36 mm. spicatus 




12 graslmeitu 




13 pallidus 







18bre 



19 descrlptus 




20sp,catus ^ ' 21bo,eal,s 

Fig. 21 Gomphus species, accessory genitalia and anal appendages of 
males and occipita of females, i. G. notaUis, accessory genitalia. 2. bame 
of G. amnicola. 3. Anal appendages of G. sptcatus from above. 6. bame 
from the side. 4. G. lividus, accessory genitalia. 5- G. fraternns. ?■ 0-. 
graslinellus. 8. G. villosipes. 9. G. ventricosus, lateral view of anal appen- 
dages. 10. G. borealis, accessory appendages. 11. G. descriptus. 12. Cr. 
graslinellus, lateral view of anal appendages. 13. G. pallidus, accessory 
appendages. 14. G. spicatus. 15. G. abbreviatus, lateral view of anal appen- 
dages 16. G. vastus, accessory appendages. 17. G. crassus. liS. G. breins, 
lateral view of anal appendages. 19, 20, 21. Occipita of descriptus, sptcatus, 
and borealis, females. 



^'0.39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 149 

23. Hind margin of occiput strongly convex, barely emarginate in the 

very middle of the convexity lividus 

Hind margin of the occiput almost straight, or but slightly bisinu- 
ate so as to form three lobes, the median lobe slightly higher 
than the two lateral lobes, and not emarginate at its middle .... 

graslinellus 

Group I Brevis-abbreviatus Group 

Gomphus abbreviatus Hagen 

Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique, 46: 464: 1878. 

Nymph. — Measurements, 23-24 mm., length of abdomen, 14 
mm., width, 6.5 mm., femur, 5 mm. 

Similar in nearly all points to the nymph of brevis, according to 
Needham. 

Adult, male. — Color yellow and black. 

Head : clypeus, labrum and labium, yellow or pale ; front with 
a dark stripe on the dorsal surface in front of ocelli ; occiput 
yellow with a sharp ridge. 

Thorax : pronotum with 2 small mesal spots of yellow and a 
larger spot on each side; meso- and metathorax black, marked 
with yellow, the mesepisterna with a rather narrow yellow stripe 
connecting with the mesothoracic half collar, and a line above the 
mesopleural suture ; legs black. 

Abdomen: black with yellow on dorso-meson and sides of 
terga i and 2, 4-7 with yellow spots at base, 8 and 9 with trian- 
gular spots on sides, the last (8 and 9) segments expanded; supe- 
rior anal appendages dark brown with a conspicuous tooth beyond 
middle on the ventral surface (Fig. 21, No. 15) ; dorsal margins 
of the superiors nearly straight. 

Female. — Color the same as the male. 

Occiput without a distinct ridge as in most Gomphi ; a pros- 
trate spine present caudad of each lateral ocellus ; vulvar lamina 
broad, the sides convex, the apical teeth small and median notch 
shallow (Fig. 20, No. i). 

Measurements : total length, male 42, female 40 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 30, female 28 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
23, female 25 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 7, female 8 mm. 

Described from specimens in collections of P. P. Calvert, in 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Gomphus brevis Hagen 
Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique (2), 46: 460: 1878. 
Nymph. — Similar in size and shape to nymphs of Ophio- 

gomphus. Labium shown in PI. v. Fig. 10; palpi with fixed hook 

hardly longer than the teeth of the mesal margins. 

Abdomen: of the general type shown in Fig. 17, A, the lateral 




Fig. 22. Color pattern of the meso- and metathorax of Gomphus and 
Lanthus species, i to 17. Gomphus. 18. Lanthus. Only the pleura are 
shown opened out and each figure includes an area between the dorsal 
carina and the lateral carina just above the inter sternum or post-coxal area. 
The ventral surfaces are not shown, or the notal areas between the wing 
bases. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE I5I 

scars not conspicuous, though present and not divided into sep- 
arate areas by lines of hairs ; lateral spines present on segments 
6-9 inclusive, that of segment 9 nearly or quite as long as segment 
10 measured on the dorso-meson ; lateral terminal appendages 
three-fourths as long as the inferiors. 

Measurements; exuviae: total length, 23 mm. ; length of abdo- 
men, 14 mm.; greatest width, 6.5 mm.; length of hind femora, 
5 mm. ; width of segment g on front margin, 4 mm. ; hind margin, 
2.5 mm.; length measured on the dorso-meson, 1.5 mm.; length 
of segment 10, i mm. 

Connecticut. — Two exuviae collected at Colebrook, 19 June, 1920. 

Adult, male. — Color black and green. 

Head : clypeus, labrum, and labium pale yellow ; front with 
dorsal dark stripe in front of ocelli, vertex yellow and with a 
distinct ridge. 

Thorax : pronotum with 2 small mesal spots and a lateral spot 
on each side ; mesepisterna with a broad yellow stripe connecting 
with the half-collar by its full width, a narrow pale stripe above 
the suture and a small spot cephalad of the wing iDases ; legs black. 

Abdomen : black ; segments i and 2 with yellow on the dorso- 
meson and on sides ; 8 and 9 with yellow triangular spots on sides ; 
4-7 with dorsal yellow spots at base ; 8 and 9 expanded ; superior 
anal appendages (Fig. 21, No. 18), with a conspicuous tooth at 
middle. 

Female. — Similar to the male; vulvar lamina (Fig. 20, No. 4) 
long and slender ; abdomen with yellow spots on cephalo-lateral 
angles of 4-7 inclusive, and yellow lines on meson of 2-5 ; abbre- 
viated yellow lines on 6 and 7 and spots on 8 and 9 at bases, which 
may, however, be wanting. 

Measurements : total length, male 40, female 43 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 28, female 30 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
25, female 25-26 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 7, female 8 mm. 

Connecticut. — Litchfield, i July, 1916; 10 June, 11 July, 1924 (L. B.W.). 

New England. — May 31-July 8. 

Group 2 ExiLis-DESCRiPTUS Group 

Gomphus descriptus Banks 
Journal New York Entomological Society, 4: 194-195: 1896. 
Nymph. — According to Needham, the nymph of this species 
has the third antennal segment depressed and somewhat widened 
apically ; labium with mentum having the distal margin nearly 
straight, fringed with flat hairs but unarmed ; palpi with terminal 
hook of proximal segment regularly incurved, and with six to 
eight teeth before it on the inner margin. 

Abdomen: lateral spines on segments 6-9 sometimes obscured 
by tufts of hairs on the sixth segment, those on the ninth segment 



152 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 




EXTERNUM 



Fig. 23. Structural details of Gomphus fraternus, crassus and externus. 
1-3, vulvar lamina. 6-11, occipital margins. 12-16, right superior anal 
appendages in lateral profile. 17 and 18, Anal appendages, ventral aspect 
(From Calvert, Ent. News, 12; pi. iii; 1901.) 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 153 

short ; hardly surpassin_^ the base of the tenth segment, straight 
but not closely oppressed ; tenth segment half as long- as the ninth 
and a little shorter than the appendages ; dorsal hooks represented 
by low inconspicuous rudiments on segments 3-9, with traces of 
the median impressed line on the anterior end of the middle 
segments. 

Measurements : total length, 32 mm. ; length of abdomen, 20 
mm., width 7 mm. ; length of hind femora, 5.6 mm. 

Description from Needham 1901, p. 454. 

Adult, male. — Color brown marked with greenish yellow. 

Head : greenish yellow except ocellar area and a transverse line 
on the front; rear of head pale on sides, remainder brown. 

Thorax: meso- and metathorax as in Fig. 22, No. i, the mes- 
episterna each with a variable yellow stripe and streak above the 
mesopleural suture; interpleural and metapleural sutures lined 
with black. 

Abdomen : brown, terga 2-7 with a pale mesal line, 8 with a 
mesal spot at base; about half the lateral surfaces of terga 1-3 
and 9 pale ; obscure lateral marks on 4-8 ; superior anal appen- 
dages in dorsal view show teeth on lateral and mesal surfaces, that 
on the mesal surface sharply outlined. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina consisting of subtriangular plates a 
little less than one-third the length of segment 9 (Fig. 20, No. 
13) ; occipital ridge depressed at center (Fig. 21, No. 19) as in 
borealis; in general with more pale color than the male. 

Measurements : total length, male 49, female 50 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 34, female 35 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
20, female 32 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 8, female 8.5 mm. 

Described from material in collection of P. P. Calvert. 

Gomphus exilis Selys 

Bulletin de rAcademie royale . . . de Belgique, 21 : .SS : 1854. 

Nymph (PI. iii, Fig. 7). — Color dark brown. 

Head : labium with median lobe as broad as long, contracted 
behind the middle, the lateral margins nearly parallel ; palpi with 
about 6 teeth on the mesal margin ; antennae with the third seg- 
ment longer than all the rest together; cylindrical, not flattened. 

Thorax : wing-pads extending to the fourth abdominal segment. 

Abdomen : lateral spines on segments 6 to 9 inclusive, the ninth 
segment twice as long as the tenth, the spine of the ninth half, or 
less than half as long as the tenth segment; width of the ninth 
abdominal segment at caudal margin, measured inside the spines, 
less than the length on the dorso-meson ; dorsum with distinct 
sharpened dorsal hooks on segments 6 to 9 and prominences on 
3 to 6. 

Measurements : total length, full grown, 23 mm. ; length of 
median lobe, 3.5 mm. wide by 2.5 mm. long; length of hind 
femora, 4.5 to 5 mm. 



154 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

Adult, male. — Color brownish black marked with dull greenish 
yellow. 

Head : yellowish except the area bounded by the transverse 
epicranial suture, compound eyes, and a transverse line drawn 
immediately in front of the antennal bases, this area being dark 
brown ; dorsal margin of the postgenae behind the com.pound 
eyes, black. 

Thorax: brown with greenish olive stripes as in Fig. 22, No. 
17 ; meso- and metanota pale ; coxae, trochanters, dorsum of tibiae 
and sometimes the first two segments of hind tarsi, pale. 

Abdomen : dark brown, with a linear pale streak on dorso-meson 
on terga i-io approximately i mm. wide on segments i and 2, 
almost obsolete on 7-9; lateral margins of terga i, 2, 7, 8, 9 and 
cephalic half of 3, yellow ; small spots also on cephalo-lateral 
angles of terga 4-7. Anal appendages with the superiors in dorsal 
view tapering to a point ; in lateral profile the appendage suddenly 
widened at basal third, tapering from there to tip ; length 1.3 mm. ; 
inferior appendage with divaricate arms arising from a wide plate, 
the tips of the arms upturned ; accessory appendages in lateral 
profile consisting of a narrow (.25 mm. wide) black, cephalic 
lamina with an apical tooth directed caudad on each ; a flat (.5 mm. 
wide) hamule, the proximal two-thirds equal in width, thence 
narrowed to the caudal margin forming a strong black hook. 

Female.— Similar to the male in color. 

Head : the caudo-dorsal margins of the occiput between the 
compound eyes nearly straight ; postocellar ridge somewhat 
thickened at the lateral ends and a little curved ; a lower semi- 
circular ridge extending around the lateral ocellus, with a pointed 
tubercle in the middle opposite the ocellus ; dorso-mesal angles 
of the compound eyes separated by 1.5 mm.; vulvar lamina (Fig. 
20, No. 7) composed of two flat contiguous plates with rounded 
tips; length of segments 7, 8, 9 and 10 measured on dorso-meson 
3, 2.2, 2.2, and I mm. respectively. 

Measurements: total length, male 41-43, female 39-43 mm.; 
length of abdomen, male 28-32, female 28-31 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 23-25, female 23-25 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 
7.5, female 8.5-9 mm. 

Connecticut.— New Haven, 27 May, 1903, 23 May, 1906 (B. H. W.) 
West Thompson, 12 July, 190.=; (H. L. V.) ; Westville, 2 June, 1908 
Mount Carmel, 6 June, 1908 (B. H. W.) ; Colebrook, 19 June, 1920 
Hamden, 30 May, 1922 (P. G.) ; Litchfield, 30 May, 1909 (L. B. W.). 

New England. — May 19-August 8. 

Gomphus lividus Selys 
Bulletin de rAcademie royale . . . de Belgique, 21 : 53 : 1854. 
Nymph. — Labium as shown in PI. v, Fig. 16. 
Similar in general form to Dromogomphiis spinosus as shown 
in PI. Ill, Fig. 6. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 155 

Abdomen with short lateral spines on segments 7 to 9 inclusive, 
that on 9 one-third as long as segment 10 ; dorsal hooks rudimen- 
tary, present as indefinite elevations on segments 4-7 inclusive ; 
segment 9 not elongate, 4 mm. wide at base and 2 mm. at hind 
margin ; length measured on dorso-meson 2.5 mm. ; segment 10 
cylindrical, short (i mm.), about as long as the terminal appen- 
dages ; lateral scar on each side of dorsum of 9 long and narrow, 
nearly as long as the segment ; group of three scars on each side 
of 8, and five to six scars each in a closely associated group on 
each side of segments 4 to 7 inclusive. 

Measurements: total length, 31 mm.; length of abdomen, 19 
mm. ; greatest width of abdomen, 7 mm. ; length of hind femora, 

6 mm. 

Described from exuviae of a reared specimen in the American 
Museum of Natural History reared by Mr. L. B. Woodruff and 
bearing the label "Litchfield VI : 10 : 24." 

Adult, male. — Color brown and olive. 

Head : face yellow, including labium, labrum, clypeus and front ; 
ocellar area brown ; occiput pale ; postgenae brown to black, paler 
on sides. 

Thorax : meso- and metathorax obscurely marked ; the mes- 
episterna each with a broad pale stripe at middle, which usually 
connects with the mesothoracic half-collar ; a narrow pale stripe 
above the mesopleural sviture, and another on each mesepimera 
from shoulders to wing-bases ; metepisterna smoky ; dorso- 
cephalic half of metepimera pale. 

Abdomen: dark brown to black, pale on sides of terga i, 2, 
and base of 3; pale mid-dorsal streak on 1-5 or 6, and spots at 
the base of terga 7 and 8; dorsum of 10 and sometimes 9 olive; 
legs brown ; tibiae pale above ; anal appendages black, the supe- 
riors in dorsal view with a lateral angle, in lateral view the ventral 
margins with a rounded projection near apex of each. 

Female. — Femora uniform brown; margin of occiput nearly 
straight, depressed at center ; terga with obscure margins ; length 
of terga 8, 9 and 10 measured on dorsum, 3, 3, and i mm. respec- 
tively ; vulvar lamina (Fig. 20, No. 5) short, only one-seventh as 
long as sternum 9, the plates rounded and separated at tips by a 
broad obtuse emargination. 

Measurements : total length, male 50, female 50 mm. ; length of 
abdomen, male 34-35, female 35-36 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 29-30, female 29-34 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 8, 
female 9 mm. ; length of stigma, male 2.5-3.5, female 3-3.5 mm, 

Connecticut. — One female taken in Westville, June 2, 1908, by Mr. 
B. H. Walden, belongs here. Winsted, 13 June, 1926 (P. G.) ; Cornwall, 

7 June, 1925 (L. B. W.). 



156 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Gomphus spicatus Hagen 

Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique, 21 : 54 : 1854. 

Nymph. — Head: labium as in PI. v, Fig. 15,2^ distal margin 
of the mentum between the palpi convex and with a thin fringe of 
flattened setae ; fixed hook of the palpi bent strongly mesad, and 
with about 7 short teeth on the inner margin. 

Abdomen: tapering (Fig. 17, D) with conspicuous lateral scars, 
those on 4-8 inclusive divided into several irregular conspicuous 
areas by lines of hairs ; scars on each side of 9, linear ; segment la 
almost glabrous ; segment 9 with a minute dorsal projection on the 
hind margin, but none on preceding segments, lateral spines pres- 
ent on segments 7, 8 and 9, that on 9 two-fifths as long as segment 
10; lateral terminal appendages four-fifths as long as the 
ventrals. 

Measurements ; f uU-grown nymph : total length, 25 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, 15 mm.; width of abdomen, 6 mm.; greatest 
width segment 9, 3.5 mm. ; length on mid-dorsum, 2.25 mm. 

Nymph collected at Colebrook, Conn., 19 June, 1920. 

Adult, male. — Color olive-brown marked with greenish yellow. 

Head : greenish yellow except the black area bounded by post- 
ocellar ridge or epicranial suture, compound eyes and transverse 
line cephalad of the antennae, rear of head yellow below, dark 
brown or black above. 

Thorax : dark brown, with olive marks as in Fig. 22, No. 1 1 ; 
venter pale gray, legs with brown coxae and trochanters, and 
proximal two-thirds of the dorsa of the tibiae pale. 

Abdomen : segment 3 considerably contracted in the middle ; 
terga 2-7 with a pale mesal line, which, however, is obscured 
towards the caudal margins of 5, 6 and 7 ; terga 8 with a spot on 
cephalic margin on meson; about half the lateral surfaces of 
terga i, 2, 3, and 9, yellow or pale ; obscure lateral marks on 4-8; 
venter of abdomen black; segments 7, 8, 9, and 10 measured on 
dorso-meson, 3.5, 3, 2.5, and i mm. long. Superior anal appen- 
dages (Fig. 21, Nos. 3, 6) viewed from above, pointed, divaricate, 
the mesal margins nearly straight, lateral margins broken, forming 
a tooth just proximad of the mid point ; in lateral profile the supe- 
riors with a sharp ventral tooth opposite the tooth of the lateral 
margin; inferior appendage with slender upcurved arms joined 
to a rather narrow basal plate, the tips of the arms black ; superior 
appendages 1.5 mm. long; accessory genitalia consisting of very 
slender black cephalic lamina with two teeth at tips ; hamules flat, 
distal half narrowed to a hook (Fig. 21, No. 14). 

Female. — Color and color pattern similar to the male . 

Head : postocellar ridge almost W-shaped, the lateral ends con- 
siderably higher than the rest of the ridge ; semicircular ridges 



^ The variations in the nymphal labia of this species have been described by Miss 
Stout, Entomological News ag; 68-70: 1918. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 157 

around the lateral ocelli and ends of the postocellar ridge, incon- 
spicuous and without a tubercle at middle. Compound eyes sep- 
arated by 1.5 mm. measured on the transverse epicranial suture. 
Occipital margin elevated at middle, and rounded, the sides sloping 
gently to the compound eyes. 

Thorax : as in the male. 

Abdomen : lateral marks more distinct than the male and form- 
ing an obscure lateral strip on each side of terga 2-8; length of 
terga 7, 8, 9 and 10 measured on the dorso-meson 3.6, 2.6-3, 2.6, 
and I mm.; vulvar lamina (Fig. 20, No. 8) consisting of two 
pointed lobes, contiguous on the meson and measuring about 
.8 mm. in length by .4 in width ; ventral margins of the 9th terga 
separated by .8-1.4 rnm. Superior anal appendages slightly more 
than I mm. in length, sharply pointed at tip. 

Measurements : total length, male 48, female 46 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 34-36, female 33-36 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 26-27, female 27-28 mm. ; width of hind wing, male 7.5-8, 
female 7.5-8 mm. 

Connecticut. — Colebrook, 19 June, 1920 (P. G.) ; Litchfield, 26 June, 
2-j July, 1909 (L. B. W.). 

New England. — May 15-July 13. 



Group 3 ViLLOsiPES-PALLiDUS Gfoup — Pale Thorax Types 
Gomphus bcrealis Needham 

Bulletin of the New York State Museum, 47: 454: 1900. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown to black and greenish yellow 
or olive. 

Head : face including labium, labrum, clypeus and front, except 
a black preocellar stripe, pale; ocellar area black; occiput pale, 
postgenae black, sides pale. 

Thorax : pronotum with 3 yellow spots and yellow caudal mar- 
gin; color pattern of mesothorax and metathorax as in Fig. 22, 
No. 16, the mesepimeral stripes usually connected with the pale 
collar ; streak above the mesopleural suture usually short ; met- 
episterna more or less infuscated, the amount of infuscation vari- 
able ; metepimera pale. 

Abdomen: terga 2 and 7 with a pale mesal line, which is 
obscured toward the caudal margins of 5, 6 and 7; terga 8 with 
a mesal spot on cephalic margin; terga 8, 9 and 10 measured on 
the dorso-meson 2.8, 2.5, and i mm. in length respectively; 
accessory genitalia as in Fig. 21, No. 10. 

Female. — Sides of abdominal segments i and 2, pale and 
obscure pale stripes on 3-7 inclusive, the latter remote from the 
margins; lateral margins of terga 8 and 9 and venter of segment 
ID pale; vulvar lamina. Fig. 20, No. 9, one-third to nearly one- 
half as long as the ninth sternum, the plates sub-triangular and 



158 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

an acute median notch between ; occipital ridge depressed at center 
(Fig. 21, No. 21). 

Measurements : total length, male 47, female 44-49 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 34, female 32-35 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 25, female 29 mm. ; width of hind wing, male 8, female 
8.5 mm. ; length of stigma, female 3.5-4 mm. 

One specimen without definite record in collection of the Con- 
necticut Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Gomphus furcifer Hagen 

Bulletin de rAcademie royale . . . de Belgique (2), 46: 458: 1878. 

Adult, male. — Color yellow and black or dark brown. 

Head : face yellow ; postgenae black above, pale below. 

Thorax: pronotum with 3 pale spots on mesal lobe; caudal 
margin pale ; front and hind femora pale beneath ; meso- and 
metathorax (Fig. 22, No. 14) pale with short dorsal stripe on each 
mesepisterna next the dorsal carina, and another just above the 
mesopleural suture; neither of the stripes on mesepisterna reach 
the wing bases ; mesopleural suture infuscated ; a patch of infus- 
cation on shoulders of the metepisterna. 

Abdomen: with pale stripes on dorso-meson of 1-7 inclusive; 
indistinct or wanting on 8, 9 and 10; lateral margins of terga 
greenish, the color reduced to elongate spots on 4-6; superior 
anal appendages yellow, showing a tooth in lateral profile. 

Female. — Abdomen with pale stripes on dorsum of 1-7 inclu- 
sive, and broad (about 2 mm. wide) pale margins sometimes 
enclosing a black spot on 3-7, or with a dark stripe dividing the 
pale marks, connecting with the dark of the caudal margins ; a 
broad pale lateral stripe on 8 and 9 not remote from the margin, 
segment 10 pale on dorsum, sides black; vulvar lamina as shown 
in Fig. 20, No. 10. 

Measurements : total length, male 47, female 50-54 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 34-35, female 36-38 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 27-28, female 30-31 mm.; width of hind wings, male and 
female 9-9.5 mm. 

Female described from specimens in the collection of P. P. 
Calvert, Philadelphia. One female taken by Mr. Bromley at 
Webster Lake, Mass., near the Connecticut line. 

New England. — May 29-July 8. 

Gomphus pallidus Rambur 
Histoire naturelle des insectes. Neuropteres, 163 : 1842. 
Nymph. — Labium shown in PI, v, Fig. 6. 
Adult, male. — Color olive with pale brown markings. 
Head : face including labium, clypeus and front, pale ; occiput 
pale. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 159 

Thorax: meso- and metathorax pale (Fig. 22, No. 13), the 
mesepisterna with two narrow brown stripes on each, and a dark 
spot on mesopleural suture, caudad of the katepisterna ; femora 
pale beneath, tibiae pale above. 

Abdomen: brown with a yellow dorsal band on terga 1-7; anal 
appendaj^es viewed from above with lateral and mesal margins of 
superiors entire ; the tips sharply pointed ; viewed from the side, 
the superiors show a knob-like ventral tooth, beyond the middle ; 
accessory appendages as in Fig. 21, No. 13. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina (Fig. 20, No. 12) a little less than 
one-fourth the length of segment g, the plates in contact at apex, 
the median notch closed ; occiput of the female variable, the ridge 
nearly straight in some, depressed at center in others. Some 
specimens apparently have no dark stripes. 

Measurements : total length, male 55, female 60 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 39, female 37 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
32, female 33 mm. 

The occurrence of this species in New England is doubtful, it 
being a southern form, found in Florida, Louisiana, etc. There 
is one record, however, from Massachusetts. 

Gomphus villosipes Selys 

Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique, 21 : 53 : 1854. 

Nymph, — Labium with 6 teeth on the mesal margin of the palpi 
including the fixed end hook, which is not larger than any of the 
teeth. (PI. V, Fig. 8.) 

Abdomen : caudal segments lengthened and narrowed, with no 
lateral spines except on segment 9 (also on 8 according to Need- 
ham) ; a faint dorsal ridge on last segments. Tenth segment less 
than half as long as the ninth. Body clothed with a dense scurfy 
pubescence conspicuously marked (abdomen) with lines of bare 
scars. 

Measurements: total length, 35-36 mm.; length of abdomen, 
24 mm. ; width, 8.5 mm. ; hind femora, 5 mm. ; dimensions of 
segment 9, 3 mm. long by 3.5 mm. wide at cephalic margin; seg- 
ment 10, 1.75 mm. long by 1.5 mm. wide. 

Adult, male. — Color brown and greenish. 

Head : face pale ; occiput with a spine or sharp tubercle at 
middle. 

Thorax (Fig. 22, No. 15) : median lobe of pronotum with three 
pale spots, and a median spot on caudal lobe ; femora pale at bases 
beneath, the pale stripes tapering to the middle on middle and 
hind femora ; meso- and metathorax mostly pale, the mesepisterna 
each with two narrow dark stripes, and a stripe on mesopleural 
suture. 

Abdomen : dark, a pale spot on dorsum of tergum i ; short 
mesal stripes on 3-7 inclusive, reaching slightly beyond the middle 



l6o CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

of each; sides of i, 2, and 3 pale, the marks about 2 mm. in width; 
terga 8 and 9 largely dark brown, paler on the sides in some ; 
segment 10 and anal appendages olive; margins of tergum 8 
projecting ventrad, those of 9 nearly straight; accessory appen- 
dages as in Fig. 21, No. 8. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina (Fig. 20, No. 11) about one-third as 
long as the ninth sternum ; occiput with a conspicuous denticulate 
spine at middle. 

Measurements : total length, male 52 mm., female 58 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 37-39, female 38-41 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 29-32, female 33-34 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 
8.5-9.5 mm. 

Connecticut. — Described from specimens in collection of P. P. Calvert. 
A specimen collected in the vicinity of Storrs, Conn., but without place or 
date, has been examined: Hamden, 6 June, 1927 (P. G.). 
New England. — June 6-June 30. 

Group 4 ScuDDERi-AMNicoLA Group 

Gomphus amnicola Walsh 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 396: 
1862. 

Adult, male. — Color yellow and dark brown to black. 

Head : f ronto-clypeal stripe dark, anteclypeus pale or smoky ; 
ventral margin of labrum black. 

Thorax : pronotum with pale spots on median and caudal lobes, 
those on the different lobes in contact; lateral pale spots appar- 
ently wanting; mesepisterna dark, each with a short isolated pale 
stripe near the dorsal carina, the two converging caudad; a pale 
streak over the mesopleural suture ; dorsal third of cephalic 
shoulders of the mesepimera dark, and the interpleural suture also 
lined with dark; remainder of thorax pale (Fig. 22, No. 4) ; legs 
with dark femora, the hind femora with basal half yellow, and the 
caudal surfaces of front and middle femora also pale. 

Abdomen : black with bright yellow as follows : dorsum of 
tergum, dorso-mesal stripe on 2, narrow stripe on 3, basal spots on 
4-7, the latter showing a tendency to form stripes in some speci- 
mens ; tergum 7 with a narrow elongate lateral spot sometimes 
remote from the margin, 8 and 9 with broad yellow lateral spots 
in contact with the margin only at the cephalo-lateral angles ; ter- 
gum 8 with a bright basal spot on meson ; accessory appendages 
characteristic (Fig. 21, No. 2) ; anal appendages black. 

Female — Abdominal segments with more yellow on sides ; vul- 
var lamina one-fourth or one-fifth as long as sternum 9. 

Measurements : total length, male 47, female 47 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 35, female 35-36 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 29-31, female 33 mm.; width of hind wings, male 9.5 mm. 

Described from specimens in collection of Dr. P. P. Calvert. 



No. 39] ODOXATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE l6l 

Collected in Massachusetts by Bromley. Specimens in the 
Museum of Comparative Zooloj^y also examined. 

Gomphus notatus Rambur 

Histoire naturelles des insectes. Neuropteres, 162: 1842. 

Nymph. — Labium shown in PI. v, Fig. 12. Lateral spines on 
abdominal segments 6 to 9 inclusive. 

Measurements ; young nymph in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology: total length, 23 mm.; abdomen, 15 mm. Hind femora, 
3 mm. ; segment 9, 2 by 2.5 mm. 

Adult, male. — Greenish yellow and black. 

Head : face, pale black as follows : nearly all of labrum except 
a spot on each side ; anteclypeus ; a broad stripe on front, clypeal 
suture (nearly i mm. wide) ; occiput pale, and most of postgenae. 

Thorax : pronotum with two very small spots on median lobe ; 
meso- and metathorax mostly pale ; mesepisterna dark with two 
nearly equal pale stripes ; interpleural and metapleural sutures 
lined with dark (Fig. 22, No. 2); legs uniform dark brown; 
wings clear. 

Abdomen : dark, with pale dorsal stripe on i and 2, and spot at 
base of 3 ; spot on cephalo-lateral angles of 3 and a broad lateral 
spot on 2 ; terga 4-7 inclusive, black ; 8 with broad lateral pale 
stripe and small dorso-basal triangular spot; tergum 9 with pale 
margins but no basal spot on dorsum; segment 10 dark, a trifle 
paler on the margins ; anal appendages dark brown to black ; acces- 
sory appendages of the second segment characteristic of the species 
(Fig. 21, No. i). 

Female. — With more pale color than the male. 

Head: labrum mostly pale, the spots occupying most of it; 
femora pale at base and below; abdomen with terga i and 2 
broadly pale on sides, 3-5 inclusive with narrowly pale margins 
which extend dorsad a distance of 1-2 mm. at base, and each with 
an elongate spot a short distance above the margins ; terga 6-7 
obscurely marked with pale color on margins ; 8 and 9 with pale 
margins, the pale color i mm. wide; segment 10 dark above, pale 
below; terga 3-8 with very small basal spots on dorso-meson. 

Measurements : total length, male 32, female 55 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 37, female 42 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
30, female 35 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 8.5, female 9.5 mm. 

Described from specimens in collection of Dr. P. P. Calvert. 

Gomphus scudderi Selys 
Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique (2), 35: 752: 1873. 
Nyraiph. — Head : front margin of the mentum nearly straight, 
with a sparse fringe of flattened scale-like hairs ; palpi with hook 
of proximal segment incurved strongly, about at a right angle 



l62 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

beyond the distal segment or movable hook ; about four teeth on 
the inner margin (PI. v, Fig. 17). 

Abdomen : elongate, tapering for half, its length ; a double row 
of trapezoidal blackish spots between mid-dorsal line and the line 
of scars on each side, each spot with a prolonged apical angle 
reaching the apical carina on each segment, the spots on 9 and 10 
becoming diffused over the sides of the segments ; a series of 
minute, longitudinal, yellowish dashes in the apical suture of each 
segment; mid-dorsal impressed line present and no dorsal hooks 
save a mere rudiment on apex of ninth segment; lateral spines 
well developed on segments 6-9, and tufts of hairs on lateral apical 
angles of preceding segments, the spines increasing slightly in size 
posteriorly, those of the ninth closely oppressed and hardly sur- 
passing the base of the tenth segment. 

Measurements : total length, 42 mm. ; length of abdomen, 28 
mm. ; width of abdomen, 8 mm. ; length of hind femur, 5.2 mm. 

Description from Needham 1901 ; p. 457. 

Adult, male. — Color yellow and black. 

Head : face black as follows : a spot on the f ronto-clypeal 
suture narrowed at middle ; anteclypeus, ventral margin of labrum. 

Thorax: anterior femora pale beneath; spines of hind femora 
arranged in two ventral rows ; pronotum mostly black or dark 
brown ; meso- and metathorax marked as in Fig. 22, No. 9, mostly 
dark, with a short pale stripe on each mesepisternum, and a pale 
streak above the mesopleural suture ; mesepimera with a short 
pale stripe below the mesopleural suture ; wings clear, stigma 
4.5-7 mm. long in the front wing. 

Abdomen : terga black marked with pale, basal rings on 3-7, a 
mid-dorsal stripe on tergum 2, a little more than half its length; 
terga 8 and 9 with a triangular spot on mid-dorsum and spots 
occupying the cephalo-mesal angles ; 10 black except the cephalic 
margin ; anal appendages black ; auricles and sides of terga i and 
2 pale. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina as shown in Fig. 20, No. 17. 

Measurements : total length, male 57-58, female 60 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 40, female 44 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 37-39, female 38 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 9, female 
9-11 mm. 

Connecticut. — Cornwall, 11 September, 1925, meadow brook (L. B. W.). 

Group 5 Crassus-fraternus Group 
Gomphus crassus Hagen 
Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique (2), 46: 453: 1878. 
Adult, male. — Color olive and dark brown to black. 
Head : face including labium, labrum, clypeus and front pale ; 
ocellar area black ; occiput pale ; postgenae black, pale at sides. 
Thorax: pronotum with three obscure pale spots; meso- and 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 163 

metathorax pale, with a broad brown stripe including the meso- 
pleural suture, and a narrow pale stripe above the suture ; mes- 
epimeral shoulders dark, and metapleural suture lined with dark ; 
legs black, coxae pale, the front femora greenish beneath, wings 
clear. 

Abdomen : black or dark brown terga with a mid-dorsal streak 
wider on i and 2 and reduced to basal triangles on 7 and 8; 9 
with a broad mid-dorsal band of yellow sometimes reduced to a 
small basal spot; 10 with a small spot or none; sides of terga i 
and 2 and base of 3 yellow, a conspicuous yellow spot on cephalo- 
lateral angles of 8, and broad yellow spot occupying the entire 
lateral margin of 9; anal appendages as in Fig. 23, Nos. 13, 15; 
accessories as in Fig. 21, No. 17. 

Female. — No yellow dorsal spot present on the base of segment 
9, the lateral spot on this as long as the segment ; lateral margins 
of all abdominal terga broadly marked with yellow ; vulvar lamina 
(Fig. 20, No. 18) about one-third as long as segment 9, the two 
plates together about as long as broad, tips separated. 

Measurements : total length, male 46, female 46 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 32, female 32-36 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 28, female 27 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 9, female 
8.5 mm. 

Described from specimens in collection of P. P. Calvert, Phila- 
delphia. Specimens also examined in the Cambridge Museum of 
Comparative Zoology. 

Gomphus fraternus (Say) 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8:16: 1839. 

Nymph. — According to Needham, the nymph of this species 
has strong tibial burrowing hooks, which are as long as the tibiae 
are wide ; third segment of antennae twice as long as the first and 
second together. Mentum of labium squarish, in front of the 
contracted basal or proximal fourth ; distal margin densely fringed, 
slightly convex; palpi bluntly angular with 7- 11 small teeth on 
the inner margins. 

Abdomen: with sides parallel most of its length, abruptly nar- 
rowed beyond the sixth segment, and with minute dorsal hooks on 
segments 8 and 9 ; median groove present in anterior segments ; 
well-developed lateral spines on segments 6-9, those of 9 about 
equaling the appendages. 

Measurements: length, 31 mm.; length of abdomen, 20, width, 
9 mm. ; length of hind femur, 6.5 mm. 

Description from Needham, 1901 : p. 451. 

Adult, male. — Color yellow and black or dark brown. 

Head : face pale including labrum, clypeus and front, except a 
dorsal transverse line in front of ocelli, which is black; ocellar 
area black, occiput pale ; postgenae black, pale at sides. 



164 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Thorax : pronotum with yellow spots and caudal margin, meso- 
and metathorax dark brown and yellow, pattern as in Fig. 22, 
No. 8. 

Abdomen: brown with pale dorsal lines on terga 3-6, and 
broader ones on i and 2 (1.5 mm. broad) ; sides of i and 2 and 
part of 3, pale; basal spots on 7 and 8 (sometimes 9), a large spot 
on the cephalo-lateral angles of 8, and larger spots occupying the 
entire ventral margin of 9; segment 10 and anal appendages 
black ; segments 8 and 9 much expanded, the distance between the 
ventral margins of terga 8 measuring about 4 mm. 

Female. — Similar to the male, but with pale stripes on the 
lateral or cephalic surfaces of the hind femora; terga 7 with a 
pale spot on lateral margin ; lateral margins of 3-5, and broad 
lateral stripes on 1-3 also pale ; vulvar lamina as in Fig. 20, No. 14. 

Measurements : total length, male 50, female 55 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 35-39, female 38-40 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 29-30, female 31-32 mm.; width of hind wings, male 9, 
female 10 mm. 

Described from specimens in collection of P. P. Calvert and a 
male and female in the collection of the writer. 

Gomphus graslinellus Walsh 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 394: 
1862. 

N5miph. — Labium shown in PI. v, Fig. i. 

Adult, male. — Color olive and dark brown to black. 

Head : labium, labrum, clypeus and front except a black trans- 
verse preocellar stripe, pale ; occiput pale ; postgenae brown, pale 
at sides. 

Thorax : pronotum with 3 yellow spots ; mesothorax with a 
broad median pale stripe on each mesepisternum which connects 
with the mesothoracic half-collar in front and with the narrow 
pale lateral streak (sometimes very indistinct) at the wing bases; 
metepimera with a broad pale stripe from shoulder to wing base, 
most of the metepisterna brown, the metepimera pale, with dark 
cephalo-dorsal border ; venter of thorax pale ; legs mostly black, 
the coxae and trochanters pale, femora black (sometimes with pale 
cephalic surfaces) ; tibiae black with a faint streak at base, tarsi 
and claws black ; wings clear. 

Abdomen: with yellow mid-dorsal stripe on terga 1-6 inclusive, 
and basal spots in line on 7 and 8 ; 9 with a broad mid-dorsal stripe, 
10 with a narrow line; sides of terga i and 2, basal portion of 3, 
small circular spots on cephalo-lateral angles of 4-7 inclusive, 
yellow ; broad yellow stripes on lateral margins of 8 and 9 ; anal 
appendages black ; superiors viewed from above with a prominent 
lateral angle, the angle also visible from the side. Accessory 
appendages as shown in Fig. 22, No. 7. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT I GOMPHIDAE 165 

Female. — Femora marked with pale on the sides (cephalic sur- 
faces) ; abdomen with broad lateral stripes on margin of terga 
1-5, obscurely so on 6-7, more distinct on 8 and 9; sej^ment lO 
entirely black; vulvar lamina consisting (Fig. 20, No. 6) of two 
short rounded lobes about one-sixth as long as segment 9. 

Measurements : total length, male 47-50, female 47-50 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 33-36, female 33-36 mm. ; length of 
hind wings, male 30, female 30-31 mm. ; width of hind wings, 
male 8.5-9.5, female 9 mm. ; length of stigma, 3-4 mm. 

Described from material in the collection of P. P. Calvert. 

Gomphus vastus Walsh 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 391 : 
1862. 

Nymph. — Labium with five to six teeth on the mesal margins 
of the labial palpi; terminal fixed hook bent at right angles (PI. v, 

FiR- 13). 

Abdomen with lateral spines on segments 6 to 9 inclusive, those 
on 9 as long as segment 10; dorsal projections on segments 8 
and 9. 

Measurements : Total length, full-grown, 32 mm. ; length of 
abdomen, 20 mm. ; hind femora, 5 mm. ; dimensions of segment 9, 
9.2 mm. long by 4 mm. wide at cephalic margin. 

Adult, male. — Black and yellow. 

Head : pale, black as follows : a broad stripe on the f ronto- 
clypeal suture, anteclypeus, ventral and dorsal margin of the 
labrum, median spot on the labrum, most of the postgenae ; occiput 
pale. 

Thorax: pronotum with 3 pale spots of similar size ; meso- and 
metathorax as in Fig. 22, No. 7, the dorsal pale stripe of the mes- 
episterna narrow, connected with the collar in front and sometimes 
connected at the wing bases with the narrow lateral stripe ; mes- 
epimeral shoulders black, the interpleural fold also lined with black 
or dark pigment ; front femora pale beneath, wings clear. 

Abdomen : a dorsal pale line on terga 3-6 inclusive and some- 
times a basal streak on 7, and broader bands on i and 2, sides of 
I and 2, and basal half of 3, pale; a pale spot on cephalo-lateral 
angles of 8, but a sub-triangular yellow spot on sides of terga 9 ; 
terga 7-9 dilated ; anal appendages slender, the superiors without 
conspicuous ventral teeth. 

Female. — Middle femora pale beneath ; vulvar lamina as in Fig. 
20, No. 19, more than half as long as segment 9, narrowed at apex, 
the tips of the plates in contact. 

Measurements: total length, male 51, female 55-56 mm.; length 
of abdomen, male 40, female 37 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
30, female 32 mm. ; width of hind wings, male and female 9 mm. 

Described from specimens in the collection of P. P. Calvert, 
Philadelphia. 



l66 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

Gomphus ventricosus Walsh 

Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia, 2: 249: 1863. 

Adult, male. — Color olive and black. 

Head : face yellow except the lateral margins of the labrum 
and a preocellar stripe on the front ; ocellar area black ; occiput 
pale ; postgenae black, pale at sides. 

Thorax (Fig. 22, No. 3) : with broad (i mm.) parallel yellow 
stripes on the mesepisterna, and a pale streak above the suture ; 
about half the length of the sclerite ; mesepimeral shoulders black ; 
legs black, coxae but little paler ; wings clear. 

Abdomen: with pale mid-dorsal stripe on 1-6 or 7, the stripe 
trilobed on segment 2, expanded at apex of i ; sides of i and 2 
and base of 3 pale, and pale yellow spots on sides of 8 and 9 which 
are remote from the margins ; a faint touch of yellow on side of 
7 ; ventral margins of 8 considerably rounded, the distance between 
the two measuring 5-6 mm. when fully expanded ; anal appendages 
with slender superior (lateral profile), the tips spine-like; acces- 
sory appendages similar to crassus, Fig. 21, No. 17. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina similar to vastus, the pointed tips more 
divaricate (Fig. 20, No. 16). 

Measurements : total length, male 50, female 47 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 33-35, female 34-35 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 28, female 30 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 9, female 
10 mm. 

Connecticut. — Salisbury, 13 June, 1926 (P. G.)- 

Group 6 Plagiatus-spiniceps Group 

Gomphus plagiatus Selys 

Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique, 21 : 57 : 1854. 

Nymph. — Labium shown in PI. v, Fig. 3. 

Adult, male and female. — A very large species occurring in 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania and southwards, which may be distin- 
guished from nearly all species of Gomphus by the brownish red 
color of the abdomen, being almost entirely so in teneral speci- 
mens. The species has not been captured in Connecticut. 

Measurements : total length, 60-63 mm. ; length of abdomen, 
43-47 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 32-36, female 37 mm. ; 
width of hind wing, male 9.5 mm. 

Specimens examined in the collection of William T. Davis, from 
Long Island, New Jersey, Washington, D. C, and Florida. 

Gomphus spiniceps Walsh 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 389: 
1862. 

Nymph. — Terminal abdominal segments greatly narrowed and 
lengthened, about twice as long as wide ; lateral spines present on 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GOMPHIDAE 167 

segments 6 to 9, no dorsal prominences except on segment 9. 
Labium as in PI. v, Fig. 14. 

Measurements : total length, 36 mm. ; length of abdomen, 
25 mm. ; length of hind femora, 4 mm. ; dimensions of segment 9, 
5 mm. long by 2 mm. wide. 

Adult, male. — Color black and yellow. 

Head: face black with the dorsum of the front pale. 

Thorax : mesepisterna with the pale stripe .75 mm. wide, not 
connected with the pale collar, and with considerable interval 
between the caudal end and the dorsal carina; a pale streak over 
the mesopleural suture ; metepimera with pale stripe i mm. wide 
by 5.5 mm. long; metepisterna with a pale streak, the dorso- 
cephalic margin of the metepimera dark, remainder pale. 

Abdomen: black with small mid-dorsal pale spots at base of 
segments '}^-'j inclusive ; lateral margins of 8 and 9 pale ; anal 
appendages black, the superiors without spines in lateral or dorsal 
view ; accessories with long tapering hamules, vesicle prominent. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina very short, about three times as broad 
as long. 

Measurements : length of abdomen, male 46, female 47 mm. ; 
length of hind wings, male 37, female 39 mm. ; length of abdom- 
inal segments 8, 9 and 10, 4, 5.5 and i mm. 

According to Williamson this species flies from July to Sep- 
tember. 

Genus Dromogomphus Selys 

N3miphs. — Proximal segment of labium hooked; third anten- 
nal segment, long, cylindrical ; fourth segment small, its length 
less than the width of the third segment; middle coxae not more 
closely approximate than the front; dorsal projections on abdo- 
men, segments 2-9 ; and segment 9 with mid-dorsal ridge ending 
in a sharp spine. 

Adults. — Wings without subcostal vein ; triangles without cross- 
veins ; anal loop in hind wings consisting of two cells ; occiput 
with a distinct ridge between compound eyes. Hind femora with 
long spines interspersed with shorter ones, and reaching the caudal 
margin of the second abdominal segment. 

Key to Species 

Adults 

Males and Females 

I. Hind femora entirely black; dorsal pale stripe of mesepisternum 
not reaching the katepisternum ; segments 8, 9, and 10 mostly 
black, the cephalic half of segment 3-6 not pale in the male, with 

black transverse interrupted dashes spinosus 

Hind femora in part yellow; pale stripes of the mesepisternum 
reaching the katepisternum ; segments 8, 9 and 10 almost entirely 
pale, the basal half of segments 3-6 in the male pale with black 
transverse dashes interrupted on the meson spoliatus 



l68 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Dromogomphus spinosus Selys 

Bulletin de rAcademie royale . . . de Belgique, 21 : 59 : 1854. 

Nymph (PI. iii, Fig. 6). — Head: labium extending caudad 
between the front coxae ; distal margin of the median lobe slightly 
concave (PI. v, Fig. 9), the labial palpi with 6 to 7 teeth on the 
mesal margins ; antennae with the third segment cylindrical or 
only slightly flattened, the fourth minute, almost indistinguishable. 

Thorax : wing-cases reaching the fourth abdominal segment, 
the hind femora reaching about to the middle of that segment. 

Abdomen: a sharp distinct ridge on the dorsum of segment 9, 
sharp projecting dorsal hooks on segment 6-9 inclusive and tuber- 
cular dorsal prominences on segments 2-5, lateral spines on seg- 
ments 6-9 inclusive, that on 9 about half the length of segment 10. 

Measurements: total length (exuviae), 32-33 mm.; length of 
abdomen, 22 mm. ; length of hind femora, 5-6 mm. ; dimensions 
of segment 9, 2.8-3 n^f"- long by 4 mm. wide at base. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown and yellow. 

Head : labium and face below the antennae yellow, dark imme- 
diately in front of the antennae ; ocellar area dark ; curved ridge 
behind the ocelli, without a conspicuous spine at each end ; occip- 
ital ridge depressed at center, the ridge with long black setae; 
occiput black ; postgenae black above, pale below. 

Thorax : pronotum black with cephalic and caudal margins yel- 
low, and a yellow spot on the meson in contact with the caudal 
division ; dorsal carina and mesothoracic half-collar yellow, dorsal 
stripes of the mesepisterna not connected with the collar and rather 
closely approximated to the carina, also slightly diverging cephalad ; 
a faint line above the mesopleural suture ; ventral half of the meso- 
katepisterna yellow ; metapleura and venter of the thorax yellow. 
Ventro-caudal surface of the front femora yellow, remaining 
femora and all tibiae and tarsi black ; hind femora with five to six 
long spines, in one row beneath, and another row of spines approx- 
imately one-third this length also on the venter. 

Abdomen: black or dark brown and yellow, the dorsal longi- 
tudinal stripe extending from terga i to 8 inclusive, trilobed on 
tergum 2 ; broad lateral stripes on terga i to 3 or 4, very distinct, 
more or less confused with brown on 5 to 9 ; terga 10 dark brown, 
obscurely pale above ; superior anal appendages entire, not toothed, 
the inferior about as long as the superiors, broadly bifurcate, the 
arms upcurved at tips. 

Female. — Color as in the male though usually brighter. 

Head : ocellar ridge with a sharp spine at either end ; occiput 
3'ellow. 

Abdomen: vulvar lamina acute at tips, the lateral margins 
plainly concave, median notch apparently extending to the bases 
of the plates, the plates in contact for half this length. 

Measurements : total length, male 55, female 57 mm. ; length 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AESHNIDAE 169 

of abdomen, male 40, female 41-42 mm.; length of hind wings, 
male 34, female 35-36 mm. ; width of hind winces, male and female 
lo-ii mm.; length of stigma, male 4, female 4-4.5 m.m. 

Connecticut.— Guilford (Pistapaug Pond), 8 July, 1921 (P. G.) ; 
Windsor, 20 June, 1926 (P. G. ; J. L. R.) ; West Hartford, 15 July, 1913 
(L. B. W.). 

New England. — ^June 12-September i. 

Dromogomphus spoliatus Selys 

Bulletin Academie royale . . . de Belgique, 21: 59: 1854. 

Adult, male. — Head: with pale face. 

Thorax : pale streak each side on femora, the hind femora with 
6 long spines with about 5 smaller ones between, and with numer- 
ous shorter ones at base; two pale stripes nearly equal on each 
mesepisternum ; narrow dark stripe on each of the two lateral 
sutures. 

Abdomen : tergum i pale on sides and with a pale dorsal line ; 
2 with pale sides and dorsal streak ; 3 with pale sides and dorsal 
streak, the dorsal streak connected at middle with pale sides ; 4 
to 6 with basal fourth pale, also with pale dorsal streak ; 7 to 10 
general color brown, their margins pale; dorsal anal appendages 
viewed from the side, simple, pale, darker below and sharply 
pointed ; ventral appendage broad, upturned at tip when viewed 
from the side, in ventral view the arms divaricate, suddenly con- 
stricted at tips ; tips blunt. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina similar to those of Gomphus descriptus 
(Fig. 20, No, 13) but the plates more slender at tips. 

Measurements : total length, male 60, female 64 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 43, female 46 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
36, female 37 mm. ; width of hind wings, male and female, 11 mm. 

Specimens examined in the U. S. National Museum. 

Family AESHNIDAE Rambur 

Nymphs. — Usually elongate insects ; labium flat with a closed 
median cleft ; tarsi three-segmented ; antennae composed of cylin- 
drical segments about equal in diameter and length ; abdomen 
never broad and flat. 

Adults. — Compound eyes contiguous; tibial spines simple; 
wings with an oblique cross-vein behind the proximal end of the 
stigma ; female always with a well-developed ovipositor. 

A large group of strong fliers, being exceptionally quick on the 
wing and hard to capture when fully mature. 

Key to Genera 

Nymphs 

I. Dorsal hooks on abdominal segments 7 to 9 Nasiaeschna, p. 193 

No dorsal hooks on abdominal segments 7-9 2 



I/O CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 




Fig. 24. Appendages of six genera of Anisoptera. i. Tachopteryx 
thoreyi, female ovipositor. 2. Same, inferior appendage from below. 3. 
Same, left superior appendage from above. 4. Anax longipes, right supe- 
rior appendage from above. 5. Anax Junius, right superior appendage from 
above. 7 and 8. Hagenius brevistylus, anal appendages from above and in 
lateral profile. 9. Gomphaeschna furcillata, anal appendages from below. 
10. Cordulegaster maculatus, anal appendages in profile. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AESHNIDAE 171 

2. Palpi with large teeth on mesal margins (PI. vi, Fig. 2) ; a dorsal 

ridge present on abdominal segments 7, 8, and 9; antennae 6- 

segmented Epiaeschna, p. 195 

Palpi without large teeth on the mesal margins ; no dorsal ridge 
on segments 7, 8 and 9 ; antennae 7-segmented 3 

3. Caudo-lateral margins of the head distinctly angulate or, if obtusely 

angulate or rounded, then the lateral terminal appendages only 

one-fourth the length of the inferiors 4 

Caudo-lateral margins of the head rounded, or if obtusely angulate, 
then the lateral anal appendages more than one-fourth the length 
of the inferiors 5 

4. Proximal segment of the labial palpi squarely truncate at the 

apices ; lateral anal appendages about one-fourth the length of 
the inferiors ; distal margin of the mentum with a small pointed 
tooth on each side of the median cleft (PI. vi. Fig. 8 ; Fig. 7, 

Nos. 6, 7) Boyeria, p. 172 

Proximal segment of the labial palpi not squarely truncate at the 
apices ; lateral anal appendages more than one-fourth the length 
of the inferiors ; distal margin of the mentum without a pointed 
tooth on each side of the median cleft (tooth rounded if present) 

Basiaeschna, p. 174 

5. Surface of cuticle of abdomen smooth, shining; lateral marginal 

spines on abdominal segments 7 to 9 ; basal segment of male 

superior appendage truncate at apex Anax, p. 177 

Surface of the cuticle not smooth, usually dull ; lateral marginal 
spines on abdominal terga 5 or 7 to 9, usually 6 to 9; basal seg- 
ment of the superior appendage bluntly pointed at tip Aeshna, p. 179 

Adults 

1. Thorax uniform green; M2 (PI. ix. Fig. 2) making a bend towards 

Ml at the distal end of the stigma ; anal angle of wings similar in 
tlie two sexes : abdomen with 2 lateral ridges on each side of 

terga 4-8 Anax, p. 177 

Thorax with more or less brown or black ; M2 not bending towards 
Ml at the distal end of the stigma; anal angle of the wings dis- 
similar in the two sexes ; abdomen with a single lateral ridge 
on each side of terga 4-8 2 

2. Basilar space with more than one cross-vein (PI. viii, Fig. i) .. 

Boyeria, p. 173 

Basilar space without or with a single cross-vein 3 

3. Rs forked 4 

Rs not forked 6 

4. Length of abdomen over 55 mm. ; hind wings 55 mm. (Fig. 39) . . 

Epiaeschna, p. 195 
Length of abdomen usually less than 55 mm. ; hind wings not over 
50 mm. in length 5 

5. Cephalic section of arculus longer than the caudal ; only one row 

of cells between Rs and the R supplement (PI. viii. Fig. 3) 

Nasiaeschna, p. 193 
Cephalic section of the arculus shorter than the caudal section ; 
more than one row of cells between Rs and the R supplement 
(PI. IX, Fig. i) Aeshna, p. 179 

6. Supertriangular area free from cross-veins (PI. xir. Fig. 3) ... 

Gomphaeschna, p. 176 

Supertriangular area with cross-veins (PI. viii, Fig. 4) 

Basiaeschna, p, 174 



1/2 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

Genus Boyeria McLachlan 

Nymphs, — Caudo-lateral margin of the head angulate ; proxi- 
mal segment of labial palpus truncate at apex ; mental cleft closed ; 
abdomen with lateral spines on segments 5-9, but no dorsal hooks 
on any of them. 

Adults. — Upper section of arculus as long as the lower; M. 
not making a sharp bend towards M^ at end of stigma; Rs not 
forked and i to 2 rows of cells between it and the supplementary 
radius ; triangle, supertriangle and basilar space with cross-veins ; 
cells of anal loop numerous (9 or more) in several rows; cubito- 
anal cross-veins about 5-6 in number; anal angle of the hind 
wings dissimilar in the two sexes, the anal triangle of the male 
usually with 5 cells ; thorax brown, green and yellow ; abdomen 
with a single lateral keel per segment on each side ; inferior anal 
appendages of the male entire. 

The nymphs of our one representative have been found most 
frequently in meadow brooks or woodland creeks among roots or 
driftwood. 

Key to Species 

Adults 

Males and Females 

I. Pale spots on sides of the thorax and abdomen sometimes blue in 
color ; superior anal appendage of the female about as long as 
segment 10 (1.5 mm.) ; tips of the wings brown, the remainder 

clear grafiana 

Pale spots on the sides of the thorax and abdomen yellow; supe- 
rior anal appendages of the female much longer than segment \o 
(3.5 mm.) ; entire wing brown vinosa 

Boyeria grafiana Williamson 

Entomological News, 18: i: 1907. 

This species has been captured in Massachusetts and Pennsyl- 
vania, and there is a possibility that it may be found in Connecticut. 
The adults are fairly well distinguished by the characters in the 
key. 

Boyeria vinosa (Say) 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8: 13: 1839. 

N5miph (PI. Ill, Fig. 4). — Color dark brown. 

Head : mentum extending between the middle coxae ; cephalic 
margin with a closed cleft, a fringe of hairs and a tooth on each 
side of the cleft; proximal segment of the palpus squarely trun- 
cate (Fig. 7, No. 6), with a denticulate mesal edge; antennae with 
the first two and last segments darker in color than the rest ; com- 
pound eyes, with dorso-mesal extension rounded and separated 
from each other by approximately 1.5 mm. on the meson; caudo- 
lateral margins of the head sharply angulate. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT! AESHNIDAE 1 73 

Thorax : pronotum with the lateral margins flaring considerably, 
and rounded ; two long; heavy spines above the procoxae ; legs 
mostly brown, the femora and tibiae each with two narrow pale 
rings ; third tarsal segment pale at base ; wing-cases extending to 
the middle of abdominal segment 2 (young nymph). 

Abdomen: flat below, without dorsal spines, but with lateral 
spines on segments 5-9, those on 9 more than half as long as seg- 
ment 10; anal appendages brown with pale tips, extreme tip, how- 
ever, brown; the superior appendage bifid at tip and nearly as 
long as the ventral appendages ; lateral appendages one-fourth as 
long as the ventral; a small but conspicuous pale mesal spot on 
the dorsum of tergum 8, 

Measurements: total length (immature nymphs), 25 mm.; 
length of abdomen, 15 mm. ; hind femora, 4 mm. ; length of meta- 
thoracic wing-cases, 3 mm. 

Described from nymphs obtained in a small stream at Orange, 
Conn., by the writer. The superior anal appendage is said to be 
entire in some specimens. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown, marked with green and yellow. 

Head : labium, labrum, clypeus and front yellow or butf ; rear 
of head and vertex yellow; line of contact of the eyes 2 mm. in 
length. 

Thorax: robust with a dorsal green stripe on each side that is 
more or less obscure in dried specimens, the mes- and metepimera 
each with a bright yellow spot about i mm. in diameter, slightly 
cephalad of the middle of the sclerite ; legs entirely brown ; second 
segment of trochanters with a polished area and one or two short 
spines beneath ; femora with two ventral carinae thickly studded 
with short subequal spines ; middle tibia sometimes with a few 
scales at tip; distal segment of tarsi as long or longer than the 
two proximal ones together ; tarsal claws with ventral tooth placed 
at or slightly beyond the middle; wings (PI. viii. Fig. i) flaves- 
cent throughout, darker at extreme base; hind wings with an 
anal triangle composed of 5 cells. Antenodal cross-veins 23-24 
in the front wing and 16-17 in the hind wing; basilar space with 
4-6 cross-veins, supertriangular space with 3-5 ; the triangle with 
5-6 cells ; Rs without a distinct fork, the supplementary radius 
distinct to the margin of the wing; supplementary media also 
very distinct and traceable to the margin. 

Abdomen: uniform brown; third segment greatly narrowed; 
conspicuous transverse furrows on terga 2-8; terga 3-8 with dis- 
tinct dorsal and lateral carinae; auricles of segment 2 flaring con- 
siderably and with numerous (more than 20) small teeth on the 
ventral margins ; genital lobes of second segment with small teeth 
on the ventral margin, and a lateral depression on each ; superior 
anal appendages with a ventral tooth at base, and a dorsal carina ; 
apices blunt, the appendages widest considerably beyond the 
middle; superior anal appendages 4.5 mm. long, by .8 mm. wide, 



174 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

bluntly pointed, rather sparsely setose with long black setae mesad 
of the dorsal carina; a short ventral tooth present within one mm. 
of the base; inferior appendage triangular, 1.5 mm. long by i mm. 
wide at base, the tip blunt and with two rounded recurved projec- 
tions. 

Female. — Similar to the male in color ; anal appendage 3.5 mm. 
long, bluntly pointed and flat ; widest beyond the middle ; ovi- 
positor extending beyond the caudal margin of the ninth segment, 
the narrow lateral plates more than half the length of that seg- 
ment; lateral valves each with a feeble lateral keel, and not 
pointed at the base of the styli ; styli .75 mm. long, much shorter 
than the dorsum of segment 10. 

Measurements : total length, male 60-63, female 62-65 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 45, female 47 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 41-42, female 45 mm.; width of hind wing, male 12, female 
14 mm. 

Connecticut. — Kent, 31 August, 1904 (W. E. B.) ; North Branford, 
18 September, 1915 (G. A. F.) ; Litchfield, 15 May, 1915, 6 June, 1925 
(L. B. W.). 

New England. — May 15-September 26. 

Genus Basiaeschna Selys 

Nymphs. — Caudo-lateral margins of the head angulate; labial 
palpi not truncate at apex ; abdomen with lateral spines on seg- 
ments 3 or 4-9 ; hooks present on dorsum of abdomen. 

Adults. — Wings with upper section of arculus as long as the 
lower ; M^ not making a sharp bend at distal end of stigma ; Rs 
not forked, and i to 3 rows of cells between it and the supple- 
mentary sector ; triangle and supertriangle with cross-veins ; 
basilar space free or with a single cross-vein; anal loop of about 
6 cells ; cubito-anal cross-veins 3 to 4 ; anal angle of hind wings 
dissimilar in the two sexes, the anal triangle of the male with 2 
cells; thorax not uniform green; abdomen with a single lateral 
carina per segment on each side ; inferior anal appendages of male 
entire. 

The nymphs of this genus are very common about New Haven 
and may be found either in small streams or woodland ponds. 
They are apparently much more common than the adults and it 
is possible that they may have some of the same habits of dispersal 
as are found in the Gomphidae. The nymphs are climbers like 
other Aeshnidae. Needham (1901, p. 466) has described the pro- 
cess of oviposition, and he states that the eggs are deposited in 
neat double rows in the submerged leaves of bur-reed and 
Sparganium. 

Basiaeschna Janata Say 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 13 : 1839. 

Nymph (PI. iii, Fig. 3 ; Fig. i). — Color light and dark brown. 

Head: labium (PI. vi, Figs, i and 7) extending between the 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AESHNIDAE 175 

middle coxae ; median lobe with a closed median notch and hairy 
distal margin; palpi with a sharp fixed hook (not truncate as in 
Boyeria) ; antennal segments subequal in length, the first two and 
distal half of 7 darker than the rest; compound eyes black, the 
mesal angles separated by i mm. ; surface of the head behind the 
eyes rugose, with two nearly circular glabrous spots behind the 
mesal angles of the compound eyes and a smaller one on the mid- 
dorsum ; caudo-lateral margins of the head angulate. 

Thorax : pronotum with flaring and rounded lateral margins ; 
the procoxa with two blunt projections dorsad of each on the 
pleura ; meso- and metapleura, dark brown ; legs conspicuously 
banded, mostly dark brown, both femora and tibiae with three 
light-colored rings ; tarsi each with a double row of forked spines 
below, distal half or more of the second and third segments pale ; 
wing-cases extending to the apex of abdominal segment 5, hind 
femora when extended parallel to the body, reaching the caudal 
margin of abdominal segment 5 in full-grown nymphs. 

Abdomen : dark brown with a paler, somewhat indefinite band 
on mid-dorsum of 1-7, and a bilobed spot of the same color on 9 
and 10; spines on lateral keels of segments 5-9 inclusive; ventral 
terminal appendages with a little more than the basal half brown, 
the tips also brown, remainder pale ; superior appendage a little 
more than half as long as the ventrals, the laterals about two- 
thirds as long as the superior. 

Measurements ; mature nymph : total length, 29-32 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, 17-19 mm.; greatest width, 7 mm.; length of 
hind femora, 5 mm. ; length of median lobe of labium, 5-5.5 mm., 
width, 2.5-4 mm. 

Immature Nymphs : total length, 24-26 mm. ; length of abdo- 
men, 10-13 mm.; greatest width, 5.5-6 mm.; length of hind 
femora, 4.5 mm. ; length of median lobe of labium, 5 mm. ; width, 
2-3.5-4 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color brown marked with yellow and green. 

Head : brown, front yellowish, pilose above and with a T-spot ; 
compound eyes contiguous for about i mm. ; occiput and post- 
genae brown, pale on sides. 

Thorax: mesothorax brown, with obscure greenish or grayish 
areas above, the mesepimera each with a yellow stripe measuring 
4 mm. by less than i mm., the metepimera with a similar stripe, 
both surrounded by very dark brown or black ; legs brown, tarsi 
almost black ; femora with two rows of short sharp spines beneath, 
tibial spines a trifle longer than the intervals between; wings (PI. 
VIII, Fig. 4) flavescent, extreme bases brown ; front wings with 
II to 14 postnodal cross-veins. 

Abdomen : brown in dried specimens, marked with green ; blue 
in fresh ; third segment narrowed at middle, lateral margins of 
tergum 2 extending ventrad, forming a thin plate on each side of 
the accessory appendages ; anal appendages as in Fig. 24, No. 6, 



176 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

the superiors considerably expanded at the distal third, the inferior 
about half as long as the superiors, both dark brown. 

Female. — Color similar to the male; anal appendages linear, 
flat, 3.5 mm. long. 

Measurements: total length, male 51-55, female 55-60 mm.; 
length of abdomen, male 35-43, female 38-43 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 31-36, female 35-36 mm.; width of hind wings, male 
9, female 9-10 mm. 

Connecticut. — New London, 7-16 June, 1921 (R. H. H.) ; Orange, May 

1922 (P. G.). 
New England. — May 9-July 18. 

Genus Gomphaeschna Selys 

Adults. — Wings with upper half of arculus as long as the 
lower ; M^ not making a sharp bend towards M^ at distal end of 
the stigma; Rs not forked; only one row of cells between Rgand 
the supplementary radius ; triangle with cross-veins ; supertriangle 
and basilar space free ; anal loop consisting of 3-4 cells ; cubito- 
anal cross-veins 2 ; anal angle of the hind wings dissimilar in 
the two sexes, the anal triangle consisting of 2 cells in the male; 
abdominal terga 4-7 with only one lateral longitudinal ridge per 
segment on each side; inferior appendages of the male bifurcate. 

Nymphs of this genus have not been reared. The adults have 
been captured in various localities but they are such strong fliers 
that it is impossible to even guess at the probable habitat of the 
nymph. 

Gomphaeschna furcillata (Say) 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8 : 14 : 1839. 

Adult, male. — Color brown, marked with green or yellow. 

Head: labium, labrum, clypeus and front dark brown, some- 
times marked with yellow ; T-spot of front with upright expanded ; 
occiput and rear of head black. 

Thorax : brown, mesepisterna each with two short yellow or 
green dashes and two small spots cephalad of the wing-bases ; 
broad greenish stripes on mes- and metepimera, and several small 
triangles between the two; wings clear. 

Abdomen: terga i and sometimes 2 obscurely pale on sides; 
dorsum of 2 with about 5 greenish or yellow spots ; terga 4-7 
with a bilobed spot on cephalo-Iateral angles and 3 triangular dorsal 
pale spots (there are sometimes two small additional dots on the 
transverse carinae) ; tergum 8 with two pale triangles on dorsum ; 
9 and 10 obscurely pale on dorsum at apices; anal appendages 
(Fig. 24, No. 9) black or brown, the superiors about twice as 
long as the inferior, thin and rounded at tips ; inferior appendage 
bifurcate, the arms slender and strongly divaricate, segment 10 
with a mid-dorsal carina. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AESHNIDAE 177 

Female. — Wings (PL xii, Fig. 3) with a brownish patch near 
the stigma; anal appendages flat, the tips rounded and margins 
setose (length i mm.) ; venter of eighth sternum not covered by 
the terga, but projecting ventrad, with a conspicuous median carina 
which forks cephalad. 

Measurements: total length, male 56, female 49-51 mm.; length 
of abdomen, male 38-44, female 38-40 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 31-36, female 31-36 mm.; width of hind wings, male 8-9, 
female 9.5-10 mm. 

Several specimens in the collection of the Connecticut Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station ; a male in the Yale University collec- 
tion. The variety antilope (Hagen) has a much slenderer abdo- 
men, and the tips of the inferior appendage of the male are much 
less widely separated. 

Connecticut. — Westville, 14 June, 1905 (W. E. B.), 2 June, 1908 
(B. H. W.) ; North Branford, 9 June. 1912 (B. H. W.) ; New Haven, 28 
July, 1914 (Q. S. L.) ; Lyme, 16 June, 1918 (M. P. Z.) ; New London, 6 
June, 1921 (R. H. H.) ; Hamden, 8 June, 1922 (P. G.) ; Haddam, 20 June, 
1926 (P. G.). 

New England. — May 4-July 28. 



Genus Anax Leach 

Nymphs. — Hind angles of the head viewed from above obtusely 
rounded; labial palpi rounded at end to a distinct internal hook; 
abdomen with lateral spines on segments 7-9, but no dorsal hooks. 

Adults. — Wings with upper half of arculus shorter than lower ; 
M2 making a sharp bend towards M^ at distal end of stigma; R3 
forked; several rows of cells between Rs and the supplementary 
sector ; triangle and supertriangle with cross- veins ; basilar space 
without cross-veins ; anal loop with several rows of cells ; cubito- 
anal cross-veins 3 or 5 ; anal angle of hind wings similar in the 
two sexes ; thorax uniform green ; abdomen with at least two 
lateral ridges on middle segments; inferior appendage of male 
entire. 

Key to Species 
Males and Females 

I. Dorsal surface of front without a black spot; hind femora 14-16 

mm. long longipes 

Dorsal surface of front with a black spot surrounded by a lighter 
area ; hind femora not over 11 mm. long Junius 

The adults of the genus are very strong fliers, not easily cap- 
tured. The species longipes is reported to occur only along the 
seacoast and has never, as far as I am aware, been taken very far 
inland. The nymphs inhabit small ponds and are climbers upon 
submerged vegetation like other Aeshnidae. The eggs are 
inserted into the stems of reeds or other plants beneath the surface 
of the water. 



178 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

Anax Junius (Drury) 

Illustrations of Natural History — Exotic Insects i : pi. 47, f . 5 : 1773. 
Nymph (PI. in, Fig. 5). — Color green, or brown, the young 
nymph with a darker transverse band across the abdomen. 

Head: labium (Pi. vi, Fig. 7) gradually contracted caudad and 
extending between the middle coxae or beyond ; labial palpi with 
sharp proximal segment ; dorsum of head flattened, antennae with 
the third segment longest, fourth shortest, the others subequal ; 
sides of labruni and caudo-lateral surfaces of the head granular. 
Thorax: pronotum without strongly projecting lateral angles, 
wing-cases extending to or nearly to the fifth abdominal segment 
in the full-grown nymph ; venation of the adult clearly indicated 
in older nymphs which affords a means of separating it from the 
nymphs of Aeshna. 

Abdomen : lateral spines on segments 7 to 9, the anal append- 
ages about as long as the last two segments in mature specimens ; 
segments 4 to 9 with a glabrous figure 8 scar shortly above the 
lateral keels ; ovipositor of the female about two-thirds the length 
of segment 9 ; proximal segment of the dorsal anal appendage of 
the male bluntly excavated at tip. 

Measurements ; exuviae : total length, 50-64 mm. ; length of 
abdomen, 29-35 mm.; hind femora, 11-12 mm.; median lobe of 
labium, 9.5-13 mm. long. 

Adult, male. — Color green and brown. 

Head : labium, labrum, clypeus and front, except the dorsal 
surface, yellowish green ; the dorsal surface of the front with a 
black, egg-shaped, central spot surrounded by a pale yellow semi- 
circle, and a black or brownish semicircle outside the yellow; 
median ocellus very large, above which is a transverse ridge with 
a lateral ocellus at either end ; occiput and postgenae mostly pale, 
yellow but dark just below the dorsal margins of the compound 
eyes. 

Thorax: prothorax brown, meso- and metathorax mostly pale 
green ; sclerites divided by distinct lines or spurious sutures ; the 
katepisterna and the areas surrounding the coxae brownish ; legs 
brown to black; coxae, trochanters, and sometimes the femora 
brown ; front femora yellowish below, and the trochanters with a 
small glabrous area on the ventral surface; tarsal claws with 
ventral tooth proximad of the middle; wings clear (PI. ix. Fig. 
2) with a decided brownish or yellowish tinge in most specimens; 
vein M2 has a sharp bend at the distal end of the stigma, supple- 
mentary sectors present between Rs and M3 and between M4 
and Cu^. 

Abdomen : first two segments bulbous, the diameter of the fol- 
lowing segments reduced to one-half or one-third that of the first 
two; segments i and 2 and part of 3 green or bluish, remainder 
of abdomen brown, blue on sides ; terga 4-7 each with two longi- 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AESHNIDAE 179 

tudinal ridges on either side, and a dorsal carina on 2-7 ; a trans- 
verse ridge on 2 which connects with the dorsal carina ; anal 
appendages consisting of a short, broad, pale inferior with short 
tubercles on the apical margin and dorsal surface; superiors (Fig. 
24, No. 5) about as long as segment 9 plus 10; they are nearly 
triangular in cross section, have a short tooth at the apex and a 
dense brush of hairs on the mesal surface near apex ; accessory 
genitalia almost hidden by the projecting terga. 

Female. — Head with two blunt teeth on the caudal margin of 
vertex, between the compound eyes; anal appendages lanceolate, 
measuring 5 mm. in length by i mm. in width. 

Measurements : total length, male 70-75, female 74 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 49-50, female 52 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 47-49, female 47-53 mm. ; length of stigma, male and female, 
6-7 mm. 

A fairly common species in Connecticut. 

Connecticut. — New Haven, 19 July, 1900 (W. E. B.) ; Whitneyville, 18 
July, 1904 (P. L. B.) ; Milford, 17 August, 1905 (H. L. V.) ; East Haven, 
21 July, 1920, 30 July, 1921 (P. G.) ; New London, 6-22 June, 1921 
(R. H. H.); Hamden, i May, 1927 (P. G.). 

New England. — May i-October 13. 

Anax longipes Hagen 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 118: 1861. 

This is a much larger species than Anax Junius, and has very 
long femora, the hind femora being 16 mm. long in some ; dorsum 
of the front without the dark marking of Junius; superior anal 
appendages of the male as in Fig. 24, No. 4. 

Measurements : total length, male 75-77, female 87 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 49-55, female 55 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 50, female 52 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 13.5, female 
14.5 mm.; length of hind femora, male 15-16, female 14 mm. 

New England. — August 25- August 27. 

Genus Aeshna Fabricius 

Njonphs. — Hind margins of the head obtusely rounded ; labial 
palpi (proximal segment) rounded or truncate at apex, there being 
a distinct internal tooth at apex ; abdomen with lateral spines on 
segments 6-9, but without dorsal hooks. 

Adults. — Wings with upper section of arculus shorter than 
lower; Mj not making a sharp bend towards M^ at end of stigma; 
Rs forked; several rows of cells between R3 and R supplement; 
triangle and supertriangle with cross-veins ; basilar space without 
cross-veins ; cubito-anal cross-veins 5-7 ; anal angle of hind wings 
dissimilar in the two sexes, the male with an anal triangle of 2 
cells; thorax not uniform green; abdomen with only one lateral 
ridge per segment ; inferior anal appendages of male entire. 



CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



[Bull. 



Nymphs of the genus are also climbers upon vegetation in small 
lakes or ponds. The adults are very strong fliers and able to elude 
the most persistent collector at times; and are most commonly 
seen on the wing in Connecticut the latter part of the summer, 
from the middle of July on. The eggs are laid upon various 
plants beneath the surface. 



Anterior lamina . L 



Spine <>- 




Fig. 25. Ventral view of the second abdominal segment of male Aeshnas 
showing details used in classification. 



The following groups of the genus Aeshna have been recognized by 
Walker, 1912. 

Group I. The caerulea group — a boreal or circumpolar group without 

representatives in Connecticut (p. 183). 
Group 2. The juncea group — including juncea (p. 183). 
Group 3. The clepsydra group — including clepsydra, eremita and inter- 

rupta, also canadensis, verticalis and tuberculifera (p. 183). 
Group 4. The cyanea group — including umbrosa and constricta (p. 189). 
Group 5. The californica group — without eastern representatives. 
Group 6. The multicolor group — including the eastern mutaia (p. 192). 

For literature pertaining to the genus see 

Walker, E. M. University of Toronto Studies No. 11, 1912: 213 pages, 
28 plates. 




Oviposito. -J ^- Lateral plate 



Fig. 26. Lateral view of terminal abdominal segments and ovipositor of 
female Aeshnas showing details used in classification. 

Key to Species 

Nymphs ^ 

I. Mentum extending to the hind coxae, and slightly exceeding the 

hind femora in length tuberculifera 

Mentum not reaching the hind coxae and shorter than the hind 
femora 2 



22 Taken from Walker, 19 12 — verticalis is unknown as a nymph. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AESHNIDAE l8l 

2. Mentiim more than half as broad at base as at apex; ovipositor of 

female not usually reaching the posterior margin of segment 9 

and never extending beyond it 3 

Mentum of labium not, or scarcely more than, half as broad at 
base as at apex 7 

3. Lateral spines present on abdominal segments S to 9 eremita 

Lateral spines present on abdominal segments 6 to 9 4 

4. Femora dark with three pale annuli ; abdomen marked with irreg- 

ular pale blotches on a darker ground color interrupta 

Femora uniform in color ; abdomen without irregular blotches, 
longitudinally striped 5 

5. Lateral lobes of labium (labial palpi) truncate; lateral spines on 

abdominal segment 6 rudimentary, distant from the caudal margin 

of the segment by at least four times their own length juncea 

Lateral lobes of labium not truncate, but curving to a prominent 
hook; lateral spines on segment 6 of the abdomen well developed, 
distant from the caudal margin by about their own length 6 

6. Lateral margins of the mentum of labium not arcuate at base; 

dark median band of the abdomen not deepened about the dorsal 

punctae clepsydra 

Lateral margins of the mentum of labium feebly arcuate at base; 
dark median band of the abdomen deepened about the dorsal 
punctae canadensis 

7. Lateral lobes of labium tapering to a slender, slightly hooked point ; 

legs uniformly colored; genitalia of female reaching caudad 

nearly or quite to the margin of segment 10 constricta 

Lateral lobes of labium squarely truncate ; femora and generally 
the tibiae also with alternate pale and dark annuli ; genitalia of 
female never reaching caudad to the middle of segment 10 umbrosa 

Adults, Males 

1. Anal triangle 2-celled; spines of anterior lamina directed ventrad 2 
Anal triangle 3-celled; spines of anterior lamina curved dorsad.. 8 

2. Hamular processes long and slender, separated from the hamular 

folds which are reduced ; spines of anterior lamina long, tapering 

to a fine point juncea 

Hamular processes short, continuous with the hamular folds, which 
are well developed; spines of anterior lamina short and straight 3 

3. Superior appendages with a prominent inferior basal tubercle ; 

abdominal segment 10 entirely black tuberculifera 

Superior appendages without a prominent inferior basal tubercle ; 
abdominal segment 10 with 2 dorsal spots sometimes united .... 4 

4. Lateral thoracic stripes either narrow and nearly straight or divided 

into two spots interrupta 

Lateral thoracic stripes broad and never divided into two spots . . 5 

5. Superior appendages each with a low inferior prominence at base, 

their apices rounded usually without a terminal spine, and their 

superior carina strongly elevated apically eremita 

Superior appendages each without a low inferior prominence at 
base, their apices acute with a terminal spine and their superior 
carina elevated moderately apically 6 

6. Fronto-clypeal suture with a black line ; pale spots between the 

pale thoracic stripes very large clepsydra 

Fronto-clypeal suture without a black line ; pale spots between the 
pale thoracic stripes small 7 

7. Cephalic margin of the first lateral stripe almost rectangularly 

sinuate ; superior carina of the superior appendages denticulate 

canadensis 



1 82 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Cephalic margin of the first lateral stripe not at all rectangularly 
sinuate; superior carina of the superior appendages not denticu- 
late verticalis 

8. First abdominal segment with a spinulose ventral tubercle ; dorsum 

of segment lo with a median and submedian tubercle; superior 

appendages each with a superior apical carina mutata 

First abdominal segment without a ventral spinulose tubercle; 
superior appendages without a superior apical carina, but with 
an anteapical internal tubercle and inferior spine 9 

9. Lateral thoracic bands i mm. wide, and surrounded by a dark 

brown or blackish margin; two large basal spots on venter of 

abdominal segments 4, 5 and 6 umbrosa 

Lateral thoracic bands broader and not margined with dark brown 
or black; venter of abdominal segments 4, 5 and 6 without pale 
spots constricta 

Females 

1. Abdominal segment i with a distinct ventral tubercle mutata 

Abdominal segment i without a tubercle at base _. • 2 

2. Basal plate of ovipositor bilobed; lateral genital plates absent, .juncea 
Basal plate of ovipositor not bilobed, its hind margin straight or 

slightly arcuate ; lateral genital plates present 3 

3. Styli shorter than the dorsum of segment 10; anal appendages less 

than 1.5 mm. broad, with apices rounded 4 

Styli as long as the dorsum of segment lo; anal appendages 1.5 to 

2 mm. broad, apices acute 9 

4. A black line present on fronto-clypeal suture 5 

No black line present on fronto-clypeal suture 7 

5. Thoracic stripes of the mesepisterna absent .or represented by an 

ill-defined spot on each; lateral thoracic stripes i mm. or less, 

often divided into two spots interrupta 

Thoracic stripes of the mesepisterna distinct, complete, or the upper 
end separated as a distinct spot ; lateral stripes more than i mm. 
broad and not divided into two spots 6 

6. First lateral or mesepimeral stripe not bent forward at the upper 

end ; spots between lateral stripes not large eremita 

First lateral or mesepimeral stripe bent forward at the upper end; 
spots between lateral stripes large and often united with the 
bands clepsydra 

7. Lateral thoracic stripes not margined with black; genital valves 

2-2.6 mm. long, bearing a minute brush of hairs at their apices 8 
Lateral thoracic stripes margined with black, genital valves 2.1-3 
mm. long, their apices without a minute brush of hairs umbrosa 

8. Metepimeral stripe curved ventrad at the upper end; the genital 

valves not ending abruptly canadensis 

Metepimeral stripe not curved ventrad at the upper end; groove 
of the genital valves ending abruptly some distance before the 
apices umbrosa 

9. First lateral stripe with dorso-cephalic margin straight, the stripe 

not usually giving off a posterior offshoot ; genital valves 3- 
3.5 mm. long, their apices with a minute brush of hairs tuberculifera 
First lateral stripe with the dorso-cephalic margin distinctly sinuate, 
the upper end giving off a small posterior offshoot ; second lateral 
or metepimeral stripe rapidly widened at the upper end ; _ genital 

valves 4-4.5 mm. long, their apices without a brush of hairs 

constricta 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AESHNIDAE 



183 



Group I. The Caerulia Group 
Aeshna caerulia septentrionalis Burmeister 
Handbuch der Entomologie II: 839; 1839. 

The only species in this group likely to be found in Connecticut 
is caerulia var. septentrionalis, the anal appendages of which are 
shown in Fig. 27. 





Fig. 27. Aeshna caerulia sep- Fig. 28. Aeshna juncea, anal 

tentrionalis, anal appendages and appendages and color pattern of 

color pattern of thorax. (From thorax. (From Howe.) 
Howe.) 

Group 2. The Juncea Group 

Aeshna juncea Linnaeus 

Although this species has been reported from Connecticut, the 
report has been found to be incorrect, and so far as known to the 
writer, no specimens have been captured in this State. The color 
pattern of the thorax and structure of the anal appendages are 
shown in Fig. 28. 



Group 3. The Clepsydra Group 
Aeshna canadensis Walker 

Canadian Entomologist, 40: 382, 389: 1908. 

Adult, male. — Color brown, marked with green or dark blue. 

Head : front green or blue, T-spot of the front with upright 
about as wide as the cross-arm and convex in front; ocellar area 
dark brown, rear of head black. 

Thorax: brown with blue or green markings, dorsal bands of 
the mesepisterna 3.6 by about i mm. sometimes invisible in pinned 
specimens (Fig. 29; Fig. 38, No. 6) ; mesepimeral pale stripe with 
cephalic margin bent caudad at middle, making the dorsal half of 
the stripe about half as wide as the ventral ; a small pale spot mid- 
way between metathoracic spiracle and wing base ; metepimeral 
stripe with somewhat irregular margins, and widened at wing 
bases ; legs brown, tarsi and ventral surfaces of the femora 
darker ; wings hyaline, stigma brown. 



184 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Abdomen: marked with blue and yellow; only the median 
dorsal spots are yellow, the rest are blue; segment 10 with a 
prominent tubercle on dorso-meson; anal appendages (Fig. 29) 
dark brown, the superiors in dorsal view with gently curved 
lateral margins, the mesal margins nearly parallel to the lateral 
margins on the distal two-thirds, the margins bent laterad, and 
the appendage contracted in the basal third; in lateral view the 
dorsal carina of the superiors becomes more prominent on the 
distal fourth of the appendage and has 5 or 6 indefinite denticles ; 
tips of superiors acute, bent ventrad ; inferior appendage about 
three-fifths as long as the superiors and with two upcurved spines 
on the blunt apex. 

Female. — Most of the blue color pattern of the male usually 
replaced by green but there is considerable variation; the dorsal 
mesepisternal pale stripes are less definite than in the male ; wings 
sometimes flavescent; superior anal (Fig. 29) appendages bluntly 
pointed, the margins gently arcuate. 




Fig. 29. Aeshna canadensis, anal 
appendages and color pattern of 
thorax. (From Howe.) 

Measurements -.^^ total length, male 69, female 67 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 46-51, female 45-49 mm.; length of hind 
wings, male 43, female 42-47 mm.; width of hind wings, male 
13-14, female 13-14 mm.; length of stigma, male 3-3.5, female 
3.7-4.3 mm. 

Connecticut.— Litchfield, 22 August, 1915 (L. B. W.). 

New England. — June 22-September 26. 

Aeshna clepsydra Say 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8:12: 1839. 

Nymph. — Color brown with distinct longitudinal pale stripes. 

Head: mentum about three-fifths as wide at base as at apex; 
basal segment of the palpi forming a broadly curved hook, not at 
all truncate; caudo-lateral margins of the head broadly rounded. 

» Walker, E. M., North American Dragonflies of the Genus Aeshna, p. 141. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AESHNIDAE 185 

Thorax: femora uniform brown; wing-cases just reaching 
segment 5 of the abdomen. 

Abdomen: with a dark mid-dorsal stripe flanked on either side 
by a pale stripe of about the same width or a little less ; a wide 
pale stripe on either side just above the lateral keels ; lateral spines 
present on segments 6-9 inclusive, those on 6 reaching half way 
to the caudal margin of the segment,'/ just reaching the caudal 
margin, and those of segments 8 and 9 reaching considerably 
beyond those margins. 

Measurements : total length, 36 mm. ; length of abdomen, 
20 mm. ; length of hind femora, 6 mm. ; metathoracic wing-cases, 
8 mm. ; length of mentum, 6.5 mm., greatest width, 5, width at 
base, 3 mm. 

Described from a nymph collected in Hamden, 1923, and agree- 
ing in all particulars with that described as clepsydra by Walker 
(1912). 







Fig. 30. Aeshna clepsydra, anal 
appendages and color pattern of 
thorax. (From Howe.) 

Adult, male. — Preocular band somewhat wider at the base of 
the antennae than one of the ocelli ; narrowed to a fine line on the 
sides; T-spot very heavy, the crossbar strongly convex in front 
2.5-3 mm., stem .75-1.3 mm. 

Thorax : color pattern as in Fig. 30 being different in marking 
from all other species of Aeshna; anal triangle of the hind wings 
with two cells. 

Abdomen : auricles with 3, rarely 4 teeth ; spines of the anterior 
lamina short and blunt, directed ventrad and caudad, not project- 
ing below the tergal margins ; hamular processes directed mesad 
and cephalad with bluntly pointed apices and without a distinct 
apical tubercle ; hamular folds continuous with the processes but 
distinctly marked off from them, ear-shaped, the outer margins 
straight, parallel, or slightly divergent, inner margins closely 
approximate. Superior anal appendages as in Fig. 30. Abdomen 
with large blue spots, 9 and 10 each with a large dorsal blue spot; 
8 with small cephalo-lateral and large caudo-dorsal ; 4-7 with two 
cephalo-lateral very irregular spots and a caudo-dorsal ; 3 with 
large lateral spot occupying the cephalic half of the lateral surface, 



1 86 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

a spot just behind the median transverse ridge and an apical ring ; 
second segment with two lateral spots ; segment i with one spot 
on each side. 

Female. — Color pattern as shown in Fig. 30; Fig. 38, No. i. 

Head : line of contact of eyes longer than the vertex ; distance 
from hind margin of vertex to the frontal vesicle more than 
2 mm. ; T-spot of front with the stem as wide or wider than the 
cross-arm ; f ronto-clypeal suture brown. 

Thorax: wings not flavescent; fork of Rs symmetrical; super- 
triangular areas with 2-3 cross-veins ; thoracic bands very irreg- 
ular, particularly the lateral ones. 

Abdomen : about 5 times as long as the thorax ; superior anal 
appendages i mm. in width by 5 in length, widest about the middle, 
the tips rounded ; ovipositor without bilobed basal plates, the 
lateral plates visible only at base of the segment; lateral valves 
not flattened beneath, but broadly sulcate about .5 mm. from tip; 
tip with a pencil of hairs ventrad of styli ; styli less than i mm. 
long and much shorter than the dorsum of segment 10. 

Measurements : total length, male 66, female 69 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 45-59, female 47 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 40-47, female 44 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 12-13, 
female 13-14 mm. 

Connecticut. — Stonington, 8 August, 1906 (J. A. H.) ; Litchfield, 19 
September, 1908, 22 August, 2 September, 1910 (L. B. W.) ; Mansfield, 16 
August, 5 October (J. A. M.). 

New England. — July 6-October 9. 




Fig. 31. Aeshna eremita, anal 
appendages and color pattern of 
thorax. (From Howe.) 

Aeshna eremita Scudder 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, 10: 213: 1866. 

This species has not yet been found in Connecticut but very 
possibly occurs in the northern part of the State. Structure of 
the anal appendages and color pattern are shown in Fig. 31. It 
ilies from August to October. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AESHNIDAE 



187 



Aeshna interrupta var, interrupta Walker 

Canadian Entomologist, 40: 381, 387, 450, PI. 10, Fig. 3: 1908. 

A species not yet found in Connecticut. Structure of anal 
appendages and color pattern of thorax represented in Fig. 32. It 
flies from July to September, 




Fig. 32. AesJma interrupta, an- 
al appendages and color pattern. 
(From Howe.) 



Aeshna tuberculifera Walker 
Canadian Entomologist, 40: 385: 1908. 

Adult, male. — Color brown to black with green or blue mark- 
ings. 

Head : preocular band usually less than twice as broad as the 
first antennal segment ; T-spot 2.3-3 mni., stem .4-.75 mm. broad 
in front, .8-1 mm. behind, sides generally straight and more or 
less divergent. 




Fig. Z2i- Aeshna tuberculifera, 
anal appendages and color pattern 
of thorax. (From Howe.) 

Thorax : color pattern as in Fig. 33 ; dorsal mesepisternal bands 
pea-green, nearly straight, 3.5-4 mm. long, .75-1 mm. broad at 
middle, lower ends pointed ; lateral bands blue above, fading into 
pale green below; first lateral band 1-1.5 mm. broad in lower 
third, narrowing to about i mm. in upper half ; metathoracic band 
1. 3-1. 5 mm. broad; anal triangle of wings 2-celled. 



1 88 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Abdomen : Auricles with 4 or 5 teeth, spines of anterior lamina 
short and blunt, not reaching back to the hamular folds ; hamular 
processes short and very broad, directed mesad, the cephalo-ventral 
surfaces flat, caudo-mesal margins arcuate, apices bluntly obtuse- 
angulate with no indication of a tubercle, hamular folds continuous 
with hamular process not so closely approximate behind as in 
clepsydra or allied species ; margins thickened, outer margins 
parallel; color pattern as in Fig. 38, No. 2; anal appendages as 
in Fig. 33. 

Female. — Head : distance from caudal margin of the vertex to 
the frontal vesicle about 3.5 mm. 

Thorax : supratriangular space of wings with 2-3 cross-veins ; 
distal margin of the anal loop as long as the proximal margin of 
the triangle ; wings very slightly flavescent at base and along the 
costal margin. 

Abdomen: nearly five times as long as the thorax; superior 
anal appendages 7 mm. long by 1.5 mm. wide, widest before the 
middle and tapering from the widest point to a blunt-pointed apex ; 
ovipositor large, the basal plates not bilobed ; lateral plates visible 
for about half the length of segment 9; lateral gonapophyses 
broad, not flattened or sulcate beneath, and with a pencil of hairs 
at tip beneath the styli; styli 1-1.5 mm. long, being about the 
length of the dorsum of segment 10. 

Measurements: total length, male 72, female 71 mm.; length 
of abdomen, male 47-52.5, female 45-54.5 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 45.5-49 mm., female 44-50.5 mm. ; width of hind 
wings, male 13-14.5, female 12-14.5 mm. 

Connecticut. — Scotland, 25 July, 1904 (B. H. W.) ; Litchfield, 3, 31 
August, 1908 (L. B. W.). 

New England. — July 25 to September 23. 

Aeshna verticalis Hagen 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 122: 1861. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown, marked with green and blue. 

Head: line of contact of the compound eyes longer than the 
vertex; T-spot of the front with a very wide cross-arm and the 
upright expanded at base. 

Thorax : wings with anal triangle two-celled ; distal side of the 
anal loop equal in length to the proximal side of the triangle ; 
lateral thoracic stripes (Fig. 34) of the mesepimera 1.5 mm. wide 
below, the upper half considerably narrower. 

Abdomen : first segment without a distinct ventral tubercle ; 
length of abdomen 4 times that of the thorax; abdominal spots 
blue (arranged as in Fig. 38, No. 5) ; superior anal appendages 
(Fig. 34) flat, the tips acute and slightly decurved, a dorsal carina 
present on each ; length 5 mm. ; greatest width i mm. ; inferior 
appendage triangular, 2.5 mm. long by i mm. wide at base; pro- 
vided with 2 minute recurved, approximate teeth at the apex. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AESHNIDAE 189 

Female. — Color similar to the male; pattern as shown in 
Fig. 34. 

Head : distance from the hind margin of the vertex to frontal 
vesicle more than 2 mm. 

Thorax : wings with Rs fork symmetrical ; supratriangular area 
with 3 cross-veins; lateral thoracic bands 1.7 mm. broad below, 
narrowed to i mm. above. 

Abdomen: first segment without ventral tubercle; about four 
times as long as thorax ; superior anal appendages not over i mm. 
in width and rounded at tips. Ovipositor without bilobed basal 
plate, the lateral plates almost or entirely invisible ; lateral valves 
flattened and sulcate beneath, and with a pencil of hairs at tip ; 
styli .6 mm. long, not as long as dorsum of segment 10. 




Fig. 34. Aeshna verticalis, anal 
appendages and color pattern of 
thorax. (From Howe.) 

Measurements : total length, male 62-68, female 60-63 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 47, female 47-50 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 45, female 43-46 mm.; width of hind wings, male 14, 
female 14 mm. 

Connecticut. — New Haven, 26 September, 1903 (W. E. B.) ; Scotland, 
25 July, 1904 (B. H. W.) ; Salisbury, 27 August, 1904; New Canaan, 14 
September. 1905 (W. E. B.) ; Twin Lakes, 20 August, 1921 (P. G.) ; 
Litchfield. 19 September, 1908 (L. B. W.). 

New England. — July 17-October 2. 

Group 4. The Cyanea Group 

Aeshna constricta Say 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8: ii : 1839. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown marked with green and blue. 

Head: line of contact of the compound eyes longer than the 
vertical triangle; distance from the hind margin of the vertical 
triangle to the frontal vesicle more than 2 mm. ; cross-arm of 
frontal T wider than the upright; preocellar transverse band 
narrow. 



igo CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Thorax: wings with fork of Ra symmetrical; supratriangular 
space with 2-3 cross-veins ; anal triangle composed of 3 cells ; 
distal side of the anal loop as long as the proximal side of the 
triangle; thoracic stripes (Fig. 35) green, the mesepimeral or 
first lateral stripe 6 mm. by i mm., with a small caudal projection 
at the upper end; dorsal stripes somewhat cuneiform, 1.5 mm. 
wide at the dorsal end ; metepimeral stripe similar to the mes- 
epimeral, but a trifle shorter, two or three small dots present 
between the lateral stripes; paraptera green, mesa- and metanota 
blue (Fig. 38, No. 4). 

Abdomen: four times as long as the thorax; first abdominal 
segment without a ventral projection; superior anal appendages 
(Fig. 35) 5-5.5 mm. in length with a sharp ventro-apical tooth 
and distinct latero-ventral carinae ; length of inferior appendages 
2-3 mm., width at base i mm., at tip .5 mm., the tip with 2 small 
upturned teeth. 




Fig. 35. Aeshna constricta, anal 
appendages and color pattern of 
thorax. (From Howe.) 



Female. — Color similar to the male. 

Head : similar to the male. 

Thorax: with lateral stripes nearly 2 mm. in width, and a 
prominent caudal oflfshoot at the upper end (Fig. 35). 

Abdomen: lateral valves of ovipositor with prominent lateral 
carinae, and without a pencil of hairs at tip ; the styli longer than 
the dorsum of segment 10; lateral lobes visible, basal lobes not 
bilobed. Superior anal appendages 6.5 mm. long by 2 mm. broad, 
acutely pointed, widest proximad of the middle. 

Measurements : total length, male 65-66, female 64 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 50-51, female 45 mm.; length of hind wings, 
male 43-46, female 45 mm.; width of hind wings, male 13-14. 
female 15 mm. 

Connecticut. — Litchfield, 7 September, 1910 (L. B. W.). 

New England. — June 19-October. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AESHNIDAE I9I 

Aeshna umbrosa Walker 

Canadian Entomologist, 40: 380, 390: 1908. 

N)niiph (PI. Ill, Fig. i). — Color dark brown or buff-colored, 
without definite stripes. 

Head: mentum (PI. vi, Fig. 5) less than twice as wide at base 
as at apex; the labial palpi (Fig. 7, No. 5) squarely truncate at 
apex of proximal segment ; labium not extending to the meta- 
coxae. 

Thorax: rather prominent projections over the procoxae; legs 
uniform brown or indefinitely marked with pale rings on femora 
and tibiae ; wing-cases extending to the middle of segment 4 in 
full-grown specimens. 

Abdomen : with lateral spines on segments 6-9 inclusive, uni- 
form brown in color. 

Measurements : total length, 46 mm. ; length of abdomen, 27 
mm. ; length of hind femora, 8 mm. ; length of mentum, 7 mm. 



Fig. 36. Aeshna umbrosa, anal 
appendages and color pattern of 
thorax. (From Howe.) 

Described from a nymph collected at Litchfield, Connecticut, July 13, 
1922, and the exuviae of a reared nymph collected in Hamden, Connecticut, 
July, 1923, emerging July 26, 1923. 

Adult, male (PI. xviii, b). — Color dark brown, marked with 
yellowish green. 

Head: occiput one-third to one-half as long as the line of 
contact between the eyes ; face brown, the lateral margins next 
the compound eyes pale; no black stripe on the fronto-clypeal 
suture. 

Thorax: lateral pale stripes (Fig. 36; Fig. 38, No. 3) less than 
2 mm. wide, usually about 1.5 mm., yellowish green or buff sur- 
rounded by dark brown, the dorsal bands yellowish green, the 
cephalic ends pointed and separated by about 4 mm. ; remainder 
of the thorax uniform dark brown ; anal triangle of the hind wings 
3-celled. 

Abdomen : strongly constricted at segment 3, the color pattern 



192 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

as in Fig. 38, No. 3 ; pale marks greatly reduced and mostly green 
or buff; large bluish spots are present below the carinae on seg- 
ments 4 to 8; dorsum of segment 10 smooth, without a median 
spine; lateral carinae of segments 6 and 7 decidedly sinuate; anal 
appendages (Fig. 36) with a prominent subapical tooth, directed 
ventro-mesad, each appendage emarginate and with a tuft of hairs 
proximad of the tooth. 

Female. — Color similar to the male. 

Head: distance from the hind margin of the vertex to the 
frontal vesicle more than 2 mm. 

Abdomen: superior anal (Fig. 36) appendages approximately 
I mm. in width, the tips pointed; basal plates of the ovipositor 
not distinctly bilobed, the caudal margin sinuate; lateral plates 
visible for about half the length of segment 9 ; lateral valves with 
a conspicuous lateral carina which curves onto the ventral surface ; 
ventral surface of the valves deeply sulcate at apices, the tips with- 
out conspicuous pencils of hairs ; styli i mm. or less in length, or 
considerably less than the length of the dorsum of segment 10. 

Measurements : total length, male 74, female 60-69 n^"^- 5 length 
of abdomen, male 50, female 45-47 mm.; length of hind wings, 
male 43, female 44-48 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 13, female 
13-15 mm. 

Connecticut. — New Haven, 18 July, 1905 (H. Lange) ; September, 1920, 
18 August, 1921 (P. G.) ; Westville, 11 August, 1913 (L. B. R.) ; Plain- 
ville, 25 June, 1921 (W. E. B.) ; Twin Lakes, 20 August, 1921 (P. G.) ; 
Storrs. 5 October, 1923 (J. Cronin) ; Litchfield. 19 August, 1909, 22, 24 
July, 1910 (L. B. W.). 

New England. — May 6-November i. 




Fig. 2)7 • Aeshna niutata, anal 
appendages and color pattern of 
thorax. (From Howe.) 

Group 6. The Multicolor Group 
Aeshna mutata Hagen 
Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 124: 1861. 
Not yet found in Connecticut but details of structure and color 
pattern of thorax may be seen in Fig. 37. 



No. 39] 



ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AESHNIDAE 



193 



Genus Nasiaeschna Selys 

Njmiphs. — Head with obtusely angulate caudo-lateral margins; 
proximal segment of labial palpus truncate at apex; mental cleft 
open ; lateral spines on segments 5-9, and dorsal hooks represented 
on all segments but more prominent on segments 6-9. 

Adults. — Wings with cephalic section of arculus longer than 
the caudal; M^ not making a sharp bend distad of stigma; Rs 




Fig. 38. Color pattern of abdomen and thorax of six species of Aeshna. 



forked and only one row of cells between it and the supplementary 
sector ; triangle and supertriangle with cross-veins ; basilar space 
free ; anal loop with about 7 cells ; cubito-anal cross-veins 3 ; 
anal angle of hind wings dissimilar in the two sexes, the anal 
triangle composed of 3 cells ; thorax not uniform green ; abdomen 
with a single lateral ridge per segment; inferior appendage of 
male entire. 

Adults of the only representative of the genus appear on the 



194 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

wing much like other Aeschnidae, particularly Aeshna species. 
The only specimen in the collection of the Experiment Station was 
taken at Litchfield along the slow-flowing outlet of Bantam Lake. 
The species was found flying back and forth over a given "beat," 
keeping well to the middle of the stream. In contrast to most 
other Aeshnids, the species is apparently most common in June or 
the early part of the summer. 

Nasiaeschna pentacantha Rambur 

Histoire naturelle des insectes. Neuropteres, 208: 1842. 

Nymph (PI. iii, Fig. 2). — Color very dark brown, tarsal seg- 
ments yellowish. 

Head : labium with mentum extending between the mesocoxae, 
the median lobe with a closed median cleft, and setose distal 
margin ; proximal segments of palpi with blunt projections pro- 
vided with an inturned hook at apex and with small rounded 
teeth on the mesal margins ; antennae with the 6th segment long- 
est, segments 3-6 being pale with apices of 5 and 6 dark ; two 
tubercles on the head about i mm. above the bases of the antennae, 
and separated from one another by less than i mm. ; the lateral 
margins of the head each with a similar tubercle; dorso-lateral 
angles of the eyes separated by about 1.5 mm. 

Thorax: pronotum with four distinct elevations on the dorsal 
surface, the lateral margins flaring; propleura with two blunt 
projections above each procoxa. Meso- and metapleura also with 
several slight elevations resembling tubercles and projections 
(smaller than those over procoxae) above meso- and metacoxae; 
legs distinctly carinate, especially the femora, which are sometimes 
also provided with furrows. 

Abdomen: lateral keels with spinous projections on segments 
5-9 inclusive, and mid-dorsal projections on segment 5 or 6-9; 
anal appendages consisting of very short laterals (less than i mm.) 
and much longer dorsal and ventral appendages, approximately 
3 mm. in the specimen studied. 

Cuticle decidedly granular in appearance under the microscope, 
due to minute setae. 

Measurements ; immature nymph : total length, yj mm. ; abdo- 
men, 25 mm. ; greatest width, 7 mm. ; hind femur, 4.5 mm. ; 
width of head across the eyes, 7 mm. ; mentum, 6 mm. long by 
2.5-4.5 mm. wide; length of metathoracic wing-cases, 4.5 mm. 

Described from a specimen obtained from Dr. P. P. Calvert, 
taken at Go Home Bay, Ontario, Canada, 1909. 

Adult, male (PI. xviii, a). — Color dark brown marked with 
green. 

Head : clypeus, labrum and labium light green ; cephalic surface 
of front green, dorsal surface bluish, vertex and occiput dark 
brown, postgenae lighter on sides; antennae black; compound 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: AESHNIDAE 195 

eyes contiguous on the meson for about 2 mm. ; caudal surface 
of the occiput with a small tubercle. 

Thorax: brown marked with three wide green stripes on each 
side ; green stripe of the mesepisternum about i mm. wide by 
4 mm. long and considerably widened near the wing bases ; a broad 
green stripe occupying most of the mesepimera and part of the 
metepisterna about 2 mm. wide by 7 mm. long, the cephalic border 
of the stripe broken at middle, the dorsal half of margin much 
further caudad ; green stripe of the metepimera 1.5 by 6 mm. 
long ; venter of thorax mostly brown with some green behind 
the metacoxae ; legs black or brown, the femora and tibiae each 
with two rows of short spines beneath, claws with ventral tooth 
at middle; wings (PI. viii. Fig. 3) clear, with 16-18 ante- and 
16-17 postnodal cross-veins in the front wings, the triangles with 
2 to 3 cross-veins in the front wings and with 3-4 cells in the 
hind ; anal loop of hind wings consisting of 7-9 cells ; stigma 
surmounting 23^ to 3^ cells in the front wing and about 4 in 
the hind ; antenodal cross-veins of the second series pale in color. 

Abdomen: brown in dried specimens with green on the sides 
of 2 and 3 at least ; auricles of 2 very prominent, the caudal 
margins of each bearing about 10 spines ; terga 2-8 with trans- 
verse furrows ; 3-8 with a single lateral carina on each side ; a 
prominent dorsal carina on terga 3-10; superior anal appendages 
about 3.5 mm. long and black; in dorsal view considerably 
expanded just beyond middle ; inferiors entire, with two small 
teeth at the apex. 

Female. — Diflfers from the male in not having the face concave ; 
anal appendages brown, a little longer than the last segment, short, 
thin, straight and pointed. 

Measurements : total length, male 72 mm. ; length of abdomen, 
male 51-55, female 47 mm.; length of hind wings, male 45-48, 
female 50 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 12 mm. 

A single male taken at Breakneck Pond, Union, Conn., June 24, 
1921, by Mr. S. W. Bromley, belongs here. Also one male from 
Litchfield, 14 June, 1925 (P. G.). 

New England. — June 14-July 9. 

Genus Epiaeschna Selys 

Nymphs. — Hind angles of the head obtusely rounded ; proximal 
segments of labial palpi sharply truncate at tip, with a strong 
internal hook ; antennae with six segments ; abdomen with lateral 
spines on segments 5-9 and with an obtuse mid-dorsal ridge, but 
no hooks. 

Adults. — Wings with upper half of arculus as long as lower; 
Mo not making a sharp bend towards M^ at distal end of stigma; 
Rs forked; only two rows of cells between Rs and supplementary 
radius; triangle and supertriangle with cross-veins, basilar space 



196 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

free ; cubito-anal cross-veins 3-5 ; anal loop with 2 rows of cells ; 
anal angle of hind wings dissimilar in the two sexes, the anal 
triangle of the male with 3 cells ; thorax not uniform green ; abdo- 
men with only one lateral ridge per segment; inferior anal 
appendages of male entire. 

Very little is known of the habits of the genus, either adult or 
nymph. Needham (1901) says of the one species heros: "Its 
strikingly large size, and its habit of flying into houses not unfre- 
quently, and its apparent migrations in numbers, have made it a 
rather well known species." 

Epiaeschna heros (Fabricius) 

Supplementum Entomologiae Systematicae, 285 : 1798. 

N5miph. — Color dark brown. 

Head: granular above, the sides behind the eyes somewhat 
angular; antennal segments 3, 5, and 6 equal in length and i, 2, 
and 4 also equal ; labium extending to the middle coxae, the inner 
margins of the labial palpi coarsely toothed (PI. vi. Fig. 2), much 
more so than any other member of this family. 

Thorax: projections over the procoxae prominent; pronotum 
granular. 

Abdomen: lateral spines prominent on segments 5 to 9 and a 
dorsal ridge on segments 8 to 10; terminal appendages with the 
superior and inferiors subequal, the lateral appendages about half 
this length ; ovipositor of the female as long as segment 9. 

Measurements : total length, about 47 mm. ; abdomen, 30 mm. ; 
hind femora, 7 mm.; wing-cases, lo-ii mm.; mentum, 8.5 mm, 
long by 5.75 mm. wide at widest portion. 

Specimens in the Museum of Comparative Zoology examined. 

Adult, male. — Color brown, marked with green. 

Head : labium brown, green at sides ; clypeus green above, front 
brown, with green ventral border and two green spots on dorsal 
surface ; frontal vesicle bilobed, green between the lobes ; vertex 
greenish yellow, rear of the head yellow below ; black above. 

Thorax: prothorax brown, meso- and metathorax brown and 
green, the dorsal mesepisternal stripes pointed below, expanded 
above, being i mm. wide at middle and 1.5 mm. at the upper end; 
first lateral or epimeral green stripe 2 mm. wide in its ventral 
half, somewhat narrower in its dorsal half, with a notch at middle 
on the cephalic border, length 7 mm. ; metepimeral stripes 2 mm. 
broad, the borders straight and parallel ; paraptera of metathorax 
green, and a small green spot on metepi sternum just ventrad ; 
mesoparaptera brown ; base of wings, meso- and metanota marked 
with green ; legs black, the coxae and trochanters but little lighter ; 
femora with double rows of short spines beneath; front tibiae 
with about 12 flat scales in cephalic row, meso- and metatibiae with 
12-14 setae in each of the two rows. Tarsi with distal segment 
as long as the first two together ; wings. Fig. 39, slightly flaves- 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT : AESHNIDAE 



197 



cent, tips sometimes darker, the nodus, antenodal veins of the 
second series and the R-M cross-veins almost white, remaining 
veins brown ; anal triangle composed of 3 cells ; cubito-anal cross- 




FiG. 39. Epiaeschna heros. Tracing from photograph mainly to show 
wing venation and general structure of body. Left wings and right legs 
removed (x 1.4). 



veins 3-5, supertriangular spaces with 3-5 cross-veins; not more 
than 2 rows of cells between Rs and R supplement; stigma 
supported by 4-6 cross-veins. 



198 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull 

Abdomen : green and brown ; margin of the auricles continuous 
with a ridge which extends ventrad to apex of the genital lobes ; 
latero-ventral carinae of 3-8, and dorsal carinae of 2-9 minutely- 
serrate ; median transverse furrows present on segments 2-8 ; 
terga 2-8 not meeting on the ventro-meson by .5-1 mm., the sterna 
therefore exposed ; loth tergum with a conspicuous dorsal median 
tooth ; superior anal appendages 7-8 mm. long, contracted at base 
and with a blunt ventral tubercle ; distal two-thirds with a dorsal 
carina, the tips bluntly pointed and the mesal margin of the apical 
half densely setose ; inferior appendage half as long as the supe- 
riors, the dorsal surface excavated, the tips with two sharp, well- 
separated, recurved teeth ; accessory genital appendages composed 
of two short hooks on segment i, short nodular hamules, and 
genital lobes projecting but little below the margins of the tergum. 
Color pattern consisting of narrow basal median and apical green 
rings on terga 2-7 ; basal and apical rings on 8, apical ring on 9, 
and sometimes the sides of 10 also green (dried specimens). 

Female. — Color entirely brown in specimens at hand. 

Head : caudal margin of the vertex between the compound eyes 
with a U-shaped emargination ; wings with rounded anal angles. 

Abdomen : with terga approximate on ventro-meson of 7, not 
usually contiguous on the remaining segments; visible part of 
ninth sternum triangular, projecting ventrad and with a mesal 
carina ; superior anal appendages about 7 mm. long by 2 mm. 
broad, lanceolate, the tips broadly rounded ; ovipositor with a con- 
spicuous carina on the lateral valves, the lateral plates visible for 
one-third the length of 9; styli a little more than .7 mm. long. 

Measurements : total length, male 85, female 87 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 57-59, female 56-58 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 53-54, female 55-57 mm.; width of hind wings, male 15-16, 
female 15-16 mm.; length of stigma, male 4.5-5, female 5.5-6 mm. 

Connecticut. — New Haven, 24 May, 1912 (H. B. K.), 28 July, 1914 
(Q. S. L.) ; North Branford, 9 June, 1912 (B. H. W.) ; Lyme, 16 June, 
1918 (M. P. Z.); Storrs, 1925 (A. Bulbulian). 

New England. — May 24- September. 

Family LIBELLULIDAE Rambur 

Owing to a close similarity between the Cordulinae and Libellu- 
linae, it has been impossible to make an entirely satisfactory key 
to the subfamilies as they stand. To overcome this difficulty, a 
key to tribes has been constructed which, it is hoped, will enable 
beginners to determine more accurately the systematic positions of 
species of the larger groups. 

The family divisions given by Tillyard are listed below, together 
with the genera occurring in this locality. The Sympetrini and 
Leucorrhiniini have been combined because of difficulties encoun- 
tered in separating them with the usual characters. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 199 

Nymphs of the family are in general characterized by the mask- 
like labium which covers the front of the head up to the antennae. 

Adults also have a mask, the palpi meeting in a line on the 
meson. 

Subfamily Cordulinae 

1. Macromiini Macromia, Didymops 

2. EucoRDULiiNi Somatochlora, CorduUa, Tctragoneuria, 

Neuro-, Doro-, Helo- and Epicordulia, 
Williamsonia 

Subfamily Libellulinae 

1. Libellulini Plathemis, Lihellula 

2. Palpopleurini Perithemis 

3. Brachydiplacini Nannothcmis 

4. Sympetrini Erythrodiplax, Pachydiplax, Sympetrum, 

Erythemis, Celithemis, Leucorrhinia 

5. Trameini Tramea, Pantala 

Subfamilies Cordulinae and Libellulinae 

Key to Tribes 
Nymphs 

1. Head with a prominent frontal horn MACROMnNi, p. 201 

Head without a prominent frontal horn 2 

2. Lateral spines of abdominal segment 8 as long as segment 9 or 

longer; without dorsal hooks on 5-7 Trameini, p. 288 

Lateral spines of abdominal segment 8 shorter than the length of 
segment 9 or absent ; if with long lateral spines as above, then 
with dorsal hooks on segments 5-7 3 

3. Superior terminal appendage as long as the inferiors (Nannothe- 

mis) Brach YDiPLACTNi, p. 259 

Superior terminal appendage not so long as the inferiors 4 

4. Length of the labial palpus from lateral point of articulation with 

the mentum to base of movable spine or hook (distal segment 
one-fourth to one-fifth longer than the distance from the articu- 
lation to the internal angle) ; also longer than the distance from 
the point of articulation to the base of the mentum (Fig. 66) 

(Perithemis) Palpopleurini, p. 257 
Length of labial palpus from lateral point of articulation with the 
mentum to base of movable spine or hook usually shorter than 
the distance from articulation to the internal angle (occasionally 
slightly longer but not one-fourth or one-fifth longer) ; usually 
shorter than the distance from the articulation to the base of 
mentum 5 

5. Length of segment 10 plus the terminal appendages measured on 

the mid-ventral line shorter than segment 9 ; lateral terminals 
nearly or quite as long as the dorsal, never less than half as long 

Eucorduliini, p. 206 
Length of segment 10 plus the terminal appendages measured on 
the mid-ventral line as long or longer than segment 9 ; lateral 
terminals usually not over half as long as the dorsal 6 



CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



[Bull. 



Abdomen lanceolate in outline, not abruptly but slowly narrowed to 
the tip ; hind margins of the eyes viewed from above before the 
middle of the head; labium of characteristic form as shown in 

Plate VII, Figs, i, S ; length full-grown, more than 21 mm 

LrBELLULiNi, p. 240 

Abdomen not lanceolate in outline, abruptly narrowed at the caudal 
end ; hind margins of the eyes viewed from above, at, or behind 
the middle of the head; labium not as shown in PI. vii, Figs, i, 

5 ; nymphs of small size not measuring over 21 mm 

Sympetrini, p. 261 




b LIbellula 



Fig. 40. Thoraces of representative Cordulinae (a), and Libellulinae (b), 
showing differences in curvature of the mesopleural suture. 



4- 



Adults 

Front margins of the triangle of the front wings broken (PI. xii. 
Fig. 2) Brachydiplacini, p. 259 

Front margins of the triangle of the front wings continuous 2 

Proximal side of the triangle of the hind wings distad of the 
arculus ; anal loop not foot-like in the hind wings (PI. xi. 
Fig. I ) Macromiini, p. 201 

Proximal side of the triangle of the hind wings in line with or 
proximad of the arculus ; anal loop foot-like in the hind wings 3 

Hind wings 15 to 20 mm. wide at base (PI. xv, Nos. i, 2) ; dorsal 
carina distinct on segments 3 to 8 of the abdomen ; proximal 
and distal margins of the stigma not parallel Trameini, p. 288 

Hind wings less than 15 mm. wide at base; if approaching 15 mm. 
in width, then either without a distinct carina on all the seg- 
ments 3 to 8, or with the proximal and distal margins of stigma 
parallel 4 

M2 with a decided bend at middle (PI. xv, Fig. 3) Libellulini, p. 240 

M2 without a decided bend at middle S 

Caudal margin of pronotum entire and without a long fringe of 
hairs ; mesopleural suture as in Fig. 40, a ; colors usually metal- 
lic blue or green Eucorduliini, p. 206 

Caudal margin of pronotum bilobed and with a long fringe of 
hairs ; mesopleural suture as in Fig. 40, b ; colors not usually 
metallic blue or green 6 

Sexes strongly dimorphic in wing color ; hind wings not over 20 
mm. in length (PI. xin, Figs. 2, 4) Palpopleurini, p. 257 

Sexes not strongly dimorphic in wing color ; hind wings usually 
more than 20 mm. in length (PI. xiv, Fig. 3) ...Sympetrini, p. 261 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 201 

Subfamily Cordulinae Selys 

The nymphs are closely allied to the Libellulinae, being sepa- 
rable largely by the longer lateral and terminal appendages. 
Some genera are more easily recognized by the presence of a 
frontal horn on the head. 

The adults are also closely related to the Libellulinae, from 
which they may be distinguished by tubercular or ear-shaped pro- 
jections on the side of segment 2 of the male abdomen and the 
small lobe on the caudal margins of the compound eyes. The lobe 
of the compound eyes, however, is also present quite noticeably in 
some of the Libellulinae and does not ofifer a clear-cut distinction 
in all cases. The mesopleural suture (Fig. 40) does not have the 
double curve of the Libellulinae, but even this character must be 
used with care since there is some variation and not all species are 
exactly similar to the figures. In the Cordulinae, in order to see 
the suture, the surface hairs of the thorax must be scraped away. 
The whole subfamily intergrades with the Libellulinae, and 
persons not acquainted with the subfamilies often confuse them. 

For literature see: 
Martin, Rene. Collections Zoologiques Edm. de Selys Longchamps, Fasc. 

XVII. 89 pages, 3 plates : 1906. 
Needham, J. G. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, i : 273- 

280: 1908. 
Williamson, E. B. Entomological News, 19: 428-434: 1908. 

Tribe Macromiini Tillyard 

The nymphs of this group may be separated from all others by 
the presence of a prominent horn on the front of the head. The 
adults are strong, active fliers, resembling Cordulegaster in color- 
ation. The triangle of the hind wings is distad of the arculus. 

Key to Genera 

Nymphs 

1. Head hardly as wide across the eyes as across the hind angles ; 
lateral spines of the ninth abdominal segment hardly surpassed 

by the tips of the terminal appendages (PI. rv, Fig. 5) 

Didymops, p. 202 
Head widest across the eyes ; spines of the ninth abdominal seg- 
ment not reaching the apices of the terminal appendages, usually 
not longer than segment 10 Macromia, p. 204 

Adults 

I. Eyes contiguous but meeting in a single point only; margin of 
hind wings between nodus and stigma more than half the length 

between stigma and the base of the wing (Fig. 41) 

Didymops, p. 202 
Eyes distinctly contiguous, meeting in a mesal line of considerable 
length ; margin of hind wings between nodus and stigma less 
than half its length between base of the wing and the stigma 
( PI. XI, Fig. I ) Macromia, p. 204 



20.2 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

Genus Didymops Rambur 

N5miphs. — With frontal horns ; hind angles of head obtusely 
rounded, not angulate; mental setae seven, five lateral setae; 
abdomen with dorsal hooks ; lateral spines of segment 9 as long 
as that segment. 

Adults. — With arculus sectors united for some distance beyond 
arculus ; triangle free ; subtriangle present, the cubito-anals usually 
three in number ; area between M4 and Cu^ widened at margin 
of front wing ; base of the wings inf uscated ; eyes contiguous 
in a single point only ; no elongate forked process on segment 8 
in the female ; abdomen gradually contracted behind the second 
segment and strongly compressed ; color not metallic, usually dull. 



Didymops transversa (Say) 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8: 19: 
1893. 

Njonph (PI. IV, Fig. 5). — Color dark and light brown. 

Head: labium extending between the middle and hind coxae, 
mentum a trifle longer than broad, conspicuously contracted at 
base, with 5 to 6 long setae on each side, and a number of smaller 
ones between the two series ; distal margin of the mentum spinose ; 
labial palpi (Fig. 7, No. 9) with 6 teeth on mesal margin, the 
teeth with minutely crenulate margins and 3-4 unequal long spines 
at their apices ; 5 lateral setae on each palpus and an additional 
one near the lateral articulation, the dorsal margins also with a 
row of smaller setae ; labrum setose below ; antennae /-seg- 
mented, segments i and 2 thicker ; 3-7 subequal in length, a single 
prominent frontal horn between the antennae, the horn provided 
with a few long setae, and densely spinose, with minute spines 
above ; caudo-lateral margins of the head with blunt tubercles. 

Thorax: legs spotted, the femora with three dark bands, and 
small spots between ; tibiae spotted, the hind femora mostly brown ; 
tarsi and claws brown ; hind femora when extended parallel to 
the body reaching the caudal margin of abdominal segment 9; 
pronotum with a curved caudal ridge connected with lateral promi- 
nences ; a single rather broad, triangular plate over the procoxae 
projecting cephalad ; wing-pads (immature specimen) extending 
beyond the base of abdominal segment 6. 

Abdomen: broad, flat below (almost circular in ventral view) 
the dorsal surface mottled with brown; lateral keels with spines 
on segments 8 and 9, those on 9 extending slightly beyond the 
tips of the appendages (equal or very slightly shorter in some) ; 
prominent dorsal hooks present on segments 2-9, those on 6-7 
largest; terminal appendages subequal in length, the ventrals 
slightly longer. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 203 

Measurements : total length, 25 mm. ; length of abdomen, 
15 mm. ; greatest width, 12 mm. ; length of hind femora, ii mm. ; 
length median lobe, 6 mm. ; width, 2-6 mm. 

Described from a nearly mature nymph obtained at Mt. Carmel, 
Conn., October 29, 192 1 ; taken from a small woodland pond. 

Two smaller nymphs obtained at the same place and date differ 
in having shorter lateral spines on abdominal segment 9 (not 
reaching the tips of the terminal appendages) and fewer mental 
setae (5 in number). Measurements of these nymphs are as fol- 
lows: total length, 12 mm.; length of abdomen, 7 mm.; width, 
5.5 mm. ; length of hind femora, 6 mm. ; length of metathoracic 
wing-pads, i mm. 




Fig. 41. Wings of Didymops transversa, tracing from photograph, x 1.7. 

Adult, male. — Color grayish to brown. 

Head : brown to buff, the front with a T-spot and a conspicuous 
depression above ; compound eyes contiguous. 

Thorax: brown, with buff spots on the mesokatepisterna and 
paraptera of the front wings, and a conspicuous buff or whitish 
stripe, about i mm. in width, extending from between the wings 
to a point between meso- and metacoxae; legs brown, except the 
tarsi, which are nearly black ; tarsal claw with ventral tooth nearly 
at tip, the tooth nearly as long as the portion of the claw beyond 
it; wings (Fig. 41) with brown or yellowish veins, and an infus- 
cation at base ; anal loop nearly oval. 

Abdomen: strongly compressed beyond the third segment; 
terga 2-8 with yellow spots on each side at base, those on 8 united 
on the meson; segment 10 entirely yellow. 

Female. — Similar to the male; vulvar lamina short, widely 
separated, and about one-sixth as long as the segment. 

Measurements : total length, male 52, female 55 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 35, female 31 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
34, female 35 mm. ; length of stigma, male and female, 2-2.5 "i"^- 

Connecticut. — Mt. Carmel, 6 June, 1908 (B. H. W.) ; Southington, 16 
June. 1926 (M. P. Z.) ; Litchfield. 6 June, 1925 (L. B. W.). 

New England. — May-August. 



204 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Genus Macromia Rambur 

Nymphs. — With prominent frontal horns; teeth on proximal 
segments of the labial palpi with deep incisions between them; 
spines of the ninth abdominal segments not reaching to the apices 
of the terminal segments. 

Adults. — ^X^/'ith sectors of the arculus united for some distance 
beyond the latter; triangle free or with one cross-vein; subtri- 
angle present, the cubito-anal cross-veins usually three in number ; 
area between M4 and Cu^ in front wings not widened apically ; no 
dark spots on wings ; eyes meeting in a line of considerable length ; 
abdomen of female without a long forked process on sternum of 
segment 8 ; abdomen of female and male slightly compressed. 

For literature dealing with Macromia adults, see 
Williamson, E. B. Proceedings U. S. National Museum, 37: 369-398: 
1907, pis. 35-36. 

Key to Species 
Males and Females 

Dorsum of thorax without yellow marks ; average length of 
abdomen 49 mm. (47-52 mm.) illinoiensis 

Dorsum of thorax with distinct yellow marks ; average length of 
abdomen 59 mm. (56-61 mm.) taeniolata 

Macromia taeniolata Rambur 

Histoire naturelle des insectes. Neuropteres, 139: 1842. 

Adult, male. — Color black and yellow. 

Head: with pale transverse band just above the clypeus ; occi- 
put black. 

Thorax: with faint stripes on the mesepisternum in front and 
the usual lateral stripe on the metepisternum ; sides of the thorax 
showing metallic green. 

Abdomen: black with transverse interrupted band on segment 
2 ; triangles on 3 to 7 inclusive and basal spots on segment 8 pale ; 
triangles on 7 united, forming a transverse band ; anal appendages 
in dorsal view show the superiors with a slight tubercle near 
middle; tips pointed in lateral profile, bases yellow. 

Measurements : total length, male 75 to 84, female 81 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 58, female 56 mm. ; hind wings, male 
46-52, female 51 mm.; width of hind wings, male 12, female 
14 mm. ; length of stigma, male and female, about 4 mm. 

Specimens examined in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Macromia illinoiensis Walsh 
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 397, 1862. 
Nymph. — Color of alcoholic specimens uniform brown or 
nearly black. 

Head: palpi with 6-7 lateral spines and a slender end hook; 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 205 

teeth as wide as deep, each tooth with long heavy setae, which 
increase in number from 2 on tooth next the movable hook to 8 
or 9 on the tooth next the caudo-mesal angles ; margins of each 
tooth crenulate ; distal margins of mentum spinulose ; mental 
setae 7-8 on each side, and a number of minute setae between the 
two rows of longer ones ; head widest across the eyes, the caudo- 
lateral margins bluntly angulate. 

Thorax : legs with long femora and tibia, the tibiae of the hind 
femora extending to the middle of segment 9 or beyond; tarsal 
segments composed of one short and two long segments. 

Abdomen: with prominent dorsal hooks on middle of segment 
2-9 inclusive, and lateral spines on segments 8 and 9, that on 9 
about as long as segment 10; lateral terminal appendages three- 
fourths as long as the ventrals. 

Measurements; immature nymph : total length, 17 mm.; abdo- 
men, 10 mm. ; hind femora, 7 mm. ; wing cases, i mm. 

Two immature specimens received from Kentucky; others 
examined in Cambridge Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Adult, male. — Color black and yellow. 

Head : labium, labrum and clypeus pale ; front brown with a 
yellow spot or two spots on each side; vertex and occiput dark 
brown. 

Thorax : dorsum without yellow, each side with a yellow stripe 
on metepisterna from legs to wing bases and about i mm. wide; 
legs black or dark brown, the distal half of front and middle 
femora with a prominent carina beneath; wings (Pi. xi, Fig. i) 
usually clear, triangles usually with cross-veins (sometimes free). 

Abdomen : black and yellow ; tergum 2 with a yellow trans- 
verse band interrupted on the meson and at the auricles; terga 3 
and 4 each with 2 yellow triangles, the caudal margins of which 
are in contact with the median transverse carinae ; spots also pres- 
ent on 5 and 6 ; tergum 7 with a transverse yellow basal band, from 
cephalic margin to the transverse carina, the yellow not reaching 
the lateral margins and extending a trifle along the dorsal carina ; 
tergum 8 with a pale triangle at base ; terga 9 and 10 black ; anal 
appendages black ; viewed from above, the superiors are lyre- 
shaped ; viewed from the side, the superiors are seen to possess a 
carina which extends slightly beyond the middle; beyond the tip 
of the carina the superiors are denticulate beneath ; inferior 
appendage slightly longer than the superiors. 

Female. — Similar to the male; abdominal spots larger. 

Measurements: total length, male 61-66, female 65-72 mm.; 
length of abdomen, male 44-46, female 51 mm.; length of hind 
wings, male 40-42, female 46-47 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 
II, female 13 mm. 

New England. — Recorded by Howe from Maine, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire and Rhode Island, June i6-August 16, but not yet collected in 
Connecticut. 



2o6 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Tribe Eucorduliini Tilly ard 

Nymphs without frontal horns ; tip of abdomen consisting of 
long segments, except the tenth, which is short. Adults have the 
triangle of the hind wing not distad of the arculus, the proximal 
side about on a line with the latter. 

Key to Genera 
Nymphs 

1. Lateral spines of segment 9 as long as, or longer than the termi- 

nals ; teeth of palpi or lateral lobes as long as wide (except in 

Tetragon euria ) 2 

Lateral spines of segment 9 not reaching the ends of the terminals ; 
teeth of palpi or lateral lobes much shorter than wide 4 

2. Lateral spines of segment 8 set at an angle to the long axis of the 

abdomen (PI. iv, Fig. 6), not parallel to those of segment 9 ... 

Neurocordulia 
Lateral spines of segment 8 not set at an angle, and parallel to 
those of segment 9 3 

3. Lateral setae four or five; length, full grown 27 mm. . . . Epicordulia 
Lateral setae seven; length, full grown about 16 mm. . .Tetragoneuria 

4. Dorsal spines or prominences absent Cordulia; Somatochlora 

Dorsal spines or prominences present, the elevations hook-like in 

some genera 5 

5. Dorsal spines or hooks present on segments 3 or 4 ....Somatochlora 
Dorsal spines or hooks absent on 3 and 4 6 

6. Dorsal hooks or prominences on 6-9 inclusive, those on 7-9 long, 

hook-like ; lateral spines on 9 reaching the tips of the terminal 

appendages Helocordulia 

Dorsal hooks or prominences on 5 to 8 or 9, those on 7-9 not long 
or hook-like; lateral spines on 9 not reaching the tips of the 
terminal appendages Dorocordulia 

Adults 

1. Front wings with the area between M4 and Cui enlarged at the 

distal end so that the rows of cells are greatly increased towards 

the margin of the wing ( PL x, Fig. 4) 2 

Front wings with the area between M4 and Cui not enlarged at the 
distal end so that the rows of cells are greatly increased towards 
the margin, but of nearly equal width throughout 3 

2. Triangle with cross-veins (PL x, Fig. 4) Neurocordulia 

Triangle without cross-veins (PL xvi, Fig. i) Wilhamsonia 

3. Two cubito-anal cross-veins present In the hind wings ; antenodals 

never infuscated (PL xiv, Fig. 4) Somatochlora 

Only a single cubito-anal cross-vein in the hind wings; or if with 
two, then some of the antenodals infuscated 4 

4. Triangles of the front wings without cross-veins (PI. x, Fig. 3) 

Dorocordulia 
Triangles of the front wings with cross-veins 5 

5. Wings without black basal marks (PL xi, Fig. 2) Cordulia 

Either front or hind wings with black basal marks 6 

6. Triangles of the hind wings with cross-veins ; wings with black 

spots at nodus and tip (PL xiv, Fig. 2) Epicordulia 

Triangles of the hind wings without cross-veins ; wings without 
black spots at nodus and tip 7 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 207 

7. Abdomen large, segments 3 and 4 of male flattened beneath ; 4 

to 5 antenodals in the hind wings (PI. xii, Fig. i ) . . . Tetragoneuria 
Abdomen small, slender, rounded; 5 to 6 antenodals in the hind 
wings (PI. XII, Fig. 4) Helocordulia 

Genus Epiccrdulia Selys 

Nymphs. — Caudo-lateral margins of the head angular, palpal 
(or lateral) setae 4 or 5, dorsal hooks on abdominal segments 2 
to 9 ; lateral spines of segment 9 surpassing the tips of the 
terminal appendages. 

Adults. — Sectors of arculus separated at point of union ; tri- 
angle with cross-veins ; subtriangle absent, there being only one 
cubito-anal cross-vein ; area between Cu^ and M^ not widened at 
margin of front wing ; dark spots at base, nodus and apex of wing ; 
abdomen of female with a forked process on venter of segment 8 ; 
considerable contraction behind segment 2, but the abdomen 
depressed, not compressed ; color not metallic. 

The nymphs are reported to inhabit the bottoms of ponds, crawl- 
ing over dead wood or stones. The adult is a particularly strong 
flier and the eggs are laid while in flight by dipping the tip of 
the abdomen in the water. 

Epiccrdulia princeps Selys 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 134: 1861. 

Nymph (PI. iv, Fig. 8).— 

Head : caudo-lateral margins rounded, with a small tubercle on 
each side behind the mesal angles of the compound eyes; labium 
with 5 lateral setae on the palpi (an additional smaller one at base 
of movable spine), and 4 mental setae each side, the interior 
surface heavily setose near the distal margin. 

Thorax : sides dark with a lighter stripe above the coxae ; hind 
femora extending to segment 7, wing-cases to middle of 
segment 5. 

Abdomen: broad, flat beneath, with two longitudinal grooves 
dividing the surface into thirds ; prominent dorsal hooks on seg- 
ments 2-9 inclusive, and lateral spines on segments 8 and 9, those 
on 9 exceeding the terminals in length. 

Measurements ; exuviae : total length, 27 mm. ; length of abdo- 
men, 14-15 mm.; greatest width of abdomen, 11-12 mm.; length 
of hind femora, 7-8 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color black and dark brown or olive. 

Head: brown, labium buff. 

Thorax: brown, somewhat darker on the shoulder of the mes- 
epimera; wings (PI. xiv, Fig. 2), large dark brown spots on 
base, nodus and apex ; triangle of the hind wing with a cross- 
vein ; anal loop, foot-like ; legs with brown coxae, trochanters, 
and femora ; tibiae and tarsi black. 

Abdomen: segments 2 and 3 swollen and lighter in color than 



2o8 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST, SURVEY [Bull. 

the distal members; segments 2-9 with black, minutely serrate, 
longitudinal, lateral keels, the terga somewhat lighter on the sides. 

Female. — A forked process on the venter of 9, the process 
projecting to the tip of that segment; superior anal appendages 
longer than segment 9 plus 10 (6 mm.). 

Measurements: total length, male 62-64, female 62-68 mm.; 
length of abdomen, female 45 mm.; length of hind wing, male 
40, female 43-45 mm. ; length of stigma, male and female, 3-4 mm. 

Connecticut.— Guilford, 27 July, 1920 (M. P. Z.), 8 July, 1921 (P. G.) ; 
East Haven, 4 July, 1921 (P. G.) ; Wallingford, 13 August, 1922 
(S. W. B.). 

New England. — May 25-August 27. 

Genus Helocordulia Needham 

Nymphs. — Hind margins of the head rounded; mental setae 
12-14, palpal setae 6 or 7; dorsal hooks present on abdominal 
segments 6-9, lateral spines of segment 9 extending to the tip of 
the terminal appendages. 

Adults. — Sectors of arculus separated at point of union with 
the latter; triangle of front wings usually with cross-veins, sub- 
triangle usually absent in hind wings, there being only one cubito- 
anal cross-vein ; area between Cu^ and M^ not widened at margin 
of front wing ; dark spots at base and along costal margins ; abdo- 
men of female without long forked process on venter of 8; seg- 
ment 3 of abdomen compressed. 

Not much is known of the habits of this genus, but the adults 
are day-fliers, not crepuscular. 

Helocordulia uhleri (Selys) 

Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique (2), 31: 274: 1871. 

Nymph. — Labium with strongly projecting median lobe ; mental 
setae 12 to 13 on each side, those nearest the mesal line very 
minute ; setae of the labial palpi 6 to 7, the movable hook on distal 
segment little larger than the setae; spines of the teeth about 4 
in number on each. 

Abdomen-*: dorsal hooks on segments 6 to 9 inclusive; mere 
rudiments in front of this ; lateral spines on segments 7 to 9, those 
on 9 about one-third as long as that segment. Lateral spines on 
segment 9 approximately as long as the dorsum of that segment. 

Measurements : total length, 20 mm. ; length of abdomen, 1 1 
mm. ; width, 6 mm. ; length of hind femora, 6-6.5 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown and black. 

Head: face including labium, clypeus, genae and front, yellow 
or brown, the dorsal surface of the front much depressed in the 
center and blackish brown in the depression; occiput and post- 
genae brown. 



"From Needham. J. G., Bull. N. Y. State Museum 47: 408. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 209 

Thorax : brown or metallic green or blue, with white hairs ; 
legs black, the femora with short spinules ; spines of the tibiae 
much longer; tarsi and claws black; wings (PI. xii, Fig. 4) clear, 
the fore wings with dark basal spots covering the first two (some- 
times more) of the antenodal cross- veins; hind wings with similar 
spots, and also spots in the 2-celled anal triangle. 

Abdomen : black with brown on sides and dorsum of i ; cephalic 
portion of 2 below the auricles, basal third of 3, and cephalo- 
lateral angles 4 to 8 inclusive pale ; 9 and 10 mostly black ; lateral 
carinae present on segments 4 to 9 inclusive, absent on 1-3 ; anal 
appendages black, the superiors in lateral profile, bluntly pointed, 
almost truncate, with a faint indication of a submedian inferior 
tooth ; inferior appendage three-fourths as long as the superiors ; 
viewed from below, the inferior is about three-fifths as broad at 
apex as at base, and has a blunt apical tooth on each side, the 
apical margin being shallowly concave. 

Female. — Similar to the male. 

Anal appendages black ; vulvar lamina a little shorter than seg- 
ment 9, divided into two pointed plates by a median incision, their 
lateral margins with minute teeth; segments 3, 4, and 5 not con- 
stricted as in the male, and spots on cephalo-lateral angles larger. 

Measurements: total length, male 46, female 41 mm.; length 
of abdomen, male 29-31, female 28 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 28, female 27-28 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 8.5, female 
8.5 mm. 

Connecticut. — Woodbridge, 20 May, 1923 (W. E. B.) ; Litchfield, 31 
May, 1915, 17 June, 1924, 6 June, 1925 (L. B. W.) ; Storrs, 1925, C. B. 
Brink. 

New England. — May 15-July 12. 



Genus Tetragoneuria Hagen 

N5miphs. — Without frontal horn ; the hind angles of the head 
rounded ; mental setae 6 to 9, palpal or lateral setae 7 ; dorsum of 
abdomen with hooks on 2-9 ; lateral spines of segment 9 exceeding 
the terminal appendages. 

Adults. — Arculus sectors separated from point of union with 
the arculus; triangle of front wings with cross-vein; subtriangle 
absent, there being only one cubito-anal cross-vein ; area between 
M4 and Cui not expanded at margin of front wing ; bases of hind 
wings dark ; compound eyes meeting in a short line on dorsum ; 
female with a long forked process on venter of segment 8; abdo- 
men not contracted or compressed laterally (except segments 3 
and 4 of the female) but for the most part depressed; no metallic 
green or blue. 

For literature on this genus, see 
Muttkowski, R. A. Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural History Society 
13: 49-61: 1915. 



2IO CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

The nymphs of probably the most common species in Con- 
necticut are very active in late fall and early spring along the 
edges of ponds and streams, usually in vegetation of some kind. 
The adults appear very early in summer and often congregate in 
droves in favorable locations away from the water. A large 
number of the species cynosura were seen at one time about a 
clump of sumach. On investigation it was found that they were 
feeding upon a species of Psyllid, Calophya nigripennis Riley, 
which were very abundant on that host. The eggs of Some 
species, at least, are known, and they are reported (Needham 
1901) to be laid in strings and draped over vegetation in the 
water. 

Key to Species "^ 
Adults, Males 

1. Superior anal appendages seen in lateral profile with a sharp sub- 

median inferior tooth spinigera 

Superior anal appendages without a sharp submedian inferior tooth 2 

2. Superior anal appendages with a tubercle above, near tip canis 

Superiors without a tubercle above near tip 3 

3. Front with a dark T-spot above (mono) 

Front without a dark T-spot above cynosura 

Females 

1. Front with a T-spot above 2 

Front without a T-spot above 3 

2. Vulvar lamina not 2 mm. long or less (morio) 

Vulvar lamina 3 mm. long ' spinigera 

3. Vulvar lamina less than 2 mm. long cynosura 

Vulvar lamina usually 3 mm. long canis 



Tetragoneuria spinigera Say 
Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique (2), 31: 269: 1871. 
N5aiiph. — Color of exuviae uniform brown. 
Head : labium extending between the procoxae and mesocoxae ; 
mentum with 7-9 setae on each side, the distal margin extended 
considerably on the meson and forming an obtuse angle, the distal 
margin thinly spinose ; labial palpi with 6 lateral setae, the mesal 
margins each with 6 rounded teeth about as wide as long, each 
having 3-4 heavy spines and several smaller ones ; labrum with a 
fringe of hairs on the ventral margin ; front and vertex dark 
brown with a paler T-spot between the antennae ; mesal angles 
of the compound eyes rounded ; a small setose elevation on the 
vertex behind each caudo-mesal angle of the eyes; caudo-lateral 
margins of the head rounded. 



^^ Semiaquaea differs from the species given in the key in having the wings clouded 
distad as far as the nodus. Nymphs of the different species are so closely related that 
no attempt will be made to construct a key for their separation. Canis is said to 
possess much shorter spines on segment 9 than any other species, but this is uncertain 
since the species has not been reared. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 211 

Thorax : pronotum with flaring and rounded margins ; a blunt 
projection above each procoxa; meso- and metapleura with dark 
mottling and an obscure lateral dark stripe on each side ; legs 
brown, without spines, and with very faint ridges, the front and 
middle femora showing 2 dark rings, the tibiae of the same with 
a dark ring at base of each ; metathoracic wing-cases extending 
to caudal margin of segment 4. 

Abdomen : brown with obscure mottling, the lateral keels with 
spines on segments 8 and 9, those on 9 being about i mm. in 
length, those on 8 about .25 mm. ; the distance from the tip of 
the spine to the base of segment 9 measured on the lateral margin, 
3-3.5 mm. ; dorsal hooks of abdomen consisting of slender ones 
on segments i and 2, which are not greatly thickened at base, and 
much larger ones on 3-9, the latter thickened, and those on 6-8 
largest; anal appendages short, the laterals about half the length 
of the ventrals, the dorsal appendage slightly shorter than the 
ventral. 

Measurements: total length, 21 mm.; length of abdomen, 11- 
12 mm. ; greatest width, 7 mm. ; hind femora, 6.5 mm. ; meta- 
thoracic wing-cases, 5 mm. ; mentum, 3.5 long by 1.5-4 mm. wide. 

Described from 3 exuviae collected at Colebrook, June 1920, 
and one loaned by Dr. P. P. Calvert from New Jersey. 

Adult, male. — General color dark brown to black. 

Head : brown, buff below ; front with a black T-spot, the stem 
being considerably broader than the cross-arm. 

Thorax : brown with gray pile ; obscurely marked with black 
on the shoulders of the mesepimera ; coxae, protrochanters and 
profemora brown, remainder of the legs black ; tibiae with the 
usual ventral ridge and apical scale-like spurs ; wings clear except 
small, separated brown spots at the base of the hind wings, the 
largest of which occupies about half the anal triangle. 

Abdomen : black, the first two segments almost entirely brown ; 
terga 3-8 black, with lateral yellow spots on each side above the 
lateral carinae ; venter of terga 4-8 each about half yellow ; seg- 
ments 9 and 10 entirely black ; anal appendages black, the superiors 
with a sharp ventral tooth, shortly proximad of the middle. 

Female. — Similar to the male, but with the black T-spot indis- 
tinct ; superior anal appendages 1.7-2 mm. in length. 

Measurements : total length, male 45, female 43-46 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 30, female 29-31 mm.; length of hind wings, 
male 29, female 31-32 mm.; length of stigma, male and female, 
2 mm. 

Connecticut. — Represented by two males in the collection of the Con- 
necticut Agricultural Experiment Station taken at Goshen, July 6, 1919, by 
M. P. Zappe. Also reported from Litchfield by Woodruff ; collected in 
Hamden, May 30, 1922 (P. G.). 

New England. — May 19- July 23. 



212 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

Tetragoneuria cynosura (Say) 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8: 30: 
1839. 

N5miph (PI. IV, Fig. 4). — Color brown and black. 

Head: labium (PI. vii, Fig. 3) extending between the meso- 
coxae, the median lobe about as long as wide ; mentum with 9 
setae on each side ; labial palpi with 8-9 teeth on the mesal margin, 
each tooth with 5 or 6 spines of different sizes ; lateral setae 6 ; 
antennae pale, the first two segments darker, segments 3 and 6 
subequal in length; a conspicuous black band between the com- 
pound eyes, the caudal margin of which follows the opaque portion 
of the eyes and extends cephalad slightly on the meson; behind 
the black stripe the surface of the head is spotted with brown, and 
there is a black line running from each eye to the caudal margin 
of the head ; these lines are continued on the thorax, gradually 
widening caudad. 

Thorax: pronotum with caudal ridge, flaring considerably at 
the sides; a single broad projection over each procoxa extending 
towards the head ; front and middle femora with two brown rings 
each, and a trace of black between trochanters and femora; hind 
femora with a single brown ring ; front and middle tibiae faintly 
ringed with brown ; tarsi and hind tibiae brown ; hind femora 
extended parallel to the body reach the middle of abdominal seg- 
ment 8; wing-cases reaching the middle of abdominal segment 7. 

Abdomen : dark brown above, spotted with pale on the sides 
and with a broad, dark, dorsal band, the margins of which are 
undulate; lateral keels with a short spine on segment 8, and a 
longer one on 9 reaching beyond the apices of the terminal appen- 
dages (i to 1.5 mm. long) ; dorsal hooks present on segments 2-9, 
slender on 2-6 inclusive, considerably thicker on 7-9; terminal 
appendages with lateral appendages about half the length of the 
inferiors, the superior appendages noticeably shorter than the 
inferiors. 

Measurements: total length, 16 mm.; length of abdomen, 8 
mm. ; greatest width, 7 mm. ; length of hind femora, 5 mm. ; 
length of median lobe, 3.5 mm. ; width, 2-3.5 n^"^- 

A reared specimen and a number of others in the collection of the Con- 
necticut Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Tetragoneuria cynosura Say variety cynosura Say 

Adult, male (PL xix, b). — Color dark brown to black. 

Head : light brown to yellow ; front without T-spot. 

Thorax : brown with obscure black markings and a yellow spot 
above and below the metastigma ; thickly provided with gray pile ; 
legs with coxae, trochanters and profemora brown, remainder 
black; tibiae each with a flat ridge beneath, which ends in a flat 
scale-like spur; wings (PI. xii. Fig. i) clear except the base of 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 213 

the hind wings, where there are usually two well-separated areas 
of infuscation. This color may reach the base of the triangle but 
is usually less in extent. 

Abdomen : brown to nearly black ; the first two segments and 
half the third entirely brown ; terga 3-10, black with longitudinal 
yellow spots on the sides of 3-9, just above the lateral carinae; 
venter of terga 3-8 mostly yellow, somewhat darker on the caudo- 
lateral angles ; segments i and 2 much thicker than the following 
segments, which are not at all compressed or narrowed but 
depressed ; anal appendages black, the superiors without ventral 
or apical teeth; accessory appendages of the second segment as 
in Fig. 63, No. 13. 

Female. — Very similar to the male ; tibial ridges absent ; seg- 
ment 2 with a conspicuous yellow spot below ; abdominal segments 
3-6 compressed ; hind wings with almost no pigment at base ; 
vulvar lamina projecting to the middle of the tenth abdominal 
segment. 

Measurements : total length, male 40-43, female 38-40 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 27-29, female 25-28 mm. ; length of 
hind wing, male 28-30, female 29-30 mm. ; length of stigma, male 
and female, 1.5-2 mm. 

There are two recognized varieties of T. cynosura,^^ c. cynosura 
Say and c. siiimlans Mutt., which differ only in the extent of the 
pigment at the base of the hind wings. In c. simulans the pig- 
ment extends from the base to the tip of the triangle, while in 
c. cynosura the color may reach the base of the triangle but is 
usually less extensive. The variety cynosura is the more common 
in Connecticut. 

Connecticut. — West Thompson, 12 July, 1905 (H. L. V.) ; New Haven, 
10 June, 1906 (B. H. W.) ; Mount Carmel, 6, 19 June, 1908 (B. H. W.) ; 
New London, 6-22 June, 1921 (R. H. H.) ; Hamden, 22, 27 May, 8 June, 
1922 (P. G.) ; Litchfield, 16 June, 1925, also other dates (L. B. W.). 

New England. — April-July. 

Tetragoneuria canis McLachlan 

Entomologists Monthly Magazine, 23: 104: 1886. 

Adult, male. — Color brown, black and yellow. 

Head: buff, front without T-spot. 

Thorax: brown or olivaceous, with gray pile, and with obscure 
lateral lines of black; wings with brown spot at base of hind 
wing occupying somewhat more than half the anal triangle in the 
specimen at hand. 

Abdomen : black, the first two segments olive ; terga 2-9 black, 
with longitudinal yellow spots on each side above the lateral 
carinae ; venter of terga 3-9 mostly yellow, the caudal half or third 
black ; superior anal appendages with a dorsal protuberance three- 

** Muttkowski, R. A. Bull. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, 9: 91-134: 1911 and 13: 46-61: 1915. 



2 14 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

fourths its length from the base, the ventral surface with a blunt 
tooth at middle. 

Female. — Similar to the male ; anal appendages 3 mm. in length. 

Measurements : total length, male 40 mm. ; length of abdomen, 
male 30 mm. ; length of hind wing, male 29 mm. ; length of stigma, 
male and female, 2.5 mm. 

Male described from one specimen in collection of Connecticut 
Agricultural Experiment Station without locality or place label. 

New England. — May 31- July 18. 

Genus Cordulia Leach 

Nymphs.^^ — Hind angles of the head rounded ; mental setae 
about 14, lateral setae 7; no dorsal hooks (or very rudimentary 
ones) ; lateral spines of segment 9 about one-fifth the length of 
that segment. 

Adults. — Sectors of arculus separate to point of union with it; 
triangle of the front wing with cross-vein; subtriangle absent, 
there being only one cubito-anal cross-vein ; area between Cui 
and M4 not widened at margin of front wing; no dark spots in 
wings ; compound eyes contiguous ; female without a long forked 
process on venter of segment 8; both sexes with abdomen con- 
tracted behind segment 2 and slightly compressed ; color frequently 
metallic. 

Cordulia shurtleffi Scudder 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, 10: 217: 1866. 

N)miph. — Head : brown stripe between the eyes ; seven anten- 
nal segments, segments 2, 4 and 7 subequal, i and 3, and 5 and 6 
equal in length, labial palpi with 7 lateral setae, the mesal margins 
with eight notches, the teeth between each with three spines, a long 
one, another about half this, and a third very small. 

Thorax : femora with two brown rings each ; tibiae hairy. 

Abdomen: almost free from hairs except the caudal ventral 
margin of segment 9 and the lateral keels; dorsum dark brown 
with paler stripe on the meson ; lateral spines on segments 8 and 
9 very short, not over .25 mm. ; terminal appendages i mm. long, 
the laterals more than half the length of the ventral appendages. 

Measurements: total length (immature), 19 mm.; length of 
abdomen, 11 mm.; hind femora, 5.5 mm.; width of abdomen, 
6 mm.; length of segment 9 on ventro-meson, 1.75 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color brown, black, and metallic green. 

Head: labium buff, labrum black, yellow above; clypeus and 
cephalo-ventral and lateral portions of the front, brown; dorsal 
part of front and vertex, metallic green; occiput and postgenae 
black. 



^ Apparently indistinguishable from some species of Sotnatochlora. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 215 

Thorax : bronze or greenish metalHc, the venter dull brown ; 
legs black except the coxae, which are brown ; middle and hind 
femora with a ventral line of short spines from base to apex, the 
line consisting of three to four spines abreast at base, but reduced 
to a single one at apex ; tibiae with ventral keels as in Tetra- 
gonenria, but the latter attached to the apical half of each and 
never more than half as long as the tibia ; thorax with brown pile ; 
wings (PI. XI, Fig. 2) clear, with only a touch of brown at the 
extreme base of the hind wings ; membrane all dark, the hind 
wings slightly yellow at base. 

Abdomen : black, terga i and 2 and part of 3 brown on sides, 
and a yellowish area on 2 below the auricles ; apical three- 
fourths of the dorsum of the third terga and dorsum of 4 to 10 
black ; ventral area of 4 to 9 mostly yellow ; accessory and anal 
appendages black ; inferior anal appendage bifurcate and each arm 
cleft at the apex. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina about one-third as long as segment 9, 
truncate, the median notch about half the depth of the plates, the 
whole very similar to that of Gomphus descriptus (Fig. 20, 
No. 13) but the tips are truncate. 

Measurements : total length, male 46-50, female 43-45 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 31-32, female 30-37 mm. ; length of 
hind wings, male 29-30, female 30-32 mm. ; length of stigma, 
male and female, 2-2.5 rnm. 

The doubly bifurcate inferior appendage of the male is charac- 
teristic of the species and genus. 

Connecticut. — Litchfield, 27 June, 1909, 28 June, 1918 (L. B. W.) ; 
Cornwall, i June, 1925 (L. B. W.) ; Hamden, 7 June, 1927 (P. G.). 
New England. — May 30-August 11. 

Genus Somatochlora Selys 

Nymphs. — Dorsal projections of segment 4 to 9 flattened, not 
hook-like, sometimes wanting ; lateral spines of segment 9 usually 
less than half the length of that segment, sometimes lacking alto- 
gether ; hind margin of segment 9 strongly concave above ; con- 
spicuous ventral pubescence on caudal margin of segment 9; no 
frontal horn. 

Adults. — Arculus sectors separated at point of union with the 
arculus; triangles usually with, but occasionally without cross- 
veins ; subtriangle present, there being usually two cubito-anal 
cross-veins in the hind wings ; area between Cu^ and M^ not 
widened at margin of front wing; no dark spots present on the 
wings (rarely with spot at base) ; compound eyes meeting on the 
dorso-meson ; abdomen compressed, or not compressed ; color often 
metallic. 

Adults of this genus are very rare in collections. Most of the 
species are boreal in their distribution and their presence in Con- 



2l6 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

necticut when found may be regarded as largely accidental. They 
are said to be crepuscular or twilight fliers and this apparently 
holds true for the few that have been collected in this State. 
According to Walker (1925) there are two types of oviposition, 
depending on the type of ovipositor. The eggs are laid while the 
insect is on the wing, however, varying only in the locality in 
which the eggs are deposited. Such species as forcipata, albicincta 
and cingulata are said to oviposit in water or wet moss, the act 
being accomplished by striking the abdomen while in flight. The 
species linearis and williamsoni lay their eggs in wet sand, by a 
similar procedure. 

For literature dealing with this genus see — 
Kennedy, C. H. Canadian Entomologist, 49: 229-236: 1917, pi. xiii. 
Walker, E. M. Canadian Entomologist, 50: 365-375: 1918, pi. x. 

University of Toronto Studies Biological series No. 26: 1925; 202 pp., 

34 pis. The best and most complete work on this genus in America. 
Williamson, E. B. Entomological News, 20: 77-79: 1909. 

In drawing up keys and descriptions of this genus free use has 
been made of the work of Walker, 1925. The description of 
nearly all nymphs have been taken direct from that monumental 
work, though it has been impossible to make use of all the descrip- 
tive matter presented therein. The genus Somatochlora is divided 
by Walker into six groups which should be mentioned here, 
together with the Connecticut species belonging to the different 
divisions. They are (i) the metallica group containing minor, 
elongata, williamsoni, and walshii; (2) the linearis group con- 
taining linearis; (3) the tenebrosa group with tenehrosa; (4) the 
filosa group with filosa and provocans; (5) the arctica group, 
containing franklini, kennedyi and forcipata, and (6) the alpestris 
group containing albicincta and cingulata. 

Key to Species^ 
Nymphs 

1. Dorsal hooks present 2 

Dorsal hooks absent ^ 

2. Dorsal hooks falciform, acute, the last one projecting beyond the 

middle of segment 10 .•••;•• 3 

Dorsal hooks low knobs, not falciform, the last one not projectmg 
to middle of segment lO wiUiamsom 

3. Median appendage of male fiat above, the ante-apical tubercle (apex 

of developing inferior appendages of adult) not at all elevated 4 
Median appendage of male longitudinally concave, the ante-apical 
tubercle slightly elevated tenebrosa 

4. Lateral spines at least half as broad as long; lateral appendages 

shorter than segments 9 and 10 together ; median appendage not _ 

acuminate lineans 

Lateral spines less than half as broad as long; lateral appendages 
as long as segments 9 and 10 together ; median appendage acumi- 
nate with a very slender tip 5 

M Adapted from Walker, 1925. Species in parenthesis are not described in this paper. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 217 

5. Hind femora 6.75 to 7 mm. ; hind tibiae 8 mm. ; lateral spines on 

9 one-third the length of the margin of this segment minor 

Hind femora 8 mm. ; hind tibiae 9 mm. ; lateral spines on 9 one- 
sixth the length of the margin of this segment elongata 

6. Labium extending laterally over inner margins of the eyes ; lateral 

appendages of male with outer margin not regularly arcuate, 
more or less sinuate ; lateral spines, when present, on both 

segments 8 and 9 7 

Labium extending laterally not quite to the inner edge of the eyes ; 
lateral appendages of male with outer margin regularly arcuate ; 
lateral spines when present confined to segment 9 9 

7. Length under 25 mm. ; hind femora less than 7 mm. ; abdomen 

without median dorsal prominences ; median appendages of male 

without lateral knobs ; coloration uniform 8 

Length over 25 mm. ; hind femora over 7 mm. ; abdomen with 
median series of slightly elevated prominences ; median appen- 
dages of male with a distinct knob on each side (developing 
furcate apex of inferior appendages) ; coloration not uniform 

cingulata 

8. Lateral spines minute, those of segment 9 one-twelfth to one-_ 

sixth of the remaining length of the segment (hudsonica) 

Lateral spines longer, those of segment 9 one-fifth to one-third 
the remaining length of the segment margin albicincta 

9. Fringe of hairs on hind margins of abdomen ; tergites not forming 

dorso-lateral tufts ; lateral spines on segment 9 normally present ; 
lateral setae (labial palpi) 7 or 8 10 

Fringe of hairs on hind margins of abdomen ; tergites 6 to 9 form- 
ing conspicuous dorso-lateral tufts ; lateral spines on segment 9 
absent or represented by very minute denticles ; lateral setae 9 

or 10 forcipata 

ID. Fringe of hair on middle section of hind margins of abdominal 

tergites 7 and 8 not forming a thick tuft kennedyi 

Fringe of hair on hind margins of tergites 8 and 9 not forming a 
median tuft, the hair as long as the median length of the segment 

(franklini) 

Adults, Males 

1. Tips of the superior anal appendages in lateral profile bent sharply 

downward at their distal third (Fig. 53) tenebrosa 

Tips of the anal appendages not bent downwards at distal third ; 
if bent down, then much beyond this point 2 

2. Superior anal appendages in dorsal view considerably swollen 

before tips and with a dense brush of hairs (Fig. 47) walshii 

Superior anal appendage in dorsal view not swollen noticeably and 
without a dense brush of hairs 3 

3. Superior anal appendages in lateral profile with subapical inferior 

tooth (Fig. 51) linearis 

Superior anal appendages not with a subapical inferior tooth 4 

4. Extreme tips of superior anal appendages hooked in dorsal view, 

the appendages turning out at tips (extreme tips hooked and 

turned in) (filosa) 

Extreme tip of the superiors not hooked in dorsal view, the appen- 
dages not turning out at tips S 

5. Abdomen with white basal rings on the segments ; apical third of 

the superiors bent abruptly mesad in dorsal view 6 

Abdomen without white basal rings on the segments ; apical third 
of the superiors not bent abruptly mesad 7 




Fig 42. Structural details of Telagrion, Teleallagma daeckn and 
Somatochlora provocans. I. Teleallagma daeckii, outline of body and wing 
veins. 2. Wings of Telagrion longum Selys. 3, 4- Anal appendages ot 
Teleallagma daeckii. 5- Third tarsal claw of same. 6. Third tarsal cla>v 
of r. longum. 7, 8. Anal appendages of Somatochlora provocans in dorsal 
and lateral view. (From Calvert, Ent. News 14; pl- 3; I903-) 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 219 

6. Inferior anal appendage broader at tip than at base and triangular ; 

basal tooth of the superiors visible from above (Fig. 62) . .cingulata 
Inferior anal appendage not broader at tip than at base ; basal 
tooth of the superiors not visible from above (Fig. 60) . . .albicincta 

7. Superiors each with a prominent lateral angle in dorsal view (Fig. 

42, Nos. 7 and 8) (provocans) 

Superiors without a prominent lateral angle in dorsal view 8 

8. Superior anal appendages in lateral profile curving upwards at 

tip, and not decidedly f orcipate when viewed from above 9 

Superior anal appendages in lateral profile not curving upwards 
at tip, in dorsal profile decidedly f orcipate 11 

9. Inferior anal appendage three-fourths as long as the superiors, 

Fig. 46 minor 

Inferior anal appendage hardly more than half as long as the 
superiors, Fig. 44 lO 

10. Superiors parallel distally, with a sub-basal ventro-internal tooth 

elongata 
Superiors approximated distally without a sub-basal ventro-internal 
tooth, Fig. 49 williamsoni 

11. Abdominal segments S to 7 with yellow latero-basal spots, greatest 

width of abdomen at distal end of segment 5, thence narrowing 

caudad 12 

Abdominal segments 5 to 7 without yellow basal spots ; greatest 
width of abdomen at caudal margin of segment 6 or beyond .... 13 

12. Superior anal appendages in profile nearly straight (incurvata) 

Superior appendages, in profile, arcuate with a very prominent 

ventro-lateral tooth (Fig. 55) forcipata 

13. Hind wing a trifle shorter than the abdomen (30:33); anal tri- 

angle more or less yellow (Fig. 58) kennedsri 

Hind wing much shorter than the abdomen (26:38); anal tri- 
angle with a brown spot (Fig. 57) (franklini) 

Females^ 

1. Vulvar lamina notched apically, or bilobed 2 

Vulvar lamina entire at apex 3 

2. Vulvar lamina nearly half as long as sternum of 9; deeply emar- 

ginate or bilobed albicincta 

Vulvar lamina one-third as long as sternum of 9; obtusely exca- 
vated but scarcely bilobed cingulata 

3. Vulvar lamina viewed from the side at least four times as long as 

its basal breadth ; usually extending well beyond tlie caudal 

margin of segment 10 4 

Vulvar lamina less than 4 times as long as its basal breadth and 
not extending beyond the caudal margin of segment 10 in lateral 
profile 5 

4. Vulvar lamina longer than the appendages (provocans) 

Vulvar lamina shorter than the appendages (filosa) 

5. Vulvar lamina erect or suberect, extending ventrad a distance equal 

to the height of segment 9 in lateral profile, the hind margin 
nearly at right angles to the ventral margin of that segment ... 6 
Vulvar lamina inclined, not erect or suberect, and not extending 
ventrad a distance equal to the height of segment 9 in lateral 
profile and the hind margin not at right angles to the ventral 
margin of that segment 10 

6. Labrum at least partly yellow, postclypeus wholly yellow 7 

Labrum wholly black, postclypeus or its median part black 8 

-•This key has been adapted to Connecticut species from Walker, 1925. Species in 
parentheses are not described in the text. 



2 20 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

7. Lateral thoracic spots present, usually distinct; vulvar lamina 

longer than segment 9; depth of 9 greater than its length or 

nearly equal tenebrosa 

Lateral thoracic spots absent; vulvar lamina about as long as 9; 
depth of 9 less than its length linearis 

8. Abdomen less than 35 mm. long; both lateral thoracic spots ovate, 

clear yellow; vulvar lamina about as long as appendages ....minor 
Abdomen more than 35 mm. long; mesepimeral spot elongate; 
vulvar lamina shorter than the appendages 9 

9. Yellow marks of thorax and base of abdomen clear and well 

defined; no yellow spots posterior to segment 3; vulvar lamina 

bluntly pointed, not tapering and little compressed elongata 

Yellow markings of thorax and base of abdomen dull and incon- 
spicuous except in very young individuals; yellow basal lateral 
spots on segments 5 to 7 or 8 ; vulvar lamina slender, pointed, 
somewhat tapering and strongly compressed williamsoni 

10. Thorax with two lateral yellow spots and yellow spots on abdom- 

inal segments 5 to 7 or 8 ; vulvar lamina as long as sternimi of 

9 or longer 1 1 

Thorax with only the mesepimeral spot present, sometimes obscure ; 
no yellow spots on abdominal segments posterior to segment 3 ; 
vulvar lamina a little shorter than the sternum of 9 13 

11. Abdomen about as long as hind wings or slightly shorter; mes- 

epimeral spot elongate ; posterior spots subovate ; vulvar lamina 

in natural position, declined, largely black walshii 

Abdomen slightly longer than the hind wings; vulvar lamina in 
natural position horizontal, yellowish 12 

12. Lateral thoracic spots pale yellow, ovate, fairly well defined; vul- 

var lamina about as long as sternum of 9 or a little longer, .forcipata 
Lateral thoracic spots ochraceous, obscure or ill-defined; mes- 
epimeral spot elongate; vulvar lamina longer than sternum of 9 

(incurvata) 

13. With 6 to 9 cells between Mi and Mia; hind wings with a brown 

spot at base, sometimes suffused over the entire area; lateral 
lobes of post-clypeus black, mesepimeral spots usually distinct ; 

appendages scarcely longer than the vulvar lamina (franklini) 

With II to 20 cells between Mi and Mia; hind wings more or less 
yellow at base but without a distinct spot ; lateral lobes of post- 
clypeus brown ; mesepimeral spot obscure ; appendages nearly 
twice as long as vulvar lamina kennedsd 

Group I. The Metallica Group 

Somatochlora elongata (Scudder) 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, 10: 218: 1866. 

Nymph (Fig. 43). — Labium reaching base of the mesosternum; 
palpi with 9 crenulations, the tw^o apical ones small and close 
together, their setae as in minor; lateral setae of the palpi 6-7; 
mental setae 11-12, the fourth and sixth from the outside longest, 
the first 8 longer and closer together. 

Hind wing cases extending to the middle of segment 6. 

Abdomen: broadest at sixth segment; dorsal hooks on seg- 
ments 4 to 9, that of 4 about one-third the length of the segment ; 
that of 5 one-half the corresponding length, the remainder about 
as long as the segments bearing them; lateral spines of 8 and 9 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 



not divergent, those on 8 scarcely one-seventh as long as the lateral 
margin of the segment, the basal width scarcely half the length, 
those on 9 about one-sixth as long as the corresponding segment 
margin, which is convexly arcuate at base and barely concave 
beyond middle ; lateral appendages one-half shorter than segments 
9 and 10 together and about the same length as the median 
appendage. 

Measurements : length, 23-23.4 mm. ; width of abdomen, 8-9.25 
mm. ; length of hind femora, 8 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color metallic green and black. 

Thorax : yellow marks on the sides, usually a spot and a stripe. 





Fig. 43. Nymph of Somato- 
chlora el on gat a, x 1.7. (From 
Walker.) 



Fig. 44. Sotnatochlora elongata 
anal appendages of adult. (From 
Howe.) 



Abdomen : entirely black without pale rings or spots ; anal 
appendages (Fig. 44) almost straight, not bent downwards or 
forcipate or with sharp lateral angles; tips slightly upturned but 
not recurved. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina viewed from the side not extending 
ventrad a distance equal to the height of segment 9, the appendage 
entire, its length at base more than half the length of segment 9. 

Measurements : total length, male 58, female 56 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 39, female 40 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
37, female 36 mm. ; width of hind wings, male and female, 1 1 to 
1 1.5 mm. 

Specimens examined in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Measurements according to Walker as follows : total length, 
male 52-55.5, female 58-62 mm. ; length of abdomen, male 37-39, 
female 40-43 mm. ; length of hind wing, male 34-37, female 35.5- 
38 mm. ; width of hind wing, male 9.4-10.5, female 10.5-11.25 mm. 

New England. — July 8-August 12. 



CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



[Bull. 



Somatochlora minor (Calvert) 

Entomological News, Q: 87: 1898. 

Nymph (Fig. 45). — Mentum reaching base of mesothorax, 
mental setae 11 to 13, the outer 7 or 8 much closer together than 
the others; lateral setae of the palpi 6 to 8; crenulations each 
with groups of 5 to 6 setae each; hind wing cases reaching the 
middle of segment 6. 

Lateral spines on segment 8 one-fourth as long as the margin 
of the segment, scarcely divergent, those on 9 about one-third as 
long as the margin of this segment ; dorsal hooks present on seg- 
ments 4 to 9, compressed, slender and decidedly curved, the hook 
of 7, 8, and 9 about the same size and about as long as the corre- 
sponding segments ; dorsal margin of the superior median appen- 
dage straight in lateral profile. 





Fig. 45. Nymph of Somato- 
chlora minor, x 1.7. (From 
Walker.) 



Fig. 46. Sotnatochlora minor, 
anal appendages of adult. (From 
Howe.) 



Measurements: length, 20.1-22.5 mm. ; width of abdomen, 8-9 
mm. ; hind femora, 6.75-7 rn^^- 

Adult, male. — Color metallic greenish blue, and black marked 
with yellow. 

Head : labium, anteclypeus, and sides of the front below, yellow ; 
labrum black, front, except the yellow spots on sides, metallic 
green; occiput and postgenae black. 

Thorax : pronotum dark brown with pale caudal lobe ; meso- 
and metathorax green with yellow oval spots on mes- and met- 
epimera ; venter of thorax brown ; legs black, except the coxae 
and proximal half of the front femora, which are brown; wings 
a little smoky, the anal triangle surrounded with denser chlorina- 
tion. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 223 

Abdomen : black, with two yellow spots on each side of segment 
2 near the auricles, and one on each side of the dorso-meson of 
the same segment ; base of 3 with the yellow more or less divided 
into dorsal and lateral spots each side; anal appendages (Fig. 
46) with a distinct basal tooth, and lateral ridge, in lateral view, 
the tips tapering to a slightly upturned apex. 

Female. — Differing somewhat in color, there being only one 
spot on the sides of abdominal segment 2 ; ovipositor almost at 
right angles to the axis of the abdomen and as long or longer than 
the vertical diameter of segment 9. 

Measurements : total length, male 42-44, female 44-50 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 26.5-31, female 31-33 mm.; length of 
hind wings, male 30.5-33, female 32-34 mm. ; width of hind wings, 
male 8.5-9, female 10-10.4 mm. 

New England. — ^June 22-July 8. 

Somatochlora walshii (Scudder) 

Proceedings Boston Society Natural History, 10: 217: 1866. 
N5nTiph. — Unknown. 

Adult, male. — Color black and metallic green with yellow mark- 
ings. 




Fig. 47. Somatochlora walshii, 
anal appendages of adult. (From 
Howe.) 

Head: labium brown to pale, labrum nearly black, clypeus 
brown, the front also brown, with a large greenish metallic spot 
above, vertex and occiput dark brown to iDlack; rear of head 
black. 

Thorax: metallic green varied with reddish brown, with two 
yellow spots on the sides, the anterior spot in the form of a short 
stripe, the caudal one oval ; legs black, the coxae brown. Wings 
clear, with 7 ante- and 6-7 postnodal cross-veins in the front wing. 

Abdomen : black, swollen at base, narrowed at the third seg- 
ment, again enlarged from the 5th to 8th or 9th ; the lateral 
margins of segments 2 and base of margin of 3 yellow; 2 and 3 
also with dorso-lateral yellow spots, and small obscure spots on the 
cephalo-lateral angles of 5-7, lateral margin of 8, a small spot on 
sides of 9, and caudal half or third of the dorsum of 10 yellow ; 
anal appendages (Fig. 47) in dorsal view much enlarged near 
apices and densely pilose, the lateral surfaces showing two small 



224 



CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



[Bull. 



teeth at base ; the small lateral teeth show more plainly in lateral 
view ; tips of superiors upturned. 

Measurements : total length, male 46 mm. ; length of abdomen, 
29 mm. ; length of hind wings, 33 mm. ; width, 9.5 mm. 

Connecticut. — A male taken at Breakneck Pond, Union, 24 June, 1921, 
by Mr. S. W. Bromley, belongs here. 
New England. — June-September. 

Somatochlora williamsoni Walker 
Canadian Entomologist, 39: 69-74: 1907, pi. 11, figs, i-i, c. 

Nymph (Fig. 48). — Uniform dark to light brown. 

Head : hinge of labium reaching middle coxae ; mentum about 
as broad as long, somewhat constricted at about the basal fifth, 
and again at the apical fourth. Crenulations of the lateral lobes 
broadly and regularly arcuate, the larger ones with a group of 
about seven setae, the longest, usually the second or third from the 
lower end, about as long as the crenulation. Mental setae 11 or 
12, the fourth or fifth from the outer end longest; lateral setae 8. 





Fig. 48. Nymph of Somato- 
chlora williamsoni, x 1.5. (From 
Walker.) 



^y^yy^ 



Fig. 49. Somatochlora william- 
soni, anal appendages of adult. 
(From Howe.) 



Abdomen widest at 6, nearly hairless except along lateral margiiis 
where the fringe is of about average length and density and is 
much longer on the sides of 9 and 10 than elsewhere, sorne of the 
hairs on these segments being as long as the lateral margins of 9. 
Lateral spines on 8 and 9 rather slender, those on 8 one-fifth or 
one-fourth as long as the margin of the segment, and less than 
half as broad at base as long, not divergent; those on 9 one- 
fourth to one-third as long as the corresponding margin, more 
than twice as long as their basal breadth subparallel. Dorsal hooks 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 225 

present on segments 5 or 6 to 9, but little elevated and not pro- 
jecting beyond the hind margin of their segments except slightly 
in the case of those on 8 and 9 ; compressed, slightly hooked, with 
blunt or rounded apices. Lateral and median appendages about 
as long as 9 plus 10 measured in line with the former. 

Measurements : length, 23-25 mm. ; length of hind femora, 
7-7.3 mm. ; width of abdomen, 8-9 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color metallic green and black; labrum black. 

Thorax: yellow marks on the sides obscured, but a faint indi- 
cation of a mesothoracic stripe and metathoracic spot. 

Abdomen : black with two obscure spots on sides of 2 and at 
base of 3; anal appendages very similar to elongata (Fig. 49) the 
tips upturned, but differing from elongata in having a small basal 
tooth on the superiors in dorsal view. 

Female. — Similar to the male, but the abdomen with prominent 
yellow spots on the cephalo-lateral angles of terga 4, 5, and 6; 
pale spots on the sides of 2 unbroken ; vulvar lamina long, spout- 
shaped, laterally compressed, and about as long as the height of 
segment 9; anal appendages (superiors) a trifle longer than 
segments 9 and 10 together. 

Measurements : total length, male 53.5-59, female 55-59.5 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 36-40, female 38.5-42 mm. ; length of 
hind wings, male and female, 35-40 mm. ; width of hind wings, 
male 9.5-1 1, female 11-12 mm. 

Connecticut. — A female collected at Litchfield by L. B. Woodruff and 
standing under tcnebrosa in the latter's collection belongs here. It differs 
from the latter species in having the labrum mostly black and in being 
provided with lateral yellow spots on segments 4, 5, and 6 of the abdomen. 



Group 2. The Linearis Group 

Somatochlora linearis Hagen 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 137: 1861. 

Nymph (Fig. 50). — Head: hinge of labium reaching a little 
beyond base of the mesosternum. Mental setae 11 to 12, the 5th 
and 6th from the outside longest ; lateral lobes with 9 crenulations 
each, with a group of 6 or 7 spines, the longest of which are 
nearly as long as the corresponding crenulation ; lateral setae of 
the palpi 8. 

Thorax : hind wing-cases reaching about the middle of abdomi- 
nal segment 6. 

Abdomen: broadest at segments 5 and 6, 1.5 times as broad as 
the head across the eyes ; no definite fringe of hairs on the hind 
margins of the abdominal tergites ; lateral spines of segment 8 
about one-fifth the length of the margin of this segment; those 
on 9 one-fourth to one-fifth the length of the corresponding seg- 
ment margin; dorsal hooks on segments 5 to 9 and a vestige on 



226 



CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



[Bull. 



4, compressed, curved and acute, that of 5 rather more than a third 
as long as the mid-dorsal length of the segment, increasing in size 
caudad, that of 9 projecting over the entire loth segment ; median 
appendage slightly shorter than segment 9 plus 10, and triangular. 

Measurements : length, 22 mm. ; width of abdomen, 9 mm. ; 
length of hind femora, 6.5 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color brown to black, in part feebly metallic. 

Head: labium yellow, labrum and clypeus buff; front brown, 
darker above; vertex, occiput and postgenae brown. 

Thorax : brown, with metallic lustre without pale lateral spots ; 
legs black except the coxae, trochanters and part of the femora. 





Fig. 50. Nymph of Somata- 
chlora linearis, x 1.7. (From 
Walker.) 



Fig. 51. Somatochlora linearis, 
anal appendages of adult. (From 
Howe.) 



which are brown; entire ventral surface of the hind femora 
spinose ; middle femora with a broad longitudinal band of spmes 
from base to apex ; tibiae with ventral keels and flat apical spurs, 
the keels three-fourths the length of the hind tibiae, but only about 
one-tenth the length of the middle tibiae and about one-third the 
length of the front ; tarsal claws with ventral tooth slightly beyond 
the middle ; wings clear, slightly flavescent. 

Abdomen : slender, narrowed on segment 3, widened gradually 
from 3 to 6, and slightly narrowed from 6 to 10 ; segments i and 
2 widest : segments i and 2 brown ; terga 2 with a large yellow 
spot near the lateral margin on each side; terga 3-10 black or 
dark brown, 3 and 5-7 with a small yellow spot on each side near 
base ; venter largely brown, venter of terga 5-9 with a touch of 
yellow near the cephalo-lateral angles ; anal and accessory appen- 
dages black; the superior anals almost truncate at the apex 

Female. — Superior anal appendages long, the vulvar lamina 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 



227 



projecting ventrad a distance equal to the vertical diameter of 
segment 9. 

Measurements : total length, male 60, female 65-68 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 43, female 47-50 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 40, female 39-42 mm. ; length of stigma, male .3 mm. 

Connecticut. — A single male specimen collected by Mr. Zappe at Orange, 
July 2, 1920. 

New England. — July 2-July 27. 

Group 3. The Tenebrosa Group 

Somatochlora tenebrosa (Say) 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8: 14: 1839. 

Nymph (Fig. 52). — Labium reaching base of the mesosternum; 
mental setae 11 to 12, the third to the sixth from the outside 
longest ; lateral setae of the palpi 8 ; palpi with 9 or 10 crenula- 
tions, the middle ones of which are about three times as long as 
deep, and bear 6 or 7 setae in a graded series. 





Fig. 52. Nymph of Somato- 
chlora tenebrosa, x 2.2. (From 
Walker.) 



Fig. 53. Somatochlora tenebrosa, 
anal appendages of adult. (From 
Howe.) 



Abdomen: widest at segment 6; lateral spines on 8 and 9, 
those on 8 about one-sixth the length of the lateral margins of 
the segments, slightly divergent, those on 9 not divergent, about 
one-fifth as long as the corresponding segment margin and about 
three times as long as their basal breadth ; dorsal hooks on seg- 
ment 4 or 5 to 9 ; vestigial on 4 when present ; very small on 5, 
being about one-fourth as long as the tergite of this segment, 



2 28 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

barely half the corresponding length on 6; well developed on 
the remaining segments, being about as long as the segments 
that bear them; hook on segment 9 projecting well over the 
hind margin of segment 10; median appendage about as long 
as segments 9 plus 10 measured mid-dorsally triangular, in profile 
somewhat concave above in the male, with a slightly elevated sub- 
apical prominence. 

Measurements : total length, 20 mm. ; width of head, 6 mm. ; 
width of abdomen, 8 mm. ; length of hind femora, 6 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color black and metallic green. 

Head : labium pale, labrum yellow with a black ventral border 
and dorso-mesal spot ; front dark above, occiput brown, postgenae 
black. 

Thorax: metallic green and brown with a yellow stripe on the 
mesepimera and an elongate spot on the metepimera; legs black, 
the front femora pale at base ; wings clear, usually without flaves- 
cent areas, sometimes yellow at anal triangle. 

Abdomen: second segment with a pale spot shortly above the 
lateral margin ; margins of segment 3 obscurely pale ; remainder 
of the abdomen black, brown beneath; anal appendages (Fig. 53) 
bent sharply ventrad and mesad, the tips slender. Inferior appen- 
dage nearly as broad at tip as at base, three-fourths as long as the 
superiors. 

Female. — Similar to the male, the anal appendages as long as 
segments 9 and 10 together, the vulvar lamina much narrower at 
the base than the width of segment 9 ; length of anal appendages 
3.5-4.7 mm. 

Measurements : total length, male 55-56, female 58 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 40, female 36-40 mm. ; length of hind wing, 
male 38-39, female 37-39 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 12, 
female 12 mm. ; length of stigma, male and female, 3 mm. 

Connecticut. — Wallingford, 13 August, 1922 (S. W. Bromley). 
New England. — August i- September 8. 

Group 4. The Filosa Group 

This group contains filosa and provocans, of which the latter 
perhaps is most likely to be found in Connecticut. The anal 
appendages of the male of provocans are shown in Fig. 42, 
Nos. 7, 8. 

Group 5. The Arctic a Group 

Somatochlora forcipata (Scudder) 
Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, 10: 216: 1866. 
Nymph (Fig. 54). — ^Very hairy; labium small, eyes entirely 
uncovered, the submentum reaching scarcely to the middle of the 
mesocoxae; palpi with 7-9 rounded crenulations, each with three 
to five setae; lateral setae 9, rarely 10; mental setae 12 to 15, the 
fourth to sixth from the outside, longest. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT : LIBELLULIDAE 



229 



Abdomen: dorsum with numerous hairs generally distributed, 
but not uniform in length, those on the lateral and posterior 
margins of 9 and on the dorso-lateral parts of the hind margins 
of 6-9 elongated, forming conspicuous tufts on each side ; dorsal 
hooks absent; lateral spines absent or represented on 9 only by a 
very minute tooth. 

Measurements: length, 19-20 mm.; width of abdomen, 6.6-7.1 
mm. ; length of hind femora, 5-5.5 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color metallic green and black. 

Head : pale color of the front on the ventral margin continuous. 

Thorax: conspicuous oval yellow spots, two on each side. 





Fig. 54. 
chlora forcipata, 
Walker.) 



Somato- 
(From 



Fig. 55. Somatochlora forci- 
pata, anal appendages of adults. 
(From Howe.) 



Abdomen: without pale rings, but with pale spots on the 
cephalo-lateral angles of segments 5 to 7 inclusive ; anal appen- 
dages black, the superiors in dorsal view without lateral angles, 
and f orcipate ; inferiors more than half the length of the superiors, 
narrowed at tip and not so broad as at base (Fig. 55). 

Female. — Vulvar lamina (Fig. 55) entire; not so long as the 
height of segment 9 and extending nearly or quite to the caudal 
margin of the segment ; cephalo-lateral pale spots on abdominal 
segments 4 to 8, that on 8 smaller. 

Measurements: total length, male 45-50, female 46-51 mm.; 
length of abdomen, male 33-34, female 33-36 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 31-32, female 30-33 mm.; width of hind wing, male 
and female, 9-10 mm. ; length of stigma, 2 mm. 

New England. — May-August. 



230 



CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



[Bull. 



Somatochlora franklini (Selys) 
Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique, 45 : 195, 205, 217 : 1878. 
The accompanying illustrations (Figs. 56, 57) of the nymph 





Fig. 56. Nypph 
chlora franklini, 
Walker.) 



of 



Somato- 
(From 



Fig. 57. Somatochlora frank- 
lini, anal appendages of the adult 
(From Howe.) 



and adult of the species are shown mainly for the sake of com- 
parison. It has not been seen in Connecticut. 



Somatochlora kennedyi Walker 

Canadian Entomologist, 50: 371-374: 1918. 

Nymph. — Hinge of labium reaching the middle of the meso- 
coxae ; palpi with 9 or 10 crenulations, the largest about three 
times as long as high and having groups of about four setae in 
a graded series, the longest of which are three-fourths or three- 
fifths as long as the crenulations bearing them ; mental setae 12-13, 
the fourth to sixth from the outside longest, the innermost three 
or four small ; lateral setae of the palpi 9, 

Abdomen : without dorsal hooks ; lateral spines represented on 
segment 9 only by a small tooth on each side; median appendage 
of the female nearly equilateral, barely acuminate, and terminating 
in a small, sharp spine; lateral appendages a trifle longer, about 
four times as long as their basal breadth ; outer margins straight. 

Measurements: length, 21 mm.; width of the head, 6.3 mm.; 
hind femora, 6 mm. ; width of the abdomen, 6.5 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color black and metallic green. 

Head : sides of front and lower margin pale. 

Thorax: meso- and metathorax metallic green without well- 
defined spots ; wings clear or tinged with yellow, the hind wings 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 231 

sometimes with a clear yellow basal spot, which may extend beyond 
the anal triangle. 

Abdomen : greenish black, with dull yellow as follows : a spot 
on sides of segment i, sometimes two spots on segment 2, some- 
times coalescing, and a pale apical ring on segment 3, with indefi- 
nite spots on the cephalo-ventral angles ; terga 4 to 10 entirely 
black; anal appendages (Fig. 58) similar to forcipata except for 
the broken lateral margins in dorsal view and the absence of a 
subapical inferior tooth in lateral profile. 




Fig. 58. Somatochlora kennedyi, 
anal appendages of the adult. 
(From Howe.) 

Female. — Vulvar lamina (Fig. 58) entire, Httle contracted at 
tip, broadly rounded. 

Measurements : total length, male 54-58 mm. ; length of abdo- 
men, male 35-39, female 34-38 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
30-31, female 30-32 mm.; width of hind wings, male and female, 
8-10 mm. 

New England. — August i-September 8. 

Group 6. The Alpestris Group 

Somatochlora albicincta (Burmeister) 

Handbuch der Entomologie, p. 847: 1839. 

Nymph (Fig. 59). — Hinge of labium reachijig nearly to the 
hind margin of the middle coxae; mental setae 11 or 12, the fourth 
or fifth from the outside longest, the inner three or four very 
short ; lateral setae of the palpi 5 or 6 ; crenulations 7 to 8 each 
with 3 or 4 setae in a graded series. 

Abdomen : slightly wider than the head ; covered evenly above 
with minute hairs among which are sparsely scattered longer ones, 
the hind margin of each tergite with a fringe of short setae, 
shorter than those of the general surface, with longer and more 
slender hairs scattered among them, sometimes in small irregular 



232 



CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



[Bull. 



groups; lateral spines on segments 8 and 9, those on 8 usually- 
less than one-fifth as long as the margin, not divergent, those on 
9 about one-fifth the length of the margin; median superior 
appendage longer than the laterals in profile, faintly convex above ; 
lateral appendages of the male as long as segments 9 and 10 
together measured directly in front of them. 

Measurements : total length, 20.5-23.5 mm. ; width of abdomen, 
7.2-8 mm. ; length of hind femora, 5.8-6.5 mm. 





fi-- 



FiG. 59. Nymph of Somato- 
chlora <albicincta, x 1.5. (From 
Walker.) 



Fig. 60. Somatochlora albicinc~ 
ta, anal appendages of the adult. 
(From Howe.) 



Adult, male. — Color metallic green and black. 

Thorax: a pale streak on the mesepimera. 

Abdomen : pale rings on segments 2 to 8, but without pale spots 
on the latero-cephalic angles; tips of the anal appendages (Fig. 
60) bent sharply mesad at tips, but without a sub-basal, lateral 
angle when seen in dorsal view. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina not projecting ventrad, the lobes 
broadly rounded and with a notch between. 

Measurements : total length, male 47, female 45 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 30, female 29 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
30-31, female about 33 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 9, female 
10 mm. 

Specimens examined in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Walker's measurements for this species are as follows: total 
length, male 45-3-50, female 46-52 mm. ; length of abdomen, male 
30-32, female 31-36.7 mm.; length of hind wing, male 28-31, 
female 29-33 mm.; width of hind wing, male 8-9.125, female 
9-10.5 mm. 

New England.— July 4- August 11. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 



233 



Somatochlora cingulata (Selys) 

Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique (2), 31: 302: 1871. 

Nymph (Fig. 61). — Color dark brown. Readily recognized by 
its large size and blotched color pattern, especially the abdomen, 
segments 4-9 each bearing two prominent scars or blotches above 
on either side. 

Head : palpi with six lateral setae, each palpus with seven to 
eight teeth, the teeth in the middle of the row with about three 
spines each ; caudal margins of the eyes considerably behind the 
middle of the head. 

Thorax: femora each with two dark rings, the hind femora 
extending caudad to abdominal segment 6. 





Fig. 61. Nymph 
chlora cingulata, x 
Walker.) 



of Sotnato- 
1.6. (From 



Fig. 62. Somatochlora cingu- 
lata, anal appendages of the adult. 
(From Howe.) 



Abdomen: without dorsal spines or tubercles, the small lateral 
spines on segments 8 and 9, .25 to .5 mm. long in full-grown 
specimens; lateral terminal appendages three-fourths as long as 
the ventral. 

Measurements: total length, 26-28 mm.; hind femur, 7.5 mm.; 
wing-cases, 6 mm. ; median lobe of the labium, 5.5 mm. long by 
2.5 mm. to 6 mm. wide; width of abdomen, 8.7-9.1 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color metallic green and black. 

Thorax: metallic without lateral pale spots; wings clear, not 
yellow. 

Abdomen: pale rings on segments 2 to 9; anal appendages in 
dorsal view with a sharp sub-basal angle, the tips bent mesad 
conspicuously (Fig. 62). 



234 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

Female. — Similar to the male. 

Vulvar lamina not projecting ventrad conspicuously, the plates 
broadly rounded, w^ith a shallow median notch. 

Measurements : total length, male 54-63, female 57-68 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 36-41, female 39 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 33-38, female 35-41 mm. 

Genus Neurccordulia Selys 

Nymphs of this genus have not been reared. Needham has 
described what he supposes to be the nymph of the only represen- 
tative. He says it is similar to Hagenius and Epicordulia, but 
differs from all nymphs known to him in having curved ridges on 
the femora of the first two pairs of legs, a transverse occipital 
ridge and very short basal segments. An exuviae received from 
Dr. Calvert and compared with specimens from other sources 
shows that the diverging spines on segment 8 and the very deep 
teeth of the labial palpi are important characters. 

Adults, — Sectors of arculus not united at base, triangle with 
cross-veins; area between Cu^ and M^ widened at the margin of 
the front wing; dark spots sometimes on wing at base and along 
costal margin ; abdomen of female without a long forked process 
on venter of 8 ; color not metallic. 

Not much is known of the habits of members of the genus. 
The only representative collected in Connecticut was found near 
a fairly large stream in the northern part of the State. It was 
collected between 3:00 and 6:00 p. m. and was found resting in 
some weeds in a woodland pasture. 

Key to Species 

Adults 

I. Antenodals in front wings 7 to 8, those behind Sc infuscated as 

far as the nodus ; a nodal spot also present obsoleta 

Antenodals in front wings 9 to 11, those behind Sc not infuscated 
as far as the nodus and without a nodal spot yamaskanensis 

Neurccordulia obsoleta Say 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8: 29: 1839. 

Nymph (PI. iv. Fig. 6). — Color dark brown. 

Head: mentum about as broad as long, extending between the 
procoxae and with 9 mental setae on each side ; palpi with 6 lateral 
setae, and 6 mesal teeth, which are longer than broad and have 
several spines at their apices ; mesal margin of palpi also setose ; 
the first tooth below the movable spine or distal segment of the 
palpi is bifid. Antennae /-segmented, the third and sixth subequal 
and longer than the rest ; ventral margin of labrum setose ; loca- 
tion of the ocelli marked by pale spots; vertex and occiput 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 235 

granular, the caudal margins rounded, but with a distinct ridge 
approximated to the anterior margin of the pronotum. 

Thorax: pronotum with a ridge on the caudal margin which 
curves forward on the sides and ends in a blunt tubercle; just 
above the procoxae there is a single blunt protuberance; sides of 
the mesp- and metathorax dark brown, spotted with yellow ; pro-, 
meso-, and metacoxae successively further apart in the order 
mentioned ; femora brown, with two yellow rings on each, without 
carinae; tibiae with 2 yellow rings each, and a curved ridge 
beginning on the cephalic surface at base, curving on to the ventral 
surface and disappearing at about the mid point ; tarsi dark brown, 
the distal segment about as long as the two proximal ; metathoracic 
wing-cases extending to the middle of abdominal segment 5. 

Abdomen : flat below, arched above, the lateral keels with con- 
spicuous spines on 8 and 9 as in PI. iv. Fig. 6 ; dorsal surface 
with mesal hooks on 1-9; segment 10 narrow, about one-fourth 
as long as 9 ; superior anal appendage almost triangular, the lateral 
appendages three- fourths as long as the superiors ; the dorsal 
surface of the abdomen is granular in appearance owing to th^ 
presence of small setae, but there is a double row of smooth scars 
4-8 and a single scar on 2, 3 and 9. 

Measurements: total length, 21 mm.; length of hind femora, 
5.5 mm. ; length of metathoracic wing-cases, 5.5 mm. ; length of 
abdomen (to tip of lateral spines), 13 mm., greatest width, 9 mm. 

Described from a cast skin obtained from Dr. P. P. Calvert. 

Adult, male. — Color brown marked with yellow. 

Head: brown, labrum yellow, front and vertex olive. 

Thorax: pale brown, pilose with a yellow spot on the met- 
episterna covering the spiracle; legs brown; wings (PI. x, Fig. 4) 
smoky with a patch of dark brown on the anal angle in the hind 
wing, and another patch on base of front wing; antenodal cross- 
veins infuscated and a dark spot on the nodus, which may, how- 
ever, be absent. 

Abdomen: brown to black; anal appendages with the inferior 
entire, tapering to an acute point; superiors viewed from above, 
expanded on the distal half as in Tetragoneuria simulans. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina consisting of short lobes, less than 
I mm. long, and separated by about the width of each lobe at 
middle. 

Measurements : total length, male 45, female 42-45 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 28-30, female 30 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 28-30, female 32 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 10, female 
8-10 mm. 

Specimens examined in collection of P. P. Calvert ; one female 
in this collection has very little coloring in the wings and almost 
none in antenodal cross-veins; also one specimen from Squam 
Lake, N. H., obtained from Dr. Howe. 

New England. — June 10- August 30. 



236 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull, 

Neurocordulia yamaskanensis (Provancher) 

Naturaliste Canadienne, 7: 238, 248: 1875. 

Adult, male. — Brown, labrum yellow, front and vertex olive. 

Thorax: brown, pilose; legs brown, the dorsal ridges of the 
tibiae pale; wings with brown spot at base of the hind wings, 
not, however, extending beyond the triangle ; front wings chlori- 
nated as far as the arculus, the first two antenodals showing some 
infuscation, but without a dark spot reaching the hind margin as 
in obsoleta; antenodals of the front wing 9 to 11, hind wings 
usually 6. 

Abdomen: brown, bulbous at base, with pale spots along the 
sides of segments 5 to 8 inclusive; inferior appendage nearly as 
long as the superiors, contracted to a blunt point at apex ; superior 
appendages slender, acute, the tips upturned and in lateral profile 
with a slight obtuse projection on the ventral surface just beyond 
the middle. 

Female. — Similar in nearly all points to the male. Vulvar 
lamina consisting of two small plates with an almost rectangular 
notch between. 

Measurements: total length, male 52-53, female 52 mm.; 
length of abdomen, male 35-37, female 37 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 33-35, female 36 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 
and female, 11 mm. 

This species is similar in nearly all respects to obsoleta of Say 
but differs mainly in size, greater number of antenodal cross- 
veins, and amount of infuscation on these. The species has been 
described in great detail by Hagen (Psyche, 5; pp. 367-369, pi. i, 
figs. 1-6: 1890). The wings are figured by Williamson in Ent. 
News, 19: pi. xviii: 1908. 

Connecticut. — Salisbury, 13 June, 1926 (P. G.). 



Genus Williamsonia Davis 

Generally placed in Dorocordulia but separated from that genus 
by some authorities because of the absence of a 3-celled internal 
triangle. 

Williamsonia (Dorocordulia) linfncri (Hagen) is the only 
representative in New England. 

Nymphs. — Unknown. 

Adults. — Sectors of the arculus not united at base; triangle 
without cross-veins; area between Cuj and M4 not widened at 
margin of the front wing; wings without dark spots, their bases 
however, flavescent ; abdomen of female without a long forked 
process on the venter of segment 8. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 237 

Williamsonia lintneri (Hagen) 

Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique (2), 45: 187: 1878. 

Adult, male. — Color brown or yellow and black. 

Head : face brown, vertex black or brown ; occiput and post- 
genae black. 

Thorax : metallic green and brown, legs black, the femora with 
very short spines; wings (PI. xvi, Fig. i) clear with the extreme 
bases yellow ; triangles without cross-veins ; postnodal cross-veins 
five to six in the front wings, antenodals seven to eight in the front 
and five in the hind wings. 

Abdomen : terga 2 to 9 with pale apical transverse bands about 
one-third the length of each segment ; anal- appendages black, the 
superiors bluntly rounded at the tips and slightly swollen apically. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina consisting of two pointed lobes in 
contact on the meson and a little more than half the length of the 
segment; median incision about three-fourths the length of the 
lobes. 

Measurements: total length, male 31-34, female 33-36 mm.; 
length of abdomen, male 21-22, female 22-23 mm. ; length of hind 
wing, male 21-22, female 22-25 mm.; width of hind wings, male 
7, female 8 mm. 

This species probably occurs in Connecticut, but so far it has 
not been collected. According to Dr. R. H. Howe, Jr., it flies only 
in April and May, and may be taken in woods, usually near 
sphagnum ponds. It has been found in several localities in 
Massachusetts. 

New England. — April 30-June 21. 

Genus Dorocordulia Needham 

Nymphs. — Caudo-lateral margins of the head angular; spines 
of abdominal segment 9 one-third as long as that segment. 

Adults. — With arculus sectors separate 10 point of union with 

arculus ; triangles of the front wings usually without cross-veins ; 

subtriangle absent ; area between M^ and Cu^ not expanded 

towards margin of front wing; bases of hind wings clear; color 

metallic. 

Key to Species 

Adults, Males 

1. Abdomen with segments 7-10 spatulately dilated; wider than the 

preceding segments ; .libera 

Abdomen with segments 7-10 not spatulately dilated; not wider _ 
than the preceding segments lepida 

Females 

I. Abdominal segments 4-7 without conspicuous yellow spots on the 

cephalo-lateral angles; width of segment 9 more than 2 mm. . .libera 
Abdominal segments 4-7 with conspicuous yellow spots on the 
cenhalo-lateral angles; width of segment 9 less than 2 mm. ..lepida 



238 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Dorocordulia lepida (Hagen) 

Bulletin de rAcademie royale . . . de Belgique (2), 31: 264: 1871. 

Nymph. — Head: labium with 10 to 11 setae on each side of the 
mentum; labial palpi with 7 setae on each side, that on the base 
well separated from the remaining setae; teeth of the distal 
margins of the palpi shallow and provided with two to three spines 
each. 

Abdomen: dorsal hooks on segments 5 to 9 inclusive; lateral 
spines on segments 8 and 9. 

Measurements: total length, 19 mm.; length of abdomen, 10 
mm. ; length of metathoracic wing-cases, 5 mm. ; length of hind 
femora, 6 mm. 

A nymph seen in the collection of William T. Davis, from which 
the measurements were taken, and a labium received through the 
courtesy of Dr. R. H. Howe — both reared specimens. 

Adult, male. — Color metallic green, black and yellow. 

Head : labium brown ; labrum black, anteclypeus brown ; post- 
clypeus and front green except the sides of the front below the 
antennae, which are brown ; postocular triangle brown, occiput 
and postgenae black. 

Thorax: metallic green, pilose, and obscurely marked with 
yellow and black ; legs mostly black, the front femora and coxae 
brown ; wings clear, yellow at base ; postnodal cross-veins of the 
front wing 5, stigma black, supported by one cross-vein. 

Abdomen: black, obscurely marked with yellowish brown on 
the sides of terga i and 2 ; anal appendages black, accessory 
appendages similar to those of Cordulia. 

Female. — Color similar to the male. 

Abdomen: yellow on sides of tergum 2, nearly all of 3 yellow, 
and yellow triangles on 4-7; vulvar lamina consisting of two 
rounded lobes, extending one-third to one-half the length of the 
segment from its base ; anal appendages black, the superiors about 
as long as segment 9. 

Measurements : total length, male 2>7y female 37 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 25-26, female 27 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 27-28, female 28-29 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 8-9, 
female 9-10 mm. 

Connecticut. — New London, 16-22 June, 1921 (R. H. H.) ; Litchfield, 
31 August, 1913 (L. B. W.). 

New England. — May 22- August 31. 

Dorocordulia libera (Selys) 
Bulletin de I'Academie royale . . . de Belgique (2), 31: 263: 1871. 
Nymph. — Color dark brown, with darker stripes, resembling in 

general form the Somatochloras. 

Head : with prominent black transverse band between the eyes, 

above which is a lighter band about half as wide; antennae with 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 239 

first two segments brown (tip of second lighter), setose; a promi- 
nent fringe of setae between the antennal bases; rear of head 
brown with a few setae on caudo-lateral angles ; labium with 
10-12 mental setae and 7 lateral setae on the palpi, with a group 
of about 10 small spinules at base; teeth of palpi short with a 
tendency to overlap, the middle teeth with four spines ; 8 notches 
on each palpus. 

Thorax : mid-dorsum of pronotum black ; two broad black 
bands on sides of the mesa- and metathorax, the dorsal stripe 
extending onto the sides of the pronotum, the ventral stripe con- 
sisting of a short dash over the metacoxae ; wing cases black or 
very dark, their dorsal margins pale; legs brown without con- 
spicuous rings. 

Abdomen: brown, with narrow mid-dorsal pale line; sides 
obscurely mottled, the lateral scars on 5 to 8 paired and frequently 
with brown spots alongside; dorsal hooks almost obsolete, most 
distinct on segments 6 and 7, indicated as small elevations on 5 
and 8; lateral spines on 8 and 9 short, that on 8 one-seventh as 
long as the lateral margin, that on 9 a trifle longer, both incurved ; 
lateral and ventral margins of 9 with very long hairs or setae, those 
of the ventro-caudal margin extending twice as far to the rear as 
the terminal appendages ; caudal margins of 7 and 8 with a few 
long setae on either side of the dorsum and several grouped about 
the dorsal prominences ; terminal appendages together with seg- 
ment 10 well telescoped into segment 9; laterals about three- 
fourths as long as the ventrals. 

Measurements : total length, 18 mm. ; length of abdomen, 
II mm., greatest width, 7 mm.; length of hind femora, 5.5 mm. 

Described from two reared specimens and a number of full- 
grown nymphs. It differs from lepida in lacking a dorsal hook 
on segment 9. 

Adult, male. — Color metallic green and black ; base of abdomen 
with brown or yellow marks. 

Head : labium brown, labrum and anteclypeus black or dark 
brown, front and postclypeus metallic green; occiput and post- 
genae black; compound eyes bright green below, brown above; 
in preserved specimens entirely brown. 

Thorax: pronotum black with caudal lobe and frontal margin 
brown; meso- and metathorax metallic green and bronze, the 
sutures slightly darker ; legs black, the tibiae of the hind legs each 
with a pronounced ventral ridge with spine-like projection at tip; 
wings (PI. X, Fig. 3) clear, with 7-8 postnodal cross-veins; 7-8 
antenodal cross-veins in the front wing and 5 in the hind. 

Abdomen: dark metallic green or black with brown or yellow 
marks on the sides of terga 2 and 3 ; anal appendages black, the 
superiors in lateral profile with a tooth at base, the distal half 
expanded and the tips sharply pointed and upturned ; inferior 
appendage nearly as long as, or longer than the superiors, the tips 



240 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

narrowed almost to a point; abdomen viewed from above with 
segments 7-9 spatulately dilated, segment 8 being three or more 
millimeters in width. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina not quite half (i.o mm.) as long as 
segment 9, and with a narrow median notch. First and second, 
and one-third of segment 3 brown or yellow ; segment 2 some- 
times black, and 3 with only a basal ring. 

Measurements : total length, male 40, female 40 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 28-29, female 28-31 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 28-29, female 29-30 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 9, 
female 10 mm. 

Connecticut. — Bristol, 6 July, 1922 (P. G.) ; Hamden, 23 May, 1927. 
Emerged in laboratory (P. G.). Two specimens also from vicinity of 
Storrs, without date or place. Reported from Litchfield (L. B. W.), Union 
(S. W. B.) and Rainbow, 13 June, 1927 (R. B. F.). 

New England. — June 7-August 29. 

Subfamily Libellulinae Selys 

The nymphs have, for the most part, short lateral spines on the 
abdomen, and the lateral appendages are less than half as long as 
the inferiors. 

The adults have a decided double curve in the mesopleural 
suture, lack for the most part the metallic coloration common in 
the Cordulinae, and the compound eyes usually have the prominent 
tubercle in the middle of the hind border. 

As already mentioned, the subfamily Libellulinae is very closely 
related to the Cordulinae, and much care must be exercised in 
order to put an unknown species in its proper place. 

Tribe Libellulini Tillyard 

Nymphs of this tribe have squarish heads when viewed from 
above, and the labium is of characteristic form (see PI. vii. Fig. 
5). The adults of local representatives have a decided bend in 
vein M2 as shown in PI. xv, Fig. 3, the wings in general con- 
taining taxonomic features of considerable importance. Females 
with small vulvar lamina, the margin of segment 8 often thin and 
extended ventrad. 

Key to Genera 
Nymphs 

I. Distal margin of mentum crenulate, with a single crenulation be- 
tween the marginal spines ; distal margin of labial palpi with 
seven notches between conspicuous teeth; no dorsal spine on 

abdominal segment 7 Plathemis, p. 254 

Distal margin of mentum usually with more than a single crenu- 
lation between each marginal spine; if with a single crenulation, 
then with a dorsal spine on abdominal segment 7; distal margin 
of labial palpi with 10 to 11 notches in fiill growth nymphs .... 

Libellula, p. 241 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 24I 

Adults 

I. Male with prominent ventral hook on first abdominal segment; 
structure of ventral surface of abdomen of the female as shown 

in Fig. 63, No. 2 Plathemis, p. 254 

Male without a prominent ventral hook on the first abdominal seg- 
ment ; ventral surface of abdomen of female not as in Fig. 63, 
No. 2 Libellula, p. 241 

Genus Libellula Linnaeus 

Nymphs. — Head with 5 to 9 lateral setae on the palpi, and 8 
to 12 on mentum. Dorsal hooks on abdomen present or rudi- 
mentary, the lateral spines on segments 8 and 9 small ; anal appen- 
dages not decurved ; laterals about half the length of the inferiors. 

Adults. — Front wrinkled, the vertex projecting over the median 
ocellus, truncate and usually concave at tip when viewed from 
above ; wings with more than 10 antenodal cross-veins ; stigma 
with proximal and distal margins parallel, more than three times 
as long as wide, and supported by three or more cross-veins ; 
triangle 3-sided and considerably farther distad in the front wings 
than in the hind ; vein Mj with a conspicuous bend about as far 
distad as the proximal end of the stigma; subtriangle absent; 
Cu^ arising exactly from the caudal angle of the triangle in both 
wings ; prothorax with caudal margin entire ; meso- and meta- 
thorax hairy ; femora, tibiae and tarsi with a double row of heavy 
spines beneath, the femora usually with one dorsal carina and the 
tibiae with two ; tarsal claws with ventral tooth considerably 
beyond the middle, the proximal portion of the claws much thicker 
than the distal ; abdomen without ventral hooks on the first 
abdominal segment of the male ; transverse median carinae on 
segments 2 and 3 sometimes wanting on 2 ; general color usually 
brown or black, often becoming pollinose. 

For literature on adults of the genus, see 
Byers, C. F. Ent. News. 38: 113-115: 1927. (Key to Libellula nymphs.) 
Ris, F. Catalogue des Collections Zoologiques du Baron Edm. de Selys 
Longchamps. Libellulinen ; xi : 245-282: 1910. 

For the most part fresh water species are included in this genus, 
although the only representatives of auripcnnis were taken near 
brackish water. The nymphs occur in trash near the borders of 
ponds or streams. The adults are perhaps our most common 
dragonflies occurring throughout the summer in many localities. 

Key to Species 

Nymphs'" 

I. Dorsal hooks on the seventh and eighth abdominal segments, long 

and sharp 2 

Dorsal hooks on the seventh and eighth abdominal segments rudi- 
mentary, hidden among scurfy hairs or wanting 6 



' This key applies only to full-grown individuals. 



242 CONNECTICUT GEOL, AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 




Fig. 63. Ventral view of terminal segments of female abdomens of 
Libellula i, 3 and 4, and Plathemis, 2. Accessory appendages in lateral 
view, 5-1 1 Libellula species, 12, Plathemis lydia. 13. Tetragoneuria cyno- 
sura. 14. Tramea Carolina; all greatly enlarged. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 243 

2. Distal margin of the mentum crenulate (PI. vii, Fig. 5) exusta 

Distal margin of the mentvmi not crenulate, not as in PI. vii, Fig. 5 3 

3. Lateral setae of the labial palpi five 4 

Lateral setae more than five 5 

4. Segment 9 on ventral side eqtial in length to 9 and 10 on the 

dorsum; setae on distal margin of lateral lobes of labium in 

groups of three vibrans incesta 

Segment 9 on ventral side longer than 9 and 10 on the dorsum; 
setae of distal margin of lateral lobes in groups of five . .auripennis 

5. Lateral setae of the labial palpi six cyanea 

Lateral setae seven luctuosa 

6. Lateral setae of the labial palpi seven quadrimaculata 

Lateral setae eight or nine (PI. vii, Fig. i) pulchella 

Adults 
Males and Females 

1. Wings clear, without spots, occasionally with dark tips, never with 

dark basal marks 2 

Wings spotted with dark pigment, always with dark basal marks . . 3 

2. Wings suffused with gold, veins reddish yellow; stigma orange or 

brown (PI. xxi, Fig. 5) auripennis 

Wings clear, veins not reddish yellow; stigma black (PI. xxi, 
Fig. 2) vibrans incesta 

3. Stigma bicolored, yellow or cream-colored and black 4 

Stigma unicolored, usually black 5 

4. Stigma of front wing 4 to 4.5 mm., proximal half or three-fifths 

yellow or cream-colored (PI. xxi, Fig. 6; PI. xv. Fig. 3) ..cyanea 
Stigma of front wing 5.5 to 6 mm., proximal three-fourths to five- 
sixths yellow fiavida 

5. Wings with black bases, the black or fuscous area occupying the 

entire width of the wing (PI. xxi, Fig. 3) luctuosa 

Wings with dark streaks at bases or without spots, the spots if 
present not occupying the entire width 6 

6. Tips of wings clear and without cross-bands at stigma 7 

Tips of wings dark or with dark cross-bands at stigma 8 

7. Wings with a dark triangle at the base of the hind wings ; no mark 

at the nodus (PI. xx, a) exusta 

Wings with a dark triangle at the base of the hind wings and 
also a spot at the nodus, PI. xxi. Fig. 4 quadrimaculata 

8. Nodal spot not extending behind R (PI. xxi. Fig. 8) vibrans vibrans 
Nodal spot extending behind R, about half tlie width of the wing 9 

9. Extreme tip of wings almost clear ; wings suffused with gold at 

their bases; no whitish areas between the darker spots (PI. xxi, 

Fig. 9) semifasciata 

Extreme tip of wings usually covered with the apical band; wings 
not suffused with gold at their bases ; usually marked with whit- 
ish areas between the darker spots (PI. xxi, Fig. 7) pulchella 

Libellula auripennis Burmeister 

Handbuch der Entomologie, 2 : 861 : 1839. 

Nymph. — Lateral setae of the palpi five; mental setae 8 to lo; 
dorsal hooks on segment 3 or 4 to 8. 

Measurements (Needham, 1901) : total length, 27 mm,; length 
of abdomen, 17.3 mm. ; width of abdomen, 7 mm. ; length of hind 
femora, 6 mm. 



244 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Adult, male (PI. xxi, Fig. 5). — Color red and brown, some- 
times lacking red entirely. 

Head: labium brown, labrum, clypeus and front red; front 
with a black basal line in front of the ocelli ; occiput and post- 
genae red or brown. 

Thorax : uniformly reddish brown ; legs brown, the tibiae with 
long black spines, tarsal segments darker at tips, ventral tooth of 
tarsal claws well beyond the middle; wings with reddish and 
brownish infuscation somewhat heavier along the costal borders; 
15-19 antenodal cross-veins in the front wing; postnodals 12-17; 
stigma brown or red covering 4-5 cells in the front wing and 
5.5-6 mm. long. 

Abdomen: uniform red, slender, tapering gradually from base 
to tip, with a blackish line along the dorsal carina, sometimes 
obscure on 3 to 7, more distinct on segments 8 and 9; accessory 
appendages as in L. cyanea; anal appendages red to brown, the 
inferior about twice as wide at base as at apex; the superiors 
with 8 to 1 1 black teeth beneath. 

. Female. — More brown or yellow than the male, the tips of the 
wings sometimes infuscated. Margins of eighth terga extending 
ventrad considerably. 

Measurements : total length, male 52-55, female 50 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 31-36, female 30-33 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 35-40, female 33-37 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 10-10.5, 
female 11 mm.; length of stigma, male 5-5.5, female 5-6 mm. 

Connecticut. — Seven specimens taken at New Haven, 20, 22, and 27 July, 
1924. by P. G.. J. L. R. and B. H. W. 
New England. — July 4-September 13. 

Libellula cyanea Fabricius 

Systema Entomologie, 424: 1775. 

Nymph. — Head : caudo-lateral margins with long scurvy hairs ; 
mentum with 12 setae on each side, of which the six inner ones 
are much shorter than the rest ; distal margin with about 12 short 
spines on each side with 2 to 4 crenulations or serrations between 
each ; palpi with 6 lateral setae and a group of small setae at the 
base near the articulation ; distal margins of the proximal segment 
of the palpi with 10 to 11 notches, the teeth between each with i 
to 4 spines 'in a graded series, the longest about twice the length 
of each tooth. 

Abdomen: heavy dorsal hooks on segments 4-8 inclusive, 
prominently elevated and extending to the caudal margin of the 
segment bearing them, or a little beyond ; caudal margins of seg- 
ments 5-9 with long sparse hairs, their bases nearly on the line 
of small spines ; most of the hairs, however, slightly in front ; 
dorsum and lateral margins of the superior median terminal 
appendage also sparsely setose ; lateral spines present on segments 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 245 

8 and 9, the length of those on 9 fully equal the dorsal length of 
segment 10; lateral appendages one-half the length of the supe- 
rior median. 

Measurements ; exuviae : length of abdomen, about 1 1 mm. ; 
greatest width, 7 mm. ; length of the mentum, 4.5 mm. Reared 
specimen collected at East Haven, 2 May, 1926, and emerging 
25 May, 1926. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown to bluish black and buff. 

Head : labium buff, labrum dark brown, clypeus and front 
brown (teneral) ; labrum black, clypeus and front dark brown in 
older specimens ; vertex brown or black, the apex truncate and 
concave when viewed from above ; occiput brown to black, pale 
between the compound eyes on the meson (teneral), and with 
indefinite pale spots on the lateral margins behind the compound 
eyes. 

Thorax : prothorax brown, the notum, including caudal margin, 
cream-colored (teneral), black when old; caudal margin of the 
notum entire, and with only a few hairs ; meso- and metathorax 
dark brown (entirely black or bluish in older specimens) and with 
a mid-dorsal buff stripe, a wide lateral streak beginning at the base 
of the hind wings and ending at the caudal margin of the kat- 
episternum of the mesothorax ; metepimera all pale except the 
dorsal border. Thoracic venter dark brown ; legs black, the coxae 
and trochanters paler, and frequently part of the femora also ; 
wings (PI. XV, Fig. 3) with a short basal streak between Sc and 
R, occupying 2-3 antenodal cells ; postnodal cells, and cells beyond 
stigma to tip of the wing flavescent ; stigma widest about the 
middle, the proximal half or two-thirds cream-colored, the 
remainder brown. 

Abdomen: brown and yellow (teneral), or entirely bluish black 
(old), the younger individuals with a yellow stripe on each side; 
venter brown ; surface of abdomen with but few hairs ; anal 
appendages black, the superiors but little longer than the inferior ; 
hamules of the second segment with lateral lobes reduced to a 
ridge on the side of the median lobes, the latter bearing at their 
tips strong black hooks ; accessory appendages as in Fig. 63, 
No. 9. 

Female. — Similar to the male ; wings darker, especially the tips, 
which are heavily inf uscated ; abdomen with broad yellow stripes 
on each side from base to tip. 

Measurements : total length, male 43-47, female 41 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 26-29, female 25-27 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 33-35, female 33-35 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 10, 
female 9-10 mm. ; length of pterostigma, male 5, female 4.5-5 mm, 

Connecticut. — New Haven, 17 June, 1902 (E. J. S. M.) ; New London, 
8-22 June, 1921 (R. H. H.) ; Hamden, 4 July, 1921 (P. G.). 
New England. — May 24-Septeniber 4. 



246 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Cyanea is closely related to L. flavida Rambiir (plumbea Uhler), 
which is regarded by some as a synonym. The latter has a range 
well to the south of Connecticut but is found in New Jersey and 
may at some time be taken in this State. It seems to be a fairly 
distinct species although the characters intergrade, as pointed out 
by Calvert (Ent. News, 18: 201-204: 1907). The species flavida 
is larger than cyanea, and the pterostigma is yellowish in contrast 
with the usual cream color of cyanea. The pterostigma of flavida 
is also longer and narrower than that of cyanea, measuring 5.5 to 
6 mm. by i mm., or a trifle more in width, whereas that of cyanea 
rarely measures over 5 mm. in length and is 1.3 mm. in width. 

Libellula exusta Say 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8 : 29 : 1839. 

Nymph. — Color dark brown. 

Head : caudo-lateral margins with long setae ; labium as in 
PI. VII, Fig. 5, the distal margin of the mentum crenulate with a 
single spine between each crenulation; lateral setae of the palpi 
five; mentum with three small setae on each side and a number 
of very small ones mesad of these; teeth of the labial palpi very 
shallow. 

Thorax: uniformly colored including the legs. 

Abdomen : conspicuous dorsal spines on segments 4 to 8 inclu- 
sive; terminal appendages long, the laterals, however, only one- 
fourth to one-third as long as the ventral appendages. 

Measurements : length of hind femora, 4 mm. ; length of meta- 
thoracic wing-cases, 5.2 mm. ; length of abdomen, about 14 mm. 

Described from the exuviae of a single reared specimen collected 
Hamden, May, 1923; emerged 21 May, 1923. 

Libellula exusta Say, var. julia Uhler 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 88: 
1857. 

Adult, male (PI. xx, a). — Color brown to black; frequently 
pollinose. 

Head : labium brown ; labrum yellowish ; clypeus and front 
grayish brown, ocellar area nearly black ; vertex and rear of head 
yellowish brown to almost black, with one or two obscure yellow 
spots behind the caudo-lateral margin of the compound eyes. 

Thorax: dark brown, the lateral third of each mesepisterna 
being much darker than the remainder of the thorax ; dorsum of 
thorax including the mesal two-thirds of the anepisterna usually 
pollinose and in older specimens white ; legs black, coxae, tro- 
chanters, and femora a trifle paler; ventral tooth of the tarsal 
claw beyond the middle ; wings mostly clear, the front wings with 
an opaque dash between Sc and R -f M extending to the first ante- 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 247 

nodal cross-vein ; there is always more or less yellow color sur- 
rounding this dash and there is sometimes a second dash between 
Cu and A, but only half the length of the first mentioned ; hind 
wings with an opaque dash between Sc and R -(- M from base to 
the first cross-vein and a triangular-shaped area from Cu to the 
caudal end of the membrane, the distal angle of the opaque area 
extending to within i mm. of the triangle; antenodal cross-veins 
14-16 in front, 11-13 in hind wing; postnodals 10-12 in front 
wing and 11 in the hind. 

Abdomen : dorsum of terga 2-4 usually pollinose and sometimes 
also the cephalo-lateral angles of 5 (faintly so in tenerals) ; the 
first segment much darker in color, and the venter of segments 
i-io brown; dorsum of terga 5-10 black in older individuals; 
mid-dorsum black, and sides brown in younger specimens ; supe- 
rior anal appendages of the usual form ; inferior broad, flattened, 
the lateral margins convex, and the tip with two black teeth 
projecting upwards. Accessory appendages consisting of incon- 
spicuous cephalic lobes ; hamules with a broad basal lobe, and a 
hook projecting ventrad from about the middle, the apical tooth 
horizontal and bent laterad ; genital lobes about the size of the 
basal lobe of the hamule and provided with long black setae (Fig. 
63, No. 10). 

Female. — Color similar to the male, but terga 2-4 frequently 
not at all pollinose, the abdomen being largely brown, with a mid- 
dorsal black stripe from base to tip; lateral carinae (PI. xxii, a) 
of segment 8 not projecting ventrad, though when viewed from 
below, the sterna of 8 and 9 appear considerably depressed below 
the margins of the terga; vulvar lamina consisting of two small 
well-separated plates about .5 mm. wide by .25 mm. long, the 
caudal margins convex (Fig. 63, No. 4). 

Measurements : total length, male 37-41, female 37 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 23-24, female 22-23 ^^- 5 length of hind wings, 
male 31-33, female 31-32 mm.; width of hind wings, male 9-10, 
female lo-ii mm.; length of stigma, male 2.5-3.5, female 
3.5-4 mm. _ 

The varieties Libellula e. cxiista and Lihelliila e. deplanata are 
said to differ mainly in the amount of pollen, the thorax being 
largely dark brown with greenish stripes on the lateral margins 
of the episterna. The female of L. e. extista has the vulvar lamina 
connected by a small plate on the meson. Accessory and anal 
appendages are the same as L. e. julia. Deplanata has the brown 
at the base of the hind wings divided. 

A male in the Yale collection, from Salem, Massachusetts, and 
referred to L. e. exusta, has the brown color at the base of the 
hind wings extending half way to nodus. The abdomen is pol- 
linose except the last two or three segments, the pale stripes of 
the mesepisterna are yellow, and the opaque spot of the hind wings 



248 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST, SURVEY [Bull. 

extends to the distal end of the triangle. Two specimens from 
Deep River, Connecticut, agree with this, but the abdomen is not 
pollinose. 

Connecticut. — Var. julia. — New Haven, 27 May, 1903 (B. H. W.) ; 
Colebrook, 19 June, 1920 (P. G.) ; Hamden, i June, 1921 (W. E. B.), May, 

1922 (P. G.) ; New London, 7-15 June, 1921 (R. H. H.) ; Mansfield, May, 

1923 (L. B. P.) ; Litchfield, 20 June, 1908, 8 July, 1909 (L. B. W.). 

Var. exusta. — New London, 6-16 June, 1921 (R. H. H.) ; Deep River, 
I June, 1923 (P. G.). 

New England. — May-July. 

Libellula luctuosa Burmeister^^ 

Handbuch der Entomologie, 2 : 861 : 1839. 

Nymph. — Head : labial or lateral setae seven ; mental setae 
eight ; teeth of the palpi very shallow. 

Thorax: wing-cases extending to abdominal segment 4, hind 
femora to 5 in full-grown specimens. 

Abdomen : dorsal spines on segments 2 to 8 ; with few or no 
long hairs as in pulchella. 

Measurements: total length, 21 mm.; length of abdomen, 11 
mm. ; hind femora, 5.5 mm. 

Adult, male (PI; xxi. Fig. 3). — Color black and dark brown. 

Head : labium dark brown ; labrum, clypeus, front, vertex and 
occiput nearly black (clypeus and front brown in tenerals) ; front 
rugose, the vertex projecting over the median ocellus in a single 
truncated lobe (sometimes feebly concave at tip) ; postgenae with 
two very faint yellow spots on each side behind the lateral margins 
of the compound eyes. 

Thorax: prothorax uniform dark brown, the caudal margin 
entire and with a few dark hairs ; meso- and metathorax also 
uniform brown, the dorsum somewhat darker than the sides ; and 
an obscure dark line from the base of the hind wings to the kat- 
episterna of the mesothorax ; thoracic venter dark brown ; legs 
black, coxae and trochanters lighter ; femora with a single dorsal 
carina each ; the tarsal claws with the ventral tooth placed well 
beyond the middle, the claw widened considerably proximad of 
the tooth ; entire base of the wings brown, the dark area fre- 
quently extending to the nodus in the hind wing, usually three- 
fourths the distance to nodus in the front wing ; beyond the brown 
area of the wing there is frequently a white semitransparent area, 
especially in older specimens ; wing-veins black. The thorax does 
not usually become pollinose in older individuals but grows steadily 
darker, becoming almost black. Tenerals have a light mid-dorsal 
stripe which continues onto the meso- and metanotum. 

Abdomen: black and brown, in older individuals bluish pol- 
linose, especially towards the tip; terga with a broad stripe on 

^ = basalis Say. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 249 

each side of the dorsum extending from the first segment where 
the two Hnes unite, to the caudal margin of the eighth segment, 
the stripes gradually narrowed caudad ; venter of the terga with 
somewhat similar stripes one on each side, extending from 3 to 8, 
and gradually narrowed caudad ; anal appendages black or dark 
brown, the superiors but little longer than the inferiors ; hamules 
of the second abdominal segment composed of large mesal hooks, 
the lateral lobes reduced to an acute ridge (Fig. 63, No. 6), abdo- 
men with very few and very short hairs and appearing glabrous in 
most individuals ; terga 2 and 3 with median transverse carinae. 

Female. — The clypeus and front are brown ; the brown marks 
of the wings do not extend quite so far distad as those of the 
male ; tips of wings between stigma and apex, flavescent ; lateral 
abdominal stripes of the abdomen are somewhat broader ; lateral 
margins of terga 8 not leaf -like or produced ventrad ; genitalia as 
in Fig. 63, No. i. 

The dark base of the wings is characteristic of both sexes. 

Measurements : total length, male 43-45, female 42 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 25-26, female 25 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 36-39, female 39 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 12-13, 
female 12-13 ^'^^- ', length of stigma, male and female, 4-5 mm. 

Connecticut. — Berlin, 26 June, 1905 (W, E. B.) ; New Haven, 6 July, 
1904 (H. L. V.) ; Southington, 5 July, 1905 (B. H. W.) ; Easton, 19 June, 
6 July, 1922 (P. G.). Common throughout the State. 

New England. — June 3-September 6. 

Libellula pulchella Drury 

Illustration of Natural History, i : pi. xlviii, f . 5 : 1773. 

Nymph. — Color dark brown; general shape the same as Pla- 
themis (PI. iv, Fig. 7). 

Head: labium with 12 to 13 mental setae; distal margin with 
about 15 small spinules, the margin serrate between each, there 
being for the most part more than one serration except for those 
nearest the point of articulation of the labial palpi ; lateral setae 
of the palpi 9 with a smaller one (sometimes 2) at base just beyond 
the point of articulation and a group of minute ones (8-9) mesad 
of these; 10 to 11 notches present in the distal margin, the teeth 
each with 4 heavy setae except the two teeth alongside the movable 
end hook, the heavy setae in a graded series. 

Abdomen : lanceolate with dorsal setose hooks on segments 4, 
5 and 6, and a low elevation on 7 ; 8 and 9 without dorsal hooks 
of any kind, but the long marginal setae are grouped together at 
the point where these hooks occur in other species ; lateral keels 
provided with short spines and longer setae, and the dorsal surface 
of the median terminal appendage also setose ; lateral spines 
present on segments 8 and 9; lateral appendages less than half 
the length of the inferiors. 



250 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Measurements : total length, 24-27 mm. ; length of abdomen, 
15 mm. ; width of abdomen, 7.5-9 mm. ; length of the hind femora, 
6 mm. ; length of the median lobe of the labium, 4.5-5 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color brown and buff or yellow. 

Head : labium buff, labrum black or brown, clypeus and front 
dark brown, the vertex almost black, and projecting over the 
median ocellus in two distinct lobes ; front wrinkled ; occiput and 
postgenae dark brown, the postgenae with 2 to 3 yellow spots on 
each side behind the caudal margin of the compound eyes. 

Thorax: dark brown, the dorsum somewhat lighter; prothorax 
brown, the caudal margin of the pronotum entire and with but 
few long hairs ; legs dark brown to almost black, the femora each 
with ventro-lateral rows of heavy setae, flat beneath, and usually 
with a single dorsal carina ; tarsal claws with a large ventral tooth 
placed considerably beyond the middle ; wings with a basal elon- 
gated brown spot extending beyond the triangle, a nodal spot and 
a brown apex ; anal angle and somewhat indefinite area between 
each brown spot, white ; the white areas may, however, be entirely 
wanting ; veins black ; meso- and metathorax much darker on the 
sides and with two yellow or grayish stripes (which may be 
obscured in older specimens), one of which extends from the base 
of the hind wing to caudal margin of the mesokatepi sternum ; 
the other lies just above the lateral carina on the metepimerum; 
thoracic venter brown. 

Abdomen : not compressed, gradually narrowed behind the third 
segment, with two buff or yellow stripes on terga above each 
lateral carina, extending from i to 8; yellow spots also on the 
terga below the lateral carinae on segments 2 to 8; remainder of 
the terga and venter dark brown to black ; anal appendages black, 
the ventral surface of the superiors with about 12 small teeth; 
hamules (Fig. 63, No. 11) of the second segment with much 
reduced lateral lobes, but with large conspicuous mesal hooks ; no 
ventral hooks on the first segment ; the entire abdomen becomes 
bluish pollinose, obscuring the yellow marks. 

Female. — The brown spots on the wing are usually smaller, 
but otherwise there is no important difference between the sexes ; 
female appendages shown in Fig. 63, No. 3 ; lateral margins of 
the eighth terga produced ventrad. 

Measurements : total length, male 55-57, female 47 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 32-33, female 27-29 mm. ; length of hind wing, 
male 41-44, female 36-39 mm.; width of hind wing, male 12-13, 
female 11 mm. ; length of stigma, male and female, 5-5.5 mm. 

The female is very similar to the female of P. lydia, but the 
structure of the venter of segments 8 and 9 is considerably 
different (Fig. 63, Nos. 2, 3), and the body is longer. Both L. 
pulchella and P. lydia become pollinose with age so that color 
characters of the body are not distinct. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 25 1 

Connecticut. — Whitneyville, 18 July, 1904 (P. L. B.) ; New Haven, 20 
July, 1904 (B. H. W.), 27 June, 1905 (W. E. B.) ; Branford, 21 June, 
1904 (H. L. V.) ; West Haven, 29 June, 1905 (W. E. B.) ; Cornwall, 10 
August, 1918 (K. F. C.) ; Durham, 15 June, 1919 (M. P. Z.) ; New London, 
15-22 June, 1921 (R. H. H.) ; Hamden, 30 May, 1922 (P. G.). Common 
throughout the State. 

New England. — May 30-September 8. 

Libellula quadrimaculata Linnaeus 

Systema Naturae, i : 543 : 1758. 

Nymph. — Similar in form to other Libellulas ; labium with 7 
lateral setae on palpi, and 11-12 notches in the mesal margin; 
mental setae about 13, the distal margins with a number of serra- 
tions between each marginal spinule. 

Abdomen with dorsal setose spines or hooks on segments 4 to 8 
inclusive, the spines themselves hidden among the setae ; lateral 
spines of 8 and 9 short, incurved. 

Measurements: total length (exuviae and mature nymph), 25 
mm. ; length of abdomen, 14-15 mm. ; greatest width of abdomen, 
7 mm. ; length of hind femora, 6 mm. 

Adult, male (PI. xxi, Fig. 4). — Color brown and black. 

Head : labium light brown or yellow with a black median stripe 
which extends over the mentum, entirely covering it; labrum 
brown with a black ventral margin ; clypeus and front brown, 
vertex somewhat darker and concave at tip ; occiput and postgenae 
black with two yellow spots on each side behind the caudal margins 
of the compound eyes. 

Thorax: prothorax brown, the caudal lobe entire and provided 
with a fringe of hairs ; meso- and metathorax olive-brown and 
yellow with the mesopleural and metapleural sutures darker, the 
dark stripes widened just behind the two katepisterna, and both 
connected with a dark triangle just behind the mesocoxae; legs 
dark brown or black, claws lighter and much wider proximad 
of the ventral tooth than beyond it ; wings each with a nodal spot, 
not extending caudad of R ; front wings with clear yellow from 
base to beyond arculus, sometimes to stigma ; the hind wings, also 
with clear yellow from base to tip of triangle and along the costal 
border; cubito-anal cell, triangle, and a somewhat triangular area 
behind extending half way to the anal angle, dark brown to nearly 
black ; membrane nearly white, antenodal cross-veins yellow. 

Abdomen : densely pilose, the third segment only with a trans- 
verse median carina; color dark brown to black, segments 1-5 
lighter, 5-10 darker; the terga 5-9 with buff -colored dashes just 
above the lateral carinae ; ventral surface of terga 4-8 with a pale 
spot on each side; anal appendages brown, the superiors about 
twice as long as the inferior; hamules of the second segment 
composed of a pair of large mesal-hooks and a much reduced 
lateral lobe directed caudad. 



252 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST, SURVEY [Bull. 

Female. — Ventral margins of abdominal segment 8 leaf-like, 
projecting ventrad. The entire costal area of the wings is chlor- 
inate in the female. 

Measurements : total length, male 44, female 43 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 24, female 27 mm. ; length of hind wing, male 
34-35, female 33-36 mm. ; width of hind wing, male lo-ii, female 
II mm.; length of stigma, male 3.5, female 4 mm. 

The genitalia of both sexes are different from all other Libel- 
lulas, but the figuration of the wings should enable any one to 
distinguish the species. The abdomen is setose in contrast with 
other members of this genus. 

Connecticut. — Hamden, 30 May, 19 June, 1922, 15 June, 1923 (P. G.) ; 
Storrs, 25 May, 1923, J. Cronin. 

New England. — May 19-August 15. 

Libellula semifasciata Burmeister 

Handbuch der Entomologie, 2: 862: 1839. 

Adult, male (PI. xxi. Fig. 9). — Color brown to black, and 
yellow. 

Head : labium, labrum, clypeus and front usually yellow but 
often assuming an orange tint ; vertex brown and feebly concave, 
yellow or orange at tip ; occiput and postgenae almost entirely 
yellow. 

Thorax: prothorax brown, the caudal margin of the pronotum 
entire and with short hairs ; meso- and metathorax dark brown to 
yellowish green, the dorsum slightly darker, young individuals 
having a poorly defined whitish stripe on the mesepimera, and 
the entire epimera yellow ; older specimens with these marks 
obscured ; the lateral carinae, however, between metepimera and 
thoracic venter is nearly always yellow ; legs with brown to olive- 
colored coxae, trochanters and front femora, the middle and hind 
femora about half brown; tibiae and tarsi black, the tarsal claws 
with ventral teeth beyond middle, the proximal portion of the claw 
thicker than the distal ; wings with much yellow, especially at base, 
where it covers the entire wing to the triangle : veins mostly brown 
or yellow ; front wing with area between the sectors of the arculus 
and between Cu and A proximad of triangle, dark brown, in the 
hind wings including also the triangle, supertriangle, both cubito- 
anal cells, and a small area behind these ; both wings with a nodal 
spot, half the width of the wing and the apex from proximal 
margin of the stigma, dark brown, flie area beyond the distal 
margin of the stigma much lighter in color ; membrane white to 
gray. 

Abdomen: brown and black, the proximal segments somewhat 
greenish. The following portions are black: dorsum of the first 
tergum, an obscure dark apical spot on 5, and a black mid-dorsal 
stripe from 5-10, widened on apical and proximal margins of 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 253 

terga 6-8 ; venter of all terga entirely pale yellowish green ; sur- 
face of abdomen smooth ; anal appendages dark brown, the 
superiors slightly longer than the inferior; hamules (Fig. 63, 
No. 7) of the second segment with a flattened area beneath, con- 
spicuous mesal hooks and small lateral lobes extending caudad ; 
transverse median carinae on terga 2 and 3, that on 2 interrupted 
in middle. 

Female. — With brown of the apex of the wings reduced to a 
transverse band about the width of the stigma, lateral margins of 
eighth terga produced ventrad. 

Measurements : total length, male 44-48, female 43 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 25-28, female 26 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 35-39, female 35 mm.; width of hind wings, male lo-ii, 
female 10 mm. ; length of stigma, male and female, 5 mm. 

Most closely related to qiiadrimaculata, from which, however, it 
may be distinguished by the wing characters. It is a rather 
common species throughout Connecticut. 

Connecticut. — New Haven, 20 July, 1905 (B. H. W.) ; Branford, 21 
July, 1920 (P. G.). 

New England. — June 2-August 16. 

Libellula vibrans var. vibrans Fabricius 

Entomologiae Systematicae, 2: 380: 1793. 

Adult, male (PI. xxi, Fig. 8). — Color largely brown to black. 

Head : labium yellowish buflf, though somewhat darker on the 
meson and in front : labrum yellowish bufif, clypeus and front to 
near ocelli, greenish white; vertex black, projecting over the 
median ocellus, the tip truncate and concave when viewed from 
above ; occiput and postgenae black, the postgenae with two large 
yellow spots on each side behind the lateral margins of the 
compound eyes. 

Thorax : prothorax uniform dark brown, the caudal margin of 
the pronotum entire and with but few hairs ; meso- and meta- 
thorax dark brown, lighter on the sides, being a sort of olive color 
in the specimen at hand ; shoulders of the epimera almost black, 
venter olive color ; legs, with coxae and trochanters, nearly all of 
the front femora, middle femora at base, and half the hind femora 
brown, the remainder of the legs black ; tarsal claws with ventral 
tooth considerably beyond the middle, the proximal portion of the 
claw thicker than the distal ; wings with basal streak of brown 
between Sc and R, extending from base to shortly beyond the 
arculus, a small spot occupying all or part of the first postnodal 
cell, and the apical margins with a touch of brown ; membrane of 
the hind wings brown ; stigma black. 

Abdomen : brown to black above, olive-colored below, the seg- 
ments toward the tip darker ; anal appendages black, the superiors 
only about one-third or one-fourth longer than the inferior; 



254 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT, HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

hamules of the second segment composed of large curved mesal 
hooks and lateral lobes in the form of a rather wide ridge on the 
side of the latter ; surface of abdomen almost or quite free from 
hairs, terga 2 and 3 with transverse ridges. 

Female. — Lateral margins of the eighth terga projecting ven- 
trad in a wide thin plate ; sides of thorax and abdomen yellow to 
greenish ; femora with basal half or a little more, yellow ; tips of 
wings sometimes to the distal ends of the stigma, brown. 

Measurements : total length, male 60 mm. ; length of abdomen, 
male 38, female 37-38 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 45-50, 
female 45-49 mm. ; width of hind wing, male 12, female 13.5 mm. ; 
length of stigma, male 6, female 6.5-7 mm. 

There are two other recognized varieties, vibrans axillena, and 
vibrans inccsta (PI. xxi. Fig. 2), the former differing from v. 
vibrans (PI. xxi, Fig. 8) only in having the front, clypeus, and 
labrum black instead of light-colored. V. incesta, however, is 
smaller in size and the entire body is bluish pollinose in older 
specimens. The wings also lack brown marks at the nodus, but 
the tips of the wings are sometimes brown and there is sometimes 
a basal streak. The face is yellowish, somewhat brownish above 
in incesta. The forms v. vibrans and v. axillena have been con- 
sidered as separate species by many authors, but there is apparently 
no difference in the genitalia of the different varieties. 

L. vibrans axillena has a costal streak of dark color between 
nodus and stigma. The measurements of the variety incesta^^ are 
given below. 

Total length, male 52 mm. ; length of abdomen, male 30 mm. ; 
length of hind wings, 39 mm. ; width of hind wings, 1 1 mm. ; 
length of stigma, 5 mm. 

The nymph of incesta has been described by Byers (Ent. News, 
38: 113: 1927) and is apparently closely related to auripennis, 
differing from that species in the characters of the key, and also 
in the lateral spines of segments 8 and 9, which are more incurvate. 

Connecticut. — E^st Haven, 9 July, 1908 (B. H. W.) var. vibrans; Guil- 
ford, 13 July, 1920 (P. G.) var. inccsta. 
New England. — July to September. 

Genus Plathemis Hagen 

Nymphs. — Head with 10 lateral setae on the palpi, and about 8 
mental setae. Abdomen with rudimentary dorsal hooks on seg- 
ments 3-5, and small lateral spines on segments 8 and 9; anal 
appendages not decurved, the laterals about half the length of the 
inferiors. 

Adults. — Wings with more than 10 antenodal cross-veins; 
proximal and distal margins of the stigma parallel, more than 3 

^ Libellula vibrans var. incesta Hagen. Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North 
America, i.i;s, i86i. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 255 

times as long as wide, and supported by three or more cross-veins ; 
triangle 3-sided, considerably farther distad in the front wings 
than in the hind ; M, with a conspicuous bend about as far distad 
as the proximal end of the stigma ; subtriangle present in the male 
(two cubito-anal cross-veins present) ; Cu^ arising exactly from 
the caudal angle of the triangle in both wings ; prothorax with the 
hind lobe entire, and almost without marginal setae ; abdomen of 
the male with ventral hooks on the first abdominal sternum ; trans- 
verse, median carinae on terga 2 and 3 (interrupted on meson on 
2) ; general color brown and buff. 

The habits of the only representative of this genus are essen- 
tially the same as those of Libellula. 



Fig. 64. Labium of the nymph of Plathemis lydia, greatly enlarged. 

Plathemis lydia (Drury) 

Illustrations of Natural History — Exotic Insects, 7: pi. xlvii, f. 4: 1773- 

Nymph (PI. iv, Fig. 7). — Color dark brown. 

Head: labium (Fig. 64) with median lobe about as long as 
wide, the distal margin with shallow notches each containing a 
short spine, and with broad, shallow, rounded lobes between ; a 
prominent lobe at the center of the distal margin. Mental setae 
9 to 10; labial palpi with 10 lateral setae; distal margins of the 
palpi with six to seven teeth which are about as broad as long, 
each with one to three spines ; front above the clypeus and labium 
when folded in place, densely hairy, the caudo-lateral surfaces of 
the head also setose. 

Thorax : pronotum with broad rounded setose margins ; pro- 
pleura also hairy or setose; meso- and metapleura hairy; meso- 



256 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Sternum with a short setose ridge in front of each coxa; legs 
hairy, the first two segments of the hind tarsi equal in length; 
wing-cases in full-grown nymphs extending to the seventh abdom- 
inal segment or caudal margin of 6, barely to 6 in some apparently 
full-grown specimens. 

Abdomen : elongate ; dorsal hooks present on segments 3-5 or 6 
inclusive ; 7-9 frequently hairy on dorsum but without hooks ; 
lateral keels with short spines on segments 8 and 9, the spines 
about one-seventh as long as the segment (one-fourth in young 
nyrnphs) bearing them; lateral terminal appendages about half 
as long as the superior. 

Measurements: total length, 21-23 rnm. ; length of abdomen, 
II -1 3 mm. ; greatest width, 7 mm. ; length of metathoracic wing- 
cases, 5 mm. ; length of hind femora, 4.5 mm. ; length of median 
lobe of mentum, 3.5 mm.; width 1.5-4 mm. 

A partly grown nymph has the following dimensions ; total 
length, 13 mm.; length of abdomen, 8 mm.; greatest width, 
3 mm.; length of metathoracic wing-cases, 1.5 mm.; length of 
hind femora, 5 mm. ; length of medial lobe of mentum, 4 mm. ; 
width 4 mm. 

Adult, male (PI. xxi. Fig. i). — Color brown and buff, abdomen 
frequently pollinose. 

Head : labium and labrum light brown, clypeus and front 
slightly darker, vertex and occiput still darker, approaching black ; 
occiput with two to three yellow spots on each side near caudal 
margins of the compound eyes and two closely placed spots on the 
meson ; front much wrinkled and vertex projecting over the 
median ocellus in two lobes. 

Thorax : prothorax brown, caudal margin entire and with but 
few setae ; remainder of thorax brown, with light-colored stripes 
from the base of hind wings to the mesokatepisternum, and 
another just above the lateral carinae on the metepimera; dorsal 
half of the mesokatepisternum pale ; thoracic venter, brown ; legs 
brown, the femora conspicuously flattened beneath, the latero- 
ventral margins both with heavy setae on all ; front coxae flattened 
and with a fringe of hairs on the mesal margins ; front and middle 
femora with two dorsal carinae each ; tarsal claws much thickened 
at base, each with a lateral puncture, the ventral tooth beyond 
middle of the claw; wings with a brown dash between subcosta, 
tip of triangle and cubitus, and a wide cross-band beginning at 
the nodus and extending to the middle of the stigma. 

Abdomen : depressed, not compressed, the segments gradually 
narrowed behind the third, color brown becoming pollinose ; light- 
colored spots on terga 3-9 just above the lateral carina; venter 
brown, the first segment with two hooks; hamules (Fig. 63, 
No. 12) consisting of a broad lateral lobe and mesal hook separated 
by a shallow rounded notch. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 257 

Female. — The wings differ from those of the male in having a 
brown apex and nodal spot instead of the broad median band. 
The yellow of the abdomen is continued onto the second abdominal 
terga, the light spots of 2, 3 and 4 being more or less continuous. 
Female appendages (Fig. 63, No. 2) consisting of two widely- 
separated lobes on the caudal margin of segment 8, and two small 
tubercles on the 9th sternum; width of abdominal segments 1-8 
equal, 9 and 10 greatly narrowed. 

Measurements : total length, male 45, female 42 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 25, female 25 mm. ; length of hind wing, male 
30, female 33 mm.; width of hind wing, male 9-10, female lo-ii 
mm. ; length of stigma, male and female, 4 mm. 

Very similar in general appearance to Libellula pulchella Drury, 
but smaller in size. The male differs in wing coloration and struc- 
ture of the first abdominal sternum. The female is much shorter 
and broader than pulchella and the sternum of segments 8 and 9 
serve to distinguish it. 

Connecticut. — Branford, June, 1905 (H. W. W.) ; East Haven, 19 June, 
1908 (B. H. W.) ; Hamden, 19 June, 1922 (P. G.) ; Mansfield, May, 1923 
(L. B. P.). 

New England. — May 10- September 23. 

Tribe Palpopleurini Tillyard 

A tribe represented in New England by a single genus. The 
nymphs possess a dorsal hook on abdominal segment 9 which dis- 
tinguishes them from other tribes. The adults are small species, 
though usually very active ; the wings of the two sexes are 
different (see PI. xiii. Figs. 2, 4), and are less than 20 mm. in 
length. 

Genus Perithemis Hagen 

Nymphs. — Head : labium with setif orm movable hooks ; five 
lateral and nine mental setae. Abdomen with dorsal hooks on 
segments 3-9, and lateral spines on segments 8 and 9; superior 
anal appendages not decurved. 

Adults. — Wings with less than ten antenodal cross-veins in the 
front wings"; stigma more than three times as long as broad and 
supported by two to three cross-veins ; triangle 3-sided, about as 
far distad in the hind wings as in the front ; M, not sinuate ; 
subtriangle absent in hind wings ; Cu^ usually arising exactly from 
the caudal angle in both wings ; hind margin of prothorax bilobed 
and with long hairs ; abdomen of male without ventral hooks on 
first segment ; transverse median carina present on terga 3 and 4. 
General color brown and yellow, size small. 

Our only member of the genus is a small but wary individual 
frequently seen skimming over the surface of ponds or lakes, 
alighting on reeds or projecting sticks, but keeping well beyond 



258 



CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



[Bull. 



reach at all times. It keeps near the surface of the water and is 
seldom seen except in sunny weather. The nymph crawls upon 
the bottom but is said to be a good climber (Needham, 1901). 

Perithemis domitia (Drury) 

Illustrations of Natural History — Exotic Insects, 2: pi. xlv, f. 4: 1773. 

Nymph (PI. iv, Fig. 3). — Head: labium (Fig. 65) with 7-9 
mental setae, and 5 setae on the labial palpi ; teeth of palpi fairly 
deep, each with one or two long spines and a shorter one along- 
side; dorsal surface of head behind the middle of the compound 
eyes uniformly setose, not ridged. 

Thorax : hind femora extending to the seventh abdominal seg- 
ment ; wing-cases to the sixth. 




Fig. 65. Labium of the nymph of Perithemis domitia, greatly enlarged. 



Abdomen : heavy dorsal hooks on segments 3-9 inclusive, and 
lateral spines on segments 8 and 9 ; terminal appendages short, the 
laterals about half the length of the superior, the latter nearly as 
long as the inferiors. 

Measurements; exuviae: total length, 14-15 mm.; length of 
abdomen, 8.5 mm. ; greatest width of abdomen, 5 mm. ; length of 
hind femora, 5.5 mm. 

The length of the mentum is a distinguishing feature of this 
nymph, it being much shorter and the palpi proportionally longer 
than other genera and species. By referring to Fig. 65 it will be 
seen that the distance, B, from base of labial palpus to the base 
of the movable hook, is longer than the distance. A, to the base 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 259 

of the mentum, and also longer than the distance from the articu- 
lation to the inner angle of the proximal segment of the palpi. 

Adult, male. — Color brown and green, brown predominating. 

Head : mouth parts, clypeus, labrum, front, vertex and occiput 
brown, with black or dark brown hairs ; clypeus, labrum and front 
usually paler. 

Thorax: uniform brown, with a dark greenish area cephalad of 
the mesothoracic spiracle and a similar one caudo-ventrad of it; 
caudal margin of prothorax bilobed, with long silken hairs ; legs 
brown ; femora with yj black, heavy setae on the cephalo-ventral 
angles, and only an occasional one on the caudo-ventral angles, the 
remaining setae being weaker and brown in color ; tarsal claws 
with ventral teeth almost at tips ; wings uniform brown, trans- 
parent and without darker spots (PI. xiii, Fig. 4). 

Abdomen: uniform brown. 

Female. — Head similar to that of the male ; thorax similar 
except the wings, which are marked as in PI. xiii. Fig. 2 ; abdomen 
also similar ; female appendages short, about one-third as long 
as 9, and with a shallow emargination between. 

Measurements : total length of male 25, female 20 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 15, female 15 mm.; length of hind wings, male 
18-20, female 19 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 6-7, female 
6-7 mm. 

A dimorphic species of rather common occurrence. It is one of 
the smallest of our dragonflies (Anisoptera). 

Connecticut. — Whitneyville, 26 July, 1905 (P. L. B.) ; New Haven, 
July, 1905 (I. B. D.), 25 July, 1905 (W. E. B.) ; West Thompson, 12 July, 
1905 (H. L. V.) ; Guilford (Pistapaug Pond), 8 July, 1921 (P. G.). 

New England. — June 8-September 5. 

Tribe Brachydiplacini Tillyard 

Only one representative occurs in New England — Nannothetnis. 
The nymphs are not easily separated from other tribes, but the 
superior terminals are as long as the inferiors and the lateral spines 
are incurved. The adults have the anterior margin of the front 
wings broken as in PI. xii. Fig. 2, a character present in no other 
Libellulid occurring in this region. 

Genus Nannothemis Brauer 

Nymphs. — Head with six lateral setae on the palpi, and about 
10 on the mentum ; abdomen without dorsal hooks, the lateral 
spines of segments 8 and 9 similar in size and much shorter than 
either segment ; anal appendages not decurved. 

Adults. — Wings with considerably less than 10 antenodal cross- 
veins in both wings ; stigma with parallel proximal and distal 
margins, less than 3 times as long as wide and supported by two 



26o CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

cross-veins ; triangle 4-sided in the front wings ; M, not sinuate ; 
subtriangle absent ; Cu^ arising exactly from the caudal angle of 
the triangle in both wings ; triangle of the hind wings nearly as 
far distad of the base as in the front wings ; hind margin of pro- 
notum entire, and with a few short hairs ; male without ventral 
hooks on the first abdominal segment ; transverse median carina 
present only on the third tergum; general color, male black, 
female black and yellow. 



Nannothemis bella Uhler 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 87 : 
1857. 

Nymph. — Head: labium with 11 to 12 mental setae and 6 
lateral setae (one additional minute seta at base) ; palpi with shal- 
low teeth, each tooth with one to two spines ; eyes projecting well 
forward, their margins viewed from above about as far cephalad 
as any portion of the front or mouth parts. 

Thorax : legs short, the hind femora extending to the middle of 
the abdomen. 

Abdomen : without dorsal hooks or conspicuous elevations ; 
small lateral incurved spines on segments 8 and 9 ; segment 9 with 
long setae on caudal margins, extending beyond the terminal 
appendages ; superior and ventral appendages nearly equal in 
length, the laterals about three-fourths as long. 

Measurements: total length, 8.5 mm.; length of abdomen, 
4 mm. ; length of hind femora, 2.25 mm. ; width of head, 2.5 mm. ; 
width of abdomen, 3 mm. 

Described from a nymph obtained from Dr. Calvert labeled 
"Nannothemis bella (Uhler) Weith det. Simonton Lake, Elkhart, 
Indiana 5/26/1901." 

Needham's^^ measurements are as follows: total length, 10 mm. ; 
abdomen, 5.5 mm. ; hind femur, 3.5 mm. ; width of head, 3.5 mm., 
of abdomen, 4 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color largely black. 

Head : labium and labrum jet-black ; clypeus black except the 
lateral angles, which are white ; front with a black oblong spot 
above the fronto-clypeal suture, a transverse area immediately in 
front of the ocelli and the lateral margins also black, the remainder 
white ; vertex metallic green ; occiput with two small white spots 
near the dorsal margin between the compound eyes, the remainder, 
and also the postgenae, black. 

Thorax: pronotum black, the caudal margin entire, and with 
very few hairs ; meso- and metathorax uniform black, shining 
(pruinose with age), the hairs nearly white; legs entirely black; 
wings as in PI. xii, Fig. 2. 

Abdomen : black, without pale marks of any kind, slightly con- 

•'N. Y. State Museum, Bulletin 47: 51 1: 1901. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 261 

tracted behind segment 3 ; male appendages of segment 2 com- 
posed of a very large genital lobe, and the two arms of the hamule 
widely separated and pointed. Superior anal appendages brown 
at tips, small and with a few minute teeth on ventral surface near 
apex. 

Female. — Differs from the male in having the sides of the 
thorax yellow, a yellow stripe on anepisternum of mesothorax; 
abdominal segments 2-4 with transverse yellow stripe, entire dor- 
sum of 10, and basal spots on 5-7 yellow. The wings are yellow- 
ish on their proximal half or third. 

Measurements: total length, male 16-21, female 19 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 13, female 11-14 mm.; length of hind wings, 
male 14-16, female 14-16 mm.; width of hind wings, male 6 mm. 

The black area on the front is variable and is not always quad- 
rangular. This is our smallest species of Anisoptera. 

Connecticut. — New Haven, 14, 18, 20 July, 1908 (B. H. W.). 
New England. — June 7- July 29. 

Tribe Sympetrini Tillyard 

The nymphs of this tribe are of moderate size and the labia are 
of the typical form figured for Sympctrum, PI. vii. Fig. 4. Adults 
lack the bend in Mo seen in the Libellulini, have entire triangles in 
the front wings and are never dimorphic in wing coloration ; the 
wings at base are never greatly widened and never reach 15 mm, 
in width in our species. 

Key to Genera 
Nymphs 

1. Abdomen without a lateral spine on abdominal segment 8 

Erythemis, p. 264 
Abdomen with a lateral spine on abdominal segment 8 2 

2. No dorsal hooks on abdomen 3 

Dorsal hooks present on middle abdominal segments 4 

3. Prominent bunches of setae on dorsum of segments 4 to 9 

Erythrodiplax, p. 262 
No prominent bunches of setae on dorsum of segments 4 to 9 . . 

Pachydiplax, p. 277 

4. Dorsal abdominal hooks usually as long as the segments bearing 

them ; abdomen with a dorsal spine on segment 3^^ 

Leucorrhinia, p. 278 
Dorsal abdominal hooks shorter than the segments bearing them ; 
without a spine on segment 3 5 

5. Lateral spines of the abdomen long and straight ; extending to the 

tips of the inferior appendages or beyond Celithemis, p. 284 

Lateral spines short and incurved Sympetrum, p. 266 

Adults 

I. Cui arising exactly from the caudal angle of the triangle in the 

hind wing ( PI. xiv, Fig. 3) 2 

Cui not arising exactly from the caudal angle of the triangle in 
the hind wing (PI. xiv, Fig. i) 4 



"* A few species of Leucorrhinia do not have this spine; these do not, however, 
occur in Connecticut. 



262 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

2. Wings with large well-defined spots of brown; cells of anal loop 

18-20 in number ; more than 20 cells between M2 and Rs beyond 

the oblique vein (PI. xiir, Fig. i) Celithemis, p. 284 

Wings without well-defined spots, if with brown areas, the latter 
more or less diffused over the base of the wing, or sometimes 
with small, nearly black areas at extreme base ; cells of the anal 
loop 8-13 in number; cells between M2 and R beyond the olDlique 
vein less than 20 3 

3. Face white; predominant color of thorax and abdomen black; 

(tenerals have the thorax dark brown and abdomen black) ; base 
of hind wings with a small triangle of black (PI. xv, Fig. 4).. 

Leucorrhinia, p. 278 
Face buff or yellow ; predominant color of thorax and abdomen 
brown and red, or olive and buff, never black; base of hind 
wings without a small triangle of black (PI. xiv, Fig. 3) .... 

Sympetrum, p. 266 

4. Spines of hind femora suddenly enlarged near the apex, the last 

3 or 4 much longer than the proximal ones and farther apart; 
antenodal cross-veins of the front wing 10 or more (PI. xx, b) 

Erythemis, p. 264 
Spines of hind femora gradually lengthened from base to tip, the 
last 3 or 4 not greatly longer than those immediately proximad; 
antenodal cross-veins of front wings usually less than 10 5 

5. Width of the venter of abdominal segment 5, 2 mm. or more ; 

stigma with i or no cross-veins behind it (PI. xiv, Fig. i) .. 

Pachydiplax, p. 277 
Width of the venter of abdominal segment .=; less than 2 mm. ; 
stigma with two or more cross-veins behind it (PI. xiii, Fig. 3) 

Erythrodiplax, p. 262 

Genus Erythrodiplax Brauer 

Nymphs. — Labium with setif orm movable hooks ; 9 lateral and 
13 mental setae; abdomen without dorsal hooks, but with lateral 
spines on segments 8 and 9; superior anal appendages not 
decurved. 

Adults. — Wings with less than 10 antenodal cross-veins, usually 
7-10; distal and proximal ends of the stigma parallel, more than 
three times as long as wide, and supported by two to three cross- 
veins (usually two) ; triangle 3-sided, considerably farther distad 
in the front than in the hind; M, not sinuate; Cu^ not arising 
from the caudal point of the triangle in the hind wings; subtri- 
angle absent ; hind margin of the pronotum bilobed and with long 
marginal setae. Abdomen much compressed, the male without 
ventral hooks beneath on segment i ; transverse median carinae 
on segments i , 2 and 3 ; general color black and yellow. 

Erythrodiplax berenice Drury 

Illustrations of Natural History— Exotic Insects, i : pi. XLVin, f. 3 : 1773. 

Nymph. — Head: caudo-lateral angles rounded, the dorsum 
behind the eyes with six longitudinal setose ridges, betvv^een which 
are smooth areas ; labium with 9-10 setae on the labial palpi, and 
12-13 mental setae (PI. vii, Fig. 2), a group of minute setae at 
base five or six in number. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 263 

Thorax: pronotum with a low setose prominence at middle. 

Abdomen : dorsum with a faint brown stripe on either side, 
without dorsal spines but with elevations or prominences each 
armed with a group of heavy setae ; lateral spines of segments 8 
and 9 straight, that of 9 hardly as long as segment 10 ; lateral 
terminal appendages about three-fourths as long as the superior, 
which in turn is about four-fifths as long as the inferiors. 

Measurements : length of metathoracic wing-cases, 5 mm. ; 
width of head, 4 mm. ; length of median lobe, 3 mm. ; width 3 mm. 

Described from a reared exuviae obtained from Dr. Calvert, 
labeled "Micrathyria berenice Viereck, presumably from Cape May 
region. New Jersey," 

Adult, male. — Color black and yellow. 

Head : black with yellow spots on the lateral lobes of the labium, 
one on each side of the clypeus extending dorsad slightly onto the 
front, and two small spots (sometimes united) on each side just 
behind the compound eyes. Vertex and remainder of the front 
metallic blue, the vertex evenly rounded at apex. 

Thorax: black, sometimes with yellow spots above the middle 
and hind coxae and on the metepimera ; legs black, the procoxae 
considerably flattened, the mesal margins forming a sort of ridge 
provided with setae ; wings as in PI. xiii, Fig. 3, the brown spot 
over the nodus usually lacking in this sex. 

Abdomen : black with yellow dashes on the sides of terga 3 or 
4-7 ; black appendages of the second segment composed of long 
auricles, the hamules with a spine-like inner lobe and a flat, 
obliquely truncate outer one. 

Female. — Color yellow and black. 

Head : labium yellow with a black mesal line ; labrum yellow, 
its ventral border black ; clypeus yellow ; front yellow with a 
transverse black line above the suture, upturned at either end, and 
connecting on meson with a somewhat triangular black area 
extending ventrad from the ocelli ; vertex black, with a large oval 
yellow spot above ; occiput and postgenae black, with 3 yellow spots 
on each side behind the caudal margins of the compound eyes ; 
occiput with a pair of closely placed yellow spots on the meson. 

Thorax : prothorax black with the following yellow : caudal 
lobe of notum except lateral angles, an inverted W-shaped mark 
on median lobes, cephalic margin and two small dots on each side 
just above the coxae. Meso- and metathorax yellow with about 
seven oblique longitudinal black lines on either side of the dorsal 
carina, which is also black ; these lines present a wavy appearance 
and the first four are connected behind ; coxae and trochanter and 
venter of the front femora pale, remainder of the legs black ; 
wings clear yellow at base and with a brown area over the nodus 
which is extended in some individuals to occupy the greater part 
of the wing. 



264 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Abdomen : black and yellow, yellow as follows : a broad dorsal 
stripe from 1-7 occupying half the terga on each side, spots below 
the lateral carinae on 2 and 3, two small spots on eighth dorsum 
at base and all of tenth dorsum; ovipositor composed largely of 
the projecting eighth sternum. 

Measurements : total length, male 34, female 32-35 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 21-23, female 21-23 mm. ; length of hind wing, 
male 23-24, female 23-26 mm. ; width of hind wing, male 8, 
female 8-9 mm. 

There is a great deal of variation in the amount of yellow on the 
body and brown color in the wings. The males are mostly black 
and without brown in the wings, but females may be found show- 
ing nearly all stages between the light-colored female as described, 
and the black male. 

Inhabits salt marshes along the sea shore. 

Connecticut.— Short Beach, 19 July, 1904 (P. L. B.) ; Stonington, 6 
July, 1906 (J. A. H.) : Stratford, 29 June, 21 July, 1908 (W. E. B.), 9 
July, 1920 (P. G.)- 

New England. — June 21-August 28. 

Genus Erythemis Hagen 

Nymphs. — Labium with about 13-15 mental setae in full-grown 
nymphs ; 8 lateral setae on the palpi ; abdomen without dorsal 
hooks or lateral spines, though sometimes a trace on segment 9 ; 
anal appendages strongly decurved. 

Adults. — More than ten antenodals in the front wing ; proximal 
and distal margins of the stigma parallel, the latter supported by 
two cross-veins ; triangle three-sided, only slightly farther distad 
in the front wings ; M^ not sinuate ; subtriangle absent ; Cu^ not 
arising exactly from the caudal angle of the triangle in the hind 
wings, but from the distal side ; hind margin of the pronotum 
bilobed ; male without hooks on the venter of segment i ; trans- 
verse median carina on segments 2 and 3 ; general color green and 
black, or bluish. 

The adults of this genus are strong fliers, and the nymphs may 
be found in small ponds or lakes. 

Erythemis simplicicollis (Say) 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences .of Philadelphia, 8 : 28 : 1839. 

Nymph (PI. iv. Fig. i). — Color light brown (alcoholic speci- 
mens), usually greenish when fresh. 

Head: mentum (Fig. 66) as broad or a little broader than 
long, the cephalic margin projecting strongly between the palpi ; 
in full-grown specimens with 13-15 mental setae; in younger 
(6 mm. long) specimens lo-ii; labial palpi with 8 lateral setae 
in older, 6 in younger specimens, the distal margins of the palpi 
without visible teeth but with groups of spines, the mesal margin 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 



265 



also with spines arranged in an irregular row ; distal margin of 
mentuni spinose; antennae with third, fifth, and sixth segments 
longest and subequal ; others shorter ; the caudal margin of the 
eyes viewed from above are about the middle of the lateral margins 
of the head; dorsal surface of the head behind the eyes with 6 
longitudinal setigerous stripes in older nymphs. 

Thorax : pronotum sloping cephalad sharply from the spiracles 
and with a setose elevation on meson just behind the middle; 
lateral margins of pronotum also setose ; femora with a few 
scattered heavy setae on dorsal surfaces and at apices, the tibiae 




Fig. 66 
enlarged. 



Labium of the nymph of Erythemis simplicicolUs, greatly 



also with heavy setae; tarsi with claws about as long as the first 
segment ; wing-cases in older specimens reaching to the middle of 
the seventh abdominal segment (in alcoholics, to segment 9) ; 
venter of thorax with a conspicuous setose ridge on mesosternum 
just behind the first coxae. 

Abdomen : ovate ; the lateral keels without spines or with rudi- 
mentary ones, more frequently without; terminal appendages 
broad at base, the superior and ventral nearly equal in length, 
laterals one-half as long as the superior in full-grown, less than 
one-third as long in younger nymphs. 

Measurements: total length, 15-16 mm.; length of abdomen, 
8 mm. ; length metathoracic wing-cases, 5-6 mm. ; length hind 
femora, 4.5-5 mm. ; length median lobe, 4 mm. ; width, 1.5-4 mm. 



266 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Measurements of a young nymph : total length, 4 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, 2 mm. ; greatest width, 2 mm. ; length of wing- 
cases, .25 mm. ; length of hind femora, 1.25 mm. ; length of median 
lobe, 1.25 mm.; width, 1.2 mm. 

Described from a series of nymphs obtained from Illinois State 
Natural History Survey through the courtesy of Dr. C. P. 
Alexander, and specimens taken in Connecticut in different locali- 
ties. Easily recognized by its hunchback appearance. 

Adult, male (PI. xx, b). — Color green and black, the thorax 
and abdomen entirely bluish-pollinose, in older males. 

Head : green, black or dark brown as follows : spot on labrum, 
mesal margins of the lateral lobes, cephalic surface of vertex, a 
narrow line between vertex and front, and two dark spots on the 
postgenae behind the caudo-lateral margins of the compound eyes. 

Thorax : entirely green or bluish-pollinose, the green individuals, 
"frequently with dorsal carina antehumeral, humeral and two 
indistinct lateral lines and some marks near the coxae black" f^ 
prothorax with bilobed caudal margin, provided with a fringe of 
long hairs ; legs black, the coxae and trochanters lighter ; tarsal 
claws with a minute ventral tooth beyond the middle ; front coxae 
flat with a dense fringe of hairs on the mesal ridge ; wings clear, 
without opaque marks, slightly flavescent. 

Abdomen : entirely bluish-pollinose, or green and black ; terga 
2 and 3 entirely green, 4-7 each with a black or brown spot occupy- 
ing the caudal half of the dorsum ; terga 8 and 9 and sometimes 
10 entirely black ; venter of abdomen brown ; superior anal appen- 
dages green, about one-third longer than the inferiors ; hamules 
of the second segment composed of a long, rounded, lateral lobe 
and a slender mesal hook not quite as long as the lateral lobe ; 
abdomen with but few hairs except on terga i and 2, and on 
venter. 

Female. — Lacks the dark marks on the thorax: superior anal 
appendages green ; caudal margin of eighth sternum entire, pro- 
jecting ventrad a distance equal to half the vertical diameter of the 
segment. Bluish or slate-colored forms do not occur in this sex ; 
at least they have not been seen in Connecticut. 

Measurements : total length, male 44, female 38-43 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 27, female 23-28 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 32, female 30-31 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 9-10, 
female 9 mm. ; length of stigma, male and female, 3-3.5 mm. 

Connecticut. — East Haven, 16 August, 1906 (P. L. B.), 30 July, 1921; 
Hamden, 4 July, 1921, May, 1922 (P. G.). 
New England. — May to September. 

''^Calvert. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, xx: 265: 189.1. 

Genus Sympetrum Newman 

Nymphs. — Head: movable hooks of palpi small, usually seti- 
form; lateral setae 7-13; mental setae 11-17; abdomen ovate. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 267 

usually with dorsal hooks on segments 4-8 but sometimes entirely 
without (corrnptuin) ; lateral spines always on segment 9, usually 
also on 8, but absent in corrnptiim from this segment ; superior 
anal appendages not decurved. 

Adults. — Wings with less than ten antenodal cross-veins ; distal 
and proximal margins of the stigma parallel, the latter three times 
as long as broad, and supported usually by only one or two cross- 
veins ; triangle three-sided, considerably further distad in the front 
wing than in the hind ; Mj not sinuate ; subtriangle absent ; Cu^ 
arising exactly from the caudal angle of the triangle in both 
wings ; hind margin of the pronotum bilobed, and with long silken 
hairs ; femora with one of the usual two ventral rows of heavy 
setae, greatly reduced, and usually wanting in the front femora; 
abdomen somewhat compressed behind the third abdominal seg- 
ment, except in corrnptum, the male without ventral hooks on seg- 
ment I ; transverse median, dorsal carinae on segments 2, 3 and 
sometimes 4 (corntptum) ; general color brown, abdomen fre- 
quently red. 

This genus is most closely related to PacJiydiplax, Leucorrhinia, 
and Cclithcmis. 

Adults of the genus are late summer fliers, frequently congre- 
gating in considerable numbers in sunny locations towards the end 
of the season. The nymphs are most frequent on vegetation in 
boggy ponds. The eggs are laid by dipping the abdomen while in 
flight. 

For key to North American species (adults) see 
Muttkowski, R. A. Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural History Society 
(2), 6: 108: 1908. 

A synopsis of the nymphs has been published by 
Walker, E. M. Canadian Entomologist, 49: 409-418: 1917: pi. xix. 

Key to Species 
Nymphs^ 

1. Segments 8 and 9 with lateral spines ; dorsal hooks present 2 

Segment 8 without lateral spines, those of segment 9 vestigial ; 

dorsal hooks entirely absent 8 

2. Dorsal hooks on segments 6 to 8 (7-8 in one reared vicinum) as 

long as the segments which bear them, lateral spines of seg- 
ments 8 and 9 subparallel, those of 9 as long as the lateral 
margins of the segment (not including spine) and reaching back 

as far as the tip of superior appendage ; eyes prominent 3 

Dorsal hooks shorter than the segments which bear them; lateral 
spines more or less convergent, their outer margins continuing 
the general curve of the abdominal margins ; those of segment 9 
shorter than the lateral margins of the segment and not reaching 
as far back as tip of superior appendage; eyes moderately 
prominent 4 

3. Lateral spines of segment 8 scarcely twice those of segment 9, two 

and one-half times as long as their basal breadth, outer margins 
of latter distinctly incurvate; lateral appendages half as long 
as the inferiors, the latter not acuminate semicinctum 

^ From Walker, E. M., Canadian Entomologist. 49: 410-413: 1917. 



268 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 




5 vicinum 




semicinctum 




10 rubicundulum 



9 vicinum 

Fig. 67. Figs, i to 5, Accessory appendages of male. Figs. 6 to 10, 
vulvar lamina and terminal abdominal segments of female abdomen from 
below, greatly enlarged. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 269 

Lateral spines of segment 8 more than twice, those of 9 three times 
as long as basal breadth, outer margins of latter nearly straight, 
lateral appendages less than half as long as the inferiors, the 
latter apically acuminate vicinum 

4. Dorsal hooks well developed, slender and very acute, that of seg- 

ment 7 nearly as long as the mid-dorsal line of the segment, 

that of 8 usually more than half as long as the segment 5 

Dorsal hooks smaller and when well developed somewhat stouter 
and distinctly curved, that of segment 9 distinctly shorter than 
the segment, that of 8 rarely half as long as the segment 6 

5. Base of mentum of labium distinctly broader than the distance 

between middle coxae and somewhat more than one-fourth the 
greatest width ; lateral spines of segment 9 usually at least half as 
long as lateral margins of the segments ; lateral setae typically 11 

(costiferum) 
Base of mentum of labium scarcely, if at all, broader than middle 
coxae and about one-fourth of the greatest width, lateral spines 
of segment 9 two-fifths to one-half as long as lateral margins 
of the segment ; lateral setae typically 10 (pallipes) 

6. Dorsal hooks present on segments 4 to 7 or 8, sometimes absent 

from segment 4 or 8, lateral spines of segment 9 about one-third 
as long as the lateral margins of the segment, lateral setae 9 

to II 7 

Dorsal hooks present on segments 5 to 7 only, vestigial, or absent 
altogether, lateral spines of segment 9 about one-fifth as long as 

lateral margins of the segment, lateral setae usually 11 

rubicundulum decisum 

7. Lateral setae 11, dorsal hooks vestigial or absent from segments 

4 and 8 danae 

Lateral setae 9 or 10, dorsal hooks somewhat larger, generally 
present, though small on segments 4 and 8 obtrusum 

8. Lateral setae 9, mental setae about 13, 7 in the stronger, outer series 

(illotum) 
Lateral setae 13 to 14, mental setae about 17, 9 in the outer series 

corruptum 

Adults, Males 

1. Fourth abdominal terga with a transverse carina at middle corruptum 
Fourth abdominal terga without a transverse carina at middle ... 2 

2. Sides of thorax marked with bright yellow danae 

Sides of thorax not marked with bright yellow ; brown or red . . 3 

3. Superior anal appendages with a sharply angled ventral tooth near 

the middle ; hamules not divided proximad of the middle 4 

Superior anal appendages without a sharply angled ventral tooth 
near the middle ; hamules divided far proximad of the middle . . 6 

4. Legs black with exception of the ventral side of the front femora 5 
Legs pale yellowish with black spines ambiguum 

5. Hamules with a deep notch (Fig. 67, No. 4) rubicundulum 

Hamules with a shallow notch (Fig. 67, No. 3) obtrusum 

6. Hind wings chlorinated from base to nodus ; front wings from 

bases to triangles, PI. xxii, a semicinctum 

Hind wings not chlorinated from base to nodus nor the front wings 
from bases to triangles 7 

7. Legs light brown to brownish red; stigma small (2 mm. long).. 

vicinum 
Legs dark brown to black ; stigma 3 mm. in length (costiferum) 



270 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Females 

1. Fourth abdominal tergum with a transverse carina at middle; 

thorax usually with two sub-circular yellow spots on each side 

corruptum 
Fourth abdominal tergum without a transverse carina at middle ; 
thorax without yellow spots on sides 2 

2. Sides of thorax marked with yellow and black danae 

Sides oi thorax brown or red, sometimes shading into yellow .... 3 

3. Sternum of abdominal segment 8 projecting ventrad and visible 

from the side, the apical margin nearly i mm. below the caudo- 

ventral angles of tergum 8 vicinum 

Sternum of abdominal segment 8 not projecting ventrad or visible 
from the side ; the apical margin less than i mm. below the 
caudo-ventral angles of tergum 8 4 

4. Vulvar lamina apparently invisible, there being no division between 

the plates and the caudal margin of the 8th sternum 7 

Vulvar lamina plainly visible, and a distinct division between the 
plates and the caudal margin of the 8th sternum 5 

5. Legs pale yellowish brown, with black spines ; vulvar lamina with 

an obtuse roimded median notch ambiguum 

Legs black except the ventral surfaces of the front femora ; vulvar 
lamina with an acute median notch 6 

6. Vulvar lamina less than half as long as sternum 9 rubicundulum 

Vulvar lamina more than half as long as sternum 9 obtrusum 

7. Hind wings, and sometimes the front wings also, chlorinated to 

nodus semicinctum 

Neither front nor hind wings chlorinated to nodus (costiferum) 

Sympetrum corruptum Hagen 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 171 : 1861. 

Adult, male. — Color, olive-green, yellow and black, or red and 
black. 

Head : face, including labium, labrum, front and vertex, yellow, 
the front with a dark line in front of the ocelli ; occiput and post- 
genae darker, with lighter spots near the margins of the compound 
eyes. 

Thorax : dark green or yellow, the caudal lobe of the prothorax 
bilobed, and with long setae ; mes- and metepimera with more or 
less faint bluish lines terminating shortly caudo-dorsad of the 
coxae in small bright yellow spots ; tarsi and claws black, the claws 
with ventral teeth much shorter than half the length of the claw 
beyond the tooth; wings large, with little or no yellow at the 
extreme base; stigma brown in the middle and yellow on both 
ends ; veins brown. 

Abdomen : but little compressed behind the third segment, grad- 
ually tapering to tip ; the terga with median transverse ridges on 
2, 3, and 4; terga mostly brown or yellowish (becoming red) with 
pale yellow spots on the sides above the lateral carinae ; the mid- 
dorsum of 8 and 9 with broad black dashes, and a much-reduced 
one on 10; venter black at bases of segments, the rest pale; supe- 
rior anal appendages without a large tooth below, the ventral 
surface forming a fairly even curve with a few small teeth. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 27 1 

Female. — Similar in most points to the male except that the 
color of the abdomen does not become reddish and most of the 
other colors are retained longer ; caudal margin of eighth sternum 
slightly excavated. 

Measurements : total length, male 38-45, female 38 mm. ; abdo- 
men, male 25-27, female 24-26 mm. ; hind wing, male 27-30, 
female 29-30 mm.; width hind wings, male 9, female lo-ii mm. 

This species is so different from all other members of this genus 
that it would seem to belong elsewhere. 

A single female collected by Mr. Waldeti at Lighthouse Point, June 10, 
1906. 

New England. — June lO-September 10. 

Sympetruxn costiferum (Hagen) 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 174: 1861. 

Adult, male. — Brown or red. 

Head : front with two smoky spots ; occiput pale with black 
spots behind the eyes. 

Thorax: brown, wings flavescent along the costal margin; 
stigma yellow to brown, supported by one cross-vein; shoulders 
of mes- and metepimera sometimes black. 

Abdomen: pale (brown or red) without dark triangles on the 
sides of terga, sometimes with a black line above lateral carinae 
and a trace on dorsal carina; inferior anal appendage with two 
upturned teeth at apex ; superiors with four small teeth on ventral 
margins. 

Female. — Venter of segment 8 does not project ventrad as in 
vicinum to which the species is most closely related. 

Measurements : total length, male 32-36, female 35 inm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 21-25, female 23-26 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 25-26, female 25-28 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 8-10, 
female 9-9.5 mm. 

Specimens in the collection of Dr. P. P. Calvert, from South 
Dakota and Washington, are larger than Eastern examples. 

New England. — July 12-October 7. 

Sympetrum danae (Sulzer)^' 

Abgekurzte Geschichte, etc., 169 tab. 24, fig. 3: 1776. 

Adult, male. — Color black and yellow. 

Head : labium with a black spot on middle, pale on sides ; 
labrum dark brown, clypeus yellow but showing a tendency to 
become brown ; front yellow below and on sides, dark brown 
above ; sometimes the entire face is brown ; rear of head black 
with two yellow spots on each side behind the compound eyes. 

Thorax : dark brown to black with yellow ; mesepisterna with 



=. scoticum (Donovan). British Insects is: 523: 181 1. 



2 7'2 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

two yellow spots on the katepisterna, the anepisterna also with two 
small spots ; mesepimera with a pale stripe from shoulders to wing 
bases a little wider cephalad ; behind this stripe the thorax usually 
shows 6-7 yellow spots, those on the metepimera sometimes fused, 
forming a stripe ; venter of thorax with 3 spots behind the meta- 
coxae. 

Abdomen : black, tergum 2 with four yellow spots, one on each 
lateral margin, and two on dorsum, 3 with six spots, three on each 
side, 4-9 inclusive, each with two yellow triangles, those on 9 small ; 
anal appendages black; hamules (Fig. 67, No. i) divided about 
half way to base, the mesal arm sharply pointed. 

Female. — Face yellow, with a heavy, transverse black stripe on 
dorsum of front ; abdomen with a black stripe along each side on 
terga 3-8 about i mm. wide ; remainder of these terga pale ; nearly 
all of 9 and 10 dark. Vulvar lamina as in Fig. 67, No. 7. 

Measurements : total length, male 27-33, female 29 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 18-24, female 19-24 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 20-27, female 22-27 "^"^- ! width of hind wings, male 7.5-8, 
female 8.5 mm. 

Eight specimens examined from Scotland and one from New 
England in collection of P. P. Calvert ; there are also several in 
the Yale University collection labelled Eastport, Maine, collected 
by S. I. Smith. 

A variable species, especially in the color of the thorax and 
abdomen. The thorax is said to be almost black in some specimens. 

Sympetrum rubicundulum (Say) 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8: 26: 1839. 
. Nymph. — Color brown, or greenish in life. 

Head : much broader than wide, the caudo-lateral margins with 
a few scattered, rather heavy setae; labrum pilose, labium tri- 
angular, with 9-10 lateral setae and a movable hook, closely 
resembling the lateral setae ; the mesal and caudal margins of the 
palpi with short unequal spines but no teeth ; distal margin of 
the mentum with about 7 short setae, there being 13-14 mentals on 
each side; distal margin with a projecting lobe at base of each 
palpus. 

Thorax : pronotum flat, the lateral margins projecting but 
slightly and with a few setae; a bunch of setae just above the 
procoxae on the propleura; all femora with an irregular dorsal 
row of setae and a few scattered ventral ones of about the same 
length ; tibiae with more or less scattered dorsal and ventral setae, 
the tarsi with the usual double row beneath ; claws without teeth ; 
wing-cases extending to middle of seventh or eighth abdominal 
segment in full-grown nymphs. 

Abdomen: with flat venter; lateral keels of segments 1-6 with 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 273 

very small setae, spines beginning on segment 8 ; small dorsal 
hooks present on segments 4-7, usually longest on 5 and 6, but 
never as long as the segments ; anal appendages with laterals half 
as long as inferiors, the superior one-fourth longer, nearly as 
broad at base as the appendage is long ; inferiors with short setae 
on sides and mesal surfaces and superior appendage with a few 
weak setae on dorsum and stronger ones on lateral margins. 

Measurements: total length, 12-15 mm.; length of abdomen, 
7-9 mm. ; width, 4-5 mm. ; length median lobe labium, 4 mm. ; 
width, 3.75 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown or red and black. 

Head : labium, labrum, front and vertex to the antennae light 
brown or buff with almost black setae ; front immediately cephalad 
of the antennae and along the margins of the compound eyes 
darker ; occiput and postgenae brown ; eyes greenish yellow below, 
brown above when alive. 

Thorax : uniform brown, paler below and approaching a green- 
ish yellow on the sides ; pronotum with long silken hairs on the 
caudal margin, which is bilobed. Legs with brown coxae and 
trochanters, the femora and tibiae sometimes light below, black 
above (usually entirely black) tenerals dark at tips, light at base; 
tarsi black, the claws each with a single ventral tooth, which is 
more than one-half the length of the claw beyond the base. Wings 
as in PI. XIV, Fig. 3, chlorinate at base only. 

Abdomen : brown, frequently conspicuously red, with terga 4-9 
black above the lateral carinae ; dorsum of segment 10 dark brown 
or red ; abdomen considerably compressed beyond segment 3 ; anal 
appendages brown with a ventral projection about the middle, the 
latter showing a few small teeth ; accessory genitalia as in Fig. 67, 
No. 4, the hamules much larger than the auricles. 

Female. — Similar in most features except that the general color 
is much lighter and there is more black on the caudo-lateral angles 
of the abdominal terga, the black extending to the cephalic mar- 
gins ; two dashes each on the sides of the third and fourth terga ; 
appendages as shown in Fig. 67, No. 10. 

Measurements : total length, male 33-34, female 33 mm. ; abdo- 
men, male 21, female 21-33 mm.; length of hind wings, male 25, 
female 24-26 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 9, female 9 mm. 

There are two recognized varieties of rubicundulum, — 6". ruhi- 
cunduluvn assimilatuni, and rubicundulum decisum, the latter an 
essentially western form. Var. assimilatuni is said to be common 
in New York, and differs from the usual form in having the yellow 
color of the front wings extend to the nodus. 

Connecticut. — South Manchester, 3 August, 1896 (W. C. S.) ; West- 
ville, 28 August, 1901 (W. E. B.), 9 August, 1906 (P. L. B.) ; New Haven, 
16 June, 1902 (E. J. S. M.), 12 August, 1902 (B. H. W.), 16 September, 
1903 (W. E. B.), 16 October, 1903 (H. L. V.), 6 August, 1917 (M. P. Z.) ; 
Branford, 21 June, 1904 (H. L. V.) ; Short Beach, 14 July, 1904 (P. L. B.) ; 



2 74 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT, HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Westbrook, 30 August, 1904 (H. L. V.) ; Stonington, August, 1906 
(J. A. H.) ; Storrs, 4 October, 1923 (J. Cronin). Common throughout the 
State. 

New England. — June 9-October 9. 



Sympetrum semicinctum Say 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 27 : 1839. 

Adult, male. — Color buff to brown and red. 

Head : Face including labium, labrum, clypeus, front, and ver- 
tex, brown, considerably darker in front of the antennae ; vertex 
projecting over median ocellus in a single lobe, the apex lighter 
in color ; occiput yellow, postgenae dark brown with yellow spots 
along the lateral margins behind the compound eyes. 

Thorax : brown, the lateral and ventral surfaces slightly, if at 
all lighter ; legs black except the coxae, trochanters and venter of 
first femora, which are dark brown ; tarsi black, the claws having a 
tooth beneath which measures less than half the length of the claw 
beyond the tooth ; base of fore wings yellow about half way to 
nodus from the base, the hind wings yellow to the nodus, and a 
darker crescent-like yellow area from the nodus to the anal angles. 

Abdomen : dark red or brown with median transverse carinae 
on terga 2 and 3 ; terga i and 2 lighter brown, the lateral margins 
of 5-10 black, the black area on each side wider caudad; venter 
of 3-10 black; accessory genitalia as in Fig. 67, No. 2, the 
auricles not longer than the hamules ; anal appendages only with 
small ventral teeth on the brown superiors near apex; inferior 
black. 

Female (PI. xxii, a). — Abdomen darker than the male, with 
black lateral margins on 2-10, the black spreading over the entire 
dorsum on 5-10 and sometimes enclosing small subcircular pale 
spots on 8 and 9, venter of abdomen mostly black; female abdo- 
men shown in Fig. 67, No. 8. 

Measurements : total length, male 30, female 27 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 19, female 16 mm.; hind wings, male 21-23, 
female 20 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 8, female 7-8 mm. 

A rather common species distinguishable from most others of 
this genus by the great extent of the flavescent area of the base 
of the wings ; from 5^. riibicimdnlum assiinilatmn, its nearest ally, 
by the presence of a large median ventral tooth on the superior 
anal appendages of the male (in assimilattim) . 

Western representatives of this species are much larger, the 
abdomen measuring as much as 26 mm., and the yellow color of 
the front wings sometimes reaching the nodus. 

Connecticut. — Chapinville, 29 August, 1904 (W. E. B.) ; North Haven, 
3 August, 190.S (H. L. V.) ; Manchester, 3 September, 1920 (P. G.) ; 
Guilford, 30 July, 1922 (W. E. B.). 

New England. — June 29-October 5. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 275 

Sympetrum obtrusmn Hagen 

Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung, 28: 95: 1867. 

Adult, male. — Color brown, red and yellow. 

Head : face including labium, labrum, clypeus, front and vertex 
(except the black basal line surrounding the antennae) yellow; 
occiput and postgenae darker, with some yellow. 

Thorax: uniform dark brown; the wings colorless, with a touch 
of yellow at base of hind wings ; legs black, except the coxae, 
trochanters and ventral surfaces of front legs, which are dark 
brown ; tarsal claws each with a tooth beneath, which is much 
less than half the length of the claw beyond the tooth. 

Abdomen: dark brown or red, considerably contracted behind 
segment 3, and somewhat widened towards the tip ; median trans- 
verse carinae on segments 2 and 3 ; caudo-lateral angles of the 
terga above the lateral carinae, black on segments 4-9, venter of 
abdomen dark brown ; anal appendages brown, the superiors with 
a conspicuous, denticled ventral tooth on each ; accessory genitalia 
of the second segment as shown in Fig. 67, No. 3. 

Female. — This sex is said to be olive-brown in color with a 
reddish tinge. 

Measurements : total length, male 33-37 ; abdomen, male 22-25, 
female 22 mm. ; length hind wing, male 24-25, female 24 mm. ; 
width hind wings, male 8, female 8.5 mm. 

Calvert's measurements are as follows : abdomen, male 22-25, 
female 23.5-24 mm.; hind wing, male 21-25, female 23-25.5 mm. 

A single male in our collection bears the label Westbrook, 30 
Aug., 1904, H. L. Viereck, The only reliable means of dis- 
tinguishing this species from ruhicundulum lies in the shape of 
the hamules of the accessory genitalia. The female is apparently 
not distinguishable from ruhicundulum. There are also two varie- 
ties of this species, but only the eastern variety, S. obtrusmn 
ohtrusum, is represented in our fauna. 

New England. — July 3-October 5. 

Sympetrum vicinum Hagen 
Synopsis of the Neuroptcra of North America, 175: 1861. 
Nymph. — Head nearly twice as wide as long; the caudo- 
lateral angles rounded, and with rather long, heavy setae (.25 
mm.) ; labium with 9 lateral setae on palpi, the mesal and caudal 
margins of proximal segment with setae, in pairs on mesal margin 
(one large and one small) but no teeth; movable hook similar to 
lateral setae; mentum with 11 setae each side (Needham, 12 or 
13) ; the distal margin with about 5 very minute spines, and 
rounded lobes at the base of the palpi ; palpi conspicuously spotted 
beneath ; labium extending between second pair of legs. 

Thorax: Prothorax with rounded, setose lateral angles, which 



276 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

project slightly ; and a bunch of setae above the procoxae ; femora 
all with 3 rings of brown and long hair-like setae; tibiae with 3 
dark rings each, the tarsi with darker tips and the claws entire ; 
wing-cases extending to middle of abdominal segment 5 in 
exuviae ; middle of 7 in alcoholics. 

Abdomen : broad and flat below, with the segments dark-banded, 
and with lighter spots on the caudo-lateral angles of the segments 
1-9; long lateral spines on 8 and 9, those on 9 reaching beyond 
the tip of the superior anal appendage, and with long lateral setae ; 
lateral keels also with setae on segments 5-7, the proximal seg- 
ments nearly or entirely free ; spines on 8 and 9 black-tipped ; 
anal appendages also black-tipped, the superior about one-third 
shorter than the inferiors, and the lateral appendages about half 
as long as inferiors ; superior appendage with setose lateral mar- 
gins and a few setae near tip of its dorsum ; the inferiors, setose 
on all surfaces but with larger setae on the lateral margins. 

Measurements: total length, 12-13 wirn- 5 length of abdomen, 
8 mm. ; width of abdomen, 5 mm. ; length metathoracic wing- 
cases, 4 mm. ; length median lobe, 3-4 mm. ; width median lobe, 
3 mm. 

Described from one exuviae from which an adult male was 
reared, several exuviae and one full-grown nymph. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown, sometimes red and yellow. 

Head : buff to yellowish, labium and labrum yellow, clypeus 
buff; front, vertex and occiput darker brown. 

Thorax : dark brown or buff frequently lighter on the sides and 
below ; wings as in rubiciindulwn, and only slightly chlorinate 
at the very base ; legs dark brown to buff ; tarsi brown, black 
at tips ; claws brown, black at tips, the ventral teeth about half 
as long as portion of claw beyond the tooth. 

Abdomen: brown or reddish (bright red in some), terga with 
transverse median carina only on segments 2 and 3, the margins 
above the lateral carinae somewhat darker ; genital hamule of 
the second abdominal segment composed of two equal lobes, the 
median pointed and black tipped, the lateral lobe rounded ; auricles 
as long or longer than the hamules (Fig. 67, No. 5) ; superior 
anal appendages, without large ventral tooth at middle, but with 
a few smaller teeth, at about four-fifths the length of the appen- 
dage from the base. 

Female. — Similar to male in nearly all points ; sternum of 
segment 8 projecting ventrad for a distance about equal to one- 
fourth of the vertical diameter of that segment, and forming a 
part of the ovipositor. 

Measurements: total length, male 32, female 31 mm.; length 
of abdomen, male 21, female 21 mm. ; length of hind wing, male 
23, female 22-23 n^^- 5 width of hind wing, male 8, female 7 mm. 

Differs from riihicundnhiin in being generally lighter in color; 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 277 

the female venter projecting below on segment 8 ; the males are 
easily separated by means of the appendages. 

Connecticut.— New Haven, 12 August, 1902 (B. H. W.), 16, 21 October, 
1903 (H. L. v.). 26 July, 1906 (P. L. B.), 21 July, 1920 (P. G.) ; 
Stonington, 25 July, 1906 (J. A. H.) ; Storrs, 5 October, 1923 (J. Cronin). 
Common throughout the State. 

New England. — June 24-November 8. 

Genus Pachydiplax Brauer 

Nymphs. — Labium with 10 lateral setae on palpi, and about 12 
on mentum ; abdomen without dorsal hooks, the lateral spines on 
segments 8 and 9 long (that on 9 extending beyond segment 10), 
and similar in size and shape ; superior anal appendages not 
decurved. 

Adults. — Wings with less than ten antenodal cross-veins; 
stigma with parallel proximal and distal margins, three times as 
long as broad, supported by o-i cross-veins ; triangle three-sided, 
considerably further distad in the front wing than in the hind ; 
M, not sinuate ; subtriangle absent ; Cu, not arising exactly from 
the caudal angle of the triangle in the hind wings, but from the 
distal side ; caudal margin of the pronotum bilobed, and with long 
hairs ; all femora with two ventral rows of short spines ; male 
abdomen without ventral hooks on the first segment ; transverse 
median carinae on abdominal terga 2 and 3 ; general color green, 
black and yellow. 

Similar in habits to the Libellulas. 

Pachydiplax longipennis (Burmeister) 

Handbuch der Entomologie, 2: 850: 1839. 

Nymph. — Color brown or greenish, shape similar to Sympe- 
trum. 

Head : labium with very shallow teeth, dorsum of the head 
smooth; 10 setae on the palpi and about 12 on each side of the 
mentum. 

Thorax : legs slender, the femora usually with three dark rings. 

Abdomen : entirely without dorsal spines, but with large lateral 
spines on segments 8 and 9, the spine on 9 extending well beyond 
the caudal margins of segment 10. 

Measurements: total length, 16-19 mm.; length of abdomen, 
9 mm. ; greatest width of abdomen, 7 mm. ; length of hind femora, 
4 mm. 

These measurements were made from exuviae in the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology. Needham's measurements (Bull 47, 
N. Y. State Museum, page 527) are somewhat larger, the total 
length being 21 mm., and the length of the femora, 6 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown or green to black with greenish 
yellow stripes on thorax and abdomen. 



278 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Head : labium, labrum, clypeus, and most of the front white ; 
area surrounding ocelH, and a somewhat semicircular area in front 
of ocelli and short lines extending ventrad along the margins of 
the compound eyes, dark metallic green ; occiput pale ; postgenae 
black, shining; labrum, clypeus, front, vertex with black hairs; 
the hairs on occiput pale ; compound eyes green in life. 

Thorax: prothorax uniform black, the caudal margin bilobed; 
meso- and metathorax with silken pilosity, dark brown or green 
to black with yellow markings as follows: mesanepisternum with 
a short longitudinal line not reaching either margin of the sclerite ; 
and another, sometimes interrupted line above the mesopleural 
suture ; katepisterna black or brown, pale below ; mesepimerum 
with a pale stripe from wing bases to a point just cephalad of the 
spiracles and the metepisternum with a similar stripe extending 
well onto the anepisternum ; metepimerum almost entirely yellow 
except the brown dorsal and cephalic borders. Coxae and tro- 
chanters sometimes light brown, the remainder of the legs black; 
claws with ventral teeth shorter than half the length of the claw 
beyond the tooth; wings as in PI. xiv. Fig. i. 

Abdomen : uniform black or dark brown, almost completely 
pollinose in older specimens, pale below, especially on the anterior 
segments and on sides of terga 1-3; anal appendages black; 
hamules large and flat when viewed from below, with a small hook 
on the cephalo-mesal margins. 

The wings show variation in the amount of infuscation, espe- 
cially in the area just beyond nodus. 

Female. — Head similar to that of male ; thorax in general some- 
what paler in color, especially the prothorax, in which the caudal 
and cephalic margins are pale and there is sometimes a median 
spot on the notum. The abdomen differs in having longitudinal 
yellow stripes on each side of the dorsal carina, which are com- 
posed of dashes beginning on caudal half of segment 2 and 
extending to segment 7; lateral margins of terga 1-5 yellow, the 
pale color decreasing in width from the first to fifth; venter 
entirely pale; superior anal appendages black, inferior brown. 

Measurements : total length, male 34-40, female 28-35 "^"^- > 
abdomen, male 21-24, female 17.5-22 mm.; length hind wing, 
male 27-30, female 25-29 mm. ; width hind wing, male 8, female 
9-10 mm. 

Connecticut.— New Haven, 20 July, 1908 (B. H. W.) ; Guilford, 13, 
27 July, 1920 (P. G.) ; East Haven, 4 July, 1921 (P. G.). 
New England.— June 7-September 9. 

Genus Leucorrhinia Brittinger 

Nymph. — Head: labium with 10- ii palpal setae and 13 mental 
setae ; abdomen with dorsal hooks on segments 3-8, lateral spines 
on segments 8-9 ; superior anal appendages not decurved. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 279 

Adults. — Wings with less than ten antenodals ; stigma with 
proximal and distal margins parallel, less than three times as broad, 
supported usually by two cross-veins ; triangle three-sided, extend- 
ing nearly as far clistad in the hind wing as in the front ; Mo 
not sinuate ; subtriangle absent ; Cu^ arising from caudal angle 
of triangle ; hind lobes of prothorax bilobed and with long hairs ; 
all femora with only a single ventral row of heavy setae, and these 
sometimes wanting on the proximal portion ; male abdomen with- 
out hooks on venter of segment i ; transverse carinae only on 
segments 2 and 3 ; general color black. 

The nymphs inhabit submerged vegetation, and the adults are 
usually found near the nymphal habitat. They are not as tireless 
on the wing as many Libellulids and are not known to congregate 
in droves. They are fond of bright sunlight. Oviposition is 
accomplished by the usual method of dipping the abdomen in the 
water while in flight. 

For literature dealing with adults of the genus see — 
Hagen, H. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 17: 229- 

245 : 1890, pi. X. 
Muttkowski, R. A. Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural History Society 
(2), 6: III : 1908. 
For systematic and descriptive treatises on the nymphs of this genus see — 
Walker, E. M. Canadian Entomologist, 48: 414-422: 1916: pis. xii, xiii; 
Ibid., 45 : 168 : 1913. 

Key to Species 
Nymphs'^ 

1. Dorsal hooks present on abdominal segments 2 to 8 ; venter of 

abdomen without longitudinal dark bands 2 

Abdominal segments 7 and 8 without dorsal hooks, venter of abdo- 
men with 3 conspicuous longitudinal dark bands (rarely incon- 
spicuous) 5 

2. Eyes very prominent; lateral spines of segment 9 extending back 

nearly or quite as far as tips of inferior appendages (frigida) 

Eyes less prominent ; lateral spines of segment 9 not extending 
back as far as tips of inferior appendages 3 

3. Dorsal hook of segment 7 as long as mid-dorsal length of the 

segment, that of segment 8 projecting well over the base of 
segment 9 ; lateral spines of segment 8 more or less divergent, 
their outer margins not continuing the regular curve of the 
abdominal margin ; lateral spines of segment 9 extending beyond 

tips of lateral appendages 4 

Dorsal hook of segment 7 shorter than the mid-dorsal length of 
the segment, that of segment 8 projecting barely over the base 
of segment 9, lateral spines of segment 8 slightly convergent, 
their outer margins continuing the general curve of the abdominal 
margin ; lateral spines of segment 9 not reaching beyond tips 
of lateral appendages (proxima) 

4. Spinules on inner margin of lateral lobes of labium mostly in 

groups of 3 ; lateral setae 10 ; dorsal hook of segment 8 not 
declined, directed straight caudad at apex intacta 



^From Walker, Canadian Entomologist, 48: 415-416: 1916. 



28o CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Spinules on inner margin of lateral lobes of labium mostly single; 
lateral setae ii ; dorsal spine of segment 8 generally somewhat 
declined, the tip sometimes resting on dorsum of segment 9 . . . . 

(glacialis) 
5. Length less than 18 mm. ; lateral spines of segment 8 two-fifths 
to one-half as long as the lateral margin of the segments (not 
including spine) ; dorsal hooks absent or vestigial ones present 

on some of the segments (hudsonica) 

Length more than 18 mm. ; lateral spines of segment 8 one-sixth 
to one-fourth as long as the lateral margin of the segment ; 
dorsal hooks absent (borealis) 

Adult, Males 

1. Hamules without a strong ventrally projecting curved hook at the 

anterior end ; stigma red, or reddish brown glacialis 

Hamules with a strong ventrally projecting hook at anterior end; 
stigma black, or dark brown 2 

2. Sides of labial palpi white proxima 

Sides of labial palpi black 3 

3. Abdomen with seventh segment black frigida 

Abdomen with pale spot on seventh segment 4 

4. Terga 4 and 5 black or with yellow streaks on mid-dorsum; infe- 

rior anal appendage broad at tip, the distal margin rounded, .intacta 
Terga 4 and 5 with red spots on dorsum; inferior anal appendage 
broad at tip, the distal margin angular hudsonica 

Females 

1. Abdomen with a yellow dorsal spot on tergum 7 2 

Abdomen without a yellow dorsal spot on tergmn 7 3 

2. Plates of the vulvar lamina in contact on the meson hudsonica 

Plates of the vulvar lamina separated from one another by the 

width of each plate intacta 

3. Labium black _ 4 

Labium with a pale spot on each side proxima 

4. Plates of the vulvar lamina almost in contact on the meson, the 

median notch acute frigida 

Plates of the vulvar lamina separated by a broad quadrangular 
excavation glacialis 

Leucorrhinia frigida Hagen 

Transactions of American Entomological Society, 17: 231: 1890. 

Nymph. — Labium with 10 lateral setae and 9 mental setae. 
Teeth of palpi shallow^, each with a single long spine and a smaller 
one alongside; distal margin of mentum subangulate; caudal 
margins of head rounded, the lateral surface sparsely and evenly 
setose ; dorsal surface smooth. 

Thorax: hind femora extending to abdominal segment 7. 

Abdomen : with dorsal spines on segments 3-8 inclusive ; lateral 
spines on 8 and 9, the lateral margins setose, the spines of 9 
extending to the tips of the terminal appendages ; length of termi- 
nals plus segment 10, about as long as, or a little longer than 
segment 9 measured on ventro-meson. 

Measurements ; immature nymph : total length, 14 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, 7 mm. ; length of metathoracic wing-cases, 2 mm. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 281 

Described from an immature nymph received from Dr. Howe 
labeled "Saskatchewan." 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown to black. 

Head : labium entirely black in specimens examined from 
Massachusetts. 

Thorax : black ; dark spot at base of hind wings not reaching 
the triangle; stigma with both ends, and sometimes the caudal 
margin, white or pale. 

Abdomen: uniform brown or black, without pale spots on terga 
4-10; terga 2-4 pollinose on dorsum; inferior appendage slender 
at tip. slightly bent ; segment 2 in the hind third and on the side, 
3 to the transverse carina yellowish brown (obscured in older 
specimens). 

Female. — Terga 4-5 with small brown dorsal spots about half 
the length of the segments ; 6-7 with a yellow streak on basal half 
of the dorsal carina ; vulvar lamina consisting of two triangular 
plates a little more than half the length of the ninth sternum; the 
plates almost in contact on the meson. 

Measurements : total length, male 28-32, female 30 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 18-21, female 20 mm.; length of hind wings, 
male 21-24, female 22-23 rnm. ; width of hind wings, male 7-7.5, 
female 7-7.5 mm. 

Specimens from Webster Lake, Massachusetts, collected by 
S. W. Bromley, and from Long Island by William T. Davis have 
also been examined. 

Connecticut. — New London, 8-22 June, 1921 (R. H. H.) ; Litchfield, 4 
July, 1915 (L. B. W.). 

New England.— June 8-August 18. 

Leucorrhinia glacialis Hagen 

Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 17: 234: 1890. 

Adult, male. — Color black and reddish brown. 

Head : labium black, clypeus and front white, except the pre- 
ocellar black stripe extending on each side nearly to the fronto- 
clypeal suture ; ocellar area black ; vertex, occiput and postgenae 
black. 

Thorax : mostly reddish brown marked with obscure black on 
the sides ; venter black ; legs black ; wings clear, with a small 
brown triangle at the base of the hind wings and a trace of the 
same color at the base of the front wings. 

Abdomen : segments i and 2, and 3 reddish brown, the reddish 
area on 3 extending slightly beyond the transverse carina on the 
dorso-meson ; remainder of abdomen black ; anal appendages 
black, the superiors in lateral view, with acute tips, and about 6 
small, equally spaced teeth on the ventral surface from near base 
two-thirds the length of each superior a])pendage ; su])erior a little 
wider at base than at apex, the distal margin concave and some- 
what angular; hamules without conspicuous anterior hook. 



282 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

Female. — Plates of vulvar lamina separated by a broad quad- 
rangular excavation. 

Measurements : total length, male 35, female 34 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 23, female 23 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
26-27, female 26 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 8.5, female 
8 mm. 

A male in collection of Connecticut Agricultural Experiment 
Station without label, and one in Yale University collection from 
Norway. Maine, collected by S. I. Smith. 

New England. — May 19-August 14. 



Leucorrhinia hudsonica (Selys) 

Revue des Odonates ou Libellules d'Europe, 53 : 1850. 

Adult, male. — Color black or brown and yellow. 

Head : face including labrum, clypeus and front (except a dark 
preocellar line) pure white; vertex black, dark brown in front; 
occiput and postgenae black or dark brown ; labium dark, with a 
pale spot on each side. 

Thorax : very dark brown with obscure black marks ; legs 
black ; hind wings with the dark spot not reaching distad to the 
triangle. 

Abdomen : dorsum of terga 4, 5, 6 and 7 with pale triangles 
(red to yellow) ; occasionally a small spot on 8; sides of 2 and 
two-thirds of 3 yellow ; anal appendages with about 5 small teeth 
on ventral surface of the superiors. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina long, in contact on the mesal margins 
for more than half their length, their tips extending almost to the 
small knobs on the ventral surface of segment 9 nearly one-third 
the length of the ninth sternum. 

Measurements : total length, male 32, female 27 mm. ; length of 
abdomen, male 20, female 18 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
21-23, female 22 mm.; width of hind wings, male 7.5, female 
7.5 mm. 

Specimens examined in the collection of Dr. P. P. Calvert. 

Leucorrhinia intacta Hagen 

Sj'Hopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 179: i86r. 

Nymph. — Head: labium (PI. vii, Fig. 6; Fig. 7, No. 8) with 
10 lateral setae on the palpi and a minute one at base; 14 mental 
setae ; antennae 7-segmented, the sixth segment longest. 

Thorax : femora each with two faint rings of brown, the hind 
femora reaching abdominal segment 6 in exuviae ; hind wings 
extending to segment 5. 

Abdomen: prominent dorsal hooks on segments 2 to 8 inclu- 
sive ; lateral spines on segments 8 and 9 ; the dorsal hook on 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 283 

segment 8 extending to middle of segment 9; lateral spine on 9 
reaching beyond the tips of the lateral, but not to the tips of the 
superior or ventral appendages. The ventral surface of the abdo- 
men is usually transversely striated with dark stripes, or provided 
with rows of spots, differing in this from Sympetrum or other 
species of similar form. 

]\Ieasurements : total length, 16 mm.; length of hind femora, 
4-4.5 mm. ; length of hind wing-cases, 5 mm. ; length of abdomen, 
10 mm. ; greatest width, 6 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color black or brown and yellow. 

Head : labium dark brown to black, black on sides ; labrum, 
clypeus and front (except the dark line in front of the ocelli, 
which is black) pure white; vertex shining black, dark brown in 
front, occiput and postgenae black or dark brown. 

Thorax : very dark brown without conspicuous pale markings 
of any sort, prothorax black, the meso- and metathorax very dark 
brown with obscure black along the sutures, wing bases and on 
the shoulder of the mesepimerum ; legs entirely black or very dark 
brown, the coxae, however, somewhat lighter; procoxae winged 
beneath, the ridge thickly beset with hair-like setae ; all femora 
with one dorsal and one ventral carina, the latter with very short 
spines except near the apex, where they are longer; claws with a 
short ventral tooth, the length of which is less than one-half the 
length of claw beyond tooth ; wings clear, except very small spots 
on base of front wings (sometimes chlorinated to nodus), and 
others occupying 4-6 cells (PI. xv, Fig. 4) at the base of the hind 
wings. 

Abdomen : variable, sometimes almost entirely black ; with a 
yellow spot on the sides of segment 2 and another on the dorsum 
of 7 at base sometimes on 3 to 6 ; venter black ; appendages black ; 
accessory genitalia, with hamules consisting of mesal hooks, or 
front lobes, the caudal lobes curving completely around and coming 
in contact above the first lobes on the meson. 

Female. — Color similar to male except that there are short 
lateral and dorsal dashes of yellow on abdominal terga 3, 4 and 5. 
The female genitalia consist of small tubercles arising from the 
striated ventral plate of segment 9, and two widely separated lobes 
arising from the caudal margin of 8 ; anal appendages black. 

Measurements : total length, male 30-33, female 29-33 mm. ; 
length abdomen, male 21, female 19-22 mm.; length hind wings, 
male 25, female 23-25 mm. ; width hind wings, male 8, female 
8 mm. 

A rather common species taken in several different localities. 

Connecticut. — Hamden, 17 June, 1904 (H. L. V.) ; New Haven, 4 July, 
1905 (H. L. V.) ; Mount Carmel, 6 June, 1908 (B. H. W.) : Lyme, 16 
June, 1918 (B. H. W.) ; New London, 6-22 June, 1921 (R. H. H.), 27, 30 
May, 1922 (P. G.). Also collected at Litchfield (L. B. W.), various dates. 

New England. — May 17-August 3. 



284 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Leucorrhinia proxima Calvert 

Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 17: 38: 1890. 

Adult, male. — Color black and dark brown. 

Head : face, including labrum, clypeus and front, white ; labium 
black with pale spots on sides ; vertex black. 

Thorax : dark brown with obscure black on shoulders of the 
mesepimera and dorsal border of the metepimera. 

Abdomen: segments 4-10 and anal appendages black; sides of 
terga i and 2, caudal half of the dorsum of 2, and proximal half 
or two-thirds of 3, brown becoming pollinose. 

Female. — Labrum black, with yellow spots on sides ; thorax 
with a broad, dark dorsal band, and obscure irregular black marks 
on the sides ; abdomen with pale mesal spots on base of terga 4-7 
inclusive; vulvar lamina short (about one-seventh as long as 9), 
the tips remote from the small ventral knobs on segment 9. 

Measurements : total length, male 36, female 33 mm. ; length of 
abdomen, male 24-25, female 22 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
26-27, female 24-25 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 8.5, female 
7 mm. 

Specimens in collection of P. P. Calvert examined. One speci- 
men in Yale University collection from Norway, Maine, collected 
by S. I. Smith. 

New England. — June 2-July 24. 

Genus Celithemis Hagen 

Nymphs. — Head : lateral setae 7-10 ; abdomen with dorsal 
hooks on segments 4-7 ; segments 8 and 9 with long straight 
lateral spines ; superior anal appendages not decurved. 

Adults. — Wings with less than ten antenodal cross-veins ; proxi- 
mal and distal ends of stigma parallel, the latter supported by 2-3 
cross-veins ; triangle 3-sided, considerably farther distad in the 
front wings ; vein M„ not sinuate, subtriangle absent ; Cuj arising 
exactly from the caudal angle of the triangle in both wings ; hind 
margin of the prothorax bilobed and with a fringe of long hairs ; 
male abdomen without a hook on ventral surface of i ; transverse 
carinae on abdominal segment 3, and frequently a transverse 
median groove on 2 and 4. The wings are nearly always spotted 
with dark brown and are more or less flavescent. 

Habits of the genus are very similar to other Libellulids. The 
adult, however, is not so swift on the wing as the more common 
Libellulas and is much more easily captured. 

For literature on this genus see — 
Williamson, E. B. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, Uni- 
versity of Michigan No. 108, 1922. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 285 

Key to Species 

Nymphs™ 

I. Dorsal hooks well developed on abdominal segments 4 to 7, longest 
on segment 6 and sharp ; lateral spines of the ninth segment 
reaching the apices of the inferior appendages; lateral setae of 

the labium 8 to 10 eponina 

Dorsal hooks weakly developed on segments 5 to 7, short, but 
pointed lateral spines of the ninth segment not extending beyond 
the tip of the superior terminal appendage; lateral setae 7 elisa 

Adults 
Males and Females 

1. Dark spots only on the bases of the hind wings ; i row of cells 

between Rs and Rs supplement except at margin of wing ..martha 
Dark spots beyond the base of the hind wings and also on the 
front wings ; 2 rows of cells between Rs and R supplement ... 2 

2. Both wings with a cross-band proximad of the stigma which 

entirely crosses the wings -y*" wings entirely suffused with yellow 

PI. XIII, Fig. I eponina 

Wings without a cross-band proximad of the stigma, at most a 
spot between stigma and nodus which does not cross the wing; 
wings usually clear between the dark spots 3 

3. Area between subcosta and R, proximad of the nodus, dark ; dark 

spot between nodus and stigma usually bilobed, sometimes divided 

into two spots monomelaena 

Area between subcosta and R, proximad of the nodus, clear ; dark 
spot between nodus and stigma entire, never divided into two 
spots, PI. XXII, b elisa 

Celithemis elisa (Hagen) 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 182: 1861. 

Adult, male (PI. xxii, b). — Head: labium black on middle, 
lateral lobes brown ; Jabrum, clypeus and front, except the usual 
black line in front of the ocelli, reddish ; vertex dark brown, black 
in front ; occiput and postgenae next to the compound eyes, 
yellowish red. 

Thorax : prothorax uniform black ; dorsal carina much de- 
pressed ; meso- and metathorax brown, with a black velvety stripe 
on the carina and on mesanepisternum on contact with the suture, 
a blotch caudo-dorsad of the spiracle and another near the wing 
base, on the metapleural suture ; venter brown ; wings not wholly 
flavescent, conspicuously spotted, the front wings each with a spot 
about 1.5 mm. across, cephalad of the triangle, another twice as 
large between nodus*^ and stigma, and a still larger one at tip of, 
but not quite covering the apex ; base of the wing yellow and 
cubito-anal, antenodal, and postnodal cross-veins inf uscated ; hind 



^ Needham, Aquatic Insects in the Adirondacks. Bull. N. Y. State Museum, 47: 
514: iqoi. 

*" Sometimes interrupted, forming two spots. 

" Specimens in the collection of Dr. R. H. Howe, Jr., lack the dark spot between 
nodus and stigma entirely. 



286 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

wings with a large semiopaque spot covering the base and anal 
angles, the spot enclosing a clear yellow area ; there is also a spot 
between nodus and stigma and one across band just beyond 
stigma; antenodal and postnodal cross-veins are infuscated; 
stigma reddish ; legs mostly black, the coxae, trochanters, and 
venter of the front femora brown ; claws with ventral tooth, less 
than one-half the length of the claw beyond. 

Abdomen : black and yellow or more frequently red ; terga i 
and 2 black above, red on sides ; 3 entirely red, with small, black 
dorsal, somewhat shield-shaped spot, the caudal margin also black 
on each side of the meson ; dorsum of 4 red, with black dorsal 
spot on cephalic margin and two spots contiguous with the caudal 
margin ; tergum 5 with caudo-lateral angles of dorsum black, 
remainder red ; 6 and 7 with a dorsal triangle of red, the remainder 
black; terga 8, 9 and 10 black; superior anal appendages brown, 
inferior black. 

Female. — Similar to the male, but the reddish color everywhere 
replaced by yellow ; wings with dark spot at tips considerably 
reduced, forming a crossband in the hind wings ; abdomen with 
yellow dorsal triangles on terga 3-7, the sides of 1-4 yellow, a 
smaller dorsal spot on dorsum of two; venter of terga 1-8 pale, 
becoming black ; superior anal appendages yellow above, black 
below and at tips. 

Measurements: total length, male 31-34, female 30 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 18-22, female 19-20 mm. ; length of hind wing, 
male 27-28, female 27 mm. ; width of hind wing, male 10, female 
10 mm. 

A daintily marked species of frequent occurrence in Connecticut. 

Connecticut. — New Haven, 27 June, 1905 (W. E. B.) ; Yalesville, 4 
July, 1907 (B. H. W.) ; Hamden, 18 July, 1920; Easton, 6 July, 1922 
(P. G.) ; Greenwich, 30 June, 1924 (J. L. R.) ; Putnam (Pierce). 

New England. — May 19-August 23. 

Celithemis monomelaena Williamson 

Ohio Naturalist, 10: 155: 1910. 

N)miph. — Unknown. 

Adult, male. — Color black. 

Head : labium pale ; front bluish metallic. 

Thorax : obscurely brown, the wings clear, not flavescent, and 
marked with a black band extending to the nodus and a spot behind 
this ; a spot between nodus and stigma usually divided, but some- 
times fused ; and the tips of the wings also dark. 

Abdomen : black. 

Female. — Marked with yellow ; most of the face pale, a spot 
on the vertex and a pale stripe on the thorax also pale ; small pale 
triangular spots on abdominal segments 2 to 7 and lateral stripes 
on segments 3 to 5 inclusive, the triangles of the dorsum, however, 
not as long as the segments. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 287 

Measurements : total length, male 34, female 30 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 21, female 19 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
26, female 25 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 10, female 9 mm. 

New England. — July 8-August 20. 

Celithemis eponina (Drury) 

Illustrations of Natural History — Exotic Insects, 2: pi. xlvii, f. 2: 1773. 

Nymph. — Head : labium with 9 to 10 lateral setae on the labial 
palpi, the crenulations of the mesal margins with 4 to 5 spines 
each ; antennae with segments 3, 5, and 6 equal in length, 4 and 
7 equal, i and 2 equal, shorter. 

Thorax : hind femora extending to abdominal segment 8 ; wing- 
cases extending to segment 6. 

Abdomen: color pattern somewhat similar to Tetragoneuria 
(see PI. IV, Fig. 4), lateral spines of segment 9 reaching the ends 
of the terminal appendages ; dorsal spines present on segments 
4 to 7. 

Measurements : total length, 16 mm. ; length of abdomen, 9 
mm. ; width of abdomen, 5 mm. ; length of hind femora, 5 mm. 

Specimens in the Museum of Comparative Zoology examined. 

Needham (Bull. 47, N. Y. State Museum, p. 515) gives the 
length of this species as 21 mm., abdomen, 12.5 mm., hind femur, 
6 mm. 

Adult, male. — Color, body black and brown, wings brown and 
yellow. 

Head : labium, labrum, clypeus and front brown or yellow, the 
region immediately in front of the ocelli darker; vertex and 
occiput dark brown, the postgenae, however, with a few small 
spots near the lateral margins of the compound eyes. 

Thorax: uniform brown with obscure dark markings on mid- 
dorsum, and two on pleura. Legs black and dark brown, coxae, 
trochanters, and ventral surface of the femora brown, remainder 
black ; front coxae winged below, the ridge with a fringe of setae ; 
wings wholly flavescent, with dark brown spots (PI. xiii, Fig. i). 

Abdomen : black with an elongated mid-dorsal spot on terga 2 
or 3-7, and sides of 1-4 or 5 yellow; remainder of terga and 
venter black, superior anal appendages brown, inferior black; 
transverse median ridge on tergum 3, and a transverse groove on 
2 and 4. 

Female. — In general, lighter in color, and the nodal brown band 
of the wings more often interrupted and forming two separate 
spots ; vulvar lamina short, broad, one-seventh to one-tenth as 
long as segment 9. 

Measurements : total length, male 36-39, female 36 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 23-24, female 23 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 32, female 30 mm.; width of hind wings, male 11-12, 
female 11- 12 mm. 



288 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [BuU. 

Connecticut. — South Manchester, 3 August, 1896 (W. C. S.) ; Whitney- 
ville, 19 August, 1904 (P. L. B.) ; New Haven, 18 July, 1908 (B. H. W.) ; 
North Haven, 10 August, 1921 (P. G.)) ; Hamden, 6 July, 1922 (J. L. R.). 

New England. — June 21-September 3. 



Celithemis martha Williamson*^ 

Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 
108: 4-6: 1922; PI. I, Figs. I, 2; PI. II, Figs. 7, 8. 

Nymph. — Unknown. 

Adult, male. — Color black, or black and yellow. 

Head : face almost entirely brown ; labrum brown ; occiput and 
postgenae black. 

Thorax and legs black with a bluish tint ; wings clear except a 
large black or brownish spot 4 to 5 mm. in diameter ; the front 
wings, however, sometimes yellow at base, dark spot of the hind 
wings divided more or less completely by a clear yellow band, 
two rows of cells present between M^ and Cu^ at the level of the 
nodus in the front wing ; no nodal or apical spots. 

Abdomen : black, yellow as follows : dorsal spot on tergum 2 
at apex, and also sides of same ; all of tergum 3 except lateral 
margins and a lateral black stripe widened caudad ; spot on dor- 
sum of 4, widened nearly to the margins ; elongate triangular 
spots on 5, 6, and 7 ; segments 8, 9 and 10 black. 

Female. — Pale yellow triangles on abdominal segments 5, 6 
and 7 ; segments i and 2 entirely pale, 3 and 4 largely so except 
an apical ring on 3 and apical ring and lateral triangle on 4 ; spots 
on the bases of the hind wings well divided by the yellow band ; 
first three or four antenodal cross-veins (sometimes only two) in 
front and hind wings infuscated. 

Measurements : total length, male 32-33, female 25-29 mm. ; 
length of abdomen, male 19-20, female 16-18 mm. ; length of hind 
wings, male 26, female 23-24 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 
9, female 8.5 mm. 

Specimens determined by Williamson in the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology have been examined ; also specimens collected at 
Whites Bog, N. J., by the writer. 

New England. — July 2-August 21. 



Tribe Trameini Tillyard 

Nymphs of the Trameini have long lateral spines on the abdom- 
inal segments 8 and 9, and the labium is very large and of 
characteristic form (see PI. iv, Fig. 2) ; the adults possess broad 
wings measuring 15 mm. or usually more at base, and the distal 
and proximal margins of the stigma are not parallel. 



*^ Celithemis ornata of many authors. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 289 

Key to Genera i 

Nymphs 

I. Movable hook of the labial palpi long and slender, setiform ; lateral 
spines of the eighth abdominal segment longer than those on 
segment 9 and extending beyond the caudal margin of that seg- 
ment (PI. TV, Fig. 2) Tramea, p. 289 

Movable hook of the lateral arms hardly longer than the teeth, 
especially the two next the movable hook; spines of the eighth 
abdominal segment not usually extending beyond the caudal 
margin of that segment Pantala, p. 292 

Adults 

I. Abdomen without transverse median carina on segment 5; not 
more than two transverse carinae on segment 3; veins M2 and Rs 
not conspicuously sinuate at middle (PI. xv. Fig. 2) Tramea, p. 289 
Abdomen with transverse median carina on segment 5 ; also three 
prominent transverse carinae on segment 3 ; veins M2 and R 
conspicuously sinuate at middle (PI. xv. Fig. i) ...Pantala, p. 292 



Genus Tramea Hagen 

Nymphs. — Head with lo-ii setae on the palpi; 14-15 mental; 
abdomen without dorsal hooks, the lateral spine on segment 8 
longer than on 9; anal appendages not decurved, the superior 
suddenly contracted beyond the basal third. 

Adults. — Ten or more antenodal cross-veins in the front wing; 
proximal and distal margins of the stigma not parallel, the stigma 
about three times as long as broad and supported by i to 2 cross- 
veins ; Mj not sinuate ; triangle 3-sided, considerably farther dis- 
tad in the front wing ; subtriangle absent ; CUj arising exactly 
from the caudal angle of the triangle in the hind wings ; caudal 
margin of the pronotuin entire ; male abdomen without hooks on 
the venter of the first abdominal segment ; transverse median 
carinae on abdominal terga 2, 3 and 4; general color dark brown 
to black. 

The adults of this genus that I have seen on the wing were 
skimming over the surfaces of small ponds or lakes and were 
exceedingly difficult to capture. No nymphs from Connecticut 
have been seen but there is little doubt that they occur in the 
waters about which adults have been seen. They live in sub- 
merged vegetation. 

Byers, C. F. (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 35 : 73: 1927) has published a key to 
nymphs. 

Key to Species 

Nymphs 

I. Fourth segment of the antennae three-fourths as long as the third 

Carolina 
Fourth segment of the antennae one-half as long as the third, .lacerata 

10 



290 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Adults 
Males and Females 

1. Dark area at the base of the hind wings about 4 mm. wide, not 

extending to the costa or as far distad as the triangle. . abdominalis 
Dark area at the base of the hind wings more than 4 mm. wide 
and extending to the costa and distad to the triangle 2 

2. Superior appendages of the male as long as segment 9 plus 10; 

female with vulvar lamina not quite as long as 9, its apical three- 
fourths divided, forming 2 lobes with apices entire Carolina 

Superior appendages of the male as long as the last three (8, 9 
and 10) segments together; vulvar lamina of the female half 
as long as segment 9, bilobed, the apices of the lobes emarginate 

lacerata 

Tramea abdominalis (Rambur) 

Histoire naturelle des insects. Neuropteres, 2)7 '• 1842. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown. 

Head and thorax : uniform brown, legs darker distad ; wings 
with brown spot only on the anal angles of the hind wings and not 
including a pale streak on the mesal margin (PI. xv, Fig. 2). 

Abdomen : brown with black dorsal triangles on segments 8, 
9 and 10; superior anal appendages 4 mm. long, the inferior 
slightly less than half this. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina as long as segment 9, each plate broad 
and rounded at tip. 

Measurements : total length, male 47, female 46 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 26-28, female 27 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 40, female 40 mm. ; width of hind wings, male and female, 
14-15 mm. 

New England. — August. 

Tramea Carolina Linnaeus 

Amoenitates Academicae, 6: 411: 1763. 

Adult, male. — Color dark brown and black. 

Head : labium with black or brown mentum, and reddish brown 
palpi ; labrum and clypeus brown, front mostly brown or black ; 
vertex broad, apex not concave ; occiput and postgenae brown. 

Thorax : uniform brown, caudal margin of the pronotum entire 
and with few or no hairs ; legs black, the coxae, trochanters, and 
part of the femora brown ; tarsal claws, with teeth much beyond 
the middle ; hind wings with a large brown area at base, covering 
the entire width of the wing for about half the distance between 
base and nodus, and enclosing a small clear spot on the anal 
angle ; median or basilar space also clear in some ; front wings 
with a touch of brown at the extreme base ; anal angle of the hind 
wings much enlarged and with numerous small narrow cells. 

Abdomen : brownish red, terga 8, 9 and sometimes 10 black 
above ; anal appendages brown, as long as terga 9 plus 10, the 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 29I 

superiors about twice as long as the inferior; hamules (Fig. 63, 
No. 14) without lateral lobes, and consisting entirely of hooks 
which are longer than the auricles (genital lobes). 

Female. — Brown area of the hind wings enclosing a somewhat 
larger pale spot on the mesal margin ; vulvar lamina about as long 
as segment 9 and bifid for about two-thirds its length. 

Measurements : total length, male 52, female 45-49 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 27-30, female 27-30 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 41-43, female 43 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 17-18, 
female 16-18 mm.; length of stigma, male and female, 2 mm.; 
superior anal appendage, male 3.5 mm. 

Distinguished from most other Libellulids by the great width 
of the hind wings and the shape of the stigma ; from T. lacerata, 
by the shorter anal appendage of the male, and the longer hamules, 
as well as by the smaller enclosed pale triangle on the proximo- 
anal margin of the wings in both sexes. 

Connecticut. — Branford, 26 May, 1918 (B. H. W.). 
New England. — May 26-September 8. 



Tramea lacerata Hagen 

Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, 145: 1861. 

Nymph (PI. iv, Fig. 2). — Color brown. 

Head : labium very large, the mentum extending between the 
middle pair of coxae, the front margin projecting considerably, 
evenly rounded and with but few spines or setae ; palpi very broad, 
the mesal margins with about 10 rounded teeth with small denticles 
and 3-4 larger spines on each tooth; mental setae 14-15 (Need- 
ham) ; antennae 7-segmented, the fourth segment half as long as 
the third ; dorso-mesal margins of the compound eyes with an 
angle, the angles of the two separated by 1.5 mm. 

Thorax : pronotum forming a plate which extends back over the 
mesothorax nearly to the base of the wing-pads and hides the 
mesothoracic spiracles completely; legs yellow, with indefinite 
brown rings on the femora, the hind femora about 8 mm. long; 
outer wing-pads very broad at base (4.1 mm.), extending to the 
eighth abdominal segment. 

Abdomen: broad, the lateral margins thin and plate-like, the 
lateral keels of 8 and 9 with very long spines (PI. iv, Fig. 2), the 
distance from the tip of the spine to base of the segments bearing 
them being 4.5-5 mm. ; anal appendages nearly equal in length, the 
laterals a trifle shorter than the median, and this in turn a little 
shorter than the ventral. 

Measurements : total length, 24 mm. ; length of hind femora, 
8 mm. ; length of mentum, 6.5 mm. ; width, 5 mm. to 2 mm. at 
base ; length of metathoracic wing-cases, 6 mm. ; greatest width 
of abdomen, 9 mm. 



292 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Described from a nearly full-grown nymph obtained from Dr. 
Calvert, collected at "Phila. Neck, Pa." 

Adult, male. — Color black and brown or yellow. 

Head : uniform dark brown, labium pale ; front above with a 
purple reflection. 

Thorax: dark brown with bluish reflection; dark pigment at 
base of the front wing extending to the first antenodal cross-vein ; 
hind wings with black extending half way to the nodus, the anal 
margins with a pale spot on each, next the abdomen. 

Abdomen: anal appendages long (5 mm.) bent just before the 
middle, the inferior not quite half the length of the superiors. 

Female. — Vulvar lamina with mesal margins sinuate (dried 
specimens), the median notch between the two plates extending to 
the base of the segment. 

Measurements : total length, male 5 1 , female 50 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 30, female 32 mm. ; length of hind wings, male 
42-43, female 45 mm. ; width of hind wings, male 17, female 
18 mm. 

Easily distinguished from Carolina, its closest relative, by the 

dark spot at the base of the fore wings. 

Connecticut. — Wallingford, 6 June, 1923 (P. G.). 
New England. — June 6-September 10. 



Genus Pantala Hagen 

N)niiphs. — Head with 12 to 14 lateral setae on the palpi; 15 
mental ; abdomen without dorsal hooks ; lateral spine on segment 
8 reaching the caudal margin of segment 9. 

Adults. — More than 10 antenodal cross-veins in the front 
wings ; proximal and distal margins of the stigma not parallel ; 
Mn strongly sinuate ; triangle three-sided much further distad in 
the front wing ; subtriangle present ; CUj arising exactly from 
the caudal angle of the triangle in the hind wings. Caudal margin 
of the pronotum entire ; male abdomen without hooks on the 
venter of the first abdominal segment ; transverse carinae on 
terga 2, 3, 4 and 5 ; general color brown and green. 

It is doubtful if more than an occasional representative of this 
genus will ever be found in Connecticut, and so far as known 
there is no evidence that either species listed breeds in the State. 



Key to Species 
Nymphs 

Movable hook or distal segment of the palpi twice as long as the 
crenulations of the distal edge of the proximal segment . . .hymenea 

Movable hook or distal segment of the palpi less than twice as 
long as the crenulations of the proximal segment flavescens 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: LIBELLULIDAE 293 

Adults 

Males and Females 

I. Both sexes with a conspicuous brown spot in the anal angle of 
the hind wings ; stigma of the front wings more than 3 mm. 

long hymenea 

No conspicuous brown spot in the anal angle of the hind wings, 
the color diffused over the width of the wing ; stigma of the 
front wings 2.5 mm. long flavescens 



Pantala flavescens (Fabricius) 

Supplementum Entomologiae Systematicae, 285 : 1798. 

Nymph. — Head large as in Tramea, antennae weak, 2.5 mm. 
long, and composed of 6 segments ; teeth of the mesal margin of 
tlie palpi fully as long as high, movable spine heavy, not setiform, 
scarcely longer than the teeth. 

Thorax : femora slender, ridged, not compressed ; tips of hind 
femora extending to abdominal segment 5, the wing-cases also to 
segment 5. 

Abdomen : smooth, with long lateral spines on segments 8 and 
9, those on 8 about as long as segment 9 ; terminal appendages 
long and slender, the laterals about three-fourths as long as the 
ventrals ; ventral surface of abdomen not greatly depressed along 
the two longitudinal lines in the specimens examined. 

Measurements : total length, 24-26 mm. ; length of abdomen, 
15 mm. ; length of hind femora, 7 mm. ; wing-cases, 6 mm. ; width 
of abdomen, 8 mm. 

Specimens examined in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Adult, male. — Color green or brown and yellow. 

Head: face including labrum, clypeus and front yellow, often 
with a reddish spot at middle ; vertex yellow ; rear of head brown 
and yellow. 

Thorax : green to yellow with white pilosity, brown above ; 
pronotum entire ; coxae pale ; femora pale above, tibiae sometimes 
lined with yellow; wings clear (PI. xv. Fig. i), the anal angle 
chlorinated (clear yellow) ; stigma yellow or brown; tips of wings 
sometimes with a brown spot. 

Abdomen : greenish or yellowish, conspicuous for its transverse 
carinae ; tergum 2 with two carina ; 3 and 4 with three ; 5 with one 
at middle and another at caudal margin ; dorsum of terga 4-8 
inclusive with a faint brown spot, having lateral arms behind the 
middle of each spot ; tergum 9 with a subcircular spot ; dorsum 
of 10 black; sides of terga 2, 3 and 4, with short, bent, sometimes 
interrupted dashes, 5-8 with dark dashes or spots below the lateral 
carinae; anal appendages with superiors yellow at bases, darker 
at tips, with a weak, obtuse ventral angle a little beyond the middle ; 
and with a row of small teeth proximad of the angle. 

Female. — Color similar to the male ; the shoulders of mes- and 



294 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

metepimera black in some ; ventral projection of segment 9 keeled 
below, bluntly rounded at tip. 

Measurements : total length, male 50, female 47 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 27-33, female 30-34 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 36-42, female 40 mm.; width of hind wings, male 13-15, 
female 15 mm. ; length of stigma, 2-2.5 mm. 

This species is typically Southern but occasionally strays north 
into New England. 

Pantala hymenea (Say) 
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 8: 19: 1836. 

Nymph. — Head: mental setae 15 to 16; setae on the proximal 
segment of the palpi 15; antennae with second segment longest; 
rear of the head with three small dark spots near the mid-dorsal 
line. 

Thorax : femora each with two dark rings, the wing-cases mot- 
tled and reaching the middle of the sixth abdominal segment. 

Abdomen : a pair of conspicuous U-shaped spots on the dorsum 
of segment 9 ; minute needle-like dorsal hooks on segments 3 and 
4; terminal appendages slightly longer than the combined length 
of segments 8 to 10. 

Measurements : total length, 28 mm. ; length of abdomen, 18 
mm. ; length of hind femora, 7 mm. 

Description from Kennedy, Canadian Entomologist, 55: 36-38: 
1922. 

Adult, male. — Color olive-green and brown. 

Head : face orange-red except the labium, labrum, ante-clypeus, 
and a small area just in front of the ocelli, which are yellow; 
prominence between the ocelli also yellow. 

Thorax: front and middle femora almost entirely brown, the 
tibiae of the same lined with yellow above ; tarsi of all legs black ; 
wings with a yellowish brown spot in the anal angle of the hind 
wings about 5 to 6 mm. in diameter ; tips of wings faintly clouded. 

Abdomen: brown with darker triangles on the dorsum of seg- 
ments 8 and 9 ; mid-dorsal carina on segments 2 to 6 ; one trans- 
verse carina on tergum 2, three on tergum 3 and 4, two on 5, and 
one each near the caudal margins of terga 6 to 9 inclusive ; supe- 
rior anal appendages brown, the inferior about two-thirds as long 
as the superiors. 

Female. — Similar to the male but lacking the orange color on 
the face ; brown spot of the hind wings slightly smaller than that 
of the male. 

Measurements : total length, male 50, female 50 mm. ; length 
of abdomen, male 29-32, female 30-32 mm. ; length of hind wings, 
male 40-42, female 43-44 mm. ; width of the hind wings, male 
and female, 16 mm. 

An American species of wide distribution recorded from 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 



PART III. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General Works on Odonata 

1916 Baker, F. C. The relation of mollusks to fish in Oneida Lake. 

Technical publication No. 4, New York State College of 
Forestry; Vol. 16. No. 21: 8-366. 

1881 Cabot, Louis. The Immature Stages of the Odonata. Memoirs 
of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 8, L 1-40. 

1893 Calvert, P. P. Catalogue of the Odonata (Dragonfiies) of the 
Vicinity of Philadelphia, with an introduction to the study 
of this group of insects. Transactions of the American Ento- 
mological Society XX; 152, a-271; plates II, III. 

1920 Comstock, J. H. An introduction to Entomology, Ithaca, 1920, 

220 pages. 
1888 Forbes, S. A. On the food relations of fresh-water fishes. 
Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History, 
2: 485. 

1917 Garman, P. The Zygoptera or damsel flies of Illinois. Bulletin 

of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History XII; 412- 

587; Plates LIX-LXXIII. 
1861 Hagen, H. Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Publications 1861 (Odonata, pages 

55-336). 
1917-22 Howe, R. H., Jr. Manual of the Odonata of New England, 

Memoir Thoreau Museum Natural History II; 115 pages, 

many figures, and Plates i-io. Supplement 1921, 14 pages. 

Many valuable illustrated keys for the determination of 

species. 

1921 The distribution of New England Odonata. Proceedings 

of the Boston Society of Natural History, 36: 105-133. 

1913 Kennedy, C. H. Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum, 46, 

1 1 1 - 1 26. 

1915 ^bid.. 49, 259-345. 

1917 Ibid., 52, 483-635- 

1899 Kellicott, D. S. The Odonata of Ohio. Ohio State Academy 

of Science Special Papers No. 2, 114 pages, figures 1-39. 
1890 Lamborn, R. H, Dragonflies vs. Mosquitoes. New York, 202 

pages. 
1917 Munz, P. A. A venational study of the suborder Zygoptera. 

Memoir of the American Entomological Society, 3: 1-78; 

plates I-XX. 
1910 Miittkowski, R. A. Catalogue of the Odonata of North 

America. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Mil- 
waukee 1 : 5-207. 
1901 Needham, J. G. On Aquatic Insects in the Adirondacks. New 

York State Museum Bulletin 47: 429-540: 1901: Plates 10, 17, 

18-25. 
1903 On Aquatic Insects in New York State. New York State 

Museum Bulletin 68: 218-279: Plates 5, 11-19. 
1903a A genealogic study of dragonfly wing venation. Pro- 
ceedings of the United States National Museum, 26: 703-764: 

plates 31-54. 
1917 Tillyard, R. J. The Biology of Dragonflies (Odonata or Para- 

neuropteraj. Cambridge, 396 pages, 4 plates, 188 text figures. 
1912 Walker, E. M. The North American Dragonflies of the Genus 

Aeshna. University of Toronto Studies No. 11, 214 pages, 28 

plates. 



296 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

1925 Walker, E. M. The North American Dragonflies of the Genus 

Somatochlora. University of Toronto Studies No. 26, 202 

pages, 35 plates. 
1917-18 Wilson, C. B. Dragonflies and Damsel Flies in Relation to 

Pond Fish Culture, with a List of those Found near Fairport, 

Iowa. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries, 36: 185-264. 
1899 Williamson, E. B. The Dragonflies of Indiana. 24th Annual 

Report of the Geology and Natural Resources of Indiana, 

233-333- plates 1-7. 
1916 Directions for Collecting and Preserving Specimens of 

Dragonflies for Museum Purposes. University of Michigan 

Miscellaneous Publications No. i: 1-15. 



Papers Giving- the Distribution of Odonata in the United States 

and Canada 

California: Kennedy, C. H. Proceedings of the United States 

National Museum, 52: 483-635: 1917. 
Canada: Walker, E. M. Canadian Entomologist, 38: 149-154: 1906 
(Ontario). 

Ibid., 39: 69-74: 1907, 40: 450-452: 1908 (North America). 

Ibid., 44: 253-266: 1912 (Prairie Provinces). 

Ibid., 49: 96-103: 1917 (Alberta). 

Ibid., 56: 170-176 and 182-189: 1924 (Thunder Bay dis- 
trict, Ontario). 
Williamson, E. B. Ohio Naturalist, 8: 204: 1907. 
Entomological News, 17: 133-139: 1906 (Newfound- 
land). 
Colorado: Williamson, E. B. Entomological News, 24: 372: 1913. 
Connecticut: Britton, W. E. Connecticut State Geological and 

Natural History Survey, Bulletin 31: 33-37: 1920. 
Georgia: Root, F. M. Entomological News, 35: 317: 1924. 
Illinois: Garman, P. (1917). Needham, J. G. and Hart, C. A. 
Bulletin Illinois State Laboratory Natural History, Vol. 
VI: 1901. 
Indiana: Williamson, E. B. University of Michigan Zoological Mis- 
cellaneous Publications No. 2: 1917, 13 pages. 
Montgomery B. Elwood. Proceedings Indiana Academy of 
Sciences, 34: 383-389: 1925. 
Iowa: Elrod, M. J. Entomological News, 9: 7-10: 1898. 

Miller, N. Ibid., 17: 357-361: 1906. See also Wilson (1917-18). 
Kentucky: Garman, H. Entomological News, 35: 285-288: 1924. 
Kentucky and Tennessee: Wilson, C. B. Proceedings United States 
National Museum, 43: 189-200: 1912. 
Williamson, E. B. Entomological News, 34: 6-9 and 37-40: 
1923. 
Louisiana: Montgomery, B. Elwood. Entomological News, 38: 100- 

105: 1927. 
Maine: Wadsworth, M. Entomological News, i: 36-37, 55-57: 1889. 
Harvey, F. L. University of Maine Studies No. 4, 1902; also 
articles in Entomological News, Vols. 2, 3 and g. 
Maryland: Root, F. M. Entomological News, 34: 200-204: 1923. 
Michigan: Holland, W. O. Entomological News, 21: 134-135: 1910. 
Byers, C. Francis. Michigan Academy of Sciences Arts and 
Letters, V: 389-398: 1925. 
Nevada: Kennedy, C. H. Proceedings United States National Mu- . 
seum, 52: 483-635: 1917. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: BIBLIOGRAPHY 297 

New England: (Including- Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island). 
Calvert, P. P. Proceedings Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory. Occasional Papers, 7: 1905. 
Howe, R. H. Manual of the Odonata of New England, 
Memoir of the Thoreau Museum of Natural History, II: 
1-115: 1917-1921; Supplement 1921, pages I-14. Bibliog- 
raphy of works on New England fauna, pages 93-94, 97; 
Supplement page 13. 

Proceedings Boston Society of Natural History, 36- 

105-133- 
Pierson, E. L. A List of Odonata Collected at Concord, 
Mass. Proceedings Thoreau Museum Natural History, i 
p. 41. 

New Jersey: Calvert, P. P. Entomological News, 14: 33-40: 1903. 
Many scattered New Jersey and Pennsylvania records have 
been published by Dr. Calvert in Entomological News. 
Annual Report, New Jersey State Museum, 1909; 73-84 
(1910). 

New York: Needham, J. G. New York State Museum Bulletin 47: 
384-540: 1 90 1. 

Ibid.. Bulletin 68: 200-279: 1903. 

Calvert, P. P. Journal New York Entomological Society 

III: 39-48: 1895, V: 91-95: 1897. 
Davis, Wm, T, Journal New York Entomological Society 
XXI: 11-29: 1913. 

North Carolina: Brimley, C. S. Entomological News, 14: 150-157: 
1903; 15: 100-102: 1904; 17: 91-92: 1906; 19: 134-135: 1908; 
29: 227-299: 1918; 34: 314: 1923. 

Pennsylvania: Williamson, E. B. Entomological News, 13: 65-71, 
108-114: 1902; 15: 277-278: 1904. 

Tennessee: Williamson, E. B. Entomological News, 14: 221-229. 
1903. 

Texas: Williamson, E. B. Entomological News, 25: 411-415: 1915. 

Virginia: Calvert, P. P. Entomological News, i: 22-23: 1890. 

Washington and Oregon: Kennedy, C. H. Proceedings of the 
United States National Museum, 46: 111-126: 1913; 49: 259- 
345: 1915. 

Wisconsin: Miittkowski, R. A. Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural 
History Society (2), 6: 1908. 

Species of Odonata Treated in this Paper 

Zygoptera 

Lestes congener Hagen* Teleallagma daeckii (Calvert) 

dis j unctus Selys* Enallagma aspersum ( Hagen ) * 

eurinusSay* calverti (Alorse)* 

forcipatus Rambur* carunculatum Morse* 

inaequalis Walsh* civile (Hagen)* 

^^ 1 • c * cyathigerum 

rectangulans Say* (Chnrpentier)* 

uncatus Kirby* divagans Selys* 

unguiculatus Hagen* durum Hagen* 

vigilax Hagen* doubledayi Selys 

Argiamoesta (Hagen)* ebrium (Hagen)* 

translata Hagen* exsulans (Hagen)* 

violacea Hagen* geminatum Kellicott* 

* Collected in or reported from Connecticut. 



298 



CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



[Bull. 



Enallagma hageni (Walsh)* 
laterale Morse* 
recurvatum Davis 
signatum(Hagen)* 
traviatum (Hagen)* 
minusculum Morse 
pictum Morse 
vesperum Calvert* 

Nehallenia irene Hagen* 
gracilis Morse 
integricollis Calvert 

Amphiagrion saucium (Burmeister)* 



Chromagrion conditum Hagen* 
Ischnura kellicotti Williamson 
posita (Hagen)* 
ramburii Selys* 
verticalis Say* 
Anomalagrion hastatum Say* 
Agrion aequabile(dimidiatum) 

(Say)= 
amatum (Hagen)* 
apicale (Burmeister) 
maculatum Beauvois* 
Hetaerina americana (Fabricius)* 



Anisoptera 



Tachopteryx thoreyi (Hagen) 
Cordulegaster diastatops (Selys)* 
erroneus Hagen* 
maculatus Selys* 
obliquus (Say)* 
Progomphus obscurus (Rambur) 
Hagenius brevistylus Selys* 
Ophiogomphus anomalus Harvey 
aspersus Morse* 
colubrinus Selys 
howei Bromley 
mainensis Packard* 
rupinsulensis 

(Walsh)* 
Lanthus parvulus (Selys)* 

albistylus (Hagen)* 
Gomphus abbreviatus Hagen* 
adelphus Selys 
amnicola Walsh 
borealis Hagen* 
brevis Hagen* 
crassus Hagen 
descriptus Banks 
exilis Selys* 
externus Hagen 
fraterniis (Say) 
furcifer Hagen* 
graslinelhis Walsh 
Hneatif rons Calvert 
lividus Selys* 
notatus Rambur 
pallidus Selys 
plagiatus Selys 
quadricolor Selys 
scudderi Selys* 
spicatus Hagen* 
spiniceps (Walsh) 
vastus Walsh 
ventricosus Walsh* 
villosipes Selys* 
Dromogomphus spinosus Selys* 

spoliatus (Hagen) 



Boyeria vino-jR (Snv)* 
Basiaeschna Janata TSay)* 
Gomphaeschna furcillata (Say)* 
Anax Junius (Drury)* 

longipes Hagen 
Aeshna canadensis Walker* 
clepsydra Say* 
constricta Say* 
eremita Scudder 
tuberculifera (Walker)* 
umbrosa Walker* 
verticalis Hagen* 
Epiaeschna heros (Fabricius)* 
Nasiaeschna pentacantha (Rambur)* 
Didymops transversa (Say)* 
Macromia illinoiensis Walsh 
taeniolata Rambur 
Epicordulia princeps (Hagen)* 
Neurocordulia obsoleta (Say) 
yamaskanensis 

(Provancher)* 
Helocorduliauhleri (Selys)* 
Tetragoneuria canis (MacLachlan) 

(semiaquaea) 
cynosura (Say)* 
spinigera Selys* 
Dorocordulia lepida (Hagen)* 

libera (Selys)* 
Williamsonia lintneri (Hagen) 
Cordulia shurtleffi Scudder* 
Somatochlora albicincta 

(Burmeister) 
cingulata( Selys) 
elongata van minor 

Calvert* 
filosa (Hagen) 
forcipata (Scudder) 
linearis (Hagen)* 
tenebrosa (Say)* 
walshii (Scudder)* 
williamsoni Walker* 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: SPECIES TREATED 



299 



Libellulaauripennis Burmeister* 
cyanea Fabricius* 
exusta (Say)* 
flavida Rambur, var. of 

cyanea 
incesta Hagen* 
luctuosa Burmeister* 
pulchella Drury* 
quadrimaculata Linnaeus* 
semifasciata Burmeister* 
vibrans Fabricius* 
Plathemis lydia (Drury)* 
Perithemis tenera (Say)* 
Nannothemis bella (Uhler)* 
Erythrodiplax berenice (Drury)* 
Erythemis simplicicollis (Say)* 
Sympetrum ambiguum (Rambur) 

(albifrons) 
assimilatum (Uhler) 
corruptum (Hagen)* 
costiferum (Hagen) 



Sympetrum danae Sulzer (scoticum) 
obtrusum (Hagen)* 
rubicundulum (Say)* 
semicinctum (Say)* 
vicinum (Hagen)* 
Pachydiplax longipennis 

(Burmeister)* 
Leucorrhinia f rigida Hagen 

glacialis Hagen* 
hudsonica (Selys) 
intacta Hagen* 
proxima Calvert* 
Celithemis elisa Hagen* 

eponina Drury* 
monomelaena Williamson 
martha Williamson 
Pantala flavescens (Fabricius) 
Tramea abdominalis (Rambur) 
Carolina (Linnaeus)* 
lacerata Hagen* 



Total 



Statistics 









Species recorded 








from 


Families 


Genera 


Species 


Connecticut 


Coenagrionidae 


9 


42 


34 


Agrionidae 


2 


5 


4 


Petaluridae 


I 


I 




Cordulegasteridae 


I 


4 


4 


Gomphidae 


6 


36 


16 


Aeshnidae 


7 


14 


12 


Libellulidae 


22 


62 


42 



164 



List of Abbreviations of Collectors' Names Occurring Throughout 
the Text After Locality Records 



W. E. B.— W. E. Britton. 

S. W. B.— S. W. Bromley. 

P. L. B.— P. L. Buttrick. 

K. F. C— K. F. Chamberlain. 

J. C. — J. Cronin. 

L B. D.— L B. De. 

G. A. F. — Miss Grace A. Foote. 

P. G. — Philip Garman. 

G. H. H.— George H. Hollister. 

R. H. H.— R. Heber Howe. 

J. A. H.— J. A. Hyslop. 

J. A. M.— J. A. Manter. 

H. B. K.— Harry B. Kirk. 



H. L. — H. Lange. 

Q. S. L.— Q. S. Lowry. 

E. J. S. M.— E. J. S. Moore. 

L. B. P.— Lawrence B. Parker. 

L. B. R.— L. B. Ripley. 

J. L. R.— J. L. Rogers. 

W. C. S.— W. C. Sturgis. 

H. L. v.— H. L. Viereck. 

B. H. W.— B. H. Walden. 

H. W. W.— H. W. Winkley. 

L. B. W.— L. B. Woodruff. 

M. P. Z.— M. P. Zappe. 



300 connecticut geol. and nat. hist. survey [bull. 

Glossary 
A: Anal vein. 
Accessory appendages: Genital appendages on the venter of the 

second abdominal segment. 
Accessory genitalia: Genital appendages on the venter of the second 

abdominal segment. 
Acuminate: Tapering to a long point. 

Anal appendages: Movable appendages at the tip of the abdomen. 
Anal loop: The area including a few to many cells, between the 

branches of the anal vein, or between cubitus and the first 

anal vein. 
Anal membrane: A semiopaque membrane in the hind wing of some 

Odonata beginning at the articulation of the wing and 

extending along the hind margin; also called membranule. 
Anal vein, -s: The sixth to the ninth longitudinal vein located behind 

the cubitus and commonly short or abbreviated in Odonata. 
Anepistemum: The dorsal division of the episternum (supraepi- 

sternum); mesanepisternum: anepisternum of mesothorax; 

metanepisternum: anepisternum of metathorax. 
Annulate: Ringed or marked with colored bands. 
Annuli: Rings. 

Anteclypeus: The lower of two divisions of the clypeus. 
Antenna, -ae: Segmented sensory appendages borne one on each side 

of the head; "feelers." 
Antenodal cross-veins: Cross-veins between C and R, proximad of 

the nodus. 
Anterior lamina: Anterior plate of the accessory genitalia of male 

Aeshnae. 
Approximate: Near or close together. 
Arculus: In Odonata a cross-vein between radius and cubitus from 

which the median vein apparently arises. 
Auricles: Ear-like protuberances on the second abdominal segment. 

Basal lobes: Small plates at the base of the ovipositor. 

Basilar space: A cell at the base of the wing bounded by radius, 

cubitus, arculus, and the base of the wing; also median space. 
Bifid: Divided into two parts; split. 

Bifurcate: Divided not over half its length into two parts; forked. 
Bisinuate: With two sinuations or curves. 
Boreal: Belonging to the faunal region extending from the polar sea 

southward to near the northern boundary of the United 

States, and further south in the Rockies. 
Bridge: Wing vein connecting radial sector with media. 

C: Costa. 

Carina: Ridge. 

Carinate: Ridged. 

Caudad: Towards the rear. 

Cephalad: Towards the head. 

Cephalo-mesal: Towards the head and at the same time towards the 
meson. 

Cercus, -i: Lateral cylindrical appendages at the tip of the abdomen. 

Chitin: Substance forming the external skeleton of insects. 

Chlorinated: Transparent yellow. 

Claws: Hooks at the tips of the legs; commonly tarsal claws. 

Clypeus: A head sclerite below the front and above the labrum. 

Compound eyes: Large eyes on the lateral surface of the head, com- 
posed of many smaller divisions. 

Confluent: Running together; said of two spots that coalesce. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GLOSSARY 301 

Contiguous: So near together as to touch. 

Costa: The vein forming the front margin of the wing; first longi- 
tudinal vein. 

Coxa, -ae: The segment of the leg next the body; pro- front; meso- 
middle; meta- hind coxae. 

Coxal process: A point on the pleura about which the coxa rotates 
in its socket and which marks the ventral terminus of the 
pleural sutures. 

Crenulate: With small scallops, evenly rounded and rather deeply 
curved. 

Crepuscular: Active or flying at dusk. 

Cui, Cua: Branches of cubitus. 

Cubito-anal cross-veins: Veins connecting cubitus and first anal veins. 

Cubitus: The fifth longitudinal vein; the vein just behind the media. 

Cuneiform: Wedge-shaped. 

Declivous: Sloping downwards. 

Denticulate: Provided with small teeth. 

Dimorphic: Differently colored in the two sexes. 

Distad: Towards the outer end of an appendage; away from the 

body; opposed to proximad. 
Distal: Of or belonging to portions of appendages farthest from the 

body. 
Divaricate: Spreading apart. 
Dorsad: Towards the dorsum or back. 
Dorsal: Of or belonging to the upper surface. 
Dorsal punctures: Punctures or spots on the dorsum. 
Dorso-meson: Intersection of the meson with the dorsal surface of 

the body. 
Dorsum: The upper surface of the body, or segment of the body. 

Emarginate: Notched; with an obtuse, rounded, or quadrate section 

cut from margin. 
Epicranial suture: A Y-shaped suture on the dorsum of the head. 
Epimerum -a: The caudo-ventral plate of the pleurum in Odonata; 

same as epimeron. 
Episternum -a: The anterior or cephalic divisions of the pleura. 
Exuviae: Skin cast ofif at molting; usually applied to the final skin 

cast before the adult emerges. This word is always plural 

in form, being similar to the English word "clothes." 

Face: The front of the head below the antennae. 

Falciform: Sickle-shaped. 

Femoral setae: Setae on the femora. 

Femur, -ora: The fourth leg segment in Odonata, considering the 

trochanters as two-segmented. 
Flavescent: Slightly smoky. 

Forcipate: Bearing forceps or similar shaped structures. 
Front: That portion of the head between the compound eyes, from 

ocelli to clypeus. 
Frontal vesicle: In Aeshnidae and others, a swelling between the 

compound eyes, bearing the ocelli. 
Fuscous: Dark brown approaching black. 

Gena, -ae: The cheeks; sides of the face below the compound eyes. 
Gills, tracheal: Plates at the tip of the abdomen in the nymphs of 
Zygoptera which contain tracheae and are used for breathing. 
Glabrous: Smooth, free from all vestiture; lacking setae or spines. 
Gonapophysis, -es: The leaf-like processes of the ovipositor. 



302 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Hamular process: A fork of the hamule. 

Hamules: Usually forked appendages of the second segment of the 

male; posterior lamina. 
Humeral: Relating to the shoulder. 

Inferiors: The lower anal appendages. 

Infraepisternum: The lower division of the episternum; katepi- 

sternum. 
Infuscated: Smoky gray-brown; sepia. 
Instar: The period or stage between molts. 
Internal triangle: Triangular wing cell behind and proximad of the 

triangle. 
Interpleural suture: Suture between meso- and metapleura. 
Intersternum: A large sclerite on the sternum of the thorax just in 

front of the abdomen. 
Invagination: A pouch or sac formed by the infolding or indrawing 

of the outer surface. 

Katepisternum: The lower division of the episternum; the infraepi- 
sternum. 

Labial palpus, -i: Paired, jointed appendages of the labium. 

Labium: A hinged appendage folded beneath the head. 

Labrum: The ventral flap attached to the clypeus on the front of the 

head. 
Lanceolate: Lance- or spear-shaped; oblong and tapering to the end. 
Laterad: Towards the side, away from the meson. 
Lateral keel: Ridges on the sides of the abdomen. 
Lateral spines: Spines at the caudal end of the lateral keel. 
Lateral setae: Setae of the proximal segment of the labial palpi. 

M: Media. 

Ml, M4: Branches of media. 

Mandible: The lateral upper jaws of a biting insect. 

Media: The fourth longitudinal vein in the wing. 

Median cleft of labium: A notch or cleft in the mentum of the 

labium. 
Median lobe of labium: Same as mentum. 
Median space: Same as basilar space of the wings. 
Mental setae: Setae on the inner surface of the mentum. 
Mentum: The central sclerite of the labium, second from the head. 
Mesad: Towards the meson. 
Mesepimera: Epimera of the mesothorax. 
Mesepisterna: Episterna of the mesothorax. 
Mesocoxae: Coxae of the mesothorax. 
Meson: An imaginary vertical longitudinal plane passed through 

center of the body of an insect. 
Mesopleural suture: Suture separating episternum and epimerum of 

the pleura. 
Mesosternum: Sternum of the mesothorax. 
Mesostigmal plates: Small sclerites surrounding the mesothoracic 

spiracle; in this article, the term refers to the caudal plate 

alone. 
Mesothorax: The middle division of the thorax, bearing the second 

pair of legs. 
Metacoxae: The coxae of the middle pair of legs. 
Metallic: Shining; opposed to dull. 
Metapleural suture: Suture separating episternum and epimerum of 

the metathorax. 
Metathoracic spiracle: Spiracle of the metathorax. 
Metathorax: The third or hindmost segment of the thorax. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: GLOSSARY 303 

Metepimera: Epimera of the metathorax. 

Microthorax: A minute division at the cephalic end of the thorax. 

Nodus: A slight indentation in the front margin of the Odonate 

wing, supported by a heavy cross-vein. 
Notum: The dorsal or upper part of a segment, usually applied to 

the thorax. 

Occipital foramen: The opening through vidiich the vital organs pass 

from the thorax to the head. 
Occipital horn: Chitinous horns just below^ the occipital ridge on 

each side of the head. 
Occipital ridge: A ridge extending betw^een the compound eyes on 

the caudo-dorsal angle of the head. 
Occipital spine: Spine on the caudo-dorsal surface of the head 

between the compound eyes. 
Occiput: Region of the head between the compound eyes and behind 

the transverse suture in Anisoptera. 
Ocellar ridge: A ridge just behind the ocelli. 
Ocellar stripe: A pale stripe on the dorsum of the head behind the 

ocelli. 
Ocellus, -i: Simple eyes, of which there are three on the dorsum of 

the head of adult Odonata. 
Ochraceous: Yellow with a slight tinge of brown. 
Ovate: Egg-shaped. 
Ovipositor: The tubular or valve-like structure by which the eggs 

are placed. 

Palpus, -i: Jointed appendages attached to labium. 

Paraptera: Small plates at the bases of the front wings. 

Pile: Very fine hair-like setae; velvety in appearance. 

Pilose: With pile. 

Pleura: The lateral sclerites between the dorsum and sternum of a 

segment. 
Pollinose: Covered with a pollen-like dust. 

Postclypeus: In Odonata the proximal division of the clypeus. 
Postcoxal areas: Areas on the venter of the thorax behind the meta- 

coxae. 
Posterior: Hind or hindmost; opposed to anterior. 
Postgenae: Sclerites on the rear of the head on either side of the 

occipital foramen. 
Postnodal cross-veins: Cross-veins between C and R and between 

nodus and stigma. 
Postocular spots: Pale spots on the dorsum of the head in Zygoptera 

beliiiid and usually laterad of the ocelli. 
Precoxal: Before or in front of the coxae. 
Preocellar band: A dark pigment stripe immediately in front of the 

ocelli. 
Prescutum: Front division of the scutum. 
Proepimerum: Caudal plate in the pleura of the prothorax. 
Proepisternum: Cephalic plates in the pleura of the prothorax. 
Pronotum: Dorsal shield of the prothorax. 
Propleura: Pleura of the prothorax. 

Prothorax: That division of the thorax bearing the first pair of legs. 
Proximad: Extending towards the body. 
Proximal: Situated near the body; opposite of distal. 
Pruinose: Hoary: as if covered with a fine frost or dust. 
Pterostigma: A dark opaque spot on the front margin of the wing 

near its tip; same as stigma. 
Punctae: Small spots on the dorsum of Aeshna nymphs. 



304 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY [Bull. 

Quadrangle: A cell in the wing of Zygoptera bounded by Mt, Cu, 
Arculus, and a cross-vein between M4 and Cui (similar in 
position to the triangle in Anisoptera). 

R: Radius. 

Ri: First branch of radius. 

Radial sector: A branch of radius which crosses media; supposed to 

combine several branches of radius. 
Radius: The third longitudinal vein of the wings. 
Rugose: Wrinkled: with irregular, waved, elevated lines. 
Rs: Radial sector. 

Sc: subcosta. 

Sclerite: A body plate. 

Serrate: Saw-toothed; the teeth set toward one end. 

Seta, -ae: A pointed movable bristle or stiff hair. 

Setiform: Resembling a seta. 

Setigerous: Bearing setae. 

Setose: Bearing setae. 

Sigmoid: S-shaped. 

Spatulate: Rounded and broad at top or end, attenuate at base. 

Spine: A heavy immovable bristle. 

Spinigerous: Provided with spines. 

Spinule: A small spine. 

Spinulose: Provided with small spines. 

Spiracle: A breathing pore or external opening of the air tube or 
trachea. 

Spurious: False or accidental. 

Sternites: Sclerites of the sternum. 

Sternum, -a: Ventral plates of a body segment. 

Stigma: Same as pterostigma. 

Striated: Marked with parallel, fine impressed lines. 

Stylus, -i: A small rod-shaped projection at the tips of the lateral 
gonapophysis of the ovipositor; in the male nymph, short 
acute processes on ventral surface of segment 9. 

Sub: A prefix frequently meaning almost; used in such words as ■ 

subcircular; subtriangular. 
Subcosta: The second longitudinal vein of the wing. 
Subcostal cross-vein: A single cross-vein between subcosta and 
radius next the body or proximad of all other antenodal 
cross-veins; present in Progomphus (PI. x, Fig. i). 
Submentum: The segment of the labium next the head. 
Subtriangle: The cell in the wing behind the triangle. 
Sulcate: Grooved or furrowed. 
Superiors: Dorsal anal appendages. 

Supertriangle: The wing cell just in front of the triangle. 
Supplementary radius and media: Extra longitudinal veins in the 

wings between M3 and M*, and M4 and Cui. 
Supraepistemum: Same as anepisternum. 
Suture: A depressed line between two sclerites. 

Tarsus, -i: The last two or three short segments of the leg of an 

insect, forming the foot. 
Tenerals: Individuals not having their full coloration. 
Terete: Cylindric or nearly so. 

Tergite: Applied to tergum when occupied by a single sclerite. 
Tergum, -a: Dorsal surface of any body segment; refers mainly to 

abdominal segments here. 
Tibia, -ae: The fifth segment of the leg or second long segment in 

dragonflies, bearing the tarsus at the distal end and attached 

to the femur at the proximal end. 



No. 39] ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT : GLOSSARY 305 

Tibial setae: Setae on the tibiae. 

Triangle: A triangular cell in the wing base formed by cubitus and 
two converging cross-veins between M* and Cui. 

Trochanters: The second and third segments of the leg in dragon- 
flies; usually short and closely united. 

Trochantins: Small sclerites at the base of an appendage. 

Truncate: Cut off squarely at tip. 

Venter: The lower surface of the whole body or of a division of the 
body. 

Ventro- meson : Intersection of the meson with the ventral surface. 

Vertex: An indefinite area on the dorsum of the head, next the front 
and between the compound eyes. 

Vitta: A longitudinal colored line or stripe. 

Vulvar lamina: Reduced gonapophyses of the female usually con- 
sisting of two small plates, one on each side of the vaginal 
opening. 

Vulvar spine: Spine on venter of abdomen immediately in front of 
the ovipositor or vulvar lamina. 

Wing-cases: Envelopes enclosing the wings in the nymphs of 
dragonflies. 



Acknowledgments 

Many persons have aided materially in the preparation of the 
manuscript, and I w^ish to express here my grateful appreciation of 
their assistance. I am especially indebted to Drs. W. E. Britton, 
P. P. Calvert, R. H. Howe, and Mr. William T. Davis; and to 
my co-workers, Messrs. B. H. Walden and M. P. Zappe. Thanks 
are also due to Dr. H. Garman, Mr, C. W. Johnson and Messrs. 
C. S. Brimley, S. W. Bromley and Professor J. A, Manter for 
supplying material for study. To Mr. Nathan Banks and Mr. 
C. W. Johnson, I also wish to express my thanks for the privilege 
of examining the dragonflies in the Cambridge Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology and the Boston Society of Natural History, and 
to Dr. Lutz and Mr. Mutchler for permission to examine speci- 
mens in the American Museum of Natural History. Specimens 
in the U. S. National Museum and in the Yale collection of insects 
have also been examined through the kindness of Mr. S. A. 
Rohwer and Professor W. R. Coe, and fossil dragonflies in the 
Yale Peabody Museum have been examined through the courtesy 
of Professor Charles Schuchert. Dragonflies in the Philadelphia 
Academy of Sciences were made accessible by the late Dr. Skinner, 
and all Odonata mentioned as belonging to the collection of Dr. 
Calvert are deposited in that museum. 



3o6 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



PLATE I 

Tracheal gills of Zygoptera nymphs 

There are normally 3 gills attached to the abdomen but for 
convenience only one or two are shown in most of the figures. 

1. Lestes unguiculatus 

2. Lestes vigilax 

3. Lestes congener 

4. Lestes euriniis 

5. Lestes disjunctus 

6. Lestes uncatus 

7. Enallagma geminatum 

8. Enallagma chrium 

9. Enallagma Jiageni 

10. Enallagma calverti 

11. Enallagma durum 

12. Enallagma donhledayi 

All greatly enlarged. Fig. 8 by B. H. Walden. 



PLATE I 








10 




PLATE II 




ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 307 



PLATE II 

Tracheal gills of Zygoptera 

1. Ischnura verticalis 

2. Chromagrion conditum 

3. Enallagma carunculatum 

4. Enallagma traviatum 

5. Enallagma signatum 

6. Ischnura posita 

7. Anomalagrion hastatum 

8. Enallagma civile 

9. Enallagma exsulans 
10. Enallagma vesperum 

All greatly enlarged. 



3o8 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



PLATE III 

Nymphs and exuviae of Anisoptera 

1. Aeshna umbrosa 

2. Nasiaeschna pentacantha 

3. Basiaeschna Janata 

4. Boyeria vinosa 

5. Anax Junius 

6. Dromogomphus spinosus 

7. Gomphus exilis 

8. Hageniiis hrevistylns 

9. Lanthus albistylus 

Nos. 5 and 8 natural size ; 3,4 and 9 twice enlarged ; others 
slightly enlarged. 



PLATE III 




PLATE IV 




ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 3°9 



PLATE IV 

Nymphs and exuviae of Anisoptera 

1. Erythemis simplicicollis 

2. Tramea lac er at a 

3. Perithemis domitia 

4. Tctragoneuria cynosura 

5. Didymops transversa 

6. Neurocordulia ohsoleta 

7. Plathemis lydia 

8. Epicordulia princeps 
All somewhat enlarged. 



3IO CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 

PLATE V 

Labia of nymphs 

1. Gomphus graslinellus 

2. Gomphus fraternus 

3. Gomphus plagiatus 

4. Ophio gomphus mainensis 

5. Lanthus albistylus 

6. Gomphus pallidus 

7. Progomphus ohscurus 

8. Gomphus villosipes 

9. Dromogomphus spinosus 
ID. Gomphus hrevis 

11. Ophiogomphus colubrinus 

12. Gomphus notatus 

13. Gomphus vastus 

14. Gomphus spiniceps 

15. Gomphus spicatus 

16. Gomphus lividus 

17. Gomphus amnicola 

18. Gomphus scudderi 

19. Hagenius brevistylus 
All greatly enlarged. 



PLATE V 




V..S 



y %Jf^ 




PLATE VI 





8 




^•^ 



ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 3H 



PLATE VI 

Labia of nymphs 

1. Basiaeschna Janata 

2. Epiacschna heros 

3. Aeshna ereinita 

4. Aeshna canadensis 

5. Aeshna umbrosa 

6. Boyeria grafiana 

7. Anax Junius 

8. Boyeria vinosa 

9. Aeshna tuherculifera 
All greatly enlarged. 



312 CONNECTICUT GEOL, AND NAT. HIST, SURVEY 



PLATE VII 

Labia of nymphs 

1. Lihellula pulchella 

2. Erythrodiplax herenice 

3. Tetragoneuria cynosura 

4. Sympetrum vicimim 

5. Lihellula exusta 

6. Leucorrhinia intacta 
All greatly enlarged. 



PLATE VII 




PLATE VIII 




ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 313 



PLATE VIII 

Wings of Anisoptera 

1. Boyeria vinosa 

2. Cordulegaster maculatus 

3. Nasiaeschna pentacantha 

4. Basiaeschna Janata 

No. 4 about twice natural size ; others slightly enlarged. 



314 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



PLATE IX 

Wing's of Anisoptera 

1. AesJina sp. 

2. Anax Junius 

3. Gomphus sp. 

4. Hagenius hrcvistylus (male) 

No. 3 about twice natural size ; others slightly enlarged. 



PLATE IX 




PLATE X 




%. 


\ k 




1 


: 











ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 315 



PLATE X 

Wings of Anisoptcra 

1. ProgompJms obscurus 

2. Ophiogomphus rupinsulensis 

3. Dorocordulia libera 

4. Ncurocordulia obsolcta 
About twice natural size. 



31 6 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



PLATE XI 

Wings of Anisoptera 

1. Macromia illinoiensis 

2. Cordulia shurtleffi 

No. I, twice; No. 2 three times enlarged. Black marks appear- 
ing at base of No. 2 are not part of the wings proper. 



PLATE XI 




PLATE XII 




ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 3^7 



PLATE XII 

Wings of Anisoptera 

1. Tetragoneuria cynosura 

2. Nannothemis bella 

3. Gomphaeschna furcillata, female 

4. Helocordulia iihleri 

All about twice enlarged. 



3l8 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



PLATE XIII 

Wings of Anisoptera 
I. Celithcmis eponina 
3. Erythrodiplax herenice 
2, 4. Perithemis domitia, female and male 
No. I twice natural size ; others two and one-half times enlarged. 



PLATE XIII 




PLATE XIV 




ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 319 



PLATE XIV 

Wings of Anisoptera 

1. Pachydiplax longipennis 

2. Epicordulia princeps 

3. Sympetrum rubicundulum 

4. Somatochlora linearis 

Nos. I and 3 twice enlarged ; 2 and 4 slightly enlarged. 



320 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



PLATE XV 

Wings of Anisoptera 

1. Pantala flavescens 

2. Tramea abdominalis 

3. Libellula cyanea 

4. Lencorrhinia infacta 

No. 4 about twice natural size ; others slightly enlarged. 



PLx\TE XV 




PLATE XVI 





ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 32 1 



PLATE XVI 

Wings of Anisoptera 

1. Williamsonia I'mtncri 

2. Tachopteryx thorcyi 
About twice enlarged. 



32 2 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



PLATE XVII 

Adults of Agrionidae 

a. Agrion maculatum 

b. Hetaerina americana 

c. Enallagma civile 

a and b slightly reduced ; c natural size. 



PLATE XVII 






PLATE XVIII 




r 


^ '■ 



ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 323 



PLATE XVIII 

Adults of Acschnidae 

a. Nasiacschna pcntacantha 

b. Acshna iimhrosa 

Slightly reduced. 



324 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



PLATE XIX 

Adults of Gomphidae and Cordidinac 

a. Gomphus spicatiis 

b. Tetragonenria cynosura 
Enlarsred one and one-half times. 



PLATE XTX 





PLATE XX 





ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 325 



PLATE XX 

Adults of Lihellulidae 

a. Libellula exusta var. jidia 

b. Erythemis simplicicollis 

Slightly enlarged. 



326 CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



PLATE XXI 

Libellula and Plathemis adults 

1. Plathemis lydia, male 

2. Libellula vibrans, var. incesta 

3. Libellula- lucfitosa 

4. Libellula qitadrimaculafa 

5. Libellula auripennis 

6. Libellula cyanea 
y. Libellula pulchella 

8. Libellula vibrans, var. vibrans 

9. Libellula semifasciata 
About one-half natural size. 



PLATE XXI 




PLATE XXII 





PLATE XXI 




PLATE XXII 





ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT 327 



PLATE XXII 

a. Sympetrum semicinctum 

b. Celithemis elisa 

Nearly twice natural size. 



INDEX 



abbreviatus, 141, 143, 144, 145, 149 

abditus, 142 

abdominalis, 290 

adelphus, 142 

aequabile, 109 

Aeshna, 171, 179 

Aeshnidae, 115, 116, 169 

Agrion, 108 

Agrionidae, 35, 108 

albicincta, 216, 217, 219, 231 

albistylus, 139, 142, 143, 145 

alpestris group, 231 

amatum, 109, 11 1 

ambiguum, 2i69, 270 

americana, 113, 114 

amnicola, 142, 143, 144, 147, 160 

Amphiagrion, 36, Z7, 48 

Anax, 171, 177 

Anisoptera, 35, 115 

Anomalagrion, 2)7, 38 

anomalus, 130, 131, 133 

antilope, 177 

apicalis, 87, 93 

arctica group, 228 

Argia, 36, 2,7, 85 

aspersum, 14, 55, 58, 59, 61, 84 

aspersus, 130, 132 

auripennis, 241, 243 

basalis, 248 
Basiaeschna, 171, 174 
bella, 260 
berenice, 262 
bipunctulata, 87, 88 
borealis (Gomphus), 141, 147, 157 
borealis (Leucorrhinia), 280 
Boyeria, 171, 172 
Brachydipladni, 199, 200, 259 
brevis, 141, 143, 144, 145, 149 
brevis-abbreviatus group, 149 
brevistylus, 128 

caeruHa group, 183 
caerulia septentrionalis, 183 
Calopteryx, 109 
calverti, 55, S7, 58, 61, 65 
canadensis, 181, 182, 183 
canis, 210, 213 
carlotta, 50 
Carolina, 289, 290 
carolus, 130, 131, 132, 134 



carunculatum, 55, 57, 58, 61, 67 
Celithemis, 261, 262, 284 
Chromagrion, 36, Z7, 46 
cingulata, 216, 217, 219, 233 
civile, 55, 57, 58, 61, 68 
civile-carunculatum group, 65 
clepsydra, 181, 182, 184 
clepsydra group, 183 
Coenagrionidae, 35 
Coenagrioninae, zd 
colubrinus, 130, 133 
conditum, 46 
congener, 94, 95, 97 
constricta, 181, 182, 189 
Cordulegaster, 118 
Cordulegasteridae, 115, 116, 118 
Cordulia, 206, 214 
Cordulinae, 199, 201 
corruptum, 267, 269, 270 
costiferum, 269, 270, 271 
crassus, 142, 143, 145, 147, 162 
crassus-fraternus group, 162 
cyanea 243, 244, 246 
cyanea group, 189 
cyathigerum, 55, 57, 58, 61. 70 
cynosura, 210, 212 
cynosura cynosura, 212 
cynosura simulans, 213 

daeckii, 53 

danae, 269, 270, 271 

descriptus, 141, 143, 144, 147, 151 

diastatops, 119 

Didymops, 201, 202 

dilatatus, 142 

dimidiatum apicale, 109, iii 

disjunctus, 93, 95, 97, q8 

divagans, 55, 59, 61, 79 

domitia, 258 

Dorocordulia, 206, 237 

doubledayi, 55, 57, 58, 61, 71 

Dromogomphus, 125, 167 

durum, 55, 57, 59, 83 

ebrium, SS. 57, 58, 59, 7i 
elisa, 285 

elongata, 217, 219, 220 
Enallagma, 37 38, 54 
Epiaeschna, 171, 195 
Epicordulia, 206, 207 
eponina, 285, 287 



33° 



CONNECTICUT GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURVEY 



[Bull. 



eremita, i8i, 182, 186 

Erpetogomphus, 125 
erroneus, 119, 121 
Erythemis, 261, 262, 264 
Erythrodiplax, 261, 262 
Eucorduliini, 199, 200, 206 
eurinus, 95, 99 
exilis, 141, 143, 144, 147, 153 
exilis-descriptus group, 151 
exsulans, 55, 57, 59, 61, 80 
exsulans-traviatum group, 79 
externus, 142, 145, 147 
exusta, 243, 246 
exusta deplanata, 247 
exusta exusta, 247 
exusta Julia, 246 

filosa, 217, 219, 228 

filosa group, 228 

flavescens, 292, 293 

flavida, 243, 246 

forcipata. 216, 217, 219, 220, 228 

forcipatus, 93, 95, 97, 100 

franklini, 217, 219, 220, 230 

fraternus, 142, 143, 145, 147, 163 

frigida, 279, 280 

fumipennis, 87, 93 

furcifer, 141, 143, 144, 147, 158 

furcillata, 176 

geminatum, 55, 57, 59, -72, 
glacialis, 280, 281 
Gomphaeschna, 171, 176 
Gomphidae, 115, 116, 124 
Gomphoides, 125 
Gomphus, I2.'5, 141, 142 
gracilis, 50, 51 
grafiana, 172 
graslinellus, 142, 143, 145, 149, 164 

hageni, 55. 57, 58, 59, 75 

hageni-ebrium group, 71 

Hagenius, 125, 127 

hastatum, 39 

Helocorduiia, 206, 207, 208 

heros, 196 

Hetaerina, 108, 113 

howei, 130, 132, 135 

hudsonica (Leucorrhinia), 280, 282 

hudsonica (Somatochlora), 217 

hymenea, 292, 293, 294 

illinoiensis, 204 
illotum, 269 
inaequalis, 93, 95, 102 
incurvata, 219, 220 
intacta, 279. 280, 282 
integricollis, 50 
interrupta, 181, 182 



interrupta interrupta, 187 
irene, 50, 51 
Ischnura, Z7, 39, 40 

Janata, 174 
johannus, 134, 137 
juncea, 181, 182, 183 
juncea group, 183 
Junius, 177, 178 

kellicotti, 41 

kennedyi, 217, 219, 220, 230 

lacerata, 289, 290, 291 

Lanthus, 125, 138, 142 

laterale, 55, 58, 76 

lepida, 237, 238 

Lestes, 94 

Lestinae, 36, 93 

Leucorrhinia, 261, 262, 278 

Libellula, 240, 241 

Libellulidae, 115, 116, 198 

Libellulinae, 199, 240 

Libellulini, 199, 200, 240 

libera, ^yj, 238 

linearis, 216, 217, 220, 225 

linearis group, 225 

lineatifrons, 142, 145 

lintneri, 236, 22,7 

lividus. 141, 143, 144, 149, 154 

longipennis, 277 

longipes, 177, 179 

luctuosa, 243, 248 

lydia, 250, 255 

Macromia. 201, 204 
Macromiini, 199, 200, 201 
maculatum, 109, 112 
maculatus, 119, 122 
mainensis, 130, 131, 134, 137 
martha, 285, 288 
metallica group, 220 
Micrathyria, 263 
minor, 217, 219, 220, 222 
minusculum, 55, 58, 61, yj 
moesta, 86, 87, 89 
momomelaena, 285, 286 
morio, 210 

multicolor group, 192 
mutata, 182, 192 

Nannothemis, 259 
Nasiaeschna, 169, 171, 193 
Nehallenia, 37, 49 
Neurocordulia, 206, 234 
notatus, 142, 143, 144, 147, 161 

obliquus, 119, 123 
obscurus, 126 



No. 39] 



ODONATA OF CONNECTICUT: INDEX 



331 



obsoleta, 234 
obtrusum, 269, 270, 275 
obtrusum obtrusum, 275 
Ophiogomphus, 125, 129 
omata, 288 

Pachydiplax, 261, 262, 277 

pallidus, 141, 143, 144, 147. 158 

pallipes, 269 

Palpopleurini, 199, 200, 257 

Pantala, 289, 292 

parvulus, 140, 142, 143, 145 

pentacantha, 194 

Perithemis, 257 

Petaluridae, US, 116 

pictum. 5.=;, 58, 59, 61 

plagiatus, 142, 143, 144, 14s, 166 

plagiatus-spiniceps group, 166 

Plathemis, 240, 241, 254 

plumbea, 246 

pollutum, 64 

posita, 39, 41 

princeps, 207 

Progomphus, 125 

provocans, 219, 228 

proxima, 279, 280, 284 

pulchella, 243, 249 

quadricolor, 142 
quadrimaculata, 243, 251 

ramburii. 41, 43 
rectangularis, 95, 97, 103 
recurvatum, 55, 58, 78 
rubicundulum, 269, 270, 272 
rubicundulum assimilatum. 273 
rubicundulum decisum, 269, 273 
rupinsulensis, 130, 132, 138 

saucium, 48 

sayi, 119 

scoticum, 271 

scudderi, 142, I43, 144. 147. 161 

scudderi-amnicola group, 160 

sedula, 87 

semiaquaea, 210 

semicinctum, 267. 269, 270, 274 

semifasciata, 243, 252 

shurtleffi, 214 

signatum. S5, 57. 58, 59. 61, 62 

simplicicollis, 264 

Somatochlora, 206, 215 

spicatus, 141. 143. 144. 147, 156 



spiniceps, 142, 144. I4S. 166 
spinigera, 210 
spinosus, 167, 168 
spoliatus, 167, 169 
Sympetrini, 199, 200, 261 
Sympetrum, 261, 262. 266 

Tachopteryx, 116 

taeniolata, 204 

Telagrion, 53 

Teleallagma, 2,7, 53 

tenebrosa, 216, 217, 220, 225, 227 

tenebrosa group, 227 

Tetragoneuria, 206, 207, 209 

thoreyi, 1 16 

tibialis, 87, 93 

titia, 113 

Tramea, 116, 289 

Trameini, 199, 200, 288 

translata, 86, 87, 90 

transversa, 202 

traviatum, 55, 57, 58, 59, 81 

tuberculifera, 180, 181, 182, 187 

uhleri, 208 

umbrosa, 181, 182, 191 
uncatus, 93, 94, 95, 104 
unguiculatus, 94, 95, 97, 105 

vastus, 142, 143, 145, 147, 165 
ventricosus, 142, 145, 147, 166 
verticalis (Aeshna), 182, 188 
verticalis (Ischnura), 41, 44 
vesperum, 55, 57, 58, 59, 64 
vesperum-signatum group, 61 
vibrans axillena, 254 
vibrans incesta, 243, 254 
vibrans vibrans, 243, 253 
vicinum, 269, 270, 275 
vigilax, 93, 94. 95, 107 
villosipes, 141, 143, 144, 147, 159 
villosipes-pallidus group, 157 
vinosa, 172 
violacea, 86, 87, 91 

walshii, 217, 220, 223 
williamsoni, 216, 219, 220, 224 
Williamsonia, 206, 236 

yamaskanensis, 234, 236 

Zygoptera, 35 



BULLETINS 

OF THE 

State Geological and Natural History Survey 
of Connecticut 



1. First Biennial Report of the Commissioners of tiie State 
Geological and Natural History Survey, 1903-1904; 18 pp., 23 
cm., 1904. 

2. A Preliminary Report on the Protozoa of the Fresh Waters 
of Connecticut : by Herbert William Conn, Ph.D. ; 69 pp., 34 pis., 
23 cm., 1905. (Out of print as a separate bulletin. To be obtained 
only in Vol. I, containing Bulletins i-j. Price $1.^3 postpaid.) 

3. A Preliminary Report on the Hymeniales of Connecticut : 
by Edward Albert White, B.S. ; 81 pp., 40 pis., 23 cm., 1905. 
(Out of print as a separate bulletin. To be obtained only in Vol. 
I, containing Bulletins i-j. Price $1.75 postpaid.) 

4. The Clays and Clay Industries of Connecticut: by Gerald 
Francis Loughlin, S.B. ; 121 pp., 13 pis., 23 cm., 1905. 

5. The Ustilagineae, or Smuts, of Connecticut : by George 
Perkins CHnton, S.D. ; 45 pp., 55 figs., 23 cm., 1905. 

6. Manual of the Geology of Connecticut: by William North 
Rice, Ph.D., LL.D., and Herbert Ernest Gregory, Ph.D. ; 273 pp., 
31 pis., 22 figs. (10 maps), 23 cm., 1906. (Out of print as a 
separate bulletin. To be obtained only in Vol. II, containing 
Bulletins 6-12. Price $2."/ 3 postpaid.) 

7. Preliminary Geological Map of Connecticut: by Herbert 
Ernest Gregory, Ph.D., and Henry Hollister Robinson, Ph.D.; 
39 pp., 2 maps (i in pocket), 22^ cm., 1907. (Out of print as a 
separate bulletin. To be obtained only in Vol. II, containing 
Btdletins 6-12. Price $2.yj, postpaid.) 

8. Bibliography of Connecticut Geology: by Herbert Ernest 
Gregory, Ph.D. ; 123 pp., 23 cm., 1907. 

9. Second Biennial Report of the Commissioners of the State 
Geological and Natural History Survey, 1905-1906; 23 pp., 23 cm., 
1906. 

10. A Preliminary Report on the Algae of the Fresh Waters 
of Connecticut: by Herbert William Conn, Ph.D., and Lucia 
Washburn (Hazen) Webster, M.S.; 78 pp., 44 pis., 23 cm., 1908. 

11. The Bryophytes of Connecticut: by Alexander William 
Evans, Ph.D., and George Elwood Nichols, B.A. ; 203 pp., 23 cm., 
1908. 



12. Third Biennial Report of the Commissioners of the State 
Geological and Natural History Survey, 1907-1908; 30 pp., 23 
cm., 1908. 

13. The Lithology of Connecticut: by Joseph Barrell, Ph.D., 
and Gerald Francis Loughlin, Ph.D. ; 207 pp., 6 tables, 23 cm,, 
1910. 

14. Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of Con- 
necticut Growing without Cultivation: by a Committee of the 
Connecticut Botanical Society consisting of Charles Burr Graves, 
A.B., M.D., Edwin Hubert Fames, M.D., Charles Humphrey 
Bissell, Luman Andrews, Edgar Burton Harger, Ph.B,, and 
Charles Alfred Weatherby, A,M. ; 569 pp., 23 cm., 1910. 

15. Second Report on the Hymeniales of Connecticut: by 
Edward Albert White, B.S. ; 70 pp., 28 pis., 23 cm., 1910. 

16. Guide to the Insects of Connecticut: prepared under the 
direction of Wilton Everett Britton, Ph.D. Part I. General 
Introduction: by Wilton Everett Britton, Ph.D. Part II. The 
Euplexoptera and Orthoptera of Connecticut : by Benjamin Hovey 
Walden, B.Agr. ; 169 pp., 11 pis., 16 figs, (i map), 23 cm., 1911. 

17. Fourth Biennial Report of the Commissioners of the State 
Geological and Natural History Survey, 1909-10; 31 pp., 23 cm., 
1910. 

18. Triassic Fishes of Connecticut: by Charles Rochester 
Eastman, Ph.D.; 78 pp., 11 pis., 8 figs., 23 cm., 191 1. 

19. Echinoderms of Connecticut: by Wesley Roswell Coe, 
Ph.D.; 152 pp., 32 pis., 29 figs., 23 cm., 1912. 

20. The Birds of Connecticut: by John Hall Sage, M.S., and 
Louis Bennett Bishop, M.D., assisted by Walter Parks Bliss, 
M.A. ; 370 pp., 23 cm., 1913. 

21. Fifth Biennial Report of the Commissioners of the State 
Geological and Natural History Survey, 1911-1912; 27 pp., 23 
cm., 1912. 

22. Guide to the Insects of Connecticut: prepared under the 
direction of Wilton Everett Britton, Ph.D. Part III. The 
Hymenoptera, or Wasp-like Insects, of Connecticut: by Henry 
Lorenz Viereck, with the collaboration of Alexander Dyer Mac- 
Gillivray, Ph.D., Charles Thomas Brues, M.S., William Morton 
Wheeler, Ph.D., and Sievert Allen Rohwer; 824 pp., 10 pis., 15 
figs., 23 cm., 1916. 

23. Central Connecticut in the Geologic Past: by Joseph 
Barrell, Ph.D.; 44 pp., 5 pis., 23 cm., 1915. 

24. Triassic Life of the Connecticut Valley: by Richard 
Swann Lull, Ph.D. ; 285 pp., 3 maps, 12 pis., 126 figs., 23 cm., 

25. Sixth Biennial Report of the Commissioners of the State 
Geological and Natural History Survey, 1913-1914; 24 pp,, 23 
cm,, 1915, 

26. The Arthrostraca of Connecticut: by Beverly Waugh 
Kunkel, Ph.D. ; 261 pp., 84 figs., 23 cm., 1918. 



2^. Seventh Biennial Report of the Commissioners of the 
State Geological and Natural History Survey, 1915-1916; 17 pp., 
23 cm., 1917. 

28. Eighth Biennial Report of the Commissioners of the State 
Geological and Natural History Survey, 1917-1918; 21 pp., 23 
cm., 1919. 

29. The Quaternary Geology of the New Haven Region. 
Connecticut : by Freeman Ward, Ph.D. ; 80 pp., 9 pis., 17 figs., 
23 cm., 1920. 

30. Drainage Modifications, and Glaciation in the Danbury 
Region, Connecticut : by Ruth Sawyer Harvey, Ph.D. ; 59 pp., 
5 pis., 10 figs., 23 cm., 1920. 

31. Check List of the Insects of Connecticut: by Wilton 
Everett Britton, Ph.D. ; 397 pp., 23 cm., 1920. 

32. Ninth Biennial Report of the Commissioners of the State 
Geological and Natural History Survey, 1919-1920; 18 pp., 23 
cm., 1920. 

33. Geology of the Stonington Region, Connecticut : by 
Laura Hatch Martin, Ph.D. ; 70 pp., i map, 8 figs., 23 cm., 1925. 

34. Guide to the Insects of Connecticut: prepared under the 
direction of Wilton Everett Britton, Ph.D. Part IV. The 
Hemiptera or Sucking Insects of Connecticut : by Wilton Everett 
Britton, Ph.D., vi^ith the collaboration of James Francis Abbott, 
Ph.D., Arthur Challen Baker, Ph.D., Harry Gardner Barber, 
A.M., William Thompson Davis, Dwight Moore DeLong, Ph.D., 
William Delbert Funkhouser, Ph.D., Harry Hazelton Knight, 
Ph.D., Asa Chandler Maxson, Herbert Osborn, D.Sc, Howard 
Madison Parshley, Sc.D., Edith Marion Patch, Ph.D., Louis 
Agassiz Stearns, M.Sc, Jose Rollin de la Torre-Bueno, F.E.S., 
Edward Payson Van Duzee, Harley Frost Wilson, M.S. ; 807 pp., 
20 pis., 169 figs., 23 cm., 1923. 

35. Tenth and Eleventh Biennial Reports of the Commis- 
sioners of the State Geological and Natural History Survey, 192 1- 
1924; 17 pp., 23 cm., 1924. 

36. The Uredinales or Rusts of Connecticut and Other New 
England States : by Willis Roberts Hunt, Ph.D. ; 198 pp., 2 figs., 
23 cm., 1926. 

37. Catalogue of the Lichens of Connecticut: by Alexander 
William Evans, Ph.D., and Rose Meyrowitz, M.S. ; 56 pp., 23 
cm., 1926. 

38. Twelfth Biennial Report of the Commissioners of the State 
Geological and Natural History Survey, 1925-1926; 23 pp., i pi., 
2}^ cm., 1927. 

Bulletins i, 9, 12, 17, 21, 25, 27, 28, 32, 35 and 38 are merely 
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Botany: Bulletins 3, 5, 10, 11, 14, 15, 36, 37. 
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CATALOGUE SLIPS 



Connecticut. State geological and natural history survey. 

Bulletin No. 39. Guide to the Insects of Connecticut. Part V. 
The Odonata or dragonflies of Connecticut, by Philip Carman, 
Hartford, 1927. 

331 pp., 22 pis., 6y figs., 22 cm. 

Carman, Philip, 189 1 

Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Part V. The Odonata or 
dragonflies of Connecticut. By Philip Garman, Hartford, 1927. 

331 pp., 22 pis., 67 figs., 23 cm. 
(Bulletin No. 39, Connecticut geological and natural history survey) 

Zoology. 

Garman, Philip. Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Part V. 
The Odonata or dragonflies of Connecticut. Hartford, 1927. 

331 pp., 22 pis., 67 figs., 23 cm. 
(Bulletin No. 39, Connecticut geological and natural history survey) 

Insects. 

Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Part V. The Odonata or 
dragonflies of Connecticut, by Philip Garman. Hartford, 1927. 

331 pp., 22 pis., 67 figs., 23 cm. 
(Bulletin No. 39, Connecticut geological and natural history survey) 



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